Skip to main content

Full text of "Ollendorff's New Method of Learning to Read, Write, and Speak the Spanish ..."

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 




CLASS OF 1830 

Senator from Massadmsetts 





■HOLD'S Kift and Seeond Latin Book and PraotiMl erammar. By"^ 

Speooer. ISxdo fO 75 

Rnt Latin Book. ByHtriniflas. 12mo T5 

^ Latin ProM Oompoiition. BjBpenoer. ISmo 100 

*— Oorneliiia Vepoi. WHh Notee by JoIuuoil 13mo 1 00 

\ First Chreek Book. By Spencer. New Edition, Kertoed ., 75 

Chreek Proae Oo m po d t k m. By Spencer. New Bevtoed Edition. 12ino. . 76 

* Seeond Greek ProM Oompodtion. By Spencer. l9mo 75 

Greek Beading BodL BySpencer. Ifimo 196 

BDBOro Szereiaei in Qreek Proie Oompodtifln. iSmo 75 

BA*8 Latin Teetament iSmo 62 

BSAS'8 Oommentaxiei. Notee by Spencer. 12ino 100 

EEBO. Be Offieiii. Notes by Thatcher. ISmo 90 

' Select Orations. Notee by Johnson. 12mo TOO 

Toseolan DiipntatiODS. By Arnold. ISmo 

DEHSR'S Xlementazy Greek Grammar. By ProfK. Edwards and Taylor, ismo. 

BIBBXCK'S Greek Ollendorlt iSmo l oo 

SBACS. mth Notes, AoL, by LlncohL Ifimo 185 

IBIABS98 Hew Latin Reader. Umo 

^UBT. WHh Notes by Butler. l«mo 

(Tf. With Notes, ^ by Lincoln. ISma 'ibsp 100 

kCmnrS Histories. Notes byTyler. l«mo 126 

Germaniaand Agrieola. Notes bydo. 19mo es 

Pff OPH CTTi M^qpm'ftW^**^ Notes by ProC Bobbtos. ANewSditloa ISmo 

BEHIHB'S Helnreir Grammar. Edited by Bodicer. Tranilated from the beet 
G«niuui Edition, by Oonaiil 8to « 8 00 


i>. Appleton & CoJ*$ Educational Publications, 

New MeUwd of Learning to Ready Write, and 

Speak the SpanUh Lanffuojft. "With an Appendix, a b: lof, 
bat comprehensive Becapitalation of the Sules as well as of uli the 
Verbs, both Kegnlar and Irregular, so as to render their asu ea^^y u': t 
fiimiliar to the most ordinary capacity. Together. with Practical HvtW 
for Spanish Pronunciation, and Models of Social and Commercial Oo: 
respondenoe. The whole designed for Young Learners and Persons 
whc are their own Instructors. By M. Vklazquxz and T. Sdconmk, Pio> 
tbBBoiA of the Spanish and French Languages. One Tolnme 12ma, ol 
560 pcges. Priee $1 50. 

*It eonUlns the beet mies we havs erer yet sees, kne learning a Hrlng Isngnsgik 
FVom the oatset^ the elements of the langoage are eommunieatod, with the grand objeel 
ef serring tor oral effect; to teach how to arttcalate, to speak, to communicate in Span* 
Ish. This is the ehief aim of all OlIendorflTs elementary works on Ungoages, and oonsti- 
totes j^elr well deserved claim on the respect of all who are engaged in tbi business of 
teaehflig. In most of the eolleges and large seminaries of learning in Europe and Amer- 
ica, the system <^thi8 profbondly thinking German scholar has displaced aH others, ao 
&r as the acqoiTeroent of langoage b eoncemed. 

** It leads the 8tndentK>n, by almoet imperceptible stops, from the simplest principles 
to the most recondite and complex combinations of gramnmUcal constrncUons; and the 
parts are so arranged, as we maintained before, as to render every thing snbservient to 
that which should be the diief point of view, tlie great object of ambition, viz., nse, 
qieeeh, conversation. Every part of speech, every simple and componnd sentence, is so 
analyxed, ao illustrated by explanatory dialognea. that it is imposeible to open the book, 
at any page, without acquiring some valuable information, capable of advancing the stu- 
deal in his progreaa as a lingnlst'-a practical, that i% a talking, not a theoretic scholar. 
We warmly commend it to all our Mlovf-iAtizens.'^— Republic. 

** This method of learning SpAitisn is even more widely useftil, especially in this 
eountry, than thoae which have preceded it, since recent events have rendered a know- 
ledge of Spanish more than nsoally important to all classes of our people. The editors 
of &e work are widely known as aocomplished schoUrs and distinguished teachers, and 
the book derives still higher authority from their connection with it. We commend It 
with great confidence to all who desire to become acquainted witii the Castilian tongue." 
-> ^«w- York Cauritr db Enqxdr^r, 


Metodo Para Aprevider a Leer, Escriher y 

Hablar El Inglls^ eegun el Sistema de Ollendorff: con nn tratado de 

pronundaoion al principle y un apendice importante al lln, que serre 

de. Complemento a U obra, por Bamon Valakzukla y Juah db la 0. 

Carrbxo. 12rao. |2. 

Ket to thb Exeboibes, in a separate volume, 75 cents. 

•• Pils Grammar contains the system of Ollendorff applied to the English, for th* 
wie nf t h<»^ with whom the Spanbb is the native tongue. The excellence of this sysfnn 
It -rtill '^nown, and the present volnme Is the first appUcntlon of It to onr lansn:!/-? 

«'J i^-'! iris been o^red to the citizens of Spain, Cuba, Mexico, or Sourli AtiuTlcft. It i' 

rrr[t^TM in a manner highly cre«litahlo to ite authors, and can scarcely fail of meotlnic a 
ijj'. • M;»rcciation with those who have already begun tocnconnterthe difficulties of «»ui 

:v " — Joumttl of Commsref. 
•■ r-\.-i \n a work for the use of Spaniards learning English. The author^ have availed 
lheMi*4.Kc8 of the method of Ollendorff, to present to the loamcr snccesslvely thi« 
vatio-t-' iiitlcctlona, terma, Idioms, and other peculiarities of the English langniu^e. A 
trcai!.M' on the pronunciation c^ English accompanies the work, prepared evidently wttti 
«vat care." — Erening Post 

D, AppUton <h Co^9 Bducatianal x'ublication$, 

A Pronouncing Dictionary of the Spanish and 

EngU«h Languages ; composed from the Spanish Dictionaries of th^ 
Spftnisli Academy, Terreros, and Salva, upon the basis of Seoai.eV 
Edition of Neuman and Baretti, and from the English Dictionaries ( t 
Webster, Worcester, and Walker; with the addition of more t!':i.: 
Eight Thousand New Words, Idioms, and Familiar Ph^'asea, the Ii r« ^: 
nhvrities of all the Verbs, and a Grammatical Synopsis M* both Langtr 
ges. By Maiuano Velazqusz db La Cadxna, Professor of the Span. %ix 
Language and Literature in Columbia Ck>llege, N. Y., &c., <fco. In Tvc 
Parts — ^I. Spanish — English. II. English— -Spanish. One volume imp» 
6vo., of about 1400 pages. Strongly and neatly bound} price $5. 

The great desideratnm of an accorate, comprebenBlTe, and well-digested DIotlonarj 
of the Spanish and English languages is now first realized in this worlc by Professor 
Velazqaez. The valae of Neuman and Baretti's Dictionary was greatly enhanced in the 
edition by Dr. 8eoane; but it needed still prreater ImproTements than beoane bas*^ivoo 
It and the lapse of twenty years has made its'Tleflclencies painftiUy apparent Profbssor 
Velazquez has availed himself of all the valuable material accumulatea by his predece*- 
sors. lie has also enriched his pages trom the latest edition of the Dictionary of the 
Academy— published subsequently to Seoane*s revision— and from the great work <rf 
Cabrera, Terreros, and the indefiatlgable Salva. Many familiar words not found in the 
Diotiocaries, but constantly in use in Cuba, in Mexico, and in South America, are now 
first given, as well as a long catalc^e of mercantile terms, collected from reliable sources. 
To these Professor Velazquez has added the many words and phrases, the much-needed 
corrections, and the thorough revision suggested or his long experience as a teacher of 
his mother tongue. Besides these improvements In the Vocabulary, the work is now 
made a Pronouncing Dictionary. The pronunciation of every Spanish word is given in 
a manner which will enable an English scholar to pronounce them at sight The method 
of pronouncing English words In this Dictionary merits tlie particular attention of evory 
one who9e mother tongue is the CastUian. It is based upon the method so much ad- 
mired and recommended by the learned Don Lorento Ilervas, in his ^ Cai&logo dt l(t% 
Lengua« ;" namely, by giving to every elementary sound In the language a correspom I 
lug alphabetical character, and by restricting each of these characters to one ^iur^o 
C4>nn<L By the help'of Uiis method, so superior to notation with figured vowels, no iM^r- 
Son willing to devote l^Tan hour to the dozen new alphabetic characters need be ut a 
loss to proniiunco correctly every English word In the Dictionary. The now and Im- 
pnf\ ed ortho?n"ttphy sanctioned by the latest edition of the Dictionary of the Acadt my— 
now univen^lly adopted by the press — ^is here given for the first time in a Spanl>h and 
Kngliith Dictionary. Another new and most uiMiful feature of the work Is on '-* Outline 
Grammar of the Si>anish Language," and a ** Qrammatlcal Synopsis of the Englith Lan- 

Ctge," each containing a grammar in minhiture, and all the irregular verbis of botb 
giiages. Tlie volume is thus rendered complete, and made ta answer all ibe purposes 
tf a grammar and a Dictionary. 

Neurly ready ^ in one volume 12mo^ 


This Abrldement ii* a miniature copy of the great octavo work by Professor Velas 
qtu7, «:»(! contains all its most important additions and Improveraenta. ExpuiKatenl of 
tliv nnilquftted orthography, and the manifold errors and absurditioe so connnoii in 
i*l<.inish and English Abriilgments, It is intended as a relUible work of reference for 
t.u>lno*s men, and for all the ordinary uses of a Dictionary. The scholar who wishes to 
become well acquainted with the Spanish and English classics, will hardly be tmiislled 
with any thing \vs>s than the octavo edition ; but as a pocket companion for bcghineM, 
ft>r traveliers, or for the usu of those who consult a dictionary for practical porpuMS, this 
abridgment will be found superior to any other work y«t publlithed. 




'^ .*^£ I * OP LEARNING TO 

le It:\ 







r f^f coiiTAiinifo 


e t 








• BY 








iBUfed, aeeoiding wv^ Act of OongraM, Injlfe fH 

bt d. appleton 9c company 

to the Clerk*! Oflce of tha Dbtrict Court of the United Staiei ftr the Sdotlieni 
District of New York. 

CT NonoE^— A Kit to the Ezeroiiei of this Grammar if puUidied i 
• aeparato Vdomew 


The superiority of Ollendorff's Method of teaching lan- 
guages is now 80 universallj aclmowledged, both in the United 
States and in Europe, that an adaptation of it to the Ecjphonio 
Castiliak, or Spanish.Lanouage, must be considered as a de- 
sideiatiim to persons wishing to learn it. Dirested of the ab- 
stractedn^s of Grammar, it contains, however, aU its elements ; 
but h develops them so gradoallj, and in so ample a manner, 
as to render them intelligible to the most ordinary capacity. 
13ie difficulties are met singly, thoroughly analyzed, and made 
familiar by dint of a varied and interesting repetition, — ^the most 
efifectual means to impress them on young and unlearned minds, 
generally averse to thought pr reflection, and always prone to 
trust to thdr undisciplined memory, a power often treacherous 
from want of proper direction. It is, therefore, hardly possible 
to go through this book with any degree of application, without 
becoming thoroughly conyeisant with the colloquial, idiomatic, 
and classic use of the Spanish language. Consequently, persons 
transacting business in the countries of which the Spanish is 
the vernacular tongue, will find this work to be theyp best guide 
m leammg to speak it with propriety. 

For the benefit of persons grammatically acquainted with the 
English, or other languages, a Synopds of the Spanish has been 
annexed as an Appendix, containing tables of the regular con* 
jugations of the verbs, copious lists of the irregular verbs, gen- 
eral rules of etymology, syntax, <fec., by means of which thej 
may learn aU the peculiarities of the Spanish, and make them- 
adves perfect masters of it m a very short time, without the 
aaostaaoe of a teacher. 



To enliance, if possible, the importance and utility of tliu 
Method, the pronunciation of the Spanish letters is explained 
and exemplified, in so simple, clear, and easy a manner, as to 
raider it comprehendble to every capacity. 

Consulting also the benefit of the learners, and with a view 
to render this work a complete course for JReading, Speaking, 
and Writing the Spcmiah language. Models of Familiar and 
Commercial Letters are added to it, containing directions for all 
the usual commercial transactions, by the ^d of which, young 
learners, and persons who instruct themselves, may transact, in 
writing, any busmess. 

It is hardly necessary to remark, that the English phrases in 
the Exercises are not always models worthy of imitation ; but 
they are made use of in. order to instruct the scholar how to 
express them properly in Spanish, and thereby to teach him 
its idioms. 

New Ton, February 1848 



El EsUmiiiio SagM 8 

Lbssoks L to LXXXYI 9-397 

Some Idiomatical ExpreraonB 889 

Sooteof theproTdrtMrnostinoae... 396 

AmifDiz 401 

Oethoo'iapkt 401 

Eemarks on the Pronimdatioxi... 400 

Doable Letters 406 

DtTteton of Syllables 407 

Pnncuiation 407 

Accent 408 

Reeding Lessons 410 

CoouBon ffpsmlsh Abbwrlattons.... 414 

BmoLooT 419 

Article 41fi 

Nonas 419 

AdjectiTee 496 

Noons of Number 410 

PnHioinis 433 

Oftbe Verb :... 438 

Terminations of the Verbs 44S 

Conjugations oftbe anxiliaryTerbs 449 
IdiomatlGal translation of some 

tcmnrs 451 

Paasire Verbs 453 

Praoomioal or Rellactire Verbs.. 453 
Gerand 454 

Participle 454 

Verbs that bave two participles. . . 455 

Adverbs 456 

Impositions 457 

Conjunctions 457 

Interjections 458 

Analogy 458 

Sthtaz 459 

Of tbeArtJole 460 

Of the Noun and Adjective 464 

Of the Pronoun 468 

Of the Verb 473 

Of the Participle 483 

Of tbeAdirerb 484 

Of the Preposition •« 486 

Of the Conjunction 488 

Of the Interjection 488 

Table containing the Verbs that goT- 

em certain Prepositions 489 

The Irregular Verbs 514 

Impersonal Verbs 533 

A list of all the Irregular Verbs 533 

Modelos de Cartas mercantiles y 

familiares 537 

Tabla de la Moneda corriente en Es- 
pa&a, y las RepUblicas de America 544 

Cartas Familiares 544 

IKDSX 651 


The imgalar veibe are designated by a star (*). 

The igures 1, 3, 3, placed after the verbs, denote that they are regular, and indi- 
cate tbe conjugations to which they respectirely belong. 

The figures 1, 3, 3, placed befote the verbs, denote the persons, either singular or 

N. 1, N. 3, Jec., are used to designate the simple tenses of the verbs. 

N. 1, p., N. 3, p., Jcc, designate the compound tenses of the verbs. 

KxpTMslons which vary either in their construction or idiom trom the EoglisI^ 
are maxlced thus t. 

A liaad (SOT) denotes a particular remark 


A THII18TT starling^ found a decanter of water, and attempted to driuk 
from it ; bat the water scarcely touched the neck of the decanter, and the 
bird's bill could not reach it 

He began to peck at the outside of the veaiel, in order to make a hole 
in it ; but in Tain, the gian was too hard. 

He then attempted to upset the decanter. In this he succeeded ao bet- 
ter ; the vessel was too heayy. 

At length the starling hiX upon an idea that succeeded : he threw littlo 
pebbles mto the decanter, which caused the water graduafly to rise till with- 
in the reach of his bilL 

• • • 

Skni is better than strength: patience and reflectioii make many things 

easy which at fint appear impossible. 


Vm estomino sediento hall6 una garrafa llena de agua, 6 inmediata 
mente procurd beber ; pero el agua i p^nas Uegaba al cuello de la garrafii, 
y el pico del p&jaro no podia alcanzarla. 

Se puso luego i picar la garrafa d fin de hacer un agugerito ; pero se es- 
fon6 en vano, porque el vidrio era muy grueso. 

Entdnces intent6 voltear la garrafa pikra derramar el agua ; pero no pudo 
haoerlo, porque era muy peeada. 

Al fin concibi6 una idea, que se le logr6 : ech6 pooo i pooo en la garrafii 
una cantidad tan grande de piedrecitas, que hicieron subir gradnalmente el 
agua & la distancia que sn pico podia alcanzar, y luego apag<S su sed. 

• • • 

Mas yalo mafia ^e fuena : la paciencia y la reflexion hacen f&ciUw 
muchas cosas, que parecian imposibles i primera vista. 



FTRST LEBSOS.^Leccum Primer b. 

DEFINITE ARTlCLUl^Articulo D^nido. 
MAfCOUra SiMouLAK. — MateuUw Singulat 

Of or l&tQiii tha. 



illeiie ¥.?■ 


Si, aei^, yo tengo* 

The hat 

£1 soinbfeio. 

Have yoa the hat? 

(TieneV. el sombrero 7 

Ymu I Usted,iy,) 

Oh9. There are in Spanish three ways of addreesingr a person, to wit 
let By translating literally the pronoun thou, TtL 
2d. t€ u- it yojj^^ YQg^ Ijj tijg singular. 

Vosoraos, Vosotras, plural 
dd. « the pronoun you, Ustkd, sing. ; Ustcdes, pL 

Ai the celebrated Spanvh poet, CadaUo, says, 

** Una dama seria y grare 
Y que la critiea sabe 
Del Fm, del 7^ y del ZTMmT." 

7\t is used among ther nearest relatives of a fimiily, intimate fir'ends, little 
eiiildren, in poetry, and speakmg to menial servants. 

* To Tbachers. — Each lesson should be dictated to the papils, who 
■honld pronounce each word as soon as dictated. The teacher should also 
eserciBe his pupils by putting the questions to them in various ways. 

* A Stianish interrogative sentence stands between two points of inteno* 
the first of which is inverted, to show when the emphosis bsginsi 


Vo» was formeriy genenUy med among all claases of society, adoreeuig 
each other indiyidiially ; at present it is confined to poisons of high rank, or 
those placed in high posts, as superiois addiipssing their inferiori. 

Public speakers, preachers, &c., addressing the public, congregatioiia, 
&o^ nee Vototros; unless they be corporate bodies entitled to be styled 
l/stos, (your Lordships,) &c 

UsTBD, a contraction of Vuettra Merced^ (your Honor, or your Worship,) 
fomieriy used, then abridged into Vuetareed, and finally into Usted, or 
Utt^, is the only word used in the conunon intercourse in polite society, in 
all the transactions of life ; excepting the cases above explained, and when 
the persons i^ken to are entitled to a higher mark of respect by calling 
them Una, (VueMtra Seiioria, V. S., your Lordship or Ladyship,) &a 

Usted, and its plural Ustedes, are common to both genders, and agree 
with the verb in the third person singular or plural, according to their re- 
spectire number; as. You are a good boy, Usted es un buen tauckacho s 
You are good boys, Ustedes son buenos muchackos, 

Usted, and Ustedes, have been always written iq abbroTiation, thus: 
Vmd,, Vmds4 — Vm^^ Vma, At present, Usted is represented by a F., and 
Ustedes by W, 

The qieaker by using Usted may be sure never to give offence. The 
omisBion of it is considered vulgar ; for instance, Digame que hora es, (tell 
me what hour it is,) instead of Digame V, que hora es. 

When Usted is made use of at the beginning of a phrase, to avoid its 
repetition the cases of the pronouns he, il, or she, eUa, tire employed ; as, 
When I saw you this morning, I told you, that I would accompany yon 
and present you to him this afternoon— Cuamio yovi a Usted esta manana 
le dije, que yo le (or la) aeompanaria, y le (la) presentaria d il esta tarde 

In translating ancient history, public speeches, &c., tu, vos, or vosotros 
most be used ; because Usted is of a very modem introduction into the Ian- 

With the view to make the scholar perfectly familiar with the use oi 
these three modes of address, some of the exercises are translated in one 
and some in another ; but preference is given to Ueted, because it is the 
most necessary and usual in the colloquial polite intercourse. 

/. Yo. yo.— 6 .1. 

The bread. 

The cane. 

The soap. 

The sugar. 

The paper. 
Have you the paper? 
Yes, Sir, I have the paper. 

Have you my hat? 
Yes, I have yotir hat 



£i jabon. ja. 

El azdcar. su. 

EI papel. 

iTiene V. elpapel? 

Si, sefior, yo tengo el papeL 

I Tiene V. mi sombrero? 
Si, yo tengo su sombrero as V 
Miy (both gcndertfi) 



SjrMind that (d) stands for a common noun. 


8u (n) de V. 

El (n) de V. 
HaT6 you your cane? 
I bare my cane. 
HaTe you my paper? 
I have your paper. 

Wkiek hat have yon ! 

Whidi bread have you? 
I have my bread. 
Which cane have yoo? 

I have your cane. 

> sa (u) de y. is more polite than el (u) do V. 

^Tiene V. su baston'' 
Yo tengo mi baston. 
;Tiene V. mi papel? 
Yo tengo ra papel de V,, ot 
el papel de V. 

I Que sombrero tiene /. ? 

I Que ? qu9<^l, 

I Que pa'i tiene V.? 
Yo tengo mi pan. 
I Que baston tiene V. ? 
Yo tengo el baston de F., or 
Yo tengo su baston de V 


ILive yon the hat"? — ^Yes, Sir, I have the hat — ^Have you your hat ? 
—I have my hat — ^Have you my hat ? — ^I have your hat — ^Which hat 
have you ?— 4 have my hat — ^Have you the bread ? — ^I have the bread. 
— ^Have* you my bread ? — ^T have your bread. — Have you your bread ? 
—I have my bread. — ^Which bread have you ? — ^1 have your bread.-^ 
Have you my cane? — ^I have yonr cane. — ^Have you your cane? — 
Which cane have you ? — ^I have your cane. — ^Have you your soap ? — 
Yes, Sir, I have my soap. — ^Which soap have yon ? — Your soap, Sir. — 
Which sugar have you ? — ^I have your sugar. — Have you my paper ? 
—I have your paper. — ^Have you the paper ? — Yes, Sir, I have the 
paper. — ^Which sugar have you. Sir ? — I have my sugar. Sir. — ^Have 
you your hat 7 — Yes, Sir, I have mf hat' 

SECOND LESSON.— .Xicccton Segunda, 

Have you the paper ? 
Have you it 7 
I have iU 

iTieneV. el papel? 
/Le tiene v.? 
Yo le tengo. 

' In writing theee exercises, the pupils must pronounce all the {Erases 
tlood, as they write them. 

Obs. Before dictating a new lesson, the teacher puts to the pupils the 
qoeeUons contained in the printed exercise of the last lesson ; then he dir- 
tates the new lessonj and puts fresh questione. 



Have you mylUt 7 
Yea, Sir, I have it 

The cloth. 

The shoe. 

The dog. 

The hone. 

The leather. 


Le, (this 'pro&oun goes before tht 
verb.) • 

I Tlene V. mi sombrero? 
Si, seftor, yo le tenga 

£1 zapato. 
Ei perro. 
El caballo. 
El cordoban. 

For the prommciatioii 
of the syllables nor, 
no, za, llo, see the 

Have yon my good cloth ? | l Tiene V. mi bnen pailo 7 

Good. Bueno, makes buen before a norai masculine singular, tie^— & 
Bttd Malo, " tnol «« ** « ** 

Handsome or fine. 




Fea feo. 

Viejo. Die, i©.— j. 

Have you the pretty dog? 

No, Sir. 


I hove not. 
Have you my old hat? 

I have not your old hat 

I Tiene V. el bonito peno? 

No, sexior. 
To no le tengo'. 

No. [verig 

Yo no tengo. 

I Tiene V. mi sombrero viejo ? jo 

Yo no tengo "? sombrero viejo de V. 

Which paper have you? 
£ have the good paper. 
Have you my good soap? 
I have it not 

I Que papel tiene V.? 
Yo tengo el buen papel. 
; Tiene V. mi buen jabon ? 
Yo no le tenga 

ueus — 6k 

Have yon the paper hat ? I ;Tiene V. el sondnero de papel? 

Of. I De. 

Cbe. Two substantives depending on each other, without any stc^ 
bet^.oen them, or separated by an apostrophe ('), are translated by changmg 
their order, and placing the preposition de (of) between them : as, He has 
a kick noose, SI tiene una caea de ladrilh; Pope's works, las obrae de 

The leather shoe. I El zapato de cordoban. 

The gun. | El fusiL u. 

The iron. EI hierro, el fiorro. 

The tna gun. I El fusU de hietro. 




The cotton cap. 
Have yoa the leather dioe? 
My old iron gun. 
YoQi pretty cotton cap. 

El algodon. 

El gwTO. rro* 

£1 gorro de algodon. 

^Tiene V. el zapato de cordoban? 

Mi fusil viejo de hierro. 

Sa bonito gorro de algodon de ¥.> o 

£1 bonito gorro de algodon de Y. 

Have ytm mj fine horBe 7 — ^Yes, Sir, I hate it— Have you your old 
iboe f— No, Sir, I have it noL— Have yoa my pretty leather shoe ?«- 
I have it — ^Which horse have you ? — ^I have your good horse.— 
Which shoe have you ? — ^I have my ugly leather shoe. — ^Have yoA 
my cap ?— I have it not. — Have you your bad ct^ 7 — ^Yes, I have it^ 
Ifave yon my ugly cotton ci^)?— No, Sir, I have it not. — ^Which cap 
have you 7—1 have the paper cap. — ^Have you the good cloth 7 — ^Yes, 
I have it— Have you my fine doth 7 — ^No, Sir, I have it not — ^Which 
doth have you 7 — ^I have your pretty clotk— Ifeve you year old soap 7 
—I have it not. Sir. — ^Have you my good soap 7 — ^No, Sir ; I have your 
bad aoq). — ^Which soap have you 7 — ^1 have your old soap. — ^Have you 
yonr good g:un 7 — I have it not. Sir. — ^Have you my old iron gun 7— 
I have it— Which gun have you 7—1 have the old iron gun. — ^Have 
yoa my cloth cap 7 — Yes, Sir, I have your pretty cloth cap.— 
Ua?e you the fine leather shoe 7 — No, I have it not. — Which leather 
tboe have yon 7-^1 have the ugly leather shoe. — ^Have you your old 
horse 7 — No, Sir, I have it not. — ^Which horse have you 7 — ^I have my 
ine horse. — Have you my old dog 7 — ^No, Sir, I have not your old dog ; 
I have your good dog. 

THIRD LESSON.— I-eccion Tercera. 

Have you any thing 7 
I have tomething. 

Any thing 'W m eihing. 
1 have nothing. 
I have not any thing. 

Not any thing. 

I Tiene Y. algo f or alguna cohl 
Yo tengo algo, go, 

Alguna cooa, algo, gu. 

Yo no tongo nada, 
Yo nada tengo, (or no tengo nmgona 

No (v) nada, 
Nada (v). 

Oht. A If nada is used without no^ nada is placed before the verb. 
I have xMfthing | Nada tengo, (or no tengo nada*) 




06c. B. The pronoun subject, or nominative, is almost always omitted, be- 
cause the termination of the verb shows the person which perfonns the ac 
tion expressed by the verb. 

The wine. 

The money. 

The gold. 

The button. 

The gold button. • 

The co£^. 

The cheese. 

The candlestick. 

The golu candlestick. 

Have you any thing good? 
I have nothing good. 

Are you hungry? 
lam hungry. 
I am not hungry. 
Are }ou thirsty? 
I am not thirsty. 
Are you sleepy? 
I am sleepy. 
Are you ashamed ? 
I am not ashamed. 

What hnye you? 

"What have you good ? 

El vino. 

£1 dinero. 

£1 oro. 


BU boton de oro. 


£1 queso. 

BU candelero. 

El candelero de pro. 


I Tiene Y. algo bueno, (or de bueno?) 
Yo no tengo nada de bueno, (or na^ 

de bueno tengo.) 
t i Tiene V.hambre? [bre.) 

t Yo tengo hambro, (or tengo ham- 
t No tengo hambro 
t i Tiene V.sed? 
t No tengo sed. 

I I Tiene V. sueiio 7 9ue» 

t Teugo suefia no — iL ' 

1 1 Tiene V. vergdenza ? fie. 
t No tengo veigQenza. xa — k. 

I Qu« tiene v.? 
I Que? 

I Que tiene V. bueno? (or de bueno) 
Ohe. C, Qtte, in connection with an adjective, requires, sometimes, d§ 
beforo the adjective. 

What have you bad? I i Que tiene Vm. male? (or de mala) 

I have nothing bad. | No tengo nada' male, (or de malo.) 

riave you my good wine ? — ^I have it — ^Have you the old gold ? — ^1 
have it not — ^Have you any thing ? — ^Yes, I have something.; — ^Wliat 
have you ? — ^I have the money. — ^Have you the gold candlestick ?— 
No, I have it not; I have nothing, Sir. — ^Have you my old (ahejo) 
cheese? — ^I have it — ^Have you anything bad?— Yes, Sir, I have 
something bad; I have the bad coffee. — ^Have you your ugly iron 
Dutton ? — No, I have it not. — What have you ? — I have the gold candle* 
stick. — ^Have ysa my clcfth cap ? — No, I have it not — Yes, yon have 



it.—- No, Sr, I have not any thing. — ^Have you any thing handsome t 
—No, Sir, I have something ugly.— What have you ugiy ?— I have 
the ugly dog. — ^Have you any thing old ?— I have nothing old ; I have 
somethmg pretty. — ^What have you pretty ? — I have the pretty paper 
cap.— Are you hungry 7— Yes, I am hungry. — ^Are you sleepy ?— No, 
lam not sleepy; I am thirsty. — ^Are you ashamed?— No, Sir, I am 
sleepy.— -Have you any thing good ?— Yes, Sir, I have your good 

FOURTH LESSON.— jLeccion Chiarta. 

Have yon that book? 
I have that book. 
Thai horae. 
That money. 
That cloth cap. 
That old dog. 
Tliat pretty paper hat 

iTieneV. cMlibro? 
TeDgo ese libro 

Ese caballo 
Else dinero. 
-Ese gorro de pafia 
Ese petro viejo. 
Ese bonito sombrero de papeL 

Have you the bread of the baker? 
Of the. 
Of the tailor. 
Of the neighbor. 
Hare you the cloth of the tailor ? 

Tlie tailor's cloth. 
*8 (meaning) the (n) of the (n). 
The neighbor's cap. 
My taflor's dog. 
That neighbor's horse. 
Obi. A, El (n) de k used before 
Have yoa my neighbor's cap 7 
Have yoa that tailor's cloth? 

I Tiene Y. el pan del panaderol 

Del sastre. 

Del vecino. 

I Tiene Y. el paiio del sastre 7 

EI pafio del sastre. 

Et (n) del (n), or el (n) de. 

El sombrero del vecino. 

El perro de mi sastre. 

El caballo de este vecino. ^ ^ 

adjective pronouns, such as my, that. 
I I Tiene Y. el gorro de mi vecino ? 
I I Tiene Y. el paiio de eete sasbre 7 • 

Bave you the neigfabor'a? 

That, or the one. 
8 meaning that of, or the one of 

The neighbor's. 

My tailor's. 

That tailor's. 

Your brother's. 


The man. 

I Tiene Y. el del vecino 7 

El del, or el de. 

El del, or el de. 

EI del vecino. 

El de mi sastre. 

El de ese sastre. ^ 

El de sa hermano de Y. 


El hombrs. 

(See Obs. A.) 




Have yoa my bread or the baker's? 

I have your neighbor's. 
Have you yours or mme? 
I have mine; I have not yours. 
Mine, or my oiofi. 

Ohs. B. El tuyo m used when Y. has been expresMd in the first part af 
the phrase ; but el de V. must be used when V. has not been ejqnressed. 

I Tiene V. mi pan 6 el del panaderol 

Yo tengo el demi Tedno de V. 
I Tiene V. el suyo 6 el mio ? 
Yo tengo el mio ; no tengo elde V. 

El mio. 

El tuyo, (or el de V.) 

Are you warm? 
I am warm. 
Are you cold? 
I am not cold. 
Are yon afraid ? 
I am afraid. 
My friend. 
The man's. 

t i Tiene V.calor? 
t Tengo caloi. 
t i Tiene V.iHoT 
t Yo no tengo fria 
t i Tiene V.miedo? 
\ Tengo mieda 
Ese carbon. 
Mi amigo. 
El del hombre. 


Have you that book ? — ^No, Sir, I have it not — ^Which lM>k bdvis 
yon ? — ^I have the neighbor's. — ^Have you my stick jor that of my 
friexkl ? — I have your friend's. — ^Have you your bread or the baker's ? 
— ^I have not that of the baker ; I have mine. — Have you the neigh- 
bor's horse 7— No, I have not the neighbor's. — ^Which horse have you? 
— ^I have the baker's. — ^Have you your dog or the tailor's ? — ^I have my 
own. — ^Have you the pretty gold button of my brother ? — I have it 
not — ^Which button have you ? — ^I have my cloth button. — ^Have you 
my cloth cap, or the tailor's 7 — ^I have not yours ; I have the tailor's. 
— ^Have you my brother's horse, or mine 7 — I have your brother's.— 
Which cofiee have you 7 — ^I have the neighbor's. — ^Have you your 
dog, or that of the man 7 — ^I have the man's. — ^Have you your friend's 
money 7 — ^I haver'it not ; I have my own.*-ATe you afraid of th»t dogt 
— ^No, Sir. — ^Are you cold or warm 7 — ^I am warm.— Are you sleepy 7 
— ^I am not sleepy ; I am hungry. 

Have yon my bread, or the baker's 7 — ^I have yours. — ^Have you my 
gold candlestick, or the neighbor's 7 — ^I have the neighbor's. — ^Have 
you your paper or mine 7 — ^I have mine. — Have you your tailor's cloth 7 
-4 have it not. — ^Which cloth have yon ? — Mv brother's — ^Which hai 



BKve yon ?— I have that man's. — Have you the old stick of my brother ? 
— Noj I have not your brother's old stick ; I have my own. — ^Have 
▼on that man's soap ? — ^No, I have it not — ^Which soap have you ?— 
I have yoor brother's old soap. — ^Have yon my iron gun, or my broth- 
er's ? — ^I have yours. — ^Which shoe have you ? — ^I have my friend's 
leather shoe. — ^Have you your gc^d button, or mind? — ^I have not 
yours. — ^Which button have you? — I have the tailor's. — ^Have you 
any thing good ? — Yes, Sir, I have something good. — What have you 
good ? — 1 have your brother's good horse. — ^Are yo^ afraid of that 
man ? — No, Sir, I am not afraid of that man. — ^Have foti my neigh- 
bor's coal ?— Y-is, Sir, I have it. — ^Have you that man*^ ;jood hors^ ? — 
No, Sir, I have my own. 

FIFTH LESSON.— Xcccion Qmnta 

The merchant 

EI comerciante. 


The boy. 





tar.— I. 

The chocolate. 

Ei chocolate. 

Have ycm the merchant's cane or 

yoor own 7 
I haTe neither the merchant's cane 

Neither — jwr. 
I have neither the bread nor the 

I Tiene V. el bastob del comerciante 
belde v.? 

Yo 710 tengo m el palo del comer- 
ciante m el mio. 

iVio — ni — nu 

Yo no tengo ni el pan ni el quoso, (or 
ni el pan ni el qncso tengo.) 

Obe, A. When no is used, it stands before the verb ; but when it is not 
Qsed, m — ni must be placed before the nouns, and then Ijie verb is 
placed last 

Axe yoo hungry or thinty ? 

I am neither hungry nor thirsty 

Are yoo warm or cold 7 

I am neither warm nor cold. 

Have yea the iron or the gold button 7 

I hare neither the iron nor the gold 

Have you yonra or mine ? 
I have neither yours nor mine. 


1 1 Tiene V. hambre 6 sed ? 

t Yo no tengo ni hambre ni sed. 

1 1 Tiene V. calor 6 frio 7 

t Ni calor ni frio tengo. 

1 1 Tiene V. el boton de hierro 6 el 

de oro7 
t Ni el boton de hierro ni el do oro 

tenge. - ■ 

I Tiene V. el suyo 6 el mio 7 
Yo no tengo ni el de V. m el mio 




The cork- 

El corcho. 

The corkscrew 

£1 tirabuzon. 

That umbnila. 

Ese par&guaB. 

irvMw— 6 

The Frenchman. 

El Frances. 

cea, — c 

Of the carpenter. 

Del carpmtero. 

The wine. 

£1 vm& 

The hammer. 



What is the matter with you? I 1 1 Que tiene V.? 

Nothing is the matter with me. | t Vo no tengo nada, (or nada tengy.) 

What is the matter with ? ) i Que ? 

Nothing is the matter with — ? \ Nada , (or no— nada.) 

Oba, B. The first of these phrases means— What have you 7 and the 
second — I have nothing ; in which what is translated que, and nothing, 
nada ; and ia the matter with is changed into tiene, tienen, or tengo &^ 

I am neither hungry nor thirsty. — ^Have you my shoe or the sooe- 
maker's? — ^I have neither yours nor the shoemaker's.— ^lave you 
your pencil or the boy's ? — ^I have neither mine nor the boy's. — Which 
pencil have you 7—1 have that of the merchant. — Have you my choco- 
late or the merchant's 7 — ^I have neither yours nor the merchant's ; 1 
have my own. — liave you the bread or the wine 7 — I have neither the 
bread nor the wine. — ^Have you your cloth or the tailor's 7 — I have not 
the tailor's; I ha\B mine — ^Have y >u your corkscrew or mine? — ^I 
have nether yours nor mine. — Which cork have you 7 — ^I have my 
nei^bor's. — ^Have you the iron or the gold button 7 — ^I have neither 
the iron nor the gold button. — ^Are you warm or cold 7 — ^I am neither 
warm nor cold ; I am sleepy. — Have you my hammer or the carpen- 
ter's 7 — ^I have neither yours nor the carpenter's. — ^Which hammer 
have you 7'^I have the iron hammer. — ^Have you any thing 7 — ^I have 
something fine. — ^What have you fine 7 — ^I have the Frenchman's fine 
umbrella. — ^Have you the hat or the cap 7 — ^I have neither the hat nor 
the cap. 

Have you my gun or yours 7 —I have neither ycmrs nor mine. — 
Which gun have you 7 — ^I have my friend's. — Have you my cloth cap 
OT that of my brother 7 — ^I have neither yours nor your brother's.— 
Which cap have you 7 — ^I have my boy's paper cap. — ^Have you the 
book of the Frenchman or that of the merchant 7 — ^I have neither the 
"pienchman's nor the merchant'St — ^Which book have you 7 — ^I have 

81XTU LKS80.\. 


foon.— What is the iBAtter Mrith jou ? — ^I am cold and hungry. — Have 
yoo any thing good or had 7—1 have neither any thing good or bad. 

SIXTH LESSON— Lttciofi Sexta. 

The oz. 
The biecnit 
Of the captam. 
Of the cook. 

£1 bizcocho. 
Del capitaxL 
Del oocinero. 


You have. 

Ton have not 

Ami hungry? 

You are hungry. 

You are not hungry. 

Am I afraid? 

Yon are afraid. 

Yon are not afraid. 

You are r%ht 

I am right 

You are wrong. 

I am wrong. 
Am I right or wrong? 
You are neither right nor wrong. 
Are you right or wrong ? 
I am neither wrong nor right 

I Tengo yo ? 

V. tiene. 
y. no tiene. 

I I Tengo yo faambie ; 
t V. tiene hambre. 

t y. no tiene hambre. 

1 1 Tengo yo miedo ? 

t y. tiene raiedo. 

t y. no tiene miedo. 

t y. tiene razon. 

t Yo tengo razon. 

t y. no tiene razon. — V, haoe maL 

t Yo no tengo razon. — ^Yo hago mal 

1 1 Tengo yo razon, 6 no? 

t y . ni tiene razon ni deja de teneria. 

1 1 Tiene Y. razon, d no ? 

t (Yo) ni tengo razon ni dejo de 


0b9, I am wrong, is rendered in Spanish by, / am not right, or J 
ds ill — Yo no tengo razon, or Yo hago mal. Are you right or wrong? by 
At€ yourigkt, or not ? £ Tiene V. razon, 6 no? and, You are neither right 
jur wiQog, word for word is. You have neither reason nor are in need of it« 
V, US tiene razon ni deja de teneria. 

Have I the nail ? 

You have it 

Yon have it not 

Have I any thing good ? 

Yon have nothing good. 

Have I the carpenter's hammer ? 

Yon have it not 

Have yon it? 



l Tengo yo el clmoo ? 

y. le tiene. 

y. no le tiene. 

I Tengo yo algo (de) bneno 7 

y. no tiene nada (de) bueno. 

I Tengo yo el martillo del carpintoro 9 

y. no le tiene. 

I Le tiene Y. ? 

Le tengo» 

No le t«ngo. 



Tho mutton. 

The knife. 
Have you the fine one 7 
Have I the ugly one 7 

The fine one. 

The ugly one. 

£1 oameia 

£1 cuchillo. 

1 1 Tiene V. el hermoso 7 

1 1 Tengo yo el feo 7 

t El hermoeo. 

t £1 feo. 


Which one have you 7 

Which one have 1 7 
Which one ? 
Am I afraid or ashamed 7 
You are neither afraid nor ashamed. 
Have I my knife or yours 7 
You have neither yours nor mine. 

no. — 6 

iCualUene V.7 
I Cual tengo yo 7 

I Cual ? 
I Tengo yo miedo 6 vergQenza 7 
V. no tiene nl miedo ni. vergQenzA 
I Tengo yo mi cuchillo 6 el de V. t 
V. no tiene ni el suyo ni el mio 


I have neither the baker's dog, nor that of my friend. — ^Are you 
ashamed ? — ^I am not ashamed. — Are you afraid or ashamed 7r~I am 
neither ashamed nor afraid. — ^Have you my knife? — ^Which one?— 
The fine one. — Have you my mutton or the cook's ?— I have neither 
yours nor the cook's. — ^Which (one) have you ? — ^I have that of the 
captain. — ^Have I your biscmt ? — ^You have it not — ^Am I hungry or 
thfrsty ? — ^You are neither hungry nor thirsty. — ^Am I warm or cold ? 
—You are neither cold nor warm. — ^Am I afrtiid ?— You are not afriud. 
— ^Have I any thing good ? — ^You have nothing good. — ^What have I?- 
You have nothing. — ^Which pencil have I? — ^You have that of the 
Frenchman. — ^Have I your cloth or the tailor's ? — ^You have neither 
mine nor that of the tailor. — Which one have I? — ^You have your 
friend's.— ?-Have I your iron gun ? — You have it 


Am I right ? — ^You are right — ^Am I wrong ? — ^You are wrong. — 
Am I right or wrong? — ^You are neither right nor wrong; you are 
afraid. — ^Have I the good coffee or the good sugar ? — ^You have neither 
the good coffee nd^ the good sugar. — ^Have I any thing good or bad ? 
—You have neither any thing good nor bad. — ^What have I ? — You 
have nothing. — ^What have I pretty ? — ^You have my friend's dog. — 
Which one ? — The pretty one. — Which corkscrew have I ? — ^You have 
the old one. — ^Have I the old one ? — ^Yes, Sir, you have it.-7-Have I 
your chocolate? — No, you have yours. — ^Have I the shoemaker^s 
leather shoe? — You have not the shoemaker's; you have the cap- 
tain's. — ^Have I it? — Yes, you have it — Am I ashuned of that man? 
—No, you are not ashamed of that man ; you are afrtdd of his dog. 



SEVENTH LESSON.— Lcccton Septima. 
. Who? 
Wlo has the pencil? 
W%o has it? 
Has the boy it? 
He has it not 


i Quien? 
I Quien tiene el lipix 7 
i Quien le tiene ? 
I Le tiene el muchacho 7 
Jffl no le tiene. 
I No le tiene il ? 

fute^ — 6 

Ohe. A, El, when it is a pronoun* is pointed out by an accent ; but 
vhen it is an article, it has it not 

Has he the hat? 
He has it 

I haTO. 


He has. 


Have yon? 

Has he? 

I Tiene €i el sombrero? 

£l le tiene. 

Yo tengo. 

y. tiene. 

fll tiene. 

^ Tengo yo? 

i Tiene v.? 

i Tiene €1? 

The chicken. 


The chest, ihetnmk 

£1 haul, el oofire. 

The bag. 

El costal orsaoa 

The waistcoat 

El chaleco. 

The ship. 

EI barco. 

The yonng man. 

El jtJren or moMo^r—B^zo 

also servant, waiter. 

Has the yonng man? 

i Tiene el mozo? 

Has my friend? 

1, Tiene mi amigo? 

Has that baker? 

i Tiene ese panadero? 

The rice. I 

The coontryman, the peasant 

The servant 
Is the peasant hongiy ? 
He is hungry. 
Is your brother warm? 
Is he ashamed? 
What has he? 
What has my friend? 
What have I? 

El arroz. 

El aldeano, el paisano. eo. 

El criado. 

1 1 Tiene hambre el aldeano 7 

t £1 tiene hambre. 

t i Tiene calw su berroano de V ^ 

1 1 Tiene 6\ vergfienza? He. 

iQue tiene €17 

I Que tiene mi amigo? 

^Que tengo yo? 

Has he Ait shoe? 

Yes» Sir, he has his eboe. 

I Tiene 41 »u zapato ? 

Si, sefior, €\ tiene sn zapato^ 



His bird. 
Hie foot 
His eye. 

Su, (AdjectiTe pranoim.} 
Sa p&joro 
Su pi^. 
Sa ojo. 

Wliich book has that ] 


I Que libro tiene ese hombre ? 

He has his own. 

fll tiene el auyo, (or el suyo propia) 

Hu or his own, 

El suyo, or el suyo pn^. (Ab- 
solute pcfveflsiYe pronoun.) 

Has he his or mine ? 

i Tiene 6\ el suyo d el mio? 

He has neither his noi 


fit no tiene ni el suyo ni el de V 

Has he his money? 

^ Tiene ^ su dinero? 

Yes, he has his own. 

Si, ^ tiene el suyo. 

Has tmybody my money? 

No, Sir, nobody has it. 
Somebody, anybody. 
Some one, any one. 
Nobody, not anybody. 
No one, not any one. 

^ Tiene alguno (or algu^en) mi di« 

No, sefior, ninguno le tiene. 

t Alguno. 
i Ninguno 

06». B, Alguno, Alguien, Ninguno, and Nadie, are indefinite prononui 
standing always for persons. See Appendix. ^ 

Has anybody my bird? 
Somebody has it 
Nobody has it 

£ Tiene alguno mi pdjaro? 
Algano le tiene. — Alguien le tiene. 
Ninguno le tiene. — Nadie le tiene. 

Who has my trunk ? — The boy has it — Is he thirsty or hungry ?- • 
He is neither thirs^ nor hungry. — ^Has the man the chicken ? — Ks^ 
has it — ^Who has my waistcoat ? — The young man has it — ^Has th^ 
captain my ship ? — ^He has it not — ^Who has it 7 — The merchant has 
it— Who has tne knife ?— Which knife ?-::-Mine. — ^The servant has 
it — Is he afraid ? — He is not afraid. — ^Is the man right or wrong ? — 
He is neither right nor wrong. — Who has the countryman's nce 7— 
My servant has it — Has he my horse 7 — ^No, Sir, he has it not — ^Who 
has it 7 — ^The peasant has it. — ^Who has my old shoe ? — ^The shoe* 
maker has it — ^What has your friend 7 — ^He has his good money. — 
Has he my gold 7 — ^He has not yours ; he has his own. — ^Who has it 7— 
The young man has it — ^Who is cold 7 — ^Nobody is cold. — ^Is anybody 
wann 7 — ^Nobody is warm. 



Has any one my gun 7 — ^No oad has it — Has the young man my 
hook ?— He bas it not — ^What has he ? — ^He has nothing, — ^Has he 
the h|imner or the stick 7 — ^He has neither the hammer nor the stick, 
-^aa be my ombrella 7 — ^He has it not — ^Who has it 7 — Nobody has 
it^Yes, somebody has it — ^Y^^^ — '^^^ "^'^ ^^'^ ^^ — ^^ 7^^^ 
baker my bird or bis 7 — ^He bas not yonrs, he has his. — ^Have I yoni 
bag or that of your Mend 7 — ^You have ndther mine nor my friend's ; 
roa have your own. — ^Who has the peasant's bag 7 — ^The old baker 
bas it — ^Who is afiraid 7 — ^The tailor's boy is afrataL — Is he sleepy 7 — 
He is not sleepy ; he is cold. — ^What is the matter with him 7 — ^Nothing. 
—Has the peasant my money 7 — He has it not— Has the captain it 7 
—He bas it not — Who has it 7 — ^Nobody has it — ^Has your neighbor 
any thing good 7 — ^He has nodiing good. — ^What has he ugly 7 — ^He 
has nothing ngly. — ^Has he any thing 7 — He has nothing. 

Has the merchant my cloth or his 7 — ^He has ndther yonrs nor his. 
-Which cloth has he 7— He has that <^ my brother.— Which cloth 
has the tailcn* 7 — ^He bas his own. — ^Has yom* broths his wine or the 
netgfabcv's 7 — He has neither bis nor the neighbor's. — Which wine has 
he 7— He has -his own.— Has anybody my gold button 7 — Nobody has 
it— Who has my button 7 — Your good boy has it— Has he my paper 
or my horse 7 — ^He has neither your paper nor your horse ; he has his 
Mend's horse. — ^Who has the Frenchman's good chocolate 7 — ^The 
merchant has it — ^Has he it 7 — ^Yes, Sir, he has it. — Are you afraid or 
adnmed 7 — ^I am neither afraid nor ashamed. — ^Has your cook his 
matton7— >He has it — ^Have you my bread or my cheese 7—-I have 
neilher your tfead nor your cheese. — ^Have I your wine or your 
bread 7 — ^You have neither my wine nor my bread. — ^Wbat have 1 7 — 
YoQ have your mutton. — ^Has any one my gold button 7 — ^No one 
has it 

EIGHTH I JISSON.— Lcccion Ocoiva. 

£1 marioerou 


El espejo. 

Sa colchoa de V., or el 

EI estraogero. 
El estrangero or forastero. 
EI jardin. 
Mi gnante. 

The Iooktiig-gl( 
Your mattren. 

The stranger. 
The foreigner 
The garden. 
My glove. 



This OX. 
Tki9 hay. 
That friend. 
That man. 

Este buey. 
Este heno. 
£m amigo. 
Aquel hombm 

Thii. I Este. 

That, ' I £<e, aquel 

Oh». A, Este refers to the persons or things nearest to the speaker ; ess 
to the persons or thmgs nearest to the person spoken to ; and aquel is used 
to point out persons or things distant, both from the speaker and from the 
person spc^en to. It is also employed when qwakmg of events, &c., passed 
long time since ; as, In those days, en aqueUos dias. 

Have you this or that book? 

I have this one, I have not that one. 

This one. 

That one. 

I Tiene V. este h*bro 6 aquel 7 
Tengo este, no tengo aqneL 

Ohs* B. One is not translated ; we only say this or that. 

Have I this one or that one ? 

Ton hare this one, you have not 

that one. 
Has the man tnis hat or that one 7 

I Tengo yo este 6 aquel 7 
V. tiene este, no tiene aqud. 

I Tiene el hombre este nombnto 6 

He has not this one, hut that one. 

He has this one, but not that one. 

Ohs. C. It is better to repeat the 
He has not this one, but that one. 

The biQet 

The garret 

The granary. 


TTie cf m. 
Have you this billet or that one? 
I have ifot this one, but that one. 
I have this one, but not that one. 
Has the neighbor this looking-glass 

or that one ? 
He has this one, but not that one. 

£1 no tiene este, sino aqud 
Sino. Pero. 

£1 tiene este, pero no tiene aqoeL 
verb in the second part of the phrase. 
El no tiene este, sino tiene aquel 
El billete. 
El desvan. 

El granero. • 

El burro. 
£U grano, el trigo. 
I Tiene V. este billete 6 aquel ? 
No tengo estp, pero tengo aquel. 
Tengo este, pero no tengo aquel. 
^ Tiene el vecino este espejo 6 

iiX tiene este, pero no tiene aqnei 

Have you the billet that my brother 

I have not the billet which your 

brother haa 

^Tien^V. el billete que mi her* 

mano tiene ? 
Yo no tengo el biliete que sn her* 

mano de^ tiene. 



Which. That 
IUto yoa the hone which I have 7 
I have the horse which yen have. 
f have not that which you have. 
That wkUh. The one which. 
Have I the glove which yoa have? 
Yoa have not the one which I have. 
That which he has. 
Hie €oe which yoa have. 

Que. (Relative pronoun.) 
^Tiene V. el caballo que teogoT 
Tengo el caballo que V. tiene. 
Yo no tengo el que V. tiene. 
El que. 

^Tengo yo el guanto que V. tienet 
V. no tiene el que yo tengo. 
El que €1 tiene. 
El que v. tiene. 


WIbcJi hay has the stranger ? — ^He has that of the peasant. — ^Has 
the sailor my looking-glass? — ^He has it not — ^Have you Uiis hot 
or that one ? — ^I have this one. — ^Have you the hay of my garden or 
that of yours ? — ^I have neither that of your garden nor that of mine, 
hot I have that of the stranger. — ^Which glove have you ? — I have 
that of the sailor. — ^Have you hb mattress? — ^I have it — ^Which 
gnn has the sailor ? — ^He has Ms own, — ^Who has my good billet ? — 
This man has it — Who has that stick ? — ^Your friend has it. — ^Have 
you the com of your granary or that of mine ? — ^I have neither that 
of your granary nor that of mine, but I have that of my merchant. — 
Who has my glove ? — ^That servant has it — ^What has you servant? 
— He has the tree* of this garden. — ^Has he that man's book? — ^He 
has not the book of that man, but he has that of this boy. — Has the 
peasant this or that ox 7 — ^He has neither this nor that, but he has 
the one which the boy has. — ^Has this ass his hay or that of the horse ? 
— ^He has neither his ncHr that of the horse. — ^Which horse has this 
peasant ? — He has that of your neither. — ^Have I your hay or his ? 
— ^You have neither mine nor his, but you have that of your friend. — 
* Have yoa this horse's hay 7 — ^I have not his hay, but his com. — Has 
your brother my wine or his ? — ^He has neither yours nor his own, 
but he has the railor's. — ^Has the stranger my Inrd or his own 7 — ^He 
has that of the captain. — ^Have you the tree of this garden 7 — ^I have 
it not — Are you hungry or thirsty 7 — ^I am neither hungry nor thirsty, 
but I am sleepy. 


Has the sailor this bird or that one 7 — He has not this, but that 
tme. — Has your secvant this sack or that one 7 — ^He has this one, 
but not that one.-7-Has your cook this chicken or that one 7 — He 
has neither this one nor that one, but ho has that of his neighbor. — 
Am I right or wrong 7 — You are neither right nor wrong, but youj 
good boy is wrong. — ^Have I this knife or that one 7 — You have nei 


tfaer this nor that one. — ^What have I ? — ^You have nothing good, bai 
you have something had. — ^Have you the chesl which I have? — I 
have not that which you have. — ^Which horse have you ? — I have the 
one which your brother has. — ^Have you the ass which my friend has 1 
—I have not that which he has, but I have that which you have. — 
Has your Mend the looking-ghiss which you have or that which I 
have ?— ^e has neither that which you have nor that which I have, 
but he has his own. 

Which bag has the peasant? — ^He has the one whicn hi& boy has. 
—Have I your golden or your iron candlestick ? — You have neither 
my golden nor my iron candlestick. — ^Have you my waistcoat or that 
of the tailor ? — ^I have neither yours nor that of the tailor. — ^Which 
one have you ? — ^I have that which my friend has. — ^Are you cold oi 
warm ? — I am neither cold nor warm, but I am thirsty. — ^Is your friend 
afraid or ashamed? — ^He is neither afraid nor ashamed, but he is 
sleepy. — ^Who is wrong ? — Your friend is wrong. — ^Has any one my 
umbrella ? — ^No one has it — ^Is any one ashamed ? — ^No one is ashamed, 
but my friend is hungry. — ^Has the captain the ship which you have 
or that which I have ? — ^He has neither that which you have, nor that 
which I have. — ^Which one has he ? — He has that of his friend. — ^Is 
he right or wrong ? — ^He is neither right nor wrong. — Has the French- 
man any thing good or bad ?t— He has neither ^y thing good nor bad, 
but he has something pretty. — ^What has he pretty? — He has the 
pretty chicken. — ^Has he the good biscuit ? — ^He has it not, but his 
neighbor has it 

NINTH LESSON.— Lficcton Nona. 




Of the, from the. 


To the, at the. 



Rule. — ^Nouna terminatmg in a efaort or unaccented vowel are madt 
plural by adding « to the lingular ; as, book, libro, hooka, Ubroe, 

Noanfl endinff in a loni? or accented vowel, or in a coneonant, or in y. 
Luid et to malLe tiie ploiai ; as, bashaw, bqjd, baahawa, '>«^^<», captmr 
. i9««&ts, nantaiiv;. /:fri>ttw»r.v, ¥▼, Uf, Iawa» Zejfaa. 



Wofds unding in z add ««, and change the % into c, or retail ii, . aa 

jsi]ge,^'ii«2, jodgea, jtt«ce«, orjuezet. 

The book. 
The ox. 
The judge. 

ElUbio + B. 
Bueno -f* ■• 
El buey-f-ee. 
£1 jnez •4- cea. 

The hooka. 
Good hooka. 
The oxen. 
The judgea. 

Loa h'hroa 
Baenoa lihroft 
Loa bneyea. 
Loa juecea. 


Los libroa. 

The good hooka. 

Loa huenos libroa. 

Of the hooka. 

Dekw libroa 



The good canea. 

Of thecanea 

The nelghbora. 

Loa vfecinoa. 

The good neighhom 

Los boenoa vecinoa. 


liOa amigoa. 

The old friendi. 

Los amigoa viejoa. 

The pretty doga. 

Los bonitos penoa. 

Thengly hatai 

The wooda, (foreat) 


The Frenchmen, (the French.) 

Los Franceses. 

The Englishman. 

El Ingles. ^ 

The Engliebmen, (the Engliah.) 

Los Ingleses. 

Ob§,A. Adjectives must agree ii 

i gender and number with the noans 

er prooouna they qoalify, and their plural ia made according to the rulea 

kid dowp above for noons. 

The place, the places. 

El Ingar, loa Ingarea. 

The nail, the naila. 

El clavo, loa clavoa. 

Hare yon the hooka? 

^ Tiene v. loe libroa? 

I have the hooka. 

Yo tengo loa libroa. 

Who has the hats 7 

He haa the hats. 

£1 tiene los sombreros. 

Have I the birds? 

I Tengo yo los pdjaros ? 

Yes, Sir. 

Si, sedor 

Have yon my knivea ? 

I Tiene V. mis cnchillos ? 

I have not your knives. 

Yo no tengo sus cuohillos de V. 





Su (n) de V. 

EI (n) de V. 




Sus (n) de V * 

Los (n) de V. 


rSee Obs. A, Lesson IV^ 



His or her. 











0b9, B. ThefeadjecUyeeagreeiiinnmherwiththeiioiiiiB that come aftai 
tlMm, and to which they refer. 

His or her books. 

Sua libros. 

Our book, our books. 

Nuestro libro, uuestros libros. 

The work, (labor.) 


The works. 


Our gloTes. 

Nnestros guantes. 


Fequeiio, (sing.) Pequefioe, (plur.) 


Grande, (s'mg.) Graudes, (plur.) 

Which hate? • 

These books. 
Those books. 



These or toose hooka 

Have you these or those books ? 

These birds or those. 

Have I these or those birds? 

The eyes. 

The asses 
Which horses have you ? 
Have you the fine norses of your 

good neighbors ? 
Have I his small gloves ? 

Ton have not his small gloves, but 
you have his large hats. 

Has your brother his iron guns? 

He has not his fron guns. 
Which ones has he ? 

Of my gardens. 

Of your pretty horses. 

I Que sombreros ? 

Estos libros. 
Esos libros, aquellos libros. 


Esos, aquellos. 

(See Obs. A, Lesson VIIL) 
Estos libros 6 aqudlos. 
I Tiene V. estos libros 6 aquellos ? 
Estos pdjaros 6 aquellos. 
I Tengo yo estos pijaros 6 aqueUos 7 

Los ojos. 

Los burros. 

I Que caballos tiene V.? 

I Tiene V. los hermosos cabalkw de 
sus buenos vecinos (de V. ?) 

^ Tengo yo sus guantes pequefios? 
(or guantecitos.) 

V. no tiene sus guantes pequefios, 
pero y. tiene sus sombrnos gran- 

I Tiene el hbrmano de V. sus fusilsi 
de hierro ? 

£1 no tiene sus fusilos de hierro. 
' t Cuales ti^ne ^1 ? 

De mis jardines 

De sus bouitos caballos de V. 



The Ffonchmen'B fine ombreUas. Los hoimosos pariguas de los Fnn. 

Of my woodfli 
Of your fine trees. 
H«v& you the Frenchmen's fine jun- 

I have not their umbrellas, but I 

hare their fine canes. 
HaTe you the treee of my gardens 7 

I have not the trees of your gardens. 

Hare yon my leathern shoes 7 
I have not your leathern shoes, but 
I have your cloth caps. 

ThA bread, the loaves. 

De mis boeqnes. 

De los herroosoe irboles de V. 

|,Tiane Vm. los hermosos paraguas 
de los Franceses ? 

Yo no tengo sus pariguas, pero tengo 
SOS hermosos bastones. 

|,Tiene V. los ^Lrboles de mis jar- 
dines 7 

Yo no tengo los irboles de sus jar- 
dines de y. 

I Tiene V. mis zapatos de c<»doban 7 

Yo no tengo sas zapatos de cordo- 
ban de V., ^ro tengo bus gorros 
de pafio. 

£1 pan, los panes. 


16. ^ 

Have you the gloves ? — ^Yes, Sir, I have the gloves. — ^Have you mj 
gloves? — ^No, Sir, I have not your gloves. — ^Have I your looking- 
glasses ? — ^You have my looking-glasses. — ^Have I your pretty books 7 
—You have not my pretty books. — Which books have I ? — ^You have 
the pretty books of your Mends. — ^Has the foreigner ou^- good guns 7 — 
He has not our good gans, but our good ships. — Who has our fine 
Dorses ? — Nobody has your fine horses, but somebody has your fine 
oxen. — ^Has your neighbor the trees of your gardens 7 — He has not the 
trees of my gardens, but he has your handsome woods. — ^Have you the 
horses' hay 7 — ^I have not their hay, but their com. — ^Has your tailor 
my fine golden buttons 7 — ^He has not your fine qfoldan-h^ttons, but 
year fine golden candlestick. — ^What has the sailor 7 — He has his fine 
ships. — ^Hai^he my sticks or my guns? — He has neither your sticks 
nor your guns. — ^Who has the tailor's good waistcoats 7 — ^Nobody has 
his waistcoats, but somebody has his gold buttons. — ^Has the French- 
man's boy my good umbrellas ?— rHe has not your good umbrella«», but 
your good sticks. — ^Has the shoemaker my leather shoes 7 — ^He has 
your leather shoes. — ^What ha«» the captain 7 — ^He h^s his good sailors. 


Which mattresses has the sailor 7 — He has the good mattresses of 

bis captain. — Which gardens has the Spaniard 7 — He has ijie gardens 

of the English. — Which servants has the Englishman ? — He has the 

servants of the French. — ^What has your boy 7 — lie has his pretty birds. 




—What has the merchant ? — He hasour pretty chests. — ^Whathasthe 
baker ? — ^He has our fine asses. — Has lie our nails or our hammers ?— 
He has neither our nails nor our hammers, but he has pur good loaves. 
— ^Has the carpenter his iron hammers ? — ^He has not his iron hammers, 
but his iron nails. — ^Which biscuits has the baker ? — ^He has the bis- 
cuits of his friends. — Has our friend our fine pencils 7 — ^He has not our 
fine pencils. — ^Which ones has he 7 — ^He has the small pencils of his 
morchantB.^— Which sticks has your seiHrant 7 — He has the sticks of his 
good merchants. — ^Has your friend the small knives of our mercltants ? 
— ^He has not their small knives, but their golden candlesticks. — ^Have 
you these guns 7 — ^I have not these guns, but these iron knives. — Has 
the man this or that billet 7 — He has neither this nor that — ^Has he 
your book or your friend's 7— He has neither mine nor my friend's ; he 
has his own. — ^Has your brother the wine which I have or that which 
you have 7 — He has neither that which you have nor that which I have. 
—Which wine has he 7 — ^He has that of his merchants. — ^Have you 
the bag which my servant has 7 — I have not the bag which your ser- 
vant has. — ^Have you the chicken which my cook has or that which 
the peasant has 7 — ^I have neither that which your cook has nor that 
which the peasant has. — ^Is the peasant cold or warm 7 — ^He is neither 
cold nor warm. 

TENTH LESSON.— Lcccion Decima. 

Those of. 
Have you my books or thot of the 

I have not your books I have thoee 

of the man 

Lo9 de. 

I Tieue V. mis libros 6 los del horn 

Yo no tengo los libros de Vm., tengo 

Io8 del hombie. 

Those which. 
Have you the books which I have 7 
I have those which yoo have. 
Has the EngUshman the knives 

which you have, or those which I 

He has neither those which you 

have, nor those whit;h I have. 
Which knives has he ? 
He has bis own. 
Have you mine ? 
No, I havn not yours 

Los que. 
I Tiene V. los libros que tengo ? 
Yo tengo los que V. tiene. 
i Tiene el Ingles los cnchilloe que V 

tiene, 6 loe que yo tengo? 

No tiene ni los que V. tiene, ni Km 

qne yo tengo. 
I Que cuchilloe tiene (61 ?) 
£l tiene los suyos. 
I Tiene V. los mios ? 
No, yo no tengo los de V, 








Lo8 niMM> 



El do V. 


Lo0 Tuestros. 

(See Obs. A, Le6Bon ] 

His, hen, (his own, her 


El Buyo. 
El nuestro. 

JjOB snyos. 
liOB nuestros. 

Th«in, (their own 

) , 




Obt. A. These "pronouns agree in number with the object pooBOflsed 
that is, the noun they refer to or stand for 

I Tiene V. los snyos 6 los mios 7 
Yo no tengo los de V., tengo los mios 


Esot, aqiuUo9. 

Have yoo yoais or mine 7 

I hare not yoms, I have mine. 
Thete, (plnr. of th/s one.) 
TAsse, (plor. of that one.) 
Obs, B, These words are used with or withoat suhstantirea 

I have neither these nor those. I To no tengo ni estos ni aquellos. ^ 

Have I these or those 7 i i Tengo yo estos 6 aquellos 7 

You have these ; you have not those. | V. tiene estos ; no tiene aquellos. 

Have I the looking-glasses of the > i Tengo yo los espcjos de los Fran- 
French, or those of the English 7 | ceses, 6 los de los Ingleses 7 

Yoo hav« neither the former nor the 

Y. no tiene ni aquellos, ni 

The former. Aquel, (sing.) Aquelht, (plur.> 

The latter. Este, (sing.) Estos, (plur.) 

Obs. C In Spanish aquel and aquellos refer always to the object first 
mentioned ; este, estos, to the object last spoken ot 

Have yon my canes or my guns 7 I i Tiene V. mis bastones 6 mis fusiles 7 
I have the lattes but I have not the I Yo tengo estos, pero no tengo aquel- 

former. * [ los. 

Has the man these or those trunks 7 ! ^Tiene el hombre estos 6 aqaellos 

I baules7 • 

He has these, but not those. ' Tiene esos, pero no aquellos. 

Have you your guns or mine 7 i i Tiene V. sus fusiles 6 los mios 7 

I have neither youib nor mine but I Yo no tengo ni los do V. ni los mios, 
those of our good friends pero los de nuestros buenos ami- 

I gos. 


Augmentative and Diminutive nouns, in Spanish, are those which by the 
addition of a certain termination increase or diminish the signification ol 
their primitives. 

32 TENl'n LESSON. 

The augmentative nocms are formed by adding oUt ote^ azo, or anaxOi te 
the masculine nouns, and ona, ota, aza, or onaza to the feminine ; ftop* 
prearing their last letter, should it be a, e, or o; as, 

A boy. Un muchacho. I A girl. Una muehacha 

A big boy. Un muckaehon. \ A. big girl. Una muchachona 

On and ote, ona and oto, generaJy indicate goodness in the object ; azo, 
mxa, onazo, onaza, most commonly refer only to size. 

The termination azo frequently signifies the blow or injury caused by 
the object to which it is added ; as, 

A very large whip^ 
A stroke with a whip. 

Un latigazo. 
Un latigazo. 

The termination azo added to the noun to express a blew, or mjnry, has 
no change when it is formed out of a noun feminine ; as. 


A large hand. 
A blow, or stroke with the hand. 




The diminutive nouns are formed by adding ito, Ulo, uelo for the mas- 
culine, and ita, iUa, uela for the feminine, to the noun, which drops its last 
letter if it be a, e, or o; as, 

A boy. I Un muchacho. 

A little boy. | Un muckackito 

A girl I Una muehacha, , 

A little girl I Una muchachita. 

Ito and ita generally express love towards the object, and beauty in it ^ 
iUo and iUa soiiietimes mean pity, and sometimes contempt ; uelo and uela 
formerly were used in the same sense as ito and ita, at present they indi- 
cate .only conten^t * 

The(]^atest part)of nouns ending in an, in, on, che, ge, que, re, te, ve, 
add eito, cillo, zuelo, or cita, cilia, zuela to the noun, which in such case 
does not drop the last letter ; as, 

Pretty little lion. Leoncito. 

Good little man. Hombrecito 

Handsome tittle woman. Mujercita, 

Nouns ending in z change it into cj and add cito, cita, &c ; as. 
Cross. Cruz, I Little cross. Crueecita. 

Fish Pez, I Little fish. Pececito, peceeUU 

Nouns ending in co or ea change this syllable into quito, quita ; as. 

Boat Barco. I Little boat Barquito, 

Barge. Barea. | Little barge. Barquito* 

NmmK ««iidiniT in trn nr tra. dmo the o and add uito„ uita, &c. : :.a. 








Fn«nd. Amiga, i Dear little friend Amguito. 

Friend. Amiga. \ Dear little friend. Amtguita, 

NouiH ending in to, ia, generally do not admit the termination, and ex* 
fnm the diminutive by tranalatiug the adjective ; tm, The little Claudioa, , ^ 
El pequeno Claudio, or El ntno Claudia. Sometimes t]^y drop the last ^ 

two Toweb and add the regular termination ; as, Julia, Julita ; india, in- % 

ditOb When the letter n precedes the said last syllables to, ia, it is generally-U , ^ 
changed into fi ; as, Antonio, Antonito. * 

Have yon these or those billets ? — ^I have neAhei these nor those. 
—Have yon the horses of the Spaniards or those of the English ? — ^I 
have those of the English, bnt I have not those of the Spaniards. — 
Which oxen have you 7 — ^I have those of the foreigners.— Have yon 
the chests which I have ? — I have not those which yon have, but those 
which your brother has. — ^Has your brother your biscuits or mine 7 — 
He has neither ydors nor mine. — ^\yhich Inscuits has he ? — He has his 
own. — ^Which horses has your friend 7 — ^He has those which I have. — 
Has your Mend my books or his 7 — ^He has neither yours nor his ; but 
be has those of the captain. — ^Have I your waistcoats or those of the 
tailors 7 — ^You have neither these nor those. — ^Have I our asses 7 — You 
have not ours, bnt those of our neighbors.— Have you the birds of the 
sailors 7 — I have not their birds, but their fine sticks. — ^Which caps 
has your boy ? —He has mine. — ^Have I my shoes or those of the shoe- 
oiakerB 7 — ^You have not yours, but theirs, (those of the shoemakers.) 

Which paper has the man 7 — ^He has ours. — ^Has he our coffee 7— 
He has it not. — Have you our bags or those of the strangers 7 — ^I have 
not yours, but theirs. — ^Has your carpenter our hanmiers or those of 
oar fridods 7 — He has neither ours nor those of our friends. — ^Which 
nails has he 7 — He has his good iron nails. — ^Has any one the ships of 
the English 7 — ^No one has those of the English, but some one has 
Aose of the French. — ^Who has the cook's chickens 7 — ^Nobody has his 
chickens, but somebody has his mutton. — ^Who has his cheese 7 — His 
hny has it. — ^Who has my old gun 7 — ^The sailor has it. — Have I that 
peasant's bag 7-^You have not his bag, but his com. — ^Which guns 
has the Englishman 7 — ^He has those which you have. — ^Which um- 
brellas has the Fre^chman 7 — He has those which his friend has.-— 
Has he our books 7-^He has not ours, but those which his neighbor 
has. — ^Is the merchajlt's boy hungry 7 — ^He is not hungry, but thirsty. 
— Is your friend colil or warm 7 — ^Ho is neither c<^d nor warm. — Is he 
tfhdd 7— He is not aidd, but ashamed.— Has the young man the sticks 




of our servants? — He hra not their sticks, but their sosp. — ^Which 
pencils has he ? — He lias those of his old merchants. — Have you any 
thing good or bad ? — I have neither any thing good nor bad, but some- 
thing fine. — What have you fine' — ^I have our cooks' fine wine. — 
Have vou not their fine mutton 7 — No, Sir, I have it not. 

ELEVENTH LESSON.— Lcccton Undicima, 

The comb 
The glass. 
The glass, (tumbler.) 

Have you my small combe? 

I have them. 

EI peiue. 

El vidrio, (a factitious substance.) 

EI vaso. 

I Tiene V. mis peines chiquitos? rot 

Yo Zo« tengo. 

Them. \ 

Obs. A. Lo9 is a pronoun when it 
is placed ; but wheu loa is an article, 
Has he my fine glasses? 
He has them. 
Have I them? 
You have them. 
You have them not 
Has the man my pretty combe 7 
He has them not 
Has the boy them 7 
The men have them. 
Have the men them? 


is governed by a verb before which M 
it comes before a substantive. 

I Tiene ^1 mis hermosos vasos ? 

£1 los tiene. 

I Los tengo yo 7 

V. los tiene. 

y. no los tiene. 

I Tiene el hombre mis boaltos pemes ( 

£l no los tiene. 

I Los tiene el muchacho 7 ■ 

Los hombres los tienen. 

I Los tienen los hombres? 

They have them. 
They have them not 
Who has them? 

The Grermans. 
The Turks. 
The Germans have them. 
The Italians. 
The Spaniards. 

I Elloe. 

I EUos los tienen. 

EIIos no los tienen 
I ^Quien los tiene? 

Lbs Alemanes. 

Los Turcos. 

Los Alemanes los tienen. 

Los Italianos. 

Los E^anoles. 

Some or any. \ 

Obs, B. Some a^d any, used m an unlimited sense, are not translated, 
particularly when they are not followed by a noon ; bat the noun which is 



andemCood in English is somAtimes expreosed in Spanish, or, what is mora 
onnJ, we give another form to the sentence, by merely using the words 
Yes, air, i^t, 9enor ; No, sir, No, tenor, either with or without the verb 

HaYe yoa any wine 7 

I have some, (wine nndentood.) 

I hsTe not any, (wine nndeistood.) 

Win yoa send for wine? 

I win send for some, (wine under- 

I win not send for any, (wine under- 

^Tiene V. vino? 

Tengo vino. 

Si, tengo. 

Si, seiior. 

No tengo vino. 

No tengo. 

No, seiior. 

I Quiere Y. enviar por vino? 

To qniero enviar por vino. 

Si, quiero. 

Si. sefior. 

No quiero enviar por vino 

No quiera 

No, sefior. 

Same, meaning a Uttle, is expressed and translated by un poe9 

I have some, (a little.) 
Some or any wine. 
Some or any bread 
Some or any tea. 
Some or any buttons 
Some or any knives 
Some or any men. 

Have yofu any wine? 

I have some wine. 

Has this man any doth? 
He has some cloUu 
Has hf any books? 

He has some books. 

Have you any money? 

I have some money. 

No. Not any, 
I have no wine. 
He has not any money. 
You have no books. 
They have'^noi any friends. 

Yo tengo nn pooa 




t Botonee. 


t Hombres. 

tiTiene V. vino? 
t Yo tengo vino, or 

Tengo un poco. 
t ;Tiene pafio eete hombre? 
t ^\ tiene pafia 
t ill tiene libios, or 

Tiene algunos libros. 
tiTiene V. dinero? 
t Yo tengo dinero, or 

Tengo un poco do dinero. 

No. (In a general indefinite i 
Yo no tengo vino. 
£l no tiene dinero. 
y. no tiene libroa 
EUos no tienen amigos. 



Some, Any, 
Some, Ones 

Some. I Un poco, (a small quantity.) 

r Alguno. {Algun, before a 
} masculine Bingolar.) 
( Algunoe. 
Ohs. C. Alguno, Algun, and Alguiwe are used in a limited 

Has he any paper? 

Have you any good paper? 

Have I any? 

Have you any good? 

I Tiene (€1) algun popel ? 
^Tiene V. algun buen papcIT 
I Tengo yo alguno? 
I Tiene V. alguno bueno? 

Ntngum {Ningui, before a nocui 
masculLie singular.) 

Obt. D, Ninguno, Ningun, and Ningunoa, are used in a limited sense. 

C (£l) no tiene ningun papel, or 
< Ningun papel tiene. 
t (See Obs. B, Lesson III.) 

k (£1) no tiene ningun buen papel, ot 
\ Ningun buen papel tiene. 

i Ninguno tiene, or 
No tiene ninguno. 
] Ninguno tengo, (pZ. ningnnoe tango.) 

No* Not any. None. 

He has not any paper. 
He has not any good paper. 

He has not any. 

I have none. 

He has not any good. 

He has none good. 

Have you any paper? 

I have some 

I have some good. 

iNo tiene ninguno bueno, or 
No tiene ningunos bueno& 
i Ninguno bueno tiene, or 
Ningunos buenos tiene. 

i Tiene Vm. algun papel 1 
Tengo alguno, (or un poco.) 
Tengo alguno bueno. 

Some old wine. I Vino anejo. 

Some bad cheese | Qaeso malo. 

Obs, E, When malo is bef<»o a noun of person it means wiekod. 

Any excellent cofl^ 

The painter. 

The picture. 

The picture, (likeness.) 
The painter has some pictures. 

Excelente caf<$. ««.— 

El pintor. 

El cuodro. 

El retrata 

£1 pintor tiene algunos cuadi^oc 

SLKVEKTH LE8801f. 37 

Have you my fine glasses? — ^I have them.— Have you the fine 
hciTses of Uje English ? — ^I have them not. — Which sticks have you ? 
— I have t lose of the foreigners. — ^Who has my small combs ?— My 
boys have them. — ^Which knives have you ? — I have those of your 
friends. — ^Have I your good guns 7 — You have them not, but your 
friends have them. — Have you my pretty pictures, or those of my 
brothers ? — I have neither yours nor your brothers*, but my own.— 
Which ships have the Germans? — The Germans have no ships.— 
Have the sailors our fine mattresses 7 — They have them not — Have 
the cooks them? — ^They have them. — ^Has the captain your pretty 
books? — ^He has them not — ^Have I them? — ^You have Uicm. Yiai 
have them not — ^Has the Italian them ? — ^He has them. — ^Have the 
Turks our fine guns 7 — They have them not — ^Have the Spaniards 
them ? — ^They have them. — Has the German the pretty umbrellas of 
the Spaniards? — ^He has them. — ^Has he them? — Yes, Sir, he has 
them. — ^Has the Italian our pretty gloves ? — ^He has them not. — ^Who 
has them 7 — ^The Turk has them. — Has the tailor our waistcoats or 
those of our fiiends ? — ^He has neither the latter nor the former. — 
Which caps has he 7 — ^He has those which the Turks have. — ^Which 
dngs have you 7 — ^I have those which my neighbors have. 


Have you any woods ? — ^I have some woods. — Has your brother any 
soap 7 — He has no soap. — ^Have I any mutton 7 — ^You have no mutton 
but you have some cheese.— Have your friends any money ? — ^They 
have some money. — ^Have they any tea 7 — They have no tea, but they 
have some excellent coffee. — Have I any soap 7 — ^You have no soapv 
but you have some coal. — ^Has the merchant any cloth 7 — ^He has no 
cloth, but some pretty shoes. — ^Have the English any gold 7 — ^They 
have no gold, but they have some excellent iron. — Have you any good 
coffee 7 — ^I have no good coffee, but some excellent wine. — Has the 
merchant any good books 7 — ^He has some good books. — ^Has the young 
man any tea 7 — ^He has no tea, but some excellent chocolate. — ^Have 
the FVench any good gloves 7 — They have some excellent gloves. — 
Have they any birds 7 — They have no birds, but they have some pretty 
piaures. — ^WTio has the fine knives of the English ? — Their friend? 
have them. — ^Who has the good biscuits of the bakers 7 — The sailors 
of our captains have them. — ^Have they our ships 7 — Yes, Sir, the^ 
have them. — ^What have the Italians? — They have some beautiful 
pictures. — What have the Spaniards ? — They have some fine asses.— 
What have thp Germans'? — ^They have some excellent com. 

• 4 




Have you any friends ? — I have some friends. — ^Have your firienda 
any coal 7 — ^They have some. — ^Have the shoemakers any good shoes ? 
— Thoy have no good shoes, but they have some excellei t leather. — 
Have the tailors any good waistcoats 7 — They have no good waistcoats, 
but some excellent cloth.— Has the painter any umbrellas 7 — ^He has 
no umbrellas, but he has some beautiM pictures. — ^Has he the pictures 
of the Frendi or those of the Italians 7 — He has neither the latJbeT nor 
the former. — ^Which ones has he 7 — ^He has those of his good friends. 
^Have the Russians (los Rtisos) any thing good 7 — ^They have some- 
thing good. — ^What have they good 7 — ^They have some good oxen. — 
Has any one my small combs 7 — ^No one has them. — ^Who has the 
peasants' fine chickens 7 — Your cooks have them.— What have the 
bakers 7 — ^They have some excellent bread. — ^Have your friends any 
old wine 7 — ^They have no old wine, but some good coffee. — Has any- 
body your golden candlesticks 7 — Nobody has them. 

TWELFTH LESSON.— I»cccioyi DuodScima dm.- 

il or an, or one. 

Of a, an, from a, an. 

To a, an, at a, an. 

A man. 

A book. 

A stick, (of wood.) 

A stick, (a cane.) 


Of a good sailor. 

A small knife. 
A large cap. 



Have you any books 7 
Yes, Sir, I have one. 
Have you a glass 7 
I have no giass 
I have one. 

Have yon a good horse? 
I have a good horse. 

De un. 

Un hombre. 
Un libro. 
Un hasten. 
De un mufiiacho. 
De un buen marinero. 
Un cuchillo pequefio. 
Un cuchillito. 
Un gorro grande. 

Numeral adjectives 




I Tiene V. alganos libros 7 

Si, seiior, yo tengo uno. 

I Tiene V. un vaso 7 

Yo no tengo vasa 

Yo tengo una 

I Tiene V. un buen oaballo f 

Yo tengo un buen oaballa 



HaTo yoa any good honee? 
I have two good ones. 
Have yoa two good hones ? 
Yea, Sir, I have two good ones 


Have you five hoiaee 7 
I have none, Sir. 
^ave yoQ a small Hon 7 
I have one. 

Have yoa any good shoes 7 
I have some good. 
I have some bad ones. 

Has your brother a friend 7 

He has a good one. 
Has he one 7 
He has one. 
He has two good ones. 
He has two of them. 
Have yon five good dogs 7 
I have three good and two bad 
Who has a pretty umbreUa 7 
My brother has one. 
The hatter. 

I Tiene V. buenos cabaOos ^ 
Tengo doe buenos. 
I Tiene V. dos buenos caballos 7 
Si, senor, tengo dos buenos. 


I Tiene V. cinco cabaUos 7 
Ninguno tengo, seiior. 
I Tiene V. un leoncito 7 
Tengo uno. 

I Tiene V. buenos zapatos7 
Tengo algnnos buenos. 
Tengo algunos malos. 

I Tiene algun amigo sn hermano de 

Tiene uno bueno. 
I Tiene uno 7 
(£l) tiene uno. 
Tiene dos buenos. 
t £i tiene dos. 

I Tiene V. cmco buenos perros 7 
t Yo tengo tree buenos y dos malos 
I Quien tiene un bonito par&guas 7 
Mi hermano tiene uno. 
El scnnbreiero. 

Have you any wine ? — ^I have some.—- Have you any coffee 7 — ^I 
have not any. — ^Have you any good wine 7 — ^I have some good.— V 
Have you any good cloth 7 — I have no good cloth, but I have some '^ 
good papier. — ^Have I any good sugar ?— You have not any good. — 
Has the man any good paper 7 — ^He has some. — ^Has he any good 
cheese ?— He has not any. — ^Has the American (d Americano) any 
money ? — ^He has some. — ^Have the French any cheese 7 — ^They have 
not any. — ^Have the English any good wine 7 — ^They have no good 
wine, W. they have some excellent «tea. — Who has some good 
soap 7 — ^The merchant has some. — ^Who has some good bread? — 
The baker has some. — ^Has the foreigner any woods 7 — ^He has some. 
— Has he any coal ? — ^He has not any. — ^What rice have you 7 — ^I 
have some good. — ^What hay has the horse 7 — ^He has some good. — 
What leather has the shoemaker? — ^He has some excellent — ^Hava 


you any nails ? — ^I have not any. — Who hps some nails ? — J t< 
merchant has some. — ^Have I any shoes ? — You have some shoes. — 
Have I any hats ? — ^You have no hats. — ^Has your friend any pretty 
knives ? — ^He has some pretty ones. — ^Has he any good oxen ? — He 
has not any good ones. — ^Have the Italians any fine horses 7 — ^They 
have not any fine ones. — Who has some fine asses 7 — ^^rhe Spaniards 
have some. 

Has the captain any good sailors 7 — ^He has some good ones. — 
Have the sailors any good mattresses 7 — ^They have not any good 
ones. — ^Who has some good biscuits 7 — The baker of our good neigh- 
bor has some. — ^Has he any bread? — ^He has not any. — ^Who has 
some beautiful hats 7 — The French have some. — ^Who has some 
excellent iron nails 7 — ^The carpenter has some. — ^Has he Miy ham^ 
mers 7 — ^He has some. — ^What hammers has he 7 — ^He has some iron 
ones. — ^What is the matter with your brother 7 — Nothing ?s the mat^ 
ter with him. — ^Is he cold 7 — ^He is neither cold nor warm. — ^Is he 
afraid 7 — ^He is not afruid. — Is he ashamed 7 — ^He is not ashamed. — 
What is the matter with him? — ^He is hungry. — ^Who has some 
beautiful gloves 7 — ^I have some. — ^Who has some fine pictures 7 — 
The ItaDans have some. — ^Have the painters any fine gardens 7 — 
They have some fine ones. — ^Has the hatter good or bad Ints 7 — ^He 
has some good ones. — ^Has the carpenter good or bad nails 7 — ^He has 
some good. — ^Who has some pretty caps 7 — The boys of our mer- 
chants have some. — ^Have they any birds 7 — They have not any. — 
Who has some 7 — ^My servant has some. — ^Has your servant any sticks? 
— ^He has not any. — ^Who has some 7 — The feervants of my neighbor 
have some. 


Have you a pencil 7 — ^I have one. — ^Has your boy a good book ? — 
He has a good one. — Has the German a good ship ? — He has none. 
— Has your tailor a good coat 7 — ^He has a good one. He has two 
good ones. He has three good ones. — ^Has the captain a fine dog 7 — 
He has two of them. — ^Have your friends two fine horses 7 — ^They 
liave four. — ^Has the young man a good or a bad hat 7 — ^He has no good 
one. He has a bad one. — ^Have you a cork 7 — ^I have none.— Have I 
a friend 7 — ^You have a good-one. You have two good friends. — ^Has 
the carpenter an iron nail 7 — He has six iron nails. He has six good 
ones and seven bad ones. — ^Who has good tea 7 — Our cook has some. 
— ^Who has five good horses ? — Our neighbor has six. — ^Has the peas- 
ant any corn 7 — ^He has some. — ^Has he any guna 7 — ^He has not any. 
—Who has some good friends ? — The Turks have some. — ^Have thet 



aiiy money 7 — ^Tbey have not any.— Who has their money ?— Theii 
fiiends have it — Are their firiends thirsty? — They are not thirsty, 
bat hungry. — ^Has your servant a good dog ? — He has one. — ^Has he 
this or that nail ? — ^He has neither this nor that. — Have the peasants 
these or those bags ? — They have neither these nor those. — ^Which 
bags have they ? — ^They have their own. — ^Have you a good servant ? 
—I have a good one. — ^Who has a good chest ? — ^My brother has one 
—Has he a leather or an iron chest ? — ^He has an iron one. 

THIRTEENTH LESSON.— I^eccion Decima tercia> 

How much ? * 

How many? 
How mach bread have you 7 
How much money? 
How many knives? 
How many men? 
How many fiiends? 


* have but one friend. 

« have bat one. 

I have but one good gun. 

I have but one good one. 

The book is not mine, but yours. 

You have bat one good one. 

How many hoiBes has your brother ? 

He has but one 

He has but two good ones. 

A good deaif very much. 
Much bread. 
Many men. 
A good deal of good bread. 
Have you much money? 
I have a good deal. 
Have you much good wine? 
I have a good deal. 

I Cuanto ? 

I Cuanto9 ? 
I Cuanto pan tiene V. 7 
I Cuanto dmero ? 
I Cuantoe cuchiUoe 7 
^Cuantos hombres? 
^Cuantos amigos? 

' Solo. 


No (v) sino. 

No (v) ma» que. 
Solo tengo un amigo. 
Tengo uno solamente. 
No tengo mas que un buen fusil. 
(Yo) tengo solamente uuo bueno. 
El libro no es mio sino de V. 
V. no tiene mas que uno bueno. 
I Cuantos caballos tiene su hermano 

No tiene mas que uno. 
6\ tiene solamente dos buenos. 



MuchUimo. MuchUimos, (pi.) 
Mucho pan. ' 

Muchos hombres. 
Muchisimo pan bueno. 
2, Tiene V. mucho dinero? 
Tengo muchfsimo. 
4 Tiene V. mucho vino bueno? 
Teo^ muchisimo. 



Too much 

Too many. 
You have too much wine. 
You have too many books 

Ehiough money. 
Knives enough. 

Little, (in size.) 


A little. 


Small in quantity I 
or number. ] 

A little room. 
A little wine. 

Few friends. 

But lUtle. 
Only a little. 

But few. 

Demaeiado, eobrada, 
Demaauidoe, eobradot. 

V. tiene demasiado vino. 

V. tiene demasiados libioa. 
Baetanie, bastantes 

Bastante dinero. 

Bastantes cuchillos 


Poco, poeoe. 

UnoB poeos, unoe euanto9. 

Un poco, (after a verb.) 

Un poco de, (before a noun.) 
Un cuarto pequefio. 
Un poco de vino. 
Unos poeos amigos. 
Unos cuantos amigos. 

Solo an poco 

Solamente un poco. 

Muy poco. 

Solo poeos. 

Solamente unoe cuantoe, 

Muy pocoB. 

Not much. 

Not many. 
You have not much money. 
We have few friends. 

No mueha. 

No mucho: 

V. no tiene mucho dinero. 


' We have. 
Have we? 
We have not 
Oh%. The pronoun subject is almost 

(Nosotros) tenemos. 
2,Tenemos (nosotros?) 
(Nosotros) no tenemos. 
t always omitted in Spanish 

Have we any vinegar ? 
We have some. • • 
We have not any. 
They hare but little courage. 

Valor. (Animo.) 

I Tenemos vinagre 7 

Si tenemosy (or Tenemos un poca) 

No tenemos, (or Ninguno tenemos. 

t Tienen muy poco valor. 

Have you a good deal of money ? 
I have but little of it 
You have but little of it. 
He has but little of it 
We have but a little of it 

I Tiene V. muchfsimo dinero t 

Solo tengo un poco. 

V. tiene solo un poco. 

(£1) tiene solamente un pooo 

Solo tenemos un poco. 


HaTe you enooj^ inne 7 I ^ Tiene V. bastante Tino 7 

I haTo but a little, but enough. j Solo tengo un poco ; tengo tofe 

el baatante. 



And. ! 

Some bread and meat 

Have you any tea and cofibe? 


t Pan y came. 
tiTiene V. t6ycaf<7 

The hatter. 
The joiner. 

£1 sombrerero. 
El ensamblador. 

How many friends have yon ? — ^I have twc good friends. — ^Have yt)U 
eight good trunks ? — I have nine. — Has your servant three glasses ? — 
He has only one good one. — ^Haa the captain two good ships ? — ^He 
has but two good ones. — How many shoes has the shoemaker ?— He 
has only five. — How many guns has your brother ? — ^He has only four. 
—Have you much bread ? — ^I have a good deal. — ^Have the Spaniards 
much money ? — They have but little. — ^Has your neighbor much cof- 
fee 7 — ^He has only a little. — Has the foreigner much com 7 — ^He has a 
good deal. — ^What has the American (el Americano 7) — ^He has much 
sugar. — What has the Russian (el RusoT) — He has a great deal of 
ham. — Has the peasant much rice 7 — ^He has not any. — ^Has he much 
cheese 7 — He has but little. — ^What have we 7 — ^We have much bread, 
much wine, and many books. — ^Have we much money 7 —We have 
only a little, but enough. — ^Have you many brothers 7 — I have only one. 
—Have the French many friends 7 — ^They have but few. — ^Has our 
nei^xbor much hay 7 — He has enough. — ^Has the Italian much cheese? 
^He has a great deal. — ^Has this man courage 7 — ^He has none. — ^Has 
the painter's boy any pencils 7 — He has some. — ^How many hammers 
has the carpenter 7 — ^He has only one. 


Have you much paper 7 — ^I have but little. — Has the cook mucn 

mutton 7 — ^He has but little mutton, but he has a good deal of ham.— 

How many oxen has the German 7 — ^He has eight. — ^How many horses 

has he 7 — ^He has only four.- —Who has a good many biscuits 7 — Our 


sailors have a good many. — ^How many books have we ? — ^We have 
only three pretty ones.r— Have you too much cheese? — ^I have not 
enough.^-Have our boys too many books ? — ^They have too many. — 
Has our friend too much coffee ? — ^He has only a little, but enough. — 
Wlio has a good deal of tea ? — ^The peasants have a good deal. — ^Have 
they many gloves ? — They have not any. — Has the cook enough sugar? 
— He has not enough. — Has he enough vinegar ? — He has enough.— 
Have you much soap ? — I have only a little. — ^Has the merchant much 
cloth ? — ^He has a good deal. — Has our tailor many buttons ? — He has 
a good many. — Has the painter many gardens ? — ^He has not many. — 
How many (gardens) has he ? — ^He has but two. — ^How many knives 
has the German ? — ^He has three of aiem. — ^Has the captain any fine 
horses ? — ^He has some fine ones, but his brother has none. — Have we 
any buttons ? — ^We have a good many. — ^What buttons have we ? — We 
have gold buttons. — What candlesticks have our friends ? — ^They havt 
gold candlesticks. — ^Have they gcAd nails ? — They have some. 

Has the youth any pretty sticks ? — ^He has no pretty sticks, but some 
beautiful birds. — ^What chickens has our cook ? — ^He has some pret^ 
chickens. — ^How many has he ? — ^He hSs six. — ^Has the hatter any hats ? 
— ^He has a good many. — ^Has the joiner much work ? — ^He ha^ not a 
great deal, but enough. — ^Have we the horses of the French, or those 
of the Germans ? — ^We have neither these nor those. — ^Which horses 
''Tve we ? — ^We have our own. — ^Has the Turk my small combs ? — ^He 
has them not. — ^Who has them ? — ^Your boy has them. — ^Who has our 
looking-glasses ? — ^The Italians have them. — ^Has the Frenchman thift , 
or that umbrella ? — ^He has neither this nor that. — ^Has he the mattress 
es which we have ? — ^He has not those which we have, but those whicl 
his friends have. — Is he ashamed ? — ^He is not ashamed, but afraid. 


FOURTEENTH LESSON.— Xeccion DScima cuarta. 

{Algunoi, • 

UnoB poeoB. 
UnoB cuantoB. 
A few books. I Algunos libroe, (or unos libttw.) 

Have you a few books ? | l Tiene V. algunos libroe f 

I have a few \ ^"^ *^"^** ^^^"'*- 

( Tengo unoe cuantos. 

You have a few I V. tiene algunos. 

He has a few. { £l tiene algunos. 



'Solo (v) algufue. 

But a few 

Solamente algunoa. 

Solo unoo cuantoe. 

, Solamente unos cuantoe. 


Solo tengu algunos, (or unos cuanlos.) 

I have but a few. • i 

' (Yo) tengo solamente algunos. 


No tengo mas que algunos. have bat a few hooka. 

y. tiene solamente algunos libros. 

lie has bnt a few farthings. 

I ha^e bnt a few. 

No tengo mas que algunos. 

Toa have bat a few 

y. no tiene mas que algunos. 

He has irat a few. 

£l no tiene mas que algunos. 



O&e, or a farthing. Farthings. 

Un cuarto. Cuartos. 

Ooe, or a shilling. ShiUings. 

Un real Reales. 

• 1 
One, or a dollar. Dollan. 

Un peso. Pesos. 
Un duro. Duros. 



1 • 


Have you another horse ? 

iTiene V. otrocaballo? 
Yo tengo otro. 

I have another. 

No other horse. 

Ningun otro caballo. 

I have no other hone. 

No tengo otro caballo. 

I have no other. 

No tengo otro. 


Some other. 

1 Otroe. 

Any other. 

1 Algun otro. 

lAlgunoe otroi. 

Have yon any other horMS 7 

I Tiene Y otros caballos 7 

f Tiene Y. algunos otros caballos 7 

! have some othc«% ^ 

Yo tengo otros. 

Yo tengo algunos otros. 

l%LrB no others. 

Yo no tengo otros. 

No tengo ningnnos otros 

The arm. 


The heart. 

£1 corazon. 

The foot 


The writing 


The volume. 

El tomo. 
El vomroen 



No other. 
Not any other. 

Neither the one nor the other. 

K No (v) otro. 

I No (v) ningun otro. 

iNo (?) otros. 
No (t) ningunoe otro*, 
fNi el uru) ni el otro, 
Ni uno ni otro, 
Ni lo8 unoe ni loa otroe 
Ni unoe ni otroe. 

What day of the month ie it 7 

(It 18) the first 

(It is) the second. 

(It is) the third. 

What day of the month is this 7 

(It is) the eloFenth. 

Ohe. Except the first day of the month, all the other days are 
pressed by a cardinal number preceded by the article. 

S t [, Qae dia del mee tenenur* t 
( t i Qae dia es hoy ? 

EH primero. 



t i A cuantos estauios t 

t A once. 

Which volame have you ? 
I have the fourth. 

The first 

The second. 

The third. 

The fourth. 
The fifth. 
The sixth. 
The seventh. 
The eighth. 

The ninth. 

The tenth. 
The eleventh. 
The twentieth. 
The thirtieth. 
Have you the first or second book ? 

I I Que tomo tiene V . ? 
I Yo tengo el cuarto. 


iiil pnmer.* ^ 

El segunda Los segundos. 

Eltercero. ) Lo. tercen». 
El tercer.* \ 

EI cuarto. Los cuartoo. 

El quinto. Los quintos. 

El sexto. Los sextos. 

EI s^ptimo. Los s^ptimos. 

£1 o<;tavo. Los octavos. 

El nono. Los nonos. 

El noveno. Los novenos. 

El d^cimo. Los d^cimos. > 

El und^cimo. Los und^cimos. 

El vig^simo. Los vig^mos 

El trig^simo. Los trig^i|^* 
^ Tiene V. el primero 6 el segundo 

* Primero and tereero lose the o before a noun. Ex. — El primer tomo ; 
el thveer tomo. 

* Henceforth the learner should write the date before his task. Ex. — 
Nufiva-Y»rk, Setiembre veinte, demil ochocientoe niarenta yeiete; New 
Vork, September 20th. 1847 


Which Tohmies have jtm ? 
I have the two fint ones. 


The thirteenth. 


The American 

I Qae tomoB tiene Y.I 
t Yo tengo los dos 
El dood^cimo. 
£1 d^oimo tercio. 

El Americano, (pi.) loe Americanoa. 
El Rneo, (pi) los ] 

Have yon many knives ? — ^I have a few. — ^Have yon many penoLs **— 
1 have cmly a few. — Has the painter's fiiend many looking-glasses ;— * 
He has oniy a few. — ^Has your boy a few farthings ? — He has a few. 
— ^Have yon a few fiulhings 7 — ^We have a few. — ^How many shillings 
have you 7 — ^I have ten. — How many shillings has the Spaniard 7 — ^He 
has not many, he has only five. — ^Who has the beautiful glasses of the 
Italians 7 — ^We have them. — ^Have the English many ships 7 — ^They 
have a good many. — Have the Italians many horses 7 — They have not 
many horses, but a good many asses. — ^What have the Crermans 7 — 
They have many dollars. — How many dollars have they 7 — They have 
eleven. — ^Have we the umbrellas of the Spaniards 7 — We have them 
not, but the Americans have them. — Have you much coffee 7 — ^I have 
only a little, but enough. — ^Has the Frenchman many shillings 7 — ^H* 
has only a few, but he has enough. — ^Has your servant many fax 
things 7 — ^He has no fiurthings, but shillings enough. 

Have the Russians paper 7 — ^They have but little paper, but a goo^ 
deal of iron. — Have the Turks much wine 7 — They have not much 
wine, bat a good deal of coffee. — ^Who has a good deal of dollars 7 — 
The Crermans (have a good deal.) — ^Have you no other gun 7 — ^I have 
no other. — ^Have we any other cheese 7 — ^We have some other. — Have 
I no other gTm7 — ^You have another. — ^Has our neighbor no other 
horse 7 — ^He has no other. — ^Has your brother no other friends 7 — ^He 
has some others. — ^Have the shoexnakers no other shoes 7 — They have 
no others. — ^How many gloves have you 7 — ^I have only two. — Have 
you any other biscuits 7 — ^I have no cdier. — ^How many arms has this 
man 7 — ^He has only one, the other is of cork. — ^What heart has your 
boy 7 — ^He has a good heart — ^Have you no other servant 7 — I have 
another. — ^Has your friend no other birds 7 — ^He has some others. — 
How many other birds has he 7 — He has six others. — ^How many gar- 
dens have you 7 — ^I have only one, but my friend has two of them. 




Which vdume have you ? — ^I have the first — ^Have you the second 
volume? — I have it. — ^Have you the third or fourth book? — I have 
neitlier the former nor the latter. — Have we the fiftJi or sixth volume ? — 
We have the fifth, but we have not the sixth volume. — Which volumes 
has your friend ? — He has the seventh (volume.) — What day of the 
month is it ? — ^It is the eighth. — Is it not the eleventh ? — No, Sir, it is 
the tenth. — Who has our dollars ? — ^The Russians have them. — ^Have 
they our gold ? — They have it not. — ^Has the youth much money ? — 
He has not much money, but much courage. — ^Have you the nails of 
the carpenters or those of the joiners ? — I have neither those of the 
carpenters nor those of the joiners, but those of my merchants. — ^Has 
the Italian a few farthings ? — He has a few. — ^Has he a few shillings 7 
— ^He has five of them. — ^Have you another stick ? — ^I have another. — 
What other stick have you ? — That of my brother. — Have you a few 
other candlesticks ? — We have a few. — ^Has your boy another hat ?^ 
He has another. 

FIFTEENTH LESSON.— Leccton Decima quinta. 


TJu one and the other. 

Neither the one nor the other. 
Have you the first or the socoud 

volume of my dictionary 7 
I have both. 

Have you my book or my paper 7 
1 have neither the one nor the other. 
Has my brother my gloves or his 

He has both yours and his. 
Has he my books or those of the 

He has neither the one nor the other. 


Uno y otro. 

El uno y el otro, 

Lo9 unoi y ha otros, (Plnr.) 

Ni el uno ni el 4>tro. 

I Tiene V. el primero 6 el segundo 

tomo de mi diccionario ? 
Tengo dmboe. 

I Tiene V. mi libro 6 mi papel ? 
Yo no tengo ni el uno ni el otro. 
I Tiene mi hermano mis guantes 6 

los Buyos 7 
t iSl tiene imbos. 
^ Tiene ^1 mis libros <> los de kv 

Espaiioles 7 
El no tiene ni los unos ni los otros. 

The Scotchman. 
The Irishman. 
The Dutchman. 
The Russian. 

El Escoces. 
El Irlaudes. 
El Holandes. 



Some more. 
Any more, 
A few more. 

Some more wine. 
Some more moaey. 
A few more buttons. 

Have yoa any more wine 7 
I have 0ome more wine. 
I have some more. 
Has he any more money 7 
He has some more. 
Have I any more books T 
Yon have some more. 

Not any more, m) more. 

Much more. 

Many more, 
I have no more bread. 
He has no more money. 
Have you any more wine 7 
k. have no more. 
We have no m'ore. 
Has he any more vinegar 7 
He has no more. 
We have no more books. 
He has no more dogB. 
Ha has no more. 

Not much more. 
Not many more. 

Have yoa mooh more wine 7 

1 jBve not much more. 

Have you many more books? 

f have not many more. 

J Algun. t 

lAun. J 

fTodavia mae, ^ 
Ann mae, I In a limited 

Algnnoe mas, f sense. 
Todaoia algunosj 
S Mas vino. 
( Todavia vino, (or algnn vina) 

Ami dinero, (or algun dinero.) 
^ Algtmos botones mas. 
( Todavia algunos botones. 

I Tiene V. todavia mas vino 7 

Tengo todavia mas vino. 

t Todavfa tengo, (or aun tengo.) 

I Tiene €[ mas dinero 7 

Tiene alguno. 

I Tengo yo mas libros 7 

V. tiene algonos mas. 

No (v) tnae, 

Mucho mas, 

Muehos mas. 

Yo no tengo mas pan. 

£1 no tiene mas dinero. 

^ Tiene V. aon mas vino? 

No tengo mas. 

No tenemos mas. 

I Tiene todavia vinagre 7 

No tiene mas. 

Nosotros no tenemos mas libroM 

£l no tiene mas perros. 

No tiene mas. 

No (v) mucho mas. 

No (v) muehos mas, 

I Tiene V. macho mas vino 7 

(Yo) no tengo macho mas. 

I Tiene Vm. machos mas libros t 

No tenffo machos mas. 





One more book. 

One more good book. 

Four more books. 

A few more books. 
Have you a few doUan more? 
I have a few more. 
Have I a few farthings more 7 
Yoa have a few more. 
We have a few more. 
They have a few more. 

t Otro libro mas. 

t Otro bucn libro mas. 

t Otrot cuatro libros moo 

Algunos libros mas. 

I Tieue V. algunos pesos mas 7 

(Yo) tengo algaoos mas. 

I Tengo yo alganos cuartos mas t 

V. tieue algunos mas. 

(Nosotros) tenemos algunos i 

EUos tienen algunos i 

Tome, vdume. | Tomo, voltimen. 

Which volume of his dictionary have you ^ — I have the first- ^How 
many tomes has it ? — ^It has two. — Have you my dictionary or my 
brother's ? — ^I have both. — Has the foreigner my comb or my knife ? 
—He has both. — ^Have you my bread or my cheese ? — I have neither 
the one nor the other. — Has the Dutchman my glass or that of my 
friend 7 — ^He has neither the one nor the other. — ^Has the Irishman our 
horses or our chests 7 — ^He has both. — ^Has the Scotchman our shoes 
or our caps 7 — ^He has neither the one nor the other. — ^What has he 7 
— ^He has his good iron guns. — ^Have the Dutch our ships or those of 
the Spaniards 7 — ^They have neither the one nor the other. — ^Which 
ships have they 7 — ^They have their own. — Have we any more hay 7 
— ^We have some more. — ^Has our merchant any more paper 7 — ^He 
has some more. — ^Has your friend any more jpinej 7 — ^He has not any 
more. — Has he any more nails 7 — ^He has so: jie more. — ^Have you any 
more coffee 7 — ^We have no more coffee ; but we have some naore 
chocolate. — ^Has the Dutchman any more sugar 7 — He has no more 
sugar ; but he has some more Jbea. — Has the painter any more pictures 7 
^He has no more pictures ; but he has some more pencils. — ^Have the 
sailors any more biscuits 7 — They have not any more. — ^Have your 
hoys any more books 7 — ^They have not any more. — ^Has the yoimg 
man any more friends 7 — ^He has no more. 

Has our cook much more ham 7 — ^He has not much more. — Has 
he many more chickens 7 — ^He has not many mwe. — ^Has the peasant 
much more hay 7 — ^He has not much more hay ; but he has a great 
deal more wine. — ^Have the French many nunre horses 7 — ^TIw have 
not many more. — ^Have you much more p^>er 7 — I have mucnmore. 
— ^Have we many more looking-glasses 7 — ^We have many more^-^ 


Have yon one more book ? — ^I have one more. — ^Ha?e our neighbors 
one more garden ? — They have one more. — ^Haa our friend one more 
ambrella 7 — ^He has no more.^Have the Scotch a few more books ? 
—They have a few more. — ^Haa the tailor a few more buttons ? — ^He 
has not any more. — ^Has your carpenter a few more nails ? — ^He has 
DO more nails ; but he has a few sticks more. — Have the Spaniards a 
few ferthings more ? — ^They have a few more. — ^Has the German a few 
more oxen ? — ^He has a few more. — ^Have you a few more shilHngs ?— 
1 have DO more shjllings ; but I have a few more dollars. — ^What have 
yon more 7 — ^We have a few more ships and a few more good sailors. 
—•Have I a little more money? — You have a little more. — ^Have 
you any more courage 7 — ^I have no more. — Have you much more 
vinegar 7 — I have not much more ; but my brother has a great deal 


Has he sugar enough 7 — He has not enough. — ^Have we dollars 
enough 7— We have not enough. — ^Has the joiner iron enough ? — ^He 
has enough. — ^Has he hammers enough? — ^He has enough. — Have 
yon rice enough 7 — ^We have not rice enough ; but we have enough 
sugar.— Have you many more gloves? — ^I have not many more.— 
Has the Russian another ship 7 — ^He has another. — ^Has he another 
bag?— He has no other. — What day of the month is it? — ^It is the 
oxlh. — ^How many friends have you 7 — ^I have but one good friend.— 
Has the peasant too much bread ? — ^He has not enough. — Has he 
much money 7 — ^He has but little money, but he has enough hay. — 
Have we the cloth or the cotton caps of the Americans 7 — We have 
Bother their cloth nor their cotton caps. — ^Have you any more bread ? 
—I have no more. — ^Have you any more oxen? — I have not any 

SIXTEENTH LESSON.— Leccton DSdma sexto. 


Varioa, (algunos, or muchoa,) 

Several men. 

Yaiioa homlwee. 

Several Children 

Algunos niiioe. 

Several knives. 

AlgunoB cuchilloflt 

The father. 

El padre. 



The child. 

EU nifio. 

The cake. 






As much. 
As many. 
As mtteh (n) as 
As many (n) as. 

As much bread as wine. 

As many men as children. 

Tanto. ^ 


Tanto (n) eomo. 

Tantos (n) como. 

Tauto pan como vina 

Tantoe hombres oomo niiioa. 

Have yon as much ^Id as lead 7 
I have as much of this as of that 
I have as much of the former as of 

the latter. 
I have as much of the one as of the 

Have you as many shoes as panta- 
I have as many of these as of those. 

I have as many of the latter as of 
the former. 

I Tiene V. tauto oro como plomo ? 
Tengo tanto de este como de aqueL 
Tengo tanto de aquel como de este. 

Tengo tanto del uno como del otro. 

I Tiene V. tantos zapatos como pan- 

Tengo tantoe de estos como de aque- 

Tengo tantos de estos como de aqne- 


Quite (or just) as much. 

Quite (or just) as many. 
I have quite as much of this as of 

Quite as much of the one as of the 

p Quite as many of those as of these. 
Quite us many of the one as of the 


I Tanto, justamente tanto. 
j Tantos, justamente tantos. 
Tengo tanto de este como de aqueL 

Tanto del uno como del otro. 

Tantos de aquellos como do estos. 
Tantos de los unos como de los otioa 

An enemy, enemies. 
The finger. 
The eye. 

Un enemigo, enemigos. 
El dedo. 
£1 ojo. 

More (n) than. 
More bread than wine. 
More knives than forks. 
More of this than of that 
More of the one than of the other. 
More of these than of those. 
More of the ones than of the others. 
I have more of your sugar than of 


Mas (n) que. 

Mas pan que vino. 
Mas cuchilloB que tenedores. 
Mas de este que de aquel. 
Mas del uno que del otro. 
Mas de estos que de aquellos. 
Mas de los unos que de Ion otros. 
Tengo mas del aziicar de V. que del 



Oe has more of oar books than of I (I^I) tiene mas do naestros libroi que 
his own. de los suyos. 

Lt99 — Fewer. 

Leat (n) than. 

Fewer (n) than. 
Fewer — ^less than L 
Fewer — leas than he. 
Fewer — less than we. 
Fewer — ^leas than yon. 
Fewer — ^leas than yon. 
Fewer — ^leas than they. 

As mach as I 
As much as he. 
Aa much as we. 
As much as you. 
As much as you. 
As much as they. 


Minoa (n) que. 

Mdnos que yo. 
M^nos que 6\, 
M^nos que nosotros. 
M^nos que vosotros. 
M^nos que V., (or W.) 
M^os que elloe. 

Tanto como yo. 

Tanto como ^L 

f anto como nosotroa 

Tanto como Tosotros, (or vos ) 

Tanto como V., (or W.) 

Tanto como ellos. 

Coat, (or garment) 
A gun, (a piece of artillery.) 
A tooth. 
Hare you as much of your wine as 

of mine? 
I have quite as much of yours as of 


Uo caiion. 

Un diente. 

I Tiene V. tanto de su vino del 

Tengo tanto del de V. como del mio 

Have yon a horse ? — ^I have several. — ^Who has my good cakes ?— 
Several men have them. — ^Has your friend a child ? — ^He has several.— 
Have you as much coffee as tea ? — I have as much of the one as of the 
other. — Has this man a son ? — He has several. — ^How many sons has 
he ? — He has four. — ^How many children have our friends 7 — They 
have many ; they have ten of them. — Have we as much bread as wine ? 
— ^YoQ have as much of the one as of the other. — ^Has this man as many 
Mends as enemies 7 — ^He has as many of the one as of th^ other. — 
Have we as many shoes as coats ? — ^We have hb many of the one 
as of the other. — ^Has your fkther as much gold as iron ? — ^He has 
more of the latter than of the former. 

Have you as many guns as 1 7 — ^I have just as many. — ^Has the 
foreigner as much courage as we 7 — ^He has quite as much. — Have we 



as much' good as bad paper? — We have as much of the one as of the 
other. — ^Have your sons as many cakes as books ? — They have more of 
the latter than of the former ; more of the one than of the other. — How 
many teeth has this man ? — ^He has but one. — How many fingers has 
he ? — He has several. — ^How many gims have you ? — I have only one, 
but my father has more than I ; he has five. — ^Have my children as 
much courage as yours 7 — Yours have more than mine. — ^Have I as 
much money as you ? — ^You have less than I. — ^Have you as many 
books as I ? — I have fewer than you. — Have I as many enemies as 
your father ? — You have fewer than he. — Have the French as many 
ships as we ? — ^They have fewer than we.— Have we as many combs 
as they ? — We have fewer than they. — ^Have we fewer knives thui 
the children of our friends ? — ^We have fewer than they. 

Who has fewer friends than ^e ? — ^Nobody has fewer. — Have you 
as much of your wine as of mine ? — ^I have as much of yours as of 
mine. — ^Have I as many of your books as of mine ? — ^You have fewer 
of mine than of yours. — ^Has the Turk as much of your money as of 
his own ? — ^He has less of his own than of ours. — ^Has our merchant 
fewer dogs than horses? — He has fewer of the latter than of the 
former ; (fewer of the one than of the other.) — ^Has our cook as much 
bread as ham ?— He has as much of the one as of the other. — ^Has he 
as many chickens as birds 7 — He has more of the latter than of the 

Has the carpenter as many sticks as nails ? — ^He has just as many 
of these as of those.— Have you more biscuits than glasses ? — ^I have 
more of the latter than of the former. — ^Who has more soap than I ? 
i— My son has more. — Who has more pencils than you ? — ^The. painter 
has more.— Has he as many horses as 1 7 — ^He has not so many horses 
as you ; but he has more pictures. — ^Has the merchant fewer oxen 
than we ? — ^He has fewer oxen than we, and we have less com than 
he. — ^Have you another book 7—1 have another. — ^Has your son one 
more coat 7 — ^He has several more. — Have the Dutch as many gaitiens 
as we 7 — We have fewer than they. We have less bread and less 
wine than they. We have but little money, but enough bread, ham, 
cheese, and wine. — Have you as much courage as our neiglibor'a 
son 7 — ^I have just as much. 



SEVENTEENTH LESSON.— Xeccion Decima s^ptima. 

There are in Spanish three conjugatioiis, which are dietingoiahed by th« 
termiBatioa of the preaent of the iofisitiTe, viz. : 

1. The fiist has its infinitiTe teraiinated in ae ; aa: — 

Hablar, to apeak ; 

Comprar, to buy ; 

Cortar, to eut* 

^ Theaecond in br; aa: — 

Vender, to aeU ; 

Comer, to eat, (ta dine 

Beber, to diink. 

3. TIm third..... ^....... Jnn; aa: — 

Recibir, to receive ; 

Dividir, to divide ; 

Abrir, to open. 

Eadi verb we aball hereafter give 
don to which it belonga marked after 
dak (*) are irregular. 






A mind, (or a wiah.) 

To work. 
To apeak. 
Have you a mind to work T 
I am ashamed to speak. 

will have the number of the ooiquga* 
it The verbs marked with an aate* 


Verguensa de. 

Rason de. 

Tiempo de. 

Valor de, (para.) 

Gana, (or deaeo de.) 

No tener razon de, (or hacer mal en;) 

Trabajar 1. 

Hablar 1. 

I Tione V. gana de trabajar T 

Tengo vergQenza de hablar. 

To cut 
To cut it 
To cut them. 
To cut some. 

C<»tar 1. 
Cortar alguna 

06a. A. When a pronoun object is governed by a verb in the infinitive, 
k k placed after the infinitive, and joined with it, so as to form a single word 

Have you still a mind to buy it ? 

Aun, (or Todavia.) 
^Tiene V. todavia deseo de 



Have you, time to cut the bread T 
I have tune to cut it 
Has he a mind to cut trees 7 
He haa a mind to cut some. 

To buy. 
To buy some more. 
To buy one. 
To buy twa 
To buy one more. 
To buy two more. 

Ttt break, to tear. 
To pick upw 

To mend. 
To repair. 

To k)ok (or, to seek. 

I Tiene V. tiempo de rebanar ti pwit 
Yo tengo tiempo de rebanarie. 
I Tiene ^1 j^na de cortar irboleaT 
Tiene gaua de cortar algunos 

Cbmprar 1. 
Comprar algunos 
Comprar una 
Comprar dos. 
t Comprar otro 
Comprar dos mas. 

I Romper 3. 
AJzar del suelo 1. 
r Remendar * 1. 
< Reparar 1. 
( Componer * 52. 
I Bnscar 1. 

I Tiene V. gana de comprar tooaTra 

otro caballo 7 
Tengo gana de comprar otro mas^ 
I Tiene V. gana de comprar libros ? 
Tengo gana de comprar algunos, poio 

no tengo dinera 
I Tiene V. miedo de romper los rasos ? 
Tengo miedo de romperlos. 
I Tiene 6\ tiempo de trabigar 7 
' £1 tiene tiempo, pero no tiene gana 

de trabajar, 
£1 tiene tiempo, pero no tiene gana. 
£1 tiene tiempo, pero no tiene gaua 

de haeerlo, (to do it) 

0h9. B. To aToid the immediate repetition of a yerb in the same mood 
or tonse, it is more elegant to suppress it, or to make use of the verb har^t 
fai its stead, as in the example. 

Have you a mind to buy one more 

horse 7 
I have a mind to buy one mere^ 
^aye you a mind to buy some books 7 
I hare a mind to buy some, but I 

have no money. 
Are you afraid to break the gl) 
I am afraid to break them. 
Has he time to wortL7 

He has time, but no mind to work. 

To he righL 
Am I right m buying horses 7 

7b be wrong. 
Too are wrong in buying one. 

Tener razon de, (or hacer bien en > 
I Tengo yo razon de comprar caba- 

No tener raxon de, (or haeer nuU en.1 
K v. no tiene razon de compr a r una 
( ' t > ^tace mal en comprur una 


Obt, C When the present participle governed hy in, stands for the in« 
finitire goremed by of, it is rendered in Spanish by Uie infinitire ; then^ 
** in buying," must be translated " de comprar" 

Youy (Phir.) I VV,, (for UsUdes,) (See Less. I.) 


Have yoa still a mind to buy my friend's horse 7 — ^I have still a mind 
to buy it ; but I have no more money. — ^Have you time to work ? — I 
have time, but no mind to work. — ^Has your brother time to cut some 
sticks ? — He has time to cut some. — ^Has he a mind to cut some sread 7 
— He has a mind to cut some, but he has no knife. — ^Have you time to 
cut some cheese 7 — ^I have time to cut some.^ — Has he a desire to cut 
the tree ? — ^He has a desire to cut it, but he has no time. — Has the 
tailor time to cut the cloth 7 — ^He has time to cut it — ^Have I time to 
cut the trees 7 — You have time to cut them. — ^Has the painter a mind 
U> buy a horse 7 — ^He has a mind to buy two. — ^Has your captain timo 
to speak 7 — He has time but no desire to speak. — ^Are you afraid ti^ 
speak 7 — I am not afraid, but I am ashamed to speak. — Am I right in 
buying a gun 7 — You are right in buying one. — Is your friend right in 
buying a great ox 7 — ^He is wrong in buying one* — Am I right in buy- 
ing little oxen 7 — You are right in buying one. 

Have you a desire to' speak 7 — ^I have a de«re but I have not the 
courage to speak. — ^Have you the courage to cut your finger 7 — ^I have 
not the courage to cut it. — ^Am I right in speaking 7 — ^You are not 
wrong in speaking, but yon are wrong in cutting my trees. — Has the 
son of your friend a desire to buy one more bird 7 — ^He has a desire to 
buy one more. — ^Have you a desire to buy a few more horses 7 — ^We 
have a desire to buy a few more, but we have no nwre money. — What 
has our tailor a mind to mend 7 — ^He has a mind to mend our old coats. 
— Has the shoemaker time to mend our shoes 7 — He has time, but he 
has no mind to mend them. — Who has a mind to mend our hatM 7 — 
The hatter has a mind to mend them. — ^Are you afraid to look for mv 
horse 7 — I am not afraid, but I have no time to look for it — ^What have 
you a mind to buy 7 — We have a mind to buy something good. — Have 
you a mind to break my nail 7 — ^I hove a mind to pick it up, but not to 
break it 

Who has a mind to break our looking-glasses 7 — Our enemy has a 
mind to break them. — Have the foreigners a mind to break our guns ' 
—They have a mind, but they have not the courage to break them.— 



Who has a muid to buy my boaotiful dog ? — Nobody has a mind to boy 
It — Have you a mind to buy my beautiful trunks, or those of the French- 
man 7 — ^I have a mind to buy yours, but not those of the Frenchman. — 
Which books has the Englishman a mind to buy ? — ^He has a mind to 
buy that which you have, that which your son ha^, and that which mine 
has. — Which gloves have you a mind to seek ? — ^I have a mind to seek 
yours, mine, and our children's. 

Which looking-glasses have the enemies a desire to break ? — They 
have a desire to break those which you have, those which I have, and 
those which our children and our friends have. — Has your father a 
desire to buy these or those cake^ ? — He has a mind to buy these. — 
Am I right in picking up your canes ? — You are right in picking them 
up. — ^Is the Italian right in seeking your hat ? — ^He is wrong in seeking 
it — ^Have you a mind to buy another ship ? — ^I have a mind to buy 
another. — ^Has our enemy a mind to buy one more ship ? — ^He has a 
mind to buy several more, but he is afraid to buy them. — Have you 
two horses ? — I have only one, but I have a wish to buy one more. 

EIGHTEENTH LESSON.— Lecciiw Decima octava. 

To make. 
To do. 

To be willing. 
To wish. 

Hacer « 2. 

I Quert 

er « 2/ 

Will you? 

Are you willing ? 

Do you wish? 
I will, I am willing, I wish. 
Will he? is he willing? does he 

He will, he is wiUiog, he wiahes. 
We will, we arev wiUing, we wish. 
You will, you are willing, you wish. 

They will, they are willing, they 

TiQuiereV.? ^Quereisvos? ^Q 
1 1 vosotros ? 

Yo quiero. 

£1 quiere. 

Noeotros queremoB. 

V quiere, (phir.,VY.) quieren, voao- 

troB, or voe querela. 
Ellos quieren. 

Do yon wish to make my fire ? 
I am willing to make it 
I do not wish to make it 
Does he wish to make it ? 
He wiidies to make it 

I Quiere V. hacer mi fuegoT 
Yo quiero hacerie. 
Yo no quiero hacerie 
^ Quiere ^1 hacerie 7 
£l quiere haoerie. 



Doet he wish to boy your hone 7 
He wishes to bay it. 

I Quiere 61 comprar su caballo de V ? 
£1 quiere oomprarie 

To bum. 

Qoeroar 1. 

To warm. 

Calentar « 1. 

To tear. 

The broth. 



Mi tenedor. 

06*. A. Do, doth, does, and did, m questions, m negative sentences, and 
when energeticaUy used, must not be translated ; they, howeyer, point out 
the person and tense. 

TO B|i — BBE and EffTAE. 

To be may be expressed in Spanish by Ser or Estar ; but the meaning 
of these yerba being very different, the scholar must pay particular atten- 
tioa to the following rules. In order to use them properly : 

Ser m used to ezpreos the qualities inherent, or essential to persons or 
things ; the state of fixed mind ; the materials of which a thing is made ; 
the condition, employment, rank, trade, &<:. of persons ; the object, pur- 
pose, destination, &ui, of persons or things. 

Ettar is employed to denote the accidental, or temporary qualities or 
auctions of persons or things, and is followed in English by a present 

These rules wfll be more easily understood by these examples : 

This man is good. 

This man is in good health. 

He was wicked during his youth. 

He was sick in his yonth. 

Ink is black. 

This ink is whitish. 

He is very taU. 

He is plaioed very high. 

His watch is gold. 

His watch is broken. 

Este hombre ea bueno. 

E^ste hombre eatd bueno. 

El fue malo en su juventnd. 

El ettuvo malo en sn juventnd. 

La tinta es negra. 

Esta tinta ettd blanoa. 

tA €8 muy alto. 

£l eatd muy alto. 

Su reloj e9 de oro. 

Su reloj eatd quebrado 

I Es bueno este vino 7 

Is this wine good 7 

To he, followed by an active participle, is tranriated Eotar 
They are playhig. | Ellos estan juganda 

To be is translated TVner in the foUowmg acceptations: 

To be five feet long. 

To be three feet broad, wide. 

To be seven feet deep. 

To be fifty feet in circumference. 

To bs twenty yean old. 

Tener cinco pies de laigo. 
Tener tres pies de anoha 
Tener siete pies de pfofimdo. 
Tener cinoaenta pies de ciioanfb* 

Tener vemte afios. 



I'o be afraid ot 

To be obliged to. 

To be so good as to. 

To be prudent in. 

To be right in. 

To be wrong iiw 

To be cold. 

To be hot, or warm. 

To be hongiy, thirrty, sleepy, &c 

Tener miedo de. 

Tener precision de. 

Tener la bondad d« 

Tener prudencia. 

Tener razon para. 

No toner razon para. 

Tener Mo. 

Tener calor. 

Tener hambre, sed, saefio, dte. 


At the house oil 

To the house o£ 

To be at the man's honse. 

To go to the man, or to the man's 

To be at bis friend's (boose.) 
To go to my fother's (house.) 

It* 3. 

En la casa de, (oar en casa de.) 
A la casa de, (or & casa de.) 
Elstar en la casa del hombre. 
Ir d casa (or la casa) del hombre. 

Estar en la casa de sn amiga 

Ir & easa (or la casa) de mi padre. 

At home. En eamu 

To be at home. Estar en casa. 

To go home. Ir & casa. Ir d la 

Obs. B. A casa means the house of the person who speaks. Ex^ — ^De 
you go home, (to your house ?) iVa V.d su easa ? — Do you go home, (to 
my house 7) iVa V, d casa ? (the house of him who speaks.) 

To be at my house. 
To be staying with me. 
To be at our house. 
To be staying with us. 
To go to my house. 
To cone to me. 
To go to our bouse. 
To come to us. 
To be at his house. 
To be stoymg with him. 
To go to his house. 
To go to him. 
To be at your house. 
To be staying with you. 
To go to your house. 
To go to you 
To be at their house. 
To be stoying with them. 
To go to their house. 
i>» go to them. 

i Estar en casa. 
BIstar en mi casa. 

Estar en nuestra casa. 

> Ir i casa. 

\ Ir (or yenir) i mi casa. 

S Ir (or yenir) 4 nuestra casa. 
vEstar ensn casa. 

>Ir &S0 easa. 

) Estar en su casa de V. 
) Eetor en la casa de V. 
) Ir d su casa de V. 
) Ir & la casa de V. 

> Estar en su casa de ellos, (or ellaa. 
^ Ir i su casa de elloe, (or elias.) 



To be at some one's home. 
To be with some one. 
To go to some one's house. 
To go to some one. 

At whose house 7 

To whose house 7 

Estar en la casa de algnuo. 
( Ir i la casa de alguna 

Tp whose house do yon wish to go 7 
To whom do you wish to go 7 
I wish to go to no one's house. 
I wifih to go to no one. 

At wfaose house is your brother 7 
With whom is your brother 7 

With whom IS he 7 

He is at our house. 
He iB with ns. 

b he at home 7 
He is not at home. 

Are you 7 

Are you tired 7 
I am tired. 
I am not tved. 
We are. 
They are. 

I En cjsa de quien 7 ^ En la casa 

de quien 7 
I / A casa de quien 7 ^ A la casa de 

} ^A casa de quien quiore V. ir7 
I ^ A la casa de quien quiere V. ir7 

No quiero Ir a casa de ninguna 

'^En casa de quien estd su hermano 

de V.7 
I En la casa de quien esti su hermano 

I Con quien eeti 7 
I En la casa de quien estd7 
Estd en nuestra casa. 
J^l estd con nosotros. 
Esti en nuestra caisa. 
tEsti(€l) en casa? 
(iil) no estd en casa. 
I iEstdV.? iEstanVV.?(pIur.) 
^Estais Yos? or vosotros. 

I Estd V. cansado 7 1 Estais cansadosi 
(Yo) estoy cansado. 
(Yo) no estoy cansada 
t Estd ^17 
£1 estd. 

(Nosotros) estamos. 
EUos estan. 

To drink. 
Where 7 


I En donde 7 


What do you wirfi to do 7 \ i Que quiere V. hacer 7 

What does your brother wish to do 7 | ^ Que quiere hacer su t^rmano de V.7 

Is your fiather at home? 
What win the Germans buy 7 
They will buy something good. 
They will buy nothing. 

I Eatd en casa su' padre de V. 7 
I Que quieren comprar Ice Alemanes ? 
Ellos quieren comprar algo bueno 7 
Ellos no quieren comprar nada. 



Do they wish to bay a book 7 
They wish to buy one. 
Do you wish to drink any thing 7 
I do not wish to drink any thing. 

I Quieren (ellos) comprar un libro ? 
Ellos quieren comprar una 
I Quiere V beber algo 7 
Yo no quiero beber nada. 

Do you \n8h to look for my son 7 1 1 Quiere V. bnscar d mi hijo 7 

Obs, C. When the object direct of an active verb is a person, proper 
noun, or any noun peraonified, it must be preceded by the preposition a 

I am willing to look for your son. 

To go to your friend. 
To go to his neighbor. 

Yo estoy pronto d (quiero) buscar &I 

hijo de V. 
Ir d la casa del amigo de V. 
Ir d casa de su vecino 


Do you wish to work ? — I am willing to work, but I am tired. — Dc 
you wish to break my glasses ? — I do not wish to break tnem. — Are 
you willing to look for my son ? — ^I am willing to look for him. — Whit 
do you wish to pick up ?-^ wish to pick up this dollar and that shil- 
ling. — ^Does that man wish to cut your finger ? — ^He does not wish to 
cut mine. — ^Does the painter wish to bum some paper ? — ^He wishes to 
bum some. — ^Wbat does the shoemaker wish to mend ? — ^He wishes to 
mend our old shoes. — ^Does the tailor wish to mend any thing ? — He 
wi^ies to mend some waistcoats. — Do you wish to do any thing ? — ^I do 
not wish to do any thing. — ^What do you wish to do ? — We wish to 
warm our tea and our father's coffee. — ^Do you wish to warm my 
brother's broth ? — ^I am willing to warm it 

Do you wish to speak ? — ^I do wish to speak. — ^Is your son willing 
to work 7 — ^He is not willing to work. — ^Wliat does he wish to do ? — 
He wishes to drink some wine. — ^Do you wish to buy any thing ? — ^I 
wish to buy something. — ^What do you wish to buy ? — I wish to buy 
some forks. — Are you willing to mend my coat ? — ^I am willing to 
mend it — ^Who will mend our son's shoes ? — ^We will mend them. — 
What does he wish to buy 7 — ^He wishes to buy some ships. — Does 
your father wish to look for his umbrella or for his stick 7 — ^He wishes 
to look for both. — ^Do you wish to drink some wine 7 — ^I wish to drink 
some, but I have not any. — Does the sailor wish to drink some wine 7 — 
He does not wish to drink any, he is not thirsty. — ^What does the cap- 
tain wish to drink 7 — ^He does not wish to drink any thing. — ^What 
does the hatter wish to make 7 — ^He wishes to make some liats.-^Do 
you wish to buy a bird 7 — ^I wish to buy several. 


45. r^ 

How many forka does your servant wish to buy ? — ^He wishes to buy •. 
three. — ^Do you wish to buy many caps ? — We wish to buy only a few, V 
but cor children wish to buy a great many. — ^Does any one wish to ^ 

tear your coat ? — ^No one wishes to tear it — ^Who wishes to tear my 
boolcB ? — ^Your children wish to tear them. — ^With whom is our fiither ? 
—He is with his friend. — ^Will you go to my house ? — ^I will not go to 
yours but to my brother's. — ^Does your fiither wish to go to his fi^iend 7 
—He does not wish to go to his friend, but to his neighbor. — At whose 
house is your son ? — He is at our house. — Will you look for our hats 
or for those of the Dutch ? — ^I will look for neither yours, nor for those 
of the Dutch, but I will look for mine, and for those of my good friends. 

Am I rig^t in warming your broth ? — ^You are right in wanning it. 
—Is my servant right in warming your tea ? — ^He is wrong in warming 
it— Is he afraid to tear your coat 7 — ^He is not afraid to tear it, but to 
bum it. — Are your children at home 7 — ^They are not at home, but at 
their neighbors'. — Is the captain at home 7 — He is not at home, but at 
his brother's. — ^Is the foreigner at our brother's 7 — ^He is not at our 
brother's. — At whose house is the Englishman 7 — ^He is at yours. — ^Is 
the American at our house 7 — No, Sir, he is not at our house. — 
With whom is the Italian 7 — He is with nobody ; he is at home, — ^Do 
you wish to go home 7 — ^I do not wish to go home ; I wish to go to the 
son of my neighbor. — ^Is your fiUher at home 7 — ^No, Sir, he is not at 
home. — Will you go to any one's house 7 — ^I Mrill go to no one's house. 

Where is your son 7 — ^He is at home. — Is your brother at home 7— 
He is not at home ; he is at the foreigner's. — What will the Crerman 
do at home 7 — ^He will work, and drink some good wine. — ^What have 
pu at home 7 — I have nothing at home. — ^Are you tired 7 — ^I am not 
tired. — Who is tired 7 — ^My brother is tired. — ^Do you wish to drink 
any thing 7 — ^I do not wish to drink any thing. — ^How many chickens 
does the cook wish to buy 7 — ^He wishes to buy four. — ^Does the Span- 
iard wish to buy any thing 7 — ^He wishes to buy something, but he has 
no money. — Do you wish to go to our brothers' 7 — ^I do not wish to go 
to their house, but to their children's. — ^Is the Scotchman at anybody's 
itoose 7 — ^He is at nobody's ; he is at his own house. — ^Is this good 
psiper 7 — ^It is very good. — ^Who is that man 7 — ^He is my shoemaker. — 
Is tliis boy in good health 7 — Yes, Sir. — ^Is he wicked 7 — ^No, Sir, he is 
not wicked. — Is your watch gold 7 — ^It is gold, but it is broken. 




NINETEENTH LESSON.— Leccion Dicima nana. 

I En donde ? i Dirndl 7 
AM, or Alii, 
It alii, (or ir aUt.) 

Where 7 
There, thither, 
Tc ^ thero 
To oe there. 

Do yoa wv>h to go there? 

Yes, I wiflb to go there. 

Estar alii, (or estar alU.> 
I Quiere V. ir allA ? 
Si, yo ^ero ir all^ 

To take, to carry. 

To send. 

To take, to lead, to conduct 

To take i; Chere. 

Uevar 1. 

Enviar 1, (or mand&r 1.) 
Conducir * 3. 
Llevarle alld. 

Him, (objrat of the verb.) 
To aend him there. 
To take hun there. 

Thent, (object) 
To carry ^hem there. 
To carry some there. 


Enviarie allL 
Conducirle aUd. 

Los, (pronoon object of • 

Llevarios alld. 

Uevar alguno, (or algunc 

Will yoa send him to my father 7 
I will send him there, to him. 

I Quiere V. enviaile i casa, (or 4 la 

casa de mi padre 7) 
Yo le quioro enviar (alld.) 

Obs, Am Alii and alii are omitted when no ambiguity can result from 
the omission. 

Do you wish to go home 7 
Yes, I wish tO go there. 

The physician. 

To come. 

When 7 



Somewhere, anywhere, irhither 

Nowhere, noi *»nywhere 

Do you wish to go anywhere 7 

I wish to go sumewhere. 

I do not wish to go anywherob 

T' write. 
At what o'clock 7 
At one o'clock. 
At two o'clock. 

I Quiere V. ir & casa 7 
Si, yo quiero ir (alii.) 
El medico. 
Venir • 3. 

I Cuando 7 



oy— 6 

Alguna parte. 

Ninguna parte. 

I Quiere V . ir i alguua parte? 

Yo quiero ir i alguna parte. 

No quiero ir i uinguua parte. 

Escribir 3. 
t i A que hora 7 
t A la una. 
t A' las dos. 




The quarter. 
One o'clock. 

Media Media, (fern ) 
El ouartD. 
t La una. 

Oh: B. The word o'clock b never translated. The' noon hour, Aoro, 
most be preceded by the article la before una, (one o*cIock|) and las before 
the reet of the bonis. Half being an adjective must agree with hora, fem- 
inine, conaeqnently it is translated media. Feminine nonns will be full^ 
explained hereafter. 

t A la nna y media. 

At half-past one. 

At a quarter past one. 

At a quarter past twa 

At a quarter to one. 

At twelve o'clock at night 
At twelve o'clock. 
The night 
In the night 
At twenty minutes to four. 
Note, (billet) 

t A la una y caarto. 

t A las dos y cuarto. 
S A la una m^nos cuarto. 
] I A loB tree cuartos para la una 

A las doce de la noche. 

Media noche. 

A las doce. 

Medio dia. 

La noche. 

En la noche, (de noche.) 


A las cuatro m^nos veinte minutos. 

Do you wish to go home ? — ^Yes, I wish to go. — ^Does your son wish 
to go to my lK>uae ? — ^He wishes to go. — ^Is your brother at home ? — 
He is. — ^Where do you wish to go ? — ^I wish to go home. — ^Do your 
children wish to go to my house 7 — They do not wish to go. — ^To 
whom will you take this note ? — ^I will take it to my neighbor's. — ^Will 
your servant take my note to your father 7 — ^He will take it there. — 
To whom do our enemies wish to carry our guns, {caiioms 1) — ^To the 
Turks. — ^Will he cany them home 7— He will not carry them home. — 
Will you come 7 — ^I will not come, (ir.) — ^Where do you wish to go 7 — 
I wish to go to the good English. — ^Will the good Italians go to our 
house 7 — ^They will not go. — ^Where do they wish to go 7 — ^They wiD 
go nowhere. 

Will jrou take your son to my house 7 — ^Yes, I will. — ^When wil^ 
you take him to the captain's 7 — ^I will take him there to-morrow.— 
Do you wi^ to take my children to the physician 7 — ^I will take them 



there. — ^When will you take them ? — I will take them to-day. — ^At what 
o'clock ? — ^At half-past two. — ^When wiii you sena your servant to the 
physician ? — ^To-day. — ^At what o'clock ? — At a quarter past ten. — 
Will you go anywhere? — ^I will go somewhere. — ^Where will you 
go ? — ^I will g9 to the Scotchman. — ^To whom does he wish to go ? — 
He wishes to go to his friends. — ^Will the Spaniards go anywhere ? — 
They will go nowhere. — ^Will our friend go to any one ? — He will 
go to no one. 

When will you take the young man to the painter 7 — ^To-day. — 
Will he carry these hirds 7 — ^He will carry them home. — ^Will you 
take the physician to this man? — ^I will take him there. — ^When 
will the physician go to your brother? — ^He will go there to-Jay. 
— ^Will you send a servant^ to my house? — ^I will send one there. — 
Has your brother time to come to my house 7 — ^He has no time to 
come (ir) there. — ^Will the Frenchman write one more billet ? — ^Hc 
will write one more.— Has your Mend a mind to write as much as I ? 
— ^He has a mind to write quite as much. — ^To whose nouse does he 
wish to send them? — ^To his friends'. — ^Who wishes to write little 
notes ? — ^The young man. — ^Do you wish to carry many books to my 
father's ? — ^I^will only carry a few. 

Will you send one more trunk to our friend ? — ^I will send him 
several more. — ^How many more hats has the hatter? — ^He has six 
more.— Will he send them to the shoemaker ? — ^He will send one. — 
Do you wish to buy as many dogs as horses ? — ^I will buy more of the 
latter than of the former. — At what o'clock do you wish to send your 
servant to the Dutchman's ? — ^At a quarter to six. — At what o'clock is 
your father at home 7 — ^He is at home at twelve o'clock. — ^At what 
o'clock does your friend wish to go there 7 — He will go there at mid- 
night—Are you afraid tb go there 7 — ^I am not afiraid, but ashamed 
to go there. 

TWENTIETH LESSON.— Leccton Vigesima, 
To, (meaning in order to, or for,) ' Para. 
To see. | Ver • 2. 

Have you any money to buy bread 7 i Tiene V. dinero para comprar pan ? 
I have some to buy some. Si, tengo para comprar un poca 

Will you go to your brother in order i Quiere V. ir & la casa de su herma* 
to see him? no para verie? 



It 'm neceasary to go early to sec him. | Es necesario ir temprano para verie 

Can you cut mo sooie broad 7 

flas your brother a knife to cut his 

He has Dooe to cut iL 

To sweep. 
To salt. 

To be able, (can.) 
Can yoa? or are you able? 
I can, or I am able. 
I cannot, I am not able. 
Can you not? are you not able? 
Can he ? is he able ? 
He can, he is able. 
He cannot, he is not able. 
Can he not ? is he not able ? 
We can, we are able. 
Yoa can, you are able. 
They can, they are able. 


To see me. 
To see him. 
To see the man, 

To see the tree. 
TokiU him. 


To the, or ot the. 


To the iJriend. 
To the man. 
To the captain. 
To the book. 


To the friends. 
To the men. 
To the captains 
To the books. 

To him, to her. 

To apeak to me. 

To speak to him, (to her.) 

T# wiite to hkn, (to her.) 

1 1 Puode V. rebanar pan para mf ? 
I Tiene su hermano de V. un cuchillo 

para rebaoar su pan ? 
£1 no tiene ninguno para febanarle. 

Bairer 2. 

Matar 1. 

Salar 1. Echar en sal. 

Sal, (feminine.) 

Poder • 2. Saber • 2. 

i Puode v.? (iPodeisvos?) 

Yo puedo. 

Yo no pueda 

iNopuede v.? 


1^1 puede. 

£1 no puede. 

I No puede 61 ? 

(Nosotros) podemcs 

V. puede — (plur.) VV pueden. 

Ellos pueden. 

Me, (object) 

Ze, (object) 

Verme, (or para verme.) 

Verle, (or para verle ) 

Ver al hombie. (See Obs. C, 

son XVIII.) 
Ver el Arbol. 
Matarle, (or para matarle.) 

iU— (plur.) d los. 

Al amigo. 
Al hombre. 
Al capitan. 
Al Ubro. 


A los amigos. 
A los hombres. 
A los capitanes. 
A los libros 

Le, (complement) 
Me, (complement) 






To wiite to mo. 
To speak to thr xan. 
To speak to the captain. 
To write to thf> captain. 

Can you write to me 7 
I can write to yuu. 
Can the man sp*^ak to you? 
He can speak tA me. 

Hablar al hombie. 
Hablar al capitan. 
Eflcribir al capitan* 

, I Puede V. escribirme ? 
^ Yo puedo eecribirle. 
( Yo puedo escribir 4 V. 
i ^ Puede el hombre haUar & V.? 

J£l me puede hablar. 
Puede hablarroe. 

Obs. A. Wher. a verb governs another in the infinitive, the pranoan ob- 
ject may be placed either before the first, or after the second verb. 

Will you write to your brother ? | i Quiere V. escribir & su hermano 7 

_ .„ . S Yo le quiero escribir. 

I will write to him. ^ r\ ■ -l- i 

( Qmero escribirle. 

The basket 
The floor 
The oat 
The broom. 

Tho carpet 

Win yon send thr: book to the 
I will send it to him. 
When will you st^ud it to him 7 
I will send it to him to-morrow. 

£1 canasto. 

El suelo. 

El gate. 

La escoba, ) These two words are 

La alfombra, ) femmine. 

El tapete. 

I Quiere V . enviar el libto al hombn ^ 
Yo quiero euvidrsele. 
^Cuando quiere V. envi&rsele? 
Yo quiero envidrsele mafiana. 


Object, Cokpuement, 

governed by a verb. gov. by d understood 

Ist person, 


To me. Me, Mi, 

3d. « 


To him. Le. Le. 

1st « 



' Noe. Nos, 

2d. « 


To you. 

A'V,,(dvo9.) 0#,(4V.) 

3d. « 


To them. 

Los, Lee, 

Does he wish to upeak to you 7 I 

He does not wish to speak to me, | 

but to jon. I 

i Quiere 61 hablar & v. 7 
£l no quiere hablarme, pero quiert 
hablar i V. 

(See Ofaa. C, Lesson VIIL 



Do yoQ wiih to write to him? 
I do not wirii to write to hiiDy bat to 
hii brothei: 

I Quiere V. eaeriburle 7 
No quiero eseriburle, peio qaieio 
cribir iraheimaoo. 

The foUowing is the order in which the perMnal prououna must be placed 
I a sentence : — 

It to me. 
It to thee. 
It to him. 

It to OB. 

Them to me. 
Them to thee. 
Them to him. 
Them to her. 
Them to as. 

It to yoo. Them to you. 



t Nos le. 
Se le (4 V.) 








t Se los (a V.) 

It to them. Them to them. | t Se le (i eiloe.) t Se los (4 elloA ) 

(I Caando me qoiere V. enyiar el ca- 

I wiD send it to yoa to-day. 

{ Yo qaiero envfarMle i V. hoy. 


Yo se le qaiero enyiar hoy. 

I Qoiere V. darme pan? 

Yo qaiero darle 4 V. on poco. 

Are yoa willing to grive me some 

I am willing to give you some, (a 


06«. B. We call Subject, the nominative case ; Object, the direct ob- 
jective case ; Ccmplement, the indirect objective case. When two pronoons, 
object and complement, come together, the complement is always before the 
object When they are governed by a verb in the infinitive or imperative 
mcMid, they are added to it and form a single word with it ; but in that case 
the acute accent diould be written on that vowel of the infinitive upon 
which lies the stress of the voice. Example — 

Yoa wish to tend them to me. \ V. quiere envUrmeloe. 

To have to. ' 
Have yoa any thing to do? 
I have nothing to do. 

To lend. 

Tener • 2 que. 
I Tiene V. algo qae hacer? 
Nada tengo que haoer. 
Ptestar 1. 





I I 8 8 ^ ^ J=-' 
S § 8 p 15 X Xl 

S ^ 8 I jg § ^ 

8> a 5 3 J 2. .t£ 


3 i 

» 5 i i 2 





• ^j!^ . il^^jjj 


o a ^ ^ j: ►» 
3 3 3 3 3 

s a 

3 3 

§ § § i § 

a s a s B 



g :s 8 $ 8 « 


^ i I 


5 ^ 

a € I J ^.ts 

i ^ © 5 "5 

3 S 

§ § i i § 




a ti 


i^^^^^ is^^^^^ 

o as 
s Si' 


5.5 o 

(>■ i s 

g V o 




I 1^3 


t f! 

E . 

g g .2 t> "5 >. 
;f 5 « ^ I * 
^ 1 g t: t2 1 



Diflbrent foiins of sentences in which pronouns are nsed as 8uhj§€i$f 
ObfteU, and Complements : — 

Do yon lend it ? 

I lend it 

Do yon not lend them 7 

I do not lend them. 

Does he lend it to me 7 

He lends it to yon. 

Does he not lend it to me 7 

He does not lend it to yoo. 

Do I lend them to you 7 — ^to him? — 

to her 7 — to them 7 
Ton lend them to me. 
Ton lend them to him — to her — to 

Does he not lend it to her7 — ^to 

yon? — to them 7 

He does not lend it to her — (o yoo — 
to them. 

I Le— la presU V. 7 

Yo le — la presto. 

I No los—las presta V. 7 

Yo no los — ^las presta 

I Me le^me la presta 41 7 

j^l se l o se la pmeU & V. 

I No me le — me la presta 41 7 

£1 no (se) lo— (se) la presta i V. 

I (Se) los— (se) las presto yo d V. 7— 

&^17— 4ella?— iellos? 
v. me los — me las presta (d rof.) 
y. (se) los— (se) las presU & 4[—A 

ella — i ellos. 
I No (se) le^(8e) la presta 4\ i ella 7 

-4, V.7— A W.7— d eflos?— 4 

£1 no (se) lo^se) la presta d ella — 

d v.— d W^d eUos— d eUas. 

52. • 
Can the carpenter buy a hammer ? — ^He has enough money to buy 
one. — ^Has the captain money enough to buy a ship ? — He has not 
enough to buy one. — Has not your son paper to write a note ? — ^He has 
not any. — ^Does your fiither wish to see me ? — He does not wish to see 
yoo. — ^Has not your servant a (una) broom to sweep the floor 7 — He 
has one (una) to sweep it — ^Is he willing to sweep it ? — He is willing 
to sweep it — Has the sailor money to buy the chocolate ? — He has 
none to buy it. — ^Has the cook money to buy some ham ? — He has 
some to buy some. — ^Has he money to buy some chickens ? — ^He has 
some to buy some. — ^Have you salt enough to salt my ham ? — ^I have 
enou^ to salt it — Has your neighbor a desire to kill his horse ? — ^He 
has no desire to kiL it — ^Will you kill your friends ? — ^I will kill only 
my enemies. 

Can yon cut me some bread ? — ^I can cut you some. — ^Have you a 
knife to cut it ? — I have one. — ^WiU you speak to the j^iysician ? — ^I 
will speak to him. — ^Does your son wish to see me in order to speak to 
me 7 — ^He wishes to see you in order to give you a dollar. — ^Does he 
wish to kill me 7 — ^He does not wish to kill you ; he only wishes to 
see you.— Who has a mind to kill our* cat ?— Our neighbor's boy has a 


mind to kill it — ^How much money can you send me 7 — I can send yoa 
twenty shillings. — ^Will yon semi' me my carpet 7 — ^I will send it to 
you. — ^Will you not send him your coats 7 — ^No,- 1 will send them to 
the tailor. — ^Are your children able to write to me 7 — ^Yes, Sir. — ^Will 
you lend me your basket 7 — ^Yes, Sir. 

Have you a glass to drink your wine 7 — ^Yes, Sir, but I have no 
wine ; I have only tea. — ^Will you give me money to buy some 7— Yes, 
Sir, but I have only a little. — ^WiU you give me that which you have 7 
— ^Yes, Sir. — Can our neighbor make his fire 7 — He can make it ; but 
he has no money to buy coal. — ^Are you willing to lend him some 7 — ^I 
am willing to give him some. — ^Do you wish to speak to the German 7 
— ^I wish to speak to him. — ^Where is he 7 — He is with the son of the 
American. — ^Does the German wish to speak to me 7 — ^He wishes to 
speak to you. — ^Does he wish to speak to my brother or to yours 7 — ^He 
wishes to speak to both. — Can the children of our neighbor work 7^- 
They can work, but they will not 

Do you wish to speak to the children of the Dutchman 7-^1 wish to 
speak to them. — ^What will you give them 7 — ^I will give them good 
cakes. — Will you lend them any thing 7—1 am willing, but I cannot, I 
have nothing. — Has the cook some more salt to salt the mutton 7 — ^He 
has a little more. — ^Has he some more rice 7 — ^He has a great deal 
more. — ^Will he give me some 7 — ^He will give you some. — ^Which ox 
will he loll 7 — ^That of the good peasant — Who will send us biscuits 7 
— The baker will send you (plural) some. — ^Have you any thing to do 7 
— ^I have nothing to do. 

To whom do you wish to speak 7 — ^To the Italians and to the French. 
-^Do you wish to give them something 7 — ^I wish to give them some 
money. — ^Do you wish to give this man some bread 7 — ^I wish to give 
him some. — ^Will you give him a coat 7—1 will give him one. — Will 
you lend me your books 7 — I will lend them to you. — ^Will you lend 
your neighbors your mattress 7 — ^I will not lend it to them. — ^Will you 
lend them your looking-glass 7 — ^I will lend it to them. — To whom will 
you lend your umbrellas 7 — I will lend them to my friends. — ^To whom 
does your fnend wish to lend his horse 7 — ^To nobody. 



TWENTY-FIRST LESSON.--I««i(wi VigSsimd primera. 

Whom Qutefi — quierut, (pi) > 

To whom A'quien'-d quienes, (pi.) J ^^^ pewoM. 

For things of both genden and 



Sobjeet Who Quien — quienes. > 

Ofcject Whom A'fuien-^quiene$.S^^^^^^ 

Obj«cL yrhat Que. For penoiiB or things. 

Cooiplement Whom, } _ . „ 

" Whose. \ Quten — quteneo. For persons. 

" What. Que. For persons or things. 

I Quien qniere escribir 7 (Sabjeet) 
i A qnien qniere V. ver? (Object) 
I A qnien qniere V. hablar? (Com- 
I Qne qniere escribir 4\ 7 (Object) 
I De qne qniere V. hablar 7 (Com- 

Ohe. A. Reoponder requires the preposition d after it There are in 
SpAnish some verbs that gorem, or require certain prepositions after them. 
Hie scholar ^irill find a complete list of them in the Appendix. 

Who wifmes to write 7 

Whom do yon wish to see 7 

To whom do yon wish to ^>eak 7 

What does he wish to write 7 
Of what do yon wish to speak 7 

To answer. 

To answer the man. 

To answer the men. 
To whom do yon wish to answer? 
I wish to answer to my brother. 

To answer him. 

To answer thenL 

Responder 2. 

ReifKmder al hombre. 

Responder d k>s hombres. 

I A qnien qniere V. reqx>nder 7 

Yo qniero responder d mi hermanoi. 



To answer the note. 

To answer it 

To it, to them. 

To answer the notes. 

To answer them. 
Win you answer my note 7 
I will answer it 

Responder al biUete, (d la eequela.) 
Responder d dl. 
A ih d elloo. 
Responder d los bOletes. 
ReiB^nder d elios. 
i Qniere V. responder d mi billete . 
I Yo qniero responderle. 

The play, the theatre. 
The ball 

El teatxo, (la eomedta, sometime! 

El baile. ai-MI. 



To or at the play. 
To or at the ball. 
To or at the garden. 

The storehouse. 
The magaziuo. 
The warehouse. 
The couuting-house. 
The market 


Al teatro, 
Al baile, 
Al jiirdm, 

d lo8 teatroa 

A los bailee, 
d ios jard ur- 

^ El alraacen. 

I El escritorio, (el deepacho, or cl oliCiO.) 
I EI mercado. ^La plaza, fern,) 

There. \ 

Obs, B. There is not translated when it refers to a place just meo- 
tioned, and whjfh cau easily be understood in English. 

Do you wish to go to the play 7 

Yee, I wish to go (there.) 
Is your brother at the play ? 
Yetf, he is (there.) 
He is not there. 
Where is he? 


Is your father in hb garden ? 

He is there. 

Is he in the storehouse 7 

He is (ther^— in it) 

There, (meaning in it, in them,) 
Where is the merchant 1 
He is ui the warehouse. 

To have to, (must^ 
What have you to do 

I hare nothing to do. 

Have you any thing to do 7 

I have to answer a note. 

I have to speak to your brother. 

To have to, {to meaning for to.) 
What has the man to drink 7 

Ho has wine. 

What have you to eat 7 

We have ham. 

I Quiere V. ir al teatro 1 (a la come- 

dia ?) 
Si, yo quiero ir. 

I E2sUL su hermano de V. en el teatro? 
Si, estd. 

No, 4] no estd alii. 
I Donde esti 7 


I Estd su padre de V. en su jardin i 

Estd en 61, (or estd alli.) 

I E28t4 6t en el almaceu 7 

Etftd aUd, or alH. 

En Sl^en elloe. 

I Donde esta el oomerciante 7 

El estd en el almacen. 

Tener que. (It implies obligation.) 
I Que tiene V. que hacer 7 
Yo no tengo nada que haceT 
Nada tengo que haoer. 
I Tiene V. algo que hacer 7 
Tengo que responder i uu billete. 
Tengo que hablar d su hermano de 

Tener que, or para. 
2, Que tiene que (or para) beber el 

hombre 7 
El tiepe vino. 

I Que Uenen Vy. que (para) cdner? 
Tenemofl jamon. 


Will you write to me ? — I will write to you. — ^Will you write to the 
itilian ? — ^I will write to him. — Will you answer your friend ? — I will 
answer him. — Whom will you answer ? — ^To my good father. — Will 
you not answer your good friends ? — Yes, Sir. — Who will write to 
you ? — ^The Russian. — ^Will you answer him ? — ^No, Sir. — Who will 
write to our friends? — The children of our neighbor. — ^Will they 
inswer them ? — ^They will answer them. — To whom do you wish to 
write ? — ^I wish to write to the Russian. — Will he answer you ? — ^Ile 
wishes to answer me, but he cannot. — Can the Spaniards answer us ? 
—They cannot answer us, but we can answer thom. — ^To whom do 
Tou wish to send this note ? — To you, Sir. % 

What have you to do ? — I have to write. — ^What have you to write ? 
—A note, — To whom ? — ^To the carpenter. — What has your father to 
drink 7 — ^He has some good wine. — What has the shoemaker to do ! 
—He has to mend my shoes. — To whom have you to speak ? — ^I have 
to Bpeak to the captain. — When will you spedc to him ? — ^To-day. — 
Where will you speak to him ? — At his house. — To whom has youi 
brother to speak ? — ^To your son. — Which note has he to answer 7— 
That of the good German. — Have I to answer the note in Spanish ? 
—Yes, Sir, in Spanish. — ^Has not your father to answer me 7 — ^He has 
U) answer you. — Who has to answer my notes 7 — Our children.-— 
Will you answer the merchants' ? — ^I will answer them. 

^ 69. 

Which notes will your father answer 7 — He will answer only those 
of his good friends. — ^Whp will answer my brothers' 7 — Your friends 
will answer them. — ^Have ^ou a mind to go to the ball 7 — ^I have a 
mind to go (there.) — ^When will you go (there 7) — ^To-day. — At what 
o'clock ? — At half-past ten. — ^When will you take your boy to the 
nlay 7 — ^To-morrow. — At what o'clock 7 — ^At a quarter to six. — Where 
» your son 7 — He is at the pjay. — Is your friend at the ball 7 — ^He is 
there. — ^Where is the merchant 7 — ^He is at his* counting-house.— 
Where do you wish to take me to 7 — ^I wish to take you to my ware- 
house. — ^Where does your cook wish to go to 7 — ^He wishes to go to the 
market — Where is the young man 7 — ^In the magazine. • 


Where is the Dutchman 7 — ^He is in his gm^i. — ^Wili you come to 
le hi order to go to the play 7 — I will come ftr) to you, but I have no 


mind to go to the play. — ^Where is the Irishman ? — ^He is at tiie mar- 
ket. — ^To which theatre do you wish to go ? — ^To the theatre of the 
Spaniards. — Will yon go to my garden or to that of the Scotchman 7 — 
I will go neither to yours nor to that of the Scotchman ; I wish to go 
to that of the Italian. — ^Does the physician wish to go to onr storduniAes 
or to those of the Dutch? — He will go neither to yours nor to those 
of the Dutch, but to those of the FrencL — ^What do you wish to buy 
at the market 7 — ^I wish to buy a basket and some carpets. — ^Wheio 
will you take them to 7 — ^I will take them home. 

How many carpets do you wish to buy 7 — ^I wish to buy two. — ^To 
whom do youAish to give them 7 — ^To my servant. — ^Has he a mind 
to sweep the floor 7 — ^He has a mind to do it, but he has no time. — 
Have the English many storehouses 7 — ^They have many. — ^Have yon 
inany guns in your warehouses ? — Wo have many (there J but we luive 
but little com. — Do you wish to see our guns 7 — ^I will go into your 
warehouses in order to see them. — ^Do you wish to buy any thing ? — f 
do wish to buy something. — What do you wish to buy 7 — ^I wish to 
buy a basket, a looking-glass, and a gun. — ^Where will you buy youi 
trunk 7 — I will buy it at the market — Who wishes to tear my coat 7— 
No one wishes to tear it. 

Will the English give us some bread 7 — ^They will give you some. — *- 
Will you give this man a shilling 7 — ^I will give him several. — ^How 
many shillings will you give him ? — I will give him five. — ^What will 
the French lend us 7 — They will lend us many books. — ^Have you 
time to write to the merchant 7 — I wish to write to him, but I have no 
time to-day. — ^When will you answer the German 7 — I wfli answer 
him to-morrow. — At what o'clock 7 — At eight. — ^Where does the 
Spaniard wish to go to 7 — He wishes to go nowhere. — ^Does your servant 
wish to warm my broth 7 — ^He wishes to warm it — ^Is he willing to 
make my fire 7— He is willing to make it. — Where does the baker 
wis! I to go to 7 — He wishes to go to the wood. — ^Where is the boy 7 — 
He is at tlie play. — ^Who is at the captain's ball 7 — Our children and 
oar friends are there. 


TWENTY-SECOND LESSON.— Leccton Vigesima segunda. 

To or at the comer. 

To or at the hole. 

In the hole, in the holee. 

To or at the bottom. 

To cf at the bottom of the bag. 

At the corner of the garden. 
The hole. 
The room. 

To or at the end. 
To or at the end of the road. 
To or at the end of the roads. 
The road. 

To nnd for, 

Tq go for, to fetch. 

To fetch, to bring. 
Will yoa send for some wine 7 
I win send for some, (a little.) 
Will your boy go for some bread 7 

He will not (go for any.) 

I wQl send for the physici^ 

I will send for him. 

He will send for my brothers. 

He will send for them. 
Will you send for glasses? 
I will send for some. 

What have yon to do 7 

I have to go to the market 

Yoa have to mend your coat 

What have you to drink? 

I have (to drink some) good wine. 

or on el rincon. 

los, en los rincones. (Plur.) 

J Al or en el agrujero. 
A los, en los 

agujeros. (Plur.) 
En el agujero. 
En los agujeros. (Plur.) 

I Al fondo, (or en el fondo^) 

iAl fondo del costal. 
En el fondo del costaL 
I A or en el rincon ^ jardin 
EI agujero, (or el Rya) 
El cuarto. 

Al caba 

AI cabo del camina 
Al cabo de los caminos. 
EI camino. 

Enviar par, (mandar por, or envim 

d buacar.) 
Jr por, (or »r d buocar.) 

I Quiere V. enviar por vino ? 
(Yo) quiero enviar por nn poca 
I Quiere ir por pan su muchacho de 

(k\) no quiere, (or no, seiior.) 

(See Lesson XL) 
Yo quiero enviar por el medico. 
Yo quiero enviar por 6L 
£l quiere mandar (or enviar) por 

mis hermanos. 
£l quiere mandar por ellos. 
I Quiere V. enviar por vases 7 
Yo quiero* enviar por algunos. 


I Que tiene V. que hacer 7 
(Yo) tengo que ir al mercadv.^ « 
V. tiene que remendau- su vestido. 
I Que tiene V. (^uo beber'' 
Tengo buen vino 



They have. 
What have the men to do? 
Thev liave to go to the storehoaae. 

EIlos tienen. 

I Que tieuen que hacer los hombraal 

(EUoe) tieueu que ir ai almacen 

This evenii^r. 


The cook. 

The hearth. 

The study. 

In the evening. 

This morning. 
In the ij^rning. 

Now, at present 


Esta taide. (Fem.) 

E9te. Esta. (Fem.) 

£1 cocinera 

El hogar. 

El eetudio. 

t For la tarde, (or en la tarde.) 

El La. (Fem.) 

Esta mafiana. (Fem.) 

t For la maiiana, (or en la maiianal 

I Ahora. 


Obs. A. In addressing one another the Spaniards use V. (Usted,) VV 
(Ustedos.) The second person singular is used by parents and children, 
orothers and sisters, and by intimate friends, or iu addressing menial servants 
fSw Lesson I.) 

Thoa hast Td tieues. 

Thou art Td esUs, (or tii eres.) 

Art^ thou fatigued 7 i Estas td fatigado 7 

I am not fatigued. j Yo no eetoy fatigado. 

Are the men tired 7 I i Estan cansados los hombres 7 

Obs. B. When the adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun, it agrees 
with it m gender and number. Rule. — Adjectives form their plural m the 
same manner as nouns. 

They are not tired. | Ellos no estan cansadot. 

Thou wilt, (or wishest) 
Thou art able, (or canst) 

Alt thoo willing to make my fire 7 

I am willing to make it, but I can- 

Art thou afraid 7 

I am not afraid, I am cold. • 

Art thou hungry 7 

Td quiereA 

Td pued^s. 

I Quieres tti hacer mi fuego 7 

Yo quiero hacerle, pero no puedo. 

t ^Tienee (tO) miedo? 

Yo no tengo miedo, tengo frk> 

I Tienes hambre 7 

To sell. 

To teU, to say. 
fo feD some one, to say to some 

Vender 2. 
Decir * 3. 
Decir & algnno. 


The word. 
WiQ you tell the servant to make 

the fire? 
I will tell him tm make it. 
To make afire* 
Thy book, th j books. 

La palabra. <Fem.) 

I Quiere V. decir al criado qao enci< 

enda caude la. 
Yo quiero decirle que la encienda. 
Encender eandela, or lumbre» 
Tu, Tiu, (Plur.) 

El tuyo. Lot tuyoe. (Plur.) 

Tu libro. Tus BbroB. rPlur) 

Art not thoQ tired 7 I i No estas td cansado 7 

WiD you send for some sugar ? — I will send for some. — Son, Jiijo 
ndo^ wilt thou go for some cakes ? — Yes, father, {jpadre^ I will go for 
some. — Where wilt thou go ? — 1 will go into the garden. — Who is in 
the garden ? — The children of our friends are there. — Will you send 
for the phjTsician ? — I will send for him. — Who will go for my brother? 
—My servant will go for him. — Wfterc is he ? — He is in his counting- 
boose. — Will you give me my broth ? — I wiH give it you. — Where \A 
it ? — It is at the conujr of the hearth. — Will you give me some money 
to i^ra) fetch some bread ? — I will give you some to fetch some. — 
Where is your money ? — It is in my counting-house : will you go for 
it ? — ^I will go for it. — Will you buy my horse ? — I cannot buy it ; I 
have no money. — Where is your cat ? — It is in the hole. — In which 
hole is it ? — In the hole of the garret — ^Where is this man's dog ? — It 
is in a comer of the ship. — Where has the peasant his com 7 — He has 
it in his bag. — ^Has he a cat 7 — He Ras one. — Where is it 7 — It is at 
the bottom of the bag. — ^Is your cat in this bag 7 — ^It is in it. 

n 64. 

iWe you any thing tfto 7 — ^I have something to do. — ^What have 
7'>u to do 7 — I have to mel^ my coat, and to go to the end of the road. 

-Who is at the end of the road 7 — ^My father is there. — ^Has your cook 
jay thing to drink 7 — He has (to drink some) wine and some good broth. 
—Can you give me as much bam as bread 7 — I can give you more of the 
atter than of the former. — Can our friend drink as much wine as cof> 
fee 7 — He cannot drink so much of the latter as of the former. — Have 
/ou to speak to any one 7 —I have to speak to several men. — To how 
many men have you to speak 7— rl have to speak to four. — When have 
you to speak to them 7 — This evening. — At what Q'clock7 — At a 
quarter to nine. — When can you go to the market, {la plaza ?) — I can 
fij (thither) in the morning. — At what o'clock 7 — At half-past seven.— • 


When will yon go to the Frenchman ? — ^I will go to him t(Mii|^— » 
Will yon go to the physician in the morning or in the evening 7— 
I will go (to him) in the morning. — ^At what o'clock ? — ^At a quarter 
past ten. 

Have you to write as many notes as the Elngltshman ? — I have te 
write fewer of them than he. — ^Will you speak to the Grerman ? — ^I wil> 
speak to him. — When will you speak to him ? — At present. — ^Where i» 
he ? — He is at the other end of the wood. — ^Will you go to the market ? — 
Yes, I will go to ^ra) buy some bread. — ^Do your neighbors not wish 
to go to the market ? — ^They canngt go (thither ;) they are fatigued. — 
Hast thou the courage to go to the wood in the evening 7 — ^I have the 
^ courage to go (tMther,) but not in the evening. — ^Are your children 
able to answer my notes 7 — ^They are able to answer them. — ^What do 
you wish to say to the servant 7 — ^I wish to tell him to make the fire, 
{que eTictenda,) and to sweep (que barra) the warehouse. — ^Will you 
tell your brother to sell (que me venda) me his horse 7 — I will tell him 
to sell (yenda) it you. — ^What do you wish to tell me 7 — ^I wish to tell 
you a word, (la paMra.) — ^Whom do you wish to see 7 — ^I wish to see 
the Scotchman. — ^Have you any thing to tell him 7 — I have to tell him 
a few words. — ^Which books does my brother wish to sell 7 — He wishes 
to sell thine and his own. 

TWENTY-THIRD LESSON.— Iicccton Vigesima tercera. 
To go out, i Salir * 3 

To remain^ to stay. 

When do you wish to go out ? 

I wish to go out now. 

To remain (to stay) at home. 


To remain here. 
Will you stay here 7 
I will stay here. 

Quedar 1, Quedarae, (Reflective 

I Cuando quiere V. salir 7 
Yo quiero^lir ahora. 
Qaedar oKstor en casa. 

ir oKst 


Qaedar aquf, (or quedarse aqul.) 

Alld, or allL 

I Quiere V. quedaise aquf 7 

Yo qaiero quedarme aqot 

* The pronominal verbs, in Spanish, terminate their present of th6 iafiui' 
Uve mood by the pronoun m, which must be suppressed in order to find out 
the conjugation ; thus, acercarse, dolerse, arrepentirse^ (se,) are acerrjTi \aX 
conjugation ; dolevt 2d conjugation ; and arrepentirj 3d conjugation 



Win foar finend remain here 7 

He will not stay here. 

Will yoa go to your brother 7 

I will go to hhn. 

The pleasore. 

To give pleasure. 
To do a fftyor. 

Are yoa going? 

I am going. 

Am I not going ? 

I am not going. 

Then art going. 

Ib he going7 

He goes, he is going. 

He is not going. 

Are we going 7 

We go, we are going. 

What are yoa going to do 7 

I am going to read. 
To read. 

Are yon going to your brother? 
I am going there. 
Where is he going to? 
He is going to his father. 

The soldier. 

Every day. 
Every morning. 

Every evening 

I Qoiere qnedarse aqui su amigo de 


£l no qoiere quedarse aqoL 

I Qoiere V. ir & la casa de so her 

Yo qoiero ir i ^ 
£1 plaeer, (or el gusto.) 
£1 favor. 
Dar gusto 
fiacer on&vor 


Yo voy. 

I No voy yo ? 

Yo no voy. 

Tii vaa 


£l va. 

ill no va. 

I y amoB nosotros ? 

Noeotros vamos. 

\ I Que ya v. & hacer ? 
\ I Qne vais d hacer ? 
I Yo voy d leer. 
Leer 3. 

^Va y. d casa de so hemMOMf 

Yo voy alld. 


£1 va i casa de su padre 

I El soldado. 

\ Todo, Todos, (Plor.) 

f Toda. Todas. (Fern.) 

-*- Todos los dias. 

t Todas las maiianas. 

t Todas las tardes. 

t Todas las noches. 





0b9, It in the impersonal verbs, that is to say, verfae used only m tht 
*hird person sin^rular, and when it is redondant, is not translated 

What o*clock is it 7 

It is three o*clock. 

It is twelve o'clock. 

It is a quarter past twelve. 

It wants a quarter to six. 

It is half-past one. • 

a\ Need. 

^Ao hedn want of. 
IwantiC,^ ^ 
^ W liWl 4ia»t\f It 
. ry AteVoo hi wapt of this knife ? 

I am n«t in want of it 
I am in want of them. 
I am not in want of them. 

I am not in want of any thing. 

Is he in want of money 7 
He is not in want of more. 
What are you m want of 7 
What do yoQ want 7 

1 1 Que hora es ? 

t Sou las tres. 

t Son las doce. 

t Son las doce y cuarto. 

t Son las seis menos coano. 

t E^ la una y media. 

JTener necendad de. 
Haber menesier de 
Necesitar 1. 
Habex meneeter. 
Le necesito. 
Le he menester. 
I Necesita V. este cnchillo T 
No le he menester. 
No le necesito. 
Los he menester. 
Los necesito. 
No los he menester. 
No los necesito. 
Yo no necesito ndda. 
Nada he menester. 
I Necesita €[ algun dinoro 7 
No necesita mas. 
I Que necesita V. 7 
I Que ha menester V. ? 

To he acquainted with, to kntno. 
To be acquainted with (to know) « 

Conocer 2. 

Conocer & un hombre. 

(See Obs. C, Leas. XVUL) 

Is your father in want of me 7 

He is in want of yon. 

Are you in want of these books 7 

I am in want of them. 

Is he in want of my biothen T 

lie is in want of them. 

I Me necesita su padre de V.? 

t\ necesita & V. 

I Necesita V. estos libros 7 

Yo los necesito. 

} Necesita ^I d mis hennaaosT 

£1 ks neceota. 


Will you do me a iavor ? — ^Yes, Sir : whi ;ii, (ctuU ?) — Will you tell 
my servant to make (que endenda) the fire ? — I will tell him to make it, 
{que la enciendaJ) — ^Will you tell him lo sweep (que barra) the ware- 
booses ? — I will tell him to sweep (que los barra) them. — What will 
yoa tell your father ? — I will teJ him to sell you his horse. — Have 
you any thing to tell me ? — I have nothing to tell you. — Have you any 
thing to say to my father ? — I have a word to say to him. — Do *hese 
men wish to sell their carpets ?-^They do not wish to sell them. — 
John ! (Juan) art thou here ? — Yes, Sir, I am here. — What art thou 
going to do ? — I am going to your hatter to tell him to mend (que 
componga) your hat.-^Wilt thou go to the tailor to tell him to mend 
(que componga) my coats ? — I will go to him. — Ar * you willing to go 
lo the market ? — Yes, Sir. — What has your merch^t to sell ? — Ho 
has to sell some beautiful gloves, combs, good cloth and fine baskets. — 
Has he any ixpn guns to sell ? — He has some to sell. — ^Docs he wish 
to sell me his horses ? — ^He wishes to sell them to you. — Have you 
any thing to sell ? — I have nothing to sell. 

Is it late ? — ^It is not late. — ^VVTiat o'clock is it ? — It is a quarter past 
twelve. — ^At what o'clock does %he captain wish to go out ? — He wishes 
to go out at a quarter to eight.-— \\Tiat are you going to do ? — ^I am 
going to read. — What have you to read ? — I have to read a good book. 
—Will you lend it to mo ? — ^I will lend it you. — ^When will you lend 
it me ? — I wiU lend it you to-morrow. — ^Have you a mind lo go out ? — 
I have tt) mind to go out. — Are you willing to stay here, my dear 
(querido) firiend ? — I cannot remain here. — Where have you to go ? — 
I have to go to the counting-house. — When will you go to the ball ? — 
To^iight. — ^At what o'clock? — At midnight.-r-Do you go to the 
Scotchman in the evening or in the morning ? — I go to him in the 
evening and in the morning. — ^Where are you going to now ? — ^I am 
going to the theatre. — ^Where is your son going to ? — ^He is going no- 
where ; he is going to stay at home to write his exorcises. — Where is 
your brother ? — ^He is at his warehou8e.-*-Does he ijot wish to go out ? 
— ^No, Sir, he does not wish to go out. — What is he going to do there 7 
—He is going to write to his friends.— *Will you stay here or uMi{— 
I will stay there. — ^Where will your fether stay ?— He will stay there.- . ,^ 



At what o'clock is the Dutchman at home ? — He is at home evorjf 
evening at a quarter past nine. — When does our neighbor go to die 
Irishmen ? — He goes to them every day. — At what o'clock ? — ^At eight 
o'clock in (de) the morning. — What do you wish to buy ? — I do not 
wish to buy any thing ; but my father wishes to buy an ox. — ^Does hp 
wish to buy this or that ox ? — ^He wishes to buy neither this nor that 
— ^Which one does he wish to buy ? — ^He wishes to buy your friend's. 
— ^Has the merchant one more coat to sell 7 — ^He has one more, but he 
docs not wish to sell it — ^When does he sell his books ? — ^He will sell 
them to-day. — ^Where ?— At his warehouse. — ^Do^ou wish, to see my 
friend ? — ^I do wish to see him in order to know him.""— Do you wish 
to know my children 7 — ^I do wish to know them. — ^How many children 
have you 7 — ^I have only two ; l)ut my brother has more than I : he has 
six (of them.) — ^Does that man wish to drink loo much wine ? — ^He 
wishes to drink too much (of it.) — -Have you wine enough to drink 7 — 
I have only a little, but enough. — ^Does not your brother wi^ to buy 
too many cakes 7 — He wishes to buy a greatmany, but not too many. 

Can you lend me a knife 7 — ^I can lend you one. — Can yom- fetber 
1 jnd me a book 7~He can lend you several. — ^What are you in want 
of 7 — 1 am in want ot a godfl gun. — Are you in want of this picture 7 — 
I am in want of it. — ^Does your brother want money t — ^He does not 
want any. — ^Does he want some shoes 7 — ^He does not want any. — 
What does he want 7 — ^He wants nifthing. — Are y^u in want of these 
sticks 7 — ^I am in want of them. — ^Who wants some sugar 7 — Nobody 
wants any. — ^Does anybody vmnt paper 7 — ^Nobody wants any. — What 
do I want 7 — ^You want nothing. — ^Does yoiir father want these or 
those pictures 7 — He wants neither these nor those. — Are you in want 
of me 7 — ^I am in want of you. — ^When do you want me ? — ^At present 
— ^What have you to say to me 7 — ^I have a word (una pcUabra) to say 
to you. — ^Is your son in want of us 7 — ^He is in v^ant of you and your 
brothers, — ^Are you in want of my servants 7 — ^I am in want of them. — 
Does any one- want my brother 7 — ^No one wants him. — ^Does your 
father want any thing 7 — ^He does not want any thing. — What does the 
Englishman want 7 — ^He wants some glasses. — Does he not wani 
tome wine 7 — ^He does not want any, he has enough. ^ 




TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Xcccion Vigesima cuarta. 

In Spanish all the tenaea and peisona of yerba are formed from the 
present of the mfinitive mood, by changing the last two letters of it into 
the termination corre^wnding to each person in every tense. 

See the table of terminations in the Appendix. 
CoNJUOATH>f« ^ 1st. 2d. dd. 

Temnnations of the Infinitiye or. 

. ** of the Gerond ando. 

' of the Past Participle ado. 

lit per. sing. Yo. o. 

M. « Tfi. as. 

3d. " £l, Ella,V. a. 

Ifitper.plnr. Noaotros. amoe. 

Si « VoBotros, Vos. ais. 

3i " EUoB, Ellas, W. an. 










Oerund, l Infirdtito, 

Speakmg. | Hablar. 

Present, Na 1. 


I q^eak, thoa speakest, he speaks. 
We qieak, yon speak, they speak. 

Yo hablo, itt hablas, ^I habla, V. 

Koeotros hablamos, yosotros haUais, 

ellos hablan, W. hablan. 

To sen. Selling. 

I seD, thoo sellest, he sells. 

We sen, yon seU, they sell 



Yo yendo, til yendes, 6\ vende, V. 

Noeotros vendemoe, vosotros yendek, 

ellos yenden, W. yenden. 


To receive. Receiv jig. 

I receive, thou recervest, he receives. 

We receive, you receive, they re- 

Recibir. Recibiendo. 

Yo recibo, ttJ recibes, ^1 recibe, V 

Noeotros recibimos, voeotros recibis, • 
ellos reciben, W. reciben. 
Obt. A. The preceding are the regular terminations of the present tense ; 
Dot as some irregular verbs have been introduced in the exercises, they are 
eonjogated below in order to make the scholar acquainted with their irrego- 
taritiee, and to enable him to translate them properly. 




To hate. Haviug. 

I have, thou ha&t, he has. 
We have, yoa have, they have. 

To oak for. Asking for. 

I ask for, thou askest for, he asks for. 
We ask for, you ask for, they ask fat 

To warm. Warming. 

I warm, thou warmest, he warms. 
We warm, you warm, they warm. 

To make. Making. 

To do. Doing. 

I make, thou makest, he makes. 
I do, thou dost, he does. 
We make, you make, they make. 
We do, you do, they do. 

To go, Gomg. 

I go, thou goest, he goes. 
We go, you go, they go. 

To mend. Mendmg. 

To repair. Repairing. 

I mend, thou mendest, he mends. 
I repair, thou repairest, he repairs. 
We mend, you mend, they mend. 
We repair, you repair, they repau*. 

To he. Being. 

1 am, thou art, he is. . 
We are, you are, they are. 

Tcner, Teniendo. 

Yo tengo, tti tienes, ^1 tiene. 
Nosotros tenemoe, rosotros teneie, el 

los tienen. 

Pedir. Pidiendo. 

Yo pido, ti) pides, 4] pide. 
Nosotros pedimoe, vosotros pedis, el> 

los piden. 

Calentar. Calentando. 

Yo coliento, tii calientas, ^1 calieuta. 
Nosotros caUntamoe, vosotros calem 

taie, ellos calientan. 



Yo hago, td haces, ^1 hace. 

Nosotros bacemoe, vosotros haeeiOf 
ellos hacen: 

Jr. Yendow 

Yo voy, td vas, 4\ va. 
Nosotros vamos, vosotros vais, ellos 





Yo remiendo, td remiendas, 4\ re- 

Nosotros remendamoe, vosotros rs- 

mendaie, ellos remieudan. 

Eetar. Estanda 

Yo estoy, t(& estoV 4\ estiu 
Nosotros eetamos, vosotros eet€U9, e4* 

los eetan. 

Ser, Siendo. 

Yo soy (soi,) td eres, 6\ es. 
Nosotros 8omos,voBOtros sois, eDoe son 

ToUketo. Takingta 

To lead to. Leading ta 

leaning to conduct.) 





T take, thoa takeet, ho takes. 
I lead, thoa leadeet, he leads. 
I conduct, thoa couductest, he con- 

We take, yoa take, they take. 
We lead, yea lead, they lead. 
We condact, yoa conduct, they con- 


To come. Coming. 

I come, thoa comest, he comes. 
We come, yoa come, they come. 

To M«. Seeing. 

I tee, thoa seeet, he sees. 
We see, yoa see, they see. 

To go out Going oat 

I go oot, thoa goest oat, he goes out 
We go oat, yoa go out, they go oot 

To he able {can). Being able. 
I am able, thoa art able, he is able. 
We are able, yoa are able, they are 


To teH Telling. 

To say. Saying. 

I telH thoa tellest, he telb. 
I say, thoa sayest, he says. 
We tell, yoo tell, they telL 
We say, you say, they say. 

Yo conduzco,' 

til conduces, 61 

^ Nobotros eonducimos, vosotros condu* 
cie, ellos conducen. 

Venir? Viniendo. 

To yengo, tiijrienes, ^1 yjene. 
Noeotros venimoo, Tosotros ventf^ 

ellos vienen. ^ 

Ver. Viendo. 

Yo ve^iJJl ve$, €[ ve. 
Nosotros vetnoe, vosotros veie, ellos 


Salir. Saliendo. 

Yo salgo, til «a2e«, 6\ eale. 
Nosotros oalimo€, yosotros $alie, ellos 


Poder, Pudiendo. 

Yo puedo, tH puedes, 6\ puede. 
Nosotros podemoo, vosotros podeis, 

ellos pueden. 




I > Yo digo, til dices, H dice. 

I Noeotros decimoe, vosotros decis, ellos 
<[ dicen. 

To finish. 
Any one. 
No one. 
Where (to.) 

Acabar 1. 

Alguien, Alguno. ) Indefinite pro- 

Nadie. Nmguno, \ 

A donde. 

To love. 
\ k>vej I do love, I am loving. 
Thou loveet, thou dost love, thou art 

He le /es, he does love, he is loving. 

Amar 1. 
Yo amo. 

■ VeAs in ueir take x before c, when e is followed by a or o. (See App.) 



V. ama, W. asian, voaotros anmb 

Yoa love, yoa do loye, yon are lov- 

We I6ve, we do love, we are loving. Noeotros amamoe. 

They love, they do love, they are EUos aman. 
Obs* B In Spanish the Grerond may be, as in English, conjugated with 

the verb ettar; so, lam loving, is Ettoy amando; You are writing — F. ewtd 


To like, to be fond of, to pUaoe one. \ Gustarle d imo. 

Oh$, C, This veibis^always in the third person singular or pAra iti 
with the thing liked, which is its subject, and never agrees with the pexsoB 
who likes, which is i^ complement 

I (A mi) me gusta — ^me gnstan. 

I like, I am fond of. 
Thou likest, thou art fond of. 
He likes, he is fond of. ** " 
We love, we are fond of. 

Sing, Tou love, you are' ibnd of. 

Plur, You love, you are fond ot 

They love, they are fond o£ 

Do you like this man ? 

I do like him. 

I do not like him. 

Are they fond of those children 7 

Yes, they are fond of them. 

No, they are not fond of them. 

06«. Z>. Word for word : Does this man please you? 
me. No, he does not please me^ — Do those children pie; 
they please them. No, they do not please them. 

( A ti) te gusta — te gustan. 

(A €\) le gusta — le gustan. 

(A nosotros) nos gusta — nos gustan. 

A V. le gusta. 

Avosotrosos gusta. 
^ A y. le gustan. 
^ A yy. lee gusta. 
I A yy. les gustan. 

(A elloe) les gusta, oi les gustan. 

I Le gusta 4 y. este hombre 7 

Si, ^1 me gusta. 

No, no me gusta. ^ 

^Les gustan estos ni£los7 

Si, d ellos les gustan. - 

No, d elloe no les gustan. 

Yes, he pleases 
e them 7 Yes^ 

What are you fond of 7 

I am fond of study. 

Do you like him 7 

I do like him. 

I do not like him. 

Do you sell your horse 7 

I do sell it. 

Do you tA\ it 7 

Does he send you the note 7 

He does send it to me. 

^Que legusta dy.7 

A m( me gusta el estudio. 


6lme gusta. 

£1 no me gusta. 

I yende y. so caballo 7 

Si, yo le vendo. 

I Le vendtt y. 7 

|,Envia€lelbi]lete i,\A 

£l me le euvia.^ 

J See for the place of pronouns what has been said in Lesson XX« 



To open. 

Do joa open the note ? 
I do not open it. 
Boos he open hk eyes? 
He opens them. 
Whom do you love ? 
I lore my father. 

Abrir 3— -past particle abierto. 

^Abre V. el biHete? 

Yo no le abro^ 

1 1 Abre ^1 los ojos 7 

£l los abre. 

I A qai|p ama v.? "k^ee Obs. C, 

Yo am<NL mi padre. rLeas XVIIl 

To arrange, to »et in order. 
What are you arranging? 
I am arranging my books. 
What is he drinking? 
He is drinking wine. 
Is he fond of wine ? 
He is fond of it 

Ordenarl. Arreglar. 
I Qae estd V. arreglando? 
Estoy ordenando mis libros 
I Que estd ^1 bebiendo ? 
EstA bebiendo vino. 
I Le gusta el vino ? ^ 
A ^1 le gusta. 

What is the American fond of? 
He is fond of cofiee. 

To answer. 
Do yon answer the note ? 
Yes, I answer it 

To know. I know. 

A stick of wood. 
Yet Not yet 
It is not yet seven o'clock. 

I Que le gusta al Americano 7 > 

Le gusta el caf^. 

Responder 2, (takes 4 before a noun.) 

I Responde V. al billete ? 

Si, yo le respondo. 

Saber * 2. Yo b6, (the other personi 

are regular.) 
Un palo. 

Todavfa. No (v) todavfa. 
No son todavfa las sioto. 

More than. \ "'"""1.^1",^'^' 1 ^<" ^- 
( not to comparison. ■ ) 

£1 compra mas de veinte. 
£1 cocinera 

He boys more th^n twenty. 
The cook. 


Do you love your brother ? — ^I do love him. — ^Does your brother love 
you 7 — ^He does not love me. — ^Dost thou love me, my good child ? — ^I 
do love thee. — ^Dost thou love this ugly man ? — I do not love him. — 
Whom do you love ? — ^I love my children. — Whom do we love ? — We 
k)ve our friends. — Do we like any one ? — We like no one. — Does any- 
body like us ? — ^The Americans like us. — Do you want any thing ? — 
I warn nothing. — Whom is your father in want of? — He is in want of 
Us servant — ^What do you want ? — I want the exercise. — Do you want 
this or that exercise ? — I want this one. — ^What do you wish to do with 
t? — ^I wish to have it, in order to read it. — ^Does your son read ouf 


exercises? — ^He does read thorn. — When does he read themt — He 
reads them when he sees them. — Does he receive as many exercises 
as I ? — He receives more of them than you. — What do you give rae ? 
— I do not give thee any thing. — ^Doyou give this book to my brother f 
— ^I do give it him. — ^Do you give him a bird ? — I do give him one. — 
To whom do ^ou lend yoi;^p1k)oks ? — ^I lend tham to my fiiends. — ^Doos 
your friend leiltt me a coat ? — He lends you onftr— To whom do you 
lend your clothes, (yestidos 7) — ^I do not i^nd them to anybody. 

Do we arrange any thing ?7^We do not arrange any thing. — What 
does your brother set inporder 7 — ^He sets in order his books. — ^Do you 
sell your ship ? — I do not sell it. — Does the captain sell his ? — He does 
8^ it. — ^Wha<ikloes the American sell ? — ^He sells his oxen. — ^Does the 
Englishinan finish his tea 7 — ^He does finish it. — ^Which notes do you 
finish ? — I finish those which I write to my friends. — Dost thou see 
any thing ? — ^I see nothing. — ^Do you see my large garden ? — ^I do see 
it. — Does you father see our ships ? — ^He does not see them, but we 
see them. — How many soldiers do you see ? — We see a good many, 
we see more than thirty of them. — ^Do you drink any thing ? — I drink 
some wine. — What does the sailor drink ? — ^He drinks wine also. — 
What do the Italians drink ? — They drink some chocolate. — ^Do wo 
drink wine ? — ^We do drink some. — What art thou writing ? — I am 
writing a note. — ^To whom ? — To my neighbor .^Does your friend write ? 
—He does write. — ^To whom does he write? — ^He writes to his tailor. 


Do you write your exercises (el tema) in the evening ? — ^We write 
them in the jnoming. — ^What dost thou s^ ? — I say nothing. — Does 
your brother say any thing ? — ^He says something. — What does he 
say ? — I do not know. — ^What do you say to my servant ? — I tell him 
to sweep (que barra) the floor, and to go (que vaya) for some bread, 
cheese, and wine. — ^Do we say any thing ? — ^We say nothing. — What 
does your friend say to the shoemaker ? — He tells him to mend (qu/e 
remvnnde) his shoes. — What do you tell the tailors ? — ^I tell them to 
make (que hagan) my clothes, (vestidos.) — ^Dost thou go out ? — I do not 
go out — Who goes out ? — My brother goes out— Where is he goiag to ? 
— ^He is going to the garden. — ^To whom are you going ? — We are 
going to the good English. — What art thou reading ? — ^I am reading a 
note from (de) my friend. — What is your father reading ? — ^He is read- 
ing a book. — ^What are you doing ? — We are reading. — ^Are your chil- 
dren reading ? — They are not reading, they have no time to read. — ^Do 
you read the books which I read ? — I do not read those which you readt 
but those which your father reads. — ^Do you know this man ? — ^I do 
■ot know him. — ^Does your friend know him ? — He does know him. 



Do yoa know my children ? — We do know them —Do tl ry know 3r»)u ? 
— Tbey do not know us. — Whom are you acquainted with ? — I am ac- 
quaintal with nobody. — ^Is any one acquainted with you ? — Some one 
is acquainted with me. — Who is acquainted with you ? — The good 
raptain knows me. — What dost thou eat ? — I eat some bread. — Does 
not your son eat some cheese ? — He does not eat any. — ^Do you cut 
any thing ? — ^We cut some sticks. — ^What do the merchants cut ? — 
They cut some cloth. — ^Do you send me any thing ? — ^1 send you a good 
gun. — ^Does your father send you money ? — He does send me some. — 
Does he send you more than I ? — He sends me more tham you. — How 
much does he send you ? — He sends me more than fiily (cincuenia) 
dollars. — When do you receive your money? — I receive it every 
morning. — At what o'clock ? — ^At half-past ten. — Is your son coming? — 
He is cooing. — Do you come to me ? — I do not como (tr) to you, but 
to youi children. — Where is our friend going to ? — He is going no 
wliither ; he remains at home. — Are you going home ? — We are not 
grang home, but to our friends'. — Where are your friends ? — They are 
in their garden. — ^Are the Scotchmen in their gardens ? — They are there. 


What do you like ? — I like study. — Are you fond of birds ? — ^I air 
fond of them. — How many horses does the German buy ? — He buys a 
good many ; (he buys) more than twenty. — What does your servant 
carry ? — ^He carries a large trunk. — Where is he carrying it to ? — He is 
carrying it home. — To whom do yon speak ? — I speak to the Irishman, 
—Do you speak to him every day ? — ^I speak to him every morning 
and evpry evening. — ^Does he come to your house ? — ^He does not come 
to my house, but I see him at the theatre. — What has your servant to 
do ? — ^He has to sweep the floor, and to set my books in order. — ^What 
does your boy break ? — He breaks nothing, but your boys break my 
glasses. — ^Do they tear any thing ? — They tear nothing. — Who bums 
my hat? — Nobody bums it — What is my son fond of? — ^He is fond of 
money. — ^What does your cook kill ? — ^He kills a chicken. 


To what house do you take my boy ? — I take him to the painter.— 
When is the painter at home ? — He is at home every evening at four 
o'clock. — ^What o'clock is it now ? — ^It is not six o'clock. — ^Do you go 
out in the evening ? — I go out in the morning. — Are you afraid to go 
out in the evening ? — I am not afraid, biu I have no time to go out in 
the evening. — ^Do you work as much as your son ? — ^I do not work as 
much as he. — ^Does he eat more than you ? — ^He eats less tlian I. — Can * 
your children write as many exercises as mine ? — ^They can write- as 
many.— -When do our neighbors go out ? — ^They go out every morning 



at a quarter to six. — Do yoa like Spanish ? — ^Yes, Sir, I like it — ^D^ 
yoa speak it 7 — No, but I am gcnng to learn it — ^Are you fond of study k 
—I study every day, and 1 like it — Do you like your dictionary t---l 
do not like it ; it is not good. — ^Do you not like mine ? — ^I like yours. 

%* We should fiU volumes were we to give all the exercises that ars 
applicable to our lessous, and which ^ the pupils may very easily compose by 
themselves. We shall, therefore, merely repeat what we have already said 
at the commencement : — Pupils who wish to improve rapidly ought to com« 
pose a great many sentences in addition to those given ; but they must pro- 
nounce tnem aloud. This is thQ only way m which they will acquire the 
habit of speaking fluently. 

TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Lcccton Vigesima qainla. 

To bring. 
I bring, thou bnngest, he brings. 
To or at the play. 

The butcher. 
The itheop. 


Yo traigo, tH traes, ^1 trae 

HaUar 1. 

Al teatro. 

El camicera 

El camero. 

Whatf (meaning that which, the 

thing which,) 
Do you find what you look for ? 
Do you find what you are looking for? 
I find what I look for. 
I find what I am looking for. 
He doer not find what he is looking 

We find what we look for. 
They find what they look for. 
I mend what yon mend. 
I buy what you buy. 

Lo que, (subject or object) 

i I Halla V. lo que busca 7 
' I Halla y. lo que esti buscando? 
; Yo hallo lo que busco. 
I Yo hallo lo que estoy buscando. 
£l no halla lo que estd buscando. 

Hallamos lo que estamos buscando 
Ellos hallan lo que estan buscando. 
Yo remiendo lo que V. remienda. 
Yo compro lo que V. compra. 

Do you take him to the play 7 
I do take him thither. 

To 9tudy, 
Instead of. 
Instead of bringing. 

I Le Ueva V. al toatro 7 
Yo le llevo aUi. 

Eetudiar 1. 

En vez de. En lugar de. 

En vez de traer. 

Obs, Instead of is in English followed by the present participle^ bol 
in Spanish it is followed by the precent of the injiniiive mood. 



To play, 
I play, thou playest 
He pla]^ they play. 
To listen to. 
Instead of listening. 
Instead of playing. 
Do yon play instead of studying 7 
I itady instead of playing. 
Hilt man qieaks instead of listen- 

Jugar • 1. 

Yo juego, tri juegas. ) The othen 
£l jaega, elloe jue§ran. ) are regular. 
Escuchar 1. 
En vez de escuchar. 
En Ingar (or en vez) de jugar. 
I Jaega V. en lugar de estudiar f 
Yo estudio en lugar de jugar. 
Este hombre habia en yez de es 

To have a sore. 

Have you a. sore finger? 

I have a sore finger. 

Has yoor brother a sore foot 7 

He has a sore eye. 
We have sore eyes. 

The elbow. 
"Hie arm. 
The back. 
The knee. 

< i Tener mal de (n). 
( [ Tener (n) malo. 

1 1 Tiene V. el dedo malo \ 

t Yo tengc nn dedo malo. 

1 1 Tiene su hermano de V. nn pi< 

t £] tiene mal de ojoe. 

t Nosotros tenemos los ojos malos. 

El code. 

£1 brazo. 

La espalda — (pi.) las espaldas, (fern.) 

La rodilla — (pi.) las rodillas, (fern ^ 

Le, (mas.) La, (fem.) 

Los, (mas.) Las, (fem.) 

Do yon read instead of writing? 
Does your brother read instead of 

I Lee V. en vez de escribir ? 
I Lee sn hermano de V en lugar de 

The bed. 
Does the servant make the bed ? 
He makes the fire instead of making 

La cama, (fem.) 
^Hace la cama el criado? 
Hace el fuego en lugar de hacer la 

To learn. 
I learn to read. 
He learns to write. 

Aprender 2. 
Apfendo 4 leer. 
Aprende & escribir 


Do you go lo the play this evening ? — I do not go to the play. — 
What have you to do ? — I have to study. — At what o'clock do you go 
out ? — ^I do not go out in the evening. — ^Does your father go out ?-*• 


He does not go out. — What docs he do ? — ^He writes. — ^Does be write 
a book ? — Ho does write one. — When does he write it ? — He writes h 
in the morning and in the evening.-^Is he at home now 7 — ^He is at 
home. — Does he not go out ? — ^He cannot go out ; he has a sore foot. 
— ^Does the shoemaker bring our shoes ? — ^He does not bring them. — 
Is he not able to work ? — ^He is not able to work ; he has a sore knee. 
— ^Has anybody a sore elbow ? — ^My tailor has a sore elbow. — Who 
has a sore arm ? — I have a sore arm. — Do you cut me some bread ? — 
I cannot cut you any ; I have sore fingers. — ^Do you read your book ? 
— I cannot read it ; I have a sore eye. — Who has sore eyes t — The 
Frenoh have sore eyes. — ^Do they r€»d too much ? — ^They do not read 
enough. — ^What day of the month is it to-day ? — ^It is the third, (Lesson 
XrV.) — What day of the month is it to-morrow ? — ^To-mofrow is the 
fourth. — Are you looking for any one ? — I am not looking for any one. 
— What is the painter looking for ? — ^He is not looking for any thing. 
— ^Whom are you looking for ? — ^I am looking for your son. — ^Have 
von any thing to tell him ? — I have something to tell him. 

Who is looking for me ? — ^Your father is looking for you. — ^Is any- 
body looking for my brother ? — ^Nobody is looking for him. — ^Dost thou 
find what thou art looking for ? — I do find what I am looking for. — 
Does the captain find what he is looking for ? — ^He finds what be is 
looking for, but his children do not find what they are loeking for. — 
What are they looking for? — They are looking for their books. — 
Where dost thou take me to ? — I take you to the theatre. — Do you 
not take me to the market? — I do not take you thither. — ^Do the 
, /^ Spaniards find the umbrellas which they are looking for ? — They do 
'^aL not find them. — ^Does the tailor find his thimble ? — ^He does not find it. 
— Do the merchants find the cloth which they are looking for ? — ^They 
do find it — What d( the butchers find ? — ^They find the oxen and 
sheep which they are looking for. — What does your cook find ? — He 
llnds the chickens which he is looking for.-— What is the physician 
doing ? — ^He is doing what you are doing. — ^What is he doing in his 
room ? — ^He is reading. — ^What is he reading ? — ^He is reading the 
bcjok of your father. — Whom is the Englishman looking for ? — He is 
looking for his friend, in order to take him into the garden. — ^What is 
tlie German doing in his room ? — He is learning to read. — Does he 
nut learn to write ? — He does not learn it. — Does your son learn to 
write ? — ^He learns to write and to read. 

Docs tho Dutchman speak instead of listening ? — He speaks insiosd 
of listenijig. — Do you go out instead of remaining at home? — ^I i 


It iiome instead of going out — ^Does your son play instead of stady** 
iog?— He studies instead of playing. — ^When does he study? — He 
stodies every day. — In the morning or in the evening ? — In the morn- 
ing and in the evening. — Do you buy an umbrella instead of buyinf^ 
a book ? — I buy neither the one nor the other. — Does our neighboi 
break his sticks instead of breaking his glasses ? — He breaks neithei 
thQ ones nor the others. — What does He break ? — ^He breaks his guns. 
—Do the children of our neighbor read? — They read instead of 
writing. — What does our cook ? — ^He makes a fire, instead of goin^ 
to the market. — ^Does the captain give you any thing ? — He does give 
me something. — What does he give yon ? — He gives me a great deal 
(rf money. — Does he give you money instead of giving you bread ? — 
He gives me (both) money and bread. — Does he give you more cheese 
thin bread ? — ^He gives me less of the latter than of the former. 

Do you give my friend fewer knives than gloves. — ^I give him more 
of the latter than of the former. — Wliat does he give you ? — He gives 
me many books instead of giving me money. — Does your servant make 
»our bed ? — He does not make it, (la,) — What is he doing instead of 
flaking your bed ? — ^He sweeps the room instead of making my bed. — 
Does he drink instead of working ? — He works instead of drinking. — 
Do the physicians go out ? — They remain at home instead of going 
flat— Does your servant make coffee? — He makes tea instead of 
miking coff »e. — Does any one lend you a gun ? — Nobody lends me 
we.— What does your friend lend me ? — He lends you many books 
ind many diotionaries. — ^Do you read the book which I read ? — I do 
not read the one which you read, but the one which the great captain 
reads. — ^Are vou ashamed to read the books which I read ? — ^I am 
not ashamed, but I have no wish to read them. 

TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Ii«ccton Vigisima sexta. 

To go for. 
Something, any thing. 
Do you go for any thing ? 

1 go for nothin(|r. 

He goes for voroe. . . . 

Ir por • 3, (or jr 4 busear.^) 

Alguna cosa. 

iVa V. 6 buscar alguna cosa— or 

Yo no voy d buscar nada. 

iA va d buscar . . (or ^I va por ) 

(Sm Leewn XL) 

Ie * 3 For the conjugation of this verb, see Appendix. 



Do yon learn French ? 
I do learn it 
I do not learn it 









Arabian, Arabic. 

Syrian, Syriao. 
I learn Spanish. 
My brother learns German. 

The Pole. 

The Roman. 

The Greek. 

The Arab, the Arabian. 

The Syrian. 

I Aprende V. el ftancM T 

Si, yo le aprendo. 

Yo no le aprendo. 

El franoes. 

£1 ingles. 

El aleman. 

El italiano. 

El espaftol. 


El mso.' 


£1 griego. 

El irabe, el aribigo. 

El siri&co. 

Yo aprendo el espafioL 

Mi hermauo aprende el alemaa 

El Polaco. 
El Romano. 
El Arabe. 
£1 Siriaca 

Are you an Englishman 7 \ lEaW. Ingles ?^ 

Obs. A, Where the indefinite article is used in English to denote qoali 
ties, the Spaniards make nse of no article. 

No, Sir, I am a Grerman. 
He is a Frenchman. 

Is he a tailor t 

No, he is a shoemaker. 

Is ho a fool? 

The foot 
The afternoon. 
The morning. 
The day. 

No, seiior, yo soy aleman. 
£l es Frances. 


No, (€[) es zapatero. 

I Es (6\) bobo, (tonto, or neeio T) 

EI bobo, or tonto, or necio. 
Latarde. (Fem.) 
La maiiana. (Fem.) 

06«. B. The indefinite article a in EngUsh is sometimes rendered by the 
definite article el, la, in Spanish, particularly in speaking of the parts of the 
0ody. If the nouns expressing these are m the plural, they often take the 
articlo los, las. Examples : — 

Are you ?— ^ Ea Vm. 7 I «wi, — Yo soy. For the conjugation of thw 
Teib, see Appendix ; and for the difference between Estar and Ser, eee 
Lesson XVIII., and also the Appendix. 



He has c laige ibraliMd. 
He has blue eyes. 
Too have a beaotifal foot 
They have n^iite teeth. 

Tleiie la frente aneba. - 
Tiene ojos (or lot cjoa) aaulea. 
V. tiene tin pie henaoio. 
Elloe tienen los dientes blaacoi. 

The forehead. 

La Irente. (Fem.) 







Large. Big. 

Grande, or laigo. Larga. (Fem ; 

Great | Grande. 

Obg, C. Cfrartde, (great,) loees the last syllable iivoen its meaaog b 
greatness in quality ; as, the Great Captain, el Oran Capitan ; bat it re« 
tains it when it is applied to size or bulk ; and even in the firit meaning 
when coming before a Towel — as, un grande odio, a great, or implacable 
hatred; tin grrnnde cabailo, a large horse; un gran caballo, a famous 

Big, large. 

A large knife. 
A large man. 
A great man. 
A Spanirii book. 
An Engiishbook. 
Spanish money. 
English paper. 

Grande, laigo. 
Grande, (or alta) 
Un cuchillo grande. 
Un hombre grando. 
Un gran hombre. 
Un libro espadoL 
Un libro ingles. 
Moneda espailola. 
Papel ingles. 

Un cuchillon. 
Un hombron. 

Obt. D. All adjectives expressing the names of nations are placed aftet 
their substantives. Example : — 
^ Do you read a Grerman book ? I i Lee V. un libro aleman 7 
I read an Italian book. I Yo leo un libro italiano 

To listen to mmetUng, 
To Utten to oome one. 
Whatf at the thing which. 

t Escuchar alguna cosa, or algo. 
Eacuchar & uno, or d alguno. 
Lo que. 

Oho. £. //, not standing for a substantive, but meaning the thing which 
is trandated lo. It is an indefinite pronoun object, and has no plural numbei 

I Escucha V.i. eee hombre ? 

Do you listen to that man 7 

Yes, I listen to him. 

Do yon listen to what he tells you 7 

Yes, I listen to it. 

Do you listen to what I toll you 7 

Do you listen tn me 7 

Si, yo le eecucho. 

I Escucha V. lo que le dice 7 

Si, yo lo eecucho. 

I Escucha y. lo que le digol 

I Me escucha V. 7 



I do listen to ycML 
Do yoa listen to my brother ? 
I do not listen to him. 
Do you listen to the men 7 
I listen to them. 

Si, yo esenoho i V., (or le raen^o 
I E^Bcucha V. i mi hermano 7 
Yo no le escucho 
I E^ucha V. d los hooriires 7 
Yo los escucho. 

To conect 
To take off. 

Corregir • 3 J ^^ *J»^ I**'^- ^.^'^^ 
1 f u* the Appendix.) 

^ Quitar del medio, 

( Quitarse—^mtar 1. 

To take away. \ Llevarse — Lleva T 

Ob$. F. Quitar and LUvar are used here as reflective or pronominal 

Terfos. (See Lesson XXIIL) 

The exercise. | El tema. El ejercicio 

To take. 

I Tomar 1. 

t ^ Be quita V. el sombrerc ? 

Me le quita 

El — lo9 — la — las. 

Do you take your hat off 7 

I take it o£ 

JIfy — thy — Ais — your* 

Obe. O. When the adjective possessive pronouns are used with a verb 
which in Spanish is a reflective verb, they must be changed in Spanish into 
the definite article — ^viz.> el, (mas.) la, (fern.) singular ; loe, (mas.) lae, (fern.) 
plural. Examples : — 

I take my gloves off. 

Do you take your shoes off 7 

I take them a& 

Does your father correct your exer- 

He corrects them. 

Yo me quito los guautee. 

t ^ Se quita V. los zapatos 7 

t Yo me los quite. 

I Corrije los temos de V. su padre? 



To drink coffee. 

To drink tea- 
Do you drink tea 7 
Y('8, Sir, I drink some, (a little.) 
Do you drink tea every day 7 

I do drink some every day. 

My father drinks coffee. 

He drinks coffee every morning. 

My brother drinks chocolate. 

He drinks chocolate every morning. 

t Tomar cafd 

t Tomar mi, tii, su, dec, ca£6, or el 

t Tomar t6. 

t Tomar mi, tu, su, 6lc., t6, or el t^ 
1 1 Toma V. t6 1 
Si, senor, yo tomo un pooo. 
1 1 Toma V. su t6 (or el t6) todos Iob 

t Yo tomo uc poco todos los dias. 
t Mi padre toma caf<6. 
t Toma su cafd todas las mafiaaas 
t Mi hennano toma chocolate, 
t Toma chocola^ todas las m»|k%iiafi 


OU 11 When «om«, not followed by a subitantiye, moant « Ut^, H if 
tr&oBlated un poco. (Seo Leawn XJ.) 

The noee. | La nariz, (femmine.) 

Do you go for any thing? — I di> go for something. — What do you 
go for ? — I go for some wine. — ^D »es your father send for any thing ? 
—He sends for some wine. — Doei» your servant go for some bread I — 
He goes for some.— For whom d< es your neighbor send ? — He sends 
for the physician. — ^Does your ser ;ant take off his coat in order to make 
the fire ? — He takes it off in order to make it. — ^Do you take off your 
gloves in order to give me money ' — ^I do take them off in order to give 
you some. — ^Do you learn French ' — I do learn it. — Does your brother 
leam German ? — ^He does learn it- -Who learns English ? — The French- 
man learns it — ^Do we leam Italiin ? — You do leam it — What do the 
English leam? — They leam Frmch and German. — Do you speak 
Spanish ? — No, Sir, I speak Italiaj? — ^Who speaks Polish ? — My brother 
speaks Polish. — Do our neighhorp speak Russian ? — They do not speak 
Rnssian, but Arabic. — ^Do you sp"ak Arabic ? — No, I speak Greek and 
Latin, — ^What knife have you ?- -I have an English knife. — What 
money have you there ? Is it Italian or Spanish money ? — It is Rus- 
sian money. — ^Have you an Italiai i hat ? — No, I have a Spanish hat. — 
Are you a Frenchman ? — No, I ain an Englishman. — ^Art thou a Greek ? 
—No, I am a Spaniard. 

Are these men Germans ? — N^, they are Russians.— Do the Rus- 
sians speak Polish ? — ^They do noi speak Polish, but Latin, Greek, and 
Aialnc. — ^Is your brother a merch int ? — ^No, he is a joiner. — ^Are these 
men merchants ? — ^No, they are ciirpenters. — Are you a cook ? — ^No, 1 
am a baker. — ^Are we tailors ? — ^No, we are shoemakers. — ^Art thou a 
fool ? — ^I am not a fool. — ^What w« that man ?— He 4s a physician. — ^Do 
pu wish me any thing ? — ^I wish you a good morning. — ^Has the Grer- 
man black eyes ? — ^No, he has blue eyes. — ^Has that man large feet ? — 
He has little feet, a large foreheaf^ and a large nose. — ^Have you time 
to read my book ? — ^I have no tine to read it, but much courage to 
(pflfra) study Spanish. — ^What doe/ thou do instead of playing ? — I study 
instead of playing. — Dost thou leim instead of writing ? — I write in- 
stead of learning. — ^What does tl e son of our friend do ? — ^He goes 
into the garden instead of doing l'»s exercise. — Do the children of our 
ndghbors read? — They write instead of reading. — ^What does our 
cocJt ? — ^He makes a iae instead *^f going to the market— -Does youi 
fatha sell his ox 7 — ^He sells his Horse instead of sellings his ox. 



Does the son of the pointer study English ?— He studies Greek if»- 
stead of studying English. — ^Does the butcher kill oxen ? — ^He kills 
sheep instead of killing oxen. — ^Do you listen to me ? — ^I do listen to 
you. — ^Does your brother listen to me ? — ^He speaks instead of listening 
to you. — ^Do you listen to what I am telling you ? — ^I do listen to what 
jnvL are teUing me. — ^Dost thou listen to what thy brother tells thee? — 
I do listen to it. — ^Do the children of the physician listen to what we 
teU them 7 — ^They do not listen to it. — ^Do you go to the theatre ? — ^I 
am going to the warehouse instead of going to the theatre. — ^Are yon 
willing to read my book 7 — ^I am willing to read it, but I cannot; I 
have sore eyes. — ^Does your father correct my exercises, or those of 
my brother ? — ^He corrects neither yours nor your brother's. — ^Which 
exercises does he correct 7 — ^He corrects mine. — Do you take off your 
hat in order to speak to my flEUher ? — ^I do take it off in order to speak 
to him. — Do you take off your shoes ? — I do not take them off. — Who 
takes off his hat ? — ^My friend takes it off. — Does he take off his gloves ? 
— ^He does not take them off. — ^What do these boys take off? — ^They take 
off their shoes and their hats. — ^Who takes away the glasses ? — ^Your 
servant takes them away. — Do you give me English or German paper? 
— ^I give you neither English (repeat papel) nor German paper ; I 
give you French paper. — ^Do you read Spanish ? — ^I do not read Spanish, 
but German. — ^What book is your brother reading ? — He is reading a 
Spanish book. — ^Do you drink tea or coffee in the morning ? — I drink 
tea. — ^Do you drink tea every morning ? — I do drink some every morn- 
ing. — ^What do you drink ? — ^I drink^coffee. — ^What does your brother 
drink 7 — ^He drinks chocolate. — Does he drink some (le) every day ? — 
He drinks some (le) every morning. — ^Do your children drink tea ?— 
They drink coffee instead of drinking tea. — ^What do we drink ? — We 
drink tea or coffee. * 

TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— I^ccwm Vigesima septima. 
To wetf to tnoUien. | Mojar 1. Humedeeer 2.* 

ro.W. \Hactrver. 

I ibow y<m my book I Yo mnestro (enieiio) mi liKro i V. 

Yon diow thorn to me. | V. me los mueetra, (me loa enseiUu) 

' See verbs in car, cer, Ac, in the Appendix. 
* Sec the verb Acordar, in the Appendix. 




Some one* 
Do yoa ahow me your gont 
I do show it to you. 
What do yoa show the man? 

I diow him my fine clothes. 

Mortrar i, eUguno. Eiweftar d al- 

Alguno, (indefinite pronoon.) 
{.Memnestra (orenaefta) V.sofoml? 
SeleensefioiV. (SelemneatrodV.) 
I Qu6 enseiia (or que mneatra) V al 

hombre t 
Yo le maestro ) mia hermoioa rei^ 
Vo le enseiio ) tidoa 


Tahano. . 

Tabaco deyivo. Rap^ 

To smoke. 
The gardener. 
The valet 
The concert 

Fumar 1. 


El criado. / 

El concierto. / 

To intend. 
Do yoa intend to go to the ball this 

I faitend to go (there.) 

Intentarl. Penoar^V 
iPiensaV. ir al bails esta noche? 

Yo pienso ir. 

To know. 
Do you know ? 
I know my rerb. 
What does he know? ^ 

Saber •fL (SeethisveibinApp.) 


Yo 86 mi verba 


To swhn. 
Do you know how to swim 7 

Ofta. A. When how does not ex 
and saber, to know, governs the infini 

Do yoa know how to write? 
Does he know how to read ? 

To conduct. 
I conduct him there. 



press the manner, it is not translated, 
tive without any preposition. 

I Sabe leer? 
Condueir • 3.« 
Yo le conduzco alii 
Mercader, tendero 

' See Alentar, in the Appendix. 

' See this veib, and the verbs ending m aeer, ocer, ueir, hi tho Ap- 




To €xtingui9lL 

Do yoa extiiigraiflh the fire 7 
I do not exttnguiah it 
He eztmgiiishes it 
Thou extiufroiahest it 

To light, to kindle. 


Do yoa often go to the ball ? 
A» often 09 yoa. 
A9 oflen 09 I. 
A9 often 09 he. 
A9 often 09 they. 

Do yoa often see my toother? 

Apogarl. Extinguir*3. (SeeAp* 

pendix for verfai in guir.) 
I Ap&ga y. el fnego ? 
Yo no le apago. 
&\ le apaga. 
TH le apagas £ n cx£^^^ 

I JBncender * 2. i^ ^es ^ cl^<^^ >■ ' -» 

I 4' menudo, Frecuentemente* 
I Ton — como, 

iYtiW. frecaentemente al baile? 
I Tan frecueutemente como Y. 
i Fan i menudo como yo. 
I Fan k menudo como 61, 
I Ton i menudo como ellos. 
I ; Yd y. d menudo i. mi hermano 7 
^ 4Y6 Y. i mi hermano frecuente- 
f mente 7 

Oftener than, 
\ him oftener than yoa. 
Not 90 often. 
Not 90 often 09. 

I Ma9 & menudo, 

<tf<M S menudo que. 
I Yo le veo mae a menudo que Y. 

•Vb ton & menudo. 

So tan d menudo como. 

Ob9, B, No m separated from tan < menudo by the verb. 

* I fpeak not so oflen as yoa. ! To no hablo tan i, menudo como Y. 

Not so often as yoa. 

Not so often as I. 
Not so often as they. 

No tan i menudo como Y. 
No tan & menudo como yo. 
No tan i menudo como ellos 

Into, in. I En. 

Into, meaning to. j A. 
To go hito the garden. I |r al jardin. 

( Salir • 3, or ealw fuera, or df^ra 
To go out, < (See the verb Salir, in the Ap. 

( pendix.) 


. _ £iXER(3SES. tid£.^^*^*t ^i-J 

Wbat does yonr &ther want 7 — ^He wants some tobacco. — ^Will yon 
go for some ?— I will go for some. — What tobacco does he want ? — 
Ue wants some snuff. — Do you want tobacco, (for smoking 7) — ^I do 
not want any ; I do not smc^e. — ^Do you show me any thing 7-^1 show 
yoa gold rings. — ^Does your fiither show his gun to my brother 7 — ^He 
does show it him. — ^Does he show him his beautiful birds 7 — ^He does 
show them to him. — Does the Frenchuian smoke 7 — ^He does not 
smoke. — ^Do you go to the ball 7 — ^I go to the theatre instead of going 
to the ball. — ^Does the gardener go into the garden 7 — ^He goes to the 
market instead of going into the garden. — ^Do you send your valet to 
the taflor 7— I send him to the shoemaker instead of sending him tc 
the tailor. — Does your brother intend to go to the ball this evening 7 — 
He does not intend to go to the ball, but to the concert — ^When do yon 
intend to go to the concert 7 — I intend to go there this evening. — At 
what o'clock 7 — At a quarter past ten. — ^Do you go for my son 7 — I do 
JO for him. — ^Where b he 7 — He is in the counting-house. — Do you 
find the man whom you are looking for 7 — ^I do find him. — ^Do your 
sons find the friends whom they are looking for 7 — They do not find 

Do your friends* intend to go to the theatre 7 — They do intend to go 
there. — When do they intend to go there 7 — ^They intend to go there 
to<norn)w. — At what o'clock 7 — At half-past seven. — What does the 
merchant wish to sell you 7 — He wishes to sell me some cloth. — Do 
yon intend to buy some 7 — I will not buy any. — ^Dost thou know any 
thing? — ^I do not know any thing. — ^What does your little brother 
know 7 (use the dimimUive.) — ^He knows how to read and to write. — ^Does 
he know Spanish 7 — ^He does not know it. — ^Do you know German 7— 
i do know it.^*-J)o your brothers know Greek 7 — ^They do not know it, 
but they intend to study it. — ^Do you know English 7 — ^I do not know 
it, but mtend to learn it. — Do my children know how to read Italian ? 
—They know how to read, but not (pero no) how to speak it. — ^Do you 
know bow to swim 7 — I do not know how to swim, but how to play. — 
Does your son know how to make coats 7 — ^He does not know how to 
make any, (los;) he is no tailor. — ^Is he a merchant 7 — ^He is not, (no Jo 
«.)— What is he 7 — He is a physician. — ^Do you intend to study Ara- 
t»c 7 — ^I do intend to study Arabic and Syriac. — Does the Frenchman 
know Russian 7 — ^He does not know it ; but he intends learning it. — 
Where are you going 7 — ^I am going into the garden in order to speak 
to my gardener. — ^Does he listen to you 7 — ^He does listen to me. 


Do yon wish to drink some tea 7 — ^I wish to drink some wine ; htnm 
yoa any 7 — ^I have none, hot I will send for it. — ^When will yon send 
for it 7 — ^Now. — ^Do yon know how to make tea 7-r-I know how to 
make it. — ^Where is your father going to 7 — ^He is going 'nowhere ; he 
remoins at home. — ^Do yon know how to write a note 7 — ^I know how 
to write one. — Can you write exercises 7 — ^I can write some. — ^Dost 
thou conduct anybody 7 — ^I conduct nobody. — Whom do you conduct 7 
— I conduct my son. — Where are you conducting him to ?-*-! conduct 
him to my friends. — ^Does your servant conduct your child 7 — ^He 
. conducts it — ^Where does he conduct it 7 — ^He conducts it into the 
garden.— Do we conduct any one 7 — We conduct our children. — 
Where are our friends conducting their sons 7 — ^They are conducting 
them home. 

Do you extinguish the fire 7 — I do not extinguish it. — ^Does jrour 
servant light the fire 7 — He does light it, (la.) — ^Where does he light it ? 
— ^He li^ts it in your warehouse. — ^Do you often go to the Spaniard 7 
— ^I go often to him. — ^Do you go oftener to him than 1 7 — I do go 
oftener to him than you.-^Do the Spaniards often come to you 7 — 
They do come often to me. — Do your children oftener go to the ball 
than we 7 — ^They do go there oftener than you. — ^Do we go out as 
often as our neighbors 7 — We do go out oftener than. they. — ^Does yom 
servant go to the market as often as my cook 7 — ^He does go there as 
often as he. — ^Do you see my father as often as 1 7 — ^I do not see him 
as often as you. — ^When do you see him 7 — I see him every morning 
at a quarter to five. 

TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— -Leccton Vighima ocUna, 

It must be remembered that an interrogative sentence, in Spanish, de- 
pends rather on emphasis, than on its grammatical construction. Hence» 
an inverted interrogation is placed at the beginning of such sentencea^ 
as a guide to the reader in the modulation of his voice. The pronoun 
■object, therefore, may e^may not be eipressed, in conformity with 
the degree of ^phasis that the writer may lay on it — ^The English 
anzilljiiy verbs do, 'does'^id — ttntf it, are, serve only to point out the per- 
lon and tsbse, by which the principal verb must be expressed ; but they art 
?iot translated. 

Can 17 AmIableT 
. Am I doing 7 

I Quiero 7 i Quiero yo 7 

I Pnedo 7 i Puedo yo 7 

I Hago7 I Estoy haeieuda ? 



What am I dotngT 
What do I say? 
Where am I going to? 
To whom do I speakT 
Where do yoa go 7 
Where doee he got 

I Que eatoy haciendo? 
^Qne digoT 
I A doode roy T 
lA, doode Ta? 

iQae hagef 

It will be adfia finom the last two aentencea, that the omiauon of V* 
I the fint would lead to ambigtiity. 

When do is oaed m Elngluh with a certain emphasia to give more power 
jo the sentence, the prononn subject afaonld be ezpreaMd in Spanish Ez- 

Does he speak to you 7 
Yes, he doet speak to me. 
Do yoa <hink cidert 
I do drink cider, but my brother 
drinks wine. 

Do you receire a note every day? 
Tea, I do receive on& 


Do I begin to speak Spanish 7 
Yoa begin to speak it 
When do yoa begin 7 
I begin now. 

Do yoa speak before yoo listen 7 
I fisten before I qwak. 
Does he go to market before 

To breakfaot. 

iHabla^Z&y.7 / 

Si, ^2 me habla. 

iBebe V.sidra7 / 

Yo bebo sidra, pero mi faeo^iano bebe . 

Sidra, (feminine.) 

^ RecilM y . on billete todoa ks Aas 7 

Si, yo recibo nno. 
r Comenxar M. (Seeil{«n<ar,iB tha i * 
J Etnpezar • h - ^" " ^ Appendix.) <^ 
^ Prineipiar 1. 

I Comienxo d hablar espafiol7 

v. comienza & haUarle. 

I Cuando empieza V. 7 

ESmpiezo ahora. 

i^\' ' \ 


The breakfast 
Does be go there before he writes? 
He goes there before breakfast 
Do yoa take off your pantaloons be- 
fwa yoa take off your shoes 7 

Antes de. 

1 1 Habia V. intes de escoohar 7 
t (Yo) escacho dntes de habla» 
t ^ Va al mercado (d la plaza) dntet 
de almorzar? 
r Almorxar * 1. (See Aeordoiry in the 
.| ^ Appendix.) 

I . Desayunaree, (reflective veib.) 
Eldeenynna Elalmaeno. 
^t Va all& dntes de escribir? 
Va alii dntes del almaerza 
I Se qaita V. loe pantaloneo dntes da 
qoit^rae los zapatos? 

-- , ^ , . . S MarehMroe 1, (reflective veih.) 

106 TWBim 'EIGI rH lbssok. 

Wb«n do yoa intend to depart? . ^Cuando piensa Y. salii, (oi mar* 

' charse?) 
I intend to depart to-morrow. | fienm salir mailana. 

Well I Bien, (adverb.) 

Badly. \ ¥a2, (adverb.) 

Obs, When an adverb modifies *^ verb, it is generally placed after 
the verb ; when it modifies an adjective or another adverb, it ia generally 
placed before. 

Does he speak well 7 
He speaks badly. 
Do yoa speak Spanidi well? 
I speak Spanish well. 


Habla mal. 

, Habla V. bien el espailol 7 

Vo hablo bien le espafiol. 

Too mnch. l Demasiado, (adverb.) 

The same. | Lo mirnno^ (adverb.) 

Ju»t 08 mucK ) Juetamente lo mUmo, (adv. expreoii) 

JuH the Bome, \ Cabalmente lo mismo. 

Do I read well ? — You do read well. — ^Do I speak well ? — You do not 
Bpeak well. — ^Does my brother spealc Spanish well ? — He does speak it 
well. — ^Does he speai German well ? — He speaks it badly. — ^Do we 
speak well 7 — ^Yon speak bodly.^-D > I drink too much ? — You do not 
drink enough. — Am I able to make hats ? — You are not able to make 
any ; you are not a hatter.— Am I aftle to write a note ? — ^You are able 
to write one. — Am I doing my exer *>ise weU ? — ^You are doing it well. 
— ^What am I doing ?— You are doing exercises. — What is my brother 
doing ? — ^He is doing nothing. — ^Wl at do I say ? — ^You say nothing. — 
Do I begin to speak ? — You do bef :in to speak.— Do I begin to speak 
well ? — You do not begin to speak "vrell, but to read well. — ^Where am 
C going to ? — ^You are going to your friend. — ^Is he at home ? — Do I 
know, (lo ?) — Am I able to speak ar. often as the son of our neighbor ? 
— ^He is able to speak oftener than you. — Can I work as much as he 7 
— ^You cannot work as much as he. — ^Do I read as often as you ? — You 
do not read as often as I, but you speak oftener than I. — ^Do I speak as 
well as you ? — ^You do not speak as well as I.)— Do I go to you, or do 
you come to me ? — ^You come to m*3, and I go to you. — ^When do yon 
I to me 7 — Every morning at half-past six. 



Dc you know the Russian whom I know 7 — ^I do not know the one 
yoa know, but I know another. — ^Do yon drink as much coffee as wine ? 
—I drink less of the latter than of the former. — ^Does the Pole drink at 
mochas the Russian? — ^He drinks just as much. — Do the Germans 
drink as much as the Poles ? — ^The latter drink more than the former. 
—Dost thou receive any thing 7 — ^I do receive something. — What dost 
thon receive 7 — ^I receive some money. — ^Does your friendreceive books 7 
—He does receive some. — ^What do we receive 7 — We receive some 
wine- — ^Do the Poles receive tobacco 7 — ^They do receive seme.— 
Prom whom do the Spaniards receive money 7 — ^They receive some 
from the English, and from the French. — ^Do you receive as many 
fiiends as enemies 7 — ^I receive fewer of the latter than of the former. 
—From whom do your children receive books 7 — ^They receive some 
from me and from their friends. — ^Do I receive as much cheese as 
bread 7 — You receive more of the latter than of the former. — ^Do our 
servants receive as many brooms as coats 7 — ^They receive fewer of 
the latter than of the former. — ^Do you receive one more gun 7 — I do 
receive one more. — ^How many more books does our neighbor receive? 
—He receives three more. 

When does the foreigner intend to depart 7 — ^He intends to depart 
today. — ^At what o'clock 7 — At half-past one. — ^Do you intend to de- 
part this evening 7 — ^I intend to depart to-morrow. — Does the French- 
man depart to-day 7 — ^He departs now. — ^Where is he going to 7 — ^He is 
gang to his friends. — Is he going to the EngUsh 7 — ^He is going to 
them. — ^Doet thou set out to-morrow 7 — ^I set out this evening. — ^When 
do you intend to write to your friends 7 — I intend to write to them to- 
day. — ^Do your friends ai^er you 7 — ^They do answer me. — ^Does your 
fiither answer your note WHe answers it — ^Do you answer my bro- 
thers' notes 7 — I do answer them. — ^Does your brother begin to learn 
Italian? — ^He begins to learn it. — Can you speak Spanish? — I can 
speak it a little. — ^Do our friends begin to speak German 7 — ^They do 
begin to speak it. — Are they able to write it 7— They are able to write 
it— Does the merchant begin to sell 7 — ^He does begin. — ^Do you speak 
before you listen 7 — ^I listen before I speak. — ^Does your brother listen 
to you before he speaks ? — ^He speaks before he listens to me. — ^Do 
your children read before they write 7 — ^They write before they read. 

Docs your servant sweep the warehouse before he goes to the mar- 
ket 7 — ^llo goes to the market before he sweeps the warehouse. — ^Dost 
thou drink before thou goost out ? — ^1 go out before I drink. — ^Do you 



intend to go out before yon breakfiist? — ^I intend to break&st befiiro 1 
go out—Does your son take off his shoes before he takes off ius coat 7 
— He neither takes off his shoes nor his coat-^Do I take off my 
gloves before I take off my hat 7 — ^Yon take <^ your hat before yon 
take cff your gloves.^ — Can I take off my shoes before 1 take off my 
gloves 7 — ^You cannot take <^ your shoes before you take off your 
gloves. — ^At what o'clock do you breakfast 7 — I breakfast at half-past 
eight — ^Atwhat o'clock does the American breakfast? — ^He breakfiisti 
* every day at nine o'clock* — ^At what o'clock do your children breakfast 7 
— ^T^ey breakout at seven o'clock. — ^Do you go to my fttber before 
you breakfost 7—1 do f[o to him before I break&st 

TWENTY-NINTH LESSON.— Lecdon Vigisima nona. 

A wuLL Table ov tbb Comparwow or Nouiii, Vniia Adjiotitis, aiii> 


Aimueh— at. 

As many- 
No lev- 
No fowfl 

— than. 

Fewer— <Aafi. 
Not so much — m. 

Not so many— M. 


^ Tanto— cofito. 
( Tanta — eomo* 
{ Tantos— coma. 
( Tantas — eomo, 

i No— m6noB— qa«. 

iNo — tanto— como. 
No — tanta — como. 
)No— tantofl — como. 
No— tantas — eomo. 

yLmn—tkan. | Mas— ^tM. 

Obt, A, Jfort than — lut than, in Spankdi, when followed by a nam(val 
adjective, change que into de. Example : — 

More than one, two. 1 Mas de nno, de dos. 

LeoB than three, four. | M^nos de tree, de.cnatro. 

I have ae much money as you. 
You have ae many friends ae L 
He has no Use bread than ham. 
Wo have leee money than he. 

Tengo tanto dinero eomo V. 
v. tiene tantoe amigos como yo 
No tiene minoe pan que jamon. 
Tenomos minoe dinero que A- 



They have not m many books aa 

I haTO fli0fe toft ikmn cofiee. 
Too hare awre ikon too dollanu 
H0 bat Um tkam four cents. 
Jfore than fiye yean. 
£«M Uaa twenty yean. 

No tienen tantof libroi conio VY. 

Tengo ma9 XA que cM. 
y. tiene mat de diex pesos. 
Hene nUno§ de cnatro oaartosi 
Mae de cmeo alios. 
Minoe de Teinte alios. 


Asmndi— a«. 
Not— less tkam 


Tanto emtio. Tanto euanto. 



M^nos que, 
No^tanto eomo. 







Mmeh. Very mack. 
Too ipeak aa mack aa L 
He does not speak leee than yoo. 
Tbey drink I««t than we. 
He does not speak ae much ae they. 
I read store than yon. 
This ii the book that'I nuwt like. 
He ii the man that I least esteem. 

He etudiee very mtccA. 

Mueho. Muchieimo. 
V. habla tanto como yo. 
£1 no habla menoe que V. 
Beben mifioe que nosotros. . 
No habla tanto como alios. 
Yo leo mae que V. ^ 
Este es el libra que mae me gnste. 
£1 es el hombre qoe m^os 4 
£1 estadia muchieinuf. 


I Tan — como. 
No — ^m^nos — que. 


M^nos — que. 
No — tan — como. 


More (o»the termhiation er) — than. | Mas — que. 


As — ae. 

Not less— <Aan. 

Less — than. 






Very, > with a past 

Very mueht \ participle. 








Oh9, B. The Superlative Abeolute is also formed by adding the foilowing 
terminations to the positive, vix.'f«mo, i«tma, for adjectives ; itimamente foi 
adverbs. In forming the Superlative Absolute, adjectives ending in a, e^ 
and o, lose these letters ; and those ending in ble, co, and go, change these 
syllables into bU, qu, and gu. Examples :— Hermosa, hurmobJsima ; alto, 
altisimo ; prudent«, prudentfsimo ; ama6Z«, amabilisimo ; rico, ri qafsimo : 
lar^o, l^cgubimo. Examples of adverbs:— hermoslsimamente, altisimamente, 
prudenti^ramente, amabiUsimamente, dLC. 


K EI mas — la mas. ^ 

( Los mas — las mas. I For 

\ El m6nos— la m^nos. j adjectives. 
( Los m^nosr— las mdnos* J 

Themost 1 Lo mas. >j,^^^^^,j^ 

The least | Lo m€nos. > 

The most, (or the termination est.) 
The least 

Yon are as good as he. 

Yon are not less rich than I. 

We are less prudent than they. 

He is not so good as you. 

You are richer than we. 

You speak as correctly as I. 

Yon speak fiat ^m correctly than L 

He is very ^ 

He is extremely > prudent 

He is infinitely ) 

You read very elegantly. 

I have the JuindsomesL 
He is the letut prudent 
The most foolishly. 
The least prudently 
The more— the more. 
The less — the less. 
The more — the less. 
The less — the more. 

y. es tan bueuo eomo H 
Y.noea minos rico que yo. 
Somos m^iot prudentes que ellos. 
£l 910 es tan bueno como V. 
y. es mas rico que nosotros. 
y. haUa tan correctamente eomo ya 
y. no habla menos correctamcute 
que yo. 

rmuy ^ 

El es< extremamente >pnideuU». 

f infinitamente ) 
.£1 es prudentisimo. 
y. lee muy elegantemente — eleganti . 

Yo tengo el mas hermoso, 
is el minos prudente. 
Ijo mas imprudentemente. 
Lo menos prudentemente. 
Cuanto mas — tanto mas. 
Guanto m6nos — tanto m^nos. 
Cuanto mas — tanto m^nos 
Cuanto m^nos — tanto moM, 



Hie moco ho ttodieB, the more he 

The lea he driiikB, the lees thinty 

he is. 
The more he i^aye, the lea he 

The lea be plays, the mere he 

So much the more — than. 
So much the leao^thatL 

Coaiito mas estbdia, tanto mas 

Cuanto m^OB bebe, tanto m^nos sed 

Cnanto mas jaega, tanto m^net 

Cnanto m€nos joega, tanto mas e^ 

Tanto mao—que, 
Tanto m^noo-^ue. 


High— 4iisher — highest 
Low-Slower— lowest. 
Good— better — ^very good— best 
Greatr— greater — greatest 
Bad— worae — ^wont 
little— lees— least. 
SmaD — smaller — smallest 
StrongB— very strong. 
New— very new. 
Wise— Tery wise. 
Sacred— very sacred. 
Faithful— very faithful. 
Honest — ^very honest 
Healthy — very healthy. 

Alto— superi<»'— enpremo. 
Bajo — inferior — Infimo. 
Bueno — mejor — bonlBtmo— <Sptinio 
Grande — mayor — mizima 
Male— poor — ^p^simo. 

[ ^ Peqneiio— menor — mtnimo. 

Foerte — fortisii^. 
Nnevo — ^novfsima 
Sabio— eapientisima 
Sagrado— sacratlsimo. 
Fiel— fidelisimo. 
Integro — integ^rrimo. 
Salubre — salub^rrimo. 


Well— better— the best 
Bad — ^woise — the worst 
Little— less— the least 
Much — ^more — the mart. 

This book is small, that is smaller, 
and that is the smallest of all 

This hat is large, but that is larger. 

Is your hat as large as mine 7 

li it larger than yours 7 
Ct is not so large as yours. 

Bien — mejor — lo mejor. 
Mai — peer — ^lo peer. 
Poco — m6uos — ^lo m^nos. 
Mucho— mas — ^lo masi 

£ste libro es pequeiio, ese es nuM 

peqnefio, y aquel es el mas pe- 

quefio de todos. 
Todo, Todos, (adj.) 
Este sombrero es grande, pero aquel 

es mas grande. 
^ E^ su sombrero de V. tan grande 

como el mio 7 
I Es mas grande que el de V 7 
No es tan grande como el de V. 



An oar neighbcKr^B ohildran as good 

as ooiB? 
They are better than mm. 
They are not so good as onrs. 

I Sou loB nifios de nvestro yeeino taa 

boenoB como los nuestros 7 
Son mejoree que los nnestros. 
No son tan buenos oomo los nnestros 

A very fine book. 

Very fine books. 

A very pretty knife. 
Very weU. 

That man is extremely learned. 

This bird is very handsome. 


Un libro may hermoso, or heimosla- 

libros may hermosos, or heimosiiBi- 

Un cachillc may bonito 
Mwf hiem 

Aqael hombre es extremamente sabio 

or sapientisimo. 
Este p&jaro es may hermoso, or her 


4 De quUn 7 {Cuyo, cuya — cuyoe ' 

I De qnien es este sombrero? 

Cayo sombrero es este ? 

Cayo es este sombrero ? 

Cuyo agrees in gender and number with the noun that oomes 

Whose hat is this T 


after it 

To be, (meaning belonging to.) 
It is. 
It is my br&ther*s hat 
It is the hat of my brother. 
It is my brother's. 
Who has the finest hat ? 

Whose hat is the finest ? 
That of my father is the finest 
Whose gun is the handsomer, yours 
or mine? 


Eb — de. (See Ser, in the Appendix.) 

Es el sombrero de mi hermano. 

t Es de mi hermano. 

I Qoien tiene el mas hermoso som- 

I Cuyo sombrero es el mas hermoso? 

El do mi padre es el mas hermoso. 

I Que fusil es el mas hermoso, el da 
T . 6 el mio ? 


Do you fead as often a 

I read as often as you. 

Does he read as often as I ? 

He reads and writes as often as you. 

Do our children write as much as 

They write more than you. 
We read more than the children of 

our friends. 

I Lee v. tan d menudo eomo yo ? 
Leo tan & menudo como Y. 
I Lee t\ tan i. menudo como yo ? 
£l lee y escribe tan d menucb como 

I Escriben nuestros nifios tanto oomo 

Escriben mas que W. 
Leemos mas qdb los nifios do naes- 

troe amicus. 


To wfaom do yoQ write t 
I write to tmrfatudM. 
We read good books 

I A quen eeeribe V. f 
Esciibo 4 noeetrM amigot. 
Leemoe baenoe libroi. 

Whose bo(^ is this ? — ^It is mine. — ^Whose hat is that ? — ^It is my 
fisher's. — ^Aie you taller (mas dUo) than I ? — ^I am taller than yon. — 
la your brother as tall is you 7 — ^He is as tall as I. — ^Is thy hat as bad 
as that of my father 7 — It is better, but not so black as hb. — Are the 
clothes (vestidos) of the Italians as fine as those of the Irish 7 — ^Thcy 
are finer, but not so good.— Who have the finest gloves 7 — The French 
have them. — ^Who has the fine^ horses 7 — ^Mine ar6 fine, yours are 
finer than mine; but those of our friends are the finest of all. — ^Is your 
horse good 7 — It is good, but yours is better, and that of the EogliHh- 
man is the best of all the horses which we know. — ^Have you pretty 
shoes 7 — ^I have very pretty ones, (los,) but my brother has prettier ono8 
(Jos) than I. — ^From whom (de quien) does he receive them? — Ho 
receives them from (de) his best Mend. 

Is yooT wine as good as mine 7 — ^It is better. — Does your merchant 
fieU good knives 7 — ^He sells the best knives that I know, (conocer,) — 
Do we read more books than the French 7 — ^We read more of them 
than they ; but the English read more of them than we, and the Ger- 
mans read the most — ^Hast thou a finer garden than that of our 
physician 7 — ^I have one finer than his. — ^Has the American a finer 
stick than thine 7 — ^He has a finer one. — ^Have we as fine children as 
our neighbcns 7 — We have finer ones. — ^Is your coat as pretty as mine 7 
— ^It is not so pretty, but better than yours. — ^Do you depart to-day 7 — 
I do not depart to-day. — ^When does your fiuher set out 7 — ^He sets out 
this evening at a quarter to nine. — Which of these two children is the 
better, (saing ?) — ^The one who studies is better than the one who plays. 
— Does your servant sweep as well as mine 7 — ^He sweeps better than 
yours. — ^Does the Englishman read as many bad books as good ones 7 
— ^He reads more of the good than of the bad ones. 

Do the merchants sell more sugar than cofiee 7 — ^They sell more of 
the latter than of the former. — ^Does your shoemaker make as many 
shoes as mine 7 — ^He makes more of them than yours. — Can you swim 
as well (tan bien) as my son 7 — ^I can swim better than he, but he can 
qieak Spanish better than I. — Does he read as well as you 7 — ^He 
reads better than L — ^Does the son of your neighbor go to market 7-^ 




No, he remains at borne ; he has sore feet^— Do yo« learn as well as 
our gardener's son ? — ^I learn better than he, but he works better than 
I. — ^Whose gun is the finest 7 — ^Yours is very fine, but that of the 
captain is still finer, and ours is the finest of all. — ^Has any one finer 
children than you 7 — ^No one (ihemy has finer ones. — ^Does your son 
read as often as 1 7 — He reads oftener than you. — ^Does my brother 
speak French as often as you 7 — ^He speaks and reads it as often as I. 
—Do I write as much as you 7 — ^You write more than I. — Do our 
neighbor's children read Grerman as often as we 7 — ^We do not read it 
as often as they. — ^Do we write it as often as they 7 — ^They write 
oftener than we. — ^To whom do they write? — ^They write to their 
Mends. — Do you read English books 7 — ^We read French books instead 
of reading English books. 

THIRTIETH LESSON— Lcccton TrigSsma. 

To believe. 

To put. 

To put on. 
Do you put on 7 
I put on. 
I put on my hat 
He puts on hie gloves. 
Do you put on your shoes? 
We do put them on. 
What do your brothers put on ? 
They put on their clothes. 
^ Where do you conduct me to ? 

I conduct you to i^y father. 

Do you go out ? 
I do go out 
Do we go out ? 
When does your father go out ? 

As early as you. 
He goes ont as early as you. 

Creer 2. (See verbs in eer, in fh& 

Poner * 2. (See this verb in the 

Mpteree. (Reflective verb.) 
t iSe pone V.? 
t Me pongo. 
t Me pongo el sombrero 
t Se pone loa guantes. 
1 1 Se pone V. los zapatos? 
t Nos los ponemos. 
1 1 Que se ponen sus hermauos de V. T 
t Se ponen los vestidos. 
I A doude me conduce V. 7 
Yo conduzco d V. & casa de mi padre. 
Yo le conduzco d casa de mi padre. 

nSaleV.? » 

I Yo salgo. 

I I Cuando sale su padre de V.7 


Tan temprano como V. 

£1 sale tan temprano como V. 



> Tkem^ to be translated los tiene. 



Too late. 
Too soon, too early. 
Too large* too grreat (in i 
Too little, too small. 

7*00 much , 
Do yoa speak too much 7 

I do not speak enougli. 

iMiter than yoo. 
I go out later than you. 

Demasiado tarde. 
Demasiado temprano. 
Demasiado largo, or grande. 
Demasiado pequefio, or demasiado 

Demasiado, demasiadunente. 

^Habla V. demasiado— demasiada* 

Yo no hablo bastante. 
Mas tarde que V. 
Salgo mas tarde que V 

Sooner earlier. 
Does yonr lather go there earlier 

than I? 
He goes there too early. 

Do you speak already? 

Not yet* 

I do not speak jret 

Not yet, Sir. 

Do you finish your note 7 

* I do not finidi it yet 
Do yon breakfast already 7 

Mas temprano, 

I Va su padre de V. all& mas tam* 

prano que yo 7 
£1 va alld demasiado temprano. 
Ya, todavia, aun, 
No (t) todavia, 
Todavia no, 
Aun no. 

No hablo todavia. 
Todavia no, sefior. 
^AcabaV. su billete7 
No ie acabo todavia. 
Aun no Ie acabo. 
I Almuerza V. ya 7 
I EstA V.-ya almorzando7 

Who receives the most money 7 
The Engiieh receive the most 
We read more than they, but the 
French read the most 

Se letter, 
at letter. 
The letters. 

|,Qulen recibe mas dinero7 
Los Ingleses son los que recibeo mas. 
Leemos mas que ellos, pero los Fran- 
ceses son los que leen mas. 
La carta, (feminine.) 
Aquella (or esa) carta. 
Las carta& 

To eat too much is dangerous. 

! Comer demasiado es peligroso. 
El comer demasiado os peligroso. 

Oho. There is no preposition before an infinitive when it is used as 
die subject of a verb ; it is then taken substantively, and m Spanish is tn* 
fnently preceded by the article el, (thej as — 


nBp«aktoomachu,f«JuUL J B. mny necio habl« d«m«i«d. 

To do good to those that have ofli»nd- i Hacer (or el kaeer) bien d loa que not 
ed U8, 18 a commendable action. | ban ofendido ee una aocion laudable 


Do you put on another coat in '»rder to go to the play ? — ^I do put on 
another. — ^Do you put on your gloves before you put on your shoes ? — 
I put on my shoes before I put on my gloves. — ^Does your brother put 
on his hat instead of patting on his coat ? — He puts on his coat before 
he puts on his hat — ^Do our children put on their shoes in order to go 
to otkr friends ? — ^They put them on in order to go to them. — ^What do 
our sons put on ? — ^They put on their clothes and their gloves. — ^Do 
yon already speak Spanish 7 — ^I do not speak it yet, but I begin to 
learn. — ^Does your father go out already ? — He does not yet go out. — 
At what o'clock does he go out ? — He goes out at ten o'clock. — Does 
he breakfiAst before he goes out ? — He break&std and writes his notes 
Qa carta) before he goes out. — ^Does he go out earlier than you 7 — ^I go 
t>ut earlier than he. — Do yon go to the play as often as 1 7 — I go there 
as often -as you. — Do you begin to know (conocer) this man 7 — ^I do 
begin to know him. — Do you breakfast early 7 — ^We do not breakfast 
late. — ^Does the Ehiglishman go to the concert earlier than you 7 — ^He 
goes there later than I. — ^At what o'clock does he go there 7 — He goe* 
there at half-past eleven. 


Do you not go too early to the concert 7 — ^I go there too late. — ^Do 1 
write too much 7— ^You do not write too much, but you speak too much 
—Do I speak more than you 7 — You do speak more than I and my 
brother. — ^Is my hat too large 7 — It is neither too large «or too small.— 
Do you speak Spadish oftener than English 7 — ^I speak English oitenei 
than Spanish. — ^Do your friends buy too much com 7 — ^They buy but 
little. — ^Have you bread enough 7 — I have only a little, but enough. — 
Is it late 7 — ^It is not late. — ^What o'clock is it 7 — ^It is one o'clock. — 
Is it too late to (para) go to your father 7 — ^It is not too late to go to 
him.-^Do you conduct me to him, (aUd ?) — ^I do conduct ^u to him, 
{aU6.} — ^Where is he 7 — He is in his counting^use. — ^Does the 
Spaniard buy a horse 7 — ^He cannot buy one. — ^Is be poor 7 — He is not 
poor ; he is richer than you. — Is- your brother as learned as you 7 — 
He is more learned than I, but you are more learned than he and L 

Do you know that man 7—1 do know him. — ^Is he learned ? — ^He is 
(et) the most learned of all men that I know. — ^Is your horse worse 



fpneeJhig Lesson) than mine ? — ^It is not so bad as jonrs. — Is mine 
WOTse than the Spaniard's ? — ^It is worse ; it is the worst horse that I 
know.— Do you give those men less bread than cheese 7—1 give them 
leas of the latter than of the former. — ^Do yon receive as mtlch money 
as your neighbors. — ^I receive mach more than they. — ^Who receives 
the most money? — ^The English receive the most-^an your son 
already write a letter ? — ^He cannot write one yet, but he begins to read 
a little. — ^Do you read as much as the Russiims 7 — ^We read more than 
they, but the French read the most — ^Do the Americans write more 
thin we 7 — ^They write less than we, but the Italians write the least, 
(preceding Lesson.)— Are they as rich as the Americans 7 — ^They are 
less rich than they. — ^Are your birds as fine as those of the Irish 7— 
They are less fine than theirs, but those of the Spaniards are the leas* 
fine.— Do you sell your bird 7—1 do not sell it ; I like it too much to 
sell it, {fora que le venda.) * 


THIRTY-FIRST LESSON.— Lcccton Frigesima primera, 

Hie past participle is formed from the infinitive mood, by changing tha 
lenmnations or, er, tr, into ado, ido, ido. — (See Lesson XXIV.) 


To love. 
To speak. 
To boy. 













To eat, to dine. 

To drink. 


eaten, dined. 






To receive. 
To divide, 
To part. 






To be. 




To hate, had, (aoxUiary.) 
I have, thou hast, he has. 
We have, you have, they have. 

Habery habido. 
Yo he, td has, dl ha. 
Nosotros hemoe, voeotros habeis, elfos 



ObM. When to have ia used as an actire Yeib, it is translaCed bf 
Tbrbr ; but when it is an auxiliary verb, that is to say, a verb used to fonn 
the compound tenses of other verbs, it must be translated by Haber. 

When the past participle follows immediately after the vetb hab^, it is 
invariable ; that is to say, it neither takes the gender nor the number of the 

To havt been to, (gone to.) > ^^^^ .^ ^ 

To have gone to. 
To have been at' 
To have gone at. 
To have been in. 
Have you been to market 7 
Did you go to market 7 
I have been. 
I went 

I have not been. 
I did not go. 
1 have etteemed them. 
He has esteemed her. 
They have been esteemed. 
The sisters have been admired. 



Have you been at the bcdl 7 

Have you ever been at the ball 7 

I have never been. 
Thou hast never been there. 
He has never been there. 
Vou have never been there. 


Haber ido a Haber ytadi en. 

Haber ido d, 

Haber eatado en, 

I Ha ido y. al merc^ h 7 

iFu^ V. & la plaza ( 

Yo he ido. 


Yo no he ida 

Yo no fui. 

Yo los he estimado. 

£1 la ha estimado. 

EUos ban tido estimados. 

Las hermanas ban tido admirada^ 

*«j *»• ^ 

( Jamas. Alguna vex. 

\ En algun tiempo. 

I No— jamas. Nunea. Nuncaja 

!^ Ha estado V. en el baile 7 
iHaido V. Qlbaile7 
SI Ha eetado V. alguna vez en el baile 
I Ha ido v. alguna vez al baile 7 
I Nunoa he estado. Jamas he ida 
I Nnnca (jamas) has ido alld. 
Nunca (jamas) ha ido alii. 
I y. no ha ido jamas alld. 

Already t yet. 
Have you already been at the 

play 7 
I have already be6n. 


!l Ha estado Y. ya en el teatro7 
iHa ido y.ya al toatro,(A la comddia 7) 
I Ya he ido. Ya he estado. 

Not yet. 
I have not yet been there. 
Hast thou ever been there 7 

He has not yet b6en there. 

I Todaviano. No — todavia. Aunno. 
5 Yo no he ido (estado) all4 toduvia. 
f Todavia no he ido (estado) alld. 

I Has ido (estado) tU jamas (alguna 
vez) alii 7 

6l no ha ido (eetado) alii todavia. 




T<Ni kafe sot been there yet 
We litTe not yet been theie. 

y. no ha ido (estado) alUL tedaTUu 
Todayia no hemos ido (eetado) alii. 

Hare you already been at my fa- 

I ba?e not been yet 
hare already been. 

I Ha ido (eetado) V. ya i caea de i 

Tedavia no he ido, (eatada) 
Ya he ida Ya he eetado. 

Whero have yon been this morn- 
I bare been in the garden. 
Wherejias thy brother been ? 
He has been in the warehooee. 
Hu he been there as early as I? 

He baa been there earlier than yon. 

i^Adonde ha eetado (ido) V. esti 
Yo he estado en el jardin. 
2, Adonde ha estado tCk hermano? 
£1 ha eetado en el almacen. 
I Ha ido (estado) 61 allA tan temprano 

como yo ? 
£l ha ido (estado) alii mas tempraae 
que V. 


To remain, to stay. 
Do you go anywhere ? 
J go nowhere now ; I stay at home. 

Do 70a remam in the garden ? 
Yes, I remain here. 

Alguna parte. Cualquiera parte, 

Ninguna parte. 

Quedaree. Eetaree. 

i Va V. d alguna parte ? 

Yo no voy i niuguna parte ahoim * 

me quedo en casa. 
I Se queda V. en el jardin 7 
Si, me quedo aquL 

Where have yon been ? — ^I have been to the market — ^Have you 
been to the ball ? — ^I have been. — ^Have I been to the play 7 — You have 
been there. — ^Hast thou been there ? — ^I have not been there. — ^Has your 
son ever been at the theatre 7 — ^He has never been. — ^Hast thou already 
been m my warelionse 7 — I have never been.— ^Do you intend to (Obs. 
B, lesson XXI.) go there 7 — ^I do intend to go there. — ^When will you 
go there ? — ^I will go there to-morrow. — At what o'clock 7 — At twelve 
o*clocL — Has your brother already been in -my large garden 7 — He 
las not yet been there. — Does he intend to see it 7 — ^He does intend to 
•ee it — When will he go there 7 — ^He will go there to-day. — ^Does he 
intend to go to the ball tliis evening 7 — ^He does intend to go. — ^Have 
yott already been at the ball 7 — I have not yet been. — Wtnen do you 
intend to go there 7 — I intend to go to-morrow. — Have you already 
been in the Frenchman's garden 7 — ^I have not yet been in it. — ^Have 
TOO been in my warehouses 7 — ^I have been there. — ^Whon did you go 



there ? — ^I went this morning. — ^Have I been in your connling-boiiae, or 
in that of yonr Mend ? — ^Yon have neither been in mine, nor in that of 
my Mend, bnt in that of the Englishman. 

Has the Italian been in our warehouses, or in those of the Dutch ? 
— ^He has neither been in ours nor in those of the Dutch, but in those' 
of the Germans. — ^Hast thou already been at the market 7 — ^I have not 
yet been, but I intend to (Obs. B, Lesson XXI.) go there.— Has our 
neighbor's son been there ? — He has been there. — ^When has he been 
there 7 — ^He has been there to-day. — ^Does the son of our gardener in* 
tend to go to the market 7 — ^He does intend to go there. — ^What does 
he wish to buy there 7 — He wishes to buy some chickens, oxen, com^ 
wine, and cheese. —Have you already been at my brother's house 7 — 
I have already been there, (oZZa.)— Has your friend already been 
there ? — ^He ha& not yet been there. — ^Have we already been at our 
friends' 7 — ^We nave not yet been there. — ^Have our Mends ever been 
at our house 7 — ^They have never been. — Have you ever been at the 
theatre 7 — ^I have never been. — ^Have you a mind to write an exercise 7 
— ^I have a mind to write one. — ^To whom do you wish to write a letter 7 
—I wish to write one to my son. — ^Has your father already been at the 
concert 7 — ^He has not yet been, but he intends to go. — ^Does he intend 
to go there to-day 7 — ^He intends to go there to-morrow. — ^At what 
o'clock will he set out 7 — ^He vnll set out at half-past six. — Does he 
intend to leave (salir) before he breakfasts 7 — ^He intends to break&st 
before he leaves. 

Have you been to the play as early as 1 7 — ^I have been (there) eariier 
iian you. — ^Have you often been at the concert 7 — ^I have often been 
[there.) — ^Has our neighbor been at the theatre as often as we 7 — ^He 
nas been (there) oftener than we. — ^Do our Mends go to their counting- 
nouse too early 7 — ^They go there too late. — ^Do they go there as late 
as we 7 — ^They go there later than we. — ^Do the Elnglish go to their 
warehouses too early 7 — They go there too early. — ^Is your Mend as 
oft^n in the counting-house as you 7 — ^He is (there) oftener than I. — 
What does he do there 7 — ^He writes. — ^Does he write as much as you ^ 
— He writes more than I. — ^Where does your Mend remain 7 — ^He re- 
mains m his counting-house. — ^Does he not go out 7 — ^He does not go 
out — ^Do you remain in the garden 7 — ^I do remain there. — ^Do' you go 
to your Mepd every day 7 — I do go to him every day. — ^When does he 
come to you 7 — ^He comes to me every evening. — ^Do you go anywhere 
in the evening 7 — I go nowhere ; I stay at home. — ^Do you send for 
any one 7 — ^I send for my physician. — Does your servant go for any 



thing t — Ho goes for some wine. — Have you been anywhere this mom 
mg ?— 1 have been nowhere. — ^Where has your father been ? — ^He haa 
been nowhere. — When do you drink (Lesson XXVI.) tea ? — I drink 
■ome (e2) every morning. — ^Does your son drink coffee ? — He drinka 
chocolate* — ^Have you been to drink some coffee 7 — ^I have been to drink 

TH1RTY-SECX)ND LESSON.— Lcccton Trigenma segvnda. 

To ktne — bady (auxiliary ) 
To Aose— bad, (active.) 

Have yoo lad my book? 

I have not had it 


You have bad it 

Have I not bad it 7 

Yoa have not had it 

Thou hast not had it 

Has he had it? 

He has bad it 

He has not had it 

Hast thoQ had the coat 1 

I have not had it 

I have had them. 
I have not had them. 
Have I had them ? 
Yoa have had them. 
You have not had them. 
Has be had them? 
He has not bad them. 
Have yoa had any bread ? 
I have had some, (a little.) 
I have not had any. 
Have you had any ? 
Have I had any ? 
Yoa have had some. 
Yoa have not had any. 
Has be had any 7 
He has not bad any. 

Have yoa had any knives? 
I have had some. 
I have not had any. 


Tetter — tenido. 

I Ha tenido V. mi libro? 

No le he tenido. 

^ Le he tenido yo 7 

v. le ha tenido. 

I No le he tenido yo ? 

y. no lo ha tenida 

Tn no le has tenido. 

^ Le ha tenido ^1 7 

£l le ha tenido. 

tj\ no le ha tenida 

I Has tenido el vestido ? 

Yo no le he tenido. 

Yo los he tenido 
No los he tenido. 
I Los ho tenido yo ? 
v. los ha tenido. 
V. no los ha tenida 
I Los ha tenido ^I 7 
£I no los ha tenida 
I Ha tenido V. pan ? 
He tenido on poco. 
Yo no he tenido ninguna 
I Ha tenido V. algouo? 
I He tenido yo alguno ? 
y. ha tenido un poco. 
y. no ha tenido ningana 
I Ha tenido 61 un poco ? 
£1 no ha tenido ninguna 

I Ha tenido Y. algimos cochilks f 
He tenido alganos, nnos. 
Nin^nofl he tenida 




What has he had 7 
He has had nothiug. 

I Que ha tenido €1 1 

No ha teuido nada. Nada ha (onide 

Have yoa heen hougry 7 
I have been afraid. 
He has never been either right or 

To take place* 

That, (meaning that thing.) 

Does the ball take place this even- 

It does take place. 

It takes place this evening. 

It does not take place to^ay. 

When did the ball take place 7 
When has the baU taken place 7 

It took place yesterday. 

It has taken place yesterday. 

rhe day before yesterday. 

How many times, (how often 7) 


Many times. 
Several times. 

I>o you go sometimes to the baH 7 


t I Ha teuido V. hambre f 
t Yo ho tenido miedo. 
t £1 nunca ha tenido» ni ha dejadc 
de tentr razon. 


{ Teneree, ^Verifiearee. 
< CeUbraree* Dorse, Haber. 
{ peiBonuI.) 
I Esq. Aquello. 

t ^ Se ceiebra el baile esta noche? 
, Se da el baile esta nocfae7 
Hay baile esta noche 7 
I t Se ceiebra. Se da le hoy. 
i t Se ceiebra esta noche. 
^ Se da esta noche, &c. 

it No se ceiebra hoy. No se da hog 
No le hay hoy. 


r t i Cuando se coIebnS 7 

I 1 1 Cuando se did el baile 7 

I 1 1 Cuando se ha tenido baile 7 

L 1 2, Cuandoha habido baile 7 ^^ 

t Se di6 ayir. /' 

Se celebrd ayer. 
. Se tnvo ayer. 

I Ayer. 

\ Anteayer. Antier. 

iCnantas voces 7 

Una vez. 

Dos voces. 

Muchas voces. 

Vaiias voces. Algunas vece& 

r Antfguamente. En otro tiempo 
r En tiempo pasado. En lo pasado 
' Antes de eete tiempo. 
I Algunas voce& 

I Va v. algunas voces a] bailof 
Voy algunas vecea. 




Gone there. 
Hare ?oa gone thej-e sometimes ? 
I hare gone there often. 
Oftener thaii you. 

Have you not had ? 

Have they not had any bread ? 

Uivo the men had my trunk 7 

They have not had it 
Who has had it 7 
Have they had my knhres 7 
Have they not had them 7 
They have not had them 
Who has had them 7 


Ido— alI4. 

I Ha ido y. all4 algunas voces 7 

He ido alisL 4 menudo. 

Mas & menudo que V. 

iNoha tenido V.7 

I No han ellos tenido pan 7 

I Han tenido mi cofre (mi haul) loi 

hombres 7 
No le han tenido. 
I Qaien le ha tenido 7 
I Han tenido ellos mis cuchillos 7 
I No los han tenido ellos 7 
No los han tenido. 
I Quien los ha tenido 7 

Have I been wrong in buying books? 
Yon have not been wrong in buying 

When had I it, (when have I had 

' itT) 

Where had yon them? (have you 

Have you had any thing 7 
I have had nothmg. 

' The watch. 

1 1 He hecho mal en comprar libros7 
t V. no ha hecho thai en comprar 

I Cuando le he tenido 1 

I Donde los ha tenido V.-7 

I Ha tenido V. algo7 
Nada he tenido. 

El reloj. Rekjes, (pi) 

Have you had my dog ? — ^I have had it — ^Have you had my glove ? 
—I have not had it. — ^Hast thou hid my umbrella ? — I have not had it 
— ^Have I had your knife ? — ^You have had it. — ^When had I it ? — ^Yoh 
had it yesterday. — Have I had yoiur gloves ? — ^You have had them — 
Has your brother had my iron haiimer ? — ^He has had it. — ^Has he had 
my golden knife ? — He has not J»ad it. — Have the English had my 
beautiful ship? — ^They have had i*. — ^Who has had my leather shoes ? 
^Your servants have had them.- -Have we had the iron trunk of oui 
good neighbor ?— •■We have had it — ^Have we had his fine gun ? — We 
have not had it — Have we had the mattresses of the foreigners ?— 
We have not had them. — ^Has the American had my good watch ?— 
He has had it — ^Has he had my iron knife ? — ^He has not had it — ^Haa 
the young man had the first volume of my dictionary ?— He has not 


bad Lie first, but the second. — ^Has he had it ? — ^Yes, Sir, he has had it 
— ^When has he had it ? — ^He has had it this morning. — Have you had 
any sugar ? — ^I have had some. — ^Have I had any goo(i paper ?-»-Yoo 
have not had any. — ^Has the cook of the Russian captain had ai.y 
chickens ? — ^He has had some. — He has not had any. 

Has the Frenchman had good wine ? — ^He has had some, and he has 
still (aun) some. — Hast thou had large cakes ? — ^I have had some.— 
Has thy brother had any ? — ^He has not had any. — ^Has the son of our 
gardener had any bread ? — He has had some. — ^Have the Poles had 
good tobacco ? — They have had some. — ^What tobacco have they had ? 
— They have had tobacco and snuff. — Have the English had as much 
sugar as tea ? — ^They have had as much of the one as of the other. — 
Has the physician been right ? — ^He has been wrong. — Has the Dutch- 
man been right or wrong ? — He has never been either right or wrong, 
(see Lesson VI.) — ^Have I been wrong in buying a horse ? — ^You have 
been wrong in buying one. — What has the painter had ? — ^He has had 
fine pictures. — Haa he had any fine gardens ? — ^He has not had any. — 
Has your servant had my shoes ? — ^He has not had them. — What has 
the Spaniard had ? — He has had nothing. — ^Who has had courag6 ? — 
The English sailors have had some. — Have the Germans had many 
friends? — ^They have hnd many. — ^Have we had more friends than 
enemies ? — We have had more of the latter than of the former. — ^Has 
your son liad more wine than bread ? — He has had naore of the latter 
than of the former. — ^Ha^ the Turk had more paper than com ? — ^He 
has had less of the latter than of the former. — Has the Italian painter 
had any thing ? — ^He has had nothing. 

Have I been right in writing to my brother ? — You have not been 
wrong in writing to him. — ^Have you had a sore finger ? — ^I have had a 
sore eye. — ^Have you had any thing good ? — ^I have had nothing bod. — 
Did the ball take place yesterday ? — It did not take place. — Does it 
take place to-day ? — ^It takes place to-day. — When does the ball take 
place ? — It takes place this evening. — Did it take place the day before 
yesterday ? — ^It did take place. — At what o'clock did it take place ? — 
It took place (it has taken place) at eleven o'clock. — Did you go to 
my brother's ? — I went. — How often have you been at my friend's 
house ? — ^I have been twice. — Do you go sometimes fo the theatre ? — 
I go sometimes. — ^How many times have you been at the theatre ? — ' 
I have been only once. — ^Have you sometimes been at the ball ? — I have 
often been. — ^Has your brother ever gone to the ball ? — ^He has never 
gone. — ^Has he gone there as often as you ? — fle has gone oftener 


dian I. — Dost thou go sometimes into the garden ? — ^I go sometimes.— 
Hast thou often been there ? — I have often been tliere. — ^Does yoni 
old cook often go to the market ? — ^He goes there often. — ^Does he go 
there*a8 often as my gardener? — He goes oftener than be. — ^Did that 
take place ? — ^It did take place. — ^When did that take place ? — ^I do not 

Have you formerly gone to the ball ? — ^I have gone there sometimes. 
— ^When hast thou been at the concert ? — I was (I have been) the 
day before yesterday. — ^Didst thou find anybody {alguna genie) there ? 
— ^I found nobody there. — ^Hast thou gone to the ball oftener than thy 
brodiers ? — ^I have not gone thither so often as they. — Has your friend 
often been at the play 7 — ^He has been there sevend times. — ^Have you 
" scxnetimes been hungry ? — ^I have often been hungry. — ^Has your valet 
often been thirsty ? — ^He has never been either hungry or ^rsty.— 
Did you go to the play early ? — I went late. — ^Did I go to the ball as 
«arly as you ?— You went earlier than I. — ^Did your brother go there 
too late ? — ^He went there too early. — ^Have your brothers had any 
thing ? — ^They have had nothing. — ^Who has had my sticks and my 
gloves ? — Your servant has had both. — Has he had my hat an'd my 
gun 7-^He has had both. — ^Hast thou had my horse or my brother's ? — 
I have had neither yours nor your brother's. — ^Have I had your note or 
the physician's ? — ^You have had neither the one nor the other. — ^What 
has the physician had ? — He has had nothing. — Has anybody had my 
golden candlestick 7 — Nobody has had it. — ^Has any one had my silver 
knives 7 — No one has had them. 

THIRTY-THIRD LESSON.—Iieccion Trigesvma tercera. 
OF THl* PERFECT TENSE.— DeZ Priterito Perfects Prdximo 

The pretcriio perfeeto prdximo (the perfect tense) is formed from the 
present of haher, (to have,) aud the past participle of the verb which is to 
be conjugated. 

This tense is used to express a thing done at a time designated in an in- 
detenninate manner, or at a time past, but of which something yet re- 
mains ; as, Yo he aprendido la gramdtica — I have learned grammar ; Ht 
tftudiado esta manana — I have studied this morning. 

To make, to do. Made, done. I Hacer. Hecho, 
What have you ione ? I i Que ha hecho V.? 

( No he hocho nada. 
I have done nothing ^ j,ada he hecho 




Has that shoemaker made my shoes ? 

He has made them. 

He has not made them. 

To putt to fut eru Put, put on. 

Have you pot on your shoes? 
( have put them on. 

To take off. Taken off. 
Have yon taken off your gk»ves7 
I have taken them off. 

I Ha hecho mis zapatoi* aqoel lapa* 

£l los ha hecho. 
No los ha hecho. 
Fdner, pomree, Pueeto, 

(See the verb Poner in App.) 
t ^ Se ha puesto V. k)s zapatoe ? 
f Me los he puesta 
i^uitaTBe. Quitado, 
t ^ Se ha quitado V. lot guantes t 
t Yo me los he quitado. 

To tell, to say. Told, eaid. 

Have yon said the proverbs 7 
I have^said them. 
Have you told me the proverb 7 
1 have told you the proverb. 

I have told it you. 

The proverb. 
That, (meaning that thing,) 
This, (meaning this thing,) 

Has he told yon that ? 

He has told me that. 
Have I told you that 7 
You have told me that 

Decir • 3. Dieho, 

(Seo this verb m App^) 
4 Ha dicho V. los refranes ? 
Yo loshexlicho. 
I Me ha dicho V. el refran ? 
Yo he dicho el refran & V. 
Yo le he dicho sL V. 
Se le he dicho 4 V. 

EI refran. £1 proverbio 

Eso, Aquello. 


I Ha dicho ^1 e8ok\,t 

I Le ha dicho esto 4 V. 7 

Me ha dicho eso, 

I He dicho yo eeo & V. 7 

v. me ha dicho eso. 

lU \Lo. 

Obs. This, that, an4 it, are translated as above when they do not 
rofer to a noun. Esto, eso, and aquello, may be either the subject or th« 
skjtei of the verb, but lo k most always the object of the verb. 

Have you told it me 7 
I have told it you. 
I have not told it you. 
Has he told it yon 7 
He has told it me. 
He has not told it me. 
Have you told him that 7 
I have told it him, (to hhn.) 
You have told it him. 
He has told it him. 

I Me lo ha dicho V. 7 
Yo se lo he dicho & V. 
No se lo he dicho 4 V. 
£l me lo ha dicha 
1^1 no me lo ha dicha 
^ Le ha dicho V. eso 7 
Yo se lo he dicha 
y. se lo ha dicho (i 6\,) 
(£l) se lo ha dicho & 41 



Hx?9 y«a told it them* (to them t) 
I have told it them. 

^ Se io ha dicho V. 4 ellot? 
Yo se lo he dicho 4 elloe. 

Have yoa spoken to the men? 

( have spoken to them. 

To whom did yon qtoak, (have yon 

Which proverhs has he written? 
He lias written thoee which you see. 

I Ha habiado V. 4 loe hombreoT 

Yo les he hablada 

I A quien ha hahlado V. t 

I Que refranes ha escrito H 1 
£1 ha escrito los que V. y6. 

To drink. Drunk. 
To $ee. Seen. 
To read. Read. 
Te be acquainted with. Been aC' 
quainted with. 



Fit^o— (See App.) 


Which men hare yon teen t 

I ha?e seen thoee. 

Which books have yon read T 

I ha?e read thoee which yon lent 

Have yoQ been acquainted with theee 

C haye not been acquainted with 


I Que hombrea ha Tvto ¥.7 

He Tiato d aquelloo. 


Yo he leido los qua V. me ha pratftp 

I Ha conocldo V. 4 eatoa hombvea? 

Yo no loa he conocida 

Hare yon seen any n:!aia T 
( have seen some. 
( hare not seen any. 


I Ha yisto V. 4 algunos mattnerost 
He visto 4 algrunoe. 
A unguBos he yisto. 


To throw. 

To throw awm^ 
Who calk me? 
Four father calls you. 
Have yon called the boys? 
I have not called them. 
Do you throw your money away? 
I do not throw it away. 
Who throws away his books? 
Have you thrown away any thing? 
C haye thrown away my gloyes. 

Are yon willing? 
lam willing ta 

Tirar, Arrojar. 

Deeperdieiar. Botar. 

I Quien me llama? 

Su padre de V. le llama. 

I Ha llamado V. 4 los muchadiost 

No los he llamado. 

I Desperdicia V. sn duMio? 

No, yo no le desperdick), (or boUk) 

I Quien tira sua Ubros? 
t Ha tirade y.algo? 

Yo he tirade mis guantes. 
iQaiere v.? 

I I Tiene V. gana de? 
i Yo quiero. 

\ > t Tengo gana de 


Are you ill 7 
I am. 

Ettar malo, EnfeniM 
tEstd V. malo? 
Si. Lo eotoy. 

llave you any thing to do ? — I have nothing to do. — ^Wnat hast thoq 
done ? — I have done nothing. — ^Have I done any thing ? — You have 
done something. — ^What have I done ? — You have torn my books.— 
What have your children done ? — ^They have torn their clothes.— What 
have we done ? — ^You have done nothing; but your brothers have burnt 
my fine pencils. — ^Has the tailor already made your coat ? — ^He has not 
yet made it. — ^Has your shoemaker already nuide your shoes ? — ^He has 
already made them. — ^Have you sometimes made a hat ? — ^I have never 
made one. — Have our neighbors ever made books ? — ^They made some 
formerly. — ^How many coats has your tailor made? — He has made 
twenty or thirty. — ^Has he made good or bad coats ?— He Jiaa made 
(both) good and bad. — ^Has your father put on his coat ? — ^He has not 
yet put it on, but he is going to put it on. — Has your brother put his 
shoes on ? — ^He has put them on.— ^Have our neighbors put on their 
6hoes and their pantaloons.? — ^They have put on neither, (m uTtos ni 
otros,) — ^Wliat has the physician taken away ? — ^He has taken away 
nothing. — ^^Tiat have you taken off? — ^I have taken off my large hat 
— ^Have your children taken off their gloves ? — They have taken them 
off. — ^When did the ball take place? — ^It took place the day before 
yesterday. — ^Who has told you that ? — My servant has told it to me. — 
What has your l»other tdd you 7 — ^He has told me nothing. — ^Did 1 
tell you that ? — ^You did not tell it to me. — ^Has he told it to you ? — ^He 
has told it to me. — ^Who has tdd it to your neighbor ? — ^Tl^ English 
have told it to him. — Have they told it to the French 7 — They have tok) 
it to them. — ^Who has told it to you 7 — ^Your son has told it to me. — ^Has 
he told it to you 7^He has told it to me. — ^Are you willing to tell youi 
friends that 7 — I am willing to tell it to them. 

Are you the brother of that young man 7 — ^I am. — ^Is that young 
man your son ? — He is.— Are your friends as rich as they say 7 — ^They 
are so. — ^Are these men as learned as they say 7 — They are not so. — 
Do you sweep the warehouse often 7 — ^I sweep it as often as I can.— 
Has our neighbor money enough to boy some coal 7 — ^I do not know. 
— ^Has your cook gone to the market ? — He has not gone. — Is he ill ? 
— He is. — Am I ill ? — ^You are not. — Are you as tall (alto) as I ?— 1 
am. — ^Are you as fatigued as vour brother ? — I am more 80 than he. — 


Bave you written a letter ?— I have not written a letter, but an exer- 
cise. — ^What have your brothers written? — They have written their 
exercises. — ^When did they write them ? — ^They wrote {have written) 
them yesterday. — ^Have you written your exercises ? — ^I have written 
tliem. — ^Has your friend written his ? — ^He has not written them yet— 
Which exercises has yuur little brother written 7 — He has written his 
own. — ^Uave you spoken to my father ? — ^I have spoken to him. — When 
did you speak to him ? — ^I spoke to him the day before yesterday. — ^IIow 
many times have you spoken to the captain ? — ^I have spoken to him 
sevi^ times. — ^I^ve you often spoken to his son? — ^I uive often 
spoken to him. — To which men has your friend sooken? — ^He has 
spoken to ^lese and to those. 

Have you spoken to the Russians ? — ^I have spoken to them. — ^Hav^ 
the English ever spoken to you ? — They have often spoken to me. — 
What has the German told you ? — He has told me the proverbs. — 
Which proverbs has he told you ? — He has told me these proverbs. — 
What have you to tell me ? — ^I have a few proverbs to tell you. — Which 
exercises has your friend written? — ^He has written those. — Which 
.,.Jx>oks have your children read ? — ^They bave read those which you 

have lent them. — Have you seen those men or those ? — ^I have neither 

^seen these nor those. — ^Which men have you seen 7 — I have seen those 
to whom {6 qmenes) you have spoken. — ^Have you been acquainted 
with these men 7 — ^I have been acquainted with them. — ^With which 
boys has your brother been acquainted 7— He has been acquainted with 
these of our merchant — ^Have I been acquainted with these French- 
men 7 — You have not been acquainted with them. — ^Which ^(dne has 
your servant drunk 7 — ^He has drunk mine. — ^Have yon seen my bro- 
thfrs? — ^I have seen them. — ^Where have you seen th6m7 — I have 
seen them at their own house. — Have you ever seen Greeks 7 — ^I have 
never seen any. — ^Hos your fiither seen any 7 — ^He has sometimes seen 
some. — ^Do you call me 7—1 do call you. — ^Who calls your brother 7 — 
My father calls him. — ^Dost thou call any one 7 — ^I call no one. — Have 
you thrown away your hat 7 — ^I have not thrown it away.— Does your 
fiither throw away any thing 7 — ^He throws away the letters which he 
receives. — ^Have you thrown away your pencils 7 — ^l have not thrown 
them away. — Dost thou throw away thy book? — ^I do not throw it 
iway ; I want it to (para) study (el JSspaHot) Spanish. 



THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Lcccion Trigesima cuarta. 
To light, (kindle,) lighted, (lit.) 

To extinguifiii, extuiguished. 

To opeu, opened. 

To be able, (can,) been able, (coald.) 

To be willing, been willing. 

Encender < 
( Extinguir, 
1 1 Apagar, 
Querer *, 








In neater yerbe the action is intransitive, Jiat is, it remains in the agi)nt 
In Spanish, neater verbs form their compouna tenses with haber, (to have ;) 
therefore their past participles are invariable. 

C Partir, Partido. 
} Salir. Salido, 
( Marcharse. Marchado, 
Salir — Salido. Irse — Ido. 

To Bet out. Set out. 

To go oat GoQe out 
To come. Come. 

Has your father set out 7^ 
Have your friends set out? 

They have not set out 

Venif. Venido. 

i Se ha ido el padre de V.? 

I Se ha marchado el padre de V. 7 

I Se han ido (marchado) los amigos 

No se han ido, (marchado.) 

When did yoor brothers go oat 7 ) ^ Coando se han ido (oarchado) los 
When have yoor brothers gone out 7 ) hermanos de V.7 
They went out at ten o'clock. ) EUlos se han ido (marchado) i las 

They have gone out at ten o'clock. ) diez. 

They have come to him. 

Have the men come to your father 7 i i Han venido los hombres & casa de 
. I su padre de V. 7 

iSi, han venido. . Han venido aqui. 
Han venido 6 casa. 

06«. When did yoor farothen go out? They went out at torn 
o'clock. — ^UntU the learner is acquainted with the Pretirito Perfecto Re* 
moto, (imperfect tense,) he must use the Spanish Pretirito Perfecto Prdx" 
mo, (perfect tense ;) therefore, before translating the above two sentences, 
they must be changed into. When have your brothers gone out 7 They 
have gone out at ten o'clock. — i Citando han miUdo lot hermanos de V,T 
Han ealido & las diez. 

Which fires have you extinguished 7 
WUoh itorehouses have you opened 7 

I Que fuegos han apagrado V V 7 
I Que almacenes han abierto W ^ 



Bav<9 yoa conducted them to the 

storehouse ? 
I have couducted them there. 
^Vhich books have you taken ? 
How many notes have yoa receiTed 7 

We have received hat one. 

t'pon the bench. 
The bench. 
Upon it 


Under the hench. 

Under it 
Where is my hat? 
It IB upon the bench. 
Are my gloves on the bench T 
They are under it 

Do yoa learn to read ? 

I ^ (}%Km it) 

I learn to write. 

Have you learned to speak ? 

We have (learned that) 

In the storehoose 
In the hearth. 
In it Within, 

I Los ha conduckto V. al alniacen 7 

Los he conducido alli. 
I Que lihros ha tornado V. 7 
iCaantos billetee hau rccibido VV.1 
Homos recibido solamente uuo. 
No hemes recibido sino uno 

Sobre, (prep.) 
Sobro ei banco. - ^ 
El banco. 


Dehajo de, BaJ^. 

Debajo del banco. 

Dehajo de ^1. Debaja 

I En donde esti mi sombrero 7 

Est& sobre el banco. 

I Estan mis guantes sobre el banool 

Estan deb^ Debajo de iL 

i Aprende V. dleor? 

Si, yo aprendo. Aprendo i, leer. 

Yo aprendo i, eocribir. 

I Han apreudido W. & hablar 7 

Si, hemes aprendido, (i hablar.) 

En el almaeen. 



To get wtended. To have mended. 

€ht mended. Had mended. 

To get wmehed. To have waehed. 
Got waehed. Had waehed. 
To get made. To have made. 
Oot made. Had made. 
To get ewept To have ewept. 
Oot ewept. Had ewept. 
To get eold. To have eold. 
GeieM. Had eold. 

Lavar 1. 

Mandar remendar, eompotufr, 
Haeer remendar, repagrar, 
Mandado remendar, 
Heche remendar, 
Mandar lavar, Haeer lavar. 
Mandado lavar, Hecho lavar, 
Mandar haeer. Haeer haeer, 
Mandado haeer. Heeho haeer, 
Haeer barrer. Mandar harrer. 
Heeho harrer. Mandado barrer, 
Haeer vender. Mandar vender, 
Hecho vender. Mandado 4fender. 


niiKTv-furiiiii r.KssoN. 

I'o g»t the coal mended. 

To have it mended. 

To get them mended. 

Are you getting a coat made 7 

Do you order a coat? 

I am getting one made. 

I have had one made 

Have you had your coat mended 7 
I have had it mended. 
i have not had it mended. 
I have had my shoes mended 
T have iiad them mended. 

1 1 1 Hacer rcniendai el vestidoi. 
1 1 1 Maudor remendar el vestidow 

t Hacerle remendar, (reparar.) 

t Hacerlos romendar, (reparar.) 

t i Se manda V. hacer un vestida f 

1 1 Se hizo v. hacer un veetido7 

t Mando hacenne uno. 

t Hago h&oerme una 

t Me he mandado hacer uno. 

-*- Me he hecho hacer una 

i i Ha hecho V. remendar su vesUdol 

t Yo le he hecho remoidar, (leparar.) 

t No le he hecho reparar. 

1 Yo he hecho remendar mis zapatoM 

t Los he hecho remendar. 

Enjugar, Enjiigado, {cnjuto, ir- 
regular participle.) 

I Cuando ? i Donde ? i En dondc 7 

I Ha yisto V. mis lihros 7 

Yo kw he vista 

To wipe, 

^ When? Where? 

J Have you seen my books 7 
/ I have seen them. 
' When did you see my brother 7 

When have you seen my brother? 

I gaw him the day before yesterday. J 

I have seen him the day before yes- > Yo le he yisto anteayer, (antier.) 
terday. } 

Where have you seen him 7 I i En donde le ha visto V. 7 

I have seen him at the theatre. | Yo le he visto en el teatio 

>> I Cuando ha visto V. i mi hermano { 

Where are your brothers gone to ? — ^They ire gone to the theatre. 
— When ('id the French boys come to your brother ? — They came to 
liim yesterday. — ^Did their friends also come ? — They came also. — 
Has any one come to ns 7— The good Germans have come to ns. — 
Has the servant carried my note 7 — ^He has carried it — ^Where has he 
carried it 7 — He has carried it to your friend. — ^Which books has the 
servant taken 7 — Ub has taken those which you do not read. — Have 
the merchants opened their storehouses 7 — They have opened them. — 
Which storehouses have they opened? — They have opened those 
which you have seen. — Which fires have the men extinguished ? — 
They have extinguished those which you have seen. — ^Have yon 
leceivcd any notes 7 — We have received some. — How many have you 
received 7 — Wo have received only one ; but our brotlier has received 
more than ^t he has '•eceived six. 

THmrr-FOURTH lesson. 133 

Where is my coot ? — ^It is upon the bench. — Are my shoes upon tlie 
bench ? — They are under it — ^Is the coal under the bench ? — It is in 
the hearth. — Have you put any coal into the hearth ? — ^I have put some 
mto it. — Are you cold ? — ^I am not cold. — ^Have you not been afraid to 
bom my papers ? — I have not been afraid to bum them. — Have 
you sent your little boy to market? — ^I have. — ^When? — ^This (la 
mahana) morning. — ^Have you written to your father ? — ^I have written 
to him. — ^Has he answered you ? — ^He has not yet answered me. — ^Are 
you getting your floor swept ? — ^I am getting it swept. — Have you had 
your counting-house swept ? — ^I have not had it swept yet, but I intend 
to have it swept to-day .^-Have you ever written to the physician ? — 
1 have never written to him, — ^liis he sometimes written to you ? — He 
has often written to me. — ^What has he written to you? — ^He has 
written something to me. — ^How many times have your friends written 
to you ? — They have vrritten to me more than twenty times. — Have 
you seen my sous 7 — I have never seen them. 

W Ha 


Have you already seen a Syrian? — ^I have alfeady seen one. — 
re have you seen one ? — ^At the theatre. — Have you given the 
book to my brother ? — ^I have given it to him. — Have you given money 
to thiQ^ merchant ? — ^I have given him some. — ^How much have you 
given to him ? — I have given to him* fourteen doUare.— Have you given ik, 
any gold forks to our neighbor's children '/ — ^I have given them s6kne. 
— ^WOt thou give me some wine ? — ^I have given you some already.— . 
When didst thou give me some ? — ^I gave you some this morning. — 
Wilt thou give me some now ? — ^I cannot give you any ; I have none. 
— Has the American lent you money J — He has lent me some. — Hat 
'the Italian ever lent you money ? — ^He has never lent me any. — Is he 
poor ? — ^He is not poor ; he is richer than you. — ^Will you lend me a 
dollar ? — ^I will lend you two. — ^Has he come earlier than I ? — At what V^ ' 
o'clock did you come? — ^I came at half-past five. — ^He has come 
earlier than you. 

Has the concert taken place ? — It has takmi place. — ^Has it taken 
place late ? — It has taken place early. — At what o'clock ? — At twelve. 
— At what o'clock has the ball taken place ? — ^It has taken place at 
midnight. — ^Does your brother learn to write ? — He does learn. — Does 
he know how (Lesson XXVII.) to read? — He does not know how yet 
— ^Do you know the Frenchman whom I know ? — ^I do not know the 
one whom you know, but I know another. — ^Does your friend know 
the same merchantB as I know ? — ^He does not know the same, but he 




knows others. — ^Have you ever had your coat mended ? — ^I haye some- 
times had it mended. — ^Hast thou had thy hat or thy shoe mended ?— 
[ have neither had the one nor the other mended. — ^Have you had your 
coats or your gloves washed ? — ^I have neither had the one nor the 
other washed. — ^Has your father had any thing made 7 — ^He has not had 
any thing made. — ^Have you looked for my gloves ? — ^I have looked for 
them. — ^Where have you looked for them ? — ^I have looked for them 
upon the bed, and have found them under (it.)— Have you found ray 
letters in the hearth ? — ^I have found them in iL — ^Have yon found my 
pantaloons under the bed ? — I have found them upon it, (eUa.) 

THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Leccion Trigisima qunuj. 

To promiMCf promiMed, 
To learn, learned. 

Do you promiM me to come? 
I do promkie you, (it to you.) 
What have you promised the man? 

I have promised him nothing. 

Have yon ever learned Spanirii ? 

I letaied it formeriy. 

I have learned it formerly. 

Protneter, pronetidom 

Aprender, aprendido. 

I Me promote V. venir 7 
Se lo prometo i V. 
I Que ha prometido V. al hombre ? 
Yo no le he prometido nada. 
Nada le he prometido. 
^Ha aprendido V. alguna veg d 

Yo le he aprendido en otro tiempo. 

To wear out 
To refute. 



So. Thus. 

So 99. 

In tki9 manner. 

How has your bcoCher written hk 

He has written it wed 

Uear. Oaetar. Consumir. y^,^^ 
Rehuear. "Negar^^ — i i,k£.o;^M 
Deleirear. ' \ \ > •>+<>- 



t De 9uerte ^ue. 


t Deettemodo. De e9ta mmn^ra. 


^Como ha esciito so tema so her* 

Le ha esorito bien. 

To dry. 

To put to dry. 


Poner d oeear. Haeer oeemr. 

thirty'-fifth lesson. 


Po jDO pot your coat to diy 7 

I do put it to dry. 
The coat. 
How old 7 

Bow old are yoa X 

I am tweWe yean old. 

Ho\? old is Tour brother ? 

He is thizteen years dd. 

He is ahnost fourteen yean old. 

AbcfKL Nearly. 
I am about fifteen yean old. 
He is nearly eighteen yean old. 

Something like. 
He is something like thirty. 

Not quite. 

Tarn not quite sixteen yean old. 

Art thou older than thy brother ? 

I am younger than he. 
Old, (in years.) 

I Pone V. & secar so castxa ? 

I Hace V. secar su casaca ? 

Yo la pongo & secar, (or la hago secai.) 

La casaca, (fern.) 

I Que edad ? i Cuantoe aiioe 7 
t^QueedadUene v.? 

I I Cuantoe ailos tiene V. T 
t Tengo doce aflos. 

I t ^Cuantos afios tiene sn hermano 
.* deV.? 

^\^ I Que edad tiene su hermano de V.T 
Tiene trece ajlos. 


Tiene casi catorce ailos. 

Cerea de, Poeo mae 6 miuot de. 

t Tengo cerca de quince alios. 

t Tiene diez y echo alios pooo mas 6 

Como tmos, (unae, fem.) 
t £l tiene como unos treinta alios. 



I ApSnae. W-^- 

I N^todavia. Todavia no. 
^ t No tengo todavfa diez y seii 
( t Todavf a no tengo diei y seii 

Ci I Eres mayor que tu hermano 7 
} t ; E^res de mas edad que tu her« 
^ mano7 

it Soy menor. 
t Soy de m^nos edad que €i 
Soy mas j^yen que €{. 
t Tengo m^nos aiios que €. 
i Viejo. Anciano. 
\ Ayanzado en aiios, (or edad.) 

\vK A ,' 

There to. There are. \ Hay. 

?£:5ltl i Ha haWdcCp^tp-rticiple.) 

How many shillings are there hi one ^ t Cuantos reales hay en un peso 7 
^lar7 ) t ^ Cuantoe reales tiene un peoo ? 



.Eigbt I Ocho. \v '. . 

There m^e two sixpencea in .ne ahU- S Hay doe medioB en nn real, 
ling. (fUn real tiene dotmediot (reale 

,u- -^ 

To underftahd. 
To he(u\ 

To wait for. To expect 

Do yon understand me 7 

I do understand you. 

Haye you underatood the man 7 
I have understood him. 
I hear you, hut I do not understand 

Entender *yl.^ Comprender 2. 
.Otr»3. Sentir^ S, (In speaking 

Aguardar. Esperar, 


I Me comprende V. 7 

Me entiende V. 7 
Yo le comprendo i V. 
Yo le entiendo A V. 
I Ha entendido V. al hombre 7 
Yo U he co'mprendido. 
Yo oigo 4 v., pero tio le : »mprendo, 
(or entiendo.) 

The noise. 
The wind. 
The noise (roaring) of the wind. 

Do you hear the roaring of the 

I do hear it 

To bark. 
The barking. 
Have you heard the barking of the 

I have heard it 

Elruido. Elestruendo. Elestr^ito 

El yiento. 

El stuurro (or el bramido el estru- 

endo) del yiento. 
iOye V. (or'Vente V.) el sosuno 

I del viento 7 
S Si, le oigo. 

I I Si, le sienta 
Ladrar 1. 
El ladrido. 

I Ha oido V. los ladridos de los pet 

Loe he oido. 

SovM one. Somebody. 
Do you wait for somebody 7 
Do you expect some one 7 
Do you expect something? 
Do you wait for my brother 7 
I am waiting for him. 
Do you expect some friends 7 
I do expect some here. 

How much has your brother lost 7 

He has lost about one dollar. 
I haye lost more than he. 

I Alguien. Alguno. 

I I Aguarda V. i algnien, (d alguno?) 

' I Espera V. k alguien, (& alguno?) 

I Espera V. algo, (alguna coea?) 

I Aguarda V. d mi hermano 7 

Yo le estoy aguardando. 

I Espera V. i algunoe umigos 7 
i Yo aguardo d algunos aqui. 

I Cuauto ha perdido su hermano da 


Ha perdido cerca de un peso. 
Yo he perdido mas que €. 


To remain. \ Quedarse 1, (reflectiTc.) . 

C El hidalgo. = J^o *^ ^-"l^ ^^ \ 

The nobleman. < EI geutilhombre. Q 

( El noble. 

Noblemen. : Hidalgos. Geutilhombres. . Nobles. 

Gracioso. Bonito. Benigno. 
Mansb, (in speaking of animals.) 
I Donde se ha qnedado el hidalgo ? 
Se ha quedado en casa. 
t Se ha quedado V. con ^l? ^ f 
Con. ■ Av ' >i^ 

Ck>nmigo. v3^v 

Nadu. Ninguno, >\ \ 

Lo que, vv ^ _ 

El polwe. >^^s>l>:*S^i.*^^ 

Gentle. Prettj. 
Gentle. Tame. «1 

Where has the noUeman remained 7 
He has remained at home. 
HaTe yoa remained with him ? 
With me. 
Nobody, No one* 
What, (that which.) 
The pauper. 

Do jon promise me to come to the ball ? — ^I do promise you. — ^Have 
I promised you any thing ? — ^You have promised me nothing. — What 
DOS my fiither promised you ? — ^He has promised me a fine book. — 
Have you received it ? — Not yet. — ^Do you give me what (lo que) you 
have promised me ? — ^I give it you. — ^Has your friend received much 
monpy 7 — ^He has received but little. — ^How much has he received ? — 
He has received but one dollar. — ^How much money have you given 
to my son ? — I have given him thirty shillings. — ^Have you not promised 
him more ? — I have given him what I promised him. — ^Have you any 
Spanish money ? — I have some. — What money have you ? — ^I have 
dollars, shillings, and farthings. — ^How many sixpences are there in a 
shilling ? — There are two sixpences in a shilling. — Have you any six- 
pences ? — I have a few. — ^How many sixpences are there in a shilling ? 
— ^There are two. — And how many are there in a dollar ? — Sixteen. — / 

Will you lend me your coat ? — I will lend it you, but it is worn out. — t^ >*, 
Are your shoes worn out ? — They are not worn out. — WilTyou lend *•*-* ^ 
them to my brother ? — I will lend them to him. — To whom have you j^*^ ' 
lent your hat ? — ^I have not lent it ; I have given it to somebody. — ^To* ' -^^ *^ 
whom have you given it ? — I have given it to a pauper. ^ 

Does your little brother already know how to spell ? — ^He does 
know. — ^Does he spell well ? — ^He does spell well. — How has your • 
little boy spelt ? — ^He has spelt so-so. — ^How have your cliildren 
written their exercises 7 — They have written them badly. — Has mir 



neighbd)r lent you his gloves ? — ^He has refused to lend tLem to me.— 
Do you know Spanish ?— I know it. — Does your son speak Italian ?— 
He speaks it well. — ^How do your friends speak ? — ^They do not speak 
badly. — ^Do they listen to what you tell them ? — They listen to it— 
How hast thou learned English 7 — ^I have learned it in this manner. — 
Have you called me 7 — ^I hAve.not called you, but I have called your 
brother. — ^Is he come 7 — ^Not yet — Where did you wet your. clothes ? 
— ^I wetted them in the garden. — ^Will you put them to dry 7 — ^I have 
already put them to dry. — ^Does the nobleman wish to give me any 
thing to do 7 — ^He wishes to g^ve you something to do. — How old ai^ 
you 7 — ^I am hardly eighteen years old. — How old is your brother ? — 
He is twenty years old. — ^Are you as old as he ? — ^I am not so old. — 
I low old art thou 7 — ^I am about twelve years old. — ^Am I younger than 
^ou 7 — ^I do not know. — ^How old is our neighbor 7 — ^He is not quite 
tiiirty years old. — Are our friends as young as we 7 — ^Tney are older 
than we. — ^How old are they 7 — The one is nineteen, and the other ia 
twenty years old. — ^Is your fatKer as old as mine 7 — He ia dder 
than yours. I ^ / 

Have you read my book 7 — ^I have not quite read it yet — ^Has youi 
friend finished his books 7 — ^He has almost finished them. — ^Do you 
understand me 7 — ^I do understand yoxx. — Does the Frenchman under- 
stand us 7 — ^He does understand us. — ^Do you understand what we are 
telling you 7 — We do understand it. — ^Dost thou understand Spanish 7 
-—I do not understand it yet, but I am learning it — Do we understand 
the English 7 — ^We do not understand them. — ^Do the English under- 
stand us 7 — They do understand us. — ^Do we understand them 7 — We 
hardly understand them.-^Do you hear any noise 7 — I hear nothing. — 
Have you heard the roaring of the wind 7 — ^I have heard it — ^What do 
you hear 7 — ^I hear the barking of the dogs. — ^Whose (Lesson XXIX.) 
dog is this 7 — It is the dog of the Scotchman. — ^Has your fiuher lost 
as much money as 1 7 — ^He has lost more than you. — ^IIow much have 
I lost 7 — You have hardly lost a dollar. — Did your friends remain at 
the ball 7 — ^They remained there. — ^Do you know as much as the 
English physician 7 — ^I do not know as much as he. — ^How many hooka 
have you resAjl — I have almost read two. — Do you wait for any one 7 
^ ^ wait for no one. — ^Are you waiting for the man whom I saw this 
monung 7 — ^I am waiting for him. — ^Art thou waiting for thy book 7 — 
I am waiting for it. — ^Do you expect your father this evening 7 — ^I do 
expect him. — ^Do you expect some friends 7 — ^I do expect some. 

yflryC^ ' 



THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Lcccton TrigSsiTna sexta. 

r# heaU Beaten. 

TobUe. Bitten. 

Why do yoa beat the dog? 

I beat it, because it has bitten me. 

fOolpear 1. Golpeado, 
Apalear 1. Apaleado 
fDar*l, Dado, 
Pegar I, (familiar.) 
i Morder * 2. Mordido. 

i Porqu6 7 

I Porqad golpea V. el peno? 

Le golpeo (le doy) porque 

To owe. Owed, 
How much do yoa owe me ? 
I owe yoa fifty doUara. 

How much does this man owe yoa? 

He owes me six shillinga. 

Do oar Jieighbora owe aa mach as 

We owe more than they. 
How mach dost thoa owe ? 

Two hondred dollaiB. 

Five hundred dollare. 

One thousand doUara. 

A hundred. One hundred. 

Deber 2. Dehido, 

I Cuanto me debt: V. i 

Yo le debo d V. ciucuenta pesos, (or 

duros.) f 

I Cuanto debe i V. este hombre T 
£l me debe seis realee. 
I Deben nuestros vecinos tanto como 

Debemos mas que ellos 
I Cuanto debes tH ? 
Doscientos pesos. 
Quinientos pesos. 
Mil pesos. 

Ohe, Ciento, (huadred,"^ when immediately followed by a noun, drops 
the last syllable ; as. There ore places for one hundred men, and for one 
hnndred women — Hay plazas pora eien hombree, para cien mujeret. The 
numeral adjectives doecientoe, &c., retam the syllable, but change its 
termination to agree with the noun they refer to ; as, doecientoe bneyest 
doeeientas yncna. 

To have to. 

To be to. 

I am to. 
Where are yon to go this morning ? 
I am to go to the warehouse. 
Is your brother to come here to-day ? 

Soon, Shortly, 
He is to oome here soon. 

Tener que. Deber, 

Haber de, 


1 2, A donde ha de ir V. esta maiiana 7 

t He de ir al almacen. 

1 1 Ha de venir hoy aqu( su hermano 

Pronto. LtiegOtprontamente. 
t £l ha de vonir aquf prontow 



To retum, (to come back.) 
At what o'clock do you return from 

market ? 
I return at twelve o'clock. 
Does the servant return early from 

the warehouse ? 
He returns 'at •'ix o'clock in the 

At nine o'clock in the morning. 
At five o'clock in the evening. 
At eleven o'clock at night* 

Voher * 2. Vuelto, 

I A que hora vuelve V. del meicado* 

(de la plaza?) 
Yo vuelvo i las doce. 
I Vuelve el criado temprano del al« 

macen 7 
Vuelve a las seis de la mafiaxm. 

t A las nueve de la mafiana. 
t A las cinco de la tarde. 
t A las once de la noche 

How long? 

For, (relating to time.) 
How long has he remained there ? 

A minute. 

An hour. 

A day. 

A month. 

A yeaar. 

The summer. 

The winter. 
During the summer. 
For one month. 

To live, 

To remain, 

To reside. 



Where do you live? 

I live in Troy-street, number one 
hundred and twenty-two. 

Where did your brother live ? 

Where has your brother lived ? 

He lived in Rivoli-street — he has lived 
in Rivoli-street — number forty- 

Dost thou live at thy brother's house ? 

I do not live at his, but at my father's 

Does your friend still live where I 
have lived ? 

He lives no longer where you lived. 

He lives no longer where you have 

I Cuanto tiempo ? 
^ I Durante. 
I ' Mientrae, todo el, toda la. 

For. Durante. 

I Cuanto tiempo se ha quedado aL41 

Un minuto. 

Una hora, (fern.) 

Un dia. 

Un mes 

Un ano. 

El estfo. El verano 

El inviemo. 

Durante el verano. 

For un mos. 
; Vivir, 
( Farar, 


I En donde vive V. ? 

Yo vivo en la calle de Troya, mimeco 
ciento vointidoe. 

I En donde ha vivido su hormano de 


Ha vivido en la calle de RiyoK, ntl- 
mero cuarenta y nueve. 

I Vives tii en casa de tu hermano 7 
Yo no paro en la casa de mi herma- 
no, pero vivo en casa do mi padre 
j,Vive todavia su amigo de V. er 
donde yo he vivido ? 

»r, \ 


Ya no vive mas en donde V. h« 


THiRTr-sirrH lesson. 


No longet. 
Do yoa speak to that mao 7 
I ipeak to him no looger. 
How bog have you been speaking to 

that man? 
I have ipoken to him for two honn. 
Did yoa remain long with my &thdr7 
Ha?e yen remained Umg with my 

1 remainad with him an hour. 
Longy (relating to time.) 
Not long, (relating to time.) 
The anmber. 
Other. Otkerf. 
Do you «e the men whom I see? 
I do not see those whom you see, 
but I me others. 


I Habla V. i ese hombre ^ 

Ya (yo) no le hablo maa. 

j,Cuanto tiempo ha estado V ha- 

blando i este hombre 7 
Yo le he hablado dorante dos hoias. 

I^Ha parado V. largo (or macho) 
. tiempo en casa de mi padre ? 

t Me detuve mia hoi a en sn casa. 
Largo tiempo. Mueho tiempo. 
No macho (largo) tiempo. 
El nttmero. 
Otro. * Otroe. 

I V< V. A los hombres qae ye reo 7 
Yo no veo & los que V. v6, pero veo 

Wljy do you not drink ? — ^I do not drink because I am not thirsty. — 
Why do you pick up this nail ? — ^I pick it up because I want it. — ^Why 
do you lend money to this man ? — I lend him money because he wants 
6ome.— Why does your brother study ? — He studies, because he wishes 
to learn Spanish. — ^Has your cousin drunk already ? — ^He has not yet 
drank, because he has not yetTeen thirsty. — Does the servant show 
yoa the floor which he sweeps ? — ^He does not ghow me that which he 
sweeps now, bat that which he swept (he has swept) yesterday. — 
Why do you love that man ? — ^I love him, because he is good. — Why 
does your neighbor boat his dog ? — ^Because it has bitten his boy. — 
W'ly do our friendd love us ? — They love us because we are good. — 
Why do you bring me' wine ? — ^I bring you some because you are 
ihirsty. — Why does the sailor drink ? — ^He drinks because he is thirsty. 
—Do you see the sailor who is in the ship ? — ^I do not see the one who 
is in the ship, but the one who is in Ihe market — ^Do you read the 
books which my father has given you ? — ^I do read them. — ^Do you 
understand them ? — ^I understand them so-so. — ^Do you know the 
Italians whom we know ? — ^We do not know ihose whom you know, 
but we know others. — ^Does the shoemaker mend the shoes wliich 
you have sent hira? — ^He does not mend them, because they are 
warn out. 



Is your servant relumed from market ? — ^He is not yet returned.^ 
How long do yoa intend 'to remain at the ball ? — ^I intend to remain 
there a few minutes. — ^How long did the Frenchman remain with you ? 
— He remained with me for two hours. — ^How long did your brothers 
remain in town, (la ciudad J) — ^They remained there (en ella) during 
the winter. — ^Do you intend to remain long with us ?-^I intend to 
remain with you during the summer. — ^How much do I owe you ? — 
You do not owe me much. — ^How much do you owe your tailor? — 
I owe him eighty dollars. — ^How much dost thou owe thy shoemaker ? 
— ^I owe him already eighty-five shillings. — ^Do I owe you any thing ? — 
You owe me nothing. — ^How much does the Englishman owe vou ? — 
He owes me more than you. — ^Do the English owe as much as the 
Spaniards? — ^Not quite so much. — ^Do I owe you as much as my 
brother ? — You owe me more than he. — ^Do our friends owe you as 
much as we ? — ^They owe me less than you.— How much do they 
owe you ? — ^They owe me two hundred and fifty dollars. — ^How much 
do we owe you ? — You owe me three hundred dollars. 

Why do you give money to the merchant ? — ^I give him some, be- 
cause he has sold me something. — ^Where are you to go ? — ^I am to go 
to the market — ^Is your friend to come hither to-day ? — ^He is to come 
hither. — ^When is he to come hither ? — ^He is to come hither soon.-— 
When are our sons to go to the play ? — They are to go (there) to-night. 
— ^When are they to return (from it ?) — They are to return from it at 
half-past ten. — ^When aip you to go to the physician ? — ^I am to go to 
him at ten o'clock at night. — When is your son to return from the 
painter's ? — ^He is to return fit>m him at five o'clock in the evening. — 
Where do you live ? — ^I live in Rivoli-street, number forty-seven, — 
Where does your father live ? — ^He lives at his friend's house. — ^Where 
do your brothers live? — ^They live in William-street, number one 
nundred and twenty. — ^Dost thou live at thy brother's house ? — ^I k' "o 
at his house. — ^Where does he live at present ? — ^He lives at his father's 
house. — Do you still live in Broadway ? — Yes, Sir. — ^Does your friend 
live in John-street ? — No, Sir. 

TIJIUTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Lcccwn Trigisima $iptima. 

C I Hasta cuando ? 
How long ? < t ^ Cuanto tiempo ? 

t'f I Hasta que kora 7 
TUl Until \ Hasta. 



ra tireN<9 o'clock, (tin 

Till to-morrow. 

T3I the day after to-morrow. 

TUI Sunday. 

Till Monday. 

Till this evening. 

Till evening. 

(Jntfl morning. 

Until the next day. 

Unto that day. 

Until that moment. 

Tainow. Hitherto. 

Unto then. 


Toeeday. Wednesday. 
Tlinnday. Friday. 

Hasta medio dia, (laf doc» del diiL) 

Hasta mailana. 

Hasta pasado maiiana 

Haata el Domingo. 

Hasta el Ldnet. 

Hasta eata tarde. 

Hasta la tarde. 

Hasta la maiiana. 

Hasta el dia eiguiea to 

Hasta aquel dia. 

Hasta aquel momento. ^ 

Hasta ahora. Hasta aqoL 

Hasta ent6nces. 


El M&rtes. El Mi^rcolee. 
El Juntos. £1 Vi^mee. 

Ob$, A. The nvmee of the days of the week, months, and seasons ot 
(he year, are of the masculine gender, except la primavera, the epnng, 
which is feminine. 

"nil my return. 


Till my brother's return. 

TQI my brother returns. 

Till four o'clock in the morning. 

Till midnight, (twelve o'clock at 

The return, (or returning— coming 


Hasta mi vuelta. 

t Hasta^que yo vnelva. 

Hasta la vuelta de mi hermano. 

t Hasta las cuatro de la maiiana. 
Hasta media noche, (las doce de \m 

La vuelta, (feoL) 

t I Hasta que hora se ha quedado 
(ha estado) V. en cosa de mi 

Yo me he quedado (yo he estado) 
hasta las once de la noche. 

Se, (or a verb in the third person.) 

How long did you remain at my 
father's house 7 

I remained at his house till eleven 

o'clock at night 
Oae. People, They, Any one. 

Ohs, B. They, people, any one, one, not referring to any person already 
mentioned, but used in a general and unlimited sense, are rendered by oe, 
txandatuig the verb in the third person singular, or by the third person 
plural of the verb without any pronoui|. One may also be translated unv * 
IS, One is not always master of his paasions — Uno no eo nempre dueno iU 



Have they brought my Bfaoes? 
They have broi^rht them. 
They have not brought them. 

What have they said T 
They have said nothing. 
What have they done t 
They ha^done nothing. 

12, Han traido mis zapatos T 
Los ban traido. 
No los han tniido. 
i I Que se ha dicho t 
\ ^Qne han dicho? 
i Nada se ha dicho. 
\ Nada han dicho. 
i I Que se ha heeho ? 
( I Que han hecho ? 
i Nada se ha hecho. 
\ Nada lan^iecho. 

To be wiUingt (to wish.) I Querer * 3. 
Been willing t (wished.) | Querido, 
Have they been willing to mond my K i Han querido remeudar mi veetido t 

coat? ( ^ Han querido compouer mi Testido? 

They have not been willing to mend I No han querido remendarle» (com- 
it I ponerle.) 

To he able, (can.) 
Been able, (could.) 
Have they been able to find 

They could not find them 

Can they find them now ? 

One cannot find them. 
They cannot find them. 
Can you read, (are you able ?) 
I cannot read, (I am not able.) 

They, (meaning btie.) One, 
Can they do what they wish 7 
Can one do what he wishes ? 

They do what they can, but not 

what they wish. 
One does what he can, but not what 

he wishe& 

i Poder * 2. Podido, 
\ Saber, Sabido. 
the ( 1 1, Se han podido hallar los libras 1 
} I Han podido hallar los libros ? 
i t No se han podido hallar. 
\ No han podido hallarlcs. 

it ^ So pueden hallar ahora 7 
I Pueden hallarlos ahora 7 
( No se pueden hallar. 
\ No pueden haUarlos. 
I t iSabeV. leer? 
t Yo no a6 leer. 

I Uno, (in a general unlimited sensed 

> I Puede hacer nno lo que quiere 7 

Hacen lo que pueden, pero no lo qua 

Se hace lo que se puede, pero no lo 

que se quiere. 
Uno hace lo que puede, pero no le 

que quiere. 

What is said new 7 
Nothing new is said. 
Wme is sold here. 
Spanish is spoken here. 

1 1 Que se dice de nuevo t 
t No se dice nada nuevo, (de 
t Aqui se vende vino, 
t Aquf se habla EIspaiioL 




Obt. O, To iixm fheM and mmilar Bontenoes, in which a paarive veib \m 
Bng&h is made nae of, the Spaniards use the reflective proaonu « and a 
vH^l^e third peiBon. . 

Something new. 

Any thing new. 

Nothing new. 

Not any thing new. 
My new coat 
My new friend. 
This ine m^n- 
Tliose fine trees. 

0o they helieve that? 
rhey do not beliere it 
Do they apeak of that? 
They do apeak of it 
They do not qieak of it 

Father and son. 
French and Italian. 

>> Algo (de) nooYO. 

* Nada ^de) noero. 


Mi veetido nnero. "* 

Mi nnevo amiga 
Acepillar. Aeepillads. 
Eite hermoeo hombre. 
AqaeDos hermoflos drbolet. 

2, Se cree eeo ? i Creen eeo ? 
No Be cree eeo. No lo creen. 
I Se habia de em ? 
Si, se habIa de ello. 
No se'habla de ello. 

(See Leason8XX.,XXVL,Ob0. E, 
and Obs., Lea. XXXIIL) 


Padre 6 h^ja 
Frances^ Italiano. 

Ob$. D. Y (and) changes into i before noons beghming with t or hi. 

How long have yon been writing ? — ^I have been writing untU mid- 
night — ^How long did I work ? — ^You worked (have worked) till four 
o'clock in the morning. — ^How long did my brother remain with you ? 
— ^He remained with me until evening. — ^How long hast thou been 
working ? — ^I have been working till now. — Hast thou still long (largo 
tiempo) to write ? — ^I have to write till the day after to-morrow. — Ha» 
the physician still long to work ? — ^He has to woi^ till to-morrow. — 
Am I to remain long here t — ^You are to remain here till Sunday. — Is 
my brother to remain long with you ? — ^He is to remain with us till 
Monday. — ^How long are we to work 7 — ^You are to work till the day 
after to-morrow. — ^Have you still long to speak ? — I have still an hour 
to apeak. — Did you speak long? — ^I spoke (have spoken) till the next 
day.— Did yon remain lonpr in my cnantin^-honse ? — ^T mmwned in it 

i 3 


till this moment. — ^Have you still long to live at the Frencfamioa 
house ? — ^I have still long to live at his hoose. — How long have yoi 
still to live at his house ? — Till Tuesday. — ^Has the sen-ant ^i^g^ 
. my coats ? — ^He has brushed them. — Has he swept the floor ?— 5l^as 
swept k. — ^How long did he remain here? — ^Tiil noon. — Does your 
friend still live with you ? — ^He lives with^me no longer. — ^Have yon 
remained in the garden till now ? — ^I have remained there till n<.w. 

What do you do in the morning 7 — I read. — And wnat do yon do 
then 7 — ^I breakfast and work. — ^Do you breakfast before you read 7 — 
No, Sir, I read before I breakfast — ^Dost thou play instead of work- 
ing 7 — ^I work instead of playing. — What do you do in the *vening 7 — 
I work. — ^What hast thou done this evening 7 — I have brushed yoor 
clothes, and have gone to the theatre. — ^Didst thou remaii^long at the 
theatre 7 — ^I remained (there) but a few minutes. — Are you wilUng to 
^ wait here 7 — ^How long am I to wait 7 — You are to wait tiU my fiither 
returns. — ^Has anybody come 7 — Somebody has come. — ^Have you 
waited for me long 7 — ^I have waited for you two hours. — Have yon 
been able to read my note 7 — ^I have b^ able to read it — Have 
you understood it 7 — ^I have understood it — ^Have you shown it to any 
one 7—1 have shown it to no one. — ^Have they brought my fine clothes ? 
— ^They have not brought them yet — Have they swept my floor and 
brushed my clothes 7 — ^Yes, Sir. — ^What have they said 7 — ^They have 
said nothing. — What have they done 7 — ^They have done nothing. — 
Has your little brother been spelling 7 — He has not been willing to 
spell. — Has the merchant's boy been willing to work 7 — He has not 
been willing. — ^What has he been willing to do 7 — ^He has not been 
willing to do any thing. 

Has the shoemaker been able to mend my shoes 7 — ^He has not been 
able to mend them. — ^Why has he not been able to mend them 7 — 
Because he has had no time. — ^Have they (se) been able to find mj 
gold buttons 7 — They have not been able to find them. — ^Why has the 
tailor not mended my coat 7 — ^Because he has no good thread. — ^Why 
have you beaten the dog 7 — ^Because it has bitten me. — ^Why do yoa 
Srink 7 — Because I am thirsty. — ^What have they wished to say 7 — 
They have not wished to say any thing. — Have they said any things 
new 7 — ^They have not said any thing new. — ^What do they {se) say 
new in the market 7 — ^They say nothing new there. — ^Do they believe 
that 7— They do not believe it— Do they speak of that 7— They do 
speak of it— Do they speak of the man that has been killed 7— They 
do not apeak of him.— Can they do what they wish 7- They do whiA 



they can ; bat they do not what they wish. — ^What have they brought ? 
—They have brought your new coat. — ^Do you like your new friends ? 
— I do like them. — ^Is Spanish spoken here ? — Yes, Sir, Spanish, 
Froiich, and Italian are spoken here. — ^What is sold here ? — Spanish 
Dooks are sold here. — ^What is said new ? — ^Nothing new is said. — ^D6 
they not say that the city (la cittdad) of Mexico has been taken ?•* 
Yes, Sir, they say so. 

THIRTY.EIGHTH LESSON.— Locion Trigisima ocUna. 

How far ? 
Up to. A9far as. 
As (ar as my brother's. 
As far as here, hither. 
As &r as there, thither. 
As far as London. 
As far as Paris. 

I Hasta donde ? 


Hasta la oasa de mi hermano. 

Hasta aqaf. 

Hasta aUd. Itasta aUt 

Hasta Londres. 

Hasta Paris. 

To, at, or in Madrid. 
To, at, or in Cadiz. 

To, at, or In Spain. 
To, at, or in England. 

As far as England. 
As far as Spain. 
As far as Fi;|nce, 
As far as Italy 

A' Madrid. En Madrid. 
A' Cadiz. En Cadiz. 

A Espaila. En Espaiia. 
A Inglaterra. En Inglaterra. 

Hasta Inglaterra. 
Hasta EflpaHa. 
Hasta Francia. 
Hasta Italia. 

As far as my house. 

As far as the warehouse. 

As far as the comer. 

As far as the end of the road. 

As far as the middle of the road 

Hasta mi < 

Hasta el almacen. 

Hasta el rincon, (la esqnina.) 

Hasta el fin del camino. 

Hasta el medio del camina 

Above, or up stabn. 
Below, or down stairi. 
As far as above. 
As far as below. 


Hasta arriba. 
Hasta abajo. 

This side. 

That side. 
On this side of the road. 
On that side of the road. 

De este lado. Por este lado. 
De aqnel lado. Por aquel lada 
De (por) este lado del camino. 
De (por) aqnel lado del eaminok 



Thk nde of the road. 
That nde of the road. 

C El lado de aoi del < 
f Mat aci del camino. 
i El lado de alii del caminr 
\ Bfas alii del cammo 


La Alemania. 


La America. 


La Eepana. 


La Holanda. 

Ob9, A. Tlie names of empires, kingdoms, states, provinces, cities, &c^ 

are generally feminine when they terminate in a, and masculine when they 

end in other lettera ; as, Spain lays in the south of Europe— ffpcna etii 

$ituada eU star de Europa. But when they refer to a common noun, such 

as reinot (kingdom,) dtc, they are masculine; as, The United States cf 

America are proq>erous — Lot Ettadot Unidot de la Amhiea ton prde^ 

peros. ^ 

To goto Spain. \ Ir d EspaHa, 

„ ^ „ S Venir de Franeia, 

To came, to return from France. | ^.^^^ ^ j^„„^ 

Obe. B. When the names of countries are governed by verbs ezpreesmg 
to go to, to come from, to return to or from, ^., they do not admit the 

Do yon intend to go to Spain 7 
Yes, Sir, I intend to go (there) in 

the spring. 
Does he return from France 7 
No, Sir, he returns from Germany. 

I Piensa V. ir d Espafia? 

Si, sefior, yo pienso ir en la prima- 

vera, (fem.) 
iVuelve (61) de Franeia? 
No, sei&or, (6\) vuelve de Alemania 

To go on one Me, 
To go on the middle. 

The middle, hal£ 

The well 

The cask. 

The castle. 

To travel 

To travel in, (through,) 
Do you go to Paris 7 
Do you travel to Paris? 
I travel (I go) there. 
Is he gone to England 7 

He is gone there. 

How far is be gone 7 
How far has he travelled 7 
He is gone as far as Siberia. 

Ir par un lado, 

Ir por el medio 

El medio. La mitad, (la media) 

El poza 

El burriL El toneL 

El Castillo. 

Viajar 1. Caminar 1. Ir * 3. 
Viajar en (por.) 

iVaV. dParis? 

Si, voy alii. Si, voy i Pari& 

I Ha ido 6\ d Inglaterra 7 

Si, ha ido alld. 

Ha ido d Inglaterra. 

I Hasta donde ha ido 7 

I Hasta donde ha viajado? 

6l ha ido banta Siberia. 




7*9 9t€al mmuikmg from aome one, 

H&re they stolexi your hat from yoa? 

They hare stolen it from me. 

Hav the man stolen the boolui £rom 

He hai stolen them fron^ me. 
What have they stolen from yon 7 

I Robar 1. HurUtr 1. 
Robar algo (alguna eoaa) & alguno, 

A uno, 
t ^ Le han robado i V. el somhreio? 
t Me le han robado. 
1 1 Te ha lobado los Ubros el horn* 

t £l me Ids ha robado. 
1 1 Que le han robado d V. 7 

AH the wine. 
All the books. 
All the ] 

I Todo, Todo9, (pi) 
I Todo el vina 
I TodoB los Ubros. 
' Todos los hombres. 

How do you speD this w<nd 7 
How is this word written 7 

It is written thus. 
The word. 
My w<»d. This word. 

To dye. To color. 

' I Como deletrea Y. esta psiscra? 

1 1 Como ee deletrea esta palabra? 
' 1 1 Como se escribe esta palabra 7 

it Se escribe asf. De esta manera. 
La palabra, (fem.) 
Mi palabra. Esta palabra. 

To dye black. 
To dye red 
To dye green. 
To dye blu& 
To dye yellow. 

Obo. C, Adjectiyes denoting color 

My blue coat 

His new watch. 

His round hat 

This white hat 
Do you dye your coat blue 7 
I dye it green. 
What color will you dye your coat 7 

I win dye it blue. 
Tho dyer. 

\ I Tenir * 3. Teiiido, (past part) 
i' Colorar h 

t Teiiir de negro. 

t Teiiir de Colorado, (de encamado^ 

t Tefiir de verde. 

t Tefiir de azuL ^ 

t TeiUr de amarillo. 

or shape aro placed after the noon. 
Mi vestido azuL 
Su roloj nuevo. 
Su sombrero redondp. 
Este sombrero Tiauca 
1 1 Tiile y. su Testido de azuI7 
t Yo le tifio de verde. 
t ^ De que color qniero Y. tefiir sa 

t Yo le quiero teiiir de azuL 
El tmtororo. 

To get dyed. Got dyed. 

What color have you had your hat 

dyed? ' 
I have got it dyed white. 

t Hacer tefUr, Heeho teriir, 

Mandar tenir, Mandado teiUr, 
I De que color ha heoho V. toiltr su 

t Le he hecho teiiir de Jilanoo. 





Colorada Rqjo. Eneamado 
Moreuo. Pardo. Cafi 
Pardo. Gris 



The stockkig, the stockings. 

La media, las medias, (feminine 

My thread stockings. 

The spring. 

La Drimayera, (feminine ) 

How far have yoa travelled 7 — I have travelled as far as Germany. 
— ^Has he travelled as far as Italy? — ^He has travelled as far as 
America. — How far have the Spaniards gone ? — ^They have gone as 
far as London. — How far has this poor man come ? — ^He has come as 
far as here. — Has he come as far as your house 7 — ^He has come as 
far as my father's. — Have they stolen any thing from you 7 — They 
have stolen all the good wine from me. — Have they stolen any thing 
from your father 7— They have stolen all his good books from him. — 
Dost thou steal any thing 7 — I steal nothing. — Hast thou ever stolen 
any thing 7 — ^I have never stolen any thing. — Have they stolen your 
good clothes from you 7 — They have stolen them from me. — ^What 
have they stolen from me 7 — ^They have stolen all the good books from 
you. — ^Have they ever stolen any thing from us 7 — ^They have never 
stolen any thing fix)m us. — ^How fer do you wish to go 7 — I wish to 
go as far as me wood.-^-Have you gone as far as there 7 — ^I have 
not gone as far as there. — ^How far does your brothei wish to go 7 — 
He wishes to go as far as the end of that road. — ^Where art thou going 7 
— ^I am going to the market — ^How far are we going 7 — We are going 
as far as the theatre. — ^Are you going as &r as the well 7 — ^I am going 
as far as the castle^r-Has the carpenter drunk all the wine 7 — He haa 
drunk it. — ^Has your little boy torn all his books 7 — He has torn them 
all. — ^Why has he torn them 7 — ^Because he does not vdsh to study. 

How much have you lost 7 — I have lost all my money. — ^Do you 
know where my father is 7 — ^I do not know. — ^Have you not seen my 
book 7 — I have not seen it. — Do you know how this word is writtea? 
— ^It is written thus. — ^Do you dye any thing 7 — ^I dye my hat, — ^What 
color do you dye it 7 — ^I dye it black. — ^What color do you dye your 
-Jothes 7 — I dye them yellow. — ^Do you get your thread dyed 7 — ^I get 
t dyed. — What color do you get it dyed 7 — I get it dyed green.— 
VVhat color dost thou get thy thread stockings dyed ? — ^I get them dyed 


ted. — Does yoor scm get his cloth dyed? — ^He does get it dyed.— 
Does he get it dyed red ? — ^He gets it dyed gray. — ^What color have 
yoor firieDds got their coats dyed 7 — They have got them (las) dyed 
green. — ^What color have the Italians had their hats dyed? — ^Tli^ 
have had them dyed brown. — Have yon a white hat 7—1 have a black 
one. — What hat has the nobleman 7 — ^He has two hats ; a white one 
and a Uack one. — What hat has the American 7 — He has a round hat. 
•Have I a white hat 7 — ^Yon have several white and black hats. — Has 
your dyer akeady dyed your cloth 7 — ^He ibb dyed it — What color 
has he dyed it l — ^He has dyed it green. — ^Do yon travel sometimes 7«- 
I travel often. — ^Where do yon intend to go to this snmmer 7 — ^I intend 
to go to Paris. — ^Do you not go to Italy 7 — ^I do go thid^r. — ^Hast thou 
sometimes travelled 7 — ^I have never travelled. — ^Have your friends a 
mind to go to Holland 7 — ^They have a mind to go (thither.) — ^When 
do they intend to depart 7 — ^They intend to depart the day after to- 


Is your brother already gone to Spain 7 — lie is not yet gone 
(thither.) — ^Have you travelled m Spain ? — ^I have travelled there.— 
When do you depart ? — I depart to-morrow. — ^At what o'clock 7 — At 
£Ye o'clock in the morning. — What have the Spaniards done 7— They p j^ 
have burnt all our good ships. — ^Have you finished a ll your exercises 7. 
— ^I have finished them all. — ^How fiir is the Frenchman come 7^ — ^He i^ , . ^^ \ 
come as far as the middle of the road. — ^Where does your friend live 7. . , . ^ 
— ^He lives on this si^ of the road. — ^Where is your warehouse ?'— 
It is on that side of the road. — ^Where is the c6unting-house of our 
friend 7 — ^It is on that side of the theatre. — Is the garden of your friend 
on this or that side of the wood ? — ^It is on that side. — Is our warehouse 
not on this side of the road 7 — It is on this side. — Where have you 
been this morning 7 — ^I have been at the castle. — How long did you 
remain at the castle 7 — I remained there an hour. — ^la your brother 
below or above 7— ^He is above. — ^How far has your servant carried my 
trunk ? — He has carried it as far as my warehouse. — Has he come as 
far as my house 7 — No, Sir. — ^Have you been in France 7 — I have been 
(there) several times. — Have your children already been in Germany ? 
— ^They have not yet been (there,) but I intend to send them there in 
the spring. — ^Will you go on tliis or that side of the road 7 — I will go 
neither on this nor that side ; I will go in tlie middle of the road.— 
How far does this road lead ? — It leads as far as London. 

For the use of the verb to he^ see Leawn XVIII., page 50. 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON.— Leccton Trigisima nona. 

To be nee9S9ary. Mtut. 

Ja it necessary ? 
Mart 1 7 Must we? . 
It is neceflsary. 

i Ser trnneeter^ 
\ Ser neeesario. 

an iiregfolar 
■onal yeib. 

( t i Efl menester ? ^ Es necceario^ 
I t Ea menester. 


Is it necessary to go to tbe ma^et? W ^ Es menester ir al nercado? 

Must I, mast we, go to market? 
It is not necessary to go (there.) 
What must be done to learn Spanish ? 

It is necessary to study a great deal. 
Mu9tf ^implying obligation.) 

What most I do? 

Yon most stay stiU. 

Where most he go? 
He must go home. 

We must. 

You must 

What must we do? 

We must write the letter. 

You must write your exercises. 

Mu»t hate. 

To want. To need. 

i' 1 1, Es necesario b al mercado? 

No es menester (neeasario) ir (alU.) 

I Que es menester (necesario) hacei 
para aprender el EspaiLol ? 

Es menester estudiar muchfaimo. 

Deber. Ser menester. Sernecemaio 
C I Que debo yo hacer? 

< 1 2, Que es menester (necesario) ha- 
( oer? 

C v. debe quedarse quieto, (estar quieto.) 
^ t Es menester (necesario) quedarse 
( quieto, (estar quieto.) 

1^ Adonde debe ir ^ ? 
£1 debe ir & su casa, (i casa.) 
t Es menester. Es necesariow 

< W. deben. 

^ t Els menester. Es necesario. 

J I Que debemos hacer? 
I Que es menester (necesario) hacer? 
C Debemos escribir la cart^ 

< t Es menester escribir la carta. 
f Es necesario escribir la carta. 
VV. deben escribir sus temas, (mas.) 

menester (necesario) escribir soi 


( VV.d 

? tEsi 
t ten 

»- Haber menetter. Neeentar. 

17 Bfind that have is not translated. 

What must you have? 
I must have some money. 
Must you have one shilling? . 

Jt I Que ha menester V. ? 
I Que necesita Y. ? 
W He menester algun dinero. 
\ Necesito algun dinero. 

it I, Ha menester V. un real'' 
I Nocesitft V. un real 7 



Blift yoL bare a great deal? 

I want only one peaay. 

b that aHyoQ want? •< 

1W if an I want ' 

How nmdi mivt thoa haye 7 < 

How much dost thoa want? < 

I want only m ihilling. j 
How nnidi mnat year brother haye? ] 

Be wants only two diillinga < 

f I Ha meneater V. mochluiio T 

Y I Necedta V. mnchisiino ? 

^ He meneeter muchinmo. 

^ Neceaito muohfsiino. 

h Sdo be meneeter nn cuarto. 

i- Solo neceaito nn cuarto. 

I" I Eb cnanto ha meneeter V.? 

I- ^ No ha meneeter V. mas qtm eoot 

I- 2, No neceeita /. maa que eeo? 

I" Eflo ee caanto he meneater. 

I- Eflo es caanto neceaito. 

I" I Caanto has meneater? 

I" ^Caanto neceaitaa? 

' No he meneeter maa qne on xeaL 

' No neceaito mas de an real 

' ^Cuanto ha meneater an hemuuM 

h^Cuanto necerita an hermano de 


hHa meneater doa lealea aola- 

h Neceeita doa realea adamente. 

HaTO yen wnat yoa want? 
I hare what I want 

He has whtti he wants. 
Hiey haye what they want 

Mors. No more. 
IX> yoa not wBKt more? 

I do not want more. 

He does not want more. 


< ') I Tiene V. lo qae ha meneater ? 
]\ ^Tiene V. lo que necesita? 
Tengo k) qne he menester, (or ne 

Tiene lo que ha menester, (or ne- 
Tienen lo qoe ban meneater, (or ne- 
cesitan, qoieren.) 

Mob, No~-ma$, 

I No ha meneeter V. (or no neoeaita 

v., or no qniere V.) mas ? 
No he meneeter (or no necesito, or 

noqoiero) mas. 
No ha menester (or no necesita: 

Yob mast wodL* 

Haber de, 
Tener que. 

V. ha de trab^iar. 



Am I to go there 7 

Yoo may, or you can go there. 

Jfoy — can. 
To be tDorth. 

I, He de ir yo alii t 
I v. puede ir aUi. 

How much can that horse be worth 7 
He may be worth a hundred dollars. 
How much are yon worth? 
Wb cannot be worth much. 
He may be worth something. 

I Poder » 2. 
yFaier»2. Poeeer. 
( t Tener. 

I Cuanto puede valer eee cabalio ' 

Puede valer cien pesos. 

t i Cuanto tienenW. 7 

t No podemos tener mucho. 

t ]6l puede tener algun caudal 

How much is tiiat gun worth 7 
It is worth but one dollar. 
How much is that worth 7 
That is not worth much. 
That is not worth any thing. 
This is worth more than that 
The one is not woith so much 
the other. 

I Cuanto vale ese fusil 7 

No vale mas que un peso. 

I Cuanto vale eso 7 

Eso no vale mucho. 

Eso no vale nada. 

Este vale mas que aqueL 

£1 uno no vale tanto como el otra 

To he better, (worth more.) 1 1 Valer mas, {eer mejor.) 

Am I as good as my brother? 

Yon are better than he. 
' I am not BO good as you. 

To give haeh 
To reotore. 

Ci I Valgo yo tanto como mi her 

< mano 7 • 

( I Soy tan bueno como mi hermanol 

i t V. vale mas que €L 

^ V. es mejor que fl. 

Jt Yo no valgo tanto como V. 
Yo no soy tan bueno como V. 

i Volver * 2. 
\ Reetittdr, 

(See yerbs in tttr.> 

^ t i Le vuelve ^ & V. el libro? 
^ t ^ Le restitoye 6\ & V. el libra? 

i^l me le vuelve. 
]^1 me le restituye. # 

,,,. ., . .itiLeha vuelto d V. los iniantes ? 

H»i he giren yon back yonr glore-T ^ + ^^e ^^ ^t„y„ 4 y, ,» ^^j^, 

„ , ^. , , i £1 me los ha vuelto. 

H,«m,then.I»ok. | fil mo lo« ha resUtoido. 

Does ho restore you your book ? 
He does restore it to me. 

Has your brother already con 

menced his exercises 7 
He has not yet commenced them. 

I Ha empezado ya sua temas el her» 

mano de V. 7 
No los ha empezado todavfa. 



*nie pieeent, (gift) 

Have yoa reoeired a preaeat f 

I have recvired aevoral. 
Have yoa received the booka ? 
I baye leceiTed them. 

SI regala 
El preaente. 
La diUliva, (fern.) 

I Ha recibido V. on legale, (on pre- 
He recibido algnnoa 
I Ha recibido V. loa libfoa t 
Yo loa he recibido. 

FtCVn WmMl 7 

From whom have yoa recehred prea- 

F^om my frienda. 

I De puen ? 

I De qnien ha recibido V. pieaentea, 



Where Jrom? 
Where do yoa come from ? 
[ come from the garden. 
Where ia he come from ? 
He ia come from the theatre. 
Where bare they come from T 

Prom which? 

From which? 
HU tame. 

From which garden do yon come 7 
From mine. 
From which? 
From the aame i^ere yon go. 


The aame onea. 

* I De donde ? 

I De donde viene V. ? 

Yo vengo del jardui. 

I De donde ha Tenido (^1) 7 

(£]) ha venido del teatro. 

I De donde ban venido (elloe) ? 

J I Del cual ? ) (not fdlowed Ay 
lDelo9 cualee ?\ a noun.) 
II De que ? (followed by a noon.) 
Blmismo — lotmitmoa, 

I De qne jardin viene V. ? 

Del mio. 

^Del coal? 

Del miamo adonde V. va. 

£1 miamo. 


U it necessary to go to the market? — ^It is not necessary togo 
thither. — ^What must yon buy ? — ^I must buy some mutton. — ^Must I 
go for some wine ? — ^You must go for some. — An\ I to go to the ball * 
—You must go. — ^When must I go ? — ^You must go this evening. — 
Must I go for the carpenter ? — ^You must go for him.— What must be 
done to leam Russian?— It ia necessary to study a great deal.- Is 
it necessary to study a great deal to leam German ? — ^It is neces- 
sary to study a great deal — ^^^hat must I do ?— You must buy a 
good book.— What is he to do ?— He must stay still.— What are wo to 

156 THIRTY-NINTH L£S60ir. 

do 7 — ^You must work. — ^Must you work much in order to learn thf 
Arabic ? — ^I must work much to learn it. — Why must I go to mJM'ket \ 

^You must go to buy some mutton and wine. — ^Must I go anywHlfe ?— 

Thou must^ go into the garden. — Must I send for any thing ? — ^Thoo 
must send Vor some wine.— What must I do ? — You must write ar 
exercise. — ^To whom must I write a letter ? — You musv write one to 
your friend. — ^What do you want. Sir? — I want some cloth. — ^How 
much is that hat worth 7 — ^It is worth four dollars. — Do you want any 
stockings 7 — ^I want some, (aJgunas.) — ^How much are these stockings 
worth 7 — ^Th^ are worth two shillings. — ^Is that all you want 7 — ^That 
is all.— Do you not want any shoes 7-7-1 do not want any. — ^Dost thou 
want much money 7 — ^I want much. — ^How much must thou have 7 — 
I must have five dollars. — ^How much does your brotler want 7 — ^He 
wants but sixpence. — ^Does he not want more 7 — ^He does not want 
more.— Does your friend want more 7 — ^He does not want so much as L 
—What do you want 7 — ^I want money and clothes. — ^Have you now 
what you want 7 — ^I have what I want — ^Has your jjuher what he 
wants 7 — ^He has what he wants. 

Have the neighbor's boys given you back your books 7 — ^They have 
given me them back. — ^When did they give them back to you 7 — ^Yester- 
day. — ^Has your little boy received a present? — He has received 
several. — From whom has he received any? — ^From my ftUher and 
from yours. — ^Have you received any presents? — ^I have received 
some. — ^What presents have you received? — ^I have received fine 
presents. — ^Do you come from the garden 7 — ^I do not come from the 
garden, but fi-om the warehouse. — ^Where are you going to 7^ — ^I am 
going to the garden. — ^Whence does the Irishman come 7 — ^Ile cometi 
from the garden. — ^Does he come from the garden from which you 
come 7 — ^He does not come from the same. — From which garden does 
> he come 7 — ^He comes from the garden of our old friend. — ^Whence 
comes your boy 7 — ^From the play. — ^How much may that horse be 
worth 7 — It may be worth five hundred dollars. — Is this book worth aa 
much as that 7 — It is worth more. — How much is my gun worth 7 — 
It is worth as much as that of jowr friend. — Are your horses worth aa 
Auch as those of the English 7 — ^They are not worth so much. — How 
much is that knife worth 7 — ^It is worUi nothing. 


Is your servant as good as mine 7 — He is better than yours. — Are 
you as good as your brother 7— He is^better than I. — Art thon as good 
AS thy friend 7 — ^I am aa good as he. — ^Are we as good as our neijfh- 


bora 7 — We are better than they. — ^Is your umbrella worth as much aa 
mine ? — ^It is not worth so much. — Why is it not worth so much aa 
mine 7 — ^Because it is not so fine as yours. — ^How much is that gun 
worth 7 — ^It b not worth much. — ^Do you wish to sell your horse 7— 
I do wish to sell it^ — ^How much is it worth 7 — ^It is worth two 
hundred dollars. — Do you wish to buy it 7 — ^I have bought one already. 
— Does your ficUher intend to buy a horse 7 — ^He does intend to buy 
one, but not yours. — Have your brothen commenced their exercises 7— . 
They have conmienoed them. — ^Have you received your letters 7-^ 
We have not yet received them, (^omQ-— Have we what we want l — ^We 
have not what we want — ^What dp we want 7 — We want fine hoTBes, 
several servants, and much money. — ^Is that all we want 7- ^That is aU 
we want. — ^What must I do 7 — You must write. — ^To whom must I 
write 7 — ^You must write to your fnend. — ^Where is he 7 — He is in 
America. — ^Where am I to go 7 — You may go to France. — ^How far 
must I go 7 — ^You may go as far as Paris. — Which dogs has your 
servant beaten 7 — ^Ue has beaten those that have mofte much noise. 

FORTIETH LESSON.— Iiocion Cuadraghima. 

There are in Spaniih two tenses conrespondiiig to the EngliBfa Imperfect» 
vii : the Imperfect, Prethito Imperfecta, Na 2 ; and the Preterit, Preti" 
rito Perfeeto Remoto, Na 3. 

TTke Imperfeeto, No. 3, represents the action as present, or still going on 
at the time spokeu of, and corresponds to the English was, or were, fol- 
lowed by the present participle. Elzample : — I ttudied my lesson when yon 
came in ; that is, / was studying, &c. : Yo estodiaba mi leccion cuando 

It also expresses habitual actions, and in this case answers to the Eng- 
lish used to, Elxample : — When I was at Madrid, I went to the Prado 
every day ; that is, / used to, 6lc : Cuando yo estaba en Madrid, iba al 
FTado todos los dias. 

The PretMto Perfeeto Remoto, No. 3, expresses an action that has 
taken place in a time entirely past, but that may be specified by some 
^ixcnmstaaoes ; it corresponds to the English did, followed by an in6ni« 
tire. Example : — I readyoiu letter yesterday, (I did read :) Yo lei mi carta 
de v. ayer. I stayed two hours in my room, (I did stay :) Yo me qusdi 
das boras en mi cuarto. 





In aU cams in which the English Imperfect can be turned into u$ed to 
and an infinitive, or was, were, and a present palticiple, use Na 3 in 
Spanish ; in all other cases, use No. 3. Example : — I wrote letters eveiy 
morning, (that is, I used to write.) Here use No. 2, and say : Yo eMcribia 
cartas todos los dias. — I wrote a letter when you came in, (I was writing 
when you did come in.) In this case use Na 2 for the first verb, and Nc 3 
for the second, and say : To escribia una carta cuando Y. entrd, — I was 
throe days in Madrid. In this example we cannot say / used tobs; there« 
fore, use Na 3, and say : Yo estuve tres dias en Madrid. 

For the formation of these two tenses, see the table in the Appendiik 

To have, (active.) 


To have, (auxiliary.) 

To bo. 

I waSi 

To make. 

^ I Tener, (active.) 
2. C Tenia, tenias, tenia ; tenf amos, tenfais, 

I tenian. 
3. 1 Tuve, tuviste, tuvo ; tnvfmos, tovfs- 

I teis, toyi^ron. 

I Haber, (auxiliar.) 

2. rHabia, habias, habia ; l>*li<*t«n«^ 
I habfais, habian. 

3. I Hube, hubiste, hubo ; hubimos, hn- 
' V. bisteis, hubieron. 

I Ser and Estar. 

fEra, eras, era , dramas, ^rais, eraa. 


I was able. 
I oould. 

TEra, en 
i Estaba, 
(^ mos. 

I did, made, er did make, q 
To be able, (can.) 

Fu(, fuiste, fu^ ; fuimos, fuisteis, 
I fu6ron. 

I Estuve, eetuviste, estuvo ; estorf- 
L mos, estuvlsteis, estuvidron. 
^Haoia,hacias,haeia; hacTamostha- 

dais, hacian. 
Hice, hiciste, hizo ; hicfmos, hicCsteis, 

'Podia, podias, podia ; podiamosy 

podiais, podian. 
Pude, pudiste, pudo; pudimos, pa- 
disteis, pudi^ron. 

Last night 
Did you go to the ball last night? 

Yes, Sir, I went with your son and 
my brother. 

Anoche. Ayer noche. 

I Fu^ Y. al baile anodie, (or ayer 

noche) 7 
Si, sciior, yo ful con su ^{o de Y. y 




Did joa stay until tfio end of the 

Xo» Sir, we left the room at your 

brother was coming in. 
Had yea any thing to do thif mom- 

I had eome letten to write, hot I had 

no paper. 
Coold yoa not ask for some? 
I was going to ask for tome when 

yoa called me. 


I Se qaediiron W. hasta el fin del 

No, eeiior, dejimoe la sala cnando 

entraba ea hermano de V. 
I Tenia V. algo que hacer eeta nuif- 

To tenia qne eecribir algunae cartaa, 

pero no tenia papeL 
I No podia V. pedir alguno 7 
Yo se ^ iba 6 pedir 4 Y. coando me 

A La. 
nnlimited sense, is not fcUowed oy a 

Obt. A, When mme, used in 
«0an. it is rendered by one of the persons le, 61, ella, &c.,2e, 2a,&o. 
i baTe no wine, bat I am going to I To no tengo yino, pero foy 4 enriar 

send for some. | por 6L 



The. Of the. 
To the. 

The woman. 
Of the woman. 
To the woman. 
The mother. 
To the I 

The women. 
Of the women. 
To the women. 
Of the mothen. 
To the I 


La. Dela. 
La mujer. 
De la major. 
A la mnjer. 
.Ala hermana. 


Las. De las. 

De las mnjereSi 
A lasmigeres. 
De lasmadres. 
A lashennanaa. 

She. They. 

Has she? 
She has. 
She has not 
Have they 7 (fem.) 
They have, (fem.) 

EUa. Ellas. 

(See Table of Penonal Froiioaiis» 
Less. XX.) 
^Tiene ella? 
Ella tiene. 
EUa no tiene. 
^Tienen ellas? 
Ellas tienen. 

They have not, (fem.) : Ellas no tienen. 


Rule, The Spanish Po o ae on ive Adjectives, or Pi^nouns, are always alike 
for both genders ; and th^ agree in number, not with the possessor, as in 
English, trat with the thhig possessed, or sabstantive that foUows ailer 



His. Her. 




ML ' Mifc 

Tu. Toa. 

Its. Their. So. Sim. 

, Vuestro, (mas.) VuostnM. 

' Vuestra, (fem.) Vuestras. 

« Nuestro, (mas.) Naestros 

( Naeetra, (fem.) Naeatras 

ID* In coUoqoial pdlte conyemtion the following are used : 

!Su, or el — de V., or de TV. 
Sob, or lo8 — de v.. or de V^ (pt/ 
Su, or la — de V., or de W. 
Sis, or las — de V., oi de W 

They sold their share, (in stocks.) 

She sold her houses. 

The father and hi$ son, or hie 

The mother and her son, or her 

The child and ite brother, or ite sis- 

GUos vendi^ron eu accion. 

£lla vendi6 sue caeae. 

El padre y su hijo, or su hija. 

La madre y su hijo, or su hija 

£1 niiio y «tt hennano, or su hei* 

My pen. 
My spoon. 
His or her hut 
Oar hand. 

Your window. Your windows. 

My pens. 
My spo6ns. 
His or her nuts.^ 


Mi pluma. 
Mi ouchara. 
Su nuex. 


Mis plumas. 
Mis cuchairas. 
Nuestias manos. 

Their door. 

Their doors. 

i Vuestra yentana. Vuestrasyentanaa. 
< La (su) yentana de V., or de W. 
t Las (sus) yentanas de V., or de W. 
I Su puerta. Sus pnertas. 

Ohs, B, Jn detached sentences, and in order to ayoid ambiguity, im m 
translated tU 61; her, de ella ; their, de ellos, or de ellas; your, (in colloquial 
polite style,) de F.,or de W,, after su oi sus; although these jHonoans 
may be suppressed. 

His father. I t Su padre de ^ EI padre de A 

Their books. | 't Los libros de ellos, (de ella&) 

i t Su hermano de V. 
^ t El hermano de V. 

Your brother. 

Rule, All adjectiyes terminating in o, change it into a to form the 
imne, and make their plural by adding s ; as, good— dueno, Imsnos^ 



The Tiitiioas woman. 
The virtuolu women. 


La mnjer virtnosa. 

Las mujeres virtuosaa. 

Oil; C Adjecthret form their plural in conformity with the role laid 
down for the sobstantives. (See Less. IX^ Page 26, and App.) 

Rule. Adjectives ending in any other letter but o, are conmion to both 
gendeiB. Except a few terminating in an and on, that add an a for the 

El mnchacho amable. 

I Eb ella amable ? 

Las dos hermanas son may amablee. 

The amiable boy. 
Is she amiable ? 
The two sisters are very amiable. 

Obs. D. Adjectives signifying the natives of a country, or its productions, 
such as American, Spaniard, or Spanish, terminating in o, change it into 
a to form the feminine ; those ending in a consonant, add a ; and a few 
ending in a are the same for both genders. 

Amwica. American. 
The American women are hand- 
some, virtuons, and well educated. 
Ireland. Irishman. Iri^. 
The feooale servants in this city are 
ahnost all Irishwomen. 

America. Americano— Americana. 
Las Ameripanas son hermosas, vir* 

tuosas y bien educadas. 
Irlauda. Iriondes. Irlandcsa. 
Las criadas en esta ciudad son caai 

todas Iriandesas. 

Which woman? Which women? I i Que mnjer? ^Qne mujeres? 
Which daughter 7 Which daugh^ ? | i Que hija ? i Que hijas 7 

•This, or that woman, 
lliese, or those women. 

This young lady. 
These young ladies. 
That young lady. 
Tliose young ladies. 

Esta 6 esa majer, 
Estas 6 esas mujeres. 

Esta sefiorita. 

Estas seiioritas. 

Esa (or aquella) seflorita. 

Esas (or aquellas) seiioritas. 

The hand. The hands. 
The right hand. 
The left bond. 
I have a sore hand. 


La mano. Las manos. 
La maoo derecha. 
La mano izquierda. 
t Tengo mala la mana 

To have, followed by a noun expressing that the port of the 

body signifHHl by it is afiected with pain, or illDoss, may be translated into 
Spanish by Tener dolor de, or by Doler ; when the littter is made use of, 
the noon representing the part affected is placed in the nominative, as a 
■abject, and the person suffering, in the objective case. 




The tooth. 

The teeth. 

Have you the toothache f 

1 have the headache. 

I have a very severe headache. 

1 feel a pain in my lide. 

His feet are sore. 

I t La muelfif (el diente.) 
I t La9 mueUu, (los dientes.) 
I 1 1 Tiem V, dolor de mueloM i 

iTengo dolor de cabeza 
Me duele la cabeza. 
I t Tengo jaqueea, 
i Tengo un dolox end (or de) costado 
( Me doele el costado. 
I Tiene los pies malos 

The face. 
The mouth. 
The cheek. 
The tongue, the language.* 
The door. 
The window. 
The street 
TTie town. 
The stuff 
The old woDMm. 

La cara. ' ~ 
La boca. .- 
La mejilla. „ 
La lengna. ^ 
La puerta. 
La ventana 
La calle. 
La ciudad. 
La tela. 
La vieja. 

Obs. F. Common nouns and adjectives ending in a, (excepting those 
derived from the Greek,) as, clima, climate ; dogma, &c ; and also <2ta, 
day ; mapa, map, &c, are generally feminine. (See Appendix.) 


A. An. 

Of a. From a. 

To a. 
An industrious girL 
A happy young lady. 
An active young woman. 


De una. 

A una. 

Una muchacha industriosa. 

Una sefiorita felis. 

Una j6ven activa. 

06«. O. Common substantives, or nouns of one termination, disttngnish 
Ihe gender by the article. 

A holy female martyr. 
Have yea my pen ? 
No, Madam, I have it not 
Which bottle have you broken ? 

Which door have you opened 1 


Una santa m4rtir. 
i Tiene V. mi pluma ? 
No, seilora, yo no la tengo. 
I Que botella ha qi^brado V. 7 

Que puerta ha abierto V. ? 

Que puerta habeis abierto 7 

lET {The past participle coming immediately after the verb to kav€, 
(haber,) admits of no change ; but when it follows the verb to be, (ser, oi 
estar.) it agrees with the subject noun or pronoun in gender and number. 



Which wkdows haye you q>eiM(] ? 
Which windows have been opened ? 
Which leUeis have yon written 7 
Which letten had been written 7 

I Que ventanas ka abierto V. 7 
I Que ventanaa ban sido ahiertas 7 
I Que cartas Aan escrito VV. 7 
I Qae cartas habian tido escritas ? 

Hif e yoo this, or that pen 7 

i have neither this, nor that 

It, or her. Them. 

Do yoQ see that woman 7 

I see her. 

Hare yoa seen my ststers 7 
No, my lady, I have not seen them. 
To him. To her. To it. 
To them. 
Do yoa speak to my sisters 7 
Iqieak to them. 


Esas. AqneDas. 

I Tiene V. esta, d esa (or aqnella) 

plama 7 
No tengo esta, ni esa, (ni aqnella.) 

La. La$, 
J i Ve V. 4 esa mn^er? 

1 1 1 Veis & esa mojer 7 
Yo la TOO. (See Less. XX., Table.) 
I Ha risto V. i mis hermanas 7 
No, sefiora, no las he visto. 
Le. (See Pronoons, I^ess. XX.) 


I Habia V. & mis hermanas 7 
Yo les hablo. 

Some good water. 

Some, any. 
A napkin. A toweL 
Tv celebrate. To feast. 

< \ Alguna agua bnena. 

{\i Un paco de agua buena. 
Alguna, algunoB, (fem.) 
Una servilleta. Una toalla. 
Celebrar 1. Festejar 1. 

Vw-'V* A- 


How are yonr brothers ? — ^They have been very well for these few 
days, {uUtmos dias.) — ^Whoie do they reside, (se kalian 7) — They reside 
in Paris. — ^Which day of the week do the Turks celebrate ? — ^They (• 
celebrate Friday, but the Christians celebrate Sunday, the Jews Satur- 
• day. and the negroes their birthday. — ^** Among you country people 
there are many fools, are tbeSTiot 7" (no es asi,) asked a philosopher 
ktcly {d otro dia) of a peasant The latter answered, ** Sir, they nre , 
to be found in aO stations, (estado,^^) " Fools sometimes tell the truth/' ' 
said the philosopher. — Has your sister my gold lace, (galon ?) — She 
has it not. — What has she ?— She has nothing. — Has your mother any 
thing? — She has a gold fork. — Who has my large bottle? — Your 
sister has it. — Do you sometimes see my mother ? — I see her often. — 
When did yni ae^ your sister ? — ^I saw her a fortm'ght ago, (Jiace tpdnee 



Has,) — ^Who has my flbe nuts ? — ^Yonr good sister has ti^em. — ^Eaa 
she also my silver forks ?— She has them not — ^Who hsF them '^ — 
Your mother has them. — ^What fork have you ? — ^I have my iron fork. 
—Have your sisters had my pens 7 — ^They have not had them, but I 
believe that their children have had them. — ^Why does your brother 
complain ? — ^He complains because his right hand aches. — ^Why do 
you complain 7 — ^I complain because my left hand aches. 

127. \XmM^' 

Is your sister as old as my mother 7 — She is not so olid, l^ut she is 
taller. — ^Has your brother purchased any thing 7 — ^He haj piu-chaseo 
something. — ^What has he bought 7 — ^He has bought fine I me^ and 
good pens. — ^Has he not bought some silk stockings 7— ^He hais bought 
-^ ^^-^^^ some. — ^Is your sister writing 7 — No, Madam, she is not writing — 
Why does she not write 7 — Because she has a sore hand. — ^Why does 
not the daughter of your neighbor go out 7 — She does not go out 
because she has sore feet — ^Why does my jsister not speak 7 — ^Because 
she has a sore mouth. — ^Hast diou not seen my silver pen 7 — ^I have 
not seen it — ^Does the wife (la mvjer) of our shoeinaker go out 
• already 7 — ^No, my lady, she does not go out yet, for she is still very 
ill. — Which bottle has your little sister broken 7 — She broke the 
one which my mother bought yesterday. — ^Have you eaten of my soup 
or of my mother's 7 — ^I have eaten neither of yours nor your m(yther*a, 
but of that of my good sister. — Have you seen the woman who was 
with me this morning 7 — ^I have not seen her. — ^Has your mother hu|t 
herself 7 — She has not hurt herself. 

Have you a sore n<fee 7 — ^I have not a sore nose, but I have tSe 
toothache. — ^Have you cut your finger 7 — No, my lady, (»ehora,) I have 
cut my hand. — ^Will you give me a pen 7 — ^I will give you one. — ^Will 
you have this or that 7 — ^I will have neither. — ^Which one do you wish 
to have 7 — ^I wish to have that which your sister has. — Do you wish to 
have my mother's good black silk or my sister's 7 — ^I wish to have 
neither your mother's nor your sister's, but that which you have. — . 
Can you write with this pen 7 — ^I can write with it->-Each (coia) 
woman thinks herself amiable, and each {coda vna) is conceited, (6em 
amor fropio.) — ^The same as (sucede d los) men, my dear friend. 
Many a one thinks himself learned who is not so, and many m^i 
stffpass (exceden) women in vanity. — ^What is the matter with you 7— 
Nothing is the matter with me. — ^Wliy does your sister complain 7— 
Because she has a pain in her cheek. — ^Has your brother a sore hand * 
"^Nok but he feels a pain in his side. — ^Do you open the window ?• 



I open ft, because it is too wann. — ^WMch windows has youi sister 

opened t — She has opened those of ihe fi^nt room, (d cuarto d la calle,) 

— ^Have yon been at the ball of my old acqiiaintance, (amocido ?)^- 

1 have been there. — Which young ladies have yon taken to the ball * rs , 

—I look my sister's friends there. — ^Did they dance? — ^They danced a-<$0<. * €k^ 

good deal. — ^Did they jmus e themselves ? — I'^ey amused themselves.- . . v , 

— Did they remain long at the ball 7 — ^They remained there two hoxm,cJUJu^ ^ ^ * * 

— Is tluB young lady a Turk 7 — ^No, she is a Greek. — ^Does she speak 

French 7 — She speaks it. — ^Does she not speak English 7 — She speaks. 

it also, but she speaks French better. — ^Has your sister a companion 7 

— She has one. — ^Does she like her 7 — She likes her very much, for ^ 

^he lA very amiable. 

»^ — ^ 


yH'\^u * ^ - 


FC^TY-FIRST LESSON.— Leccton CuadragSsima primera. 

To eat EateTu 

To dine, (eat dinner.) 

The dinner. 

The breakfast 
To eat supper, (to sap.) 

Ilie supper. 

. After. 
After me. 
Alter bim. 
After you. 
After my brother. 

Comer, Comido 


La comida. 

EI almaerza El desayimb. 
I Cenar 1. Cenado, 
I La cena. 

QA_^\x^-\^jyv^ ' 

Despues de, (prep.) 

Despues de mf. 

Despaes de ^L 

Despues de V. Deqmes de W. 

Despaes de mi hermano. 

After having spoken. I t Despues de haber hablada 

After carving the boiled meat | t Despues de trinchar el cocido 
S7 Whenever the present participle in English is preceded fay a prepo- 
aition, it mast be translated in Spanish by the present of the infinitive 
mood ; except when the preposition is hy, which is generally omitted, and 
the present participle translated literally. 

After having add his house. t Despaes de haber vendido su ca« 

After having been there. 
I broke your knife after catting the 
roasted meat 

t Despaes de haber estado alii, 
t To qnebr^ el cochiUo de V. de» 
pnes de trinchar el asado. 

To break. Broken. 
I have dined earlier than yoa. 
Ton hava^npped late. 

Romper, Rompido, or roto. 
He comido mas temprano que V 
y. ha cenado tarde. 


VOitTT-FnUST Lxssoir. 

To pay for 

To pay a man for a hone. 

To pay the tailor /or the coat 

Do you pay the shoemaker for the 

I pay him for them. 
Does he pay you for the knives ? 
He pays me for them. 

Pagar (object) d (complenMni.) 
t Pagar un caballo & nn hombro. 
t Pagar el vestido al sastie. 
1 1 Paga V. los zapatOB al ixputmoi 

t Yo se los pago. 

1 1 Paga 6\ los cuchillos & V.? 

t £1 me los paga. 




V _^^ T& ask a man for money. 
* I ask my father for some money. 

^ Df^ou ask me for your hat 7 
I do ask you for it 

Pedir * 3 (object) d (complenaent) 
t Pedir diuero & un hombre. 
t Yo pido diuero i. mi padre. 
1 1 Me pide V. su pomtrero T 
Yo se le pido i V. 

(P* Iif Spanish the thing paid or asked for is the object of the verb, and 
the person who has been paid, or asked, is the complement governed by the 
preposition d, to ; but if the person or the thing is only mentioned, that per* 
son or that thing must be made the object of the Spanish verb. 

I have paid the tailor. 

Yon have paid him. 
Have you paid the shoemaker ? 
I have paid him. 
Do you pay lohat you owe 7 
Yes, I pay tofiat I owe. 
Have you paid for your books 7 
I have paid for them. 
Have you asked for breakfast T 
! I have asked for it 
How much have you paid for them ? 
I have paid two dollars fOt them. 

Do you ask for something 7 

I ask for bread. 

He pagado al sastre. 

y. le ha pagado. 

I Ha pagado V. al zapat^io 7 

Yo le he pagado. 

I Paga V. lo que debe t 

Si, yo pago h que debo. 

t ^ Ha pagado V. sub libros ? 

t Yo los ha pagado. 

t ^ Ha podido V. el almueno 7' 

t Yo le he podido. 

i lA. cuanto los ha pagado V 7 

t Los he pagado 4 dos pesos. 
; tiPideV.algo7 
ft/ Quiere V. algo 7 

t Pido pan. 

To oak for, (inquire after.) < | 

Do yon ask for somebody 7 
Yes, Sir, I ask for your brother. 

Do you ask for an^^ thing? 

t Preguntar 1 por. Buscar 1. 
t Jnformaree 1 de, Aeerca de, 
1 1 Progunta V. por alguno 7 

I Busca V. & alguien 7 

Si, seftor, pregunto por sn hermaa* 

I I Busca y. alguna oosa? 

' " As soon as I airived at the inn, I asked for supper^—** Luego fM 
Uegui al meoon, pedi la csiia."--6iL Blas, translated by Isia, Book L 
Chapw IL 



I aA for the lettexa 

After whom do you inquire 7 
They mqabe after your brother. 

She inqoires of yoo. 

Poee be inquire ftfler the boy ? 

Bueco Im cartM. 

Vengo d huacar las eartat, 
1 1 Aeerea de quun quierg V. i^for* 

For quien pregunta V.7 
EIlos preguntan por bo. hennano cto 
I V. 

i EUla 00 infonna de Y. 
( Ella le pregunta £ V. 
I Se informa ^I aceroa del mnoha- 

79 try, (to eesay, attempt) 
Wai you try to do that? 
I have tried to do it 

Yoa most try to do it better. 

Probar •14. Proeurat 1. 

1 1 Quiere V . probar 4 haoer eso 1 

He probado i hacerlo. 

iV. debe (Hroourar hacerlo mejor. 
Debeis procurar hacerlo mejor. 

To hold. Held, 
Do you hold my stick? 
I do hold it 

To look for. 

Tener. Tenido. Asir • 3. 
I Tieue V. mi hasten 7 
Yo le tengo. 

Are you looking for any thing? | + ^ E«ti V. buscaudo algo7 

I Bu8car. 

, 1 1 BuBca V. algo ? 

Whom are you looking for? 
I look for a brother of mine. 

1 2, A quien buaca V.7 

t Yo busco 4 nn hermano i 

. My uncle. I Mi tio. 

My cousin. { Mi prime. 

My relation. I Mi pariente. 

The parents, (father and mother.) | t Los padres. 

A brother of mine. 
A cousin of youia 
A relation of his, of heis. 
A friend of ours. 
A neighbor of theirs. 

Oh8. MiOf mia ; mios, mias, are 
dressing a person. Examples : — 

Dost thou come from the garden, my 

My dear friends, you have come late. 

t Un hermano m\o.^ 

t Un pnmo de V., (or suya) 

t Un parionte suyo, (de ^1, de ella.) 

t Un amigo nuesiro. 

t Un ▼ecino suyo, (de ellos, ellaa) 

also used without an article in ad 

I Vienes del jardin, hijo mio 7 

Queridos amigos mios, W. han Te- 
nido tarde. 



To try, (to endeavor.') 
Does he try to aee mef 
He tries to see yoo. 
Whom does he try to see? 
He tries to see an uncle of his. 


Proeurar 1. Esforxarse • 1. 

Prohar • 1. 
J I Procura 6\ verme? 
( {, Se esfuerza &. d yerme? 
( ]^1 procura ver £ V. 

£l se esfuerza para ver < V. 
. qaien procura ver? 
. quien se eefuena d ver ? 
Ksura ver & un tie soya 
eeftierza & ver & nn tio mxftk 

Properly. As it should he. 
Properly, Am J ought 
Properly, As^ he ought. 
Properly, Am you ought 
Properly, Am they ought 
To do on^e duty, 

Yon write properly. 

These men do their daty properly. 

Have you done your task properly ? 

We have done it properly. 
The duty. The task. 
A glass of wine. 
' A piece of bread. 

Deber Bien. 

t Como se debe. 

t Como debo. 

t Como debe, 

t Como V, debe, 

t Como deben. 

Cumplir eon su obUgacion. 

t v. escribe como debe. 

t Estos hombree cumplen con su 

obligacion como deben. 
1 1 Han hecho W. su tarea como d» 

t La hemos hecho como debemos. 
Le, (mas.) La, (fern.) 
EU deber. La tarea. 
Un vaso de vino. 
Un pedazo de pan. 

Have yon paid for the gun 7 — ^I have paid for it — ^Haa your uncle 
paid for the books ? — ^He has paid for them. — ^Have I paid the tailor fi)r 
the clothes? — ^You have paid him for them. — ^Hast thoa paid the 
merchant for the horse 7 — ^I have not yet paid him for it — ^Uave we 
paid for our gloves? — ^We have paid for them. — Has your cousin 
already paid for his shoes 7 — ^He has not yet paid for them. — ^Does my 
brother pay you what he owes you 7 — He does pay it me. — ^Do you 
pay what you owe? — ^I do pay what I owe. — ^Have you paid the 
baker 7 — ^I have paid him.-^Has your uncle paid the bntdier for the 
mutton? — ^He has paid him for it — ^Who has broken my knife? — 
I have broken it after cutting the bread. — ^Has your son broken my 
pencils? — He has broken them after writing his letters. — ^Have you- 
paid tlio merchant for the wine after drinking it ? — ^I have paid for it 

» Na 2 and No. 3. 
the directions fiy^n. 

Less. XL., page 158, should be used according to 


ifter drinking it. — How do I speak 7 — ^You speak propeity. — ^How has 
my cousin written his exercises ? — ^He has written them properly.— 
How have my children done their task 7 — ^Iliey have done it well.— 
Does tins man do his duty 7 — ^He always does it — ^Do these men do 
their duty ? — They always do it. — Do you do your duty 7 — ^I do what 
I can. — ^What do you ask this man for 7 — ^I ask him for some money. 
— ^What does this hoy ask me for 7 — ^He asks you for some money. — 
Do you ask me for any thing 7 — ^I ask you for a dollar. — Do you ask 
me for the bread 7 — I do ask you for it — ^Which merchant do you ask 
for gloves 7 — ^I ask those for some who live in William-street. — ^What 
do you ask the baker for 7 — ^I ask him for some bread. 

Do you ask the butchers for some mutton 7 — ^I do ssk them for 
some. — ^Doet thou ask me for the stick 7—1 do ask thee for it. — Does 
he ask thee for the book 7 — He does ask me for it — What have you 
asked the Englishman for 7 — ^I have asked him for my leather trunk. — 
Has he given it you 7 — ^He has given it me. — ^Whom have you asked 
for some sugar 7 — ^I have asked the merchant for some. — ^Whom does 
your brother pay for his shoes 7 — ^He pays the shoemakers for them. — 
Whom have we paid for the bread 7 — ^We have paid our bakers for it 
— ^How old art thou 7 — I am not quite ten years old. — ^Dost thou 
already learn Spanish 7 — ^I do already learn it. — ^Does thy brother 
know German 7 — ^He does not know it. — ^Why does he not know it 7 — 
Because he has not had time. — ^Is your father at home ? — No, he is 
gone out, but my brother is at home. — ^Where is your father gone to 7-^ 
He is gone to England. — Have you sometimes been there ? — I have 
never been there. — ^Do you intend going to France this summer 7 — 
I do intend going there. — ^Do you intend to stay there long 7 — ^I intend 
to stay there during the summer. — ^How long does your brother remain 
at home 7 — ^TOl twelve o'clock. — ^Have you had your gloves dyed 7 — 
I have had them dyed. — What have you had them dyed 7 — ^I have had 
them dyed yellow.— Have you already dined 7 — ^Not yet — ^At what 
o'clock do you dine 7 — ^I dine at six o'clock.— At whose house (en cuya 
casd) do you dine 7 — I dine at the house of a fnend of mine. — ^With 
whom did you dine yesterday 7 — ^I dined with a relation of mine. — 
What did you eat 7 — ^We ate good bread, ham, and cakes. — What did 
you drink 7 — Wine. — ^Where does your uncle dine to-day 7 — He dines 
with us. — ^At what o'clock does your fiither sup 7 — He -sups at nine 
o'clock. — Do you sup earlier than he 7 — I sup later than he. 

Where are you going to 7 — ^I am going to a relation of mine, in 
order to breakfast with him. — ^Art thou willing to hold my gloves 7— 
i am willing to hold them. — Who holds my hat 7 — ^Your son holds it. 


— ^Dost thou hold my stick ? — ^I do hold it — ^Will you try to speak T— 
1 will try. — ^Has your little brother ever tried to do exercises ? — He 
has tried. — Have you ever tried to make a liat ? — I have never tried lo 
make one. — Whom are you looking for ? — I am looking for the man 
who has sold a horse to me. — Is your relation looking for any one ? — 
He is looking for a friend of his. — Are we looking for any one ? — Wt 
are looking for a neighbor of ours. — Whom dost thou look for ? — I 
look for a friend of ours. — Are you looking for a servant of mine ? — 
No, I am looking for one of mine. — Have you tried to speak to your 
uncle ? — I have tried to speak to him. — Have you tried to see my 
father ? — I have tried to see him. — ^Has he received you ? — He has aot 
received me. — Has he received your brothers ? — He has received 
them. — ^Have you been able to see your relation ? — ^I have not been 
able to see him. — ^What did you do after writing your exercises 7 — ^1 
wrote my letter. — ^After whom do you inqm're ? — I 'nquire after tie 
tailor. — ^Does this man inquire after any one ? — He inquires after you. 
—Do they inquire after you ? — They do inquire after me. — Do they 
inquire after me ? — ^They do not inquire after you, but after a friend 
of yoiyrs. — ^Do you inquire after the physician ? — I do inquire after 
him.' — ^What does your little (the diminutive) brother ask for ? — ^He 
asks for a small (the diminttiive) piece of bread. — ^Has he not yet 
breakfasted ? — ^He has breakfasted, but he is still hungry. — What does 
your uncle ask for ? — ^He asks for a glass of wine. — ^Has he not already 
drunk 7 — ^He has already drunk, but he is still thirsty. 

FORTY-SECOND LESSON.— Lcccton Cuadragisima st^unia. 

The one who. Him who. 
Those who. 
To perceive, (to Bee.) 
Do you perceive the man who 

I perceive him who is coming. 
Do you perceive the men who are 

going into the warehouse ? 
I perceive those who are going into 
To go in,* (U enter understood.) 


Que* (relative pronoun.) 

El que. 

Los que. 

Percibir 3. Divisar 1. Columbrar 1. 
Colambra V. al hombre que vieneT 
Divisa V. al hombre que viene 7 

Yo diviso (columbro) al que viene. 

I Divisa V. d los hombres que van i 
eutrer en el almacen 7 

Yo diviso & los que van 6. entiar «■ 


How is the weather ? ^ t ^ Que tiempo hace 7 

Wliat kind of weather is it 7 ' ^ t ^ Que tiempo teuenios 7 

It is fine weather now. | t Hace bermoso tiempo. 

What was the weather yesterday 7 \ f i ^a» tiempo hizo ayer t 



h was bad weatlier yesterday. 
Was it good Of bad weather 7 
it watt not good weather. 

It was very warm. 
It wa» very cold. 
Is it Tery warm now? 
It is neither warm nor cold. 

Dark. Obtcnre. 
Dusky. Gloomy. 
Clear. liighL 
Is it dark in your warehouse 7 

Is it dark in his garret? 
It is Tery dark there* 
Wet. Damp. 
Are the streets wet ? 
They are not very dry. 
Is the weather damp ? 
It is not damp. 
Is it dry weather? 
The weather is too dry. 
The moonlight 
The moonshine. 
It is moonlight 
We have too much sun. 

To taste. 
Have yon tasted that wine? 

I hare tasted it 
How do yon like it ? 
I like it welL 
Do yon like cider 7 
No, I like wine. 
To like. 

I like fish. 

He likes fowl. 

t Hixo mal tiempo myer. 

t ^ Uizo buen tiempo 6 mal tiempo 7 

i No hizo buea tiempo. '^ 

t Hizo mucho calor. 

t Hizo mucho frio. 

Mucho, (before a noun.) 

1 1 Hace mucho calor ahora? 

t No hace calor ni iiia 


Ldbrega Triste. 

Claro. Despejado. 

t ^ £s (or esti) oscuro su almacen de 


f I Es (or estd) oscuro su desvan? 

Estd muy oscuro alU. 

Mojado. Hdmedo. 


I Estan mojadas las callos 7 

No estan muy secas. 

I Elsti hdmedo el tiempo f 

No estd hiimedo. 

I Es seco el tiempo ? 

El tiempo esti dcmasiado secOi 

La luz de la luna. 

El claro de la luna* 

t Hay luna. Hace luna. 

Demasiado sol tenomos. 

Do you like to see my brother? 
I like to see him. 
I like to do it 
He likes to stndy. 

Gustar. Probar. Catar 
;Ha probado (ha catado) V. 

Le he gustado, (probado, catado.) 
1 1 Coroo le gusta 4 V.7 
t Me gusta mucho. 
t ^ Le gusta & V. la sidra 7 
t No, me gusta el vmo. 
t OuBtarle a uno. (See Less. XXIV.) 
t Me gusta el pescado. 
t A 61 le gusta el polio. 

t j, Le gusta d V. yer d mi hermano? 
t Me gusta verle. 
t Me gusta hacerlo. 
t Le gosta'estadiar. 



The scholar. 
The pupil. 

The master, (teacher.) 
To learn by heart. 
Do your scholars like to learn by 

They do not like learning by heart 

Have you learned yonr exercises by 

We have learned them. 

£1 discfpulo, (escolar, estadiante.) 

£1 alumno. £1 discfpolo 

£1 maestro. 

Aprender de memona, 

1 1 Les gusta d bus discfpulos de V. 

aprender de memoria 7 
t £1 aprendor de memoria no les 

No les gusta aprender de meoMna. 
1 1 Han aprpndido W. sos temas d6 

memoria 7 
Los hemoe apre idido 

Once a day. 
Three times a month. 
So much a year. 
So much a head. 
So much a soldier. 
Six times a year. 

Early in the morning. 
Wt go out early in the morning. 
When did your father go out 7 

To speak of some one, or of some- 

t Una yez al dia. 

t Tres Teces al mes, (por mes ) 

t Tanto al aiia 

t Tanto por cabeza. 

t Tanto por soldado. 

t Seis voces al afia 

Por la manana temprano, 
Salimos por la mafiana temprano 
I Cuando salid su padre de Y.? 

Of whom do you speak 7 

We speak of the man whom yon 

Of what are they speaking 7 
They are speaking of the weather. 
The weather. 
The soldier. 

Hablar de alguno, (de algo. 


De quien hablan W.7 
De quien hablais 7 
Hablamos del hombre que V. 

I De que estan habiando ellos t 
£stan hablaudo del tiempo. 
£1 tiempa 
£1 soldado. 

To be content, satisfied with some 

one, or with something. 
Are you satisfied with this man 7 
I am ^latisfied with him. 
Are you content with your new 

coat 7 
I am content with it 
With what are you contented ? 

Estar contento con (or de) alguisn; 

con (or de) algo, 
I £8ti V. satisfecho de este hombre f 
E!stoy satisfecho de 6\, 
2,£6t& V. contento con sa vestids 

nuevo 7 
£8toy satisfecho de €1. 
I De que estd V. contento 7 
Malconteuta Descontento. 



They ipeak of your friend. 

They speak of him. 

They are speaking of your book. 

They are speaking of it 

HaUan (seJiabla) de mx amigo de V 

Hablan (A habla) de ^L 

Estan hablando (se ee^ hablando) 

de so libro de V. 
Estan (se estd) hablando de ^1. 

if' ! SL 

1 intend paying /ou if I receive 

Do yoa intend to bay paper? 
I intend to bay some, if they pay me 

what they owe me. 

Pienso (intento) pagar A Y. si recibo 

I FiennV. comprar papel 1 
Intento ooniDtar algono si me pagan 

loqne me deben. 

How was the weather yesterday 7 
It was fine weather. 

I Que tiempo hizc ayer 7 
Uizo buen tiempo. 

Do you perceive the man who is coming ? — I do not perce re him. — 
Do you perceive the soldier's children ? — I do perceive them. — Do you 
perceive the men who are going into the garden ? — I do not perceive 
those who are going into the garden, but those who are going to the 
market — Does your brother perceive the man who has lent him 
money ? — He does not perceive the one who has lent him, but the one 
to whom he has lent some. — Dost thou see the children who are 
studying 7 — ^I do not see those who are studying, but those who are 
playing. — Dost thou perceive any thing ? — I perceive nothing. — Have 
you perceived my parents' warehouses ? — I have perceived them. — 
Where have you perceived them ? — I have perceived them on that 
side of the road. — Do you like a large hat ? — ^I do not like a large hat. 
but a Urge umbrella. — What do you like to do ? — I like to write. — Do 
you like to see these little boys ? — I like to see them. — Do you like 
wine ? — ^I do like it — ^Does your brother like cider, (sidra 7) — He does 
like it — ^What do the soldiers like ? — ^They like wine. — ^Dost thou like 
tea or cofiee ? — I like both. — ^Do these children like to study ? — ^They 
like to study and to play. — Do you like to read and to write 7 — ^I like 
to read and to write. — ^How many times a day do you eat 7— Four 
times. — ^How often do your children drink a day 7 — ^They drink several 
times a day. — Do you drink as often as they 7 — ^I drink oftoner. — Do 
you often go to the theatre 7 — I go sometimes. — ^How often in a month 
do you go 7 — ^I go but once a month. — How many times a year does 
your cousin go to the ball 7 — ^He goes twice a year. — Do you go as 
often as he 7 — I never go. — Does your cook often go to the market ?-- 
He goes thither every morning. 



. 133. 

Do you often go to my uncle ? — ^I go to him six times a year.— 
Do you like fowl ? — ^I like fowl, but I do not like fish. — What do you 
like ? — I like a jMece of bread and a glass of wine. — ^Do you learn by 
heart ? — I do not Hke learning by heart — Do your pupils like to learn 
by heart ? — They like to study, but they do not like learning by hearL 
— ^How many exercises do they do a day ? — ^They only do two, but 
they do them properly. — ^Wfiie you able to read the note which I wrote 
to you ? — ^I was iU>le to readlL — ^Did you understand it ? — I did under- 
stand it — Do you understand the man who is speaking to you 7 — 
I do not understand him. — Why do you not understand him ? — ^Because 
he speaks too badly. — Does this man know French ? — ^He knows it, 
but I do not know it. — Why do you not learn it ? — ^I have no time to 
learn it — Do you intend going to the theatre' this evening ? — ^I intend 
going, if you go. — Does your father intend to buy that horse ? — ^He 
intends buying it, if he receives his money. — ^Does your friend intend 
going to England ? — He intends going thither, if they pay him what 
they owe him, — Do you intend going to the concert ? — ^I intend to go, 
if my friend goes. — ^Does your brother intend to study Spanish ? — He 
intends studying it, if he finds a good master. 

How is the weather tonlay ? — ^It is very fine weather. — ^Was it fine 
weather yesterday ? — ^It was bad weather yesterday. — How was the 
weather this morning 7 — ^It was bad weather, but now it is fine weather. 
—Is it warm 7 — It is very warm. — ^Is it not cold 7T-It is not cold.^ 
Is it warm or cold ? — ^It is neither warm nor cold. — ^Did you go to the 
garden the day before yesterday 7 — ^I did not go. — ^Why did you not 
go 7 — ^I did not go, because it was bad weather. — ^Do you intend going 
there to-morrow 7 — I do intend going there if the weather is fine. — 
Is it light in your counting-house 7 — It is not light in it — ^Do you wish 
to work in mine 7 — I do wish to work in it — ^Is it light there 7 — ^It is 
very light there. — ^Why cannot your brother work in his warehouse 7 
—He cannot work there, because it is too dark. — Where is it too 
dark 7 — ^In his warehouse. — ^Is it light in that hole^7 — It is dark (there.) 
— ^la the weatlier dry 7 — ^It is very dry. — ^I^ it'3arap 7 — ^It is not damp. 
It Is too dry. — ^Is it moonlight 7 — ^It is not moonlight, it is very damp. 
— Of what does your uncle speak 7 — ^He speaks of the fine weather.— 
Of what do those men speak 7 — They speak of fair and bad weather. 
— Do they not speak of the wind 7 — ^They do also speak of it — ^Dost 
thou speak of my imcle 7 — ^I do not speak of him. — Of whom dost 
thou speak 7 — ^I speak of thee and thy parent8.*-Do you inquire after 
any one 7 — I inquire after your cousin ; is he at home 7 — ^No, he is 
at his best friend's. 

; (f 



Have you tasted that wine ? — 1 have tasted it — How do you like it 9 
^ like it well. — How does your cousin like that cider 7 — He does 
not like it — ^Which wine do you wish to taste 7 — ^I wish to taste that 
which you have tasted. — ^Will you taste this tobacco 7 — I have tasted 
it ahreedy. — ^How do you like it ? — I like it welL — Why do you not 
taste that cider 7 — ^Because I am not thirsty. — ^Why does your friend 
not taste this ham 7 — ^Because he is not hungrv. — Of whom have t^iey 
spoken 7 — They have spoken of your friend. — Have they not spoken 
of the physicians 7 — They have not spoken of them. — Do they not 
speak of the man of whom we have spoken 7 — ^They do speak of him. 
— ^Have they spoken of the ndilemen, (cabaOeros 7) — ^They nave 
qroken of them. — Have they spoken of those of whom we speak 7— 
They have not spoken of those of whom we speak, but they have 
spoken of others. — ^Have they spoken of our children or of those of our 
neighbors? — ^They have neither spoken of ours, nor those of our 
ndghbors. — ^Which children have been spoken of 7 — ^Thoee of our 
master have been spoken of. — Do they speak of my book 7 — ^They do 
speak of it — Are you satisfied with your pu]»Is 7 — I am satisfied with 
them. — How does my brother study 7 — He studies well. — ^H5w many 
exercises have you studied? — I have already studied forty-two. — Li 
your master satisfied with his scholar 7 — He is satisfied with him. — 
Is your master satisfied with the presents which he has received 7 — 
He is satisfied with them. — ^Have you received a note 7 — I have 
received one. — ^Will you answer (it 7) — ^I am gomg to answer (it) — 
When did you receive it 7 — ^I received it early this morning. — Are yon 
satisfied with it 7 — ^I am not satisfied with it — ^Does your fiiend ask 
yon for money 7 — ^He does ask me for some. 

FORTY-THIRD LESSON.--I>!ccton Cuadragisma tercerm. 


Paanve Verbs represent the subject as receiving or soaring ftmn others 
th* action expressed by the verb. In Spanish, as in EngUsh, they are con- 
jugated by means of the auxiliary verb Skr, (to be,) placed before the past 
participio of the active verb; and the noun or pronoun, representing the 
agent (the subject) in the active phrase, must be preceded by the preposi- 
tions por or de, (by.) Either of thenr may be used when the action of the 
verb refers to the mind, and por only, when otherwise. O" Observe that 
Che post participle of the principal verb must agree in gender and number 
with the subject of the verb 



I am loTod. 

Thoa coDductMt 
Thou art conducted. 

He praiseB. 
He IB praised. 

You puniriL 
You are punished. 

They blame. 
They are Uamed. 

To praise. 
To punish* 
To blame. 

By me. By us. 
By thee. By you. 

By him. By them. 


Yo soy amado de, (por.) 

Ttl conduces. 

Tii ores conducido por. 


tj\ es alabado de, (per). 

y. oastiga. 

y. es castigado por 

Ellos yituperan. 

Elios son yituperados dn (^ » 

Alabar. Elogidr. 
Vituperar. Culpar. 

Por (de) mL Por (de) nu^tros. 
Por (de) iS. Por (de) vos, er tosoctm 

por (de) V. ; por (de) W. 
Por (de) €[. Por (de) ellos. 

I am loved by hin^ 1 

Who is punished? | 

The nanghty boy is punished. \ 

By whom is he panished? I 

He is punished by his father. 
Which man is praised, and which is 
Which ? (not followed by a noun.) 


Skilful. Diligent Qever. 
Aaiduous. Industrious. Studious. 



Soy amado de ^1. 

I Quien es costigado ? 

£1 muchacho malo es castigada 

£1 mal muchacho es castigada 

I Por quiou es castigado ? 

£l es castigado por su padre. 

I Que hombve es alabado, y eual 

I Cual 7 

Malo. (Mal, before a noun.) 
Hdbil. Diligente. Diestro. 
Asidua Industrioso. Estudioso^ 
OcioBO. Perezoeo. Holgazan. 

The idler, (the lazy fellow.) 

To reward. 
To esteem. 
To despise. 

To hate. 
To travel to a place. 
Where has he travelled to ? 
He has travelled to Vienna. 

£1 haragau. 

Recompensar 1. Premiar I. 
Estimar. Apreciar 1. 
Despreciar. Menospreciar 1. 

Aborrecer 2. (See verbs in cer.t 
Jr a. Irse d. 

I Adoi>de 6c ha ido 7 
So liH ido li Vieua. 



1b it good tiuTeUuig 7 
It is good travelling. 
It is bad travelling. 

In the winter. 

In the sammer. 

In the spring. 

In the autumn. 
it ii bad travelling in the winter. 

I "Eb bneno viajar ? 

Es bueno viajar. 

Es male viajar. 

En el invierno. 

En el verano. 

En la primavera. 

En el otojia 

Es male viajar en el invierno. 

Andar 1 * (posMf) 

To drive, to ride m a carriage, I t /r en eoehe. 

I en eoche. 

Cilr (andar, paeear) d eaballa. 

* Montar d caballo, 

4. Cabalgar. 
Ir d piS. 

t ^ Le gosta i. V. andar A 04oaHo 7 
t Me gusta ir en coche. 

To ride, (on honeback.) 

To go on foot 
Da you like to ride ? 
I like to drive. 

To live. 

Is it good living in Paris 7 

living is good in Paris. 
It is good living here. 
The living is good here. 

Is the living dear in London 7 
Is it dear living in London 7 

The Irving is dear here 
It is dear living here. 

i Vivir. 

^ ^ Se vive bien en Paris 7 

(i iLo paea uno bien en Paris f 

I Se vive bien en Paris. 

K Aquf se vive bien. 

( Lo pasa uno bien aquf. 

I Caro. Coeioao. Cottar *1 mueko, 

C iEb caio (costoso) e! »iHr en Ldm 

) dres7 

( I Cueeta mucho vivir ab i-^MvM? 

k El vivir aquf es caro. 

( Cuesta mucho vivir aaut 

The storm. 
The fog. 
Is it wmdy 7 Does the wind blow 7 

It is windy. The wind blows. 

It isnot wfaidy. 

It is very windy. 

I>o«i it thunder 7 

I Trueno. .Truenoe. 

{ La tonneuta. La tempeetaA 

( La borrasca. 

I La niebla. 

Jt ^Hace viento7 
I Cone viento, (hace aire) 7 
J t Hace viento. 
I Corre viento, (hace aire.) 
J t No hace viento. 
{ No corre viento, (hace aire.) 

J Hace mucho viento. 
Corre mucho viento, (hace aire.) 
C t i Hay truenos 7 i Truena 7 
I ^Estitronando7 


Ii it foggy t 
la it stormy i 

It is not stormy. 

Does the sun shine ? 
It thunders very much. 


I 1 1 Hace niebia 1 i Hay niebia * 
^ t ^ E^ti tempestuoso el tiempo ^ 
(* t i Hay tempestad 7 
( t No bay tempestad. 
) No est& tempestuoso. 

I Luce el sol 7 i Hay sol 7 

Truena muchisimo. 


Am aoon as. 
Am soon as I have eaten I drink. 
As soon as I have taken off my 

shoes, I take off my stockings. 
What do you do in the evening 7 

To sleep. 
Does your father still sleep 7 
He still sleeps. 

Without money. 
Without speaking. 


Luego que, Asi que 

Aai que he comido, bebo 

t Luego que me he quitado los za* 

patoe, me quite las medias. 
I Que hace V. por la tarde ? 

Dormir • 3. 

I Duerme todavta su padre de V ? 

Duerme todavfa. Aun duerme 


Sin dinero. 

t Sm hablar. 



Sin (without) requires the verb which follows it to be mthe mfim^ 

Without saying any thing. 

At last. 

To arrive. 
Has he arrived at last 7 
He has not arrived yet 
Is he coming at last? 
He is coming. 


t Sin decir nada. 
Sin hablar palabra. 
Sin ahrir la boca. 

Alfin,' Finalmente. 
lAegar 1. (See verbs in gar^ 
I Ha llegado finalmente 7 
Todavfa no ha Uegado. 
^Viene al fin? 
£l viene. 

And then. 
And then he sleeps. 
As soon as he has supped he reads, 
and then he sleeps. 


Y entdnees. Y puss* 
T entdnees dnerme. 
Luego que ha cenado |ee, y entd] 

The parents, (father and mother.) 

Father and mother. 
Are you loved by your father and 

I am loved by my parents. 

t Los padres, 
t Los padres, 
t ^ Es y. amado de sns padres ? 

t Soy amado de mis padres. 


Are you loved ? — I am loved.— By whom are yoa bved ? — I am 
loved by my uncle. — By whom am I loved ? — Thou an loved by thy 
pareuiH. — By whom are we loved ? — You are loved by your friends. — 
By whom are those boys loved ? — They are loved by their friends. — 
By whom is this man conducted ? — He is conducted by me. — Where 
do you conduct him lo ? — I conduct him home. — By whom are we 
blamed ? — We are blamed by our enemies. — ^^'^ly are we blamed by 
tbem ? — Because they do not love us. — Ap you punished by your 
master ? — I am not punished by him, because I am good and studious. 
^-Are we heard ? — We are, (lo.) — ^By whom afe we heard ? — We are 
bead by our neighbors. — Is thy master heard by his pupils ? — He ia 
heard by them. — Which children are praised 7 — Those that are good. 
—Which are punished ? — Those that a!re idle and naughty. — Are we 
praised or blamed ? — ^We are neither praised nor blamed. — Is our 
fiiend loved by his mastere? — He is loved and praised by them, 
because he is studious and good ; but his brother is despised by his, 
because he is naughty and idle. — ^Is he sometimes punished ? — He is 
(b) every morning and every evening. — ^Are you sometimes punished 7 
—I am (lo) never ; I am loved and rew^ded by my good masters.— 
Are these children never punished 7 — ^They are (lo) never, because 
they are studious and good ; but those are so (lo) very often, because 
they are idle and naughty. — ^Who is priised and rewarded 7 — Skilful 
children are praised, esteemed, and rewarded, but the ignorant are 
blamed, despised, and punished. — Who is loved and who is hated 7-^ 
He who is studious and good is loved, and he who is idle and naughty 
is hated. — ^Must (one) be good in order to be loved 7 — (One) must be 
80.— What must (one) do in order to be loved 7 — (One) must be good 
tnd assiduous. — What must (one) do in order to be rewarded 7 — (One) 
must be skilful, and study much, (see Lesson XXXIX., page 162.) 

Why are those children loved 7— They are loved because they an 
good.— Are they better than we 7— They are not better, but more 
studious than you. — ^Is your brother as assiduous as mine 7 — ^He ia as 
•saduous as he, but your brother is better than mine. — ^Do you like to 
drive 7—1 like to ride.-^Has your brother ever been on horseback 7 — 
He haA never been on horseback. — ^Does your brother ride on horse- 
back as often as you 7 — He rides on horseback oftener than L — ^Did 
you go on horseback the day before yesterday 7 — ^I went on horseback 
to-day. — Do you like travelling 7 — I do like travelling. — ^Do yon like 
travellfaig hi the whiter 7 — I do not like travelling in the winter; I like 

jn^v^fcik-w^ ^. t* • --< -vA.^ 


/ '^ 


travelling in "the spring and in autumn. — Is it good tfaveDing in Urn 
spring ? — It is good travelling in spring and in autumn, but it is bad 
travelling in the summer and in the winter. — ^Have you sometimes 
travelled in the winter ? — ^I have often travelled in the winter and in 
the summer. — ^Does your lnx>ther travel often 7 — ^He travels no longer : 
he formerly travelled much. — ^When do you like to ride 7—1 like to 
ride inlhe morning. — "H&ve you been in London 7 — ^I have been there. 
— ^Is the living good there 7 — ^The living is good there, but dear. — Is h 
dear living in Paris 7 — ^It is good living 'there,) and not dear. — ^Do yon 
like travelling in France 7 — ^I like travelling there, because one fields 
good people (buenas gerum) there. — ^Does your fnerd like travelling in 
Hdland 7 — He does not like travelling there, because the living is bad 
there. — ^Do you like travelling in Italy 7 — ^I do like travelling therein 
because the living is good there, and one (se haUa) finds good people 
there ; but the roads are not very good there. — ^Do the English like to 
travel in Spain 7 — They like to travel there ; but they find the roads 
too bad. — ^How is the weather 7 — ^The weather is very bad. — ^Is it 
windy 7 — ^It is very windy. — Was it stormy yesterday 7 — ^It was very 

Do you go to the market this morning 7 — ^I do go, if it is not stormy. 
— ^Do you intend going to France this year 7 — ^I intend going (thither) 
if the weather is not too bad. — ^Do you like to go on foot 7 — ^I do not 
like to go on foot, but I like going in a carriage when (cuando) I am 
travelling. — ^Will you go on foot ? — I cannot go at foot, because I am 
tired. — ^What sort of weather is it 7 — ^It thunders. — ^Does the sun 
diine 7<— The sun does not shine ; it is foggy .-rDo you hear the thun- 
der 7 — ^I hear it — ^Is it fine weather 7 — The wind blows hard, and it 
thunders much. — Of whom have you spoken? — ^We have ^xiken 
of you. — ^Have you praised me 7 — ^We have not praised you ; we have 
blamed you. — ^Why have you Uamed me 7 — ^Because you do not study 
well.— Of what has your brother spoken 7 — ^He has spoken of his 
b(X>ks, his horses, and his dogs. — ^What do you do in the evening 7 — 
I work as socm as I have supped. — ^And what do you do afterwards 7-r- 
Afterwards I sleep. — ^When do you drink 7 — ^I drink as socm as I hive 
eaten. — ^Have you spoken to the merchant 7 — I have spoken to him. — 
What has he said 7 — ^He has left (salir) without saying any thing. — 
Can you work without speaking 7 — I can work, but not study Spanish 
without 'speaking. — Wilt thou go for some yrine 7 — ^I cannot go for 
wine without money. — liave you bought any horses 7 — I do not buy 
without money. — ^Has your fttther arrived at last 7 — ^He has arrived. — 
When did he arrive? — This morning at four o'clock. — Has yeur 
cousin set out at last 7— He has not set out yet — ^Have you at last 



fomid a good master ? — I have at last found one. — Are you at last 
learning Spanish? — I am at last learning it — ^Why have you not 
already learned it? — Because I have not been able to find a good 

FORTY-FOURTH LESSON.— i^sccum CuadragHvma cuarta. 

When the action fi&Ib upon the agent, and the object refers to the same 
peison as the subject, the veib w called refloctire or prooominal. In Span- 
■h almoai all active veiba may become reflective, and used as pronominal. 
These verbs form their compound tenses with the auxiliary haber, (to^ave.) 
The pfonouB object must be of the sam^ person as that of the subject, 
and each penon is conjugated with a double personal pronoun. However, 
the pronoun subject is almost always understood in Spanish, while in English 
it is the object 

I — (myselt) 
Thou— (thyself.) 
He — (himself) 
She— (herself.) 


One — (one*s sell) 

We— (ourselves.) 

Sing. You — (yoursell) 

Plur. You, ye — (youxselves.) 

Mas. They — (themselvee.) 
Fem. They — (themselves.) 

Obs. A. It will be remarked that the pronoun object of the third person 
s always se, whatever its gender or number may be. 

(Yo) me — (a mi mismo.y 

(Ttk) t<y— (4 ti mismo.) 

(£l) se— (a §i mismo.) 

(Ella) se— (<i H mitma.) 
S (6 1) se — {& ai mismo.) 
\ \ (Ella) se — (a H misma.) 

Uno se — algono se — (d si mismo.) 

(Nosotros) nos — (d nosotros mismos \ 

y. se — (vos os) d sf mismo— (d vo9 

W. se — {vosotros os) — (4 si mismos) 
— (d vosotros mismos.) 

Ellos se — (d si mismos.) 

EUas se — (d si mismos.) 

To cut yourself. 
To cut myself 
To cut ourselves. 
To cut himself 
To cut henelf. 

Cortarse V. (Cortaros.) 
Cortarse (^1.) 
Cortarse (elia.) 

> Tlie words m italics are often added to the verb to give more energy to 
tiie sentence. 




To cut itselt 
To cut one's sel£ 

Do you burn younelf 7 
I do not burn myself. 
You do not bum youiselfl 
I see mysel£ 
Do I see myself? 
He sees himself. 
We see ourselves. 
They see themselTes. * 
He always praises himself 

Do you wish to warm yourself 7* 

I do wish to warm myself 
Does he wish to warm himself 7 
He does wish to warm himself 
They wish to warm themselves. 

Cortarse (H) 

Cortane (eOft.) 

I Se quema V. 7 

(Yo) no me quemo. 

v. no se quema 

(Yo) me veo. 

I Me veo yo 7 

^1 se y6, 

(Noeotros) nos vemos. 

Ellos se ven. EUas se ven. 

£l se alaba siempre d si mismo 

j I Quiere V. calentai^e 7 
[ I Se quiere V. calentar 7 

Me ({uiero calentar. 

I Quiere ^1 calentane ? 

£1 quiere catentarse. 

Ellos se quieren calentar. 

To enjoy. 

To divert 

To amu9e one^t 9elf. 
In what do you amuse yourself? 
I amuse myself in reading. 
He diverts himself in playing. 

C Divertirte •.' 

J EntreUneree *.* 

( Reerearse 1. 
I A (or en) que so divierte V. ? 
Yo me recreo leyendo, (or en leer.) 
Se entretiene en jugar, (jugando.) 

Each one. 
Each man amuses himself as he 

Each one amuses himself in the best 
way he can. 

The taste. 

Each man has his taste. 

ESachof yoo. 

Tlie world, (the peqile.) 

Every one. Everybody, 
Bfwybody speaks of it 

como le 

Cada, Todo. 

Cada una, 

Cada hombre se divierte 
gusta, (como gusta.) 

Cada uno se divierte del mejor mode 
que pnede. 

El gusto. 
K Cada nno tiene su gusto. 
( Cada hombre tiene so gnsta 
I Cada nno de W. 
I "El mundo, (la gente.) 
( Cada uno, Todo el mundo, 

C Cada nno (or todo el mnado) habia 
} de eHo. 
( Todos haUan de ello. 

' See m the Appendix 

* Conjugated like 



Every one is liable to error. 

To mistmke, 
Yoo are mistaken. 
He is mistaken. 

Cada uno (todo el muiido) cometc 
yerros. • 
' t Todoe estamoa sujetoe d errar. 

I t Equi^oearge 1. 

t V. se equivoca. 

I t £1 se equlToca. 

To deceive, to ekeaL 
He has cheated me. 
Ho has cheated me of a bandied 


Enganar en. t Haeer droga, 
^1 me ha engafiado. *^ 

t J^l me ha hecho droga cien pesos. 

Ton cut your finger. ( V. se cort6 el deda 

Obs, B. When an agent performs an act upon a part of himself, the veih 
w made reflective ; and my, his, youre, Slc, are rendered by el, la, loe, las. 

I ent my nails. 
A hair. 
To puU out. 
He polls out his hair. 
He cots bis hair. 
The piece. 
A piece of bread. ^ 

To go away. I 
Are yon going away? 
I am going away. 
He is going away. 
Is he going away 7 
Are we going away 1 
Yon are going away. 
Are these men going away 7 

They are not going away. 

To feel sleepy. 

Do yoQ feel sleepy 7 
I feel sleepy. 


To fear, to dread. 
1 dread» thon dreadest, be dreads. 

Yo me corto lae niias, (fern, pi.) 

Un cabello. 

Arranear 1. Arranearae. 

Se arranca el cabello. 

Se corta el cabella 

£1 pedaza La pieza. 

Un pedazo de pan. 

Iret. Marcharee. 

i Se va V. 7 i Se marcha V.7 

Me Toy. Me marcho. 

^1 se Ta. Se marcha. 

^ Se va ^ 7 ^ Se marcha 41 7 

I Nos Tamos 7 Nos marchamos 7 

VV. se van. W. se marchan. 

I Se van (or so marchan) estos hom* 

Ellos no se van, (no se marchan.) 
' t Tener sueiio. Sentiise con suefio 
t Tener gana de dormir, 

I Quererae dormir. 

I I Eetaree durmiendo. 
t ^Tiene V. saefto7 
t Yo tengo sueiio. 

Eneueiar 1. Ensticiaree. 
Manchar 1. Maneharee. 
Temer 2. Reeelar 1. 
Temo, temes, teme. 



He fears to soil his finger. 
Do yoa dread to go out 7 
I do dread to go out 
He is afraid to go out 

To fear wme one. 

I do not fear him. 

Do you fear that man? 

What do you fear 7 
«•• Whom do you fear 7 

(I fear) nobody 

The wood, (to bum.) 

(£l) teme ensuoiarse el ded& 
i Teme V. salir, (d fuera) ? 
Yo temo salir. 
Teme salir. t £l tiene miedo de 

Temer^A dlguno. 

Yo no le temo. 

I Teme V. & eee hombre? 

I Que teme V . 7 

I A quien teme V I 

A ningunc 

1 La lefia, (fem.) 

Do you see yourself in that small looking-glass ^ — ^I see myself In 
it — Can your friends see themselves in that large looking-glass ?<^- 
They can see themselves therein, (in it)— Why does your brother nol 
light the fire 7 — ^He does not light it, because he is afraid of burning 
himself. — ^Why do you not cut your bread ? — ^I do not cut it, because 
I fear to cut my finger. — Have you a sore finger ? — ^I have a sore 
finger and a sore foot. — ^Do you wish to ^rm yourself? — ^I do wish 
to warm myself, because I am very cold.-Pwhy does that man not 
warm himself? — ^Because he is not cold.-^Do your neighbors warm 
themselves? — They warm themselves^ because they are cold. — Do 
you cut your hair ? — ^I do cut my hair. — Does your friend cut his 
nails ? — ^He cuts his nails and his hair.-^What does that man do ?'— 
He pulls out his hair. — In what do you amuse yourself ? — I amuse 
myself in the best way I can. — ^In what do your children amuse them- 
selves ? — ^They amuse themselves in studying, writing, and playing. — 
In what does your cousin amuse himself? — He amuses himself in 
reading good books and in writing to his friends. — In what do you 
amuse yourself when you have nothing to do at home ? — I gQ to the 
play and to the concert. I often say, " Every one amuses himself as 
he likes." — Every man has his taste ; what is yours 7— Mine is to 
study, to read a good book, to go to the theatre, the concert, and the 
ball, and to ride. 


Why does your cousin not brush his coiit ? — ^He does not brush it, 

because he is afraid of soiling his fingers. — What does my neighbor 

tell you ? — He tells me that (que) you wish to buy his horse ; but I 

know that (que) he is mistaken, because you have no money to buy it 


— ^Whai do they (se) say at the market ? — They say that (que) the 
enemy is heaten. — ^Do you believe that ? — ^I believe it, because eveiy 
one says so. — ^Why have you bought that book ? — I have bought it, 
because I want it to learn Spanish, and because eveiy one speaks of it 
—Are your ftiends going away ?— They are going away. — ^When are 
they going away ? — ^They aie going away to-morrow. — When are you 
going away ? — ^We are going away to-day. — Am I going away ? — ^You 
are going away if you like. — ^What do our neighbors say ? — They are 
going away without saying any thing. — ^How do you. like this wine ? — 
I do not like it. — ^What is the matter withr you ?— I feel sleepy. — ^Does 
your fiiend feel sleepy ?— He does not feel sleepy, but he is cold. — 
Why does he not warm himself? — ^He has no wood to make a fire. — 
Why does he not buy some wood 7 — ^He has no money to buy any. — 
Will you lend him some 7 — ^If he has none I will lend him some. — 
Are you thirsty 7 — ^I am not thirsty, but very hungry. — ^Is your servant 
sleepy 7 — He is sleepy. — ^Is he hungry 7 — He is hungry. — ^Why does 
he not eat? — ^Because he has nothing to eat — Are your children 
hungry 7 — They are hungry, but they have nothing to eat — Have they 
any thing to drink 7 — ^They have nothing to drink. — ^Why do you not 
eat ? — I do not eat when I am not hungry. — ^Why does the Russian 
not drink ? — ^He does not drink when l)e is not thirsty. — ^Did your 
tnrother eat any thing yesterday evening 7 — He ate a piece of beef, a 
soiall piece of fowl, and a piece of bread. — Did he not drink 7 — He 
also drank. — What did he drink 7 — He drank a glass of wine. #• 

FORTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Iieccwm Cuadrag^sima quinla, 


(JPretirito Perfecto Pr6ximo de lot Verbo9 PronominaUs.) 

In Spanish all Feflective verbs, as in English, take in their compound 
tenses the auxiliary haber, (to have.) 

Have you cat yourself? ^ Se ha cortado V. ? 

I have cut royseli 

Have I cut myself 7 

You have cut youiselfl 

You have not cut yourself 

Hast thou cut thyself? 

I have not cot myself. 

Has your brother cut himself 7 

Yo me he cortado. 

I Me he cortado (yo) 7 

V. se ha cortado.' 

V. no se ha cortado.' 

iTe-has cortado (tH)? 

(Yo) no me he cortado. 

I Se ha cortado su (el) bermauo de 


^ Vomttros habeit cortado, * JVb o« Juibeif eoriad** 




He hafl cut himselfL 
Have we cut ounelTee? 
You have not cut yourselves. 
Have these men cut themselves 7 
They have not cut themselves 

£l se ha cortado. 

No3 hemoe cortado. 

VV. no se han cortado.' 

I Se han cortado estos hombres T 

(Ellos) no se han cortado 

To take a toalk. 
To go a^walking. 
To take an airing in a carriage 
The coach. 
To take a ride. 
Do you take a walk 7 
I do take a walk. 
He takes a walk. 
We take a walk. 
Thou wishest to take an airing. 
They wish to take a ride. 

t Pa9ear9e 1. 

Ir k pasear. Salir k pasear. 

t Pasearse (dar on paseo) en coche- 

El cocbe. 

t Pasearse & cabaUo. 

t i Se pasea V. ?• 

t Yo me pasea 

t £l se pasea. n 

t Nosotros nos paseamcs. 

t Td te quieros pasear en coche. 

t Ellos quieren pasearse d caballo 

To walk a child, (to take it a-walk- 

Do you take your children a-walk- 

f take them a-walking every mom- 

Hacer foaear & un nitio, cw Uev^r 

un-nitio d pasear. 
1 1 Hace y. pasear d bus niiios ? 

t Los hago pasear todas las mafianaa 

Every, (meaning frequency.) 
To go to bed. 
To lie dotDTu % 

To get up. To rite. 
Do you rise early 7 
I rise at sunrise. 
I go to bed at sunset 
The sunset 
The sunrise. 
At wnat time did you go to bed 7 
At three o'clock in the morning. 
At what o'clock did* he go to bed 

yesterday 7 
He went to bed lata 

I Todoe loa. Todas las, (fern. pL> 

it Acostaree. 
i Ir a acostaree. Irse d la canuu 
I Levantarse 1. 
I Se levanta V. temprano 7 
Me levanto al salir del sol. 
Me acuesto al ponerse del sol. 
El ponerse del sol. 
El salir del sol. El rayar del alba. 
I A que bora se aoo6t6 V. 7 
t A las tres de la mafiana. 
1 1 A que bora se acostd €i ayer T 

(£l) se acostd tarde. 

To rejoice at something. I t AUgrarse de algo, (cr de algmm 
I cosa,) Regodjarse de* 

* Noos habeis cortado. 

* lOs paseais vosotros, or vosf 



I VBJoiea at yoar happiness. 

The happineas. 
At what does ydhr uncle rejoice 7 

I have rejoiced. 
They have rejoiced. 
We have mistaken. 
Yoo have mktaken. 

To hurt wmebody. 
The evU The pain. The harm. 
Have yoa hurt that man 7 

I have hnrt that man. 

Why did yoa hart that man 7 

I have not hart hhn. 

Does fAa( hart you 7 
That hurts me. 

t Me alogro de la dicha de V. 

La dicha. La felicidad. 

t ^ De que se alegra el seftor tio de 

Yo me he alegrado. 
EUlos se hau alegrado. 
t Nos hemos eqaivocado. 
t V. s^ha eqaivocado.' 

Haeer mal {dam or lastimar) i 

alguno, t Ofender. 
El mal El dolor El dano, 
iHa. hecho V. mal (dafio) i ese 

hombre 1 
I Ha lastimado V. i ose hombre 7 
( He hecho mal (dano) d ese hombre 
( Yo he lastimado a ese nombre. 
^Porqu^ hizo V mal (dado) i, ese 
hombre 7 
Porqu^ lastimd V . i ese hombre 7 
No le he hecho mal, (dafio.) 
\ No le he lastimada 

il Le hace mal (dafio) d V. eso ? 
I Le lastima e «o d V. 7 
I Eao me hace mal, (daiia) 


To do good to anybody. 
Have I ever done yon any harm 7 

On the contrary. 
No ; on the contrary, you have done 

me good. 
I have never^done harm to any one. 

Haeer bien & alguno^ {& U7u>,) 

^ Le he hecho jamas algun mal d 

Al contraria 
No ; al contrario, V. me ha hecht 

Nunca he hecho mal d nadie. 

Have I hurt you 7 
You have not hurt me. 

That does me good. 

To do with. 
To diepoee of. 

( ^ He hecho yo algun mat d V 7 
^ ^ Le he lastimado d V. 7 
i y. no me ha hecho mal. 
/ y. no me ha lastimada 

I £40 me hace bion. 

i Haeer con, 
Diaponer de, (See Poner,) 

Voeotroe oe habeia equivoeado. 



What does the seiraiit do with his i Qae hace el criodo con U < 

broom? - 
He sweeps the floor with it. Barre el suelo con $lla. 

With it ' Cod 6\, (mas.) Con ella, (fern.) 

What does he wish to make with his i Que quiere 6\ hacer con sa lefla f 

wood? I 

He does not wish to make any thing | £l no quiere hacer nada con elhu, 

with it. 

Ob9. When a proposition has no definite snbject, the tngUsh, in 
order to avoid the pronouns theyt people, Sui., use the verb in the passiro 
voice, and say : / wot told, instead of, They told me ; He it flattered, in- 
stead of, They flatter him. This is always expressed in Spanish by the 
pronoun m and a verb in the third person singular, or by a verb in the 
third perM>n plur?U without the pronoun ae. (See Lesson XXVIII., 
Oba, A. and B.) Example : — 
He is flattered, but he is not be- W A €1) se le alaba, pero no se le ania. 

loved. ( (A 61) le alaban, pero no le aman. 

iMe dicen que (61) ha llegado. 
Se me dice que ha llegado. 
That I Que, (conjunction.) 

. , ., , . , . C ^ lo ha dado un cuchillo para re- 

Aknifewasgnren to hrai to cat h« \ banar el pan. y «1 « cort* el d«la 
bread, and he cut h» finger. ^ ^e dieron un cuchillo, &c 

To flatter some one. \ Alabar {ItMonjear) a alguno, a uiis 

/ am told that he is arrived. 

To flatter one*s self! 

^ Alabane (i. sf mismo.) 
( Lisonjeame. Preciarse. 

He flatters himself to know 

Spanish. \ 

Nothing but 
He has nothing but enemies. 

Se precia de saber el EspanoL 
Se alaba de saber el E^paiioL 

iSino. No (v) sino. 
No (v) mat que. 
£1 no tiene sino enemigos. 
no tiene mas que enemigos; 

5 El 

To become, {to turn.) 
He has turned a soldier. 
Have you turned a merchant 7 
I have turned (become) a lawyer. 
What has become of your brother ? 

What has become of him ? 
I do not know what has become of 

t Hacerte. Meterse. 

t (£l) se ha hecho soldado. 

t ^ Se ha hecho V. comerciante ? 

t Me he hecho abogado. 

1 1 Que se ha hecho de su hennans 

1 1 Que se ha hecho de 6\ 7 
t Yo no b6 2o que se ha hecho 6 ^ 

To enUtL To enrol 

iAlittarte. Hacerte toldado, 
t Sentmr ^laxa. 



He hoB enlisted. 

I Se ha alistado. Ha'sentado plaza. 

FoTi (meaning 5«eaiMe.) Porque. 

I cannot pay yoa, for I have no | Yo no pnedo pegar i V. porque no 

tengo dinero. 
£l no pnede dar peui d V. porque no 
tiene, (ningnno.) 

He cannot give you any hread, for 
he has 

To heUeve mtme one. 
Do yoa belieye that man ? 
I do not believe him. 
17 But we say : 

To belieye in God 
I believe in God. 

To utter a faUehood. 
I lie, thoa liest, he lies. 
The stflty-teller, the lian 

Creer d dlgunot (d uno.) 
I Cree V . & ese hombre ? 
To DO le creo. 

I Creer en Dies. 
To ciM> en Dios. 

To lie. 

Dedr una faleedad, Menttr *. 
Miento, mientes, miente. 
£1 embustero, el mentiroBa 

Why has that child been praised 7 — ^It has been praised because it 
has stodied welL — ^Hast thou ever been praised ? — ^I have often been 
praised. — ^Why has that other child been punished ? — It has been pun* 
khbd, because it has been naughty and idle. — ^Has this child been re- 
•irarded ? — ^It has been rewarded because it has worked well. — What 
most one do in order to be praised? — One must be studious and 
good. — What has become of your friend ? — ^He has become a lawyer. 
— What has become of your cousin ?-^He has enlisted. — ^Has your 
neighbor enlisted ? — He has not enlisted. — ^What has become of him ? 
— He has turned a merchant — ^What has become of his children ? — 
His children have become men. — ^What has become of your son ? — He 
has become a great man. — ^Has he become learned ? — ^He has become 
learned. — What has become of my book ? — ^I do not know what has 
become of it — Have you torn it? — I have not torn it. — ^What has be- 
come of our friend's son ? — ^I do not know what-has become of him. — 
What have you done with your money ? — ^I have bought a book with 
It — What has the joiner done with his wood ? — ^He has made a bench 
of it, — What has the tailor done with the cloth wtich you gave him ? 
—He has made clothes of it for your children and mine. — Has that 
man hurt you ? — No, Sir, he has not hurt me. — ^What must one do in 
Older to be loved, (para que le amen 7) — One must (es menester que 
nagamos bien) do good to those that have done u» harm. — ^Have we 


ever doae 70a hann ? — No ; you imve on the contrary done us good. 
—Do you do harm to any one ? — I do no one any harm. — Why have 
you hurt these children ? — I have not hurt them. — ^Have I hurt you 7 — 
Vou have not hurt me, but your boys have. — What have they done to 
you ? — They have beaten me. — Is it your brother who has hurt my 
son ? — ^No, Sir, it b not my brother, for he has never hurt any one. 

Have yon drunk that wine 7 — ^I have drunk it — How did you like it ? 
— ^I liked it very well. — ^Has it done you good 7 — It has done me good. 
— ^Have you hurt yourself 7 — ^I have not hurt myself. — ^Who has hurt 
himself 7 — My brother has hurt himself, for he has cut his finget. — Is 
he still ill, (malo 1) — He is better. — ^I rejoice to hear that he is no longer 
ill, for I love him. — ^Why does your cousin pull out his hair 7 — Because 
he cannot pay what he owes. — ^Have you cut your hair 7 — I have not 
cut it (myself,) but I have had it cut, (me le he hecho rariar,) — What 
has this child done 7 — ^He has cut his foot — Why was a knife given 
to him 7 — ^A knife was given him to (jpara) cut (que se eortase) his 
nails, and he has cut his finger and his foot — ^Do you go to bed e^rly 7 
— ^I go to bed late, for I cannot sleep when I go to bed early. — ^At what 
o'clock did you go to bed yesterday 7 — Yesterday I went to bed at a 
quarter past eleven. — At what o'clock do your children go to bed ? — 
They go to bed at sunset. — ^Do they rise early 7 — ^They rise at sunrise. 
— At what o'clock did you rise to-day 7 — ^To-day I rose late, becaui;e I 
went to bed late yesterday evening, (ayer noche.) — Does your son rise 
late 7 — ^He rises early, for he never goes to bed late. — ^What does he 
do when he gets up ? — He studies, and then breakfasts. — Does he not 
go out before he breakfasts 7 — ^No, he studies and breakfasts before he 
goes out — ^What does he do after breakfasting 7 — As soon as he has 
breakfasted he comes to my house, and we take a ride. — ^Didst thou 
rise this morning as early as 1 7 — ^I rose earlier than you, for I rose 
before sunrise. 

Do you often go a-waUdng 7 — ^I go a-walking when I have nothing 
to do at home. — Do you wish to take a walk 7 — ^I cannot take a walk, 
for I have too much to do. — ^Has your brother taken a ride 7— ^He has 
taken an airing in a carriage. — ^Do your children often go a-walking ? 
—They go a-waiking every morning after breakfast — Do you take a 
walk after dinner 7 — After dinner I drink tea, and then I take a walk. 
—Do you often take your children a-walking 7 — I take them a-walking 
every morning and every evening. — Can you go with me 7 — ^I cannot 
go with you, for I am to take my little brother out a-walking. — ^Where 
d«- you walk 7 — We walk in our uncle's garden. — Did your fiUbar 

roRiT-sncTH LEssoir, lOl 

rejoice to see you ? — ^He did rejoice to see me. — ^Wliat did you rejoice 
at ? — ^I rejoiced at seeing my good friend?. — What was your uncle de- " 
ligtited with, {se ha alegrado /)— He was delighted with (de recUnr) the 
horse which you have sent him. — What were your children delighted 
with ? — ^They were delighted with (de tener) the fine clothes which 1 
had had made for them, (que lei mandi hacer.) — Why does this man 
rejoice so much ? — Because he flatters himself he has good friends. — 
Is he not right in rejoicing 7 — He is wrong, for he has (nothuig^^ but 
enemies. — Is he not loved 7 — ^He is flattered, but he is not beloved. — 
Do yon flatter yourself that you know Spanish 7 — ^I do flatter myself 
that I know it ; for I can speak, read, and write it. — ^Has the physician 
done any harm to your child 7 — ^He has cut his finger, (H le ha cortado 
el dedo^ but he has not done him any harm, so (y) you are mistaken, ii 
yon believe that he has done him any harm. — Why do you listen jO 
that man } — I listen to him, but I do not believe him ; f jr I know that 
he is a stoiy-teller. — How do you know that he is a story-teller 7 — ^He 
does not believe in God ; and all those {los que) who do not believe in 
God are story-tellers. ,^ 

FORTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leccton Cuadragisima sexto. 

We have already seen (liessons XLI. and XLII.) some idiomatical ex- 
preanous with Aacer, all of which belong to the impeiBonai verbs. These 
verbs, having no determinate subject, are conjogated only in the third perw 
•on singolar, withoat any pronoun. 

To rain. It rains. 

To snow. It 8DOW8. 

To hail . It hails. 
To lighten. It lightens. 
Does it lighten ? 
It does lighten. 
It rains very hard. 

The lightning. 

The parasol. 
It lightens much. 
Does it snow 1 
It snows much. 
It hails much 

Llover • 2. Llneve. 

Nevar ♦ 1. Nieva. 

Granizar 1. Graniza. 

Relampaguear 1. Relampaguea* 

I Relampaguea ? 

Relampaguea, (or ei.) ' ' 

LIueve muy ua^ jUc^X^O 

El reldmpago. ^ 

El qoitasol. 

Relampaguea mucho. . > 

[Nieva? ^ Esti nevando T 

Nieva mncha 

Graniza mucno ' t ' 



The 8im does not ahino. 

Hie ran k in my eyes 

t No hay sol No hace wtL 

t No parece el sol 

No luce el sol. 

t Me da el sol en los ojos. 

To thunder, it thunders. 
To shine, to glitter. 

To shut 
Have yon done T 
Is the walking good ? 
In that country. 
The country. 
He has made many friends in that 

Tronar * 1, tmena. 
Lucir, rei^andecer. 


Cerrar* 1. 


I Esti bueno (el piso) paia pasear f 

En esepais. 

El pais. 

& se ha hecho machos amigos an 

(De que, (of both genders and numbers.) 

De quien, Del eual. De la cual, (sing) 

De qnieriee, De loe cualee. De la$ cualee, (plor.) 

I see the man of whom you speak. 
I have bought the horse of which 
you spoke to me. 

Yo yeo al hombre de quien Y. habla. 
He comprado el caballo de que (or 
del cual) Y. me habl<). 


I see the man whose brother has kiU- 

ed my dog. 
I see the man whose dog you have 

Do you see the child whose father 

set out yesterday 7 
I see it. 

Whom have you seen 7 
I have seen the merchant whose 

warehouse you have taken. 
I have spoken to the man whose 

warehouse has been burnt 


Cuyo, (mas.) Cuyoe, (mas.) 
Cuya, (feoL) Cuyae, (fern.) 

Yo yeo al hombre cuyo hermano ha 

matado mi perro. 
Yo yeo al hombre cuyo peiro Y. ha 

^ Y6 Y. al niilo cuyo padre se mar- 

ch6 ayer7 
Yo le yea 

I A quien ha yisto Y. t 
Yo he yisto al comerciante cuyo al- 

macen ha tornado Y. 
He hablado al hombre cuyo almacen 

se ha quemado. 

That which, 

Lo que, Aquello gus. 
Aquello de que 



Tkmt, or the one of whieL 

Tkoee, or the ones of which, 

I have that of which I have need. 
I have what I want 
Ee has what he wants. 

!Aquel de qmen, (maa. sing.) 
AqueUa de quien, (fem. sing.) 
Aquel del ciudf (mas. sing.) 
AqueUa de la cual, (fem. sing.) 
fAquelloe de quienee, (mas. plor.) 
Aquellae de quienee, (fem. plor.) 
Aquelloe de lot eualee, (mas. plnr) 
AqueUae de laa euales, (fem. plor.) 

> Tengo lo que he menester, (neeesito^ 
I Tiene lo que ha menesCer, (necesita.) 

Have you the hook of which you 

hare need? 
I have that of which I have need. 
Has the man the nails of which he 

has need? 

He has those of which he has need. 

To need. To want 
To have need oL 

I Tiene V. el lihro qne ha menestM 

(que necesita) 7 
Tengo el que he menester, (necesita) 
I Tiene el hombre los clavos que ha 
menester, (que neceota) T 
( £i tiene los que ha menester. 
( £l tiene aquellos que necesita. 

> Haber menester. Necesitar. 

Which men do you see? 

I see those of whom yon have qx>ken 

to me. 
Do you see the pupils of whom I 

have qioken to you? 
I see them. 

To whom. 

I see ^e children to whom you have 
given some cakes. . 

To which men do yon speak? 
I opoak to those to whom you have 

To apply to. 
To meet with, 
I have met with the men to whom 
foo have applied. 

I Qne hombres y6 V.? 

Yo veo d aquellos de qnienes (de los 

euales) V. me ha hablado. 
lYS V. d los discfpulos de quienes 

(de los euales) he hablado d V.? 
Yo los veo. 

A quien, (sing.) ) ^„ ,^^ 

A quienee, (plur.) \ ^^ 8^"^^ 

Al eualt (maa) A' los eualeo, (pL) 

[a la etuU, (fem.) A' las euales, (pL) 

Yo veo los niilos d quienes (d los 

euales) v. ha dado algunos boUos, 

I A qne hombres babla V. ? 
Yo haiRo d aqueltos d quienes (or d 

los euales) V. ha recurrido. 
Reeurrir L Acudir L Dirigirse &. 
Encontrar &, Encontrarse con, 
Yo me he enoontrado oon los honi* 

bres d qnienes (or d los cnalea) V 

ha acndido. 






Of which men do yoa speak? 1 

I speak of those whose children have I 
been studious and obedient 

Obedient Disobedient I 

I De que hombres habia V. T 

Yo hablo de aqueHos cayot nifios 

han side estudioeos y obedientee 
Obediente. Deeobediente 

So that, 
J have lost my money, so that I can- 
not pay you. 
1 am ill, so that I cannot go oat 

Asi. De merte que, (cou ju uction>) 
He perdido mi dinero, y asf no le 

puedo pagar i V. 
Ekitoy malo, as( no puedo salir. 



Malo. Enfermo 

Estar malo. EsIjj enfermo 

Have you at last learned Spanish ? — I was ill, so that I cjold not 
learn it — ^Ilas your brother learned it ? — ^He has not learned it, becaaae 
he has not yet been able to find a good master. — ^Do you go to the ball 
this evening ? — ^I have sore feet, so that I cannot go (to it) — Did }t>u 
understand that Grerman ? — ^I do not know German, so that I could <ioC 
understand him. — Have you bought the horse of which you spoke to 
me ? — ^I bnve no money, so that I could not buy it — Have you seen 
the man from whom I have received a present ? — I have not seen him, 
—Have you seen the fine gun of which I spoke to you ? — I have seen 
it — ^Has your uncle seen the books of which you spoke to him ? — He 
has seen them. — ^Hast thou seen the man whose children have be^i 
punished 7 — ^I have not seen him. — To whom have you been speaking 
in the theatre ? — ^I have been speaking to the man whose brother has 
killed my fine dog. — ^Have you seen the little boy whose father has be- 
come a lawyer ? — ^I have seen him. — ^Whom have you seen at the ball ? 
— ^I have seen there the men whose horses, and those whose coach you 
have bought — Whom do you see now ? — ^I see. the man whose servant 
has broken my looking-glass. — Have you heyd the man whose friend 
has lent me money ? — I have not heard him.-^Whom have you heard ? 
— I have heard the French captain whose son is my friend. — Hast thou 
brushed the coat of whichHspoke to thee ? — I have not yet brushed it 
— Have you received the money which you have been wanting ? — I 
have received it — ^Have I the paper of which I have need ? — You have 
It. — ^Has your brother the books which he is wanting ? — He has them. 
•—Have you spoken to the merchants whose warehouse wo have 
taken t — ^We have spoken to them. — ^Have you spoken to th^ physician 
wbfoae son ha^ studied German ? — ^I have spoken to him.-^Hast thou 

F0RT7-SSVINTH LB880F. 106 

jecu the poor meo whose warehouses have been burnt 7 — I have seen 
ihem. — ^Have yon read thq, books which we have lent you ?— WcThave 
read them. — ^What do yon say of them ? — We say that they are very 
6ne. — ^Have your children what they want ? — ^They have what they 

Of which man do yon speak ? — I speak of the one whose brother 
has turned soldier.— Of which children bave yon spoken ? — ^I have 
.spoken of those whose parents are learned. — ^Which book have yon 
read ? — ^I have read that of which I spoke to you yesterday. — ^Which 
paper has your cousin ? — ^He has that of which he has need. — ^Which 
dsbes has he eaten 7 — He has eaten those which you do not like. — 
Of which books are you in want 7 — ^I am in want of those of which 
you have spoken to me. — Are you not in want of those which I am 
reading 7 — I am not in want of them. — ^Do you see the children to 
whom I have given cakes 7 — ^I do not see those to whom vou have 
given cakes, but those whom you have punished. — ^To whom nave you 
given some money 7 — I have given some to those who have been 
skilful. — ^To which children must one give books 7 — One must give 
(some) to those who are good and obedient. — ^To whom do you give to 
eat and to drink 7 — ^To those who are hungry and thirsty. — ^Do you 
give any thing to the children who are idle 7 — I give them nothing. — 
Did it snow yesterday 7 — It did snow, hail, and lighten. — ^Did it rain 7 
— It did rain. — Did you go out 7 — I never go out when it is bad 
weather. — ^Have the captains at last listened to that man 7 — ^They have 
re-fused to listen to him ; all those to whom he applied have refused to 
hear him. — With whom have you met this morning 7 — I have met 
with the man by whom I am esteemed. — ^Have you given any cakes 
to your pupils 7 — ^They have not studied well, so that I have given 
them nothing. 

FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Lcccio/f CuadragSsima sSptima. 


The First Foture, Puturo IndefinidOf is formed from the infinitive mood 
in the same manner as the otiier tenses. (See the table of terminations in 
the Appendix.) 

To speak — ^I shall or will speak. | Hablar — ^yo hablard. 
To sell — I shall or will selL Vender— yo vendero. 

To reoeive — I shall or will recei7e. | Recibir — yo ieoibir6. 



Thou shall or wilt speak. 
He shall or will speak. 
You shall or will speak. 
We shall or will speak. 
They shall or will speak. 
You shall or will speak. 

Tti hablaris. 

t\ hablariL 

V. hablari. ( Vos hahlartU ) 

Nosotros hablar^mos. 

Ellos (ellas) hablardn. 

yy. hablardn. {yowtroMhahlariU.) 

Ohs, In Spanish, the first perscn singular of the Future always endf 
in it and irom this all the other persons may be formed by changing i 
into d8t d, imos, eis, dn. Examples: — 

To love — I shall or will love. 
To foresee — I shall or will foresee. 
To restore — I shall or will restore. 
To have — I shall or will hav -, (act) 
To have — I shall or will have, (auz.) 
To be— I shall or will be. 
To be— I shall or will be. 

Amar — amar^, 
Prever — preverf, 
Restituir — restituir^, 
Teuer — ^tendr^, 
Haber — ^habr^, 
Ser — ser^, 
Estai^— estar^, 

dst d, hnoM, 

To go— 1 shall or will go. 
To come — I shall or will come. 
To know — I shall or will know. 
To be worth — I shall or will be 

To be able— I shall or will be able. 
To do — I shall or will do. 
To be willmg — I shall or will be 

To go out — I shall or will go out 
To owe — I shall or will owe. 
To give — I shall or will give. 
To see — I shall or will see. 

ds, d, emokt 

To be necessary — ^it will or shall be 

To rain — it will rain. 
To send — I diall or will send. 
To sit down — I shall or will sit down. 

Ir— ir^, 
Venir, vendrf , 
Saber — sabr^, 
Valer — ^valdr^, 

Poder — podr^, 
Hacer — har^, 
Querer— querri, 

Salir — saldrf, 
Deber — debere, 
Dar — dar^, 
Ver — ver^, 

Ser menester — seri menester. 
Ser necesario — serd ueoesario. 
Llover — lloverd. 
Enviar— enviar^. 

Seutaise— me sentar^. (See lefleo* 
tive verbs.) 

Shall or will he have money 7 

He will have some. 

He will not have any. 

Shall you soon have done (finish) 

I shall soon have done, (finish.) 
He will soon have done (finibh) his 


iTendrA 61 dinero? 

E\ tendrd alguno, (or un poca) 

£1 no tendrd ninguno. 

I Acabari V. pronto de escribir ? 

Pronto acabar^. 

Pronto acabard su ejerciciob 



When riiall you wnt« yoor ezer- 

1 will do them soon, (ere kmg.} 
My brother will do hia exerciie to- 

Next Monday. 

Last Monday. 
Next month. 
This month. 
This country. 

When win yonr cousin go 

He win go next Tnesday. 
Shall you go anywhere 7 
We ibaU go nowhere. 

Win he send me the book? 
' He win send it yon if he has done 
with it 
ShaU yon be at home this afternoon? 
I shaU be (there.) 
Wm your father be at home ? 
lie win be (there.) 
Win your cousins be there? 

They wUl be (there.) 

Win he send me the books ? 

He will send them to you. 

WiU he send some paper to my 

counting-house ? 
He win send some (thither.) 

;Cuando escribird V. sus ejeraieMst 

Yo los escribir^ pronto. 

Mi hermano hard sn-tema maftana. 

t El Ltlnes que viene, (or prdximo, 

or que entra,) 
t El Ldnes pasado. 
t £1 mes que viene, (or que entra.) 
Este mes. 
Este pais. 

to the ^Cuando iri al ooncierto sn prime 


El ir& el Mdrtes que Tiene 

I Irdn W. d alguna parte ? 

No ir^mosd ninguna parte. 

I Me enviard el libro? 

£l se le enviard d V. si Ze ha acaba* 

I Estard y. en casa esta tarde? 
Si, sefior ; or, Yo estard. 
I Estard en casa el seilor padre de V.? 
81, seiior ; or Si, estard. 
I Estardn alK los seilores primos de 


Si, sefior ; or, EUos estardn. 

I Me enviard 4\ los libros ? 

£1 se los enviard d V. 

I Euviard 6\ algun papel d mi oficio? 

Si, enviard algunc. 

Shall yon be able to pay your shoe- i Podrd V. pagar d sn zapatero ? 

1 have lost my money, so that I 

shall not bo able to pay him. 
My friend has lost his pocket-book, 

■0 that he will not be able to pay 

for hie shoes. 

He perdido mi dinero, asf no podrd 

Mi amigo ha perdido su cartera, y 

por consiguiente, (y asf ,) no podri 

pagar sus zapatos. 

Win you nold any thing ? 
I ibaU hold your umbrella. 

^Tendrd V. alguna cosa? 
Yo tendr^ su pardguas de V. 




Will your friend go to my ooncert? 
He will go. 
Shall you come ? 
I shall oome. 

; IrA su amigo de V. & mi oonciextol 
t\ ir4. 
Yo Yendr^. 

Will it be neceasary to go to the 

market 7 
It will be neceasary to go to-mcrrow 

It will not be necessary to go there. 

Shall yon see my father to^y T 
I shall see him. 

I Seri menester (or neceeario) ir a] 

mercado (plaza) 7 
Seri menester (or neceeario) ir ma- 

fiana por la mai&ana. 
No seri menester (or necesario) ir 

; Veri V . & mi padre hoy 7 
Yo le veii. 

To lean. 
To employ. 
To try. 
To run. 
To expire. 

The pocket-book. 

The beet , 

Apoyarse. Me apoyar^ 
Emplear. £mplear6. 
Prober ». Probard. 
Cofrer. Correr^. 
Elspirar. Espirar^ 

I La cartera, (fem.) 
La vacH, (fern.) 

EXERCISES. . •>*.-. -^ .> 

Shall you have any books ? — ^I shall have some. — Who will give 
you any ? — ^My uncle will give me some. — When will your cousin 
have money ? — ^He will have some next month. — How much money 
shall you have? — ^I shall have thirty-five dollars. — ^Who will have 
good friends ? — ^The English will have some. — ^Will your fother be at 
home this evening 7 — He wiU be at home. — ^Will you be ihere ? — ^I 
shall also be there. — ^Will your uncle go out to-day ? — He will go out, 
if it is fine weather. — Shall you go out ? — ^I shall go out, if it does not 
rain. — ^Will you love my son ? — ^I shall love him, if he is good. — ^WiU 
you pay your shoemaker ? — ^I shall pay him, if I receive my money. — 
Will you love my children ? — If they are good and assiduous I shall 
love them ; but if they are idle and naughty I shall despise and punish 
them. — ^Am I right in speaking thus ? — You are not wrong. — ^Is your 
friend still writing 7-^He is still writing. — ^Have you not done speak- 
ing ? — I shall soon have done. — ^Have our friends done reading ? — 
They will soon have done. — ^Has the tailor made my coat 7 — ^He has 
not made it yet, but he will soon make it. — ^When will he make it 7 — 
When he shall have (Jenga) time. — When will you do your exe^sea f 



— I abaU do them when I shall have {tengc^ time.— When wiU you 
brother do his ? — ^He will do them next Saturday. — ^Wilt tliou come to 
me, (• verme 1) — ^I shall come. — When wilt thou come ? — ^I shall come 
next Friday. — ^When have you seen my nncle 7 — ^I saw him last Sun- 
day. — ^Will yonr cousins go to the ball next Tuesday ? — ^They will 
go. — ^Will you come to my concert ? — ^I shall come, if I am not ilL 

When will you send me the money which you owe me ?— 4 shall 
^nd it you soon. — ^Will your brothers send me the books which I have 
lent them ? — They will send them to you. — ^When will they send them 
to me 7 — ^They will send them to you next monl i. — Will you be able 
to pay me what yon owe me 7 — I shall not be able to pay it you, for I 
have lost all my money. — Will the American be able to pay for hia 
shoes 7 — He has lost his pocketpbook, so that he will not be able to 
pay for them. — ^Will it be necessary to send for the physician?-^ 
Nobody is ill, so that it will not be necessary to send for him. — Will 
it be necessary to go to the market to-morrow 7 — It will be necessary 
to go (there,) for we want some beef, some bread, and some wine.— 
Shall you see your father to-day 7 — ^I shall see him. — Where will he 
be 7 — He will be at his counting-house. — Will you go to the ball 
to-night 7 — I shall not go, for I am too ill to go (out) — Will your 
friend go 7 — He will go, if you go. — Where will our neighbors go 7— 
They will go nowhere ; they will remain at home, for they have a 
good deal to do. ( *v 

FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Lcccion Cuadragesima octavo. 

- To belong, | Ser de. Perteneeer L 

Do you belong? i Pertenece V. ? 

I do belong. I Yo pertenezco. 

^ . . , , C I Pertenece eee caballo & 0a padre 

Doef that hone bekMig to your j ^1^ v 7 ' 

( 2, Efl ese caballo de su padre de Y.t 
Si, ee de €\, Ei tuyo. 


It does belong to him. 
To whom do these gloves belong ? 
They belong to the captains. 
Do them horses belong to the cap- 
fbey do belong to them. 

I De quien son estos guantes ? 

Son de los capitanee. 

I Son estos caballos de los capitanes*. 

Son de ellos. Son ttiyos. 

J_ . ( Acomodar. Ajustar. F«ittr. 


\ Conveuir * 2, (like venir.) 



Does that cloth suit your brother 7 

It suits hun. 

Do those shoes suit your hrothezs? 

They suit them. 

Does it suit you to do that 7 

It suits me to do it 

Does it suit your oousiB to 

It do^ . ot suit him to go out 

I Conyiene este paJlo al hennaiio dt 

Le eonviene. 
I Acomodah (vienen) esos zapatos 4 

sus hermanos de V. 7 
Les acomodan. Le8 vienetu 
I Le eonviene & V. hacer eeo7 
Me conyiene hacerio. 
I Le conyiene al primo de Y. 

No le conyiene salir. 

To succeed, 
Ds you succeed in learning Spanish? 
I succeed in it. 
I do succeed in learning it 
Do these men succeed m selling 

their horses 7 
Hiey succeed therein. 

To auceeed. 
Do you suecoed in doing that 7 
I succeed in it 

To clean. 

Immediatoly, directly. 

Hiis instant, instantly 

I am going to do it. 
I will do it immediately. 
I am going to work. 

Conseguir 3, (see App.) Losnm. 
I Consigue V. aprender el £spaiiol 7 
Lo consigo. 

Yo consigo aprenderle. 
^Consiguen estos hombies Yendei 

SUB caballos 7 
Consiguen yenderlos. 

{ Tener buen ixito. Salir bten. 
( Lograr. 

( t i Tiene V. buen 6x\io en hacer < 
^ t {, Le sale i V. bien hacer eeo ? 

it Tengo buen €xito en haceria 
t Me sale bien haceria 

Olvidar L 
EI tmtero. 

Inmediatamente. Luega 

Al instante. De repente. 

Preseutemente. Ahora. Luega. 

Toy d hacerio. 

Yo lo har6 inmediatamenta^ 

Voy d trabajar. 

Is there? 
Are there 7 
There is not 
There are not. 
Wm there be? 
There will ba. 


I No hay. 




(Was or were there) — has there 

(There was or were) — there has 

Is thMe any wine 7 

There is some. 

There is not any. 

Are there any men 7 

There are some. 

There are not any. 

I^Habo? ^Hahabido? 

Hobo. Ha habido. 

I Hay algrun vino 7 

Hay un poca 

No hay ningono. 

I Hay algonos hombres 7 

Hay algrunos. 

No hay ningmioB. 

There are men who will not study. 

U there any one 7 

Are there to be many people at the 

There are to be a great many people 


Hay hombres qne no qnieren estndiar 
I Hay algnien 7 ' ; Hay algimo7 
^Ha de haber mocha gente en el 

Ha de haber mucha (gente.) 

On credit 
To sen on credit 

The credit 
Ready money. 
To boy for cash. 
To sell for cash. 
To pay down. 
Win yoo boy for cash 7 
Does it soit yoo to seH me on credit? 


Does that coat fit me 7 

It fits yoo. ^ 

That bat does not fit yoor brother. 

It does not fit him. 

They fit me. 

That fits yoo very weU. 

AI fiado. 
Vender al fiado. 
El cr^dita 
Dinero contante. 
Comprar contante, (al contado.) 
Vender al cootante, (al contado.) 
Pagar dinero contante. 
I Quiere V. comprar al contado 7 
^Le conviene & V. venderme i 
I • fiado, (& cr€dito) 7 

i t Caerle d uno. (See App.) 

\ Sentar, (See Af^.) 

^ t ^ Me cae bien este vestido 7 

( I Me sienta bien 7 

i t Le cae bien d V. 

\ Le sienta k V. bien. 

Else sombrero no le sienta bien & i 
l^^rmano de V. 

No le sienta bien. 

t Me caen bien. 

t Eso le cae may bien & V. 

To keep. 
Yoo bad better. 
I had better. 
He had better. 

Gaardar 1. t Quedarse con. 
t V. hard mejor, (haria mejor.) 
t Yd hai^ mejor, (haria mejor.) 
t it\ hard mejor, (haria mejor.) 



Instead of keeping your hone, you 
had better sell it 

Instead of selling his hat, he had bet- 
ter keep it 

t £n vex de goardar su caballo, V 

hard mejor eu venderie 
t Eu vez de vender sa sombrers 

hard mejor en quedarse con 6\. 

Will you keep the horse 7 

I shall keep it 

You must not keep my money. 

To please, to be pleased. 
To please some one. 
Does that book please you ? 
It pleases me much. 
I will do what you please. 

You are pleased to say so. 

What is your pleasure 7 
What do you want 7 
What do you say? 

[ I Guardard V. el caballo? 
[ t i Se quedari V. con el caballo? 
Yo le guardar^. t Me quedari con ^1 
I y. no debe guardar mi dinero. 

GuBtar. Gustarle d uno. 

Gustar. Agradar. Placer d uno. 

t ^ Le gusta d V. ese libro ? 

t Me gusta mucho. 

t Yo hard lo que V. guste, (subi.) 

t Es cortesia de V. el decir esa 

t V. tiene la bondad de decir eoou 

1 2, Que manda v.? 

^ Que gusta V.? 

I Que dice V. 7 i Que quiere V. ? 

To please. \ t Irle d uno. Pasarlo, Estar. 

„ . . .* , « t + I Corao le va d V. aqui ? 

How do you please yourself here ? ^ ^ ^^^ lo pasa V. ? 

I please myself very well. | t A ml me va bien. 

Ob9. A. The impersonal it is Is rendered by ea in the singular, and by 
son in the plural. 

Whose book is this? 

It is mine, (it belongs to me.) 

Are these your dioes? 

They are ours, (they belong to us.) 

Obs. B. When the possessive pronoun comes after ser, (to be,) 
belonging to it, it loses the tutide. 

I De quien es este libro ? 
£s mio. 

I Son de W. estoe zapatos? 
Son nueetros. 

It is they who have seen him. 
It is your friends who are in the 

It is I who. 

It is you who. 

It is they who. 

Mine— mine, (belonging to me.) 
Ours— ours, (belonging to us.) 

My friend's, (belonging to my fViend.) 

t Ellofl son loB que le ban vista 

t Los amigos de V son los que tienea 

Yo soy quien. 

V. es quien. VV son quienes. 
EUos son quienes. 

El luio-^os mios. Mio — mioa. 

EI n uestro-^os n uestros. N uestio~ 

Es de mi amiga 


Is that your 0on 7 | ^EsMe el hgo de V.Y . 

U that yoor child 7 | ; Es de V. Me nifio 7 « 

Oh9. C. When the demenstratiTe pronouns tkia and that are not foUowM 
by a noun, they are rendered in Spanish by etto, emt, and aqueUo, meaniof 
this or that thing ; bat when the word peinted out in Eaglisfa by thU or 
tkml is understood, it sbould be e xpr essed in Spanish ; or another tum most 
be giTen to the sentence, so as to have the demonstrative pronoun imin^ii- 
ately before the word it points out Therefore the last two sentences abdre 
riionld be constructed thus : Is that boy your son 7 — i Et ue muehacho el 
kijo dt v.? U that child yours 7—^ Et de V. e»e niHo ? 

To whom does that horse belong 7 — ^It belongs to the English . ki^ 
tain whose son has written a note to you. — ^Does this money belong to 
you ? — ^It does belong to me. — From whom have you received it 7 — 
I have received it from the men whose children you have seen.— 
Whose horses are those 7 — They are ours. — ^Have you told your 
brother that I am waiting for him here 7 — ^I have forgotten to tell him 
80, (h.) — I^ it 3four father or mine who is gone to Berlin 7 — ^It is mine. 
—Is it your baker, or that of our friend, who has sold you bread on 
credit 7 — ^It is ours. — ^Is that your son 7 — ^He is not mine, he is my 
firiend*s. — ^Where is yours 7 — ^He is at Paris. — ^Have you brought me 
the book which you promised me 7 — ^I have forgotten it. — ^Has your 
nncle brought yon the pocket-books which he promised you 7 — ^He has 
forgotten to bring me them, (las,) — ^Have you already written to your 
friend 7 — I have not yet had time to write to him. — ^Have you forgotten 
to write to your relation 7 — ^I have not forgotten to write to him.— 
Does this cloth suit you 7 — It does not suit me ; have you no other 7-~ 
I have some other ; but it is dearer than this. — ^Will you show it me 7 
— I will show it you. — Do these shoes suit your uncle 7 — ^They do not 
suit him, because they are too dear. — Are these the shoes of which 
you have spoken to us 7 — ^They are the same. — ^Whose shotes are 
these 7 — ^They belong to the nobleman whom you have seen this 
rooming in my warehouse. — ^Does it suit you to come with us 7 — It 
does not suit me. — ^Does it suit you to go to the market 7— It does not 
suit me to go (thither.) — ^Did you go on foot to Germany 7 — ^It does 
not suit me to go on foot, so that I went thither in a coach. — (Lesson 

What is your pleasure. Sir 7 — ^I am inquiring after your father. Is 
Ae at home 7 — ^No, Sir, he is gone out — ^What do you say 7—1 tell yc« 

204 FORTY-EIGItrn lessow. 

tha^ he is gone ont — ^Will you wait till he comes beck, {d vudva T) . 
(L&son XXXVI.)— I have no time to wait — ^Does this merchant sen 
on credit 7 — ^He does not sell on credit. — ^Does it suit you to buy icft 
cash ? — ^It does not suit me. — ^Where did you buy these pretty knives 7 
— ^I bought them of the merchantnvhose warehouse you saw yesterday. 
•#-Has he sold them to you on credit 7 — ^He has sold them to me to 
dtsh. — ^Do yon often buy for cash 7 — ^Not so often as you.^ — ^Have yon 
f^gotten any thing here 7 — ^I have forgotten nothing. — ^Does it suit 
yyu to learn this by heart 7 — ^I have not much time to study, so that it 
d^ not suit me to learn it by heart — ^Has that man tried to speak 
to your father 7 — ^He has tried to speak to him, but he has not sue* 
celled in it. — ^Have you succeeded in writing an exercise 7 — I have 
succeeded in it — ^Have those merchants succeeded in selling their 
horses 7 — ^They have not succeeded therein. — Have you tried to dean 
my inkstand 7 — ^I have tried, but I have not succeeded in it. — ^Do your 
children succeed in learning English 7 — They do succeed in it — ^Is 
there any wine in this cask 7 — ^There is some in it — ^Is there any 
vinegar in this glass 7 — Tkeie is none in it — ^Is wine or cider in it 7-* 
There is neither wine nqr cider in it.— What is there in it 7 — ^There is 
some vinegar in it. . ^ , *J ,!, * /• *. . v <* ^ c } : h C , 


At« there any men in your warehouse 7 — ^There are some there.—- 
Is there any one in the warehouse 7 — ^There is no one there. — Were 
ther^many people in the theatre 7 — ^There were many (there.) — ^WiU 
therabe many people at your ball 7 — ^There will be many (there.) — 
Are ^there many children that will not play 7 — ^There are many that 
will not study, but all will play. — Hast thou cleaned my trunk 7— 
I have tried to do it, but I have not succeeded. — ^Do you intend buying an 
umbrella 7 — ^I intend buying cme, if the merchant sells it me on credit 
— ^ intend to keep mine 7 — ^I intend to give it you back, (Lesson 
XX^Q^., page 164,) if I buy one. — ^Have you returned the books to 
my bj^ther 7 — ^I have not returned them to him yet. — ^How long do you 
intend keeping them 7 — I intend keeping them till next Saturday. — 
How long do you intend keeping my horse 7 — ^I intend keeping it till 
my father returns, (tm^Zua.) — ^Have you cleaned my knife 7 — ^I have not 
had tiiAe»yet, but I will do it this instant. — ^Have you made a fire, 
(encendido la candela 7) — ^Not yet ; but I will make one presently. — 
Why have you not worked 7 — ^I have not yet been able. — What had 
yon to do 7 — ^I had to clean your carpet, and to mend your thread 
stockings. — ^Do you intend to sell your coat 7 — ^I intend keeping it, for 
I want it. — ^Instead of keepmg it you had better sell it— Do you sell 
ywu horses ?--^I do not sell them. — ^Instead of keeping them you had 



better sdl them. — ^Doee our friend keep Ids parasol ? — ^He does keep it 
bot instead of keeping it he had better sell it, for it b worn out. — 
Does yoor son tear his book 7 — ^He does tear it ; but he is wrong in 
doing 90, for instead of tearing it he had better read it 



To go away. 
When will you go away? 

I will gOBOOU. 

By and by, 

lie will go away soon, (by and by.) 
We will go away to-morrow. 

They will go to-morrow. 
Thou wilt go immediately. 

'Leccion Cuadragisima nana 

Irse *. Mareharse, (Lees. XLIV.^ 

I Cnando se ird, (or se marchard V.7) 

Pronto me ir^, (or mf> marchar^ ) 


t De aqui d poco. 

t Dentro de poco> 

£1 Be u-d (or so marchari) luega 

Nos ir6moe (uoe marohar^moe) ma 

So irdn (se marchardn) mailana. 
Te ird8-(te marchards) inroediata 



To heeoiM 


Serde, (Less-XUV.) 

What will become of you if you lose 
your money ? 

I Hacerae de, 
' Sueeder, 

r t ^ Que Be hard de V, n pierde su 
\ dinero ? 

I 1 1 Que le sucederd d V. si pierds 
1 $u dinero? 

I do not know what will become 

What will become of him ? 
What win become of us 7 

do not 


The turn. 
My turn. 

In my turn. • 

In his turn. 
In my brother's turn. 
Eftch in his turn. 

of ^ t Yo no B^ to que se hard de m(. 
( t Yo no s6 to que serd de ml. 
I t ^ Que serd de 61 1 
I 1 1 Que serd de uosotroe 7 


Yo no 8^ to que serd de ellos. 

El tumo. 

Mi turno. 
I A mi tumo. 

t Caando d m( me toque. 
I A sa tumo. 
* t Cuando d ^1 le toque. 
, Al tumo de mi hermano. 
' t Cuando le toque d mi hermana 
I Cada uno d su turno. 

t Cuando d cada uno le toque. 




When it comes to your turn 
Our torn will come. 

it Coando sea el tmno de ▼. 
t Caando le toque d V. 
iNoestro tumo vendHL 
t Noe tocari & nosotros. 

To take a ttan, (a walk.) 

He has gone to take a walk. 

To walk round the gaiden. 

To run 
A hlow. A knock 
A stab. 

A clap. A slap. 
Have you gi^vA that man a blow 7 

1 have given him one. 
A blow with a stick. 
A kick, (with the fooC) 
A blow with the fist 
A stab of a knife. 
A riiot, or the report of a gun. 
The shot of a pistol. 
A glance of the eye. 
A clap of thunder. 

t Dar una vuelta, (un pateo.) 

i Ir d pasear. 

t Ha ido d dar una vuelta, (un ytrnm,) 

t Dar una vuelta «n el jardin. 

t Dar un paseo en el jardin 

Detras de. Traa 


Un golpe. Un porraic 

Una puiialada. Una herids. 

Una palmada. Una bofetada 

I Ha dado V. un golpo (un norrazo) i 

ese hombre 7 
Si ; or, Yo le he dado (uno.) 
t Un palo. Un garrotazo. 

t Un puntapi^. 

t Un punetazo. Una pui&ada. 

t Una cuchillada. 

t Un tiro. Un caiiouazo. 

t Un pistoletaio. 

t Una ojeada. Una mirada 

t Un truena 

To give a cut with a knife. 
To give a man a blow with a stick. 
To grive a man a kick. 
To give a man a blow with the fist 
To pull To draw. 
To9hooL To fire. 
To fire a gun. 
To fire a pistol 

To fire at some one. 

I have fired at that bird. 

I have fired twice. 
I have fired three times. 
I have fired several times. 
How many times have you fired 7 
How mauy times have you fired at 
that bird 7 

Dar una cuchillada. 

t Dar depulos 4 un hombre. Apaieai 

Dar un puntapi^ d un hombre. 

Dar un puftetazo d un hombre. 

Tirar. Sacar. • 

Disparar. Hacerfuego. 

Disparar un fusil, (or uu canou.; 

Disparar una pistola. 

t Disparar un tiro d alguno, (or a 

Tirar un tiro d alguno, (w d uno.) 
t He dispa^ado un tiro d ese pdjaro 
t He tirade un Uro d ese pdjaro 
t He tirado dos tiros. 
He tirado tres tiros. 
He tirado varies tiros. 
1 1 Cuantas veces ha tirado V 7 
1 1 Cuantas vecos ha tirado V. d ese 

pdjaro 7 



I haTB fired at it sereral timea. 
I bare heard a shot 
I have heard the report of a pistoL 
We have heard a clap of thunder. 

t Le he tirado varios tiros. 
He oido un tiro. 
He oido un pistoletazo. 
Hemes oido un trueno. 

The fist 

EI polio. 

To east an eye upon eome one, or 

I have cast an eye upon that book. 

I have cast an eye upon it 

Echar una ojeada (or mirada) i 
alguno, (or alguna eoea,) 

He echado una ojeada (una mirada) 
& ese libro. 

He echado una mirada & €L 

Has that man gone away? 
He has gone away. 
Have your brothers gone away 7 
They have gone away. 
They have not gone away. 
Have they gone away t 

They were not willing to go away. 

i Se ha marchado ese hombre? 

£l se ha marchado. 

I Se ban ido sus bermanos de V.T 

Se ban ido, (marchada) 

No se ^n ido, (marchado.) 

^Se bai^marchade ellos? 

i No qnerian marcharse. 

\ No quisi^ron marcharse. 

Are you going away already ? — ^I am not going yet — When will 
that man go away ? — ^He will go presently. — ^Will you go away soon ? 
— I shall go away next Thursday. — When will your friends go away ? 
— They will go away next month. — When wilt thou go away ? — ^I will 
go away instantly. — ^Why has your father gone away so soon ? — ^He 
has promised his friend to be at his house at a quarter to nine, so that 
he went away early in order to keep (cumplir con) what he has 
promised. — ^When shall we go away ? — ^We shall go away to-morrow. 
— Shall we start (partir) early ? — ^We shall start at five o'clock in the 
morning. — When will yon go away ? — ^I shall go away as soon as I have 
done {haya acabado de) writing. — ^When will your children go away ?— . 
They will go as soon as they have done {hayan acabado) their exercises. 
— ^WiU you go when I shall go, (yaya ?) — ^I shall go away when you go, 
{taya.) — ^Will our neighbors soon go away ? — ^They will go away when 
they have (hayan) done speaking. — What will become of your son if 
ho does not study ? — ^If he does not stndy he will learn nothing. — 
Wliat will become of you if you lose your money ? — ^I do not know 
what will become of me. — What will become of your friend if he loses 
his pocket4)ook 7 — ^I do not know what will become of him if he loeei 

208 FORTY-NINTH LB830N. . • 

it.— What has become of your son ? — ^I do not know what has become 
of hhn. — ^lias he enlisted ? — ^He has not enlisted. — ^What will become 
of ns if our friends go away 7 — ^I do not know what will become of us 
if they go away. — ^What has become of your relations ? — ^They have 
gone away. ' 

Do yon intend buying a horse 7 — ^I cannot buy one, for I have not 
yet received my money. — ^Must I go to the theaire 7 — ^You must not 
go (thither,) for it is very bad weather. — ^Why do you not go to my 
brother 7 — It does not suit me to go to hui, for I cannot yet pay him 
what I owe him. — ^Why does your servant give that man a cut with 
his knife 7 — ^He gives him a cut, because the man has given hun a 
blow with the fist. — ^Which of these two pupils begins tc speak 7 — 
The one who is studious begins to speak. — ^What does the other do 
who is not so 7 — He also begins to speak, but he knows neither how 
to write nor to read. — ^Does he not listen to what you tell hun 7 — ^He 
does not listen to it, if I do not give him a beating, (azotes.) — ^Why do 
these children not work7-vrheir master has given them- blows with 
his fist, so thalJthey will not work. — ^Why has he given them blows 
with his fist 7-/--Because they have been disobedient. — Have you fired 
a gun 7 — ^I have fired three times. — At what did you fire 7 — ^I fired at 
a bird. — ^Have you fired a gun at that man 7 — ^I have fired a pistol at 
him. — Why have you fired a pistol at him 7*— Because he has given 
me a stab with his knife. — ^How many times have you fired at that 
bird 7 — I have fired at it twice. — ^Have you killed it 7 — ^I have killed it 
at the second shot, (al segundo tiro,) — Have you killed that bird at 
tlie first shot, (al primer tiro ?) — ^I have killed it at the fourth. — Do you 
fire at the birds which you se e upon the trees, or at those which you 
see in the gardens 7 — ^I fire neither at those which I see upon the 
trees nor at those which I see in the gardens, but at those which I 
perceive on the castle behind the wood. 

How many times have the enemies fired at us 7 — ^They have fired 
at us sevend times. — ^Have they killed any one 7 — ^They have killed 
no one. — ^Have you a wish to fire at that bird 7 — ^I have a desire to fire 
at it. — Why do you not fire at those birds 7 — ^I cannot, for I liave a 
sore finger. — ^WTien did the captain fire 7 — ^He fired (hizoftiego) when 
his soldiers fired, (lo hiciSron.) — ^How many birds have you shot at 7— 
I have shot at all that I have perceived, but I have killed none, because 
my gun is good for nothing. — Have you cast an eye upon that man 7— 
I have cast an eye upon him. — ^Ilas he seen you 7 — He has not seen 
me, for he lias sore eyes. — ^Have you drunk of tliat wine 7 — ^I have 

nmsTH jjfaaov. 


dmnk of it, (unpocoy) and it has done me good. — ^What hare yon done 
with my book? — ^I hayej>iit it upon your trunk. — ^Am I to answer 
yon 7 — ^Yoa will answer me when it comes to your turn, (cuando U 
toqueJ) — ^Is it my brother's turn 7 — ^When it comes to his turn (Je toque) 
I shall ask («e h) him, for — each in his turn. — Have you token a walk 
this morning 7 — ^I have taken a walk round the garden. — ^Where is 
your uncle gone to 7 — ^He is gone to take a walk. — ^Why do you run 7 
— I run because I see my best friend. — ^Who runs behind us 7 — Our 
dog runs behind us. — Do you perceive that bird 7 — ^I perceive it behind 
the tree. — ^Why have your brothers gone away 7 — ^They have gone 
away, because they did not wish to be seen by the man whose dog 
they have killed. 

FIFTIETH LESSON.— I^cccion Qutncuagisima. 

Tener noticiat de. 

To hear of. 

Have you heard of your brother 7 

I]|Baidof him. 

i Oir hablar de, 
\ Saber de. 
I Ha oido V. hablar de ra hermano 

I Ha sabido V. de ra hermano ? 
^Ha tenido V. noticias del hermano 

He oido hablar de iL 
He sabido de €L 
He tenido notioiaa de ^, (notidaf 


Since. \ Deede. 

• Ci I Hace mncho que V. ha almona- 
Is it long once you have breakfast- I do 7 

ed? I t iHay mucho tiempe deede que V. 

^ ha almorzado? 

Ci I Cuanto bace que Y. ha almorza- 
How long is it since you breakfasted 7 / do 7 

( t ^ Cuanto bay que V. ha abnorzado 7 
^ t No hace macho que yo he ahnor 

It is not long since f have breakfast- ^ 

It is a great while since. 
It is a short while since. 
How long is it since you heard of 

your brother 7 
It is a year since I heard of him. 


t No hay mucho tiempo que yo h* 

Mucho tiempo hace, (hay.) 
Poco tiempo hace, (hay.) 
I Cuanto hace que V. ha tenido no 

ticias de su hermano de V. 7 
Hace un aiio que no he sabido de 6 



It is only a year sinoe. 

It is mors than a year since. 
More than. 
More than nine. 
More than twenty times. 

It is hardly six months since. 

A few hours ago. 

Half an hour ago. 

Two years ago. 

Two hours and a half ago. 

A fortnight ago. 

A fortnight 

No hace mas de nn alia 

Hay mas de un afio. 

Mas de. (See Lesson XXIX. \ 

Mas de nneye. 

Mas de veiote voces. 

t Hace 4 penas text metes, 

t Hay & penas seis meses. 


t Hace pocas horas. Hay (ha) pocas 

t Hace media hora. Hay media ho- 

t Hace dos aiios. Hay dos afios 

t Hace (hay) dos horas y media. 

t Hace (hay) quince dias, (dos se- 

Quince dias (dos semanas.) 

Have you been long in Spain 7 

(I Ha estadoV. mucho tiempo en Es* 
j,Hace mucho tiempo que V. erti 
en Espafta 7 

Obe. A, In English the state of existence of action, when in its dura- 
tion, b always expressed in the perfect tense, while in Spanish it is ex- 
pressed by the present teni^. 

He has been in Madrid these three 

I have been living here these two 


Rem. — ^The word tiempo ia often understood. 

1 1 Cuanto hace que tiene V. 
sombrero 7 

Hace ink aiios que esti en Madrid. 

t Hace dos aiios que vivo (que estoy) 

How long have you had that hat 7 
I have had it these five years. 

t Hace cinco anos que le tengo. 

How long ? (since when 7) 

How long has he been here 7 

These three days. 

Since the third of this month. 

This month. 

Smce the first of the month. 

I have seen him more than twenty 

I Cuanto haoe ? i Cuanto kay {ha) 7 

I Deode cuando 7 

I I Cuanto hace'(hay) que esti aqoff 
1 1 Desde cuando estd aqui 7 

t Hace (hay) tres dias. 

t Desde el tres de este mes. 

t Hace (hay) un mes. 

t Desde el primero de este mes. 

Le he visto mas de veinte veceiL 



It M six monthfl aoce I spoke to him. 

StDM I saw yoa it has rained very 

It is more than a year since I heard 

of bim. 

* I Hace seis mesee qae le habl^. 
1 1 Hace seis meses que le he habUula 
Deede que le vi 4 V. ha llovido mtt* 

Hace mas (or hay mas) de on afio 
que he sabido de 61 

C En este memento. Ahora mismo. 

^Almomenio. Alpunto. Alinatante 

^ Poco ha, Poco hace, 

I t Aeabar de. 
Ohe. B. To express an action recently past, the Spaniards make use of 
the verb aeabar, (to finish,) followed by de, (of,) aud the infinitive mond of 
the verb. 

Just, (reladng to time.) 
To havejuet 

I have just seen your brother. 
He has just done writing. 
The m«n have just arrived. 
Has that man been waiting long 7 

He has but just come. 

t Acabo de rer & su liermano de V 
t Acaba de escribir. 
t Los hombres araban de Hegar. 
I Hace mucho tiempo quo aguarda 
ese horabre 7 

! Ahora mismo llega. 
t Acaba de Uegar ahora. 

To do one*8 beet 

I will do my best 
He will do his best 

I do my best 

t Hacer uno lo mejor que putde. 

t- Hacer todo 8U poder. 
, Empenarae en. 

I t Yo har^ lo mejor que pueda. ) g , . 
I t 6l hard lo mejor que pueda. > 
[ t Yo hago lo mejor que puedo. 
( t Yo me empefio. 

To spend (money,) 
How much have you spent to-day 7 
He has fifty dollars a mouth to live 

Have the horses been found 7 

They have been found. 

The men have been seen. 

Oar children have been praised and 

rewarded, because they have been 

good and studious. 
By whom have they been rewarded? 
By whom have we been blamed 7 

To paee. 

Gastar {dinero,) 
I Cuanto ha gastado V. hoy 7 
t Tiene cincuenta pesos de renta al 

I Se ban hallado los caballos 7 
Se hau hallado. 
Los hombres han side vistos. 
Nuestros nifios han side alabados y 

recompensadoe, porque han side 

buenos y estudiosos. 
I For quien han side recompensados t 
I For quien hemes side vituperados 7 


Antee. Ante. Delante. Par. 



Oh$ C. Before is expressed in Spanish by dntes when it denotes priority 
of time ; by delanle, or sometimes par, when it designates the place ; and 
by ante when it signifies in the presence of ; as, before me, ante mL 

Before ten o*cIock. 

To pass before some one. 

To pass before a place. 
A place. 
I have passed before the theatre. 
He has passed before me. 

To epend time in something. 

What do you spend your time in? 
I spend my time in studying. 
What has he spent his time in ? 
What shall we spend our time in ? 

Antes de las diez. 

Pasar delaute de alguno, (de nno. 

Pasar delaute de (por) un lugar. 

Un lugar. 

He pasado del ante de (por) el teatro. 

Ha pasado delante de mL 

Pasar {emplear or gastar) el Uem^ 

po en alguna cosa, 
t ^ En que pasa V. su tiempo 7 
t Yo empleo mi tiemp«. m estodiar. 
t j, En que ha empleado su tiempo? 
t [ En que pasar^mos nueetro tiem- 


To miss, to fail 
The merchant has failed to bring the 

You have missed your turn. 
You have failed to come to me this 


To he good for something. 

To he good for nothing. 

Of what use is that ? 

It is good for nothmg. 

A good-for-nothing fellow. 
Is the gun which you have bought a 

good one? 
It is worth nothing, (good for noth- ^ i 


Perder. Omitir, Faltm Descuidar. 
El comerciante ha faltado d traer el 

y. ha perdido su tumo. 
V. ha faltado & (V. se ha descuidado 

de) venir i. mi casa esta mafiana. 
Ser bueno para algo, {para alguna 

Servir de algo. 
No ser hueno para nada, (parm nifi- 

guna cosa,) 
No servir de nada, (or para nada^ 
I Para que (de que) sirve eso 7 
Eso no es bueno para nada. 
t Eso de nada sirve, 
Un bribon. 
I Es bueno el fusil que V. ha com* 

prado ? 
No es bueno para nada. 
t No sirve de nada. 

To throw away. 
Have you thrown away any thing? 
I have not thrown away any thing. 

The store. The shop. 

Storekeeper. Shopke^>er. 

THrar, Arrojar, Desechar. 

I Ha tirade V. algo, (alguna oosa) 1 

Nada he ttrada 

La tieuda. 

Tendero. Mercader 

nmsTB LS8S0M. 213 

Have yon heard of any one 7 — I have not heard of any one, for 1 
have not gone out this mommg. — Have yon not heard of the man who 
has killed a soldier ? — ^I have not heard of him. — Have you heard of 
my brothers ? — ^I have not heard of them. — Of whom has your cousin 
htftid ? — ^He has heard of his friend who is gone to America. — ^Is it 
long since he heard of him ? — ^It is not long since he heard of him. — 
How long is it ? — ^It is only a month. — ^Have you been long in Paris ? 
—These three y ears.^— Has your brother been long in London ? — ^He haa 
been there these ten years. — ^How long is it since you dined ? — ^It is long 
since I dined, but it is not long since I supped. — ^How long b it since 
yoa supped ? — ^It is half an hout. — ^How long have you had thefee books ? 
—I have had them these .three months. — ^How long is it since ;x>ur 
cousin set out ? — It is more than a year since he set out. — What is 
become of the man who has lent you money 7—1 do not know what is 
become of him, for it is a great while since I saw him. — Is it long since 
you heard of the soldier who gave your friend a cut with the knife 7 — 
It is more than a year since I heard of him. — ^How long have you been 
learning Spanish 7 — I have been learning it only these two months. — 
Do you know already how to speak it 7 — ^You see that I am beginnkig 
to speak it — ^Have the children of the English noblemen been learning 
it long 7 — ^They have been learning it these three years, and they do 
not yet begin to speak. — Why do they not know how to speak it 7 — 
They do not know how to speak it, because they are learning it badly. 
— ^Why do they not learn it well 7 — They have not a good master, so 
that ti^ do not learn it well. 

Is it long since you saw the young man who learned German with 
the master with whom we learned it 7-^1 have not seen him for nearly 
a yeu*. — ^How long is it since that child ate 7 — ^It ate a few minutes 
igoJ-How long is it since those children drank 7 — ^They drank a 
quaner of an hour ago. — ^How long has your friend been in Spain 7 — 
He has been there this month. — ^How often have you seen the king, 
{aJ reyj)—! saw him more than ten times when I was in Madrid. — 
When did you meet my brother 7 — ^I met him a fortnight ago. — ^Where 
did you meet him 7 — I met him before the theatre. — ^Did he do you any 
harm 7 — ^He did me no harm, for he is a very good boy. — ^Where are 
my gloves? — They (los han) have thrown them away. — Have the 
horses been found 7 — They have been found. — ^Where have they been 
foTiiid7 — ^They have been found behind the wood, on this side of the 
road. — Have you been seen by anybody 7 — ^I liave been seen by no- 


body. — Do you dxpect any one ?— I expect my cousin the captain. — 
Have you not seen him? — I have seen him this moniing; he has 
passed before my warehouse. — ^What does this young man wait for 7— 
He waits for mon^y. — ^Art thou waiting for any thing 7 — ^I am waiting 
for my book. — ^Is this young man waiting for his money 7 — ^He is 
waiting for it. — ^Has the king passed here, (por aqui t) — ^He has not 
passed here, but before the theatre. — ^Has he not passed before the 
castle 7 — ^He has passed there, but I have nU seen him. . / • 

What do you spend your lime in 7 — ^I spend, my Jme in studying. — 
What does your brother spend his time in ?-^He bpends his time in 
reading and playing. — ^Does this man spend his time in working 7 — 
He is a good-for-nothing fellow ; he spends his time in drinking and 
playing. — What do your children spend their tim^ in 7 — They spend 
their time in learning. — Can you pay me what you owe me 7-- 1 cannot 
pay it you, for the merchant has failed to bring me niv money. — Why 
have you breakfasted without me 7^ — ^You failed to come at nine o^clock, 
so that we have breakfasted without you. — ^Has the storglpeper brought 
you the gloves which you bought at his store 7 — He has failed to bring 
them to me. — Has he sold them to you on credit 7 — ^He has sold them 
to me, on the contrary, for cash. — ^Do you know those men 7 — ^I do not 
know them ; but I believe that they are good-for-nothing fellows, for 
they spend their time in playing. — Why did you fail to come to my 
father this morning 7 — The tailor did not bring me the coat which he 
promised me, (me habia proTnelido^) so that I could not go to him. — 
Who is the man who has just spoken to you 7 — ^He is a merchant. — 
What has the shoemaker just brought 7 — He has brought the shoes 
which he has made us. — Who are the men that have just arrived ? — 
They are Russians. — ^Where did your uncle dine yesterday 7 — ^He 
dined at home. — ^How much did he spend 7 — ^He spent five shillings. — 
How much has he a month to live upon 7 — He has two hundred dol- 
lars a month to live upon. — ^Do you throw your hat away 7 — ^I%o not 
throw it away, for it fits me very well. — ^How much have you ^pent 
to-day 7 — I have not spent much ; I have spent only two shillings. — 
Do you spend every day as much as that 7 — ^I sometimes spend more 
than that — ^Has that man been waiting long 7 — He has but just come. 
—What dods he wish 7 — ^He wishes to speak to you.— Are you willing 
In do that 7 — ^I am willing to do it. 



HFTY-FIRST LESSON.— Iicccum Quincuagisirna primera. 


Haw far ? (meaning what distance?) 

How iSu 18 it from here to Paris 7 
Is it far from here to Paris 7 

It is far. 

It is not far. 

How many miles is it 7 

It is twenty miles. 
A mile. 
It is almost two handred miles from 

here to Paris. 
It is nearly a hundred miles from 

Berlin to Vienna. 

I LijoM, Distante. Remoto, 

" 1 1 Cuanto distm 1 (Distar.) 
I Que distancia hay 7 (Imp verb- 
see Appendix.) 
I Estar l^joe 7 i Cuanto hay ? 

. I Hay tnucha 7 

I Cuanto hay de aqu( d Paris 7 

I Esti Paris l^jos de aqui7 


No eetd I^jos 

I Cu^as millas dista? 

I Cuanto dista 7 

Veinte millas, 

Una miUa. 

De aqnf & Paris hay casi doscieutas 

Hay cerca de cien millas de Berlin 

d Vieua. 

From Venice. 
From London. 
I am from Paris. 

What countryman are you 7 

Are yon from France 7 

I am. 

The Castilian. 
He is a Castilian, (from Castile.) 
The king. 
The philosopher. 
The preceptor, the tutor. 
The professor. 

Tlie l^dlord, the innkeeper. 

Are you a Biscayan? 
Whence do you come i 
I come from Biiboa. 


De Venecia. 

De Ldndres. 

Yo soy de Paris, t Soy hijo de Paris. 

t ^ De qae pais es V. 7 

I De donde sois7 [ De que tierra? 

tiEs V. Frances7 

I Sois Franceses 7 

Si, sefior. 

£1 Castellano. 

£l es Castellano. 


£1 fil^sofo. 

El preceptor. El ayo. El maestro 

^El profesor. El catedrdtico 
{ Posadero.. Mesouero. liostelero 
( Huesped. Casero. Patron. 

iEs V. Vizcaino 7 
I I De donde viene V 7 
I Vengo de BUbdo. 


IllTr-FIB8T LB880K. 

Tojly, to run away. 

I run away, thou rannest away, he 
runs away, you nm away. 

We run away, you nm away, they 
run away, you run away. 

Why do you fly ? 

I fly because I am a&aid. 

HtMT *. Huirn *, (see App., Teitai 

in tftr.) Eflcaparse. Fngaise. 
Yo huyo, ttk huyes, ^I huye, V. hoye 

Nosotros huimos, vosotroe huis, eUos 

huyen, VY. huyen. 
I Porqu^ huye V. ? 
Yo huyo porque tengo miedo 

To asture, | A»egurar. 

I aonire yon that he is arrived. | t Yo aseguro i Y. que €1 ha Uegado. 

Ob». When the verb to he ia used instead of to have, as in the fore- 
going example, it w translated haber. 

To hear, (to have knowledge of.) 

Have you heard nothing new 7 
I have heard nothing new. 

Oir*. Saber*. (See App. for thee 

two verbs.) 
t ^ No sabe Y. nada de nuevo 7 
t Yo no he sabido nada de nueva 

To happen. 
The happiness, fortune. 

Unhappiness, misfortune. 

A great misfortune has happened. 
He has met with a great misfortune. 

What has happened to you 7 

Nothmg has happened to me. 
I have met with your brother. 

Acaecer. Acontecer. Suceder. 

Felicidad. Dicha. Fortuna. Gracia. 
< Infelicidad. Desdicha. Deagracia. 
\ Infortunio. 

Ha sucedido una gran desgracia. 

t Le ha sucedido un grande infortu- 

I Que le ha sucedido i Y. 7 

I Que OS ha acontecido 7 

No*hie ha sucedido nada. 

Me he encontrado con el hermano 

The poor man. 
I have cut his finger. 
You have broken the man's neck. 

To pity. • 

Do you pity that man 7 

< pity him with all my heart 

With ail my heart 

El pobre hombre. 

t Yo'Ie he cortado el dedo. 

t Y. le ha torcido (rompido) el pe0> 
cuezo al hombre. 
£ Compadecer. Compadeeerse de. 
< (See verbs in cgr, in App.) 

' Tener Idstima. 

I I Se compadece Y. de eee hombre 7 
I Le compadezco con todo mi corazoa 
5 Con (de) todo mi corasrm 
( t Con toda mi alma. 



To complain. 
Do yoa c(»nplain 7 
I do not complain. 
Do you coraplam of my friend ? 
I do complain of him. 

I do not complain of him. 

To dare. 

To opoUj to damage 

To oerve, to wait upon. 

Dost tboa wait upon, (serre 7) 
I do wait upon, (I serve.) 
He waits npon, (he serves.) 

To serre some one, (to wait upon 
> one.) 

Quejaru de. Lamentaroe do 

iSe queja v.? 

No me qaejo. 

I Se queja V. de mi amigo 7 

t De verao (ciertamente) me quejt 

No me quejo de 6L 

Has he been in your serrioe 7 
Has he served you 7 

How k>Bg has he been in your ser- 

The service. 

To offer. 
Do yon ofier? 

I do oSoT. 
Thou offerest 
He offers. 

ser- J 

Ooar. Atreverse. Arriesgarse. 
Echar 4 perder. Inutilizar. 
Servir *. (See Appendix.) 
Eetar en eervicio de otro^ d am 


Yo sirvo. Estoy sirviendc 
£l sirve. £l eetd sirviendo. 
Servir d algruno. 
Estar sirviendo & alguno. 
Estar al servicio de alguno. 
I Ha estade ^1 en el servicio de V.7 
I Ha eetado sirviendo d V. 7 
I Cuanto tiempo ha servido A d V.7 
I Cuanto tiempo ha estado sirviendo 

El servicio. 

Ofrecer •. (See App., verbs in eer,) 
I Ofrece V. 7 i Ofreceis vos, (voso* 

tree) 7 
Yo ofrezco. t DTverae ofrexeo, 
Td ofreces. 
£l ofrece. 

To confide, to trutt, to intruoL 

Do yoa trust me with your money 7 
I do trust you with it 
I have intrusted that man with a 

The secret 

( Co 


To keep any thmg secret 

ConfioT d, {de, en.) 
Fiaroe de, (en.) 

Contar con. Hacer confianMa do 
I Me confia V. su dinero 7 
Yo ee le confio d V. 
Yo he confiado un secrete d ess 

Guardar teoroiaf 
Tener secrets algnna c 




I haye kept it secret 

I He goardado eecieta 
' Lo he tenkio secreto 

To take care of somethmg 

Do yoQ take care of your clothes 7 
I do take care of them. 

Will yoa take care of my horse? 

I will take care of it. 
To leave. 

To equander, to dissipate. 

He haa equandered all his wealth 
To kinder. To prevent. 
To keep from. 

Yoa hinder me from sleeping. 

To purchase. 

i Gaidar de ulguna cosa. 
Tener cuidado de. 
I ^Cuida V de sus vestidos, (so mpa) 1 
I Si, yo cuido de ellos, (de ella.) 

!l Quiore V. cuidar mi caballo 7 
I Quiere V. cuidar de mi caballo? 
I Si, yo cuidar^ de €L 
I Dejar. 

S Malgaetar. Disipar. 
\ Desperdiciar. Derrochar 
I ]&] ha disipado todo su caudaL 
J Impedir *. Emharazar. 
\ Esiorhar. No dejar. 
5 V. no me dcja dormir. 
( Me impide dormir. 

5 Comprar. 

( t Hacer algunas compras. 

J I Que ha comprado V. hoy 7 

What have you purchased to day T ^ ^ ^ (j,,^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ y ^^^ ^ 

I have purchased two handkerchiefs. | Yo he comprado dos paftuelos. 
Have you purchased any thiug to- ^ ^ Ha comprado V. hoy alguna cosa? 
day ? ) t ^ Ha hecho V. hoy algunas compras 1 

Most lovely, charming. 

That hat fits you admirably 

That coat fits hhn very welL 
It is charming. 


PreciosCsimo. Amabilfsimo. 



t Ese sombrero le va (denta) A V. 

muy bien. 
Esa casaca le sionta perfectamente. 

Esa casaca le va como pintado. 
Eao es hechicero, encantador, deli- 

t Mono, divertidof gracioso. 

How far is it from Paris to London 7 — ^It is nearly two hundred 
miles fixHn Paris taLondon. — ^Is it for from here to Berlin 7 — ^It is &r. 
— It it ftr from here to Yiemia?— It is almost a hundred and fitly 


miles from here to Vienna. — ^Is it farther from Paris to Blois than from 
Orleans to Paris ? — It is farther from Orleans to Paris than from Paris 
to Blois. — ^How far is it from Pa^s to Berlin ? — It is almost a hundred 
and thirty miles fix)m Paris to Berlin. — Do you intend to go to Paris 
soon ? — ^I intend to go thither soon. — ^Why do you wish to go this 
lime ? — In order to buy good books and good gloves there, and to see 
my good friends. — Is it long since you were there ? — It is nearly a 
year since I was there. — ^Do you not go to Italy this year ? — 1 do not 
go thither, for it is too far from here to Italy. — Who are the men that 
have just arrived ?— They are philosophers. — Of what country are 
they ? — ^They are from London. — Who is the man who has just 
started 7 — ^He is an Englishman, who has squandered away all his 
fortune in France. — What countryman are you ? — ^I am a Spaniard, 
and my friend is an Italian. — Are you fit)m Cadiz ? — No, I am from 
Madrid. — How much money have your children hpent to-day ? — They 
have spent but little ; they have spent but one doUioif . — ^Where did you 
dine yesterday ? — ^I dined at the innkeeper's. — ^Did you spend much ? 
—I spent a dollar and a half. — ^Has the king passed here ? — ^He has 
not passed here, but before the theatre. — ^Have you seen him ? — I have 
seen him. — ^Is it the first time you have seen him ? — ^It is not the first 
time, for I have seen him more than fwenty times. 

Why does that man run away?-THe nins away because he is 
afraid. — Why dp you run away ? — ^I run away because I am afraid. 
— Of whom are you afraid 7—1 am afraid of the man who does not 
love me. — Is he your enemy? — ^I do not know whether he is my 
enemy ; but I fear all those who do not love me, for if they do me 
no harm, they will do me no good. — ^Do you fear my cousin 7 — 
I do not fear him, for he has never done anybody harm. — You are in 
the wrong to run away before that man, for I assure you that he is a 
very good man, who has never done harm to any one.---Of whom, has 
your brother heard 7 — He has heard of a man to whom a misfortune 
has happened. — ^Why have your scholars not done their exercises 7 — 
I assure you that they have done them, and you are mi^llaken if you 
believe that they have not done them. — What have you done with my 
book 7 — I assiu^ you, that I have not seen it. — Has your son had my 
Knives 7 — He assures me that he has not had them. — ^Has your uncle 
arrived already? — ^He has not arrived yet. — Will you wait till he 
returns, (que H Uegtte?\ — ^I cannot wait, for I have a good deal to do. 
— ^Have you not heard any thing new 7 — ^I have heard nothing new.— 
Has the king arrived 7— They say that he has arrived. — ^What has 
happened to you 7— 'A gij^t misfortune has happened to me. — What t 


—I have met with my greatest enemy, who has given me a blow with 
a stick. — Then I pity you with all my heart — ^Why do you pity that 
man ? — ^I pity him because you have broken his neck. — Why do you 
complain of my friend ? — ^I complain of him because he has cut my 
finger. — Does that man serve you well ? — He does serve me well, but 
he spends too much. — Are you willing to take tliis servant ? — ^I am 
willing to take him, if he will serve me. — Can I take tlmt servant ? — 
You can take him, for he has served me very well. — ^How long is it 
since he is out of (que HI dejo) your service ? — It is but two months 
since. — Has he served ybu long ? — ^He has served me (for) six years. 

Do you offer me any thing ? — ^I have nothing to offer you. —What 
does my friend offer you 7 — He offers me a book. — ^Have the Parisians 
offered you any thing 7 — ^They have offered me wine, bread, and good 
beef. — Why do you pity our neighbor ? — ^I pity him, because he has 
trusted a merchant of Paris with Ills money, and the man {y este) will 
not return it to him. — Do you trust this man with any thing ? — ^I do 
not trust him with any thing. — Has he already kept any thing from 
you ? — I have never trusted him with any thing, so that he has never 
kept any thing from me. — Will you trust my father v«dth your money? 
— I will trust him with it.i — With what secret has my son intrusted 
you ? — I cannot intrust you with that with which he luw intrusted me, 
for he has desired me (encai^ado) to keep it secret. — Whom do you 
intrust with your secrets ? — I intrust nobody with them, so that nobody 
knows them. — Has your brotlier been rewarded ? — He has, on the 
contrary, been punished ; but I beg you to keep (lo tengd) it secret, 
for no one knows it. — What has happened to him ? — I will tell you 
what has happened to him, if you promise me to keep it secret Do 
k. you promise me to keep it secret ? — 1 do promise you, for I pity him 
'•with all my heart. — Will you take care of my clothes ? — 1 viriU take 
caVff of them. — Are you taking care of the book which 1 lent you ? — 
I am takiiig care of it. — Who wM take care of my servant ? — ^The 
landlord will^ake paie of him. — Do you throw away your hat ? — ^I do 
not throw it a\^^, for it fits me admirabl j^ — ^Does your friend sell his 
crtat ? — He does not sell it, for it fits him most beautifully. — ^Who has 
spoiled my book ? — No one has spoiled it, because no one has dared 
to touch it. 

• ^'. 


nnr-sBOOND lessok. 


FIFTY-SECOND LESSON.— Lccdon Q^iT^cuag6sima segunda. 

Win the people come soon ? 

Soon, — very toon. 
A irioliii. 
To play upoD the yiolin. 
To play the yioHn. t 

The harpsichord. 
To play the harpsichord. 
To play npon the harpsichord, 
^hat instnimeiit do you play 7 

I VendrA la gente luego ? • 

Luego, presto, pronto. Muy prmUm, 

Un violin. 

J t Tocar el irioliii. 

I Clave. Clavicordio. 

> t Tocar el piano, (el clavicordiok) 

i 1 1 Que instrumento toca V. T 

To touch. 

Near me. 

Near them. 

Near the fire. 

Near the tree& 

Near going. 
Where do you live 7 
I live near the castle. 
What are you doing near the fire ? 

Tocar. Palpar. 
Cerca de. Junto d, 
Cerca de mi. Junto i mf. 
Cerca de elloe, (or ellas.) 
Cerca del fuego. 
Cerca de loe irboles. 
Cerca de ir. 
I En donde vive V. ? 
Vivo junto al castillo. 
I Que estd V. haciendo juito 

To dance. 
To fall 
To drop, (meaning to letfaU.) 
Has he dropped any thing ? 
He has not dropped any thing. 

Danzar. Bailor 

Caer ». 

Dejar caer. 

I Ha dejado ^I caer al^ 7 

£1 no ha dejado caer nada. 

To retain. To hold hack. 

To approach. To draw near* 
Do you approach the fire ? 
I do approach it 

Retener *, (conj. like Tener^^ 
Acer carte a. Aproxvmaroe &^ 
I Se acerca V. al fuego 7 
Me acerco, (d ^1.) 

_ , , i Acercarae. 

n approach, to have accet, to one. ^ j.^^ comunicaeUm c^ 

He » a man difficult of access. I Es un hombro de diffcil acceso. 

I go away (withdraw) from the fire. I Yo me quito del fuego. 

' S(«e Lesson XXIV., and Appendix. 


* See Lesson XXVI., Obs. F. 



To withdraw from. 
To go away from, 
I go away, from it 
Why does that man go away from 

the fire? 
He goes away from it because he is 
not cold. 

( Quitarse de. Apartarae de. 
\ Retirarse de. Irse de *. 

Yo me quito de €[. 

|,Porqu^ se retira eee hombre del 

t £l se retira porque no tUne fria. 

To recollect. 

Do you recollect that ? 

I do recollect it 

Does your brother recollect that 7 

He does recollect it 
Do you recollect the words 7 
I do recollect them. 
Have you recollected the words 7 
I have recollected them. 
I have not recollected them. 
Have you recollected them 7 
You have recollected them. 
Has he recollected them 7 
He has recollected them. 
We have recollected them. . 
They have recollected them. 

To remember. 
To recollect. 

Do yea remember that man 7 
Do you remember that 7 
I do remember it 

What do you remember 7 
I remember nothmg. 

To 9it down. 
Are you sitting down 7 

I Acordarse de *.^ 

I Se acuerda V de eso 7 
' ^Os acordais vos (or vosotros) de 
' eso7 

Me acuerdo de ello. 

I Se acuerda de eso e germane de 

El se acuerda de ello. 

I Se acuerda V. de las palabras 7 

Tfl.^ acuerdo de ellas. 

I Se ha acordado V. de las palabras T 

Me he acordado de ellas. 

No me he acordado de ellas. 

I Os habeis acordado de ellas 7 

V. se ha acordado de eUas. 

I Se ha acordado €[ de ellas 7 

£1 se ha acordado de eUas. 

Nos hemes acordado de ellasi 

Se ban acordado de ellas. 

i Acordarse de *. 

\ Recordarge de *. 

^ ^ Os acordais de ese hombre 7 

^ ^ Se acuerda V. de ese hombro 7 

] I Se acuerda V. de eso 7 
K S( me acuerdo. 
( Me acuerdo de eso. 
^ ^ De que os acordais 7 
} ^ De que se acuerda V. 7 

I No me acuerdo de nada. 

ISentar$e *.* Estar sentado. 
I Estd v. sentado 7 ^ Se sienU V. T 

• See Acordarse in the Appendix, where its uregularity is explained. 
' See Alentar in the Appendix, where the irregularities of Mentarte ait 



I am atting down. 
Thoa ait aittiiig down. 
He ia sitting down. 
I flhail or will sit down. 
He sits near the fire. 
He is sitting near the fire. 

Me siento. Estoy sentado. 
TH te sientas. Estis sentado 
£l se sienta. Esti sentado. 
Yo me sentai^ 
ifel se sienta cerca del ftiego. 
IsU esti sentado junto al fuegc 

To Uke better, 

Do yon like to stay here better than ^ 

; to prefer, \q^^%^„, 

^^Gnsta v. mas do estar aqd q[Da 

I Prefiere V . estar aqa( d sallr ? 
I Qoiere V. mejor (or mas bien) estar 


Chutar is most frequently used placing the object as a suqject, b which 
casb the verb agrees with it in the third person singular or plural, and the 
sobject is expressed by the corresponding pronoun hi the objective case, to 
wit : me, te, se, le, le (v) a V. 

I like staying here better than going 

out • 
He likes to play better than to study. 

Do yoo like to write better than to 

I like to speak better than to write. 

t Me gusta mas estar aqnl que salii. 

t A ^ le gusta mas jugar que es« 

t ^ Le gusta d V. mas eseiibir que 

t A m( me gusta mas hablar que 


Better than. 
He likes to do both. 

I like beef better than mutton. 

Do you like bread better than meat? 

I like neither the one nor the other. 

^ (ike tea as much as cofl^ 

Just as much. 

Some veaL 
Calf, calves. 

Mae que. Mejor que, 

t A ^I le gusta hacer lo uno y lo 

otro, (or el uno y el otro.) 
Me gusta mas la vaca que el camera^ 
t ^ Le gusta & V. mejor el pan qua 

la came ? 
f No me gustan ni el uno, ni la 

t BI td me gusta tanto como el ca£l 

JTanto como. 
Lo mismo (n) que. 
I Un poco de ternera. Temera. 
I Ternero, temera ; temeros, temeras 

Qmeh, FaeU 

i Presto. Pronto. Idgera. 
\ Deprisa. 



Slow. Slowly. 

Does joar master speak aload ? 

He speaks aloud. 

In order to learn Spanish, one most 
speak aloud. 

Quicker. Footer, 
Not 00 quick. Leoo qmeh. 
ika fast as yon. 
He t^ats quicker than I. 
Do you learn as fast as 1 7 
I learn faster than yon. 
I do not understand yon, because 
you speak too fast 

To oell cheap. 
To oell dear. 
Does he sell cheap ? 
He does not sell dear. 
He has sold me very dear. 

This man sells every thing so dear, 
that one cannot buy any thing 
from him. 
You speak so fast that I cannot un- 
derstand you. 
To buy something of some one. 
I have bought it of him. 

So much, so many. 
I have written so many notes, that I 
cannot write any more. 

Do you fear to go out 7 
I do fear to go out 

To run away. To fly. 
Did you run away 7 

Tardo. Lento. Lent&mento, 

Puco d poco. 

Alto. En alta voz. Rieio. 

I Habia alto el maestro de V. (oi 

vuestro maestro) 7 
£l habla alto. 
Para aprender el Espafiol, es menc*- 

ter hablar alto. 
Mao preoto. Mao ligero. 
No tan preoib. Minoo pronto. 
Tan pronto oomo V. (vos, or yosotroBL) 
]^l come mas presto one yo. 
I Aprende V. tan pronto como yo T 
Yo aprendo mas pronto que V< 
Yo no entieudo d V. (os entiendo) 

porque V.' habla (hablais) tan de 


Vender barato. 
Vender caro. 
I Vende €i barato ? 
£1 no vende caro. 
£l me ha vendido mny oara 

Este hombre lo vende todo tan can, 
que no se le puede comprar nada. 

y. habla tan ligero que yo no puedo 

Comprar algo de alguna 
Yo se le he comprado' (i ^.) 
Tanto, tanta, Tantoo, tantao. 
He escrito tantas esquelas que BO 

puedo escribir mas. 

I Teme V. salir 7 i Temeis salir ? 
t Ciertamente temo salir. 
Huir *. Eecapixroe. Salvaroo. 
iHuy6V.7 iSeescapdV? 

' Particular care must be paid in the translation of these phrases, for 
Yo oe le he comprado, may mean, I bought it of, or from him ; and alsc. I 
bought it to, or for his benefit. To avoid ambiguity, the pronouns d il i 
stta, d olloot &<c. are placed after the verU 

rarrr-sxooND lessoa. 226 

I £d not mn away. 

Why did that man ran away t 

He lan away because he waa afraid* 

Who haa nm away ? 
He has nm away. 

Yo no hul. Yo no me eecap6. 
[Porqud hny6 (or se eactipd) ess 

£l hay6 (se escap<)) porqae tenia 

I Qoien se ha hnido, (or escapade) 7 
61 se ha hnido. £l se ha escapade. 

Do yon play the violin 7 — ^I do not play the violin, bat the harpd- 
chord. — Shall we have a ball to-night 7 — ^We shall have one. — At what 
o^clock 7 — ^At a quarter to eleven.— WJiat o'clock is it now 7 — ^It *8 
almost eleven, and the- people will soon come. — ^What inatrnment will 
you play 7 — I shall play the violin. — ^If you play thevidin I shall play 
upon the harpsichord. — Are there to be {deberd haber) a great many 
people at our ball 7 — ^There is to be a great many. — Will you dance 7 
— ^I shall dance. — Will your children dance 7 — ^They will dance if they 
please. — ^In what do you spend your time in this country 7 — ^I spend 
my time in playing on the harpsichord, and in reading. — ^In what does 
your cousin divert himself 7 — ^He diverts himself in playing upon the 
violin. — ^Does any one dance when you play 7 — ^A great many people 
dance when I play. — Who 7 — At first (jprimero) our children, then our 
cousins, at last our neighbors. — ^Do you amuse yourselves 7 — ^I assure 
you that we amuse ourselves very much. — ^Wliom do you pity 7 — ^I 
fity your friend. — ^Why do you pity him 7 — ^I pity him because he is 
ili. — ^Uas anybody pitied you 7 — ^Nobody has pitied me, because I have 
not been ill. — ^I>o you offer me any thing 7 — ^I offer you a fine gun.— 
What has my father offered you 7 — ^He has offTered me fn fine book. — 
To whom have you offered your fine horses 7 — I have offTered them to 
the English captain. — Dost thou offer thy pretty little dog to these 
children 7 — ^I offer it to them, for I love them with all my heart — ^Why 
have you given that boy a blow with youir fist 7 — ^Because he hindered 
me from sleeping. — ^Haa anybody hindered you from writing, (que V, 
escriba 1) — ^Nobody has hindered me from writing, but I have hindered 
somebody from hurting your cousin. 


Have you dropped any thing 7 — ^I have dropped nothing, but my 

cousin dropped some money. — ^Who has picked it up 7 — Some men 

have picked it up. — ^Was it returned to him, {se le han vuelto 1) — It waa 

returned to him. — ^Is it cold to-day 7 — It is very coid. — ^Will you draw 

• the fire 7 — I cannot draw near (it,) for I am afraid of burning my- 


self. — ^Why does your friend go away from the fire ? — ^He goes away 
(from it) because he is afraid of burning himself. — ^Art thou coming 
near the fire ? — 1 am coming near (it,) because I am very cold. — Do 
you go away from the fire ? — ^I do go away (from it.) — Why do you go 
away (from it ?) — Because I am not cold. — ^Are you cold or warm 7—1 
am neither cold nor warm. — ^Why do your children approach the fire ? 
— They approach (it) because they are cold. — ^Is anybuiy cold?— 
Somebody is cold.^Who is cold ? — The little boy, whose father haa 
lent you a horse, is cold. — ^Why does he not warm himself ? — ^Because 
his fether has no money to buy wood. — ^Will you tell him to come 
(que venga) to me to warm himself? — ^I will tell him so, (Zo.) — ^Do you 
remember any thing ? — I remember nothing. — ^What does your uncle 
recollect ? — ^He recollects what you have promised him. — ^What have I 
promised him ? — ^You have promised him to gb to Franco with, him 
next winter. — ^I intend to do so, if it is not too cold. — Why do you 
withdraw from the fire ? — ^I have been sitting near the fire ttis hour 
and a half, so that I am no longer cold. — ^Does your friend not like to 
sit near the fire ? — He likes, (on^ the contrary,) much to sit near the 
fire, but only when he is cold. — May one approach your uncle ? — One 
may approach him, for he receives everybody. — Will you sit down ? — 
I will sit down. — ^Where does your father sit down ? — He sits down 
near me. — Where shall I sit down ? — ^You may sit near me. — ^Do you 
sit down near the fire ? — ^I do not sit down near the fire, for I am afraid 
of being too warm. — ^Do you recollect my brother ? — ^I do recollect him. 

Do your parents recollect their old friends? — ^They do recollect 
them.— Do you recollect these words ? — ^I do not recollect tliem. — Have 
you recollected that ? — ^I have recollected it, — Has your uncle recol- 
lected those words ? — ^He has recollected them. — Have I recollected 
my exercise ? — You have recollected it. — Have you recollected your 
exercises ? — ^I have recollected them, for I have learned them by heart; 
and my brothers have recollected theirs, because they have learned 
them by heart. — Is it long since you saw your friend from Paris ? — ^I 
saw him a fortnight ago. — ^Do your scholars like to learn by heart ? — 
They do not like to learn by heart ; they like reading and writing better 
tlian learning by heart. — ^Do you like cider better than wine ? — ^I like 
wine better than cider. — ^Does your brother like to play ?— He likes to 
study better than to play. — ^Do you like veal better than mutton ? — ^I 
like the latter better than the former. — Do'y^ like to drink better than 
to eat ? — I like to eat better than fo drink ; but my uncle likes to drink 
better than to eat. — Does the Frenchman ^ke fowl (JLagaUina) better 
Uum fish ? — ^He likes fish better than fowl^^-Do you like to Mrrite bettei 






than to speak 7 — I like to ck> both. — Do you like hajiey better than 
sugar ? — ^I like neither. — ^Does your father like coffee better than tea ? 
— ^He likes neither. — Can you understand me ?— No, Sir, for yoo speak 
too fast. — Win you be kind enough {tener la bondad) not to speak so 
&st 7 — ^I will not speak so fast, if you will listen to me. 

Can you understand what my brother tells you 7 — ^He speaks so 
fisist, that I cannot understand him. — Can your pupils understand you 7 
— ^They understand me when I speak slowly ; for in order to be under- 
stood I must speak slowly, (que yo hable,)-^la it necessary to speak 
aloud to learn French 7 — It is necessary to speak aloud.^Does your 
master speak aloud 7 — ^He does speak tdoud and slow. — Why do you 
not buy any thing of that merchant 7 — ^He sells so dear that I cannot 
buy any thing of him; — WiHl you take me to another 7 — ^I will take 
you to the son of the one whom you bought of last year. — Does he 
sell as dear as this one 7 — ^He sells cheaper. — ^Do your children like 
learning Italian better than Spanish 7 — They do not like to learn either* 
they only like to learn French. — Do you like mutton 7 — I like beef 
better than mutton. — Do yourxhildren like cakes better than bread 7 — 
They like both. — Hariie^^fead all the books which he bought 7— He 
bought so many that he cannot read them all. — ^Do you wish to write 
some exercises 7 — ^I have written so many that I cannot write any 
more. — ^Why does that man run away 7 — ^He runs away because he is 
afraid. — ^Will any one do him harm 7 — ^No one will do him harm ; but 
he dares not stay, because he has not done his task, and is afraid of 
being^umshed. — ^Will any one touch him 7 — ^No' one will touch hiniy 
but he wnH» punished by his master for not having Qxirque rid hd) 
done his task^ 

FIFTY-THIRD LESSON.— Lcccion QuincuagSsima iercera. 

By the side of. 
lo pan by the side of some one. 
I hare paamd by the side of you. 
Uave yoQ passed by the side of my 

brother 7 
I have passed by the side of him. 

To p€L8» hy a place. 
I have pasted by the theatre. 

Al lado dCf (or par el lado de.) 
Pasar por (or al lado de) alguno. 
Yo he pasado al 4ad6 de Y. 
^Ha pasado Y. al lado, (or por el 

lado) de mi hennano 7 
Yo ho pasado i sn lado, (or por su 

t Pasar cerca de un lugar. 
t Yo he pasado ceroa del (or por aQ 




I haye pasMd by Ihe caatie. 

Ton hare pasMd before my ware- 

To dart. 

I dare not go thither. 

He dares not do it 

I did not dare to tell him mk 

To make ute of, id tiac 
Do yoa nee my hone 7 
I do nee it 
Doee yonr father nee it t 

He doee nee it 

Hare yon need my gon 7 

I haTe need it 

Hiey hare used your booke. 

They hare used them. 

t He pasado cerca del (or jimte aQ 

t V. ha pasado por (or delante de) 

mi alipacen. 

Ooar. " Atreverse. (See in the Ap* 
pendiz, verbs taking a preposi 
tion before the infinitive.) 
\ To no oso ir alii. 
( No me atrevo & ir alii. 
£l no se atreve i haceria 
Yo no me atrevf i deciiselo aitf. 





Servirae de, Uaar* (See 

I Se sirve V. de mi oaballo 7 

Me sirvo de 6L i 

t ^ Se sirve de ^1 sa selor padre 4m 
V.7 / 

{ Se sirve de €L 
\ Usade^l. 

I Ha usado V. (or se ha senteo V^ 
de mi^ecopeta 7 
C He usado de ella. 
\ Me he servido de ella. 

Elloe ban usado de (se haa eervid* 
de) los lihros de V. 

Los ban usado. 

Se ban servido de elios. 

I instruct, thou instructest, he in- 
structs ; we instruct, yoa instruct, 
they instruct 

Inatruir ».* InnrwfemU. 

Yo instmyo, tii ineftmyee, A mstmye ; 
nosotros instruunos, vosolros in* 
fttruis, vos instrms, V. instruye, W. 
instruyen, elios mstmyen. 

To teach. 
To teach mntu one eomething. 
Ho teaches me arithmetic. 
I teach you Spanish. 
I have taught him Spanish. 
To teach oome one to do eomething. 


Eneenar algo d alguno. 

£l me enseila la aritm^ica. 

Yo le enseilo i V. el eqpafioL 

Yo le he enseftado el espaftoL 

Eneenar a alguno d haeer alguna 

* See verbs in uir, m the Appendix, where thefar Irregularities are •» 



He teacliM me to read. 
I teach him to write. 

£l me enseiia & leer. 
Yd le ensefio i eecribir. 

The Spanish master, (meaning the 
master of the Spanish language.) 

The Spanish master, (meaning that 
the master is a Spaniard, what- 
ever he teaches.) 

El maestro de espafioL 
El maestro espafioL 

To shave. 

To get ehaved. 

To drese. 

To undreee. 

To drese one's eelf. 

To undreee one* 9 self. 

Have yon dr esse d yoorself ? 

I have not yet dressed myself 
Hare yon dr esse d the child 7 
I have dressed it 


Afeitar Raeuror, 

t Afeitaree, Haeerse af€4m, 

Veetxr ♦. 


Veetiree *. 

S iSehavestido v.? 
1 1 ^ Os habeis restido ? 

Todavia no me he restida 

I Ha vestido V. al nifio, (or nifia) 7 

Le (la) he Testide. 

I Deehaeer *. (Conjogated like haeer. 
I See Appendix.) 

n Se deshace V. de sa aziicar ayeria- 
Are yon getting rid of your damaged j do7 


1 am getting rid of it. 

Did yon get rid of your old ship 7 
I did get rid of it 

f iVa V, eaUendo del axUear ave» 
^ riado? 

5 Me deehago de H. 

Voy ealiendo de el, 

I Se deshizo V. de su fragata yieja 7 

Me deshice de ella. 

To part with. 

The design, the intention, 
I mtend to go thither. 
Do yon intend to part with your 

I have already parted with them. 
fle has parted with his gun. 

( Deehaceree de, Enagenar, 
\ Vender, 

El deeignio. La intencion, 

Yo tengo intencion de ir alUL 

^Tiene V. intencion de deshacens \ 
{de vender)^aB caballos 7 J^ \ 

Ya me he deslfecbo de elloSi v^"** 

Ya los be vendido. 

£1 ha vendido su esoopeta. 




Hare vmi parted with (discharged) 

your senrant 7 
I haye parted with (discharged) him. 

I Ha detpedido V. A ra onadot 
Si, ya le he despedido. 

To wake. 
To awake. 

I Detpertar *." Diepertar •.* 

)De$pertar, Deapertaree^ 
Diepertar. Dispertaree} 

Ohs. Diepertar generally means, to pat an end to sleep ; dispertane, t$ 

interrupt sleep. 

I generally awake at six o'clock in 

the mommg. 
My servant generally wakes me at 

six o'clock in the morning. 
A slight noise awakes me. 
A dream has waked me. 
I do not make a noise, in order not 

to wake him. 

Yo despierto generalmente i *as seis 

de la manana. 
Mi criado me dispierta generalmekle 

A las seis de la mafiana. 
Un ligero ruido me despierta. 
Un saefio me ha dispertado. 
Yo no hago ruido, para no dispertaito . 

A dream. 
To come down. * 
To alight from one's hone. To dis- 

Un snefio. Un ensuefio. 

Generalmente. Ordinaiiamente. 


Apearse de sn caballo. Desmontar. 

To conduct one*$ $elf. 
To behave. 
I conduct myself well 
How does he conduct himself 7 ' 

He behaves ill towards that 
He behaves ill towards me 

To be worth while. 

Is it worth while 7 
It is worth whHe. 
Is it not worth while 7 

Conduciree *, {bien or moLy* 
Portarse, Comportarse. 
Yo me conduzco bien. 
I Como se porta (conduce) H ( 

A, Con, Para con, Hdeia, 
itl se porta mal con aqnel homhre. 
1^1 se porta mal conmigo. 

I Merecer *.' Valer la pena de. 

il Lo merece eso 7 
I Vale eso la pena 7 

I I Lo merece. Vale la pena. 

it ^ No lo merece 7 
I No vale la pena 7 

' Deepertar or diepertar are conjugated like alentar, (See this verb hi 
the Appendix.) 

* See in the Appendix the irregularities of conducir, and all the 
ending in acer, ecer, ocer, uctr. 



b H worth while to do that? 

b H worth while to write to him 7 
It is worth nothing. 

bit better? 

It is better. 

WiU it be better 7 

It will not be better. 

It is better to do this than that 

It is better to stay here than go a- 

Merece eso hacerse 7 
Vale la pena hacer eso 7 
I Vale la pena escribirle 7 
No yale nada. 

I Es mejor 7 i Vale mas 7 

Es mejor. Vale mas. 

I Ser4 mejor 7 i Valdri mas 7 

No serd mejor. No yaldri masi 

Es mejor hacer esto qne eso 

Mas vale hacer esto que eso. 

Mejor es estar aqoi que ir i paseaft 


Have your books been found ? — ^They have been found. — ^Where ? 
—Under the bed. — Is my coat on the bed ? — ^It is under (it) — Are 
your brother's stockings under the bed ? — They are upon it — Have I 
been seen by anybddy ? — ^You have been seen by nobody. — Have you 
pass^ by anybody ? — ^I passed by the side of you, and you did not see 
me^ — ^Has anybody passed by the side of you ? — Nobody has passed by 
the side of me. — Where has your son passed ? — ^He has passed by the 
theatre. — Shall you pass by the castle ? — ^I shall pass (there.) — ^Why 
have you not cleaned my trunk 7 — I was afraid to soil my fingers. — 
Hasmy brother's servant cleaned his master's guns 7 — ^He has cleaned 
them. — ^Has he not been afraid to soil his fingers? — ^He has not 
been afraid of soiling them, because his fingers* are never clean. — ^Do 
you use the books which I have lent you ? — ^I do use them. — ^May I 
use your knife ? — ^Thou mayst use it, but thou must not cut (te cartes) 
thyself. — ^May my brothers use your books ? — ^They may use them. — 
Blay we use your gun 7 — ^You may use it, but you must not spoil it, 
{no la echen d perder,) — ^What have you done with my wood ? — ^I 
have used it to warm myself. — Has your father used my horse ? — ^fle 
has used it. — Have our neighbors used our clothes ? — They have not 
used them, because they did not want them. — ^Who'has used my hat ? 
— Nobody has used it. — ^Have you told your brother to come down, (que 
hc^e 7) — I did not dare to tell him. — Why have you not dared to tell 
him ? — Because 1 did not wish to wake him, (despertarle.) — Has he told 
you not to wake him ?— He has told me not to wake him (despierte) 
when he sleeps. 


Have you shaved to-day ? — ^I have shaved. — ^Has your brother 
^Aved 7 — ^He has not shaved himself, but he got shaved. — ^Do yon 


shaTe often? — ^I shave every morning, and sometimes also in th« 
evening. — When do you shave in the evening ? — ^When I do not dine 
at home. — ^How many times a day does your feither shave 7 — ^He shaves 
only once a day, but my uncle shaves twice a day. — ^Does your cousin 
shave often 7 — ^He shaves only every other day, (un diasi^yundia no,) 
— ^At what o'clock do you dress in the morning 7 — ^I dress as socm as 
I have breakfasted, and I break&st every day at ei^t o'ckx^k, or at a 
quarter past eighth-Does your ndghbor dr^ before he breakfiists 7— 
He breakfieists before he dresses. — At what o'clock in the evening dost 
thou undress 7—1 undress as soon as I return from the theatre. — ^Dost 
thou go to the theatre every evening 7 — ^I do not go every evening, 
for it is better to study than to go to the theatre. — At what o'clock 
dost thou undress when thou dost not go to the theatre? — ^I then 
undress as soon as I have supped, and go to bed at ten o'clock. — ^Have 
you already dressed the child 7 — ^I have not dressed it yet, for it is still 
asleep. — At what o'clock does it get up 7 — It gets up as soon as it is 
waked. — Do you rise as early as 1 7 — I do not know at what o'clock 
you rise, but I rise as soon as I awake. — WiH you tell my servant to 
wake me (qtte me dispierte) to-morrow at four o'clock 7 — I will tell 
him. — ^Why have you risen so early 7 — My children have made such a 
noise that they wakened me. — ^Have you slept well 7 — I have not slept 
well, for you made too much noise. — At what o'clock did the good 
captain awake 7 — He awoke at a quarter past five in the morning. 

How did my child behave? — ^He behaved very well. — ^How did my 
brother behave towards you 7 — ^He behaved very well towards me, for 
he behaves well towards everybody. — ^Is it worth while to write to that 
man 7 — ^It is not worth while to write to him. — Is it worth while to 
dismount from my horse in order to buy a cake 7 — It is not worth 
while, for it is not long since you ate. — Is it worth while to dismount 
from my horse in order to give something to that poor man 7 — Yea, for 
he-seems to want it ; but you can give him something without dis- 
mounting from your horse. — ^Is it better to go to the theatre than to 
study 7 — ^It is better to do the latter than the former. — ^Is it better to 
learn to read Spanish than to speak it 7 — ^It is not worth while to learn 
to read it without learning to speak it — ^Is it better to go to bed than 
to go a-walking 7 — It is better to do the latter than the former. — Is it 
better to go to France than to Germany 7 — ^It is not worth while to go 
to France or to Germany when one has no wish to travel. — ^Did you at 
last get rid of that man ? — ^I did get rid of him. — ^Why has your father 
parted with his horses 7 — Because he did not want them any more.—* 
Has your merchant succeeded at last to get rid of his damaged sugar 1 

nrnr-YOUBTH lbssov. 


—He fafifl succeeded in getting rid of it — ^Has he sold it on credit t-^ 
He was able to sell it for cash, so that he did not sell it on credit. — 
Who has taught you to read ? — ^I have learned it with a Spanish 
master.— Has he taught you to write ? — ^He has taught me to read and 
to write. — Who has taught your brother arithmetic ? — A Spanish 
master has taught it him. — ^Ek) you call me ? — ^I do call you. — What 
do yon want 7 — Why do you not rise ; do you not know that it is 
already late 7 — ^What do you want me for 7 — ^I have lost all my money, 
and I come to beg yon to lend (me preste) me some. — ^What o*clock is 
it ?— It is already a quarter past six, and you have slept long enough. 
—Is it long since you rose 7 — ^It is an hour and a half since 1 rose. — 
Do you wish to take a walk with me 7 — ^I cannot go a^walking, for I 
am waiting for my Spanish master. . 

FIFTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Leccion Q^i^UMag^lHma cuatia. 

To hope, to expect 
I hope. 
You hope. 
Wo do hope. 

Do yoa expect to find him there? 
I do expect it. 

Eeperar, Agufirdar, 

Yo eepera 

Tft eeperas. 

"kx espenu 

V. espera. Vob (vosotros) espeiaia. 

Noeotros eeperamoe. 

I t Espera V.hallarie alii? 
I t Si. Espero hallarie. 

To diange, (meaning to exchange.) \ 

To change one thing for another. 
I change my hat for his. 

Cambiar. Trocar *. 

Cambiar una oosa por (con) otra. 
Cambio (trueco) mi sombrero por el 

Ta change, (meaning to put on other i Mttdar de. Mudarse de. 

Do yon change your hat? 
I do change it 

He changes his linen. 
They cdiange their clothe& 

I I Se muda V. el sombrero ? 

it Le mudo. Le cambia 
Me pongo otro. 
it Se muda de ropa. 
Se pone ropa limpia, 
I Se mudan de vestido. 




I mix among the men. 
He mixes among the eoldien. 

iMexclarte, Meter»e 
Me meto entre IO0 hombres. 
Se mezcla eutre los soldadoB. 
Entre. En tneaio de. 

To recognise. 
Do you recognise that ^an ? 
It is so long since I saw him, that I 
do not recollect him. 

More — ; — than. 
I hare more bread than I can eat 

That man has more money than he 
will spend. 

There is more wine than is neces- 

Yon have more money than you 

We have more shoes than we want 

That man has fewer friends than he 

To fancy. 
To think. 
To earn, to gain, to get. 

Has your father already started, (de- 
He is ready to depart 
To make ready. 
To make ont^e self ready. 

7\» keep one* 9 eelf ready. 

To eplit. 
To hreak aomebody^e heart 

You break that man's heart 
Whose heart do I break ? 


I Reconoce V. i ese homhre ?• 

t Hace tanto tiempo que le ▼(, que no 

le reconozco, (no me acuerdo de il.) 
Mae (n) que. Del que. De lo que. 
Yo tengo mas pan que (del que) 

pnedo comer. ^ 

Ese hombre tiene mas dineio del que 

puede gastar. 
t Hay mas ytno del necesario, (del 

que se necesita.) 
t v. tiene mas dinero del que nece- 
sita, (del que ha menester.) 
t Tenemos mas zapatos que hcmos 

menester, (neceeitamos.) 
Ese hombre tiege m^noe amigoe que 

(de los quo) €\ pieusa. 
Imaginar. Imaginarse. 
Peusar *. 

I Ha salido ya el padre de V. T 

Esti pronto (listo) para salir. 

Pronto. Presto Listo. 



t Estar pronto. Estar preparada. 

Estar dispuesto d, (para.) 

Partir. Abrir. 

t Partir (desgarrar, or quebr^r) «l 

corazon de alguno. 
t V.'^e quiebra el corazon 4 ese hooft- 

f^A quion le quiebro yo el corawamf 

* See the Appendix for vetbe endlag in aeer, oeer, ueir» 



To spread. 
To expatiate, to lay strest upon, 
Tliat man is always expatiating upon 
that sabject 

The subject. 


Derramar. Extender. 
Esparcir. Divulgar. 
Efpaciarte. Difundirse. 
Ese hombre stempre se difunde sohw 

sa materia. 
El sujeta 'La materia. 
I Siempre. 

— _^_^ , , ,/.,-,, ^ J + Tirarse sobre el suelo. 
To itietch one b self along the floot ^ ^^^^ , ExUnd.r.e •. 

To hang on, {upon.) 

The wall. 
I hang my coat on the wall. 
He hangs his hat upon the tree. 
We hajg our shoes upon the nailfi. 

Who has hanged the basket on the 

Hie thief has been hanged. 

The robber, the highwayman. ^ 

Colgar de, (en.) (See Acordar, in 
the Appendix.) 

La pared. 

Yo cuelgo mi vestido en la pared. 

£1 cuelga su sombrero en el ^rboL 

Colgamos nuestroe zapatos en lot 

I Quien ha colgado la canasta en el 

t El ladron ha side ahorcado, (col- 

El ladron. 

t El bandolero. 

El salteador de camino. 

You are always studious, and will 

always be «o. 
Toor brother is, and always will be 

A well-educated son never gives his 

fether a grief ; he loves, honors, 

and respects him. 

V. es siempre estudioso, y siempre 
h serd. 

El hermauo de V. es bueno, y siem- 
pre lo serd. 

Un hijo bien educado nuuca da pesar 
& su padre ; ^1 le ama, le honra, y 
le respeta. 


167. ■ -• 

Do yon hope to receive a note to-day ? — ^I hope to receive one. — 
Prom whom? — From a friend of mine.r— What dost thou hopel — ^I 
hope to see my parents to-day, for my tutor has promised me to take 
me to them. — Does your friend hope to receive any thing ? — He hopes 
to receive something, for he has worked well. — ^Do you hope to arrive 
early in Paris ? — We hope to arrive there at a quarter past eight, for 
our father is waiting for us this evening. — ^Do you expect to find him 
at home 7 — We do expect it — ^For what (cosa) have yon exchanged 
yon.' coach of which yon have spoken to me ? — ^I have exchanged it 
fox a fine Arabian horse. — ^Do you wish to exchange your book for 

/ A^3L<)A-^^ 9>«/»S^X^<-'^-*^. 

aish. — ^Whydo you tw* 
old master coming. — 1>^ 


jmti^ ? — ^I cannot, for I want it to study Spanish.- 
your hat off? — I take it off because I see iiy < 

you put on another hat to go to the market ? — ^I do not put on anothex 
to go to the market, but (j)ero si) to go to ihe concerts — When wiU the 
concert take place? — (It will take place) \the day after to-morrow ,-?- 
Why do you go away ^Do you not amuse Yourself here ? — You are 
mistoken when you say that 1 do not amuse myself here, for I assure 
you that I find a great deal of pleasure in conversing with you ; but I 
am going because I am expected at my relation's ball.— Have you 
promised to go ? — ^I have promised. — ^Have you changed y^ur hat in 
order to go to the English captain ? — I have changed my Iiat, but I 
have not changed my coat or my shoes. — How many timch a day doat 
thou change thy clothes, (ropa 1) — ^I change them {la) to dine and to 
go to the theatre. 

Why do yc a mix among these meir? — I mix among them in order 
to know what they say of me, — What will become of you if you a^wajra 
mix among the soldiers ? — I do not know what will become of me, but 
I assure you that they will do me no harm, for they do not hurt any- 
body. — Have you recognised your father ? — ^It was so long since I saw 
him, that I did not recognise him. — ^Has he recognised you ? — ^He 
recognised me instantly. — ^How long have you had this coat ? — It is a 
long time since I have had it. — How long has your brother had that 
gun? — He has had it a great while. — Do you still (siempre) speak 
^Mmish ? — ^It is so long since I spoke it, that I have nearly forgotten it 
all, (del iodo.) — ^How long is it since your cousin has been learning 
Spanish ? — ^It is only three months since. — ^Does he know as much aa 
you ? — ^He knows more than I, for he has been learning it longer. — 
Do you know why that man does not eat ? — I believe he is not hungry, 
for he has more bread than he can eat. — ^Have you given your son any 
money ? — ^I have given him more than he wiU spend. — Will you give me 
a glass of cider ? — You need not drink cider, for there is more wine than 
is n^'^spary.— «Am l4(tf^U my gun in order to buy a new hat ? — You 
need not sell it, for you have more money than you want. — Do you 
wish to speak to the shoemaker ? — ^I do not wish to speak to him, for 
we have more shoes than we want — ^Why do the Spaniards rejoice 1 — 
They rejoice because they flatter themselves they have many good 
friends. — Are they not right in rejoicing ? — ^They are wrong, for they 
have fewer friends than they imagine. 

Are you ready to depart with me ? — ^I am so. — Does your unde 
depart with us ?— He departs with us if he pleases, {quiere.) — ^Will job 


teU him to be ready {que se e$t£) to start to-morrow at six o'clock in the 
evening ? — I will tell him so. — Is this young man ready to go out 7-^ 
Not yet, but he will soon be ready. — Why have they hanged that man ? 
—They have hanged him because he has killed somebody. — Have they 
hanged the nuin who stole a horse from your brother ? — ^They have 
punished him, but they have not hanged him ; they hang only high- 
wajmen in our country. — What have you done with my coat ? — I have 
nanged it on the wall. — ^WiU you hang my hat upon the tree ? — I will 
hang it (thereon.) — ^Have you not seen my shoes 7 — I found them under 
your bed, and have hanged them upon the nails. — Has the thief who 
stole your gun been hanged 7 — ^He has been punished, but he has not 
been hanged. — Why do you expatiate so much upon that subject 7— 
Becanse it is necessary to speak upon all subjects.— If it is necessary 
to listen to you, and to answer you when you expatiate upon that sub- 
ject, I will hang my hat upon the nail, stretch myself along iliO floor, 
listen to you, and answer you as well as I can, (yo pieda.) — You will do 

FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON.— JLeccion Quivcuagisima qainia. 

_, , „ 5 t Ettar bien ♦. Ettar bueno. 

T,beu,elL \ Pa»^lo bien. 

_, , , , 5 J Como esti V. 1 tComo lo posa V.? 

H«w do you do? ^ ^ ^ C^ ,^ ^^j^ y J 

Obt. A, The verbs to be, and to do, when used in English to inquire 
tfter, or to speak of a person's health, are translated by the verbs estar, 
fuarlo, kallarBe. 

C I Como estA el senor padre de V.? 
How is your father ? < t ^ Como lo pasa (se halla) tl tenor 

t padre, de V.? 
He is very well. | t Su merced se halla muy bien, 

Obt. B. The qualifications of senovt (Mr.,) eenora, (Mrs.,) aenoritOf 
(Master,) aenorita, (Miss,) are generally placed in Spanish before the com- 
mon nouns of the parents, relations, or friends of the person spoken to, when 
we mean to pay them particular req>ect For the same purpose the Span- 
iards use the words au merced, (his or her honor,) bu aemria, (my lord or 
my lady,) &c., instead of the noon or pronoun of the person spoken of. 
*l*be words aenor, aenara, aetioritaf must be preceded by thp corresponding 
ftiticle when speaking of the persons, but not when addressing them. 

Will the colonel come ? 
No, because he is ill. 

I Vendri el sefior coroneH 
t No, porque au aanoria eatd tnfer* 



Tour Inother. 
Your cousin. 
Your brothen. 

£1 seiior hennano de V., (VY ) 

Su seiior primo de V., (W.) 

Los sefioree hermanos de V., (VV.) 

Obs, C. The plurals of senor, tenora, and senorita^ are senores, senoroM, 
and senoriUu. 
The Epigrams of Mr. Francisco de | Los Epfgramas de Don Francisco de 

Salas. I Salas. 

Obs. D. Mr. is translated Dout Mis. and Miss, Dona, before baptismal 
names only. Don is used only in the singular, thus : Messieurs Nicolas, and 
Leandro Fernandez de Moratin — Lo9 Seiior es Don NicoUu, y Don Leandro 
Fernandez de Moratin, Seiior Don, SeOora or SeOorita DoOa, » the 
most polite a«kd respectful manner of speaking of, or addressing a^person. 

C Dudar uno de una cosa 
) Cuestionar. Disputar, 
( 'Preguntar. Controvertir • 
I Duda V. de eso ? 

To doubt a thing. 

To qu£8tum t^ny thing. 

Do you doubt that 7 

I do doubt it 

I do not doubt it 

I make no question, have no doubt 

of it 
What do you doubt? 
I doubt what that man has told me. 

The doubt 
Without doubt, no doubt 

Yo lo dudo. 

Yo no lo dudo. 

t Yo no lo dudo, (no lo pregunto, or 

no lo disputo.) 
I Que (de que) duda Y.? 
Yo dudo lo que ese hombre me ha 

La duda. 
Sin duda. 

To agree to a thing. 

Do you agree to that ? 
I do agree to it 

Convenir en, {con or &.) (Conjuga- 
ted like inenir. See App.) 
I Conviene V. (convenis vos) en ©sot 
Convengo en ello. 

How much have you paid for that I i Cuanto ha pagado V. por ese 
hat 7 breio 7 

I have paid three dollars for it 

SYo he pagado tres peeos por €\, 
t Tre9 pe$09. 

Obs, E. Li the colloquial style, such phrases as the preceding oae are 
answered by merely stating the price. 

I have bought this horBo for fifty 

The price. 
Have you agreed about the price 7 
We have agreed about it 
About what havt yon agreed 7 
About the price 

Yo he comprado este caballo por 

cincuenta pesos. 
El precio. 

I Han couvenido W. en el pcee'oT 
Hemes convenido. 
I En que ban convenido VY t 
En el precio. 

JlFrT-mTH LB880N. 


To agree^ to eompooe a diferenee. 

To feel, feeling, 
I feel, tlioa feelest, he feels. 
We feel, yoo feel, they feel. 

To consent, 

I consent to go thither. 

Against my costom. 

As customary. 
My partner 

To observe 'something. 

To take notice of something. 

Do yon take notice of that 7 
I do take notice of it 
Did you observe that? 
Did yoQ notice what he did? 
I did notice it 

Cowosmrse *. Ccmponerse * 
Sentir *. Siniiendo 
Yo siento, tH sientes, il siente. 
Sentimos, sentis. sienten, 
Consentir en. (Conjugated like 

sentir,) \ 

Consiento en ir alli. 
No obstante Con todo 

To wear, {to wear garments,) 
What gannentB does he wear? 
He wears beautiful garment& 
The garment 

Usctr. Llevar, Traer ♦. 
I Que veetidoB usa ? 
^ lleva hermosos vestidos. 
El vestido. 

( Contra mi costumhre 
\ t Contra mi modo. 

iComo de costumbre. 
t Segun es uso. 
I Mi socio. Mi compaiiera 
C Percibir *. Observar, 
^ Reparar, 
^ Notar algo, (alguna eosa,) 

I Repara V. esto ? i Observais < 
I Lo reparo. Lo observe 
I I Percibi6 V. eso ? 
I I Reparrt V. lo que ^I hiio ? 
' Lo repar^. 

To expect, (to hope^ 
Do you expect to receive a note 

from your uncle ? 
I expect it 
He expects it 
We expect it 
Have we expected it ? 
We have expected it 


^Espera V. recibir un billete del 

seftor su tie ? 
Yo le espero. 
j^l le espenu 
Nosotros le esperamos. 
I Le heraos esperado uosotros 7 
Nosotros le hemos csperada 

To get, {to procure,) 
I cannot procure any money. 

St Conseguir •. 

Lograr, Hallar, 
K No puedo conseguir ningun dinenk 
(i No pttedo hallar un reaU 
^f El no puede procurarse tl «if» 
H« cmnnot procure any thing to eat < tento. 

h 1^1 no paede ganar la vida. 


mnr-FiFTH lesson. 

Penknife. EI cortapla 

k Despaee de baber, (deipnes de.) 
After hamng. ^ De$pues que,. 

After having read my lesson, I wrote Despues que yo hube leido mi leccioin« 

it. la escribi. 

After having cut myself, I broke my Despues que me hube cortado, yo 
penknife. quebr^ mi cortaplumasi 

Oh9. JP. When after, followed by a present participle, is translated in 
Spanish by despues que^ the verb which follows it most be in one of the past 
tenses ; but if it is rendered by despues de, the verb that cooies after it is 
in the infinitive mood. 

• ( Despues que yo lef la carta. 
J Despues que hube leido la carta. 
After reading the letter. \ Despues de haber leido U carta. 

L Despues de leer la carta. 

( Mofarse de algruno, (de algona cosa.) 
To make ftm of some one, or some- ^ ^^^^^^ je (con) alguno. ^ 

^^Z' \ Buriarse de (con) algona < 

To langh at some one, or something. 
He laughs at everybody. 

He criticises everybody. 
Do you laugh at that man ? 

I do not laugh at him. 

Reirse de alguno, (de alguna cosa.; 
j^i se rie de todo el mnndo, (de 


ttX critica k todo el mundo. 
iSb rie V. (se burla V.) de aquel 

No me no de ^1. 
No hago burla de ^L 

To stop, {to stay.) 

Have yon stayed long at Berim 7 

I stayed there only three Mays. 

To sojourn, (to stay.) 

Where does your brother stay at 

At present, actually. 
The residence, stay, abode, 
Paris is a fine place to live in. 

After reading. 
After cutUng myself. 

(See Obs. F.) 

Detenerse *. (Conjugated like tener 

See Appendix.) 
^Se ha detenido V. mncho tiempt 

en Berlin? 
Me detnve solamente tres dias. 
Residir. Morar. 
t Estar de asiento *. 
I En donde rende (mora) ahora n 

hermano de V.? 
Al presente. Actualmente. Ahora 
t Paris es una eiudad muy Aej ' i sss 

para vivir de asiento. 
t Dei^ues de leer, (de haber leido.* 
t Despues de habexroe ooitado. 

riFTT-Fiprn lksson. 


After diMBmg yonraelt 
After dreasDg himself. 

After shaving ouiselves. 

After warming themselves. 
I relumed the book after reading it. 

I threw the knife away after catting 

Ton went to the concert after dress- 
ing yoonelf. 

They went out after warmmg them- 

t Despnes de haberse V. restido. 

Despuea que V. «e visti6 

t Despnes de vestirse. 

t Despues que H se hubo veHido, 

t Despues de habemos rasunulo. 

t Despues de habemos kecho la 

t Despnes de haberse caleutado. 
t Yo volvf el libro despues de haberle 

t Yo arroj^ el cnchillo deipues de 

haberme cortado. 
t y. f n^ al concierto despnes ie /la- 

bene vestido. 
t Se fu6ron despnes de haberse 9a- 


The sick person, (the patient ) 
Tolerably well 

It is rather late. 
It is rather far. 

I El enfermo. £1 paciente. 

iBastante Inen. Medianamente. 
t Tal cuaL 
I Es muy tarde. 
I £s muy lejos. t Estii algo lejos. 

^ 170. 

How is your father ? — He is (only) so-so. — ^How is your patient ? — 
He is a little better to-day than yesterday. — ^Is it long since you saw 
your brothers ? — ^I saw them two days ago. — How art tliou ? — I am 
tDlerably well.— How loiig has your cousin been learning Spanish ?— 
He has been learning it only three months. — ^Does he already speak 
it ? — ^He already speaks, reads, and writes it better than your brother, 
who has been learning it these two years. — ^Is it long since you heard 
of my uncle ? — ^It is hardly a fortnight since I heard of him. — ^Where 
b he staying now ? — ^He is staying at Berlin, but my father is in Lon- 
don. — Did you stay long al Vienna ? — I stayed there a fortnight- 
How long did your cousin stay at Paris ? — ^He stayed there only a 
month. — ^Do you like to speak to my uncle ? — ^I like much to speak to 
him, but I do not like him to (que haga burla de mi) laugh at me. — 
Why does he laugh at you 7 — ^He laughs at me because I speak badly. 
—Why has your brother no friends? — ^He has none because he 
eriticises everybody. — ^Why are you laughing at that man ? — ^I do not 
intend to kugh at him. — ^I beg you not to do it, (que no lo haga,) for yon 
will break his heart if you laugh at him. — Do you doubt what I am 
telling you ? — ^I do not dnnbt it. — Do von doubt what that man ha» 

242 woTt-wirm lsbbos, 

told you ? — ^I cbubt it, for he has often told stories. — HtLve yon at flul 
bought the horse which you wished (queria) to buy last month ?— 
I have not bought it, for I have not been able to procure money. 

Has your uncle at last bought the garden l — He has not bought it, 
for he could not agree about the price. — Have you at last agreed about 
the price of that picture? — We have agreed about it. — ^How much 
have you paid for it 2 — I have paid two hundred dollars for it — ^What 
hast thou bought to-day? — ^I have bought two fine horses, three 
beautiful pictures, and a fine gun. — For how much hast thou bought 
the pictures ? — ^I have bought them for five hundred dollars. — ^Do you 
find them dear ? — ^I do not find them dear.~Have you agreed with 
your partner ? — I have agreed with him. — Does he consent to pay you 
the price of the ship ? — ^He consents to pay it me. — ^Do you consent te 
go to Spain? — ^I consent to go thither. — Have you seen your old 
friend again ? — ^I have seen him again. — Did you recognise him ? — 
I could hardly recognise him, for, contrary to his custom, he wears a 
large hat — How is he ? — He is very well. — ^What garments does he* 
wear ? — ^He wears beautiful new garments. — Have you taken notice 
of what your boy has done 7 — I have taken notice of it — ^Have yon 
punished him for it, {eUo ?) — ^I have punished him for it — ^Has your 
fiuher already written to you ? — Not yet ; but I expect to receive a 
note from him to-day. — Of what do you complain ? — ^I complain of not 
being able to procure some money. — Why do these poor men com- 
plain ? — ^They complain because they cannot procure any thing to eat. 
— ^How are your parents ? — They are as usual, very well. — Is your 
uncle well ? — ^He is better than he usually is. — ^Have you already 
heard of your friend who is in Grermany ? — I have already written to 
him several times ; however, ho has not answered me yet 

What have you done with the books which the English captain has 
lent you ? — ^I have returned them to him after reading them. — ^Why 
have you thrown away your penknife ? — ^I have thrown it away after 
cutting myself. — ^When did I go to the concert ? — You went thither 
after dressing yourself. — ^When did your brother go to the ball ? — ^He 
went (thither) after dressing himself. — When did you breakfast ? — 
We breakfasted after shaving ourselves. — When did our neighbors go 
out? — I'hey went out after warming themselves. — ^Why have you 
punished your boy ? — ^I have punished him because he lias broken my 
finest glass. I gave him some wine, and instead of drinking it, be 
apilt it on the new carpet, and broke the glass. — ^What did you do this 
morning ?<^I shaved after rising, and went out after breakfiELsting.-p 

nrnr-sizTH lbsson. 


What ifid yoor ftther do last nig^ 7 — ^He sapped after coming from 
the fHajy and went to bed after supping. — Did he rise early ? — ^He 
rose at sunrise. 

FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leccion QuincuagSsima sexto. 

To go to the Tillage. 
To be m the village. 
To go to the exchange. 
To be at the exchange. 

To or at the parior. 

To or at the kitchen. 

To or at the cellar. 

To or at the church. 

To or at the school. 

To or at the Spanish school 

To or at the dancing school. 
The play, (the comedy.) 
The opera. 

To go a-honting. 

To be a-honting. 
To go a-fishing. 
To be a-fishing. 
To hunt 

The whole day. All the day. 

The whole morning.' 

The whole evening. 
The whole night All the night 

The whole week. 

The whole society. 

All at once. 
Suddenly. All of a sadden. 

Ir i la aldea. 

Estar en la aldea. 

Ir i la lonja. 

Estar en la lonja. 

A or en la sala. 

A or en la cocina. 

A or en la cueva, bodega, (ootmim,) 

A or en la iglesia. 

A or en la escuela. 

A or en la escuela e^aiiola. 

A OT en la tocuela de EopanoL 

A or en la escuela de danza, (baile.) 

La comedia. 

La 6pera. 

Ir i caza. Ir d la caza. 

i Ir A eazar, 

Eatar cazando. t Cazar. 

Ir d pescar. Ir d la pesca de. 

Estur pescando. Pescar. 


Todo el dia, (masc.) 

Toda la mafiana.' 

t Toda la noche, 

Toda la noche. 

Toda la semana. 

Toda la sociedad. 

De una vez. A la vez. De segnida* 

De repente. Sdbitamente. 

^ Morning, as a word of address, is translated diao ; as, Good mommg, 
Sir — Buenos dias, senor; and dias is used from early dawn till two 
o*cIock, p. M. Otherwise it is literally translated ; as, He arrived at ten 
o*cIock, A. M. — El lie go a las diez de la manana. Afternoon is translated 
tardea when addressing to, and tarde when speaking of, from two till seven 
o'clock, p. M. From this hour, and generally from candlelight, evening m 
rendered by noche ; as. We expect them this evening at nine o*clook^- 
Noootroi loo eoperamoo eeta noehe d loo nueve. 


tnHr-strrfi lbssok. 


ji a 3 « s ' 




« « « « 

« « « « 



88J88888 8 

*« "S 

« o o ^ o < 
.2 P^ ►» « >> w - 






>• >H 




Which books have I? 

Yoa h^ve youn and ben. 

Has she not hen and mine ? 

She has here, bat not yours. 

Yoa have youn. 

I have yoaiB. 

She has hen and bis. 

He has his and hen. 

I have his. 

I have heiBL 

I have theira. 

What do yon wish to send to your 

I wish to send her a tart 
Will yoa send her some froit also ? 

I win send her some. 
Have yon sent the books to my sis- 
I have sent them to them. 

I Qne libros tengo yoT 

V. tiene los suyos y los de ella. 

I No tiene ella los suyos y los mios 7 

Ella tiene los sayoe, pero no ioede V 

V. tiene los suyos, (las suyas.) 

Yo tengo los de V., (las de V.) 

Ella tiene los suyos y Ics de ^L 

£l tiene los sayos y los de ella. 

Tengo la suya, (la de ^h) 

Tengo la suya, (la de ella.) 

Tengo la suya, (la de ellos, or la de 

I Que quiere V. enviar i su sefiora 

Yo quiero enviarle una empanada. 
I Quiere V. enviarle tambien alguna 

8i, quiero enviarle alguna. 
I Ha enviado V. los hbros 4 mis her- 

manas 7 
Yo se los he enviado. 

This week. 


This year. 

Este ailo, (mas.) 

Last week. 

La semana pasada. 

Next week. 

La semana pr6zima. 
t La semana que entra. 

Every woman. 

Todas las mujeres. 

Every time. 

Every week. 

Cada semana. Todas las semanasi 

Yonr mother. 

Su sefiora madre de V 

(See Obe. B, Less. LV.) 

Your sister. 

La sefiora (sefiorila) bermana de V. 


Las seiLoras (sefioritas) hermanas de 

V. (See Obs. a LcBB. LY.) 

« A person. 

Una pemna. 

The earache. 

Dolor de otdo. 

The heartache. 

t Mai de corazon. 

The belly-acbe. 

Dolor de vientre. 

The stomach-ache. 

Dolor de estdmago. 

She has the stomach-ache. 

Ella tiene dolor de estdmago. 

Her sister has a violent headache. 

Su hermana tiene un terrible dolai 

de cabeza. 

I l.ave the Htomach-ache. 

Tengo dolor de est6mago. 




The ache, pain. 


The peach. , 

The Btrawbeny 

The cherry. 

The gazette. 

The newspaper. 

The merchandise, (goods.) 

El dolor. La pena. 
La empanada. 
El durazno. 
La tresa. 
La cereza. 

iLa gazcta. 

papel pdblica El Noticioiw. 
La mercaderia. Las mercaderias 

The aunt 

The female consia. 

The niece. 

The maid-servant 

The female relation. 

The female neighbor 

The female cook. 

The brother-in-law. 

The sister-in-law. 

La tia. 
La prima. 
La sobrina. 
La eriada. 
La parienta. 
La vecina. 
La cocinera* 
EU cufiado. 
La cunada. 

Ohs, B. The following noons express their gender by different termuia* 


An abbot Un abad. 

An actor. Un actor. 

An ambassador. Un embajador. 

A canon. 
A singer. 

A dancer. 
A deacon. 
A duke. 
An elector. 

An emperor 
A hero. 
A poet 
A priest 
A priiice. 
A prior. 
/ prophet 

Un baron. 
Un can6nigo. 
Un cantor. 

Un conde. 
Un bailarin. 
Un dies. 
Un diicona 
Un duqne. 
Un elector. 

Un emperador. 
Un h^roe. 
Un poeta. 
Un sacerdote. 
Un pr(ncipe. 
Un prior. 
Un profeta. 


An abbess. Una abadesa. 

An actress. Una actriz. 

An ambassadress. Una erobajadora, 
or embajatriz. 

A baroness. 
A canouess. 
A female singer. 

A countess. 

Una baronesa. 
Una canonesa. 
Una cantora, or 

cantarina, or can- 

Una condesa. 

A female dances Una bailarina 

A goddess. 
A deaconess. 
A dnchesB. 

An empress. 
A heroine. 
A poetess. • 
A priestess. 
A princess. 
A prioress. 
A prophetess. 

Una diaconisa. 
Una duquesa. 
Una electri{, o 
Una emperatriz 
Una Iteroina. 
Una poetisa. 
Una sacerdotba. 
Una princesa. 
Una priora. 
Una profetisa. 



A Iring. Un rey. 

Sir,(addrefluig.) ) Sefior. 
Gentleman. \ Caballeio. 

A qaeen* 


, Sefiora. 



Some nonni distingoish 

their gender by different wordi. 



Mother. Madre. 



Godmother. Madrina. 





Daughter-in-law. Noera. 



Woman. Muier. 



Mate. Yegoa. 



Ewe. Oveja. 



Cow. Vaca. 

To hue, to let 

flare you already hired a room t 

C Alqnilar. Arrendar *. 

/ Dar, or tomar en alqoilert or arran* 

{ damiento. 

Ha alquilado V. ya nn enarto, (or 

' apoeento, or cimara) ? 


To admit or grant a thing. 

To confess a thing. 
Do you grant that 7 
I do grant it 

Do yon confeee your fault ? 
I confess it 
I confess it to be a fault 

To confess, to arow, to own, to 

To confess. 

Admitir. Conceder una < 

Confesar * una cosa. (See AletUar,) 

I Concede V. (admite V.) eso 7 

Lo conceda Lo adraito. 

I Cbnfiesa V. sn falta 7 

La conneso. 

Ck>nfieeo que es una falta. 

Ck>nfesar. Declarer. Protestar. 
I Reconocer. (See yertis m oeer.) 
I Confesar *. 

So much, so many. 
She has so many candles that she 
cannot bum them aO. 

To catch a cold 

5 a. 

Tanto— tanta. Tantos — tantas. 
Ella tiene tantas velas que no ] 

usarUu todas. 
ResfriarM. Consttpane. 

Coger un resfriado, (una fluxion.) 
t Poner mala 
Hacer mal, (dafia) 
Si y. come tanto, esto le pondii 

malo, (or le har& daiio.) 

Ohs, D. When the English pronoun it relates to a preceding circum- 
stance, it is translated esto ; when to a following circumstauce, by eso. 

Does it suit yoa to lend your gun 7 | ^ Le conviene i V prestar sn esco- 
"- I pete? * 

To make sick. 1 

If yen eat so mnch it wfll make you I 
sick. ' I 


... ^ .^ ^ 1 J •* 5 No me conyiene prestarla. 

It doM not suit me to lend it < ^r j ^ -i 

( No me acomoda preslaiia. 

Where did you catch a cold ? 


I caught a cold in going from the 

To hare a cold. 

I En donde cogi6 V. ese resfriado, (oi 
esa fluxion) ? 

Bin donde se constipi) V. ? 
Me reefri^ al salir de la dpera. 

' Estar reefriadp, (constipado, or acaUr- 

^ t Tener catarro, (una fluxion, or uu 
l^ constipada) 
The cold. ! El catano. El resfiriado. EH consti- 

pado. La fluxion. 
The cough. La toe. 

I have a cold. Tengo cataiTO> (un constipado, or una 

v. tiene toe. 

Too hare a cough. 
The brain. 
Hie chest 

£1 celebro, or cerebra 
El pecho. 

^Vliere is your cousin? — ^He is in the kitchen. — ^Has your coos 
(fern.) already made the soup 7 — She has made it, for it is already upon 
the taUe. — ^Where is your motiier ? — She is at church. — ^Is your sister 
gone to school ? — She is gone thither. — ^Does your mother often go to 
church? — She goes thither every morning and every evening. — At 
what o'clock in the morning does she go to church ? — She goes thither 
as soon as she gets up. — ^At what o'clock does she get up 7 — She gets 
up at sunrise. — ^Dost thou go to school to-day ? — ^I do go thither. — ^What 
dost thou learn at school ? — ^I learn to read, write, and speak (there.) — 
Where is your aunt ? — She is gone to the play with my little sister. — 
Do your sisters go this evening to the opera ? — ^No, Madam, they go to 
the dancing-school. — ^Do they not go to the French school ? — They go 
thither in the morning, but not (y no) in the evening. — ^Is your fiither 
gone a-hunting 7 — ^He has not been able to go a-hunting, for he has a 
cold. — Do you like to go a-hunting ? — ^I like to go i^fishing better thai^ 
a-hunting. — ^Is your &ther still in the country ? — ^Yes, Madam, he is still 
there. — ^What does he do (there f) — He goes a-hunting and a-fishing. 
— Did you hunt in the country ? — ^I hunted the whole day. — ^How long 
did you stay with my mother ? — I stayed with her the whole evening 
— ^Is it long since you were at the castle ? — I was there last week. — 
Did you find many people there ? — I found only three persons therej 
the count, the countess, and tlieir daughter. 

niTT-aizrH i«ebsoh. 849 

Are these gixla as good (discreto) as their brothers 7 — ^Tbey are better 
than they.— Can (saber) your sisters speak Gennan ? — They cannot, 
bat they are learning it — Have you brought any thing to your mother? 
— ^I brought her some good fruit and a fine tart. — What has your niece 
brought you 7 — She has brought us good cherries, good strawberries, 
and good peaches. — ^Do you like peaches 7 — ^I like them much. — ^How 
many peaches has your nei^^ibor (fem.) given you 7 — She has given 
me more than twenty. — Have you eaten many cherries this year 7 — ^I 
have eaten many. — ^EHd you give any to your little sister 7 — I gave her 
so many that she cannot eat them aU. — ^Why have you not given any 
to your good neighbor, (fem. 7) — I wished to give her some, but she 
would not take any, because ^ does not like cherries. — Were there 
any pears (la jpera) last year 7 — There were not many. — ^Has your 
Goosin ((em.) any strawberries 7 — She has so many that she cannot 
eat them all. 

Why do your sisters not go to the play 7 — They cannot go thither 
because they have a cold, and that makes them very ill. — ^Where did 
they catch a cold 7 — ^They caught a cold in going from the opera last 
night.^ — ^Does it suit your sister to eat some peaches 7 — ^It does not suit 
her to eat any, for she has already eaten a good many, and if she eats 
so much it will make her ill. — Did you sleep well last night 7 — ^I did 
not sleep well, for my children made too much noise in my room.— 
Where were you last night 7 — ^I was at my brother-in-law's. — Did you 
see your sister-in-law 7 — ^I did see her. — ^How b she 7 — She is better 
than usual. — Did you play 7 — ^We did not play, but we read some good 
books ; for my sister-in-law likes to read better than to play. — ^Have 
you read the gazette to-day 7 — ^I have read it — ^Is there any thing new 
in it? — ^I have not read any thing new (in it) — Where have you been 
since I saw you 7 — ^I have been at Vienna, Paris, and Berlin. — ^Did 
you speak to my aunt 7 — ^I did speak to her. — ^What does sHe say 7 — 
She says that she wishes to see you. — Whither have you put my pen? 
— ^I have put it upon the bench. — ^Do you intend to see your niece to- 
day 7 — I intend to see her, for she has promised me to dine with us.— 
I admire (admirar) that family, (Ja famUia,) for the father is the king * 
and the mother b the queen of it The children and the servants are 
the subjects (d sigeto) of the state, (d estado,) The tutors of the 
children are the ministers, (d ministro,) who share with the king and 
queen the care (d cuidado) of the government, (elgobiemo.) The good 
education (Za editcacion, fem.) which is given to children is tlio crown 
of monarchs, (d monarca.) 

250 Fimr-BBVKNTH LBSSOir. 

Have you alread} hired a room ? — ^I have already hired one. — ^Where 
have you hired it ? — I have hired it in William-street, number one 
hundred and fifty-two. — At whose house have you hired it ?— At the 
house of tlie man whose son has sold you a horse. — For whom has 
your father hired a room ? — He has hired one for his son, who has just 
arrived from France. — ^Why have you not kept your promise ? — ^I do 
not remember what I promised you. — ^Did you not promise us to take 
us to the concert last Thursday? — ^I confess that I was wrong ii. 
promising you ; the concert, however, {con todo,) has not taken place. 
— ^Does your brother confess his fault 7 — He confesses it — ^What does 
your uncle say to that note ? — ^He says that it is written, very well, but 
he admits that he has been wrong in sending it to the captain. — ^Do 
you confess your fault now ? — ^I confess it to be a fault. — ^Where have 
you found my coat ? — ^I have found it in the blue room, (Obs. C, Les- 
son XXXVin.) — ^Will you hang my hat on the tree ? — ^I will hang it 
(thereon.) — How are you to-day ? — I am not very well. — ^What is the 
matter with you ? — I have a violent headache and a cold. — Where did 
you catch a cold ? — ^I caught it last night in going from the play. 

FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Z,cccion Quincuagisima sSptima. 

The Oerund (by which the English present participle is translated) m 
formed from the present of the infinitive mood, by suppressing the termi- 
nations or, er, or tr, and adding in their place ando to the verbs of the first 
conjugation, and iendo to those of the second and third. 

1. To speak, 




2. To sell. 




3. To receive, 




Obs, A. Verbs ending in eer, and utr, (when the u is sonnded, as in 
atribuir,) change the t, with which the termination begins, into y; thus, 
yendo, instead of iendo ; as — 

• To read, leer. f Reading, \eyendo. 

To instruct, instrutr. | Instructing, instruyenrfo. 

Obs. B, The English present participle may be translated into^panish 
by the Gerund, when it expresses the action of the verb as continuing, and 
unfinished. It is then used alone, or preceded by the verb Estar, but by 
no means by otiier words ; as, He corrects whilst reading, el corrige Uyendoy 
or eetando leyendo, miintrof eHd leyendo, (t mientrae lee, or alleer ;) but 
H cannot be said, el corrige miintras leyendo. 

Trnr-SBVEKTH lesson. 


file man eats wiul« ixmBiiig'. 

I wiUe whUe reading. 

He queetioDfl while speaking. 

Yoa tpenk wkfle aasweriog me^ 

To question. 
The cravat 
The carriage. 
The house. 
The letter. ' 
The toble. 
The family. 
The promise. 
The leg 
The sore throat 
The throat 

I have a sore throat 

The meat 
Salt meat 
Fresh meat 
Freeh bee£ 
Cold water. 
The food, (yictuab.) 
The dish, (mess.) 
Salt meata 
Milk food. 

El horobre come yendo corrienda 

t El homhre come al ir eorriendo. 

t Yo escribo mi^Dtras leo. 

Kl preguDta mi^ntras (or caando) 
. eeti hablanda 

t V, habla al tiempo de reaponderme. 

y. habla mi^ntras (cuando) meres- 

Preguntar, Cuestionqr. 

La corbata. > 

La carroza, (el coche.) 

La casa. 

La carta. La letra. 

La mesa. 

La familia. 
I La promesa. 
' La piema. 
j £1 mal de garganta. 

*La garganta. 

r Yo tengo mai de garganta. 
r Yo tengo la garganta mala. 
[f La garganta me kaee mal» 
I La came. 

Came salada. 

Came fresca. 

Vaca fresca. 

Agna fria. 

La comida. El alimento. 

Los platos. Las viandas. 

Came en escabeche. 


The tray^er. 
To mareh, to walk, to step. 

I Viagero. Viajante. 
( Andar *. Caminar, 
\ Dor un paso. 

Ohs, C To walkf meaning to do it for pleasnre, is translated by pasear, or 
pasearse, (Lesson XLV.) When it signifies to move slowly on the feet, 
it is expressed as above. 

I have walked a good deal to day. 
I have been walking in the garden 

with my mother. 
To walk, or travel a mile. 
To walk, or travel a league. 
To walk a step. 

Hoy he andado mnchiiBimo. 

He estado paseando con mi madre 

en el jardin. 
Andar (caminar, vi^ar) ona milla. 
Andar (caminar, viajar) ana legaa. 
t Dor nn paso. 



To take a step (meaning 


To go on a journey. 

To make a speech. 

A piece of bosineok 

An aflair. 
To traneact bosineaL 

to take ^ t Tomar tu8 medidoM, 
\ t Valerae de tnedio$^ 
^ Ir & un Tiage. 
< t Sclir d un viage. 
f Hacer un viage. 
I Hacer un diacurso. 

> Un negocio. Un asnnto. 
I Negociar. Hacer negocios 

To meddle with wmeiking. 

What are you meddling with 7 

I am meddUng with my own busi- 

That man always meddles with 

other people's business. 
I do not meddle with other people's 


Meterse, or entremeterte c#ji «!• 
guno, (en algun negocia.) /r- 

'I En que se mete V. ? 

I En que os meteis ? 

Yo me meto en mis propios negocioo 

Ese hombre se mete siempre en los 
negocios agenos, (de otros.) 

Yo no me entremeto en kxi negocios 

Others, Other people. 
Be employs himself in painting. 

The art of painting. 

The art. 
To employ one's self in. 

To concern some one. 

I Otros. Otros gentes. 

iSe ocupa en la pintnnu 
t Trabaja de pintor. 
i El (la) arte de la pintura. 
\ La pintura. 
I Laqulmica. 
El (la) arte. 

Eztrano. Aaom b roeo. Singular. 
I Emptearse en. Ocupearse en. 

To look at some one. 
1 do not like to meddle with things 

that do not concern me. 
Hiat concerns nobody. 
To concern one's self about some- 



€oneemir *. Tocar, 

Importar, Pertenecer. 


Mirar d alguno. 

No me gusta meterme en cosas quo 

no me tocan, (or importan.) 
Eso no toca (interesa) d ninguna 
t Inqnietarse de, (pw or aceica de») 

Fatigarse de, (por or aceicft de.) 

To attract 
Loadstone attracts iron. 

I Atraer *. 

I El iman atrae el hierro,. (fieirob) 



Her ringmgr attracts me. 

To chanxL 
To enchant 
I an charmed with it 
The beanty. 
The goodne89. 

Oha. D. Noana endinj^ in ad, 
qualities, are feminine. 

The harmony. 
The voice. 
The power. 

To repeat. 
The repetition. 
The commencementi beginnmg. 
The wisdom. 
The lord. 
A good memory. 

A memorandum. 

The nightingale. 
M the beginnings are difficult 

To create. 
The Creator. 
The benefit 
The fear of the Lord. 
The earth. 
The lesson. 
The goodness. 
Flour, meal. 
The milt 

5 Sn canto me atrae. 

( £1 canto de ella me atrae. 

> Hechizar. Encantar. Embelesar 

IEstoy encantado de (or con) ello. 
La hermosura. 
Im bondad. 

dad, or tad, expressing properties oi 


La vox. 

£1 poder. 

Repetir • 

La repeticion. 

El princi]Mo, or oomienzo. 

La sabiduria. 

El estudia 

£1 seflor. 

Una buona memoria. 

JApunte. Nota. 
Razon. Apuntamiento. 
I £1 ruisefior. 
I Todoe los principios son diffciles^ 

Criar, or erear. 

La creacion 

£1 Criador. 

£1 beneficio. 

£1 temor dd Sefior. 

EI cielo. 

La tierra. 

La soledad. 

La leccion. 

La bondad. (See Obsi D, abov6b) 


£U molina 



Will yon dine with us to-day ? — ^With much pleasure. — ^What hav« 

yoQ for dinner ? — ^We have good soup, some fresh and salt meat, and 

some milk food. — ^Do you like milk food ? — I like it better than all 

other food- — ^Are yon ready to dine ? — ^I am ready. — Do you intend to 



set out soon ? — ^I intend setting out next week. — "Do you traTel aloiw, 
(solo 7) — No, Madam, I travel with my uncle. — ^Do you travel on fool 
or in a carriage ? (Less. XLHI.) — We travel in a carriage. — Did you 
meet any one in your last journey (uUtfuo) to Berlin ? — ^We met many 
travellers. — ^What do you intend to spend your time in (Lesson 
L.) this summer 7 — ^I intend to take a short joumey.-^Did you 
walk much in your last journey? — ^I like much to walk, but my 
uncle likes to go in a carriage. — ^Did he' not wish to walk ? — ^He 
wished to walk at first, (cU principioy) but he wished to get into the 
coach {nvomiar en d coche) after having taken a few steps, so that I did 
not walk puch. — ^What have you been doing at school to-day ? — We 
have been listening to our professor. — ^What did he say ? — He made a 
long (gran) speech on the goodness of God. After saying, ** Repetition 
is the mother of studies, and a good memory is a great benefit of God," 
he said, " God is the creator of heaven and earth ; the fear of the Lord 
is the beginning of all wisdom." — ^What are you doing all day in this 
garden ? — ^I am walking in it. — ^What is there in it that attracts you, 
(que atrae?) — The singing of the birds attracts me. — Are there any 
nightingales (in it ?) — ^There are some in it, and the harmony of their 
singing enchants me. — ^Have those nightingales more power over 
(sobre) you than the beauties of painting, or the voice of your tender 
(tiemd) mother, who loves you so much ? — ^I confess the harmony of 
the singing of those little birds has more power over me than the moat 
tender words of my dearest friends. 

What does your niece amuse herself with (Lesson XLTV.) in her 
solitude ? — She reads a good deal, and writes letters to her mother.— 
What does your uncle amuse himself with in his solitude? — ^He 
empIojTS himself in painting and chemistry. — ^Does he no longer do 
any business ? — ^He no longer does any, for he is too old to do it. — 
Why does he meddle with your business ? — He does not generally 
medklle with other people's business, but he meddles with mine 
because he loves me. — ^Has your master made you repeat your lesson 
to^y? — ^He has made me repeat it. — ^Did you know it? — ^I knew it 
pretty well. — Have you also done some exercises 7 — ^I have done 8<Hne, 
but what is that to you, (sirvase decirme que le importa 6 F.,) I beg ? — ^I 
do not generally meddle with things that do not concern me, but I love 
you so much that I concern myself much about (que yo me iniereso) 
what you are doing. — ^Does any one trouble his head about you ? — 'So 
one troubles his head about me, for I am not worth the trouble, (no 
vaJgo la pena.) — ^Who corrects your exercises ? — ^My master corrects 
them. — ^How does he correct them? — He corrects them in leading 



tbcm, and in reading them he speaJLs to me. — How many things does 
your master do at the same time, {dlavez 7) — ^He does four tilings at 
the same time. — ^How so, (como .^)— He reads and corrects my exer- 
cises, speaks to me and questions me all at once. — ^Does your sister 
sing while dancing ? — She sings while working, but she cannot sing 
while dancing. — ^Has your mother left 7 — She has not left yet — ^When 
will she set out ? — She will set out to-morrow evening. — ^At what 
o'clock ? — At a quarter to seven. — ^Have your sisters arrived 7— They 
have not arrived yet, but we expect them this evening. — ^Wlll they 
spend the evening (Note, page 243) with us 7 — ^They will spend 
it with us, for they have promised me to do so. — ^Where have you 
spent the morning 7 — ^I have spent it in the country. — ^Do you go 
every morning to the country 7 — ^I do not go every morning, but twice 
a week. — Why has your niece not called upon me 7 — She^ is very 
in, and baa spent the whole day in her room. 

FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— ieccicwi Qutncuaghima octavo. 


The past or compound future is fbnned from the future of the aaziliiiy 
•nd the past participle of the verb to be conjugated. Example : — 

I shall have loved. 
Thou wilt have loved. 
He, or she will have loved. 
You will have loved. 
We shall have loved. 
You will have loved. 
They will have loved. 
You will have loved. 

Yo habrd amado. 
TH habrds amado. 
£l, or ella habri amada 
y. habrd amado. 
NoBotroB habr^moe amado. 
Voeotroe (or voe) habr^is amado. 
Ellos (or ellas) habrdn amado. 
W. habrdn amado. 

I shall have come. 
Thou wilt have come. 
He will have come. 
She will have come. 
Yon will have come. 
We shall have come. 
You will have come. 
They will have come. 
You w^U have come. 

Yo habr^ venido. 
Td habrib venido. 
£l habrd venido. 
Ella habri venido. 
y. habri venido. 
Noeotros habr^mos venido. 
Voeotroe (or vos) habr^is venida 
EUoB ^or ellas) habrdn renida 
W. habrdn venido. 



I shall have been praised 
Thou wilt have been praised. 
He will have been praised. 
She will have been praised. 
Yon will have been praised. 
We shall have been praised. 

You wni have been praised. 

They will have been jiraised. 

You will have been praised. 

I Yo habrtf sido alabado, (akbada.) 
Td habrds sido alabado, (alabada.) 
1^1 habrd sido alabado. 
Ella habrd sido alabada. 
V. habrd sido alabado, (alabada.) 
Nosotros (or noeotr&s) habr^mos sido 

alabados, (alabadas.) 
Vosotros (or vosotras) habr^is sido 

alabados, (alabadas.) 
Ellos (ellas) habr&n sido alabados, 

W. habrdn sido alabadoi, (alabadas.) 

To have lefU 
When I have paid for the horse, I 
shall have only ten dollars left. 

How much money have you left? 


I have five dollars left 

I have only one dollar left 

How much has your brother left ? 

He has one dollctf left. 

How much has your sister left 7 

She has only a few pence left 
How much have your brothers left ? 

They have a hundred dollars left. 
When they have paid the tailor, 

they will have a hundred dollars 


Sobrar. ReaUtr, 

yo haya pagadc el (oi 

t Cuando 

por el) caballo, solo me quedarin 

diez pesos. 
1 1 Cuanto dinero le queda d V., (or 

OS queda) ? 
t Me quedan cinco pesos. 
Me queda solo un peso. 
I Cuanto le resta (or queda) al her- 

mano de V. ? • 

Le queda un peso. 
I Cuanto le queda d la sefiora her- 

roana de V. 7 (or d sn sei&ora, &c.) 
Le quedan solo unos cuartos. 
I Cuanto ha quedado d sus henbanes 

Les han quedado cien pesos. 
Cuando ellos hayan pagado al sastre, 

les quedardn cien pesos. 

Oba. A, The conjunctions whenf as »oon as, after, require the present, 
or the compound of the present, of the subjunctive mood, when they ex« 
press futurity. Example : — 

When I am at my aunt's, will you 

come to see me ? 
After you have done writuig, will 

you take a turn with me ? 

You will play, when you have 
finished your exercise. 

^Vendrd V. d verme, euandt yo 

estS en casa de mi tia 7 
I Gustard V. de dar un paseo (una 

vuelta) conmigo, despust que haya 

acabado de escribir 7 
V. jugard, cvando haya acabado wa 




What win you do when you hare 

When I have spoken to your brother, 
I flhali know what I haye to do. 

^Qne hari 'V. detpues que haya 

comido 7 
1 1 Que hard V, detpues de comer, 

(or de la comida) 7 
Cnando yo haya hablado al seiioi 

hermano de V. sabr^ lo que he de 



flow is the weather ? 
It is fine weather. 

It is bad weather. 

It is hot It is very warm. 

It IB cold. It is Tory cold. 

The wind blows high. 

It is a long time that I saw him. 

It is becoming late. 

It is becoming night. 

He causes an information to be 

She connterfeiti the idiot, (or feigns to 

be an idiot) 
He acts as a broker. 
Not to miad a person, (or thing.) 

To ridicule any one. 
To boast of. 

Out of doors. 

To enter. To go in. To eom^in. 
Win you go into my room ? 

I will go m. 
I shall go in. 

To sit down. 
To eit, to be seated, 
fle is seated upon the large chair. 
She is seated upon the bench. 

ToJUl with. 
To fill a bottle with wine. 

I Que tiempo hace 7 

Hace buen tiempo. 

Hace hermoso tiempo. 

Hace mal tiempo. 

Hace calor. Hace mucho calor. 

Hace frio. Hace mucho frio. ' 

Hace mucho viento. 

Hace mucho tiempo que le yl. 

t Se hace tarde. 

t Se hace noche. Anochece, 

t t^l hace hacer una informacion. 

t Ella hace la boba, (la tonta.) 

Hace el (or de) corredor. 

No hacer case de una persona, {pir 

Hacer chacota (or burla) de alguna 
Hacer alarde. 

Entrar. (Ir adentro.) 

^Quiere V. entrar en mi cuarto, 

(apoeento) ? 
Yo entrar^. - (Si, seiior.) 

Seutarse. (See Lesson LII.; 
Eetar eentado, (fern, sentada,) 
£l esti sentado en la gilla de hrazot 
Ella estd sentada en el banco. 

I Lienor — de, 
Denar de vino una botella. 



Do you fill that bottle with water? 
[ fin my purse with money. 
lie fills his belly with meat 

I Uena V. de agua esta botella T 
To lleno de dinoro mi bolsa. 
tj\ se Uena de carne la bairiga. (A 
very low expression.) 

The pocket 

Have you come quite alone ? 
No, I have brought all my me^i 
alo jg with me. 

To bring. 

He has brought all his men along 

with him. 
Have you brought your brother along 

with you ? 
I have brought him along with me. 
Have you told the groom to bring 

me the horse ? 

The groom. 

Are you bringing in my books ? 
I am bringing thorn to you. 

To take, to carry. 

Will you take that dog to the stable? 

I will take it thither. 

Are you carrying that gun to my 

father ? 
I carry it to him. 

The cane, the stick. 
The stable. 

La bolsa, (fem.) El bolsillo, (mas.; 
La faltriquera, (fem.) 
I Ha venido V. absolntamente solo 7 
No, yo he traido toda mi gente (todos 
mis hombres) connugo. 


£l ha traido toda sa gente omsigo. 

^Ha traido V. consigo & sa aer- 

To le he traido conmigo. 
I, Ha dioho V. al mozo de ^aballos 

(caballerizo) que traiga mi cabaho? 
£1 mozo de caballos. 
El caballeriza 
I Me trae V. mis libros 7 
To se k)s traigo d V. 

Llevar. Traer. Conducir. 

^Quiere V. llevar ese perro al es« 

tablo 7 
To le Ilevai^ alll 
I Lleva y. esa eecopeta i mi padre T 

To se la llevo. 

La cafia. El palo, (mas.) 

Eljmston, (mas.) 

El establo, (mas.) 

La caballeriza, (fem.) 

To eome down, to go down, I Bajar d, (or de.) Deeeender *. 

To go down into the welL I Bajar al pozo. 

m J .1 1 ... S Bajar el cerro. 

To go, or come down the hiU. \ r\ a j i 

* ' ( Descender del cerro. 

To go down the river. | Bajar el rio. 

To alight from one's hone, or dis- i t Apearee del cabaUo, 

mount \ Desmontarse. 

To alight, to get out ! Apnarse. Bajar. Salir de. 


To go up, to mount, to ascend. . Sobir. Montar. 

To go up the moimtain. | Sabir el monte. 

To get into the coach. | Entrar (imbir) en el coche 

To get on board a ship. i t Embarcaise. 

To desire, to heg, to request, to pray, | p^^'^i %t^a7^. 

(Vill you desire your brother to come \ i Quiere V. suplicar & sa hermans 
down 7 I que baje 7 

Obs. B, Verbs signifying to heg, to request, to command, &c, require 
the Terb governed by them to be in the subjunctive mood. (See Appendix.) 

The beard. 
The river. 

The stream I torrent 
To go, or come up the river. 

La barba. 

EI ria 

La corriente. El torrente. 

Subir el no. 

Will your parents go into the country to-moirow ? — They will not 
go, for it is too dusty. — Shall we take a walk to-day ? — We will not 
take a walk, for it is too muddy out of doors,* (en la calle.) — Do you 
see the castle of my relation behind yonder mountain, (aqiiella morv- 
tana ?) — I see it. — Shall we go in ? — ^We will go in if you likct — Will 
you go into that room 7 — I shall not go into it, for it is smoky. — ^I wish 
you a good morning, Madam. — Will you not come in ? Will you not 
sit down ? — I will sit down upon that large chair. — Will you tell me 
what has become of your brother? — I will tell you. — Where is your 
sister ? — ^Do you not see her ? She sits upon the bench. — Is your 
&ther seated upon the bench ? — ^No, he sits upon the chair. — Hast 
thou spent all thy money ? — ^I have not spent all.— How much hast 
thou left ? — ^I have not much left. I have but five shillings left. — ^How 
much money have thy sisters left ? — ^They have but three dollars left. 
— ^Have you money enough left to pay your taOor ? — I have enough 
left to pay him ; but if I pay him I sliall have but little left. — ^How 
much money wiU your brothers have left ? — ^They will have a hundred 
dollars left. — ^When will you go to Italy ? — ^I shall go as soon as Qvego 
que) I have (haya) learned Italian. — When will your brothers go to 
France ? — ^They will go thither as soon as they know (sepan) French. 
— When will they learn it ? — ^They will learn it when they have (hayah) 
found a good master. — ^How much money shall we have left when 
we have (hayamos) paid for our horses ? — When we have (hayamos) 
paid for them we shall have only a hundred dollars left. 



Do you gain any thing by (en) that business ? — ^I do not gain much 
by it, (en iQ but my brother gains a good deal by it He fills his 
Durse with money. — How much money have you gained ? — ^I have 
gained only a little, but my cousin has gained much by it He has 
filled his pocket with money. — ^Why does that man not work 7 — ^He is 
a good-for-nothing fellow, for he does nothing but eat all the day long. 
He (continually) fiUs his belly with meat, so that he will make himself 
(»e enfermard) ill if he continues (coniinuar) to eat so much. — With 
what have you filled that bottle ? — ^I have filled it with wine. — Will 
this man take care of my horse 7 — ^He will take care of it — Who will 
take care of my servant 7 — The landlord will take care of him. — ^Doea 
your servant take care of your horses I — ^He does take care of them.— 
Is he taking care of your clothes 7 — ^He takes care of them, for he 
brushes them every morning. — ^Have you ever drunk French wine 7 
— I have never drunk any. — Is it long since you ate French bread 7 — 
It is almost three years since I ate any. — ^Have you hurt my brother- 
in-law 7 — ^I have not hurt him, but he has cut my finger. — What has 
he cut your finger with 7 — With the knife which you have lent him- 

Is your father arrived at last 7 — ^Everybody says that he is amved, 
but I have not' seen him yet — ^Has the physician hurt your son 7 — ^He 
has hurt him, for he has cut his finger.: — ^Have they cut off* that man^s 
leg 7 — They have cut it off. — Are you pleased with your servant 7 — 
I am much pleased with him, for he is fit for any thing, (jxira todo.) — 
What does he know 7 — ^He knows every tiling, (todo.)— Can he ride 7 
— ^He can. — Has your brother returned at last from England 7 — ^He 
has returned thence, and has brought you a fine horse. — Has he told 
his groom to bring it to me,^ (me le traiga 1) — ^He has told him to bring 
(lleve) it to you. — ^What do you think of that horse 7 — I think that it is 
a fine and good one, and beg you to lead (Ueve) it into the stable. — In 
what did you spend your time yesterday 7 — ^I went to the concert, and 
afterwards to the play. — When did that man go down into the well 7 — 
He went down into it this morning. — ^Has he come up again yet, 
(yolver a subir 7) — ^He came up an hour ago. — Where is your brother 7 
— ^He is in his room. — Will you tell him to come down, (qtte b<ye ?) — 
I will tell him so, but he is not dressed (Lesson IHI.) yet — ^Is your 
friend still on the mountain 7 — ^He has already come down. — ^Did you 
go down or up the river 7 — ^We went down it — ^Did my cousin speak 
.0 you before he started 7 — ^He spoke to me before he got into the 
x)ach. — Have you seen my brother 7 — ^I saw him before I went on 
board the ship. — ^Is it better to get into a coach than to go on board 

rimr^'MiNTB lesson. 


the ship ? — It is not worth while to get into a coach or to go on boaiti 
Jie ship when one has no wish to travel. 

FIFTY-NINTH LESSON.— Lcccion Quincuagisima nona. 

Ohs. A, The Imperfect is a past tense, which was still present at the 
thne spoken of, and may always be recognised by using the two terms, 
Wot doing, or Used to do. Examples : — 

When I was at Cadiz I often went 

to see my friends. 
When you were in Madrid you often 

went to the Prado. 
Rome was at fint governed by kings. 

Casar was a great man. 
Cicero was a great orator. 

Cnando yo eetaba en Cadiz, iba & 
menudo d ver d mis amigos. 

Cuando V. e$taba en Madridi iba 
frecuentemente al Frado. 

Roma era gobemada primeramente 
por reyes. 

C^sar era nn gran (grande) hombre. 

Ciceron era un grande (gran) orador. 

Obs. B. The adjective grande drops the last syllable when it means 
good in character or quality. As, Fernando de Cdrdova era llamado el 
gran capitan. (See Appendix.) 

Our ancestors went a-hunting every 

The Romans cultivated the arts and 
sciences, and rewarded merit 

Were you walking? 

I was not walking. 

Were you in Toledo when the king 
was there 7 

I was there when he was there. 

Where were you when I was in Ha- 
vana? , 

At what time did you breakfast when 
you were in Germany 7 

I breakfasted when my father break- 

Did you work when he was work- 
I studied when he was working. 
Some fish. 
Some game. 
i¥hen I lived at my father's I rose 
earlier dian I do now 

Nuestros mayores iban d la caza 
todos los dias. 

Los Romanos cultivaban las artes y 
las ciencias, y promiaban el m^rito. 

I Eetaba V. (iba V.) paseando ? 

No me paseaba. 

I Eetaba V. en Toledo cuando el rey 
se hatlaba alii 7 

Yo eetaba allf, cuanao ^1 estaba allf. 

I En donde estaba V. cuando yo es- 
taba en la Habana 7 

I A que hora almorzaba V. cuando 
estaba en Alemania 7 

Yo almorzaba cuando mi padre al- 
morzaba, (al mismo iiempo que 
mi padre,) 

I Trabajaba V. mi^ntras ^1 trabaja- 

Yo estudiaba cuando 61 trabajaba. 

Un poeo de pescado. Un poco de pes. 

La caza. 

Cuando yo vivia en casa de mi padre, 
me levantaba mas temprano qut 



When we lired in that coontiy we 

west a-fiflhingr often. 
When I was sick . I kept in bed all 

Last sammer when I was in the 

coontryi there was a great deal of 


Cuando viriamos en aqnel paai, fre- 
cuentemente fbamoe d peecar. 

Cuando yo estaba enfermo, eetaba en 
cama todo el dia. 

Cuando yo estaba en el campo el 
verano pasado, habia mucha frnta. 

A thing. 
The same thing. 
The same man. 

It is all one, (the same.) 

Una com, 


El misrao hombze. 
( t Todo 68 uno. Vale lo mlsma 
\ Esigual. 

Such a man. 
Such men. 
Such a woman. 
Such things. 

Such men merit esteem. 

Mr. such a one said it 

Mr. such a one and Mr. such a one. 

Without, or out of doors. 
The church stands outside the town. 
I shall wait for you before the town 

The town or city gate. 
The banier. The turnpike. 

Seldom. , 
Some brandy. 
The life. 
To get one's livelihood by. 

I get my livelihood by working. 

He gets his living by writing. 

I gain my money by working. 
By what does that man get his live- 

Un tali (mas.) Una tal, (fern.) 

Un tal hombre. 

Tales hombree. Uuos tales hombrasi 

Una tal mujer. 

Tales cosas. 

Semejante. Igual. 

Semejantos hombres merecen esti- 

t El Seiior Fulano de tal (un Don 

Fulano) lo dijo, 
t Un Don Fulano, y un Don Mem- 

gano, {Zutano.) 

Fuera de, Afuera, 
Fuera. Afuera. Fuera de la puerta. 
La iglesia est& fuera de la ciudad. 
Yo aguardar^ 4 V. fuera de las poar- 

tas de la ciudad. 
La puerta de la ciudad. 
La barrera. 

Raramente. Rara vex. Raro. 

Un poco de aguardiente. 

La vida. 

Ganar su vida L 

Gauo mi vida d trabajar, (trabajandoi.) 

6l gana su vida escribiendo, (4 ea 

Yo gano mi d^nero trabajando. 
I A que (de que manera) gana eM 

hombre suvida? 

mrr-iriHTH lbsson. 


T^pncMtL To go on. 
Ta continue. 
Ue contiDQes his discoorae. 
A good appetite. 

The nfUTatiye. The tale. 

The edge. The border. 


The edge of the brook. 

The sea-ehore. 

On the sea-shore. 

The shore. The water-side. 
The coast The bank. 

C Proeeder. Prooeguir. 
{ Contimtarf {d before the 'ad) 
I £i coutinua sa discurso. 
I Un buen apetito. 

5 La narrativa. Fibula. Conseja. 
Rdato (cuento) de un hecho. Cuento 
iMdrgen. Orilla. Borde. 
Co6ta. Ribera. Playa. 
I La mdrgen del acroyo. 
La orilla del mar. 
En la playa (coeta) del mar. 
C La costa. La playa. La marina. 
< La orilla del agua. La ribera 
f La m&rgen. 

People, folks. 
They are good folks. 
They are wicked people. 

La gente. Las gentes. 
EUas son buenas gentes. 
Ellos son gentes malvadas. 

. 182. 
Were you loved when yon were at Dresden ? — I was not bated. — 
Was your brother esteemed when he was in London ? — He was loved 
and esteemed. — When were you in Spain ? — ^I was there when you 
were (there.) — ^Who was loved and who was hated ? — Those that 
were good, assiduous, and obedient were loved, and those who were 
naughty, idle, and disobedient were punished, hated, and despised. — 
Were you in Berlin when the king was there ? — I was there when 
he was (there.) — Was your uncle in London when I was there ? — ^He 
was there when you were (there.) — Where were you when I was at 
Dresden ? — I was in Paris. — ^Where was your father when you were 
in Vienna 7 — He was in England. — At what time did you breakfast 
when you were in France ? — I breakfasted when my uncle breakfasted. 
—Did you work when he was working? — ^I studied when he was 
working. — ^Did your brother work when you were working? — He 
played when I was working. — On what lived our ancestors ? — They 
lived on (nothing but) fish and game, for they went a-hunting and 
a-fishing every day. — ^What sort of people were the Romans ? — ^They 
were very good people, for thoy cultivated the arts and sciences and 
rewarded merit. — Did you often go to see your friends when you were 
at Berlin ? — I went to see them often. — Did you sometimes go to the 
Cliamps-£ly8<^«s when you were at Paris ? — ^I often went thither. 

What did you do when you lived in that country ? — ^Wben we Uved 


there we went a-fishing often. — ^Did you not go out walking ? — ^I went 
out walking sometimes. — ^Do you rise early ? — ^Not so early as you, 
but when I lived at my uncle's I rose earlier than I do now.— Did yon 
sometimes keep in bed when you lived at your uncle's ? — ^When I was 
ill I kept in bed all day. — ^Is there much fruit this year 7 — ^I do not 
know ; but last summer, when I was in tlie country, there was a great 
deal of fruit. — ^What do you get your hvelihood by ? — ^I get my liveli- 
hood by working. — ^Does your friend get Ms livelihood by vniting ? — 
He gets it by speaking and writuig. — ^Do these gentlemen get their 
livelihood by working ? — ^They get it by doing nothing, for they are 
too idle to work. — ^What has your friend gained that money by ? — ^He 
has gained it by working. — ^What did you get your livelihood by when 
you were in England ? — ^I got it by writing. — ^Did your cousin get his 
livelihood by writing ? — He got it by working. — Have you ever seen 
such a person ? — ^I have never seen such a one.^-Have you already 
seen our church? — ^I haye not seen it yet. — ^Where does it stand, 
(estd 1) — ^It stands outside the town. If you wish to see it I will go 
with you in order to show it you. — ^What do the people live upon that 
live on 1 the sea-shore? — ^They live on fish alone. — ^Why will you not 
go a-hunting any more 7 — ^I hunted yesterday the whole day, and I 
killed nothing but an ugly bird, so that I shall not go any more a-hunt- 
ing. — ^Why do you not eat 7 — Because I have not a good appetite. — 
Why does your brother eat so much 7 — ^Because he has a good appetite. 

Whom are you looking for 7 — ^I am looking for my little brother.— 
If you wish to find him you must go (que vaya) into the garden, for he 
is there. — ^The garden is large, and I shall not be able to find him if 
you do not tell me in which part of the garden he is. — ^He is sitting 
under the large tree under which we were sitting yesterday. — Now I 
shall find him. — ^Why did you not bring my clothes 7 — They were not 
made, so that I could not bring them, but I bring them to you now. — 
You have learned your lesson ; why has not your sister learned hers 7 
— She has taken a walk with my mother, so that she could not learn 
it, but she will learn it to-morrow. — ^When will you correct my exeiv 
cises 7 — ^I will correct them when you bring {Waiga) me those of yom 
sister. — ^Do you think you have made faults in them 7 — ^I do not know. 
— ^If you have made faults you have not studied your lesson well ; for 
the lessons must be learned well to make no faults in the exercises. — 
It is all the same : if you do not correct them to-day, I shall not learn 
them before to-morrow. — You must not {debet) make any faults in 
your exercises, for you have all you want in order to make none. 



SIXTIETH LESSON.--Z.€ccto7i SexqgSswm. 
For the use of the Imperfect TenM, see Leeson XI* 

A plate. 

A son-in-law. 

A step-eon. 

A daughter-in-law. 

A step-daughter. 

The father-in law. 
The mother-in-law. 

To improFe in learning. 
Tlie progress of a malady. 

Un plato. 

Un yemo. 

Un hijastro. 

Una nuera. 

J £1 suegro. 
I t Padn politico 
{ La suegra. 
( t Madre politicm^ 

Adelantar en los estjdios. 

Un entenado. 
Una entenada. 

I Adelantar en las cienoias. 

I Los progresos de nna enfeiLiedad* 

B7 Mlien the English tense can be changed into uatd tOj use Na 2 ; 
It if it means did, use Na 3. 

Olvidaba, olvidabas, olvidaba. No. 2. 

I forgot, thou forgottest, he forgot, 
(used to.) 

I forgot, thou forgottest, he forgot, 

When we went to school we often 
forgot our books. 

When you went to church you often 
prayed to the Lord for your chil- 

Olvidl, olvidaste, oIvid6. No. 3. 

Cuando fbamos d la escuela, olviddba- . 

mos 4 menudo nuestros libros. 
Cuando V. iba & la iglesia, V. pedia 

frecuentemente al Sefior por sus 


When we received some money we 
employed it 'in purchasing good 

When you bought of that merchant 
yon did not always pay In cash. 

Cuando recibiamos dinero» le em- 
pleibamos en oomprar buenos 

Cuando V. oompraba de eso merca- 
der, no pagaba siempre al contadow 

Has your sister sncoeded in mending i hogt6 componer la corbata de V 

your cravat? 
She has succeeded in it 
Has the woman returned from 

She has not yet returned. 
Did the women agree to that ? 
They did agree to it 

Where is your sister gone to ? 
She is gone to the church. 


Si ; or, Lo logrd. 
I Ha vuelto de la plaxa la mujer ? 

Todavia no. No hd vuelto. 

I Han convenido en eso las mi^erest 

Convini^ron (or ban oonTenido) e« 

I A donde fu^ su hennana de V. 1 
Ella fu^ i la iglesia. 




This tense comeponds to No. 8, the second termination of the Imperfoci 
of the Bubjunetiye mood. The Imperfect of the subjunctive has three ter- 
mmations for each person : the first, No. 7, is ra ; the second, No. S, it 
ria ; and the third, No. 9, is ae. (See the table of the termmationB of the 
▼erbs.) In phrases in which the Potential is used, there are generally two 
sentences, one of which is the principal, and the other the subordinate. In 
Spanish, the verb of the principal is in the termination mailed No. 8, and 
the verb of the subordinate is in the temunations marked Nos. 7 or 9* 
Example : — If I had money, / wotdd buy hooh9 — Si yo tnviese (tuviera) 
dmero compraria lihro9. The sentence in italics is the principal, and 
although, in the above example, it is placed after the subordinate it migfal 
be placed before. It is easy to distinguish the principal from the snbor 
dinate : the last is always preceded by a conjunetiour 

I would have, thou wouldst have, he ^ Tendria, tendrias, tendria. \ 
or she would have. I I v » 

We would have, you would have, [ Tendrfamos, tendrfais, ten- | ^ 
they would have. J drian. J 

I could have, thou couldst have, he^ Tuviera, tuvierab, tuviera. 
or she could have. 

We could have, you could have, they 

could have. 
I might have, thou mightst have, he 

might have. 
We might have, you might have, 

they might have. 

Tuvi^ramos, tuvi^rais, tu- I 

vieran. J 

Tuviese, tuvieses, tuviese. "] 

Tuvi^mos, tuvi^is, tu- I 
viesen. J 



Ohs. If (m) is sometimes understood in English, but it must always be 
expressed in Spanidi, and the tenses used in the subordinate must be No. 7 
and No. 9. Example : — Had I money, / would buy books — Si yo tuviera 
(or tuviese) dinero, compraria libros. 

No. 8 of To wUh, 
I would, thou wouldst, he would. 
We would, you would, they would. 

If I had ^K>ney, / wotUd have a 

new coaL 
n thou couldst do this, thou wouldst 

do that. 
If he could, hs would, 
J would go\S I had time. 
If he knew what you have done, he 

would scold you. 

No. 8 de Querer. 
Querria, querrias, querria. 
Querrfamos, querrfais, quenian. 
— % 

Si yo tuviera (or tuviese) dinero^ 

eompraria una casaca nueva. 
Si td pudieras (or piidies^) haoer 

esto, querrias haeer aquelio. 
Si ^1 pudiera, (or pudiese,) querria. 
Ys iria m tuviera tiempo. 
Si 4\ supiera (or supiese) lo que V. hi 

hecho, le refnrenderia. 
Reprtnder. (Conj. like Ptander.") 



If there were any wood, he would 
make afire* 

Should the men come, it would he 
necessary to give them something 
to drink. 

Should we receiye our letten, we 
would not read them until to- 

Not until 

Si hnbiera (hnhieee) lei&m, il sneeth 

deria la candela, {haria elfuego^, 
Si Tinieran (vinieeen) loe hombreflr 

seria menester dories algo {algu- 

na cosa) que heher. 
Si recibi^semos (recibi^ramos) nues- 

tras cartas, no las leeriamos hasta 

No hasta. 


Thie tenae is formed from No. 8 of Haber, with the past participle of the 
▼erb to be oonjagated, (It is marked Na 8, p.) 

Noe. 8, 7, 9, of To have, (aux.) | Nos. 8, 7, 9, de Haber. 
I would have, thou wouldst have,^ Habria, habrias, habria. f 

he would have. 
We would have, you would have, 

they would have. 
I could have, thou couldst have, he 

could have. 
We could have, you could have, 

they could have. 
I might have, thou mightst have, he 

might have. 
We might have, you might have, 

they might have. 
No. 8, p. of To have, (active.) 
I would have had, thou wouldst have 

had, he or she would have had. 
We would have had, you would 

have had, they would have had. 

HabHamoe,habrfais,ha- f 

brian. J 

Hubiera, hnbieras, hu-l 

biera. I 

Hubi^ramoB, hubi^rais, | 

bubieran. ' 

Hubiese, hubieses, hu- ] 

biese. I 

HubiiSsemos, hubi^is, | 

hubicsen. J 

No. 8, p. de Tener. 
Habria tenido, habrias 

tenido, habria tenido. 
HabrfamoB tenido, ha- 

brfais tenido, habrian 


No. a 

No. 7. 

No. 9. 


If I had received my money, / 
would have bought new books. 

If he had had a pen, he would have 
recollected the word. 

If you had risen eariy, you could 

not have caught a coldi 
If they had got rid of their old horse, 

they would have procured a bet- 

isr one 

Si hubiera (hubiese) recibido mi di« 

nero, habria comprado nuevos lib' 

Si 61 hubiera (hubiese) tenido una 

pin ma, se habria acordado de la 

Si v. se hubiera levantado teraprano, 

710 se habria resfriado. 
SI se hubiesen deshecho de on caba- 

Uo viejo, habrian fomprado otrs 




If h« had washed his hands, ke 

would have wiped them. 
If I had known that, / would have 

be?uived differently. 
If thoa hadst taken notice of that, 

thou wouldoi not have been miS' 


Would you learn Spanish if I learn- 
ed it 7 
/ would learn it if you learned it 

Would you have learned Oerman, 
if I had learned it? 

I would Jutve learned it if you had 

learned it 
Would you go to Spain if I went 

there with you ? 
/ would go, if you wont with me. 
Would you have gone to France if 

I hud gone with you ? 
Would you go oui\i I remained at 

/ would remain at home if you went 

Would you have written a letter if 

I had written a note. 

There is my book. 

Here is my book. 

There it is. 

There they are. 

Here I am. 

That is the reason why. 

Therefore I say so. 

My feet are cold. 
His feet are cold. 
He has a pam in his side. 

Her hands are cold. 

Si ^ se hubiera lavado las manos, m 

lae habria enjugado. 
Si yo hubiese sabido eso, me habria 

portado diferentemente. 
Si hubieras (hubieses) notado eeot 

no te habrias equivocado* 

I Aprenderia V, el Eepanol si yo 

le aprendiera, (le aprendieso) ? 
Yo le aprenderia si V. 'e aprendiera, 

(le apreudiese.) 
I Habria V, aprendido el AJUman^ 

si yo le hubiera (hubiese) aprendi* 

Yo U habria aprendido si V. le hu* 

biera (hubiese) aprendido. 
I Iria V. d EspaOa a yo fuera 

(fuese) con V* ? 
Yo iria, si V. fuera conmigo. 
I Habria V. ido d Francia, si yo 

hubiera (hubiese) ido con €1 7 
I Saldria V, si yo me quedara (que- 

dase) en casa? 
Yo me quedaria en casa si V sa- 

liera, (saliese.) 
I Habria escrito V. una carta ei jrc 

hubiera (hubiese) escrito un bi« 


AIM eeU. mi libra 

All( tiene V. mi libro. 
5 Aqui estd mi libro. 
^'Aquf tiene V. mi libra 

AUfestd. A]Uk» tiene V. 

All( estan. Alli los tiene V. 

Aqui eetoy. Aquf me tiene V 

Eba es la razon por la cual. 

Pues yo digo eso. 

t Tengo los pies frios. 
t Tiene Ids pies frios. 
t Tiene dolor de costado. 
Sus manos estan frias. 
EHla tiene las manotf (Has 

SXTTDtrB LESSOir. ^ 26t 

My body is cold. 

Her tongue hurts her very much. 
My head hurts me. 
Her leg hurts her. 

Mi ouerpo esti fno. 

Tengo el cuerpo frio. 

t A ella le duele mucho la leugua. 

t Me duele la cabeza. 

t A ella le duele la piema. 

Did you forget any thing when you went to school ? — ^We often 
forgot our books. — ^Where did you forget them ? — ^We forgot them at 
the school. — Did we forget imy thing? — ^You forgot nothing. — ^Did 
your mother pray for any one when she went to church ? — She prayed 
for her children. — For whom did we pray? — You prayed for your 
parents. — ^For whom did our parents pray ? — They prayed for their 
children. — When you received your money what did you do with it 7 — 
We employed it in purchasing some good books. — ^Did you employ 
yours also in purchasing books ? — ^No ; we employed it in assisting 
the poor, (socorrer.) — ^Did you not pay your tailor ? — We did pay him. 
— ^Did you always pay in cash when you bought of that merchant 7— 
We always paid in cash, for we never buy on credit — ^Has your sister 
succeeded in mending your stockings ?--She has succeeded in it — 
Has your mother returned from church ? — She has not yet returned. 
— ^Whither has your aunt gone ? — She has gone to church. — ^Whither 
have our cousins (fem.) gone ^ — ^They have gone to the concert — 
Have they not yet returned from it ? — ^They have not yet returned. 

Who is there ? — ^It is I, (yo »oy.)— Who are those men ? — ^They are 
foreigners who wish to speak to you. — Of what country are they ? — 
They are Americans. — ^Where is my book ? — There it is. — ^And my 
pen ? — ^Here it is. — ^Where is your sister ? — ^There she is. — Where 
are our cousins (fem. ?) — ^There they are. — ^Where are you, John, 
(Jtum ?) — ^Here I am. — ^Why do your children live in Spain ? — ^They 
wish to learn Spanish ; that is the reason why they live in Spain. — 
Why do you sit near the foe ? — ^My hands and feet are cold ; that is 
the reason why I sit near the fire. — ^Are your sister's hands cold ? — 
No ; but her feet are cold.— What is the matter with your aunt ?— Her 
leg hurts her. — ^Is any thing the matter with you ? — ^My head hurts 
me.— What is the matter with that woman ?— Her tongue hurts hex 
very much. — ^Why do you not eat ? — I shall not eat before I have a 
good appetite. — ^Has your sister a good appetite ? — She has a very 
good appetite ; that is the reason why she eats so much. — ^If you have 
read the books which I lent you why do you not return them to me ?— 


270 sirnsTH lbsson. 

I intend reading them once more, (otra vez ;) that is the reabon why I 
have not yet returned them to you; but I will return them tc 
you as soon as I have (haya) read them a second time, {otra vez.) — 
Why have you not brought my shoes ? — They were not made, there- 
fore I did not bring them ; but I bring them to you now : here they are. 
— ^Why has your daughter not learned her exercises ? — She has taken 
a walk with her companion, (fem. ;) that is the reason why she has not 
learned them : but she promises to learn them to-morrow, if you do 
not scold her. 

Would you have money if your father were here 7 — ^ should have 
some if he were here. — Would you have been pleased if I had had 
some books ? — ^I should have been much pleased if you had had some. 
—Would you have praised my little brother if he had been goofl ?— 
If he had been good I should certainly not only have praised, but also 
loved, honored, (honravy) and rewarded him. — Should we be praised if 
we did our exercises ? — ^If you did them without a fault {jsinfdUa) yon 
would be praised and rewarded. — Would my brother not have been 
punished if he had done his exercises 7 — ^He would not have been 
punished if he had done them. — ^Would my sister have been praised 
if she had not been skilful 7 — She would certainly not have been 
praised if she had not been very skilful, and if she had not worked 
from morning (desde) till evening. — ^Would you give me something 
if I were very good 7 — ^If you were very good, and if you worked well, 
I would give you a fine book. — ^Would you have written to your 
sister if I had gone to Paris 7 — I would have written to her, and sent 
her something handsome if you had gone thither. — ^Would you speak 
if I listened to you 7 — ^I would speak if you listened to me, and if you 
would answer me. — ^Would you have spoken to my mother if you had 
seen her 7 — ^I would have spoken to her, and have begged of her 
(flexor) to 8?nd you a handsome gold watch if I had seen her. 


One of the valet de chambres (ayuda de cdmara) of Louis XIY. 
(de Luis XIV.) requested that prince, as he was going to bed, to 
recommend to the first president a lawsuit (pleko) which he had against 
(contra) his father-in-law, and said, in urging him, ( urgieTtdole :) ** Alas, 
(Ah!) Sire, (jSenor,) you (V, M, — Vuestra Mc^'estad) have but to say 
one word." " WeU," (Bien,) said Louis XIV., « it is not that which 
embarrasses me, (embarazar ;) but tell me, if thou wert in thy father-in- 
law's place, and thy father-in-law in thine, wouldst thou be glad (te 
alegrarias) if I said (dijera) that word 7" 

If the men should come it would be necessary to give them i 



dung to drink. — If he could do this he would do that — ^I have always 
flattered myself, my dear brother, that yon loved me as mudi as I lova 
you ; but I now see that I have been mistaken. I should like to know 
why you went a-walking without me. — I have heard, my dear sister, 
that you are angry with me, {estar er/adado,) because I went Srwalk- 
ing without you. I assure you that, had I known that you were not 
ill, I should have come for you ; but I inquired at your physician's 
ihout your health, and he told me that you had been keeping your bed 
iestado en coma) the last eight days, (por ocho dias*) 

A French officer having arrived at the court (porte) of Vienna, the 
empress Theresa (^Teresa) asked (pr^urUar) him, if he believed that 
the princess of N., whom he had seen the day before, was really the 
handsomest woman in the (del) world, as was said. (See Obs. B, 
Lesson XXXVU.) « Madam," repUed (replicar) the officer, " I thought 
so yesterday." — ^How do you like (Lesson XXIV.) that meat ? — ^I like 
it very well. — ^May I ask you for (Me iomari la libeftad de pedir d F. 
tm foco) a piece o^that'^h t — ^If you will have the goodness to pass 
me your plate I will give you some. — Would you have the goodness to 
pour me out (eckarme) some drink, (de hehe^l) — ^With much pleasure. — 
CSceio, seeing his son-in-law, who was veiy short, (pequeHo,) arrive 
(vemr) with a bng sword (espada larga) at his side, (d su lado) said* 
'^ Who has fiistened (atado) my son-in-law to this swoid ?" 

SIXTY-FIRST LESSON.— Zeccton SexagSsima primera. 

What has beeome of your annt 1 

f do not know what has become of 

What has become of your sisteiB? 

I cannot tell you what has become 
of them. 

To die, to lose life, 
I die, thou diM, he or she dies. 
Shall or will you die 7 


I Que 80 ha hecho de la sefiora Gm 

Yp no 8^ lo que se ha hecho de ella. 

I Que Be ha hecho de las sefioritas 

henuanas de V. 7 
Yo no puedo decir A, V. lo que se ha 

hecho de ellas. 

Morir *. Morirse. Perder la vida, 

Muero, mneres, muere. 

I Morird (or se morird) V. 7 (See Le» 

Ye morii^. Yo me mofic6. 



Thai man died this mornmg, and his 
wife died also. 

This man is dead. 

The woman died this morning. 

Wine sells well. 
\\ ine will sell well next year. 

That door shuts easily. 

l*hat window does not open easily. 

lliat picture is seen far off. 

Far ofl^ fitnn afar. 
Winter clothes are not worn in sum- 
That is not said. 
Hiat cannot be cemprehended. 
To eoneeive, to comprehend. 
It is clear. 

Accordingr to circumstances. 

According to. 

The circumstance. 
That is according to circumstances. 

It depends. 

Ese hombre murkS (sa mmi6) eite 
mafiana, y su mujer se murM 
(muri6) tambien 

Este hombre esti yOU ha) muerto. 

La mujer murid (or se round) «sta 
maiiana. (See Less. XXXIII.) 

t El vino se vende bien. 

t El vino se yendehL bien el afia 

prdzimo, (or el ado que viene.) 
t Esa pnerta se cierra fdcilmente. 
t Esa ventana no se abre fdcilmejte- 
t E^ cuadro (esa pintura) se re de 

De l^jos. Desde ^ym, 
t La ropa de inTiemo no se usa 9 

el verana 
t Eso no se dice. 

t Ebo no se concibe, (eomprende.) 
Coneebir *. Comprender. 
Es clara Eso es claro. 

Segun las circunstancias. 
Segun. Confonne d. 
La circunstancia. 
t Comforme d. 
Depende de. 



Sorry. Displeased. 
Are you rich 1 
I am. 

Are the women handsome ? 
They are ; they are rich and hana- 

Are yon {torn Spain 7 
I am. 

What countrywoman is she ? 
She is from Spain. 
Would you be sorry if you were 

I should not be sorry for it 

To be angry with oomebody, \ 

Sentido. Triste. 
i£s V. rico? 
Si. Soy ricok Si lo soy. 
X Son hermosas las mujeres 7 
Si son, (si lo son ;) son ricas y her- 
iEsV.deEq>afia7 ^EsV.Espanolt 
Si. Si lo soy. Soy espafiot 
I De que pais es ella 7 
Es de Espafia. Es eepafiola. 

it I Sentiria V. el ser rico 7 
I Si fuera V. rico, lo seytiria 7 
•j t Yo wo lo sentiria. 
Eetar enfadado ctm alguno. 
t Eafadaru con alguno. Eaoi^^** 



To be angry about something. 
What are you angry about ? 

Are yon sorry fat haying done it 7 
I am Borry for it 

Honest Polite. 


Polite, courteous. 

Impolite, uncivil. 

Happy. Lucky. 

Unhappy. Unlucky. 





t Enfadarse de algo. , 
S t ^ De que se enfada V. 7 
'itiQueleenfadad V.7 

1 1 Siente V. haberio heoho 7 

t Lo sienta 

CiyiL Cortes. Politico. 

InciTiL Descortea Impolftico. 

PoUtica Cortes. 

Impolftico. Descortes. 

Dichoso. Feliz. 

Deedichado. Infeliz Desgraoiade 





la it neeful to write a good deal 7 I i Eb dtil escribir iQuchfsimo 7 

It is useful. I Es titil 

Is it well (right) to take the property \ iEb justo tomar lo ageno 7 

of others 7 ( I ^ bien tomar lo que ee de otro t 

Othert^ pntperty, (wJutt belongs io | Lo ageno* 

It is bad, (wrong.) | Es male. Eb injusto. 

It is not well, (wrong.) | No ee bien. Es malo. 

Well, right Bien. Juaio. 

Bad, wrong. < AfaZo. Injusto. 

Of what use is that 

That is of no use. 


I do not know what it is. 

) I De que sirve eso 7 
\ I Para que sirve eso 7 

iDe nada sirve, (eso.) 
Para nada sirve. 
I I Que es esto 7 
I No 84 lo que ee. 

What is your name 7 

My name is Charles. 
What do you call this in Spanish 7 
Bow do you express this in Spanish 7 



1 1 Como se llama V. 7 
Cual es el nombre de V. 7 
OtioZ (como) es la gracia de V, t 
t Yo me llamo Carlos. 
1 1 Como se llama esto en espafiol 7 
1 1 Como se dice esto en eepaiiol 7 
1 1 Como se llama eso 7 

George the Third. 
Charies the Seventh. 

Jorge Tercora 
Carlos S^ptimo. 



Ohs. After the Christiftii name of a Bovereign, tke Spanianki employ 
the ordinal numbers without the article as far as the tenth of the luuno 
name, after which they use either the cardinal or the ordinal number with- 
out the article. 

Louis the Fourteenth. 
Henry the Fourth. 
Charles the Fifth spoke several Eu- 
ropean languages fluently. 
Europe. European. 

Luis Catorce. 

Henrique Cuarto. 

Carlos Quinto hablaba corriente- 

roente varias lenguas Enropeaa. 
Europa. El Europ^ 


Rather than. 

Rather than squander my money I 
will keep it 

To keep, (to remain with.) 
I will rather pay him than go there. 
I will rather bum the coat than 

wear it 
He has airiyed sooner than L 
A half-worn coat 

To do things imperfectly. 

Mae bietu ArUee. Mejor qua, 

Mae bien que. Antee que. 

Antes que (mas bien que) disipar mi 

dinero me quedar6 con €L 
t Quedaree con. Ouardar. 
Mas bien quiero pagarle que ir alU. 
Mas bien quiero quemar la 

que usarla, (ponirmela.) 
Ha llegado mas pronto que yo. 
Una casaca medio ueada. 
Hacer las cosas imperfectamente. 
t Hacer lae eoeas d mediae. 

What has become of your uncle ? — ^I will tell you what has become 
of him. — ^Here is the chair upon which he often sat. — ^Is he dead ? — 
He is dead. — ^When did he die 7 — ^He died two years ago. — ^I am veiy 
much afflicted (qfl^ido) at it — ^Why do you not sit down ? — If you 
will stay with me I will sit down ; but if you go I shall go along with 
you. — What has become of your aunt ? — ^I do not know what has be- 
come of her. — ^Will yon tell me what has beoome of your sister 7 — I 
will tell you what has become of her. — Is she dead 7 — She is not dead. 
— ^What has become of her 7 — She is gone to Vienna. — ^V^That has be- 
come of your sbters 7 — I cannot tell what has become of them, for I 
have not seen them these two years. — ^Are your parents still alive 7 — 
They are dead. — ^How long is it since your cousin (fem.) died 7 — ^It is 
six months since she died. — ^Did the wine sell well last year 7 — ^It did 
not sell very well ; but it will sell better next year, for there will be a 
great deal, and it will not be dear. — ^Why do you opea the door 7— Do 
you not see how it smokes here 7 — I see it, but you must (deber) 
open the window instead of opening the door. — ^The window does not 
tpen easily; that is the reason why I open the door.— When will yon 

8IZTT-FIB8T LB8S0K. 275 

ihat it 7 — ^I will sfaut it as soon as there is (haya) (Obs. A, J 
LVm.) DO more smoke. — ^Did you often go a^fishing when you were in 
<iiat country ? — ^We often went a-fishing and a-hanting. — If you will go 
with us into the country you will see my father's castle. — You are 
very polite, Sir ; but I have seen that castle already. 


When did you see my father's castle ? — ^I saw it when I was travel- 
ling last year. It is a very fine castle, and is seen far oft*. — How is 
Ihat said ?~ That is not said. That cannot be comprehended. — Cannot 
every thing be expressed in your language ? — ^Every ihing can be 
eizpressed, but not as in yours. — ^WDl you rise early to-morrow ? — ^It 
will depend upon circumstances ; if I go to bed early I shall rise early, 
but if I go to bed late I shall rise late. — Will you love my children ? — 
If they are good I shall love them. — ^Will you dine with us to-morrow ? 
— U you get ready (hace preparar) the food I like I shall dine with 
you. — Have you already read the letter which you received this morn- 
ing ? — I have not opened it yet — When will you read it ? — ^I shall 
read it as soon as I have (tenga) time. — Of what use is that ? — It is of 
no use. — Why have you picked it up ? — ^I have picked it up in order to 
show it you. — Can you tell me what it is ? — ^I cannot tell yout for I do 
not know ; but I will ask {fregwnlar) my brother, who will tell you. — 
Where did you find it ? — I found it on the shore of the river, near the 
wood. — ^Did you perceive it from afar ? — ^I had no need to perceive it 
from afar, for I passed by the side of the river. — ^Have you ever seen 
such a thing ? — ^Never. — Is it useful to speak much ? — ^It is according 
to circumstances : if one vpshes to learn a fweign (ettrangero) 
language it is useful to speak a great deal. — Is it as useful to write as 
to speak ? — ^It is more useful to speak than to write ; but in order to 
learn a foreign language one must do both, (Jo tmo y lo otro,) — Is it 
useful to write all that one says ? — ^That is useless. 


Where did you take this book from ?— I took it out of ((feQ the room 
of your friend, (fem.) — Is it right to take the books of other people 7 — 
It is not right, I know ; but I vnmted it, and I hope that your friend 
will not be displeased, for I will return it to her as soon as I have 
read (que U haya) it— What is your name 7 — ^My name is William, 
{Quidermo), — What is your sister's name 7 — ^Her name is Eleancnr 
(Leonard — ^Why does Charles complain of his sister 7 — ^Because she 
has taken his pens. — Of whom do ^ose children complain 7 — ^Francis 
{Francisco) complains of Eleanor, and Eleanor of Francis. — ^Who is 
rig^ 7— Iliey are both wrong ; for Eleanor wishes to take Francis's 
booksy and Francis Eleanor's. — ^To whom have you lent Cervantes' 


woriDs, (las obras 7) — ^I have lent the first volume to Williaiii and the 
second to Louisa, (LuisaJ) — ^How is that said in Spanish ? — ^It is said 
thus. — ^How is that said in Grerman ? — That is not said in German.-— 
Has the tailor brought you your new coat ? — ^He has brought it me, 
but it does not fit (Lesson XLVJII.)me well. — ^Will he make you 
anothor ? — ^He will make me another ; for rather than wear it I will 
give it away, (r^otor.)— Will you use that hcH'se ? — I shall not use it 
— Why will you not use it ? — ^Because it does not suit me. — ^Will you 
pay for it ? — ^I will rather pay for it than use it — ^To whom do those 
fine books belong, {de quien son 7) — ^They belong to William. — ^Who 
has given them to him ?— His father. — ^Will he read them t — ^He wiD 
tear them rather than read them. — ^Who has told you that ? — ^He has 
tdd me so himself, (il Tnismo,) 

What countrywoman is that lady, {sefiora ?) — She is from ^'Vance. 
—Are you from France ? — ^No, I am from Germany. — ^Why do you 
not give your clothes to mend ? — ^It is not worth while, for I must have 
new clothes. — ^Is the coat which you wear not a good one 7 — It is a 
half-worn coat, and is good for ncdung. — ^Would you be sorry if your 
mother were to arrive to-day ? — I should not be sorry for it — ^Would 
your sister be sorry if she were rich ? — She would not be sorry for it 
— ^Are you angry with any one ? — ^I am angry with Louisa, who went 
to the opera without telling me a word of it. — ^Where were you when 
she went out ? — ^I was in my room. — ^I assure you that she is very 
sorry for it ; for had she known that you were in your room, she 
would have called you in order to take you along with her to the 
opera. — Charles V., who spoke fluently several European languages, 
used to say, (solia decir,) that we ^ould speak (que se debia hablar) 
Spanish with the gods, Italian with our friend, (fem.,) French with 
our friend, (mas.,) German with soldiers, English with geese, (gansos,) 
Hungarian (hungaro) with horses, and Bohemian (bd^mio) with the 
devil, (d diabU),) 

SIXTY-SECOND LESSON.— Lcccton Sexagisima segwida. 

As to, (as for.) \ En cuanto Su 

En cuauto d mt 
\ ^or lo que d mf me toca. 


Ohs. A» What (lo que) is generally translated que, or que cosa, befnt* 
tht iafiiutive. 

fimnr-BBooKB lissov. 


Am to that, I do not know what to 

1 do not know what to da 
I do not know where to go. 
He doee not know what to answer. 
We do not know what to buy. 

To die of a dieeaae. 
She died of the emallpoz. 

The emallpoz. 

The fever. 

The intermittent fever. 

The apoplexy. 
He had a cold fit 
lie haa an ague. 
Ilis fever has returned. 

He haa been struck with apoplexy. 

To strike. 

£n cuanto 6. eao, yo no 16 que dedr 

Yo no b6 que (coea) hacer. 
Yo no 8^ d donde ir. 
£1 no sabe que (cosa) responder. 
No sabemos que (coea) comprar. 

Morir (morirse) de una enfermedad. 

Ella murid de las viruelas. 

Las viruelas. 

Calentura. Fiebre. 

La terciana. 

La apoplegia. 

£1 tuvo un ataque de fiebre. 

£1 tiene calentura. 

Le ha vuelto la fiebre. 
S £1 ha tenido un ataque de apoplegia 
\^ i Le ha dado una apoplegia. 

Herir. Golpear, Dar, 

I am sure of that 
I am sure that she has arrived. 
I am sure of it 
Something has happened. 
Nothing has happened. 
What has happened ? 
What has happened to her 7 
She had an accident 

I Seguro. Segura, 
Estoy seguro de eso, (de ello.) 
Estoy seguro que ella ha llegada 
Estoy seguro de ello. 
Algo ha Bucedido. 
Nada ha sucedidow 
I Que ha sucedido ? 
I Que le ha sucedido d ella ? 
A ella le ha sucedido un accidente. 

To pour ouU 
A tear. 
To shed tears. 
To pour out some drink. 
I poor out some drink for that man. 
With tears in his, her, our, my eyes. 
Sweet Mild. 
Sour. Acid. 
Some sweet wine. 
A mild air. 
A mild zephyr. 
A soft sleep. 
Nothing mokes life more agreeable 
than the society of, and the inter- 
conrae with oar friends. 




Una Idgrima. 

Derramar l&grimas. 

Echar un trago. Echar de beber. 

Echo un trago d ese hombre. 

t Con Idgrimas en los ojos. 

Dulce. Apacible. 

Agrio. Acido. 

Vino dulce. 

Un semblante apacible. 

Un dulce c6firo. 

Un dulce suefio. 

Nada hace la vida mas agradabla 

que la compafifa y el trato de nu- 

estroa amigos. 



To repair to. 
To repair to the anny, to one's regi- 

An army. 
A regiment 
I repaired to that place. 
He repaired there. 

Ir d algona parte. V§hmr i 
Ir al ej^rcito, yolvevM 4 m 

Un ej6rcita 
Un regimiento 
Fuf & ese Ingar. 
Fu^ alii 

To cry. To ocreum. To ohriek. 

To help. 

The help. 
I help him to do that 
I help yon to write. 
I will help you to work. 

To cry for help. 

Oritar, Dor gritoe, Ckillmr, 

Ayudar, Socorrer, 

El socorro. La aynda. La 

Le ayndo & hacer eeo 

Le ayndo & V. A eecribir. 

Le ayu^ar€ & V & trabajar. 

Pedir aocorro 4 vocei. 

»,..>•. ( Informarae de alguno. 

To tnqmre after mme one, ^p^^^^^.^^ 

1^Tendr4 V. la bondad de 
1 2, Me hari V. el favor de paaar eaa 
Will you pass me that plate, if you i i Gusta V. de paaanne ese plato? 
please? ( t^ Se eervird V. paoarme eee piaU 7 

If yon please. | Si V. gusta. 

A.yonpl«»e. At your ple-u™. | Como V. g«to. (~bj.) 
As yon bke. S e » \ j / 

To knock at the door. | Uamor d la puerta, Tocar a. 

To iruet oome one. 

To dietruet one. 
Do yon tmst that man? 
I do tmst him. 
He trusts me. 
We must not trust eyerybody. 

Everybody, (every one.) 
Everybody, (all the world.) 

To laugh at oomething. 
We win hiugfa at it 

C Confiaree d (de) alguno. 
< Tener confianxa en alguno. 
t Fiaree de alguno. 

Deeconfiar de. 

^ Se fia V. de ese hombre? 

Yo me fio de ^L 

tA se fia de mf. 

No nos debemos fiar de todo eH 

Cada ufio. 

Todo el mundo. 

Reiree de algo. 
To me rio de eeo. 
Nos reir^mos de eli 



I>D yoo langfa at that? 

I do laugh at it 

At what do they laugh T 

^Se rie V. do «to? 

Me no de eUo. 

I De que m rien elioa, (eDas) T 

To laugh in a person** face. 

We langhed in hie face. 

To laugh at, to deride eome one, 

I laugh at (deride) yoo. 

Did yon langh at vmt 
We did not laugh at yon. 


A bo<^ full of erron. 

To afford. 

Can yon affi>id to buy that hone? 

1 cannot afford it 
I can afibrd it 

Who is there? 


It ienot L 

It is he. 

It is not he. 
Are they your brothers? 

It te they. 

It is not they. 

Is it she? 

It is she. 

It is not she. 
Are they your sisters ? 
It is they, (fem.) 
It is not they, (fem.) 
It is I who speak. 
It is they who laugh. 
Is it yon who laugh ? 
It is thou who hast done it 

^ Reiree de uno en out harhaa 
\ Reiree de uno en eue higotee. 

INos refanos en sn cara. 
Reiree de uno, Burlaree de uno 
Me no (me bnrio) de Y. 
W Se ri^ron W. de nosotros? 
I l8e han reido W. de nosotros? 
\ No nos reimos de VY. 
( No nos hemos reido de W. 

I Deno. 

I Un libro llenc ie ^rores, (yenos.) 

5 Tener mediae (proporeion) de. 
^Tiene V. medios de oomprar 

Puede y. oomprar ese caballo? 
No tengo medios. No pnedo. 
Tengo proporoion. Pueda 


iQmenesti ahf? 

Yob Soy yo. Yo soy. 

Yo no SOY. No ny yo. 

Es6l Eles. 

No es €i. £l no es. 

I Son ellos los hermanos de V. ? 

Son ellos. Ellos son. 

No son ellos. Ellos no son. 



No es ella. Ella no es. 

I Son ellas sus hermanas de V 7 

Son ellas. Ellas son. 

No son ellas. EUas no son. 

t Yo soy quien habla 

t EUos (ellas) son qnienes rien 

t ^ Es y. quien se rie ? 

t Ttl ores quian lo ha heoho. 



It is you, fentlemen, who have said 

so, (that) 
We learn Spanieh, my bicther and I. 

t VY., caballeroB, son qmenes tm 

dicho eso, (lo han dicho.) 
Mi hennano y yo aprendemoe el es> 


Oba. B. In Spanish, when a vexh has two pronouns for a subject, it a 
in the plural with the person which has the priority. Example : — ^V. y yo lo 
harSmoa — You and I will do it V. y €\ etcribirdn la earta-^Yon and he 
will write the letter. TH y 6\ la leerHa — ^Thoa and he will read it 

You and I will go into the country. 
Yon and he will stay at home. 

You will go to the country, and I 

will return to town. 
A lady. 
What were yon doing when your 

tutor was here ? 
I was doing nothing. 
I said nothmg. 

t V. y yo ir^mos al campa 
V. y €1 se quedsrin en casa. 
Voa y 61 OS qxudariU en C99€t, 
v. ird al campo,* y yo volyei^ i la 

Una senora. 
I Que hacia V. cuaodo su ayo c 

Yo no hacia nada. 
Yo no decia nada. 

Of what illness did your sister die ? — She died of fever. — ^How is 
your brother ? — ^My brother is no longer living. He died three months 
ago. — I am surprised (torprendido) at it, for he was very well last 
summer when I was m the country. Of what did he die ? — ^He died 
of apoplexy. — ^How is the mother of your friend ? — She is not well ; 
she had an attack of ague the day before yesterday, and this morning 
the fever )as returned. — ^Has she an intermittent fever? — I do not 
know, but she often has cold Gts. — ^What has become of the woman 
whom I saw at your mother's ? — She died this morning of apoplexy.-— 
Do your scholars learn their exercises by heart ? — ^They will nUher 
tear them than learn them by heart. — ^What does this man ask me for ? 
— He asks you for the money which you owe him. — If he will repair 
to-morrow morning (manana por la maiiand) to my house I will pay 
him what I owe him. — ^He will rather lose his money than repair 
thither. — ^Why does the mother of our old servant shed tears ? What 
has happened to her ? — She' sheds tears because the old clergyman^ 
(eclesidsticOi) her friend, who was so very good to her, (guc lafavorecia 
iantOy) died a few days ago.-^Of what illness did he die ? — ^He was 
struck with apoplexy. — Have you helped your ^Oher to write his let- 
ters ? — I have helped him. — ^Will you help me to work when we go to 
i ? — ^I will help you to work if you help me to get a livelihood. 



Have you inqnired after the merchant who sells so cheap 7 — ^I havt 
inquired after him, but nobody could tell me what has become of him. 
— ^Where did he live when you were here three years ago ? — ^He lived 
then in Charles-street, No. 67. — ^How do you like (Lesson XXIV.) 
this wine ? — ^I like it very weU, but it is a little sour. — ^How does your 
sister like those apples, (la manxana .')^-She likes them very well, but 
she says that they are a little too sweet — ^Will you have the goodness 
to pass that plate to me ? — ^With much pleasure. — Shall I pass the^e 
fishes to you ? — I will thank you to (me hard V. el favor) pass them 
to me. — ^lall I pass the bread to your sister 7 — ^You will oblige her by 
(V.le dard gttsta) passing it to her. — ^How does your mother like our 
food 7— She likes it very well, but she says that she has eaten enough. 
— ^What dost thou ask me for 7 — ^Will you be kmd enough to (tenga 
V, la bondad) give me a little bit (im pedaciio) of that mutton 7 — ^Will 
you pass me the bottle, if you please 7 — ^Have you not drunk enough 7 
— ^Not yet, for I am still thirsty. — Shall I give you some wine 7 — No ; 
I like dder better. — ^Why do you not eat 7 — I do not know what to eat. 
— ^Who knocks at the door 7 — It is a foreigner. — ^Why does he cry 7 — 
He cries because a great misfortune has happened to him. — ^What has 
happened to you 7 — Nothing has happened to me. — Where will you go 
to this evening 7 — I do not know where to go. — ^Where will your 
brothers go to 7 — ^I do not know where they will go to ; as for me, I 
shall go to the theatre. — ^Why do you go to town 7 — ^I go thither in 
order to purchase some books. Will you go thither with me 7 — ^I will 
go with you, but I do not know what to do there. 

Must I sell to that man on credit 7 — You may (poder) sell to him, but 
not on credit ; you must not trust him, for he will not pay you. — ^Has he 
already deceived anybody 7 — ^He has already deceived several merchants 
who have trusted him. — ^Muat I trust those ladies 7 — ^You may trust 
them ; but as to me I shall not trust them, for I have often been deceived 
by (par las) women, and that is the reason why I say : We must 
not trust everybody. — ^Do those merchants trust you 7 — They trust me, 
and I trust them. — Whom do those gentlemen kugh at 7 — They laugh 
at those ladies who wear red gowns (el trage) with yellow ribbons. — 
Why do those people laugh at us 7 — ^They laugh at us because we 
speak badly. — Ought we to laugh at persons who speak badly 7 — ^We 
ought not to laugh at them ; we ought, on the contrary, to listen to 
them, and if they make blunders, (fallaSy) we ought to correct them tu 
them. — What ye you laughing at 7 — ^I am laughing at your hat : how 
jong (cuarUo hace que) have you been wearing it so large 7— -Since 1 



returned from Germany. — Can you afibrd to buy a horse and a caiv 
riage 7 — ^I can afford it — Can your brother afford to buy that large 
bouse ? — ^He cannot aff>rd it — ^Will your cousin buy that horse 7 — ^He 
will buy it, if it pleases (convenir*) him. — ^Have you received my 
letter 7 — I have received it with much pleasure. I have shown it to 
my Spanish master, who was surprised, for there was not a single 
tault in it — Have you already received Calderon's and Moratin's 
works 7 — ^I have received those of Moiatin ; as to those of Calderon, I 
hope to receive them next week. 

Is it thou, CSiarles, who hast soUed my book 7 — ^It .s not I, it is your 
little sister who has sdled it— Who has broken my fine inkstand 7 — 
It is I who have broken it — ^Is it you who have spoken of me 7 — ^It is 
we who have spoken of you, but we have said of you nothing but good, 
(que no sea htieno,) — ^Who knocks at the door 7 — ^It is I, will you open 
it 7 — What do you want, (desear ?) — ^I come to ask you for the moLey 
which you owe me, and the books which I lent you. — If you will have 
the goodness to come to me to-morrow I will return both to you. — 
Is it your sister who is playing on the piano 7 — ^It is not she. — 
Who is it 7 — ^It is my cousin, (fem.) — Is it your sisters who are 
coming 7 — It is they. — ^Is it your neighbors (fem.) who are laughing 
at you 7 — ^They are not our neighbors. — ^Who are they 7 — ^They arv> 
the daughters of the countess whose brother has bought your house. — 
Are they the ladies you have spoken of to me 7 — ^They are. — Shall you 
learn Spanish 7 — ^My brother and I will learn it — Shall we go to the 
country to-morrow 7 — ^I shall go to the country, and you will remain 
in town. — Shall my sister and I go to the opera 7 — ^You and she will 
remain at home, and your brother will go to the opera. — ^What did you 
say when your tutor was scolding you 7 — ^I said nothing because I had 
nothing to say, for I had not done my task, and he was in the right to 
scdd me. — ^What were you doing while he was out 7 — I was playing 
on the violin, instead of doing what he had given me to do. — ^What has 
my brother told you 7 — He has told me that he would be the happiest 
man in the (dei) world, if he knew the Spanish language, one of the 
most naefiil of all languages for the Americans in the present times. 

nnnr-THiRD lessoit. 


SIXTY-THIRD LESSON.— Lecdon SexagSsima tercera. 

To get iiUo a bad tarape. 

To get out of a bad tcrape, 
I got OQt of the scrape. 
That man ie eyer getting into bad 

scrapes, but he always gets out of 

them again. 

Caer en enredo, {empeiio.) 
Meterse en enredot, (maranaa.) 
Salir de enredoa, (empeiiot,) 
He salido del enredo, (del lance*) 
Eee homhm cae siempre en enredos, 
pero siempre sale de ellos. 

Between, amongst, amidMt 

To make oome one*8 acquaintance. 

To beeonus acquainted with tome- 

I have made his or her acquaint-' 

I haye become acquainted with him 
or her. 

To be acquainted with. 

Are yon acquainted with him, (her 7) 

I do know him, (her.) 

The acquaintance. 

He is an acquaintance of mine. 

She is my acquaintance. 

He is not a friend, he is but an ac- 

I Entre. 

1 Entablar (hacer) eonocimiento con 
> alguno. 
) Tener trato con alguno. 

IHe entablado eonocimiento con 6I» 
(con elia.) 
He hecho amistad con ^1, (con ella.) 

Conocer. (See verbs in cer.) 

I Le conoce V. ? ^ La conoce V. t 

Yo ie (la) conozco. Le trata 

Ei coDocido. La conocida. 

E2s un conocido mia 

Es conocida mia. 

No es amigo, solo, es conocido mio. 

Ob9. A. When to know means to be acquainted with, it is rendered in 
Spanish by conocer, but in all other cases it is rendered by saber. Exam- 
ine :^-I know that gentleman (that lady) — Yo conozco & eae cabaUero, (d eoa 
aenora.) I know my lesson — Yo $i mi leccion. I know what you wish to 
■ay — Yo $6 lo que V. quiere decir. 

To enjoy. 
Do you enjoy good health ? 
To be well 
She is well. 
To imagine. 

FeUow, (mateh.) 

He btts not his equal, or his mateh. 


I Gopa y. de una buena salud 7 
Eetnr bueno. / 
' Ella estd buena. 
* Imaginar. Imaginarae. 

I Criaturas de la misma especie. 
I Compaiiero. Compaflera. Igual. 

5^1- no tiene compaiiero, (semejante.) 
£l es sin par. No tiene par. 



To resemble mmt one. 
To look Uke some one. 

That man resembles my brother. 
That beer looks like water. 

Each other. 
We resemble each other. 
They do qpt resemble each other. 
The two brothers love each other. 

Are you pleased with each other ? 

We are. 

Aa, or as well as. 

> Parecerse & una, Parecer 
y Asemejarse d uno. 

I £ke hombre se parece d mi hermant 

Esa cerveza oarece agua. 

El uno el oiro Uno a otro, 
. Nos parecemos el mio al otro. 
! No se parecen el wio al otro. 

^Los dos hermanos se aman uno 4 

^Estan yy. satisfechos el uno d€4 
otro, (or mio de otro) 7 

Si. Estamos, (or » estamos.) 

Como, Asi como. Tan bien — como. 

To look like, to appear. 
How does he look 7 
He looks gay, (sad, contented.) 

You appear very well. 
Yen kx>k like a doctor. 

The appearance, the countenance. \ 

To show a disposition ta i 

That man whom you see shows a 
desire to approach us. 

To look pleased with some one. 
To look cross at some one. 
When I go to see that man, instead 
of receiving me with pleasure, he 
looks displeased. 

A good-looking man. 

A bad-looking man. 

Bad-looking people, or folks. 

To go to see some one. 

To pay some one a viat 

To frequent a place. 

To frequent societies. 
To associate with some one. 

La apariencia. El semblante. 
La cara. El ademan. 
Manifestar una intencion de. 
Parecer deseoso de. 
£ke hombre que V. ve parece deseoso 

de aceroarae 4 nosotros. 
t Mostrar (hacer) buena cara. 
t Mostrar (hacer) mala cara, 
Cuando voy 4 ver 4 ese hombre, en 

vex de recibirme con gusto, me 

mnestra (me pone) mala cara. 
Un hombre de buen parecor, (de 

buena traza.) 
Un hombre de mal parecer, (de mala 

Gente de mala traza. 
Ir 4 ver 4 alguno. 
Hacer una visita 4 alguno. 
Frecuentar un parage. Concurrir 4. 
Concurrir 4 tertulias. 
Frecuentar 4 uno. 

Tener semblante, Parecer, 

1 1 Que semblante tiene 7 

t Tiene semblante alegre, (1 

t v. tiene muy buen semblante. 
t V. parece m^ca 
v. tiene traza de m6£co. 



She lodu (appean to be) angry. 

They Ipok (anwu*) contented. 

To look good, (to appear to be good.) 

To drink to some one. 

To drink some one's health. 

I diink your health. 

t Parece que eUa esti anfadada. 

Parecen contentos. 

Parecer bueAo. 

Brindar & alguno. 

Beber & la salud de alguno. 

Yo bebo d la salud de V. 

It is all over with me. 
It is all over. 

t Acabdse todo (para mQ para eon- 

t AcabOee. 

To hurt some one's feelings. 

Ton have hurt that man's feelings. 

( Herir d uno en el alma. 
( t Dor que senttr. 
I v. ha herido d ese homnre en el 

Obs. B. The nouns alma, soul ; agua, water ; dguila, eagle ; acta, act, 
or record ; ala, wing ; ate, bird ; ama, the mistreas of a house, or house- 
keeper ; ancla, anchor ; arma, weapon, and a few others, though feminine, 
require the masculine article ; but only in the singular number, and when 
they are immediately preceded by it ; as, The honest housekeeper said the 
tame : Lo mismo dijo el ama — (D. Quixote, ch. 6.) The good mistress re- 
ceived them : La buena ama los recibid. There are those who drink the 
delicioos waters of the celebrated Xantos : Alii estan los que bebeu las 
dulcee aguas delfamoso Xanto — (D. Quixote, ch. 18.) 

A place. 
I know a good place to swim in. 

Un lugar. Un parage. Un sitio. 
Conozco un buen sitio para nadar 

To experience, to undergo, 

I have experienced a great many 

To suffer. 
Dost thou suffer? 
I do suffer. 
He sufiers. 
To feel a pain in one's head or 

I felt a pain in my eye. 



To neglect. 
To yield. 
yield to neceaaty. 

J Experimentar, 
( Pasarpor, 

He padecido muchos infortnnios. 

He pasado per muchas desgraciaa. 

Sufrir. Padecer. 

I Sufres (padeces) tti ? 

Yo padezco. Yo sufro. 

£l sufre. 1^1 padece. 

Tener dolor de cabeza. 

Padecer de la cabeza (del pie.) 

it He padecido de los qjos. 
He tenido mal de ojos. 
Deecuidar de, 

Ceder, Rendirae, Sujetaree, 
t Se debe coder d la neeesidad. 



To Spring forward. 

The eat firings upon the rat 
To leap on honeback. 
An ixicieaBe» an augmentation. 

For more bad luck. 

For more good luck. 

For more bad luck I have lost 

Saltar, AbaUmzofM 4 
Eeharoe oobre. 

£1 gato Be abalanza & la rata. 
Saltar sobre un caballo. 
Aumento. Cdma For mayor 
For colmo de la deegracia. 
For mayor deegracia. 
' Fara colmo de la deegracia. 
Fara colmo de la dicha. 
For cohno de la dicha. 
For mayor dicha. 
my I For mayor deegracia he perdidoml 

To loee one'f wits. 

C Perder la chabeta, (el jnido.) 

^ Ferder la cabeza. 

^ Inele & uno la cabeza. 

fEae bombre ha perdido la : abeza, (el 
juicio,) y D^o sabe que hacer. 
A eee hombre se le ha ido la cabeia, 
y no sabe que hacer. 

Obstinately, by all means. < 

That man wishes by all means to 1 
lend me money. | 

For fuerza. Foeitivamentew 
A toda fiierza. Absoiutamente. 
£2se hombre quiere absoiutamente 
(por fuerza) prestarme dinero. 

To follow. 
I follow, thou followest, he follows. 
To pursue. 
To preserve, to save. 

Seg^uir *. 

Sigo. Sifraes. Sigue. 
Perseguir. (CoDJ. like Segutr,^ 
Preeervar. Ahorrar 

Why do ycm associate with those people ?-— I associate with them 
because they are useful to me. — If you continue to associate with them 
you will get into bad scrapes, for taey have many enemies. — How 
dooB your cousin conduct himself 7 — ^He does not conduct himself very 
well, for he is always getting into some bad scrape, (or other.)— Do 
yon not sometimes get into bad scrapes ? — ^It is true (verdad) that I 
sometimes get into them, but I always get out of them again. — ^Do 
you see those men who seem desirous of approaching us ? — I do see 
them, but I do not fear them, (temery) for they hurt nobody. — ^We must 
go away, (reiiramos,) for I do not like to mix with peo]Ae whom I do 

aol know.— 4 beg of you not to be afitdd of tbem, jfor I percehre mj 
uncle among them. — ^Do yon know a good place to awim in ?— I know 
one.— Where is it 7— On that side (Lesson XXXVin.) of the river, 
behind the wood, (d bosque,) near the high road, (el camino reo/.)— 
When shall we go to swim ? — This evening, :f you like.— Will you 
wait for me before the city gate? — I shall wait for you there ; but I 
beg of you not to forget it. — You know that I never forget my prom- 
ises. — Where did you become acquainted with that lady ? — ^I became 
acquainted with her at the house of one of my relations. — ^Why does 
your cousin ask me for (Lesson XLI.) money and books ?— Because 
he is a fool ; of me, (a mi,) who am his nearest relation, (su mas cer' 
cano pariejOe,) and his best friend, he asks nothing. — ^Wliy did you 
not come to dinner 7 — ^I have been hindered, but you have been able 
to dine without me. — Do you think that we shall not dine, if you can- 
not come 7 — ^How long (fuata que hora) ' did you wait for me 7 — ^We 
waited for you till a quarter past seven, and as you did not come 
we dined without you. — ^Have yon drunk my health 7 — ^We have drunk 
yours, and that of your parents. 

How does your uncle look, (que semblante ?) — ^He looks very gay, 
fcv he is much pleased with his* children. — ^Do his friends look as gay 
as he 7 — They, on the contrary, look sad, because they are discontented. 
My uncle ha.s no money, and is alwa3rs contented, and his friends, 
who have a good deal (of it,) are scarcely ever so. — Do you like your 
sister 7 — ^I like her much, and as she is very good-natured {es muy 
eonnosa) to (con) me I am so to her ; but how do you like yours 7— We 
love each other, because we are pleased with each other. — A certain 
{cterto) man liked much wine, but he foimd in it (il) two bad qualities. 
" If I put water to it," said he, " I spoil it ; and if I do not put any to 
it, it spoils me." — ^Does your cousin resemble you 7 — ^He resembles 
me. — ^Do your sisters resemble each other 7 — They do not resemble 
each other; for the elder (mayor) is idle and naughty, and the younger 
fja menor) assiduous and good-natured towards everybody.— vHow is your 
aunt 7 — She is very well. — ^Does your mother enjoy good health 7— She 
imagines she enjoys good health, but I believe she is mistaken, for she 
has had a bad cough these six months of which (de la cual) she cannot 
get rid. — Is that man angry with you 7 — ^I think he is angry with me 
because I do not go to see him : but I do not like to go to his house, 
for when I go to him, instead of receiving me with pleasure, he looks 
displeased. — ^You must not believe that ; he is not angry with you, for 
he is not so bad (malo) as he looks, {j^rece.) He is the best man in 
the worid ; but one must know him in order to appreciate him. — ^There 

2t8 sDcnr-FouBm lbssok. 

k a great diflbrence (la djfereTicia) between yon and him, ^;) yon look 
pleased with all those who come to see you, and he looks cross at them. 

Is it right to laugh thus at everybody ? — ^If I laugh at your coat I do 
not laugh at everybody. — ^Does your son resemble any one? — ^He 
resembles no one. — Why do you not drink 7 — ^I do not know what to 
drink, for I like good wine, and yours looks like vinegar. — If you wish 
to have some other I shall go down (bajar) into the cellar to fetch you 
some. — ^You are too polite, Sir, I shall drink no more to-day. — ^Uave 
you known my father long ? — ^I have known him long, for I made his 
acquaintance when I was yet at school. We often worked for one 
another} and we loved eacl\ other like brothers. — ^I believe it, for you 
resemUe each other. — ^When I had not done my exerdses he did them 
for me, and when he had not done his I did them for him. — Why does 
your &ther send for the physician ? — ^He is LU, and as (y como) the 
physician does not come he sends for him. — ^Ah, (Ay,) it is all over 
• with me ! — But, bless me, (Dies mio !) why do you cry thus ? — ^I have 
been robbed (Obs. A, Lesson XLV.) of my gold rings, (la sortya de oro,) 
my best clothes, and all my money ; that is the reason why I cry. — 
Do not make (no haga V,) so much noise, for it is we who have takon 
them all, in order to teach you to take better care {de cuidar me/or, 
Lesson L.) of your things, (cosasy) and to shut the door of your 
room when you go out — ^Why do you look so sad ? — ^I have experienced 
great misfortunes ; after having lost all my money I was beaten by 
bad-looking men ; and to my still greater ill-luck, I hear that my good 
uncle, whom I love so much, has been struck with apoplexy. — You 
must not afflict yourself {no se aflya V,) so much, for you know that 
we must yield to necessity. 

• SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON.— jLeccton Sexagisima cuarta, 

Oh$, A, How, how much, and Jiow many, m exclamatory sentences, are 
translated by cuan before adjectives, and by que de, cuanto, or euanto9 before 

" Cwin ! / Que de ! 

^ r Cuanto ! / Cuantos ! 

C \ Cuan bueno es V. ! 
How good yon are ! < ; Que de bondad tiene V. ! 

f ; Cuanta bondad tiene V. ! 
How foolish he is ! \\ Caan necio es ! 

How foolish she is ! | j Caan necia ee ella ! 

fiiriT'FOURTH LE880N. 


How mil that man is ! ^ 

How bandfiomo that woman is i \ 

How much kindness yon have for\ 
me! i 

dow many obligations I am under I 
toyua! | 

fo he under obligations to some one, < 

< am imder many obligations 

to bim.< 

ir^DW many people ! 

Uow happy yon are I 
How moch iiKealth that man has ! 
How moch money that man has 
spent in his life ! 

I Cnan lioo €■ esa hoobro ! 

{ Que de riqnesas tlene eoe hombve t 

I Cnantas riqnexas tiene ese horabve ! 

\ Cuan hermoea es esa sefiora ! 

t ; Que de bondad tiene V. para naf ! 

t ; Cuania ea la bondad de V. para 

conmigo ! 
\ Que de obligacionM !e debo yo 4 

Deber obligacionee. 
Tener obligadonee. 
Eetar obligado d uno. 
Le debo (le tengo) mndus oUigm- 

Le estoy muy obligado. 
\ Que de gente ! \ Cuanta gente ! 
/ Cuantoe ! 
I Cuan didioso es V. ! 
J Que de riqnecas tiene ese hombro ! 
i Que de dinero ha gastado ese honi* 

bre en sn yida I 

To be obliged to some one for some- 

To be indebted to seme one for some- 

I am indebcbd (o htm for it 
Yo thank. 

To tiiank some one for something. 

I thank you lor the -trouble you have 
taken tor me. 

Agradec^rselo & uno. 
Estimdrselo & uno. 
Aeberle algo d uno 

Se lo debo & ^L 
Agradecer, Dar graeias. 
Agradec^rselo d uno. 
Yo le agradezco d V. el trabajo que 
se ha tomado por mf. 

Is there any thing more grand 7 
Is there any thing more cruel ? 
Is there any thing more wicked 7 

Can any thmg be more handsome 7 

I Que cosa hay mas grande 7 

^ Que cosa hay mas cruel 7 

^Que cosa peor hay, (mas mala 

hay) 7 
I Que cosa mas hermosa pnede ha* 

her 7 

How large 7 Of what size 7 
How high 7 Of what height 7 
How deep 7 Of what depth 7 

I De que tamaiio 7 

I De que alto 7' i De que altura 7 

I De que |Mrofnndi d ad7 

'In speaking ^f dunension, the adjectiye is more generally used lh«iith« 



Bumr-i'OUieTH lebbov. 

Oh§. B. When BpotioDg d dinranaion, we nm in SpMuh the reib Umr 
when the ESnglish nee the verb to be; and the prepeeitioii de itandB before 
the noun or adjectiye of diinenaien. 

1 1 Caanto tiene de aIto(de altora) la 
caea de ella ? 

I Que aXura tiene la casa de eUa? 
t Tiene cerca de cincuenta pi^ de 

alto, (de altnra.) 
t Nuestra casa tiene trienta pids de 

ancho, (de ancaura.) 
t Eea mesa tiene leis pi^ de largo^ 

(de lar^rnra.) 
t Eee no tiene Teinte pi^ de profun- 

do, (de profundidad.) 
El tamaiia El talle. La estatura, 

I I Que tamafio tiene eee homt^e? 
I De que tamafto es eee hombre ? 
I Como eitaba veetido eee nifto? 
t Eetaba vestido de Te^de. 
t El hombre de la caeaea aiuL 
t La mujer del veetido eneanuukfc 

Of what height ie her house ? 

It is nearly fifty feet high. 

Our house is thirty feet broad. 

That taUe is six feet long. 

Tliat riyer is twenty feet deep^ 

The size. 
Of what size is that man ? 

How was that chfld d rooped ? 
He was dressed in green. 
The man with the blue coat 
The woman with the red gown. 

Is it true that his house is burnt? 

It is true. 
It b not (true.) 
Is it not (true?) 


2, Es verdad <2ue so casa se haquemade? 

£e yerdad. 

No es Terdad. 

I No es Terdad 7 


I shall perhaps go there. 
To 9hare^ To divide. 

i Quixi. Quizas. 

( For Tentura. Tal vez. 

I Quiz& ir6 alii. 

I Partir^ Dipidir. PartUtpar. 


Whose horse is this ? 

It is mine. It belongs to me. 

Whose horses are these? 

Tbey are mine. They belong to me. 

Whose hoiMe is that? 

It is mine. It belongs to me. 

Whose houses are these? 

Tliey are mine. They belong to me. 

I De quien 7 (See LeascDs XXI aad 

I De quien es eee caballo ? 

I De quien son estos cabellos ? 
Son roios. 

I De quien es esa casa? 
Es mia. Me perteneoe. 
I De quien son estas oasas f 
Son mias. t Son de mi propieiad 



To run up. 

Many men bad ran up ; bat instead 
of extingaiflhing tbe fire, tbey set 
to plondering. 
To ran to the assistance of some one. 
To save. To delwer. 
To save anybody's life. 
To plunder. To robw 
To set about somethingr. 
Have they succeeded in extinguish- 
ing the fire^ 
Tliey have succeeded in it 

The watch indicates the hours. 
To indicate* To mark* 

To quarreL 

To quarrel with one. 

To dispute (to contend) about some- 

About what are these people dispu- 

They are disputing about who shall 
go first. 

Acudir, Correr &, 

Muchos hombree habian aoudidob 

pero en vex de apagar el fuego, as 

pusi^ron & saquear. 
Acudir & socorrer d alguno. 
Salvor. Lihertar. 
Salvar la vida i alguno. 
Pillar. Saquear. Robar. 
Fonerse iu 
I Han logrado apagar el fuego? 

Lo ban logrado. 

£1 reloj sefiala (apunta) la hora. 
Indicar. Senalar. Marear. 

Renir *. Pel^ar. ^ 

Refiir <;on alguno. 

Disputar (altercar) sobre algo. 

I Acerca deque (sobre que) se dispv 

tan estas gentes 7 
Se disputan sobre quien se ird pri 
I mero. 

Thus. So. 
To he ignorant oft (not to know.) 
The day before. 

Tbe day before that day was Satur- ^ 

llie day before Sunday is Saturday. 

Aei. De eata manera. 

Jgnorar. (No saber.) 

El dia Antes. La vispera, 

EI dia Antes de aqnel dia era mi 

La vUpen, de aquel dia era nn S&« 

t La Yiqiera del Domingo es el S&« 


Can you not get rid of that man ? (Lesson LTQ.) — ^I cannot get rid of 
h. n, for be wiT. absolutely follow me. — ^Has he not lost his wits ? — ^It 
may be, (puede ser.) — What does he ask you for ? — ^He wishes to sell 
me a horse which I do not want. — ^Whose houses are those ? — ^They 
are mine. — ^Do these pens belong to you ? — No, they belong to my 
aster. — ^Are those the pens with which she writes so well ? — ^They 
are the same. — ^Whose gun is this ? — It is my father's. — ^Are theat 


books your sister's 7 — ^They are hers. — ^Whose carriage is tUs ? — ^It is 
mine. — ^Which is the man of whom you complain ? — ^It is he (d qtte) 
who wears a red coat—*' What is the difference (la diferenda) between 
a watch and me ?" inquired (pregunio) a lady of a yoiuifr c^cer. — 
" My lady," replied he, (respondio esUy) " a watch marks the hours, 
ind near (cerca) yon one forgets them." — ^A Russian peasant who had 
never seen asses, (burros^ seeing several in France, said, (dyo^ 
"Lord, (^Dios mio!) what large hares (la liebre) there are in this 
country !" — ^How many obligations I am under to you, my dear friend I 
you have saved my life ! without you I had been lost — ^Have those 
miserable men hurt you ? — ^They have beaten and robbed me, and 
when you ran to my assistance they were about to (iban) strip ^desnu^ 
darme) and kill me. — ^I am happy to have delivered you from the (de 
las) hands of those robbers. — ^How good you are ! 

Will ^u go to Mr. Tortenson's to-night ? — ^I shall, perhaps, go.— 
And will your sisters go? — They will, perhaps. — ^Had you any 
pleasure yesterday at the concert ? — ^I had no pleasure there, for there 
was such a multitude of people there that one could hardly get in* 
—I bring you a pretty present with which you will be much pleased. 
—What is it ? — ^It is a silk cravat. — ^WTiere is it ? — ^I have it in my 
pocket, (en mi bolsillo,) — ^Does it please you ? — It pleases me much, 
and I thank you for it with all my heart. I hope that you will at last 
accept (aceptar) something of me. — ^What do you intend to give me ? 
— ^I will not tell you, for if I do tell you, you will have no pleasure 
when I give it to you. — ^Have you seen anyone at the market ? — ^I have 
seei a good many people there. — How were they dressed ? — Some 
were dressed in blue, some in green, some in yellow, and several in 
red. — Who are those men ? — The one who is dressed in gray is my 
neighbor, and the man with the black coat the physician whose son has 
givep my neighbor a blow with a stick. — ^Who is the man with the 
green coat ? — ^He is one of my relations. — ^Are thore many philosophers 
in your country? — ^There are as many there as in yourB.*-How 
does this hat fit me ? — ^It fits you very welL — ^How does that coat fit 
your brother ? — ^It fits hhn admirably. — ^Is your brother as tall (aUo) as 
yon ? — ^He is taller than I, but I am older (viefo) than he. — Of what 
size is that man ? — ^He is five feet four inches (una pulgada) high.— > 
How high is the house of on* landlord ? — ^It is sixty feet high. — ^Is your 
well deep? — Yes, Sir, for it is fifty feet deep. — ^" There are many 
Jeamed men (unsabio) in Rpme, are there not, (no es verdadV*) Miltoo 
asked a Roman. ** Not so many as when you were there," answered 
(respondio) i\^e Rnman. 



Is it tme that yonr uncle has arrived 7 — ^I assnre yoa that he has 
arrived. — ^Is it true that the king has assured you of his assistance, 
(jk su asistertcia ?) — I assure you that it is true. — Is it true that the 
six thousand (mU ; takes no 8 in the plural) men, whom we were 
expecting, have arrived ? — I have heard so. — Will you dine with us ? 
— ^I cannot dine with you, for I have just eaten. — Will your brother 
drink a glass of wine 7 — He cannot drink, for I assure you that he has 
just drunk. — ^Why are those men quarrelling 7 — ^They are quarrelling 
because they do not know what to do. — ^Have they succeeded in 
extinguishing the fire 7 — ^They have at last succeeded in it ; but it is 
said (Obe. A, Lesson XLV.) that several houses have been burnt — 
Have they not been able to save any thing 7 — ^They have not been able 
to save any thing ; for instead of extinguishing the fire, the miserable 
wretches (los nuUvados) who had come up, set to plundering. — ^What 
has happened 7 — ^A great misfortune has happened. — ^Why did my 
friends set out without me 7 — ^They waited for you till twelve o'clock, 
and seeing that you did not come they set out. — What is the day 
before Monday called 7 — ^The day before Monday is Sunday. — ^Why 
<fid you not run to the assistance of your neighbor whose house has 
been burnt 7 — ^I was quite (erUeramenle) ignorant of his house being 
<m fire, (que su casa se cstaba quemando;) for had I known it I would 
have run to his assistance. 

SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON.— -Xeceion Sexagisima ^wanta. 

fp ^ Proponer. Propotter$e, 

r*^*r^ ' ^ Hacer euenta de. 

, . S Me propoDffo hacer un viaje. 

I propose gomg on a journey. ^xxtj. •• 

t r B e J J J Hago cuenta de hacer un viaje. 

He proposes joining a hunting party. I Intenta jontane i. una partida dt 


A game at che«. | Una partida de ajedrex. 

, .„. . S I^na partida de biUar. 

A game at billiards. j ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^U^^ 

j Un jaego de cartas. 
A game at canto. ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

_ . S Conseguir. Aleanxar 

To succeed, \ Lo^ar, Salir bien. 

Do you succeed in doing that 7 i i Logra V. hacer eso I 

I do sQcceed in it. | Si, logro hacerlo. 




I endeavor to do it 
I endeavor to Bucoeed in it, 
ESndeavor to do better. 

Since, considering. 
Since yon are happy> why do you 

To be thoroughly acquainted with 

a thing. 
To make one's self thoroughly ac- 
quainted with B thing. 
That man underBtands that busineai 

I nndentand that weU. 
Since or from. 
From that thne. 
From my childhood. 
From morning until night 
From the beginning to the end. 

From here to there. 
I have had that book theee two years. 

I have lived m Madrid theee three 

To blow, to blew out. 

To reduce. 

To produce. 

To translate. 

To introduce. 

To destroy. 

To construct. 

To reduce the price. 

To reduce the price a dollar. 

To trauBlate into Spanish. 

To trauilate from Spanish into Elng- 

To translate from one language into 


Esforxarse, Procurar 
Yo procure hacerlo. 
Yo procoro lograrlo. 
Procure V. hacer mejor 

Ya que. Pues que. 

iYa que es V. dichoeo, porque se 

queja 7 
Conocer una cosa & fondo. 

Enter arse dfondo en {de) una eosa 

Ese hombre conoce & fondo e 

to, (ese negocio.) 
EUtoy bien enterado en ello 
Desde. Desde por. 
Desde ese tiempo. • 
Desde mi nifiez, (mfancia.) 
Desde por la mafiana hasta la noche 
Desde el priucipio hasta el fin. 
Desde aqu( hasta alii, 
t Ya van doe afios que tengo ese 

t Tree afios ha que estoy (or que 

vivo) en Madrid. 

Soplar. Apagar. 

Reducir. '\ 






See veibs in ttmr. 

See veibs in tiir. 

Reducir (bajar) el precio. 
Reducir (bajar) un peso del preoia 
Traducir al (en) espafiol. 
Traducir del espaftol al ingles. 

Traducir de una lengna i, oCra. 

Yo le introduxoo en su casa de V 
Yo se le presento i V 



Self, sehres. 








One's felt 
He himself ha.« told it me. 
He has told it me, (to myself, not to 

another person.) 
One does not like to flatter one's self* 

Mismo. Misma. 

Mismos. Mismas 

To mismo. Yo 

Tii mismo. Td 

J^l misma Si 

Ella misma. Si 

Nosetros mismos. Nosotras 

V. mismo. V. 

Si mismo. Si ] 

Vo9 mumo, Vo9 fi 

W. mismoa. W. i 

Si mismos. Sii 

VomtroB mi*mo9, Vo»otru9 mitmmt, 

S( mismo. 

£1 mismo me lo ha dicho. 

£l me lo ha dicho i, mi i 

No Shasta nno de lisongeane i d 

Even. Not even. 

He has not even money enough to 

buy some bread. 
We most love eveiybody, eren onr 

Aun. Ni aim. 

No tiene bastante diners ann pan 

comprar pan. 
Debemos amar d todo el mnndo; 

aun i nnestros enemigoa. 

Againt (anew.) 
He speaks again. 

K Otra vex. Segunda vex. 

( De nuevo. t Volver &. 

i Habla otra ves. Habla segnnda toi. 

\ t Vuelre i hablar. 

The price of the merchandise falls. 
To deduct 

Caer. Bajear, 

Baja. el precio de las mercadeiiaa. 

Deducvr. Rebajar. 

«. , , 3 S Sobreeargar. 

T9 overch«rge. to adr too much. ^ p^^ ^,^^ ^„ ^ „^j, ^^^ 

Kot haying oveTchaiged yon, I can- 
not deduct any thing. 

An ell, a yard. 
A mile. 

No habiendole pnesto i V. mny sa« 
bido el precio (mny alto el precio) 
no pnedo rebajar nada. 

Una vara. 


Una legaa« 

iV produce, (to yield, to profit) 

JProdueir. Dar. 
Tener. Oanar. 


390 sxzTr-nvTH lbbsoit. 

__ ..... Xl Cnanto le produce 4 V al alio m 

How much doei that employmeiit i emDieo? 
yield yoa a ye«7 ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ F. ol a* ? 

An cmploynioiit | Un «mplea 

To make one's escape. I Eaeaparse, Huit. 

To run away, flee, | Huir, Eecaparee, 

C Apretaf I09 talones. 
To take to one*9 heeU, •? t Poner lo$ pie$ en polvoroBO, 

i t Tomar hu de. ViUadiega. 
To desert. I Deaertar. 

He deserted the battle. Ha deeertado de la Vatalla. 

The thief has run away. I £1 ladnm se ha eecapado 

By no means, \ De ningun modo. 

\ No del todo. De ningun modo. 
Nada de eao. 


Well, (y hien^) does your sister make any pro^ss ? — She would make 
some, if she were as assiduous as you. — You flatter me. — Not at all ; 
I assure you that I should be higbly satisfied, (muy,) if all my pupils 
worked like you. — ^Why do you not go out to-day ? — ^I would go out 
if it were fine weather.— Shall I have the pleasure of seeing you to- 
morrow ? — If you wish it I will come. — Shall I still be here when you 
arrive, {fUgue ?) — Will you have occasion (pcasion) to go to town this 
evening ? — ^I do not know, but I would go now if I had an opportunity, 
(una buena ocasion,) — ^You would not have so much pleasure, and you 
would not be so happy, if you had not friends and books. — Man (d) 
would not experience so much misery (la miseria) in his career, (la 
carrera^ and he would not be so unhappy, were he not so blind^ 
(ct<^o.)— You would not have that insensibility (e&a insensibilidad) to- 
wards the poor, and you would not be so deaf (sordo) to their supplicap 
tion, (d TuegOy) if you had be6n yourself in misery for some time. — 
f ou would not say that if you knew me well. — ^Why has your sister 
not done her exerci^s ? — She would have done them if she had not 
been prevented. — ^If you worked more, and spoke oflener, you would 
speak better. — ^I assure you, Sir, that I should learn better if I had 
more time. — ^I do not complain of you, but of your sister. — You would 
have no reason (motivo) to complain of her, had she had time to do 
what you gave her to do. — Do yon already know what has happened t 
—I have not heard any thing.^-.<The house of our neighbor has beep 

SIXET-FirrH IJE880H. 297 

burnt down, (quemado.) — ^Have they not been able to save any tiling t 
— They were very fortunate (muy cforttmados) in saving the persons 
that were in it ; but out of the (de las) things that were there, they 
could save nothing. — ^Who has told yon that ? — Our neighbor himself 
has told it me. 

Why are you without a ight ? — ^The wind blew it out when 3rou 
came in. — What is the price of this cloth 7 — I sell it at three dollars 
and a half the ell, (la vara,) — ^I think it very dear. Has the price of 
cloth not Allien 7 — ^It has not fallen : the price of all goods has fallen, 
except that of cloth, (menos d dd pafU},)—! will give you three dollars 
for it — I cannot let you have (dor) itfor(por) that price, for it costs me 
more. — ^Will you have the goodness to show me some pieces (la jntia) 
of English cloth 7 — ^With much pleasure. — ^Does this cloth suit you 7 
— ^It does not suit me. — Why does it not suit you 7 — ^Because it is too 
dear ; if you will lower the price, (rebajar aiguna cosa,) I shaH buy 
twenty yards of it — ^Not having asked too much, I cannot take off any 
thing. — ^You learn Spanish : does your master let you translate 7 — ^He 
lets me read, write, and translate. — ^Is it useful to translate in learning 
a foreign language 7 — ^It is useful to translate when you (sabe) nearly 
know the language you are learning ; but while (aiando) y5u do not 
yet know any thing it is entirely (del todo) useless. — What does your 
Spanish master make you do 7 — He makes me read a lesson ; idler- 
wards he makes me translate English exercises into Spanish on the 
lesson which he has made me read ; and from the beginning to the 
end of the lesson he speaks Spanish to me, and I have to answer him 
in the very language (Ui misma lengua) which he is teaching me. — 
Have you already learned much in that manner 7 — ^You see that I have 
already learned something, for I have hardly been learning it three 
months, and I already understand you when you speak to me, and can 
answer you. — Can you read (it) as well 7 — ^I can read and write as 
well as speak, (it.) — ^Does your master also teach German 7 — ^He 
teaches it — ^Wishing to make his acquaintance, I must beg of you 
(yt? U mplico) to introduce me to him, (que me presente V. d il.) 

How many exercises do you translate a day 7 — ^If the exercises are 
not difficult I translate from three to four every day ; and when they 
are so 1 translate but one. — How many have you already done to-day 7 
— ^It is the third which I am translating ; but to-morrow I hope to be 
able to do one more, for I shall be alone, (solo.) — ^Have you paid a visit 
to my aunt 7 — ^I went to see her two months ago^ and as she looked 
d, I have not gone to her any more since ^at time. — ^How do 


yon do to^j f — I am very unwell. — ^Uow do yoa like that soup 7—1 
think it is very bod ; but since I have lost my appetite (el apettio) I do 
not like any thing. — How much does that employment yield to your 
&ther ? — It yields him more than four thousand dollars. — What news 
do they mention, {decirl) — ^Tney say nothing new. — ^What do you in- 
tend to do to-morrow ? — I propose j(»ning a hunting party. — ^Does your 
brother purpose playing Qiacer) a game at billiards? — ^He proposes 
playing a game at chess. — ^Why do some people laugh when I speak ? 
—Those are unpolite people ; you have only to laugh also, and they 
will no longer laugh at you. If you did as I do (como yo) you would 
speak well. You must study (es menester) a little every day, and you 
will soon be no longer afraid to speak. — ^I will endeavor to follow your 
advice, for I have resolved (jn-oponerse) to rise every morning at six 
o'clock, to study till ten o'clock, and to go to bed early. — ^Why does 
your sister comphun ? — ^I do not know ; since she succeeds in every 
thing, and since (y que) she is happy, even happier than you and I, 
Why does she complain 7 — ^Perhaps she complains (^u^arse) because 
■he is not thoroughly acquainted with that business. — l^iat may be. 

SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON.— iieccicwi Sexagisima sexto. 

A kind, a sort, (a species,) 
What kind of fruit is that? 
A stone, (of a fruit.) 
A stone of a peach, an apricot, a 

One must break the stone before one 
comes to the kernel. 
A kernel. 
An almond. 
It is a kemel-firait 

To gather. 
I gathA, I gathered, I will gather. 
To gather fruit 
To serve up the soup. 
To bring in the dessert. 

The fruit 

An apricot 

A peach* 

Oenero. Especie. Close. 

I Que especie de fruta es esa 7 

Hueso, (de fruta.) 

Un hueso de melocoton, albariooqne, 

Fruta de huesoi 
E2b neceeario romper el hueso para 

conseguir la almendra. 
Una pepita. Una almendra. MeoUa 
Una almendra. 
Fruta de pepita. 
E» fruta de pepita. 


Cojo. Gcjia. Ccjer6. 

Cojer fruta. 

Sennr la sopa. 

Servir los pootres. 

La fruta. 

Un albaricoque. Un 4i 

Un meloooton. 

sarr-aixTH lbssoh. 


A plom- 
An anecdote. 
.^Itoast meat 



The last 

Last week. 
To eeasi, to leave off. 
I leave off reading. 
She leaves off speaking. 


To escape. 
To escape a misfmtone. 
He ran away to avoid death. 

El tUtimo. La tUthna. 

Pasado. Pasada. 

La semana pasada, (dltfana.) 

C^Mf. Pmrar. Dtjar rfs. 

Yo ceso de leer. 

Ella cesa de habbr. 

I Evitof, Eseapar, 

Escapar. Evitar. 
j Evitar una desgracta. 
I Se eseap6 para evitar la 

To do without a thing. 
Can you do without bread 7 

I can do without it 

There are many things which we 
must do without 

Privmrse de, Paear, Patmrde mn. 

I Puede v. pasar sin pan ? 

I Puede V. privarse de pcu Y 

Puedo pasar sin ^. 

Me puedo privar de 41. 

Hay muchas cosas ain las eaales ss 

puede pasar, (de las cuales puede 


To execute a commUsion, 
To acquit one* 9 eelf of a'commis- 


I have executed your commission. 
Have yon executed my commioBion 7 

I have executed it 

To do on^e duty. ' 

To diochargef to do, or to fulfil 

on^e duty. 
That man alwa]rs does his dut> j 

That man always fulfils his (luty. ] 

Cumplir con un encargo, 

Ejecutar una eominon. 

Hacer una comition. 

He cumplido con su encaigo de V. 

I Ha cumplido V. con mi encaigo» 

(comision) 7 
He cumplido con €i, (ella.) 
Cumplir con st: obligadon^ {de* 

Hacer su deher. 
Ese hombre i umple siemprs oon as 


To rely, to depend upon oomething. i 
He depends upon it 
I rsly npoait | 

Ton may rely npoa him. 

Contar con. 
£l confia en 
CttMito con esow 
v. puede cental 
en a.) 


«. (• 



To 9t^gieet to be mjficientf 
Is that bread suffioieiit for 70a 7 
It is sufficient for me. 
Will that money be saffident for 

that man 7 
It will be sufficient for hhn. 
Little wealth suffices to the wise. 
Has that sum been sufficient for that 

Was that man contented with that 

It has been sufficient for him. 
He has been contented with it 
To be contented with something. 
It would be sufficient for him if you 

would only add a few dollais. 
He would be contented if you would 

add a few doUaia 

Battar. Ser basttuUe, (n jfieim K tt . ) 

I Le basta £ V. ese pan T 

SL Me basta. 

I SeriL suficiente ese dinero para cm 

Seri suficiente para €L 
Poca riquoza basta al sabio. 
I Ha sido bastante esa suma para cm 

^Estaba contento ese hombre 001 

esa suma? 
Ha sido bastante para €1 
Ha ostado satisfecho con ella. 
Estar satisfecho con, (or de.) 
Seria hoHante para el m V. ailadiera 

solamente algunos pesos. 
Si V. afiadiese algunos pesos, il cs- 

taria eatufecho. 

To add, < 

To build. I 

To embark, to go on board. \ 


To set sail. • 
To set sail for. 
To set sail for America. 
To sail 

Under full sail. 
To set under full sail. 
He embarked on the sixteenth of last 

He sailed on the thirteenth instant 

The instant, the present month. 

The fourth or fifth in.<>tant 

The letter is dated the 6th mstant 

ARadir, Aereeentar *. 


Edifiear. Fabriear, 

Embarear. Emhareame, 

Ir d bordo. Abordo, 

Una vela. 

Hacer vela. Hacerse i la vela. 

Hacer vela para. 

Hacerse & la vela para la America 


A velas Ilenas. A velas tendidas. 

Andar i baena vela. 

Se embarcd el dies y seis del mos 

Se hizo i. la vela el trece del cor* 

El corriente. 

EI cuatro 6 cinco del corriente. 
La carta Ileva fecha del seis dei 


That U to oay, (L e,) 
Et etetera, («!<?., ^.) 

My pen (quill) is better than yours. 

I write better than you. 

lliey will warm the mmjk 

E» decir, A eaber, 

Et eiiera, (etc., 4^) 

Bfi pluma es mejor que la de T. 

Yo escribo mejor .que V. 

t Pondrin la sopa i calentar. 

butt-shth uanoir. 801 

Dknar (or rapper) ii on the table. 

Do yoa ehooae any eoap 7 
Shall I help you to some soup ? 
I will trouble you for a little. 

To lerve up, to attend. 

La oomida (or la oena) estd en la 

^GuttaV. desopa? 

I Le senrir^ i V. un poco de eopa 7 

HAgame V. el favor de darme nn 

Servir. Senrine. Aaistir. 
Poner en ^a meea. 



I should like to (querria) know why I cannot speak as well as yon 7 
— ^I will tell yon : yon would speak quite as well (tan hien como) as I, 
if you were not so bashful, (corio^ But if yon had studied yonr les- 
sons more carefully yon would not be afraid to speak ; for in order to 
speak well one must know, («epa,) and it is very natural that he who 
does not know well what he has learned, should be timid, (sea ccrto^ 
pres. subj.) Yon would not be so timid as you are, if you were sure 
to make no fiiults. 

I come to wish you a good morning. — ^You are very kind, (hondoso,) 
— ^Would yon do me a favor ? — ^Tell me what you want, for I would 
do any thing (cualquiera cosa) to oblige you, (servirle,) — ^I want five 
hundn^ dollars, and I beg you to lend them to me. I will return 
them to you as soon as I have received my money. You would oblige 
(Javorecer) me much if you would render (Jiacer) me this service. — 
I would do it with all my heart if I could ; but having lost all my 
money, it is impossible for me (me es imposible) to render yon this 
service. — Will you ask your brother whether he (st) is satisfied with 
(can) the money which I have sent him ? — ^As to my brother, he is 
satisfied with it, but I am not so; for having suffered shipwreck 
(naufragar) I am in want of the money which you owe me. 

Have they served up the soup? — Thy have served it up some 
minutes ago. — ^Then it must be cold, and I only like soup hot, (caliente.) 
—They will warm it for you. — ^You will oblige me, (favorecer,) — 
Shall I help you to some of thi% ro&st meat ? — ^I will trouble you for a 
little. — Will you eat some of this mutton ? — I thank you, I like fowl 
better. — ^May I offer yon (fe qfrecerS) some wine ? — ^I will trouble you 
for a little. — ^Have taey already brought in the dessert?— They have 
brought it in. — ^Do yon like fruit ? — I like fruit, but I have no more 
appetite.— Will you eat a little cheese 7—1 will eat a little.— Shall I 
belp you to English or Dutch cheese ?•— I will eat a little Dutch 


802 Barx-eaxB LBssoir. 

cheese.— What kind of frait is that ?— It is stooe-frait— What is tt 
called ? — ^It is called thus.— Will you wash your hands ? — I should 
like to (querer) wash them, but I have no towel to (^pard) wipe them 
with. — ^I will let you have (mandari que le den) a towel, some aoKp, 
and some water. — ^I shall be much obliged (agradecer) to you. — May 
I ask you for (me hard V, el favor de) a litde water 7 — ^Here is soDie» 
(aqai la tiene F.) — Can you do without soap 7 — Ab for soap I can do 
without it, but I must have a towel to wipe my hands with.— Do yon 
often do without soap 7 — There are many things which we must do 
without. — Why has that man run away 7 — ^Because he had no other 
means of escaping the punishment (casiigo) which he had desei /ed, 
(merecer,) — Why did your brothers not get a better horse 7 — ^If they 
had got rid of their old horse, they would have got a better. — Has your 
father arrived already 7 — ^Not yet, but we hope that he will arrive this 
very day, (hoy mismoJ) — ^Has your friend set out in time ^ — ^I do not 
know, but I hope he has set out in time. 

Have you executed my commission? — ^I have executed it — ^Haa 
your brother executed the commission which I gave him 7 — ^He has 
executed it — ^Would you execute a commission for me 7 — ^I am under 
so many obligations to you that I will always execute your commis- 
uons, when it shall please you to give me any. — ^Will you ask the 
merchant whether (si) he can let me have (darme) the horse at the 
price which I have offered him 7 — ^I am sure that he would be satisfied 
if you would add a few dollars more. — ^If I were sure of that, I would 
add a few dollars more. — Good morning, my children ! have you done 
your task 7 — You well know that we always do it ; for we must be ill 
(seria menester que estuviesemos enfermos, imperfect of the subjunctive, 
of which hereafler) not to (para) do it. — ^What do you give us to-day 7 
— I give you to study the sixty-sixth lesson, and to do the exercises 
belonging to it ; that is to say, the 207th, 208th, and 209th. Will you 
endeavor to commit no errors, (hacerfaUas 7) — ^We shall endeavor to 
commit none. — ^Is this bread sufficient for you 7 — ^It would be sufficient 
for me if I was not very hungry. — ^When did your brother embark 
for America 7 — He sailed on the 30th of last month. — ^Do you promise 
me to speak to your brother 7 — I promise you, you may depend upon 
it — I rely upon you. — ^Will you work harder (mgor) for next lesson 
than you have done for this 7 — ^I will woric harder. — ^May I rely upon 
it 7— You may. 

Bucrr-SBTSsra uttasoK. 


SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— iieccion Sexagimna s^ptima. 

Toh0 a judge of wmetkhig, 

A je you a judge of cloth 7 
I am a judge of it 
I am not a judge of it 
I am a good judge of it 

I am not a good judge of it 



Ser periio (inteligentef facuUaHoo) 
en alguna com. Conocedor do. 
Entender de. Poderjusfgar de, 

1 1 Entiende V. de pafios 7 

t SL Entiendo. 

t No. No Boy perito. 

t Soy inteUgeute. t Et mi oficuk 
No entieudo i 

No puedo juzgar. 

To draw. 
To chalk, to trace, (to counter- 

To dmw a landscape. 
To draw after life. 
The drawing. 
The drawer. 

Dibujar. Booquejar, 
i Dibujar con yeeo, Traxar, 
\ Delinear, Colcar. 

Dibujar un paisaje, (un pais.) 

Dibujar al natural. 

El dibujo. 

El dibujador. El dibujante. 

La naturaleza. 

7S mnnpgty or to go about a thing. 

How do you manage to make a fire 

without tonga ? 
f ffo about it 80. 

"Vou go about it the wrong way. 
f go aboQt it the right way. 
^w does your brother manage to 
do that? 

Skilfully. HandUy. 

Dexterously. Cleverly. 


Unhandily. Badly. 

K t Manfjar. Hacer para. 
(' Procurar. Lograr, 
1 1 Como hace V. para encender foego 

sin tenazas? 
t Hago de esta manera. 
V. lo hace mal, (t oZ reveo.) 
To lo hago bien. 

I De que mode procura sn hermant 
de v. hacer eeo 7 

iDiestramente. MaAosamente. 

iDesmanadamente. Toecamento 
Torpemente. Malamente. 

To forbid, 
1 forbid yon to do that 

To lower, to coat down. 
To east down one's eye. 
The curtain. 

The curtain rises — ^folls. 

The stocks have iinllen. 


Prohibir. No querer. 

To le prohibo i, V. hacer esow 


t Bajar los ojos. 

La cortina. El teloo. 

La cortina se levanta, (baja.) 

El telon se levanta, (se baja.) 

Los. fondos ptlUicos ban bi^jadow 


sirry-sxvsiirTH lbssoh. 

The day fklla. 
Nigfat C0IIM8 on 
It grow* dark. 
It growa late. 

To Mioop. 

To smell 

To feel 
H6 sraella of garlic. 
To feel some one's pnlae. 

To eoneetU to a thing, 
I consent to it 

r El 

El dia eae. f El oolm ^oim. 
^ Amocheee. t Se koce fmch§ 
' Obecursee, 
I Se hace tarda. 

SEncorvaroe, IneUnarm^ 


Sentir •. 

Hoele & ajo. 

t Tomar el pulso i algoaa 

Con»entir •. 

Yo consiento en ello, (en eso.) 

To hide, to conceal 
The mind. 
In fact 
The truth. 
The effi^ct 
It is true. 
A true man. 
This is the right place for that pic- 

Eeeonder, Ocultar 
El entendlmienta La mente. 
"En yerdad. A la verdad. 
'En efecto. 
La verdad. 
El efecto. 

Verdadero. t Verdad, 
t Ee verdad. 
E2s hombre sincero. 
Elste es el verdadero lugar para < 

To tJUnk mtich of one, (to esteem 

To esteem some ont. 

I do not think much of that man. 

I think much of him. 
I esteem him much. 

The case. 
The flower, the bloom, the blossom. 

On a level with, even with. 
That house is on a level with the 

To blossom, (to flourish,) 
Tb grow. 
To grow tall 
That child grows so fast that we 

may even see it 
The rain has made the com grow. 

SHaeer gran (or mucho) easo de uno, 
Hacer estimacion. 
I Estimar a alguno, Apreciar, 
{ Yo no hago gran caso de ese hombrob 
< t iVb tengo en mucho d ese homhrs. 

Yo hago mucho caso de 61, 

Yo le estimo mucho. 

El caso, 


A nivel de, Aflor de 

Esa casa esti i flor del agua. 

Echarflores, Florecer, 

Crecer, (See verbs m cer, Appw) 

Ese nine crece tan ripidamente qu* 

podemos verlow 
La Unvia ha hecho crecer el grano. 

aunrr-SBYSNTH lbsson. 


Aeofrer. • 

A cottage. A hut 

To shelter one's self from somethmg. 
To take shelter from something. 
Let them shelter themselves from 

the rain, the wind. 
Let ns enter that cottage in order to 

he sheltered from the storm, (the 


Un albergne. Una posada. 
Una gnarida. Un ahrigo. 
Una cabaila. Una choxa. 
^ t Jacal, (in Mezica) 

iPonerse al abrigo (i cubierto) de a]« 
guna cosa. Abrigurse, 
F^nganse ellos al abrigo (i cubierto) 

de la Uuvia, del viento. 
Entremos en esa choza para guare* 
cemos de la tempestad. 

Everywhere. AU over* 

An o¥er (throughout) the town, 

A shade. 
Under the ehade. 
Sift down under the shade of that 

For todo, Por todtu 

For iodoe, Por todaa, 

Por todae partes, 

Por toda la ciudad. 

Por todo el pueblo. 

Una sombra. 

A la oomhrtL 

,Si^ntese V. i. la somlou de ese drbol 

To pretend. 

That man pretends to sleep. 

That young lady pretends to know 

They pretend to come near us. 

SAparentar. Fingiree. 
t H<ieer$e. Hacer que, or eomo que 
iBse hombre se finge donnido. 
t Se hace (ee finge) domUdo. 
It Esa seilorita hace que sabe el 
Fingen aceroarse 4 noeotros. 

. Now. 


From. Since. 


From nooming. 

Deede la maAana. 

From the break of day. 

Desde el amanecer. 

From this time forward. 

t Desde hoy en adelante. 

As toon as. 

Luego qiie. Asi que. 

As soon as I see him I «hall 


t Asf que le vea yo le hablar^. 

to him. 

From the cradle. From a child. 

Deede la cuna. Desde la niiiei. 

For f em' of. 
To eatek • csid. 

^ Por miedo de. 
\ Por no. 
I Resfriarse* 

Por temor de. 



I will not go oat for fear of catdimg 

a cold. 
He does not wkh to go to town, for 

fear of meeting one of hie creditoia. 

He does not wish to open his pane, 
for fear of losing his money. 

No sddr€ por temor de reafriarme, or 

de tomar una flajdoo. 
£i no qaiere ir i la ciudad por temor 

de encontrane con nno de sns 

£l no qaiere abrir so bdsa por miedo 

de perder sa dineio. 

To copy. To transcribe. 

To decline. 

To transcribe fairly. 
A substantive. An adjectiTO. 
A pronoan. A verb. 
A preposition. 
A gnunmar. A dictionary. 

Copiar. Transcribir. 


t Sacar en limpio. Copiar. 

Un substantive. Un adjetivo 

Un pronombre. Un veilx». 

Una preposicion. 

Una gramdtica. Un diceionarie 

Are yoa a judge of cloth ? — ^I am a judge of it. — ^Will you buy Bome 
yards for me ? — If you will give *me the money I will buy you some. 
— You will oblige Qiacer favor) me. — ^Is that man a judge of cloth ? — 
He is not a good judge of it. — ^How do you manage to do that ? — ^I 
manage it so. — ^WiU you show me how you manage it ? — ^I will show 
you, (yo lo quiero.) — What must I do for my lesson of to-morrow ? — 
You will transcribe your exerdtses fairly, do three others, and study 
the next lesson, (siguiente.) — ^How do you manage to get goods (mer- 
caderias) without money ? — ^I buy on credit. — ^How does your dister 
manage to learn French without a dictionary 7 — She manages it thus. 
— She manages it very dexterously. But how does your brother 
manage it ? — ^He manages it very awkwardly ; he reads, and looks for 
the words in the dictionary. — ^He may learn in this manner twenty 
years without knowing how to make a single sentence, {una sola sen- 
iencia,) — ^Why does your sister cast down her eyes 7 — She casts them 
down because she is ashamed of not having done her task. — Shall we 
breakfast in the garden to-day 7 — The weather is so fine, that we 
should take advantage of it, (aprovecbarse,) — ^How do you like that 
coffee 7 — ^I like it very much. — ^Why do you stoop 7 — ^I stoop to pick 
up the handkerchief which I have dropped. — ^Why do your sisters hide 
themselves 7— They would not hide themselves if they did not fear to 
be seen. — ^Whom are they afraid of 7— They are afraid of their 
governess (una aya) who scolded them yesterday because tli^ had 
oot done their tasks, (la tarea.) 


Have yoQ already seen my son ? — ^I have not seen him yet ; bofw is 
be ? — He is very well ; you will not be able to recognise him, for he 
has grown very tall in a short time. — ^Why does that man give nothing 
to the poor 7 — ^He is too avaricious, (avaro ;) he does not wish to open 
his purse for fear of losing his money. — ^What sort of weather is it ? — 
It is very warm ; it is long since we had any rain : I believe we shall 
have a storm, (una tempestad.) — ^It may be, (puede ser,) — The wind 
rises, (levcmtarse,) it thunders already; do you hear it? — ^Yes, I 
hear it, but the storm is still far off, Qgos,) — Not so far as you think ; 
see how it lightens. — ^Bless me, {Dios miot) what a shower, {que 
aguacero /) — ^If we go into some place we shall be sheltered from the 
storm. — Let us go injo that cottage, then, {fues ;) we shall be sheltered 
the^ from the wind and the rain, — ^Where shall we go to now ? Which 
load shall we take ? — The shortest (corto) will be the best. — ^We have 
too much sun, and I am still very tired ; let us sit down under the 
shade of that tree. — ^Who is that man who is sitting under the tree 7-^ 
I do not know him. — It seems he wishes to be alone, {estar 9olo;) for 
when we offer (querer*) to approach him, he pretends to be asleep.— 
He is like your sister : she understands French very well ; but when I 
begin to speak to her, she pretends not to understand me. — ^You have 
promised me to speak to the captain ; why have you no^ done so 7 — 
I have not seen him ; but as soon as I see him (lu^o que le vea) J 
shall speak to him. 

SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Lcccion Sexagisima ocUna. 
THE PLUPERFECT, (No. 2, ^)-'Preterito Pluscuamperfecto, (No. 2, p.) 

Tlds tense is formed with No. 2, the imperfect of the auxitiary haher, 
and thft past participle (p.) of the verb to be conjugated. 

This tense is used to express an action which was already past when an 
action also past took place. Example : — I had already finished my task 
when you came in — Ya habia acahado mi tarea, cuando V, entrd, 

I had dined when he arrived. i Yo habia comido cuando Ileg6. 

You had lost your pnise when I V. habia perdido su bolsa cuando yo 

found mine. hall^ la mia. 

Had you finished your exercise i Habia acabado V, su ejercicio 

when I came in t cuando yo entr^ ? 

No, Sir, / had not finished it. No, seilor, yo no U habia acabado. 

We had dined when it struck . Habiamos comido cuando dl^ron las 

twelve. I doce. 



/ had read your letter when I wrote 
mine. - I 

Yo hahia leido la carta de V enandt 
escribf la mia. 

ICr It will be perceived that this tense is used in conueption with the 

Preierito Perfecto Remoto, (No. 3.) For the use of that tense see Lesson 

.XL. Observe that the Preterite Imperfecto (No. 2) answers to the Euglish 

used to ; the Pretdrito Perfecto Remote (No. 3) to did ; and that the Preterite 

Pluscuamperfecto (No. 2, p.) corresponds to the Euglish pluperfect 

His came (used to come) to see me 

every day. 
They came (did come) yesterday. 
/ had seen them before. 
After you had epoken you used to 

go out 
After shaving I waehed my face. 

The king had appointed an admiral 

when he heard of yon, (did hear.) 
After having wanned themselves 

they went into the garden. 
As soon as the bell rung (did ring) 

you awoke, (did wake.) 
As soon as they called me (did call) 

I got up, (did get) 
As soon as he was ready he canie to 

see me. 
As soon as we had our money we 

agreed to that 
As soon as he had his hone he came 

to show it me. 
After trying several times they suc- 
ceeded in doing it 
As soon as I saw him I obtained 

what I wanted, (was wantmg.) 
As soon as / spoke to him he did 

what / wanted. 
Hie bomnesB was soon over. 

El venia 4 vorme todos los diia. 

Ellos vinihon ayer. 

Yo los habia visto intes. 

Despues que V, habia habUdo V 

Despuee de afeitaime me lavaba la 

El rey habia nombrado un ahnirante, 

cuando le habldron de V. 
Despues de haberse calentado se 

fuhron al jardiu. 
Aa( que repic6 {sonS) la campana Y. 

Luego que me Uamkron me levante, 

Luego que 61 estuzo pronto (listo) 

otfio 4 vermo. 
As! que tuvimos nuestro dinero eon' 

venimos en ello. 
Luego que tuvo sn cabaDo vino 4 en- 

Despuee de probar muchas voces 

logr&ron hacerlo. 
Aflf que le vi consegid lo que yo 

Al momento qne le habli hixo \o que 

yo queria. 
Pronto se acabd el asnnta 


Del Pretirtto Perfecto Anterior^ (Na 3, p.) 

This tense is formed with No. 3 of haber and the past participle (p.) of the 
verb to be conjugated. It is used (from its name tmierior) to exproas nm 
action past before another which is likewise past, and is hardly oyer vmd 
except after one of the conjunctions. 


. 5 LaoKo qm* Asf que 

Asfloon as. Wi * 

( Al moDMiito que. 

No sooner, scarcely. 

Despnes qne. 



It also expresses an action quickly done. Elxamples > 

As soon as / had finished my work 

I-carried it to him. 
As soon as / had dressed myself I 

went out. 
When I had dined it struck twelve. 
/ kMd soon done eating. 

Luego que hube acahado mi trabajo 

se le Uey^ & ^L 
Asi que yo me huhe Testido salL 

As( que huhe eomido di6ron lal^ docs 
Pronto huhe acahado de somer. 

(tT No. 3 should be preferred to this tense, which is seldom psed m 

What did you do when you had finished your letter ? — ^I went to my 
brother, who took (flevar) me to the theatre, where I had the {^eaaisre 
to find one of my friends whom I had not seen for ten years.'— What 
dklst thou do after getting up this morning ? — ^When I had read the 
letter of the Polish count I went to see (salir*) the theatre of the 
prince which I had not seen before, (todavia,) — What did your fiither 
do when he had breakfasted ? — ^He shaved and went out — ^What did 
your friend do after he had been a-walking ? — ^He went to the baron, 
(bairm.) — ^Did the baron cut the meat after he had cut the bread 7— 
He cut the bread after he had cut the meat — ^Wh'en do you set out 7 
— ^I do 1 ot set out till to-morrow ; for before I leave I will once mrre 
see my good friends. — ^What did your children do when they *Qad 
break&sted? — They went a-walking with their dear preceptor, (pre- 
ceptor.)— Where did your uncle go after he had warmed himself 7 — 
He went nowhere. After he had wanned himself he undressed and 
went to bed. — ^At what o'clock did he get up 7 — ^He got up at sunrise. 
— ^Did you wake him 7 — I had no need to wwke him, for he had got np 
before me. — ^What did your cousin do when he heard of the death (la 
fnuerte) of his best firiend 7 — He was much afflicted, and went to bed 
without saying a word. — ^Did you shave before you breakfasted 7— 
I shaved when I had breakfasted. — ^Did you go to bed when you had 
eaten supper 7 — ^When I had eaten supper I wrote my letters, and when 
I had written them I went to bed. — ^At what (de que) are you afflicted ? 
— ^I am afflicted at that accident — ^Are you afflicted at the death of 
voor relation 7 — I am much afilicted at i^ (de e22a.)— When did youi 

SIO 8irnr-BioHTH lbssoit. 

relation die ? — He died last month. — Of whom do yon complain ?-^ 
I complain of your boy. — ^Why do you complain of him ? — ^Because h$ 
has killed the pretty dog which I received from one of my friends.— 
Of what has your uncle complamed ? — ^He has complained of what 
you have done. — Has he complained of the letter which I wrote to him 
the day before yesterday ? — He has complained of it 

Why did^you not stay longei in HoUand ?— When I was there the 
living was dear, and I had not money enough to stay there longer.^ 
What sort of weather was it when you were on the way to Vienna ? — 
It was very bad weather, for it was stormy, and snowed and rained 
very heavily, (fa c<intoro5.)— Where have you been since I saw you 7 
— ^We sojourned long on the 8ea-«hore, untH a ship arrived, which 
brought us to France. — ^Will you continue your narrative ? — Scarcely 
had we arrived in Fiance when we were taken (Uevar) to the king, who 
received us very well, and sent us back to our country. — ^A peasant 
having seen that old men (anciano) used {servirse de) spectacles (onto- 
qf os) to read, went to an optician (^optico) and asked for a pair, (pedir,) 
The peasant then took a book, and having qsened it, said the spectacles 
were not good. 'Die optician put another pair (otro par) of the best 
which he could find in his shop (la tienda) upon his nose ; but the 
peasant being still unable to r^, the merchant said to him : " My 
friend, perhaps you cannot read at all ?" " If I could, (si yo supiera 
Uer^^) said the peasant, " I should not want your spectacles." — ^Henry 
IV. meeting one day in his palace (el palacio) a man whom he did not 
know, asked him to whom he belonged : '' I belong to myself," replied 
this man. ** My friend," said the king, '* you have a stupid master."— 
Tell us (cu&nienos V.) what has happened to you lately, (d otro diaJ) 
— ^Veiy willingly, (con mucho gusto :) but on condition that you will 
listen to me (que VV, me escuchen) without interrupting (interrumpir) 
me. — We will not interrupt you ; you may be (poder contar) sure of 
it, (con eZIo.)— Being lately at the theatre, I saw La Pmtura pm^ 
larUe and La Mt^'er Uorosa performed, (ver repreKfUar.) This latter 
pby (la uUi$na eomedia) not being very amusing to me, I went to tht 
concert, where the music caused me a violent headache. I then left 
(d^'ar) the concert, cursing it, (maU^ctr,; and went strai^t (em 
derechura) to the madhouse (la casa de los locos), in order to see my 
cousin. On entering the hospital of my cousin I was struck with 
horror (esiar penetrado de horror) at seeing several madmen, (el loeo^ 
who came up to me, jumping (saiiar) and howling, (otiZZonio.)— 
What did you do then? — ^I did the same, and they set i]qp a laugh 
{echar d reir) as they were withdrawing, (al retirarseJ) 


SErrY-NDnH LESSOS.^Leccum SexagSsima nona. 

To get beaten. 

To get paid. 
To get one's self invited to dine. 


Thirdly, &a 

Is your mother at home 7 

She is. 

I am going to her hoose. 

A cause. 

A cause of complaint 
She has reason to be sad. 

Grief, sorrow, sadness. 
Is that woman ready to go out? 
She is. 

' t Idevar una paHza. 

Llevar una tunda. 
[ t Sufrir una tunda, (una pdlixa.) 
I i Hacerte pagar. 
I t Hacerse convidar 4 comer. 

I Primero. Al principio. 

\ t Desde luego. 

I Primeramente. Primero. 

* En primer higar. 

I Segnndamente. Segnndo. 

J^n segimdo Ingar. 
i Teroeramente. Tercera 
I En tercer lugar, &c. 

2, E2st4 en casa la seftora madre de y. 7 
I Si, est£. Si, seiior, (seiSora.) 
I Voy 4 oasa de eDa. (Voy 4 sn casb.) 
i Una cauBo. Una raxon. 
\ Un eujeto. Un motivo. 

Un sujeto (un motrvo) de qneja. 

Ella tiene motivo de estar triste. 

Pesar. Pesadumbre. Tristeza. 

I Esti esa mnger pronta para salir ? 

Sf, estd. 

Notwithstanding, in spite of. 
In spite of him, her, them. 

To manage. 

Do yon manage to finish your work 

every Saturday night ? 
Do yon manage to have your work 

dmie every Saturday night ? 

Try to do that, to oblige me. 

! No obstante. Sin embargo. A pesar 
A pesar de €i, de ella, de ellos. 

iConseguir. Lograr, 
Ingeniarse para. Procurar. 

I Consigue V. acabar sn trabajo todov 
los sibados por la noche ? 

t ^ Se ingenia V. para tener acabado 
Bu trabajo todos los sdbadoe por 
(or en) la noche 7 

Procure V. hacer eso para servinney 

Obs. When in order to can be substituted for the preposition to, the 
latter is rendered in Spanish by para, to express the end, the design, or tlia 
cause for which a thing is done. 
I win do every thing to oblige you. i Yo lo har^ todo para servir 4 Y. 



To look upon, into. 
The window looks into the street 
The window looks oat upon the river. 
The back door looks into the garden. 

Caer d, Dar L Mirar 6. 
La ventana cae 4 la eafle. 
La ventana mira al no. 
i La puerta trasera da al jardin. 

To drown, ^ 
To drown a dog. 
To be drowned, to be drowning. 
To drown one*B self, to get drowned. 
To leap through the window. 
To throw out of the window. 
I am drowning. 
He jumped out of the window. 

Anegar. Akogar, (En el a^ua.> 
Ahogar un perro en el ag^ua. 


Saltar por la ventana 

Echar por la ventana 

Me ahogo. Me estoy ahogando 

Salt6 por la ventana. 


He was fastened to a tree. 

The cattle. 

To keep warm. 

To keep cool. 

To keep clean* 

To keep on one's guard against 

Keep on your guard against 

Atar.- Amarrar 

t Le amarriron (atiron) a nn irbol 

El ganado. 

Mantenerse caliente. 

MantenerM frescc. 

Mantenerse limpio, (aseado.} 
£ Guardarse de alguno, (de uno.; 
< Precaverse de alguno, (de una) 
( Estar Bobre aviso con respecto i. 
that I Gudrdese V. de ese hombre 

To take care (to beware) of some' 

body or something. 
If you do not take care of that horse 
it will kick you. 

A kick, (of a horse or ox.) 
Take care that you do not falL 
Take care. 

Ouardarae de. Tener cuidado de 
(con) alguno, (con algttna eo$a ) 

Si y. no se guarda de ese caballo le 
dard coces. 

Una cox. 

Tonga V. cuidado de no caena. 

t Cuidado. 

A thought 
An idea. 


To be struck by a thought 
A thought strikes me. 

That never passed my mind. 

I Un pensamiento. 

I Una i<j^ 

C Un dicho agudo. Un chiste. 
< Una agudeza. Un arranqna. 
t Una viveza. Un repente. 

JDarle goipe i. uno un pensamienta 
Harcerle fiierza & uno una idea 
I Me da golpe un pensamiento. 
'Eso nuuca me pasd por el pensa- 
Eso jamas me entr6 en el 



£ t Pa$arle (pmUnele d uno enpor)lm 
T« tike into one*9 head, ^ cabtMO. 

( MeterseU d uno en la eabexa. 
He took it into his head lately to rob I Ultimairifinte se le piuo en la cabeza 
me* I robanne. 

What is in your head 7 

J I Que le pasa & V. por la cabeza 7 
I Que tiene V. en la cabeza 7 

In my place. 
In your place. 
In his place. 
In her place. 
We must put every things in its place* 

Around, round. 
W« sailed around England. 

They went about the town to look 
•at the curiosities. 

To go around the house. 

Td go about the house. 

To east 
How much does that cost you ? 
How much does this book cost you ? 
It costs me three dollara aud a half. 

That table costs him twenty dollars. 
AUme, hy oru*9 aelf, \ 

I was alone. 

One woman only. 

One God. 
God alone can do that 
The very thought of it is criminal, 
A rngle reading is not sufficient to , 
satisfy a mind that has a true 

Ed mi lugar. 

En su ngar de V. En su lugar. 
En- su lugar. En el lugar de ^L 
En su lugar. En su lugar de ella. 
t Todas las cosas so deben pcmer en 

su lugar. 
Al rededor, (vuelta.) 
Nayegdmos al rededor de In^a- 

t Fu^roD por toda la ciudad pan 

examinar las curiosidades. 
Ir al rededor de la casa. 
t Dar la vuelta de la casa. 
t Ir por toda la casa. 
t Ir de aquf para alll en la casa. 
t Andar toda la casa. 
Coatar *. 

I Cuanto le cuesta 4 V eso 7 
I Cuanto le cuesta i V. este libro 7 
Me cuesta tres pesos y medio, (veinte 

Esa mesa le cuesta veinte pesos. 
Solo. Sola. 

Por H Bolo. Por «l tola. 
Yo estaba solo, (sola.) 
Una sda muger. 
Un sok> Dies. 
Solo DioB puede hacer eso. 
t El mero pensamiento es culpable. 
Una sola lectura no bastaparasa- 

tisfacer d un ingenio que tiene un 

gusto ezacto. 

To kill hy thooting. 
Ha Imp faloum oat his brains. 

I Motor d tiroo. 
t Se ha levantado la tapa de Ip> 

r t Se hf 
< seeos. 

^ tSeha 

tirade un tiro (mortaL) 




He hM blown oat his brains with a | Se void la ta}ia de Vm wema di jm 


He nenred for a long tiine,^cquired 
hoaoFB, and died couteuted. 

He arriyod poor, grew rich in a abort 
time, and lost all in a atiU shorter 

Sirrid largo tiempo, adqniiio non rtm, 
y muiid satisfecho, (contento.) 

Llegd nqvS pobre, se hixo rieo (enri- 
quea6) en poco tiempo, y perdt6 
cuanto tenia en menos tiempo 


What IS the matter with you 7 Why do yon looic se melancholy, 
{parecer 7) — I should not look so melancholy if I had no reason to be 
sad. I have heard just now (Lesson L.) that one of my best friends 
has shot himself with a pistol, and that one of my wife's best friends 
has drowned herself. — ^Where has she drowi.ed herself 7 — She has 
drowned herself in the river which is behind her house. Yesterday, 
at four o'clock in the morning, she rose without saying a word to 
any one, (ninguna personUy) leaped out of the window which looks 
into the garden, and threw herself into the river, where she was 
drowned. — ^I have a great mind (mucha gana) to bathe (banarse) to-day. 
— Where will you bathe 7 — In the river. — ^Are you not afraid of being 
drowned ? — Oh, no ! I can (^saber) swim. — Who taught you 7 — Last 
summer I took a few lessons in the swimming-school, [esctiela de nadar,') 

When had you finished your task 7 — ^I had finished it when you 
came in. — Those who had contributed (contribuir) most to his elevation 
to the throne (trono) of his ancestors, were those who labored (/ro- 
bdff'ar) with the most eagerness to precipitate (predpitar) him from 
it, (de iL) As soon as CsBsar (Cesar) had crossed (pasar) the 
Rubicon, he had no longer to deliberate, (deliberar:) he was obliged 
to conquer (veneer) or to die. — ^An emperor (emperadorj who was 
irritated at (irritado contra) an astrologer, asked him: ^Wretch, 
(miserable!) what death dost thou believe thou wilt die, 7" — ^^I shall 
die of the fever,' replied the astrologer. ''Thou liest," said the 
emperor, ^ thou wilt die this instant of a violent death, (muerU vio* 
lentaJ*) As he was going to be seized, (asvr,) he said to the emperor, 
** Sire, order some one to feel (pres. subj.) my pulse, (senoTf numde 
V, M, que S9 me tame el pulso,) and it will be found that I have a fe- 
ver." This sally (agudezd) saved his life. 

Do you perceive yonder house, (aqueUa 7) — ^I do perceive it : what 
house is it 7 — It is an inn, (una venta ;) if you like we will go into M 


to drink a frlaas of wine, for I am very thirsty.-— Yon are always . 
ihirsty when you see an inn. — If we enter I shall drink your healUi. 
— Rather than (Lesson LXI.) go into an inn I will not drink. — 
When will you pay me what you owe me"? — ^When I have money : 
it i3 useless to ask me for some to-day, for you know very well that 
there is nothing to be had of him who has nothing. — ^When do you 
think you will have money ? — ^I think I shall have some neu year. — 
Will you do what I shall tell you ? — ^I will do it if it is not too difficult.' 
— ^Why do you laugh at me ? — I do not laugh at you, but at your coat. 
— Does it not look like (Lesson LXIQ.) yours 7 — ^It does not look 
like it, for mine is short (corto) and yours is too long, (largo;) mine 
Ls black and yours is green. — ^Why do you associate with that 
iuan ? — ^I would not associate with him if he had not rendered me 
great services, (d favor.) — ^Do not trust him, for if you are not on 
your guard, he will cheat (enganar) yon. — ^Why do you work so 
much ? — ^I work in order to be one day useful to my country. — ^When 
I vras yet little I once (ttn dia) said to my &ther, ** I do not know 
commerce, (d comercio,) and I do not know how to sell; let me 
{permilaTne V,) j^y." My father answered me, smiling, (son- 
ri^Tidose,) " In dealing {traficando se aprende a) oae learns to deal, and 
in selling, to seU." " But, my dear father," replied (replicar) I, " in play- 
ing one learns also to play." " You are right," said he to me, " but you 
must first learn what is necessary and useful." — ^Judge not, {nojuzgue 
F.,) that you may not be judged, (si no quiere que le juzguen !) Why 
do you perceive the mote (una jx^'a) in your brother's eye, you who 
do not perceive the beam (una viga) which is in your own eye 7 — 
Would you copy your exercises if I copied mine 7 — ^I would copy 
them if you copied yours. — Would your sister have transcribed bet 
letter if I had transcribed mine 7 — She would have transcribed it — 
Would she have set out if I had set out 7 — ^I cannot tell you what she 
would have done if you had set out 

SEVENTIETH LESSON.— Leccton Septvagisima. 

OF THE IMPERATIVE.— Z>eZ Imperaiivo, Na 5. 

See the table of terminations. * 

This mood is used when the action expresses commanding, praying, m 

exhorting. Hie sabjeet (when expressed) is always placed after the vwU 

This nHMMi hes the three persorifl in both nambers. 



No. 5 of To he. 

Ist Let me be. ~| 

2d. Be thou. 

3d. Letjiim be. 

2d. Be thou not 

Ist Let us be. 

2d. ]^ ye or you. 

3d. Let them be. 

2d. Be ye not J 

No. 5 of To have, (Qctive,) 
Let me have, &c. 

^ Shif ular. 


Let U8 have, &c. 
Have patience. 

N& 5 de 8tr. 

2p So t(L 

3. Sea ^i, (elK o> V.l 
2. No futae td.^ 

2. St'd Tosj (vosotro!*.^ 

3. Spiiu elloa, [ella*, or VV.) 
2* No sejtia tqSj (voaotrw.') 

J No, 5 dc Truer f (aclivo,) 

\ TeJii.n\ vo, ttyn tu, no tt'iiLfLLS tl5..t*n 

\ ga 61,' (ella, V.) 

C Ten^mos noeotros, teued vosotrofi, 

< no tengais voeotros, tengan dlaa. 


Be (ye) attentive 

Go (ye) there. 
Give it me. 
Send it to him. 
Lend it to me. 

(ellas, W.) 
Tonga y. paciencia. 
1 1 Sean W. atentos. (Sed atentos.) 
\ ' Esten W. ateotoe. (Estad atentoe.) 
VayanW. allA. (Id aUd.) 
D^mele (d^mela) V. 
^nviesele (^nvieeela) V. {i 61) 
Pr^emele (prdstemela) V. 

Ob8. The pronouns object and complement are placed after the Im- 
perative, and joined to it so as to form a single word, when the verb is used 
affirmatively ; but, when used negatively, the pron» m.s are placed before. 
(See Lesson XX. Obs. A.) 

Do not give it to me. j No me le (no me la) d6 V. 

Do not lend it to him. | No se le (no se la) presto V. & 61 

Have the goodness to hand mo that i Tonga V. la bondad de pasarme e«e 
plate. I plato. 

To borrow. 
I will borrow some money of you. 

! will borrow that 'money of you. 

Borrow it of (or from) him. 
I borrow it from him. 
Do not tell it to him — ^to her. 
Do not return it to them. 

Pedir prestado. 

Yo quiero pedir d V. algun dinero 

Yo quiero pedir prestado ese dinero 

Pfdasele V. prestado i A. 
Yo se le pido prestado i. 61. 
No se lo diga V. d 6\—6. ella. 
No se le (la or lo) vuelva V. i. eDos, 

(i ellas.) 

^ (Cr When the second person, either singular or plural, is used nega- 
tively, its termination is the same as the second person singular or plural ti 
\hf^ Rubju native. 



The EnufT-box. 

B& (yo) good, 
Kaaw (ye) It, 

Paciencia. Impaci«ncia. 
£1 pr<]jiino. 

iLa tabaquera. 
Caja de polvo, (de tabaco.) 

Obey your masteis, and never give 
them any trouble. 

Pfty what you owe, comfort the af- 
flicted, and do good to those that 
hare offended yoo. 
Love Giod, and thy neighbor as thy- 

To obey. 
To comfort. 
To offend. 
Let na always lore and practise vir- 
tne, and we shall be happy both 
in this life and in the next 
To practige. 
Let ns see which of us can shoot 

To express. 
To express one^s self. 
To make one's self understood. 
To have the habit. 
To accustom. 
To accustom one's self to something. 
Children must be accustomed early 
to labor. 

To be accustomed to a thing. 
I am accustomed to it 
I cannot express myself in Spanish, 
because I am not in the habit of 
You speak properly. 
To converse. 
To chatter, to prate. 

Sean W. buenon Sed buenoe. 
S^panlo yy. Sabedio yosotros. 

iObedezcan VV. d sus maestros, y no 
les den jamas ninguna pena. 
Obedeced & vueetros maestros, y 
nunca les dels ninguna pena. 
Pague y. sus deudas, ampare i los 
aflijidos, y haga bien i los que le 
hayan ofendido. 
Ama d Dies, y 4 tu prdjimo oomo i 

ti mismo. 
Obedecer, (See verbs in eer.) 
Amparar. ponsolar, 

Amemos y practiquemos siempre la 
virtud, y ser^raos felices tanto en 
esta vida como en la otnu 
Practicar. Ejereer. Haeer. 
yeamos cual de noeotros puede tirar 



Hacerse comprender, (entender.) 

Tener costumbre. SoUr •. 

Aeostumbrar. Acostumhrarse. 

Acostumbrarse i algruna cosa. 

A los ninos se les debe aeostumbrar 

temprano al trabajo. 
Estar acostumbrado d una eosa. 
Eetoy acostumbrado d ello. 
No puedo expresarme en espaliolf 

porque no tengo costumbre de ha* 

y. habla propiamente. 


ernvjansTB lesson. 

A fraitler, a chatterer, 
I practise ^waking. 

To permit, to allow. 
The permiasiou. 
I permit 70a to go there. 

^ Un eharlante, Un kabladcr 
( Unplaticon, Parlante, 
I t No hago mas que hablar 

Permitir, Coneeder. 

La permision, (licencia.) 

Yo le permito & V. que vaya alJ&. 

Do good to the poor, have compas- 
sion on the unfortunate, and God 
will take care of the rest 
To do good to tome one. 

Vo have compassion on sopie one. 




Haga V. bien & los pobres, tenga 
compasion de los infortunados, y 
Dios cuidari de lo demas. 
Haeer bien d alguno. 
C Compadecerse. 
\ Tener compasion de algnno. 

I Compasion. 
El resto. Lo demas. 

If he comes, tell him I am in the 

Ask the merchant whether he can 
let me have the horse at the price 
which I have offered him. 

Si 6\ viene, digale V. que estoy en el 

Infdrmeee Y. del mercader si paede 
dejarme (venderme) el caballo por 
el precio que le he (^recido. 

I read, and was told. 

There they laugh and weep by turns. 

If they knew what you have done. 
The country where diamonds are 

You have been, or will soon be told. 

What we conceive well we express 

To appear before my eyes, his merit 

is too great 
We do not like to see those to whom 

we owe so much, 
t is from a king (Agesilans) that 
we have that excellent maxim — 
* That a man is great only inas- 
i as he is just" 

Lof, y me dij^ron. 

Alii nno rie y llora pw tumoe. 

t ANi rien y lloran altemativamente. 

Si supieran lo que V. ha hecho. 

El pais (la tierra) en donde se hallan 

los diamantes. 
Ya le ban dicho d V., 6 pronto le 

Loque se concibe bien se expresa 

con claridad. 
Pare presenturse ante mi, sa m^rito 

es demasiado grande. 
No nos gusta ver i. aquellos i quienee 

De un rey (Agesilao) es de quien te- 

nemos esa gran mixima — ** Que 

uno no es grande aino en ouanti 



HtTB patience, my dear fnend, and be not sad ; for sadness altera 
{en nada remedia) nothing, and impatience makes bad worse, (lomdlo 
pear.) Be not afraid of your creditors ; be sure that they will do yon 
to harm. They will wait if you cannot pay them yet. — ^When will 
fou pay me what you owe me 7 — ^As soon as I have (tenga) money I 
will pay all that you have advanced (for) me. I have not forgotten it, 
for I think of it (en eUo) every day. I am your debtor, {deudor^ and I 
shaU never deny it — ^What a beautifal inkstand you have there ! pray 
lend it me. — ^^^^t do you wish Co do with it 7 — ^I wish to show it to 
my sister. — ^Take it, but take care of it, and do not break it — ^Do no( 
feai (no tenga Y. cittdfldt).)— What do you want of my brother 7 — ^I 
want to borrow some money of him. — ^Borrow (pedif) some (le) of 
somebody else, {d oira persona,}— If he will net lend me any I will 
borrow some (le) of somebody else. — ^You will do well. — Do not wish 
for (apeiecer) what you cannot -have, but be contented with what 
Providence (la Providencia) has given you, and consider (considerar) 
that ikefe are many men who have not what you have. — Life being 
short, let us endeavor (Lesson LXV.) to make it as agreeable as pos^ 
siUe. But let us also consider that the abuse (d abuso) of pleasure 
(in the plural in Spanish) makes it bitter, (amarga, fem.) — Have you 
done your exercises 7 — ^I could not do them, because my brother was 
not at home. — ^You must not get (dor & hacer) your exercises done by 
your brother, but you must do them yourself, (V. mismd) — What are 
you doing there 7 — ^I am reading the book which you lent me. — ^You 
are wrong in always reading it — ^What am I to do 7 — ^Draw this land- 
scape, (Lesson LXVIL,) and when you have drawn it you shall dediiw 
eome substantives with adjectives. 

What must we do in order to be happy 7 — ^Always love and practise 
virtue, and you will be happy both in this life and in the next — Since 
(ya que) we wish to be happy, let us do good to the poor, and let ua 
have compassion on the unfortunate ; let us obey our masters, and 
never give them any trouble ; let us comfort the unfortunate, (infor' 
tunados,) love our neighbor as ourselves, and not hate those (aborrecer) 
that have offended us ; in short, (en una paUtbra,) let us always fulfil 
our duty, and God will take care of the rest. — ^My son, in order to be 
loved you must be laborious (laborioso) and good. Thou art accused 
(acusar) of having been idle and negligent in thy affairs. Thou know- 
est, however, that thy brother has been punished for having beeii 
naughty. Being lately (d otro dia) in town, I received a letter fron 


thy tntor, iii which he strongly (Juertemeriie) con^plained of thee. Dtp 
not weep ; now go into thy room, learn thy lesson, and be a good boy, 
{pueno^ otherwise {de otro modo) thou wih get nothing for dinner. — ^I 
sliall be so good, my dear father, that you will certainly be satisfied 
with me. — ^Has the little boy kept his word, (cumplir con su palabra /) 
— Not quite ; for after having said that, he went into his room, took 
his books, sat down at the table, and fell asleep. — ^** He is a very good 
boy when he sleeps," said his father, seeing him some time after. 

Good morning. Miss N* — ^Ah! here you are at last I have been 
waiting for you with impatience. — You will pardon me, (jperdonar^ my 
dear, I could not come sooner. — Sit down, if you please. — ^How is your 
mother 7 — She is better to-dajT than she was yesterday. — ^I am glad of 
it, {mucho me alegro de cKo.)--Were you at the ball yesterday ? — I was 
there. — ^Were you much amused, (divertirse ?) — Only so-so. — ^At what 
o'clock did you return hcnne ? — ^At a quarter p^ eleven. 


Have you been learning ^)ani8h long ? — ^No, Sir, I have only beea 
teaming it these six months. — ^Is it possible ! you speak, tolerably 
well (bastarUe bieny for so short a time, ^tan carlo iiempo.) — You jest, 
(burlarse;) I do not know much (of it) yeu — Indeed, you speak it well 
already. — ^I think you flatter me a little. — Not at all ; you speak it 
properly. — ^In order to speak it properly one must know more (of it) 
than I know. — ^You know enough (of it) to make yourself understood. 
— I still make many fauhs.— That is nothing, () eso nole hace;) you 
must not be bashful ; besides (ademas) you have made no faulu in all 
you have said just now.— I am still timid, because I am afraid of beinn 
laughed at, {que se rian de mi, pres. of the subjunctive.) — ^They would 
be very unpolite to laugh at you. Who would be so unpolite as to 
laugh at you, {que se riese de V,7) Do you not know the proverb ?— 
What proverb ? — He who wishes to speak well must begin by {por) 
speaking badly. — ^Do you understand dl I am telling you ? — I under- 
stand and comprehend it very well ; but I cannot express myself wel) 
in Spanish, because I am not in the habit of speaking it — That will 
come in (con el tiempo) time.^I vdsh (lo deseo) it with all my heart 

Do you sometimes see my brother ? — I see him sometimes ; when ) 
met him the other day he complained of you. " If he had behaved 
better, and had been more economical," said he, ^ he would have no 
debts, and I would not have been angry with him." — ^I begged of liim 
to have compassion on you, (se compadeciera de F.,) telling him that 
you had not even money enough to buy bread. — ^* TcU him, when you 
see him," replied he to me, '' that notwithstanding his bad befaavioi 
(la coTiducla) towards me, I pardon (perdocvar d uno) him. TeU hiu> 

SEYKim-wnan LBSSoir. 


•Imh" oontioaed he, ^ that one should not laugh (que no se debe mr) 
at those to whom one is under obligatkm. Have the goodneaa to 
do this, and I shall be much obliged to yoo," added he in going away, 
(al irse.) 

SEVENTY-FIRST LESSON.— I^eccum Septuagisima primera. 

T(0 stand up, ^ | Ettar tn piL 

To remotit up 

Permaneeer en pU 

f^Me pennite /. ir al mereado, (k 
la plaza) T 
I Quiere V. permitinne que Taya i 
la plaza? 

!Apr€9urar9€, DetpacharM, 
Ir presto, (pronto.) 

I Despichese V., y ynelva pronto. 

(Vaya V. i decirle que no paedo ve- 
nir hoy. 
Vaya V., y d(gale que no puedo ye- 
nir hoy. 
He came and told us he oonld not K Vino i. decimos que no podia yenir. 

( Vino y nos dijo que no podia yenir. 
I Vaya V. 4 yer 4 sos amigoi. 

Win you permit me to go to the 

Bfake haste, and return soon. 

Go and see your fHands. 

To weep, to cry. 
The least Uow makes him cry. 
To frighten. 
To he frightened^ to etartle, 

Tlie least thing frightens him. 

Be not frightened. 

To be Ingntened at something. 

What are you frightened at ? 


EH menor goipe le hace llorar. 
Aeuetar. Eepantar, 
Aeuetaree. Sobremtltaree. 

La menor oosa le eepanta. 
Se sobresalta de la menw cosa. 
No se espante (sobresalte) V. 
Asostarw (eqiantarse, sobresaltsisa) 

de algo, (de alguna oosa.) 
I De que se asosta V.7 

At my eipense. 

At his or her expense 

At our expense. 

At other people's expense. 

I A expensas mias. A mi 
I A expensas snyas. A su 
I A expensas naestras. 
* A nuestra oosta. 
I A expensas agenas. 
' A costs agena. 


8Bvsimr-nRST lbssoh. 

T0 depend. 
That depends upon circunsstaiioes. 
.That does not depeud upon me. 

It depends npon him to do it 

Oh ! yes, it depends upon him. 
That man lives at everybody's ex- 

Depender de. Eetar en. 

Eso depende de las circunstanciaa 

Eso no depende de mi 
< \ Depende de ^1 el haceiio. 
\ I Est& en ^1 el hacerlo. 

; Ah ! si, depende de dl. 

Ese hombre vive k ezpensas de todc 

To aetonieh, to eurprioe. 
To be astonieked, to wonder. 
To he eurprieed at oometking. 

I am Buipiised at it 
An extraordinary thing happened 
which surprised everybody. 
To take place. 
Many things have passed which will 
surprise you. 

To eurprise. 
Many days will pass before that 

A man came in who asked me how 

Ammtbrar,, Patmar. Sorprender. 
Asombraree, Eetat aoemhrado. 
Admnaree. MaramUaree. 
Eetar aeonibrado de alguna com, 

(de algo,) 
Estoy sQiprendido de ello, (de eso.) 
Acontecid una oosa extraordinaria 

que sorprendi6 & todo el mundo. 
Acontecer. Suceder. 
Han acontecido muchas cosas que .e 

sorprender^ 4 V. 
Pasardn muchos dias Antes que sn- 

ceda (aconteaca) eso. 
Entrd un hombre que me pregontd 

como estaba, (oomo lo pasaba.) 

Then, thu9, eoneequenlXy. 


The other day. 

C Puee. Entdnees. Asi. 
\ Par coneiguiente. 

iPor consigniente. AHpueo. 
Por tanto. 
I El otro dia. 

I Ultimamente. Poco ha. 
C Dentro de poco tiempa 

Dentro de poca 

Dentro de. En. De aqtd d. 

vrpnmeu the epoch, en th« 

In a short time. 

Obe. In speaking of time, dentro de 
duration, and de aqui&, both. 

He will arrive in a week, (when a ^ ]6l Ilegard dentro de ana semana. 

week is elapsed.) ( f'De aqui d ocho dias. 

It took hun a week to make this < Hizo este viage en una semana. 

journey, (he made it in a week.) \ t C^aetd ocho diae en eu viaje. 
He will have finished his studies in I Habrd acabado sus estudios dentro 

three months. de tres mesee. 

He finiriied his studies in a yMur. | Acalx) sus estudios eu on afto. 



He hat applied himeelf particiilaily 
to geometry. 

To 9pj)ly one^B m//*. 

Se ha dedioado partieiilaiiMnte i la 

Dediearm, Aplu 

He has a good many friendei 
A good many. 

Yoa have a great deal of patience. 

To mako a preoent of oomoiking to 
oome one, 

Hr. Lewie Martines wrote to me 
lately, that liis aisten would be 
here in a ihort time, and requeeCed, 
me to tell yon so ; yoa will then 
be able to see them, and to give 
them tne booke which yoa have 
bought They hope that yon will 
make them a preaent oi them. 
Their brother has annred me that 
they esteem yoa, without knowmg 
yoa pexBonally. 

Tiene moehoa amigoi. 
Muehoo. Mmchao. 
y tiene muchisima pacienca. 
t F. tiene un granfondo de paeten^ 

Hmeer preoonto do algo do oigmnm 

eooa) d algrmo, 
Hmeer un rogalo, (t unttfauMO,) 
Me eecribid el otro dia el Sefior Don 
Luis Martines que sus hermanas 
estarian aqd dentio de poco tiem- 
po, y me rogd se lo dijera d V. ; 
<ent6nce8 podri V. verias y dar- 
les los libroe que ha comprado. 
Ellas piensan que V. se los pre- 
sentari oomo un regalo. Su her- 
mano me ha asegnrado qoe ellaa 
eetiman d V., sin oonooerle perw- 

To got onto be tired. 
To want amuoement. 

How oonld I get tired in your < 

He gets tired everywhere. 

Agreeable, (pleasing.) 
To be welcome. 

Ton are welcome everywhere. 

yAbwrriroe, Faotidiaroo Canoaroe, 

I ^Como podria yp abarrinne ea la 

compaiilade V.7 
I £l en todas partes se fastidia. 

I Agradable. Gustoso. Placentero. 
I t Ser bien venido, t Agaoajar, 
' t En todas partes le agasajan d V. 
' Es V. bien venido (recibido) en todas 
[ partes. 

Will you drink a enp of tea ? — ^I thank you ; I do not like tea. — 
l>o yoa like coffee ?— I like it, bat I have jast dnink some, (le.) — ^Do 
yoa not get tired here ? — ^How coold I get tired in this agreeable 
society ?— As to me I always want amosement — ^If yoa did as I do, 
yoo would not want amusement, for I listen to all those who tell me 



•07 thing, in this manner I learn a thousand agreeable thinga, and 1 
have no time to get tired ; but you do nothing of that kind^ {de esa^ 
that is the reason why you want amusement. — ^I would do every tiling 
like (como) you, if I had no reason to be sad. — Have you &een Mr. 
Lambert 7 — ^I have seen him ; he told me that his sisters would be 
here in a short time, and desired (me rogd se lo dyera a V.) me to 
tell you so. When they have (kayan) arrived, you may give them the 
gdd rings which you have bought ; they, flatter themselves that you 
will make them a present of them, for they love you without knowing 
you personally. — ^Has my sister already written to you ? — She has 
written to me ; I am going to answer her. — Shall I tell her that you 
are here ? — Tell her ; but do not tell her that I am waiting for her 
impatiently, (con ifnpaciencia,) — ^Why have you not brought your sis- 
ter along with you 7 — ^Which one 7 — ^The one you always bring, the 
youngest. — She did not wish to go out, because she has the toothache. 
— I am very sorry for it, for she is a very good girl. — How eld is she 7 
— She is nearly fifteen years dd. — She is very tall (aUo) for her age, 
(edmd.) — ^How old are you 7 — I am twenty-two. — ^Is it possiUe ! I 
Uiought you were not yet twenty, (710 Hegc^ V, dlos veinle,) 

SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON.— Leocum 8eptuagisi$na segtmda. 



fCT Remember that no is always placed before the veib in negative and 
inteiTOgative-negative nentencea 

Have you not my book 7 

I have it not 

Do not Bpeak to that man. 

Have you not seen my brother? 

Has he not learned Spanish ? 

He has not learned it 

He is too fond of me not to do it 

I go away not to displease hun, at 

One must be a fbol not to peroeive 

To cease. 
To dare. 
To be able. 

I No tiene V. mi libro? 

No le tengo. 

No hable V. d ese hombre. 

I No ha visto V . d mi hermano 7 

I No ha apreudido €i el espaiiol 7 

No le ha aprendida 

Me qaieie demaaiado para no haoei 

esopor mL 
Me voy para no desagradarie, (la.) 

Ha de ser un gran menteealb e! qoe 

no perciba eso. 
Cesar. Parar. Deostir. D ajar da 
Osar Atreveree. 

sxYXirrr'SSOoiiD lksbon. 


Too oflntiiUMUly aak me for money. 

. She does not ceaae complainings. 

I do not dare to ask you for it 
She does not dare to tell you so. 
I cannot go there. 
I cannot tell you. 
Ton cannot believe it 
They foond on her a letter, in which 
Lncinda stated and declared in 
her own handwriting, that she 
could never be the wife of Don 
Fernando, being already the wife 
of Cardenio. 

Continuamente me pid6 V. dinero. 

t Siempre me anda V. pidiendo di 

Ellla no cesa de qoejarse. 

t EUa siempre we eetd quejamd^, 

t No para en sus qoejas. 

No me atrevo & pediiselo d V. 

Ella no se atreve d deciraelo d V. 

Yo no pnedo ir aUd. 

Yo no puedo decir d V. 

v. no lo puede creer. 

HaUdron nn papel escrito de la mis- 
ma letra de Lncinda, en que decia 
y declaraba que ella no podia ser 
nunca eeposa de Don Fernando, 
sine de Cardenio de quien ya lo 

D. QuuoTB, Cap. 28. 

Moreover, besides. 

Besides that 
Besides what I have just said. 
There are no means of finding money 

Ademas de. A mas de esto, (eeo.) 

Par otra parte. Aun, 

Ademas de eso. 

Ademas de lo qae acabo de decir. 

No hay medio de hallar dinero ahora 

To push. 

Along the road. 

Along the street 
All along. 

All the year round. 

To enable to. 

To be able. 

To the right On the right side. 
On the right hand. 
On the left On the left aide. 
On the left hand. 

! Emptor. Impeler. 
ImpoTtunar. Moleatar, 
( A lo largo (por lo largo) del caomNK 
\ Todo el largo del camino. 
A lo largo (por lo largo) de la calle. 
Por todo. 
Por todo el alia 

t Todo el afio completo, (en redon* 

iPoner en eituaeion de. HabtUUar^ 
Poder. Poner en eetado de. 
J Ser eapax. Poder. 
( Tener faeuLtad. 

I A la derecha. Al lado dereeha 
A mano derecha. (Mano, fern.) 
A la izqnierda. Al lado izqnierdo. 
A mano izquierda. A mano siniestra. 



Coold yon not tell me which is the 
nearest way to the city ? 

Qo to the bottom of the street, and 
when yoo are there, torn to the 
right, and yon will find a crosB- 
way, which you mart take. 

And then? 

ITon will then enter a broad street 
which will bring yon to a great 
square, where yon will see a blind 

You mart loave the blind alley on 
your left, and pass under the ar- 
cade that is near it 

Then you mart ask again. 

An arcade. 
The cross-way. 
The bUnd alley. 
The shore, (the bank.) 

I Podria V. decirme cnal es el eamfait 

mas corto para ir d la chidad? 
Vaya V. por la calle abajo, y cuandc 

llegue al fin, tnerza V. k la dere- 

cha, y ballari ana encmogada, 

que atravesar^ 
^Y que mas? 
i lY ^ue hare eni&nce9 ? 
Entiincee entnuri V. en una calle 

ancha que le Uerard d una grande 

plaza, en donde reri V. un callejon 

Dejari V. el callejon A la izquierdat 

y pasariL debajo del arco que esti 

junto d 61.^ 
Entonces tendrd V que informaise 

de nuevo. 
Un area 
La encrucijada. 
EI callejon. 
La orilla, (oosta, ribera, playa, mir- 


To get married, (to enter into mat- 

To marry mmehody. 
To marry, {to give in marriage.) 
My cousin, having given his<eister in 

marriage, married Miss Alvarez. 

Is your cousm married ? 

No, he is stai a bachelor. 
To be a bachelor. 

Emharrasted, piizMled, at a lost. '^ 

An embarrasment, a puzzle. * \ 
You embairasi me, (puzzle me.) 

The marriage. 
He asked my sister in marriage. 

The measure. 
To take measures. 
I duU take other measures. 

t Caaaree, Contraer matrimonii, 

Casaree eon dlgtmo, {alguna^ 
Caear. Dar en matrinumio. 
Despues de haber casado d su her- 

mana, mi prime se caa6 con la 

Seilorita Alvarez. 
^Es (estd) casado el sefior prinx> 

No, todavia es soltero. 
Ser soltero. 

Embarazado. Perpleja EmbrolUdo. 
Confundido. Perdido. 
Un embarazo. Una peipiejidad. 
Un embrolla Una confiision. 
y. me embaraza, (me per^ja, ov 

me embrolla.) 
El casamiento. 
t El pidiS la mano de i 

Tomar medidasi 
Tomar^ otras medidaa. 



Soodneti ! how rm|Hdly time paoNe 
in your society ! 

The compliment 

Y'oQ make me a compliment which 
I do not know how to answer. 

It is not my fanlt. 
Do not lay it to my chaige. 

To lay to one*9 charge. 

Who can help it 7 
I cannot help it 

The delay. 
He does it without delay. 
I most go, (nuM he off) 
Go away ! Begone 2 


The jest, joke. 

Ton are jesting. 
He cannot take a jest, he is no 

To heg some one's pardon. 

To pardon, 

I heg your pardon. 
Tne pardon* 

To advance. 
The watch goes too fast, (gams.) 

To retard, 
IIm watch goes too slow, (kises.) 

i Dios mio ! caan pronto se posa el 
tiempo en la oompafita de V ! 

El cmnpUmiento. £1 complido. 

La atenoion. 

V. me hace nn cnmplido al cnal no 
b6 como oofTMponder. 

I Culpa, Falta. 

J No es culpa mia. No eo mi fidta. 
t Yo no tengo la culpa. 
I No me le (la, or lo) impute V. d ml 

Jlmputarle d uno. 
Eehar la culpa d, 

I Quten k> puede remediar 1 

I I Quien tiene la culpa ? 
No puedo remediarla 

< La tardanza. La diladon. 
( La detencion. La demora. 

I Lo (le, or U) hace sin tardanxa. 

it Tengo que irme. 
Es menester que me ▼a3ra. 
l.-ViyaseV.! jMteheseV.' 

< Bwrlaree. CkaneearM 
( Chaeotearee. 

La borla. La chanza. 
La chacota. 

V. se bulla. V. se chancea 
t £1 no entiende de builas. 

Pedir perdon d alguno. 

Pedir el perdon de alguna 


To pido perdon d V. 

To pido el perdon de V. 

Perddneme V. t Con perdcm de V 

El perdon. 


£1 reloj adelanta. 


El reloj atraza. 



My watch haa iiopped, 

Where did we stop ? 
We left off at the fortieth lesson, 
page one hundred and thirty-six. 
To wind up a watch. 
To regulate a watch. 
Your watch is twenty minutes too 
fast, and mine a quarter of an 
hour too slow. 

It has not struck twelve yet 

It will soon strike twelve. 

Has it already strud^ twelve ? 
To Hrike, (speaking of houn.) 

Mi reloj se ha parado. 
Pararse. Parar. 

I En donde hemes parado 7 

Nos parHmos en la leccion caadr» 
g^ma, pdjina ciento treinta y seis 

t Dar cuerda d un rekj. 

Arreglar nn reloj. 

El reloj de V. adelanta veinte mum- 
tos y el mio atrasa nn cuarto de 

t Todavfa no han dado las dcce. 

t Las doce eetan al dar. 

t Las doce van d dar. 

t Pronto dar&n las doce. 

I I Han dado ya los doce T 

On condition, pronrided. 

He will lend yon money, provided yon 
will henceforth be more economi- 
cal than you have hitherto been. 

Hereafter, for the future, hence- 

. forth. 

The future. 


To renounce gambling. 
To follow advice, (counsel.) 
Ton look so meWnchoIy. 

AdieUf farewell 

Ood be toitk yoUfgood'by, 

I hope to see you again soon. 

Con tal que. Con condiokm qne. 

Bajo de condicion que. 

]^I le prestari d V. dinero con tal 
que en adelante sea V. mas econd- 
mico de lo que ha jrido hasta ahof9 

En adelante. De aqui en adelant* 

En lo venidero. EIn lo ftitunK 

Lo future. Lo venidero. 

Econdmica Frugal Paroo. 

asta ahora. 
Renunciar al jnego. 
Seguir el consejo de alguna 
V. parece tan melancdlico. 

A Dies. Vaya V* eon Dioo. 
Quede V. eon Dio9, 

Espero tener al gusto de vohrarla 4 

Espero volverie 4 ver 4 V. pntda. 


What o'clock is it 7— It is half-past one.^Yon say it is half-put one, 
and by (par) my watch it is but half-past twelve. — ^It will soon strike 
two. — ^Pardon me, it has not yet struck one. — ^I assure you it is fire 
and twenty minutes past one, for my watch goes very welL — ^Bless 
me ! how rapidly time passes in your society ! — ^You make me a ooib- 


idiiDent which I do not know how to answer. — ^Have you bought youx 
watch in Paris 7 — I have not bought it, my uncle has made me a 
present of it. — ^What has that woman intrusted you with 7 — She has 
intrusted me with a secret about a count who is in great embar 
rassment about the (a causa) marriage of one of his daughters. — Doas 
any one ask her in marriage 7 — The man who demands her in mar- 
riage is a nobleman of the neighborhood, Qa vecindad.) — Is he rich ? 
— No, he is a poor devil (diablo) who has not a penny. — You say you 
have no friends among your schoolfellows, (el condisdfulo ;) but is it 
not your fault 7 You luive spoken ill of them, and they have nut 
ofiended you. They have done you good, and nevertheless (sin em- 
bargo) you have quarrelled with them, (Lesson LXIV.) Believe me, 
he who has no friends deserves (merece) to have none. 

Dialogue (dialogo) between a tailor and his journeyman, (el qficial.) 
— Charles, have you taken the clothes to the Count Narissi 7 — ^Yes, 
Sir, I have taken them to him. — ^What did he say 7 — ^He said nothing 
but that he had a great mind to give me a box on the ear, (bofetadas, 
plnr.,) because I had not brought them sooner. — ^What did you answer 
him 7 — Sir, said I, I do not understand that joke : pay me what you 
owe me ; and if you do not do so instantly I shall take other measures. 
Scarcely had I said that, when he put his hand to his sword, (a su 
eapadaj) and I ran away. 

What are you astonished at 7 — ^I am astonished to find you still in bed. 
— ^If you krew how sick I am, you would not be astonished at it. Has 
it already struck twelve 7 — ^Yes, Madam, it is already half-past twelve. 
— ^Is it so late 7 Is it possible 7 — ^That is not late, it is still early. — 
Does your watch go weU, (Men 7) — No, Miss N., it is a quarter of an 
hour too fast — And mine is half an hour too slow. — ^Perhaps it has 
stopped. — ^In fact, you are right — ^Is it wound up 7 — It is wound up, 
and yet (sin embargo) it does not go. — ^Do you hear 7 it is striking 
<me o'clock. — Then I will regulate my watch and go home. — ^Pray 
stay a little longer ! — I cannot, for we dine precisely at one o'clock, 
(a la una en punto.)— Adieu, then, till I see you again. 

What is the matter with you, my dear friend 7 why do you look so 
melancholy 7 — ^Nothing ails me, (nada iengo,) — Are you in any trouble, 
(esla V. apurado 7) — ^I have nothing, and even less than nothing, for I 
have not a penny, and I owe a great deal to my creditors : am I not 
very unhappy 7 — ^When a man is well and has friends he is not un- 



happy. — ^Dare I ask you a fiivor?— What do you wish?-— Have the 
goodness to lend me fifty dollars. — ^I will lend you them with all my 
heart, but on condition that you will renounce gambling, (abandone 
d jitego^ and be more economical than you have hitherto been. — ^I 
see now that you are my fiiend, and I love you too much not to foUow 
your advice. 

John, (Juan /) — ^What is your pleasure. Sir 7 — ^Bring some wine. — 
Presently, Sir. — Henry ! — ^Madam ? — ^Make the fire, (endenda V, can-^ 
dela,) — ^The maid-servant has made it already. — ^Bring me some paper, 
pens, and ink. Bring me also some sand (areniUa) or blotting-paper, 
(papd de eslraza^ sealing-wax, (Jacre^ and a light, (una vda encerididaS^ 
Go and tell (vaya V. a decir) my sister not to wait (que no me espere) 
tor me, and be back again (vdver) at twelve o'clock in order to carrv 
my letters to the post, (correo.) — Very well, madam. 

SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON.— Iieccfon Septuagisima tercera 

To Uut, {to wear well) 

That cloth will wear well 

flow long has that coat lasted you 7 


Durar largo tiempo, {mucho.) 
Eae pafto durari largo tiempo. 
I Cuanto tiempo le ha durulo 4 V 
eea casaca? 

To my liking. 

{ A mi gusto. Que me gutte, 
( Que m 

t me agrade. 

i AI gasto de todos. 

ToeTerybody'.Ukta«. ) Que 4 todo. I« pirte. a« -«r«te.) 

Nobody cao do any thing to his I t Nadie puede hacer cosa algnna que 
liking. I le guste, (que le agrade.) 

A boarding-house. 
A boarding-school. 

To keep a boarding-house. 

To board with any one, or anywhere. 

Casa de hu^spedes. Posada. 


Tener una casa de hu^q)ede«. 

Tener una posada. 

' Hospedarse (tomar posada) ooa al- 

Vtvir con alguna 
. Estai en posada eon alguna 

To exclaim, 

Tf make uneaty. 


Jnquietar, Moleetar, DeBommgar* 



T9 get, or grow uneasy. 
To be uoeaey. 

Why do you fret, (are you uneasy?) 
I do not fret, (am not uneasy.) 

That news makes me uneasy. 

I am uneasy at not receiying any 

She is uneasy about that afikir. 

Do not be uneasy. 

The uneasmess, trouble. * 


To quiet. 

Compose youraelfl 

To alter, to change. 
That man has altered a great deal 
since I saw him. 

JInquietarse. Molettarte 
Desasosegarse, Incomodarte, 
|£star inquieto, (ansioeo, ouidadoso, 
desasosegado, incdraoda) 
I Porqu^ se inqaieta V. 7 
Yo no me inquieto. 
( Esa noticia me inquieta. 
\ t Me da cuidado esa noticia. 
C Me inquieta el no recibir noticias. 
J i No si que haeerme porque nt 
f redbo noticias, 
Ella se mquieta d cerca de esa 

No se inquiete V. 
La inquietud. La iucomodidad. 
El desasosiego. 
Tranquilo. Soscgado. Quieto 

JTronquilizar, Sosegar. 
Aquietar. Apaciguar, 
Tranquilfcese V. Soei^guese V. 
Alter ar, Cambiar, Mudar, 
Eae hombre se ha mutfado mucho 
desde que le vi. 

To be of use. 
Of what use is that to you ? 
That is of no use to me. 
Of what use is that to your brother? 

It is of no use to him. 

Of what use is that stick to you ? 

I use it to beat my dogs. 

Of what use is that horse to you ? 

I U0e it to carry n^y vegetables to the 

Of what use are these bottles to your 

landlord ? 
They serve him to put his wme m. 
To stand instead, to be as. 

I use my gun as a stick. 

This hole servos him as a house. 
He uied his cravat as a nightcap. 


Sertnr de. 

t i De que le sirve 4 V. eso ? 

t De nada me sirve eso. 

1 2, De que sirve eso al hermano de 


t De nada le sirve. 
t i De que le sirve A V. ese palo ? 
t Me sirve para apalear mis perros. 
1 1 De* que le sirve & V. ese caballo T 
Me sirve para llevar las verduras al 

mercado, (la plaza.) 
^De que sirven estas botellas d sa 

hu^edde v.? 
t Le sirven para llenarlas de vino, 
Servir de. Usar como. 
Mi escopeta me sirve de baston. 
Uso mi escopeta como baston. 
Elste hueco le sirve de casa. 
Se sirvi6 de su corbata como ds 

gorro de dormir. 
Servir de. Aproveekar de. 



What ayailB it to you to cry 7 
It avails me nothing. 


Opposite that home. 

Opposite the garden. 

Opposite to me. 

Hight opposite. 
He lives opposite the castle. 
I live opposite the king's library. 

To get hold ot 

To take poaseaBion ot 

C t ^ De que le sirve d V. llorar T 
\ I Que le aproyecha a V. Uorar T 
I t De nada me sirve. 

En f rente. Frente i, 

Eufrente de esa casa. 

Eufrente del jardin. 

Frente i. mi. 

Frente 4. Por frente. 

Vive en frente del castiila 

Yo vivo en frente de (frente 4) 

biblioteca real. 
Asir. Agarrar. 
Apoderarse de. 

To witness, to show. 
• To give evidence against some one. 

The witness. 
He has shown a great deal of fHend- 

ship to me. 
To torn some one into ridicule. 
To become ridiculous. 
To make one's self ridiculou& 

To be bom. 
Where were you bom ? 
I was bom in this country. 
Where was your sister bom ? 

She was bora in the United States 

of North America. 
Where were your brothers bom ? 

They were bom in Spain. 

Atestiguar. Testificar. Mi 
t Ser testigo contra algrnno. 
t Salir testigo contra algruno. 
El testigo. t La testigo, (fern.) 
Me testified mucha amistad. 

Ridiculizar d alguna 

iHacerse ridfcula RidieuUxarte 
Vohrerse ridiculo. 

t Nacer. (See Appendix.) 

t ^ En donde naci6 V. ? 

t Yo nac( en este pais. 

t ^ En donde nacid su hermana de 


t Ella naci<) en los Estados Unidos 

de la America del Norte. 
1 1 En donde naci^ron los hermano* 

de v.? 
t Naci^ron en Espafia. 

The boarder. 
The pouch. 
A pillow. 

EI hu^sped. El pensionista. 

El morral. La bolsa de caxadorati 

Una funda. 


Sir, may {atreverse) I ask where the Earl of B. lives ?— Ho lives 
near toe castle on the other nde of the river. — Could you tdl ma 

SSySKlT-THIBO LB880K. 333 

wfaieh road 1 most take to go thither ? — ^You must go (seguir) (akmg) 
the shore, and you will come (Uegar) to a little street on the right, 
which will lead you straight (en derechura) to his house. It is a fine 
house, you will find it easily. — I thank you, Sir. — Does Count N. live 
here ? — Yes, Sir, walk in, (sinxise V. pasar a dentro,) if you please. — 
Is the count at home ? I wish to have the honor (el horwr) to speak 
to him. — Yes, Sir, he is at home ; whom shall I have the honor to 
announce, (anundar 1) — I am from B., and my name is (Uamarse) F. 
Which is the shortest (corto) way to the arsenal, (un arsenal ?) — 
Gro down this street, and when you come (flegue) to the bottom, (cat »,) 
turn to the left, and take (^jpase par) lie cross-* vay; you will then 
enter into a rather narrow (bastante eslrecha) street, which will lead 
you to a great square, (la plaza,) where you will see a blind alley. — 
Through (por) which I must pass 7 — ^No, for there b no outlet, (la 
jo/uja.) Yon must leave it on* the right, and pass under the arcade 
which b near it. — And then ? — And then you must inquire, (further.) 
— ^I am very much obliged to you. — Do not mention it, (no hay de que.) 
— ^Are you able to translate an English letter into Spanish ? — ^I am^ — 
Who has taught you ? — My Spanish master. 

Why does your mother firet ? — She frets at receiving no news from 
her son who is with the army. — She need not be uneasy about him, 
for whenever he gets into a bad scrape he knows how to get out of it 
again.— Last summer when we were a-hunting together (juntos) night 
grew upon us (se cerro la noche) at at least ten leagues (una legua) 
from our country-seat, (la quinta.) — ^Well, (pues,) where did you pass 
the night ? — ^I was very uneasy at first, but your brother not in the 
least, (710 ;) on the contrary, he tranqtdllized me, so that I lost my 
uneasiness. We found at last a peasant^s hut where we passed the 
night. Here I had an opportunity to see how clever your brother is. 
A few benches and a truss of straw (tin haz de pq/a) served him to 
make a comfortable (bueno) bed ; he used a bottle as a candlestick, 
our pouches served us as a pUlow, and our cravats as nightcaps. 
When we awoke in the morning, we were as fresh and healthy as if 
we had slept on down and silk. — A candidate (un candidato) petitioned • 
(pedtr) the king of Prussia (Prusia) for an employment, (un empleo,) 
This prince asked him where he was bom. ^ I was bom at Berlin," 
answered he. ^ Begone !" said the nK>narch, (el monarca,) ** all the 
mvn of Berlin (los hyos de Berlin) are good for nothing." " I beg 
your majesty's (la mi^eslad) pardon," replied the candidate, ** there are 
flCMBe good ones, and I know two." ** Which are those two ?" asked 
the king. -^ The first," replied the candidate, '* is your majesty, and ) 


nvumr-FouBTH lbssov. 

am die seodDd." The king could not help langfaing (no pudo wUno$ 
que reir) at this answer, and granted (canceder) the requert, (la 

SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON.— I.eccton SeptuagSsima cuaria. 

To lo99 fight of. 
The sight 
I wear speotaclee h cause my sight 

is bad, (I have bad sight) 
I am near-sighted. 
The ship is so f0 off that we shall 

soon lose sight of it 
I haTe lost sight of that 
As it is !ong since I was in England, 

I have lost nght of your brother. 

As it is long since I have read uiy 
Spanish, I have lost sight of it 

Perder algo de vista. 

La vista. 

lilevo anteojos porque tengo la vista 

mala. (See Obs. B, Leas. XXYL) 
t Tengo la vista coita. 
EI buque esti tan leioa |ae pronto 

le perder^mos de vista. 
He perdido eso de vista. 
Como hace raucho tiempo deode que 

eetuve en Inglaterra, he perdido 

de vista d en hermano de V. 
t Como hace mucho que no he leido 

eepafiol, cast le he dvidada 

Ought Should. 

You ought or should do that 

You ought not to speak thus to his 

We ought to go there earlier. 

They should listen to What you say. 

You should pay more attention to 
what I say. 

You ought to have done that 

You should have managed the thing 

He should have managed the thing 
better than he has done. 

They ought to have managed the 
thing as I did. 

We ought to have managed it dif- 
ferently from what they did. 

No. 8 of Debar. (See Leas. LX.) 

V. deberia faacer eso. 

V. no deberia hablar asf al sefior pa* 

dre de 61. 
Deber(amos ir all! mas temprano. 
Deberian escuchar lo que V. dice. 
W. deberian hacer mas atencion 4 

lo que digo. 
V. deberia haber hecho eso. 
V. deberia haber manejado la cosa 

de otro mode, (diferentemente.) 
El podrfa haber hecho la cosa mejor 

de lo que la ha hecha 
EIIos deberian haber manejado la 

cosa como yo lo hice. 
Deberiamoe haber lo hecho de oCn 

mode que ellos. 

To bid or to mAu 

I bid you a good morning. 
I wish you a good morning. 

I wish you a good journey. 

I Desear. 

C t Muy buenos dias tenga T. 
} Deseo d V. felices dias. 
( Buenos dias. 
I Le deseo d V. felii viago. 



To play ft game at bilUaidk 
To |day upon the flute. 
To have a fall 
A stay, a sojoum. 
To make a stay. 
Doee your brother inteud to make a 
long stay in the town ? 

He does not intend to make a long 
atay in it 

Jngar mia men (partida) de biUar 

t Tocar la flauta. 

Una caida. 

t Dar una caida. 

Residencia. Morada. 

t Estar de adenta Morar. Residir 

t^^Piensa sa hermano de V. estar 

largo tiempo de asiento en la 

t £l no piensa estar de asiento ea 


To proper, (meanmg to intend.) \ ^^^'^ 

I propoBe going on that journey. 
I propose (intend) joining a hunting 

Pensar. Intentar 
t Fienso hacer ese viage. 
Intento juntarme 4 una partida Je 

To 9U9pect, to guess. 

I SQSpect what he has done. 

He does not suspect what is going to 

haf^wu to him. 
To think of some one, of something. 

Of who|n do you think ? 

Of what do you think ? 

SSospechar. Presamir. ReceUtr. 
^ Adivinar. Suponer. 
Yo presume lo que ha hecha 
No sospecha lo que ya & sucederle. 

Pensar en alguno, en alguna cosa. 
I En quien piensa V. 7 • 

I En que piensa V. 7 

To turn upon. 
To be the question. 
It is questioned, it turus upon. 
The question is not your plevure, 

but your improvemeut 
Yon play, Sir, but playing is not the 
thing, but studying. 
What is going on 7 
Tlie question is to know what we 
shall do to pass the time agreeably. 

Tratarse de algo. Volver la vists, 

Se trata de. 

No se trata del placer, sine de so 

adelantamiento de V. 
V. juega, sefior, pero no se trata de* 

jugar, sino de estudiar. 
^ Deque se trata 7 
Se trata de saber lo que har^mos para 

emplear el tiempo gustosamente. 

On purpose. \ A propdsito. 

^ , , , ' C Yo pido perdon d V., no lo he heohe 

I beg your pardon, I have not done J , nroDdsit a 

(^i No lo he hecho d mal hacer. 

It on puipose. 

To hold OM^s tongue. 


Callarse. t Callarse la hoea. 
No abrir la boea. 


I>o yoa hold ytmr tongiM 7 
I hold my tongao. 
He holds his tongue. 
After speaking half an hoar, he held 
his tongue. 

Yo me calla 
£l se calla. 

Despues de haber hablado per media 
hora, se calld. 


A thief having one day entered a boarding-house, stole three doaka, 
(la capa,) In going away he was met by one of the boarders who 
had a fine laced (galaneado) cloak. Seeing so many cloaks, he asked 
the man where he had taken them. The thief answered boldly (con 
mucho zosiego) that they belonged to three gentlemen (cabaUeros) of 
the house, who had given them to be cleaned, (para que lo$ IwqnaseJ) 
^ Then you must also clean mine, for it is very much in need of it,^ 
said the boarder ; ^ but," added he, ^ you must return it to me at three 
o'clock." " I shall not fail, (fdUar^ Sir," answered the thief, as he 
carried off (flevar) the four cloaks, with which he (qve) is still to 
return, (todavia no han parecido.) — You are singing, (cantor^) gentle- 
men, but it is not a time for singing ; you ought to be silent, and to 
listen to what you are told. — ^We are at a loss. — What are you at a 
loss about ? — ^I am going to tell you : the question is with us how we 
shall pass our time agreeably. — ^Play a game at billiards or at chess. — 
Wft have proposed joining a hunting-party ; do you go with us, (vena^ ?) 
— ^I cannot, for I have not done my task yet ; and if I neglect it, my 
master will scold me. — ^Every one according to his liking ; if you like 
staying at home better than going a-bunting we cannot hinder you. — 
Does Mr. B. go with us 7 — ^Perhaps. — I should not like to go with 
him, for he is too great a talker, (muy habUuhr,) excepting that (nUnos 
eso) he is an honest man. * 

What is the matter with you ? You look angry. — I have reason to 
(modvo) be angry, for there is no means of getting money now. — 
Have you been to Mr. A.'s 7 — ^I have been to his house ; but there ia 
no possibility (ningun medio) of borrowing from him. I suspected 
that he would not lend me any, that is the reason why I did not wish 
to ask him ; and had you not told me to do so, I should not have sub- 
jected myself (exponer) to a refusal, (d una negativa.) 


I suspected that you would be thirsty, and (that) your sister (would 

be) hungry; that is the reason why I brought (traer) you hither. 

I am sorry, however, not to see your mother. — Why do you not drink 

▼our coffee 7 — Tf I were not sleepy I would drink it — Sometimes you 



are sleepy, sometimes (atras) cold, sometimes wsrm, and sometimes 
something else is the matter with you, (y muchas veces otrtis cosos.) 
I believe that you think too much of the misfortune that has happened 
to year friend, (fern.) — ^If I did not think about it, who would think 
about it ? — Of whom does your brother think ? — ^He thinks of me, for 
we always think of each other (uno de otro} when we are not 
together, (juntos.) 

The Biscayans are excellent ball-players, (Jvgadores.) — ^The two 
chess-players were very skilful. — ^Do you know any flute-player, 
(JUnitista,) or any violin-player, (yiolinista?) — ^I know a very good 
flute-player, but I do not know any violin-player. — ^For what purpose 
do you ask ? — ^Because I intend to have a musical entertainment. — ^Do 
you somedmes practise (hacer) music ? — ^Very often, for I like it much. 
— What instrument do you play ? — I play the violin, and my sister 
plays the harpsichord. My brother who plays the bass (d cantrabc^o) 
accompanies (acompanar) us, and Miss Stolz sometimes applauds 
(aplatuiir) us. — Does she not also play some (musical) instrument ? — 
She plays the harp, (el harpa,) but she is too proud (orgtiUoso) to 
practise music with us. — A very poor town went to considerable 
expense (hizo gastos considerables) in feasts and illuminations (fiestas 
e Uuminadones) on the occasion of its prince passing through, (ctumdo 
fMSo su prindpe,) The latter seemed himself astonished at it — ^ It 
has only done," said a courtier, (cortesano^) ^ what it owed (to your 
majesty.") " That is true," replied another, " but it owes all tiw/ it 
has done." 

SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Lcccton SeptuagisitM qubUt^ 

^^•'^^'') (morally.) 

He comes towards me. 

He behaved very well towards me. 

We most always behave well to- 
wards everybody. 

The behavior of others is but an echo 
of our own. If we behave well 
towards them, they will also be- 
have well towards us ; but if we 
«se them ill, we most not expect 
better from them. 


Con. Para con. 

Viene h&cia mf. 

Se port6 muy bien conmigo. 

Siempre nos debemos portar bien paia 
con todo el mundo. 

La conducta de los otroe no es mas 
que el eco de la nuestra. Si nos 
portamoe bien con ellos, se porta- 
rdn igualmente bien con noeotros ; 
pero si no los tratamos bien, no 
debemos espetni qae nas tratea 

mmymSTT-Sfimi lAflBOV . 

Tb trua or to mm mmehody ^M. 
To tue oomehody UL 



As you have always used me well, I 

will not use you ilL 
He has always used me well, and I 

have always used him in the same 

TraUr bien d tmo, (olgmm,} 
Tratar mal d uno, (alguno.) 
Todo el mundo. Todoo. 
Otro, Otros. 

(Indefiuite Pronouns, see Appw) 
Como v. me ha tratado siempre bieii, 

yo no le tratar^ mal. 
Siempre me ha tratado bien, y yo le 

he tratado siempre de la 


To delay, (to tarry.) 
Do not be long before you return. 
I shall not be long before I return. 

To long to oT for. 

I long to see my brother. 

He longs to receive his money. 

We long for dinner, because we are 

▼ery hungry. 
They long to sleep, because they are 


Tardar Tardaroe. Veteneroo 

No tarde V. en volver. 

No tardar^ en volyer 

Eeperar con anriao. 

Eetar ansioso, 

Deoear con vehemencia. 

Tener gran gana. 

Tener muchao ganao de, 

ESstoy ansioea de yer i, mi hermano 

Desea mucho recibir su dinero. 

Tenemoe muchas ganas de comer, 

porque tenemos mucha hambre. 
Tienen muchas ganas de dormiry 

porque estan cansadoe. 

C Eatar uno eon desahogo. 
< Eetar a aua anchurao, 
( Eetar bien, 
( Eotar comodmnente, 
( t PaoarU) bien, 

iEttar incdmodamente. 
t Pasarlo nuU, \ 

t Estoy muy & mis anchoras en esta 

y. esti incdmodamente en sa i 

To be at ont^o ease. 

To be comfortable. 

To bo uncomfortable, 

I am very much at my ease upon 

thb chair. 
You are uncomfortable upon your 

What can that be ? i Que pnede ser eso ? 

ifSstamos inc6modamente en esa po« 
t Lo pasamos muy mai en esa po- 
That man is well off, for he has I t Ese hombre lo pasa luenKpofqoa 
plenty of money. | tiena muoho dinero. 



That num is bacDy ofl^ for' be is < 
poor. I 

To make one*9 $elf comfortable, ] 

Make yoarself comfortable. 

To inconYenience one's self. 

To pi^ one's self oat of the way. 

Do not pat yoaraelf oot of the way. 

That man never inoonyeniences him- 
self ; he never does it for any- 

Can yon, without patting yoorself 
to inconvenience) lend me your 

t Ese homhre lo past mal, ptttque es 
I pobre. 

iHacer uno lo que le acomoda. 
Estar uno c6modamente. 
iPdngase V. c6modamente. 
t Haga V. lo que le dcomode. 

Incomodarae. Moleetaree. 

No se incomode V. No se ^oleste V 
Ese hombre nonca se incomoda; 
nuncajTO molesta por nadie. 

I Puede v., sin incooKNlaise, prestar- 
me Bu escopeta 7 

To make etUreatiee. 

^ Solicitor. Haeer inalancias. 
( Hacer diligenciae, Instar, 

Haeer diligenciae. 

_, - .., . \ Pedir encarecidamente. 

To beg wttk entreaties. \ n j- • ^ 

* ( Pedir con tnstancta. 

1 employed every kind of entreaty to I t Me vali de toda especie de edplicas 
engage him to do it | - para empenarle & que lo hiciera. 

7\) eoUeit^ to preee, to sue, to en-^ Solicitar. Instar. 
treat, ( Suplicar. Rogar. 

Here and there. 

K Aquf y alld. Ac& y aU&. 

( Acd y acuUd. 

Now and then, (from time to time.) I De cuando en cuando. 
Indi^rently, (as good as bad.) Tal cual. Ad atL 

I have done my composition tolera- He hecho mi composision tal cuaL 
bIyweU. I 

C Informar d alguno de alguna eosa. ^ 
To impart something to somebody. < Dor parte de alguna cosa d uno. 

\ Comunicar algo & alguno. 

Have you imparted that to your W Ha eso&su padre 7 
father 7 ( I Ha dado V. parte de eso i su padrel 

I have imparted it to him. | Le he informado de ello. 

To postpone, to put off. 
Let ns pat that off until to-morrow. 
Let us pot off that lesson until another 

Posponer *. Diferir •. 
Difir&mos eso hasta mafiana. 
Difiramos esa leocion hasta otra vei. 



In vain. 
In vain I looked around, I saw neither 
man nor house : not the least sign 
of settlement 

A dwelling, habitation, settlement 

In vain I speak, for you do not listen 
to me^ 

In vain I do my best, I canhot do 
any thing to his liking. 

You may say what you please, no- 
body will believe you. 

It is in vain that they earn money, 
they will never be rich. 

We search in vain, for what we have 
lost we cannot find. 

En vano. Par nuu que. 

For mas que volvia los ojoe d \ 

partes, no veia ui casas, ni honi« 

bres: ni la mas minima seAal de 

Una habitacion. 
En vano haUo yo, pues W. no me 

eecnchan. ^ 

For mas que haga, yo no puedo haeei 

nada & su gusto. 
For mas que diga V. mngono la 

For mas dinero que ganen, jamas 

serin ricos. - 
En vano buscamoe, pues lo qoe h»- 

mos peidido no lo hallar^moa 

To 9aluU. 

To wish a good morning, 

I have the honor to bid yon adieu. 

Fresent my compliments to him, to 

• her. 

Remember me to him, to her. 

Fray, present my compliments to 
your sister. 

Remember roe (present my compli- 
ments) to him, to her. 

I shall not faQ. 

At your service. 

Saludar, Para saludar. 

t DarU d uno los buenos dias. 
{ Tengo el honor de saludarle d V. 
( Tengo el honor de despedirme de V 

r Enoomfendeme Y. iiiii, ii ella. 

i Dfgale V. muchas cosas de mi parte. 

Hdgame V. el favor de encomendar- 
me d su seiiora hermana. 

Dele V. memorias y expiesioiiM 
finisimas mias. 

No faltar^. t Con mucko gusto. 

Fara servir d V. 

The present, (the present time or 

The past 
The future. 
The loss of time. 
Enjoy all the pleasures that vivtoe 

To enjoy. 

EI presente. Lo presente. 

El pasado. Lo pasado. 

El future. Lo futuro. Lo venidefo 

La p^rdida de tiempo. 

Grozad de todos los placeres qoe per> 

mite la virtud. 

Have yon made your Spanish composition ? — ^I have made h.-»Waa 
your tutor pleased with it?— He waa not In vain I do my beet; I 


cannot do any thing to his liking. — ^Yoa may say what yon please, 
Qo que qtdera,) nobody will believe you. — Can you, without putting 
yoiu-self to inconvenience, lend me hve hundred dollars ? — ^As you have 
always used me well I will use you in Ae same manner, (modo.) I 
will lend you the money you want, but on condition that you will re- 
turn it to me next week. — You may depend upon it, {poder ccntar.) — 
How has my son behaved towards you ? — He has behaved well to- 
wards me, for he behaves well towards everybody. His father told 
him oflen : The behavior of others is but an echo of our own. If we 
behave well towards them, they will also behave well towards us ; but 
if we use them ill, we must not expect better (mas) from thenw-^May 
I see your brothers 7 — ^You will see them to-morrow. As they have 
just arrived from a long journey they long for sleep, for they are very 
tired.— What has my sister said 7 — She said that she longed for dinner* 
hecause she was very hungry. — ^Are you comfortaUe at your boarding- 
house ? — ^I am very comfortable there. — ^Have you imparted to your 
brother what I told you ? — ^As he was very tired, he longed for sleep ; 
so that I have put off imparting it to him till to-morrow. 

I have the honor to wish you a good morning. How do you do 7 — 
Very well at your service. — ^And how are all at home ? — ^Tolerably 
well, thank God, {d Dios gradas !) My sister was a little indisposed, 
hot she is better ; she told {encargar) me to give you (que le preseniase) 
her best compliments. — I am glad (alegrarse) to hear that ^e is well. 
As for you, you are health itself, (la misma salud ;) you cannot- look 
better, (es tmposible tener me/or semblarUe,) — ^I have no time to be ill : 
my business would not permit me. Please to sit down ; here is a chair. 
— ^I will not detain you from your business ; I know that a merchant's 
time is precious. — ^I have nothing pressing (urgerUe) to do now, my 
courier is already dispatched, (mi correo esta despachado,) — I shall not 
stay any longer. I only wished in passing to inquire about yotD 
health. — ^You do me much honor. — ^It is very fine weather to-day. 
If yon will allow me I shall have the pleasure of seeing you again this 
afternoon, (al pasar par aqui,) and if you have time we will take a 
little turn together. — ^With the greatest pleasure. In that case I shall 
wait for you. — I will come for yon about seven o'clock. — Adieu, then, 
till I see you again.-^I have the honor to bid you adieu. 


The loss of time is an irreparable loss. A single minute (un s6h) 

cannot be recovered (pagar) for all the gold in the world. It is then 

of the greatest importance to employ well the time, which consists 

only of minutes, of which we must make good use, {Jraen uio.) We 




have but the present ; the past is no longer any thing, and the fatura 
is uncertain, (incierto.) — A great many people ruin themselves (or- 
ruinarse) because they wish to indulge themselves too much, (quierem 
jMsarlo bien.) If most men knew how to content themselves (con- 
tenlarse) with what they have, they would be happy ; but their greedi- 
ness (codicia) very often makes them imhappy. — ^In order to be happy 
we must forget the past, not trouble ourselves about {actmgqjarse) the 
future, and enjoy the present. — ^I was very much dejected (triste) when 
my cousin came to me. ** What is the matter with you ?" he asked 
me. " Oh, (; Ay de mi /) my dear cousin," replied I, ** in losing that 
money I have lost every thing." " Do not fret," said he to me, " for I 
have found your money." 

SEVENTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Leecion SeptuagSsima $exta. 

{ Querer decir. Haeer dnimo. 
( Sigrdficar. 

1 + I Qu© quier© V. decir? 
t Quiero decir. 
1 1 Que quiere decir eee hombre 7 
t £l quiere decir. 

To mean. 

What do yon mean? 

I mean. 

What does that mau mean 7 


What does that mean? 

That means. 

That does not mean any thing. 

I d: not know what that means. 

?t I Que quiere decir eso 7 
1 1 Que significa eso? 
I t Em quiere decir. Eso 

?t Eso no significa nada. 
t Nada quiere decir eso. 
5 t Yo no 86 lo que quiere decir < 

I t Em quiere decir. Em significa. 
' Em no significa na 
' Nada quiere decir < 
' Yo no 86 lo que qui 
' Yo no 86 lo que significa eso. 

To he partieuUur. 

I do not like to deal with that a 
for he » too particular. 

T\t grow impatient 
Do not fret about that 

To eit up. To watch. 
I have sat up all night 
To adviee. 
The dress. The costume. 
Elegant dresi. 

JSer eingtdar. Ser eotrano, 
t Tener uno rarezae. 
No me gusta tratar (tener negneioo) 
con ese -faombre, porque es may 
S Inquietarse, Enfadaree. Apuraree 
{' Impaeientaree. Coneumiroe, 
t No M impaciente V. de eso. 


He velado toda la noche. 


EI vestido. El trage. El nso. 

Trage elegante. Vestido de mods. 



7% dre99 m^a gel/. 
Hut BMm alwmys droMes weU. 

To find fault vnthmmethitig. '\ 

That man alwaya finds fanlt wiUi 

every thing he sees. 
Do yoa God faaH with that? 
I do not find fault with it 

A trick. 
To play a trick. 
To play a tiick upon some one. 

He played me a trick. 

Take care, that man will play yoa 


Ese hembre ee vkte siempro biea. 
t Hallar falta en alguna cooa. 
t Hallar que decir de alguna eooa. 
t Ese hombre hallasiempre qne dedf 

de coanto yd 
t ;, Halla V. que decir de eeot 
t Yo no hallo que decir de eOo. 

— • \ 

Engano. Chaoco, BmrUu Pie%^ 
Jttgar una piexa. Dor un chaoco, 
Jugar una pieza d alguna 
t Me jng6 una pieza. 
t Me di6 un chasco. 
Cuidado, ese hombre le jugari i V 
una pieza, (t le dard un chaoco.) 

Beoideo, (more.) 
Ton have given me three books, but 
I want three besides. 


Three less. 
Three too many. 

To reach. 

My reach. 
Within my reach. 

Out of my readi. 

These things are not withm the 

reach of everybody. 
Within gun-flhot 
A gun-shot, (meaning distance.) 
Two gun-shots, ( « " ) 

How many shots have you fired ? 

Ademao de. 

Ademas de los tres lifaros que V. me 

ha dado, qyiero otros tres, (quiers 

tree mas.) 
M^nos. t Faltan. 
t Sobran tres. 

Alcanxar. t Alcanxar d entendor 
Mi alcance. Alcanzo d. 
A mi alcance. Alcanzo i eOo. 
Fuera de mi alcance. 
No alcanzo d ello. 
t No alcauzo & entendeilo. 
Todo el mundo no alcanza i. entendef 

I wonder why that man makes such 

A tiro de escopeta. 

t A tiro de bah. 

A dos tiros de escopetas. 

I Cuantos tiros ha disparado V.7 

I Cuantos escopetazos ha tirado V. ? 

I Cuantas voces hizo V. fiiego? 

Quisiera saber porqu^ hace tanto 

ruido ese hombre. 
Estraiio mucho quehaga tanto ruido 

ese hombre. 
t Me admiro porqui hace tanio mt* 

doeoe hombre. 



So long 09. 

So km^ as yoa behave well, people 
will love you. 

To carry off 

A mouthfuL 
To overwhelm. To heap. To load. 

To overwhelm some one with joy. 


Charitable. Beneficent 
You have heaped benefits upon me. 
An advantage. 
The disadvantage. The prejudice. 
I shall never say any thing to your 

To ourrender. 
Tlie enemies have surrendered. 

To prefer. 
I prefer the useful to the agreeable. 

Ob9. A. Adjectives used substantively are preceded by the indefinitti 
pronoun ^ (See Appendix.) 

The drinking. I EI beber. 

The eating. | £1 comer. 

Oho. B. Verbs used substantively take the article el (See Appendix.) 

MiSntrmo. En tmOo quo. 

Le amariia & V. mi^ntias se porte 

Uevane. Quitar. 

Quitar del media 

Un bocado. Uu pedacita 

Cdmar. Lienar. Abrumar. 
< I Lienar & alguno de goio. 
I \ Colmar d alguno de goxa 


Caritativo. Ben^fica 

V. me ha cohnado de beneficica. 


Sinceramente. (Adverb, see App.) 

Una ventaja. 

La desventaja. El perjuick). 

Nunca dfr^ nada en peijuicio de V. 

Rendiroe *. Entregar. 

Los enemigos se ban rendida 

Preferir *. 

Yo prefiero lo litil & lo agradaUe. 

To behold. 
Behold those beautiful flowers, with 
their oobrs so fresh and bright 

The col6r. 
The lily. 
The violet 
The forget-me-not 
The rose. 
An emblem. 
Wmtk verdure is salutary to our eyes. 


Miren W. (or mirad) esas hermoeas 

flores, con sus colores tan frescos 

y vivos, (or brillantes.) 
El color. 
El lirio. 
La violeta. 
La trinitaria. 
La rosa. 

Un emblema, (mas.) 
El verdor fxesco po agradable 4 to 

BXVBKTr-BizrH LBSsoir. 846 

Why have yon i^yed a trick upon that man ? — ^Because he alwayt 
finds &alt with every thing he' sees. — What does Jhat mean, Sir 7 — 
That means, that I do not like to deal with yon, becaose you are too 
particular. — ^I wonder why your brother has not done (haya hecho) his 
task. — ^It was too difficult. He has sat up all night, and has not been 
able to do it, because it was out of his reach. — ^As soon as Mr. Flausen 
sees me he begins to speak English, in order to practise, (i^ercUar^ 
and overwhelms me with politeness, (corteskts,) so that I often do not 
know what to answer. I£s brothers do the same, (lo mismo,) How- 
ever, they are very good people, (gentes ;) they are not only rich and 
amiable, but they are also generous and charitable. They love me 
sincerely, therefore I love them also, and consequently shall never say 
any thing to their disadvantage. I should love them still more, if they 
did not make so much ceremony ; but every one has his faults, and 
mine is to speak too much of their ceremonies. 

Have the enemies surrendered 7 — ^They have not surrendered, for 
they did not prefer life to death. They had neither bread, nor meat, 
nor water, nor arms, nor money ; notwithstanding they determined to 
die rather than surrender. — Why are you so sad 7 — You do not know 
what makes me uneasy, my dear friend, (fern.) — ^Tell me, (lo,) for 1 
assure you that I share your sufferings as well as your pleasures. — ^1 
am sure that you feel for me, (que V. me compadece,) but I cannot tell 
you now what makes me uneasy. I will however tell you when an 
opportumty offers, (se presenie,) Let us speak of something else now. 
What do you think of the man who spoke to us yesterday at the 
concert 7 — ^He is a man of much understanding, (ialerUo,) and not at 
all wn^t up in his own merits, (y nada presumido.) But why do you 
ask me that 7 — ^To speak of s<Hnething. — ^It is said : contentment (con- 
terUo) surpasses (yaler mas) riches ; let us then always be content. 
Let us share (partir) (with each other) what we have, and remain our 
lifetime (mUniras vivamos) inseparable friends. You will always be 
welcome at my house, and I hope to be equally so at yours. If I saw 
you happy I should De equally so, and we should be more contented 
than the greatest princes, who are not always so. We shall be happy 
when we are perfectly contented with what we have ; and if we do 
OUT du^ as we ought, God will take care of the rest. The past being 
no longer any thing, let us not be uneasy about the future, and enjoy 
the present 



Behold, ladies, (sehoras,) those beaatiful flowers, wicn their colors at 
fresh and bright ; they drink nothing but water. The white lily has the 
color of innocence, (inocencia ;) the violet indicates gentleness, (indiea 
la dvJzura ;) you may see it in Louisa's eyes. The forget-me-not has the 
color of heaven, our future dwelling, and the rose, the queen of flowers, 
is the emblem of beauty and of joy. Tou see all that personified (jxr^ 
$omficado) in seeing the beautiful Amelia, (AmoZfa.) How beautiful 
is the fresh verdure ! It is salutary to our eyes, and has the color of 
hope, (de la esperanxa,) our most faithful friend, (fem.,) who never 
deserts (abandonar) us, not even in death, (en el momento de la muerte,) 
— One word more, my dear friend. — What is your pleasure ? — ^I forgot 
to tell you to present my compliments (que me encomendara) to your 
mother. Tell her, if you please, that I regret (sentir) not having been 
at home when lately she honored me with her visit — ^I thank you for 
her, (en su nombre,) I shall not fail. — ^Farewell then. 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH LESSON.— i^eccicm SeptuagSsima sSptima. 

A silk gown. 

A kitchen table. 

A mahogany table. 

A brick house. 

A stoue housd. 

A windmill. 

A coffee-milL 

A sugar-mill. 

A velvet bonnet 

A silver tankard. 

A water-mill. 

A steam-milL 


A two-wheeled wagon. 

A four-wheeled carriage. 

A one-story house 
A two-story house. 
A three-story house. 

A one-hoise wagon. 
A four-horse carriage. 


Un tunfco (trage, vestido) de seda. 

Una mesa de cocina. 

Una mesa de caoba. 

Una casa de ladrilia 

Una casa de piedra. 

Un molino de vienta 

Un molinillo de cafi^. 

Un trapiche. Ingenio de asficor 

Un gorro de terciopelo. 

Un jarro de plata. * 

Un molino de agua. 

Un molino de vapor. 

Armas de fuego. 

Un caiTo de dos ruedas. 

Un cairuage (coche) de cuatro me^ 

Una casa de un alta 
Una casa de dos altos. 
Una casa de tree altos. (See Lesson 

IL, Obs. A.) 
Un carro tirado por un caballo. 
Un camiage tirado por cuatro ca* 




Ch9. A. We have Been (Leseon IL) that the prepomtion de ■ pot be- 
tween two enbetantives, the latter of which expreases the substance of which 
the former is made ; but the prepoeition para is sometimes made use id 
when the latter expresses the nse of the fonner. In both cases the order of 
the two substantives is inverted in Spanish, when they make a compoimil 
in English. 

To exaggerate, 
Thai man exaggerates all that he 
says and does. 

All thaU 
To take the place of, to he instead 

Exagerar. Ponderar. 

Ese hombro 4xagera cuanto dice y 

Cuanto, Todo lo que 
Ser, Servir de* 

That man » a lather to me. 

)Ese hombre me es un segnndopadie. 
Ese hombre me sirve de padre. 
That ombrella serves him as a cane. | Ese par&guas le sirve de nafia. 

An inch. 
On a small scale. 
On a large scale. 
Thereaboats, nearly. 
Alternately, turn by turn. 
To endeavor, to etrive. 

To give OM^e eelf up to grief. 

To melt. 
To melt in tears. 

Una pulgada. 

En pequeiio. For menor. 

En grande. For mayor. 

Cerca de. Foco mas 6 m^nos deii 

Altemativamente. For tnmos. 

Eeforxaree, Empenarse, 
*i Abandonarse {erUregaree) aZ doUir 
\ Dejaree veneer del dolor, 

Derretir •. Derretiree, 

Derretirse en liigrimaa 

To raiee, to cause. 

To raise difficulties. 
To cause quarrels. 
To cause suspicions. 
The behavior of that man raised i 
picions in my mind. 

To shake. 


Shake that tree, and the fruit wiU 

Sacuda V. 


5 Exeitar. ■ Ineitar, Mover. 
( Levantar, 

E!xcitar dificultades. 

Mover pendencias. 

Exeitar sospechas. 

La conducta de ese hombre me incl* 
t6 i so^»eohaile. 

\ Aibol, y la fhita eiuni 

To he in want of. C t Hacerfalta, Haher menester. 
To he short of, < t Faltarle a uno. 

To toont ( Necesitar, 

TbMt man is in want of every thing. I A ese hombre todo le hace falta. 

I am m want of nothing. | A mi nada me falta 


A plate, knife, fofk, spoon, napkin, 
and bread. 

A table for four penons. t 
A table for ten penooa. 
A writing-table. A desk. 
A dining-room. 


A repeater. 
An oil-bottle. 
Amoatard-pot * 
A pitcher. 
A fowling-piece 
A fishing-line. 
A fiBhing-iod. 

C Plato, oodiillo, ^ 
Un cubierto, < dor, cuohara,^ aev- 

(, Tilleta, y pan. 
Una mesa de cuatro cubiertos 
Una mesa de diez cubiertos. 
Una mesa para escribtr. Un bofetOb 
Una sala de comer. Un comedor. 
Un dormitorio. Una alcoba. 
Un aposento para dormir. 
Un reloj de repeticion. 
Una botella para aceite. 
Una moetacera. 
Un jarro. Un picheL 
Una eecopeta de cazador. 
Una cuerda para caAa de peacaz. 
Una cafia de pescar. 

To txaet, to Vfont oj 

What do yon want of met 
What do yon exact of me 7 

• I exact nothing of yon. 
A tea-pot 

I Exijir. Querer. 

C I Que exije V. de mf ; 
<f I Que me quiere V. ? 

I I Quo quiere V. de mf ? 
5 Yo no exijo nada de V. 

^ t Yo no quiero nada de V 
I Una tetera. 

Obo» B, Such oompoonds as the following are generally expreawd by 
one word in Spanish : — 

The oyster-woman. 

The tinifiRn- 

La ostrera. 
£1 hojalatero. 


Oho. 0. IVoper names ending in English in a, a«, or es, are the same in 
both languages. But it must be observed, that nouns having a double con- 
sonant, drop one of them ; that nouns that have th, suppress the A ; that 
ph m changed into/; y into t ; the diphthongs a, a, into e; ch into qu be* 
lore c or t, and into c before a^o,u: and that names beginning with 8, 
fdUowed by a consonant, generally add £ before it Examples }— 


























0h9. D. Proper names ending in o generally add an n. Examples > 







0h9. B. Proper names ending a U9 change that termination into o 
Examples: — 

Gyms. Giro. 

Camillas. Camilo. 

Ofphens. Orf^a 

Oht, F, Most of those ending in aZ or »« are the same m both language^ 
Examples: — 

Juvenal. I Juvenal. 

Sesostris. | SesOstris. 

Those endmg in English in ander, change that termination 
Examples : — 

Alexander. I Alejandro. 

Lysander. | Lisandro. 

Remark. The proper nameaof kingdoms, provmces, and towns, ending 
in English in a, are the same in Spanish ; and those of towns ending in 
hurg, add frequently o. Examples : — ^ 

into andn. 





At broad daylight 
To sit down to dinner. 

(rolosinas. Manjares delicados. 

f Ele$ amigo de golonnat, 

fA6l U guBtan mueho la$ goh* 
[ stnot. 

De dia daro. 

Sentane i la mssa. 

850 BXYBirnr-SEysNTH lbsbov. 


Has your sister been out to-day ? — She has been out to buy sevenl 
things. — What has she bought ? — She has bought a silk gown, a velvet 
bonnet, and a lace veil, (tin vdo de 67ias/e.}— What have you done 
with my silver tankard ? — ^It is on the kitchen table (together) with the 
oil-bottle, the milk-pot, the pitcher, the mustard-pot, and the cc^ee- 
mill. — Do you ask for a wine-bottle ? — ^No, I ask for a bottle of wine, 
and not for a wine-bottle. If you had the goodness to give me the 
key of the wine-cellar, (la bodega,) I would go for one. — ^What does 
that man want of me ? — ^He exacts nothing ; but he will accept what 
you will give him, for he is in want of every thing. — ^I will tell ytfti 
that I am not fond of him, for his behavior raises suspicions in my 
mind. He exaggerates all that he says and does. — You are wrong in 
having such a bad opinion of him, for he has been a fiither to you. — 
I know what I say. He has cheated me on a small and on a large 
scale, and whenever he calls he asks me for something. In this 
manner he has alternately asked me for all I had : my fowling-piece, 
my fishing-line, my repeater, and my golden candlesticks. — ^Do not 
give yourself up so much to grief, else (si no) you will make me melt 
in tears, (deshacerse,) 

Democritus and Heraclitus were two philosophers of a veiy different 
character : the first laughed at the follies {la locura) of men, and tbe 
other wept at them. — ^They were both right, for the follies of men 
deserve to be laughed (se debe reir) and wept at, (Uorar par eUas.) 


Have you seen your niece ? — ^Yes ;* she is a very good girl, who 
writes well, and speaks Spanish still better ; therefore she is loved and 
honored by everybody. — ^And her brother, what is he doing ? — ^Do not 
speak vo me of him ; he is a naughty boy, who writes always badly, 
and speaks Spanish still worse ; he is therefore (asi) loved by nobody. 
He is very fond of dainties, but he does not like books. Sometimes he 
goes to bed at broad daylight, {cuando es,) and pretends to be ill ; but 
when we sit down to dinner he is generally better (again.) He is to 
study physic, (la medicinoy) but he has not the slightest inclination for 
H, (q/Sdon,)— He is almost always talking of his dogs, which he loves 
passionately, (apasionadamenie,) IBs father is extremely sorry for it. 
The young simpleton (d tontudo) said lately to his sister, ** I shall 
enlist as soon as a •peace (la paz) is proclaimed, (que se jmbliqueJ*) 

My dear father and my dear mc^er dined yesterday with some 
friends at (d palacio) the King of Spain. — ^Why do you always speak 
English and never Spanish ? — ^Because I am too bashful. — ^You are 


joking: is an Englishman ever bashAil? — I have a keen appetite, 
(grande apetito:) give me something good to eat. — ^Have you any 
mmiey ? — No, Sir. — Then I have nothing to eat for you. — ^Wiil you 
not let me have some (no me dard F.) on credit ? I pledge my honor. 
—That is too litde.— What, (comoj Sir ! 

SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— i>sccion Sephiagisma octava. 


(Presenie del Subjuntivo,) 

N. B. For the sake of brevity, the PreMent of the Subjunctive is deng* 
nated by N. 6. For the formation of this Teiuse, see Appendix. 

N. 6 of To HAVS, (active.) 
That I may have. 

N. 6 of To HAVs, (auxiliary.) 
That I may have. 

N. 6 of To BB. 

That I may be. 

N. 6 of MAT or CAN, (to be able.) 
That I may be able. 

N. 6de Tknbr, (actiyo •) 
Que teuga, tengas, tenga, tengamos» 
tengais, teng^. 
N. 6 de Habbs, (auxiliar *.) 
Que haya, hayas, haya, hdyamos, 
hdyais, h&yau. 
N. 6 de Sbr ana Estab. 
I Que sea, seas, sea, Beamos, Beais,s6an 
Que est^, estes, est^, estemos, esteis, 
N. 6 de PoDBB ». 
Que pueda, puedas, pueda, podamos, 
podais, puedan. 

O&s. A. May and can are not translated, when the emphasis m on the 
principal verb. Example : — 

May you live happy. I Viva V. feliz. 

I fear he may be dii^Ieased. | Temo que €i »e enfade. 

In Spaniah a verb governs another verb in the ii^finitive, in the indiea' 
ftoe, m in the eubjunetive mood. To elucidate this subject, the following 
roles are laid down, in which the governing verb will be designated by the 
name of thb i.BADnvG vbbb, and t?te governed verb, by that of thb sub* 
eaniMATB vbrb. 

Thb subordimatx vbbb is in the nmNrrtVB, when the action it expresNs 
lefen to, and » to be performed by, the subject (rumrinative) of thb lbad* 
OKI vbbb. Example : — 



Peace k the greateet good that men 
can wish lor in this life. 

La pax es 


el mayor biea que fas 
pueden desear en csta 

KULB n. 

The auBOKDnCATB vkrb is in the indicative, when the lbai>imo rtMB 
merely declaree, or points out . a fact, or action expresed by the subor- 
dinate. Example :^ 
I will tell them that they do not I Tolesdir^quenosaienloqneiiieeJi. 

know what they say. | 

KULB m. 
The BUBOEDiNATX VERB m lu the subjunctive, when the acJon expreand 
by it is indicated as doubtful, uncertain, conditional, :* contingent, by 
TUB LBADUfG TERB. Examples : — 

Even if this should not happen, but 
merciful Heaven guard and pre- 
serve him safe and sound, he con- 
tinues as poor as ever. 

I doubt he will come this evening. 
You are not sure that they will do it 

What do you want me to do 7 

Remark. — It must be observed, that although in the paradigms of the 
conjugations the English potentul, as well as the subjunctivb moods 
are translated into Spanish by the subjunctive, the use of the latter depends 
Bntirely on the meaning of the leading verb ; in consequence of which, a 
veib in the present of the infinitive mood, or in the future tense in English, 
requires often to be placed in the subjunctives Examples : — 

T cuando eso no suceda, sine que' el 
Cif lo piadoso le guards y conserve 
sano y vivo, podhL ser que se 
qttede en la misma pobreza que 
dntes estaba.^ 

Dudo que ^1 venga eeta noche. 

V. no esti seguro de que ellos lo ka 

I Que quiere V. que yo haga ? 

It is necessary for you to write to 

He says he will do it, whenever 

they shall pay him what he 

Es necesario que V. les escriba,^ 

£l dice que lo hard, siempre que ellos 
le paguen lo que pide. 


1. When THE LEADING VERB moans admiration, application, oppro&attsii, 
command, demand, duty, doubt, fear, fondness, ignorance, inteUigenee^ 
intention, permission, prohibition, satisfaction, supplication, sorrow, sur- 
prise, suspicim, eonveniency, wish, necessity, will, asking, advising, eoam- 
selUng, entreating^ rejoicing, soliciting, or any act of ths msncl, soch as 

* Cervantes, D. Quijote, cap. xxxviL pt U. 


tkinkiag, believing, du^, it governs the mjboiidinatb vksb in the ■ubjuwo* 
■nvB, preceded by the conjunction qub. 

3. Ths suBORDiNATfc VKEB muflt also be placed in the eubjunetive, pre- 
ceded by QUE, when the leadino veeb is preceded by an inletjection ez- 
preasiniir toisk or desire, or when it is an impereomU verb, indicating dot^i, 
duty, obligation, or some contingent and future effect produced by the ac- 
tion of such SUBORDINATE VEEB. But this is placed in the present of 
the infinitive mood, withont the conjunction, when its subject is not ez- 
presed. Example : — 

It m iiwM»ry that you ahould do it ^ f ' "'""^o '™ Y" '" *^«- 

^ Es necesano haeerlo, 

3. The leadino verb governs the suBOEDiif ate verb in the aubjuneiive, 
when the former is connected with the latter by a conjunction implying 
eonditioH, (conditional terms or clause,) doubt, exception, such as if, un- 
less, provided that, although, &c., when they mean also a contingent and 
future eSEdd of the action expressed by the subordinate verb. 


Any of the verbs contained and set forth in the preceding rules, being 
THE LEADING VERB, and In the present or future tense of the indicative, or 
in the imperative mood, governs the subordinate verb in the present of 
the subjunctive. 

N. B. To show to the learners the relation of the tenses, and in order 
to make easy to them the use of the above rules, the number of each tense 
m here employed for the sake of brevity, instead of the name of the tense. 
Should they not remember them, they must consult the Appendix. 

O* N. 1 stands for the present of the indicative — N. 6 for the present 
of the subjunctive — ^p. for participle. 

leading verb. subordinate verb. directions. 

C When the action is 
Simple tenses. "J n' 4! ^,6, < to take place after 9 

' certain time. 



Compound tenses. < m 4 1* N. 6, p. ^ has taken place before 

When the action 
E taken place 
a certain time. 

What do you want him to do ? \ i Que quiere V. que haga: il ? 

It will be necessary for him to have | Sera necesario que el haya acabado 

finished his exercise before two | su tema iutes de las dos. 

o'clock. I 

It will be sufficient for you to know { Bastard gue V. sepa eso. 

that. * ( Serd suficiente que V. lo sepa> 

It Is enough for bun to have written I Basta que ^I haya escrito dos oar^ 

two letters. I tas. 




I wQl be very glad for yonr having 

tipoken 80. 
Ho will giro you paper, without yoor 

askiog for it. 
Let me know when he writes. 

Yo me alegrar^ macho do que V 

kaya hablado asi. 
£l le dari i V. papel, sin que V le 

Avlseme V. coando ^ etcriha 


Leading Verbs, N. 2, of the use of the Suhjjunetme, 

It If necessary that 
It needs to, or that 

It is strange, or a wonder that 

It is a pity that 
It is right that 

It is wrong that 

It is proper that 

It is sorprising that 

It is becoming that 

It is time that 

It is important, or it matters that 

It suffices, it is sufficient that. 

It is to be wished that 

It is possible that 

It is better that 

You must have the goodness to do 

It is necessary that you should be 

here at an early hour. 
You must do that 
It needs that one should have money. 
I must go to market 
He must go away. 
It is just that he should be punished. 
It is sufficient for you to know that 
It is time for you to speak. 
We must sell our goods immediately. 

What must I say? 

It is important that this should be 

It Is pvoper that we should set out 

( Eb necesario que. 
( Ea meneeter que. 
^ £s un prodigio que. 
f Es on mtZa^o.que. 

I Bis l^tima que. 
Ea bueno (bien) que. Ea josto qnsw 
C Es mal6 (es injusto) que. 
< t iVb hay-raxon para que, 
( No es bueno qne. 
I Es propio (conveniente, or d propd 
I site) que. 

Es sorprendiente (maraviUoso) que. 
I Conviene que. 
I Es tiempo que. 

; Importa que. Es importante que. 
I Basta que. Es suficiente que. 
; Es de desear que. 
I Es posible que. 

Es mejor que. Vale mas que. 

Es menester que V. tenga la bondad 
de hacer eso. 

Es necesario que V. esti aquf tem- 

Es menester que V. haga eso. 

Es menester que uno tenga dinero. 

Ee menester que yo vaya i. la plaza. 

Es menester que el se vaya, 

Es justo que 6\ sea castigado. 

Basta que V. lo Mjpo. 

Es tiempo de que V. hable. 

Es menester que oetulafnos inmedia* 
tamente nuestras mercaderias. 

I Que es menester que yo diga 7 

Importa que eso se haga 

Conyiene que partamos. 



R ii te be wkhed that yoa thoold I Es de deaear que V. m tstfa al cam* 

go to the country. 
It is necessary that we should finish 

It is sufficient that you are satisfied. 
I am sorry that she is iU. 
I am charmed that you are here. 
I am glad that he has received his 

She is angry that you are my friend. 

I am surprised that you are not more 

I am extremely glad that your sister 

has recovered. 

Yoor father is afflicted that you miss 

your lessons. 
I am surprised that you have not 

done your task. 

I po. 

, Es necesario quo acabemot hoy. 

Basta que VY. e^en satisfechos. 
Siento que ella esic mala. 
Estoy eneantmdo de que V. etU aqut 
Me alegro de que el haya recibide 

su dlnero. 
Ella eeti enojada de que V. tea mi 

Estoy gorprendido de que V. no sea 

mas atento. 
Estoy eztremamente alegre de que 

su hennana de V. esti restaUe- 

El padre de V. estd afligido de que 

y. pierda sus lecciones. 
Estoy sorprendido de que V. no 

haya hecho su tarea. 


Will you relate (contar) something to me ? — ^What do you wish me 
to relate to you ? — A little anecdote, if you like. — ^A little boy one day 
It table {d la mesa) asked for some meat ; his father said that it was 
not polite to ask for any, and that he should wait until some was given 
to him, (que le dieran, imperf. subjunctive ; see the following Lesson.) 
The poor boy, seeing every one eat, and that nothing was given to 
him, said to his father : '< My dear father, give me a little salt, if you 
please." « What will ypu (tu) do with it ?" asked the father. " I wish 
to eat it with (echarh. en) the meat which you will give me," replied 
(repHcar) the child. Everybody admired (admirar) the little boy's wit ; 
and his father, perceiving that he had nothing, gave him meat without 
his asking for it, (sin que la pidiera,) — Who was that little boy that 
asked for meat at table ? — He was the son of one of my friends. — ^Why 
did he ask for some meat ? — He asked for some because he had a good 
app^te. — ^Why did his father not give him some immecliately ? — Be- 
cause he had forgotten it. — ^Was the little boy wrong in asking for some 7 
—He was wrong, for he ought to have waited. — Why did he ask his 
&ther for some salt ? — ^He asked for some salt, that his father might 
p^fceive that he had no meat, and that he might give him some. 

Do you wish me to relate td you another anecdote? — ^You will 
greatly (rmuMsimo) oblige me. — Some one purchasing some goods 

8d6 8By£NTY-NINTH LB880K. 

of a shopkeeper, said to him : << Yon ask too much ; you should nst 
sell so dear to me as to another, because I am a friend." The mer- 
chant replied : ^ Sir, we most gain something by {con) oar friends, fixr 
our enemies will never come to the shop." 


A young prince, seyen years old, was admired by everybody for his 
wit, (d causa de su ingenio.) Being once in the society of an old officer, 
the latter observed, in speaking of the young prince, that when children 
disc<yrered so much genius in their early days, they generally grew 
very stupid when they came to maturity. — " If that is the case," said 
the you.Ag prince, who had heard it, *' then you (vos) must have been 
very remarkable for your genius when you were a child." 

An Englishman, on first visiting France, met with a very young 
child in the streets of Calais, who spoke the French language with 
fluency and elegance. — ^^ Good heaven, (Santo cielo^) is it possible ?" 
exclaimed he, " that even children here speak the French language 
with purity, (jmreza.^^) 

Let us seek (solicitar) the friendship of the good, and avoid the 
society of the wicked ; for bad company corrupts good manners. — 
What sort of weather is it*to-day ? — ^It snows continually, as it snowed 
yesterday, and according to all appearances, will also snow to-morrow. 
—Let it snow; I should like it to snow (que nevaroy imperf. sub- 
junctive ; see next Lesson) still more, for I am always very well when 
it is very cojd. — ^And !• am always very well when it is neither cold 
nor warm. — ^It is too windy to-day, and we should do better if we 
stayed at home. — ^Whatever weather it may be I must go out ; for I 
pnnnised to be with my sister at a quarter past deven, and I mua: 
ke^p my word. 

SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON.— Leccion Septuagisima nona. 

(Imperfecta del Subjuntiva) 

N. B. For the formation of this tense, see the Appendix. 
. The Spanish verbs have three words to express the imperfect tense of i^ 
snbjnuctive mood, to wit : one ending in ka, one in ria, and one in i 
ExamDles : — 


I might, coold, woold, or should de- 


Yo deseora 7, deseorta 8, deseiiii 9 




To fear. I Temer. 

might, jsoold, would, or sfaoold fear. | Yo iemiera 7, iemeria 8, temieM 9L 


To nnite. 
I migfat, conld, would, or shonld 
unite. • 


Yo nniera 7, ouma 8, unteM 9 


The sane leading verbs that govern the subordinate verb in the 
preeent of the subjunctive mood with auE, being In any of the past tenses 
of the indicative, govern the subordinate verb in the Jirgt (N. 7) or 
thiri» (N. 9) imperfect tense of the subjunctive, preceded by que. 

LEADING verbs. 


Simile tenses. 



. rN. 
Compoond tenses. ^ N. 

I doubted 

I did doubt 

I would doubt 

I had doubted 

I would have doubted 

I doubted 

I did doubt 

] would doubt 

I had doubted 

I would have doubted 

subordinate verbs. 


N. 7. 

N. 9. 

N. 7, p. 
N. 3, p. 

that yon 
would come. 

that you 
would have 

Yo dudaba 

Yo dud^ 

Yo dudaria 

Yo habia dudado 
. Yo habria dudado 

Yo dudaba 

Yo dud^ 

Yo dudaria 

Yo habia dudado 
^ Yo habria dudado 


C When the action is to 
< take place after a 
( certain time. 
When the action has 

taken place after a 

certain time. 

que V. vin* 
iera ; or que 
V, vinieae, 

ra vrnido ; 
or que V. 
hubiete tfe- 

Remark A* on the use of the subjunctivb. 

After the following conjunctions, the verb is in the subjunctive, present, 
or imperfect, in conformity with the rules above explained. 

That, m order that, a fin que, 

to the end that, 

Unless, except, d m&no9 que. 

If, t should it hap- en caeo que — n. 


BefiffB, antes que. 

Though, although', bien que. 
For fear of, lest, por temar de no, 
unless, eea quei^ m6* 

no9 que. 
In case, if, en eaeo que si. 

Though, aunque. 



Tin, until, harta ^iie. 

Far ftom, Ujo9 de. 

Not that, no por que. 

For all that, not- no obstante eso. 

withstandiDg that. 

Suppose that, suptutto que. 

If6versolittle,how por poco que, 

little aoever, • 

Fhyvided that, save 69fi toL pm 

Though, although, aunqne. 
Without, sin, sin qms. 

However little, por poco que* 
Whether, sea que. 

{ supuesto que. 

( se supone. 

SxippoBe that. 

Will yon stay here until I can go 
out with you? 

I will go out before he comes back. 

If you had what you have not, you 
would be rich. 

I send you my book, that you may 
read it 

Unless you accompany her, she will 
not go out 

Though your children are idle, they 
make progress. 

If a man had ever so little acquaint- 
ance with another, he was bound 
to take a part in the dispute, and 
venture his person as much as if 
he had himself been angry. 

Be it as it may. 

Though she is little and bad-looking, 
she is nevertheless amiable. 

I would not have her for a wife, 
though she is rich and has a great 
dedL of wit, because she is not 

Provided yon are my friend, I am 

Whether you are in the right or in 
the wrong. 

Although the monkey be dressed in 
silk, he is still a monkey. 

i Quiere V. estarae aquf hasta que 

yo pueda salir con V.? 
Yo saldr^ dntes que 6i vuelva. 
Si v. tuviera \o que no tiene, V. seria 

rico. V 
Envio d V. mi libro para que (i fin 

de que) v. le lea. 
A mSnos que V. la acompane, ella no 

Aunque los niiios de V. sean perezo- 

sos, ellos hacen progresos. 
Por poca amistad que un hombre 

tuviera con otro, era necesarioque 

6\ se mexclara en la disputa, y que 

arriesgara su persona tanto como 

si ^1 mismo se hubiera (kubiese) 

Sea lo que fuere. Sea lo que sea. 
t Como quiera que sea. 
Aunque sea. 
Aunque ella sea chica, y tenga mala 

cara, no deja de ser amaUe. 
Yo no querria tomaria por mi esposa 

aunque sea rica, y tenga mucho 

talento, porque no tiene buen CO- 

Con tal que V. sea mi amigo, estoy 

Sea que V tenga, 6 no tenga i 

Aunque se vista de seda 
La Mona, Mona se queda. 

Iriarte, Fable XXVII. 

8ETBHTT-]nNT& LI880H. 


Bat bclbfe it coidm to that iBroe, a 
Imigfat mart trarel through the 

Bdt be that as it may, I will order it 
to be repaired in the first village, 
where we can find a blacksmith, 
in such a manner as to be unex- 
celled, nay, even unequalled, by 
that which Vulcan forged and fin* 
ished f<v the god of war. 

I want to divide no spoils, but to beg 
and supplicate some friend to bring 
me a draught of wine, and that he 
will wipe me dry of this sweat 

Pero dmiet fne se UegU4 i. ete tdr- 
mino 08 menester andar por el 

D. QuijoU, cap. zzl pt L 

Pero tea lo que fuere^ yo la adere- 
zar^ en el primer lugar donde haya 
herrero, y de suerte quo no le haga 
ventaja, ni aun le llegue la que 
hixo y forj(5 el dioe de las herrerias 
para el dies de las batallas. 

Ditto, ditto, 

Yo no quiero repartir despojos, sino 
pedir, y mipUear i algun amigo, 
que me dS un trago de vino, y me 
enfugve eete sudor. 

Ditto, cap. liii pt iL 

O&s. A. Some conjunctions govern the indicative, when the sentence 
affirms positively that the thing in question is, has been, or will be ; and the 
subjunctive, when the sense of the phrase indicates uncertainty, condition, 
stipulation, contingency, futurity, or wish. Examples : — 



' So, in mch a manner. 
So as to. 
So that 

Jnd, You behave in such a manner, 

that you are loved by everybody. . 
Subj, Behave in such a manner 

that you may be loved. 
If he lent them money, they also 

lent it to him. 
ff he le22t (should he lend) them 

monity, they would also lend it to 

D; H so as to have him satisfied. 

But for me, he could not have known 

ind. If he had gained a suit, he also 

had tost % friend, and therefore he 

had reogon to oomplain 



Si no. 

De (de tal) forma que. 

De (de tat) manera que, 

De (de tal) modo que, 

De (de tal) suerte que, 

Ind. v. se porta de manera que et 
amado de todo el mundo. 

Subj. Pbrtese V. de tal mdnera que 
sea amado, (se haga amar.) 

Si 4^ les prestd dinero, ellos tambien 
se le prestdron. 

Si a les prestara dinero, ellos tam- 
bien se le prestarian. 

t Higalo y. de modo que €1 queds 

Si no fuera por mf, ^1 no lo habria 

Ind. Si 6\ habia ganado el pleitei 

tambieu h8jl>ia perdido nn amifa^ 

y asf tenia razon de quejaxMi 


Sfubj. If ke had gained (that is, kmd 

he gained) the rait, he would have 

lost a friend, and therefore he had 

no reason to be sorry. 
Ind. Although I had been there 

often, I had never seen her. 
Subj, Although I had been there 

often, (or had I been,) I never 

should have seen her. 

Obe. B. The subjunctive is used after the oonjanction que when it is 
elliptic or substituted for other conjunctions, rach tMi dfin qtu, {de que,) eea 
que, ein que, eon tal que, dntee que, despuee que^ d mSnoe que, hatta que, 

Suij, Si 4\ kubiera ganado ei pleito 

habria perdido nn amigo, y asi no 

tenia razon de quejarse. 

M*Hewry*e Oram, 
Ind. Annque yo habia estado k me- 

nudo alii, nunca la habia visto. 
Suhj. Aunque yo hubiera estado alli 

i. menudo, nunca la habria visto. 

Whether I read or write, it is always 

found fault with. 
He can say nothmg without your 

knowing it 
Wait till your father comes. 

Que yo lea, 6 que eeeriba, siempie 

hallan falta. 
£l no puede decir nada, que V. no 

Aguarde V. que su padre vuelva. 


M. de Turenne would never buy any thing on credit of tradesmen, 
{tenderos,) for fear, he said, thdy should lose a great part of it, if he 
happened to be killed. All the workmen (menestrat) who were em* 
ployed about his house had orders to bring in their ImJIs (uml cuenta) 
before he set out for the campaign, and they were regularly paid. 

You will never be respected unless you forsake (abandonar) the bad 
company yon keep. — ^Yon cannot finish your work to-night, unless I 
help yon. — ^I will explain to yon every difficulty, that you may not be 
disheartened (desanimar) in jronr oudertaking, (una empresa.) — Sup- 
pose you should lose your friends, what would beccnne of you ? — ^In 
case you want my assistance, call me, I shall help you. — A wise and 
prudent man lives with economy when young, in order that he may 
enjoy the fruit of his labor when he is old. — Carry this money to Mr. 
N., in order that he may be able to pay his debts, (una deuda,) — ^WOl 
you lend me that money 7 — ^I will not lend it you unless jrou promise 
to return it to me as soon as jrou can. — ^Did the general arrive ? — He 
arrived yesterday morning at the camp, (el campo,) weary, and tired, 
but very seasonably ; he immediately gave his orders to begin the 
action, though he had not yet all his troops. — ^Are your sisters happy ? 
—They are not, though they are rich, because th€y are not contented. 
Although they have a good memory, that is not enough to learn any 
language wluOever, (eualquiera que sea ;) they must make uae of their 


Judgment — ^Behold how amiable that lady is ; for all that she has no 
fortune, I do not love her the less. — ^WiU you lend me your violin ?— 
I will lend it you, provided you return it to me to-night. — Will your 
mother call upon me? — She will, provided you will promise to take 
her to the concert--^ shall not cease to importune (importttnar) her, 
till she has forgiven me. — Give me that penknife. — I will give it you, 
provided you will not make a bad use of it — Shall you go to London ? 
—I will go, provided you accompany (acompaiUtr) me; and I will 
write again to your broAer, lest he should not have received my letter. 


Where were you during the engagement ? — ^I was in bed to have 
my wounds dressed, (curar.) Would to God {0;ald) I had been there ! 
I would have conquered (veneer) or perished, (morir.) — ^We avoided 
an engagement for fear we should be taken, their fsrce bdng superior 
to ours. — God forbid (no quiem el cidOy with the subjunctive) I should 
blame your conduct, but your business will never be done properly 
unless you do it yourself. — ^Will you set out soon ? — I shall not set out 
till i have dined. — ^Why did you tell me that my father was arrived, 
though you knew the contrary ? — ^You are so hasty, (violenta,) that 
however little you are contradicted (coTUradecir) you fly into a passion 
(encoierizarse) in an instant If your father does not arrive to-<iay, 
and if you want money, I will lei)d you some. — I am much obliged to 
you. — ^Have you done your task 7 — Not quite ; if I had had time, and 
if I bad not been so uneasy about the arrival (UegtUla) of my father, I 
should have dcme it-^f you study and are attentive, I assure you thai 
you will learn the Spanish language in a very short time.— He who 
widiee to teach an art, must know it thoroughly, (4 fondo ;) he must 
give none but clear and well-digested notions (reglas) of it ; he must 
instil (wfimiir) them one by one into the minds of his pupils, and above 
all, he must not overburden (sdbrecargw) their memory with useless 
or unimportant rules. 

My dear friend, lend me a dollar. — ^Here are two instead of one. — 
How much obliged I am to you ! — ^I am always glad when I see you, 
and I find my happiness in yours. — ^Is this house to be sold ? — ^Do yon 
wish to buy it 7 — ^Why not 7 — ^Why does your sister not speak 7 — ^le 
would speak if she were not always so absent, (distraida.) — ^I like pretty 
anecdotes ; they season (sazanar) conversation, and amuse everybody. 
Pray relate me some. — ^Look, if you please, in some of the numbers of 
the Spectator, and you will find many. ^ 




EIGHTIETH LESSON.— Lcccum Octogesima, 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE, (continued.) — Continuacion del SubjunUm, 
HoweveTf howsoever, I Por. Por moo, 

Ohe, A. Por, or for mae, before a noun or an adjectire, f^vemt t]i« rab 

Howovar good you may be. 
How rich aoever tbey may be. 

Whatever, whatsoever. 

I Por bueno que V. sea. 
I Por mas ricoB qae sean. 

{Por (n) que, Por mat (n) que. 
Cualquiera, Cualeequiera, (plur.) 
Todo lo que. Sea el que, v la gut.) 
Sea cualfuere. Sea eual sea. 

Ohs. B. Sea el que, Stc, followed by a noun, requires de after it, ant 
que when a verb comes after it. It always governs the subjunctive. 

f Por valor que V. tenga, €1 Uene mas 
Whatsoever courage you may have, I que V. 

he has more than you. } 1 Sea eual fwere el valor de V, ti 

[ tiene mas. 

Whatsoever patience we may have, 

we will never have enough. 
Whatsoever riches he may have, he 

will soon see the end of them. 
Whatsoever kindness I may have 

for him, I never diall have as 

much as he merits. 
Whatsoever faults you may make, I 

will take care to correct them. 
Whatever may be the happiness you 

enjoy, I am happier than you. 

Whatsoever may be the fortune 
which you enjoy, you may Iosq it 
in an instant 

Whatsoever may be the efibrts which 
.you make, you never can succeed. 

Whatsoever may be the pains which 
you take, no one will be under ob- 
ligation to you for them. 


Por mas paciencFa que tengamot^ 

nunca tendr^mos bastante. 
Sean cuales fueren sus riqnesas^ 

pronto las veri acabadas. 
Por mas afecto que yo le tenga, 

nunea le tendr< tanto oonic iim»- 

Gualesquiera faltae que V. haga, ya 

tendr6 cuidado de corregirlas. 
Sea eual fuere la felieidad que V. 

goce (voe, or vosotros goceis) yo 

soy mas feliz que V., (que vos, or 

Por mas fortuna que tengais (V 

tenga) podreis, (podril,) perderla en 

un instante. 
Por mas eefuerzos que V. haga, 

nunca podrd salir con bien. 
Por mas trabajo que V. se tome. 

ninguno se creeri obligado i Y., 

(nadie se lo agradeceri, or eresri 

deberle nada.) 
Nadi#. Niq^iUMV 



^^f!^\^.^^^^^^' (meaning aU ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ 



( Cualquier (ctialquiera) cosa que. 

Whatsoever you may do for my 

fetther, he will reward you for it 
I complain of nothing whatsoeyer. 

Todo cuanto V. haga por mi padre, 
8U merced (^I) se lo recompeosard. 
Yo no me quejo de nada, (or de cosa 
niuguua, or de nada que valga la 
Whoever, whosoever* Quienquiera, Cualquiera, 

Ohs. C. The indeterminate pronouns quienquiera, cualquiera, whoever, 
whosoever; quienquiera, w cualquiera que sea, whoever, whosoever; 
nadie, nobody ; ninguno, m una solo, no one, not any ; nada, nothing ; 
require the next verb in the subjunctive. 

Of whomsoever 

avoid slander. 
I know nobody who is 

I have seen nothing that could b# 

blamed in his conduct 

you may speak, 
as good as 

De quienquisra que V. hahle, ente 

No oonoxco d nadie (d ninguno) que 

sea tan bueno como V. 
Yo no he visto nada que pudiera 
tacharse en la conducta de ^1, (en 
su condncta.) 

Obs. D. The subjunctive is employed at the beginning of a sentence to 
express surprise, a desire, or an imprecation. Examples : — 
May heaven ever preserve you from I Quiera el cielo preservar d V. (pre- 

such a misfortune. 

Would to God! 
Would to God it were so! 
Would to God he had done it ! 

Would to God that all the great 

lords loved peace ! 
Would to God we may never be 

more unhappy ! 

May yon be happy ! 

/ / Quiera 

servaros) de una tal desgracia. 
Plegue d Dios ! ; Plegue al cielo ! 
uiera Dios, (el cielo) ! 

(See Placer *, in Appw) 
Pluguiera d Dies que eeo fuese 
; Pluguiera d Diosqne ^1 lo huhiese 

I Pluguiera d Dios que todos los 

grandes sefioree amasen la paz ! 
; Plegue al Cielo que nosotros nunca 
seamos mas infelioes ! 
Ojald que V. sea feliz ! 
Obs. E, The subjunctive is also sometimes employed at the beginning 
of a sentence, when for the sake 00' energy an ellipsis is made of the con« 
ditional conjunctions aunque, si, &jt» 


Though it cost me all I have, I shall 
know how lo preserve myself from 
•och a misfortnne. 

CostArame todo cuanto tengo, yo m« 
sabria precaver do una tal 4 

' Instead of, Aunque (or aun euando) ms eostara, Slo, 



Were he to do what they advise him, 
he would not have cause to. com- 

Hiciera 6i lo qae le aconsejan* j M 
tendria motivo de quejarae ' 

Rbmaek B, on ths use of thb sinuuNonys mood. 

It may be remaned, in conclusion, on the use of the subjunctive, thai 
whenever the mtbordinate verb, or the second member of a sentence, is 
united to the leading verb, or the fixst member of a sentence, by one of the 
relative pronouns, que, quien, eual, &c., it is put in the indicative when it 
expresses any thbg certain or positive, and in the subjunctive when it re- 
lates to any thmg uncertain, doubtful, or contmgent Examples : — 

Kere is a book for you, which yoa 

may consult occasionally. 
Give me a book that I may be able 

to consult occasionally. 
LoHd me that book which you do 

not want , 
[jood me a book which yoa may not 

be in want of. 
Do not leave a place where you are 

comfortable, and whence you hear 

Choose a place where you may be 

comfortable, and whence you may 

hear well. 

Ind, Aqui.tiene V. on libro qu9 

puede consultar i ooasiones. 
Subj, Dcme V. un libro que yo pue^ 

da consultar t cuando te ofrezca, 
Ind, Pr^steme V. aquel libro de que 

no necesiUu 
Subj. Pr^steme V. un libro de que 

no neeeeite* 
Ind. No deje V. un asiento en que 

V. estd c6modamente, y desde el 

cual V. oye bien. 
Subj. Escoja V. un asiento en que 

eeti c<)modamente, y desde el cual 

V. oiga bien. 


Will your worship allow me to con- 
fer a little with you 7 

tn these cross-paths, though your 
worship conquer, and achieve the 
most perilous exploits, there is no- 
body prsnnt to be witness of 

iQuiere vnestra merced darme li- 
cencia que departa un poco coo 
^1 ? D. Quijote, capi zzi. pL i 

En estas encmcijadas aunque He 
venzan, y aeaben las mas peligro- 
sas aventuras, no katf quien Us 
veo, ni eepa. Dittet iiUa 

* Instead of. Si il hiciera, Sui. 



Neither will there be wanting eome 
penmn to write the history of yoor 
wmsfaip** exploits. 

Andrew mart wait for my retain, as 
yon, madam* say. 

I request thee again, not to tell it to 

Bot I positiyely wish it not to be 
known, till it is done. 

Alii no faltari qm^i pongm pec 
escrito las hazaiias de V uestra mer* 
ced. , Ditto, ditto. 

Es fvrzom que Andres Unga p»- 
ciencia hasta^mi vnelta oomo voi^ 
seflora, decis. 

DUto, cap. xjv pt !• 

Te otceZoo & encargar qne i nadia 
lo deacubras. 

Moratin-^El Si, Act L 

Pero quiero absolatamente que no sa 
tepa hasta qae e^te heoho. 

Ditto, ditto 

Is it possible that a Christian preacher i i Es pooible que tenga ahMito pan 
can have the boldness to proflbr i proferir semejante propoodon ob 
such an opinion ? | orador cristiano ? 

P ItZo — Fr. Oerundio 

FtoTided that two (religions persons) 
make themselves exempt, or be 
not able to pass the roads, I shall 
be certainly called. 

I am calm, and will be the same, 
although the triumph of the Gerun- 
dios be complete. 

By this means, and provided that 
you can pronounce as well, as 
Heaven may grant, the name of 
the illustrious Shakspeare, nobody 
will doubt of your authority. 

In order that ignorant persons may 
not confound them with the trtly 

Hay Jupiter preserve you from all 

Con tal que dos (religiesos) se eS' 
eueent 6 no puedan pasar loi: 
puertos, ser6 infaliblemente Uama- 
do. JDitto— Carta LI 

EsCjsy fresco, y lo estar^ aunque eea 
complete el triunfo de los Gtirun- 
dios. JDiUo— Carta LXYL 

Con esto, y oomo profiunmeiet como 

el cielo oe di i' entender, el nom- 

bre del insigne Shakespeare, nin- 

guno dudari de vuestro vote. 

Cadaleo^Eruditoe d U Violeta, 

A fin de que los ignorantes no los 
eonfundan con los verdaderos sa- 
bios. Ditto, ditto. 

\ Jtipiter oe guarde de todo mal ! 

Ditto, ditto. 




Hearen grant you would sing, re- 
plied the little bird. 

' Although the critics I am speaking ' 
of, may abuse me/I will describe > 
them in other fable. 

If the statutes of knight-errantry 
were lost, they would be found in 
your worship's heart 

Don Quixote told him to relate some 
story ; and Sancho said he would 
do so, if the dread of what he heard 
did not prevent him. 

I^ I were permitted to speak freely 
as usual, I could perhaps give such 
reasons as would convince your 
worship, that you are mistaken in 
what you say. 

Don Fernando was highly displeased 
that his grandfather had not ap- 
pointed him for principal gov- 

The neglect of iqypointmg hun, might 
be imputed to his youth. 

It is not fit for us to rejoice at a good 
luck, or to grieve for an ill one. 

[f those men who shun adversity, 
could understand the blessings 
therein contained, they not only 

; Ojald que eantarat ! 
Replici) el pajarillo. 

/riarte— Fabula XXVU 

Awiqtu renieguen de ml 
Los ciitieos de que trato. 
En otra fdbnla aqui 
Tengo de hacer su retrato. 

Dt^to— Fabula XXIIL 

Si las ordenanxas de la andante 
caballerfi se perdie9en (perdieran) 
se kallarian en el pecho de vues- 
tra merced. 

D. QuijoU, cap. xvii 

DIjole Don Quijote que eontate (con- 
tara) algun cuento ; y Sancho djjo 
que si haria, si le dejara el miedo 
• de lo que oia. 

Ditto, capu XXL 

8i yo pudiera haUar tanto como 
solia, quizd diera tales razones 
que vuestra merced viera que se 
engafiaba en lo que dice. 

Ditto, ditto. 

Don Fernando se hallaba desabrido 

de que su abuelo no le dejaoe 

nombrado por principal gobemador 

Solis, lib. iii. cap. iii. 

El no nombrerle pudiera pasar por 
disfavor hecno 6, su poca edad. 

Ditto, ditto 

No eonviene que nos alegremoo con 
los buenos sucesos, 6 nos anguo- 
tiemoo con los malos. 

Fr. Luio de Leon. 

Si los que esquivan la adversidad 
entendieeen el bien que en ella m 
enoierra, no solo no la Amrimn^ 


would not fly from it, bat they 
peiliaps would beg God to yiait 
tbem with it 

mas por Tentora harmn plegariif 
4 Dies pva que ee la envioef 4 
8Uf cams. Ditto, dittB, 

240. • 
Yon must have patience, though you have no desire to have it , for 
I must also wait till I receive my money. Should I (en caso que) 
receive it to-day I will pay yon all that I owe you. Do not believe 
that I have forgotten it; for I think of it every day. Or do yon 
believe, perLaps, that I have already received it ? — ^I do s ot believe that 
jou have already recdved it ; but I fear that your other creditors may 
already have received it — Wonld to God (Q/ald que) you had what I 
wish you, and that I had what I wish. — ^Though we have not had what 
we wish, yet we have almost always been contented ; and Mesaenra 
B. have almost always been discontented, though they have had every 
thing a reasonable man (un Kombre raciontU) can be contented with. — 
Do not believe. Madam, that I have had your &n, (abanico.) — ^Who 
tells yon that I believe it 7 — ^My brother-in-law would wish he had not 
had what he has had. — ^Wherefore? — Ho has always had many 
creditors, and no money. — ^I wish you would always speak French to 
me ; and yon must obey, if you wish to learn, and if you do not wish 
to lose your time uselessly, (inulilmente.) I would wish you were 
more industrious and more attentive when 1 speak to you. If I were 
not your friend, and if you were not mine, I should not speak thus to 
you. — ^Do not trust (no sefie V.) Mr. N., for he flatters you. Do you 
think a flatterer (un adulador) can be a fiiend ? — ^You do not know 
him as well as I, though you see him every day.— Do not think that I 
am angry with him, because his father has offended me. — Oh ! here ho 
is coming, (hele aqui que viene,) you may tell him all yourselfl 

What do you think of our king 7 — ^1 say he is a great man, but I 
add, that though kings be over so powerful (poderoso) they die as well 
as the meanest of their subjects. — ^Have you been pleased with my 
sisters ? — ^I iMfve ; for however plain (feo) they may be, they are still 
very amiable ; and however leameid (instruido) our neighbors' daughters 
may be, they are still sometimes mistaken. — Is not their father rich 7 
— However rich he may be, he may lose all in an instant — Whoever 
the enemy may be whose malice (malicia) you dread, (recelar^ you 
ought to rely (descansar) upon your innocence; but the hiws (Iom 
Uyes) condemn (oondeiuir) all criminals (criminal) whatever they may 
%e. — ^Whatever your intentions (tntendan) maybe, you should have 



acted difforentlj. — Whatever the reasons (raxon) be which yon maj 
allege, (hey will not ezcoae yonr action, blameaUe in itself. — ^What- 
tver may happen to yon in this world, never mnrmur (murmurar) 
against Divine Providence ; for whatever we may snffer we deserve it 
— Whatever I may do, you are never satisfied. — ^Whatever you may 
say, your sisters shall be puniahed, if they deserve it, and if they do 
not endeavor to amend, («nmc7id«r.)— Who has taken my gold watct ? 
— ^I do not know. Do not believe that I have had it, or that Miss C. 
has had your silver snuff-box, for I saw both in the hands of your 
sister when we were playing at forfeita, (juegos de prendas.) — ^To* 
morrow [ shall set out for Dover ; but in a fortnight I ahaU be back 
again, (i otver,*) and then I shall come and see you and your £unily. — 
Where is your sister at present ? — She is at Paris, and my brother is 
at Berlin. — That little woman is said (se dice) to be going to marry 
Generd (el general) K., your friend ; is it true ? — ^I have npt heard of 
it — ^What news is there of our great army ? — ^It is said to be lying 
(estar) between the Weaer (d Viser) and the Rhine, (el Rhvu)---An 
that the conrier told me seeming (jparecer) yery probable, I went home 
iounediately,. wrote some letters, and departed for London. 

EIGHTY-FIRST LESSON.— I/Cccmw Octogisima primera. 

Remarks — ^This teiwe expreflBoa a positive future coDditional action, aad is 
governed by the same verbs and conjunctionB that govern the present of the 
subjunctive mood, in consequence of which it \b sometioies mistaken for and 
nsed instead of that ; but it is very di^rent, and expresses the idea with 
more energy and precision. Therefore the rules laid down for the use of 
the present of the subjunctive are applicable to this tense when the sense is 
ccbditional and fntcne. It frequently answers to the fatore of the indica- 
tive, or present of the potential mood in English ; but most frequently to the 
auzfliary verb thotddt as may be observed by the following examples : — 

I do not tell thee to live, or to die : 
live, if thou canst; die, if thou 
canst not do better. 

We have resolved to do in his beha<f 
all that shall lie in our power. 

No te digo que i»t>a^,ni que inic«rM .- 
vive, si ruDiERBS, y muere, si no 
FUDiBRBs mas. (^uevedo, 

Tenemos ya deterrainado que sa haga 
en su obsequio todo lo que AiiCAM* 
ZAKEN nuestras fuenas. 

Soii9^ lib. iiL eap. & 



CSmnniaad what you pleasef renew 
to our good friend my sincere at- 
tachment, and say from me all 
that you please to all those who 
thall remember me 

Manda lo que gusiares, renneva 4 
nuestro buou amigo mi fino afecto, 
y i caantoe »e acordaren de mf, 
dir&s de mi parte todo lo que 
quisieres. Isla — Cartas. 

Just a Utile, ever so Uttle, 

Will you do me the favor of giving 
me a piece of bread ? . 

Do you wish a great deal ? 
No, just a little. 

Solo un poco. No mas que un poeo 
1 Unpoquito, Un poquitito. 
Solo un poquito. 
^Qoiere V. hacerme el favor de 

darme un pedazo (un pooo) de 

I Quiere V. mucho 7 
t No, solo un po^ito, (un pedacito. 

un cachito.) 

To turn to account ^ 

To make the best of, 1 

That man does not know how to 
make the most of his talents. 

That man turns his money to ac- 
count in trade. 

How do you employ your money 7 

I employ it in the stocks. 

To boast, to brag. « 

I do not like that man, because he 
boasts too much. 

t Hacer vdler, t Hacer para g jmar 

Aprovecharse de, 

Sacar ventaja de. Servirse de. 

Ese hombre no sabe como aprove- 
charse de SOS talentos. 

Ese hombre saca ventaja (sabe sacar 
ventaja) de su dmero en el comer- 

t ^ Como hace V.paraganar eon su 

Yo le pongo en los fondos paUicos. 

Jaetarse. Vaiiaglorittrse. 

Preciarse, Alabttrse, 

Fanfarronear, t Ser jactancioso. 

f Nome gusta ese hombre, porque 
se jacta muchoy (es muyjactan- 

NottDtthstanding that. 
For all that, although. 

That man is a little bit of a rogue, 

but notwithstanding he passes for 

an honest man. 
Although that man is not very well, 

he notwithstanding works a great 

Althongh that woman is not very 

pietty, still she is very amiable. 


t No deja 

No obstante. Sin embargo. 

Con toda Aunque. 

fise hombre no deja de ser un pica- 

rillo, con todo pasa por un hombra 

de bien. ^ 

Aunque aqael hombre est€ enfermo, 

no deja de trabajar mucha 

Aunque aquella mujer no sea may 
bonita, no deja de ser amable. 



AlthoQgfa that man has not the least 
talent, yet for all that he hoasts a 
great deal. 

AJthough the tayern-keeper's wife is 
rather swarthy, yet for all that 
she turns the business to good ac- 

I received your letter on the fifth. 
On the sixth. 
To igo back, to return. 

The top. 

The bottom. 

From top to bottom. 

The eldest brother. 
The eldest sister. 
He is the eldest 

t Aunque aquel hombre no tenga el 
menor talento, no por eso deja da 
jactarse mucho de ^I. 

Aunque la taveruera es un poco mo- 
rena, ella no deja de sacar boen 
provecho de sos negocios. 

Yo ecibi la carta de V. el cinca 


Volver *. Volver atrao. Revolver. 

Lo alto. fSerado. El remate. 

La cima, (onmbre, ponta.) 

Lo bajo. Lo inferior. £1 suelo. 

El fondo. El pi6. 

t Hasta arriba, encima, Qo alto, la 

t De airiba abaja 

I El hermano mayor. 
La hermana mayor. 
£l es el mayor. 

"^ ' . • ( Pareciendo. Pareeido, 

I appear, thou aj^arest, he ap- 

To keep, to maintain. 

My kequng or maintenance. 

If y keeping costs me twelre hun- 
dred dollars a year. 

Parecer. Tener apariencia de. 

Pareciendo. Pareeido. 

Yo parezco. TH parecee. £1 parecew 

Tener ♦. Mantener *. Conoervart, 

JMi manutencion, (mantenciom.) 
t Oaetoe. 

fMi manutendon me cnesta mil j 
doscientos pesos al ada 
Mis gastos montan & mil y doscientos 
pesos al alio. 

To drive in, to Hnk. 

To conyene with. 

A conyersation. 

Spare your money 

To be tired. 

I Clavar. Hundir. Enemjar. Motor 

K Converoar con. HM&r am. 

\ Tratar con. 

I Una conyenacion. 

4 Ahorrar. £2conomizar 

\ Guardar. Conseryar. 

I t Guide V. de ou dinero. 

(Cansarse de. Fatigarae de 
Fastidiarse de. Enfadazse de. 
Estar cansado, (fatigado, festidtado, 
enfadado de.) 

xioRTT-mtsT Lvpsoir. 



To lean againiL 

Laan againat me. 
Lean against the waU. 

To aim at. 
To atop ahoit. 

Virtue is amiable. 
Vice is odious. 

I Manosear. Manejar. Tratar. 
k Apoyane. Descansar. 
( Reclinane. Recoetarse. 

Recu^tese V. sobre mi 

RecUnese (apdyese) V. contra 

i Apuntar AmHot. Enemrar. 

\ Tiarar al bloAea. 

C Corto. Brer^ Bajo. 

( Pequeiio. Chioo. 

i Parana. Detenexae. 

( Cortane. Perdexae. 

La virtud es amaUe. 
El yicio es aborrecible. 

Obs. A, The definite article is used in Spanish before sobstantivea taken 
in a general sense, and in the whole extent of their signification. In i 
instances no article is made use of in English. Examples : — 

Men are mortal. 

Gold is precious. 

Floor is sold at six dollars a barrel. 

Beef costs six pence a pound. 

The horror of yice, and the love of 
-virtue, are the delights of the wi^e 

Los hombres son mortales. 

El ^nro es precioso.^ 

La harina se venida & seis pesos tH 

barriL • 
La came ouesta & seis peniques la 

El horror del vicio, y el amor de la 

virtud, son las delicias del sabb. 

England is a fine country. | Liglaterra es un pais hermoso. 

Ois. B. The definite article is used, of late, before the names of kh^- 
doms, provinces, and countries ; .not by the beet writers, howevert axeepting 
when those names are accompanied by an adjective, or when the oountriea 
admit of a division. It is required to be placed before a few namea by 
general usage. Examples:— 

Sfotn. Spain ultramarine, of this 

side or c^ that side of the sea. 
Ammo. Asia major, or minor. 
Italy is the garden of Europe. 
The dog is the (riend and companion 
of man. 

Espana. La Eepafia ultra mar 6 

eitra mar. 
AMa. Asia mayor, or manor 
La Habana. 

Italia ea el jardin de ESoropa. 
£11 perro ea tH amigo y al eoapafiata 

del hombre* 



Obt, C. Tlie articles are repeated before every rabstantire wfaen a |M» 
tieolar rimrharff w pUcod od them ; otherwise they may be omitted. 

Theflsaly prodocea wine, orangea, 
lemoDB, olivet, and all kinds of 

He ate the bread, meat, apples, and 
cakes ; he drank the wine, beer, 
and cider. 

Beauty, gracefulness, and wit, are 
valuable endowments when height- 
ened by modesty. 

Tesalia produce vino, narai^jas, li- 
mones, olivas, y loda especie de 

£l se comid el pan, la came, las 
manzanas, y los hollos ; y se be- 
bid el vino, la cervesa, y la sidra. 

La hermosura, las gracias, y el inge- 
nio, son preudas apreciables cuando 
estan acompafiadas de la modestia 

Whither shall you go next year ? — I ahall go to England, for it ib a 
fine kingdom, where I intend spending^ the summer on my return 
firom France. — ^Whither shall you go in the winter 7 — I shall go to 
Italy, and thence (de aUi) to the West Indies, {& las AntiUas ;) but 
before that I must go to Hdland to take leave (despedirse) of my 
friends. — ^What country do these people inhabit, (habitarJ) — ^They 
inhabit the south (mediodiatsur or sud) of Europe ; their countries are 
called Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and they themselves are Italians, 
Spaniards, or Portuguese; but the people called Russians, Swedes, 
and Poles, inhabit the north (norte) of Europe ; and the names of their 
countries are Russia, Sweden, and Poland, (PoUmia,) France is 
separated {separar) from Italy by {por) the Alps, Qos Alpes,) and from 
Spain by the Pyrenees, {los Pirinios,) — ^Iliough the ALahometans 
{hs Mahomeianos) are forbidden the use of wine, (estS prohibido^ 
yet for all that some of them drink it. — ^Has your brother eaten 
any thing this morning? — ^He has eaten a great deal; though he 
said he had no appetite, yet for all that he ate all the meat, bread, and 
vegetables, (kgumbres,) and drank all the wine, beer, and eider. — ^Are 
eggs (huevo) dear at present ?— They are sold at a dollar a hundred. — 
Do you Hke grapes, (uvasT) — ^I do not only Kke grapes, but also 
nlnms, (ciruelaSj) almonds, nuts, and all sorts of fruit. — ^Though 
modesty, candor, and an amiable disposition (candicion) are valuable 
endowments, yet for all that there are some ladies that are neither 
modest, nor candid, (cdndido,) nor amiable. — ^The fear of death and 
the love of life being natural to men, they ought to shun (kuir) nee. 
(d vicio^ and adhere to (adherirse d) virtue. 



JBTOHTY-^ECOND^LESSON.^jLeccion Octogisima s^unda.^ 

' Dar motivo, {causa, ocaSon dt 
(n) para,) (With a verb in the 
iofiuitive or subjuoctive.) 
t Dar pU para, (With a verb in 
the iofinitive or subjanctive.) 
^ Referirae d *. Deferirte * <U die 
Dejar &, (the person.) 
Dejar i. la decisidn, (al dict&men.) 
^ t Ponerlo en manos, (dl atbitrio de.) 
I t Lo dejo d lo que V. diga$ (haga,) 

To give occanon. 

To leave it to one 

I leave it to yon. 

(Baen contrato» (pacto.) 
Buena compra, (venta.) 
t Una ganga. Una buena suerte. 
Una ckiripa, 

iAtenerae d *. Mantentrae en *. 
Paaar por. Eatar por ». 
,..,,, ^ . , C Yo me atengo & la oferta qoe V, m* 

I abide by the oflfor you have made J , hecho 

™^ ( Paso por la oferta qae V. me ha hecho 

A good bargain. 
To lUck, or abide by a thing. 

1 do not doabt but yon are my friend. | Yo no dado que V. sea mi amiga 
To aufferj to hear. 

Sufrir. Aguantar, Experimentar 
Soatener *, Padecer *. 
Reaiaiir, Arroatrar, 

They were expowd to the whole fire 
of the place. 

ElloB estuvi^ron expnestos & todo el 
faego de la plaza. 
. Snfri^ron todo el fuego de la plaxa. 

To examine one artfully, or to draw 
a secret from one. 

I examined him artfully, and by that 
means I have made myself ac- 
quainted with all his afiaiiB. 

Examinar con mafia. 

t Hacer cantor d alguno, 

Sacarle vn aecreto. 

, Hacerle desembnchar. 

t Yo le he examiaado con mafia, y 

de eete mode me he hecho duefio 

de todos BUS negocios. 

C Paaar, SobreUevar, Sufirir, 
To hear, or to put up with. } t Dejar que. Aguantar. 
ti No hacer caao de. 
FoD wffl be obliged to pat np with I V. se verd obligado & panr por 

I cnanto tfl qniera. 

•nhif wiriies. 




A thick cloud 
A thick beard. 
He hoM a thick b4ard. 

' A bunt of laughter. 
To bunt oat langhing. 

To bant oat 

T> bant oot a laaghing. 

Splondor, brightnese. 

To make a great ahow. 

To light 

To mfier one's self to be beaten. 

To tot or to lafier one's self to faU. 
To safier one's self to be insulted. 
To safier one's self to die. 
To let one's self be strack. 

To send back, to send away. 

To extol, %i praise npw 

To Ifi^y to praise oae'^ •«>€ 

Go thither. 

Let OS go. 


Go (thoa) thither. 

Go (tboQ) away. 

Let hfan go thither 
Let them go thither. 

t Espeso. Espesa. Doom. 

Graeso. Crmesa. 

Unanobe eipesa. 

t Una barba poblaOa, (espMs.) 

t El es barbicerrado, 

Un reyenton, (estallido, 

Una carcajada. Un flojo de rin. 

Reventar de risa. Caeise de rsa. 
I ReTentar. Estallar. Brotar. 
1 1 Romper. Quebrar. Prorompir. 

Dar de carcajadas. HaceiM trixas. 
C Esplendor. Reqtlandor BriUo. 
} LusUe. Brillantex. Claridad. 
( Pompa. Magnificenda. 
K Hacer ostentacion. 
( Hacer on gran papel 

JAlombrar. Ilominar. 
Dar laz. Enoender 

Dejarse aporrear, (golpear, maltn* 

tar, sacadir.) . 
Dejarse oaer. 
Dejarse insaltar. 
Dejaree morir. 
Dejarse apalear. 

5'Devolver. t Volver d i 
Remitir (enyiar) otra yez. 
< , Hacer volver. 
C Engrandecer. Alabar. 
< Magnificar. ESnsalzar. ApUmfir 
f Engrandecer. Exaltar. 
t Jactane. Vanagloriane. 
•^ Alabaise. Exaltaise. Plecianeu 
^ t Eehar plantat, 
( Vaya V. ahf, (alU or alii.) 
\ Id vos (yosotros) ahi, (alii or aD4.) 
( Ve tH alU, (alii or aht) 


Ve aUi, (allL) 
( Viyase 61 alii. 
( Qae se vaya €1 altf. 
i Viyanse ellos alii. 
( Qae se vayan eOos aOL 



Go away, begone. 

Let hb begone. 

Let him go away, let him begone. 
Gire me. 
Give it to me. 

Give it to him. 
Give him eome. 

To get paid. 
Get paid. 

Let ns set out 

Let OS breakfast 
Let him give it to me. 

Let him be here at twelve o'dook. 

Let him eend it me. 
He may believe it 

Make an end of it 
Let himfinialL 
Let him take it 

Let her tay so. 

Bather, (before an adjective.) 


{Veto. Maiehate. 
t Quitate de aquL 
VAyaeeV. Maiobeee V. 
t Quiteee V. de aqui. 
( y&moQOB. March^monot. 
\ t QuiUmono9 de aqut 
K Que Be vaya. Que m marohew 
1 1 Que deje el jnteeto. 
I Dome V. Denme W. Dadme. 
i D^mele (d^mela) f, 
I Dddmele* DAdmela vos. 
5 IMsele (d^la) V. 
DiUbtele or la, (vos, vosotros.) 
Dele V. alguno, (algunos, algiaa 

Dadle vos, vosotros algono, (algonoib 

algona, algonas.) 
Hacerse pagar. 
H&gase V. pagar. 
t Haceos pagar. 
I Salgamos. Marchemos. 
I Partamos. Vdmonos. 

D^mele ^l Qne ^I me le de. 
Que ^1 est^ aqd i las doce. 
Qae ^1 est^ aqui al medio dia. 
Que 6\ me le (la) envie. 
£l pnede creerie, (la or lo.) 

I Acabar. Fmalizar. 

I SSTerminar. Concloir. 
^ \ Qne acabe, (^L) 

I I Dejele V. acabar, {que acabe.) 
Tdmele, {41) Qne le tome il 
Dejele v. qne le tome. 

D^je v. qne ella lo diga. 
t Dejeselo V. decir. 

(f I were to qnestion you as I need 
to do at the beginning of onr les- 
sons, what would yon answer 7 

^e found these questions at fixst 


{Si yo les hiciera i. W. (os hieiera) 
preguntas como lo hacia al principio 
de nuestras lecciones, que me re* 
q>ondeiian W. (que responderiais)? 

Nosotros haUamos al prindpio eslas 



rather ridicuIooB ; bat full of con- 
fidence in your method, we an- 
swered as well as the small quan- 
tity of words and rules we then 
possessed allowed us. 

We were not lon^ in finding out that 
those questions were calculated to 
ground us in the rules, and to ex- 
ercise us m conversation, by the 
contradictory answers we were 
obli^ to make. 

We can now almost keep up a con- 
versation in Spanish. 

Thk phrase does not seem to us logi- 
cally correct 

We should be ungrateful if we al- 
lowed such an opportunity to 
escape without expressing our 
liveliest gratitude to you. 

In all eases, at all events. 

The native. 
The insurmountable difficulty. 

preguutas algo ridiculas ; pert 
llenos d^ confianza en el m^todo 
de v., (vuestro m^todo,) las res- 
pondimos tan bieu como nos lo 
permitid el oorto nilmero de pala- 
bras y regies que entdnoes poseia- 
mos, (sabiamos.) 
No tardamos mucho en hallar <faB 
aquellas preguntas estaban calcn- 
ladas para inculcamos las reglas, 
y ejercitamos ec la eonvenadon, 
por (medio de) las respuestas oon- 
tradictorias, que estibamos t.sliga- 
dos & hacer. 
Al preseute podemos mantener eaa 
toda una conversacion en es- 
Esta tnae no nos parece 16gicamente 

Nosotros seiiamos unos ingratos si 
dejiramos escapar una tal oportu- 
nidad de manifestar i V. (mani- 
festaros) nuestro mas vivo reconod* 

TEn todo caso. 

J En todo evento, (sucesa) 

J En todas ocasiones. 

(.t Suceda lo ^ue suceda. 

i El native. El natural. 

(f El originario de. El k^jo de. 

I La dificultad insuperable. 

Will you drink a cup of coffee ? — ^I thank yon, I do not like coffee. 
— ^Then you will drink a glass of wine ? — I have jost drunk some.^-^ 
Let us take a walk. — ^Willingly, (con mucho gusto;) but where shall 
we go to 7 — Come with me into my aunt's garden ; we shall there find 
very agreeable society. — ^I believe it ; but the question is (d caso es) 
whether this agreeable society will admit me.— Yon are welcome 
everywhere. — ^What ails yon, my IHend ? How do yon like that wme f 
—I like it very well, (muy bien ;) but I have drank enough of it- 
Drink once more, (otra copito.)— No, too much is onwholescMne ; I 
know my constitution.— Do not fell. What is the matter wif h you f— 


I do not know ; but my head is giddy, {estoy aturdido;) I think I am 
ftinting, (pienso que me desmayo,)^-'! think bo also, for you look 
almost like a dead person, (un cadaver.) — ^What countryman are you f 
— ^I am an American. — You speak Spanish (espanot) so well that I 
took you for a Spaniard by birth. — You are jesting. — Pardon me ; I do 
not JQpt at all. How long have you been in Spain, (Espana 7) — A 
few days. — ^In earnest ? — ^You doubt it, perhaps, because I speak 
Spanish ; I knew it before I came to Spam. — ^How did you learn it 
80 well ? — ^I did like the prudent starling. 

Tell me, why are you always on bad terms (en discordia) with youi 
wife 7 and why do you engage in unprofitable trades, (meterse en nego 
cios irmtiles 7) ^It costs so much trouble (cuesta tarUo) to get {lener) 
a situation ; and you have a good one and neglect it Do you not 
think of the future ? — Now allow me to speak also, (& mi tumo.y^ 
All you have just said seems reasonable ; but it is not my feult, if I 
have lost my reputation ; it is that of my wife : she has sold my finest 
clothes, my rings, (anUlos,) and my gold watch. I am full of 
(cwrgadd) debts, and I do not know what to do. — ^I will not excuse 
your wife ; but I know thai you have also contributed to your ruin, 
(la rutna.) Women are generally good when they are left so, 
(cuando se dejan ser tales,) 



The Master. — ^If I were now to ask (hacer) you such (aJgunas pre- 
gunlas) questions as I did in th^k beginning of our lessons, viz. (par 
gernplo :) Have you the hat which my brother has ? am I hungry ? 
has he the tree of my brother's garden ? &c. What would you 

The Pupils, — ^We are obliged (estar obligado) to confess that we 
found these questions at first rather (algo) ridiculous ; but fuU of con- 
fidence in your method, we answered as well as the small quantity of 
words and rules we then possessed allowed us. We were, in fiu^t, 
(pero,) not long (to be not long, no tardar mucho) in finding out that 
these questions were calculated to ground us in the rules, and to exer- 
cise us in conversation, by the contradictory answers we were obliged 
to make. But now that we can almost keep up a conversation in the 
beautiful language which you teach us, we should answer : It is im- 
possible that we should have the same hat which your brother has, for 
two persons cannot have one and the same thing. To the second 
question we should answer, that it is impossible for us to know 
whether you are hungry or not As to the last, we should say : that 
there is more than one tree in a garden ; and in asking us whether ha 




has the tree of the gaiden, the phrase does not seem to us logically 
correct At all events we shoidd be ungrateful {ingraUi) if we 
allowed such an opportunity to escape, without expressing (expre$ar) 
our liveliest gratitude to you for the trouble you have taken. In ar- 
ranging (por el arreglo) those wise combinations, (^(mibvrutciofn^ you 
have succeeded^ in grounding us almost imperceptibly (imperceptible' 
menu) in the rules, and exercising us in the^ conversation, of a lan- 
guage which, taught in any other way, presents to foreigners, and even 
to natives, almost insurmountable difficulties, (insuper€Me$^ 

It lacks a quarter. 

It lacks a halt 
How much does it want 7 
It does not want moph. 
It wants but a trifle. 

It lacks but an inch of -my being as 
tall as yoo. 

It lacked a great deal of my being 
as rich as you. 
The half. 

The third part 

The fourth part 
You think you have returned me all ; 
a great deal is wanting. 

EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON.— Lccctbn Octogisima ienera. 

To laekf (Jto he wanting.) | FtUtar, Necentwrn. 

Le falta un cuarto, (nn ouarteion ) 

Le falta una cuaita parte. 

Le falta uua (la) mitad. 

xCaantole falta? 

No le falta macha 

t Solo le falta un poquito, (una ba- 


Solo me falta una polgada, para ser 

tan alto como V. 

t Por una pulgada no ooy tan alto 

como V, 

taltaba macho para que yo ftiese 

tau rico como V. 

La mitad. 

• ; La tercia (tercera) parte, (.fern.) 

( ' El terciot (mas.) 

La cuarta parte. Un cuarto. 

y. piensa que me lo ha devnelto todo ; 

pero falta muchisinia 

' EU menor no es con muobotanboeno 

. como el mayor. 

I Macho le falta al menor, para ser 

L tan baeno como el majro' 

_ ^ A troehemoche. 
In afooUih manner, at random, ^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^ gmieotro. 

Hie younger i 
^Iderby fan 

not so good as the 

Ha talks at random like a orasy 

To resort to violenoe. 

A fact 

t El kabla d tontae y d locao i 

on hombre sin juicio. 
Venir & las manos. 
Un hecha 

EUe. Or eUe. 




De otra tuerte, De otto mMfo 
De otra mantra. Si no. 

To make fan iA 

To contradict,, to give one the lie. 

Should he say so, I would give hun 

the lie 
His actions belie his words. 

To scraUh 

C Burlane de. Chanceaxse con. 
•? Reine de. Hacer burla. 
( Hacer chacota de. 
C Desmentir *. 
< Decirle & uuo que miente. 
t Dar una desmentida. Contradecir * 
Si 61 dijera eso, 70 le desmentiria. 

Sns acciones contradicen (dfwnien* 

ten) BUS palabras. 
Aranar. Raagunar. 

To escape, 

I fell from the top of the tree to the 
bottom, but I did not hurt myself 

I escaped with a scratch. 

The thief has been taken, but he will 
escape with a few months' impris- 

Escapar. EscapnrHe. 
t Quedar libre. t Salir lihre, 
Yo cat de la cima del drbol hasta el 
pi6, pero no me lastim^ mucha 

Escape con nn arailo, (rasguSa) 
El ladron fu6 tomado, pero saldhL 

libre (escapard) con algunos mesas 

de prision. 

By dint of. 
By dint of labor. 
By too much weeping. 

You will cry your eyes out •< 

I (>btained of him that favor by dint 
of entreaty. 

Afuerxa de. 

t A fuerza de trabajo. 

t A fuerza de Idgrimas, (de llorar.) 

t A fuerza de liorar, perderi V. los 

8e le aeeardn d V. toe ojot, 
t Consegul de t\ ese favor d fuena 

de sAplicas. 

That excepted. 
That fault excepted, he is 

Jt Excepto {salvo, minos) eao, 
t Amen de, (little used.) 
good I t Quitada esa falta, es un 

To vie with each other. 
Tboab men are trying to rival 

it A competenda, A porjuu 
t A cual ma9, A cual mejor, 
ft Esos hombres tiabajan & compe- 
Estan procurando excedene ano 4 



Clean Unen. 

The more 

The Use - 

•J Tanto mae 

"' } Tanto mae 


Ropa limpia, (blanca^ 

Tanto mae cuanta 

Tanto mae cuanto mae, 

Tanto minoe euanUk 

Tanto minoe cuanto minoef m 

^ am the more discontented with his 
oondact aehtk under many ob- 
ligations to me. 

Inm the leee pleased with his con- 
duct, ae I had more right to his 

/ wieh that 

I wish th&t house was mine 

Yo estoy tanto mae desconlento di 

sn oouducta, cuanto 61 me debe 

muchas ohiigaciones. 
Yo estoy tanto menoe satisfecho de 

su conducta, cuanto mae derecfae 

tenia yo & su anustad. 

I Yo quiero {deeeo)que. 

;Yo querria (quisiera) que 
fuese mia. 
Yo deseara (desearia) que 
fuese mia. 

To muee, to think, 
I thought a long time on that affiilr. 

Meditar, reflexionar, penear — (en.) 
Yo reflexion^ largo tiempo en este 

To he naked. 

To have the head uncovered. 

To have the feet uncovered. 

JEetar deenudo, (deenuda.) 
t Eetar (andar) en eueroe, 

C Tener la cabeza desnuda. 

< t Eetar deecubierto, 

f t Tener la cabeza al aire. 

r Tener los pies desnudos. 

I t Eetar deecalxo, 

. t Eetar (andar) deecalxo de pii jf 

L piema. 

Ohe. A. When the verb haber is used, no preposition is required ; but 
with the verbs eetar and andar the prepositions de or con roust be employed 
when the substantives are expressed, as in the following examples : — 

Tener los pies desnudos. 
t Eetar (andar) deecalxo. 
To be baieibotad. { Estar (andar) con los pi^ deanwlw, 

Estar (andar) desnudo de pi^ 



To be baieheaded. 
To ride barebacked. 

To have like, or to think to have. 

Tener la cabeza deanuda, (dt^scubier* 

Estar (andar) con la cabeza al aire, 
t Montar (andar) & cabalio en pelo. 

I had like to haye lost my money. 
( thooght to have lost my life. 
We had like to have lost our fingers. 
He was very near falling. 

He VIS within a hair's breadth 
being killed 

He had liked to have died. 

r Ettar para. 

•? Estar d jrique de, (a punto de.) 

' F altar poco para, t Por poco, 

E^uve para pcrder mi dinero. 

Pensd haber perdido la vida. 

Por poco perdimos los dedos. 

Estuvo & pique de caer. 

Por poco le matan. 

t Estuvo en un tris pte le mataran, 

Faltd casi nada para ser muerio. 

Estuvo para morir, (or & punto de 

Pens6 morir. 


4t, on, or npon your heels. 
The enemy is at our heels. 

f Ei 

A los (sus) talones. 

alcance, (or 4 los alcances.) 
En seguimiento. 
El enemigo nos sigue los alcances. 

To strike, (speaking of lightning.) 

The lightning has struck. 

The lightning struck the ship. 

While my brother was on the open 
sea, a violent storm rose unex- 
pectedly ; the lightning struck the 
ship, which it set on fire, and the 
whole crew jumped into the sea to 
save themselves by swimming. 

He was struck with fright, when he 
saw that the fire was gaining on 
all sides. 

He did not know what to do. 

He heaitated no longer. 
I have not heard of him yet 
An angel. 

A mastoipiece. 

Caer (estallar, dar, romper) sobre, ot 

Ha caido un rayo. 

Un rayo cay6 sobre (en) el baroo. 

Mi^ntras mi hermano estaba en alta 
mar, se levaAtd de repente una 
tompestad, cay6 un rayo sobre el 
barco, le puso fuego, y toda la 
tripulacion se echd al mar, para 
salvarse k nado, (nadando.) 

I!l quedd amedrentodo, cuando vio 
que el fuego se extondia por todas 

1^1 no salna que hacer, (or que par* 
tide tomar.) 

£l no vacil5 mncho tiempo. 

Todavia no he sabido de dl. 

Un dngel. 
K Una obra maestra. 
( Una obra de primera clase. 
I Obras maeetras 



. Oht. B, Words compoaiided of prepoations and noniMb are genenl^ 
traiifllated by nngle words. Example : — 

Four-o'clocks, (flowen.) | Maravillas. 

His or her physiognomy. 
His or hershape. 

'Hie expression. 

The look. 




Grace, charm. 



Thin, (slender.) 
Uncommonly well 
His of her look inspires respect 


Sn fisonomia de 4\, or de eUa. 

Sn talle, figura (or forma) de ^ sr 

de ella. 
La expresion. 

El aspecto. El semblante. 
El aire. El ademan. 
La cara. La mirada. La Tist^ 
Contento. Contentamiento. 
Gosto. Placer. 
Respeto. Respecto. 
Miramiento. Acatamiento. 

Gracia. Gracias. Encanto. 
Atractiyo. Donaire. 
Delgado. Flaca Deecamado 
Extraordinariamente hien. 
Su presencia inspira respeto y ad 


Will you be my guest, (comer conmigo: \tomarla sopa conmigo. 
Kacer penitencia conmigo ?) — ^I thank you ; a friend of mine haa invited 
me to dinner: he has ordered (hacer preparer) my favorite dish, 
(un platofavoriio.) — What is it ? — ^It is a dish of milk, (Zocrictnto.)— 
As for me, I do not like milk-meat : there is nothing like (no hay nada 
como) a good piece of roast beef or veal. — ^What has become of your 
younger brother ?— He has suffered shipwreck (navfragar) in going to 
America.— You must give me an account of that, (dar una reZoeion.) — 
Very willingly, (de muy bvena gana,) — Being on the open sea, a great 
storm arose, llie lightning struck the ship and set it on fire. Th« 
crew jumped into the sea to save themselves by swinmiing. My 
brother knew not what to do, having never learned to swim. He 
reflected in vain ; he found no means to save his life. He was struck 
with fright when he saw that the fire yns gaining on all sides. He 
hesitated no longer, and jumped into the sea. — ^Well, (pves bien^ what 
has bAcome of him ?— I do not know, having not hwd of him yet— 

noHTr-rovBTH uebbon. 888 

But who told yom all that 7— My nephew, who was there, and who 
oaved hhrself.— As yoa are talking of your nephew, {d proposiio de — J 
where is he at present ? — ^He is in Italy. — ^Is it long since you heard 
ol him 7 — ^I have received a letter from him to-day. — ^What does he 
write to yon 7 — ^He writes to me that he is going to marry a yonng 
woman who brings him (jjue le trae) a hundred thousand dollars. — ^b 
she handsome 7 — Handsome as an angel ; she is a master-piece of 
nature. Her physiognomy is mild and full of expression ; her eyes 
are the finest in the {del) world, and her mouth is charming, (y su 
boca muy linda.) She is neither too tall nor too short , her shape is 
slender ; all her actions are full of grace, and her manners are en- 
gaging. Her look inspires respect and admiration. She has also a 
great deal of wit ; she speaks several languages, dances uncommonly 
well, and sings delightfully. My nephew finds in her (holla en eUa) 
but one defect, (un defecto.) — And what is that defect 7 — She is 
affected, (afectada,) — ^There is nothing perfect in the world. — How 
happy you are ! you are rich, you have a good wife, pretty children, a 
fine house, and idl you wish. — ^Not all, my friend. — ^What do you desire 
more 7 — Contentment ; for you know that he only is happy who is 

EIGHTY-FOURTH LESSON.— Xieccion Octcgisima cuarta. 

To read again. I Volver i leer. 

To (v) again. \ Volver &, 

Ob9. A. When again signifies that the action of the verb is to be repeated, 
the Spaniards use the verb volver d, in its difierent tenses ; and the verb* 
the action of which is to be repeated, in the infinitive. 

When will you read this book again ? I i Cuando volverd V. d leer estelibro? 
I will read it again to-morrow. | Yo le volver^ d leer manana. 

Deatnredar. Deaenmaranar. 
— ^ . ^ Expliear. 

To find ^t }Adi,inar. Hallar. 

To unrxddU. To disentangle. \ ^^^^^^^ 
V. ■ 

To disentangle the hair. 
To unriddle difficulties. 

I have not been able to find out the 
sense of that phrase. 



Desenmarafiar el cabella 
Desenredar (expliear, aclarar) bui 

Yo no he podido hallar {eniender) el 

sentido de esa frase. 
Una desavenencia, (difereucia, rilia» 

Un pleito. 
Una oontienda, (dispota, pendenda.) 



To have differences (a qnarrel) with 
aome one. 

To take good care. 
To shun. To beware, 

I will take good care not to do it 
Mind you not to lend that man 

He takes good care not to answer 

the question which I asked him. 

To ask a qttestion. 

[f yon take into your head to do that, 

I will punish you. 

t Estar de cuemo, {de 

Tener un pleito (una contienda) OOB 

' Cuidar de. Cuidarse de. 
Tener cuidado de. 
Ouardarse de. Precavearse de. 
Recatarse de. Evitar. 
Yo me guardai^ bien de no hacerlow 
Cuidese V. de no prestar dinero i, em 

£l tiene cuidado do no responder i 

la pregunta que yo le he hecha 
Hacer una pregunta. Preguntar. 
Si d V. se le pone en la cabeza hacer 

eeo, yo le castigar^. 

To become. To fit well 

Senior bien. Estar bien. 

Caer bien. Ir bien. Venir bien. 

Obs. B. These veihs in this sense are used only in the third pezson singular 
or pIuraL 

Does that become me 7 
That does not become you. 

It does not become you to do that 
That fits you wonderfully well. 

Her dress does not become her. 
It does not become you to reproach 
me with it 

I Me sionta eso bien 7 

No le sienta d V. 

No le cae bien i V. 

No le esti bien & V. hacer esow 

Eso le va 4 V. (le sienU 4 V.) per- 

Su tocado no le sentaba, (iba bien.) 
Estd bien en V. el afeirmelo ! (tr^ 


To foUow from it. 
It follows from it, that yon should 

not do that 
How is it that you have come so 

late 7 
I do not know how it is. 
How is it that he had not his gun? 

I do not know how it happened. 

Seguirse, Dedueirse. JSaearse. 
De eso se signs que V. no deberia 

I Porqud es que V. viene tan taideT 

Yo no s^ porqud. 

I Como sucedid que el no toriefa sa 

Yo no b6 como sucedi^ 

To be fasting. 
To give notice ta 
To let anybody kn«Av 


Estar en ayunas. 
I Ayisar. Noticiar. Infbnnar. 
Haeiur saber i. alguno, (algoaa ooi%) 

raeimr-FouBTH usssov. 

To wwn Mine one of somethiiu:. ^ aj ^- j 

^^ I Advertir de antemano. 

Gi^ notice to that man of hb bro- I Informe (aviso) V. 4 ese hombre do 

ther'a letam. la vnelta de sa hermano, (qu$ au 

I hermano ha vuelto.) 

To dear. To elaoidate. 
To clear np. 
The weather is clearing up. 


Refresh yourself, and return to me 

To whiten. To Ueach. 
To blacken. 

To turn pale. To grow pale. 

To grow old. 
To grow young. 

To blu^ To redden. 

> Aclarar. Deqiejar. Poner en dno 

I El tiempo se aclara. 

K Refirescar. Refrescane. 

\ Deecansar. Reposar. 

Repose V., (refriaqueaet) 7 vneln 
aquf (d verme) inmediatamente. 

Blanquear. Emblanquecer. 


Ponorse pdlida 

Perder (mudar) el color. 

Eavejecer. Envejecera«% 

Avejentarse. AviejarM. 

Rejuvenecer. Remozar. 
C Abochomarse. Correrse. 
< Sonrosearse. Sonrojarse. 
( t Tener vergHenza, (rubor.) 

To make merry. 

To make one's self merry. 
Ha makes merry at my expense. 

JAUgrar a. Alegrarse de. 
Divertir d. Divertirse &, (eon.) 
JAlegrarBo. Divertirse. 
Ponerse (eetar) alegre. 
I itX se divierte d mi costa. 

To feign. To dissemble. J Fingir. Aparentar. 

To pretend. 
I feign, thou feignest, he feigns. 
He knows the art of dissembling. 

To proeraotinaie. 
To go slow about 
t do not like to transact business with 
that man, for he always goes very 
slow about it 

A proo£ 
This is a proof. 

To stray, to get lost, to lose one^ 
4slf, to losH ons^s way. 


( Disimular. Encubrir. 
Yofiujo. Ttlfinjes. 6l (V.) fiaje. 
£l sabe (eonoce) el arte de fingir, 

iDiferir. Dilator, 
Dejar de un dia para otrow 
t No me gusta tener negocios oon 
ese hombre, porque siempre l« 
despacba eon pies de plomo. 

Una pmeba. 
Esta es una pmeba. 
Descaminarse. Descaniarm, 
Extramarse, Perderss* 
Perd^ el camino. 



' Tor, De medio « mttf^ 
De parte d parte. 
De un lado d otro, De <raMa 
Al trave$. Por medio. 

L Por en medio. Por entre. 
The cftunon ball went thiongh the I La bala del cafion pasd de un ladi 


walL [ & otro de la muralla, (traopaoo la.) 

, . , , ., , * i Le atravefl6 el cuerpo con mi espada 

Inmhimthrooghthebody. \fYoUen^^mieepadaeneleuerpo. 

The Empetor Charles the FiAh {Carlos Quinto) beuig »ne day cm 
a-hiinting lost his way in the forest, and having come to a house 
entered it to refresh .himself. There \fere in it four men, who pre- 
tended to sleep. One of them rose, and approaching the Emperor, 
told him he had dreamed he should take his watch, and took it. Then 
another rose and said he had dreamed that his surtout (sobretodo) fitted 
him wonderfully, and took it. The third took his purse. At last the 
fourth came up, and said he hoped he would not take it ill if he 
searched him, and in doing it perceived around the emperor's neck a 
small gold chain to which a whistle was attached, which he wished to 
rob him of. But the emperor said : *' My good friend, before depriving 
me {privar d uno) of this trinket, {alhaja^ I must teach you its vir- 
tue." Saying this, he whistled. His attendants, who were seeking 
him, hastened to the house, and were thunderstruck (queddron pasmo" 
dos) to behold his majesty in such a state. But the emperor seeing 
himself out of danger, (fuera de pdigro,) said : " These men (aqui 
teneis unos hombres que) have dreamed all that they liked. I wish in 
my turn also to dream." ,And after having mused a few seconds, he 
said : *' I have dreamed that you all four deserve to be hanged :^ 
which was no sooner spoken than executed before the house. 

A certain king making one day his entrance into a town at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, (de la iarde^ the senate sent some deputies 
(un diputado) to compliment him. The one who was to speak (habia 
de hablar) began thus ; " Alexander the Great, the great Alexander,** 
and stopped short, (se carlo.) — The king, who was very hungry, (tenia 
hambre,) said : " Ah ! my friend, Alexander the Great had dined, and 
I am still fasting, (eslar en dyitnas.^^) Having said this, he proceeded 
to (sigui6 8u camino) the City HaU, or State House, (d la casa c«?<p» 
iittorial^ where a magnificent dinner had been prepared for him. 

nOBTT-FIFCB UC880H. 383 

A good Old man, being very ill, sent for his wife, who was still yerj 
young, and said to her : " My dear, you see that my last hour is ap- 
proaching, and that I am compelled to leave you. If, therefore, yop 
wiah me to die in peace you must do me a favor. You are still young, 
and will, without doubt, marry again, (se volverd d casar :) knowing this, 
I requ^t of you not to wed {no se case con) M. Louis ; for I confess 
that I have always been very jealous of him, and am so still. I should, 
therefore, die in despair (desesperado) if you did not promise me that." 
The wife answered : " My dear husband, (alma mia,) I entreat you, 
let not this hinder you from dying peaceably ; for I assure you that, 
if even I wished to wed him I could not do so, being already promised 
to another." ^ 

It was customary with Frederick the Great, whenever a new soldier 
appeared in his guards, to ask him three questions ; viz. : ** How old 
are you ? How long have you been in my service ? Are you satis* 
fied with your pay and treatment ?" It happened that a young seedier, 
bom in France, who had served in his own country, desired to enlist 
in the Prussian service. His figure caused him to be immediately 
accepted ; but he was totally ignorant of the German dialect ; and his 
captain giving him notice that the king would question him m that 
tongue the first time he should see him, caudoned him at the same 
time to learn by heart the three answers that he was to make to the 
king. Accordingly he learned them by the next day; and as soon as 
he appeared in the ranks Frederick came up to interrogate him : but 
he happened to begin upon him by the second question, and asked him, 
** How long have you been in my service ?" " Twenty-one years,*' 
answered the soldier. The king, struck with his youth, which plainly 
indicated that he had not borne a musket so long as that, said to him, 
much astonished, ** How old are you ?'* "One year, an't please your 
majesty, (con permiso de Vuestra Mc^estad") Frederick, more aa- 
toniahed still, cried, " You or I must certainly be bereft of our senses." 
The soldier, who took this for the third question, replied firmly, (con 
'ienuedoy) "Both, an't please your majesty." 

EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON.— I^cccion Octogesima quinta. 
To double. 

Hm double. 

iDoblar. Pedir doble, (el doblt.) 

\ Duplicar. 

{ EI duple. El doble. 

f Dof v«cM mas. Otro tanto naa 



That merehant aaks twice as much 

as he ought 
Ton BDUit baigain with him; he 

will give it you for the hal£ 

You have twice your share. 
You have threo times your share. 

Ese comerciante pide dos veoai mm 

de lo que debe. 
Es menester que V. se ajuste om 

6\ ; porque 61 se lo dar& d V. par 

la mitad. 
y. tiene doUe parte que le toea. 
V. tiene tree voces mas de lo que U 


To renew. 
To stun. 

•WUd, giddy. 

Open, frank« real 

I told him yes. 
I told him na 
To squeeze. 

To lay up, to put by. 

Put your money by. 
As soon as I have read my book, 
put it by. 

I do not care much about going 
the play to-night 


Renovar •. 
Aturdir. Atolondrar. 
Atronado. Alocado. 
Desatinado. Atolondrada 
0k Franco. Ingenue Sincero 
\ Verdadera Real. 
Yo le dije si, (que si ) 
Yo le dije no, (que no.) 
Apretar *. 
S Juntar, Cerrar. 
\\ Apretar. Ouardar. 
Guarde V. su dinero. 
Luego que yo hube leido ml libroi 
le guards, (le cerr^, le pnse i un 
No me da cuidado ir, 6 no, & la comA- 
dia esta noche. 

To satufy one^a »elf with a thing. 

[ have been eating an hour, and I 
cannot satisfy my hunger. 
To be satisfied. 

To quench one^s thirst. 

I have been drinking this half hour, 
but I cannot quench my thirst | 

To have one's thirst quenched. \ 

To thirsi for, to be thirsty, or dry. 
That is a bloodthiisty fellow. 

On both sides, on every side. 

On aD sides. 

Saciar. Hartar. 

Llenar. Satisfacer. 

Yo he estado comieiido una bora, y 

no puedo saciar mi hambre. 
Estar satis/echo, (harto, a aeiad o, 


iRefrescarse. Refrigerarse. 
Apagar la sed. 
j Hace media h<»a que estoy bebiendo» 
y no puedo apagar mi sed. 
Haber apagado la sed 
Haberse refireseado. 
K Tener sed, Estar sediento, 
( AnMtar. Anhelar. * 

I Else es un hombre sedi nto de sangn 
i De dmbas partes. 
\ For dmbos iados. For todos ladi» 
I For todos Iados. For todas paitesb 



ADow me, my lady, to introdace to 
yoa Mi. G., an old friend of our 

I am delighted to become acquainted 
with you. 

I shall do all in my power to deserve 
your good opinion. 

Ladles, allow me to introduce to you 
Mr. B., whose brother has rendered 
such eminent services to your 

We are very oappy to see you at our 

Seiiora , permftame V. que le presento 

el Senor G., antiguo amigo de 

nuestra familia. 
Tengo mucho gusto en hacer el 

conocimiento de V. v 

Yo har^ cuanto estd de mi parte 

para merecer la buena opinion de V. 
Sefioras, penn(tanme VV. que let 

presente el Sefior B., cuyo ber- 

mano ha hecho tan importantes 

servicios al primo de VY. 
Nos consideramos muy felices en veir 

d V en nuestra casa. 

It is the prerogative of great men to* 
conquer envy ; merit gives it birth, 
and merit destroys it 

Eb prerogativa de los grandes hom- 
bres conquistar la envidia; el 
m^rito la hace nacer, 7 el mi6nto 
la destruye. 

A man (cierto) had two sons, one of whom liked to sleep very late 
in the morning, (d piema sitelta,) and the other was very indnst]ioiis» 
(afHicado y trahajadar^ and always rose very early. The latter having 
one day gone out very early, found a purse well filled with money. 
He ran to his brother to inform him (d cantarle) of his good luck, (2a 
htena fortune^) and said to him : ^ See, Louis, what is got (ganarse) 
by rising early ?" — ^ Faith, (cierto /") answered his brother, " if the 
person to whom it belongs had not risen earlier than I, (he) would not 
have lost it.'' 

A lazy young fellow being asked, (preguntado,) what made Mm li* 
(yorqui se estaba) in bed so long ? — *^ I am busied, (estar ocwpado^^ says 
he, ^ in hearing counsel every morning. Industry {d trabcffo) advises 
me to get up ; sloth (la pereza) tolls sdll ; and so they give me twen^ 
reasons pro and con, (en pro y en contra,) It is my part (tener obligth 
don de) to hear what is said on both sides ; and by the time the cause 
is over (acabarse) dinner is ready." 

It was a beautiful turn given by a great lady, who, being (se cuenta 
vji hermoso rasgo^ asked where her husband was, when he lay con- 
cealed (estar escondido) for having been deeply concerned in a con- 
spiracy, (d causa de haber tornado gran parte en una conspiretcion,) 
resolutely (resuellamente) answered, she had hid him. This confession 
{e$ta car^esion) drew her before the king, who told her, nothing but 



her disccwering'where her lord was concealed could saye her from tlH 
torture, {que si no descvbria donde se htUlaba su sehor maridoy nada 
fodria librarla de la tortura,) " And will that do, (bastar ?") said the 
lady. "Yes," says the king, "I will give you my word for it" 
^ Then," says she, " I have hid him in my heart, where you will find 
him." Which surprising answer (esta admirable repuestd) charmed 
her enemies. 


Cornelia, the illustrious (iluslre) mother of the Gracchi, (de lo$ 
OracoSy) after the death of her hushand, who left her nrith twelve 
children, applied herself to (dedicarse a) the care of her f&mily, with a 
wisdom (una discrecion) and prudence that acquired for (adqukir*) 
her universal esteem, (estimacion universal,) Only three out of the 
twelve lived to years of maturity, (edad madura ;) one daughter, Sem- 
pronia, whom she married to the second Scipio Africanus ; and two 
sons, Tiherius and Caius, whom she brought up (crto) with so much 
care, that, though they were generally acknowledged (cortfesar 
generalmente) to have been bom with the most happy dispositions, 
(la disposicion,) it was judged that they were still more indebted 
(deber) to education than nature. The answer she gave (dor*) a 
Campanian lady (una dama de Campania) concerning them (ccn 
respecto d eUos) is very famous, (famoso — su,) and includes in it 
(c<mlensr^) great instruction for ladies and mothers. 

That lady, who was very rich, and fond of pomp and show, 
(apasionado d la pompa y dla ostentadoUy) having displayed (mostrar) 
her diamonds, (d diamanUy) pearls, (la perla,) and richest jewels, 
earnestly desired (suplicar con ahinco) Comeha to let her see her 
jewels aiso. Cornelia dexterously (diestramente) turned the conversa- 
tion to another subject to wait the return of her sons, who were gone 
to the public schools. When they returned, and entered their mother's 
apartment, she said to the Campanian lady, pdnting to them, (mostrar :) 
** These are my jewels, and the only ornaments (adamos) I priie, 
(tfpreciar.") And such ornaments, (unos omamentos,) which are the 
strength (lafuerza) and support (d sosten) of society, add a brighter 
lustre (mayor lustre) to the fair (la hermosura) than all the jewels of 
the East, (del Orienie.) 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON.— Lcccion Octogisima sexto. 

To do every thing gracefully. 

To deep sonncUy. 

To sleep void of all cares. 
To be on the briak of niki. 

To cast a mist before one's eyes. 

To fret and inme. 

To meet with one's match. 

To go to bed betimes. 

To catch at a fly. 

To stop at a trifle ; or to be afflicted 
with a light canse.' 

To dismay one's spirit, in the perform- 
ance, or pursuit of any thing. 

To inure, or accustom one's self to 
ezecQte or perform any thing. 

To be shot &b a criminal. 

To bury, or silence an affair. 

To give up one's command. 

To command imperiously. 

To treat a pemon contemptuously. 

To be wet to the skin. 

To defend the ground inch by inch. 

To obtain a thing without pain or 

To sustain one's opinion steadfastly. 

To bo one's principal support and aid. 

To bribe. 

To dive intt other people's affairs. 

To Hieddle witn things in which one 
has no concern. 

To be loaded with honorable titles. 

The principal town of a district 

To get mto (avor, (to plea$e.) 

To hit upon a thing, {to find it out) 

To have an unexpected chan^ for 
the better. 

To go on better and better. 

To torn one out of doon. 

Tener gracia para toda 

Dormir profimdamente. 

Dormir como una piedra. 

Dormir 6 piema tuelta, 

Eetar para perderoe, (or arruinmm,) 

Echar tierra en 1os ojos. 


Echar rayos y oentellaa. 

Echar pe9te9. 

Hallar la horma de 9U xapate, 

Acostaroe am las gallinat. 

Agarrarse (anrse) de %m peUk 

Ahogarae en poca agua. 

Quebrar (cortar) la9 oJM. 

Haeerse 6 lot 

Pasar por hu amuu, 
Echar tierra d alguna com. 
Arrimar el hastont (or el moiub.) 
Mandar & baqueta, (ordla haqueta*) 
Tratar a baqueta, (or a la baqueta^ 
Eetar mojado hasta lo9 hue§o». 
Defender el terrene palmo d palm^, 
Conseguir una cosa d pie quedo, (ot 

Sostener su opinion d piifirme, 
Ser 9ua pies y 9U9 manos, 
Untar lat manoe. 
Meterae en vidas agenaa. 
Meterae en lo que {d urn) no is mi 

m le viene. 
Tener muchaa eampanUlaM. 
Cabeza de Partido. 
Caer en gracia. 
Caer en eUo. 

* CahaeU {d uno) la aopa en la wueL 

Poner d uno m I0 (or oekmk d 1^ 



To low one's livelihood. 

To be eroet-falleii or di^rited. 

To defend a thing with all one's 
might or force. 

Every one is master to dispose of his 
own property. • 

To go abroad without a cloak or 
Burtoot ' 

To waste one's tune in froitlesB par- 

To go stark naked* 

To be roving and wandering about 

To be in cross purposes : to deal in ^ » 
if 8 and ands. 

To quarrel, to scuffle, to box. 

To fight 

To go groping along, or in the dark. 

To walk on all-fours. 

To conform to the times. 

To go a begging. 

To be at hide and seek. 

To go skulking. 

To be carried from post to pillar. 

To go with a design to deceive some- 

To lead an abandoned life. 

To live very economically. 

By her gait one would say it b 

To pull down the courage of any 

To humble any one. 

To bow down the head: to obey 
without objection or reply. . 

To be ashamed. 

To 8tq> one's moQth. 

To shut one's mouth. 

To ofSu a thing for mere ceremony's 

To keep a profound silence. 

To be the talk of the town. 

Not to dare to say no. 

To talk well or ill of others. 
To Uwh deejdy with shame. 

Qtudar en la caUe. 

Andar (or tr) de capa cmdm. 

Defender una co$a d capa y espad^ 

Cada uno puede hacer de #» mjm 

un 9ayo. 
Andar en cverpc 

Andar & eaxa de gangoi. 

Andar en camee, (or en euero9,^ 
Andar de Ceca en Meca, 
Andar en dimes y dtrete*. 
Andar en dares y tamares. 

Andar d trdmpis, (or d paUs.) 

Andar d eiegas, (or d tientas.) 
Andar a gatas. 

Af^dar can el tiempo, (or dl vmw) 
Andar a la sopa. 

Andar a somhra de tejado, 

Andar de Herddes d PUatos, 
Andar eon segundas, (or con malm 

Andar en males pasos, 
Andar pii con bola. 
En el andar se parece d Luiseu 

Bajar los hrios 4 alguno. 

Bajar los humos d alguna 
Bajar la cabexa, (or las orejas,) 

Bajar los ojos. 

Cerrar (or tapar) d una la bocM, 

Coserse la boca, 

Ofrecer algo con la hoca dbictf. 

No deeir esta hoca eo mta, 

Andar de hoca en hoca, 

Ho ^ener hoca para dodr fM (« 

Tener huena (or mala) hoca. 
Caersele d uno Im earm A> mT' 




To ehldB or reprare ooe soYerely. 

Mom, miim» not a word. 

To obUin one's ends by onfty «- 

To act out of reason. 

In one's way, going along. 

To come off Tictorioas in an engage* 
ment or dispute. 

To be in high office : to be m an ex- 
alted station. 

That is another kmd of speech. 

To be stranger to fear. 

Not to know one's doty or bosinesL 

Employment of much prc^t, and lit- 
tle trouble. 

Not to be able to bring one to reason. 

At an erents. 

To be, or not to be, to the point 

There is nothing more than what 
you see. 

Without examination. 

To cure one excess with another. 

To hit the mark. 

To chatter or prattle a good deal 

To make a peiBOO blush 

To foil mto an eiror. 

To give cause for laughmg. 

To make one cry. 

To clothe one^ To feed one. 

To give trouble : to griere. 


To encourage an nndertaking. 

To publish, to print, to bring to 

To give a caive to— 
To furnish materials. 
To shut the door npon one. 
To give gFstis or for nothing. 
To put off with words and excuses. 
To stretch. To consent 

To tondi one to the quick. 

To share with: a2ss, to inform. 
Tt fife SMority : to find bail 

CaUrUarU d alguno Uu oriJM* 
Punto en boca. 
UfAtoltif collondoi 

Irfuera de emim». 

De eamino. 

Quedar el eampo por uno. 

Ettmr en el eandelero 

Ese es ofro eantar. 

No eonocer la eara al miedo. 

No eaber en donde ee tiene la cara^ 

Came stn Ausso. 

JVb poder haeer earrera con algmn» 

En todo'eaao. 

Ser (or no $er) del eaeo. 

No hay mae cera que la que arde, 

A ojoe eerradoe, 

Saear un clavo con otro davo. 

Dor en el clavo, 

Hablar por loe codoe. 

Sacarle loe coloree al roetro, (A 

una persona.) 
Dor de ejoe. 
Dor que reir. 
Dor que llorar. 

Dor de veetir. Dor de comer, 
Dar que eentir. 
Dor alfiado, (or d eridito.) 
Dar color {dnimo or alma) a wm 

Dar d la eetampa. Dar d Ium. 

Dar aeunio para — 

Dar barro d Iq mano, 

Dar con la puerta en loe ajoe, 

Dar dadot (or de balde.) 

Dar con la entretemda. 

Dar de si Dar el si 

Dar en lo vivo, 

Dar en loe matadwrae, 

Dar partem 

Darfianza, Darfiadar, 



To wage war : to torment, to vex. 
To wish a good day. 
To congratulate on one's birthday. 
To give earnest ; that is, money in 

token of a bargain f>r contract 
To nod, calling or informmg.- 
To deq>air. 

To sorrender. I give it up. 

To shake hands. 

To manage one's afiaiis in an able 


It gives me no concern. 
To leave a word, or ordeis. 

To leave in writing. 

To excel, to surpass. 

To frustrate, to baffle. 

To delay, to procrastinate. 

To omit something necessary to the 

To get the start of any penKm. 
To take the lead. 

Make youiself easy. 

I understand what you teU me. 

To be security ; to answer for N. 

To be ready to set out 

To be on the alert 

To be in good liumor : to be m bad 

To stand a sentry. 
To be in haste, in a hurry. 
To intsfpose, to meourte. 
To be merry. 

To have a ■oimd undeistanding. 

To be idle. 

To be very stubborn. 

To be m difliouHies. 

To be careful of evety thing. 

To be at hand. 

To be kept in constraint 

To De ready to falL 

To be at the point of death. ^ 

Dar que haeer. Dor guerre 
Dar loe buenoe diae. 
Darle d uno loa dioM, 
Dar eenoL 

Dar eefUd, (or la eeftal) 
Daree al diantre. 
Daree por vencido. 
Me doy por vencido* 
Darae loe manoo. 
Dorse mafia. 

Dorse d la vela. 

No seme da nada, 

Dejar dicho, (mandado, or 9U9 6r 

Dejar escrito, 
Dejar atras. 
Dejar fresco d atguno, 
Dejar para maHana, 
Dejarse alguna cosa en el UrnUn. 

Cojer la delantera, 

Tomar la {or ir en la) dslanierm, 

Descuide V. 

No le de d V, euidado. 

Estoy en lo que V. me dica. 

Estar por Fulana 

Bstar para (or jior) salw. 

Estar alerta, 

Estar de busn kumor^ (or do And 

Estar *de faceUm^ (or do eontkuia.) 
Estar de priesa, 
Estar de por medio, 
Estar de gorja, {aUgre, or do eha» 

Estar en sujuicio* 
Estar mono sobre mono, 
Estarse en sus trees, 
Estar apurado, 
Estar en todo, 
Estar d la mano, 
Estar d raya, 
Estarse eayendo, 
Estarse mwrienio 

sioirnr-sixTH utssoK. 


To be in want of monay. 

In behalf of his aster. 

To be nieny : to be in good hnmor 

To caress, to wheedle. 

To do, or serve an ill torn. 

To glory, or boast in one's wioked- 

To be giddy-brained. 

To indicate one's sentiments by tiie 

To talk without reflectiQB. 
To talk on an endless subject 
To oblige to come, to cause, or ask 
to be sent. 

It is cold. It was very cold. 

To act as a notary. 
To counterfeit an idiot 
To endeavor to arrive. 
To make any one lose his temper. 
To pay attention to. 
To pluck up a heart 
To raise soldiers. 
To make one's fiutune. 
To be well matched. 
To reckon without the host 
To do wonders 

To act a part To out ear make a 

To take a &mily dinner with one. 
To carve, (a dish for a persim.) 
To afiect doing some biMiness. 
To inure one's self to labor. 
To hitend, to mean. 
To be diqwsed to do every thing. 
To kill two birds with one sUme. 

To keep one's bed, to be ill. 

To play one's frolics. 

To procure to one the means of be- 

To feign not to see. 
To afieet to be dea£ 
To endeavor to walk after a kmgill* 

nam, (or when first leanung to 


Faltarle d uno el dimirp, 

A favor de tu hernuma. 

EBtmrdeJuHa. B§Uar fmrm JUaUm 


Haeer unfinco tenieio. 

Haeer del 9ambemto gala. 

Tener lo9 caaeo* d la gineta, 
Hablar een lo9 ojo*, 

Hahlar de numaria, 
Hablar de la mar 
Haeer venir. 


Hacia (hixo) muchofrio. 

Haeer de eseribano. 

Hacerte el bobot {el tonto.) 

Haeer par llegar, 

Haeer d ana perder lo$ sf<ri6si. 

Haeer ea$o de. 

Haeer de tripos eorazeiL 

Haeer gente. 

Haeer hombre d alguna. 

Haeer juego. 

Haeer la euenta ein la huiepedo. 

Haeer nUlagroe. 

Haeer papel. 

Haeer pemteneia eenoLgmm 

Haeer plato. 

Haeer que hacemoe. 

Haeeree al trabaje. 

Haeer inteneion, 

Haeer d pluma y d peU. 

Haeer de un eamxno («fMi «<«) dm 

Haeer coma. 
Haeer de lae euyae. 
HaeerU d %no la oUa gorda. 

Haeer la vieta eorta. 
Haeer orejae de mereader. 
Haeer pmitaa. 



Toexeel, to 

To take care itf a thing. 

To feign to be ignorant, innocent 

To be too easy and indulgent to 

To praise one ezceedmgly. 
To fall down flat, to dash to pieces. 
I lay a hundred doUan that it is so. 
To have no concern in a thing. 
To go on softly. Walk caref^y. 
To go off, to go out, to evaporate, to 

To become moderate, to restrain 

one's selfl 
Who is there? 
Go to, (frequently an expression of 

To reprimand severely. 
To discover any one's designs. 

Very far, at a great distance. 

To get over a thing well, or ilL - '\ 

To be on good or bad terms. 

To rain hard, to rain buckets fulL 

To go in enmity. 

To be one's chief support, or 

To be familiar alone, or m company. 

To wish to enjoy the fruit of anoth- 
er's labor, without having con- 
tributed to it 

To be bom to wretehedness. 

To be bom to good luck. 

To afiect business. 

To be a man of strict uitegrity and 

To have a large family to support 

To haipe an absolute power over any 

To act without cause or motive, 
without rhyme or 

To put to the sword. 

ft bsoome surety. 

Haeer raya, 

Hacerse cargo de mlguttm com. 
Hacerse ckiquitOt (inocente.) 
Hacerte de mUL 

Hacerce UnguM de dlguno. 
Hacerse tortilla^ {anicoe.) 
Van cien pesos que es cierto esow 
No tr lutda en una oosa. 
Ir con tiento. Vaya V. con tientr 
Irse, £1 gas se ha ido. 

Iree & la mono* 

I Quien va 1 i Quien va aUd T 
Vaya F. (vete, idoe) d pasear 

Dor unjdbon. 

Jaque y mate* 

Conocer eljuego, 

A legna. A la legua. 

De muchas legnas. De cien legoas 

A \o l^jos. De l^jos. Desde l^iosi 

Libraree bien, ImaL) 

Salir bien Salir moL 

Llevaree hien, (umU.) 

Llover d cdntaroe. 

Andar d {de) malas. 

Ser 9U8 piis y sue manoa. 

Eatar mano d mano. 

Fentr con etu manoo Unadaa, 

Nacer de cabeza, 

Nacer de piia. 

Fingir negocioo. 

Ser hombre de obligachne*. 

Eetar eargado de ohligackmB 
Tener el palo y el i 

Obrar ein que tn para fme, 

Paear d cuehUlo. 
Quedar por alguna. 



To take any thing in the wont Tvmair par dond€ ^immm. 

To make futile, or ailly allegationa. 
To endeaTor to min, or dertroy a 

person or thing. 
To be rich, (eoUoqnial.) 
To name, or cite unneoeaaaiily any 

perton or thing, (ooUoqniaL) 
Not to know what one *% aboot 
^To happen, or occor wft»t it may. 
For ever and ever. 
He IB a worthleai feDow. 
To have equal nmnbera. 
To make easaya or trials ; to grope 

or to feel where one cannot see. 
To nnderatand thorooghly. 
To bribe with money. 

Td be hand and glove. 

Better late than never. 

To boast of any thing. 

To find one in a favorable disposi- 

Et cetera, (oolloqaial,) used after 
several epithets. Mr. N. N., et 

To bear np under the frowns of for- 

Not to come up to or near one in any 

To be han^^ty with good fortune. 

Ob9, It may also be remarked, that there are in Spanish a great 
many proveibs, and proverbial forms of expression, of which the following 
are some of those most in use. 

Dar ra*one9 de fi6 de Utneo, 
Tirar eomo d real de tntmig^ 

Tener eubierto el rinon, 
Saear A bailor. 

No ether lo qtte ee peeea. 
Saiga lo que eaUere. 
For loe eigloe de loe eigloe, 
Elee untal par euoL 
Eeiar tarUoe d tantoe, 
Andar tentando, 

Eeiar d lo lUtimo, 

Untar loe manoe eon ungtientQ de 

Ser una y came. 
Mae bale tarde que nunca, 
Hacer vanidad. 
Cojer {hollar) d olguno de i 

Don Fulano de Tal y otrae yerbo§» 

Eetor al yunque 

No Uegar d loe xanct^oe. 

Subtree en Moneoe, 

Death rather than dishonor. 
Provide in good time for a bad one. 
A thing well begun is half finished. 
Arms and literature render families 

There is a time (or every thing. 

He who has faults of his own, should 
not reflect upon another for having 
the same. 

Fnaente remove diflWulties. 

Comer arena dntee que hacer vUeMO. 
Agosto, y vendimiOf no ee eado dio, 
Barba bien remqjado, medio rapodo. 
Almete y bonete hoeen coeoe de os* 

Coda eoeo en eu tiempo, y noboe en 

Cdllate y caUemoOf que eendoe noe 



Dddivae quebranton peSioe. 



Tell me what company yon keep, 
and I will tell yon who yon ate. 

Be cautions before yon pay, or re- 
ceive payment 

Trait in God, for your, own merit 
avails bat little. 

lie who nndertakes many things at 

V once, seldom^sncceeds in any. 

A flatterer^s talk is always vain and 

You most not advise one to go to 
/ war, or to marry. 
Rude play is used only by low-bred 

He labors, although uselesriy, who 

V works without attention. 

To afiect great diligence, and neglect 

one*s duty. 
God helps him who helps himself. 
y Fools and obstinate people' make 

lawyers rich. 
Neither look into another's letter, nor 

put your hand into another man's 

A good paymaster needs no pawn. 

We mnst catch the manners of the 

Evfl communication cOirupts man- 

Cnise on accounts with relations. 

Make your affiurs public, and every 
one will judge of them according 
to his own fancy. 

Ton are worth as mnch as you pos- 

A wolf in a lamb's ddn. 

Wind and good luck are seldom last- 

An old nninstnicted penon will not 

learn any thing. 

Dime eon qmen andatt HreUpuen 

Beeribe dntee que dee, y reeihe antee 

que eeeribae. 
Fartuna te^di Dioe, hijo, que sf 

eaber poco te baeta. 
Oolgo que muehaeliebree tefxaUm, 

ninguna mata. 
Habla de Ueanjere eiempre ee vamm 

y ein proteeho. 
Ir dla guerrOf m cosor, no ee ha 

de actmeefar. 
Juego de manoe ee de viUanoe, 

Labrar, y haeer albitrdae tode ee 

dor puntadite. 
Lae Uatee en la cinta, y el gate en 

la cocina. 
A quien madruga Dioe le ayuda, 
Neeioe, y porfiadoe hacen ricoe d he 

Ni ojo en la corto, m hmho en e* 


Al huenpagador no le duelenpren' 

Cual el tiempo, taZ eZ tiento, 

Quien eon leboe anda d auUar ee 

Remega de euentae con deudoe y 

Saea le tuyo al mereadot y 
dirdn que ee negro, y otroe que ee 

Tonto valee, euanio tienee. 

Uiiae de goto, y hdhito de heato 
Viento y ventura poco dura. 

Ya eetd duro el aleaeer para aam^ 



















As it is supposed that the Student is conv .M&nt with the 
English Grammar, the technical words belongii^ to it are 
made use of in the following Appendix, without explaining 
them; because they are the same in Sj/anish. Should the 
Learner be unacquainted with the Grammar of his mother 
tongue, he is advised to make himself first acquainted with it, 
n order the better to profit by this Appendix. 

New Youc Februmy, 184a 




Ths letten made use 

.of in the Spanish language are twenty HMTen is 

onmber, u 





like a in 





b in 





ih lisped, as in 





ch in 





d in 

dedicate, fed. 




e in 



f • 


/ m 





h (breathing forcibly 
the ^) in 

hay, he, ham.' 




h silent, as in 

heir, honor. 




t in 





h (more strongly aspi- 
rated than g) in 





Z in • 

element, labial. 




U in 





m in 





n in 

energy, no. 




poniard, onion. 









p in 

paper, plan. 




q in 

piquet, quint 


r - 


r soft, in 





r or rr (very harsh) in 

rack, horror. 




88 in 




t in 





tt in 


' For the respective somids of the letters in the EngUsh words, ezplana* 
tory of the sounds they are intended to represent, the student must consult 
Walktf^M English Pronouncing Dictionary, from which they are copied. 





voy, like v in 




ai'-kisSf x (ca) in 




ceevowel, or) ,^ 
ieegnegoy ( ^ 




ee consonant, softer than g orj in 

gentry, jet 



Uiai'-dak, th lisped, in 


The vowels are a, e, t, o, u, and y when it stands by itself, or at the end 
of a word, or of a syllable immediately followed by a consonant These 
letters most be somided as they are in the following English words, which 
must be regarded as a Standard : — 

AMBiriTY.— oh! — FULL. 
1 9 S 3 4 ft 

a e i y u 







oe, oi, oy. 

49 43 43 





eo, en, ey. 

94 95 93 

ua, ne, ni, no, ny. 

61 59 63 54 53- 




io, in. 

84 35 

iai, iei, nai, oei, ney. 

813 393 513 593 598 


Dabais, pausa, hay ; Unea, veis, yirgineo, deuda, ley ; gracia, ctelo, preci4« 
ciudad; h^roe, sois, voy; fragua, dueno, ruido, ^irduo, muy; apreciais, 
vacieis, santiguais, averigjQeis, buey. 

In the following combinations the vowels are pronomiced separately, 
fonning two distinct sounds. 

aa, ae, ao, ee, ii, oa, oo. 

11 19 14 99 33 41 44 

Contraamora, caemos, aorta, paseen, friCnmo, ooa^tar, loor. 

a, e, i, o, u, y. a, 6, i, 6, u. 

ProDonnced dk^ ay, ee, oh, oo, ee. aky ay, ee, oh, oo, 

Pkononnce them quickly. Pronounce them slowly. 

O&f . A. Pronounce the vowels of the foUowbg table, as directed abovv ; 
bat be paitioular to sound the » as oo in coo, or u in fiUL Every lattw 
BOit be ftiDy pronoonoed, h excepted. 




























































ObM. B, To make it easier for a young scholar to learn at sight the pro* 
nnnciation of every letter, the sound of it is represented in the following 
table J>y an English syllable, in italics, under it if, under j or g, must be 
strongly aq>irated ; th, under c or z, lisped as in thin, truth ; and r harshly 

\ hah 


















^ kah 


















\ kwah 















; cha 










\ tchah tchay 




















( Aioay 








\ ra 
< raA 


















J sa 























gwah gway 













ve • 


















































^ (AaA 




















2ye-ay 2y«« 





^ TAIkped asfai patA, tnUh, thtft, tkm. 


Oht. C, The voweb are never sQent, except ti in the syllablet gfUt gm^ 
que, quif the eouud of which corresponds to that heard in the English wordt 
get, geese, etiquette, quint. When the u in these syllablos is to be sounded 
it is marked with a disresis ; thus, arguir, aqOeducto. But, in conformity 
with the present use, the words in which the u is pronounced after q are 
written with e; thus, euatro, aciuducto. 

Oh», D, The eonmmanti that are pronounced difierently from the Eng • 
lish are the following : — 

C before a,o,u,l, r, and when it is at the end of a syllable, sounds like ' 
k in English ; as canal, e6lico, euro, clamor, eridito, pacta, C before e, 
cr s> sounds lisped, like th in the English words theft, thin. 

Ch sounds like the same letters in the English words chdjj, chest, chin, 
chop, choose, much. 

When ch n followed by a vowel marked with a circumflex a( eent» ft 
must be pronounced as Jl ; as, Charihdis, But all the words derived £rom 
the Greek having ch, are at present written in Spanish with c before a, e, 
u, r, and with qu before e or t ; as, arcdngel, cristiano, eco, monarquia, 

D must be pronounced as the same letter in English. In some parts of 
Spain it is pronounced aa M in father ; and in others, where it occurs at 
the end of words, as th, or as f, or is even silent ; thus, ciudad, ciudath, 
ciudat, cindi. This pronunciation is considered provincial, and not Castilian. 

O before a, o, u, I, r, sounds as in English ; as, galan, gobirrao, gu^t, 
gloria, gracia. Before e or t, it sounds like the English h aspirated ; as, 
genio, (hen'-e-o,) gitano, (he-tan-oh.) 

H is always mute, or silent, except at the beghming of words followed by 
ue, in which case it has a very soft and slightly nasal sound, as in hmem, 
(bone.) The vulgar pronounce such words as if written with g, 

J has a guttural sound, harsher, however, than the aspirated h in Eng- 
lish. Before e or t it sounds as the ^ does in Spanish before the same 

LL m sounded by placing the tip of the tongue against the lower teeth, 
and turning the thick part of it towards the roof of the mouth while emit- 
ting the breath with rapidity. It may be heard m the En^ish word sn^ 
lionf bnt the 22 must* be pronounced more quickly and strongly than m 
that LL is considered in Spanish a single letter with a double character, 
consequently it camiot be divided ; thus, ca'-Uar. 

A* has a strong nasal sound, somewhat like n in potdard. The gn m 
French gives the Mact sound. 

Q is always followed by u, and is pronounced like k. In conformity with 
the modem orthography, the syllables in which u m sounded before a, e, e, 
are written with e faistead of q ; thus, cuando, cuestion, 

R, at the beginnmg of a word, after n, I, s, and in compound words, 
the primitive of which begin with r, has a harsh and rough sound ; as, rols, 
enriquecet, auUrotar, cariredondo. When ab and 06 are not pr ep o wti oasb 
as in abrogar, obrepcion, the r becomes liquid ; as in mbrojo, o^rsrs. 


R, in iht middle of- a wore', or between two yowelt, has a very mooth 
eofond ; as in morosidadt mirita. 

The harah and roogh sonnd of r between two yowels, in the middle of 
simple woTds, is always expresBed by doable rr; thus, harraea, corrects, 
korror. / 

Common people frequently clip the r ; saying paa instead otpwra, ^^ 

N. B. Some Spaniards make in manuscript the letter r thus, % ; a^ 
tmexdatpaza am&zcMzle, (cneidas para amarrarie,) cords to tie it The 
0chola« win do well to take notice of, but not to follow this old feshion. If 
the English r be not well fdrmed, it will be mistaken for t or x. 

8 has always a harsh, hiashig sound, like 99 in Engli^ ; as in (iciaposc* 
monar, (to di^ftosBessO There is not a word in Spanish beginning with 9 
followed by a consonant S is not written double, except when the ]m>- 
nonn «« comes after the first person plural of a verb ; as, dimo99ele, (we 
gave it to him.) 

T must be pronounced as in the words tart, ten, tin, tone. It never un- 
lergoes the variations it does in English, in creature, nation, &c. ; conse- 
quently creatura, patio, tia, &c., must be pronounced cray-ah'toot^-ah, 
pdk-tee-oh, tee-^ah, Slc. T is never written double. 

N. B. As the English capital ^^ in manuscript, has in Spanish a di^rent 
name and power, the learner is advised always to use this G^ Observe, 
also, that this c^is'called by the Spaniards T, not F. 

ZT always sonnds as it does in English in the worda full, puU. 

V must be pronounced as in English. It is frequently -used in mano- 
script instead of the capital U; thus, ^^^ a^, for Un dia. . 

X sounds h'ke C9 or k9 in English ; as, experiencia. When it is rae last 
letter of a word it has a guttural sound, like that of the Spanish j, as in 
earcax, (quiver ;) but such words are no longer written with x, but with j ; 
thus, reloj, (watch,) formerly relox. 

Y, when alono, or after a vowel, and followed by a consonant, or at the 
end of a word, is a vowel, and sounds like ee in English ; as, el y eUa, (he 
and she,) convoy. Y, before a vowel in the same syllable, or between two 
vowels, is a consonant, and sounds like the English j, though somewhat 
softer. Some pezsous write t in e9toy, aoy, voy, y, muy, instead of y. 
Thus — eetoi, sot, voi, t, mui. 

In Spanish manuscript capital F is to be used mstead of capital /; thus^ 

^zatueuli? 4a/io tiye^ c^b ^tttn con un CaiaUon <i£^ teainuMUo 

These nouns, m printing, would be Isidro, Isla, Ignacio, Izquierdo, Irani 

406 t APPXMDIX. 

X mmt be pronoanoed as (A in the EogUah words thamkf ikrfU tUm, 
th9m, path, tenth, truth, 

N. B. Partidilar c^re mut be taken to pronounce fully and dieticctlf 
the letters e, d, r, and », at the end of the words. 


Erery well-educated person in old Spain, as well as m its former and ac- 
tual poss e s si ons in America, speaks and writes correctly the Spanish or 
Castilian language ; but as the Spanish Peninsula consists of sereral prov- 
mces, that once were states and kmgdoms independent from each other* 
and (Biscay excepted) were settled and goTomed by various nations, there 
are to be observed, in the mass of the people of each of its present divisions, 
certain peculiarities, propensities, and even animosities, that make the in- 
habitants of each division appear almost a different people. Some of them 
have had a peculiar idiom ; hence it is that the Lengua Castellana is not 
spoken in all its purity by every person, except in both Castiles, and par- 
ticulariy in the districts of Burgot, Salamanca, Toledo, &c. 

The most frequent faults to be observed, and which the scholar is warned 
to avoid, are the following : — 

Bmsteadof V; 


il bibe. 

m lieu of 

H vive. 

he lives. 




61 vevid. 



he drank. 








C " 






the brain. 





















a hoise. 

LL « 






a bench. 







a shoulder. 

H is used in words that have it not, and is omitted in others that have it ; 
as, handan instead of andan, (they walk ;) el ieo for el hixo, (he made ;) 
oUo for hoyo, (a hole.) J is sometimes used instead of h ; as, 61 oe jui6 for 
il se huy6, (he ran away.) In the terminations ads and ido they generally 
suppress the d, both in writing and pronouncing, and say, un beetia eolorao 
for un vestido Colorado, (a red dress.) The first e^ in the verbs of the first 
conjugation, that double that letter, as paeear, (to walk,) is sounded, and 
even written t ; thus, yq me paeii tda la tarde instead of yo ms paoei toda 
la tarde, (I walked all the afternoon ;) diendo for yendo, (going,) &o. 

VaUejo, Pahmaree, and other Spanish authors, may be consulted on the 


In simple words, e, t, e, r, are the only letters that may be written double. 

E is double in the verbs of the first ooigugation, when it is the last mi 

their radioal letters, and the termination begins with «,* •a,pammr, (It 

walk.) The radkal letters are pate. The tenninatkm of the fint penen 
■ingiilar of the preterit li e — fotei, (I did walk.) ^ 

I is double in the superlatiye de^jfree of the monoeyllablea ending in io > 
^Bffirfo, (cold ;) friitimo, (very cold.) 

C is doable only before e or t, and is pronounced with both syllables ; as, 
acceder, (to accede ;) aecidentct (accident) 

Remark. — Almost all words ending in English in ction, and their deriTa- 
tives, change the t into c, and become Spanish ; as, diction, (diccion ^ 
dictumary, (diccionario.) 

R is written double in the middle of words, between two rowels, to 
point out its harsh sound ; as, cam, (a cart ;) corro, (I run,) &c., to distin- 
guish them firom caro, (dear ;) coro, (choir,) &c. (See R.) 

In compound words all the vowels, and also n and «, are written double, 
whenever any of them are the last of the component and the met of the 
word to be compounded ; as, contraabertura, (a counter-opening ;) preerm*- 
nenie, (pre-eminent ;) amandoog, (ye loving each other ;) datmoa, (they 
give us ;) d&moneloM, (we give them to him.) 


Vowels forming a diphthong or triphthong must not be separated ; as» 
gra-do-to, pre-ciaig, and not gra-ci-oa-Of pre-ci-ais, 

A single consonant between two vowels must be joined to the vowei 
after it ; except x, that must be left with the preceding ; as, bue-no, flo»re9, 
me-lo-iO'to-ne-ro, ex-d-menj LL, being considered a single letter, follows 
the same rule, which is also the case with ch ; as, ca-ha-lU'TO, mU'cka'Cho. 

Two consonants between two vowels are divided by placing one to each 
syllable ; as, car-ga-men-to, «n-(er-n«-'d-fmen-to. Except if the first of 
them be an /, or any of the mute letters, followed by I or r, for then both 
are joined to the second syllable ; as, a-flic*cion, ha-blan-chin, eo-hre. 

When three consonants come between two vowels, the first two of them 
belong to the first syllable, if the second of said consonants be «, and the 
diird to the second syllable ; as, conS'ti^iu-cUm, ins-pi-rar. But if the 
second letter be /, or any of the mute lettertf^ followed by I or r, one belongs 
to the first, and the other two to the second syllable ; as, eon-JUe-to, an^cla. 

Four consonants between two vowels are equally divided ; as, ahM-irae' 

Compound words are to be divided into their component parts ; as, dtt^ 
or-de-nar. But should the simple word in its Latin origin begrin with », 
followed by a consonant, the s is to be placed with the preceding syllable ; 
as, ina-trU'tr. 


The notes used in Spanish for punctuation are the same as in English. 
▲ dUEsnaoe, however, is to be observed in the points of egelamation and 


kUenogaiiont width in long flentonces aie placed upside down at the be* 
ginning of them, in order that the reader may calcolate, and apply the 
proper emphaaiB and tone of ydce ; as — 

C I Como no ! respondid Sancho. i Por ventnra el qua 
\ / Coh-moh noh ! res-pon-deeohf San-ichoh, i Por ven-toor-rah ell kof 

iayer manteiron era otro que el hijo de mi padre? 
ah-jer man-iay-ar-an er-ah oh-troh kay eU en-ltok day me pah-dray f 
Jlj las alfoijas que boy me ialtan son de otro que de 41 
I ee la99 aUfor'ha$9 kay oh-ee may fal-ian, mm day oh-iroh kay day ell 
5 mismo? Que! ^Te faltan las alfoijas, Sancho? 
{ mist-moh ? Kay ! i Tay faltan la$9 al-for-ha^e, San'telufk ? 

Don Quuotb, Cap. xriii^ part 1 
Tratulatum. — How now ! answered Saacho. Mayhap, then, they whom 
they tossed np in the blanket yesterday was not the son of my father? and 
did the saddle-bags that are lost to-day belong to some other person? 
How ! Hast thou lost the saddle-bags, Sancho ? 

N. B. No apostrophe is used in Spanish. It is found, howerer, in very 
old books, and particularly in poetry ; at present it is entirely expunged. 
Formeriy it was also customary to suppress the e of words beginning with 
that letter, when they came after the preposition de, joining both words in 
one ; thus, del, deste, dellos, &c., instead of de SI, de eate, dLC. 


The Spanish yowels have always the same unvaried sound, whether they 
be at the beginning, hi the midst, or at the end of a word. They, in all 
iitnatious, must be fully and distinctly pronounced. The only diflnrence t# 
be observed in them, is the time requisite in their prtmundation. TliSi ttmo 
is called accent* 

An accent is that peculiar stress of the voice laid on a vowel of a sylla- 
ble, in consequence of whioh it is mwe distinctly and forcibly pronounced 
than the other vowels of the same word. Hence the vowels are called 
long or ukorU 

A vowel is termed long when it requires a peculiar stress of the VMce to bo 
laid upon it ; dweUmg, consequently, on it a longer tone than on any other 
vowel of the same word ; as « in the first syllable of reverence, which m 
distinguished from the other two e's by the time spent in pronooncing it. 
The latter are therefore called short, because the stress of the voice is nol 
laid on them, they being pronounced rapidly. 

The following English words will elucidate this explanation. 

No. 1. An abstract, an accent, the^torment, the conduct 

No. 3. To abstract, to accent, « to torment, to condncL 

The wOTds in line Na 1 have the accent on the first syllable, and those 
«f Na 3 on the last. Consequently it is said of the former, that they hKS% 


^bbfm qrllabie 4mg, and the second »kort ; and of the Iatter» that theit 
fint syllable is uk ^t, and the second long. 

The UtUe line, ^ mark set over a vowel, to point oat that it must be pro- 
nounced long> is aiso called an accent. In the Spanish language the only 
accent used at present is that styled the acute ('). In old books there is 
found also the circumflex, to indicate that the ch preceding the vowel 
marked with it must be pronounced as c (k) before a, o, or u, and as qu 
before e or t ; and that x is to be sounded as ca ; as, archdngel, AchileSf 
prSximo, which at present are written arc&ngely (ar-ean'-hell,) AquiUSt 
(ah-key-leas,) pr6ximo, (prok*4ee-moh.) 

The vowels d, 6, 6, u, when nsed as prepositions or oonjnnotions, are al- 
ways accented ; as, twta & tu prdjimot tabio* i ignoranteSf grandes 6 p^- 
quenos. The accent is never placed over y. But in printing (dictionaries 
excepted) the capitals are seldom accented ; and in manuscript are almoHt 
always unaccented. 

MonosyllaUes of more than ooo signification are accented on that sylla- 
ble in which the vowel is pronounced longer ; as — 

7^1, thou. Ttf, thy. iSi, himself, &c 8i,it 

£ /, he. El, the. Di, give you. De, ot 

iiri,me. ilft, my. T^, tea. Te, thee. 

SSf I know. 8e, himself, Slc Slc Sui. 


Nouns ending m a vowel have, for the most part, the penultimate, or last 
syllable but one, long, and consequently they do not require the mark or 
accent to point it out ; as, publico, habito ; but if the stress of the voice 
IB to be lakl on any other syllable, it must be indicated by placing the accent 
upon such syllable ; thus, publico, public ; publico, I publish ; publicd^ he 
published ; habito, a habit ; habito, I mhabit ; habitd, he inhabited. 


Anhnr, calculo, intimo, participe, numero. 

Capitulo, domestico, limite, practice, titulo. 

Celebre, ejercito, cantau-a, termino, vario. 

But if to a person of a verb ending in an accented vowel the case of a 
pronoun be added, the accent must be retamed, although it fall on the pe- 
nultimate ; as, pag6, he paid ; pagdle, he paid him. 

Words ending in a consonant have, generally, the last syllable long, and 
do not require the mark of the accent ; as, earidad, animal, capitan, fator, 
intertM, lobreguex. But diould the accent be on any other syllable it must 
oe marked ; as, 6rden, fris, m&rtir, eardcter, caraetereg, (pi.) 

Exception 1. — ^The plurals of nouns and adjectives, which, though they 
lerminate in s, retain the accent they have in the singular ; as, padres, 
amorotos, eapitanea, from padre, amorooo, dtc. 

Exception 2. — Family names in ez or ix that generally have their pe< 
nnltimate syllable lon^ ; as, F^nandez, Armendarit, 


BMceytitm 3^-T1ie penont of tbe reoAm ending in t om in whieh te 
penuhiinate if pronoanced long ; u, miraras, ejUrantrL When the lAnm 
of the voice ie to be laid opon any other lyUable, it is accented ; ae, miraris^ 
€nirar6n, patdramos. 


B7 Tlie learner is reminded to pronounce the vowele in the foUowmg 
le«ons as aet forth in page 403, to wit : a ah, € ay t ee, o oh, tf oo : to sound 
the syllables al and ad as they are sounded in the English words idcana, 
eamiealt lad; and to Usp the (&, as in theft, thin, path, teiUh, &c. 

The English words in the third line are intended rather as a Tocabolaiy 
^an as a translatiim. 

N. B. A under a word indicates that it must not be translated. 


t La Libertad e» uno de ht mat preeio909 a&tu9 

.} Lah Lee-ber-tad ess oon-oh day loss mass praith-ee-os-oss don-ess 

C .— - Liberty is one of the * most precious gifts 

• C que lo» eielo9 dihon i lo9 hombres: eon ella n9 

} kay kws ttiee-ay-loss dee-air-on ah loss om-breas: cone el-lyah no 

( that heaven gave to men : with it not 

C pueden igualar»e ht" te9oro» que la tierra 

^ poo-ai-den ee-gwal-ar-say loss tais-sor-oss kay 4ah tea-er-rali 
( can be equalled the treasures which — earth 

I contiene, ni el mar eneuhre : por la libertad, ati 
} oon-tea-ay-nay, nee ell mar en-coo-bray: pore lah lee-ber-tad, as-see 
C contains,. or — sea hides: for — Ubeity, aswel 
f eomo par la hanra, se puede y dehe aoenturar 
} ooh-moh pore lab on-rah, say poo-ai-day ee day-bay ah-ren-toor-ar 
(as for — honor, one may and ought to venture 
C la mda : y par el eontrario el eatUiverio e» 

/ lah Toe-dah : ee pore ell oon-trar-ee-oh ell cah-oo-tee-ver'-ee-oh ess 
( — life : and on the contrary'' — captivity m 

L eZ maycr mal que puede venir h lot kombres. 
/ ell mah-Jor mal kay poo-ai-day vai-nir ah loss om-bress. 

( tlie greatest evil that may fall on men. 

Don Quuotk, Cap. Iviii., Pt S. 


C La 9enda de la virtud ee muy estrecha; el 

} Lah sen dah day lah i vir-tood ess moo-ee ess-trai-tchah eU 

(The path of — virtue is very straight; the 

C camino del vicio aneho y espacioso; mat aue 

} eah-mee-no dell vitb-e-o an-tchoh ee ess-path-e-os-soh ; mass sdos 

( road of vice broad and ^>acious; but their 

* Ptonounoe the syllable vir as it sounds m the English word otmlml. 


( fim9 f paradero9 son diferenteg: porque el del vieio 
} fin-ess ee par-ah-der-oss son dif-fer-en-tess • pore-kay ell dell vith-e-o 
( end and ioBue are different: because that of vice 

C dUatado y f&cil acaha en muette; y el de la 
} dee-lah-tah-doh ee foth-ill ah-cab-di en moo-er-tay ; ee ell day lah 
( wide and easy closes in death ; and that of — 

c virtud angosto y irahajoao acaha en vida; y 

) vlr-teod an-goss>toh * ee trah-boh-hos-soh ah-cah-ba en veedah ; ee 
( virtue narrow and toilM leads to life ; and 

Sno en vida perecedera, nno en la que no tendrd 
no en Teenlah per-eth-af-der-ah, see-no en lah kay no ten-drah 
not in Hfe peridiaUe, but in that which not shall have 

I fin. 
^ fe«n 
( end . Don Qouotb, Gap. vi., Ft 2. 


N. B. The following piece has been written with a view to exercise the 
learner in the pronunciation of the letters that present some difficulty ; for 
which purpose it has been made to consist of words that contain them. 
Therefore it must ifot be considered as a pattern of the Spanish style of 


£11 en-car-go day lah ve-oi-taeth-ee-tah. 
The cAnmiission of the tittle old woman. 

SHijo, dijo la viejecita gaxmofia td page, nc 

Be-bob, dee-taoh lah ve-ai-heth-ee-tah gath-mo-nyah all pah-hay, nc 
Son, said the little-old-woman prude to the page, not 
I ag€U§ el baile con tu9 alharacas. Bien eonoxco 
7 ah-gwess ell bah-ee-lay cone toos al-ar-ao-ass. Be-en coh-noth-coh 
( disturb the ball with your vociferations. Well I know 
C que e9 jusiUimo »e te paguen tuo goj^ 

/ kay ess boos-tee-ie-moh say tay pah-gain toos gah-hess 
( that it is very just that you should be paid ^our perquisites 
I euando lo9 devengues; pero aguarda eon un poco 
} kwan-doh loss day-ven-geas ; per-oh ah*gwar-dah cone oon poh-coh 
C when them you have earned ; Irat wait with a little 

C de pacienciOf y veroB que no tienes motivo 

} day path-ee-enth-ee-ah, ee ver-ass kay noh tee-en-ess Aoh-tee-vob 
I — patience, and you will see that no you have reason 

C de qvejarte. Ve ahora al almacen del Oigante, y 
} day kai-har>tay. Tay ah-or-ah al al-math-en dell He-gan-tay, ee 
( to complam. Go now to the store of the Giants' sign, and 
C dile al Jorobado que ruegue encareeidieima- 

} dee-lay al Hor-oh-bah-doh kay roo-ai-gay en-car-eth-ee-dee-see-mall 
( tell the Hunchbacked to beg very earnestly 


C menu al guitarrista que venga ein faltm &l amo^ 
) men-tay al gee-tar-ris-tah kay Ten-gah sin fal-tah al an-oli 
( the goitar-player to come without fail about doak 

( cheeer, y que traiga d Juanito, al eonirabajo, 
} cheth-er, ee kay trah-ee-gah ah Hoo-an-ee-toh, al con-trab-bah-hoh, 
( and to bring along — Jack, the bass-viol piayeri 

I y loa otroa musicog, que le enearguL Al trie 
^ ee loss ob-tross moo-see-coss, kay ay en<<:ar-gay. Al ir-tay 
( and the other musicians, which him t requestfid. By the way 
C puedea kacer otroa encargoa: recoge de caaa de 
} poo-ai-dess attaer oh-tross en-car-goss : rai-coh-hay day cas-sah day 
( yon may do other commissions : ask at the house of 

SDoH Hermdganea el ajonjoliy el gengihre /w2- 

Don Er-mob-hen-ess ell ah-hon-hoh-lee, ell hen-he-bray pooL. 
Don Hermogenes for the oiJy grain, he ginger pul- 

Sverizado, el unguento anodinoi y el emplaato 

vcr-ith-ah-doh, ell oon-goo-en-toh ah-no-dee-not, ee ell em-plas-toh 
yerized, the unguent anodyne, and the plaster 

C cicatrizativo, que Arrigorriaga le dej6 d 

} thic-ah-treetb-ab-tee-voh| kay Ar-ree-gor-ree-ab-gah lay day-hoh ah 
( cicatrisive, that Arrigorriaga him left with to 

Cguardar: ; cuidado con no hacer de todo un hatur- 
} gwar-dar : ; coo-ee-dah-doh cone no ath-er day toh-doh oon ba-toor 

( keep: take care not to make with all a 

L riUo! De cttmino pciaa d ver d Don Hermenegildo 
) ree-lyoh! Day cah-mee-noh pas-sab ah ver ah Don Er-may-nay-hil-doh 
( mash ! By the way stop to see — Don IJermenegildo 

S. Olazaverreteguieta, y fidele la dieertacioncu 

0-lath-ah-ver-rai-tai-gee-ai-tah, ee pee-dai-lay lah dis-er-tath-ee-on-thil 
Olazaverreteguieta, and ask him for the short disquisition 
C Ua que Ibarguengoitia eacribid aobre el 

} lyah kay E-bar-gain-go-ee-tee-ah es-cree-bee-oh soh-bray ell 
( that Ibarguengoitia wrote on the 

1 agiotage, Di al borceguinero, que vive en la 

i ah-he-o-tab-hay. Dee al borth-ai-gee-ner-ob, kay vee-ray en lah 
( stock-jobbing. Tell — buskin-maker, who lives in — 
( calle de Barrionuevo que venga d verme. No 

} cal-lyay day Bar-ree-oh-noo-ai-voh kay ren-gah ah ver-may. No 
( street — Barrionuevo to come to see me. Do not 

f olvidee traer de eaea de dona Oeroni^ta 

/ ol-vee-dess trah-er' day cas-sah day dob-njrah Her-oh-ne». ma 
( forget to bring from the house of donna Gerome 

{ Juarez el manguito, y la eajita, con loa zarcilloa 
) Hoo-^-eth ell man-gee toh, ee lah cahhetaht cone loss tharth-eeHyos 
( Juarez the muff, and the little box, with the ear-rings 

Sy dijea de Gertruditaa. Mira, no jueguea en la 
ee dee-bess day Her troo dce-tass. Mirab, no hoo-ai-gess en Ivh 
and trink«t« of Gprtnidltaa. Mind, not to play in tht 


C emUe y pierdat todo lo que tnu9. Ante$ ie 
/ cal-lysy ee pee-er-dass toh-doh lo kay trab-ess. An-ten day 
i atTMl and loae all that yoa bring. Before going 

SsaUr, . baja y di d^ Catujita que el gigote que 
«ah-lir» bah-jah ee dee ah Cah-too-hee-tah kay ell be-go-tay kay 
out, go down and tell — dear Kate that the hash that 
C kixo para el hijo del eojo ee le eomid el 

} ith-oh par-ah ell ee-hoh dell coh-hoh say lay co-me-oh ell 
( ifae made for the son of the lame man — it eat the 
i goto: que haga inmediatamente vn poco de 

< gah-toh: kay ah-gah in-may-de-ah-tah-men-Cay oon poh-coh day 
( cat: that she must make immediately some 

C eopa de t^o y la envie & mi ahijadiio, que 

< ao-pah day ah-boh ee lab en-ree-ay ab me ab-ee-bah-dee-toh, kay 
( soap — garlic and it send to my little godson, who 
C eetarA muerto ' de hambre, Encierra el perro 
} ees-tar-ab' moo^r4ob day am-bray. Enth-ee-er-rab ell pair-rob 
( will be dying with hunger. Jjock up the dog 

C para que no haga ruido en el corredoreillo: 

< par-ab kay no ab-gab roo-ee-dob eir ell cor-ray-dor-thiHyob : 
( in order that not may make noise in the passage : 

C cuelga lae jaulae de loe jilgueroe en el gabme' 

< coo-el'ga lass bah-oo-lass day loss bil-gay-ross en ell gab-bee-nai 
( hang up the cages of the linneti in the cabinet, 
( te, porque me moleetan con eus gorgeoe, Lleva 

< tay, pore-kay may mole-ess-tan cone soos gore-hayoss. Lye-ai-rab 
( because me they disturb with their chirping. Carry 

C loe pottUoe al gallinero. Cuando vuelvae, ee* 

} loss poMyee-toss a! gal-lyee-ner-ob. Kwan-dob voo-el rass, ess- 
( the chicken to the hencoop. When yon return, 

C tate qvieiOf eetudia bien la tabla, haeta 

< tab-tay kee-ai-tob, ess-too-dee-ab bee-en lab tab-blab, ass-tab 
( be still, study well the nmneration-table, asfiuas 

L diex vecee. diex haeen eiento; ejereitate en 

< dee-etb vetb-ess dee-etb atn-en tbe-en-to ; ai-bertb-ee-tab-tay en 
f ten times ten make hundred ; exercise yourself in 

c la pronuneiacUm clara y velox de la palahra 

/ lab pro-noontb-ee-abtb-ee-on clar-ah ee vel-otb day lah pab-lab-brab 

( the pronunciation dear and quick of the word 

C DBSPROPOEoioifADinMAiRNTC, la moo loTgo quo tal veM 

< rfw pr o po rtK-^e-o-nak-dut'see'WtaJHmgm-te^t lab mass lar-gab kay tal vetfr 
( without any proportion whatever, the more long thai - peihif 
c kallar&e en Caetellano, 

7 al-Iye-ar-ass en Cas-tel-lye-an-ob. 
I you may find in Spanish. 






Aflo Cristiano, 

tn ike year of ChruL 


Arroba, or arrobas, 

twenty 'Jive pounds. 




A. A. 





to Y. E. {Your Etccei- 

















ApoBtolico, ca, 



















B. L. M. 

I kisSf or he kisses the 



Beso 6 besa bs pies, 

I kiss f or he kisses the 

B.- P.* 

Beatisimo Padre, 

most blessed father. 

C. A.R. 

Cat,* Ap.- Rom.* 

Cath. Apost. Rom. 

C. M. B. 

Cuyas manos beso. 

whose hands I kiss. 

C. P. B. 

Cuyos pies beso, 

whose feet I kiss. 


































Cnanto, ta, 

how much. 

D. or D.* or D.* 

Don, Dofla, 

mister^ mistress. 




D.' or D." 









Dicho, dicba. 

saidt ditto. 



right or duty. 

Dic» 10." 










Eclesiastico, ca, 


Rnfn.^ vale. 

amended, valid. 




Ea.- Es.- 

Escelentisimo, ma. 

most excellent. 

E6.- p.- 

Esciibano publico. 

Not.' PubUe. 

Fho. fha. 

Fecbo, fecha, 



. Febreio, 







brother of certain reli- 
gious orders. 



A title of the knights of 


certain orders. 






Gue. or gde. 






. General, 


Id. Yd. 










Dostrisimo, ma. 

most illustrious. 









J. M. J. 

Jesus, lilariayJos^ 

Jesus, Mary, and Joseph, 


Joe6f, J086, 











Lib.' lb. 










Lugar del sello, 

place of the seal. 

M. P. a 

Muy poderoso Se!k>r, 






elder, major. 


Machos alios. 

many years. 













Miguel, • 







favoTt vfirsM^ 



























such a one. 

N. C. M. 

Nro. Cat* Monarca, 

our Cath. Mon, 


Nuestro SeiSor, 

our Lord. 


Nuestra Sefiora, 

our Lady. • 

Nro. nnu 

Nuestro, nuestra. 


Nov.* 9." 






Oct." 8." 

Octubre, . 


On. onz. 

Onza, onzas, 

ounce, doubloons. 


Orden, ordenes, 

order, orders. 





Para que. 

for, in order t?imt. 









for, per, by* 


Pies, pesos. 

feet, dollars. 



silver or plate. 


















trowei, pagt. 













Proximo pasado, 

last past^ 












Q. S. M. B. 

Que 8U8 manoe besa, 

W. K. Y. H. 

KJ R.- V - 

Real, realms yellon, 

realy rtaUs, tUvtr com. 



most reverend. 


Reyerendo, reverenda, 



Padre maestio fray, 

reverend father and mas' 

I received. 









s. s.- s.- 

San 6 Santo, Santa, 

sainty hjly. 


Su magestad. 

his majesty. 

S.' or 8." S.*" 

Se&or, Seiiora, 

5»r, Madam. 


Su Santidad, 

his Holiness, 



gentlemen^ Messrs, 

S. S. S. 

Su seguro servidor, 

your faithful servant. 




Sep." or 7.»" 



S.'^ Secref 


secretary's office. 

S.* Secret* 



Ser."* or ■• 

Serenishno, ma. 

most serene. 












most holy. 


Santiaimo(el sacramento}^A6 host, the holy sacra* 



Santi»mo padre, 

most holy father. 



. notary, scrivener. 

s. s. p. p. 

Santos padres. 

holy fathers. 



entreaty, request. 







S. Y.O. 

Salvo yerro u omision, 





















Vuestra Magestad, 

your Majesty, 









V. E. w V, 


Vm. Vmd. V. VdJ 

v. P. 
V. R.' 
V. S.', Usia, 
V. S. I. 

V. s.* 


V. S. G. 

Vio. vra. 






Voastra Real, 
Vuestra Alteza, 
Vuestra Beatitud, 
Vuestra Il.~, 
Verbi gracia, 
Vuestra, vuesa merced, 

or usted, 
Vuestra Patemidad, 
Vuestra Rev^'encia, 
V.» Seftoria, 
Vuese&oria Bnstrisima, 

Vuestra Santidad, 
Real vellon, 
Vuelta si gusta, 
Vuestro, vuestra, 

yowr Roy&L 

your highness, 
your beatitude, 
your grace, 
your excellency, 
for example. 
yoUf your worship^ your 

your paternity 
your reverence, 
your lordshipy honor, 
your most illustrious 

your holiness, 
real of bullion, com 

please turn ever, 

tenth and tithe. 

In the Old Books,— 

& stands for an or am. 
i " en or em. 
f '' m or im. 

o stands for en ori 
fi ** tm or 1 




^ is read Pdmrfo, a parapn^ 

J. M. J., at the begrinning of writings of nligions perKins, means Jtsiis, 
Maria, Joei. 

The Jesuits always begin and finish their letters and other writings with 
Jhs, which means and is read Jesus. 

' An « is added to these abbreyiations when more than one person is ad- 
dressed ; and then they stand for tuietras mercides, vuisae mercidee or 
uetedes, in the plaral. ^t present the word usted and its plnial are ex« 
I by a V. or W. 

▲FPBCDIX. 410 


TiiBftK are in Spanish nine Borts of words, or, as they are commonly 
called, Porta of Speech ; namely, the AanoLE, the Nouif, the Paoif0oir» 
the Vbeb, the PAnnoiPLB, the AxmaMt the Paspoarnoir, the ComoMonoirt 
and the hmuEomn, 

The roeanmfr of a word mnet be lint asoeitauMd, in order to clMriiy it 
Example: — CUaro, clear. Ete eUaro (a rabftaatiTe) ef fiuiy wequeA$, that 
skylight is very small. Un dia claro, (an adje^ire,) a cleai day. £2 no 
habla cUro, (an adverb,) he does notqieak plain^ 

Take mtiee, that henceforth the nnmben placed thai (1) after a wofd 
or at the end of a sentence or a paragrapht refer to the page which tbt 
learner most ooasolt in the preceding Method. 


There aie two articles : the Indefinite and the Definite, 


Mtk9t.uUne Sing, 
Femimne ** 


M <« 

Un, (38.) Plur, Some. Unoe or tUgmmt 
Una, ii&l) « "* Unaaoralgunaa 


MaaeuUm Sing. 
Femimne « 


El, (9.) Plwr, The. Xot. (2a) 
/.a, (159.) " « ia#,(159.) 

When the masculine definite article el comes after the preposition & (to) 
€K ds, (of, fromO the e is suppressed, and the two words are written as one ; 
thus, al, del, instead of & el, de el The pronoun 61 (he, it)' is distinguished 
by the accent, and it is always written separately £rom the said prepositions ; 

Ohe. El, lo9, (34,) la, lot, are articles when they are before a aoqn, to 
point ont how far its signification extends ; hot they are proooons when H 
is the subject of a verb, or comes after a preposition ; and la, (her, it,) iof, 
laa, (them,) are governed by a verb ; as — 

The bed of Don Quixote was fore- 
mast, and next to it Sancbo made 

El lecho de Don Quijoie eotaha 
primero, y Inego junio 4 41 kiMa 
Saneho el ouyo, 

Don Quuotb, cap. zvi pt I 


Noow are either suwriirnvB or aojbotivb. 

Nomtu SmUtauHve have Peroonap Numhero, Oendero, and Cossa 


There sre three pereone : namely, the 9peaker, who b called the frti 
person; the person spoken to, who is styled the second person; aud the 
person or thing spoken of, which is said to be the third person : as — 

Make baste, son Saneho, (second 

pefMm,) and tell (second person) 

that Lady of the hawk, (third 

person,) that /, the knight of the 

lions, (first person,) send my re- 
spects to her exceeding beauty. 

The speaker seldom refeis to himself by name. 

When brutes, or inanimate objects, stand as speaken or persons spoken 
to, they are said to be personified ; as — 

Corre, hijo Sancho, y di & aqueUm 
semra del axor, que yo, ei coki- 
llero de los leones, beso las mamss 
i su gran fermosura. 
Don Quuots, cap. xzz. pt iL 

Oh Jars of Toboso, which hare re- 
called to my mind the dear ob- 
ject of my greatest sorrow ! 

r O tobosescas Tinafas, fue me ia- 
bets traido d la memerta la dula 
prenda de mi mayor amargvra ! 
Don Quuoti, cap. zyiil pt ii. 


There are two numbers, the Singular and the Plural (Leas. IX. p. 36.) 

RuLB 1. Nouns ending in a short vowel, that is to say, a Towel hnTing 
no accent OTer it, form their plural by adding « to the singular ; as, head, 
eabeza, heads, cabexas ; eye, ojo, eyes, cjos. 

Rule 2. Nouns tenninating in a long vowel, that is to say, a yowel 
having an accent over it ; or in any consonant, or in y, add es to the sin- 
gular ; as, ruby, rtdti, rubies, rubies ; lion, leon, lions, leones ; law, leyi 
laws, leyes. Except papd, mamd, pi6, &c. Maravedi, the smallest 
Spanish brass coin, has three plurals, maravedies, maravedis, maravedises. 
Nouns terminating in z change it into c, or retain it and add es to form the 
plural ; as, oross, crux, crosses, cruces, or cruxes. 

Rule 3. Nouns of two syllables ending in s, being accented on the pe- 
nultimate, admit of no change for the plural, and distinguish it by means 
of the article ; thus, Monday, Hnes, Mondays, los hUnss .* — 

He had lentils on Fridays, and an 
addition of a pigeon on Sundaya 

El tenia lentejas los vi^mes, y at* 
gun pahnUno de aiiadidura ks 

Don Quuotb, cap. L pt i 
The same is to be observed with nouns compound of a veib, and a noun 
plural ; as, the penknife, eZ cortaplumas, the penknives, los csrtapiumas. 

There are some noons with a plural termination without reference to cny 
singular; as. 


ladies' pinmoney. 

Attnrieias, a present for good ntm. 



Alicates, pincers. 



Pteces, prayers, &c. 

Eels, (xeal,) has no plural ; Zelos, (jealousy,) has no smgular. 



Don and DoHa^ as Spanufa titles for a gentleman or lady, are not naed in 
the plural ; and in conformity with the present cnstom they are placed only 
before nrenoraens, or baptismal names ; as, Messrs. Nicholas and Leandro 
P. Mor&tin, Don Nicolas y' Don Leandro Fernandez de Moratin, Mr. 
Capmany, el Senor Capmany, and not Don Capmany, 


There are two genders, the masculine and the feminine. 
Every he, or male animal, is of the masculine gender ; as, boy, muchM' 
cho; lion, leon. Every she, at female animal, is of 'he feminine gender; 
ss, gill, muckacha ; lioness, leona. 

The collective nouns gente^ people ; turha, torpa, crowd ; multitude 
moUitade ; plebe, common people ; juteniud, youth , ve;ex, old age ; aottm^ 
blea, assembly ; mve, bird ; beetia, beast, &c., require the articles, the ad- 
jectives, and the pronouns that agree with or refer to them, to be of the 
feminine gender ; as — 

The coach must belong to some 
travelling people. 

£1 coche debe de ser de alguna 
genu pasagera, 

Don Quuotb, cap. viil pt. i. 
Nouns signifymg dignities, offices, trades, professions, &c., proper to men, 
are masculine ; and those proper to women, /emmtne. 

Rbmakk. There are some nouns of animals which custom' has made to 
express both genders^ under either the masculine or feminine termination, 
preceded 1^ the corresponding article. Nouns of this description are called 
in the grammatical language epicenos, epicene. Such are the following : — 


El ttvestrux, the ostrich. 

El buitrcp ■ the vulture. 

El ctsne, the swan. 

El cfiervo, the crow. 

El gilguero, the goldfinch. 

El ruiseiior, the nightingale. 


La ardilla, the squirrel. 

La becada, the woodcock. 

La calandria, the lark. 

La grulla, the crane. 

La perdizt the partridge. 

La tortuga, the turtle. 

The rest of these nouns will be found in the dictionary. 

The word macho, msde* or hembra, female, with the corresponding ar- 
ticle, is prefixed to any noun of this kind when it is necessary to distinguish 
the sex ; as, the partridge, la perdiz — the male, or he partridge, el macho 
de la perdiz ; the ^mrrow, el gorrion — the female, or she yarrow, la Aem- 
bra del gorrion. 

Obs. A. The pronouns he or she, and the noons male and female, art 
not translated into Spanish when the gender may be distinguished by 
chaugtiig the termination of the noun masculine ; as, 

A wolf, un lobo, I A she wolf, unu loba, 

A male servant, un criado, | A female servant, una criada, 

' 8i volet usus, quern penes arbiirium est, etjus, et norma loquendL-^ 




RuLB 1. Common subsUntives ending in o, and tho BMMt put of thoM 
in e, change the o or e into a to fonn the feminine ; as. 

Sob, kijo. 

Brother, hermano. 

A mskle relative, pariente. 

Danghter, kijtu 

A female relative, perienta. 

Except testigo, (witneoi,) that admits of no change, and diwtingnirfiet the 
gender by the article ; thoa, el, or la testigo. 

ObM. B. The feminine nouns fenned oat of the substantives signjying 
Hgnity, trade, Slc, mean not only the female who enjoys the dignity, or 
(bUowB the same trade or profession, but most frequently the wife, and even 
the daughter of the person that has the dignity, or follows the trade, &o. ; Bi, 

Superiora, a female superior. I Cot^/Uero, confectioner. 

Capitana, a captain's wife. | Coi\fiUra. 
Cor^fitera, may signify a female confectioner, or a confectioner's wife or 

RuLB 2. Most of the common nouns endmg in an and on, add an « for 
the feminine ; as. 







a patroness. 



RuLB 3. National nouns, that is, nouns that express the nation or coun- 
try of perwms, or where the thing is produced, or comes firom, whether they 
be substantive or adjective, if they terminate m o, change it into a ; and if 
they end in a consonant, add an a to form the feminine ; as, 
Americano, Americana, American. | EepaHol, EepaOola, Spaniard. 

RoLB 4. Common substantives ending in a, and most of those termuia- 
ting in en or tr, admit of no change, and distinguish the gender by the ar- 
ticles— <Obs. D, 1620 as, 

Un peneionioia, a pensioner. I El mdrtir, the martyr. 

Una penoiomata, ** \ La m6rtir, the female martyr. 

RuLB 5. Almost all words compound of the substantives man or woman, 
and an affective, distinguish their gender, in Spanish, by prefixing to them 
the corresponding article and omitting said substantives ; as, 

Unj&ven, a young man. i Unajdven, a young woman. 

Loo Ingleoes, the Englishmen. | Lao Ingleoao, the Englirii women. 

Man and wnnan are translated when a particular emphaas is placed oo 

Obo, C. Many of the nouns compound of said substantives, or of an ad- 
jective, are translated m Spauidi by a single word, to be found in the die- 
tiooary, in the masculine gender, out of which the feminme may be formed 
in conformity with the foregouig rules ; as, 

El lechero, the milkman. I La lechera, the milk-B 

Un norat^ero, an erange-man. | Una naranjera, an i 



Rule 6L Some hoqu e xpreae their gender by diflbrent tefmiiiatioii&' 
(See Leeson LVL, page 246.) 

Rule 7. Some nouns distinguish their gender by different words. (See 
Leeson LVL, page 347.) 


The noons that ore neuter in English ore mateuline or feminine in 
Spanish, according to their rignification or their termination. 

BT THB noicnnoATioir. 
Artet canal, capital, eorte, dote, frente, guardia, &rien, mar, &«., ore 
nosculine or feminine according to their meaning, to wit: 

Arte, (art,) in the singular, may be need in either gender ; in the plural, 
only in the feminine. Should arte be qualified by an adjeetiTe, the latter 
agrees with it m the feminine termination ; as, 

El delicado guoto deV.en el arte I Your fine taste in the rhymic art 
ritmiea, \ Moratin, Comedia Nueva, 

Mar, (sea,) when it is alone, may be used in either gender. When it is 
accompanied by the adjectives Mediterranean, White, Red, 6lc, it is mascu- 
line ; as, el or la mar; el mar Rojo. With other adjectives it is generally 
feminine : la mar eetaba algo mas eoeegada, (Ckrvantbb.) However, the 
use is not fixed. 

Orden (order) is masculine when it signifies arrangement* or refers to 
architecture; as. 

All was in good order. I Todo eetaha en huen drden. 

The edifice is of the Ionic order. | El edificio ee del &rden J6nico» 
Orden, signifying command, or a religious or military institution, is femi- 
nine ; 08, 

Yo recihi la drden de V. 
Dosfrailes de la drden de San Be- 
nito. CiRVAMTSB. 

I received your order. 
Two friars of the order of St Bene- 

DueOo, (master, owner, lord, mistress, lady,) in a figurative sense, is 
osed only in tHe masculine termination for both sexes ; as, 

From that instant I made her mis- 
trees of my heart 


Canal, Erie canal, el canal Erie. 

Capital, a stock of funds. 

Corie^ the sharp edge of a tool, a 

pattern for a dress, means, &c. 
Dote, a gift of nature, endowment 
Frente, the fioont 

Desde aquel inetante la hice duefio 
(sefiora) de mi coraxon, 

Don Quuotb, cap. xliv. pt. i. 


Canal, the gutter, or leader of water 

from the roof of a house. 
Capital, the chief city of a country. 
Corte, the court, the persons that 

compose it, courtship, attendance 
Dote, dowryj dower. 
Frente, the ibr^ead. 




Ouardia, a guard, a body of 

M6rg€n, the bank of a river. 
ParUt the part of a whole. 


OuardiUt a soldier of the kingfs 

Margen, the margin of a book, Slc 
Parte, a report, information. 

Albald, a permit, or certificate of a coBtom-hoone, (little need ;) aHatm m m, 
anathema ; axucar, sugar ; citma, schism ; cutu, the fine skin ; emblemmt 
emblem ; puente, bridge ; trilm, tribe, &«., may be used as mMCuUmi or 


Ohg. D. The proper names of kingdoms, provinces, cities, dec, wfaeo 
they stand alone, are generally of the gender of their termination ; as, 
Espana e»t& ca$i aitUida del resto I Spain is almost insulated from the 

del c0ntinente, \ rest of the continent 

But when they are qualified by common nouns of difi^nt terminatiooB, 
they agree with them accordingly ; as, 

Toledo ee una anttgua eiudad. I Toledo is an ancient city. 

SevillafuS un reino poderoso. \ Seville was a powerful kingdom. 

The following general rules are subject to many exceptions, of which 
only the most usual are pointed out 

RuLB 1. — Nouns ending in a are feminine, (163.) 

Except most of those derived from the Greek ; as. 

I Clima, 

climate, &«. 

Quarda^cfieta, costom-honse cottar 

I Paragua, 

Antipoda* antipode. 

And also the following i — 
Dia, day. 

Mapa, map. 

IdiomOf idiom. 

Poema, poem. 

Rule 2. — Nouns ending in 42 or a<f are feminine. 
Ardid, stratagem. I Sud, 

Cesped, turf. | Slc 

N. B. — A great many of the words ending in English in ty, may be 
!ated into Spanish by changing it into dad; as — 

Activity, actividad, \ Veracity, veracidad. 

Rule 3. — Nouns ending in e, t, o, or u, are masculine Except — 



Except — 







flesh, meat 

















Nave, nao, 












Bulb 4< — ^Noons ending in I, n, on, r, s, or x, are masculine. ExeepP^ 




















old age. 













Rule 5. — Nouns ending in ton are feminine. Except — 
Sarampion, meaales. I Turhion, shower. 

Bastion, bastion. | &c. Slc 


There are three cases : the Subject, or nominative case ; the Object, or 
the direct objective ease ; and the Complement, or the indirect objective 
case, (69.) The object is the accusative in Latin ; and the complement 
answers to the dative, or any of the oblique cases, except the vocative, 
which in Spanish is a subject absolute. 

When two pronouns, object and complement, come together in a sentence, 
the complement is always set before the object. When they ate governed 
by a verb in the infinitive, or in the imperative mood, they are placed after 
it, and written so as to form one word with it ; as — 

He promised to send them to me. \ El prometid ewnarmelos. 

In cases where the stress of the voice is on the last syllable of the verb, 
it is preserved on the same syllable ; which, on account of changing its 
place, requires the mark of the accent ; thus, dan, danme, ddnmelos, thoy 
give them to me. 

Remark. — When the object of a transitive verb is the noun of a rational 
being, or a proper noun, or a thing personified, it must be preceded by tho 
preposition d, (which in that case being an idiom,' is not translated into 
English ;) but the preposition is not required in other ( 

The surgeon cured the wounded 

The surgeon dressed the woman's 

There is a God in heaven, who takes 

care to chastise the wicked, and 

to reward the righteous. 

His impatience killed Chrysostom. 

El eirujano curd & la mujer herida. 

El eirujano vendd la herida de la 

Dios hay en el cielo que no ss des^ 
cuida de castigar al male, y de 
premiar al bueno, 

Don Quijotb, cap. xxii. pt i. 
8u impaciencia mold d Crisdstomo, 
Ditto, cap. ziv. pt I 

' Idiom is the peculiar construction of a language which distinguishes it 
altogether from others. — Crabb. 




It wai known there that Signer Don 
Juan had token Tanez. 


We most, in daying giants, kill 

8e tupo en ella que el Sefior Jhm 
Juan kabia tornado a Tunex, 
Don Quuotb, cap. xzxiz. pt L 
Nototroe kemos de matar en iot gi^ 
gantee d la eoberbia. 

Ditto, ditU 


Adjectivea haye persona, cases, numbers, and genders; they admit, be- 
ades, several degrees of signification. 

The person and ease of the adjectives are the same as those of the noons 
or pronouns which they qualify ; as, 

Art thou come to rejoice at the cruel 
exploits of thy character, and be- 
h.>]d, like another merciless Nero, 
the flames of his burning Rome 7 

I Vienes & vfanarte en las crueks 
hazajlas de tu condicion, 6 ver, 
como otro desapiadado Nero, el in- 
cendio de su abrasada Roma 7 
Don QuuoTB, cap. ziv. pt L 


The plural number of the adjectives is formed by the same rules laid 
down for the substantives, (96,) as. 






Blanco, blances ; bianco, Uanea 
Carmesi, carmeeles. 
Natural, naturmles. 
Prudente, prudentes. 
Felix, felices, or f elites, (78.) 


RuLB 1. Adjectives ending in o are of the masculine gender, and 
change the o.mto a to form the feminine ; as, fine, jfno, fina, (161.) 

RuLB 2. Most of the adjectives ending m an^ on, or, add an a for the 
feminine; as, 

Haragan, haragana, idle. | Oriton, gritona, clamoroas. 

Rule 3. Adjectives ending in any other letter are common to both ges* 
ders; as, 

A prudent man. 
A prudent woman. 
A Persian story. 
A Persian anecdote. 

Un honibre prudente, 
Una mujer prudente, 
Un cuento persa, 
Una anicdota persa, (161 ) 

RuLB 4. National adjectives ending in a consonant, add an c to foni 
the feminine ; as, 

A Spaniard. I Un EspanoL 

A Spanish lady. | Una senora espoMa^ 

Spanish gold. I Oro espanoL 

Spanish silver. I Plata espaHoUu 



The cuioparatiTe of superiority is formed by traiislating more, hab, thant 
ftuc; as, 

Houor is more precious than riches. I El honor es mas precioM que las 

I riquexas. (108-9.) 

When the comparative in English is formed by the addition of the termi- 
nation er, ta fairer, it must be translated as if written more fair ; thus, 
He is richer (more rich) than his I El ee mas rico que 9U hermano. 

brother. | 

The comparative of inferiority is formed by translating literally the ad- 
verbs less, M^os, than, que ; as, 
Silve** is less useful than iron. | La plata e$ m6noB atil que el hierro. 

It may also be expressed negatively ; as, 
Silver is not so useful as iron. | Laplata no e9 tan <Uil como el hienx 

More than, lese tfian, before a noun signifying quantity or 

number, are rendered by mas de, menos de ; as, 

They spent mare than five hundred 

He gains leas than what he says. 

EUos gast&ron mas de quinientos 

El gana m^noe de lo que dice. 

More than, less than, preceded by no, may be translated mas que ; as. 
He earns no more than twelve ahil- I El no gana mas que doce reales al 

liugs a day. | die 

The comparative of equality is formed by translating the adveibs as or 
so, TAN, before the adjective, and the second adverb as, oomo ; as. 

She is as tall as a spear, and as fresh 
as an April morning. 

Ella es tan grande como una lanxa, 
y tan fresca como una maiiana de 

Don QtJUOTi, cap. xiii. pt iL 
It may also be expressed by not less than ; as. 

He was fhnn the coast of St Lucar, 
not less of a thief than Caou^ and 
not lees mbchievous than a stu- 
dent or a page. 

El era de la playa de San Liiear, 
no miSnos ladron que Caee, nl m^ 
nos maleants que sstudiants, 4 
page. Ditto, cap. iL pt i 


As much, i with reference to a ^ tanto, (masculine,) ) 

So much, ( subBtantive sing. \ tanta, (feminine,) J "* ^*"'** 

k with reference to a 5 tantos, (mascniine,) ) 
As many, ^ robstontive phir. } tantos, (hmmine,) \^>^''^ 

Not 80 mush, no tanto, (mas.) 710 tanta, (fern.) as, como. 
Not 10 many, no tantos, (mas.) no tantos, (fern.) as, como. 



I He has as much htmor, and a« mtteh 
in$truction as his competitor ; but 
he has neither bo many years of 
service, nor has given so many 
proofs of his practical knowledge. 

El tiene tanto honor, y tanta I 
cion, como su competidar; psr§ 
el no tiene tantos anos de servici^ 
ni ha dado tautas praebas de sua 
conocimientoi prdcticos. 

So as is rendered by de modo que, de suerte qrie, de manera que ; a»-* 
Do (you) it, so as to please him. I Hdgalo V. de modo que el quedi 

I contento. 

As much as, as many- — as, with reference to a noun, are trans- 
lated by tanto or tanta t^mo, cuanto, or cuanta, according to the 

gender and number of the nc\ui they refer to ; as — 

He spends as much money as he re- El gasta tanto dinero como, at 

ceives. cuanto reeibe. 

As for dolls, Anastasia has as many En cuanto a munceas, Anastatim 

as she wants. tiene tantas cuantas quiere. 

You have here as mnch as you want Usted tiene aqui cuanto (or tanto 

cuanto) ha menester. 

As much, or so much, with reference to a Verbal adjective, is translated 
tan — como; as. 
They are as much interested as you. | EUos eston tan interesados como V. 

When the second as, in this kind of phrases is followed by a verb in the 
present of the infinitive mood, it m'ust be translated que, and the verb in the 
indicative mood ; as, 

She is so charitable as to deprive 
herself even of the most necessary 
things to give them to the poor. 

EUa es tan caritativa que se priva 
aun de las cosas mas necssarias 
para darlas d los pobres. ' 

The most — the least, (109,) with reference to verbs, must be translated 
ouly by mas or menos, omitting the article the; as, 
He is the man they praise the most* El es el hombre que eUos mas eUa^ 

Such is the person they oppose the Tal es la persona d quien memoM m 

least ofonen. 

Obs. When the adjective in the comparative degree, in English, 
(whether it be formed through the adverbs more or less, or through the 
affixes r or er,) is preceded by the definite article the, and the same article 
{the^ is repeated in the second part of the sentence, before an adjective in 
the comparative degree ; the article the is omitted in both parts, and cuanU 
is used instead of it in the first, and tanto in the second part of it ; as. 

The shorter (more short) time is, the more precious it is. 
CuAirro mas breve el tiempo es, tanto mas precioso H es. 

The more,oT the less, (110,) repeated in the same sentence with reference 
to a verb, must also be translated cuanto mas or mSnosp tanto 



Hvw there w no dool that this exer- Ahora no hay que dudar ttno fue 
ctse exceeds all others, and that it eaU ejereicio excede d iodos los 
ought to be the more esteemed, otros, y tanto mat se ha de iener 
because it is the more exposed to en eetima, cuanto a mas peligroa 

eatd expuesto. 

Don Quuotk, cap. xxxvii. pt i. 
The more, the leee, may be also rendered by mieniraa mae or menoa ; as, 

The more he plays, the less he i MiSntraamaa juega,minoa aprende, 
learns. | or tanto minoa aprende* 

When the more and the least relate to a noun, cuanto and tanto change 

their number and gender so as to agree with it ; as, 

The more pride he shows, the more I Cuanta mas aoberbia mueatra SI, 
enemies he makes. | tantos mas enemigos se hace, 

T( nto may be omitted in the second part of the sentence ; as, 

The more he has, the more he wants. I Cuanto mas tiene, mas quiere, oi 

I tanto mas quiere. 
So or such ' as, followed by a yerb in the infinitive mood, is rendered 

by ton que, placing the verb in the some tense as the one that pre- 
cedes it in the same sentence as. 

His friend's failure was so unexpect- 
ed, as to oblige him to stop his 

La quiebra de su amigo fuk tan 
ineaperada, que le obligd d aua» 
pander sus negoeios. 


The Superlative is absolute or relative. 

The superlative absolute (1 10) is formed by prefixing the adverb n'uy 
(very) to the adjective ; as — 

Fair. I Hermoso, hermosa. 

Very fair, fahest | Muy hermoso, muy hermosa. 

It is also formed by adding the termination iaimo to the adjective, which 
drops the vt letter, if it be o or e; as — 

Very fair, most fair, fairest. 

Very merry, most merry, merriest 

Very useful, most useful. 

Hermosisimo, hermosisima. 


Alegriaimo, aUgriaima. 


UtUiaimo, utiliaima. 




^ble change ble into bil; as, amable, afnabilisimo, 



qu ; " neo, 
gu; " Mr go, 
c; " Jelix, 
The most part of the dissyllables in to, donV the i; 
Pio, pious. I PiistttJ, 

Adjectives in ientt, drop the t ; as — 

ValierUe, valiant | VaUntisimo, 

most pious, 
most valiant 



The adjeetire in tb« flaperiatire degroe, in English, whether ftmied hf 
the terminationa st or est, or by the adverbs mo$t or lewt, being preceded 
by the article the, (which constitutes it a soperiatire relatiye,) most be 
translated by the definite article, and the adverbs mat or pt^no*, acooiding 
to the gender and number of the substantive it refers to ; as — 
He has the finest broadcloth, bnt I El tiene el pano mat Jino, pero eUa» 

they want the least expensive. | quieren el tnSnoe eoHMo, 

N. B. — The adverbs mas or mhws must always be placed immediately 
before the adjective ; thus— 

The most innocent pleasures are al- 
ways the moet pura 

Los plaeeres mas inoeentes son 
siempre los mas puros, or los mas 
inoeentes plaeeres, &c., bat not 
los mas plaeeres inoeentes. 
An adjective in the superlative degree, in English, preceded by the defi- 
nite article the, taken substantively, must be translated by the sopeilative 
formed by the termination isimo ; as. 

The Highest (or the Most High) or- i El AlHsimo lo dispuso asL 
dered it so. | 

An adjective in the superlative degree, preceded by the article, being 
used with a reference to a verb, or a sentence, must be trandated by awig 
the pronoun lo instead of the article, and placmg the adjective in the com- 
parative degree ; as. 
The best that he can do, is to pay I Lo mefor que puede haeer, es pagar 

immediately. | inmediatamente. 

For the irregular comparatives and superlatives, consult page 111; 




UnoiBL Una, I 






























JHez y seis. 
Diez y siete* 
Diex y ocho* 
Diez y nueve. 

' From dos, (two,) up to ciento, (hundred,) inclusively, the numben an 
floral, and common to both genders ; as — 
Huee men, tree hombres, \ Four women, euatro ms^srsm. 





















A or one hundred. 




Two hundred. 




Three hundted. 




Four hundred. 



Five hundred. 




Six hundred. 



Treinta y uno. 

Seven hundred. 


Thirty-two, &c. Treinta y dot. 

Eight hundred. 




Nme hundred. 




A or one thousand. Mil.* 

One thoQBiind and one. 



One thoosand and eleven. 



One thousand one hondrm 

i and one. MU, eiento y uno. 

One thousand five hundred 

1 Ma y quinientoo. 

Two thousand. 


Five hundred thousand. 

Quinientos mU. 


Mu.T/>N, (euento.) 

Two nnroben coming together in an inverted order in English, are t 
lated by placing the highest in the first place ; thus, 
Three and thirty. | Treinta y tree. 

Eleven hundred, fifteen hundred, and the tike expressions, are ahways 
translated one thousand one hundred, one thousand five hundred, &^. ; thus, 
mU y eiento, mti y quinientos, and not once cientos, Slg. 

The cardinal numbers are used instead of the ordinal in speaking of th« 
days of the month, excepting the first ; as, 

The fourth of July. El cuatro de Julio. 

The first of May. El primero de Mayo. 

(See Obs. A, p. 4a) 
The words o'clock (65, Obs. B,) are omitted in reference to the hours of 
the day, which are expressed by the cardinal numbers, preceded by the 
article lot or la with reference to una, one ; as, 

' From doecientoe to noveeientoe, inclusively, the termination o« it 
changed into as for the feminine ; as — 

Three hundred miles. | TVeecienteie millas. 

* Ma has neither gender nor number ; but it may be used in the plural* 
speaking, as in English, in a vague sense ; as — 
(n that railroad many thousands I En ese Ferro-earrU ee han gaitado 

have been spent ^ i^uchoe miUo. 


What time is it 7 
It is one o'clock. 
It ir two o'clock. 

I Que hora «• f 
Es la una. 
Son las dos. 


First, primero, \ Second, segundo, Slc (46.) 

Ordinal uumbeis change o into a for the feminine, and admit the i 
variation of numben as the adjectiyes. 

Oba, The adjectives uno, one, primero, first, (46,) alguno, some, lun- 
guno, none, bueno, good, malo, bad, pottrttro, (little osed,) last, drop the o 
when they are immediately followed by a substantive alone, or preceded by 
an adjective in the smgular. Ciento, hundred, loses the last syllable before 
nouns of either gender, (Obs. A, p. 139.) Grande, great, generally loses 
the last syllable when it is not applied to siie ; as, el Oran Capitan, 
(Obs. C, p. 97.) Santo, saint, also drops the last syllable before noons mas- 
culine in the singular, except Domingo, Tomas, 8lc 

The ordinal numbers are used in speaking of the chronological order of 
kings, &c., but the article is suppressed ; as, 

Isabel the First, queen of Castile. | leabel primera, reina de CastiUa. 


Remark. Many of the nouns signifying relationship, as aster, hemuma, 
as well as the baptismal, and even family names, such as Luis, Catmlina, 
Rivero, Gonzalez, are used, in colloquial and familiar style, 'with the termi- 
nations ito or iia ; but for the most part they are not diminutive nouns, for 
they have no reference to the size, beauty, age, or moral qualities of the 
persons. They are, properly, endearing words, that express affection, 
friendship, or regard. Therefore, hermanita, Luisito, CatcUinita, Riverito, 
or Riverita, Gonzalitos, do not signify precisely little sister, but rather a 
beloved sister, esteemed Luis, dear Catalina, /rt'en J Gonzalez. 

These names are not always regularly formed by the addition of ito or 
ita ; they frequently have other terminations, and are even changed into 
other odd words. 

Examples. From Maria, (Mary or Maria,) are derived MaruiuUa, 
Mariquilla, Maruca, Maruja. From Maria de la CoNcsrcioif, Concept 
eion, Concha, Conchita, Chona, Cota, Cotita. From Maria de Jesus, 
Jesusa, Jesusita, Chucha, Chuehita. From Francisco, (Francis,) JPVaj»- 
eisquito, Frazco, Frazquito, Paco, Paquito, Pacorro, Poncho, Panekit9, 
Curro, Cutrito, &c Franoisca (Frances) changes the o of the abore 
names into a 



Pronotms are divided into pergonal, poategrite, relative, interrogatimt 
demonstrative, and indefinite. 

The penoua] prononna are» dn^ar — I, yo, thoa, tU, yon, (your honor or 
wonhip,) uetedf he, il, she, ella, it» il, ella, elio, or Zo. Plural — ^we, no<o- 
<ro« or nosbtras, yon, voaotros, voeotras, or oo«, yoa, (yonr hooors t>r wor- 
riiipB,) ustedea, they, elloe, elUu, (See table of personal prononos, p. 70.) 

Voa is used in addreadng a aiogle person, and voootroe, when speaking of 
or to more persons than one. The objective ease of voa after a prepositioc 
is also voa; as, 
.Ind what share of it falls to you, 


I Pues que parte os alcanza d vost 
Sancho 7 
Don Quuotb, cap. xxzi. pt i 

The Qse of uated is explained in Observation A, pages 9 and 10, which 
the learner is desired to consult What is said there abont uated, is like* 
wise applicable to uaia, (Y. S.,) yoor lordship, or ladyship ; vtteeelenei0, 
(Y. E.,} yonr excellency, &c. 

Me, te, ae, noa, oa, le, loa, la, laa, lea, are governed by verbs ; and (in 
conformity with the present use) never placed after prepositions. 

When mi, ti, ai, noaotroa, noaoiraa, voaotroa, voaotraa, il, elha, eUa, 
ellaa, are used as objects, they are to be preceded by prepositions. 

When mi,, ti, ai, come after the preposition con, (with,) they are con- 
verted into conmigo, contigo, conaigo, and admit no change in gender or 

Miamo (self) is sometimes added to the personal pronouns to give them a 
particular energy. It changes its number and gender in conformity with 
the rules laid down for adjectives. 
We must love onr neighbor as our- I Debemoa amor d nueatro prdjimo 

selves. I como d noaotroa miamoa. 

llie objective cases of the pronouns are generally placed before the verb 
when it is either m the indicative or m the aubjunetive mood ; and after 
the verb, anJ joined to it, so as to form one single word, when the verb is 
m the infinitive, or m the imperative mood ; except when the verb in the 
imperative mood is preceded by an adverb of negation ; as, 

Let him who terms me a fierce basi- 
liak^shun me as an evil being; 
let him who calls me nngrateful, 
refuse me his services. 

El que me llama fiera y baailiaco, 
d^jeme como eoaa perjudicial y 
mala ; y el que me llama ingrata, 
no me sirva. 

Don Quuotb, cap. xiv. pt L 

When two pronouns, ol^jeet (the dbrect objective case) and complement, 
C«direct objective case,) come together, the complement must be f iMsd 
before the object, (Obs. A, p. 69 \) as, 

He paid'it to me. | El me le pagd. 


He will carry him to him. 
He wiU carry her to him. 
He wfll carry them to him. 
He will not carty it to him. 
Will he carry her to him? 
Will he not cany them to them ? 


Should both pranofDos, olqect and complement, be of the third penoOf lk» 
complement, or that which m Engiish is governed by to, expresMd oi va- 
dnntood, must be rendered by 9e ; as, 

£Z ae le UevarA. 

El ee la Uevari. 

El Be lofi (las) iZeoori. 

J^i ^ ee le Uevard. 


iNoweloe (las) Uevard il 7 

In order to avoid the ambiguity arising sometimes from such phiases, the 
other pronoun of the same peraon is frequently repeated after the verb ; thoi^ 
il Be U Uevard d SI, d eUa, d elloSp Slc 

You, when it is translated tuted, must be rendered by $e; as, 
He presented him to you. | £Z se le presentd d V, 


PoBseanve pronouns are conjunctive or absolute. 

The po99e8$ive pronouns conjunctive are so called becanse they cannot 
be used alone, but must be accompanied by a noun. They have numbers, 
but admit no variation of gender. (160.) 


My, mi, mio. 

Thy, tu, tuo. 

His, su or de 61, 9us or de eUos, 

Her, su or de ella, sua or de ellas. 



f 9u or de el, sua or de ellos. 
\ 9u or de ella, eus or de eUas. 
' 8u or de elloe, sua or de ellos. 
^ su or de ellas, sus or de ellas. 

These pronouns agree in number with the noun that comes after them ; as. 
He paid his expenses. i El pagd sus gastos. 

They fulfilled their i^omise. | EUos cumpliiron su promesa. 

When you is translated usted or usiedss, tour is to be rendered by «« or 

sus, ds usted or ustedes; as. 

He thinks that the letter Js yours. | El piensa que la carta es deV. 

Remark. The use of su and sus (your) without the addition of usted, 
in addressing respectable persous, is considered vulgar and impolite. No 
person accustomed to good society will ever say, Sefior N. i como estd su 
hermana? Mr. N. how is your sister? Amiga, idigame que kora es? 
Frieud, tell me what o^clock it is ? instead of, Senor N. i como estd su (or 
la) hermana de V.? or la Seiiora hermana de F. Amiga, idigame V 
que hora es ? or sUrvase V. decirme que hora es. 

The following quotations from the celebrated modem dramatist, Moratin, 
who wrote in Madrid, and frequented the best society of that court, will 
corroborate this remark. 

I do not know your mother. | Yo no con&xco d su madrs de meiei 

El a DB LAS NiNAS» act iL ao. 17 



How do yoa do, good m&n ? — I woald 
speak more politely, answered Don 
Quixote, were I you ; is that the 
language used in this country to 
knights errant 7 — yoa blockhead. 

Ymu nBde wisim to knpw wbaUOl Quiert 9mbtr eltiode u§Ud lo qu€ 
this means. hay en etto. 

Ditto, act iiu so. 10. 
I Como va, buen hombrt ? — Hablara 
yo mas bien criado, respondi6 Don 
Quijotef sifuera que voe. i Usaae 
en esta tierra hablar de esa euerte 
d lo9 cabaUeroe andantes l^^ma* 

D. QuuoTi, cap. xviL pt I 
The possessive pronouns absolute (244) may be used with or instead d 
the noun to which they refer ; when used with a noun, they are placed 
ailer it, (31 ;) iw. 

El sombrero de usted costd einco 
pesos, el mio tree, (pesos,) y el de 
^ Juan solamente veinte realesg 
pero et suyo (de ^I) es mejor que 
el de usted, y tan bueno como el 
Ven acd, Anastasia mio. 

Your hat cost five dollars, mine three 
doUais, and John's only, twenty 
sfaiilmgs; but his is better than 
yours, and as good as mine. 

Come here, my Anastasia. 


His, hers, its, theirs. 

Our, 0018, 

Your, yours, 

mw, mtos, mta, nuas. 
iuyo, tuyos, tuya, tuyas, 

fsuyo, suyos, suya, suyas. 
el suyo, los suyos, la suya, las suyas* ' 
el de H, los de H; el de ella, los de ella. 
los or las de el, &c. 
nuestro, nuestros, nuestra, nuestras. 

fvuestro, vuestros, vuestra, vuestras 
de Usted or de Ustedes. 
el, los, la, las de V. or de W. 
suyo, suyos, suya, suyas ; as — 

I am your servant, sir. | Yo soy servidor de V, eahaUero. 

When mine, thine, &c., stand instead of the noun they refer to, they 
be preceded by the corresponding article ; as, 
Has the postman brought the letters? I i Hd traido el cariero las cartas? 
Yet, he brought thine, but not Si, el trajo las tuyas pero no las 

mine. I mias. 

These pronouns agree in gender and number with the substantiree ez« 
pressing the thmg' possessed ; as, 

These houses are his. 
The gardens were hers, but now 
they are tlieirs. 

Estas casas son suyas, (de iU) 
Los jardines eran suyos, {de ella;) 

pero ellos son ahora suyos, {da 

ellos or eUas,) 


The eot^mncthe pionoami aro iited in49eakiiig of, and the ahmlMtt \m 
•ddremng to ; as, 

My friends, these are jny children. | Amigo8 roioe, e8to9 wn nus hijo9. 
When the noun is accompanied by an adjective, either of them may he 
^ised; as. 

My dear brother, farewell! I Mi querido kermano, (querido her- 

I mono miOf) pdsalo bien ! 

Vueatro is not used in colloquial, polite style, therefore your and youri 
must be translated de utted or de uBtedes, or 9uyo, 9uya, according to the 
sense of the phrase ; as, 

He bought hU umbrella hi Pearl- 
street, and you brought yonn from 

El eomprd su paragita en la ealU de 
la Perla, y V, trajo el suyo (el de 
v.) de L6ndres, 


The relative pronouns simple, are quien, qw, ctial, and cu^c ; and the 
compound, quienquiera and cuaUsquicra. 

Quien, in the plural quienes or quien, (who, which, that,) admits of no 
change for the gender, and is used only with reference to peraonsy or ob- 
jects personified. (73.) 

Que (who, which, what, that) has no variation of gender or number, and 
is used with reference both to persons and things. 

Cualt in the plural cuales, (who, which, what, that,) refers to persons or 
things, without any change of gender ; but it requires the corresponding 
article whenever it is necessary to distinguish it; thus, el cual, los cualee, 
la cualf la* cualea. 

Cuyo (whose, which) forms its number and gender like the adjectives in 
o, and agrees with the noun that comes after it 

Cualquiera, in the plural cualeaquUra, (whoever, whichever, whatever,) 
has no change for the gender, and is common to persons and things. It 
generally drops the last letter when the noun following begins with a vowel, 
or an A. 

Quienquiera (whoever, whichever) is applied to persons, or personified 
n^uns of either gender. The Academy sets it down as mvariaUe in number ; 
but quienesquiera is found in classic authors. 


The relative pronouns are called interrogative when they are used h; 
asking a question ; as. 

Who wrote the letter? 
To whom did you write? 
Which of the two does he want 7 
Of what does she complain 7 
Whose image and inscription is this? 

/ Quien eacrtbid la carta 7 
I A quien eaeribid V. ? 
I Cual de loa doe quiere el i 
I De que se queja ella ? 
I Cuya (de quien) ee esta imagen i 
inacripcion ? Del CSaar. 



DBMOlWniATITS PEONOUNl, (31, 98, 161.) 

find. PLVB. nvQ, PLvm. ■mo. flub 

ThiB. These. That ^ Those. That Hiose. 

Maseal'me. Ette. Eatos. JSte. Ew, AqueL AquelioM. 
Feminme. Etta. EstoB, Eaa, Eta*, AqueUa, Aquellas. 
Este denotes proximity ; e«e, some dkitance ; and aquel^ remoteness of 
place or time. (24.) 

jEsto, (this,) e90 or aquBllot (that,) and elb or 2o, (it,) are used only in 
the singular, with reference to whole sentences, or to the actions expressed 
by the verbs, and frequently to avoid the repetition of a verb or a noon ; as. 

Be that as it may. 

He was one of those, who being no 
princes by birth, know not how to 
£rect those who are princes to act 
as such. 

Brother, if yon are bnlBSxm, keep 
your jokes for a place where they 
may turn to account 

Sea lo que te fuere. 

El era uno de estoe que eomo no 
nacen piincipes, no acierUm d en- 
oenar como lo han de ser, loo quo 

D. QuuoTS, cap. xxxL pt ii, 

Hermanoj oi ooio juglar, guardad 
vuestras gracias para donde \» 
parexcam DUtOt ditto* 


The most conmionly need are the following > 




Each one. 

Every one. 





Such a one, or Mr. such a one. 
Such a one and-such a onet 






Something. Somewhat 


One says, or it is said. 

They assure. 

It is believed. 

Lo, ello. (See table, p. 70 ; Obs. E, 

Esta [97; Obs. A, 136.) 

Eso. Aquello. 
[ I Cada uno, or tma, (182.) 
i Todos,todas. 

I Cada, (m. &> t, sing.) Todo, toda. 
> Todos los, todas las, (81, 186.) 

Uno, una. Alguno, alguna, (143.) 

tfnos, Unas. Algunos, algunas. 

Tal (m. & f.) un, una tal. 

Fulano, or Un don fulano de ta), (269.) 

Fnlano y mengano. Zutano y men* 

Ambos, dmbas. Ambos (dmbas) 4 
dos, (48.) 

Todos. Todo el mundo, (182.) 

Alguien, (m. & f.) Alguno, alguna. 

Nadie, (m. Sl f.) Ninguno, ninguna 

Algunos. Varios, (51.) 

AJgo. Alguna coea, (13.) 


Dicen, or se dice, (143.) 

Se asegura, aseguzan. 

Se cree, oreen. 

4S6 APPaHDiz. 


A Verb is a word that signifies to be, to do, or to miffer; as, 
I live. Yo vivo. 

He commaiid& , El manda* 

They are commanded. Elloa son tnandadoa. 

Verbs are divided into active transitive, active intransitive, passive, and 
neuter. They may be also pronominal or reflective, reciprocal, imperson* 
cZ, and auxiliary. These verbs being the same as in English, mention will 
be made only of snch as require particular explanation in regard to the 
Spanish language. 

A pronominal or reflective verb (181) is that which has the same pemm 
or thmg as subject and object ; as, 

He flatters himselt ] El se lisongea a si mismo. 

Almost an active verbs may be made pronominal. 

Impersonal verbs (191) are those which are used only in the third person 
smgular, without a subject or nominative ; as. 

It snows. 


It happened. 


It is said. 

8e dice. 

Auxiliary verbs are those through the help of which the compound tenses 
<^ aU other verbs, and their passive voice, are formed ; such are, 
To have. I Haber. 

To be. I Ser, or estar, 6ls, 

To verbs belong Numbers, Persons, Moods, Tenses, and Conjugation. 


Verbs have singular and plural numbers ; and in each nnmber there are 
three penons, which are distmguished by the diffisrent termlnatkois oone- 
iponding to each person. 

07 The flrst person singular termmatee m o, e, a, i, u 

Except to have, to be, to give, to go, and to know, tl^e first penon ol 
which is, req>ectively, he, soy, estoy, doy, voy, s6. 

The second person singular terminates in as,es. 

Except the preterit indefinite of the indicative and the imperative mood 

The third person singular terminates in a, e, o, 6, or i6. 

The first person plural terminates in mos. 

The second person plural terminates in ais, eis, or is. 

Except the 2d of the imperative that ends in ad, ed, or id. 

The third person plural terminates in an, eii« or on. 

Obs. A, When nos (us) is placed after the first person plural of a veits 
h^ verb generally drops the si as, 

Cuidhnonos, (Cuid^mosnos.) | Let us take care of ounelves. 

Tin teooDd penon plaral of the impenthFe 4topf alio the d when m m 
placed after it ; ae, 

Amaos (amadoe) nneeramente, | Love each other aincerelj. 

06«. B. The vowel by which the termination of the aecond penoo ain- 
gnlar of each tense beginst is also the fint of the termination of eveiy 
peiwn of the same tense ; as, e8tiidia6««, estudia6a, eetudio^cffiot, estndi- 
akais, eatadia6afi. Except the imperative in all the coBJagatioiBB, and the 
pieterit indefinite of the fint coi^ngation. 


There are four moods: the Ii^finitive, the IndicMtive, the Imperaiwe, 
and the Subjunctive, 

Obs, C. The Eagliah potential mood is generally rendered by the emb" 
pmetite in Spanish. 

Tenee is that variation of a veib that disHngnidies its time 

Teases are eimple or cempound. The former consist of one woid, the 

latter of two ; the fint of which is the auxiliary verb, and the second the 

participle past of the verb that is conjagrated. 

Obe. D. The verb to write, (eecribiry) will be made nse o^ the better to 

elucidate the following explanations ; and the numben, 1, 2, dus.» to avoid 

the repetitioa of the whole name of the tense in the rules. 

Hie hifiniHoe Mood has three simple, and two compound tenseSi 


PaEaBMT. To write. Escribir. 
Gbkund. Writing. Eecribiendo, 
Paxticitle. Written. Escriio, 


To have written. Haber eeerito. 
Having written. Habiendo eeeriit 

The Indiemtive Mood has four simple, and four compound te ne e s . 


N. 1. Peesent. I write. Yo eecribo. 

N. 52. Impeefeot. I wrote. Yo eeeribia, 

N. 3. pEBTBErr Indefinite. I wrote. Yo eecribL 

N. 4. FoTU&B iNDBFoirrB. I shall write. Yo eeeribiri, 


N. 1, p. DEnNFTE Perfect or Prbtbrtt. 

I have wri^en. | Yo he eeerito, 

N. 2, p. PtUPBRFBCT. 

I had written. | Yo habia eoerito* 

N. 3, p. PaETEErr Anteeioe. 

As soon as I had written , | Luego qu^ hube eecrUm» 
K 4, p. Future Definitb. 

I dull have written. ] Yo habri emrii^ 


K & The Imperative ModS (315) has one simple 
Let not mercy and troth leave thee. 
— Write my commandments in the 
tablets of thy heart 

No ee aparten de H la miurieordU 
y la verdadL — Escribe mis mando' 
mienioe en lae tablae de tu coro' 
xofL Pbov. iih 

Tne SuhfuncHve Mood (351) has &7e simploi and five coaponnd tBoaea 


N. 6. PassBNT. 
L alesB I write. | A m^nos que- yo eweriba. 

N. 7. Imperfect, Firet Termination. 
It was necessary that I should write* | FoA neoesario que yo eteribief^ 

N. 8. Imfe&feot, Second Termination. 
I would wiHe, if I could. | Yo eecrihiria, m pndiera. 

N. 9. biPBKFBOT, Third Terminaiion. 
He would not do it| even if I should I El no lo haria, aun cuando fo e«- 
write. I eribieoe 


Should I write, I will inform you. | Si yo eecribiere, lo informar^ i Y 


N. 6, p. P&ETEnrr. 
I doubt whether he has written. | Yo dudo que 61 kaya eoeriUk 

N. 7, p. PmnniFECT, Firot Termination. 
I should know it, if he had written. | Yo lo sabria, si H hubiera eoerito. 

N. 8, p. Plupb&feot, Second Termination. 
He would have written, had he I El habria eoerito, a lo hubiera sft- 
known it I ^<^ 

N. 9, p. PLupberct, Third Termination. 
Ehren if he had written, he would not I £l no lo habria estoibado, aun cuan- 
have prevented it | do hubieoe eocriio. 

N. 10, p. FUTUllB. 

inform him of it, should he not have I Inf<5rmele V. de ello, por si no hm» 

written. I biere.eecrito. 


. The Conjugation of a verb, is the reg^olar combination and arrangement 
of its several numbers, persons, moods, and tenses. 

These combinations are made and formed in the Spanish language, out 
of the preeent of the infinitive mood of any verb, wMch invariably termi- 
nates in either ar, er, or ir, which syllables are called its termination ; and 
the letters that remain of the said present of the infinitive, after separating 
(kiie of the said temunations, whatever they may be, are called its root, and 
the letteiB of such root are called its radical letters ; as, to esteem. 



uHm-ar; to offend, ofend-er , to pennit, permit'ir; in whidi yerfji «r, tff . 
tr are the terminationb ; and estimt ofend^ permit, the aadioal Lrrneu 
of each reqyectively, to which the other combination! most be added to form 
the Tarious peraons and tenaea of a yerb. 

AU the Spanish Texba are, therefore, classed into three eonjxigationf, 
Yerbs ending in or belong to the j£r«< ; those in er to the eecond ; and those 
in »^ to the third, 

Obs. E. It is not necessary to express the pronouns subject or ftoimna- 
tite, in the coUoqoial style, (ueted and tutedee excepted ;) but they must be 
osed whenever elegance or cleamess requires it 

Obe. F. The munbers before the terminations point out the di£brent per- 
wtam, N. 2, before usted and ustedes, denotes that they are of the second 
peiBon, but that the verb agrees with them in the third, (by Elnallage.) 


Obs. O, The grate accent ( ^ ) upon a Yowel in the following Uormina- 
tions, points out the syllable on which the stress of the voice is laid, bat 
over which the mark of it must not be set The cumte accent ( ' ) marks 
the syllable on which the stress of the voice lays, and over which the ac- 
cent is to be written. When there is no mark of an accent in the tenrnna- 
tioo, the syllable that precedes it is long. 


First Coi^agatloii. | Second -Coiyasatloiu | Third Coiyngatloii. 



To arm, 
Termination, or. 
Radical letters, arm. 


Axndngf ttndo. 

Pakhoiplb past.* 
Anaedf ado. 


To offend, ofender. 
Termination, er. 
Radical letters, of end. 

Ofiendsfi^; iendo 


OSended, ido. 


To unite. 
Termination, tr. 
Radical letters, tin. 

Unitif^, iend^ 


UnitaJ, ido. 

^ Tlie Oerundio (gerund) never changes its termination for gender or 

' The participle past coming immediately after any of the tenses of the 
verb haber, (to have,) does not admit of any change of gender or number 
After other verbs, it changes its termination to agree with that (^ the peisiNi 
or thing it refen to. 









» 1 i i § ^ 



•^■9 5 "S "2 If 
• e J .^ J .^ o .tl 

HH H W >^ ^ >• P >* 





°! Ta J 1 'S -2 a J 5 
I-. H M >* ^ Jx P ^ 










] • I I, 

.•d •! { -s 4 

5 Js * -b * 

-I 5 I III I 





<«! 4 HJ Hi -i :S 4 4 
b i b b b t fc b 

1 ' '• 

riS '9 a S n 


e -c _ a ^ a -g a 




g N g 5 c fl 

S J i § • §^ § 




•-I e rt jH ^ >* P >< 






« Q Q 




i <i <i 

■I iK- 

a s s - 

& I 

4 i i 
■5 & e 

.- ^ 




- B § s ^6 


^^ ip« S o a 


1^ •;§ <S 

i « e 9 






^ «S <! I I g i 


"^ -S tJ S "O "Q ^ 

a .o g a fl ^ 

cfi •*« c& 4rf i£ cS «4 

tJ is S^S g § s g 

i ^ ^ i 






f i 2 g i 


■ § i ^" 



>s* IT 


6 25= 

2 * e ®'5 
y •* o o •• 

•» « ® » f 




is o ^ <§ (5 i 'i § i 
>•* •* ••• ••• ••• ••• •#• ••• ••* 



U ^. J 

5 3 1 i I § f § 

-. P » JH ^ >^ P >^ 


»-5 ol CO c4 




1 I 

'^ •& M "^ = " ^ " 



a a 
5^ 1 i S g • § i' g 

•-I H W >^ ^ >^ H >* 

^ a" g E i i E^ 
B fd « o « e j: ^ 




:i M ^ i i i ^ 

*«> ^ •€» nj «v *^ 'S C 

o -&; -s S 'S 5 ^ S 

^ s -g -I § g I 

9 "o "S ! 

s : s 


ft -C ^ 5 s® 5 ^ § 

-S ^ -a i o ^ 


•-I :S ^ S*^ ?»5 -5 

I- 1 




^ ill's' 


« H aj >-« ^ >H 

»^ c4 CO ©I »-i ol 



e o a J 
^€ &« 

■? a © 

^S 5 p 


! » o 




Ob9, These tenses being fonned by placing after the verb haheff (to 
nave,) the participle past of the principal verb, er the verb that is conja« 
gated, only one participle for each conjagation is here given, in all the 


N. 1, p. Pbkrot, or Prbtbut DcnNm. 

It is oompoonded of the friaent of the indicative of the veib habert (to 

h&veO and the perfect, or participle pott of the veib which is conjugated. 

For brevity's sake, the English is prefixed only to the firat person of all these 

Ihaoe an 


Yo he armado 

I hant offended, 
I have united. 

To he ofendido. 
To he nnido. 

1. He 1 

2. Has 

3. Ha 

2. V. ha J 


Hemos ^ . 
Habeis - . "J™^ 

W.han J'^^ 

N. 2,p. Plupbrfbot. 

/ had armed. 

To habia armado. 

I had offended, 
J had united. 

To habia ofendido. 
To habia unido. 

1. Habia 1 

2. Habias 

3. Habia 
2. V. habia 


Habfamos "^ 
Habiais 1 ^^ 
habian f ^^^ 
W.habian J '*'"*^ 


p. PRBTKRirfiCD 


/ had armed. 

To hube armada 

J had offended, 
J had united. 

To hube ofendida 

1 Hube ^ 

2. Hubiste 

3. Hubo 

2. V. hubo J 

' ofendido. 

Hnbfmos "j 
Hubisteis 1 *!™*°?- 
Hubieron f "^^jf^ 
W.hubieron J "^^ 

N. 4, p. FuTB 

rRK DEmnTB. 

/ ehaU have armed. 

To habr6 armado. 

If hall have offended, 
J shall have united. 

To babr6 ofendida 

1. Habr^ "] 

2. Ilabr^ 

3. Habrd 

2. V. habri J 

• ofendido 

Habr^moft *) 
Habrti, 1 'T™^ 
Habrtn f •*'°**» 
W. habrtn J ""^ 



N. 6, p. Perfect, ok Preterit Definitb. 

I may hate armed, 
I may have offended, 
I may have united, 

1. Haya 

2. Hayas 

3. Haya 
2. V. haya 

Yo haya armadOb 
Yo haya ofendida 
Yo haya onido. 
H&yainoB 'J 

VV. hayan J ™^*^ 

N. 7, p. Pluferivot — Termination iera. 

/ might hq^e armed, 
J might have offended, 
I might have united, . 

1. Hubiera *) 

2. Hubierai I *f°~f- 


3. Hubiera 
2 V. hubiera 

Yo hubiera annadow 
Yo hubiera ofendido. 
Yo hubiera unido. 




W. hubieran 


N. 8, p. Pluperfect — Termination ria. 

/ might (tDOuld) h^ve armed, 
J might (would) have offended. 
I might (wotUd) have united. 

.1. Habria ^ 


ofendido. ^ " 


2. Hahrias 

3. Hi^a 
2. V. habria 

Yo habria armado. 

Yo habria ofendido. 

Yo habria unido. 

Habrfais. «.*... 

Habrian f ""^^^f^ 

W.habrian J '"^ 


N. 9, p. Pluperfect — Termination use. 

/ might have armed, 
I might have offended, 
J might have united, 

1. Hubieee *) 

2. Hubieees ''""^^^ 


3. Hubiese 
2. V. hubieee 

N. 10,p. 

Should I have armed, 
ShotUd I have offended. 
Should I have united, 

1. Hubiere 

2. Hubieres 
d. Huoiere 
f T. hubiere 


Yo hubieoe armado 
Yo hubieae ofendido 
Yo hubieae unido. 




W. hubieeeu. 

FuTTRE Definite. 

Si yo hubiere armada 

Si yo hubiere o£Bn4ida 

Si yo hubiere unido. 

Hubi^remoa "] 

Hubi^reis I'TrJ" 

Hubieren ?-ofendMlo. 

W.hnbierett J ""^ 




To have. 


To be. 


Tenor. | Ser. 






Teniendo. Siendo. 





Tenido. Side. 



N. 1. rE£8Birr. 

/ have. 


1. He. 




2. Haa 




3. Ha. . 




2. V.ha. 

V. tiene. 


L Hemos. 




2. Habek. 




3. Han. 




2. W.han. 

W. Uenen. 




I had. 

I was. 

1. Habia. 

Tenia. > 


2. Habiaa. 




3. Habia. 




2. V. habia. 

V. tenia. 



1. Hablamos. 




2. Habiais. 




3. Habian. 

. Tenian. 


Eataban. . 

2. W. haKan. W. tenian. 




I had 

1 was. 

1. Hube. 




2. Habiate. 




3. Hubo. 




2. V. bubo. 

V. tuvo. 


V. eatuvo. 

1. HuMmos. 




2 Habfeteis. 




3 Habi^ron. 




% W. hnWton. VV. Um^ron. 

W. fti^ron. 




N. 4> fUTIIKS. 




1. Habr^. Tendrl 


' Estai4 1 

2. Habr^ Tendr^ 


Kstarii. ' 1 

3. Habr&. Tendr&. 



2. V. habrf. V. tendriL 



1. Habr^mos. TencWmoB. • 


- Estarimos. 

2. Habr^is. Tendr^ia 



3. Habrin. Tendrin. 



2 VV habrdn. W. tendrdn. 

VV. serin. 



. Let me have. 

Let me be. 

1. Lot me have. Tonga yo. 



2. Have thon. Ten tii. 



2. Have not No tengao. 



3. Let him have. Tenga 61. 



2. Have. Tonga V. 



1. Let OS have. Tongamos. 



2. Have ye. Tened. 



2. Have not • No tengais. 



, 3. Lot them have. Tengan. 



\ 2. Have you. Tengan W. 


Eaten W. 



N. 6. n 


J may hate. 


1. Haya. Tonga. 



2. Hayas. Tongaa. 



3. Haya. Tonga. 



2. V. haya. V. tonga. 



1. H&yamos. Tongamos. 


2. H&yais. Tongaia. 



3. Hayan. Tengan. 



2. W. hayan. W. tengan. 





/ would have. 


1. Hubiowu Tuvienu' 



2. Hubierafc Tuvioraa. 



3. Hubiera. Tuviera. 



2. V. hubiera. V. tuviera. 

V. fuera. 

1. Hubi^ramos. Tuvi^ramoa. 



2. Hubi^raifc Tuvr^raia. . 



t. Hnbieran. Tuvioran. 



•• W. hubieian. W. tuvieran. 

W. fueran. 

^yy. estoTidraB. 



N. & 8B00ND TEftMINATiqCI. 

IvHrtddhate, , 


L Hahria 




2. HabriM. 




3 Habria. 




2. V. habria. 

V. tendria. 


V. eataria. 

1. Habnamos. 



Estarfaraos. ^ 

2. Habrfaia. 




3. Habrian. 




2. W. habrian. 

W. tendrian. 

W. aerian. 



/ thould have. 

J should be. 

1. Hubieae. 




2. Hubieaea. 




3. Hubieae. 




2. V. hubiese. 

V. tuvieae. 

y. fuese. 

V. estuviese. 

1. Hubi^moa. 




2. Hubidseis. 




3. Hubiesen. 




2. VV. hubiesen. 

W. tuvieaen. 

W. fuesen. 

W. estuviesen 

N. 10. F 



When 1 9hall have. 


1. Hubiere. 




2. Uabieres. 




3. Hubiere. 




2. V. hubiere. 

V. tuviere. 

V. fuere. 

V. estuviere. 

1. Hubi^remoB. 




2. Hubi^reifc 




3. Hubieren, 




2. W. hubieren. 

W. tuvieren. 

W. fu^ren. 

W. estuvi^ren. 

N. B. — ^The (i) stands for the present of the infinitive mood, and the (p) 

for the past participle. 

I am to (i.) 

Thou art to (i,) &c. 

I was to (i,) Slc, 

I ahall be obliged to (i,) &,c. 

I have just (p,) &c. 

I'hadjnat, &c 

I am going to (i,) &c. 
I waa going to (i,) &^ 

He de (I,) (139, 153.) 

Hae de (i,) &c 

Habia de (i,) &c. 

Habri de (i,) &c 

Acabo de (i,) acabas de (i,) &c. (211.) 

Acababa de (i,) acababas de (i,) Sux 
i Voy d (i,) ra» a (i,) va d (i.) 
\ Vamoe a (i,) vais d (f,) van & (I) 

Iha d (i,) ihat d Ci,) tte 4 Oi) ^^M. 



To (t) agaiD» &e. 

I liked to have (p.) 

To be near. 
To come near. 

To be about (p. w I) 
To be to (i.) 

It is to be observed. 

Volver & (l) 

Vuelvo d {{,) vuelvet d (i») 

Volvemo9 a (i,) volv€i9 <&•(!») vmd 
. ven d (i.) 
Ettuve para (i.) 
Estar d pique de (I) 

iC Estar d pique de (I) 
Present participle. \ Eetar d punto de (I) 
( Eetar para (t) 


Eetar para. 
Ser de. Haber de. Deber, 
Ea de notar. Se ha ie notar. 
Dehe notarse. 


£l me le (los, la, las, lo) da. 
£l no te le (los, la, las, lo) envia. 
I Nos le (los, la, las, lo) ofrece ^1 7 
^No OS le (los, la, las, lo) trae 617 
V. no se le' (los, la, las, lo) promote. 


I recompense, or do recompense. | 

I do not recompense. \ 

Do I recompense 7 | 

Do I not recompense 7 \ 

I have corresponded. 
I have not corresponded. 

Have I corresponded 7 

Have I not corresponded 7 



Yo no recompenso, or 

No recompenso. 

I Recompenso ? or i Reeompenm y » 

i No recompenso ? or 

I No recompenso yo 7 

He correspondido. 

No he correspondido. 

I He correspondido 7 or 

I He correspondido yb 7 

I No he correspondido yo 7 


Passive verbs are formed from active-transitive verbs ny adding their par* 
ticiple past, or passive, to the auxiliary verb ser, (to be,) through all us 
changes, as in English ; thus, from the active verb amar, (to love,) is fqnned 
the passive verb ser amado, (to be loved.) 

Obs. A. The participle must agree in gender and number with the 
nominative it refers to ; consequently it changes the o into a when the sob* 
feet is feminine, and adds s for the plural ; thus, 


He ip loved. 
She is loved. 
Yon are loved 

El es amado* 

Ella es amada. 

V. es amado, (mnmdmi 



They are loved. EUot mm amadot* 

They are loved. EUaa son amadaa. 

You are loved. VV, aon amadot, (amadaa,) 

Oba. B. In the compoand tenses the participle of the principal verb is 
the only one that admits the change ; the participle of the auxiliary verb 
to be (been^ aido) is unchangeable ; as, 

He has been rewarded. 
They have been rewarded. 
She had been admired. 
They had been admired. 
You could have been employed. 

You could have been assisted. 

El ha $ido premiado. 

EUo9 han sido premiados. 

EUa habia sido admirada. 

Ellas habian sido admiradaa. 

V. habria sido empleado, {emple- 

VV. Jiabrian sido asisiidos, (asisti^ 
das.) ^ 

Obs. C. Passive impersonal verbs, and those referring to inanimate c b- 
jects or things, are translated by placing the verb which is in the participle 
past in English, in the same person and number in which the verb to be w 
in the English sentence, placing the pronoun se before it ; thus, This ship 
was built in leas than three months — Esta fragata se construyd en nUnos 
de tres meses, instead ot/ui eonsiruida. It is said — Se dice, instead of Es 


A pronominal, or reflective verb, is that which has the same person or 
thing as subject and object ; as, 

He arms himself. | El se arma & si mismo. 

These verbs terminate their present of the infinitive mood by the pronoim se, 
which must be suppressed in order to find out the cbnjogation ; thus — 

To approach. 
To be sorry. 
To repent 




Taking off the se we here have, aeerear, Ist conjugation ; doler, 2d conju* 
gation ; and arrepentir, 3d conjugation. /8Qr) 

Theee verbs are conjugated by placing the pronouns me, te, se, se, nos, 
0s, se, se, according to the number and person of the nominative they refer 
to, immediately before the verb, if the subject be expressed before it ; and 
either before or after the verb, if the subject be not expressed or placed after 
it When they are placed after the verb they must be written so as to 
(brm one word with it. , 

In the imperative mood they are always placed after the verb, which sup- 
presses the s in the first petson plural, and the d in the second person of the 
same number. When the second person singular or plural is used with 
IhA adverb no, the pronouns are placed before the verb. Examples: — 



L I congntnlate myselt 
3. Thou congratnlatest thywlf. 
3. He congratul&tes himseli 
2. You congratulate yoiuieUl 

1 We congratulate ounelves. 

3 You congratulate younelvea. 
3 They congratulate themselvee 

2 You congratulate youfBeWes 

1 I had congratulated myselt 

2 I have armed myself! 

? They had flattered themselvea. 

Behave (thou) well 
Behave (you) well 
Behave not :1L 
Behave (you) not UL 
Let UB prepare ouraelvea. 

Yo tn€ eangrtttuh. 

T^ U eongratula9* 

El 9e congratula. 

F. te congratula* 

NoMotros not congratul amm 

Vosotro9 09 eongratulais, 

Eliot te eongratulatu 

VV. te cofigratulafL 

Me habia congratulado, 

Yo tnt he armado, 

Eliot te habian litonjeadt 


PdrtaU bien, 

Portdot bien, (the d m i 

No te portet moL 

No ot porteit moL 

Preparhnonot, (The t m sui^ireand.) 

GERUND." O^uniib. 
' The Oerund m that part of the verb that terminates in ando m the veite 
of the first conjugation, and in iendo in those of the second and third ; as, 
publicando, (publishing,) from publicar ; prometiendo, (promising,) from 
promeier; atittiendo, (aasisting,) ftrom atittir. It does not admit any 
change of gender or number. / 

It is translated by the English present participle, and conjugated with the 
verb etiar, (to be ;) as, 
Anastasia is reading, and Maria Ann I Anattatia ettd leyendo, y Marim 

is playing on the piano. | Ana ettd toeando el piano. 

It is used also absolutely ; as. 
By practising virtue thou wilt be I Praetieando la virtud, terdtfeUat, 

happy I 

In such cases it may be expressed by the corresponding tense of its verb* 
and even by the noun derived from it ; as, 

Columbus discovered the new world 
in the reign of Isabella, the Catho- 
lic, and under her auq>ices. 

Reinando ItabeU la Cai6lica,ybajo 
tut autpiciot. Colon deteubriS el 
Nuevo MundOf (or cuando reinaba 
Jtabel, or en el reinado de ItabeL) 


The passive or past participle terminates in ado m the firat conjugatMm, 
and in ido in the second and third. It changes its termination according ta 
the number and gender of the person it refers to ; except when it fbllowa 
immediately after the verb haber, or any other auxiliary, in whidi eiie it 
does not admit of any ohange. 



An panive paitie^ilaa that do not tennmate m ado or idown eaUed ir 
ngolar ; such are the foUowing, fnm the Teil)»— 

To open, 
To cover, 
To write, 
To fry. 
To do, 
To print, 
To die. 
To solve, 
To see. 
To pot. 
To torn, 

























Their compoands have the same irregrolarity. 

Ofra. The participles past of haber, 9er, ettar, and tener, do not ad* 
mil any variation. The first and the last had it formerly. 


Tliere are some verbs that have ttoo passive participles, the one re^ar 
and the other irregular. They are contahied in the following list, in whioha 
'or brevity's sake, the irregular participle only is expressed. 

To surfeit, 



To bless. 



To compel, 



To conclude. 



To confuse. 



To convince, 



To convert. 

• eonvertir, 


To awake. 



To elect. 



To wipe, 



To exclude, 



To expel. 



To express, 



To extinguish. 



To fix, 



To satiate, 



To include. 



To incur, 

ineurrir, - 


To insert. 



To invert. 



To ingraft. 



To join. 



To mute, 







The regular participlefl of these verfaB are used to fonn the oompouBd 
tenses with haber ; as, 

He has awaked eariy. | El ha dispertado temprano. 

The irregular participles are used as verbal adjectives, and with the veifai 
9er, &<c., and do not form compound tenses with haber ; ezceptinf prem, 
prescrito, provieto, roto, and a few othera ; as, 

He is early awaked. I El ettd detpierto temprano. 

They have provided. | EUot han pratisto, (praveidc) 

To manifest. 
To fade. 
To omit. 
To oppress, 
To perfect. 
To arrest. 
To prescribe, 
To provide. 
To shut «p. 
To break, 
To loosen, 
To suppress, 
To suspend, 












Adverbs are formed from adjectives of one termination by addmg to th^ 
merUe ; as, dtdee, dulcemente : and from those of two terminations by add- 
ing menu to the feminine ; as, graeioso, gracioeamente. They admit tha 
superlative; as, graeiowUimamente. 

When two or more adverbs ending in ly occur in the same sentence, the 
termination mente is added to the last only ; atf. 
He q>eaks elegantly and correctly. I El habla eorreeta y elegtmtmmente, 



acd, aquL 




alia, aUi, ahi. 

ni, . 











donde, adonde. 




























Last night. 







45 i 


















nunca, jamas. 

No, nor. 

no, ni 




de travee. 

la heaps, 

d moniones. 


de repenie. 




de balde. 

At once. 

de una vez. 


de verae. 


d vecet. 


poco d poco. 

On credit, 



he aqui, or aUi, 


The most 

frequent are— 

At, to, for, 





dnteB, ante 





For. to, . 




By, for, through 


Of, from, 








In, on, at. 


Oo, upon, 


Between, among, entre. 


trae, detrao. 

The following prepositions require de after them, when they are followei 

by a nonn or pronoun ; as— 

That man comes after. 

Eae homhre viene deepuee. 

Sir, he will go after yon. 

Sefior, 61 ird deepuee di V, 

1 d cereai al rede 
d eerca de, al redt 

dor, en tomo. 


dor de, en tomo de. 


dmes, delante. 1 

Within, in, 


Above, up, encinuL 






detrae, trot. 





Out of. 






On, upon. 




They are 

claared as follows : — 










Neither, nor, 


* E)a used mstead of y when the following word begins with < cr At; as-. 

Wise men and ignorant I Sabioe e ignorante$. 

Mother and daughter. | Madre i hija,, 

* Neither he nor she went out, m H ni ella ealiSron. 







Or, either, 

;; 6,ii,ya.^ 


para que. 



para que 
< djinde 


sea qtie. 

In order that, 











\ aun cuando. 
\ aun, euando. 


con tal que. 



I dmhiDs^e, 

Although* though, aunque. 




porque, que. 


pues, puesio qua 




fue$i puee que. 


By, for, 



como, asi coma. 


por tanto, 






Take care 

! Tate i 





Wo to me 

\ rAydemi! 








i Ea ! 

God grant! 







1. Words in a, c, al, or, ble, ion, sion, sis, are the same in both lan- 
guages; as, diploma, epitome, vital, solar, durable, opinion, adhesion^ 

fL Words in ant, eni, ient, add an £ ; as, observant, observants ; regent, 
rsgsnte ; obedient, obediente. 

3. Words in eet, ie, id, it, add an o ; as, select, seleeto ; critic, critics ; 
ifiACAd, pldeido ; tranquil, tranquHo, 

4. Words in ance or aney change it into aneia; and those in enee or 
eney into eneia ; as, tolerance, toleraneia ; constancy, prudence, adolescency. 

5. Words in aey, amy, emy, logy, ody, omy, ory, asy, esy, change the f 

' U is employed instead of 6, when the word immediately foUcwfog il 
begins with o or Ao ; as, — 

Silver or gold. ^ | Plata t ore 


kito s ; as, efficacy, infaniy, academy, mythology, melody, economy, theoqi 
fentasy, cooittey — eficania, j^. 

6. ThoM in chy change it into quia ; and those in phy into Jia ; aib 
monajchy, fRonarftf ui ; philosophy, j!lo«o/!a. 

7. Words in ic«' change it into icia ; as, aTarice, ataricia. * 

8 Words m ine, ive, ire, change e into o ; as, divine, active, severe'— 
divino, jrc» 

9. Those in tion change it into cion ; as, constitution, conitituciofu 

10. Words in ty change it into dad, and sometimes add ad instead of the ^ 
9; as, activity, aetividad; majesty, magesiad, 

11. Words in anfj try, ory, change the y into to ; as, anniversary, aiti- 
versario ; baptistery, hautigterio ; laboratory, laboratorio, 

13. Words in otw or iou9, change ous into oso ; as, famous, famoao ; 
delidooB, delicioso, 

13. Latin words beginning with $ followed by a consonant, either lose 
the 9, or add an c ; as, aoientia, eieneia ; spiritos, etplritu, 

14 Proper nouns in ua change it into ; as, Publius, PubUo ; Titus, 
Tito, (348.) Those in er change it faito ro ; as, Alexander, Alejandro. 
Those in add n ; as, Cicero, Ciceron. Those in s« or on are the same in 
both languages. Nouns having the diphthongs tf , a, retain the e only ; asb 
JEiketm, Eneao ; (Edipus, Edipo; CsBsar, Citar, 


Syntax principally consists of two parts. Concord (Concordaneia) and 
Government, (Regimen.) 
, Concord is the agreement* which one word has with another in gender, 

^ Agreement is the similarity of words in number, gender, 6lo, As the 
articles and adjectives admit of no variation of either in English, it will be 
proper to explain here what that word imports and requires in Spaniahj 
which will be better understood by the following examples : — 

The rich man. 
J%e rich men. 
The rich woman. 
"The rich women. 
A just man. 
Some just men. 
ii just woman. 
Some just women. 

El hombre rieo, 
Loe hombres ricoe. 
La mujer rica. 
Lae niujeres rieae, 
Un hombre jueto. 
Unoe homhrea juatoe, 
Una mu}erjueta. 
Unae mujeres juetas. 

It will be observed by these examples, that the article the has no change 
fai En^^isfa, and that el has four in Spanish. The same is the case with th« 
Mfysetives rich and ju»t, and with the articles un and utios. 



number, case, or peraon. Government is that power which one put d 
ipeech has over another in directing ita mood, tense, or case. The ktkm* 
hkg rules contain the most important of both. 

RuLB 1. The article must agree in number, gender, and case, with the 
noun to wnich it refers ; as, 

Quiet solitude, pleasant fields, serene 
weather, purling streams, and 
tranqniltity of mind contribute very 
much to Uie fecundity even of the 
niost barren genins. 

El eosiego, el lugar apaeible, la 
dmenidqd de los campo9f la 9er9» 
nidad de los cieloe, el mmrmMrar 
de las fuentetf la qmietud del €#-> 
piritu mm grande parte parm que 
las mueae mat eeiiriUeje miMf- 
tren fecundaa, ^ 

Don Quuotb, piot, pt L 
Ohe, 1. The nouns a^tia, (water,) hgvnlat (eagle,) acta^ (act, reeorc ) 
iSn^Ja, (anchor,) dla, (wing,) oXma, (soul,) ai>e, (bird,) oma, (the mistxess el 
a house, a housekeeper,) and a few others, ithough feminine, lequire the 
masculine article, but only in the smgular number, and wlien they are im- 
mediately preceded by it (285.) 

They quenched their thirst* m the I EUoe bebieron del agua del arroye. 
water of the rivulet. | Don Quuote, cap. xriil pt L 

Some other nouns feminine beginning with a, or ha, having the first 
syUaUe long, are frequently used in the singular witli the masculioe article. 
This use, however, is not generally sanctioned ; and the greatest number of 
the daasic writers follow th*? rule Hiid down by the Spanish Academy, that 
excepts only the above nouus. 

RuLS 2. The English indefinite article befi>re national nouns, as-woD 
as before those that signify the dignity, profession, trade, condition, dec* of 
persons, in the titles of books and other performances, and in ezclanuitionB, 
ts not translated into Spanish ; as, ^ 

Tne Monserrate of Cristobal de Vi- 
rues, a Valencian poet 

It was certainly known that Don 

Juan de Austria Vas appointed a 

general of the league. 
And ending in Zoilua or Zeuxis, 

thougli one was a backbiter, and 

the other a painter. 
What a pity ! 

06*. 2. If the mdefinita article be hnmediateiy foUowed by n& •^•e- 
Uve emphatically used, H most be tnmriated; m^ 

El Monaerrate de Cristobal de Ft- 
rues,poeta Valendano. 

Don Qouotb, cap. ^n. pC. i. 

8e supo par eierto que vemc par 
Otneral desta liga Don Juam de 
Austria, Ditto, cap^ zxxix. 

y acabando en ZoQo, 6 Zeuxio^ 
aunque fui maldiciente el una, y 
pintor el otro. Ditto, PreL 

; Que Idstima ! • 



TlMTi I obUtned aa eniigii's oom- 
mimoD in the company of a fa- 
1 capUin. 

Alewei d $er ^^ex de unfi 

Don Qouotb, oap. zzxiz. 

Ob9, 3. Shotild a proper noon follow that of the dfj^ity, dLc, the defi^ 
mU article most be affixed to it ; as, 

Whom continnally in our CastiTian 
language we call king Artua. 

Que eoniinuamente en nuettro ro^ 
manee Caetellano Uamamoe el rey 
Artus, Ditto, cap. xiil 

Rule 3. The definite article (el, Slo,) is prefixed in Spanish to all com- 
mon sabstantives, when they are used to oxprees the whole extent of their 
signification ; which, for the same reason, do not require it in English ; as. 

Vice is hateful. 
JHsfi are mortal. 
Virtue is amiable. 
JUehe9 shall not profit in the day of 

EU vido e$ aherrecMe, 
Los hombree son mortalet. 
La virttid e$ amable 
Las rifuezae no aproteekardm en el 
dia de la venganxa. 

The nouns vice, men, virtme,' riehee, are used as coHectrre nouns, asid 
taken in a general sense ; that is to say, they mean that all vices are hate- 
ful, all Tirtnes are amiable, that all men are mortal, and that no rickea ean 
prevent the vengeance of God. 

Obe. 4. The article is retained in the phrase before the adjective, when 
a eommon noun, taken in the whole extent of its meaning, is omitted by 
etlipsis; as. 

Red wine is not so dear as white. I El vino tinto no es tan caro eomo el 

I (vino) bianco. 

Ruix 4 Common nouns, used in an indeterminate sense, are used with 
or without the article, as in English ; as, 

He^asks three dollars for the hat 
He asks for the three dotlars, value 
of the hat. 

Rule 5. When the names of the days of the week are used to mention 
the day with a reference to a certain day, they require the article ; as, 

El fide tree peeoe par el sombrero. 
El pide loe tree pesos, valor del 

Thursday before the Friday on which 
she was to remove to her father's 
garden, ^e gave ua a thousand 

Eljueves Antes del viimes, que ella 
se habia de ir al jardin de su 
padre, nos did mil escudos. 

Don QrnjoTB, cap. xl 

Casa, meaning hom^, and being preceded by a preposition, does not admit 
the article ; when it signifies house, it may be used witJi or without it ; as. 
Wife, I will show you them at home. I En casa os las mostrari, mujer. 

I Ditto, cap 111 

Cmlle (street) requires the article before It, and before its name if itstMoM 
oe n common noon i sm^ 




He Htei in Pearl straet, (in the street 

of the Pearl.) 
Ai he entered St Jamea street m 


El Otoe en la caUe de la PerUk 

Al entrar la eallk de Santiago en 

P. QuuoTB, cap. zlYilt pt li. 
RuLR 6. The English indefinite article, before nouns of measure, weight, 
or number y is translated by the definite article, according to the name it re- 
fers to. The prepositions & or par are sometimes added, which may as well 
be omitted ; as, 

This broadcloth is worth ten dollars 
a yard. 

Butter sells at two shillings a pound. 

Eete paiio vale diex peeoe vmra, (or 
a diez pesos la vara, or iiez pe- 
SOS por vara.) 
La manieea (mantequilla) ss vends 
& dos reales libra, {la libra, it per 

RuLB 7. The English definite article before ordinal nnmbers, when 
they are immediately preceded by a substantive, in quotations, divisicms of 
books, names of dignity, &c., is omitted in Spanish ; as, 

Book the first, chapter the second, 

section the fifth, &c. 
The mymcible Charles the Fifth. 

Libro primero, capituh segundo, 

pamnfo quinto. 
El invicHsimo Carlos quinto, 

D. QuuoTK, c^ zxzk. 
Obs, 5. When the English definite article precedes an adjecthre used 
an epithet before the nouns above stated, it must be translated ; as. 

Augustus CoBsar would have been in 
the wtong had he consented to 
the execution of what the divine 
Mantuan ordered on his death- 

No hubiera acertado Augusto Cesar 
si consintiera que se pusiera en 
ejecucion lo que el divine Mantu- 
ano dej6 en su testaments orde- 
nado. D. Quuotb, cap. xiiL 

RuuB 8^: The article a, and the adjective one, are not translated before 

hundred, thousand, million, half, &c. 

In the year' one thousand, one hun- 
dred and one. 

He asks, or wants one yard and a 

En el ano de mil, cienio, y tme. 
El necesita, or quiere vara y media' 


Rout 9. Proper names of persons and of countries do not admit th(« 
article ; the former, however, in a colloquial and very familiar use, tak^ 
it ; as, 

She was called Tolosa. I Se Uamaba la Tolosa. 

I Don Qituotb, cap. iii. 

Obs, 6. The nouns nuerte, (death,) eielo, (heaven,) and the like names, 
take the article, except in exclamations or direct speeches ; as. 

If the power of death 3e your sub- 
ject, apply « PalUda mors,** &c. 

Si trataredes del poder de la muet te, 
aeudid luego con " Pallida mors," 
&&r D. QuuoTc, Fr6loga 



RsMAmK. " It is the rule of our language, (the CaatUimn,) that proper 
moune are not accompanied by articles ; excepting la Mancha, uk Co* 
muNA, lA Habama."— (Graniroar of the Castilian Language, by the Royal 
Spanish Academy, part il, ch. ti.) The preceding role has been given in 
conformity with this decision of the Academy, which may be used as 
follows: — 

The names of the coontries that are not qualified by the adjectives old or 
new, upper or lower, &c., expressed or understood, are generally used with- 
out the article ; as, 

Mexica Mijico. \ Malta. Malta. 

The names of the countries that are qualified by the said, or other adjec- 
tives, when these are not expressed, may be used with or wi