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b presenting to the American Public a new gnd improved edl- 
tion of Ollendorff's New Method, it would seem to be only 
necessary to state what alterations or additions have been 
made. To saj anything in comknendation of the book itself 
appears almost gratuitous ; for the extensive circulation which 
h now enjoys in England, and the increasing demand for it in 
thb country, its costliness notwithstanding, constitute the strong 
eat evidence in its &vour. The &ct that Ollendorff has been 
sooght after with avidity, whilst many other GramnuCrs of high 
merit have met with but a slow and cold reception, justifies the 
inference that, as a book of instruction, it presents facilities 
which in similar works were either entirely wanting or but 
imperfectly aflforded. 

Even the excellent and highly scientific Grammar, written 
br the use oi Englishmen by the genial Becker himself^ who 
by his Organism, his ©eutfc^e fflortbittuitg, and subsequently 
by his !Deutfd)e ®rammattf/ has made such valuable contribu. 
tioQs to the Philosophy of Language, and has almost revolu- 
tionized the terminology of Grammar in his own country, has, 
h the space of fifteen years, not even undergone a second edi- 
tion, and is now entirely out of print. Surely, Becker has de.^ 
lenred a better fiite among scholars at least ! 

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The success of Ollendorff is unquestionably due to hit 
method, bj which he has made the German^ heretofore note- 
riously difficult to foreigners, accessible to the capacity of all, 
young or old, learned or unlearned. Instead of pre-supposing 
a familiarity with English Grammar in the pupiL and then 
presenting a synthetic view of the principles of the .^anguagOi 
as is commonly done, he begins apparently without any system, 
with the simplest phrases, firom which he deduces the rules, 
until gradually and almost imperceptibly he makes the pupU 
master of the etymology and syntax of every part of speeck 
The rules are, as it were, concealed amid the multitude of 
exercises which are added to each lesson, and which serve to 
fortify the learner in the princip es he has already acquired. 
Another characteristic feature of the book, and one in which 
its practical merit chiefly consists is, that the examples <hi 
which the rules are based, and those which are intended to 
illustrate the rules, are not derived from the German Classics ; 
they are neither the ideal language of Poetry, nor the rigorous 
language of Science, but of Zt/e, — short sentences, such as on« 
would be most likely to use in conversing in a circle of friends, 
or in writing a letter. 

Special prominence is given firom the beginning to the end 
of the book to the idioms of the language, as it were the Crer^ 
man side of the German — a most important element in the 
acquisition of any language. In the beginning of the book 
the exercises are of necessity very brief and simple, and the 
Author, according to his own confession (page 351), has of- 
ten sacrificed logical accuracy to his eagerness for thoroughljr 
gn)unding the pupil in the principles of inflection and construe^ 
tion previousl)' laid down. As the pupil advances the exe^ 

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UK9 booome longer and more complicated. The sanie phraaet 
are often repeated* and thrown into new combinatioas, and 
eomtant reference is made to previous parts of the work. It 
M thus that OilendoifT gradually introduces at once the ety- 
mAogj and syntax <^ Gennan Grammar. His method is so 
tueidy that no one can go through with the exercises — provided 
he be guided by a competent master — ^without acquiring such 
t fkmiliarity with the principles of the language, and such a 
itock of words and idioms as will enable him to speak and to 
write it with considerable fiu^lity. 

The book, as it is now presented to the public, is from the 
Frankfort edition, which, in accuracy of expression, as fiur as 
the English is concerned, in the wording of the rules tm weU 
u in typographical arrangement, is so fiu: superior to the Lon- 
<kii edition, that it seems to be the woik of a difierent author. 
So striking was found to be the difierence between the two edi- 
tions that the Editor, who at first was not in possession of a 
German copy, and had already put into the hands of the printer 
t considerable portion of the London copy revbed, deemed it 
afterwards his duty to recommence the stereotyping of the book 
m the basis of the German. 

The Editor has ventured to make such alterations as he 
thou^ would give additional value to the book. Instead of 
deleting two lessons to a mere mechanical explanation of €rer- 
nan writing, as was done in the other editions, he simply pre. 
fixed to the book, on <me page, an improved form of the 
a^diabet, and a specimen of German current hand, from which 
die learner can at once perceive how the different letters are 
Bade and united into words. The orthography of the Grennan, 
lidch in some cases was antiquated, has been conformed to 

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(he most recent and best authorities, chieflj to Hejse, whose 
grammars are at present, perhaps, more extensively used in 
Germany than anjr others. In some instances, where perspi- 
cuity would otherwise have suffered, the phraseology of rules 
has been amended. Wherever the English was crabbed or in- 
correct in the exercises it has been revised and altered. Great 
care has been taken to present on edition free from typograpfai- 
cal errors, which often, in works of this kind, are the cause <^ 
needless and most discouraging perplexity to beginners. In 
this connection the Editor would make special mention ot 
Mr. Edw. Stohlmann, corrector of the press, whose fidelity is 
worthy of all confidence and conmiendation. 

By the addition of the Systematic Outlins, the Editoi 
has had a twofold object in view. In a work like OUendorff's, 
in which each lesson contains a variety of exercises, which 
have no necessary connection with each other, and in which 
the difierent parts of speech are not systematically classified, 
but scattered in every part of the book, a comprehensive iiulex 
would have been indbpensable. Without it, the book wouki 
have been useless for the purposes of reference, and a complete 
and connected view of the laws which govern the inflection 
of any one part of speech wouki have been equally impossible. 
It seemed to him, that an attempt at a complete index to the mat- 
ter contained in the book would be a difficult task, and unsatis- 
fiictoiy in the end. He has therefore subjoined, as a substitute, 
an outline of Grammar, in which the inflection of words u 
treated briefly, but yet with completeness, and where the learner 
may find in dififerent language perhaps, and in rigorously sya- 
lematic connection, the principles which he met with in the 

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4«Tiou8 part c£ the work, besides much that will be new %$ 

The second and principal object of making such large addi 
tloQs to the book was to adapt it to the use of those who aim, 
not at a practical knowledge of the language, but desire it for 
sdentific or literary purposes only. As persons of this descrip- 
ticHi are commonly men of liberal culture, habituated to the 
terminology of Grammar, and the study of language, they are 
generally impatient of beginning at once the reading cf some 
&Tourite author, and they are aware too, that for them the 
sliortest road to reach the goal is to master at once the elements 
of Grammar, As the Author himself has had considerable 
experience in guiding such to a knowledge of the German, he 
has endearoared to meet their wants by bringing within the 
compass of about one hundred and thirty pages a concise ana- 
lysis of the different parts of speech, with copious paradigms to 
die declensions and conjugations. Though the Outline is brief 
it «31 be found that the inflection of the declinable parts ol 
ipeech, as well as the gender of substantives, is imfolded 
more fully than in Grammars of much larger size. The 
materials are from the best sources, chiefly from the works oi 
fiicKSK and Heysb. Since it was impossible to add a separate 
Syntax without greatly increasing the bulk of the book, the use 
and government of each part of speech has been briefly point- 
ed out in connection with its etymology. 

The "^ Table of Classification of the Irregular Verbs," and 
also the ^ Government of Verbs," have, after a thorough rovi. 
fksk and some additions to the list, been adopted from the Lon- 
don edition. The Author regrets that the limits of the worb 
wmiW not admit of a more extended treatment of the Pakti. 

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CUBS. A clear and thorough analysis of the Adverbs, the Pr»> 
positions, and Conjunctions, in which the Greek-like poiMrer d 
the German chiefly resides, with a tufiicient number of exam 
pies to make it mtelligible, has never yet boen given to the 
English student. It is believed, however, that no one will 
suffer any practical inconvenience from this deficiency, as par* 
ticular attention is paid to the use of the particles in other 
parts of the book. 

With respect to his *< Systematk Outline," the Editor would 
in conclusion say, that he feeb confident that it possesses every 
desirable condition of a complete introduction to the reading of 
the German. May it contribute to spread the study of a lan- 
guage, which in richness and flexibility is the acknowledged 
superior of aU its modem sisters — which in creations of Art 
and in works of Science yields precedence to none— of a 
language which contains in itself the germs of its own repro- 
duction, and of an endless development — ^which still is, as ii 
# ter ha«> been, rfgefontcrt/ ungemtfc^t unb nur fi((^ fdber gtetd^i' 

6. J. A. 

September, 1845. 

SeyfYork Umversttyf > 

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PiBTi OF Sfucb, ^ 1 . 877 

Cases, ^S 377 


/ecfeosion of the articles, ^3 378 

Fie .viicle, before proper names, $5 379 

** " before abstract substantrves and names of materials, ^ 6. 379 

" " before common nouns, ^7. 380 

" ** idiomatic use of, ^ 8. 380 

•* in sentences, ^9. 381 

" " contracted with prepositions, ^10. 381 


Chnifica^onof noons, ^ 11 383 

L Their Gkndibr, determined by their si^fication, ^ 13 and § 14. . 383 
** ** determined by their termination, ^ 15-§ SO. . 383 

Gender of compoond substantives, ^20 386 

" of foreign substantives, ^ 21 387 

n. Number. Rules for the formation of the plural, § 22, ^ 23 and § 24. 388 

Nouns employed in the pluml only, ^27 390 

Nouns witk two forms of the plural, ^28 390 

OL Imtlectiun. Declension of common and abstract nouns, ^ 30. . 391 

EarHer DecUntim, ^ 31-^ 38 .391 

LaUr DeeUnsion, ^ 38-^ 42. . . . . .397 

Declension of foreign substantives, ^ 42. . . . 400 

Declension of proper names of persons, ^43-^ 18 . 40r 

" " " of places, ^ 48. . . 404 

IV GoviRirmirr of substantives, ^ 49-§ 52. . 405 

Chnification of adjectivsi, ^ 52-§ 55. . • , . 401 

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L Imflsotion, ^ 55. First dedeiudon, ^ 56. . • • 
" Second declenrion, ^ 57 tnd § 58. 
" Third declension, ^ 59. . 
Ohsenrationi on the three declensions, ^ 60 and ^61. 
n. CoMrARisoN, terminational and compound, ^ 62-^ 66. . 
" irregular and defective, ^ 66 and ^67. 
** Df adverbs, ^68 


Adjectives with the infinitive, § 72 ; with the genitive, ) 73 ; w ith 
the dative, ^ 74 ; with the accusative, § 74. iii. . . .411 


Classification of numerals, ^75 4I( 

list of Cardinals and Ordinals, ^76 491 

Observations on their inflection and use, % 77-^ 80. . . .491 
OoMrouND Numerals: Distributives, Iteratives, dee., Dimidintivea, 

^.,^80and^81 423 

Indefinite Numerals, ^ 82; implying number, ^83; quantity, ^ 84 ; 

number and quantity both, ^85 424 

The use of numerals, ^ 86 and ^ 87. . . . . . .426 


Classification of pronouns, ^88 . .427 

I. Personal Pronouns, § 89 ; including reflexive, § 90, Obs. 3, and 

reciprocal pronouns, § 90, Obs. 4. 427 

Indefinite personal pronouns, § 92. 429 

n. Possessive Pronouns, § 93 ; conjunctive, § 94. ... 430 

Absolute possessive pronouns, § 95 431 

in. Demonstrative Pronouns, their inflectum and use, § 97-§ 99. 433 
IV. Determinative Pronouns, § 100-§ 103. . . . .434 

V. Relative Pronouns, § 103-§ 106. . . . . . 43S 

VI. Pronouns, § 106-§ 109. . . . 437 


Classification or Verbs— Transitive, § 109; Intransitive, § 110; 

Reflexive, § 113; Impersonal, § 114; Auxiliary, § 115. . . 439 

Personal terminations, § 117; moods, § 118; tenses, § 119. . . . 443 
'VhM infinitives, § 120 ; participles, their formation and signification, § 121. 442 
Tlie omission of the prefix g f in the perfect participle, § 122. . 443 

Auxiliary Verbs op Tenses, their use in the formation of componnd 

tenses, § 123 . . . . 44S 

RuUm for the fbrmation of compound lasses, § 124 444 

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teiitkul.,§12S. . ^ 

rfk^fukn of the auxiliary Terbe: ^abtn, §127; fetn, §lt8: toerbw, 

51». 445 

fawMtire Terbs which assmne the auxiliary ^aBett, § 131. , , . 454 
fcoinsitiT© Teibs which awume the auxiliary fein, § 132. , .454 

Cmjugatior of Ykkbs, § 134; regular and irregular mode of conia- 

f»«>w, § 137 ... 455 

1^ erf" termixiatioiifi, § 140. .... .457 

Pfisaadoo of the teoaee of the paastre voice, § 142. ... 458 

CwOTOATioM OF Tkaxsititb VKRBe, § 143. . . . . • 459 

" Reflexive Verm, §144 463 

" •* Intransitive Verbs, § 145 464 

" " Impersonal Verbs, § 146 466 

CowouND Verb&— eeparable and inseparable, § 14ft-§ 155. . .467 

CoajQguian of compound verbs, 459 

8t»tax of the Verb— agreement, § 156-§ 159 470 

Use of the tenses and moods, § 159-§ 165 471 

The infinitive without |tt, § 167 and § 168 472 

The infinitive toitA I n, §169^172. 473 

Use of the participles, § 172-§ 178 475 


Defcaiioo and dassification of adverbs, § 178 477 

Abveris of Place and of Time, § 179 477 


OF Intensity, 478 

^ M fi fati on of the adverbs f) i tt and ^tx,§ 180 478 

Tbe ptoooninal adverbs ba and tt> o, anik their compounds, . • . 479 
^^iaparisQo of adverbs, see § 68. 


^^^^Bitian, § 181 ; list of German prepositions, 480 

^KpoBfilons whie^ govern the genitive, § 184 480 

•• the dative, §185 481 

" " "the accusative, § 186 481 

^RF«ilioD8 governing both the dative and accusative, § 187. . 483 

Thwe pr^NMitions which govern the genitive and dative both, § 188. 482 


^^tefication of ooi^Junctions— copulative, disjunctive, adversative, oon- 
diKioDa],cancesBive, d(c.,§191 48S 

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A. list of Gennan inteijectionB, § 193 4 

Obaervadons on their use, ... .4 

Classification or thk Irregular Vkrbs, . . 4 
A Tablk of thk Sixteen Verbs which are Irreoola? onlt iw 

PART, . . .4 

Table of Irregular Verm^ 490-^ 

The ffoveniflf««nt of verbs. 50S> §: 

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FIRST LESSON.— (Rale tttAon. 

br German every letter is pronounced. Hence it fol* 
lows, that foreigners are able to read the language 
with greater facility: reading may be acquired in one 


There are in German, as in English* twenty-six let- 
ters, of which we give : 

The Figures, 



The Powe^ 










































i * 




















* kk print, til* CUmuau hftT* bat one enpltall«tt«r for tho towoI i mad ttte 

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«5, T^ PronuncioHoTi^ 


The Power 















































Most of the German letters being pronounced as io 
English, we shall only present those that follow a dif- 
ferent pronunciation. 




Dm Eii{litb 

G«Tnuui EzuBplM. 


M i 

ah-a, a. 

WOlUi t 


SBStcr, fathers. 


o-a, i. 


gowe, lion. 


oo-a, t 

®(ucf ^happiness 


e-a, ie. 


SCBiefc, meadow. 

a-«» .) 

( ffieife, manner. 


ar-jrpsilon, >I, 


3 filon, to be. 


ah-e, ) 

( ^aifer, emperor. 


**'-*^' Joy, 


( Sdnme, trees. 
( ?eute, people. 

* IS^e EagHdi word bird does not qoite answer to the sound of tins rowel j 
\m <|^|her the mad of etc in the French words : feu, coeur, flem-, jckik. 

'hmiU BO toimu CCnwoiiding to ihis Towel in English, and, in orfer It 

W€tt, the pupils most hear it pronounced ; it answers to the sound of s 

'wnch words: buL n&, veriu. , . . 

-nethod which we have adopted, of placing anali|50us •oj»J <*h 

^ &ciiiUte to learners the study of the pronunciation. There are 

roTinces in Germany, where 4 and 6 are both pronounced a; « 

^ hM&aUe to indicate «he sounds of thetwi dipkthonip li 

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I%vn. ifane Am prowniiiMd In tlw Bug Itsh 0«raMa EzamplM. 

m: words . 

an, ah~oo, ou, house, S^ui, house. 
% oo, CO, boot, gixtf good. 

Of the simple and compound consonants the follow . 
mg differ in their pronunciation from the English con* 

(if before a^ 0/ it/ before a consonant, or at the end 
of a syllable, has the sound of k. Ex. @atO/ Cato ; 
&im*, Conrad ; (Siir, cure ; grdit, credit ; ©pectafel, 
noise. Before the other vowels, tiie letter c is pro- 
nounced like ts. Ex. (Safor^ Caesar; (SicerO/ Cicero; 
fee* , Ceres. 

S^/ which is called tsay-hah^ is pronoimced like k : 
1. when at the beginning of a word. Ex. S^or, choir ; 
(S^irif, chronicle ; S^rifl, christian ; 2. when followed 
by f or *. Ex. S5ud)fe, box ; 9Qacf|*^ wax. In words 
derived from the French, it preserves the French 
sound. Ex. (SifWAatm, quack. This consonant, when 
preceded by a, 0/ U, is pronounced from the throat. 
Ex. S5a(^, rivulet ; ?cc^, hole ; S5ud), book ; (Spradf|C, 
kuiguage. Placed any where else, it is articulated 
witi^ a less guttural soun^. Ex. fdMfiX, books ; S(e(^/ 
iron plate ; ic^/ 1 ; ®eft(f)t/ face. 

®^ at the beginning of a syllable, has a hard sound, 
as ift the English word ^0. Ex. ®abe,gift; @ott,God; 
gat, good ; ®ifit, poison. When at the end of a syl- 
lable, it has a medium sound between those of the gut- 
tural d) and f . Ex. %%, day ; tnogfid), possible ; Kug^ 
pradent ; (gflp^, vinegar ; etmg, eternal. In words bor- 
rowed from the French, g is pronounced as in French. 
Ex. ?oge, box (in a theatre) , @cait, genius. 

ttd eu appitndmatiTely ; their pro&onciation ii not quite the lame, and in or 
^ to become familimr with tnem. the pnpilf must hear their master pn* 
Vi||p»them. A 

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The pronunciation of g cannot be properly acqaired, 
unless from the instructor's own lips ; he must there- 
fore make his pupils pronounce the following words * 

^ge, tradition. SDl&ptgg^nger, idler. 

Salg^ tallow. 39dltng/ pu]>il. 

tttrg, mountain. ingjt, anguish. 

Bmctg/ dwarf. SAngC/ length. 

Saugncn, to deny. SJKngc, quantity 

6tC0, yictory. ®ffang/ singing. 

^Afttafctt^ capacity. ^(ong/ sound. 

g]i6flU<^fett, possibility. Sling, ring. 

gXagb, maid-senrant. Sungfrau, virgrin. 

" ' ^e/ maid-servants. SunggcfeU, bachelor. . 

The letter t) is aspirated at the beginning of a sylla- 
ble. Ei. ,^b, hand; ipclb, hero; i^ttt, hat. It is. 
mute in the middle and at the end of a syllable, and 
then it lengthens the vowel that precedes or follows it. 
Ex. a3a^n, road ; i^o^tt, mockery ; ?o^, reward ; le^rett, 
to teach ; SC^er, crown (coin) ; ^^, cow ; XtjVitK, 
tear ; t^ttlt, to do. 

3 (yot) has the sound of y in the English word you 
Ex. 3agb, chase ; Sfiger, hunter ; jeber, each ; je^:, at 

D IS always followed by U/ and in combination with 
that letter pronounced like kv in English. Ex. Dxud, 
tormenf • QueUe/ source. 

®, when initial, has the pronunciation of z in Eng- 
lish. Ex. @ame^ seed ; QeeU, soul. 

®(^ is pronoimced like sh in English. Ex @(^/ 
•heep ; ^^i(b/ shield. 

f is prono^oed like ss in English. Ex. fyi^, hatred : 

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toeif/ white. This double consonant is compounded of 
f and y and is called ess-tset 

% is compounded of t and )^ and has the sound of 
these two consonants combined. Ex. ®(^a$/ treasure i 
^, finery. 

S is sounded like /. Ex. SSoter^ father ; JBonmmb^ 
tutor; S80H, i)eople. 

SB is pronounced like an English v and not like to. 
Ex. 9Ba&/ forest ; SBtefe^ meadow. 

3 has the pronunciation of ts. Ex. 3^^^^/ tooth ; 3^ It, 


Expressions which vary either in their construct! in 
wt idiom from the English are marked thus : f. 
A hand (MT*) denotes a rale of syntax or constraction. 

SECOND LESSON— S^tteite C^rticm.* 

NcMnNATTVB, the. 

Genitive, of the. 

Dative, to the. 

Accusative, the. 

Masenline. Neuter 

NoM. bet. bad. 

Gen. bed^ bed. 

Dat. bem. bem. 

Aca ben. bad* 

* To iHanurcTORs.— Each letson should be dictated to the popfls, wh<i 
dMwld pronoance each word as soon as dictated. The instructor shoukl also 
exercise his puoils by putting the questions to them in rarious wa^s. Each 
lesson, except tnc second, includes three operations : the teacher, in the first 
pbee, looks orer the exercises of the most attentive of his pupils, putting to 
Ukem the questions contained in the printed exercises ; ne then dictates 
to them the next lesson ; and lastly puts fresh Questions to them on all the 
preceding lesaons. The teacher may divide one lesson into two, or two into 
tkree, or even make two into one, according to the degree of intelligence d 

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Have you % 

Yes, Sir, I have. 

Have you the hat 1 

Yes, Sir, I have the hat. 
The ribbon, 
the salt, 
the table, 
the sugar, 
the paper, 

3^, metn ^(tf, \df haU* 
^t>en@t( ben |>ut? 
Sa, nif in ^<xx, id^ f)aht Un ffUt 
bas S3ant) ; 

ten Zx^df ; 
ben Sucfer ; 
bad ^optct. 

Obs. The Germans begin all substantives with a 
capital letter. 

NoM. my. 

NoM. mem. mecit^ 

Gen. of my. 

Gen. meme^. metne^. 

Dat. to my. 

Dat. memem* mcmenu 

Ace. my. 

Ace. meinen. mm. 

3^t,yottr,is declined 

like mcitt* Example : 

MftscuUne. Neuter. 

NoM. your. 
Gen. of your. 
Dat. to your. 
Ace. your. 

NoM. 3l)r. S^r.» 
Gen. Sfjre^. S^te^* 
Dat. Sf)tcm. 3f)rem. 
Ace. 3l)rem Sljr. 

Have you my hat 1 
Yes, Sir, I have your hat. 
Have you my ribbon 1 
I have your ribbon. 

^flbcn ®te nictnen ^ut ? 

3o/ mcin ^rr, td) !)flt>e 3bren ^nl 

^aUn @t( metn 93anb ? 

3* ()abe 3f)r »anb. 


Hdve you the salt!-— Yes, Sir, I have the salt. — Have you yoor 
saltl — ^I have my salt — Have you the tablet — ^I have the table.— 
Have you my table t — i have your table. — Have you the sugar I— 
f have the sugar. — Have you your sugar 1 — ^I have my sugar.— 
Have you the paper t — 1 have the paper. — ^Have you my paper 1— 
I have your paper.f 

* 3^t with a small l«ttet ngnifies their, and has the same declension ■§ 
31?r, your. 

t Pu|nls desirous of making rapid progress, may compose a great msny 
phrases in addition to those we have given them in the exercises ; but they 
must pronounce them aloud, as they write them. They should also make 
separate luts of such substantires, adjectives, pronouns and verbs, as they 
meet with in the course of the lessons, in order to be able to find those words 
more easily^ when they have occaaioii to refer to them in writing their leflwcf* 


THIRD LESSON,— IlllrUu Section. 
fMdfeXf lokichf has the same declension as ber* 








NoH. the good. 

Gen. of the good. 

Dat. to the good. 

Aoc the good. 

NoM. ber gate. 
Gen. be^ guten, 
Dat. bem gutm. 
Ace. ben guten. 


ba^ gute* 
be^ gutett. 
bent gnten« 

Observation. Acyectives vary in their declensior 
when preceded by : meat/ my ; 3^r, your ; or by one of 
the following words : ent/ a ; fern, no, none ; bent/ thy 
fan, his ; i^r, her ; unfer, our ; (Suer, your. Example : 

NoM. my good. 

Gen. of my good. 

Dat. to my good. 

Aoa my good. 


N. ntetn gntet. ntetn gnte^. 

G. ttieined gutcn, memed gnten, 

D. ntehtent guten* nteinent guten« 

A. nteinen gnten* ntein guted* 



beautiful or fine, 


great, big or laree, 
Have yon the goc3 sugarl 
Yes, Sir, I have the good sugar 

Hare jou the fine ribbon 1 
I have the fine ribbon. 
Which hat have you \ 
I have my ugly hat. 
Which nboon have you 1 
I have jour fine ribbon. 

U Mffrr. this ; \tvxt, that, Ke 


SiycihiXi 6te ben guten Sudfet 7 
3a/ mein ^ttt, t(^ l^abe bm 

Stxniitn ®te bo« f<Wnc iBanb ? 
3d) \)<xU X>ai fc^Snc JBonb. 
fiBe(d)Ctt j^ut f)a&fn @ie ? 
3d) boOc mcinen WPlic^ett ^ut 
8DBcI*c^ JBanb babcn ©ie? 
3(^ ^^t 3()c f<^ned S3anb. 

y Google 

EXBtcm 9. 

Hare you the fine hat! — Yes, Sir, I ha^ve flie fine hat. — linr% 

fou my bad hati — I have your bad hat.— Ha\e you the bad salt?— > 
hare the bad salt. — Have you your good salt f— I have my good 
salt. — Which salt have you 1 — ^I have your good salt — Which su- 
jar have you 1 — I hare my good su^r. — Have you my good su- 
gar 1 — I have your good sugar. — Which table have youl — I have 
the fine table. — Have you my fine tablet — ^I have your fine table.— 
Which paoer have you t — I have the bad paper. — ^Have you my 
agly paper } — 1 have your ugly paper. — Which bad hat have youl 
—I have my bad hat. — ^Which nne ribbon have youl— I have yooi 
fine ribbon. 

FOURTH LESSON.— biem Uctiotl. 

Hue. Kent. 


NoM. er. rt. 
Aoa iiftu rt. 



I have not. 


No, Sir. 

sfldn, tnctn ^r. 

Have you the table? 

^ben @t( ben Stfdft ? 

No, Sir, 1 have it not. 

innn, mcin ^err, i(b haU ifyinid^t 

Have you the paper t 

^bot @te tai 9)apier ? 

No, Sir, I have it not. 

^<\n, mctn ^^, id^ (o(c d 


The stone, 

bet €?tein ; 

the cloth. 

ba^ Sud) ; 

the Wood, 


the leather, 

tai itUt \ 

the lead. 


the gold. 

bad ®o(t). 

Obs. The terminations en and ent are osed to fonn 

ac^jectives and denote the materictls of anything. 



ffolden or of ffold, 
leaden — of lead. 

gctbf n ; 

Weiern ; 

stone — of stone. 

(Icincrn ; 


mm (artld). 

Have you the paper hatt ^bnt CTte ben papier^m ^utl 

I have it not. Sdibobcidn oi4t. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The wooden table, 
die hoTse of stone, 
the coat, 
the hoxfe, 
the dog, 
the shoe, 
the thread, 
the stocking:, 
the candlestick, 
the golden ribbon. 

ben Wtjetnen Z\fd^ ; 
tfl< fletneme ^ferb ; 
ben died (bad it(etb) ; 
ba« g}fetb ; 
ben ^unb ; 
ben ^d)ul) ; 
ben Saben ; 
ben ^trumpf ; 
ben fieud)tei: ; 
bad gdbene 93anb. 


Haxe yon the wooden table 1— No, Sir, I have it not.-— \9jiich 
able hare Ton 1 — I baye the stone table.-— Haye you my golden 
rmndlestick t — ^I have it not. — ^Which stocking have yoo 1 — ^1 have 
the thread (ffiben) stockinflr. — Have yon my thread stocking ! — 1 
nare not your thread stocking. — ^Which coat have you! — f have 
my cloth (tud)en) coat. — Which horse have you 1 — ^I have the wood- 
en horse. — ^Have you my leathern shoe 1 — I have it not. — Have 
yoo the leaden horse 1---I have it not.— Have you your good 
wooden horse 1 — 1 have it not.— Which wood have you 1 — I have 
yoar good wood. — Have you my good gold t — ^I have it not. — 
Which gold have you f — ^I have the^ood gold. — Which stone have 
you 1—1 have your fine stone.— Which ribbon have you 1 — I have 
your golden ribbon.— Have you my fine dog I — I have iU — Have 
yoa my ngly horse 1— -I have it not. 

FIFTH LESSON.— iftnfU tMum. 

The chest, the trunk, 
the button, 
the money, 

Anythin^^ somethinfj 
Noi anything^ nothing f 

Have yon anything ? 

I hmTe nothing. 
The cheese, 
the old bread, 
the pretty dog, 
the silver (metal), 
the silver ribbon. 

4t9 yoo hungry t 
* AsmBVeneh: 

ben itcffet ; 
t>ai ®etb. 


^Un @te ttcoa^ t 

3d) f)obe ni^ts. 

ben M\t ; 

ba^olte 93reb; 

ben artigen (h^fi^tn) ^unb } 

tai @t(ber ; 

ba« fttbeme S3anb 

C^tnb e^te ^unc^g? 
C t |>af>en ©ie ^unfiet ?• 


y Google 


I am hungry. 1 1 3* M< lungrt. 

Are you thirsty t i f ^(><n ®u bStfl !• 

1 am thirsty. ^ ^ 3^ ^^ ^^^ 

Are you sleepy t 6tnb 8t( fd>l&|)ing 7 

I am sleepy. 3d^ ^tn W^f^^^d^ 

Are you tired t 6tnt @t( mtlbe 7 

I am not tired. 3d) bin nid)t mftbe. 

0/ <Ae (genitive). | ^^;;- j bti. 

Obs. Nouns of the masculine and neuter gende 
^ake ^ or e^ in the genitive case singular. 

The tailor's, or of the tailor, M €fAncit>er« ; 
the dog's, or of the dog, M ^unbc6 ; 

the baker's, or of the baker, bc6 ^Mdcti ; 
the neighbour's, or of the neigh- Ui fKodybac^ ; 

of the salt, M ^(^e^ 

The baker s dog. ^ ^^^ g^^^^ ^^,„^^ 

The tailor's coat. 5" ^^^ ^^ ^^^ e*nfitl€C<, 

The taUor s coat. ^ ^^^^ ©(^neibcr^ gioctf 


Have you the leathern, trunk t — ^I have not the leathern trunk.- 
Have you my pretty trunk 1 — I have not your pretty trunk.- 
Which trunk have you 1 — ^I have the wooden trunk.— Have yo 
my old button ? — 1 have it not— Which money have you 1 — ^I ha^ 
the ffood money. — Which cheese have you 1 — I have the old cheese 
—Have you anything 1 — ^I have something. — Have you my larg 
doff t — I have it not. — Have you your good gold 1 — ^I have it.- 
Which dog have you 1 — ^I have Ae tailor's dog. — Have you U^ 
neighbour's large dog t — ^I have it not.— Have you the dof's golde 
nbbon t — No, Sir, I nave it not. — Which coat have youl— I hat 
the tailor's good coat. — Have you the neighboar's good bread !- 
I have it not. — Have you my tailor's ffolden ribbon 1 — ^I have it.^ 
Have you my pretty dog's ribbon ? — ^Thave it not. — Have you th 
good baker's good horse 1 — ^I have it.7— Have you the good tailor* 

* Ai in French; avtz^vout 9oift 

f The fint of these *wo ex)«reMioiii if more uaa], the latter ii prefent 
» poetry 

y Google 


koiaef — ^I haTe it not — ^Ar© yon hungry 1 — I am hang ^jr-* -An 
f CO sleepy 1 — ^I am not sleepy. — Which candlestick have yon ! — I 
bare the gold«i candlestick of my good haker. 

SIXTH LESSON.— 0jecl)0te Ut&m. 

Anything' or something good. 
Nothing or not anything btid. 

Have you anything^ good % 
I have nothing bad. 


What ha^e yon 1 
What have yon good 1 
1 have the good bread. 

ThcU or the one. 

etn>o$ (Sutc^ 
92id)t^ ^U^tti. 

SBa^ Men®te@)ute^? 
3(^ \^(At t)a$ gute SStob. 

( Masc. 
\ Neut. 


Hie neighbonr's, or that of the ben be^ i)2a(^^r& 

rhe tailor's, or that of the tailor, tai Ui @(^netbet<. 



The book, ba^ SBucfii. 

Ilave yon my book or that of the ^6cn @te mcln fSn^ obet bo^ bcf 

neighbonr I 97a(i6&at^ ? 

f haTe that of the neighbour. 3d) t)abt batf bed 9{a(^^r^ 
HftTe Ton yonr hat or the 4)aben @ie 3^ven ^ui ober ben M 

baker^s 1 SSadCerd ? 


Have yon my book ! — ^I have it not. — ^Which book have yon ?— 
[ have my good book. — Have you anything ugly t — I have nothing 
ngly. — ^I have something pretty. — Which table have you ? — I have 
the baker's. — Have you tbe baker's dog or the neighbour's 1 — I 
have the neighbour's. — What have you 1 — I have nothing. — Have 
yon the go<3 or bad sugar t — I have the good. — Have you the 
■eighbonrs good or bad horse ? — ^I have the good ^one*). — Have 

Jon the golden or the silver candlestick ? — I have the sUver can- 
Icstick. — Have yon my neighbour's paper or that of my tailor ! — 
I ha^e that of your tailor. — Are you hun^ or thirsty t — ^I am 
hungry.-* Are yon sleepy or tired 1— I am tired. — ^What have yon 

• Woi^ in th««zeroiMt between i«rMktlieM8,ar» not to iMtraadatod 



metXy t — ^I have nothing piettj. — Hzre you tho leather shoe t-*l 
bare it not 

SEVENTH LESSON.— 0iebente Section. 

Hare yoo my coat or the tailor's 1 ^<i6en @te metnen fRtd obec ben M 

©d)ncibcr« ? 
I have yoars. 3c^ i)aU ben S^nqen. 

MMcaline. Neoter. 

J^M'. ( N. bet mem^e. ba^ meintge* 

mine. ^ ^ ^^^ meinigeit. ba^ mdnigt. 

Vm/.- i N. ber SMge. ba^ 3l)ri9e. 

xcwrs. |A.bcn3^rigem ba^ S^rigc, 

Absolute possessive pronouns, as : ber nteinige^ mine ; 
ber 3^rige, yours ; ber feittige, his, &c., are declined like 
adjectives preceded by the definite article. (See Les- 
son III.) 

Obs. When the conjunctive possessive pronouns 
metn, my ; 3^r, your ; fein, his, &c., are used for the 
absolute possessive pronouns: ber ntetmge/ mine; ber 
3^rige/ yours, &c., they terminate in the masculine in 
er and in the neuter in e^» — ^Ex. : 

Is this your hat 1 3ft t>ai 2f^t ^ut 

No, Sir, it is not mine, but yours. Sim, mctn S>trt, H tfl ni((t metncri 

fonbcm S^tct. 
Is this my book t 3fl ba^ metn S9u4 7 

No, it is not yours, but mine. 9Ze'm/ ci ift nt^t 3^<</ fonbcm 


The man, ^^"^ SI'^M^T^'^ * i. n 

uMut, ^ ^^ g)lcnfd) (gen. en, homo) ; 

the stick, bet &tcd ; 

my brother, metn SBrubet ; 

the shoemaker, ber @d)uf)mod)er ; 

the merchant, bet; itaufniann ; 

the friend, ber ^reunb. 

Hate you th» merchant's stick ^ben ^te ben &M hci itottf' 

or yours 1 mann^ obet; ben 3l)ti9en 7 

Neither. SB e b e t 

Nor. 9lo<b. 

I have neither tae merchant's 3(((a6etoeberben6Mbe<JtM^ 
«tiek Ti— ?ninc monn^ tto4 ben mcUilacn*/ 


1» ^ 

*» ^ hungry or «l«ty , {&eTra^.S?a; 

!«« neither h«n^ no, thi«.y. JiJiS^jWa 


Haye you your cloth or mine t — ^I have neither yours nor mine. 
—I have neither my bread nor the tailor's. — Have you my stick or 
yours? — ^I have mine. — Have you the shoemaker's shoe or the 
merchant's T — ^I have neither the shoemaker's nor the merchant's 
—Have you my brother's coat 1 — I have it not. — Which paper 
ha?e youl — ^I have your friend's. — Have you my dog or my 
friend's % — I have your friend's. — Have you my thread stockinor or 
my brother's! — ^I have neither yours nor your brother's. — Have 
you my good baker's good bread or that of my friend 1 — I have 
neither your ffood baker's nor that of your friend. — Which bread 
have you t— 5 have mine. — Which ribbon have vou 1 — I have 
yoars. — Have you the ffood or the bad cheese 1 — 1 have neither 
the good nor the bad.— -Have you anything ? — I have nothing. — 
Have you my pretty or my ugly dog 1 — I have neither your pretty 
nor your ugly dog.*-Have you my friend's stick 1 — I have it not. 
—Are yon sleepy or hungrry 1 — I am neither sleepy nor hungry.—^ 
Have you the good or the bad salt ? — ^I have neither the good nor 
the bad. — ^Have yon my horse or the man's ? — I have neither yours 
nor the man's. — What have you 1 — 1 have nothing fine. — Are you 
ired t — ^I am not tired. 

EIGHTH LESSON,— <2lcl)te Section 

The cort ber 9)ftcpf (^Jfcopfm) ; 

the corkscrew, tcr ^fropfticftet (9)ropfeii|Ub«t) , 

the umbr^a, tit ^cqen^trm ; 

the boy, ter SinaU (gen. n). 

Obs. Masculine substantives ending in tf take n 
in the genitive case singular, and keep this termina- 
tion in all the cases of the singular and plural. - 

The Frenchman, bet ^rangcfe (gen. n) ; 

the carpenter, bev Stmmcrmann ; 

the hammer, tet jammer ; 

the iron, ba^ ^tfcn ; / 

iron or of iron, etfem (adjective) ; 

the nail, Ut ^aofi ; 

tiie pMieiU Itt 5BUtfiift ; 

y Google 


the Nimble bet ^ngct^ut \ 

the coffee, tct ^aff^c ; 

the honejr, tft ^onia ; 

the biscuit, bet Btoithad* 

Havell ^bet*? 

You have. ®ie t)at>tn. 

What have I ? 95M fyiU i* t 
if ou have the carpenter's ham- Bit hahtn ten ^mnKt M dunmcci 
mer. monn^ 

Have I the nail 1 ^U i4 ben ^OQd 1 

You have it. ^te f)oben t^n. 

Have I the bread t 4^be left ba^ SSrob ? 

You have it. Bxc baben e^ 

I am right. f 3d) b<^be Sfit^t 

I am wTongr. f Skb b<»be Untetftt 

Am I ri^rht 1 t ^be 14 Sitdit ? 


1 have neither the baker's dog nor that of my friend. — ^Are yoa 
sleepy 1 — ^I am not sleepy. — I am hungry .^You are not hungry.— 
Have I the cork 1 — No, Sir, you have it not. — Have I the carpen- 
ter's wood t — You have it not. — Have 1 the Frenchman's good um- 
brella 1 — You have it. — Have I the carpenter's iron nail or yours t 
—You have mine. — You have neither the carpenter's nor mine.— 
Which pencil have I ?»-You have that of the Frenchman. — Have 
I your thimble or Uiat of the tailor 1 — You have neither mine nor 
that of the tailor. — ^Which umbrella have 1 1 — You have my good 
umbrella. — Have I the Frenchman's good honey 1-^You have it 
not. — Which biscuit have 1 1 — You have that of my good nei^ 
hour. — ^Have you my coffee or that of my boy t — ^I have that of 
your good boy. — Have you your cork or mine t^I have neither 
yours nor mine.— What have you 1 — I have my good brother's good 
pencil. — ^Amlrightt — You are right. — ^Am I wrong 1 — ^Vbu aie 
not wrong. — Am I right or wrong 1 — ^You are neither right nor 
wrong. — ^You are hungry. — You are not sleepy.— You are neiUief 
hungry nor thirsty.^ You have neither the good coffee nor the good 
sugar. — ^What have 1 1 — You have nothing. 

NINTH LESSON.— fiieunte ttttion. 

iHave I the iron or the golden ^obe x6) ben etfemen obet ben %i^ 

nailt nen Slagd? 

Yi'>u have neither the iron nor 6te tKtben webet ben etfemen im<I 

tVe golden nail ben g^tbenen 9laget 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

The sheep, 

the ram, 

the chicken (the hen), 

the ship, 

the hag (the sack), 

the young man, 

the yoath, 

Who hast 

Who has the tninkt 

The man has the trunk. 

The man has not the tnink. 


The young man has it. 

The young man has it not. 

He has. 
He has the knife. 
He has not the knife. 
He has it. 
Has ^e man 1 
Has the painter ! 
Has the friend t 
Has the boy the carpenter's 

hammer ! 
He has it. 
Has the youth iti 
Is he thirsty ! 
He is thirsty, 
is he tired! 
He is not tired. 


bet ^mmr( (tet 6(^p6) % 

ta$ Jbu^n ; 

hai €5*ttf ; 

tit €ad; 

bet iunge ajteitf:^ (gen. en) v 

bet SCUigfing. 

SBet (att 

$ffietf)otben Aojfet? 

iDer gxann fnit ben Jtoffet. 

jDet SOIonn hot ben Aoffet n i 4 1 

SBet bat i^n ? 

)Det junge 9)2enr4 ^t tbn. 

IDet iunge SRenfd) M t^n n i (^ t 

Gt bat. 

Gt bat ba^ sDZefTet. 

Gt bat bag aTleftet ni(^t. 

(St bat e^ 

^t bet !D2onn 7 

|)at bet SWatet ? 

^at bet Jfreunb 7 

^at bet Jtnabe ben ^ammet bel 

Stmmetmanng 7 
(&t bat tbn. 

|)atibnbet 3fina(in97 
3(1 et burftigl (^at et )Dutfl7) 
Ct tH burftig. (Ct M 3)ut(t) 
SItet nifibe? 
(Stifl nicbt milbe. 


Is he thirsty or hungry 1— He is neither thirsty nor hungry.—- 
Has the friend my hati — He has it. — He has it not. — Who has 
my sheep 1— Your friend has it. — Who has my large sack 1 — ^The 
baker has it.— Has the youth my book ? — He has it not.^ What has 
he !— He has nothing. — Has he the hammer or the nail 1 — He has 
neither the hammer nor the nail. — Has he my umbrella or my 
stick 1 — He has neither your umbrella nor your stick. — Has he my 
coffee or my sugar 1 — He has neither your coffee nor your sugar ; 
he has your honey. — Has he my brother's biscuit or that of the 
Frenchman 1 — He has neither your brother's nor that of the French- 
mas; he has that of the good boy. — Which ship has he t— He bmt 
Btj good ship. — Has he the old sheep or the ram t 


Has the young man my knife or that of the painter 1 — He has 
Mtther yours nor that of the painter. — ^Who has my brother's fin* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


dog t — Y<mr friend hw it — ^What has my friend t — He has the 
baker's good bread. — He has the good neighbour's good chicken.—' 
What have you I — I have nothing. — Have you my bag or yours 1— 
I have that of your friend. — Have I your good knife f — You have 
it — You have it not — Has the youth it (^t c*) 1— He has it not. 
— What has hel — He has something good. — H!e has nothing bad. 
•^Has he anything? — He has nothing.^Is he sleepy 1 — He is not 
sleepy. — He is httnerry.^Who is hungry t— The young man is 
hungry. — Your friend is hungiy. — Your brother's boy is hungry. — 
My shoemaker's brother is hungry.^My good tailor's boj Is 
thirsty. — ^Which man has my book 1--The big (gr^) man has it — 
Which man has my horse ? — Your friend has it*-He has your 
good cheese. — Has he it 1 — Yes, Sir, he has it 

TENTH LESSON.— Zel)ttte Uction. 

The peasant, 
the ox, 
the cook, 
the bird. 


bet S3auct (gen. n) ; 
tcT £)d)f« ; 
bet ^ecb ; 

( NoftL 
I Ace. 

Maw. Neuu 

fern, fern, 
fdnot/ fetn. 

Obs. A. The coiyunctive possessive pronoun fdit is 
declined like mm and 3(|r* (See Lessons H. and HI.) 

The servant, 

the broom, 
Has the servant his broom 1 

His eye, 

his foot, 

his rice. 
Has the cook his chicken or 

that of the peasant ! 
He has his own. 

His or his own (absolute 
possessive pronoun). 

bet ©ebtente ; 

bet S3efen. 

^t bet SBebtente ftlnat Sefett 1 

fetn Unat ; 

fetnen 9lei$. 

j)ot bet jted^ fetn ^u^n obet toi tH 



( N. ber fHntge. bad femidt. 
I A. bm femigett* bod fetntge. 

Has the servant his trunk or ^t bet 93cbiente \t\ntn itoffet obor 

He has his own. 
Have you your shoe or his t 

i have his. 

ben metnt^en ? 
iSx hat ben fetnigen. 
^oben 6ie 3^ten @d)u^ obrt bcv 

fetniaen ? 
3(9 ^oe ben fetm^ien* 



«e or any cm (rndefi- W ^^^ 3emanJj^. 
nrte pronoun). (^^^ Semonbm. 

Has anybody my hat I ^cX 3emant metnen ^ut * 

53enionb M tf)n. 
C^^ M tf)n S^monb. 

S<BDeb<Hly has it. 

Who has my stick 1 ^tx ^t metnen @tO(! ? 

Nobmly has it. 9{lemanb M tbn. 

A^G OMt nobody or not anybody, 91 1 e m a n b. 

06s. B. 9?femaiil) is declined exactly like ^jtnmb* 

Wbo has my ribbon t S(Bev (at metn SBonb ? 

Nobody has it. S>{tcmonb M e^ 

Nobody has his broom. 9{temanb f)QX fcinen SBcfnu 

EXERCI8K8. 10. 

Hare yon the ox of the peasant or that of the cookl — I hare 
oeithei that of the peasant nor that of the cook.^Has the peasant 
his ricel — ^He has it — Have you it 1 — ^I have it not. — Has his boy 
the servant's broom t — He has it. — ^Who has the boy's pencil 1— 
Nobody has it. — Has your brother my stick or that of the painter ? 
—He has neither yours nor that of the painter ; he has his own.— 
Has he the good or bad money ? — He has neither the good nor the 
had. — Has he the wooden or the leaden horse ? — He has neither 
the wooden nor the leaden horse. — What has he good 1 — He has 
my good honey. — Has my neighbour's boy my book I^He has it 
sot — ^Which book has he 1 — He has his fine book. — Has he my • 
hook or his own 1 — He has his own. — ^Who has my gold button t 
-Nobody has it. *-Has anybody my thread stocking ^—Nobody 
has it. 


Which ship has the merchant I^He has his own.^Whioh 
hOT9e has my friend ?— He has mine.— Has he his do? t — He has 
h not — ^Who has his dog 1 — ^Nobody has it.^Who has my bro* 
tiler's umbrella 1— Somebody has it. — Which broom has the ser- 
vant 1 — He has his own. — Is anybody hungry 1 — Nobody is hun- 
gry j — Is anybody sleepy? — Nobody is sleepy. — Is any one tired 1— 
N( one is tired. — Who is riffht?-— Nobody is righU^Have 1 his 
oiacnit 1 — You have it not.— Have I his good brother's ox I— 
You have it not — ^A^^hich chicken have if — You have L8.«-Ii 
anybody wrong? — ^Nobody is wrong. 

y Google 


ELEVENTH LESSON.— (Jlfte Uttwn. 

The sailor, 
the ch*air, 
the looking-g^lass, 
the candle, 
the tree, 
the ffarden, 
the foreigner, 
the glove. 

This ass, 
that hay. 

The grain, 
the com. 

This man, 
that man, 
this book, 
that book. 

bet 9)?atrofe, bee Soet^fned^ 9 

bet ©tuW ; 
bet ©ptey ( ; 
bd« ent ; 
bet IBaum ; 
ber ©orten ; 
bet grembe ; 
bet ^nbf<!^u^ 

biefet Cfel ; 
biefe« (bte^) t>ttu 

ba^ (Betteibe* 

biefet sDZann ; 
ienet STIann ; 
btefe« (Die^*) 93u4 ; 
iene^ Suc^. 

N. O. D. A 

This or this one. Masc. bicfcr — e^— ent — fii 

That or that one. NeuL jetted — c^ — em — H 

Obs. It will be perceived that bicfcr and jetter aw 
declined exactly like the definite article. (See Lesson 
n.) The English abnost always use thaU when the 
Germans use biefet. In German jcner is only em- 
ployed when it relates to a person or a thing spoken 
of before, or to make an inmiediate comparison be- 
tween two things or persons. Therefore, whenever 
this is not the case, the English that must be translated 
by bicfcr. 

Have you this hat or that one 1 ^Un 6ie blefen .obet {enen ^nt ? 

BtU. 2Cbet, fonbettu 

Obs. Ilbcr is used after affirmative and negatire 
propositions ; fonbcnt is only used after negative propo- 

I have not this, but that one. ^ fyibt ntcht blefen^ f^nbetn (eom. 
Has the neighbour this book or {Kit Ut Sta^^t tiefe^ ebet {enej 
that one 1 JBudfel 

• ^tr9 is often med for btefel in the nominative and aociuative dm- 
ter, particularly when it is not followed by a substantive, and wfaen It i*" 
presents a whole sentence, as will be seen hereafter. 


19 • 

y /as Ais, bat not that one Gt ^at t^^ti, o6et ttt^t low*. 

iTO jott this looking-glass or ^Uxi ©ic ticfen cbet jenen Slplo 

-that on© 1 gel? 

Ubre neither this nor that one. 3(5 ftobe nxter ttcfen no^ ienciu 

^ That ox, bicfcr D*fc ; 

the letter, tcr Sricf; 

Ae note, bcr 3cttc( (M »l3(rt) ; 

the horse-shoe, ta$ ^ufcifen. 


Which hay has the foreigner 1 — ^He has that of the peasant— Has 
^ sailor my looking-glass ? — He has it not — Have you this can- 
dle or that onel — I have this one. — Have you the hay of my gar- 
«w or that of yours 1 — ^I have neither that of your garden nor Uiat 
wmine, but that of the foreigner.— Which glove have youl — ^I 
aare his glove. — ^Which chair has the foreigner 1 — He has his 
^ — ^Who has my good candle 1 — ^This man has it. — ^Who has 
wat looking-glass 1— That foreigner has it — What has your ser^ 
^ (3bt ^cticntcr) ? — He has the tree of this garden.— Has he 
wat man's book 1— He has not the book of that man, but that ot 
tius boy. — Which ox has this peasant 1 — He has that of your 
neiJ<hbour. — Have I yoar letter or his 1 — ^You have neither mine 
ijor his, but that of your friend. — Have you this horse's hay 1 — ^I 
ta*e not its hay, but its shoe. — ^Has your brother my note or his 
owii t — jiq jj^g jjj^^ Qf ^jjQ sailor. — Has tliis foreiffner my glove 
OThis ownl — He has neither yours nor his own, but that of his 
mend.— Are you hungry or thirsty? — I am neither hungry nor 
Kiirety, but sleepy. — ^Is he sleepy or hungry 1 — He is neither slee- 
ky nor hungry, but tired. — Ami right or wrong 1 — ^You are neither 
^^^ nor wrong, but your good boy is wrong. — Have 1 the good 
w tbe bad knife I^You have neither the good nor the bad, but the 
*f'y (one). — What have 1 1 — ^You have nothing ffood, but some- 
*isg bad. — Who has my ass % — ^The peasant has it • 


N. O. D. A. 

Thai or which (relative ^ Masc. n>el(^ — e^— em — en* 
pronoun). \ NeuL ttjclc^e^ — e^ — em — ed, 

Obs. A, It will be perceived that the relative pro- 
noun t9e(d)er is declined like the definite article, which 
may be substituted for it ; but then the masculine and 
neuter of the genitive case is beffett instead of bed. 
SBeb^ is never used in the genitive case. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

' 20 

Have you tue hat, which mj ^oben €fte tax 4^ut/ todi)m 

brother has 1 SBrubet 6ot ? 

1 have not the hat, which year 3^ ()a6e nid)t ten ^\xt, toti^cn 3tyc 

brother has. JBrubet l)ot 

Have you the horse, which I ^o6cn @ie to$ 9f(tb, nxIcM t<ft 

havel bobe? i 

I have the horse, which you have. 34 b<^be ba$ $fctb, n)cl<l^< €^ 


Maae. NraC. 

rNoM. bcrjen^e^ ba^jettige. 1 
That or <Ae one (detenni- I Gen. be^jeni^tt. be^jm^ett* 
native pronoun). | Dat. bemjenigen. bemjemgttt. 

Obs. B. jDer jenige is always used with a rela- 
tive pronoun, to deteimine the person or thing to which 
that pronoun relates. It is compounded of ^e definite 
article and jett^/ and declined like an acyective, pre- 
ceded by this article. The article alone may also be 
substituted in its stead, but must then undergo the 
modification pointed out in the foregoing observation, 
as will be seen hereafter. 

I have that, or the one which S^J^u^' Memsoi. n>cl*cit etc 

y^'^ ^^^"^ C 3* babe ben, t»c(d)en Bit hahOL 

r^ie fyihtn ba^ientg^ wdi^ \t 
Yon have that which I have. < ^be« 

That which or the one which. 


NoM. bcrjeni^c, xodifet. 
Ace. benjentgett/ toelcf^eit 


NoM. bo^jenige^ tt>eld)ed. 
Ace. ba^jcnigc, ttelc^^* 

Wliich carriage have you . SBctcften ©agcn bobcn ©Ic 7 

I have that which your friend 3* bobc ben (bcnicntgcn)/ todc^ 
bas. 3^t ^reunb ^t. 

The carriage, bcr SBagcn ; 

the house, ba^ |)au^ 

Th^ ./..n^ S M^^^' berfdbc (ber navAxAft) 

*''^- I Neut. ba«fctte (bo^ namlid)e). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Obs. C, lDerfe{6e/ the same^ is compounded ol 
the deiinite article and fett, and is declined like berje^ 
Wff. It is frequently used instead of the personal pro- 
noon of the third person to avoid repetition and to 
make the sentence more perspicuous. 

Bire joa the same stick, which ^aUn 6te benfetben (ben n&m(U 
I hire 1 d^v) &tcd, ben id) fyiix ? 

I baTe the same. 34 ^^^ benfc(&en (ben nAm(td)en}. 

Has tba« man the same cloth, ^t biefer STIonn ba^felbe {tai nAm< 
which you have 1 Ucftc) Sud^, »cld)Cg (ba$) 6te 


He has not the same. (St l)at ntd)t ba^fe(6e {M n&mUci)e> 

Jas he (that is, has the same ^t betfetbe nicinen |)onbf4uf) ? 
man) my glove 1 

U has it not. Cr ^at tf^n (benfctten) nitftl. 


Have yon the garden, which 1 have 1 — ^I have not the one that 
f«a have. — ^Which looking-glass have youl — ^I have the one 
which jooT brother has. — Has he the book that jrour friend has 1 — 
He has not the one which my friend has. — Which candle has he % 
^He has that of his neighbour. — He has the one that I have. — 
Has he this tree or that one? — He has neither this nor that, but 
the one which I have. — ^Which ass has the man 1 — He has the 
one that his boy has. — Has the stranger your chair or mine 1 — He 
has neither yours nor mine ; but he has his friend's good chair. — 
Have you the glove which I have, or the one that my tailor has t— 
1 have neither the one which you have, nor the one which youi 
tailor has, but my oWn. — ^Has your shoemaker my fine shoe, or 
that of his boy ? — He has neither yours nor that of his boy, but 
that of the good stranger. — Which house has the baker t-*-He has 
neither yjurs nor mine, but that of his good brother. — WV.ich car- 
naj^ have I ? — ^Have I mine or that of the peasant ? — You have 
neither yours nor that of the peasant ; you have the one which I 
have. — ^Have you my fine carriage? — I have it not; but the 
Frenchman has it. — What has the Frenchman ? — He has nothing. 
"-What has the shoemaker? — He has something fine. — What has 
he fine? — He has his fine shoe. — ^Is the shoemaker rij^ht ? — He is 
not wrong ; but this neighbour, the baker, is right.— Is your horse 
hungry ? — ^It (Q^) is not hungry, but thirsty.— Have you my ass's 
hay or yours* — ^1 have that which my brother has. — Has your 
tteod the same horse that my brother has ? — He has not the same 
horse, but the same coat^Uas he (^t betfetbe) my umbrella 1 — He 
has it not. 

y Google 


THIRTEENTH LESSON.— Blm^ljnU iDtctiotl.' 


I. Singular. 

Rules. — 1. Substantives of the masculine and n^ 
ter gender take c^ or i in the genitive case singula 
those ending in if $, {^ $^ take e^ ; all others, partis 
larly those ending in el^ ett/ ft/ dfm and lein^ take ^. 

2. Masculine substantives which end in e 
the nominative singular, take n in the other cases 
the singular and plural/ and do not soften the radia| 

n. Plural. 

Rules. — 1. All substantives, without exception^ 
take tt in the dative c€tse of the plural, if they havti 
not one in the nominative. 

2. All masculine and neuter substantives ending in 
df ett/ tXf as also diminutives in djm and (eitt^ have the 
same termination in the plural as in the singular. 

8. In all cases of the plural masculine substan- 
tives take c, and neuter substantives er ; and soften tht 
radical vowels a, o, U, into d, 5, 6. 

4. In w jrds of the neuter gender ending in d/ tU, 
ftf the radical vowel is not softened in the plural, ex- 
cept in: bo^ ^fler, the convent ; plur. bit ^Kfkr.** 

The hats, bte ^kt ; 

the buttons, tie jtn6pfe ; 

the tables, Die Zi\d)C ; 

the houses, tie |>aufet ; • 

the ribbons, tie SB^nter. 

• Exc«pt bet St^ft, the cheese ; gen. be< Jtdfel ; plur. hit Sth^t* 

k The decleniion of thoie subsUntiTet which oeTiate from thMe mlaa 

will be separatelj noted *. 
« It most be obsenred that in the diphthong aa,aiM softened. In the dipbi 

OMngClt, tt ii not softened, as i bet tteunb, the friend ; plnr. bie StfUnbt. Se 



The threads 
the tailoTSy 
the notes. 

The boys, 

tlie Fienchmen, 

men or the men 

tie 9&b(n ; 

tie 6d)ncitei: ; 

tie 3ettef, tie fBiXMu 

tie jtnaben ; 
tie Stan^cfen ; 
tie a)2enfd)etu 


NoM • the good 

Gek. of the good. 

Dat. to the good. 

Aoc. the good. / 

The good boys. 
The uglj dogs. 

For all genden. 

NoM. bie guteit* 

Gen. berguten, 

Dat. benguteit. 

Ace. btegutcn. 

>Dtc auten jtnaben. 
;Die Q&p(id)en^unte.<* 

06t. Acyectives preceded in the plural b}' a T)Of>«e» 
inre pronoxm, have the same declension as wiih A« 
definite article. 

My good (plnral). 

Rave yon my good bookst 
I have fom good books. 

For all g»iid«ia. 

TNoaL memegtttwt* 

J Gen. tutititt gutftt* 

] Dat. mmm guteit* 

I^Acc. meittegutem 

^a6en @te meine guten SSH^tx ? 
34 6a6e S^te guten S3fi^. 



•riiat. Maaeoliiw 

i or ti^ 
or e* 

Sabat. Feminine. 


_^ y invariable. 




i or 6t 
or e. 

< Th. w«d{^, doKtAow MlnfUB th« T<irw.ln is tb. plnnU 

Digitized by LjOOQlC 




tobst. Mafcalint. 

en or n. 

I D. en or n. D. i 

[A. t. A. J 




Subtt. FemjuiM. 


en or It. 


Snbit. Netitw 


EXERCI8K. 14. 

Have you the tables 1 — ^Yes, Sir, I have the tables.-— Have yai 
my tables 1 — No, Sir, I have not your tables. — Have I your but* 
tons 1 — You have my buttons.— Have I your fine houses 1 — Yott 
have my fine houses. — Has the tailor the buttons t — He has not 
the buttons, hut the threads. — Has your tailor my good buttons ?— 
My tailor has your good gold buttons.— What has the boy 1 — He 
has the gold threads. — Has he my gold or my silver threads ?^ 
He has neither your gold nor your silver threads. — Has the 
Frenchman the fine houses or the good notes t — He has neither the 
fine houses nor the good notes. — What has he % — He has his good 
friends. — Has this man my fine umbrellas % — ^He has not your fine 
umbrellas, but your good coats. — Has any one my good letters 1 — 
No one has your go^ letters. — Has the tailor^s son (tcr @cl)n) my 

food knives or my good thimbles t — He has neither your good 
nives nor your good thimbles, but the ugly coats of the stranger's 
^i& (fiWp) boys. — Have I your friend's good abbonst — ^You have 
not my friend's good ribbons, but my neighbour's fine carria^.— 
Has youi friend the shoemaker's pretty sticks, or my good tailor's 
pretty dogs 1 — My friend has my good shoemaker's fine books ; 
but he has neither the shoemaker's pretty sticks nor your ffood 
tailor's pretty dogs. — Is your neighbour right or wrong 1 — He it 
neither right nor wrong. — Is he thirsty or hungry !— He is neithei 
Airsty nor hungry. 

FOURTEENTH LESSON.— biw^ljttU tectiott 

The Englishman, 
the German, 
the Turk, 
the small books, 
the large horses, 

Rava the English the fine hats 
ef the French t 

bet Gt)d(&nta: ; 
bet ^eutf<i^ ; 
bet %Mt ; 
tie fteinen SBfid)et ; 
tie gtopen ^fette. 

^ben Me Chig^Anber bte fMneii ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

For an fttdms. 

fNoM. bfejemgen or bfe. 

] Dat. bcnjeniflctt — bcnen* 
(^Acc. biejcnigen — bie^ 

06». ^. When the definite article is substituted 
fbr trrjm^ its genitive plural is bercT/ and its dative 
plur. beitetu (See also Lesson XII. Obs* B.) 

EaTe yoa the books which the ^6cn 6te bte SBfid^z nxtcfK ^^t 
mrai have 1 9){&nnct ba6<n ? 

V bare not those which the men 3<4 fyxU ni^t tlqcntgen (tic)/ nxt? 
hare; but I haye those which d^e bie sDt&nnec l)ai><n; obcv xdi 
yoa haye. ^6e tie (biqenigen)^ nxlc^e Cic 

Fci all gtnden. 

n,^ ^^^^ jDfefelben* (bfe namKc^ictt* 

ine same. ^^ ^e^^^ ^^j^ ^^^ ^ ^ 

Haye jou the same books, which ^6en &it t'tefdben SB&^et/ bU id 

I haye 1 ^abt ! 

1 haye the same. 34 f^U btef<(6ett. 

The Italian, the Italians, bet Stolitncv, tie 3ta(tener ; 

the Spaniard, the Spaniards, Ut Sfpantet, tic 6>panter«b 

For an gtnden. 

{NoM. tocldjc or bfe* 
Aca ttek^ — bfe* 

Ots. B. When the definite article stands for XwXi^, 
!ts genitive case plural is not berer, but bereit. (See 
Le»on Xn. Obs. A.) The genitives beffett/ beren, are 
■referable to the genitives xodif^, XOtli^tt, being more 
Easily distinguished firom the nominative. 

For bU ffiiukiB. 

N. G. D. A. 
These. bfefc, bfefer, bfefen, bfefc 

Those. jene, ]mx, jetieit, jerie* 

• ^)icfelbeii ii d«diiied like Hdenf gen. 

^ Digitized by Google 

Obs. C. The, definite article may be used insteiid 
of these pronouns. Before a noun it follows tLe regu- 
lar declension ; but when alone, it undergoes the same 
changes as when substituted for berjentge (See Obs. jL 
above). The pronoun bcr, ba^, is distinguished from 
the article bcr, ba^, by a stress in the pronuncisLtion. 
As an article, it throws the principal accent on. the 
word which immediately follows, 

Which books haye you 1 SB({c()e S^fic^er l)aUn @te t 

Have you these books or those t |>aben @ie ticfe cttt [cnt fSH^tt 1 

I h^^is neither these nor those. ^ 

/ wave neither the one nor the > Sc^ f)aU totUt btefe nc<^ itnu 

other.« ) 

I have neither those of the Span- 3^ I)o6( iDcber bte bet Spanict iio<b 

iards nor those of the Turks. tic ber SMen. 


Haye you these horses or those 1 — ^I have not these, but Aose.— 
Have you the coats of the French or those of the English 1 — ^I have 
not those of the French, but those of the English. — Have you the 
pretty sheep (bad @(^af takes c, and is not softened in the plural) 
of the Turks or those of the Spaniards 1 — ^I have neither those ot 
teh Turks nor those of the Spaniards, but those of my brother.— 
Has your brother the fine asses of the Spaniards or tliose of the 
Italians ? — He has neither those of the Spaniards nor those of the 
Italians, but he has the fine asses of the French. — Which oxen has 
youi brother 1 — He has those of the Germans. — Has your friend my 
large letters or those of the Germans 1 — He has neither the one dqi 
the other (See Note «, Lesson XIV.). — Which letters has he t^ 
He has the small letters which you have. — Have I these houses o( 
those ! — You have neither these nor those. — Which houses havs 
1 1 — Y ?i have those of the English.-^Has any one the tall tailor's 
ffold buttons ? — Nobody has the tailor's gold buttons, but somebody 
has tho9e of your friend. 


Have I the notes of the foreigners or those of my boy t — ^You 
have neithftr those of the foreigners nor those of your boy, but those 
of the great Turks. — Has the Turk my fine horse ! — He has it 
not— -Which horse has he t — He has his own. — Has your neigh- 
bour my chicken or my sheep 1-~My neighbour has neither your 
chicken nor your sheep.^^What has he 1 — He has nothing good.— 
Have you nothing fine t — I have nothing fine. — ^Are you tirod t— -I 

« The English phrues the former andihe latter^ the one <md Ae other, are 
^ftendlj expressed m German by biefer, plur. bieff, and {enet, jplar. itnt, boi 
in an inTerted order, biefer refemng: to the latter and iwer to the f" 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


im not tired. — ^Whid-. rice has joar fHend 1 — He has that of his 
fflacfaant. — Which sagar has he ? — ^He has that which I have.— 
Has be your merchant's good coffee or that of mine 1 — He has nei- 
ther that of yours nor that of mine ; he has his own. — Which ships 
(M &!)tff forms its plural in c) has the Frenchman 1 — He has the 
ships of the English .-^Which houses has the Spaniard 1 — He has 
the same which you have. — Has he my good knives 1 — He has your 
good knives. — Has he the thread stockingrs which I have ? — He has 
not the same that you have, hut those of his brother. 

FIFTEENTH LESSON.— SAnfylintt ttttiott. 

llie glass, 
the comb, 

Have yoQ my small combs 1 
f hare them. 


My (plural), 
Youry — 
His, — 

Hare you my fine glass ! 
Has he my fine glasses t 
He has them. 
Fhe man has them. 
He has them not. 
The men haye them. 
Hare the men liem 1 

Hare yon my chairs or his 

I hare neither yours nor his 

Which chairs have you ? 
I hare mine. 

Some sugar, 
some bread, 
some salt, 

bcr Jtamm. 

^Un &XC metne ftdncn it Amme f 
Set ()a6c flf. 

f i e (after the verb). 

Plarml tar all fendan. 

N. G. D. A. 

3l)re -3l)rer -3l>mt -3J)m 
feme -feiner -feinen -feme* 
i()re 'iijxtx -it^reit -i^re* 

^ben @ie nictn fc^Sne^ (3M t 

^t et mcine fc^nen ®(&fct 1 

©r bat ftf. 

^er ^ann l)at fie. 

Ct Mfic nic^t. 

)Die 9){&nncr baben fie. 

^aUn fte bie 9)25nner 1 

^oben Cie metne 6^tftt)(e obet Ue 
feittmen 1 (See Lesson VU.) 

3(6 hobt n>eber tie Sbtigen ncd^ bU 

SBctcf)e @ta^(e (lobcn &ie ! 

3c6 i)aU bie meintgeit. 


Rui^ Same or any before a noun is not expressed 
in German. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


KXBR018B. 17. 

Hare you my good combs t — I ha^e them.-^Have voa tl e gMi 
iTTses of the English 1 — 1 have them not. — Which brooms Ear^ 
you? — I have those of the ^^-.^i^ners. — Have you my coats oi 
those of my friends 1 — I have neither yours nor those of yovi 
friends.— Have you mine or hist — I have his — Has the Italiaa 
the good cheeses which you havel — He has not those w^hich ] 
have, but those which you have. — Has your boy my good pencils 1 
He has them. — Has he the carpenter's nails ?^He has them not 
— What has he t — He has his iron nails. — Has anybody the thiflh 
bles of the tailors 1 — Nobody has them. — Who has the ships ol 
the Spaniards 1 — ^The English have ^em. — ^Have the Kngii^ 
these ships or those 1— -The English have their ships. — Have you 
trothers my knives or theirs 1 — ^My brothers have neither yon 
knives nor theirs. — Have I your chickens or those of yosi co^csf 
—You have neither mine nor those of my cooks.— Which chidi- 
eos have 11 — ^You have those of the good peasant. — Who hst 
my oxen 1 — Your servants have them. — ^Have the Crermans them I 
—The Germans have them not, but the Turks have them. — Whs 
has my wooden table ? — Your boys have it. — Who has my good 
broad i — Your friends have it. 

SIXTEENTH LESSON.— 0eclr^l)tlte fiectioil- 


Rule. An adjective, not preceded by an artideft 
takes the same tennination as the definite article^ ex« 
cept in the genitive singular, masculine and neatest 
which then ends in en instead of ti. 

Mucaline. Neatw. 

^N. gittcr SGBetn* gate^ ©a^ 
G. guten SBeine^. gutett ^oU 

D. gtttetnSBeme. gutem @al]e. 
A. gutctt ffleut. gutcd 6al|« i 

Plural for all gvndon. 

Good or some good, &c. i N. G. D. A. 
(plural.) <flutc, flttter, gtitett, gate* 

Good wine or some good 
wine. &c. 

Some good cheese, gutft ^&fe ; 

some good bread, gute^ SRxtt. 

y Google 



&«af t^ any of U, ofU. j ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

Plonl for all ffendtn. 

06s. The pronoun some or any, when taken in a 
partitive sense, is expressed by tocldf* Of him, of it, of 
them, &c^ when governed by a substantive, an adjec- 
tive, or a verb requiring in German the genitive, arc 
expressed by the genitive of the personal pronouns, if 
relating to a person, and if to a thing, by the genitives 
bfffbt/ bf^fefteit, bereii, berjcttett, which may sometimes 
be omitted. 

HaTe yoa any wine ? ^6en &t aBetn ? 

I bare some. ^ fyibc mctdbeiu 

Haye you any water ? ^abcn 6ie aSJflffer ? 

I hare some. 3(b ()a6e t9e(d)e& 

HaTc yen any ^ood wine 1 ^otcn @i( guten iSein ? 

I haye some. 3d) f)a(>e tDc(d)Ctu 

Hare I any good cloth t ^be td> gute^ Suc^ ? 

Voa hare some. &c fyibtn t9e(d)(i$. 

Have you any shoes ! ^aben ©i« 6d)u()C ? 

I have some. 3<t) ^be tvetc^e. 

Have yoa good or bad horses ! ^ab<n @ie gute cbcr fii^Ie^tc ^fetbe ? 

I hare some good ones. 3d) ^6e ()ute. 

Hare you go^ or bad wine t |)o6(n @te guten obec f((|((c(tcn 


I bare some good. 34 f)<^^( gtitnt. 

Haye yoa good or bad watef 1 ^6en ^xt QixUi ober f(i^tc4t(< SBafi 


I ba*re some good. 3^ ()obe gutc^ 


Hare you any sugar 1 — ^I have some. — Have you any good cof- 
fee 1 — I have some. — Have you any salt ^ — ^I have some. — Have 1 
my good saltl — You have some. — Have I any shoes 1 — You have 
loaw. — Have I any pretty dogs T — You have some. — Has the man 
iny good honey 1 — He has some. — What has the man 1 — Ho has 
•ome good bread. — What has the shoemaker? — He has some 
pretty shoes. — ^Has the sailor any biscuits (3n)tcbacf does -not soflen 
io the plural) ^ — He has some. — Has your friend any good pencils J 
■~He has some. — Have you good or bad coffee 1—1 have somo 
food^ — ^Have you good or bad wood 1 — ^I have some good. — ^Har* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I good or bad oxen ' — You have some bad (ones). — iiAS jouc 
brother good or bad cheese t — He has neither ffood nor bad. — rfhtt 
has he grood 1— He has some trood friends. — Who has some cloth I 
—My neighbour has some. — Who has some money 1 — ^The French 
have some. — Who has some gold!— The English have some.— 
Who has some good horses t— The Germans have some — Whc 
has some good hay 1— This ass has some. — Who lias some good 
bread ? — ^That Spaniard has some. — Who has some good books ? — 
These Frenchmen have some. — Who has some ^od ships 1^ 
Those Englishmen have somet — Has anybody wmel — Nobody 
has any. — lias the Italian fine or ugly horses 1 — He has some ugly 
(ones). — Have you wooden or stone tables : — ^I have neither wo^- 
en nor stone (ones).-^Has your boy the fine books of mine 1 — He 
has not those of your boy, but his own. — ^Has he any good thread 
stockings 1 — He has some. — ^What has the Turk 1 — He has nothing 

SEVENTEENTH LESSON.— 0ieben^l)nte tttiiotL 


( N. G. D. A. 
No, none^ not a, or not I M. fern, fdne^, fetncnt, fentnt. 
any. ( N* Wit, feincd, fetnetn, fein. 

Obs. A. The word Wtt has this declension when, 
like no in English, it is followed by a substantive; 
but when the substantive is understood €ts with none 
in English, it fonns its nominative masculine in CT/ and 
its nominative and accusative neuter in e^ or ^* 

Have you any wine 1 ^tibin ©ie 85ktn ? 

I have none. 34 ^t)C f etncn. 

Have you no bread ! ^aUn 6te fein 93tob ? 

I have not any. 3* ^^e f^nU (fcinQ. 

Obs. B. It will be observed that any is expressed 
Dy Wit, when accompanied by a negation. 

Plaral for all gvndext. 

iVb, none^ or not any (plu- k N. G. D. A, 
ral). / feme, fewer, femett^ frtne 

Have you no shoes ! 4^abcn ^tc f cine ^cftu^c 7 

I have none. 3* ^be fcinc 

Have you any ? ^obcn ©ic n)Ctd)C ? 

L have not any. 3* ()ab.j f eine. 

Has the man any % ^ot tcr 97{onn nx(<!fK 7 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Hr Ins none* (5r ^t f eine* 

His he any good books ^t er gute f8ii6)<x ? 

He has some. Qt ^at wiii^e. 

The American, ter 2(mcrt!ancr ; 

the Irishman, tec 3r(^nber ; 

the Scotchman, htt 6d)0ttlfinba; (@c^tte) ; 

the Dutchman, ter ^on&nter ; 

the Russian, ter fRn^c. 

Rule. Compound words in tnontt form their plura 
by changing this termination into ktite* Ex. 

The merchants, tie itauflcute ; 

the carpenters, tie dtnmterUute. 


Has the American ffood money! — He has some. — Have Jie 
Dutch good cheese t — Yes, Sir, the Dutch have some. — Has the 
Russian no cheese 1 — He has none. — Have you ffood stockings t^ 
1 hare some. — Have you good or bad honey 1 — I have some good. 
—Have you some good couee 1 — ^I have none. — Have you some bad 
coffee 1 — I have some. — Has the Irishman good wine ? — He has 
none. — Has he goo«l water ? — He has some. — Has the Scotchman 
some good salt 1 — He has none. — What has the Dutchman 1 — He 
has gw)d ships. — ^H-.ive I some bread 1 — You have none. — Have I 
some ffood fnends 1 — You have none. — Who has good friends 1 — 
The i^chman has some. — Has year servant (3()t JBeticnter) any 
coats or brooms 1 — He lias some good brooms, but no coats. — Has 
any one hay 1 — Some one has some. — Who has some 1— My ser- 
vant has some. — Has this man any bread 1— He has none. — Who 
has good shoes? — My good shoemaker has some. — Have you the 
good l:ats of the Russians, or those of the Dutch 1 — ^I hare neither 
9io8e of the Russiiins nor those of the Dutch, I have those of the 
Irish. — ^^'hich sacks has your friend 1 — He has the good sacks of 
the merchants. — ^Has your boy the good hammers of the carpen- 
tere t— No, Sir, he has them not. — Has this little boy some sugar ? 
—He has none.— Has the brother of your friend good combs 1— 
rhe brother of my friend has none, but I have some.-— Who has 
good wooden chairs ?•— Nobody has any. 

EIGHTEENTH LESSON.— ad) t}el)nU Utiion. 

The hatter, tet ^utmo(^er ; 

the joiner, ter Sifci^tec (^cein«n;> 

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NoM. eiti* 


Gen. mei* 


Dat. mem. 


Ace. einetu 


A or an (one). 

OJ»«. -4. When a substantive is understood^ dn untx 
fettt/ takes er in the nominative masculine, and e^ or 
in the nominative and accusative neuter. (See pr© 
ceding Lesson.) 

Have yoa a looking-glass t 
1 have one. 
Have you a book t 
I have one. 
I have none. 

34 ^ht (tnctu 

Sdi ^abeein<(ctnc$). 
3(^ tK^U fcin^ (feine^/ 

Obs. B. Neither the indefinite article nor (tin is 
ever accompanied by XoM). 




(See Obs. in Lessons IQ. and XIIL) 

A good. 

N. efii gutfr. 
G. fitted gutftt* 
D. ffatcttt gtttttt. 
A. eittett gtttett« 


fftt guM* 
tbxti gtttfiL 
tuifut gtitnu 

Have yon a good roand hat 4 

I hare one. 

Has he a beautiful house t 

He has one. 

He has none. 

I have two of them. 

He has three. 
You have four 
Have you five good horses 1 
I have six. 

I have six good and seven bad 

iMben ^te ctncn gutcn run^ ^utT 

34 {j(k\>t ctncn. 

4^t cr ctn f(^6nc6 ^u< ? 

iSt ^t ctn$ (ctnc^). 

fit ^ot fetn^ (fcinc6). 

3d) f)a6c bctcn |R>ct* (Sea Oft#. 

Lesson XVI.) 
Gc bat bcren trcL 
©tc baljcn bcrcn ©tcr. 
^obcn ©ic fftnf gutc 5)fctbc ? 
3d) ^abc bctcn fcd)^ 
3d) ()a6c fe^^ gutc un^ ficto 


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uukprroLATiov or rHE rules kelative to the decleitbigii 
OP adjectives. 

We have shown in the foregoing lessons that in 
3ennan as in English, the ac^jective always precedes 
the substantive. When two or more adjectives are 
before the same nomi, they all follow the same declen- 
sion. Adjectives are not declined when they are not 
accompanied by a substantive expressed or understood, 
L e., when they form the predicate of a proposition. 
£x- 3br ipttt ifl f c^on^ your hat is beautiful ; wcin S3anb 
ill jd)6n, my ribbon is beautiftd ; "^tjxc S}ute finb fct^on^ 
your hats are beautiftiL 

When followed by a substantive expressed or under- 
stood, the adjective is declined, and assumes thre^ dif- 
ferent forms, viz : 

1st, Before a substantive without an article pre- 
ceding, it takes the same termination as the definite 
article, except in the genitive case singular masculine 
and neuter, in which it adds e It instead of e d. 

2d, When it follows the definite article, or a word 
of the same termination, it adds ett in all cases, except 
in the nominative singular of all genders, and the ac- 
cusative singular feminine and neuter, in which it 


3d, When preceded by the indefinite article, or a 
possessive or personal pronoun, it adds e r in the nomi- 
native masculine, t im the nominative and accusative 
fenunine, (^ in the nominative and accusative neuter 
and fit in the other cases. 

All participles partake of the nature of adjectives, 
^nd are subject to the same laws. 


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1. Th«»dject;T« 

without Mi article befot* 

» lubatantivt 

1 11. TheadjectiTe 
proceded by th« defi- 
1 njta article. 

1 III. The adieetiv* 
precaded by the indei 
niu article. 








Fm. 1 Jfeid 


NoM. cr 










Gen. ctt 










Dat. cm 

er em ' en 








Ace. en 

e !e« 







NoM. e ' 

en ■ 



Gen. er 

For all 


For all 


Dat. en 





Ace. c 



065. A. The adjective is declined in the same 
manner when taken substantively. 

B. Adjectives preceded by the words: atte, all; 
ein^^ etKc^, some, sundry ; gewifle, certain ; feme, none ; 
manege, several ; me^rere, many, several ; folc^, such ; 
I9erf(^iebene, various ; ^iefe, many ; n>e(c^, which ; toenigtt 
few, lose the letter n in the nominative and accusa- 
tive pliu'al ; but they keep that termination when pre- 
ceded by a possessive or personal pronoun in the 

C. Adjectives ending in el, en, er, for the sake ol 
euphony often reject the letter e which precedes those 
three consonants. Ex. instead of ebeler, gottener, t^ene^ 
rer, we say : ebter, golbner, t^enrer* 


Have yoa a good servant 1 — ^I have one. — Has your hatmaker a 
beautiful house 1 — He has two of them. — Have I a pretty gold rib 
bon 1 — ^You have one. — What has the joiner 1 — He has beaadfoi 

• Most modem amhon frequently reject this distinction, and form all tht 
of the plural in fit. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


(2b.e3. — ^Has he a beantifbl round (runt) table 1 — He has one.— 
Ha8 the baker a large looking-fflass ? — He has one. — ^Has ths 
Sc<m:hman the friends that I have 1 — ^He has not the same that yoq 
nave, bat he has ffood friends.-^Ha8 he jour good books ? — He has 
tbemu — ^Haye I their good hammers ? — ^You have them not, but you 
have yofur eood iron nails. — Has that hatter my good hat 1 — He has 
Dot yours, but his own. — Have I my good shoes ? — ^You have not 
Toors ; you have his. — Who has mine 1 — Somebody has thern.^- 
Has any body two letters 1 — ^The brother of my neighbour has 
three. — Has your cook two sheep (plur. @(ftafc) t — He has four.— 
Has he six good chickens 1 — He has three good and seven bad.— 
Has the merchant good wine ?— He has some. — Has the tailor good 
coats 1 — He has none. — Has the baker good bread 1 — He has some. 
— ^What has the carpenter 1 — He has good nails.— What has your 
merchant 1 — He has good pencils, good coffee, ^ood honey, and 
eood biscuits (plur. Btouixidi), — Who has good iron 1 — ^My good 
friend has some. — Am I right or wrong ? — You are wrong. — Is any 
body sleepy 1 — ^The shoemaker is sleepy and thirsty.— Is he tired ! 
— He is not tired. — Has your servant the glasses of our (imfcter, 
see the next Lesson) friends 1 — He has not those of your friends, 
but those of his great merchants. — Has he my wooden cliair 1 — He 
has not yours, but that of his boy. — ^Are you thirsty 1—1 am not 
thirsty, but very hungry (gcopcn hunger). 

NINETEENTH LESSON.— Nettn^eljnte tMiotL 

Sow much f Haw many f 

How man} hats ? 
Ho^ many knives 1 
How much bread % 

Only 9 but* 

How many tables have you 1 
I have only two. 

How many knives have you 
I have but one good one. 





SBtcote( 4c>ftte ! 
SBtemd SKcffet ? 
fffiimet 93rob? 

91 ut;. 

$Bteme( Zxf^i Men 6ie ? 
3d) hcibc beren nuc $cot\. (See 

Obs. Lesson XVI.) 
JffiicDift SKeffet ftabnt ®tc 7 
3di boOe nut ein gute^ 


• Cudiiial nomberB are uied to answer the qnestkm voimitl how 



r Ifase. Neat. 

1 I N. toai ffir em* n>a^ fur efn 

lr*tf<(designatingthena. I a ttxi^ fur emctt* toa^ fur ctn 
ture or kind of a thing)? | 

^^' I Plural for 111 gendew. 

' SBo^fur. 

What table bare you 1 
I have a wooden table> 
What tables has he t 
He has stone tables. 
What book has your friend t 
He has a pretty book. 
What paper have you t 
I have some fine paper. 
What sugar has he \ 
H« has some good sugar. 


©a* fat ctnen Sifft ftaben 6te 7 

3d) ^a6c etncn ^%rnen Zx\^> 

2Ba« fiir Sifd)c f)at cc ? 

er \)at ftctncrne Sif^c. 

©ag far ctn S3u^ M 3ftt Jram^l 

dt i)at ctn f){l6fd)e^ S3uc^. 

fBai fftc« gjapicc ^obcn 6lf ? 

3(i& bot>e fiSncg 5?apier. 

SBa^ ffir 3ucfcr l^at ct ? 

(St l)at gutcn 3ucl<c 

Mase. Neut. 

NoM. unfer. unjer* 

Gen. unfcre^. unfere^. 

Dat. unferem* unferem. 

Aoc. unferen* unfcr* 

Plaral for all genders. 

( N. G. D. A. 

<uitfcrc, unferer, wiferwi, mt# 

Our3 (singular and plural). iDct (ba^) unfcrtge ; tie unfettgen. 

Obs. When a consonant, I,Tn,n or r, stands between 
two f^s, one of them is omitted to avoid too soft apronmi- 
ciation (see Lesson XXI., Obs. C), except when this 
letter is necessary to the termination of the word or 
the indication of the case. Thus we frequently say, 
mtfer^v imferm, unfrc, @ure^/ ©irem, Sure, &c., instead of 
unfere^, unferem, unfere, Suere^, Suerem, Suere, &c. 

Our (plural). 



How many friends have you t — ^I have two good friends. — ^Have 
you eight g<vl trunks ? — I have nine. — Has your friend ten good 

^ The pu]Hl8 will take care not to answer here with the definite article. 

< ,The indefinite article ia never placed before collective wordi, such aa : 
Vapitt, paper ; 2Bf in, wine ; ^u^tx, sugar, &c 

* @uer, your, is in fitct the second person of the possessive pronoun. 3^r if 
the third person, used ffenerallf out of politeness, and for that reason writtso 
wkb a capital letter. (See Lessons IL and XV.) 

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toDOBt 1 — ^He has only three. — Has he two good ships 1— He hat 
only one. — ^How many hammers has the carpenter 1 — He has only 
foir.— How many shoes has the shoemaker 1 — He has ten. — Has 
the joang man (en eood books 1 — He has only five. — Has the 
punter seyen good oinbrellas 1— He has not seven, but one. — How 
owny corks {^Jwpfcn does not soften in the plnr.) have 1 1 — ^You 
bive only three.— Has yoor neighbour our good bread 1— He hat 
not ours, but that of his brother. — Has our horse any hay 1 — It (©<) 
bas tome. — Has the friend of our tailor good buttons 1 — He baa 
some. — Has he gold buttons T — He has no gold (buttons), but siU 
Ter (ones). — ^How many oxen has our brother t — He has no oxen. 
—How many coats has the young man of our neighboLrs (plur. 
95a{^barn) 1 — The youn^ man of our neighbours has only one good 
eoat, but that of your friends has three of them. — Has Ye our good 
rams 1 — He has them. — Have I his 1 — You have not his, ^ ut ours. 
—How many good rams have 1 1 — ^You have nine 


Who has our silver candlesticks ? — Our merchant's boy naa 
tbem. — ^Has he our large birds ? — He has not ours, but those of the 
^reat Inshman.*-Has the Italian great eyes {tai Uu^t takes n in 
tbeplnr. and is not softened) 1 — He has great eyes and great feet. 
—Who has preat thread stockings 1 — ^The Spaniard has some.^^ 
Has he any cneese t — He has none. — Has he com t — He has some. 
--What kind of com has he 1 — He has good corn. — What kind ot 
rice has our cook ?— He has good rice.— What kind of pencils has 
our merchant 1 — ^He has good pencils. — Has our baker good bread t 
—He has good bread and gocw wine. 


Who is thirsty) — ^Nobody is thirsty; but the friend of our 
naghbooi is sleepy. — Who has our iron knives? — ^The Scotch- 
man has them. — Has he them ?— He has them. — What kind of 
friends have you 1 — ^I have ^ood friends. — ^Is the friend of our 
Englishmen right ? — He is neither right nor wrong. — Has he jfood 
little birds, and good little sheep (plur. @d)<if<) 1 — He has neither 
birds nor sh^ep. — What has the Italian 1 — He has nothing. — Has 
out tailor's coy anything beautiful 1 — He has nothing beautiful, but 
something ugly. — ^What has he ugly 1 — He has an ugly dog.— 
Has he an ugly horse t — He has no horse. — What has our young 
friend t — He nas nothing. — Has he a good book 1— He has one.— ' 
Has he good salt ? — He his none. 

TWENTIETH LESSON.— gfwan^eU tMlOtt. 

AfiicAtiiumy, a good deal of* 93 1 e (• 

Much wine. fl3te( SSktn 

Moch money. $3te( (SMt. 

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38 ' 

Obs, A. When t)iel is preceded by an article, pro- 
noun, or preposition, or when it stands alone and is 
used substantively, it is declined like an adjective: 
otherwise it is indeclinable. 

Have yoa much good wine 1 ^ahen Bit Did guten SBetn ? 

I haye a good deal. 3^ \)aU befTcn oiet. (See 06s 

* L^on XVI. 

Have yoa much mouoy 1 ^abcn ©ic oic( 0et^ ? 

i have a good deal. 3^ l)aOe beffen Did. 

Too much. 3u Did. 

Yoa have too much wine. 6ie ^aOen ^ Diet SBntt. 

Wc. fBir. 

Wje hi»/e. 8Kic baSciu 

We have not. ©it f)abcn nxiit 

We have little or notmoeh money. SQtt f)aUn ni^^t Dtcf (3Mb. 

Enough. (Btnvi^ 

Enough money. (3ctb genug. 

Knives enough. a)2(fTa: d^nu^ 

Obs. B. ®enug is never put before the substantive. 

Little. fBentg. 

Obs. C. Our remark on dW applies equall* to wmiq. 
But these two words are declined, when they relate to 
several distinct things, or anything that may be coun- 
ted, as will be seen hereafter. 

But littUy ofdy u little {not much). 91 u r to e n t g (nt<^t Did). 

Have you enough wine ? ^Uxx @ie fiSkin genug ? 

I have only a little, but enough. 34 I)abe beffcn nut iDenig, obo* ge- 
nug. (See Obs. Lesson XVI.) 

A .'Me. (Sin wenig. 

A. little wine. Gin tvenig SBein. 

4 little salt. Gin n>enig ^(|. 

Courage. bet 3)2 ut^^. 

Vou have but little courage. @ie f)a6en ntcbt Did 9)httl^ 

tVe have few friends. SBic I}ab(n toenig S^eunbt ^ ^ 

Of •Atfm (relative to persons). 3 () t e r (gen. of the pecyom pro* 

noun f\t, they; see 01 c. Lefe* 
son XVI.) 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


fl«fe yon many frieL 8 ! ^bcn Sic mt{ 'gttvinU ? 

We haTe but few. SOBir ()Qbcn xhxtv nur twi'iijt (S« 

Oij. C. above). 
YoQ have but little money. @te t^abcn nid)t otet ®((^. 

Has the foreisnier much mone} I ^t ber ^titnU ote( ®e(^ ? 
He haa but little. dt {)at ^effen nuc roentg. 


Have you much cofiee ? — ^I have only a little.-^Has your friend 
■mch water 1— He has a great deal. — Has the foreigner much 
corn ? — ^He has not much. — What has the American 1 — He has 
much sugar. — ^What has the Russian ? — He has much salt. — Have 
we much ricet — ^We have but little. — What have wel — We have 
much wine, much water and many friends. — Have we much gold 1 
—We have only a little, but enough. — Have you many boys 1 — 
We have only a few. — Has our neighbour much hay 1 — He has 
enough. — ^Has the Dutchman much cheese 1 — ^He has a great deal. 
—Has this man courage 1 — He has none. — Has that foreigner 
money 1 — He has not a great deal, but enough. — Has the painter's 
boy candles (plur. 8td)te) 1 — He has some. 


Have we good letters? — ^We have some. — ^We have none.— 
Has the joiner good bread I^He has some. — He has none. — Has 
he good honey t — He has none. — Has the Englishman a good 
horse 1 — He has one.— What have we 1 — We have good horses.— 
Who has a beautiful house ? — ^The German has one. — Has the Ita« 
lian many pretty looking-fflasses ? — He has a great many ; but he 
has only a little com. — ^Has my good neighbour the same horse 
which you have 1 — He has not the same horse, but the same car- 
riage. — Has the Turk the same ships that we have 1 — He has not 
the same, he has those of the Russians. 


How many servants have we 1 — Wo have only one, but our bro- 
4ei8 have three of them. — What knives have you 1 — ^We have 
iron knives. — ^What bag has the peasant ? — He has a thread bag. 
—Has the young man our long (aro$) letters 1 — He has them not. 
— V^ho has our pretty notes 1 — The father (tct 93atet) of the sailor 
has them. — ^Has the carpenter Lis nails ? — ^The carpenter has his 
iron nails, and the hatmaker his paper hats. — Has the painter beau- 
lifal gardens 1 — He has some, but his brother has none. — Have you 
nany glasses 1 — ^We have only a few. — Have you enough wine 1 
—We have enough of it — ^Has anybody my brooms t — Nobody 
has them. — Has the friend of your hatmaker our combs or yours ) 
— H^ has neither yours nor ours ; he has his. — ^Has your boy my 
Mte Mr yours 1 — He has that of his brother.— Have you my stick t 
—I have not yours, but that of the merchant. — ^Have you my 
gloves (fint, ^ntfc^ube) t — ^I have not yours, but thoss of my 
mod nei^hbofur. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


TWENTY.FIRST LESSON.— (fin unb fwan^iflsU 

The pepper, 
the meat, 
the yinegar, 
the beer, 

A few books. 

A few* 

Hare yon a few books t 

% haye a few. 

He has a few. 

I haye only a few kniyes. 

You have only a few. 

The florin, 

the krentser (a coin), 

The other. 

The others. 

another horse 
other horses, 

Haye you another horse 1 
I haye another. 

No other. 

Ux 9)fcffer ; 

t>et ©fftg ; 
lai S3icr. 

G. etnigcr (etitdjcr) Suc^r* 
D. emtoen (etitcfjen) Suc^m 
A. eui^ (etlic^c) Sudicr* 

Qinx^t, cttic^e. 

et ()at ct(id)e. 

3(6 6<t6e nut etnige 9}2eff(r. 

6ie f)abni nut einige. 

tcr (S^ulben (is not softened in the 

tec itceujec. 

2(nber (is declined like an ad« 

Mate. Neat. 

^ N. ber onbcrc* bo^ onberc* 

IG. be^ onbent. be^ ottbent. 
D. bcm anberm bent anbem. 
A. ben anbent. bo^ onbere. 

Platml for all gtndtn. 

SN. bfe mtbern* D. ben onbent 
G. ber onbent. A. bie anbeni* 
(See Ohs. Lesson XIX.) 

ctn TTntercr ; 
<in onberc^ 5)fcrb ; 
anbcre gjfcrtc. 

^abcn @te etn anbcre^ ^fert? 
3(6 t)QOe (in ontece^ 

i Neut. 

fefnen ctnbent. 



I9o others 

Jt«ne ontete (See Lesson XVIII 

Obs, B. 

I hiTe no other horse. 

3* ^a^« fetn ontercg 9^frtb. 

1 hare no other. 

3d) ftot>c fcin ontetc^ 

Hare you other bonses ! 

^ben ©ic ont>ctc yferbe 1 

I biTe some others. 

3c^ ()Qbe ontcre. 

1 iare no olhera. 

S(^ bobe ffinc onbcre. 

The shirt, 

ba« ^emb (plur. en) ; 
t)Q$ SBcin (plur. c) ; 

the leg, 

the head, 

bet Jtcpf ; 

the arm, 

tet 2(rm. (is not softened in cl« 


the heart, 

log ^cr^ ;• 

the month 

let g}2cnat (is not softened in the 

plnr.) ; 

the work, 

bog ®crf (plur. c) ; 

the Tohmie, 

bcr SBonb ; 

the crown (money), 

tec ISftoIcc (is not softened in the 


Whatday of thtmorUkt t)er (bog) kOtCDtetflel 

Obs. Ordinal numbers are used in replying to the 
question ber or bad xovtoxA^t ? what day of the month ? 
These numbers are declined like adjectives. They are 
formed of the cardinal numbers by adding t as mr as 
twenty, and |i from twenty to the last, with the excep- 
tion of erfl, first, and biritt, third, which are irregular. 

The first, 

the second, 

the third, 

the fourth, 

the fifth, 

the sixth, 

the seventh, 

the eighth, 

the ninth, 

the tenth, 

the elerenth, 

the twentieth, 

the twenty-first, &c 

/_5**'?5'1' the heart, takes e n « m the genidve and e it ha the dative caM 
•»K^; hi the phiral it takes e tt hi all the cases. • 

k Henceforth the learners should write the date before their task. Ex. Son* 
"«» k«n CTjlcii SWai, tin toufenb ac^t bunbtrt imb a(t>t unb bretlift, London, 1st 
Hey. 1838. 

ter or 

to« et|te; 


atvettc ; 


Dcitte ; 


»ierte ; 




fed)^te ; 


jtebente ; 


a*te ; 


neunte ; 


scf)nte ; 




gwonjigfle ; 


ein unD jwonatgjte, ic* 



Have you the first or second ^ben @te Uii crfic ccer Ui ^cM 

book? »ud)? 

1 have the third. 3d) 6at>e ba^ trttte. 

Which volume have you ! 8Q3c(ci)cn 93ont i}at>tn ©ie 1 

[ have the fifth. 3d) ^aOc ben fanftcn. 


Have you a few knives ? — ^I have a few. — ^Have you manj 
rams 1 — ^1 have only a few. — Has the friend of the great painter 
many looking-glasses 1 — He has only a few. — Have you a few 
florins 1 — 1 have a few.— How many florins have you % — I have 
ten. — How many kreutzers has your servant ? — He has not many, 
he has only two. — Have the men the beautiful glasses of the Ita- 
lians t — ^The men have them not, but we have them. — What have 
wel — We have much money. — Have you the carriage of the 
Dutchman or that of the German t — 1 have neither the one nor the 
other. — Has the peasant's boy the fine or the ugly letter 1 — He has 
neither the one nor the other. — Has he the gloves of the merchant 
or those of his brother? — He has neither the one nor the other. — 
Which gloves has he 1 — He has his own. — Have we the horses of 
the English or those of the Germans 1 — We have neither the one 
nor the other. — Have we the umbrellas of the Spaniards 1 — We 
have them not; the Americans have them. — Have you much pep- 
per ? — ^I have only a little, but enough. — Have you much vinegar ? 
— I have only a little. — Have the Russians much meati— TPhe 
Russians have a great deal, but the Turks have only a little. — 
Have you no other pepper 1 — I kave no other. — Have I no other 
beer 1 — You have no other.- — Have we no other good friends ?— 
We have no others. — Has the sailor many shirts 1 — He has not 
many ; he has only two. — Have you a wooden leg 1 — I have not a 
(fein) wooden leg, but a good heart. — Has this man a good head ? 
—He has a good head and a good heart — How many arras has that 
boy 1 — He has only one ; the other is of wood (oon ^cCj). — ^What 
kind of head has your boy ? — ^He has a good head. 


Which volume have you 1 — ^I have the first. — Have you the s^ 
cond volume of my woiil — ^I have it. — Have you the third or the 
fourth book t^I have neither the one nor the other. — Hare we the 
fifth or sixth volume t — ^We have neither the one nor the other.— 
Which volumes have we! — Wv. have the seventh. — What day 
(Den roicDictflcn) of the month is it (fyiUn to'ir) ? — It is QIBir habf n) 
the eighth. — Is it not (|>ab(n wit »icbt) the eleventh 1 — No, Sir, it it 
the tenth. — Have the Spaniards many crowns 1 — The Spaniards 
have only a few ; but the English have a great many. — Who has 
our crowns 1 — ^The French have th^n. — ^Has the youth much head ! 
—He has not much head, but mu »li courage.— How many arms 
has the man 1 — ^He has two. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Have yoQ the crowns of the French or those of the English 1— « 
I have neither those of the French nor those of the Knfflisli, but 
those of the Americans. — Has the German a few kreutzers 1 — He 
has a few. — Has he a few florins 1 — He has six of them. — Have you 
mother stick 1 — ^I have another. — What other stick have you 1— 
I have another iron stick. — Have you a few gold candlesticks 1— 
We have a few. — Have these men vinegar 1— These men have 
lone, but their friends have some. — Have our boys candles 1— 
Our boys have none, but the friends of our b* ys have some.^Have 
joii some other bags ! — ^I have no others. — Have you any other 
efaeeses 1—1 have some others. — Have you other meat 1 — 1 have 
DO other. (See note f , Lesson I1.Y 

rWENTY-SECOND LESSON. — &Dei uni imatv^tt 
S^tttian. ^ 

The tome (volume), Ut Zl)i\l 

Bave you the first or third tome ^Un @te ben crflen ettx Intten 
of my work ! St)<t( meinee SSkxH 1 

Both. iBeibc (is declined like an ad- 


I have both. 2d) ^abc (cite. 

Obs, The singular of beibe is used only in the no- 
minative and accusative neuter. The plural bribe is 
employed when two substantives express the same 
Aing, and the singular neuter beibe^, when they ex- 
press two different things : as, 

Have you my book or my stick t |)aOcn ^te mcin S3u(^ oter ntcincn 

I have both. 3d) t)aU (ei^c^ 

, ye^ some or any more, 91 (ft. 

Some more wine. 9?c<6 ^titu 

Some more money. ^cd^ ©ctb. 

Some more buttons. 92ic^ ^nSpfe. 

Have you any more wine 1 |>obcn 6ie ncc^ SBctn ? 

« We have hitherto intentionally, and in perfect hannony with this i , 
Rftiined from speakinff of feminme nouns. They will he touched upon here 
tfier. (See LesMm ISXVIIL) 



I have some more. 
Has he any more bread 1 
He has some more. 
Haye I any more books t 
You have some more. 

36) fyiU no(( md^cm 
|)ot er ticcft 93ccb ? 
(&t bat Md) n>etd)e^ 
|>abe id) ncc^ f&ii&^tt ? 
^te I)aben ncc^ loclc^e* 

iVb^ any m<?rc, no more. Jtein — me^c. 

I have no more wine. 

Have you any more vinegar? 

I have no more. 

Has he any more bread ? 

He has no more. 

I have no more dogs. 

I have no more. 

Not much more. 

Have you much more wine 1 
I have not much more. 
Have you tiany more books ! 
I have not many more. 

3(^ f)a6( fctnen SSctn mc^ 

^aben @te ncc^ (^g ? 

3d) fy^ht feinen nie^v. 

^at er noc6 S3vot } 

^ ^at f «in« nieftt. 

34 ^be fcine ^unbc m*V"- 

3d) ^abe Ceine mc^t. 

gzi(fet t)tet me^c. 

^aben @ie nc4 tHet SSktn 1 
3(6 5«^« ^«ff<^n nic^t me( mettc; 
^akn @t( nod) met 93M^ ^ 
34 babe bcrcn nic^t out mc()t. 

One more book. Slc6} ein 58u4» 

One more good book fJlcd^ ctn ()utc^ S3u4. 

A few books more. ^cd) eintge S3ild)er. 

Have we a few hats more? ^oOcn mix ncd) cintgc |>ihc ? 

We have a few more. ^ic f)abcn ncd) cintge. 

Has he a few good knives more ! $at cr ncd) etniae gute^effcr? ? (bcx 

Lesson XVUI. Odj. B.) 
He has a few more. Qx ftat ncd) ctnigc. (See Obs 

Lesson XVI.) 



How many tomes has this work ? — ^It has three.— Have you my 
work, or tiiat of my brother?— 1 have both (beibe). — Has the for 
eigner my comb or my knife ? — He has both (beibe^). — Have you 
our bread or our cheese ? — ^I have both. — Have you my glass or 
that of my friend ? — ^I have neither the one nor the other. — Have 
we any more hay ? — ^We have some more. — Has our merchant any 
more pepper ? — He has some more. — Has he any more candles V^ 
He has some more. — Have you any more coffee ? — ^We have no 
more coffee ; but we have some more vinegar. — Has the Germao 
any more water ? — He has no n^ re water ; but he has some more 
meat. — Have we any more gold ribbons ? — ^We have no more gold 
TLesson XVIH. Obs. B.) ribbons ; but we have some more silver 
(ribbons). — Has our friend any more sugar ? — He has no more.— 
Have I any more beer ? — ^You have no more. — Has your young 
man any more friends ?-»He has no more* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Has your brother one more horse ? — He has jne more.— >HaTf 
f oa one more 1 — I hare one more. — Has the peasant one more ox 1 
»-He has one more. — Have you a few more gardens 1 — ^We have 
ft lew more. — ^What have you more 1 — We have a few good ships 
(plur. 6d)tffe) and a few good sailors more. — Has our brother a few 
mote friends 1 — He has a few more.— Have I a little more money t 
—You have a little more. — Have you any more courage 1—1 have 
BC more. — Have you much more money i — I have much more, but 
my brother has no more. — Has he enough saltl — He has not 
•aough. — Haye we buttons enough 1 — We have not enough .^Has 
Ifae good son of your good tailor buttons enough 1 — He has not 


TWENTY.THIRD LESSON.— JDm tttti ^att^Btt 

^aSerfd^febette (is declined like 
an adjective, and hardly ever 
used in the singular.) (See 
Lesson XVffl., Obs. B.) 



The father 
the sout 
the diild, 
tiie captain, 

the cake. 

Several chUdren. 

As muehf as many* 

As muck-^asj as numy-~'as 

Kb Bkueh bread as wine, 
te msny men as children. 

Vbm Ton as much g^ld as sf • 

For all g«nd«n. 

i)erfd)tebene. D. »erfd)iebetten 
^djieicntx. A. t)erfd)iAene. 

bet ®atct ; 
Ut ®of)n ; 
hai ittnb ; 

bet ^Dauptinann (plur ^uptfeute) ; 
bet Z\)tt ; 

bet ^uc^en (is not softened in tie 

SSetfd^tebene Jtinbet. 

6o t)te( — wit 

€o t)te( 93tcb lote flfietiu 
Bt Diet ax^nnet n>tt ^inbct. 

- ^ben 6te fo tne( ^tb nne &iUt 1 

SB n (preposition g^veining the 

y Google 


I have 08 mach of this as of 3d) l)aU fo t)ie( Mn tterem n\€ Mr 

that. icncm. 

Have y m as many hats as coats t Jbabcn @te fo met ^fite rote 9l6(ft 7 
I have as many of these as of 3cl) boOc fo mi »on tiffcn wie wn 

those. jcncn. 

As many of the one as of the ©o mcC wn ben einen n)ie t)on ben 

other. anbccn. 

Obs. A. When e ill is used as an indefinite numer- 
al adjective, it is declined like other adjectives. 

Quite (or just) as much. @6cn fo oieC 

I have quite as much of this as 3d) ?)a6e eben fo tne( wn tXtfan mi 
of that. r>on ienenu 

The enemy, 
the finger, 
the boot. 

Ut geinb ; 
bet ginger ; 
bcr ©tiefcU 


?Dlc^r (comparative adveib^ 

More bread. 
More men, 

SOlebr SBrob* 
sWe^c awdnncc 



Obs. B. ^{i answers to than in English, as n>ie 
answers to as. 

More bread than wine. 
More men than children. 
More of this than of that. 
More of the one than of the other. 

More of these than of those. 
I have more of your sugar than 
of mine. 


Less water than wine. 

Less than I. 

— than he. 

— than you. 

Than they. 

As much as you. 
As much as he. 
As much as they. 

SKebr SBrob ait SBein. 
0}2ebt 9){&nner ait ^inbec. 
^iht Don btcfcm q(6 t»on jcnenu 
97{c^t t)on bem einen cXi Mn ban 

g)ieftr »on bicfen oXi wn fenen. 
3d) ^a(x mc^r »on 3()tem Sudet a(i 

ven beui mcinigcn. 

SB cut get (comparative of locntg) 
aSenigct ffioffct o(g 2Bcin. 
$2Bentget aXi ic^. 

— al« @ic 

2(tg lie. 

©0 oiel tt)ic ©ie. 
@o met mte et. 
@o Diet n)te {te. 

• When collective or plur&I nouns, aa : SBein, wine;lBrcb, bread,dlM» 
ara to be represented by the prononni, biefer and ienet must be iiM<i 
and not ein and anber 

y Google 


EXBRCI8B8 39. 

thTe you a coat 1 — ^I haye seyeral. — Has he a lookinff-glass !-<• 
Be lias seyeral. — What kind of looking-glasses has he 1 — He hat 
beaotifal looking-glasses. — ^Who has my good cakes 1 — Several 
men have them. — Has your brother a child T — He has (ii)xn, Les- 
ion XVI.) several. — Have you as much coffee as honey 1 — I have 
K much of the one as of the other. — Has he as much tea as beer 1 
—He has as much of the one as of the other. — Has this man as 
Banj friends as enemies ?•— He has as many of the one as of the 
other. — ^Has the son of your friend as many coats as shirts 1 — He 
haa as many of the one as of the other. — Have we as many boots 
u shoes 1 — ^We have as many of the one as of the other. 


Has your father as much ^old as silver 1 — He has more of the 
htter than of the former. — Has he as much tea as coffee ? — He 
MS more of the latter than of the former. — Has the captain as ma- 

Sr sailors as ships 1 — He has more of the one than of the other. — 
ave yon as many rams as I ? — I have just as many. — Has the 
foreigner as much courage as we 1 — He has quite as much. — Have 
we as much good as baa paper 1 — We have as much of the one as 
of the other. — Have we as much cheese as bread ? — We have more 
of the latter than of the former. — Has your son as many cakes as 
books ! — He has more of the latter than of the former ; more of 
the one than of the other. 


How many children have you 1 — I have only one, but my bro- 
ther has more than I ; he has five. — Has your son as much head as 
mine I — He has less head than yours, but he has more courage. — 
BAj children have more courage than yours. — Have I as much 
nwney as you 1 — You have less than I. — Have you as many books 
as 1 1-— I have less than you. — Have I as many enemies as youi 
feAerl — You have fewer than he. — Have the Americans more 
children than we t — ^They have fewer than we. — Have we as many 
•hips as the English ! — ^We have less than they. — Have we fewer 
knives than the children of our' friends ? — We have fewer than 


Who has fewer friends than we t — Nobody has fewer. — Have 
jrou as much of my tea as of yours! — I have as much of yours as 
of mine. — Have I as many of your books as of mine 1— You have 
fewer of mine than of yours. — Has the Spaniard as much of your 
aoney as of his own 1 — He has less of his own than of ours.— 
Htt your baker less bread Uian money! — ^He has less of the lattai 
te of the formoi; — Has our merchant fewer dogs than horses 1—^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


He has fewer of the latter than of the former ; he has fewer of tlie 
one than of the other. — He has fewer horses than we, and we 
have less bread than he. — Have our neiffhboars as many carnages 
as we 1 — We have fewer than they. — We have less com and less 
meat than they. — We have but little com, but meat enough. 

TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. — bier tttlb ^jwcm^ifrte 

OP THE iNFmrnvE. 

All German verbs form their infinitive in c tt. This 
termination in verbs, the root of wtich ends in c I ore r,* 
is contracted by throwing out the letter e, as ^tnbtnt^ 
to prevent ; fommebt^ to collect, &c. The verbs marked 
with an asterisk (♦) are irregular. 

A wislh o mind^ a desire, 8 u ft ; 
time, Belt;** 
to, gu. 

Obs. The prepositio * ) tt, to, always stands before 
the infinitive. In comp and verbs it is placed between 
the separable particl' and the infinitive, as will be 
exemplified in future lessons. 

To work. XcOeitcn. 

To speak. ®))(ed)en*/ tetetu" 

Haye you a mind to work t ^6en @te 9ufl ju orbetteti ? 

I have a mind to work. • 3d) f)aU Sufi $u ar6ettcn. 

He has not the courage to speak. (Sc ^at ben ^ntl) m6it, ^u fpredtKtt* 

Tocut. @*neiben*. 

Toe-tit. \^Z: "Slm^'^ 

To cut them, fic [(ftncitcn*. 

• By the root we understand that part of a verb which precedes the tenm* 
aation e tt of the infinitiTe : e. g. in the verb Uhtn, to praue, I o b is the root 

^ The two BubstantiTei ^ufl and 3^^ are feminine. If they are requirad 
fai a negative sense, !?tne Sufi, and nt(^t 3f it must be used. Ex. 34 \^ 
(cine Sn^ |u f^rr d^en, I have no mind to speak : er ^at ttic^t ^tit |U acbetttOr 
he has no time to work. 

^^ted^en is derived from bie ®pX9^t, the language, and signifies to pro- 
iuce or emit souids in a physical manner; tebett means to ezprea ideas bf 

ords, from bte diht, the discourse. 



To cut some. 

Hat he tima to cut trees ! 
He has time to cut some. 



f Masc. toeldjeii/ beffen, 

Neut. weld)e^^ bc(]en, 

Plural for nil genders. 

toeldje^ bcrcn, ba»on fc^itet 
^ ben. 

4oflt cr 3eit *J?dumc ^u fcbncit>en ? 
dix f)at Beit vodd^c ju fc^nciben. 

To buy. 
To buy some more. 

To buy one. 

To buy two. 
To buy one more. 

To buy two more. 

I faufett. 



92cd) (aufen. 
( Masc. eincn 
I Neut. eiit^ 

3wci faufcn. 

iilfasc. nocf) einen 
iVe2«/. nocf) ein^ 
9{0(^ jtvct faufcn. 

DC? The infinitive is alwa)rs placed at the end of 
the phrase, whether preceded by jtt or not. 

Hare you a mind to buy one ^atcn ©ie Sufi ncc^ cln ^^ferb |U 

more horse t faufcn 7 

I have a mind to buy one more. 2ld) ^al>e 8uj! tied) ctn$ ju faufcn. 
Have you a mind to buy some ^abcn @tc 6u|l 3)ttc^ct ju faufen t 

I have a mind to buy some, but 3d) l)<i6e 8ufl mid^t $u faufen^ 

1 have no time. aUt id) ^obe ntd)t 3ctt. 

Haa he time to work t ^ot cr 3cit ^u atbcitcn? 

He has time, but no mina tc (St f)ot 3eit^ abur feinc Cujl gu ar« 

worit. beiten. 


Have you still a mind to buy the house of my friend 1 — ^I haye 
still a mind to buy it, but I have no more money. — Have you time 
to work 1 — ^I have time, but no mind to work. — Has he time to cut 
•nme sticks 1 — He has time to cut some. — Have you a mind to cut 
iome bread t— 1 have a mind to cut some, but I have no knife. — 
Hare you time to cut some cheese 1 — I have time to cut some.— 
Has he a desire x) cut the tree ? — He has a desire to cut it, but he 
bat no time. — Has he time to cut the cloth 1 — He has time to cut it. 
-"Have 1 time to cut the trees 1 — You have time to cat them.— 
Has the painter a mind to buy a horse ? — He has a mind to buy 
two,— Has your captain of the navy (©^iff^copitto) time to speak 1 
*-^ has time, but no desire to speak. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Have Tcti a mind to buy a carriage t — I have a mind to bui one 
— Have 1 a mind to buy a house 1 — You have a mind to buy one. 
—Has your brotlier a mind to buy a great ox ? — He has a m^d to 
buy a little one. — We have a mind to buy little oxen. — How «aanj 
horses have you a mind to buy 1 — I have a mind to buy four.-^Hai 
any one a mind to buy a broom 1 — ^This man has a mind to bay 
one. — What has that man a mind to buy 1 — He has a mind to 
buy a beautiful carriage, three beautiful horses, good tea, and good 


Have you a desire to speak 1 — ^I have a desire, but no time to 
speak. — Have you the courage to cut your arm 1 — 1 have not the 
courag[e to cut it. — ^Am I right in speaking (ju fptccftcn) 1 — You are 
not wrong in speaking, but you are wrong in cutting (ju fi^nctben) 
my trees. — Has the son of your friend a desire to buy one more 
bird 1 — He has a desire to buy one more t — Have you a mind to 
buy one more beautiful coat ?-— I have a mind to buy one more.— 
Have we a mind to buy a few more horses ? — ^We have a mind to 
buy a few more, but we have no more money. (See Lesson XXII.) 


What have you a mind to buy 1 — ^We have a mind to buy some- 
thing good, and our neighbours have a mind to buy something beao- 
tiful. — Have their children a desire to buy any birds t — Their 
children have no desire to buy any. — ^Have you the courage to buj 
tlie trunk of the captain 1 — I have a desire to buy it, but I have no 
more money. — ^Who has a mind to buy my beautiful dog 1 — Nobo- 
dy has a mind to buy it. — Have you a mind to buy my beautiful 
birds, or those of the Frenchman 1 — I have a mind to buy those of 
the Frenchman. — Which book ha? he a mind to buy 1— 5le has a 
mind to buy that which you have, that which your son has, and 
that which mine has. — Have you two horses 1 — ^I have only one, 
but I have a wish to buy one more. 

TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON. — iFilnf mh ^airpjoK 


There are in German two kinds of compound verbs* 
one kind consists of a simple verb and a particle 
which is inseparable from it ; the other of a simple 
verb and a particle which can be separated, either to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


gire place to the syllable g e of the participle past, of 
to ju, or to be itself placed after the verb or even at 
Ac end of the phrase. We shall distinguish the separ- 
able verbs by placing g u between the verb and the 
particle.' Examples : 

To break. 3crt»rcd)en*. 

To keep (to take care). 2(iifbcn?af)ren (flufiubewo^rcn). 
To pick up. 2(ufl)^tcn * (auftubcbcn). 

To mend. Tfusbcffcrn (au^^ubcffctn). 

To make a fire. Scucr onmacbcn (an^mac^en). 

Has the tailor time to mend my ^ot bet ^c^ncitec 3ctt mettien 2ficd 

coat 1 oii^gubeffcm 1 

Bt has time to mend it. Ch f)at 3ctt tf)n QU^^uOefTem.i' 

To wash. fJBaf^cn *. 

C ffirenncn ♦.• 
To bum, < aScrOtcnncn (to destroy by burn- 

( ing)- 
To seek, to look for. 0ud)cn (governs the accusative)* 
To warm. aS(XrnKn. 

To make. S[Kod)cn Cphysically). 

To do. S()un * (morally''). 

Has the shoemaker time to make ^at tcr ^(bu^mac^cr 3cit melne 6tte« 

ny boots % fc( $u mad)cn 1 

He has time to make them. 6r ^at 3cit fie ju ma^ttu 

To hn willing f to wish* flB C ( t e n *« 

Will you ! ) 

Aieyouwillicgl > Snellen ©ic? 

Do you wish t y 
I wQl, I am willing, I wish. Stft wifl. 

Wll he 1 is he willing t does > g^. « ^ 

he wish I 5 ^" '^ ' 

* Then verbi may likewive be distinguished by the ^ncipal accent, which 
b placed on the root of the verb when the particle is inseparable, and when 
separable on the panicle itself. 

^ These examples show how the separable particle gives way in the infini- 
tive to|it. 

< The verb Brennen (as well as its con^wunds, i>erBrtnnen, &c.) is regu* 
hr when used in an active or transitive, but irregular when in a neuter orln* 
tnontive sense. We denote such verbs by the following abbreviations : ▼. 
ic and neut irreg. 

^ The verb m a (be n always relates to a determinate action, and is em- 
ployed nearly as the English verb to make, in the sense of producing anything ; 
t^ verb t ^ a Q * on the contranr always, like the English verb to do. relates to 
n faideterminate action, as : ^tn Jtletb mac^ot, to make a coat; %tvLtt ma« 
m to laake a fire ; ciiun ^efoUcn t^un, to do a &vonr ; feine (Sc^ubtgfeit 
Im to do one's duty. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


fle will, he is willinjf, he wish- ) ^ ^^^ 

68. J 

We will, we are wUling, we ^^.^ ^ 
wish. 3 

Obs, A. The particle JU does not precede the in 
finitive added to the verb U) ( ( e n, to be willing. Ex 

Do you wish to make my fire ! $BcIlcn Sic rnein ^cucr amnoi 

1 am willing to make it. 3ci) tvid c^ anmadycn. 

I do Dot wish to make it 3cf) tvtU es nlcbt anmacf)eiu 

Does he wish to buy your horse 1 SBia ct 3f)c 9?fcrt faufcn ? 
He wishes to buy it. Qv toiU c^ faufcn. 


I. Inseparable Verbs.' 

These verbs are formed by prefixing one of the fol- 
lowing unaccented particles to simple vcfrbs : be, emp/ 
ent, er, ge, Winter, »cr, woiber, gcr. 

JBc — 6cl»cnfcn ♦, to reflect. winter — feintcrgcbcn *, to deceive, 

@mp — cmpft'btcn *, to recommend, ^cr — ^9crfprcd)en », to promise. 

@nt — cntflii'bcn *, to run away. SBibcr — ivibcrlcgcn */ to refute, 

©r— crbottcn *, to receive. 3cr — ^jcrbccc^cn •/ to break. 
®i — 9C|lct)cn*/ to confess. 

n. Separable Verbs. 

2f6— <ibrd)rcibcn • , to copy. ©ci — ^Oeiftf b«t */ to assist. 

2Cn — anfangcn */ to begin. 2)ac — barflcttcn, to exhibit. 

2Cuf— aufbcbf n *, to pick up. JDoruntcr — ^aruntctmifc^cn, to in- 
Tint — QU^Qcbcn *, to go out. termingle. 

* 3 hy* ytf* is the real second person plural ; but the Germans generaCy 
use ^ t e , which is the third. 

<* Our intention in giving tables of the most complicated grammatical pans, 
is not that the learners should make an immediate appUcation of them; W6 
only wish to give them a clear and general idea of those parts, in order to en- 
able them to nnd them out more easily, as they will be in want of them in td* i 
▼ancinii^ by degrees. They must in their exercises employ only the veords aDil 
expressions made use of in the l^sons. V 

« We call verbs inseparable when they cannot, and separable wImd thef J 
oan be separated. ^ 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


()ttMiH-Nit)Cnfi}inmen*/ to escape, dladi — na<!)niod)cn^ to imitate. 

J)«r(i^— ^urc^irifcn^ to trayel Uebcr — ilbcrflitf^cn *, to overflow 

tfaitmgh. Um — ^unirucrfcn ♦, to overturn. 

6bi— ctnfcMflfJn *, to fall asleep. Untcr — untcrpnfcn \ to go to thu 
Jert— fcrtjiabten *, to continue. bottom. 

^Bi--^cinigc(>cn *, to go home. 95cn — tjcllgtcpen •, to fill up. 

i^ecttu^— l)€tou^fommcn*/ to come SScr — ^ocrgcbcn •, to pretend. 

out. aScroug — ocrau^jagcn, to foretell, 

^cruntcr — bcruntcrbringcn *, to SScrbci— wrbcigcbcn*, to pass by. 

bring down. 9Scrl)CC — oorf)crfc^cn */ to foresee. 

^MXp — i^i\inai}cn, to draw near. 95cr(lbcr — ocrfibcrfdf)rcn*, to pass 
|)Ui--ftin9fbfn •, to go thither. by in a coach. 

Iwwuf— t)inaufi!dgcn*, to ascend, ©eg — wcgge^cn *, >o go away 

ixaauk — ^inou^wctfcn *, to throw aBtclicr — roictcrfommcn *, to come 

out again. 

^ctn---6tnctngc^en *, to go in. 3u — ^tcbcn, to persuade. 

3nii« — inneb«lten *, to stop. 3nxm — jurCicffebrcn, to return. 

Stil— initti>ctUn, to communicate, durommen — gufamm(nfc|cn, to put 
9fictct-Hiicl>«r(fgcn, to lay down. together. 

Obs. B. Some compound verbs are either insepar- 
able or separable, according to their signification. We 
rfiall speak of them hereafter. 


Have you a desire to keep my letter 1 — ^I have a desire to keep 
it— Am 1 right in keeping (aufgubcroa^tcn) your money t — You are 
Offht in keeping it. — Has the tailor a desire to make my coat ? — 
Ha has a desire to make it, but he has no time. — Has your tailor 
tims to mend my coats t — He has time to mend them. — Have you 
Uie courage to bum my hat ? — I have not the courage to burn it ; 1 
ba?eamind to keep it. — Has the shoemaker's boy a mind to mend 
taj boots 1 — He has no time to mend them. — What has our 
finend*s tailor to mend 1 — He has to mend our old coats. — Who has 
to mend our boots 1 — Our shoemaker has to mend them. — What 
has our hatn^ker to do t^-He has to mend your great hats.— Has 
four brother's joiner anything to do 1 — He has to mend our great 
tables and our little chairs. 


Do yon wish to keep my twenty-seven crowns 1 — ^I wish to keep 
them. Will you pick up that crown or that florin 1 — I will pick up 
both. — Do you wish to cut his finger 1 — I do not wish to cut it.— 
Does the paintei wish to burn vinegar 1 — He wishes to burn 
some* — Is the peasant willing to bum his bread 1 — He is not wil^ 
ling to burn his own, but that of his neighbour. — Have you any- 
tbing to do 1 — I have nothing to do. — Have we anything to do 1— 
We have to warm our coffee. — Do you wish to speak 1 — I wish to 
speaL— Is your son willing to work 1 — ^He is not willing to work. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Do you wish to buy anything! — I wish to buy somothing-- 
What do you wish to buy I — I wish to buy some good books.^ 
What has he to buy t — He has to buy a good horse. — Will you buy 
this or that table ! — I will buy (put the infinitiye always to the end 
of the phrase) neither this nor that. — Which house does your friend 
wish to buy t — He wishes to buj your brother's great house. — Is 
your servant willing to make my lire t-^He is willing to make it^ 
Will your father buy these rams or these oxeni — He will buj 
neither the one nor the other. — Does he wish to buy my umbrella 
Dr my cane 1 — He wishes to buy both. 


Do you wish to make a fire ? — We do not wish o make any. — 
What do you wish to make 1 — 1 wish to make vinegar. — Will yoa 
seek my knife 1 — I will seek it. — Have you to look for anything ! — 
1 have nothing to look for. — Has he time to seek my son i — He has 
time, but he will not seek him. — What has he to do 1 — He has to 
make a fire, to wash my thread stockings, to buy good cofifee, good 
sugar, good water, and good meat. — Will he buy your good trunk ! 
— ^He will buy it. — Will you buy my great or my little house ? — 
1 will buy neither your great nor your little house ; I wish to buy 
that of our friend. — Will you buy my beautiful horses 1 — ^I will not 
buy them. 


How many rams will you buy 1 — I will buy twenty-two. — Does 
the foreigner wish to buy much corn? — He wishes to buy but 
little. — Do you wish to buy a great many gloves 1 — ^We wish to 
^uy only a few ; but our children wish to buy a great many v— Will 
th )y seek the same boots that we have 1 — ^They will not seek those 
which you have, but those which my father has. — Will you look 
for my coats or for those of the good Frenchman ? — I will look for 
neither yours nor those of the good Frenchman ; I will look for 
mine, and for thoa? of my good son. 

TWENTT-SIXTH LESSON. — 0wl)0 mtfr ^anpgstt 

To tear* Scrtcijcn*. 

Togo. ® c & e n ♦. 

At. SBti, } prepositions governing 

To. 3n, y the dative ca&^ 

To be. ©ein •. 

Rule. The preposition b e i signifies udth or at ths 
house of^ the preposition jtt/ to or to the house of. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


TV> be with the man or at the SBci Um ^amc fdn*. 

man's hoase. 
To go to the roan or to the 3u Urn <D{anne dcf)en*. 

man's house. 
Tebe with his (one's) friend or 95ei fcincm greunlie fein*. 

at his (one^s) friend's house, 
tb go to my father or to my 3tt ntcinem Skater gel)cn*. 

fiiSier's house. 

To be at home. 3u ^aufe fcin*. 

To go home. 9Zac^ ^aufe ^^ 

To be with me or at my hoase. f&tl mtt fctn** 

To so to me or to my house. 3u mtt gcften*. 

To be with him or at his house. S3<t tbnt fein'^* 

To ffo to him or o his house. 3u ibm ge^n*. 

To be with us or at our house. f8d un^ fcin*. 

To go to us or to our house. 3u un^ acf)cn*. 

To fie with you or at your house, i ffiei Sbncn fdn*, t»ei Giid) fdn*. • 

To go to you or to your house. ( 3u 3f>nen gcften*, ju (£ud) gcten* 

To be with them or at their liouse, ©ci i()nen fcin*. 

To go to them or to their house. 3u ifjncn gcbcn*. 

To be with some one or at some Sbci S^nmntcm fdn*. 

one's house. 
To go to some one or to some 3u S^man^n) gc^cn*. 

one's house* 
To be with no one or at no one's JBci 9^tcmant>f m fcin*. 

Fo go to no one or to no one's 3u 0Hemanbem gc^cn*. 


Atwhouhouse? Withtohamf SSei n>em? 
Towhose house? Towhamt 3u toem? 

To whom (to whose house) dc 3u n>cm weUm ^\t geftcn 7 

you wish to go ? 
I wish to go to no one (to no 3<b vM gu 9{temantem g<l^* 

one's house). 
At whose house (with whom) is S3et totm ifl 3^c S3nitcr ? 

your brother 1 
He is at ours Twith us). Gt ifl Ui un^. 

Is he at home T 3j! er gu .£)aufe ? 

He is not at home. (&t ifl ntc^t ju ^aufe. 

To drink. Srinfcn** 

To carry (to take). SSragcn*. 
To bring (to cany). ffiringcn** 

• In German, as in English, no more than one negatire is ever exptek^v 
M bu already been seen m many instances. 

^ le 

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Do you wish to tear my coat? — I do not wish to teai it. — l>oei 
your brother wish to tear my beautiful hook 1 — He does not wish 
to tear it. — What does he wish to tear 1 — He wishes to tear your 
heart. — With whom is our father! — He is with his friend. — To 
whom do you wish to go 1 — I wish to go to you. — Will you go to 
my house f — I will not go to your's, but to my tailor's. — Does your 
father wish to go to his friend 1 — He wishes to go to him. — At 
whose house is your son 1 — He is at our house. — Do your children 
wish to go to our friends 1 — They wish to go to them. — Is the 
foreigner at our brother's 1 — He is there (bci iljm). — At whose 
house is the Englishman ? — He is at yours. — ^Is the American at 
our house? — No, Sir, he is not at our house; he is at his friend's. 
—Is the Italian at his friends' ? — He is at their house. 


Do you wish to go home 1 — I do not wish to go home ; I wish 
to go to the son of my neighbour. — Is your father at home % — No, 
Sir, he is not at home. — W ith whom is he t — He is with the good 
children of our old neighbour. — Will you go to any one's house? 
— I will go to no one's house. — At whose house is your son ? — 
He is at no one's house; he is at home. — What will he do at 
home ? — He will drink good wine. — Will you carry my letters 
home? — 1 will carry them to my father's.^— Who will carry my 
notes ? — ^The younff man will carry them. — Will he carry them to 
my house? — ^No, he will carry them to his brother's. — Is his 
father at home? — He is not at home; he is at the foreigner's. 


What have you to drink ? — I have nothing to drink. — Has youi 
son anything to drink? — He has good wine and good water to 
drink. — Will your servant carry my books to my brothers'? — He 
will carry them to their house. — What will you carry to my 
house ?— 1 will carry to your house two chickens, three birds, good 
bread, i nd good wine (always put the infinitive to the end, and do 
not separate it from "to your house"). — Will you carry these 
chairs to my house ? — ^I will not carry these, but those. — What 
will the German do at home ? — He will work and drink good wine. 


What have you at home ? — I have nothing at home. — Have yon 
anything good to drink at home ? — I have nothincr good to drink ; 
I have only bad water. — Has the captain as much coffee as sugai 
at home ? — He has as much of the one as of the other at home.— 
Will you carry as many crowns as buttons to my brother's?— I 
will carry to his house as many of the one as of the otlier. — Will 
you carry great glasses to my house ? — I will carry some to youi 
house. — -Has the merchant a desire to buy as many oxen as ramst 
—He wishes to buy as many of the one as of the other. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Has flie shoemaker as many shoes as boots to mend ? — He hat 
18 fliany of the one as of the other to mend. — Has he as much 
wbe as water to drink 1 — He has as much to drink of the one as 
of the other. — Has the Turk a desire to break some glasses 1 — He 
las a desire to break some. — Has he a mind to drink some wine t 
^He has no mind to drink any. — Will you buy anything of (bet) 
ne!— 1 will buy nothing of you. — Of whom (J8ci rocni) will you 
bay your com 1 — I will ouy it of thejgreat merchant. — Of whom 
will the English buy their oxeni — ^They will buy them of the 
Detch. — ^WiS the Spaniards buy anything 1 — They will buy 

ftoan^ste £tttion. 

«^ , C SB ? (an adverb of place with* 

^f^^f X out motion.) 

•«T%.r * I 4 9 C8BoHn? (an adverb of place 
WhUher7whereto7 ^ with moUon.) 


1. The question tt>0? indicates rest in a place, or 
^ith any person or object whatsoever ; the preposition 
whick answers this question always governs the da- 

2. The question tt>o^in? denotes motion or direc- 
tion towards some place or object ; when answered 
by one of the prepositions att, to ; auf, upon; ^ t n ter, 
behind; ncben, by the side; iiber, above; unter^ 
under; Jtt>tf^en, between; t)or, before; in, in or 
into, it always requires the accusative.* 

There. >D o (rest, repose). 

Thither. ^ i n or b q I) i n (motion or direo 


To carry thither. ^tn or ta^in tragcn*. 

m -^ *i.-*u < Masc, {f}n \ hva or ba^iii 

To carry It thither, j ^^^^ ^^ j \^^^*^\ 

■ TIm nine prepontioiiB govern the dative when they tniwer tlie queetloa 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


r ♦uvi.^« < Masc. tt)c(ct)en ) bin or bobtJi 

fo carry some thither. J j^^ ^^^^ j ^^^^^,^ 

To carry them thither, jtc l)xn or tatfin tragcn** 

065. -4. The adverb b a, iAere, is always joined to 
a verb of rest, and the abverb ijiti or b a I) t n^ thither, 
to a verb of motion, ip i n is used to express motion 
from, and ^er motion towards the person that speaks. 
Ex. (gr ift ba, he is there ; id) Witt and) Ifki (baljtn) g^ijctif 
I will also go thither ; Wottcn ©ic {^erfommen ? will you 
come hither T 

To send. |©cl)ic!cn.b 

To come. ^cmmcn*. 

To lead. ^fi^rcn. 

I will send him (it) to you. 3d^ roltt tt)n (ctf) ju 3&ncn f^ufoi. 

When t JBann t 

To-morrow. SWorgcn. 

To-day. ^eutc. 

Some where, any where. Stgenbroo (rest). 

Some whither, any whither. SrgenbtoOQtn (direction). 

No where, not any where. Slirgenb or ntrgcnt^ 

Do you wish to go any whither 1 ©otlcn <Si< trgcntwc^tn ge^enf 
I do not wish to go any whither. 3d) will nirgcnb^ l)\n^ii)cn. 

The physician, tct 2Cr^t. 

To write. ^d)reibcn*. 

Have you to write as many let- ^aUn @tc fo det S3riefe ju fc^reiboi^ 
ters as my father! to'ic mein 93atn:t 

O65. B. Where the verb stands at the end of a 
phrase, the word tt>ie,a5, oral^, than, is placed with 
its nominative after the verb. 

I have to write more (i. e. let^ 3* ?)flbe tcxtn mel)t jtt \ifmUn, fltt 
ters) than he. er. 


Where is your brttherl — He is at home. — ^Whither do you wwh 
to go 1 — I wish to go home. — Whither does your father wish to 

^ ^ (^{tf en is uied when a person is sent without any object, or with cie 
of little importance, ftn ben, on the contrary, always denotes a missioD <A 
Importance, whence bet ©efanbte, the 1 ' 

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^ I — He wishes to go to your hoose. — Whither will you cany 
tftis letter t — I \i ill cany it to my neighbour's. — Is your son al 
home 1 — He is there. — Whither will the shoemaker carry my boots 1 
—He will carry them to your house. — ^Will he carry them home t 
—He will carry them thither. — Will you send good sugar home t 
—1 will send some thither. — Will the baker send good bread home 1 
—He will send some thither. — Will you come to- me 1 — I will come 
to you. — Whither d^ you wish to go 1 — I wish to go to the good 
Frenchmen. — Will the good Italians go to our house 1 — They will 
go no whither. — Will you take (ffi^ren) your son to my house ? — 1 
will not take him to your house, but to the captain's. — When will 
you take him to the captain's ? — ^I will take him there (}U t^ni) to* 


Will you go any whither (any where) t — I will ^o no whithei 
(no where). — Will your good son go to any onel — He will go »n 
no one. — When will you take (fiH)un) your young man to the pain- 
ter 1 — I will take him there (gu iftm) to-day. — Where will he carry 
these birds tol — He will carry them no whither. — ^Will you take 
the physician to this mani — I will take him there (ju tftni). — When 
will you take him there t — I will take him there to-day. — Will the 
ohysicians come to your good brother? — ^They will not come to him. 
—Will you send me a servant! — I will send you none. — Will you 
send a child to the physician? — I will send one to him. — With whom 
is the physician 1 — He is with nobo^ly. — Do you wish to go any 
whither! — I wish to go to the good Americans. — Has he time to come 
to my house? — He has no time to come there. — Will the captain 
«rnte one more letter ? — He will write one more. — Will you write 
% f )te? — I will write one. — Has your friend a mind to write as 
tiaoy letters as I ? — He has a mind to write quite as many. 


HaT8 you many letters to write ? — ^I have only a few to write.—, 
flow many letters has our old neighbour to write ? — He has as 
many to write as you. — Who has long letters to write? — ^The youth 
has some to write. — How many more letters hap he to write ? — He 
has sis more to write. — How many has he to send ? — He has twen- 
ty to send. — Has he as many letters to send as his father ? — He 
haa fewer to send. — Has the hatmaker some more hata to send ? — 
He has no more to send. — Has your son the courage to write a 
iong letter? — He has the courage to write one.— Will he write as 
■aany letters as mine ? — He will write quite as many. — Will you 
Wy as* many carriages as horses ? — I will buy more of the latter 
ma of the former. 

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TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— 2UI)t ntib fOKin^sti 

In order to (conjunction). U ni — ju« 
To see. ® c ^ < n • 

Obs. A. The conjunctive expression in order to pre- 
ceding the infinitive is translated into German by ttm 
) u. When the sentence is short, it m, in order^ may be 
left out 

I will go to my brother in order 3* wi^ ju meincm 93rubcr gefjen, 
to see him. urn t^n }u fcf)cn. 

I have no money (in order) to 3^ l)ah( fcin (3s% (um) f&xtt $u 
buy bread. faufcn. 

Has your brother a knife (in or- ^ot 3bt SBrutcr ctn SJ^ffcr, (nm) 
der) to cut his bread 1 fetn 95rc^ ju fcfeneitcn ? 

He has one to cut it. (St f)at ctn^/ um e^ ju fc^nctben. 

To sweep. 2Cu«!e()ten (au^f c^cn). 

To kill S^SDten 7, 

To slaughter. ©(J)(a(J)tcn 5* 

Tosalt. ©otjcn. 

To he able. ^onnen*. 

I can (am able)— he can (is 3* fonn — ^ fonn. 

We can (are able)— they can fSir RInncn — pc f 6nncn. 

(aivj able). 
You can (are able). 36^ Knnct (©ie Knncn). 

Obs. B. The particle j it does not precede the infini 
tive added to the verb Rnnert, to be able. (See Le» 
son XL.) Ex. 

Can you write a letter t Jt6nncn ^Ic clncn ©ricf f^rclben! 

I can write one. 3d) (onn cinen \d^xdUn. 

He is able to ^ork. (&t fonn orCciten. 


Dat. Aca 
To me. me. I 1st person, nttr. nttc^. 

To him. him. \ 3d person, i^m. if|n. 

• Zhhitn meant to deprive any one of life ; fd^Ud^itn, to slaufhter, is qp^ 
In speaking of animals, the fleeh of which is eaten. Ex. ©etneit^einb tSbtcB 
10 kiM his enemy ; Oc^fw ttub ®(^afc f(^la(^tat, to slaughter oxen and f'''^ 



To you. 



Dat. Acc. 
1st person, un^. uit^. 

3d person, tbiteit* ffe. 

9)2td) tStitcn. 

SDitd) (tnit mtt or ju mlt) fptfi 

31^n (niit t^m or ju tl)m) fpte« 

3^m fct)tcfcn. 
Bu t^m fd)tctcn. 
3f)n mir (ju mir) fcfticfcn. 
36n mic mocgen fd)t(fcn (t^n mots 

gen su mir fd)t(fcn). 

Dy In German the dative precedes the accusative ; 
but when the accusative is a personal pronoun it pre- 
cedes the dative. 

To them. them. 

Tvkill me. 
Tu Bee me. 
To speak to me. 

To speak to him« 

fo tend to him. 

To tend to his house. 

To send him to me. 

To send him to me to-morrow. 

It to me — them to me. 
It to him — them to him. 
It to us — them to us. 

It to you — them to you. 

It to them — them to them. 

When will ycJ send me the hat 

Iwill send it to you to-morrow. 






e^ mir — ffe tnfr* 

e^ V^xa — ffe \\)m. 

tivoxi — ftcuit^* 
( e^ @uc^ — ftc Sud). 
|e^ (3f}neit)fte(3l^nen). 

e^ i^nen — fte it)neit^ 

1 fSkinn roctlen 
fcl)i(f en % 
3d9 mVi i^n 

@te mir ten ^ut 
S^nen n»rc|cn 

Some to me. 
Some to him. 
Some to us. 

Swne to you. 

Some to them. 

t tnir 

t if|W 
t im^ 

' See note «, Leewm XXXI 

Mmb. Navt FloimL 

welchen. xoAii^i. xm xoA6)t. 

tt)clc^. tt)el(^e^» <^m tt>eld)e. 

weldjett. xoAiiit^. -mi weldje. 

tt)e((^* toAifti. i^iten n)e(cf)e« 

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To give. ® c b e n *. 

To lend. 8ei!)cn*» 

To ffive me. gsir gcben*. 

To Tend me. SMic Icil^n*. 

Are you ^villing to lend me SSoQcn @te mic ®«(b (eigeit ? 

some money % 
I am willini^ to lend yon some. 34 to'tU 3^nen n>fU^ Ict^ 













(mein''), of me. 

bcmer (bcin), of thee. 




to me. 


to thee. 















of us. 
to us. 


of you. 
to you. 









'NoM.'er, he. 







Gen. feiiter (fettt^ 

1, of him. 



feiner (je{B),ofit. 


to him. 

ii)V, U 



, toit 


,Acc. t^n 







For aU genden 





of thenL 



to them. 




« fffltin, btin, ftin, as genitiyea singular, for metner. belner, ff tner, are uoA 
only in fomiliar discourse and in poetry. Ex. SBerat^ mein ni^t, ibmi ■• 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


BXKRCI8E8. 53. 

Has the carpenter money to buy a hammer ? — He has iome tc 
90J one. — ^Has the captain money to buy a ship t — He has some 
to bay one.— Has the peasant money to buy sheep (ta^ @d)flf adds 
t and is not softened in the plural) 1 — He has none to buy any.— 
Have you time to see my father 1 — I have no time to see him.— - 
Docs yoar father wish to see me 1 — He does not wish to see you. 
^Has the servant a broom to sweep the house 1 — He has one to 
nreep it. — ^Is he willing to sweep it? — He is willing to sweep it. 
~HaTe I salt enough to salt my meat 1 — You have not enough of 
it to salt it. — Will your friend come to my house in orc'er to see 
me ! — He will neither come to your house nor see you. — Has our 
nei^boar a desire to kill his horse ? — He has no desire to kill it<— 
Will you kill your friends ? — I will kill only my enemies. 


Can you cut me some bread 1 — ^I can cut you some. — Have yoL 
t knife to cut me somel — I have one. — Can you wash your 
gloves 1 — I can wash them, but I have no wish to do it. — Can the 
tailor make me a coat 1 — He can make you one. — Will you speak 
to the physician T — ^I will speak to him. — Does your son wish to 
•ee me in order to speak to me 1 — He wishes to see you, in order 
to giTe you a crown. — Does he wish to kill mel — ^He does not 
wish to kill you ; he only wishes to see you. — Does the son of our 
Md friend wish to kill an oil — He wishes to kill two. — How 
«uch money can you send me 1 — I can send you thirty crowns. — 
Will you send me my letter? — I will send it to you. — Will you 
send the shoemaker anything ? — I will send him my boots. — Will 
you send him your coats ? — No, I will send them to my tailor. — 
Can the tailor send me my coat ? — He cannot send it you. — Are 
your children able to write letters ? — ^They are able to write some 


Have you a glass to drink your wine ? — ^I have one, but I have 
DO wine ; I have only water.^-Will you give me money to buy 
iome ? — ^I will give you some, but I have only a little. — Will you 
ei^e me that which you have? — I will ffive it you. — Can you 
drink as much wine as water ? — I can drink as much of the one as 
of the other. — Has our poor neighbour any wood to make a fire ?— 
He has some to make one, but he has no money to buy bread and 
KeaU— Are you willing to lend him some ?^-I am willing to lend 
him some. — Do you wish to speak to the German? — I wish to 
speak to him. — Where is he ? — .He is with the son of the captain. 
—Does the German wish to speak to me ? — He wishes to speak to 
you.— Does he wish to speak to my brother or to yours? — He 
wishes to speak to both. — Can the children of our tailor work i — 
rhey can work, but they will not. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Do you wish to speak to the children of your shoemaker ! — 1 
wish to speak to them. — What will you give them ? — ^I will giys 
them ffreat cakes. — Will you lend them anything" 1 — I have nothing 
to lend them. — Has the cook some more salt to salt the mtat?-^ 
He has a little more. — Has he some more rice 1 — He has a great 
deal more. — Will he g^ve me some 1 — He will give you some.— 
Will he ffive some to my poor children! — He will give them 
some.— Will he kill this or that hen ? — He will kill ueither this 
nor that.— Which ram will he kill 1— He will kill that of the eood 
peasant. — Will he kill this or that ox 1 — He will kill both. — Who 
will send us biscuits 1 — ^The baker will send you some. — Have 
you anything good to give me 1—1 have nothing good to give you. 

rWENTY.NINTH LESSON.— Netm tWli ?n)att?iS8te 

To whom 7 fSB c m ? (A question followed by 

the dative.) 
Whom 7 For persons: SBcn?^ (Queations 

> followed by 
What t For things : SB a g ? J th« accua.)* 


Maac and Fern. Neut 

N.wcr? ttHi^? 
G. weffen? 

^•*^"'- ltt»rauf?ttH>stt? 
A. torn ? toa^ ? 

NoM. Who ? what ? 

Gen. whose? 

Dat. to whom ? to what ? 

Ace. whom ? what ? 

SB e r, who, has no plural, and relates only to per- 
sons, without distinction of sex, as who in English. It 
may be used instead of berjenige, tt)dd)er, he who. 

uHa^f which, has no plural, and always relates to a 
thing. It often stands for ba^jcnige, tt>elc^^ or bo^, wet 
C^^, that which. 

To answer. 2Cttt»orteiu» 

To answer the man. ^Dcni ^onnc ontR)Otteiu 

• The verb antttorten is inseparable, although the accent rests upon tha 
particle ant; it governs the accusative with the prepoE ition auf, to. ^Ott* 
toorten, to answer, governs the accusative without a preposition. 



To answer the men. SHn SKanncrn apnpwtitu 

To answer a lotter. 2(uf cin^n $ricf onttvortcn or einca 

JBricf bcontiwrtcn. 

To it. 5)Qrouf. 

To answer iu ©arouf ontrocrten or i^n {tf) htanU 


Obs. A. The demonstrative local adverbs, ba, there ; 
6«r, here ; ttX), where ; are usually employed insteaij 
of demonstrative pronouns, and connected with the 
preposition which the verb requires. If the preposi- 
tion begins with a vowel, the letter r is added to the 
words ba and tt>o for the sake of euphony. 

In, 3 n (governs the dat and a45C ). 

In the. 3 n bent (ini/ reetf*). 

Into the. 3 n ^ c n (motion). 

In the. 3n ^cn (rest). 

Into the. 3 n M e (motion). 

To ffo into the garden. 3n ten Oortcn ge^en*. 

To be in the garden. Sn bcni (tm) ®flrtcn fetn* 

To go into the gardens. 3n bte ®artcn gcfjen*. 

To be in the gs^ens. 3n ten (^amn fcin^ 

Obs. B. The rapidity of pronimciation has led to a 
contraction of the last letter of the definite article with 
certain prepositions which precede it ; thus bcim is of- 
ten said instead of bet bem^ \m instead of ia bem^ tn^ in 
the accusative neuter instead of in ba^* 

According to this contraction we may say or write : 

Xm, near the, for an Unu ^^ti, for the, for ffir M. 

M, to the, againsi 3ni/ in the, — in bcnu 

the, — an bo& 3n^/ into the, — in txi^ 

Xufi, npon the, — auf »og. 8Som/ from the, — ten bcnu 

»<im,at the, — bci tenu 3um, to the, — au t)cnu 

2)iroft<, through the, — tutc^ta^. 3ur, to the, — ju boc 

The theatre, ba« JSl)catcr ; 

the forest, the wood, bet SBatb (plnr. bie ©tftber) ; 
the warehouse, ba^ ©aorcnlogct (is not softened iv 

the plur.) ; 

* The preposition i n is used when the place in which a person ia, or to- 
wirds wnich the motion is directed, is closed, or conceived to be so. Ii is 
fcUowed by the datiTe to the question tt) o , and the accusative to tlie questinn 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


^e sloiobouse, ba^ ajcrratb^hauf ;• 

the ma^zine, bo£ 9)2aga^:n (plor. t) ; 

the provision, store, ttt iCcrrat^ ; 

the room, the chamber, bog 3tmmcc ; 

the butcher, tcr 5tcifd)cr (bee SKcft^er). 

To ^0 into. 4btnein(jcMn*- 

To be in the. I) Q t i n *f e i n •• 

Do you wish to go to the thea- SBcQen ^tc xH Sweater gc^en ? 

I wish to go thither. 3c^ roiH f)in«tn gc^en. 

Is your brother in the theatre % 3ft 3ftr Stubet im ^^catcr ? 
He is there. ©t ift bfltin. 

Ohs. C, The above examples show how b a r f c 
* expresses rest in, and ^ t n e i it motion towards, the 
interior of a closed place. 


"Will you answer your friend 1 — ( will answer him. — But whom 
will you answer! — I will answer my good father. — Will you nol 
answer your cfood friends? — ^I will answer them. — ^Who will 
answer me? — The Russian wishes to answer you, but he cannot.^ 
Will the Russian write me a letter 1 — He will write you one. — Can 
the Spaniards answer us t — They cannot answer us, but we can 
answer them. — Wliat has the Englishman to dol — He has to 
answer a letter. — ^Which letter has he to answer t — He has to 
answer th^t of the good Frenchman t — Have I to answer a letter 1 

You have not to answer a letter, but a note. — Which note have I 
to answer ^ — You have to answer that of the great captain. 


Have we to answer the letters of the great merchants t — We 
have to answer them. — Will you answer the note of your tailor?— 
I will answer it. — Will any one answer my preat letter ? — No one 
will answer it. — ^Will your father answer this or that note ? — He 
will answer neither this nor that. — Which notes will he answer T— 
He will answer only those of his good friends. — Will he answer 
me my letter ? — He will answer it you. — Will your father go any- 
whither ? — He will go nowhither. — Where is your brother ? — He is 
in the c^arden of our friend. — ^Where is the Englishman ? — He is io 
his little garden. — Where do we wish to go to? — We wish to fo 
into the garden of the French. — ^Where is your son? — He is in his 
room. — Will he go to the magazine ? — He will go thither. — Will 
you go to the ?reat theatre ? — I will not go thither, but my son has 
a mind to go ttiither. — Where is the Irishman ? — He is in the the- 
atre.— Is the American in the forest? — He is there. 

< lb compound words the last only is softened. Ex. H€ SBorratf»f^flU^ 
the *iorehu!i8e; plur. bie JBorrat^«^4ufcr. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Wm you come to me in order to go to the forest 1 — 1 Lave no 
V«hto go to the forest. — ^To which theatre do you wish to got— 

I wish to ?o to the great theatre. — Will you go into my garden, or 
hso that of the Dutchman? — 1 will go neither into yours nor into 
i^at of the Dutchman; I will go into the gardens of the French.— 
Will yoa go into those of the Germans ?— I will not go thither (tin' 
mV — Have the Americans great warehouses 1 — ^They have some.— 
flavB the English great stores 1 — ^They have some. — Have the Ger^ 
Sans as many warehouses as stores 1 — ^They have as many of the 
'httet as of the former. — Will you see our great stores ?— ^I will go 
bto yoQT warehouses in order to see them. — Have you much hay 
in yo JT storehouses 1 — We have a great deal, but we have not 
•DOBgh com. — ^Do you wish to buy some 1 — We wish to buy some. 
—Have we as much corn as wine in our storehouses 1 — We have 
«B much of the one as of the other. — Have the English as much 
doth as paper in their warehouses 1 — They have more of the one 
than of the other in them (torin). — Has your father time to write 
me a letter t — He wishes to write you one, but he has no time to- 

. day. — When will he answer that of my brother 1 — He will answer 

II to-morrow. — Will you come to my house in order to see my 
' Cieat warehouses 1 — 1 cannot come to your house to-day ; I have 

leCteis to write. 

THIRTIETH LESSON.— nirmeigfile taction. 

Upon. 2( u f (governs the dat. and ace "^t 

f7«mt fK^ C 2C u f t) e m (repose*). 

Upont%f. l^Cuf Den, bod (action). 

The market, bcr S)2atft ; 

the ball, bee JBoIl ; 

the country, bfl< 8anb ; 

the place (the square) bee $(a$; 

the field, ba« ^c(b. 

To be at the market. 2(uf bem SKatfte*' fein*. 

To eo to the market. 2Cuf ben SWarft ge^en*. 

To be at the ball. 2(uf bem SBaUe fcin*. 

T*> go to the ball. 2(uf ben ©ott ge^cn*. 

To be in the country. Kuf bem ?anbe fein*. 

To go into the country. 2(uf bag 2anb gcften*. 

> Tha prepoeition auf, upon, is used when the place b not closed, bul opeOi 
k The genitive sin^ar of masculine and neuter nouns sometimes termi* 
auea in &, and sometimes in e d (except those in el, en, er, c^en and 1 e t a 
wWch aJwayv take «). These forms are equally good ; but the former is 
ttore frequently used in conversation, and the latter in composition. The 
■UK distinction ought to be (rfMerved with regard to the dative sircar of 
aasciiliDe and neuter nouns, which takes e w^n the enitive takes e ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



To beat the place (in the sqnare). 2(uf bfnt 9(o|c fetn*« 
To ^ to the place. 2(uf ben ^(a^ gchcn** 

To be in the field. 2(uf bcm 7?«?(be fcin*. 

To go into the field. 2(uf .bag Jclb gcfjcn*. 

A^ 2C n (dat. and ace). 

At the. Tin bcm (repose^). 

To the. Tin ben, t>ai (action) 

The window, bn^ 'S^n^icx, 

To go to the window. Tin bag 5«-'ttRcr ge^en*. 

To stand, ©tcben*. 

To stand at the window. Tin bcm Jcnflcc ftcbcn*. 

To write .0 somebody. {ILS.WS"* 

Axe you willing to write to me J J ^11 g rffiffir ^ 

I am willing to write to you. ^ ^^ ^. ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^.j,^„^ 

I wish to write to the man. 34 ^^^ ^^ ben SKann fc^reibeii. 

To whom 7 ' Tin to en 1 

To whom do yon wish to write t Tin wen tocUin ©le fc^tei^m ? 

Tome, to him. Tin mi (ft, an i^n. 

To the man. Tin ben ^onn. 

I will write to him. 3cft to\\l i^m fc^ret6en* 

TowhomJ SKem? 

To mtf, /o him. 9)1 i r , i M^ 

To whom do you wish to write 1 gOBem weltcn ©ic fcftrctben ? 
To the man. S)em 9}lanne. 

The nobleman, bet (Sbrtmann ;* 

the boatman, bet ®d)tffmann ; 

the bailiff, bee Kuitmann ; 

people, Scute (plur.). 


Whither do you wish to go ! — I wish to ^o to the market 
Where is your cook 1 — He is at the market. — Where is my brolherl 
— He is at the ball.— Will you come to me in order to go to the 
ball 1 — I will come to you in order to go thither. — Is your father in 
the country 1 — He is there. — Do you wish to go to the country t— 
I do not wish to go there. — ^Whither does your son wish to go?— 
He wishes to go to the great place. — Is your friend at the great 
place 1— He is there. — Does the Englishman wish to go into the 
country in order to see the fields ? — He does not wish to go iotf 

• 2tt» at, by, near, points out proximity to a person or a place. 
« For subBtantivefl termmating in mamt, see LeMon XVIL 


ihd eoontry in order to see the fields, but to see the forests, the 
btnb, the water, and to drink tea. — ^Where is the son of the 
peasant 1 — He is in the field to cut some com (cutting corn).— • 
Does the son of the nobleman wish to go anywhither 1 — He does not 
wish to ffo anywhither ; he is tired. — ^Whither does the son of the 
bailiff wish to carry corn 1 — He wishes to carry some to the store- 
boose of your brother. — Does he wish to carry thither the wine 
tad the meat 1 — He wishes to carry both thither. 


Is the friend of the Spaniard able to carry provisions 1 — He is 
able te carry some. — Whither does he wish to carry provisions 1 — 
He wishes to carry some to our storehouses. — Do you wish t*^ buy 
provisions in order to carry them to our storehouses t — ^I wish to 
buy some in order to take them into the country.— Do yon wish to 
go to the window in order to see the youth 1 — ^I have no time to go 
to the window. — Have you anything to do 1 — I have a letter to 
write. — ^To whom have you a letter to write 1 — I have to write one to 
nay friend. — Do you wish to write to the bailifi*? — I wish to write 
to him. — ^What do you wish to write to him ! — I wish to answei 
bixQ his letter.— Are you able to write as many letters as 1 1 — I am 
ible to write more of them than you. — Can you write to the (an 
lU) noblemen t — ^Ican write to them. — Have you paper to write 1 — ^I 
have some.— Is the bailiff able to wiite to anybody 1 — He is not 
able to write to anybody. 


Have you time to stand at the window 1 — I have no time to 
stand at the window. — Is your brother at home 1 — He is not at 
home.— Where is he 1 — ^He is in the country. — Has he anything to 
do in the countiy ?— He has nothing to do there. — Whither do you 
wish to go 1 — I wish to go to the theatre. — Is the Turk in the 
tbeatret — He is there, — Who is in the garden 1 — ^T^e children of 
the English and those of the Germans are there. — W here does your 
&tber wish to speak to me 1 — He wishes to speak to you in hit 
room. — ^To whom does your brother wish to speak t — He wishes to 
•peak to the Irishman. — Does he not wish to speak to the Scotch- 
man I — ^He wishes to speak to him. — Where will he speak to him 1 
—He will speak to him at (in) the theatre. — Does the Italian wish 
to jipeak to anybody 1 — He wishes to speak to the physician.^- 
Where will he speak to him ? — He will speak to him at the ball. 


Can you send me some money 1 — I can send you some. — How 
mneh money can you send me 1 — I can send you thirty- two 
erowBS. — When will you send me that money? — I will send it to 
you to-day. — Will you seni it to me into the country 1 — I will send 
it to you thither. — Will you send your servant to the market 1 — I will 
send him thither. — Have you anything to buy at the market t— 
1 kav« to bay good cloth, good boots, and good shoes.— What doea 



tine botcher wish to do in the coantry 1 — He wishes to bay thci^ 
oxen and rams in order to kill them. — Do you wish to buy a chick^ 
en in order to kill iti — I wish to buy one; but 1 have not tb^ 
courage to kill it. — Does the boatman wish to kill any one ! — lU 
loes not wish to kill any one. — Have you a desire to burn my let- 
ters 1 — 1 have not the courage to do it. — ^Will the servant seek mj 
knife or my paper! — He will seek both. — Which knife do yoq 
wish (to have) ? — I wish (to have) my large knife. — What oxei^ 
does the butcher wish to kill 1 — He wishes to kill large oxen.-^ 
What provisions does the merchant wish to buy t — ^He wishes to 
Suy good provisions. — Where does he wish to buy themt — He 
wishes to buy them at the market. — ^To whom does he wish to send 
them ? — He wishes to send them to our enemies. — Will yon send 
ne one more book 1 — I will send you several more. — Are you able 
to.drink as much as your neighbour ? — I am able to drink as much 
as he ; but our friend, the Russian, is ab Ib to drink more than both 
of us (mir bctbe). — Is the Russian able to drink as much of this 
wine as of thati — He is able to drink as much of the one as of the 
other. — Have you anything good to drink 1 — I have nothing to 

THIRTY-FIRST LESSON.— Cin ntib breiaelgsu 

The comer, tcr ©infet ; 

the fountain (well), bcr ©runncn (is not softened 'n 

the plur.) • 
the hole, ba^ Coc^. 

To leave^ to let. 2 o f f c n •. 

To go for^ to fetch. ^ 1 C n. 

To send for. ^otcn (offctt*. 

I leave —he leaves. 3d) taffe — cr (fipt 

We leave— they leave. SBtr (ajfcn — f!e (flffetl. 

You leave. " S^c (affct (Sic (affen). 

Ohs. A. The particle J U , does not precede the infi* 
nitive joined to the verb laffeit. Sec Lesson XL. Ex; 

We send for bread. fflSir (flffcn ©rct> ^c(cn. 

Wo wish to send for wine. SBir rooUcn 2Bcin l)olcn taffen. 

To go for it, to fetch it. Sbn or e^ f)ctcn. 

To go for some, to fetch some. aBc(d)cn, n>c(d^c$ ^ctcn. 

Thou iD u* 

• In addresaing one another, the Germans use the second person nnguht 
W»a third person plural. The second person singular ^U, thou, is used : 1. 
In addresMng the Supreme Being ; %. in subline or serioos style and in poetrf i 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


IVm lust — Ihoa ait. 2)u ^jt — 2)u Hft 

Art tboo fatigrued t SBtfl X>u niUte 7 

1 tt not fatigued. 3d) bin nid)t mdbe. 

Ttou wilt (wishest), — thoa art 2)u wiafl — 5)u fonnft 

aye (canst). 
Art thoa willing to make my firel SBiUfl 2)u mctn Jcucr onnwd)CP ^ 
I sw willing to make it, but I 3c^ voiU U anma&^in, obit tc^ (ann 

eumot. nic^t. 

Thou Icavest. 2)u ((Sffcf!. 

TAy. Sing. 2) e i n. Plur. iD « t n <*. 

To be obliged (mmst). SK ft f f e n *. 

I UBst — he must. 3d) nmf — w niuf. 

We must — ^they must. ©it mfiffen — fie niftlfcn. 

TWtt must — ^you must. 3)tt mu^ — 3()t mfiffct or niftpt 

(©t€ mfiffen). 

Ofe. JB. The infinitive joined to the verb tnuffen is 
not preceded by the particle jit. (See Lesson XL) 

We must work! Sffitc mfiffen artetten. 

Most you write a letter to your SWiiffcn ©te S^rem ©tuber etnen 

brother 1 JBctcf fd)rciben ? 

h he obliged to go to the market ? «02ug er auf l>en QMatft ge^en ? 
He b obliged to go thither. Qt muf babtn geben. 

What hast thou to do 1 2Bag ^a(l 2)u ju t^un ? 

I hare nothing to do. 3d) b<»be nitbtS }u tftun. 

What hast thou to drink 1 SBoft bofl iDu gu trinfcn ? 

1 bare nothing to drink. 3d) ()abc nid)t^ ju trinfcn. 

What has the man to do 1 SBo^ b<^t bet a}{ann ju t()un ? 

He is obliged to go into the Qt mup in ben SBotb gei)en. 


■n»iseTe»i»g(to.mght). | f ^Sl^''**"''"'''^* 
I. «. evening. } ^ K* ^^"•'^^^• 

llu. coming. fSSSi"*'""'"^- 

In^eo-o^ing. | } f^^^^^"* <^"''^^*>- 

3. it k a Bark of fotiniacy amonff fHendi, and is employed by parents and 
cfafldren, brothers and sisters, husbands and wives, towards one another : in 
general it implies &miliarity founded on afiection and fondness. In noUte 
coBversatkm, persons always address each other in the third person iMuraL 
Tbe third per&on singular and second person plural also, especially the fomv. 
tre frequently used towards inferiors, as servants, ^c m writing, the f^^ 
BooDBof address : ^ ®ic and 3f)r, have a capital initial letter 
k $fhi nd ^cinc, thy, are decliuMl exactly as meitt and autu. nf. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

KXKRCI8K8. 64. 

Wifl you ffo for some sugar 1 — ^I will gc for some. — Son ^^d«\ 
6of)n), wilt Jhcu go for some water? — Yes, fkther (mcin 2?atcr), 1 
will go for boir.e>. — Whither wilt thou ^o 1 — I will go to the wgIJ 
m order to fetch »ome water. — Where is thy brother 1 — He is at 
the well. — Will yv\x send for my son? — I will send for him. — | 
Will the captain scnu lOr my child? — He will send for him (c^). — 
Where is he 1 — He is in a corner of the ship. — Can you make a 
hole in the (with accusavive) table? — ^I can make one. — ^Art thoo 
anle to write a letter to me?— I am able to write one to you. — 
Must I go any whither? — Thou must go into the garden. — Must I 
send for anything ? — Thou must send for good wine, good cheese, 
and good bread. — What must I do ? — You must write a long letter. 
— ^To whom must I write a long letter ? — You must write one tc 
your friend. 


What must we do ? — ^You must go into the forest in order to 
cut some wood. — What has the Englishman to do? — He has 
nothing to do. — Has the Spaniard anything to do ? — He has to 
work. — ^Where can he work ? — He can work in hfe room and in 
mine. — ^When will you give me some money ? — I will give yon 
some this evening. — Must I come to your house ? — You must come 
to my house. — When must I come to your house ? — This morning. 
— Must I come to your house in the morning or in the evening ?— - 
You must come in the morning and in the evening. — Whither 
must I go ? — You must go to the great square in order to speak to 
the merchants. — Where must the peasant go to ? — He must go into 
the field in order to cut some hay. — Must I keep anything (forj 
you (3bn«n) ?— You must keep (for) me (niir) my good gold and 
my good works. — Must the children of our friends do anyUiing 1— 
They must work in the morning and in the evening. — What must 
the tailor mend (for) you ? — He must mend my old coat (for) me. 
— Which chicken must the cook kill? — He must kill this and 
that. — Must 1 send you these or those books ? — You must send 
uib (both) these and those. 

THIRTY-SECOND LESSON.-g^toei uttb btelteigeU 

As far as. S3i ^ (an adverb of place). 

How far? fSH njcf)tn ? (See Lesson XXVII, 

Rule 2.) 
Kb far as the comer. SBH In ben $ffitn!et. 

Vb far as the end of the road. SBU an tai (&oU M SBcget. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Hie end, 
I the end (the extremitj) 

i Ae road, the way, 

To the bottom of the cask. 
To the bottom of the well. 
T9 tbe bottom of the wells. 

The bottom, 
the garret, 
the groandi 
the cask, 
the purse, 

I go, am going — ^he goes. 

t>ai Qntt (has no plural) ; 
Hi ©nbe (plur. tic (Sntcn) ; 
bcr SBeg. 

231$ auf t>en 5Bobcn beg Jaffc^ 
S5U ouf ben Orunb M 93runne«i 
5Bt$ auf ben (Srunb bee S3cunn«u 

ber SBoben ; 
ber SBobcn ; 
bee ©ninb ; 

ber JBeuteL 
is 3* ge^e — er ge^et or ge^t 

We ^, are going — they go, are SBit: ge^en — fit ge^en. 

vhou goest, art going— yon go, SDu ae^eft or ge^fl — 3()t yl^ « 

are going. ge^t (^ie ge^en). 

All, every, 2C(L 

Sl{{/ is declined like the definite article. It is nevei 
preceded or followed by an article, but may be so by 
& pronoun. 

Every day. 
Every morning. 
Every evening. 


At what o'clock 1 
At what time 1 
At one o'clock. 

At half past three. 
At a quarter past one. 
At a quarter past eleven. 
At a quarter to one. 
At twelve o'clock. 
At twelve o'clock at night (mid- 

The quarter. 

At present, now. 

To go out. 

To remain^ to stay. 

t OTe Sage, 
t 2Cne sDJergen. 
t 2(ae 2(benb. 


Urn wtet)te( U^t? 
Urn wti&it Sett ? 
Urn etn€ or urn ein Ul^t.* 


t Urn ^al6 Diet. 
+ Urn ein SSiettet auf g»cL 
t Urn ein $8terte( auf aw9(|l 
t Urn bcel asiertel auf mU 
Urn ffohii or urn aio9(f U^ 
Urn SRtttetnai^t. 

ba^ SStetteL 


» let ben*. 


• tt|r dgnifies clock, watch, and not hour, which is translated by @timb^ 
When we say: 3Bict)teI U§r t{l e9? it means: mimH ijl c9 ouf ber U^vl 
How nmch is it upon the clock I For this reason we may leave oat the woil 
tt^t, when v*e say: urn eins, am sn>Mf, as above. • 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


When du 70a wish to go out ? 

I wish to go out now. 

To remain (to stay) at home. 

83knn wotfcn @te aui^^cm f 
3d) wtU ;f|t au^cfinu 
3u |)auf< blciben* 



To remain here. 

^icr Mcibcn*, 


2) a. 

To remain there. 

2)a btabcn*. 

Are you going to your brother ! 

I am going to him. 

We are— they are. 

You are. 

We have — they have. 

You have. 

Are your brothers at home ! 
They are at home. 
They are not at home. 
Are the men thirsty ! 

Have your friends my books! 
They have them not. 
Have they time to writ© 1 

To thee. 

3d) gcbe gu t^m. 

(Bit fint) — pe finb. 

3f)C fcib (Bit finb). 

JBtc ^Qbcn — fxc ^Qbciu 

Z^t l)ahit or ^oOt (@ie ^abcn) 

©inb 3&te Srfibcc gu |>aufe ? 
@tc ftnb 5U |>aufe. 
6te ftnb nt(^t )u j^auf?. 
@tnb bte a)2Snnet burfttg? 

4c>abcn 3bce ^eunbe metne SBftc^l 
@te b^ben fie ntc^t 
^oben fie Sett ^u fc^rei6en ? 

3)ir (dative). 
Dtc^ (accusative). 

O65. Do and am, when used as auxiliaries, are nevei 
expressed in German. Ex. 

Do you wish to take me to my 

father ? 
I wish to take thee to him. 
Are you wiFing to give me a 

I am willing to give thee one. 
Am I going to him t 
Thou art not going to him, but 

to me. 

SBctlen @ie mxdj 5U metnem fBata 

fttbrcn ? 
3c6 Witt ©id) ju ifem fSftrcn. 
SBcUcn @ie mic ein 97{effct gebeii ? 

3d) witt iDIc eln$ gc6cn. 
®cf)c id) ju tbm ? 

£)u ge^cfl ntc^t ju t()m/ fenbent ju 


How far do you wish to go 1 — ^I wish to go as far as the end d 
the forest. — How for does your brother wish to go 1 — He wishg 
to go as far as the end of that road. — ^How far does the wine gof 
— It goes to the bottom of the cask. — How far does tlie w^ter go ? 
—It goes to the bottom of the well. — Whither art thou going! — 
i am Koing to tlie market. — Whither are we going?— We are going 
Into the coimtiy. — Are you going as far as the square t— I u» 



gviag as for as the fountain. — ^Wlien does your cook go to thm 
Bnrket 1 — He goes there every morning. — Can you speak to the 
nobleman 1 — I can speak to him every day. — Can 1 see your 
6ther 1 — ^You can see him every evening. — At what o'clock can I 
•ee him t — ^You can see him every evening at eight o'clock. — Will 
you come to me to-day 1 — I cannot come lo you to-day, but to-mor- 
ww. — At what o'clock will you come to-morrow 1 — 1 will come at 
half past eight. — Can you not come at a quarter past eight 1 — 1 
eaoDot. — At what o'clock does your son go to the captain 1 — He 
roes to him at a quarter before one. — At what o'clock is your 
meod at home 1 — At midnight. 


Have you a mind to go outi — I ha^e no mind to go out. — ^When 
vJl you eo out t — ^I will go out at half past three. — Does your 
^ther wish to go out 1 — He does not wish to go out ; he wishes to 
remain at home. — Are you willing to remain here, my dear (Ucb) 
friend % — I cannot remain here, I must so to the warehouse. — Must 
you go to your brother 1 — I must go to him. — At what o'clock must 
yott write your letters t — ^I must write them at midnight. — Do you 
go to your neighbour in the evening or in the morning 1 — 1 go to 
&Da (both) in the evening and in uie morning. — Where are you 
foing lo now t — I am going to the play. — ^Where are you ^oing to 
*o-iiight 1 — 1 am going nowhither ; I must remain at home m order 
» write letters. — Are your brothers at home 1 — They are not there. 
— ^Where are thev 1 — ^They are in the country. — Where are your 
fiienda going tof — ^They are going home. — Has your tailor as 
oanj children as your shoemaker 1 — He has quite as many of them 

aer). — Have the sons of your shoemaker as many boots as their 
er 1— They have (bcren) more than he.^Have the children of 
3n hatter as much bread as wine 1 — They have more of the one 
iban of the other.— Has our carpenter one more son 1 — He has 
aeveral more.— Are the Italians thirsty 1 — ^They are thirsty and 
Junngry.— Have they anything^ to do 1— They have nothing to do.— 
Are ^e children of the Irish hungry or thirsty 1 — ^They are neither 
hungry nor thirsty, but fatigued. 


Have you time to go out 1 — ^I have no time to go out.— What 
have you to do at home ? — 1 must write letters to my friends.— 
Must you sweep your room ? — I must sweep il.— Are you obliged 
to lend your brothers money 1 — I am obliged to lend them some- 
Must you go into the garden t^I must go thither.^At what o'clock 
nost you go thither 1 — ^I must go thither at a quarter past twelve. 
-*Aie you obliged to go to my father at eleven o'clock at night 
(UcRl^) % — I am obliged to go to him at midnight. — Wlierc are 
Ae brothers of our bailiff 1— They are in the great forest in order 
« eat great trees.— Have they money to buy oread and wine 1— 
They have some.— Are our children wrong in going (ju 9e!)cn) to 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


the English t — They are not wrong in goin^ (m ge^en) to thraii.-^ 
Must the children of the French goto the children of the English 1 
• — ^They must go to them. — Is the Russian right in remaining (jn 
Wcibcn) with the Turk 1 — He is not wrong in remaining with him. 
— Will you send for some wine and glasses? — ^I will neither send 
for wine nor for glasses ; I am not thirsty. — Is thy father thirsty 1 
— He is not thirsty. — Are you willing to give me some money in 
order to go for some hread 1 — ^I am willing to give yoa some in 
order to go for some bread and beer. 

TfflRTY.THIRD LESSON.— Ulrei tmb IrreissigsU 

To sell. 

To tell, to say* 

To tell a man. 
The word, 
the favour, 
the pleasure, 

To ffive pleasure. 

To do a favour. 

Will you tell the servant to 

make the fire t 
T will tell him to make it. 
Will you tall the servant to buy 

a broom t 
I will tell him to buy one. 


What o'clock is it t j 

It is three o'clock. 
It is twelve o'clock. 
It is a quarter past twelve. 
It wants a quarter to six. 
It is half past one. 

To be acquainted with (to know). 

To be acquainted with (to know) 

a man. 
Do you know (are you acquainted 

with) this man 1 
I know him (am acquainted with 


@ a 9 c n. 

@tncm ^anm fagen. 
tag SBort; 
bet ©cfaflcn ; 
tag iBergn0gen. 
SSergnfigcn nia<^cn. 
QxMn ©efaUcn tf^un'*'. 

fBctlcn ^te bcm JBctttnten fagen, 

bag $cuet an^utnac^en ? 
3(^ lotU i^m fagcn, eg an^umac^cn. 
SBoScn @ie bem S3cbtentcn fagnv 

etncn ©efcn ga faufen 7 
3^ win t^m fageti/ einm $a taufetu 

(Sp&t. . 

[f SBicfpiftiflcg? 
) t aSicMcl U^t ifl eg 7 
' eg tft brct Uf)r. 

(5-g tfl jroStf (^(f Ufir). 

t @g tfl ein liBimct auf cing. 

t (Si tft brct SSicrtel auf fc<^«. 

t (5g ij! Wb jwci. 

^ e n n c n (governs the accns.^ 
(Sincn ?»lcnfc^en fenncn*. 

Bennett ®te btefcn 932ann 7 

3(^ fenne tgm 

y Google 


Ta^^ant CSZStHs N b c ti * (goTenis thf 

■* »•«"*' ^ accusatiye). 

Toheinu^ntcf | »^\«iJ^,^9/ ''«"' (K"'*™* *« 

I WBBt it. 3d) f)a(>e c6 n^t^tg. 

I SB in want of it. 3ci) Otn ^efTcn (Kn9tf)tat (See Left- 
son XVI.) 

Do joa want this hati ^oben @te tteftn $ut nSt^tg? 

Are yon in want of this bat % ^inb 6te ttcfi*^ ^ute5 knStf)tgt 7 

I want iu 3d) (l^be if)n n5tf)tg. 

i am in want of it. 3d) bin t)effen bcnSt^tgt. 

Do yon want this money 1 ^aben @te biefc^ 6)clb nct^tc) ? 
Are yon in want of this money % ^tnt @te ttcfc^ ©ctbe^ bcnct^tgt 7 

I want iu 3d) babe ef^ nStbtg. 

1 am in want of it. 3d) bin tcffcn ben^t^t^t. 

I do not want it. 3d) ^cSit c6 nid)t netbtg. 

I am not in want of it. 3d) bin beffcn nt^t bcnjitl^tgt. 

1 ITin w^'t of some. \ 3* »'»*' »''**« "^'^'S- 

I f » wT'1l?:f ,«^ J 34 ftfl6e fctn« nStfjig. 

I am not m want of any. J 

06*. -4. S5en6t^igt fdn*, must never be used when 
the noun is not preceded by a determinative word like 
the definite article, or a pos&essive or demonstrative 

Whatf fSa^? 

ff£ t7"urwL on \ ^^ ^^- ®« »«^'9 ? 

O65. 5. All the cases oi the personal pronoxms 
have been more or less employed thus far, except the 
genitive, which is as follows : 

Of m&— of thee— of him. SKetncr — iDclnec — fetncr. 

Of ns— of yott— of them. Unfec — ©uer (3()wc) — i()rct (foi 

all genders). 
Is he in want of me 1 3ft cr mcincc bcn6t^i9t ? 

He is in want of you. &x if! 3brtfr bcnSt^iat. (See Let. 

son XVI.) 
Are yoQ in want of these hooks 1 ©inb Sie bicfcr 93ud)cr bcnot^igt 7 
I am in want of them. 3d) bin bcrfdbcn benctbigt. 

Is he in want of my brothers 1 3|t ft meincr 93tfibcr bcnfitbigt ? 
He is in want of them (£t ifl ibrcr bcnot^igt (See Le»» 

son XVI.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


E3nRClSE8. 69 

Will you do me a favour t — Yes, Sir, what one (toa^ f&t einen) \ 
-Will you tell your brother to sell me his horse 1 — I will tell hua 
to sell it you. — Will you tell my servants to sweep my large 
rooms ! — I will tell them to sweep them. — Will you tell your Bom 
to come to my father 1 — I will tell him to come to him. — Have yon 
anything to tell mel — I have nothing to tell you (put the dattva 
before the accus.). — Have you anything to say to my father 1—1 
have a word .to say to him. — Do your brothers wish to sell their 
carriage 1 — They do not wish to sell it. — John (^cbonn) ! art thou 
there (^a) 1 — Yes, Sir, I am here (ta). — Wilt thou go to my hatter 
to tell him to mend my hat 1 — I will go to him. — Wilt thou go to 
the tailor to tell him to mend my coats 1 — 1 will go to him. — ^Art 
thou willing to go to the market t — I am willing to go thither.— 
What has the merchant to sell t — He has beautiful leather glove*, 
combs, and good cloth to sell. — Has he any shirts to sell ? — He 
has some to sell. — Does he wish to sell me his horses ? — He 
wishes to sell them to you. 


is h latel — It is not late. — What o'clock is iti — It is a quarter 
past twelve. — At what o'clock does your father wish to go out ? — 
He wishes to so out at a quarter to nine. — Will he sell this or that 
hjrsel — He will sell neither this nor that. — Does he wish to buy 
this or that roat 1 — He wishes to buy both. — Has he one horse 
more to sell 1 — He has one more, but he does not wish to sell iu — 
Has ho one carriage more to sell 1 — He has not one more carnage 
to sell ; but he has a few more oxen to sell. — When will he sell 
theral — He will sell them to-day. — Will he sell them in the 
morning or in the evening 1 — He will sell them this evening. — At 
what o'clock t — At half past five. — Can you go to the baker 1 — I 
cannot go to him ; it is late. — How late is it 1 — ^It is midnight. 
—Do you wish to see that man 1 — ^I wish to see him, in order to 
know him. —Does your father wish to see my brothers 1 — He 
wishes to see them, m order to know them. — Does Ye wish to see 
my horse T — He wishes to see it. — ^At what o'clock does he wish 
to see it!— He wishes to see it at six o'clock. — Where does he 
wish to see it t — He wishes to see it in (auf) the great 8quare««> 
Has the German much com to sell 1 — He has but little to sell«— > 
What knives has the merchant to sell ? — He has good knives to 
sell. — How many more knives has he 1 — He has six uore. — Has 
the Irishman much more wine 1 — He has not much more. — Hast 
thou wiue enough to drink ? — I have not much, but enough. — Art 
thou able to drink much wine 1 — I am able to drink much. — Canst 
thou Hrink some every day ? — 1 can drink some every morning and, 
every evening. — Can thy. brother drink as much as t)iou1 — He cut. 
irlnk more than I. 

y Google 



Wbat are yon in want oft — I am in want of a good hat. — ^Ara 
fott in want of this knife 1 — I am in want of it. — Do you want 
mmej%^~l want some. — Does your brother want pepper? — He 
low not want any. — Does he want some boots ? — lie does not 
wmA any. — ^What does my brother want 1 — He wants nothing.-^ 
Who wants some sugar 1 — Nobody wants any. — Does anybody 
Viet money 1 — Nobody wants any. — Does your father want any* 
tfttn^l — He wants nothing. — What do I wantt — You want no- 
fttaff. — ^Art thou in want of my book ? — I am in want of it. — Is 
Ifaynther in want of itt — ^He is not in want of it. — Does your 
rand want this stick 1 — He wants it. — Does he want these or 
diQse corks 1 — He wants neither these nor these. — Are yrn in want 
of met — I am in want of thee. — When do you want mel — At 
puneiit. — What have you to say to me 1 — 1 have a word to say to 
tfaee. — ^Is your son in want of usi — He is in want of ycu and 
your brothers. — Are you in want of my servants 1 — I am in want 
of them. — Does any one want my brother 1 — No one wants him. 

THmTT-FOURTH LESSON.— t)wr nnb Irrmsiaste 


There is no distinction in German between : I love, 
do love and am loving. All these present tenses are 
eraressed by : tc^ Ke6e, I love. 

In the regular verbs the third person singular and 
aeeond person plural of the present tense indicative 
mode are alike, and terminate (even in most of the ir- 
regular verbs) in et or t The first and third persons 
ptoral in all German I'erbs are like the infinitive. 

To lave. S i c 6 e n. ' 

[ love, ( lores, 

C love, C lores, 1 

I -? do love, he < does love, >3d) Uebe, er ficbct or ticbi. 
( am loving. ( is loving. J 

"•""Krtlo'^^. '^"Ja^teng.S *«orUe«(SUUc6.„V 

i love, C love, 1 

We / do love, they-? do love, . >gBlt iUUn, fie IxtUtu 

t are loving ( are loving. } 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Obs. A* The letter e is often rejected in the secoi^ 
and third persons singular and in the second person 
plural of the present tense ; but never in verbs the 
root of which ends in b, t, t f), jl, or in two or more 
consonants, after which t or |l could not be distinctly 
pronounced, as in : fcnbett*, to send ; bu fcnbefl, er fenbrt^ 
3l)r feitbet; otbncn, to set in order ; bu erbnefl, er oitmet^ 
3^t erbnet, &c. On the other hand this contraction 
always takes place in verbs that end in e lit or er n, 
as : fd)nicicf)dn, to flatter ; bu fd)mdd)dfl, cr fd)meict)elt, 3^r 
fd)mrirf)dt ; finbent, to alter ; bu anberfl, er anbert, ^t)v an* 
bett (See Lesson XXIV. the Infinitive.) 

To want. 

Do you want your money 1 
I was* it. 

To set in order* 
To open- 
Do you open the window t 
I open i :. 

S3 1 a u d) e n (goyema the accusa 

©roud)en ©ie 35« ®e(b 7 
3c^ bcauci^e c^ 


£)effnen (outrnac^eii/aufjuniad^). 

g)?Qd)cn ^tc bog Scnjtct auf ? 
3c^ mad)e ci auf. 

Obs. B. German verbs are generally not irregular 
in the present tense, but rather in the imperfect and 
past participle. Some, however, are irregular in the 
second and third persons singular; and eus pupils 
should be acquainted with all the irregularities, "we 
shall always mark these two persons whenever they 
present any. Of those which we have seen already, 
the following are irregular in the second and third 
persons singular. 

To ffive : 

Siou giyest — he gives. 
To see : 

thou seest ^-he sees. 
To speak : 

thou speakest — he speaks. 
To take, to carry : 

thou earliest — ^he carries. 
To wash : 

thou washest — ^he washes. 
To hreak : 

thou hreakest — he breaks. 

©cl)cn* : 

SDu pc^ft — et fie^t 
©prcc^cn* : 

iDufpri(^fl — orfpti^t 
Scagcn* : 

5)u tragft — tt trdgt. 
8CBa(c^)cn* : 

3)u n)afd)e|l — et mflfiftt 

iDu aet^ci^fi— ct icr&riibt 



DO* Personal pronouns not standing in the nomina* 
tiTc, take their place after the verb. 

Do you love km f Z'uUn (Sic i ^ n ? 

I do love kim. 3(1) I'wbc i b n. 

I do not lovt» him. 3d) ttc6c t ^ n nx6)U 

Does the serrant swe^ the ^i\)vt Ut aSetiente bo^ Stmmrt 
room? au^t 

06*. C, In simple tenses, as the present or imper- 
fect, the separable particle is always placed at the 
end of the sentence ; unless this begins with a con- 
junction, a relative pronoun, or a relative adverb, in 
which case the particle is not separated from the verb, 
which then takes its place at the end. 

He sweeps it. Qv fcf)rt c^ qu^ 

Docs your father go out to-day 1 ®cf)t S^v aSatct !)cutc aui 1 

He does not go out to-day. (&t gefjt fjiixU ni^t au5. 


Do you love your brother I — ^I love him. — Does your father love 
toft 1 — He does not love him. — Dost thou love me, my good child 1 
^I love thee. — Dost thou love this ugly man 1 — I do not love him. 
—Does your father want his servant ! — He does want him. — Dost 
thou want anything 1 — I want nothing. — ^Does the servant open the 
window % — ^He does open it. — Dost thou open it 1 — I do not open 
it.— Dost thou set my books in order 1 — I do set them in order.— 
Does the servant set our boots or our shoes in order 1 — He sets 
(both) the one and the other in order. — ^Do our children love us 1^- 
They do love us. — Do we love our enemies 1 — We do not love 
them. — Do you want your money 1 — I do want it. — Do we want 
oar carriage 1 — ^We do want it. — Are our friends in want of their 
clotl-es (suiter) 1 — ^They are in want of them. — What do you give 
mel— I do not give thee anything. — Do you give my brother the 
hook t— T do give it him. — Do yoa give him a hat 1 — 1 do give him 


Dost thou see anjrthing 1 — I see nothing. — Do you see my large 
farden t — I do see it. — Does y our father see our ship 1 — He does 
oot see it, but we see it. — How many ships do you see 1 — We see 
a good many ; we see more than thirty of them. — Do you give me 
b(^k8? — ^I do give thee some. — ^Does our father give you money ? 
^He does not give us any. — Does he give you hats 1 — He does 
not give us any. — Do you see many sailors 1 — ^We see more 
•oldiers (t>fr ^etbat, plur. en) than sailors. — Do the soldiers see 
many storehouses % — ^They see more gardens than storehouses.—* 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Do the English give yoa good cakes ? — ^They do give us some 
Do you give me as much wine as beer t — 1 grjve thee as mu^h U 
the one as of the other. — Can you give me some more cakes 1 — I 
can give thee no more ; I have not many more. — Do you give me 
the horse which you have 1 — I do not give you that which 1 have*— 
Which horse do you give me 1 — I give you that of my brother. 


Do you speak to the Neighbour 1 — I do speak to him. — Does he 
f peak to you ? — He does not speak to me. — Do your brothers speak 
to you 1 — They do speak to us. — When dost thou speak to thy 
father] — I speak to him every morning and every evening. — What 
dost thou carry 1 — I carry a book. — Where dost thou carry it to I — ^I 
carry it home. — Do you wash your stockings 1 — I do not wash 
them. — Does your brother wash as many shirts as stockings I — He 
washes more of the one than of the other. — Hast thou many more 
stockings to wash 1 — I have not many more to wash. — How many 
more shirts have your friends to wash 1 — ^They have two more to 
wash. — What does your servant carry t — He carries a great teble. 
— What do these men carry t — They carry our wooden chairs. — 
Where do they carry them to 1 — ^They carry them into the large 
room of our brothers. — Do your brothers wash their stockings or 
ours 1 — They neither wash yours nor theirs ; they wash those ot 
Iheir children. 


Dost thou not break my glass t — No, Sir, 1 do not break it. — Do 
ilie sons of our neighbours break our glasses 1 — ^They do break them. 
— Who tears your books 1 — ^The young man tears them. — Do yoa 
not tear them 1 — I do not tear them. — Do the soldiers cut trees 1— 
They do cut some. — ^Do you buy as many hats as gloves ? — I boy 
more of the one than of the other. — Does your brother buy any 
bread? — He is obliged to buy some; he is hungry. — Do oui 
brothers buy any wine 1 — They are obliged to buy some ; they are 
thirsty. — Do you break anything. — We do not break anything.— 
Who breaks our chairs 1 — Nobody breaks them. — Dost thou dot 
BnyUiing 1 — I do not buy anything. — Who keeps (takes care of) 
our money 1 — My father keeps it. — ^Do your brothers take care of 
my books 1 — ^They do take care of them. — Dost thou take care of 
anything? — ^I do not take care of anything. 


Does the tailor mend our coats ? — He does mend them. — Wbat 
lost thou write 1 — I write a letter. — ^To whom dost thou write a 
letter 1 — ^To my father. — When does thy brother write his letters ? 
—He writes them in the morning and in the evening. — What dost 
^ou now. — I do nothing. — ^At what o'clock do you go to the ihe- 
»tre 1 — At a quarter past seven. — What o'clock is it now t — ^ll 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


viBis a quaiter to fix. — ^At what o*clock does your cook go to th« 
naikett— lie goes there at five o'clock (pat 6oI)tn to tiie end).— 
Dteske go thither in the evening? — No, he goes thither in the 
■oniiig^^-Do you go any whither! — ^I go no whither; but mv 
biMhers go into the garden. — Dost thou drink anything ? — I drink 
Botfaing ; but the Italian drinks good wine and good beer. — Do you 
•ead me one more book 1—1 do not send you one more. — Are you 
iBSvering his letter t — ^I am answering it. — Do^ he answer thine 1 
—He does answer it. — ^What do you say 1 — ^I say nothing. — Must 
Igirefaim money to remain here 1— You must give him some to 
go o«t«— Is this man selling anything 1 — He is selling good cakes. 
—What do you selll — ^I sell nothing ; but my friends sell nails, 
Ufes, and horse-shoes. — What does the man say ? — He says no« 
timig.— -What art thou looking fori — I am not looking for any- 

V*We dwald fill voIiiiDefl, were we to gi^e all the exercises that are applies • 
Ue to our feMons, and which the pupils may very easily compose by them- 
Mhei. We shall ttierefore merely repeat what we have already mentioned 
Ute commeDcement: pupils who wish to improve rapidly ought to compose 
a great many sentences in addition to those given ; bnt they must pronounce 
tkm akmd. This i* the only way by which they will acquire the habit of 
ipeakiDg fluently. 

THIRTY.FIFTH LESSON. — iftirf ttixb brrissigaU 

The pain, 

bet ^mcrj ; 


ber 3a()n ; 

the ear. 

ba^ £)^i; (is not softened 

takes en in the plur.) ; 



the ache. 

ta« SDBc^ (plur. en •) ^ 

the evil, 

ba$ Ue6eL 

Sore (iff, wicked)' 







^▼e you a sore finger 1 

( hare a sore finger. 

Has your brother a sore foot 1 

He has a sore eye. 

l^e hare sore eyes. 

^o6cn ©ie etnen Wfen Jtnget? 
3(^ f)a6e etnen b^fcn ^tnqer. 
i>oi 3bt ©ruber einen bifen JuP f 
(Sx !)Qt ein 66fe« Tfuge. 
SBir ^oben bofe Kugen. 

*^^ 2Bf b/ the ache, is employed in the plural only to denote the pangs ei 



rhe head-ache, tai jtepfioeb t^ 

the tooth-ache, tiai So^nmcf) ; 

the ear-ache, tai Dh^cnxoth ; 

a sore throat, ^al^DK^ ; 

a pain in one's back difidenfttmet). 

He has the head-ache. Gx I)ot Jtcpfl(()mct)eti.< 

I have the tooth-ache. 34 l)ai)i 3Q0nf4)nurjeik 

The elbow« bet Gtlbogen ; 

the back, bee diMcn ; 

the knee, ba^ itn'te*<* 

To bring. ' JBringen*. 

Tofind. gtnben*. 

That which {what). S^a^ (ba^ientge vod&iii, baS met* 

Oft*. 4. 3Ba^ is often used instead of bo^jenwe, toefr 
c^^ or ba^, tt>cld>e^, that which. (See Lesson XXIX.) 

Do yon find what you are look- gtnben ©te^ wo ^ ©te fud)en 1 

inff for t 
I find what I am looking for. 34 finbe/ tvo^ id) fuc^e. 
He does not find what he is look- Qx jtnbet nld)t/ too^ et fud)t 

inff for. 
We nnd what we are looking for. SS^it finben, toai wxx fud)en. 
I have what I want. 3* Ijabe, xoai id> broud)e. 

I mend what you mend. 3d) bcffere ou^, n>ad @ie au6be|> 


065. B. As the second member of this phrase be- 
gins with a relative pronoun, the particle aw^ is not 
separated from its verb which is removed to the end 
(See Obs. C. Lesson XXXIV. and rule of Syntax, Les- 
son XLVn.) 

Toread(thoureadestihereadsy. it\tn* (bu liefcjl, er fiefet oi 

To study. ©tubiren. 

To learn. 8 e r n e n . 

Obs. C. The particle ) « does not precede the infini- 
tive joined to the. verb Icmen, to learn. (See Lesson 
XL. Ex. 

* Compound words are of the gender of the last component which e 
die ftindamental or ffeneml idea. 

« <§d)mcr), pain', is here in the plural. In compound words, ®eb is em* 
ployed in the sinipilar, and ^(^mer) in the plural, thus : 3(^ ()abe Jtopfnr^ 
and : 3(^ bate .Ropffc^merjen, I hav£ the head-ache. 

' ^a6 Stnit, the knee, does not take an additional C in the plural and is ■• 
''wrtheless pronounced as if it did. 

y Google 

. 85 

t Uun to read. f 3(6 (mte (efnu 

He leains to write. t (St (crnt fd^reibem 

French, franjSiifcft (an adjectire*) ; 

English, ^ngtifc^ ; 

German, bcutfi^. 

Do yon learn German 1 ficmcn ©te bcutfcft ? 

I do leurn it. 3(ft (erne c^ 

I do not learu iu ^d^ (erne e^ ntc^t 


Where is your father 1 — He is at home. — Does he not go out I— • 
He is not able to go out ; he has the head-ache. — Hast thou the 
aead-echet — I have not the head-ache, but the eai^iche. — What 
day of the month is it (iDcn miemclflen ijahin m'xv, Lesson XXI) to- 
day 1 — ^It is the twelfth to-day. — What day of the month is (iDer 
nicmdfle ifl) to-morrow 1 — ^To-morrow is the thirteenth. — What 
teeth have you 1 — I have good teeth. — What teeth has your bro- 
ther 1 — He has bad teeth. — Has the Englishman the tooth-ache 1 — 
He has not the tooth-ache ; he has a sore eye. — Has the Italian a 
sore eye % — He has not a sore eye, but a sore foot. — Have I a sore 
finger? — ^You have no sore finger, but a sore knee. — Will you cut 
me some bread T — ^I cannot cut you any ; I have sore fingers. — 
Will anybody cut me some cheese 1 — ^>fobody will cut you any. — 
Are you looking for any one 1 — I am not looking for any one.^ 
Has any one the ear-ache ? — No one has the ear-ache. — What is 
the painter looking fori — He is not looking for anything. — Whom 
ve you looking for 1 —I am looking for your son. — Who is look- 
ing for me 1 — No one is looking for you. — Dost thou find what thou 
art looking for ? — I do find what I am looking for ; but the captain 
does not find what he is looking for. 


Who has a sore throat 1 — We have sore throats.— Has any one 
lore eyes 1 — ^The Gennans have sore eyes. — Does the tailor make 
ay coat 1 — He does not make it ; he has a pain in his back. — ^Does 
the shoemaker make my shoes 1 — He is unable (fann ntd)t) to make 
them ; he has sore elbows. — ^Does the merchant bring us beautiful 
pnpses (ber 53«utet) 1— He cannot go out ; he has sore feet.— Does 
the Spaniard find the umbrella which he is looking forl-^He does 
find it. — ^Do the butchers find the sheep which they are looking for 1 
—They do find them. — Does the tailor find his thimble 1 — He does 
not find it. — Dost thou find the paper which thou art looking for 1— 
I do not find it. — ^Do we find what we are looking for 1— We do 
not find what we are looking for. — What is the nobleman doing 1 
—He does what you are doing. — What is he doing in his room w 
He is reading. 

• Derived from ber 9rattiofe, the Frenchnuui. 

y Google 



Art thoa reading 1 — I am not readin^^. — Do the sons of the noble* 
men study ? — ^They do study. — What are they studying 1 — Thej 
are studying German. — ^Art thou studying English! — f hare ne 
time to study it. — Are the Dutch looking for this or that ship ?— 
They are looking for both. — ^Is the servant lookin? for this or that 
broom 1 — He is neither looking for this nor that — ^Who is learning 
German 1-^The sons of the captains and those of the noblemen are 
.•aming it. — When does your friend study French 1 — He studie* 
it in the morning. — At what o'clock does he study it 1 — He studies 
it at ten o'clock. — Does he study it every day ? — He studies it 
every morning and every evening. — What are the children of the 
carpenter doing ? — They are reading. — Are they reading Grenn<Ji ! 
—They are reading French ; but we are reading EnoHlish. — What 
books does your son read 1 — He reads good booKS.— -Does he read 
German books? — He reads French books. — What book do you 
read 1 — I read a German book. — ^Do you read as much as my chil- 
dren 1 — ^I read more than they. — Does your father read the book 
which I read ? — He does not read that which you read, but that 
which I read. — Does he read as much as I t^He reads less than 
YOU, but he learns more than you. — Do you lend me a book 1 — I do 
lend you one. — Do your friends lend you any books t— They do lend 

TfflRTY-SIXTH LESSON.— 0^cl)0 ntth brei00ig«U 

Spanish, fpantfc^ (an adjective *)• 

The termination ifi^ serves to form a<]yectives of the 
names of nation^. Thus : 






Arabian, Arabic, 

Syrian, Syriac, 

latnnifd) ; 
9ricd)ifd) ; 
arobifcfe ; 

The Pole, 

the Roman, 

the Greek, 

the Arab, the Arabian, 

the Syrian, 

bet g)o(e ; 
bet 9?5mct ; 
bcr ®ncdyt ; 
bcr Utab^ ' 

rived from <Bpanitn, Spam. 

Digitized by' 



An joQ a Frenchman ! 
. No, Sir, I am a German* 

bh? a tailor? 
\ No, he b a shoemaker. 
I He is a foci. 

To vis/h to desire. 

The fool, 

the moath, 

the memorj, 
Have yon a good memory 1 
He has a little mouth. 
Yoq; bi other kks blue eyes. 
Do you wish me a good morn- 
ing I 
I wish yon a good evening. 


Instead of* 

To play. 

To listen^ to hear. 

Instead of listening. 
Do you play instead of studying? 
1 study instead of playing. 
That man speaks instead of list- 

©tnb ©ie etn Jrnnjcfc ? 

^txn, metn ^ivc, i^ bin (in IDiufr 

Sil er cin ©d)neiber ? 
fJicin, cr ifl ein ©cbu^mocber, 
Qx t|i cin Sfjarr, 


bet 92arr (gen. en) ; 
bfc SKunb (has no plur.) ; 
bo6 (ScbficbtniS (plur. c). 
^atjcn ©ic cin gutc« (Sct&ditntp 1 
@t b«t cincn ftctncn «OTunb. 
Sbt »rubcr bat Wauc 2(uf^cn. 
SBJinfd)cn @te nut etnen guten 

sDicrgcn ? 
ScJ) roanfd)e 36nen cincn gwtcn 


Man ; 

2Cnflatt au. 
@ p i c ( c n. 

t 2fn|latt gu ftoren. 
t ©picfcn ©ie, anflott gu flubiren 7 
t 3d) jlubitc, anflatt gu fpictcn. 
t >Dicfi»t s0?ann fpri(()t, anjlatt $u 

i2(nf)3^^«n (onguWtcn, governs 
the accusative). 
3 u H t e n (jujubStcn/ governs 
the dative). 

C 3(ft Wi'^ t^n on. 
is* Wrcibmgu. 
To listen t some one or some- 2(uf Scnmnben obet ctmad f)8tcn. 

{^6ten ®ic auf ba«, njo« 3()ncn bet 
5)Wonn fagt? 
|)6rcn ®ic ouf bag, wag bet 5Kann 
I do listen to it. 3d) Wrc barauf." 

k «n|5tcil takes the person in the accusative, and jubftrrn in the daUvo. 
They never relate to a thing ; but ^5tcn auf stands either with the person of 

To listen to. 

I listen to him. 



He listens to what I :ell him. (5t ^ct anf Uii, eoci 14 igm fdj^ 

To correct fBetbcffctn, corrlgiten 

To take off (as the hat). K 6 n c ^ m < n ♦ (obguncbmcn). 

To take off (as clothes). 2( u « j i c ^ n * (au6jUjl<&m)» 

To take away. SBeg n e 6 men*. 

To take. Sie^men*. 

Thou takest, — he takes. 3)u ntmni|l, — et ntmmt 

Thou takest off thy hat. 2)u nimmfl iDdnen ^ut aK 

Do you take off your boots ? Bt<^(ien ®U 3^.re ©ticfdn att< I 

We take off our coats. flOBic ^cl)cn unfcrc fRMi ou^ 

Who takes a^ay the chairs % ®ct nimmt t>ie ©rilfjU wcg 1 

The servant takes them away. Det 5Bebicnte mrnuit (te me^ 


Do you speak Spanish 1 — No, Sir, I speak Italian. — Who speakt 
Polish ? — My brother speaks Polish. — Do our neighbours speak 
Russian 1 — ^They do not speak Russian, but Arabic. — Do you speak 
Arabic? — No, I speak Greek and Latin. — What knife have you * 
—I have an English knife. — ^What money have you there % — Is i 
Italian or Spanish money? — ^It is Russian money. — Have you ai 
Italian hat? — No, I have a Spanish hat. — Are you a German ?— 
No, I am an Englishman. — ^Art thou a Greek 1 — No, I am a Span 
iard. — Are these men Poles 1 — No, they are Russians. — Do the 
Russians speak Polish ? — ^They do not speak Polish, but Latin, 
Greek, and Arabic. — Is your brother a merchant 1 — No, he is a 
joiner. — ^Are these men merchants ? — No, they are carpenters. — 
Are we boatmen 1 — No, we are shoemakers. — ^Art thou a fool t — ^I 
am not a fool. — What is that man ? — He is a tailor. — Do you wish 
me anything? — ^I wish you a good morning. — What does the youns 
man wish met — He wishes you a good evening. — Whither must! 
go 1 — ^Thou must go to our friends to wish them a good day (iiog). 
—Do your children come to me in order to wish me a good evening I 
—They come V*. you in order to wish you a good morning. 


Has the nobleman blue eyes ? — He has black eyes and a little 
mouth. — Hast thou a good memorv ? — ^I have a bad memory, but 
much courage to learn German. — ^What dost thou (do) instep of 
playing 1 — I study instead of playing. — Dost thou learn instead of 
writing?— I write instead of learning. — What does the son of oul 
bailiff (do) ? — He ^oes into the garden instead of going into th6 
field.— -Do the children of our neighbours read ?— They write in- 
stead of reading. — What does our cook (do) ? — He makes a firs 

•he thing, and always requires the accusative. Ex. 3* ^5re iljn an, or ic^ ^6* 
re t^m |u, I listen to him ; but i^ ^bn auf ha9, toa0 ®te mir faatn, I listen n 
what you are telling mb. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Instead ct foing to the market. — Does your father sell his ox f-« 
He sells his horse instead of selling his ox. — Do the physicians 
goc;s:! — ^They remain in their rooms instead of going out. — Al 
wbat o'clock does our physician come to you 1 — He comes every 
momic^ at a quarter to nine. — Doei the son of the painter study 
EsC'ifcii ? — He studies Greek instead of studying English.-^Does 
tbel^cisher kill oxen ? — He kills sheep instead of killing oxen. — 
Do ycc listen to me 1 — I do listen to you. — Does your brouier listen 
to mel — ^He speaks instead of listening to you. — Do you listen to 
what 1 am telling you ? — I do listen to what you are telling me. 


Does the man listen to what you are telling him ? — He does listen 
to it. — Do the children of the physician listen to what we tell them 1 
—They do not listen to it. — Dost thou listen to what thy brother tells 
thee? — ^I do listen to it. — Do you go to the theatre 1 — I am going to 
the storehouse instead of going to the theatre. — ^Are you wflling to 
listen to me t — I am willing to listen to you, but I cannot ; 1 have 
the ear-ache. — Does thy father correct my notes or thine 1 — He 
eorreciB neither yours nor mine. — Which notes does he correct 1 — 
He corrects those which he writes. — Does he listen to what you 
tell him 1 — He does listen to it. — Do you take off your hat in order 
to speak to my father ?— I do take it off in order to speak to him.-^ 
Does thy brother listen to what our father tells him ? — He does 
listen to it. — Does our servant go for some beer 1 — ^He goes for 
some Tinegar instead of ^oing for some beer. — ^Do you correct my 
letter I — ^I do not correct it ; I have sore eyes. — Does the servant 
lake off his coat in order to make a fire t — He does take it off. — 
Do you take off your gloves in order to give me money ? — 1 do 
take them off in order to give you some. — Does he take off his 
ihoes in order to go to your house 1 — He does not lake them off.— 
Who takes away the tables and chairs ? — ^The servants take them 
iway. — ^Will you take away this glass 1 — I have no mind to take i* 
«ray. — Is he wrong to take off his boots 1 — ^He is right to take 
iem off. — ^Dost thou take away anything t — I do not take away 
nything.— Does anybody take off ms hat 1 — Nobody takes it off. 

ix^iseiQBU Section. 

Wet (moist)* 91 a (an adjective). 

To wet (to moisten). S?Qp mad)cn (nc^cn). 

To show. Scic^en, mcifcn* (govern the 


* iHattt expremes the mere act of showing ; Wftfen implies showing with 
^MneooQ, and is derived from the word : bte ^eife, the manner. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

To let see (expose to sight). 

Oo you let me see your gold 

ribbons 1 
i do let you see them. 



tobacco (for smoking), 



meal (flour), 


The gardener, 

the cousin, 

the brother-in-law, 

the handkerchief, 

the pocket handkerchief, 

the valet, servant, 

Do you go for your brother-in* 

law t 
I do go for him. 

To intend {to think). 

Do you intend to go to the ball 

this evening ? 
I do intend to go thither. 

To know, 

I know — he knows. 

We kn^w — they know. 
Thou knowest — ^you know. 


©cfcen laffcn (governs the 

eaffcn ©ic mi* S^trc gctbcncn ^Mm 

iiv fcfKn t 
3d) taffe ®ie bicfrtbcn fcftcn. 

JBranntrocin (masc.) ; 

Sabaf (raasc.) ; 

9{oud)tabaf ; 

©d)nupfta&a! ; 

giber (masc.) ; 

g}2<f)( (neut.) ; 

2(cpfcl (apfd) (plor. of Ut XpffQ 

b«r ®6rtnct; 

bcr QSettcr ; 

bcr ©d)n)a9ct ; 

tai Sud) ; 

bo^ ©d)nupfhid) ; 

bcr jDicncr, t>ct ^nc^t* 

^o(cn @te S^tcn ^wager f 

3(ft 5c(e i^m 


€)cbcnfcn 6ic beute ICbtnh auf bra 


Do you know Grerman ? 

I do know it. 

Do you know how to 

French ? 
Can you read French 1 


SBatl ju gcf)cn 1 
3c& gctcnfc bin^uqcficn. 
^. Lesson XXVU.) 

9B i f f e n • (KnncnO. 

3cb rocip — cr toci^ 

2Cit wiffcn — fie roiffcn. 

£)u wcipt — 3&t wiflet (®« te^ 

^Snncn ®ie bcutfc^ t 
3c^ fann c«. 


i^Snnen @ie ftan|9ftfA (cfen 1 

fc 5)icnet genemlly means servant ; hence : ber Jtommerbietter, the vmlet ds 
eharabre ; ber Jlircbenbiener, the church-minister, clergyman ; Stwdft points 
9Ut the lowest degree of servitude, hence : bft ^au«fne(bt the meniaJ 8e^ 
rant : ber Statlfnetf^t, the groom, the stableman ; ber dttittnHiit, the jockey. 

« ^tffrn implies to have the knowledge of a thing, not to be ignorant cf it > 
f9nnen signifies to be able, to have the knowledge of an art or a science, fix- 
3d> i»ei^, n>a« Sie faacn njoUen, I know, what you wish to say. Qt faiui 
eiiien beutfcben ©nef f^rcibcn, he knows how to write a German fetter. The 
learner must take care not to confound wiffen*, to know, with fSnnen*, to be 
\ble, and the latter not with feitnen*, to be acquainted See Lessons O VHX 
ad XXXm.) ^ 

y Google 


Can joo make a hati y 

Do you know how to maice a C jlonnen @te ctnen ^ut mo(^n ? 

hit! 3 

Can you come to me to-day ? ^Snnen @te l)eute su ntit fommcn 1 

To swim. ® eft w I m m (J n ♦• 

Whither t where tof © H n1 
Whither are you going 1 2Bo gc^cn ©ie &in ?** 


Do yon wish to drink brandy 1 — No, I wish to drink wine. — Do 
yoa sell brandy 1 — I do not sell any ; but my neighboar, the mer- 
chant, sells some. — ^Will you fetch me some tobacco? — I will 
fetch you some ; what tobacco do you wish to have 1 — I wish to 
hare some snufiT; but my friend, the German, wishes to have some 
tobacco (for smoking). — Does the merchant show you cloth 1 — He 
does not show me any. — Does your valet go for some cider ? — He 
does go for some. — Do you want anything else (nod) ctmo^) ? — ^1 
want some flour ; will you send for some (for) me 1 — I will send 
for some (for) you. — Does your friend buy apples 1 — He does buy 
•ome. — ^Does he buy handkerchiefs 1 — Ho buys tobacco instead ol 
baying handkerchiefs. — Do you show me anything 1 — I show you 
gold and silver clothes. — Whither does your cousin go 1 — He goes 
to tiie ball. — Do you go to the ball 1 — I go to the £eatre instead 
of going to the ball. — Does the gardener go into the garden 1 — He 
?<• » to the market instead of going into the garden. — Do you send 
yr^ir servant to the shoemaker ?— -I send him to the tailor instead 
ol sending him to the shoemaker. 


J>oet thou go to fetch thy father 1 — I do go to fetch him. — ^May 
(5tann) I go to fetch my cousin 1 — You may go to fetch him.— 
Does your valet find the man whom he is looking for ? — He does 
fiikt him. — Do your sons find the friends whom* Siey are looking 
for' — They do not find them. — When do you intend going to the 
haill — 1 intend going thither this evening. — Do your cousins intend 
to go into the country 1 — ^They intend to go thither. — When do 
they intend, to go thither 1 — ^They intend to go thither to-morrow. — 
^t what o'clocK ? — At half-past nine. — What does the merchant 
wish to sell you 1 — He wishes to sell me pocketrhandkerchiefs. — 
D^ you intend to buy some ? — 1 will not buy any. — Dost thou know 

* SQo^in, 88 above, may be divided into two parts, the firtt of which ii 
r jwd in the beginning and the second at Oie end of the aentence. If the 
k Uenoe ends, wiih a pest participle or an infinitive, ^ in is placed before it 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

anything 1 — ^I do not know anything. — ^What does thy conain know 1 
— He knows how to read and to write. — Does he know German t-- 
He does not know it. — Do you know Spanish 1 — 1 do know it.— 
Do your brothers know Greek 1 — They do not know it ; bat they 
intend to learn it. — Do I know English 1 — You do not know it; 
but you intend to study it. — Do my children know how tc !6ad 
Italian 1 — ^They know how to read, but not how to speak it. 


Do you intend to study Arabic? — I intend to study Aracic and 
Syriac. — Does the Englishman know Polish ? — He does not know 
it, but he intends learning it. — Do you know how to swim ? — ^I do 
not know how to swim, but how to play. — Does your cousin know 
how to make coats 1 — He does not know how to make any ; he is 
no tailor. — ^Is he a merchant? — He is not one. — What is he t — He 
is a physician. — Whither are you going 1 — I am going into my 
garden, in order to speak to the gardener. — What do you wish to 
tell him ? — 1 wish to tell him to open the window of his room. — 
Does your gardener listen to you ? — He does listen to me.— Do 
you wish to drink some cider 1 — No, I have a mind to drink some 
beer ; have you any ? — ^I have none ; but I will send for some. — 
When will you send for some ? — Now. — Do you send for apples ? 
—I do send for some.— Have you a good deal of water ?— I have 
enough to wash my feet. — Has your brother water enough ? — He 
has only a little, but enough to moisten his pocket-handkerchief. — 
Do you know how to make tea 1 — ^I know how to make some.: — Doe? 
your cousin listen to what you tell him? — He does listen to it- 
Does he know how to swim ^ — He does not know how to swim. — 
Where is h^ going to? — He b going no whither; he remains at 

THIRTY.EIGHTH LESSON.— Qlcljt utib brrisfiifrte 

Tks intention* S>ev ^ex\a^ 

Intended. ® e f o n n c n. 

To intend OT to have the intention. ®cfonncn fein*. 

I intend to go thither. 3(^ bin gcfonnen bin5U9ef)en. 

We have the intention to do it. SBir finl) gcfenncn e^ $a tbun. 

©rbattcn* (to receive iny 

thing sent). 
S5 c f c m m c n» (to receive as i 
( ©nipfangcn* (to welcome, ti 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

To receive* 


Thoa receivest— He receives S ®" ^W^* ^ ^W^- 
moaieccivest-He receives ^ jjju emppngff ©r cmpfangt 

He raeeives money. (gt bcfcmmt &iib. 

He obtains the preference. (Sr credit ben SScrjug. 

He receiyes his friends. (&v empf&n^t fctne S^<^unbc. 

Do you receive a letter to-day ? ©r!)atttfn 6ic l)<ute eincn Stief 1 

I receive one to-morrow. 2k^ txfyxiU niorgen einen. 

To guide (conduct, take), g il & r c n 7 ^ 
To lead. Celt en 3 * 

( lead the horse into the stable. 3c^ fii^te hai ^fat in ten ^taVL 

The preference, bet gScrgug ; 

the stable, t)cr <Staa *, 

blind, Htnb ; 

sick (ill), fran! ; 

poor, ocm. 

To extinguish. 2C u ^ ( 8 f d) e n (v. act. and m. it 

To light. 2( n a ft n I) e n (onjujfinbcn). 

T<? set on fire. 2C n ft e cf c n (anjujlccfcn). 

Does he extinguish the candle % e5fd)t er bo^ eic^t aud ? 
He lights it. (^ ^iinbet e^ am 

r<? rftfpar/, to set out. 2C 6 1: c i f c n (obsuccifen). 

When do you intend to depart % SSjonn gcbcnfen @ic aO^urctfen ? 
I iniend to depart to-morrow. 3c^ gebenfc mocgen ab^uceifen 


Do your brothers intend to go into the country ? — ^They do in* 
(end to go thither.~-Do you intend to go to my cousin ^ — I do in- 
tend to go to him. — Dost thou intend to do anything 1 — I intend t; 
do nothing. — ^Do you intend to go to the theatre this evening 1 — 1 
do intend to go thither, but not this evening. — Dost thou receive 
anything 1 — I receive money. — ^From (J8on) whom dost thou receive 
iome t — I receive some fiom my father, my brother, and my cousin. 
^Does your son receive books 1 — He does receive some. — From 
nrhom does he receive some 1 — He receives some from me, from his 
friends, and neighbours. — Does the poor man (bet %xn\t, See 
page 34, Ohs. A*) receive money 1 — He does receive some. — From 
irhom does he receive some 1 — He receives some from the rich.— 
lost thou receive wine? — ^I do not receive any. — Do I receive 
Aoneyl — You do not receive any. — Does your servant receive 

■ The persons not mentioned follow the regular conjugation. (See Pro* 
«nt Tense, Lesson XXXIV.) 

^ ^u^rtn expresses the act of conducting only ; Utten means to conduct 
with safety. Ex. @hten jtranfen fu^rcn, to conduct a sick jjorson; (in Stiah, 
civctt ^liabot (eiten, to guide a child, a blind i 



clothes (ll(cibcr) ? — He does not receive any. — ^Do you receire die 
books which oui friends receive 1 — We do not receive the same 
which your friends receive; but we receive others. — Does your 
friend receive the letters which you write to him 1 — He does re- 
ceive them. — Do you receive the apples which 1 send you ? — ^I do 
not receive them. — Does the American receive as much brandy as 
cider 1 — He receives as much of the one as of the other. — Do the 
Scotch receive as many books as letters 1 — ^They receive as many 
of the one as of the other. 


Does the Englishman obtain the preference ? — He does ob^in it. 
— Does your cousin receive as much money as 1 1 — He receives 
more than you. — Does the Frenchman receive his letters 1 — He 
does receive them. — When does he receive themt — He receives 
them in the evening. — When dost thou receive thy letters *: — ^I re- 
ceive them in the morning. — ^At what o'clock? — At a quarter to 
ten. — Dost thou receive as many letters as I ? — I receive more ot 
them than thou. — Dost thou receive any to-day 1 — I receive some 
to-day and to-morrow. — Does your father receive as many friends 
as ours (as our father) 1 — He receives fewer of them than yours 
(than your father). — Does the Spaniard receive as many enemies 
as friends 1 — He receives as many of the one as of the other. — Do 
you receive one more crown 1 — I do receive one more. — Does your 
son receive one more book ? — He does receive one more. — ^Whal 
does the nhysician receive 1 — He receives good tobacco, good snuff, 
and good pocket-handkerchiefs. — Does he receive brandy 1 — He 
does receive some. 


Does your servant receive shirts t-^He does receive some. — Does 
he receive as many oftfiem as my valet (does) 1 — He receives quite 
as many of them. — Do you receive anything to-day? — . receive 
something every day. — Dost thou conduct anybody? — ^I conduct 
nobody. — Whom do you guide ? — I guide my son. — Where are yon 
conducting him to? — ^l conduct him to my friends to wish them a 
good morning. — What is your son ? — He is a physician. — Does 
your servant guide any one? — He guides my child. — Whom (SIBcn) 
must I guide? — ^Thou must guide the blind. (Page 34, Obs, 
il.)— Must he conduct the sick person ? — He must conduct him.— 
Whither must he conduct him i — He must conduct him home.— 
Whither is he leading your horse ? — He is leading it into the 
stable. — Dost thou guiae the child or the blind man 1— -I guide both, 
— When does the foreigner intend to depart ? — He intends to depart 
this morning. — At what o'clock? — At half past one. — Does he no* 
wish to remain here ? — He does not (@r mxW nicftt). — Do you intend 
to eo to the theatre this evening ? — ^I intend to go there to-monow 
•—Do you depart to-day ? — ^I depart now.— When do you intend U 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

wdte to yoar friends I— I intend lo write to them to-day. — Do yowi 
ftkiids answer your letters % — ^They do answer them. — Do yon ex« 
liilpufth the fire ? — I do not extinguish it. — Does your servant light 
tt» candle i — He does lisht it. — Does this man intend to set your 
vnehoose on fire ?— He does intend to set it on fire (anjuflecf i;n). 


LESSON. — jDf^tm 

txnb br^iem^dte 


TTie comparative is formed by adding e r and the 
superlative by adding (I* to the simple adjective. 

Posit. Comp. Superl. 
®d)6n — fd)6ner — fd)6n(l. 

Handsome — ^handsomer — 

Small — smaller — smallest. 
Wild— wilder — ^wildest. 

^fein — flcuter — fleinfl. 
SEBilb — tDiIber — wilbefl. 

Obs. A Comparative and superlative acyectives 
are declined like the positive. Examples : 

Comparative. ' 

Mainline. Nnnter. 

^N. ber fc^ncre bo^ fd)6nere ©U(^» 

G. bei fd^oncren be^ fd)oiteren ©uc^ed* 

D. bem fd)6ncren bem fd^oncrett ©uc^, 

A. ben fd)6nerett ba^ frf)6nere^ fQnd). 

The handsomer 
table, the hand-^ 
Kuner book, &c 

" la the rapeflatiTe, fl ia sometimefl preceded by e when the pronunciation 
raqmrei it, as : fu$, s^ eet, ffi^cfl ; fc^iec^t bad, f^Ie c^tefl. In the wordarofi, 
peat, the superlatiTe 0r5^efl, iB contracted into iti% as: ber gro^te iD<attii» 
ne freateet man. 

^ llie letter t, which precedes or follows the consonant r in the comjiara" 
live, IS often omitted for the sake of euphony ; thus instead of: ber, ba9 f(^5s 
foe, M f(^5ue¥en, bem fd(^5neren, we say : ber, ba9 f(^6nre, be4 f4)9neritr ben 
filbutft, dee. (See 06t. Lmmhi XIX.) 





ba6 flcinfle SSudj* 


N. ber ffemflc 

The smallest «. te^ Hemfien be^ Hcinften S3ud)e^ 

hat, the smal- < r^ P f/ - n. w -r - n «* ^ 

lp«t hnnk. At.. 1 ». bcitt Hem(iett bem flemflen Sudje. 

A. ben Heinfien bo^ Heinllc SSucfi* 

065» jB. The radical vowels a, c, u, are softened 
In the comparative and superlative into fi, 6, tt** 
Examples : 

Posrr. CoMP. Supbrl. 

Old, &c. 




pious, &c. 




young, &c. 




Obs, C. The' following adjectives, which are also 
used a» adverbs, are irregular in the formation of their 
comparatives and superlatives. 


PosmvE. CoMP. 

SBofi), ef}er, 

berorba^ balbige, e^ere. 

Singly, j®;^,";^^,!^,,,^ 

Good ®"^' 

^^^» Jberorba^gute, 

^^^^' Iberorba^^e, 








efied {am e^eflen^) 


Ke6(l (am Ke6(Iei!) ; 


6e(t {am 6e(len); 


^(l (am l^oc^ftei); 

« On the adjectives which do not soften the radical vowels 0, D, n in the 
comparative and superlative, see Ohn. D. hereafter. - 

J When an adjective is used in the superlative depree adverbially, it is 
eombinei vnth a contraction of the definite article, and one of the preposi- 
tions, at, auf, lu, in, as : am ivenigflen, the least: Q^x^ bd(^fle, at the most; |inn 
beflm, ftr the best ; tm minbeflen, at least. Hence the adverbs : f(f)on^nl, 
in the handsomest manner ; bcflettS, in the best manner ; ^5(^flen<, at the 
most ; nddbften^, next time ; n>€ni|)flen«, at least, 4&c. 

« In the positive and comparative degrees the form ^o^, not ^0(^, is used as 
an adjective before a noun ; but as a predicate after the noun, the positive li 
t)o^. Ex. ^cr bo^e iBaumr the high tree ; ber bSbece ^Boum, the higher tree} 
buf btcfet Qaum ift ^t^, this tree is high. 




I bcrorbo^na^, 
I t)er or ba^ Diefe, 




itdci)(l (am nddifint); 


tneifl (am meiflw) ; 


Tbb book is small, that is smal- 
ler, and this is the smallest of 

Ttas hat is large, but that is 

Is joor book as large as mine? 

It 18 not so large as yours. 
It is larger than yours. 

Not so large. 

Are oor neighbour's children as 

good ' as ours 1 
TiMy are better than ours. 

Whose f 

Whose hat is this t 
it is the hat of my brother. 
It is my brother's. 
It is my brother's hat. 
Whose hat is the finest! 
That of my father is the finest. 
VHiose ribbon is the handsomer, 
yoars or mine 1 

S)tcfe^ 93u<i) ifl f(ctn, [cne^ tfl fins 
ttcr, nnt licfc^ ^tet tfl om Rein* 
flen (t>ai Heinfle) 9cn oaen. 

iDicfcr ^ut ifl flrofc oCfein fenet: Ijl 

3fl 3^r Su^ fo grop toit ^i $mU 

(&i tjt ni^t fo grop oli ba^ S^rigr. 
(S^ tfl gropci; o($ t>ai 3f)Hge. 

92i4t fo grop. 

@inb tie Jlintier unfcre^ 9{a<^(at< 

fo arttg mU tic unfrtgcn ? 
6te finb atttget o(6 Me unfrigen* 

SB e f f e n ? > (See Lesson XXIX.) 
(g« ifl. 

SBcffen Jpnt tft lai t 
e^ tft tec ^ut mcinc^ SBrubet*. 
(&€ tft metnc^ 93rut>er^. 
Qi tfl meincg ©rulicr^ 4&ut. 
ffficffcn ;f)ut ift Dec fd)cnfle ? 
>Der nictneg S3aterg tfl t)cr fcftdnfle. 
SBeffen Sont ifl fd)8ncr, t>a« S^tii 
ge obct Da^ metntgc 1 

Good, gentle, pretQTy 

artig ; 

light, easy. 


heavy, difiicult. 

f*»et: ; 

great, grand (big, vge), 




furi ; 





Obs. D. The adjectives which do not soften the ra 

dical vowels in the comparative and superlative, are . 

Ist, Those of which the last syllable does not belong 

' Id thifl phrase the word a r t{ g does not quite correspond to the Enghab 
word good; but it does m many others, as for instance : be good ! fei artig ' 
m soodchild, tin artiged ^nb. 

< The word which answers the question toeffett ? is always pat in ths gnd 



to the primitive^ word as: bonfbar, grateful; fcf^tllbk 
culpable ; bo^t)aft, malicious. Ex. artig, pretty ; artiget^ 
prettier ; artigfl, prettiest. 

2d, Participles, as: labetib, refreshing ; gelobt praised 5 
tebenb, furious ; fud)enb, seeking, <fec. 

3d, Those which contain a diphthong, as: gettau 
exact ; faul, lazy ; blaii, blue ; grau, grey, &c. 

4th, Those terminating in cr, as tcupfev, valiant, &c 

6th, The following : 

fiax, clear ; 
fnapp, tight; 
lal)m, lame ; 
(c^/ loose ; 
niott, wearied ; 
morf^/ brittle ; 
nacf t, naked ; 
putt, flat ; 
j?lunip/ clumsy ; 
rob/ raw; 
runt), round ; 

fanft, gentle ; 
fatt, satisfied : 
fd)tajf/ slack ; 
fc^tanf/ slender; 
florr, numb ; 
flclj/ proud ; 
flraff, stiff; 
ftumm, dumb ; 
tcU, mad ; 
wU, full ; 
la^ni/ tame. 

SBici^, pale ; 
bunt, variegated ; 
fbbt, fallow ; 
falfd", false ; 
frcf), joyful ; 
gcrc.te, straight; 
9cfunl>, healthy ; 
glatt, smooth ; 
\)ci)[, hollow ; 
bc(t, kind ; 
faf)(/ bald ; 
farg, stingy; 

Obs. E. In German the superlative is almost al 
ways relative, and to express the absolute superlative 
we use, as in English, one of the adverbs : fct)r, very 
rcc^t, very; ^od)(l, extremely; mtgemeiit, uncommonly 
&c. Ex. ®n fel)r armer SKann, a very poor man; ftn 
fc^r fd)6ne^ ^mb/a very fine child. 

Obs, F. Than, after a comparative, is translated by 
a I ^ (See Obs. B. Lesson XXIII.). To increase the 
force of the comparative, we use the adverbs nocf), still, 
and mit, far. Ex. SRccf) grower, still greater; id) bin weit 
gliicf Kdjer aU cr, I am far happier than he. 

Obs. G. The following adjectives have no compara^ 

PosrrivE, Superlative. 

The exterior, bcr or ba^ an^e, ber or ba^ fiufierfie ; 
the interior, ber — ba^ innere, ber — ba^ ntiterfte; 
the posterior, ber — ba^ Ijintere, ber — ba6 f)inter(le ; 
the middle one, ber — ba^ mittlere, ber — ba^ mittelfle; 
the superior, ber — ba6 obcre, ber — ba^ obcrfle ; 

* By primitive we mean a word to which a syllable maybe added in ordff 
to fona another word, as banfbor, which is fonned of the word 5)(m^ thspki. 
and the syllable bar. 



Positive. Superlative. 

(lie inferior, I ber or ba^ untere, ber or ba^ imterfle ; 
the anterior, | ber — ba^ tjorbcrc, ber — fca^ t)orbcr(le. 


Is yoor brother talUr (grcp) than mine 1 — He is not eo tall, but 
oetter than yours. — Is thy hat as bad as that of thy father 1 — It is 
^tter, bat not so black as his. — ^Are the shirts of the Italians as 
white (iwi§) as those of the Irish 1 — ^They are whiter, but not so 
good. — Are the sticks of our friends longer than ours 1 — ^They are 
not longer, but heavier. — 'V^lio have (SDBcr J)at) the most beautiful 
gloves ?— The French have them. — Whose horses are the finest ? 
—Mine are fine, yours are finer than mine ; but those of our friends 
are the finest of all. — Is your horse good 1 — It is rood, but yours 
IB better, and that of the Englishman is the best of all the horses 
which we know. — Have you pretty shoes 1 — I have very pretty 
(ones) ; but my brother has prettier (ones) than I. — From (18 on) 
whom does he receive them * — He receives them from his best 
fiiend. — ^Is your wine as good as mine ? — It is better. — Does your 
merchant sell good handkerchiefs 1 — He sells the best handkerchiefs 
that I know. 


Have we more books than the French ! — We have more of them 
than they ; but the Germans have more of them than we, and the 
English have the most of them. — Hast thou a finer garden than 
that of our Physician 1 — I have a finer (one). — Has the American 
1 finer house than thou 1 — He has a finer (one). — Have we as fine 
children as our neighbours 1 — We have finer (ones). — Is your coat 
M long as mine t — It is shorter, but prettier than yours. — Do you 
•oon(bolt)go out? — I do not go out to-day. — When does your 
inher go out 1 — He goes out at a quarter past twelve. — Is this man 
oUer than that (man) ? — He is older, but that (man) is healthier 
(gr^n^fr). — Which of these two children is the better 1 — The one 
who studies is better than the one who plays. — Does your servant 
sweep as well as mine ? — He sweeps better than yours. — Does the 
Geraian read as many bad books as good (ones) 1 — He reads more 
good than bad (ones). — ^Do the merchants sell more sugar than 
eofieet — ^They sell more of the one than of the other. — Does your 
shoemaker make as many boots as shoes 1 — He makes more of tlie 
one than of the otlier. 


Can you swim as well as the son of the nobleman ? I can 
iwim better than he ; but he can speak German better than I.— . 
Does he read as well as you t — ^He reads better than I. — Have you 
tht head-ache? — No, I have the ear-ache. — Does your cousin 
fiitsn to what you tell him 1— He does not listen to it.— Does the 




■on of your bailiff go into the forest? — No, he remaina at hoiBe« 
he has sore feet. — Do you learn as well as our gardener's son t— 
I learn better than he, but he works better than I. — Whoee cai^ 
riage is the finest] — Yours is rery fine, but that of the captain ii 
atill finer, and ours is the finest of all. — Has any one as fine apples 
u we? — No one has such fine (ones). (See end of Lesson 

FORTIETH LESSON.— t)ier?i80te Union. 

To begin. Xnfangm* (onjufangm). 

Thou beginnest — he begins. >Du fdngfl an — er f&ngt an* 
I begin to speak. 3cb fangc an gu fpicc^ou 

Does your servant sweep the jtei)rt 3il)t SBctientct ta€ Stnonu 
room, which I sweep 1 au^^ totH^U id^ au^el)te 1 

To finish^ to end. Cf n b 1 9 e n* 

Not yet. gic* nicftt 

Already. &cfixu 

Before. e^e (6c»cr)» 

Dc you speak before you listen ? ^prec^cn ^\i, e^e ^c f)5cen ? 
Dees he go to the market before ®e^t it auf ten 9Karft, c^e cr 

he writes 1 fd)rcibt? 

Do you take off your stockings Stebcn ©ic 36tc ©trflmpft ccai, ^ 

before you take off your shoes ? ^ic Sftre ©cftube ou^iie^en 7 
I take off my shoes before I take 3d) ^tcf)e metne @4)ul)e mt^, e^ i^ 
ofl my stockings. nicine ©tc&nipfs au^ic^. 

Ohs. A. These examples show that when a con- 
junctive word, as a conjunction, a relative pronoun or 
relative adverb begins the sentence, the separable pai^ 
tide is not detached from the verb, which is placed at 
the end. (See Lesson XXXIV. Ohs. C, and lUile of 
Syntax, Lesson XLVIL) 

Often. £) ft (opmatt, Ifttxi), its compai»- 

tive is h\iit, and its supeilitiT* 
am cfteflen* 

As often as } ou. @o oft nne ^c 

Oftener than you. Defter (jDftct) oXi Sie. 

Not so often as you. gjic^t fo oft a\i ©ic 

To breakfast. gtfi ^jtiidEen. 

Early. 8 t ft f). 

Do you breakfast before you g5 gtft^fHWai ^\t, eBc 6U ia tal 
into the wood 1 flBaJb ge^ll? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


{ Dms be bieak£3i8t before he be- ^rfibft&K tt, e^e er onfSngt |n «?» 
J gim to work 1 6citen ? 

{ Do yoa breakfast as early as I ? ^^^^bf^^c^^ ^<< F^ ft^^ n>i^ ^(^ ? 

* I bieak£&9t earlier than yoa. 34 ftiibflfid^ fcd^^t old Gic 

Too. 3 u. 

Too late. Bu fp5U 

I Too early. 3u p:fi(). 

Too great Bu oro^ 

■ Too little. Bu miiu 

! Too much. Bu mU 

Do yoa speak too mach t Gprcc^en @te )U otc( ? 

I do not speak enoagh. 3d) fprectt ntc^t genug. 

Obs. B. We have seen (Lesson XXTV.) that the in- 
finitive in German is always preceded bjf the particle 
pL This particle, however, is omitted before the infi- 

Ist, When it is joined to one of the following verbs : 

Emfm*, to be pennitted ; ^gen*, to bid ; ^Ifen*, to 
help ; ^6ren*, to hear ; Bititen*, to be able (can) ; laf^ 
jril*, to let ; ktjven, to teach ; lemen^ to learn ; mogen*, 
to be allowed (may) ; inuffen*, to be obliged (must) ; 
fe^*, to see ; fotten*, to be obliged (shall, ought) ; tOoU 
kn*, to be willing, to wish (will). 

%Qi}xcn*, to ride, to go (in a carriage) ; fmben*, to 
find ; fu^Ien, to feel ; nenitcn*, to call, to name ; reitcn*, 
to ride, to go on horseback. 

2d, When the infinitive is used in an absolute sense. 
Ex. ^i^iQ {em gejtemt bem SRanne^ it behoves a man to 
be assiduous. When two infinitives are thus em- 
ployed, the verb which follows them is put in the third 
person singular. Ex. ©cine ^^br befeniten uitb bemieti 
ifl idjon tjalbe SSefleruitg, to acknowledge one's faults and 
to repent of them is already half an amendment. In 
constructing the phrase with e^ i(l, it w, the verbs fciit*, 
to be ; befemien*, to acknowledge ; bereueit, to repent 
are removed to the end and preceded by j u. Ex. (Ss 
jfjiemt bcm ?Dlanne, fleigig ju fern & ifl fd)on ^albc aSef^ 
nt% fcine ^el)ler ju bcfcnnen unb ju bereuen^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Do ycu beg^n to speak 1 — I begin to speak. — Does youi brotheii 
begin to learn Italian? — He begins to learn it — Can you alreadyl 
speak German? — Not yet, but I am beginning. — ^Do our frieodf 
begin to speak ? — ^They do not yet begin to speak, but to read. — 
Does our father already be^in his letter ? — He does not yet begin 
it. — Does the merchant begin to sell? — He does begin. — Can you 
swim already? — Not yet, but I begin to learn. — ^Does your son 
tpeak before he listens 1 — He listens before he speaks.— Does your 
brother listen to you (Lesson XXXVI.) befcie he speaks? — He 
speaks before he listens to me. — Do your children read before they 
write ? — They write before they read. — Does your servant sweep 
the warehouse before he sweeps the room ? — He sweeps the room 
before he sweeps the warehouse. — Dost thou drink before thou 
goest outi — I go out before I drink. — Does your cousin wash his 
hands (fcinc |)tin^c) before he washes his feet ? — He washes his 
feet before he Abashes his hands. — Do you extin^ish the fire be- 
fore you extinguish the candle ? — I extinguish neither the fire nor 
the candle (oui, to the end). — Do you intend to go out before you 
write your letters ? — I intend writing my letters before I go out. — 
Does your son take off his boots before he takes off his coat ? — 
My son takes off neither his boots nor his coat (au^/ to the end). 


Do you intend to depart soon (Oa(t») ? — ^I intend to depart to- 
morrow. — Do you speak as often as I? — ^I do not speak as often, 
but my brother speaks oftener than*you. — Do I go out as often as 
your father 1 — You do not go out as often as he ; but he drinks 
oftener than you. — Do you begin to know this man ? — I begin to 
know him. — Do you breakfast early 1 — We breakfast at a quarter 
past nine. — Does your cousin breakfast earlier than you? — He 
breakfasts later than I. — At what o'clock does he breakfast ? — He 
breakfasts at eight o'clock, and I at half-past six. — Do you not 
breakfast too early ? — ^I breakfast too late. — Does your father break- 
fast as early as you ? — He breakfasts later than I. — Does he finish 
his letters before he breakfasts ? — He breakfasts before he finishes 
them. — Is your hat too large? — It is neither too large nor too 
small. — Does our gardener breakfast before he goes into the garden 1 
—He goes into the garden before he breakfasts. — Do you read 
French as often as German? — I read French oftener than German. 
— Does the physician speak too much 1 — He does not speak enough. 
— Do the Germans drink too much wine? — ^They Jo not dnnk 
enough of it. — Do they drink more beer than cider ? — ^They drink 
more of the one than of the other.— Have you much money? — 
We have not enough of it. — Have your cousins much com?— 
They have only a little, but enough. — Have you much more brandy t 
•^Wo have not much more of it, — Have you as many tables as 



tkain %^-l have as inany of the one as of the other. — Dce^ vcm 
&ieDd receiTe as many letters as notes ! — He receives more of the 
btter than of the former. — Do you finish before you begin ? — 1 
nost begin before I finish (See end of Lesson XxXIV.) 

FORTY.FIRST LESSON.— «in ttltb DWrfisfite UttUm. 


The past participle of regular verbs' is formed from 
the second person plural of the present indicative, by 
prefixing to it a e» Ex. ^tjx liebet or liebt, you love ; gc^ 
Itbct or gditbtf loved. The past participle of irregular 
verbs will always be given with the verb. 

All that has been said {Obs. A. Lesson XXXIV.) on 
the rejection of the letter e, is equally applicable to 
the past participle, this being formed from the second 
person pluraL 

Obs. A- Some verbs do not add the sj^Uable g e in 
the past participle. (See those verbs, Lesson XLV.) 

To be-^cn. ©ein* — geroefcn. 

Hare yon been to the market t' ®tnb @te auf Urn ^axUt ame> 


I hare been there. Scb t>in ba ge wcfcn. 

{ haye not been there. Sd) bin nid)t to gemefeiu 

Have I been there 1 ©in id) ba gcwefen ? 

Yon hare been there. 6ic finb to gctptfcm 

Has he been there ? 3)1 er to gcwcfen 1 

Ever. 3C/ icmot^. 

Never. 91 te, ntemot^. 

Have you been at the ball 1 ©int ©ic ouf tern Soil geroefen ? 

H^ve you ever been at the ball ! ©int ©ic je ouf tern 93oU getocfcn I 

I have never been there. 3d) bin nic to gcrocfcn. 

Thou hast never been there. aDu t»i|l nie to gcwefen. 

VoQ have never been there. ©ie fint (3()r feit) nicmott to gc* 

He has never been there. Gr ij! nie to gcwefen. 

Have you already been at the @int @ic fd)on tm ^d)uufptef gcwe< 
play ? fen ? 

• The pupils, in repeating the irregular verbs already given, inu«t not fail 
isaark in their lists the past participle of those verbs. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


I hare already been there. 3c6 Hn \dm ba gewefet. 

You have already been there. ®tc finb fd)cn ba aaoefen* 
The play, ta* ©d>oufpic( (plur. f). 

I have not yet been there. 9kJ) bin ncd) nid)t ba gnoefm* 

Thou hast not yet been there. >Du btfl ned) ntd)t bo gcoKfciu 
You have not yet been there. ©if finb ncd) nid)t ta giweftfii. 
He has not yet been there. Qt ift ncd) m6)t t>a gcwcfm. 

We have not yet been there. SBtr ftnb ned) md)t to gmcfr n. 
Have you already been at my 6inb®tc fd)cn bcimcinem SJatct^ 

father's (with my father) ? n>cfcn 1 

[ have not yet been there (with 3(b bin ned) ntc^t bet t^m Qp»f 

him). (irn. 

Where have you been this morn- SBc finb ^te birfm aTZorgcn gfoxs 

ingl fen? 

[ have been in the garden. 3(b bin im i,in bcm) (Skirtcn gcwc* 

Where has thy brother been 1 ©o tfl 3)cin ©ruber gewcfen ? 
He has been in the storehouse. Ht tft tm $Bcrrot^^^ufe gewefcn. 


Where have you been t-— I have been at the market. — Have you 
been at the ball t — 1 have been there. — Have I been at the play ! — 
You have been there. — Hast thou been there ? — ^I have not been 
there. — Has your cousin ever been at the theatre 1 — He has never 
been there.— Hast thou already been in the peat square 1 — ^I have 
never been there. — ^Do you intend to go thither 1 — I intend to go 
thither. — When will you go thither 1 — i will go thither to-morrow. 
— At what o'clock 1 — At twelve o'clock, — Has your son already 
been in my large garden? — He has not yet been there. — Does he 
intend to see it 1 — He does intend to see it. — When will ho go 
thither (btnein) 1 — He will go thither to-day. — Does he intend lo yu 
to the ball this evening i — He does intend to go thither. — Have yoa 
already been at the ball t — I have not yet been there. — When do 
you intend to go thither (bcf)in) t — I intend to go thither to-morrow. 
—Have you already been in the Englishman's room ? — I have not 
vet been in it (borin). — Have you been in my rooms 1 — ^1 have 
been there. — When have you been there t — I have been there this 
morning. — Have I been in vour room or in that (in bem) of your 
friend 1 — You have neither been in mine nor in that of my friend, 
but in that of the Italian. 


Has the Dutchman been in our storehouses or in those (in benen) 
of Vhe English ? — He has neither been in ours nor in those of the 
English, but in those of the Italians. — Hast thou already been at 
Uie market ? — I have not yet been there, but I intend to go thither. 
—Has the son of our bailiff been there 1 — He has been there.— 
When has he heen there 1 — He has been there to-day. — ^Does thi 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


SOD of oor neighbour intend to go to the market ? He doet intend 
to go thither. — What does he wish to buy there ? — He wishes to 
boj some chickens, oxen, cheese, beer, and cider there. — Have you 
aJieady been at my cousin's house t— I have already been there. — 
Hw your friend already been there 1— He has not yet been there. — 
Have we already been at our friends 1 — ^We have not yet been 
tliere (6*i if)ncn). — Have our friends ever been at our house ! — 
Thej have never been there. — Have you ever been at the theatre 1 
ih^ never been there. — Have you a mind to write a letter! — 
I have a mind to write one. — ^To whom do you wish to write 1— 
I wish to write to my son. — Has your father already been in the 
eoontry 1 — He has not yet been there, but he intends to go thither.— 
Does he intend to go thither to-day 1 — He intends to go thither to- 
morrow. — ^At what o'clock will he depart? — He will depart at 
half j>ast six. — Does he intend to depart before he breakfasts 1— 
He utends to breakfast before he departs. — Have you been any- 
where 1 — I have been nowhere. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

FORTY.SECOND LESSON. — gwei ntii mcx^utt 


^abcn* — gcftobt. 

ICT* The participle past, as well as the infinitive 
(Lesson XXTV), when it fonns with the auxiliary a 
compound tense, is in German placed at the end of the 

Have you had my coat ? 

: have not had it. 

Have I had it 1 

Yoo have had it. 

\ oa have not had it. 

Tlion hast not had it 

Has he had it! 

lie has had it. 

Hast thoa had mj book ! 

I have had it. 

I have not had it. 

Have you had the books I 
i have had them. 
Has he had them 1 
He has had them. 
Have you had bread t 
i have had some. 
Hast thou had paper 1 

^aUn ®te mdnen died gc^al^t? 

3d) ^abc il)n nid)t gc^aOt. 

J^aht id) t^n gef)abt ? 

@te baben tl)n gehabt. 

@ie hahtn t^n ntd^t oe^abt 

Du l}ofl t^n m6)t ^t^abt 

^at cr if)n gc^bt ? 

Qt fyit \i)n §ef)obt. 

^afl iDu metn S3u(^ g(I)aDT / 

3* babe ii geftobt 

34 ^at)e U ni^t gebabt. 

^oben ©ie t)ie 95fl4et ge^abt? 
3d) ^obe jie 9cF)obt. 
^Qt cr fie .qebabt ? 
er ftntftegchobt. 
^abcn ©tc 93rcb gc^abt ? 
Sd) f)obe msl&tc^ 9cf)abt. 
|)a|l iJ)u 5)Qpier gc^obt ? 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


3d) f)abc fctn^ gcb^^t. 
^qU id) n}c(d)C5 ()cf)a6t ? 
|>at cr SSctn j^cfjabt 1 
©r bat n)cld)cn gcbobt 
6r M fcincn gc^abt 
fl©a« bat cr gcbabt 1 
6r bat nid)t^ gcbabt. 

I have had none, 
Have 1 had any 1 
Has he had some wine ? 
He has had some. 
He has had none. 
What has he had 1 
He has had nothing. 

He has never be«n either right f 6r bat nic n>etci; fRc^t ne<j| Uili 
or wrong. xt6)t gebabt. 

To take place. ©tatt finbcn*. 

Does the ball take place this Jtnbct b« Saff Mefen 2C5aJ> 
evening ^ ©tatt ? 


(5c pnl>ct bicfcn 2C6cnb ©tott 

®ef unben. 

SBann bat bcc S3aa @tatt gefmn 

Sr bat gcftcrn ©tatt gcfunben. 

[t does take place. 

[t takes place this evening. 

When did the ball take place * 

The day before yesterday. 
It took place yesterday. 

Obs. A. Expressions such as ©tatt finben*, ought 
to be considered as separable verbs, of which the par- 
ticle is placed at the end in simple tenses and before 
the syllable ge of the past participle. Here the sub- 
stantive ©tatt, place, stands as a separable particle. 

JDag crflc 9Ka(. 
^Dag (e|te ^al 

fffiic mctmall 
cinmat ; 
Smcimat ; 
trcimat ; 
»crfd)icl)cne 9Kal 

(Sl)it>tm (cbcmalS/ cbcbcflcn^ vcn 

mandbmal ouf ttii 


The first time. 
The last time. 
How many times (how often) t 
severa. times, 



Do yon go sometimes to the mar- 
1 do go sometimes thither. 

3d) gebe nian^mat babin. 

■ When tlie word 3Jlal is preceded by an adjective or an ordinal niiinber» it 
Jb written with a capital initial letter ; when annexed to a cardinal number, it 
Wgins with a sroall /etter. 

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€hne> ^egangen. 

Chne thither. ^ingegangen. 

Hi?e you gone thither some- ©tnb 6ie manc^mal fttngcgoniiva 1 

Obs. B. Here it may be seen how the syllable ge 
in the past participle is placed between the separable 
particle and the verb. (See Lesson XXV.) 

I have gone thither sometimes. 3d) bin mand)mQ( ^ingegongen. 

Ofteoer than you. SDcftct ol$ ^ie. 

Hate the men had my trunk 1 ^aUn t>ie SOi&nner mcincn Jtoffct 

Qthaht 1 
TTiey have not had it. ©ic ^obcn ibn !iid)t gc^obt. 

Who has had it? aSkr ^t ihn gel)Qbt 1 

Hare I heen wrong in buying ^abc id) Unrcd)t (^ih<^hx, ffiilcftcr gu 

books? faufcnl 

you have not been wrong in ©ie fjaben ntd)t Unrc(^t gc^obt, toc(« 

*»uying some. c^c ju faufcn. 


Have you had ray glove ? — I have had it. — Have you had my 
pocket-handkerchief? — I have not had it. — Hast thou had my 
ombrella? — I have not had it. — Hast thou had my pretty knife ? — 
Ihaye had it. — When hadst (f}flfl — acl)Qbt) thou it?— I had it yes- 
terday. — Have I had thy ffloves ? — You have had them — Has your 
brother had my wooden nammer ?.^He has had it.— Has he had 
nay golden ribbon ? — He has not had it. — Have the English had 
my beautiful ship ? — ^They have had it. — Who has had my thread 
stocking ? — Your servants have had them. — Have we had the iron 
trank of Dur good neighbour 7 — We have had it. — Have we had 
his fine carriaj^e ? — ^We have not had it. — Have we had the stone 
tables of the loreigners ? — We have not had them. — Have we had 
the wooden leg of the Irishman ? — We have not had it. — Has the 
American had my good work ? — He has had it. — Has he had my 
silver knife? — He his not had it — Has the young man had the 
first volume of my work ? — He has not had the first, but the 
second. — Has he had it? — Yes, Sir, he has had it. — When has he 
had it? — He has had it this morning. — Have you had su^ar? — 
1 have had some. — Have I had good paper ? — You have had some. 
-Has the sailor had brandy ? — He has had some.— Have you had 
My ? — ^1 have had none. 


Has the German had good beer ? — He has had some. — Hast 
ihou had large cakes (^ud)cn is not softened in the plur.) 1 — I have 
had some. — -Has thy brother had any? — He has had none. — Has 
the son of our gardener had fiour ? — He has had son-e. — Have th« 

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Poles had goo6 tobacco 1— They have had some. — What tubate* 
have they had 1 — They have had tobacco for smoking and snufl 
(9?aud)r unl> <2d>nupftobaf). — Have the had as much sugar 
as tea 1 — ^They have had as much of the one as of the other. — 
Has the physician been right 1 — He has been wrong. — Has the 
Dutchman been rio^ht or wrong ? — He never has been either right 
or wrong. — Have f been wrong in buying honey 1 — You have been 
wrong m buying some. — What has your cousin had t — He has 
had your boots and shoes.* — Has he had my good biscuits 
(3wiebocf is not softened in the plur.) 1 — He has not had them.- 
What has the Spaniard had 1 — He has had nothing. — Who has 
had courage ? — ^The English have had some. — Have the* English 
had many friends ? — ^T^ey have had many of them. — Have we 
had many enemies ? — ^We have not had many c f them. — Have we 
had more friends than enemies 1 — We have had more of \he latter 
than of the former. — Has your son had more wine than meat ? — 
He has had more of the latter than of the former. — Has *he Turk 
had more pepper than com ? — He has had more of the one than of 
the other. — Has the painter had anything % — He has had nothing. 


Have I been right in writing to my brother t — You have nc« 
been wrong in writing to him. — Have you had the head-ache t— 
I have had the tooth-ache. — Have you had anything good ? — ^I have 
had nothing bad 1 — Did the ball take place yesterday 1 — It did not 
take place. — Does it take place to-day ? — It does take place to- 
day. — When does the ball take place ? — It takes place this evening. 
^Did it take place the day before yesterday ? — It did take place. 
— At what o'clock did it take place 1 — It took place at eleven 
o'clock. — Have yon gone to my brother's ? — ^I have gone thither. — 
How often hast thou gone to my cousin's house ? — I have gone 
thither twice. — Do you go sometimes to the theatre t — ^I go some- 
times th' ther. — How many times have you been at the theatre 1 — 
I have been there only once. — Have you sometimes been at the 
ball 1 — I have often been there. — Has your brother ever gone to the 
bain — He has never gone thither. — Has your father sometimes 
pone to the ball 1 — He went (ift — (jcqangcn) thither formerly.— Has 
he gone thither as often as you 1 — He has gone thither oftenerthan 
I.— Dost thou go sometimes into the garden ? — I do go thither 
sometimes.— Hast thou never been there"? — I have often been 
there. — Does your old cook often go to the market 1 — He does go 
thither often. — Does he go thither as often as my bailiff ?— He 
goes thither oftener than he. 


Have you formerly gone to the ball 1 — ^I have gone thither some- 
times. — When hast thou been at the ball 1-*I was there the day 
before yesterday. — Didst thou find anybody there?—! found (Mt 
g^funten) nobody there. — Hast thou gone to the uai) oftener ^h&i 



Iky brotfaeiB I — ^I have gone thither oftener than they. — Has yoa 
eoBsiii often been at the play 1 — He has been there several times 
—Hare you sometimes been hungry 1 — I have often been hungry. 
—Has your valet often been thirsty ?-— He has ne?er been eitbei 
kugry or thirsty. — Have you gone to the play early t— I have 
me thither late. — Have I ffone to the ball as early as you 1 — You 
■Bve gone thither earlier than I. — Has your brother gone tliither 
100 late 1 — He has gone thither too early. — Have your brothers had 
mythifig t — ^They have had nothing. — Who has had my purse and 
my money 1— Your servant has ha3 both. — Has he had my stick 
asd my hat ?— He has had both. — Hast thou had my horse cr that 
of my brother 1 — I have had neither yours :?or that of your brother. 
—Have I had your note or that of tlie physician l-^You have had 
belli (6ctN). — ^What has the physician nad 1 — He has had nothing. 
—Has anybody had my ffolden candlestick I — Nobody has had it 
(See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

FORTY.THIRD LESSON.— {Drti mtJb mtr{ij0U 

To do — done. JKMn* — Qftftfln. 

What have you done 1 SBo!^ ^obcn ©U gctfjon ? 

I have done nothing. 3d) f)Abe nt(^t6 get^atu 

Has the shoemaker made my |>at bet @(^u^mn4(c meine @tuf<( 

boots 1 9cmad)t ? 

He has made them. (St ^at fte gemod^t 

He has not made them. (St i)at jte nid)t gcmac^t 

Totakeoff-^tahenoff. ^Kugjic ^en^-aucgeaogeiu 

Have you taken your boots jff ? ^abcn ®ie Z^xt ©ticfcl au^grjogen ? 
I have taken them off. Z^ ^a6e fte ou^gegcgetu 

This^ that. ;D t e f e ^^ b a 6. 

Has he told you that ! ^at ct Sl^nen la£ gct^d^? 

It. e& 

He has told it to me. (Sx ^at ti niir grfdgt 

^ Ohs. The neuter pronoun e *, if, which is tM)me- 
times rendered into English by so^ and more elegantly 
omitted, may in. German relate to substantives of any 
gender or number, to adjectives, and even to v^rhole 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Have yon told it to me ? ^^m €te ti tint grfngt ? 

I have told it to you. 3d) hoht <^ S^nen gefagt 

Who has told it to him 1 2Bcr M c* iljm gcjhgt ? 

Are you the brother of my friend 1 ©inb @te t)<r 93nibei: mcinc6 Sromi 

I am. t 3d) bin c i. 

Are you ill t ©inb ®ie fronf ? 

I am not. t Sd) bin c ^ ntd)t; 

Are our neighbours as poor as f @tnb unfere Sta^bom fo ^^cm, nii 

they say? |ic e< fogcn? 

They are so. f felf {inb c^ 

To speak—spoken. ©ptc^en* — gefptociben. 

1 have spoken with the man. 3d) hc^bt mtt bent a}{annc gefprc^en* 
I have spoken to the man. 3d) b<tbe ben 9){ann gefpredben." 

With. SKit (a preposition which gov- 

erns the dative). 

With which man have you QKit melc^em SKonne f)abcn ^e ges 

spoken 1 fprod)cn ? 

To which man have you spoken 1 SBclc^en fSJtann iaUn CTte gcfpre^en? 

Cut (past participle). ®efc^nitten. 
Picked up. 2( u f g c f)0 b e m 

Washed. @en)afd)en. 

Which books have you picked SBe(d)e ©ftcfeec ^Oen ©ie aufge^e* 

up 1 ben ? 

I have picked up yours. 3d) l)<iU bie 3bngen oufgehcbcn 

(See Obs. B. preceding Lesson.) 

Burnt. tBetbrennf* 

Which books have you burnt? SBett^c 93fid)et boben ^ie wrbrcnnt? 
[ have burnt na books. 3c^ f)aU feinc SBttc^ec t)erbrcnnt. 

Tom. Sett iff en. 

Which shirts have you torn 1 2Be(d)e ^emben boben ^U serriffen? 
I have ^om my own. 3d) b^be bie nieinigen icrrijfen. 


Have you anything to do 1 — I have nothing to do. — What ha« 

Jour brother to do 1 — He has to write letters. — What hast thou 
one 1 — I have dono nothing. — Have I done anything 1— You haT« 

• Semanbftt f^re t^en means to speak to somebooy in an absolute sense, with* 
oat mentioning the subject spoken of, whilst mit {^emfln^em fj>recbfn, means to 
fpMik with or to somebody about a particular thing, as: mit Sentanbcm ubrt 
aroat (tjon einer <Ba(bt) fprecben, to speak with somebody ahout something. 

»» The participle past of the verb tjfrbtfnncn would be »crbrannt, if it wyw 
employed either in a neuter or intransitive sense. Ex. Are my books hirat? 
fmb mcmc^ficjber mbrannt ? They are burnt, fit finb wrrbrannt (See Now 
•, Juesson XX v. 

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torn my clothes (Jl(et^). — What have your children done 1 — ^They 
hare torn their beautifal hooks. — What have we done 1 — You have 
done nothing; hut your brothers have humt my fine chairs. — Has 
ibe tailor already made your coat 1 — He has not yet made it. — 
Has your shoemaker already made your boots 1-^He has already 
made them. — Have you sometimes made a hat? — I have never 
made one. — Hast thou already made thy purse 1 — I have not yei 
made it.— Have our neighbours ever made books 1 — They m;ulp 
(hohtn — aemad)t) some formerly. — How many coats has your tailor 
made! — He has made thirty or forty of them. — Has he made good 
or bad coats? — He has made (both) good and bad (ones). — Hus 
onr father taken his hat off? — He has taken it off. — Have your 
brothers taken their coats off? — They have taken them off. — Has 
the physician taken his stockings or his shoes off 1 — He has taken 
off neither the one nor the other. — What has he taken away 1 — 
He has taken away nothing, but he has taken off his large hat. — 
Who has told you that? — My servant has told it to me- — What has 
Toar coasin told you 7 — He has told me nothing. — W ho has told 
it to your neighbour? — ^The English have told it to him. — Are you 
the brother of that (l)ieff«) youth ? — I am (3d) bin tf>). — Is that boy 
your son ! — He is. — How many children have you 1 — I have but 
two. — Has the bailiff gone to the market 1 — He has not gone 
thither.— Is he ill ? — He is. — Am I ill 1 — You are not. — Are you 
as tall (grc0) as I ? — 1 am. — Are your friends as rich as they say ? 
—They are. — Art thou as fatigued as thy brother? — I am more so 
(c$ nte^r) than he. 


Have you spoken to my father?— I have spoken to him. — When 
did (haUn 9<fprcd)cn) you speak to himi — I spoke to him the day 
before yesterday. — Have you sometimes spoken with the Turk ? — 
I haye never spoiwsn with him. — How many times have yuu 
Bpoken to the captain? — I have spoken to him six times. — Has 
the nobleman ever spoken with you ? — He has never spoken with 
me. — Have you often spoken with his son ? — I have often spoken 
with him. — Have you spoken with him oftener than we 1 — I have 
not spoken with him so often as you (have). — ^To which son of the 
nobleman have you spoken ? — I have spoken to the youngest. — To 
which men has your brother spoken ? — He has spoken to these. — 
What has your gardener's son cut ? — He has cut trees. — Has he 
eat com ? — He has cut some. — Has he cut as much hay as corn ? 
—He has cut as iiuch of the one as of the other. — Have you 
picked up my knife ? — I have picked it up. — Has your boy picked 
op the tailor's thimble? — He has not picked it up.— Have you 
picked up a crown ? — I have picked up two of them. — What have 
you picked up? — We have picked up nothing. — Have you burnt 
anything^— We have burnt nothing. — What have the sailors 
burnt t — They have burnt their cloth coats. — Hast thou burnt my 
fine ribbons? — 1 have not burnt them. — Which books has ths 

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Cheek burnt t— He has burnt his own.-^Which eiips (^tff^ 
hare the Spaniards burnt 1— They have burnt no ships. — Hare jtm 
burnt paper t — I have not burnt any. — Has the Physician burnt 
notes 1 — He has burnt none. — Have you had the courage to bum 
my hat 1 — I have had the courage to burn it. — When diayou bum 
it 1 — I burnt it yesterday. — Where have you burnt it 1 — I have 
burnt it in my room.— Who has torn your shirt 1 — The ugly boy Hf 
our neighbour has torn it. — Has anybody tora your books t-—Pt-^ 
body has torn them. 

FORTY.FOURTH LESSON.— bitr Utlb WO^igfile 

To drink — drunk. 
To cany — carried. 
To bring — brought. 
To send — sent. 
To write — written. 
Te see — seen. 
To give — ^given. 
To lend — ^lent. 

Infinitive. Past part. 
SCrittfen* — getnmfen. 
ZvaQcn* — gtttagm. 
Sringen* —^hvadft. 
©enben* — gefanbt. 
®d)reiben*— gefrffrieteu 
©c^tt* — gefe^en. 
®eben* — gcgeben. 
ieitjm* — gelie^ 


Neuter verbs are conjugated like the active. The 
latter, however, always form their past tenses with 
the auxiliary Ijaben*, to have ; on the contrairy, some 
neuter verbs take feiit*, to be, and others ^abim*, for 
their auxiliary ; others again take sometimes 1)atm*, 
and sometimes fcin*. Those of which the auxiliary 
is not marked have the same as in English. 

To come — come (Past part.;. Jtommcn* — gcfommcn. 
Togo — gone. ®<ben* — gegangrn. 

Is the man come to your father! 3fl bet sDZonn jn 3t)rcm 93atet ^ 

fomnicn 7 
He is come to him. ©r i|l ju iftm gcfcnmien. 

Is thy brother gone into the 3|l iDcin SBrubrr auf ba« (oJfU) 

field 1 ^«tt> (jCijoncien ? 

He is gone thither. (5r tft biibtn gci^ongcn. 

Have you seen the man 1 Jpab<n <Sic ben -XWann gcfe^n I 

I have seen him. 3d) baOc ihn (^cfcl)cn. 

Have you seen my book ! f^abtn &c metn 8Bu(^ gcfe^t 

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I kiTB not seen it. 2k4 ^abe e$ ntc^t Q^\tl)tn. 

VrkenT^Wheret SBonn? — ©0?* 

When did you see mj cousin 1 SBnnn ^aben @ie meinett fCettct gd 

fcbcn ? 
! saw him the day before yester- 3(^ ^a&e t^n Mtgefletn gefel^cn. 

Where have you seen him t SQ?o bobcn ©U i^n acfe^cn? 
I haye seen him at the theatre. Set) babe if)n tm Soeatcr gcfc^iu 
Where hast thon seen my book % SBo b^jt aDu mctn SBucf) ^efe^en ? 
I hate seen it in your room. Sc^ ^atc «^ in S^tem Simmer gcffi 


Do yon learn to read t 8ernen @tc (cfcn ? 

I do learn (it). 3^ lerne e^ 

I learn to write. 3c^ (erne fd)ret6en. 

Have yon learnt to write t ^a&en @ie fd)reiben geternt ? 

I have (learnt it). 34 f)<tbe e^ geternt 

7\> ibuw (^o 5tf oc^tMitn/e J tri/A) Jtennen* — gefannt. 
— kfunon* 

Ha?e yon known those men t ^6en @te iene 972Anner gefonnt ? 
I have not known them. 34^ f)obe pe ntc^t gefannt 

Ohs. Instead of the past participle, the following 
verbs retain the form of the infinitive when preceded 
by another infinitive :^ bfirfen*, to be permitted ; ^eigen% 
to bid ; ^effm*, to help ; l)6reit, to hear ; foitneit*, to be 
able (can) ; laflcn*, to let ; Iel)ren, to teach ; lemcit, to 
learn ; mogeil*, to be allowed (may) ; miiflen*, to be 
obliged (must) ; fe^ett*, to see ; folleit, to be obliged 
(shall, ought) ; ttwttcit, to be willing, to wish (will).® 

To let {to get^ to have, to order). 8 o f f e n *• (See Lesson XXXI. 

where this verb is conjugated 
in the present tense.) 

To get or to have mendea — got 2(u6t)effeni taffen*. 
or had mended. 

* Learaen ought now to use in their exercises the adverbs of time, place, 
and number, mentioned in Lessons XXVII. XXXI. XXXII. and XLU. 

* h will be nseful to remember that the particle % u docs not precede the 
infinitive joined to one of these verbs. (See Obs. B. Lesnon XL.) 

* Modem authors do not always observe this distinction, but give the pre- 
ference to the regular form. Thm. it is already generallv said : 3^ babe ibn 
^nnctt gelentt (not Urncn), I have become acquainted with him ; C^(» babe ibjn 
■tbeitea gebolfcn (not ^elfen), I have helped him to work ; cr ^at mi(^ nc^ttg 
f9tt^ fitle^rt (not Icrneu), he has taught me to speak correcuy. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To get or to have washed — grot flBafftcn tafftn* 

or had washed. 
To have made — had made. 9){ad)cn (affrn*. 

Are you getting a coat made (do Caffcn 6ie cinen ffUd tttac^ ? 

you order a coat) 1 
I am getting one made (I do ^6) (affe ctnen moc^en. 

order one), 
I have had one made. 3d) ^6e cinen mfl^<n loffcm 

Has your brother had his shirt ^at S^v S3rutet fetn ^axi^ nxifcbcs 

washed 1 loffcn ? 

He has had it washed. Gt bat e^ wofc^en (affen. 

The cravat, to^ ^(^tucb ; 

the neck, bet ^al^. 

Hast thou sometimes had cravats ^ofl aDu niand)nia( ^olMd^ ou^ 

mended t bcffern loffcn ? 

have had some mended some- 3d) haht mond)mo( R)c(cb< ou^cfffm 

times. (offcn. 


Have you drunk wine 1 — I have drunk some. — Have you drunk 
much of it 1 — I have drunk but little of it. — Hast thou drunk 
some beer ! — I have drunk some 1 — Has thy brother drunk much 

food cider 1 — He has not drunk much of it, but enough. — When 
id you drink any wine 1 — I drank some yesterday and to-day (3* 
f)abe gcftcrn unb bcutc nwld)cn). — Has the servant carried the letter ! 
— He has carried it. — Where has he carried it to ? — He has 
carried it to your friend. — Have you brought us some apples 1 — We 
have brought you some. — How many apples have you brought us ! 
— We have brought you twenty-five of them. — When did you 
bring them 1 — ^I brought (babe — C|cbrad)t) them this morning. — At 
what o'clock 1 — At a quarter to eight. — Have you sent your little 
boy to the market?^! have sent him thither (babin). — When did 
you send him thither? — ^This evening. — Have you written to your 
father 1 — I have written to him. — Has he answered you 1-^He has 
not yet answered me. — Have you ever written to the physician 1— 
I have never written to him. — Has he sometimes written to you t 
— Hj has often written to me. — What has he written to you ! — He 
has written to me something. — Have your friends ever written to 
you t — ^They have often written to me. — How many times (LessoB 
aLH.) have they written to you t — They have written to me more 
than thirty times. — Have you ever seen my son 1 — I have never 
seen him. — Has he ever seen you ? — He has often seen me. — Hast 
thou ever seen any Greeks 1 — I have often seen some. — Have you 
already seen a Syrian 1 — I have already seen one. — Where have 
you seen one 1 — At the theatre. — Have you given the book to mj 
brother ? (Rule of Syntax, Lesson XXVUl.)— I have given it to 
him. — Have you given money to the merchant 1 — I have given 
sorno to him. — How much have you ^ven to him 1 — I have given 
to him lllteon crowns. — Have you given gold ribbons to our go«J 



aeighboiiTs' children? — I have given some to them. — Will you 
five some bread to the poor (man) (Page 34, Obs, 4.) ? — I have 
dretdjT given some to him. — Wilt thou give me some wine ? — 1 
nave iQready given you some. — When didst thou give me some 1^ 
I gave you some fotmerly. — Wilt ihou give me some now 1 — ^1 
cannot give you any (3cb fann 3t)nen !cincn). 


Has the American lent you money ? — He has lent me some.-^ 
Has he often lent you some ? — He has lent me some sometimes.-— ^ 
tVlien did he lend you any ? — He lent me some formerly. — Has 
the Italian ever lent you money % — He has never lent me any. — 
Is he poor 1 — He is not poor ; he is richer than you. — Will yoii 
lend me a crown % — ^I will lend you two of them. — Has your boy 
crane to mine 1 — He has come to him. — When ? — ^This morning. — 
At what time 1 — Early. — Has he come earlier than I % — At what 
O'clock did you comel — I came at half past five. — He has come 
earlier than you. — Where did your brother go to ? — He went to the 
ball. — When did he go thither? — He went thither the day before 
yesterday. — Has the hall taken place? — It has taken place. — Has 
It taken place late ? — It has taken place early. — At what o'clock ? 
— At midnight. — Does your brother learn to write ? — He does learn 
it- — Does he already know how (Lesson XXXVII.) to read ? — He 
does not know how yet. — Have you ever learnt German ? — I learnt 
it formerly, but I do not know it. — Has your father ever learnt 
French? — He has never learnt it. — Does he learn it at present?— 
He does learn it, — Do you know the Englishman whom I know ? 
I do not know the one whom (Lessons Xfl. and XIV.) you know ; 
but I know another (Lesson XXI). — Does your friend know the 
same ncbleman whom I know ? — He does not know the same ; but 
he knows others. — Have you known the same men whom I have 
known (nKld)e id) gefonnt batO«^-l ^^^^ ^^^ known the same ; but 
I have known others.— -Have you ever had your coat mended ] — 
I have sometimes had it mended ? — Hast thou already had thy 
Doots mended ? — ^I have not yet had them mended.— -Has your 
eoi»in sometimes had his stockings mended? — He has several 
times had them mended.— Hast thou had thy hat or thy shoe mena- 
ed ?— I have neither had the one nor the other mended. — Have you 
had my cravats or my shirts washed ? — I have neither had the 
one nor the other washed. — What stockings have you had washed ? 
—1 have had the thread stockings washed.— Has your father had 
1 table made? — He has had one nade. — Have you had anything 
' »?— I have had nothing made. (See end of Lesson XXjCIV.) 

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FORTY-FIFrH LESSON. — Jftnf tttlb mttjigtte 


Fo receive — received. SScfommcn* (ctftoCten* 

O65. jL We have observed (Lesson XLL) that some 
verbs do not take the syllable 9 e in the past participle ; 
ibey are, 

1st, Those which begin with one of the inseparable 
unaccented particles : be, tmp, cnt, er, ge, tJer, nnber, jcf 
(See Lesson XXV.), or with one of the following par- 
ticles, when inseparable : bitrcf), through ; Ijinter, behind ; 
fiber, over ; nm^ around ; iinter, under ; t)ott, fiill s »toer, 

2nd, Those derived from foreign languages and tei^ 
minating in irett, or teren* Ex. fhibiren, to study ; past 
part, fhibirt, studied. 

Ruk, All verbs, in general, which have not the prin- 
cipal accent upon the first syllable, reject the syllable 
ge in the past participle. 

How much money have you re- SBtcoicl (Bitt hc^Un fit befommcn t 

ceived 1 
I have received three crowns. 3c& f)fl^« ^tci IS^fet 6(femmciu 
Have you received letters 1 |)Qbcn ©t< ©rie fc erhalten ? 

I have received some. 3c^ l)aU todd^t cr^altctu 

To promise— promised, 93ccfpcc(fte n* — ^ ctfpco^Cft. 

Obs. B. Derivative and compound verbs are con- 
jugated like their primitives : thas the verb Mrff)red)eii* 
is conjugated like fprec^*, to speak, which is its pri- 
mitive. (Lessons XXIV. and XXXIV.) 

Do you promise me to come ? QScrfprctfcen ©ie nut ju !omm« ? 
I promise you. 3d) t)crfprcd)e c« Sbncn. 

The grosh (a coin), trr ®rcfd)en (is not softened in tiie 

plur.) ; 
the denier, ber 5)ff nnig. 

A crown contains twenty-four (Stn Shotcr f)at ©i^r unl) gwanjig 
groshes. ®rcfd)cn. 

• Verba compounded with these particles are inseparable, when the pM^ 
ticles may be considered as adverbs, and separable, when they have ^ 
Meaning of prcpuKiiioM. 



k mdi eoBtains twelve deniers. CHn ®ref[|)en bat '^toUlf ^frnnige. 

4 loiin contains sixteen groshes ©in ®u(l)cn f)at ffcfeicbn ®rcf(fte« 
or sixty kreuaere, or forty-eight eUx fcch^ig ^rcu^^r, ct«t od)t un^ 
good kreuzers. Mcqig gutc Jtrcujcr. 

A denier contains two oboles. Sin pfennig ^at gn>ei pellet* 
The obole, ber ^eVicv* 

There is. 
There are* 

Bern many groshes are there in 

a crown t 

To wear out-^^toom out 

To sveUspeUed. 

Bad, badly. 

How has he washed the shirt ? 

He has washed it well. 

How hare you written the letter % 

So so. 

In this manner. 

To call-^aUed. 

Have yon called the man t 
I have ddled him. 

To dry. 

To put (to place, to lay). 

Do you put your coat to dry I 
1 do put it to dry. 
Where have you placed (put) 

(Si jlnb 

9&ime( ©rofc^cn finb in eincm Sho* 

93ter unb gn^ansig. 

2C6tragen • — abgcico^cn 

(abnui^en — abgcnu^t). 
95ud)|tabiccn— 6ud)|la6l tt. 

®ut, toeU (adverbs •»), 

^(ec^t, CiM/ fc^limm (adverbs <")• 

SBie f)aX tt ba$ ^emb gemafcf^en 1 
(&t f)at ti gut 0cwofd>en. 
SBte I[)a6en 6tc ben SBtjef gefc^riei 
6m t 

eo fo. 

:2(uf biefe2Crt 
l2(uf biefcSBeife. 

9lufen* — gerufen. 

Jl^aUn @ie ben ^ann getufcn t 
Sc^ \)aht t^n gerufen. 


eegen @tc 3(ten 9{0(f gu tctdntn 1 

3A lege t^n gu trocfnen. 

SBo f)aben ^te ba^ SBuc^ ^tnge- 

(eqt? (See Note ^ Lessoa 


^ @nt relfttes to the manner in which a thing is done. Ex. @r rcbet oat, he 
•peaki wen. SBoM denotes a certain de^e of well being. Cz. 3$ bin 
teolH* I am wcH ; i^ ttet$ e8 »o^l I know it well. 

* €(^le6t is the opposite to gut and ubel the opposite to tt)Opl. Ex. Qt 
fi^Trtit fdblecbt he writes badly. Qtttoa9 fibet nebmeit, to be offended at any^ 
rtdng. ®6uinm is employed nearly in the same sense as iibel, thus we say: 
f^Umm 0cmtg, bad enough ; be#o fct^Ummer, so much the worso. 



1 have placed it upon the table. 3d) t^aU c^ auf ten SSif^ d<^ 

To lie — lain. Sicgen* — get eg en. 

Wliere lies the book ? 2Bc licgt l>a^ Sud) ? 

It lies upon the table. g-ig ticqt auf bcm Sifc^e. 

It has lain upon the table. @6 ^at auf tern !Stfd)C detegnu 

TA^tf. iDarouf. 

Does the book lie on the chair 1 Sicgt bag Suc^ auf tern ^tublc ? 
It does lie there (on it). (&i (iegt b a c a u f. 

It has lain there. (&i [)at barauf gctcgen. 


Hast thou promised anything? — I have promised nothing. — ^Di 
you give me what you have promised me ! — I do give it to you. — 
Have you received much money 1 — I have received but little, — How 
much have you received of it ! — I have received but one crowor- 
When have you received your letter ? — I have received it to-day.— 
Hast thou received anything 1 — I have received nothing. — Whai 
have we received 1 — We have received long (grc^) letters. — Do yoa 
promise me to come to the ball ? — I do promise you to come to ii. — 
Does your ball take place to-night? — It does take place. — How 
much money have you given to my son ? — I have given him fifteen 
crowns. — Have you not promised him more 1-^1 have given him what 
I have promised him. — Have our enemies received their money 1— 
They have not received it. — Have you German money ? — I have 
some. — What kind of money have you 7 — ^I have crowns, floruw, 
kreuzers, groshes, and deniers. — How many groshes are there in 
a florin 1 — A florin contains (bat) sixteen groshes, or sixty kreuzers, 
or forty-eight good kreuzers. — Have you any obolesi — I have a 
few of them. — How many oboles are there in a denier? — A denier 
contains two oboles. — Will you lend your coat to me? — I will lend 
it to you; but it is worn out. — Are your shoes worn out? — ^They 
are not worn out. — Will you lend them to my brother 1 — I will 
lend them to him. — To whom have you lent your hat? — I have not 
lent it ; I have given it to somebody. — ^To whom have you given 
it 1 — I have given it to a pauper (bcc Uxmi). 


Does your little brother already know how to spell 1 — He does 
know. — Does he spell well t — He does spell well. — How has your 
little boy spelt 1 — He has spelt so so. — How have your children 
written their letters 1 — ^They have written them badly. — Do yon 
know (Lesson XXXVII.) Spanish 1 — I do know it. — Does your 
cousin speak Italian 1 — He speaks it well. — How do your friends 
speak? — ^They do not speak badly (nid^t tiOct). — Do they listen to 
what you tell them ? — ^They do listen to it. — How hast thou learnt 
English ? — I have learnt it in this manner. — Have you called me?— 
I have not called you, but your brother.— Is he cciw 1 — Not yei 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


(LettoD XL.) — Wheie have you wet (naS ma(^cn) yoar clotlies 1 
~I have wet ihem in the country. — Will you put then, to dry 
(jntrccfncn Ugcti) t — I will put them to dry. — Where have you put 
ray bat 1 — I have put it upon the table. — Hast thou seen my book 1 
—I have seen it. — Where is it 1 — It lies upon your brother's trunk. 
—Does my handkerchief lie upon the chair 1 — It does lie upon it. — 
When have you been in the country 1 — I have been there the day 
before yesterday. — Have you found your father there 1 — I have found 
tim there. — What has he said 1 — He has said nothing. — What have 
yoa been doing in the country ? — ^I have been doing nothing there. 

FORTY.SIXTH LESSON. — 0ecl)0 tmb vkt^sAt 

Dot* your father wish to give ©iH S^v 93atec mit rtwa$ gu t^un 

me anything to do ? Qchtn ? 

Be does wish to give thee some- $r wlU >Dtr ettoa^ }u t()un gebcn. 

^ng to do. 

Obs. SajU/ to it, relates sometimes to an kifini 

H>ve you a mind to work ? J^aUn ©ic 8uft gu ar6dten ? 

I have no mind to it. 3d) bote fcinc Cuft taju. 

Is thy brother gone to the 3jl iDein SBrutci: aufi Cant gcfian.' 

country 1 gen? 

He is gone thither. ©r'tjl tn^in gegangcn. 
Hast tSou a mind to go thither 1 |)afl iDu Sujt l>a^in gu ge^cn? 

I have a mind to it. 3d) (?at>e «u|l bo^u. 

How old are you ! Jffiie ott pnb <Bk ? 

I am twelve years old. 3d) bin itu8tf 3abc ■ att. 

How old is your brother t SBic ait \\t 3&r a5ru^et ? 

He is thirteen years old. (&t i|l twiic^n 3af)t ott. 

Almost (nearly). Sctnofte or faft. 

About. Ungefa^u 

Hardly. ^ a u ni • 

He is almost fourteen years old. Gr t|l fa|t »icrgc6n 3ol)C a(t 

I am about fifteen years old. 3* Mn un^cf^X^i: fftnfic^n 3^^ 

He 18 almost sixteen years old. Qt tft bctnal)e fedijc^n 3fl6t att. 
Yoar are* hardly seventeen years ®ic ftnb faum pctjcniel)!! S^l)t alt 

■ Here onrton feqaliet dn ■faigvkr imbw. 

y Google 


Not quite. 92 1 (i^ t g a n j. 

I am not quite eighteen years 3d) 6tn nt(f)t gan) a^tir^n SM^ 

old. alt. 

Art thou older than thy brother ? IBift Du 5(tcr a(^ iDein SBtut^o: I 
I am younger than he. 3d) bin (iingcc oU er. 

To understand — undet stood. aSecfteftcn* — oecflattbcii 

Do you understand me 1 83tfc|leftcn 6i< mt(!^ t 

I do understand you. 3d) ocrftebc ©ic 

Have you understood the man 1 ^aben ®te ten ^ann onilanbm t 
I have understood him. ^ l)abc ti)n Mrflanben* 

1 hear vou, but I do not under- 3d) Ifivt Bit, abtt idi ocrftc^ &u 
stand you. ntc^t 

The noise, bet Hvnx ; 

Tlie noise (roaring) of the wind, ba^ @aufen M SBtnbe^ ; 

The wind, berffiinb. 

Do ^ou hear the roaring of the ^v(n ^ie ba^ Gaufen be$ fflStiM 

wind t be^ ! 

I do hear it. 3(^ ^Sre c^ 

To bark. 93e((en. 

The barking, ba^ SScIteiu 

Have vou heard the barking of |)abcn @ie ba^ SBeden bet ^unbr grf 

the dogs 1 tcrt ? 

I have heard it. 34 b^^^ (^ deb6rt 

Tolose^ost. fBertieten* — vetlor^ti. 

To beat— beaten. ©c^Ugcn*— gcf<^la9eiu 

Thou beatest,— he beats. ;Du \Wc^, — et \W^X. 

Toread — r«aif (past part), gefen* — gelefcn. 

To remain— remained. SBIeiben* — geblteben (takes 

fc'tn for its auxiliary)* 
To take — taken^ Sfieftmcn* — dcnomm<iu 

To know— known. ©iff en* — gemupt 

Have you lost anything 1 ^aben @te etwo^ Dertoren ? 

I have lost nothing. 3<^ ^abe ntc^t^ t)er(orctu 

To lose (at play )— /o5<. fiSerfpielen* — ©etfpictt 

How much has your brother lost? SBicmct ^ot Z^t 9Brubet Detfptdt? 

He has lost about a crown. dt ^at ungef&I)c emen S^olec 9ct» 

Who has beaten the dog 1 9Bec &at ben ^unb gefifetogcii ? 

No one has beaten it. S^ienwnb bat iftn gef^lagen. 

How many books has your cousin Jffiiemet Sftcftet ^t S^tf SJettWP ttli 
alxeady read * geUfen t 



liliMalKady read fiye of them, (5r b«t bercn fd)cn finf gelcfcn^ mil 
I tod at present he is reading jc^r (icptcr Da6 fc^ftc 
I the sixtu. 

I fl» the man taken anything f ^t tcr g}jQnn 3!)ncn ctwa^ gcs 
I from you 1 nonmicn 1 

I he has taken nothing from me. f @r f)Qt mic nid)tg gcncnmwn. 

Do jou know as much as this SBiffcn ©ie fo cicl roie biefet 
man ? 50iann ? 

f io not know as much as he. Sd) »f ifi nid^t fc Diet wic er. 

HafB you known that 1 ^oben ^ic tai gewu^t ? 

I have not known it. 3d) habc c^ nid)t gwupt. 

Where have our friends re- 8330 fint unfirc gteunfec gcMieben ? 

fbey have remained at home. €te itnb ga |»aufe qebftebcn. 


Have yon time to write a letter? — ^I have time to wr.te o:ie.— 
Will yoif lend a hook to my brother 1—1 have lent one to him 
already. — Will you lend him one moro^ — I will lend him two 
more. — Have you given anything to the poor t — ^1 have given them 
monej. — How much money has my cousin given youl — He has 
?iven me only a little ; he has given me only two crowns. — How 
iid is your brother 1 — He is twenty years old. — Are you as old as 
hel — ^I am not so old. — How old are you 1 — I am hardly eighteen 

fears old.^ — How old art thou 1 — ^I am about twelve years old. — ^Am 
yoonorer than you 1 — I do not know. — How old is our neighbour" 
—He 18 not quite thirty years old. — Are our friends as young as 
wet — ^They are older than we. — How old are they 1 — ^The one is 
nineteen and the other twenty years old. — Is your father as old as 
mine 1 — He is older than yours 1 — Have you read my book 1 — I have 
notqaite read it yet. — Has your friend finished his book ? — He has 
almost finished it. — Do you understand me t — ^I do understand you. 
"-Does the Englishman understand us ? — He does understand us. 
—Do you understand what we are telling you 1 — We do understand 
it—Dost thou understand German 1 — I do not understand it yet, « 
bat 1 am Jeaming it. — Do we understand the Enfflish 1 — We do 
Dot understand them. — Do the Germans understand us 1 — They do 
widerstand us. — Do we understand them ? — We hardly understand 
Uiem.— Do you hear any noise ? — ^I hear nothing. — Have you heard 
the roaring of the wind 1 — I have heard it. — What do you hearl— 
I hear the barking of the dogs. — Whose dog is this 1— It is the dog 
of the Scotchman. 


Have you lost your stick 1 — ^I have not lost it. — Has your sei 
fanl lost my note 1 — He has lost it. — Have you gone to the hall 1 
—No, 1 have not gone to it. — Where have you remained 1 — I have 
iwnamed at home. — Has your father lost (at play) as much money 
IS 1 1— He has lost more of it than you ? — ^How much have I losti 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


^-Yon have hardly .ost a crown. — ^Where has thy brother f» 
mained t — He has remained at home. — Haye your friends t» 
mained in the country 1 — ^They have remained there. — Do yon 
know as much as the English physician 1 — I do not know as much 
as he. — Does the French physician know as much as you t — He 
knows more than I. — Does any one know more than the French 
physicians 1 — No one knows more than they. — Have your brothesrs 
read my books ? — ^They have not quite read them. — How many o( 
them have they read t — ^They have hardly read two of them. — Has 
the son of my gardener taken anything from yon ? — He has taken 
my books from me. — What hast thou taken from himi — ^I have 
taken nothing from him. — Has he taken money from youl — He 
has taken some from me.— -How much money has he taken from 
yont — He tas taken from me almost two crowns. (See end o$ 
Lesson XXXIV.) 

FORTY.SEVENTH LESSON.— Bubetl nnb ifittpgsU 

To bite^^itten. Scipen— gebtffen. 

Why t SB a t u m ? 

Because* SB e i I. 

\Cj^ The verb of the subject op nominative, (in 
compound tenses, the auxiliary) is placed at the end 
of the phrase, when this begins with a conjunction or 
a conjunctive word, such 8ts a relative pronoun or a 
relative adverb. The conjunctions which do not re- 
quire the verb to be placed at the end, will be given 

Why do you beat the dog ? SBarum [(^(aaen &t ben |)unb ? 

I beat it, because it has bitten 3d) fd)(a9C t^ri/ n>ct( er mtc^ deMffcn 

me. f)ot 

Do you see the man who is in @ct)en @ie ten SKann^ n>€((^er (ber) 

the garden ! tm Oarten tfl? i 

I do see him. 3c6 fef)e tbn. 

Do you know the man who has Jlenncn @tc ben 50?anti, bet (ioeI<^) 

lent me the book ? mtr bad S3ucb gcltc^cn ^at ? 

I do not know him. Scb fenne t^n ntd)t 

Do you read the book, which I Sefen 6te tad SBucb/ n>e(cbe5 t^ 3^ 

have lent you ? nen gclic^en \ia\>t ? 

I do read it. 34 tcfe tU 

Ohs. When the verb, which a conjunctive word 
causes to be placed at the end of the phrase, is com 




pounded with a separable particle, this is not detached 
fitxm it* Ex. 

I Wnkfast before I go out. 3(^ frfi^lificfe, ebc id) au%f)<. 

Does the tailor sho ▼ yoa the B^tgt 3^ncn bet ^d)nctt)er Un lKC(t 
toatf which he is mending? nx(d)en er au^beffert? 

To watt. SEBarten. 

To expect. dtmaxttn.* 

To wut for Borne one or for 2(uf Ginen e^cc etmai wavtai 

To expect some one or some- Ginen tt)a tttoai tvtoaxtttu 

Do j<m wait for my brother 1 ffi^rtm 6te auf mclnen %rabrt ? 
I do wait for him. 3A maxU ouf i^n. 

Do yoa expect friends ! Gnoortcn 6ie Jfreunlv 1 

i do expect some. 34) cnoatte ctntg^ 

To owe. ©cftutblgfeln** 

How much do yoa owe me I flBtemd ftnb 6te mtr fc^ultitg? 
f owe yoa fiAy crowns. 3d) bin 3N<n fKafatg ^aUt fc^uU 

How mach does the man owe $2BtemeIifl3()ncttt(t 3){annf(^u(t)tg7 

He owes me ten shillings. ^(St tfl mtr jcbn ©d)ittinge fd)utbt3. 
Does he owe as much as yoa ! 3fi ^ fo otd fd)u(bt9 rote ^te? 
Be owes more than I. (&t tfl mcbt fdbuttig old tc^. 

The shilling, ter ^cfatUtng ; 

the pound, ta^ ^ftinb ; 

the liyre (a coin), ber ^ranfe. 

To rotum^to come back) — re- Surftdfommcn ♦ — jU r ft cig c« 
tvrrfid. { m m c n. 

hi what o'clock do yoa retam Um wteotrt Ubr fommen @te MH 

from the market? (em SRarfte gurfic! ? 

I return from it at twelye o'clock. 3c6 f omme am ^{^ UlSir twn ba im 


From there^ thence {from it). SJon bo. 

Does the serrant return ear^y ^ommt bee SBebteitte frilb l)cn bo )u« 

tfaencel tdc!? 

de retams thence at ten o'clock (^ fcmmt um ge^n UI)C 9!)?orgeii< 

in the morning. twn bo |urQ(f. 

it nine o'clock m the morning, f Um tieun U()r ^{crgcn^. 
it eleven o'clock at night. j Um elf Uf)C Kbcnb^. 

•■ Shorten ant, with the accusative case, is used, when the peraoti or thing 
jpoksB o( is present, and ertvarten, when it is not 

^ ^>d^vXtia fetn*, to owe. ii to be considered as a componnd verb, of which 
Ik separable pardole is placed at the end, fc^utbig, due, owing, indebted, hav 
or bere the force of the separable particlv. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Howlongt fSie langc?* 

During^ for flB 6 ^ t c n D (a prep o&ition whicl 

governs the genitive case). 

How long has he remained ISic (ange tfl et ba 9c6(te&«n ? 

A minute. (Sine minute. 

An hour. Gine ^tun^cd 

A day. (^tnen Sag. 

A year. <5in 3al)r (a neuter substantive 

taking c in the plur. withoa 
being softened). 
A month. Gtnm g){onat 

The summer, Ux ©cmmer. 

The winter, t)cc ©inter. 

rSB&^renb be« ©ommcr^ 
During the summer. < iDen @cmmec fiber. 

C Den ©emmet binturd). 
How long have you spoken with SBie (ange baben ©ie mit bem iSSon 

the man ? ne gefptcd)en ? 

I have spoken with him for three 3d) habe tret ©tunben nut i^ gc 

hours fprcd)en. 

How long has your brother re- Jffiic (ange tjl 3()t Srubct ouf Ut 

mained in the country ? ^anbe geblieben t 

He has remained there a month. 5r ijl eincn 9)lcnat ba gebdebcn. 
Have you remained long with 6inb €te (ange bei metncm aSatc 

my father 1 geblieben ? 

I have remained with l^im for an 3d) bin eine ©tunbc long hn tf)m gl 
hour. blicben. 

Long. Cange. 


Why do you love that man 1^1 love him, because he is good.- 
Why does your neighbour beat his dog 1 — Because it has bitte 
his little boy. — Why does our father love me 1 — He loves you, b< 
cause you are good. — Do your friends love us % — ^They love us, b* 
cause we are good. — Why do you bring me winet — I bring yo 
some, because you are thirsty. — Why does the hatter drink % — H 
drinks, because he is thirsty. — Do you see the sailor who is i 
(auf; the ship 1 — ^I do not see the one who is m (auf) the ship, bi 

c l^e accusative cose answers to the question wie lan^f ? how lon^t u 
other similar questions, n^itive to measure, weight, quantity, d&c, as xc> 
fang? how long? »ic fc^wec? how heavy? J»ie»tcl? how much! n>ic tbfi 
«? at wliat price? mte »eit? how (ar? me gro^V of what sixe? »ic alt 
how old? 

'• '^{inute, minute, Stunbe, hour, are two nouns of the feminine gender 
they add n in all the cases of the plural without softening the radical .-ow 
els. We can also say: eine <BtmU laita during an hour: eiit 3aOt iaa, 
during a year. 



Hie one who is in (anf) the square. — Do you read the books which my 
iuker has giren you 1 — I do read them. — Do you know the Italians 
whom we know 1 — We do not know those whom you know, but 
wp know others (onbcrc). — Do you buy the horse which we have 
wen? — ^I do not buy that which we have seen, but another (cin 
cRl<rc#). — Do you seek what you have lost 1 — I do seek iu — Do you 
find the man whom you have looked fori — 1 do not find him.— 
Does the butcher ki)l the ox which he has bought in (ouf with the 
dzu) the market 1 — He does kill it. — Do our cooks kill the chickens 
7faich they have bought 1 — ^They do kill them. — Does the hatter 
mend the bat which I have sent him 1 — He dees mend it. — Does 
the shoemaker mend the boots which you have sent him ? — Ho does 
Dot mend them, because they are wcm out. — Does your coU lie 
upon the chair 1 — ^It doe-s lie upon it. — Does it lie upon the chair 
npon which 1 placed it? — No, it lies upon another. — ^Where is my 
bat ? — ^Ii is in the room in which (rocrin or in »c(d)cni) you have been. 
—Do you wait for any one 1 — I wait for no one. — Do you wait for 
the man whom I have seen this morning 1 — I do wait for him. — 
Art thou waiting for thy book 1 — I am waiting for it. — Do you 
expect your father this evening? — I do expect him. — At what 
>*clock has he gone to the theatre 1 — He has gone thither at seven 
3'clock, — At what o'clock does he return from there 1 — He returns 
Erom there at eleven o'clock.^ — Has yocr bailiff returned from the 
market 1 — He has not yet returned from it. — At what o'clock has 
four brother returned from the; country ?— ^He has returned from 
th^nee at ten o'clock in the evening. 


At what o'clock hast thou come hack from thy friend 1 — I have 
»Hnd back from him at eleven o'clock in the morning. — Hast thou 
remained long with him 1 — I have remained with him about an 
loar. — How long do you intend to remain at the ball 1 — I intend 
to remain there a few minutes. — How Ion? has the Englishman 
remained with you ? — He has remained with me for two hours.-^ 
Do you intend to remain lonjj in the country 1 — I intend to remain 
ihere during the summer. — How long have your brothers remained 
Ji town (in tvc ©tabt) 1 — ^They have remained there during the 
rinter. — How much do 1 owe you 1 — You do not owe me much. — 
flow much do you owe your tailor t — I only owe him fifty crowns. 
—How much dost thou owe thy shoemaker 1 — I owe him already 
leventy crowns. — Do I owe y ;a anything ? — You owe me nothing. 
—How much does the Frenchman owe you 1 — He owes me more 
han you. — Do the English owe you as much as the Spaniards 1— 
Siot quite so much. — Do I owe you as much as my brother 1 — You 
»we me more than he. — Do our friends owe you as much as we t— 
k'ou owe me less than they. — Why do you give money to the mer- 
:bant1 — I give him some, because he has sold me handkerchiefs, 
—Why do you not irinkl — 1 do not drink, because I am not 
iiirsty. — Why do yo»; pick .p this ribbon 1 — 1 pick it up, because 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I want iL — Why do you lend money to this matl — ^I lend hi 
some, because he wants some. — Why does your brother study I- 
He studies, because he wishes to learn German ((crncn t\>i(l).^-<Aj 
thou thirsty 1 — I am not thirsty, because I have drunk. — Has yoi 
cousin drunk already 1 — Not yet, he is not yet thirsty. — Does th 
servant show you the room which he sweeps 1 — He does not shoi 
me that which he sweeps now, but that which he has swept yestei 
day. — Do you breakfast before you go out % — I go out befcre 
breakfast. — What does your shoemaker do before he sweep« hi 
room t — He mends my boots and my shoes before he sweeps it ^Sc 
end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— OLc^t tmb tiitrjigeU 

2*0 live, to dwells to reside^ to SBof^netu 
abide, to lodge. 

Where do you live ? ffBo mebncn 6ie? 

I live in A\ illiam-street, number 3c^ roct)ne in bee SBi(b<Iin^apr^ 

twenty-five. 9?ummer ffinf unt* jwonjig. 

Where has your brother lived % ®o ^ot il)t 93rut«c gctocbnt 1 
He has lived in Fredertc-street, Gr bat in ter 5rt<l)rtd)tflra5e, ^um 

number one hundred and fiAy. met ^unbert unb ffin^ig gesoo^nt^ 
Dost thou live at thy cousin'^s aBoi)nft iDu Ux iDdneni SSettec t 

house t 
I do not live at his, but at my 34 wcbne vX^X Ux x^nm, (onbern bet 

father's house. metncm Skater. 

Does your friend still live where SBc^nt 3bt ^rcunb ne<^ (ba)/ lOO 

I have lived 1 t(b geioo^nt ^b( \ 

He lives no lon2;er where you Qx toobnt r''d)t me^r Qba), nw ^ 

have lived ; he lives at present acn7o()nt \ oben ; er loo^nt ie^t onf 

in the great square. ocni grcpiit ^(o^e. 

The street. iDte ©trape (a noun of the femi- 

nine gender). 

The number. >Dte 0{ummcr (a noun of the femi' 

nine gender). 

To brush. ©ttcftcn. 

Have you brushed my coat 1 ^aUn ©ie mcincn fRtd flcWtflrt! 
1 have brushed it. 3(^ ^aOc iljn gcbflrflrt. 

HotD long ? fffiictanget 

TaiyuntU. 58 i^. 

• In German, th« ooi^unction WXi, is used to add a number lew tban > 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


TO rf;e o'clock. }»i«9»i««9. 

m to-morrow. ^H mcrgcn. 
T9 the day after to-morrow. SBi^ ftOermordCit 

nn Sanday. S3i^ ©cnntag. 

m Monday. f8H SOZcntag. 

ttt &is eTening. S3tg ^cute 2(6enb. 

T!D erenhiff. f&ii auf ten Tt^t. 

Citil mormng. 93t6 an ten 9)lcrgen. 

Until the next day. SBU jum ontem Sagp 

Until this day. $Bi^ auf ttefen So^ 

Until this moment SBt^ auf ttefen Xugenbfict 

1111 now— 4utherto. ^x$ [e^t — Ml)tv. 

To this place, hither, thus far, as f&ii i)itt^tt (an adveib of p%oe) 

iar as here. 
To that place, thither, so far, as S3t^ ta^in (an adverb of place). 

£ir as there. 

Obs. The days of the week are all of the mascu- 
line gender, except tie SRttttDOC^^ Wednesday, which 
some authors use as feminine. 

Tuesday, SMenflag ; 

Wednesday, 9)2ittn90d) ; 

Thursday, 2)cnnerf!ag ; 

Friday, grcitag ; 

Saturday, 6amftag (^^onnobent)* 

Then. 3) a n n — (a ( « b a n n). 

Till I return (till my return). 9Bi« tcft gurflcffcmme. 
Till my brother returns (till my iBt^ metn SStutet satMUmmL 

brother's return). 
IIU four o'clock in the momin?. fSi^ mv U^c WlciQtni, 
Till midnight (till txrelve o'clock SBtd 9}2tttetno(bt (a noun of the 

at night). feminine gender). 

How long did you remain with fBie (angc f\nt> @te bei meinem 

my father 1 S3oter gebUcben ? 

I remained with him till eleven 3(b bin bi^ c(f U^t ZCbent^ bei i^m 

o'clock at nig-ht. geblieben* 

(Mf, the peopUy they or any one 9}{a n (indefinite pronoun always 


Have they brought my shoes ! ^at mon mctnc ^ube gcbwc^t 7 

They havo not brought them yet. 9}?Qn bat fie nocb nid:t gebrad)L 

What have they said 1 flBag bat man gefagt ? 

They have said nothing. 9}2an bat nicbt^ ^efaqt 

What have they done t 9Ba^ bat man gciban ? 

They have done nothing. SOZan i)at nicbtS getbon. 

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To be willing {to wuh)^-^en ©otlcii*^— gctpottt 
willing (wished). 
Has he been willing to go for ^at cr ben 2frjt h^Un twllcn ? (not 

the physician 1 gcrucnt See Obs~ Less. XLIV.) 

He has not been willing to gc Qt l)at tt}n ntd)t t}cUn locUrn. 

for him. 
Has Jie wished to go out this ^at cr bufen STiergcn oaf^c^n 

morning ? iPCUcn ? 

He has not wished to go out. (Sr \)Qt ntd)t au^gcf^en Kocttm. 
Have they been willing to do it 1 pat man c€ tftun wcilcn ? 
They have not been willing to ^an f)at c^ ntd)t if)un toeUou 

do it. 
They have not been willing to 9)^an M ntc^t^ t^un loollen. 

do any thing. 

To be able {can)i^-heen cWe Jt onncn* — gefonn t 

Have they been able to find the poX man bt( 9^0d)cr finbcn fSnnfn ? 

books 1 (not gctcnnt. See Less. XLIV.) 

Thej have not been able to find gjjan l;ol fw nid)t pnbcn fonncn. 

Has u\e tailor been willing to ^i bet @d)netber metncn fRtd auU 

men«' my coati beffcm woUen ? 

He has not been wUling to mend (Sc I)i(t t^n ntc^t au^^ffcnt wodro 


Something {or anything) new, Gtn)a^ 92euc^ 

What do they say new I SBa$ fagt mon 9?eue^ ? 

They say nothing new. 9);aii fagt ntd)t< 92euc& 

iVetr. Slciu 

My new coat. 9)2etn neue^ ^(ctb* 

My new friend. sDletn ncuec Jreunb. 

His new clothes. ©etne neuen ^tcibet. 


Where do you live 1 — I live in the large (in ber jropcn) street.— 
Wliere does your father live 1 — He lives at his friend's house.— 
Where do your brothe-s live 1 — ^They live in the large street, number 
a hundred and twenty. — Dost thou live at thy cousin's ? — ^I do live at 
his house. — Do you still live where you did live (gewc^jnt ^kn) ?— 
1 live there still. — Does your friend still live where he did live?— 
He no longer lives where he did live. — Where does he live at present ? 
— He lives in William-street, number a hundred and fifteen.- 
Wliere is your brother! — He is in the garden. — Where is youf 
cousin gone to 1 — He is gone into the garden. — Did you go to the 
play yesterday 1 — I did go thither. — Have you seen my friend ?— 
1 have «e«n him. — When did you see him 1 — I saw (babe — gffcbcn^ 
him this morning. — Where has he gone to ^ — ^I do not know {(^ 



Unon XLm.). — ^Has the senrant brushed n.^ clothes 1 — He hat 
brushed them. — Has he swept my room ? — He has swept it.~^How 
ioBg did he remain here ? — ^Till noon. — How Ion? have you been 
wriringl — ^I have been writing until midnight — -How long did I 
worki — Yon worked until four o'clock in the morning. — How long 
did my brother remain with you? — He remained with me untu 
fTeniug.^ — How long hast thou been working t — I have been working 
till now. — Hast thou still long to write 1 — I have to write till the 
day after to-morrow.^ — Has the physician still long to work 1 — He 
kas to work till to-morrow. — Must! remain long here? — You must 
remain here till Sunday. — Must my brother remain long with you 1 
—He must remain with us till Monday.— How long L*u8t I worki— 
You must work till the day after to-morrow. — Have you still long 
lo speak 1 — I have still an hour to speak. — Did you speak long 1— 
I sjwke (babe — gcfprccbcn) till the next day. — Have you remained 
long in my room ? — I have remained in it till this moment. — Have 
yon still long to live in this house ? — I have still long to live in it 
(Cttrin). — How long have you still to live in it 1— Till Sunday. 


Does your friend still live with you ? — He lives with me no longer. 
—How long has he lived with you 1 — He has lived with me only a 
year. — How long did you remain at the ball 1 — I remained there till 
midnight. — How long have you remained in the carriage ? — I have 
remained an hour in it. — Have you remained in the garden till now 1 
—I have remained there (barin) till now. — Has the captain come 
as far as herel — He has come as far as here. — How far has the 
merchant come? — He has come as far as the end of the small road. 
— Has the Turk come as far as the end of the forest ! — He has come 
as far as there. — What do you do in the morning? — I read. — And 
what do you do then 1 — I breakfast and work. — Do you breakfast 
before you read 1 — No, Sir, I read before I breakfast. — Dost thou 
play instead of working (Lesson XXXVI.) 1 — I work instead of 
playing. — Does thy brother go to the play instead of going into the 
garden 1 — He does not go to tiie play. — What do you do in the 
evening ! — I work. — Wliat hast thou done this evening! — I h^ave 
brushed your clothes and have gone to the theatre. — Didst thou 
remain long at the theatre 1 — I remained there but a few minuiua. 
Are you willing to wait here ? — How long must I wait 1 — You must 
wait till my father returns. — Has anybody come 1 — Somebody has 
come. — What have they (iimn) wanted (gcmcllt) 1 — They (9)2an) have 
wanted to speak to you.— Have they not been willing to wait ? — 
They have not been willing to wait. — What do you say to thai 
man? — I tell him to wait. — Have you waited for me longf — I have 
waited for you an hour. — Have you been able to read my letter! — 
I have been able to read it. — Have you understood it 1 — 1 have 
understood it. — Have you shown it to any one! — I have shown it 
to no one. — Have they brought iny clothes 7 — They have not brought 
tliem yet. — Have tiiey swept my room and brushed my clothes ? — 

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They have done hoth (letted). — What have they said 1 — They hsfi 
said nothing. — What have they donel — ^They have done nothing.— 
Has your little hrother been spelling 1 — He has not been willing 
to spell. — Has the merchant's boy been willing to work 1 — He has 
not been willing. — What has he been willing to do 1 — He has not 
been willing tc do anything. 


Has the shoemaker been able to mend my boots 1 — He has not 
been able to mend them. — Why has he not been able to mend them t 
—Because he has had no time.-— Have they (man) been able to find 
my gold buttons ? — ^They have not been able to find them. — Why 
has the tailor not mended my coat 1— Because he has no good 
thread. — Why have you beaten the doff ? — Because it has bitten rae. 
— Why do you not drink ? — Because 1 am not thirsty. — What have 
they wished to say ? — ^They have not wished to say anything. — 
What do they (man) say new in the market? — ^They say nothing 
new there.— Have they (man) wished to kill a inan ?— 'fhey have 
not wished to kill any one.— Have they said any thing new ?— 
T^ey have said nothing new. (See end of Lesson XX3QV.) 

FORTY.NINTH LESSON— Netm ntih uUr^igfiU 

To steal— stolen. ©tcMcn* — gcfloStciu 

Thou stealest, he steals. JDu fUcWJl, — ct fticMt 

To steal something from some f Scnwnbcm ittoa^ ftif)Un\ 

Have they stolen your hat from f 4Dat mon 3f)nen S^ten ^ut gt 

you 1 (lobtcn ? 

They have stolen it from me. f 3)ian ftat tftn mtr gcjlcfttctt. 
Has the man stolen the book f |)ot it)ic b(c 9>2ann ^ 9o(| 

from thee ! gcflobten ? 

He has stolen it from me. f ©r bot ci mit gefloMcn. 

Whathave they stolen from you 1 f ®a^ M ntan Sbncn gefle^ten? 

All, 2( 1 1 is declined in the following 


( N. G. D. A. 

All < Masc. alter — e^ — em— en. 

( NeuL attc^ — e^— em— e^* 

L Plural for all Keudera. 

AU (plural) } N. G. D. A. 

( SItte — er — m — e. 



1*1 Ail the good wine. Met g/aU SSdtu 

All the good water. Mii .qutf SBaffm 

AH the good children. UVic gute jtinliec. (See page 34^ 

Obs. B.) 

Obi. A. When two determinative words, which do 
Dot take the definite article, as : all/ all (See Lesson 
XXXn.); biefeT/ this; jener, that, &c., are placed 
one after the other, they have each the characteristic 
ending of this article. Ex. 

All this wine. 

All this money. 

All these children. 

All these good children. 

WUet blefer (not tiefe) SKcln. 
2(ac« bicfcd (not btcfO ®c«>. 
2(Ue Mcfe ^int)er. 
mVit btefe guten jltnber* 

Obs. B. In familiar style, when aH, all, is followed 
*>y a pronoun, it often rejects its termination. Ex. 

2Ca fcin ®e(b. 

to$ SOSort ; 

ba« SBort (plur. fScrte).* 
©tc fd)rcibt man biefei SGBctt 7 
9}{an f(^reibt e^ fo. 

@d)n)oq; wetp f&t6en. 

Otrttn, Wau fflrben. 

JHctF), gcfb f&rbcn. 

®toU/ braun ffirbcn. 

g){cin Mauct 9iocf (mein btauH 

)Dicfcc tocipc iDUt 

gfitben ®ie Sfttcn SHod 6tou ? 

3* farbe t^n grttn. 

$Bie rocQen 6te 3f)t; Su(^ fSr^eti ? 

3dft toid e$ 6(ao f&rbetu 
tec gfirbec. 

To get dyedr^ot dyed. gfitben taffen*. 
What colopr have you got yonr ©ie ^abcn ©ie 3^t^«ti ^ut ptbm 
hat dyed*1 (offen ? 

have got it dyed white. 3* ^a&c tftn weif fflrben taffen. 

• When ®OTt, means merely a word, its plural is 2B5j^^ *. hat when it 
conveys the meaning of a whole phrase, its plural is 2Borte. Ex. X.tfx% 
SBotte, useless vords ; CSJloubctt €if mcincn SBortcn, take my word for it; \a$ 
^rMJlwort, thi substantive ; p»ur. t>ie ^auptiDSrtet, the substantivee. 

All his money. 

The word, 

the speech, 
How is this word written t 
It is written thus. 

To dye or to colour. 

To dye hlack, white. 
To dye green, blue. 
To dye red, yellow. 
To dye grey, brown. 
Uy blue coat. 

rhis white hat. 

Do you dye your coat blue % 

I dye it green. 

What colour will you dye your 

I will dye it blue. 
The dyer, 



As far as my brother's 
As far as London. 
As far as Paris. 
As far as England. 
As far as France. 
As far as Italy. 




^\^ nad^ (Snglanb. 
SSii nod) 5rantrci(^ 
S3t6 notb 3taltm. 

©cutfAtonb ; 
Spontcn ; 

Rule. The names of countries, towns, and villages, 
belong to the neuter gender, and strnd without the 
article. They are indeclinable, except in the genitive, 
which receives ^ when the pronunciation admits it. f 
the ending of the name does not admit the letter ^, as 
in ^ri^, Paris, the preposition Don, of, is used. Ex. 
tie ®nn)o^ner tJOit ^ori^, the inhabitants of Paris. 
Some proper names of countries are of the feminine 
gender. These, like all other feminine nouns, are in- 
variable in the singular, and form their case by means 
of the definite article, viz. 1, Names of countries 
which terminate in ei. Ex. bie Znttei, Turkey ; and 2, 
the following : bie ^rimm, Crimea ; bie ?auf[$, Lusatia ; 
bte 9Barf, March; bie ?0?olbait, Moldavia; bie ^atj, 
Palatinate ; bie ©rfjweij, Switzerland. Ex. bie (Scftweij, 
Switzerland ; ber ®d)tt>eij, of Switzerland ; ber @d)Weii 
to Switzerland ; bie @d)n>eij, Switzerland. 

To travel 

Do you travel to Paris * 
Do you go to Paris 1 
I do travel (or go) thither. 
Is he gone to England ? 
He is gone thither. 
How far ha^ he travelled T 
He has travelled as far 

<R e t f e n (is used with the aasi« 
liary fcin). 

9?cifcn Sic nad) ^axH 1 
®cl)cn Sie nad) ^ori^ ? 
3d) rcife (id) gcbc) ^Qf)tn. 
Sjt it nad) C&n^lanb gcrdft ? 
©r tfl t>a[)in gcrcipt. 
S&H wc\)xn ijl cr (jcrcirt t 
6t tjl bH nad) limmUi QCXii\X 


Have they (man) stolen anything from you 1 — ^They have stolen 
all the good wine from me. — Have they stolen anything from youi 
feither ? — ^They have stolen all his good hooks from him. — boat 
thou steal anything 1 — 1 steal nothing. — Hast thou ever stolei 

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ttjtfaingrt-^ have nerer stolen anything^ (nie ttmai). — Hetc they 
stolen your apples from you t — ^They have stolen them from n»e. — 
What have they stolen from me 1 — ^They have stolen from you all 
^good books. — When did they steal the carriage from you?— . 
They stole {^an fyit — 9(fbf)(fn) it from me the day before yesterday. 
—Have they ever stmen anything from us 1 — They have never 
stolen anything from us. — Has the carpenter drunk all the wine 1— 
He has drunk it. — Has your little boy torn all his books 1 — He has 
torn them all. — Why has he torn them 1 — Because he* does not 
wish to study. — How much have you lost (at play) 1 — I have lost 
all my money. — Do you know where my father is ? — I do not know. 
—Have you not seen my book 1— I have not seen it, — Do you 
know bow this word is written 1 — It is written thus. — Do you dye 
anything 1 — ^I dye my hat.— What colour do you dye it 1 — I dye it 
black. — What colour do you dye your clothes 1 — We dye them 


Do you get your trunk dyed 1 — ^I get it dyed. — What colour do 
you get it dyed 1 — ^I get it dyed green. — What colour dost thou get 
thy Siread stockings dyed 1 — I get them dyed white. — D( es your 
cousin ^t his handkerchief dyed ? — He does get it dyed. — Does 
he get It dyed red 1 — He gets it dyed grey. — What oolour have 
vour friends got their coats dyed 1 — ^They have got them dyed green. 
—What colour have the Italians had their carnages dyed 1 — ^They 
oave had them dyed blue. — What hat has the nobleman ? — He has 
two hats, a white one and a black one. — Have I a hat 1 — You have 
several. — Has your dyer already dyed your cravat t — He has dyed 
it — What colour has he dyed iti — He has dyed it yellow. — Do you 
travel sometimes 1 — I travel often. — Where do you intend to go to 
(()injureif€n) this summer 1 — ^I intend to go to Germany.— Do you 
not go to Italy 1 — I do go thither. — Hast thou sometimes travelled ? 
-^ have never travelled.— Have your friends the intention to go to 
Holland 1 — They have the intention to go thither. — When do they 
intend to depart ?— They intend to depart the day after to morrow. 
—Has your brother already gone to Spain 1 — He has not yet gone 
thither. — Have you travelled in Spain 1 — 1 have travelled there.— 
When do you depart? — I depart to-morrow. — At what o'clock ?— 
At five o'clock in the morning. — Have you worn out all your boots 1 
—1 have worn them all out. — What have the Turks done ?— They 
have burnt all our good ships.- Have you finished all your letters 1 
—I have finished them all.— How far have you travelled 1 — I have 
travelled as far as Germany. — Has he travelled as far as Italy t — 
He has travelled as far as America. — How far have the Spaniards 
gonel — They have gone as far as London. — How far has this poor 
man come 1 — He has come as far as here. — Has he come as far as 
your house 1 — He has come as far as my father's. (See end of 
Lesson XXXIV.) 

y Google 


FIFTIETH LESSON.— ^nffigste ttction. 


This side. 
That side. 

DSm(re8t). j*|;jjf j (motion). 

Hither, ^ier^, ) 
2)ie^fcit^(rest). l)ier l^eruber, > (motion). 

twn bort^ ) 
Seitfeft^ (rest). Thither, bort^in (motion). 

Obs. A. The particles ^r anl ^in, having jio corres- 
ponding words in English, must be carefully distin- 
guished from each other. ^ expresses motion to- 
wards the person who speaks, as : t)crauf, up ; ^entnler 
or tjtrab^ down ; f|crau^, out ; ^eruber, hither, to this 
side. S)va expresses motion from the person who 
speaks towards another place, as : ^inouf^ up ; ^iituittcr 
or ^itmb, down ; ^inaug, out ; ^inuber, thither, to the 
opposite side. If, for instance, I wish to tell any one 
who is on a mountain to come down, I must say : fom> 
men ©ic f)erunter, come down (to where I am). He 
might answer me, f ommeit ®e ^auf, come up. I might 
say to him, id) fomnte ttid)t tjimuff 1 am not coming up; 
and he might answer me, mit) idf n\d)t ^inttnter, and I 
am not coming down. 

According to this we must say : fonttttm ®fe tiemn, 
come in ; ge^ ©ie ^inau^, go out ; fa^rm ®fe t)itdiia, 
drive to the opposite side ; fpriitgcit ©te ^inein, jmnp in 
(i. e. in ben ^up, into the river) ; but should the per- 
son speaking be already in the water, he would say; 
l^ngen ®ie ^rein 

The mountain, 
the river, 
the present, 

bet ©erg ? 
ba6 ®ef(^>en! (plur. e*). 

Obs. B. The adverbs bie^feit^, jienfeto, ought to be 
carefully distinguished from the prepositions, bie^f?it| 

• Neater words, formed of a verb and the prefix ge, add e to all th« ««• 
plural, and io not soften the radical vowel. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


jmjfft. The latter are always followed by the genitive, 
whilst the others never govern a case. Ex. bie^feft be< 
%bx^e6, on this side of the river ; jenfrft M Sergei, on 
the other side of the mountain. 

To go up &6 moantaln. IDm S3cra btnouf gehcn *. 

Where is your brother gone to 1 2Bc i(l 3^v SBrubet F)in9egQn9en ? 
He is gone up the mountain. (St ijl ten SBerg ()tnauf gcgangciu 

To give back again {to restore). SBtcbergebcn*. 

Thou givest back again. iDu ^tbfl wicber. 

He gives back again. (&x gtbt mtcter. 

GiTen back again. SBietergrqebcn. 

Does he restore you your book 1 ®ibt ex ^hncn Zht S3u<ib n>teber 7 

He does restore it to me. Gr gibt ed niir mtctcr. 

Has he given you your stick ^ot ct Sfjncn S^rcn ©tccf rotebcrgei 

back a^ain ? gcben 7 

He has given it me back again. ($i t)ot if)n nut wicbnrgegeben. 

To begins to commence. ^nfongen*^ beginnen*. 

Begun, commenced. Hn^t^anQin, kgcnncn. 

Hare you already commenced |)ab€n 6te S^rcn ^rtcf fci^cn angex 

your letter! fanqen ? 

Not yet. Slcc^ nid)t. 

I have not yet commenced it. 3d) babe i^n nc(b nic^t angcfati« 

Have yon receiyed a present) ^ben 6te ein (9cf(!benf befoms 

I have received several. 3d) bobe t>erfd)iebene befonimen. 

Prom whom have you received S3cn n>em t)<tben @te ©efc^enfc beEom 

presents t men I 

Wteice/ Wherefromt 2Bo6et? 

Ou/ ^. K u 6 (governs the dative). 

Where do yon come from 1 SDc f ontmen @te f)et ? 

065. C The adverb n)ol)er may be separated into two 
parts (as tDO^nt, Lesson XXXVII.), the first of which is 
put at the beginning, and the second at the end of the 
phrase. If the phrase ends with a participle past, or an 
mfinitive, her is placed before it : but it precedes the 
particle JU of the infinitive. 

I come from (out of) the garden. 3d) femme au$ ^ent ©arten. 

Where has he come from 1 2Bcbet tft cr gcfommen ? 

He has come from the theatre (&i tfi au6 bem iSbeater gefemmen. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Tobeworth. ©rrtH^in** 

flow much may that horse oe SQBtcmct tann licfcl ^fcrb loccfl 

worth 1 fcin 1 

It may be worth a hundred Qi fann f)unb«rt Zijoltt xocttf) fmu 

This is worth more than that Di(fe« ifl nir^t tocrt^ oU {cnc^ 
The one is not worth so much as ^Da^ cine ifl ntd)t fo old toctti cH 

the other. t>ai anbcre. 

How much is that worth t ' SOBimct ifl ^i wcrt!)? 
Phat is not worth much. JDag tj! mtbt tnc( wcrt^ 

Tliai is not worth anything. SDag x^ nWi wertf). 

To be better. 93 c f f c r f e i n ♦ (mcljt xonth 

\m •). 

km I not as good as my brother! SBtn t(^ md)t fb gut tote ntctn SBrs' 


You are better than he. ^ ^.^ j^„^ ^.j'^^ ^^^j^ ^^^ ^^ 

I am not as good as you. 3d) tin ntd)t fo gut tote €ie. 


Do you c. 11 me ? — ^I do call you. — Where are you ? — ^I am on (auf 
with the dative) the mountain ; are you coming up 1 — I am not 
coming up. — Where are you? — I am at the foot (am ^n^) of the 
mountain ; will you come down ? — I cannot come down.— Why 
can you not come down 1 — Because I have sore feet.— Where does 
your cousin live 1 — He lives on this side of the river. — Where is 
the mountain 1 — ^Itis on that side of the river.— Where stands the 
house of our friend ? — It stands on that side of the mountain. — ^Is 
the garden of your friend on this or that side of the wood 1 — It is oa 
that sidf (jcnfcitf). — Is our storehouse not on that side of the road 1 
—It is on this side (tic^fcit^). — Where have you been this morning 1 
—I have been on (Lesson XXX.) the great mountain.— How many 
times have you gone up the mountain 1 — I have gone up (hinauf 
gcqanqcn) three times. — ^Is our father below or above 1 — He is above. 
" — Have the neighbour's boys given you your books back again 1 
—They have given them to me back affain. — When did they g^ve 
them back again to you 1 — ^They gave (habcn — njicbcrgegeben) them 
Sack again to me yesterday. — To whom have you given yonr stick* 
— I have given it to the nobleman. — ^To whom have the noblemen 
given their gloves 1 — ^They have given them to Englishmen. — ^To 
which Englishmen have they given them 1 — To those (Lesson 
XIV.) whom you have seen this morning at my house. — ^To which 
people do you give money 1 — I give some to those to whom (Lesson 
XI V) you give some. — Do you give any one money t — ^I give some 
to those who want any.— To which children does your father giv* 
eakes 1 — He gives some to those who are good. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Have Tou reeeiTed presents 1 — I have received some.— WKai 
pt^ents have jon received 1 — I have received fine presents. — Has 
Tourtittle brother received a present t — He has received several.^ 
rram whom has he received any t — He has received some from mj 
fether and from yours. — Do you come out of the garden ?— I do not 
coBte oat of the garden, but out of the house.— Where are you goinff 
to?— I am going into the garden. — Whence comes the Irishman 7 
—He comes from the garden. — Does he come from the same garden 
fiom which (ani nK(d)(m) you come ? — He does not come from the 
tame. — From which garden does he come ? — He comes from that 
of oar old friend. — Whence comes your boy 1 — He comes from the 
play,— How much is that carriage worth 1 — It is worth five hundred 
crowns. — Is this book worth as much as th%t 1 — It is worth more. 
—How much is my horse worth t — It is worth as much as that of 
your friend. — Are your horses worth as much as those of the French ? 
—They are not worth so much. — How much is that knife worth 1 
— Ii is worth nothing. — Is your servant as good as mine 1 — He is 
better than yours. — Are you as good as your brother! — He is better 
Jian I. — ^Art thou as good as thy cousin 1 — I am as good as he.— 
Are we as good as our neighbours 1 — We are. better than they, — 
Is yoar umbrella as good as mine 1 — It is not worth so much.— 
Why is it not worth so much as mine? — Because it is not so fine 
IS yoars. — Do you wish to sell your horse 1 — I do wish to sell it.— 
How much is it worth 1 — It is worth two hundred florins. — Do you 
wish to buy it 1—1 have bought one already.— Does your father 
intend to buy a horse 1 — He does intend to buy one, but not yours. 
^See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

FIFTY-FIRST LESSON.— (Jin mtb fftn^ijsle Utiion. 

That (conjunction). S>ai (See Rule of Syntax, Les- 
son XL VII.). 

What do you say 1 2&a^ fagcn ®ic 1 

I say that you have my book. 3d) fofl^/ t)o9 ©tc mctn JBut^ haUtu 

Itell you that I have it not. 3<b f<^d( 3bnen, bap id) e^ ntcM 

Have you not had it 1 ^aben @te ii ntd)t geftabt ? 

( have had it, but I have it no 3d) babe c^ gc^abt, aber tc^ h^^^c ti 
longer. ntd)t ntcbr. 

No more. 9liAt niebt. 

Where have you placed it 1 85^0 bobcn 6tc c^ btnqcfcgt ? 

I have placed it on the table. 3d> babe c^ auf ben :;?ifd) gclcgt. 

h it (does it lie) on the table 1 (icgt C6 auf tern ;£ifd)c ? 

It is (lies) on it. ©6 licgt Darauf. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


i$ofiie, a little. 
f ^an you g^ve me some water ! 

I can ^we yoa some. 


Necessary (adjective). 

To be necessary* 

Is it necessary to go to the 

Jt6nnen 6te mix ettoa^ SEBaffcr §^ 

3c^ ^ann 3^nen mi^ gcbou 

g){ilfren, past part, genttift. 


«R6tf)l3 fcin*. 

( gRup tnon anf bm axotft ge^ T 
< 3f! e$ nit^ig auf ben sotarft js 9» 

It is necessary to go thither. 

C ^an mnf babin ^e^en. 

l Qi ifl njt^tg bo^tn gu gel^ 
What mast one do in*order to SQ>a^ muf man tl)\in, urn Uiitfd^ fi 

learn German 1 (emen t 

One must study much. SD{an mu9 Ote( {tubtt<n. 

What must he do 1 SGBa^ mup cr tftun ? 

He must go for a book. Gt map etn Suc^ Men. 

What must I do I SCBo^ mup tc^ tt)un 1 

StUUsilenL 6titL 

To ^ sittings been sitting. @ i (^ e n * (takes ^6m for ita 

auxiliary), gefef fen* 
You must sit still. @te miiffcn {Hd fi$en« 

Have you been obliged to work |)a6en ^emf( orbetten mfiffm {Obt. 

much to learn German % Lesson XLI V.), urn beutfdft ji 

tcrncn 1 
I have been obliged to work 34 b^^e ole( arbelten mfiffen. 


The competency^ the subsistence, IDal TCu^Commen. 

the livelihood. 
To have wherewithal to live. 

Has he wherewithal to live t 

He has. 

What must I buy 1 

Some beef. 

The ox (neat). 
Voo must buy some beef. 

@ein Kttdfommen M^<*^ 

|)Qt cr fein 2Cu5!ommett ? 

(Sr M e«. 

SBa^ mup td^ Caufen t 


2)a^ SKtnb. 

@te mUffen SiinbfTfift foufrn. 

What do you wish ? 
What do you want 1 

I want some money. 

Do you want some money 1 

2Ba« n>ollcn ^t< ? 
C 8DBag 6raudKn ©ic ? 
t SBa« ftaben @ie n6tf)i97 

!3d) babe ®e(b nStbig. 
3d) brauc^e (S^e(b. 

, ^- 93raud)cn 6ic @c(b 7 

Do you wish to have some fiSoQen ©ie ®elb baben ? 
money t 



liowant s^me. 

Do joa want much ? 

I da want much. 

How mach mast yoa bare 1 

How mach do you want t 

I only want a grosh. 

li that all you want 1 

Ttax ia ai I want. 


Do yon not want more t 
I do not want more. 
What does he want 1 
Ho wants a coat. 
Have you what you want! 
1 hare what I want. 
He ha3 what he wants. 
Fhey have what they want. 

34 Uandit mUt^ti* 
»raud)<n 6i< bcff^n titll 
3c^ t>roud)c btfffcn md. 
SBicotd maffen 8te baben 1 
SBiemd broud)en ®te 1 
Sd) btaudx nut eincn ®rcf(M* 
3fl txi^ oae^/ too^ @te brauc^n 1 
^ai tfl aUe^/ n>a^ icb broucbc* 


9rau(^n 6te nW mebt? 
3(^ braud)e ntd)t tnebr* 
Gr brauc^t ein Jttetb. 
Iwben 6ie, n)o« ©ic Vraucben? 
3(6 ^abe^ n?a^ id) broud)e. 
(Sx f)Q\, mai cr braud)t 
Bit fyibcn, wai fic braucbcii 

To he obliged (shallf ought). 6o(l(n, past, part gefodt 

What am I to do 1 
Yoa must work. 
. Am I to go thither ! 
You may go thither. 

mai fcQ i(6 tbun ? 
@ie fcQen arbciten. 
©en icb bingcben ? 
@te ESnncn btngcbetu 

BXCRCI8E8. 117. 

Were (©tnb — jewcfcn) you yesterday at the physician's t — ^I was 
at his house (bet tbm). — What does he say 1— He says that he can* 
not come. — Why does he not send his son I — His son does not go 
oat (gebt ntcbt qu^. Lesson XXXIV. Obs. C.)» — Why does he not 
go oat (gebt et nid)t au^) t — Because he is ill. — Hast thou had my 
Mirse 1 — I tell you that I have not had it. — Hast thou seen it 1 — I 
nave seen it. — ^Vhere is it 1 — It lies upon the chair. — Have you 
had my knife 1~I tell you that I have had it. — Where have you 

f laced it 1 — I have placed it upon the table. — Will you look for it t— 
have already looked for it. — Have you found it 1 — I have not found 
it— Have you sought (for) my ffloves 1 — I have sought (for) them, 
bat I have not found them. — Has your servant my hat 1 — He has 
had it, but he has it no longer.— Has he brushed it ? — He has 
brashed it. — Are my books upon your table ?— Thev are (lie) upon 
it. — Have you any winel— i have but little, but I will give you 
what I have. — ^Will you give me some water t — I will give you 
some* — Have you much wine 1 — I have much. — Will you give me 
some! — I will give you some. — How much do I owe you i — You 
owe me nothing. — Vou are too kind (gtttig). — Must I go for some 
wine 1 — You must go for some.— Shall I go to the ball 1— You 
must go thither. — When must I go thither 1 — You must go thither 
thii evenimr. — Must I iro for the carpenter ^ — You must go for \ink. 



^^Ib it necessary to go to the market t — ^It is necessary to g« 

thither. — What must one do in order to learn Russian ? — One must 
study much. — Must one study much to learn German t — One must 
study much. — What Shall I do 1 — You must buy a good book. — 
What is he to dol — He must sit still. — What are we to do 1 — You 
must work. — Must you work much, in order to learn the Arabic 1 — 
I must work much to learn it. — Does your brother not work ? — He 
does not want to work. — Has he wherewithal to live 1 — He has,— 
Why m'ast I go to the market 1 — You must go thither to buy sonw 
beef. — Why must I work 1 — You must work, in order to get (^bot) 
a competency. 


What do you want, Sir 1 — I want some c oth. — How ronch is 
that hat worth 1 — It is worth three crowns. — Do you want any 
stockings ? — I want some. — How much are those stockings worth ! 
— ^They are worth twelve kreuzers. — Is that all you want ? — ^That 
is all. — Do you not want shoes '* — I do not want any. — Dost thou 
want much money 1 — I want much. — How much must thou have ! 
—I must have six crowns. — How much does your brother want ? 
^-He wants but six groshes. — Does he not want more ? — He does 
not want more. — Does your cousin want more 1 — He does not want 
so much as I. — What do you want 1 — I want money and boots.— 
Have you now what you want 1—1 have what I want. — Has . 
your brother what he wants t — He has what he wants. 

FIFTY.SECOND LESSON.— Zwei mtb fttn^ijeU 

To pay-^fHsid. SBeso^ten — bcijahtt (See 

Obs. A. Lesson XLV.) 

To pay a man for a horse. Gtneni gXanne ctn yfcrb bc^oMctu 

To pay the tailor for the coat ^Dem ^ncibcr ben 9?ccf bc^abUtu 
Do you pay the shoemaker for Se^Qf)(en @te Um @d)ubmocbct tie 

the shoes 1 &&f\x\)i ? 

1 pay him for them. 3d) be)af)(e fie ibm. 

Does he pay you for the knives? ©c^blt cr Sbncn fiXc bie QKtffcr? 
He pays me for them. (5c bcja^t fie mit. 

Obs, A. These examples show that the verb bcj/aif 
len governs the dative of the person, and the accusa- 
tive of the thing. It may also be used with the pre- 
position fur, /or, as in English. Ex. T pay him for 
the boots, id) bcjat)Ie il)m fur bie ©tiefcl. But taken 
figuratively, in the signification of bcflrafcn, to punish, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


n <s sometimes construed with the accusative of the 
pi rson, as in the following expressions : tDart*, id) tt)ifl 
Xidj bejaljrcn, wait, I shall pay (punfth) you for it ; ben 
babe icf) fcl}on &ejaf)(t/ 1 have paid (punished) this man 

HaTe you paid the shoemaker J^aUn 6te bent Ccftudmac^er Hf 

for the hoots ? ©ttefet bejoMt ? 

I have paid him for them. SA ^a^e 1»c tf)m Uiaf)lu 

I pay what I owe. 3cfe te^oMc, wag id) fd)u!bia t>ttt. 

Hare yoa paid for yoor hook? ^aUn 6tc 3bt SBudb (^^aolt? 

I have paid for it. 3c^ ^e U be^blt. 

I hare not yet paid for it. 3(^ ^<^^ ^^ nccb ntd)t bcja^^K. 

To beg of— begged of . J(nfptcd)cn» — angefproc^ca 

To ask any one for money. 95cn Scmonbcm (5Jc(b t>cr(ongeiu 

To beg money of some one. 3f»wnten um ®clb onfprcd)fn*. 
To request money of any one. Scmanten um (5klb bitten*. 

What do you ask me for ? ©ag pcrlan^f n Sie wn mir ? 

I ask you for nothing. Sd) pcrtnngtf ntd)tg wn Sbncm 

I beg some money of you. 3d) fprcd)e 6te um (3cih an. 
He has begged some money of (&t bat mid) um ®fll> angcfprc^en. 

For* U m (a preposition governing th« 


Do you beg some money of him 1 €ptcd)en &U ibn um ®e(b an ? 
I beg some of him. 3d) erbitte mir n>c(d)cg t>cn ibm. 

To solicit any one to ^ > a thing. (Stn>a6 ))cn 3cntantem *rbitten*« 

For U0 2) c u m. 

To^khimfoHt. {ittz£*r' 

Toaskhunfortheu. {grSr^^nTn!- 

I o-v ^«« ft.^ ;♦ ? Sd) fprcd)e ©ie torum on. 

I ask you for it. ^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^„ ^j^^^^^ 

Do yoa ask me for anything . *IJcrtangcn @ic ctroag wn mir t 

I ask you for the 1 at. 3d) bittc <Bk um ben .put. 

Do you ask me for the hat 1 iBitten @tc mid) um ben ^ut T 

I ask you for it. 3d) bittc <Sic barum. 

To speak of some one. QSon 3c»"anbcmfpred)»n* 

Does one speak of that man 1 @prid)t mon ocn biefem iOIanne I 
•"^e speaks of him. ^Jlan fpridjt 9on ibm. 

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97{an fpnd)t ntc^t Mtt i^m. 
6prid)t man Dcn meinem ^ud^ I 
9)jQn fprid)t oirt bar>ctu 
SBa^ fagcn Sic baju (fewrju) ? 
3d) fagc, fcap ec SRcc^t fjat 


One does not speak of him. 
Do they speak of my book 1 
They sneak much of dj^ 
What do you say to iU 
1 say he is right. 

Content, satisfied. 

To be content with any one. SKit 3<manb«m |ufriet«i fein*. 
Are you content with this man ! @tnb <Sie nut bicfem a){aniic ^ftiei 

1 am content with him. 34 ^in mtt il)m jufcieben. 

Obs. B. Of ^ier, Aerc, and ba, there, componnc 
adverbs are formed by means of certain prepositions 
governing the dative or accusative. In these adverbs 
Iter and ba stand instead of the three genders singular 
and plural, dative and accusative of the demonstra^ 
tive pronoun : biejer, biefe, biefc^ (ber, bie, ba^), vv^hich is 
never used with a preposition. 

Are you content with your new ©tnb Ste mit Sh^cm ncucn ^(cth 

coat 1 gufcicben ? 

I am contented with it. 3d) bin tomit ^ufrtcben. 

I am discontented with it. 3ci bin unjufrietcn tamit 

Discontented. Ungufrtcben. 

Of what do they speak ? aOBcwn fpnd)t nwn ? 

They speak of peace, of war, of SKan fprid)t t)cr. bcm grtcbcn, wo 

your book. bem ^riegc, wn 3btcm SRu^e. 

Do they speak of peace 1 ©pnd)t man wn bcm Jricbcn ? 

They do speak of it. SWan (pri(f)t baocn. 

06^. C. The adverb n)0, where, like ^ier and ba 
(See Obs. above), forms compound adverbs with certain 
prepositions governing the dative or accusative. In 
these ttH> takes the place of the dative and accusative 
of the pronoun interrogative IDelc^cr, tt)clc^, tt^eU^e^, or 

With what are you content ! 
I am content with my book. 

With whom are you satisfied 1 
I am satisfied ii ith my master. 

To study-^studied. 

SBomit |inb ®ie gufcicben ? 

3d) bin nut mcincm 5Buc^c p^-t* 

5[Rit wem finb ©le jufcicben? 
3* bin nut meinem Ccbrer jufrio 


@tubitcn — (lubirt. (Sw 
06i. ii. Lesson XLV ) 



Ti^ rnr^^t.^i^^0^t^A J » et 6 C f f Ct H — » et b € f f C tt. 

Tocomct^otrected. ^Cortiaitrn — ccrr igirt. 
To questioTif — interrogate. ^xa^iXi (governs the ace), 
rha uncle, bet £)^etm (is not softened in thi 

plural) 5 
the gentleman, the lord, bet ^crr ; 

Ifae master, the tator, the pre- > ^^ o^u^^ . 
ceptoT, the professor, "^ J^et8el)ter; 
the scholar, bet ^c^QIer ; 

the pupil, bet Sdalina ; 

the fee, wages, salary, bet Soon (has no (lux.) ; 

the lesson, bie Section (a feminine noun, 

taking en in the plur.) ; 
&e exercise, bte 2(uf9a6e (a feminine noun, 

taking n in the plur.) ; 
To receive a present from some $Bon 3<(manbem ein ©efc^enC tefoms 
one, men*. 


Have we what we want ? — We have not what we want.— What 
do we want 1 — We want a fine house, a large garden, a beautiful 
carriage, pretty horses, several servants, and much money. — Is 
tbat afl we want 1 — ^That is all we want. — What must 1 do 1 — You 
most write a letter. — ^To whom (Lesson XXX.) must I write 1 — 
Vou must write to your friend.— ^hall 1 go to the market 1 — You 
may go there. — Will you tell your father that I am waiting for him 
here ?— I will tell him so (Obs. Lesson XLIIL).— What will you 
tell your father 1 — I will teil him that you are waiting for him here. 
—What yilt thou say to my servant ? — ^I will say to him that you 
tiave finished your letter. — Have you paid (for) your table t — I have 
i»aid (for) it. — Has your uncle paid for the book 1 — He has paid 
for it. — Have I paid the tailor lor the clothes 1 — You have paid 
him for them. — Hast thou paid the merchant for the horse 1 — I have 
not yet paid him for it. — Have we paid for our gloves 1— We have 
paid for them. — Has your cousin already paid for his boots 1 — He 
has not yet paid for them. — Does my brother pay you what he 
owes you 1 — He does pay it me. — Do you pay what you owe 1 — I 
do pay what I owe. — Have you paid (with the dative^ the baker I 
— 1 have paid him.-— Has your uncle paid the butcher for the meat 1 
—He has paid him for it. — Have you paid your servant his wages 1 
—I have paid them to him.^ — Has your master paid you your wages t 
—He has paid them to me. — When did be pay them to you ? — He 
paid {hat — bega()(t) them to me the day before yesterday. — ^What do 
Ton ask this man for t — I ask him for my book. — What does this 
boy beg of me ? — He begs of you some money. — Do you ask me 
for anything 1 — ^I ask you for a crown. — Do you ask me for the 
biead i — I ask you for it. — Do the poor beg money of you 1 — ^They 
beg some of me. — Which man do you ask for money f — ^I ask him 
fot seme whom yon ask for some. — Which merchants do you aslr 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


for gloves T — I ask those who live in William-Street (Lessri 
XLVIII.) for eome. — Which joiner do you ask for chairs t — I as 
that one, whom you know, for some. — What do you ask the baktt 
for 1 — I ask him for some bread. — Do you ask the butchers for som 
m^>at ? — I do ask them for some. — Dost thou ask me for the stick 
—I do ask thee for it. — Does he ask thee for the book 1 — He doe 
ask me for it. — What have you asked the Englishman for 1 — 1 hav 
asked him for my leather trunk. — Has he given it to you ? — He ha 
given it to me. 


Whom have you asked for some sugar t — I have asked the mei 
chant for some. — Of whom have the poor begged some money I— 
They have begged some of the noblemen.— ^f which noblemei 
have they begged some 1 — ^They have begged some of those whon 
you know. — Whom do you pay for the meat 1 — I pay the butchers 
for it. — Whom does your brother pay for his boots ? — He pays xhi 
shoemakers for fhem. — Whom have we paid for tlie bread ! — ^W« 
have paid our bakers for it. — Of whom have they (man) spoken ?-- 
They have spoken of your friend. — Have they not spoken of the 
physicians 1 — ^They have not spoken of them. — Do they not speak 
of the man of whom (ten rocld)eu]) we have spoken 1 — ^They do speak 
of him. — Have they spoken of the noblemen 1 — They have spoken 
of them. — Have they spoken of those of whom we speak t — ^They 
have not spoken of those of whom we speak, but they have spoken 
of others. — Have they spoken of our children or of those of our 
neighbours 1 — ^They have neither spoken of ours nor of those ot 
our neighbours. — Which children have been spoken of 1— Those 
of our preceptor have been spoken of. — Do they speak of my book 1 
—They do speak of it. — Of what do you speak 1 — We speak of 
war. — Do you not speak of peace 1 — We do not speak of it. — Ai9 
you content with your pupils t — 1 am content with them. — How 
does my brother study ? — He studies well. — How many lessons 
have you studied ? — ^1 have already studied fifty-four. — Is your 
master satisfied with his scholar 1-^He his satisfied with him.— 
Has your master received a present ? — He has received several.— 
From whom has he received presents t — He has received some from 
his pupils.— Has he received any from your father 1 — He has re- 
ceived some (both) from mine and from that of my friend. — Is he 
satisfied with the presents which he has received 1 — He is satisfied 
with them. — How many exercises hast thou already done 1 — ^I have 
already done twenty-one. — Is thy master satisfied with thee ?— He 
•ays that he is satisfied with me. — And what dost thou say 1—1 say 
that I am satisfied with him. — How old art thou 1 — I am not quite 
ten years old. — Dost thou already learn German ? — I do already 
earn it. — Does thy brother know German 1 — He does not know it. 
—Why does he not know it 1 — Because he has not learnt it— Why 
nas he not learnt it 1 — Because he has not had time. — Is yonr father 
at hom« 1— No be has departed, but my brother is at home Whei* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


b jotr fkther gon« to 1 — He is e^one to England. — Have yoa some 
tim« gone thither 1 — I have never gone thither. — Do you intend 
fobj to Germany this summer? — i do intend going (hither. — Have 
yon the intention of staying there long 1 — 1 have the intention oi 
stajtog there during the summer. — How long does your biothei 
remain at home 7 — Fill twelve o'clock. — Have you had your gloves 
dyed.— 1 have had them dyed. — What have you had them dyed !~ 
I have had them dyed brown. — Will you tell your father that I 
have been here 1 — I will tell him so. — Will you not wait until he 
^jfues back a^rain % — I cannot wait. (See end of Lesson XXXI V.) 

FIFTY.TfflRD LESSON. - Ulrei ttui fftn^sU 

To eat-'^aten* 
fnou eatest — ^he eats. 

To dine (eat dinner) — dined* < 

ki what o'clock do you dine 1 < 

I dine at five o'clock. 

I have dined. 

I have dined earlier than you. 

liiveyon already breakfasted 1 
The dinner 
The breakfast. 

Fo eat supper {to sup). 

The sapper. 

I wish to eat supper. 

I have sapped late. * 


After you. 

After me. 

After him. 

After my 1 rother. 

I hiTe bre.ikfa8ted alter him. 

@ffen» — gcgeffcn. 

jDttiffrff— er iffctoript. 

3u gjjittog effen— gu gjlittog gc^cft 

©pcifcn — Qcfpcifet or gcfpcipt 
. Uni wicmct Utjr fpcifcn Sie 1 

Urn n>c(d)e 3cit ef[cn @te ^u SOItta 
[ tng? 

3* fpcife urn fftnf (urn fftnf U^c). 

3c^ ^aOc ^u 9}2ittaa gegcffen. 
3d) f)obe ^fibcr Qcjpcift alg @ie, 

^obcn ©ie fd)on 9cfrfif)(Kl(ft ? 
2)a6 g}^tttagcffcn. 

3u Ui)cnt> cffen*, 2fbcttb 
bcob effcn*. 

iDai 2C6cnbefTcn, t)a^ KOcnbSte^ 

3d) mU, UUnlbvet* effcn. 
( 3c^ f)abe fp(!(t gu 2l'6enb dcgeffcit. 
( 3* bft^e fpfit Tttent'brob gegcffcn. 

9{a(6 (a preposition goYsminf 
the dative). 

S^od) S^nen- 

^adi mir. 

9Uod) ibm. 

giad) mctttem ©ruDer. 

3* babe nad) tbm gcfrflbWctt. 



To hoidr-held. 

Thou boldest — ^he hdlds. 
Will you hold my stick 1 

To iry^trted. 
To taste — tasted. 

Will you try to do that ! 

I have tried to do it. 

You must try to do ii better. 

Have you tasted that wine t 

I have tasted it. 

fatten* — 9c6olt<«. 

Du btliltjl — cr U\t 

^BoHcn Bit metncn ®tccf f)aXt€m f 

^^rcbiren — pcobttt. 
;^S8crfud)cn — oecfuc^t 
^^oflcn — gcfcflet. 
•aSerfuc^cn — »crfu(ftt 

SBotlcn @t( Dctfu^ot, bag ga ttnin ! 

3^ I)ai»e verfudbt/ ti su t^un. 

@te mfilfen ocrfuc^n^ <6 beffer |u mo) 

Jbaben @te btefen SBein gefoflct (wd 

fucht) ? 
3d) f)abi i^n gcCofl(t (t)a;fud>t). 

Are you looking for any one 1 ©U(ben ©ie Scmontcn t 
Whom are you looking for 1 SBen fud)fn ©ic ? 

I am looking for a brother of f 34 fuc^^ ^^ncn metner SBtSbct. 

Ace. Sing, Gen. Plur. 
t ©lien tnciner Dbcttne, 

An uncle of mine. 
A neighbour of yours. 
A relation of mine. 

t ®ncn 5l)ter 9?ad)barn* 
t @men memer aScrwonbten. 

Obs. Adjectives taken substantively are declined like 
other adjectives. Ex. bcr Sernxmbte, the relation ; gen 
be^ SBernxmbtcn, of the relation, &c. ; bcr 95ebiente, the 
servant ; gen. be^ S5ebienten, of the servant, &c. ; ein 95fr» 
ttxmbter, a relation ; cin SScbientcr, a servant, &c. 

The parents (father and mother). 
He tries to see an uncle of his. 

A cousin of his. 
A friend of ours. 
A neighbour of theirs. 
He tries to see you. 
Does he try to see me ? 

To inquire after some one. 
After whom do you inquire ? 
I inquire after a friend of mine 

The acquaintance. 
Whom do you look fo^^ ^ 

5)ic Xcttcrn ((5(t«m). 

(Sr fuc|)t etncn fctner £)bcimc jo fb 

t (Sincn fciner SBcttcrn. 
t einen unfctcc Jrcunte. 
t eincn ibccr SKocbbarn. 
(£r fud)t @ic gu fcbcn. 

?fta6) 3tnianbem ftageiu 

9lad) wcm fragcn ©ic ? 

3c^ fcage nad) etncm mc'mct ^i 

IDer S^efannte. 
9Bcn ^d)en @u 7 



[ta booking for an acquaintance 34 fuc^c cinen mmu ®efnnnteiL 

of mine. 
I ask him for a piece of bread. 3c^> fcittc l()n dm tin ^tfii! *rcb. 

Rtde 1. The preposition of, which in English utanda 
between two substantives, when the second determines 
the substance of the first, is never expressed in (Ger- 
man- Ex. 

A piece of bread. t Gin ^tficf 55rcb. 

A glass of water. + ©in ® lo^ ^Baffcr. 

A sheet of paper. t ©in ©cgcn 5)apicr. 

Three sheets ©/"paper. f iDrct Scgen 5)apier. 

The piece, tai ©tilcf ; 

the sheet, t<t ©caen ; 

the small piece (little bit), lai ©iucfd)cn ; 

Ihe litUe book, t>a$ fSWdn. 

Rule 2. All diminutives terminating in d)et! and lei s 
are neuter, and those terminating in ling are mascu- 
line. To form diminutives from German substantives, 
the syllable c^ett or leitl is added, and the radical 
Towels, a, 0, u, are softened into fi, 6, U. Ex. 

The small house, lai ^ofiu^cn ; 

the small picture, ba^ 93t(t)c^en ; 

the little heart, ta$ ^cr^d)cn ; 

the little child, to^ ^tnblctn ; 

the little boy, tog JtnaWcin, itrtd^cn ; 

the suckling (baby), bet @&ug(tng ; 

the favourite, darling, ber Stcbltng ; 

the apprentice, bcr Ccljrling. " 


Have you already dined 1 — Not yet. — At what o'clock do you dine ! 
—I dine at six o'clock. — At whose house (©ci wim. Lesson XXVI.) 
do you dine 1 — ^I dine at the house of a friend of mine. — With whom 
(Ni tt>«m) did you dine yesterday 1 — I dined (baOc — gcfpcift with a re- 
buonof mine. — What have you eaten 1 — We have eaten good bread, 
beef, apples, and cakes. — What have you drunk ? — We have drunk 
good wine, ffood beer, and good cider. — Where does your uncle dine 
lo-day 1 — He dines with (Oci) us. — At what o'clock doea your father 
eat supper 1 — He eats supper at nine o'clock. — Do you eat supper ear- 
ierthan hel — T eat supper later than he. — At what o'clock do you 
breakfast 1 — 1 breakfast at ten o'clock. — At what o'clock did yon 
eat supper yesterday ! — We ate (babcn — QCgcJTw'n) supper late.^ 
What did you eat 1 — We ate only a little meat and a small piece of 
bread. — When did your brother sup ? — He supped after my father 

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—Where are you going to? — I am goin^ to a relation ot mine, ii 
order to breakfast with him. — Do you dine early ] — We dine lale. 
— Art thou willing to hold my gloves ? — 1 am willing to hold them 
—Is he willing to hold my cane ? — He is willing to hold it, — Who 
has held your hati — My servant has held it. — Will you try tc 
speak. — I will try. — Has your little brother ever tried to do exercises^ 
— He has tried. — Have you ever tried to make a hat? — I have nevei 
tried to make one. — Have we tasted that beer ? — We have no! 
tasted it yet. — Which wine do you wish to taste 1 — I wish to tast« 
that which you have tasted. — Have the Poles tasted that brandy ? 
—They have tasted it. — Have they drunk much of it (b<irK>n) ?— 
They have not drunk much of it. — Will you taste this tobacco ! — 
I have tasted it already. — How do you find itt — I find it ^ood. — 
Why do you not taste that cider 1 — Because I am not thirsty. — 
Why does your friend not taste this meat! — Because he is not 


Whom are you looking for 1 — 1 am looking for the man who has 
sold a horse to me. — Is your relation looking fur any one 1 — He is 
looking for an acquaintance of his. — Are we looking for any one? 
—We are looking for a neighbour of ours. — Whom dost thou look 
fori — I look for a friend of ours. — Are you looking for a servant of 
minel — No, 1 am looking for one of mine. — Have you tried to 
speak to your uncle 1-rl have tried to speak to him. — Have you 
tried to see my father t — 1 have tried to see him. — Have you been 
able (Less. XLVHl.) to see him 1 — I have not been able to see him. 
—After whom do you inquire 1 — I inquire after your father. — After 
whom dost thou inquire t — I inquire after the tailor. — Does this 
man inquire after any one 1 — He inquires after you. — Do they in- 
quire after you 1 — ^They do inquire after me 1 — Do they inquire 
after me 1 — They do not inquire after you, but after a friend of 
yours. — Do yovL inquire after the physician 1 — 1 do inquire after 
him. — What do you ask me for I — I ask you for some meat. — 
What does your little brother ask me for 1 — He asks you for some 
wine and some water. — Do you ask me for a sheet of paper 1 — 1 
do ask you for one. — How many sheets of paper does your frien*! 
ask fori — He asks for two. — Dost thou ask me for the little book ! 
— I do ask you for it. — What has your cousin asked for 1 — Ho has 
asked for a few apples and a small piece of bread. — Has he not 
breakfasted yet 1 — He has breakfasted, but he is still hungry. — 
What does your uncle ask fori — He asks for a glass 'of wme. — 
What does the Pole ask for 1 — He asks for a small glass of brandy. 
—Has he not already drunk 1 — He has already drunk, but he i< 
•till thirsty. 

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FIFTY.FOURTH LESSON.— bier mb fttn^ssU 

I Ke the man who has my mo- 3* fcb( t>cn QKonn, tcci6)it mcii 
ney. ©db f)flt. 

ice ihe child who plays. Sd) fcl)i* ^fl^ ^tnb, roclAc* fpictt. 

perceive him who is coming. 3d) bcmerfc ten, n)ctd)cr fcmint. 
ft see him who owes me money. 3d) fcbe ten, n)cld)cr mir ®*lt> fd)uU 

lig iff. 

00 yoo perceive the soldiers f ^^^I'^^^f^^^^^^^^^^ *"'^*' 

^ in tag gjjagojin (bincin) gcben V 

1 do perceive those who are go- C 3d) bcmcrfc tic, rvcld)C bofttn gebcn, 
ing into it, 1 3d) bcmcrft Die, rvclc^e btncin gefj^iu 

A^o. 2( u c^. 

To perceive-^erceived. Scmerfen — bemcrft 

Have you perceived any onel ^aUn ®ic 3»>*nmntcn bcmcrft? 
I bave perceived no one. 3d) babe Sfjienwnbcn bcmcrft. 

The soldier, bet ©ctbat.* 

To go to the store-house. ^ S"* bem gj^acjaain cjcbcn*. 

O65. A. Direction towards a pjace or towards a 
country is expressed by the preposition nad) with the 

Willingly. ® e t n. 

To like. t ®^nt baben*. 

To like to see. t ®^^^ fcbcn*. 

To like to study. t (^nn (luMrcn. 

To like wine. t ®<?rn 2Bcin trinfcn*. 

He likes a large hat. t 6^ b^t gem etncn grcpen ^out. 

Do you like to see my brother 1 t ©ebcn feie meinen JBrubcr gem 1 

I do like to see him. t 3d) fcb^ ^hn gem. 

I like to do iu t 3d) tbuc f^ gcrn. 

Do you like water I f 2rinf en ®ie gem 8Q8affet ? 

No, 1 like wine. t 9'^cin, id) trinfe gem SBcin. 


^uf)n ; 

the fish, 

tet gifd) ; 


5ifd)e (plur.) ; 

the pike. 

tet ^echt ; 


|)ed)te (plur.). 

• SnbBtantiveii derived from foreign lanpimffes and terminatinff In : oitt 
•rt^, at, ct. cnt, ifl, if, og, add c n 10 ilie genitive singular and to all the oihef 
ctstt singular and plural. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To like sometJiing. f ®»n Jtcunb wn ctnws fctiu* 

I like fish. t 3(t) bin ein JreunD wn ^^^cn. 

He likes fowl. t ^^ i^ Qfrn |)ubn. 

I do not like fish, t 3cJ) bin fcin Jrcunb wn Jlfcbetu 

By liearL 2(u^n>enbtg. 

To ieam hy heart, ^Cu^tocnbtg (ccneiu 

Do your scholars like to learn 8crnm 3f)tc ©cftfllcr gcrn au^ioem 

by heart? big? 

They do npt like learning by ©ic Icrncn nid)t ^em QO^n^cn^tg. 


Eluve you learnt your exercises ^aben Ste 3btc Tfuf^bcn au^iociit 

by he^rt ? big gdftnl ? 

We have leamt them. 9Bir f)abcn €$ic gclemt 

Once a day. Ginmal Iti ISag^ 

Thrice or three times a month. 2)t(tmal b(j SKcnat^ 

Ohs, B. The genitive is used in reply to the ques- 
tions : n>aitn ? when ? tt)ie oft ? how often ? in speak- 
ing of something that takes place habitually and at a 
determinate period. 

Six times a year, ©ccfe^mat be^ Sabred 

How many times a day does he ^H mUmi (wk oft) ipt cr b<5 

eat ? :Sag« ? 

He eats three times a day. Qt t^ brctmat bc^ Sag^ 

Do you eat as often as he ! ©ffcn ©ic fo eft toU ct 1 

When do you po out 1 SBonn gcbcn ®tc au^ % 

We go out early in the morning. SQDtr gcbcn tc^ 972crgen^ fdl^ au^ 

If. fffienn (See Rule of Syntax, 

Lesson XLVH.). 

I intend paying you if I receive 34 bin gcfonnen, ®ie ju U^aiitn, 

my money. wcnn id) mcin ®cl!^ bctcmmc. 

Do you intend to buy wood 1 ®tfbcnffn ©te |>ctj ^ faufdi t 
F do intend to buy some, if they Scb gcbenfe n)cld)C^ ju fauf«n^ lofnn 
pay me what they owe me. man nut bcjablt/ toa^ man mir 

fd)Ulbig ift. 

fc'uSoTwSer is it, 5^«« l^"^ ^- «>» '^^ 
It is line weather at present. (Sf^ i|l K|t fd)8nc« SBetter, 
How was the weather yester-'j 

t{ 'ki„H nf w««th«r was it [ ®"« f'"^ ®«"« ""^ «< flcft"" ? 

What kind of weather was 
yesterday 1 

Ofts. C. 58ar, was, is the imperfect of the auxilia 
ry verb fein*, fo be; we shall speak of it hereafler 
(See Lesson LVIl.) 

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Wat it fine weather yesterday t 
It was bad weather yesterday. 
It was fine weather this morning* 

b it warm 1 
U is warm. 

It is very warm, 
it is cold. 
It is Tery cold. 
It is neither cold nor warm. 

Dark, obscure, 
dasky, gloomy, 
clear, light. 

It b gloomy in your shop. 

Is it gloomy in his room 1 

I is gloomy there. 

The shop, 

moist, humid, damp, 

Is the weather damp 1 
The weather is not damp. 
It is dry weather. 
The weather is too dry. 
It is moonlight (moonshine). 
We have too much sun. 
Wc have no rain. 

The moonlight, moonshine, 

the rain, 

the sun, 
Of what do Tou speak 1 
We speak of the weather. 

The weather, 

Sat c^ geflem fcf^onc^ SOScttev ! 
e^ wax gcflcrn f[^(cd)tc^ SBettn; 
^^ mat t»icfcn 9){otg(a \dfinH 9Skb 

S|l t* warm % 
65 ifl toaxjXL 

Qi ifl fef)t watm. 
(&^ ifl !o(t. 
& ifl mtUt tait nedi waxrtu ^ 

finflct ; 
lunUi ; 

C^ tfl l>unfc( in Sfttcm Cabcn. 
Sfl c$ l»unW in feincm Simmct 1 
6^ ifl tunfc( Darin. (See 06s. i 
and C. Lesson XXIX.) 

bet eaten ; 

fcud)t ; 


Sfl <^ fcud)tc^ aScttct ^ 

S>ai ©cttcr ifl nid)t fcud)t. 

e« tfl trccfcnc« aScttet. 

5)og SBcttct ifl su troden. 

e^ ifl 5Wtnl>fd)cin. 

SBir f)a&en ^u vtil ^nne. 

SBtt ^aben fctnen dlcgcn. 

D<t 972cntfd)cin ; 

(et 92cgen ; 

tie Sonne (a feminine conn) 

SBotwn fptcd)cn @te ? 

OBit fptcd)en ocni (ocn bem) SQ^ tct; 

t>ai SBettet. 


Do yon perceive the man who is coming 1 — ^I do not perceiva 
him. — Do you perceive the soldier's child ? — I perceive it. — What 
io you perceive 1 — I perceive a great mountain and a small house. 
—Do you not perceive the wood ? — I perceive it also. — Dost thou 
perceive the soldiers who are going to the market t — I do perceive 
them. — Do you perceive the men who are going into the garden ? — 
I do not perceive those who are going into the garden, but those 
who are going to the market. — Do you see the man to whom I 
have lent money 1 — I do not see the one lo whom you have lent, 
but the one who has lent you some. — Dost thou see Uie children 
irboaie studying 1 — I do not see those who are studying, hut those 

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who are piaying^^Do you perceive anything ? — ^I perceive nothing 
—Hare you perceived the house of my parents 1 — I have pereeive^i 
it. — Do you like a large hat ? — I do not like a large hat, but a 
large umbrella. — What do you like to do 1 — I like to write. — Do 
ou like to see those little boys ? — 1 do like to see them. — Do you 
ike beer ? — I like it. — Does your brother like cider 1 — He does nol 
like it. — What do the soldiers likel — ^They like wine and water.— 
Dost thou like wine or water 1 — 1 like both (bcitcf). — Do these 
children like to study 1 — ^They like to study and to play. — ^Do yoc 
like to read and to write ! — ^1 like to read and to write. — How many 
tuues do you eat a day ? — Four times. — How often do your cLildren 
drink a day 1 — They drink several times a day. — Do you drink as 
often as they 1 — 1 drink oftener. — Do you often go to the theatre ? 
—I go thither sometimes. — How often do you go thither (in^ a 
month ? — 1 go thither but once a month. — How many times a year 
does your cousin go to the ball 1 — He goes thither twice a year. — 
Do you go thither as often as he % — I never go thither. — Does youi 
cook often go to the market ? — He goes thitlier every morning. 


Do you often go to my uncle's 1 — I go to him six times a year. — 
Do you like fowl 1 — 1 do like fowl, but I do not like fish. — What 
do you like ? — I like a piece of bread and a glass of wine. — W'hat 
fish does your brother like 1 — He likes pike. — Do you learn by 
heart ? — I do not like learning by heart. — Do your pupils like to 
learn by heart 1 — ^They like to study, but they do not like learning 
by heart. — How many exercises do they do a day ? — ^They onij 
do two, but they do them well. — Do you like coffee or tea 1 — I like 
both. — Do you read the letter which 1 have written to you (Rule of 
Syntax, Lesson XL VH.) 1 — ^I do read it. — Do you understand it ! — 
I do understand it. — Do you understand the man who speaks to you 1 
— I do not understand him 1 — Why do you not understand him ! — I 
do not understand him because he speaks too badly. — Does this man 
know German 1 — He does know it, but I do not know it. — ^Why do 
you not learn iti — I have no time to learn it. — Have you received 
a letter 1 — I have received one.— Will you answer it. — ^I am going 
to (3d) will) answer it. — When did you receive it 1 — 1 received it at 
ten o'clock in the morning. — Are you satisfied with it 1 — ^I am not 
dissatisfied with it. — What does your friend write to you 1 — He 
writes tome that he is ill (Rule of Syntax, Lesson XLVII.). — Does 
he ask you for anything 1 — ^He asks me for money. — Why does he 
ask you for money 1 — Because he wants some. — What do you ask 
me for 1 — I ask you for the money which you owe roe. — Will you 
wait a little? — ^I cannot wait. — Why can you not waiti — I cannot 
wait because I intend to depart to-aay. — At what o'clock do you in- 
tend to set out? — ^I intend setting out at five o'clock in the evening. 
—Do you go to Germany 1 — ^I do go thither. — Are you not going H 
Holland 1 — ^I am not going thither. — How far has your brother goiv» ' 
'—He has gone as far as London. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Do yon intend going to the theatre this evening 1 — 1 du intend 
going thither, if you go. — Has your father the intention to buy 
that horse 1 — He has the intention to buy it, if he receives his money. 
—Has your cousin the intention to go to England. — He lias tiie 
intention to go thither, if they pay him what they owe him. — Do 
jon intend going to the ball *? — I do intend going thither, if my friend 
goes ? — Does your brother intend to study German 1 — He does in- 
tend to study it, if he finds a good master. — How is the weather to- 
day 1 — It is very fine weather. — Was it fine weather yesterday ?— 
It was bad weather yesterday. — How'was the weather this morning 1 
—It was bad weather, but now it is (ifl c^) fine weather. — Is it warm t 
—It is very warm. — Is it not cold 1 — It is not cold. — U it warm oi 
cold 1 — It is neither warm nor cold. — Did you go •• the country 
(Lesson XXX.) the day before yesterday 1 — I did not go thither. 
—Why did you not go thither ? — I did not go thither, because it 
was bad weather. — Do you intend going into the country to-morrow 1 
—I do intend going thither, if the weather is fine. 


Is it light in your room 1 — It is not light in it. — Do you wish to 
work in mine 1 — I do wish to work in it. — Is it light there 1 — It is 
▼eiT light there. — Can you work in your small room (Rule 2, Lesson 
Lul.)?— I cannot work there. — Why can you not work there t — 
I cannot work there, because it is too dark. — Where is it too dark ! 
—In my small room. — Is it light in that hole 1 — It is dark there. — Is 
it dry in the street (Lesson XLVIII.) ? — It is damp there. — Is the 
weather damp t — ^The weather is not damp. — Is the weather dry 1 — 
It is loo dry. — Is it moonlight 1 — It is not (fcin) moonlight, it is 
Tery damp. — Why is the weather dry 1 — Because we have too much 
800 and no rain. — When do you go into the country ? — I intend go- 
ine thither to-morrow, if the weather is fine, and if we have no 
raio. — Of what does your uncle speak 1 — He speaks of the fine 
weather. — Do you speak of the rain t — We do speak of it. — Uf 
what do those men speak 1 — ^They speak of fair and bad weather. 
— Do they not speak of the wind 1 — ^They do also speak of it (oudj 
baten). — ^Dost thou speak of my uncle 1 — I do not speak of him.— 
Of whom dost thou speak 1 — I speak of thee and thy parents. — Do 
ou inquire after any one 1 — I inquire after yoar uncle (Lesson 
•HI.) : is he at home 1 — No, he is at his best friend's. (See Lesion 
KXXIX and end of Lesson XXXIV.) 


y Google 


JFIFrY.FIFTH LESSON.— ^nf tinb fttn%8U 


Ir English, the past participle is joined to the verb 
lo be, either to form the passive voice, or as an ad- 
jective to qualify the subject. In the first instance it 
must be translated by njerben*, and in the second Sy fein*. 

In German we distinguish, as in Latin: ba^ S^u^ i|l 
(jebaut, domus cedificata est, from ta^ S)an^ toitb Qebant, 
domus cedijicatur ; bie Sriefe finb gefd)ricbcn, littercR scrip- 
tee sunt, from bie S5riefe werben gcfc^rieben, litterce scri- 

To ascertain w^hether a past participle stands as an 
adjective or not, one has only to change the construc- 
tion into the active voice ; if in that voice the tense 
s the same as in the passive, the participle is a pas- 
sive participle, and the auxiliary to be must be trans- 
lated by n)crben*; but if the tense is not the same, it 
then stands as a mere adjective, and the auxiliary to 
be must be translated by fcin** Ex. 3cf) tt>erbe gctoBt, 
I am loved, is in the same tense, w^hen I say : ct Ikbt 
mid), he loves me ; but ber ©picgel i|l gerbrod)en, tho 
looking-glass is broken, is not in the same tense, 
when I say: cr f^at ben Spiegel gerbrodjeit, he has bro 
ken the looking-glass. Here gerbroc^en is nothing buJ 
an adjective, which qualifies the subject ®piege(/ look 

1 am loved. 3d) WitU gcliebt. 

Thou art pruided. iDu roirft gctcitct. 

He is praised. Qt to\v\> gclobt. 

We are heard. SBir mcvttn gchSrt. 

They are blamed &k rocrben gctatctt. 

ro„ are punished. j|R:r„» 

To praise, to blame. Zcbtn, tabcbu 

By me — by us. g^on mtt — wn untf. 

By thee — ^by you. ©on 2)tt — oon (Sucft (31?n<tt). 

By him— by them. 85cn t^m — wn tftntn. 

lam loved by him. 3(^ wcvU Wn i^m acltebt 

Who 18 punished 1 ffiet roirt ecftroft t 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Tbe naughty boy is ponished. iDcr unarttge StmU mxh gefltafi 
By whom is he punished t SBcn nwm wixt> et gcftraft J 

He is punished by his father. Or n>itt wn fctneni $Batet gefhrafL 
Which man is praised, and which flSk(d)et QXann n>trt gdobtunb nxb 

is blamed t <ftcr wirb gctatelt ? 

The skilful man is praised, and iDcr g(fd)tcfte 9)2ann toirb g((o6t unb 

tbe awkward blamed. ter ungefci^tcttc getabctt 

Which boys are rewarded, and iBe(d)e Jtnabcn werben bcto^nt, unl> 

which are punished 1 n)c(d)e werbcn bcflraft 7 

Those that are assiduous are re- jDteicntgcn, n)c(d)e fleipig Itnb, wer^ 
warded, and those that are idle ben Mof)nt^ unb btC/ toetdK trflgc 

nnished. jinb, bcftro^ 

Ve are loved by the captain's SEBtr tocrbcn 90n ben @5f)ncn be< 
sons, you are despised by them, ^uptniann^ gedebt; 3i)r n?(rbct 

wn ibnen ©erocfetct 
You are praised by our brothers, ^ie wctUn ocn unfern 93rftbem Qtf 
and we are despised by them, (obt^ unb toit nJetben 9on tf)nen 


Good— naughty. Xrtig— unartiq. (See Note f, Les- 

son XXXlX.) 
Skilful, diligent— awkward. (Rcfcbicft — ungefiicft 
Assiduous — idle. 5(et9tg — ttdge (foul). 

Ignorant. Unn^'tjfenb. 

liie idler, the lazy fellow, ber ^autcn^cr* 

To reward — rewarded. SBetefjncn — Mchnt (See Obs, A 

Lesson XLV). 

To esteem. Xd)ten, fd)a^cn. 

To despise. S3crad)Cen. 

To hate. ^affen. 

Is your book torn t SH 3br ©u* icrriffen 7 

It is not torn. (&i ijl nid)t s^^trifTcn. 

Are your children ffood 1 6tnb 3bre ^inbct artigt 

They are very good. ©te finb febr artig. 

Is the enemy beaten 1 Sfl ber ^cinb gefdbtagen 7 

He is beaten. (£t tfi Qefd)(ageit. 

The enemies are beaten. >Dte ^cmbe ftnb gcf(btagen. 

These children iie loved, because iDiefe ittnbet merben geliebt, loeU jtc 
they are studious and good. flet9tg unb arttg ftnb. (See Note 

f. Lesson XXXLX.) 


Are you loved by your uncle 1 — I am loved by him. — Is your 
brother loved by him 1 — He is loved by him. — By whom am I 
loved ! — ^Thou art loved by thy parents. — Are we loved 1 — You are 
loved. — By whom are we loved I^You are loved by your friends. 
— Ais those gentlemen loved 1— They are loved. — By whom are 
they loved ! — ^They are loved by us and by their good friends.— 
By nhom is the blind man led i — He is led by me. — Where do 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


TOO lead him to t — I lead him home. — By whom fcre we beamed ?«-• 
We dre blamed by our enemies. — Why are we blamed by ihem ?— 
Becauaije they do not love us. — Are you punished by your tutor?— 
We are not punished by liim, because we are good and studious. — 
Are we heard ? — We are (c^, Lesson XLIII.). — By whom are we 
heard 1 — We are heard by our neighbouis. — Is the master heard by 
his pupils 1 — He is heard by them. — Which children are praised ? 
— Those that are good. — Which are punished ^ — Those that are 
idle and naughty. — Are you praised or blamed 1 — We are neithei 
praised nor blamed. — Is our friend loved by his masters ? — He is 
loved and praised by them, because he is studious and grood ; but 
his brother is despised by his, because he is naughty and idle.-»-l8 
he sometimes punished ? — He is (roirb U) every morning and every 
evening. — Are you sometimes punished t — ^I am (cf) never ; I am 
loved and rewarded by my good masters. — Are these children 
never punished % — ^They are (c^) never, because they t/e studious 
and good ; but those are so (c^) very often, because they are idle 
and naughty. 


Who is praised and rewarded! — Skilful people (Scute) are 
praised, esteemed, and rewarded, but the ignorant are blamed and 
despised. — Who is loved and who is hated 1 — He who is studious 
and good is loved, and he who is idle and naughty is hated. — 
Must one be good in order to be loved ? — One must be so. — What 
must one do in order to be loved ? — One must he good and assidu- 
ous. — What must one do in order to be rewarded 1 — One must be 
skilful and study much. — Why are those children loved 1 — ^They 
are loved, because they are good. — Are they better than we ' — ^They 
are not better, but more studious than you. — Is your hi jtber as 
assiduous as mine 1 — He is as assiduous as he ; but your brother 
is better than mine. — Do you know anything new ? — 1 do not 
know anything new. — What does your cousin say new 1 — He says 
nothings new. — Do they not speak of war t — ^They do not speak of 
it. — Of what {Obs, C. Lesson LII.) do they speak 1 — They speak 
of peace. — What do they say 1 — ^They say that the enemy is beaten. 
— Are you understood bj your pupils 1 — I am understood by them. 
•—Dost thou often receive presents ? — I do receive some if I am 
good. — Are you often rewarded ? — We are rewarded if we study 
well, and if we are diligent. — Has your master the intention of 
rewarding you 1 — He has tlie intention of doing so if we study 
well. — What does he intend to give you if you study well 1 — He 
intends givii7a; us a book. — Has he already given you a book ?— 
He has axreat/ given us one. 


Have you dined already? — I have dined already, but I am stil 
hungry.— Has your little brother drunk already ? — He has drunk 
already, but he is still thirsty. — What must we dc in order to b« 



ikilfid 1 — ^Yoa most work mach. — Must we sit still in older to 
itodjl — Yoa must listen to what the master tells you. — Do you 
iotead to eat supper to-day 1 — I do intend to dioe before I eat 
ittpper. — At what o'clock do you dine ? — I dine at four and eat 
flipper at xune o'clock. — Have you seen my cousin 1 — 1 have seon 
liim.— What has he said ? — He has said that he does not wish to 
lee jon (fcJ)cn roUQ* — Why does he not wish to see me ? — He does 
Dot wish to see you, because he does not like you. — Why does he 
not like me 1 — fiecause you are naughty. — Will you give me a 
sheet of paper 1 — Why (9Dcju) do you want paper 1 — I want some t3 
write a letter. — ^To whom (Lesson XXX.) do you wish to write / 
-li^h to write to the man by whom (wn n)cld)cm) lam loved. — 
Afte; whom do yon inquire 1 — ^I inquire after no one. (See end of 
Uston XXXIV.) 

FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON. — gwljs tinb fttnfpaete 


These verbs having no determinate subject, are only 
conjugated in the third person singular, by means of the 
indefinite pronoun e^, it. Ex. 

To J ain — it rains. 

SRcgncn — ed rranct 

To snoio — it hnowM. 

@d)nct<n — c6 f j)0<it 

Does It thunder ' 

SDcnnert e6? 

It does thunder 

e^ tcnncrt. 

Is it foggy 1 

3(1 c« ncOcltg ? 

Does the sun shine 1 

3ft f< €5cnncnfil)ctn ? 

The sun shines. 

i 6^ tft ®cnncnfd)cin. 
\ 9Bir baben ©cnnenfcbrr 

It thunders loud. 

Q^ bcnncn bcftig. 

the fog^ 

ncbclig ; 

bard, violent, 


To shine — skone. 

©chctncn* — gefchvd n. 

To thunder. 


Tlie sun does not shine. 

iDic ^cnne fchcint mrf)t. 

rbe sun is in my eyes. 

t iDie (Sonne fd)cint mtr Ic* (^ttAA 

The face. 

tQ« f»f f!d)t ; 

♦ the thunder. 

hT 5)cnnct -, 

the snow, 

bcr Scbntff ; 

the sunshine. 

ttx ©cnncnfcbfin ; 

the parasol, 

ber ®cnn<nf(btrnu 

Digitized by GoOQIc 


Does itlifirhten^ 
It do38 lirfiten. 


(S« b(t(t 

To hail. 

Iwgdn, |<Wepfn. 

The hail, 

tcr JpaQcU 

It hails. 

5 ©« ha^dU 

Ii rains very hard 

Q^ ttanct f<()c ^xt 

It lightens much. 

C« Mil&i fcbr. 

Does it snow 1 

®d)ncit U ? 

It does snow much. 

(Si fd)neit fefer. 

It hails much. 

C« feoflctt fcf)r. 

Obs. A. Tliere are some impersonal verbs, wliicli r^ 
late to a person : they govern the dative or accusative, 
and instead ot: id) 6m l)imflrig, (Lesson V.) one may 
say : e^ ^ungcrt mid), I am hungry : for the verb ^imgrrn/ 
to be hungry, governs the accusative. 

To be thirsty, J) u r ft e m 

To be sletjff/, ® (^ I d f e t tu 

Art thou sleepy t ©d)(afcct f« 5)1* ? 

I am not sleepy, b^^* hun^y. Qi fd)(5fert mid) ni^t; aUt ti ^n> 

gcrt mid). 
Is your brother thi Jty 1 JDurjlct c< 3()tcn ffinibft 7 

He is thirsty. 6^ l)ur(!ct if)n. 

He is not thirsty, r «t sleepy. (5^ turflct i^n ni^t ; abet c* W^ifftt 


Obs, B. T>.<5 case of the verb may be placed before 
tie impersonal verb, but then the inaefinite pronoun e^ 
must be suppressed. For instance, instead of : c^ ^ungert 
mid), one may say : mid} ^migert, I am hungry ; but it 
the sentence is interrogative, the indefinite pronoun H 
must not be omitted. 

Are you sleepy 1 ^Wfctt ti 6le? 

U e are sleeov 5" ®^ f*^^^^^* ""^ 

v\e are Sleepy. tun«f*lc[fm. 

Are those men hungry 1 ^ungcrt c^ bicft ^dnnct ? 

They are hungxy. {Ittnff" 

Who is thirsty ? ®cn hitflct c^ ? 

I am very thirsty. i gjiicfc turflct fcbt. 

• «Oun(tent, in the ■igniflcation of to faU, ia nentei and followi tlie cm^ 
cation of nentar verbs. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Has your cousin btsea thirsty 1 ^t c^ 3f)rcn iSdicx getttvfUtt 
He has been thirty. {Iffi'flcSr 

Where has he gone to 1 SBcfjtn t(l ct gcrcipt? 

He has gone to Vienna. iSx t(l nod) 2Bim 9Ctci]t 

Is it good travelling t S(l e^ qut retfen ? 

h is bad travelling. Q^ ifl f(I)(cd)t rcifen. 

In the winter. Sm ©inter. 

In the summer. Sm ©cnmicr. 

Is it good travelling in the win- 3ft «^ flut rcifcn tm ©inter ? 

It is bad travelling in the winter. Qi tft f(ftlfd)t reifcn im ©inter. 

The spring, Uv jrfi^ling ; 

the autumn, ter ^erbfl. 

To ride in a carriage. ^al)vcti* (in this signification 

takes fein* for its auxiliary ■)• 
Ridden in a carriage. ®efof)ren. 

To ride on horseback. JHetten* (takes fein* for its auxi- 

Ridden on horseback. ©erttten. 

To go on foot. 3u 5u0c gchcn*. 

Do you like to go on horseback 1 t 9*eiten ©ie gem ? 
I like to ride in a carriage. \ 3d) fabre gem. 

Where is the bailiff gone to (on ©c ijt ^er 2(nitniann fjingeritten ? 

horseback) 1 
He is gone (on horseback) to the Gr ifl in ben ©a(b geritten. 

When does your cousin go to ©ann gef)t it)r ^Setter md) 93er(in ? 

Berlin 1 
He goes thither this winter. Qv ge^t Mcfen ©inter baf)tn. 
I fetend going tJiis spring to 3d) tin gefcnnen, bicfen JrftMing 

Dresden. nad) JDre^ben jju retfen. 

Where is your uncle t ©o tjl 3hr S)beim ? 

He is in Berlin. Qt if! in IBerlin. 

H« is at Berlim @r ifl ^u S3er(in. 

Rule. The preposition JU or in is used to express 
rest in a place or country, and the preposition mdf 
motion or direction towards a place or country. 9?ac^ 
is particularly used before names of towns or coun- 
^es (Lesson LIV.) ; but the preposition JU must be 
^ade use of to express motion towards a person. 
(Lesson XXVL) 

■ When the v«rb fabrnt* Bii^ifies to move anything by a carnag9 h Im m 
xn and takes babe n* for its auxii&ry. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The two prepositions {tt and in answer the qucstiot 
M ? and md) the question tocsin ? as is seen by tht 
abo\ e examples. 

l3 the living dear in London W era *i ♦f.^.,*r f^r.^« ;- a*«h*« t 
l8 it dear living in London 1 P** ^ ^^'"^^^ ^^^'" ^" ^^'^^ * 
The living is dear there. Qi ifl tbcucr Icbcn to 

Is it windy ! Does the wind Sft c^ winbig ? 

It is windy. The wind blows. (5« ifl winttg, bcr aBinfe gctt 

It IS not stormy. ^ iDo^ SBctter ijl niAt nfirmif*. 

Strong, stonny, dear, windy. ©tarf ; (Idrmifc^ ; tl)cucc *, i»itioi§ 


Do you like to ride in a carriage 1 — -J like to ride on horseback.- 
Has your cousin ever gone on horseback 1 — He has never gone on 
horseback. — Did you go on horseback the day before yesterday 1— 
I went on horseback to-day. — Where did you go to (on horseback) \ 
—1 went into the country. — Does your brother ride on horseback an 
often as you t — He rides on horseback oftener than I. — Hast thot 
sometimes ridden on horseback 1 — I )iave never ridden on horse- 
back. — Wilt thou go (in a carriage) to-day into the country % — ^1 will 
go thither (in a carriage). — Do you like travelling 1 — 1 do likf 
travelling. — Do you like travelling in the winter? — 1 do not like 
travelling in the winter, 1 like travelling in the spring and in autumn. 
—Is it good travelling in the spring 1 — It is good travelling in th« 
spring and in the autumn, but it is bad travelling in the summer 
and in the winter. — Have you sometimes travelled in the winter \ 
—I have often travelled in the winter and in the summer. — Doe« 

Jrour brother travel often ? — He travels no longer, he formerly travel- 
ed much. — When do you like to ride on horseback t — ^I like riding 
on horseback in the momin? after breakfast. — ^Is it good travelling 
in this country t — It is good travelling here f to).— Have you ever 
gone to Vienna 1 — 1 have never gone thilner. — Where is yo«l 
brother gone to ? — He is gone to London. — Does he sometimes go 
to Beriin 1 — He went thither formerly. — What does he say of (Mo) 
that country 1 — He says that it is good travelling in GJermany 1— 
Have you been at Dresden? — I have been there. — Have yon stayed 
ttieie long t— I have stayed there two years.— What do you say ol 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

6e (wn ben) people of that country 1 — I say that they are good peopit 

» (H jur< 8futc |in^). — ^Is your brother at Dresden 1 — No, Sir, he ia 
f at Vienna 1 — ^Is the lifing good at Vienna 1 — ^The living is good 




Have yon been in London 1 — I have been there. — ^Is the living 
^ood there 1 — ^The living is good there, but dear. — ^Is it dear living 
m Paris ? — It is good living there and not dear. — At whose house 
have you been this morning 1 — I have been at my uncle's. — Where 
are you going to now 1 — I am going to my brother's. — Is your brothei 
at home 1 — I do" not know. — Have you already been at the English 
captain's 1 — I have not been there yet. — When do you intend goin^ 
thiiher ? — I intend going thither this evening. — How often has your 
brother been in London 1 — He has been there thrice. — Do you like 
travelling in France ? — I like travelling there, because one tinds 
good people there. — Does your friend like travelling in Holland 1 
— He does not like travelling there, because the living is bad there. 
— Do you like travelling in Italy 1 — I do like travelling there, be- 
cause the living is good there, and one finds good people there ; but 
the roads are not very good there. — ^Do the English like to travel in 
Spain 1 — ^They like to travel there ; but they find the roads there too 
bad. — How is the weather ] — ^The weather is very bad. — lu it windy ? 
— It is very windy. — Was it stormy yesterday f — It was stormy. — 
Did you go into the country ! — ^I did not go thither, because it was 
stormy. — Do you go to the market this morning 1 — 1 do go thither, 
'f ;t is not stormy. — Do you intend goin^ to Germany this year? — 
1 do intend going thither, if the weather is not too bad. — Do you in- 
tend br^kfasting with me this morning ? — ^I intend breakfasting 
V h you, If I am hungry. 


Does your uncle intend dining with us to-day? — He does intend 
dining with you, if he is hungry. — Does the Pole int<»nd drinking 
some of (ocn) this wine? — He does intend drinking some of it (t>a« 
Otti), if he is thirsty. — Do you like to go on foot ? — I do not like to 
TO on foot, but I like going in a carriage when (rocnn) 1 am travel- 
ling. — ^Will you go on foot ? — I cannot go on foot, because I am too 
tir^. — Do you go to Italy on foot ? — ^I do not go on foot, because 
the roads are there too bad. — ^Axe the roads there as had in the summer 
as in the winter 1 — ^They are not so good in the winter as in the 


Are you ^oing out to-day? — ^I am not going out when it is raining 
— Did it rajn yesterday ? — It did not rain. — Has it snowed ? — It has 
snowed. — Why do you not go to the market ? — 1 do not ^o thither, 
because it snows. — Do you wish to have an umbrella ? — ll you have 
one. — Will you lend me an umorella '^ — I will lend you one. — W^hat 
sort of weather is it ? — It thunders and lightens. — Does the sun 
thine 1-^The sun does not shine, it -3 foggy. — Do you hear the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


thunder 1 — 1 do hear it — How long have jon heard Ihe thander.-- 
I have heard it till four o'clock in the morning^. — Is it fine weather . 
— The wind blows hard and it thunders much. — Does it rain 1 — Ii 
does rain very fast (flarf ). — Do you not go into the country 1 — Hon 
can I po into the country, do you not see how (mic) it lightens ?— 
Does It snow ! — It does not snow, but it hails. — Does it hail t— 
it does not hail, but thunders very much. — Have you a parasol t — 
I have one. — Will you lend it me 1 — ^I will lend it you. — Have we 
sunshine 1 — We have much sunshine, the sun is in my eyes. — ^Is it 
fine weather 1 — ^It is very bad weather, it is dark ; we have no sun- 


Are you thirsty t — ^I am not thirsty, but very hungry. — Is your 
servant sleepy ! — He is sleepy. — Is he hungry 1 — He is hungry. — 
Why does he not eat 1 — Because he has nothing to eat. — Are your 
children hungry 1 — ^They are very hungry, hut they have noting 
to eat. — Have they anything to drink 1 — ^They have nothing to 
drink. — Why do you not eat? — I do not eat when (n>cnn) I am not 
hungry. — W hy does the Russian not drink ? — He does not drink 
when he is not thirsty. — Did your brother eat anything yesterday 
evening 1 — He ate a piece of beef, a small piece of fowl, and a 
piece of bread. — Did he not drink ? — He also drank. — What did 
ne drink ? — He drank a large glass of water, and a small glass ot 
wine. — How long did you stay at his house (ki if)ni) t— I stayed 
there till midnight. — Have you asked him for anything! — I have 
asked him for nothing. — Has he given you anything 1 — He has 
given me nothing. — Of whom have you spoken 1 — We have spoken 
of you. — Have you praised me t — We have not praised you ; we 
have blamed you. — Why have you blamed me ! — Because you do 
not study well. — Of what has your brother spoken! — He has 
spoken of his books, his houses, and his gardens. — Who is hungry! 
— My friend's little boy is hungry. — Who has drunk my wine 1^ 
No one has drunk it. — Hast thou already been in my room? — ^I 
have already been there. — How dost thou find my room ! — I find it 
beautiful. — Are you able to work there ! — I am not able to work 
there, because it is too dark. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

FIFTY.SEVENTH LESSON.— Buben uvh annate 


In English there are three imperfect tenses, viz : 1 
praised, did praise, and was praising. These three 
are expressed in German by one imperfect id) lofcte. It 
is used to express a past action or event in reference 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


lo another, which was either simultaneous with or an 
tecedent to it. It is the historical tense of the Germans, 
and is always employed in narration, particularly 
when the narrator was an eye-witness of the action or 
erent. The perfect tense, on the contrary, expresses 
an action or event, as perfectly past and ended, with- 
imt any reference to another event, and when the 
narrator was not an eye-witness. In this latter in- 
•^ance the imperfect also may be used, if the narrator 
accompanies his narrative with any phrase denoting 
that he does not speak in his own name, £ts matt fagt or 
fogt matt^ they say, it is said, &c. 

The perfect tense is compounded of the present of 
the auxiliary, and the past participle, as in English. 
(See Lessons XLI,, XLU. &c.) 

1 was — ^he was. 3d) »«t — er wax. 

We were — they were. 25ir njarcn — jic roorcn. 

Thoa wast — ^yoa were. JDu roorR — 3bt rootct (@ie tporcn). 

Were you content ? SBaren Gic jufricbcn 1 

1 was very content. 3d) mat fcbt ^ufricbcn. 

Was the wine good 1 JBar tcr SBcin ^ut ? 

It was very good. (5r wax \e\)X gut. 

Were yon there yesterday ? Q\n\> ^U gcflcrn bo gerocfcn ? 

I was there to-day. 3d) bin bcutc l*Q gcnjcfcn. 

Where was he the day before 2Bo ift ix tjorgcjlcrn gcrocfcn ? 

yesterday ? 

Were you already in Paris ? Sinb ©ic fd)on in ^axii gwcfcn ? 

was there twice already t 3cf) bin fd)cn iwcmai bo gcwcfcn. 

Obedient — disobedient. ©ebcrfom — unc|c()crfanu 

Negligent. S^a^tfifftg. 

Obs. A. The imperfect of regular verbs is formed 
from the infinitive by changing ett into t, and adding 
the proper termination to each person, viz. e, to the 
first and third persons singular, ett, to the first and third 
persons plural, eft, to the second person singular, and 
ft, to the second person plural. Ex. 

( loved, f loved, ) cva ^w. . ^ 

I 5 did love. He ] did love, ^ f liebfe 

r was loving. ( was loving. ) 

I loved, C loved, ) rrr^- u^u^ 

We hid love, They 5 did love, i^V£Z~ 
( were loving. ( were loving. ) ''^ twown. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


( lovedst, ( loved, ) IJU ticbtefl— 

Thou < didst love, You < did love, V 3t)r fiebtet(ett 
f wast loving. ( were loving. ) licbtcn). 

Obs B. The consonant t of the imperfect is pre- 
ceded by e, if the pronunciation requires it, which is 
the case in all verbs, the root of which ends in b, t, t\), 
or (I, or in several consonants united. (See Obs, A 
Lesson XXXIV. and Lesson XLL) Ex. 

T did work, He^ 
was working, 
We " did work. They 
were working. 

(workedst, f 

didst work, Youj 
wast working. [ 

did work, 
! was working, 
I did work, 
[ wereworking. 
did work, 
were working. 

,3d) axbeitett — 
er arbeitcte, 

,2Bir arbcireten 
— f!e arbcitctel^ 

I l^n arbeitctefl— 

^t)x arbeitctf! 

(Sic arbeitetcn). 

Obs, C. In all German verbs, whether regular or 
Irregular, the third person singular of the imperfect 
tense is the same as the first person ; and the third 
person plural is the same as the first in all the tenses. 

I had — he had. 

We had — they had. 

Thou had St — you had. 

Had you money ? 

I had some. 

Had your brother books 1 

He had some. 

What had we 1 

What sort of weather was it yes- 

terdav ? 
It was nne weather. 
Had you a wi#'h to buy a horse 1 

I had a wish to buy one, but I 

had no money. 
Did your cousin intend to lean 

Oerruan 1 
He did intend to learn it, but he 

had no master. 

3fd) ^ottc — cr i)attc. 

©ir batten — fie batten. 

2)u battcft— Sbt bflttct (JBh batten) 

|)attcn ©ie ®ctt) 7 

3d) batte roelcbc^ 

^otteSbr SBruKT «fid)cr? 

@r b«tte n)ctd)e. 

aSog batten wit? 

aOBog fat SBScttet njat c^ geffetn? 

e« wax fd)3ne^ ©etter. 

fatten @i< Cuft ein 5)fetb ju faa» 

Scb batte «uft ein^ gu faufen, ab« 

id) batte fcin (SJetb. 
2Bar 3br i8cttct gcfcnnen beutfcb §u 

ternen ? 
©t n?or gefcnnen e^ ^ Cetnen, ftbct 

et batte feincn gebter. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


kXBRClSES. 135. 

Were you at home this morning t — I was not at home — Where 
were you 1 — I was at the market. — Where were you yesterday 1— 
I was at the theatre. — Wast thou as assiduous as thy brother ?— 
I was as assiduous as he, but he was more clever than I. — Where 
have you been 1 — 1 have been at the English physician's. — Was 
he at home ? — He was not at home. — Where was he 1 — He was at 
the bal!- — Have you been at the Spanish cook's 1 — 1 have been at 
his house. — Has he already bought his meat ? — He has already 
bought it. — Have you given the book to my brother! — I have given 
it to him. — Hast thou given my books to my pupils 1 — I have 
gjren them to them. — Were they satisfied with them (bomit) 1— 
iliey were very well (fc^r) satisfied with tlieci. — Had your cousin a 
wish to learn German ? — He had a wish to learn it. — Has he 
learnt it ? — He has not learnt it. — Why has he not learnt it 1 — 
Because he had not courage enough. — Have you been at m^ 
fether's 1 — I have been there (bci ihm). — Have you spoken to hiiu ': 
— ^I have spoken to him. — Has tlie shoemaker already brought yov 
the boots 1 — He has already brought them to me. — Have you paid 
him (for) them 1 — 1 have not paid him (for) them yet. — Have you 
ever been in London I — I have been there several times. — What 
did you do there ? — I learnt English there. — Do you intend going 
thither once morel — I intend going thither twice more. — -Is the 
living good there 1 — ^The livmg is good there, but dear. — Was your 
master satisfied with his pupill — He was satisfied with hira.-- 
Was your brother satisfied with my children 1 — He was very well 
(fdnr) satisfied with them.-rWas the tutor satisfied with this little 
fcoy 1 — He was not satisfied with him. — Why was he not satisfied 
wuh him 1 — Because that little boy was very negligent. 


Were l^e children of the poor as clever as those of the rich ? — 
Fhey were more clever, because they worked harder (nicf)t). — Did 
jou love your tutor 1 — I did love him, because he loved me — Did 
he give you anythin? ? — ^^He gave me a good book, because he was 
satisfied with me. — Whom do you love 1 — I love my parents and 
my precsptors. — Do your tutors love youl — They do love me, 
because I am assiduous and obedient. — Did this man love hi* 
parents 1 — He did love them. — Did his parents love him ? — ^They 
did love him, because he was never disobedient. — How long 
did you work yesterday evening 1 — I worked till ten o'clock- 
— Did your cousin also work? — He did also work. — When 
didst thou see my uncle 1 — I saw him this morning. — Had 
ae much money 1 — He had much. — Had your parents many 
fiiends 1 — ^They had many. — Have they still some \ — ^They have 
still several. — Had you any friends 1 — I had some, because I had 
money. — Have you still some ? — I have no longer any, because I 
have no more money. — Where was your brother ? — He was in the 
garden. — Where were his servants! — ^They were in the house.— 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Where were we 1— We were in a good couutry aud with (brtj ' j 
grood people. — Where were our friends 1 — ^They were on (board) 
the ships of the English. — Where were the Russians 1 — They 
were in their carriages. — Were the peasants in the fields ? — ^They " 
were there. — Were the bailiffs in the woods ? — ^They were there — ■ 
Who was in the storehouses ? — ^The merchants were there. 

What sort of weather was it ? — It was very bad weather. — Was 
It windy 1 — It was windy and very cold. — Was it foggy 1 — It was 
fogffV. — Was it fine weather 1 — It was fine weather, hut too warm. 
— ^hat sort of weather was it the day before yesterday 1 — It was 
very dark and very cold. — ^Is it fine weather now 1 — ^It is neither ' 
fine nu» bad weather. — Is it too warm 1 — It is neither too warm '' 
nor too cold. — Was it stormy yesterday 1 — ^It was very svormy. — .; 
Was it dry weather 1 — ^Tlie weather was too dry ; but to-day it is j 
too damp. — Did you go to the ball yesterday evening t — I did nci 1 
go, because the weather was bad. — Had you the intention to tear 
my books 1 — I had not the intention to tear, but to burn theni. 
(See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

FIFTY.EIGHTH LESSON.— arljt imb anf^igste 

I (did %eak, Hejdid %eak, I^SjjJ^^ 
Iwas speaking, j W^^* 

[was speaking. Lwas speaking, j 

fspoke, f spoke, ]9Bir fprarf>cn 

We \ did speak, They - did speak, l- — jTe fprad)cn. 

I were speaking. I were speaking. J 06».c.LeBs.LViL 
rspokest, fspoke, -jlJU fprad)(l— 

Thou ] didst speak, You-^ did speak, VSbr fprarf)et 

Iwast speaking, [were speaking.] (®iefprad)en). 

Ob$. In irregular verbs the imperfect of the indica 
tive is formed by changing the vowels : a, ei, i, o, n, 
and adding the termination belonging to each person. 
Hence in the irregular verbs we shall mark only the 
change of that vowel, together with the termination ol 
the first person, in order to enable learners to know 

» Leamera ought now to add to their list of verbs the imperfect of all b* 
regale vcrl»8 which they have been using hitherto, or will have to use he/t 
after. ^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I the imperfect tense. Examples : the verb fprecl)en 
above changes in the imperfect the radical vowel e into 
a; Mei6en, to remain, changes it into ie, thus : id) biicb, 
1 remained ; ge^en^ to go, into i, thus : id) ging, I went ; 
pikn, to draw, into o, thus : vi) jog, I drew ; fd)lageii, 
to beat, into u, thus : uij {(^iug, I smote. 

Compound verbs follow in general the conjugation of 
simple verbs. 

At first (in the beginning). Qt% juerfl (anfang^). 

Afterwards. ^cmod) or n«c^^)c^^ 

Hereupon, apon this. {>iei:auf* 

HIP Whenever a sentence begins with any other 
word than the subject, its order is inverted, and the 
subject stands after the verb in simple, and after the 
auxiliary in compound tenses.^ 

At first he said yes, afterwards ©rfl fagte e r [a, ^ernad) nctn. 


At first he worked, and after- (Srfl at6eitete, unt ftcritad) fpictte cr. 

wards he played. 
I do not go out to-day. JpcnU gcftc id> nid)t au«. 

Now you must work. 3c|t mttffcn 6 i e orbeiten. 

My father set out yesterday. ®c|tcm i|l nuin 93otet obgc* 

Here lies your book and there ^icr licgt 3()t Suc^ unb bo 3()t 

your paper. Ropier. 

He came afterwards. 6r ij! l)crnod) (nac^f)er) gcfcmmen. 

Upon this he said. ^ierauf fagttf c r. 

As soon as. @c6atb/foba(bo(^. 

I drink as soon as I have eaten. Sc^ trinfc, fcOolb td) gcQcffoi feoBe. 
As soon as I have taken off my ©oOotb id) mcine ©d)ube ou^gcje* 
shoes I tak9 off my stockings, gen l)o6c, jic^e t(|) mcine ©trftmpfe 

What do you do after supper 1 SD3a^ tt)un ©ie nod) bem 7Cbenbef» 


To sleep^slepU Sd)tafen — ^e(d)latfn. Im. 

perfect f d) ( I e f. 

I tieep, thou sleepest, he sleeps. 3d) fcfttof^/ bu fc6(«Sfj!/ er fc^t&ft. 

^ From this rale miut be excepted the conjunctions which serve to onil* 
Kotences vSee Lesson XLVIl.) ; they leave the subject in its place and throw 
tke verb to the end of the sentence. 

* See Obs. C. LesKm XXXIV. 

Digitized by 



(Sr fd)(aft mdi. 

e c () c n. 

t SeOt 3f)r 93em?anbter nc<^ ? 
7 (Sr (cbt nid)t mcf)r, 

£)l)ne (is followed by gu befc: 
the infinitive). 

Dbnc ®c(t). 

t £)()nc iu fprccftcn. 

f Dfine etroo^ ju fagcn. 

fSBeggcben* — mcgge^ongeii. 
Imperf. ging. 

(&t gtng tocg, o^ne ctioo^ su fagc n. 

2( n f m m e n ♦— q ngefommen. 
Imperf. fom. ' 

Sfl ct enb(td) angcfemmeit ? 
(St ill nci) nid)t angeEcmmen. 
^cmmt et cnWid) ? 
C^t fommt. 

903 e g 9 e b e n*— to eggegeben 

Imperii aab. 
2C (> f d) n f t D c n* — b 9 € f (!^ n i t» 

ten. Imperf. fd)nrtt. 

^at ct ctma^ rocggcgcbcn ? 
St bat fcin ^(cib tucggegcben. 

Scmanbem t>cn |)ot^ obf^ncibcn *. 
sD^an bat ibm t>cn ^i^ af>^ 

(Sincm |)unbe lie £)btcn obf^nri* 

8Ba$ bflbcn |!c i^m ^eiban ? 
Sie babcn ibm bic Df^tcn aJftft 



©pttditSftt Septet lout? 
et fpticftt (aut. 

Um beutfc^ ju (etnen/ mu9 man (oof 

Does your father still sleep ? 
He does still sleep. 

To live. 

[s your relation still alive 1 
He is no longer alive (he is dead). 


Without money. 
Without speaking. 
Without saying anything. 

To go away — gone away. 

He went away without saying 

At last. 

To arrive — arrived. 

Has he arrived at last ! 
He has not arrived yet. 
Does he come at last? 
He does come. 

To give away — given away. 
To cut off-^cut off (past part). 

Has he given away anything 1 
He has given away his coat. 

To cut one^s throat. 
They have cut his throat. 

To crop a dog's ears. 

What have they done to him 1 
They have cut off his ears. 


Does your master speak aloud % 
He does speak aloud. 
In order to learn German, one 
must speak aloud. 


Hadst thou the intention to learn English ? — I had the intention 
learn it, but 1 had not a good master. — Did your brother iatenJ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


io bnj a carriage 1 — He did intend to buy one, but he had no more 
money .^ — Why did you work 1 — 1 worked in order to learn Ger- 
man. — Why did you love that map 1 — 1 loved him because he loved 
me. — Have you already seen the son of the captain 1 — I have already 
seen him. — Bid he speak French 1 — He spoke English. — Where 
were you then (Lesson XLVI1I.)1 — ^I was in Grermany. — Did you 
^»eak German or English 1 — I spoke neither German nor English, 
irat French. — Did tlie Germans speak French t — At first they spoke 
German, afterwards French. — ^Did they speak as well as you 1 — 
Tliey spoke just as well as you and I. — What do you do »n the 
evening. — I work as soon as I have supped. — ^And what do you do 
afterwards t — ^Afterwards I sleep. — When do vou drink 1 — 1 drink 
as soon as I have eaten. — When do you sleep f — I sleep as soon as 
1 have supped. — Dost thou speak German ? — I spoke it formerly. 
—Dost thou take off thy hat before thou takest off thy coat ? — I take 
off my hat as soon as I have taken off my clothes. — What do you 
do after breakfast ? — ^As soon as I have breakfasted I go out. — Art 
thou sleeping 1 — You see that I am not sleeping. — Does thy brother 
fitill sleep 1 — He does still sleep. — Have you tried to speak to my 
uncle 1 — ^I have not tried to speak to him. — Has he spoken to you t 
— As soon as he sees me, he speaks to me. — Are your parents still 
alive 1 — ^They are still alive. — Is your friend's brother still alive ? 
— He is no longer alive. 


Have you spoken to the merchant? — ^1 have spoken to him. — 
Where have you spoken to him ? — I have spoken to him at my 
house (6i;t mir).^ — What has he said 1 — He went away without say* 
ing anything. — Can you work without speaking 1 — I can work, but 
not study Carman, without speaking. — Do you speak aloud when 
(i9cnn) you are studving German % — I do speak aloud. — Can you 
understand me 1 — I can understand you when (rocnn) you speak 
iloud.— Wilt thou go for some wine ] — I cannot go for wine without 
money. — Have you bought any horses 1 — I do not buy without 
money. — Has your father arrived at last? — He has arrived. — When 
did he arrive 1 — ^This morning at four o'clock. — Has your cousin 
set out at last 1 — He has not set out yet. — Have you at last found 
a good master t — I have at last found one. — Are you at last learning 
English 1 — I am at last learning it. — Why did you not learn it al- 
ready ?— -Because I had not a good master. — Are you waiting foi 
any dtoel — I am waiting for my physician 1 — Is he coming at last ? 
— ^You see that he is not yet coming. — Have you the head-ache t— 
No, I have sore eyes.— Then you must wait for the physician. — 
Have you given away anything 1 — I have not given away anything 
— What has your uncle given away ? — He has given away his old 
elothes.>^Hast thou given away anything? — I had not anything to 
give away.— -What has thy brother given away ? — He has given 
away his old boots and his old shoes. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 


y Google 



FTFTY.NINTH LESSON.— Nttm ttltft fifttt^ete 

Been* SBotben. 

0^5. A, The learner must remember that tDerbfll * 
not fern*, is the verb which serves to form the passive 
voice (Lesson LV.). The past participle of the former 
is tt)orben, and that of the latter gctt>efett. (Lesson XLL) 

Have you been praised ? @tnb @te gc(cM n>erb(ii 7 

I have been praised. 3d) bin gclcbt mcrlcn. 

Hast thoQ been blamed ? fflift iDu jctabcft n>crbfn ? 

I have not been blamed. 3d) bin ntd)t getabcit mcrbeiu 

Have we been loved ^ ©inb mx jdicbt rocrbcn ? 

By whom has he been punished ? ©en njfm ijl cr gcftroft iwrtcn 7 

He has been punished by his Gt ifl 9on fctncni !S3at(c geftraftiMC* 

father. ten. 

When has he been punished 1 8GDonn ijt cr gcfhraft wcrben 7 
He has been punished to-day. (St if! ^cutc gcflroft morbcm 

I was — he was 1 3c^ wutbc — ct wurbe 

We were — they were V praised. SBic rourbcn — jic rourbcn 
Thou wastr— you were J iDu rourbcfl — Z^x rourbct 

(@i< wurbcn) 

Were you loved t fiC&urbcn ©ic (jcUcbt7 

1 was loved. 3d) wurbc qcticbt. 

Was he hated t 8©urb< ec (jf hapt 7 

He was neither loved nor hated. Gr murbe tucbcr gdiebt nO(( gc^opt 

To become. SBetben*. 

The past participle of this verb is : 

Become^ ® e a 1 b c n.* 

And its imperfect : 
I became— he became 3cb ^<^^'^ or murbc — cr nxitb or 

Thou becamest. JDu n?arb|! or routbcjl. 

Ohs, B, In all the other tenses and persons, ttJettcn*^ 
to become, is conjugated as the verb which serves to 
form the passive voice. (See Lesson LV. and above.) 

He was made a kin?. 7 j. «• w *•« • 

Ho became a king. ^ 5 1 ®t mrb ^Zm^ 

• Not worbtn, which is ifce pwt participle of the v«rt> that servei t» fora 
oe puaive voice* as may be leen above. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


t Hire you boeoroe a merchant 1 
f I hare become a lawyer. 

He has taken the degrees of a 

The king, 
the successor, 
the lawyer (barrister at law), 

the office, the employment, 

To fall sick. 
To be taken Ul. 

To recover, to ctow well. 

To recover one's health. 
Ke was taken ill. 
He has recovered bis health. 

What has become of him ? 

He has turned soldier. 
He has enlisted. 

To enlist, to enroll. 

Children become men. 

©inb ©ie Jtoufmann getoerben ? 
3d) bin 2(t»cfat gcrvcrten. 
t @t ifl Sector gcroorben. 

tcr ^3nt9 ; 

t>iv 9?ad)fofgcr ;»» 

tier 2CD»cfat (See Note 

bog 2(mt. 

► t ^ranf wcr^en *. 


> t ©cfunt wcrbcn ♦• 

t (Sv maxtf fron!. 

t Sr tfl gcfunb Qcwcrtrn. 
C ©06 ift oug if)m geroorlJcn ? 
C 2Bo ifl cr bingcf onimcn ? 

©r i|i €ott)at gerocrben, 

@r f)ot fid) onnjcr6en (offen. 
C Sicft onrocrbcn (offen*. 

2Cu$ ^intern werDcn Seutc. 

\^^ —we tore. 3c^ rip — rotr riffcn. 

rhou tor^t —you tore. 3)u rtffcft— S^r riffet (eie riffen) 

We snatched it out of my hands, (gr rip ci niir oug Den ^flnbcm 
What did he snatch out of your ©og rip er S^ncn ou« Un Aiint>tn J 

I was 

When, Uii (bo, mcnn). (See Lesson 


there, when you were Scft n?ar t>a, aH ©ie bo iporen. 

Next year. 

Last month. 

Last Monday. 


When was he in Berlin ? 
He was there last winter. 
When will you go to Berlin 1 

CBcrtgcn ((c|fen) SKonot. 

8f|tcn g}Jcntocj. 

Ti&d)fl ; 

wv'iQ, (c|t. 

SBonn n?or cr in Scrltn ? 

(5r n>or jjcrigen ©inter bo. 

aBonn woUen ©ie nocft ffierCin reifen ? 

^ Masculine irubetantivcs derived from a reffular v«ibdonot soften the radi. 
ral \owel in the plural, as : 9?a(^fo(qer, which is derived from nac^folgen, to 
follow, to succeed ; plur. ^it Sflaibfov^tt, the successors. 

« The verb rtif en, to tear, to pull, to wre?t, must not be mistaken for fCf- 
mfni, which msans : to tear to pieces, to rend, to burst asunder. 



I will go tfiitaer next summer. 3^ totd n&c^flm ^tmrnn t\^ 


So that. e b a p (See Lesson XL VII.> 

1 have lost my money, so that I 3d) hat»c mcin ®c(b iwrlcrtn, fo ba| 

cannot pay you. id) @te nic^t Oc^abUn (aniu 

I am ill, so that I cannot go out. 3d) bin Hani, fo tap id) nid)t au^ey 

^cn (ann. 

The imperfect of foitneit is ic^ fonnte I could. 

The way to Berlin. 5)cr SBcg nac^ JSBcrlin. 

The way from Berlinlo Dresden. >Dcr SBcg wn fflerlin notfe 2)trtbnu 
Which way has he taken ? SSc(d)cn SBcg ()ot cr gcnommcn ? 

He has taken the way to Leipzic. (&t i)at ten ^9 nod) Ocipjig gaiems 

Which way will you take 1 aBc(d)en 2Bcg mcHcn ®ie ncdmen ? 

I will take this way. Sd) n>ia tiefcn iBeg nc()m«u 

And I that one. Unt) id) icnen. 


Why has that child heen praised ! — ^It has been praised, because 
it has studied well. — Hast thou ever been praised ?— I have often 
been praised. — Why has that other child been punished 1 — ^It has 
been punished, because it has been naughty and idle. — Has this 
child been rewarded t — It has been rewarded, because it has worked 
well. — When was that man punished 1 — He was punished last 
month. — Why have we been esteemed? — Because we have been 
studious and obedient. — ^Why have these people been hated 1 — Be- 
cause they have been disobedient. — Were you loved when you were 
at Dresden ] — I was not hated. — Was your brother esteemed when 
he was in London 1 — He was loved and esteemed. — When were you 
in Spain 1 — I was there when you were there. — Who was loved and 
who was hated ?-^Those that were good, assiduous, and obedient, 
were loved, and those who were naughty, idle, and disobedient, 
were punished, hated and despised. — What must one do, in order 
not to be despised ] — One must be studious and good. — Were you 
In Berlin when the king was there 1 — I was there when he was 
there. — Was your uncle in London when I was there 1 — He was 
there when you were there. — Where were you when I was at Dres- 
den 1 — I was in Paris. — Where was your father when you were in 
Vienna 1 — He was in England. — At what time did you breakfast 
when you were in Germany 1 — I breakfasted when my father break* 
fasted. — Did you work when he was working 1 — I studied when he 
was working. — Did your brother work when you were working I— 
He played when I w^as working. 


What nas become of your friend 1 — He has become a lawyer.— 
What has become of your cousin ? — Us has en listed. — Was youi 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


mele taken ill 1 — He was taken ill, and I became liis snocessor io 
his office. — Why did this man not work ? — He could not work, be* 
eaase he was taken ill. — Has he recovered 1 — He has recovered.— 
What has become of himi — He has turned a merchant. — What 
baa become of his children 1 — His children have become men.«- 
What has become of your son 1 — He has become a great man.— 
Has he become learned 1 — He has become learned (cf). — What 
has become of my book 1 — I do not know what has become of it.— 
Have you torn it 1 — ^I have not torn it. — What has become of out 
neighbour 1 — ^I do not know what has become of him. — Did they 
wrest the book out of your hands 1 — ^They did wrest it out of mj 
bands. — Did you wrest the book out of his hands ? — I did wrest it 
out of bis hands. — When did your father set outi — He set out last 
Tuesday. — Which way has he taken 1 — He has taken the way to 
Berlin. — When were you in Dresden 1 — I was there last year.— 
Did you stay there Ion? t — -I stayed there nearly a month. — Has 
my brother paid you 1— He has lost all {Obs. B., Lesson XLIX.) 
bis money, so that he cazuftot pay me. (See end of Lesson 

SIXTIETH LESSON— 0ecl)?ig6U£ecti0n. 

Of whom, of which, $Pcn bent/ loooon. 

Ohs. A. Of which, when relating to a thing, may 
be translated by the preposition which the verb re- 
quires, added to the adverb t90. 

I see the man of whom you 3d) fcbc trr g}lann, »on bcm (wn 
speak. n?ctd)cni) <Sic fprcd)cn. 

I have bought the norse of which 3d) ()ab( N^^ ^fcrt gcfauft/ Dcn 
you spoke to me. b e m ©ie uiit uiir 9efprcd)cn \i(kUl^• 

Has your father the look of ^ot Sbt »i>otcr t>o< JBu*/ woo on 
which I am speaking % tc^ fprcd)C V 

Whose. 2)cffen. Plur.^tKtn. 

ITie man whose. iDct SOTonn, bcffcn. 

The child whose. 2)q« ^inb, bcffctu 

The men whose. 2)ic SJianncr, bcrcn. 

I see the man whose brother has Sd) fche t»cn ^ann, bcffc*^ SBtubct 

killed my dog. mcincn j)unb gctSMct hat 

Do you see the child whose fa- ©cbcn ©ie ta^ ^in^/ tcffc^ 95otet 

ther set out yesterday ? (^cftvTn obgcrcipt ifl 7 

I do see it. 3d) fv'bo i'^. 

1 see the man whose dog you 3d) fcbc ben 5Wann^ bcffcn ^un ©l< 

have killed. gctifttct f)abcn. 

Do you see the people whose ©cf)cn ©tc bie 8cutC/ beten $fe« V6 

horse 1 have bought t gef auft f)a6( 1 




I do see them. 3* f^U P«. 

I have seen the merchant whose 3cb b^bc ben Jloufmann gefcBrv 
shop you have taken. bcffcn Saten ©ic Qcncmnwn f)abttL 

0C7^ Incidental or explicative propositions are 
placed either immediately after the word which they 
determine, or at the end of the principal proposition. 

(Sd) f)ab€ niit bcm 5Rannc, bcfffn 
|)Qug obgcbrannl 1% gcfprcd^fn. 
3d) h<^bc nut tcm 95?annc Cjcfprcdjfn, 
tcffcn ^Qu^ abgcbronnt tjl. 
r2Cbbrcnncn/ (verb act. and neut 
To bum — burnt. < irreg.) abgcbconnt. Imperf. 

C b 1 n n t c. 

(^abcn ^U t>o$ S3ud), ivefd)e^ H 
3bncn gclic^cn babe, <ictcfcn 7 
^obcn @ie t>a« SBud) Qctcfcn, ipc((^ 
id) 3bnen geliebcn babe ? 
I have what I want. 34 babe, mad id) brauc^e* 

I^/, Mff on* of which. >D a «, t c f f e n. 

Have you the paper of which ^aben ©ie bad 9)apicr, beffett 6ie 

you have need ? benotbigt jinb ? 

I have that of which I have need. 3cb ^(^^^ ^(^^f beffen tc^ betiStbtgt bin. 

Datfve. Gen. 

That, the one of which, < M. ber, l)on tt)clcf)em-bcr, beffrtt* 
of whom. \ N. ba^,t)on tt>etd)em-ba^,befl|cn. 

I see the man of whom I speak. 3d) febe ben ^ann, Mn metc^ 1$ 

I see the one of whom I am 3cb ^be ben (benjcmQen), Mn wd^ 
speaking *o you. d)cm id) ntit Sbnen fpte<^f. (See 

Lesson XII.) 
^Vhich book have yout aKetd)ed 93uc^ baben ©te? 

have that (the one) of which I 3d) babe bad (badicmge), b«flim t<J 
have need. benStbigt bin. 

Datfve. Gen. 

rhose. the ones of which. [t^lZT^]^^^^ 

Which men do you see 1 ©eld)C S(K5nner pbcn ^ie ? 

I see those of whom you have 3d) febe bic (Mcicntgcn), wn rod* 
•pokon to me. d)en (t?on benen) ©ie mtt mit 

Qcfptc^en babeiu (See Lesson 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 


^ Wldeh nails has the man ! SBe(d)e 92&dc( l)aX Ut 9)tann 7 

He has those of which he has Qv hat t'u (ttqenigcn), teccn et bi 
need. nct^t^t t|i 

Dat. Plur. 
To wham, D e n c n . 

I see the children to whom yoa 3* fcf)c tie Jointer, ben<n ^\i 
gave apples. 2(«pfct (jcgcben l)abciu 

<y Mo5e. 93 c n b t n e n (dative). 

Of which people do yoa speak 1 9Scn iDctcftcn 8cutcn rcbcn €5ic ? 
I speak of those whose children 3<fe retc wn b c n c n (bcnjcnigcn), 
hare been assiduous. teren Jtinbct flctptc| gctoefcn ^n^• 

when it is used instead of either 
The demonstrative pronouns biefer, jener, the determi- 
native pronoun berjenige,or the relative pronoun tt>cl(f)er. 
(See Obs. Lessons Xll. and XIV.) 

BluciiliiM. Feaunine. Neuter. Plural for all genden. 

NoM. ber bie ba^ \^\t 

Gen. beflht (be^) bcren bcffeit (beg) berer (beren) 

Dat. bem ber bem beneit 

Ace ben bie ba^ bie. 

Ohs. B. In I he genitive singular masculine and 
neuter, beg is of\en used instead of bejfeit, chiefly in poe- 
try and compound words. 

Obs. C. When the definite article is used instead 
of t^Oftt, its genitive plural is not berer, but beren. 
(JSee Ohs. Lesson XIV.) 


Did your cousin learn Gennan 1 — He was taken ill, so that he 
could not learn iu — Has your brother learnt it 1 — He had not a 
good master, so that he could not learn it. — Do you go to the ball 
this evening ? — I have sore feet, so that I cannot go to it. — Did you 
understand that Englishman? — I do not know Knglish, so that I 
could not understand him. — Have you bought that horse t — I had 
00 money, so that I could not buy it. — Do you go into the country 
on foot 1 — I have no carriage, so that I must ffo thither on foot.— . 
Have you seen the man from whom 1 received a present? — I have 
not seen him. — Have you seen the fine horse of which I spoke to 
jrou 1 — I have seen it. — Has your uncle seen the books or which 



fCKL spoke to hiral — He has seen them. — Hj^^t thoa seen the j 
whose children have been punished 1 — I have not seen him. —To 
whom were you speaking when you were in the theatre 1 — I was 
speaking to the man whose brother has killed my fine dog. — ^Have 
you seen the little boy whose father has become a lawyer f — I have 
seen him. — Whom have you seen at the ball 1 — I have seen the 
people there whose horses and those whose carriage you boughL— 
Whom do you see now 1 — ^I see the man whose servant has broken 
my looking-glass. — ^Have you heard the man whose friend has lent 
me money? — I have not heard him. — Whom have you heard 1 — 1 
have heard the French captain whose son is mv friend. — Hast thou 
brushed the coat of which I spoke to you 1 — I have not yet brushed 
it. — Have you received tlie money which you were wanting? — I 
have received it. — Have I the paper of which I have need 1 — You 
have it. — Has your brother the books which he was wanting 1 — He 
has ihem. — Have you spoken to the merchants whose shop we 
have taken 1 — We have spoken to them. — Have you spoken to the 
physician whose son has studied German ? — I have spoken to him. 
—Hast thou seen the poor people whose houses have been burnt 1 — 
I hav* seen them. — Have you read the books which we lent to 
you ? — We have read them. — What do you say of them 1 — We say 
that they are very fine. — Have your children what they wanti— 
They 1 ave what they want. 


Of wLich man do you speak ? — I speak of the one whose brother 
has turntHl soldier. — Of which children did you speak ?-*I spoke 
of those whose parents are learned. — Which book have you read 1 
— I have read that of which I spoke to you yesterday. — Which 
paper has your cousin ! — He has that of which he has need. — 
Which fishes has he eaten 1 — He has eaten those which you do not 
like. — Of which books are you in want ? — I am in want of those 
of which y-i have spoken to me. — Are you not in want of those 
which I am reading 1 — I am not in want of them. — Is any one in 
want of the coats of which my tailor has spoken to me? — No one 
is in want of them. — Do you see the children to whom I have 
given cakes ? — ^I do not see those to whon you have given cakes, 
but those whom you have punished.— To whom have you given 
money 1 — I have given some to those who gave me some. — ^To 
which children must one give books 1 — One must give some to 
those who learn well and who are good and obedient. — To whom 
do you give to ei.t and to drink!— To those who are hunffry and 
thirsty. — Do you give anything to the children who are idle? — I 
give ihem nothing. — What sort of weather was it when you went 
(ginc^cn) out 1 — It was raining and very windy.— Do you give cakes 
to your pupils 1— They have not studied well, so that I give them 
nothing. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.; 


8IXTY.FIRST LESSON —Hin tttli fitf Ij^ijfiU Ceniou. 

To forget—forgotten. SScrgeffcn* — oetgeffen 
Forgot. Imperf. 83 c r 9 a p . 

Thoo forgettest — be forgets. 2)« mTgiffcfl — et wrgtft 

I have forgotten to do it. 3d) h^^^ wrgcffcn, eg j^u thuit. 

Has he forgotten to bring you the |)Qt cr wrqcffcn, 3f)ncn l)a« ©uc^ |il 

book % Oringcn? 

Ee has forgotten to bring it me. (&t i)(it txrgcf[cn/ d tntr ju (rin« 


{@te baben vcrgcffcn, an mt(i^ gu ftftreu 
©ic tabcn ©crgcffen/ mic ju f(^rcl» 

To belong, (3tf)6tcn. 

Does this horse belong to your ®eWrt biefeg 5)ferb 3()wm Sm* 

brother 1 ter ? 

It does belong to him. (5^ gefjSrt tftm. 

To whom does this table belong 1 SBem gebSrt Mefcr Sifc^ ? 
It belongs to us. ©r gcbcrt un^ 

To whom do these gloves belong? QBem gebSren biefe ^antfc!)ube ? 
They belong to the captains. ®ie geljfircn ten |)aupt(cuten. 

Whose. SB e ff e n (See Lesson XXIX. and 

Whose hat is this 1 ffie|Jen ^ut ift bog 1 

It is mine. Qi i|! nietner. 

06*. A. The possessive conjunctive pronouns, when 
used instead of the. possessive absolute pronouns, in 
the nominative masculine take the tennination tt, and 
e^ in the nominative and accusative neuter. (See 
Obs. Lesson VIL) 

Whose book is this t SBcffm JBu(ft tfl batf 7 

It is his. e« ifl feinef* 

Whose carriage is that? flBeffen SGBagen tft bn^ ? 

It is ours. d ifl unferer. 

Whose shoes are these 1 ©effen Gd)uf)e jinb batf ? 

They are ours. G^ pnb unfere. 

Obs. B. These examples show that the indefinite 
pronoun e^ may be used of any gender or nimiber 
(See also the Obs. of- Lesson XLIII.) 

To fit (suit). ^(etben, poffen, Iteften*. 

Do these shoes fit these men 1 ^flJTen biefe ^ube btefen SRAiN 






rhej fit them. 

That fits you very well. 

To suit {please) — suited* 

€te paffcn tt)Nen« 

Da^ f!ebt 3t)nen fe^c gut 

2(nfl<!)cn* — angeflonbcn. 
Imperf. (!anb. 

Does this cloth suit (please) your ^tc!)t 3t)rcm SSnitcr bicfrt Sn4 

brother 1 an ? 

[t suits (phjasea) him. ©6 (lel)t ibm an. 

Do these boots suit (please) your ®tci)«n 3bten JBtubecn bicfc @ttefe( 

brothers T an ! 

Tliey suit (please) them. @ie fte^cn i^nm an. 

Does it suit you to do this ! Stcbt ti 3bncn an, Uefe^ ju tftun 1 

It does suit me to do it. (^^ fic^t mtr an, (^ }U t^un. 

To become* 

Does it become you to do this 1 
It does become me to do it. 
It does not become me to do it. 

It does not become him to go on 6^ gqtcmt il}m ntci}^ ju Jupe ju ^ 
foot. f)cn. 

(9 c g t e nu n. 

®cji<mt c* Sbncn, ticfcg gu t^un ? 
@« gc^temt mir^ e^ su tbun. 
eg gcjicmt mir nid)t, eg gu tftun. 

To please* 

Does it please your brother to 

go with us? 
Does it suit your brother to go 

with us 1 
It does not please him. 
It does not suit him. 
What is your pleasure 1 What K 

do you want ! \ 

To please, to like. 

Thou pleasest— he pleases. 
Does this book please you 1 
Do you like this book ? 
It pleases me much. 
I like it very much. 
How are you pleased heret 
( am very well pleased here. 

Paid in cash, ready. 
Ready money. 
To pay down. 
To buy for cash. 
To sell for cash. 

On credit. 
To sell on credit 


Scttcbt ci Sbrcm S3rukr mitjufenu 
men (with us is understood) 1 

@tcf)t eg ^t)xcm fSxuUx an uiil3a« 
fonmten 7 

@g bettcbt ibm ntc^t 

(Sg ftcbt ibm nicbt an. 

9Bag bclicOt Sbnen ? 

9Bag beliebtl 

Imperf. geficL 

2)u gcpnft — ec gcf JUt 


[ @g gef^nt mtc \iiu 

SBte gefdnt eg 3bn«n blet? 
(5g gefiXat mtr red^t ipcbt ^tec 


IBaareg ®c(b. 

S3aar begabCcn. 

Um baarag (^elb faufen. 

Urn baarcg ®ett) wrfaufen. 

2Cuf Stebtt, auf ©erg. 
2Cuf Gretit oerfaufeiu 



The credit, bet QvtUt, bet Setg. 

Will you bny for cash ? SBcIlen Bit urn booted ®c(b faufen f 

Does it suit you to sell me on ©tebt e^ Sbnen an, mit auf Otebit 
credit? gu wrfaufcn ? 

To succeed^succeeded. (Setingen* — gelungcn. 

Impen. getang. 

Obs. C. This impersonal verb takes fem for its auxi- 
liary, and governs the dative. (See Ubs. A. Lesson 

Do yoa succeed in learning the f ©cttngt e^ 3^nen beutfcft |u tet^ 

Gennani nen? 

I do succeed in it. f Qi gcUitgt mtr. 

1 do succeed in learning it. f Qi gclingt niit/ e^ |U tetncn. 

Do these men succeed in selling i ©eltngt e^ btefen Scuteit/ if)t( 

their horses? 5)fcrbe gu Dcrfoufcn? 

They do succeed therein. f ^^ gftingt iljnen. 

There is. 6$ if!. 

There are. ®« fmb* 

Is there any wine ? 3ft SBcin ba? 

There is some. (5^ if! n)c(d)Ct bo. 

Are there any apples 1 @tnb 2(epfc( ba 1 

There are some. Qi finb n)c(d)e ba. 

There are none. Qi (!nb Um ba. 

Are there any men ? ©inb 8eutc ba ? 

There are some. GiS pnb einigc ba. 

Obs. D. The impersonal verb there w, there are, is 
translated by e^ ip, e^ ftnb, when it expresses exist- 
ence in a certain place, and by c^ gibt, when it expres- 
ses existencf* in general. Ex. 

There are men who will not stu Q^ ^ibt ^cnfd^tn, to(l6)t md^t fhlbis 

dy. ten tpottcn. 

Is Uiere any one 1 3f! 3«ntanb ^a 1 

There is no one. (&^ if! 9Ztemanb bo« 

Has a man been there ? 3f! (tn ^ann ba gctoefen 1 

There has been one there. (Sk if! einet ba gcwefcn. 

Were many people there ? JBaren oictc Beutc ba ? 

There were a great many there (&^ toattn \tf)t oleic bo. 

To dean. 9ietntden/ tein macften. 

Clean. Ketn. 

The inkstand, ba^ Stntenfa^ 
Win you clean my inkstand 1 SQBottcn ©ie metn SintcnfaP tclttii 

I will clean it 3d) mU e^ teimgen. 




To keep — kept 93 e M 1 1 en*. 

Kept, Imperf. 95 < 6 i e 1 1. 

Will you keep the horse t ©cllcn Cic Hi g^fftt MiaVita 7 

I will keep it Sd) mill c6 ^cf>alt^fn. 

You must not keep my money. 8ic uiftffcn mctn Cil^ctb nt((t ^M 


Directly, immediately. ©egCcid). 

This instant. 2)icfcn Kujcnfcfut 

Instantly. ?(ugenMi(fltc^ 

I will do it 3* win tt t^utt. 

I will do it immediately. 3d) xoixVi ($ feglctc^ t^nn. 

I am going to work. 3d) wxVi orbeitcn* 

DCp Some conjunctions do not throw the verb to thi 
end of the phrase (See Lesson XL VII.), but leave it ir 
its place immediately after the subject They art 
the following : 

Unt, and ; cntwcbcr — elcv, either— or ; 

obcr or aUcin, but ; mcUv — ncd)^ neither — nor ; 

fcntcrn, but (on the contrary) ; fcn)cW — ot^/ ? «. ^^n «. . 
tcnn, for ; fcwof)t -- a(* au*, S ' 

tbix, or ; nid)t nut -^ fontern oud), not only 

— ^but also. 

> cannot pay you, for I have no 3d) fann ®te ntc^t be|a(i((n, benn ic^ 
money (because I have no i)(\ht fctn ®e(t (nKil id) fcin ®c(0 
money). bote). 

He cannot come to your house, (Sr fonn ntcftt gu 36nm (cmmcn, 
for he has no time. benn ct f)at ntd)t 3eit 

EXKRCI8B8. 144. 

Have you brought me the book which you promised met — ^I 
have forgotten it — Has your uncle brought you the handkerchiefs 
which he promised you 1 — He has forgotten to bring me them. — 
Have you already written to your friend 1 — I have not yet had time 
to write to him. — Have you forgotten to write to your parent ?— 
I have not forgotten to write to him. — To whom does this house 
belong ^ — It belongs to the English captain whose son has written 
a letter to us. — Does this money belong to thee t — It does belong 
to me. — Froro whom hast thou received it ? — I have received it 
from the men whose children you have seen. — To whom do those 
woods belong 1 — ^They belong to the king. — Whose horses are 
those 1 — ^They are ours. — Have you told your brother that I am 
waiting for him here? — 1 have forgotten to tell him so. — Is it 
Tour father or mine who is gone into the country t — It is mine.«> 
18 it your baker or that of our friend who has sold you bread oi 

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eredit 1 — ^It is oara. — ^Is that your son 1 — He is ((&i tfl) not mine, hs 
is mjr friend's. — Where is yours 1 — He is at Dresden. — Does this 
cloth sail you t — It does not suit me, have you no other 1 — I have 
Mine other; but it is dearer than this. — WiU you show it to me 1— 
[ will show it to you. — Do these boots suit your uncle ? — ^They do 
not 8* lit him, because they are too dear. — Are these the boots of 
wU^. you have spoken to us 1 — ^They are the same. — Whose 
ifaoes are these 1 — fhey belong to the gentleman whom ^ou have 
seen this morning in my shop. — Does it suit you to go with us 1^- 
It does not suit me. — Does it become you to go to the market 1 — ^It 
does not become me to go thither. — Did you go on foot into the 
eoantry 1 — It does not become me to go on foot, so that I went 
thither in a carriage. ^ 


What is your pleasure. Sir I — I am inquiring after your father 
—Is he at home? — No, Sir, he is gone out. — What is yoiu 
pleasure 1 — ^I tell you that he is gone out. — Will you wait till ho 
comes back again f — I have no time to wait. — Does this merchant 
sell on credit 1 — He does not sell on credit. — Does it suit you to 
buy for cash 1 — ^It does not suit me. — Where have you bought 
ihese pretty knives 1 — I have bought them at the merchant's whose 
shop you saw yesterday. — Has he sold them to you on credit 1 — 
He has sold them to me for cash. — Do you often buy for cash 1— 
Not so often as you. — Have you forgotten anything here 1 — I have 
forgotten nothing. — Does it suit you to learn this by heart 1 — 1 
have not a g ^ >i memory, so that it does not suit me to learn by 


Has this man tried to speak to the king t. — He has tried to speak 
to hun, hut he has not succeeded in it. — Have you succeeded in 
writing a letter ? — I have siicceeded in it. — Have those merchants 
succeeded in selling theb horses 1 — ^They have not succeeded 
therein. — Have you tried to clean my inkstand 1 — I have tried, but 
bave not succeeded in it. — Do your children succeed in learning 
the English ? — ^They do succeed in it. — Is there any wine in this* 
cask 1 — ^There is some in it (tnrtn). — Is there any brandy in this 
glass! — ^There is none in it. — Is wine or water in iti — There is 
neither wine nor water in it. — What is there in it 1 — ^There if 
vinegar in it. — Are there any men in your room ] — ^There are some 
there. — ^Is there any one in the store-house 1 — There is no on* 
Uere. — Were there many people in the theatre 1 — ^There were man} 
tf.are. — Are there many children that will not playt — ^There are 
many that will not study, but few that will not play. — Hast thou 
cleaned my trunk 1 — I have tried to do it, but 1 have not succeeded. 
—Do you intend buying an umbrella 1 — I intend buying one, it 
the merchant sells it me on credit. — Do you intend keeping mine 1 
—I intend giving it back again to you, if I buy one. — Have you re 

^ Digitized by VjOOQIC 

::>^ Jt '~i 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


p-i^hest— he pashes. )Du (W&ffl — er ftfipt. 

To beat, g>ra9ctn (fchragcn*). 

' you pu8h him t fearum frcpen ©ie ifen ? 

•im, because he haa 3d) ficpc ifen, n>«U cr mit^ gcftopei 
• 1 me. i}ot. 

- soldier given you a ^at Sbncn bicfcr ©elbat etnen 
©d)la9 gcgcbcn ? 

:iven me a blow with i&x t)at niir etnen Sc^Iag nut let 
Jauj! Qcgcbcn. 

. n a kick, 3d) gob ibm etnen Sritt 

' nr the reooit of a gun, 
J a pistol, 
lue powder, 
the officer, 
I'ae shot, 

vjo/— part, past ^Aor. 
perf. «Aor, 

To file a gun. 

tire a pistol. 

tire at some one. 
I'lred at a bird. 

' a gun !it some one. 
fired (s^ot) at that bird. 

•^ tired twice. 5 

'i fired three times, 
^e fired several times. 
'' many tipnes have you fired 1 
'] many times have you fired 
• ^nat bird 1 
^^e fired at it several times. 

^=i^e heard a shot 

-^.h^^ heard the report of a 

'\'er.'^' ^"^'^ * *^^^P ^f ^^^^ 
The clap of thunder, 

bet g(intcnfd)up ; 
t>iT ^iflctenfd)up ; 
tag ^ulocr; 
tct SDfnctcr ; 
bet ®d)ug. 

©d)tc9en* — 9ef(^offen. 

'Ccincn 5tintcnfd)ug .^un*. imp. 

(Sine Jtintc lo^fd)tcpcn* or abf(^ie» 

"©inen g?iftc(cnrd)up tbun*. 
I eine q)if!cte loelalfcn* or lo^f(^ies 
. pen*. 

2fuf 3enianben fd)icpcn*. 
3d) f)flbc (luf eincn aScgel 9cfd)CITen. 
^9lod) 3<»wnt)em mit ter giinte 
I fd)iepcn*. 

i Cincn 5rmtcnfd)up nocft Semonbem 
[ tbun*. 
3d) l)aOe nad) biefem fficgcl mit bet 
jtinte gcfc^offcn. 

S3d) babe ^ciinot gcfdicffen. 
3d) bflbe jwei 5(tntenfd)fiffc gctban. 
3d) babe brei 5tttitenfd)ttffe gctban. 
3d) f)abe cintae 5tintcnfd)fifTe octban 
2Bie mctmat bobcn ©ie gcficjfcn ? 
SBie mclmat babcn @ie nad) btefem 

95oge( gcfchcffen ? 
3d) babe oerfd)tcbene ^ai md^ i^m 

3d) i)abe einen S(tntenfd)Up gcb^rt, 
Qi f)at etnen q)i(lctenfd)up ge^rt 

SBit ^aben dnen )Donnetfd)Iad gcf 

bcr iDonnerfd)ta9 

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tarned the books to my brother ? — I have not returned thein jet M 
him. — How long do you intend keeping them 1 — ^I intend keeping 
tliem till I have read thtm. — How long do you intend keeping mj 
horse? — I intend keeping it till my father returns. — Have you 
cleaned my knife 1 — 1 have not had time yet, but 1 will do it thia 
Instant. — Have you made a fire? — Not yet, but I will make 006 
(tpcld)c^) immediately. — Why have you not worked 1 — I have not 
yet been able. — What had you to do 1 — 1 had to clean your table, 
and ^0 mend your thread stockings. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SIXTY-SECOND LEfJSON.— 2wri tttlb fi«l)pg«te 

To run — ^part. past run* 

Thou runnest — ^he runs. 
To run away. 
Behind (a preposition). 

To be sitting behind the oven. 

He ran behind the oven. 
\^fih?re is he running to ! 
He .3 running behind the house. 
Where has he run to 1 

Saufen* — Qctaufen (takes 
fcin for its auxiliary). Imperf. 

2)u Wufil— cctduft 


^intct (governs the dative and 

^intct tern £)fcn fi|en». Imperf 

©c (icf ftintfc ^cn Dfctu 
fffio^in Wuft cr 7 
@r Ifiuft ^)!ntcr t>a^ ^au& 
8Q5o ifl cr Ijingctaufen ? 

The oven, the stove, 
the blow, the knock, 
the kick, 
the stab, 
you given that 

Have ^ 
blow t 
I have given him one. 
A blow with a stick, 
beatings with a stick, 
the stab of a knife, 
the kick (with the foot) 
a blow (with the fist), 
blows (with the fist), 
the sword, 
the stab of a sword, 
the sabro, 

bet £)fcn ; 

bet ©d)ta9, b€t ^Ut> ; 
tcc©top, bcr Stitt; 
Ux ©tid). 
man a |)obcn @ie X)U\cm 9}2ann< 
^diiac^ gcgekn ? 
2(d) f)abc i^m ctncn gcgcktu 
cin ©d)ta9 mit bcm 6tcrfe ; 
(Stcdfd)Wgc, etccfprilgct ; 
bet g)icffcr|lid); 
bet Sriit (nut bem ^wW i 
fin ©d)(o9 (mit bet Jaufl) ; 
gau|lfd)lagc ; 
bet iDegen ; 
bet 2)e9cn(Hd6 ; 
bet eetoeL 


To push— pushed. 

©topcn*— aejlopcn. Imperf 



Hiou poshest — be pashes. jDu W^tfl — er ftSpt. 

To beat. 5)rtt9dn (fchfogen*). 

Why do you push him t SSkirum fic^en ©ic ifjn ? 

I push him, because he has Sd) ftc^e t^n, toctl (v nxid) ^cftcpoi 

pushed me. ()at. 

Has this soldier giTen you a |)ot Sbncn btefcr @oCbot etnnt 

biowl @d)ta9 gcgcbcn ? 

He has giren me a blow with (Sx t)<it mir cinen 6^(09 nut lit 

the fist. Soufl gcgcbctu 

I gave him a kick. 3d) gab tt)m einen ^Sritt 

The shot or the reoort of a gun, tet Slintciifd)Up ; 

Uie shot of a pistol, ^er ^ijlcknfc^up ; 

the powder, to^ *ult)cc ; 

the officer, bcr £)fpctcr ; 

the shot, Uv BM% 

To shoot— p^n. past shot. ©d)icpen* — 9<fc^off«tu 
Imperf. «A<>^ fd)C^. 

I^incn S(tntenfd)up .^un*. imp. 
Cinf jtintc lo^fd)icpen* or obf*ic» 
reincn g}if!c(cnfd)iip tbun*. 
To fire a pistol. < Cine ^iflcU tcetaffcn* or lo^fc^ifs 

C pen*. 
To fire at some one. 2(uf 3cmant>cn fd)icpcn*. 

1 have fired at a bird. 3d) ^abc auf ctncn SScgct 9cfd)cffcn. 

!9?ad) 3<»nflnt)cm mit Icr giinte 
©i^n^£tcnfd)uP na* 3cman^em 
1 have fired (sk ot) at that bird. 3d) \)(^U nac^ ttcfem fiScgct nut tec 

jlinte 9cf(^)o|Tcn. 

I k #;,-wi ♦«; 5 ^* ^**^^ S>»cinio( gcfdicffen. 

I toTe nred twice. -^ c^^ ^^^^ ^^^-^ jantcnfd)affc gctfton. 

I have fired three times. 3d) hflbc brci 5tint<nfd)iiffc gctban. 

1 have fired several times. 3d) t)abc cintae 51tntcnfd)fi|Te Qotban 

How many tipaes have you fired 1 2Bic oictmal oat>cn ©te gcfchcffcn ? 
Bow many times have you fired $Bie t)k(ma( bobm @te nad) ticfem 

at that bird ! QSogct gcfcftcffcn ? 

I have fired at it several times. 3d) babe oerfd)tct)cne ^al na6) t^m 

I have heard a shot. 3d) babe etnen ^tntenrd)Up gcbctt* 

He has heard the report of a (Sr b<^t etnen $tf!ctenfd)Up geb^^t 

W pistol, 
e have heard a clap Df thun- SBtc bo^en dnen 2)onnerfd)(o9 ^ 
der. b^tt 

The clap of thunder, bet iDcnnerfd)(a9 

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1XER0I8C8. 147 

Do jou intend buying a carriage! — I cannot buy one, foi 
hare not yet received niy money. — ^Must I go to the theatre t — Yci, 
must not go thither, for it is very bad weather. — Why do yoa noi' 
go to my brother ? — It does not suit me to go to him ; for I cannoC' 
yet pay him what I owe him. — Why does this officer gire tbil 
man a stab with his sword 1 — He gives him a stab with his swoidf 
because the man (Mcfcr) has given him a blow with tlie fist.^ 
Which of these two pupils begins to speak 1 — ^The one who if 
studious begins to spealc. — What does the other do who is not lol 
— He also begins to speak, but he is neither able to write nor to 
read. — Does he not listen to what you tell him 1 — He does not 
listen to it, if (See Rule of syntax, Lesson XLVII.) I do not give 
him a beating (Stccfprfigcl). — What does he do when (n^nn) you 
speak to him 1-^He sits behind the oven, without saying a word. 
— Where does that dog run tol — It runs behind the house.— 
What did it do when you gave it a beating 1 — ^It barked and ran 
behind the oven. — Why does your uncle kick that poor dog 1— 
Because it (btcfcc) has bitten his little boy. — Why has your servant 
run away 1 — I gave him a beating, so that he has run away,— 
Why do those children not work 1 — Their master has given them 
blows with the fist, so that they will not work (orbcitcn rocUcn).— 
Why has he given them blows with the fist? — Because they hare 
been disobedient. — Have you fired a gunt — I have fired three 
times. — At whom did you fire ? — I fired at a bird which sat on a 
tree. — Have you fired a gun at that man 1 — I have fired a pistol at 
him. — Why have you fired a pistol at him 1 — Because he gav« me 
1 stab with his sword. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SIXTY.THIRD LESSON.— JDwi mi fieclj^sU 

To cast — pa» part. cast. JIBetfen^^gcwotfen. I]» 

perf. wacf. 
Thou castest — he casts. >Du mttffl -* tt mtrft 

To cast an eye upon some one 6tncn S3(tcl (t)te 2(u()(n) auf 3mian« 

or something. ben obct ctroa^ rocrfcn* 

Have you cast an eye upon that |)a6cn 0ic ftnen Slid ouf W<^ 

book % ©ud) genjcrff n ? 

I have cast an eye upon it 3(^ l)abc cinen f!SM torouf ^ 

totxUxi. (See Obs. A. LeesM 

To throw — throum. fffietfen* — oewotfev 
Threw. 8B a c f. 

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Uftfe jcm thiowa a stone into ^bcn ^Tte etnen @tdn in Un ^bi$ 

the river 1 
I hare thrown one into it 

gctDcrfcn 1 
3d) l)ob« cincn f)incin gcwotfen. 
(0^5. A, Lesson L.) 


©c (icgt nun ^et ©tcin 7 
Sr Itcgt tn tern (im) Jluffe. 

3iel)cn*. Imperf. |00. 

bag gcib. 

iScmnnt'cm ctroa^ ^u Ccibe tftun*. 
3i*njant)tfm cin e€i^ tf)un*. 
Sctnonbtfrn 9?3fcf tl)un*. 
Scmonbem iB'6\ii jupigen. 
bcr @d)at)en. 

Sufdgen, Dctutfad^en 

Scnionbem ^d)aben sufflgen* 

t (S^ifl (Sd)atc. 

t>aUn @te ttefcm ^anne ttxoa^ |n 

Cci^c gctbon ? 
3di baOe tbm ntd)tg ju 8etbe ges 

SBorum ()oOcn Q\c btcfcm 9)2anne 

cin Sctb gctfjon 1 
Scft bobc ibni nid)W S8fcg gctbon. 
Sbwt bag Sbn*^n web 1 
(Sg tbut nur njcb. 
^abc id) 3hncn rocb gctban ? 
©ic baOcn mir nicbt n?«t gctban. 

Have I ever done you any harm) ^aU id) Sbncn [c 933feg gctban'? 

On the contrary. 3m ekgcntbcif. 
Mo, on the contrary, you have ^nn, m ©cgcntbcU, ©ie babcn mif 

done me good. ®utcg gctban (erroicfcn). 

I hare never done harm to any 3d) i)ahi nie 3cnmnbem etn^ag |u 

one. 8cib cjetban. 

To do good to anybody. 3cmanbem ®utcg tbun* (crwei* 

To show — shown. ©trpcifcn* — mwicfcn. Import. «r« 


To be good fox the health, to be SutrSgticb 7 f.:„ * 
wholesome. ©cfunO 5' * 

-PL * J J C 3)kg that mir wcb(. 

That does me good. ^ ^-^^^ -^^ ^^^^ iutr&s«*. 

Where does the stone lie now ? 
ft lies in the river. 

To draw, to ptdl. 
To drag. 

The evK, the pain, 
To hurt. 

To hurt some one. 

The injury, the damage. 
To cause {to do). 

To prejudice some one. 

It is a pity. 

Have you hurt &at man 1 

I have not hurt him. 

Why have you hurt that man ? 

have not hurt him. 
Does this hurt you 7 
tdoerliurt me. 
riave I hurt you ! 
Vou hare not hurt me. 


y Google 


What does the seryant do with SBa^ macftt bee SBebrcnte mit fetftci 

his broom ? 93ffcn ! 

He sweeps the room with it, ©r ui)xt ba^ Simmci: tamit aui. 
What does he wish to make out SBaf wiH er au^ bicfem ^c(^ moi 

of this wood ? d)cn 1 

He does not wish to make any- (S'c n?i(l nic^t^ barau^ mac^nu 

thing of it. 

To pass by tlie side of some one. Un Semontem wrfcctgc^cn ♦• 

I pass by the side of him. 3d> gcbe an i()m vctbtu 

Have you passed by the side of ©inl> ^ie an mctncm SStubec wu 

my brother? bcijcgan^cnl 

I have passed by the side of him. Sd) bin an i^m Dcrbci^eganQctu 

To throw away. SQBcgwerfen*. 

He has thrown away his money. ®*r ^at fein ®clD mcg^cmorfeiu 

Before. 8Sot (dative and accusative). 

To pass before a place. 95cr cincm £)rte rorbcigc^cn *• 

To pass by a place. 2Cn cincm ©rtc ootbcigc^cn *• 

He has passed before my house. @t; ifl loet mcincm ^a\x\t vtrbeiQa 

I have passed by the theatre. 3d) bm am Sweater Mrbctgcgani 

He has passed before me. (Sr tfl tjcc nuc Mrbctgcgangctu 


How many times have you shot at that bird 1—1 have shot at it 
twice. — Have you killed it 1 — I have killed it at the second shot. — 
Have you killed that bird at the first shot 1 — I have killed it at the 
fourth. — Do you shoot at the birds which vou (see) upon the houses, 
or at tliose which you see in the gardens ? — I shoot neither at 
those which I (see) upon the houses nor at those which I see in the 
gardens, but at those which I perceive upon the trees. — How many 
times have the enemies fired at ust — They have fired at us several 
times. — Have they killed any one 3 — ^They have killed no one- 
Have you a wish to shoot at that bird 1 — I have a desire to shoot at 
it. — Why do you not shoot at those birds 1 — I cannot, for I have 
no powder. — When did the oflicer fire?— iHe fired when his 
soldiers fired. — How many birds have you shot at ? — ^I have shot 
at all that 1 have perceived, but 1 have lulled none, for my powder 
was not good. 


Have you cast an eye upon that man 1 — ^I have cast an eye upon 
him. — Has your uncle seen vou 1 — I have passed by the side of 
him, and he has not seen me, for he has sore eyes. — Has that man 
hurt you 1 — No, Sir, he has not hurt me. — What must one do in 
order to be loved 1— One must do good to those that b.ave done nt 

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hanxL — ^HaTe we ever done you hann 1 — No, you have on the 
contrary done us good. — Dc you do harm to any onel — I do no 
one any harm 1 — Why have you hurt these children 1 — I have not 
hart tbcm. — Have I hurt you 1 — You have not hurt me, but your 
ehildren (have). — W hat have they done to you 1 — ^They dragged 
me into your g^arden in order to beat mc. — Have they beaten you 1 
—They have not beaten me, for I ran away. — Is it your brother 
who has hurt my son ! — No, Sir, it is not my brother, for he has 
never hurt any one. — Have you drunk of (t>cn) that wine? — 1 
bare drunk of it, and it has done me good. — What have you done 
with my book 1 — I have placed it on the table. — Where does it lie 
now 1 — It lies upon he table. — Where are my gloves ?'^They are 
lying upon the chair. — Where is my stick 1—^hey (g)?Qn) have 
thrown it into the river. — Who has thrown it into it 1 (See end 
of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON. — bUr tttlb fittlj^ijste 

To spend time in something. 2)te Sett mtt cUoa^ ^ubringen * or 

Imperf. brought ffirad)tc. 

What do you spend your time in! ©emit brtitQcn Sic bie 3ctt ju 7 

Rule. A demonstrative, relative, or interrogative pro- 
coon is never used with a preposition, when it relates 
to an indeterminate thing. Instead of the pronoun, one 
of the adverbs ba, ttM) is joined to the preposition ; thus : 
taxan^ (cv on ba^ ; urorait, for an toa^ ; iwrauf, for auf 
iDod ; womit, for mit »a^, &c. (See Obs. B. and C, 
Lesson LII.) 

I spend my time in studying. 3d> fringe bte Bctt nut ©tubtrcn gu. 
What has he spent his time in 1 SBomit fyit cr bie Beit gU9cbrad)t ? 

Tomwy tofail. QSctfcbten, occobffiumcn. 

Dcr itaufniann l^ot t>ai ®e(b gu 

bdnflcn wrQbfXunit (wcfcbtt). 
JDcr Jtaufniann ijat wrabpunit (wi:« 
fcb(t), bog ®c(b gu brtngcti. 
Yon have missed yonr tnm. " ®ie babcn ^\)Te 9?ftb« wr'ftfbtt. 
Yoo have failed to come to me @ie bobcn ttcrfcblt btefen Bergen §it 
this morning. mtr i^u {cmmcn. 

The turn, bie $Kct^c. 

To hear. ^ 5 r e n. 

To hear of some one. $8cn 3emanbem ^retu 

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The merchant has failed to 
bring the money. 


Bvwe you heard of my friend 1 ^Un ®te wn mrinem ^oinN Od 

I have heard of him. 3d) h(^U wn ihm qchSrt. 

Of whom have you heard ? iSen iwm bflbcn ^ie ^Mxt ? 

Have you heard nothing new % ^aUn Sic nid)t6 SfJcuc^ ^cWrr? 
I hear that your father has ar- 3d> hove, bop 3br ajatet anQcUm 
rived. men i[t. 

To assure. QScrficftcrn (governs the dat). 

Obs. The verb t)crfTc^cttt requires the dative of the 
person, when followed by the conjunction ba0, expressed 
or understood ; otherwise it takes the accusative of the 
person, and the genitive of the thing, or the dative of 
the person and the accusative of the thing. 

fS* »crii(ftcrc ©ie mcinc§ SB<ififln« 
st^vmn Zhnm mctncn ^ 

f®ffc^e^en* — 9cf<ftcb«n 
Imperf. a c f^ a ^. 
ffiiticrfaf)ten*— wtDcrffl^' 
rcn. Imperf. lotberfu^i^. 
To happen^ to meet with, 93egejncn (has fcin* for iti 


The fortune, happiness, Xtai ©tiicf ; 

the misfortune, \><xi Ungtdcf. 

A great misfortune has happened. (£^ tfl etn grcpc^ Ungtilcf qcfchebtn* 
He has met with a great misfor- ^i tfl thm c'tn grc^ce Ungt&f U^t^i 

tune. net (roibcrfabren). 

I have met with your brother. 3d) 6in Sbrem 25rubft bf^;9nft 

Are tnere many horses in this viU ®i6t eg riel gjferbe in biefem ©crff? 

There. )OafctO[l or bo. 

There is not a single good horse @g gtbt fcin einstgeg guteg 9fet^ ba< 
there, fctbjt. 

The village, bag iDcrf ; 

single, etn^ig. 

Are there many learned men in ®iOt eg »iet (Sete^rtc in Jwnfwi^l 

France 1 
ITicre are a good many there. @g giOt fcf)r mefc ba, 
Th3re are no apples this year. (Sg gibt feine2Ccpfel biefeg 3flt)t. 

To he of use, to be good. S a u g e n. 
To be good for something. 3u ^tcoa^ tawgm 

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Of what nse is that? SQ^gu totmt ta$ ? (Obs. C, Let- 

son LIL, and Rule, pa||;e 
It U good for nothing. ©s tcugt ju ntd)t^ 

Fhe good for nothing fellow, t>ix SauQcnid)!^ ; 

the fault, the defect, tec Jcljlcc 
b. the stuff which you hare 3lt tct 3tfU9, ben ©ie gefauft 6a6en. 
hoQght good ? gut ? 


1 do not see my gloves ; where are they 1— Fhey are ying in 
the riTer. — Who has thrown them into it t — Your servant, because 
ihey were no longer good for anything. — What have you done with 
your money ? — I have bought a house with it (tomit). — What has 
the joiner done with that wood 1 — He has made a table and two 
chairs of it. — What has the tailor done with the cloth which you 
gave him 1 — He has mada clothes of it for (fflr with the accus.) 
your children and mine.--What has the baker done with the flour 
which you sold him 1 — He has made bread of it for you and me.— 
Have the horses been found 1 — ^They have been found. — Where 
ha?e they been found "? — ^They have been found behind the wood, 
on thb side (Lesson L.) of the river. — Have you been seen by 
anybody ? — I have been seen by nobody. — Have you passed by 
anybody 1 — I passed by the side of you, and you did not see ine.^ 
Has any one passed by the side of you 1 — No one has passed by 
tiic side of me. 


Do you expect (Lesson XLVH.) any one 1 — I do expect my 
eoosin, the officer. — Have you not seen him ? — I have seen him 
this morning ; he has passed before my house. — What does this 
Tootkg man wait for (Obs. C, Lesson Lll. and page 187y 1^ 
He waits for money. — Art thoi waiting for anything t^ am 
waitinor for my book. — Is this young man waiting for his money 1 
—He IS vaiting for it. — Has the king passed (in the carriaffe) 
here (htcr iDcrbct) ? — He has not passed here, but before the the- 
atre. — Has he not passed before the new fountain 1 — He has 
passed there ; but 1 have not seen him. — What do you spend your 
tune in ! — I spend my time in studying. — What does your brother 
jpend his time in 1 — He spends his time in reading and playing. — 
Does this man spend his time in working ?— -He is a good for 
nothing fellow ; he spends his time in drinking and playing. — 
What did you spend your time in, when you were at Berlin t— . 
When I was at Berlin, I spent my time in studying, and riding on 
horseback. — What do your children spend their time in 1 — They 
•pend their time in learning. — Can you nay me what you owe me 1 
-I cannot pay it to you, for our bailiff has failed to bring roe m^ 

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money. — ^Why have you breakfasted without met — You failed tc 
come at nine o'clock, so that we have breakfasted without you. — 
Has the merchant brought you the stuff which you bought at hi? 
house (bci il)in) 1 — He has failed to bring it to me. — Has he sold 
it to you on credit 1 — He has sold it to me, on the contrary, foi 
cash. — Do you know those men 1 — I do not know them; but I 
think that they (c^) are good for nothing fellows, for they spend 
their time in playing. — Why did you fail to come to my father 
this morning 1 — The tailor did not bring me the coat which h« 
promised me, so that I could not go to him. 


Have you heard of any one 1 — I have not heard of any one, 
for I have not gone out this morning. — Have you not heard of the 
officer who has killed a soldier 1 — I have not heard of him. — Have 
you heard of my brothers 1 — I have not heard of them. — Of whom 
has your cousin heard ? — He has heard of a man to whom a 
misfortune has happened. — Why have your scholars not done 
(gciuad)t) the exercises 1 — I assure youithat they have done thera. 
— What have you done with my book 1 — I assure you tliat I have 
not seen it. — Have you had my knives 1 — I assure you that I have 
not had them. — Has your uncle arrived already} — He has not 
arrived yet. — Will you wait till he returns 1 — I cannot wait, for I 
have long letters to write. — What have you heard new 1 — ^I have 
heard nothing new. — Has the king assured you of his assistance? 
— He has assured me of it (K'ffcn, Obs. Lesson XVI.). — What has 
happened to you 1 — A ffreat misfortune has happened to me.— 
What 1 — I have met with my greatest enemy, who has given me 
a blow with his stick. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SIXTY.FIFTH LESSON.- iTftnf rxxdi Btt\)xii^\t 

How long is it since 1 SQBic fonqe tfl c^ fchcn, bap t 

It is long since. @g ift fc^on langc, t>a$. 

Is it long since you breakfasted 1 Sff eg fd)cn (angc, bap ©ic gcfrfibflMI 

f)abcn ? 
It is not long (it is a short time) ©{5 ift ncch nid)t (angc, bap tcfe gefrfi^ 

since I breakfasted. fludt baOc. 

It is a great while since I break- @g ift fd)cn fcfjr tangc, bap t(^ ^ 

fasted. fr«()|lfic!t hab*t 

I breakfasted an hour ago. 3d) hnOc ucc cincc Stunbe a^frftftj 


OhB. A. In speaking of time, the word ©mtbc 

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lioiir,» must be employed, and not the word Ufjt, which 
signifies watch. 

Two hoars ago.- 95cr groci ©tunbcn. 

U it long since you saw him 1 3fl e^ fcbcn (angc, bop ©w t^n gcfe* 

ben boOcnl 
How long is it since you saw fSte (onge i(l c^, baj Sic tbn geftf^cn 

him I f)at>cn 1 

I saw him a year ago. 3d) ()o6e tf)n »ct dnem S^btc gcfe* 

Two years ago. 95ot ^roci Sflftrcn. 

An hour and a half a^o. S$or ant)ertf)Q((> Stunten. 
Two hours and a half ago. 9Set britt^alb ©tuntciu 

Is it long since you are in SH «^ W^n (aiige, bag ©ic in Jranfs 

France f rctd) jinb? 

Haye you been long in France t f ©inb @ie fcfton (onge in Jranfr 

rcid) 1 
He has been in Paris these three C f ©t ift fcit brci Softrcn in gjori^. 

years. (^ t @r t|! fd)cn brci ^afjrc tn ^ax'xi 

flow long is it since he was SBic (ongc tft c^, t>a^ cr ()ict roar t 

He w%s here a fortnight ago. 6r war wt oicrgc^n Imogen \)ur. 

It is but a year since. ©g i|l crfl cin S^^t, ^^P- 

Obs. B. But is translated by itur (Lesson XEX., 
when it relates to a quantity, and by erfl when to time 

It is more than a year since. (Si ift f&ngct ot^ ctn S^br, X>a^ 
It is hardly six months since. i&i ftnb fount fccb^ 972cnatc^ la^» 
It is nearly two years since. 66 finb ungcfclbt jroci 3af)rc^ ^a^ 
. It b almost a year since. 66 tfl ^(b ctn ^ai:}t, t^a^. 

I have been living here these two f 3d& njc^nc fcit ^ei 3abrcn l)UX. 

How long have you had that f SSic (angc ^aficn ©tc ba6 ^fcrb ? 

I have already had it these five f Scfe ^flt>c c6 fc^on fiinf 3obtc 

It is already more than •three 66 finb f^cn nic^t c(6 brei g)ionotc 

months since. baf. 

I have not seen him for a year. 3«^ ha^^ tf)tt ttt eincm 3<'^l)V^ ni^l 


SooTij almost. 93 a ( b. 

A few hours ago. 95ct cinigcn ©tunbcn. 

Half an hour ago. 05 cr cinct botbcn Stunbe^ 

A quarter of an hour ago. $Bct einct $8icrtc(fhinbe. 

» ^ic ©tunbe, the hour, is a feminine noun, and Iih n/fai the plural. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


I bare seen him more than twen- 2W) hob^ i^n mtfyc ott fpooXif^^fodl 

ty times. 9cfcf)cn. 

More than a hundred times. smcl)r qU buntcrtnwL 

Since, ©cit (a preposition govennng 

the dative). 
How long t j Bt'it voannl 

How long has he been here t t §cit nnmn i|t cr f)ift ? 
These three days. f ^c^t brci iSogcn. 

This* month. f @eit ctnem 9}2onatc. 

To cost, ^ ft e n (is an impersonal rerb 

governing the dative of the 

How much does this book cost SBicoicl fcflct S^ncn lxc\ci S3u4 ? 

T. ^ ^. J C<5^ f^ft<?t niit »icrtf)fltb Sbotcr. 

II costs me three crowns and a S ^^ ^^^^^ ^.^ ^^^^ ^^^ ,i„,„ ^^ 

^''^^' C Sftatcr. 

fiOicfcr Sif* tc|!ct iF)m a*tHb ©tt^i 
©icfct Stf* fcftct thm jicbcn anl 
cincn i)a\bcvi ®u(bcn. 

0&5. B. The adjective T)alb, half, is declined when 
before a substantive ; but it is not declined in fraction- 
al numbers, as aitbertl)alb, one and a half, compounded 
of ber attberc (jtwcite), the second, and tfalb^ half; britt^ 
^16, two and a half, compounded of bcr brittc, the 
third, and t)<db^ half. 

To purchase (to buy). ©tnfoufcn. 

What have yon purchased to- SBa^ t)abcn @ie f)eutc cingtfouft? 

I have purchased three pair of 3d) babe brci ^aat €J<bubc un& 

shoes, and two pair of boots. jnxi g>aar ©ticfel eingefauft. 
Have you purchased anything |>obcn ®ic t)cutc itmai cingcfauft ! 

to-day 1 , 

Obs, C, The names of weights, measures, and 
quantities, as well as the word SRoitlt^ man, meaning a 
soldier, are not used in the plural, when preceded by 
a noun of number. 

My father has bought twenty g}?cin a?atcr bot jmanjtg yfunb 

pounds of sugar. Surfer cjcfouft. 

Three quires of paper. ©ret IB u d) >paptet. 

1 regiment of a thousand men. ©in SlfQtmenf t>on taufenb SXann 

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Tbe pound (weight), ^ai ^ftinb ; 

the dozen, ta^ ^u^cnb ; 

the pair, ta^ ^aar ; 

the auire of paper, lai ftud) ^aptet ; 

the foot (measare), t)ct ^up^ tcr ^c^u^i 

the inch, ter Sott ; 

the legiment, tag ^legtment ; 

the ring, tcr JRin^ ; 

the picture, bag ©em^tbf. 


Haye you ever been in this village 7 — ^I have been there several 
timee.— Are there good horses in it ? — ^There is not a single one in 
iL — Have you ever been in that country 1 — I have been there once. 
—Are there many learned men there ?---There are many there, but 
they spend their time in reading. — Are Uiere many studious chil- 
iien in that village ? — ^There are some, but there are also others 
who will not study.— Are the peasants of this village able to read 
and write? — Some are able to read, others to write and not to read, 
and many both to read and to write; there are a few who are 
oeither able to read nor to write.— Have you done the exercises ?— 
We have done them. — ^Are there any faults in them ? — ^There are 
no faults in them, for we have been very assiduous. — Has your 
friend many children? — He has only one, but who is a good for 
nothing fellow, for he will not study. — ^In what does he spend hia 
time t--He spends his time in playing and running. — Why does 
his fether not punish himi — He has not the courage to punish 
him.— What have you done with the stuff which you bought?— 
I have thrown it away, for it was good for nothing. — Have you 
thrown away your apples 1 — I tasted (them), and found them very 
good, so that I have eaten them. 


Have you been long in Paris 1 — ^These four years. — Has your 
bro'iier been long in London t — He has been there these ten years. 
—Is it Icng since you dined ? — It is long since I dined, but not 
long since I supped. — How long is it since you supped ? — It is 
two hours and a half. — ^Is it long since you received a letter from 
yoor &ther t — It is not long since I received one. — How long is it 
iince you received a letter from your friend who is in Germany 1 — 
It is three months since I received one. — Is it long since you spoke 
to the man whose son has lent you money 1 — ^It is not long since I 
•poke to him. — Is it long since you saw your parents 1 — It is a 
peat while since I saw them. — Has the son of my friend been 
Dying long in your house ? — He has been living there a fortnight 
(wer^^n jf age). — How long have you had these books 1 — I haye 
bd them these three months. — How long is it since your cousin 
let oat 1— It is more than a month since he set out. — What is be- 

® Digitized by Google 


eome of the man who spoko English so well? — ^I do not know 
what is betiome of him, for it is a great while since I saw him.— 
Is it long since you heard of the officer who gave your friend a 
stab with his sword 1 — It is more than a year since I heard of him. 
— How long have you been learning German? — I have been learn- 
ing it only these three months. — Are you already able to speak it? 
^-You see that I am beginning to speak it. — Have the children c/ 
the French noblemen been learning it longt — ^They have been 
learning it these five years, and they do not yet begin to spe&k.— 
Why can they not speak it t — ^They cannot speak it, because Aey 
are learning it badly. — Why do thev not learn it well 1 — ^They 
have not a good master, so that they do not learn it well. 


Is it long since yon saw the young man who learnt German with 
(6«) the same master with whom we learnt it ? — I have not seen 
him for nearly a year. — How Ion? is it since that child ate 1 — It 
ate a few minutes (Lesson XLVIL Note *) ago. — How long is it 
since those children drank 1 — They drank a quarter of an hour ago. 
—How long has your friend been in Spain % — He has been there 
this month. — How often have you seen the king % — ^I saw him more 
than ten times when I was in Paris. — When did you meet my 
brother 1—1 met him a fortnight ago. — Where did you meet him t— 
In (2(uf) the great square (9)la^) before the theatre. — Did he do yon 
any harm 1 — -He did me no harm, for he is a very good boy. — Has 
your son long been able to read 1 — ^These two days only.— With 
(SBci) whom has he learnt iti — He has learnt it with (\>d) the Ger- 
man tutor. — How long have you been spending your tmie in study- 
ing % — Nearly these twenty years. — Have you purchased anythin| 
to-day ? — I have purchased something. — What have you bought? 
—I have bought three casks of wine and thirty pounds of sugar.— 
Have you not bought any stockings 1 — I have bought nine pair oi 
them. — Have you also bought handkerchiefs 1 — I hav*; bought two 
dozen ol them. — Why have you not bought gold rings ? — 1 could 
not buy anything more, for I had no more money. — Are the*? many 
soldiers in your country 1 — ^There is a regiment of three thoujand 
men there. — How long have I kept your cousin's money ? — Yo« 
have kept it almost a year. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON.— 0ecl)0 tmi ewfj^igfiU 

Just now. So c6cn. 

' kav© Just seen your brother 3* bat>c fo tUn S^tcn JBrub<r g*» 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Be has just wrhtcn. Qt l)ot fo e^en gefAtrte 6fiu 

The men have just arrived. S)K Scute fint fo iUn ongcfemmnu 

To spend money* Uu^Qchen*. 

Hofw much have you spent to- 2BicmcC l)aUn ©te f)c\xtc au^gcgebcn 1 

To spend {to eal, to consume). ^Berje^ten. 

H hat am I to pay 1 t S5^^ ^a^c t(ft tjcrsefirt ? 

How much has he spent at the f iBtcotet f)ot cv bcx tern SBtrt^ 

inni m-gcftrt? 

He has fifty crowns a month to f ^ l)at Un ^enat fiin^ig %f)aUt 

live upon. ju oer3cF)rcn. 

To squander^ to dissipate^ SSetfc^tventen. 
to lavish* 

He has* squandered all his (Sr ^at fctn gan^e^ 93ermSgen oei:« 

wealth, fd)iDcnt»ct 

The landlord, the innkeeper, ter SBirtb ; 
the wealth, the fortune, t)a$ ^^Oernitidcn ; 

entire, whole. gon^. 

rf aOBofiet finb ©te? SBo finb 6t« 
What countryman are you t < ^cr ? 

C 2Ba^ f fit cin 8«nt)^mann* fnb 6i« I 

From Venice. SBon (auQ 93enct>t0. 
From London. i8en (au^) Scnbcn. 
I am from Dresden. 3c^ bin au^ iDvc^beiu 

Oi^. J., The syllable tt is the characteristic termi* 
nation of the masculine gender,^ and signifies the per- 
son that performs or is accustomed to perform the thing 
expressed by the verb. This syllable joined to the 
name of a town or country, forms a substantive de- 
noting the man bom in such a town or country. Ex. 

He is a saddler, et if! ein battler ; 

a baker, ctn ©adcr ;* 

a locksmith, ein Sd)(cf[ct ; 

the lock, ta^ @d)(cv ; 

the saddle, bcr battel ; 

tho key, tec €d)(ttfrc(. 

• The idural of bet ?anb«manjv the countryman, one of the same country, 
b toWleute. Itfl feminine is ?anMm5niiin, country-woman, a woman of the 
Mine country. This word miut not be mistaken for ber ^anbmann, the coun- 
tryman, fiuToer, rustic, the plural of which is ^anbleute. 

* For this reason most subetantiysB of this termination are of th« Baae«t 
line sender. 

c Derived from ^a^ti, to bake. 



He is from Berlin* 

kie you an Englishman! 

Whence do you come 1 } 

I come from Paris. 

To servef to wait upoiu < 

To serve some one^ or tc wait 

upon some one* 
To be in one^s service. 

Has he been in your service 1 

Does he serve you well 1 

He serves me very well. 

This is to no purpose Tof no use). 

Do you choose any of it 1 

I do not like it. > 

It will not do for me. ) 

To spoil. 

Thou spoilest-^e spoils. 

You have spoiled my book. 
My book is spoiled. 

Has he spoiled my hat t 

To damage. 
That hat fits you well. 
How does this hat fit me 1 
It does not fit you. 

Most lovely, charming. 


To dress J tofit^ to sit well. 

t ©t tjl dn «<t(ittcc 
6in^ @ic (in ^n^l&nbect 

i SBcbcr fcmmen @te ? 
( 2Bo f cnmicn ©ic tcr ? 
' 3<^ fommc »on gjari^ 

■ 5) i e n c n (governs the dative). 
iB c 1 1 c n e n (governs the aecoi 
' sative). 
'Scmanbcm bienen. 

S3ct 3emanbcm Men en. 

^t et bci S^ncn gebicnt? 

SBebtentcr ©iegut? 

(&x bcbtent mid) fc^c gut 

t >Da^ bicnt gu ntc^t^ 

f ^onn t(^ 3bncn bamit bioim I 

t iDamlt ift nitr ntc^ gebient 

raScrbcrben* (verb. act. and 
I neut. irreg.). 

iBu ©d^anben mo<(eti (avnl* 
L gar expression). 

iDu wrbirbft, cc wtbirbt (Imp. 

&i ^aben mein S3ucb Ktbcrben. 
SKcin ®ucb tft Dcrborbcn (ju @(^cm« 

ben gemad)t). 
|>at er meincn $ut octbocben Qfi 

^d)anbcn genmc^t) ? 


©tcfcc ^ut jlcftt Sbnen gut. 
fflBtc f!«bt mir biefct |>ut? 
^ ftc()t 3f)ncn nic^ gut 


Ofe. B. The verb flcibett, when it signifies tojU^U 
sit well, is neuter ; but when it means to dress^ to clothe^ 
It is active, and governs the accusative in both signi- 

j.*5^« M the genitive plural of the word all, alL 
WDM to the soperlativt to give k more strei^^th. 




l^athat fits you admiralily well. jDiefer ^ut Reibct ®te oHerlie^ 

DoLt coat fits him. SDtcfcr died Hcitct i^n gut 

My father clothes me. STRcin SSntcr f(ci^ct mid). 

God clothes the poor. ®ett flcitot Mc TCrmcn. 

Fhe man with the blue coat ©cr 9)Jann mit bcm btauen SiUlU 

How was the child dressed? SQBic roar l)Q^ jlinb geHdbct? 

It was dressed in green. t ®^ i^^ A^ftn qeHcibet 

SfwKzet h''3^'^^ 

How high 1 of what height t SBte b^d) ? 
How deep % of what depth 1 flDBic ticf ? 
Of what height is his house ? ©ic bod) tf! ff tn ^ou« ? 
It is nearly thirty feet high. Q^ tfl un9cf(i(f)t brctpt^ Sup f)0<l 

(Lesson LXV. Obs. C.) 

Trtitf. SB a b r. 

8 it true that his house has been 3ft cS roobt/ t>ap fctn ^au^ obg« 
burnt t Oronnti^? 

It is true. ©^ tfl roal)r. 

U it not? (meaning, Is it not f 9ltd)t roa^r ? 
The philosopher, tec aBctocifc, bcr 5)f)itefcpb (gen. 



Who is the man who has just spoken to yon 1 — He is a learned 
man. — What has the shoemaker just brought 1 — He has brought the 
boots and shoes which he has made us. — Who are the men that 
hare Just arrived 1 — They are philosophers. — Of what country are 
they f — ^They are from London. — Who is the man who has just 
started I — He is an Englishman, who has squandered away (»cr* 
kbrocntft) all his fortune in France. — What countryman are you 1— 
I am a Spaniard, and my friend is an Italian. — Wilt thou go for 
the locksmith 1 — Why must I go for the locksmith 1 — He (iDcrfctbc) 
mast make me a key, for I have lost the one belonging to m v room 
(ben mcine^ Simmer^). — Where did your uncle dine yesterday 1— 
He dined at the innkeeper's. — How much did he spend 1 — He spent 
three florins. — How much has he a month to live upon 1 — He has 
two hundred florins a month to live upon. — Must I go for the sad- 
dler 1 — You must go for him, for he must mend the saddle. — Have 
you seen any one at the market 1 — I have seen a good many people 
there. — How were they dressed 1— Some were dressed in blue, 
some in green, some in yellow, and several in red. 


Who are those men 1 — ^Tne one who is dressed in ^y is niy 
neighbour, and the one with the black coat the physician, whose 
«on has given my neighbour a blow with a stick. — ^Who is the man 




with the green coat? — He is one of my relations. — Are yott fiou 
Berlin ?— No, I am from Dresden. — How mucii money haTe yon* 
children spent to-day 1 — They have spent but little; they have 
spent but one florin. — Does that man serve you well 1 — He does 
serve me well ; but he spends too much. — Are you willing to take 
this servant! — ^I am willing to take him if he will serve me. — Can 
I take this servant 1 — You can take him, for he has served me very 
well. — How long is it since he (first) served yout — ^It is but two 
months since. — Has he served you long 1 — He has served me (for) 
six years. — How much did you aive him a year (be^ Saftref) 1 — I 
gave him five hundred francs wiuiout clothing t im. — Did he l>oard 
(?(9) with (bci) youl — He did board with me.^ What did you ffive 
him to eati — I gave him whatever (pen oUcm, n?a6) I ate. — Were 
you pleased with him t — I was much (fc^r) pleased with him. (See 
end of Lesson XXXI V.) 

SIXTY.SEVENTH LESSON.— gUben ntlb 0tcI)P80U 

To trust with, ?Cn Derttauen. 

To entrust, to cor^dey to commit SSertcouen. 
in confidence. 

I trust you with my money. 3* »ertrauc Sftn^n tnnn ®flb an. 

He has trusted me with his mo- (£c ()ot niir fctn @k(b ont>ertraut 

I entrust yon with a secret 3d) ^ttttaut S^ncn ein ©e^dm* 

1*0 unbosom one's self to one. f @i(ft 3cnianb<m oettraucn. 

The secret, hai GJcftctmnif (plur. «•). 

To keep anything secret C^a^ gcbcim ^alten. 

Imperf. l)icU. 
I have kept it secret 3d) bai>c ci ge^cimge^attctu 

Secret (adjective). ®e^etnu 

To pity. JBeflagcn. 

With all my heart. f SSon ganjcm j£)crg«n. 

Do you pity that mani ©cttflgcn ^ie bicfen ^Xflnn? 

I do pity him with all my heart Sc^ bcHoge il)n t)cn gan^em ^ 


To offer — offered. ?Cnbietcn* — angebotctt. 

Imperf. 6ot 
I offer it you. 3^ bictc eg 36ncn an. 

•Ncuier nouns tcrmmating in f, add e to all cases of the pliual wfthoM 
loftemog the radical voweL 



From, Sfit (a preposition goyernui| 

the accusatiYe). 

f,^eca.of.o.ethi„,. jafCffiS 

Maso. Neat. 

Totakecareofit.jgr«r6eforsefd«|^^„ ^^^^^ 

To take eaie of the hat. ^Den ^ut in 2Ccf)t nebmen^. 

Imperf. nabnu 
DoyoQ take caTe of your clothes? f)Zcf)men 0ie Sbtc jtletter in 2(c6t? 
1 do take care of them. f 3c^ net}nie ftc in ?Cd)t 

06s. i4. There are in German many substantives, 
adverbs and other words and expressions which form 
one signification with the verb, as : ou^lDenbig (entett/ to 
learn by heart ;^ gem ejfctt*, to like to eat (Lesson 
LIV.) ; \&ivSbvi Sm*, to owe (Lesson XLVII.), &c. These 
are placed exactly like the separable particles (Lesson 
XXV.), but are never joined to the verb. 

^SBottcn ®tc flit niein 5)ferb fo^'* 
Will you take care o5 my horse I < gen ? 

f SDBcUcn ^ie mein 9)ferb beforgen ?• 

. will take care of ii. \ gj "^JJ! ^!^] f^^9^"* 

) 3* win c« befcrgcn. 

To take care. ©orgcn, bcforgcm 

The merclnnt of Hiimborgr. ;Der ^niburger Aaufmanm 

Ohs. B. The genitive of names of towns is gener- 
ally expressed in German by an adjective. This is 
formed by ad ling the syllable et to the name, and is 
indeclinable. Ex* 

Singular. Plural. 

The student J Gen. be^ ?eipji()er Shibentcn — ber I jigcr 
of Leipzic. j Dat. bcm?cipjigeretubenten-ben [ ©tii^ 
I^Acc. ben ?cipjigcr ©tubcnten — bie j bentcn. 

* lliis and the above examples show that such a ccnstniction is not alto 
fether unusual in English. 
< The fint of these two expressions is the best 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

The citixen (burgess) of London, bet ecnbcncr S3fit^; 
the citizen of Paris, tct ^arircr 93firgcr ; 

the beer of Strasburg, tai 8trap&urg(r S3i(r. 


Are there many philosophers in your country 1 — There »«« at 
many there as in yours. — How does this hat fit me 1 — It f:ta joa 
very well. — How does this hat fit your brother 1 — It fits hiiu ad- 
mirably. — Is your brother as tall (c^rop) as you 1 — He is taller than 
I, but I am older than he. — How high is this man ? — He is &Ye 
feet, four inches high. — How high is the house of our landlord ?— 
It is sixty feet high.— Is your well deep 1 — Yes, Sir, for it is fifty 
feet deep. — How long have those men been in your fiither^s sendee 1 
•—They have been in bis service already more than three years. — 
Has your cousin been long at Paris ? — He has been there nearly 
six years. — Who has spoiled my knife ? — Nobody has spoiled it, 
for it was spoiled when we were in want of it. — Is it true that yooi 
ancle has arrived 1 — I assure you that he has arrived. — Is it true 
what the king has assured you of his assistance 1 — I assure you that 
it is 'rue. — ^Is it true that the six thousand men whom we were ex- 
pecting have arrived ? — I have heard so. — Will you dine with us ! 
— I cannot dine with you, for I have Just eaten. — Will your brother 
drink i\ glass (of) wine s — He cannot drink, for, I assure you, he 
has jui t drunk. — Do you throw away your hat ! — I do not tiirow it 
away, ibr it fits me admirably. — Does your friend sell his coat ! — 
He does not sell it, for it fits him most beautifully. — ^Thereare many 
learned men in Berlin, are 4here not (nid)t tva^r) 1 asked Cuvier a 
man from Berlin (tcr fficrtinft). Not so many as when you were 
there, answered the man from Berlin. 


Why do you pity that man ? — I pity him, because he has trusted 
a merchant of Hamburg with his money, and the man (bicfcr) will 
not return it to him. — Do you trust this citizen with anything? — I 
do not trust him with anything. — Has he already kept anything 
from you 1 (3bncn ctjpa^ bcf)a(tcn). — I have never trusted him with 
anything, so that he has never kept anything from me. — Will you 
trust my father wi h your money 1 — I will trust him with it. — What 
secret has my son entrusted you with t — I cannot entrust you with 
that with which he has entrusted me, for he has desired (bitten*) 
me to keep it secret. — Whom do you entrust with your secrets t— 
I entrust nobody with them, so that nobody knows them. — Haa 
your brother been rewarded 1 — He has on the contrary been pun- 
ished ; but I beg you to keep it secret, for no one knows it. — ^\Vhat 
has happened to him 1 — I will tell you what has happened to him, 
if you promise me to keep it secret. — Do you promise me to keep 
it secret 1—1 promise you, for I pity him with all my leart. (See 
•nd of Lesson XXXIV.) 

y Google 


fiCmr-EIGHTH LESSON.— acl)t Mb fittl)pj0te 

Each man. 3<?^ct gjlcnfc^. 

Each child. 3c^e« JtinD. 

Every one. Sctcrnwnn. 

The whole world. 2)ic gaiye 8BcIt. 

O65. j4. SAermann adds g in the genitive, and t*y 
mains invariable in the other cases, thus : 

TNoM. Sfbemtann. 
i^Acc. 3*ermann. 

Every thing (meaning all). UiUi* 

Obs. B, Wle^f all, taken substantively, is put in the 
neuter gender singular. Ex. 

He knows every thing. Gr foitn atlc^ 

I have seen all. 3d) b<^&« <tUc6 QC^titn. 

He is fit for any thing. f (&t ifl ju aUem in gebtaucftcn. 

Obs. C. ®att}^ whole, entire, is used with the article, 
but aff, all, is never used with it. 

The whole town. 2)ic gon^c ©tatt. 

The whole society. iDic ganje ®cfcnf(ftap. 

The walk (meaning the place to ber ^pojierptag ; 

walk in), 
ths concert, (Concert ; 

the walk (meaning the walking), bcr ©pajicrgang. 
Tliere were many peonle in Uie Qi moren mc( Seute ouf bem @pai 

walk (at the concert). gierganae ([tm Concert). 

I have cut his finger. t 3^ bow iftn in ben Jtngct qcj 

He has cut my leg. t ^ b<»t mxd^ in tai Scin gcfc^ntb 

He has cut off his finger. (gr M i^ ben Jingec abgefcftnitten 

He has cut it off. ©t ^ot i^n i^m al'gefcftnitten. 

Entirely. ®&njlic?). 

To bring along with one. ^Olttbringcn*. 

dn ( 


Have you come quite alone 1 @inb @i e gonj aUein gcfonrnwn ? 


Obs. D, Slllem, as a conjunction, has the same signift 
cation as aber^ but ; as an adverb it signifies alone. 

No, I have brought all my men 9lcin, i^ ^^hi otU mcine Beutc mib 

along with me. gcbrad)!. 

He has brought all his men along (ix \)aX oXLt fetnc Scute mttgc&to^t 

with him. 
Have you brought your brother ^oben 0te Sbwn JBtubct mitgcx 

along with you t broc^t? 

I have brought him along with 3ct ^obe t()n mttgcbto^t. 

Have you told the groom to bring ^ben @ie bent ^tallfnecibt grfogt tntc 

me the horse ? ba« 5)fcrb ju bcin^cn ? 

The groom, bet ©tallfncc^t. 

Unioeit, in bet 9^6^e (go- 
verns the genitive). 
Near, -J 25 c i (governs the dative). 

92 e b f n (governs the dative and 

Near me. 

(WcOcn mir. 

( 93ei bcm Jcuer. 
Near the fire. 2(m Jcucr. 

[ aScr bem Jruer. 
Near the castle. Unmcit bc^ ©d)tcffc^" 
Where do you live 1 ma nMJbnen ©ic ? 
1 live near the castle. 3d) roobnc unnKit beg ©djtoffe*. 
What are you doing near the fire 1 aBag tf)un @ie bei bcm gcucr ? 


fallen (takes fcin for its auxi- 

Thou fallest^he falls. 
Fell (Imperf.). 

©ufond— erfaat 


To drop (meaning to let 


gotten loffcn*. 

Has he dropt anything ? ^at cr ctnwg fatten taffen ? 

He has not dropt anything. ©r \)aX nicbt^ fatten talfcn. 

To hinder^ to prevent, a5erf)inbern. 

You hinder me from sleeping, ©te bcrtjinbcrn Xi\x6) ju fcfttafeiu 


Whom do you pity 1—1 pity your friend —Why do you pity 
Urn ? — ^1 pity him because he is ill.— Do the merchants of Berlia 

• S>ai €i|toi the cfisUe, is declined exactly like ba< @<^Iof, the lodk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


r'ty anybody t — ^They pity nobody.— Do you offer me anything; ?— 
offer you a gold ring. — What has my father offered you 7 — He 
bas offered me a fine book. — ^To whom do you offer those fino 
horses 1 — I offer them to the French officer. — Do you offer that fine 
carriage to my uncle t — I do offer it to him. — Dost thou offer thy 

fretty little dog to these ffood children 1 — I do offer it to theni, for 
loTe them with all my heart. — What have the citizens of Stras- 
baig offered you t — They have offered me good beer and salt^meat 
(acfaljcnc^ ^(eifd)). — ^To whom do you offer money ? — I offer some to 
those Parisian citizens, who have assured me of tlieir assistance. — 
Wi.l you take care of my clothes ] — I will take care of tliem, — Wilt 
thou take care of my hat? — I will take care of it. — Are you taking 
eare of the book which I lent you 1 — I am taking care vf it. — Will 
this man take care of my horse 7 — He will take care of U. — Who 
will take care of my servant ? — ^The landlord will take care of him, 
—Does your servant take care of your horses 1 — He doea take care 
of them. — Is he taking care of your clothes t — He is taking care of 
them, for he brushes them every morning. — Have you ever drunk 
Strasburg beer ! — I have never drunk any. — ^Is it long since you ate 
Iieipzic bread 1— It is almost three years since I ate any. 


Have you hurt my brother-in-law ? — ^I have not hurt him ; »ut he 
has cut my finger. — What has he cut your finger with t — With the 
knife which you had lent him. — Why have you jprjven that boy a 
blow with your fist? — Because he hindered me from sleeping.^ 
Has anybody hindered you from writing 1 — Nobody has hindered 
me from writing ; but I have hindered somebody from hurting year 
cousin. — Has your father arrived ] — Every body says that he has 
arrived ; but I have not seen him yet — Has the physician hurt 
your son ? — He has hurt him, for he has cut his fino^er. — Have they 
cu. off tills man's legl — ^They have cut it off entirely. — ^Are you 
pleased with your servant t — I am much (febt) pleased with him, 
for he is fit for anything. — What does he know? — He knows every 
thing. — Can he ride on horse-back 1-^He can. — Has your brother 
returnee at last from Germany 1 — He has returned thence, and has 
brought you a fine horse. — Has he told his g^room to brinff it to me 1 
^He has told him to bring it to you. — What do you think (fagen) of 
(W) that horse 1 — I think (fagc) that it is a fine and good one, and 
(I) beg you to lead it into the stable. — In what did you spend your 
time yesterday 1 — I went to the public walk (tct ©pojicrptag), and 
tfterwards to the concert. — Were there many people in the public 
walkl — ^There were many people there. 


What did you see at the concert ? — I stw many people. — "\Yhat 
4id you do after the concert] — I went to the inn (ta« ®irtf)^()«u#) 
b order to dine. — Have you dined well 1—1 have dined very welK 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


bat 1 hate spent too maoh. — How much hare you spent 1 — 1 havi 
spent nearly two florins and a half. — Is the faro (8pcifct man) good 
at your inn 1 — It is very good ; but every thing is so dear, that one 
must be rich to dine there. — Have you dropt anything t — 1 have 
dront nothing; but ray cousin dropt some money. — Who picked it 
up J— Some men who were passing by picked it up. — Have they 
returned it to him ? — ^They have returned it to him, for they were 
good people. — Where were you g^ing to when I met you this morn- 
ing 1-^1 was going to my uncle. — Where does he live ? — He lives 
near the castle. — What news has (fagt) your uncle ? — He has no 
news. — What has happened to him ? — A little misfortune has hap- 
pened to him. — Will you tell me what has happened to him 1 — I 
will tell it you ; but I beg you to keep it secret. — I promise you to 
tell it to nobody. — Will you tell me now what has happened to 
him 1 — He fell as (ol^) he was going to the theatre. — Is he ill 1 — 
He is very ill. — I pity him from my heart, if he is ill.— Have you 
succeeded in finding a hat that fits you well t — I have succeeded in 
finding one. — How does it fit you ! — It fits me admirably. (See 
end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SIXTY-NINTH LESSON.— Netm vxih fieclj^LgBU 

Far. 8D8«it. 

How fart ffitcwcit? 

How far is it from here to Ber- SBte melt tfl U t)cn ^icr na^ SBct^ 

lin t !tn ? 

Is it far from here;to Berlin ? 3fl e« wcit wn ^iet noc^ JBetfin ? 

It is far. C^^ tfl m\t 

It is not far. (5^ tfl ntrf)t djclt. 

How many miles is it 1 SBtcptct gKcitcn finb eg ? 

It is twenty miles. C5 fiitb gmon^ig SKcilcn. 

The mile, Me SWette (a feminine noun*). 

It is almost a hundred and thirty @^ ftttb betnaf)e bunbert unb tittfij 

miles from here to Beriin. ^c'xUn r>en bier nad) SBerltn. 

It is neariy a hundred miles from (Sg finb un^cffibr ftunbert SWeileti Wi 

Berlin t? Vienna. JSBertin nadb ©iciu 

To like better. elebet mJgcn.'' 

Part, past gemod^t. 
Imperf. m o d) t c. 

like better, thoi likest better, 3d) nia^ Ue(>et, bu magjH fxtbit, tt 
he likes better. niog Ucbct. 

* A German mile is equal to four English miles and a halt 

* ^Ubtx is the cxMuparative to ficm. (See Leswns XXXIX. and LHT^ 


I like staying here better than 
going out. 

Do jofo like to write better than 
to speak? 

I like to speak better than to 


' 3d) niog (tcbct ftier bfcibcn ott awU 

3d) WxH iXiUx {{ux, a\i baj i* ou«« 

' g)JSgcn ©ic fuOfc fcftrcibcn a!^ fpre« 

6d)rctbcn €5ie tic bcr, aW tap ©it fi)ref 

d)<;n ? « 

'3A mo9 ticbct fpre^en oU f*cci» 

3d) fptfd)C (tcbcr, ot« bop i(^ fc^rcir 
He likes to play better than to (^x mog (icbcr fpidcn cM flubU 

study. ten. 

He likes to do both. Gr tbut betted gern. 

I like beef better than mutton, f 3(^ eJTe Itcber dltnt); cXi^&fiv^ 

He likes beer better than wine, f (&x trtnft Ueber SBtec o(^ SSklm 
Do you like bread better than f (SfTen 6ic Uebet S3tob o(« ^^^ 

cheese 1 fe? 

I like neither the one nor the 3^) effc fein^ Mn b«tben gertu 

I like tea as much as coffee. 3(6 trinfc cben fo gcrn %^t tmc 

The calf, ba$ Jtatb. 

Quic^, /<M/. ©cf^wtnb/ f(6nc(L 

J/our, slowly, Bangfanu 

He eats qnicker than I. {Sx ipt gefd)n7tnber a(^ t(^ 

Do you learn as fast as 1 1 Sernen 6te fo fd)neQ xdxt \^ ? 

I learn faster than you. 3di (erne fcftneUcc a(^ €5ic 

I do not understand you, because 3d) t>erfle^e ®ic nic^t, tpeU €^ie |R 
you speak too fast. fc^neH fpted^en. 

Cheap. SB 1) (felt. 

Does he sell cheap ! gScrfouft er n)obtfei( ? 

He does not sell dear. Gr t>erfauft ntd)t tf)ettec 

He has sold to ine very dear. Qx l)at nut fel)t tl)euet oetfauft 

iSo. 0. 

So much. @o Diet 

« When two or more compounds terminate In the tame component word, 
uui u joined only to the latt, and a German hyi^en {*) ia placed after the 
Jhert Ex. ber Qin^ unb ^n^an^ the entrance and exit; er ijl tin ^uttx 
epiac^s tinb ^(^retblehrer, he is a good master of languages and of writing: 
Wtttb^ ttnb 3(^dpfenfletfd), beef and mutton ; aufs unb lumacben, to open and 
to thm: instead of bet (${ngaita tinb %i€qana, ber ©pracblebrer unb ec^ret^^ 
\^xtt, 9Kiibfkif(^ tmb ^flpfmlleif^/ oufma^cn unb lumaf^eit. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Thi* man sells ert/rf thin? so IDtefet 97{ann verfaufl oUe^fot^ 
very dear that one cannot bay tap man ntd)td bti ifim tanft 
any thing of him. fanm 

[0=* In a sentence in which the verb ought to stand] 
at the end (Lesson XL VII.), when the auxiliary jem* 
or tt)crben*, or one of the verbs burfen*, fonncn*, lafjcti*; 
wogen*, ntiiffen*, fotten*, wotten*, is added to an infini- 
tive, it must be placed immediately after that infini- 
tive, as is seen in the above example. 

I do not know what you wish to 3cb n>cip nic^t toai ©;c fagm wc(» 

say. (en. 

You speak so fast that I cannot ®tc fPtcdKn fo fd)nctl, baf tc^ &( 

understand you. ntd)t Dcrflcbcn fann. 

t assure you that he wishes to 3cft »crfid)frc @ic, t>of ft STtc fpte» 

speak to you. d^cn vM 

To drink. JStinfcn*. 

Drank. JXranf (Impeil ). 

Do you drink tea or coffee t Srinfcn ®te Sftee ct)er Jtaffee? 

[ drink neither the one nor the 3d) trinfc fctn« wn Uitau 

What do you drink in the mom- SGBag trlnfcn ®tc M SKcrgeni? 



How far is it from Paris to London ? — It is nearly {htlnaht) < 
hundred miles from Paris to London. — Is it far from here to Haar 
burg 1 — It is far. — Is it far from here to Vienna 1 — It is almost a 
lundred and forty miles from here to Vienna. — Is it furtlier from 
Berlin to Dresden than from Leipzic to Berlin 1 — ^It is further from 
Berlin to Dresden than from Leipzic to Berlin. — How far is it from 
Paris to Berlin 1 — ^It is almost a hundred and thirty miles from here 
to Berlin. — Do you intend to ^o to Berlin soon t — I do intend to go 
thither soon. — Why do you wish to go this time 1 — In order to bay 

f:ood books and a good horse there ; and to see my good friends.— 
s i*. long since you were there ? — It is nearly two years since I wat 
there. — Do you not go to Vienna this year t — I do not go thither, 
for it is too far from here to Vienna. — Is it long since you saw 
yo^ir Hamburg friend 1 — I saw him but a fortnight ago. — Do youi 
•cLolars like to learn by heart? — ^They do not like to learn by 
heart ; they like reading and writing better than learning by heart— 
Do you like beer better than cider f— I like cider better than beer. 
^Does your brother like to play 1 — He likes to study better thao 
io play — Do you like meat better than bread ? — I like the lattei 
better than the former. — Do you like to drink better than to eati 
-4 like to eat better than to drink ; but my uncle likes to drink 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


better than to eat. — Does your b*t)theT^iii-Iaw like meat better thai 
Ith 1 — He likes fish better than meat. — Do you like to x/rite better 
than to speak 1 — I like to do both. — Do you like fowl better than 
ijsb ! — Do you like good honey better than sugar 1 — I like neither. 


Does your father like coffee better than tea t — ^He likes neither. 
^What do you drink in the morning 1 — I drink a glass of watei 
with a little sugar; my father drinks good coffee, my younger hro- 
dier good tea, and my brother-in-law a glass of good wine. — Can 
Ton understand mel — No, Sir, for you speak too fest. — Will you 
be kind enough (fo gut fetn) not to speak so fast ((angfamcr ^u fprcs 
im) ? — I will not speak so ^ast if you will listen to me. — Can you 
Qoderstand what my brothel tells you ! — He speaks so fast, tfiat I 
cannot understand him. — Can your pupils understand you 1 — ^They 
aoderstand me when I speak slowly ; for in order to be understood 
one must speak slowly. — Why do you not buy anything of that 
merchant 1 — I had a mind to buy several dozen of handkerchiefs, 
some cravats, and a white hat of him ; but he sells so dear that I 
cannot buy anything of him. — Will you take me to another? — I 
will take you to the son of the one whom you bought of last year. 
— Does he sell as dear as this (one) 1 — He sells cheaper. — Do you 
like going to the theatre better than gfoing to the concert 1 — I do 
like going to the concert as well as gofng to the theatre ; but I do 
not like going to the public walk, for there are too many people 
there. — Do your children like learning Italian better than Spanisli 7 
—They do not like to learn either; they only like to learn Ger- 
man. — Do they like to speak better than to write' > — They like to do 
neither. — Do you like mutton 1 — I like beef better than mutton. — 
Do your children like cake better than bread ! — ^They like both. — 
Has be read all the books which he bought ? — He bought so many 
of tbem, that he cannot read them all. — Do you wish to write some 
letters 1 — I have written so many of them, that I cannot write any 
nore. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SEVENTIETH LESSON.— 0iebenpg0U ^ectioti. 


When the action falls upon the agent, and the ob- 
jective case refers to the same person as the nomina- 
tive, the verb is called reflexive. 

In reflexive verbs the pronoun of the object is of the 
same person as that of the subject, and stands either 
it the dative or the accusative, according as the verb 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


governs the one or the other case. In the third peraoi 
singular and plural it is always fid), whether the verb 
governs the dative or accusative. 


To dis^ise myself— to disgruise SRu^ Dcrjleacn — Un$ wcftUtn. 

To disgruise thyself— to disguise S)tc^ MrjlcUen — Gu4 VCt^Um 



To represent to myself— to re- SKit wrftcHcn — \XH wrfkUfll 

present to ourselves. 
To represent to thyself— to re- jDlt Dorflcttcn — 6u«^ wrfhttfii. 

present to yourselves. 

Singular and Floral Dative aod AocuaattTe. 

To disguise one's self— to repre- ©ic^ »cr(l<nen — fi(!6 wrflettm. 
sent to one's self. 

\JZr* The personal pronoun of reflexive verba fa 
placed after the verb as in English ; and so are all 
other personal pronouns when they are not in the no- 

Obs. A, There is no real reflexive verb in Engli^ 
that is to siy, such as cannot be used otherwise ; but 
in German, there are many, as for instance the follow- 
ing, which govern the accusative : 

To rejoice. ©i(^ freuciu 

To be ashamed. Gtc^ f(^2ntcn. 

To look back. ®ic^ umf«(^n*. Imperf. fifl^. 

Do you see yourself ? 0cl)cn €Jt< jic^ ? (®e^et 3^ (Siut ?) 

I do see myself. 3d) fc^e midb* 

Thou cuttest thyself. 3)u (c!)ncibcfl SDicft. 

He cuts himself. Qt fd)nctbet fi(^. 

I am afraid to go thither. 3<^ ^td^tt mt(^ (injugc^eiu 

They bum themselves. ®ie btcnncn fid^. 

To flatter. @ (^ m e i (^ e ( n (governs the da* 

Dost thou flatter thyself! 6d)mci«ctft 5)u JDit ? 

I do not flatter myself. 3(^ |c^)m«id)le mii: nic^t 

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We do not Hatter ovnelTee. 
He disguises himself. 
VoQ represent to yonrself. 

To fear some one. 

To be afraid ot somebody. 

I am not afraid of him. 

I do not fear him. 

Of whom are you afraid 1 

Whom do you fear 1 

(St wcftcVit ftd). 
Sic ftcUcn pd) oot. 

Scnionbcn fttrd)tcn. 

€id) Mt Scmonbcm fiirdjtcn. 

3d) ffird)tc mid) nid)t oct i()m 

3d) fttrd)te ibn md)t. 

^er rocm fdrd)tcn €tc fic^ ? 

SBcn fi^rd)tcn @i^ ! 

To enjoy something. 

To amuse one's self in doing 

1 pass away the time, 
To drive away. 
Driven away. 
Drove away. 
The pastime, the diversion 


5 ' 

'©i* jum 3citt>crtrci6 mit iwol 

;Die 3cit ocrtrcitcn*. 



flScrtricI) (Imperf.). 

3)ct 3cin»crtreib. 
In what do you amuse yourself 1 SS^cmit t^crtteibcn @te f\6) He 3ctt I 
I amuse myself in reading. 3d) oertrctbe nut tie 3itt nut Scfem 

He diverts himself in playing. (Sx 9cvttet0t ftd) tie 3cit mit BpuUxu 

MaM. Fern. Nent. 

Eadi or each ( Seber, jebe, jcbe^. 
one. ^ &n jeber, eine jebe, cin jcbe^* (3ebennami.) 

Obs. B, 3*^/ jAe, jebe^, has no plural, and is de- 
clined like att, with the characteristic termination of 
the article (Lesson XLIX.). Preceded by the indefinite 
article, it is declined like an adjective preceded by this 

Every man has his taste. 3ctcr ^enfc^ W fetncn (Sefc^mod. 

Each of you. G'tn ietct wn (hid). 

Every body speaks of it. 3«terniQnn fprid^t tawn. 

Each man amuses himself as he Gin ietet Derttci6t {tc^ tie 3ctt tme 

likes. e^ ibm gcfc(at. 

Each one amuses himself in the CEin jetcr oertteibt {ic^ tie 3eit fo gut 

best way he can. er fann. 

The taste, tcr (S)cfc^macC 

To mistake^ to oe mistaken. 

Erery man is liable to mistake. 
Von are mistaken. 

To soil. 
To deceive. 

@ic6 xvvcti, [xdi tAuf(^en. 

3ctcc ^S3lcn\^ (onn fid) trren. 
®ie inrcn fic^. 

S3efd)mu|cn, fd)mu^ig ma(^n« 
©ettagcn* (betricaen*). 



DeceWed. SBetrcgcn (past part) Imperf. (0 

He has cheated me of a hundred Qx hat md) urn ^unbctt SM^ ^ 
crowns. trcgeiu 

At (aver), Ucber (a preposition governing 

the dative and accusatiye). 

To rejoice at something. ©id) fiber etnni^ frcuctu 

I rejoice at your happiness. 3d) frcuc mid) fiber 3br ®(£UL 

At what does your uncle rejoice t ©crfibcr frcut fid) 3^t £)beim 7 

To believe. ® ( a u b e n. 

This verb requires the person in the dative, and the 
thing in the accusative. It governs also the accusa- 
tive with the preposition on* 

Do you believe •hat man ? ©loubcn ©tc Hcfcm 5Rannc? 

I do not believe him. Sd) ^(oube 3hm nid)t. 

Do you believe what I am tell- ®(aubcn Sic mir^ roo^ i(ft S^tlOl 

ing you \ fag^c ? 

1 believe in God. 3d) C|laubc an ®ctt. 

The God, Uv ®ctt (plural @5ttfr) ; 

the story-teller, the liar, bcr ^figncr. 

To utier a falsehood, to lie. Cflgcn (part, past gelogeti/ Imperf. 

(See the Continuation qf tkii Lesson Page 211.) 

. EXERCISES. 165. 

Have you written long or short letters 1 — I have written (both) 
*ong and short ones. — Have you many apples 1 — I have so many 
of 3\em that I do not know which I shall (fell) eat. — Do yon wish 
to give anything to these children ? — ^They have studied so badly, 
that I do not wish to give them anything. — What is this man re- 
joicing at? — He is rejoicing at the luck which has happened to his 
brother. — What dost thou rejoice at ? — I rejoice at the good fortune 
that has happened to you. — What do your children rejoice at !— 
They rejoice at seeing you. — Do you rejoice at the happiness ot 
my father? — I do rejoice at it. — ^What does your uncle say to my 
happiness ? — He rejoices at it from his heart. — Do you flatter my 
brother? — ^I do not flatter him. — Does this master flatter his pu- 
pils ? — He does not flatter them. — Is he pleased with them ?— He 
u much (fcbr) pleased r^ufrietcn) with them when they learn well ; 
but he is highly (fcbr) displeased with them when they do not lean 
well. — Do you flatter me? — I do not flatter you, for I love you.— 
Do you see yourself in that small looking-glass ? — I do see myself 
in it. — Can your friends see themselves in that large looking- 
glass ? — They can see themselves therein. — Why do you not re* 
«iain near the fire ? — Because I am afraid of burning myself.— 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Does ^18 man make his fire? — He does not make it, for he it 
afraid of barning himself. — Do you fear me 1 — I do not fear yon.— 
Do yon fear those ugly men 1 — I do not fear them, for they hurt 
nobody. — Why do those children run away t — ^They run away, be- 
cause they are afraid of you. — Do you run away before your ene- 
mies ? — I do not run away before them, for I do not fear them. 


In what do your children amuse themselves? — ^They amuse 
themselves in studying, writing, and playing. — In what do you 
amuse yourself? — I amuse mys^f in the best way I can, for I read 
good books, and I write to my friends. — In what do you amuse 
yourself when you hare nothing to do at home ? — I go to the play 
and to the concert, for every one amuses himself in the best way 
be can. — Every man has his taste ; what is yours 1 — Mine is to 
study, to read a good book, to go to the theatre, the concert, the 
ball, and the public walk, and to ride on horseback. — Has that 
physician done any harm to your child? — He has cut his finger 
(ti in ten ^in^cr), but he has not done him any harm ; so you are 
mistaken, if you believe that he has done him any harm. — Why do 
you listen to that man 1 — ^I listen to him, but I do not believe him ; 
for I know that he is a story-teller. — How do you know that he is 
a story-tejler ? — He does not believe in God ; and all those who 
do not believe in God are story-tellers. — Why does your cousin 
not brush his hat ? — He does not brush it, because he is afraid of 
soiling his fingers (fid) tie 5^"9^0* — What does my neighbour tell 
you ! — He tells me that you wish to buy his horse ; but I know 
that he is mistaken, for you have no money to buy it. — What do 
they say at the market ? — ^They say that the enemy is beaten. — Do 
you believe it ? — I do believe it, because every one says so. — Why 
have you bought that book ? — I bought it, because I wanted it to 
learn German ; and because every one spoke of it. (See end of 
Usson XXXIV.) 


fblfle htt eieben^eten Section. 

When a proposition has no definite subject, the 
English, in order to avoid the pronouns tltey^ people, 
&c., use the verb in the passive voice ; and say : / ivas 
toldj instead of, Tliey told me ; It was given to me, in- 
stead of, They gave it to me. This is expressed in Ger- 
man by means of the indefinite pronoun man, om^ at 
in French by on, Ex. 

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I a?Q told thai he is arriyed. ^an fbgt mit, baf ct angcfommft 

k knife was given to him to cut ^an pob thm etn SOScfer, [cin S9to^ 

his bread, and he cut his $u fd)nctbcn, unt) cr fd^iitt |u^ ia 

finger. ten Jingcr. 


Have yon cut yourself? 

I have not cut myself. 

Have those men cut themselves t 

They have not cut themselves. 

Hast thou hurt thyself? 

1 have not hurt myself. 

Who has cut himself? 

I have cut my finger. 

I have rejoiced. 
I have flattered myself. 
Thou hast cut thyself. 
He has flattered himself. 
We have been afraid. 

You have mistaken. 

To pull ouU 
He pulls nut his hair. 
He has pulled out his hair. 
He has cut his hair. 

I have had my hair cut. 

I have cut m^ nails. 

The hair, 

To go to bed. 

lo get upy to rise. 

Do you risiB early ? 
I rise at sun-rise. 

I go to bed at sun-set. 

A.t what time did you go tc 

Kt midnigh . 

|)abcn Sie ftd) 9cfd)nittcn ? 
3d) haU mid) nic^t c)c|d)nittcn. 
^abin fid) ttcfc 9)janncr gcfd)mttai? 
€tc ()obcn ftd) ntd)t grfic^nittnu 
Jpaft JDu iDir web gctbon ? 
Sd) habi mir ntd)t n>cb gec^aiu 
aBcr bat fid) 9cfd)niitcn? 
t Sd) f)abc mid) in fccn Jinga 90 

t 3d) iabc mid) gcfrcut (gefceurt) 

SA bal'C mir gc[d)inctd)c(t. 

2)u ^a(! 2)icb gcfcbnittcn. 

(£r bat fid) 9Cfd)nicid)c(t. 

t 5!Bic babcn un^ gi'filr(!6t«t 
rt 3l)t baOt end) gcirrr. 
;. t ©i« &fltjcn fid) gcirrt 

2( u ^ r e i 9 c n*. 

t 6r rcift jid) bic ^arc au^ 

t ®r bat fid) tic |)aarc auegcriffen. 

t (St j)at ftcb tie ^aar( al^ejcbnit* 

t Scb ^<^^c mit tie ^oore fc^neitea 

t Sd) l)ot« tmt tie Slflgel a&9e|i^ni4» 

bag ^ot (plur. e). 

rSu SBctte gebcn*. 

< ©d)fafcn ge^en*. 
C@td) (egen* 


©tebcn ®tc frftb auf ? 
Sd) flcbc mit ©cnnettaufgang ouf. 
C 3d) gc^e mit ©onnenuntagang |b 

< JBcttc. 

C 3d) lege mtd) mit Scnnenunteryn^ 
bed ? Uni me(d)e Sett ftnt @te ^u SBe<te go 
gatigen ? 
Um g)2tttemad)t 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


As three o'clock in the morning. Urn btet U^t 9){or^^ 

He went to bed late. Qv ifl fp^t )u S^cttc gc^angen. 

At what o'clock did yon go to Unt nneoict Ubt ftnb 8ie geflem }i 

bed yesterday ! SBctte gcgangm ? 

A.t a quarter past eleven. Um cin S>t<rtd auf ^(f« 

The bed, tki^ Sett (plur. en). 

Thosun-rise, JJ;:?:— ^ne 

The fiun^t. J ^'^ eonnenuntergang. 
I ne sun-set, ^ ^^^ Untcrgang Ut ©onnc. 

Nothinghut. Slid^ti ali. 

Ue has mthing but enemies. (St f)at nt^t^ aU ^ctnbe. 
He drinks nothing but water. Gt trinCt nid)t$ a(^ 9Baffer. 


Did your father rejoice to see you t — He did rejoice ..o see me.— 
What did you rejoice at! — I rejoiced at seeing my good friends.-^ 
What was your uncle delighted with (3BcrfiOer bat fid) tbr Z>W\m 
ai*frnit)1 — He was delight^ with (ilber) the horse which you 
brought him from Germany. — What were your children delighted 
with ! — They were delighted with the fine clothes which I had 
had made (for) them. — Why does this officer rejoice so much (fo 
|chr) ? — Because he flatters himself he has good friends. — Is he not 
right in rejoicing 1 — He is wrong, for he has nothing but enemies. 
—Do yon flatter yourself that you know German F — I do flatter 
myself that I know it; for I can speak, read, and write it. — Can 
you write a German letter without an error (bet Jel)(cr) 1 — I can.— 
boes any one correct your letters 1 — No one corrects them ; they do 
not require (broud)en ntcfet) to be corrected, for I make no faults in 
them. — How many letters have you already written 1 — 1 have al- 
ready written a dozen. — Have yd i hurt yourself? — I have not Lirt 
myself. —Who has hurt himself! — My brother has hurt himself, 
for he has cut his finger. — Is he still ill ! — He is better. — I rejoice 
to hear that he is no longer ill ; for I love him, and I pitied him from 
my heart. — Why does your cousin pull out his hair 1 — Because he 
cannot pay what he owes. — Have you cut your hair ! — I have rot 
eat ii (myself)* hut I have had it cut. — Why do you pity thd< 
child ! — Because he has cut his foot. — Why was a knife given to 
him ? — ^A. knife was given to him to cut his nails, and he has cut 
bis finger and his foot. 


Do you go to bed early ! — I go to bed late, for I cannot sleep . 
I^ to bed early. — At what o'clock did you go to bed yesterday !— 
\ esterday I went to bed at a Quarter past eleven. — At what o'clock 
do your children go to bed ? — They go to bed at sun-set. — Do they 
nse early ! — ^They rise at sun-rise.— At what o'clock did you rise 
<>day ? — To-day I rose late, because I went to bed late yesterday 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


erening. — Does your son rise late 7 — He most rise early, fct h 
nerer goes to bed late. — What does he do when he gnets up 1 — H 
studies, and then breakfasts.— Does he not go out before he brealsl 
fasts ?— No, he studies and breakfasts before he goes out. — Whal 
does he do after breakfast 1 — As soon as he has breakfasted U 
eomei to my house, and we ride (on horseback) into the foresU-i 
Dids-". thou rise this morning as early as 1 1 — I rose earlier thaj 
you, for I rose before sun-rise. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 


To take a walk. ®pa|icrcn gebcn*. 

To take an airing in a carriage, ©pojiercn fabrcn • (Imp. f^bt) 
To take a ride on horseback. €pajicren rcitcn* (Imp. titt). 

Ulr* -A. When two or more infinitives, two past 
participles, or a past participle ajid an infinitive de- 
pend upon each other, the last in English is put the 
first in German. 

Do you wish to take a walk (to SBcIlcn ^tc fpojtercn ge^Kn ? 

go a walking) ? 
I do wish to take a walk (to go Sd) iDttt fpajterm ge^en 

a walking). 
He wishes to take a walk. (St win fpo^tcrcn Qtijctu 

Thou wishest to take an airing. >Du roilljl fpqtcren fabreiu 
They wish to take a ride. ©ic rocllcn fpajicrcn rcitcn. 

Do you wish to see him work % SBcOen @ic il)n ar()eitcn f«h«n? 
Has your brother been praised 1 31^ 3f)C 93tut)er gdobt loot^cn I 

He takes a walk every day. Qt 9c!)t aUc Sage fpo^tcrcn. 

Do you often walk ? ®cbcn ©i< eft fpojicrcn ? 

I take a walk every morning Z^ 9^' be ode Bergen fpa$tcren 

To take a child a walking. Q\n Stxrib fpa^tcrcn fftfircn. 

Do you take your children a 5iif)rcn ©it 3f)rc .5tinl>cr fp<i)tms» 

walking 1 
I take them a walking every 3d^ f(if)re f!c atle 2(&cnb fpa^tcrnit 


00=* B. Two infinitives or participles not deperd- 
ing on each other follow the English construction. 

One must love and praise one's SKon map frincn ^cunt li<6«i un> 

friend. (cbfn. 

Whom mTist we despise and SBcn mup man pewt^tcn un^ |lra» 

pmush t fen ? 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


I l^a a walk, when I haye no- Sdf get)e fpojtetdi, wenn tc^ {U ^itfl 
thin^ to do at home. ni^t^ ^u ti)un f)aOe. 

Obs. A. The adverb maim is used to interrogate 
with respect to time only. In all other instances the 
English when is translated by toenn* Ex. 

When do you start t ©onn rcifcn ©ic ah ? 

When did he start 1 SQ^nn tfl cr abgctcift? 

To teach. ecftten. 

Ohs. B. This verb, when joined to an infinitivt 
governs the name of the person in the accusative . 
and when the thing taught is expressed by a substan- 
tive, it governs a double accusative, the one of a pei*- 
son and the other of a thing. 

He teaches me to read. <5r !c^rt micft (efcn. 

I teach him to write. 3d) Ic^re t()n fc^rctbcn. 

He teaches me arithmetic and Sr (ei7rt nuc^ to^ Slc^ncn unb 
writing. ©d)rci6en. 

Ohs. C All infinitives taken substantively are of 
the neuter gender. Any German infinitive may thus 
be taken substantively, e. g. ta^ 9{ec^nett/ arithmetic, 
from red)iten, to reckon; ta^ ®d)rdben/ the writing, 
Irom fc^reiben*, to write, &c. 

I teach you the German Ian- 3* Ul)xt @tc bt« bcutfcfte ^pxas 
guage. (fte.» 

To instruct. -Juntctricftt tvtl}ciltn(qv ge# 

C ben*). 

The instruction, the lessons, ter Untcrrt^t 

He giTes me lessons. ^ ^ ^^^^.^^ ^. ^ Untctrid)t 

I give him .essons in German (I 3c^ gebe (or crt^ieite) i^m Untftrtc^t 

teach him German). tm iDeutfd)cn. 

I gave lessons in English to his 3d) t)a(>e fetncn Jtinbent tlntemcftl 

children (I taught his children im ^a(ifd)(n ert^eitt 

He takes lessons in dancing. (Sr nimmt Unterttc^t im ^ngeiu 

The learned man, Ux ®efe{)tte ; 

• ^U 6)»va(^, the lai^[uage, ii a IbininiiM noon, and has n in the pliinL 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


a learned man, 

the clergyman, 
a clergyman, 

the Gennan master (meaning 
the master of the German 
the German master (meaning 
that the master is a German, 
whatever he teaches), 
•he dancing master, 
To dance. 
To cipher, to reckon. 

(in QMc^rtet (See Obs, 

fecr ®cijttid)c; 
(in ®ci|llid)(t ; 

tet 2)(Utjcfe(ctwr ; 


t)fr $£anamcl|lcr. 



To remember^ to recollect. ®ic^ ertnnetn. 

Obs, D. This verb governs either the genitive alone 
or, less elegantly, the accusative with the prepositioc 

Do you remember that man ? 
I do remember him. 

Does he recollect his promise 

He does recollect it 

Does he recollect it 1 

I remember you. 

I recollect them. 

He remembers me. 

He recollects us. 

I have remembered him. 

(Srtnnrtn ^tc fid) bicfc^ WlannUl 
3(^ crinnerc mid) fcincr. 

{(Srinncrt ct pd) \tmti aStrfpK 
Crinncrt ct fic^ on fctn ^tv^f 

\ (St crinncrt p* bcffcn. 
\ Qt (tinncrt p(^ baran* 
jerinncrt er fi(ft bcffen? 
^Gtinnert er {14 ^aran? 

34 erinncre mi4 Sbtet. 

3d) erinncre mid) iftrcr. 

Gc crinncrt ficft tncinct. 

(5r crinncrt fid) unfct. 

34 ^<^^^ ttud) fcincr crinncrt 



Do you call me 1 — ^I do call you. — What is your pleasure 1 — ^Yw 
must rise, for it is already late. — What do you want me fori— 1 
have lost all my money at play, and I come to beg you to lend me 
some. — What o'clock is it T — It is already a quarter past six, and 
you have slept long enough. — Is it long since you rose 1 — It is au 
hour and a half since I rose. — Do you often go a walking! — ^I go 
a walking when I have nothing to do at home. — Do you wish to 
lake a w^k 1 — I cannot take a walk, for I have too much to do.— 
Has your brother taken a ride on horseback 1— He has taken an 
airing in a carriage.— Do your children often go a walking 1—Thej 
go a walking every morning after breakfast — Do you take a walk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


r dmner 1 — ^AfWr dinner I drink tea and then I take a walk.-* 
Do yon oflen take your children a walking f — I take them a walking 
CTery morning and every evening. — Canyon go alonor with me 1— 
I cannot go along with you, for 1 must take my little orother out a 
walking. — Where do you walk 1 — We walk in our uncle's garden 
and fields. — Do you like walkinff 1 — I like walking better than eat- 
isg and drinking. — Does your father like to take a ride on horse- 
back f — He likes to take a ride in a carriage better than on horse- 
back. — Must one lore children who are not ffood 1 — One ought, on 
the contrary, to punish and despise them. — Who has taught you to 
read ? — ^1 hare learnt it with (bci) a French master. — Has he also 
tangfat yon to write 1 — He has taught me to read and to write.— 
Who has taught your brother arithmetic 1 — ^A German master has 
taught it him. — Do you wish to take a walk with us 1 — 1 cannot |^o 
a vralking, for I am waiting for my German master. — Does your 
brother wish to take a walk ? — He cannot, for he is taking lessons 
in dancing. 

Hare you an English master? — We hare one. — Does he also 
2:iTe you lessons in Italian t — He does not knoV Italian ; but we 
naTe an Italian and Spanish master.— What has become of youi 
old writing master ? — He has taken orders (has become a clergy- 
man). — What has become of the learned man whom I saw at youi 
house last winter ! — He has set up for a merchant. — And what has 
become of his son 1 — He has turned a soldier. — Do jon still recol- 
lect my old dancin? master 1 — I do still recollect him; what has 
become of him 1— -He is here, and you can see him, if you like 
(nwUcn).— Hast thou a German master ? — I have a very good (one), 
for it is my father, who gives me lessons in German and in £nff- 
lish. — Does your father also know Polish ? — He does not know it 
yet, but he intends to learn it this summer. — Do you remember 

four promise 1 — I do remember it. — What did you promise me ?— 
promised to give you lessons in German ; and I will doit. — Wil 
you beg\n this morning? — I will begin this evening, if you please 
(wmn €i S^nen gefiJillia ijl). — Do you recollect the man whose son 
taught us dancing 1—1 no longer recollect him. — Do you still recol- 
lect my brothers 1 — ^I do recollect them very well, for when I was 
studying at Berlin, I saw them every day. — Does your uncle still 
recollect me 1 — I assure you that he still recollects you.— Do you 
•peak German better than my cousin t — I do not speak it as well as 
he, for he speaks it better than many Germans. — Which of your 
(Hipils speaks it the best I—The one that was walking with me yes- 
terday speaks it the best of them all. — Is your uncle's house as hiffh 
as ours '^— Yours is higher than my uncle's, but my cousin's is the 
highest house that I have ever seen. — Has your friend as many books 
is 1 ? — You have more of them than he ; but my brother has more 
of them than (both) you and he. — Which of us (9Bcr t)Cn un^ has 
the most money t — You have the most, for I have but thirty orowiis» 
toy friend has but ten, and you have five hundred. (^Ude end id 
l^son XXXIV.) ^ 

10 Digitized by COOgle 


0EVEN1T.SECOND LESSON.— ^oei mb 9itbm^f0U 

To make use oft U use. 

Do you use my horse 1 

I do use it. 

Does your father use it 1 

He does use it. 

Have you used my carriage T 

I have used it. 

Do you use my books 1 

I do use them. 

May I use your book t 

Thou mayest use it. 

@ic^ 6cl)Uncn (governs ^ 

SBcbtcnen ©U pc^ mc'ncg gpferbe^T 
3* M'unc niicb bclfctbcn. 
Seticnt fic^ Sftt S5atct tcffetben? 
(St beticnt fic^ teffctben. 

34 f)Abe mtdft beffetben betient 
95cMcnen ®tc Iti meinct SSc^r? 
3^ bebtene nncb bctfelbciu 
itann t(b mt(( 3()ti;6 S3u(^^ UtUs 

IDu fannfl S)id) beffctben beblenen. 

go away 

To approach, to draw i 
To vnthdraw from, to 


Do you approach the fire ? 
I do approach it. 
I go away from the fire. 
I ffo away from it. 
What do you recollect % 
I recollect nothing. 
What are you withdrawing from ? 
Are you cold 1 
I am very cold. 
I am not cold. 
Art thou cold 1 
Is he warm t 
Are they warm or cold t 
They are neither warm nor cold. 

Who is cold 7 

My feet are cold. 

His hands are cold. 

Why does that man go away fit>m 

the fire t 
He goes away from it, boeause 

he is not cold. 

To freez^-^frozen. 

©t(^ nd^txn (governs the dative). 
®ic^ fntfernen (governs the dative 

with the preposition 9on). 
9{d^(m ^ie pd> bcm geuop ? 
3^ n&bete mi^ bemfrlben. 
3d) cntfcme mt(ft j»nt 5?cuct. 
3<^ cntferne nuc^ bavcn. 
9&oran etinncrn ©ic fift ? 
3<^ erinncrc mt<^ on niibti. 
SSoMn entfemen €ic ftc^ ? 


(&i x^ mix \i^t fait 

G« tfl m 1 1 nidjjt fa(t» 

■ 3ft c6 ibm tpatm ? 

3fl ti t^nen tvarni obet fa(t? 

(&^ ifl t^ncn n»(ber warm nodi 

t SS^cmiflr«fa(t? 
t (&i tft mtr an bm ^ftpen !a(t 
t (S^ ifl \t)m an ben |)dnbai fait 
SSarum entfemt fid) bicfet axann MB 

beni geucr ? 
^ ent^nt flc^ boMn^ toeU e$ xkm 

ntc^t fatt tft 

t Sriccen — oefrcten, 
^cot (imperJect). 

Oht. The impersonal verb friemt/ to freeze, goverw 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


&e accusative, and may also be used for the English 
verb to be coldy as : 

eg frtcrt mic6 fc^r. 
©g fricrt niic^ m&iX. 
aj?cn fcicrt c« ? 

I am very cold. 

I am not cold. 

Who is cold % 

My feet are cold. + SWtr fricrcn tie Jilpe. 

His iiands are cold. \ 3t)ni fcietcn tie ^^ntc 

¥(»■ what 7 whereto ? for what SB s u ? 
purpose T 

What do you want money for ? SBc^u braucfeen ©te ®etb ? 

I want some to bny a carriage 3c^ btauc^e n>e(d)eg^ urn (inen Sffia^ 

with. gen ju faufcn. 

What does this horse serve you fBigu 6ient 3()nen biefeg 9^ferb ? 

It genres me to ride out upon. (Si Mem mir ou^juveiten or gam Uuw 

To ride out. Tfugreitcn*. 

To go out in a carriage. 2(ugfaf)ren*. 


Which is the nearest way to go to your uncle's casi'ie 1 — ^This 
way is shorter than the one we took yesterday ; but my father 
knows one which is the nearest of all. — Do you use my carriage 1 
—I do use it. — Has your father used my horse 1 — He has used it, 
— What does this horse serve you for ? — It serves me to ride out 
upon. — Do yon use the books which I lent you t — I do use them.-* 
May I (^onn id)) use your knife 1— Thou mayest use it, but thou 
most not cut thyself. — May my brothers use your books 1 — ^They 
may use them, but they must not tear them. — May we use your 
•tone table 1 — ^You may use it, but you must not spoil it — What 
has my wood served you for 1 — It has served me to warm myself 
with. — For what purpose do your brothers want money 1 — ^They 
want Bone to live upon. — What does this knife serve us for 1 — ^It 
serves us to cut our bread, our meat, and our cheese with. — Is it 
cold to day 1 — ^It is very cold. — Will you draw near the fire 1 — ^I 
cannot draw near it, for I am afraid of burning myself. — Why does 
your friend go away from the fire t — He goes away from it, because 
he is afraid of burning himself. — Art thou coming near the firel — 
I am coming near it, because I am very cold. — Are thy hands cold 1 
—My hands are not cold, but my feet are. — Do you go away from 
the fire t — I do go away from it. — Why do you go away from iti— 
Because I am not cold.^Are you cold or warm ?-— I am neither cold 
nor warm. 


Why do your children approach the fir© ! — ^They approach it, be- 
tause they are cold.^Is any body cold 1— Somebody is eold. — Who 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

- 320 

It eold t — ^The little boy, whose father has lent you a horse, is coML 
—Why does he not warm himself t — Because his father has no 
money to buy wood. — Will you tell him to come to me to warm 
himself? — I will tell him so. — Do you remember anything ! — ^I re- 
member nothing. — What does your uncle recollect 1 — He recollecta 
your promise. — What have I prombed him ? — You have promised 
him to go to Germany with him next winter. — ^I intend to do so il 
it is not too cold. — Are your hands often cold T-— My hands are 
scarcely ever cold, but my feet are often so. — WTiy do you with- 
draw from the fire ? — I have been sitting near the fire this hour and 
a half, so that I am no longer cold. — Does your friend not like to 
sit near the fire ? — He likes, on the contrary, much (fc^r) to sit neai 
the fire, but only when he is cold. — May one approach your uncle t 
— One may approach him, for he receives every body. (See end 
of Lesson XXaIV.) 

SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON.-JDrd titt& 0icbtn?ij«te 

To shave J <Ra|iren (verb active). 

1 snave. ^ ^. ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ reflexive). 

To get shaved. &\d^ rofiren loffen*. 

To dress, to put on clothes. 2(njteben*. 

To dress. Xnncifenu 

To undress, to put off clothes. 2(u6^te^en*. 

To undress. 2CueH<ib<n. 

Obs. A, Slnjie^* expresses either to dresM or to pui 
on clotheSf but ottfleibeit can only be used to express the 
English to dress. The same may be said with i^gard to 
au^jic^cn* and au^tteiben* 

Have you dressed yourself! ^obcn @ic fi(J angefletbct ? 

I have not yet dressed myself. 3c^ l)a&e mt^ nod) nidjit ongefCdbft 

Have you dressed the child ! ^okn @te tag ^inb angcjogcn ? 

I have dressed it. Sc^ })aU e^ ange^cgen. 

He has put on his coat. @r f)at fcinen ^cd angcjcgen. 

He has taken off his shoes. ^ f^at fetne 6d)ub( au^CjOgou 

To wake. 95icdcn, aufioecfcn* 

To awake. (Sttoa6:^in, auftoac^cn. 

Obs. B. SEBcrfeti and oufttjccfttt are active verbs, but 
entxicf)en and ayxftoa&fiXi are neuter, and take the verb 
(em* for their auxiliary. SBecfett signifies to wake in- 
tenUonally, auftoecfett unintentionally : Ex. SEBoffat ®f 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wMi tan jttJei Vif)t toeden ? Will you wake me at two 
o'clock? 3)tacf)en @ie feineit ?dnn, bamit ®ie itfu nidft 
aafaedtn, do not make any noise, that you may not 
wake him. &toad}en means to awake at once or by ac- 
cident. Ex. 3^ ettoadjte auf einmal au^ meinem Xvanme^ 
I at once awoke from my dream. 91ufh)ad)en^ means to 
awake regularly without any accident. Ex. 2)e^ SRor^ 
gtni ouftoac^ett/ to awake in the morning. 

To come down ( S^ah, tfinab > lietgen*, ge^*, 
(See Less. L.) ( ipenmter^ ^imtnter J reiten*, fal|rcti*, tc. 

To go down into the well. 3n ben SBninncn binuntcc ftci^en*. 

To come down Uie hill. 95om ©rrge bcrafe jicigcn*. 

To go down the river. >Dm 6trcm ?)inQb fa^rcn*. 

To alight from one's horse, to 83cm ^fcrbe fletgen*. 

To alight, to get out. | JSKftgcn prigen*. 

To mount — to ascend* Gteigen (part, past gefUegnu 

Imperf. {Keg). 

To meant the horse. TTuf^ (ouf bog) >pfcrb flcigcn*. 

To get into the coach. 3n ben aBa^cn j^ctgen*. 

To go on board a ship. 3n ein ©(^tff Jlctgcn*. 

The dream, the beard, bcv Sraum ; ber 93ort ; 

the streaii (the river), bcr 6trcm. 

Where is yonr brother? 2Bo tf! 36t: ©rubet ? 

He is in the garret. (&t if! ouf bent 93oben. 

Will you desire him to ccme SBctlen ©ie iftn bitten f)tvaf> (f)ettttti 

down 1 ter) ju fcmmen ? 

The G[arret (the loft) under the 3)cc JBoben unter bem tOddjC dnti 

roof of a house. ^aufeg. 

To come down. ^etob (or (eruntet) fommen. 

To behave^ to conduct ones\ 614 QuP^ten. 

self* \ ©i(fe betragen^ (Imperf. betnig). 

I behave well. 34 f&f)re mtc^ gut ouf. 

How does he behave ! Bte faf)tt er |id^ QUf ? 

Towards. ® c g e n (a preposition governing 

the accusative). 

He behaves ill towards this man. (Sr (etr^gt fic^ fc^lec^t gegen btefen 

He has behaved ill towards me. (Sc M fl<^ tU\ gegen mi^ t^etrogen. 



To he worth whiis. SDer axftfje* wettft etii* 

fs it worth while ! Sft f ^ l>« SRilfee wcrt^ ? 

It is worth while. 66 if! tcr 9}^^^ ivcpt^. 

It is not worth while. ©^ i)t iud)t l>cr 5D2il$c lucrt^ 

Is it worth while to do that? 3(1 €i lev 9)?fib€ toixti), tiff«5 ^ 


Is it worth while to write to 3ft ^^ ^ct iDSiibe nKrt^/ on t^n jH 

him ? [(hrctbcn ? 

Is it better? 3flf^t>fffcr? 

It is bitter. ©6 t(t bclfcr. 

€t is better to do this than that. & if! kffct, tiefe^ aii imH jfl 

It is better to stay here than to d&i if! U^ev, l)i(t ^ hkibcn, atS p» 
go a walking. gtcren ju Qtf)aL 

■XCRC18E8. 173. 

Haye you shaved to-day ? — I have shaved. — Has your brother 
•havedT — He has not shaved himself, but has got shaved. — ^Do 
you shave often 1 — I shave every morning, and sometimes also in 
the evening. — When do you shave in the evening? — ^When I do 
not dine at home. — How many times a day does your father 
shave ? — He shaves only once a day, but my brother has sudi a 
strong beard, that he is obliged to shave twice a day. — Does your 
uncle shave often ? — He shaves only every other day ^etncn Sag uiu 
fccn anfecrn), for his beard is not strong. — At what o'clock do you 
dress in the morning? — I dress as soon as I have breakfasted, and 
I breakfast every day at eight o'clock, or at a quarter past eight. — 
Does your neighbour dress before he breakfosts ? — He bresS^fasts 
before he dresses. — At what o'clock in the evening dost thou un- 
dress? — I undress as soon as I return from (avS) the theatre.— 
Dost thou go to the theatre every evening? — ^I do not go every eve- 
ning, for it is better to study than to go to the theatre. — ^At what 
o'clock dost thou undress when thou dost not go to the theatre?— 
I then undress as soon as I have supped, and go to bed at ten 
o'clock. — Have yoa already dressed the child? — ^I have not dressed 
it yet, for it is still asleep (fc^ISft nccb). — At what o'clock does it 
get up ? — ^I gets up as soon as it is waked. 


Do you rise as early as I ? — I do not know at what o'clod: yoi 
rise, but I rise as soon as I awake. — Will you tell my servant to 
wake me to-morrow at four o'clock ? — ^I will tell him. — ^Why have 
you risen so early ? — My children have made such a noise that 
they wakened me. — Have ycu slept well ? — I have not slept well, 
for you made too much noise, — At what o'clock must I wake yon? 

• ^ie fDlft^ k a feminine luiMtantive, and takea tt in the phmL 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


— ToHDorrow thou mayest wake me at six c*cIock.— At what 
o*dock did the ^ood captain awake t — He awoke at a quarter past 
ire in the morning. — When did this man go down into the well 1 
—He went down into it this morning. — Has he come up again 
Jrel (oncbct ^erauf acfti«g«n) ! — He came up an hour ago. — Where 
^1 your brother 1 — He is in his room. — Will you tell him to come 
; Jown 1 — I will tell him so ; but he is not dressed yet. — Is your 
^iend still on the mountain ?— He has already come down. — Did 
irou go down or up this river? — We went down it. — Has your 
brother dined already 7 — He dined as soon as ne had alighted from 
his horse. — ^Is your uncle already asleep (fc^tafen*) 1 — ^I believe 
that he is asleep, for he went to bed as soon as be had alighted.— 
Did mv cousin speak to you before he started T — He spoke to me 
before le got into the coach. — Have you seen my brother 1—1 saw 
him before I went on board the ship. 


How did my child behave ! — ^He did behave very well. — How 
did my brother behave towards you t — ^He behaved very well to- 
wards me, for he behaves well towards every body. — ^Is it worth 
while to write to that mant — ^It is not worth while to write to him. 
—Is it worth while to alight in order to buy a cake I — It is not 
worth while, for it is not long since we ate. — Is it worth while to 
dismount from my horse in order to give something to that poor 
man ? — Yes, for he seems to want it ; but you can (f8nncn) give 
him something wit! tout dismounting^ from your horse. — Is it better 
to go to the meatre than to study i— It is better to do the latter 
^lan the former. — Is it better to learn to read German than to speak 
iti — ^It is not worth while to learn to read it without learning to 
speak it. — Is it better to go to bed than to ^o a walking t — ft is 
better to do the latter than the former. — ^Is it better to get into a 
eoach than to go on board the ship ? — ^It is not worth while to get 
into a 3oach or to go on board the ship when one has no wish to 
travel (See eol ot Lesson XXXIY.) 

SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON.— bier tftlb fAthtn^ffU 

To hire, to rent. ^xttf^ttL 

To hire a room. @in 3immer mtct^cn. 
Rjive you hired a room 1 ^abcn @tc etn Strnmnr gemict^ct 7 

1 iidve hired one. 3d) l)CiU tini genuet^et. 

Tolet ©crmictbctu 

He has a room to let. (£r ^at etn Btmmcc gu t^mnietgciL 

To part with something. Qtxoa^ abfc^ffeiu 



Do you intend to part with jonr ^nb ^e gcfbnncn, SAtf 9>fcs^ aSb» 

horses 1 )ufd)aff(n ? 

I have already parted with them. Si hobc fte fd)cn abgcfc^fft 
He has parted with his carriaxp. Qt fiat fctncn SBogen ab^cfdyafft 
Have you parted with (ctis- |>abcn @te Sb^cn SBebtentcti obgc* 

charged) your servant ? |<^|ft ? 

I have parted with (discharged) 3^ 6o&( i^n obgef(tfaf]t 


Did you get rid of your dama^ f &\nt @te 3hx€n Mtberbenoi Su* 

sugar ? der (o^ ^npccbcn ? 

I did get rid of it. f 3c^ bin tt)n (c^ gnocrbttu 

Did he get rid of his old horse 1 f 3ft cr f<;tn oltci ^pfab \6i gaoco 

He did get rid of it. f Gr tfl (^ tc^ geioccbetu 

To hopef to expect. ^ f f ( n* 

Do you expect to find him there t ^cffen ^te tgn ba ju finbcn 7 
I do 'ntpect it. 3d) f)cf[t rt. 

Hope and expectation make ^offen unb ^anren ma^t SOtandKO 
many a dupe. 3um ^avcitL (See Lesson XL. 

Obs. B.) 
To wait, to tarry. 4^rtctu 

To change. Saufc^en. 

To change one thing for another. (£tn>a$ gcgen (tnKi< Mttoti|(^ oi 


I change my hat for his. 3d) tou|d)€ meinen ^ut gc^oi tcv 

fetntgcn urn. 

To put on one^s hat ^en ^ut oufTeleiu 

To put on linen. SSMfd)C« aniegcn. 

To pnt on a cravat Gin ^(^tud) um^inbcn^. Pajt 

past, geOunben. Imperil bonb. 

I I JutToL on. |3* fee. «nc„ anbm. «uf. 
He pute on other (shifls his) @r (cgt (sicbt) Anbere SBdfc^ os. 


He changes his linen. ^ n>ed)fc(t fctne SQKAfc^e. 

I put on another cravat 3d) Oinbc cin anbcre^ ^o(Mc( unb 

I change my cravat 3d) wcc^^le bo^ ^a(5tu^ 

• ^it 9B5f(^e, the linen, is a feminine collective noun and has oooseqim* 
If no iilunl. — — f 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


To put on oUier clothes. 
He pats on other clothes. 
He puts on another shirt. 
To change the horse. 

; I @t4 uniflriben. 

dv ftetbet fid) uuu 

<St n>cd)fc(t fi'tne JlUtbcr. 

I i Qx )tcf)t cin on^erc^ |>emt aik 

1 ^ n>cd)fc(t fctn ^emt. 

, (Jin entered ^fcrD n<()mcn*. 

> iDa$ g)fcrt wccbfcln. 

To exchange. SBecbfetn. 

To take fresh horses. 3>ic 5>ferl)e »cd)ffln» 

To exchangre a piece of money, ©in ©tftd ®cl^ wccbfctn. 

To correspond with some one. JBtiefe niit 3^niantem n>cd)fc(n. 

Do you eoirespond with your a3kd)fiin 8ic fflrttfftf mitJU^reni $8ito 

father! tcr? 

I do correspond with him. 3c^ ioed)^(e 93tiefi niit i^nu 

6t(^ mi c^en. 

Unter (a preposition goTeming 
the datiye and accosatiye). 

3(6 nufcbe mid) unt<ft bte 8fute. 
Gr mtfc^t {t4 untec tie @olbat(iu 

To mi«. 

I mix among the people. 

He mixes among the soldiers. 

To recognise or to acknowledge.< ^^rfcnnen*. 

Cimperf. crfonnte. 

Do you recogrnise this man 1 (^fenncn @ie btefcn 9)?ann 7 
It is so long since I saw him, 3d) ^abe i^n fd)en fo (onge ntc^t ^ 
am I do not ree^Uect him. fel)cn^ bop ic^ i^n ni4)t mtUttts 



Have you alread}r hired a room T — I have already hired one.-* 
Where have you hired iti — I have hired it in William Street, 
number (one) hundred and fifty one. — At whose house (IBft mem) 
have you hired it t — At the house of the man whose son has sold 
you a horse. — For wh6m has your father hired a room ? — He has 
hired one for his son who has just arrived from Germany.— Did 
you at last get rid of that man 1 — I did get rid of him. — Why has 
your fether parted with his horses 1 — Because he did not want 
them any more. — Have you discharged your servant ? — I have dis^ 
charged him, because he served me no more well. — WTiy have yoa 

BiTied with your carriage T — Because I do not travel any more.— 
as your merchant succeeded at last in getting rid of his damaged 
sugar T — He has succeeded in getting rid of it. — Has ho sold it oa 
er^itl — He was able to sell it for cash, so that he did not sell it 
on credit. — Do you hope to arrive early in Paris ? — I hope to a^ 
riTC there at a quarter past eight, for my father is waiting for m* 
this evening.— For what have you exchanged your carriage which 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


v<m no 1 )nger made use of! — I have exchanged it for a fine Aia 
oiau hoise.— Do yoa wish to exchange your book for mine I — ^1 
<!annot, for I want it to study German with. — Why do you taka 
your hat off? — I take it off, because I see my old writingnnaster 
coming. — Do you put on another hat to go to the market 1 — ^I do 
not put on another to go to the market, but to go to the great con- 


Why does your father put on other clothes ? — He is golns to Uie 
king, so that he must put on others.^Have you put on anouier hat 
to go to the English captain 1 — I have put on another, but I have 
not put on another coat or other boots. — How many times a day 
dost thou put on other clothes ? — I put on others to dine and to go 
CO the theatre. — Do you often put on a clean shirt (etn n>ciM JbemtJ ! 
— I put on a clean one every morning. — When does your father put 
on a clean shirt 1— He puts it on when he goes to the ball. — Does 
he put on a clean cravat (ein WfiM ^(^tu<^) as often as you? — ^He 
puts one on oftener than 1, for he does so six times a day.-— Did 
you often take fresh horses when you went to Vienna t — I took 
fresh ones every three hours. — Will you change me this gold coin 
0>a^ ®ct^[lfic!) 1 — I am going to (roin) change it for you ; what money 

00 you wish to have for it (Daplr) 1 — I wish to have crowns, florins, 
and kreuzers. — Do you correspond with my friend 1 — ^I do corres- 
pond with him.— How long have you been corresponding with my 
brother t — I have been corresponding with him these six years al- 
most. — Why do you mix among those people? — I mix among i 
them in order to know what they say of me.^Have you recognised 
your father t — I had not seen him for such a long time, that I did 
not recognise him (36) f)atte tf)n fo (onge ntc^t ^c^then, ba0 tc^ i^n nic^t 
loiebec erfannte). — Do you still speak German? — It is so long sines 

1 spoke it, that I have nearly forgotten it all. — Amongst you (Uatcr 
(Suc^) country people there are many fools, are there not (ntcftt teaift) 1 
asked a philosopher lately (neuti^) of a peasant (etncn S3au(Tn). 
The latter (Dicfcr) answered him : '* Sir, one finds some in all sta- 
tions (btfc ©tanb)." " Fools sometimes tell the truth ^ie 2Ba^ 
^it),'* said the philosopher. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SEVENTY.FIFTH LESSON.— ^tif tinft 0iebai?ig0te 

To find one's self (to Je, to do}. 0i(^ bcjfnben*. Imperf. fan^ 

How do you do ? f SDK* bcjtnben €5lc pcfe ? 

I am very well. f 3* bfffnbe mid) fc^t voc% 

How is your father ? 2Bie i>tfn\>(t fi<^ 3^c ^ttt »ot« I 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Obs. In the German the words i^ftr, sir, ^Ott^ ma^ 
dam, &c. must be preceded by the possessive pronoun. 

He is ill. f Ox befinbet ftcft fibcC 

Your brother. t 3^« |>etr Srutct. 

Your cousin. t S^t ^crt ajettft. 

Your brothers. f 3^te |>et:t:<n laSrftbn; 

To stay, to sojourn. ©icft ouftolten*. Imperf. ^irit* 
Hare you stayed long at Vien- ^ben ^te fU^ tange in SBtni aufi^ 

nat V fyxiuni 

1 have stayed there only three 3d) babe mtc^ nut brd SSoge ba auf< 

days. gcbaltcn. 

Where does your brother stay at S(Bo bait ficft Sftt .&crt SBru^ft ges 

present t goiroarttg oaf 1 

At present ®egenn>6rttg. 

To mock at, to criticise some one @tdb fiber 3(manben obet ttxoai auf> 

or something. Mten*. 

To lau^ at some one. €>t(jb Abet S^tnanben (ufttg modKtu 

He criticises every body. (Sr t)^t {14 fi^tr S^^ctmann auf. 

To earn, to get* iBerbtenem 

To gain, (S^ewtnnen*. Part past, g e • 

wonnen. Imperf. gewanm 

To get one's Sread. 0ein ©reb oerbienen or erwecben* 

Part past, enoorben. Imperf. 

To get one's Itvelihood hy. Gtcberndbrenmit 

He gets his livelihocd by work- (Sr ernA^rt {t^ mit TCrbetteii. 

I get my livelihood by writing. Scft emigre mt(4 mit ©dfeteiben. 
I gain my money by working. 3d> oetbtene mcin ®etb mit 2Crbetten* 
By what does this man get his SSomit emd^vt fi4 ttefec 97{ann? 

livelihood ' 

To spill. 85etgtepen*, Part, past, tjet* 

goffen. Imperf. oergo?. 

He has spil^. the wine over the Qx ftat ben SS^etn auf ben ZX\6) oet* 
table* ' goffen (action)* 

• Componna verbi are coi^jiigated eiactly like simple verbi. We shall 
liierefore merely note the irregmaritiea of the latter, ana leave it tc the learner 
himaelf to add the separable or inseparab.e jpartiries. Thus fanb is the im- 
perfect of finben*, to find (See Lessons XXXV. and XLII.)> and bcfanb that 
of befinben*. The participle past of finben is gefunben, and that of befinben*, 
Iffnttben, the syllable oe being omitted on account of the inseparable particle 
^See Lesson XLV.). &{t\i is the imperfect of the verb ^altcn*, to hold (Les- 
son LIIL), and f^ielt auf that of oufbaUen*. The past participle of ballen is 
ftloltcii, and that of ottnoUni* aufge^oUeit. 


To stand. 
The wine Is on the table. 

Has your father already 

parted 1 
He is ready to depart. 
To make ready. 
To make one's self ready. 
To keep one's self ready. 

To split (to pierce)* 

To break somebody's heart 
You break this man's heart. 

To ?tang. 

To be hanging. 

Was my hat hanging on the nail t 

It was hanging on it. 

I hang it on the nail. 

The thief has been hanged. 

Who has hung the basket on the 


The thief, 

tlie robber, the highwayman, 
The patient (the sick pcorson), 

Tolerably well. 
It is rather late. 
It is rather far. 

eftc6(ti*. Part, past, gcftonbct 

Imperf. (lanl). 

Dit SBetn fle()t auf bent Si|(^ 

de- 3fl 3()r ^ctr iBotcr fc^n obgcrdft? 

Gr tfl hctcxi abjutelfciu 



&d^ Uxt'xt mac^en. 

6td) borcit gotten*. 

BerTpoIten (bucd^^e^ren). 

Scmanbem ba« |)frj burt^bobrou 
€ftc turd)bo^i;en ttefem aXonne M 

^&ngf n (verb active, regnlar) 
^an()en* (a neuter irregulai 

verb). Part, past, gebangou 

Imperf. bing. 

^tna metn |>ut an bcm 9{agc(? 
(^ Otng taron. 
3cb biSnge t^n an ten 9{ageL 
;Dcc iDteb t|l ae^dngt wortm. 
UBer bat ben Jtotb an ben SBanm ge* 

ber 3>ie6 ; 
bet 9{&ubec. 
bet ^ottent (See Note, 

Bteni(t(b/ fo jtemTK^ 
di tft jiemftd) fP&t. 
(S6 tfl )tem(t4 roeit 


How is your father 1 — He is (only) so so. — How is your patient! 
^-He is a little better to-day than yesterday. — ^Is it long since yon 
•aw your brothers ? — I saw them two days ago. — How were they t 
—They were very well.— How art thoul — I am tolerably well 
(nlrf)t iUi). — How long has your brother been learning German? 
^-He has been learning it only three months. — Does he already 
•peak it? — He already speaks, reads, and writes it better than year 
cousin who has been learning it these five years. — Is it long sines 
you heard of my uncle t — It is hardly three months since I heard 
of him — Where was he staying then t — He was staying at Berlin« 
but now he is in London. — Do you like t> speak to my uncle 1- 


• . 

I do like Tei7 orach (ftfyc) to speak to him, bat I do not like (tcft NN 
Bi<^ gem) him to laagh at me. — Why does he laugh at you 1 — He 
laiigfas at me, because I speak badly. — Why has your brother no 
friends 1 — He has none, because he criticises every body. — What 
do you get your liTelihood by t — I get my livelihood by working. 
—Does your friend get his livelihood by writing 1 — He gets it by 
speaking and writing. — Do these gentlemen get their livelihood by 
working 1 — ^They do not get it by doing any thing, for Uiey are 
too idle to work. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

SEVENTY-SKTH LESSON.— 0ecl)« utift fileben^igste 

To doubt any thing. ) 2Cn etwa^ |wcifc(n (governs the da- 

To Question any thing. ) tive with the preposition on)* 

Do yon doubt that? Bwrifctn ®ie boran ? 

do not doubt it. "^ 

I make no question, hare no C3(^^rif(e nt^t botan. 

doubt of it. 3 

It is not to be doubted. iDaxan ifl ntd)t gu petfeln. 

What do you doubt 1 ©oran prifctn Bic7 
I doubt what that man has told 3d) petfle on bcni/ioad blefec ^am 

me. mit gcfagt fyxt 

To agree to a thing. UcUt (or mcgen) etioa^ einig (oi 

ring) wcrbcn*. 

Do you grant that 7 ®ef!cbcn €fie ti ? 

I do grant It. 3d) gcftc^e ti (or i^ gcflc^e ci m, oi 

id) gebe eg ^). 

flow mach hare you paid for that SBteotri t)o6en ®te ffir ttefeo ^ut be 

hatt gaWt? 

I ha^e paid three crowns for it. 3c^ ^6e ttei SS^alet bafdr beja^ft 

JV. Sftr (a preposition governing th« 


I have bought this horse for fire 3d) l^6e btcfeg ^erb f&r (or um) 
hundred francs. f(inf ^untect Stanfen gefauft. 

The price, bet 5)rcig. 

Have you agreed about the price 1 @tnb @t( fiOft ben $mg (wegen bc< 

5)reifcg) einig gcworben ? 
We haTe agreed abou; it. SBtr ftnb botfibei; (begiocgen) einig 

Ab<mt what have you agreed ? SScrftber (loegwegen) finb Cfle einig 

geiootben 7 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Abovt ihe price. < 

On account of (about). 

Do you confess your fault t 

I do confess it« 

( confess it to be a fault. 

To afjrree, to compose a differ- , 
ence. I 

To consent. 

For all that. 

To wear. 

What garments does he wear? 
He wears beautiful garments. 

Against my custom. 

As customary. 
The partner, 

To obserre something, to take 

notice of something. 
Do you take notice of that ? 
I do take notice of it. 
Did you observe that? 
Did you notice what he did 1 

Uebct ben 9>rd«. 

aBegcn M q)Tcif(rt. ^ 

SBcgcn (a preposition gOTomiog 

the genitive), 
©eflcbcn ®tc S^rcn gcWet cin ? 
5d) Qcftehe ibn rim 
3d) 9i'Pc()c, bap ti rin JfcWct ift 

-■ 6iA wrglcidKn*. Part, past, t>a» 

gUcfccn. Imper£ »ctgji^. 
.Sid) wtcinigen. 

Snbeffctt/ bo*, lebc*. 
JDcffen ungeac^tet 

Sragcn*. Imperf. tcug. 

©a« flit JKcibct jtflat ec 7 

I did notice it. 

To expect (to hope). 

Do you expect to receive a letter 

from your uncle t 
I do expect it. 
He expects it. 
Have we expected it t 
We have expected it. 

To get (meaning to procure). 
( cannot procure any money. 
He cannot procure any thing to 


(St tc&gt Wnc Jtleib 

®€gcn mcine ©rwc^n^rit (a fern. 

noun taking en in the plural). 
SBte gewobnttiS* 
bet ^nbet^enof (gen. en). 

et»a« metfen (gewa^t wetben*/ fe* 

fOlcxUn @ie tai ? 
3d) merfe e«. 
^6en @ie bo^ gemetft? 
^Qben 6ie s^tl)tn, woi ct getjflf 


SSetmutben ((wffen). 

SSetmutben ©ie einen SBttef wi 3b* 

3* fto!T« ««• 
(£t t>ennutbet e^ 
^oben wit e« Detmutbet? 
SBtt i)aUn e^ t)etmut^et 


3* fann nut frin ®elb Mtf^affcn. 
(St fann ftcb nitbt^ iu effen Deif[|af> 


What have you gained that money by 1 — ^I have gained it b^f 
working. — What have you done with your wine t— I have spilt i< 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


on the table. — ^Where is yonra t — ^It is on Uie larffe tao.e in mj \iU 
tie room ; but 70a mast not drink any of it, for I must keep it foi 
ray father who is ill. — Are yon ready to depart with me 1 — I am ta 
—Does yoar uncle depart witli us ? — He departs with us if he plea- 
ses. — Will you tell him to be ready to depart to-morrow at six 
o'clock in the evenine 1 — I will tell him so. — Why are you lau^- 
mgr at that man ? — ^I do not intend to laugh at him. — I beg of yon 
not to do it, for you will break his heart if you laugh at him. — Why 
have they (man) hanged that man T — ^They have hanged him, be- 
cause he has killed somebody.— Have they (man) hanged the man 
who stole a horse (from) your brother (in the dative) 1 — ^They (?Dlan) 
have punished him, but they have not handed him : they only hang 
highwaymen in our country (b(t un6). — Where have you found mv 
coat 1 — I found it in the blue room ; it was hanging on a great nail. 
— W^iU you hang my hat on the tree 1 — ^I will hang it thereon. 


Do you doubt what I am telling you 1 — ^1 do not doubt it. — Do 
;ou doubt what that man has told you T — I do doubt it, for he has 
)ften told me what was not true (nw^r). — Why have you not kept 
four promise ! — ^I know no more what I promised you. — Did you 
not promise us to take (fflf)rcn) us to the concert (on) Thursday T — I 
confess that I was wrong in promising you ; although (tntcffcn) the 
concert has not taken place. — Does your brother confess his fault 1 
— He does confess it. — What does your uncle say to that letter T— 
He says that it is written very well ; but he admits that he has 
been wrong in sending it to the captain. — Do you confess your fault 
now 1 — I confess it to be a fault. — Have you at last bought the 
horse which you wished to buy 1 — I have not bought it, for I have 
not beei able to procure money. (See end of Lesson XXXIY.) VENTH LESSON. — Siebw Iini 
siebeniigsU ficction. 


This past tense expresses an action entirely finished 
«^hen another action which relates to it was com- 

Ai^T having read (after I had« 9{a^tem tc^ gelefcn ^ttc 

After having cut the bread (after ^ad/tdti tv ^ai SDcot gcfi^mttett f)QU 

he had cut the bread). te. 

After having eaten (after he had md)ticm cr d^geffen f)attt. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


After catting myself. 9{ad)tem id) mtd) 9c|<!^tttcn (ottc^ 

AAer dressing yourself. 9{ad)^em 6ie ftd) angc^cn fyittetL 
After he had withdrawn from the 5Rad)tem cr fid) ocm Jcuer cntfodl 

fire. fyxttt. 

After thou hadst shaved. 9?ad)t>em Du iDicft raftrt bottcft 

After they had warmed them- 9>{a4tem |te fid) gciodnnt t^attco. 


Before I set out Qf^t 14 obtcife. 

When I had read, I breakfasted, ^adfitm id) getefen ^tte, ftfi^^ficttt 


Dlr' In the second member of a compound phrase the 
nominative is placed after its verb. 

When you had dressed you went 92od)bfm &t fi<^ angqcgen ^ttcn, 

out. g t n 9 e n 6tc qu^ 

When he had cut the bread he 92ad)brm ct ba^ 93rcb gcfc^nttten f^ 

cut the meat. U, f dft n 1 1 1 cr ta^ S^cifc^ 

After he had read the letter he 9{od)beni n ben 5Bnef griefen ()att^ 

said. f<^Bte cr. 

Before I depart I will once more (Sit tdb abrctfc, miii i 4 no(!^ <tn« 

see my children. mol mcine Jttnbei; fcl)ni. 

0&5. ^. This transposition of the nominative does not 
take place when the phrase begins with the subject 

He cut the meat after he had cut Gc fdftnitt ba^ ^cifcb/ noii^bcm ct M 
the bread. <Btcb gcf^nittcn ^ttu 

What did he do after he had SBo^ t^t ct^ no^bcm er gcgcfTcii ^ 
eaten ? te 7 

He went to bed. Gc gtng $a 5Bctt(. 



To be afflicted at something. Ucbcr ctwa^ bctrfi6t fcin*. 
To afflict one's self at someUiing. Gtdft fiber ctwa^ bcttSbnu 
Are you afflicted at the death of @inb 6tc fiber ben S^ nrhtfl 

my friend ? grcunbe^ bctrftbt ? 

I am much afflicted at it. 3(^ bin fc^r bctrfibt barilbcc 

At what is your father afflicted 1 SBorfibcr ifl 3()C ,{)ccr fGotccbetdKt! 

The accident, bet SufaC ; 

the death, bet Sob* 

To die (to lose life). ©tcrben* 

Idle, am dying. 3d, ffcrbc. 

Thou liest, art dying. ©u fHrbft. 

y Google 


He dies, is dying. Gc fHrbt 

Died. Part, past, geftor6ciu Imperfecti 


To complain of some otic or some- ©itft fiber Semanbenobcf 
thing. etma^ bedagen (befc^toci 


Do 70Q complain of my fiiend t S3eHagen ®te ftc^ ftbet me'tnni 

JrcunD ? 
I do complain of him. 3d) beHoge mid) fiber tf)n. 

Of whom do you complain t llebcr rocn bcf (agen ^te ftcft ? 
Of 1ft nat does your brother com- SBoriiber bcfd)r9crt fid) 3bt S3rut(r7 

To wonder, to be astomshed or 6t(6 fiber etma^ munteriu 
surprised at something. 

Do yoa wonder at what I haye SBunbcrn @te ftc^ fiber t^a^, n)a$ id| 

done % aet^n ^be ? 

I do wonder at it. 3<9 n>unbere mtc^ barfiber, 

Ki what are yon surprised % SBorfiber lountern €fte {t^ 7 

To be glad. 8 i c 6 f e i n* (goyems the datiye) 

To be sorry. 8 e i b f e i n* or t !) u n* (goyems 

the datiye). 

I am glad of it. t G« tft n»tr tieb. 

I am sorry for it. f ©^ ^^^^ o' (iff) ^"'^ ^<i^» 

I am glad to hear that your father (5$ if! mir (teb gu oerne^men, top 3^te 

w well. ^err 95atcr |i(^ »oW f^efinbet 

To hear (to understand). ©emel^men*. 

Dear, tieb ; 

sad, sorrowful. traurtg. 

The prince, ber ^^^ (^tinj) (en in tbs g» 

nitiye) ; 
the count, bet ®rof (en in the genitive) \ 

the baron, ber S3aron. 

Topronounce 2(u<fpte(i^en* 

The Saxon, ber ^4fe ; 

the Prussian, ber ^eupe ; 

the Austrian, ber Deflretc^* 

Saxony, €kid)fen ; 

Prussia, ^^eupen ; 

Austria, Defhrcicft (SDe|lerrel(^*). 

The Christian, ber Gfjrtjl (gen. en) ; 

the Jew, ber 3ube ; 

the negro, bet 0{eger (ber ^tit, gen. en) 

• AH mnet of countnM are nemer. 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 


BXSBCI8B8. 181. 

Has your father at last bought the house 1 — He has not bdiight K 
for he could not agree about the price. — Have you at last agreed 
about the price of that carriage 1 — We have agreed about it. — ^How 
much have you paid for it 1 — I have paid fifteen hundred francs (trt 
granfc) for it. — What hast thou bought to-day ? — I have bought 
three beautiful pictures, a pretty gold ring, and two pair of thread 
stockings. — How much hast thou bought the pictures for ? — I have 
bought them for seven hundred francs. — Do you find that they are 
dear t — I do not find so. — Have you agreed with your partner 1 — ^I 
have agreed with him. — Does he consent to pay you the price of 
the ship 1 — He does consent to pay it to me.— Do you consent to go 
to England 1 — I do consent to go thither. 

Have you seen your old friend a^ain (roicber Qffeb«i) 1 — I have 
seen him again. — Did yon recognise him t — I could hardly recognise 
him, for contrary to his custom, he wears a long sword. — How is 
he 1 — He is very well. — What garments does he wear 1 — He wears 
beautiful new garments. — Have you taken notice of what your boy 
has done t — I have taken notice of it. — Have you punished him for 
it 1 — I have not punished him for it, because he has confessed his 
fault. — Has your father already written to you t — Not yet ; but I 
expect to receive a letter from him to-day. — Of what do you com- 
plain ? — ^I complain of not being able to procure some money. — 
Why do these poor people complain t — ^They complain because they 
cannot procure a livelihood. — How are your parents ? — ^They are 
as usual (wic acn)8f)n(id)), very well. — Is your uncle (3()r |)cn 
£>6<im) well 1 — ^He is better than he usually is (a(6 aewSfjntid)).— 
Have you already received a letter from your friend wno is in Ber- 
lin t — I have already written to him several times ; he bas> how 
•ver, not answered me yet 


What did you do when you had finished your letter t — ^I wesA to 
my brother, who took (f&bren) me to the theatre, where I had the 
pleasure to find one of my friends, whom I had not seen for ten 
years. — What didst thou do af^r getting up this morning 1 — ^When 
I had read the letter of the Polish count, I went out to see the die- 
atre of the prince, which I had not seen before (nod) ntc^t).— What 
did your father do when he had breakfasted t — He shaved and went 
out — What did your friend do after he had been a walking 1 — ^He 
went to rhe baron.-^Did the baron cut the meat after he had cat the 
bread t— i *-Ie cut the bread after he had cut the meat. — When do yoa 
set out 1 — I do not set out till (crjl) to-morrow ; for before I depart 
I will once more see my good friends. — What did your children do 
when they had breakfasted '? — They went a walking with their dear 
preceptor. — Where did your uncle go to after he had warmed him- 
self 1 — He went nowhither. — After he had warmed himself he un- 
dressed and went to bed — ^At what o'clock did he get up 1 — ^He go* 
«p at sunrise — Did you wake him 1—1 had no need to wake bus 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


kt he had got up oefore me. — What did your cousin do when ht 
hmtd (of) we death of his best friend t — He was much afflicted, 
I aad went to bed without say in? a word. — Did you shave before you 
I teakfasted? — I shaved when 1 had breakfasted. — Did you go to 
I M when you had eaten supper ? — When I had eaten supper I 
mote my letters, and when I had written them I went to bed. — At 
what are you afflicted 1 — I am afflicted at that accident. — Are you 
I afflicted at the death of your relation ? — I am much (f<;()r) afflicted 
j It it. — ^When did your relation die 1 — He died last month. — Of 
I wbat do you complain 1 — I complain of your boy. — Why do you 
I complain of him ? — Because he has killed the pretty dog, which I 
, fBceived from one of my friends. — Of what has your uncle com- 
plained ? — He has complained of what you have done. — Has he 
1^ complained of the letter which I wrote to him t — He has com- 
, plained of it. ' (See end of Lesson XXXIY .) 

SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— 3ttl)t Wli SUbenjiflSt* 

DedoHloik of Feminine SabsUnttres. 

NoM. Gen. Dat. Acc. 
rpi { Singular. bie, ber, ber, bie* 

^^® I Plural. bie, ber, bett, bie 

L Singular. 

RiUe. All feminine substantives, without excep- 
tion, together with all foreign feminine words adopted 
into German, as : bte ^otnif the form ; bie Sinte^ the 
line, remain invariable in all the cases singular Ex. 
NoM. bie %ranf the woman; Gen. ber %tanf of the 
w^oman ; Dat. ber %vanf to the* woman ; Acc. bie 
%taUf the woman. 

II. Plural. 

Rule. Feminine substantives ending in e, el, er, add 
9/ and all others ett, in all the cases of the plural ; and 
do not soften the radical vowels. (See Table of the 
Declension of Substantives, Lesson XIU.) 
There are two exceptions to this rule : 
1st, The two substantives: bie SKtttter, the mother; 
bie Zedittx, the daughter, soften the radical vowels in 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


the plural without adding n^ Ex. Plural : bte SRtftUr 
the mothers ; tie 5E6cf)ter, the daughters, 

2d, Feminine monosyllables containing an a or i^ 
are declined in the plural like masculine substantives, 
that is, they add e in all the cases and soften the radi 
cal vowel. ^ 

The ioor — the doors. 
The bottle — ^the bottles. 
The fork — ^the forks. 
The pen — the pens. 
The hand — ^the hands. 
The nut — the nuts. 

She— they.* 

bie ZijUt^ • 
bie %l(Mfe- 
bie OaocI ■ 
bie gcbet - 
bie ^nb - 
bie 3Ju^ - 

-bie glofcfjau 

- bie ®abefa. 

- bie gebenu 
-bie ^nbe. 

eit^fit. (See Table of the 
Personal Pronouns, Lesson 


Has she t ^at ftc ? 

She has. &it hat 

She has noL &it ^t ntd)t 

Hare they? ^Un[ul 

They have. ^ic fykUtu 

They have not. &h l)aUn m&^U 

NoM. Gen. Dat. Aca 
My (feminine singular). I nteiite^ meiner, meiner, tnrme* 
My (plural for all genders).| nteiite^ meiner^ tneineit, tnettte. 

Obs. A. In this manner all possessive pronouns of 
the feminine gender are declined, as : JDeitte, thy ; feine, 
his ; i^re, her ; ttnfere, our ; (Sure, your ; i^re, their. 

The father and his senior his aDcc SSatcr unb r^^tn @o^n cbor fdne 

daughter. !Scd)ter. 

The mother and her son or her IDte 9)2utter unb t^r 6of)n fA>€t i^ 

daughter. Zc6)ttv* 

The child and its brother or its S)a^ jttnl) unh fetn SSmbec tfOft 

sister. feine @d;n>cjler. 

My door — my doors. SKcmc SWc — mcinc Sfiftrcn. 

Thy fork — thy forks. ©cine Oatcl — iDcine ®o(«te. 

• Except in the dative. It will be remembered that all iLbstandveB with 
out excejption take tt in the dative plural, if they have not one in the noBiii» 
five. (See Lesson XIII.) 

-Jl.T^ <ieclension of those subttantivet which deviate from these mki 
will b» aeparately noted. 



His pen -—his pens. 
Hei brother — her Drothere 
H^ sister — her sisters. 
Her book — her books. 

©etnc Jcbcr — fdnc ^ebenu 
3h^ ffirulict — i^re Srfiber. 
3br< ^tpcflet — ibre ©cbtpcffent 
3br 9Su(^ — tbr«: ©acber. 




the good 
of the good 
to the good 

the good 

Nqm. We gate. 
Gen. ber guten. 
Dat. ber guten. 
Ace. bie flUte. 

bie guten. 
ber gutem 
ben guten* 
bie guten* 

Obs. B, The ac^jective preceded by a possessive 
pronoun of the feminine gender, as : nteine^ beine^ &c. 
has exactly the same declension as with the definite 

My ^ood linen, 

the riffht hand, 

the left hand, 

the language, 

the tongue, 

the street, 

the town, 

the woman, the wife, 

the girl, 

the young lady, 

M^ right hand aches. 
Ris left hand aches. 

The loom, 

the chamber, 

the cabinet, 

the apartment. 
The front room, 
the back room, 
the silk, 
the silk stocking. 

metnc gute Setnivanb ; 

bt( rcd)te ^nb ; 

tie (infe ^onb *, 

tie ©prod^c ; 

tie 3unge ; 

tie @trQpe ; 

bie ©tabt ; 

bie ^rau (does not soften 

takes en in the plural) ; 
bo6 a){6bd)cn ; 
bo6 St6u(cin. 

SWir fcbmctjt btc xtdfU ^nb.« 
3bm fcbmetat bie (infe ^anb. 

bie ©tube ; 

bo^ Simmer ; 

bie itammet ; 

bo^ ©emod).' 

bie ©tube oorn b^trou^ ; 

bie ©tube btntenau^ ; 

bie ©eibe ; 

bet feibene ©tnimpf. 

* When the sensation expressed by the impersonal verb is felt only m • 
• «t of the body, the person is put in the dative. 

f ^tttbe is the room commonly inhabited and in which there is a store, 
f 'mmer is the general word for room, whether there is a stove in it or not 
ftammer is a small room in which there is no stove, and in wliich variooi 
ttungs are kept ; hence bie JtUiberfammer, the wardrobe ; bie itBobenfammcr. 
Ihe garret, dte. ®ema(^ is only used in speaking of tL<e ap 


» apartments in a i 




NoM. Gen. Dat. Acq 
Good, &c. (in the singular).! gute, gtttcr, guter, gittc* 
Good, &c. (in the plural). | gate, guter^ guten, gute. 

Some good soap. ©ute 6uppc 

Some bad pens. @d)(ed)te Sc^crn.' 

Some beautiful linen shirts, ^{ine (etnnmntenc ^emben. (See 

Obs. Lesson IV.) 


A good, &c. (feminine). I ?• ±^ 8«f • G. enter girtOL 


This or this one, that or that one, lUk, [tnt. 
Some, sundry, cmQi, etftc^c. 

Many, several, mcftrc or mc^rcrc* 

Which, wclcfee. 

All • aUe. 

Many a one, some, mand)er^ mand)e^ numd)(& 

2(ntcre is declined .ike an adjective. 

Obs. C. In the plural all adjectives, ordinal num- 
bers, and pronominal adjectives have the same declen- 
sion for all genders, as we have already seen in many 
parts of this work, particularly in the Table of the 
Declension of Adyectives, Lesson XVIIL 


To become intimately acquainted with the declen- 
sion of adjectives, ordinal numbers, and pronominal 
a^ectives, the learner has only to familiarize himself 
with the definite article ; for when the adjective is 
preceded by a word having the characteristic termina- 
tion,' it takes ert in all the cases, except in the nom* 

• Some authors write me^re, others me^rere. The latter k 
Ihe fonner more correct, 
ran. , .. -, .-. id characte 


tm lunuer more correct. 

^ The terminations of the definite article are called charactom^ 

nayoliaraeterixe the ease, number, and gender. 


native singular of all genders and the aeensative sin* 
golar feminine and neuter, in which it takes e (Page 
33, Rule 2d.). The adjective itself takes these termi- 
nations when it is not preceded by any article' or if 
the word preceding has not the characteristic termi- 
nation, as : tbHf mehtf Uin, &c. in the nominative of the 
masculine, and nominative and accusative of the 
neater gender. 

This principle is clearly exemplified in the adjective 
preceded by the indefinite article. The nominative 
rin^ not having the characteristic termination er for 
the masculine and e^ for the neuter, the a^ective 
takes it- Ex. ©n guter STOomi, etn gute^ ^b. 

The characteristic termination of the masculine 
being e r and that of the neuter e ^^ that of the femi- 
nine is e : so that is is sufficient to join the ending e to 
a word of the characteristic termination to make it 
feminine. Ex. Masc. and neuter : bicfcr, bfefW ; femi- 
nine: bieje; masc. and neuter: jeitcr jetted; feminine, 

These principles being once well understood, the 
learner will find no difficulty whatever in declining 
adjectives, ordinal numbers or pronominal a(\jectives« 

Hare jon my pen 1 ^bcn ®ic memc Jcbcr ? 

No, Madam, I have it not. 92ctn, QTtabam (gnfibige ^xan^j, id^ 

babe fie nid)t. 
Which bottle hare you broken t flBe ld)C 7?(afd)e ^aten ®ie gctbrcc^m 7 
Which soup has she eaten 1 aBc(d)e ^uppe bot fte gegcffen ? 
What pear have yon ? gOBog ffic cine JBlrne f)aUn 6le ? 

What linen have yon bought 1 $2Ba^ ffir CetnnKinb M^n 6te oc* 

Do you see my sister 1 ©eben ©tc mcitte ®<bn>eflet7 

I do see her. 3d) fel)e fie. 

Have you seen my sisters 1 ^aUn 8ie metne ^iveflem gefrs 

No, my lady, I have not seen Slein, mcin Jraulein, i(^ f)CiU fi^ 
them. ni^t gcfeben. 

I Except in the ^nidve ainrular roascDliiie and neuter, in which it taket 
Of and in the nominatiTe and accusative neuter in which it changes di into 
fl. (Page 33, Rule 2d.) 

^ If speaking to a lady of rank, gni^ige ^an, gradous Lady, awt he 

y Google 


The nose, tic fSla\i ; 

the butter, bte Sutter ; 

the soup, t)ic @uppc ; 

the towel, tai ^nbtu(6 ; 

the napkin, ^i ScQcrtuc^/ bie &vct%€tt€. 


Are you not surprised at what my friend has done t — I am mad 
surprised at it. — At what is your son surprised 1 — He is surprised 
at Jrour courage. — Are you sorry for having written to my uncle 1 
—I am, on the contrary, glad of it — At what art thou afflicted 1 — I 
am not afflicted at the happiness of my enemy, but at the death oi 
my friend. — How are your brothers 1 — ^Thev have been very well 
for these few days. — Are you glad of it ! — I am glad to hear that 
they are well. — Are you a Saxon t — No, I am a Prussian. — Do 
the Prussians like to learn French ? — They do like to learn iu — 
Do the Prussians speak German as well as the Saxons 1 — ^Tbe 
Saxons and the Prussians speak German well ; but the Austrtans 
do not pronounce it very well (ntd)t aV^n gut); notwithstanding 
they are (tcffen ungeocbtet finb e^) very goodpeople. — Which day of 
the week (ilBdd)ftt SS03 in tcr fficcfee) do the Turks celebrate (fftmi) t 
— ^They celehrate Friday (ben J'^citag); but the Christians cele- 
brate Sunday, the Jews Saturday, and the negroes their birth-day 
lUt ®cburt«tQ9). 


Has your sister my gold ribbon t — She has it noL— What has 
she t — She has nothing. — Has your mother anything t — She has a 
fine gold fork. — Who has my large bottle 1 — Y our sister has it — 
Do you sometimes see your mother 1 — I see her often. — ^When did 

iou see your sister 1 — I saw her three months and a half {Obs, C, 
.esson LX V.) ago. — Who has my fine nuts 1 — Your ffood sister 
has them. — Has she also my silver forks 1 — She has them not.— 
Who has them ? — Your mother has them. — Have your sisters had 
my pens t — ^They have not had them, but I believe that their chil- 
dren have had them. — Why does your brother complaint — He 
complains because his right hand aches. — Why do you complain * 
— I complain because ray left hand aches. — Is your sister as old 
as my mother ?— She is not so old, but she is taller. — Has your 
brother purchased anything 1 — He has purchased something. — 
What has he bought! — He has bought fine linen and good pens. 
• — Has he not bought some silk stockings t — ^He has bought some. 
^Is your sister writing ? — No, Madam, she is not writing. — Why 
does she not write 1— Because she has a sore hand. — Why does 
the daughter of your neighbour not go outt — She does not go out, 
because she has sore feet — Why does my sister not speak I— Be* 
cause she has a soar mouth. — Hast thou not seen my silver pen! 
—I have not seen it — Hast thou a front room t — ^I have one b»» 

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lOnd, but my biother has one in the front. — ^Does the wile of ooi 
shoemaker ^o out already 1 — No, my lady, she does not go oat 
yet, for she is still very ill. 


Which bottle has your little sister broken t — She broke the one 
which my mother bon?ht yesterday. — Have yon eaten of my soup 
or of my mother's 1— -I haye eaten neither of yours nor your mo- 
thsx's, but of tiiat of my good sister. — Have you seen the woman 
&ai was with (bd) me this morning ? — I have not seen her. — Has 
jmu mother hurt herself t — She has not hurt herself. — Have you a 
me nose ? — ^I have not a sore nose, but a sore hand. — Have you 
ent yoor finger 1 — No, my lady, I have cut my hand. — Will you 
give me a pen 1 — I will give you one. — Will vou (have) this (one) 
« that (one) 1 — ^I will (have) neither. — Which (one) do you wish 
to have I — 1 wish to have that which your sister has. — Do you 
wish to have my mother's good black silk or my sister's ? — ^I wish 
to have neither your mother's nor your sister's, but that which you 
have. — Can you write with this pen t — I can write with it (Obs, 
B.. Lesson LII.). — Each woman thinks herself amiable (fiibenis 
vfrbtg) and each is conceited (beft|t (Stgcn(te6(). — ^The same (C^ben 
|b) as men (tie 972onn^p(tfon), my dear friend. — Many a one thinks 
himself learned who is not so, and many men surpass rfibcrtrcffen*) 
women in vanity (an Gitdfeit). (See end of Lesson aXXIY.) 

SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON.— 3f«in titlb «UbtttP86te 

To go into the kitchen, to be in 3n tie ^fic^ Qtf)tn*, tn Ut JtSdie 
the kitchen. feln*. (See Lesson XXIX. 

To go to church, to be at church. 3n tie ^trc^ ge^en*/ in tet Jtirc^ 

To go to school, to be at school. 3n tie ^u(e Qt^tn*, in ter ®4u(e 

To go into the cellar, to be in 3n ten Jlcttet ge^en*^ in tern Jlet» 
the cellar. Icr fcin*. 

The dancing school, tie ASon^fd)U(e ; 

the play (the comedy), tie ^cmUtie ; 
the opera, tie Oper. 

1 go a banting, to be at hunt- t ^uf tie S^A^ d^^^n^ ouf tet SoaO 
ing. fein*. (See Lesson XXX. 

Note •.) 

To go to the castle, to be at the 2(uf to^ @d)(e9 ge^en*, auf tew 
castle. ^(ftloffe feinV 

■ Tha prenotttion anf denotei actioo aod •ifatMiM npoo Um ettnior dtaf- 
thing or mcmon towards an elevatioa 

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To go to the exchan^ to be at Vuf tt( SB9rfe gc^en^^anf bcf SMcff 
the exchange. \im\ 

The bank, tic 9^anf (plur. Sanfm) ; 

the bench, tii iBon! (plui. ©finfe). 

To go to fish or a fishing. S^fcb^n 9<l)cn*» 
To hunt. S^gcn. 

The whole day, ah the day, 

the whole morning, 

the whole evenine, 

the whole night, ul the night, 

the whole year, 

the whole week, 

the whole society. 

All at once, 

suddenly (all of a sudden). 

ben gan^en ^Q ; 
ten gan^en 9)2orgen ; 
ten gan^en 2(bent ; 
tie gonje fRad^t ; 
tai gan^e 3a(r ; 
tie gange SBc(bc ; 
tie Qanit ®^\iU^fL^ 
ouf einmol ; 

Next week. 
Last week. 
This week. 
This year. 
Your mother, 

your sister, 
your sisters, 

A person. 
The belly-ache, 

She las the stomach-ache. 
His sister has a violent 

Some of it, any of it. 
Some of them, any of 

Of it, of them. 

;Die fanftige (n&'d)f!e) fBM^t. 

;Die t)crige (ocrgangene) 95M^* 

jDtefe »Bcd)c. 

iDiefeg Sobr. 

t Sbrc Srau SKuttec (See Ois 

Lesson LXXV.) ; 
t 3br Srfiutein ©(fewcller ; 
T Sbre Jrfiulcin 6d)»efleTn. 
eine ^erfon. 
ta^ SBaucbtoel^ ; plur. tie Sdaadfi 

@ie t)at ^D^ogenfcbmcr^en (plur.). 
head- @eine ©c^mcilei; fyxi ^c^^H JUpfi 


Singular and Plural fem^ 
A ^ 



Pronouns possessive abso- 
Mine, his, hers, 
Ours, yom^s, theirs. 


SGBdd)e, bereti, berfclbciu 
(See Obs. Lesson XVI.) 



tie meinige, tie feinige, tie tbttge* 
tie unfrige^tie (^rige, tie ibng^ 

» •obMantivefltermhuitinginell^cit^leit^fK^aftaiidat^ara 

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We ntctnigen, bie fcmigeit, bie 

bie imfrigctt, bie (Surigeit, bfr 


^bm @te tncine Jeber otcc bie t^ 

34 ^b( bie tbrige. 

3 b tr (See Table of Personal Pro- 
nouns, I eason XXVIII.). 

What do yon wish to send to SQ^d mellen ^te 3^trer 9)2u6me ^m 

jwa aunt 1 cf en ? 

I wish to send her a tart. 34 toitt tf)tr eine Scrte fcbicf^n. 

Will yon send her also fruits ! SBoUen @ie tf)r aud) ^rficbte fcbtcfen ? 

I will send her some. 34 WiVi x^i n>c(d)e fd)t(fett* 

Haye yon sent the books to my {)Qben @ie meinen ^weflem bie 

sisters 1 93ttd)ei: o^t\&i\dt ? 

1 have sent them to them. 34 b^be fte ifjnen 9ef4i(ft. 

Mine, his, hers, ^ 

Ours, yours, hers. /^^'«''«'- 

Have yoa my pen >r hers t 
I haye hers. 

To her. 

The fruit, 

the tart, 

the annt, 

the peach, 

the strawberry, 

the cherry, 

the cousin (aunt), 

the niece, 

the mi^ht (power), 

the maid-servant, 

the gazette. 

The relation. 

bie Sru4t ; 

bie Scrte ; 

bie g)?uf)me (bie Santc) ; 

bie yprfi4e ; 

bie ©rbbeere ; 

bie itirf4c ; 

bie ®afe ; 

bie Sticbte ; 

bie 5Wo4t ; 

bie ^acjb ; 

bie Beitung.4 

M. bet SemHUtbte ; ) (an adjeo 

F. bie iBemxinbte ; ) tive noun. 

Hie neighbour (feminine), bie 92a4bannn ; 

the ware (merchandise, goods), bie SBoare. 

Obs. A. A feminine substantive is formed by join* 
tng the syllable inn to a masculine substantive. Ex. 

The actor, 

bee ©4<iufpie(er ; 
bie @4aufpie(etiniu 

• These pronoimi have the declension of an a4iectiv« preceded by the deft 
I knte article. (See Lesson VII.) 

* Wofds terminating in ttng are feminiae. 

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Oba. B. If the radical syllable of the masculine sub 
stantive contains one of the vowels a, 0^ it^ it is gen- 
erally softened on being made feminine by the addi- 
tion of the syllable vm. Ex. 

The coantess, bic (Srfifinn ; 

the fool (fern.), tie 9iSrrinn ; 

the cook (fern.), Me Jt5cl)inn ; 

the peasant (peasant's wife), bte SS^uerinn ; 

the sister-in-law, tie Gc^io^etiniu 

To catch a cold, ben ^^nupfen befemmen*. 

To have a cold, ben ^nupfen l)aben*. 

To have a cough, ben ^uflen fykhtn^, 

I have caught a cold. 3db i)abt ben @d^nupfen b<(ommc«. 

The cold, bee ©Anupfen ; 

the cough, bee |>ujlen« 

To make sick. SLvant mod)en. 

It makes me sick. Qi mad)t mic^ franC 


Where is your cousin 1 — He is in the kitchen. — Has your cook 
(fern.) already made the soup ] — She has made it, for it stands al- 
ready upon the table. — Where is your mother t — She is at chnrch.~> 
Is your sister gone to school ?— -She is gone thither. — Does your 
mother often go to church 1 — She goes thither everr morning and 
every evening. — At what o'clock in the morning does she go to 
church ? — She goes thither as soon as she gets up. — ^At what o'clock 
does she ffet up I^She gets up at sun-rise. — ^Dost thoa go to school 
to-day t^ do go thither. — ^What dost thou learn at school 1 — I 
learn to read, write, and speak there. — Where is your aunt 1 — She 
is gone to the play with my li ttle sister. — Do your sisters go this 
evening to the opera 1 — No, Madam, they go to the dancing school. 
— ^Is your father gone a hunting ?^He has not been able to go s 
hunting, for he has a cold. — Do you like to go a hunting t — ^I like 
to go a fishing better than a hunting. — ^Is your father still in the 
country t — Yes, Madam, he is still there. — ^What does he do there ^ 
—He goes a hunting and a fishing there. — Did you hunt when y»i 
v^ere in the country ? — ^I hunted the whole day. 

How long have you stayed with (f>d) my mother? — ^I stayed wiib 
her the whole evening. — Is it Ion? since yon were at the castle ?— 
I was there last week. — Did you find many people there 1 — ^I found 
only three persons there. — Who were those three persons ? — ^Thcy 
(<^) were the count, the countess, and their daughter. — Are these 
girls as good as their brothers 1 — ^They are better than they.— Ow 
your sisters speak German?— They cannot, but they are leaminf 




U — Ha^B 70a brought anything to yoar mother 1 — I brought nei 
rood fruits and a fine tart. — What has your niece brought you ?«• 
She has brought us good cherries, good strawberries, and good 
peaches. — Do you like peaches 1 — I do like them much (fcf)r). — 
How many peaches has your neighbour (fem.) given you 1-Jshe 
has given me more than twenty of them. — Have you eaten many 
cherries this year 7 — I have eaten many of them. — Did you give 
any to your lilUe sister t — I grave her some. — Why have you nc 
given any to your good neighbour (fem.) t — I wished to give he 
tome, but she did not wish to take any, because she aoes uc 
like cherries. — ^Were there many pears last year 1 — ^Thtre were no- 


Why do your sisters not go to the j. lay 1 — ^They cannot go thither, 
because they have a cold, and that makes them very ill. — Did you 
sleep well last night 1 — I did not sleep well, for my children made 
too much noise in my room. — Where were you last night t — I was 
at my brother-in-law's.-*Did you see your sister-in-law ! — I did 
see her. — How is she ? — She was better yesterday evening than 
osoal. — Did you play ? — We did not play, but we read some good 
books ; for my sister-in-law likes to read better than to play. — 
Have you read the gazette to-day 1 — I have read it. — Is there any 
thine new in it ? — I have not read anything new in it. — Where have 
70a been since (ffttbcm) I saw you t--I have been at Vienna, Lon- 
don, and Berlin. — Did you speak to my sister t — ^I did speak to her. 
•-What does she say I^She says that she wishes to see you. — 
Where have yon put my pen ? — I have put it on the table. — Do you 
intend to see your aunt to-day 1 — I do intend to see her, for she has 
promised me to dine with us. — I admire (bcwunbem) that family 
^e ^mi(ie), for the father is the king and the mother the queen of 
It The children and the servants (pai ©cfinbe has no plural) are 
the subjects (^cr Untett^an^ gen. rn) of Uie state (l>ct @taot). — ^The 
tutors of the childrei; are the ministers (tcr ^tnifltft), who share 
(tl)dCm) with the king and queen the care (tic 6crge) of the govern- 
ment (iu 9{ratcrun9). The good education (tie ^r^tc^ung) which 
is given to children (See Obs. Contin. of Lesson LXX.) is the 
erown (bic ^tene) of monarchs (tet a){enai:d)/ gen. en). (See end 
of Lesson XXXIY.) 

EIGHTIETH LESSON.— <3ltl)tpg0U ffettion. 

To march (to walk). SKarfcfeirciu* 

To walk (to go on foot). ®cf)cn» (ju Jupc gef)cn> 

* The v^rb morld^tren takes the auxiliary letn* when there ts a destination 
•C pbc«, else it takes either babeit* or fetn*. Ex. ^ie ^nnee tfl itad^ iRom 
Qiarfc^trt, the army has marched to Rome ; bie ^xmtt ^at (or tfl) Un ganieii 
tag morfc^irt, the army has marched the whole day. 

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To step 

To travel. 

To wander (to go on foot). 

The traveller, 

the wanderer (the traveller on 

To walk or travel a mile. 
To make a step (meaning to step 

To take a step (meaning to take 

measures morally). 
To go on a journey. 
To make a speech. 

A piece of business, *> 
an affair, 3 

To transact business, 

To salt. 

Salt meat, 

fresh meat, 

the food (victuals), 

the dish (mess), 

the milk, 
Salt meats. 

©<6rettfn*. Part, past, gffc^citta^ 

Imperf. f^ritt 
fRctfcn, > take fetn for thdi 

To attract. 

The load-stone attracts iron. 

Her singing attracts mo. 

To allure, to entice. 
To excite, to charm. 
To charm, to enchant. 
To enrapture, to ravish. 
1 am enraptured with it. 
Tho beauty, 
the harmony, 
the voice, 
the power (the force), 

To meddle with something. 

To concern one^s self about 

To trouble one's head about 

something, (to meddle with 


fBkinbcm, J auxiliary. 

bcr aicifcnte ; 

fccr aSan^nrtr (SBanber^mann> 

(Sine g}?ci(c juracftegcn. 
(^ncn @d)ritt mac^eiu 

(5lnm ©(^ritt t^un*. 

@tne 9lctfc moc^en. 

cin ®ff(ft&ft (plural c)« 
®(fd)&fte moc^ctu 


gefar^cnc^ J(ct|* ^ 

frifd)c^ 5tfif* ; 

bte ©pcife ; 

bag ®ftid)t (plur. c) ; 

tie 9}2i(d). 

9cfa()cne ©petfen ; 



2Cn ft* jlc^en* (6tt6ctji<f 
^cn*, anjic^en*). 

jDev Sl^agnet |le^t lai 


3^1: ^cfang ixt\)t ml* otu 





3(4 (in tat&6er ctit^fidt 

btc @d)5n6ctt; 

tic ^armonte ; 

tie ^ttmme ; 

tie (BcxoaiU 

^idf in etma^ mtfc^en. 
©ic^ nut ctwag abQiUn*, 

©id^ urn etuHig bcCfimmeok 



iio not meddle ^ith other ^)eo. 3* wiffte mi* ni^t In ftem^ 

ple^s basiness. 
The quarrel (the contest), 
the commerce (the traJffic} 
Strange (foreign), 
It is strange. 

bcr ^mM (has no plural). 


& iff fcnbcrbor. 

He employs himself in painting, ©t gibt fi* mit Ut SKolerci a6» 
The art of painting, tie SWotetci ; 

chemistry, tie Qt)mm, t>u ©*etl)ehin(l ; 

the chemist, t>n Cfteuiifct (tec ®*eibcfttn|tt<t) ; 

the art, tie Jtunjt. 

To look at some one. 
To concern some one. 
I look at you* 

Semanten anfef)en*» 
Semantcn ara^efitnK 
Sd) felje ©ie an. 

The thing, ^J",??*S, ^ 

^' ) tog 2)in9 (plur. «). 

I do not like to meddle with 3* mt|d)e mi* m*t gem in JDingt 

thin^ that do not concern me. tie mid) nid)tg angeben. 

What IS that to me 1 f 2Ba« Qcftt ta« mid) on ? 

What is that to you t t ©«« fie^t to^ ©ic on ? 

To repeat. 
The repetition. 


ta^ SBieter^oten. (See Lessen 
LXXI. Obs. C.) 
the beginning, the commence- tet TCnfang ; 

Ae wisdom, tie SBei^ftnt ; 

the study, i^!i?S?""''' 
the ffoddess, tie ®ottinn ; 

the lord, tet^ett; 

Uie mghtingale, tie SJocfetigoIL 

All beginnings are difficult HVitt TlnfaxiQ ifl f*wet (a proveib). 

To create. 

The creator, 

the creation, 

the benefit (the kindness), 

the fear of the Lord, 

the heaven, 

the earth, 

the solitude, 

the lesson, 

6 d) of fen. Part, past, gef*affeii. 
Imperf. f*uf. 

ter ©d)5pfec ; 

tie ©d)8pfung ; 

tie SBo()(tf)at ; 

tie gutd)t \>ti ^etrn ; 

ter ^immet ; 

tie drte ; 

tie ©infomfeit; 

tie Section; 

^ Snbetantivefl tenninadng m um, form their plural by channng tint inte 
VL Ex. ba4 3nt)tvibuum, the individual ; plur. bie^nbivtbuen; Sol Stubinnv 
tfieftudy; plur bte ^tubten. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


the exercise, tie 2(uf0abc ; • 

the goodness. tie Q^tti.^ 

I have done it for jour sake. 5^ l)abt (i Sh^ctWiQtn ^€tf)atu 

Obs. The preposition twgcn takes its place eitlier 
before or after the genitive which it governs ; but when 
it follows a oersonal pronoun, the letter t is substituted 
for the letter r of the pronoun which then forms one 
word with the preposition. The same *hing should be 
observed with regard to the prepositions tjcAbm, on ac- 
count of, and ttm — tpittett, for the sake of, with this 
difference, that the latter never stands before the sub- 
stantive. Ex. 

9){cinftn>cgcn, mcmtf^aihin, on ac- Unfcrtnocgcn, unrettM^n/ on ac- 
count of me. count of us. 

^ctnctn)f9en^ bctnet()o(6en^ on ac- (ihtrctn>(g<n/ curctl)o(6CTi/ on accannr 
count of thee. of you. 

©cinctrocgcn^ fcinctf)QCbcn, on ao- S^rrtwcgcn, xhxtticXUn, on aocoont 
count of him. of them, for their rike. 

3f)rctn>cgcn, \\}Vitl)cXbm, on ac- 
count of her. 

In the same way we say : unt tnemetttnKett/ for my 
sake ; tttn beinettt)itten, for thy sake, &c. 

He has done it for the sake of (Jt f)at ci um H)retn>incii grt^^an. 

On account of you and your S^rct^ unb 3&t« ^inbcr, tbtn ftt 
children, as well as on account toc\)i o(^ mcinets unt Ut ^nnU 
of me and mine, I have put gen to(^<n, f)abt id) 3^cn txtft 
you in mind of and inculcated n9td)ttge unb unttdaftdjc flBo^ 
this important and infallible belt gu ©emfit^c gcfSbtt unb tw 
truth. 9cfd)arft. 

The cleanliness, the uncleanli- bie SJcinli^f «t ; bl< WnrrinfKWeit ; 

the government (meaning the bie £)6n9fcit. 

Sensible, reasonable, Krnilnftta. 

Not only— but also. fRi^t oUctn — fonbcm oudh 


Will you dine with us to-day 1 — With much pleasure. — Whal 
have you for dinner ? — We have good soup, some fresh and salt 
meat, and some milk-food. — Do you like milk-food 1 — 1 like it bet* 

« Abstract nubstantives have no rlural in German : as kit &ntt. tha cood> 
•••»; fete ^'ifoc, Uie love, &c. • 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


ter than all other food. — ^Aie yon ready to dine1-»I am readv — Do 
yon iotend to set out soon 1 — ^I iDtend setting out next week. — Do 
you traTel alone t — ^No, Madam, I travel wiUi my uncle. — Do you 
travel on foot or in a carriage *• — We travel in a carriage. — Did you 
meet any one in (ouf with the dative) your last journey to Berlin 1 
--We met many wanderers. — What do you intend to spend youi 
time in this summer ? — I intend to take a short journey. — Did you 
waft much in your last journey 1-— I like very much to walk, but my 
OBcle likes to ffo in a carriage. — Did he not wish to walk t — He 
wished to wa& at £rst, but after having taken a few steps, he 
wished to get into the carriage, so that I did not walk much.^ 
What Have you been doing at school to-day 1 — We have been listen- 
ing to our professor, who made a long speech on (dbcr with the 
aecos.) the goodness of God. — What did he say ? — After saying, 
^ God is the creator of heaven and earth ; the ^ar of the Lord is 
die banning of all wisdom ; " he said, *' repetition is the 
mother of studies, and a good memory is a great benefit of God.'*-— 
Why did you not stay longrer in Holland ? — When I was there the 
living was dear, and! haa not money enough to stay there long&r. 
— ^Wiiat sort of weather was it when you were on the way to Vi- 
enna 1 — ^It was very bad weather ; for it was stormy, and snow.ed, 
and rained very heavily.** 


What are you doin^ all the day in this garden t — I am walking 
m it (borin). — What is there in it that attracts you 1 — ^The sinking 
of the birds attracte me. — ^Are there any nightingales in it t — ^There 
are some in it, and the harmony of their singing enchants me. — 
Have those nightingales more power over (ttbcr with the accus.) 
you than the beauties of painting, or the voice of your tender (gflrts 
lidi) mother, who loves you so much 1 — I confess, the harmony of 
the singinf; of those little birds has more power over me than the 
most tender words of my dearest friends. — What does your niece 
amuse herself with in her solitude ? — She reads a good deal and 
writes letters to her mother. — What does your uncle amuse himself 
with in his solitude 1 — He employs himself in painting and chem- 
istry. — ^Does he no longer do any business! — He no longer does 
any, for be is too old to do it. — Why does he meddle with your 
business 1 — He does not generally (gcm^iftnltd)) meddle with other 
people's business ; but he meddles with mine, because he loves 
me. — ^Has your master made you repeat your lesson to-day t — Ha 
has made me repeat it. — Did you know it 1 — I did know it pretty 
well. — Have you also done some exercises 1 — I have done some, 
\mi what is that to you, I beg 1—1 do not generally meddle with 
things that do not concern me; but I love you so much (fo fcbr) that 
I eoncem myself much (fc^r) about what you are doin^. — Does any 
OHO trouble his head about you ? — No one troubles his head abou' 

i The learner must here repeat all the eipreidoni relative to the impersoosl 
ferb c I i% if u, in Lesnons LIV. and LVI. 

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me ; (or I am not worth the trouhle. — Not only for the sake of 
cleanliness, bat for the sake of health (Me (^unbb^t), prudent 
people avoid (ftd) ()fitcn ocr with the dative) uncleanliness, and wash 
themselves oAen. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

EIGHTY.FIRST LESSON.— (ffin mi arljtpjsU 


The first or simple future is formed from the present 
of the auxiliary tt)erbcn*, to become,* and the infinitive 
of the verb, as in English from s?iaU or will^ and tne 
infinitive. Ex. 

1 shall love, he (she) will love. 2^ wct^c Wchtn, rr (fie) wtrb fxtbau 
Thou wilt love, you will love. JDu n)tr{! (teben, S^c wtxttt (iBit 

tonUn) lieben. 
We' shall love, they will love. $Blr tOitUn ItebcH/ fte toctUn txtbau 

I shall be loved. 3d) werbe gcfiebt werben* 

Will you love my mother ! ©crben Sie meine ^Ohittcr ftcBen ? 

I shall love her much. 3d) n>erbe fie fcfjr (teOeiu 

i shall never love her. 3d) tverbe fie nie (teben. 
I shall love her when she loves 3d) toer^e ffe Ucben^ xoenn fic wki 
me. tteben n)irt>. (See Less. XLYIL) 

Will you go out to-day ! fOkr^en ©ie ^eutc au^e^^n ? 

To be dusty. &taubx^ \tin*, ftonben. 

Is it dusty 1 3fl e^ flaubtg ? 

It is dusty. . (&i ifl flaubig. 

It is very dusty. (S^ tfl fcf)t flaubt^ 

Is it muddy out of doors t 3f^ e^ fd)mu$tg troufen ? 

It is very muddy. (^ ifl fe^c f^mugig. 

To he smoky, to smoke. 9{auc{)cn. 
Is it smoky ! Does it smoke 1 9{aud)t e J 7 
It is very smoky. It smokes Qi raud)t fe^t. 

It is too smoky. It smokes too Q^ xand)t 3U fe^r. 


To go in. ^ i n e i n 9 e b e n •• 

7*0 come in, |) e c e i n f m m e n *• 

• The verb tt>erben*, when employed in the formation of the Aiaue Ui 
niMr tenses, loses its proper signification. 



;• WiD you go in ? Si^erben ©te ^incin gc^cn t 

Tositdoum* @i(f)fc|<n. 

To sit. © i I c n • (<rerb neuter). Part 

past, 9 e ( c f f c n. Imperf, jap. 

I will sit down on that chair. 3^ will mid) auf bicfcn ©tu^t fef etw 

Where did he sit % SOBo fap ct ? 

He sat upon that chair. (Sr fap auf ticfcm ©tu^Ce. 

To Kane left. Ucbr tg 6tct ben*. Imperfect, 


How much money have you left? ©icmct ®cl^ btcibt Sftncn ftbrtg? 
I have a crown left. ©g bleibt niir etn Abater ttbrig. 

I have only three crowns left. (S$ b(ctben nut nur brci !Sf)oUr dbrtg. 
If I pay him I shall have but SEBcnn id) tbn bcjaf)(C/ n?trb niir nuc 
little left. wcnig fibrig btcibcn (or fo wirt 

mtr nur menig ftbrig b(ctbcu). 

DCr* ^. The subject is placed after the verb in an 
inversion of propositions ; that is, when that which 
ought to stand first is put after, and forms as it were; 
the complement of the other. An inversion of propo- 
sitions takes place when the first proposition begins 
with a coiyunction. Ex. 

If he comes, I shall speak to him SBenn er fonimt/ werbe \^ mtt t^m 

(inversion). fprcd)en. 

I shall speak to him if he comes 3d) werbe mtt t()m fprec^en, menu er 

(without inversion). fommt. 

If it is fine weather to-morrow, 1 fficnn c« morgcn rd)(Jncg ffficttct i|l, 

shall take a walk (inversion), mcrbe tc^ fpa^ercn ge^en. 
I shall taka a walk if it is fine 3d) toctte fpagtercn gcf)en/ menn i% 

weather l>morrow (without mcrgcn fd)2ine^ SBettec ifl. 


DC/* J?. The subject is also placed after its verb, 
when in an inversion of propositions, the conjunction 
loemt^ i/*, is omitted in the first. This omission of the 
conjunction may take place or not ; but when it does, 
the second proposition begins with the coiyunction f 0^ 
then (so). 

Then {so). So. 

in w^:«o,r.« «.«««« 1 oi,on CS5c!cmme t* mein ©cfb (instead 
h^ ^ ^ \ of: »cnn id) mein ®efbbefcmmc), 

P*y y**°- C fo bcjabte id) ©t<. 

<> Wbfiof'ver a will or intention and not merely ftituritjr ii to bo ezpreaed, 
the verb woUen* ii used. 

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If be sp6iik8 to me, I shall an- ^ ;^j^ ^^^^ j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ .^^ ^^, 
swernim. ^ xoetUtu 

Obs. When the conjunction l»eim b not omitted, the 
conjunction fo of the second proposition may either be 
omitted or not, unless the proposition is of a certain 

If you will promise me to keep 8Bcitn€tc mtr t)rTfprc(f)en tDeUai,ti 
it secret, I shall tell itto jou. qebttm ju boltcn, fo wctU td} d 

S^ncn fagcn. 

I have spent all my money, so Scft fyihc aU metn (3tCb au^o^ 
that I have none left. ben, fo top nut fcin^ nu^c flbrig 


Tofill. gftttctt (onfullen). 

To fill a bottle with wine. 6tne ^ofcftc mtt SQ^dn onfQnen. 

I fill my purse with money. 3(6 ffiQ« meinen fOtnttl (mdnt JB9c» 

fe) mit ®db. 
With what do you fill that glass t SBomtt ffttten @te ticfe^ (9la^ ? 

rXERCISBS. 191. 

Will your father go out to-day ? — He will go out, if it is fine 
weather. — Will your sister go outi — She will go out, if it is not 
windy.^Will you love my brother t — I shall love him with all my 
heart, if he is as good as you. — Will your parents go into the 
country to-morrow t — They will not go^ for it is too dusty. — Shall 
we take a walk to-day ? — We will not take a walk, for it is too 
muddy out of doors. — Do you see the castle of my relation behind 
yonder mountain 1 —I do see it. — Shall we go in ? — We will go b, 
if you like. — Will you go into that room 1 — I shall not go into it, 
for it is smoky. — ^1 wish you a good morning, Madam. — Will yoa 
not come in ! — Will you not sit down t — I will sit down upon that 
largt> chair. — ^Will you tell me what has become of your brother?— 
T will tell you. — Here is the chair upon which he sat often.«-WheD 
dkd he die f — He died two years ago. — I am very much (fehr) afflic- 
ted at it. — Hast thou spent all thy money 1 — ^I have not spent alL 
—How much hast thou left of iti — ^I have not much left of it; I 
have but one florin left. — How much money have thy sisters left V- 
They have br ♦. three crowns left. — Have you money enough left tc 
pay your tailor ? — I have enough of it left to pay him ; but if I pay 
him, I shall have but little left. — How much money will your bro- 
thers have left 1— They will have a hundred crowns Kift.— Will 
you speak to my uncle if you see him ? — If I see him, I shall speak 
to him— Will you take a walk to-morrow ?— If it is fine weather, 1 
•hall take a walk ; but if it is bad weather, I shall slay at home^ 



l^fl] joQ p&y yoQT shoemaker ! — ^I shaU pay him, if I receive mj 
owncy to-morrow. — ^Why do you wish to so 1— If your father cornea 
I shall not go ; hat if he does not come, I must go. — Why do yoa 
not sit down 1 — If you will stay with (Oei) me, I will sit down ; 
bot if you go, I shall go along with you. — Will you love my chil- 
dieo ? — If they are goc^ and assiduous, I shall love them ; but it 
diej are idle and naughty, I shall despise and punish them. — Am 
I right in speaking thus (fc) ? — You are not wrong. (See end ol 

EIGHTY.SECOND LESSON.— Jfari nnb icl)tpsste 


In German, as in English, the past infinitive is fon/ied 
from the infinitive of the auxiliary and the past par- 
ticiple of the verh ; but in English the past participle 
stands after the infinitive, whereas in German it pre- 
cedes it. Ex. 

Have loved, to have loved. ^cficbt f)ai>cn, gcttcbt ju ^beiu 

Id order to have loved. Uui gdtcbt ^u t)a&en. 

Without having loved. £)bn( gcltcbt ju bobeiu 

Have been loved. ©cttebt tocrbcn fetn. 

To have been loved. ®c(tebt n)crtcn gu (eiiu 


The past or compound future is formed, as the first 
OP simple future (preceding Lesson) from the present 
of the auxiliary tt)erben* and the past infinitive Ex. 

I shall have loved, he (she) wil! 3^ mcvt>t gcUebt fjahm, er (jle) toitb 

have loved. gcltcbt bobcn. 

Thou wilt have loved, you will iDu roirfl qcliebt f^abcn, 3br wetbct 

have loved. (<Sic rocrtcn) gcltcbt t^aUn. 

We shall have loved, they will ©ir wcrtcn gcliebt ^abcri/ ftc wctbcn 

have loved. gclicbt bobcn. 

I shall have been loved. 3d) rocrbc gcticbt tvci;bcn fctti. 

I shall have written my letters 3d) wct^e mcine ®rtcrc 9cfd)rtct»cn 
before ydt return. bobcn, cbc ®ic gurficffcmmcn. 

When 1 have paid for the ho.-se ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^U ,,^^„j^ 
IshaU have only ten crowns j ^^^^^„ ,„l^ „yj „^ ^^^ jjj^^ 
•w^ [ ttbrig bUibcn. 

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DLr" -A. When at the end >f a proposition there are 
two infinitives, two past paiticiples, or an infinitive 
and a past participle, the verb which on account ol 
the conjunction ought to be thrown to the end of the 
phrase, may be placed either before or after those in- 
finitives or participles, Ex. 

g}2tttag gegcfl^eit 6a6cn nKrben, 
or totvUn in SKittag gcgcffm 6o< 
©cnn td> S&rcn SSrubtr gcfpwjen 
babm wcrte, or wcrbeflcfpwiKn 
6oben, fo rocxU td^ wiffcn, lool ic^ 
SU tt)un f)abe. 

[Cr* The latter way of placing the verb is the most 
elegant and most usual. Ex. 

(3(6 haU i^m gcfdgt^ tof €^tc M 
^fert t^abcn t)crfauf^n mfifloi ^aod 
not t>€c(aufen genmpt or muffcn 

The same (feminine). ^tcfcCbe^bic n6in(t(J6c* (Sm 

Lessons XIL and XIV.} 

One and the same. @inct(eu 

It is all one (the «ame). Qt tfl etnerleu 

Masc. Fern. Neni. 
Sucn Soldier, foIcf)e, folc^e^ 

(is declined according to 
the characteristic termi- 

Obs. A. When folc^ is preceded by em or fefat^ it has 
the declension of an adjective, Ex. 

Sach a man, such a woman, snch (Sin fo((6ec ^Dlann, cine foCc^ %m» 

a child. etn fclcftc^ ^tnb* 

Such men merit esteem. ^ctcfee SKenfc^ftt 9ei;btenen HdfiiX^ 

Obs. B. When folc^ is followed by eiit, it is not de- 
elined. Ex. 

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Such a man, sach a woman, buch ^ctcft etn 5Kann, fo(4 etne grou, feC(| 
a happiness. cin r' ^ 

On the outside off without^ out of . 2C u p c r ^ o ( b (a preposition gov 

erning the genitive). 

fhe church stands ontside the iDtc Jttr(^e i|l auper^atb bet ©tabt 

I shall wait for you before the 3* nntbe ©it Oct bem S^ore (©tabt* 

town-gate. t()Ote) crwattcn. 

The town ceity^te. {^SSW 

To go out. ^inou^ae^en*. 

To come out. ^ctQuefommcn*. 

Seldom (rarely). ©dtctu 
I>oe8 he sit under the tree 1 ©i^t et untct bcm ©oumc 7 

He is sitting under it. Gt fift torunter. (O^j. jB. Les- 

son LII.) 

To continue ((. proceei). \ f.V.lel /n'"'* 

He continues his speech. f (5t fS!jrt in fcinct 9lcbc fbrt 

TVi* o««nHin 5 ^^^ 2Cppctit, 

1 ne appeuie, ^ j^. ^ ^^^^^^ ^.^ g^p ^^^^ ^^^^ . 

the narrative, the tale, bic ©t^dbtung ; 

U)e shore (the coast, the bank), tag Ufct ; * 

the sea-shore, ba^ lifer ic^ SOlccrc^ ; 

«n the sea-shore, am Ufct teg g)icctc^. 

iVof MTi/O. (nof before). ^'x^X e&ct — bi^. 
Before, ^^t, ef)e aU, bfOOt. 

I shall no see him until I go 3d) wetbe iftn nitftt fef)eit/ ef)e (b<» 
thither. wt) id) btngcbe. 

Did you see him before his de- ^ben ®te t()n oot feinct 2(bteife ge* 
parture 1 febcn ? 

I will not do it until you tell Si t()ue c$ ni^t, bi^ ©ic efi mit f>i 
me. gen* 

There is, there are. >Da ift. Plural, ba flnb. 

Here is, here are. ^iet ifl, — btct (inb. 

Here I am. ^tet bin id). 

There is my book. 2)a ifl mein fflud). 

There it is. 2)a i|l c^. 

There they are. 2)0 pnb fie. 

• 9ottfe^nt is a regular verb active and governs the accusative ; fortfabren*, 
m the contrary, is neuter and irregular uid governs the dative witli the pro* 
position in or mit. 

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Therefore. Dtfmt^tn, Mitt. 

That is the reason why. jDa« tfl bie Hrfacfte, axirttiiL 

Therefore I say so. iDepiw^en fagc tcfe c^ 

My 8ister*s feet are cold. Reiner @(^n>cflet fricren bit ^ipe. 

Her hands are cold. 3(^t frtcrcn bte ^&nU (H tft tl^c ot 

Un ^hxiUn fait). 


When will yon go to Italy t — ^I shall go as soon as I have learnt 
Italian. — When wfll your brothers go to Germany ! — ^They will 
go thither as soon as they know German. — ^When will they learn 
It 1 — They will learn it when they have found a good master. — 
How much money shall we have left when we have paid for ooi 
horses 1 — When we have paid for them we shall have only a hun- 
dred crowns left. — Have you told my brother that I have been 
obliged to sell the carriage 1 — I have told him so. — Have you writ- 
ten to the same man to whom my father wrote 1 — ^I have not writ- 
ten to the same, but to another. — Have they already answered yoat 
— Not yet, but I hope to receive a letter next week. — Have you 
ever seen such a person ?^^I have never seen such a one. — Have 
you already seen our church > — I have not seen it yet. — Where does 
It standi — It stands outside the town. — If you wish to see it, I 
will ffo with you in order to show it to you. — Who is there 1 — ^Itis 
I. — Who are those men ? — ^They are foreigners who wish to speak 
to you. — Of what country are they 1 — They are Americans.— 
Where have you been since I saw you 1 — We sojourned long on 
the sea-shore, until a ship arrived, which brought us to France. — 
Will you continue your narrative I^Scarcely had we arrived in 
France when we were taken to the king who received (aufnoljm) us 
very well and sent us back to our country. — Whom are you look- 
ing for t — I am looking for my little brother.^If you wish to find 
him you must go into the garden, for he is there. — ^The garden is 
lar^e, and I shall not be able to find him if you do not tell me in 
which part (In Z^htxi) of the garden he is. — He is sitting under 
the large tree under wluch we were sitting yesterday. — Now I 
shall find him. 


Why do your children not live in France 1 — ^They wish to lean 
English, that is the reason why they live in Endand. — Why do 
you sit near the fire t — My hands and feet are cold, that is the rea- 
son why I sit near the fire. — What do the people live upon that 
live on the sea-shore 1— They live upon fish alone. — Why will yoo 
not ffo a hunting any more 1 — I hunted yesterday the whole day, 
and! killed nothing but an u?ly bird, that is the reason why I shul 
not go a hunting any more.— Why do you not eat t — I shall not eat 
before I have a good appetite. — Why does your brother eat so 
much 1 — He has a good appetite, that is the reason he eats so muck 
^If you have read the books which I lent you, why do you notfi* 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


tani ihesm to met-— I intend leadingr them once more, that is tho 
ceason why I have not yet retarned them to you ; bat I shall return 
them to yoa as soon as I have read them a (}uni) second time.— 
Why did you not bring me my clothes ! — ^They were not made, 
therefore I did not bring them; but I bring them to you now, here 
Ifcey are. — You have learnt your lesson, why has your sister not 
kanit hers 1 — She has taken a walk with my mother, that is the 
ipason why she has not learnt it ; but she will learn it to-morrow. 
—When will you correct my exercises 1 — ^I will correct them when 
YOU brincr me those of your sister. — Do you think (glaubcn) yon 
have made mistakes in them. — I do not know. — If you have made 
mistakes you have not studied your lessons well ; for the lessons must 
be learnt well, to make no mistakes in the exercises.-— It is all the 
sune, if you do not correct them (for) me to-day, I shall not learn 
them before (fo wcrbe left f[< ctfl) to-monow. — You must make no 
mistakes in your exercises, for you have all you want, in order to 
make none. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

EIGHTY.TfflRD LESSON.-JDm ntib («l)t?iB6U 

To die of a disease. 
The small pox 

She died of the small pox. 

The fever, the intermitting fever, 

He had a cold fit. . 

He has an ague. 

His fever has returned 

The apoplexy. 

He has been stmck wiUi apo* \ 
plexy. ) 

To sell well. 
Wine sells well 
Cloth tells well. 
Wine will sell well next year. 

Un <inet (dative) JtranfF)cit |lct« 

W ©lattetn (plural of t>\c ©tnt^ 

tcr^ the blister, the pustule, the 

©te tft an ben Slattern gcflcctcn. 
Ui ^cUvMi ®cd)fctftcber. 
a&t battc eincn Tfnfall wn "Suhtu 
(Sr hat ba^ ^'xcitn 6cfommen. 
(&t f)Qt ba$ ^\it>a mietcr Mtm 

ber QdiHa^ bet ^cfttagffu^ 
^er ^(ag ^at tbn gerfiftrt 
(£r tfl t)om @cb(agc gcrft^rt wor* 

®uten TCOgong boOcn*. 
^ut obt^ehcn*. 
aSict ^i'ufcr flnbcn*. 
t 2)cr 90?etn Qcbt gut ab (bat gutcn 

f iDa« liud) bat gutm ^(Ogong (pni 

bet met .R6ufcr). 
t iDer 3Bein roirb n&cbfle^ 3(^\)X gu< 

ten 2Cbi)ana babcn 



f3umod)cn, jufcbttcfm * (acti»t 
B\iQc\)cn*, $ufd)tic?cn*. Part, past, 
9cfd)Icffcn. Imperf. finic^ 
2(ufgc!)cn • (a neuter verb), ftc^ Jff* 

jDUfc S^fir 9cl)t tetd}t onf Ofl (ri^r 

|u ^tfncn)* 
S)o^ ^cnfttt f^ltcft gut 

IBen wcttem/ Mn fnmc 
aXan ftebt ^t<fc^ ^aud Mn tootcni 
(wn feme)* 

i^nmicrftetber ttAgt mon nu^ in 
^cnimcrftelbei: nxttcn ntd^t im SGBm^ 
ter grttagcn. 

That is not said. ^ai loir^ ni^t ^(faoju 

That cannot be comprehended. 2)ag tft unbeatetflic^ 

To open. 

To shat. 

To open. 

Fhat door opens easily. 

The door does not shat. 
The window shuts well. 

Par off, from afar. 

That house is seen far off. 

It is clear. 

To conceive, to comprehend. 

According to circumstances. 

The disposition, 
the circumstance, 

According as. 

According to circumstances. 

It depends on circumstances. 

(i6 ifl bcutli4 

©eoceifcn*. Part, past, begnffot 
Imperf. begrtff. 
C 97a4 t>en UmflJinbcn. 
1 9^0* 95<fd)Qffen()ett Ut !^mf^to^f. 

tic ©efcfcoffcnbcit ; 

Ut Unlftan^• 

97ad)b(nt/ {e na(!(^m, in fo fmu 
9?o(^t>cm e^ tfl (natj^bem c^ Conmit). 
9{ad)t)(m bte Umftdnbe ftn^• 

Do not put the glass upon the Gtetlen ^it t>ai ®iai nic^t aaf Un 
table, for it will break. Z\\^ ; benn c^ toicb jcrb«(^ 

To put. 
To lay. 

Imperf. ja:bta(ft. 

» Oeff nett and aufmac^en mean to remove the obstacle in order to give te 
cess, as : bie ^^ore, bte X^ixi tinti 3intmeri cinen <B^xant tinen ^ritf Sffiia 
or aufhtat^en, to open the town-gates, the door of a room, a cupboard, a kt^ 
ter. Deff neit is only employed to make an opening in the thing itself, aa : ft* 
ncn ?ei(|nam, tint Slber, tin ©efj^wfit 5ffnf n, to open a corpse, a vein, an ab- 
scess, because there is no opening yet. So we say bte ^anfgraBeii f ffncn, t« 
open the trenches, ^uffc^hefen u only employed in speakinir of thiun tfait 
are shut with a key or a padlock. 

%JtJ^^ ^^St ^^^^^^2^ ^^PM ™***® between luma^tn and luf^Ufftu^ai 
between aufmac^en and ttuffd^Uepen*. • it k » 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To set, to seat. @e$eiu 
To stick. ©tcdcn.' 

; Am die women handsome ? ^inb tU ^rouen fdfin ? 

I They are so ; they are rich and @te {tn( e ^ ; |te {tnb rctd) unb f<^il 

! handsome. 

^T«t countrywoman is she 1 {gf « Jj J^^^ 

She is from France. &U tfl au< (or oon) gronfretcfe. 

To be angry at somebody (about 955fe auf 3«nwnben (fiber etwo*) 

anything). fcin. 

What are you angry about 1 SBorftber itnb @ic bdfe ? 

Are you sorry for haying done Zhnt ii 3()nen U% ti gct^an ^ 
iti fyxf>m ? 


I am sorry for it. < €$ ifl mtr nid)t Ueb. (See Lesson 


< e$ ifl mir ni*t Ueb. (Se 


Polite (courteous), impolite (un- {)2lflt4 ; unfidfli^. 

Happy, unhappy. (^(iicKi^ ; ungtdcflti^. 

What sort of pen have you lost ! 85Sa« ffit cine Jebec ()o6en ©ie oerto* 

A gold one. ^ne gctbcne. 

What sort of pens has your SBa^ ffit Scbern l)ot 3()V( S^toeflet 

sister made ? .qcfc^nitten ? 

Good ones. ®ute. 


Of what illness did your sister die 1 — She died of the fever. 
How is your brother ? — My brother is no longer living. He diea 
three months ago. — I am surprised at it, for he was very well last 

• ^tcQen is used when the person or the thing spoken of is, as it were 
standing upright, and leaen when it is lying. Ex. hit &{i\tx, tie $Iaf(^e ouf 
ben ^tf$ fteUett, to put the glasses, the bottle on the table ; ein StitCb auf bal 
^Bett legen, to place a child upon the bed ; ein ^leib auf hai fQttt legen, to put 
a coat upon the bed ; too l^aben @ie meinen @to(f |ingettettt? where have yo« 
placed my stick ? »o ^aben @te metn SJteffer ^inaelegt? where have ypu put 
my knife ? The verbs fle^en* and Itegen* may be explained by the English 
verbs: to stand and to lie. Ex. 3I)r <Btod ntht in meinem dimmer, your 
•tick is (stands) in my roonn: 3^r ©ruber ^^t am genfler, your brother 
■tanda at the window ; 3§r 9WeffeT Itegt auf bem itifc^e, your knife is (lies) 
open the table ; ^ier fle^t 3^r €to(f unb ba liegt 3^e iWeffer, here stands 
your stick and there lies your knife. @et>en nearly answers to the English 
Terb to seat, as : fftjen <Bit fic^ ^terfeer, seat yourself here. It is also used in 
the following idiom : 3emanbcn in ben (Stano fe^en, to enable some one, as: 
i^ babe ibn in ben ^tonb gefet^t t€ in t^un, I have enabled him to do it. 
<St((fen, as an active verb, is used with the preposition i n followed by the 
accuRfttive. Ex. 3tt bie 4afc^e ftecfen, to put mto the pocket We stall 
kereifter see various other examples of these verbs. 



•axnmer when I was in tne country. — Of what did he die 1 — H« 
died of apoplexy. — How is the mother of yonr friend !— She is 
not well ; she had an attack of ague the day before yesterday, and 
this morning the fever has returned (unb tiefcn SWergcn mictrr). — 
Has she the intermitting feyer? — I do not know, but she often has 
cold fits. — What has become of the woman whom I saw at your 
mother^s 1 — She died this morning of apoplexy. — Did the wine 
sell well last yearl — It did not sell Teiy well; but it will sell 
better next year, for there will be a great deal of it, and it will nof 
be dear. — Why do you open the door ! — Do you not see how it 
smokes herel — I do not see it; but you must open the window in* 
stead of opening the door. — ^The window does not open easily, 
that is the reason why I open the door. — ^When will you shut it ? 
—I will shut it as soon as there is no more smoke.— Why do yoo 
not put those beautiful glasses on the small table 1 — ^If I put Vaem 
upon that little table they will break. — Did you often go a fishing 
when you were in that country t — We often went a £hing and a 
hunting. — If you will go with us into the country, you will see the 
castle of my father.— -You are very polite. Sir ; but I have seta 
thaC castle already. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

EIGHTY-FOURTH LESSON.— bier tmb ar^t?ig«tt 

The utility, the use, tcr dln^cn ; 

the advantage, bcr SScttbetL 

This thing is of no use. >Dtcfc ^d)e tfl oen Uintm 9lQ|ai- 

To profit by a thing. 02u^cn ou$ ctner Qad^t $t(f)cn*. 

To turn a thing to profit. @tc^ cine ^6:^^ px 9{u|< mad^l^ 

To be useful to any one. Scnmnban nu^en (or nft(cn). 
Of wha; use is thati SBc^u nfi|t bo^? 

That is of no use. ^ai nft^t ntc^t& 

Useful. m^itdi. 

Useless. Unnfi(^ nu^Io^ 

Is it useful to write a great deal 1 3fl t6 nfi^lid), met ju ^x^Un ? 
It is useful. <5^ ifl nCi^(tdt). 

Is it well (ri^ht) to do iti 3fl c« bttlig, ti {U t^un? 

It is not well (wrong) (&i ifl unbiUtg (unrc(|)t) 

What is that 1 ©a# ifl t>a«? 

I do not know what it is* Scft wfip nttftt/ toai eg ifL 

To be called. ^eipen*. Part, past, 5c iei Pet 

Imperf. I) i c p. 
What is your name t f JBic l)cipcn ®ic ? 

My name is Charles. + ^ f^dft (mein i»ame ijl) Jlart 

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Wlnt do yon call this in Ger- Bte bdft bo J auf tnitfc^ ? 

Bow do you express (say) this SBie fogen ©ic bo5 ouf fran36f(f<^ I 

in French 1 
Wliat is that called ? SEBte nmnt man to j ? 

To name. S^enncn*. Part, past, genannt 

Imperf. nannte. 


The names of persons are declined either without 
or with the article. Without the article they take i 
in the genitive, and en in the dative and accusative, 
with the article they add nothing to their termination. 

NoM. SCBit^m or ber SDBitMm^ William. 

Gen. SDBaWm^ — be^ ffiir^elm, of William. 

Dat. 3Bif^eImen — bem SBil^Im, to William. 

Ace. JIBil^Imen — ben ffiilljelm, William. 

NoM. (glifabetfl or bie CKjat»etf>, Elizabeth. 

Gen. glifdbet^^ —ber ®ifabetf), of Elizabeth. 

Dat. glifabet^ — ber SKfabet^, to Elizabeth. 

Ace. ©ifabet^en — bie Slifabet^, Elizabeth. 

Obs. A, Names of persons terminating in fc^, ^, % 
% %f h ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ genitive. Ex. ^ranj, Francis ; 
gen. ^onjen^* Names of females in a or e (tne com- 
mon endings for almost all such names) change in the 
genitive a or e into en^. Ex. SEBtt^Imina, Wilhelmine ; 
gen. SBil^elminen^, of Wilhelmine. geonore, Eleanor ; 
foonoren^/ of Eleanor. 

Ohs. B, To indicate that the ending of the geni- 
tive is not a part of the name, it is commonly separ- 
ated by an apostrophe as in English. Ex. ®c^iffer*d 
®d>K^te, Schiller's poems; ®oet^e*^ Serfe, Goethe's 

Sooner — than. Gb't — al«. 

Rather — than. Ctcber — aU5. 

He has arrived sooner than I. Gr tfl c()er otigefommen o(J td^ 

• For th(t proper namM of oonntriM and towm. ■•• Ltnon XLIX. 

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(Zuhn werfe i(ft mem ®<(b in Un^ 
Jlu9/ cbc id) c$ wrfcbmcnte. 
Cb« id) mctn (Sett t>crfd)n)fnl^^ 
fe i* c^ ikb€x in ten Jlug. 
1 will rather pay him than go 3^ toiVi i^n (icbcr bc^^tn, aU f/mi^. 

thither. Qcl)ttt. 

\ will rather bum the coat than 3d) wiQ Un died tiebec lxr6raiBCii« 
wear it. oU i^n tcagcn. 

Sure. ®(mip. 

To be sure of a thing. ^ntt &<kd^t gnotf fetn*. 

I am sare of that. 3d> bin be^en ^cwi^ 

I am sure that he has arrived. 3d) todi (or btn) Q(m% taf tt om 

gcfommen ift 

ikrwTtwalL ]3*»ciM3«»ifi. 

To repair to, to go to. €^icl^ mobin begcben*. 

I went to my room. 3^ bcgab micb Quf mctn Simmer. 

He repaired to that town. (Sr bcgab fi^ in ticfe €taM. 

To repair to the army, to one*s ©id) gur Tixnm, gu feinem 9{cgimcn< 

regiment. t< bcgeben*. 

I repaired to that place. 3c^ h^h^ mi<^ an tiefen 5Drt be^eben. 

He repaired thither. (Sx ijat fid) tal)in bcgcbcn. 

Go where you please. ®el)en ^ie, n)c()in Sic wcHen. 

George the Third. Oeorj lev 5)ritte. 

Louis t^ie Fourteenth. Cubnxg tet QSier^ebnte. 
Henry the Fourth. ^cinrid^ tct SSicrte. 

£urope, European. ^ropa; eurcpStfc^ 

Fluently. ©elduftg. 

Charles the FiAh spoke several jtart Ut SSnfte fprad) getfufid mc^ 
European languages fluently, terc eurcpSifd^c Gproc^m 
Such a thing. ®o etmas. 

Have you ever seen such a ^ben ©ie ic fo ctma^ gefe^en 7 

Have you eve. heard of such a ^oben €>ic ie fo etma^ ^tffitil 

I have never seen nor heard of 3(6 ^^c nie fo ctmai gefe^en nO(| 
such a thing. gef}9rt 


When did you see my father's castle ? — ^I saw It when 1 wai 
travellini^ last year. It is one of the finest castles that I have e?el 
seen ; it is seen far ofi*. — How is that said ? — That is not said. 
That cannot be comprehended. — Cannot every thing be expressed 
in your language 1 — Everv thing can be expressed, but not as in 
yours. — Will you rise early to-morrow ! — It will depend upon d^ 
tumstances ; if I go to bed early, I shall rise early, but if I gats 

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Ded late, I shall rise late. — ^Will you love czy children'? — If they 
ire good, I shall lore them. — Will you dine with us to-morrow 1^ 
If jon get ready ()u6cretten (afTen) the food I like, 1 shall dine with 
you. — ^Uaye you already read the letter which you received this 
morning 1 — I have not opened it yet. — When will you read it 1— 
I shall read it as soon as I have time. — Of what use is that 1 — It is 
of DO use. — Why have you picked it up 1 — I have picked it up, id 
ofder to show it to you. — Can you tell me what it is ? — I cannot 
lell yon, for I do not know ; hut I shall ask my brother who will 
lell you. — Where have you found it 1 — I have found it on the bank 
d the river, near the wood. — Did you perceive it from afar 1 — I did 
cot want to perceive it from afar, for I passed by the side of the^ 
river. — Have you ever seen such a thing ! — Never.— Is it useful to* 
tpeak much ? — ^If one wishes to learn a foreign language it is use- 
mi to speak a great deal. — Is it as useful to write as to speak 1 — 
(t is more usenil to speak than to write ; but in order to learn a 
foreign language, one must do both (hiitk). — ^Is it useful to write 
4ll that one says 1 — ^That is useless. 


Where did you take this book from 1 — I took it out of the room 
of Tour friend (fem.). — Is it right to take the books of other people 1 
—ft is not right, I know ; but I wanted it, and I hope that youi 
friend will not be displeased ; for I will return it to her as soon as 
\ have read it. — ^What is your name t — My name is William. — 
What is your sister's name 1 — Her name is Eleanor. — Why does 
Charles complain of his sister ?— Because she. has taken his pens. 
—Of whom do those children complain 1 — Francis complains of 
Eleanor and Eleanor of Francis. — Who is right 1-r-They are both 
wrong; for Eleanor wishes to take Francis's books and Francis 
Eleanor's. — To whom have you lent Schiller's works 1 — I have lent 
the first volume to William and the second to Elizabeth. — How is 
that said in French 1 — ^That is not said in French. — How is that 
said in German 1 — It is said thus. — Has the tailor already brought 
you your new coati — He has brought it to me, but it does not fit me 
Well. — Will he make you another 1 — He must make me another; 
for rather than wear it, I will give it away. — Will you use that 
horse 1 — I shall not use it. — Why will you not use it 1 — Because it 
does not suit me.— Will you pay for it 1 — I will rather pay for it 
than use it. — ^To whom do those fine books belong 1 — ^They belong 
to William. — Who has given them to him 1 — His good fother.— 
Will he read them ? — He will tear them rather than read them.— 
Aie you sure that he will not read them 1 — I am sure of it, for bm 
has told me so.^ (See end of Lesson XXXIV.> 

y Google 


EIGHTY.FIFTH LESSON.— iUnf ttttb acl)t|i8«te 



Sweet wine, 
A mild sephyr, 
A mild air, 
A soft sleep. 

fQpcr SBein ; 
cin fanftct 3cpf»pr; 
cine fonfte Cuft ; 
cin fanftct ^(af. 

Nothing makes life more agree- fflidiH mac^t ba^ 9c6cn ongcne^mcr, 
able than the society of and ol^^ic Q^cf^dfc^ft vmX> bet Unt^an^ 
intercourse with our friends. mtt unfctn ^tcuntcn. 

Sour, acid. 
To cryt to scream^ to shrieks 

To help. 

Thou helpest, he helps. 
I help him to do it. 
f help you to write. 

I will help you to work. 
To cry out for help. 


65 (ft r den*. Part, past, gc* 
f(ftrtccn. Imperf. fcftric 

^ c ( f c n * (governs the dative). 
Part, past^ g c ^ ( f c lu Imperf. 

©u bUfH, ct f)i(ft. 
C 3d) bclfc xhnx borin. 
C 3$ bin tbm bartn bcbftlfticb* 

3d) ^c(fie 3bncn fd)cctbcn. (See Les- 
son XL.) 

34 voiU 3bncn arbcttcn l^cfftn. 

Urn |>a(fe fd)rctcn*. 

To inquire -after some one. €t(ft natft 3<in<tnbcm rtfttiibigff 

(nad) Scmanbcm fragcn)« 
Will you have the goodness to ffictlcn Sic bic®fitc ba&cn,iiiitti(f( 

Wpass that plate to me t ^fiffct ju rctcften ? 

ill you pass that plate to me SCBcUcn ^ic nut gcf^aigll btcfc 6(M^ 

if you please! 
To reach. 

If you please. 

complaisant, pleasing. 
48 you ;;>lease. 
At yom pleasure. 
As you likb 

To kii Kk at the door. 
To happe.i. 
^•mething has happened . 

fc( rcid)cn ? 

C ®f f&nigft. 
t SBcnn u 36ncn gcf&dlg Ifl. 


>aDBic c« 36ncn gcfiXUig t(t 

2(n blc S£Wt ficpfcn. 

!®td) crciancn, fid) |utragcn* paki 
()obcn K)r tlieir auxiliary). 
©crfaHcn*/ gcfd)c!)cn*/ bcgcgnn 
(take fcin). 
(Si bat f!(ft ctnM^ gugctrogen (jfx^ 

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What has happened ? 8Bo« if vcvQifaUtn 'aef^^m) I 

A greAt misfortune has happened. (&i ifl (in groped Un#(! gcf:^(^ 
Kothiner has happened. (&i t^ ntd)t$ Mrgef alien. 

A nus&rtone has happened to ^^ ifl if)m cin Unglilcl bcgegnet 

I had an accident 3(^ (atte cincn 3ufo(L 

Topour. ®itftn*, fc^dtten/ etnfd^eiis 

Topour away. ffieggiegen*. 

To shed. ©ergiepen*. 

To shed tears. S^rfincn tjcwiepcn* (Part past, Wft 

gcffcn.* Ijmperf. imrgcp). 
A tear. @ine SftrAne. 

With tears in his, her, our :r 972it t()r&nenben TCu^tn. 

mj eyes, 
f pour wine into a glass. 3<fc gtcpe SBcin in ein ®M, 

I put com into a sack. 3d) fifiittc ®ctrf ibe in cincn €5acl, 

I pour out some drink for that 3ch fc^cnfc bicfcm 9){onne gu trinfctt 

man. cin. 

I pour away the wine, for it is 3*<)icfc ben SBcinwcfl/bcnn crtaucjt 

good for nothing. nt(^t^ 

Ct SBo^ anbcttcffen* (anbct 
As to, asfoTf with respect to. < troffcn/Onbettof). 
ft SBa^ anbetangcn. 

As to me, I do not kno¥ what f SBad nu(( an6etrifft (on6c(angt)^ 
to say. fo locip 16^ nx&jt, nai i^ fagcn foil 

To meet wtth. t^fntrcffcn* (governs the ace.). 

Part, past, get toff en* Im 
perf. ttaf. 

Where have you met with him! f ®^ ft<»^^n ®ic 'x\)n ongctroffcn 7 

I do not know what to do. t 3<ft toc'i^ nic^, xoai i6) tftun foil. 

I do not know where to go to. f 34 n>cip nic^t, wchin tcft gc^en 

He does not know what to an- f 6t votxf ni(^t/ noa^ ct antmorten 

swer. foIL 

We do not know what to huy. f 9Btc wiffen ni^t/ n>a6 mt fauftn 


To unbosom one's self to some ^id^ Semanbem t^crtroucn. 


To trust some one. 3cmanbcm traucn or Dcrtrauctu 

T.. jSi.*^o* ««« 5 6in«ni miptroucn. 

To distrust one. ^ ^^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^^ 

Do yon trust that man! Stauen (or octttauen) dU Mcfcai 


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I do tniBt him. 

He trusta me. 

We must not trust erery body. 

To laugh at something. 

Do you laugh at that! 

I do laugh at it. 

At what do you laugh 1 

To laugh at, to deride some one. 

I laugh at (deride) you. 


A full glass. • 

A full (^lass of wine. 

A book full of errors. 

The means, 
To afford (to have the means). 
Can you afford to buy a horse 1 

I can afford it. 

I cannot afford it. 

The lady, 

To taste, to like, to relish. 

How do you like this wine ? 
1 like it well. 
I don't like iU 


SA ttaue (or t^ettraoe) t^ 
(gr traut (or jjcrtraut) mic 
©it nififfcn nicfct cinem 

Uebcr (tn>aWtid)rn. 
Cad)cn ©ic torabcr ? 
3d) lad)C torubcr. 
5!Bcrflbcr (Qd)cn ©ie ? 
3emanben au6(ad)cn (or &cr(a^ni> 
3cb (ad)C @ie au6 focrla^e Sic). 


Qxn relief (B(a^ 

&n ®Ui ITCU SBcin (ctn ^Uc$ QM 

(5tn JBuct) Dcfltft Jcbtcc. 

tai smtttcL 

3)ic 9)iittc( f)Qbcn*. 

^paben @ie tie 9)?itte(, ein ?)fad |i 

faufcn ? 
3d) f)aOc bie sDZittct Iwj^u 04 ^** 

3(fe babe jie nicftt. 
tie Dame. 

6 d) ni e d c n. 

SBic fd)mccrt 3bnen Mcfec SBetn? 
(St fd)niccft mir .qut. 
(St fd)nKcIt mir md)t. 


Do your scholars learn their exercises by heart ? — They will ra- 
ther tear them than learn them by heart. — What does this man ask 
me for 1 — He asks you for the money which you owe him. — ^If he 
will repair to-morrow morning to my house I will pay him what ) 
owe him. — He will rather lose his money than repair thither.— 
Charles the Fifth, who spoke fluently several European languages, 
said that we should (man niftffc) speak Spanish with the god«» 
Italian with our (fcincr) mistress (Me ®c(icbtc Obs, Lesson huh) 
French with our (fi'incm) friend (masc), German with soldiers, 
English with geese (t>te @an6), Hungarian (unqarifd)) with horses, 
ana Bohemian (bb'bnufd)) with the devil (pet Scufct). — Why doei 
the mother of our old servant shed tears 1 What has happened to 
herl — She sheds tears because the old clergyman, her friend, who 
was 80 very good to her (tec tbt fo wet (5Jute^ gethan bat), died a few 
days ago. — Of what illness did he die? — He was struck with apo 
plexy. — Have vou helped your father to write his letters ! — I have 
•elped him — will you help me to work when we ^o to town T— I 

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wfll help you to work, if yea will help me to gel a .ivelihood.— 
Have you inquired after the merchant who sells so cheap 1 — I have 
ioqaired after him ; but nobody could tell me what has become of 
him. — ^W'here did he live when you were here three years ago 1 — 
He lived then in C.nirles Street, No. 55. — How do you like tliis 
vine ! — I like it very well ; but it is a little sour. 


How does your sister like those apples 7 — She likes them very 
Jrell ; but she says that they are a little too sweet. — Will you have 
*he goodness to pass that plate to me 7 — With much pleasure. — 
Shall (SoU) I pass these fishes to you? — ^I will thank you to pass 
^m to me. — Shall I pass the bread to your sister 1-^You will 
^lige (wtbtnben*) me by passing it to her. — How does your mo- 
ther like our food 1 — She likes it very well ; but she says that she 
has eaten enoagh. — ^What dost thou ask me for 1 — Will you be kind 
enough to give me^ little bit of (wn) that mutton 1 — Will you 
pass me the bottle, if you please ? — Have you not drunk enough t 
—Not yet; for I am still thirsty. — Shall I give (etnfc^cnfcn) you 
some wine 1 — No, I like cider better. — Why do you not eat ? — 1 do 
not know what to eat.— Who knocks at the door? — ^It is a foreigner. 
— W^hy does he cry 1 — He cries because a great misfortune has 
happened to him. — What has happened to you 1 — Nothing has 
happened to me. — Where will you go to this evening 1 — I don't 
know where to go to. — Where will your brothers go to 1 — I do not 
know where they will go to ; as for me, I shall go to the theatre. — 
Why do you go to town ? — I go thither in order to purchase some 
books. — Will you go thither with me 1 — I will go with you ; but I 
do not know what to do there. — Must I sell to that man on credit* 
—You may sell to him, but not on credit; you must not trust him, 
foi he will not pay you. — Has he already deceived any body ?— 
He has already deceived several merchants who have trusted him. 
—Must I trust those ladies 1 — You may trust them ; but as for me, 
I shall not trust them; for I have often been deceived by the wo* 
men, and that is the reason why I say, we must not trust every 
body. — Do thoso merchants trust you 7 — They do trust me, and 1 
trust them. 


Whom do those gentlemen laugh at 1 — They laugh at those la- 
dies whc wear red gowns (ba€ SiUit) with yellow ribbons. — Why 
do those people laugh at us 1 — ^They laugh at us because we speak 
oadly. — Ought we to (sDluJ man) laugh at persons who speak bad- 
ly! — We ought not to laugh at them ; we ought, on the contrary, 
to listen to them, and if they make blunders (JcMcr), we ought to 
correct them for them. — What are you laughing at 1 — I am laughing 
at your hat ; how long (fcit voann) have you been wearing it so 
large 1—^ince (Scitbem) 1 returned from England.— Can you afford 
to buy a horse and a carriage? — ^I can afford it. — Can your brother 

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affonl to bay that lar^ house 1 — He can afford it — ^Witl he bnj ft 1 
—Ho will buy it, if it pleases him. — Have you received my loi- 
ter 1 — I have received it with much pleasure, I have shown it to 
my German master, who was sururised at it, for there was n^t a 
■ingle mistake in it — Have you already received Jean Paulas and 
Wieland's works 1 — ^I have received those of (wn) Wieland ; as 
to those of Jean Paul, I hope (fo beffe H) to receive them next 
week. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

EIGHTY.SIXTH LESSON.— 8ecl)« tttli crl|t|ig»U 

Who is there ? fiBet tfl ba ? 

ItisL SkbMnc^ 

Is it you t ©inb ®te c< ? % 

It is not I. 3cb (in c^ ntdl|t 

It is you. 6i( ftnb ti. 

It is he, it is she. Or tfl c^, ftc tfl U, 

Are they your brothers ? ©inb U 3hv( JBtftbo: 7 

They are not my brothers. Qi ftnb metne SSrAbcr nUyt 

DCT^ Appositional phrases* are in German always 
put in the same case as the principal noun. Ex. 


Lycurgus, the Spartan legislator. Spfutg^ brr Cikfc(^(bet 6pacta^ 
Religion, this daughter of hea- 2)ie 0lHtaton, biete ISocbter M fm^ 

ven, is the faith&l companion mdi, iff bte tvcue ^fS^tttnn Wt 

of men. SXenfcben* 


The duty of a father, the natural tOti SSater^/ M natihft(b«i ®«c« 
tutor of his children, is to pro- ntunbe^ feiner ^inbcV/ ^fluM V 
vide for them. U, fh^tpx forgeiu 


That honour is due to my friend Dtefe Gf)te gebft^tt mcinem Jh^omN, 
who is a brave man. - cinem braoen ^nnc* 

I gave the father, this honest old Skb b<t^c bem SSatct/ bi^em xtifi 
man, the model of his family, fd)affcnen Oreifc, bem 9Ruft«r fei* 
that advice. ncr Jamtttc, ben 9Jat^ ^ 


•We can a phraae appoiitumal when it Miret to explain and detemlM tbt 
9niiclpai npun. 

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IWt happened under Constan- jDicd ^tfM untct (SenftontHi Urn 
tine tne Great, the fii-st Chris- ®t^n, bcm erflen (i^rtfKidjen^ai* 
tian emperor. fer. 


t concerns my friend, the coun- @6 bctrifft mctncn Sreunb/ Un 

aellor N. «Ratb S"?. 

I have known the king, that 2ld) f)obe t>cn A5ntg, btefen SBot)(t^A« 
benefactor of his people. Uv fctne^ iBclfe^, gcfonnt* 

The duty, bir 9?pid)t ; 

the companion, tec (S(effif)ttc ; 

the tutor (the guardian), ber S^ormunb (plor. ^Bormftnbo:) ; 

the model, bo^ ^uftec ; 

the family, bie ^amUte ; 

the people, ba^S$c({; 

honest, tcci^tfc^ffen ; 

faithful (true), trcit. 

To thee, my dearest friend, I give ^ir, mcinem fubflen ^xmnU, gebe 
this ring. tc^^ birfen ditng. 

DC7^ B. In German the pronoun must be in the 
same gender, number, and case, with the substantive. 

Of me, who am his nearest rela- SBon mtt/ \mtm n&<ftftcn SSerwanb* 

tion, he requests nothing. ten, ocrtangt et ntci^t^ 

is it they who speak ? @tnb fte e^, bie fptec^en ? 

It is they. @te finb e$. 

It i« T who sneak S 3* ^'*» ^^' ^^ fr^*^ 

It IS 1 who spealc. ^ g^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ .^^ ^^^^ 

DCT* C When a personal pronoun is followed by 
a relative pronoun, it may or may not be repeated af- 
ter the latter ; but if it is not repeated, the verb which 
foUows the relative pronoun must stand in the third 
person, though the personal pronoun be of the first or 
second person. 

It IS yon who laugh. ^ ^-^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ 

>Du btfl e^^ ber bu e^ get^an ^tfl; 

jDu btfl ci, ber ed get^n l^t 
Gie pnb t^, mef 
saii tha£ gefagt ^aben. 

To look like (to appear) 2Cu«fcben* wie. 

flow does he look 1 SBie flel^t er ou$ ? 

It is thon who hast done it. < or, 

It is you, gentlemen, who have @te finb t^, meine ^vcxm, bie bol 
dd " 

y Google 


He looks gaj (8ad, contented). Qt f!(l)t UifKg (trmn% iitfctik^ 

This beer looks like water. >Dicfc« JBicr fu'f?t ou^ mtc ©afct 

You look like a doctor. ©ic fcbcn vo'u ctn 2Crjt au^ 

Our equals. t Unfcrcfi (SlciAcn. 

He has not his equal or his f (&x f)at feine^ 0(ct(^n n'ld^t 

Scmantcm 9Uid)en*. Part, 
past, 9cg(td)cn. Imperf. glidv 

3cwiant«w fibnlid? ff^><n*oi 
fcin *. 

(St ftcF)! mtr &f)n(id). 

3d) 9tcid)c S^tcni JBrubcr. 

3d) bin i^m &t)nlid>* 

To resemble some one. 

He resembles me. 

I resemble your brother. 

I resemble him. 

JEach other. 
We resemble each other. 

(S t n a n b e t (an indeclinable pro- 
noun) .b 

i 8©ir gtft^en cinanbcr. 

( 9Btt feben dnanbet dbntit^ 
They do not resemble each other. @te fcben etnanbrr nic^t AbnOd). 
The brother and the sister love iDcr S3rub(c unb bie ^(^a>e|lrt (ic 

each other. ben cinonber. 
Are you pleased with each other! ^tnb @te niit dnanbet ^ufnebcn? 
2Bic pnb c^ 

3(b bin gcfunb. 

3cntQnb«m gutrinfen*. 
r3«manbc^ ©cfunbbeit trinfcn*. 
•<2Cuf 3cmanbc« ®cfunb^eit tri»» 
C ten*. 

J 3d) trtnfe 3i« Ocfunbbdt 
I 34 trtnfe auf 3()t:e ^unb^ 

We are (so) 

I am well. 

To drink to some one. 

To drink some one^s health. 
I drink your health. 

To make some one's acquaint- S3c(anntf4aftnut3<snanbemmM^ 

To become acquainted with some- S^ntanben fennen (ernen. 


(34 ^obe fcine 93efannt|4Qft ^ 
1 have become acquainted with 34 ^^be i^n fcnnen ^etetnt 

Are you acquainted with him ^inb @te mtt t^m (t^c) befamif 1 
(her) ? 

* (Slnanber hidicates that the action eiprewed by the verb ii ndptmiL 
wtween several persona or things, and is employ^ for all cases and fEeote 



Do you know him (her) 1 Jtcnnen ©te t^n (fic) J 

I am acquainted with him (her). 3d) bin mit i^ni (i^r) 6c{annt» 

I know him (her). 3d) fcnnc t()n (fic). 

He b an acquaintance of mine. Qt tfl nietn S3cfanntcr. 

She is my acquaintance. &'\e tfi mctne S3efannte. 

He is not a friend, he is bat an Qx tfl Uxn ^^rcunb^ et tfl nuc etn 
acquaintance. 93cfonnter. 

Obs. @o denotes the consequence of a preceding 
proposition. (See DQ^ B. Lesson LXXXI.) 

As thou hast not done thy exer- SBett t>u bctne 2(ufdaOen ni<^t gut 0C< 

cises well, thou must do them mad)t b^f!/ \^ niupt bu fie no^ ettis 

again. mat ntad)en. 

As he did not come, I sent for 2)a cr nid)t fam, (\t) (tep 14 t^n nis 

him. fen. (Lesson LXXXI.) 

Again, once more. 9{cd) ctnmaf. 

As. ^a, Will 


Where hare you become acquainted with that lady ? — I have I e- 
come acquainted with her at the house of one of my relations. — Is 
it thou, Charles, who hast soiled my book 1— It is not I, it is your 
little sister who has soiled it — ^Who has broken my fine ink-stand 1 
—It is I who have broken it — Is it you who have spoken of me ? 
—It is we who havo spoken of you, but we have said of you nothi;\g 
but good (®utc$). — Why does your cousin ask me for money and 
books 1 — Because he is a fool ; of me, who am his nearest relation 
and best friend, he asks for nothing. — Why did you not come to 
dinner (^um iDZitto^i ijcn) 1 — I have been hindered, but you have been 
able to dine without me. — ^Do you think that we shall not dine, if 
yoa cannot come ] — How long did you wait for me 1 — We waited 
for you till a quart* r psist seven, and as you did not come, we dined 
without you. — Have you drunk my health 1 — ^We have drunk yours 
and that of your p-cirents. — A certain man liked much wine, but he 
foand in it (tatan) two bad qualities (tie @tocnfd)aft). ^' If I put 
water to it (bincin)," said he, " I spoil it, and if I do not put any 
to it, it spoils me." — How does your uncle look 1 — He looks very 
gay ; for he is much pleased with his children. — Do his friends 
look as gay as he ? — ^They, on the contrary, look sad, because tbey 
are discontented. — My uncle has no money, and is very contented, 
and his friends who have a great deal of it, are scarcely ever so.— 
Do you like your sister 1 — Ilike her much, and as she is very com- 
plaisant towards me, I am so towards her ; but how do you like 
yours T — We love each other, because we are pleased with each 


Does your cousin resemble you? — He does resemble me.— Do 
your sisters resemble each other ? — They do not resemble each 
other ; for the eldest (\>\t 6lt(fle) is idle and naughty (unartig), and 

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the youngest assiduous and complaisant towards STery body^ - Wlif 
knocks at the door t — It is I, will you open itt — What do yon 
want 1 — I come to ask you for the money which you owe me, and 
the books which I lent you. — If you will ha?e the goodness to 
come to-morrow, I will return both to you. — ^Do you perceive yon- 
der house t — I do perceive it, what house is it? — It is an inn (M 
SDtrtf)^6auO ; if you like, we will go into it to drink a glass of 
wine ; for I am very (fc^t) thirsty. — You are always thirs^ when 
you see an inn. — If we enter it, 1 shall drink your nealth. — Rather 
than go into an inn I will not drink. — When will you pay what 
you owe me 1 — When I have money ; it is useless to ask me for 
some to-day, for you know very well that there is nothing to be had 
of him who has nothing. — When do yon think jou will have mo- 
ney 1 — ^I think I shall have some next year. — Will you do what I 
shall tell you ? — I will do it, if it is not too difficult — ^Why di yoo 
lauffh at me 1 — ^I do not laugh at you, but at your coat. — ^Does it 
not look like yours ! — It does not look like it ; for mine is shor* 
and yours is too long, mine is black and yours is green. (See end 
of Lesson XXXIV,^ 


I got out of the scrape. 

EIGHTY.SEVENTH LESSON.— gubwt tmb a£ljt|ig6lt 

To get into a scrape. 6tc6 |>Antc( ju^e^en*. 

rSi^ hcvani Mfrn*. 
To get out of a scrape. • ®id) au^ bet @d)(in9e ^te^*. 

I @td> ocn ctxoai IH madKiu 
^ 3d> l)aOc mic ^erau$ gchoCfcn. 
3(!b $obe mt(^ au^ tec ^^(tnge 9^ 
[ 3ci) bin 3ut bat)on gefommciu 
The snare, t)tc ©d)lin9e ; 

always, inmiec. 

That man always gets into bad 5)icffc SWann jlc^t |!c6 immct ^ifim 
scrapes; but he always gets mc|>&nM)u; at>€tttf)ilfifdf\x» 
out of them again. mcc m^Ut ^etpou^ 

Between, Bwlfdi^tn (^vems the dalin 

and accusative). 

The appearance, ba^ 2(nfc^cn ; 

the si^ht, the face, tai (^cfic^t ; 

the mien, the look, hit 9}2tcne ; 

the countenance, the physiog- fcic ©cjic^t^Oilbung. 


To have the appearance. 3)a« 2fnfc!^en liahtn\ 

To appear ©djetncnS ImperC fttctu 

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To look« 2(u^l^it^ 

To look well. ®ut au^fc()en*« 

To look good. (9ut ^u fcin fc^einen*. 

You (appear) look very well. 6te fc^cn fcbr jut au^ 

She looks angry. @te |i<f)t MtbncfHid) aui. 

She appears to be angry. 6te fcl)cint 66fe (oerbnc0i(^) pi 

They appear to be contented. Sic fd)ettien |ufcieben ju feiiu 
They look contented (pleased). @te f^^en ocrgndgt au& 

To look pleased with some one. 3(manbem (in fcifunbUc^e^ ©cfl^t 

To receiTe one kindly. (Sincn frcunbticfe cmpfangcn*. 

Friendly, kindly. grcuntUd). 

To look cross at some one. Scmantem (in tSfc^ (3i^^t ma4(n* 

Wlaen I go to see that man, in- SSknn id) bicfcn 9)2ann b(ru4(/ nia^t 
stead of receiving me with plea- (t mir (in bSfe^ ®(fld)t/ anflati 
sure, he looks displeased. mid) fr(unUi(^ au^un(^m(n. 

A ffood-looking man. Gin 9){ann ocn gutcm 2(nf(f)en. 

X bad-looking man. Qxn 9}2ann 9on fd)(cd)t(ni 2(nf(^(n. 

Bad-looking people or folks. fieute ocn fd)(cd)tcm 2(nf(t)(n. 

To imagine. @id) (inOi(b(n (governs the da 


That man whom you see, seems iDcr ^ann, b(n 6i( fe^nt/ ftftetnt 
desirous of approaching us. {t(^ un^ (dative) n^^(rn ju tooUcn* 

To visit, to go to see some one. 3(manb(n 6(fu(ft(n. 

To p^ some one a visit. 3cmonb(m (in(n S3(fu(( moii^en* 

To frequent a place. Ginen £)tt 6cfu4(n. 

To frequent societies. @tf(afd>aft(n 0(fud)(n. 

To associate with some one. a)2it Semanbon umgc^cn*. 

hi. an over with me! {§,t":;i;15„«?*"""' 

It b all over ! Qi ifl barum gcfc^^n ! too late to consult to-day ®(fd)c6(nc iDinge ftnb nic^t |U &nbmi 
about what was done yesterday (6pnd)n)crt). 
The spite, the displeasure, b(t ^(tbruf ; 
the gnef, the sorrow, b(t Aumm(r. 

To vex, to spite some one. 3(manb(m ^(tbrup ma(ft(n. 

To hurt some one's feelings. ^cmanben hr&nfcn* 
You have vexed (spited) that @i( babcn bicfcm 3)2anne SSerbmf 

man. geniac^t. 

^ou have hurt that man's feel- &\t ^aO(n bi(f(n 972ann gcCrAnft 

The place, bar £)rt, bic ©teUc. 

I know a good place to swim in. 3c^ mxf cine gute Stette |atsi 


12* „ , 

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To swim. $ki)iotmmcns Part, past, ^ififtmt* 

men. Imperf. fdinKminu 

To experience. (S r f a f) r e n*. Imperf. « t f u 6 c 

To endure {experience). 6 r b u I b e n. 
To feel {experieme). Cmppnfecn*. Imperfect, t m s 

I Iiave experienced a great deal. 3d) ^^^t otc( ertuttct (enipfuntcn, 

I have experienced a great many 3d) b^be Dtc( Ungldcf gc^abt 

To suffer. efi^en• (gclittcn^ (itt). 

To feel a pain in one's head or f ^m ilcpfc obct om 5wP« tcitcn* 

I felt a pain in my eye. f ^ ^6e am Xuge gcTtttcn. 

To neglect. 9S etna d)Uf figen. 

To miss {to neglect). SSecf&umetu 

You have neglected your prom- 6te ^akn t^t 93crfpre<^at ocnuM^ 

ise. (fifngt. 

You have neglected to come to Sic ba6en ocrffiumt jut ©tunbe (jnt 
your lesson. Cccttcn) gu fcmmcn. 

To yield. JBcid)cn*« takes fcin. Part past, 

gnotc^en. Imperf. xo\^ 
To yield to some one. Scnwntcni nad)gc(>fn*. 

r©td) in ctwa^ (accns.) fc^tdtn. 
To yield to something. • < ©id) ju iVcoai bequemcn. 

C. ^* bet ctnw« baw^1^cn laffm*. 
To yield to necessity. ©id) in t>t< Olotbipcnbtgfcit fa)bfai 

We must yield to necessity. g){an map |tcb in tie S&tf^ipeiibiglrtl 


To spring. ©prtngcn*. Part, past, gefprnn^m. 

Imperf. fptang. 

To jump (hop). 4c>ftpfcn. 

To blow up, to burst, ©prcnacn. 

To omit. Ku^lajfcn*. Imperf. lieg. 

To spring up from below. 95cn unten ^erauf fprtngen*. 

To spring forward. 93crn)firt^ fprtngen. 

To sprincr backward. Surftcf fprinacn. 

The child hopped joyfuU arcund IDa^ itinb o^pfte frettbig urn mid 
me. ^eninu'» 

• SBelc^fn, to steep, and crwcld^cit, to soften, t3 mollify, are active and rep- 
ITft- i and consequently take bflben* for their auxiliary, 
o^upftn, to ramp, to hop, to frisk, is generally used in speakinc of animili 
mat spnog, and of children. 

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Hie besiegers let the bastion tS^ii^iaQetttiie^WSdofdfpttm 

blow op gen. 

The copier has omitted a few Dec 2(6fd)rcibcc^)ateimge3«Una«<i 

lines. gcloffctu 

'2(uf S^monten obcr etioo^ iti 

To rush upon sonne one or 

fpringcn*/ lo« jliXtitn, id tens 
Ucbcr 3«manbm o^ct ttxoai f)ttfaU 
^ Un: 

The cat springs upon the rat. jj)ic Jta|c fprttigt ouf We Slatte iti. 
To leap on horseback. ®td) auf batf ^ferb fc^nnngen* (ge^ 

f9bn>ungen« fdbioang). 
To run. Slenncn* (gtrannt, rannte). 

To swing. ©cftwingcn* (gef^wungen, fcfenwng). 

To still greater ill luck. 3u nod) 9r69crem Ungtfict 

To still greater good luck. 3u nc<ft grfipctem ®(ttcf. 

To my still greater ill luck I 3u nccb grS^erem UngtW Jabe ttft 

have lost my purse. mcine iBorfe vertcrcn. 


Is it right to laugh thus at erery body 1 — If I laugh at your coai, 
I do not laugh at every body. — Does your son resemble any one 1 — 
He resembles no one. — Why do you not drink 1 — I do not know 
what to drink ; for I like good wine, and yours looks like vinegar. 
—If you wish to have some other I shall go down into the cellar 
(Lesson LXXIII.) to fetch you some. — You are too polite, sir, I 
shall drink no more to-day. — Have ^ou known my father long 1 — I 
have known him long, for I made his acquaintance when I was yet 
at (auf) school. We often worked for one another, and we loved 
each other like brothers.-^I believe it, for you resemble each 
other. — ^When I had not done my exercises, he did them for me, 
and when he had not done his, I did them for him. — Why does 
your father send for the physician 1 — He is ill, and as the physi- 
cian does not come he sends for him* 


Is that man angry with (auf with the accus.) jron 1 — I think he 
is angry with me, because I do not go to see him ; but I do not 
like to go to his house : for when I go to him, instead of receiving 
me with pleasure, he looks displeas^. — You must not believe that 
he is angry with you, for he is not so bad as he looks. — He is the 
best man in (vcn) the world ; but one must know him in order to 
appreciate (fd)a^n) hrn. — There is (Qi i|l) a great difference (bee 
UnteTf(l)teb) between (dative) you and him ; you look pleased with 
all those who come to see you, and he looks cross at them.— ^ 
Why do you associate (gebcn 6ic — uni) with those people 1 — I as- 
iociate with them because they are useful to me. — Ir you continue 
U> associate with them you will get into bad scrapes, for they have 



maiij enemiefl. — How does your cousin conduct himself 1^-fli 
does not conduct himself yery well ; for he is always getting inte 
some bad scrape (or other). — Do you not sometimes get into bad 
scrapes ? — It is true that 1 sometimes get into them, but I always 

Set out of them again. — Do you see those men (^cutc) who seem 
esirous of approaching us 1 — I do see them, but I do not fear 
them ; for they hurt nobody. — ^We must go away, for I do not like 
to mix with people whom I do not know. — I beg of you not to be 
afraid of them, for I perceive my uncle among them. — Do yoa 
know a good place to swim in 1 — I do know one. — Where is it ? — 
On that side of the river, behind the wood, near the high-road (He 
eont>flrapc). — ^When shall we go to swim 7 — ^Tliis evening if yoa 
like. — Will you wait for me before the city-ptel — I shall wait for 
you there ; but I beg of you not to forget it. — You know that I 
never forget my promises. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

EIGHTT.EIGHTH LESSON.— aic^t tlttb ac^tjijtfe 

By all means (obstinately). SJdt aUct 9){ad>t unb (Snoolt 

To follow. Scljcn, nocbgcbcn* (govern the d» 

To pursue. 83ctfctgen (go^ms the aocos.). * 

I have followed him. 3<^ bin t^ni nad^gcgangen. 

To lose one's wits. Den JBerftonb wtlictcn*. Imperil 

The sense, the wit, the intellect, bet 93erflanb« 
That man has lost his wits, for S)iefcr 9)lann ^at ben SBcrftanb w- 

he does not know what he is lextn, bcnn et wcif nicbt/ wni cr 

doing. tbut. 

That man wishes by all means jDtcfcc ^ann voWt mtr mtt oOcr 9tf 

to lend me his money. watt fetn ®e(b U\f)tn» 

Obs, A. The neuter of tne demonstrative pronoun 
biefe^ (ba^) may in the singular relate to substan- 
tives of any gender or number, and even to a whole 

Is that the ladv whom you spoke 3|! ba6 bte ^Domc, oen ttx CTte nit 
of to me T m\t 9ffprcd)cn i^aUn ? 

"Tiat is a bad man. JDo* tfl cin Wfcr SRonn. 

/^hich are the pens with which aDBe(d)c^ finb bie Sebrni, mtt Una 
you write so well ? @i< fo gut fd)cctb<n 1 

Obs. B. The neuter of the interrogative pronoom 



t»eld}t6f whtch^ may equally relate to substantives of 
any gender or number. 

Which is the best pronancia- SZSktc^e^ tfl tie bcfle ?(u^fptad^e ? 

What a beautiful book ! SBdd^ ein fd)9n(^ 93tt4 ! 

Obs. C. 9Qe((^^ when it expresses admiration, may 
be follcwed by the indefinite article. It remains then 

What a gieat man ! 9B((d) ein grcpet ^ann ! 

What fine weather ! SBe(d)c^ fd)6ne SBettec ! 

What good people thej are ! SBc(d)e gute Seute ftnb M . 

What a happiness ! "y 

How fortanate ! iiBkld^ ein ®(fi(! or noel^K^ ®(fld ! 

How lucky ! J 

Perhaps. fBtetCet^^t; 

I shall perhaps go thither. 3d^ werbe oiedei^t ^inge^ 

Obs. J). How^ before an exclamation, is translated 
by ttwe, iDietJiel, »eld>. Ex. 

How good yon are ! 2Bie gut pnb 6Jie ! 

How foolish he is ! ©ic bumm ift ct ! 

How foolish she is ! OBie bunmi i|l |ie ! 

How rich that man is ! ©ie rcid) if! bicfer ^ann ! 

How handsome that woman is ! 9&te fchcn if! btefe ^rau ! 

How kind you are to me ! ©ctc^e ®fitc ©ie fut mid) ^oSen I 

How happy you are ! 8Q?ag finb ©ie |b glftdftd) ! 

How much I owe you ! SBiemcJ \6) Sbnen nid)t fcftulbig bin ! 

How much 1 am obliged to you ! $2Bte fc^t bin \d^ 3()nen nic^t oerbuns 

VKtt^ «.,«^ ^Ki;^*;^«o T on« "JSSa^icI) Sftnenni^t wtbanfe! 

How many (what a multitude SBelche 9){enf(^nmenge ! 95Mif etne 

of) people ! 9)2enge ^elH ! 

The multitude, the great number, tie ^DZenge. 

t> be under obligauoiis, to be ■) ^_„._v^_ 
obliged to some one foi some- P Mn". 

Wr;oSfethin.U,someone.5 »«^«'«"'"'««"-- 

I am indebted to him for It. 2)a« ^be it^ i^ gu 9erton!en. 

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To thank* £) a n f ( n (governs the datiTe| 

1 o thank some one for some- 3^manbem. fQr rtnxi^ lantoi. 

I thank you for the trouble you 3d) fconfc Sbncn ffit btc ?Mhf, b" 

have taken for me. 6'te fid) ffir rnic^ gegcben ^bcs 

Is there anything more grand 1 SBai t|l grSpo:? 
Is there anything more cruel ? SBa^ tfl gtaufamec 7 
Is there anything more wicked 1 ST^^ tfl gcttlofcr? 
Can anything be more handsome 1 ^ann ctioa^ fc^onrt fein? 

To run up. |)crbct(aufcn* 

To hasten up. ^erbcieilen 

To run to the assistance of some Scmontcm ju ^iUfe cUnu 

To save, to deliver. 9?etteiu 

To hasten. Gtlen. 

To plunder (to rob). pfinlmu 

Many men had run up ; but in- $Btc(e Scute toattn (erbetaccftt ; oSci* 
stead of extinguishing the fire, anflott bo^ Jfcucr $a I5f6(n/ fmgen 
the wretches set themselves to lit (Sitnt>cn an $a pUmtacxu 

fo begin something. Gtn>o^ onfangni*. Imperf. fing. 

To set about something. @id) an tUoai (ace.) tnacftetu 

Have they been able to extin- ^t man ta6 Soter (6f(tKn fonncn? 

guish the fire 1 
Have they succeeded in extin- Sfl c$ il)ncn gctungen, lai ^(uct )U 

guish ing the fire 1 (6fd)cn ? 

The watch indicates the hours. iDic Ubt jcigt Mc ^tunbcn an. 
To indicate. 2(ngctgcn. 

To quarrel. ^14 ^anfen. 
To chide, to reprove some one. 3emanbcn au^^onfen or au«|d)dtni* 

(gcfd)Cltcn, fd)alt). 
To scold some one. SKit Scnwnbcm janfcn. 

The quarre tiv 3an6, t>'w ^tnUxcu 

To dispute, :o contend aoout Uebct cttoa^ Krciten*- (grfinttftv 

something. fhritt). 

About what are those people dis- SIBcrftOer (Irciten Mcff Seute ? 

puting 1 
They are disputing about who ©ic janfen fid^, tott juerfl gc^n fol 

shall go first. 


The present participle is formed from the infinitive, 
by adding the letter b. Ex. ?iebett, to love ; present 



part. ({e6enb/ loving ; atheftcn, to work , present part 

The present participle in German is used in the at- 
tributive sense like an acyective. Ex. (Sin (lerbenbet 
Boter, a dying father ; ter Iarf)cnbe ^tu^Iiitg, the smiling 
spring ; bie na^eitbe Strnibe^ the approaching hour ; ba^ 
pttmibe £inb^ the trembling child. But it cannot be 
osed as a predicate. We cannot say with the Eng- 
lish : the boy is reading.* This must be expressed ny 
the present tense, as: iet Jtnabe Keft*^ 

In English the present participle is used to express 
causcj reason^ condition^ and time. But this is rarely the 
case in German. For in all such instances the present 
participle is translated by the following conjunctions 
with the verbs expressed by the English participles : 
M, when, as ; itod^bent/ after ; ba, as ; utbcnt, as, whilst ; 
tteil, because. Ex. 

Beingr lately at your brother's Ttti icfe neuftd) U\ 3?)tem JBnibet 

house, I gave something to his toav,Qaf> tc^ feinen Jttnbcm etwotf. 

Having eaten sapper, she went to giodftbeni* f!e ju iWoc^t gegetfen \}att(, 

bed. gtng fie ju SBettc. 

Having no money, I cannot lend aDo id) fcin ®c(^ f)CiU, fo fonn \d^ 3f)s 

yon any. mn U'xn^ letb«n. 

Knowing that you are my friend, aDo ic^ rocip, bop ©ie nwtn Jre unb 

1 beg of you to do me that fa- ^tth, fo bitte id) &ic, mir bicf<n 

▼our. ©efflllcn ju t^un. 

Not finding my brother, I went Snbcnt id) meincn SStuber ntd)t ftinb^ 

to my sister. (fo) atng td) gu mc'incr @d)n)ef!er« 

Being ill, I cannot work. 4B$(i( tc$ tcanC btn^ fann tc^ ntc^t ats 


Obs. E. These examples show that each of the con- 

• In sobUme ttjrle. jmncipally in Ppetry. it may be used adverbiatfy. Ex. 
Otttttn^ 9or jebfm ^^atten lebt bet 9ttr(^tfame in tmi^tt ^nqfl, trembling at 
Mch shade ihe fearful lives in constant anxiety. 3^m in bic diebe einfaUenb, 
teaann ttx eble ^cbtUe0, interrupting him, the noble Achilles began. 

^ Several words formed originally from verbs, have lost the nature of pre« 
nnt participles, and are used as adjectives only, both in the attributive and 
predicative sense ; they are : bringcnb, pressing ; briirfcnb, oppressive ; cinueb< 
ntnib, captivating ; flie^enb, fluent; bi"«i^cnb, overpowering ; franfcnb, mor- 
tifying; rttjcttb, charming. Ex. '3br« Sittcn finb fe^r einneimenb, her raan- 
••rs are very captivating ; bie 9lotb tfl bringenb, the necessity is pressing ; 
He 9a{l tfl brudenb, the burden is oppressive ; btefe $eUibioun(t tfl frdnfenb, 
luB insult is mortifying ; feint S^ebe t^ flie^enb, his speech is fluent ; ftc ifl 
fH)enb» she is charming. 

* 9la(^bem can only oe employed with the pluperfect of the indicative. 

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junctions ali, nadpem, ta, {itbem, tceil, has its pectdlai 
signification, and that there is necessarily a difference 
in their application : 1st, aW refers to a definite event 
of a past time ; 2d, mdpem states that an action was 
finished when another action commenced ; 3d, ba im- 
plies a logical cause from which an inference is drawn ; 
4th, inbcm is used to state that an event is simultane- 
ous with another event ; 5th, tt)ei( expresses a real rea- 
son why a thing is or takes place. 

Obs. F, The present participle may, in English, be 
converted into a substantive by a preceding article, 
as : the reading, the writing, the speaking. This can- 
not be done in German, where the infinitive must be 
employed, as : ba^ ?cfen, ba^ @d)rei6ei!, ba^ Spredyen. As 
an adjective, however, but not as an abstract substan- 
tive, the present participle may elliptically be turned 
into a substantive, as : ber ie^vbe, one that reads ; ber 
®ci)ret6enbe/ one that writes; ber Bipttdfenbe, one that 

By too much reading one fatigaes iDurd^ )u mcUi 6e|cn ecmfibft man 
the eyes. |tc^ tie HuQnu 

Ohs. 6. Sometimes the present participle is transla- 
ted by a substantive preceded by a preposition. Ex. 

I saw your brother whilst I was 3* &o^ Sftten ©ruber im ^tftbngts 
passing by. ^en dcfe^eit. 

He came with a book ander his (St fom mit etnem SBud^ unto; beat 

ann. Uxmu 

When I was in the country, I was Zli ic^ ouf Urn 8onbe toat, UfavSb 14 

yery well. mi* febr wobL 

She. smiled as she was saying @ie lUd^tiU, intern fte bo^ fogtc 


To perform (to represent) QScrjlcdcn. 

To entertain (to amuse). Untet^alten** Imperf. nntec^tdL 

To bargain (to deal). .^anbctn. 

To reply. (Srrolcbcrn. 

To be struck with horror SBcn (^rauen ((hitfe|en) befa&tt 


The horror, bag ®raucn, tag (Sntfcfen. 

4 violen*. head-ache. Cin fjeftige^ Jtopjive^ 

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Ah, it 18 all over with me ! — Bot, hless me ! (mdn ®ett !) wh^ 
do you cry thus 1 — 1 haye been (?Wan ftot mir) robbed of my gold 
rings, my best clothes, and all my money : that is the reason why 
1 cry. — JDo not make so much noise, for it is we who have taken 
them all in order to teach you to take better care of your things 
(6a(^), and to shut the door of your room when you go out.— 
Why do you look so sad 1 — 1 have experienced great misfortunes ; 
after having lost all my money, 1 was beaten by bad-looking men ; 
and to my still greater ill-luck I hear that my good uncle, ^hom 1 
joie so much, nas been struck with apoplexy. — You must not 
afflict yourself so much, for we must yield to necessity ; and you 
know well the proverb : " It is too late to consult to-day about what 
was done yesterday." — Can you not set rid of that mani — I cannot 
get rid of him, for he will absolutely (burd)oui) follow me. — H« 
must have lost his wits. — What does he ask you for 1 — He wishes 
to sell me a horse, which I do not want — Whose houses are these 1 
— ^They are mine. — Do those pens belong to you 1 — No, they be- 
long to my sister. — ^Are those the pens with which she writes so 
well 1 — ^They are the same. — Which is the man of whom you com- 
plain ! — It is he who wears a red coat. — ^* What is the difference 
(^(T llntcrf(^te^) between a watch and me 1 " inquired a lady (of) a 
young officer. " My lady," replied he, ** a watch marks the hours, 
and near (6et) you one forgets them." — A Russian peasant, who 
had never seen asses, seeing several in Germany, said : ** Lord (9)?ctn 
®ctt), what large hares there are in this country ! " — How many 
obligations I am under to you, my dear friend ! you have saved my 
life T without you 1 had been (to&u id)) lost. — Have those misera- 
ble men hurt you 1 — ^They have beaten and robbed me ; and when 
you ran to my assistance they were about to strip (au^)te^en*) and 
kill me. — I am happy to have delivered you from (au$) the hands 
of those robbers. — How good you are ! — -Will you go to Mr. Tor- 
tenson's to night (Mcfen 2(bcn^) 7—1 shall perhaps go. — And will 
your sisters go 1 — ^They will perhaps. — Was you pleased at the 
concert yesterday ? — I was not pleased there, for there wao such 
a multitude of people there that one could hardly get in. — I bring 
you a pretty present with which you will be much pleased. — What 
18 iti — It is a silk cravat. — Where is iti — ^I have it in my pocket 
(bt( Sofd>e). — ^Does it please you 1 — ^It pleases me much, and I 
thank you for it with all my heart — ^I hope that you will at last 
■ecept (onnel)mcn*) something of (»cn) me. — ^What do you intend to 
give me 1 — 1 will not tell you yet^ for if I do tell you, you will find 
BO pleasure when 1 give it to you. 


Why do those men quarrel 1 — ^They quanel, because they do not 
know what to d?. — Have they succeeded in extinguishing the firel 
—They have at last succeeded in it ; but it is said that several 
dooses have been burnt — Have they not been able to save any 

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thing ! — They hare not been able to sare anything ; for, instead ol 
extinguishing the fire, the miserable wretches who had come npsel 
themselves to plundering. — ^Whathas happened ? — ^A great misfcu^ 
tune has happened. — Why did my friends set out without me t— 
They waited for you till twelve o'clock, and seeing that you did not 
come, they set out. — Tell (Qv^hf^kn) us what has happened to yoo 
lately. — Very willingly, but on condition (mit ^ni J^cMngc or nnta 
Ut liBe^tngun^) that you will listen to me attentively (aufmerfjom) 
without interrupting (unterbrcc^cn*) me. — We will not interropl 
you, you may be sure of it. — Being lately at the theatre, I saw T%e 
speaking picture and The weeping woman performed. This lattei 
play (JDa« te|tfrc ©tilcf) not being very (fonbcrlid)) amusing to me, I 
went to the concert, where the music (6ie ^ufi() caused me a vio- 
lent head-ache. I then left (ocrtaffcn*) the concert, cursing (wt» 
n)Unfd)cn) it, and went straight (gerate) to the mad-house QM ^nr 
rcn^aufe), in order to see (bcfuc^en) my cousin. 

EIGHTY-NINTH LESSON.— Jfeun tin& acl)t|ij8te 

Towards, against. ®cgcn ^ j-overn the accus 

Against. 2BiDeir J govern tne accus. 

®egett denotes the direction of two things turned 
towards each other and is used for towards and against ; 
It) i b e r, on the contrary, denotes hostility and is only 
used for against. Ex, 

To take the field against the ®c(}cn (or n>itct) ben ^einb |U Jdbc 

enemy. iicl)«n*. 

What have you against me 1 SBa^ ^abcn @ie gcgen (or »tto) 


\ ou speak a^inst yourself. @ic rctcn gcgen (or iDlbcr) ft6 f<K6^ 

To swim a^nst the current. ©egcn ben ^trcm fcbtoinrnien*. 

The love of a father towards his iDie Otebe etne^ SSater^ gegcn (nol 

children. miber) feinc itinbcr, 

I have nothing against that. 3d) l}abe nt(^t^ bagegen* 

Selfi selves, ® etbjl or felbet (is indeclM- 


£ myself. 3d) fctbfl. 

Thou thyself, he himself. jDu fclbfl, cr fflbft. 

We ourselves, you yourselves, ©it fclbfl/ 3t)t (Sie) fclbjt 

rhoy themselves. Cic fctbft. 

fie himself has told it to me. (Sr fetbP 6at e« mir gcfogt 

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Ob$. A, The pronoun preceding self is not transla- 
ted into German. But the personal pronoun preced- 
ing fe(6(l is declined. 

He has given it to me (not to ©r ()at c^ ntir felOfl gccjefcen. 

another person). 
rhey themselves have come to ©ic fclbfl finl) ju mir gcfommcn. 

We have given it to them (not Wit \jaUn ti i^ncn fclbjl gcgefccru 

to others). 

The day before. 2)cr JSag tjcrftcr. 

The precedinff day, ^o: Mrber^c^cntc JSfl^ 

The day before Sunday is Satar- iDcr ^3 t)or ©cnntag ^dpt @am^* 

day. tog. 

The day before (the preceding iDer Sag tjcrftfc (ter Mtf)fr9e^enbe 

day) was Friday. JKag) toot cin Jreitag. 

Again (anew). SSon Slcuem^ roiebcr. 

Once more (again). 9{od) etnmal. 

He speaks again. Qx fprid)! totc^cr. 

1 most hear him again. 3c^ mup iljn oon 92cucm Ifiuxu 

Obs, B. The adverb IDiebcr must not be mistaken for 
the inseparable particle tt)iber (Lesson XXV.), nor for 
the preposition tt)iber, against. It answers to the 
English word again. Ex. tDieberfommen*, to come 
again; ttneberanfatigen*, to begin again. It must not 
be mistaken for jururf, back again, which as in English 
denotes retrogression. Ex. 3wrficffotntnen*, to come 
back again. 

The light, l)o« Cidit. 

To blow. »(ofcn* (gcMafen, Mle^). 

To blow out. 2Cu^b(afen*. 

To flee. glicbcn* (Qcfloftcn, flo^). 

To run away. < ^tlaufcn*. 

C JDfltJcn loufcn*. 
Why do you run away 7 JEDoruni loufcn ©ie wcg (bown) 7 

I run away, because I am afraid. 3d) toufc bQDcn (rocg), wcU id) micft 

fiird)te (or rocil id) Surd)t ()abe). 
To make one^s escape. 1 

To run away, to flee. > iJ)ic Jftucftt nc^mcn* (or crgtctfcn*). 

To take to one's heels. J 

He deserted the battle. (Sr tfl oii^ bet @<Vac^t entffo^en 01 

The thief has run away 2)er iDtcb ifl enttaufen (boocn* or weg* 


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To catch, to lay hold of; to seize, ^rgteifm* (crgciffoi^ c^^dnff). 

To translate. lUbcrfc^cn.* 

To translate into Gennan. 2(uf b(utfd) fiberfc|rtu 

To translate from French into 2Cu^ tern ^taxifififiii€n tni iDttftftti 

German. fiberfc^rn. 

To translate from one language 2(u^ dncr @pra(i^ in bie onbm ftbir 

into another. fc^nu 

To introduce. ©nfft^rcn. 

I introduce him to you. 34 f^^te tgn bet 36tten ctn. 

Since or from. ©on — an, \t\t 

r93en bieftm HvL^tnhtxdt otu * 
From that time. < ©cit bicfct 3eit 

C flScn tiefo; Beit on. 

Obs. C. Compound prepositions must be divided 
and the case which the preposition governs placed be- 
tween the two component parts, as : 

From my childhood. SScn meinet Sugenb otu 

From morning until evening. $Bcm 9){ctgen big gum 2(benK 

To produce (to yield, to profit). Ginbringen*. 
To destroy. 3er|Mcen. 

To reduce. ^ctabfc|en. 

To limit. einfcfcranfcn. 

To diminish (to lessen). SSerflctnem. 

To reduce the price. iDen ^tii fjerobfe^en. 

To reduce (to bring down) the >Den ^ret^ bi^ ouf ctnen SM^ 
price to a crown. ^erunterbtingenf* 

The merchandise, (te S8oare. 

The price of the merchandise f 2)te SBoote fij/Uiglt aU 

The yard, the ell. lie Gtle. 

To deduct. f 9^ocJ)(offen*. 

Having not overcharged you, I f 5)o ic^ ©le joc nld^t fiberfejt JoH 
cannot deduct anything. fo fonn t4 ntd^t^ noc^toffen. 

?: Z^i^Zc^. \ »'*'^f'«'" (inseparable). 

By the year (or a year), ififtrlicft ; 

by the day (or a day), tfigCid) ; 

by the month (or a mont}\), monattic^. 

• In flberfe^cn, to translate, the accent beinff on the root of the verb, 4l«t 
liS^!!?!??^??^ conBequenUy its past participle ia fiberfe^^ net fib«gcW 
loee lesson XLV.) 

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Not at 


all. ®onj uit^ Qat nt^t 

■ flow much does that sitaation SBtemet bctngt 3&nen biefe^ 7M 
yield you a year 1 i^^riic^ «tn ? 


On entering the hospital (tai ^ofpitaQ of my cousin I was struck 
with horror at seeing seyeral madmen (bcr ^axv, gen. en) who came 
op (naf^en) to me jumping and howling (^euien). — What did you do 
then ? — ^I did the same (e^ ebcn fo niad)en) as they, and they set up 
a laogh (anfongen* gu (ad)en) as ^hey were withdrawing (ft^ gurikfs 
jiclKn or n^gbcaebcn*). — When I was yet little I once (cinii) said to 
my father, **• ido not understand (ocrjleben*) business, and I do not 
know how to sell ; let me play.*' My father answered me, smilinff 
{(idKln), ** In dealing one learns to deal, and in selling to sell." 
^ Bot, my dear father," replied I, ** in playing one learns also to 
play." " You are right," said he to me • " but you must first (ven 
hiT) leam what is necessary and useful." 

Do you already know what has happened 1 — I have not heard 
anything. — ^The bouse of our neighbour has been burnt down.— 
Have they not been able to save anything 1 — ^They were very for- 
mnate in saving the persons that were in it ; but out of (t)cn) the 
things that were (ftd) bffinben*) there, they could save nothing.— 
Who has told you that 1 — Our nei^bour himself has told it to me.— 
Why are you without a light ?— The wind blew it out, when you 
came in. — What is the day before Monday called 1 — The day be- 
fore Monday is Sunday. — Why did you not run to the assistance of 
your neighbour whose house has been burnt down ? — I could not 
run thither, for I was ill and in bed. — What is the price of this 
cloth 1-^1 sell it at three crowns and a half the ell. — ^I think (f!n^ 
bm*) it very dear. — Has the price of cloth not fallen 1 — ^It has not 
fallen : the price of all goods has fallen, except (au^gcnomnien) that 
of cloth. — ^I will give you three crowns for it. — I cannot let you 
have it ijr (urn) that price, for it costs me more. — Will you have 
the goodness to show me some pieces (bag Qt&d, plur. c) of English 
cloth 1 — With much pleasure. — Does this cloth suit ]^ou ? — It does 
not sui: me. — Why does it not suit youl — Because it is too dear ; 
if you will lower the price, I shall buy twenty yards of it (baMn) 
—Having not asked too much, I cannot take off anytliing. 


You leam French ; does your master let you translate ? — He lets 
me read, write and translate. — Is it useful to translate in learning 
s foreign language ? — It is useful to translate when you nearly 
know Se language you are learning; but while (tvcnn) you do not 
yet know anything, it is entirely useless. — What does your Ger- 
Bian master make you dot — He makes me read a lesson; after- 
wards he makes me ^translate French exercises into German op 

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(tbit with the accos.) the lesson which he h.u made me read ; and 
nom the beginning to the end of the lesson ho speaks German to 
me, and 1 have to answer him in the very (fc(bfl) lan^age which 
be is teaching me. — Have you already learnt much in Uiat manner? 
— You see that I have already learnt something, for I have hardly 
been learning it four months, and I already understand you when 
you speak to me, and can answer you. — Can you read it as well ? 
— -1 can read and write as well as speak it.-»Does your master also 
teach English ? — He does teach it. — Wishing to make his acquaint- 
ance, I must beg of you to introduce me to (bci) him. — As you wish 
to make his acquaintance, I shall introduce you to him. — How manj 
exercises do you translate a day t — If the exercises are not difficult 
I translate (from) three to ((>t6) four every day, and when they are 
80, . translate but one. — How many have you already done to-day ! 
—It is the third which I am translating ; but to-morrow I hope to 
be able to do one more, for I shall be alone. — Have you paid a vbit 
to my aunt 1 — I went to see her two months ago, and as she looked 
displeased, I have not ffone to her any more since that time. — How 
do you do (to-day) 1—5 am very unwell. — How do you like that 
soup t — I think (finben*) it is very bad ; but since I have lost my 
appetite I don't like anything. — How much does that situation 
yield to your father? — ^It yields him more than four thousand 
crowns. — What news do they mention (fagen) ? — ^They say that the 
Turks have taken the field against the Kussians. — Every one will 
find in himself the defects which he remarks in others : the defects 
of others are before (us), our own behind us. (See end of Lesson 

NINETIETH LESSON.— N^mi?ij«te Cectum. 


I may have, thou mayest have, 3d) ?>flbe^ aDu l^htft, ct (|lf/ ti) 

he (she, it) may have. ^obe. 

We may have, you may have, JBir ()abcn/ S^x f}aM, fit fyiUn, 

they may lit 'e. 

I may be, thou mayest be, he 3d) \d, iDu feicfl (or fetfl)/ et (W 

(she, it) may be. c^) fci. 

Wo may be, you may be, they ©it \ixm, 3^v fctct, pe fctcn. 

may be. 

I may become, thou mayest be- 3d) wcrbc^ JDu mftbcfl, ec (ft, ti) 

come, he (she, it) may become. n?crbc. 
We may become, you may be- »Bit njfrben, 3^r wetbv% fte iwt» 

come, they may become. ben* 

I may praise, thou mayest praise 3* lobe, Du tobed, n (fit, rt) W*- 
lie (she, it) may praise. 

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fVa iii^j piaise, joa may praise, SBtv \tben, 3^t (o6et/ tie Uhttu^ 
they may praise. 

Obs. A. The present of the subjunctive differs, in 
regular verbs, from the present of the indicative only 
in the third person singular, which rejects the letter t 
All German verbs are regular in the present of the 
subjunctive, which is formed from the infinitive. 

Obs. B. The letter e which is often omitted in the 
present of the indicative (Obs. -4, Lesson XXXIV.) 
must always be retained in the present of the sub- 

He who requires to be honoured 85kr wcian^t, top man i^n fdne* 

OD account of bis riches, has 9lctd)t^um6 n>egcn ^iXil)Vi, tev 

also a right to require a moun- ^at auc^ etn Bicdit gu oettangcn^ 

tain to be honoured that con- ba9 man eincn fSct^ vtvcf)Xi, bet 

tains gold. ®e(t in {id^ i)at 


In regular verbs the imperfect of the subjunctive 
does not differ from that of the indicative. In irregu- 
lar verbs it is formed from the imperfect indicative 
by softening the radical vowels and adding an e.^ 

The imperfect of the subjunctive is used after the 
conditional conjunction tcttiti^ if^ expressed or imder- 

(fl had money $&enn id) ®c(b ^<Stte (or ^dtte ic^ 

* In conjugatiTig their verbs, learners would do well to prefix a conjunction 
to each pereon of the subjunctive, not because a conjunction should necessa- 
rily precede that mode, but because it is advisable to f^eX into the habit ot 
pl&cmg the verb after the conjunction, particularly m compound verbs. 
l*hey may use for that purpose one of the conjunctions b a K to e n n. Ex. 
^a§ id) abfi^retbe, that! may copy; tomn tc^ abfcbnebe, if I copied; menit 
t(b ab^efc^neben {^Mt, if I had copied ; ba$ ic^ abfcbreiben tverbe, that I shall 
copy, Ac. These examples show that when the phrase begins with a con- 
tmction (Lesson XLVU.), the separable particle is not detached from the 
verb in simple tenses, and in the post participle gives way to the syllable g(. 

^ From this rule must be excepted the sixteen irregular verbs which com- 
pose thrt first class in our list. These, having aJreaoy an e in the imperfect 
bdicaUve, do not add one in the subjunctive. Several of them do not soften 
^ radical vowel, Imt become regular again in the imperfect subjunctive, as : 
vtwxtt*, to know; neuncn*, to name, to call; renncn*, to run; fenben^to 
«•»! ; vcnbtn*, to turn. 

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If I taw him. SBcnn id) ibn flS^e (or |&t)e idb ^) 

If he did it. fiBcnn er e^ tb&te (or tb&te cr ci)» 

Were he to lose his money. SBcnn cr fcin ©clb rxxUSvt, 

Were he to beat his dog. SBcnn et ffinen ^unt fc^Cige. 

If yoa were rich. SBenn ^ie rctc^ ivfiren (or tpflren 

^ie retd))« 

06^. C. As soon as noemt is not conditional it re- 
quires the indicative mode. Ex. 

If he is not ill, why does he send $B(nn et ntcftt franf tfl/ toontm Upt 
for the physician t ct Un )£)octtr fommm ? 

06^. D. Instead of tventt/ the imperfect subjunctive 
of the verb fotten is often used at the beginning of a 
sentence, as should in English. 

Should you still receive my let^ BeUUn 6ic mctncn SBricf ntd^ ^mH 
ter to-day, I beg you will call cvMUn, fo bitte xii^ &t, augni^ 
on me instantly. Mt(f(id) )U nitir gu fcmmen. 

Should he be hungry, something @cnt€ e5 tbn l)una(m, fo niGpte mail 
must be given to him to eat. tbm ttmai ju ejfen gebciu 


The conditional tenses are formed from the imper- 
fect subjunctive of the verb ttjcrbett*/ which is: wf^ 
t9&rte/ 1 should or would become, and, as in the future 
tenses (Lesson LXXXI. and .LXXXII.), the present of 
the infinitive for the conditional present, and the past 
of the infinitive for the conditional past. The impe^ 
feet of the subjunctive may be used instead of the 
conditional present, and the pluperfect of the subjunc- 
tive for the conditional past. Ex. 

I should do it 3(6 ti>M>t ti t^un (or id) t^ e<)* 

He would have done it Gt toUvU U get^n f)ahtn (or Cf 

^&tte e^ get^an). 

We would go thither. fiBir roficbcn M)m flc^ycn. 

You would go thither. 3f)t mfirbct ^tngf ()cn. 

They would go thither. ©ic wftr^cn f)ingef^n. 

Thou wouldst thank me once. jDu wfirbefl nitr einfi bonfnu 

A.t one time, one day (once). (Sin|l/ cxMi Soge^. 

Obs. E The imperfect of the subjunctive or the 
conditional tense may be employed either before or 
after conditional propositions, as in English. Ex. 

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I mtmld boy it if I had money 3d> (auf^e ii (or id) wSrbe c< fou? 

enough. fen)/ tocnn td) ®c(b genug bt^ttte. 

If 1 had money enough I would SBenn tcf) ®e(b genug b^ttC/ fo to^tbi 

bay it. id) (^ faufen (or fo faufte id) e^ 

Bad I money enough T would pay ^&tte i^ ®ctb genuo^ fo Uyahiti t(6 

for it. (6 (or fo wfirbc x^ti Uiaf)Un), 

Had I money I would give you ^5tte id) (9(lt (or wcnn id) ®c(b 

some. ^2tte)/ fo ivilrbe i(6 3bnen t9e(d)e^ 

ge6eii (or fo g&be i(i) 3f)ncn md 

If 1 went thither 1 should see SBcnn i4 ^tnginge^ fo \»Mt ic^ i^p 

him. fe^en. 

Were I to give it to him, he would ®ab< i4 ti \f)m, et wfitbc e6 (or ft 

keep it toiiiU iv e^) bcb^Itcn. 

If I gave it to him, he would not SBcnn tc^ ti i^m g£6e, fo wScbe cr el 

retam it to me. mtv nt^t wtetcrgeben. 

Had yon come a little sooner (or, SS&ren 6te einen UnQtnhtxd thtvatt 

if yon had come a little sooner) fommen Tor wenn @ie einen am 

you would have seen my bro- genbticf eW gcfommen wfiren), fo 

ther (or, you might have seen wftrben 6te mctnen S3rubec gefe: 

my brother). ben f)ahcn (or fo Wtten €>ie nui» 

nen 93ruber gefeben). 
If he knew what you hare done, SBenn er mii^c, ma^ 6ie getbon f)a* 

he would scold you. ben, fo wUtbe er @te aulfcbelten. 

If there was any wood, he would SlSenn ^0(5 bo n^^te^ fo wfirbe a 

make a fire. ^euet anmad)cn. 

If 1 had received my monej, I SDBenn icb niein ®elb befommen bfltte^ 

would have bought a pair of fo wftrbe tcb nitc etn ^at neue 
shoes. ^u^ gefauft b<^bem 

Obs, F. The imperfect subjunctive of the verba 
fctiten*, tooUen*, mogen*, bflrfen*, is often employed to 
express various feelings, as : 

1st, ^ntten^ fear or desire. Ex. 

He might ilall. Gc fSnnte fallen. 

I might (could) do it Skb f9nnte ti tf)un* 

2d, SQoIIen/ solicitation. Ex. 

Would you have the goodness t SBoHten ©ie bie ®(lte b«bett 7 
Would you be so good 1 ®oUten 6ie fo gfltig fein 7 

Wouldst thou do me the favour! SBoHtefl bu nut bie ®efdllig(eit etf 

loeifen 1 

Sdf SSHbgoif desire, either with or without the adverb 
§(Tlt« Ex. 

i*,.idiiketoknow. 5gaji:s;»-.ffc«. 


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4th, jDurfett, politenes?, either in the present of the 
indicative or the imperfect of the subjunctive. Ex. 

May I ask you for the knife % iDorf (or tfirftc) icft @i^ tttn tol 

gjJcjfcr bitten ? 
May I beg of you to ttf I me ? ^Darf (or bfltftc) ic^ ©ie 6tttcn, mit 

ju fogcn ? 

Would you learn German, if I ©firbcn ©ie teutfcfe (cmen^ »enn t4 

learnt it? eglfrntc? 

I would learn it, if you .eamtit 3^ totxtt U (crnen« iDeim ^u ti 

Would you have learnt English, ®firbcn Sie cngftfft gflcmt ^ibcn, 

if I had learnt it 1 locnn ic^ c^ gdemt ^5tte ? 

I would have learnt it, if you had 3<6 wfit^e ei gcfcmt ^beii/ nKnn 

learnt it. ©ie eg gelemt Wttetu 

Would you go to Germany, if 1 fSfitten 6ie nod) 5)eutfcb(anb tetfen, 

went thither with youl wcnn id) mit 3()tien bo^in teifetc? 

I would go thither, if you went 3(^ wCirbe baftin relfen, wenn €i« 

thither with me. niit mit boI)tn reifetcn. 

Would you have gone to Ger- SBiirben @te nad) 2)eutf(^nb pes 

many, if I had gone thither reipt fcin, wenn ic^ mit 36"^ 

with you ? babin qeretft w&rc ? 

Would you go out, if I remained SOBfirben ®ic au^e^en/ twnn i4 

at home 1 ju ^aufe 6fte6c ? 

I would remain at home, if you 3d) wftrbe ju ^ufe Meiben (or id) 

went out Mte6e gu ^oufe) wenn @te au^ 

Would you have written a letter, JBftcben ©ie einen Sttcf f^efArictrt 

if I had written a note t ^aben^ mcnn t4 ^in SSiUet gefc^nts 


The spectacles, bie SBritle (is in German useH ii 
the singular) ; 

a pair of spectacles, etne S3rine ; 

the old man, bev o(te ^ann, bet ®rei$ ; 

the optician, bet Dptlm6 ; 

To go (or come), to fetch. Xb^clen. 

To keep one's bed (one's room). >Dag 93ett (beg Simmer) (fttau 

The plate, bcr Setter ; 

the son-in-law, ber @d)n)ie9erfcl)n ; 

the daughter-in-law, bie Sd^rote^ertcd)tcr ; 

the progress, bic 5ortfd)ntte (plural) ; 

the step (the pace), bcr ®d)ritt ; 

leally, wirflid^. 


Would you have money, if your father were hOTe t — ^I shoiM 
hure Bomo, if he weie here. — Would you have been pleased, If 1 

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k»d bad some books 1 — ^I should hare been much pleased, if you had 
bad some. — Would you have praised my little brother, if he had 1>eeii 
good ? — If he had been good, I should certainly (i^cnjip) not only 
EaTe praised, but also loved, honoured, and rewarded him. — Should 
we be praised, if we did our exercises 1 — If you did them without 
a fault, yon would be praised and rewarded. — Would my brother 
not have been punished, if he had done his exercises 1 — He would 
not have been punished if he had done them. — Would your sister 
have been praised, if she had not been skilful 1 — She would cer- 
tainly not have been praised, if she had not been very skilful, and 
if she had not worked from morning until evening. — Would you 
give me something, if I were very good 1 — If you were very ^ood, 
and if you worked well, I would give you a fine book. — W ould 
you have written to your sister, if I had gone to Dresden 1 — I 
would have written and sent her something handsome, if you had 
gone thither. — Would you speak, if I listened to you 1 — ^I would 
speak, if you listened to me, and if you would answer me. — Would 
yon have spoken to my mother, if you had seen herl — ^I would 
(have) spoKen to her, and have begged of her to send you a hand- 
some gold watch (Me UbO* ^^ ^ ^^^ s^^Q h^^* 


One of the valet de chambres (^et jtammrrttencr) of Louis the 
KIV. (Subnng tc6 XIV.) requested that prince, as he was going to 
bed, to recommend (cnipfebUn*) to the first president (bet Cbcrprfifls 
bent) a law-suit (ter $rcgep} which he had against his father-in-law 
(loelc^n ei; mitfeinem ^micaeroater fft^ftc), and said, in urging him 
fm 3«nfln^n bringen*) : " Alas (2Cd)) sire (©ucr 9!)?oic|t&t;, you have 
but (de tflrfen nur) to say one word." " Well ((Ji)," said Louis 
XIV., ^* it is not that which embarrasses me (to^ ifl e^ ntd)t, xoai 
mic^ oitfuftt) ; but tell jne, if thou wert in thy father-in-law's place, 
am] thy father-in-law in thine, wouldst thou be glad if I said that 

If the men should come, you would be obliged to give them some- 
thing to drink. — If he could do this he would do that.»A peasant 
having seen that old men used spectacles to read, went to an opti- 
cian and asked for a pair. The peasant then took a book, and 
having opened it, said the spectacles were not good. The optician 
put another pair of the (wn ^en) best which he could find in his 
shop upon his nose ; but the peasant being still unable to read, the 
merchant said to him : ** My friend, perhaps you cannot read at 
all 1 " " If I could," said the peasant, " I should not want your 
spectacles."— I have always flattered myself, my dear brother, that 
YOU loved me as much as I love you ; but I now see, that I have 
been mistaken. I should like to know why you went a walking 
without me. — ^I have heard, my dear sister, that you are angry with 
me, because I went a walking without you. — I assure you that, had 
I known that you were not ill, I should have come for you ; but I 
mquired at your physician's about your health, and he told me that 
yoa had been keeping your bed the last eight days. 

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A Fiench officer harin^ arrived at the coart of Vienna (am 
ner ^cfc), the empress Theresa (tic jtoifcrinn S^trciia) asked 1 
If (Cb) he believed that the princess of (ocn) N., whom he had i 
the day before, was Tiodrc) really the handsomest woman in (w . ^ 
the world, as was said 1 ** Madam,*' replied the officer, ** I thoagb* 
•o yesterday." — How do you like that meat 1 — I like it very w9l. 
—May 1 (S^arf or tfirftc \&S ask you for a piece of (ptn) that fish ?— 
If you will have the goodness to pass me your plate, I will give 
you some. — Would you have the goodness to pour me out some 
drink 1 — With much pleasure. — Cicero seeing his son-in-law, who 
was very short (f(rin), arrive with a long sword at his side (an Uc 
©cite), said : " Who has fastened ((^ebunten) my son-in-law to this 
sword t " (See end of Lesson XluQV.) 



Tof/ropose. €^14 oovne6mc1t^ 

I propose going on that journey. 34 nc^me mtt Mt^ bicfe 9leife |i 


Toendeavaur. J^^^ beffceben, (tra*tfn). 

I endeavour to do it. 3d> Umfif)t mid^/ U $tt t^n. 

I endeavour to succeed in it* 3d) fudK/ U t a ^ t tt fii M»^ 

To aspire af^r something. ^a^ ettoai trac^ten. 

Heaspiresafterplaces of honour. (St trac^tet ito^ QfyctnfMttL 

The honour, Ut (Sftrc ; 

the riches, lev 9leid)t6um ; 

the title, bcr ZittU 

I should not have complained of 3(6 tpfttbe mtc^ ftbec M, tooi ^ 
what he has done, if it had getban f)at, ntd^t UHa^ tfobn, 
injured only me ; but in doin^ roenn e^ nut mtt gffd^bet W^ \ 
it, he has plunged many fami- obcr et ^t vitU ^amiUcii botont 
lies into misery. in^ 6((nb d(f!fit|t 

Since you are happy, why do iDo 6i< b o ^ glficHicft flnb, woniw 
you complain ? bettagen @U 1i4 b e n n ? 

Obs. A. In German a good many words, as : bet^ 
tod>, xootfif &c. are used for the sake of euphonr 
Such words caimot possibly bft rendered in Engliflh 


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Win'ido yoQ wish to say with fSM nwtfcn €fte beim Nunlt fu 

this I yn ? 

Since you hare nothing to tell 2)a ®te iftm bo<ft md)!^ gn fa^cti 
him, why do joa wish to see f)aUn, toaxvim meUin 0te t()ii 
himt ^cnn fcben? 

Who has made the hest use of SDBcr b«t w o J) I ten tcftcn ®c6tfl^(^ 
his money 1 oen feinem (^elte geniadftt 7 

To injure. ©d)atcn. 

To plunge (to precipitate). Gtihr^en. 
The use, tcv &tf3xa\x&^ 

You would oblige me much, if @i( roihrben tr.t(b fe^t t)er6tnbcn, 
you would do me this favour. n>cnn @te mtc t'tcftf Qkf&Ot^feil 

enoctfen n>ontcn. 
If you would render me this SBcnn ©if niir Mefen iDlcnfl letflcn 
serrice, you would oblige me wcdten, fo wfirben 6te mtc^ ff^c 
much. wrbtnben. 

To oblige. flScrbinbcn*, txrpffiAtcn. 

To render a seryice to some one. 3<ntanbcm etncn X>\<ti\t Utflen. 
Tlie obligation, btc S3etbtnMtd)fdt. 

To tie (attach^. JBmben*. 

I tie the horse to the tree. 3^ bxntt Hi ^fetb on ten S3oum. 

He is the most honest man that iDa6 tfl bev ebtUd^jte ^ann, ben 

has ever been seen. man {e (jttnaH) gefe^en t)aU 

I want a horse that must be tal- 34 nm^ ein ^fetb ()a6en, hai (p<U 

ler than this. d^) arS^ev tfl aii btefc^ 

I am sorry that she is ill. (S$ tfl (tput) nur (eib, bop fie hanf 

I am glad that you are come. (ii tfl mtv fteb/ bop @te gefommen 

I am astonished that he has not S^ tounbere mt(^, bop ev feine 2(uff 

done his exercises. goben n\d)t gemad)t l)at. 

He will marry her though she is Gr wtrb f!e l)ettatf)en/ ob f!e gtetd) 

not rich. nid)t reic^ tft 

I will wait undl he returns. 3c^ totH waxttn, i)Xi er jur&ffeomit 
In case that should happen, let 3m jl^otle e^ gef^ie^t/ fo (affen ©te 

me know 't. nnc^*$ lotffen* 


Obs, B. In German the subjunctive, being only 
used to express doubt or incertitude, is not governed 
by any particular words. It has more affinity to the 
English subjunctive than to that of any other lan- 
guage, and more than would at first be supposed. We 
sometimes, however, prefer the subjunctive where the 
English use the potential should or would, though we 
could in this case even use either the potential or the 
subjunctive. Ex. 

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tA^iU do h, if it t0«rtf possible. 3d) wStte d t^/ onm e€ vif 

licf) w&xt. 

lVer« I in y our place, or if I were 5S«Xtc td) an Sftter ©telle, cNf 

in your place. rocnn id) on 3l)tnc GUVLtwhrt. 

Had he tlie treasures of Crcesus, |> a 1 1 e (t tie ^d)6^ be<^ 6r^#j 

or if he had the treasures of cbcr n?cnn er bte ©ci)d^ te:g HSxSf 

Crcesus. fu^ Mtte. 

That man would be happier, if iDtcfcr ^ann roiirbe ^ikf(td>er 

he left off gambling. • f e i n, wenn et Ni$ ^pielen I i e ^ f. 

He would have been nappier, if (5t to ii r t e 9lildrid)er g c w ef en 

he had left off gambhog. fe i n, n>cnn er ha^ ^pieien 9 e s 

Uffcn Mtte. 
Ifyou^etr how ill I am, you $&etin ^te n) fi ^ t e n (or n>fiften 
would not be astonished to find &it), wte hranf tcb bin, f« » fi t s 
me in bed. ten ^te nid)t erflount f e in (fb 

w6ren €ie nid)t ertlaunt)/ mlitil 
im ©ctte gu finten. 
Heti^otJJ not have done ii^ had Gr rodtte e£ ntd)t get don f^at 
he foreseen the result. 6 e n, f)httt ec ten (Stfci% 

Z#Aotf/<f ^AtniS: myself ungrateful, 3d) wfirte mtc^ fflt unton!^ 
cftV/ 1 not consider you as my d<^(ten, f5f)(id> ^e ntc^t oU 
benefactor. meinen SS^dttbAter o n. 

The French would not have gain- Die ^ronjcfen wfir ten tie 6d)Mt 
e^/ the baule, if they had not ni^t gemonnen N6(n(or 
Aa(/ superior numbers. d & 1 1 e n tie @d)(o(Jdt md)t gc< 

wonnen), roenn fie ntc^t etne 
fo orc9e Uebetnioc^t 9cn Seutoi 
geMbt d^tten. 

0&«. C. In English the potential ^AottU or to(m/tf is 
used to express a wish relating to a future time, and 
the subjunctive ^o express a wish relating to a past 
time. In both instances the Germans use the subjunc- 
tive. Ex. 

I wish yon would do it. 3(6 toQnf^te, ^te tf^httn H, oi 

top^ie e^ tHten. 

I wish you w >uld go thither. 3<fe »Cinfd)te, 6te Qtngen (in, 

or top 6te d t n 9 1 n 9 c n. 

1 wish you ^oi <f(m« it. 3d) n>anfd)te, @ie patten e^ gCi 

tbon, or top ©;e e^get^ax 

2 wish you had gone thither. 3d) wfinfd)te/ @ie n)arcn 6in« 

gegongen/ or top Bit bin^ 
B^flongen wdten. 
I should have wished to see him; 3d) Mtte geroanfc^t t^n JQ 
had it been possible. fef)en, w & c e e< mSglitb 9 e rp e # 


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Whatever your power 
maybe. "^ 


1 flhoald like to lead, if I had 2k6 ( A f^ d^R/ tvcnn ic^ tittt Sett 
only time. J) A 1 1 e* 

Obs. D. Some expressions require sometimes the 
indicative and sometimes the subjunctive according to 
the manner in which the sentence is formed. Ex. 

rindic. ©f mag Jb rcw^ jciit, 
However rich he may 1 twe er »itt. 

be, I Subj. ^ fei fo xeid), ttne er 

(^ tDotte. 

^Indic. 3^re ®Malt mag fo 
orop fern, ate fie toiVL 
Subj. 3f|te ®ett)aft fei noc^ 
fo flrcp. 

OJ». jE?, In German we never employ the indica- 

!• In conditional propositions with or without the 
coi^unction tPemt/ if. (See preceding Lesson.) Ex. 

If I could I woald do it. SBenn t^ Vimtt, fo tf)&te ic^ e6 ; or 

fSnnte ic^, fo tf)6te icb t^ 

If the weve amiable he would SBenn |tc (teben^tofirbtg todtt (or 
marry her. to&xt fte (ieben^rvfirbig)/ fo f)iixa$ 

t()cte et jic. 

2. In exclamations and wishes. Ex. 

If I had friends ! ^atte i^ ^rcunte ! 

If I were rich ! SB&tc tc^ rctd) ! * 

May heaven gprant it ! SDct ^tmmcl gcbe c5 ! 

Godforhid! ®ott ()cl)ttte ! 

I could not have thought it . ^dtte ic^^*^ tod^ ni^t dCgtauM ! 

3. After the verbs exi&fjleti, to relate ; fragett/ to ask ; 
fogen, to say, and others, which relate indirectly, either 
to what we have said ourselves, or to what we have 
heard said by other persons. Ex. 

He related to me, that he had Qt crjdbltc mtr, bo9 er ©cfciffbruc^ 
suffered shipwreck, and had gditten, unb fetn gan^c^ fl3emi9gai 
lost all his fortune. Dcrtcren b&tte. 

He asked rae whether I was not Qx fcogte mid), eh tdft ntcfct Ut unt 
such a one, whether I had no tcr ioitxc, cb id) frin ®c(b ft^ttc^ 
money, why I did not know wantni tc^ nic^t fc^teiben fSnntc* 
how t9 write. 

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ThoQ art master on the cross- SDu (tfl etn SReiflct oof bet Xcm' 

bow, Tell. brup, ZefU 

They say, then ^r^ndest ap to SKan fogt, bu nflbmcfl d anf mit 

any shoqter t iebcm ^d)Ci$en 7 

(ed)iUcr'^ mmm SclL) 
I told him he had made a mis- 3<f> fogte xhn\, bap cr fid) getrd ^ot' 

take ; but he thought that was tc ; et mnnte abet, ba^ n»At€ nidji 

impossible, as he had looked mcQttcft/ xotil n U breimol bni^ 

it over three times. defcoen t)dtte. 

A. wise man said, The reason (Sin ffi^ctfct fa^te : IDet 9){m|(6 hcbt 

why a mas has but Mjie mouth be^'Wtgcn cinen 9}hinb unb inxt 

and two ears is, that he may S)b,vtn, bonitt ct wenignr \ptt&^ 

speak less and hear more.' unb mc^c ()(!re. 

Obs. F. Mr., Mrs., and Miss such a one, are often 
translated by ber unb bcr for the masculine, bit wib bif 
for the feminine, ba^ Uttb bo^ for the neuter. 

He said he would marry Miss Qx faofc, tx xotvbc^ hoi nnb btf 
such a one. ^rfiulein b^iratf^en. 

To suffer shipwreck. ^tffbrucb Uibco** 
Possible, mSgCtd) ; 

impossible, unni^gtidft. 

Whether. D 6. 

Obs. G. JDb is only used in indirect questions, ox 
before sentences which express doubt or possibility. 

I do not know whether he is at 34 totif n\6it, t/b ct gtt .^ottfe i^ 

I did not know whether yon 34 n>u9te ntd)t/ tb cd S^nca ftcl 

would be glad of it. fcin wfirbc. 

The (question is whether he will Qi tfl bte Stage, cb tt H lohrb t^OB 

do It. tocHttu 

Obs. H. D6 is a component of the following con- 
junctions : cbgleicf)^ obfcE}on^ obtpo^l^ objUHur^ though, al« 
though. These conjunctions ought to be considered 
as two separate words, for the subject i>r even the 
case of the verb may be placed between them. Ex. 

I shall buy that horse, though it 34 nwtbf biffc< 5)fctb fonfhi/ tk ti 
is not an English one. gUtd) fein ©ngWnbct ifl.* 

• SBcrbe is here in the Aiture of the aubjunctive. (See the following Les* 

* When the subject or cem of the verb la not a penooal proooon, ii it MM 



noagh be it mj cousin, he Db et gfrti^ (or fAen) rncin (Bdtff 
neyerth'^less doeb not come to tfl, fo fomnrt ft tod) niAl jU mil; 
see me. • 

AJthoufirh he has promised it to Dt^tctd) er U nilt Mrfprcd)cn fytt, f$ 

me, I do not rely apon it. ^Qb(e id) ted) ntd)t tarouf. 

Although he is poor, he does JDb et fd)cn (or g((td)/ gioor, voclji) 
nevertheless a great deal of atm \\t, |c tl)Ut it le^ old ®utf<, 

However, nevertheless, ted) ; 

the folly, tie SI)orWt, tic ^axxMt ; 

the character, tet Sboraftct (plur. t), tie (9e« 

bashful, timid, btSte ; 

fearful (timid), furd)tfatn ; 

natural, natiirltd) ; 

•elite (civil), impolite (uncivil), l^cpi^) ; unWflid). 


Well (97un), does your sister make any progress ? — She would 
make some, if she were as assiduous as you. — You flatter me.— 
Not at all (®Mi unt gat nid)t), I assure you that I should be highly 
satisfied, if all my pupils worked like you. — Why do you not go 
out to-day 1^1 would go out if it was fine weather. — Shall I have 
the pleasure of seeing you to-morrow ? — If you wish it I will come* 
—Shall I still be heie when you arrive (pti Zhux cfnhinft) ! — Will 
yon have occasion (®e(cgcn^cit) to go to town this evening 1 — I do 
not know, but I would go now if I had an opportunity (tie &tt 
UQcnhiXt)* — ^You would not have so much pleasure, and you 
would not be so happy, if you had not friends and books.— Man 
would not experience so much misery (fe met Stent) in his career 
(auf frtnet £mif6oi)n), and he would not be so unhappy, were he not 
so blind. — You would not have that insensibility (tie ®cfii()aefigfett) 
towards the poor, and you would not be so deaf to (taub gegen) their 
supplication (tie SBitte), if you had been vourself in misery for some 
time. — You would not say that if you knew me well. — Why has 
vour sister not done her exercises f— She would have done them, 
if she had not been prevented. — If you worked more, and spoke 
ofiener, you would speak better. — I assure you. Sir, that I should 
learn better, if I had more time. — I do not complain of you, but ot 
your sister. — You would have had no reason (Urfod^e) to complain 
of her, had she had time to do what you gave her to do. — What 
has my brother told you ? — He has told me that he would be tho 
happiest man in the (oon tet) world, if he knew the German lan- 
guage, the most beautifu. of all languages. 

nraally plaf«d between those two words. Ex. OBglric^ hitfti $ferb lets 
«i.-.*,„^-„ i/^ i>^ ^.._v- .j: ,. c-^ *.„^.„ .., ,. .^^, 1 J not an En«- 

I »iberfab» 
„ .- w - nMui,heii 

Devertbelets complaining. 




I should like to know why I cannot speak as well as jon. — ( 
will tell you : you would speak quite as well as I, if you were not 
to bashful. But if you had studied your lessons more carefully 
(bcifcr), you would not be afraid to speak ; for, in order to speak 
well, one must learn; and it is very natural, that he who 
does not know well what he has learnt should be timid. — You 
would not be so timid as you are (aii @ic (int), if you were sure io 
make no mistakes. — ^There are some people who laugh when I speak. 
— ^Tuose are impolite people ; you have only to laugh aisa. and 
they will no longer laugh at you. If you did as I (do), yon would 
speak well. — You must study a little every day, and you will soon 
be no lonjrer afraid to speak. — ^I will endeavour to follow your ad- 
vice, for I have resolved (|!c^ ocrnebmcn*) to rise every morning at 
six o'clock, to study till ten o'clock, and to go to bed early.— 5)e- 
mocritus and Heraclitus (in German as in English ^eradttu^/ ^cc), 
were two philosophers of a (pen) very different character : the first 
laughed at (ftbcc with the accus.) the follies of men, and the other 
wept at them. — ^They were both right, for the follies of men deserve 
(verttenen) (both) to be laughed and wept at. — My brother told rae 
that vou had spoken of met, and that you had not praised me. — Wfl 
should have praised you, if you had paid us what you owe us^^ 
Vou are wrong in complaining of my cousin, for he did not intend 
to hurt your feelings. — 1 should not have complained of him, if he 
had only hurt my feelings ; but he has plunged into misery a whole 
family. — You are wrong in associating with that man. He only 
aspires after riches. (See end of Lesson XXXI V.) 

NINETY.SECOND LESSON.— 2J«iei tmb neim|iJ0te 

To be thoroughly acquainted with SKit cinfc 6o(^e genau Monvtiot 

a thing. wttrout) fcin*. 

To make one's self thoroughly Gic^ mit rinet ^ac^e (e&mnt (o( 

acquainted with a thing. Dcrtraut) mac^cn. 

I understand this business. 3^ bin mlt bicfet Gac^e MCtcottt (cf 

Acquainted, bcfannt ; 

intimate, familiar, ocrtraut. 

I am acquainted with that. f 3* Oin tomit bcfonnt (v<ttml)» 

A species (a kind), fine 2(rt/ cine ©attung. 

What kind of fruit is that? \ ^f f' ^?"« Sl^^^J^o^' 

) SQBq^ far eme Jrudjt ifl ht<il 

• The |dun] ©f collective nouns is generally formed by addii« ftttO, 
iiJSr . 1E!!^li*c^® Mugular. Ex. tit Dbfla. ten, fruit (i. e. variouB •orti d 
«rmi> , bte ©ctmbcarten, corn a. e. various kinds of com). 

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The stone, tct ©tcin ; 

kernel-fruit, to$ itemcbfl ; 

stone-fruit, to^ Stcinobfl. 

ft is a kernel-fruit. 
To gather fruit. 

The dessert, 
Tc: serve up the dessert. 

The fruit, 

the plum, 
the anecdote, 
the soap, 
the roast-meat, 

Co dry (^to wipe). 
To cease (to leave off). 
I leave on reading. 
She leaves off speaking. 

T« ^^^iA 5 5Kcil>cn* (acnticbcn, micb) 

To avoid. ^83«rmcibcn5. 

To avoid some one. 3emant>cn nielben*. 

To avoid something. (&ttoai ocrmcibcn*. 

To escape (avoid a misfortune). Ginem UnglUcfe entge^en* or (ntrini 

ncn* (entrcnnctt/ enttonn). 

(Si tfi cine ^emfni^t 

Dbjl bred)cn». 

let S^iacfttifd). 

ben iJiac^tlfft auftrogen*» 

\ bic 5tu*t ;>» 
bie ^floume ; 
tie 2(nccbote ; 
tie ©cife ; 
ter ©coten. 



t 3d) l^ere auf |u (c^n. 

t ©ie i)5rt auf ju fptec^ 

The punishment. 
To avoid death he ran away. 

The flight, the escape, 

To do without a thing. 

Can yoa do without bread 1 

I can do without it. 
I do without bread. 
Do you do without bread 1 
1 do without it. 

tie ©trofi^ 

Um bent Sobe ju entge^it/ mf)m tt 

bie ^uc^t 
bie ^uc^t. 

C Gtne (or etnet) ^d^e entbe^ten 
< (governs the gen. or the ace.). 
( ©icS be^elfen* o()ne etcoai.* 

{itSnnen @ie ftc^ e\)nt SScob be^ 
itonnen @te ba^ SSrob (be« SStobeO 
entbe()ren ? 
Scft fonn eg entbe^tcn. 
3c(> bebclfe nud) c^ne SBteb. 
©c{)elfcn ©ie p* o&ne 93tcb? 
34) fann ee entbe()retu 

^ ^e SmAt is the fruit of tree« and plants. Ex. ^te ^elbfrilAte, the fruit 
if the fields. 9ru(^t ii also emi^oyed figuratively: Ex. ^i( %tnAt feinet 
trbcit, the reward of his labour, tbfl is only used m speakbig of applet, 
pears, plums, and similar fruit. Hence ba< iternobfl, kemei-fruit ; ba< ®tem« 
tb^ 8toDe*friiit. 

< (Sntbtbren is employed in the sense of to bt withaa wad to do wiAoiUt 
M be^elfra* in the sense only of to <io ufithouL 



There are many things which we fSir mlffeti mrttf cnt^c^fm 
must do without 

It is said that he will set oat 



The futures of the subjunctive differ from those of 
the indicative only in the second and third persons 
singular, which are : tl^etbefl and tcetbt, Instead of tttrfl 
and tpirb. Ex. 

Thou wilt praise. )Dtt werbcj! tobeiu 

He will praise. Gr votxU Itbm. 

Thou wilt have praised. JDu n>crtefl gdebt (abou 

He will have praised. Or totxU gelobt ^betu 

The future of the subjunctive implies a coming but 
uncertain event. Ex. 

axon fogt, bap cr (a(b anf^mmoi 

fsDlan f)offt/ cr werbc no* |q r«W« 
Sett flngcfcmmen fdn. 
SOlM bcfft/ bop er nc<b gutctl^tecdcil 
angcfommen fetn loerbe. 

They will warm the soup. 9)2on wtrb bte Qrxppt mdniiau 

Dinner, or supper^ isontnetabh f sDlan ^at aufgetragen. 
(Literally : one Las ser^ up\ 

To ser9€i to attend. 2Cufn>art tu 

Can I nelp you to some of itt f itann t4 S^ncn bamttaufioarteii! 
Shall I help vou to some soup t *> f ^onn id) 3^nen mit Guppc osfi 
Shall I help j m to some soup 1 5 toavUn ? 
I will trouble you for a little, f 3d) bitte mlr (in toenig bows 


To ask for (politely). ©id) ou^Mttcn* 

May I crave (beg) the favour of f Darf ic^ nitc 3(!ten 9tom(n ftllt 
your name t bitten ? 

y Google 


Hie wommn, H( 'gtau ^ 

the wife, bad SBeib.' 

EXEBCISE8. 213. 

1 come to wish yoa a good morning. — You are very kind.— 
Would you do me a favour 1 — ^Tell me what you want, for I would 
do anything to oblige you. — ^I want five hundred crowns, and I beg 
of you to lend them to me. I will return them to you as soon as 
I have received my money. You would oblige me much, if you 
would render me this service. — I would do it with all my heart, if 
I could ; but having lost all my money, it is impossible for me to 
render you this service. — ^Will you ask your !)rother whether he is 
satisfied with the money which I have sent him 1 — As to my bro- 
ther, though it be little, he is satisfied with it : but I am not so ; 
for having suffered shipwreck, I am in want of the money which 
yon owe me. — Henry IV., meeting (ontrcffen*) one day in his 
palace (ber ^alofl) a man whom he did not know (bcr i()ni unbcfanttt 
war), asked him to whom he belonged (^Qef)Cten). ** I belong tc 
myself," replied this man. " My friend,** said the king, ** you 
have a stupid master.'* 


Have they served up the soup 1 — ^They have served it up some 
minutes ago. — ^Then it must be cold, and I only like soup hot {xoau 
m« ©uppe). — ^They will warm it for you. — ^You will oblige me. — 
Shall I help you to some of this roast-meat? — ^I will trouble you 
for a little. — Will you eat some of this mutton ? — I thank you, 1 
like fowl better. — May I offer you some wine 1 — I will trouble you 
for a little. — Have they already served up the dessert! — ^They have 
•erved it up. — Do you like firuiti — ^I like fruit, but I have no more 
appetite. — -Will you eat a little cheese ! — ^I will eat a little. — Shall 
I help you to English or Dutch (f)cn2nb'(f(^) cheese 1 — I will eat a 
little Dutch cheese. — What kind of fruit is that 1 — ^It is stone-fruit. 
—What is it called t — It is called thus. — Will you wash your 
hands? — ^I should like to wash them, but I have no towefto wipe 
them with. — ^I will let you have (gcben toffen) a towel, some soap, 

< ^e ^Ott is used hi titles, in which case it is not expressed in English. 
Ex. ^tc %t(iu ^tfifinn, the countess. It stands for, 1. the mistress of ths 
bouse. Ex. ^al tft bit ^an 9om ^a\ift, that is the mistress of the house ; 
1 the consort. Ex. €eine $vati ift fc^t fd[)5n, his lady is very handsome j 
3. tha sex, but then it is generally combined with the word $frfon or S^n^ 
mcr. Ex. Sttnntn <5ie biefe graufne^)trfon (biefe* Brauenjimmw) ? do you 
know that lady ? The word tDctb means : 1. in general a woman of the 
km-er classes. It is sometimes combined with the word $f rfon, and in speak- 
hig coniemptnously with the word $t(b. Ex. IDte SBciber oom armemcn 
Qolfc, the women of the lower classes ; bie W&tiUpttfpn, bad ^eibeoitb, the 
feaale ; 2. a consort among the lower classes. Ex. @r ^at tin Seib aenom* 
Wmn, he has taken a wife (has married) ; 3. the sex in general, hi. (SiQ 
fkici SBcib, a woman of noble sentiments ; bie dlatut bcl SSe ib(<, wonun's 



and some water. — I shall be mach (fir^t) obliged to joa. — ^May 1 
ask you for a little water 1 — Here is some (iDa ^^cn Sie). — Cfai 
you do without soap ?— As for soap, I can do without it ; but I 
must have a towel to dry my hands with. — Do you oflen do with- 
out soap ? — ^There are many things which we must do without. — 
Why has that man run away ! — Because he had no other means o* 
escaping the punishment which he had deserved. — Why did yoar 
brothers not get a better horse ^ — If they had got rid of their old 
horse, they would have got another better one. — Has your fetbw 
arrived already! — Not yet, but we hope that he will arrive this 
very day (ne<ft ^cute). — Has your friend* set out in time 1 — I do not 
know, but I hope that he will have set out in time. 

Will you relate something to me ? — Whai do you wish me to re- 
late to you 1 — ^A little anecdote, if you like. — A little boy asked 
(Ifcrbcrn) one day at table (btx Zifd^t) for some meat; his father said 
that it was not polite to ask for any, and that he should wait until 
some was given to him. The poor boy seeing every one eat, and 
that nothing was given to him, he said to his father : ** My dear 
father, give me a little salt, if you please." " What will you do 
with it ? " asked the father. *' I wish to eat it with the meat {^ 
win c6 ^u tern 5tcifd)C cffcn^ which you will give me," replied (pn^ 
|cn) the child. Every body admired (bctounbern) the little boy^s wit ; 
and his father, perceiving that he had nothing, gave him meat with- 
out his asking for it. — Who was that little boy, that asked for meat 
at table 1 — He was the son of one of my friends. — Why did he ask 
for some meati — He asked for some because he had a good appe- 
tite. — Why did his father not give him some immediately ? — Be- 
cause he had forgotten it. — Was the little boy wrong in asking for 
some ? — He was wrong, for he ought to have waited. — Why did 
^ e ask his father for some saltl — He asked for some salt, that (^ 
Mtt) his father might perceive that he had no meat, and that 1m 
night give him some. (See end of Lesson XXXIY.) 

NINETY.THIRD LESSON.— ffilrei tttlft tutmpj»ie 

To execute a commission. Ginen TCuftrag au^ri^teit^ MII|icfKB^ 

I hare executed your -sommissior . 3d) haht Sftrcn TCuj^og gut oir^ 

rid)tct (wnjogen, bcforat). 

I have received with the ^atest 34 h^^ 35i^ untmn |(4)}Un an 
pleasure the letter which you 3 4 

addressed to me, dated the 6th mtc^ gm^tetr^ ^relbm mtt 
instant. Urn 9t6pten SSctgnfigen «^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

DGt* When the adjective precedes the noon (Les* 
s 1 XVin.) all words relating to it are plac(;d before 
the adjective, or the participle used adjectiveiy, in the 
folloiving order : Ist, The article or pronoun ; 2d, all 
words relating to the adjective or the participle adjec- 
tive ; 3d, the adjective or participle €tdjective ; and 
finally, 4th, the noun. Ex. 

1 2 3 

A man polite towards everybody. Gin gcgcn Sebcmmnn ^cfltc^et 

12 3 4 

A. father who loves his children, ^n fctnc iltnber tt(b(nber S^aten 
You have to study the twentieth ©ie lE^oDen tie jTOfln^igflc gcction 
Lesson, and to translate the 12 3 

exercises relating to it. gu fhittren, unb tie tagu ^tW 

' 4 

rigcn TCufeobcn ju fibcrfc|cn.» 

Have you executed my commis- ^otjcn ^le meinen 2(uftrag att^e« 

sion V rtd>tet ? 

I have executed it. 3d) \)af>c tf)n au^jcrtditet 

To do one's duty. ©cine ©d>ulbi9ftfit tl)un*. 

To fulfil one's duty. ©cine fPftid)t erfaUen. 

To do one's task. ©ctne 2(r6cit niad)cn. 

That man always does his duty. S)tcfct 9)2ann tf)ut immet feine ©^uU 

That man always fulfils his duty. JDicfcr SWann erfllttt immer feini 

Have y :u done your task 1 ^oben ©ie 3^)re TCtbeit gemoc^t ? 

Rd^J^nXpoTsSing. H'*-f«-«>-'«ff«-- 

He depends upon it. Gt oerl^^t ficft barouf. 
I rely upon you. 3* ocrlaffe mtc^ auf ©ie. 

You may rely upon him. 6ie Hfnncn pd) oaf t()n wrtafien. 

To suffice, be sufficient. ©cnfigen, ^tnreic^en, genug fctn*. 

To be contented with something. ©t(^ mit ctroa^ {^cqnUgcn. 

It is sufficient for me. Q^ gcnttgt nur. 

* This kind of construction, wherein the noun stands separated more or 
ten from its article, is more frequently made use of in elevated style tlian in 
«>nven*non. ^ * i • . 

b $flt4)t is that which our own conscience obliges us to ; ^(9Ulbtgtett. tht 
Olden oven us by our superiors, an ^ is derived fronr ^it ^6^u\b, the obiig» 

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Will that money be sufficient f<»r SBtrb Utfd Mb ttcfcm fXatm ffi 

tliat man ! nft^en ? 

It will be siifficienf for him. Qi toixb tdm genSgetu 
Little wealth suffices for the wise. SSkntg genfigt Urn SBetfhu 
Was this man contented with |>at fid)bie|cca)2annimt McfcrCSn^ 

that sum t mebcgndot? 

fSBat biefe Summe f&c tUfcn fOKana 
l)tnrcid)cnt ? 
$Sar bicfe ^umme blffnn ajlaimi s» 
It has been sufficient for him. (St f^ai ^ bomlt begnogt 
He would be contented if you (&t roftrbe ftcti begndgcn/ nmiii 0tc 
would only add a few crowns, nut nc(^ einige ^SMUt ^i^jaf^icii 


To add. ^injnf&gctt. 

To build. SBauen. 

To embark, to eo on board. €>t^ etnf(i)tffen. 
The saU, to^ Gegel. 

To set sail. Unter 6cge( ge^cn*. 

To set sail for. @ege(n nad). 

To sail for America. 9{ad) Xnutifa T^gcdu 

With full sails. QRit t^Uen ©rgcCiu 

To sail with full sails. $mit wUm ©egctn fobren*. 

He embarked on the sixteenth of Gt \)<it ftc^ om fc(b)c^nten (o^tr bci 
last month. fcd»el}nten) (rgten sO{onat^ ciiigc> 

f(biflft. . 

He sailed on the third instant, dx tfl tot brtttcn (cber am tntttn/ 

biefe^ untec 6eg(C gcgangen. 

That is to say (t. e.). jDa6 ^et$t (n&mUc^). 

Et caetera (etc.), and so on, and Unb fe mcttec (abbreriated 8. f »•)• 

ark f/\rf\t 

Otherwise, diffisrently. Knltvi* 

In another manner. Kuf cine onbere Tftt 

If I knew that, I would behave SBcnn id) tai wdfle/ lofitbc ti( nUk 

differently. onbcrS bcncbmen. 

If I ban known that, I would SlBcnn id> bo^ gcmupt l^httt, fb toilirtf 
have behaved differently. id) mic^ anl^ boieanmii ifck$» 

To behave. ®ic^ bcne()mfn*. 

Else (otherwise). ©onft. 

If not. SBo ntc^t 

Mend, else (if not) you will be Scflcrn ©ie fl^, ftnft {m vWi 

punished. n)ttb man ©t< Utafen. 

I cannot do it otherwise 3c^ fann ti nW anteti nuuften. 

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fhe second person singular of the imperative, being 
formed from the second person singular of the indica- 
tive, is only irregular when the latter is so. Ex. ®e* 
im*^ to give ; second person of the indicative, bu Qib% 
thou givest; imperative, gib, give thou. 5pelfm*, to 
help ; second person of the indicative, btt ^ilffl/ thou 
helpest ; imperative, ^ilf, help thou. 

From this rule must be excepted : 1st. The follow- 
ing verbs: ^aben*, to have; second person, bu l)a|l, 
thou hast . imperative, tjahc, have thou ; fein*, to be ; 
second pt-rson, bu W|l, thou art; imperative, jei, be 
thou ; werb^n*, to become ; btt tt>ir(l, thou becomest ; 
imperative, toerbe, become thou; wiflfen*, to know; 
second person, bU tm^f thou knowest ; imperative, toi^t, 
know thou ; tootten*, to will ; bu »itt(l, thou wilt ; im- 
perative, tOoUt. 2d. Verbs which, in the second person 
of the indicative present, change the letter a into a. 
In the imperative they resume the radical vowel. Ex. 
imfaif to run ; btt lattfjpt, thou run nest ; imperative, (ott^ 
fe, run thou. 

All the other persons of the imperative are derived 
from the present of the subjunctive, which is always 
regular, as well as the plural of the present of the in- 

Have patience ! ^aUn &xt ®ebutb ! 

Be attentive ! ^etcn @ie oufincr(fam ! 

Go thither ! ®el)cn ^U I)tn ! 

Give it to me ! ®eben @ie c^ mtr ! 

Give it to him ! ®e(>cn 6ie e^ tf)m ! 

Patience, impatience, bie ®cbu(b ; tie UngebuIK 

Lend it to me ! Setgen @le e^ tntt ! 

To borrow. SBorgcn ((ci^cn*). 

I will borrow some money of 3d> tDtU niit ocn 3I)nen ®4b (ei^ci 

you. (Dcrgen). 

I will borrow this money of you. 3c^ mitt tiefc^ ®e(b wn 3(nen 6«r 

• gen. 
Borrow it of (or from) him. JBcrgcn Sie e^ t)on t^m. 

I do borrow it from him. 34 ^^W ^^ o^n t^nu 

Obs. A. These examples of the imperative are lor 
the third person plural, which is most conmionly used 

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in polite couversation ; but we sometimes also empio; 
the second person plural, particularly in exhortations 

Be Cye) good. @eib gut.* 

Knuw (ye) it. SBiffct e^** 

Oboy your masters, and never ®c^crd)et« (Suren ief^retn, anb aw* 

give them any trouble. (fcct i^nen nie dSet^ni^ 

Pay what you owe, comfort the 95f joblet/ t»o« S^v fcftulbig frtb ; 
afflicted, and do good to those trSflet bte Uno/ididCidiexi, unb t^( 
that have oflfended you. t^ni^ntgcn ©utc^, tie (S«(ft bdris 

ttgt t)abetu 
Love God, thy neighbour as thy- Stcbct (^ctt unb ^tm 9lUM^ "^ 
self (in German yourself). Gudb \(ihft* 

To obey. ®c!)ord)Ctu 

To comfort. Srfijlcn. 

To offend. Sdcibtgetu 

The neighbour, Uv SfJ&cftfh ; 

sadness, tie Srourigfett ; 

the creditor, tcr ©l&u&igee ; 

the watch, tie Uf)r ; 

the snuff-box, tie iDcfe. 

Obs. B. We often employ compound imperatives, 
in order to give to understand that we either com- 
mand or invite. They are formed for the third person 
sing, and plur. with nt6gen*, may ; foffen*, shall ; and 
for the first person plural with laflfen*, to let, which 
likewise forms the compound imperative in English; 
and with nwHeit*, will. Ex. (gr ma^ loben, let him (he 
may) praise ; cr fott loben, let him (he shall) praise ; (fe 
mogeit lobeit, let them (they may) praise ; fie foffen fofei, 
let them (they shall) praise ; tofiet un* lobeit^ let us 
praise ; tt>ir tt>offen lobeit, let us (we will) praise, &c. 

Let us always love and practise Caffct un^ immer tie Solent JieM 
virtue, and we shall be happy unt au^dbcit/ fo wcrten totr to 
both in this life, and in the ttefem unt j[enem 8e(>en cji^M 
next. fcin. 

Uct us see which of us can shoot SStr moQen febcn, ton Mti utt^ 0» 
best. bcficn f*icpen fann. 

a E'*^"* "^^^ f^^' "ccond person plural of the indicative. 

J^™ 2^^ n>ttTet &c. &c. 
• From 3^r gcjort^et, Ac *c. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


EXBRCISK8. 916. 

Haye yon executed my commission 1 — ^I have executed it — Hat 
/our brother executed the commission which I g;ave him ? — He has 
executed it. — Would you execute a commission for me ? — I am un- 
der so many obligations to you, that I will always execute your 
commissions when it shall please you to give me any. — Ask the 
horse-dealer (tec $fcctc{)c(nt(cr) whether he can let me have the 
horse at (fihr) the price which 1 have offered him. — I am sure that 
be would be satisfied, if yon would add a few florins more. — I will 
not add anything. If he can let me have it at (fftr) that price, let 
him do so ; if not, let him keep it (fb luoa ec c^ beaten). — Good 
morning^ (in the accus.), my children ! Itk^e you done your task t 
^Yon well know that we always do it; for we must (md^cn) be 
Ul not to do it. — ^What do you give us to do to-day 1 — I give you 
the ninety-third lesson to study, and the exercises belonging to it to 
do, — that is to say, the 216th and 317th. Endeavour to commit 
(madden) no errors (l>er Scf)tcr). — Is this bread sufficient for you 1 — 
It would be sufficient for me, if I was not veiy hungry. — When did 
vcur brother embark for America 1 — He sailed on the thirtieth of 
last month (U^tcn STZcnat^). — Do you promise me to speak to your 
brother 1 — I do promise you, you may depend upon it. — ^I rely upon 
you. — Will you work harder for next lesson than you have done for 
this 1 — I will work harder. — May I rely upon it 1 — You may (f3n« 
nm «^). 


Have patience, ray dear friend, and be not sad ; for sadness alters 

(inborn) nothing, and impatience makes bad worse (6rgfr). — Be not 

afraid of your creditors ; be sure that they will do you no harm. — 

You must have patience, though you have no mind for it (tagu) ; 

for I also must wait till I (man) am paid what is due to me. — ^As 

soon as I have money, I will pay all that you have advanced (ou^ 

Uom) for me. Do not believe that I have forgotten it, for I think 

w (bfnfcn an* with accus.) it every day. I am your debtor (tcr 

^uttncr), and I shall never deny (Uu^ncn) it. — Do not believe ttiat 

I have had your gold watch, or that Miss Wilhelmine has had your 

^▼er snuff-box, for I saw both in the hands of your lister when 

we were playing at forfeits (5)fanbn: fpie(en). — What a beautiful 

inkstand you have there ! pray, lend it to me. — What do you wish to 

do with it ? — I wish to show it to my sister. — ^Take it, but take 

-are of it, and do not break it. — Do not fear. — What do you want 

of (t»cn) my brother 1 — ^I want to borrow some money of him.— 

Borrow some of somebody else. — If he will not lend mc any, I will 

Wrow some of somebody else. — You will do well. — Do not wish 

(for) what you cannot have, but be contented with what Providence 

(^'w QSorfehung) has given you, and consider (bctcnfcn*) that there 

are many men who have not what you have. — Life (Da« ficbcn) 

being short, let us endeavour to make it (c« un«) as acrreeable (ange« 

B€^) as possible. But let us also consider that the abuse (pf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Vfifbtavid^j of pleasure (in the plor. in Gennan, fBmmtlaini^) 
makes it bitter (bitter). — Have you done your exercises 1 — J could 
not do them, because my brother was not at home. — You mnst Dd 
get your exercises doneby (ocn) your brother, but you must do thes 
yourself. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

NINEIT.FOURTH LESSON.— Jjur tttli nttm?ig«te 

To be a judge of something. t ®«d) auf cttoai wrflf ^•^ 

Are you a judge of cloth 1 \ iQitftct)cn ©ie |t(ft auf Suc^ ? 

I am a judge of it. f 3d) »ftflc&e mt<b barauf. 

I am not a iudffe of it. f 3c6 oerfleb^ m\&^ nt^t tatauf. 

I am a good judge of it. f 3d) txrjle^e mx^ fe^c gut toravf; 

I am not a good judge of it. f 3d) t>crftef)e mi(t) mc^ fe^ gut 


To Jroto. Seic^nen. 

To chalk. 9{a4)ct((nm (futHrcn). 

The drawing, btc 3ci<bnung ; 

the drawer, ttv Sctc^ncr. 

To draw from nature, from life. 9{adb bet 97atur/ no^ ban Men 

To draw a landscape from nature, (^tne Santfc^ft nad^ bet diktat jtUfts 

To manage or to go about a thing. (S^ anftingcn*. 
How do you manage to make a SBte fangcn &\t ti an, e^ne Snigi 

ilre without tongs I ^euer ansumac^n ? 

I go about it so. 3* faitge <« fe (or ouf btcfe 8Brt|<) 

You go about it in a wrong way. @te fangen e^ ntc^t gut an. 
I go about it in a riffht way. 3d) f^nge c^ aut on. 
How does your broSier manage SBte fdngt 39t SBrubec ti an, tm 

to do that I Utcfeg |u tl)ttn ? 

Skilfully, dexterously, cleyerly. ®cfd)tcft (auf elne gef4)idte fiber frb 

nc 2(rt). 
Awkwardly, unhandily. Ungcfd)icft. 

He should have managed the (&v f^^tte ti beffec anfangen foOeiu 

thing better than he has done. 
You should haye managed the 8te ^6tten e^ anbcr^ onfongn 

thing differently. mfiffcn. 

They ought to have managed it ©ie bottcn e$ madden (cttcn/ ipte k^b 

as I have done. 
We ought to have managed it m\v batten U anbeti ma^ fOok 
4iirerently from what they did. M fic 




1 Ibibid yoa to do that 

To lower. 
To east down one's eyes. 
The cartain rises, falls. 
The stocks haye fallen. 

The day &ll8. 

It ^Tows towards night, or night ^ 

i^ »irb 9laij)U 

Vitthitttn*. Part past, vm 

(otcn. Imper£ lotxUt 

3fi) t>cr6tete 3()nen/ tiefe^ ju tl^utu 

9ltebcr(offctt*, ^untorlaffen*. 
S)H Kugcn nteberfd)(agen*. 
jDo; a3crl)ana 9cf)t a\if, fAttt 
t iDer SBccDJelcour^ ifi gcfancn (fiel^ 

t iDer Sag netgt f!4« 

comes on. 
It grows dark. 
U gtows late. 

To stoop. 

To feel. 
To smeU. 

He smells of garlic. 

To feel some one's poise. 

To consent to a dung. 
I consent to it 

(Si Wirt) fpAt 
6i^ bflcfen. 

aiic^cn* (geroc^en*, tc4)). 

Gt ried)t noc^ itno6(auc^. 

Semanbcm ten 9uU f&bten. 
C 3n (twai loiQtgen (or einiotQtgen;. 
C Getne (StnmtQigung $u etn>a$ geben* 
C 3c^ mtaige boretn. 
c 34 d^^^ ''^^^"^ GintviQtgung boju. 

To hide, to conceal. 


In fact 

The fact, 


He is a tme man. 
Thia is thi right place for this 

As I live ! 

To think mnch of some one. 
To esteem some one. 
I do not thidc much of that man. 
I timk mnch of him (I esteem 
him much). 

To perrmU to allow 

The permission, 
* permit you to go thither. 

{To oommandf to ord4r)» 

aSerSeracn* (txcSorgen, oectarg). 


3n SDUabr^t. 

3n Ut Z^at (wtrfCt^, loo^c^fttg). 

tie SN ; 

wo!)c (rcc^t) ; 

toahtl)aft ; 

Qx tfl ein tpal^viaftct a){onn. 

I>ai tfl Ut voalitt (tec^rc) 9(a( fSi 

btcfe^ ®em£(bf* 
t 6o toaht id) (c6e ! 

Xuf 3emonben tne( ^tten*. 
Semonben ^&itn. 
3(6 ^o(te ntc^t ml auf biefen aXann. 
3(6 6a(tc Diet auf i^n (id) |(6&(e i^n 



ble dtUrxhnxf. 

3(6 ertouSc 36nen binauge^cn (ot 
babin ju geb<n). 

©cfebten* (i>efef}Un, befaW). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Obs. When the third person plural is employed ii 
the imperative instead of the second, the personal pro- 
noun always follows the verb, but never when the 
second person is employed. Ex. 

Order it to be done. S3efeb(fn ^te, baf man c^ tijnt 

Be virtuous. Ceib tu^tntfyifL 

Will jou permit me to go to the SBcOen &xt mtr cxianUn, oaf tea 
market 1 9)2ar(t gu gc^cn ? 

To hasten, to make haste. (Etloi/ fu^ fputcn* 
Make haste, and return soon. (SHcn 6te unb fommm 6tc bdt 


I had done reading when your 3d) ^tte oufgcl)5rt gu it\in, oH 3^ 
brother entered. SBrubct f)erctntTQt. 

fou had lost your purse when I 6:c gotten 3bte IBSrfe oerfotni/ oil 
found mine. id) tie nidntgc fanb. 

To step in, to enter. |>crctntretcn (gitrctcn, trot). 

To he ashamed. @t^ f^fimen* 

To be ashamed of some one or @t(b 3cnianb<^ obec elnec 6o4( 

something. fiSmen*. 

I am ashamed of my impatience. 3d) fd)Anif mtcb meUier Ung^bulbi 

To copy, to transcribe. 2(b(d)rfi6cn*. 

To decline. >Dcctinirfn. 

The substantive. £)a$ ^auptn>ctt. 

To transcribe fairly. ^ ^""Ij*. ^^'f*^".^,^"*- 

The adjective, the pronoun, the bo$ ISBctmort ; ba^ S^ni^OTt ; M 

verb, the preposition, 3ettn)crt ; ba^ 93cm>ort 

The dictionary, the grammar, bag SQE^rtcrbudb ; bte ^pca^te^ 

(bic ©ronmwttf). 

Do good to the poor, have com- Sf)Ut ben Xrmen @ute^, unb 6ttM 
passion on the unfortunate, SKtKetbcn niit ben Ungtficfttcben, 
and God will take care of the fo tptrb bei: (tebe ®ott ffti; ba< 
rest. Ucbrt^c fcrgen. 

To do good to some one. 3«nianbcm ®utcg t^un*. 

To have 3ompassion on some SCKtttciben mit 3^nianbem bo^ett** 

Compassion, pity, bog ^tt(i;tben ; 
the rest, bog Ucbrtge. 

He has no bowels. f (Sr ^ot fetn 9]!^tt(ctbfn. 

For pity's sake. t ^"^ SKitleibcn. 


What must we do in order to be happy 1 — Always Iov« ^nd 
practise virtue (8iebet unb ttbet bie— immer oug), and (fo) you w <l bs 
%appy both in this and the next life. Since we wish to be I «ppy. 

Digitized by 



lei ns do good to the poor, and let us have compassion on the ii» 
furtnnate ; let us obey our masters, and never ?ive them any trouble ; 
let us comfort the unfortunate, love our neighbour as ourselves, and 
not hate those that have offended ns ; in short (furj), let us always 
fulfil our duty, and God virill take care of the rest. My son, in or- 
der to be loved, you must (mup man) be laborious and good. Thou 
ait accused ({^fd)u(btgcn) of having been idle and negligent in thy 
tff^m Thou knowest, however (ictcd)), that thy brother has been 
punished for (roeil) having been naughty. Being lately in town, I 
received a letter from thy tutor, in which he strongly complained ol 
thee. Do not weep ; now go into thy room, learn thy lesson, and be 
(a) good (boy), otherwise then wilt ftei (in Represent tense) nothing 
for dinner. — I shall be so good, my dear father, that you will certain- 
ly (c^ciDt^) be contented with me.— Has the little boy kept his w^rd ? 
— Not quite, for after having said that, he went into his room, took 
his books, sat down at the table (fid) an t>cn ZxfAi f^^l^n), and fell 
asleep (cin|d)loftn*). He is a very good boy when he sleeps, said 
his father, seeing him some time after (borouf). 


Are yon a judge of cloth] — ^I am a judge of it. — WiU you buy 
some yards (for) me 1 — Give me the money, and (fc) I shall buy 
some (for) you. — You will oblige me. — Is that man a judge of 
cloth T — He is not a good judge of it. — What are you doing there 1 
—I am reading the book (in tcut 95ud)e) which you lent me. — You 
are wrong in always reading it (immer tarin ^u fcfcn). — What do you 
wish me to do 1 — Draw this landscape ; and when you have drawn 
it, you shall decline some substantives with adjectives and pro- 
nouns. How do you manage to do that 1 — I manage it so. — Show 
me how you manage it. — -What must I do for my lessons of to- 
morrow (tie morgcnte ©tun^c) 1 — ^Transcribe your exercises fairly, 
do three others, and study the next lesson. — How do you manage 
to grf goods without money ? — I buy on credit. — How does your 
sister manage tp learn German without a dictionary? — She manages 
it thus.— She mainages it very dexterously. — But how does youi 
brother manage it 1 — He manages it very awkwardly : he reads, 
and looks for (auffud)en) the words in the dictionary. — He may 
learn in this manner (ciuf btefc 9Bctf() twenty years without know^ 
ing how to make i single sentence (t)er @a^). 


Why does your sister cast down her eyes ! — She casts them 
down because she is ashamed of not having done her task. — Let 
OS breakfast in the garden to-day : the weather is so fine, that we 
ought to take advantage of it (c^ bcnu|en). — How do you like that 
coffee ? — ^I like it very much (rcrtrcffttd)). — Why do you stoop 1 — ^1 
•toop to pick up the handkerchief which I have dropped. — Why do 
your sisters hide themselves 1 — They would not hide themselves, 
tf they did not fear to be seen. — Whom are they afraid of 1 — 'Chef 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


JL9 mfraid of their goTernese (pie Gt|iel)ennn), who Molded Ami 

yesterday hecause they had not done their tasks. — An emperor 
who was irritated at (aufgcbrad)! Qf^vn) an astrologer (bar SCcmNit 
ter), asked him : «« Wretch, what death (lodc^n Scbf^) dosi thoe 
believe thou wilt dieV — '<! shall die of a feyer/* (Lenos 
LXXXIII.)* replied the astrologer. <« Thou liest," (pa^^ SIO) «ud 
the emperor ; ** thou wilt die this instant (in ttefrm 2(u9i.AMt<f) a tio- 
lent (acnxUtfam) death.*' As he was going to be seized (.«igrdfcii 
lOcUen*), he said to the emneror, <* Sir (©ndbtgflcr ^ytvx) . order soiDe 
one to feel my pulse, ana it will be found that I have a ferer." 
This sally (iDtcfec gute (StnfaQ) saved his life. — ^Do not Judge (n^ 
ten), you who do not wish to be judged ! — ^Why do yoa perodve 
the mote (bfl< etrof)) in your brother's eye, you who dc not perreive 
the beam (btt 93o(fen) which is in your own eye 1 — W!?uld yoa 
copy your exercises if I copied mine f — I would copy them if you 
copied yours. — Would your sister have transcribea her letter if I 
had transcribed minet — She would have transcribed it. — Would 
■he have set out if I had set out 1 — ^I cannot tell yoa what she 
would have done if you had set out. (See end of Lesson XXXlV.) 

NINETY.FIFTH LESSON.— /Bnf mi tunn^fpfU 

To grow (to wax). fffia^fen* (takes ffin* for its 

auxiliary. Part, past, gaoad^ 
fen. Imperf. lOtt^e). 

To grow rapidly (fast). ^nett n>od)fett*. 

That child has grown very fast ^Diefe* ^inb i|l in futjet 3«it |e(« 

in a short time. genHK^fen (or ^ctangenxu^fcn)* 

To grow up (to grow tall). ^erannxic^en*. 

The flower, bte 93(ume ; 

the shelter, Uv ^u| (ble GTid^^t) ; 

the cottage, the hut, tie @ttoI)()Citte. 

To shelter one's self from some- 6t^ Mr et»o( (dat.) fifitaau 

To take shelter from something. 6tc^ ocv etnHt^ (dat.) in ^t^ct^ 

Let us shelter ourselves from the Mt wellen un^ wc tern 9lMen (bm 

rain (the storm). SBinbe) f<^$en (in ^tc^M 

Let us enter this cottage in order eoffen 6te un^ in biefe Gtto^^ittr 

to be sheltered from the storm ^e^en, urn t}or bem 6tttcmn>ettct 

(tempest). tn @i(^et^ett ^ fetn. 

For fear of. Kni ^vd^t — {0. 

To catch a cold. ei^ etfitten. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 


wiO not ^o out for fear of 
€stchiii||r a cold. 

He does not wish to go to town 
for fear of meeting with one 
<if his creditors. 

Every where, throughout. 

All over (throughout) the town. 

Under the shade. 

Let us sit down under the shade 
of that tree. 

To pretend* 

nitd) su cxUltcn (cbet toi'ii t^ 
mid) Mc Ctfattung filrd)te, cUt 
au6 Surd)t, ben ®d)nupfcn ju Us 

(&t win nid)t nad^ tet 6taM gebcn, 
ou# Surest einen feinet ®(6ubigcy 


f 3n bet gangen @tabt. 

{3n ben (bem) 6<^ttetu 
6e(en mt nni in ben 6<6atten 
biefe^ SBaume^ (eber unter biefen 
S3aum in ben ^c^ttcn). 

t SNn (ft (ft |le((en), a i ch 
or o(^ menn (followed by 
the imperfect of the subjunc- 

That man pretends to sleep. 

This young lady pretends 
know German. 

liefer sDlann ffeUt fi^, aH th et 
to ^Dtefe^ ^&u(etn tftut, aii Mrflfinbe 
fte beiitrcft/ or aii wenn (ob) fte 
beutfd) DcrfHinbe. 

They pretend to come near us. 0te fleUen fid), oii c6 (or wenn) fte 

ficft un6 n&^ern n>ctlten. 

Theit9 thuSf sOf consequently. 2( ( f 0. 

Obs. A. This word must not be mistaken for the 
English word also^ whiph is translated into German 
hj and). 

In a short time. 

To make a present of something 
to some one. 

Hr. Fischer wrote to me lately, 
that his sisters would be here 
in a short time, and engaged 
me U) tell you so ; you will 
consequently be able to see 
them, and to give them the 
books which you have bought. 
They hope that you will make 
them a present of them. Their 
brother has assured me, that 
they esteem you without know* 
ing you personally. 

3n Jtur^enu 


Semonbem ein ®efc^n( mit 

^crt 5ifd)ec f*rieb mit ntvix^, baf 
fetne $rau(etn ^meflem in 
jturgem btecftct fommen wftrben, 
unb bat mxd^, U 3bnen gu fagcn. 
@te mecben fte o ( f o fe()en, unb 
t^)nen bie fB(i6)ix geben fSnnen, 
wcttfee &t jefauft ^obcn. ©re 
^cffen, bog 6ic i^nen ein ®e|d)cn' 
bamtt nwc^n wcrben. S^r ©ru 
bet bat mid) »errid)ctt, t>a^ fie ®i« 
hcd)Witn, c\)tit eie petfSntic^ gn 



Would to God. Sfiotfte Mt (See 06s* F. 


Would to God it were so. SScnte ®ott, e^ tohtt fo. 

Would to God he had done it. SBcQU QMt, a ^dttt H ^ctfym. 

To want amusenient. ") ^^^ . ^ 5,^,.., . - _ ^ 

To get or be tired. J ^°"3« ^Bctlc l)aUn* 

How could I get tired in your SBie fSmtt t(^ (ei S^nen ian^ 6eb 
company 1 le ^bcn ? 

Firstly (at firgt), trftcni ; 

secondly, &c. itodten^ 2U 

To have reason to. Urfocfte ^abcn* — jiu 
He has reason to be sad. Ot ^t VLt^ad^ traurtg ^ fdit 

He has much sorrow* Gt ^t tki SScrtrup (JttmmKr). 

Ofr^. jB. When any one is thanked for a thing, he 
must answer in German: 

You haye no reason for it f (^tc fyiUn) Stid^t Utfad^ 

To look upon or into. (Btl}tn auf or nac^ 

The window looks into th^ street jDa< ^enjlec ^tf^ auf tie (luu^ Ut) 

fhe back door looks into the jDir ^tntcrt^Cic Qt^ nadi ton <9an 
garden. tctu 

To drown. (Svtt&nUn (active verb). 

'^^rtrinfen* (neuter verb). Part 
past, crttunfen. Imp«£ cr> 
To be drowned. \ tronf. 

(&rfauf<n* (neuter verb). Part 
past, evfo^cn. Imperf. tx^ 

ToJ-PO«tofU.ewindow. {Srs%W«SfSjn.. 

To throw out of a« window. {J„tW"&KS«.' 

To «Aoof (meaning to kill by (Stf^te^cn*. 

iSctnonbem etne ^ugd oot tm SttifH 
3ema£' cine ^«dcl turd) Ui 
(3t\)xm jagcn. 
To shoot one's self with a pistol. @i* mtt eino: 5)ifb!e etf<!(tc^«. 
He has blown out his brains. (St i)ot fid^ ftrf^ffcn. 
Hehasblownouthis brains with Gr M ltd) mtt cinet $i{ifllf CO 
* pwtol. fcioffen. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


I am dliowning. 34 ettrinfe. 

He Jumped out of the window. (&t tfl au^ Um 3cn|let gefpningfii 

To get paid. t ^i<*> &«ioMcn (off«n*. 

To BnfTer one's self to be pre- \ ^id) bitten ta(fcn*. 

Tailed upon. 
To get one's self invited to dine, f ^id) sum 9KittaQc([cn cin(ab<« 


Get paid. f Soffen @te fic^ OegaMen ! 

Let OS set out. 8affcn 8te un^ (or toil weUtn) aU 

Let ns breakfast. gaffen &t und (or wlc iDcQen) ttfi|« 

Let him give it to me. Dap et mtc c^ ^tU, or cr ge^e H 

Lethimbethere at twelve o'clock. Dop et um |io9tf U()r to fet^ or cr f<i 

um ^clf Uht ta. 
Let him send it to me. Dap cc mtc ti fcnbe, or cr fcnte ti 

He may believe it. t^af cr gtaubc, or er gtauSc c^ 

To be at one's ease. f&tha^tn, UfiQOfxdi cber Uqixtm \m* 

(impers. verb, gov. dat.). 
To be uncomfortable. Unbcbaglic^/ unbcquem ctcr gentrt 
I am very much at my ease upon di if! mtr ouf ttcfcm @tuf)(c fc^r 

tiiis chair. Uhagli\6). 

You are uncomfortable upon your Qi ift 3bncn ntd)t Ul)Ciofx&^ (cber 

chair. unbeftagtid)) ouf 3f)rcm €5tul)tc. 

We are uncomfortable in that d^ bcf)ogt un^ in btcfcm ^ofl^^ottfc 
boarding-house. (btefcr ^enfton) ni^t 

To make one's self comfortable. (Si |t(6 bequem moc^cn* 
To put one's self out of the way. 6ft(^ bcmi^^cn. 
Make yourself comfortable. aD{ad)cn 6te e5 flc^ bcqucm. 

Do not put yourself out of the SQim(i\)tn 6tc fi^ nic^t 

Do as if you were at home. JS^un ^U, aii wtm @ic itt ^nft 


Go and tell him that 1 cannot (S(cf)t unt fagt xhm, top t(^ ^cntc 
come to-day. ntd)t fcmmcn fonn. 

He came and told us he could Qx tarn unt) fogte \xni, bop cr nU^ 
uot come. fommcn fSnntc. 

To prefer. gSorjiel^cn* (gcjcgcn, jog). 

i prefer the useful to the agree- 3^ ftc^e bo$ 9^((t^e Um Un§t» 
abl«. neomcn ocr. 




Ob$. C. When mi adjective is used substantia /iff 
(n the masculine or feminine gender, a noun is alwa}^^ 
understood, e. g. ber Steic^, the rich, meaning ber tdc^e 
^antt ; bie Qd)bne, the beautiful woman, meaning bie 
fd)6ne ^tan. 

Pew words to the wise (proYerb). ®c(ebrten 'jl gut pwbigoi (jBipd^s 


Obs. D. An a^jectiye'-BeMhSilbstantivelv' ^thout 
a noun being understood is always put in the neuter 
gender, e. g. ba^ ®rogf, the great ; bod (Sr^bette, the 
sublime ; ba^ 31euf ere, the exterior ; bag Snnere, the in- 

What he likes best is hunting @ftn 8tf6|l(^ tfl bie S^b imb bol 
and fishing. ^iftfeen. 
2)<nn »o bfl« Cftwnge mtt ban 3«» 

For when the Manly and the 

When Strength and Beauty 

form a pair, 
Then rings it out a merry song. 

SBo 6tarfe$ f!4 unb 9RUbel poorr 

^ iDa mbt e^ etnen guten ittang. 

(Sd)t((er in his 8ieb ven bee 
^ilcde, the song of the bell). 
Severe, tender, mild (gentle). fijfceng, jart, mitb. 
To be welcome. v^SBiUfommen fein*. 

You are welcome every wWe. 6te finb (ibetaU toidfonimen. 

He will arrive in a we^ Ct wtrb in o<j(t ISagen (einer SBed^} 

/- anfonnneit. 

It took him a wee)( to make this (^ ()at ttefe SHeife in <ul^ Sogen 

journey. / gemacftt 

He will have finished his studies (St n>trb feine Gtutten in eincm 

in three months. SSterteQa^re Mdenbet ^6en. 

He finished his studies in a year. dSx Init feine @tubien in etnem 3^^ 

re Mdenbet 


Have you already seen my son ^ — ^I have not seen him yet, how 
is he ? — ^He is very well ; you will not be able to recognise him, 
for he has grown very tall in a short time. — ^Why does this man 
give nothing to the poor 1 — He is too avaricious (get^^) ; he does 
not wi^h to open his purse for fear of losing his money.— Whit 
sort of weather is it 1 — It is very warm ; it is long since we bad 
any rain (eg bat tonge nid)t gcteanet) : I believe we shall have a 
storm (ein ®en>itter tefommen). — It may be (2)0$ fann woW fein)-— 
The wind rises (fid) cr^e^n*),it thunders already; do youfaaaiik! 
—Yes, I do hear it, but the storm is still far off (meit entfecnt)-— 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Not 80 far as jon think ; see how it lightens. — Bless me (^^fk 
9ttt)f what a shower (rodd) etn cntftf^dtfect 9lcgm i|l t>af) ! — If we go 
into some place we shall be sheltered from the storm. — Let us go 
into that cottage then ; we shall be sheltered there from the wind and 
the rain. — I have a great mind to bathe (ba^cn) to-day. — Where will 
you bathe ? — In the river. — Are you not afraid of being drowned ^— 
Oh no ! I can swim. — Who taught you (t^) 1 — Last summer I took 
a few lessons at the swimming-school (tit ®cbwtnmij<i)u(c). — WherA 
shall we go to now ? — Which road shall we take ? — The shortest 
will be the best — We have too much sud and I am still very tired ; 
let us sit down under the shade of this tree. — Who is that *nan that 
is sitting under the tree 1 — I do not know him. — It seems, he wishes 
to be alone ; for when we offer to (mollcn*) to approach him, he 
pretends to be asleep. — He is like your sister : she understands 
German very weU ; but when I begin to speak to her, she pretends 
net to understand me. 


Have you seen Mr. Jaeger ? — ^I have seen him ; he told me that 
his sisters would be here in a short time, and desired me to tell you 
so. — When they have arrived, you may give them the gold rin^ 
which you have bought; they flatter themselves that vou will 
make them a present of tiiem, for they love you without knowing 
you personally. — Has my sister already written to you 1 — She has 
written to fc, I am going to answer her. — Shall I (^ctl icb) tell her 
that you are here ? — ^Tell her ; but do not tell her, that I am wait- 
ing for her impatiently. — Why have you not brought your sister 
along with you 1 — Which one ! — ^The one you always brin?, the 
youngest (bit j[ttna{!e).— She did not wish to go out, because she has 
the tooth-ache. — I am very sorry for it ; for she is a very good girl. 
—How old is she 1--She is nearly fifteen years old. — She is very 
nil for her age Cbai Tfltcr). — How old are you 1 — ^I am twenty-two. 
— Is it possible ! I thought you were not yet twenty. 


Will you drink a cup of (bi< SSoffO tea 1 — ^I thank you, \ do not 
like tea. — Do you like coffee 1 — I do like it, but I have just drunk 
some* — Do you not get tired here ? — How could I get tired in this 
a^eeable society 1 — ^As to me 1 always want amusement.— If you 
did as I do, you would not want amusement ; for I listen to all those 
who tell me anything. — ^In this manner I learn (ctfdbrcn*) a thou- 
sand agreeable things, and I have no time to get tired ; but you do 
nothing of that kind, that is the reason why you want amusement. 
—1 would do every thing like (vou) you, if 1 had no reason to be 
sad. — I have heard just now that one of my best friends has shot 
himself with a pistol, and that one of my wife's best friends has 
drowned herself. — Where has she drowned herself 1-— She has 
drowned herself in the river which is behind her house. Yester- 
day at four o'clock in the morning she rose without saying a word 




to an^ ono, leaped out of the window which looks into the gaidei^ 
and threw (fhir^cn) herself into the river where she was drowned.— 
Let us always seek the friendship (tit Jfreunt)f<f)aft) of the good and 
avoid (flic^cn*) the society of the wicked ; for had society corrupts 
(wrNrbcn) good manners (tie ©ittcn, fem. plur.). — What sort d 
weather is it to-day ? — It snows continually (nc(ib imuifT), as it 
snowed yesterday, and according to all appearances (o(lem iin\iku 
ne nadi) will also snow to-morrow. — Let it snow, I should like it to 
snow still more, and to freeze also, for I am always very well whea 
't is very cold. — And I am always very well when it is neitha 
cold nor warm. — It is too windy (gor ^u loinMg) to-day, and we 
should do better if we staid at home. — Whatever weathei it may be, 
I must go out, for I promised to be with my sister at a quarter past 
eleven, and I must keep my word. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 


Notwithstanding, in spite of. 

Notwithstanding that 

In spite of him (her, them). 

Notwithstanding his promise. 

C lln(9ead)tet (governs the gen.). 

(^ SSDtlxc (governs the accus.). 
*Deff<n ungcacfttft 
«BiDct fancn (il)rCTi) aOKHou 
^inc« S3etfpc«^^ un^cad^tet 

Even. 6ogac; 

He has not even money enough Gt f)at fo^at nic^ (Sk(b gam^ i 
to k» ly some bread. Scot gu faufciu 

To manage. 

Do you manage to finish your 
work every Saturday night t 

Do you manage to have your 
work done every Saturday 

Try to do that to oblige me. 
I manage to go thither. 

< (S^ fo etnnc^ten, tiop. 
C ^^ fo nioc^, bo^ 
'g)2o(^n ^e c$ fo, bap €^ <iSr 
^mflag Wxnl not S^ta Xvbdt 
fertig n>crb€n? 
dtiditcn &u ti fo fin, baf Cte icbfs 
^oniftag 2rbcnb mit Sfyctt TMid 
fetttg mccbcn ? 
9itcbten @te c^ fo etn (obec mat&n 
^ie e^ fb), bap &u a\U ^n^l^ 
2(l)cnb mit 3()rcc Tixbdt ffrtig 

Ilinb (obcr i^ce Xrbdt fcrtia lfi» 
ben) 7 

©cfhcbcn ^ic fi*, biffed ^u tiw 

urn mid) ju t>crbtnben« 
3(ft ticbte e« fo cin^ bap left W&^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


To hare done. Sfetti^ fein*. 

Will yoi soon have done work- @inb 6t( Mt mit 3^cr Vcbcit 

ingr? ffttig? 

I shall soon haye done. 34^ wctU hoXt bomit fcrttg fcliu 

To keep wann. ©icft warm ^ilten*. 

To ffo always neat. 6td) tmnier retnltcft Mten** 

To be (to keep^ on one's gnard. ^t^ ^fttr n, fi^ Mrfehcn*. 

To take caie (be careful). 6td) in 2(d)t ne^mcn*. 

To keep on one's goard against ^t^ 9or Scmanbcm in Udjii nttjmok^ 

some one. (or bfitcn). 

Take care that yon do not fkJ. dltf)mtn 6te fi^ in Hd^i (l)&en 6ic 

fiiji), ba9 6i( nt^t fiollen. 
To beware of somebody or some- 6id) M( 3<ntanbcm cber ooc ehoai 

thing. ^fiten (or in Vc^t ne^moi*)* 

Keep on yonr guard against that ^fiten 6t( fid) toe biefon g){onnc 

If you do not take care of that SBemi Bit fl(6 Mt bicfcm ^fdrbe 

horse it will kick you. ntcf^t in Ti6)t nc^men^ fo imcb ti 

Take care. 6(ben @te fic^ Mt. 

I fear he will come. 3cft flhrcfttc, ba9 ct fcmme. 

I do not doubt but he will come. 3^ gwctfle nx6)t, bap tv fcmmt 
The bad weather hinders us from Da^ fd)(cd)t( SBrttct Mr()tnbett, l\if 

taking a walk. wit fpa^icren gcf)(n. 

[ shall prevent you fVom going 3d) mnU fd)on wc\)\ntttn, bap €fic 

oat. au^gcbcn. 

f shall not set out till every 34 wctU nic^t aSreifen, bi^ aUt^ 

thing is ready. fcrtig ifl. 

rhe enemy is stronger than you jDet ^einb ifl flAtfet, ol^tegegtattbt 

thought. ^ben. 

I shall certainly come, unless I 34 werbe ^tmxf fcmmen, ti fci 

am taken ill. benn, bap t4 ftant mfirbc 

To be taken ill (to fall sick). JtranC wctben^ 
Very little more, and I would do Hi f(f)(t totnx^ bop i^ c^ tf)ue» 

It is in your power tc obtain me f C« ffebt nut bei 3^)n€n^ baf i^ 

that situation. biefe StcQf UHmmu 

He is quite different from what Qt ifl gait) an^txi, ali et Oct |ioci 

he was two years ago. 3flbrcn war. 

You do not act any more as you 0ie l^nbeln nid)t me^t fo, wie (or 

have done. &it banbctn anbcr^, alQ @ic gc- 

^nbctl ^ben. 
Before yon undertake anything (Sbe Bit ttma^ untetn(f)men/ fagen 

tell me t)f it. &it tt niir. 

Did any body know how to tell ^at 3^nionb auf (ine natfirtid^re 

a story in a more natural (more (ungefiinflcltere) Utt )tt ctj&^Utt 

artless) manner than Lafon- gcwupt, aU Safontainc ? 

y Google 


A thought, 
an idea, 
a sally, 
To be struck with a thought. 

A thought strikes me. 

That never crossed my mind. 
To take it into one's head. 
He took it into his head lately 

rob me. 
What is in your head 1 

In order that, in order to. 

cin (Sebonfe (masc.) ; 

ctnc 3tc< ; 

fin ©in foil (masc.). 

Cincn (jinfoll fjabcn* (dnfttOcs*) 
C (&i fant mir ctTOflg fin. 
C 3«ft bflbc ftnen Cinfatl. 

^c (tmai tfl mir nie trnQcfatau 

t ©tcfe cinfollfn lojfcn*. 
to \ Qvltc^ tid) nenltd) finfoncn, n^ 
gu 6(ft<h(cn. 

t fiBo^ f&nt 3(nen eiiu 

2(uf bop or bomtt 

He works in order to be one day (&t otbcttrt, bomtt ct feuKin Botm 
useful to his country. tonbe etnfi (einei So^e^) sitfti 


rhe native country, the father- bo^ (Baterfonbw 

One day, once, cine^ Soge^, dnft 

To be bom. 
Where were you bom % 
I was I om in this country. 
Where was your sister born ? 
She wa( born in the United States 

of North America. 
Where were your brothe i bom t 
They were born in France. 

Around, round. 

All around, round aboat. 

The dish went around the whole 

company till it came back to 

the landlord. 
We sailed around England. 
They went about the town to look 

at the curiosities. 

To go around the house. 
To go about the house. 

To express one's self. @t(^ au^btftdfcn. 

To make one's self understood, ^tcb ocr|l5nb(td) ma((av 

To have the habit. JDte ®cn>ctn^^it ^6en*. 

To accustom. ^cn>6f)ncn. 

To accustom one's self to some- ^icb on ctooat (accus.) gcm^ok 


Children must be accustomed ^'xxittt mftffm bfl 3Hten an bi« TfP 

early to labour. (dt 9ew8()nt wetbctt. 

©ebftrtig fein*. 

f SBe ftnb @te gebitttg ? 

f 34 bin in btffrm Sanbe gcbfirti^ 

t $Bc tfl 36te ed)i]Kfl€r gebfittig? 

t Sic tfl in ben S3ereinigten &s&t 

ten t>cn 97crbameri!a gebfirti^ 
t 2Bo fmb 3f)W JBrfibct gebfirtig? 
t 6t< finb in ^ronfreid^ gcbftrtigi 

4&etum (nmW). 

9lunb ^erum (ninb um^). 

Die @d)afre( glng bet bet gpnp 
SifcbgefeQfiAaft ^erum, f>H fie mp 
ber gum SBlct^e ^xM fatn. 

SBlt fcgclten uni Gna{anb ^eram. 

Bit ginigen in ber ^tabt umber, ttn 
i^re tnneren SKer&D&rbtgfcitai p 

Um bo^ ^u6 ^erum ge^en*. 

3n bem ^aufe um^ge^en* 



Ci^m (accQB.) 0a<!^ gcioe^ fHn* 
To be accustomed to a thin^. < (Stnct Badit (gen.) qciocbnt fein^ 

C 2Cn etne ®ad)e Qcro8()nt fcin* 
I am accustomed to it. 3cb 6tn e« ^ctocont. 

I cannot express myself in Ger- 3d) fonn nnd) im Dcutfi^fn ntcfet gut 
man, for 1 am not in the habit ou^trQcfcn, rocit id) ntd)t ju fpre* 
of speaking it, d)cn gcipebnt bin (cter : »cil i^ 

tm 6pred)fn ntd)t aeiiOt bin). 
You speak properly. f 6te rebcn^ voxt f\6ri qeWrt. 

To chatter. gXoubftn. 

To prate. ©d)wa^en. 

A prating man, ctn ^lauUux, ^6)toSi^i% 

A prating woman, etne €d)n)&(mnn. 

To practise. UtUtu 

I piactise speaking. t 3* ^^ nn* im ©pttt^en. 

To associate (to converse) with 2JHt 3«nianbcm umgcftcn* 

some one. 
I associate (converse) with him. 34 gc^c mtt i^m urn. 


Have you been learning German long ? — No, Sir, I have only 
been learning it thebe six months. — Is it possible ! you speak 
tolerably (^cnilicb) well for so short a time.— x ou jest (fd)cr4en; ; I 
do not know much (of it) yet. — Indeed, you speak it well already 
I think you flatter me a little. — Not at all ; you speak it properly. 
— In order to speak it properly one must know more (of it) than I 
know. — You know enough (of it) to make yourself understood. — ^I 
still make many mistakes. — ^That is (tbut) nothing; you must not 
be bashful ; besides (il&ctbtes) you have made no mistakes in all 
you have said just now. — I am still timid because I am afraid of 
being laughed at (man m5d)te fid) Abet mid) (uflig niad)cn). — ^They 
would be very unpolite to laugh at you. Who would be (tcnn) so 
unpolite as to laugh at yon ? — Do you not know the proverb ?— * 
Wnat proverb 1 — He who (Lesson XXIX.) wishes to speak well, 
must begin by speakin? badly. Do you understand all I am telling 
ou 1 — f do understand and comprehend (brgrcifcn*) it very well ; 
ut I cannot yet express myself well in German, because I am not 
in the habit of speaking it. — ^That will come in (mit Ur) time.— I 
wish it (may) with all my heart. 

Good morning. Miss. — Ah (Qi) ! here you are at last. I have 
been waiting for you with impatience. — You will pardon me, my 
dear, I could not come soone^' Uhit). — Sit down, it you please.— 
How is your mother 1— She is oett*»' lo-day than she was yesterday* 
— I am glad of it. — Were you a» '4ie> ball yesterday 1 — I was there. 
•—Were you much amused (pd *> miliu«fn>? — Only so so.— At wbal 
•'clock did yon return home 1— A' > -^aarter past eleven. 

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Do you sometimes see my brother! — I do see him sometimes; 
when I met him the other day (ntfulich), he complained of yon. "Il 
he had behaved better, and had been more economical (fparjam),*' 
said he, **he would have had no debts (@d}u(^en, plur.) and I 
would not have been angry with him." — I begged of (bitten*) him 
to have compassion on yon, telling him, that you had not even 
money enough to buy bread. "Tell him, when you see him," re- 
plied he to me, " that notwithstanding his bad behaviour toward* 
me, I pardon him. Tell him also," continued he, " that one shoald 
not laugh (fpotten) at those to whom (Lessons XIV. and LX.) une 
is under obligrations. Have the goodness to do this, and I shall De 
much oblig^ed to you," added he in going away. — Why do you 
associate with that mani — I would not associate with him, if he 
had not rendered me great services. — Do not trust him, for if yoa 
are not on your guard, he will cheat you. — ^Take care of that horse, 
otherwise it will kick you. — Why do you work so much ? — I work 
in order to be one day useful to my coantry. (See end of Lessoi. 

NINETY-SEVENTH LESSON.— Siebeil tinb tWttnpjsb 

He is too fond of me to do such f (Sv titbt mtc^ sa fe(c, oil bap ^ 

a thing. btcfc6 tbun fcQte. 

I will rather die than do that, f 3ci wiU iitbcv ftitUn, <di bop t4 

biefe^ t^un \e\Ut or ollt biefel tiuiu 
She loved him so much, that she ^xt (tebtc if)n fo fc^t, baf fte i^n |0f 

even wished to marry him. aot b^trotben wottte. 

He cannot have said that unless f w; fann bi<fe6 ni(^t gefagt ^olbca, 

he is a fool. e^ fei benn, bop ft ein 92art tfl 

To get married (to enter into ( ^xi^ oerf^eitatlKiu 

matrimony). ( @i(^ ^Hxc^lxd^tn or vtrmSiiiiaL 

To marry somebody. 3<nmnbett fjcirotben. 

To marry (meaning to give in SBcr^cicat&cn (wce^fic^cn). 

My cousin, having given his ^{aAbem mctn SSettet fetne &biBHf 

Bister in marriage, married flee tKtbdrat^et botte (Page 380), 

Lady Pommern. ^cirat^ete et gr^uCein oon $em* 

Is your cousin married 1 3|l S^c ^en; SJettet ©er^tatVct ? 

No, he is still a bachelor. f £llc\n, ct ifl nO(^ Ubtg. 

To be a bachelor. f ^^big fcin*. 

Embarrassed, puzzled, at a loss. fQetlcQttU 

The embarrassment, the puzzle, bic ©ctUgen^dt 

Vou embarrass (puzzle) me. ®ie fc|eii mt^ in ©etCcacn^ 

Digitized by 


• a pustle (perplex) me. 6te modKit mit!^ Dctfedm. 

The marriage, tic .^eiroth/ bi< Cftc 

n ' demands my sister in onar- dx KHangt metne G^tocftop |ilt 
liage. (g()c. 

To take measures. SKa^rcgdn ncftmen* (or ftgrciftn*). 

I shall take other measures. 3d> mcrtc anUu SCKaprcgetn crgreu 

f«n (or ncbmcn). 

Goodness ! how rapidly does sWcin ®ett ! mt ocrjlrdc^t Me 3ctt 
time pass in your society. in Sbret ®eftUfd)aft 4 

The compliment, ta$ Gcmpltment (plur. e*). 

Yon are making me a compli- 6te mad)cn mir ta etn CcmpUmcnt, 
ment to which I do not know wcrauf td) ni<^t^ ju ontiDCrtai 
what to answer. n>ei9. 

rhe least blow makes him cry Dcr ftctnfle ^kt^% moc^t t^n locU 
(weep). ncn (Oringt i^n jum Iffieinen). 

To frighten. (Stfd)re(ten (a regular active 


To be frightened. { ^^^SU^^^^^^^)^ 

Fhou art frightened, he is fright- Du crfc^ncfft/ er crfd)ri((t. 

Be not frightened. Grfcftrccfen ^te nid)t. 

The least thing frightens him iDa^ ®eringf!( erfc^tccft if)n (f!f)* 

(her, them). 
At what are you frightened! SEBorfiber erfcftrecfen @ie? (Sea 

Obs. C. Lesson LII.) 
To be frightened at something. Utbtx ctmai (accus.) crfc^vedcd^* 

«, . . ilihl)anacn* — ©on. 

To depend on, upon. ^2(0 f emmen ♦-a uf. 

That depends upon circumstan- IDag I)&n9t t)cn ten Umfl&nbeti oK 

That does not depend upon me. >Da6 b&ngt ni(6t Mn nnc a6. 
It depends upon him to do that. (S^ l^fingt ocn i^m a6, ttefe^ gu t^Oil* 
O ! yes, it depends upon him. O ! io^ to$ b&ngt 90n tf)m a( 

(fommt ouf t^n on). 
That man lives at every body's JDiefet SKonn lebt auf Sebemumnl 

expense. Unfcflen. 

The expense (cost), Me llnfeflen (is never used in the 

At other people's expense (or 2(uf UnUtct Unfcflen. 


• Neater nouns derived from foreign languages and terminating in ettt take 
c in the idural, except the two words : \>ai ^arlamcnt, the parGament : bol 
8{egimeni the regiment, which like all other neuter nouns, take er in aU the 
casr* pluiaL 



The fault, 

It is not my fault. 

Do not lay it to my char^re. 
Do not accuse me of it. 
Who can help it ? 

W iiose fault is it ! 
I cannot help it. 

The delay. 
He does it without delay. 
I must go (must he off). 

Go away ! he gone ! 

Me 64ttlb. 

it 3d) bin nxdjlt ^nlb botaa 
t G6 xft ntd)t mcine ^u(b» 

[ t G^bcn Bit mtc tic &4ulb mij/t. 

©cr fonn bafftt ? 
[ t 8B<t tfl @d)u(b boran 7 
( SBrffen @<bu(b ifl r« 7 
1 3^ fonn ntd)t< bof(b. 
1 3(4 Cann e^ nid)t Anbcnu 

bcr 2(uf|(4u6. 

Gr tbut U thnt 2(uff4ub. 

t 3(f» n)ia mad)en^ Nif i^ fed* 

t aKod^m ^tc^ bop €$ii foctfenmrn 

To be astonished {surprised). (&x\tanntn, erftaunt fcln* 

I«ns»n>risedati. j fj ffr^S^nt 

An extraordinary thing happened G6 eretgncte ft(4 etioa^ 7(uficrerbeiit> 
which surprised every body. (id)C</ n^erftbct 3<tctinann a> 

flounte (erflaunt war). 

f(S« if! SBicIcd defdKb^n, lOorSbo; eU 
erflouncn n)erbcn. 
(Si bat ftd) 93tr(e6 eteignct, oetftba 
Gte crflauncn nxrten. 

biefc^ gefcbubt. 
G< wcrbrn mtfyctrt Sog^ ^tnge^ 
eb< bicfcd g(rd)ie(t 

To jest. €(Het|eiu 

The jest, bft ©c^rj. 

You are Jesting. &\t fd>cr|en. 

He is no joker (cannot take a (i^ (O^t nt(^ nut ftc^ fc(a;ifn. 

To beg some one's pardon. 
I beg your pardon. 
To pardon. 

Senianbcn urn fBcr^et^mig btttdf* 
3d) bitte ©t« urn ©etgcibung, 
©cr^cibcn* (wriic^, twjit^). 

The watch goes too fast. jDie Ubr gcbt Wt (or ga ftiib) 

The watch goes too slow (re- jDie U^t g<(^t ncK^ (or pi fpdt) 

My watch has stopped. 

To stop. 
^There did we leave off! 

gj^ctne U^t tfl flcben gebficbqb 

Steven bteibcn*. 

t 8Bo ftnb wit flc^en geb(Ubait 

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^Hiere did we atop ! f ffio finb wit ^thWcUn 7 

iVe left off at the fortieth Lea- 2Btr fint bci bft mergiaflcn Sectieiv 
son, page 100. ©<itc 100 |!«!)cn ^tbiwfxn. 

To wind np a watch. Cine U^r ouftic^cn*. 
To regulate a watch. Cine Ubr ftcllcn. 
Your watch is twenty minntes gfjre U^t gc^t jmanjig SKinutcri au 
too fast, and mine a quarter frfib (wt), unb bie meinige cine 
of an hour too slow. SSiertelfhinbe gu fpflt (noc^). 

It will soon strike twelre. (Si wirb gtcicft irootf fd)(09en. 

Has it already struck twelre 1 |>ot e< fd)on jroiltf gef^Iagen 7 
To strike (beat). ©cilogen* (Imperf. fd)lug). 

Tliou strikest, he strikes. JDu ((^tflgjl, ec ^Wgt 

rSJi'^rjo^'iain soon. ]+ »"f *«»'9'« ©"M'^nu- 
To faili to want^ to aU* %tJ)itn. 

Wha! She mitter with you ! } ^^ ^^^t S^ncn 7 

You look so melancholy. 6ie fe^en fo Hwermfttfjig au^ 

On condition, o, prodded. { «S«« J« iS^^.t'' 
I will lend you money, proTided 3d^ will Sbnen ®e(b (ei^en^ untcf 
you will henceforth oe more bet SBetingung^ bap @ie in 3us 
economical than you have hi- funft fparfanier feten^ o(^ Bit hxi* 
therto been. I^et acwefen jinb. 

Henceforth. 3n 3utunfr. 

Economical. €parfam or l^au^^&fterifd). 

To renounce gambling. jDem Gplele entfagen* 

The game (sfirt, play), ba^ @pie(. 

To follow «lvice (coun^l). {S £f jggjSl 

EXCRCI8KS. 226. 

What o^clock is iti — It is half past one. — ^You say it is half past 
one, and by (auf with the dat.) my watch it is but half past twelve. 
—It w' 1 soon strike two. — Pardon me, it has not yet struck one. — 
I assure you, it is five ^nd twenty minutes past one, for my watch 
goes yerv well. — Bless me ! how rapidly time passes in your so« 
eiety. — You make me a compliment to which I do not know what to 
answer. — Haye you bought your watch in Paris? — I have not 
nought it, my uncle has made me a present of it (bamit). — What 
oas that woman entrusted you with ? — She has entrusted me with 

^ This if the way in which Gennana who are intimately acquainted 
genorally express themselves when separating. It answers the French : on 
Iflamr at vcu$ rtvoirf or simply au rtooir. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


ft teeret of a (Mtt etnem) gpreat eoant who is in a great euban 
ment about the maniaflre of one of his daughters. — Does any ou 
ask her in marriage ?— The man who demands her in marriage if a 
nobleman of the neighbourhood (au^ tcr 9tad)barfd>aft). — Is he rich ! 
—No, he is a poor devil who has not a farthing (tit ^Uec). — ^You saj 
you have no friends among your 8cho«.lfellow8 (ptt 9Kitfd)8kr) ; birt 
is it not your fault ? You have spoken ill of them (oen t^nni), and 
they have not offended you. They have done you good and never- 
theless you have quarelled with them (page 278). Believe me, be 
who has no friends deserves (oet^ienen) to have none 


Dialogue ()Da6 ©cfprfid)) between a tailor and ais journeyman 
fbct ©efcd^ gen. en). Charles, have you taken the clothes to the 
Count Narissi ? — Yes, Sir, I have taken then to him. — What iid 
he say 1 — He said nothing but that (oupct tap) he had a ^reat mind 
to give me a box on the ear (Me £)f)rfetg(), because 1 had doc 
brought them sooner. — W hut did you answer him 7— Sir, said I, 
I do not understand that joke : pay me what you owe me ; and if 
you do not do so instantly, I shall take other measures. Scarcely 
(Jtauni) had I said that, when he put his hand to his sword (m^ 
tern >D<9cn gteifcn*), and I ran away (Mc JUic^t ne()mcn»). 

At what are you astonished ? — I am astonished to find yon sdll 
in bed. — If you knew how (loic) sick I am you would not be as- 
tonislied at it. — Has it already struck twelve ? — Yes, madam, it is 
already half past twelve. — Is it possible that it is so latel — ^Thatis 
not late, it is still early. — Does your watch go well (rttbt)t — No, 
miss, it goes a quarter of an hour too fast — ^And mine goes half an 
hour too slow. — Perhaps it has stopped. — In fact, you are right.— Is 
it wound up 1 — It is wound up, and yet (bcnncc^ it does not go.— 
Do you hear, it is striking one o'clock. — Then I will regulate mj 
watch and go home. — Pray (3d) bittc) stay a little longer (ncc^ an 
ii^enig) ! — I cannot, for we dine precisely at one o'clock (nut ten 
64)(age dni). — (Adieu), till I see you again. 


What is the matter with you, my dear friend t why do you look 
so melancholy 1— Nothing ails me. — Are you in any trouble (|wb<n 
@te irgcnb etncn Summer) ? — ^I have nothing, and even less than 
nothing, for I have not a farthing and owe a groat deal to my ere* 
ditors. Am I not very unhappy 1 — When a man is well and ha* 
friends he is not unhappy. — Dare I ask you a favour 1 — ^What do 
you wish ? — Have the goodness to lend me fifty crowns. — ^I will 
lend you them with all my heart, but on condition that you will rO" 
nounce gambling and be more economical than you have hitherto 
boen. — I see now, that you are my friend, and I love you too much 


Bot to follow your adTice.— John ! — ^What is yoar pleAanro, sir?^ 
Bring me some wine. — Presently, sir, — ^Henry ! — Madam t — Make 
the fie. — ^The maid-eenrant has made it already. — Bring me some 
pper, pens and ink. Bring me also some sand (bet ^trcufant)) or 
blotting-paper (tai SSfcbpaptcr), sealing-wax {l(t Gtegellacf) and a 
light (^td>t). — Go and tell my sister not to wait for me, and be back 
Again at twelTe o'clock in order to carry my letters to (auf) the post 
office. — Very well, madam. (See end of Lesson XXJQV.) 

NINETY.EIGHTH LESSON.— 3lcl)t tttli tunn^ljfitt 

Out off except. 2( u pci (gorems the datite).* 

Out of, or without doors. Kuper bem Jpau\i* 

He works oat of doors. (&x orbeitet ou$ct bem ^ufe. 

fhey were all present, except 6te nxiren oQc ba^ ouper ben 6tibai 

the two brothers. SBtdbenu 

Except yon and I, nobody was 2(upet 36nen unb mix fe^tte 92te< 

absent. nmnb. 

Besides that, otherwise. 2(u9erbem (fibrrbte^). 
Excepting this, he is an honest Vuperbem tfl er (in t^xixditt SOtonn. 


It can be done. f i&i cjiht 9){tttc(,i» (i ga tfcuiu 

rhere is no means of finding f ^^ ^ft ^W n)8g(t(f» (tta U gibt 
money now. f etn ^imt), {t% in bicfem ZCugens 

6(t(fe (Setb gu t)erf(^affcn* 

Along, Unai (goyems the datire as 

well as the genitiye).^ 

AH the year round. t ^<^^ &^^i^ ^^^ Mnbur^. 

To enable — to. 3n ^tn ©tanb fcfcn — gu* 

To be able — to. 3m ©tonbe fein^ — ju. 

To sing. ©ingen* (Part, past, ^tfan^jou 

Imperf. fang). 

• 91nf er employed at a conjunction may be followed by anycase, accordhif 
to the yerfo by which the ca«e ie governed. Ex. 3(^ \jdbt vlitmanHn oitprf 
ifyi gcfc^en, I have teen no one except him; cS xoax Vlitmanh ha, aupcv or, 
nobody wan there except he. 

k <J>a| ^irtcC the means, ia here in the plural. 

* THo ;.-.t)pof ition U'lngl miwt not be mistaken for the adverb Wnflfl, raper^ 
.atiye of lanae, a long while. Ex. ^Snal Un Ufem b(« dthtxtti bin ic^ fc^^oa 
(0110^ qtmfu, it is a long time since I travelled along the bonleis d eht 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


To the riffht, on the right side fHt&jH:^, tt^ta {Kiilb* 

(or hand). 
To the left, on the left side (or ^inH, (tnfct ^nt. 

Could you not tell me which is jtonnten ®t( m\t nid)t fogcn, wd^ 
the nearest way to the city ter fikri^fle 9Beg i% urn ani S^ 
gate ? 5U fcmnKit ? 

Go to the foot of this street, and ®cbcn @ie tie gonge 6tra^ (umuI 
when you are there, turn to the (btnab) *, unb xotnn ^ie tibcn 
right, and you will find a cross- (untcn) fint, loenben ^u ^ 
way, which you must take. (tnf^ ; ba tf/txUn &u etani 

Jtrcujnxg finten, fibn: tea ^t 
And then 1 Unb Pernod) ? 

You will then enter a broad street, ^cmac^ fonimen ^e in etne ^am 
which will bring you to a great (id) brcite ©tra^^ tie Bit flii| 
square, where you will see a etnen grcficn $(o^ fd^ct, iM €u 
blind alley. eine ©ocf joffe fef)en Kocrten. 

Vou must leave the blind alley Gte (offcn tie @acf gaffe (inter ^^ 
on your lefl, and pass under unt gc^en turd) tie ^d^ibbi^i 
the arcade that is near it. tie taneben ftnt. 

Then you must ask again. f 2((^tann fragen ^te loeiter. 

The arcade, ter @(^wi(7bcgen ; 

tlie cross-way, tet Areu^nxg ; 

the shore (bank), to6 Reflate ; 

the blind alley, tie ^cfgaffe. 

Through. iD tt t (^ (governs the accusative; 

Do not cross (on horseback) the fRdtt nic^t tur$ ten SBatt ! 

He made his way through the f Ch; ba^nte (!(( einen Seg tot^ 

enemy. tie ^einte. 

By this means the patient was S)ur(^ tiffed ajHttedvarttec^toBfi 

cured. gcfunt. 

He speaks through the nose. (St retet turc( tie fJla\u 

Without. DM^ fentet (govern tin 


Do not go out without me. ®cben Gie obne mt(6 m<^ ool ! 

Without the least doubt. ^ontet:** aUen 3n>eife(. 

To last {to' wear well). ^a(ten*/tauern. 

That cloth will wear well. SDtefe^ Su4 wttt gut ftolten. 

How long has that coat lasted ©ie (ange })at Sonen tie(e« SiiiP^ 
you? gc()a(ten? 

To my liking. 9la^ metncm SBeUeben ((Skfaa<»> 

* ^ott^er instead of o^ne ig only used in poetry. 

" le 

y Google 

To ereiy body'i liking. 9{o(^ Scbetmonn^ SBdtebm (8B«^ 

Nobody can do any thinp k^ h\8 92i(mont fann t^m ttwai xtd^t ma« 
liking. d^ctu 

The question is. it tumsupon. { || SM<.«T-n »«. 

It does not torn upon yooi Hi fymMt ftd) n'td)t urn 3^t SBetf 

pleasure, but upon your pro« anfigen, fontern urn 3f)re ^crt* 

gross. jc^ritte. 

You pla^, sir, but playing is not 6ie fptden, mdn ^ett ; obct @tc 

the thing, but studying. foUen ni^t fpicten, \mhtxn fhtDU 


I \ Urn wa^ (montm) b^^ntctt flc^*^ ? 

I I SBorauf fommt e^ an ? 
' G6 f omnit barauf on ^u wtffen, ma< 

toxt tbun loerbcn (conyersational 
style: SStt mAj[en trnffen^ n)o6 
wit t^un foQen), urn unfete Beit 
on9cncf)m ^in^ubtingen tUt ^ju^ 
^ brinaeiu 

. propose (intend) joining a hunt- 3^ ncome nut iwt, einer 3ad^pai^tic 
ing party. bc^umo^neiu 

On purpose. g}{it ^itii, wxf&ilid^ 

1 beg your pardon, I have not 3<ft bitte ®ie urn ^rrjet^unO/ t(6 
done it on purpose. i)aU (0 nt(^t t)orf&(lt4 (niit JUip) 


What is going onl 

rhe question is to know what 
we shall do to pass the time < 

A game at chess, 

A game at billiards. 
To play upon the violin. 
To play the violin. 
To play for something. 
To play upon the harpsichord. 

To play upon the flute. 

To play at cards. 

The game of chess, 

the card, 

the playing at cards (tae card- 

the pack of cards, 

Obs The name of the instrument is put in the ac 
cusativc when we wish to express, with the verb \pxt 
letl, that a person knows how to play ; but when wo 
wish to express that he is actually playing, it require? 
the preposition auf with the dative. Ex. bie SSiothtf 
frictai/ to play the violin ; ottf htt JBiolme fpicleit, to pla> 

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eine Rattle ^oc^ 

eine ^artie SBtdacb. 

2(uf Ut SBictine fpictem 

jDte S>ic(ine ttxt 83ioUn f^lcUn. 

Um etiod^ fptclen. 

2(uf tern ^{amct (bai statin) I 

2(uf bar 5(6t« (bU gWtO bta|h>> 
Jtarten fpteten. 

bte ilactc ; 
bog itortenrptel ; 

bog 6piel Morten. 


apon the violin. The names of games are en^loyed 
without an article, and the rest is as in English. 

To blow. SB ( r e n • (gcMofcn, \X\H). 

Thou blowest, he blows. 2)u bWfeft, tx m\X 

To Stop 8petkinJfS>^be sUent. ]®*»<id«»* O^wiegen, ^fim^ 
Do you hold your tongue 1 @4n>etgcn &t 1 

1 do hold mj tongue. 3<^ fcfcwti^e. 

After speaking half an hour, he g?a<f>bem tt cine ^I6e @tunbc ^ir 
held his tongue. bet ^itte, Wtpleg ec 

To suspect. SSetmut^en. 

( suspect what he has done. Si oermutbe/ toa^ et gct^n fyt 
He does not suspect what is (Sr Dermut^ct nic^t/ nxi^ i^m iotbe» 

going to happen to him. faf)rcn loirb. 

Do you intend to make a long Gkbcnf en @ie ft(( (an^e in bet 6iabl 

stay in town 1 auftul)alten ? 

I do not intend to make a long 34 get>enEe mt4 nu^t (ange ba auf 
stay there. ju'^otten. 

To make a stay. ©i<^ auftaltm*. 

The stay, the sojourn, bet 2(ufcnt^o(t 

To think. ®en!en* (gebotftt^ boc^te). 

To think of some one or of some- 2(n Senmnben ebet on ctuxt^ bciu 

thing. fen*. 

Of whom do you think 1 2(n »en benfcn ©ie ? 

Of what do you think? SGBocan benfen ^le? (See Btik, 

Lesson LXIY.) 


Sir, may I ask you where the Earl of B. lives 1 — He lires near 
the castle (Lesson LXVIIL) on the other side (ienfeit) of the river. 
— Could you tell me which road I roust take to go thither I— Yon 
must go along the shore ((<!(ng^ bem ®eftabe ^tn), and you will corns 
to a little street on the right, which will lead you straight (gerabe) 
to his house (auf bad Jpaui gu). It is a fine house, you will find it 
easily (totd)t). — I thank you, sir. — Does the Count N. live here! 
— Yes, sir, walk in (fid) bcrcin bcmft()en), if you please. — ^Is the 
count at home 1 I wish to ^ave the honour to speak to him. — ^Yes, 
sir, he is at home; whom shall I have the honour to announce 
(mc(^tn) 1 — I am from B., and my name is F. 

Which is the shortest way to the arsenal (bad Seug^iud) 1— Go 
down this street, and when you come to the foot, turn to the leA 
and take the cross-way ; you will then enter into a rather narrow 
'enge) street, which will lead you to a great square, where you will 

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•ee « blind alley. — ^T^rouffh which I must pass t — ^No, for there if 
BO outlet (to: Tfu^gon^;. You must leave it on the n^ht, and pass 
under the arcade which is near it. — ^And then ?— And then yoa 
must inquire further. — I am very much obliged to you. — Do not 
mention it (Gs ifl ntc^t Urfac^O* 


Are yon able to translate a French letter into German 1 — ^I am 
(«^). — Who has (e<) tau^t you ! — My German master has enabled 
me to do 'U — You are sin^ng, gentlemen^ but it is not a time for 
singing ; you ought to be silent, and to listen to what you are told. 
— We are at a loss. — What are you at a loss atl — I am going to 
tell you : it is a question with us how we shall pass our time agree- 
ably. — Play a game at billiards or at chess. — We have proposed 
i'oining a hunting party : do you go with (us) ? — I cannot, for I 
lave not done my task yet : and if I neglect it, my master will 
scold me. — Every one according to bis liking ; if you like staying 
at home better than going a hunting we cannot hinder you. — Does 
B€r. K. go with us 1 — Perhaps.-»I should not like to go with him, 
for he is too great a talker, excepting that he is an honest man. 

What is the matter with you f you look angry. — 1 have reason 
to be angry, for there is no means of getting money now. — Have 
you been at Mr. A's ? — I have been at his house ; but there is no 
possibility of borrowing any from him. I suspected that he would 
not lend me any, that is the reason why I did not wish to ask him $ 
and had you not told me to do so, I should not have subjected my- 
self (ft4 ouefe^en) to a refusal (pit abfd^lfigige 2(ntioott). 


I suspected that you would be thirsty, and that your sister would 
be hungry ; that is the reason why I brought you hither. 

I am sorry, however, that your mother is not here. I am aston- 
ished (^ btfttmttt mid)) that you do not drink your coffee. — ^If I 
were not sleepy I would drink it. — Sometimes (^tt) you are slee- 
py, sometimes cold, sometimes warm, and sometimes something 
else 18 the matter with you (ifl 3(7tien (twai Untctt^). I believe 
that you think too much about (on) the misfortune that has hap- 
pened to your friend (fern.). — If I did not think about it, who would 
think about it 1 — Of whom does your brother think 7 — He thinks of 
me ; for we always think of each other when we are not together 

I have seen six players (bcr ©ptctcr) to-day, who were all win- 
ning at the same time (}u ojicid^it Stfit). — ^That cannot be, for a 
player can only win when another loses. — You would be right if I 
were speaking of people that had played at cards or billiards ; but 
I am speaking of dute and violin players (bcr ^(otcns iinb itBidtnrpics 
frr). — Do you sometimes practise (mad)en) music % — Very often, for 
I like it much. — What instrument do you play 1 — ^I play the violiuf 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


imd my sister plays the harpsichord My brother, who plays tiit 
6ass (iev S^op)* accompanies (bcglettcn) us, and Miss Stoiz somS' 
times applauds us (Scnmnlirm ©cifall juHotfcbcn). — Does she not 
also play some musical instrument (^Q€ niufifotifie 3nftnimfnt)1— 
She plays the harp (bic ^arfc), but she is too proud (fldj) to prac- 
tise music with us. — A very (fcbO P^^'' town went to considerable 
expenfie (tit 6ctr2d)t(td)( 2(ufit>ant)) in feasts and illuminations (mil 
^rcutenfcRcn unb (SrUudbtungcn) on the occasion of its prince passing 
through (bci bet jE)urd)rcifc ibrc^s — ). — ^The latter seemed himsell 
astonished (erflaunt) at it. — *' It has only done," said a courtier 
(bcr ^cfnwnn), ♦♦ what it owed (to your majesty). " — '« That is true," 
replied (ocrfc^cn) another, " but it owes all that it has done.** (See 
end of Lesson XXXIV.) 


LESSON.— jN^etm 

ntib Mtmt^u 

Either — or* C^ntn>eber — obcc (Lesson 


H^ either has done it, or will dt f)at c^ entmebec get^n, obcr me) 
still do it. e^ noc^ tbuiu 

Obs. A. It has been noticed in many parts of this 
work, that certain conjunctions correspond with others 
that generally follow them. These conjunctions are: 

ober (Lesson LXI.), either— or. 

je, or bcflo, the — ^the. 
{ fonbcm aud) (Lesson LXL) 
( not only — ^but also. 
I fo — bod), or Qlddfloc^f or 
< n{d)t^ beflo ttjcnigcr, though- 
( nevertheless. 

fO/ however — ^stiiL 
iOl^, or old OttC^ (Lesson 
i LXL), as well — as. 
{ nod) (Less. Vn. and LXL^ 
} neither — ^nor. 

fo, if — so. 

fo — bod), though — ^yet d 

Sntweber, is followed by : 
3lxd)t affeiit/ ) 



3tid)t nur, 




©0, . 




aSeitn gfctc^, I ^ 

SBenit fc^oit, J 

• 3e unites two con^Murativea. 

* aSatn la not only combined with glel(^ ard fc^Ptt, but abo with WIHI* 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



( ahn, or aOeitt or flletc^ttel^l 
^ttHnr, . . . . < or jeboc^^ though — ^never 

( theless, or but. 

Prepositions either govern the iDie S3crb^(tntpn>5rtet (^r&pcfttios 
genitive, or the dative, or the ncn) rcgteren tnttoetet ten QknU 
accusative, or finalJy the da- tto, obcc ten iDativ, ober ten Hcf 
tive and accusatiTe. cufatio, oter cntlid) ten iDcittt) int 


Che sooner, the better. 3( c^er, it iUhtt. 

(lie greater our pleasures, the 2k grStkr unfeve ^teuten ftnt/ teflo 
more we feel how transitory me^t emppntett ton xi)tt $Becr 
they are. ^hnofxd^Uxt 

Obs. B. jDefh) may be placed in the first member of 
«4(e phrase, in which case je begins the second. Ex. 

A work of art is the more bean- Gin ^unfhoerf tfl teflo \dfina, jc 

tifnl the more perfect it is. ocafommenet U tfl. 

She 19 not only handsome, but 6te tft nic^t nut ^dfin, fontem ou4 

•be is rich also. retd^ 

Not only his idleness, but his in- 0{td)t nut feine ^aul^eit, fentecn 

discretion also makes him con- au4 feine Unl)e|d)eiten^ett niad^t 

temptible. i^n 9er&d)t(td). 

ThoQgh this young lady is not D^gUtd) tiefe^ S^&uletn nt(6t fe^t 

very handsome, she it never- |&en tfl, fe tfl pe tod) \tlit tie6en^« 

theless very amiable. loiirttd. 

However handsome she may be, ^ fd)Sn fte and^ fein xmq, fo tfl fie 

still she is not amiable. tod) ntd)t Ueben^dcttg. 

YovL as well as your sister. Gon>of)l &it, aii 3^t ^tfulein 

She is as handsome as she is Cte tfl foiool)! fc^n oli (ieben^ftr^ 

amiable and rich. tia unt reic^. 

rhey had neither bread, nor meat, @te gotten n>etec IBrot, nodft Sf^^tf^/ 

nor arms, nor money. nodft SBaffen, nocb ®e(t. 

'f he does not pay you for the $2Benn er S^nen to^ ^fctt ntd)t U* 

horse, tell me. ja^It/ fo foaen 6ie e^ mtr. 

rhough I should have money, SBenn id^ d^eid) ®e(t (dtte^ fo ^itt 

still I would give him none. t(^ tf)m toc^ fein^. 
Indeed I do not know him yet, 3n>ar (cnnc tcb ibn ntdi tiid^t, ahn 

but he seems to be docile. er fci^eint nut fdgfam. 

kb9^» onc^, fctBfl, and mtr. Ex. SBenn onberd, if otherwiM ; ttenn jebo(^, if 
however; wenn^u^ orwenn felbfl, if even; wenn nur, if only. All these 
compound coniunctionfl must be considered as two separate words, between 
which the subject and even the case of the verb (when a personal iionoun) 
may be placed. The same observation aTO>lies to the combuiation oi ob with 
«Clier words. (See Lesson XCL 06s. H. NoU K) 




Thooflrfa I wh)te to him, nerer^ 3d) ^be l(m itoat gcfilbrUben, jlcii|i 
Uieless he has not answered n>of)( fyit tt nnr nlc^t geontiMctd 

(3d> n>finfd)te, ec (£tte e6 nu^ ^c 

Obs. C. The conjunction baf may be omitted; 
but then the verb inunediately follows its subject. 

I wish you would iro with me. \ 3* «^^!J^'' ©ic atngen mit nhu 

'3d) boffc, Sftt Sr&utcin e*w*t 

, wirb mcincn S3tu^<t ^co? 

I hope that your sister will J tbciu 

marry my brother. 

rUl I 

Suppose we had neither bread, ^ 
nor wine, nor money. ^ 

^jo\6 to God that all great 
brds loved peace! 

3* bcffc, bop 3&t Jfr Julctn ©to<: 

flee meinen SBtubrt ()cttatl^ 

®cfr^t, tvtr batten meber SBteb, wd 

aSfin/ ncc^ ®c(b. 
®efc|t, bap wlc locbcr 93rob, no4 

SBcin, nc<( ®c(b f)5tten. 
$Boate (^tt, oHe grope ^^errcn Itcitai 

ben Sneben ! 
SBotlte ®ott, bap ade grope .^emt 

ben Sneben ttebten ! 

By virtue of, ^ t o f t (goTerns the genittve). 

le of his employment dt mup 
'(his office) he must act Uius. betn. 

By virtue of his employment Qt mup ftaft feine^ 2Cmtel fi ^ 

According to (by virtue of), S3 e t m 6 g e (govems the gen.). 

AccTrdin? to your order I must 85enn5ge 3f)xU JBefe^W mup H |o 
speak thus. fpre^en. 

Instead of, Xnftatt or flott (goTons tiis 


He sent his daughter instead of 2(nflatt feinei €^o^ne6 r<^i(fte et ftinc 

his son. A£od)ter. 

He has adopted him. C^r f)at i6n an jttnbed Gtatt^ OQ* 

Qo thither instead of me. ©tatt mcinet gc^e j3)u ^In. 

• The word ^tott, lien, place, when thus seoarated jrom OB, muit U oen 
iitowifl at a substantive. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


he^nsequenee of (according to). 8 out (^oyerns tho genitiTe). 

KceordiDg to his letter, he ought 6aut feinc^ SSttefe^z mu9 er bfl 
to arrive here on the 18lh of 18tcn ticfe^ ^icc cintrcffnu 
this month. 

To exclaim. 2{u«rufcn* (Impcrf. ricf). 

To make uneasy. Seunrubtgen. 

To be uneasy (to fret). SBcunru^idt (bcfcrgO f«n* 

Why do you fret (are you unr aGBotum pnb Sie (xunni^tgt (be* 

easy)? forgt)? 
I do not fret (am not uneasy). 3d) t>tn nid)t (eforat (6<unvtt^tgt). 

Compose yourself! S3erul^t^en &ic ft(9 ! 

To alter, to change. @t(^ t^erAn^ern. 

That man has altered a great deal )Dxt\tv ^ann M {j(( f^^c 9tr&nbcrt^ 
since I saw him. fcttbem td» t^n nic^t ^efet^en l^abe. 

To alter a coat. Gtnen SRcd intmu 

To recommend. ©mpfc^ten*. 

To take leaye (to commend one's 6i(f) empfeW<n*- 

Fwewell, adieu ! 3d) empfcWc mi(ft 3bnen ! 

I have the honour to bid you f 3d) ^^^ ^t^ ^^^^f nu4 3^nni |U 

adieu. empfe^(<n. 

Ofo. i>. This and lebctt ®ie WO^I, farewell, is the 
general salute of the Germans when leaving each 

Farewell (adieu) ! Scbcn @te tocU ! 

To bid one's friends adieu. ©eincn Jreunben ScbcwoM fogem 

The recommendation (respects, Me Gmpfe()(und. 

iWntmycomplimenUtohim^g^^^^„ ^.^ .^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

Remembeimetollm(toher). 3 Pf^^ung. 

To enjoy. (9 en ie pen* (governs the ace.) 

Enjoy all the pleasures that tIp- (Scniepen 6te alte a^ergnSgun^^ 
^^ permits. n>c(d)e Me iSu^enb er(aubt» 

The past. Me S^ergangenbeit^ ^a^ SSec^angm ) 

the present, bo^ ©cgenio&rttge ; 

the presence, Me ©egenwart 

« MS presence. 3n f«'tnct (Segcnnjart 

The future, to« 3uf finftige ; 

the loss, ber $8er(ufi ; 

the loss cf time, boc Beitoetluft. 

Not to faU. Unixxditm, nid)t ennangebt 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Pnj, present my compliments 3(6 ^tli 151 1, S^xm ^hxioM 
(my respects) to your sister. ^mcfter ojiJiOifi mcim Chu^^fc^ 

lung |u inad)ciu 

simply Qffaaigft- 
aBcnn eie fc gut fan toOitn or 

simply gCitigft. 
3d) tocxht rt a««nd)ten, 
3(6 tocrbe nt^t ermangdm 


I have the honour to wish you a (irood morning. How ^io /on 
do ? — Very well, at your service (Sftncn auftuwartcn). — Aud now 
are they all at home (befinbct nion fitft 6ft Sbncn ^u ^ufe) 1 — ^1 oler- 
ably well, thank God (®ctt fd )£)an(). My sister was a liule indis- 
posed (unp&p(td)), but she is better (n>tebcr ^ergcftent) ; she told me 
to give you her best compliments (jic Ifipt fid) 3ontn b€fitni rmpfvblm). 
—I am dad ((Si ifl mtr (teb) to hear that she is well. As for you, 
you are health itself; yon cannot look better (6ie fSnnten nu^t b<ft 
]tt ouefe^en). — I have no time to be ill ; my business would not per 
mit me. — Please to sit down (Sclifbcn 6ie fid) nietcr^(affcn), here 
is a chair. — I will not detain you from your buiness (swn ten Qk* 
f(i)&ften obhotten*) ; I know that a merchant's time is precious (la0 
fincm jtoufinanne bieSeit fcftbotift). — I have nothing pressing (nx&iH 
Gtltgc^) to do now, my courier is already dispatched (melne ^^ ifl 
fd)cn obgcfertigt). — ^1 shall not stay (fid) auffioltcn*) any longer. I 
only wished in passing by (im 8ScrbcigcF)cn), to inquire about (flt^ 
erEunbtgm nod)) your health. — ^You do me much honour. — It is very 
fine weather to-day. If you will allow me, I shall have the plesr 
snre of seeing you again this afternoon (noc^ Stfc^e), and if yo>^ 
have time we will take a little turn together (fe gcl^cn mtr m wtmi 
mit etnanbet fpoitercn). — With the greatest pleasure. In that case I 
shall wait for you. — I will come for you (fete abM^n) about (gfgffl} 
seven o'clock. — Adieu then (alfo), till I see you again.— I have tin 
honour to bid you adieu. 


The loss of time is an irreparable (uncrfc|(iA) loss. A sinj^ ■» 
minute cannot be recovered (n)iebevcr(an^en) for all tbe gold in tiM 
world. — ^It is then of (90n) the greatest importance (bie $Std)ttglnt] 
to employ well the time, which consists only of minutes (avii ^ 
nutcn bcftcftcn*) of which we must make good use (bic man rocM bt 
nu$cn muf5). — We have but the present ; the past is no longer any 
thing, and the future is uncertain. A great many people (©f^t fid' 
5D?cn7d)cn) ruin themselves (ficfe ju ®runbe nd)tcn), because they wiw 
to indulge themselves too much Tmctt fic fid) oll^ gClttid) thun rocHcn) 
If most (bit metflen) men knew how to content Uiemselves (fid^ U> 
gnfigen) with what they have they would be happy, but their gree 
diness (bie ©ierigfeit) very often makes them unhappy. In order ti 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


!• Inppj, we must (mu$ mon) forget the past, not trouble ounelTea 
tbout (fid) bcftiinmcrn urn) the future, and enjoy the present. — 1 was 
Tery dejected (traurig) when my cousin came to me. " What is 
the matter with you 1 " he asked me. " Oh (ad)) ! my deai 
cousin," replied I, "in losing that monej, I have lost every 
thing." *^ Do not fret," said he to me, " for I have found your 


As soon as Mr. Flausen sees me he begins to speak French, *n 
order to practise it (um ft^ ju fi6en), and overwhelms me with po- 
liteness (mtt ^Sflic^fetten ftbctb^uf^n), so that I often do not know 
what to answer {xoa^ id) i()m antn>«ctcn fcQ). His brothers do the same 
(c$ cbenfo mfld)cn). — However, they are very good people ; they are 
not only rich and amiable, but they are also generous (qrcgaiKtbii)) 
and charitable (n)ef)(tb&ttg). They love me sincerely (aufrtd)tig), 
therefore, I love them also, and consequently (folglid)) shall never 
say anything to their disadvantage (^aditi)e\i\^ci oon i^ncn). I 
should love them still more, if they did not make so much ceremony 
(jbic UmflanN) ; but every one has his faults (ttt ^cfjCer), and mine 
is to speak too much of their ceremonies. 


Have the enemies surrendered (|id) ftge&eti*) t — ^They have not 
surrendered, for they did not prefer life to death ; and though they 
had nei^er bread, nor water, nor arms, nor money, they determined 
to die rather than surrender. — Why are you so sad ?--You do not 
know what makes me uneasy, my dear friend (fem.).— Tell me, 
for I assure you that 1 share (tbeUen) your suflferings {t>ai Setbcn) as 
well as (cben fowoW aW) your pleasures (btc Jreube). — ^Though I am 
sure Uiat you partake of (!Sl)Ct( an ixntv @a^e nel)men*) my suffer- 
ings. I cannot, however, tell you now (in tiefem 2(ugcnbltc() what 
makes me uneasy ; but I will tell you when an opportunity offers 
(gekgentttd) tUt bet ©deqen^cit). Let us speak of something else 
now. What do ycu think of the man who spoke to us yesterday 
at the concert 1 — He is a man of much understanding (etn fehr vcvs 
ftdnbi^ct 9){ann), and no at all wrapt up in his merits (wn fcincn 
^crbtenflcn tingencmmen fetn*). But why do you ask me tiiat 1 — ^To 
speak of something. — It is said (g)lan fagt) : contentment surpasses 
nches (3ufric^cn()cit gef)t fiber JRcid)tbum) ; let us then always b6 
content. Let us share with each other (mtt cinanbcr tf)ei(cn) what 
we have, and live all our life-time (unf^c qan^c^ Scbcn) inseparable 
(nnjittrcnnlicft) friends. You will always be welcome (winfcmmcn) 
•i my house, and 1 hope to be eaually so (c5 aud)) at yours. — If 1 
■aw you happy I should be equally so, and we should be more con- 
tented than the greatest princes, who are not always so. We shall 
be happy, when we shall be perfectly (ooUfcmmen) contented with 
what we have ; and if we do our duty as we ought (gc^^rtg), God 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

«rill take cue of the rest (fe loitb Ut Vitbt (SMt fir bo^ IMrf^ fm 
§ta)* The past being no longer any thing, let us not be nneatf 
^at the future, and enjoy the present. 


Behold, ladies, those beautiful ((crr(t(^) flowers, with iheii 
colours so fresh and bright (jmt i^ren fo frifd)en unb g(2njfnbcn ^av 
ben) ; they drink nothing but water. The white lily has the edoor 
of innocence (p\e Unfc^ulb) ; the violet indicates genUeness (tu 
6anfrmutf)) ; you may (mon fann) see it in Louisa's eyes. The 
forget-me-not (^a6 iBergt^nietnnic^t) has the colour of heaven, oar 
future (f dnfttg) dwelling (tie SBo^nun^ repeat the genitiYe), and the 
rose (bic 92cfe), the queen of flowers, is the emblem (ba$ ^Innbii^) 
of beauty (bie ®d)8n()eit) and of joy (Die j^ceube). Yon (9X<in) see 
all that personified (t)erivtr{(td}t) m seeing the beautiful Amelia 
(2(nia(U). — How beautiful is the fresh verdure (ba^ iunge frtjdK 
®rAn) ! It is salutary (mel)l tf)un*) to our eyes, and has the coiom 
of hope (bie ^cffnung), our most faithful (trcU/ repeat the ^enitife) 
friena (fern.), who never deserts (wttoffcn*) us, not even m death 
(Im JKoM.— -One word more my dear friend. — What is your plea- 
sure ? — I for&rot to tell you to present my compliments to your 
jiother. Tell her, if you please, that I regret (bebauem) not having 
been at home when lately she honoured (bee^rcn) me with her visit 
—I thank you for her (in iftrem ^lomcn), 1 shall not fail. — ^Farewell 
then. (See end of Lesson XXXI V.) 

HUNDREDTH LESSON.— i^mtlrmdU Cerium. 


We have hitherto shown by numerous examples for 
the practice of learners, the place which the adverb 
is to occupy in a sentence. Let us now determine the 
place of the adverb by standard rules. 

As the adverb modifies the signification of the verbi 
it should always be near it, particularly the negative 
md)t, which, if misplaced, would entirely change the 
meaning of a phrase. Ex. 

I have not the honour to know 3(b f)afft ntc^ bte Ql^xt, ^ p 
you. fcnnen. 

I have the honour not to know 3* l^t>t ble Cfttf, eU vMUt p 


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Ist, The adverb precedes the adjective, the meaning 
of which it modifies. Ex. (Sin toat)xl)aft gutcr STOaitn, a 
truly good man ; tine tDtrflid) ^te ®elegen^eit, a truly 
good opportunity; rut feljr orttge^ ^b, a very good 

2d, It follows the imperative and precedes the infi- 
nitive to which it relates, Ex. Steben ®ie tout, speak 
aloud; fprec^eu @te nict)t fo fi^neO, d# not speak so quick- 
ly; fd)rei6eu ®te Tougfam, fo tt>erbeu ®ie fd)6n fd)retbeu, 
write slowly, and you will write well ; ic^ bitte @ie, 
uic^t ju fd)nett ju fc^reitot, pray, do not write too fast. 

3d, It follows the simple tense of the verb, but pre- 
cedes it when the sentence depends on a conjunction. 
Ex. 3d) fage e^ '^ijtitn ftti berau^, I tell you frankly; 
idj Mrfle^e ®te nid}tf tDctl @ie }u fd)nel( fpred)en, I do 
not understand you, because you speak too fast (Les- 
son LXIX.) ; er fommt uui jet)n U^r STOorgcn^* t)ou ba 
{urucf, he returns from there at ten o'clock in the morn- 
ing (Lesson XL VII.) ; tt)eun ®ie tougfam rebetoi, fo tonx^ 
be w^ ©te t)erfle^, if you spoke slowly I should under- 
stand you. 

4th, In compound tenses it precedes the past parti- 
ciple. Ex. Sr ^dtte Uaxt gelefen, toemt @te itin bftex baju 
ouge^alten ^dtteU/ he would have read aloud, if you 
had oftcner engaged him to do so ; ic^ bin fd)on ba ^e^ 
toffett/ I have already been there (Lesson XLI.) ; w^ 
^Df t^n t)Otgeflem gefe{)en/ I saw him the day before 

5th, It follows the case of the verb, but precedes i; 
when it is a partitive, or joined to an indefinite article. 
Ex. 3<^ fo^ itin gellern, I saw him yesterday ; er t)at e^ 
»tir fo eben gegetfeu, he has just now given it to me ; ic^ 
win itfXi 3l)tien moraen fd)ufen, I will send it to you to- 
morrow (Lesson aXVIII.) ; ^ajl 3)u mand)mal fyil^tiif 
d)er au^beffent toffen? hast thou sometimes had cravats 
mended ? tc^ ^abe mandjmcd toetc^e au^beffent toffeU/ 1 have 

• Urn le^Q U^c Wlot^tni, ii an adverlHal phraie, and all aorti of adverfaial 
ezprefldons, or compound adverba, as they may be called, follow the nilei ei 
•IrapU adveibe. 

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iometimes had some mended (Lesson XLIV.) ; fyAn 
®ie je einen &tpha\\ten gcfeben ? have you ever seen an 
elephant ? id) babe nie einen gefeben, I have never seen 
one ; er ifattt biefen 5Worgen fein Oelb, he had no money 
this morning ; er tragt gern einen grogen ^, he likes to 
wear a large hat. 

6th, It precedes the case of the verb when governed 
by a preposition. Ex. 3c^ »tff i^n morgen ju 3^nen ^ 
ttn, I will send him to you to-morrow (Lesson 
XXVm.) ; flnb 6ie lange bei meinem SSater gefclieben ? 
have you stayed long with my father (Lesson XiVn.) ? 
id) bin eine @tunbe (ang bet Hftn geblieben^ I have stayed 
with him a full hour (Lessons XLVII. and XLVDl) ; 
wit fprad)en fo eben t)on ^tjxien, we have just spoken of 
you ; fonnen ®ie ^eute ju mir fommen? can you come to 
me to-day? 



Ist, It likewise follows the simple tense and the 
case of the verb, when there is one, but precedes the 
infinitive and the past participle. Ex. 3d) i>erfhl)e bit^ 
fen 9Rann ntd)t^ I do not understand that man ; ber SRamt 
bat ben goffer nid)t, the man has not the trunk; bet 
junge gWenfd) (SwwgKng) ifc^t tbn nid)t, the young man has 
it not (Lesson IX.) ; ®ie effen nict)t, you do not eat ; idf 
t)abc ibn nic^t gebabt, I have not had it (Lesson XLII.]; 
er tt)itt nic^t arbeiten, he does not wish to work ; id) fyAe 
itin nidjt gefet)en^ I have not seen him ; tc^ ^be (Te ni^t 
gefannt/ 1 have not known them (Lesson XLIV.) ; i^ 
bore ©ie, aber t)erf}e^ @ie nid)t, I hear, but do not un- 
derstand you (Lesson XL VI.); id) gebe e^ iljm nO^t, I 
do not give it to him ; ffe fieben pd) nict)t, they do not 
love each other ; id) fd)mei(^e mir nic^t/ I do not flatter 
m}^elf ; fie feben einanber nid)t fibnfid), they do not re- 
semble each other (Lesson LXXXVI.). 

Obs. A. When the negative sentence is preceded 
or followed by an affirmative one, nic^t precedes the 
case of the verb, but if the aflirmative sentence con- 
tains another nominative with ober, the negative (ol 

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lows the general rule. Ex. Sdj ffaht nxdft biefen, fb«» 
bent jrnen, I have not the latter, but the former ; er tjoi 
Weff^, ober itid)t jene^, he has the latter, but not the 
former (Lesson XI.); id) tjabe 3l)ren S>ut «id)t, aber mein 
Sn^er ^t il^n, it is not I who have your hat, but my 

Obs, B, A negative, not depending on the nomina 
live of the verb, precedes the word the sense of w jiich 
it modifies. Ex. & arbeitetben Qonyn Zag nidjtf he does 
not work during the whole day ; and man arbeitet nid)t 
btit gattjen Xclq, one does not work all day. 

2d, The case of the verb being governed by a pre- 
position, m'c^t, like other adverbs (Rule 6 above), pre- 
cedes it. Ex. & ifl itid)t ju ^ufe, he is not at home 
(Lesson XXVI.) ; id) fntd)U mic^ nid^t t)or il)m, I do not 
fear him (Lesson LXX.). 

3d, It follows the adverbs of time, but precedes all 
other adverbs, as adverbs of quality, of place, &c 
Ex. 5d) arbcite ^te nidjt, I do not work to-day ; et 
fi^bt nid)t fc^cn, he does not write well ; er i|l nid)t 
ta, he is not there ; id) get^e nic^t baljia^ I do not go 

4th, It follows the adverb nod). Ex. 3d) btn nod) 
ntd)t ha ^etoefen^ I have not yet been there ; id) bin nod) 
ittt^ bet xtjtn getoefen^ I have not yet been at his house 
(Lesson XLL). The following sentences, however, 
must be distinguished from each other : toollen @te nod) 
n t d) t etUHi^ efien ? will you not eat anything yet 7 and 
iDoDen ®fc nidjt nod) ettiKi^ effen? will you not eat 
anything more? In the latter sentence nid)t modifies 
the signification of noc^ etn>a^. 

Obs. C. The negative precedes the word aiic^, when 
the sentence is both interrogative and negative, but 
follows it when the sentence is simply negative. Ex. 
©in id) nid)t and) ia getoefen? have I not also been 
there ? ttttb id) and) ntd)t/ nor I either ; unb er and) nid)t 
nor he either. 

To pretend x b« Jl. J ^ ^^^;^ ^^„ ^^^ ^;^^^ 

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Thh boj always pretends to be Dtrfet itnobe ofH (14 tenner fh 
ill ; but when we sit down to fxant aui ; oQctn lofim maa |a 
dinner, he is generally well Stfd)e ,qef)t, fo tfl or gcn>9bnli4 
again. »icl>cr ijcrgcflcllt (wtcbcr gcfunb). 

To be said. t @olC<n*. 

He is said to have suffered ship- f (h fed an bet jtfifle ven ^cidoi 
wreck near the coast of Sicily. ^iff6nid) gditten ^bni. 

Out of all his property he is said f d&t fed 9cn aUen fdnm ^bfcft^ 
to have saved nothing bat an fettcn nid)t^ aU ctnen (ecrnt fftcu 
empty portmanteau. fefuf gcrcttct fyiUn 


1st, The present tense is frequently substituted for 
the imperfect, to enliven the narrative and excite at 
tention. This is sometimes done in Englisji, but not 
so often as in German. Ex. 

Imagine my horror ! Yesterday >Denft (£u<b mdncn ^^(brccfni ! idb 

I went with my child to the gebe geftcm nut mcmem Atnbe 

gate of the town, to see the wt bfl€ JiS()cr^ um Un ^uftbaUffa 

ascent of the balloon. We oufjirigen |u fe^, Hmmt mit 

were soon sarrounded by the iljm \ni (Btlxbnc^e, KtTtnre c^ aui 

crowd, when suddenly I lost ben ^uacn, unb finht ti nfk notl 

sight of my child, and it was (tncr ^tunbc Mnabc ^erbrftdPf unt 

not till an hour afterwards gcrtrcten wieber (for: H ging, 

that I found it, trampled an- tarn, VCtUt and fanb). 
dor foot and nearly crushed 
to death. 

I now ascend the mountain; a S^t ftCnmme idi ben fktg; da 

deep valley unfolds itself to ttcf(^ SM ercffhd ft(!b mdnon 

my detigl ted eyes ; a limpid f«rf(benben Huat ; pm\dm jottni 

stream marmurs among the ©ebfifcben rtffm ein Horcr 9M»/ 

Yerdant shrubs ; sheep are gu mrtntn. ^ifkn todbm 8&iiiina» 

grazing at my feet, and I be- nnb burcb ben fmien 9SMCb htt* 

hold the last rays of the set- d)rn fic^ bte (etten G^ttoilni ^ 

ting sun breaking through the jlnfenbcn ^nne. 
deep foliage of the oistant 

2d, The present tense is employed for the ftiturc 
when that time is indicated by another word in the 
sentence. Ex. 

We leave to-morrow for Berlin, sD2cr()(n retfen wtr tia^ SBcrftn ; ta 
but 1 shall be back within a o(^t ^gcn Hmmt trf) obcr vb\^, 
week, and I shall then cer- unb bann U\nd^t i(!b IDtd) gopiS 
tainly coom* to see you. (for mctben loir rcifm, io«bc k| 

wiibecfonunen/ &c.). 



I tball be btM^k in a moment. 3d> f^mme gfeuft wxtUt. 

We scale the castle this very DUfii ^(op etfletgcn wxx in Mcfet 

night. 92ad)t 

I hare the keys, we kill ^Dcr BW^d bin id) mad^tig; 

wir erniorben 
Hie guards, and deliver thee 2)te ^ttiv, xtxfcn ^Dxd^ ani tDmtt 
from thy prison. ^ammet. 

QBd^HlttH SKaria 6tuart). 

I St, The imperfect has already been touched upon 
in Lesson LVSL It is the historical tense of the Ger- 
mans. Ex. 

9 ipio Africanns was in the ha- &npxe, Uv Kfdfantt, jagte^ ct voUrt 

bit of saying, he never was nte wentgec obne iBcfcb&fttouiKO 

less idle than when he had oli wenn ct nt^t^ gu tbtm otftte* 

nothing to do ; and in fact his SBirfltd) nnic cr auc^ nte mef)t fn^ 

busiest time was that which p^&ftiat, aii in ter Gtnfamfctt ; 

he spent in solitude. For it tain ^Ut fann et feincn »t<^ttg(n 

was there he meditated oyer Unterne^mungcn unt ©cfcb^ften 

his great enterprises and his nacb ; hxtv, tm @d>cpe tev fRuf)t, 

future deeds. In the bosom tnttoaxf cv ^Sint jum 9Bot)( fcinctf 

of retirement, he traced plans ^aXtxianM, unb bict, entfcmt 

for the happiness of his coun- wn tern Jlrcifc fcincc SWitOfiracr, 

try ; and there, far from the unter^tdt er {id) etn^g unb amxn 

intercourse of hU fellow-citi- mit bent (S^Uicfe berfelben. 
lens, he devoted his thoughts 
to the promotion of their wel- 

2d, It is used to narrate An action or event of which 
the narrator was an eye-witness, or to express an €U5- 
tion in reference to another which was eitner simulta- 
neous with, or antecedent to it (Lesson LVIL). 

Yesterday a child was drowned, ®ef!em cttranf ein jtinb/ cH i<( anf 

while 1 was on the bridge. bee SBrficfe flanb. 

He granted my request because (St gew&'^rte meine fBtttC/ tocU ct fU 

he found it just. gere<^t fonb. 

I was playing with my pupil, 3^ fpictte mtt meinem S^gtlngc, oil 

when the news was brought man mit bte ^ad^txd^t bto^tc* 

to me. 

1st, The perfect tense is used to express an action 
or event as perfectly ended without any reference to 
another circumstance, and when the narrator was not 
an eye-witness of it. Ex. 

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Were yoa yesterday at the con- @tnb €fte Qtftcvn tm Cencctt f/atm 

certi , wcfen? 

Has the army been beaten! Sfl ti« 2Crmcc gcfcfelayn wcrbcn? 

Has anybody been drowned 1 5fl Scmanfc crirun!cn ? 
Were you ever in Vienna! ©int 6ic [c in SBicn gcwcfcn? 

2d, The imperfect may even be used when the nar- 
rator has not witnessed the event ; but then he must 
take care to add to his narrative a phrase like . fogtt 
etf he said ; fagt tnait/ it is said, &c. Ex. 

fhey say, tiiat day before yester- gSotgcftem, f a 9 1 m ti, »or era 
day there was a great feast in groped Jefi in tct ^tait 
the town. 

They say there was a battle on tDtn fSnf unb jkoangigflen wrigcn 
the 25th of last month. ^emt^, f)cipt €^, {ie( cine GdM^ 


Obs, D. We have abeady seen (Lesson XXXIV.) 
that we cannot say with the English, I am writing, 1 
do write, both of which must be expressed by the only 
present id) fc^reibe, I write ; nor, I was writing, I did 
write, both of which must be expressed by the only 
imperfect ic^ fd)rie6, 1 wrote (Lesson LVII.). Expres- 
sions such as the following: When you cometoleam, 
he is to write, to go, I am to have it, 4*^., cannot be 
translated literally in German. In such cases we use 
the future when mere futurity, and the verb fotteil when 
necessity or a wish is to be expressed. Ex. 

When yon come to learn French. SBann @te fran^fifc^ (ecnen n^bflb 

He is to write. ©r mxb fd)rcibcn. 

Am I to go thither 1 @on tc^ bin()(bcn ? 

He is to go thither. Qx fca ^tn()c()cn. 

Am I to have this book? ©cU tcb btcfc^ S9oc( ^6cn? 

Am I to give you a peni ©en td) Sbncn cine 5c^cr gebftt? 

I was to speak for them all. 3c^ fotlte file 2nie fpred)en. 

He was to arrive on the 20th. Gr fcdU ten sn^n^igftcn anfcmmctt' 

Ohs. E. At the end of a phrase we sometimes omit 
the auxiliary of the perfect and pluperfect tenses, when 
the phrase that follows it begins with anoflier auxt 
liary. Ex. 

y Google 

Th'/n^ 1 have never been in 
Paris, I am nevertheless ac- 
quainted with all that is 
going on there. 


'fOh i<^ cjiA^ tiie in ^t\i gcwcfet 
bin/ bin id) be4 9on aUim um 
tettxd^tct, mai tofctbfl 9orge()t ; 
£)6 ic^ ojicxdi nUmaii ju ^ari^ ^mts 
fen, fo bin id) tcc^ ocn allcm un^ 
Uxvid^tet, toai bofclbfl »crgc()t. 
Ashedidnotanswerme, Iwrote^3)a tt mix md)t gcontwertct (M), 
to him no more. fyihi id) x\)nx ni^t m(()r gefc^rtcy 

The enemy having been beaten, 92a(^tcm bet ^etnb dcfd)(agcn meu 
it is to be hoped that the war Un (ift), iflt in \)t^m, taf t^ 
will be at an end. ittteg gcentigt fein wtct. 


Have you seen your niece? — ^Yes, she is a very |,/)od girl who 
vrites well and speaks German still better : therefore she is hon- 
jnred and loved by every one. — ^And her brother, what is he doinff 1 
—Do not speak to me of him, he is a naughty (bSfc) boy, who 
writes always badly and speaks German still worse : he is there- 
fore loved by nobody. He is very fond of dainties (tcr gutc Stjfen) ; 
but he does not like books. Sometimes he |^oes to bed at broad 
day-light (bet h^Uem Sage), and pretends to be ill ; but when we sit 
down to dinner, he is &renerally better again. He is to study 
physic (bte 2(tjnetfttn|t) ; but he has not the slightest inclination for 
it (gar fcine 6ufi ta^u). — He is almost always talking of his dogs 
which he loves passionately ((eitenfc^fttic^). — His father is ex- 
tremely (au9erortenr(td)) sony for it. The youn? simpleton (btt 
Sto^ftnnige) said lately to his sister : " I shall eiuist (^ctbat ioer< 
ben* eliv ^ antocxhcn (affen*) as soon as peace is proclaimed (9f» 
fmtiXd^ befannt madden ctev pubUciren). 


My dear father and my dear mother dined yesterday with some 
friends at (in dat.) the (hotel) King of Spain (»on ©panicn). — Why 
do you always speak French and never German ?— Because I am too 
bashful. — You are joking ; is a Frenchman ever bashful 1 — ^I have 
(a) keen appetite : give me something good to eat. — Have you any 
money 1 — No, sir. — ^Then I have nothing to eat for you. — Will you 
not let me have some on credit ? I pledge (oerpf&nten) my honour* 
—That is too little.— What, sir! 

Mv dear friend, lend me a ducat (ber SDucot, gen. en). — Here are 
two instead of one.— How much I am obliged to you ! — I am al- 
ways glad when I see you, and I JSnd my happiness in yours. — Is 
tliis house to be sold 1— Do you wish to buy it? — Why not? — Why 
does your sister not speak 1 — She would speak if she were not al- 
ways so absent (^crfheut). — ^I like pretty anecdotes (Die 2Cnectete) ; 
they season (mfirgen) conversation (tie Untett)a(tung) and amuse (be« 

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fufK^ra) erery body. — Pray, relate me seme. Look, if yoa please, 
at page 389 of the hook (in ^enl SBudK) which I lent you, and ((e) 
you will find some.— To-inorrow I shall set out for Hanau ; but in 
a fortnijjrht (in mcrjchn !Sagcn) I shall be ba^ ^rain, and thea I 
•hall come to see you and your family. — Where is your sister at 
>re8ent ? — She is in Berlin, and my brother is in Leipzic. — Tbts 
ittle woman is said to be going to marry the counseller N., your 
friend ; is it true t — I have not heard of it. — What news is there 
of our great army t — It is said to be lying (j!cf)en*) between the 
Rhine and the Weser. All that the courier told me seeming very 

{>robable (R)al)rfd)cin(id)), I went home immediately, wrote some 
etters, and departed for Paris. (See end of Lesson XXXIV ) 


HUNDRED AND FIRST LESSON.— fnttbtrt tmb tt0k< 


To begin to laugh, to weep, to 2(nfQndcn ju lo/itcn, ga nmnen, jii 

cry, &o. fd)rctcn a. f. w. 

To pledge. QScrpfanbcm 

To pawn. SBcrff^cn. 

To destroy by fire and sword. SWit Jcucr unt ®d)wcrt Mrf^cerciu 
To look out of the window. "Kui htm Jmflec ffb^n*. 
I do not know whether this so- 3d> tocip ntd)t, ob ticfe ®<f^<^P 

ciety will admit me. mid) loitb ^abcn ivoUem 

Ailer ten o'clock you will not f 02o<^ jc^n U^r trefl[cn &c tai^ 

find me at home. mct^t nic^r ^ |)aufe. 

The weather is clearing up. jDcg ifficttcr f)e\t(tt ft^ auf. 

My hand is asleep. f 5Wcinc ^ant il|l cingcWofm. 

To smell of garlick. 9lad^ jlncb(au<ft ticc^n*. 

To smell of wine. SlO(^ ©cin tiedxn*. 

The sermon is over. >Die ^ettgt ift mi* 

That is the question. Qi ifl tie Jfroge (c^ fmxai btfroaf 

He has nearly fallen. f dv tohxc Wmoit gefaQem 

I did not find a living soul 3<^ f)a6e feine Ubenttgc &tdc onge* 


lo meet with. 2Cnttef fen* (Part, past, 9ctcefK 

fen. Imperf. trof), 

Vou have the wrong key. ©ie ftaben ben unred)ten €MWftff«l» 

He is now on the road. Gr if! Jc^t auf tem ©ege. 

Give me a clean plate, if you ®ebcn 6te mit oiffiaiafl cirnn teU 
P^«»^ nen Setter. 

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To put one's hand into one's 3n tie ISofd^e gi:etfen'^« 

To put one's son to scliool. Sctncn @cl^n in tie @4uCe t ^ n n* 

(6 r i n 9 e n ♦). 
To put one out to prenticeship Scnionten in tie ic\)tt t ^ u n "^^ 

(to bind one prentice). 
To put to account 3n SRccbnung § i c ^ n •. 

To put to flight. 3n tie 5(u*t iagen (otet f<^U* 

^ 9«n*)- 

To put one's hat on. ^etnen ^ut auffeten* 

To put an end. Gin Gnte m a 4 e n. 


To set pen on paper (to :«ke the iDie getcr ergteifen*. 

pen in hand). 
To set sail. Untct ©cget geften* (a6fege(ti> 

To set in order (to regulate, 3n Ottnung being en*. 

To «€t sometliing on fire. Gtwa^ anjfint en (a n ft e (( e !!)• 

To set to work. &d^ an tie 2(rOett m a 4 en. 


Isty On the ase or omission of an article. 

I hare read Schiller. 3(6 f)aU ten @d)illct gelefen. 

He broke his neck. Ch; ^ot ten ^ai^ gebrc^en. 

Nature is the best instructress. 2) i e 97atur ift tic bcfie fie^retinn. 

Man is mortal. ^ e r SO^enfcb tfl f!erb(id(^. 

Human life is short iD a ^ menfd)(i(Jbe Seben ift htrj. 

Vice plunges its followers into S>Qi Safler fliirjt fetne 2(n^&ngai 

perdition. in^ QSerterben. 

Eloquence is powerful. D i e JBerettfamfcit ift m&cfttig. 

Poetry is enchanting. 2) i e >Dtd)thinfi ift bejoubetno. 

Goyernment. >Die ^{eaierung. 

History teaches us experience. jD i e ®c(d)id)tc (ebtt un^ (Stfaf)ning 

8aint Paul. 2) e r t^ciix^t ^u(u«. 

Most of his contemporaries. S> i e mctften feinet Scttgnteffen. 

In town. 3n t e r @tatt 

To go to church. 3n t i e ^ixd^t Qt\)tn\ 

Ths East Indies. Dftintien. 

The West Indies. fficflintien. 

Before the conclusion of the dra- ^ex (^ntignng M €^tlflncU<. 


2d, On the use of a pronoun. 

f take the liberty of writing to Sdft nel^me mir tie S(d^ M 
yon. <Ste itt f^teiben. 

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How goen iti How do you do? 

Very well. 

I have bought a hat. 

Let us go on a party of pleasure. 

He is quite at home. 
He is very conceited. 
I have it in my hands. 
I have it before my eyes. 
I consent to ity (willingly or with 

mt^m 3 Men 7 

(&i a<^l)t mtr'fpbr mcf^t. 

3^ YiaU m 1 1 cincn ^ut gcfanft 

SBir wcdcn u n ^ (cute etn iBergnti 

gen i>crfd)<»ffen. 
©r mod)t fi d) • « Ocquem 
dSx bi(^et ft eft t)t«( etn. 
3d) ()a6( e^ in ^^ntcn. 
3d) ftabc e^ t>ct ^ugciw 
Sd) bin i% lufric^m. 

3d, On the use of a verb. 

Who has said mass to-day 1 
I am with you in a moment. 
We shall have a storm. 

How is that 1 

I do not scruple to do it. 

"What do you think of itt 
They will not dissuade me from 

To ^y a lottery ticket* 
To itf 6orfi. 
To bring forth. 
To cfou^/ (to co// in question). 
To lay the cloth. 
To set down (to compose). 

©cr bat ftcute bie gxcfle getefesf 

3cft fern me g^etd). 

SBti; mecben etn Qewlttetc 6 e f «as< 

SSjte 3 e b t ba^ ju ? 
3c6 trage Eein SBebenfen, 

r6 su tftun. 
8Ba€ f)att(n €te taoon ? 
3cb (affe mir bo$ ntd)t ou^ceben. 

3n bic 8ottcrie f c | e n. 
3ur SBflt !ommen*. 
3ut affictt b t i n 9 c n *. 
3n3n)ctfc( stef)cn*. 
^cn Sifd) bftf^m 
6d)riftticb auffefien. 

4th, On the use of a preposition. 

How is your health ? 

To land, to go ashore. 

His afiai.'B are in a bad state. 

I bet six crowns. 

1 forgive you. 

To esteem one's self happy 

SBie jtebt e^ um 3f)tt Qefiinb^* 
Uni 8anb trelcn*. 
e^ {tc()t fibcl mit tbmatt^ 
3d) n>crte u m \cM SftoUt. 
3c|) l)Q(tc c^ 3bncn g u gut; 
6td) fie glficHicb botten. 

To make an enemy of some one. ©id) 3«monben jum Jeinbc moiiet. 
I fear to be burdensome to you. 3cb ffircbtc 3bnen jur 8ofl |u foOoi 


To prescribe milk-diet 
To copy fair. 

Of one's own accord. 
We shall not live to see it. 
It is all over with me. 

^ t c 9)2t(d)fur oerorbnen. 

3n« JHcinc fcbtcibcn* (cdn a(f^ 

Hrxi frcicn ©tfidfcn. 
fiBti; i9ctbctt e^ nicbt erUbeib 
(Si ifi urn mi(6 d^^eben. 

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Mr head tarns round (is giddy). (&^ tmrt mit |4mtnt(l<!^ 

I Jaint. 3d) bcfcmm; cine Di)nma((t 

I thoQght you were a German by 3d) ^tctt @i( fftc cincn gcbcnictt 

birth. 2)eutld)cn. 

To live on bad terms with some Uneintd mit S^Ruinbem (e6cn. 

To follow an unprofitable trade. S'td^ mit broHcfm Jtfin|tcn abgeOcn* 
This seems reasonable. ^Da^ (Apt jtc^ i)St(n (f(|)Ctnt 9cmfinf» 

To lose one's reputation. 6ctncn guten 9{amcn t)crtter(n*. 

By means of. SKlttetfl or txrmittelft (go- 

vern the genitive). 

He has succeeded by means of SSomuttctft S^tH 93ctflanbc$ tfi ei 

your assistance. tf)m gctungcn. 

We reached the shore by means fSit famen mittetfl (t)etmitte(fl) etne< 

of a boat. S,a\)nU atii Ufer. 

Towards (to meet). 6 n t g e g e n (governs the dative) 
We went to meet his father. iBxt gtngcn fctncm SBatcr entgegen. 

Agavnst (in opposition to). Sukotbev. 
Never act against the laws. ^nb(e ntc ten ©cfcficn jumtbct. 

Opposite. ©egenftber. 

My house is opposite his. SKetn ^u^ flc^t ttm fcmlgcn gegeti' 


Obs. The prepositions etttgegen, jmmber, and gegett^ 
fiber Are always placed after the case which they 

Next to (after). 91 & ^ ft (governs the dative). 

Next to you I like him ^sst. Slfi^fl 3^nen ifi tt mir ter 8tcb|lc 

focether with (besides, inclu- ^thft, fatnmt (govern the dative). 

He lost the ducat together with (Sx wtlet ben >Ducaten fammt bm 
the crowns, sold the garden Z-Wcxn, Mrfaufte ben (Skirten 
including the house. nebfl tern J^aufe. 

If I were now to question ^ou as SBenn tc6 €^e ic|t fca^U, tcU id) m 
I used to do at the begmnine unfcrn erften 6ecttonen gu tf)ttn 
of our lessons, what would pflcgte (n>ie id) anfang^ gu t^un 
jon answer 1 pflegte), vxii wiirben 8ie ant> 




We found these questions at first iSIt fantcn onfusgi btc|c %tnpm 
rather ridiculous, but full of (tnxiS (5<^crlid); aUrin eeQ wet 
confidence in your method, we trauCTi «af 3h^^ 8c^Tt, beami 
answered as m ell as the small iDcrtctcn n?lr ticfclbcn, fo gut tf 

Suantlty of word sand rules we un^ Ut fititic ^Bctratf) rcn fBfe^ 
len possessed allowed us. tern unt SRcQiln (^inctptrn), bei 

nix tamaU t)Qt!Uti, g^ttctc (ct> 

We were not long in finding out SBit fjobcn Mb Qcmttft, ba^ lu 
that those questions were cal- S^agcn boiouf b<r(d)n(t tootm, 
culated to ground us in the uns tutc^ W lOtterfprcdKiitai 
rules, and to exercise us in 2(ntn)crtcn, Me rotr gcjiouii^ 
conversation, by the contradic- nniren, txirouf ju ^thtn, bic yn»s 
tory answers we were obliged ctpten (SRcgdn) (tnju|(i)^rfcn nid 
to make. un^ in bcr Untcrboltun^ gu &bcs. 

We can now almost keep up a 2k^ fiinnen wit un$ bcina^K W& 
conversation in German. fcmnicn ouf bcutfc^ (im jDcutfdKO) 


^is phrase does not seem to us iDirfer @a^ fc^tnt itn< ni^ (e^M 
logically correct. ticfctia. 

We should be ungrateful if we SBtc »orcn unbanEbot, vxnn wit 
allowed such an opportunity (tnc fo f<^6ne ®c(cgcn^ctt Mt6rb 
to escape without expressing ac^en (ic$(n/ obne S^ncn unfot 
our livelifst gratitude to you. rcbf)Qft(flc jDanfbarfnt $u (fjogm. 

In all cases, at all events. 2(uf fcbcn ^aO. 

The native, bcc (Stngcbcmc ; 

the insurmountable difficulty, bie unfibcnvinbltcbe €f(bn)imgfdt ; 

this energetic language, biefe energt|d)( (fraftocUc) 6pta<j^ ; 

the acknowledgment, bie 6rfcnnt(t<^feit ;' 

tie grratitude, the acknowledg- bte IDanf(kir!ctt 


Will yon drink a cup of coffee 1 — I thank you, i do not like 
coffee. — ^I'hen you will drink a glass of wine t— I have just drunk 
some. — Let us take a walk. — "Willingly ; but where shall we go 
to 1 — Comi with me into my aunt's garden ; we shall there find a 
very agreeaole society. «-I believe it (2)a6 gfoube id) grm) ; bat the 
question is whether this agreeable society will admit me. — ^You 
are welcome every where. — What ails you, my friend ? — How do 
you like (SGBlc fcfenitfcft S^nen) that wine? — ^I like it very well (lxrt« 
lid)) ; but I have drunk enough (jut: ®cnftge obcr gcnug) of it- 
Drink once more. — No, too much is unwholesome (ungefunb) ; 1 
know my constitution (bte 97atur). — Do not fall. — What is the mat- 
ter with you ? — I do not know ; but my head is giddy ; I think I 
am fainting. — I think so also, for you look almost like a dead pe^ 
•on. — What countryman are yout — I am a Frenchman. — ^Yoq 

•^tfrontltc^Wt is derived from crfennen, to acknowledge. (^oatMed 
•^Vnnem both gratitade an i acknowledgment 

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•peak German so well that I took you for l German by b^rtii.— Toi 
«r© jesting.— Pardon me, I do not jest at all. — How long have yon 
been in Germany 1 — A few days. — In earnest! — You doubt it per* 
baps, because I speak German ; I knew it before I came to Ger- 
many. — How did you manage to learn it so Well 1 — I did like tbs 
prudent starling (tft ©taar). 

Tell me, why you are always on bad terms with your wife (tit 
Jfrou) 1 and why do you engage in unprofitable trades ?-^It costs 
so much Uouble ((g$ fcjtct fo Mcl SNfi^)c) to get an employment (i>xi 
man cin — b€fenimt). — And you have a good one and neglect it {H 
6lntanrc|en ota t>«rnad)(c(fftacn). Do you not think of the future t 
—Now allow me to speak also (3c0t (affcn ©ic mtcb flud) ribcn). 
All you have just said seems reasonable, but it is not my fault (e$ 
ifl mcbt metne ^d)utt), if I have lost my reputation ; it is that of my 
wife (metne $rau t|t €fcbu(b boran) ; she has sold my finest clothes, 
my rings, and my gold watch. I am full of debts (ocd 6d)utben 
frtn*), and I do not know what to do (wa^ id) anfonacn ebfc tbun fctt). 
—I will not excuse (cntfd)u(t>tgen) your wife ; but i know that ycu 
nave also contributed (bcitraqcn*) to your ruin (bog 83crbfrb<n). 
Women are generally good when they are left so. 


The master. If I were now to ask you such questions as 1 did 
at the beginning of our lessons, (viz.) Have you the hat which 
my brother has! am I hungry 1 has he the tree of my brother's 
garden 1 &c. what would you answer? 

The pupils. We are obliged (gcjmungen) to confess that we 
found these questions at first rather ridiculous ; but full of confi- 
dence in your method, we answered as well as the small quantity 
of words and rules we then possessed allowed us. We were in 
fact not long in finding out tliat these questions were calculated to 
ground us in the rules, and to exercise us in conversation, by the 
contradictory answers we were obli|red to make. But now that we 
can almost keep up a conversation m the energetic language which 
Tou teach us, we should answer : It is impossible that Mce should 
have the same hat which your brother has, for two persons canno* 
have one and the same thing. To (2(uf with accus.) the second 
question we should answer, that is impossible for us to know 
whether you are hungry or not. As to the last, we should say : 
that there is more than one tree in a garden, and in telling us that 
be has the tree of the garden, the phrase does not seetn to us logi- 
cally correct. At all events we should be ungrateful if we allowed 
iuch an opportunity to escape, without expressing our liveliest 
gratitude to you for the trouble you have taken in arranging those 
wise combinations (Huge SBege cinfd)I<J9fn* cbcr CcmOtnaticnen mcu 
ib<n), to ground us almost imperceptibly (Ofinabe unmcrfltd)) in the 
rules, and exercise us in the conversation of a language which, 
taught in any other way, presents (borblctcn*) to foreigners, and 
even to natives, almost insurmountable difficulties. (See end ol 





^^ite tMion. 

To avoid deat}i, with which he Urn Urn Zttt |U cntgf^cn, Ut IN 
was threatened, he took to bcwrjlanb (iwrnit nr Mnha 
flight war)/ nahm (crgriff) cr bie JfliKibt 

I warrant you (I answer for it), f 3(^ frcf)« Sbncn baffir. 

So groee the world. f ©0 ybt f< in bft ©elt 

But must one not he a fool to 2(bcc mfiptc man nxd^t ein Siorr frin, 
remain in a place bombarded nxnn man an ctncm wn Ungan 
by Hungarians! bcm(Kirt)trten Ortc btctbcn wcUtcl 

The deuce take the Hungarians f jDa0 tie Ungarn^ xoddH Um 
who give no quarter ! ®nabe gcbcn (n>ctd)C gar iii4> 

fd}onen)/ betm ^cn!cc tocvai ! 

Will you be my guest t SBcCfm ©ic mein ®afl ftm ? 

Will you dine with me 1 SBcHcn 6te mit mtc cffen ? 

rScmanbcn gu ®a|l bitten*. 
To invite some one to dinner. < S^nianben gum SOZittogeffen obIas 

C ten*. 
I have ordered your favourite f 3d) f)abe S^re Setbfpeife luberettCB 

dish. (offen. 

There is nothing like a good di geM nid^H ftbet ein gute^ 6c&! 
piece of roast meat. Sraten. 

The roast meat, ter SSraten^ ta^ ©ebratene ; 

the p^uilty, ber @d)u(tt0e ; 

the innocent, ter Unfd)Ulbtge ; 

a good (jovial) companion, etn (uftiger 58niber ; 
the husband, ter SRann (^t)emann)« 

C dSxncn (Sfel an einer Cac^t ^bcn* 
To be disgusted with a thing. < (^nct 6a4)e (gomtiTe) JkbertciA 

i fein»- 
W^ho hazards gains. ) f ^ctfc^ genxtgt ifl ^(6 ^trtamru 

Nothing venture nothing have. ( (^pri^u^rt) 

TolBtrike (in speaking of light- f @tn(<^lagcn* 

The lightning has struck. f 6$ ^t eingcfc^ta^etu 

The lightning struck the ship, f Det S3ti^ fd)(u9 tn^ ^tff 
While my brother was on the j((^ mein SBrutec auf ter effiSdi 
open sea a violent storm rose ^ee (cter auf tem (c^en ^cn) 
unexpectedly ; the lightning n)at, crbcb fic^ (fam unoemmtM) 
struck the ship which it set ein ^eftigcr €turm; tcr SBftl 
on fire, and the whole crew fd)lug ing ^<feijf, ta« er ax^ntti 

Jumped into the sea to save te^ unt ta^ ganje ^iff^ref! 
... , , . fprana (flfiritefid)) in« gseir.r 

|!<ib mtt ^minunen ^a rctten. 

themselves by swimming. fprana (flfirjte fid)) in« gSeer^tta 




B* was strnck with fright, Qt nmrbe ten e^rcdfm UfaUn 
when he saw that the fire (crfcftrof ^cftig)^ flU ct faf), bof 
was gaining on all sides. iai 'gina ouf aUcit ^eitcn urn 

fid) c^riff. 
He did not know what to do. f C^r n)u^te nid)t, loesu a ftcb ent« 

fd)(ie9cn fcUtc. 
He reflected in vain. ^ ®^ "^^*^^ nadjiinncn, idIc ct wefltc 

In vain. gScrgcbtid), sjcrgcbcn*, umfcnft. 

To reflect (to hesitate). @t(^ bcftnnen* (Part, past, brfcni 

He hesitated no longer. f Qv bcfaitn ftd^ ntc^t Utnger. 

I hare not heard of him yet. Sdf b^bc ncd^ fetne 9{a((tic()t 9on 

t|)m erf)a(tctu 
My friend who was present t>ld SKetn ^rcunt, n>e(d)cr juacg^n toav, 
me all this. ()at nut oOc^ bufc6 erg&ol^* 

What would have become of ^ SSte todvt ci nut er^angcn ? 
me 1 ( S&ai wfite au^ mit g(n>ctben 7 


It is a fortnight (a week) since SSterge^n (o(^t) Sage (ang bin ic^ 

I was out nid)t QU^gegangcn. 

Will you not go out to-day 1 Sic werbcn bed) bcute ou^gcbcn ? 
I would not importune you. 5d) will Sbncn nicftt bcfcbwctli^ 

He has nothing to live upon. (St bat nicbt^ gu (cbcn. 
I board and lodge him. Scb gcbe t^m freicn Sifi^ unb USief)s 

llie mystery will be discovered, ^te Socbe nntb fi^en an ben Sag 

They are going to lay the cloth. sDZan mttb balb ben Stf(^ becfem 
He lires high (feasts, eats, and Qt ipt unb trinft gut 

drinks well). 
Have you done 1 6tnb 6te fertig ? 

Thit is his business. S)a niog ct gufcben* 

To io one's best ©ein Tuuperflc* tftun*. 

He has assisted me. (&t tfl mit gut'^onb gegangcn* 

We must not be too particular. SBit mii^m e^ fo genau ni<^t nel^ 

He is not to be blamed for not Q^ tft tbm nicbt ju oetbenfeU/ bap et 

doing it c£ ntcbt tf)ut 

The book is out of print ; it was 2)o^ 2^ud) '\\t Dctgri^cn ; c^ wat bel 

publised by N. 9?. txrlcgt 

Will you please to take a plain SSctlen ^te mit itnem etnfad)en 
aopper with us 1 2(bcnbcffcn bei un< f&ttteb (obet 

MtUeb) ne^men ? 



Tke ffcneral has been defeated tSkt 9«(b^etr ifl anfi ftowpit yf^iap 
and the army routed. gen unt> tie ^Crmee dttt ben .^MH 

^n gciwrfcn loertnu 

The angel, ber ©ngct ; 

the masterpiece, tai g}?ciflcr(l0cf ; 

her physiognomy, tbre @^cfid)t^bt(tund ; 

the expression. tcr 2(u^bru(f ; 

her shape, i^te ®cf!o(t ; 

the action, tie ^ntUing ; 

the look, bcr 2(nWicf ; 

the contentment, tie Sufrietcn^eit ; 

the respect, tie Cl)rfurd)t ; 

the admiration, tie IBenninterung; 

the charm, the grace, tie Kmnntf) ; 
the demeanour, the manners, ta^ SBcncI)men ; 

thin (slender), [(^(onf; 

fascinating (engaging), etnncbment ; 

ravishingly, gum ^ntgOcfen ; 

uncommonly well, gonj wrtrcffti<^ ; 

perfectly well, t^cUfemnien. 
Her look inspires respect and 3i)r HMxd ffSpt <5f)rfut4t imt Sc 
admiration. wunterung etn. 

Allow me, my lady, to introduce Gt(aubcn 6ie^ gnfittge ^n, tof 
to you Mr. G., an old friend id) 3bnen ^ertn twn ®. M einen 
of our family. atten ^eunt meinei ^oufc^ vet* 


1 am delighted to become ac- 3A freue ml(6 \^, metn ^vx, 3itt 
quainted with you. SSefanntfc^oft ju modftcn. 

I shall do all in my power t< 3(^ loette aOe^ SOZfiglidK t^itn, nm 
desenre your good opinion. ntic^ S^tet (Skocgen^ oti^g 

}u moc^en. 

Allow me, ladies, to introduce to (Stiauben ^U, metne jDamen, tof 
you Mr. B., whose brother has id) Shtitn ^erm wn SB. twr^eQe, 
rendered such eminent ser- tefm SBtutet S^rem iSettrc fB 
rices to your cousin. gtc$e iDienfU gelciflet fyit 

How happy we are to see you at 2Bie feftt fint wit erfteut, &t W 
our house ! un^ gu fef)en 1 

BZIBCI8B8. 343. 

Why do you hide yourself 1 — ^I am obliged to hide myself, for it 
is all over with me if my father hears that I have taken to flight; but 
there was no other means (fcin antete6 9)2ttte( (tbria eter nid)t antcr^ 
ntcgltd) fcin*) to avoid death, with which I was threatened. — ^Yoa 
nave been very wrong in leaving (ocriaffcn*) your regiment, and 
your father will be very angry (fc()t Wfe ctet scmig fein*) when he 
hears of it, I warrant you. — But must one not be a foo. to remain 
in a place bombarded by Hungarians 1 — ^The deuce take the Hub- 
garians, who give no quarter ! — ^They have beaten and robbed (oit<* 
Wuntem) me, and (never) in my life have I done them any haim. • 

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8^ ffoes the world, the innocent very often suffer for the gvAUf^-^ 
Did you know Mr. Zweifel 1 — I did know him, for he often worked 
for our house. — One of my friends has just told me that he has 
drowned himself, and that his wife has blown out her brains with 
a pidtol (Lesson XCV.). — I can hardly believe it; for the man 
whom you are speaking of was always a jovial companion, and 
^ood companions do not drown themselves. — His wife is even said 
to have written on the table before she killed herself: '* Who hax- 
aids gains ; I have nothing more to lose, having lost my good hiis« 
band. I am disgusted with this world, where there is nothing 
constant (bcfl^ndg) except (o(^) inconstancy (tie Unbefli!in(tgfett)." 


Will you be my guest 1 — I thank you ; a friend of mine has in- 
vited me to dinner : he has ordered my favourite dish. — What dish 
is it? — It is milk-food. — As for me (JBc^ nuc^ anbdangt), I do not 
like milk-food : there is nothing like a good piece of roast beef or 
veal (9linWs obnr Jtatbsbraten). — What has become of your young- 
est brother ? — He has suffered shipwreck in going to America. — 
You must give me an account of that (^)6f)Un &U m\v bod> ta6). — 
Very willingly. Bein^ on the open sea, a great storm arose. The 
lightning struck the ship and set it on fire. The crew jumped into 
the sea to save themselves by swimming. My brother knew not 
what to do, having never learnt to swim. He reflected in vain ; 
he found no means to save his life. He was struck with fright 
when he saw that the fire was gaining on all sides. He hesitated 
no longer, and jumped into the sea. — Well (^lun), what has be- 
come of him t — I do not know, having not heard of him yet. — But 
who told you all that 1 — M^ nephew, who was there, and who saved 
himself. — As yon are talking of your nephew (S)a 6ie gerabe oon 
3t)tcm IWcffin fpred)m), where is he at present! — He is in Italy. — 
Is it long since you heard from him 1 — I have received a letter from 
him to-day. — What does he write to youl — He writes to me that 
he is ffoing to marry a young woman who brings (^ubrinj^cn*) him 
a hundred thousand crowns. — ^Is she handsome ?— Handsome as 
an angel ; she is a master-piece of nature. Her physiognomy is 
mild and full of expression ; her eyes are the finest in (oon) the 
world, and her mouth is charming (aderltebfl). She is neither too 
tall nor too short : her shape is slender ; all her actions are full of 
grace, and her manners very engaging. Her look inspires respect 
and admiration. She has also a great deal of wit (bcr flSerflanb) ; 
she speaks several languages, dances uncommonly well, and sings 
ravisbingly. My nephew finds in her but one defect (bet S(()(cr). — 
And what is that detect?— She is affected (nwd)t 2(nfpc(td)e).— There 
is nothing perfect in the world. How happy you are (9Bi< atilicflicft 
finb &U) I you are rich, you have a good wife, pretty children, a 
fine house, and all you wish (for). — Not all, my friend. *What do 
Tou desire sore? — Contentment; for you know that he only it 
happy who is contented. (See end of Lesson XXXIV.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


HUNDRED AND THIRD LESSON. — flnnbort imil 
brilte £tction. 


The fundamental principle of German constractioD 
is this : the word which, after the subject, expresses 
the principal idea, is always placed after those words 
which only express accessory ideas. It has the advan 
tage of attracting and of keeping up and increasing 
the attention to the end of the phrase. 

The word which least defines the subject is placed 
at the beginning of the sentence, then come those 
words which define it in a higher degree, so that the 
word which most determines the meaning of the 
phrase is at the end. 

According to this we place the words in the follow- 
ing order: 

1st, The adverb of negation itidjt^ when it relates 
to the verb of the subject. Ex. ©cm SSoter icanixooxtd 

meiiteit SSrief ttic^t, his father does not answer my letter- 

2d, The other adverbs relating to the verb of the 

1 2 
subject. Ex. ©ie fa^rciben Sfjren Srief nic^t gut, you do 
not write your letter well. 

3d, The preposition with the case it governs, or in 
its stead the adverbs of place : ba, l)ietf and their com- 
pounds : bo^er^ ba^iit^ as well as the demonstrative ad 
verbs compounded of ba and tfiet, as: bamit^ baJMWt, 

^iert>ott/ barottf/ boruber^ &c. Ex. (Sr mtttDortete itic^ 

2 3 
l^&flic^ ouf tneinett Srief^ he did not answer my letter 

12 3 

politely. (St antwottttt nic^t fd)nell barauf^ he did nc^ 
answer it quickly. 

Obs. When the verb of the subject has several ca- 
ses with their prepositions, that which defines it the 
most exactly follows all the others, the determination 
of time always preceding that of place. Ex. (St trot 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


wegm feiner Unfc^ulb mit ftof^liifem ®e|t(^te t)or iai (SetUfi 
(which delines most exactly), on account of his inno- 
cence he appeared before his judges with a joyful 
countenance. 25er Oefiipofc Hiehan biefem Zags (time), 
oiif ber fd)6n(len glur (place), bei affer ed)6nl)eit ber reijeit^ 
ben 3latm (place) bennoc^ o^ne atte gtnpfhibung (which de- 
fines most exactly), the insensible man, remained on 
that day without the least emotion, though in the most 
beautiful field and surrounded by all the beauty of 
charming nature. 1 

4th, The predicate of the subject. Ex. 5(^ hin nviji 

2 3 4 

ttttiner tnit fciwer Sltmwrt jufricben, I am not always 
satisfied with his answer. 

6th, The separable particles of compound verbs, as 
well as all those words which are considered as separ- 
able particles, inasmuch as they complete the sense of 
the verb (06^. ^, Lesson LXVII.), as: au^weitbig 
ktntn, to learn by heart; in Sld^t net)men*, to take 
care ; jtt 9Rittag t^cn*, to dine, &c. Ex. aBarwm gin; 

12 3 5 

er nid)t offer mit ^fjntn au^ ? why did he not go out witi 
you oftener ? 

6th, The verb in the infinitive. Ex. ©r fann S^ttttt 
12 2 3 6 

nuf)t immer fdined auf S^ren 93rief antm^rten^ he cannot 
always answer your letter quickly. 

7th, The past participle or the infinitive, when thsy 
form with the auxiliary a compound tense of the verb. 

12 2 3 7 

Ex. dt t)at mir nidit immer ^o^id^ barauf geantn)ortet/ he 
has not always answered it politely. @r n>irb S^nen 

12 2 3 7 

mijt immer fb Ip^idf auf ^fycm Srief antwotten. 

*^* These remarks apply to the natural order of 
ideas ; but the German language is so much subject to 
inversions, that we must sometimes deviate from them, 
according to the stress which we wish to put on cer- 
tain words, or the strength and importance we wisU 
to give them in the sentence. See tne following 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1st, When the aciyective which precedes the nom 
IS accompanied by some words that relate to, or define 
it, they are placed immediately before it. Ex. (Sim 
0egen S^^ertnann ^ofiid^e $raU/ a woman polite towards 
everybody. 3^t ®ie Ijcrjlic^ Bebcnbe^ ^uib, your child 
that loves you from all lus heart (Lesson XCIIL) 

2d, Personal pronouns, when not in the noniina 
tive, as well as reflexive pronouns (Lesson LXX ) are 
placed after the verb. Ex. 3d) K^ ^ X)id)/ 1 love thee. 
(Sr (icbt midj, he loves me. 3d^ toitttfd)e 3t)nen < ttten gtttett 
SRorgen^ I wish you a good morning. SDteitte Qdfwt^ 
(eftnbet fid) ttH)^(^ my sister is well. 

Obs. A. When the accusative is a personal pro- 
noun, it precedes the dative, if not, it follows it. Ex. 
@e6en @te meinem Sruber ba^ Sud)? do you 
give the book to my brother ? 3c^ gcbc t^ if^m, 1 do 
give it to him. ^adtfett @te 3^rer ^rau ©ema^Iinit mdne 
$mpfel)lung, present my compliments to your lady. 34 
gab e^ bem fBoM, I gave it to the father. (Lessoo 
XXVni.) But if we wish to put a particular stress oo 
the dative, we must put it after the accusative. Ex. 
(Sr er}dl)(te bie gonje ®(fd)id)tefeuter %t(m, he told his wife 
the whole history. Here the whole strength of the 
93ntence fall^ on the words feuter %t(aL 

Obs. B* When the case of the verb is a genitive 
it is always preceded by the accusative, whether a pen 
sonal pronoun or not. Ex. ^ t>n^dfete @te nteina 
5pcd)ad)tuttS/ 1 assure you of my esteem. SRon fyd bes 
@efaitgenen be^ Serbred^en^ ubemiefen^ the prisoner has 
been convicted of the crime. (Lesson LXIV.) 

3d, The infinitive and past participle are always 
preceded by their cases, or in other words, the infini- 
tive and past participle always stand at the end of the 
sentence. Ex. 3d) tt>^tbc morgen oufi^ ?atib ge^, I shaU 
go into the country to-morrow. @r ift geflem bal)in fp 
gangett/ he went thither yesterday. 3d) tt)erbe ^ifntn boi 
f&ud) gc6en, I shall give you the book, dtfyitc^ nrir off 
frflt^ he has told it to mo. (Lessons XXIV. and XLU.) 

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Obs. A, When two or several infinitives, two past 
participles, or a past participle and an infinitive de- 
pend on each other, the first in English becomes the 

1 2 

last in German. Ex. @{e I5nnen ii)n fprecf)en I|5ren/you 

2 1 12 

may hear him speak ; t(^ toetbt fym md)t ^ktm ge^ 

3 3 2 1 

Bttiteit/ 1 shall not be able to go a walking to-day; feitt 

12 2 1 

S^i ifl Mrfottfjt twtimf his house has been sold. 
(Lesson LXXI.) 

Obs. B. The two infinitives or participles, &c., not 
depending on each other, follow the English construe- 

1 2 

tion. Ex. SRon xm^ ®ott lieben imb t^ete^ren^ we must 

1 2 

love and honour God ; fee nnrb yAvAi uttb ge(o6t/ she is 

1 2 

loved and praised. (Lesson LXXI.) 

4th, The verb of the subject (in compound tenses 
the auxiliary) is removed to the end when the phrase 
begins, (a) with a conjunction, as : aW, ba, OD, baft 
l»eS, wemt,* &c. (J) with a relative pronoun, as : ber, 
tod&ftt, tt>cr, meaning he who, and tt>a^, that which ; (c) 
after the relative adverb, XOO, and all the prepositions 
combined with it, as : woburd), womit, tt>ol)on, &c. Ex. 
Slf^ i&i fie jum erflen SDtak fa^, when I saw her for the 
first time. 3d) wfinfdjte, baf tt mxt^m^, I wish he would 
go with us. (Sx Ke6t ®fe nx&ft, tt>eil @ie it)tt belribigt ^<u 
belt, he does not love you, because you have ofiended 
hiin. HBartett ®ie, bte id) mein ®elb befotnme, wait till I 
receive my money, fflenit id) e^ gewugt l)fitte, had I 
known that. ?efen ®ie ba^ S3ud), tt)eld)e^ id) ^\)ntn gelie* 
^ ^a6e? do you read the book which I have lent 
you? SBijfeti ®ie itid)t, tt>o er genjefen ifl? do you not 
know where he has been ? J^ntien ©ie mir ttid)t faoen^ 
Wii au^ \\)m geworben ifl ? can you not tell me what 

■ For con}unctionf whUb do not ramor* tbct verb to tb« •nd of tba phmt 

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hail become of him 7 IDa^ ifl ed eben, wburd^ tt fha 
fo gro^n ecf)abcn crlitten l)at, ttWDon cr jid) fd>n>er(ic^ iwrtfr 
etbolen IDirb, it is precisely that, by which be has sus- 
tained such a loss, as he will find it difficult to recover 
from. (Lesson XLVll ) 

Obs. A. When a proposition in which the verb is 
required at the end of the sentence, contains one of 
the auxiliaries frin and ttJfrbett, or one of the verbs 
6urfett, foimen, laffeti, miijfen, fotten, nH>Hen^ joined to an 
infiiiitive, these take their place inmiediately after the 
infinitive. Ex. ^SSknn @ie ba^ ^)finb f aufint tocVicn, if yoa 
wish to buy the horse. (Lesson LXIX.) But wken 
not governed by a conjunctive word, they stand before 
the infinitive and its case. Ex. SQoOen ®ie bo^ 9f^ 
foufen ? Do you wish to buy the horse ? 

Obs, B. Incidental or explanatory propositions are 
placed immediately after the word which they define, 
or at the end of the principal proposition. Ex. & ifi 
fdjtott, eiiteti gctnb, todd^ev toadjfam ift, ju ubcrfattm, or; 
e^ ifl \d)mr^ einen $einb ju uberfaDen^ tceldjtv mdf^am ifl 
(Lesson LX.) 

Obs. C. When there are at the end of a sentence 
two infinitives, two past participles,, or an infinitive 
and a past participle, the verb which the conjonctioD 
requires at the end, may stand either before or after 
them. Ex. fflenn ®ie S^re Section njcrteit Ihibirt tjatat^ 
or: Ihibirt fyiben ttjerben, fo werbe id} S^nen fagen, toa^ St 
{U ttfim tiaUxif when yoU have studied your lesson. I 
shall tell you what you have to do. (Lesson LXXXE) 


5th, Wheno vc r a oontcn ce begins with any other 
word than the subject or nominative, its order is in- 
verted, and in all inversions the subject stands after 
the verb in simple, and after the auxiliary in compound 
tenses (Lesson LVIU.). From this rule must be ex* 
cepted conjunctive words which serve to unite senten- 
ces. They leave the subject in its place and remove 
the verb to the end of the sentence (Lesson XLVE 
and Rule 4th above). 

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A Gennan sentence may begin with an adverb, s 
preposition and its case, a case, an adjective, a parti- 
ciple or an infinitive, Ex. S^nte g c ^ e id) tiid)t an^, 
I do not go out to-day ; morgen n> e r b e id) ®ie befud)en^ 
to-morrow I shall come to see you ; im SUtfange fd)ttf 
@ctt i^tmntel unb @rbe^ in the beginning God made 
heaven and earth. SBoit fciiteti ^itiberti fprac^ 
e r, he spoke of his children. S5ei S^nen Ijahe idf 
mtin SSudf twgefien, I forgot my book at your house. Den 
fBHen\djai mad)t fcin 9Bitte gro^ unb Hem (gd)ttter),his will 
makes a man great and little. Meirf) i(l er tn'djt, aber 
QeUtjtt, he is not rich, but learned. ®elie6t tt>irb er ntc^t 
aber gefurdjtet, he is not loved, but feared. Sdjaben tarn 
Scber, aber nu^eii fann mv ber SBetfe utib ®vitef any man 
can do injury, but the wise and good only can be use- 
ful. (Lesson LVHI.) 

6th, The subject is placed after the verb in an in- 
version of propositions, that is, when that which ought 
to stand first, is placed after, and forms, as it were, 
the complement of the other. In other words : the 
subject is placed after its verb in the second membei 
of a compound phrase (Lesson LXXVII.). An inver- 
sion of propositions takes place, when the first propo- 
sition begins with a conjunction. Ex. I)aP er ®ie liebt^ 
mei^ i^ (for: id^ tt>eip, ba^ er ®fe Kebt), I know that 
he loves you. 3e ffei^iger em ©djiiJcr ifl, bejlo fdjnettere 
^ortfc^ritte madft e r, the more studious a pupil is, the 
more progress he makes. . SBentt id} xtid) XO&vCf fo ^ & 1 1 e 
I c^ ^eunbe, I should have friends, if I were rich. 3lad^ 
bene n)tr bie ©tabt t)erlaffett Ijatttn, jog ber 5^i«^ wt 
btefelbe eiti, when we had left the town, the enemy en- 
tered it (Lesson LXXXI.). 

Obs. In transposing the phrase there is no inversion 
of propositions. Ex. Der gernb jog in bie ©tabt tin, 
lia4bem voir biefelbe Derlaffen f^attenf the enemy entered 
the town, after we had left it (Lesson LXXVII.). 

7th, The subject also follows its verb, when in an 
Inversion of propositions, the coi\iunction n> e n tt is left 
cmtin the first. Ex. 3|l bad ®etter gfmfiig (for, 
bod Setter gfiitfHg ifl)^ fo toerbe tc^ biefe Steife in odA 

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Zdfitn ontretm^ if the weather is favourable I shaB «l 
out in a wecK (Lesson LXXXI.). 

The same is the case with the conjunctioi. i*, 
whether. Ex. 3d^ toei^ tiidjt, f d^ I af e ober road}t ii 
(for: e6 id) fd)fafe ober tt>ad)e), I do not know whether I 
am asleep or awake ; and all compound conjunctions, 
such as : oi^(eic^^ obfc^oH/ wtnn ^Uid), wena fc^oir^ though. 
Ex. ^in i d) Qkid) (fc^ott) ttidf)t retd) (for : 06 or tvemt Uf 
gleic^ nidjt reid) bin), fo 6m id) bod) jufriebeit/ thoug^h I am 
not rich, I am nevertheless contented. 

Obs. Adverbs of comparison, such as : toit, as ; fftUff 
tfoit, the same as ; itic^t itur — fonbem au(^/ not only — but 
also. &C.9 make the nominative of the second member 
go after the verb, but not that of the first (this ob- 
servation is included in Rule 6. above). Ex. ffiie (or 
g(dd)n>ie) ba^ 9Reer t)om SQinbe (ctoegt toiA, a(fo wirb 
tin 9R a n It Don feiiten ?eibf nfc^afiten bewegt, as the sea 
is agitated by the winds, so a man is agitated by his 

8th, Some conjunctions, when beginning a sentence, 
make the nominative go after its verb, as : bod), how- 
ever; benttoc^, nevertheless; aieidftoohlf notwithstand- 
ing ; beffen itngead)tet/ for all that; tttd)t^ beflo toeit%av 
nevertheless ; tjing^geit, im ®ege«t^eil, on the contrary. 
(This rule is included in Rule 5.) Ex. 2)effen rngtady 
Ut ffaien ©ie ittentate meiiteti ®unfd) erfuOen too0m/ 
for all that you were never willing to accomplish my 
desire ; bed) fc^rieb er,er fotiitte nUtjt fomtneit, however 
he wrote that he could not come. 

0th, The subject follows its verb when the phrase is 
interrogatiA e or ejaculatory. Ex. Serttett ^tjxt 
S)€rten JBrftber beutfc^? do your brothers learn 
German? ®ic gliidtid) fiitb ©ic! orSBie finb ®te 
fo glitcHid) ! how happy you are 1 (Lesson XXXII. and 

Obs. When the subject is a personal or an interro- 
gative pronoun, the construction of the interrogative 
sentence is the same as in English. Ex. 3fl er ja 
^ufe ? is he at home ? ©itib 3t)re ^dulciit ®d)Weflfrn 
fa bent Oarteti? are your sisters in the garden? ffiff 
Ifl ba ? who is there ? ffia^ i}ahtn ®ie ^ettm ? what 

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have you done ? 9EBeIrf|er ^aU fjat Mefe Sitdjet gefcmfti 
itnb totm fjat er flf l)erel)rt ? which boy has bought those 
books, and to whom has he given them ? 3Ba^ fiir cu 
lien SEiaaen habm ®ie gcfauft ? what carriage have you 

10th, The subject not only stands after the verb, but 
also after all the words relating to it, when the sen- 
tence begins with the indefinite pronoun ed. Ex. & 
Uf)Xt vm^ hie (Srfa^rung, experience teaches us. 
& tfi nid)t aUe Xa^e etne fo gate ®e(egen^ett^ there is not 
every day such good opportunity. 

1 1th, In inversions where the subject stands after 
its verb, it may take its place either after or before 
the other cases, if they are personal pronouns, and il 
the subject is a substantive. Ex. Syente gibt mein ?eJ)tet 
wtr ein Suc^, or ^eutegtbt mix mein ?ebrer ein Sud), to-day 
my master will give me a book. ®e(lem gab mein ?e!)# 
tev t^ mix, or geflem gab e^ nttr mein ?e^rer, my master 
gave it to me yesterday. £>b ex gfeid) ganj entflettt war, 
erfannte i^n bod) fein @o^n, or erfannte fein ©oljn it}n bodf, 
though he was quite disfigured, nevertheless his son 
recognized him. 

12th, But if the subject is likewise a personal pro- 
noun, or if the other cases are substantives, it must 
precede. Ex. ®eflem gab er e^ mir (not ed mit er), yes- 
terday he gave it to me. Sa^er liebt ber ©c^fller ben ?e^ 
rer (not liebt ben Setter ber ©c^uler), therefore the pupil 
loves his master. 2)effen ungea^tet erfannte ber ®o^n ben 
Sater (not ben Sater ber @o^n), nevertheless the son re- 
cognised his father. 


A straDger havlDg sold some false jewels (ber fotrd)e 6'bel)l(tn) to 
a Roman empress (Me tSmtfc^e itairctinn), she asked (fertctn wn) 
her husband (to msike) a signal example (of him) (tie ouffotlenbc 
^knn^^uung). The emperor, a most excellent and clement prince 
(ber «n fel^t atifibtgcc wnb mttter Jflrfl war), finding it impossible tt 
pacify (6cru6iqen) her, condemned the jeweller to be thrown to the 
wild beasts (sum ^anipfc mit ben wtlben i;tf)icren). The empress re. 
•olTed to be present (3euae) with her whole court (ber 4c>cfftaot) at 
the pnnishment of the unfortunate ma.i (feine^ Sobe6). As he was 
led into the arena (auf ben Jtampfp(o| ai\iihri wutbe), he expected to 
lie (f(( auf ben S^b gefapt ma4<n) ; out instead (flott governs the 

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fonitiT^} of a wild beast a lamb (hi6 9iimni) cama ap to Bim anl 

caressed him (njcId)C^ ibm (icbtcfcte). The empress, furious (duferfl 
aufi)cbrad>t) at the deception (fid) jum ©cflcn gcljaltcn )u fct)cn), com- 
plained bitterly of it ((id) bitter bc^CQcn Ocflagcn) to (bci) the em- 
peror. Ho answered : " I punished the criminal (X>ct JBcrbrcdKt) 
iccordinp: (nod)) to the law of retaliation (t>06 aBictcrwtgtfmng^rcdjt). 
He deceived (bctrii^cn*) you, and he has been deceived in his turn 


The bakers of Lyons, having gone to Mr. Dugas (^ Scmantcm 
fcmnicn*), the provost (tct Stol>trtd)tcr), to ask his pennisston (3es 
nwnticn um ^(aubnip bitten*) to raise the price of bread (mit ben 
S3tcbe au^tifd)(a^en), he answered that he would take their petition 
into consideration (cr rocllc ten ©egcnflanb tbtec iBttte unrcrfud>en). 
As they took leave (n)c^c^cn*), they contrived to slip (tic^cn fie im* 
bemcrft) a purse containing (mit) two hundred Louis d'ors (^et Seuifs 
t*or) on the table. — When they returned, in the full conviction (nicJbt 
jtOi'tfeln) that the purse had been a powerful advocate in their iavooi 
(ivirffam fiit einc fefld)C fprecben*), the provost said to them : ** Gen- 
Uemen, 1 have weighed (abm^gen) your reasons (tct @runl>) in the 
scale of justice (tie 5Bocjfd)ate ber (Skredjtigfeit), and I have foand 
them wanting (nid)t ooUn>td)ti()). I have not thought it expedient 
(3cb ^ic(t nid)t bafur) by a fictitious raising of price (unter einer ttiiys 
arUnbeten !Si)eurun<)) to u^ake the public (Uk^ ^ublifum) suffer : I 
have, however (ubtigens), distributed (vettfeeilen) your money to (un* 
ter Avith accus.) the two hospitals of the town, for I concluded (i<ft 
a(flut>tc) you could not intend it for any other purpose (bet ©ebrou^}. 
Meanwhile (3d) f)obe etn^cfef)en) as you are able to give such alms 
(fcUbe Ktmcfen |u geben), it is evident you are no losers (oer(t<cm*) 
oy your trade (bas ©cwfcbe)." 



A physician of (in) Dublin, who was rather old (wclcbct f^en 
{temdd) beiaf)rt max), but who was very rich and in extensive prac- 
tice (in gtcpem 9{ufe fie^en*), went one day to receive a considerable 
(^tem(td) grop) sum of money in bank notes and in gold. As he was 
returning home with (betaben mit) this sum, he was stopped (anM> 
ten*) by a man who appeared out of breath (oupec 2(t^cm), owing to 
the speed with which he had run (tocil ct gu ("d^nett geCaufen nwr). 
This man asked him (Unb ter i^n bot) to come to see his wife, 
whom a violent diarrhoea retained in bed dangerously ill (an cin<iii 
^cfiigcn Stuffe geffibrlirf^ !ron! barnieber lieijcn*) ; he added that it wm 
urgent she should have immediate advice (bo9 fd)(euniac ^i(fe (cfw 
netbrocnbig n)<!(re), and at the same time promised tlie physican hii 
gumea fee (einc ®uince fttc eincn JBefud)). 

The physician, who was very avaricious (get jig), was pleased mt 
me protpect of gaining his guinea (et(te fie |u t)crbieiien) ; he direo 

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iBd 0«§eii in) the man to Jead the way (Semanbem bcti ISBcg |elgfn)» 
and promised to follow. He was led to a house situated (flct)cn*) 
Tn a remote (cntlcgfit) street, and made to ascend to the third story 
(in ba^ brittc ©tccfiucrfj, where he was admitted into a room, the 
door of which was immediately (atfcOal^) locked (t»v'rfd)lic9i'n*). 
The gruide (Dcr Jubtcr) then presenting (^arrcid)cn*) a pistol with 
one hand,^nd with the other an empty (Iccr) purse, which was 
open, spoke as follows (hicrouf tetcte tcr 5ul)rct ben erfd^rocfcncn 2Crjt 
f^cnbfrma^en ait/ inbcni/ &c.)* 

*'*• Here is my wife : yesterday she was seized with a violent 
diarrhoea (an cincm fjcftigen SBaudbfluffc (eiten»), which has reduced 
her to the state (in ben Bufianb oerfc|cn) in which you (now) see 
her ; yon are one of our most eminent (gefd)tcft) physicians, and 1 
know you are better able than any one to cure her. I am besides 
(ttthrrbte^) aware that you possess the best remedy for her ; haste 
then to employ (ann)cnben) it, unless yon prefer swallowing (sets 
fUKucfen) the two leaden pills (bie ^iOe) contained in this instru- 
ment." The doctor made a horrible face (ta^ oOfd)cu(id)C @eftd)t), 
bat obeyed. He had several bank notes and a hundred and twen- 
ty-five guineas rolled up (in 9teIU*n) ; he placed the latter (bie (c|s 
tern) into the purse, as he had been desired (gebutbig), hoping thus 
to save his bank notes. 

But the thief (ber ©aunet) was up to this, and was perfectly 
aware of his having them in his pocket (mu^te^ ^a^ er fte in bet Sas 
|d}e ^tte). "Wait," said he, *'it would not be fair (biUiq) that 
you should have performed (perrid)ten) so miraculous a cure (bie 
5tur) without remuneration (oeraeben^) ; I promised you a guinet 
for your visit, I am a man of honour (ber sD^onn ocn (S^re), and 
here it is ; but I know that you carry about your person (bet fic^ 
fyib^n) several little recipes (ba^ ^ecept plur. e) most efficacious 
(fef)t roirffam) as preventives against the return (bie JRftcffebr) of the 
disorder (bod llebet) you have just removed (bet(en) ; you must be 
so kind as to leave them with me." The bank-notes immediately 
took the same road as the guineas had done. The thief, then 
keeping his pistol concealed beneath his cloak (ber 9)2AnteO, ac- 
eompaLidd the doctor into the street (bierauf fttbrte ber @^auner, in^ 
bcm — n>tebeT guriicf) requesting him to make no noise. He stopped 
him (Hi\)in laffen*) at the corner (an ber ©cfe) of a street, and fop- 
bidding (vetbtetin* ; him to follow, suddenly (p(S|Ucb) disappeared, 
to seek, in a distant part of the town (Jbai cnttegene @tabt9iertel), 
another habitation (bie aBo()nung}. 

247. DIALOGUE (bie Unterrcfcung) 

^Ol^O OF TUEIK CUlLl>Kis.n. 

Countess. Forgive me for having disturbea (mecfen loffen*) 
you 8o early ; but I wanted to speak to you on matters of un« 

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CkmnL You alann (beunni(^tgen) me .... I see that jm 
have been crying; what has happened, mydear (t^eutr)? 

Countess, I own I am a little agitated (unruf^tg) ; but I hava 
nothing unpleasant (Uitangene^med) to communicate (mttt^eiltit); 
on the contrary. 

Count, From your emotion (bte ^ewegung)) I should guess 
Emily to be the cause of it (ba§ 9on — tit dtttc tfl). ' 

Countess, It is true .... My sister came this moTning 
with a proposal (etnc ^tixatff ©orfc^lagcn*) for her. 

CounL Well? 

Countess. The gentleman who asks her (in marriage) is en- 
dowed with (befi^en*) all the advantages (tcr IBor^ug) of birth 
(bie ®eburt) luid fortune (tad ®(itcf)* His merit is acknowl- 
edged (anerfennen) by alL He is thirty; his person agreeable ; 
he loves Emily, and even refuses the fortune (tie Xudfleuer) 
which we should give her, stating his affection to be secured hj 
her only (ocrlanot nur pe). 

Count, But how comes it that you are not oveijoyed at this 
(auger fic^ ©or grcu&e fei'n*)? I am very anxious (oor SSegtnt* 
be brennen) to learn his name. 

Countess. You know him ; he ofien comes here, and yoa 
like him exceedingly (febr). 

Count. Pray gratify tbefnebiaen) my curiosity. 

Countess, It is the (jount of Moncalde • . • • 

Count, The Count of Moncalde ! a foreigner ; but he prob> 
ably (»abrfd)einli(^) intends lo settle ((id; nfeberlaffcn*) in 
France? • . . 

Countess, Alas ! he has declared that he can promise no 
thing (fetne QSerpfltc^tung etngebcn*) onthat sco^ (bie f)tnfi<bt); 
this is informing us (erf (aren) clearly (betit(t(ib) enough, that hB 
intends to return to his own country. 

Count. And you would nevertheless accept him fixryoar 
daughter ? 

Countess, I have Imown him (Um()ang mit Semanbem (a< 
ben*) for four years. I am thoroughly acquainted with hii 
disposition (ber Sb^racter). There cannot be a more virtuoui 
(tugenbbaft) or estimable (fcbo^endwertb) man- He is veij 
clever and agreeable (oott ®eift unh StmtebmKc^feit fctn*), bi 
much good feeling CqefiibbDlOt is well informed (unterri(btet)t 
and perfectly devoid of affectation (unaffecttrt). He is a passion- 
ate admirer of talent (etnen te{benfd)aftlic^en ©efcbmacf f&r %Cif 
(entc babcn*) ; in short (mit einem SIDorte) he possesses eveij 
quality (bte Stgenfd^aft) that can answer my daughter's happv 
ness (gliicfltc^ madden). How can I reject him (fit tbm oerjoi 

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§fR)t Surety, my love (metn Sf^^un^)' 7^ <lo ^^ think toe m 
oelfisli (emed fold)en Saotdmud fd()tg (lalten*). 

CotiiU (taking her hand) (fic bet ber ^mt fajfenb). But 
can I consent to a sacrifice (bad Opfer) that would nmke you for 
ever (auf immcr) unhappy ? Besides (Uebertted) I never couU 
hrinf^ myself to part from Emily. — She is my daughter ; more 
than that even, her amiable disposition is your work* In Emi- 
ly I find your sense (bet ®etfl) and your virtues. No, I cannot 
part Cftd) trennen) from her. I am looking forward with so much 
delight (fi(i^ etne fo fuge JDorftcttung ©on tern IBergnugen mac^cn) 
to her entrance into the world (fie m We ffielt ctngefu^rt su fc< 
^en) ! I am in much hopes of her shining in it (i^red guten Su 
foIg§ bann iu gemejen). — How gratifying (mie t(>eucr) to me 
will be the praise (bad Sob) bestowed (ert^etlen) on her! — for 
I am convinced (ba td^ bad iBemugtfetn (^abe), that to your care 
of her (bte Sorgfalt) alone, my love, she will be indebted for 
whatever success she may obtain. Afler having devoted (mtb^ 
wlttO ^0 best years of your life to her education, can you now 
give her up, and see her torn from (entretgen* with dative) your 
arms and her country ; can you consent thus to lose in one mo- 
ment the fruit of (oon) fifteen years of anxiety (SRube unb Srbett) ? 

Countess, I have laboured for her happiness, and (have) not 
(sought) to educato (brtngen*) a victim to my own vanity. I 
beseech you, consider (bebenfen^O also the great and unhoped 
for advantages of the match (bte QSerbtnbung) now in agitation 
itoeldjc man und aubtetet). Think of the smaUness (bte tlBittcU 
ma^igf eit) of her fortune. Consider the excellence and amiable 
disposition, the high birth and immense (unermeg(td)) fortune of 
her future husband ! — It is true, I shall be separated from 
Emily, but she will never forget me • • . this thought will be 
my consolation, and without fear ^r her future life (iiber bad 
®(^tdffa( Smtliend beni^igt), I shall be able to bear any other 
trial iaU^ ertragen). 

CounL Bat will Emily herself be able to bring herself to 
leave you? 

Countess. She has always been accustomed to obey the dic- 
tates of reason (bte 93emunft Dermag ailed iiber fie). I am wil- 
ling to believe this will cost her some effort (bte Snfhrengund 
»trb tbr fc^mer fatten) ; but if she does not dislike tSemanbem 
migfaSen*) Ae temper and person of Mr. de M oncalde, I can 
Answer (auf (t<^ ncbmen*) for her compliance (fic su bewegen), 
however painful (fd)n)terig) the sacrifice (ju btefem Opfer). In 
short I entreat (befd)tt)6re) you to entrust entirely to (fic^ ^m% 
tertaffni* auf) me the care (wegen ber ®orge) of her happiness 

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CounL Well (SDMan)^ since jou wish ii, wiU give mf 
consent You have indeed, my dear, earned (crwcrben*) for 
yourself a right (bad JWed)t) to dispose of your daughter (ubertV 
®d)icffa( 3U entfd^eiben), which I will not dispute (ftreitig madjcn). 
I know you will saciiiice (aufopfcrn) yourself for the sake oi 
one so dear to you (fur bicfen fo tj^euem ©egcnflanb). — I fore- 
see (©oraudfe^en*) that I shall not have your fortitude (bcr SJhitt)t 
but I admire, and can no longer withstand (wiberflebcn*) (your 
argument).— Still (3cbod)) think, what sorrow (n>ime( Summer) 
you are preparing for yourself (fid) fcereitcn) ; how shall I my- 
self support your grief and my own, your tears and those oi 

Countess, Do not fear (bcfurd)tcn) that I should cloud (tcum 
ru^igcn) your life by useless (iiberfliuffig) repinings (btc Sfftgc). 
How could I give myself up to sorrow when my greatest con- 
solation will be the hope of alleviating (mtlbcm) your grief! • 

Count. Ah. you alone are every thing to me ! You know 
it we'J . . . . friendship, admiration, and gratitude are the ties 
(bic SSanbe, plur.) that bind (feffctn) me to you. The influence 
(Die §)errfc()aft) you have acquired (crlangen) over my mind 
(fiber nid)) is so thoroughly justified (rcd)tferttacn) by your vir- 
tues, that far from denying (ocrlaugncn), I glory in it (feiitcn 
iRubm bartn fc^eii/ fie anjuerfennen). — It is to you I owe every 
thing : my reason, my sentiments (bad ®efu(^()> niy principles 
(ber ©runbfa^) and my happiness. In you I find the most ami- 
able as well as the most indulgent (nad)ftd)ttg) of friends, the 
wisest (wetfe) and most useful iSviser (btc nugltc^jlc 9?atb9ebe» 
rtnn). Be then the arbit3r of my children's destiny (bte ® d^icM* 
rid)terinn fiber bad ©djicffaO as you are that of my o^n. But 
at any rate (roenigflend) let us attempt (atted »erfud)en) to per- 
suade the Count of Moncalde to settle (fid) nteberlafTen) in 
France. ... He seemed so struck (gerubrt) by your afiection 
(bte ^dttlidjteit) for Emily, and to feel for you such sincere 
attachment (?(nl&an9Kd)fett) that I cannot yet believe hb inten- 
tion (bie 5(b(lc^t) to be to separate you from your child. I can- 
not think his decision (ber Sntfd)(ug} unalterable (unoerante^ 

Countess. No, do not let us flatter ourselves. Ho is a finn 
and decided character (fein — ifl fefl unb entfd)tc(fen). He hu 
positively (belh'mmt) told my sister that it would be \'ain to at- 
tempt to exact from him a promise (ibm tie 95e^m<^un<| tjcrjui 
fd)reiben) of residing in France. His resolution is irrevocably 
(unwtberrufltcb) taken to return to Portugal. 

Count. You grieve (bctruben) me .... But I lepeat ti 

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jooj tlie fitte of Emilj . s in your hands. Whatever it may co«l 
me, you shall be absolute mistress (bie unutnfd)ranfte @ebtcte^ 
rtnn) of it« I shall consent to whatever you decide on (befd)lie# 
gen*)- Bo you intend speaking to-day (no(^ imtt) (on the 
subject) to Emily 1 

Countess, Ailer dinner .... But it is late ; it is time to 
dress .... I have not yet seen my sons to-day ; let us go and 
see them. 

Count. I granted to consult (urn Uiatl^ f ragen) you on (we^en) 
something connected with (angefeen*) them. I am dissatisfied 
with their tutor (ber |)ofmetfler). Another has been proposed 
(oorfd^Iagen*) me, I should wish you to speak to him ; I am told 
he speaks English perfectly ; I cannot judge myself of the latter. 

Countess, I will tell you if he really understands it well . • 

Count, How? . • . Butyou have never learnt English • • 

Countess, I beg your paidon. I have been studying it for 
the last year, to be able to teach Henrietta, who hfui asked me 
to give her (3emanben urn ctwai erfuc^en) an English master. 
In general (3m 3urd)fd)nttt) masters teach so carelessly (mtt fo 
©leier JRac^ldftlaf ctt) that, however excellent they may be, two 
years of their lessons (bet Unternd^t) are not worth three 
months (bad 5)tertcljaj|r) of those (©on bcm) given by a mother. 

Count, What a (wonderful) woman you are ! . . • . Thus 
till your children's education is completed, you will spend part 
of your life with masters. Half of it (!Die etne ?)alfte) you devote 
(onwoenben) to study (jic^ ju unterric^ten), and the other half in 
teaching what you have learnt .... Yet in spite of such nu- 
merous occupations, whilst you thus multiply ())etx>ielfalttgen) 
jour duties, you spare time to devote (wt'bmen) to your firiends 
and to the world (bte ©efeOfc^aft). How do you manage (e§ 
anf angen) ? 

Cmmtess, It is always possible to find time for the fulfilment 
of duties that are pleasing to us (bte und t^^euer finb). 

Count, You always surprise me (befldnbtg tn Srflaunen fe« 
^en)* I own .... Ah ! if your childbren do not make you hap. 
py, what mother could ever expect firom hers a reward of her 
afifection ! . . • • And our dear Emily may be for ever lost to 
you ! • • . I cannot bear (ertragen*) &e thought of it ! — Shall 
you see your sister again to-day 7 Shall you give her your an- 
M9f3T for the Count of Moncalde ? 

Countess, He requested a prompt decision (efne fc^neQe unb 
tefh'mmte) .... I shall accordingly give (ertfeetlen) him the 
answer, since you allow it, as soon as I have questioned Emily 
«i the suligecl (SmUiend (Sefinrntngen priifeo). 





CknmU 1 am certai]i« Emily will refuse im^dfia^^^ hm, 

Counless, I think as you do, but it is not enough (t^inretctKi^ 

ffin*) that she has no aversion (abgeneigt fcin*) to the Count of 

MoncaMe, and that she feels (^egen) for him the esteem he so 

justly deserves 

CounL Well, I see, we must submit (ftd^ entf<i(^(iegen*) to 
this sacrifice (tie 3(ufopfenind) • • • • Speak to your daug^ 

Speak to her alone, I shouM never have courage to 

gunport (ott^alten*) such an interview (bie Uitterrebiuid) • • • 
1 teel I should only spoil all your woik. 



AgaUuu I was looking for you . • • • But, dear Emily, 
what is the matter? 

EmUy. Have you seen mamma (bie 9Rutter) 1 

Agatha. No, she is gone out ; she b gone to my aunt's. 

Emily. And my father ? 

Agathcu He has shut himself up (ft^ einfcf^tie^en*) in his 
study (bad ftabinett) .... But surely, Emily, they are thinkp 
ing of your marriage (bie fBexf^eivatf^mc) ; I guess (erratien*) 
as much (ed) from your agitation (an Seiner SBeriDtmui^). 

Emily, Ah, dearest sister, you little dream (nie loirfl X)tt 
ben Xiamen be^ienigen errat^en) who is my intended (bem man 
mid) beflimmt) ! . . • • Agatha, dearest Agatha, how much 1 
pity you, if you love me as well as I love you I 

Agathcu Good heavens (®ere(^ter t)immeD I Explain 
(Srfldren) yeurself more clearly (beut(tcf^). 

Emily. I am desired (SRan befle^b mtr) to many the 
Count of Moncalde, and he is to take (mit ft(^ f&^ren) me to 

Agatha. And you intend to obey t . • • • Could you leave 
us ? .... Is it possible my mother even should consent t 

Emily. Alas I (Setber) dear Agatha, it is but too true. 

Agatha. No, I never can believe it .... it is impossible 
you ever can (Cu barfjl nicf^t) obey. 

Emily. What are you saying? Do you think I should 
oppose my mother's wishes (fann id) meiner SOhitter tDiber» 
fleben) ? 

Agatha. But do you think she herself will ever consent to 
wch a 8epi»tation ? 

EnUy She only considers (in SSetrac^tima iteffen*) what 

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di» calk my interest CDer SioxHtiU ; she enturelj forgets her 
8el£ Alas ! she also forgets that I could enjoy (gentegen*) ne 
iu4>piness she did not witness (feeffen fic nid)t ^eu^t ware) I 

Agatha. Dear sister, refuse your consent (nicl)t emmiaigen) ! 

Emily. ^ have gwen my word. 

AgaUuu Retract Ouriicfne^men*) it ... out of affection to 
my mother herself; your unfortunate obedience (^et (Se^orfam) 
would be (Dorberetten) a constant source of regret (tie etDtge 
Seite) to us alL 

J5mUy. Agatha, you do not know my mother's fortitude. 
Her sensibility (3^r gefiit^boSed $et)), though mastered (gefet^ 
ttt) by her superior mind (tic iiberlesene 93enmnft), can, it is 
tiw, sometimes make her sufier, but will never be strong 
enough to betray her even into showing a momentaiy weak- 
ness (nie loirb ed dntn Sugenbftdf ©c^wac^e tn t^r b^n)orbrtn« 
gfit) • • • . She is incapable (unfd^tg) of ever regretting 
(bereuen) she has fulfilled a du^. 

Ag€dka. Enuly ! dearest sister, if you go, I shall not sui 
vive (etwaS uber(eben) such a misfortune ! 

Emily. Ah, if you love me, conceal (from) me the excess 
rtad Uebermaf ) of your grief. It can only unfit me for the 
lask I have to perform (nodcftcr nur )u febr boju seefanet t(l, 
* mi<l^ nocft (d)wid)ct gu madden)* — ^Do not further rend (jnidft 
ooflenbd ierretgen*) a heait abeady torn by the conflict of (Jbai 
fd)en fo gftbei& tfl awtftf^en) duty, afiTection and reason. 

A^aiha. Do not expect me to confirm COid) )u befefligen 
tn) this cruel resolution. I can only weep uid lament my own 

EmUy. I hear some cme • • • • Dear Agatha, let us dry 


On ths xjABniTT to errob Cffiie fef^t man fld^ {rten fonn) 
OF OUR juDGiosifrs (fa fefacm Urtbeile), or thh ncjuRT 
(ber ©d^aben) rkfah) (erfe^en)* 

An English stage-coach (bie Canbftttfc^e), full of travellers 
(bet Sleifenbe), was proceeding (fabren*) to York. Conversa. 
don fell on (SRar fptad) titl 90n) the highwaymen and robbers 
diat biested (bte man ofterd auf— antreffe) those parts (bet 
fE^e^ and on the way of concealing one's money. Each 
person had his secret, but no one thought (ftetnem ^e( ed dit) 
of telling it (offenbaren)« One young lady (bad SRabdl^en) only 
«f eii^tfeen, was less forudent than the rest (niiit fo f (itg fe{n*> 




Imagining, no doubt, (Obne S^^f^^ ^" ^^^ SWetming) that iht 
was thereby giving a proof (ber 55en)ei^) of her clovemew 
(fccr Servant), she said ^*ith great self-satisfaction (gan| cffittf 
tcrjig) that she had a draft (ber SBe(^fe(bncf) for two hundred 
pounds, which was (beflcj^cn*) her whole "fortune, but that the 
thieves would be very clever (tijh'g) if they thought of seeking 
for (»enn ftc — fuc^cn fottten) this booty (ber 3*aub) in her shoe, 
or rather (ja fc^ar) under the sole of her foot ; to find it they 
would be obDged to (ed muflte it^nen nur cinfaCen) rob her U 

The coach was soon after (balb barauO stopped (onfettften*) 
by a gang of thieves (bit Stauberbanbe), who called upon (auf 
forbern) the af&ighted and trembling travellers to deliver op 
(iergeben*) their money. They accordingly all puUed oat 
(berau^jie^en*) their purses, fully aware (fii) oorfleflen) that 
resistance (ber SBtberflanb) would be perfectly useless, and 
might prove dangerous (ober gar gefabrltt^). The sum (thui 
produced) appearing too small to these gentlemen (of the road 
they threatened (brot^en) to search (burd^fuc^en) all the lugga^ 
(bie £ffecten), if a hundred pounds were not immediately given 

** You will easily ((etd)t) find double that sum (baft Soppefc 
te)*" said an old gentleman fix)m the comer of the coach (rief 
i^nen — ^intcn au^ fccm ffiagcn gu), " if you examine (burti^ 
fuc^en) the shoes and stockings of that lady." The advice was 
'*iT well taken (aufnebmcn*), and the shoes and stockings being 
' tiled off*, the promised treasure (bet ©erfiiitbigte @(^a^) was 
discovered (geigt fic^). The robbers humbly (bofitd)) thanked 
the lady, paid (mad)en) simdry compMments on the beauty of 
her foot, and without waiting for an answer, they made oft* with 
their prize, leaving the coach to proceed on its joiuney (n^etter 
fabren*). Hardly were the robbers gone, when the ccmsteraa- 
tion (bie QSefWrjung) of the travellers was changed (fi(d^ oenoaiM 
betn) into indignation (tie SButb)- Words could not express 
(fid) n'd)t mtt ^iBorteti au^briicfen (affen*) the sorrow of the poor 
woman, nor the resentment (ber ^ovn) expressed by (empbren) 
the whole party against the betrayer (ber 33erratber). 

The strongest, and even the most insulting epithets of disgust 
(X>it ungKmpflidjflen nnt befc^impfenbflcn QSeinamen) were lav. 
ished on him by all ((td) aud afler Wunbe bbren (affen*), and 
many went even so far as to call him a rascal (ber ^ofeiotdit) 
and the accomplice of the thieves (ber 9taubergeno@;. To 
these marks (bi'c Sleugerung) of the general indignation (bed aft 
Senteinen Unwtdend) (his conduct had excited) was added (oer» 

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(inben*) the threat (tie Orc^uitq) of giving the informer (bn 
SIngeber) a sound beating, and of throwing him out of the window 
(lum fikgen ^inaud), and of instituting legal proceedings against 
him (3emanben QeTid)tlid) betangen). In short (Surj), all seemed 
to concur (firf> crfc^opfen) in forming schemes (licr Sntwurf ) 
for taking exemplary vengeance on Qie offender (an tern Strafe 
baren eine auffadenbe JRa^e). The latter remained perfectly 
UDmoved (pc^ ganj fHtt oerbalten*), and only remarked once in 
extenuation (pd) mit ber 5(cugeruna cntfc^utbtgcn), that a man 
could have nothing dearer to him than himself (3eber fet p(^ 
felbfl tev Siebfle) ; and when the coach reached the end of its 
)oumey (M man am S^cit ber JRetfe war), he suddenly (un©cr? 
friend) disappeared (oerfc^wtn^en*)) before his feUow-travellers 
could accomplish (ind 2Bcrf fe^en) any one (etne eingi'ge) of 
their intended measures (bte beabpc^ttgten aRagrcgdn) against 

As to the unfortunate young lady, it is easy to imagine (pc^ 
90rfleQen) that she passed a sad and sleepless night (tie ^ad)i 
fto^fl traurig unb fc^laflo^ gubringen*). To her joy and aston^ 
ishment (bai Srflaunen)* she received the next day the follow- 
ing letter : 

** Madam, — ^You must yesterday have hated (©crabfc^euen) 
as an informer the man who now sends you, besides the sum 
you then advanced him (DDrfc^tegen^» an equal (g(etc^) sum, as 
interest thereof (aft 3J"fr" barauf)» and a trinket (ba^ 3wtt>^0 
of at least the same value (ber SBertb) for your hair (gu 3bf em 
^aarfc^mucfe). I hope thb will be sufficient (btnreii^en) to si- 
lence (mtlbem) your griefj and I will now explain (fagen) in a 
few words wluit must appear mysterious in my conduct (ben q^ 
i^mtn ®runb metned SSetragenS). After having spent (pcft auf* 
^altcn*) ten years in India (^nbien), where I amassed (jufanu 
menbrtnaen*) a hundred thousand pounds, I was on my way 
home with letters on my bankers (tet ^ed^fetbrtef) to that 
amount (fur bie ganje @umme)) when we were attacked (ange^ 
faOen werben*) yesterday by the highwa}-men. All my savings 
(bie retc^lid^en Srfpamtffe) must have inevitably been sacrificed 
(ed war gefc^e^^en um), had the shabbiness (tic Sarg^ci't) of our 
fellow-travellers (ber Sleifegefabrte) exposed us to a search from 
(9on @etten) these unprincipled spoilers (ber ^(naretfer). Judge 
(Urtbet(en) for yourself; if the klea of returning to India thorough, 
ly empty handed (mit ©otti'g leeren ?)anben), could be support- 
able (ertragltc^) to me. Forgive me, if this consideration (Die 
IBetrad^tung) led (oermogen*) me to betray your confidence 
Cbo^ 3uttautn ^errot^en^ and to sacrifice (oufopfenO a smi* " 

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(miSig) sum, though not my own, to save my whole fintune. I 
am under the greatest obligation to you* I shall be happy to 
testify (Setoeife gcben w>n) my gratitude in any way in mj 
power, and I request you to consider (re(^nen) these tri^s (for 
m4td) as only the expressions (bie dfrtngen S^^^) ^"9 
leadiness (turc^ ip^i^t i(^ mu^ beetfere) to serve toq.'^ 

y Google 


or TBJE 



y Google 

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§ 1. The German language hsts ten parts of speech: 
— The Article^ Substantive or Noun^ Adjective^ Numeral^ 
Pronoun^ Yerhj Adverb^ Preposition^ Conjunction^ and 

Of these six are declinabk; namely, the Article, the 
Noun, the A(yective, the Numeral, the Pronoun, and 
the Verb. 

The remaining parts of speech are indeclinable and 
are called Particles. 

The declinable parts of speech have two numbers, 
the Singular and the Plural 

To substantives, and to all the other declinable parts 
of speech, except the verb, belong three genders, Mas- 
cuUnCy Feminine^ and Neuter. 

§ 2. They have also four cases: — Nominative, 
Genitive^ Dative^ and Accusative^ which in general cor- 
respond to those of the same name in the Classical 

Ist, The nominatiye is employed as the subject of a proposition, 
in answer to the question ^^who7^^ or "wAai?" e. g. SDBet 
fcmmt? bet aSatcr, Me g}luttcr unb bag ^inb fommen ; who comes 1 
the father, the mother and the child are coming. 

2d, The genitive denotes the relation of origin, possession, mw 
tual connection, and many others, which in English are expressed by 
the possessive case, or by the preposition of. It answers to the 
qnesiion ^*' whose V^ e. g. ©clfi-n ^ou^ \\t ba^? ©^ til bc^ ^Sni^f ; 
b(^ ^aufnmnnd ; whose house is this ? It is Uie king's ; the mer« 

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Sd« The dative U the ease of the remote objecU from which aiy 
thing is taken, to or for which any thing is done. It answeia to 
the question ♦Wo wAom.'" "/or what 7^^ e.g. ©em bringft 3>« 
bo$ SBud) ? iDein 6(hrnr ; betn itnab^n ; for whom do you bring that 
book ? For the teacher ; the hoy. 

4th, The accusative indicates the immediate object of an active 
transitive verb, in answer to the question "u'Aom.'** or^iffAo//" 
e. g. flBa« bofl jDu? dinf Scbcc ; ein SXcffcc ; what hast thoal A 
pen ; a knife. 


§ 3. An article is a word which serves to restrict 
or individualize the meaning of substantives. 

There are in German as in English two articles ; 
the definite ber^ btf^ ba^^ the ; and the indefinite ent, eine; 
rttt^ an or a. 

In German both articles are declined, i. e. they indi- 
cate by a change of termination the gender, the num- 
ber, and the case of the substantive to which they be- 




Mmo. Fern. Nent. 




bet/ bie, td^, 





bc«, ttx, bed/ 

of the. 

ber, of the. 


bem, bcr, bent/ 

to the. 

ben, 1 

to ths. 


ben, bie, bad, 





Muo. F«m. 


NoM. etn, etne. 


a, an. 

Gen. rined, ciner. 


of a, an. 

Dat etnem, ctner. 


to a, an. 

Ace. eineti, etne. 


a, an. 


6 4. Ohs. 1. The meaning of substantives without the 
article is expressed in the most general manner. The office 
of the article is to point out either definitely or indefinitely ai 
individual of the genus or species denoted by the substantiTe 
•• g- ber SWwrn, the man ; eine SSlume, a flower. 

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O&t. 2. Hence common nouns onlj, which under one term 
comprehend manj indiTiduals, can, strictly speaking, assume 
the article. The remaining classes of nouns must from the 
nature of their signification commonly reject it; viz: 1st, 
proper names, which already contain the notion of individuali- 
ty ; as, Goethe, Walter Scott, dec ; 2d, abstract substantives 
and names of materials^ the meaning of which is so general, 
that no individual b distinguished ; as, virtue^ ttater^ gold. 

Obs, 3. The article, however, as employed in various rela- 
tions before all classes of substantives, even more frequently 
in Grerman than in EnglisL 


§ 5. The article is used before proper names in the 
foBowing instances : — 

1st, When the name of a person assumes the signification of 
a common noon. This is the case, when the same name is com- 
mon to several individuals ; as, tie €^tuart*^/ btc Gatone^ the Stuarts, 
the Catos, or when it is employed to express some quality oi 
characteristic ; as, er tfl (in ^ciUt ^iate, he is a second Plato ; bet 
G^fat unfrter 3ett, the Cesar of our age. 

2d, If the name of a person is preceded by an adjective ; as, 
tn bciliae ^tru^^ ber grc^e Jriebttcf), St. Peter, Frederick the Great. 

3d, When the name of an author is put instead of his works ; 
as, t4 tcfe ben €fd)o{fpeare, I am reading Shakspeare; \)aUn &\t 
ben 8(fftng ntd) ntd^t? have you not yet purchased Lessing's 
works 1 

4th, To denote familiarity or inferiority; as, tc6 ma^*i unb 
KDta*^ ntd)t glauben, bo$ mid) bee ^ax oedaffen f)ot (filler}, I cannot 
possibly believe that (friend) Max has deserted me; bee Srt( foil 
^efcbminb fommen, let Frederick (servant) make haste to come. In 
this connection the article ma;{r often be rendered into English by a 
possessive pronoun; e. g. mo ifl ber SBatec? where is your father I 
bte 9}2utter if! outtgegangen/ my (our) mother has gone out. 

* 6tfa, To distinguish the gecder of names of countries and placet, 
snch as are not of the neuter gender ; as, bte Gc^ioei^ bet S3rei^ 

6th, The article serves of^n simply to point out the case of the 
aame ; as, ber ^etbnig b e^ ^t\tni, the expedition of Cyrus ; bet Sol 
b c ^ ^cctaM, the death of Socrates. 


§ 6. Before abstract substantives and names of 
materials the article is employed, 

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Itt, To express ^e distinction of case, when the noui is of ^ 
feminine ^lender and therefore indeclinable in the singrolar ($ 30): 
e. g. tcr ;£ag b e r SHac^e ifl gcfonuiKn, the day of vengeance ii 
come; in bcr Jrcibcit bciPgcm ®d)u^, under the sacred protectioD 
of liberty ; b e r ^u(fc bctdrfcn, to stand in need of help. 

2d, When their meaning is restricted to some particular in- 
stance; as, bae SBaffec t>iT QiU, the waters of the Elbe; Nr 
^Uif M €(^ii(er6/ the diligence of the scholar. 


§ 7. Common nouns are usually connected eithet 
with the definite or indefinite article. Its omission, 
however, becomes necessary in the following cases :— 

1st, When the common noun expresses some quality or con^ 
Hon ; as, ct tfl Jtaufntonn^ Jl6nig/ @o(bat gcn)Ot^cn, he has become 
a merchant, king, a soldier. 

3d, In titles, superscriptions, &c., as in Enfirlish ; e. g. IDcctrt 
Sutler; ^crr^ jfrau iDtetrid), Mr., Mrs. Dietrich; tcutf:^ ^ (ti9(if(^ 
8B6rt(rbud)/ German-English Dictionary. 

3d, When the common noun, in connection with a preposition, 
constitutes an adverbial expression, or when several common noons 
are united by a copulative conjunction and form one complex no- 
tion ; e. g. gu 5"^^/ fi^'^ 5anb, gu ©t^tffe reifcn, to travel on foot, by 
land, by sea ; SRc9 unt> Slcitet fd)nobcn, unb ^ie6 unb 5«w^^ ft«^ 
(liBfttgcr), both horse and horseman were panting, and pebbles 
and sparks were flying; nut ®ut unb S3(ut/ with property and 

4th, Common nouns in the plural, denoting several individuals 
in an indeterminate manner, and corresponding to the singular witb 
the indefinite article citi/ cinC/ ctn, do not admit of the article ; as, \^ 
l)a\>t «incn fflrief crboltm, I have received a letter ; plur. id) haH 
S 1 1 c f e er^atten, I have received letters, ^fcrte ftnb nfi|Ud>c Z^Xttt, 
horses are useful animals. 

5th, The omission of the article oflen ffives a partitive significa* 
tion to the substantive, especially, if it be the name of a material 
substance. In this case we supply the English some (the French 
du) ; e. g. gib t^m JBrob, 9Xil^/ SBeiU/ give him some bread, milk, 
wine, &c. 


f^ 8. In a manner peculiar to the German, the definite ar« 
e is often put before a common noun, to indicate that the en- 
tire species is meant ; e. g. t e r TOcnfc^ ifl flerbltc^, man {aU 
men, et)ery man) is mortal. So also before abstract substan- 
tives and names of materials, when their meaning is to be taken 
Id its full extent ; e. g. mt> t> t e ^ugcnb, fie ifl fetit Iccm 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Bd)aU, and Tirtue, it is no empty scund ; bad Sifen ifl ein 9Rc^ 
tad^ iron {aU iron) is a metaL 

The Germans employ the definite article also hefore the names 
€f seasons, months, days, and in many other cases, where the 
English idiom does not admit of it ; e. g. tcx (feng/ bet @ommer/ 
bet Stbenb^ spring, summer, evening ; bad S(^rt(leitt<>um, christi- 
mity, bte (il^e, matrimony, &c. 


§ 9. When in the same proposition several substantives of 
the same gender and number k>Uow each other, the article is 
expressed with the first only ; but if they dififer in gender or in 
number, or are otherwise opposed to each other, it must be 
expressed with each ; e. g. tit 5)er»anbten unb greunbe tk* 
fed SRanned fmb aOe tobt, the relations and friends of this man 
are aU dead ; bcr 5)atcr, tie 5Kutter «nb bte ^inber fmb su 
^aufC/ the fiither, the mother and the children are at home. 

When a substantive in the genitive case limits the meaning 
of another, the article is always omitted before the limited sub- 
stantive, if the genitive precedes it ; e. g. metned Q3niberd 
Sud)— bad aSud^ meincd iBruberd/ my brother's book ; auf fet# 
ncd gebend crftem ©ange, on the first journey of his life. 

^ 10. If the definite article is preceded by one of tho pre« 
positions an^ auf^ hti, tntd), fht, in, ^oon, oor^ hhct, lu, both are 
frequently contracted into one word. 

The foUowing is a list of the principal contractions thus 
formed: — 

e. g. am ^cnfiev, at the window ; 

" onfi Ufer^ to the shore ; 

" ouf^Setb, into the field; 

** bctm 8id)tc, near the light ; 

" burd)« Jcuct/ through the fire ; 

" fftc6 ffiatcrtanb/ for one's country 

" im ^aufe, in the house ; 

" in« aBaffer, into the water; 

" Mm ^immct, from (the) heaven ; 

«* »org 2(n9C|id)t, before the face ; 

" fiberm (StbcnUbcn/ above this earth 

ly life ; 

" fibers g)2ccr, over the sea ; 

** untetm SBaumC/ under the tree - 

*• jum @iM, fortunately ; 

" gut Jroibe to the joy. 

y Google 


instead of an bem, ( 



on ba$. 



ouf bo^. 



U'l t>tm. 



burd) ba« 



[at \>ai, 



xn Urn, 



in bo^. 



wn bent/ 



oor bo^. 



abet bcm. 



ttbet tai, 



untct bem. 



gu bem. 





§ 11. A substantive or noun is the name of any 
person or thing. 

Substantives are divided into three principal cl&s< 
ses : Proper J Common^ and Abstract 

A proper noun is the name of an individual person 
or object ; as, SjitVKoij, ^Cetttfc^Iottb^ Henry, Germany. 

A common noun is a general term comprehending 
a plurality of individuals or parts, and applicable to 
each of them ; e. g. STOcnfc^, SSamn, ?>ferb, man, tree 
Aorse, &c. 

Among common noons may also be included names of materials; 
as, Gtfen/ iron ; SKtId)/ milk, and collective nouns, whicn are singu- 
lar in form, but plund in signification ; as, ^elt, people ; (Skbtrgc^ 
range of mountains. 

An abstract noun is one which serves to denote 
either a quality ^ an activity ^ or mode of beings to ^w^hich 
the mind attributes an independent existence; e. g. 
grei^, liberty ; ?(Ulf, course; ©cb&c^tm^^ memory, &e. 

In German the initial of substantives and worda 
used substantively is always a capital letter. 

We shall consider the substantive in a fonrfbld 
point of view ; namely, as to its Gender^ its Number 
its Inflection^ and lastly its GovemmenL 


§ 12. The granmiatical gender of names of per- 
sons and animals generally corresponds tc their natu- 
ral sex, i. e. the names of all male beings, including 
that of the Divinity and other superior beings regard- 
ed as males, are masculine ; those of all females are 
feminine ; e. g. ber SWattn, the man ; ber ®ott, God ; bcr 
®ei(l, the spirit ; bie ©ottimt, the goddess ; bie Wluttet, 
the mother. 

Exceptions. Diminutiyes in <j^ e n and I e t n ; as, bod ^D^JMkii 
the maid ; to$ !D{^nn(cin^ the mannikin ; also, bo^ SGBdb, the wonaa* 
and certain compounds ; as, bie a)2annlpetfon, the male ; ba6 SDBclb<« 
H(b« S^ueniimmev^ the female, woman. 

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Appellations, comprehending an entire species of living 
beings without reference to any distinction oi sex, are some* 
times masculine, sometimes feminine, and sometimes neuter, 
e. g. ber UWcnf^, man (homo); tic ffiac^tel, the quail; bad 
^fetb, the horse. 

§ 13. With respect to substantives in general, their 
gender, as far as it is reducible to rules, may be deter- 
mined either by their signification^ or by their termi* 


I. Masculines. The name of winds, seasons, months, ana 
days are masculine ; also the points of compass ; as, tcv ytoxt, 
&iihf Ofl^ SBefl^ the north, south, east, west 

II. Femimnes. Most names of rivers are feminine; e.g 
^te X^^mfe, Z>mm, SBefer, the Thames, Danube, Weser, Ex 
cept bcr 3t(>cin, 5Kain, Sf^one, 3lil jc. 

§ 14. m. Neuters. To the neuter gender belong : 

Ist, The names of letters, bad % 93/ £ ic 

2d, All infinitives and other words, which properly are no 
substantives, but are used as such ; e. g. ba^ @e(^en/ ^hxtn, 
the seeing, hearing ; bad @ntt, ©(^one^ the good, beautifiil ; 
bad SBcnn, bad Sfter, the if, the hut. 

3d, Names of countries and places ; as, Seutfc^Ianb/ %XM\U 
xtiii, Sripjig, greiburg, Germany, France, Leipzig, Freiburg. 

Except the followiog : bte Jtnmni/ Crimea ; tie 8au{t|, Lusitania; 
bte ^Qtf/ Mark; bte ^\o\^ Palatinate; bie ^wt^, Switzerland; 
all those endinsr in e i ; as, bte %Mn, SBoIo^ei it., Turkey, Wala* 
ehia ; and all those compounded with o u or g a tl ; e. g. bet SBrei^s 
gau/ bte 9Betterou it. 

4th, Mosc collective noims and names of materials ; as, bad 
®elf, the people ; 33te(>, cattle ; glcifc^, flesh ; 4)aar, the hair. 

5th, Names of metals ; as, bad Stfen^ ®c(b/ ©itbet/ 2^XiM, the 
iron, gold, silver, tin. 

Except : ber itobalt, cobalt ; bte ^ttita, platina ; bee 6tal)I/ steel ; 
bet a^nibod, tombac ; bet 3tnf/ sink. 


§ 15. I. Masculines. To the masculine gender U 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


i St, Primarj derivatives'*' of one syU&ble ; as, ttv %\uq, Sc^Iag, 
^prud)/ Cauf, 5lu§, the flight, beat, sentence, course, river. 

2(1, Most derivatives, both primary and secondary, terminating 
in e {, e r, en, i n g, 1 1 n 9 ; e. g. bet ©ipfel, top ; ^c^nobcl, 
beak; 5tummer, sorrow; hunger, hunger; ©artcn, garden; 
SBagen, waggon ; .tearing, herring ; ^ofting, courtier ; ©iinfr 
ling, fiivourite. 

To these there are many exceptions : — 

Exc. 1. Substantives, the gender of which is otherwise de- 
termined by their signification; e, g. bic ^Stutter, mother; Scdjtct, 
daughter; bic SKcfcl, f>Ut (rivers); bag titbit, silver; SXifltng, 

Exc. 2. Most names of animals in tt, and many names ot 
things are feminine, e, g, bie ?l'mfc(, blackbird; 3)rcfftfl, thrash; 
^ummc(/ bumble-bee; $0^ad)tc(, quail ; 2(d)fe(/ shoulder ; ^ucfd, boss; 
Qx&itU acorn ; &chi{, fork ; 92obc(, needle ; €d)ad)tc(, box ; 6(^tnH 
shingle; Safe(, table; Strcmmct, drum ; 9But^€(, root, &C 

$ 16. Exc. 3. Words in e(/ of Latin origin, which formerly 
ended in la are feminine ; as, bie ^orinel/ fonnula ; 3nfc( (insu/a), 
island, &c. ; but those which originally ended in lum are neater, 
e. g. bag ©rcnipcl (exemp/t^m), the example ; €apitf(, chapter; Dro* 
fct (oracu/um>, oracle. So also, bag S3ttnbcl/ bundle; $D2ittd^ means; 
Ciegcl, seal, and others. 

Exc. 4. The following in e t are feminine : — 

2Cbcr, vein. iticfcr, pine. 

Uu\tet, oyster. ^(aurnicr, cramp, 

©latter, blister. Jtlapper, clapper, 

©utter, butter. Cebcc, liver. 

®|lcr, magpie. Ccitcr, ladder. 

Safety fibre. ^(i\tx, speck. 

Jebct, pen. SiZottcc, adder, 

glitter, tinsel. iDttcr, viper, 

gdter, torture. 9i\i\icv, elm. 

^otfter, halter. ©d)leuber, sling, 

hammer, chamber. Sd)ulter, shoulder. 

Jtetter, wine-press. flBimpcr, eye-lash. 

Exc. 5. The following in e r are neuter : — 

liitcv, age. (Sutcr, udder. 

6itcr, pus. guber, load. 

* Subetantiyes formed from primitive verbs by a simple change ot tks 
isdical vowel, are called primary derivaiive* ; as, SBmc6, breach, from Bit* 
i^rn, to break ; 3uft/ march, from jieben, to march. Commonly they add oa 
other termination to the root of the verb. But sometimes they assume e r, 
ei en, and also b, f, t, % Seccndary derioaHnn are formea either fron 
verbs, from adjectives, or fh>m other nouns, by means of oertain atfisflb 
•aohas ci, er ^cit, «eit ung, f<^aft jc. 

y Google 

ffmn, fodder. ^tf(n, knifil. 

®**^^' Z<rrale SWiftCt/ bodice. 

Sitter, 5b™*«' SKuftet, pattern. 

kiafttv, fathom. ^clflcr, cushion. 

Soger, couch. 9lul>cr, oar. 

%Q^cv, vice. Ufcr, bank. 

Mtv, leather. ©ettcr, weather, 

^ttbcr, carrion. SBuntcr, wonder. 
Scatter, a measure of com. Stnmier, room. 

t «c. 6. Of those terminating in en, the following are neutci -« 
l«» Btdm, basin ; ^iffen, cushion; Sofen, sheet; Si^pen, escateh* 
Mttt Betd^ni, sign. 

§ 17. IL Febonines. To the feminine gender belong : 

Itft, All substantives having the termination t n n (also writ- 
ten t n)) which affix is joined to masculine names of persons 
and anhnals, to form corresponding terms for females ; e. g. 
@ott, @httim] Some, Sowtnn/ lion, lioness; |)e(^^ $e(bcmv 
herOf heroine, 6ic 

2d, Primary derivatives in be, e, t, fl; «. g. bte ©d^laitgi^ 
«nake ; Sunbe, knowledge ; Bemunft, reason ; Stunft, art 
Ese. 1. The following are masculine : — 

IBofl, bast. aXonb, moon. 

* S3eboc6t/ reflection. SOtcnat, month. 

5Betrad)t/ consideration. SRcfl, must. 

S>adit, wick. Bicft, rust. 

iDtenfl, service. Bd^adft, shaft (in minM). 

2)rQ()t, wire. 6*aft, shaft. 

S)unfl, vapour. €)(^ft, rascal. 

Dwcft, thirst. 6o(b, pay. 

Qui% earnestness. ^ttft, tag. 

%nft, forest. Zxeft, comfort 

Jfreft, frost. SBerbac^t, suspicion. 

(9tf<iftt, yest. $Ber(u|!, loss. 

Qetotnnfl, gain. SBonfl, paunch. 

^edbt/ pike. SBic^t, wight. 

^erbft, autumn. SBuf!, filth. 

SRif!, dung. 2xox% dispute. 

Esc^ 9. The following are neuter : — ba^ (S^efpcnfl/ spectra ; (Ste* 
|ld)t, face; |mnpt, head; it tnb, child; Jtteinob, Jewel; eid^t, Jght; 
0ti^, (eoclesiastioal) foundation. 

§ 18. 8d, Secondary derivatives, formed by the affixes e i, 
t, Mtt,fett, ung, fd^aft, att, ut^^; as, bie ^tvi^tUi, 
hypocrisy; ©tarfe, strength; Su^^n^^e^t, boldness; gitdfetl; 
^^luiity; 3^nd/ fortress; Sanbfc^afit, landscape; ^)fima% 
home ; Snmtt^^ poverQr. 

^^ Digitized by Google 


BMC^ptumM. Many of those in c are maAcuUne ; as, tcr $c|k 
Ihe hare; ^aU, crow; ^Si\i, cheese, &c.f and some are neiteri 
at, t«6 Ti\x^, the eye ; ^\k, inheritance ; (hitc, end, &c. — 3tcra4 
•niament, is masculine, and ^ctfc^oft^ seal, is neuter. 

§19. ni. Neuters. To the neuter gender belong : — 

Ist, All diminutives ending in cf^ e n and ( e t n j as, bad 
fbVxm&itxi, the floweret ; ®6^^n(l^en, little son ; SSuc^Wn^ little 
book ; Jrdulctn, young lady, miss. 

2d, Collective and frequentative substantives fi>rmed by tlie 
prefix ge; as, bad ®efinbe, domestics; ©etofe/ noise; (Se> 
(Hm, constellation; — bad ®erebe, talk; (Se'aufe^ frequent 
walking, d^. 

3d, Most secondary derivatives fi>nned by the affixes fe^ 
fa I, tl^nm, n t § : as, bad Ueberblebfel, remainder ; Stot^fe^ 
riddle, ©rangfal, distress ; ©cl^tcffal, fiite ; Strtjlent^um, Chris- 
tianity; pttit^i^um, dukedom; SBunbiti^, alliance; aSettoU. 
vA%, relaticMi. 

Exc. 1. O' **iose in X})Vim, three are masculine: — bcr 3tT» 
t^unt/ error ; 9?f icftt^um/ riches ; SOBac^^tfjuni/ growth. Of those in 
f (^ StfibfaO affliction, is feminine ; ^t9pf«(^ stopper, b masculine 

Exc. d. The following in nip are feminine : — 

JOebtAnonip/ grievance. ^oubnip^ permission. 

$B(trfibmp^ affliction. 9&u(ntp^ putrefaction. 

SBefammcrnip/ sorrow. ^nftemip/ darkness. 

SBefergnip^ apprehension. ^enntntp/ knowledge. 

SBeiDanbnip, condition. 9$ftbanmmtp^ damnation, 

(i^ipf&n^ntp^ conception* SffiUbnip/ wilderness. 
Gtfparntp^ savings. 


§ 20. Compound substantives generally adopt the geadei 
of the second component, which contains the emphatic idea; 
as, ber Sirc^ ^^ o f, the church-yard ; bad ^9,iii ^ a u d, the town- 
hall; bteSBtnbmu^e/ the windmill. 

Exc. 1. Names of places are always neater, though tiieir pris- 
eipal component may be masculine or feminine ; e. g. (Ni^) ^rctf 
> tt eg (b i e SBurg), ^am bu tg, SBittcn b c rg (b c r fficrg), &c. 

Exc. 2. A number of substantives compounded with bci 
IR tt t ^ are feminine : — 

Vnnnit^, grace. ©anftnmt^, meekness* 

J>emutb, humility. ^roecmutb/ melancholy 

flhwpmutb/ generosity. ©eftmut^^ sadness. 
cQngmitt^/ lorbearanee. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


3« The following likewise deviate from the general mle . 
4cr 2Cb f (it) c It (b i e ^d)cu), abhorrence ; tie dlcun an^t, lamprey ; the 
following corapounJs of Z\)iH, part: — ba^ &CQcnti)c\l, the reverse; 
^tntert^tU/ hind part ; 93ortm^ct(, fore part ; also^ hex axittiooc^^ 
Wednesday, which, however, sometimes is M e ^ittivo^ 


§ 21. Those forei^ substantives which have preserved their 
original form, retain also the gender which they have in the lan- 
guage from which they are i^opted ; e. g. bet ^Doctor/ Spnbt^ 
cud ; tie Qpntaxii, bad Sonctttum. 

But those, whose form has become assimiJatad to German 
words, frequently assume another gender; e. g. bet Stltat 
(altare), the altar ; bcr Sorper (corpus), the body ; ber fSutn 
(ruina), the ruin ; ba§ Sonfulat (consulatus), the consulship, ^^c* 

Some substantives have two genders, and are generally also em- 
ployed in different significations. The following list exhibits the 
most important of them : — 

tOtt fBanh, the volume ; 
^ct 93ouct^ the peasant ; 
iDcr SSunb^ the alliance ; 
S>cr Hhtt, the choir ; 
iDie (grfenntnifc knowledge 
^€t (SxU, the heir; 
jDcr (Sth<At, the contents ; 
jDer &d\^, the hostage ; 
2)€t ^eibe, the pagan ; 
2)(t Aunbe^ the customer ; 
2)et aRenfdft, man ; 
jDer SRni, rice ; 
IDct 6d)t(b, the shield 
)Dcr @ee, the lake ; 
JDcv 6tifr, the peg ; 
2)cr ?tJhd{, the part 
2)€t Zt^ex, the tool ; 
jDop fBctbimfl, earnings ; 

ba^ S3anb, the ribbon. 

ba^ SBoucr^ the cage. 

ba^ iBunb^ the bundle. 

tai ^h^t, the chorus. 

bo^ QvUnntnii, decision (judicial), 

t>a^ &tU, the inheritance. 

ba^ ©ebcitt/ the salary. 

bte ©ctpct/ the whip. 

bte ^etbe, the heath. 

bie^unbc, knowledge. 

ba^ SRcnfcQ^ the wench 

ba^ dicH, the twig. 

bo^ ^t(b, sign (of a hoose). 

bte @ee/ the sea. 

hai &Xi^, charitable foundation 

ba^ S^et(^ the share. 

bad Zi)ex, the door. 

bad ^Berbienfl/ the merit 


§ 22 In German, as in English, substantives have 
two numbers, the Singular and the Plural. 

With respect to the termination of the singular no 
definite rules can be given. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


The nominative plural is formed firom the n<Hmna* 
tive singular according to one of the following Rules :-^ 

Rule L The nominative plural frequently does not 
differ from the nominative singular by any additional 
letter or syllable, especially in masculine and neuter 
substantives ending tl, tXf en^ and diminutives id 
i^fit and Itin. 

It is then either the same as the singular, or is distinguished 
from it by the modification of its radical vowel ;^ e. g. ber (Su^ 
Qtl, the angel, pL tie Sn^el; bet Statfer^ emperor, |^ bit 
kaiftr : bad %enftcx, window, pL tie gcnfter ;— ber 93ater, &- 
ther, pi. tit aSdtcr^ ber Of en, stove, pi. bie Oefenj bcr S3ni» 
ber, brother, pL bie 55riiber. 

There are only two feminine substantives belonging to this 
class : SD?utter, mother ; Xoc^ter, daughter, pi. aJJutter, ^d^ 
ttt. The change of the radical vowel is restricted to mascU' 
line nouns ; of neuters, only ^(ofler, monasteiy, has JtBfler in 
the plural ; — ^but, bad aBajTer, water, pL bie SBajfet j bad Mu* 
ber, oar, pi. bie fSuber. 

§ 23. Rule 11. In all other cases the nominative 
plural is formed from the nominative singular by an 
nexing one of the terminations e, f r, e tt (n); e. g. ber 
^reimb^ the friend, pi. bie ^eunbe ; ber ^obe, the boy 
pi. bie ^naben ; bai Suc^/ the book, pi. bie S3ud) er. 

Obs. 1. The terminatioa e belongs chiefly to masculine substui* 
tives. It is, howeyer, also added to feminines and neuters ; e. g. 
bcr Za^, the day, pi. bie Za^t ; brr ^cpf, the head, pi. bie ^opfe; 
bie Jtunft, an, pi. bie itfinfle ; bai (Sort/ the word, pi. bie SBcrte. 

Obs, 3. The tennination e v properly belongs to nouns of tfas 
neuter gender only. Masculines assume it only by way of excep- 
tion ; e. g. ba^ ®i(b, the picture, pi. bie IBttDet ; bad jtinb, the 
child, pi. tie ittnbet ; bet ®ei|t, the spirit, pi. bit QkifUt. 

Obs, 3. The tennination e n (n) is assumed principally by femi- 
nines, also by masculines, and a row neuters ; e. g. bie &^uU, the 
school, pi. bie Bd^uUn ; bie ^abtl, the needle, pi. bie 92abe(n ; Ut 
^a\(, the hare, pi. bie ^ofen ; bog t>l)V, the ear, pi. bie O&ren. 

§ 24k Obs. 4. Substantives which f3rm their plural in e i 

* That pan of the anhstantiye which is never affected by the changes of in* 
flection is caUed its root, Wlien it contains one of the vowels a, o, a, or tbi 
mphthong <m, they are frequently changed into &, b, fi, JIn in the pluralaadaN 
Uien said to be modified. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


mlway* modify the vowels of the root (a, o^ u, a\x) ; and those 
which form their plmul in c n, never modify it. With resped 
to plurals in t, the modification always takes place when the 
substantive is feminine, and usually too when it is masculine, 
but rarely when it is neuter. 

Rtde IIL Masculine and neuter nouns adopted from modem 
languages frequently form their plural in d ; as, @enxe^^, Zoxti, 
©olo'd y so also German words, the termination of which is not 
WMceptible of inflection ; as, tie U'*, tie fi'd, bte ^ a p a ' d. 

Rule rV. Nouns compounded with 9Rann usually take 
8 e u t e instead of 5(W a n n c t (the regular pi. of SO^ann) in 
the plural; e.g. bet $auf m a nn^ the merchant, pL.^auftc ate; 
ter l^of m a n n, the courtier, pL bie t)of I c u t e. 

§ 25. Common nouns alone are by their significa- 
tion entitled to a plural number. 

The following classes of substantives want the plu- 
ral: — 

1 st, Proper names, except when they assume the signification 
of common nouns (§ 45) ; as, Sari, 5'^ict)ric^, fSom. 

2d, Names of materials, except when diflerent species of the 
same genus are to be denoted ; as, bad Sifen, @t(ker, ®D(b/ 
iron, sUver, goM ; — ^but tie Srben, the earths (difierent kinds) ; 
tie SOKneratoaffer, mineral waters. 

3d, Many collectives ; as, bad ®efinbe/ the domestics ; baft 
9Bte^/ cattle, ^. 

4th9 All infinitives and neuter adjectives used substantively ; 
as, bad 2Betg, white (the colour) ; bad ^aglic^e, the ugly ; bad 
ginfommen, the income ; bad ffliffen, knowledge. 

5th9 Most abstract substantives, especially such as denote 
quaFties, powers or affections of the mind, d^c ; as, ber %itx%p 
diligence ; bte Sugenb, youth ; bte Scmunft, reason ; bie ^^ixt&it, 
fear. Sometimes, however, they become concrete, expressing 
different kinds of the same quality, &c, and then they are em- 
ployed in the plural ; as, ^ugenben^ virtues ; Scf^ontietten, beaik 

§ 26. 6th, Substantives denoting number^ measure^ weight 
when preceded by * numeral, are put in the singular, eve* 
though in other connections they may form a plural ; as, ^mel 
g u # brett, two feet wkie fed^d ^ f u n b 55utter, six pounds 
of butter ; ein fRe^itnent »on taufenb OM a n it (not SWanner/ pL); 
a regiment of thousand men. 

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Exceptions. Feminine substantiTes in t, and sneh as enren t 
meaaure of time ; as, gioci Gttcn (^ i e QUt) TtXtdt, two elU of cloth; 
fSnf 3 a 6 r e (ong, for five years ; moreover, all names of cams; 
08, ipci ®rcfd)cn, pn^if ^xcviitv, two groa&es, twelve kreozers, — an 
put in the plural as in English. 

§ 27. Some substantives are employed in the [lar 
al number only : — 

Sl^nett/ ancestors. 
9ielUxn, parents. 
5({pen, alps. 

a3ricff(l^aften, papers. 
Stnf&itfte, revenue, 
gaften. Lent, 
getten, vacation. 
©efdfle, rents. 
®(tebma§en, limbs. 
Sofleit, expenses. 
Seutc, people. 


SKelfeit, whey. 
JDftwt, Easter. 
^^mitcn, Whitsuntide 
3?anfe^ tricks, 
©portctn, fees. 
Itaber, husks. 
Iriimmer, ruins. 
%tnpptn, troops. 
SBet|^na(^ten, Christmas. 
^titiiufte, junctures. 
3titfen/ interest d mcmey. 

§ 28. There are a number of substantives which 
have two forms for the plural, partly as a simple diaF 
lectio variety, but most commonly with different sig- 
nifications : — 


Der 95anb, the volume ; 
Sad ^atit, the ribbon ; 
X>ai IBanb, the bond; 
Ste 95ant ^e bench; 
Si'e ^antf the bank ; 
Set ®auer/ the peasant ; 
2)ad »auer, the cage ; 

2)er Oom, the thom ; 

Sod Oing, the thing ; 
Sad Stn^/ little creatme 
Sad ©efic^t, the fece ; 
Sad ®eftd)t/ the vision ; 
Sad ^om, the hom ; 


bte Sanbe. 

tie Sdnber. 

bte SSonbe. 

Me Sanfe. 

We 95anfem 

bje Souem. 

tte iBauer. 
< Somen. 
I Somer. 

tie Singe. 

bte Singer. 

tie @eiid)tet. 

tie ®efid)te. 

tie Corner; but ^otnt, 
ferent sorts of moL 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


%ytt ialen, the shutter tit Sabeiu 

©er 2attn, the shop ; tie Sabem 

©erOrt, the place; j g^-^ 

Der &d)ilh, the shield ; tie ©c^ifte. 

Dad ®(iilb, the sign ; tie ®c^i(ben 

Oad ®tiicf, the piece ; tie ®tucfc. 

2)a« ©tiicf, the fragment • tie ©tiirfen^ 

J)cr ^ot, the fool ; tic X^orem 

Sad *H>or, the door ; tie 5^orc. 

OoB SBort, the word ; tie fflorter ; but ffl o r t e, woid^ 

in connected discourse. 


i 29. For the purposes of declension we divide 
German substantives into two classes, which differ es- 
sentially in their mode of inflection ; viz : 1st, Common 
and Abstract Nouns ; 2d, Proper Names. 


§ 30. Common and abstract nouns have two prin 
cipal forms of inflection, denominated the earlier and 
the later declensions. The characteristic distinction of 
each is the termination of its genitive singular, which 
in the earlier declension is ^ or e ^^ and in the later 
It or en. 

All feminine substantives are invariable in the sin- 
gular ; hence their mode of declension is determined 
by the nominative plural. 

The nominative, genitive and accusative plural are 
always alike, and their difference is pointed out by 
the article only. 

The dative plural always assumes it/ unless its nom* 
[native already ends in that letter. 


f 31. The earlier declension comprises noims of all 
genders, and may be distinguished by the termination 

Digitized by 



of its genitive singular, which, (feminine njiiiis ei 
cepted) is always ^ or e ^* 

The nominative plural is either the same as the 
nominative singular, or it assumes one of the termina- 
tions e, e r, c It or n. 

In the plural the radical vowels a^ 0/ tt^ and the dipn- 
thong au^ are generally modified into &^ b, n^ £u. 

Hence to inflect a word of this declension, not only 
the genitive singular, but also its nominative plural 
must be given ; e. g. ber Sntber, the brother, gen. M 
Bniber^, nom. pi. bic Sruber ; bic %tudft, fruit, nom. pi. 
bie ^rud^te ; ba^ ^Ufb, the garment, gen. be^ Mdti^, 
nom. pi. bie jJIeiber. 





e^, d (en«, n^). 


like the nom. 



I like the sing. 


— n. 
I like the nom. 


















I. a. Ser »atet, the fether. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber »ater, the fether ; bfe »ater, the fethen. 

Gen. bed Q3ater«, of the fether ; ber »dter, of the fethen. 

Dat. bem Q3atet, to the fether ; ben ©atem, to the fethen. 

Ace. ben ^Qatet^ the fether; bte 93ater^ the fethen. 

I. b. Die aJhitter, the mother. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. t)te ^iittex, the mother; bic Gutter, the mothen 
Gen. ber Gutter, of the mother ; ber 5Kutter, of the mothen 
Dat. ber 5Wutter, to the mother ; ben SOJuttcm, to the mothen 
Ace. bic Wuttct, the mother • bic SWiitter, the moCheiv 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


n. a. X>tt SSaum, the tree. 


NoM. bet Saunt/ the tree ; tic 95dumc, the tree*. 

Gjbn. bed fdaume^, of the tree ; bet 93dume^ of the trees. 

Dat. bem aSaume, to the tree ; ben SBdumen, to the trees. 

Ace ben 55aum, the tree ; bie 93dume, the trees. 

n. b. Die 4)anb/ the hand 


Nov. bie 4i^anb^ the hand ; bie $dnbe/ the hands. 

Gen. ber ^anb^ of the hand ; ber ^dnbc/ of the hands. 

Dat. bet 4)anb^ to the hand ; ben ^dnben^ to the hands. 

Ace bie |)anb, the hand ; bie f)dnbe/ the hands. 

m. a. ^a9' iiet, the song. 

SiNOVLAB. Plural. 

Nox. baft Steb, the song ; bie Siebet, the songs. 

Gkit. beft fitebeft, of the song ; ber ^ieber^ of the songs. 

Dat. bem Siebe^ to the song ; ben Siebem/ to the songs. 

Ace. ha^ Sieb, the song ; bie Sieber, the songs. 

m. b. !Qet ®ei^, the spirit 

SiNouLAB. Plural. 

NoM. ber ®eift the spirit ; bie ®ei(ler, the spirits. 

Gen. bed (Seized, of the spirit; ber ®ei(lcr, of the spirits. 

Dat. bem ©eifle, to the spirit ; ben ®ci(lern, to the spirits. 

Acx}. ttn ®eifl, the spirit ; bie ©eifler^ the spirits. 

IV. a. Ser ®tta^^t the ray. 

Singular. Plural. 

NoM. ber ®tral)t, the ray; bie @tra(>{en, the rays 

Gen. bed ©trailed, of the ray; ber ©troftien, of the rays. 

Dat. bem ©tra^le, to the ray; ben ©tra^Ien, to the rays. 

Ace. ben ©tratt the ray ; tic ©trajlen the rays 

IV. b. Dad ?(u9e, the eye. 

Singular. Plural. 

NoM . bad 5(u9e, the eye ; bie STugen, the eyes 

Gen. bed Slu^ed^ of the eye ; ber ^UQtn, of the eyes 

Dat. bem Itnge, to the eye ; ben %UQen, to the eyes 

\cc bad JCuge/ the eye ; bie ^UQCn, the eyes 






V. Der Sicane, the name* 

SmouLAiu Plural. 

NoM. ber !Rame, the name ; bte Stamen^ the namea. 

Gen. ted IRamen^^of the name; ter Dfiamen^ <^ the names. 

Dat. tern 9{amen^to the name; ten SRamen, to the names. 
Acr^ ten IRomen, the name ; tie Seamen/ the names. 


The laws of euphony alone can decide, whether the terad- 
nation of the genitive singular is to be d or ed^ and whether 
the dative is to be like the nominative or to have e. Gener- 
ally, however, nouns ending in b, t, t, |l, c^, q, {, ^, f4 p, ) 
form their genitive in e d, and their dative in e ; those ending 
in ant, at, ent^ id)tfiQ, tn^ Itng/ ti^, fa^ tf^um 
have i in the genitive, and the dative like the nominative. 

§ 33. Like SBotet (L a.) are inflected all masculine 
and neuter substantives terminating in el/ e r or eit; 
diminutives in (^ e it and I e i n ; and neuters in e, which 
have the prefix g c ; as, ®erebe, ®et6fe, talk, noise, &c. 
Examples : — 

2)ct 2(pfc(, apple ; ba^ S^ n|tfr, window ; 

tft ^fc(, crnindchild ; ta^ ©croittcr^ thunderstorm ; 

ter SScgcC, bird ; tec iDcgcn, sword ; 

ta^ ^icgcO seal ; htt gotten, garden ; 

tin: HUit, eagle ; tec SSBagcn, waggon ; 

tec SBcutcc^ brother; ta^ SBerfen, basin; 

tec ^ci\iix, master ; ta^ Seic^en, signal. 

9)2atc6en, ^rl, maiden ; lBfid)(etn, little book ; 

83ei((^en, violet; S8(fim(eln^ floweret. 

9)}utter and Soc^tec, daa?hter, are the only feminine sabstantivet 
which retain in the plunu the termination of the nominative stn* 

§ 34. Like ber S3aum (n. a.) are inflected the follow- 

1st, Masculines and neuters terminating in the affixes ont^ 
«t, tc^t, iQ, inq, ling, ric^; e. g. ^eilant, saviour; 9Ronat; 
month ; S(afiQ, cage ; ^anptlin^, chieftain, &c. 

2d, Many foreign substcintives, such as, ter Vbt, SCttar, S5w 
fd)Dr/ (Sacttnat/ ^aCafl; the abbot, alter, bishop, cardinal, pal« 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


M, All substantives ending in the affixes nt0 and fa(; 
* tte ^tnflemtg, darkness ; Scnntni^, kaowledge ; bad ©(^{dli 
f<n fete ; Drangfaf, calamity, dec. 

.lake bie i^b (11. b.) are declined the following fem« 
iniaes : — 

^ngfl, angaisfi. 8uft/ air. 

TCn^flVidft, eyasion. irx% delight. 

XTt/ axe. SKoc^t/ power. 

SBanf, bench. fERacj^, maid-fienrant 

fBxant, bride. ^aui, mouse. 

SrufI, breast. ^ad^t, night. 

^Qufl/ fist 92a bt/ seam. 

^frud>t^ fruit. 9{otb, distress* 

®an^/ goose. 9{u9/ nut. 

i3tfd9Wui% swelling &a\x, sow. 

®ruft, tomb. ^nur, string. 

^aut, skin. &tabt, city. 

5t(uft^ ffulf. $Ban^^ wall, 

^roft/ force. SBulfl, tumour. 

JHuI), cow. tlBurfl/ sausage. 

JHunfl^ ari. dunft, guild. 
8au^, loaa) 

To these are to be added tlie compounds of the words Jtunft and 
8auft/ which are never cmplcyod separately; as, tie Sufammen* 
tnnft, the meetiag * 'Sinfiinf^^ pi., re^enueo ; B^ittdufte/ pi., junctures 

Remark* Mdsculines of this form generally modify the 
radical vowel in the plural ; feminines always ; of neuters only 
the following three: — baft Sf^or^ the chorus; baft ^lof, the 
raft ; baft Stoffx, the reed ; pi. S^ote, gloge, Sfo^re. 

§ 3d. Substantives declined like bai ikb (III.) are gen- 
efall} of the neuter gender, and masculine only by 
way of exception. ITiey always modify tho vowel 
of the root. Examples : — 

Hint, office. Sarnm, lamb. 

Sbnii, book. Sflif, nest. 

tOtitf, village. fRolb, wheel. 

iS^tih, money. @(i)(c$/ castle. 

®vai, grave. ^df, nation. 

Jtraut, herb. SDetb, woman. 

So also all nouns ending in t ^ u m ; as, SRcid^t^mn, riches ; .^cti 
figtbnni, dukedom, and a few foreign words ; as, ^tUasiiOt, 9tcgb 
went, 6)ntaL 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


The masculines declined like S { e t are as fidlows : — 9hfff 
mid)t, villain ; Sorn^ thorn ; ®ctfl, spiiit (III. b.) ; ®Dtt, God 
icib, body; SWann, man (rtr) ; Ort, place; 3tanb, b«wder; 
fflonnunb, guardian ; SBalt^ wood ; 2Bumv worm, 

§ 36. Substantives inflected like ber Strait (TV.) arc 
of the masculine and neuter genders.. They are but 
few in number and never modify the ludical vowel in 
the plural. They are : — 

Ist, Names of persons terminating in o r ; as, Sector/ ^to^ 
feffbt, ^aflor, <Scc Except: Saflor, Slectropjor, aWatabor, and 
also SReteor/ which have their plural in e. 

2d, Foreign words which still have, or once had the Latin 
termination i u m^ as, ®tut i u nt/ pL (Stub t e n^ studies ; Sd1U> 
gium, pi. Sottcgien, lectures ; S(b»erb, pL Stti^erbten, adverbs; 
also those ending in t{ », as, Srebiti», ©ubflonti©, ^5tc. ; those 
terminating in a 1 or t ( have ten in the plural, as, fftc^al, {^ 
iRegal ten; goffil, pi. Soffil i e n. 

3d, The following masculine substantives : — 

iDcrn, thorn. (See § 28.) ©pcrn^ spur, 

gorfl, forest Stad)d, sting, 

©cwttcr, god-father @ticfel, boot. 

tcvUix, laurel. @traup, ostrich. 

^ait, mast. iBcttcr^ cousin. 

dtad)bat, neigrhbonr. Untert^on^ subject, 

^fau, peacock. Sictatt/ finery. 
@eo sea. 

4th, To these may be added the following farei^m 
masculines : — 

Conful, consul. yt&ftct, prefect. 

Dtfmcn, demon, ^fafni/ psalm. » 

jDiamant, diamond. ^ubtn^ ruby. 

^ " * ®laflt, state. 

Snipcf!, impost. Sf)rcn, throne. 

SKu^fd, muscle. JXractot, treaty, 

^antoffd^ slipper. 

5th, The following neuter words : — 

HrxQC, eye Snfcct, insect. 

JBett, bed. 9^roncm, pronoun. 

iSntit, end. ©tatut, statute, 

^mt^ shirt. gjcrb, verb. 

§ 87. Like ^ame (V.) are inflected tlie following 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


mascnlines : — ber Sttd^flabe^ letter ; %tW^ rock ; ^riebe, 
peace ; ^unle^ spark ; ®ctanU, thought ; ®(au6f^ faith 
i^iifip, heap ; 2^ame, seed ; ^djobCf detriment ; SBiHe, 
will. These substantives, however, frequently assume 
an It in the nominative ; e. g. ber ^unten, (SAanttn, 
and then they follow the 'inflection of the first form 

Remark* The word ^tti, heart, has end in the renitive, 
and retains the en in the dative singular and in all the case^ 
of the plural, thus : — 

SuiGULAR. Plural. 

NoM. bo< ^er^ 
Gen. t>i$ ^tticn^, 
Dat. tfm ^erjen/ 
Ago. ba$ ^^ii 

ten ^crjcn, 
bte |)crscn. 

The word @d)mcr|/ pain, has either cni or e ^ in the geniiive, 
and in the dative en or e. Nom. tet @d)mer^ Gen. tti @%mergcn$ 
or @d)merje^, Dat. bem @d)nier^n or €$d)nterje ; Nom. pi. tie 
6d)mer)en. The word &ifttd, terror, is also irregrular : Nom. ter 
6d)recf or @d)re(fen. Gen. M 6d>recfen^ or Qd^ttdci, Dat. tent 
e^rccf or ed)Udin, Ace. ten 6d)recf or ^c^redcn ; Nom. pi. tic 


§ 38. Substantives of this declension are either 
masculine or feminine. 

Masculines form their genitive in n or eit, and re* 
tain that termination in all the remaining cases sin- 
gular and plural. 

Feminines being indeclinable in the singular, as* 
same the n or en in the plural only. 

No nouns of this declension ever modify the radica, 
vowels a, Of Uf or the diphthong au in the plural (^ 24)» 









en, n. 


en, n. 

en, n, 

Dat. . 

en, ttf 

en, n. 

Aoo. \ 

en, n. 

en# n. 

Digitized by 



5 39 PARAD.6MS 
I. S)er ®taf^ the count 


Noicber ®raf/ the count; 
Gen. tt^ ®rafen/ of the count; 
Dat, bem ©rafcn, to the count ; 
Ace. ten ®rafen, the count ; 

bte ©rafen, ^hecounte 
ter (Srafeiv of the counts 
ttn ®rafen^ to the counts 
tit ©rafciv the counts. 

n. ;Der dvht, the heir. 


NoM. bet ®rbc, the heir ; 

Gen. bel Srben, of the heir ; 

Dat. bem Srben, to the heir; 

Ace. ben (Svhtn, the heir ; 

bte Srben, ihe heiii; 

ber Srben^ of the hein; 
ben Srben^ to the hein ; 
bte Srben, the hein. 

in. Die gtwi/ the woman. 

N^oM. bte 
Gen. ber 
Dat. ber 
Ace. bte 

NoM. bte 
Gen. ber 
Dat. ber 
Ace. bte 


graw, the woman ; 
§raU/ of the woman ; 
§rau^ to the woman; 
§raU/ the woman ; 

bie grouen/ the women ; 
ber grouen^ of the women; 
bengrauen, to the women; 
bte grauen/ the womea 



gebcr, the pen; 

geber, of the pen ; 

geber, to the pen; 

geber^ the pen; 

Die geber, the pen. 

bte gebent/ the pent . 

ber gebeni/ of the pens; 
ben gebem, to the pens 
bte gebern^ the pens. 


Obf. .. When the nominative singular ends in e, or in 
one of the unaccented affixes el, tx, at, the genitive and i^ 
maining cases assume n only ; as, ber ibmt, the lion, gen bei 
Somen; bte Saniei, the pulpit, pL bte kanjebt; ber Sott« 
er, the fiirmer, gen. bed IBauem; otherwise en becomes ne- 
cessary ; e. g. ber ^elb, the hero, gen. bed ?)elben; ber ®efdl^ 
the compuiion, gen. bed ©efeflen; ber ^oct, the poet, gen. bei 
Voeten ; tic grou, plur. bte grauen. 

06f . 2. Feminine substantives were formerly declined is 
the singular number also; this practice, however, has been 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

retained onl^ in certaiii| adverbial expressions, in which the 
substantive is connectea with a preposition; e. g. ouf Srben^ 
on earth; mtt ^veuttn, with joy, joyfuUy; ton ©citcn be^ 
ftontjd/ from the part of the king; in ®naben/ graciously; 
mtt iitfTtn flerben/ to die an honourable deaUi ; lu ©c^anber 
merbnt/ to be put to shame, dec ; sometimes e n seems to be 
annexed simply for the sake of euphony ; as, fetner ^xau i ** 
SSater^ his wife's fiuher. 

§ 40. To this declension belong the following clas- 
ses of norms : — 

Ist, Masculines of one syllable , as, f&ix, bear ; ^(ecf^ spot ^ 
^urfl; prince; ®raf, count; |)clb, hero; |)err (has ^errn in 
the gen. and dat sing., but ^erren in the plur.), master; 
^tnidj, man; Karr, fool; ^fau, peacock; ^rinj, prince; 
Xbot/ simpleton. 

2d, Masculines terminating in e unaccented ; e. g. 

Tifft, the ape. Jtnoppe, sqaire. 

SSiarbe, bard. ^adiHmmc, descendant. 

S3ftr9<^ surety. ^t^t, nephew. 

iDroc^, dragon. ^atht, sponsor. 

'SalU, hawk. diit\c, giant. 

®th(Ufp/ assistant. ^c(at>e, slave. 

®e^, idol. Beuge, witness, 
^ivtc, shepherd. 

3d, Names of nations, such as are not derived from 
the name of the country. They generally end also in 
e;e. g. 

brr fSMtt, the Bavarian. ber 97{oure, the Moor. 

bet 5B5f)me, the Bohemian. bee ^(c, the Pole. 

bcr Srttte, the Britain. bet 9)rcufe, the Prassian. 

bet SButgat, the Bulgarian. bet fRn^t, the Russian, 

bet D&m, the Dane. b«r &a(i\t, the Saxon. 

bet «D(ut^e, the German. ber ^datoabt, the Swabian. 

bcv Jron^cf^ the Frenchman ber Bd^toitt, the Swede, 

bcv &x\tijt, the Greek. bet Sartar, the Tartar. 

bet 4y^t, the Hessian. bev ZAxU, the Turk. 

bcv 3ubc, the Jew. Ut Ungat, the Hungarian. 

§ 41. 4th, Masculine substantives of foreign origin, tenni 
tmtingin ant, arc^, at, ent, tf, tft, et, tt, ot, og, opb, 
om jc; e. g. ber ^rcteflant, SRonard), Sanbtbat, ^ralat, ©tii- 
bent, ^rafibent, SatfeoKf, SWetbobift, Sbrtft, ^Peet, Jtcmet, gre* 
mtt, 3^«ft, 3biot, Ibeolog, ?^)tCo(oc[, ^btlcfopb, 5(|hronom ic 

51^ All the feminine nouns in the language, except 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


those mentioned above (§ 33 and § 34). They an 
either monosyllables, as Sa^n, path ; ^>ftw^t, duty, or 
polysyllables, chiefly ending in e, ef, er, at^. ti, cn^V 
l)eir, inn, fcfjafr, ung. The following maj lerveas 
examples : — 


2Crt, kind. @oat, seed. 

SBurg^ citadel. ^tad^t, battle. 

^nv, plain. 6pur, tr&se. 

5agb^ chase. Sbot, deed. 

Soft, burden. Bal)(/ number. 
£Luo(/ torment. 


2fr6cit, labour. 9?atur^ nature. 

(&nU, duck. £)^nmod)t, impoto* >» 

Jermct/ formula. 9)ccfie, poetry. 

Scgent^ region. Sldigicn^ religion, 

^ontlung, action. ^fiffd/ plate. 

3un0fcr/ maiden. Soube, dove, 

ilontgtnn, queen. Unttxrftt&t, uniyarvHy 

?ctbcn|'d)aft/ passion, SBa^r^dt/ truth. 

5Ka(^rt4t/ news. Sungc, tongue. 


§ 42. Ist, With respect to substantives of foreign origin, Wi- 
have already under each declension, noticed such as have ae 
commodated their termination to the analogy of Crerman vord» 
There are some, however, which still appear in their original 
form unaltered ; as, ber -Slcbicn^, the physician ; ber Safud, the 
case ; bad ^actum^ the &ct ; bad %i)emaf the theme, ^c lliese 
are cither indeclinable in the singular; as, ber dlexuif the 
clergy, jgen. bed Sterud, dat bem Slerud, &c., or they as- 
sume d m the genitive ; as, ^a^ factum, 3nbtDtbuum, the &ct, 
individual, gen. bed gactumd, 3n^<»tbuumd. 

2d, In the plural, foreign nouns either assume en (§ 36); 
as, QSerbum, verb, pi. ©erben; ©tiibium, study, pi. ©tiibten; 
or they retain in all cases the original termination of the moni 
native plural ; as, SKebtct, SWufict, Safud, gacta, *JJemattt. 

dd, Masculine and neuter substantives^ adopted from th 
French or English, generally take d in the genitive singular, 
and retain it in all the cases of the plural ; ber Sorb/ gen. M 
ficrbd, pi. bte Sorbd ; ber &ef, the chieflain, gen. bed (Siftfi 
pL bte ^befd; bad ®eme^ the genius, ger. bed dente^d^ pL bti 
etnit% &c. (§ 24. Rule HI.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



§ 48. Proper nouns are either names of Perbohs, en 
names of Countries and Places. 

Names of persons are declined either loith or without 
the article. 

L When preceded by either of the articles (eiit or ber), 
names of persons are not varied in the singular, the 
difierent cases being sufficiently indicated by the in- 
flection of the article ; as, ber ©(fitter, gen. be^ ©(fitter, 
dat bent @d)itter, ace. ben ©d)itter; em gutter, gen. eined 
ixA\!jtt^ dat. einem gutter, ace. emeit ?ut()er. 

Exception* If the grenitive of the name of a male limitinflr the 
meaning of another word is connected with an adjective, and placed 
before the governing word, it assumes the termination ^ ; as, tc^ gro? 
pen A a n t * f SBctfe, the works of the great Kant ; iti bcril()mten 
jD a t e r *^ Gem^tbe, the paintings of the celebrated Durer. 

§ 44. n. When not connected with the article, mas- 
culine names ending in €^ % fc^z x, ]^ and feminines end- 
ing in tf form their genitive in e n (^ ; all other names, 
both masculine and feminine, including also diminu- 
tives in c^eit/ form their genitive in*^ simply; e. g. 
SKar, gen. SWoren^; SBog, gen. SBogen^; ?omfe, gem 
?ouiffen^; but ^rmawt, gen. ipermann'^; 6arf, g6n. 
Carl *^ ; S^n^&ivx (Jonny), gen. ^it^it ^ ; 3lbell)eib, gen. 
SO)elJ)eib' i. 

Remark 1. In the dative and accusative singular it has been 
eostomary to annex the termination e n. It is better, however, to 
leave those cases like the nominative, and to prefix the article, 
when ambiguity would otherwise arise; e. g. nom. ^^n^ gen. 
8(flin9'^/ dat. (fcem) Sefjing (better than ficfpngcn), ace. (toi) Ceffinft. 

Rem. 2. Names of Latin or Greek origin were formerly 
inflected after the manner of Latin nouns ; e. g. nom. fpaulud, 
gen. ^avAx, dat. ^aulo, ace. ^autum; ^latom'd ©efprac^e, 
Plato's dialogues; Stcerontd Steben^ Cicero's orations, dec. 
Now, however, they follow the analogy of German nouns, and 
the ancient mode of inflection is only retained in a few expres- 
sions, as, SjriiH Oeburt, dec; e. g. fpiato'd ©efprac^e ; Su 
cero'd [)?eben ; ?babru§' Sabeln or bte gabeln bc§ ^^>abrud, the 
fiibles of Phredrus ; ber iReid^t^^um bed Srofud. the wealth of 




§ 45. The plural of proper names is onlj employed ' 
the same name is common to several individuals; as, ^'r 
©djlegct bte |)ermannc, persons of the name of &d)U%ti, pen 
mann ; or when they are converted into common noima 
(§ 5.) ; as, bte IReutone unferer 3^t the Newtons of our 
age, dec. 

Rules. The inflection of proper names in the plmd 
number is not influenced by the article, and the radi- 
cal vowels (a, 0, u, an) are never modified. 

When the names are masculine, terminating in a, t, 
{, af,el, if,e r, en or c^ en, the plural remains unaltered. 

All other masculine names of German origin, and 
foreign names ending in a nt, n, form their plural by 
adding e to the nom. sing. ; but those ending in o, add 
ne» Examples : — 



































The dative plural always assumes the termination 
n, unless the nominative already ends in that letter ; 
as, ben ?utt)ern, SWeland>t^one n, &c., to the Luthers, 
Melanchthons, &c. 

Names of females invariably add en orn in every 
case of the plural ; as, glora, pL %bxa% iw^^ ?mja^ 
i&eb»ig^ pi. ipebtt)igen. 

§ 46. 


Gen. Cutftcr'^, 
Dat (bcm) Sut^^er, 
Ace. (ben) 8ut(^er; 




Nom. (bte) 8ut>er^ 

Gbn. bet* Sut^et, 

Dat. (ben) Cut^em, 

Ace. (bte) Slitter. 

• Iath6fenitivepliiralthearrtdefaiiecei»iytopointo«tliecMs(iS.« 

n..,..4y Google 

Digitized by* 



Gjcif. gctbni^enS, 
Dat. (^cm) ?eibnt^. 
Ace. (fccn) gcibmjj 


NoM. |)ermann. 
Gen. ^cxmantf^, 
Dat. (bem) Hermann, 
Ace, (ben) Hermann; 


NoM. ®6tte. 
Gen. ®btie% 
Dat. (bem) ®b^t, 
Acxj. (bctt) ©ot^ej 


NoM. (tie) 8dbm'$o 
Gbn. bcr Seibnt^e^ 
Dat. (ben) Cetbnifteii^ 
Ace. (tic) fietbnt^e* 


NoM. (bte) ^ermanne. 
Gen. ber ^ermanne, 
Dat. (ben) |)ermanneii^ 
Ace. (bie) ^ennanne. 


i NoM. (bie) ®6t^c, 

, Gen. bet ®6tt^e, 

I Dat. (ben) ®6t!>en, 

I Ace. (bie) ®dt>e* 



NoM. Sertfta, 
Gbn. gSert^a'^, 
Dat. (ber) f&tt^a, 
Ace (tie) aSertt^aj 


NoM. ®ertraub. 
Gen. ®ertraub'«, 
Dat. (ber) ®ertraub 
Ace. (bte) ©ertroub 


NoM. gttife. 
Gen. gm'fend, 
Dat. (ber) Cirffe, 
Ace. (bte) Suife; 

NoM. 3ulie, 
Gen. 3u(ten«, 
Dat. (ber) 3utie> 
Ace. (bie)3ttlte; 


NoM. (bte) f6eviffa\ 

Gen. ber JBertl^a'n, 

Dat. (ben) JBertba^n, 

Ace. (bie) aSert^a'm 


NoM. (bie) ®ertrauben. 
Gen. ber ®ertraubetv 
Dat. (ben) ®ertrauben^ 
Ace. (bie) ®ertraubeii» 


NoM. (bie) 8tttfen, 
Gbn. bcr &utfen/ 
Dat. (ben)Suifen, 
Ace. (bie) fitiifen. 


NoM. (bie) 3«Keiv 
Gen. ber ^uUen, 
Dat. (ben) 3w^i«V 
Ace. (bte)3»K«^ 

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Oii. 1. The termination c n ( of the ^nitire singular bdongt 
particularly to feminine name« in c With respect to maRCuiinet 
m ^, p/ fd)/ F/ hf the practice of substituting % or a simple apostrophe, 
instead of cuei/ is becoming more frequent ; e. g. 6ctbnt|*^ ^pUtlcjer^^ 
the philosophy of Leibnitz ; ^exi^ iHc|fci*^ Umnf[c $u ^d)iU(T'^ ^ui 
Don (cr (Biedi, Retzsch's Illustrations to Schiller's Song of the Bell 

§ 47. Obs. 2. When a &iiiily name is preceded by (me 
or more christian names, or common nouns wUhout an arikit^ 
the fiunily name dUme is inflected ; e. g. 3^t^^n ^>etnn4 
95 offend (or simply 93o§*d) Ueberfcfeungen, John Henrr 
Voss's translations; Sonig grtefcric^^'d &bcn, the life of 
King Frederick. 

0^. dd, But if the article precedes, in connection with the 
word ^ert/ or a common noun designating some tiiU or ofice^ 
the proper name is not inflected ; as, tad $!aiid bed -^erm 9R it i< 
ler, the house of Mr. MoUer; tie ll^aten bed Saiferd 4 art 
bed Siinften/ the exploits of the Emperor Charles V. ; t^^ ©tanb^ 
btlb t>ti grofien Dt^^terd ® o tl> e, the statue of the great poet 


§ 48. 1. Names of countries, places, rivers, mountains, &c. 
which are of the masculine ot feminine geod&r^ are generally ac 
companied by the article (§ 5), and declined like common nouns ; 
as, bte ®(^met3^ gen. ber ®(^u>etV d^t. ber ©c^meU/ ace lit 
©d^wets ; ber Sireid^aU/ gen. bed 3)tetd3au*d/ ^cc ; ber fSi^M, 
gen. tt^ JR^eined, &c ; bie 'J^emfe, gen. ber *J^emfe, 4cc 

2. Neuter names of countries and places, not terminating 
in d/ 2 or x, have the' sign d in the genitive and remain unal- 
tered in all the other cases ; e. g. bte Untverfttdten Deiitf;^ 
(anbd^ the Universities of Ger^nany ; StuflUnbd Vbe^ ths no- 
bility of Russit. ; er fommt )»cn Q3er(tn (dat.), he comes fixun 
Berlin , na(^ fietp2t3- (ace.), to Leipzig, ^. 

3. Since names of places which end in d/ )/ x do not admh 
of an additional d in the genitive, for the sake of euphony, it is 
customary to put them in apposition with the genitive ^ some 
word like ®tabt Oorf/ gejlung (town, viBage, fort), or to 
prefix the preposition » o n ; e. g. bte SinwDl^ner ber ©taW 

J^artd (or oon ^and) the inhabitants of the city oS Paris ; tie 
a^e oon ^cmi, the situation of Mentz 

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^ 49. 1st, When a gubstantive is the subject of a proposu 
.on, it is always in the nominative case, and governs the verb 
1 number and person. 2Ber reif't? Dcr 35ater, hex Jreunb 
nl> tie ©o^ne retfen. Who travel? The fiither, the friend, 
nd the sons are travellmg. 

2d, In the oblique cases, L e. in the genitive, dative, and 
ccusatlve, nouns are governed either by other nouns, or by 
djectives, verbs, prepositions, 6i;c. ; e. g. bte 9)^utter bed 
>aufed^ the mother of the house; ber ©trafc wurbig, 
brorthy of punishment; efncn 95rtef fc^rciben, to write a 
3tter; auf bcm Sanbe^ in the cBuntiy. We shall here 
nly consider the relation which one substantive may sustain 
o another. 

^ 50. Substantives which stand in the relation of equality 
o each other, are put in the same case. They may be thus 
elated: — 

Ist, When one is added to another, for the sake of explana- 
i<Hi, or is put in apposition with it ; e. g. SBU^ebn ber dvOf 
)txex, William, the Conqueror ; 3^1^ tetinet i^n, b e n © d^ 6 ^ 
^ f e r fiibner ^eere^ ye know him, the creator of bold armies ; 
^nv meinem SBo^U^ater, to him, my benefector. 

2d, When one constitutes the predicate to the other; as, 
etn Sater tft fionig geworben, his father has become king; 
nr i(l mein greunb, he is my friend. 

3d, WTien one is compared with another ; as, ber Xburm tjl 
^ober aid ber S a u m^ the tower is higher than the tree. 

4th, Wlien several substantives constitute a compound sub- 
ect to one verb; e. g. @d)Dn^ctt unb Sugenb treten tn I'M 
)oSe Stec^te mteber tin, Beauty and Youth are fully reinstated 
o their fi)rmer rights. 

§ 51. 1st, A substantive which stands in the relation oi 
zause^ origin^ poss^sion^ mutuai connection^^6ic.f to another, is 
put in the genitive; e. g. ber ©efaitg berOSogel, the sing, 
ing of birdb ; ber ©c^opfer ber 2B e 1 1, the creator of the 
nrorld; bad ^aui bed Saufmanitd; the house of the mer- 
3hant; bie ©c^wejler bed 95aterd, the sister of the fether. 

2d, The genitive is often employed adverbially to express 
the relation of time, locality or manner; bed OTorgend, t>t^ 
SRtttagd, tt^ 5lbenbd, in the mommg, at noon, in the evening ; 
bieftgen Orted, of this place ; guted ^JOIutbcd fein, to be of good 
cheer; un»erri(^teter ®ac^e, witho»it accomplishmg one'i pur- 

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8d, A substantive which has a partitxoe signiftcation is fill 
lowed by a genitive of the whole ; e. g. tie iBaume etne^ @tri 
ttn^, the trees of a garden ; bad Sac^ bed ^aufcd^ the roof o( 
the house. 

4th, If, however, the partitive substantive points out a mm^ 
hcTy measure or weigJUf the name of the material numbered, 
measured, dec, is more frequently put in apposition with i 
than in the genitive; as, cine SRen^e fiinber^ a number oj 
children; mit funf !Ou|enb Steriv with five dozenof e^\ 
tin ^aat ®tiefe^ a pair of boots. But when the thio^ 
measured has an adjective or other declinable word connected 
with it, the genitive is required; as, j»et Jlafdjen f oillt4lf'! 
SBetned/ two bottles of superior wine; ein ^fnnb frif^eJ 
SSuttet/ a pound of firesh butten 


§ 52. A>n suiiective is a word which limits thq 
meaning of substantives. 

Every adjective may generally be employed in two 
different relations, viz : 

Ist, The quality expressed by it may be conceived as indei 
pendent of the subject, and be asserted of it by a fomtal ad 
of judgment ; as, bad $aud tfl g r 0%, the house is kige ; m 
9tofe tfl rot^^ the rose is red. The adjective thus used ii 
cidled predicative^ and is never inflected in Grerman. 

2d, The quality expressed by it may be so intimately co&^ 
nected with ihe substantive as to fi>rm one complex idea widi 
it, and then the adjective is termed aUributtoe; as, bad grofe 
f)aud/ the large house ; bte votlfe Sto^t, the red rose. 

Remark. The predicative adjective stands usoally after tbd 
verbs fein, to be; totxhcn, to become, and btciben, toremiit; 
sometiines also after certain transitive verbs ; e. g. hct ^vaxavA w^ 
b ( a U/ the sky was blue ; bU ^a6)t wtrb b u n f c (, the niglit b^ 
comes dark ; bog JtUtb Ucibt fanict, the dress remains cleaij 
C I u 9 macf^en, to make wise ; g r fi n fdcbcti, to die green, &c. 

§ 63. Some adjectives can only be (employed in thi 
predicative sense, as : — 

Qi>})(Xb, disaffected ; htad), fidlow ; 

ongf}, distressed, liraid ; etngcbenf^ remembering ; 

bctccit, ready ; feinb, hostile ; 

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^, dona ; net^z needfiil | 

g&ng ttnb ^U, eurrent ; n\x%, useful ; 

^^^, hating ; qutr, diagonal, eroM| 

^c{!, of ^ood cheer ; quttt, free from ; 

^om, beanng a grudge ; tbetlbaft, partaking of; 

trte, stray ; unpa^, indisposed, ill ; 

funb, known ; l^crlufli^, losing. 

{£iX>, sorry ; 

§ 54. Others again can only be used as attribu* 
lives: — 

Ist, Those terminating in r v n, e n, and indicating the jiaterial 
of which anything is m^e ; e. g. bee (cberne ^antftbu^z the leather 
glove ; to* feibene ^ot^tuc^^ the silk cravat ; — ^but, Ux |)onbfd)U& if! 
9 on Setcr^ K*v Stin^ ifl Don ®6tb, the glove is (made) of 
leather, the ring is (made) of gold. 

3d, All superlatives, ordinal numerals, and certain adjectives 
formed from adverbs of time and locality ; e. g. bet grS^e/ ber 
VOixXi, bet btttte h., the tallest, the second, Uie third, &c. ; — bcrttg, 
^tiij, W'P9/ Qcflrig/ morgenb, from bcrt, there ; fjtute, to-day ; ()icr, 
in tliis place ; gcftern, yesterday ; mcrgcn, to-morrow. 

3d, Many derivatives ending in ifc^ and (tc^/ including also 
adjective names of nations ; as, btcbtfd)/ thievish ; ncrbtfc^z northern ; 
n)ortftd)/ literal; anfangUd^z original; beutfc^, German; franjSflfc^, 
French ; engltfd)/ English, &c. 

We are to consider, 1st, tAa inflection^ 2d, the comparison, 
and ^ the use and government of adjectives. 


6 55. When an adjective is used in the attributive 
relation, certain tenninations are added to it, indica- 
tive of ike gender y the number ^ and the case of the sub- 
stantive to which it is united ; e. g. guter 38em, good 
wine ; enter fc^nett 35Ittme, of a fair flower ; bo^ Hein e 
Sttc^/ the small book. 

AU attributive adjectives of every degree of com- 
parison are susceptible of three different modes of in* 
faction, denominated the first, second, and third declen- 

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following table exhibits the terminatiowl of 7m 
three declensions. 

First Declension* Second Declension, Third Declensien 









f*, en 








NeuL n Mafc 

e er 











For all gendera. 
Ut Sid Sd 
DecU DecL Decl, 




Refnarh The first declension of adjectives corresponds to !&• 
earlier declension of substantives, and presents the greatest Taiie- 
tjr of terminations ; so also the secona possesses the charactem- 
tics of the later declension of substantives (the en in the genitifv 
and remaining cases). The third declension is composite, partak- 
ing of the cbAracter of both. 














§66. When an adjective is preceded hyno dker 
limiting wordy or by one which is indeclinahkj it as- 
sumes the teraiinations of the definite article* in all 
its cases singular and plural, and is said to be inflected 
according to the first declension, thus : — 

4.^^^^ ^^^ diflereBse, that in the nom. and aoo. neuter ifaunilar tkt ti 
te(nivehaflC0in8tead of al. 

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lIiK. Fein. Neut. 

Nox. gutet, Qute, ^ntei, 


gutenv duter/ 
guten, QuU, 



For all g« 
NOM. ^UU, g0(4 

Gen. gutcr, of good, 

Dat. guten, to good, 
Ace QuU, good 

I. Masculine. 
SiNouLAK. Plural. 

NoM. rotter JBein, red wine, tot^^e SBcint, 

Gen. ^J^^ I fflrincd, of red wine, rot^^er ffirinc, 

Dat. tot^em fSkint, to red wine, xei^tn Setnen* 

Ace. rottien fSidn, red wine; rot^e Seine. 

n. FBHIIilNB. 

Singular. Plural. 

NoM. fuge ^tui^t, sweet firuit, fuge gruc^te. 

Gen. (uger gnid^t, of sweet fruit, (uger griic^te^ 

Dat. (uger gnidjt, to sweet fruit, fugen gruc^teu. 

Ace fuge ^tud)t, sweet fruit; fuge Jritc^te. 

m. Neuter. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nox* guted ®e(b^ good money, gute (S^ttet, 

Gwn. ^^ > ®elbe«, of good money, guter ©elter, 

Dat. gutem Scfbe, to good money, guten (Sefcern, 
Ace gated ®elb, good money; gute ®e(ber. 

06s, 1st. The following are some of the indedinablo words 
which may precede the adjective withont affecting its termination - 
etioa^^some; g e n u g, enongh ; o ( (e rfei/ of yanous sorts; me\ix, 
more; t)te(, much; to en I g, little; in the plural the nnmerals 
itott, tret, &c. e. g. genug rot^ct SBcin/ enough redwfne; ah 
lertei fiipe Jrutiftt^ a yariety of sweet fruit; wenig gute« fBxtib, 
little good bread. 

Obs. 2ef. We are to regard e ^ as the reorular termination of the 
genitive singular masculine and neuter, tnough en most always 
taken its place for the sake of euphony, when the noun itself has 
€$ in the genitive ; e. g. gut e n fSkint^, fatte n fSiaf[cxi,of sold ww 
let ; boor c n (9t{^t$, of ready money. 


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( 57. An adjective belongs to the second declen- 
sion, when it is preceded either by the definite ctrtidt 
itt, tie, ba^, by a demonstraiive or relative pronoun^ or 
an indefinite numeral It then assumes the terminalioQ 
e in- the nominative singular for all genders, and in the 
accusative singular feminine and neuter, and the ter- 
mination e It in all the remaining cases singular and 

The pronoims and indefinite numerals areir— 

Mcftr/ btffe^ btfff^, this ; 
jfncr, [int, imti, that, yonder; 
tcrfctOe, t)icfc(bc, baffelbc, the same ; 
trricnige/ Meiemge, bo^itntge, that ; 
n>ctd)cr, n)ctd)C, toeW^, who, which ; 
fc(ci)(r, fcl(i)C/ \e{6)ti, such ; 
ieDcr, icU, icDc^, 7 . 

icgttcber, if glicftc, icofid^i, $ 

einiger, einige, eimac^, ) severel: 

etli*er, «tlid)e. ctlicftcg, J ^^^' severei, 
monc^et/ man^e, man^e^, many a, &o. 

SiNouLAB. Plural. 

Mmo. Fem. Neut. For all gesdcn. 

N. ter ^utt, bte ^wtt, bad gute^ bte guten^ the good, 

G. bed 9uten, ber guten, bed guten, ber gutcn, of the good, 

D. bem guten^ ber guten^ bem suten^ ben duten, to the good^ 

A. ben 3Uten/ bte gute/ t^^ gute ; bte guten/ the good 

I. Oiefer weife 9Rann/ this wise man. 
SmouLAB. Plitbal. 

NoM. btefcr weife SKann/ 
Gen. bfefed wcifen Wanned, 
Dat. biefcm wetfen Wanne, 
Ago. btefen wetfen SRann \ 

n. 3cbe fc^one 95lume, each feir flower. 

SiNOTJLAB. Plural. 

NoM, fete fc^one 95lume, I welc^e fc^^onen Shnnen? 

Gkn. jcber fcf)6ncn 93(nme, | toA&jtx fc^onen ©lumen? 

Bat. jeber Monen SSCnme, wel^^en fcj^nen SSIumen? 

Ace tebe fd^one »Iume: »el*« (kronen SBlnment 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

biefe wetfen SRanncr, 
btefer weifen 9)?dnnfr, 
biefen weifen SRdnnenv 
btejfe wetfen SRdmter. 


nL 3«te« gtfine gelb, yonder green 3eld. 
SiivjuLAB. Plural. 

NoM jened grunc gelb, 

Gbw Jencd griinen getoed, 

Dat. ienem 3runen gelte/ 

Ace. jenc^ griinc geto ; 

}enc gruncn gelber, 
jener grjinen gdber, 
jcncn griineit gelbcm, 
jcnc griincn gclter. 

So decline : berfdbe tot^e SBctn/ the same red wine ; tie 6cffetf 
gni*t (pL Jrficftte)/ the better fruit ; n>c(d)C« ncujle RUib (pi. ^Icitcc) ? 
which newest garment ? 


Ist, According to the nsage of many writers the adjective rejects 
the n in the nom. and ace. plural, when it is preceded by one of 
the words c i n i g e, some ; e t ( t d) C/ mchti or m e b r f r e, seve- 
ral; man Ac, t)tc(e^ many ; o ( ( e, all ; as, aUi flct^ge Bd^iiUx, all 
diligent scholars ; me(e cble iiJlin^dtcn, many noble men, &c. It is 
not necessary, however, to make this exception to the general rule. 

2d, When the definite article, being preceded by a preposition, 
coalesces with it into one word (§ 10), the inflection of the adjec- 
tive is not thereby altered ; c. g. burd)^drfine 'Sdh, through the 
green field ; i m 9 c o 9 e n ^aufe, in the great house. 


§ 69. An adjective is inflected according to the 
third declension, when it is preceded either by the in- 
definite article^ by a personal or possessive pronoun^ or by 
the singular of the indefinite numeral f e i tt, no, none. 
It assumes the terminations of the first declension in 
the nominative singular of all genders (er, e, e^), and in 
die accusative singular feminine and neuter (e, ti) 
and the terminations of the second declension in all 
the remaining cases. 

The pronouns are : personal^ Off bu, er^ fie, e^, »ir, if)t, fie, 
I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they ; possessive^ metn, betn, fctit, 
Wlfnr, cuer, Ht, my, thy, his, our, your, her (their). 

Singular. Plural 

Masc. Fern. Neat Forallgenden 

NoM. etn 9uter, eine ^nte, tin ^nM, (eine suten, 

Gen. etne^ guten, efner guten, etne« gutcn, (einer gutciu 

Dat. dnem guten, etner guten, ctnem guten, fetnen guteiv 

Aoc. etnen gutcn, cfnc gute, etn gutc*; (einc gutcn. 

# Digitized by LjOOQIC 


J. 5Wcitt guter SBruber/ nqr good brother. 


Nox. metn gutcr SSruber, 
Gkn. metned gutcn Sniper*, 
Dat. metnem guten Sruber, , 
Ace. metnen guten ©ruber j 


meute guten S3riibn> 
meincr guten 93ruber^ 
meinen guten 93rubcnv 
metne guten Sriiber. 

n. ^i^xt jiingfte ®(^»e(ler, her joungesC sister. 




t^re jungjlc ©c^wejler, 
t^rer jungftcn ©c^wcftcr, 
ibrer jungften ©c^wcflcr, 
tl^re jungjle @(^we{ler ; 

ii)te jungflen @(^ii>eflfni/ 
i^rer jungftcn ©djwefhenv 
tbren fungflen Sc^weflenv 
i^re jungflen ®(^n)e(leni. 

in. Unfer grogc^ ?)au§, our large Aouse. 


NoM. uttfcr groged |)aii^. 
Gen. unfred grogen |)aufe^/ 
Dat. unfcrm grogen $aufe. 
Ace. unfer groged $aud ) 

unfre grofen ^mfcK, 
unfrer grogen ?>aiftt> 
uitfem grogen f)aufenv 
unfre grogen ^aufer. 

So decline : fein fii^onerer Xag (gen. ^ged), no finer day, 
fetne angeneftme JKeife (pi. Strifen), his pleasant journey; beui 
gutc« Stnb (gen. fiinbed, pL Sinber), thy good child. 

Remarks The adjective is declined in the same manner whea 
it follows one of the personal pronouns id)/ 1 ; In, then ; toxv, we; 
tftr (Sic)/ you ; except in the genitive case, where the defiaite a^ 
tide must be supplied ; e. g. td) ormcr ^anrt, 1 poor man ; gen. 
meincr^ be^ ormcn SD^anne^/ of me, the poor man ; dat. mtr or* 
men ^anne, to me poor man ; ace. mtc^ armen Wlann, me poor man. 
So also, bu qutc 9){uttv'r/ thou good mother ; gen. bciner/ bcr ga> 
ten sDIutter, &c, ; t^r guten Ziutt, you good people ; dat ok!^ gotii 
8cuten ; aco. euc^ guten 8cute/ &c. 

observations on the thbee declensions. 

$ 60. Obs. Ut. When adjectives, terminating in et, er, en/ an 
inflected, they frequently drop the e of those terminations for the 
sake of euphony ; as, etn eb(cr (instead of ebc(er)©c^n, amajf 
nanimoris son ; bcr cOn e (for c6 c n c) SBcQ/ the smooth road ; bte tit* 
t r e (instead of 6ttt ere) ^rud)t, the bitter fruit. Sometimes this e it 
retained, and that of the syllable of inflection is rejected in its stetd, 
especially in the dative case ; as, etn !)citrer |)immel/ clear sky, gas. 
tiw« Wtren ^InmieU/ dat etnem fteit e x n (not beit e r e n or bcit t e a) 

Digitized by (jOOQ IC* 


4Amttui,See.; tmcbeln, ^efn{>et|(tutothegeceroii8, cheeifd 

Obs. 2d. The attributive adjective is frequently left 
aninflected like the predicative. This is the case : — 

let. When it is placed aAer its substantire, as the predicate o( 
an abridged proposition ; as, bie itttppc^ f d) t o f f unb f! e t (^ the cliflf, 
rough and steep; tie f8l\de, fceiuntfcrr^Ho^ crgc()cn fid) in uns 
^tmt^€n ^{dumcn (@d)incr), the eyes, free and unshackled, roam 
throagh the measureless abyss of space. 

Sdy In poetry and conversational German, *he e is oAen dropped 
in the ace. neut. sinsf. of the first and third declensions ; as, g u (for 
gutc^) ^tt\>, good bread ; a ( t (&\\cn, old iron ; cin u t a ( t SBort, an 
ancient saying, &c. 

3d, When the adjective is used adverhially, to limit the meaning 
of another adjective ; as, cin g o n $ ncuc6 ^u^, a house entirely 
new ; btc u n c no a r t c t fro^c 9}od)nd}t, intelligence cheering b^ 
yond expectation ; cin n c u ctngcbuntcnc^ fBn&f, a newly bound 

If in these cases the adjective is inflected, the sense is entirely al- 
tered :— cin gan)c$, ncuc^ ^u^, an entire, new house ; tie uncnoartctCi 
fnf)C ^c^x'xdit, the unexpected, cheering intelligence ; cin ncixU, cin< 
gc^unbcncs f&nd^, a new book, bound. 

$ 61. Obs. 3d. If a substantive in the genitive limits the mean- 
ing of another substantive, and is placed oefore it, so that the lat- 
ter loses its article ($ 9), the adjective connected with the latter 
substantive must be inflected according to the first declension ; e. g. 
fcinc^ ^atcr^ ifinqftct €c^n, instead of: bcr (fingfie ®chn fctncil 
Batct«, his father's youngest son ; unfrc« |>oufc$ grept e c &^ViU, i*i- 
stead of: ber gtSpten ^u(e unfctc4 ^a\x\U, to the greatest pillat 
oL our house. 

Obs. 4/A. When two or more adjectives are con- 
nected with the same substantive, they all follow th« 
■ame roles of inflection : — 

I. Outer, rotter, (auttct SBcin, good, red, pure wine. 
NoM. gutct/ rctftcr, loutrct ©cin/ 

Dat. gutcm, rctbem, toutcrm ©cine. 
Ago. gutcn, rotten, (autcrn SBcin. 

IL jDit rcifc, fWnc, gutc JrucW/ the ripe, fair, good fruit, 

NoM. tic rcifc, fcWnc, gutc Jnidyt, 
Gen. bet rctfcn/ fttfimn, gutcn 'Stix^t, tu 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


m. Unfet fWlncI/ grfittr^ (S^i, our fine, greoi giw 

NoM. unfcr fdfinc^, griinc^ ®ra#. 
Gen. unfre^ fd)5ncn^ gtdnifn ®rafc$, ic 

With respe^ to case I, however, usage is not decidedly cstab* 
llshed, as the last adjective frequently follows the inflection of tb« 
Isl declension in the nom. sing, and plur. only, and that of the 
9d declension i mall the remaining cases : nKirme^frt|d)< SRitd), warm, 
fresh milk, gen. anddat.n>amicr/fr*fd)en SD^tld); gutc^, nKt|(^ S9rf^* 
good white bread, gen. gutc^, n>€i^en S)tobe^, dat. gutrm, vct^ei 
SrotC/ pi. gutC/ locipe ^veU, gen. QnXet ivcipcn ^ttU, ic 


§ 62. In German, as in English, there are two 
modes of comparing adjectives, called the terminational 
and the compound comparisons. 

The former makes the comparative and superlative 
by adding certain terminations to the simple form of 
the positive ; the latter by prefixing to it the adverbs 
of comparison : me ^r^ more; am tneiflett or l^od^fl, 

Rtde I. The terminational comparative is formed by ad* 
ding e x, and the terminational superlative by adding fl or e (l 
to Uk% root of the positive ; e. g. frob, comp. fre(^ e r, superL ftt* 
t c ft, glad, glader, gladest ; rcic^, reid) e r, teic^ ft, rich, ridier, 
richest ; fd)bn^ fc^on e r, fd^on ft^ beautiful, more beautifijd, most 

Ride n. Adjectives, containing the vowels a, D, vt, gener- 
ally modify them in the comparative and superlative degrees ; 
e. g QiJi, hittx, alteft, old, older, oldest ; grof / drofer^ ^rpf^ 
great, greater, greatest. 

§ 63. The vowels of the root, however, are wi 
modified in the following instances : — 

Ist, In all participles which have hecome snsceptible of com- 
parison, by assuming the signification of adjectives ; as, rafini^ 
mad ; fd)(a^11^, decisive; !)crfd)(agcn,cunning; DcrKOorfcH/ abandoned, 
&c. ; e ff. ^afl'n^, comp. rofcn^ et, superl. rofcnb |t 

2d, AU adjectives containing the diphthong au; as, rwb 
rough, comp. roubcr, superl. raul)c(l; so: arau^grey; tcub deif, 
laut^ loud, &c. 

^« Derivative adjectives terminating \nt\,tt,tVL.t, ox tsum 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


•f the affixes bat, fom, f) a ft, ig, ic^t, (id) it., e. g. tvmltl, daiki 
treden, dry; Imager, slender ; furd)tbar, formidable; ratbfam, advisa- 
ble ; ht^haft, malicious ; Koalbtg/ woody ; dra{id)t, grass-like ; tdunf 
lic^, feasible, &c. 

4th, In the following : 

SBlflS/ pale ; ffar, clear ; 

bunt, variegated ; fnopp, tight ; 

lofjm, lame; 

(0^, loose ; 

niott, wearied ; 

mev^, brittle ; 

nacft, naked; 

ptatt, flat; 

plump, clumsy ; 

xeh, raw ; 

tunb, round; 

fanft, gentle ; 
fatr, satisfied ; 
fd)(off, slack ; 
fd)(an(, slender ; 
florr, numb ; 
flclj, proud; 
Praff, stiff; 
fhimm, dumb ; 
ten, mad ; 
cell, full ; 
5af)m, tame. 

faM/ fallow ; 
folfi, fSeJse ; 
frcf), joyful ; 
QCcaU, straight ; 
gcfiinb, healthy ; 
aUttt, smooth ; 
$6b(, hollow; 
^cCb, kind; 
foM, bald ; 
forg, stingy ; 

§ 64. When the adjective ends either in b, t, f!, i, % f(ft or %, 
the e before the fl of the superlatives becomes essential for the 
saJce of euphony. In all other cases it is commonly rejected ; e. 

f. nterfd), brittle, superl. nicrfcbeft; ffd^, proud, superl. ftctj e fl K. ; 
at, Hot, clear, superl. f(arfl; tapfer, valiant, superl. topferfi; 
fc^uCbtg, culpable, superl. fd)u(t>ig ft li* 

Polysyllables terminating in c(, ct or en, generally reject 
the e of this termimition in the comparative, but resume it again in 
the superlative; e. jj. cbcl, comp. cWcc (instead of cbc(ct), superl. 
eb c ( fl ; f)ettcr, cheerful, comp. belt r e r, superl. ^eit e r fl ; ergcben, de- 
Toted, comp. ctgeb n c r, supeij. crgeb e n fl. 

§ 65. Comparatives and superlatives are inflected 
like positive adjectives; thus: — 

1. Better wine d. fairer flower, 3. greener field. 

N .^cret fficin, fcfcSnerc Slume griinctc^ gc(b, 

G befjercn SBeine^, fc^onerct S3flime grfineten ^t{\>ti lu 

So : bet befl c SlBctn, the best wine, gen. beg bcfl c n fSeine^ lu, bU 
((i^nfl S3(ame, gen. bet f42$nfl e n S3(unte k. 

parison :• 



The Mowing adjectiTos are irregvlar in their conw 







highest ; 

more, most. 



Alao the adverbs : — 
^tm, lieUv, om Itebften, gladly, more g.adly, most ^afly 
(wentg)^ minbcr, am mtnfceflen, Httle, less, least. 

§ 67. There are a number of adjectives, derived from adi 
verbs of place, which under a comparative form have a posi- 
tive signification, and hence their comparative is wanting: — 



ttv, tit, ba^ au§ere. 



extreme, uttemioit 

r rf If \)%lttCtC, 




9f tt tf tiutcrC/ 




H n ft ttiittlcxCf 



middlemost ; 

ft It ft nitttxt, 



lowermost ; 

ft ft ft obcre. 



uppermost ; 

w ft It untcre, 




tt If ft corbcre, 





§ 63. Adverbs of manner, the form of which is generally 
the sa'ne with that of adjectives, are likewise susceptible <» 
compavison; as, gefd^mtnb, gefc^winber, fc^on, fc^oner, swiftly, 
more swiftly, beautifully, more beautifully. They express the 
superlative, however, by prefixing to it a m (a contraction for 
on bem, § 10) ; as, a m gefd^wmbjlen, a m fd^onfhn, mort 
swiftly, most beautifully. 

But when no comparison^ bat simply eminence is to he denoted 
Dy tlie superlative, a u f ^/ a contraction of the preposition ouf widi 
the accusative of the article (bat^), is prefixed, or guni/ a contraction 
of the preposition ^ with the dative of the article (t»em) ; e. g. anfl 
frcunt)Ud)fliV jum f^onjlcn^ most kindly, most beautifully; er onpfti^ 
mid) auf^ t)2if(td)flc, he received me most courteously. The ad« 
verbial superlative of eminence, which is al so called the absduU 
superlative, may likewise be expressed by the simple form of tiia 
degree, or by the termination e n ^ ; as, gUtigH, most kindly ; iiu 
ntgft, most cordially ; ^j$ci)ftifn^/atthemo8t; Uingflm^, at the longest 


$ 69. Obs, 1. The plural of the comparative mf^r^ more, ii 
m e f) t e or xncf)xtxc, which is used as an indefinite numeral ia 
the sense of the English several^ 

Obs, 2. The two numerals, ^ct crffc, the first, bcr U%\c, the last, 
though superlatives in sense, give rise to new comparatives b« 
c r (I c r c and tct iti^itxt, which correspond to the English tin 
former — the latter, 

Obs. 3. The compound comparative becomes necessary whH 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


tire adjectiTes, deDotmg qnalitiee of different degree*, are predk 
eated of the same person or thing ; e. g. cr ifl m c I) t folt o(^ toatm, 
he is rather cold than warm ; bu bifl nt c ^ Qdif)xt aU UuQ, thoQ 
art more learned than pmdent. 

Obs. 4. The componnd saperlaUve becomes necessary when 
the indefinite article precedes ; e. g. cin Md)ft graufamct 5Kcnfd)/ 
m most cruel man; etnc Mc^fl gcfiStt^rUc^e fRi\\i a most dangerous 

Obs, 5. There are a number of particles (adrerbs) which are 
frequently placed before adjectives ot every degree of comparison 
Co render their meaning intensive. They are : — 1st, With the post' 
tine, & u p e t jf/ extremely ; M * ft/ highly ; f e () r^ very, &c. 2d, 
'With the comparative, » t c (, much ; w e i t or b c i » c i t c n), by far ; 
n (6, yet, &c. 3d, With the superlative^ bet w c i t c m, by far ; 
and the prefix at tec; e.g. \cf)t fcft on, very pretty; wcit ^rUpcr, 
by &r greater; a t(crf(^5nf!, most beautiful of all. 

06s» 6. In compansons, aid corresponds to the English than^ 
and n>te to the English as; e. g. &U finb dita aii id)/ you are 
older than I ; er ifl fo grop w \ i fcin ^aUv, he is as tall as his 


§ 70. 1. Adjectives of every degree of comparison may 
be employed substantively ; but they even then retain the in* 
flection of adjectives ; e. g. ber SBetf e^ the wise (man), sage ; 
ein SBet'f e t/ a sage ; tie @c^dne/ the &ir woman ; ta^ QxffOf 
htne, the sublime. 

2. With respect to adjectives which are used substantively 
In the neuter gender, it is necessary to distinguish : — 

1st, Those which assume no termination, and which designate 
either some abstract quality^ or some material named after that 

guality ; e. g. M^ 9{ e ^ t, justice ; ct fpnd)t ctn reined >D c u tf (^^ 
e speaks pnre German; ta^ SBtdmei^^ white lead; IBertmcr 
93 1 a u^ Prussian blue, &c. These are inflected like substantives 
of the earlier declension, and are used in the singular only ; as, 
tai SBIan, Ui S3(au^ &c. 

2d, Those which assume the terminations of the attributive adjec- 
tive and are inflected like it ; e. g. bad (S>uXt, the good (2d decl.) ; 
ftioaf ®urt% something good (1st decl.) ; tad SriinC/ the green ; 
ctn (Skinjed/ a whole. 

§ 71. With respect to their signification, adjectives are di 
▼ided into two classes, viz : 1st, such as make complete sense 
of themselves without the addition of any other woixi ; as, :|ut, 
good ; <jrDg, great, &c. 2d, Those which of themselves can- 
not express an entire idea, but require the addition of some 





compleniental notion; as, htwn^t, consdous of; (d^, frM 
from, 6cc. The fonner may be termed abschdej the latter re* 

The complement of a relatiye adjectiTe may either be tiie 
•blique case ($ 49. 2d.) of a substantive (including all words used 
IB such), or a verb in the ir^nitive with g u . 


§ 72. Adjectives signifying pomM%, duty, necessity ^ easi- 
ness, difictiUy, and the like, are followed by an infinitive with 
)u; as, ed t(l mtr ntd^t mogltd) gu Q^fitn, it is not poa^l^ 
forme togo; ertfl genott^igt }u arbetten, he is obliged 
to work ; bercit gu tdmpfen, ready to contend. In this connec- 
tion the infinitive, though active in fi)nn, is often passive in signi- 
fication ; letd^t )u ma^en^ easy to he done; fd^noer ju glaubov 
hard to be believed^ 6cc 


§ 73. When relative adjectives are followed by a 
substantive, it is put either in the genitive, the dadvc 
or the accusative. 

I. The adjectives goveraing the genitive are : — 

bcbiirftig, in want of; funbt^, acquainted with ; 

^efittfcn, diligent in ; m6d)tig/ master of; 

bcfugt^ authorized ; nifil)^ tired of; 

benctbi^t/ in need of; fd)ulbig, guilty of; 

bCKUuPt^ conscious of; tf)eU^ft partaker of; 

etn^cbent remembering ; t>erb&ci)tt9, suspected d*; 

f&l)ig, capable of; t>cr(ufltq, losing; 

frob/ happy in; wU, full of; 

gcmarttg, in expectation of; n}firttg, worthy of. 
gctutp^ certain of; 

Examples. Gtnct @prad)C ni & 4 1 i g fctn/ to be master of a lan- 
guage ; ctnc6 S3etbred)en« f cb u 1 1 i g, guilty of a crime ; Ut Gttafi 
to ft r b t g/ worthy of punishment. 

§ 74. 11. The adjectives which govern the dcOive 
case are : — 

1st, Such as are denred from verbs which govern the dative; 
M. gei)crfam, obedient t€ ; btexiflbat/ bound in service to ; DOAinu 
ten 'bilged to, Sec, 



2d. The following :- 

SfftiTi&i, resembling; 
angenicfen, suited to; 
anaencbni/ agreeable ; 
onnSfig, offensive ; 
befannr^ known ; 
bequctn, convenient ; 
bcn>u9t, known ; 
tunf i(^/ serviceable ; 
etgen, own ; 
frenib/ strange ; 
freuntlid)/ friendly ; 
gegenmartig^ present to ; 
gcloit% fluent ; 
gcni&9^ suited to ; 
QcndQt, inclined ; 
g€n?cgen, kind; 
gcnHid)fen, equal to ; 
g(dd)/ like ; 
gn&big^ gracious ; 
peilfani/ salutary ; 

f)ttb, kind ; 

I&|!td/ troublesome ; 

Itc&^ dear, agreeable; 

ttac^t^eilig^ hurtful ; 

naJ)c, near ; 

nd^(td)/ useful ; 

f6)iH\6), injurious ; 

|d)u(Mg^ indebted ; 

ttcU/ true, faithful ; 

fibcrlcQcn, superior ; 

unrcrgc^tid), ever memorable la 

wrbA'Stig^ suspected by ; 

wrbcrbtid), destructive to ; 

t>crf)a9t/ odious to ; 

oenoantt/ related ; 

t>crtf)ci(()aft/ advantageoiu ; 

lotbrtg^ loatiisome ; 

rntUf cmmen/ welcome ; 

inQCtf)an, addicted to. 

Examples : bcr ^o^n if! fctncm 95otet 5 ^ n ( i (!^, the son resemblet 
nis father; ct ijl fctneni S3crufc ntd)t 9 c n> a d) f e n, he is not equal to 
his calling; e^ tfl tf)m 6 e t ( fam, it is salutary to him ; rote otc( bin 
tcb 3t)ncn fd)u(ti3? how much do I owe you 1 erijl nut t)er(^apt 
he is odious to me, &c. 

III. Adjectives denoting the measure^ weighty or worth of a 
thing; also age or duration of time, govern the accusative; 
as, 3m5(f ^funt) fd)it)er, twelve pounds m weight; (incn Stngev 
hvtxt, of the bresulth of a finger ; (incn Scaler mttti), worth a 
erown; a; ifl jef)n ^a\)x alt, he is ten years old ; fiinf So^re Can 9^ 
Cor fire yosTS, 6x. 


§ 75. Numerals are either definite or indefinite ; as, 
^itt, je^n, four, ten; t)i el, a He, many, all. 

Definite numerals are divided into two classes :— 
Cardinal and Ordinal. 

Cardinal numerals are such as express simply the number 
of persons or things in answer *x> the question ^^howmany?^ 
ttet^ three; metjto, forty. 

Ordinal numerals designate the rank of a person or thing hk 
a lenes ; as, ber erfte, the first ; bet jwolftc, the twelfth. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Ordinals are formed from cardinals by annexing (be lenid 
nation fl e, when the cardinal ends in q, and the tcmuBattos 
tc in all other cases; as, tcr imangtdde/ oiette, the twen. 
tieth, fourth. 

Escevtions. The ordinal of etn^ one, is irregalar: tct erflf 
(instead of brt e i n 1 0/ the first. Instead of Ut a n) c i t (/ thi 
second, it was formerly customary to say tec a n D c r e* 

. § 76. The following is a list of cardinal and ordinal 
numerals: — 


1. t\n,tm^, one; 

2. imx, two ; 

3. brci, three ; 

4. wcr, four ; 

5. fttnf, five ; 

6. ffd)^, six ; 

7. fitUn, seven ; 

8. od)t^ei^t; 

9. ncun, nine; 

10. jehn^ten; 

11. c(f, eleven; 

13. sn>5(f/ twelve, &o. 

13. trci^cbn ; 

14. mericbn; 

15. ffinftc^n; 

16. fcd)icf)n; 

17. rt(&cui)cf)n or fie^jc^n 

18. ocbt^cbn*, 

19. ncunjcbn; 
SO. pan^tg; 

81. cinun^ ^nningi^; 
22. ycon unb jtron^tg^ {(. 

30. trct^ig; 

31. etnunbbtciptg^zc. 
4Cl mcr^g; 

60. fdnfjtg; 

60. fed)jig; 

70. ftc&cnjtg or flcbgtg 

80. ocbtjtg; 

90. neun^ig; 

100. bunbm; 

101. bunl»crt unb cin< ; 

102. buntcrt unb ^cl ; 
103 bunl^ftt unt trci \u 
too jTOi'ibunbcrt ; 

too. twibunbcrt; 


tft/ bte^ bo* • erfte, the first. 

// // // grocitc, ** second. 

// // // britte, " third. 

„ „ „ t»iertc, •« fourth. 

„ „ „ fanpc, " fifth. 

// // // ff*itc, " sixth. 

H 00 // pcbcntf^" seventh. 

„ „ „ acbte, " eighth. 

„ „ „ ncunte, " ninth. 

// // ,t Jfbntf, " tenth. 

// // // ctft*/ " eleventh. 

i, „ „ jwftjtc, *« twelfth,** 

// // }$ brcijcbnte. 

// // // bicrjcbnte. 

// „ // fanfttfbntc 

90 0$ 00 fi'd)ict)ntc 

„ „ „ |ifbenicbnt<orficHfi«>» 

„ „ „ achtjcbntf. 

„ „ „ ncunjcbnte. 

// 00 0, jnHiniigltc. 

„ „ „ cin unb jioanjt<)fle. 

// // // J»fi «n^ jn)anai9|lc,ifc 

„ „ „ btcigtQflc. 

„ „ „ ctn unb bretftgflc tc 

// // // otcrjiqfh. 

// // // fanfjiqfh. 

// // // ffcbjigfle. 

// // // ficbcnjis|!«orfif^^ 

00 00 00 flcbtji^ft*. 

,, „ „ ncuniigjlc 

00 ,0 00 bunbcrtfte. 

„ „ „ bunbcrt unb cr|!c. 

00 00 00 bunbcrt unb jiDcite. 

// // // bunbcrt unb brittCK 

00 00 00 jmelbunbcrtfte. 

m 00 00 btctbunbmftf. 




Ordinal. j 

400. tnn:fittnl><rt; 
500. fanfhuntm; 
600. fcd)^hun^m ; 
700. pcbcnbunbart ; 
800. od)tbuntcrt; 
900. nrunbunbcrt; 
tOOO. taufenD; 

## // « fftnfbunbcrifte. 
// ft it fccb^buntcrtfle. 
// n // fteOcnl)unb<rl|l< 
// t$ // od)tbunt<rifle. 
„ „ „ ncunbunbcttfle. 
// // // toufcntflc 

2000. {nx'ttoufenb. 

aooo. trcttQufcnt. 
100,000. ()unbcmoufenK 
1,000,000. cine g}2tUtcn. 
8,000,000. jwet sD{iaton«u 


§ 77. Ohs* 1. When e { n stands in conn ection with omei 
numerals, it is indeclinable ; as, e t n unt ^itx\x%, forhr one 
tin taufenb ad^tiunbert funf unb ^xttix^, 1845. In other ca 
ses it is always inflected. This may be done in four different 
ways : — 

Ist, If the numeral ( t n, either alone yt with an adjeodye, limits 
the meaning of a sabstantive, and is not 'preceded by any other </e- 
elinable word^ it follows the inflection of the indefinite article c t n, 
tint, ct 11/ and differs from it only by a greater stress of accentua- 
tion ; e. g. e t n (guter) SXann, one (good) man ; e i n e (gute) ^raU/ 
one (good) woman , e t n (gute^) Axxit, one (good) child. 

2d, When it stands entirely alone, either in an absolute sense or 
relating to some substantive understood, it is inflected like an ad- 
Jective of the fi^st declension— e i n e r, e i n ^ e i n e^^ &c. ; e. g. 
Olid) nicftt G i n ( r wax bo, not one even was there ; (Si n e n t)on un< 
n>tr^ hi^ 8oc< trcffcn^ the lot will fall on one of us ; cine mcincc 
Cc^flmi, one of my sisters, &c. 

3d, But if it is preceded either by the definite article Uv, bie>ba</ 
9r any other word having the characteristic terminations ofthear* 
tide ($ 57), it is declined like an adjective of the second declen- 
non; e. g. tcr cine ^Xann, \>xt etne ^rau, ba^ etne Jtinb^ the 
mu man, one woman, one child, &o. 

4th, The numeral e t n follows, finally, the inflection of the third 
declension cf adjectives, when it is jtreceded by a possessive pronoun^ 
me in/ bein, fein/&c. ; e. ^. mem einev SBruber^my one bro< 
ther ; fctne etne @4n>cj!cr, his one sister; Guer e i n e ^ $fcrb/ yom 
one hoiiie, &c. 

§ 78. Obs. 2. The numerals ) w e t and b r e i are in 
fleeted only when they are not preceded by the article or some 
odier declinable word ; thus : — 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


NoM. f»d, htA ; 
Gen. $t»txtt, Ureter ; 
Dat, i^m, ttctcn ; 
Ace. jwet/btcu 

Examples: wit gwciet ebcr bteicr Seu^eit SOtonb, ftom tin 
BK.oth of two or three witnesses ; foge ti M) ien c n b t <t (bo 
b\ i i c n) S^eunten, pray tell those three (nends. 

Ohs* 3. The remaining cardinal numerals are indetiinahU 
except that they assume e n in the datire case, when thej are 
osed substantively; e. g. mtt @ e (ft f e n fatiren/ to ride in 8 
coach with six (horses) ; ouf ottcn 5Bt e r c n friecftcn, to crawl 
on hand and foot But, mtt fecftd 9Rann/ with six men; mil 
91 tx So^nen, with finir sons. 

Obs. 4. Instead of im e t, b e i b C/ hoth, is frequently used, sad 
18 inflected like an adjective in the plural : nom. 6 ei b e^ gen. b cis 
b(r,&c.; bic bet ben, gen. bet betben,&o.; fetne betbcs, 
gen. fetner betben, &c. ; e. g. feine b e t b e n IBtiiber jtnb front 
both his brothers are sick ; bte beiben ^f^nbe loatcn ba, hoth friendi 
were there. The neuter singular, beiben, refers to two differem 
things^ but is ne>et applied to persons. It corresponds to the Eng 
lieh : both the one and the otMr ; as, ^oben €ie S9rob cber SSkin) 
3d) babe b e t b e^ Have you bread or wine ! I hare both the ont 
and the other. 

§ 79. Ohs. 5. Most cardinal numerals are adjectiTes, 
which, however, like all other adjectives, may be used substan- 
tively. The words ^ u n b e r t and X a u f e n b are employed 
as collective nouns of the neuter gender, and are inflected aa 
such: nom. ^ol^ ^unbcrt,gen. bed ^unbert^, pL bic ^un^erte; 
0* g- J" ?)unbcrtcn, by hundreds; }u Xaufcnben, by 
thousands. Stne 9)li((ton isa noun of the feminine gli- 
der, and occurs only in connection with an article. 

Ohs, 6. When numerals serve simply to denote cyphen, 
or the ahrirojct notion of number^ they are substantives <^ the 
feminine gender, the word 3 ^ M being understood ; as, tie 
(3«b0 Dtei, the number three ; bie Stcrjtg, the number 

Obs. 7. By means of the affixes er and tin^ masculine sub- 
stantives of various significations are formed from cardinal num- 
bers ; e. g. etn 2) r e i e t, tin ^z^\ix, coins of three and six 
kreuzers; ein 2( d) t g t q e r, a inan of eighty ; 3 met unb gmanitt 
ger, wine grown in 1&23; SmiUing, twin; iDrilling, tripletL 

Ohs. 8 Ordinal numerals are reguliu'ly declined afler tbt 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


nmnner of adjectives. Wben used substantivej/, their inbkL 
letter must be a capital, if a person is referred to: as, bit 
Srflen wether tie Ze^ten fein, the first shall be last. 

§ 80. To the preceding classes of numerals may be added 
(he following compounds^ £)rmed partly from cardinal^ partly 
from ordinals, and partly firom indefinite numerals : — 


Ist, Distributives ; formed by prefixing the adverb j e : as, 
\e ft e b e H/ by seven ; j e ) e (^ H/ ten at a time, or as in Is^ng- 
lisli, J no e t u n b ixoex, two and two. 

2d, ItetxUives; formed by adding the substantive 9Ra(^ 
lime, einmal/ once; funfmal/ five times; jebe^mal^ each 
time ; meUnal, many times, dec. Sometimes 2J? a 1 is ieparat- 
ed and declined like a substantive; as, etn SJ^al/ once; )u 
|e(n W a ( e n, ten times. This is always the case when it is 
preceded by an ordinal : bad erfte, itoette SWal, the first, second 

dd, MultipliccUives ; formed by annexing the afiix f a cf^/ or 
the obsolete falttg, fold; e. g. einfad), itcex^Oiii, jeJ^nfoc^, 
simple, twofold, tenfold ; » t c I f a c^, manyfold ; (^unbertf al^ 
ttg/ an hundredfold, &c. 

4th, Variatives ; which are indeclinable, and ^formed 
by adding the obsolete substantive let (meaning kind^ 
numner)j and inserting er for the sake of euphony; as, ex* 
nerlet^ of one kind, all the samei; tv eiexlex, of three 
kinds; manc^erlet, »tetcrtet, of various, of many kinds, dec 


§ 81. 1st, Dimidialives ; indeclinable adjectives formed by 
annexing bath, half^ to the ordinal ; as, tvitte\)alb, two 
and a half (literally third-half^ meaning two whole and one half 
of a third) ; fitnftel^alb/ four and a half^ dec. Instead of 
}i»eite^alb, anbert6a(b is used, from the obsolete word bet 
anbere^ the second (§ 75. Exc). 

2d, Ordinal adverbs in end; as, erflend/ \w extend, 
leftntend/ firstly, secondly, tentnly, dec. 

dd. Partitives ; masculine substantives formed by means of 
the affix tef (from ^^etf, part) ; e. g. ber Ortttcl, 95ter# 
te(, ^ebntel, ^unbettflel, the third, fourth, tenth, hun* 
dbedth part. 

y Google 



( 82. The indefinite numerals are as foUowi >-« 

aUt, all ; . nid)H, nothing ; 

gefommt, > complete, etmge, } ^^.^ 

fammrii*, S entire ; ttlt*e, } ^. 

ganj, all, whole ; mand^e, > -^ ' 

^^^' )cach, mcl, much, many; 

iebwcber, > ^^^J!* . meftr, more ; 

jeglidjer, ) ^ ' genu^, enough ; 

fetn^ no, noctoe ; ttwa^, 8ome, a little, 


Obs, 1. The indefinite numerals serve either to express wkji^ 
herj as, cini^t, €t{id)t, mand^e, feber or jegltd^er; oi 
quantity, tLO^twai, gan}; or both, as, a((^ gefamml; eif 
ntge^, etntge^ fetn, t>te(^ mei^r^ wentg; genng. 

06«. 2. Those which may indicate quantity and numhei 
both, are generally inflected only when they imply number ^ 
e, g. title TOcnfc^en, many men ; cinigc gcbern, several 
pens; but x>te( SBetn^ much wine ; me^r 93rob, more bread. 


1st, Scbcr, [cht, jelcS (of which kqIi Act and ichDcbet art 
antiquated forms)/ is disjunctive, corresponding to the English 
wach, every ; e. cr. j e b e t Gtanb iat fnne ^e{d)iocrbcn/ every condi- 
tion has its troubles. It is inflected like adjectives, and is ofttn 
Preceded by the article cin; as, ein ieter, cine {t^t, tin 

8d, Ginigcr, ctntgc, ctniac^, some, a. few, when applied 
to number, is used in the plural only, and is synonymous with 
et(td)e. In the singular, however, it has reference to qtumtityi 
as, e i n i ,q e ^ ^c% some flour ; c t n 1 9 c 3ctt, some time. 

3d, sDcancbCT/ mand)(, mond)e^/ in the singular, answot 
CO the English many a; as, m n cb e r cite ^rcunt^, many an M 
friend ; m a n 4 e !8fl(t(be (3at>c, many a precious gift. In thi 
plural it is to be rendered by many 


1st, Gtm ^, some, ia indeclinable, and usually connected with 
eollective nouns or names of materials ; e. g. c t n) a ^ (^t(t, somf 
money; e two ^ frifd)C^ tH^affcr, some fresh water. When, ass 
substantive, it corresponds to something, it is an indefinite ^r 

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9d, (SI a n ) indicates the completeness of an object and is (^po^ed 
to half, part, &c. ; lit, W, ba^ ® a n g f, the entire, whole ; ctn 9 o m 
\<i fSo^i^x, a whole year. It is inflected like adjectives ; but beforr 
neater names of places and countries it is always indeclinable ; as 
9a n| HnxmU, Scnbcn, all America, London. 


Ist, 2( ( ( e t/ 41 ( ( e, 1 ( e 6/ all, in the plural implies number, an 
in the singular ^n^t'ry ; e.g. alter 9Bein/ all the wine; all r 
aR i ( d)/ all the milk ; and often without any termination ($ 8 , 
Obs. 2.) ',<{{{ btcfctaBcin, all this wine; o(( ba^ S3rcD, all tie 
bread ; 1 1 < Mc SBiWer^ bie ficbcn (©cbtHcr), all the electors, seven 
in nnmber. Its signification does not admit of its being preceded 
by the article, and hence its inflection is not affected when another 
word, declined like the article, precedes ; e. g. n>ctd)e^ a((c^ 
(not aUC/^57), all which; bci bicfem aUcm/inall this, &c. 
The neuter singular sometimes designates number in the most inde- 
fijiite manner; e. g. aiXii rennet, rettet, flild)tt't, all are running, sa- 
ving, rescuing. When the English all is equivalent to the whole, 
it is rendered oy the German ga nj; as, all the hour, all the day, 
tie 9 a n $ e Stunbe, ben 9 a n 3 e n Sag. 

2d, ^ e i n, ! ci n e, ! et n, no, none, is declined like the indefinite 
article tin, etr.e, cm, when it stands in connection with a substan- 
tive ; and like an adjective of the first declension, f et n e r, ! e i n c, 
f e t n € ^, when the substantive is not expressed ; as, !e t n ^txi\&t, 
no man ; l)afl iDu rtn S3ud) ? 3cb b<^&e ! c in e 6 ; hast thou a book ? I 
have none; cr ^at f e i n e ^rcunbc, he has no friends. 

dd« @£mmt(tcfter/ f£mmt(td)C/ fd'mmttlAc^, ber ge? 
f a m m t e, b i e g e f a nt m t e, b a ^ 9 e f a ni m tc, are nearly synony- 
mous wkh aW, aU, entire, the complete. They are regularly de- 
clined like adjectives ; as, fctne fatnmtlt^en S^erfe, his complete 
works ; ^Detne [(Smmtlt^en (gcfamnitcn) ^ccunbe, all thy friends. 

4th, 93 i e ( and n> e n t g, when they imply quantity, or number con- 
sidered as a mass, are invariable ($ 82. Ohs, 2). 93 1 c ( SBrcb, 1 e ( ®e(b^ 
much bread, much money ; t> t c 1 9)2cnfd)cn/ a lar^e mass of men 
Bat if they refer to a numler of individuals or things regarded as 
distinct, they follow the inflection of adjectives : oietcr, »lele, 
0' ie^, mentger, n>enige, menige^, &c. ; e. g. e^ fdnnen fid) 
nur SB c n i g e reateren, but few can govern themselves ; td) cffe nid)t 
9 1 e ( e 3rud)t/ 1 &o not eat many kinds of fruit. When an article 
or pronoun precedes, vic( and roenig must be inflected, even if they 
refer to quantity ; e. g. bie » i e ( e n 2Bortc, the many words ; fetn 
n» e n i g e ^ (Btit, his little money, &c. 

5th, The comparatives m thv, more, and m e n t g c r, less, are not 
generally inflected, except m e t)r er e, the plural of nu^x, when il 
Essomes the signification of ueverol ($ 69). 

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Obs. 1 If numerals stand in connection with substantivec 
which express a definite nwnber, measure^ or weighty the Ger- 
man idiom requires the substantive to be put into the singuLat 
(§ 26) ; as, jwblf ^ f un b, twelve pounds ; jioci ®tud, two 

Obs. 2. Numerals which denote a part of a greater mull- 
ber or multitude of objects, are followed by a genitive of the 
loAoZe, or by the dative with the preposition a u d/ from among ; 
u n t e r, among ; » o n, of ; e. g. b r c i f e t n c r Rinber, three 
of his children; ber erfte »on metnen ^reunben, the fint 
of my friends; S^tele unter {(^ncH/ many among them. 

Obs. 3. When the genitive of the whole is a ^rsonal pro- 
iioun, it always precedes the numeral; as, ed ftnb unfei 
iwanjtg, there are twenty of us ; e^ werbcn ij^rer mc^l 
» i c I e fcin, there will not bo many of them. 

Obs. 4. When a definite number is to be stated approxu 
nuUely^ or with uncertainty^ the adverbs and prepositions em- 
ployed in German for that purpose are: etma^ somethii^ 
like; ungefaljr, about; bcina(>c, fojl, almost; faunv 
scarcely; gegcn, bci, an tit, nearly, about ; e. g. hai 
^fcrb t(l ungcfabt feunbert %\i<xUx wcrt^, the horse is worth 
about a hundred crowns ; crtft betna^for an tit funfjtg 
3ft(^t citt, he is nearly fifty years of age. 

Ohs. 5. The word 6 1 ^ (till, to) is used when a number can be 
stated only ^.9 fluctuating between two given numbers ; as, 1 c c 
b i ^ f {i n f taufcnb 9>2onn^ from four to five thousand men ; gOMUij^g 
hxi brcipg Sbatct/ about twenty or thirty crowns. 

Obs, 6. The English upward is rendered by unb ttix^t or 
unb eintge; as, ba^ |>au^ t|l neungig unb et(i<6e ^ ^, 
the house is upward of ninety feet high, or in conversational Gar* 
man often, tXi'x^t neunjtg. 

Obs. 7. The English either and neither hare no coTrespoiidiiq|r 
words in German, and are rendered by ctner oen beibcn, oae 
of the two, and Cetnec t)on 6eiben/ none of the two. 

87. Obs. 8. Numerals are sometimes employed elUp^ 
^ly without a substantive, when a point of time is expressed ; 
e. g. {ft ed nod) m'c^tgwblf? is it not twelve yet? gd bat cbcH 
b r e t d^fc^tagcn/ it has just struck three. In these cases the 
Word Uijr or an ber Ubr, o'clock, is to be supplied. In 
the same manner ordinal numdrals are used, when the day ol 
tiie month is to be denoted ; e g. ben »te©tel(len babes 

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«nr? whatday of the monthis it? ffltr ^obeit ben iman 
1 1 s fl e n CXag bed SRonatW/ it ia the twentieth. 

When in connection with a date the name of the month is giTeni 
the preposition of is never expressed in German; as, ten ffinften 
a^ai, the fifth o/'May; am t tit ten 2(ugufl/ on the third qf 
Angrost, &c. 


§ 88. Pronouns are words which serve as the sub* 
stitutes of nouns. 

Pronouns are divided into Personal^ Possessive^ De^ 
tnonstrativey Determinative^ Relative^ and Interrogative. 


§ 89. A personal pronoun is one which simply indicates 
the relation of personality ; L e. whether the substantive rep. 
resented be the person speaking (t d), w i x, I» we), or spoken 
to (bu^ x\ix, thou, ye), ox spoken of (cr, (ie, e^, jle, he, she. 
it, they). 

Personal pronouns are^ declined as follows : — 




NoM. xii, I, 

Gen. metner (mein), of me, 
Dat. mtr, to me. 

Ace mxii, me; 


NoM. wir, we, 
Gkn. unfer, of us, 
Dat. imd, to us, 
Ace. und/ us. 

second person (por all oenders). 
Singular. Plural. 

NoM. bu, thou, 

Gkn. briner (betn), of thee, 
Dat. btr^ to thee, 

Ace bt(^/ thde; 

NoM. \\ixt ye or you, 

Gbn. euer, of you, 

Dat. tnij, to you, 

Ace eu(^/ ye or yoo. 

NoK. tx, he, 

Gbn. fetner (frfn), of him, 
Dat. x^m ) nx ^ bun, 
Aoci^nj'^^' bun; 



fie, she, 

tj^rer, of her, 
tftr^f;^ to her, 
^xtV'^' her; 


e«/ it, 

femer (f«n).ofit, 
«l)m Xf. to a, 
e« r* It 

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For fttl genden 

NoM. fie^ they; 

Gex. ibrer, of them; 

Dat. iljncn ? nx to them ; 
Ace. (Ic S '^^' them. 


Obs. 1. The genitires mt'xntt, tc'intv, fctner, now g«ii» 
ftlly take the place of the earliet forms m e i n^ b c in, f e i n, whick 
are found only in poetry, and in certain familiar expressions ; aa^ 
t»ct()t9 nirtn ntcht, forret me not ; gebcnfe mctn, remember me. 

Obs. 2. When me prepositions f^alhtn, rotten, on accoonl 
of, and u m — to i ( ( c n, for the sake of, are compounded with the geni- 
tives nt e i n, ^t\n, f e t n, i ^ r, the syllable e t is inserted for the 
sake of euphony; e.g. mtixitts, bctnet^/ feinet?, ibttts 
ftfllt»cn (iDcgen)/ on my, thy, his, her account. The genitives 
unfcr and cucr take t simply: urn unfertn)i(Un, for our 
saice ; c u r c t m e q c n, on your account 

Obs. 3. The word fid) {sibi^ se) is tne reflexive pronoun ft r the 
gen. and dat. of the third person, both singular and plural. It is 
used in propositions, in which the action of the verb terminates to 
the subject itself, from whence it proceeded. The oblique eases 
of the first and second persons, as well as the ^en. of the third 
(fctncr, t()rcr), do not possess a separate form of me reflexive, and 
hence they are themselves employed in a reflexive sense ; e. g. i4 
fd)cinie mi cb/ I sm ashamed (lit. I shame myself) ; bu (obcfl b i dbw 
thou pmisest thyself. In these instances, however, the indeelina- 
ble word f c ( 6 ft or f c ( c r is added, whenever emphasis or per- 
spicuity require it; e. g. fetner felbfl ntd)t fd)onen, not to snare 
one's self; mit fe(6cr, to myself; Md) fclbfl, thyself. Whoi 
joined to the nominative of the first, second or third persons, felHI 
or fdbct is in/ensive ; as, t(ft f e ( b e r fann fie rctten, I myself can 
rescue her ; iDu f ( ( b fl mupt nd)tcn, thou thyself must be the judge ; 
bcr ^Snig ff (bft nrfd)tcn, tiie king appeared in person. 

Ojs* 4. There is one reciprocal pronoun in Uerman— cinanbct 
(contracted for ciner ben anbern)/ one another, each other. 
Instead of this, however, the reflexive pronouns are ofVen employed 
in a reciprocal sense in the plural ; as, toit fenncn un^ or einoo? 
ber, we know each other; f e gon!cn ft(6 or mit cinanber, tliey 
are quarrelling with each other. 

$ 91. Obs. 5. In poetry, and when addressing the Supreme Being, 
their intimate friends or families, the Germans employ the second 
person singular, aDu. In polite conversation, however, they al* 
ways address each other in the third person plural, &\t, gen. 3 ^ 
r cr, dat. S b n c n, ace. © i c ; e. g. id) tnnfc 3 b n c n, I Uiank yon ; 
wo gcbi'n ©ic f)tn? where are you going 1 II is also customary 
for superiors to address their dependants and others of inferioi 
tank m the second person plural (36r, Cu*, you, toyou},mh 

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tte third person singalar {(St, 6tC/ Ae, she) ; e. g. voai ^t dtr gci 
^oibt? what have you brought 1 In writing, both the personal 
and possessive pronouns relating to the person addressed, must al- 
ways begin with a capital letter; e. g. id) bittc ©ic (3>td)/ ©ucb/ 
3hn) urn 3br (S^dn, 6ucr) JBud), I beg you to give me your book. 

Obs, 6. The neuter pronoun c^ is never used in the genitive 
and dative cases (f e i n c r, if) ni), except when it relates to a per- 
son. When a thing is referred to, the expressions of it, of them^ 
to it^ with it, are either rendered by the demonstrative pronouns 
beffen/ ^txtn, or by an adverbial pronoun, bagu, bam it/ 
baton &c. ; e. g. have you much ofitt \^Uxi @ie oeffen mi ? 
what do you wish toith it 7 load lOoUcn 6te b a m i t (see ^ages 29 
and 142)? 

Obs. 7. The pronoun ed has often a very indefinite si^iiica- 
tion, sometimes corresponding to the English ** t/,'* sometimes to 
the unaccented ** there,** but frequently it is expletive^ and cannot 
be rendered at all. It is employed :— - 

1st, As the subject of impersonal verbs, or such as appear to be 
used impersonally ; as, c 9 b c n n e 1 1/ e 6 6 ( t ^ t/ it thunders, it 
lightens ; c^ fceut mtd^, lam glad ; ti gibt i^tuti, there are 

2d, It simply stands as the representative of the subject of a 
proposition, when its order is inverted and the predicate comes 
first ; as, e d fAUt fid) bcr 6p(td)et/ ed bebnt ftd) la^ |>au9 
(expletive), the granary is replenished, the house expands ; e ^ ftnb 
nid)t cben f(^ted)tf £D{&nner/ t^ are by no means worthless 

The e of the f< is often elided; as, bttng*^ mit/ bring it to 
me ; cv b a t * < get^tt/ he has done it. 


§ 9i« Among personal pronouns are properly included the 
fi>lK>wing, which, however, represent the third person only, and 
in the most indefinite maimer : — 3^>>^^n^/ Stnet/ some 
one, some body ; 3^^^tmann, eyery one, every body ; 
Siiemanb, Sctncr, no one, nobody; man, one, they 
people (corresponding to the French on). To these may be 
added ttwa^, something, and nid)t^, nothing. * 

SRan, etwad and md)td are indeclinable. 3emanb, IRtemanb 
end 3(bermann are declined as follows : — 













SfJiemanbem, ; 






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The declension of (Si net and Jtetner has alreadj liees 
noticed among the indefinite numerals (§ 77 and § 65), becweea 
which and the indefinite pronouns it is difficult to fix the line 
of distinction. A few examples may illustrate their infiection 
and use : — ^aft S)u einc Seller, ein 93u(^ ? Hast thou a pen, a 
book? ^d)f)abc tine, ciitcd, I have one; id) f^abt fcinc;, 
feint ^, I have none; ed ifl Stner trQU§en, some one is 
out of doors ; Seiner wetf aUt^, no one knows everj thing. 

§ 93. A possessive pronoun is one which repre- 
sents the object to which it relates, as belonging ei- 
ther to the speaker (mine)^ the person spoken to (thine) 
or the person or thing spoken of (his). 

Possessive pronouns are formed from the genitive of persona) 
pronouns. They are : — ♦ 

1st Pebson. 2n Person. Sn Prbson. 

mtin, my, mine; be in, thy, thine ; f e t n, his, its ; 
unfet/ our, ours; e u e r, your, yours ; t (> r, her, hers, their. 

§ 94. When a possessive pronoun stands in connec ion 
with a noun, it is called con/tinc/tre, and is declined like the in- 
definite article in the singular, and like the definite article ia 
♦he plural Thus : — 

Fenu Nent 

meine, mem, 
mtintt, metned/ 





< unfere, 
i wnfte, 

S unfercr, 
i unfrer, 

S unferer, 
i unfrer^ 

S unfere 
i unfre^ 


NoM. mein, 
Gen. metne^, 
Dat metnent/ 
Ace mtintn, 

NoM. unfet/ 


of my, 
to my, 



For all genders. 

metne, my, 
mtitttv, of my, 
meincn, to my, 
metne, my. 
















' unfre^, of our, 
C unferem, 
< unfrem, to ocr, 
( unfemv 

trnfer/ a 

5d by Google 



7or all Kenden. 

NoM unfere, unfre, our, 

Gen. uitfcrer, unfrer/ of our, 

Dat. unfercn, unfrcH/ to our, 

Ace. unfere, unfre, our. 


Ols. 1. Of the remaining pronouns of this class, tn<x, your 
is declined like u n f e r, and the others like m e t n. It will bo pe^ 
eeived that the remark made respecting euphonic changes in ad* 
lectives ending in el, er, en^ unaccented ($ 60. Obs. Ist.)^ is also 
applicable in the case of u nf er. 

Obs. 3. The word e i C| e n^ otpth is often joined to possessive 
pronouns to make the notion of possession more prominent ; as 
metn c I g n e r Sitd, my own coat ; unfcc e i 9 n c ^ Jlinb/ our owi 

Obs. 3. It will be perceived, that for the third person singular 
there are two forms of the possessive, viz : f e iU/ when the gender 
of the possessor is masculine or neuter, and i f) r, when it is femi- 
nine. Each of these again indicates, 6y means of its terminations, 
the gender of the object possessed, with which possessive pronouns, 
like all other adjectives, must agree in gender, number and case ; 
If. g. fctn (if)r; flSatcr, fcine (ibrej gjluttcr, fein (ibr) 93ud), his 
(her) father, his (her) mother, his (ner) book. 

O65. 4. When a possessive pronoun constitutes the predicate 
to a substantive, or to a pronoun denoting a determinate object, it re- 
mains like adjectives, uninflected ; as, ^a6 S3ud) tjl fein, the book 
is his ; n>c6 tfl ber 9{uf}m ? 9{ur iD e t n, nur iS) e i n ! Whose is the 
glory ? Thine, only thine ! (§ 52, 1st.) 

Obs. 5. In addressing persons of rank, it was formerly custom 
ary to use 3 b r instead of the third person feminine 3 b r e, her 
and also in place of 6u < r/ your ; e. g. 3 f) r (now 3 b r c) ^laitf 
fl&ttie ^Sniginn, her Majesty the queen; 3bro (©ure) SWajcflfit 
fyxUn mtr befobten, your Majesty has commanded me. In written 
communications the pronouns (lure, your, ^iinc, his, and @etn^r, 
to his, are commonly contracted into (S n)., ® e., and 6 r. ; e. g 
Qto, ^urcbtaudbt, your Highness; Bx. a)2c(ic{lat, to his Majesty. 

§ 95. Possessive pronouns are called absolute when they 
aie not immediately connected with a substantive, but related 
to one already mentioned or understood. 

Absolute possessive pronoims with the article are inflected 
fike adjectives of the second declension, and without it, like ad- 
jectives of the first 

When connected with the article, they frequently change the 
termination e into { e ) at, ber m e t n e, meintge: berfei^ 
0e» feintge. 




The following list exhibits the absolute possessive (nroncuBi 
of both declensions in the nominative singular. 

FiKST Declensioi7. Second Declension. 

meinet, mcinc, metned, tcr, tie, tad mctne or tncim^t, mine, 
tetiier, tcine, tecned, » it r# tcmc ** teinige, thine, 

f finer, feine, feined, tf r# « feine ** fetnige, his, 
trer, it^re, it^red, tp tt » i^re ** i\xx^t, hers, 
unferer, unfere, imfered^ »# tf tt unfre ** unfnge, oun, 
eurer, eure, cured, *• » r# cure ** cungc, youis, 
{^rcr, t>rc, t^red, n it tt x\ixt " i^rigc, thciis, 
S^rer, "^^xt, ^\ix^, (in polite conversation) 3^re or 3(M» 
gc, yours. 

$ 9G. The inflection of possessive pronouns, both absolute uA 
onjunctive, may be illustrated by the following examples >— 

I. My brother and his. 


NoM. metn fflrutcr unt fcinet, bet fdnigc ; 

Gen. metne< 5Brutar6 unt fctne^, te$ fdnigrn ; 

Dat. metnem SBnttet unt f(in(m,tem ftinigcn; 

Ace. meinen IBruter unt fctnen, ten fcintgcn. 

NoM. melne SBriiter unt feine, tie feintgen ; 
Gbn. niciner SBdltec unt fctner^ ter feintgcn ; 
Dat. meinen JBrfitetn unt (c'men, ten feimgen ; 
Ace. metne IBrftter unt feine, tie fetntgen. 

II. Her sister and mine. 

NoM. il^re ^^xot^vc unt melne, tie metntge ; 
Gbn. tbrer @d)wcftec unt metner, ter metntgen ; 
Dat. t^rec ®cftn>c|tec unt meincr, tec mcinigen le. 

III. Our house and theirs. 

NoM. unfcr ^u^ unt t5re^, tad t^ctge ; 
Gen. unfred ^aufed unt ibred, ted if)rtgen ; 
Dat. unfetni |>aufe unt if)rem, tern itrtgen lu 

Examples. 3fl tad 3^r JRcgenfc^irm (masc), 3^rc %te 
fem.), 3tr Steit (neut) ? 3a, eg tfl m e i n e r, t c r mctnf^ 
tcr mcinige — meinc, tie meinc, tie meinige — mtu 
ned, tad meine, tad mcinige; is this your umbrelia 
vour ink, your garment ? Yes, it is mine (L e. my umbrella, si 
ink, my garment). 

Remark. The absolute possessive pronouns are sometimes 
ployed substantively, in which case their initial must always be i 

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#taptUl letter ($ 11); as, lat SEUc'xn'iQt, 2)(tnige/ Gfint^i^ 
my own (my property), thy own, his own; e. g. ^abe id) ntc^ 
ZStad^t, in ti)\in, toaf id) wWl, niit tern 0)2 e i n i a e n ? Is it not lawful 
for nie to do what I will with mine own t So also in the plural, 
lie 9}2tfinigen, Deinigcn^ ©cinigen, Sbtigen, my, thy, 
his, their (your) friends, relatives, family. 


§ 97. A demonstrative pronoun serves to poiilt out 
the locality of the person or thing with which it ia 

The German language has three demonstrative pronouns 
▼iz: btefcr, btefe, btcfc^, this; jcner, jcne, ytmi, 
that, and b er, tie, ta^, this, that. 

Dtefer and letter are declined like adjectives of the first de 
clension, thus : — 

Sni'GULAS. Plubal. 

Ifaae. Fern. Nent For all gendem 

NoM. tiefer, tiefe, tiefed (tied)/ this,. tiefe/ • these, 

Gbn. btefed^ bicfer, btefe^, of this, btefer, of these, 

Dat. btefem/ btefer, btefem, to this, bicfen, to these, 

Ace. btejfen/ btefe, biefed (bte*), this ; biefe, these 

§ 98. The demonstrative pronoun b e r, b t e, bad may 
supply the place of either btefer or jener. When it stands in 
connection with a substantive, or any word used as such, it is 
inflected like the definite article (& 3), and difiers from it 
only by a stronger accentuation. Mut when it is used abso* 
hitely, it deviates firom the inflection of the article in the gea- 
Mir* «]««gular, and in the genitive and dative plural, thus :— - 

Maae. Fem. Neat 

NoM ber, bie, bad, this, that , 

Dat. bem, ber, bem, to this, that : 
Ace ben, bie, tcA, this, that 


For all genden. 

NoH. bte, these, those; 

Gbn. beren, of these, those; 

Dat. benen^ to these, those; 

Aca hit, these, those. 

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Ob$* 1. Dtrfec implies ;?roxtmt/y either of space or time tl 
the person speaking, and hence it is frequently equivalent to tin 
English the latter. 3 ( n ( r^ on the other hand, refers to soni^ 
thinff well-knoum (the Latin t//e), already mentioned^ or remoUt 
and hence it is often rendered by the former. 

Obs. 3. The neater pronouns t i c 6 and ^ai are, like the u- 
definio c^ (§ 91. Obs. 7), often employed to represent the sabjed 
of a proposition in the most greneral and indefinite manner, ^'^m^ 
times even without any distinction of gender or number ; e. g. bal 
tfl tin Jran^efe, that is a Frenchman ; b i ( 5 ft n t> nuine (f Itenv 
^ese are my parents ; b o ^ ftnb 92c(f(n, those are pinks. 

Obs. 3. ID c 9 is the more ancient form of the genitive sinsnlar 
masculine and neuter, now only used in the more elevated style cf 
poetry and in composition ; as, t e p f) a ( b, b c p 19 e ^ c n^ on that ao 
count ; b e |r frcue fid) bo$ (^rbretc^/ let the earth rejoice in it. 


^ 100. Determinative pronouns serve to make 

Srominent the pe.rson or object which is the antece- 
ent of a subsequent relative clause. 

They are : — ber, tic, baS, that ; bcrjcnigf, ttcjenfge, ba^'eitu 
ge, he, she, it, that person (who) ; berfelbc, bicfelbc, badfeU^c^ 
Uie same^ the obsolete felbtger/ felbtge/ fefbtged/ the same ; and 
folc^fr, foId)C, folc^e* (talis), such. 

Ser/ tit, bad/ when standing with a substantive, is inflected 
like the article (§ 3), and when used absolutely, like the de- 
monstrative pronoun ber, bte, bad^ except that in the genitive 
plural it has berer instead of beren^ e. g. bod Sc^icffol 
bere r ifl ()art, bte fic^ fe(bfl )u ematiren md)t tm @tdnbe (i|il^ 
the fate of those is hard, who are not able to support them- 

J^ 101. ® ( (^ e t/ when used without the article, fi^ows the 
ection of the first declension of adjectives, but when piece* 
ded by the indefinite article etn^ tint, tin, it is inflected like aa 
a4i<H^^o of the third declension, thus : — 

NoM. fol(f|cr, folc^e, fotd^ed, 

»- IKS '"'*"' Sffi;*c 

NoM. ein fotc^^er, tint folc^e, tin folc^ed, 
Gkn. efiied fotc^en, cincr folc^en, rittcd fblc^en, &a 

^^tjeaigc and berfelbc are compounds, of 

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components are dedmed ; ber, tk, tai foUow'ng the In* 
flectfon of the definite article, and i en 1 9 e and f eTb e that 
of the second declension of adjectives : — 

Masc Fern. Neat 

Nox. terjcnige, ttejemge, badjcntge, 

Gjbn. be^jemgen/ terjcnigen, tedjcmgen, 

Dat. temjentgen/ bcrjcm'gen, bemjentgen/ 

Ace. benjcntgen, biejemge/ ba^jenigcj 


FcMT all gendttTi. 

NoM. biejemgcn. 
Gen. berjenigen; 
Dat. bcnjemgeW/ 
Ace. biejemgen* 

§ 102. 


Obs. 1. Determinatiye pronouns can always be distinguished 
from demonstratives by the relative clause by which they are gen- 
erally followed. Examples: tcrjcnlge, welcbct bic SBifs 
fen fd) often Itebt, mcx^ feine sD{upe auf etne angen(()mc 2(rt ju be« 
nu^en^ he who is fond of the sciences, is never at a loss how to 
improve his leisure hours pleasantly; er f}at b(nfe(6en ^eliitct 
gcmac^, wtid^tn ic^ gentad)t i)aU, he has made the same mistake, 
which I have made ; traue b e n e n mc, b t e IDic fc^met^cdt/ never put 
confidence in those, who flatter you« 

Obs. 2. The determinative pronouns may be employed either 
adjectively or substantively. iDericntge serves simply to point out 
emphatically the antecedent without any other modification ; bcrfclbc 
adcls to it the notion of identity, which is often made intensive oy 
the particle e6en; as, eben terfctbe, the very same. 0c(d)et im« 
plies a reference to the kind or constitution of persons or things ; 
e. g. f ( d) e ^^uc^t, such fruit ; e t n f c (cb < t ^aUx, such a father. 
When fotAcr, in conformity with the English idiom, is followed by 
the indefinite article, it is not inflected, — f c ( cb e i n ^ann, such a 
man ; folcb einem &cf)m, to such & son. Sometimes the syllable of 
inflection is likewise dropped, when it is accompanied by an adjeo* 
live ; as, fold) gtope 95ffcbctbenl)eit, such great modesty. 

Obs. 3. ^er and berfetbe often stand simply as the repre- 
sentatives of the personal pronouns e t, ft e, ti, or of the posses- 
sives feit^ H)t, nis, hers, when two persons mentioned in the 
tame or in a previous sentence are to be clearly distinguished from 
each other; e. g. tt fanb ben 93ater unb beffen @6bn gu |)aufe, he 
ISrand the father and his (i. e. the father^s) son at home ; bet Siing» 
ting fd)neb fetnem ^reunbe fiber ba6 beoctflet)enbe ^cbtdfbt beffetbcn, 
Ae younff man wrote to his friend concerning his (the friend's) fu« 
tare destiny ; biefec 9)2ann t^ut aUee filr feinen S^rubet, aber b e t f e ( « 
be nm$ tf)ni fetnen )Dont boffir, this man does every thing for his 
brother, but he (the brother) is not grateful for it. 


i 103. A relative pronoun is one which serves to 
eonnect a limiting orexplanatory clause to a preceding 

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'ionn, to which it relates, and widch is called its 

The German language has four relative pronouns, viz : — tet^ 
lit, tad, and welc^cr, mcld^e, tt)e((^)ed, who, which ; toct, vsii, 
who, what, and the obsolete and indeclinable f d« 

J 104. S^e(d)er is the only pronoun of this cass which may stand 
^ectively in connection with a substantive. It is declined 
like an adjective of the first declension, thus : — 


Masc Fem. Neat 

NoM. iDclc^er, welc^e, welched, who, which, 

Gkn. welched, wclc^er, »cld)ed, whose, of which, 

Dat. melc^em, wcldjer, tocld)em, to whom, to which, 

Aoc. toeld^Uf totldft, welched, whom, which. 

For all geoden. 

NoM. we((^, who, which, 
Gen. wtidftt, whose, of which, 
Dat. welc^en/ to whom, to which, 
Ace. wcld)tf whom, which. 

The relative t e r is inflected like the demonstratiTe hft, 
We, bod (6 98). 

The plural of m e r and to a d is wanting ; in the singuki 
they are thus declined : — 

Muo. tnd Fern. Nent. 

IfoM. KOtt, who, he who, she who, 

Gbn. "^ff^"' I whose, of whom, 

Dat. mem, to whom, 
Aoc. wetv whom; 

wad, which, what, 

we^, of which, of what, 

mo)U, to which, to what, 

wa^, which, what 


Ohs. 1 The pronouns wee and w a ^ never relate to an indi- 
vidual or determinate object, but to such only as are of the most 
general and indefinite character. Hence they are commonly em- 
ployed after the neuter demonstrative t a ^, or the indefinite numer- 
als a I ( e ^/ all, e t w a ^, something, m o n (( e d, many a (thin^), 
9 i < I, much, n> e n i g/ little, n i c|^ t ^, nothing; e. g. ^ a 6, w a ^ t^ 
kaU, QtU id) iDtt, that which I have, I give mee ; aiiti, ma$ mtf 
l^euet i|l^ all that is dear to me. But, I) i e f c r jtnabc (definite]^ 
we(d)ce in btc ^\xU ge^t/ this boy who goes to school ; tie 9to|Cf 
w ( ( d) e i){&i)t, the rose which blossoms. 

Obs, 2. Theform8wer,»effen,n)cm, wen relate to penoM 
•nly, of either sex; mat and the genitive lo c (r only to things and 

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dMtracttenn«. ®ef is also used in the compounds loffioegea 
and tc€^f)aii>tn, wherefore, on which accoant. 

06s. 3. On account of this indefinite signification cf tv c t and 
ma^, their antecedent is frequently omitted, and they become equi- 
Talent totetjcnigc rocld>cr, Mcjenige rocld>c, bo^leni? 
^ c n> e ( d) e ^, he who, she who, that which ; e. g. to e t ctnfam ft^t 
m fctncT Jtammer unl> fd)n)crC/ bittre Sbt6nrn tocint (97opa(iQ^ he who 
•its in his lonely chamber, shedding the heavy, bitter tear; 10 0^ 
fftn muj)/ 3cf(^€f)c ! That which must needs be, let it come to pass ! 
Sometimes, however, to give emphasis to the expression, the de« 
terminative ^er, bt(, ta6 is added to the main proposition, which 
in this construction always follows the relative clause ; e. ?. n) e c 
iiid)t arbeiten totd, bcc foil ouc^ ntcbt ifftn, he who is not willing to 
labour, neither shall he eat. 

Obs. 4. The compound relatives whoever, whatever, whosoever^ 
Uc.j are rendered in German by annexing a u d) or t m m c r to 
MXTornKi^-, e. g. tocr oud) (immcr), tva^ oud) (tmmcr), &c. 
Obs, 5. After personal pronouns of the first and second persons, 
the relative to e ( cb c r is never used, but always bet; e. g. t d), b ( t 
(not iDc(d)cr) tcb Oct IDtt flc^C/ 1 who am standing before thee ; S> n, 
6 c t >Du metn etgenet S3ttibet bifl, thou who art mine own brother. 

It will be perceived from these examples, that in German the 
personal pronouns (t c^, b u) are repeated after the relative ; when- 
ever this is the case, the verb of the relative clause must agree in 
person with the personal pronoun ; otherwise it is put in the third 
person, and agrees with the relative ; e. g. Unff t SJatct, b f t 3) u b i fl 
tn b(m |)tmmc(, our father who art in heaven; ^\x, bet fo mel 
U e f * t unb (0 ivenig b e n f t, thou, who readest so much and thinkest 
so little. 

Obs. 6. Instead of me 1 4 e ^z n) et^ e t, pi. m e (cb et, the gen- 
itives of the relative wtii^tx, the Germans regularly substitute b e f < 
fen, bete H/ pi. be ten ; the genitives of nKld)et being only used 
when the relative is employed adjectively ($ 104) ; e. g. bet a)2ann^ 
b e f f e n (not n) e ( 4 e @cf)n icb tmnt, the man whose son I am ao« 
qnainted with; bte Bfiume/beten (not n>eld>et) S3(tttben obaefatlen 
flnb, the trees, the blossoms of which have perished. But, teuton, 
» t <^ e < 9)l)i(oropf)cn ^ttnctpta tcb gelefen ^be, Newton, the Princi- 
1^ of which philosopher I have read. 

Obs. 7. The use of the relative f c, instead of melc^et and bet. 
If antiquated. It occurs only occasionally in poetry, as, 9{8^en 
fWummcrt/ fo bet SKuttet 5^cube, fo bet ©to(§ be« ®otfc< xocx, Rosetta 
sleeps (in death), who once was the Joy of her mother, the pride 
of the place. 


§ 106. Interrogative pronouns are employed ii 
asking questions. 
They are: — l8t,»er? wai? who! what? which are al 

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wart used substandvel J ; 3d, melc^er^ loelc^e, »f((^eil 
which« what? used subslantively and adjecdvelj both; and Zd, 
wad fur cin, tine, etn? what sort of? 

The plural of wtv, wad is wanting ; the singular is decUivd 

Mmo. ftnd Ftm. Ntvt. 

NoM. met, who? mad, what? 

Gen. wejfcn or »c0, whose ? (loeg), of what ? 
Dat. »em, to whom ? . »ojU/* to what ? 

Ace. wen, whom? | mat, ^dial? 

The interrogative me((^ is inflected preciselj like tlie ie> 
htive (§ 104). 

§ 107. When wad f&r etn stands in immedate connectioB 
with a substantive, the e t n, which is the only declinaUe part, 
follows the inflection of Uie indefinite article in die singular 
number. In the plural the pronoun is simply wad f it r. 

What sort of a tree, a flower, a book? 

Mmc P«m. Nent. 

NoM. wad fur cin SSaum, etne SStume, e(n flSuc^? 
Gen. wad fur etned ^aumei, etner 99(ume/ etned Sucked? 
Dat. toa^ fur einem fdanmc, einer QShime/ eintm ^ud^i 
Ace wad fur etnen Saunt/ etne Slume;, em Sn(^? 

What sort of trees, flowers, books ? 
NoK. wad fur Saume, Stumen/ SStic^er? 
Gbn. Don wad fiir iBoumen^ 99(umen, Siid)em? 
Dat. wad fur fQdumtn, Sbimen/ fBiid^em? 

Ace. wad fiir ^aume, iBIumen^ Siid^er? 

But If the substantive, to which wad fiir ein relates, is not 
•ipressed, it is declined in the singular only, like an ac^ectifs 
of the first declension, thus : — 

Maac Fern. Neut 

NoM. wad fur emer, etne, etned. 

Gen. wad ffcr etned, einer, eined, 

Dat. wad ^r etnem, etner, etnenv 

Ace. wad fur etnen, etne, etned. 

'* With respect to the pronommtd adverbt, which rapply die pteee «f lit 
abiique caaes of demonstrative, relative and intemaative proooooi. ne lit 
twaarka on AovxaB8« below. -ir- r- 

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§ 108. 0BBBRVATI0N8. 

Oft#. 1. The genitiye weffen, and the dative toeni/ are (^ 
ally applicable to persons only, and not to thingfs, except the ab* 
breviated form mcp in composition; as, toc^i)Ci[i>, mc^vot^tn, 
wherefore, on what account; e. g. wcpM^ t»ft 2>u gefcmmcn? 
wherefore hast thou comet t^r^ivcgcn kocint fte? why does she 

Obs. 3. The pronouns tDa^fCltetn and wtldi, the uninflected 
form r f wdd^ct, are sometimes used in exclamations of surprise ; 
e. g. SBai ffir etn S3aum ! What a tree ! @el)t, tocid^ tin 
SRcnfd) ! Lo, what a man ! SB e ( (^ ®liid M ^xmnKH f^oh td(^ megs 
Qe^dHtnbtxt ! What heaven-sent fortune I have cast away ! 

Ods, 3. 9S ( c and n) o ^ are employed when inauiry is made 
after a person or thin^ in the most general and indefinite msjiner. 
SB c ( d) e r is more definite, includiitg the notion of the quality or 
c<mditum of the individual object inquired after. It is the correlative 
of fc(d)cr ($ 102. Obs. 2), and corresponds to the Latin qualis, 9Ba i 
f fir (in indicates the species or kind, to which the person or thine: 
belongs; e. g. jBer if! to? Q'xn STZonn. SBg« ffir ciner? 
&n ^oufrnann aui Hamburg. f&cl6)tt jtaufmann? ^itt 9{. 
Who is there % A man. What sort of one 1 A merchant of Ham- 
burg. What merchant 1 Mr. N. SBo^ f)afl iDu? (^nc fiStumc* 
SB Q 6 f ft r e i n e ffltumc ? (Sine «Rofc. 2B c ( c^ e ? jDte roK)e. What 
have you ! A flower. What sort of a flower t A rose. Which 
rose 1 The red rose. 

Obs, 4. The tin, of toai fftr etn^ is omitted before names of ma- 
terials, or before substantives of the plural number. SBa^ fftv 
SG^tn? What kind of winet 9Ba$ fttt 8eute? What sort of 
people T 

Obs. 5. The interrogative lO o ^ is sometimes employed in the 
ienseof loatttm; e .g. SB o ^ betrftbfl ;Du 2)tcb ? Why art thou east 
iownl SZBai wcinmCie? Why do you weep t 


§ 109. 1st, A verb is a word by which either an nc- 
tivity, a. passivity, or a simple mode of existence is predi- 
cated of a person or thing called its subject ; e. g. fa^ 
^teibt, I write ; Du tt)tr(l gefd)ta(jen, thou art beaten ; 
tie Dtofe Un% the rose blooms. 

2d, Verbs are divided into two principal classes-* 
Transitive and Intransitive. 

8d, Transitive verbs are active verbs, the sense of which it 
not complete without the addition of an object in the accusom 
Uoe case ; e. g. id) fdjreibe etnen 95rtef, I am writing a letter 

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§ 110. Intransitive verbs are of two kinds:-* 
1st, Neuter verbs^ which denote either a quiescent state (sb» 
pie mode of existence) ; as, td) xn\it, fl^e/ fc^Iafe, I am resting 
sitting, sleeping, or such an activity as does not tenninate m 
any object ; e. g. id) loufc, fampfe, geje, I am running, strug- 
gling, going. 

2d, Those active verbs, the object of which is either in the 
genitive or dative ; e. g. i&i f(^one^ ^tx^'^^t, eriimere nttd^ feu 
n e t/ I spare, forget, remember him ; td^ getfon^e^ traue, bonfe 
i ^ m, I obey, trust, thank him. 

§ 111. Transitive verbs have two forms, called the 
active and the passive voices. 

If the subject is represented as the <igerd acting upcm an- 
other person or thing {object in the accusative), the verb is said 
to be in the active voice; e. g. i d^ rufc, tiebc, neniie 
i()n, I love, call, name him. 

B t if the subject of the verb is the object of the ac^on ex- 
pressed by it, the verb is said to be in the passive voice ; e. g. 
iij wetbe gerufen, geKcbt, genannt/ I am called, loved, named. 

§ 112. Ist, Intransitive verbs do, from the nature d* their 
signification, not admit of a passive voice, but have the active 
form only ; as, id) reife, (lc6e, I am travelling, standing. 

2d, When, however, die active subject cannot be named, or 
is designedly left indeterminate, intransitive verbs may be used 
impersonally in the third person singular of the passive voice ; 
e. g. ed mirb getangt/ gefptelt/ getrunfen^ theie 
is dancing, playing, drinking going on. 

§ 113. The class of intransitive verbs comprehends abo 
reflexive verbs. Of these there are two kinds : — 

1st, Such as are employed in the reflexive form only; asr 

Itcft befmncn, fid) fc()nen, fic^ freuen/ to reflect, tt 
ong, to rejoice. 

^ Such as are formed from transitive verbs by the addidon 
of the reflexive pronouns mid), u n ^, b t c^, e u ^/ ft (^ (§ 90. 
Ohs. 3) ; e. g. cr orgert fc c^, he is vexed ; tcf) lege mi (^, I lie 
down; ^iite Su Qtc^! beware! from Srgern, legeiv 
( it t e H/ to vex, to lay down, to guard. 

This form of verbs is of extensive use in German, and cor- 
responds to the deponent verbs in Latin and to the ntddle voice 
In Greek. 

§114. 1st, Impersonal verbs are employed in the third 
person singular only. Their subject is quite indeterminate, and 




tm always expressed bjthe indefinite pronoun e^ (§ 90. Obs. 7)| 
Atf, ti reanet, ed Conner t, ed hlilit, it rains, it thun- 
ders, it lightens ; ed f^ti^t, it is said ; ed gtbt Seute, there are 

2d, Many verbs have an impersonal form m German, which 
are not used as such m English ; e. g. ed ^unaert mid), I am 
hungry; ed tiirflet mid), I am thirsty; ed fhert mid), I am 
cold ; ed lagt fic^ ntc^t gut fingen, it is not easy to sing, d^c 

$ 115* Of atixiliary verbs there are two classes in Ger- 
man : — 

Ibt, Auxiliary verbs of tenses^ of which there are three : 
^ abtn, to have; \ein, to be; and toexhen, to become (shall, 

2d, Auxiliary verbs of tnood^ not absolutely necessary to the 
csonjugation of the verb. They are seven in number: bur^ 
f en, to be permitted; tbnnen, to be able (can); mb^cn, to 
be allowed (may); muffen/ tobe obliged (must); foKen, to 
be under obligation (ought) ;i]Do((en/tobe willing (to intend) ; 
I a ff c It/ to let (permit). 

§ 116. In the conjugation of the German verb, we 
distinguish, as in English, the relations of Number^ 
Person^ Moodf and Tense. 

§ 117. Verbs have two numbers. Singular wad Plural; 
and three persons, each of which may be c^inguished by its 
characteristic termination. 

The following scheme exhibits the tenninations of veifos as at* 
•omed by the three persons, singular and plural : — 

Singular. PluraL 

1st Person — e or given, I ( n^ 

2d Person— f ft, % tt, t, 

dd Person — e t/ 1, or like the first person ; em 


Singular. Plural. 

id) reb t, I speak, 

ttt (obefl/ thou praisest, 

ft fptelt, he plays; 

mix Icfen, we read, 
ibr fcftefcyesee, 
fie fuc^ e n, they seek. 

§ 1 18. German verbs have four moods, viz : — the Indies 
Ijoe, Subjunctive, Imperative, and the It^initive ; the significa 
tioD of which in general corresponds to that of moods of the 

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same name in Engiii h ; o. g. fie r e ^ c n, they speak (In 
die.) ; td) batte gere^et I should have socmen (subj.) 
r e b e S u ! speak thcMi (imper.) ! 

§ 119. They have, moreover, six tenses: — the Prtseat^ 
Imperfect^ Perfe(A^ PluperffcU Simple Future^ and Futwn 
Perfect. Of tnese the prc«ient and imperfect of the indicatim 
and subjunctive active are simple tenses ; the remaining t^i- 
ses of the active voice, as well as all the tenses of the passive, 
are periphrastic^ i. e. formed by means of the perfect partici- 
ple or infinitive, and the auxiliary verbs of tenses (§ 1 15) ; e. g. 
pres. \^ b 6 r e, I hear ; imperf. tc^ ^6 r te, I heard ; perf, \^ 
babe aebortti have heaxd ; pres. passive, ic^ merbe ge^ 
b 6 r t, I am heard, du^ 

§ 120. There are four forms of the infinitive : — the presenf 
and perfect infinitives active ; as, ( o b e n, to praise ; g e ( c b t 
b a b e H/ to have praised ; and the present and perfect intinitiTea 
passive; e. g. gelobtwerten, to be praised; geCobt 
toorben fein, to have been praised. The present infinitive 
active always ends in n or e n, and is often preceded by the pre- 
position 2 u ; as, |u %t{^t tv to help ; )u i^\>t{ n, to blame. 

§ 121. The German verb has three Participles: the 
present, perfect, and future. 

Ist, The present participle is fi>nned firom the present infini- 
tive, by adding t to it ; as, (oben t, boren t, prabing, hearing. 
It is always active in its signification, and is less extensiTeqf 
employed than the English participle in ing. 

2d, The perfect participle generally assumes the prefix g t, 
and ends either in etort in regular verbs; as, getobe^ 
praised ; g e (eb e t/ lived ; or in e n (n) in irregular verbs ; as, 
g e feb e n, seen ; g e gtffe n^ eaten. When belonging to tran- 
sitive verbs, it has a passive signification (except in the cmq- 
pound tenses of the active voice), but when fi>nned firom in- 
transitive verbs, it is active (§ 112), differing firom the present 
participle only in the relation of time. 

8d, The future participle is formed firom the infinitive with 
}U/ by annexing the letter t; as, }u tcben/ to praise; 
}U (obenb, to be praised; gii t^erebrent/ to be venerated, 
verable. Like the Latin participle in dus (amandusy venenm* 
<2i»), it always has a passive signification, involving at the same 
time the notion of necessity, propriety, or possibUily. It is, 
ni>wever, employed only as an adjective in the attribuUoe reta* 

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iwn f§53); as, tet |ji (ob enbe ®d^ttter, tb& scholar w^ 
is to be {oughtf may, must be) praised But not : ter ®d)it(ef 
tfl|u (obenb) in the latter case the infinitive with )u is used 
instead of the participle : — ter ©d)u(er tfl | u t o b e n, the 
scholar is to be praised, is worthy of praise. 

$ 122. With respect to the perfect participle, it is to be re« 
marked, that it does not assume the prefix g e in the feUowing 
instances: — 

1st, In the verb wttten, when, as an auxiliary, it stands 
in connection with another verb ; as, er *(l gefragt 10 o r b e n 
(not genoorben)/ he has been asked. 

2d, In all German verbs compounded with the inseparable 
and unaccented prefixes be, beun, emp/ ent, zx, ge, ©er, 
oerabf meruit and }er; as, htlz\ixt, entfaltet, 
crtbeilt, ©ergeffen, jerrtffen, instructed, unfolded, 
imparted, forgotten, torn ; not a e belebrt, g e entfaltet, 4cc 

4th, In all verbs derived fi-om foreign languages, which 
have the accented termination trenorteren; e. g. abfoU 
©irt, flubtrt/ barbiert/ fixwn obfobtren/ to absolve; 
(hibtren/ to study; barb (et en, to shave. 

5th, In verbs compounded with the particles turc^/ bt'nter^ 
abet/ urn, unter, ©olt and wieber, when they are in. 
separable, in which case the accent rests not on the particle, 
but on the verb; e.g. «>oUbrad)t, btnterganden/ un# 
terfd^rteben, from ^tlSbxxn^txi, to consummate, finish; 
l^interdeben/ to deceive, and unterft^^retben/ to sign. 


§ 123. To the full co]\jugation of German verbs, three 
auxiliaries are necessary, and only three, namely, the 
auxiliary verbs of tenses (§ 115): ^abett^ to have; 
f e f tt^ to be, and to e r b e tt/ to become. 

Ist, ^obcn is ased in forming the perfect infinitive (and 
lenses derived from it), the perfect and pluperfect^ both indi- 
eative tnd subjunctive, of all transitive and or many intransitive 
verbs i as, gelteOt ^abcn, to have loved; perf. id) i)aU gcltebt, I 
luive loved ; pluperf id| \i^XX^ geltebt/ 1 had loved ; future perf 
Id^ loerbc geltcbt l^a^txi, I shall have loved, &o. 

Sd, 6 c t n serves to form the same tenses of aU verbs in the 
passive voice and of many intransitive verbs in the active ; e. g, 
- " t<^ bin getlebtiDOtbcti, I Aooe been loved ; future perf. tit mini 

lovedf; i(^ btiii^ereifX * 

(tube UMrbeti feiit/ thou shait have been loved; ic^ b t n i^ereifX I 
ave travelled. 



Sd, IBK c t b e n is need in the fonnation of the /W^tcre 
when it corresponds to the English shall or tri//, and also ie tiM 
foriTiation of all the tenses of the passive voice, when it correspoodi 
to the English verb to be; e.g. \diwcxt>t ticbcn, I shall lore; 
bu n) t r fi gelicbt fynbm, thou wilt have loved ; er » i r b gclic^t^ he it 
loved, &c. 

6 ] 24. The simple tenses of the auxiliarj verbs are iire- 
cular as in English. The compound tenses are regulariy 
Kirraed, as in all other verbs, according to the following 


Rule I. The perfect tense of any verb b formed by annex- 
ing its perfect participle to the present indicative of either b a « 
ben or fetn; idj Jl^abe Qcffaht, geliebt, gefunaett, I have had, 
loved, sung ; id) bin gciDefen, gegongciv gcretft, I have been, 
gone, travelled. 

Rule II. The pluperfect is made by joining the peiiect par* 
ticipie of the verb to the imperfect tense of either |) a b e n oi 
fetn; as, id) f^attc Q^abt, qcliebt, gefungeiv I had had, 
loved, sung ; tc^ w a r setDefen, gegandett, geretf t/ 1 had been, 
gone, travelled. 

Rule in. The first or simple future b formed by annexing 
the present in/initive of the verb to the present indicative a 
the auxiliary werben; a8,tc^ werbe bciben, Kcbcit^ mita, 
fetn, I shall have, love, travel, be. 

Rule IV. The future perfect is made by joining the petfed 
i^yinUwe of the verb to the present of the auxiliary m e r t e n j 
e. g. id) n> e r b e gebabt b<^ben, geltebt (n^ben, ^tmft (^abet^ i 
shall have had, loved, travelled. 

Remark. The corresponding tenses of the suiyunetioe wmi 
are formed in a similai manner. 

§ 125. From these rules it will be seen, that in order to 
form all the compound tenses of a verb, three principal paiti 
must necessarily be given, viz : the present infinUwe, the ffCT' 
feet participle, and the perfect infinitive (which also containi 
the auxiliary which the verb employs). 

§ 126. Instead of the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctirB 
(td^ \ioXtt, i&i bcitte ^ebabt/ I might have, I might ha^e had), 
when they are conditional, i. e. when they denote a possHnlity 
not conceived as really existing, the imperfect subjunctive ci 
loerben (tc^ tourbe)/ in connection with the present andpMw 

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het infinitive, is oflen used ; e. g. id) wuxtt f^ahtn, lit 
ben^ I should have, love; tc^ wiirbe ge^^abt, geliebt (^aben/ 1 
should have had, have loved. 

These compound forms of the verb have commonly had a 
place among the other tenses, under the name o^ first and 
9econd amdUionals, 


I. t&