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Full text of "Ollendorff's new method of learning to read, write and speak the French language : with an Appendix containing the Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers and Full Paradigms of the Regular and Irregular, Auxiliary Reflective and Impersonal Verbs"

AUBURN UNIVERSITY 
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tVorks. 



Sooks. 



jd ComprehensiTe 

Iginal and Philosophical 
^nguages, with an Intro- 
1 a Treatise on French 

and Key to tlie 

istructor, with a phonetic 
translation ot the exer- 
S4T pages, 

^.* Being a Selection of 
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Being an Introduction to OllendorflTB Larger Grammar. By G. 
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Ollendorff's New Method of liearning to Kead, 

Write, and Speak the French Language* With full Paradigms of 
the Regular and Irregular, Auxiliary, Reflective, and Impersonal 
Verbs. By J. L. Jewett. 12mo. 498 pages. 

KEY TO EXERCISES. Separate volume. 

Ollendorff's Neiir Kletliod off liearnijig to Read, 

Write, and Speak the French Language.* With numerous Cor- 
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To which are added, Value's System of French Pronunciation, his 
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KEY TO EXERCISES. Separate volume. 

The Ollendorff System is founded In nature, and follows the same 
course that a child pursues in first acquiring his native tongue. It 
teaches inductively, understandingly, interestingly. It does not repel 
the student in the outset by obliging him to memorize dry abstract 
language which conveys little or no idea to his mind, but it imparts its 
lessons agreeably as well as efiiciently by exercises which teach tbo 
principles successively involved more clearly than any abstract lan- 
guage can. Value's and Jewett's works are essentially the same, 
though diifering somewhat in their arrangement and the additions 
that have been made to the originaL 

Prof. Greene's Introduction will be found useful for young be- 
ginners. In it are presented the fundamental principles of the lan- 
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paves the way for the larger works, preparing tlie pupil's mind for 
their more con.prehensive course, and awakening in it a desire for 
further knowlecge. 

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Roemcr's Elementary Fremcli' Reader. With an 
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Roenser's Second French Reader. Illustrated with His- 
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t^- SEE END OF THIS VOLUME. 



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OLLENDORFF'S' 

NE¥ METHO 



OF LEARNING TO 



READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK 



» 

Li . 



AIS^ APPENDIX, 

CONTAINING 

THE CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS 

AND 

FULL PARADIGMS OF 'PR F- 

REGULAR AND IRREGULAR, AUXILIARY REFLEC7IVE, 
AND IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



J. L. JEWETT. 



NEW YORK : 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 



443 & 445 BROADWAY. 

1865. ■ 



Enteked, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by 
D. APPLETON & CO., 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. 



^° A Key to the Exercises of this Giammar is publisbed in a 
ie}>arate volume. 



AUBURN UNIVERSny 

RALPH BROWN DRAUGHON L/Bf?A/?Y 

AUBURN UNIVERSITY. ALABAMA 36849 



/ PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION. 



The superiority of Ollendorff's Method of teaching 
languages is now so readily acknowledged, and the apprecia- 
tion of the merits of his German Grammar has been so rapid 
and general, in the United States as well as in Europe, that 
little apology is needed for an American edition of the present 
work. The plan pursued in the following Lessons is substan- 
tially the same as that developed in the German Method. 
The learner commences with the simplest elements of the 
language. Every step is intelligible. All that is learned is 
retained ; and all that is retained is of positive value. The 
difficulties are met singly, thoroughly analyzed, and mastered 
by repetition. It is hardly possible to go through the book 
with any degree of faithfulness, without having the mind sat- 
urated, so to speak, with the French idioms and constructions. 

The text of Ollendorff is given in the present edition 
without abridgment. In preparing it for the press it has un- 
dergone a careful revision, and in some instances an attempt 
has been made to give greater perspicuity and conciseness to 
the English rules. It is hardly necessary, perhaps, to remark, 
that the English phrases in the Exercises are not always 
models worthy of imitation. They are selected for their 
adaptation to a particular purpose — namely, that of developing 
the peculiarities of the French language. 

To obviate the necessity of consulting other treatises, and 
to bring within the compass of the Avork every thing for which 
a French Grammar is commonly consulted, an Appendix has 



IV PREFACE. 

been added, containing the Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, full 
conjugations of the Auxiliary, Regular, Reflective, hni Imperson- 
al Verbs, and Paradigms of the Irregular Verbs. This general 
recapitulation of what the student has already learned in de- 
tached portions, will also be found of great utility in making 
him familiar with the most difficult points of French grammar. 

In the London edition, from which this is reprinted, no ef- 
fort has been made, either by rules or arbitrary signs, to teach 
the pronun«ciation of the French language ; and in the present 
edition it has not been thought advisable to attempt to supply 
the deficiency. The inadequacy of all means but that of 
the human voice to convey even a tolerable idea of French 
sounds to a wholly uninitiated ear has long been acknow- 
ledged. After the learner has gained some degree of famil- 
iarity with these sounds, however, a Dictionary may be con- 
sulted with advantage, either for learning the true enunciation 
of new words, or for recalling sounds partially forgotten. For 
this purpose a decided preference is justly due to Surenne's 
Pronouncing Dictionary, which, in addition to the charac- 
teristic idea conveyed by its title, contains a fuller vocabulary 
and more that is really useful to the French student, than is 
often found in the most voluminous and expensive works of a 
similar kind. 

Although Ollendorff's Method is intended for Teachers, 
and is probably better adapted to their purposes than any other 
that has been devised, it may, nevertheless, be used to great 
advantage for self-instruction. Those who have gained some 
knowledge of French sounds from a teacher, may, with the 
aid of the Key, perfect themselves not only in reading and 
writing, but also in speaking the French language with ease 
and propriety. J. L. J. 

New York, Jtmc^ 1846. 




PREFACE 

TO THE 

FIRST EDITION OF OLLENDORFF'S "NOUVELLE 
METHODE," APPLIED TO THE GERMAN.* 

[translated from the GERMAN.] 



Every one who learns German naturally desires to be 
able to speak and write it : and as the Grammars that have 
heretofore appeared are not adapted to this purpose, I have 
thought it might be useful to make public the method which 
I have made use of in teaching for seventeen years, and 
which has enabled my scholars not only to read this lan- 
guage, but also to speak and Avrite it like native Germans. 
I might here expatiate with great fluency on the greater 
or lesser advantages which the different grammars of the 
present day offer ; this, however, would lead me too far. 
I shall confine myself to the remark, that none of those in 
common use corresponds to my idea of a good German 
Grammar : they all appear to me wanting in clearness, order, 
and precision. As to those which have lately appeared, 
the authors of which commence by giving examples from 
the best poets, they resemble the canvass on which a pain- 
ter has begun at the feet to paint his picture ; or rather they 
resemble one who appropriates to himself some character- 
istic features which he has borrowed from the great mas- 
ters, and which he merely disfigures, while he arranges and 
exhibits them without a plan or a leading object. But how 

* First published iu 1835. 



PREFACE. 



have we solved the problem proposed to us ? Teachers 
and scholars shall very soon judge for themselves. 

T must here be permitted to give a few explanations of 
my method ; it is intended not only to teach the reading of 
a language, but also to enable one to express himself in it 
with ease, and to write a letter correctly. 

I have often been led to reflect upon the manner in which 
a language can be taught in the shortest time ; and I have 
found It everywhere surrounded with difficulties. Meidin- 
ger, who holds the first rank among those who have essentiahy 
contributed to improve the methods of teaching languages, 
is yet very far from leading the scholar to the object he 
wishes to attain ; and although his Grammar has had an 
extraordinary sale, and imitators without number, it by no 
means contains the requisites of a good method. I have 
myself used it for a long time in teaching ; later, however, 
I found that this grammar, besides its deficiency in gram- 
matical accuracy, and precise and definite rules, accustome 
the learner to recite lessons too rapidly, without affording 
him a previous opportunity of practically applying them. 
It has also the disadvantage of containing ready-made, and 
therefore comparatively useless, sentences ; the author 
mixes too much those rules of which the scholar is quite 
ignorant, with those which he already knows ; and not till 
the 143d lesson, after he has explained the compound ten- 
ses of the verbs, can the teacher form questions and an- 
swers of the sentences ; and even then he is still obliged 
to adapt all such sentences to the very limited knowledge 
of his scholars. 

After Meidinger, Seidensticker has also done something tc 
improve the method of teaching languages, especially in 
placing the disscQted or analyzed {zej'gliederte] sentences 
before the Lessons, and introducing the verb in Ins first ex- 
ercise. But besides not attempting any grammatical ex- 
planations, he also fails, equally with Meidinger, in putting 



PREFACE. VU 

questions which the scholars may readily answei in tho 
language they are learning. 

Nothing, therefore, availed, but to unite the excellences 
which these two grammars afforded • the sentences must 
be so dissected that the teacher may propose questions, 
and the scholar be able to answer them, in the language 
taught. 

This twofold need I in some measure supplied by causing 
my scholars to transpose the constructions of all the lessons 
they had learned ; and in order to combine and unite the 
first and last lessons learned, the earlier lessons were con- 
tinually repeated. In this way I attained my object. I 
was, however, still anxious to improve upon my efforts. 
" If," said I often to myself, " all the ordinary forms of 
conversational discourse were united in a series, and all the 
rules of grammar could be applied to them, this would be 
the method of acquiring a perfect knowledge of a language 
in the shortest time possible." 

While I continued to exercise my scholars in combining 
their lessons in various forms, I was naturally brought near- 
er to this simple, easy, less monotonous, and often amusing 
system, by means of which beginners, from the first hour 
of instruction, are not only able to speak, but are not obli- 
ged to restrain their reasoning faculties, and confine them- 
selves to tedious forms. 

I therefore prefixed to all my sentences a clear and in- 
telligible grammatical statement; I then arranged them in 
questions and answers, at the same time embracing all the 
parts of speech, the general as well as the particular rules 
of grammar, the idiomatic phrases, and the greater part of 
the familiar forms of conversation. I was not guided by 
arbitrary laws, but by the manner in which a child begins 
to learn his mother tongue. I left the scholar in freedom 
CO meditate upon what he had learned, and to give an ac- 
count of every thing before he applied it. I thus succeeded 



PREFACE. 



in teaching my scholars at the same time to read, write, 
and amuse themselves. Experience has taught me that 
in less than one hundred and twenty lessons T can attain 
my object. 

Arranged in this manner, my method very nearly answer- 
ed my intentions ; it had, however, the defect, of being 
adapted only to private instruction, besides leaving too much 
to scholars the choice of sentences in their compositions. 
This I remedied by adding exercises to the lessons, in 
which I endeavored to give every sentence and every rule, 
with all the turns and transpositions capable of making 
sense. By this means my Method may be used with a 
great number of scholars, and it is by no means difficult 
for them to answer the questions with w^hich they have 
become familiar in the Lessons. 

I do not flatter myself that my work, as I here present 
it, is susceptible of no improvement ; but all who Jiave 
been occupied in the study of languages, or have had op- 
portunity of watching the progress of scholars in different 
schools, will agree with me, that this Method affords the 
only means of obtaining an exact knowledge of a language 
by the shortest way, and without disgust or fatigue. 

I have felt it necessary thus to explain how I have suc- 
ceeded, step by step, in forming my Method, that I might 
anticipate those who should feel disposed to criticise my 
work without waiting till at a future time it shall appear 
complete. I beg to remind them that this Method is not, 
like many others, the work of a day, or the product of a fiery 
imagination, but the fraif of seventeen years' labor and ex- 
perience. 

H. G. Ollendorff 



CONTENTS. 



Preface, ...... 

Le Sansonnet Prudent, 

Explanation of the Signs used in this book, 

Lessons— I. to LXXXVI., . 



Page 

3 

7 

8 

9-404 



APPENDIX. 

Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers, ...... .417 

Conjugation of the Au25;iliary Verb Afoir, to have, . . 419 

'" " " " Etre, to be, . . 423 

First Conjugation — ^Verbs in Er, ...... 424 

Second " " " Jr, 428 

Third " " " Oir, .427 

Fourth " . " " i2e, .' . . . . 428 

Conjugation of the Reflective Verb se Lever, to rise, . . 430 

" " Impersonal Verb Neiger, to snow, , . 432 

" " " " Pleuvoir, to rain, . . 432 

" " " " y Avoir, to be there, . 433 

" " " " Falloir, to be necessary, . 433 

irregular Verbs of the First Conjugation — er, . . . 434 

" " " Second " —ir, . . .435 

«' " " Third " —oir, . . .444 

" Fourth " —re, . . .451 

Lo Juif Errant, 472 



Index, 



473 



1* 



LE SANSONNET PRUDENT. 



Un sansonnet altere trouva un flacon d'eau. II essaya de boiro ; 
mais I'eau arrivait k peine au col du flacon, et le bee de I'oiseau n'at- 
teignait pas jusque-lk. 

II SB mit k becqueter le dehors du vase, afin d'y pratiquer un trou. 
Ce fut en vain, le verre etait trop dur. 

Alors il chercha a renverser le flacon. Cela ne lui reussit pas 
davantage : le vase etait trop pesant. 

Enfin le sansonnet s'avisa d'une idee qui lui reussit : il jeta dana 
le vase de petits cailloux qui firent hausser I'eau insensiblement jus- 
qu'k la portee de son bee. 

* 
* # 

L'adresse I'emporte sur la force ; la patience et la reflexion rendent 

faciles bien des choses qui au premier abord paraissent impossibles. 



THE SAGACIOUS STARLING. 



A THIRSTY starling found a decanter of water, and attempted to 
drink from it ; but the water scarcely touched the neck of the de- 
canter, and the bird's bill could not reach it. 

He began to peck at the outside of the vessel, in order to make a 
hole in it ; but in vain, the glass was too hard. 

He then attempted to upset the decanter. In this he succeeded 
no better ; the vessel was too heavy. 

At length the starling hit upon an idea that succeeded : he threw 
little pebbles into the decanter, which caused the water gradually to 
rise till within the reach of his bill. 

* 

Skill is better than strength : patience and reflection make many 
things easy which at first appear impossible. 



•EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS USED IN THIS BOOK. 

The irregular verbs are designated by a (*) star. 

The figures 1, 2, 3, 4, placed after verbs, denote that tliey are reg- 
ular, and indicate the conjugations to which they respectively be- 
long. 

Expressions which vary either in their construction or idiom from 
the English are marked thus : f . 

A hand (KF) denotes a rule of syntax or construction. 



-ijUr— 



OLLENDORFF'S 



FREICI GRAMMAR. 



FIRST LESSON.— PremjeVe Le^on} 
DEFINITE ARTICLE. 



MASCULINE SINGULAR. 



Nominative, the. 


Nominatif, le. 


Genitive, of or from the. 


Genitif, du. 


Dative, to the. 


Datif, au. 


Accusative, the. 


Accusatif, le. 


Have 3'^ou ? 


Avez-vous ? 


Yos, Sir, I have. 


Oui, Monsieur, j'ai. 


The. 


Le, and, before a vowel, or h 




mute, Z'. 


The hat. 


Le chapeau. 


Have you the hat? 


Avez-vous le chapeau ? 


Yes, Sir, I have the hat. 


Oui, Monsieur, j'ai le chapeau. 


The bread. 


Le pain. 


The broom. 


Le balai. 


The soap. 


Le savon. 


The sugar. 


Le Sucre. 


The paper. 


Le papier. 



* To Teachers. — Each lesson should be dictated to the pupils, who 
should pronounce each word as soon as dictated. The teacher should also 
exercise his pupils by putting the questions to them in various ways. Each 
lesson includes three operations : the teacher, in the first place, looks over 
the exercises of the most attentive of his pupils, putting to them the ques- 
tions contained in the printed exercises ; he then dictates to them the next 
lesson ; and, lastly, puts fresh questions to them on all the preceding lessons. 
The teacher may divide one lesson into two, or two into three, or even make 
two into one, according to the degree of intelligence of his pupils. 



10 



FIRST LESSON. 



Ohs. I means je ; but the apostrophe ( ' ) which in fai, I have, is substi 
tuled for the letter e, is always used when a vowel has been suppressed be- 
fore another vowel, or before h mute. 



My hat. 

Your bread. 
Have you my hat ? 
Yes, Sir, I have your hat. 
Have you your bread ? 
I have my bread. 

Which or what 1 
Which hat have you ? 
I have my hat. 
Which bread have you? 
I have your bread. 



Mon chapeau. 

Votre pain. 

Avez-vous mcin chapeau? 

Oui, Monsieur, j'ai votre chapeau 

Avez-vous votre pain? 

J'ai mon pain. 



quell 
Quel chapeau avez-vous 7 
J'ai mon chapeau. 
Quel pain avez-vous? 
J'ai votre pain. 



EXERCISE. 
1. 
Have you the bread ■? — Yes, Sir, I have the bread. — Have you 
your bread 1 — I have my bread. — Have you the broom ? — I have the 
broom. — Have you my broom 1 — I have your broom. — Have you the 
soap 1 — I have the soap. — Have you your soap ? — I have my soap. — 
Which soap have you '\ — I have your soap. — Have you your sugar ? 
■ — I have my sugar. — Which sugar have you 1 — I have your sugar. — 
Which paper have you \ — I have my paper. — Have you my paper \ 
• — ^I have your paper. — Which bread have you"! — 1 have my bread. — 
Which broom have you ? — I have your broom.^ 

"^ Pupils desirous of making rapid progress may compose a great many 
phrases, in addition to those given in the exercises ; but they must pro- 
nounce thein aloud, as they write them. They should also make separate 
lists of such substantives, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, as they meet with 
in the course of the lessons, in order to be able to find those words more 
readily, when required to refer to them in vriting their lessons 



:i»> 



SECOND LESSON. 



11 



SECOND LLSSON.— Seconie Le^on. 



It. 
Have you my hat 7 

Yea, Sir, I have it. 



Le. 
Avez-vous mon chapeau ? 
Oui, Monsieur, je I'ai. (See Oba 

Lesson I.) 



Good. 


Bon. 


Bad. 


Mauvais. 


Pretty. 


Joli. 


Handsom^or fine. 


Beau. 


Ugly. 


Vilain. 


Old. 


Vieux. 


The cloth. 


Le drap. 


Tlie salt. 


Le sel. 


The shoe. 


Le Soulier. 


The wood. 


Le bois. 


The stocking. 


Le has. 


The thread. 


Lefil. 


The dog. 


Le chien. 


The horse. 


Le cheval. 


Have you the pretty dog ? 


Avez-vous le joli chien ? 


Not. 


Ne — pas. 


I have not. 


Je n'ai pas. (See Obs. ] 


I liave not the bread. 


Je n'ai pas le pain. 


No, Sir. 


Non, Monsieur. 


Have you my old hat ? 


Avez-vous mon vieux ch 


No, Sir, I have it not. 


Non, Monsieur, je ne I'a 


What or which ? 


Quel ? 


What or which paper have you ? 


Quel papier avez-vous ? 


I have the good paper. 


J'ai le bon papier. 


Which dog have you ? 


Quel chien avez-vous? 


I have my fine dog. 


J'ai mon beau chien. 



Of. 

The thread stockinar. 



De. 

Le has de fil. 



Ohs. The preposition de is always put between the name of the thing 
and the name of the substance of which it is made, which latter, in French, 
is always placed last. 



12 



THIRD LESSON. 



The paper hat. 

The gun. 

The leather. 

The wooden gun. 

The leather shoe. 
Which gun have you ? 
I have the wooden gun. 
Which stocking have you ? 
I have my thread stocking. 
Have you my leather shoe ? 
No, Sir, I have it not. 



Le chapeau de papier. 

Le fusil. 

Le cuir. 

Le fusil de bois. 

Le Soulier de cuir. 

Quel fusil avez-vous? 

J'ai le fusil de bois. 

Quel has avez-vous ? 

J'ai raon has de fil. 

Avez-vous mon Soulier de cuir? 

Non, Monsieur, je ne I'ai pas. 



EXERCISE. 

a 

Have you my fine horse 1 — Yes, Sir, I have it. — Have you my 
old shoe ? — No, Sir, I have it not. — Which dog have you ] — I have 
your pretty dog. — Have you my bad paper '? — No, Sir, I have it not. 
— Have you the good cloth ] — Yes, Sir, I have it. — Have you my 
ugly gun'? — No, Sir, I have it not. — Which gun have youl — I have 
your fine gun. — Which stocking have you ■? — I have the thread 
stocking. — Have you my thread stocking "? — I have not your thread 
stocking. — Wliich gun have you 1 — I have the wooden gun. — Have 
you my wooden gun ■? — No, Sir, I have it not. — Have you the old 
bread ■? — I have not the old bread. — Which shoe have you ] — I have 
my fine leather shoe. — Which soap have you ? — I have my old soap. 
— ^Which sugar have you ? — I have your good sugar. — Which salt 
have you \ — I have the bad salt. — Which hat have you ] — I have my 
bad paper hat. — Have you my ugly wooden shoe '\ — No, Sir, I have 
it not. 



THIRD LESSON. 
Something, any tiling 
Have you any thing? 
I have something. 

Nothing, not any thing 
I have nothing. 
The wine. 
My money or silver. 
The gold. 
The string. 
The ribbon. 
The golden ribbon. 



-Troisieme Legon. 
Quelque chose. 
Avez-vous quelque chose I 
J'ai quelque chose. 
Ne — rien. 
Je n'ai rien. 
Le vin. 
Mon argent. 

L'or. (See Obs. Lesson I ) 
Le cordon 
Le rubau. 
Le rubau d'or. 



THIRD LESSON. 



18 



Tlie button. 

The coffee. 

The cheese. 

The coat. 

My coat. 

The silver candlestick 



Are you hungry ? 
I am hungry. 
I am not hungry 
Are you thirsty ? 
I am thirsty. 
I am not thirsty. 
Are you sleepy ? 
I am sleepy. 
I am not sleepy. 



Any thing or something good. 
Have you any thing good ? 

Nothing or not any thing had. 
1 have nothing' ffood. 



Le bouton. 
Le cafe. 
Le fromage. 

L'habit. (See Obs. Lesson 1 ) 
Mon habit. 

Le chandelier d'argent. (See Obs, 
Lesson L) 

t Avez-vous faim ? 

t J'ai faim. 

t Je n'ai pas faim. 

t Avez-vous soif? 

t J'ai soif. 

t Je n'ai pas soif. 

t Avez-vous sorameil ? 

t J'ai sommeil. 

t Je n'ai pas sommeil. 

Quelque chose de hon. 
Avez-vous quelque chose de boni 
Ne — rien de mauvais. 
Je n'ai rien de bon. 



Ohs. Quelque chose and ne — rien require de when they are before an 
idjective. Ex. 

Have you any thing pretty ? 1 Avez-vous quelque chose de joli ? 

I have nothing pretty. | Je n'ai rien de joli. 



What 1 
What have you ? 
What have you good ? 
I liave the good coffee. 



Quel (Quoi?) 
Qu' avez-vous ? (See Obs. Les. I ) 
Qu'avez-vous de bon ? 
J'ai le bon cafe. 



EXERCISE. 
3. 

Have you my good wine ] — I have it. — Have you the gold ■? — 1 
have it not. — Have you the money 1 — I have it. — Have you the gold 
ribbon "? — No, Sir, I have it not. — Have you your silver candlestick ] 
— Yes, Sir, I have it. — What have you 1 — I have the good cheese. 
I have my cloth coat. — Have you my silver button 1 — I have it not. 
— Which button have you 1 — I have your good gold button. — •"Which 
string have you 1 — I have the gold string. — Have you any thing 1 — 1 
have something. — What have you 1 — I have the good bread. I have 



14 



fOURTH LESSON. 



the good sugar. — Have you any thing good 1 — I have nothing good. 
— Have you any thing handsome 1 — I have rjpthing handsome. I have 
something ugly. — V/hat have you ugly 1 — I have the ugly dog. — 
Have you any thing pretty ] — I have nothing pretty. I have some- 
thing old. — What have you old 1 — 1 have the old cheese. — Are you 
hungry 1 — I am hungry. — Are you thirsty 1 — I am not thirsty. — Are 
you sleepy 1 — I am not sleepy. — What have you beautiful ] — I have 
your beautiful dog. — What have you bad 1- — I have nothing bad. — 
Which paper have you 1 — I have your good paper. — Have you the 
fine horse 1 — Yes, Sir, I have it. — Which shoe have you 1 — I have 
my old leather shoe. — Which stocking have you ] — I have your fine 
thret'i-J stocking:. 



FOURTH LESSON. — Quatrieme Legoru 

That. I Ce. 

That book. Ce livre. 



Of the. 

Of the dog. 
Of the tailor. 
Of the baker. 
Of the neiofhbor. 



That or the one. 

The neiglibor's, or that of the 
neighbor. 

The baker's, or that of the baker 

The dog's, or that of the dog. 
Or. 

Have you my book or the neigh- 
bor's I 

I have the neighbor's. 

Have you my bread or that of the 
baker ? 

I have yours. 

I liave not the baker' 



Da, (genitive,) before a vowl'I, oi 

h mute, dc V. 
Du chien. 
Du tailleur. 
Du boulanger. 
Du voisin. 

Celui. 

Cehii du voisin. 

Cehii du boulanger. 

Celui du chien. 

Oa. 

Avez-vous mon livre ou celui du 

voisin ? 
J'ai celui du voisin. 
Avez-vous mon pain ou celui du 

boulanger ? 
J'ai le v6tre. 
Je n'ai pas ce.ui du boulcnger. 



■xji- S Nominative. ) 

Mnis or my own. < . , . > 

•' ( Accusative. ^ 



Le mieb. 

Of mine. Genitive. Du mien. 



FOURTH LESSON. 



15 



Yours, 



■\ 



Le v6tre. 



Nom. 
Accus. 

Of yours. Genitive. Du v6tre. 
Ohs. A. Put a circumflex accent {") over a long vowel. Ex Le votri: 
fours ; le notre, ours. 



Are you vvrarm? 
I am warm. 
I am not warm. 
Are you cold? 
I am not cold. 
Are you afraid? 
I am afraid. 
I am not afraid. 



+ Avez-vous chaud ? 

t J'ai chaud. 

t Je n'ai pas chaud. 

t Avez-vous froid? 

t Je n'ai pas froid. 

t Avez-vous peur? 

t J'ai peur. 

t Je n'ai pas peur. 



DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, 

MASCULINE AND FEMININE SINGULAR, 
n'HEN THE NOUN BEGINS V/ITH A VOWEL OR AN h MUTE. 



Nom. the. 

Gen. of or from the. 
Dat. to the. 

Ace. the. 



N. V. 
G. de 1'. 

D. k r. 

A. V. 



The man. L'homme. (See Obs. Lesson I. 

The friend. L'ami. (See Obs. Lesson I.) 

That, or the one, of the man. Celui de l''homme. 

Obs B. Always translate of the, before a vowel or h mute, thus : de 

Of the friend. i De l'ami. 

That of the friend Celui de l'ami. 



The stick. 
The thimble. 
The coal. 
My brother. 
My brother's, or that of my bro- 
ther. 
Your friend's, or that of your 
friend. 



Le bffton. 

Le de. 

Le charbon. 

Mon frfere. 

Celui de mon frfere. 

Celui de votre ami. 



EXERCISES 



Have you that book ■? — No, Sir, I have it not. — Which book liave 
you 1 — I hijve that of the neiglibor. — Have you my stick, or that of 



16 FIFTH LESSON. 

my friend 1 — I have that of your friend. — Have you my bread or Iht 
baker's ] — I have not yours ; I have the baker's. — Have you the 
neighbor's horse 1 — No, Sir, I have it not. — Which horse have you '^ 
— I have that of the baker. — Have you your thimble or the tailors "^ 
— I have my ov/n. — Have you the pretty gold string of my dog ? — I 
have it not. — Which string have you ] — I have my silver string. — 
Have you my gold button or the tailor's ] — I have not yours ; I have 
the tailor's. — Have you my brother's coat or yours] — I have )'our 
brother's. — Which coffee have you 1 — I have the neighbor's.— Have 
you your dog or the man's 1 — I have the man's. — Have you your 
friend's money 1 — I have it not. — Are you cold 1 — I am cold. — ^Are 
you afraid 1 — I am not afraid. — Are you warm 1 — I am not warm. — 
Are you sleepy ]-. — I am not sleepy ; I am hungry. — Are you thirsty T 
— I am not thirsty. 

5. 
Have you my coat or the tailor's 1 — I have the tailor's. — Have you 
my gold candlestick or that of the neighbor 1 — I have yours. — Have 
you your paper or mine 1 — I have mine. — Have you your cheese or 
the baker's 1 — I have my own. — Which cloth have you 1 — I have 
that of the tailor.-^-Which stocking have you] — I have my own. — 
Have you the old wood of my brother 1 — I have it not. — ^^Vhich soap 
have you] — I have my brother's good soap. — Have you my wooden 
gun, or that of my brother ] — I have yours. — Which shoe have you '> 
— I have my friend's leather shoe. — Have you your thread stocking 
or mine ] — I have not yours ; I have my own. — What have you ] — 
1 have nothing. — Have you any thing good ] — I have nothing good. 
— Have you any thing bad] — I have nothing bad. — What have you 
pretty ] — I have my friend's pretty dog. — Have you my handsome or 
my ugly stick ] — I have your ugly stick. — Are you hungry or thirsty '- 



FIFTH LESSON.— Cinquieme Lefon. 



The merchant. 
Of the shoemaker. 
The boy. 
The pencil. 
The chocolate. 



Le marchand. 
Du cordounier. 
Le gar^ou. 
Le crayon. 
Le chocolat. 



Have you the merchant's stick or j Avez-vous le baton du marchaud on 
yours. le v6tre ? . 

Neither Ne — .••( 



FIFTH LESSON. 



17 



Nor. 
I have neither the merchant's stick 

nor mine. 
Are you hungry or thirsty? 
I am neither hungry nor thirsty. 
Are you warm or cold? 
I am neither warm nor cold. 
Have you the wine or the bread ? 
I have iieitlier the wine nor the 

bread. 
I have neither yours nor mine. 
[ have neither my thread nor that of 

the tailor. 



The cork. 
The corkscrew. 
The umbrella. 
The honey. 
The cotton. 
The Frenchman. 
Of the carpenter. 
The hammer. 
The iron. 
The nail. 
The iron nail. 

What have you ? or, 
What is the matter with you? 
Nothing. 

I have nothing ; or, 

Nothing is the matter with me. 



Is any thing the matter with you ? 
Nothinff is the matter with me. 



NL 

Je n'ai ni le bUtoii du marchand ui 

le mien, 
t Avez-vous faim ou soif ? 
t Je n'ai ni faim ni soif. 
t Avez-vous chaud ou froid? 
t Je n'ai ni chaud ni froid. 
Avez-vous le vin ou le pain ? 
Je n'ai ni le vin ni le pain. 

Je n'ai ni le votre ni le mien. 
Je n'ai ni mon fil ni celui du taii- 
leur. 



Le bouchon. 

Le tire-bouchon. 

Le parapluie. 

Le miel. 

Le coton. 

Le Frangais. 

Du charpentier. 

Le marteau. 

Le fer. 

Le clou. 

Le clou de fer. 



Qu' avez-vous? 
Ne — lien. 
Je n'ai rien. 



t Avez-vous quelque choBO? 
t Je n'ai rien. 



EXERCISES. 
6. 

I am neither hungry nor thirsty. — Have you my shoe or the shoe- 
maker's 1 — I have neither yours nor the shoemaker's. — Have you 
your pencil or the boy's "! — I have neither mine nor the boy's. — 
Which pencil have you 1 — I have that of the merchant. — Have you 
my chocolate or the merchant's 1 — I have neither yours nor the mer- 
chant's ; I have my own. — Have you the honey or the wine ^ — I 
have neither the honey nor the wine — Have you your thimble or the 



18 SIXTH Li'iS.SUiV. 

tailor's! — I have neither mine norlhe tailor's. — Have you your cork 
screvir or mine 1 — I have neither yours nor mine ; I have the mer- 
chant's. — Which cork have you] — I have the neighbor's. — Have 
you the iron or the silver nail 1 — I have neither the iron nor the sil- 
ver nail ; I have the gold nail. — Are you warm or cold ? — I am nei- 
ther warm nor cold ; I am sleepy. — Are you afraid ] — I am not 
afraid. — Have you my hammer or the carpenter's 1 — I have neither 
yours nor the carpenter's. — Which nail have you ] — I have the iron 
nail. — Which hammer have you ■? — I have the wooden hammer of 
the carpenter. — Have you any thing ] — I have something. — What 
have you 1 — I have something fine — AVhat have you fine ] — I have 
the Frenchman's fine umbrella. — Have you the cotton or the thread 
stocking 1 — I have neither the cotton nor the thread stocking. 

7- 
Have you my gun or yours ] — 1 have neither yours nor mine. — 
Which gun have you 1 — I have my friend's. — Have you my cotton 
ribbon or that of my brother ! — I have neither yours nor your broth- 
er's. — Which string have you 1 — I have my neighbor's thread string. 
— Have you the book of the Frenchman or that of the merchant ? — 
I have neither the Frenchman's nor the merchant's. — ^AVhich book 
have you 1 — I have my own. — What is the matter with you ■? — 
Nothing. — Is any thing the matter with you ] — Nothing is the mat- 
ter with me. — Are you cold 1 — I am not cold ; I am warm. — Have 
you the cloth or the cotton ■? — I have neither the cloth nor the cot- 
ton. — Have you any thing good or bad ] — I have neither any thing 
good nor bad. — What have you ] — I have nothing. 



SIXTH LESSON.— ;Si:rJeme Legon 



The beef, the ox. 
The biscuit. 
Of the captain. 
Of the cook. 

Have I? 

You have. 

You have not. 
Am I hungry? 
You are hungry. 
You are not hungry, 
Am I afraid? 
Vou are afraid. 



Le boeuf. 
Le biscuit. 
Du capitaine. 
Du cuisinier. 



Ai-je ? 

Vous avez. 

Vous ii'avez peis 

t Ai-je faim? 

f Vous avez faijn. 

t Vous u'avez pas faim, 

t Ai-je peur ? 

t Vous avez peur. 



1 



SIXTH LESSON. 



19 



You aie not afraid. 

Am I ashamed? 

Yoa are not ashamed 

Are you ashamed ? 

[ am ashamed. 

Am I wrong? 

You are wrong. 

You are not wrong. 

Am I right ? 

You are right. 

You are not riglit. 

Have I the nail ? 

You have it. 

You have it not 

Have I any thing good ? 

You have nothing good. 

You liave neitlier any thing good 

nor bad. 
What have I? 

Have I tlie carpenter's hammer ? 
You have it not 
Have you it? 
I have it. 
I have it not. 
Have I it? 

Tiie butter. 

Tlie mutton. 

The knife. 
WJiich one ? 
That of tho captain, or the cap- 
tain's. 
That of tho cook, or the cook's. 

The fine one. 

I'he ugly one. 



Am I right or wrong ? 
Y'ou are neither right nor wrong. 
You are neither hungry nor tliirsty. 
You are neither afraid nor 

asliamed. 
Have I your butter or mine ? 
You iiavo neither yom-s uor mine. 



t Vous n'avez pas pour. 

t Ai-je honte ? 

t Vous n'avez pas honte. 

t Avez-vous honte ? 

t J'ai honte. 

1- Ai-je tort ? 

t Vous avez tort. 

t Vous n'avez pas tort. 

t Ai-je raison ? 

t Vous avez raison. 

t Vous n'avez pas raison. 

Ai-je le clou? 

Vous I'avez. 

Vous ne I'avez pas. 

Ai-je quelque chose de bon ? 

Vous n'avez rien de bon. 

Vous n'avez rien de bon ni dr. 

mauvais. 
Qu'ai-je? (For: que ai-je?) 
Ai-je le marteau du charpeutior? 
Vous ne I'avez pas. 
L'avez vous ? 
Je I'ai. 

Je ne I'ai pas. 
L' ai-je ? 
Le beurro. 
Le mouton. 
Le couteau. 
Lequel ? 
Celui du capitaine. 

Celui du cuisinier. 
Le beau. 
Le vilain. 



t Ai-je raison ou tort? 
t Vous n'avez ni raison ni tort 
t Vous n'avez ni faim ni soif. 
t Vous n'avez ni peur ni lionte. 

Ai-je votre beurre ou le mien ? 
Vous n'avez ni le votre ni lo mien 



W SIXTH LESSON. 

EXERCISES 

8. 
I have neither the baker's dog nor that of my friend. — Are you 
ashamed 1 — I am not ashamed. — Are you afraid or ashamed 1 — I am 
neither afraid nor ashamed. — Have you my knif° ''- — Which one \ 
— The fine one. — Have you my beef or the coojvsT — I have neither 
yours nor the cook's. — ^Which {lequeT) have you 1 — I have that of the 
captain. — Have I your biscuit 1 — You have it not. — Am I hungrv 
or thirsty ] — You are neither hungry nor thirsty. — Am I warm oi 
cold ■? — You are neither warm nor cold. — Am I afraid 1— You are 
not afraid. You are neither afraid nor ashamed. — Have I any thing 
good ■? — You have nothing good. — What have !■? — You have nothing. 
— Which pencil have I ? — You have that of the Frenchman. — Have 
I your thimble or that of the tailor 1 — You have neither mine nor that 
of the tailor. — ^Which one have I '\ — You have your friend's. — Which 
umbrella have I ■? — You have mine. — Have I the baker's good bread ! 
— You have it not. — Which honey have I ■? — You have your own. 
— Have you my iron gun 1 — I have it not. — Have I it 1 — You have 
It. — Have I your mutton or the cook's 1 — You have neither mine 
nor the cook's. — Have I your knife 1 — You have it not. — Have you 
it ■? — I have it. — Which biscuit have I ] — You have that of the cap- 
tain. — Which cloth have I ] — You have the merchant's. — Have you 
my coffee or that of my boy ? — I have that of your good boy. — Have 
you your cork or mine 1 — I have neither yours nor mine. — What 
have you ] — I have my brother's good candlestick. 

9. 

Am I right? — You are right. — Am I wrong 1 — You are not wrong. 
— Am I right or wrong ? — You are neither right nor wrong ; you 
are afraid. You are not sleepy. You are neither warm nor cold. — 
Have I the good coffee or the good sugar ] — You have neither the 
good coffee nor the good sugar 1 — Have I any thing good or bad ! — 
You have neither any thing good nor bad. — What have I ? — You 
have nothing. — ^What have I pretty ■? — You have my friend's pretty 
dog. — Which butter have 1 1 — You have that of your cook. — Have I 
your corkscrew or the merchant's 1 — You have neither mine nor tlie 
merchant's. — Which chocolate have you'? — I have that of the French- 
man. — ^Which shoe have you 1 — I have the shoemaker's leather shoe. 
—Which one have 1 1 — You have that of the old baker. — Which one 
have you 1 — I have that of my old neighbor. — What is the matter 
tvith you ? — I am afraid. — Have I any thing ? — You have nothing. 



SEVENTH LESSON. 



21 



SEVENTH LESSON.— Se;j//e/ne Le^on. 



Who 1 
Wliohas? 
Who has the pencil? 
The man has the pencil. 
The man has not the pencil. 
Who has it? 
The boy has it. 
The boy has it not. 

The chicken. 

The chest, the trunk. 

The bag, the sack. 

The waistcoat. 

The ship. 

The young man. 

The youth. 

He. 

He has. 
He has the chest. 
He has not the chest. 
He has it. 
He has it not. 

Has he ? 
Has he the knife? 
Has the man? 
Has the friend ? 



qui 7 

Qui a? 

Qui a le crayon ? 

L'homme a le crayon. 

L'homme n'a pas le crayon 

Quil'a? 

Lo gar§on I'a. 

Le gar^on ne I'a pas. 



Le poulet. 

Le cofFre. 

Le sac. 

Le gilet. 

Le vaisseau, le batimont. 

Le jeune homme. 

L'adolescent. 



II. 

II a. 

II a le cofFre. 

II n'a pas le cofFre. 

II I'a. 

II ne Fa pas. 



A-t-il? 

A-t-il le couteau? 
t L'homme a-t-il? 
t L'ami a-t-il? 



Ols A. In French, interrogative propositions begin with the verb when 
the subject or nominative is a pronoun, as in English ; but when a noun, 
this must stand at the head of the sentence, and the pronoun il must be 
repeated after the verb, as shown by the above examples. 

Has the baker? I t Le boulanger a-t-il? 

Has the young man ? 1 t Le jeune homme a-t-il? 

Obs B. The letter t, between a and il, is inserted for the sake of eu- 
phony, and to avoid a too harsh pronunciation. 
Is the man hungry ? i t L'homme a-t-il faim ? 

He is hungry. I t II a faira. 

Ho is neither hungry nor thirsty. t II n'a ni faim ni soif. 



Is your brother warm or cold ? 
Is tho man afraid or ashamed? 
Is the man right or wrong? 



t Votre frere a-t-il chaud ou froid '; 
t L'homme a-t-il peur ou honle ? 
t L'homme a-t-il raisou on tort' 



22 



SEVENTH LESSON. 



Has the boy tlie hammer of the 

carpenter ? 
He has it. 
Has the baker it ? 
What has my friend 1 



The rice. 

Tlie countryifian, the peasant. 

The servant. 



His or her shoe. 
His or her dog. 

The broom 

The bird. 

His foot. 

His eye. 

His money. 



His or Jiers, (absolute possessive pro- 
nouns.) 
Has the servant his trunk or mine ? 

He has his own. 



Somebody or anybody, some one or 

any one, (indefinite pronouns.) 
Has anybody my book? 
Somebody has it. 
Who has my stick ? 



No one, nobody, not anybody. 
Nobody has your stick. 
Nobody has it. 



t Le gargon a-t-il le marteau dn 

charpentier ? 
II I'a. 

t Le boulanger I'a-t-il? 
t Mon ami qu'a-t-il? 



Le riz. 
Le paysan. 
Le domestique. 

Son Soulier. 
Son chien 
Le balai. 
L'oiseau. 
Son pied. 
Son ceil. 
Son argent. 



he sien. 

t Le domestique a-t-il son cofTre 

ou le mien? 
II a le sien. 



Quelqu'im 

t Quelqu'un a-t-il mon livre? 
Quelqu'un I'a. 
Qui a mon b&,tou? 



Personne — nc. 
Personne n'a votre bSitoii. 
Personne ne I'a. 



EXERCISES, 
10. 

Who has my trunk ? — The boy has it. — Is he thirsty or hungry ' 
— He is neither thirsty nor hungry. — Has the man the chicken 1 — 
He has it. — Who has my waistcoat 1 — The young man has it. — Has 
the young man my ship ] — The young man has it not. — Who has it ? 
—The captain has it. — What has the youth ] — He has the fine 
chicken. — Has he the knife \ — He lias it not. — Is he afraid ] — Hs is 
not afraid. — Is he afraid or ashamed 1 — He is neither afraid noi 
ashamed. — Is the. man right or wrong 1 — He is neither rioht noi 



SEVENTH LESSON. 23 

wrong. — Is he warm or cold ] — He is neither warm nor cold.^ — Who 
has the countryman's rice 1 — My servant has it. — Has your servant 
ray broom or his 1 — He has neither yours nor his. — Which broom 
has he 1 — He has that of his neighbor. — Who has my old shoe ] — 
Your shoemaker has it. — What has your friend 1 — He has his goo(^ 
money. — Has he my gold 1 — He has it not. — ^Who has it "? — The 
baker has it. — Has your baker my bird or his 1 — He has his. — Who 
has mine 1 — The carpenter has it. — Who is cold 1 — Nobody is cold. 
— Is anybody warm 1 — Nobody is warm. — Has anybody my chick- 
en ; — Nobody has it. — Has your servant your waistcoat or mine 1 — 
He has neither yours nor mine. — Which one has he "^ — He bfas 
his own. 

n 

Has any one my gun 1 — No one has it. — Has the youth my book 1 
■—He has it not. — What has he 1 — He has nothing. — Has he the 
hammer or the nail 1 — He has neither the hanjmer nor the nail. — ■ 
Has he my umbrella or my stick 1 — He has neither your umbrella 
nor your stick. — Has he my coffee or my sugar 1 — He has neither 
your coffee nor your sugar ; he has your honey. — Has the boy my 
brother's biscuit or that of the Frenchman 1 — He has neither that of - 
your brother nor that of the Frenchman ; he has his own. — Have I 
your bag or that of your friend ] — You have neither mine nor my 
friend's; you have your own. — Who has the peasant's bag'? — The 
good baker has it. — Who is afraid 1 — The tailor's boy is afraid. — Is 
he sleepy 1 — He is not sleepy. — Is he cold or hungry? — He is neither 
cold nor hungry. — What is the matter with him] — Nothing. — Has 
the peasant my money 1 — He has it not. — Has the captain it 1 — He 
has it not. — Who has it ] — Nobody has it. — Has your neighbor an} 
thing good 1 — He has nothing good. — What has he ugly ] — He has 
nothing ugly. — Has he any thing ] — He has nothing. 

12. 

Has the merchant my cloth or his 1 — He has neither yours noi 
his. — Which cloth has he] — He has that of my brother. — Which 
thimble has the tailor "? — He has his own. — Has your brother his 
wine or the neighbor's 1 — He has neither his nor the neighbor's. — 
Which wine has he 1 — He has his own. — Has anybody my gold 
ribbon 1 — Nobody has it. — Who has my silver string 1 — Y^our good 
boy has it. — Has he m_y paper horse or my wooden horse 1 — He has 
neither your paper nor your wooden horse ; he has his friend's leath- 
ern horse. — Is anybody wrong 1 — Nobody is wrong. — ^Who has the 
Frenchman's good chocolate 1 — The merchant has it. — Has he it 1 — 
Yes, Sir, he has it. — Are you afraid or ashamed T — I am neither afraid 



24 



EIGHTH LESSON. 



nor ashamed. — Has your cook his mutton ] — He has it. — Have you 
my bread or my cheese'? — I have neither your bread nor your cheese. 
— Have I your salt or your butter 1 — You have neither my salt nor 
my butter. — What have 1 1 — You have your mutton. — Has any ont 
my gold button 1 — No one has it. 



EIGHTH LESSON, 

The sailor. 

His tree. 

His looking-glass. 

His pocket-book. 

His mattress. 

The pistol. 

The stranger, the foreigner. 

The garden. 

His glove. 



-Huitieme Le^on. 

Le matelot. 
Son arbre. 
Son miroir. 
Son porte-feuille 
Son matelas. 
Le pistole*. 
L'etranger. 
Le jardin. 
Son gant. 



This or that ox. Ce bosuf 

This or that hay. Ce foin. 

This or that friend Get ami. 
Obs. Always translate tliis or that before a vowel, or h mute, thus 
Get. Ex. 

This or that man. I Get homme. 

This or that ass. Get a.ne. 



This hook 
That book. 



Ce livre-ci. 
Ce livre-ld. 



Have you this or that book? I Avez-vous ce livre-ci on celui-li 1 

I have this one, I have not that one. | J'ai celui-ci, je u'ai pas celui-li. 



This one, that one. 



Celui-ci, celui-ld. 



Have I this one or that one? ! Ai-je celui-ci on celui-la.? 

You have this one, you have not Vous avez celui-ci, vous u avez pas 



that one. 
lias the man this hat or that one ? 



But. 

He has not this one, but that one. 

He has this one, but not that one. 



celui-la. 
L'homme a-t-il ce chapeau-ci ou 
celui-li ? 



Mais. 

II n'a pas celui-ci, mais il a celui-lS, 
celui-ci, mais il n'a pas celui-Ife 
celui-ci, mais non colui-liu 



jlla 



EIGHTH LESSON. 



23 



The note, the billet, or the ticket. 

The garret, the granary. 

Tlie corn. 
Have you this note or that one ? 

I have not this one, but that one. 



I have this one, but not that one. 

Has the neighbor this looking-glass 

or that one 1 
He has this one, but not that one. 
The horse-shoe. 



That or which, (relative pronoun.) 

Have you the note which my bro- 
ther has ? 

I have not the note which your bro- 
ther has. 

Have you the horse which I have ? 

I have the horse which you have. 



That which, the one which. 
I have not that which you have. 
I have not that which he has. 
Have I the glove which you have ? 
You have not the one which I have. 



Le billet. 

Le grenier 

Le grain. 

AvGz-vous ce billet-ci on celuili.? 

mais j'ai celui- 
Je n'ai pas celui-ci, 



C mais j'ai celui 
,< la. 
* tnp.is celui-la.. 
C mais je n's 
i-ci,^ 1&. 

f mais nou c 



ai pas ceiui 
J'ai celui- 

celui-li. 
Le Toisin a-t-il ce miroir-oi ou celui 

1^? 
II a celui-ci, mais il u'a pas celui-li 
Le fer de cheval. 



Que. 

Avez-vous le billet que mon frOre 

a?i 
Je n'ai pas le billet que votre frfere a. 

Avez-vous le cheval que j'ai ? 
J'ai le cheval que voup avez. 



Celui que. 

Je n'ai pas celui que vous avez. 
Je n'ai pas celui qu'il a_ 
Ai-je le gant que vous avez ? 
Vous n'avez pas celui que j'aL 



EXERCISES. 
13. 
Which hay has the stranger 1 — He has that of the peasant. — Has 
the sailor my looking-glass 1 — He has it not. — Have you this pistol 
or that one \ — I have this one. — Have you the hay of my garden or 
that of yours ? — I have neither that of your garden nor that of mine, 
but I have that of the stranger. — Which glove have you ■? — I have 
that of the sailor. — Have you his mattress ? — T have it. — ^Which 
po.iket-book has the sailor "? — He has his own. — Who has my good 

* When the subject or nominative is composed of several words, the verb 
must be placed before it. Ex. Avez-vous le ruban d'or qu' i le joli petit 
gar9on de mon bon voisin ? Have you the golden ribbon w/iich my neigh- 
bor's pretty little boy has ? — Here the verb would be too far away from the 
relative pronoun que. 



2{i EIGHTH LESSON. 

note ■? — This man has it. — Who has that pistol ! — Your friend has 
it. — Have you the corn of your granary or- that of mine ? — I have 
neither that of your granary nor that of mine, but I have that of my 
merchant. — Who has my glove ] — That servant has it. — What has 
your servant ] — He has the tree of this garden. — Has he that man's 
book 1 — He has not the book of that man, but he has that of this boy. 
— Has the peasant this or that ox 1 — He has neither this nor that, 
but he has the one which his boy has. — Has this ass his hay or thai 
of the hos«e ] — He has neither his nor that of the horse. — ^Which 
horse has titis peasant 1 — He has that of your neighbor. — Have I 
your note or his ] — You have neither mine nor his, but you have that 
of your friend. — Have you this horse's hay ] — I have not his hay, 
but his shoe. — Has your brother my note or his 1 — He has neither 
yours nor his own, but he has the sailor's. — Has the foreigner my 
bird or his own 1 — He has that of the captain. — Have you the tres 
of this garden 1 — I have it not. — Are you hungry or thirsty 1 — I am 
neither hungry nor thirsty, but I am sleepy. 

14. 

Has the sailor this bird or that one 1 — He has not this, but thai 
one. — Has your servant this broom or that one 1 — He has this one^ 
but not that one. — Has your cook this chicken or that one 1 — He 
has neither this one nor that one, but he has that of his neighbor. — 
Am I right or wrong 1 — You are neither right nor Avrong, but your 
good boy is wrong. — Have I this knife or that one 1 — Y^ou have nei- 
ther this nor that one. — What have 1 1 — You have nothing good, but 
you have something bad. — Have you the chest which I have'? — I 
have not that which you have. — Which horse have you ] — I have 
the one which your brother has. — Have you the ass which my friend 
has 1 — I have not that which he has, but I have that which you 
have. — Has your friend the looking-glass which you have or that 
which I have 1 — He has neither that which you have nor that which 
I have, but he has his own. 

15. 

Which bag has the peasant 1 — He has ihe one w^hich his boy has 
— Have I your golden or your silver candlestick 1 — Y^'ou have nei- 
ther my golden nor mj'^ silver candlestick, but you have my iron can- 
dlestick. — Have you my waistcoat or that of the tailor ! — I have 
neither yours nor that of the tailor. — Which one have you 1 — I have 
Uiat which my friend has. — Are you cold or warm ] — I am neither 
cold nor warm, but I am thirsty. — Is your friend afraid or ashamed T 
— ^He is neither afraid nor ashamed, but he is sleepy.-— Who is 
wrong'? — Your friend is wrong. — Has anyone my umbrella ? — No 



NINTH LESSON. 



27 



one has it. — Is any one ashamed "? — No one is ashamed, but luy 
friend is hungry. — Has the captain the ship which you have or that 
which I have ■? — He has neither that which you have, nor that which 
I have. — Which one has he 1 — He has that of his friend. — Is he 
right or wrong ? — He is neither right nor wrong. — Has the French- 
man any thing good or bad 1 — He has neither any thing good nor 
bad, but he has something pretty. — What has he pretty ] — He has 
the pretty chicken. — Has he the good biscuit ] — He has it not, but 
his neighbor has it. 



NINTH LESSON.— Neuvieme Lepon. 

DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE IN THE 
PLURAL. 



MASCULINE AND FEMININE, 

Before a Consonant, as well as before a Vowel, or an h mute. 



PLURAL. 

Nam. the. 

Gen. of or from the. 
Dat. to the. 

Ace. the. 



PLURIEL. 

Masculin et Feminin. 
Nom. les. 

Gen. des. 

Dat. aiix. 

Ace. les. 



THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 

Rule. The phxral number is formed by adding an s to the singular. But 
in French this rule is not only applicable to nouns, but also to the article, 
to adjectives, and to many of the pronouns. Ex. 



The books. 
The good books. 
Of the books. 
The sticks. 
The good sticks. 
Of the sticks. 
The neighbors. 
The good neighbors. 
The friends. 
The good friends. 
Of the friends. 
Of the neighbors. 



Les livres. 
Les bons livres. 
Des livres. 
Les batons. 
Les bons ba,tons. 
Des batons. 
Les voisins. 
Les bons voisins. 
Les amis. 
Les bons amis. 
Des amis. 
Des voisins. 



Ohs. A. There are, however, some exceptions tc ibis rule, viz. — 
First Exception. — Nouns- enduig in s, x, or z, admit of no variation in 
Uie plural : Ex. 



28 NINTH LESSON. 



The stockings. 

The woods or forests. 

The Frenchmen, (the French.) 

The Enghshman, the Englishmen, 

(the Eughsh.) 
The nose, the noses. 



Les bas. 

Les bois. 

Les Fraucais. 

L' Anglais, les Anglais. 

Le nez, les nez. 



Second Exception. — ISoiuis ending in au, eu, or ou, form their plural by 
adding x instead of s.-" Ex. 

The hats. Les chapeaux. 

The birds. lies oiseaux. 

The place, the places. Le lieu, les lieux. 

The fire, the fires. Le feu, les feux. 

The jewel, the jewels. Le bijou, les bijoux. 

Third Exception. — Nouns ending in aP or ail,'' change these termina- 
tions hi the plural into aux. Ex. 

The horses. I Les chevaux. 

The work, the works. | Le travail, les travaux. 

Ohs. B. There are a few more exceptions hi the formation of the plural 
of nouns and adjectives, which will be separately noted as they occur in 
the Method. 

The ships. | Les bitiments or bitimens. 

Ohs. C. According to some grammarians, nouns of more than one sylla- 
ble, (polysyllables,) ending in the singular in >rt, drop t in tiie plural, but 
nomis of one syllable (monosyllables) havmg this ending never do. 
The gloves. | Les gauts. 

■" Of the nouns ending in ou, only the following take x in the plural : le 
chou, the cabbage ; le caillou, the pebble ; le bijou, the jewel ; le genou, the 
knee ; le kibou, the owl ; lejoujou, the toy; le pou, the louse. All others 
that have this tei-minalion now follow the general rule, taking s in the plural ; 
as, le clou, the nail, plur. les clous, the nails : le verrou, the bolt, plur. les 
verrous, the bolts, &c. 

- Of the nouns ending in al, several follow the general rule, sunply 
taking s in the plural, particularly the foUowuig : le bal, the ball ; le cal, 
the callosity ; le pal, the pale ; le regal, the treat ; le carnaval, the carni- 
val ; &c. 

^ The nouns ending in ail, which make their plural in aux, are particular 
ly the following : le hail, the lease ; le sous-bail, the under-lease ; le corail, 
the coral; remiil, the enamel; le soupirail, the air-hole; le travail, the 
woik ; le vanidil, the leaf of a folding-door ; le ventail, the veutail. All oth- 
ers having this termination follow the general rule, /. e. take s in the plural ; 
as, Vattirail, the train ; le detail, particulars ; Veventail, the fan ; le gou- 
vrrnail, the rudder ; Ze portail, the porta' •, Is serail, the seraglio ; &c. 



NINTH LESSON. 



29 



My books. 

Your books. 
Have you my small knives ? 
I have not your small knives, but I 
have your large knives. 



My 
Your. 
His or her. 
Our. 
Their. 

His or her books. 
Our book, our books. 
Their book, their books. 

Which books? 
Which ones? 

These or those books. 



The eye, the eyes. 
The scissors. 



Which horses have you? 

I have the fine horses of your good 

neighbors. 
Have I his small gloves ? 
You have not his small gloves, but 

you have his large hats. 
Which gloves have I ? 
You have the pretty gloves of your 

brothers. 
Have you tlie large hammers of the 

carpenters ? 
I have not their large hammers, but 

their large nails. 
Has your brother my vv^ooden guns ? 
He has not your wooden guns. 
Which ones has he ? 



Mes livres. 
Vos livres. 

Avez-vous mes petits couteaux ? 
Je n'ai pas vos petits couteaux, maid 
j'ai vos grands couteaux. 





Singular 




Plural for 




Masculine. 




both 


genders. 




Y 










Mon, 






mes. 




Votre, 






vos. 




Son, 






ses. 




Notre, 






nos. 


Leur, 






leurs. 




Ses livres. 






Notre livre 


nos 


livres 






Leur livre, 


leurs 


livres. 





Quels livres ? 
Lesquels ? 



Ces liiTes. 




L'cEil, les yeux. 
Les ciseaux. 



els chevaux avez-vous? 
J'^i les beaux chevaux de vos bons 

voisins. 
Ai-je ses petits gants? 
Vous n'avez pas ses petits gantfi, mais 

vous avez ses grands cliapeaux. 
Quels gants ai-je ? 
Vous avez les jolis gants de vos 

freres. 
Avez-vous les grands marteaux des 

charpentiers ? 
Je n'ai pas leurs grands marteaux, 

mais j'ai leurs grands clous. 
Votre frere a-t-il mes fusils de bois ? 
II n'a pas vos fusils de bois. 
Lesquels a-t-il ? 



80 



NINTH LESSON. 



Have you the Frenchmen's fine van- Avez-vous les beaux paiapluies dee 



brelias ? 
I have not tlieir fine umbrellas, but I 
have then- fine sticks. 



Frangais? 
Je n'ai pas leurs beaux parapluietj, 
mais j'ai leurs beaux batons. 



The oxen. 

The asses. 
Of my gardens. 
Of your vi^oods or forests. 
Have you the trees of my go'dens ? 
I have not the trees of your gardens. 
Of my pretty gardens. 
Of my fine horses. 
Have you my leathern shoes ? 
I have not your leathern shoes, but 
I have your cloth coats. 
The bread, the loaves 



Les boeufs. 

Les anes. 

De mes jardins.^ 

De vos hois. 

Avez-vous les arbres de mes jardins 

Je n'ai pas les arbres de vos jardins. 

De mes jolis jardins. 

De mes beaux chevaux. 

Avez-vous mes souliers de cuir? 

Je n'ai pas vos souliers de cuir, male 

j'ai vos habits de drap. 
Le pam, les pains. 



EXERCISES. 

16. 

Have you the gloves 1 — Yes, Sir, I have the gloves. — Have you 
my gloves ] — No, Sir, I have not your gloves. — Have I your look- 
ing-glasses 1 — You have my looking-glasses. — Have I your pretty 
pocket-books 1 — You have not my pretty pocket-books. — AYhich 
pocket-books have I ] — You have the pretty pocket-books of your 
friends. — Has the foreigner our good pistols 1 — He has not our good 
pistols, but our good ships. — Who has our fine horses ] — Nobody has 
your fine horses, but somebody has your fine oxen. — Has your neigh- 
bor the trees of your gardens 1 — He has not the trees of my gardens, 
but he has your handsome jewels. — Have you the horses' hay "? — I 
have not their hay, but their shoes, {leurs fers.) — Has your tailor my 
fine golden buttons ] — He has not your fine golden buttons, but your 
fine golden threads. — What has the sailor 1 — He has his fine ships. 
— Has he my sticks or my guns 1 — He has neither \ovlx sticks nor 
your guns. — Who has the tailor's good waistcoats ] — Nobody has 
his waistcoats, but somebody has his silver buttons. — Has the French- 
man's boy my good umbrellas ! — He has not your good umbrellas, 
but your good scissors. — Has the shoemaker my leathern skoes 1 — 
He has your leathern shoes. — What has the captain ? — He has his 
good sailors. 

17. 

Which mattresses has the sailor ? — He has the good mattresses of 
his captain. — Which gardens has the Frenchman 1 — He has the gar- 



TENTH LESSON. 



31 



dens of the English. — Which servants has the Englishman ■? — He 
has the servants of the French. — What has your boy 1 — He has his 
pretty birds. — What has the merchant 1 — He has our pretty chests. — : 
What has the baker 1 — He has our fine asses. — Has he our nails or 
our hammers 1 — He has neither our nails nor our hammers, but he 
has our good loaves.i — Has the carpenter his iron hammers ] — He 
has not his iron hammers, but his iron nails. — Which biscuits has 
tiae baker 1 — He has the biscuits of his friends. — Has our friend our 
fine pencils "? — He has not our fine pencils. — Which ones has he 1 — 
He has the small pencils of his merchants. — Which brooms has your 
servant ]-^JIe has the brooms of his good merchants. — Has your 
friend the small knives of our merchants 1 — He has not their small 
knives, but their golden candlesticks. — Have you these jewels 1 — 
I have not these jewels, but these silver knives. — Has the man this 
or that note ] — He has neither this nor that. — Has he your book or 
your friend's 1 — He has neither mine nor my friend's ; he has his 
own. — Has your brother the wine which I have or that which you 
have 1 — He has neither that which you have nor that which I have. 
— Which wine has he 1 — He has that of his merchants. — Have you 
the bag which my servant has 1 — I have not the bag which your ser- 
vant has. — Have you the chicken which my cook has or that which 
the peasant has 1 — I have neither that which your cook has nor thai 
which the peasant has. — Is the peasant cold or warm 1 — He is nei- 
ther cold nor warm. 



TENTH LESSON.— Z)i^ieme Le^on. 



Those. 
Have you my books or those of the 

man? 
I have not youis, I have those of 

the man. 



Ceux. 

Avez-vous mes livres ou ceux de 

I'homme ? 
Je n'ai pas les v6tres, j'ai ceux de 

I'homme. 



Those which. 
Have you the books which I have ? 
I have those which you have. 
Has the Englishman the knives 

which you have, or those which 

I have ? 
He has neither those which you 

have, nor those which I have. 
Which knives has he? 
He has his own. 



Ceux que. 

Avez-vous les livros que j'ai ? 
J'ai ceux que vous avez. 
L' Anglais a-t-il les couteaux que vous 
avez ou ceux que j'ai ? 

II n'a ni ceux que vous avez, ni 

ceux que j'ai. 
Quels couteaux a-t-il I 
U a les siens. 



S3 



TENTH LESSON. 



fiing. ^ Plur. 

' "V ' 

Mine 

Yours, 

His or hers, (his own, her own.). 

Oia-s 

Theirs, (their own.) 



These books. 
Those books. 



Singular 
Le mien, 
Le votre, 
Le sien, 
Le n6tre, 
Le leur. 



Plural. 
les miens. 

les votres. 
les siens. 
les uotres. 
les leurs. 



Ces livres-ci. 
Ces livres-l&. 



Have you these books or those ? I Avez-vous ces livres-ei ou ceux-lii? 

Ohs. A. It is to be remarked, that the pronouns ce, cet, ces, are nevei 
used witliout a substantive. '^See Lessons VIII. and IX.) 

I have neither these nor those. | Je n'ai iii ceux-ci ni ceux-li. 



These, (Plur. of tliis one.) 
Those, (Plur. of that one) 



Ceux-ci, (Plur. of celui-ci.) 
Ceux-ld, (Plur. of celui-ld.) 



Have I these or those ? 
You have these ; you have not 
those. 



Ai-je ceux-ci ou ceux-li ? 
Vous avez ceux-ci ; vous n'avez pas 
ceux \h.. 



Have I the looking-glasses of the I Ai-je les miroirs des Frangais ou ceus 
French, or those of the English ? des Anglais ? 



You have neither these nor those. 
You have neither the one nor the 

other. 
You have neither the former nor 

the latter. 



> Vous n'avez ni ceux-ci ni ceux-Iil. 



Obs B. The English phrases the former and the latter, the one and thi 
other, are generally expressed in French by celui-ci, plan ceux-ci, and 
celui-ld. plfer. ceux-ld, bnt in an inverted order, ceZyj-cJ referring to the latter 
and celui-ld to the former 



Has the man these or 

jewels .' 
He 1ms these, but not those. 



those 



Have you your guns or mine ? 
I have neither yours nor mine, 
but those of our good friends. 



L"liomme a-t-il cesbijoux-ci ou ceux 

hi? 
II a ceux-ci, mais il n"a pas ceux- 

Ifi. 
Avez-vous vos fusils ou les miens ? 
Je n'ai ni les votres ni les miens, mais 

j'ai ceux de nos bons amis. 



TENTH LESSON. 33 



EXERCISES. 

18. 
Have you these or those notes'? — I have neither these nor those. 
— Have you the horses of the French or those of the English ] — I 
have those of the English, but I have not those of the French. — ■ 
Which oxen have you! — I have those of the foreigners. — Have you 
the chests which I have ' — I have not those which you have, but 
those which your brother has. — Has your brother your biscuits or 
mine 1 — He has neither yours nor mine. — Which biscuits has he "? — ■ 
He has his own. — Which horses has your friend ■? — He has those 
which I have. — Has your friend my books or his ] — He has neither 
yours nor his ; but he has those of the captain. — Have I your waist- 
coats or those of the tailors 1 — You have neither these nor those. — 
Have I our asses ] — You have not ours, but those of our neighbors. 
■ — Have you the birds of the sailors 1 — I have not their birds, but 
their fine sticks. — Which jewels has your boy ] — He has mine. — 
Have I my shoes or those of the shoemakers 1 — You have not yours, 
but theirs. 

19. 

Which paper has the man 1 — He has ours. — Has he our coffee 1 — 
He has it not. — Have you our coats or those of the strangers 1 — I 
have not yours, but theirs. — Has your carpenter our hammers or 
those of our friends 1 — He has neither ours nor those of our friends. 
— Which nails has he 1 — He has his good iron nails." — Has any one 
the ships of the English 1 — No one has those of the English, but 
some one has those of the French. — Who has the cook s chickens ? 
— Nobody has his chickens, but somebody has his butter. — Who has 
his cheese 1 — His boy has it. — Who has my old gun 1 — The sailor 
has it. — Have I that peasant's bag 1 — You have not his bag, but his 
corn. — Which guns has the Englishman !— He has those which you 
have. — Which umbrellas has the Frenchman ] — He has those which 
his friend has. — Has he our books? — He has not ours, but those 
which his neighbor has. — Is the merchant's boy hungry \ — He is not 
hungry, but thirsty. — Is your friend cold or warm ? — He is neither 
cold nor warm. — Is he afraid '' — He is not afraid, but ashamed. — 
Has the young man the brooms of our servants 1 — He has not their 
brooms, but their soap. — Which pencils has he ? — He has those of 
his old merchants. — Have yoa any thing good or bad ? — I have nei- 
ther any thing good nor bad, but something fine. — What have you 
fine ? — I have our cooks' fine beef. — Have you not their fine mutton 1 
—No, Sir, I have it not. 



34 



ELEVENTH LESSON. 



ELEVENTH LESSON.— On^ieme hereon. 



The comb. 

The glass. 
Have you my small combs ? 
I have them. 

Them. 
Has he my fine glasses ? 
He has them. 
Have I them ? 
You have them. 
You have them not. 
Has the man my fine pistols ? 

He has them not. 
Has the boy them? 
The men have them. 
Have the men them? 

They. 

They have them. 
They have them not. 
Who has them ? 

The Germans. 
The Turks. 

The Germans have them. 
The Italians. 
The Spaniards. 



Some or any. 



Le pejgne. 

Le verre. 

Avez-vous mes petits peignes '' 

Je les ai. 

Les, (before the verb in French., 

A-t-il mes beaux verres ? 

II les a. 

Les ai-je ? 

Vous les avez. 

Vous ne les avez pas. 

L'homme a-t-il mes beaux pkto 

lets? 
II ne les a pas. 
Le garden les a-t-il ? 
Les hommes les out. 
Les hommes les ont-ils ? 



lis. 

lis les ont. 

lis ne les ont pas. 

Qui les a ? 



Les Allemands. 
Les Turcs. 



Les Allemands les ont 
Les Italiens. 
Les Espaguols. 



Singular. 
Du, 



Plural, 
des. 



DECLENSION OF THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE. 



Nom. some or any. 

Gen. of or from some — any. 
Dat. to some — any. 

Ace. some — any. 



SINGULAR. 




TLIRAL. 


Masculine. 


Masc 


tj- Fcmi/iinc 


Norn. du. 




des. 


Gen. de. 




de. 


Dat. ti du. 




Ji des. 


Ace du. 




des. 



ELEVENTH LESSON. 



35 



Some or any wine. 


Du vin. 


Some or any bread. 


Du pain. 


Some or any butter. 


Du beurre. 


Some or any milk. 


Du lait. 


Some or any books. 


Des livres. 


Some or any buttons 


Des boutons. 


Some or any knives. 


Des couteaux. 


Some or any men. 


Des hommes. 


Some or any money. 


De I'argent 


Some or any gold. 


De I'or. 


Some or any friends. 


Des amis. 



Have you any wine ? 
I have some wine. 
Has this man any cloth ? 
He has some cloth. 
Has he any books ? 
He has some books. 
Have you any money? 
I have some money. 

No, or not any, before a noun. 
I have no wine. 
He has no money. 
You have no books. 
They have no friends. 

Some or any, before an adjective. 
No or not any. 



Avez-vous du viul 

J'ai du vin. 

Cet homme a-t-il du drap ? 

II a du drap. 

A-t-il des livres ? 

II a des livres. 

Avez-vous de I'argent? 

J'ai de I'argent. 



Ne — pas de. 

Je n'ai pas de vin. 

II n'a pas d'argenL 

Vous n'avez pas de livres 

lis n'ont pas d'amis. 



De. 

Ne — pas de. 



DECLENSION OF THE PARTITIVE ARTICLE, 

SINGULAR AND PLURAL, MASCULINE AND FEMININE, WHEN IT STANDE BEFORE 
AN ADJECTIVE. 



Nom. some or any. 

Gen^ of or from some — any. 
Dat. to some — any. 

Ace. some — any. 



Some or any good wine. 
Some or any bad cheese. 
Some or any excellent wine. 
Some or any excellent coffee. 



Nom. de. 
Gen. de. 
Dat. h de. 
Ace. de. 

De bon vin. 
De-mauvaLs fromage 
D'excellent vin. 
D'excellent csS6. 



36 



ELEVENTH LESSON. 



Some or any good books. 
Some or any pretty glasses. 

Some or any old wine. 



Have you any good butter ? 

I have no good butter, but some ex- 
cellent cheese. 

Has this man any good books? 

Ha has-- not any good books. 

Has tlie merchant any pretty gloves ? 

He has no pretty gloves, but some 
pretty jewels. 



De bons livres. 
De jolis verres. 

Du vin vieux. 

Avez-vous de bon beurre ? 

Je n'ai pas de bon beurre, mac 

j'ai d'excellent fromage. 
Cet homme a-t-il de bons livres'* 
II n'a pas de bons livres. 
Le marchand a-t-il de jolis gants ? 
II iva pas de jolis gants, mais il a 

de jolis bijoux. 



What has the baker? 

He has some excellent bread. 

The painter. 

The picture. 

Some coals. 



Le boulanger qu'a-t-il ? 
II a d'excellent pain. 
Le peintre. 
Le tableau. 

Du charbon, (is m French always 
used in the singular.) 



EXERCISES. 
20. 
Have you my fine glasses 1 — I have them. — Have you the line 
horses of the English 1 — I have them not. — Which sticks have you ? 
— I have those of the foreigners. — Who has my small combs ! — ^ly 
boys have them. — Which knives have you ? — I have those of your 
friends. — Have I your good guns 1 — You have them not, but youi 
friends have them. — Have you my pretty pistols, or those of my 
brothers 1 — I have neither yours nor your brothers', but my own. — 
Which ships have the Germans 1 — The Germans have no ships. — 
Have the sailors our fine mattresses 1 — The}^ have them not. — Have, 
the cooks them V^They have them. — Has the captain your pretty 
books 1 — He has them not. — Have I them ] — You have them. You 
have them not. — Has the Italian them ] — He has them. — Have the 
Turks our fine guns "! — They have thern not. — Have the Spaniards 
them 1 — They have them. — Has the German the pretty umbrellas of 
the Spaniards ! — He has them. — Has he them ! — Yes, Sir, he has 
them. — Has the Italian our pretty gloves ! — He has them not. — Who 
has them ! — The Turk has them. — Has the tailor our waistcoats or 
those of our triends ! — He has neither the latter nor the former. — 
Which coats hr.s he 1 — He has those which the Turks have, — -Which 
dogs have you 1 — I have those whicli my neighbors have 



ELEVENTH LESSON. 37 

21. 

Have yoa any wood ] — I have some wood. — Has your brother any 
soap 1 — He has no soap. — Have I any mutton 1 — You have no mut- 
ton, but you have some beef. — Have your friends any money 1 — They 
have some money. — Have they any milk 1 — They have no milk, but 
they have some excellent butter. — Have I any wood ] — You have no 
wood, but you have some coals, {i7i the sing, in French.) — Has the 
merchant any cloth 1 — He has no cloth, but some pretty stockings. — 
Have the English any silver 1 — They have no silver, but they have 
some excellent iron. — Have you any good coffee "! — I have no good 
coffee, but some excellent wine.^Has the merchant any good books ] 
■ — He has some good books. — Has the young man any milk 1 — He 
has no milk, but some excellent chocolate. — Have the French any 
good gloves 1 — They have some excellent gloves. — Have they any 
birds 1 — They have no birds, but they have some pretty jewels. — ' 
Who has the fine scissors of the English 1 — Their friends have 
them. — Who has the good biscuits of the bakers 1 — The sailors of 
our captains have them. — Have they our pocket-books ■? — Yes, Sir, 
they have them. — What have the Italians ■? — They have some beau- 
tiful pictures. — What have the Spaniards '! — They have some fine 
asses. — What have the Germans 1 — They have some excellent corn. 

/ 22. 

Have you any friends ] — I have some friends. — Have your friends 
any fire 1 — They have some fire. — Have the shoemakers any good 
shoes 1 — They have no good shoes, but some excellent leather. — 
•Have the tailors any good waistcoats '! — They have no good waist- 
coats, but some excellent cloth. — Has the painter any umbrellas 1 — ■ 
He has no umbrellas, but he has some beautiful pictures. — Has he 
the pictures of the French or those of the Italians 1 — He has nei- 
ther the latter nor the former. — AVhich ones has he ! — He has those 
of his good friends. — Have the Russians {Les Russes) any thing 
good 1 — They have something good. — What have they good 1 — They 
have some good oxen. — Has any one my small combs ] — No one has 
them. — Who has the peasants' fine chickens 1 — Your cooks have 
them. — What have the bakers ? — They have some excellent bread. — 
Have your friends any old wine 1 — They have no old wine, but some 
good milk. — Has anybody your golden candlesticks ] — Nobody has 
them. 



38 



TWELFTH LESSON 



TWELFTH LESSON.— Douzieme Lepon. 



Some of it, any of it, of it. 
Some of them, any of them 
them. 



.A 



Have you any wine ? 

I have some. 

Have you any bread? 

I have not any, or none. 

Have you any good vvme ? 

I have some good. 

Have I any good cloth ? 

You have not any good. 

Has the merchant any sugar? 

He has some sugar. 

He has some. 

He has not any. 

Has he any good sugar 1 

He has some good. 

He has not any good. 

Have I any salt ? 

You have some salt. 

You have no salt. 

You have some. 

You have not any. 

Have you any shoes? 

I have some shoes. 

I have no shoes. 

I have some. 

I have not any. 

Has the man any good horses? 

He has some good ones. 

He has not any good ones. 

Has he any pretty knives ? 

He has some pretty ones. 

He has not any pretty ones. 

Has he any money ? 

He has some. 

He has not any. 

Have our friends any good butter? 

They have some good. 

They have not any good. 



En, (is always placed before the 
verb.) 



Avez-vous du viu 7 

J'en ai. 

Avez-vous du pain ? 

Jo n'en ai pas. 

Avez-vous de bon vin? 

J'en ai de bon. 

Ai-je de bon drap? 

Vous n'en avez pas de bon. 

Le marchand a-t-il du sucre? 

II a du Sucre. 

II en a. 

II n'en a pas. 

A-t-il de bon sucre ? 

II en a de bon. 

II n'en a pas de bon. 

Ai-je du sel? 

Vous avez du sel. 

Vous u'avez pas de sel. 

Vous en avez. 

Vous n'en avez pas. 

Avez-vous des souliers ? 

J'ai des souliers. 

Je n'ai pas de souliers. 

J'en ai. 

Je n"en ai pas. 

L'homme a-t-il de bons chevauxl 

II en a de boas. 

II n'en a pas de bons. 

A-t-il de jolis couteaux 

II en a de jolis. 

II n'en a pas de jolis 

A-t-il de I'argent ? 

II en a. 

II n'en a pas. 

Nos amis ont-ils de bon beurre i 

lis en out de bon. 

lis n'en ont pas de bon. 



TWELFTH LESSON. 



39 



ilave you good or bad books ? 

I have some good ones. 
Have you good or bad paper ? 

I have some good. 

Who has some bad whie ? 

Our merchant has some. 



What bread has the baker? 
He has some good. 
What shoes has the shoemaker? 
He has some good ones. 

The hatter. 

The joiner. 



Avez-vous de bons ou de mauvais 

hvres ? 
J'en ai de bons. 
Avez-vous de bon ou de mauvais 

papier? 
J'en ai de bon. 
Qui a de mauvais vin ? 
Notre marchand en a. 



Quel pain le boulanger a-t-U ? 

II en a de bon. 

Quels souliers le cordonnier a-t-il 

II en a de bons. 

Le chapelier. 

Le menuisier. 



A or one. \ Un. 



DECLENSION OF THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE 

Masculine. 



Nom. 


a or an. 


Nom 


un. 


Gen. 


of or from a — an. 


Gen. 


d'un. 


Bat. 


to a — an. 


Bat. 


k un. 


Ace. 


a — an. 


Ace. 


un. 



A or one horse. 
Have you a book ? 
I have a book. 
Have you a glass ? 
I have no glass. 
I have one. 

Have you a good horse ? 
I have a good horse. 
I have a good one. 
I have two good ones. 
I have two good horses. 
I have three good ones. 
Have I a gun ? 
You have a gun. 
You have one. 
You have a good one. 
You have two good ones. 
Has your brother a frioud i 
He has a friend. 



Un cheval. 
Avez-vous un livre? 
J'ai un livre. 
Avez-vous un verre ? 
Je n'ai pas de verre. 
J'en ai un. 

Avez-vous un bon cheval 
J'ai un bon cheval. 
J'en ai un bon. 
J'en ai deux bons. 
J'ai deux bons chevau.x. 
J'en ai trois bons. 
Ai-je un fusil? 
Vous avez lui fusil 
Vous en avez mi. 
Vous en avez un bon. 
Vous en avez deux bons. 
Votre fr^re a-t-il un ami 
II a un ami. 



40 



TWELFTH LESSON 



He has one 
He has a good one. 
He has hvo good ones. 
He has three good ones. 

Four. 

Five, 
Has your friend a pretty knife ? 
He has one. 
He has none. 
He has two of them. 
Ho has three. 
Ho has four. 

Have you five good horses ? 
I have six. 

I have six good and seven bad ones 
Who has a fine umbrella ? 
The merchant has one. 



II en a un 

II en a nil bon. 

II en a deux bous 

II en a trois bons. 

Quatre. 

Cinq. 

Votre ami a-t-il un joli couteau ? 

II en a un, 

II n'en a pas. 

II en a deux. 

II en a trois. 

II en a quatre. 

Avez-vous cinq bons chevaux? 

J'en ai six. 

J'en ai six bons et sept mauvais. 

Qui a un beau parapluie ? 

Le marchand en a un. 



EXERCISES. 
23. 
Have you any salt 1 — I have some. — Have you any coffee ? — 1 
have not any. — Have you any good wine'? — I have some good. — 
Have yoAi any good cloth ■? — -I have no good cloth, but I have some 
good paper. — Have I any good sugar ■? — You have not any good. — 
Has the man any good honey 1 — He has some. — Has he any good 
cheese 1 — He has not any. — Has the American {U Americain) any 
money ■? — He has some. — Have the French any cheese ■? — They have 
not any. — Have the English any good milk 1 — They have no good 
milk, but they have some excellent butter. — Who has some good 
soap ■? — The merchant has some.^AVho has some good bread 1— 
The baker has some. — Has the foreigner any vrood ] — He has some 
— Has he any coals "? — He has not any. — ^^Vhat rice have you ■;— ] 
have some good. — What hay has the horse ] — He has some good. — 
What leather has the shoemaker "! — He has some excellent. — Have 
you any jewels 1 — I have not any. — Who has some jewels ? — The 
merchant has some. — Have I any shoes '\ — You have some shoes. — 
Have I any hats 1 — You have no hats. — Has your friend any pretty 
knives '\ — He has some pretty ones. — Has he any good oxen ! — He 
has not any good ones. — Have the Italians any fine horses 1- -They 
nave not any fine ones. — Who has some fine asses ? — The Spaniards 
have some 



TWELFTH LESSON. 41 

24. 

Has the captain any good sailors 1 — He has some good ones. — • 
Have the sailors any good mattresses 1 — They have not any good 
ones. — Who has some good biscuits 1 — The baker of om-"good neigh- 
bor has some. — Has he any bread 1 — He has not any. — Who has 
som.e beautiful ribbons 1 — The French have some. — Who has some 
excellent iron nails 1 — The carpenter has some. — Has he any ham- 
mers ] — He has some. — What hammers has he] — Pie has some iron 
ones. — What is the matter with your brother 1 — Nothing is the mat- 
ter with him. — Is he cold 1 — He is neither cold nor warm. — Is he 
afraid 1 — He is not afraid. — Is he ashamed 1 — He is not ashamed. — 
What is the matter with him 1 — He is hungry. — Who has some 
beautiful gloves 1 — I have some. — Who has some fine pictures 1 — • 
The Italians have some. — Have the painters any fine gardens 1 — 
They have some fine ones. -j— Has the hatter good or bad hats 1 — He 
has some good ones. — Has the joiner good or bad woodj — He has 
some good. — Who has some pretty pocket-books 1 — The boys of our 
merchants have some. — Have they any birds ■? — They have not any. 
— Have you any chocolate 1 — I have not any. — Who has some 1 — 
My servant has some. — Has your servant any brooms ] — He has not 
any. — Who has some ■? — The servants of my neighbor have some. 

25. 
Have you a pencil 1 — I have one. — Has your boy a good book ? — ■ 
He has a good one. — Plas the German a good ship 1 — He has none. 
—Has your tailor a good coat ] — He has a good one. He has two 
good ones. He has three good ones. — Who has some fine shoes '^ — ^ 
Our shoemaker has some. — Has the captain a fine dog ■? — He has 
two of them. — Have your friends two fine horses 1 — They have four. 
■ — Has the young man a good or a bad pistol 1 — He has no good one. 
He has a bad one. — Have you a cork Itt— I have none. — Has youi 
friend a good corkscrew ?• — He has two. — Have I a friend 1 — You 
have a good one. You have two good friends. You have three 
good ones. Your brother has four good ones. — Has the carpenter an 
iron nail 1 — He has six iron nails. He has six good ones and seven 
bad ones. — Who has good beef j — Our cook has some. — Who has 
five good horses ] — Our neighbor has six. — Has the peasant any 
corn 1 — He has some. — Has he any guns 1 — He has not any. — Who 
has some good friends ] — The Turks have some. — Have they any 
money 1 — They have not any. — Who has their money 1 — Their 
friends have it. — Are their friends thirsty ■? — They are not thirsty, 
But hungry. — Has the joiner any bread 1 — He has not any. — 'Has 
your servant a good broom 1 — He has one. — Has he this or thaf 



42 



THIRTEENTH LESSON. 



broom 1 — He has neither this nor that. — Which broom has lie 1 — He 
has that which your servant has. — Have the peasants these or those 
bags *? — They have neither these nor those. — ^^Vhich bags have they "? 
■ — Tbey have their own. — Have you a good servant 1 — I have a good 
one. — ^Who has a good chest 1 — My brother has one. — Has he a 
leather oi a v/ooden chest 1 — He has a wooden one. 



THIRTEENTH LESSON.— Trememe Lepon. 



flow much ? How many ? 
How much bread ? 
How much money? 
How many knives? 
How many men? 
How many friends? 



Only, but. 
I have but one friend. 
I have but one. 
I have but one good gun. 
I have but one good one. 
You have but one good one. 
How many horses has your brother ? 

He has but one. 

He has but two good ones. 



Much, many, a good deal of, very 
much. 

Much bread. 

A good deal of good bread. 

Many men. 
Have you much money ? 
T have a good deal. 
Have you much good wine ? 
I have a good deal. 

Too viuch, too 7nany. 
You have too much wine. 
They 5;ave too many books. 



Combien de,^ (before a substantive.) 
Combien de pam ? 
Combien cZ'argeut? 
Combien de couteaux? 
Combien (Z'hommes? 
Combien cZ' amis'' 



Ne — que. 

Je n'ai qu'un ami. 

Je n'en ai qu'mi. 

Je n'ai qu'un bon fusil. 

Je n'en ai qu'un bou. 

Vous n'en avez qu'un bon. 

Combien de chevaux votre 

a-t-il ? 
II n'en a qu'un. 
II n'en a que deux bous. 



freru 



Beaucoup de, (before a noun.) 

Beaucoup de pain. 

Beaucoup de bon pain. 

Beaucoup (Z'hommes. 

Avez-vous beaucoup (f'argeut ? 

J'en ai beaucoup. 

Avez-vous beaucoup de bon vm ? 

J'en ai beaucoup. 

Trop de, (before a substantive.) 
Vous avez trop de viu. 
lis out trop de livres. * 



1 Cardinal numbers are used to answer the question, Combien 7 How 
many ? 



THIRTEENTH LESSON. 



43 



Enough. 
Enough money. 
Knives enough. 

Little. 

A little. 
A little cloth. 
A little salt. 



Assez de, (before a substantive.) 
Assez d'argent. 
Assez de couteaux. 



Peu de, (before a noun.) 
Un peu de, (before a noun.) 
Un peu de drap. 
Un peu de sel. 



But little, only a little, not much, 

not many, hut few. 
I have but little money. 



Ne — guere de, (pas beaucoup de,) 

before a substantive. 
Je n'ai guere d'argent. 



Ohs. From the above examples it vs^ill be easily seen that when the ad- 
verbs : co7nbien, beaucoup, trap, assez, peu, un peu, ne — guire, are followed 
by a substantive, that substantive must be preceded by de. 



Courage. 
You have not much courage. 
We have few friends. 



Du cceur, (du courage.) 
Vous n'avez guere de cceur 
Nous n'avons gu^re tZ'amis. 



Have we? 




Avons-noios ? 


We have. 




Nous avons. 


We have not. 




Nous n'avons pas. 


Some pepper. 


• 


Du poivre. 


Some vinegar. 




Du vinaigre. 


Have we any vinegar ? 




Avons-nous du vinaigre ? 


We have some. 




Nous en avons. 


We have not any. 




Nous n'en avons pas. 


Have you a good deal of 


money ? 


Avez-vous beaucoup d' argent ? 


I have but little of it. 




Je n'en ai guere. 


You have but little of it. 




Vous n'en avez guere. 


He has but little of it. 




11 n'en a guere. 


We have but little of it. 




Nous n'en avons guferfe. 


Have you enough wine ? 




Avez-vcus assez devin? 


I have only a little, but enough. 


Je n'en ai guferc, mais assez. 


Eight 




Huit. 


Nma. 




Neuf. 


Tea. 




Dix 



And. 



Et 



44.- THIRTEENTH LESSON 

EXERCISES. 
2G. 
How many friends have you ■? — I have trvo good friends. — Hive 
you eight good trunks ■? — I have nine. — Has your servant three 
brooms ] — He has only one good one. — Has the captain two good 
ships ? — He has only one. — How many hammers has the carpenter ? 
— He has but two good ones. — How many shoes has the shoema- 
ker ■? — He has ten. — Has the young man nine good books ] — He has 
only five. — How many guns has your brother ] — He has only four. — 
Have you much bread ] — I have a good deal. — Have the Spaniards 
much money 1 — They have but little. — Has your neighbor much cof- 
fee ■! — He has only a little. — Has the foreigner much corn l-rrHe 
has a good deal. — What has the American {U Americain) ^ — He 
has much sugar. — Wliat has the Russian {Le Russe) ! — He has a 
great deal of salt. — Has the peasant much rice ] — He has not any. 
— Has lie much cheese 1 — He has but little. — What have we ^ — We 
have much bread, much wine, and many books. — Have we much 
money 1 — We have only a little, but enough. — Have you many bro- 
thers T — I have only one. — Have the French many friends ■? — They 
have but few. — Has our neighbor much hay 1 — He has enough. — 
Has the Italian much cheese I — He has a great deal. — Has this man 
courage'? — He has none. — Has the painter's boy any pencils ] — He 
has some. • 

27. 
Have you much pepper ] — I have but little. — Has the cook much 
beef 1 — He has but little beef, but he ha^ a good deal of mutton. — 
How many oxen has the German "! — He has eight. — How many 
horses has he 1 — He has only four. — Who has a good many bis- 
cuits 1 — Our sailors have a good many. — Have we many notes 1 — 
We have only a few. — How many notes have we ? — We have only 
three pretty ones. — Have you too much butter 1 — I have not enough. 
* — Have our boys too many books 1 — They have too many. — Has 
our friend too much milk ! — He has only a little, but enough. — Who 
has a good deal of honey 1 — The peasants have a good deal. — Have 
they many gloves l— They have not any. — Has the cook enough 
butter ] — He has not enough. — Has he enough vinegar 1 — He has 
enough. — Have you much soap 1 — I have only a little.— Has the 
merchant much cloth 1 — He has a good deal. — Who has a good deal 
of paper ? — Our neighbor has a good deal. — Has our tailor many but- 
tons 1 — He has a good many. — Has the painter many gardens^ — 
He has not many. — How many gardens has he ] — He has but two. 
— How many knives has the German ] — He has three of them. — 



FOURTEENTH LKS&DN. 



45 



Has the captain any fine horses 1 — He has some fine ones, but his 
brother has none.— ^Have we any jewels 1 — We have a good many. 
— Wliat jewels have we 1 — We have gold jewels. — What candle- 
sticks have our friends 1 — They have silver candlesticks. — Have 
they gold ribbons 1 — They have some. 

28. 
Has the youth any pretty sticks 1 — He has no pretty sticks, but 
some beautiful birds. — What chickens has our cook ■? — He has some 
pretty chickens. — How many has he 1 — He has six. — Has the hat- 
ter any hats'! — He has a good many. — Has the joiner much wood ? 
— He has not a great deal, but enough. — Have we the horses of the 
French, or those of the Germans 1 — We have neither these nor 
those. — Which horses have we ? — We have our own. — Has the 
Turk my small combs 1 — He has them not. — Who has them ] — Your 
boy has them. — Have our friends much sugar 1 — They have little 
sugar, but much honey. — Who has our looking-glasses 1 — The Ital- 
ians have them. — Has the Frenchman this or that pocket-book "! — 
He has neither this nor that. — Has he the mattresses which we 
have'? — He has not those which we have, but those which his friends 
have. — Is he ashamed 1 — He is not ashamed, but afraid. 



FOURTEENTH LESSON.— QMa^or;^ie;ne Legon. 



A few books. 
Have you a few books ? 

A few. 
I have a few. 
You have a few. 
He has a few. 

I have but a few books. 
You have but a few books 
He has but a few sous. 
I have but a few. 
You have but a few. 
He has but a few. 

One or a sou, Plur. sous. 
Oue or a franc, " francs. 
One or a crown, " crowns. 



Quelques livres. 
Avez-vous quelques livres ? 



Quelques-uns. 
J'en ai quelques-uns. 
Vous en avez quelques-uns. 
II en a quelques-uns. 



Je n'ai que quelques livres. 
Vous n'avez que quelques livres. 
II n'a que quelques sous. 
Je n'eu ai que quelques-uns. 
Vous n'en avez que quelques-uuE 
II n'en a que quelques-uns. 



Un sou, 
Un franc, 
Un ^cu, 



Phir. des sous. 
" des francs. 
" des dcua 



46 



FOURTEENTH LESSON. 



Other. 
Another sou. 
Some other sous. 

Have you another horse ? 
I have another 

No other horse. 
I have no other horse. 
I have no other. 
Have you any other horses ? 
I have some others. 
I have no others. 

The arm. 
- The heart. 
The month. 
The work. 
The volume. 



Autre. 

Un autre sou. 

D'autres sous. 



Avez-vous un autre choval? 
J'en ai un autre. 



Ne — pas d'autre cheval. 
Je n'ai pas d'autre cheval. 
Je n'en ai pas d'autre. 
Avez-vous d'autres chevaux ? 
J'en ai d'autres. 
Je n'en ai pas d'autres. 



Le bras. 
Le cosur. 
Le mois. 
L'ouvrage. 
Le volume. 



WTiat day of the month is it ' 
It is the first. 
It is the second. 
It is the third. 



It is the eleventh. 



Quel jour du moLs J 



(C'e 
(C'e 



st-ce ? 
_ avons-nous '. 
C'est le premier, 
t Nous avons le premier, 
'est le deux. 
Nous avons le deux- 
''est le trois. 
■ Nous avons le trois. 
Ohs. A. The cardinal numbers must be used in French when speaking 
of the days of the month, though the ordinal be used in Englisli ; but we 
Bay le premier, the first, speaking of the first day of everj* month. 

C'est le onze, (not I'onze.) 
t Nous avons le onze. 
Which volume have you ? I Quel volume avez-vous ? 

I have the fourth. | J'ai le quatrieme. 

B The ordinal numbers are formed of the cardinal by adding iemc, 
(and when they end in e this is dropped,) except premier, first, which is 
irregular, and second, second, which is sometimes used for dcuxieme. Ur.i- 
eme and deuxitmc, however, are used in compound numbers, where pre- 
mier and second cannot be employed. Ex. 



The first. 
— Becond. 



Singular. 
Le premier, 
Le deuxifeme, le 
second, 



Plural. 
les premiers, 
les deuxi^mo^, 
les secouda 



FOURTEENTH LESSON. 



47 



The third. 

— fourth. 

— fifth. 

— sixth. 

— seventh. 

— eighth. 

— niiitli. 

— tenth. 

— eleventh. 

— twenty-first. 

— twenty-second. 

— thirtieth, &c. 
Have you the first or second book ? 

[ have the third. 

Which vokime have you 1 

I have the fifth. 



Le troisifeme, 
Le quatrifeme, 
Le cinquieme, 
Le sixifeme, 
Le septifeme, 
Le huitieme, 
Le neuvifeme,' 
Le dixieme, 
Le onzieme, 
Le vingt et uni- 

feme, 
Le vingt-deux- 

ifeme, 
Le trentieme, 
Avez-vous le premier ou le deuxiemo 

(le second) livre ? 
J'ai le troisi^me. 
Quel volume avez-vous? 
J'ai le cinquifeme. 



les troisifemes. 
les quatrifemes. 
les cinquiiJmes. 
les sixiemes. 
les septifemes. 
les huitiernes. 
les neuvifemes. 
les dixifemes. 
les onziemes. 
lft« vingt et uni- 

emes. 
les vingt-deux- 

iemes. 
les trentifemes.' 



EXERCISES, 
29. 
Have you many knives 1 — I have a few.-r-Have you many pen- 
cils 1 — I have only a few. — Has the painter's friend many looking- 
glasses '? — He has only a few. — Has your boy a few sous "? — He has 
a few. — Have you a few francs 1 — We have a few. — How many 
francs have you "! — I have ten. — How many sous has the Spaniard ? 
— He has not many, he has only five. — Who has the beautiful 
glasses of the Italians 1 — We have them. — Have the English many 
ships 1 — They have a good many. — Have the Italians many horses'? 
— They have not many horses, but a good many asses. — What have 
the Germans "? — They have many crowns.i^How many crowns have 
they 1 — They have eleven. — Have we the horses of the English oi 
those of the Germans'? — We have neither the former nor the latter. 
— Have we the umbrellas of the Spaniards 1 — We have them not, 
but the Americans {les Americains) have them. — Have you much 
butter ? — I have only a little, but enough. — Have the sailors the 
mattresses which we have ■? — They have not those which we have, 

* It will be remarked, that in the formation of neuvieme the letter / of 
neuf, nine, is changed into v. 

' Henceforth the learner should write the date before his task. Ex. 
Philadelphia, le vingt-cinq Jan^ ier, mil huit cent quarante-six ; Philadel- 
phia, 25tk January, 1846. 



48 FOURTEENTH LESSON. 

but those which their captain has. — Has the Frenchman manj 
francs'? — He has only a few, but he has enough. — Has your servant 
many sous ] — He has no sous, but francs enough. 

30. 

Have the Russians {les Russes) pepper 1 — They have but little 
pepper, but a good deal of salt. — Have the Turks much wine '\ — 
They have not much wine, but a good deal of coffee. — Who has a 
good deal of milk ■? — The Germans have a good deal. — Have you 
no other gun 1 — I have no other. — Have we any other cheese 1 — We 
have some other. — Have I no other pistol ] — You have another. — 
Has our neighbor no other horse ] — He has no other. — Has your 
brother no other friends 1 — He has some others. — Have the shoe- 
makers no other shoes 1 — They have no others. — Have the tailors 
many coats 1 — They have only a few, they have only four. — How 
many stockings have you ^ — I have only two. — Have you any other 
jiscuits ■? — I have no other. — How many corkscrews has the mer- 
chant ] — He has nine. — How many arms has this man ! — ^He has 
jnly one, the other is of wood. — What heart has your boy ■?— He 
nas a good heart. — Have you no other servant? — I have another. — 
Plas your friend no other birds ] — He has some others. — How many 
other birds has he 1 — He has six others. — How many gardens have 
you "? — I have only one, but my friend has two of them. 

31. 

Which volume have you 1 — I have the first. — Have you the sec- 
ond volume of my work 1 — I have it. — Have you the third or fourth 
book % — I have neither the former nor the latter. — Have we the fifth 
or sixth volume % — We have the fifth, but we have not the sixth vol- 
ume. — Which volumes has your friend \ — He has the seventh vol- 
ume. — What day of the month is it, {avonsriious 1) — It is {iious 
avons) the eighth. — Is it not the eleventh ? — No, Sir, it is the tenth. 
— Who has our crowns ■? — The Russians {les Russes) have them — 
Have they our goW! — They have it not. — Has the youth much 
money T — He has not much money, but much courage. — Have you 
the nails of the carpenters or those of the joiners ? — I have neither 
those of the carpenters nor those of the joiners, but those of my 
merchants. — Have yo*i this or that glove 1 — I have neither this nor 
diat. — Has your friend these or those notes ? — He has these, but not 
those.^^Has the Italian a few sous 1 — He has a iew. — Has he a few 
francs 1 — He has five of them. — Have you another stick ? — I liave 
another. — What other stick have you ] — I have another iron stick. 
— Have you a few good candlesticks'! — We have a fcvr. — Has your 
boy another hat ? — He has another. — Have these men any vmegar ? 



FIFTEENTH LESSON. 



49 



— These men have none, but their friends have some. — Have the 
peasants any other bags ? — They have no others. — Have they any 
other bread 1 — They have some other. 



FIFTEENTH LBSSON .—Quinzieme Lefon. 



The tome, (the vokune.) 
Have you tlie first or second tome 

of my work ? 

Both. 
I have botn. 

Have you my book or my stick ? 
I have neither the one nor the 

other. 
The one and the other, (plural.) 
Has your brother my gloves or his 

own? 
He has both yours and lus. 
Has he my books or those of the 

Spaniards ? 
He has neither the one nor the 

other. 



The Scotchman. 
The Irishman. 
The Dutchman. 
The Russian. 

Sidl, yet, some, or any inore. 
Some more wine. 
Some more money. 
Some more buttons. 



Le tome. 

Avez-vous le premier ou le doux- 

ieme tome de mon ouvrage ? 
Uun et I'autre. 
J'ai I'un et I'autre. 

Avez-vous mon livre ou mon ba,ton? 
Je n'ai ni I'un ni i'autre. 

Les uns et les autres. 

Votre frere a-t-il mes gants ou lee 

sieus ? 
II a les mis et les autres. 
A-t-il mes livres ou ceux des Ea- 

pagnols ? 
II n'a ni les uns ni les autres. 



L'EcossaLs. 
L'Irlandais. 
Le Hollandais. 
Le Russe. 



Encore. 
Encore du vin. 
Encore de I'argent 
Encore des boutons. 



Have you any more wine ? 
I have some more wino. 
I have some more. 
Has he any more money ? 
He has some more. 
Have I any more books 1 
You have some more. 

Not any more, no more. 
I have no more bread. 
He has no more money. 



Avez-vous encore du vin ? 

J'ai encore du vin. 

J' en ai encore. 

A-t-il encore de I'argent ? 

II en a encore. 

Ai-je encore des livres ? 

Vous en avez encore 



Ne — plus de, (before a noiin.) 
Je n'ai plus de pain. 
II n'a plus d'argent. 



50 



FIFTEENTH LESSON. 



Have you any more butter? 

I have no more. 

We have no more 

Has he any more vmegar ? 

He has no more. 

We have no more books. 

We have no more. 

He has no more dogs. 

He has no more. 



Avez-vous encore du beurre I 

Je n'en ai plus. 

Nous n"en avoirs plus. 

A-t-il encore du vinaigxe ? 

II n'en a plus. 

Nous n'avons plus de livres 

Nous n'en avons plus. 

II n'a plus de cliiens. 

II n'en a plus. 



Not much more, Ttot many more. 

Have you much more wine ? 
I have not much more. 
Have you many more books? 
I have not many more. 



Ne — -plus guere de, (before a 

noun.) 
Avez-vous encore beaucoup de vin? 
Je n'en ai plus guere. 
Avez-vous encore beaucoup de li'vreg i 
Je n'en ai plus guere. 



One more book. 

One more good book. 

A few books moro. 
Have you a few francs more ? 
I have a few more. 
Have I a few sous more ? 
You have a few more. 
Wo have a few more. 
They have a lew more. 



Encore un livre. 
Encore un bou li^Te 
Encore quelques li^Tes. 
Avez-vous encore quelques francs ? 
J'en ai encore quelques-uns. 
Ai-je encore quelques sous? 
Vous en avez encore quelques-uns. 
Nous en avons encore quelques-una 
lis en ont encore quelques-uns. 



EXERCISES. 
32. 
Which volume of his work have you ] — I have the first. — Ho^^• many 
tomes has this worlv ] — It has two. — Have a^ou my work or m}' broth- 
er's ■? — I have both. — Has the foreigner my comb or my knife ! — He 
has both. — Have you my bread or my cheese ? — I have neither the one 
nor the other '\ — Has the Dutchman my glass or that of my friend \ — 
He has neither the one nor the other. — Has the Irishman our horses or 
cur chests 1 — He has both, — Has the Scotchman our shoes or our stock- 
ings ■? — He has neither the one nor the other — What has he ? — He 
has his good iron guns. — Have the Dutch our ships or those of the 
Spaniards 1 — They have neither the one ner the other. — Which ships 
have they ? — They have their own. — Have we any more hay \ — We 
have some more. — Has our merchant any more pepper ] — He has 
some more. — Has your friend any more money ? — He has not any 
more — Has he any more jewels 1 — He has some more. — Have you 
any more coffee 'i — We have no more coffee ; but we have some 



FIFTEENTH LESSON. 51 

core chocolate. — Has the Dutchman any more salt ] — He has no 
more salt ; but he has some more butter. — Has the painter any more 
pictures 1 — He has no more pictures ; but he has some more pencils. 
■ — Have the sailors any more biscuits ! — They have not any more. — ■ 
Have your boys any more books ] — They have not any more. — Haa 
the young man any more friends 1 — He has no more. 

33. 

Has our cook much more beef? — He has not much more. — Has 
he many more chickens 1 — He has not many more. — Has the peasant 
much more milk 1 — He has not much more milk ; but he has a great 
deal more butter. — Have the French many more horses 1 — They have 
not many more. — Have you much more paper 1 — I have much more. — ■ 
Have we many more looking-glasses 1 — We have many more. — Have 
you one more book "? — I have one more. — Have our neighbors one 
more garden 1 — They have one more. — Has our friend one more 
umbrella 1 — He has no more. — Have the Scotch a few more books ? 
— They have a few more. — Has the tailor a few more buttons 1 — He 
has not any more. — Has your carpenter a few more nails 1 — He has 
no more nails ; but he has a few sticks more. — Have the Spaniards 
a few sous more 1 — They have a few more. — Has the German a few 
more oxen 1 — He has a few more. — Have you a few more francs 1 — 
I have no more francs ; but I have a few more crowns. — What have 
you more 1 — We have a few more ships and a few more good sailors. 
— Have I a little more money 1 — You have a little more. — Have 
you any more courage 1 — I have no more. — Have you much more 
vinegar 1 — T have not much more ; but my brother has a great deal 
more. 

34. 

Has he sugar enough 1 — He has not enough. — Have we francs 
enough 1 — We have not enough. — Has the joiner wood enough 1 — ' 
He has enough. — Has he hammers enough? — He has enough. — 
What hammers has he 1 — He has iron ana wooden hammers. — Have 
you rice enough ■? — We have not rice enough ; but we have enough 
sugar.— Have you many more gloves 1 — I have not many more. — ■ 
Has the Russian another ship 1 — He has another. — Has he another 
bag 1 — He has no other. — What day of the month is it ■? — It is the 
sixth. — How many friends have you 1 — I have but one good friend. 
— Has the peasant too much bread 1 — He has not enough. — Has he 
much money 1 — He has but little money, but enough hay. — Have we 
the thread or the cotton stockings of the Americans, (des Amert- 
coins ?) — We have neither their thread nor their cotton stockings. — 
Have we the gardens which they have 1 — We have not those which 



62 



SIXTEENTH J.ESSOiV. 



ihey have, but those which our neighbors have. — Have you any 
more honey 1 — I have no more. — Plav3 you any more oxen ! — 1 
have not any more. 



SIXTEENTH LESSON.—Semewe Lefon. 



Several, 
Several men. 
Several children. 
Several knives. 

The father. 
The son. 
Tho child. 
The cake. 
Tea, 

As much, as many. 
As much — as, as many — as. 
As much bread as wine. 
As many men as childi'en. 



Plusieurs. 
Plusieurs hommes. 
Plusieurs eufants. 
Plusieurs couteaux. 



Le pere. 
Le fils. 
L'enfant. 
Le ga.teau. 
Du the. 



Autant dc, (before a substantive.) 
Autant de — que de, (before a noun.) 
Autant de pain que de vin. 
Autant d'hommes que d'enfaus. 



Have you as much gold as silver? 

I have as much of this as of that. 

I have as much of the latter as of 
the former. 

I have as much of the one as of the 
otiier. 

Have you as many shoes as stock- 
ings ? 

I have as many of these as of those. 

I have as many of the latter as of the 
former. 

I have as many of the one as of the 
other. 



Avez-voiis autant d'or que d'ar^ent ? 

■ J'ai autant de celuici que de celui-li, 

J'ai autant de Tun que de l" autre. 

Avez-vous autant de souliers que de 
bas? 

.J'ai autant de ceux-ci que de ceux-Ifi, 

J'ai autant des uns que des autroe. 



Quite (pv just) as ?imch, as many. _ 
I have quite as much of this as of 

that. 
Quite as much of the one as of the 

other. 



Tout autant de, (before a noun.) 
J'ai tout autaut de ceUii-ci que de 

celui-li. 
Tout autaut d« I'un que de I'autre. 



SIXTEENVH LESSON. 



58 



Quite as ma?ay of these as of those. 

Quito as many of the one as of the 
ether. 



An enemy, enemies. 
The finger. 
My nose. 

More, (a comparative adverb.) 
More bread. 
More men. 



Than. 
More bread than wine. 
More knives than sticks. 
More of this than of that. 
More of the one than of the other. 
More of these than of those. 
More of the ones than of the others. 
I have more of your sugar than of 

mine. 
He has more of our books than of his 

own. 



Less, fewer. 
liess wine than bread. 
Fewer knives than sticks. 

Less than I. 
Less than he. 
Less than we. 
Less than j'ou. 
Less than they. 

They. 

Than they. 
As much as you 
As much as he. 
As much as they 



Tout autant de ceux-ci que do ceux- 

lil. 
Tout autant des uns que des au- 

tres. 



Un ennemi, des ennemis. 
Le doigt. 
Mon nez. 

Plus de, (before a substantive.) 
Phis de pain. 
Phis d'hommes. 



I Que de, (before a substantive.; 
Plus de pain que de vin. 
Phis de couteaux que de ba.tons. 
Phis de celui-ci que da celui-li. 
Phis do I'un que de Fautre. 
Phis de ceux-ci que de ceux-1^. 
Phis des uns que des autres. 
J'ai phis de votre sucre que du mieu 

II a phis de nos Hvres que des siens. 



Moins de, (before a substantive.) 
Moins de vin que de pain. 
Moins de couteaux que de bcitoiis. 



Moins que moi. 
Moins que hii. 
Moins que nous. 
Moins que vous. 
Moins qu'eux. 

Eux. 

Qu'eux. 

Autant que voua 

Autant que lui. 

Autant qu'eux. 



54 SIXTEENTH LESSON. 

EXERCISES. 
35. 

Have you a horse 1 — I have several. — Has he several coats !— <• 
He has only one. — ^Who has several looking-glasses 1 — My brother 
has several. — What looking-glasses has he 1 — He has beautiful ones 
— Who has my good cakes 1 — Several men have them. — Has your 
friend a child 1 — He has several. — Have you as much coffee as tea ■? 
— I have as much of the one as of the other. — Has this man a son "? 
— He has several. — How many sons has he 1 — He has four. — How 
many children have our friends 1 — They have many ; they have ten 
of them. — Have we as much bread as butter 1 — You have as much 
of the one as of the other. — Has this man as man)'- friends as ene- 
mies 1 — He has as many of the one as of the other. — Have we as 
many shoes as stockings 1 — We have as many of the one as of the 
other. — Has your father as much gold as silver? — He has more of 
the latter than of the former. — Has the captain as many sailors as 
ships 1 — He has more of the latter than of the former. He has more 
of the one than of the other. 

36. 

Have you as many guns as 1 1 — I have just as many. — Has the 
foreigner as much courage as we 1 — He has quite as much. — Have 
we as much good as bad paper ] — We have as much of the one as of 
the other. — Plave our neighbors as much cheese as milk ? — They 
tiave more of the latter than of the former. — Have your sons as 
many cakes as books 1 — They have more of the latter than of the 
former, more of the one than of the other. — How many noses has the 
man 1 — He has but one. — Plow many fingers has he 1 — He has sev- 
eral. — How many pistols have you ] — I have only one, but my fa- 
ther has more than I ; he has five. — Have my children as much 
courage as yours? — Yours have more than mine. — Have I as much 
money as you 1 — You have less than I. — Have you as many books aa 
I ] — I have fewer than you. — Have I as many enem.ies as your father I 
— You have fewer than he. — Have the Russians as many children 
as we 1 — We have fewer than they. — Have the French as many 
ships as we ? — They have fewer than we. — Have we as many jew- 
els as they ? — We have fewer than the}-. — Have we fewer knives 
than the children of our friends ? — We have fewer than they. 

37. 

Who bas fewer friends than we 1 — Nobody has fewer. — Have you 
as much of your wine as of mine 1 — I have as much of yours as of 
mine. — Have I as many of your books as of mine ! — You have few- 



SEVENTEENTH LESSON. 55 

er of mine than of yours. — Has the Turk as much of your money as 
of his own 1 — He has less of his own than of ours. — Has your baker 
less bread than money 1 — He has less of the latter than of the for- 
mer. — Has our merchant fewer dogs than horses 1 — He has fewer 
of the latter than of the former ; fewer of the one than of the other. 
— Have your servants more sticks than brooms 1 — They have more 
of the latter than of the former. — Has our cook as much butter as 
teef 1 — He has as much of the one as of the other. — Has he as 
many chickens as birds 1 — He has more of the latter than of the 
former. 

38. 

Has the carpenter as many sticks as nails 1 — He has just as many 
of these as of those. — Have you more biscuits than glasses 1 — I have 
more of the latter than of the former. — Has our friend more sugar 
than honey 1 — He has not so much {pas autant) of the latter as of 
the former. — Has he more gloves than umbrellas ■? — He has not so 
many {pas autant) of the latter as of the former. — Who has more 
soap than I ? — My son has more, {en a plus.) — Who has more pen- 
cils than you 1 — The painter has more, {en a plus.) — Has he as many 
horses as I ] — He has not so many {pas autaiit) horses as you ; but 
he has more pictures. — Has the merchant fewer oxen than we T — 
He has fewer oxen than we, and we have less corn than he. — Have 
you another note 1 — I have another. — Has your son one more pock- 
et-book ■? — He has several more. — Have '„he Dutch as manj?^ gardens 
as we? — ^We have fewer than they. We have less bread and less 
butter than they. We have but little monoy, but enough bread, beef, 
(repeat the preposition de before each noun,) cheese, and wine, — 
Have you as much courage as our neighbor's son ■? — I have just as 
much, {tout autant.) — Has the youth as many notes as we"! — He has 
just as many, {tout autant.) 



SEVENTEENTH 'L'E^&Ol:^ .—Dix-septieme Le^on. 

OF THE INFINITIVE. 

There are in Frencli four Conjugations, which are distinguished by the 
termination of the Present of tlie Infinitive, viz 

1. The fii^st has its infinitive terminated iu er, as : — 

parler, to speeik ; 

acheter, to buy , 

couper, to cut 



56 



SEVENTEENTH LESSON. 



S. The second in ir, as: — 

finfr, to finish ; 

clioiszr, to choose ; 

batz'r, 10 builA 

3. The tliird in oir, as: — 

recevozr, to receive ; 
apercevofr, to perceive ; 
devoir, to owe. 

4. The fourtla in re, as: — 

vendee, to sell ; 

attendre, to v/ait ; 

rendre, to render. 

Each verb we sliall hereafter give will liave tlie number of tlie class tc 
which it belongs marked after it The verbs marked with an asterisk (*■* 
are irregular. 



Fear. 

Shame. 

Wrong. 

Right. 

Time. 

Courage. 

A mind, a wish. 
To work. 
To speak. 
Have you a mind to work ? 
I have a mind to work. 
He has not the courage to speak 

Are you afraid to speak ? 
I am ashamed to speak. 

To cut. 
To cut it 
To cut them, 
To cut some. 

Have you time to cut the bread ? 

I have time to cut it 

Has he a mind to cut trees? 

He has a mnid to cut some. 

To buy. 
To buy some more. 
To buy one. 
To buy two 



Peur. 

Honte. 

Tort 

Raison. 

Le temps. 

Le courage. 

Envie. 

Travailler 1. 

Parler 1. 

Avez-vous envie de travailler 1 

J'ai envie de travailler. 

II u'a pas le com'age de parler. 



All these words re 
quire the prepo- 
sition cZe, of, after 
them, when fol- 
lowed by any 
infinitive 
Ex. 



verb 



Avez-vous peur de parler ? 
J'ai honte de parler. 



Couper 1. 
Le couper. 
Les couper. 
En couper. 



Avez-vous le temps de couper le 

pain ? 
J'ai le temps de le couper. 
A-t-il envie de couper des arbres ? 
II a envie d'eu couper. 



Acheter 1. 
En aclieter encore. 
En acheter uu. 
En acheter deux. 



SEVENTEENTH LESSON. 



57 



To buy one more. 
To buy two more. 

To break. 

To pick up. 

To mend, to repair. 

To look for, to seek. 



Have you a mind to buy one more 

horse ? 
I have a mind to buy one more. 
Have you a mind to buy some 

books ? 
[ have a mind to buy some, but I 

have no money. 
Are you afraid to break the glasses ? 
I am afraid to break them. 
Has he time to vi^ork ? 
He has time, but no mind to work. 



Am I right in buying a horse 1 
You are not wrong in buying one. 



En acheter encore un. 
En acheter encore deuj.. 



Casser 1. 
Ramasser 1. 
Raccommoder 1. 
Chercher 1. 



Avez-vous envie d'acheter encore ur 

cheval ? 
J'ai envie d'en acheter encore un. 
Avez-vous envie d'acheter des livres 

J'ai envie d'en acheter, mais je n'ai 

pas d'arg(^gj, 
Avez-vous peur de casser les verres 1 
J'ai peur de les casser. 
A-t-il le temps de travailler ? 
II a le temps, mais il n'a pas envie 
de travailler. 



Ai-je raison d'acheter un cheval? 
Vous n'avez pas tort d'en acheter 
un. 



EXERCISES. 
39. 
Have you still a mind to buy my friend's horse ■? — I have still a 
mind to buy it ; but I have no more money. — Have you time to 
work "? — I have time, but no mind {pas envie) to work.- — Has your 
brother time to cut some sticks 1 — He has time to cut some. — Has 
he a mind to cut some bread ■? — He has a mind to cut some, but he 
has no knife. — Have you time to cut some clieese 1 — I have time to 
cut some. — Has he a desire to cut the tree 1 — He has a desire to cut 
it, but he has no time. — Has the tailor time ^.o cut the cloth 1 — He 
has time to cut it. — Have I time to cut the trees 1 — You have time 
to cut them. — Has the painter a mind to buy a horse 1 — He has a 
mind to buy two. — Has your captain time to speak 1 — He has time 
but no desire to speak. — Are you afraid to speak ] — I am not afraid, 
but I am ashamed to speak. — Am I right in buying a gun 1 — You 
are right in buying one. — Is your friend right in buying a great ox ? 
—He is wrong in buying one. — Am I right in buying little oxen ■?— 
You are right in buying some. 



58 SEV^EXTEENTH LESSON. 

40. 

Have you a desire to speak 1 — I have a desire but I have not the 
courage to speak. — Have you the courage to cut your finger ] — I 
have not the courage to cut it. — Am I right in speaking 1 — You are 
not v/rong in speaking, but you are wrong in cutting mj^ trees. — Has 
the son of your friend a desire to buy one more bird ] — He has a de- 
sire to buy one more. — Have you a desire to buy a few more horses ! 
— We have a desire to buy a few more, but we have no more money. 
— What has our tailor a mind to mend T — He has a mind to mend our 
old coats. — Has the shoemaker time to mend our shoes ? — He has 
time, but he has no mind to mend them. — Who has a mind to mend 
our hats 1 — The hatter has a mind to mend them. — Are you afraid to 
look for my horse, {chercher mon cheval ?) — I am not afraid, but 1 
have no time to look for it, {le chercher.) — What have you a mind to 
buy 1 — We have a mind to buy something good, and our neighbors 
have a mind to buy something beautiful. — Are their children afraid 
to pick up some nails 1 — They are not afraid to pick up some — Have 
you a mind to break my jewel ■? — I have a mind to pick it up, but 
not (mais non pas) to break it. — Am I wrong in picking up your 
gloves ■? — You are not wrong in picking them up, but you are wrong 
in cutting them. 

41. 

Have you the courage to break these glasses \ — I have the cour- 
age, but I have no mind to break them. — Who has a mind to break 
our looking-glass 1 — Our enemy has a mind to break it. — -Have the 
foreigners a mind to break our pistols 1 — They have a mind, but they 
have not the courage to break them. — Have you a mind to break thp 
captain's pistol 1 — I have a mind, but I am afraid to break it. — Who 
has a mind to buy my beautiful dog ? — Nobody has a mind to buy it. 
— Have you a mind to buy my beautiful trunks, or those of the 
Frenchman 1 — I have a mind to buy yours, and not {et non) those of 
the Frenchman. — Which books has the Englishman a mind to buy ! 
— He has a mind to buy that which you have, that which }-our son 
has, and that which mine has. — Which gloves have you a mini to 
seek ? — I have a mind to seek yours, mine, and our children's. 

42. 

Which looking-glasses have the enemies a desire to break ! — 
They have a desire to break those which you have, those wliich I 
have, and those which our children and our friends have. — Has your 
father a desire to buy these or those cakes ? — He has a mind to buy 
these. — Am I right in picking up your notes ! — You are right in 
picking thorn up. — Is the Italian right ir seeking j-our pocket-book ? 



EIGHTEENTH LESSOM. 



59 



-He is wrong in seeking it. — Have you a mind to buy another 
ship ! — I have a mind to buy another. — Has our enemy a mind to 
buy one more ship 1 — He has a mind to b'iy several more, but he is 
afraid to buy some. — Have you two horses 1 — I have only one, but T 
have a wish to buy one more. 



EIGHTEENTH LESSOl:^ .—Dix-huitieme Lcfon. 
Faire * 4. 



To make, 
To do. 
To he iDilling, 
To wish. 



Vouloir * 3. 



Will you? ^ 


V 


Are you willing ? 


• Voulez-vous ? 


Do you wish? 


1 


I will, I am willing, I wish. 


Je veux. 


Will he? is he willing? does he 


Veut-il ? 


wish? 




He will, he is willing, he wishes. 


11 veut. 


We will, v/e are willing, we wish. 


Nous voulons. 


You will, you are willing, you 


Vous voulez. 


wish. 




They will, they are willing, they 


lis veulent. 


wish. 





Do you wish to make my fire ? 
I am willing to make it. 
I do not wish to make it. 
Does he wish to buy your horse ? 
He wishes to buy it. 



Voulez-vous faire mon feu? 
Je veus le faire. 
Je ne veux pas le faire. 
Veut-il acheter votre cheval I 
II veut I'acheter. 



To burn. 
To warm 
To tear. 
The broth. 
My linen, (meaning my linen 
clothes.) 



BrCiIer 1 
Chauffer 1 
Dechir'^r 1 
Le bouillon. 

Mon linge, (is always used in the 
singular.) 



Togo. 
With or at the house of, 
Td or to the house of. 

To be. 



I Aller *. 
I Chez. 
i Eire* 



60 



EIGHTEENTH LESSON. 



To be with the man or at the man's 

house. 
To go to the man or to the man's 

house. 
To be with his (one's) friend or at his 

(one's) friend's house. 
To go to my fatlier or to my father's 

house. 



At home. 
To be at home. 
To go home. 



To be with me, or at my house. 
To go to me, or to my liouse. 
To be with him, or at his house. 
To go to him, or to his house. 
To be with us, or at our house. 
To go to us, or to our house. 
To be witli you, or at your liouse. 
To go to you, or to your house. 
To be with them^ or at their house. 
To go to them, or to their house. 
To be with some one, or at some one's 

house. 
To go to some one, or to some one's 

house. 
To be witli no one, or at no one's 

house. 
To go to no one, or to no one's house. 



At whose house ? With whom ? 
To whose house ? To ichom ? 
To whom (or to wliose house) do you 
wisli to so ? 



fitre chez Thorame 
AUer chez I'homme. 
fitre chez son ami 
Aller chez mon p6rt; 



^A la maison. 
fitre k la maison. 
Aller &. la maison. 



Etre 
Aller 
£tre 
Aller 
fitre 
Aller 
fitre 
Aller 
fitre 



chez moi. 



chez lui. 



chez nous 



chez V0U3. 



chez eux. 



Aller ^ 

£tre chez quelqu'un. 

Aller ctiez quelqu'un. 

N'etre chez personne. 

N'aller chez personne. 



\ Chez qui ? 
Chez qui voulez-vous aller ? 



I wish to go to no one, (to no one's Je .lo veux aller chez persouce 

\iouse.) ' 

Ai wnose house (with whom) is j-our ^ Chez qui est votre frfere ? 

brother ? ( Chez qui votre frcre est-il ? 

He is St ours, (with us.) | II est chez nous. 

{ Est-il i la maison ? 
( t Est-il chez lui ? 



Is he at home? 



Ue ia not at liome. 



( II n'est pas ii la maison. 
^ t II n"e 



I'est pas chez lui 



EIGHTEENTH LESSON. 



61 



Are you ( 


fites-vous ? 


Tired. 


Fatigue. 


Are you tired ? 


Etes-vous fatigud ? 


I am tired. 


Je suis fatigu^. 


I am not tired. 


Je ne suis pas fatigii^ 


Is he ? 


Est-il ? 


He is. 


II est. 


We are. 


Nous sommes. 


Tliey are. 


lis sont. 


To drink. 


Boire * 4. 


Where ? 


Oil? 



What do you wish to do ? 

What does your brotlier wish to do ? 



Que voulez-vous faire ? 
Votre frfere que veut-il faiie ? 



Is your father at home ? 
What will the Germans buy ? 

They will buy something good. 

They will buy nothing. 

Do they wish to buy a book ? 

They wish to buy one. 

Do you wish to drink any thing ? 

I do not wish to drink any thing. 



Votre pere est-il h. la maison ? 

Les AUemands que veulent-ils acho- 

ter? 
lis veulent acheter quelque chose de 

bon. 
+ lis ne veulent rien acheter. 
Veulent-ils acheter un livre ? 
lis veulent en acheter un. 
Voulez-vovis boire quelque chose ? 
t Je ne veux rien boire. 



EXERCISES. 
43. 

Do you wish to work 1 — I am willing to work, but I am tired. — 
Do you wish to break my glasses ■? — I do not wish to break them. — 
Ire you willing to look for my son 1 — I am willing to look for him. 
— What do you wish to pick up 1 — I wish to pick up that crown and 
that franc. — Do you wish to pick up this or that sou 1 — I wish to 
pick up both. — Does your neighbor wish to buy these or those 
combs ] — He wishes to buy both these and those. — Does that man 
wish to cut your finger'! — He does not wish to cut mine, but his own. 
— Does the painter wish to burn some paper "? — He wishes to burn 
some. — What does the shoemaker wish to mend ^ — He wishes to 
mend our old shoes. — Does the tailor wish to mend any thing ] — He 
wishes to mend some waistcoats. — Is our enemy willing to burn his 
ship 1 — He is not willing to burn his own, but ours. — Do you wish 
to do any thing 'l — I do not wish to do any thing. — What do you wish 



62 EIGHTEENTH lESSON. 

to do 1—We wish to v/arm our tea and our father's coffee. — Do yon 
wish to warm my brother's broth 1 — I am willing to warm it. — la 
your servant willing to make my fire 1 — He is willing to make it, but 
Ae has no time. 

44. 

Do you wish to speak 1 — I do wish to speak. — Is your son willing 
to work "? — He is not willing to work. — What does he wish to do ! — 
He wishes to drink some wine. — Do you wish to buy any thing ? — I 
wish to buy something. — What do you wish to buy ] — I wish to buy 
some jewels. — Are you willing to mend my linen 1 — I am willing to 
mend it. — Who will mend our son's stockings 1 — We will mend 
them. — Does the Russian wish to buy this or that picture 1 — He will 
buy neither this nor that. — What does he wish to buy 1 — He wishes 
to buy some ships. — Which looking-glasses does the Englishman 
wish to buy 1 — He wishes to buy those which the French have, and 
those which the Italians have. — Does your father wish to look for 
his umbrella or for his stick 1 — He wishes to look for both. — Do you 
wish to drink some wine 1 — I wish to drink some, but I have not any. 
— Does the sailor wish to drink some milk 1 — He does not wish to 
drink any, he is not thirsty. — What does the captain wish to drink ■? 
— He does not wish to drink any thing. — What does the hatter wish 
to make ] — He wishes to make some hats. — Does the carpenter wish 
to make any thing 1 — He wishes to make a larg-e ship. — Do you wish 
to buy a bird 1 — I wish to buy several. 

45. 

Does the Turk wish to buy more guns than knives ! — He wishea 
to buy more of the latter than of the former. — How many brooms 
does your servant wish to buy ] — He wishes to buy three. — Do you 
wish to buy many stockings 1 — We wish to buy only a few, but oux 
children wish to buy a great many. — Will your children seek the 
gloves tltat we have 1 — They will not seek those that you have, bu* 
those which my father has. — Does any one wish to tear your coat ? 
— No one wishes to tear it. — Who wishes to tear my books ? — Your 
children wish to tear them. — ^AYith whom is our father 1 — He is with 
his friend. — To whom do you wish to go 1 — I wish to go to you. — 
Will you go to my house 1 — I will not go to yours but to my bro- 
ther's. — Does your father wish to go to Ms friend 1 — He does not 
wish to go to his friend, but to his neighbor. — At whose house is 
your sun ■? — He is at our house. — Will you look for our hats or for 
those of the Dutch T— I will look for neither yours, nor for those of 
the Dutch, but I will ook for mine, and for those of my good friends 



EIGHTEENTH LESSON. 63 

46. 

Am I right in warming your broth 1 — You are right in warming 
it. — Is my servant right in warming your linen 1 — He is wrong in 
warming it. — Is he afraid to tear your coat 1 — He is not afraid to 
tear it, but to burn it. — Do your children wish to go to our friends 1 
— They do not wish to go to your friends but to ours. — Are your 
children at home 1 — They are not at home, {chez eux,) but at theii 
neighbors'. — Is the captain at home, (chez iui ?) — He is not at home 
but at his brother's. — Is the foreigner at our brother's 1 — He is not 
at our brother's, but at our father's. — At whose house is the Eng- 
lishman 1 — He is at yours. — Is the American {U Americain) at our 
house 1 — No, Sir, he is not at our house, but at his friend's. — With 
whom is the Italian ? — He is with nobody ; he is at home. — Do you 
wish to go home 1 — I do not wish to go home ; I wish to go to the 
son of my neighbor. — Is your father at home ■? — No, Sir, he is not at 
home. — With whom is he ] — He is with the good friends of our old 
neighbor. — Will you go to any one's house "! — I will go to no one's 
house. 

47. 

Where is your son "! — He is at home. — What will he do at home ? 
— He will drink some good wine. — Is your brother at home 1 — He is 
not at home ; he is at the foreigner's. — What do you wish to drink *? 
— I wish to drink some milk. — What will the German do at home \ — 
He will work, and drink some good wine. — ^What have you at home ] 
— I have nothing at home. — Has the merchant a desire to buy as much 
sugar as tea 1 — He wishes to buy as much of the one as of the other. 
' — Are you tired ? — I am not tired. — Who is tired ■? — My brother is 
tired. — Has the Spaniard a mind to buy as many horses as asses ] — ■ 
He wishes to buy more of the latter than of the former. — Do you wish 
to drink any thing 1 — I do not wish to drink any thing. — How many 
chickens does the cook wish to buy 1 — He wishes to buy four. — Do 
the French wish to buy any thing I — They do not wish to buy any 
thing ■? — Does the Spaniard wish to buy any thing \ — He wishes to 
buy something, but he has no money. — Do you wish to go to our 
brothers' 1 — I do not wish to go to their house, but to their children's 
— Is the Scotchman at any body's house 1 — He is at nobody's. — 
Where is he 1 — He is at his own house, {chez Iui.) 



64 



NINETEENTH LESSOR 



NINETEENTH LESSO'N .—Dix-?ieuviem€ Le,.m. 



Where ? Whither 7 Where to 7 
To it, at it, in it, there cr thither. 

To go thither. 

To be there. 
It to it, it there or thither. 



Oil 7 

Y, (stands always before the verb . 

Yaller*. 

Y etre *. 

L'y, (before the verb.) 



To take, to cany. 

To send. 

To take, to lead, to conduct. 



Porter 1. 
Envoyer 1. 
Mener 1. 



To take it there or thither. | L'y porter. 



Hivi, (object of the verb.) 
Him there or thither. 

To send him thither. 

To take him thither. 

Them there or thither. 
Some of it there or thither. 

To carry them thither. 

To carry some thither. 



Le, (stands always before the verb.) 
L'y, (before the verb.) 
L'y envoyer. 
L'y mener. 



Les y, (before the verb.) 

Y en, (before the verb.) . 
Les y porter. 

Y en porter. 



Will you send him to my father ? 
I v?ill send him thither, or to him. 



Voulez-vous I'envoyerchez mon pfere 
Je veux Ty envoyer. 
Ohs. The adverb y always stands before the verb, and when there is a 
pronomi like le, it, him, les, them, it stands immediately before the adverb 
y ; but en, some of it, stands after it, as may be seen from the above. 

The physician. I Le medecin. 

To come. I Veuir * 2. 



When ? 

To-morrow 

To-day. 



Quand 7 
Demain. 

Aujourd'luu. 



Somewhere or whither, anyichere 

or le hit her. 
Noiohere, not anywhere. 
Do you wish to go any whither ? 
I wisli to go some wliithcr. 
I do not wish to go any wliither. 



Qudque part. 

iYe — nidle part. 
Voulez-vous allor quelque part 7 
Je veux aller quelque part, 
i Je lie veux aller nulle part 



NINETEENTH LESSON. 

( To write. Ecrire * 4. 

At what o'clock? A quelle heure ?^ 

At one <; olock. A line heure. 

At two o'clock. A deux heures. 



65 



Half. 

The quarter. 
At half past one. 
At a quarter past one. 
At a quarter past two. 
At a quarter to one. 
At twelve o'clock. 
At twelve o'clock at night, (mid- 
night.) 

Less. 



Demi ; feminine, demie. 

Le quart. 

A une heure et demie.'' 

A une heure et quart. 

A deux henres et quart. 

A une heure moins un quart 

A midi. 

A minuit. 

Moins, (comparative of ^eu, httle.; 



EXERCISES. 
48. 
Do you wish to go home "? — I wish to go thither. — Does your son 
wish to go to my house 1 — He wishes to go there. — Is your brother 
at home 1 — He is there. — Whither do you wish to go 1 — I wish to gc 
home. — Do your children wish to go to my house 1 — They do not wish 
to go there. — To whom will you take (porter) this note 1 — I will take 
it to my neighbor's. — Will your servant take my note to your father 1 
— He will take it there. — Vs ill your brother carry my guns to the 
Russian ! — He will carry them thither. — To whom do our enemies 
wish to carry our pistols 1 — They wish to carry them to the Turks. 
— ^Whither will the shoemaker carry my shoes ■? — He will carry them 
to your house. — Will he carry them home 1 — He will not carry them 
thither. — Will you come to me 1 — I will not come {aller) there. — 
Whither do you wish to go 1-^1 wish to go to the good English. — 
Will the good Italians go to our house ^ — They will not go thither. — 
Whither do they wish to go "? — They will go no whither. 

49. 
Will you take your son to my house 1 — I will not take him to your 
house, but to the captain's. — When will you take him to the captain's ? — 

1 Heure, hour, is a feminine noun. This class of nouns will be spoken of 
nereafter. For the present the learner has only to write them as he sees 
Uiem written in the lessons. 

^ The adjective demie is here in the feminine gender, agreeing with the 
feminine noun heure. But when this adjective precedes the noun, it does 
aot agree with it m gender and number, as : une demi-heuri ,\\Ti\i an hour. 



66 NINETEENTH LESSON. 

I will take him there to-morrow. — Do you wish to take my childrei 
to the physician 1 — I will take them thither. — When will you take 
them thither ? — I will take them thither to-day. — At what o'clock 
will you take them thither'? — At half-past two. — When will you send 
your servant to the physician "? — I will send him there to-day. — At 
what o'clock 1 — At a quarter past ten. — "Will you go any whither ? — 
I will go some ^yhither. — Whither v/ill you sfo 1 — I will go to the 
Scotchman. — Will the Irishman come to you 1 — He will come to me. 
— Will your son go to any one 1 — He will go to some one. — To whom 
does he wish to go'? — He wishes to go to his friends. — Will the 
Spaaiards go any whither ? — They will go no whither. — Will oui 
friend go to any one ? — He will go to no one. 

50. 
When will you take your youth to the painter ? — I will take him 
thither to-day. — Whither will he carry these birds ? — He will carry 
them no whither. — Will you take the physician to this man ? — I will 
take him there. — When will the physician go to your brother ? — He 
will go there to-day. — Will you send a servant to me ? — I will send 
one there. — Will you send a child to the painter '? — I will not send 
one thither. — With whom is the captain ? — He is with nobod}\ — Has 
your brother time to come to my house ? — He has no time to come 
{aller) there. — ^Will the Frenchman write one more note ? — He will 
write one more. — Has your friend a mind to write as many notes as 
I ? — He has a mind to write quite as many. — To whose house does 
he wish to send them '? — He will send them to his friends'. — ^^Vho 
wishes to write little notes ? — The young man wishes to write some. 
— Do you wish to carry many books to my father's ? — I will only 
carry a few thither. 

51. 

Will you send one more trunk to our friend ? — I will send several 
more there. — How many more hats does the hatter wish to send ? — 
He wishes to send six more. — Will the tailor send as many shoes as 
the shoemaker ? — He will send fewer. — Has your son the courage to 
go to the captain ? — He has the courage to go there, but he has no 
tim.e. — Do you wish to buy as many dogs as horses? — I will bu\" 
more of the latter than of the former. — At wnat o'clock do you wish 
to send your servant to the Dutchman's ? — I will send him thither at 
a quarter to six. — At what o'clock is j-our father at home ? — He is at 
home at twelve o'clock. — At what o'clock does your friend wish to 
write his notes ? — He will write them at midnight. — Are you afraid 
to go to the captain ? — I am not afraid, but ashamed to go there. 



TWENTIETH LESSOK 



67 



TWENTIETH LESSON.— Fm^^e/ne Lepon. 



To, meaning in order to. 

To see. 

Have you any money to buy bread ? 

I have some to buy some. 

Will you go to your brother in order 

to see him ? 
I have no time to go there to see 

him. 
Has your brother a knife to cut his 

bread ? 
He has none to cut it. 



Pour. 

Voir * 3. 

Avez-vous de I'argent pour achetei 

du pain ? 
J'en ai pour en acheter. 
Voulez-vous aller chez votre frere 

pour le voir ? 
Je n'ai pas le temps d'y aller pour le 

voir. 
Votre frere a-t-il im couteau pour 

couper son pain ? 
II n'en a pas pour le couper. 



To sweep 
To kill. 
To salt. 



Balayer 1. 
Tuer 1 
Saler 1. 



To he able, (can.) ] Pouvoir * 3. 



Can you ? or are you able ? 

I can, or I am able. 

I cannot, I am not able. 

Can he, or is he able ? 

He can, he is able. 

He cannot, he is unable 

We can, vi^e are able. 

You can, you are able. 

They can, they are able 

Me. 

Him. 
To see me. 
To see him. 
To see the man. 
To kill him. 



Pouvez-vous ? 

Je peux, (or je puis.)' 

Je ne peux pas, (or je ne puis.; 

Peut-il ? 

II pent. 

II ne pent pas. 

Nous pouvons. 

Vous pouvez. 

lis peuvent. 



Me, (direct object or accusative.) 
Le, (direct object or accusative.) 
Me voir. 
Le voir. 
Voir I'homme. 
Le tuer. 



' Je puis is more iu use than je peux, which should not be used in an 
interrogative sentence. Say, therefore, puis-je ? and not peux-je ? Of 
which hereafter (See Lesson XXVIII.) 



68 



TWENTIETH LESSON. 



To. 

To the or at i 

Singular. 

To the friend. 
To the man. 
To the captain 
To the book. 



Plural. 
To the friends. 
To the men. 

To the captains. 

To tlie books. 



To 7dm, to her 
To me. 



Au, plur. aux, [sea Lesson IX 

Sinp-ular. Plural 



A I'ami. 
A I'homme. 
Au capitaine, 
Au hvre. 



Aux amib. 
Aux hommes. 
Aux capitaines 
Aux Hvres. 



Lui, (indirect object or dative.) 

Me. 



To speak to me. 

To speak to him, (to her.) 

To write to him, (to her.) 

To write to me. 

To speak to the man. 

To speak to the captain. 

To write to the captain. 

Can you write to me ? 

I cau write to you. 

Can the man speak to you 1 

He can speak to me. 

Will you write to your brother ? 

I will write to him. 

The basket. 
The carpet. 
The floor. 
Tlie cat. 



Will you send the book to the man ' 

I will send it to him. 

When will you send it to him ? 

I will send it to him to-morrow 



let person. 
3d " 



To vie, 
To him. 



Me. 
Him . 



Me parler. 

Lui parler. 

Lui ecrire. 

M'ecrire. 

Parler &. I'homme. 

Parler au capitaine. 

!6cru-e au capitaine. 



Pouvez-vous m'ecrire ? 
Je peux vous ecrire. 
L'homme peut-il vous parler ? 
II pent me parler. 
Voiilez-vous ecrire a votre frere: 
Je veux lui ecrhe. 



Le panier. 
Le tapis. 
Le planclier. 
Le chat. 



Voulez-vous envoyer le livrc d 

Vhomme 7 
Je veux le lui envoyer 
Quand-voulez-vous le lui envoyer ? 
Je veux le lui euvover demaiu. 



SlXGl'L.VK. 

Indirect object Direct object 

or Dative. or Accusatit>e 

Me or a 7noi. Me or tnoi. 

Lui — a luL Le — lui. 



TWENTIETH LESSON. 



69 









Plural. 


let person 


Tons, 


Us. 


Nous or a nous. Nous. 


2d " 


To you, 


You. 


Vous — d vous. Vous. 


Sd 


To them, 


Them. 


Leur — a eux. Les or eux 



Ohs. Me, lui, for the indirect object, and me, le, for the direct object, 
always precede the verb ; while a moi, a lui, for the indirect object, and 
moi, lui, for the direct object, always follow it. The same is the case with 
nous and d nous, vous and d vous, leur and d eux, les and eux. Ex. 



Does he wish to speali to you ? 

He does not wish to speak to me, but 

to you. 
Do you wish to write to him ? 
I do not wish to write to him, but to 

his brother. 



Veut-il vous parlerl 

II ne veut pas parler a moi, mais a 

vous. 
Voulez-vous kii ^crire ? 
Je ne veux pas ecrire a lui, mais a 

son frere. 



The following is the order in which the personal pronouns must be placed 
the sentence : — ■ 



m the sentence : — ■ 

Singular. 
It to me. 
It to him, 
It to us. 
It to you. 
It to them. 



Plural. 
them to me. 
them to him. 
them to us. 
them to you. 
them to the. 11. 



Singulier 
t Me le, 
Le lui, 
t Nous le, 
t Vous le, 
Le leur, 



Pluriel. 
t me les. 
les lui. 
t nous les. 
t vous lee. 
les leur 



When will you send me the basket ? 
I will send it to you to-day. 



Quand voulez-vous 7tt'envoyer le 



panier ; 



Je veux J30«s Z'envoyer aujourd'huL ^ 



In the following manner the relative pronoun en, some of it, is placed with 
regard to the personal pronoun : — 



Some to me. 
Some to him, (to her.) 
Some to us. 
Some to you. 
Some to them. 

To give. 
To lend. 



t M'en. 
t Lui en. 
t Nous en. 
t Vous en. 
t Leur en. 



Donner 1. 
Preter 1. 



Are you willing to give me some 

bread? 
I am willing to give you some 
Will you lend some money to my 

brother ? 
T will lend some to him. 



Voulez-vous me aonner du pain? 

Je veux vous en donner. 
Voulez-vous prfiter de I'argent a mou 

fr^re? 
Je veux lui en pr6ter. 



70 



TWENTIETH LESSON 





















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TWENTIETH LESSON. 71 

EXERCISES. 
52. 

Has the carpenter money enough to huy a hammer 1 — He hag 
enough of it to buy one. — Has the captain money enough to buy a 
ship 1 — He has not enough to buy one. — Has the peasant a desire to 
buy some bread 1 — He has a desire to buy some, but he has not mo- 
ney enough to buy some. — Has your son paper to write a note ] — 
He has not any to write one. — Have you time to see my brother ! — 
I have no time to see him. — Does your father wish to see me ! — He 
does not wish to see you. — Has your servant a broom to sweep the 
floor 1 — He has one to sweep it. — Is he willing to sweep it 1 — He is 
willing to sweep it. — Has the sailor money to buy some chocolate ' — • 
He has none to buy any. — Has your cook money to buy some beef? 
— He has some to buy some. — Has he money to buy some chickens ? 
■ — He has some to buy some. — Have you salt enough to salt my 
beef? — I have enough to salt it. — ^Will your friend come to Uiy house 
in order to see me 1 — He will neither come {allei-) to your house nor 
see you. — Has your neighbor a desire to kill his horse ■? — He has no 
desire to kill it. — Will you kill your friends ■? — I will kill only my 
enemies. 

53. 

Can you cut me some bread ■?— I can cut you some. — Have you a 
knife to cut me some 1 — I have one. — Can you mend my gloves 1 — 
I can mend them, but I have no wish to do it. — Can the tailor make 
me a coat 1 — He can make you one. — ^Will you speak to the physi- 
cian 1 — I will speak to him. — Does your son wish to see me in ordei 
to speak to me 1 — He wishes to see you in order to give you a 
crown. — Does he wish to kill me 1 — He does not wish to kill you ; 
he only wishes to see you. — Does the son of our old friend wish to 
kill an ox % — He wishes to kill two. — ^Who has a mind to kill our 
caf? — Our neighbor's boy has a mind to kill it. — How much money 
can you send me ] — I can send you twenty francs. — Will you send 
me my carpet ? — I will send it to you. — Will you send the shoe- 
maker any thing, (yweZ^'Me chose au cordonnier?) — I will send him 
my shoes. — Will you send him your coats "? — No, I will send them 
to the tailor. — Can the tailor send me my coat 1 — He cannot send it 
you. — Are your children able to write to me ■? — They are able to 
write to you. — Will you lend me your basket *? — I will lend it you. 

54. 
Have you a glass to drink your wine ■? — I have one, but I have no 
tvine ; I have only tea. — Will you give me money to buy some *? — 1 
yill give you some, but I have only a little. — ^Will you give me thaj 



72 TWENTIETH LESSON. 

which (ce que) you have 1 — I will give it you. — Can you drink as 
much wine as milk'? — I can drink as much of the ene as of the other. — 
Has our neighbor any wood to make a fire, {du feu ?) — He has some to 
make one, {pour en /aire,) but he has no money to buy bread and but- 
ter. — Are you willing to lend him some "? — I am willing to lend him 
some. — Do you wish to speak to the German 1 — I wisli to speak to 
him. — Where is he ■? — He is with the son of the Am.erican, {de 
r Americain.) — Does the German wish to speak to me 1 — He w-ishea 
to speak to you. — Does he wish to speak to my brother or to yours 1 — 
He wishes to speak to both. — Can the children of our neighbor work ? 
— They can work, but they will not. 

55. 

Do you wish to speak to the children of the Dutchman 1 — I wish 
(0 speak to them. — What will you give them ] — I will give them 
good cakes. — Will you lend them any thing ■? — I am willing to lend 
hem something, but I cannot lend them any thing ; I have nothing. 
— Has the cook some more salt to salt the beef? — He hss a little 
more. — Has he some more rice 1 — He has a great deal more. — Will 
ae give me some 1 — He will give you some. — Will he give some to 
my little boys \ — He will give them some. — Will he kill this or that 
chicken 1 — He will neither kill this nor that. — Which ox will he kill ] 
— He will kill that of the good peasant. — Will he kill this or that ox 1 
— Pie will kill both. — Who will send us biscuits? — The baker will 
send you some. — Have you any thing to {a) do ] — I have nothing 
to do. 

56. 

What has your son to (a) do 1 — He has to write to his good friends 
and to the captains. — To whom do you wish to speak ? — I wish to 
speak to the Italians and to the French. — Do you wish to give them 
some money ? — I wish to give them some. — Do you wish to give 
this man some bread 1 — I wish to give him some. — Will you give 
him a coat 1 — I will give him one. — Will your friends give me some 
coffee ] — They will give you some. — Will you lend me your books ? 
— I will lend them to you. — Will you lend your neighbors your mat- 
tress ■? — I will not lend it to them. — Will you lend them your looking- 
glass 1 — I will lend it to them. — To whom (a qui) will j-ou lend 
your umbrellas'? — I will lend thenr to my friends. — To whom (a qui) 
docs vour friend wish to lend his linen 1 — He will lend it to nobody. 



TWENTY-FIRST LESSON. 



73 



TWENTY-FIRST LESSON.— Vingt e. urneme Lepon 
To wJto7n ? 



Whom ? 
What ? 



A qui ? (a question followed by tlio 

object indirect in the dative.) 
For persons: qui? 
For things: que? quoi ? 



Subject 

or 

Nominative. 



THE FOUR CASES OF THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 

Qui? Who?— Que? Quoi? What? 
For persons. 



•Who? 



What? 



rii • i • J- 1 Of whom, Of what. 
Object nidi- I ^ ^^ 

rect m the }- 



Genitive. 



from 



from 



J whom ?) what ?) 

Object indi-^Yo whom ?T. , ,, 
rect in the > -.xr, , 1 o what ? 
Tx ,. i Whose? 

Dative. ) 



Qui? 



De qui? 



A qui ? 



For things. 
que ? quoi ? 

do quoi 7 
h quoi? 



que? quoi? 



Object di- ^ 

rect or Ac- V Whom ? "What ? Qui ? 

cusative. ) 

Qui ? who ? has no plural, and always refers to persons, without distinc- 
tion of sex, as who in English. 

Que ? and quoi ? What? have no plural, and always relate to things. 

Obs. A. Always use que for things before a verb, and never quoi as the 
subject and object direct or accusative. 



To answer. 
To answer the man. 
To answer the men. 



R^pondre 4. 
Repondre 5, 1'hornme. 
Rdpondre aux hommes. 



Ohs. B. There are many verbs in English after which the preposition 
to may or may not be expressed ; but this is not the case in French, where 
to, a, must be expressed. 



To whom do you wish to answer? 
I wisli to answer to my brother. 

To answer him. 

To answer them. 



A qui voulez-vous r^pondro? 
Je veux repondre k mou trbro. 
Lui repondre. 
Leur repondre. 



To answer the note. 
To answer it. 



Repondre au billot 
Y r6pondre. 



n 



TWENTY-FIRST LESSON. 



To it, to thern. 

To answer the notes. 

To answer them. 
Will you answer my note ? 
I will answer it. 



Repondre aux billets 

Y repondre. 

Voulez-vous repondre a men billet ? 

Je venx y repondre. 



The play, ilie theatre 
The ball. 



To or at the play. 

To or at the ball. 

To or at the garden. 
The storehouse. 
The magazine, 
The warehouse. 
The eounting-house. 
The market. 

There, thither. 

To go there, thither. 

To be there 
Do you wish to go to the play ? 
I wish to go there. 
Is your brother at the play ? 
He is there. 
He is not there. 
Where is he? 

In. 
Is your father in his garden? 
He is there. 

Where is the merchant ? 

He is in his storehouse. 

What have you to do ? 

I have nothing to do. 

What has the man to drink ? 

Ho has uothuig to drink. 

Have you any thing to do ? 

I have to answer a note. 

I have to speak to your brother 



Le theatre. 
Le bal. 

Singular. 
Au theatre, 
Au bal, 
Au jardin, 

■ Le magasin. 

Le comptoir. 
Le marche. 



Plural 
aux thiiatrea 
aux bals. 
aux jardics 



Y. 

Y aller. 

Y etre. 

Voulez-vous aller au th(Satre .' 

Je veux y aller. 

Votre frere est-il au theatre 7 

II y est. 

II n"y est pas. 

Oil est-il? 



Dans. 

Votre pere est-il dans sou jardin? 

II y est. 

Oil est le marchand ? 

Oil le marchand est-il? 

II est dans sou magasin. 



Qu'avez-vous b, faire ''- 

Je ivai rieu &. faire. 

L'homme qu'a-t-il i boire'' 

II n'a rieu i boire. 

Avez-vous quelque chose a fa.iro! 

J'ai ii repondre i uu billet. 

J'ai a parler a voire frfcie. 



£1 t^/r.- .. 

TWENTY-FIRST LESSON. 75 



EXERCISES 
57 

Will you write to me'? — T will write to you. — "Will you write to 
the Italian \ — I will write to him. — Will your brother write to the 
English 1 — He will write to them, but they have no mind to answer 
him. — Will you answer your friend'? — I will answer him. — But 
whom will you answer ■? — I will answer my good father. — Will you 
not answer your good friends '? — I will answer them. — Who will 
write to you? — The Russian wishes to write to me. — ^Will you an-- 
swer him 1 — I will not answer him. — Who will write to our friends 1 
— The children of our neighbor will write to them. — Will they an- 
swer them ] — They will answer them. — To whom do you wish to 
write ■? — I wish to write to the Russian. — Will he answer you ■? — He 
wishes to answer me, but he cannot. — Can the Spaniards answer 
us '? — They cannot answer us, but we can answer them. — To whom 
do you wish to send this note ■? — I will send it to the joiner. 

58. 
/ What have you to do ■? — I have to write. — What have you to 
Vwrite ■? — I have to write a note. — To whom '? — To the carpenter. — 
What has your father to drink 1 — He has to drink some good wine. — 
Has your servant any thing to drink ■? — He has to drink some tea. — 
What has the shoemaker to do 1 — Pie has to mend my shoes. — What 
have you to mend '? — I have to mend my thread stockings. — To 
whom have you to speak '? — I have to speak to the captain. — When 
will you speak to him ■? — To-day. — Where will you speak to him ■? — 
At his house. — To whom has your brother to speak ■? — He has to 
speak to your son. — What has the Englishman to do ■? — He has to 
answer a note. — Which note has he to answer ? — He has to answer 
that of the good German. — Have I to answer the note of the French- 
man '? — You have to answer it. — Which note have you to answer '[ 
' — I have to answer that of my good friend. — Has your father to an- 
swer a note 1 — He has to answer one, (a un billet.) — Who has to an- 
swer notes ? — Our children have to answer a few. — Will you answer 
the notes of the merchants 1 — I will answer them. — Will your bro- 
ther answer this or that note ■? — He will answer neither this nor that, 
— Will any one answer my note ■? — No one will answer it. 

, 59. 

Which notes will your father answer 1 — He will answer only thoa-o 
of his good friends. — Will he answer my note ■? — He will answer it. 
— Have you to answer any one ■? — I have to answer no one. — ^Whc 
will answer my notes 1 — Your friends will answer them — Have you 



76 TWENTY-FIRST LESSON. 

a mind to go to the ball 1 — I have a mind to go Jiere.- — ^^Vhen will 
you go there 1 — To-day. — At what o'clock ] — At half-past ten. — 
When will you take your boy to the play ■? — I will take him there to- 
morrow. — At what o'clock will you take him there ] — ^At a quarter 
to six. — Where is your son ] — He is at the play. — Is your friend at 
the ball 1 — He is there. — Where is the merchant 1 — He is at his 
counting-house. — ^Where do you wish to take me to ] — I wish to take 
you to my warehouse. — Where does your cook wish to go to ] — He 
wishes to go to the market. — Is your brother at the market ? — He is 
not there. — Where is he 1 — He is in his magazine. 

60. 

Where is the Dutchman 1 — He is in his garret. — Will you come 
to me in order to go to the play 1 — I will come (aller) to you, but I 
have no mind to go to the play. — Where is the Irishman 1 — He is at 
the market. — To which theatre do you wish to go 1 — I wish to go to 
that of the French. — Will you go to my garden or to that of the 
Scotchman 1 — I will go neither to yours nor to that of the Scotch- 
man ; I wish to go to that of the Italian! — Does the physician wish 
to go to our storehouses or to those of the Dutch 1 — He will go nei- 
ther to yours nor to those of the Dutch, but to those of the French. — 
What do you wish to buy at the market ? — I wish to buy a basket 
and some carpets. — Where will you take them to ? — I will take them 
home. 

Gl. 

How many carpets do you wish to buy 1 — I wish to buy two. — To 
whom do you wish to give them 1 — I will give them to my servant. 
— Has he a mind to sweep the floor 1 — He has a mind to do it, but he 
has no time. — Have the English many storehouses ? — They have 
many. — Have the French as many dogs as cats ] — They have more 
of the latter than of the former. — Have you many guns in your 
warehouses 1 — We have many there, but we have but little corn. — 
Do you wish to see our guns ■? — I wiU go into your warehouses in 
order to see them. — Do you wish to buy any thing 1 — I do wish to 
buy something. — What do you wish to buy ? — I wish to buy a 
pocket-book, a looking-glass, and a pistol. — Where will you buy your 
trunk 1 — I will buy it at the market. — Have j^ou as much wine as 
tea in your storehouses 1 — We have as nmch of the one as of the 
3ther. — Who wishes to tear my linen ! — No one w ishes to tear it. 

62. 

Will the English give us some bread ' — Thej' will give you some 
— Will they give us as much butter as bread 1 — They will give you 
more of the latter than of the former. — Will you give this man a 



TWENTV-SECOND LESSOK 



77 



franc 1 — I will give him several. — How many francs will you give 
himi — I will give him iive.^-AVhat will the French lend usi — 
They will lend us many books. — Have you time to write to the mer- 
chant 1 — I wish to write to him, but I have no time to-day. — When 
will you answer the German 1 — I will answer him to-morrow. — At 
what o'clock 1 — At eight. — Where does the Spaniard wish to go to 1 
— He wishes to go no whither. — Does your servant wish to warm 
my broth 1 — He wishes to warm it. — Is he willing to make my fire ! 
— He is willing to make it. — Where does the baker wish to go to 1 — 
He wishes to go to the wood. — Where is the youth? — He is at the 
play. — Who is at the captain's ball 1 — Our children and our friends 
are there. , 



TWENTY-SECOND LESSON .—Vingt-deuzieme Lepon. 



To or at the comer. 
. To or at the hole. 

In the hole, in the holes. 



To send for. 
To go for, to fetch. 
Will you send for some wine? 

I will send for some. 

Will your boy go for some bread ? 

Ho will not go for any. 

I will send for the pliysician. 

I will send for him. 

He will send for my brothers. 

He will send for tiiem. 



Sing. 
Au coin, 
Au trou, 

Dans le trou, 



Plur. 
aux coins, 
aux trous, (See u 

1. Less. IX.) 
dans les trous. 



To or at the bottom. 




Au fond. 


To or at the bottom of the 


bag. 


Au fond du sac. 


At the corner of the fire. 




Au coin du feu. 


To or at the end. 




Au bout. 


To the end of the road. 




Au bout du chemin. 


To the end of the roads. 




Au bout des chemins. 


The road. 




Le chemin. 



Envoycr chercher. 

Aller chercher 

Voulez-vous envoyer chercher du 

vin? 
Je veux en envoy er chercher 
Votre gar5on veut-i] aller cherchei 

du pam 1 
II ne veat pas en aller chercher. 
Je veux envoyer chercher le medo- 

cin. 
Je veux I'envoyer chercher. 
II vent euvoyer ch^cher mes frbres 
II vent les envoyer chercher. 



78 



TWEN'TY-SECOND LESSON. 



Will you send for glasses ? 
I will send for some. 



What have you to do ? 

I have to go to the market. 

What have you to drink ? 

We have to drink some good wine 

You have to mend your stockings. 



Voulez-vous envoy er chercher do3 

verres ? 
Je veux en envoyer chercher. 



Qu'avez-vous a faire ? 

J"ai k aller au marche. 

Qu'avez-vous i boire ? 

Nous avons a boire de bon viu. 

Vous avez &. raccommoder vos bus. 



They have. 
What }tave the men to do 1 
Tliey have to go to the storehouse. 



This evening, (to-niglit.) 
In the evening. 
This morning. 
In the morning. 

Now, at present. 

Thou. 
Thou hast — thou art. 
Art thou fatigued ? 
I am not fatigued. 
Are the men tu'ed ? 



lis ont. 

Les hommes qn'ont-ils h. faire ? 

lis cnt a, aller au magasin. 



Ce soir. 
t Le soir 
Ce matin, 
t Le matin. 



present. 



Tu as— Tu es. 

Es-tu fatigue ? 

Je ne suis pas fatigue. 

Les hommes sont-ils fatigfu^s ? 



Obs. The adjective in French, when it is preceded by a noun or pronoun, 
must agree with it in number ; that is, if the noun or pronoun is in the 
plural, the adjective must take an s. 

They are not tired. | lis ne sont pas fatigue-s. 



Thou wilt (wishest) — thou art able, 1 Tu veux — tu peux. 

(canst.) I 

Art thou willing to make my fire ? I Veux-tu faire mon feu ? 

I am Vi'illiug to make it, but I can- | Je veux le faire, mais je ne peux 

not. I pas 



' lu addressing one another the French use the second person plural, as 
in English. The second person singular, however, is employed : L In sub- 
lime or serious style, and in poetry ; 3. It is a mark of intimacy among 
friends, and is used by parents and children, brothers aud sister^, Inisbanda 
and wives, towar9s one another : in general it implies familiarity founded on 
affection aud fondness, or hatred and contempt. 



TWENTJt'-SECOND L£SSON. 



79 



Art thou afraid ? 

I am not afraid, I am cold. 

Art thou hungiy ? 



To sell. 

To tell, to say. 

To tell some one, to say to some 

one. 

The word. 
Will you tell the servant to make the 

fire? 
[ will tell him to make it. 



Thy. 
Thine. 
Thy book — thy books. 



f As-tu peur ? 

t Je n'ai pas peur ; j'ai froid. 

t As-tu faim ? 



Vendre 4. 

Dire * 4, (takes the preposition de. 

before the verb.) 
Dire &. quelqu'un. 

Le mot. 

Voulez-vous dire au domestique de 

faire le feu ? 
Je veux lui dire de le faire. 



Sing. Ton. Plur. tes. 

— Le tie'.i, — les tieus. 

— Ton livi-e — tes livres. 



EXERCISES. 
63. 

Will you send for some sugar 1 — I will send for some. — Son, (mon 
Jils,) wilt thou go for some cakes 1 — Yes, fathsr, {man pere,) I will 
go for some. — Whither wilt thou go 1 — I will go into the garden. — 
Who is in the garden 1 — The children of our friends are there. — 
Will you send for the physician ■? — I will send for him. — Who will 
go for my brother ■? — My servant will go for him. — ^Where is he 1 — 
He is in his counting-house. — ^Will you give me my broth 1 — I will 
give it you. — ^Where is it 1 — It is at the corner of the fire. — Will you 
give me some money to (pour) fetch some milk 1 — I will give you 
some to fetch some. — ^Where is your money 1 — It is in my counting- 
house : will you go for it 1 — I will go for it. — Will you buy my horse 1 
— I cannot buy it ; I have no money. — ^Where is your cat 1 — It is in 
.the hole.— In which hole is it ] — In the hole of the garret. — Where 
is this man's dog ■? — It. is in a corner of the ship. — ^Where has the 
peasant his corn ] — He has it in his bag. — Has he a cat 1 — He has 
one — ^Where is it 1 — It is at the bottom of the bag. — Is your cat in 
this bag 1 — It is in it. 

64. 

Have you any thing to do 1—1 have something to do. — WTrat have 

^ou to do 1 — I have to mend my stockings, and to go to the end of the 

road. — Who is at the end of the road ^^My father is there. — Has 

your cook any thing to drink] — He has to drink some wine and some 



80 TWENTY-THIRD LESSON. 

good broth. — Can you give me as much butter as bread 1 — I can give 
you more of the latter than of the former. — Can our friend drink ds 
much wine as coffee 1 — He cannot drink so much of the latter as ot 
the former. — Have you to speak to any one l — I have to speak to 
several men. — To how many men have you to speak ] — I have to 
speak to four. — When have you to speak to them 1 — This evening. — 
At what o'clock 1 — At a quarter to nine. — When can you go to the 
market ] — I can go thither in the morning. — At what o'clock 1 — At 
half-past seven. — When will you go to the Frenchman ". — I will go 
to him to-night. — Will you go to the physician in the monnng or in 
the evening ■? — I will go to him in the morning. — At what o'clock 1 — 
At a quarter past ten. 

65. 

Have you to write as many notes as the Englishman ] — I have to 
write fevv^er of them than he. — Will you speak to the German 1 — I will 
speak to him. — ^When will you speak to him 1 — At present.- — Where 
is he 1 — He is at the other end of the wood. — Will j-ou go to the 
market ] — I will go thitherto (puur) buy some linen. — Do your neigh- 
bors not wish to~go to the miarket "! — They cannot go thither ; they 
are fatigued. — Hast thou the courage to go to the wood in the even- 
ing i — I have the courage to go thither, but not in the evening. — Are 
your children able to answer rny notes ! — They are able to answer 
them. — ^What do you wish to say to the servant ? — I wish to tell him 
to make the fire and to sweep the warehouse. — Will you tell j'our 
brother to sell me his horse ■? — I will tell him to sell it you. — What 
do you wish to tell me 1 — I wish to tell you a word. — Whom do you 
wish to see 1 — I wish to see the Scotchman. — Have you any thing 
to tell him 1 — I have to tell him a few words. — ^ATiich books doea 
my brother wish to sell 1 — He wishes to sell thine and his own. 



TWENTY-THIRD LESSON.— Vingt-troisieme Le^on 



To go out. 

To remain, to stay. 
When do you Vi'ish to go out ? 
I wish to ffo out now. 



Sortir 2 *. 

Rester 1. 

Quaud voulez-vous soriir ? 

Je veux sortir i present. 



To remahi (to stay) at home. ' Rester i la maison.^ 

'■La jnaison, tlie house, is a feminine noun, the article of such nouns b& 
mg for the singular la. This class of nouns will be spoken of hereafter 
(See Note 1, Less XIX.) 



TWENTY-THIRD LESSON. 



81 



Here. 
To remain here. 
There. 
WilJ you stay here ? 
I will stay here. 
Will your friend remain there ? 
He will not stay there. 
Will you go to your brother? 
I will go to him. 

The pleasure. 

Tlie favor. 
To give pleasure. 
To do a favor. 



Are you going? 
I am going. 
I am not going. 
Thou art going. 
Is he going ? 
He goes, or is going. 
He is not going. 
Are we going ? 
We go, or are going. 

What are you going to do ? 
I am going to read. 

To read. 

Are you going to your brother ? 
I am going there. 
Where is he going to ? 
He is going to his father. 



Ici, y. 

Hester ici. 

La, y. 

Voulez-vous rester ici ? 

Je veux y rester. 

Vctre ami veut-il rester la, ? 

II ne veut pas y rester. 

Voulez-vous aller chez votro friJre ? 

Je veux y aher. 



Le plaisir. 

Faire plaisir. 
Faire un plaisir. 



Allez-vous ? 

Je vais. 

Je ne vais pas. 

Tu vas. 

Va-t-il ? 

II va. 

II ne va pas. 

Allons-nous ? 

Nous allons. 



Qu'allez-vous faire ? 
Je vais lire. 
Lire 4 *. 



Allez-vous chez votre friiro ? 

Ty vais. 

Ou va-t-il ? 

II va chez son pfere. 



All, every. 


Sing. Tout. Plur. Toua. 


Every daj-. 


Tous les jours. 


Every morning. 


Tous les matins. 


Every evening. 


Tous les soirs. 


It is. 


11 est. 


Late. 


Tard. 


Nh^X o'clock is it ? 


Quelle" heure est-il ? 



' The interrogative pronoun quelle is here in the feminine gender, agreo 
mg with the feminine noun heure, hour- (See Note 2, Lesson XIX.) 



82 



T\MENTY-THIRD LESSON. 



It is three o'clock. 

It is twelve o'clock. 

It is a quarter past twelve. 

It wants a quarter to six. 

It is half-past one. 



II est trois heures. 
II est midi 

II est midi et quart, {or et un quart.) 
II est six heures moias un quart. 
II est une heure et demie. (Sen 
Note 2, Less. XIX.) 



To he acquainted vnth, (to know.) 
To be acquainted with (to know) a 
man. 



Connaitre * 4. 
Connaitre un honune. 



Need. 

To want. 

To he in want of. 

I want it. 

I am in want of it. 
\re you in want of this knife ? 
t am not in want of it. 
A.re you in want of these knives ? 
I am in want of them. 
I am not in want of them. 
I am not in want of any thing. 
Is he in want of money ? 
He is not in want of any. 



Besoin, (is always followed by the 
preposition de.) 

Avoir besoin de. 

J'en ai besoin. 

Avez-vous besoiu de ce couteau ? 

Je n'en ai pas besoin. 

Avez-vous besoin de ces couteaux? 

J'en ^i besoin. 

Je n'en ai pas besoin. 

Je n'ai besoin de rien. 

A-t-il besoin d'argeut ? 

II n'en a pas besoin. 



Of what ? 
What are you in want of ? 
What do you want ? 



I De qitoi ? 

\ De quoi avez-vous besoin? 



OBJECT INDIRECT IN THE GENITIVE OF THE PERSONAL PROXOrNa 

(See Lesson XX.) 

Of me, of thee, of him. I De moi, de toi, de lui, (en.j 

Of us, of you, of them. | De nous, de vous, d'eus, (en.) 



Is your father in want of me ? 

He is in want of you. 

Are you in want of these books ? 

I am in want of vhem. 

Is he in want of my brothers ? 

He is in want of them. 



Votre pfere a-t-il besoiu de moi ? 

II a besoin de vous. 

Avez-vous besoiu de ces livres? 

J'en ai besoin. 

A-t-il besoin de mes frferes ? 

II a besoin d'eux. 

II en a besoin.' 



® Tlie former of these two expressions is the more polite witli resjwct It 
persons, the latt'?r being more coniniouly used for tilings. 



TWENTY-THIRD LESSON. 83 

EXERCISES. 

66. 

Will you do me a favor 1 — Yes, sir, what one, {lequel ?) — Will yoii 
tell my servant to make the fire 1 — I w^ill tell him to make it. — Will 
you tell him to sweep the warehouses 1 — I will tell him to sweep 
them. — What will you tell your father 1 — I will tell him to sell you 
his horse. — Will you tell your son to go to my father 1 — I will tell 
him to go to him, (y.) — Have you any thing to tell me 1 — I- have 
nothing to tell you. — Have you any thing to say to my father 1 — I 
have a word to say to him. — Do these men wish to sell their car- 
pets 1 — They do not wish to sell them. — John ! (Jean) art thou 
lere, (Id?) — Yes, sir, I am here, {fy suis.) — What art thou going 
to do ] — I am going to your hatter to {pour) tell him to mend your 
hat. — Wilt thou go to the tailor to tell him to mend my coats T — I 
will go to him, (y.) — Are you willing to go to the market] — I am 
willing to go thither. — What has your merchant to sell 1 — He has to 
sell some beautiful leather gloves, combs, good cloth, and fine wood- 
en baskets. — Has he any iron guns to sell 1 — He has some to sell. — 
Does he wish to sell me his horses'? — He wishes to sell them to 
vou. — Have you any thing to sell '\ — I have nothing to sell. 

67. 
Is it late ? — It is not late. — What o'clock is if? — It is a quarter 
-At what o'clock does the captain wish to go out ? — 
go out at a quarter to eight. — What are you going to 
,^^^^^oing to read. — What h ave you to read % — I have to read 
a gooOook. — ^Wil^^ou lend it to me 1 — I will lend it you.— ^When 
will you lend it me "? — I will lend it you to-morrow. — Have you a 
mind to go out ? — I have no mind to go out. — Are you willing to 
stay here, my dear {chei-) friend ■? — I cannot remain here. — Whither 
have you to go "? — I have to go to the counting-house. — When will 
you go to the ball "? — To-night. — At what o'clock ] — At midnight. — 
Do you go to the Scotchman in the evening or in the morning ? — I 
go to him (y) (both) in the evening anu in the morning. — Where are 
you going to now ! — I am going to the theatre. — V/here is your son 
going to ■? — He is going no whither ; .le is going to stay at home to 
(pour) write his notes. — Where is your brother? — He is at his 
warehouse. — Does he not wish to go out 1 — No, sir, he does not 
wish to go out. — ^What is he going to do there 1 — He is going to 
write to his friends. — Will you stay here or there 1 — I will stay 
there. — Where will your father stay ? — He will stay there. — Has oui 
friend a mind to stay in the garden "? — He has a mind to stay there. 




84 TWENTY-THIRD LESSON. 

68. 
At what o'clock is the Dutchman at home 1 — He is at home every 
evening at a quarter past nine. — When does your cook go to the 
m.arket ] — He goes thither every morning at half-past five.— ^yhe^ 
does our neighbor go to the Irishmen ■? — He goes to them (y) every 
day. — At what o'clock 1 — At eight o'clock in the morning. — What 
do you wish to buy 1 — I do not wish to buy any thing ; but my fa- 
ther wishes to buy an ox. — Does he wish to buy this or that ox 1 — 
He wishes to buy neither this nor that. — ^Which one QequeJ) does 
he wish to buy 1 — He wishes to buy your friend's, {celui de voire 
a7ni.) — Has the merchant one more coat to sell ] — He has one more, 
but he does not wish to sell it. — Has this man one knife more to 
sell ? — He has not one more {plus de) knife to sell ; but he has a 
few more guns to sell. — When will he sell them 1 — He will sell them 
to-day. — Where 1 — At his warehouse. — Do you wish to see my 
friend 1 — I do wish to see him in order to know him. — Do you wish 
to know my children 1 — I do wish to know them. — How many chil- 
dren have you 1 — I have only two ; but my brother has m.ore than I : 
he has six of them. — Does that man wish to drink too much wine ] 
— He wishes to drink too much of it. — Have you wine enough to 
drink "? — I have only a little, but enough. — Does your brother wish 

"■ to buy too many cakes ? — He wishes to buy a great man}', but not 

^'. too many. 

69. 
Can you lend me a knife ? — I can lend you one. — Cani 
lend me a book 1 — He can lend you several. — What are' 
of 1 — I am in want of a good gun. — Are j^ou in Ant of tlu^^^^e ? 
— I am in want of it. — Does your brother want money I — He does 
not want any. — Does he want some shoes 1 — He does not want any. 
— What does he want ] — He wants nothing. — Are you in want of 
these sticks 1 — I am in want of them. — Who wants some sugar ! — 
Nobody wants any. — Does anybody want pepper'! — Nobody wants 
any. — ^What do I want 1 — You want nothing. — Does your father 
want these or those pictures ■? — He wants neither these nor those. — 
■/Are you in want of me ? — I am in want of you. — When do you want 
me 1 — At present. — What have you to say to me 1 — I have a word 
to say to you. — Is your son in want of us ? — He is in want of you and 
your brothers. — ,\.re you in want of ni}' servants? — I am in want of 
them. — Does any one want my brother ? — No one wants him. — Does 
your father want any thing ] — He does not want uny thing. — What 
does the Englishman want 1 — He wants some linen. — Does lie not 
want some jewels ! — He dors not want any. — ^^ luit does the sailoi 




TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 85 

cvaut ? — He wants some biscuits, some milk, cheese, and butter. — 
Are you going to give me any thing ■? — I am going to give you some 
bread and wine. 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSO'^ .—Vingt-quatrieme LeQon. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

To find the present tense of a verb its present participle must bo 
kiiownj as it serves to form the tliree persons plural.' It always ends in 
ant, ana as all grammars and dictionaries give it, it is easily formed, and 
almost guessed at by learners." 

Tlie first, second, and third persons plural of the present tense are formed 
by changing the syllable ant of the present participle into ons for the first 
person, into ez for the second, and into ent for the third.' Ex. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Infinitive. Present participle. I Infinitif. Participe present 
To speak, speaking. | Parler, jyavlant. 

TRESENT. 

I speak, thou speakest, he speaks. I Je parle, tu paries, il parle. 

We speak, you speak, they speak. | Nous parloKS, vous parley, ils parleni 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 

Finir, finissanf. 
Je finis, tu finis, il Unit. 
Nous finisso«s, vous fiuissea;, ils finis- 
sent. 

^ The present of the judicative, the participle, and the infinitive, art 
primitive parts of the verb. The other primitives are the preterite definite 
and the participle past. 

^ The formation of the present tenso from the infinitive presents too 
many exceptions, they being almost as numerous as the different termina- 
tions of the various infinitives, and is consequently too difficult for begin- 
ners. 

^ In aU the four conjugations the second person singular has an s.* In 
the first conjugation the third person singular is the same as the first person ; 
in the second and third conjugations it has t. In the fourth conjugation it 
adds nothing to the root.t 

* Except in the imperative of the first conjugation, and of some verbs of the second, 
where the s is dropped Ex. Parle, speali, (thou.) When the imperative, however, is 
followed by one of the pronouns, en, y, the letter s is not dropped, as : donnet-en a ton 
frere. give some to thy brother ; partes y tcs livres, take thy books thither. 

t By root we understand that part of the verb which precedes the te^'minations er, tr 
cir, re, of tlio infinitive ; P r example,-4n the verb Jijiir, to finish, ^?i, end, is tlie root 



To finish, finishing. 
i.'fi-lM^i^ihou finishest, he finishes. 
We finish,' you finish, they finish. 



80 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



Te receive, receiving. 

I receive, thou receivest, he receives, 
We receive, you receive, they re- 
ceive. 



Recevoir, rezevarai. 
Je reffcis, tu re§ois, il re^oii. 
Nous recevons, vous recevez, ilfi ra- 
§oive72t'' 

Ohs. A. We have already seen in several words of the foregoing Les- 
sons that a cedilla is placed under the letter c (9) to give it the sound of i 
before the vowels a, 0, u, as in gargon, boy ; Fiangais, Frenchman, &c 
This is the case also in verbs whose root ends in c, which, to preserve the 
soft sound, receives a cedilla whenever it is followed by a, 0, or u. Ex 
Je regois, tu regoiSj il regoit ; forcer, to force ; forgant, forcing ; placer, 
to place ; plagant, placing ; &c. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



To sell, selling. 

I sell, thou sellest, he sells. 
We sell, you sell, they sell. 



Vendre, vendiznl. 

Je vends, tu vends, il vend. 
Nous vendors, vous vender, ils vend 
ent. 



The principal exceptions to this rule are : — 



To be, being. 

We are, you are, they are. 

To have, having. 
We have, you have, they have. 

To know, knowing. 
We know, you know, they know. 

To do, doing. 

You do, they do. 

To say, saying. 

You say. 



fitre *, etant. 

Nous sorames, vous etes, ils sont. 

Avoir *, ayant. 

Nous avons, vous avez, ils out. 

Savoir *, sachant. 

Nous Savons, vous savez, ils ^j'«ut. 

Fahe *, faisant. 

Vous faites, ils font. 

Dire *, disant. 

Vous dites.^ 



* The thira person plural of the third conjugation presents, as may bo 
observed, a little exception, as the present participle is here changed into 
regoivcnt. 

^ The remaining exceptions to this rule are the following : — 

CON I 

allant : 
Tenant : 
tenant : 
acquerant 



1st Allcr, to go ; 
2d. Venir, to come ; 

Tenir, to keep ; 

Acquerir, to acquire ; 

Mourir, to die, (lose life ,) mourant . 
3d. Recevoir, to receive ; rccerant . 



ils vont, they go. 

ils viennent, they conio. 

ils Viennent, they keep. 

ils acquiirent, they acquiro 

ils meurcnt. they die. 

77s regoitent, they receive.* 



* And all those ii nwir, as apcrcevoir, to perceive ; conccvoir, to conceive, &:i" 
<See Note 4 above. 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



87 



Oha. B. There is no distinction in Frencli between I love, I do love, and 
I am loving. All these present tenses are expressed hy faime, I love 

To love, to like. 

{ love. C loves. 

I -^ do love. He ^ does love. 

* am loving. f is loving. 

( lovest. f love. 

Thou < dost love. You < do love. 

' art loving. * are loving. 

^ love. C love. 

We \ fJo love. They < do love. 
C are loving. \ are loving. 



Aimer 1. 
J'aime, il aime. 

Tu aimes, vous aimcz. 

Nous abnon.'?, ils aimew^ 



To love, to like, to be fond of. 
To arrange, to set in order. 



Aimer. 

Arranger, ranger 1. 



Ohs. C. In verbs vs^here the ending er is preceded by g, the letter e is, 
for the softening of the sound, retained in all those tenses where g is follow- 
ed by a or o. Ex. manger, to eat ; mangeant, eating ; juger, to judge ; 
jugeant, judging; negliger, to neglect; negligeant, neglecting; nous 
mangeons, we eat ; nous jugeons, we judge ; nous negligPMns, we neglect. 



Do you like him? 



Zi'aimez vous ? 



0° Personal pronouns not standing in the nomiiiative, take theh place 
before the verb. 



I do like him. 

I do not like him. 
Do you sell your horse ? 
I do sell it. 
Do you sell it ? 

Does he send you the note ? 
He does send it me. 



Je Z'aime. 

Je ne Z'aime pas. 

Vendez-vous votre cheval ? 

Je le vends. 

Le vendez-vous ? 



Vous envoie-t-il le billet ? 
II me Z'envoie. 



Obs. D. In verbs ending in oyer, oijer, uyer, the letter y is changed iuto 
i in all persons and tenses where it is followed by e mute. Ex. 



Devoir, to owe ; devant : 

Mouvoir, to move ; mouvant , 

Pouvoir, to be able, (can ;) pouvant : 
Vouloir, to be willing ; voulant : 
tth. Boire, to drink ; buvant : 

Prendre, to take ; prenant : 



ils doivent, they owe. 
ils meuvent, they move. 
ils peuvent, they are able. 
ils veulent, they are willing, 
ils hoivent, they drink. 
ils prennent, they take 



88 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



I send, thou seudest, he sends, they 

send. 
I Si^veep, thou sweepest, he sweeps, 

they sweep. 



J'envoie, tu envoies, il envoie, Us eu- 

voient. 
Je balaie, tu balaies, il balaie, ils ba- 

laient. 



Does the servant sweep the floor ? 1 Le domestique balaie-t-il le plauchar ( 
He does sweep it. ( II le balaie. 



Ohs. E. As the rule wliich I have given above, on the formation of the 
plural of the present tense, is applicable to irregular as well as regular verbs, 
it remains now only to point out the present tense singular of those irregular 
verbs which we have already employed, to enable the learner to use them 
all in his exercises. They are the following: — 



To do, to niake. 
I do, thou dost, he does. 

To drink, drinking. 
I drink, thou drinkest, he drinks. 

To come, coming. 
I come, thou comest, he comes. 

To write, writing. 
I write, thou writest, he writes. 

To see, seeing. 
I see, thou seest, he sees. 

To say, to tell. 
I say, thou sayest, he saj-s. 

To go out, going out. 
I go out, thou goest out, he goes out. 

To read, reading. 
I read, thou readest, he roads. 

To know, (to be acquainted 
with,) knowing. 
I know, thou knowest, ho knows. 



To open, opening. 
I open, thou openest, he opens. 
Do you open his note ? 
I do not open it. 
Does he open his eyes ? 
He opens them. 
Whom 'do )-ou love? 
I love my father. 



Faire *. -7^' 

Je fais, tu fais, il fait. 

Boire *, buvant. 

Je bois, tu bois, il boit. 

Venir *, venaut. 

Je viens, tu viens, il vient. 

Ecrire *, ecrivant. 

J'ecris, ta ecris, il ecrit. 

Voir *, voyant. 

Je vols, tu vols, il voit. 

Dire *. 

Je dis, tu dis, il dit. 

Sortir *. sortant. 

Je sors, tu sors, il sort 

Lire *, lisaut. 

Je lis, tu lis, il lit 

Connaitre *, conuaissant 

Je conuais, tu connais, il comiait 



Ouvrir * 2, ouvrant. 
J'ouvre, tu ouvres, il ou^Te.* 
Ouvrez-vous son billet? 
Je ne TomTe pas. 
t Ouvre-t-il les yeu\ ? 
II les ouvre. 
Qui aimez-vous? 
J'aune mou p&re 



' It will be remarked that this verb has in the present indicative the final 

'otters of the first regular coujugalion. 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



89 



Does your father love his son ? 

Ho does love hini. 

Do you love your children ? 

I do love them. 

Are you fond of wine ? 

I am fond of it. 

VVliat are yon fond oi? 

Cider. 
I am fond of cider. 

The American. 
What is the American fond of? 
He is fond of coffee. 



Votre pfere ainie-t-il son fils? 

II I'aime. 

Aimez-vo'js vos enfants ? 

Je les aime. 

Aimez-vous le vin ? 

Je I'aime. 

Qu' aimez-vous ? 

Du cidre. 

J'aime le cidre. 



L'Ajnericain. 
L'Am^ricain qu'aime-t-il ? 
II aime le cafe. 



-# 



m 



EXERCISES. 
'70, 



Do you love your brother 1 — I do love him. — Does your brother 
love you ] — He does not love me. — Dost thou love me, my good child "? 
— I do love thee. — Dost thou love this ugly man 1 — I do not love 
him. — Whom do you love 1 — I love my children. — Whom do we love ? 
—We love our friends. — Do we like any one 1 — ^We like no one. — 
Does anybody like us 1 — The Americans like us. — Do you want any 
thing 1 — I want nothing.'-^Whom is your father in want of? — He is 
in want of his servant. — I^What do you want ■? — I want the note. — Do 
you want this or that note ] — I want this one. — What do you wish to 
do with it, (en ?) — I wish to open it, in order to read it. — Does your 
son read our notes 1 — He does read them. — When does he read them ? 
— He reads them when he receives them. — Does he receive as many 
notes as I, (que moi ?) — He receives more of them than you. -^ What 
do you give me 1 — I do not give thee any thing. — Do you give this 
book to my brother 1 — I do give it him. — Do you give him a bird? 
— I do give him one. — To whom do you lend your books ■? — I lend 
them to my friends. — Does your friend lend me a coat ] — He lends 
you one.— To whom do you lend your clothes, {habits ?) — I do not 
lend them to anybody. 

71. 

Do we arrange any thing 1 — We do not arrange any thing. — ^What 
does your brother set in order, {ranger ?) — He sets in order his books. 
— Do you sell your ship 1 — I do not sell it. — Does the captain sell 
his 1 — He does sell it. — What does the American sell *? — He sells his 
oxen. — Does the Englishman finish his note 1 — He does finish it.— 
Which notes do you finish ] — I finish those which I write to my 



dO TWENTY-FOURTH LESSJN. 

friends. — Dost thou see any thing "! — I see nothing. — Do you see my 
large {grand) garden ■? — I do see it. — Does your father see our ships ! 
— He does not see them, but we see them,. — How man;y soldiers do 
you see ■? — We see a good many, we see more than thirty of them. — • 
Do you drink any thing? — I drink some wine. — ^Whatdoes the sail- 
or drink "] — He drinks some cider. — Do we drink wine or cider ? — 
We drink (both) wine and cider. — What do the Italians drink ] — 
They drink some chocolate. — Do we drink wine ? — We do drink 
some. — What art thou writing 'I — I am writing a note. — To whom ? 
— To my neighbor. — Does your friend write '\ — He does write. — To 
whom does he write "! — He writes to his tailor. 

72. 
Do you write your notes in the evening 1 — We write them in the 
morning. — What dost thou say 1 — I say nothing. — Does your brother 
say any thing *? — He says something. — What does he say 1 — I do no> 
know. — What do you say to ray servant 1 — I tell him to sweep the 
floor, and to go for some bread, cheese, and wine. — Do we say any 
thing \ — We say nothing. — What does your friend say to the shoe- 
maker ■? — He tells him to mend his shoes. — What do you tell the 
tailors 1 — I tell them to make my clothes, (habits.) — Dost thou go 
out "? — I do not go out. — Who goes out ■? — My brother goes out. — 
Where is he going to 1 — He is going to the garden. — To whom are 
you going "? — We are going to the good English. — What art thou 
reading? — I am reading a note from (de) my friend. — What is your 
father reading 1 — He is reading a book. — ^What are you doing ? — 
We are reading. — Are your children reading "? — They are not read- 
ing, they have no time to read. — Do you read the books which 1 
read 1 — I do not read those which you read, but those which youi 
father reads. — Do you know this man 1 — I do not know him. — Does 
your friend know him 1 — He does know him. 

73. 

Do you know my children 1 — We do know them. — Do they know 
you ■? — They do not know us. — Whom are you acquainted with ! — I 
am acquainted with nobod}^ — Is any one acquainted with you ? — 
Some one is acquainted with me. — Who is acquainted with you ? — 
The good captain knows me. — What dost thou eat ? — I eat some 
bread. — Does not your son eat some cheese 1 — He does not eat any. 
— Do you cut any thing 1 — ^We cut some wood. — What do the mer- 
chants cut "? — They cut some cloth. — Do you send me any thing ? — 
I send you a good gun. — Does your father send you money ? — He 
does send me some. — Does he send you more than I ! — He sends me 
more than you. — How much does he send yo'i 1 — He sends rae more 



TWENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 91 

than {plus de) fitly (cmquunte) crowns — When do you receive you] 
notes 1 — T receive tiiem every morning. — At what o'clock 1 — At half- 
past ten. — Is your son coming '? — He is coming. — To whom is he 
coming ? — He is coming to me. — Do you come to me "? — I do nol 
come {Je ne vais pas) to you, but to your children. — Where is our 
friend going to 1 — He is going no whither ; he remains at home. — 
Are you going home 1 — We are not going home, but to our friends'. 
— Where are your friends ■? — They are in their garden. — Are the 
Scotchmen in their gardens '\ — They are there. 

74. 

What do you buy ? — I buy some knives. — Do you buy more knives 
than glasses 1 — I buy more of the latter than of the former. — How 
many horses does the German buy 1 — He buys a good many ; he 
buys more than twenty of them. — What does your servant carry 1 — 
He carries a large {grand) trunk. — Where is he carrying it to 1 — 
He is carrying it home. — To whom do you speak % — I speak to the 
Irishman. — Do you speak to him every day "! — I speak to him every 
morning and every evening. — Does he come to you ! — He does not 
come to me, but I go to him. — What has your servant to do 1 — He 
has to sweep my floor, and to set my books in order. — Does my 
father answer your notes 1 — He answers them, (y.) — What does your 
boy break ■? — He breaks nothing, but your boys break my glasses. — 
Do they tear any thing 1 — They tear nothing. — Who burns my hat 1 
— Nobody burns it. — Are you looking for anybody ] — I am not look- 
ing for anybody. — What is my son looking for 1 — He is looking for 
his pocket-book. — What does your cook kill ! — He kills a chicken. 

75. 

Are you killing a bird? — I am killing one. — How many chick- 
ens does your cook kill ■? — He kills three of them. — To whon: 
do you take my boy ] — I take him to the painter. — When is tne 
painter at home ] — He is at home every evening at seven o'clock. — 
What o'clock is it now "? — It is not yet {encore) six o'clock. — Do 
you gc out in the evening ■? — I go out m tne morning. — Are you 
afraid 10 go out in the evening? — I am not afraid, but I have no 
time to go out in the evening. — Do you work as much as your son 1 
—I do not work as much as he. — Does he eat more than you 1 — 
He eats less than I. — Can your children write as many notes as 
my children 1 — They can write just as many. — Can the Russian drink 
as much wine as cider % — He can drink more of the latter than of the 
former. — When do our neighbors go out 1 — They go out every morn- 
ing at a quarter to six, — Which note do you send to your father ? — 



r 



92 



TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



( am sending him my own. — Do you not send mine ? — I am sending 
it also, (aussi.) 

*^* We should fill volumes were we to give all the exercises that are 
applicable to our lessons, and which the pupils may verj^ easily compose by 
themselves. We shall, therefore, merely repeat what we have already said 
at the commencement : — Pupils who wish to improve rapidly ought to com- 
pose a great many sentences in addition to those given ; but they must pro- 
nounce them aloud. This is the only way in which they will acquire the 
habit of speaking fluently. 



TWENTY-FIFTH LESSO'^ .—Vmgt-cinquieme Lefon. 
j Apporter I. 



To bring. 
To find. 

To or at the play. 
The butcher. 
The sheep. 



Trouver 1. 
Au spectacle. 
Le boucher. 
Le mouton. 



What, or the thing which. 
Do you find what you look for, (or 

what you are looking for?) 
I find what I look for. 
I find what I am looking for. 
He does not find ivhat he is looking 1 II ne trouve pas ce qu'il cherche. 

for. 



Ce que. 

Trouvez-vous ce que vous cherchez? 

Je trouve ce que je cherche. 



Nous trouvous ce que nous cher- 

chons. 
lis trouveut ce qu''ils cherchent. 
Je raccommode ce que vous raccom- 

modez. 
J'achete co que vous achetez. 



We find luhat we look for. 

They find lohat they look for 
I mend ivhat you mend. 

I buy what you buy. 

Obs. A. In verbs having e mute in the last syllable but one of the in- 
"initive, the letter c has the grave accent (^ ) in all persoq-s and tenses where 
The consonant immediately after it is followed by e mute: as in menrr, to 
iruido, to take ; promener, to walk ; achcver, to finish, &:c. ; as, 

I buy, tlvou buyest, he buys. j J'achfete, tu achates, il achtite. 

I lead, thou leadest, he leads. Je mene, tu mfeues, il meue. 



Do you take him to the play 1 
I do take him thither. 

To study. 
Instead of. 



Le m.euez-vous au spectacle? 
Je I'y m^ne. 



Etudier 1. 
Au lieu de 



TWENTY-FIFTH .ESSON. 



93 



Obs, B. Instead of is in English followed by the present participle, but in 



I rench it is followed by the infinitive. 
To play. 
To listen. 
Instead of listening. 
Instead of playing. \ 

Do you play instead of studying 7 j 
I study instead of playing. 
That man speaks instead of listen- 
ing. 



Jouer 1. 

Ecouter 1. 

Au lieu d'ecouier. 

Au lieu de jouer. 

Jouez-vous au lieu d'etudier ? 

J'etudie au lieu de jouer. 

Get liomme parle au lieu d'ecouter, 



Have you a sore finger? 

I have a sore finger. 

Has your brother a sore foot ? 

He has a sore eye. 

We have sore eyes. 



t Avez-vous mal au doigt ? 

t J'ai mal au doigt. 

t Votre frere a-t-il mal axi pied? 

t II a mal a I'oeil. 

t Nous avons mal aux yeux 



The elbow. 


Le coude. 


The back. 


Le dos. 


The arm. 


Le bras. 


The knee. 


Le genou 



Do you read instead of writing ? 
Does your brother read instead of 
dnff ? 



Lisez-vous au lieu d'ecrire ? 
Votre frere lit-il au lieu de parlei I 



The bed. 
Does the servant make the bed? 
He makes the fire instead of making 
the bed. 



Le lit. 

Le domestique fait-il le lit ? 

II fait le feu au lieu de faire le lit. 



To learn, learning. 
I learn, thou learnest, he learns. 

I learn to read. 
He learns to write. 



Apprendre * 4, apprenarA. 
J'apprends, tu apprends, il appreud. 

(See Note 5, Less. XXIV.) 
J'apprends a lire. 
II apprend a ecrire. 



Do you go to the pLiy 
What have you to do ? — -I have to study 



EXERCISES. 

76. 

this evening ? — I do not go to the play. — 

-At what o'clock do you 



94 TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON. 

go out 1 — I do not go oat in the evening. — Does your father go out ? 
— He does not go out. — What does he do, {fait-il ?) — He writes. — 
Does he write a book 1 — He does write one. — "When does he write 
it 1 — He writes it in the morning and in the evening. — Is he at home 
now] — He is at home. — Does he not go out! — He cannot go out ; 
he has a sore foot. — Does the shoemaker bring our shoes ] — He does 
not bring them. — Is he not able to v/ork 1 — He is not able to work ; 
he has a sore knee. — Has anybody a sore elbow "? — My tailor has a 
sore elbow. — Who has a sore arm 1 — I have a sore arm. — Do you 
cut me (Me coupez-vous) some bread 1 — I cannot cut you any : 1 
have sore fingers. — Do you read your book 1 — I cannot read it ; 1 
have a sore eye. — Who has sore ej^es ■? — The French have sore 
eyes. — Do they read too much 1 — They do not read enough. — ^^Yhat 
day of the month is it to-day "? — It is the third, (Lesson XIY.) — 
What day of the month is it to-morrow ■? — To-morrow is the fourth. 
— Are you looking for any one ■?— I am not looking for any one. — 
What is the painter looking for 1 — He is not looking for any thing. 
— Whom are you looking for ■? — I am looking for your son. — Have 
you any thing to tell him ? — I have something to tell him. 

77. 
Who is looking for me % — Your father is looking for you. — Is any- 
body looking for my brother ? — Nobody is look/ng for him. — Dost 
thou find vvhat thou art looking for ] — I do find what I am looking 
for. — Does the captain find what he is looking for ? — He finds what 
he is looking for, but his children do not find what they are looking 
for. — What are they looking for 1 — They are looking for their books. 
— Where dost thou take me to 1 — I take you to the theatre. — Do you 
not take me to the market ! — I do not take you thither. — Do the 
Spaniards find the umbrellas which they are looking for ? — They do 
not find them. — Does the tailor find his thimble] — He does not find 
it. — Do the merchants find the cloth which they are looldng for \ — 
They do find it. — What do the butchers find ? — They find the oxen 
and sheep which they are looking for. — What does your cook find ? 
— He finds the chickens which he is looking for. — What is the phy- 
sician doing ] — He is doing what (ce que) you are doing. — What is 
he doing in his room ] — He is reading. — What is he reading \ — He 
is reading the book of your father. — Whom is the Englishman look- 
ing for 1 — He is looking for his friend, in order to take him into the 
garden. — What is the German doing in his room ? — He is learning 
to read. — Does he not learn to write? — He does not learn it, {m 
Vapprend pas.) — Does ycnr son learn to write \ — He learns to write 
and to read. 



TWENTV-SIXTH LESSON. 95 

78. 
Does the Dutchman speak instead of listening 1 — He speaks in- 
stead of listening. — Do you go out instead of remaining at home ■? — 
I remain at home instead of going out. — Does your son play instead 
of studying 1 — He studies instead of playing, — When does he study 1 
— He studies every day. — In the morning or in the evening ] — In 
the morning and in the evening. — Do you buy an umbrella instead 
of buying a book 1 — I buy neither the one nor the other. — Does our 
neighbor break his sticks instead of breaking his glasses 1 — He breaks 
neither the ones nor the others. — What does he break 1 — He breaks 
his guns. — Do the children of our neighbor read 1 — They read in- 
stead of writing. — ^What does our cook 1 — He makes a fire, instead 
of going to the market. — Does the captain give you any thing ■? — He 
does give me something. — What does he give you 1 — He gives me a 
great deal of money. — Does he give you money instead of giving you 
bread "? — He gives me (both) money and bread. — Does he give you 
more cheese than bread 1- — He gives me less of the latter than of the 
former. 

79. 
Do you give my friend fewer knives than gloves ] — I give him more 
of the latter than of the former. — What does he give you 1 — He 
gives me many books instead of giving me money. — Does your ser- 
vant make your bed 1 — He does not make it. — What is he doing in- 
stead of making your bed 1 — He sweeps the room instead of making 
my bed. — Does he drink instead of working ] — He works instead of 
drinking. — Do the physicians go out ■? — They remain at home instead 
of going out. — Does your servant make coffee ■? — He makes tea instead 
of making coffee. — Does any one lend you a gun 1 — Nobody lends 
me one. — What does )'our friend lend me 1 — He lends you many 
books and many jewels. — Do you read the book which I read 1 — I do 
not read the one which you read, but the one which the great 
(grand) captain reads. — Are you ashamed to read the books which 
I read 1 — I am not ashamed, but I have no wish to read them. — (See 
the end of preceding Lesson.) 



TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON .—Vingt-sixienie Le^on. 



Do you leam French ? 
I do leam it. 
I do not leam it. 



Apprenez-vous le fran9aiB? 

Je I'apprends. 

Je ne I'apprends pas. 



96 



TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



French. 

English. 

Gemian. 

Italian. 

Spanish. 

Polish. 

Russian. 

Latin. 

Greek. 

Arabian, Arabic. 

Syrian, Syriac. 
I learn Italian. 
My brother learns German 

The Pole. 

The Roman. 

The Greek. 

The Arab, the Arabian. 

The Syrian. 

Are you an Englishman ? 



Le fran<;ais. 

Zi'anglais. 

/I'allemaud- 

Z/'italien. 

Z/'espagnol. 

Le polonaia. 

Le russe. 

Le latin. 

Le grec. 

i'arabe. 

Le syriaque 

J'apprends I'italien. 

Mon frere apprend I'allemand 



Le Polonais. 
Le Remain. 
Le Grec. 

L'Arabe. 
Le Syrien. 



fites-vous Ancflais? 



Ohs. A. Where the indefinite article is used in English to denote qualities 
tlie French make use of no article. 



Ho, Sir, I am a Frenchman. 

He is a German. 

Is he a tailor? 

No, he is a shoemaker. 

Ke is a fool. 

The fool. 



The evening. 
The morning. 
The day. 



Non, Monsieur, je suis Francais. 

II est Allemand. 

Est-il tailleur ? 

Non, il est cordonmer. 

II est fou. 



Le fou. (Plur. 5. See Note 1. Leas. 

IX.) 
Le soir. 
Le matin. 
Le joiu-. 



Ohs B. Often the indefinite article in English answers to tlie definite ar- 
;lo in French. Ex. 



I wish you a good morning. 
Does he wish me a good evening ? 
He wishes you a good morning. 
He has a large forehead. 
He has blue eyes. 



Je voiis souhaite le bonjour. 
]\Ie souhaite-t-il le bonsoir ? 
II vous souhaite le boujour. 
II a le front large. 
II a les yeux bleus. 



TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON. 
To wish. I Souhaiter 1. 



97 



The forehead. 


Le front. 


Blue. 




Bleu. 


Black. 




Nob-. 


Large. 




Large. 


Great, big or large. 


tall. 


Grand. 


A large knife. 




L^n grand couteau. 


A great man. 




Un gi'and homme. 


A French book. 




Un livre fran9ais. 


An English book. 




Un livre anglais. 


French money. 




De I'argent frangais 


English paper. 




Du papier anglais. 



Ohs. C . All adjectives expressing the names of nations are placed after 
their sube tantives. Ex. 



Do you read a German book ? 
I read an Italian book. 



Lisez-vous un livre allemand ? 
Je lis un livre italien. 



To listen to something. 

To listen to some one. 

What, or the thing which. 
Do you listen to what the man tells 

you ? 
I listen to it. 

He listens to v/hat I tell him. 
Do you listen to what I tell you? 
Do you listen to me ? 
I do listen to you. 
Do you listen to my brother? 
I do not listen to him. 
Do you listen to the men ? 
I listen to them. 



t Ecouter quelquc chose. 

t Ecouter quelqu'un. 

Ce que. 

t ]6coutez-vous ce que I'homme vous 

dit? 
t Je I'ecoute. 

t II ecoute ce que je lui dis. 
t flcoutez-vous ce que je vous dis? 
t M'ecoutez-vous ? 
t Je vous ecoute. 
t Ecoutez-vous mon frfere? 
t Je ne I'ecoute pas. 
t ficoutez-vons les hommes? 
t Je les Ecoute. 



To con-ect. 
To take off. 



I CoiTiger 1. 

rr, , \ Oter 1. 

1 o take away. 5 



* Un grand homme means a great man, but un homme grand a tall man. 
A similar distinction is made with respect to the word pauvre, poor, which 
expresses pitiful, or a want of intellect, when before, and indigent when 
after, the substantive. Ex. Uii pauvre homme, a sorrowful (pitiful, miseru- 
h)o) man, and un homme pauvre, an indigent man. 



98 



TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON. 
The exercise I Le thSme. 



To take, taking 



Prendre * 4, prenant 

(See Note 5, Lessoi XXTV.) 



Do you take your hat off? 
I take it off 

Does your father correct your exer- 
cises ? 
He corrects them. 

To speak French. 

To speak English. 
Do 3 ou speak French ? 
No, Sir, I sDeak English. 



Otez-vous votre chapeau ? 

Je r6te. 

Votre p6re corrige-t-il vos thdraee 1 

II les corrige. 

Parler fran9ais. 

Parler anglais. 

Parlez-vous fran5ais ? 

Nou, monsieur, je parle anglnifl. 



To drink coffee. 

To drink tea. 

Do you drink tea ? 

I do drink some. 

Do you drink tea every day ? 

I do drink some every day. 

My father drinks coffee. 

He drinks coffee every morning. 

My brother drinks chocolate. 

He drinks chocolate every morning. 



t Prendre le cafe. 

t Prendre du cafe. 

Prendre le th^. 

Prendre du th^. 

t Prenez-vous du th6 1 

t J'en prends. 

t Prenez-vous le the tous les joure^ 

t Je le prends tous les jours. 

t Mon pere prend du cafe. 

t II prend le cafe tous les matins. 

t Mon frfere prend du chocolat 

t II prend le chocolat tous les matins. 



EXERCISES. 
80 
Do you go for any thing 1 — I do go for something. — Wliat do you 
go for 1 — I go for some cider. — Does your father send for any thing t 
— He sends for some wine. — Does your servant go for some bread ? 
— He goes for some. — For whom does your neighbor send ! — He 
sends for the physician. — Does your servant take off his coat in or- 
der to make the fire 1 — He takes it off in order to make it. — Do you 
take off your gloves in order to give me money 1 — I do take them 
off in order to give you some. — Do 3'ou learn French \ — I do learn it. 
— Does your brother learn German"! — He does learn it. — "Wno 
learns English 1 — The Frenchman learns it. — Do we learn Italian If 
— You do learn it. — What do the English learn 1 — They learn 
French and German. — Do you speak Spanish! — No. sir, T speak 



TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON. 99 

Italian. — Who speaks Polish 1 — My brother speaks Polish. — Do oui 
neighbors speak Russian"? — They do not speak Russian, but Arabic. 
— Do you speak Arabic "? — No, I speak Greek and Latin. — What 
knife have you] — I have an English knife. — What money have you 
there 1 Is it (est-ce) Italian or Spanish money 1 — It is Russian mo- 
ney. — Have you an Italian hat 1 — No, I have a Spanish hat. — Aro 
you a Frenchman 1 — No, I am an Englishman. — Art thou a Greek 1 
— No, I am a Spaniard. 

81. 
"^re these men Germans 1 — No, they are Russians. — Do the Rus- 
sians speak Polish 1 — They do not speak Polish, but Latin, Greek, 
and Arabic. — Is your brother a merchant 1 — No, he is a joiner. — Are 
these men merchants ] — No, they are carpenters — Are you a cook - 
— No, I am a baker. — Are we tailors 1 — No, we are shoemakers. — 
Art thou a fool 1 — I am not a fool. — ^What is that man 1 — He is a 
physician. — Do you wish me any thing 1 — I wish you a good morn- 
ing. — What does the young man wish me ] — He wishes you a good 
evening. — Do your children come to me in order to wish me a good 
evening 1 — They come to you in order to wish you a good morning. 
— Has the German black eyes 1 — No, he has blue eyes. — Has that 
man large feet ] — He has little feet, a large forehead, and a large 
_nose. — Have you time to read my book 1 — I have no time to read~ilj^ 
but much courage to {pour) study French. — What dost thou do in- 
stead of playing ? — I study instead of playing. — Dost thou learn in- 
stead of writing 1 — I write instead of learning. — ^What does the son 
of our friend do 1 — He goes into the garden instead of doing his ex- 
ercise. — Do the children of our neighbors read "? — They write instead 
of reading. — What does our cook ] — He makes a fire instead of going 
to the market. — Does your father sell his ox 1 — He sells his horse 
instead of selling his ox. 

82. 
Does the son of the painter study English 1 — He studies Greek 
instead of studying English. — Does the butcher kill oxen ? — He kills 
sheep instead of killing oxen. — Do you listen to me 1 — I do listen to 
you. — Does your brother listen to me "? — He speaks instead of listen- 
ing to you. — Do you listen to what I am telling you ] — I do listen to 
what you are telling me. — Dost thou listen to what thy brother tells 
thee ] — I do listen to it. — Do the children of the physician listen to 
what we tell them ? — They do not listen to it — Do you go to the 
theatre ] — I am going to the warehouse instead of going to the thea- 
tre. — Are you willing to read my book ? — I am willing to read it, but 
I cannot ; I have sore eyes. — Does your father correct my exercises 



100 



TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



or those of my brother 1 — He corrects neither yours nor your broth- 
er's. — Which exercises does he correct 1 — He coriects mine. — Do 
you take oif your hat in order to speak to my father 1 — I do take it 
off in order to speak to him. — Do you take off your shoes 1 — I do not 
take them off. — Who takes off his hat 1 — My friend takes it off. — 
Does he take off his gloves 1 — He does not take them off. — What do 
these boys take off] — They take off their shoes and their stockings. 
■ — Who takes away the glasses'? — Your servant takes them away. — ■ 
Do you give me English or German paper 1 — I give you neither 
English (repeat papier) nor German paper ; I give you French pa- 
per. — Do you read Spanish 1 — I do not read Spanish, but German. — 
What book is your brother reading ] — He is reading a French booK. 
— Do you drink tea or coffee in the morning 1 — I drink tea. — Do y?u 
drink tea every morning 1 — I do drink some (/e) every mornipg. — 
What do you drink 1 — I drink coffee. — What does your brother 
drink'? — He drinks chocolate. — Does he drink some (Ze) every day'? 
• — He drinks some (Ic) every morning. — Do your children drink tea ? 
■ — They drink coffee instead of drinking tea. — ^What do we drink ? — 
We drink tea or coffee. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSOl^ .—Vmgt-septieme Lefon. 



To wet, to moisten. 
To show. 

I show. 
He shows. 
Thou sliowest. 



Mouiller 1. 
( Montr er 1. 
\ Faire * voir. 

Je fais voir. 

II fait voir. 

Tu fais voir. 



Je moutre. 
II montre. 
Tu mont'-es. 



To sliow to some one. 

Do you show me your gun ? 
I do show it you. 
Wliat do you show the man ? 
I show him my fine clothes. 



( Montrer ) 
^ Faire voir y 



k quelqu'un. 



Montrer 

Faire voir 

Me faites-vous voir votre fusil ? 

Je vous le fais voir. 

Que moutrez-vous a riiommo ? 

Je lui montre mes beaux habita 



Tobacco 

Tobacco, (for smoking.) 

SnuiF. 



I Du tabac. 
I Du tabac a. funier. 
^ Da tabac en poudrc. 
^ Dii tabac a, prisor. 



To smoke 



Fitiner 1. 



TWENTY-SEVENTH LESt^ON. 



101 



The gardener. 
The valet. 
The concert. 

To intend. 



Do you intend to go to the ball this 

evening ? 
I intend to go thither. 



Le jardinier. 
Le valet. 
Le concert. 



Compter 1, (does not take d bofoii 

the infinitive.) 
Comptez-vous aller au bal ce aoir ? 

Je compte y aller. 



To know. 
Do you know? 
I laiow. 
Thou knowest. 
He knows. 



To swim. 

Do you know how to swim? 
Can you swim? 



Savoir * 3. 
Savez-vous ? 

Je sais. « 

Tu sais. 

II sait. (For the three persons plur 
see Less. XXIV.) 



Nager 1. 

(See Obs. C. Lesson XXIV.) 

t Savez-vous nager ? > 



Obs. To know how is in English followed by to before the verb in the m- 
finitive, wliile in French the infinitive joined to the verb savoir is not prece- 
ded by any particle, as may be seen from the above example. 



Do you know how to write ? 
Does he know how to read ? 



t Savez-vous ecrire ? 
t Sait-il lire ? 



To conduct, conducting. 
I conduct, thou conductest, ha con- 
ducts. 

To extinguish, extinguishing. 
Do you extinguish the fire ? 
I do not extinguish it. 
He extinguishes it. 
Thou extrnffuishest it. 



Conduire * 4, conduisant. 

Je conduis, tu conduis, il conduit 

Eteindre * 4, eteignant. 
Eteignez-vous le feu? 
Je ne I'eteins pas. 
II I'eteint. 
Tu I'etehis. 



To light, to kindle. | Allumer 1. 



. Often. 
Do you often go to the ball 'i 
As often as you. 
As often as I. 
As often as he. 
As often as tlioy 



Souvent. 

Allez-vous souveut au bal? 
Aussi souvent que vous. 
Aussi souvent que moi. 
Aussi souvent que lui 
Aussi souvent qu'eux 



102 TWENTi -SEVENTH LESSON. 

Do you often see my brother ? { Voyez-vous souvent men friJre T 



Oftener. 
I see him oftener than you. 

Not so often. 
Not so often as you. 
Not so often as I. 
Not so often as they. 



Plus souvent. 

Je le Tois plus souvent que vous. 

Moins souvent. 

Moins souvent que vous. 

Moins souvent que moi. 

Moins souvent qu'eux. 



EXERCISES. 
83. 

What does your father want ? — He wants some tobacco. — ^Wil] 
you go for some ] — I will go for some. — What tobacco does he want ? 
— He wants some snuff. — Do you want tobacco, (for smoking 1) — I 
do not want any ; I do not smoke. — Do you show me any thing 1 — I 
show you gold ribbons, {des rubans d''or.) — Does your father show his 
gun to my brother 1 — He does show it him. — Does he show him his 
beautiful birds ■? — He does show them to him. — Does the Frenchman 
smoke 1 — He does not smoke. — Do you go to the ball ^ — I go to the 
theatre instead of going to the ball. — Does the gardener go into the 
garden 1 — He goes to the market instead of going into the garden. — • 
Do you send your valet to the tailor 1 — I send him to the shoemaker 
instead of sending him to the tailor. — Does your brother intend to go 
to the ball this evening 1 — He does not intend to go to the ball, but 
to the concert. — ^When do you intend to go to the concert 1 — I in- 
tend to go there this evening. — At what o'clock ■? — At a quarter past 
ten. — Do you go for my son 1 — I do go for him. — Where is he 1 — 
He is in the counting-house. — Do you find the man whom you are 
looking for ■? — I do find him. — Do your sons find the friends whom 
they are looking for ■? — They do not find them. 

84. 
Do your friends intend to go to the theatre 1 — They do intend to go 
thither. — ^When do they intend to go thither 1 — They intend to go 
thitbjr to-morrow. — At what o'clock 1 — At half-past seven. — What 
does the merchant wish to sell you ■? — He wishes to sell me some 
pocket-books. — Do 3rou intend to buy some 1 — I will not buy anv. — 
Dost thou know any thing ] — I do not know any thing. — What does 
your little brother know ] — He knows how to read and to ^vrite. — • 
Does he know French ! — He does not know it. — Do you know Ger- 
man ■? — I do know it. — Do your brothers know Greek ! — They do 
not know it, but they intend to study it. — Do you know English ^ — 



TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 103 

I do not know it, but intend to learn it. — Do my children know how 
to read Italian 1 — They know how to read, but not {mats non) how to 
speak it. — Do you know how to swim 1 — I do not know how to swim, 
but how to play. — Does your son know how to make coats 1 — He 
does not know how to make any ; he is no tailor. — Is he a mer- 
chant 1 — He is not, (ne Vest pas.) — What is he 1 — He is a physician. 
— Do you intend to study Arabic 1 — I do intend to study Arabic and 
Syriac. — Does the Frenchman know Russian ] — He does not know 
it ; but he intends learning it. — ^Whither are you going ■? — I am go- 
ing into the garden in order to speak to my gardener. — Does he lis- 
ten to you 1 — He does listen to me. 

85. 
i j Do you wish to drink some cider 1 — I wish to drink some wine ; 
have you any 1 — I have none, but I will send for some. — ^When will 
you send for some ? — Now. — Do you know how to make tea ■? — I 
know how to make some. — Where is your father going to 1 — He is 
going nowhere ; he remains at home. — Do you know how to write a 
note 1 — I know how to write one. — Can you write exercises 1 — I can 
write some. — Dost thou conduct anybody 1 — I conduct nobody. — 
Whom do you conduct 1 — I conduct my son. — ^Where are you con- 
ducting him to ■? — I conduct him to my friends to (pour) wish them a 
good morning. — Does your servant conduct your child ] — He con- 
ducts it. — ^Whither does he conduct it ■? — He conducts it into the 
garden. — ^Do we conduct any one 1 — ^We conduct our children. — 
Whither are our friends conducting their sons ■? — They are conduct- 
ing them home. 

86. 
Do you extinguish the lire 1 — I do not extinguish it. — Does your 
servant light the fire 1 — He does light it. — ^Where does he light it 1 — 
He lights it in your warehouse. — Do you often go to the Spaniard ! 
— I go often to him. — Do you go oftener to him than 1 1 — I do go 
oftener to him than you. — Do the Spaniards often come to you ■? — 
They do come often to me. — Do your children oftener go to the ball 
than we ] — They do go thither oftener than you. — Do we go out as 
often as our neighbors 1 — We do go out oftener than they. — Does 
your servant go to the market as often as my cook 1 — He does go 
thither as often as he. — Do you see my father as often as 1 1 — I do 
not see him as often as you. — ^When do you see him 1 — I see him 
every morning at a quarter to five. 



104 



TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSOIV. 



,, TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.- Vingt-huitieme hereon. 

Do and am, when used to interrogate, for all persons and tenses, may be 
rendered by est-ce que. But they must be rendered thus for verbs whoso 
first person singular, present tense, cannot be employed interrogatively 
Examples : — 

Est-ce que je veux? 



Do I wish? 
Am I able ? 
Am I doing? 

What am I doing ? 
What do I say? 
Where am I going to ? 
To whom do I speak? 

■ Am I going? 
Am, I coming? 
You do come. 
Do you tell or say ? 
I do say or tell. 
He says or tells. 
What does he say? 
We say. 



Est-ce que je peux? 
Est-ce que je fais ? 



Qu'est-ce que je fais ? 
Qu' est-ce que je dis? 
Oia est-ce que je vais? 
A qui est-ce que je parle? 



Est-ce que je vais ? 

Est-ce que je viens? 

Vous venez. 

Dites-vous? 

Je dis. 

Ildit. 

Que dit-U? 

Nous disons. 



Ohs. Some verbs, however, ending in e mute in the first person sin- 
gular, present tense, may be used interrogatively in that person, but then 
they change e mute into e with the acute accent, followed by je. (See 
Note 1, Lesson XX.) Ex. 

Parle -je ? 

Est-ce que je parle? 
\ Aim6-je? 
^ Est-ce que j'aime ? 



Do I speak? 
Do I love ? 



Are you acquainted with that man? 
I am not acquainted with him 
Is your brother acquainted with him ? 
He is acquainted with him. 
Do you drink cider ? 



Connaissez-vous cet liomme ? 
Je ne le connais jias. 
Votre frere le connait-il ? 
II le connait. 
Buvez-vous du cidre ? 



' Verbs whose first person singular forms only one syllable, as: jc sens, 
I feel ; je prends, I take ; je tends, I tend ; je fouds. 1 melt : or whose 
last syllable sounds like^'e, such as, /e mange, I eat; je vcnge, I revenge 
je range, I range ; j^; songe, I dream : and others, such as, j'unis, I unite 
je permets, I permit, yoffrc, I otier; &c. Sec. 



TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



105 



V 



1 do driiik cider, but my brother 

drinks wine. 
Do you receive a note to-day? 
I do receive one. 
What do we receive ? 
What do our children receive? 

They receive some books. 



To hegin, (commence,) beginning. 
I begin to speak. 



Before. 

Do you speak before you listen ? 

Does he go to market before he 
breakfasts? 

To breaJcfast. 

He does go thither before he writes. 

Do you take off your stockings be- 
fore you take off your shoes ? 



To depart, to set out, departing. 
When do you intend to depart ? 
I intend to depart to-morrow. 

I depart, thou departest, he departs. 



Well. 
Badly. 
Do I speak well ? 



Je bois du cidre, mais mou friire boit 

du vin. 
Recevez-vous un billet aujourd'hui? 
J'en regois un. 
Que recevons-nous? 
Nos enfants que re5oivent-iIs? 

(See Note 4, Lesson XXIV.) 
lis re5oivent des livres. 



Commencer 1, commengant. 
Je commence h. parler. 



Avant, (takes de before the infini- 
tive.) 

Parlez-vous avant d'ecouteil 

Va-t-il au marche avant de de- 
jeuner ? 

Dejeuner 1. 

II y va avant <^'ecrire. 

Otez-vous vos has avant d'oter voa 
souliers ? 



Partir * 2, partant. 
Quand comptez-vous partir? 
Je compte partir demain. 

(See the preceding Lesson.) 
Je pars, tu pars, il part. 



Bien, (adverb.) 
Mai, (adverb.) 
Est-ce que je parle bien? 



EXERCISES. 



Do I read well ] — You do read well. — Do I speak well ? — You do 
not speak well. — Does my brother speak French well 1 — He does 
speak it well. — Does he speak German well "? — He speaks it badly. 
Do we speak well ] — You speak badly. — Do I drink too much 1 — 
You do not drink enough. — Am I able to make hats ? — You are not 
able to make any ; you are not a hatter. — Am I able to write a note 1 
— You are able to write one. — Am I doing my exercise well 1 — You 
are doing it well. — What am I doing 1 — You are doing exercises. — 
What is my brotlier doing'' — He is doing nothing. — What do I say ] 



106 TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 

— Yoli say nothing. — Do I begin to speak 1 — You do begin to speak, 
— Do I begin to speak well 1 — You do not begin to speak well, (d 
lien parler,) but to read well, {mais a lien lire.) — Where am I going 
to 1 — You are going to your friend. — Is he at home "? — Do I know ? 
— Am I able to speak as often as the son of our neighbor ? — He is 
able to speak oftener than you. — Can I work as much as he 1 — You 
cannot work as much as he. — Do I read as often as you 1 — You do 
not read as often as I, but you speak oftener than I. — Do I speak as 
well {aussi lien) as you 1 — You do not speak as well as I. — Do I go 
to you, or do you come to me 1 — You come to me, and I go to you. 
— When do you come to me 1 — Every morning at half-past six. 

88. 

Do you know the Russian whom I know 1 — I do not know the one 
you know, but I know another. — Do you drink as much cider as wine '^ 
— I drink less of the latter than of the former. — Does the Pole drink 
as much as the Russian ■? — He drinks just as much. — Do the Germans 
drink as much as the Poles ! — The latter drink more than the former. 
— Dost thou receive any thing ? — I do receive something. — What 
dost thou receive 1 — I receive some money. — Does your friend re- 
ceive books ] — He does receive some. — ^What do we receive ] — We 
receive some cider. — Do the Poles receive tobacco "? — They do receive 
some. — From whom {de qui) do the Spaniards receive money ? — 
They receive some from the {des) English, and from the {des) 
French. — Do you receive as many friends as enemies T — I receive 
fewer of the latter than of the former. — From whom {de qui) do your 
children receive books 1 — They receive some from {de) me and from 
{de) their friends. — Do I receive as much cheese as bread ? — You 
receive more of the latter than of the former. — Do our servants re- 
ceive as many brooms as coats 1 — They receive fewer of the latter 
than of the former. — Do you receive one more gun *? — I do receive 
one more. — How many more books does our neighbor receive ! — He 
receives three more. 

89. 

When does the foreigner intend to depart ] — He intends to depart 
to-day. — At what o'clock'? — At half-past one. — Do you intend to de- 
part this evening 1 — I intend to depart to-morrow. — Does the French- 
man depart to-day 1 — He departs now. — Where is he going to ] — He 
is going to his friends. — Is he going to the English I — He is going 
to them, (y.) — Dost thou set out to-morrow 1 — I set out this even- 
ing. — When do you intend to write to your friends I — I intend to 
write to them to-day. — Do A'our friends answer you 1 — They do an- 
swer me. — Does vour father answer vour note !— He answers it — 



TWENTY-NINTH LESSON. 10? 

Do you answer my orothers' notes 1 — I do answer them. — Does youi 
brother begin to learn Italian ■? — He begins to learn it. — Can you 
speak French 1 — I can speak it a little. — Do our friends begin to 
speak German 1 — They do begin to speak it. — Are they able to write 
it ] — They are able to write it. — Does the merchant begin to sell 1 — 
He does begin. — Do you speak before you listen 1 — I listen before I 
speak. — Does your brother listen to you before he speaks ] — He speaks 
before he listens to me. — Do your children read before they write 1 — 
They write before they read. 

90. 
Does your servant sweep the warehouse before he goes to the mar- 
ket ■? — He goes to the market before he sweeps the warehouse. — 
Dost thou drink before thou goest out 1 — I go out before I drink. — 
Do you intend to go out before you breakfast 1 — I intend to breakfast 
before I go out. — Does your son take off his shoes before he takes off 
his coat 1 — He neither takes off his shoes nor his coat. — Do I take off 
my gloves before I take off my hat 1 — You take off your hat before 
you take off your gloves. — Can I take off my shoes before I take off 
my gloves 1 — You cannot take off your shoes before you-take off your 
gloves. — At what o'clock do you breakfast 1 — I breakfast at half-past 
eight. — At what o'clock does the American breakfast "? — He break- 
fasts every day at nine o'clock. — At what o'clock do your children 
breakfast 1 — They breakfast at seven o'clock. — Do you go to my fa- 
ther before you breakfast 1 — I do go to him before I breakfast. 



rWENTY-NINTH LESSO'^ .—Vingt-jieuvieme Ler^on. 
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

We liave seen (Lessons XVI. and XXVII.) that the comparative of equal- 
ity is formed by autant and aussi, the comparative of superiority by plus, 
and that of inferiority by moins The superlative is fonned by prefixing the 
definite article with plus to the adjective. Ex. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative 
Grand, phis grand, le plus grand. 
Petit, plus petit, le plus petit. 
Riche, plus riche, le plus riche. 
Pauvre, plus pauvre, le plus pauvre 
Savant, plus savant, le plus savant 
Souvent, pins Fouvent, le plus souvent 



Great, 


greater, 




greatest. 


Small, 


smaller, 




smallest. 


Rich, 


richer. 




richest. 


Poor, 


poorer, 




poorest. 


Learned, 


more learned 


most learner 


Often, 


oftener. 




most often. 



108 



TWENTY-NINrH LESSON. 



This book is small, that is smaller, 
and this is the smallest of all. 

Tliis hat is large, but that is larger. 

Is your hat as large as mine ? 

It is larger than yours. 
It is not so large as yours. 



Ce livre-ci est petit, celui-lji est plus 

petit, et celui-ci est le plus petit de 

tous. 
Ce chapeau-ci est grand, mais celui- 

la, est plus grand. 
Votre chapeau est-il aussi grand que 

le mien ? 
II est plus grand que le votre. 
II est moLns grand que le Totre. 



Not so large. \ Mains grand. 

Obs. A. In the same manner as the superlative of superiority is formed 
by the definite article with plus, the superlative of inferiority is sometimes 
formed by the definite article with moins. Ex. 

I Posit. Comparat. Superlative. 
Fine, not so fine, least fine. | Beau, moins beau, le moins beau. 



Ai'e our neighbor's children as 

as ours ? 
They are better than ours. 
They are not so good as ours. 



Les enfants de notre voisin sont-ila 

aussi sages que les notres 7 
lis sont plus sages que les notres. 
lis sont moins sages que les notres. 



Obs. B. To express the absolute superlative, the French, like the Eng- 
lish, use one of the adverbs, trts, fort, bien, very ; extremement, extremely ; 
injiniment, infinitely. Ex. 



A very fine book 
Veiy fine books. 
A very pretty knife. 
Very well. 

That man is extremely learned. 
This bird is very pretty. 



Uu tres beau livre, 
De tres beaux livres. 
Un fort joli couteau. 
Tres bien, fort bien. 



Cet homme est extremement savant 
Get oiseau est tr6s joli. 



Obs. C. Tlie following adjectives and adverbs are irregular in the forma- 
tion of their comparatives and superlatives. 

AUJECTIVES. 









Posit. 


Comparat. 


Superl. 


Good, 


better. 


best. 


Bon, 


meilleur. 


le meilleur 


Bad, 


worse, 


the woi-st. 


Mauvais, 


pire, 


le pire. 


Little, 


less, 


the least. 

ADVl 


Petit, 
;rb3. 


moindre, 


le moindrcL 


Well, 


better. 


the best. 


Bien, 


mieux, 


le mieux 


Bad, 


worse, 


the worst. 


Mai, 


pis, 


le pis. 


Little, 


less. 


the least. 


Feu, 


moins. 


le moina. 


Much, 


more, 


tlie naost 


Beaucoup, 


plus, 


le plus. 



TWENTY-NINTH I ESSON. 



100 



Ohs. D. We may with equal correctness say : plus mauvais, plus mal^ 
vlus petit, but never plus hon, plus Hen, plus peu. 



Whose, (to whom ?) 
Whose hat is this ? 
It is. 
It is my brother's hat. 
It is the hat of my brother. 
It is my brother's. 
Who has the finest hat ? 
Whose hat is the finest ? 
That of my father is the finest. 
Whose ribbon is the handsomer, 
yours or mine ? 



A qui ? (See Lesson XXI.) 
A qui est ce chapeau? 
C'est. . 

• C'est le chapeau de mon fr6re. 

> Qui a le plus beau chapeau I 

Celui de mon pere est le plus beau. 
Quel ruban est le plus beau, le v6tr« 
on le mien ? 



Do you read as often as I ? 

I read oftener than you. 

Does he read as often as I ? 

He reads and writes as often as you. 

Do your children write as much as 

we? 
They write more than you. 
We read more than the children of 

our friends. 
To whom do you write ? 
We write to our friends. 
We read good books. 



Lipez-vous aussi souvent que moi ? 
Je lis plus souvent que vous. 
Lit-il aussi souvent que moi ? 
II lit et ecrit aussi souvent que vous. 
Vos enfants ecrivent-ils autant que 

nous? 
lis ecrivent plus que vous. 
Nous lisons plus que les enfants do 

nos amis. 
A qui ecrivez-vous ? 
Nous ecrivons k nos amis. 
Nous lisons de bons livres. 



EXERCISES 

91 

Whose book is this T — It is mine. — Whose hat is that 1 — It is my 
iather's. — Are you taller {grand) than I ? — I am taller than you. — 
Is your brother as tall as you ] — He is as tall as I. — Is thy hat as 
bad as that of my father ] — It is better, but not so black as his — . 
Are the clothes {les habits) of the Italians as fine as those of the 
Irish] — They are finer, but not so good. — Who have the finest 
gloves 1 — The French have them. — ^Who has the finest horses ? — 
Mine are fine, yours are finer than mine ; but those of our friends 
are the finest of all. — Is your horse good T — It is good, but yours is 
better, and that of the Englishman is the best of all the horses 
which we know. — Have you pretty shoes 1 — I have very pretty ones, 
rmt my brother has prettier ones tiian I. — From whom {de qui) doea 
hs receive them ■?— He receives them from {de) his best friend. 



10 TWENTY-NINTH LESSON 

92. 

Is your wine as good as mine 1 — It is better. — Does your mer- 
chant sell good knives'! — He sells the best knives that I know, (con.' 
naisse, subjunctive.) — Do we read more books than the French I — 
We read more of them than they ; but the English read more of 
them than we, and the Germans read the most, {leplus.) — Hast thou 
a finer garden than that of our physician 1 — I have a finer one than 
he. — Has the American a finer stick than thou T — He has a finer one. 
■ — Have we as fine children as our neighbors 1 — V^e have finer ones. 
— Is your coat as pretty as mine ^ — It is not so pretty, but better than 
yours. — Do you depart to-day 1 — I do not depart to-day. — ^Yhen 
does your father set out \ — He sets out this evening at a quarter to 
nine. — Which of these two children is the better, {sage ?) — The one 
who studies is better than the one who plays. — Does your servant 
sweep as well as mine 1 — He sweeps better than yours.^Does the 
Englishman read as many bad books as good ones ? — He reads more 
good than bad ones. 

93. 

Do the merchants sell more sugar than coffee 1 — They sell more 
of the latter than of the former. — Does your shoemaker make as 
many shoes as mine 1 — He makes more of them than yours. — Can you 
swim as well {aussi bicn) as my son % — I can swim better than he, but 
he can speak French better than I. — Does he read as well as you ! — 
He reads better than I. — Does the son of your neighbor goto market? 
— No, he remains at home ; he has sore feet. — Do you learn as well 
as our gardener's sonl — I learn better than he, but he works better 
than I. — Whose gun is the finest 1 — Yours is very fine, but that of 
the captain is still finer, and ours is the finest of all. — Has any one 
finer children than you'? — No one has finer ones. — Does your son 
read as often as 1 1 — He reads oftener than you. — Does my brother 
speak French as often as you ■? — He speaks and reads it as often as 
I. — Do I write as much as you ? — Yoa write more than I. — Do our 
neighbor's children read German as often as we \ — We do not read 
it so often as they. — Do we write it as often as they ? — They \^-rite 
oftener than we. — To whom do they write ? — They write to their 
friends. — Do you read English books ? — "VYe read French books in- 
stead of reading English books. (See end of Lesson XXIY.) 



THIRTIETH LESSON. 



Ill 



THIRTIETH LESSON.— r/e?2heme Lei^on 



To believe, believing. 
I believe, thou believest, he believes. 



To put on, putting on. 
Do you put on ? 
I do put on. 
Thou puttest on. 
He puts on. 

I put on my hat. 

He puts on his gloves. 

Do you put on your shoes ? 

We do put them on. 

What do your brothers put on ] 

They put on their clothes. 

Where do you conduct me to ? 

I conduct you to my father. 

Do you go out ? 
I do go out. 
Do we go out? 
We do go out. 
When does your father go out ? 



Croire * 4, croyant. 

Je crois, tu crois, il croit 



Mettre * 4, mettant. 
Mettez-vous ? 
Je mets. 
Tu mets. 
II met. 



Je mets mon chapeau. 

II met ses gants. 

Mettez-vous vos souliers ? 

Nous les mettons. 

Vos freres que mettent-ils? 

lis mettent leurs habits. 

Ou me conduisez-vous ? 

Je vous conduis chez mon p6re. 



Sortez-vous ? 

Je sors. , 

Sortons-nous ? 

Nous sortons. 

Quand votre p^re sort-il ? 



Early. 
As early as you. 
He goes out as early as you. 
Late. 
Too. 
Too late. 

Too soon, too early. 
Too large, too great. 
Too little. 
Too small. 



Too much. 

Do you speak too much ? 
[ do not apeak enough. 



De bonne heure. 

D'aussi bonne heure que vous. 

II sort d'aussi bonne heure que vous 

Tard. 

Trop. 

Trop tard 

Trop t6t, de trop bonne heure. 

Trop grand. 

Trop peu. 

Trop petit. 



Trop. 



Parlez-vous trop ? 
Je ne paric pas asswz. 



112 



THIRTIETH LESSON 



Later tliau you. 
[ go out later than you. 



Plus tard que vous. 

Je sors plus tard que vous. 



Do you go to the play as early as I ? 

I go tliitlier earlier than you. 

Earlier, (sooner.) 
Does your father go tliither earlier 

than I ? 
He goes thither too early. 



Allez-Tous au spectacle d'aussi bnuue 

heure que moi ? 
J'y vais plus tot (de meilleure heure) 

que vous. ' 
Plus tot, (de meilleure heure.) 
Votre pere y va-t-il plus t6t que moi 

(de meilleure heure que moi ?) 
II y va trop tot. 



Already. 
Do you speak already ? 

Not yet. 
I do not speak yet. 
Do you finish your note ? 
I do not finish it yet. 
Do you breakfast already? 



Dejd. 

Parlez-vous d^ji ? 

Ne — pas encore. 

Je ne parle pas encore. 

Finissez-vous votre bUlet ? 

Je ne le finis pas encore. 

Dejemiez-vous dejii ? 



Ohs. A. We have seen in the foregoing lessons that the infinitive in 
French is sometimes preceded by de, (Lesson XVII.,) sometimes by a, (Les- 
sons XXV. and XXVIII.,) sometimes by pour, (Lesson XX.,) and sometimes 
it is used without any of these prepositions before it. This is the case when 
it is joined to one of the following verbs, several of wliich have already been 
exemplified in some of the preceding lessons, such as : vouloir, to wish, to 
be willing, (Lesson XVIII. ;) pouvoir, to be able, can, (Lesson XX. :) 
aller chercher, to go for ; and envoyer chercher, to send for, (Lesson XXII. :) 
aller, to be going to, (Lesson XXIII. ;) faire voir, to show, (Lesson XXVII y 
compter, to intend to. (Lessons XXVII. and XXVIII.) 



Aller*, 


to go. 


Nier, 


to deny. 


Compter, 


to intend to. 


Oser, 


to dare 


Croire *, 


to believa 


Paraitre *, 


to appear. 


Daigner, 


to deign. 


Penser, 


to think. 


Declarer, 


to declare. 


Pretendre, 


to pretend. 


Devoir, 


to owe. 


Pouvoir *, 


to be able, (can.) 


Entendre, 


to hear. 


S avoir *, 


to know. 


Envoyer, 


to send. 


Serabler, 


to appear 


Esperei, 


to hope. 


Souhaiter, 


to wish 


FaiUir *, 


to miss. 


Souteuir *, 


to maintain. 


Faire *, 


to do. 


Venir^, 


to come. 


Falloir *, 


to be requisite. 


Voir *, 


to see. 


Laisser; 


to let. 


Vouloir *, 


to be williug. 



Ohs. B. Further there is no preposition before the iufinilive when it is 
used iu an absolute sense. Ex. 



THIRTIETH LESSON. 113 



To eat to(> much is dangerous. 
To speak too much is foohsh. 
To do good to those that have of- 
fended us is a commendable action. 



Manger trop est dangereux. 
Parler trop est imprudent. 
Faire du bien h. ceux qui nous out 
offenses est une action louable. 



EXERCISES. 
94. 

Do you put on another coat in order to go to the play ? — I do put 
on another. — Do you put on your gloves before you put on your 
shoes "? — I put on my shoes before I put on my gloves. — Does your 
brother put on his hat instead of putting on his coat ■? — He puts on 
his coat before he puts on his hat. — Do our children put on theii 
shoes in order to go to our friends ] — They put them on in order to 
go to them, (y.) — What do our sons put on 1 — They put on their 
clothes and their gloves. — Do you already speak French 1 — I do not 
speak it yet, but I begin to learn. — Does your father go out already ? 
— He does not yet go out. — At what o'clock does he go out ] — Ho 
goes out at ten o'clock. — Does he breakfast before he goes out "? — He 
breakfasts and writes his notes before he goes out. — Does he go 
out earlier than you "? — I go out earlier than he. — Do you go to the 
play as often as I ] — I go thither as often as you. — Do you begin to 
know {connaitre) this man "? — I do begin to know him. — Do you 
breakfast early "? — ^We do not breakfast late. — Does the Englishman 
go to the concert earlier than you 1 — He goes there later than I. — 
At what o'clock does he go thither ? — He goes thither at half-past 
eleven. 

95. 

Do you not go too early to the concert 1 — I go thither too late. — 
Do I write too much 1 — You do not write too much, but you speak 
too much. — Do I speak more than you 1 — You do speak more than I 
and my brother. — Is my hat too large 1 — It is neither too large nor 
too small. — Do you speak French oftener than English] — I speak 
English oftener than French. — Do your friends buy much corn "? — 
They buy but little. — Have you bread enough] — I have only a little, 
but enough. — Is it late ] — It is not late. — What o'clock is it 1 — It is 
one o'clock. — Is it too late to {pour) go to your father ] — It is not 
-too late to go to him. — Do you conduct me to him] — I do conduct 
you to him. — Where is he ] — He is in his counting-house. — Does the 
Spaniard buy a horse ] — He cannot buy one. — Is he poor ] — He ia 
not poor; he is richer than you. — Is your brother as learned as you] 
—He is more learned than I, hut you are more learned than he 
and I. 



114 



THIRTY-FIRST LESSON. 



96. 

Do you know that man 1 — I do know him. — Is he learned 1 — He is 
(c'esi) the most learned of all men that I know. — Is your horse worse 
(preceding Lesson) than minel — It is not so bad as yours. — Is 
mine worse than the Spaniard's ? — It is worse ; it is the worst horse 
that I know, (connaisse, subjunctive.) — Do you give those men less 
bread than cheese ■? — I give them less of the latter than of the former. 
— Do you receive as much money as your neighbors 1 — I receive mucl" 
more than they. — Who receives the most money 1 — The English re- 
ceive the most. — Can your son already write a note 1 — He cannot 
write one yet, but he begins to read a little. — Do you read as much 
as the Russians 1 — We read more than they, but the French read the 
most. — Do the Americans write more than we 1 — They write less 
than we, but the Italians write the least, (preceding Lesson.) — Are 
they as rich as the Americans ■? — They are less rich than they. — Are 
your birds as fine as those of the Irish ] — They are less fine than 
theirs, but those of the Spaniards are the least fine. — Do you sell 
your bird 1 — I do not sell it ; I like it too much to (pour) sell it. 



SECOND CO.VJUGATIOX. 



THIRTY-FIRST LESSO'N.—Trente etunieme Lepon. 
THE PAST PARTICIPLE. 

The past participle being a primitive tense, (see Note 1, Less. XXIV.,) its 
formation cannot be determined by another tense. Of regular verbs it may, 
however, be fonned by changing the terminations of the infinitive, for the first 
conjugation, into e with the acute accent, tlius : parler — parle ; for tlie sec- 
ond into i, thus : finir — -fini; for the third mto m, thus : recevoir — refu ; and 
for the fourth also into u, thus : vendre — vendu. Examples : 

FIRST CONJUGATION. 

Inf. p. p. 

Aimer, to love, ai?ne. 

Pleurev, to weep, pleure. 

Manger, to eat, mange. 

Commenccr, to begin, commence. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 

Devoir, to owe, dw.' 

Concevoir, to conceive, congu. 

Recevoir, to receive, jTfw. 

\percevoir, to perceive, apergu. 



Inf. 
BfLtir, 
G^mir, 
Beuir, 
Choisir, 



P.P. 

hatL 
gemL 
beni. 
choisL 



to build, 
to sigh, 
to bleas, 
to choose, 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

Vendre, to sell, rendu, 

Rendre, to render, rendu. 

Entendre, to hear, cntcndu. 

Defeudre, to defend, defcndu. 



■ It will be perceived, that in the third conjugation t is not oir, but cvoit 
which in the past participle must be changed into u. 



THIRTV-FIKST LESSON. 



115 



To he — been. 
Have you been to market ? 
I have been there. 
I have not been there. 
Have I been there? 
You have been there. 
You have not been there. 
Has he been there ? 
He has been there. 
He has not been there. 



Ever. 

Never. 
Have you been at the ball ? 
Have you ever been at the ball ? 
I have never been there. 
Thou hast never been there. 
He has never been there. 
You have never been there. 



Already or yet. 
Have you already been at the play ? 
I have already been there. 
You have already been there. 



Not yet. 
I have not yet been there. 
Thou hast not yet been there. 
He has not yet been there. 
You have not been there yet. 
We have not yet been there. 



Have you already been at my fa- 
ther's? 
I have not yet been there. 



Where have you been this morning ? 
I have been in the garden. 
Where has thy brother been ? 



Eire * — ete.'' 

Avez-vous 6te au marchd I* 

J'y ai et6. 

Je n'y ai pas 6t6. 

Y al-je 6t61 
Vous y avez 6te. 
Vous n'y avez pas 6t4. 

Y a-t-il6t61 
II y a 6t6. 

II n'y a pas 6t6. 



Jamais. 
Ne — jamais. 
Avez-vous 6te au bal ? 
Avez-vous jamais €i6 au bal ? 
Je n'y ai jamais €i&. 
Tu n'y as jamais €ie. 
II n'y a jamais €ie. 
Vous n'y avez jamais ^t^. 



Dejd. 

Avez-vous ddjci 6te au spectacle T 

J'y ai dejci dte. 

Vous y avez deja. ete. 



JVe — pas encore. 
Jo n'y ai pas encore €i€. 
Tu n'y as pas encore 6t6. 
II n'y a pas encore €i&. 
Vous n'y avez pas encore €i6. 
Nous n'y avons pas encore €i€ 



Avez-vous d^jJi 6te chez mon p6roI 
Je n'y ai pas encore €i€. 



Oix avez-vous ^te ce matin ? 
J'ai €i6 au jardin. 
Tonfr^re ou a-t-il 6i6'l 



* The pupil, in repeating the irregular verbs already given, must not fail to 
aiark in liis list the past participles of those verbs. 
' AvoiT eie is used for went and did go. (See Obs. page 11 C^ 



116 THIRTY-FIRST LESSON. 



He has becu in the v/arehouse. 
Has he been there as early as I ? 

He has been there earlier than you. 



II a 6te au magasin. 

Y a-t-il ete d'anssi bonne heure qac 

moi? 
II y a ete de meillevire heure que vouiS. 



Obs. Ete, past participle of the verb etre, to be, is in French often em- 
ployed for alU, past participle of the verb aller, to go. We say, JPai ete au 
spectacle, when the meaning is, that I went to the play, and am returned 
from it ; and, il est alle au spectacle, that he is gone to the play, but is not 
yet returned. Accordingly it is better to say, in the first and second persons 
sing, and plur. : J^y ai ete, I have been there ; tuy as ete, thou hast been 
there ; nous y avons ete, we have been there ; vous y atez ete, you havo 
been there, — than, fy suis alle, tu y es alle, nous y sommes alles, vous y ete>> 
alles, when motion is not particularly to be expressed. 



EXERCISES. 

97. 
Where have you been'? — I have been to the market. — Have yoii 
been to the ball 1 — I have been there. — Have I been to the pla}- ! — 
You have been there. — Hast thou been there "? — I have not been 
there. — Has your son ever been at the theatre 1 — He has nevei 
been there. — Hast thou already been in my warehouse 1 — I have 
never been there. — Do you intend to (Obs. A. Lesson XXX.) go 
thither 1 — I do intend to go thither. — When will you go thither ! — 
I will go thither to-morrow. — At what o'clock 1 — At twelve o'clock. 
— Has your brother already been in my large garden ? — He has not 
yet been there. — Does he intend to see it ] — He does intend to see it. — 
When will he go thither 1 — He will go thither to-day. — Does he in- 
tend to go to the ball this evening ! — He does intend to go thither. — 
Have you already been at the ball ? — I have not yet been there. — When 
do you intend to go thither 1 — I intend to go thither to-morrow. — 
Have you already been in the Frenchman's garden 1 — I have not 
yet been in it, (y.) — Have you been in ni}^ warehouses I — I have been 
there. — When did you go there I — I went there this morning. — Have 
I been in your counting-house, or in that of your friend ? — You have 
neither been in mine, nor in that of my friend, but in that of the 
Englishman. 

98. 

Has the Italian been in our warehouses or in those of the Dutcli ! 

■ — He has neither been in ours nor in those of the Dutch, but in those 

of the Germans. — Hast thou already been at the market ] — I have 

aotyet been there, but I intend to (Obs. A. Lesson XXX ) go thither. 



THIRTV-FIRST LKSSON. ll'i 

■ — Has our neighbor's son been there 1 — He ho.s been there. — When 
has he been there 1 — He has been there to-day. — Does the son of 
our gardener intend to go to the market ] — He does intend to go 
thither. — What does he wish to buy there 1 — He wishes to buy there 
some chickens, oxen, corn, wine, cheese, and cider. — Have you al- 
ready been at my brother's house, {chez ?) — I have already been 
there. — Has your friend already been there ] — He has not yet been 
there. — Have we already been at our friends' 1 — We have not yet 
been there. — Have our friends ever been at our house, (chez nous ?) 
— They have never been there. — Have you ever been at the thea- 
tre ■? — I have never been there. — Have you a mind to write an exer- 
cise 1 — I have a mind to write one. — To whom do you wish to write 
a note 1 — I wish to write one to my son. — Has your father already been 
at the concert 1 — He has not yet been there, but he intends to go 
thither 1 — Does he intend to go thither to-day 1 — He intends to go 
thither to-morrow. — At what o'clock will he set out 1 — He will set 
out at half-past six. — Does he intend to leave {partir) before he 
breakfasts ] — He intends to breakfast before he leaves. 

99. 
Have you been to the play as early as I ] — I have been there ear- 
lier than you. — Have you often been at the concert ■?■■ — I have often 
been there. — Has our neighbor been at the theatre as often as we "? 
— He has been there oftener than we. — Do our friends go to their 
counting-house too early ! — They go thither too late. — Do they go 
thither as late as we 1 — They go thither later than we. — Do the 
English go to their warehouses too early ? — They go thither too ear- 
ly. — Is your friend as often in the counting-house as you 1 — He is 
there oftener than I. — What does he do there ? — He writes. — Does 
he write as much as you 1 — He writes more than I. — Where does 
your friend remain ? — He remains in his counting-house. — Does he 
not go out ] — He does not go out. — Do you remain in the garden ? — 
I do remain there. — Do you go to your friend every day 1 — I do go 
to him every day. — When does he come to you "l — He comes to me 
every evening. — Do you go anywhere in the evening ■? — I go no- 
where ; I stay at home. — Do you send for any one T — I send for my 
physician. — Does your servant go for any thing ? — He goes for some 
wine. — Have you been anywhere this morning 1 — I have been no- 
where. — Where has your father been? — He has been nowhere.— 
When do you drink (Lesson XXVI.) tea ] — I drink some Qe) every 
morning. — Does your son drink coffee ? — He drinks chocolate. — ■ 
Have you been to drink seme coffee 1 — I have been to drink some 
(See end of Lesson XXIV ) 



118 



THIRTY-SECOND LESSON. 



THIRTY-SECOND L'ESSO]<!. —Trente-deuxieme Lepon. 

To have — had. \ Avoir * — eu. 

O" A. Objective pronouns, i. e. those which are not in the nomiualive, 
and which in French are placed before the verb, must never stand before 
the past participle, but before the auxiliary verb. 



Have you had my book ? 
I have not had it. 
Have I had it ? 
You have had it. 
You have not had it. 
Thou hast not had it. 
Has he had it ? 
He has had it. 
He has not had it. 
Hast thou had the coat ? 
I have not had it. 



Avez-vous eu mon livre ? 

Je ne Vai pas eu. 

L'ai-je eu ? 

Vous I'avez eu. 

Vous ne I'avez pas eu. 

Tu ne I'as pas eu. 

Xi'a-t-il eu? 

II I'a eu. 

II ne I'a pas eu. 

As-tu eu I'habit 1 

Je ne I'ai pas eu. 



Have you had the books ? | Avez-vous eu les livres ? 

O' B. The past participle in French, (the same as the adjective, Obs 
Lesson XXII.,) when it is preceded by its object, must agree with it in 
number ; that is, if the object is in the plural, the past participle must take 
an s. 



I have had them. 
I have not had them. 
Have I had them ? 
You have had them. 
You have not had them. 
Has he had them ? 
He has had them. 
He has not had them. 
Have you had any bread ? 
I have had some. 
I have not had any. 
Have I had any? 
You have had some. 
You have not had any. 
Has he had any ? 
He has not had any. 

Have you had any knives ? 
r liave ]ia<l some 



Je les ai eus. 

Je ne les ai pas eus. 

Les ai-je ens? 

Vous les avez eus. 

Vous ne les avez pas eus. 

Les a-t-il eus ? 

II les a eus. 

II ne les a pas eus. 

Avez-vous eu du pain 7 

J'en ai eu. 

Je n'en ai pas eu. 

Eu ai-je eu? 

Vous en avez eu. 

Vous n'en avez pas eu 

En a-t-il eu ? 

II n'en a pas eu. 



Avez-vous eu des couteaux ? 
,T'en ai eu. 



THIRTY-SECOND LESSON. 



119 



Ci" C. The past participle does not agree with its object in number, 
that is, if the object is in the plural, the past participle does not take an s, 
when it is preceded by the relative pronoun en, some, some of them, any of 
them. 

I have not had any. ] Je n'en ai pas eu. 



What has he had ? 
He has had nothing. 



Qu'a-t-il eu ? 
II n'a rien eu. 



Have you been hungry? 
I have been afraid. 
He has never been either right or 
wrong. 



t Avez-vous eu faim ? 

t J'ai eu peur. 

t II n'a jamais eu ni tortni raiaon 



To take place. 
That, (meaning, that thing.) 
Does the ball take place this even- 
ing? 
It does take place. 
It takes place this evening. 
It does not take place to-day. 



\ Avoir lieu. 

Cela. 

t Le bal a-t-il lieu ce soir ? 

+ II a lieu. I 

t II a lieu ce soir. 

t II n'a pas lieu aujourd'hui. 



When did the ball take place ? 
It took place yesterday. 



t Quand le bal a-t-il eu lieu ? 
t II a eu lieu hier. 



Yesterday. 


Hier. 


The day before yesterday. 


Avant-hier. 


How many times, (how often ?) 


Combien de fois? 


Once. 


Une fois. 


Twice. 


Deux fois. 


Thrice, (throe times.) 


Trois fois. 


Several times. 


Plusieurs fois. 


Formerly. 


Autrefois. 


Sometimes. 


Quelquefois. 



Do you go sometimes to the ball ? 
I go sometimes. 



Allez-vous quelquefois au bal t 
J'y vais quelquefois. 



Gone. 

Gone thither. 
Have you gone thither sometimes ? 
I have gone thither often. 
Oftener than you. 



All^ 

Y— alle 

Y ^tes-vous all6 quexquefois? 

J'y suis all^ souvent. 

Plus souvent que vous. 



120 



THIRTY-SECOND LESSON. 



Have the men had my trunk ? 
They have not had it. 
Who has had it ? 
Have they had my knives ? 
They have not had them. 
Wlio has had them ? 



Les hommes ont-ils eu men coffre '( 

lis ne Font pas eu. 

Qui I'a eu? 

Ont-ils eu mes couteaux ? 

lis ne les ont pas eus. 

Qui les a eus ? 



Have I been wrong in buying books ? 
You have not been wrong in buying 
some. 



t Ai-je eu tort d'acheter des livres ? 
t Vous n'avez pas eu tort d'en ache- 
ter. 



EXERCISES. 
100, 

Have you had my pocket-book 1 — I have had it. — Have you had 
my glove 1 — I have not had it. — Hast thou had ray umbrella 1 — I 
nave not had it. — Have I had your knife 1 — You have had it. — When 
had I it, {Vai-je eu ?) — You had it yesterday. — Have I had your 
gloves ■? — You have had them. — Has your brother had my wooden 
hammer, {marteau de bois ?) — He has had it. — Has he had my golden 
ribbon'! — He has not had it. — Have the English had my beautiful 
ship ] — They have had it. — Who has had my thread stockings ? — Your 
servants have had them. — Have we had the iron trunk of our good 
neighbor 1 — We have had it. — Have we had his fine pistol ? — We 
have not had it. — Have we had the mattresses of the foreigners 1 — 
We have not had them. — Has the American had my good work ? — 
He has had it. — Has he had my silver knife ] — He has not had it. — 
Has the young man had the first volume of my Avork 1 — He has not 
nad the first, but (mais il a eu) the second. — Has he had it ] — Yes, 
Sir, he has had it. — When has he had it ? — He has had it this morn- 
ing. — Have you had any sugar ■? — I have had some. — Have I had 
any good paper ■? — You have not had any. — Has the cook of the Rus- 
sian captain had any chickens'! — He has had some, (ECP C.) — Ho 
has not had z.x\j, (III? C.) 

101. 

Has the Frenchman had good wine ^ — He has had some, and he 
(as still {encore) some. — Hast thou had large cakes ! — I have had 
some. — Has thy brother had any '!— =-He has not had any. — Has the 
son of our gardener had any butter ■! — He has had some. — Have the 
Poles had good tobacco % — They have had some. — What tobacco 
have they had 1 — They have had tobacco and snufF. — Have the Eng- 
lish had as much sugar as tea ■! — They have had as much of the one 
as of the other. — Has the physician been right'? — He has been wrong. 
— Has the Dutchman been right or wrong ^ — Ho has never been 



THIRTY-SECOND LESSON. ^ 121 

either right or wrong. — Have I been wrong in buying honey 1 — You 
have been wrong in buying some. — What has the painter had 1 — He 
has had fine pictures. — Has he had any fine gardens 1 — He has not 
had any. — Has your servant had my shoes ■?— He has not had them 
— What has the Spaniard had 1 — He has had nothing. — Who has had 
courage 1 — The English sailors have had some. — Have the Germans 
had many friends'? — They have had many. — Have we had more 
friends than enemies 1 — We have had more of the latter than of the for- 
mer. — Has your son had more wine than cider 1 — He has had more 
of the latter than of the former. — Has the Turk had more pepper than 
corn 1 — He has had less of the latter than of the former. — Has the 
[talian painter had any thing 1 — He has had nothing. 

102. 

Have I been right in writing to my brother ■! — You have not been 
wrong in writing to him. — Have you had a sore finger 1 — I have had 
a sore eye. — Have you had any thing good 1 — I have had nothing 
bad. — Did the ball take place yesterday 1 — It did not take place. — 
Does it take place to-day 1 — It takes place to-day. — When does the 
ball take place 1 — It takes place this evening. — Did it take place the 
day before yesterday '! — It did take place. — At what o'clock did it 
take place ■? — It took place {a eu lieu) at eleven o'clock. — Did you 
go (see Obs. Less. XXXI.) to my brother's ■? — I went thither. — Ho\^ 
often have you been at my friend's house? — I have been there twice. 
— Do you go sometimes to the theatre 1 — I go thither sometimes. — 
How many times have you been at the theatre ■? — I have been there 
only once. — Have you sometimes been at the ball ] — I have often 
been there. — Has your brother ever gone to the ball 1 — He has never 
gone thither. — Has your father sometimes gone to the ball ■? — He 
went {a ete, see Note 3, and Obs. Lesson XXXI.) thither formerly 
— Has he gone thither as often as you ] — He has gone thither often 
er than I. — Dost thou go sometimes into the garden 1 — I go thithei 
sometimes. — Hast thou often been there 1 — I have often been there. 
— Does your old cook often go to the market 1 — He goes thither often. 
— Does he go thither as often as my gardener 1 — He goes thither 
oftener than he. — Did that take place 1 — It did take place. — When 
did that take place 1 

103. 

Have you formerly gone {avez-vous ete, Note 3, Obs. Lesson 
XXXI.) to the ball 1 — I have gone thither sometimes. — ^When hast 
thou been at the concert 1 — I was there {fy ai ete) the day before 
yesterday. — Didst thou find anybody there ■? — I found nobody there, 
{je rCy ai trouve — .) — Hast thou gone to the ball oftener than thy 

11 



122 



THIRTY-THIRD LESSON. 



brothers 1 — I have not gone thither so often as they. — Has your friend 
often been at the play 1 — He has been there several times. — Have 
you sometimes been hungry! — I have often been hungry. — Has your 
va'iet often been thirsty \ — He has never been either hungry or 
thirsty, — Did you go to the play early 1 — I went thither late. — Did 
I go to the ball as early as you ] — You went thither earlier than I. — 
Did your brother go thither too late 1 — He went thither too early. — 
Have your brothers had any thing 1 — They have had nothing. — Who 
has had my sticks and (et mes) gloves ] — Your servant has had both. 
— Has he had my hat and (et mon) gun "? — He has had both. — Hast 
thou had my horse or my brotlier's ■? — I have had neither yours nor 
your brother's. — Have I had your note or the physician's T — You 
have had neither the one nor the other. — What has the physician 
had ■? — He has had nothing. — Has anybody had my golden candle 
stick ■? — Nobody has had it. — Has any one had my sUver knives ^ — 
No one has had them. (See end of Lesson XXIY.) 



THIRTY-THIRD LESSON,— TrenZe-<roJ5ie;?ze Le^on. 

OF THE PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

The preterit indefinite (Ze preterit indefini) is formed eis the perfect tense 
is in English, viz. from the present of tlie auxiliarj^ and the past participle. 
Being a compound of the present, it is used to express an action past at a 
time not far distant from that period, or during a time wholly expired or not. 
We may, therefore, say : J'ai etudie ce matin, I have studied this morning ; 
j^ai etudie hier, I studied yesterday ; j'ai etudie le mois passe, I studied 
last month ; j'ai etudie ce mois-ci, I have studied this month. 



To make, to do — made, done. 
What have you done ? 
I have done nothing. 



Faire * — fait. 
Qu'avez-vous fait ? 
Je n'ai rien fait 



Has that shoemaker made my shoes ? 
He has made them. 
He has not made them. 



Ce cordonnier a-t-il fait mes souhen: ' 

II les a faits. 

II ne les a pas fait*'. 



To put, to put on — put, put on 
Have you put on your shoes ? 
I have put tliem on. 

Have you taken off ycnr gloves ? 
I have taken them off. 



Mettre * — mis. 

Avez-vous mis vos souliers ? 

Je les ai mis. 



I Avez-vous 6{6 vos gaiits 1 
! Je les ai ti6s. 



THIRTY-THIRD LESSON. 



123 



To tell, to say, — told, said, 
[lave you said the words ? 
I have said them. 
Have you told me the word ? 
I have told you the word. 
I have told it you. 



Diie * — dit. 

Avez-vous dit les mots 7 
Je les ai dits. 
M'avez-vous dit le mot? 
Je vous ai dit le mot. 
Je vous I'ai dit 



The word. 
That, (meaning, that thing.) 
This, (meaning, this thing.) 
Has he told you that ? 
He has told me that. 
Have I told you that ? 
You have told me that. 

It. 
Have you told it me ? 
I have told it you. 
I have not told it you. 
Has he told it you ? 
He has told it me. 
He has not told it me. 
Have you told him that? 
I have told it him, (meaning to him.) 
You have told it him. 
He has told it him. 



Le mot. 

Cela. 

Ceci. 

Vous a-t-il dit cela? 

II m'a dit cela. 

Vous ai-jo dit cela? 

Vous m'avez dit cela. 

Le. 

Me I'avez-vous dit ? 

Je vous I'ai dit. 

Je ne vous I'ai pas dit. 

Vous I'a-t-il dit ? 

II me I'a dit. 

II ne me I'a pas dit. 

Lui avez-vous dit cela ? 

Je le lui ai dit. 

Vous le lui avez dit. 

II le lui a dit. 



Have you told it them, (meaning to 1 Le leur avez-vous dit ? 

them 7) 
I have told it them. Je !e leur ai dit. 



Have you spoken to the men ? 
I have spoken to them. 
To whom did you speak ? 



Avez-vous parli^- aux hommos ? 

Je leur ai parle. 

A qui avez-vous parl€ 7 



Ois. A. The pronoun le, which is sometimes rend«-ed into Enarlish by so, 
and more elegantly omitted, may in French relate to a substantive, an 
adjective, or even a whole sentence. It changes neither its gender nor num- 
ber when it relates to an adjective or a whole sentence. 



Ai"e you the brother of my fr.end ? 

I am. 

Are you rich ? 

I am not 

[s he learned ? 



fites-vous le fr^re de mon ami i 
Je le suis. 
fitcs-vous riche ? 
Je ne le suis pas. 
Est-il savant ? 



124 



THIRTl -THIRD LESSC .V 



He is. 

He is not. 

Are our neighbors as poor as tliey 

say? 
They are so. 
Did your brother go to the ball the 

cay before yesterday ? 
I do not know. 



II Z'esL 

II ne Z'est pas. 

Nos voisins sont-ils auss; paiivres qii'Ufi 

le disent '! 
lis le sonL. 
Votre frere a-t-il et^ au bal avaiit- 

hier? 
Je ne le sais pas. 



To write — written. 
Which notes have you written ? 
I have written these. 
Which words has he written ? 
He has written those which you see. 



Ecrire * — ecrit. 

Quels billets avez-vous eerits? 

J'ai ecrit ceux-ci. 

Quels mots a-t-il eerits ? 

II a ecrit ceux que vous voyez. 



To drink, drunk. 




Bou-e *, 


bu. 


To see, seen. 




Voir*, 


vu- 


To read, read. 




Lire*, 


lu. 


To be acquainted with, 


been ac- 


Comiaitre *, 


connu 


quamted with. 









Which men have you seen ? 

I have seen those. 

Which books have you read ? 

I liavS read those which you have 

lent me. 
Have you been acquainted with these 

men ? 
I have not been acquainted with 

them. 



Quels hommes avez-vous vus "^ 

J'ai vu ceux-li. 

Quels li^^:es avez-vous lus ? 

J'ai lu ceux que vous m'avez pretc. 

Avez-vous connu ces hommes 7 

Je ne les ai pas connus. 



Have you seen any sailors? 
I have seen some. 
I have not seen any 



To call 

To throw, throw away 

Do you call me? 

I do call you. 



Avez-vous va des matelots ? 
J'en ai vu. 

Je n'en ai pas w\. (See [HF C. Lod 
son XXXII.) 



Appeler 1. 
Jeter L 

M'appelez-vous ? 
Je vous appelle. 



Obs. B. In verbs ending in elcr and efer, as appeler, to call ; Jeter, to 



THIRTY-THIRD LESSON. 125 

throw ; the letter Z or < is doubled in all persons or tenses where it is followed 
by e mute.' 



Who calls me ? 

Your father calls you. 

Have you called the men? 

I have called them. 

Do you throw your money av/ay ? 

I do uot throw it away. 

Who throws away his books? 

Have you thrown away any thing ? 

I have thrown away my gloves. 

Have you thrown -them away? 



Qui m'appelle? 
Votre pere vous appelle. 
Avez-vous appele les hommes ? 
Je les ai appeles. 
Jetez-vous votre argent ? 
.Te ne le jette pas. 
Qui jette ses livres ? 
Avez-vous jet6 quelque chose ? 
J'ai jet^ mes gants. 
Les avez-vous jet^s ? 



EXERCISES. 
104. 
Have you any thing to do ] — I have nothing to do. — What hast 
thou done 1 — I have done nothing. — Have I done any thing 1 — You 
have done sometiiing. — Wliat have I done "? — You have torn my 
books. — What have your children done 1 — They have torn their 
clothes. — What have we done] — You have done'nothing ; but your 
brothers have burnt my fine pencils. — Has the tailor already made 
your coat 1 — He has not yet made it. — Has your shoemaker already 
made your shoes 1 — He has already made them. — Have you some- 
times made a hat 1 — I have never made one. — Have our neighbors 
ever made books "? — They made {—on'tfait) some formerly. — How 
many coats has your tailor made 1 — He has made twenty or thirty 
— Has he made good or bad coats 1 — He has made (both) good and 
bad. — Has yciir father put on his coat ] — He has not yet put it on, 
but he is going to put it on. — Has your brother put his shoes on ^ — • 
He has put them on. — Have our neighbors put on their shoes and 
their stockings 1 — They have put on neither, (jii ceux-ci ni ceux-ld.) 
— ^What has the physician taken away 1 — He has taken away noth- 
ing. — What have you taken off? — I have taken off my large hat.— 
Have your children taken off their gloves 1 — They have taken them 
off. — When did the ball take place "? — It took place the day before 
yesterday. — Who has told you that? — My servant has told it me. — 
What has your brother told you 1 — He has told me nothing. — Did I 
teL you that"? — You did not tell it me. — Has he told it you'? — ^Ile 
has told it me. — Who has told it your neighbor ? — The English have 

' Custom, however, does not obsei-ve this rule with regard to the verb 
acheter, to buy, (See Obs. A. Lesson XXV.,) and its compound, rachcter, to 
redeiim, to buy again. 



126 THIRTY-THIRD LESSOX. 

told it him. — Have they told it to the French 1 — They have told it 
them. — Who has told it you ■? — Your son has told it me. — Has he 
told it jrou 1 — He has told it me. — Are you v."illing to tell your 
friends that 1 — I am willing to tell it them. 

105. 

Are you the brother of that young man ■? — I am. — Is that young 
man your son 1 — He is. — Are your friends as rich as they say 1 — 
They are so. — Are these men as learned as they say 1 — They are 
,not so. — Do you sweep the warehouse often ? — I sweep it as often 
as I can, {que je le puis.) — Has our neighbor money enough to buy 
some coals ■? — I do not know. — Did your brother go to the ball yes- 
terday '?-^I do not know. — Has your cook gone to the market ? — He 
has not gone thither. — Is he ill, {malade ?) — He is. — Am I ill, {ma- 
lade ?) — You are not. — Are you as tall {grand) as 1 1 — I am. — Are 
you as fatigued as your brother 1 — I am more so than he. — Have 
you written a note] — I have not written a note, but {mais fai ecrit) 
an exercise. — ^^Yhat have your brothers written 1 — They have writ- 
ten their exercises. — When did they write them "! — They wrote {oyit 
ecrits) them yesterday. — Have you written, your exercises '\ — I have 
v.'ritten them. — Has your friend written his ! — He has not written 
them yet. — Which exercises has your little brother written ] — He 
has written his own. — Have you spoken to my father 1 — I have spo- 
ken to him. — When did you speak to him 1 — I spoke to him ( — lui 
ai fade) the day before yesterday. — How many times have you spo- 
ken to the captain 1 — I have spoken to him several times. — Have 
you often spoken to his son 1 — I have often spoken to Mm. — To 
which men has your friend spoken'? — He has spoken to these and 
to those. 

106. 

Have you spoken to the Russians ! — I have spoken to them. — 
Have the English ever spoken to you ] — They have often spoken to 
me. — What has the German told you ] — He has told me the words. 
— Which words has he told you ? — He has told me these words. — 
What have you to tell me ■? — I have a few words to tell you. — Which 
exercises has your friend written 1 — He has written those. — Which 
men have you seen at the market ] — I have seen these. — Which 
books have your children read ? — They have read those which you 
have lent them. — Have you seen these men or those ? — I have nei- 
ther seen these nor those. — Which men have you seen ! — I have seen 
those to whom (a qui) you have spoken. — Have j-ou been acquainted 
with thest5 men ! — I have been acquainted with them. — With which 
boys has your brother been acquainted ? — He has been acquainted 



THIRTY-FOURTH LKSSON. 



127 



with those of our merchant. — Have I been acquainted with these 
Frenchmen 1 — You have not been acquainted with them. — Which 
wine has your servant drunk 1 — He has drunk mine. — Have you seen 
my brothers 1 — I have seen them. — ^Where have you seen them 1 — 
1 have seen them at their own house, (chez eux.) — Have you ever 
seen Greeks'? — I have never seen any, (EC? C. Lesson XXXH.) — 
Hus your father seen any 1 — He has sometimes seen some, (K? C. 
Lesson XXXH.) — Do you call me ■? — I do call you. — Who calls your 
brother 1 — My father calls him. — Dost thou call any one 1 — I call no 
one. — Have you thrown away your hat ] — I have not thrown it away. 
— Does 3rour father throw away any thing 1 — He throws away the 
notes which he receives. — Have you thrown away your pencils 1 — I 
have not thrown them away. — Dost thou throw away thy book 1 — I 
do not throw it away ; I want it (Lesson XXHI.) to {pour) study 
French. 



THIRTY-FOURTH 'LKSSO'^.—Trente-quatrieme Legon. 







Infinitive. 


Past part. 


To extinguish, 


extinguished. 


ifiteindre *, 


dteint. 


To open, 


opened. 


Ouvrir *, 


ouvert. 


To conduct. 


conducted. 


Conduire *, 


conduit. 


To take. 


taken. 


Prendre *, 


pris. 


To believe. 


believed. 


Croire *, 


cru. 


To be able, (can 


,) been able, (could.) 


Pouvoir *, 


pu. 


To know, 


known. 


Savoir *, 


su. 


To be willing. 


been willing. 


Vouloir *, 


voulu. 



NEUTER VERBS. 

In neuter verbs the action is intransitive, that is, it remains in the agent 
They are conjugated like the active. The latter, however, always form 
their past tenses with the auxiliary avoir *, to have ; on the contrary, some 
neuter verbs take etre *, to be, and others avoir *, for their auxiliary ; others 
again take sometimes avoir *, and sometimes etre *, according as action oi 
state is more particularly meant. Their past participles must agtee in gen- 
der and uumher .vith the subject. Those neuter verbs which are conju- 
gated with the auxiliary etre * in French, and to have in English, will 
always be marked. 



To set out. 
To go out. 
To come, 



set out, (past part.) 

gone out. 

come, (past part.) 



Partir *, 
Sortir *, 
Veair *, 



parti, 
sorti. 
Tenu 



128 



THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



Has your father sst out? 
Have your friends set out? 
They have not set out. 

When did your brothers go out 
They went out at ten o'clock. 



Did the men come to your father ? 
They did come to him. 



Which fires have you extinguished ? 

Which storehouses have you open- 
ed? 

Have you conducted them to the 
storehouse ? 

I have conducted them thither. 

Which books have you taken? 

How many notes have you received? 

I received but one. 



Upon. 
Upon the bench. 
The bench. 
Upon it. 

Under. 

Under the bench. 

Under it, (underneath.) 
Where is my hat? 
It is upon the bench. 
Are my gloves on the bench .' 
They are under it. 

Do you learn to read? 

I do (learn it.) 

I learn to write. 

Havj you learned to speak? 

I ha v^e (learned it.) 

In the storehouse 
In the stove. 

In it, or icithin. 
The stove. 



Votre pere est-il parti? 
Vos amis sont-its partis? 
lis ne sout pas partis. 



Quand vos freres sont-ils sortis ? 
lis sent sortis k dix heures. 



Les hommes sout-ils venus chez votre 

pere ? 
lis y sont venus. 



Quels feux avez-vous eteints? 
Quels magasins avez-vous ouverts? 

Les avez-vous conduits au magasin? 

Je les y ai conduits. 
Quels livres avez-vous pris ? 
Combien de billets avez-vous lequa 1 
Je n'en ai re^u qu'un. 



Sur, (preposition.) 
Sur le banc. 
Le banc. 
Dessus, (adverb.) 



Sous, (preposition.) 

Sous le banc. 

Dessous, (adverb.) 

Ou est mon chapeau? 

II est sur le banc. 

Mes gauts sont-ils sur le banc i 

lis sont dessous. 



Apprenez-vous &. lire ? 
Je I'apprends. 
J'appreuds k. 6cr\ie. 
Avez-vous appris S. parler ? 
Je I'ai appris. 



Dans le magasia 
Dans le poele. 
Dedans. 
Le po61e 



THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



129 



To wash. 
To get or to have mended, got or 

had mended. 
To get or to have washed, got or 

had washed. 
To get or to have made, got or had 

made 
To get or to have swept, got or had 

swept. 
To get or to have sold, got or had 

sold. 



To get the coat mended. 

To have it mended. 

To get them mended. 

To get some mended. 
Are you gettuig a coat made, (do 

you order a coat?) 
I am getting one made, (I order one.) 
I have had one made. 
Have you had your coat mended ? 

I have had it meaided. 
I have not had it mended. 
I have had my shoes mended. 
I have had them mended. 
To wipe. 

Have you not seen my book ? 
I have seen it. 

When ?— Where ? 
When did you see my brother ? 
I saw him the day before yesterday. 
Where have you seen him ? 
I have seen him at the theatre. 



Laver 1. 

t Faire raccommoder, fait raccoin- 

moder. 
t Faire laver, fait laver. 

t Faire faire, fait faire. 

t Faire balayer, fait balayer. 

t Faire vendre, fait vendre. 



t Faire raccommoder I'habit 
t Le faire raccommoder. 
t Les faire raccommoder. 
t En faire raccommoder. 
t Faites-vous faire un habit? 

t J'en fais faire un. 

t J'en ai fait faire un. 

t Avez-vous fait raccommoder votru 

habit ? 
t Je I'ai fait raccommoder. 
t Je ne I'ai pas fait raccommoder. 
+ J'ai fait raccommoder mes souliers. 
+ Je les ai fait raccommoder. 
Essuyer 1. (See Obs. D. Less 

XXIV.) 
N'avez-vous pas vu mon livre ? 
Jo I'ai vu. 
Quand?— Ou?' 

Quand avez-vous vu mon frfere ? 
Je I'ai vu avant-hier. 
Ou I'avez-vous vu ? 
Je I'ai vu au thccltre. 



EXERCISES. 

107. 

Where are your brothers gone to 1 — They are gone to the theatre 

—Have your friends left, {parlir* ?) — They have not yet left. — When 

do they set outi — This evening. — At what o'clock"? — At half-past 

nine. — When did the French boys come to your brother "? — They 

■ — — — J — 

* Learners ought now to use in their exercises the adverbs of time, placoj 
aud number, mentioned in Lessons XIX., XXII., XXIIL, and XXXII 



130 THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON. 

came to him yesterday. — Did their friends also {aussi) come !— 
They came also. — Has any one come to us ] — The good Germans 
have come to us. — Who has come to the English ■? — The French 
have come to them. — When did you drink any wine ] — I drank some 
yesterday and to-day. — Has the servant carried my note 1 — He has 
carried it. — Where has he carried it 1 — He has carried it to your 
friend. — Which notes have you carried ] — I have carried those which 
you have given me to carry. — Whom have you carried them to ^ — I 
have carried them to your father. — ^Which books has your servant 
taken ■? — He has taken those which you do not read. — Have your 
merchants opened their storehouses ] — They have opened them. — 
Which storehouses have they opened 1 — They have opened those 
which you have seen. — When have they opened them ■? — They have 
opened them to-day. — Have you conducted the foreigners to the 
storehouse "] — I have conducted them thither. — Which fires have 
the men extinguished "l — They have extinguished those which you 
have perceived, {aperfus.) — Have you received any notes ] — We 
have received some. — How many notes have you received "! — I have 
received only one ; but my brother has received more than I : he 
has received six. 

108. 
Where is my coat 1 — It is upon the bench. — Are my shoes upon 
the bench ] — They are under it. — Are the coals under the bench ? — 
They are in the stove. — Have j'ou put any wood into the stove ? — 1 
have put some into it. — Are you cold 1 — I am not cold. — Is the wood 
which I have seen in the stove ? — It is in it. — Are my papers upon 
the stove! — They are in it, (within.) — Have }'ou not been afraid to 
burn my papers ] — I have not been afraid to burn them. — Have you 
sent your little boy to market 1 — I have sent him thither. — When 
did you send him thither 1 — This morning. — Have you written to 
your father ] — I have written to him. — Has he answered you ! — He 
has not yet answered me. — Are you getting your floor swept T — I am 
getting it swept. — Have you had your counting-house swept ] — -I have 
not had it sw'ept yet, but I intend to have it swept to-day. — Have 
you wiped your feet ■? — I have wiped them. — Where did you wipe 
your feet 1 — I wiped them upon tiie {au) carpet. — Have you had your 
benches wiped ■? — I nave had them wiped. — V.'hat does your servant 
wipe ] — He wipes the knives. — Have you ever written to the phy- 
sician 1 — I have never w-ritten to him. — Has he sometimes written to 
you ^ — He has oi"ten written to me. — What has he written to you \ — 
He has written something to me. — Hov/ many times have your 
friends written to you 1 — They have written to me more than twenty 
times. — Have you seen my sons ! — I 'i.ive never seen them. 



THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON. 131 

' 109. 

Have you ever seen any Greeks? — I have never seen (dP C. 
Lesson XXXII.) any. — Have you already seen a Syrian "! — I^have 
already seen one. — Where have you seen one 1 — At the theatre. — 
Have you given the book to my brother 1 — I have given it to him. — ■ 
Have you given money to the merchant 1 — I have given him some. 
— How much have you given to him 1 — I have given to him fourteen 
crowns. — Have you given any gold ribbons to our neighbors' chil- 
dren 1 — I have given them some. — Wilt thou give me some wine ? — • 
I have given you some alieady. — When didst thou give me some 1 — 
I gave you some formerly.— -Wilt thou give me some now "? — I can- 
not give you any; I have none — Has the American lent you monej^l 
— He has lent me some. — Has he often lent you some 1 — He has 
sometimes lent me some. — Has the Italian ever lent you money 1 — 
He has never lent me any. — Is he poor ] — He is not poor ; he is 
richer than you. — Will you lend me a crown 1 — I will lend you two. 
— Has your boy come to mine 1 — He has come to him. — When 1 — 
This morning. — At what time 1 — Early. — Has he come earlier than 
1 1 — At what o'clock did you come ? — I came at half-past five. — He 
has come earlier than you. 

110. 

Has the concert taken place 1 — It has taken place. — Has it taken 
place late 1 — It has taken place early. — At what o'clock 1 — At twelve. 
— At what o'clock has the ball taken place ] — It has taken place at 
midnight. — Does your brother learn to write 1 — He does learn. — 
Does he know how (Lesson XXVII.) to read 1 — He does not know 
how yet. — Do you know the Frenchman whom I know 1 — I do not 
know the one whom you know, but I know another. — Does your 
friend know the same merchants as I know ! — He does not know the 
same, but he knows others. — Have you ever had your coat mended ! 
— I have sometimes had it mended. — Hast thou already had thy 
shoes mended 1 — I have not yet had them mended. — Has your brother 
sometim.es had his stockings mended 1 — He has had them mended 
several times. — Hast thou had thy hat or thy shoe mended 1 — I have 
neither had the one nor the other mended. — Have you had your 
stockings or your gloves washed 1 — I have neither had the one nor the 
other washed. — Has your father had any thing made 1 — He has not 
had any thing made. — Have you looked for my gloves 1 — I have look- 
ed for them. — ^Where have you looked for them 1 — I have looked for 
them upon the bed, and have found them under it. — Have you found 
my notes in the stove 1 — I have found them in it. — Have you found 
my stockings under the bed ? — I have found them upon it. (See end 
of Lesson XXIV.) 



132 



THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



•^ 



THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON.— Trent e-cinauieme Lecon. 



To promise — promised. Promettre 4 * — promis, (takes de be- 

fore the infin.) 
To learn — learned. Apprendre 4 * — appris. 

Ohs. A. Compound and derivative verbs are conjugated like their primi- 
tives : thus the verb promettre * is conjugated like meitre *, to put, (Lessons 
XXX. and XXXIII.,) the verb apprendre *, like prendre *, to take. (Les- 
sons XXVL and XXXIV.) 

Me proraettez-vous de veuir ? 
Je vous le promets. 
Qu'avez-vous promis k I'homme ? 
Je ne lui ai rieu promis. 
Avez-vous jamais appris le fran^ais ? 
Je I'ai appris autrefois. 



Do you promise me to come 1 
I do promise you. 

What have you promised the man ? 
I have promised him nothing. 
Have you ever learned French? 
I learned it formerly. 



To wear out. 


User 1. 


To refuse. 


Refuser 1, (de before infin.) 


To spell. 


Epeler 1. (See Obs. Lesson XXXIII.y 


How? 


Comment 7 


Well. 


Bien. 


Badly. 


Mai. 


So, thus. 


Ainsi. 


So so. 


Comme cela. 


In this manner. 


t De cette maniere. 


How has your brother written his 


Comment votre frfere a-t-il ecrit son 


e.vercise ? 


thfime ? 


He has written it well. 


11 1'a bien ecrit. 


To dry. 


Secher 1. 


Do you put your coat to drj- ? 


Mettez-vous votre habit a s^cLm ? 


I do put it to dry. 


Je le mets 5. secher. 



How old are you ? 
I am twelve years old. 
How old is your brother i 
He is thirteen years old. 



t Quel &ge avez-vous 'i 

t J'ai douze ans. 

t Quel ftge votre frfere a-t-il ? 

t II a treize ans. 



THIRl'Y-FIFTH LESSOIJ. 



133 



Abnost. 
He is almost fourteen years old. 

About. 
I am aoout fifteen years old. 

Nearly. 
He is nearly fifteen years old. 

Hardly. 
Yua are hardly seventeen yeara 
old. 

Not quite. 
I am not quite sixteen years old. 



Art thou older than thy brother ? 
I am younger than he. 

Old, (in years.) 



There is, there are. 
How many francs are there in a 

crown ? 
Three. 

There are five centimes in a sou. 
There are twenty sous or a him- 
di-ed centimes in one franc. 
A or one hundred. 
The centime. 



Presque. 

t II a presque quatoize ana. 

Environ. 

t J'ai environ quinze ans. 

Pres de. 

+ II a prfes de quinze ans. 

^A peine. 

t Vous avez k peine dix-sept aus. 

Pas tout-d-fait. 

t Je n'ai pas tout-Ji-fait seize aiifl. 



Es-tu plus kg& que ton frcire ? 
Je suis plus jeune que lui. 



II y a. 

Combien de francs y a-t-il dans un 

^cu? 
Trois. 

II y a cinq centimes dans un sou. 
II y a vingt sous on cent centimes 

dans un franc. 
Cent. 
Le centime. 



To understand. 

To hear, to understand. 
To wait for, to expect 
To lose. 



Comprendre * 4 (Conj. lijse pren- 
dre *, Less. XXVI. and XXXIV) 
Entendi-e 4. 
Attend re 4. 
Perdre 4 



Do you understand me ? 

I do understand you. 

Have you understood the man ? 
I have understood him. 
T hear you, but I do not uiider- 
stand you. 



\ Me comprenez-vous ? 
I M'entendez-vous ? 
i Je vous comprends 

Je vous entends. 

Avez-vous compris Thomme ? 

Je I'ai compris. 

Je vous entends, mais je ne vous 
comprends pas. 



t34 



THIUTY-FIFTII LESSON 



Tiie noise. 

The wind. 
The noise (roaring) of t'ne wind. 
Do you hear tlie roaring of the wind ? 
i do hear it. 



Le bruit 

Le vent. 

Le bruit du vent. 

Entendez-vous fe bruit du Tent ? 

Je I'entends. 



To har\: 

Tlie barking. 
Have you heard the barking of 

the dogs ? 
I have heard it. 



Ahoyer 1. 

(See Obs. D. Less. XXR'.j 
L'aboiement. 
Avez-vous enteudu l'aboiement des 

cliiens 1 
Je I'ai enteudu. 



To wait for some one or some- 

tliing. 
To expect some one or something. 
Are you waiting for my brother? 
I am waiting for him. 
Do you expect some friends ? 
I do expect some. 



How much has your brother lost ? 
He has lost about a crown. 
I have lost more than he. 



To remain. 

The nobleman. 
Noblemen. 



Attendre quelqu'un ou quelque chose. 

Attendez-vous mon frere ? 
Je I'attends. 

Attendez-vous des amis ? 
J'en attends quelques-uns. 



Combien votre frere a-t-il perdu ? 
II a perdu environ un ^cu. 
J'ai perdu plus que lui. 



Rester 1, (takes more frequently Hre 

than avoir for its auxiliajy.)' 
Le gentilhomme. 
Les geutilshommes. 



Ohs. B. When a word is composed of a noun an.d an adjective, both take 
the mark of the plural." 



' This verb takes avoir when it signifies to live in, and etre, when it 
signifies to remain. Ex. J'ai rcsfe sept mois k Colmar sans partir de ma 
chambre, (Voltaire ;) I remained (lived) seven months at Colmar without 
leaving my room. Je Tattendais k Paris, mais il est resti k Lyon, (The 
French Academy ;) I waited for him in Paris, but he remained at Lyons. 
Cependaut Tt-lcmaque iiail rcsfe seul avec ]\Ientor, (Fenelon ;) Telemachus, 
however, had remained alone with Jleutor. 

- Except the adjective demi, half, wliich docs not take it. (See Note '2, 
Lessou XIX.) 



THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON. 135 

Genleel, pretty. ' Gentil. 
Where lias the nobleman remahi- Oil le gcntilhomme est-il rest(3 ? 

ed? I 

He has remained at home. 11 est reste &. la maison. 

Have you remained with him? ; fites-vous reste avec lui? 

With. i Avec. 



EXERCISES. 
111. 

Do you promise me lO come to the ball"? — I do promise you. — 
Have I promised you any thing ] — You have promised me nothing. — ■ 
What has my father promised you'? — He has promised me a fine 
book. — Have you received it '] — Not yet. — Do you give me what 
(ce que) you have promised me 1 — I give it you. — Has yowx friend 
received much money ] — He has received but little. — How much has 
he received ? — He has received but one crown. — How much money 
have you given to my son ] — I have given him thirty francs. — Have 
you not promised him more '? — I have given him what (ce que) I prom- 
ised him. — Have you any French money ] — I have some. — What 
money have you ■? — I have francs, sous, and centimes. — How many 
sous are there (y a-t-il) in a franc ] — There are twenty sous in a franc. 
— Have you any centimes 1 — I have a few. — Plow many centimes are 
there in a sou 1 — There are five. — iVnd how many are there in a 
franc 1 — One hundred. — Will you lend me your coat ■? — I will lend it 
you, but it is worn out. — Are your shoes worn out] — They are not 
worn out. — Will you lend them to my brother ^ — I will lend them to 
him. — To whom have you lent your hat ^ — I have not lent it ; I have 
given it to somebody. — To whom have you given it 1 — I have given 
it to a pauper, (a un pauvre.) 

112. 

Does your little brother already know how to spell 1 — He does 
know. — Does he spell well ] — He does spell well. — How has your lit- 
tj£ boy spelt % — He has spelt so-so. — How have your children written 
their exercises 1 — They have written them badly. — Has my neighbor 
lent you his gloves 1 — He has refused to {de) lend them to me. — Do 
you know Spanish ] — I know it. — Does your son speak Italian 1 — 
He speaks it well. — How do your friends speak ] — They do not 
speak badly. — Do they listen to what you tell them 1 — They listen to 
it. — How hast thou learned English 1 — I have learned it in this man- 
ner. — Have you called me T — I have not called you, but I have called 
your brother. — Is he come ■? — Not yet. — Where did you wet youi 
clothes ■? — I wetted them in the garden. — Will you put them to dry "! — 



136 THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON. 

I have already put them to dry. — Does the nobleman wish to give me 
any thing to do ] — He wishes to give you something to do — How 
old are you 1 — I am hardly eighteen years old. — How old is your 
brother 1 — He is twenty years old. — Are you as old as he ] — I am not 
so old. — How old art thou 1 — I am about twelve years old. — Am I 
younger than you ■? — I do not know. — How old is cur neighbor 1 — 
He is not quite thirty years old. — Are our friendsas young as we ] — 
They are older than we. — How old are they ] — The one is nineteen, 
and the other twenty years old. — Is your father as old a-s mine ] — He 
is older than yours. 

113. 
Have you read my book 1 — I have not quite read it yet. — Has 
your friend finished his books 1 — He has almost finished them. — Do 
you understand me 1 — I do understand you. — Does the Frenchman 
understand us ] — He does understand us. — Do you understand what 
(ce que) we are telling you 1 — We do understand it. — Dost thou un- 
derstand French 1 — I do not understand it yet, but I am learning it 
— Do we understand the English] — We do not understand them. — ■ 
Do the English understand usl — They do understand us. — Do we 
understand them 1 — We hardly understand them. — Do you hear any 
noise 1 — I hear nothing. — Have you heard the roaring of the wind ? 
— I have heard it. — What do you hear 1 — I hear the barking of the 
dogs. — Whose (Lesson XXIX.) dog is this ] — It is the dog of the 
Scotchman. — Have you lost your stick 1 — I have not lost it. — Ha? 
your servant lost my notes 1 — He has lost them. — Did you go to the 
ball 1 — I did not go to it, (y.) — Where did you remain ] — I remained 
at home. — Where did the noblemen remain ? — They remained in the 
garden. — Has your father lost as much money as I I — He has lost 
more than you. — How much have I lost ! — You have hardly lost a 
crown. — Did your friends remain at the ball! — They remained 
there. — Do you know as much as the English physician ! — I do not 
know as much as he. — How many books have you read ^ — I have 
hardly read two. — Do you wait for any one ? — I wait for no one. — 
Are you waiting for the man whom I saw this morning ? — I am 
waiting for him. — Art thou waiting for thy book ! — I am waiting for 
it. — Do yoa expect your father this evening ? — I do expect him. — 
Do you expect some friends 1 — I do expect some. (See end of Les- 
son XXIV.) 



THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



137 



THIRTY-SIXTH LESSOR .—Tre7ite-sixieme Lefon. 



To beat — beaten. 
To bite — bitten. 



Battre 4 — battu. 
Mordre 4 — mordu. 



Why ? 
Wliy do you beat the dog ? 

Because. 
I beat it, because it has bitten me. 



Pourquoi ? 

Pourquoi battez-vous ie cliieu ? 

Parce que. 

Je le bats, parce qu'il m'a moidu. 



que 



To owe — owed. 
How much do you owe me ? 
I owe you fifty crowns. 
How much does the man owe you ? 
He owes me sixty francs. 
Do our neighbors owe as much as 

we? 
We owe more than they. 
How nmcli dost thou owe ? 

Two hundred francs. 

Eighty francs. 

Eiglity-three francs. 

Two hundred and fifty francs. 

Obs. A. From the above it may be seen, that to quatre-vingt and cent 
ao s is added when they are followed by another numeral. 



Devoir 3 — dCi. 
Cornbien me devez-vous ? 
Je vous dois cinquante ecus. 
Cornbien I'homme vous doit-il? 
II me doit soixante francs. 
Nos voisins doivent-ils autant 

nous? 
Nous devons plus qu'eux. 
Combien dois-tu ? 
Deux cents francs. 
Quatre-vingts francs. 
Quatre-vingt-trois francs. 
Deux cent cinquante francs. 



Are you to . . ? 
I am to . . 
Where are you to go to this morn- 

mg? 
I am to go to the warehouse. 
Is your brother to come hither to- 
day ? 

Soon, shortly. 
He is to come hither soon 



t Devez-vous . . ? 

t Je dois . . 

t Oil devez-vous aller ce matin ? 

t Je dois aller au magasin. 

t Votre frere doit-il venir ici aujour 

d'hui ? 
Bientot. 
t II doit venir ici bient6t. 



To return, (to come back.) 



At what o'clock do you return from 
the market ? 



Revenir *, 2 (is conjugated like its 
primitive venir *, to come, Lessons 
XXIV. and XXXIV.) 

A quelle heure revenez-vous du 
marche ? 



138 



THIRTY-SIXTH LESSOR. 



I return from it at twelve o'clock. 

From it, from there, thence. 
Does the servant return early from 

the warehouse ? 
He returns from it at six o'clock in 

the morning. 

At nine o'clock iit the morning. 

At five o'clock in the evening. 

At eleven o'clock at night. 



Ten reviens k midl. 

En. 

Le domestique revient-il do boime 

heure du magasin ? 
II en revient h six heures du matin 

t A neuf heures du matin. 
t A cinq heures du soir. 
t A onze heures du soir. 



How long 7 
During, for. 
How long has he remained there ? 
A minute. 
An hour. 
A day. 
A month. 
A year. 
The summer. 
The winter. 



Comhien de temps ? 

Pendant. 

Combien de temps y est-il rest^ ? 

Pendant' una minute.^ 

Pendant uue heure.'' 

Pendant un jour. 

Pendant un mois. 

Pendant une annee.' 

L'ete. 

L'hiver. 



Ohs. B. The names of seasons, months, and days, are of the masculine 
gender, except Vautomne, autumn, which is both masculine and feminine. 



During the summer. 
To dwell, to live, to reside, to remain. 
Where do you live ? 
I live in William-street, number 

twenty-five. 
W'here did your brother live 1 
He lived in Rivoli-street, number 

forty-nine. 



Pendant I'et^. 

Demeurer 1.' 

Oil demeurez-vous ? 

Je demeure (dans la) rue* .Guillaume, 

(au) numero vingt-ciuq.° 
Oh votre frfere a-t-il demeurd ? 
II a demeur6 (dans la) rue de Rivo'i 

(au) numdro quarante-neuf.^ 



' The adverb pendant, when it signifies for, may be omitted in French 
as well as in English, but it is then understood. 

' Minute, heure, and annee, are feminine nouns, of which the indefinite 
article is une, a, one, and the definite la, whose plural (Jes) is the same as 
that of le. Feminine nouns take, like masculine nouns, an s in the plural, 
as will be seen hereafter. 

^ The verb demeurer takes avoir for its auxiliarj' when it means to lice 
in, and etre when it signifies to remain. Ex. II o demeure &. Paris, he haa 
lived in Paris ; il est demeure court en haranguant le roi, he stopped short 
in haranguing the king 

* La rue, the street, is also a feminine noun. 

^ Dans la before rue, and au before numero, have been put be^tweeu pn- 
rentheser, because they are generally omitted, but understood- 



THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



139 



Dost thou live at thy brother's house ? 
I do not live at his, but at my father's 

house. 
Does your friend still live where I 

Hved ? 
lie lives no longer where you lived. 

No longer. 
The number. 



Demeures-tu chez ton frfere ? 

Je ne demeure pas chez lui, maia 

chez mon pere. 
Votre ami demeure-t-il encore oil j'ai 

demeure ? 
II ne demeure plus oil vous avez de 

meure 
Ne — plus. 
Le numdro 



How long were you speaking to the 

man ? 
I spoke to him for two hours. 
Did you remain long with my father? 

I remained with him an hour. 
Long. 



Combien de temps avez-vous parld 

k I'homme l 
Je lui ai parle pendant deux heures. 
fites-vous reste long-temps chez mou 

pfere? 
J'y suis reste une heure. 
Long-temps. 



EXERCISES. 
114. 

Why do you not drink 1 — I do not drink because I am not thirsty. 
■ — Why do you pick up this ribbon 1 — I pick it up, because I want it. — 
Why do you lend money to this man ■? — I lend him money {en) be- 
cause he wants some. — Why does your brother study ? — He studies, 
because he wishes to learn French. — Has your cousin drunk already ■? 
— He has not yet drunk, because he has not yet been thirsty. — Does 
the servant show you the floor which he sweeps ? — He does not 
show me that which he sweeps now, but that which he swept {qii'il 
a ialaye) yesterday. — Why do you love that man 1 — I love him, be- 
cause he is good. — Why does your neighbor beat his dog ? — Because 
it has bitten his boy. — ^Why do our friends love us 1 — They love us 
because we are good. — ^Why do you bring me wine ? — I bring you 
some because you are thirsty. — Why does the sailor drink ] — He 
drinks because he is thirsty. — Do you see the sailor who is in {sur) 
the ship ] — I do not see the one who is in the ship, but the one who 
is in the {au) market. — Do you read the books which my father haa 
given you ! — I do read them. — Do you understand them ■? — I under- 
stand them so so. — Do you know the Italians whom we know ■? — We 
do not know those whom you know, but we know others. — Does the 
shoemaker mend the shoes which you have sent him 1 — He does not 
mend them, because thev are worn out. 



140 '• THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON 

115. 

Is your servant returned from market ] — He is not yet returned 
from it. — At what o'clock did your brother return from the ball ? — 
He returned from it at one o'clock in the morning. — At what o'clock 
didst thou come back from thy friend 1 — I came back (en) at eleven 
o'clock in the morning. — Didst thou remain long with him 1 — I re- 
mained with him about an hour. — How long do you intend to remain 
at the ball ? — I intend to remain there a few minutes. — How long 
did the Frenchman remain with you "? — He remained with me for 
two hours. — How long did your brothers remain in town, (dlaville?) 
— They remained there during the winter. — Do you intend to re- 
main long with us 1 — 1 intend to remain with you during the sum- 
mer. — How much do I owe youT — ^You do not ow^e me much. — How 
much do you owe your tailor 1 — I owe him eighty francs, — How 
much dost thou owe thy shoemaker 1 — I owe him already eighty-five 
francs. — Do I owe you any thing 1 — You owe me nothing. — How 
much does the Englishman owe you 1 — He owes me more than you. 
— Do the English owe as much as the Spaniards 1 — Not quite so 
much. — Do I owe you as much as my brother ] — You owe me more 
than he. — Do our friends owe you as much as we ] — They owe me less 
than you. — How much do they owe you'? — They owe me two hun- 
dred and fifty francs. — How much do we owe you ? — You owe me 
three liundred francs. 

116. 

Why do you give money to the merchant 1 — I give him some, be- 
cause he has sold me something. — Vf hither are you to go ? — I am to 
go to the market. — Is your friend to come hither to-day 1 — He is to 
come hither. — When is he to come hither 1 — He is to come hithei 
soon. — When are our sons to go to the play ] — Thej- are to go thithei 
to-night, (ce soir.) — ^When are they to return from it ? — The}" are to re- 
turn from it at half-past ten. — When are you to go to the physician ? 
— I am to go to him at ten o'clock at night. — ^^^^en is your son to 
return from (de chez) the painter's 1 — He is to return from liim {en) 
at five o'clock in the evening. — Where do you live ? — I live in Ri- 
voli-street, number forty-seven. — ^\'\niere does your father live \ — He 
lives at his friend's house. — Where do your brothers live ? — They 
live in William-street, number one hundred and twenty. — Dost thou 
live at thy brother's house ! — I live at his house. — Do you still live 
where you did 1 — I live there still. — Does your friend still live where 
he did 1 — He no longer lives where he did. — ^Yhere does he live at 
present '' — He lives at his father's house. 



THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



141 



THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON .—Trente-septieme Le^on, 



How long ? 

Till, until. 
Till twelve o'clock, (till noon.) 
Till to-morrow. 
Till the day after to-morrow. 
Till Sunday. 
Till Monday. 
Till this evening. 
Till evening. 
UntH morning. 
Until the next day. 
Until that day. 
Until that moment. 
Till now — hitherta 
Until then. 
Tlien, 



Jusqu'd quand ? 
Jusque, (adverb of time.) 
Jusqu'ii midi. 
Jusqu'Jl domain. 
Jusqu apres demain. 
Jusqu'ii dimanche. 
Jusqu' ti luiidi. 
Jusqu' il ce soir. 
Jusqu'au soir. 
Jusqu'au matiit. 
Jusqu'au lendemaiu. 
Jusqu'a ce jour. 
Jusqu'ii ce moment. 
Jusqu'a. present — jusqu'ici. 
Jusqu' alors. 
Alors. 



Tuesday, Wednesday. 
Thursday, Friday. 
Saturday. 



Le mardi, le mercredi. 
Le jeudi, le vendredi. 
Le samedi. 



06s. The names of days, months, and seasons, are all masculine. 
Obs. B., preceding Lesson.) 



(See 



Till I return, (till my return.) 

Till my brother returns, (till my bro- 
ther's return.) 

Till four o'clock in the morning. 

Till midnight, (till twelve o'clock at 
night.) 

Tho return or coming back. 



Jusqu'a mou retour. 
Jusqu'au retour de men frferc. 

Jusqu'il quatre heures du matin. 
Jusqu'a, minuit. 

Le retour 



How long did you remain at my fa- 
ther's house ? 

I remained at his house till eleven 
o'clock at night. 



Jusqu'a, quand etes-vous rest^ cliez 

mou pfere ? 
J'y suis reste jusqu'a, onze heures du 

soir. 



142 



THIRTY-SEVENTH I ESSON. 



One, the people, they, or any one. 

Have tliey brought my shoes ? 

They have brought them. 

They have not brought them yet 

What have they said? 

They have said nothhig. 

What have they done ? 

They have done nothing. 



To be wilUng, (to wish,) been wil- 

hng, (wished.) 
Have they been wilUng to mend my 

coat? 
They have not been wilhng to mend 

it. 



On, (indefinite pronoun, always sin- 
gular.) 
A-t-on apporte mes souhers ? 
On les a apportes. 
On ne les a pas encore apportes. 
Qu'a-t-o« dit? 
On n'a rien dit. 
Qu'a-t-07i fait? 
On n'a rien fait. 



Vouloir * — voulu, (Less. XVIII. and 

XXXIV.) 
A-t-on voulu raccommoder men 

habit? 
On n'a pas voulu le raccommoder. 



To be able, (can) — been able, (could.) 

Have they been able to find the 

books ? 
They could not find them. 
Can they find them now ? 
They cannot find them. 



Can they do what they wish ? 
They do what they can ; but they do 
not do what they wish. 



Pouvoir * — pu. (Lessons XX. and 
XXXIV.) 

A-t-on pu trouver les livi'es? 

On n'a pu les trouver. 
Peut-on les trouver &, present ? 
On ne pent pas les trouver. 



Peut-on fake ce qu'on veut ? 
On fait ce qu'on pent ; mais on ue 
fait pas ce qu'on veut. 



What do they say ? 
What do they say new ? 
They say nothing new. 

Sometliing or any thing new. 

Nothing or not any thing new. 

New. 



Que dit-on ? 
Que dit-on de nouveau ? 
On ne dit rien de nouveau. 
Quelque chose de nouveau. 
Rien de nouveau. 



Neiif, nouveau, (before a vowel or k 
mute, nouvel.y 



^ Nouveau (nouvel before a vowel or h mute) is used for things which are 
new from nature or invention, as : du vin nouveau, new wine ; un nnuveau 
commis, a new clerk ; un nouvel ami, a new friend ; un litre nouveau, a 
book just publislied. Neuf, on the contrary, is used of things made by men, 
as: un habit neuf, a new coat ; tin livrc neuf, a new book, (which has been 
prnited long ago, but lias not been used.) Tluis we may say : Ce lirre ncuj 



THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



14^ 



My new coat. 
My new horse. 
My handsome horse. 
My new friend. 
My handsome coat. 

To brush 
This fine man. 
These fine men. 
This fine tree. 
Those fine trees. 
My new friends. 



Mon habit neuf. 
Mon nouveau cheval 
Mon beau cheval. 
Mon nouvel ami. 
Mon bel habit.^ 
Brosser 1. 
Ce bel homme. 
Ces beaux hommes. 
Ce bel arbre. 
Ces beaux arbres. 
Mes nouveaux amis. 



Do they believe that ? 
They do not believe it. 
Do they speak of that ? 
They do speak of it. 
They do not speak of it. 



Croit-on cela ? 
On ne le croit pas. 
Parle-t-on de cela? 
On en parle. 
On n'en parle pas. 



EXERCISES. 
117. 
How long have you been writing ? — I have been writing until mid- 
nio-ht. — How long did I work ? — You worked {avez travailU) till 
four o'clock in the morning. — How long did my brother remain with 
you ■? — He remained with me until evening. — How long hast thou 
been working'? — I have been working till now. — Hast thou still long 
{pour long-temps) to write 1 — I have to write till {pour jusqu' — ) the 
day after to-morrow. — Has the physician still long {pour long-temps) 
to work ■? — He has to work till {pourjusqu'd) to-morrow. — Am I to 
remain long herel — You are to remain here till Sunday. — Is my 
brother to remain long with you 1 — He is to remain with us till Mon- 
flay. — How long are we to work 1 — You are to work till the day af- 
ter to-morrow. — Have you still long to speak 1 — I have still an hour 
to speak. — Did you speak \ong1 — I spoke {ai parle) till the next day. 
— Did you remain long in my counting-house 1 — I remained in it till 
this moment. — Have you still long to live at the Frenchman's house? 



est-il nouveau ? Is this new book a new publication ? Neuf figuratively 
means inexperienced. Ex. Ce valet est bien neuf, this valet is very inex- 
perienced. 

' Bel and nouvel are usod only before masculine substantives beginning with 
a vowel, or h mute, as may be seen from our examples. But in the plural 
tlie adjectives remaui beau and nouveau. Ex. Ces beaux arlres, these fine 
trees ; mes nouveaux amis, my new friends. 



14'' THIRTY-SEVEXT3I LESSON. 

— I have still long to live at his house. — How long have you still tc 
live at his house ] — Till Tuesday. — Has the servant brushed my 
coats ■? — He has brushed them. — Has he swept the floor ] — He has 
swept it. — How long did he remain here "? — Till noon, {midi.) — Does 
your friend still live with you 1 — He lives with me no longer. — How 
long did he live with you "? — He lived with me only a year. — How 
long did you remain at the ball 1 — I remained there till midnight. — 
How long did you remain in the ship 1 — I remained an hour in it. — 
Have you remained in the garden till now ] — I have remained there 
till now. 

118. 
What do you do in the morning 1 — I read. — And what do you do 
chenl — I breakfast and work. — Do you breakfast before you read ] — • 
No, Sir, I read before I breakfast. — Dost thou play instead of work- 
ing ] — I work instead of playing. — Does thy brother go to the play 
instead of going into the garden ] — He goes neither to the play nor 
to the garden. — What do you do in the evening ? — I work. — What 
hast thou done this evening"? — I have brushed your clothes, and have 
gone to the theatre. — Didst thou remain long at the theatre 1 — I re- 
mained there but a few minutes. — Are you willing to wait here ! — 
How long am I to wait ■? — You are to wait till my father returns. — 
Has anybody come ] — Somebody has come. — What did they (on) 
want! — They (on) wanted to speak to you. — Would^ey not wait 1 — 
They would not wait. — Have you waited for me long ? — I have wait- 
ed for you two hours. — Have you been able to read my note ] — I 
have been able to read it. — Have you understood it ? — I have under- 
stood it. — Have you shown it to any one ] — I have shown it to no one. 
— Have they brought my fine clothes 1 — They have not brought thera 
yet. — Have they swept my floor and brushed my clothes ! — They 
have done both. — What have they said ] — They have said nothing. 
— What have they done 1 — They have done nothing. — Has your lit- 
tle brother been spelling ] — He has not been willing to spell. — 
Has the merchant's boy been willing to work ? — He has not been 
willing. — What has he been willing to do ? — He has not been willing 
to do any thing. 

119. 

Has the shoemaker been able to mend my shoes 1 — He has not 
been able to mend thera. — Why has he not been able to mend them ? 
— Because he has had no time. — Have they (<??;) been able to find 
my gold buttons] — They have not been able to find them. — Whv has 
the tailor not mended my coat] — Because.he has no good thread.— 
Why have you beaten the dog ] — Because it has bitten me. — Why 



THIRTY-EIGH'IH LESSON. 



145 



do you drink ? — Because I am thirsty. — Wliat have they wished tc 
say ? — They have not wished to say any thing. — Have they said any 
thing now ? — Thi^y have not said any thing new. — What do tliey (on) 
say new in the market ? — They say nothing new there. — Did they 
wish to kill a man ? — They wished to kill one. — Do they believe thai ? 
— They do not believe it. — Do they speak of that ? — They do speak of 
it — Do they speak of the man that has been killed ? — They do not 
speak of him, (en.) — Can they do what they wish ? — They do what 
they can ; but they do not what they wish. — What have they brought ? 
. — They have brought your new coat. — Has my servant brushed my 
fine carpets ? — He has not yet brushed them. — Have you bought a 
new horse ? — I have bought two new horses. — How many fine trees 
have you seen ? — I have seen but one fine tree. — Have you seen a 
fine man ? — I have seen several fine men. — Have you a new friend ? 
— I have several. — Do you like your new friends ? — I do like them. 



THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSOR.— Trente-lmitieme Lepon 

Jusqu'ou? 

Jusque, (adverb of place.) 

Jusque chez mon frfere 

Jusqu'ici. 

Jusque-li. 

Jusqu'a. Londres. 

Jusqu'ii, Paris 



How far ? 

Up to, as far as. 
As far as my brother's. 
As far as here, hither. 
As far as there, thither. 
As far as Loudon. 
As far as Paris. 



To, at, or in Paris. 
To, at, or in Berlin. 

To, at, or in France. 
To, at, or in England. 

As far as England. 
As far as Spain. 
As far as France. 
As far as Italy. 

As far as my house 

As far as the warehouse. 

As far as the corner. 

As far as the end of the road. 

As far as the middle of the road. 



A Paris. 
A Berlin. 



En France. 
En Angleterre. 



Jusqu'en Angleterre. 
Jusqu'en Espague. 
Jusqu'en France. 
Jusqu'en Italie 



Jusque chez moi. 
Jusqu'au magasin. 
Jusqu'au coin. 
Jusqu'au bout du chemin. 
Jusqu'au milieu du chemin. 



13 



146 



THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



Above or up stairs. 
Belov/ or down stairs. 
As far as above. 
As far as below. 
As fur as the other side of the road 



En haut,- 

En has. 

Jusqu'en hauL 

Jusqu'en bas 

Jusqu'a, I'autre cbt6 du chemiu. 



This side. 
That side. 

On this side of tlie ros^d. 
On that side of tlie road. 



De ce c6td-ci. 
De ce c6te-li. 
En degk du cliemin. 
An de9&, du chemin. 
I Au del a. du chemin. 



Germany. 
America. 
HoUaud. 



L'AUemagne. 
L'Amerique. 
La Hollande.^ 



Obs. A. The names of states, empires, kingdoms, and pro^'inces, are 
generally feminine when they end in e mute, and masculine when in a cou- 
Houant, or in a, e, (witli the acute accent.) i, o, u. 



The middle. 
The well. 
The cask. 
The castle. 

To travel. 

Do you go to Paris ? 

Do you travel to Pai-is ? 
I do travel (or go) thither. 
Is he gone to England ? 
He is gone thither. 
How far is he gone ? 
How far has he travelled? 
He is gone as far as America. 



Le milieu. 
Le puits. 
Le tonneau. 
Le chJlteau. 



Voyager 1. 
Allez-vnus k Paris? 

J'y vais. 

Est-il alle en Angleterre? 

II y est all^. 

Jusqu'oh est-il all^ ? 

Jusqu'ou a-t-il voyag6 1 

II est all^ jusqu'en Am^rique. 



To steal. 
To steal something from some one. 
Have they stolen your hat from you ? 
They have stolen it from me. 
Has the man stolen the books from 

thee ? 
Ho hiis stolen them from me. 
What have they stolen from you ? 



T'oZer 1. 

t Voler quelque cJwse a quelqu'un. 

t Vous a-t-on vol^ votre chapeau ? 

t On me Va. xo\6. 

+ L'honuue t'a-t-il vol^ les livres ? 

t II me les a vol^s. 

t Que vous a-t-on vol<S ? 



' In Hollande the letter h is aspirated ; therefore we say la Hollande 



THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



147 



All 
All the wiuo 
All the books. 
All the men. 

How do you spell this word ? 
How is tliis word written ? 
It is written thus. 



Tom 

Tout le vin. 
Tons les livres. 
Tous les hommes. 



t Comment ecrit-on ce mot ? 

On I'ecrit ainsi, (de cette manifero.) 



To dye, or to color. 
I dye, thou dyest, he dyes ; dyeing. 
To dye black. 
To dye red. 
To dye green. 
To dye blue. 
To dye yellow 



Teindre * 4 ; part, past, teint. 

Je teins, tu teins, il teint ; teignaut 

t Teindre en noir. 

t Teindi-e en rouge. 

t Teindre en vert. 

t Teindre en bleu. 

t Teindre en jaune. 



color 



My blue coat. 

Ohs. B. Adjectives denotin.. 
substantive. Ex. 



This white hat. 

His round hat. 
jl)o yon dye your coat blue ? 
I dye it green. 
What color will you dye your cloth ? 

I will dye it blue. 

The dyer. 



I Mon habit bleu. 

or shape are always placed after the 

Ce chapeau blanc. 

Son chapeau rond. 

t TeigTiez-vous votre habit en bleu ? 

t Je le teins en vert. 

t Comment voulez-vous teindre voire 

drap ? 
t Je veux le teindre en bleu. 
Le teinturier. 



To gvt dyed, got dyed. 
What color have you had your hat 

dyed? 
I have got it dyed white. 
Red. 
Brown. 
Gray. 



t Faire teindre — fait teindre. 

t Comment avez-vous fait teiudio 

votre chapeau? 
t Je I'ai fait teindre en blanc 
Rouge. 
Brun. 
Gris 



EXERCISES. 
120. 
How far have you travelled 1 — I have travelled as far as Ger- 
many. — Has he travelled as far as Italy ■? — He has travelled as fai 



148 THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 

as America. — How far have the Spaniards gone 1 — They have gone 
as far as London. — How far has this poor man come ] — He has 
come as far as here. — Has he com.e as far as your house \ — He has 
come as far as my father's. — Have they stolen an}- thing from you I 
— They have stolen all the good wine from me. — Have they stolen 
any thing from your father 1 — They have stolen all his good hooka 
Irom him. — Dost thou steal any thing 1 — I steal nothing. — Hast thou 
ever stolen any thing ■? — I have never stolen any tiling. — Have they 
stolen your good clothes from you 1 — They have stolen them from 
me. — What have they stolen from me "? — They have stolen all the 
good books from you. — When did they steal the money from you ] — 
They stole it from me the day before yesterday. — Have they ever 
stolen any thing from us ] — They have never stolen any thing from 
us. — How far did you wish to go 1 — I wished to go as far as the 
wood. — Have you gone as far as there 1 — I have not gone as far as 
there 1 — How far does your brother wish to go 1 — He wishes to go 
as far as the end of that road. — How far does the wine go l — It goes 
to the bottom of the cask. — Whither art thou going ? — I am going to 
the market. — How far are we going ? — We are going as far as the 
theatre. — Are you going as far as the well ] — I am going as far as 
the castle. — Has the carpenter drunk all the wine ] — He has drunk 
it. — Has j^our little boy torn all his books 1 — He has torn them all. 
— ^Why has he torn them 1 — Because he does not wish to stud}'. 

121. 

How much have you lost 1 — I have lost all my money. — Do you 
know where my father is 1 — I do not know. — Have you not seen my 
book ■? — I have not seen it. — Do you know how this word is written 1 
— It is written thus. — Do you dye any thing ? — I dye my hat. — What 
color do you dye it ! — I dye it black. — What color do yoa dye your 
clothes ] — I dye them yellow. — Do you get your trunk dyed ? — I get 
it dyed. — What color do you get it dyed ? — I get it dyed green. — 
What color dost thou get thy thread stockings dyed ? — I get them 
dyed red. — Does your son gel his ribbon dyed ' — He does get it 
dyed. — Does he get it died red ? — He gets it dyed gray. — What color 
have your friends got their coats dyed ] — They have got them dyed 
green. — What color have the Italians had their hats dyed ? — They 
' have had them dyed brown — Have you a white hat I — I have a 
black one. — What hat has the nobleman ! — He has two hats ; a white 
one and a black one. — Wliat hat has the American? — H(3 has a 
round hat. — Have I a white hat 1 — You have several white and 
black hats. — Has your dyer already dyed your cloth ! — He has dyed 
it, — What color has he dyed it 1 — He has dyed it green. — Do yoii 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON. 149 

travel sometimes 1 — I travel often. — Where do you intend to go to 
this summer, (cet eie?) — I intend to go to Paris. ^ — Uo you not go to 
Italy ] — I do go thither. — Hast thou sometimes travelled ] — I have 
never travelled. — Have your friends a mind to go to Holland 1 — 
They have a mind to go thither. — When do they intend to depart 1 — 
They intend to depart the day after to-morrow. 

122. 
Is your brother already gone to Spain 1 — He is not yet gone 
thither. — Have you travelled in Spain 1 — I have travelled there. — 
When do you depart ] — I depart to-morrow. — At what o'clock ■? — At 
five o'clock in the morning. — Have you worn out all your shoes 1 — I 
have worn them all out. — What have the Spaniards done 1 — They 
have burnt all our good ships. — Have you finished all your exerci- 
ses 1 — I have finished them all. — How far is the Frenchman come 1 
— He is come as far as the middle of the road. — Where does your 
friend live ] — He lives on this side of the road. — Where is your 
warehouse ] — It is on that side of the road. — Where is the counting- 
house of our friend 1 — It is on that side of the theatre. — Is the gar- 
den of your friend on this or that side of the wood 1 — It is on that 
side. — Is our warehouse not on this side of the road 1 — It is on this 
side. — Where have you been this morning 1 — I have been at the 
castle. — How long did you remain at the castle ■? — I remained there 
an hour. — Is your brother below or above 1 — He is above. — How far 
has your servant carried my trunk ] — He has carried it as far as my 
warehouse. — Has he come as far as my house 1 — He has come as 
far as there. — How far does the green carpet go 1 — It goes as far as 
the corner of the counting-house- — Have you been in France 1 — I 
have been there several times. — Have your children already been in 
Germany.] — They have not yet been there, but I intend to send them 
thither in the spring, (au printemps.) — Will you go on this or that 
side of the road T — I will go neither on this nor that side ; I will go 
in the middle of the road. — How far does this road lead ] — It leads 
as far as London. 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON.— TyeHie-newieme Legon. 

To be necessary — must. I Falloir *, (an irregular, imperaoual 

I ver{).) 
Its past participle is Fallu. 



Is it necessary ? , 

Must I, he, we, you, they, or she ? ^ ^^ "^''^ • 



A 



150 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON. 



It is necessary. | II faut. 

05s. A. All verbs expressing necessity, obligation or want, as, to he 
ohliged, to want, to he necessary, must, are in Frencli generally rendered 
Dy falloir. 



Is it necessary to go to the market 1 
It is not necessary to go thither. 
What must be done to learn French ? 

ecessary to study a great deal. 



It is iv 



Faut-il aller au marche ? 

II ne faut pas y aller. 

Que faut-il faire pour apprendre le 

fr an gals? 
II faut etudier beaucoup. 



What must Z do ? j Que me faut-il faire ? 

Ohs B. The English nominative or subject of the verb inust is ren- 
dered in French by the indirect cases in the dative : 7ne, te, lui, nous, vous, 
leur, (see the Personal Pronoims, Lesson XX.,) according to number and 
person. 



You must stay still. 
W^hither must he go? 
He must go for his book. 
What must they buy? 
They must buy some beef 
What must we read? 



II vous faut rester tranquille. 

Oil lui faut-il aller? 

II lui faut aller chercher son livre. 

Que leur faut-il acheter? 

II leur faut acheter du boguf. 

Que nous faut-il lire? 



What must you have ? ] 

Ohs. C. The verb have, following 
dered in French. 

I must have some money. 

Must you have a sou? 

Must you have a great deal ? 

/ must have a great deal. 

/ want only one sou. 

Is that all you want? 

That is all / want. 

How much must thou have ? 

How much dost thou want? 

/ want only a franc. 

How much must your hrother have ? 

He wants only two francs. 



Que vous faut-il? 

in English the verb must, is not reii- 

II me faut de I'argent. 
Vous faut-il un sou ? 
Vous en faut-il beaucoup ? 
II m'en faut beaucoup. 
II ne me faut qu'un sou. 
+ Ne vous faut-il que cela .' 
t II ne 7ne faut que cela. 

Combien te faut-il ? 

II ne ?ne faut qu'un franc. 
Combien faut-il a totre frere 1 
II ne lui faut que deux frauce. 



Have you what you want ? 
I have what / want. 
He has what he wants. 
They have what they want. 



Avez-vous ce qu'il vous faut? 
J'ai ce qu'il me faut. 
II a ce qu'il /;/;' fauL 
lis out ce qu'il leur fauL 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON. 



151 



More. 1 Davantage. 

Ohs. D. This adverb has the same signification as flus, with this differ- 
ence only, that it cannot precede a noun. 



No more. 
Do you not want more ? 
/ do not want more. 
He does not want more. 



Have you been obliged to work much 

to learn French ? 
r have been obliged to work much. 



What am I to do? 
You must work. 
Am I to go thither ? 
You may go thither. 



To be worth — been worth. 
How much may that horse be worth ? 
It may be worth a hundred crowns. 

Are you worth? 

I am worth. 

Thou art worth. 

He is worth. 
We are worth — they are worth. 



How much is that gun worth ? 
It is worth but one crown. 
How much is that worth ? 
That is not worth much. 
That is not worth any thing. 



This is worth more than that. 
The one is not worth so much as the 
other. 



To be better 
Am I not as good as my brother ? 

You are better than he. 
I am not so good as you. 



7*0 give back, to restore. 
Does he restoie you youT book? 



Ne — pas davantage. 
Ne vous faut-il pas davantage? 
II ne me faut pas davantage. 
II ne lui faut pas davantage. 



Vous a-t-il fallu travailler beaucoup 

pour apprendre le frangais? 
II m'a fallu travailler beaucoup. 



Que dois-je faire? 
Vous devez travailler. 
Faut-il y aller? 
Vous pouvez y aller. 



Valoir * 3 — valu. 

Combien ce cheval peut-il valoir? 

II peut valoir cent ecus. 

Valez-vous ? 

Je vaux. 

Tu vaux. 

II vaut. 

Nous valons — ils valeut. 



Combien ce fusil vaut-il ? 
II ne vaut qu'im ^cu. 
Combien cela vaut-il ? 
Cela ne vaut pas grand' chose. 
Cela ne vaut rien. 



Celui-ci vaut plus que celui-Ii. 
L'un ne vaut pas autant que I'autre 



Valoir mieux. 

Est-ce que je ne vaux pas autaut que 

mon frere? 
Vous valez mieux que lui. 
Je ne vaux pas autant que voua. 



Rendre 4. 

Vous rend-il votre livre ? 



152 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSOI^r. 



He does lestore it to me. 

Has he given you back your gloves? 

He has given them me back. 



II me le reud. 

Vous a-t-il reuQj yds gauts ? 

II me les a rendus. 



Has your brother already commenced I Votre frere a-t-il deja, commence ses 
his exercises? themes? 

Not yet. I Pas encore. 

He has not yet commenced tnem. | II ne les a pas encore commences. 



The present. 
Have you received a present ? 
I have received several. 
Have you received the books ? 
I have received them. 



Le present. 

Avez-vous regu un present? 
J'en ai re9U plusieurs. 
Avez-vous leqvL les livres? 
Je les ai re 511s. 



From whom? I De qui? 

From whom liave you received pres- | De qui avez-vous requ des presenta , 

ents ? j 

From my friends. I De mes amis. 



Whence ? Where from 7 
Where do you come from? 
I come from the garden. 
Where is he come from ? 
He is come from the theatre. 
Where did the}' come from? 



D'oii ? 

D'ou venez-TOUS? 

Je viens du jardin. 

D'oii est-il venu? 

II est venu du thditre. 

D'oii sont-ils venus ? 



EXERCISES. 
123. 
Is it necessary to go to the market ] — It is not necessary to go 
thither. — What must you buy 1 — I must buy some beef. — ]\Iust I go 
for some wine '\ — You must go for some. — Am I to go to the ball ] — 
You must go thither. — When must I go thither \ — You must go 
thither this evening. — Must I go for the carpenter ! — You must go 
for him. — What must be done to learn Russian ! — It is necessary to 
study a great deal. — Is it necessary to study a great deai to learn 
German ] — It is necessary to study a great deal. — What must I do ? 
— You must buy a good book. — What is he to do ? — He must stay 
still. — What are we to do ■? — Y^ou must work. — IMust you work much 
m order to learn the Arabic 1 — I must work much to learn it. — Why 
must I go to market ^ — You must go thither to bu}' some beef and 
wine. — Must I go anywhere 1 — Thou must go into the garden. — 
Must I send for any thing ] — Thou must send for some wine. — What 
must I do 1 — Y''ou must write an exercise. — To whom must I write c 



THIRTY-NINTH LESSON. 153 

note 1 — You must write one to your friend. — What do you want, Sir 1 
■ — I wELUt some cloth. — How much is that hat worth '! — It is worth 
four crowns. — Do you want any stockings 1 — I want some. — How 
much are those stockings worth ■? — They are worth two francs. — le 
that all you want ? — That is all. — Do you not want any shoes 1 — 1 
do not want any. — Dost thou want much money? — I want much. — 
How much must thou have ] — I must have five crowns. — How much 
does your brother want ] — He wants but six sous. — Does lie not 
want more 1 — He does not want more. — Does your friend want more 1 
He does not want so much as I. — What do you want 1 — I want mo- 
ney and clothes. — Have you now what you want 1 — I have what I 
want. — Has your father what he wants 1 — He has what he wants. 

124. 
Have the neighbor's boys given you back your books 1 — Tiiey 
have given them me back. — When did they give them you back 1 — 
They gave them me back yesterday. — Has your little boy received 
a present 1 — He has received several. — From whom has he received 
any ] — -He has received some from my father and from yours. — ■ 
Have you received any presents ? — I have received some. — What 
presents have you received 1 — I have received fine presents. — Do 
you come from the garden? — I do not come from the garden, but 
from the warehouse. — Where are you going to 1 — I am going to the 
garden. — Whence does the Irishman come 1 — He comes from the 
garden. — Does he come from the garden from which {duquel) you 
come ] — He does not come from the same, {du meme.) — From which 
{de quel) garden does he come 1 — He comes from that of our old 
[vieil) friend. — Whence comes your boy ] — He comes from the play. 
— How much may that horse be worth ] — It may be worth five hun- 
ired crowns. — Is this book worth as much as that '\ — It is worth 
more.— How much is my gun worth "? — It is worth as much as that 
of your friend. — Are your horses worth as much as those of the 
English ■? — They are not worth so much. — How much is that knife 
worth ? — It is worth nothing. 

125. 

Is your servant as good as mine 1 — He is better than yours. — Are 
you as good as your brother ■? — He is better than I. — Art thou as 
good as thy friend "? — I am as good as he. — Are we as good as our 
neighbors "? — We are better than they. — Is your umbrella worth as 
much as mine"? — It is not v/orth so much. — Why is it not worth sc 
much as mine '? — Because it is not so fine as yours. — How much is 
that gun worth ? — It is not worth much. — Do you wish to sell your 
liorso 1 — I do wish to sell it. — How much is it worth? — It is worth 



154 



FOUTIETH LESSON. 



*wo hundred crowns. — Do you v/ish to buy it 1 — I have bought one 
already. — Does your father intenJ to buy a horse 1 — He does intend 
to buy one, but not (non pas) yours. — Have your brothers commenced 
their exercises ■? — They have commenced them. — Have you received 
your notes 1 — We liave not yet received them. — Have ■■ve "what we 
want "! — We have not what we want. — ^What do we want ? — We 
want fine horses, several servants, and much money. — Is that all we 
want ] — That is all we want. — What must I do 1 — You must write. 
— To whom must I vv^rite 1 — You must write to your friend. — Where 
is he ] — He is in America. — Whither am I to go "? — You may go to 
France. — How far must I go 1 — You may go as far as Paris. — ' 
Which (a quels) notes has your father answered ] — He has answered 
those (a ceux) of his friends. — Which dogs has your servant beaten ? 
— He has beaten those that have made much noise. (See end of 
Lesson XXIV.) 



FORTIETH LESSON.— QMaran^ieme Le^oyi. 



To eat — eaten. 

To dine, (eat dinner.) 

The dinner. 

Tlie breakfast. 
To eat supper, (to sup.) 

The supper. 

After. 
After me. 
After him. 
After )'ou. 
After my brother. 



Manger 1 — mange. 

Diner 1 — dine. 

Le diner or dine. 

Le dejeuner or dejeuud 

Soupcr 1. 

Le souper or soupe. 



Apres, (a preposition.) 
Aprfes moi. 
Aprfes lui. 
Aprfes vous. 
Apres mon frere. 



Alter having spoken. | t Apres avoir parld. 

O" Whenever the present participle is used in English after a prejxw;- 
tion, it is rendered in French by the infinitive. 

After having sold his horse. | t Apr&s avoir vendu son cbeval. 

After having been there. 1 t Aprts y avoir (5te. 

I broke your knife after cutting tlie t J"ai cass^ votre coufeau apres avoir 

beef ' coupe le bocuf 



I have dined earlier tlian you. 
You have supped late. 



J'ai dine de nieilleure heure que 

vous. 
Vous avez soupe tard. 



FORTIETH LESSON. 



155 



To pay for. 

To pay a man for a horse. 

To pay the tailor for the coat. 

Do you pay the shoemaker for the 

shoes ? 
I pay him for them. 
Does he pay you for the knife ] 
He does pay me for it. 
I pay what I owe. 



Payer 1. 

(See Obs. D. Lesson XXIV.) 
t Payer un clieval h. un homme. 
t Payer I'habit au tailleur. 
t Payez-vous les souhers au cordon- 

nier ? 
t Je les lui paie. 
t Vous paie-t-il le couteau ? 
t II me le paie. 
Je paie ce que je dois. 



To ask for. \ Demander 1. 

ICr The English verbs to pay and to ask require the preposition for, but 
in French they require the person in the dative and the object in the accu- 
sative. When the verb payer, however, has no object in the accusative, it 
requires the person in that case. 



I have paid the tailor. 

I have paid him. 
Have you paid the shoemaker ? 
I have paid him. 
To ask a man for some money. 
I ask my father /or some money. 

Do you ask me for your hat ? 
I do ask you /or it. 

To ask him /or it. 

To ask him for them. 
What do you ask me for ? 
I ask you for nothing. 



J'ai paye le tailleur. 

Je I'ai paye. 

Avez-vous paye le cordonnier ? 

Je I'ai paye. 

t Demander de I'argent k un homme. 

tJe demande de I'argent h. men 

pere. 
t Me demandez-vous votre chapeaul 
t Je vous le demande. 
t Le lui demander. 
t Les lui demander. 
t Que me demandez-vous ? 
t Je ne vous demande rien. 



To try. 



Will you try to do that ? 
1 have tried to do it. 
You must try to do better. 

To hold — held 
I hold — thou holdesi—he holds 
Do you hold my stick ? 
I do hold it. 

We hold. 

They hold. 



Essay er 1, (See Obs. D. Lesson 
XXIV.,) takes de before the in- 
finitive. 

Voulez-vous essayer de faire cela ? 

J'ai essaye de le faire. 

II vous faut essayer de faire mieux. 



Temr*2 — tenu ; pros. part, tenant 
Je tiens — tu tiens — il tient 
Tenez-vous mon b&,tou. 
Je le tiens. 
Nous tenons, 
lis tiemient. 



156 



FORTIETH LESSON. 



Are you looking /or any one? 

Whom are you looking /or? 

I am looking /or a brother of mine. 



My uncle 
My cousin. 
My relation. 
The parents, (father and mother.) 

A brother of mine. 

A cousin of yours. 

A relation of his, (or hers.) 

A friend of ours. 

A neighbor of theirs. 
He tries to see you 
Does he try to see me? 
He tries to see an uncle of his. 



To inquire after some one. 
After whom do you inquire? 
I inquire after a friend of mine. 
They inquire after you. 
Do they inquire after me ? 

Properly. 
You write properly. 
These men do their duty properly- 

The duty. 

The task. 
Have you done your task? 
We have done it. 

A glass of wine. 
A piece of bread. 



t Cherchez-vous quelqu'un? 

t Qui cherchez-vous? 

t Je cherche un de mes freres. 



Mou oncle. 
Mon cousin. 
Mou parent. 
Les parents. 



t Un de mes frferes. 

t Un de vos cousins. 

t Un de ses parents. 

t Un de nos amis. 

t Un de leurs voisius. 

II clierche h vous voir. 

Cherche-t-il h. me voir? 

II cherche k voir un de ses onclea 



t Demander quelqu'un 
t Qui demandez-vou3? 
t Je demande un de mes amis, 
t On vous demande. 
, t Me demande-t-ou ? 



Covime ilfaut. 

Vous ecrivez comme il faut. 

Ces hommes font leur devoir comme 
il faut. 
) 
> Le devoir. 

I Avez-vous fait votre devoir? 
I Nous I'avons fait. 



Un verre de vin. 
Uu morceau de paiu 



EXERCISES. 

126. 

Have you paid for the gun ?— I have paid for it.— Has your uncle 

paid for the books ?— He has paid for tliem.— Have I paid the tailor 

for the clothes ?— You have paid him for them.— Hast thou paid the 

merchant for the horse ?— I have not yet paid him for it.— Have we 



FORTIETH LESSON. 157 

paid for our gloves 1 — We have paid for them — Has your cousin al- 
ready paid for his shoes 1 — He has not yet paid for them. — Does my 
brother pay you what he owes you "? — He does pay it me. — Do you 
pay what you owe 1 — I do pay what I owe. — Have you paid the 
baker 1 — I have paid him. — Has your uncle paid the butcher for the 
oecf] — He has paid him for it. — Who has broken my knife] — I have 
Droken it after cutting the bread. — Has your son broken my pencils?- 
— He has broken them after writing his notes. — Have you paid the 
merchant for the wine after drinking it ] — I have paid for it after 
drinking it. — What did you do after finishing your exercises ■?— I 
went to my cousin in order to conduct him to the play. — How do I 
speak ■? — You speak properly. — How has my cousin written his ex- 
ercises 1 — He has written them properly, — How have my children 
done their task 1 — They have done it well. — Does this man do his 
duty] — He always does it. — Do these men do their duty] — They 
always do it. — Do you do your duty ] — I do what I can. — What do 
you ask this man for ] — I ask him for some money. — What does this 
boy ask me for ] — He asks you for some money. — Do you ask me 
for any thing ] — I ask you for a crown. — Do you ask me for the 
bread 1 — I do ask you for it. — Which man do you ask for money ] — ■ 
I ask him for some whom you ask for some. — Which merchant do 
you ask for gloves ] — I ask those for some who live in William-street. 
— What do you ask the baker for ] — I ask him for some bread. 

127. 

Do you ask the butchers for some beef? — I do ask them for some. 
— Dost thou ask me for the stick] — I do ask thee for it. — Does he 
ask thee for the book ] — He does ask me for it. — What have you 
asked the Englishman for ] — I have asked him for my leather trunk. 
— Has he given "it you ] — He has given it me. — Whom have you 
asked for some sugar ] — I have asked the merchant for some. — 
Whom does your brother pay for his shoes ] — He pays the shoe- 
makers for them. — Whom have we paid for the bread ] — We havo 
paid our bakers for it. — How old art thou ] — I am not quite ten yeais 
old. — Dost thou already learn French ] — I do already learn it — • 
Does thy brother know German] — He does not know it. — Why does 
he not know it ] — Because he has not had time. — Is your father at 
home ] — No, he is gone, (partir *,) but my brother is at home. — 
Where is your father gone to ] — He is gone to England. — Have you 
sometimes been there ] — I have never been there. — Do von intend 
going to France this summer ] — I do intend going thither. — Do you 
uitend to stay there long] — I intend to stay there during the summer, 
— How long does your brother remain at home ! — Till twelve o'clock 



158 FORTIETH LESSON. 

— Have jou had your gloves dyed "? — I have had them dyed. — What 
have you had them dyed ^ — I have had them dyed yellow. — Have 
you already dined 1 — Not yet. — At what o'clock do you dine 1 — 
I dine at six o'clock. — At whose house {chez qui) do you dine 1 — 
I dine at the house of a friend of mine. — With whom did you dine 
yesterday 1 — I dined with a relation of mine. — What did you eat ? — 
We ate good bread, beef, and cakes. — What did you drink ] — We 
drank good wine and excellent cider. — Where does your uncle dine 
to-day '] — He dines with us. — At what o'clock does your father sup ? 
— He sups at nine o'clock. — Do you sup earlier than he ? — I sup 
later than he. 

128. 
Where are you going to 1 — I am going to a relation of mine, in or- 
der to breakfast with him. — Art thou willing to hold my gloves ] — I 
am willing to hold them. — Who holds my hat 1 — Your son holds it. 
— Dost thou hold my stick 1 — I do hold it. — Do you hold an}* thing \ 
— I hold your gun. — Who has held my book 1 — Your servant has 
held it. — ^Will you try to speak ■? — I will try. — Has your little brother 
ever tried to do exercises ] — He has tried. — Have you ever tried to 
make a hat "? — I ha,ve never tried to make one. — Whom are you look- 
ing for 1 — I am looking for the man who has sold a horse to me. — Is 
your relation looking for any one? — He is looking for a friend of his. 
— Are we looking for any one 1 — We are looking for a neighbor of 
ours. — Whom dost thou look for ] — I look for~a friend of ours. — Are 
you looking for a servant of mine ] — No, I am looking for one of 
mine. — Have you tried to speak to your uncle? — I have tried to speak 
to him. — Have you tried to see my father ? — I have tried to see him 
— Has he received you? — He has not received me. — Has he re- 
ceived your brothers'! — He has received them. — Have you been able 
to see y5ur relation ] — I have not been able to see him. — What did 
you do after writing your exercises ? — I wrote my note after wi-iting 
them. — After whom do you inquire ? — I inquire after the tailor — Does 
this man inquire after any one ! — He inquires after you. — Do thej- in- 
quire after you 1 — They do inquire after me. — Do they inquire after 
me ] — They do not inquire after you, but after a friend of yours. — Do 
you inquire after the physician 1 — I do inquire after him. — What 
does your little brother ask for 1 — He asks for a small piece of bread. 
— Has he not yet breakfasted ? — He has breakfasted, but he is still 
hungry. — What does your uncle ask for ? — He asks for a glass of 
wine. — Has he not already drunk ! — He has already drunk; but lie 
is still thirsty. 



FORTY-FIRST LESSON, 



15S 



FORTY-FIRST LESSO'N. —Quaranie el unieme Le^on. 



Him who 
Do you perceive the man who is 

coming ? 
I do perceive him who is coming. 
Do you perceive the men who are 

going into the wareliotrse ? 
I do perceive those who are going ia- 

to it. 



How is the weather? 
What kind of weather is it ? 
It is fine weather at present. 
How was the weather yesterday ? 
What kind of weather was it yester- 
day? 
Was it fine weather yesterday? 
U was bad weather yesterday. 
t is fine weather this morning. 



Is it warm ? 
It is warm. 

Very. 
It is very warm 
It is cold. 
It is very cold. 
It is neither warm nor cold 



Dark, obsciure. 

Dusky, gloomy. 

Clear, hght. 
It is dark in your warehouse. 
Is it dark in his garret ? 
It is dark there. 

Wet, damp. 

Dry. 
Is the v^eather damp ? 
It is not damp. 
It is dry weather. 



Celui qui. 

Apercevez-vous I'homme qui vient ? 

J'aper5ois celui qui vient. 
Apercevez-vous les liommes qui vont 

au magasin ? 
J'aper^ois ceux qui y vont. 



} 

/ Quel temps fait-il ? 

I t II fait beau temps h, present. 

> t Quel temps a-t-il fait hier ? 

t A-t-il fait beau temps hier? 
t II a fait mauvais temps hier. 
t II fait beau temps ce matin. 



t Fait-il chaud? 

t II fait chaud. 

Tres. 

t II fait tr5s-chaud. 

t II fait froid. 

t II fait trfes-froid. 

t II ne fait ni chaud ni froid- 



Obscur. 

Sombre. 

Clair. 

t II fait sombre dans votre magasLU 

t Fait-il sombre dans son grenier? 

t II y fait sombre. 



Humide. 

Sec. 

t Fait-il humide ? 

t II ne fait pas humide. 

t II fait sec. 



160 



FORTY-FIRST LESSON 



The weather is too dry. 

The moonhght, moonshine. 

The sun. 
It is moonhght. 
We have too much sun. 

To taste. 
Have you tasted that wine ? 
I have tasted it. 
How do you hke it? 
I hke it weH. 
I do not hke it. 

To like. 
I like fish. 
He hkes fowL 
Do you hke cider? 
No, I hke wine. 



Do you hke to see my brother ? 
I do hke to see him. 
I like to do it. 
He likes to study. 

To learn by heart. 
The scholar. 
The pupil. 

The master, (teaclier.) 
Do your scholars like to learn by 

heart ? 
They do not like learning by heart. 

Have you learned your exercises by 

heart ? 
We have learned them. 



Once a day. 
Thrice; or three times a mcnth. 
So much a year. 
So much a head. 

So much a soldier. 
Six times a year. 



Early in the morning. 
Wo go out early in the morning 
When did jour father go out? 



t II fait trop sec. 
Le clair de lune. 
Le soleil. 

t II fait clair de luno. 
t II fait trop de soieiL 



Gouter 1. 

Avez-vous gouti^ ce viu? 

Je I'ai goiite. 

+ Comment le trouvez-vous ? 

t Je le trouve bon. 

t Je ne le trouve pas bon 

Aimer 1. 

t J'aime le poisson. 

t II aime le poulet. 

t Aimez-vous le cidre ? 

t Non, j'aime le vin. 



Aimez-vous &. voir mon frfero ? 

J'ahne a le voir. 

J'aime a le faire. 

II aime a ^tudier. 

Apprendre par cxur. 

L'^colier. 

L'^leve. 

Le maitre. 

Vos ecoliers aiment-ils i apprendre 

par cceur ? 
lis n'aimcnt pas il apprendre par 

ccsur. 
Avez-Tons appris vos themes pai 

ccEur ? 
Nous les avons appris. 



t Une fois par jour 

t Trois fois par mois. 

t Tant par an. 

t Tant par tSte, {la tete, the head, is 

a feminine noun.) 
t Tant par soldat. 
t Six fois par an. 



Lc matin de bonne heutc. 

Nous sortons le matin de bonne heurc 

Quand votre pere est-il sorti ' 



FORTY-FIRST LESSON. 



161 



To speak of some one or something. 

Of vfliom do you speak? 

We speak of the man whom you 

know. 
Of what arelliey speakhig? 
They are speaking of the weatlier. 

The weather. 

The soldier. 

Also. 



To he content (satisfied) with some 

one or something. 
Are you satisfied with this man? 
I am satisfied with him. 
Are you content with your new coat ? 
I am contented with it. 
With what are you contented? 

Discontented. 
I am discontented with him, or it. 



They speak of j'our friend. 
They speak of him. 
They are speaking of your book. 
They are speaking of it. 

//• 
I intend paying you if I receive my 

money. 
Do you intend to buy wood ? 
I do intend to buy some, if they pay 

me what they owe me. 



How was the weather yesterday ? 
Was it fine weather yesterday ? 
It was bad weather. 



Parler de quelqu un ou de quelque 

chose. 
Do qui parlez-vous? 
Nous parlons de I'homme que vous 

• connaissez. 
De quoi parlent-ils ? 
lis parlent du temps. 
Le temps. 
La soldat. 
Aussi. 



Etre content de quelqiCun ou de 

quelque chose. 
Etes-vous content de cet homme ? 
J'en suis content. 

fltes-vous content de votre habit neuf ^ 
Ten suis content. 
De quoi etes-vous- content? 
M^content. 
Ten suis mecontent. 



On parle de votre ami. 
On en parle. 
On parle de votre livre. 
On en parle. 



Si. 

Je compte vous payer, si je re^oia 

mon argent. 
Comptez-vous aclieter du bois ? 
Je compte en acheter, si on mje paie 

ce qu'on me doit. 



Quel temps a-t-il fait hier ? 
A-t-il fait beau temps hier ? 
II a fait mauvais temps. 



EXERCISES 
139. 

Do you perceive the man who is coming ] — I do not perceive him. 
— Do you perceive the soldier's children 1 — I do perceive them — Do 
you perceive the men who are going into the garden ■? — I do not per 



1G2 FORTY-FIRST LESSON'. 

ccive those who are going into the garden, but those who are going 
to the market. — Does your brother perceive the man who has lent 
him money ?- — He does not perceive the one who has lent him, but 
the one to whom he has lent some. — Dost thou see the children who 
are studying 1 — I do not see those who are studying, but those who 
are playing. — Dost thou perceive any thing 1 — I perceive nothing.^ 
Have you perceived my parents' warehouses ] — I have perceived 
them. — Where have you perceived them 1 — I have perceived them 
on that side of the road. — Do you like a large hat ] — I do not like a 
large hat, but a large umbrella. — ^M'hat do you like to do 1 — I like to 
write. — Do you like to see these little boys 1 — I like to see them. — 
Do you like wine 1 — I do like it. — Does your brother like cider ] — 
He d'oes like it. — What do the soldiers like 1 — They like wine. — 
Dost thou like tea or coffee 1 — I like both. — Do these children Like 
to study ] — They like to study and to play. — Do you like to read 
and to write 1 — I like to read and to write. — How many times a day 
do you eat 1 — Four times. — How often do your children drink a day 1 
— They drink several times a day. — Do you drink as often as they 1 
— I drink oftener. — Do you often go to the theatre 1 — I go thither 
sometimes. — How often in a month do you go thither 1 — I go thither 
but once a month. — How many times a year does your cousin go to 
the ball 1 — He goes thither twice a year. — Do you go thither as 
often as he 1 — I never go thither. — Does your cook often go to the 
market 1 — He goes thither every morning. 

130. 

Do you often go to my uncle 1 — I go to him six times a year. — 
Do you like fowl ■? — I like fowl, but I do not like fish. — ^^Miat do you 
like ] — I like a piece of bread and a glass of wine. — Do you learn 
by heart ■? — T do not like learning by heart. — Do your pupils like 
to learn by heart 1 — They like to study, but they do not like learning 
by heart. — How many exercises do they do a day ? — They only do 
two, but they do them properly. — Were you able to read the note 
which I wrote to you ■? — I was able to read it. — Did you understand 
it 1 — I did understand it. — Do you understand the man who is speak- 
ing to you 1 — I do not understand him. — Why do you not understand 
him 1 — Because he speaks too badly. — Does this man know French ? 
■ — He knows it, but I do not know it. — Why do you not learn it ! — I 
have no time to learn it. — Do you intend going to the theatre this 
evening ] — I intend going thither, if you go. — Does your father in- 
tend to buy that horse 1 — He intends buying it, if he receives his 
money. — Does your friend intend going to England ! — He intends 
going thitliev, if they pay him what they owe him. — Do you intend 



FORTY-riRST LESSON. 163 

going to the ccncert] — I intend going thither, if my friend goes. — 
Does your brother intend to study French 1— He intends studying it 
if he finds a good master. 

131 

How is the weather to-day 1 — It is very fine weather. — Was it 
fine weather yesterday 1 — It was bad weather yesterday. — How 
was the weather this morning 1 — It was bad weather, but now it is 
fine weather. — Is it warm "? — It is very warm. — Is it not cold 1 — It 
is not cold. — Is it warm or cold 1 — It is neither warm nor cold. — Did 
you go to the garden the day before yesterday ] — I did not go thith- 
er. — Why did you not go thither 1 — I did not go thither, because it 
was bad weather. — Do you intend going thither to-morrow 1 — I do 
intend going thither if the weather is fine. — Is it light in your count- 
ing-house ■? — It is not light in it. — Do you wish to work in mine 1 — • 
I do wish to work in it. — Is it light there 1 — It is very light there. — 
Why cannot your brother work in his warehouse 1 — He cannot work 
there, because it is {il y fait) too dark. — ^Where is it too dark '\ — In 
his warehouse. — Is it light in that hole 1 — It is dark there. — Is the 
weather dry ? — It is very dry. — Is it damp ^ — It is not damp. It is 
too dry. — Is it moonlight 1 — It is not moonlight, it is very damp. — 
Of what does your uncle speak "? — He speaks of the fine weather. — 
Of what do those men speak ] — They speak of fair and bad weather. 
— Do they not speak of the wind ? — They do also speak of it. — Dost 
thou speak of my uncle 1 — I do not speak of him. — Of whom dost 
thou speak 1 — I speak of thee and thy parents. — Do you inquire after 
any one 1 — I inquire after your cousin ; is he at home ■? — No, he is 
at his best friend's. 

132. 

Have you tasted that wine ? — I have tasted it. — How do you like 
it 1 — I like it well. — How does your cousin like that cider 1 — He 
does not like it. — Which wine do you wish to taste ] — I wish to 
taste that which you have tasted. — Will you taste this tobacco 1 — I 
have tasted it already. — How do you like it ? — I like it well. — Why 
do you not taste that cider ] — Because I am not thirsty. — Why does 
your friend not taste this beef? — Because he is not hungry. — Of 
whom have they (on) spoken'? — They have spoken of your friend. — 
Have they not spoken of the physicians ? — They have not spoken 
of them. — Do they not speak of the man of whom we have spoken ? 
— They do speak of him. — Have they spoken of the noblemen "? — 
They have spoken of them. — Have they spoken of those of whom 
we speak *? — They have not spoken of those of whom we speak, but 
they have spoken of others. — Have they spoken of our children or 



164 



FORTY-SECOND LESSON. 



of those of our neighbors 1 — They have neither spoken of ours, nor 
those of our neighbors. — Which children have been spoken of? — > 
Those of our master have been spoken of. — Do they speak of my 
book? — They do speak of it. — Are you satisfied with your pupils? — 
I am satisfied with them. — How does my brother study ? — He stud- 
ies well. — How many exercises have you studied ? — I have already 
studied forty-one. — Is your master satisfied with his scholar ? — He 
is satis-led with him, — Is your master satisfied with the presents 
which he has received ? — He is satisfied with them. — Have you re- 
ceived a note ? — I have received one. — "Will you answer it ? — I am 
going to ansvyer it. — When did you receive it ? — I received it early 
this morning. — Are you satisfied with it? — I am not satisfied with it. 
— Does your friend ask you for money ? — He does ask me for some. 
(See end of Lesson XXIV.) 



FORTY-SECOND LEBS01<!.—Qiiarante-dei(xieme Legon. 
OF PASSIVE VERBS. 

Passive verbs represent tlie subject as receiving or suffering from others 
the action expressed by the verb. In French, as in English, they are 
conjugated by means of the auxiliary verb etre, to be, joined to the past 
participle of the active verb. Thus any active verb may be changed into 
the passive voice. Ex. 



I love. I am loved. 

Thou conductest. Thou art condHct- 
ed. 



He praises. 
We hear. 

You punish. 

They blame. 



He is praised. 
We are heard. 

You are punish- 
ed. 
They are blamed. 



To praise. 
To punish. 
To blame. 



Active voice. 
J'aime. 
Tu couduis. 

II loue. 

Nous eutendons 

Vous pmiissez. 

lis blfiment 



Louer I. 
Punir 2. 
Blftmer 1. 



Passive voice 
.Te suis aim^. 
Tu es conduit. 

II est loue. 

Nous somnies en- 

teudus. 
Vous etes punis. 

lis sout blimds. 



By 

By me, by us 

By thee, by you 

By him, oy them 



Par or de. 

De or par moi, de or par noua. 

De or par toi, de or par vous. 

De or par lui. d' or par eux. 



FORTY-SECOND LESSON. 



165 



I am loved by him 

Who is punished ? 
The naughty boy is punished 
By wliom is he punislied ? 
He is punished by his father. 
Wliich man is praised, and which is 
blamed ? 



Je suis aime de hii. 
Qui est puni ? 

Le mechant gargon est puni. 
Par qui est-il puni ? 
II est puni par son pere. 
Quel homme est \o\i6, et lequel est' 
blam^ ? 



Naughty. 

Skilful, diligent, clever. 
Awkward. 
Assiduous, industrious, studious. 
Idle. 
Iffnorant. 



Mechant. 

Habile 

Inhabile. 

Assidu, studieuK. 

Paresseux. 

Ignorant. 



The idler, the lazy fellow j Le paresseux. 



To reward. 
To esteem. 
To despise. 



Recompenser 1. 
Estimer 1. 
Mepriser 1. 



To hate ; hating. 

Hated. 
I hate, thou hatest, he hates. 



Good, (wise.) 
These cb.ildren are loved, because 
they are studious and good. 



To travel to a place. 
Wliere has he travelled to ? 
He has travelled to Vienna. 
Is it good travelling ? 
It is good travelling. 
It is bad travelling. 
In the winter. 
In the summer. 
In the spring. 
In the autumn. 
If is bad travelling in the winter. 



Hair * 2 ; ha'issant. 

XXIV.) 
Hai. 
Je hais, tu hais, il hait. 



(See Lesson 



Sage. 

Ces enfants sent aim^s, parce qii'ils 
sont studieux et sasres. 



Aller*l. 

Oil est-il all^ ? 

II est alle il Vienne. 

t Fait-il bon voyager? 

t II fait bon voyager. 

t II fait mauvais voyager. 

Dans I'hiver. 

Dans I'et^. 

Dans le printemps, au printempa 

Dans I'automne. 

II fait mauvais voyager dans I'hiver 



166 



FORTY-SECOND LESSON 



To drive, to ride iu a carriage. 

To ride, (on horseback.) 

To go on foot. 
Do you like to ride ? 
I like to drive. 



Aller en voiture, 

Aller a cheval, 

Aller a, pied, 

Aimez-vous k mouter k cheval ? 

J'aime a aller en voitnre. 



take the aux- 
iliary etre. 



To live ; lived, living. 
I live, thou livest, he lives. 
Is it good living iu Paris ? 
Is the living good in Paris ? 
It is good living there. 
The living is good there. 

Dear. 
Is the living dear in London ? 
Is it dear living in London ? 
The living is dear there. 



Is it windy ? 
It is windy. 
It is not windy. 
It is very windy. 
Does it thunder ? 
Is it foggy ? 
It is stormy. 
It is not stomiy. 
Does the sun shine ? 
It thunders very much 



Thunder 

The storm. 

The fog. 
Does the wind blow ? 
The wind blov/s. 



I Vivre*4; vecu, vivant. 
I Je vis, tu vis, il vit. 

> t Fait-il bon vivre k Paris ? 

> t II y fait bon Vme. ^ 
Cher. 

■ t Fait-il cher vivre k Londres ? 
t II y fait cher vivre. 



Afterwards. 
As soon as. 
As soon as I have eaten I drink. 
As soon as I have taken off my 

shoes, I take off my stockings. 
What do you do in the evening ? 



'To sleep ; slept, sleeping. 
I sleep, thou sleepest, he sleeps 
Does your father still sleep ? 
He still sleeps. 



Le tonnerre. 

L'orage. 

Le brouillard. 

t Fait-il du vent ? 

t II fait du vent. 

t II ne fait pas de vent. 

t II fait beaucoup de vent. 

t Fait-il du tonnerre ? 

t Fait-il du brouillard 1 

t II fait de l'orage. 

t II ne fait pas d'orage. 

t Fait-il du soleU ? 

t II fait beaucoup de tonnerre. 



Ensuitc. 

Aussitot que. 

Aussit6t que j'ai mang(5, je bois. 

Aussit6t que j'ai 6t^ mes soulieni, 

j'6te mes bas. 
Que faites-vous le soir i 



Dormir * 2 ; donni, domiani. 
Je dors, tu doi-s, il dort. 
Votro p^re dort-il eucora ? 
II dort encore. 



FORTY-SECOND LESSON 



167 



Without. I Sans. 

Without money. Sans argent. 

W'thout speaking I t Sans purler. 

Ohs Without, sans, requires the Enghsh present participle, wliile in 
French it is followed by the infinitive. 

Without saying any thing. | t Sans rien dire. 



At last. 






Enfin. 


To arrive. 






Arriver 1, (takes etre for its aux- 
iliary.) 


Has ho arrived at last ? 






Est-il enfin arrive ? 


He has not arrived yet. 






11 n'est pas encore arriv€. 


Is he coming at last ? 






Vient-il enfin ? 


He is commg. 






11 vient. 


\ And then. 




Puis. 


And then he sleeps. 






Puis il dort. 


As soon as he has supped 


he 


reads, 


Aussit6t qu'il a soup^, il lit ; puis il 


and then he sleeps. 






dort. 



EXERCISES. 
133. 

Are you loved 1 — I am loved. — By whom are you loved ■? — I am 
loved by my uncle. — By whom am I loved ■? — Thou art loved by thy 
parents. — By whom are we loved 1 — You are loved by your friends. 
— By whom are those boys loved 1 — They are loved by their friends 
— By whom is this man conducted 1 — He is conducted by me. — 
Where do you conduct him to 1 — I conduct him home. — By whom 
are we blamed 1 — We are blamed by our enemies. — Why are we 
blamed by them'? — Because they do not love us. — Are you punished 
by your master 1 — I am not punished by him, because I am good and 
studious. — Are we heard 1 — We are. — By whom are we heard? — Wo 
are heard by our neighbors. — Is ihy master heard by his pupils 1 — 
He is heard by them. — Which children are praised 1 — Those that are 
good. — ^Which are punished ■? — Those that are idle and naughty. — Are 
we praised or blamed 1 — ^We are neither praised nor blamed. — Is our 
friend loved by his masters "? — He is loved and praised by them, because 
he is studious and good ; but his brother is despised by his, because he is 
naughty and idle. — Is he sometimes punished 1 — He is {il Pest) every 
morning and every evening. — Are you sometimes punished ? — I ara 
{je ne le suis) never ; I am loved and rewarded by my good masters 



168 FORTY-SECOND LKSSON. 

• — Are these childiea never punished'! — They are (Us ne le sont) 
never, because they are studious and good ; but those are so {le sont) 
very often, because they are idle and naughty. — \Yho is praised and 
rewarded \ — Skilful children are praised, esteemed, and rewarded, 
but the ignorant are blamed, despised, and punished. — T\ ho is loved, 
and who is hated 1 — Pie who is studious and good is loved, and he 
who is idle and naughty is hated. — Must one be {faut-il etre) good 
m order to be loved? — One must be so, {il faut Vetre.) — ^^Vhat must 
one do {que faut-il f aire) in order to be loved ■? — One must be good 
and assiduous. — What must one do in order to be rewarded ? — One 
niust be {il faut etre) skilful, and study much. 

134. 

Why are those children loved ] — They are loved because they are 
good. — Are they better {plus sages) than we 1 — They are not better, 
but more studious than you. — Is your brother as assiduous as mine "! — 
He is as assiduous as he, but your brother is better than mine. — Do 
you like to drive 1 — I like to ride. — Has your brother ever been on 
horseback 1 — He has never been on horseback. — Does your brother 
ride on horseback as often as you % — He rides on horseback oftener 
than I. — Did you go on horseback the daj- before yesterday ? — 1 
went on horseback to-day.' — Do you like travelling ? — I do like travel- 
ling. — Do you like travelling in the winter ? — I do not like travelling 
in the v/inter ; I like travelling in the spring {au print emps) and in au- 
tumn. — Is it good travelling in the spring ! — It is good travelling in 
spring and in autumn, but it is bad travelling in the summer and in the 
winter. — Have you sometimes travelled in the winter ? — I have often 
travelled in the winter and in the summer. — Does your brother travel 
often 1 — He travels no longer, (Less. XXXTI. ;) he formerly travel- 
led much. — When do you like to ride ! — I like to ride in the morn- 
ing. — Have you been in London '\ — I have been there. — Is the living 
good there ■? — The living is good there, but dear. — Is it dear living 
in Paris 1 — It is good living there, and not dear. — Do you like travel- 
ling in France T — I like travelling there, because one finds good peo- 
ple {de bonnes gens) there. — Does your friend like travelling in Hol- 
land ? — He does not like travelling there, because the living is bad 
there. — Do you like travelling in Italy ? — I go like travelling there, 
because the living is good there, and one {et qu''on t/) finds good peo- 
ple there ; but the roads are not very good there. — Do the English 
like to travel in Spain '! — They like to travel there ; but they find the 
roads there too bad. — How is the weather 1 — The weather is verj 
bad. — Is it windy] — It is very wind}'. — Was it stormy yesterday? — 
It was very stormy. 



PORTY-THIRD LESSON. 169 

135. 

Do you go to the maiket this morning 1 — I do go thither, if it is 
not stormy. — Do you intend going to France this year, (cette annee ?) 
I intend going thither if the weather is not too bad. — Do you like to 
go on foot 1 — I do not like to go on foot, but I like going in a car- 
riage when (quand) I am travelling. — Will you go on foot 1 — I can- 
not go on foot, because I am tired. — What sort of weather is it 1 — It 
thunders. — Does the sun shme ] — The sun does not shine ; it is fog- 
gy — Do you hear cne thunder 1 — I hear it. — Is it fine weather? — 
The wind blows hard, and it thunders much. — Of whom have you 
spoken ] — We have spoken of you. — Have you praised me 1 — We- 
have not praised you ; we have blamed you. — Why have you blamed 
me ■? — Because you do not study well. — Of what has your brother 
ipoken 1 — He has spoken of his books, his horses, and his dogs. — 
What do you do in the evening 1 — I work as soon as I have supped. 
— And what do you do afterwards 1 — Afterwards I sleep. — When do 
you drink 1 — I drink as soon as I have eaten. — When do you sleep 1 
— I sleep as soon as I have supped. — Have you spoken to the mer- 
chant 1 — I have spoken to him. — What has he said 1 — He has left 
{partir *) without saying any thing. — Can you work without speak- 
ing 1 — I can work, but not {non pas) study French without speaking. 
— Wilt thou go for some wine 1 — I cannot go for wine without 
money. — Have you bought any horses 1 — I do not buy without 
money. — Has your father arrived at last 1 — He has arrived. — When 
did he arrive 1 — This morning at four o'clock. — Has your cousin set 
out at last '! — He has not set out yet. — Have you at last found a good 
master ! — I have at last found one. — Are you at last learning Ger- 
man 1 — I am at last learning it. — Why have you not already learned 
it ■? — Because I have not been able to find a good master. 



FORTY-THIRD LESSO'^ .—Quarante-troisi^me Legon. 
OF REFLECTIVE VERBS. 

When the action falls upon the agent, and the objective case refere to the 
same person as the nominative, the verb is called reflective. In Freucli 
nearly all the active verbs may become reflective. 

lu. reflective verbs the pronoun of the object is of the same person as tliat 
of the subject. Each person is therefore conjugated with a double personal 
pronoun, thus: — 

I, myself. I Je, me. 

Thou, thyself. | Tu, te 

13 



170 



FORTY-THIRD LESSON. 



He, 

She, 

It, 

One, 

We, 

You, 

Ye, 

They, 



himself. 

herself. 

itself 

one's self 

ourselves. 

yourself. 

yourselves. 

themselves. 




Ohs. A. It w^ill be remarked that the third person is ahv.ays se, whatever 
may be its number or gender. 



To cut 
To cut 
To cut 
To cut 
To cut 
To cut 
To cut 



yourself 

myself. 

ourselves 

himself. 

herself 

itself. 

one's self. 



Vous couper 
Me couper. 
Nous couper. 

> Se couper. 



Do you bum yourself? 
I do not bum myself 
You do not bum yourself. 
I see myself. 
Do I see myself? 
He sees himself 
We see ourselves. 
They see themselves. 



Do you wish to warm yourself? 
I do wish to warm myself. 
Does he wish to warm himself? 
He does wish to warm himself. 
They wish to warm themselves. 



Vous brulez-vous ? 

Je ne me brfile pas. 

Vous ne vous briilez pas. 

Je me vois. 

Est-ce que je me vois ? 

II se voit 

Nous nous voyons. 

lis se voient 



Voulez-vous vous chaufier? 
Je veux me chauffer. 
Veut-il se chauffer? 
H veut se chauffer 
lis veulent se chauffer. 



To enjoy, to divert, to amuse one's 

self. 
In what do you amuse yourself? 
I £imuse myself in reading. 
He diverts himself in playing 



S'amuser 1, (takes a before the iniiii 

itive.) 
t ^A qnoi vous amusez-vous? 
t Je m" amuse a lire. 
+ II s'annise a jouer. 



FORTY-THIRD LESSON. 



17] 



Each 
Each one. 
Each man. 
Each man amuses himself as he likes 

Each one amuses himself in the best 
way he can. 

The taste. 
Each man nas his taste. 
Each of you. 
The world, (the people.) 
Every one, everybody. 
Everybody speaks of it. 
Every one is liable to error. 



Chaque. 

Chacun. 

Chaque homme. 

Chaque homme s'amuse comme il 

vent. 
Chacun s'amuse de son mieux. 

Le goht 

Chaque homme a son gotit. 
Chacun de vous. 
Le monde. 
Tout le monde. 

Tout le monde (chacun) en parle. 
Tout homme (or chaque homme) est 
sujet k so tromper. 



To mistaJce, to he mistaken. 
You are mistaken. 
He is mistaken. 



t Se tromper 1. 

t Vous vous trompez. 

t II se trompe. 



To deceive, to cheat. 
He has cheated me. 
He has cheated me of a hundred 
francs. 



Tromper 1. 

II m'a trompd. 

II m'a trompe de cent francs. 



You cut your finger. | Vous vous coupez le doigt. 

Ohs. B. When an agent performs an act upon a part of himself the 
verb is made reflective. 

I cut my nails. 

A hair. 
To pull out. 
He pulls out his hair. 
He cuts his hair. 



The piece 
A piece of bread 

To go away. 
Are you going away ? 
I am going away. 
Is he going away ? 
He is going away 
Are we going away? 
We are going away. 



Je me coupe les ongles. 

Un cheveu, (plur. x.) 

Arracher 1. 

II s'arrache les cheveux. 

II se coupe les cheveux. 

Le morceau. 

Un morceau de pain. 



t S'en aller * 1. 

Vous en allez-vous? 

Je m'en vais. 

S'en va-t-il? 

II s'en va. 

Nous en allons-nous ? 

Nous nous en alloiia 



172 



FORTY-THIRD LESSO.N 



Are these men going away ? 
They are not going away. 

To feel sleepy. 
Do you feel sleepy? 
I do feel sleepy. 

To soil. 

To fear, to dread. 



1 dread, thou dreadest, he dreads. 
He fears to soil his fingers. 
Do you dread to go out ? 
I do dread to go out. 
He is <ifraid to go thither. 

To fear some one. 
I do not fear him. 
Do you fear that man ? 
What do you fear? 
Whom do you fear ? 
I fear nobody. 



Ces hommes s'en vont-ils ? 
lis ne s'en vout pas. 



t Avoir envie de dormir. 

t Avez-vous enrie de dormir / 

t J'ai envie de dormir. 



Salir 2. 

Craindre * 4. Part, past, craint 

part. pres. craignant, (takes dc 

before the infinitive.) 
Je orains, tu crains, il craint 
11 craint de se salir les doigts. 
Craignez-vous de sortir? 
Je crains de sortir. 
II craint d'y alien 



Craindre * quelqu'un. 
Je ne le crains pas. 
Craignez-vous cet homme ? 
Que craignez-vous? 
Qui craignez-vous? 
Je ne crains personne. 



EXERCISES. 

136. 

Do you see yourself in that small looking-glass ? — I see mvself in 
It. — Can your friends see themselves in that large looking-glass 1 — ^ 
They can see themselves therein. — Why does voar brother not light 
the fire 1 — He does not light it, because he is afraid of burning him- 
self. — Why do you not cut your bread 1 — I do not cut it, because I 
fear to cut my finger. — Have you a sore finger 1 — I have a sore fin- 
ger and a sore foot. — Do you wish to \uirm yourself ! — I do wish to 
Vv'avm myself, because I am very (grand) cold. — Why does that man 
not warm himself? — Because he is not cold. — Do j'our neighbors 
warm themselves 1 — They warm themselves, because they are cold. 
— Do you cut your hair ] — I do cut my hair. — Does your friend cut 
his nails 1 — He cuts his nails and his hair. — What does that man do ! 
— He pulls out his hair. — In what do j'ou amuse yourself! — I amuse 
myself in the best way I can.— In what do your children amuse 
themselves 1 — They amuse themselves in studying, writing, and 
playing. — In what does your cousin aniQse himself? — He amuses 



FORTY-THIRD LESSON. 173 

himself in reading good books, and in writing to his friends. — la 
what do you amuse yourself when you have nothing to do at home ? 
— I go to the play, and to the concert. I often say, " Every one 
amuses himself as he likes." — Every man has his taste ; what is 
yours ? — Mine is to study, to read a good book, to go to the theatre, 
the concert, and the ball, and to ride. 

137. 

Why does your cousin not brush his coat ] — He does not brush it, 
because he is afraid of soiling his fingers. — What does my neighboi 
tell you 1 — He tells me that (que) you wish to buy his horse ; but I 
know that (que) he is mistaken, because you have no money to buy 
it. — What do they (on) say at the market 1 — They say that (que) the 
enemy is beaten. — Do you believe that 1 — I believe it, because every 
one says so. — Why have you bought that book 1 — I have bought it, 
because I want it to learn French, and because every one speaks of 
it. — Are your friends going away 1 — They are going away. — When 
are they going away 1 — They are going away to-morrow. — When 
are you going away '?^We are going away to-day. — Am I going 
away ■? — You are going away if you like, {si vous voulez.) — What 
do our neighbors say ■? — They are going away without saying any 
thing. — How do you like this wine] — I do not like it. — What is the 
matter with you 1 — I feel sleepy. — Does your friend feel sleepy 1 — 
He does not feel sleepy, but he is cold. — Why does he not warm 
himself? — He has no wood to make a fire. — Why does he not buy 
some wood 1 — He has no money to buy any. — Will you lend him 
some ■? — If he has none I will lend him some. — Are you thirsty ■? — 
I am not thirsty, but very hungry, {grand'' f aim.) — Is your servant 
sleepy 1 — He is sleepy. — Is he hungry 1 — He is hungry. — Why does 
he not eat 1 — Because he has nothing to eaf;. — Are your children 
hungry 1 — They are hungry, but they have nothing to eat. — Have 
they any thing to drink ? — They have nothing to drink. — Why do you 
not eat ] — I do not eat when {quand) I am not hungry. — Why does 
the Russian not drink ■? — He does not drink when he is not thirsty. — 
Did your brother eat any thing yesterday evening ? — He ate a piece 
of beef, a small piece of fowl, and a piece of bread. — Did he not 
drink ■? — He also drank. — What did he drink ? — He drank a glass of 
wine. (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 



174 



FORTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



FORTY-FOURTH LF.SSO'^ .—Quarante-quatrieme Lepor. 

PERFECT OF REFLECTIVE VERBS. 

In French all reflective verbs, without exception, take in their compound 
tenses the auxiliary etre, vt^hile in English they take to have. 



Have you cut yourself? 

I have cut myself. 

Have I cut myself? 

You have cut yourself. 

You have not cut yourself. 

Hast thou cut thyself? 

I have not cut myself. 

Has your brother cut himself? 

He has cut himself. 

Have we cut ourselves? 

We have not cut ourselves. 

Have these men cut themselves ? 

They have not cut themselves. 

To take a walk. 
To go a walking. 
To take an airing in a carriage. 
The coach. 
To take a ride. 
Do you take a walk ? 
I do take a walk. 

He takes a walk. 

We take a walk. 

Thou wishest to take an airing. 

They wish to take a ride. 



To walk a child. 

Do you take your children a walk- 
ing? 

I take them a walking ever)' morn- 
ing. 



To go to bed, to lie down. 
To go to bed. 
To get up, to rise. 
Do you rise early ? 



Vous etes-vous coupe ? 
Je me suis coupe. 
Me suis-je coupe? 
" Vous vous etes coupe. 
Vous ne vous etes pas coup6 
T'es-tu coupe? 
Je ne me suis pas coupe. 
Votre frere s'est-il coupe ? 
II s'est coupe. 

Nous sommes-nous coupes? 
Nous ne nous sommes pas coupes. 
Ces hommes se sont-ils coupes? 
lis ne se sont pas coupes. 



t Se promener 1. 

Aller se promener. 

t Se promener en carosse 

Le carosse. 

t Se promener &, cheval. 

Vous promenez-vous ? 

Je me promene. (See Obs. A. Les 

son XXV.) 
II se promfeue. 
Nous nous promenons. 
Tu veux te promeuer en carosse. 
lis veulent se promener il cheval. 



Promener un enfant. 
Promenez-Yous vos enfants ? 

Je les promfene tous les matius. 



t Se coucher 1. 

t Aller se coucher, se meiire au lit 

Se lever 1. 

Vous levez-TOUs de bonne heure ? 



FORTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



175 



I rise at sunrise. 

I go to bed at sunset. 

The sunrise. 

The sunset. 
At what time did you go to bed ? 

At three o'clock in the morning. 
At what o'clock did he go to bed 

yesterday ? 
He \^ent to bed late. 



To rejoice at something. 
I rejoice at your happiness. 
At what does your uncle rejoice ? 

I have rejoiced. 

They have rejoiced. 

You have mistaken. 

We have mistaken. 

To hurt somehody. 
The evil, the pain, the harm. 
Have you hurt that man ? 

I have hurt that man. 

Why did you hurt that man ? 



I have not hurt him. 
Does that hurt you ? 
That hurts me. 

To do good to anybody. 
Have I ever done you any harm ? 

On the contrary. 
No ; on the contrary, you have done 

me good. 
I have never done harm to any one. 



Have I hurt you? 
You have not hurt me. 

That does me good. 



To do with, to dispose of. 
What does the servant do with his 
broom? 



Je me Ihve au lever du soleil. 

Je me couche au coucher du soleil. 

Le lever du soleil. 

Le coucher du soleil. 

A quelle heure vous 4tes-vous cou- 

ch61 
A. trois heures du matin. 
A quelle heure s'est-il couch^ hier? 

II s'est couchd tard. 



t Se rejouir 2 de quelque chose. 

Je me r^jouis de votre bonheiu". 

De quoi votre oncle se rejouit-il? 

Je me suis r^joui. 

lis se sont r^jouis. 

t Vous vous etes tromp€. 

t Nous nous sommes tromp€s. 



cat 



t Faire du mal a quelqu'un. 

Le mal. 

t Avez-vous fait du mal k 

homme ? 
t J'ai fait du mal h, cet homme. 
+ Pourquoi avez-vous fait du mal a 

cet homme ? 
t Je ne lui ai pas fait de mal. 
t Cela vous fait-il du mal? 
t Cela me fait du mal. 
t Faire du hien a quelqu'un. 
t Vous ai-je jamais fait du mal ? 
Au contraire. 
t Non ; vous m'avez au contraire 

fait du bien. 
t Je n'ai jamais fait de mal h per- 

sonne. 



t Vous ai-je fait mal ? 

+ Vous ne m'avez pas fait mal. 



Cela me fait du bien. 



Faire de. 

Le domestique que fait-il do eon 
balai ? 



176 



FORTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



He sweeps the floor with it. 

What does he wish to make of this 

wood ? 
He does not wish to make any thing 

of it. 



t II balaie le plancher avec. 
t Que veut-il faire de ce bois ] 

II n'en veut rien faire. 



Ohs. A. When a proposition has no definite subject, the English, m 
order to avoid the pronouns they, people, &c., use the verb in the passive 
voice, and say: / was told, instead of, They told me; He is flattered, 
instead of. They flatter him; It was given to me, instead of, They gave it 
to me. This is always expressed in French by means of the indefinite pro- 
noun on, one. Ex. 



He is flattered, but he is not beloved. 
I am told that he is arrived. 

That, (conjunction.) 
A knife was given to him to cut his 
bread, and he cut his finger. 

To flatter some one. 
To flatter one's self. 

He flatters himself that he knows 
French. 

Nothing but. 
He has nothing but enemies. 



On le flatte, mais on ne I'aime pas. 

On me dit qu'il est arrive. 

Que. 

On lui a donne un couteau pour cou- 
per son pain, et il s'est coup^ le 
doigt. 

Flatter 1 quelqu'un. 

Se flatter, (takes de before the infin- 
itive.) 

t II se flatte de savoir le fran^ais. 

Ne — que. 

II n'a que des ennemis. 



To become. 



He has turned a soldier. 
Have you turned a merchant ? 
I Lave turned (become) a lawyer. 

What has become of your brother? 

What has become of him 7 
I do not know v/hat has become of 
him. 

To enlist, to enrol. 

He has enlisted. 



Devenir * 2, part, past, detenu, (ia 
conjugated like its primitive venir*, 
Less. XXIV. and XXXIV.) 

t II s'est fait soldat. 

t Vous etes-vous fait marchaud ? 

t Je me suis fait avocat. 

t Votre frere qu'est-)7 devenu ? 

t Qu'est devenu votre frtre ? 

t Qu'est-iZ devenu "i 

t Je ne sais pas ce qu'j'Z est devenn. 

S'enroler 1, se faire soldat. 
t II s'est enrole. 
t II s'est fait soldat. 



For, (meaning because.) 
I cannot pay you, for I have no 
money. 



Car. 

Je ne puis vous payer, car je n'ai 
pas d'argent. 



FORTY-FOURTH LESSON. 177 

He cannot give you any bread, for I II ne pent pas vous donner de pain, 
he has none. | car il n'en a pas. 



To believe some one 
Do you believe that nian ? 
I do not believe him. 



Croire * 4 quelqu'un. 
Croyez-vous cet homnae ? 
Je ne le crois pas. 
Obs. B. The verb croire * governs the accusative ; we say, however : 
To believe in God. | Croire en Dieu. 



I believe in God. Je crois en Dieu. 



To utter a falsehood, to lie. I Mentir * 2 ; past part, menti, pres. 

I part, mentant. 
I lie, thou liest, he lies. Je mens, tu mens, il ment. 

The story-teller, the liar. I Le menteur. 



EXERCISES. 
138. 
Why has that child been praised 1 — It has been praised because it 
has studied well. — Hast thou ever been praised'? — I have often been 
praised. — Why has that other child been punished 1 — It has been 
punished, because it has been naughty and idle. — Has this child been 
rewarded 1 — It has been rewarded because it has worked well. — 
What must one do in order not to be (pour ne pas etre) despised] — ■ 
One must be studious and good. — What has become of your friend ] 
— He has become a lawyer. — What has become of your cousin ? — 
He has enlisted. — Has your neighbor enlisted 1 — He has not enlist- 
ed. — What has become of him ] — He has turned a merchant. — What 
has become of his children 1 — His children have become men. — 
What has become of your son ? — He has become a great man. — Has 
he become learned 1 — He has become learned. — What has become 
of my book ! — I do not knov/ what has become of it. — Have you 
torn it ■? — I have not torn it. — What has become of our friend's son ? 
— I do not know what has become of him. — What have you done 
with your money 1 — I have bought a book with it. — What has the 
joiner done with his wood 1 — He has made a bench of it. — What has 
the tailor done with the cloth which you gave him ! — He has made 
clothes of it for {pour) your children and mine. — Has that man hurt 
you ■? — No, Sir, he has not hurt me. — What must one do in order to 
be loved \ — One must do good to those that have done us harm. — 
Have we ever done you harm ] — No ; you have on the contrary done 
as good. — Do you do harm to any one ] — I do no one any harm. — 



178 FORTY-FOURTH LESSON. 

Why have you hurt these children "? — I have not hurt them. — Have 
I hurt you 1 — You have not hurt me, but your boys have, (/n'en ont 
fait.) — What have they done t"& you 1 — They have beaten me. — Is it 
(est-ce) your brother who has hurt my son I — No, Sir, it is not (ce 
n'est pas) my brother, for he has never hurt any one. 

139. 

Have you drunk that vt^ine 1 — I have drunk it. — How did you like 
it 1 — I liked it very well. — Has it done you good 1 — It has done me 
good. — Have you hurt yourself! — I have not hurt myself. — Who has 
hurt himself] — My brother has hurt himself, for he has cut his fin- 
ger. — Is he still ill, {inaladel) — He is better, (mieux.) — I rejoice to 
hear that he is no longer ill, for I love him. — Why does your cousin 
pull out his hair 1 — Because he cannot pay what he owes. — Have 
you cut your hair 1 — I have not cut it, (myself,) but I have had it 
cut, (?ne les suis fait couper.) — What has this child done ? — He 
has cut his foot. — Why was a knife given to him ] — A knife was 
given him to {pour) cut his nails, and he has cut his finger and his 
foot. — Do you go to bed early "! — I go to bed late, for I cannot sleep 
when I go to bed early. — At what o'clock did-you go to bed yester- 
day ■? — Yesterday I went to bed at a quarter past eleven. — At what 
o'clock do your children go to bed ? — They go to bed at sunset. — 
Do they rise early 1 — They rise at sunrise. — At what o'clock did 
you rise to-day 1 — To-day I rose late, because I went to bed late 
yesterday evening, {hier au soir.) — Does your son rise late ] — He 
rises early, for he never goes to bed late. — What does he do when 
he gets up ] — He studies, and then breakfasts. — Does he not go out 
before he breakfasts ? — No, he studies and breakfasts before he goes 
out. — What does he do after breakfasting ] — As soon as he has 
breakfasted he comes to my house, and we take a ride. — Didst thou 
rise this morning as early as I ] — I rose earlier than you, for I rose 
before sunrise. 

140. 
Do you often go a walking \ — I go a walking when I have nothing 
to do at home. — Do you wish to take a walk ! — I cannot take a walk, 
for I have too much to do. — Has your brother taken a ride \ — He has 
taken an airing in a carriage. — Do your children often go a walking ! 
— They go a walking every morning after breakfiist, (aprcs le de- 
jeuner.) — Do you take a walk after dinner, {apres le diner?) — After 
dinner I drink tea, and then I take a walk. — Do you often take your 
children a walking ! — I take them a walking every morning and ev- 
ery evening. — Can you go with me 1 — I cannot go with you. for I 
am to take my little brother out a walking. — Where do you walk ]— 



FORTY-FIFTH LESSON. 179 

We walk in our uncle's garden. — Did your father rejoice to see you ? 
— He did rejoice to see me. — What did ycu rejoice at 1 — I rejoiced 
at seeing my good friends. — What was your uncle delighted with, 
{s^est il rejoui ?) — He was delighted with the horse which you have 
sent him. — What were your children delighted with 1 — They were 
delighted with the fine clothes which I had had made for them, {que 
je leur aifait faire.) — Why does tftis man rejoice so much, (tant ?) 
— Because he flatters himself he has good friends. — Is he not right 
in rejoicing 1 — He is wrong, for he has nothing but enemies. — Is he 
not loved 1 — He is flattered, but he is not beloved. — Do you flatter 
yourself that you know French ■? — I do flatter myself that I know it ; 
for I can speak, read, and write it. — Has the physician done any 
harm to your child 1 — He has cut his finger, {lui a coupe le doigt,) 
but he has not done him any harm, so (et) you are mistaken, if you 
believe that he has done him any harm. — Why do you listen to that 
man 1 — I listen to him, but I do not believe him ; for I know that he 
is a story-teller. — How do you know that he is a story-teller 1 — He 
does not believe in God ; and all those (tons ceux) who do not be- 
lieve in God are story-tellers. 



FORTY-FIFTH luE^^O^.—Quarante-cinquieme Lepon. 
OF IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

We have already seen (Lessons XLI. and XLII.) some idiomatical ex- 
pressions with faire, all of which belong to the impersonal verbs. These 
verbs, having no determinate subject, are conjugated only in the third per- 
son, by means of the pronoun il, it. Ex. 



To rain, it rains. 


Pleuvoir * 3. il pleut, past part. plu. 


To snow, it snows. 


Neiger 1. il neige. 


To hail, it hails. 


Greler 1. il grele. 


The substantives belonging to these 


three verbs are feminine, as will be 


seen when we come to treat of femin 


ine nouns. 


To lighten. 


t Faire des Eclairs.. 


Does it lighten ? 


i Fait-il des eclairs ? 


It does lighten. 


1 11 fait des Eclairs. 


The lightning. 


L'^clair. 


The parasol. 


Le parasol. 


It rains very hard. 


1 11 pleut ii verse. 


It lightens much. 


1 11 fait beaucoup d'^claira 


Docs it snow ? 


Neige-t-il ? 


It snows much. 


11 neige fort. 



180 



FORTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



It hails much. 

The sun does not shine. 
The suji is in my eyes. 



To thunder, — it thunders. 
To shine, to glitter. 



To shut. 
Have you done 1 
Is the walking good ? 

In that country. 
The country. 
He has made many friends in that 
country. 



Of which, of whom, whose. 
I see the man of whom you speak. 
I have bought the horse of which 

you spoke to me. 
I see the man whose brother has 

killed my dog. 
I see the man whose dog you have 

killed. 
Do you see the child whose father 

set out yesterday ? 
I see it. 

Whom have you seen ? 
1 have seen the merchant whose 

warehouse you have taken. 



II fait beaucoup de grele. 

{La grele, a feminine nomi ) 
t II ne fait point de soleil. 
t Le soleil me donne dans la vue. 
(Ziffl vue, the sight, a feminine noun.) 



Tonner 1 — il tonne. 
Luire * 4 ; pres. part, luisant ; past^ 
lui. 



Fermer 1. 

t Avez-vous fiui ? 
+ Fait-il bon marcher ? 
Dans ce pays. 
Le pays. 

t II s'est fait beaucoup d'amis daufl 
ce pays. 



Dont, (connective pronoun.) 

Je vols I'homme dont vous parlez. 

J'ai achete le cheval dont vous 

m'avez parle. 
Je vols I'homme dont le frere a tu^ 

mon chien. 
Je vois I'homme dont vous avez tu^ 

le chien. 
Voyez-vous I'enfant dont le pere est 

parti hier ? 
Je le vois. 
Qui avez-vous vu ? 
J'ai vu le marchand dont vous avez 

pris le magasin. 



I have spoken to the man wliose J'ai parl^ h. I'homme dont le maga- 
warehouse has been burnt. shi a ete brdle. 



That of which. 

Thai, or the one of which. 

Those, or the ones of ichich. 
I liavo tliat of whicli I have need. 
I have what I want. 
He lias what he wants. 



Ce dont. 
Celui dont. 
Ceux dont. 



> J'ai cc dont j'ai besoin. 
I II a ce dont il a besoin 



Have )'0U the book of wliich you 

have need ? 
I have that of tchich I have need, 



Avez-vous le livre dont vous avez 

besoin ? 
J'ai cclui dont j'ai besoin 



FORTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



181 



Has the man the nails of which he 

has need? 
He has those of which he has need. 

To need, to want. 

To have need of. 



L'homme a-t-il les clous dont il a bo- 

soin 1 
II a ceux dont il a besoin. 

Avoir besoin de. 



Which men do you see ? I Quels hommes voyez-vous ? 

[ see those of whom you have spoken Je vols ceux dont vous m'avez parld 
to me. I 

0° The past participle does not agree with its object in number, (that is, 
if the object is in the plural, the past participle does not take an s,) when it 
is preceded by the connective pronoun dont, of whom, of which, whose. 



Do you see the pupils of whom I 

have spoken to you ? 
I see them. 



Voyez-vous les eleves dont je vous ai 

•parle ? 
Je les vols. 



To whom. 
I see the children to whom you have 

given some cakes. 
To which men do you speak? 
1 speak to those to whom you have 

applied. 



Masc. ^ Fern. 

Sing. <^ Plur. Masc. Plur. 

^A qui, auxquels. 

Je vols les enfants a qui vous avez 

donne des g&.teaux. 
A quels hommes parlez-vous? 
Je parle k ceux auxquels (&, qui) vous 

vous etes adresse. 



Ohs. ^A qui, dative for all genders and numbers, is more usually employed 
for persons than auxquels, dative plural of lequel ; but for things, auxquels 
must always be used. 



To apply to. 
To meet with. 

I have met with the men to whom 
you have applied. 



S'adresser 1 d. 

Rencontrer 1, (governs the accusa- 
tive.) 

J'ai rencontr^ les hommes k qui (aux- 
quels) vous vous etes adress6. 



Of which men do you speak ? 
I speak of those whose children have 
been studious and obedient. 

Obedient, disobedient. 



jSj that. 
I have lost my money, so that I can- 
not pay you. 



De quels hommes parlez-vous ? 

Je parle de ceux dont les enfants ont 

^te studieux et obeissants. 
Obeissant, d^sobeissant. 



De sorte que, (conjunction.) 
J'ai perdu mon argent, de sorte que 
je ne puis vous payer. 



182 FORTY-FIFTH LESSON 

I am ill, so that I cannot go out. 
Ill- 



Je suis malade, de sorte que je ne puis 

sortir. 
Malade. 



EXERCISES. 
141. 
Have you at last learned French "? — I was ill, so that I could not 
learn it. — Has your brother learned it ■?— He has not learned it, because 
he has not yet been able to find a good master. — Do you go to the 
ball this evening 1 — I have sore feet, so that I cannot go to it. — Did 
you understand that German ] — I do not know German, so that ] 
could not understand him. — Have you bought the horse of which 
you spoke to me 1 — I have no money, so that I could not buy it. — 
Have you seen the man from whom I have received a present 1 — I 
have not seen him. — Ha-v e you seen the fine gun of which I spoke 
to you 1 — I have seen it. — Has your uncle seen the books of which 
you spoke to him 1 — He has seen them. — Hast thou seen the man 
whose children have been punished ? — I have not seen him. — To 
whom have you been speaking in the theatre'? — I have been speak- 
ing to the man whose brother has killed my fine dog. — Have you 
seen the little boy whose father has become (s'' est fait) a lawyer 1 — 
I have seen him. — Whom have you seen at the ball 1 — I have seen 
there the men whose horses, and those whose coach (carosse) you 
have bought. — Whom do you see now 1 — I see the man whose ser- 
vant has broken my looking-glass. — Have you heard the man whose 
friend has lent me money 1 — I have not heard him. — Whom have 
you heard ] — I have heard the French captain whose son is my 
friend. — Hast thou brushed the coat of which I spoke to thee 1 — I 
have not yet brushed it. — Have you received the money which j'ou 
have been wanting 1 — I have received it. — Have I the paper of 
which I have need "! — You have it. — Has your brother the books 
which he is wanting 1 — He has them. — Have you spoken to the mer- 
chants whose warehouse we have taken ! — We have spoken to them. 
— Have you spoken to the physician whose son has studied German ! 
— I have spoken to him. — Hast thou seen the poor men whose ware- 
houses have been burnt ! — I have seen them. — Have you read the 
books which we have lent you ? — We have read them. — AVhat do 
you say of them, (en?) — We say* that they are very fine. — Have 
your children what they want ? — They have what they want. 

142. 
Of whicli man do you speak 1 — I speak of the one whose brother 
has turned soldier. — Of which children have you spoken 1 — I have 



FORTY-SIXTH LESSON. 183 

bpoken of those whose parents are learned. — Which book have you 
read ? — I have read that of which I spoke to you yesterday. — Which 
paper has your cousin 1 — He has that of which he has need. — Which 
fishes has he eaten 1 — He has eaten those which you do not like. — 
Of wliich books are you in want 1 — I am in want of those of which 
you have spoken to me. — Are you not in want of those which I am 
reading 1 — I am not in want of them. — Do you see the children to 
whom I have given cakes 1 — I do not see those to whom you have 
given cakes, but those whom you have punished. — To whom have 
you given some money 1 — I have given some to those who have been 
skilful. — To which children must one give books 1 — One must give 
some to those who are good and obedient. — To whom do you give to 
eat and to drink ] — To those who are hungry and thirsty — Do you 
give any thing to the children who are idle 1 — I give them nothing. 
— Did it snow yesterday 1 — It did snow, hail, and lighten. — Did it 
rain 1 — It did rain. — Did you go out ■? — I never go out, when it is bad 
weather. — Have the captains at last listened to that man 1 — They 
have refused (Lesson XXXV.) to listen to him ; all those to whom 
he applied have refused to hear him. — With whom have you met this 
morning 1 — I have met with the man by whom I am esteemed. — 
Have you given any cakes to your pupils 1 — They have not studied 
well, so that I have given them nothing. 



FORTY-SIXTH LESSO-N.—Quarante-sixieme Le^on. 
OF THE FUTURE. 

Rule. — The first or simple future is formed, in all French verbs, from the 
Infinitive, by changing the letter r, for the first three conjugations,' and the 
ending re for the fourth, into rai. Ex. 









Infin. 


Future. 


To love. 


I shall or will love. 


\st Conj. 


Aimer, 


j'aimerai. 


To finish. 


I shall or will finish. 


2d — 


Finir, 


je finirai. 


To foresee, 


I shall or will foresee. 


3d — 


Pr^voir, 


jo prevoirai 


To restore. 


I shall or will restore 


4i7i — 


Rendre, 


je rendrai. 



Ohs. A. We need only kno^v the first person singular of the future in ordei 
to form all the other persons, as they are always alike in all French verbs, 
viz. for the second person singular ras, the thii'd person singular ra ; tiie first 
person plural rons, the second rez, and the third ront. 

^ Though the third conjugation is composed almost entirely of except'ons, 
the rule is notwithstanding correct, as all those verbs which now form ex- 
ceptions were formerly spelled and written accorduig to it. 



184 



fouty-sixth lesson. 



Thou shalt or wil. love, thou shalt or 

wilt finish. 
Ho shall or will love, he shall or will 

finish. 
We sliall or will love, we shall or will 

finish. 
You shall or will love, you shall or 

will finish. 
They shall or will love, they shall or 

will finish. 
Thou shalt or wilt foresee, thovi shalt 

or wilt restore. 
He shall or will foresee, he shall or 

will restore. 
We shall or will foresee, we shall or 

will restore. 
You shall or will foresee, you shall or 

will restore. 
They shall or will foresee, they shall 

or will restore. 



Futures. 



Tu aimeras. 
II aimera. 
Nous aimerons. 
Vous aimerez. 
lis aimeront. 
Tu prevoiras. 
II prevoirs. 
Nous prevoiro/is. 
Vous prevoirez 
lis priYolront. 



Tu finiras. 
II fijiira. 

Nous finirons 
Vous fiuirez. 
lis fiuironr. 
Tu reudras 
11 reudra. 
Nous rendivris 
Vous reudrez. 
lis rendroni 



EXCEPTIONS. 



Ohs. B. The following fourteen verbs, besides the auxiliaries avoir and 
Hre, and ten more, the futures of which are given at the end of this Lesson, 
form all the exceptions to our rule for the formation of the future. It must 
be remembered that the first person singular of the exceptions being ouce 
known, all the other persons are likewise known, they being, as may be seen 
from the above, the same in all verbs. 







Infinitive. 


Future. 


To have. 


I shall or will have. 


Avoir *. 


J'aurai. 


To be. 


I shall or will be. 


litre *. 


Je serai. 


Togo. 


I shall or will go. 


Allcr * 1. 


J'irai. 


To send. 


I shall or will send. 


Envoyer * 1. 


J'euverrai. 


To hold. 


I shall or will hold. 


Tenir * 2. 


Je tiendrai. 


To come. 


I shall or will come. 


Venir * 2. 


Je viendrai. 


To sit down. 


I shall or will sit 


S'asseoir * 3 


Je m'asseierai 




down. 




Je m'assierai. 


To owe. 


I sliall or will owe. 


Devoir * 3. 


Je dovrai. 


To be necessary It will be necessary. 


Falloir * 3. 


11 faudra. 


To be able. 


I sliall or will be 


Pouvoir * 3. 


Je pourrai. 



able. 



FORTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



185 



To receive 
To know. 
To be worth. 

To see. 

To be willing. 

To do. 



I shall or will reoeive. 
I shall or will know. 
I shall or will be 

worth. 
I shall or will see. 
I shall or will be 

willing. 
I shall or will do. 



Shall or will he have money ? 

He will have some. 

He will not have any. 

Shall you soon have done writing ? 

I shall soon have done. 

He will soon have done his exercise. 



When shall you do your exercises? 
I will do them soon, (ere long.) 
My brother will do his exercises to- 
morrow. 

Next Monday. 

Last Monday. 

Next month. 

Tliis month. 

This country. 



When will your cousin go to the con- 
cert? 
He will go next Tuesday. 
Shall you go anywhere ? 
We shall go liowhere. 



Will he send me the book? 

He will send it you if he has done 

with it. 
Shall you be at home this evening? 

I shall be there. 

Will your father be at home ? 

He will be there. 

Will your cousins be there ? 

They will be there. 



Infinitive. 
Reccvoir 3. 
Savoir 3. 
Valoir * 3. 

Voir * 3. 
Vouloir * 3. 

Faire * 4. 



Future. 
Je recevrai." 
Je saurai. 
Je vaudrai 

Je verrai. 
Je voudrai. 

Je ferai. 



Aura-t-il de Targent? 

II en aura. 

II n'en aura pas. 

t Aurcz-vous bientot fini d'6crlre 1 

t J'aurai bientot fini. 

t II aura bientot fini son theme. 



Quand ferez-vous vos themes? 

Je les ferai bient6t. 

Mon frere fera ses themes demaiii. 

Lundi prochain. 

Lundi passe or lundi dernioT. 

t Le mois prochain. 

Ce mois-ci. 

Ce pays-ci. 



Quand votre cousin ira-t-il au con- 
cert ? 
H ira mardi prochain. 
Irez-vous quelque part? 
Nous n'irons nulle part. 



M'enverra-t-il le livre? 

t II vous I'enverra s'il I'a fini. 

Serez-vous chez-vous (a la maisou) 

ce soir? 
J'y serai. 
Votre p^e sera-t-il chez lui, (i lo 

maison ?) 
II y sera. 

Vos cousins y seront-ils ? 
lis y seront. 



' And all those in cevoir, as : apercevoir, to perceive ; concevoir to con- 
ceive, &c. 



186 



FORTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



Will ho send mo the books ? 

He will send them you. 

Will he send some paper to my 

counting-house ? 
He will send some thither. 



Shall you be able to pay your shoe- 
maker ? 

I have lost my money, so that I shall 
not be able to pay him. 

My friend has lost his pocket-book, 
so that he will not be able to pay 
for his shoes. 



Will you hold any thing ? 
I shall hold your umbrella. 
Will your friend come to my con- 
cert ? 
He will come. 
Shall you come ? 
I shall come. 



Will it be necessary to go to the 
market ? 

It will be necessary to go thither to- 
morrow morning. 

It will not be necessary to go thither. 

Shall you see my father to-day ? 

We shall see him. 

Obs. C. The following ten verbs 

for the formation of the future. 



M'enverra-t-i.. les livres ? 

II vous les enverra. 

Enverra-t-il du papier k mon comp- 

toir ? 
II y en enverra. 



Pourrez-vous payer votre cordonnierl 

J"ai perdu mon argent, de sorte que 
je ne pourrai pas lo payer. 

Mon ami a perdu son portefeuille, de 
sorte qu'il ne pourra pas payer ses 
souliers. 



Tiendrez-vous quelque chose ? 
Je tiendrai votre parapluie. 
Votre ami viendra-t-il k mon con- 
cert? 
II viendra. 
Viendrez-vous ? 
Je viendrai. 



Faudra-t-il aller au march^ ? 

II faudra y aller demain matin. 

II ne faudra pas y aUer. 
Verrez-vous mon pere aujourd'lmi ? 
Nous le verrons. 
are the remaining exceptions to our rule 



To lean. 
To employ. 
To try. 
To acquire. 
To run. 
To gather. 
To die, (to 
lose life.) 
To expire. 



I shall or will lean. 
I shall or will employ. 
I shall or will try. 
I shall or will acquire. 
I shall or will run. 
I shall or will gather. 
I shall or will die. 

I shall or will expire. 



Infinitive. 
Appuj-er 1. 
Employer 1. 
Essayer 1. 
Acqu^rir * 2. 
Courir * 2. 
CueOlir * 2. 
IMourir * 2. 

Echoir*3. 



Future. 
J'appuienu. 
J'emploierai. 
J'essaierai." 
J'acquerrai. 
Je courrai. 
Je cueillerai. 
Je mourrai. 

J'echerrai. 



' These three are, properly speaking, and according to Obs. D. of Lesson . 
XXIV., no exceptions ; but we have given them in order to leave the learner 
ill no doubt respecting the fonnatiou of the future of all the French verbs. 



FORTY-SIXTH LESSON. 187 



To move. I shall or will move. 
To rain. It will rain. 



Infinitive. Future. 

Mouvoir*3. Je mouvrai. 

Pleuvoir * 3. II pleuvra. 



EXERCISES. 
143. 

Shall you have any books 1 — I shall have some. — ^Who will give 
you any ] — My uncle will give me some. — When will your cousin 
have money "l — He will have some next month. — How much money 
shall you have 1 — I shall have thirty-five francs. — Who will have 
good friends 1 — The English will have some. — Will your father be 
at home this evening 1 — He will be at home. — ^Will you be there "? — 
I shall also be there. — Will your uncle go out to-day 1 — He will go 
out, if it is fine weather. — Shall you go^'out "? — I shall go out, if it 
does not rain. — Will you love my son 1 — I shall love him, if he is 
good. — ^Will you pay your shoemaker ■? — I shall pay him, if I receive 
my money. — Will you love my children'? — If they are good and as- 
siduous I shall love them ; but if they are idle and naughty I shall 
despise and punish them. — ^Am I right in speaking thus ] — You are 
not wrong. — Is your friend still writing ] — He is still writing. — 
Have you not done speaking ] — I shall soon have done. — Have our 
friends done reading ] — They will soon have done. — Has the tailor 
made my coat ? — He has not made it yet ; but he will soon make it. 
— When will he make it 1 — When he shall have time. — When will 
you do your exercises ? — I shall do them when I shall have time. — 
When will your brother do his? — He will do them next Saturday. — 
Wilt thou come to me "? — I shall come. — When wilt thou come ] — I 
shall come next Friday. — When have you seen my uncle 1 — I saw 
him last Sunday. — Will your cousins go to the ball next Tuesday ? 
— They will go. — Will you come to my concert ■? — I shall come, if I 
am not ill. 

144. 

When will you send me the money which you owe me ■? — I shall 
send it you soon. — Will your brothers send me the books which I have 
lent them ] — They will send them you. — When will they send them 
to me ? — They will send them to you iiext month. — Will you be able 
to pay me what you owe me "? — I shall not be able to pay it you, for 
I hare lost all my money. — Will the American be able to pay for his 
shoes ■? — He has lost his pocket-book, so that he will not be able to 
pay for them. — Will it be necessary to send for the physician "? — No- 
body is ill, so that it will not be necessary to send for him. — ^Will it 
bfe necessary to go to the market to-morrow ■? — It will be necessary 



188 



FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



to go thither, for we want some beef, some bread, and some wine. — 
Shall you see your father to-day'! — I shall see him. — Where will he 
De 1 — He will be at his counting-house. — Will you go to the ball to- 
night 1 — I shall not go, for I am too ill to go to it. — Will your friend 
go 1 — He will go, if you go. — Where will our neighbors go I — They 
will go nowhere ; they will remain at home, for they have a good 
deal (beaucoup) to do 



FORTY-SEVENTH LESSOl^ .—Quarante-septieme Lepon. 



To belong. 

Do you belong ? 
I do belong. 

Does tliat horse belong to your broth- 
er? 

It does belong to him. 

To whom do these gloves belong ? 

They belong to the captains. 

Do these horses belong to the cap- 
tains ? 

They do belong to them. 



To suit. 

Does that cloth suit your brother ? 

It suits him. 

Do these shoes suit your brothers ? 

They suit them. 

Does it suit you to do that ? 

It suits me to do it. 

Does it suit your cousin to come with 

us? 
It does not suit him to go out. 

To succeed. 

Do you succeed in learning French ? 

I succeed in it. 

I do succeed iu learning it. 



Appartenir * 2, (is conjugated like its 

primitive tenir *, Lesson XXi.) 
Appartenez-vous ? 
J'appartieus. 
Ce cheval appartient-il &, votre frtire ? 

II lui appartient. 
A qui appartiennent ces gants ? 
lis appartiennent aux capitaines. 
Ces chevaux appartiennent-ils aux 

capitaines ? 
lis leur appartiennent. 



Convenir * 2, (Conjugated like re- 
nir*, Less. XXIY. and XXXIV.) 

Ce drap convient-il k votre frere ? 

11 lui convieut. 

Ces souliers con^iennent-ils k vos 
frferes ? 

lis leur conviennent. 

Vous convient-il de faire cela ? 

II me convient de le faire. 

Convient-il S. votre cousin de venir 
avec nous ? 

II ne lui convient pas de sortir. 



Parvenir * 2. (Conjugated like rs- 

nir *.) 
t Parvenez-vous i apprendre le frau- 

^ais? 
t J'y parv'ieus. 
t Je parviens i Tapprendre. 



FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



189 



Do these men succeed in selling their 

horses ? 
They succeed therein. 



To succeed. 
Do you su:.ceed in doing that ? 
1 succeed in it. 

To forget. 

To clean. 
The inkstand. 

Immediately, directly. 

This instant, instantly. 

Presently. 
I am going to do it. 
I will do it immediately. 
I am going to work. 



+ Ces hommes parvienuent-ils &. ven- 

dre leiirs chevau.x ■? 
t lis y parvieunent. 



Reussir 2. 

R^ussissez-vous k faire cela ? 

J'y reussis. 



Ouhlier 1, (takes de before i\v) in- 
finitive.) 
Nettoyer 1 
L'encrier. 



Tout de suite. 

A I'instant, sur le champ. 

Tout k I'heure. 

Je vais le faire. 

Je vais le faire tout de suite 

Je vais travailler. 



Is there 7 

Are there ? 

There is not. 

There are not. 

Will there be ? 

There will be. 
Was or were there, or has tliere 

been ? 
There has been. 
Is there any wine ? 
There is some. 
There is not any. 
Ai'e there any men ? 
There are some. 
There are not any. 



Y a-t-il ? 



I II n' 



y a pas. 

Y aura-t-il ? 
II y aura. 

Y a-t-il eu ? 

II y a eu. 

Y a-t-il du vm ? 
II y en a. 

II n'y en a pas. 

Y a-t-U des hommes ? 
II y en a. 

II n'y en a pas. 



There are men who wiil not study. 

Is there anj' one ? 

There is no '.me. 

Are there to be many people at the 

ball? 
There are to be a great many people 

there. 



j II y a des hommes qui ne veulent pas 
^tudier. 
Y a-t-il quelqu'un ? 
II n'y a personne. 
Doit-il y avoir beaucoup de monde 

au bal ? 
II doit y en avoir beaucoup. 



100 



FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON 



On credit. 
To sell on credit. 

The credit. 
Ready money. 
To buy for cash. 
To sell for cash. 
To pay down. 
Will you buy for cash ? 

Does it suit you to sell me on credit ? 



To fit. 
Does that coat fit me ? 
It fits you. 
That hat does not fit your brother. 

It does not fit liim. 
Do these shoes fit you? 
They fit me. 
That fits you very well 



To keep. 
You had better. 
I liad better. 
He had better. 
Irstead of keeping your horse you 

had better sell it. 
Instead of selling his hat he had 
better keep it. 



Will you keep the horse ? 

I shall keep it. 

You must not keep my money. 

To please, to he pleased. 

I please, thou pleasest, he pleases. 

To please some one. 
Does that book please you ? 
It pleases me much. 
I will do what you please. 
You are pleased to say so. 



A credit. 

Vendre a, credit. 

Le credit. 

De I'argent comptaut 

Acheter comptaut. 

Vendre comptant. 

Payer comptant. 

Voulez-vous acheter argent comp- 
tant ? 

Vous convient-il de me vendre t 
credit ? 



t Alter lien. 

t Get habit me va-t-il bien? 

t II vous va bien. 

t Ce chapeau ue va pas bien a votre 

frere. 
t II ne lui va pas bien. 
t Ces souliers vous vont-ils bieu 1 
t lis me vont bien. 
t Cela vous va fort bien. 



Garder 1. 

t Vous ferez mieux de. 

t Je ferai mieux de. 

t II fera mieux de. 

t Au lieu de garder votre cheval 

vous ferez mieux de le vendre. 
t Au lieu de vendre son chapeau il 

fera mieux de le garder. 



I Garderez-vous le cheval ? 
Je le garderai, 
II ne faut pas garder raon argent 



Plaire * 4 ; pres. part, pluisani ; pasi 

part. plu. 
Je plais, tu plais, il plait, 
t Plaire a quelqu'un. 
Ce livre vous plait-il ? 
II me plait beaucoup. 
t Je ferai ce qu'il vous plaira. 
t Cela vous plait i dire, (a familial 

expression.) 



FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



191 



What is your pleasure ? 
What do you want ? 
What do you say ? 

To please. 
How do you please yourself here ? 
I please myself very well here. 



t Que vous plait-il ' 

t Plait-U ? 

t Se plaire * 4. 

Comment vous plaisez-vous ici ? 

Je m'y plais trfes-bien. 



Obs. The impersonal it is, is rendered by c^est for the singular, and by 
ce sont for the plural. Ex. 



Whose book is this ? 
It is his. 

Whose shoes are these ? 
They are ours. 

It is they who have seen him. 
It is your friends who are in the 
right. 



A qui est ce livre ? 

C'esi le sien. 

A qui sont ces souliers ? 

Ce sont les ndtres. 

Ce sont eux qui I'ont vu. 

Ce sont vos amis qui ont raison. 



EXERCISES. 

145. 

To whom does that horse belong 1 — It belongs to the English cap- 
♦,ain whose son has written a note to you. — Does this money belong 
to you 1 — It does belong to me. — From whom have you received it 1 
—I have received it from the men whose children you have seen. — 
Whose horses are those 1 — They are (ce sont) ours. — Have you told 
your brother that I am waiting for him here 1 — I have forgotten to 
tell him so, (le.) — Is it (est-ce) your father or mine who is gone to 
Berlin ■? — It is mine. — Is k your baker, or that of our friend, who 
has sold you bread on credit ■? — It is (c''est) ours. — Is that your son ] 
■ — He is not (ce n'est pas) mine, he is (c''est) my friend's. — Where is 
yours 1 — He is at Paris. — Have you brought me the book which you 
promised me 1 — I have forgotten it. — Has your uncle brought you 
the pocket-books which he promised you 1 — He has forgotten to 
bring me them. — Have you already written to your friend 1 — I have 
not yet had time to write to him. — Have you forgotten to write to 
your relation, (le parent ?) — I have not forgotten to write to him. — 
Does this cloth suit you 1 — It does not suit ine ; have you no other 1 
— I have some other ; but it is dearer than this. — Will you show it 
me ■? — I will show it you. — Do these shoes suit your uncle ] — They 
do not suit him, because they are too dear. — Are these (sont-ce) the 
shoes of which (dont) you have spoken to us T — They are (ce sont) 
the same, (les mimes.) — Whose shoes are these ■? — They belong to 
the nobleman whom you have seen this morning in my warehouse.— 



192 FORTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 

Does it suit you to come with us 1 — It does not suit me. — Does it 
suit you to go to the market ? — It does not suit me to go thither. — Did 
you go on foot to Germany 1 — It does not suit me to go on foot, so 
that I went thither in a coach. (Lesson XLIV.) 

146. 

What is your pleasure, Sir 1 — I am inquiring after your father 
Is he at home "? — No, Sir, he is gone out. — What do you say 1 — I 
tell you that he is gone out. — Will you wait tOl he comes back? 
(Lesson XXXVI.) — I have no time to wait. — Does this merchant 
sell on credit ] — He does not sell on credit. — Does it suit you to buy 
for cash 1 — It does not suit me. — Where did you buy these pretty 
knives ^ — I bought them at (chez) the merchant's whose warehouse 
you saw yesterday. — Has he sold them to you on credit ] — He has 
sold them to me for cash. — Do you often buy for cash 1 — Not so 
often as you. — Have you forgotten any thing here 1 — I have forgot- 
ten nothing. — Does it suit you to learn this (ceci) by heart ? — I have 
not much time to study, so that it does not suit me to learn it by 
heart. — Has that man tried to speak to your father \ — He has tried 
to speak to him, but he has not succeeded in it. — Have you suc- 
ceeded in writing an exercise 1 — I have succeedecl in it. — Have those 
merchants succeeded in selling their horses 1 — They have not suc- 
ceeded therein. — Have you tried to clean my inkstand ] — I have 
tried, but I have not succeeded in it. — Do your children succeed in 
learning English T— They do succeed in it. — Is there any wine in 
this cask 1 — There is some in it. — Is there any vinegar in this glass 1 
— There is none in it. — Is wine or cider in it, {dedans ?) — There is 
neither wine nor cider in it. — What is there in it 1 — There is some 
vinegar in it. 

147. 

Are there any men in your warehouse 1 — There are some there 
— Is there any one in the warehouse 1 — There is no one there. — 
Were there many people in the theatre 1 — There were many there 
— ^Will there be many people at your ball ] — There will be many 
there. — Are there many children that will not pla}' ? — There are 
many that will not study, but all will play. — Hast thou cleaned my 
trunk'? — I have tried to do it, but I have not succeeded. — Do you 
intend buying an umbrella ] — I intend buying one, if the merchant 
sells it me on credit. — Do you intend to keep mine ! — I intend to 
give it you back, (Lesson XXXIX.,) if I buy one.— Have you re- 
turned the books to my brother 1 — I have not returned them to him 
yet. — How long do you intend keeping them ! — I intend keeping 
them till next Saturday. — How long do you intend keeping my 



FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



193 



horse 1 — I intend keeping it till my father returns. — Have you 
cleaned my knife ] — I have nut had time yet, but I will do it this in- 
stant. — Have you made a fire 1 — Not yet ; but I will make one pres- 
ently. — Why have you not worked ? — I have not yet been able. — 
What had you to do ] — I had to clean your carpet, and to mend )'^our 
thread stockings. — Do you intend to sell your coat ] — I intend keep- 
ing it, for I want it. — Instead of keeping it you had better sell it. — 
Do vou sell your horses 1 — I do not sell them. — Instead of keeping 
them you had better sell them. — Does our friend keep his parasol 1 
— He does keep it ; but instead of keeping it he had better sell it, 
for it is wurn out. — Does your son tear his book ? — He does tear it ; 
but he is wrong in doing so, for instead of tearing it he had better 
read it. 



FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON .—Quarante-huitteme Legon, 



To go away. 
When will you go away ? 
I will go soon. 

By and by. 
He will go away soon, (by and by.) 
We will go to-morrow. 
Tliey will go to-morrow. 
Thou wilt go immediately. 



When. 



To hecome. 
What will become of you if you lose 

your money? 
I do not know what will become of 

me. 
What will become of liim ? 
What will become of us 7 
Wiat will become of them ? 
I do net know what will become of 

them. 



t S'en aller *. (Less. XLIII.) 
Quand vous en irez-vous ? 
Je m'en irai bient6t. 
Tout a, I'heure. 
II s'en ira tout k I'heure. 
Nous nous en irons demaiu. 
lis s'en iront demaui. 
Tu t'en iras sur le champ. 



Lorsque, (conjunction.) 



Devenir * 2. (Lesson XLIV.) 

t Que deviendrez-Bous si vous perdez 

votre argent ? 
t Je ne sais pas ce que je devlendraL 

t Que deviendra-t-?7 ? 

t Que deviendrons-nOMS ? 

t Que deviendront-z7s ? 

t Je ne sais pas ce qu'ils deviendront 



The turn. 
My turn. 
la my turn. 
In his turn. 



Le tour, 
Mon tour. 
A mon tour. 
A son tour. 



194 



FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



In my brother's turn. 

Each in his turn. 
When it comes to your turn. 
Our turn will come. 



Au tour de moa frfere. 
Chacun h son tour, 
t Quand votre tour viendra- 
t Nous aurons notre tour. 



To take a turr , (a walk.) 

He is gone to take a walk. 
To walk round the garden. 



Faire un tour. 

Faire un tour de promenade. 
II est all^ faire un tour. 
II est alle faire un tour de prome- 
nade. 
I t Faire un tour de jardin. 



To run. 

I nm, thou runnest, he runs. 
Do you run ? 
I do run. 
Shall or will you run ? 
I shall or will run. 

BeTiind. 
Behind him. 



Courir * 2, past part, couru; pres. 

part, covrant. 
Je cours, tu cours, il court. 
Courez-vous ? 
Je cours. 

Courrez-vous '? (See Less. XLVI.) 
Je courrai. 



Deiriere. 
Derriere lui. 



A blow, a kick, a knock, a stab. 
A clap, a slap. 
Have you given that man a blow ? 

I have given him one. 
A blow with a stick. 
A kick, (with the foot.) 
A blow with the fist. 
A stab of a knife. 
A shot or the report of a gun. 
The shot of a pistol. 
A glance of the eye. 
A clap of thunder. 



^ Un coup. 

Avez-vous donne un coup 

homme ? 
Je lui en ai donn^ im. 
Un coup de ba,ton. 
Un coup de pied. 
Un coup de poing. 
Un coup de couteau. 
Un coup de fusil. 
Un coup de pistoiet. 
Un coup d'ceil. 
Un coup de tonuerre. 



& C9t 



To give a cut with a knife. 

To give a man a blow with a stick. 

To give a man a kick, (with the 

foot.) 
To give a man a blow w'th the fist. 



Conner un coup de couteau. 
Donner un coup de biton a nn 

homme. 
Donner mi coup de pied i un 

honune. 
Doimer mi coup do poing i un 

homme. 



FORTV-EIGHTH LESSON. 



Vjr> 



To pull, to drmjD. 

To shoot, to fire. 
To fire a gun 
To fire a pistol. 
To fire at some one. 

I have filed at tliat bird. 

I have fired twice. 
I have fired three times. 
I have fired several times. 
[low many times have you fired? 

How many times have you fired at 

that bird? 
I have fired at it several times. 
I have heard a shot. 
He has heard the report of a pistol. 
We have heard a clap of thunder. 

The fist. 



To cast an eye upon some one or 

something. 
Have you cast an eye upon that 

book? 
I have east an eye upon it 



Has that man ^orte away ? 

He has gone away. 

Have your brothers gone away 7 

They have gone away. 

Tliey have not gone away. 

Have they gone away ? 

They were not willing to go away. 



Tirer 1. 

t Tirer uu coup de fusil. 

t Tirer un coup de pistolet. . 

t Tirer un coup de fusil sur quel« 

qu'un. 
t J'ai tir^ vax coup de fusil i eel 

oiseau. 
t J'ai tire deux coups de fusil, 
t J'ai tir6 trois coups de fusil, 
t J'ai tire quelques coups de fusil, 
t Combien de coups de fusil avez- 

vous tir(^s ? 
Combien de fois avez-vous tire sur cet 

oiseau ? 
J'ai tire plusieurs fois sur lui. 
+ J'ai entendu un coup de fusil, 
t II a entendu un coup de pistolet. 
+ Nous avons entendu un coup de 

tonnerre. 
Le poing. 



Jeter un coup d'ceil sm quelqu'un 

ou quelque chose. 
Avez-vous jete un coup d'oeil sur ce 

livre ? 
J'y ai jete un coup d'oeil. 



Cei i.x;imme s'en est-il alld ? 

II s'en est alle. 

Vos freres s'en sont-ils allds? 

lis s'en sont alles. 

lis ne s'en sont pas alles. 

S'en sont-ils alles ? 

lis n'ont pas voulu s'en aller. 



EXERCISES. 

148. 
Are you going away already 1 — I am not going yet. — When will 
that man go away ] — He will go presently. — Will you go away 
soon ] — I shall go away next Thursday. — When will your friends go 
away*? — They will go away next month. — When wilt thou go away 1 
■ — I will go away instantly. — Why has your father gone away so 



196 FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 

soon, {si tot ?) — He has promised his friend to be at his house at a 
quarter to nine, so that he v/ent away early in order to keep what he 
has promised. — When shall we go away 1 — We shall go away to- 
morrow. — Shall we start early ] — We shall start at five o'clock in 
the morning. — When will you go away 1 — I shall go away as soon as 
I have done writing,. — When will your children go away 1 — They 
will go as soon as they have done theii: exercises. — Will you go 
when {lorsque) I shall go ? — I shall go away when you go, {quand 
vous vous en irez.) — Will our neighbors soon go away 1 — They will 
go away when they have done speaking. — What will become of your 
son if he does not study 1 — If he does not study he will learn nothing. 
— What will become of you if you lose your money 1 — I do not know 
what will become of me. — What will become of your friend if he 
loses his pocket-book \ — I do not know what will become of him if 
he loses it. — What has become of your son ] — I do not know what 
has become of him. — Has he enlisted 1 — He has not enlisted. — What 
vv'ill become of us if our friends go away 1 — I do not know what will 
become of us if they go away. — What has become of your relations 1 
— They have gone away. 

149. 

Do you intend buying a horse ^ — I cannot buy one, for I have not 
yet received my money. — Must I go to the theatre ■? — You must not 
go thither, for it is very bad weather. — Why do you not go to my 
brother ■? — It does not suit me to go to him, for I cannot yet pay him 
what I owe him. — Why does your servant give that man a cut with 
his knife 1 — He gives him a cut, because the man has given him a 
blow with the fist. — W^hich of these two pupils begins to speak ] — 
The one who is studious begins to speak. — What does the olher do 
who is not so 1 — He also begins to speak, but he knows neither how 
to write nor to read. — Does he not listen to v.-hat you tell him ! — He 
does not listen to it, if I do not give him a beating, {de coups.) — 
Why do those children not work 1 — Their master has given them 
blows with his fist, so that they will not work. — ^Wh};- has he given 
them blows with his fist ^ — Because they have been disobedient. — 
Have you fired a gun 1 — I have fired three times. — At what did you 
fire "? — I fired at a bird. — Have you fired a gun at that man ? — I 
have fired a pistol at him. — Why have you fired a pistol at him ] — 
Because he has given me a srab with his knife. — How many times 
have you fired at that bird'? — I have fired at it twice. — Have you 
killed it ] — I have killed it at the second shot, {au deiixieme coup.) 
Have you kiLed that bird at the first shot, {du premier coup T) — I 
have killed bun at the fourth, {du quatrieme.) — Do you fire at the 



FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 197 

birds which you see upon the trees, or at those which you see in the 
gardens 1 — I fire neither at those which I see upon the trees nor at 
those which I see in the gardens, but at those which I perceive on 
the castle behind the wood. 

150. 

How many times have the enemies iired at nsl — They have fired 
at us several times. — Have they killed any one 1 — They have killed 
no one. — Have you a wish to fire at that bird ■? — I have a desire to 
fire at it. — Why do you not fire at those birds 1 — I cannot, for I have 
a sore finger. — When did the captain fire ■? — He fired when his 
soldiers fired. — How msny birds have you shot at 1 — I have shot at 
all that I have perceived, but I have killed none, because my gun is 
good for nothing. — Have you cast an eye upon that man ■? — I have 
cast an eye upon him. — Has he seen you ] — He has not seen me, for 
he has sore eyes. — Have you drunk of that wine 1 — I have drunk of 
it, and it has done me good. — What have you done with my book ] 
— I have put it upon your trunk. — Am I to answer you 1 — You will 
answer me when it comes to your turn. — Is it (est-ce) my brother's 
turn 1 — When it comes to his turn I shall ask him, for — each in his 
turn. — Have you taken a walk this morning ] — I have taken a walk 
round the garden. — ^Where is your uncle gone to 1 — He is gone to 
take a walk. — Why do you run 1 — I run because I see my best 
friend. — Who runs behind us 1 — Our dog runs behind us. — Do you 
perceive that bird 1 — I perceive it behind the tree. — Why have your 
brothers gone away ] — They have gone away, because they did not 
wish to be seen by the man whose dog they have killed. (See end 
of Lesson XXIV.) 



FORTY-NINTH LESSO]^ .—Quarante-neuvicme Legon 



To hear oj. 
Have you heard of your brother ? 

I have heard of him. 

Is it Icng since you breakfasted ? 

How long is it since you breakfasted 1 



Entendre parler. 

t Avez-vous entendu parler de votre 

frfere ? 
+ J'en ai entendu parler. 
+ Y a-t-il long-temps que vous avez 

dejeune? 
t Conibien de temps y a-t-il que vous 

avez deje,une ? 



Ohs. A. The impersonal ily a cannot be rendered into English by there i&i 
there are, when it is used in reply to the question : How long is it since ? 



198 



FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 



It is not long since I breakfasted. 

It is a great while since. 
It is a sKort time since. 
How long is it since you heard of 
your brother ? 

It is a year since I heard of him. < 



t II n'y a pas long-temps que j'ai 
dejeune. 

t II y a tres long-temps que. 

t II y a peu de temps que. 

t Combien de temps y a-t-il que vous 
avez entendu parler de votre frfere ? 

t II y a vin an que j'ai entendu par- 
ler de lui. 

t II y a un an que j'en ai entendu 
parler. 



I t II n'y a qu'un an que. 
I t II y a plus d'un an que. 

Obs. B. Than, before a cardinal number, is rendered by de. 



It is only a year since. 

It is more than a year since 



More than nine. 

More than twenty times. 

It is hardly six months since. 

A few hours ago. 

Half an hour ago. 

Two years ago. 

Two hoiurs and a half i 

A fortnight ago. 

A fortnight. 



Plus de neuf. 

Plus de vingt fois. 

t II y a k peine six mois que. 

t II y a quelques heures. 

t II y a uue demi-heure. 

t II y a deux ans. 

t II y a deux heures et demie, (see 

Note 2, Lesson XIX.) 
t II y a quinze joius. 
t Quinze jours.' 



Have you been long in France ? 



t Y a-t-0 long-temps que tous etes en 
France ? 



Obs. C. In English the state of existence or of action, when in its dura- 
tion, is always expressed in the preterperfect tense, while in French it ia 
expressed by the present tense. 

He has been in Paris these three 

years. 
I have been living here these two 

years. 



n y a trois ans qu'il est k Paris. 
II y a deux ans que je demeure ici. 



Obs D. De temps is often not expressed, but understood. Ex. 



How long have you had that horse ? 
I hare had it these five years. 



Combien y a-t-il que vous avez cc 
cheval? (Instead of combien dc 
temps y a-t-il.) 

II y a cinq ans que je I'ai. 



^ Literally, fifteen days. 



FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 



199 



How long, (since when ?) 
How long has he been here ? 
These three days. 
This month. 
I have seen him more than twenty 

times. 
It is six months since I spoke to him 

06s. E. When que means depuis que, il y a must be followed by the 
negative ne. In such instances the English use no negative. 



Depuis quand? 

Depuis quand est-il ic' ? 

Depuis trois jours. 

Depuis un mois. 

Je I'ai vu plus de vmgt fois. 

II y a six mois que je ne lui ai parle. 



Since I saw you it has rained very 

often. 
It is more than a year since I heard 

of him. 



Depuis que je ne vous ai vu il a plu 

tres-souvent, 
II y a plus d'un an que je n'en ai en- 

tendu parler. 



To have just. 
I have just seen your brother. 



Venir * 2 de. 

t Je viens de voir votre frfere. 



Ohs. F. To express an action recently past, we often make use of the 
verb venir * immediately followed by the preposition de, and the infinitive. 



He has just done writing. 

The men have just arrived. 

Has that man been waiting long ? 

He has but jusf jome. 

To do one's best 
I will do my best. 
He will do his best. 



t II vient d'ecrire. 

t Les homraes vieiment d'arriver. 

t Y a-t-il long-temps que cet liomme 

attend? 
t II ne fait que d'arriver. 



t Fairs de son mieux. 
t Je ferai de mon mieux. 
t II fera de son mieux. 



To spend money. 
How much have you spent to-day ? 

He has fifty crowns a month to live 
upon. 



Depenser 1. 

Combien avez-vous d^pens^ aujour- 

d'hui? 
II a cinquante 6cus par mois k de- 
penser. 



Have the horses been found ? j Les chevaux ont-ils 6t6 trouv^s ? 

ITT The passive participle agrees with the nominative in number ; that isj 
when the nominative is plural, the participle takes an s. 

They have been found. 

Where? When? 
The men have been seen. 
Our children have been praised and 



lis out 6t6 trouv^s. 

Oil? Quand? 

Les honimes ont 6t6 vus. 

Nos enfants ont 6t6 lou^s et i-^com- 



200 



FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 



rewarded, because they have been 

good and studious. 
By whom have they been rewarded ? 
By whom have we been blamed ? 



penses, parce qu'ils ont 6t6 sagee et 

aso'Aiis. 
De qui ont-ils ete recompenses 1 
De qui avoiis-uous ete blames? 



To pass. 
Before. 



Passer 1. 
Devant. 



Obs. G. Before is expressed in French by avant when it denotes priority 
(see Lesson XXVIII.,) and by devant, when it signifies in presence of. Ex 



To pass before some one. 
To pass before a place. 
A place. 
I liave passed before the tlieatre. 
He has passed before me. 



Passer devant quelqu'un. 
Passer devant un endroit. 
Un endroit. 

J'ai passe devant le theatre. 
II a passe devant moi. 



To spend time in something. 
What do you spend your time in ? 
I spend my time in studying. 
What has he spent his time in ? 
What shall we spend our time in ? 

To miss, to fail. 



The merchant has failed to bring the 

money. 
You have missed your turn. 
You have failed to come to me this 



Passer le temps a quelque chose. 
t A quoi passez-vous le temps ? 
t Je passe le temps a etudier. 
t A quoi a-t-il passe le temps? 
t A quoi passerons-nous le temps ? 



Manquer 1, (takes de before the in- 
finitive.) 

Le marchand a manque d'apportei 
I'argent. 

Vous avez manque votre tour. 

Vous avez manque de venir chez 
moi ce matin. 



To he good for something. 
Of what use is tliat ? 
It is good for notliing. 

The good-for-nothing fellow. 
Is the gun which you have bought a 

^cod one? 

No, it is worth nothing, (good for ' Nou, il ne vaut rien 
nothing.) I 



t Eire hon a quelque chose. 
+ A quoi cela est-il bon ? 
t Cela n'est bon &. rien. 
Le vauricu. 

Le fusil que vous avez adiet^ eet-i! 
bon ? 



To throw away. 
Have you thrown away any thing? 
I have not tlirown away any thing. 



Jeter 1, {rejeter.) 

Avez-vous jet^ quelque chose 1 

Je n'ai rien jet6. 



FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 201 



EXERCISES. 



151. 

Have you heard of any one 1 — I have not heard of any one, for 1 
have not gone out this morning. — Have you not heard of the man 
who has killed a soldier 1 — I have not heard of him. — Have you heard 
of my brothers 1 — I have not heard of them. — Of whom has youi 
cousin heard ] — He has heard of his friend who is gone to America. 
— Is it long since he heard of him 1 — It is not long since he heard 
of him. — How long is it 1 — It is only a month. — Have you been long 
in Paris 1 — These three years. — Has your brother been long in Lon- 
don 1 — He has been there these ten years. — How long is it since you 
dined ] — It is long since I dined, but it is not long since I sup- 
ped. — How long is it since you supped 1 — It is half an hour. — How 
long have you had these books 1 — I have had them these three 
months. — How long is it since your cousin set out ] — It is more than 
a year since he set out. — What is become of the man who has lent 
you money 1 — I do not know what is become of him, for it is a 
great while since (que je ne) I saw him. — Is it long since you heard 
{que vous ii'avez entendu parler) of the soldier who gave your friend 
a cut with the knife 1 — It is more than a year since I heard of him. 
— How long have you been learning French ? — I have been learning 
it only these two months. — Do you know already how to speak it 1 — 
You see that I am beginning to speak it. — Have the children of the 
English noblemen been learning it long 1 — They have been learning 
it these three years, and they do not yet begin to speak. — Why do 
they not know how to speak it 1 — They do not know how to speak 
it, because they are learning it badly. — Why do they not learn it 
well ? — They have not a good master, so that they do not learn it 
well. 

152. 

Is it long since you saw the young man who learned German with 
(chez) the master with whom we learned it ■? — I have not seen him 
for nearly a year. — How long is it since that child ate 1 — It ate a few 
minutes ago. — How long is it since those children drank "? — They 
drank a quarter of an hour ago. — How long has your friend been in 
Spain "? — ^^He has been there this month. — How often have you seen 
the king, (Ze roi ?) — I saw- him more than ten times when I was in 
Paris. — When did you meet my brother 1 — I met him a fortnight ago. 
— Where did you meet him ■? — I met him before the theatre. — Did 
he do you any harm 1 — He did me no harm, for he is a very good 
boy. — Where are mv eloves 1 — They (on) have thrown them away. 



202 FORTY-NINTH LESSON. 

' — Have the horses been found 1 — They have been found. — T7here 
have they been found ] — They have been found behind the wood, on 
this side of the road. — Have you been seen by anybody 1 — I have 
been seen by nobody. — Do you expect any one 1 — I expect my cousin 
the captain. — Have you not seen him 1 — I have seen him this morn- 
ing ; he has passed before my warel»use. — What does this young 
man wait for 1 — He waits for money. — Art thou waiting for any 
thing 1 — I am waiting for my book. — Is this young man waiting for 
his money 1 — He is waiting for it. — Has the king passed here, {par 
ici ?) — He has not passed here, (par id,) but before the theatre. — 
Has he not passed before the castle ■?— He has passed there, but I 
have not seen him. 

153. 
What do you spend your time in 1 — I spend my time in studying. 
■ — What does your brother spend his time in 1 — He spends his time 
in reading and playing. — Does this man spend his time in working T 
■ — He is a good-for-nothing fellow ; he spends his time in drinking 
and playing. — What do your children spend their time in ] — They 
spend their time in learning. — Can you pay me what you owe me'' 
— I cannot pay it you, for the merchant has failed to bring me my 
mon-ey. — Why have you breakfasted without me 1 — You failed to 
come at nine o'clock, so that we have breakfasted v.ithout you. — Has 
the merchant brought you the gloves which you bought at his house, 
{chez lui ?) — He has failed to bring them to me. — Has he sold them to 
you on credit 1 — He has sold them to me, on the contrary, for cash. — 
Do you know those men 1 — I do not know them ; but I believe that 
they are (ce so?ii) good-for-nothing fellows, for they spend their time 
in playing. — Why did you fail to come to my father this morning 1 — 
The tailor did not bring me the coat which he promised me, so that 
I could not go to him. — Who is the man who has just spoken to you ? 
— He is a merchant. — What has the shoemaker just brought ? — He 
has brought the shoes which he has made us. — Who are the men 
that have just arrived 1 — They are Russians. — Where did your uncle 
dine yesterday 1 — He dined at home. — How much did he spend ? — ■ 
He spent five francs. — How much has he a month to live upon I — 
He has two hundred francs a month to live upon. — Do you throw 
ye,ur hat away 1 — I do not throw it away, for it fits me very well. — 
How much have you spent to-day '? — I have not spent much ; I have 
spent only two francs. — Do you spend every day as much as that ? — 
I sometimes spend more than that. — Has that man been waiting 
long ■? — He has but just come. — What does he wish ! — He wishes to 
sneak to vou. — A.re you willinff to do that ' — T am willing to do it. — 



FIFTIETH LESSON. 



203 



Shall you be able (Lesson XLVI.) to do it well 1 — I will do my best. 
— Will this man be able to do that 1 — He will be able to do it, for he 
will do his best. 



FIFTIETH LESSON.— Cinqua7itieme Legon 



Loin. 

Quelle distance 1 



Far 
How far, (meaning what distance 7) 

Ohs. The imperbonal il y a cannot be rendered into English by there ia 
there are, when it is used in reply to the question, How far ? Quelle dis 
tance ? 



How far is it from here to Paris ? 
Is it far from here to Paris ? 
It is far. 
It is not far. 
How many miles is it ? 
It is twenty miles. 

A mile. 
It is almost two hundred miles from 

nere to Paris. 
It is nearly a hundred miles from 
Berlin to Vienna. 



From. 
From Venice. 
From London. 
I am from Paris. 
What countryman are you ? 
Ai"e you from France ? 
I am. 

The Parisian. 
He is a Parisian, (from Paris ) 
The king. 
The philosopher. 
The preceptor, the tutor. 
The professor. 
I^e landlord, the innkeeper 



Are you an Englishman ? 
Whence do you come ? 
I come from Paris. 



Quelle distance y a-t-il d'ici k Paris 1 

y a-t-il loin d'ici &, Paris ? 

II y a loin. 

II n'y a pas loin. 

Combien de milles y a-t-il ? 

II y a vingt rallies. 

Un mille. 

II y a pr^s de deux cents milles d'ici i 

Paris. 
II y a enriron cent milles de Berlin iJ 

Vienne. 



Be. 

De Venise. 

De Londres. 

Je suis de Paris. 

t De quel pays etes-voub i 

fites-vous de France? 

J'en suis. 

Le Parisien. 

1 1! est Parisien. 

Le roi. 

Le philosophe. 

Le precepteur. 

Le professeur. 

L'aubergiste. 



fites-vous Anglais? 
D'oii venez-vous? 
Je viens de Faria. 



204 



FIFTIETH LESSON. 



To fly, to run away. | S'enfuir * 2 ; pres. part, fuyant 
' past part. fui. 
1 run away, thou runnest away, he Je m'enfuis, tu t'enfuLs, il s'enfuit 
runs away. 



Why do you fly? 

I fly because I am afraid. 

To assure. 
1 assure you that he is arrived 

To hear. 



Have you heard nothing new ? 
.1 have heard nothinjr new. 



To happen. 

The happiness, fortune. 

The unhappiness, misfortune. 
A great misfortune lias happened. 
He has met with a great misfortune. 
What has happened to you ? 
Nothing has happened to me. 
I have met with your brother. 



The poor man. 

I have cut his finger. 
You have broken the man's neck. 
To pity. 

I pity,' thou pitiest, he pities. 

Do you pity tliat man ? 

I pity him with all my heai-t. 

With all my heart. 



Pourquoi vous enfuyez-vous ? 
Je m'enfuis parce que j'ai peur. 



Assurer 1. 

Je vous assure qu'il est arrive. 



t Apprendre *, (is conjugated like 
its primitive prendre *, Lessen 
XXXIV.) 

t N'avez-vous rien appris de nou- 

veau ? 
t Je n'ai rien appris de nouveau. 



Arriver 1. 

Le bonheur. 

Le malheur. 

II est arrive un grand malheur. 

t II lui est arrive un grand malheur. 

Que vous est-il arrive ? 

II ne m'est rien arrive. 

J'ai rencontre votre frere. 



Le pauvre homme. (See Xote 1. 

Lesson XXVI.) 
t Je lui ai coup^ le doigt. 
t Vous avez cass^ le cou h. I'homme 
Plaindre * 4 ; pres. part plaignant 

past part, plaint. 
Je plains, tu plains, il plaint. 
Plaignez-vous cet homme ? 
Je le plains de tout mon coeur. 
t De tout mon cceur. 



To complain. 
Do you complain ? 
I do not complain. 
Do you complain of my friend ? 
I do complain of him. 
I do not complain of hun 



t Se plaindre * 4. 

t Vous plaignez-vous ? 

t Je ne me plains pas. 

Vous plaignez-vous de mon ami 7 

Je m'en plains. 

Je ne m'en plains pas. 



FIFTIETH LESSON. 



205 



To dare. 

To spoil, to damage. 

To serve, to wait upon. 

Dost thou wait upon, (serve ?) 

I do wait upon, (I serve.) 

He waits upon, (he serves.) 

Do you wait upon, (do you serve ?) 

To serve some one, to wait upon 

some one. 
Has he been in your service ? 
Has he served you ? 

How long has he been in your ser- 
vice ? 

■ The service 



To offer 

Do you offer ? 
I do offer. 
Thou offerest. 
He offers. 



To confide, to trust with, to intrust. 
Do you trust me with your money 1 
I do trust you with it. 
I have intrusted that man with a se- 
cret. 

The secret. 
To keep any thing secret. 
I have kept it secret. 



Oser 1. 

Gdter 1. 

Servir * 2 ; pres. part, set vant pust 

part, servi. 
Sers-tu? 
Je sers. 
II sert. 

Servez-vous ? 
Servir quelqu'un. 

A-t-il 6t6 h, votre service ? 

Vous a-t-il servi ? 

t Combien y a-t-il qu'il vous sert ? 

t Combien y a-t-il qu'il est k votre 
[_ service ? 
I Le sei-vice. 



Offrir * 2 ; pres. part, offrant ; past 

part, offcrt. 
Offrez-vous ? 
J'offre. 
Tu ofires. 
II offte. 



Confier 1. 

Me confiez-vous votre argent ? ■ 

Je vous le confie. 

J'ai confie un secret &, cet homme. 

Le secret. 

t Garder le secret de quelque chose. 

t J'en ai garde le secret. 



To take care of something. 

Do you take care of your clothes 1 

1 do take care of them. 

Will you take care of my horse 1 

I will take care of it. 

To leave. 

To squander, to dissipate. 
He has squandered all his wealth 



> de quelque chose 



Avoir * soin, 

Prendre * soin, 

Avez-vous soin de vos habits ? 

J'en ai soin 

Voulez-vou3 prendre soin de mon 

cheval ? 
Je veux en prendre soin. 
Laisser 1. 
Dissiper 1. 
II a dissipe tout son bien 



30(3 



FIFTIETH LESSON. 



To hinder, to prevent. ( Empiclter I, (takes de before the 
To keep from. ( infinitive ) 

You hinder me from sleeping. | t Vous m'empechez de dormir 



To purchase. 

What have you purchased to-day ? 

I liave purcliased two handliercliiefs. 

Have you purchased any thing to- 
day ? 



Fairs emplette, (a feminine noun ' 
takes de before the substantive.) 

Faire des emplettes. 

t De quoi avez-vous fait emplette 
aujourd'hui ? 

t J'ai fait emplette de deiix mou- 
choirs. 

Avez-vous fait des emplettes au- 
jourd'hui ? 



Most lovely, charming 

Admirably. 
That hat fits you admirably. 
That coat fits him very well. 

It is charming. 



Charmant, (an adjective,) tr&s-bien 

extremement bien, (adverbs.) 
A merveille, (an adverb.) 
Ce chapeau vous va k merveille. 
Cet habit lui va trfes-bien. 
C'est charmant. 



EXERCISES. 
154. 
How far is it from Paris to London 1 — It is nearly two hundred 
miles from Paris to London. — Is it far from here to Berlin ■? — It is 
far. — Is it far from here to Vienna I — It is almost a hundred and fifty 
miles from here to Vienna. — Is it farther from Paris to Blois than 
from Orleans to Paris 1 — It is farther from Orleans to Paris than 
from Paris to Blois. — How far is it from Paris to Berlin"? — It is al- 
most a hundred and thirty miles from Paris to Berlin. — Do j'ou in- 
tend to go to Paris soon 1 — I intend to go thither soon. — Vfiij do 
you wish to go this time, (cette fois ?) — In order to buy good books 
and good gloves there, and to see my good friends.— Is it long since 
you were there 1 — It is nearly a year since I was there. — Do j'ou 
not go to Italy this year, {cette annee ?) — I do not go thither, fox it 
is loo far from here to Italy. — Who are the men that have just ar- 
rived ] — They are philosophers. — Of what country are they ? — They 
are from London. — Who is the man who has just started ] — He is an 
Englishman, who has squandered away (dissipe) all his fortune {tout 
son Men) in France. — What countryman are you? — I am a Span- 
iard, and my friend is an Italian. — Are you from Tom-s? — Xo, I am 
a Parisian, — How mucli money have your ehildi-en spent to-day ? — 
They have spent but little ; they have spent but one crown. — Where 



FIFTIETH LESSON. 207 

did you dine yesterday 1 — I dined at the innkeeper's. — Did you spend 
much 1 — I spent a crown and a half. — Has the king- passed here 
(par ici ?) — He has not passed here, but before the theatre. — Have 
you seen him ? — I have seen him. — Is it the first time {la premiere 
fois que) you have seen him] — It is not the first time, for I have 
seen him more than twenty times. 

155. 

Why does that man run away 1 — He runs away, because he is 
afraid. — Why do you run away ] — I run away because I am afraid. 
— Of whom are you afraid? (Lesson XLIII.) — I am afraid of the 
man who does not love me. — 5s he your enemy 1 — I do not know 
whether he {sHl) is my enemy ; but I fear all those who do not love 
me, for if they do me no harm, they will do me no good. — Do you 
fear my cousin 1 — I do not fear him, for he has never done anybody 
harm. — You are in the wrong to run away before that man, for I as- 
sure you that he is (que c'est) a very good man, (hrave homme,) who 
has never done harm to any one. — Of whom has your brother heard ] 
— He has heard of a man to whom a misfortune has happened. — 
Why have your scholars not done their exercises ] — I assure you 
that they have done them, and you are mistaken if you believe that 
they have not done them. — What have you done with my book ? — I 
assure you that I have not seen it. — Has your son had my knives ■? 
— He assures me that he has not had them. — Has your uncie arrived 
already ] — He has not arrived yet. — Will you wait till he returns 1 — 
I cannot wait, for I have a good deal (beaucoup) to do. — ^Have you 
not heard any thing new 1 — I have heard nothing new. — Has the 
king arrived ? — They say that he has arrived. — What has happened 
to you ■? — A great misfortune has happened to me. — What, (lequel ?) 
— I have met with my greatest enemy, who has given me a blow 
with a stick.* — Then I pity you with all my heart. — Why do you pity 
that man 1 — I pity him because you have broken his neck. — Why do 
V'ou complain of my friend 1 — I complain of him because he has cut 
my finger. — Does that man serve you well ] — He does serve me 
well, but he spends too much. — Are you willing to take this servant T 
— I am willing to take him, if he will serve me. — Can I take that 
servant 1 — You can take him, for he has served me very well. — How 
long is it since he is out of (hors de) your service % — It is but two 
months since. — Has he served you long ] — He has served me foi 
(pendant) six years. 

156 

Do you ofier me any thing ? — I have nothing to (a) ofiier you. — 
What does my fi-iend offer you ? — He ofifers me a book. — Have the 



208 FIFTY-FIRST LESSON. 

Parisians offered you any thing 1 — They have offered me wine, bread 
and good beef. — Why do you pity our neighbor 1 — I pity him, be- 
cause he has trusted a merchant of (de) Paris with his money, and 
the man {et que celui-ci) will not return it to him. — Do you trust this 
man with any thing ] — I do not trust him with any thing. — Has he 
already kept any thing from you ] — I have never trusted hirn with 
any thing, so that he has never kept any thing from me. — Will you 
trust my father with your money 1 — I will trust him with it. — With 
what secret has my son intrusted you'? — I cannot intrust you with 
that with which he has intrusted me, for he has desired me {ni'aprie) 
'to keep it secret. — Whom do you intrust with your secrets % — I in- 
trust nobody with them, so that nobody knows them. — Has your 
brother been rewarded ■? — He has, on the contrary, been punished ; 
but I beg you (prier) to keep it secret, for no one knows it. — TMiat 
has happened to him 1 — I will tell you what has happened to him, if 
you promise me to keep it secret. Do you promise me to keep it se- 
cret ] — I do promise you, for I pity him with all my heart. — Wni you 
take care of my clothes 1 — I will take care of them. — Are you taking 
care of the book which I lent you 1 — I am taking care of it. — ^^'Mio 
will take care of my servant 1 — The landlord will take care of him. 
■ — Do you throw away your hat 1 — I do not throv/ it awa}^, for it fit? 
me admirably. — Does your friend sell his coat ] — He does not sell it 
for it fits him most beautifully. — Who has spoiled my book ■? — Xo one 
has spoiled it, because no one has dared to touch it, (Ze toucher.) 



FIFTY-FIRST h'ESS01<i.—Cinquante et iinieme Legoru 



Le monde viendra-t-il bient6t? 

Bientot. 

Un violon. 



Will the people come soon ? 

Soon, very soon. 

A violin. 

To play upon the violin. } , ^ 

™ 1 xi • 1- > t Jouer du vioIon. 

1 o play the viohn. y 

Ohs. When a musical instrument is spoken of, the verb joucr, to play, 
governs the genitive, but tlie dative when a game is spoken of. Ex. To 

play at cards, jower aux cartes; to play at chess, jouer aux echecs. 

The harpsicliord. | Le clavecin. 

To play the harpsichord. ) , -r , , 

rri , .11 ■ 1 J ^ t Jouer du clavecm. 

10 play upon the harpsichord y 

What instrument do yon play 1 | t De quel instrument jouez-vous ? 

To touch. I Toucher 1 



FIFTY-FIRST LESSON. 



209 



Near. 

Near me. 

Near them. 

Near the fire. 

Near the trees. 

Near going. 
Wliero do you live ? 
I hve near the castle. 
What are you doing near the fire ? 



To dance. 
To fall. 

To drop, (meaning to let fall.) 
Has he dropped any thing ? 
He has not dropped any thing. 

To retain, to hold back. 



Pres de. 

Pres de moi. 

Pres d'eux. 

Prfes du feu. 

Pres des arbres. 

Pres d'aller. 

Oil demeurez-vous? 

Je demeure pres du cliAteau. 

Que faites-vous pres du feu ? 



Danser 1. 

Tomber 1, (takes etre for its aux- 
iliary.) 
Laisser tomber. 

A-t-il laisse tomber quelque chose ? 
II n'a rieii laiss6 tomber. 



Retenir * 2, (is conjugated like fe- 

nir *, Less. XL.) 



To approach, to draw near. 

Do you approach the fire ? 

I do approach it. 

To approach, to have access to one. 

He is a man difficult of access. 

I go away (withdraw) from the fire. 
To withdraw from. 
To go away from. 
I go away from it. 
Why does that man go away from 

the fire ? 
He goes away from it because he is 
not cold. 



S'approcher 1, (governs the geni- 
tive.) 

Vous approchez-vous du feu? 

Je m'en approche. 

Approcher quelqu^un. 

C'est un homme qu'on ne peut ap- 
procher. 

Je m'eloigne du feu. 

S'eloigner 1, (governs the genitive.) 

Je m'en eloigne. 

Pourquoi cet homme s'eloigne-t-il du 

feu? 
II s'en eloigne parce qu'il n'a pas 

froid. 



To recollect. 



Do you recollect that? 

I do recollect it. 

Does your brother recollect that ? 

He does recollect it. 

Do you recollect the words ? 



t Se rappeler 1, (governs the accu- 
sative. See Obs. Less. XXXIII , 
on the doubling of the letter I 
when it is followed by e mute.) 

Vous rappelez-vous cela? 

Je me le rappelle. 

Votre frero se rappelle-t-il celal 

II se le rappelle. 

Vous rappelez-vous les mots? 



210 



FIFTY-FIRST LESSON. 



I do recollect them. 

Have you recollected the words ? 

I have recollected them. 

I have not recollected them. 

Have you recollected them ? 

You have recollected them. 

Has he recollected them ? 

He has recollected them. 

We have recollected them. 

They have recollected them. 



To remember, to recollect. 



Do you remember that man ? 
I do remember him. 
Do you remember that? 
I do remember it. 
What do you remember ? 
I remember nothing. 

To sit down. 

Are you sitting down ? 
I am sitting down. 
Thou art sitting down. 
He is sitting down. 
I shall or will sit down. 

He sits near the fire. 

He is sitting near the fire. 



Je me les rappelle. 

Vous etes-vous rappel^ les mots? 

Je me les suis rappeles. 

Je ne me les suis pas rappeles. 

Vous les etesrvous rappeles? 

Vous vous les etes rappeles. 

Se les est-il rappeles? 

II se les est rappeles. 

Nous nous les sommes rappeles. 

lis se les sont rappeles. 



To like better, to prefer 
Do you like to stay here better than 

going out ? 
I like staying here better than going 

out. 
He likes to play better than to study. 
Do you like to write better than to 

speak ? 
I like to speak better than to write. 
Better than. 



Se souvenir * 2, or 

Se ressouvenir * 2, (govern the gen- 
itive ; are conjugated like venir *, 
their primitive. Lessons XXIV. & 

. XXXIV.) 

Vous souvenez-vous de cet horame ? 

Je m'en souviens. 

Vous souvenez-vous de cela? 

Je m'en souviens. 

De quoi vous souvenez-vous ? 

Je ne me souviens de rien. 



t S'asseoir * ; pres. part, s'asseyant 

past part, assis. 
Vous asseyez-vous ? 
Je m'assieds. 
Tu t'assieds. 
II s'assied. 
Je m'assierai, or je m'asseierai. (See 

Lesson XLVI.) 

II est assis prfes du feu. 



Airner mieux. 

Aimez-vous mieux raster ici que de 

sortir? 
J'aime mieux rester ici que do sortir. 

II aime mieux jouer que d'^tudier 
Aimez-vous mieux ^crire que de par^ 

ler? 
J'aime mieux parler que d'dcrire 
Mieux — que de. 



FIFTY-FIRST LESSON. 



211 



He likes to do both 

1 like beef better than mutton. 

Do you like bread better than cheese? 

I like iieitJier the one nor the other 
I like tea as much as coffee. 

Just as much. 

Some veal. 

A calf, calves. 



. Quick, fast. 
Slow, slowly. 
Aloud. 
Does your master speak aloud ? 
He speaks aloud. 

In order to learn French one must 
speak aloud. 

Quicker, faster. 
Not so quick, less quick. 
As fast as you. 
He eats quicker than I. 
Do you fearn as fast as I ? 
I learn faster than you. 
I do not understand you because 
you speak too fast. 



To sell cheap- 
To sell dear. 
Does he sell cheap ? 
He does not sell dear. 
He has sold to me very dear. 

So. 
This man sells every thing so dear, 
that one cannot buy any thing of 
him. 
You speak so fast that I cannot un- 
derstand you. 
To buy something of some one. 
I have bought it of him. 



II aime k faire I'un et I'autie. 
J'aime mieux le boeuf que le mouton 
Aimez-vous mieux le pain que le 

from age? 
Je n'aime ni I'un nl 1' autre. 
J'aime tout autant le th^ que lo cafd 
Tout autant. 
Du veau. 
Un veau, des veaux 



Vite. 

Lentement. 

Haul or a haute voix. 

Votre maitre parle-t-il haut? 

II parle haut. 

Pour apprendre le fran§ais, 11 faut 

parler haut. 
Plus vite. 

Pas si vite, moins vite. 
Aussi vite que vous. 
II mange plus vite que moi. 
Apprenez-vous aussi vite que moi ? 
J'apprends plus vite que vous. 
Je ne vous comprends pas parce que 

vous parlez trop vite. 



Vendre d bon marche. 
Vendre cher. 
Vend-il h. bon march^ ? 
II ne vend pas cher. 
II ni'a vendu fort cher. 
Si. 

Cet homme vend tout si cher, qu'ou 
ne peut rien acheter chez lui. 

Vous parlez si vite quo je ne puis vous 

coniprendre. 
Acheter quelque chose &. quelqu'un. 
Je le lui ai achete.^ 



' Acheter a quelqu^uji means to buy of or for some one. Ex. J'ai 
achete ce cheval a votre frere, I have bought that horse of youi brother ; 
i e. Jc Vai achete. de lui, I have bought it of him. Tai achete un gateau 



212 



FIFTV-rmST LESSON. 



So much so many. 
I have written so many notes that I 
cannot write any more- 



Do you fear to go out ? 
I do fear to go out. 
To run away, to fiy. 

Did you run away ? 

I did not run away. 

Why did that man run away ? 

He ran away because he was afraid. 

Who has run away ? 
He has run away. 



Tant. 

J'ai ecrit tant de billets, quo je ue 
puis plus en ecrire. 



Craignez-vous de sortir? 

Je Grains de sortir. 

Se sauver 1 ; s'cnfuir * 2. 

(Lesson L.) 
Vous et*s-vous sauve? 
Je ne me suis pas sauve. 
Pourquoi cet homme s'est-il sauv^ ? 
II s'est sauve parce qu'il a eu peur. 
Qui s'est enfui? 
Qui s'est sauve ? 
II s'est enfui. 
II s'est sauve. 



EXERCISES. 
157 
Do you play the violiQ ■? — I do not play the violin, but the harpsi- 
chord. — Shall we have a ball to-night ■? — We shall have one. — At 
what o'clock ■? — At a quarter to eleven. — What o'clock is it now 1 — 
It is almost eleven, and the people will soon come. — What instru- 
ment will you play,'? — I shall play the violin. — If you play the violin 
I shall play upon the harpsichord. — Are there to be {doit-il y avoir) 
a great many people at our ball 1 — There is to be a great man}-. — Will 
you dance \ — I shall dance. — Will your children dance 1 — They will 
dance if they please, {si cela leur convient, or si cela leur plait.) — 
In what do you spend your time in this country ? — I spend my time 
in playing on the harpsichord, and in reading. — In w-hat does your 
cousin divert himself] — He diverts himself in playing upon the vio- 
lin. — Does any one dance when you play \ — A great many people 
dance when I play. — Who "! — At first (d'abord) our children, then 
our cousins, at last our neighbors. — Do you amuse j'ourselves ]^I 
assure you that we amuse ourselves verj^ much. — Whom do you 
pity 1 — I pity your friend. — Why do you pity him ! — I pity him be- 
cause he is ill. — Has anybody pitied you l — Nobody has pitied me, 
because I have not been ill. — Do you offer me any thing ? — I offei 



a mon enfant, I have bought a cake for my child ; i. e. Je I'ai achete poiu 
lui, I have bought it for him. 



FIFTY-FIRST LESSON. 213 

you a fine gun. — What has my father offered you ? — He has offered 
me a fine book. — To whom have you offered your fine horses 1 — I 
have offered them to the English captain. — Dost thou offer thy pret- 
ty little dog to these children ] — I offer it to them, for I love them 
with all my heart. — Why have you given that boy a blow v.'ith your 
fist ■? — Because he hindered me from sleeping. — Has anybody hin- 
dered you from ■writing ] — Nobody has hindered me from writing, 
but I have hindered somebody from hurting your cousin. 

158. 

Have you dropped any thing 1 — I have dropped nothing, but my 
cousin dropped some money. — Who has picked it up ■? — Some men 
have picked it up. — Was it returned to him, {le lui a-t-on rendu 1) — 
It was returned to him, for those who picked it up did not wish to 
keep it. — Is it cold to-day ] — It is very cold. — Will you draw near the 
fire ] — I cannot draw near it, for I am afraid of burning myself. — 
Why does your friend go away from the fire ■? — He goes away from 
it because he is afraid of burning himself. — Art thou coming near the 
fire ? — I am coming near it, because I am very cold. — Do you go 
away from the fire "! — I do go av/ay from it. — Why do you go away 
from it ■? — Because I am not cold. — Are you cold or warm 1 — I am 
neither cold nor warm. — ^Why do your children approach the fire ■? — 
They approach it because they are cold. — Is anybody cold ] — Some- 
body is cold. — Who is cold 1 — The little boy, whose father has lent 
you a horse, is cold. — Why does he not warm himself? — Because 
his father has no money to buy wood. — Will you tell him to come tc 
me to warm himself! — I will tell him so, {le.) — Do you remember 
any thing % — I remember nothing. — What does your uncle recollect ? 
— He recollects what you have promised him. — What have I prom- 
ised him ? — You have promised him to go to France with him next 
winter. — I intend to do so, if it is not too cold. — Why do you with- 
draw from the fire ] — I have been sitting near the fire this hour and 
a half, so that I am no longer cold. — Does your friend not like to sit 
near the fire '\ — He likes, on the contrary, much (beaucoup) to sit near 
the fire, but only when he is cold. — May one approach your uncle 1 
— One may approach him, for he receives everybody. — ^Will you 
dit down 1 — I will sit down. — Where does your father sit down 1 — He 
aits down near me. — Where shall I sit down 1 — You may sit near me. 
— Do you sit down near the fire 1 — I do not sit down near the fire, 
for I am afraid of being toe warm. — Do you recollect my brother 1 — 
I do recollect him. 



214 . FIFTY-FIRST LESSON 

159. 

Do your parents recollect their old friends 1 — They do recollect 
them. — Do you recollect these words ] — I do not recollect them. 
— Have you recollected that] — I have recollected it. — Has your un- 
cle recollected those words 1 — He has recollected them. — Have I 
recollected my exercise 1 — You have recollected it. — Have you 
recollected your exercises 1 — I have recollected them, for I have 
learned them by heart ; and my brothers have recollected theirs, be- 
cause they have learned them by heart. — Is it long since you saw 
your friend from Paris 1 — I saw him a fortnight ago. — Do youi 
scholars like to learn by heart T — They do not like to learn by heart ; 
they like reading and writing better than learning by heart. — Do you 
like cider better than wine 1 — I like wine better than cider. — Does 
your brother like to play 1 — He likes to study better than to play. — 
Do you like veal better than mutton 1 — I like the latter better than 
the former. — Do you like to drink better than to eat 1 — I like to eat 
better than to drink ; but my uncle likes to drink better than to eat. 
— Does the Frenchman like fowl better than fish } — He likes fish 
better than fowl. — Do you like to write better than to speak 1 — I like 
to do both. — Do you like honey better than sugar 1 — I like neither. 
— Does your father like coffee better than tea 1 — He likes neither. — 
Can you understand me 1 — No, sir, for you speak too fast. — Will 
you be kind enough {avoir la bo7ite) not to speak so fast ] — I will nol 
speak so fast, if you will listen to me. 

160. 
Can you understand what my brother tells you 1 — He speaks so 
fast, that I cannot understand him. — Can your pupils understand you ' 
— They understand me when I speak slowly ; for in order to be un- 
derstood one must speak slowly. — Is it necessary to speak aloud to 
learn French 1 — It is necessary to speak aloud. — Does your master 
speak aloud '? — He does speak aloud and slow. — Why do you not 
buy any thing of that merchant 1 — He sells so dear that I cannot buy 
any thing of him. — Will you take me to another ! — I will take you 
to the son of the one whom you bought of last year, {Vannee passee.) 
— Does he sell as dear as this one 1 — He sells cheaper. — Do your 
children like learning Italian better than Spanish? — They do nol 
like to learn either ; they only lilve to learn French. — Do you like 
mutton? — I like beef better than mutton. — Do your children like 
cake better than bread 1 — They like both. — Has he read all the 
books which he bought 1 — He bought so many (taut) that he cannot 
read them all. — Do you wish to write some exercises 1 — I have 
written so many that I cannot write any more. — Why does that man 



FIFTY-SECOND LESSON. 



213 



run away 1 — He runs away because he is afraid — Will any one do 
him harm 1 — No one will do him harm ; but he dares not stay, be- 
cause he has not done his task, and is afraid of being punished. — Will 
iny one touch him 1 — No one will touch him, but he will be punished 
oy his master for not having {pour n'' avoir pas) done his task. (See 
end of Lesson XXIV.) 



FIFTY-SECOND LESSON. — Cinquante-deuxieme Legon. 



By the side of. 
To pass by the side of some one. 
I have passed by the side of you. 
Have you passed by the side of my 

brother ? 
I have passed by the side of him. 



M cote de. 

Passer h c6t6 de quelqu'un. 

J'ai passe a c6te de vous. 

Avez-vous passe &, cot^ de mon frfere ? 

J'ai passe &. cote de lui. 



Ohs. A. Prepositions formed with a, au, or aux, and a noun, require the 
genitive case after them ; almost all others require the accusative. 



To pass by a place. 
I have passed by the theatre. 
He has passed by the castle. 
You have passed- before my ware- 
house. 



To dare. 



I dare not go thither 

He dares not do it 

I did not dare to tell him so. 



To make use of, to use 

Do you use my horse ? 

I do use it. 

Does your father use it 1 

He does use it. 

Have you used my giui? 

I have used it. 



t Passer aupres d'un endroit. 
+ J'ai pass^ aupres du theS-tre. 
t II a passe aupres du chateau. 
Vous avez passe devant mon ma- 
gasui. 



Oser 1. 

(See Obs. A. Lesson XXX. on 
verbs not taking a preposition bo- 
fore the infinitive.) 

Je n'ose pas y aller. 

II n'ose pas le faire. 

Je n'ai pas ose le lui dire. 



t Se servir * 2, de. 
(See Lesson L.) 
Vous servez-vous de mon cheval ? 
Je m'en sers. 
Votre p6re s'en sert-il ? 
II s'en sert. 

Vous etes-vous servi de mon fusil T 
Je m'en suis servi. 



216 



FIFTY-SECOND LESSON. 



lis se sont servis de vos Uvres. 
lis s'en sont servis. 



They have used your books. 
They have used them. 

To instruct. I Instruire * 4 ; pres. part, insirui- 

I sant ; past peirt. instruit. 

I instruct, thou instructest, he in- J'instruis, tu instruis, il instruit. 
structs. I 



To teach. 
To teach some one something. 

He teaches me arithmetic. 

I teach you French. 

I have taught laim French. 

To teach some one to do somsthing. 

He teaches me to read. 
I teach him to write. 



The French master, (meaning the 
master of the French language.) 

The French master, (meaning that 
the master is a Frenchman, what- 
ever he teaches.) 



To shave. 
To get shaved. 
To dress. 
To undress. 
To dress one's self. 
To undress one's self. 
Have you dressed )'ourself ? 
I have not yet dressed myself. 
Have you dressed the child? 
I have dressed it. 

To undo. 



To get rid of. 
kxe you getting rid of your damaged 
sugar? 



Enseigner 1. Apprendre * 4. 
Enseigner quelque chose d quel- 

qu'un. 
II m'enseigne le calcul. 
Je vous enseigne le francais. 
Je lui ai enseigne le francais. 
Apprendre a quelqu'un dfaire quel' 

que chose. 
II m'apprend h Ih-e. 
Je lui apprends a ^crire. 



Le maitre de frangais. 
Le maitre frangais. 



Raser 1. 

t Se fairs raser. 

Habiller 1. 

Deshahiller 1. 

S'habiller 1. 

Se deshahiller 1. 

Vous etes-vous habill^ ? 

Je ne me suis pas encore habill^. 

Avez-vous habille Tenfant? 

Je I'ai habille. 



D if aire *. 

(Conjugated like its prunitive, Les- 
sons XXIV. aud XXXIII.-I 

Se d if aire * de. 

Vous defaites-vous de voire sucre 
avari^ ? 



FIFTY-SECOND LESSON. 



217 



I am getting rid of it. 

Did you get rid of your old sliip ? 

I did get rid of it. 



To "part with. 

The design, the intention. 

To intend or to have the intention. 

I intend to go thitlier. 

We have the mtention to do it. 

Do you intend to part with your 

horses ? 
[ have already parted with tliem. 
He has parted with his gun. 
Have you parted with (discharged) 

your servant ? 
I have parted with (discharged) him. 



2^0 get rid of some one. 
I did get rid of him. 
Did your father get rid of that man ? 

He did get rid of him. 



To wake. 
To awake. 



Je m'en ddfais. 

Vous etes-vous defait de votio vieux 

vaisseau ? 
Je m'en suia defait. 



t Se defaire * de. 

Le dessein. 

Avoir dessei?!, (takes de before the 

infinitive.^ 
J'ai dessein d'y aller. 
Nous avons dessein de le faire. 
Avez-vous dessein de vous defaire de 

vos chevaux ? 
Je m'en suis d6j&. defait. 
II s'est defait de son fusil. 
Vous etes-vous defait de votre domes- 

tique ? 
Je m'en suis defait. 



Se deharrasser de quelqu'un. 

Je me suis debarrasse de lui. 

Votre pere s'est-il d^barrass^ de cet 

homme ? 
II s'en est debarrassd. 



Eveiller 1. 
S'eveiller 1. 



Reveiller 1. 
Se. reveiller 1. 



Ohs. B. Eveiller means, to put an end to sleep ; reveiller, to interrupt 
sleep. The same distinction must be observed with respect to the reflectives, 
s'eveiller and se reveiller. lEx. 



I generally awake at six o'clock in 

the morning. 
My servant generally wakes me at 

six o'clock in the morning. 
A slight noise wakes me. 
A dream has waked me. 
I do not make a noise in order not 

to wake him. 



Je m'eveille ordinairement k six heures 

\ du matin. 

Mon domestique m'eveille ordinaire- 
ment k six heures du matin. 

Un bruit leger me reveille. 

Un songe m'a reveille. 

Je ne fais pas de bruit pour ne pas le 
reveiller. 



A dream. 
Generally. 



Un songe, un r^ve. 
Ordinairement. 



19 



218 



FIFTY-SECOND LESSON. 



Se conduire * 4.- (Less XXXIV,; 
Se comporter 1. 
Je me conduis bien. 
Comment se conduit-il ? 



Envers or vers. 

II se comporte mal envers cet homme. 

II s'est mal comnorte envers moL 



To come down. I Descendre 4. 

To alight from one's horse, to dis- | Descendre de cheval. 
momit I 

To conduct one's self. 
To behave. 
I conduct myself vf ell. 
How does he conduct himself ? 

Towards. 
He behaves ill towards that man. 
He has behaved ill towards me. 

To be worth while. 
Is it worth while "? 
It is worth while. 
Is it not worth while 
Is it worth while to do that ? 

Is it worth while to write to liim ? 
It is worth nothing. 

Is it better ? 

It is better. 

Will it be better? 

It will not be better. 

It is better to do this than that. 



+ Valoir la peine. 

t Cela vaut-ii la peine ? 

t Cela vaut la peine. 

t Cela ne vaut-il pas la peine? 

t Cela vaut-il la peine de le faire ? 

t Cela vaut-il la peine de lui ecrire ^ 

t Est-ce la peine de lui ecrire ? 

Cela ne vaut rien. 



It is better to stay here than go a 
walking. 



t Vaut-il mieux ? 

t II vaut mieux. 

t Vaudra-t-il mieux ? 

t II ne vaudra pas mieux. 

t II vaut mieux faire ceci que de faire 

cela. 
t II vaut mieux rester ici que de se 

promener. 



EXERCISES. 

161. 
Have your books been found 1 — They have been found. — 'S^Tiere ? 
— Under the bed. — Is my coat on the bed ? — It is under it. — Are 
your brother's stockings under the bed 1 — They are upon it. — Have 
I been seen by anybody 1 — You have been seen b}- nobody. — Have 
you passed by anybody 1 — I passed by the side of you and you did 
not see me. — Has anybody passed by the side of you ? — Nobody has 
passed by the side of me. — Where has your son passed? — He has 
passed by the theatre. — Shall you pass by the castle 1 — I shall pass 
there. — Wh)^ have you not cleaned my trunk ? — I was afraid to soil 
my fingers. — Has my brother's servant cleaned his master's guns ? — 



FIFTY-aECOND LESSON. 219 

He has cleaned them. — Has he not been afraid to soil his fingers ? 
— He has not been afraid to soil them, because his fingers are never 
clean, (propre.) — Do you use the books which I have lent you 1 — I 
do use them. — May I (puis-je) use your knife 1 — Thou mayest use 
it, but thou must not cut thyself. — May my brothers use your books 1 
— They may use them. — May we use your gun "? — You may use it, 
but you must not spoil it. — What have you done with my wood ? — I 
have used it to warm myself. — Has your father used my horse ? — 
He has used it. — Have our neighbors used our clothes 1 — They have 
not used them, because they did not want them. — Who has used my 
hat ] — Nobody has used it. — Have you told your brother to come 
down 1 — I did not dare to tell liim. — Why have you not dared to tell 
him 1 — Because I did not wish to wake him. — Has he told you not 
to wake him 1 — He has told me not to wake him when he sleeps. 

162. 

Have you shaved to-day 1 — I have shaved, — Has your brother 
shaved 1 — He has not shaved himself, but he got shaved. — Do you 
shave often 1 — I shave every morning, and sometimes also in the 
evening. — When do you shave in the evening ■? — When I do not dine 
at home. — How many times a day does your father shave 1 — He 
shaves only once a day, but my uncle shaves twice a day. — Does 
your cousin shave often 1 — He shaves only every other day, (de 
deux jours r mi.) — At what o'clock do you dress in the morning'? — I 
dress as soon as I have breakfasted, and I breakfast every day at 
eight o'clock, or at a quarter past eight. — Does your neighbor dress 
before he breakfasts "? — He breakfasts before he dresses. — At what 
o'clock in the evening dost thou undress ] — I undress as soon as I 
return from the theatre. — Dost thou go to the theatre every evening] 
— ^I do not go every evening, for it is better to study than to go to the 
theatre. — At what o'clock dost thou undress when thou dost not go 
to the theatre 1 — 1 then undress as soon as I have supped, and go to 
bed at ten o'clock. — Have you already dressed the child 1 — I have 
not dressed it yet, for it is still asleep, {dort encore.) — At what 
o'clock does it get up 1 — It gets up as soon as it is waked. — Do you 
rise as early as 1 1 — I do not know at what o'clock you rise, but I 
rise as soon as I awake. — Will you tell my servant to wake me to- 
morrow at four o'clock 1 — I will tell him. — Why have you risen so ear- 
ly ] — My children have made such a {tarit de) noise that they wakened 
me. — Have you slept well ? — I have not slept well, for you made too 
much noise. — At what o'clock did the good captain awake 1 — He 
awoke at a quarter past five in the morning. 



220 FIFTY-SECOND LESSON. 

163. 

How did my child beliave 1 — He behaved very weJ. — How did 
my brother behave towards you 1 — He behaved very well towards 
me, for he behaves well towards everybody. — Is it worth while to 
write to that man 1 — It is not worth while to write to him. — Is it 
worth while to dismount from my horse in order to buy a cake ] — It 
is not worth while, for it is not long since you ate. — Is it worth while 
to dismount from my horse in order to give something to that poor 
man 1 — Yes, for he seems (paraii) to want it ; but you can give him 
something without dismounting from your horse. — Is it better to go 
to the theatre than to study 1 — It is better to do the latter than the 
former. — Is it better to learn to read French than to speak it 1 — It is 
not worth while to learn to read it without learning to speak it. — Is 
it better to go to bed than to go a walking ] — It is better to do the 
latter than the former. — Is it better to go to France than to Germa- 
ny 1 — It is not worth while to go to France or to Germany when one 
has no wish to travel. — Did you at last get rid of that man ] — I did 
get rid of him. — Why has your father parted Avith his horses "? — Be- 
cause he did not want them any more. — Has your merchant suc- 
ceeded at last to get rid of his damaged sugar 1 — He has succeeded 
in getting rid of it. — Has he sold it on credit ] — He was able to sell 
it for cash, so that he did not sell it on credit. — Who has taught 3'ou 
to read ■? — I have learned it with (chez) a French master. — Has he 
taught you to write 1 — He has taught me to read and to write. — AVho 
has taught your brother arithmetic 1 — A French master has taught it 
him. — Do you call me ■? — I do call you. — W^hat is 3'our pleasure, (que 
vous plait-il ? Lesson XLVII.) — Why do you not rise : do you not 
know that it is already late ^ — What do you want me for, {demander "i 
Lesson XL.) — I have lost all my money, and I come to beg (prier) 
you to lend me some. — What o'clock is it ■? — It is already a quarter 
past six, and you have slept long enough, {assez donni.) — Is it long 
since you rose ? — It is an hour and a half since I rose. — Do you wish 
to take a walk with me ] — I cannot go a walking, for I am waiting 
for ray French master. 



FIFTY-THIRD LESSON. 



221 



FIFTY-THIRD LKSSO'N. —Cinquante-troisihne Lepon. 

To hope, to expect. \ Esperer 1. 

Ohs. A. In verbs having the acute accent ( ' ) on the last syllable but 

one of the infinitive, the letter e takes the grave accent ( ^ ) in all persons 

und tenses where it is followed by a consonant having e mute after it, as : 

ceder, to yield ; je cede, I yield ; tu cedes, thou yieldest ; il cede, he yields. 



I hope 
Thou hopest. 
He hopes. 

Do you hope ? 

We do hope. 

Do ypu expect to find him there ? 
I do expect it. 



7'o change, (meaning, to exchange.) 
To change one thing for another. 

I change my hat for his. 



To change, (meaning, to put on 

other things.) 
Do you change your hat ? 
I do change it. 
He changes his linen. 
They change their clothes 



To mix. 
I mix among the men. 
He mixes among the soldiers. 
Among. 

To recognise or to acknowledge. 



Do you recognise that man? 
It is so long since I saw him that I 
do not recollect him. 



J'esp^re. 
Tu esperes. 
II espfere. 
Esperez-vous ? 
Nous espdrons. 



Espdrez-vous I'y trouver? 

B. Lesson XXX.) 
Je I'espfere. 



(Obs. A 



Changer 1. 

Changer quelque chose centre quel- 

que chose. 
Je change mon chapeau centre ie 

sien. 



Changer 1, (takes de before a sub- 
stantive.) 
t Changez-vous de chapeau? 
t J' en change, 
t II change de linge. 
t lis changent cZ'habits. 



t Se meler 1. 

t Je me mfile parmi les hommes. 

t II se m^le parmi les soldats. 

Parmi. 



Rcconnaitre * 4. (Conjugated like 
its primitive, connaitre *, Less. 
XXVIII. and XXXIII.) 

Reconnaissez-vous cet homme? 

II y a si long-temps que je ne I'ai vu 
que je ne le reconnais plus 



222 



FIFTy-THIRD LESSON. 



I have more bread than I can eat. I J'ai plus de pain que je n'en puis 

I manger. 

Ohs. B. Wlien there is a comparison between two sentences, the verb 
wliicli follows plus, or mains, requires the negative ne. 



That man has more money than he 
will spend. 

There is more wine than is neces- 
sary. 

You. have more money than you 
want. 

We have more slioes than we want. 

That man has fewer friends than he 
imagines. 

To fancy 
To think. 



Get homme a plus d'argent qu'il n'en 

depensera. 
II y a plus de vin qu'il ti'en faut. 

Vous avez plus d'argent qu'il ne voua 

era faut. 
Nous avons plus de souliers qu'il ne 

nous en faut. 
Get homme a moins d'amis qu'il ne 

pense. 
S'in\agiuer 1. 
Penser 1. 



To earn, to gain, to get. I Gagner 1. 
Has your father already started, (de- | Votre pere est-il dejij, parti? 

parted ?) 
He is ready to depart I II est prfit a partir. 



Ready. 
To make ready. 
To make one's self ready. 
To keep one's self ready. 



Fret, (takes a before the inf ) 
Preparer 1. 
Se preparer 1. 
Se tenir * pret. 



To split. 
To break somebody's heart. 
You break that mau's heart. 
Whose heart do I break ? 



Fendre 4. 

Fendre le coeur d quelqu'un. 
Vous fendez le cceur k cet homme. 
A qui est-ce que je fends le cceur 7 



To spill. 
To spread. 
To expatiate, to lay stress upon. 
That man is always expatiating upon 
that subject. 

The subject. 
Always. 
To stretch one's self aloiia: the floor. 



Repandre 4. 

Etendre 4. 

S'etendre sur. 

Get homme s'^tend toujours sur ce 

sujet. 
Le sujet. 
Toujours. 
S'etendre sur le planchor. 



To hang on or upon- 
The wall 



Fendre 4, a. 
Le raur. 



FIFTY-THIRD LESSON. 



223 



I hang my coat on the wall. 
He hangs his hat upon the tree. 
We hang our shoes upon the nails. 
The thief has been hanged. 
Who has hanged the basket on the 
tree? 

The thief. 
The robber, the highwayman. 



Je peuds mon habit au mur. 

II pend son chapeau h. I'arbre. 

Nous pendons nos souliers aux cloua 

Le voleur a 6te pendu. 

Qui a pendu le panier h. I'arbre? 

Le voleur. 

Le brigand, le voleur de grand che- 



You are always studious, and will I Vous ^tes toujours studieux et vous 
always be so. | le serez toujours. 

Obs. C. The personal pronouns are almost always repeated in French 
before every verb of which they are the nominative case, whether they are 
repeated in English or not ; but when they are not in the nominative case 
they must always be repeated. Ex. 



Your brother is, and will always be 

good. 
A well-educated son never gives his 

father any grief; he loves, honors, 

and respects him. 



Votre frfere est toujours sage et il le 

sera toujours. 
Un fils bien 6\ev6 ne fait jamais de 

chagrin h son pfere ; il Z'aime, 

Z'honore, et le respecte. 



EXERCISES. 
164. 
Do you hope to receive a note to-day ■? — I hope to receive one. — 
From {de) whom ■? — From a friend of mine. — ^What dost thou hope 1 
— I hope to see my parents to-day, for my tutor has promised me to 
take me to them. — Does your friend hope to receive any thing "? — 
He hopes to receive something, for he has worked well. — Do you 
hope to arrive early in Paris 1 — ^We hope to arrive there at a quarter 
past eight, for our father is waiting for us this evening. — Do you ex- 
pect to find him at home ■? — ^We do expect it. — For what have you 
exchanged your coach of which you have spoken to me 1 — I have 
exchanged it for a fine Arabian (Lesson XXVI.) horse. — Do you 
wish to exchange your book for mine 1 — I cannot, for I want it to 
study French. — Why do you take your hat off? — I take it oflf be 
cause I see my old master coming, (je vois venir.) — Do you put on 
another {changer) hat to go to the market ■? — I do not put on another 
to go to the market, but to go to the concert. — When will the concert 
take place ] — ^It will take place the day after to-morrow. — Why do 
you go away 1 — Do you not amuse yourself here 1 — ^Ycu are mis- 
taken when you say that I do not amuse myself here, for I assure you 



224 FIFTY-THIRD LESSON. 

that I find a great deal of (jbeaucoup de) pleasure in conversing (d 
causer) with you ; but I am going because I am expected {on ni'at' 
tend, Obs. A. Less. XLIV.) at m)' relation's ball. — Have you prom- 
ised to go ■? — I have promised. — Have you changed your hat in order 
to go to the English captain ? — I have changed my hat, but I have not 
changed m}^ coat or my shoes. — How many times a day dost thou- 
change thy clothes 1 — 1 change them to dine and to go to the theatre. 

165. 
Why do you mix among these men 1 — I mix among them in order 
to know what they say of me. — What will become of you if you al- 
ways mix among the soldiers 1 — I do not know what will become of 
me, but I assure you that they will do me no harm, for they do not 
hurt anybody. — Have you recognised your father 1 — It was so long 
since I saw him, that I did not recognise him. — Has he recognised 
you ■? — He recognised me instantly. — How long have you had this 
coat ■? — It is a long time since I have had it. — How long has your 
brother had that gun 1 — He has had it a great while. — Do you still 
{toujours) speak French ■? — It is so long since I spoke it, that I have 
nearly forgotten it all. — How long is it since your cousin has been 
learning French 1 — It is only three months since. — Does he know as 
much as you 1 — He knows more than I, for he has been learning it 
longer. — Do you know why that man does not eat 1 — I believe he 
is not hungry, for he has more bread than he can eat. — Have you 
given your son any money ■? — I have given him more than he wiU 
syend. — Will you give me a glass of cider ■? — You need not drink 
cider, for there is more wine than is necessary. — Am I to sell my 
gun in order to buy a new hat 1 — You need not seU it, for you have 
more money than you want. — Do you wish to speak to the shoe- 
maker ■? — I do not wish to speak to him, for we have more shoes than 
we want. — Why do the French rejoice ■? — They rejoice because thev 
flatter themselves they have many good friends. — Are thev not right 
in rejoicing, {de se rejouir ?) — They are wrong, for they have fewer 
fiiends than they imagine. 

166. 
Are you ready to depart with me ? — I am so —Does your uncle 
depart with us 1 — He departs with us if he pleases, (s'il le veut.) — 
Will 30U tell him to be ready to start to-morrow at six o'clock in the 
evening 1 — I will tell him so. — Is this young man ready to go out ? 
— Not yet, but he will soon be ready. — Why have they hanged that 
man 1 — They have hanged him because he has killed somebody. — ' 
Have they hanged the man who stole (Lesson XXXVIII.) a horse 
from your brother ] — They have punished him, but they have not 



FIFTY-FOURTH LESSON. 225 

hanged him ; they hang only highwaymen in our country. — ^What 
have you done with my coat "? — I have hanged it on the wall. — "Will 
you hang my hat upon the tree ■? — I will hang it thereon. — Have you 
not seen my shoes 1 — I found them under your bed, and have hanged 
them upon the nails. — Has the thief who stole your gun been hanged ? 
— He has been punished, but he has not been hanged. — Why do you 
expatiate so much upon that subject 1 — Because it is necessary to 
speak upon all subjects. — If it is necessary to {s''il faut) listen to 
you, and to answer you when you expatiate upon that subject, I will 
hang my hat upon the nail, (repeat the pronoun ^'e before each verb,) 
stretch myself along the floor, listen to you, and answer you as well 
as I can. — You will do well. 



FIFTY-FOURTH 1:E^^0^. —Cinquante-quatrieme Le^on. 



To he well. 
How do you do ? 
I am well. 



t Se porter Men. 

t Comment vous portez-vous? 

t Je me porte bien. 



Obs. A. The verbs to he, and to do, are both expressed in French by the 
reflective verb se porter, when they are used in English to inquire after, or 
to speak of a person's health. 

How is your father ? 1 Comment se porte monsieur votre 

I pfere ? 
Ohs. B. The qualifications of monsieur, Mr. ; madame, Mrs. ; made- 
moiselle. Miss, usually precede the possessive pronouns in French, when we 
Bpeak to a person respecting his parents, relations, or friends, and wish to 
Day them some respect. 

II se porte mal. 



He is ill. 
Your brother. 
Your cousin. 
Your brothers. 



t Monsieur votre frfere. 
t Monsieiu' votre cousin 
t Messieurs vos frferes. 



Obs. C. It may be seeh that the plural of monsieur is messieurs, man 
being changed into mes. 

Your uncles. I t Messieurs vos onclea. 



To doubt a thin 



1 doubt a thing. i 

T.- .7- > Douter 1, de quelque choae. 

question any thing. J > i "i '^ '""" 

Do you doubt that ? I Doutez-vous de cela ? 

I do doubt it. I J' en doute. 

I do not doubt it. ^ 

I make no question, have no doubt > Je u'en doute pas. 

of it ) 



226 



FIFTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



Wliat do you doubt 'I 

I doubt what that n au has told me. 

The doubt. 
Witliout doubt, no doubt. 



De quoi doutez-vous ? 

Je doute de ce que cet hoirune iii'a 

dit. 
Le doute. 

Sans doute. 



To agree to a thing 



Do you agree to that ? 
I do agree to it. 



Convenir * 2, de quelque chose, (cou 
jugated like its primitive venir * ) 
Convenez-vous de cela ? 
J'en couviens. 



How much have you paid for that 

hat? 
I have paid three crowns for it. 

Obs. D. When one of the prepositions, for, at, is used in English to ex- 
press the price of a thing, it is not rendered in French. (See Less. XL.) 



t Combien avez-vous pay^ ce cha- 

peau? 
t Je I'ai paye trois 6cus. 



I have bought this horse for five hun- 
dred francs. 

The price. 
Have you agreed about the price ? 
We have agreed about it. 
About what have you agreed ? 
About the price. 



t J'ai achet^ ce cheval cinq cents 

francs. 
Le prix. 

fites-vous convenus du prix ? 
Nous en sommes convenus. 
De quoi etes-vous convenus ? 
Du prix. 



To agree, to compose a difference. 
To feel. 

I feel, thou feelest, he feels. 
To consent. 



I consent to go thither. 
However. 



S'accorder 1. 

Sentir*2; pres. part, sentant ; past 
part, senti. 

Je sens, tu sens, il sent. 

Consentir * 2, (is conj. like its primi- 
tive sentir*: takes a or de befoie 
the infin. and a before the noun.) 

Je consens h (d'y) aller. 

Cepeudant. 



To wear, (meaning to wear gar- 
ments.) 
What garments does he wear ? 
lie wears beautiful garments. 
The gannent. 



Porter 1 

Quels v6tements porte-t-il ? 
II porte de beaux vetements. 
Le v^tement. 



Against my custom. 
As customary. 
My paiiner. 



Centre mon ordinaire. 
Conmie a. I'ordinaire. 
Jlon associ^. 



FIFTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



227 



To observe something. 

To take notice of something. 

Do yeu take notice of that ? 

I do take notice of it. 

Did you observe that 1 

Did you notice what he did ? 

I did notice it 



t S'apercevoir 3, de quelque chose. 

Vous apercevez-vous de cela ? 

Je m'en aper§ois. 

Vous etes-vous apergu de cela ? 

Vous etes-Tous apergu de ce qu'il a 

fait? 
Je m'en suis aper9u. 



To expect, (to /tuj.e.) 

Do you expect to receive a note from 

your uncle ? 
I expect it. 
He expects it 
We expect it. 
Have we expected it 1 
We have expected it. 



t S'attendre 4, (takes d before the in- 
finitive.) 
Vous attendez-vous d recevoir un bil- 
« let de votre oncle ? 
Je m'y attends. 
II s'y attend. 
Nous nous y attendons. 
Nous y sommes-nous attendus '? 
Nous nous y sommes attendus. 



To get, (meaning to procure.) 
I cannot procure any money. 



t Se procurer 1. 



5je] 
^Je 



ne peux pas me procurer d'argent 
ne puis me procm-er de I'argent. 

He cannot procm-e any thing to eat. | II ne peut se procurer de quoi manger. 



)me- J 
ing. 5 



To make fun of some one or some 

tiling. 
To laugh at some one or something, 
He laughs at everybody. 
He criticises everybody. 
Do you laugh at that man? 
I do not laugh at him. 



t Se moquer de quelqu'un ou de 
quelque chose. 

^ II se moque de tout le monde. 

I Vous moquez-vous de cet horrune i 
Je ne m'en moque pas. 



To stop, to stay. 
Have you stayed long at Berlin ? 

I stayed there only tluree days. 

To sojourn, to stay. 
Where does your brother stay at 
present? 

At present, actually. 
The residence, stay, abode 
Paris is a fine place to live in. 



S'arreter 1. 

Vous etes-vous arrete long temps ^ 

Berlin ? 
Je ne m'y suis arrSte que trois jours. 
Sejourner 1. 
Oil Monsieur votre fr6re s6joume-t-il 

actuellement ? 
Actuellement 
Le s6jour. 
t C'est un beau s^joiir que Paris. 



228 



FIFTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



After reading. 
After cutting myself. 
Ohs. See O" Lesson XL. 

After dressing yourself. 
After dressing liiinself. 
After shaving ourselves. 
After w^arming tliemseh es. 
I returned the book after reading it. 
I threw the knife away after cuttuig 

myself. 
You went to tlie concert after di-ess- 

ing yourself. 
He went to the theatre after dressing 

himself. 
We breakfasted after shaving our- 
selves. 
Tliey went out after warming them- 
selves. 



The sick person, (the patient.) 
Tolerably well. 
It is rather late. 
It is rather far. 



t Apres avoir lu. 

t Apres m'etre coupe. 

t Apres vous etre habiU^. 

t Apres s'etre habille. 

t Apres nous etre rases. 

t Apres s'etre chauffes. 

t J'ai rendu le livre apres Tavoir In. 

t J'ai jete le couteau apres m'Stre 

coupe. 
t Vous etes alle an concert aprea 

vous etre habille. 
t II est alle au theatre apres s'etre 

habille. 
t Nous avons dejeune apres nous etre 

rases, 
t lis sont sortis apres s"etre chauifes. 



Le malade. 

Assez bien, passablement 

II est bien tard. 

C'est bien loiu. 



EXERCISES. 

167. 

How is your father, {Monsieur votre pere i) — He is (only) so-so 
Lesson XXXV.) — How is your patient ■? — He is a little better to- 
day than yesterday. — Is it long since you saw your brothers, {Mes- 
sieurs vos freres ?) — I saw them two days ago. — How art thou ? — 1 
am tolerably well.^-How long has your cousin been learning French ? 
— He has been learning it only three months. — Does he already speak 
it 1 — He already speaks, reads, and writes it better than your brotiier 
who has been learning it these two years. — Is it long since you heard 
of my uncle 1 — It is hardly a fortnight {quinze jours) since I heard 
of him. — Where is he staying now'? — He is staying at Berlin, but 
my father is in London. — Did you stay long at Vienna 1 — I stayed 
there a fortnight. — Hovi' long did your cousin stay at Paris \ — He 
stayed there only a month. — Do you like to speak to my uncle ? — I 
like much to speak to him, but I do not like him to {qu'il se moque) 
laugh at me. — Why does he laugh at yoa ! — He laughs at me be- 
cause I speak badly. — Why has your brother no friends ? — He has 



FIFTY-FOURTH LESSON. 229 

none because he criticises everybody. — Why are you laughing al 
that man 1 — I do not intend {je ri'ai pas dessein) to laugh at him. — 
I beg (prier) you not to do it, for you will break his heart if you 
laugh at him. — Do you doubt what I am telling you] — I do not doubt 
it. — Do you doubt what that man has told you 1 — I doubt it, for he 
has often told stories, {mentir *, Lesson XLIV.) — Have you at last 
bought the horse which you wished to buy last month'? — I have not 
bought it, for I have not been able to procure money. 

168. 
Has your uncle at last bought the garden 1 — He has not bought it, 
for he could not agree about the price. — Have you at last agreed 
about the price of that picture "? — We have agreed about it. — How 
much have you paid for it 1 — I have paid fifteen hundred francs for 
it. — What hast thou bought to-day 1 — I have bought two fine horses, 
three beautiful pictures, and a fine gun. — For how much hast thou 
bought the pictures'? — I have bought them for seven hundred francs. 
■ — Do you find them dear '? — I do not find them dear. — Have you 
agreed with your partner 1 — I have agreed with him. — Does he con- 
sent to pay you the price of the ship ■? — He consents to pay it me. — 
Do you consent to go to France ■? — I consent to go thither. — Have 
you seen your old friend again'? {revoir*, conjug. like voir*, Lessons 
XXIV. and XXXHL) — I have seen him again. — Did you recog- 
nise him 1 — I could hardly (je ne Vai presque plus) recognise him, 
for, contrary to his custom, he wears a large hat. — .How is he ■? — He 
is very well. — What garments does he wear '\ — He wears beautiful 
new garments. — Have you taken notice of what your boy has done ■? 
— I have taken notice of it. — Have you {Ven) punished him for it 1 — ■ 
I have punished him for it. — Has your father already written to you'? 
— Not yet ; but I expect {je m'attends) to receive a note from him 
to-day. — Of what do you complain ■? — I complain of not being able to 
procure some money. — Why do these poor men complain '? — They 
complain because they cannot procure any thing to eat. — How are 
your parents '? — They are as usual, (comme a Vordinaire,) very well 
— Is your uncle well ■? — He is better than he usually is. — Have you 
already heard of your friend who is in Germany ■? — I have already 
written to hinti several times ; however, he has not answered me yet. 

169. 

What have you done with the books which the English captain has 
lent you 1 — I have returned them to him after reading them. — Why 
nave you thrown away your knife ? — I have thrown it away after 
cutting myself. — ^When did I go to the concert 1 — You went thither 
after dressing yourself. — When did your brother go to the ball '?— He 



230 



FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



went thither after dressing himself. — When did you breakfast 1 — We 
Dreakfasted after shaving ourselves. — When did our neighbors go 
out ] — They went out after warming themselves. — Why have you 
punished your boy 1 — I have punished him because he has broken my 
finest glass. I gave him some wine, and instead of drinking it, he spilt 
it on the new carpet, and {et il) broke the glass. — What did you do this 
morning 1 — I shaved after rising, and went out after breakfasting. — 
What did your father do last night, (hier soir ?) — He supped aftei 
going to the play, and went to bed after supping. — Did he rise early 1 
— He rose at sunrise. (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 



FIFTY-FIFTH LY,SSON .—Cinqicante-cinguieme Lepon. 
FEMININE SUBSTANTIVES AND ADJECTIVES. 



DECLExXSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE FEMININE. 



The 



Nom. Gen. 

Singular La, de la, 

Plural Les, des, 



Dat. 
k la, 
aux, 



Ace. 



Obs. A. It will be observed that the plural of the definite aiticle is alike 
for botli genders. (See Lesson IX.) 

Wb-en the definite article stands before a vowel or an h mute, in the sin- 
gular it is also alike for both genders, viz. Nom. I', the ; Gen. de V, of the ; 
Dat. a V, to the ; Ace. V, the. (See Lesson IV.) 



The woman — women. 

The mother. 

The daughter or the girl. 

The sister. 

The candle. 

The bottle. 

The key 

The shirt or shift. 



She — they. 



Singular. 
La femme^,. 
La mfere. 
La fille, 
La scEur, 
La chaudelle. 
La bouteille. 
La clef. 
La chemise, 



Plural. 
les femmes. 
les mferes. 
les filles. 
les sceurs. 
les chandelles. 
les bouteilles. 
les clefs, 
les chemises. 



Has she ? 

She has. 
She has not. 



Elle— elles. (See Table of the Pei- 

soual Pronouns, Less. XX ) 
A-t-elle ? 
Elle a. 
Elle n'a pas. 



FIFTV-FIFTH LESSON. 




231 


Have they ? (feminine.) 


Ont-elles ? 






They have. " 


Elles ont. 






They have not. " 


Elles r 


I'ont pas. 
Gen. 


Dat. 






Nom. 


Ace' 


My, (femmme singular.) 


Ma, 


de ma. 


a, ma. 


ma. 


Thy. « 


Ta, 


de ta, 


k ta. 


ta. 


His, her. 


Sa, 


de sa, 


h. sa. 


sa. 


My, (plural for both genders.) 


Mes, 


de mes, 


k mes. 


mes. 



Obs. B. In the plural the 
go.iders. (See Lesson IX.) 

The father and his son or his daugh- 
ter. 

The mother and her son or her 
daughter. 

The child and its brother or its 
sister. 



possessive pronouns are alwrays alike for both 

Le pfere et son fils ou sa fille. 
La m^re et son fils ou sa fille. 
L'enfaut et son frfere ou sa soeur. 



Ohs. C. Tlie following most important rule must be attended to. 

Rule. — The English possessive adjectives or pronouns are in the gender 
of the possessor ; in French they must be in the gender of the thing pos- 
sessed. My, thy, his, her, its, must be expressed by 7non, ton, son, when 
the thing possessed is masculine, and by ma, ta, sa, when it is feminine, 
without regard to the gender of the possessor, as may be seen from the above 
examples 



My pen. 
Thy fork. 
His or her nut, 
Our hand. 
Your mouth, 
Their door. 



my pens, 
thy forks, 
his or her nuts, 
our hands, 
your mouths, 
their doors. 



Singular. 
Ma plume, 
Ta fourchette, 
Sa noix, 
Notre main, 
Votre bouche, 
Leur porte, 



Plural. 
mes plumes, 
tes fourchettes. 
ses noLx. 
nos mains, 
vos bouches. 
leurs portes. 



Ohs. D. The personal pronoun leur must not be mistaken for the pos 
sessive leur. The former never takes an s, while the latter does, whei 
the person or thing possessed is in the plural. Ex. Je leur parle, I speak 
to them ; je vols leurs frferes et leurs sceurs, I see their brothers and their 
sisters. 



The pretty woman. 
The pretty women. 



La jolie femme. 
Les jolies femmes. 



Rule. — All adjectives, without exception, end in e mute in the feminine 
aingidar, and in es in the feminine pliu-al. 



332 

The small candle, 
The large bottle, 



FIFTY-FIFTH LLbSO^N- 

the small ] La petite chandelle, 

candles, 
the large ' La grande bouteille. 

bottles. 



Which woman 1 which women ? 

Which daughter 1 which daugh- 
ters ? 



Quelle femme ? 
Quelle fille? 



les petites 
chandelles 
les grandee 
bouteilles. 

quell es femmea 
quelles filles ? 



This or that woman. 
These or those women. 



Cette femme. 
Ces femmes. 



This young lady. 
That young lady, 



these young 

ladies, 
those yomig 

ladies. 



Cette demoiselle-ci, 
Cette demoiselle-l&,, 



ces demoi- 
selles-ci. 

ces demoi- 
selles-Ii. 



The hand, the hands. 
The right hand. 
The left hand. 
I have a sore hand. 



La main, les mains. 
La main droite. 
La main gauche. 
J'ai mal k la main. 



Obs. E. Avoir mal is used with the dative m French to express that a 
part of the body is affected with illness or pain. (Lesson XXV.) 



The tooth, the teeth. 
Have you the toothache ? 
I have the headache. 
I feel a pain hi my side. 
His feet are sore. 

The face. 

The mouth. 

The cheek. 
The tongue, the language. 

The door. 

The window. 

The street. 

The town. 

The linen. 

The old woman. 



La dent, les dents. 

Avez-vous mal aux dents ? 

J'ai mal h. la tete. 

J'ai mal au cote. 

H a mal aux pieds. 

La figure. 

La bouche. 

La joue. 

La langue. 

La porte. 

La fen^tre 

La rue. 

La ville. 

La toile. 

La vieille femme. 



From what precedes, this principle may be deduced: — The characterislio 
ending of French feminine nouns and adjectives is ;lie I' tfpv r. Tiiere are, 



FIFTY-FIFTir LESSON. 



233 



:iowever, some adjectives which also have this ending in the masculine, aud 
then they are of both genders, as : 



An amiable man. 
An amiable V70man. 



Un homme aimable. 
Une ferame aimable. 



The room. 


La chambre. 


The front room. 


La chambre du devant or sur le de 




vant. 


The back room. 


La chambre du derriere or sur le der 




rifere. 


The upper room. 


La chambre du haut 



PARTITIVE ARTICLE FEMININE. 



Nom. 
Acc. 



de la. 



Gen. de. 
Dat. k de la. 



Obs. F. For the plural of this article, and when it stands before an adjec- 
tive, see Lesson XL 



Some light, 
^rae silk. 
Some good soup. 



De la lumiere. 

De la soie. 

De bonne soupe. 



Obs. G. Most adjectives ending in el, eil, ien, on, and et, double their final 
consonant before the e mute of the feminine. Examples : 



A cruel certitude. 
Such a promise. 
An old acquaintance. 
A good truth. 
A dumb woman. 



Une cruelle certitude. 
Une pareih^ promesse. 
Une ancienne connaissance. 
Une bonne verity. 
Une femme muette. 



Obs. H. In the masculine, the above adjectives would be cruel, pareil, 
ancien, ban, muet. 



INDEFINITE ARTICLE FEMININE. 



Nom. 
Acc. 



A virtuous woman. 



Gen. d'mie. 
Dat. h. une. 

Une femme vertueuse. 



06s. /. Adjectives ending in the masculine in x become feminine by chang- 
ing X into se ; as, masc. vertueux ; fem. vertueuse, virtuous. 



234 



FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



A happy young lady. 
An active youug woman. 



Une demoiselle heureuse.* 
Uue jeune persoune^ active. 



Ohs. K. Adjectives^ ending in the masculine in /, become feminine by 
changing / into ve, as, masc actif; fem. active, active. 



Une robe neuve.^ 
Uue proposition naive.'' 



A new gown. 

An ingenious proposal. 

Have you my pen ? 
No, Madam, I have it not. 
Which bottle have you broken ? 
Which door have you opened ? 

O' The past participle agrees with its noun in gender as well as in 
number. 



Avez-vous ma plume ? 
Non, Madame, je ne I'ai pas. 
Quelle bouteiUe avez-vous cass^e ? 
Quelle porte avez-vous ouverte? 



Which windows have you opened ? 
Which bottles has the woman broken ? 

Which young lady have you con- 
ducted to the ball ? 
Which water have you drunk? 
Which letters have you written ? 

These. 

Those. 
Have you this or that pen ? 

I have neither this nor that. 
It or her — them. 
Do you see that woman ? 
I see her. 

Have you seen my sisters ? 
No, my lady, I have not seen them. 



Quelles fenetres avez-vous ouvertes? 
Quelles bouteilles la femme a-t-eUe 

cass^es ? 
Quelle demoiselle avez-vous conduite 

au bal ? 
Quelle eau avez-vous bue 1 
Quelles lettres avez-vous ecrites ? 
Celles-ci. 

Celles-k. * 

Avez-vous cette plume-ci ou celle 

la.? 

Je n'ai ni celle-ci ni ceUe-la. 
La — les. 

Voyez-vous cette femme ? 
Je la vols. 

Avez-vous vu mes soeurs ? 
Non, Mademoiselle, je ne les ai pas 
vues. 



To her, to him — to them. 
Do you speak to my sisters ? 
I speak to them. 
Some coarse lin^n. 
Some good water. 
A napkin, a towel. 



Lui — leur. (See Obs. D, page 231.) 

Parlez-vous i mes soBurs ? 

Je leur parle. 

De grosse toilo. 

De bonne eau. 

Une serviette. 



' From the masculine heureux. 

^ Personnc, as a pronoun, is masculine ; as a substantive, it is feminine. 

From the masculine ncuf. 
* From the mas-.uliue naif. 



FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



235 



06s. L. Adjectives form their feminine in various ways, viz 
I. The following double the last consonant : 





Masculine. 


Feminine, 


Low. 


Bas, 


basse. 


Thick. 


fipais, 


dpaisse. 


Express. 


Exprfes, 


expresse. 


Genteel, gentle, pretty. 


Gentil, 


gentille. 


Fat. 


Gras, 


grasse. 


Big. 


Gros, 


grosse. 


Weary. 


Las, 


lasse. 


No, none. 


Nul, 


nulle. 


Initiated. 


Prof^s, 


professe 


Silly. 


Sot, 


sotte. 


The following double the letter I 






"before a conso- 


K, 




Ti„„^ J °ant. 


> Beau, 


) ... 



Handsome. -s , r , 

1 before a vowel 

or h mute 



I , /'^^Bel, 

L or A mute, J 

r before a conso 



New 



Old. 



nant, 



Nouveau, 



before a vowel ) ^j , 
. or h mute, ^ ' 



'before a conso 

nant, 
before a vowel } 



or h mute. 
Foolish. 

Soft. 






Vieux, 
Vieil, 

Fou, 
Fol,^ 

Mou, 

Mol," 



belle. 



nouvello. 



vieilla 



folio. 



molle. 



3. Several, wuich in the masculine terminate in eur, change this termi- 
nation in the feininme, (a) some into euse, (h) others into rice, and (c) oth- 
ers asfain nito ei-es&e. Ex. 



^ Fol is used inistead of fou before nouns beginning with a vowel. Fol 
always precedes, and fou always follows its substantive. Ex. Un marche 
fou, a foolish bargain ; un fol espoir, a foolish hope. Substantively, fou 
means a madman, and folic a mad woman. 

" Formerly, mol was more in use than mou. The Academy writes 
'' Ln honime mou et effemine," a weak and effeminate man. We read, 
however, in Buffon, " Les Chinois sont des peuples mols," the Chinese are 
an effeminate people. 



56 


FIFTV-FIFTK LESSON 










Masculine 


Feminine. 


(a) 


Deceitful, (eur- 


-euse.) 


Trompeur, 


trompeuse. 




Lyiug, " 


« 


Menteur, 


menteuse. 




Talkative, " 


ft 


Parleur, 


parleuse. 


(b) 


Executing, (eur — rice.) 


Executeur, 


executrice. 




Persecuting, " 


a 


Persecuteur, 


persecutrice. 


(c) 


Enchanting, (ewr- 


-eresse.) 


Enchanteur, 


enchanteressa 




Sinning, " 


« 


Pecheur, 


pecheresse 




Avenging, " 


(( 


Vengeur, 


vengeresse. 


4. 


The following form their feminine quite irregularly : 




Absolved. 




Absous, 


absoute. 




Benign. 




B^nin, 


benigne. 




^ White. 




Blanc, 


blanche. 




Declining. 




Caduc, 


caduque. 




Sweet. 




Doux, 


douce 




False. 




Faux, 


fausse. 




Favorite. 




Favori, 


favorite 




Fresh. 




Frais, 


fraiche. 




Free. 




Franc, 


frauche. 




Greek. 




Grec, 


grecque 




Long. 




Long, 


longue 




Wicked. 




Malin, 


maligne. 




Public. 




Public, 


publique 




Red. 




Roux, 


rousse. 




Dry. 




Sec, 


sfeche. 




Third. 




Tiers, 


tierce. 




Turkish. 




Tiu-c, 


Turque. 




Traitorous. 




Traitre, 


traitresse 



Ohs. M. The plural of adjectives is formed like that of the substantives, 
(Lesson IX.) Of the following twenty-eight adjectives, the first eighteen 
have no plural for the masculine ; the last ten may form it by adding an s, 
but it is better to avoid using them in the plural for the masculine gender • 



Austral, 


southern. 


Medical, 


medical. 


Beneficial, 


beneficiary. 


Mental, 


mental. 


Boreal, 


northern. 


Natal, 


natal. 


Brumal, 


brumal. 


Patronal, 


patronal. 


Canonial, 


canonical. 


Sentimental. 


sentimental 


Diametral, 


diametrical. 


Vocal, 


vocal. 


Experimental, 


e.xperimentaj 


Zodiacal, 


zodiacal 


Labial, 


labial, 
lingual 






Lingual, 






Lustral, 


lustral. 


Amical 


friendly 


Matiual, 


early. 


Fatal, 


fatal. 



FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



237 



Filial, ^ 


filial. 


Jovial, 


ovial. 


Final, 


final. 


Naval, 


naval. 


Frugal, 


frugal. 


Pascal, 


pascal. 


Glacial, 


frozen. 


Virginal, 


virgina 



Some beautiful linen shirts. 
Some fine silk stockings. 

The Christian. 

The Jew. 

The negro. 
A companion. 
A friend. 

To celebrate, to feast. 



De belles chemises de toile. 
De beaux has de sole. 
Le Chretien, Fern, la Chr^tienne, 
(Obs. G.) 



Le Juif, 

Le n^gre, 

Un compagnon, 

Un ami, 

Celehrer 1 ; feter i 



' la Juive, (Obs. 

K.) 
' la uegresse. 
' une compagiie. 
' une amie, (sec 
Remark, p. 232. 



EXERCISES. 

170. 

How are your brothers 1 — They have been very well for these few 
days. — Where do they reside 1 — They reside in Paris. — Which day 
of the week do the Turks celebrate ■? — They celebrate Friday, (le 
vendredi ;) but the Christians celebrate Sunday, the Jews Saturday, 
and the negroes their birthday, (Je jour de leur naissance.) — Among 
you country people {parmi vous autres gens de campagne) there are 
many fools, are there not, (rCest-ce pas T) asked {demanda) a philos- 
opher lately iVautre j6ur) of a peasant, (with dative.) The latter 
answered, {repondit :) " Sir, they are to be found {on en trouve) in 
all stations, {Vetat.'''') " Fool-s sometimes tell the truth, {la veriie^'') 
said {dit) the philosopher. — Has your sister my gold ribbon % — She 
has it not. — What has she % — She has nothing. — Has your mother 
any thing "? — She has a fine gold fork. — Who has my large bottle \ 
— Your sister has it. — Do you sometimes see my mother ? — I see 
ner often.— When did you see your sister ■? — I saw her a fortnight 
ago. — Who has my fine nuts ] — Your good sister has them. — Has 
she also my silver forks % — She has them not. — Who has them % — 
Vour mother has them. — ^What fork have you ■? — I have my iron 
fork — Have your sisters had my pens 1 — They -have not had them, 
but I believe that their children have had them. — ^Why does your 
brother complain \ — He complains because his right hand aches. — ■ 
WTiy do you complain 1 — I complain because my left hand aches. 



238 FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON. 

171. 

Is your sister as old as my mother 1 — She is not so old, but she is 
taller. — Has your brother purchased any thing 1 — He has purcliased 
something, (il en a fait.) — What has he bought "? — He has bought 
fine linen and good pens. — Has he not bought some silk stockings 1 
— He has bought some. — Is your sister writing] — No, Madam, she 
is not writing. — ^^Vhy does she not write 1 — Because she has a sore 
hand. — "Why does not the daughter of your neighbor go out \ — She 
does not go out because she has sore feet. — Why does my sister not 
speak 1 — Because she has a sore mouth. — Hast thou not seen my 
silver pen ■? — I have not seen it. — Hast thou a front room ] — I have 
one behind, but my brother has one in the front. — Is it (est-ce) an 
upper room] — It is one, (c'era est une.) — Does the wife (Ja femme) 
of our shoemaker go out already ] — No, my lady, she does not go 
out yet, for she is still very ill. — Which bottle has your little sister 
broken 1 — She broke the one {celle) which my mother bought yester- 
day. — Have you eaten of my soup or of my mother's ] — I have eaten 
neither of yours {de la voire) nor your mother's, but of that of my 
good sister. — Have you seen the woman who was with me this 
morning"? — I have not seen her. — Has your mother hurt herself? — 
She has not hurt herself. 

172. 

Have you a sore nose 1 — I have not*a sore nose, but I have the 
toothache. — Have you cut your finger ? — No, my lady, I have cut 
my hand. — ^Will you give me a pen 1 — I will give you one. — Will 
you have this or that 1 — I will have neither. — ^^Yhich (Jaguelle) one 
do you wish to have 1 — I wish to have that which your sister has. — ■ 
Do you wish to have my mother's good black silk {bonne sole noire) 
or my sister's 1 — I wish to have neither your mother's nor your sis- 
ter's, but that which you have. — Can you write with this pen ] — I 
can write with it. — Each (chaque) woman thinks herself amiable, 
and each (chacune) is conceited, {a de Vamour propre.) — The same 
as {de meme que) men, my dear friend. Many a one {iel) tlrinks 
himself {se croit) learned who is not so, {ne Vest pas,) and many men 
{bien des hommes) sux^^ss'i^surpasser) women in vanity, {envanite.) 
• — What is the matter with you ? — Nothing is the matter with me. — 
Why does your sister complain ? — Because she has a pain in her 
clieek. — Has your brother a sore hand ! — No, but he feels a pain in 
his side. — Do you open the window ! — I open it, because it is too 
warm. — Which windows has your sister opened \ — She has opened 
those of the front room. — Have you been at the ball of my old ac- 
quaintance '! — I have been there. — Which young ladies have you 



FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



239 



taken to the ball 1 — I took my sister's friends there. — Did they 
dance 1 — They danced a good deal. — Did they amuse themselves ! — 
They amused themselves. — Did they remain long at the ball 1 — They 
remained there two hours. — Is this young lady a Turk '! — No, she is 
a Greek. — Does she speak French 1 — She speaks it. — Does she not 
speak English 1 — She speaks it also, but she speaks French better. 
— Has your sister a companion 1 — She has one. — Does she like her ^ 
— She likes her very much, for she is very amiable 



FIFTY-SIXTH LESSO]<!.— Cmqu ant e-sixieme Legon. 



To go to the countiy. 
To be in the country. 
To go to the bank. 
To be at the banL 

To or at the exchange. 

To or at the river. 

To or at the kitchen. 

To or at the cellar. 

To or at church. 

To or at school. 
To or at the French school. 
To or at the dancing school. 

The play, (the comedy.) 
The opera. 

To go a hunting. • 

To be a hunting. 

To go a fishing. 

To be a fishing. 
To hunt. 



The whole day, all the day. 
The whole morning 
The whole evening 



Aller h. la campagne 

Jitre k la campagne. 

Aller k la banque. 

Etre k la banque 

A la bourse. 

A la riviere. 

A la cuisine. 

A la cave. 

A I'eglise. 

A I'ecole. 

A r^cole de fran9ais. 

A I'ecole de danse. 

La comedie. 

L'op^ra, (a masculine noun )* 

t Aller k la chasse. 

t fitre k la chasse. 

Aller k la peche. 

fitre ii. la peche. 

Chasser 1. 



Toute la journee. 
Toute la matinee. 
Toute la soiree.'' 



All nouns ending in a are of the masculine gender, except sepia, sepia , 
and ialpa, a tumor, which are feminine 

* The words day, morning, and evening, are expressed by jour, matin, 
and soir, when we speak of- a part of them, and by journee, matinee, and 
soiree, when their whole duration is to be expressed. Ex. M vient me voir 
tous les jours, he comes to see me every day ; j^ai reste chez moi toute la 
journee, I stayed at home all the day long ; je me promene tous les matins 
vendant une heure, I take an hoiu-'s walk every morning ; il a plu toitte la 



240 



FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



The whole night, all the night. 
The whole year. 
The whole week. 
The whole society. 

All at once. 
Suddenly, all of a sudden. 

This week. 
This year. 
Last week. 
Next week. 
Eveiy woman. 
Every time. 
Every week. 

Your mother 

Your sister. 
Your sisters 

^ A person. 

The ear-ache. 

The heart-ache. 

The belly-ache. 

The stomach-ache 
She has the stomach-ache. 
Kis sister has a violent head-ache. 
I have the stomach-ache. 



Toute la nuit. 
Toute Fannee.^ 
Toute la semaine. 
Toute la societe. 
Tout h la fois. 
Tout k coup. 
Soudainement. 



Cette semaine. 
Cette annee. 
La semaine passee. 
La semaine prochaine. 
Toutes les femmes. 
Toutes les fois. 
Toutes les semaines. 



Madame votre mere. (See Obs. B 

Lesson LIV.) 
Mademoiselle votre sceiu". 
Mesdemoiselles vos soeurs. (See Obs 

C. Lesson LIV.) 
Une personne. (See Note 2, Less 

LV.) 
t Le mal d'oreille. 
t Le mal de coeiu-. 
t Le mal de ventre, 
t Le mal d'estomac. 
t EUe a une douleur dans I'estomac 
t Sa sceur a un violent mal de tete 
+ J'ai des maux d"estomac. 



PRON'OUiN'S POESESSn'E ABSOLUTE 

Singular. 
Mine, thine, his, (hers, its.) 
Ours, yom's, theirs. 



FEMIXIXE. 

Singular. 
La mienne, la tiemie, la sieuue. 
La notre, la votre. la leur. 



matinee, it has been raining all the morning ; j'irai vous voir dcmain au 
soir, I shall call upon you to-morrow evening ; oil passcrez-vous la soiree ? 
where shall you spend the evening ? 

^ Year is expressed by an when we wish to express one or more units 
of a twelvemonth, and by annee when it is considered as a twelvemonth in 
its duration. Ex. II y a six ans que mon frere ne jn'a ecrit, it is six years 
since my brother wrote to me ; une annee heureuse est celle que Von passe 
sans ennui et sans injirmite, a happy year is that wliich is spent without te- 
diousiiess or infirmity. 



FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON, 



241 



Plural. 
Mine, thine, his, Chers, its.) 
Oura, yours, theirs. 



Plural. 
Les miennes, les tiennes, les siennes. 
Les n6tres, les vdtres, les leurs. 



Obs. A. It will be remarked that notre and voire, as absolute possessive 
pronouns, have a circumflex accent {") upon o. 

Avez-vous ma plume ou la sienne ? 
J'ai la sienne. 

Que voulez-vous envoy er a votre 
tante ? 



Have you my pen or hers ? 

I have hers. 

What do you wish to send to your 

aunt? 

I wish to send her a tart. 
' Will you send her some fruit also ? 



I will send her some. 

Have you sent the boolis to my sis- 

tere? 
I have sent them to them. 



Je veux lui envoyer une tourte. 
Voulez-vous lui ' envoyer aussi dea 

fruits ? 
Je veux lui en envoyer. 
Avez-vous envoye les livres h mea 



Jo les leur ai envoy^s. 



The ache, pain. 
The tart. 
The peach, 
Tlie strawberry. 
The cherry, 
The newspaper, 

the gazette. 
The merchandise, 

(goods,) 



la douleur. 
la tom'te. 
la peche. ^^ 
la fraise. 
la cerise. 

la gazette. 

la marchandise. 



The aunt. 

The female cousin. 

The niece. 

The maid-servant. 

The female relation. 

The female neighbor, 

The female cook. 

The brother-in-law, 

The sister-in-law. 



la tante. 
la cousine. 
la niece, 
la servante. 
la parente. 
la voisine. 
la cuisinifere. 
le beau-frere. 
la belle-scEur. 



Obs. B. The ibllowing substantives have a distinct form for mdividuals of 
the female sex : — 



An abbot, 
An accuser, 
An actor. 
An ambassador, 
An apprentice, 
A baron, 
A shepherd, 
A benefactor, 
A canon, 
A singer, 
A hunter, 

, i^in poetry,) 

\ count, 
A dancer, 



Masculine. 

un abb^, 
un accusateur, 
un acteur, 
un ambassadeur, 
un apprenti, 
un baron, 
un berger, 
un bienfaiteur, 
un chanoine, 
mi chanteur, 
im chasseur, 
im chasseur, 
un comte, 
un danseur, 
81 



Feminine. 
une abb esse, 
une accusatrice. 
une actrice. 
une ambassadrice. 
ime apprentie. 
une baronne. 
une bergere. 
une bieiifaitrice. 
une chanoinesse. 
ime chanteuse. 
une chasseuse. 
une chasseresse. 
une comtesse. 
ime danseuae. 



242 



FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



Masculine. Feminine. 

A god, un dieu, une deesse. 

A duke, un due, une duchesse. 

An elector, un ^lecteur, vme electrice. 

An emperor, un empereur, une iinperatric& 

A founder, un fondateur, une fondatrice. 

A lad, un jouvenceau, une jouvencelle. 

A lion, un lion, une lioune. 

A heathen, un palen, une palenne. 

A peacock, un paon, ime paonne. 

A peasant, un paysan, une paysanne. 

A prior, un prieur, une prieure. 

A prince, un prince, une princesse. 

A protector, un protecteur, une protectrice. 

A king, un roi, une reine. 

Ohs. C. The three substantives, auteur, author ; peintre, painter ; poetr 

poet, are of the masculine gender only, and are used for both sexes 



She is a poetess. 
Is she a painter? 
She is an author. 

To hire, to let. 
Have you already hired a room 1 



Elle est poete. 
Est-elle peintre ? 
Elle est auteur. 



Louer 1. 

Avez-vous d(5ja, loue une cliambre? 



To admit or grant a thing. 
To confess a thing. 
Do you grant that? 
I do grant it. 

Do you confess your fault ? 
I confess it. 
I confess it to be a fault. 

To confess, to avow, to own, 

to acknowledge. 
To confess. 



V Conveuir * de quelque chose. 

Convenez-vous de cela ? 
J'en conviens. 

Convenez-vous de votre faute ? 
J'en conviens. 

Je conviens que c'est une faute. 
Avouer 1. 

Confesser 1. 



So much. 
SJie has so many candles that she 
cannot bum them all. 
To catch a cold. 
To make sick. 
If you eat so much it will make you 
sick. 



Tant. 

Elle a taut de chandelles quelle ne 

pent pas les briller toutes. 
t S'eurhiuner 1. 
+ Rendre malade. 
Si vous mangez taut, ccJa vous reu- 

dra malade. 



Ols. D. Wlien the English pronoun it relates to a preceding circiun- 
stance, it is translated by cela ; when to a following circumstance by il 



FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



243 



DooB it suit you to lend your gun ? 
It does not suit me to lend it. 

It does not suit me. 
Where did you catch a cold ? 
I caught a cold in going from the 
opera. 

To have a cold. 

The cold. 

The cough. 
I have a cold. 
You have a cough. 

The brain. 

The chest. 



Vous convient-il de j>r6ter votre fusil 7 

II ne me convient pas de le preter. 

Cela ne mo convient pas. 

t Ou vous etes-vous enrhumd? 

t Je me suis enihume en sortant de 

I'cpera. 
t fitre enrhume. 
Le rhume. 
La toux. 

t J'ai un rhume de cerveau. 
t Vous avez un rhume de poitnnfc- 
Le cerveau. 
La poitrine. 



EXERCISES. 
173. 

Where is your cousin ] — He is in the kitchen. — Has your cook 
(fem.) already made the soup ] — She has made it, for it is already 
apon the table. — Where is your mother 1 — She is at church. — Is 
your sister gone to school "? — She is gone thither. — Does your mother 
often go to church ] — She goes thither every morning and every 
evening. — At what o'clock in the morning does she go to church 1 — 
She goes thither as soon as she gets up. — At what o'clock does she 
get up ■? — She gets up at sunrise. — Dost thou go to school to-day 1 — 
I do go thither. — What dost thou learn at school "? — I learn to read, 
write, and speak there. — Where is your aunt ? — She is gone to the 
play with my little sister. — Do your sisters go this evening to the 
opera ■? — No, Madam, they go to the dancing school. — Do they not 
go to the French school "! — They go thither in the morning, but not 
{mais non) in the evening. — Is your father gone a hunting 1 — He has 
not been able to go a hunting, for he has a cold. — Do you like to go 
a hunting ] — I like to go a fishing better than a hunting. — Is your 
father still in the country 1 — Yes, Madim, he is still there. — ^What 
does he do there ■? — He g6es a hunting and a fishing. — Did you hunt 
in the country 1 — I hunted the whole day. — How long did you stay 
with my mother 1 — I stayed with her the whole evening. — Is it long 
since you were at the castle 1 — I was there last week. — Did you find 
many people there % — I found only three persons there, the count, 
the countess, and their daughter. 

174. 

Are these girls as good {sage) as their brothers 1 — They are bet- 
ter than they. — Can your sisters speak German ? — They cannot, but 
they are learning it. — Have you brought any thing to your mother? 



244 "" FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

— I brought her some good fruit and a fine tart. — What has youx 
niece brought you 1 — She has brought us good cherries, good straw- 
berries, and good peaches. — Do you like peaches 1 — I like them 
much. — How man}"- peaches has your neighbor (fem.) given you 1 — 
She has given me more than twenty. — Have you eaten many cher- 
ries this year 1 — 1 have eaten many. — Did you give any to your lit- 
tle sister 1 — I gave her so many that she cannot eat them all. — ^^^ly 
have you not given any to your good neighbor, (fem. 1) — I wished to 
give her some, but she would not take any, because she does not like 
cherries. — Were there any pears {la poire) last year ] — There were 
not many. — Has your cousin (fem.) any strawberries "? — She has so 
many that she cannot eat them all. 

175. 

Why do your sisters not go to the play 1 — They cannot go thither 
because they have a cold, and that makes them very ill. — Where did 
they catch a cold 1 — They caught a cold in going from the opera last 
night. — Does it suit your sister to eat some peaches ] — It does not 
suit her to eat any, for she has already eaten a good many, and if she 
eats so much it will make her ill. — Did you sleep well last night ? — 
I did not sleep well, for my children made too much noise in my 
room. — ^Where were you last night ] — I was at my brother-in-law's. 
— Did you see your sister-in-law 1 — I did see her. — How is she ! — 
She is better than usual. — Did you play 1 — We did not play, but w-e 
read some good books ; for my sister-in-law likes to read better than 
to play. — Have you read the gazette to-day 1 — I have read it. — Is 
there any thing new in it ■? — -I have not read any thing new in it. — 
Where have you been since I saw you ■? — I have been at Vienna, 
Paris, and Berlin. — Did you speak to my aunt ! — I did speak to her. 
— What does she say"? — She says that she wishes to see you. — 
Whither have you put my pen ] — I have put it upon the bench. — Do 
you intend to see your niece to-day i — I intend to see her, for she 
has promised me to dine with us. — I admire (admire?-) that family, 
(lafamille,) for the father is the king and the mother is the queen of 
it. The children and the servants are the subjects (Ze sujet) of the 
state, {Vetat.) The tutors of the children are the ministers, {le mi- 
r/it-e,) who share {portage?-) with the king and queen the care {le 
sora) of the government, {le gouvernement.) The good education 
{V education, fem.) which is given to children (See Obs. .4. Lesson 
XLIV.) is the crown Qa couronne) of monarchs, {Je monarque.) 

176. 
Have you already hired a room T — I have already hired one. — 
Where have you hired it ? — I have hired it in William-street, {dans la 



FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 215 

rue or rue Guillaume,) number one hundred and fifty-two. — At whose 
house (chez qui) have you hired it 1 — At the house of the man whose 
son has sold you a horse. — For (pour) whom has your father hired a 
room 1 — He has hired one for his son, who has just arrived from 
France. — Why have you not kept your promise, {la promesse ?) — I 
do not remember what I promised you. — Did you not promise us to 
take us to the concert last Thursday 1 — T confess that I was wrong 
in promising you ; the concert, however, (cependani,) has not taken 
place. — Does your brother confess his fault "? — He confesses it. — 
What does your uncle say to (de) that note 1 — He says that it is 
written very well, but he admits that he has been wrong in sending 
it to the captain. — Do you confess your fault now 1 — I confess it to 
be a fault. — Where have you found my coat 1 — I have found it in the 
blue room, (Obs. B. Lesson XXXVHI.) — Will you hang my hat on 
the tree 1 — I will hang it thereon. — How are you to-day ] — I am not 
very well. — What is the matter with you 1 — I have a violent head- 
ache and a cold. — Where did you catch a cold '! — I caught it last 
night in going from the play. 



FIFTY SEVENTH LESSO'N. —Cinquante-septieme Legon. 

OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

The present participle is formed from the first person plxu-al of the pres- 
ent of the indicative by changing ons into ant. 

We speak, speaking. | 1. Nous parlo7zs, parlcmi. 

We finish, finishing. | 2. Nous finissons, finissa/zi. 

We receive, receiving. I 3. Nous recevons, receyant. 

We render, rendering. | 4. Nous rendojjs, lendant. 

Tlie five following verbs form exceptions to this rule : 



To have, having. 

To be, being. 

To expire,' expiring. 

To know, knowing. 

To become, becoming. 



Avoir, ayant. 

fitre, etant. 

!& choir, ^cheant. 

Savoir, sachant. 

Seoir, seant. 



Obs. A. This form of the verb is very seldom used in French ; for 
whenever it is used in English after a preposition, it is rendered into French 
by the infinitive. (See O" Lessons XL. and LIV.) Yet it is used when 



' In speaking of a lease, or a given portion of time. 



245 



FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



an agent performs tv/o actions at the same time, as in the following ex- 
amples ; 



The man eats while running. 
I correct while reading. 
I question while speaking. 
You speak while answeruig me. 

Obs. B. These examples show how the preposition en, in, always pro 
cedes the present participle, although it is sometimes not expressed, but 
understood. 



L'homme mange en courant. 
Je corrige en lisant. 
Je questionne en parlant. 
Vous parlez en me repondant. 



To question. 
The cravat. 
The carriage. 
The house. 
The letter. 
_ The table. 
The family. 
The promise. 
The leg. 
The sore throat. 
The throat. 
I have a sore throat. 
The meat. 
Salt meat. 
Fresh meat. 
Fresh beef. 
Cool water. 
The food, (victuals.) 
The dish, (mess.) 
Salt meats. 
Milk-food. 



Questionner 1. 

La cravate. 

La voiture. 

La maison. 

La lettre. 

La table. 

La famille. 

La promesse. 

La jambe. 

Le mal de gorge. 

La gorge. 

J'ai mal &, la gorge. 

La viande. 

De la viande sal6e. 

De la viande fraicho. 

Du bcEuf frais. 

De I'eau fraiche. 

L'aliment. 

Le mets. v 

Des mets sales. 

Du laitare. 



The traveller. I Le voyageur. 

To march, to walk, to step. \ Marcher 1. 

06s. C. Marcher must not be mistaken for se promener. (Lesson 
XLIV.) The former means to walk, and the latter to walk for pleasure 

J'ai marche beaucoup aujourd'hui. 
Je me suis promene dans le jardir 
avec ma mere. 



I have walked a good deal to-day. 
I have been walking in the garden 

with my mother. 
To walk or travel a mile. 
To walk or travel a league. 
To walk a step. 
To take a step, (meaning to take 

measures.) 



t Faire uu mille. 
t Faire une lieue. 
t Faire un pas. 
~ Faire une demarche 



FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



247 



To go on a journey. 
To make a speech. 

A piece of business. 

An aiFair. 
To transact business. 



t Faire un voyage. 
+ Faire un discours. 

Une affaire. 
Faire des affaires. 



To meddle with something. 
What are you meddling with ? 
I am meddling with my own busi- 
ness. 
That man always meddles with 

other people's business. 
I do not meddle with other people's 
business. 

Others, other people. 

He employs himself in painting. 

The art of painting. 
Chemistry. 
The chemist. 
The art. 
Strange. 
It is strange. 
To employ one's self in. 



t Se meler de quelque chose. 

De quoi vous mSlez-vous? 

Je me mole de mes propres affaires. 

Get homme se mele toujours des 

affaires des autres. 
Je ne me m61e pas des affaires 

d'aatrui. 
Autrui, (indeterminate pronouuj 

without gender or plural.) 
t II se m61e de peindre. 
t II s'occupe de peinture. 
La peinture. 
La chimie. 
Le chimiste. 
L'art, (masculine.) 
fltrange, ^tonnant. 
C'est dtrange. 
S'occuper 1, de or a. 



To concern some one. 



To look at some one. 
I do not like to meddle with things 

that do not concern me. 
That concerns nobody. 
To concern one's self about some 

thing. 
To trouble one's head about some- >^^ '°"'''*^^ '^^ 1^«'^"« ^h°^«- 

thmg. J 



Concerner 1, or regarder 1, quel- 

qu'un. 
Regarder 1, quelqu'un. 
t Je n'aime pas h. me meler de ce 

qui ne me regarde pas. 
Cela ne regarde personne. 



I 



To attract. 
Loadstone attracts iron. 
Her singing attracts me. 

To charm. 

To enchant. 
I am charmed with it. 

The beauty. 



Attirer 1. 

L'aimant attire le fer. 

Son chant m'attire. 

Charmer L 

Enchanter 1. 

J'en suis charmd, {fern. €e.) 

La beauty. 



248 



FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



Oba. D. All nouiis ending in te, and expressing properties or qualities, 
are feminine. 



The harmony. 

The voice. 

The power. 

To repeat. 

Tlie repetition. 
The commencement, beginning. 

Tlie wisdom. 

Study. 

The lord. 

A good mentory. 

A memorandum. 

The niglitingale. 
All beginnings are difBcult. 



L'harmonie. 
La voix. 
Le pouvoir. 
Repeter 1. 
La repetition. 
Le commencement. 
La sagesse. 
L'etude. 
Le seigneur. 
Une bonne memoLre. 
Un m^moire. 
Le rossignol. 

Tous les commencements sent diiS- 
ciles. 



To create. 
Creation. 
The Creator. 
The benefit. 
The fear of the Lord. 
Heaven. 
The earth. 
Solitude. 
The lesson. 
The goodness. 
Flour, meal. 
The mill. 



Creer 1. 

La creation. 

Le Cr^ateur. 

Le bienfait. 

La craiute du Seigneur. 

Le ciel. 

La terre. 

La solitude. 

La legon. 

La bonte. (See Obs. D. abov3.) 

De la farine. 

Le moulin. 



Obs. E. We have seen (Lesson XLIV.) that all reflective verbs arc in 
French conjugated with the auxiliary etre, ti be, in their compound tensoa 
There are also some other verbs which, in French, are compounded wifJi 
the auxiliary etrc, to be, though they are not reflective, and generally take 
to have for their auxiliary in English. They are the following : 



To g., 
To stop, 
To arrive, 
To decay. 
To die. 
To fall. 
To come. 



aller * 1. 
s'arrfiter 1. 
arriver 1. 
dechoir * 3 
deceder 1. 
tomber 1. 
venir * 2. 



To become, devenir * 2, 



To come in, 
To die. 
To be born. 
To set out, 
To go out, 
To attain, 
To come back, 
To happen, 



entrer 1 
mourir * 2. 
naitre * 4. 
partir * 2. 
sortir * 2. 
parvenir * 2 
revenir * 2 
survenir *' 3. 



FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 246 

To disagree, disconvenir* 2. I (See Lesson XXXIV. Neuter 
To intervene, intervenir * 2. | Verbs.) 



Has your mother come ? | Votre mfere est-elle venue ? 

]!Cr The past participle of these verbs must agree in gender and numbei 
witli tlie nominative of the verb etre, to be. 

She has not come yet. I Elle n'est pas encore venue. 

Have the women ah-eady come ? | Les femmes sont-eiles d6jk venues ? 

Tliey have not come yet. | Elles ne sont pas encore venues. 

Has your sister arrived? | Votre sceur est-elle arrivee? 



EXERCISES. 

177. 
Will you dine with us to-day ? — ^With much pleasure. — What 
have you for dinner, {quels mets avez-vous 1) — We have good soup, 
some fresh and salt meat, and some milk food. — Do you like milk 
food ■? — I like it better than {preferer a) all other food. — Are you 
ready to dine "? — I am ready. — Do you intend to set out soon ? — I 
intend setting out next week. — Do you travel alone, (seul?) — No, 
Madam, I travel with my uncle.^Do you travel on foot or in a car- 
riage 1 (Less. XLII.) — We travel in a carriage. — Did you meet any 
one in your last journey (dans votre dernier voyage) to Berlin 1 — We 
met many travellers. — What do you intend to spend your time in 
(Lesson XLIX.) this summer ] — I intend to take a short (petit) jour- 
ney. — Did you walk much in your last journey 1 — I like much to 
walk, but my uncle likes to go in a carriage. — Did he not wish to 
walk ] — He wished to walk at first, (d^abord,) but he wished to get 
into the coach (inonter en voiture) after having taken a few steps, so 
that I did not walk much. — ^What have you been doing at school to- 
day ] — We have been listening to our professor. — What did he say 1 
— He made a long (grand) speech on (sic?-) the goodness of God. 
After saying, " Repetition is the mother of studies, and a good mem- 
ory is a great benefit of God," he said, " God is the Creator of heav- 
en and earth ; the fear of the Lord is the beginning of all wisdom." 
— What are you doing all day in. this garden 1 — I am walking in it. 
— What is there in it that attracts you, (qii'est-ce qui vous y attire ?) 
— The singing of the birds attracts me, (m'y attire.) — Are there any 
nightingales in it 1 — There are some in it, and the harmony of theii 
singing enchants me. — Have those nightingales more power over (sur, 
you than the beauties of painting, or the voice of your tender (tendre] 
mother, who loves you so much ^ — I confess the harmony of the sirg- 



250 FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 

ing of those little birds has more power over me than the most ten 
der words {que les paroles les plus tendres) of my dearest friends 

178. 
What does your niece amuse herself with (Lesson XLIII.) in her 
solitude ] — She reads a good deal, and writes letters to her mother. 
—What does your uncle amuse himself with in his solitude 1 — He 
employs himself in painting and chemistry. — Does he no longer do 
any business 1 — He no longer does any, for he is too old to do it. — 
Why does he meddle with your business "? — He does not generally 
{ordinaweynent) meddle with other people's business, but he meddles 
with mine because he loves me. — Has your master made you repeat 
your lesson to-day ] — He has made me repeat it. — Did you know it ? 
— I knew it pretty well. — Have you also done some exercises ■? — I 
have done some, but what is that to you {qu'est-ce que cela vous fait) 
I beg, {je vous prie ?) — I do not generally meddle with things that do 
not concern me, but I love you so much that I concern myself much 
about (qice je m^interesse beaucoup a) what you are doing. — Does 
any one trouble his head about you 1 — No one troubles his head 
about me, for I am not worth the trouble, {je ■ri'en vaux pas la peiyie.) 
— ^Who corrects your exercises 1 — My master corrects them. — How 
{comment) does he correct them 1 — He corrects them in reading 
them, and in reading them he speaks to me. — How many things 
{cojnbien de choses) does your master do at the same time, {a la 
fois ?) — He does four tilings at the same time. — How so, {comment 
cela ?) — He reads and corrects my exercises, speaks to me and ques- 
tions me all at once, {tout a la fois.) — Does your sister sing {chanter) 
while dancing "]-- — She sings while working, but she cannot sing while 
dancing. — Has your mother left 1 — She has not left yet. — When 
will she set out 1 — She will set out to-morrow evening. — At what 
o'clock ■? — At a quarter to seven. — Have your sisters arrived ? — 
They have not arrived yet, but we expect them this evening — Will 
they spend {passer) the evening (Note 2, Less. LVL) with us ? — ■ 
They will spend it with us, for they have promised me to do so. — 
Where have you spent the morning ] — I have spent it in the coun- 
try. — Do you go every morning to the country ? — I do not go every 
morning, but twice a week. — Why has your niece not called upon 
me, {venir voir quelquhm ?) — She is very ill, and has spent the whole 
day in her room. (See end of Lesson XXIY.) 



FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



251 



FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSOISI. —Cinqua7ite-huiHeme Le^on. 

OF THE PAST FUTURE. 

The past or compound future is formed from the future of the auxiliary 
and the past participle of the verb to be conjugated. Ex. 



I sliall have loved. 
Thou wilt have loved. 
He or she will have loved. 
We shall have loved. 
You will have loved. 
Tliey will .have loved. 

I sliall have come. 
Thou wilt have come. 
He will have come. 
She will have come. 
We shall have come. 
You will have come. 
They will have come. 
They vill have come, fern. 

I shall have been praised. 
Thou wilt have been praised. 
He will liave been praised. 
She v/ill have been praised. 
We shall have been praised. 
You will have been praised. 
They will have been praised. 
riiey (f.'.m.) will have been 



To have left. 
When I have paid for the horse I 

shall have only ten crowns left. 
How much money liave you left ? 
I have one franc left. 
I have only one franc left 
How much has your brother left? 
He has one crown left. 



J'amai aimS. 

Tu auras aim6. 

II ou elle aura aime. 

Nous aureus aune. 

Vous aurez aime. 

lis (fern, elles) auront aime. 



Je serai venu, Fern, venue. 
Tu seras venu, " venue. 
II sera venu. 
Elle sera venue. 

Nous serons venus, Fejii. venues 
Vous serez venus, " venues, 
lis seront venus. 
Elles seront venues. 



J'aurai ete loue, Fern. lou6e. 
Tu awcas ete loue, " louee. 
II aura ete loue. 
Elle am'a ete louee. 
Nous aurons ete loues, fein. loupes 
Vous aurez ete loues, " louees. 
lis auront ete loues. 
Elles auront ete louees. 



t Rester 1. 

Quand j'aurai paye le ch3val il ue 

me rest era que dix ecus. 
Combien d' argent vous reste-t-i' ? 
II me resto un franc. 
II ne me reste qu'un franc. 
Combien reste-t-il Ji voire frfere ? 
II lui reste un ^cu. 



' It is hardly necessary to remark, that if one nerson only is spoken to 
i. 6 when the second person plural, vous, is employed instead of the second 
person singular, tu, no s is put to the past participle. 



252 



FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



How much has your sister left ? 
She has only three sous loft. 
How much have j^oiu- brothers left? 
I'hey have one louis left. 
When they have paid the tailor they 
will have a hundred francs left. 



Combien reste-t-il a votre soeur? 
II ne Ivii reste que trois sous. 
Combien reste-t-il a vos freres? 
II leur reste un louis. 
Quand ils auront paye le tailleior il 
leur restera cent francs. 



Ohs. A. In English the present, or the compound of the present, is used 
after the conjunctions when, as soon as, or after, when futuritj' is to be 
expressed ; but in French the future must in such instances always be em- 
ployed. Ex. 



When I am at my avmt's will you 

come to see me ? 
After you have done writing will you 

take a turn with me ? 

You will play when you have finished 

your exercise. 
What will you do when you have 

dined 1 
When I have spoken to your brother 

I shall know what I have to do. 



Quand je serai chez ma tante vien- 

drez-vous me voir? 
Quand vous aurez fini d'^crire, 

viendrez-vous faire un tour avec 

moi ? 
Vous joverez, quand vous aurez Jini 

votre theme. 
Que ferez-vous quand vous aurez 

dine ? 
Quand j'aiurai parM k votre frere je 

saurai ce que j'ai k faire. 



Idioms 

Does it rain ? 

It rains. 

Does it snow ? 

It snows. 

Is it muddy? 

It is muddy. 

Is it muddy out of doors ? 

It is very muddy. 

Is it dusty ? 

It is very dusty. 

Is it smoky ? 

It is too smoky. 

Out of doors. 



WITH Faire. 

t Fait-il de la pluie ? 

t II fait de la pluie. 

t Fait-il de la neige ? 

+ II fait de la neige. 

+ Fait-il de la boue? • 

t II fait de la boue. 

t Fait-il sale dehors ? 

t II fait trfes-sale. 

t Fait-il de la poussiere ? 

t II fait beaucoup de poussi&re. 

t Fait-il de la fum(!e ? 

t II fait trop de fumee. 

Dehors. 



To enter, to go in, to come in. 
Will }'ou go into my room ? 

I will "TO in 
Will you go in? 
I shall go in. 



Er.'.rer 1, dans. 

Voulez-vous entrer dans ma chaic- 

bre ? 
Je veux y entrer 
Y eiitierez-vous ? 
J'y entreraL 



FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



253 



To sit down. 
To sit, to be seated. 
He is seated upon the large chair. 
Sha is seated upon the bench. 



S'asseoir * 3. (See Lesson LI.) 
Etre assis ; fern, assise. 
II est assis sur la grande cliaise. 
Ella est assise sur le banc. 



To fill with. 
To fill a bottle with wine. 
Do you fill that bottle with water 1 

I fill my purse with money. 
He fills his belly with meat. 

The pocket. 



Reniplir 2, de. 

Remplir de vin une bouteille. 

Remplissez-vous d'eau cette bou- 
teille? 

Je remj lis d'argent ma bourse. 

II se remplit de viande le ventre, (a 
vulgar expression.) 

La poche. 



Have you come quite alone? | fites-vous venu tout seul? 

No, I have brought all my men along | Non, j'ai amene tout mon monde. 
with me. I 

To bring. I Amener 1. 

Obs. B. Amener must, in French, not be mistaken for apporter. The 
former is used when the object can walk, and the latter when it cannot. Ex. 



He has brought all his men along 

with him. 
Have you brought your brother along 

with you ? 
I have brought him along with me. 
■ Have you told the groom to bring me 
the horse? 

The groom. 
Are you bringing me my books ? 
I am bringing them to you. 

To take, to carry. 



II a amene tout son monde. 

Avez-vous amene votre frfere ? 

Je I'ai amene. 

Avez-vous dit au palefrenier de m'a 
, mener le cheval ? 
Le palefrenier. 
M'apportez-vous mes livres? 
Je vous les apporte. 
Mener 1. 



Obs. C. The same distinction must be observed with regard to jnener and 
•porter, as with amener and apporter. Ex. 



Will you take that dog to the sta- 
ble? 
I will take it thither. 
Are you carrying this gun to my 

father ? 
I carry it to him. 

The cane, stick. 
The stable 



Voulez-vous mener ce chien k I'l 

curie ? 
Je veux I'y mener. 
Portez-vous ce fusil k mon p6re ! 

Je le lui porte. 
La canne. 
L'ecurio. 



254 



FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



To come doion, to go down. 
To go down into tlio well. 
To go or come down the hill. 
To go down the river. 
To alight from one's horse, to di& 
mount. 

To alight, to get out. 
To go up, to mount, to ascend. 
To go up the mountain. 
Where is your brother gone to ? 
He has ascended the hill. 

To mount the horse. 
To get into the coach. 
To get on board the ship. 
To desire, to leg, to pray, to re- 
quest. 
Will you desire your brother to come 
down ? 

The beard. 
The river. 
The stream, torrent. 
To go or come up the river. 



Descendre 4. 
Descendre dans le puits. 
Descendre la montagne. 
Descendre la riviere.' 
Descendre de clieval. (Less. LII.; 

Descendre de voiture. 

Monter 1. 

Monter la montagne. 

Ou votre frere est-il alle ? 

II a mont6 la colline.'^ 

Monter k cheval. 

t Monter en voiture. 

Monter sur un vaisseau. 

Prier 1, (takes de before the infini- 
tive.) 

Voulez-vous prier votre frfere de de- 
scendre ? 

La barbe. 

La riviere, le fleuve. 

Le torrent. 

Remonter la riviere. 



EXERCISES. 
179. 
Will vour parents go into the country to-morrow 1 — They will not 
go, for it is too dusty. — Shall we take a walk to-day ?-=— We will not 
take a walk, for it is too muddy out of doors. — Do you see the cas- 
tle of my relation behind {derriere) yonder mountain, {cette mon- 
eagne-ld ?) — I see it. — Shall we go in ■? — We wdll go in if you like. 
— Will you go into that room 1 — I shall not go into it, for it is 
smoky. — I wish you a good morning. Madam, (Obs. B. Lessor. 



' The verb descendre takes the auxiliar}^ avoir in its compound tenses 
when, as in these examples, it is construed with the accusative ; otherwise 
it takes etre. Ex. II a descendu la montagne, he has gone down the moun- 
tain ; elle est descendue d'une famille konorahle, she is descended from ph 
honorable family. 

" Monter also takes avoir when, as in these e.xamples, it is construed with 
the accusative, and ^trc, when otherwise. Ex. II est monte par degres 
aux plus halites cJiarges 7nilitaires, he has ascended by degrees to the 
highest militaiy employments 



FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 255 

XXVI.) — Will you not come in 1 Will you not sit down 1 — I will 
sit down upon that large chair, — Will you tell me what has become 
of your brother 1 — I will tell you. — Where is your sister 1 — Do you 
not see her 1 She sits upon the bench. — Is your father seated upon 
ihe bench ] — No, he sits upon the chair. — Hast thou spent all tiiy 
money'? — I have not spent all. — How much hast thoii left 1 — I have 
not much left. I have but five francs left. — How much money have 
thy sisters left ? — They have but three crowns left. — Have you mo- 
ney enough left to pay your tailor 1 — I have enough left to pay him ; 
but if I pay him I shall have but little left. — How much money will 
your brothers have left 1 — They will have a hundred crowns left. — 
When will you go to Italy ■? — I shall go as soon as (aussitot que) I 
have learned Italian. — When will your brothers go to France 1 — ■ 
They will go thither as soon as they know French. — When will 
they learn it ] — They will learn it when they have found a good 
master. — How much money shall we have left when we have paid 
for our horses 1 — When we have paid for them we shall have only a 
hundred crowns left. 

180. 
Do you gain {gagner. Lesson LIII.) any thing by {a) that busi- 
ness ■? — I do not gain much by it, (y,) but my brother gains a good 
deal by- it. He fills his purse with money. — How much money have 
you gained ■? — I have gained only a little, but my cousin has gained 
much by it. He has filled his pocket with money. — Why does that 
man not work'? — He is a good-for-nothing fellow, for he does noth- 
ing but eat all the day long. He continually (toujours) fills his bel- 
ly with meat, so that he will make himself {se rendre) ill if he con- 
tinues (continue^-) to eat so much. — With what have you filled that 
bottle ■? — I have filled it with wine. — Will this man take care of ray 
horse '? — He will take care of it. — Who will take care of my ser- 
vant '? — The landlord will take care of him. — Does your servant take 
care of your horses 1 — He does take care of them. — Is he taking 
care of your clothes '? — He takes care of them, for he brushes them 
every morning. — Have you ever drunk French wine '? — I have never 
drunk any. — Is it long since you ate French bread ? — It is almost 
three years since I ate any. — Have you hurt my brother-in-law 1 — 
I have not hurt hiin, but he has cut my finger. — What has he cut 
your finger with 1 — With the knife which you have lent him. 

181. 

Is your father arrived at last ■? — FiVerybody says that he is ar- 
rived, but I have not seen him yet. — Has the physician hurt youi 
son ■? — He has hurt him, for he has cut his finger. — Have they cut 



256 ^ FIFTY-NINTH LESSON. 

off (couper) that man's leg, (a cet homme ?) — They have cut it off.— 
Are you pleased (content) with your servant ] — I am much pleased 
with him, for he is fit for any thing, (propre a tout.) — ^\Yhat does 
he know ] — He knows every thing, {tout.) — Can he ride, {inonter a 
chevall) — He can.— Has your brother returned at last from Eng- 
land ■? — He has returned thence, and has brought you a fine horse. — 
Has he told his groom to bring it to me 1 — He has told him to bring 
it you. — What do you think {que dites-vous) of that horse \ — I think 
{je dis) that it is a fine and good one, {qii'il est beau et Ion,) and beg 
you to lead it into the stable. — In what did you spend your time yes- 
terday % — I went to the concert, and afterwards {ensuite) to the 
play. — When did that man go down into the well ! — He went down 
into it this morning. — Has he come up again yet, {remonter ?) — He 
came up an hour ago. — Where is your brother % — He is in his room. 
— Will you tell him to come down] — I will tell him so, but ^e is 
not dressed "(Lesson LH.) yet. — Is your friend still {toujo:-rs\ on 
the mountain 1 — He has already come down. — Did you go down or 
up {remonter) the river ! — We went down it. — Did my cousii- syeak 
to you before he started ] — He spoke to me before he got i ito the 
coach. — Have you seen my brother? — I saw him before I went on 
board the ship. — Is it better to get into a coach than to go on board 
the ship ] — It is not worth while to get into a coach or to go on 
board the ship when one has no wish to travel. 



FIFTY-NINTH l^E^^SOls.—Cinquante-neuvieme Legion. 

OF THE IMPERFECT. 

The imperfect of the indicative is formed from the present participle by 
changing ant 

\st Person. 2d Person. 3d Person, 
For the singular into ais, ais, aft. 

For the plural into ions, iez, aie.xt. 

Pres. Participle. Imperfects 

C Je parla/s, tu parla/s, il (elle) parla?7. 
Speaking — I spoke. 1. Tmlaiit. \ Nous parh"o7!s, vous parlitr, ils (elles) 

I. paxlaient.^ 



Tlie orthography of the first and second persons smgiilar, and of the 
third person singular and plural, of the imperfect, was formerly je parlots. 
tu parlois, il parloit, ils parloient. Some authors still persist in this way of 
spelling, but they ought not to be imitated. The orthograpliy wo follow wa»^ 



FIFTY-NINTH I,KSSON. 



25? 



Pres. Part Imperfects. 

r Je dmesais, tu finissais, il (eJle) fiuis- 

I salt. 
Finisliinff — I finished. 2. Fiiiissant < , r c ■ ■ c ■ ■ i 

'= I JNoiis mussinns, vous nnissiez, ils 

l_ (elles) Umasaient. 

rJ'apercevais, tu apercevcis, il (elle) 

Perceiving — I per- 3. Aperce- J apercevaii. 

ceived. vant. j Nous apercevions, vous apercevze^, 

L ils (elles) apercevazcnf. 

rJe lendais, tu rendais, il (elle) ren- 

Reiidering — I ren- 4. Rendawi. J dait. 

dered. ] Nous leiidions, vous rendiez, ils 

l_ (elles) rendaienif. 

Ois. A. There are but tvi^o exceptions to this rule, viz. : 

C J'avazs, tu avais, il (elle) avait. 

Hsvuig — I had. 3. Ayant. < Nous a.vions, vous aviez, ils (ellee) 

^ awaient. 

Je savais, tu savafs, il (elle) savait. 

Knowuiff — I knew. 3. Sachant, ^ Nous savions, vous saviez, ils (elles) 

savaient. 



I was, thou wast, he (she) was. 
We were, you were, they were. 



J'etais, tu etais, il (elle) 6tait. 
Nous etions, vous etiez, ils (elles) 
etaient. 



Ohs. B. The imperfect is a past tense which was still present at the time 
spoken of, and may always be recognised by using the two tenns " was 

DOING," or " USED TO DO." Ex. 



When I was at Berlin I often went 

to see my friends. 
When you were m Paris you often 

went to the Champs-Elys^es. 
Rome was at first governed by kings. 

Caesar was a great man. 
Cicero was a great orator. 
Our ancestors went a hunting every 
day. 



Quand j'etais k Berlin, j'allais sou- 
vent voir mes amis. 

Quand vous etiez k Paris vous alliez 
souvent aux Champs-Elysees. 

Rome etait d'abord gouvernee par dea 
rois. 

C^sar ^tait un grand homme. 

Ciceron etait un grand orateur. 

Nos ancetres allaient tous les joius ^ 
la chasse. 



first proposed in 1675, by a lawyer of the name of B^rain, and has since 
been adopted by the generality of French authors. According to the ancient 
orthography, the conditionals and other words, as, j'aimerais, paraitre, diS' 
faiaitre, faible, monnaie, Anglais, Frangais, Hollandais, Irlandais, <Scc. 
were written : j'aimerois, paroitre, disparoiire, foible, monnoie, Angloia^ 
trangois, Jrlandois, Hollandois, Sec. 



258 



FIFTY-NINTH LESSON. 



Tho Roxnaiis cultivated the arts and 
sciences, apd rewarded merit. 

Were you walking ? 

I was not walking. 

Were you in Paris when the king 
was there ? 

I was there when he was there. 

Where were you when I was in Lon- 
don? 

At what time did you breakfast when 
you were m Germany ? 

I breakfasted when my father break- 
fasted. 

Did you work when he was work- 
ing? 

I studied when he was working. 
Some fish. 
Some game. 

When I lived at my father's I rose 
earlier than I do now. 



When we lived in that country we 
went a fishing often. 

When I was ill I kept in bed all day. 

Last summer when I was in the 
country there was a great deal of 
fruit. 



A thing. 
The same thing. 
The same man. 
It is all one, (the same.) 

Such. 
Such a nian. 
Such men. 
Such a woman 
Such things. 
Such. 
Such men merit esteem 



Les Remains cultivaient les arts et 

les sciences et recompensaient le 

merite. 
Vous promeniez-vous ? 
Je ne me promenais pas. 
Etiez-vous t Paris lorsque le roi y 

etait ? 
J'y etais lorsqu'il y etait. 
Oil etiez-vous lorsque j'etais h Lon- 

dres? 
Quand dejeuniez-vous lorsque vous 

etiez en Allemagne ? 
Je dejeunais lorsque mon pere de- 

jemiait. 
Travailliez-vous lorsqu'il travaillait ? 

J'etudiais lorsqu'il travaillait. 

Du poisson. 

Du gibier. 

Quand jo dememais chez mon pere, 

je me levais de meillure heure que 

je ne le fais k present. (See Obs 

B., Lesson LIII.) 
Quand nous demeurions dans ce 

pays-li, nous aUions souvent k la 

peche. 
Quand j'etais malade je gardais le lit 

toute la joumee. 
L'ete passe, pendant que j'etais i la 

campagne il )' avait beaucoup do 

fruit. 



Une chose. 
La meme chose. 
Le meme houmie. 
t C'est effal. 



Mas. Un tel ; fem. Cue telle. 
Uu tel homme. 
De tels hommes. 
Une telle femme. 
De telles choses. 
Pared ; fem. paieilie. 
De pareils liommos m^ritent 
I'estime. 



de 



FIFTY-NINTH LESSON. 



259 



Out 

Out of the city, (ti.e town.) 
Witliout or out doors. 
Tlie church stands outside tlio town. 
I shall wait for you before tlie town 
gate. 

The town or city gate. 
The barrier, the turnpike. 



Seldom, (rarely.) 
Some brandy. 
The life. 
To get one's livelihood by. 
I get my livelihood by working. 
He gets his living by writing. 
I gain my money by working. 
By what does that man get his live- 
liliood ? 



To p-oceed, to go on, to continue. 
He continues his speech. 

A good appetite. 

The narrative, the tale. 
The edge, the border, the shore 
The edge of the brook. 
The sea-shore. 
On the sea-shore. 

The shore, the water-side, the coast, 
the bank. 



Hors de. 

Hors de la ville. 

Dehors. 

L'cglise est hors de la viLe 

Je vous attendrai devant la porta da 

la ville. 
La porte de la ville, 
La baiTiere. 



Rarement. 

De I'eau de vie. 

La vie. 

Gagner sa vie il. 

Je gagne ma vie h. travailler. 

II gagne sa vie h, dcrire. 

Je gagne mon argent &, travailler 

A quoi cet homme gagne-t-il sa vio 1 



Continuer 1, (de or d bef. inf.) 

II continue son discours. 

Un bou appetit. 

Le conte, (la narration ) 

Le bord. 

Le bord du ruisseau. 

Le bord de la mer. 

Au bord de la mer. 

Le rivage, la rive. 



People or folks. i Gens. 

They are good folks. [ t Ce sont de bonnes gens. 

Obs. C. Gens is masculine when it comes before its adjective, and fwni- 
inine when after it. 

They are wicked people. | Ce sont de mechantes gens. 



EXERCISES. 
182. 
Were you loved when you were at Dresden, (Dresde ?) — I was 
not hated. — Was your brother esteemed when he was in London 1 — 
He was loved and esteemed. — When were you in Spain ] — I wa? 
there when you were there. — ^Who was loved and who was hated ] — 
Tho'se that v/ere good, assiduous, and obedient, were loved, and those 
who were naughty, {mechant,) idle, and disobedient weie punished, 



260 FIFTY-NINTH LESSON. 

hated, and despised. — Were you in Berlin when the king was there 1 
■ — I was there when he was there. — Was your uncle in London when 
I was there ■? — He was there when you were there. — Where were j^ou 
when I was at Dresden 1 — I was in Paris. — Where was your father 
when you were in Vienna ■? — He was in England. — At what time did 
you breakfast when you were in France 1 — I breakfasted when my 
uncle breakfasted. — Did you work when he was working 1 — I studi- 
ed when he was working. — Did your brother work when you were 
working 1 — He played when I was working. — On what (De quoi) 
lived our ancestors ■? — They lived on nothing but fish and game, for 
they went a hunting and a fishing every day. — What sort of people 
were the Romans ] — They were very good people, for they cultivated 
the arts and sciences and rewarded merit. — Did you often go to see 
your friends when you were at Berlin ■? — I went to see them of*^en. — 
Did you sometimes go to the Champs-Elysees when you were at 
Paris ? — I often went thither. 

183. 
What did you do when you lived in that country ? — When we 
lived there we went a fishing often. — Did you not go out walking-, 
{aller se promener ?) — I went out walking sometimes. — Do you rise 
early 1 — Not so early as you, but when I lived at my uncle's I rose 
earlier than I do now. — Did you sometimes keep in bed when you 
lived at your uncle's 1 — When I %\"as ill I kept in bed all day. — Is 
there much fruit this year 1 — I do not know ; but last summer, when 
I was in the country, there was a great deal of fruit. — What do you 
get your livelihood hyl — I get my livelihood by working. — Does your 
friend get his livelihood by writing'? — He gets it b}' speaking and 
writing. — Do these gentlemen get their livelihood by working ? — 
They get it by doing nothing, (a ne rienfaire,) for they are too idle 
to work. — What has your friend gained that monej^ by ' — He has 
gained it by working. — What did you get your livelihood by when 
you were in England] — I got it by writing. — Did your cousin g-et his 
livelihood by writing '! — He got it by working. — Have you ever seen 
such a person ■? — I have never seen such a one, {une pareuk.) — 
Have you already seen our church \ — I have not seen it yet. Wfje-a 
does it stand "? — It stands outside the town. If you wish to see it I 
will go with you in order to show it you. — What do the people Lve 
upon that live on tJie sea-shore ! — They live on fish alone. — Why 
will you not go a hunting any more 1 — I hunted yesterday the whole 
day, and I killed nothing but an ugly bird, so that I shall not go any 
more a hunting. — Why do you not eat !— Because I have nOt a goud 
appetite. — Why does your brother eat so much ! — Because he hcs z 
good appetite. 



SIXTIETH LESSON 



261 



184. 
Whom are you looking for 1 — I am looking for my little brother, 
—If you wish to find him you must go (il faut aller) into the garden, 
tor he is there. — The garden is large, and I shall not be able to find 
him if you do not tell me in which part {dans quelle partie) of the 
garden he is. — He is sitting under the large tree under which we 
were sitting yesterday. — Now I shall find him. — Why did you not 
bring my clothes 1 — They were not made, so that I could not bring 
them, but I bring them to you now. — You have learned your lesson ; 
why has not your sister learned hers 1 — She has taken a walk with 
my mother, so that she could not learn it, but she will learn it to- 
morrow. — ^^Vhen will you correct my exercises 1 — I will correct them 
wheu you bring me those of your sister. — Do you think you have 
made faults in them'?— I do not know.— If you have made faults you 
have not studied your lesson well ; for the lessons must be learned 
well (ilfaut bien apprendre) to make no faults in the exercises. — It 
is all the same : if you do not correct them to-day, I shall not learn 
them before {ne les apprendrai que) to-morrow. — You must not {il 
nefaut pas) make any faults in your exercises, for you have all you 
want in order to make none. 



SIXTIETH LESSON. — Soixantieme hereon. 
THE IMPERFECT— (CONTINUED.) 



I forgot, thou forgottest, he or she 

forgot. 
We forgot, you forgot, they forgot. 



J'oiibliais, tu oubliais, 11 ou elle ou 

bliait. 
Nous oublzions, vous oubhiez, lis ou 

elles oubliaieut. 



Ohs. A. Verbs whose present participle ends in iant, as oublier, ouhliant , 
rive, to laugh, riant; prier, to p»ay, to desire, priant, &c., do not di-op the 
letter i in the first and second persons pkiral of the imperfect of the indica- 
tive, (and present of the subjimctive, of which liereafter.) 



When we went to school we often 
forgot our books. 

When you went to church you often 
prayed to the Lord for your chil- 
dren. 



Quand nous allions a recole nous ou 

hliions souvent nos livres. 
Quand vous alliez k I'dglLse voua 

■pviicz souvent le Seigneur pour voa 

enfants. 



I paid, thou paidest, he or she paid. 
We paid, you paid, thoy paid. 



Je payais, tu payais, il ou elle payait. 
Nous payfons, vous payfez, ils ou 
elles payaient 



262 



SIXTIETH LESSON. 



Ohs. B. Verbs whose present participle ends in yant, as payei , payant ; 
appuyer, to support, appuyant ; croire, to believe, croyant ; s'asseoir, to sit 
down, s'asseyant ; employer, to employ, employant ; envoyer, to send, ere- 
voyant; essayer, to try, essayant ; fuir, to Hee, fuyant ; voir, to see, voy- 
ant, &c., do not drop the letter i after y in the first and second persons plu- 
ral of the imperfect of the indicative, (and present of the subjunctive, of 
which hereafter.) 



When we received some money we 
employed it in purchasing good 
books. 

When you bought of that merchant 
you did not always pay in cash. 



Quand nous recevions de I'argent 

nous I'employzons a acheter de 

bons livres. 
Quand vous achetiez chez co mar- 

chand vous ne payj'ez pas toujoura 

comptant. 



Has your sister succeeded iu mend- 
ing your cravat ? 

She has succeeded in it. 

Has the woman returned from the 
market ? 

She has not yet returned. 

Did the women agree to that 1 

They did agree to it. 

Where is your sister gone to ? 

She is gone to the church 



Votre soeur est-elle parvenue k rac- 

commoder votre cravate ? 
Elle y est parvenue. 
La femme est-elle revenue du mar- 

che? 
Elle n'en est pas encore revenue. 
Les femmes sont-elles convenues de 

eel a? 
Elles en sont convenues. 
Oil votre soeur est-elle allto? 
Elle est allee h Teslise. 



OF THE CONDITIONAL OR POTENTIAL PRESENT. 

This mood is formed from the Future by changing the endings 

RAI, RAS, RA, RON'S, REZ, RONT, iutO 

RAIS, RAIS, RAIT, RIONS, RIEZ, RAIEXT. 

Ohs. C. It will be observed that the conditional is like the future a 
as the letter r, after which it is exactly like the imperfect Ex. 

I should have, thou wouldst have, he I J'aurais, tu aUrais, il ou elle aurait 

or she would have. 1 

We should have, you would have, 1 Nous aurions, vous auriez, ils ou elles 

thoy would have. I auraient. 



far 



A should be, thou wouldst be, he or I Jo serais, tu serais, il ou elle serait 

she would be. | 

We should be, you would be, they Nous serious, vous seriez.. ils ou elle.-> 

would bo ! seraient. 



SIXTIETH LESSON. 



263 



1 should speak, thou wouldst speak, 

he or she would speak. 
We should speak, you would speak, 

they would speak. 



Jo parlerais, tu parlerais, il ou elle 

parlerait. 
Nous parlerions, vous parleriez, ils ou 
»r- elles parleraient. 



Ohs. D. Whenever this mood is used, there is always an if in the sen- 
tence, expressed or understood ; but the verb which immediately follows ir 
must be in the imperfect tense. 



If I had money I would have a new 

coat. 
If thou couldst do this thou wouldst 

do that. 
If he could he would. 
I would go if I had time. 
If he knew what you have done he 

would scold you. 

To scold. 
If there were any wood he would 

make a fire. 
Should the men come, it would be 

necessary to give them sometliing 

to drink. 
Should we receive our letters, we 

would not read them until to-mor- 
row. 
Not until, (meaumg not before.) 



Si j'avais de I'argent j'aurais un habit 

neuf. 
Si tu savais faire ceci tu voudrais 

faire cela. 
S'il pouvait il voudrait. 
J'irais si j'avais le temps. 
S'il savait ce que vous avez fait il 

vous gronderait. 
Gronder 1. 
S'il y avait du bois il ferait du feu. 

Si les hommes venaient, il faudrait 
leur donner quelque chose <l boire 

Si nous recevions nos lettres, nous 
ne les lirions pas avant domain. 

Pas avant, (takes de before inf ) 



CONDITIONAL OR POTENTIAL PAST. 

This is formed from the present of the conditional of the auxiliary, and 
the past participle of the verb to be conjugated. Ex. 



I should, thou wouldst, he or she 

would have spoken. 
We should, you would, they would 

have spoken. 



I should, thou wouldst, ^ 

he or she would > departed. 

have J 

We should, you ^ 

would, they would /departed. 

have * 



J'aurais, tu aurais, il ou elle aiuait 

parl^. 
Nous am-ions, vous auriez, ils ou elles 

auraient parle. 



il ou elle serait ^ fern, partie. 

Nous serions, vous ^ pi. mas. partis ; 
seriez, Os ou elles > pi. fern, par- 
seraient J ties. 



264 



SIXTIETH LESSON. 



If I had received my money I would 

have bought new shoes. 
If he had had a pen he would have 

recollected the word. 
If you had risen early, you would 

not have caught a cold. 

If they had got rid of their old horse, 
they would have procured a better 
• one. 

If he had washed his hands he would 
have vi^ipod them. 

If I knew that, I would behave dif- 
ferently. 

If I had known that, I would have 
behaved differently. 

If thou hadst taken notice of that, 
thou wouldst not have been mis- 
taken. 



Would you learn French if I learned 

it? 
I would learn it if you learned it. 
Would you have learned German if 

I had learned it? 
I would have learned it if you had 

learned it. 
Would you go to France if I went 

thither with you ? 
I would go thither, if you went thith- 
er with me. 
Would you have gone to Germany, 

if I had gone thither with you ? 
Would you go out if I remained at 

home ? 
I would remain at home if you went 

out. 
Would you have written a letter if I 

had written a vote ? 



Si j'avais re5U mon argent, j'auraia 

achete des souliers neufs. 
S'il avait eu une plume, il se serait 

rappele le mot. 
Si vous vous ^tiez leve de bonne 

heure, vous ne vous seriez pas en- 

rhume. 
S'ils s'etaient defaits de leur vieux 

cheval, ils s'en seraient procure un 

meilleur. 
S'il s'etait lave les mains, il se les 

serait essu3'ees. 
Si je savais cela, je me comporterais 

difFeremraent. 
Si j'avais su cela, je me serais com- 

porte autrement. 
Si tu t'etais aper^u de cela, tu ne te 

serais pas trompe. 



Apprendriez-vous le franyais si je 
I'apprenais ? 

Je I'apprendrais si vous I'appreniez. 

Auriez-vous appris I'allemand bi je 
I'avais appris ? 

Je I'aurais appris si vous I'aviez ap- 
pris. 

Iriez-vous en France, si j'y allaia 
avec vous ? 

J'irais, si vous y alliez avec moi. 

Seriez-vous alle en Allemagne, si j'y 

etais alle avec vous ? 
Sortiriez-vous si je restais &. la mai- 

son? 
Je resterais h. la maison, si vous sor- 

tiez. 
Auriez-vous ^crit une lettre si j'avaia 

^crit un bil-let ? 



There is my book. 
Behold my book. 
Here is mjr book. 
There il is. 



Voila, mon livre. 

Voici mon livre. 

Le vc'Ik ; fern, la voLl^ 



SIXTIETH LESSON. 



265 



There they are. 

Here I am 
That is the reason why. 
Therclore I say so. 



Les voilk. 

Me voici. 

Voili pourquci. 

Voilil pourquoi je le dia 



My feet are cold. 

His feet are cold. 

Her hands are cold. 

My body is cold. 

My head hurts me. 

Her leg hurts her. 
He has a pain in his side. 
Her tongue hurts her very much. 

A plate. 
The son-in-law. 
The step-son. 
The daughter-in-law. 
The step-daughter. 
Tlie progress. 
To profit. 
To improve in learning. 

The progress of a malady. 



The father-in-law, the step-father. 
The mother-in-law, the step-mother. 



t J'ai froid aux pieds. 

t II a froid aux pieds. 

t Elle a froid aux mains. 

t J'ai froid au corps. 

t La tete me fait mal. 

t La jambe lui fait maL 

t II a mal au c6te. 

t La langue lui fait beaucoup de mal. 



Une assiette. 

Le beau-fils, le gendre. 

Le beau-fils. 

La belle-fiUe, la bru. 

La belle-fiUe. 

Le progrfes. 

t Faire des progr&s. 

t Faire des progres dans les Etudes, 

dans les sciences. 
Le progrfes or les progres d'une mala- 

die.' 
Le beau-pfere. 
La belle-mfere. 



EXERCISES. 
185. 
Did you forget any thing when you went to school 1 — We often 
forgot our books. — ^Where did you forget themi — We forgot them 
at the school. — Did we forget any thing ■? — You forgot nothing. — 
Did your mother pray for any one when she went to church ■? — 5he 
prayed for her children. — For whom did we pray ■? — You prayed for 
your parents. — For whom did our parents pray ? — They prayed for 
their children. — When you received your money what did you do 
with it, {qu'en faisiez-vous ?) — ^We employed it in purchasing some 
good books. — Did you employ yours also in purchasing books ] — ■ 
No; we employed it in assisting the poor, (a secourir les pauvres.) 

* All nouns ending in ie are feminine. This ending frequently answers 
to the English termination y. 



266 SIXTIETH LESSON. 

— Did you not pay yaur tailor 1 — ^We did pay him. — Did you aiwaya 
pay in cash when you bought of that merchant 1 — We always paid 
in cash, for we never buy on credit. — Has your sister succeeded in 
mending your stockings 1 — She has succeeded in it. — Has your 
mother returned from church ] — She has not yet returned. — Whither 
has your aunt gone 1 — She has gone to church. — Whither have oui 
cousins (fem.) gone 1 — They have gone to the concert. — Have they 
not yet returned from it 1 — They have not yet returned. 

186. 

Who is there 1 — It is I, (c^est moi.) — Who are those men 1 — They 
are foreigners who wish to speak to you. — Of what country are 
they 1 — They are Americans. — ^Where is my book I — There it is. — 
And my pen 1 — Here it is. — Where is your sister 1 — There she is. — 
Where are our cousins, (fem. 1) — There they are. — Where are you, 
John, (Jean ?) — Here I am. — Why do your children live in France T 
— They wish to learn French ; that is the reason why they live ir, 
France. — Why do you sit near the fire ■? — My hands and feet are 
cold ; that is the reason why I sit near the fire. — Are your sister's 
hands cold 1 — No ; but her feet are cold. — ^^'V^lat is the matter with 
your aunt ] — Her leg hurts her. — Is any thing the matter with you ? 
— My head hurts me. — What is the matter with that woman 1 — Her 
tongue hurts her very much. — Why do you not eat ? — I shall not eat 
before I have {avant (Tavoir) a good appetite. — Has your sister a 
good appetite ] — She has a very good appetite ; that is the reason 
why she eats so much. — If you have read tiie books which I lent 
you why do you not return them to me ] — I intend reading them once 
more, {encore une fois ;) that is the reason why I have not jet re- 
turned them to you ; but I will return them to you as soon as I have 
read them a second time, {pour la seconde fois.) — Why have you 
not brought my shoes ] — They were not made, therefore I did not 
bring them ; but I bring them you now : here they are. — ^^Yhy has 
your daughter not learned her exercises 1 — She has taken a walk with 
her companion, (fem. ;) that is the reason why she has not learned 
them : but she promises to learn them to-morrow, if j'ou do not 
scold her. 

187. 

Would you have money if your father were hare ^ — I should have 
some if he were here. — Would you have been pleased if I had had 
some books ] — I should have been much pleased if you had had 
some. — Would you have praised my little brother if he had been 
good'^ — -If he had been good I should certainly {certainement) not 
onlj {non settlement) have praised, but also loved, honored, (honorer,'^ 



SIXTIETH LESSON. 267 

and rewarded him. — Should we be praised if we did our exercises 1 
— If you did them without a fault (sans faute) you would be praised 
and rewarded. — Would my brother not have been punished if he had 
done his exercises 1 — He would not have been punished if he had 
done them. — Would my sister have been praised if she had not been 
skilM ! — She would certainly not have been praised if she had not 
been very skilful, and if she had not worked from morning (depuis ie 
matin) till evening. — Would you give me something if I were very 
good ■? — If you were very good, and if you worked well, I would give 
you a fine book. — Would you have written to your sister if I had gone 
to Paris '\ — I would have written to her, and sent her something 
handsome if you had gone thither. — Would you speak if I listened 
to you ■? — I would speak if you listened to me, and if you would an- 
swer me. — Would you have spoken to my mother if you had seen 
her 1 — I would have spoken to her, and have begged of her {frier 
quelqu'un) to send you a handsome gold watch {la montre en or) if 
I had seen her» 

188. 

One of the valet de chambres {un des valets de chamhre) of Louis 
XIV. {de Louis XIV.) requested that prince, as he was going to 
bed, {comme il se mettait au lit,) to recommend {de faire recom- 
mnnder) to the first president {a Monsieur le premier president) a 
lawsuit {un proces) which he had against {contra) his father-in-law, 
and said, in urging him, {en le pressant :) " Alas, {Helas,) Sire, 
{Sire,) you have but to say one word." " Well," {Eh !) said Louis 
XIV., " it is not that which embarrasses me, (ce n''est pas de quoi 
ie suis en peine ;) but tell me, {dis-moi,) if thou wert in thy father- 
in-law's place, (a la place de — ,) and thy father-in-law in thine, 
wouldst thou be glad {hien aise) if I said that word V 

If the men should come it would be necessary to give them some- 
thing to drink. — If he could do this he would do that. — I have al- 
ways flattered myself, my dear brother, that you loved me as much 
as I love you ; but I now see that I have been mistaken. I should 
like {je voudrais) to know why you went a walking without me. — I 
have heard, my dear sister, that you are angry with me, {etre fdche 
contre quelqu'un,) because I went a walking without you. I assure 
you that, had I known that you were not ill, I should have come for 
you, {venir chercher quelqu''un ;) but I inquired {sHnformer) at {chez) 
your physician's about your health, {de votre sante,) and he told me, 
that you had been keeping your bed {que vous gardiez le lit) the last 
flight days, (deptiis knit 70vrs.) 



268 



SIXTY-FIRST LESSON. 



189. 
A French officer having arrived {etant arrive) at the court {Ja cour) 
of Vienna, the empress Theresa {Therese) asked (demanda) him, if 
he believed that the princess of N., whom he had seen the day be- 
fore, (la veille,) was really the handsomest woman in the {du) world, 
as was said. (See Obs. A. Lesson XLIV.) " Madam," replied 
(repliqua) the officer, "I thought so yesterday." — How do you like 
(Lesson XLI.) that meat ? — I like it very well. — IMay I ask you for 
(oserais-je vous demander) a piece of that fish \ — If you will have 
the goodness {la honte) to pass me your plate I will give you some. 
— Would you have the goodness to pour me out {verser) some drink, 
(a hoire ?) — With much pleasure. — Cicero, seeing his son-in-law, 
who was very short, (petit,) arrive (venir) with a long sword (une 
longue epee) at his side, {au cote,) said, " Who has fastened (qui est- 
ce qui a attache) my son-in-law to this sword "?" (See end of Les- 
son XXIV.) 



SIXTY-FIRST LESSON.— 5ofa:a?zie et unieme Lefon. 



What has become of your aunt ? 
I do not know wliat has become of 

her. 
What lias become of your sisters ? 
I cannot tell you what has become of 

them. 



To die, (to loss life.^ 

I die, thou diest, he or she dies. 

Shall or will you die ? 

I shall die. 

The man died this morning, and 

wife died also. 
The man is dead. 
The woman died this morninsr 



his 



Qu'est devenue votre tante ? 

Je ne sais pas ce qu'elle est devenue. 

Que sont devenues vos sceuts ? 
Je ue peux pas vous dire ce qu'ellea 
sont deveuues. 



Mourir * 2 ; pres. part, mourant ; 

past part. mort. 
Je meurs, tu meurs, il ou elle meurt. 
Mourrez-vous ? (See Less. XLVI ) 
Je mourrai. 
L'homme est mort ce matin, et sa 

femme est morte aiissi. 
L'homme est mort. 
La femme est morte ce matin. 



Wine sells well. 
Wine will sell well next year. 

That door shuts easily. 

That Vi'indow does not open easily. 



t Le vin se vend bien. 

t Le vin se vendra bien I'auuee pro 

chaine. 
t Cetto porte se ferme facilemeut. 
t Cette fenfitre ne s'ouvre pas facile- 

ment 



SIXTY-FXKST LKSSON. 



269 



riiat picture is seen far off. 

Far ofF, from afar. 
Winter clothes are not worn in sum- 
mer. 
That is not said. 
That cannot be comprehended. 
To conceive, to comprehend. 

It is clear. 



According to circumstances. 
The circumstance. 
That is according to circumstances. 
It depends. 



Glad. 
Pleased. 

Sorry, displeased. 
Are you rich ? ^ 
I am. 

Are the women handsome ? 
They are ; they are rich and hand- 
some. 
Are you from France ? 
I am. 

What countrywoman is she ? 
She is from France. 
Would you be sorry if yoa were 

rich ? 
I should not be sorry for it. 
To be angry luith somehody. 
To he angry about something. 
What are you angry about ? 
Are you soiTy for having done it ? 
I am sorry for it. 

Honest, polite. 
Impolite. 
Polite, courteous. 
Impolite, uncivil. 
Happy, lucky. 
Unhappy, unlucic} . 
Easy. 
Difficult. 
Useful. 
Useless. 



t Ce tableau so ?oit de loin. 

De loin. 

t Les v6tement3 d'hiver ne se portem 

pas en 6i€. 
t Cela ne se dit pas. 
t Cela ne se congoit pas. 
Concevoir 3. 
C'est clair. 



t Selon les circonstances. 
La circonstance, 

■ t C'est selon. 



Bien aise, (de before inf.) 

Content, (de before inf.) 

Fachg. 

fites-vous riche ? 

Je le suis. 

Les femines sont-elles belies? 

Elles le sont ; elles sont richoe ct 

belles, 
fites-vous de France ? 
J'en suis. 

De quel pays est-elle ? 
Elle est de France. 
Seriez-vous ikc'a6 si vous etiez riche ? 

Je n'en serais pas f^chd. 

Eire fdche centre quelqu'un. 

Etre fdche de quelque chose. 

De quoi 6tes-vous id.ch6 ? 

fites-vous fadie de I'avoir fait ? 

J'en suis fa,che. 

Honnete. 

Malhonnete. 

Poll. 

Impoli. 

Heureux ; fern heureuse. 

Malheureux ; " malheureuee 

Facile. 

Difficila 

Utile. 

Inutile. 



270 



SIXTY-FIRST LESSON. 



Is it useful to write a great deal ? 

It i? useful. 

Is it well (right) to take the property 

of others ? 
It is bad, (wrong.) 
It is not well, (wrong.) 

Well, right. 

Bad, wrong. 



Est-il utile d'ecrire beaucoup ? 

C'est utile. 

Est-il bien de prendre le bien des 

autres ? 
C'est mal. 
Ce n'est pas bien. 
Bien. 
Mal. 



Of what use is that ? 
That is of no use. 
What is that ? 
I do not know what that is 

What is it ? 

I do not know what it is. 



t A quoi cela est-il bon ? 

t Cela n'est bon k rien. 

t Qu'est-ce que c'est que cela ? 

t Je ne sals pas ce que c'est que 

cela. 
t Qu'est-ce que c'est ? 
t Je ne sais pas ce que c'est. 



What is your namel 
My name is Charles. 
What do you call this in French ? 

How do you express this in French ? 
What is that called ? 



t Comment vous appelez-vou3 ? 

t Je m'appelle Charles. 

t Comment cela s'appelle-t-il en fran- 

9ais? 
t Comment dit-on cela en fran9ais? 
Comment appelle-t-on cela ? 



George the Third. | George trois. 
Ohs. A. After the Christian name of a sovereign, the French employ 
the cardinal numbers without an article, while the English use the ordinal. 
Lewis the Fourteenth. I Louis quatorze. 

Henry the Fourth. | Henri quatre. 

Ohs. B. First and second, however, are exceptions to this rule : ior first. 
the French use premier ; and for second, either deux or second. Quint in- 
stead of cinq is also used in speaking of the emperor Charles V., and of the 
pope Sixtus V. 



Henry the First. 
Henry the Second. 
Sixtus the Fifth. 
Charles the Fifth spoke severa Eu- 
ropean languages fluently. 
Europe, European. 
Fluently. 



Henri premier 

Henri second or Henri deux.^ 

Sixte-Quint. 

Charles-Quint parlait courammeul 

plusieurs laugues europ<Sennes. 
L'Europe, europi^en. 
Couramraent. 



Rather. 
Rather — than. 



] Plutot — que. 
I Plut6t— que de. 



SIXTY-FIRST LESSON. 



271 



Rathdr than squander my money I 

will keep it. 
I will rather pay him than go thither. 
I will rather burn the coat than wear 

it. 
He has arrived sooner than I. 
A half-worn coat. 
To do things imperfectly, (by halves.) 



Plut6t que de dissiper mon argent je 

le garderai. 
Je le paierai plut6t que d'y aller. 
Je brCilerai plut6t I'habit quo de le 

porter. 
II est arriv^ plus t6t que moi. 
t Un habit &. demi us6. 
t Faire les choses k demi. 



EXERCISES. 

190. 

Wliat has become of your uncle 1 — I will tell you what has bo- 
come of him. — Here is the chair {la chaise) upon which he often 
sat, (etre assis, Lesson LVIII.) — Is he dead] — He is dead. — When 
did he die 1 — He died two years ago. — I am very much afflicted 
{afflige) at it. — Why do you not sit down 1 — If you will stay with 
(auprds de) me I will sit down ; but if you go I shall go along with 
you. — What has become of your aunt 1 — I do not know what has be- 
come of her. — Will you tell me what has become of your sister 1 — I 
will tell you what has become of her. — Is she dead 1 — She is not 
dead. — What has become of her 1 — She is gone to Vienna. — What 
has become of your sisters ^ — I cannot tell you what has become of 
them, for I have not seen them these two years. — Are your parents 
still alive 1 — They are dead. — How long is it since your cousin (fem.) 
died 1 — It is six months since she died. — Did wine sell well last 
year '?— It did not sell very well, (pas trop bien ;) but it will sell bet- 
ter (mieuy;) next year, for there will be a great deal, and it will not 
be dear. — Why do you open the door 1 — Do you not see how it 
smokes here "? — I see it, but you must (il faut) open the window in- 
stead of opening the door. — The window does not open easily ; that 
is the reason why I open the door. — When will you shut it ? — I will 
shut it as soon as there is (Obs. A. Lesson LVIII.) no more smoke. 
— Did you often go a fishing when you were in that country T — We 
often went a fishing and a hunting. — If you will go with us into the 
country you will see my father's castle. — You are very polite, Sir ; 
but I have seen that castle already. 

191. 
When did you see my father's castle \ — I saw it when I was trav- 
elling last year. It is a very fine castle, and is seen far oflf. — How 
is that said T — That is not said. That cannot be comprehended. — ■ 
Cannot every thing be expressed in your language ? — Every thing 
can be expressed, but not as in yours. — Will you rise early to-mor- 



372 SIXTY-FIRST LESSON. 

row ? — It will depend upon circumstances ; if I go to bed early 1 
shall rise early, but if I- go to bed late I shall rise late. — Will you 
love my children 1 — If they are good I shall love them. — ^Will you 
dine with us to-morrow ] — If you get ready (faire preparer) the food 
I like I shall dine with you. — Have you already read the letter which 
you received this morning 1 — I have not opened it 3^et. — When will 
you read it 1 — I shall read it as soon as I have time. — Of what use 
is that 1 — It is of no use. — ^V/hy have you picked it up 1 — I have 
picked it up in order to show it you. — Can you tell me what it is 1 — ■ 
I cannot tell you, for I do not knov/ ; but I will ask {demander a, 
Lesson XL.) my brother, who will tell you. — ^Where did you find it ] 
— I found it on the shore of the river, near the wood. — Did you per- 
ceive it from afar 1 — I had no need to perceive it from afar, for I 
passed by the side of the river. — Have you ever seen such a thing? 
— Never. — Is it useful to speak much ■? — It is according to circum- 
stances : if one wishes to learn a foreign {etranger) language it is 
useful to speak a great deal. — Is it as useful to write as to speak 1 — 
It is more useful to speak than to write ; but in order to learn a for- 
eign language one must do both, {Vun et VauLre.) — Is it useful to 
write all that one says 1 — That is useless. 

192. 

Where did you take this book from 1 — I took it out of {dans) the 
room of your friend, (fem.) — Is it right to take the books of other 
people "! — It is not right, I know ; but I wanted it, and I hope that 
your friend will not be displeased, for I will return it to her as soon 
as I have read (Obs. A. Lesson LVIII.) it. — What is your name ] — 
my name is William, (Guillaume.) — What is your sister's name ] — 
Her name is Eleanor, (Leonore.) — Why does Charles complain of 
his sister 1 — Because she has taken his pens. — Of whom do those 
children complain 1 — Francis (Franpois) complains of Eleanor, and 
Eleanor of Francis. — Who is right "? — They are both (lous deux) 
wrong ; for Eleanor wishes to take Francis's books, and Francis 
Eleanor's. — To whom have you lent Racine's works, (les ceuvres 
de ?) — I have lent the first volume to William and the second to 
Louisa, (Louise.) — How is that said in French 1 — It is said thus, 
(ainsi.) — How is that said in German T — That is not said in Ger- 
man. — Has the tailor brought you your new coat ! — He has brought 
it me, but it does not fit (Lesson XLVII.) me well. — Will he make 
you another 1 — He will make me another ; for rather than wear it I 
will give it away, {dormer.) — Will you use that horse ? — I shall not 
use it. — Why will you not use it ! — Because it does not suit me.^ 
Will you pay for it ! — I will ratlier pay for it than use it. — To whom 



SIXTY-SECOND LESSON. 273 

s'o those fine books belong, (a qui appartiennent ?) — They belong to 
William. — Who has given them to him 1 — His father. — Will he read 
them ■? — He will tear them rather than read them. — Who has told 
you that ■? — He has told me so himself, ijui-meme.) 

193. 

What countrywoman is that lady, {la dame ?) — She is from France. 
— Are you from France 1 — No, I am from Germany. — Why do you 
not give your clothes to mend ] — It is not worth while, for I must 
have new clothes. — Is the coat which you wear not a good one 1 — 
It is a half-worn coat, and is good for nothing. — Would you be sorry 
if your mother were to arrive to-day ? — I should not be sorry for it. 
■ — Would your sister be sorry if she were rich 1 — She would not be 
sorry for it. — Are you angry with any one ]— I am angry with 
Louisa, who went to the opera without telling me a word of it. — • 
Where were you when she went out 1 — I was in my room. — I assure 
you that she is very sorry for it ; for had she known that you were 
in your room, she would have called you in order to take you along 
with her to the opera. — Charles V., who spoke fluently several Eu- 
ropean languages, used to say, {avait coutume de dire,) that we should 
s^e^k. {qii'il fallait parler) Spanish with the gods, Italian with ou-r 
{son) friend, (fem.,) French with our friend, (mas.,) German with 
soldiers, English with geese, {une oie,) Hungarian {hongrois) with 
horses, and Bohemian {bohemien) v/ith the devil, {le diable.) (See 
end of Lesson XXIV.) , 



SIXTY-SECOND IjE^^O'^ .—Soixante-deuxieme Lc^on, , 

As to, {as for.) I Quant a. 

As to me. I Quant k moi. 

As to that, I do not know what to Quant &. cela, je ne sals que dire, 
say. I 

Obs. A. What, befcre an infinitive, is translated by que ; and if tlie 
sentence is negative, pas is not used. 



I do not know what to do. 
I do not know where to go. 
He does not know what to answer. 
' We do not know what to buy. 



Je ne sais que faire. 

Je ne sais ou aller. 

II ne sait que repondre. 

Nous ne savons qu'acheter. 



To die of a disease. I Mcurir d'une njaladie 

She died of the small-pox. | EUe est morto de la petite v^role 



274 



SIXTY-SECOXD LESSON. 



Tiie small-pox. 
Tlie fever. 
Tlie intermittent fever. 

Tlie apoplexy. 

He liad a cold fit. 
He lias an ague. 
His fever has returned. 
He has been struck with apoplexy. 
To strike. 



Sure. 
To be sure of a thing. 

I am sure of that. 

I am sure that she has arrived. 
I am sure of it. 
Something has happened. 
Nothing has happened. 
What has happened ? 
What has happened to her? 
She had an accident. 



To shed, to pour out. 
f A tear. 

To shed tears. 
To pour out some drink. 
I pour out some drink for that man. 
With tears in his, her, our, or my 
eyes. 



Sweet, mild. 
Sour, acid. 
Some sweet wine. 
A mild air. 
A mild zephyr. 
A soft sleep. 
Nothing makes life more agreeable 
than the society of^ and intercourse 
with, our friends. 



La petite v^role. 

La fievre. 

La fievre intermittente. 
i L'attaque d'apoplexie. 
^ L'apoplexie. 

t II avait un acces de fievre 

t La fievre I'a pris. 

+ La fievre I'a repris, 

II a ete frappe d'apoplexie. 

Frapper 1. 



Sur, sure. 

Eire sur de quelque cjinse. 

J'en suis stir. 

Je suis sur de cela. 

Je suis sur qu'elle est ajriv^e. 

J'en suis sur. 

II est arrive quelque chose. 

II u'est rien arriv6. 

Qu'est-il arrive? 

Que liji est-il arrive? 

II lui est arrive un accident. 



Verser 1. ' 

Une larme. 

Verser des larnies. 

Verser h boire. 

t Je verse a boire &. cet homme. 

Les larmes aux yeux. 



Doux ; fern, douce. 

Siu-. 

Du vin doux. 

Un air doux. 

Un doux zephir. 

Un doux sommeil. 

Rien ne rend la vie 



soci^te et 
amis. 



:i douce que \f 



commerce de no6 



To repair to. 
To repair to the army, to one's regi- 
ment. 



Se rend re a. 

Se rendre i I'arm^e, i son rdgimeut 



SIXTV SECOND LESSON. 



275 



All army, a regiment. 
I repaired to that place. 
He repaired thither. 



To cry, to scream, to shriek 
To help. 

I help him to do it. 
I help you to write. 
I will help you to Vi^ork. 

To cry out for help. 
The help. 



To inquire after some one. 
Will you have the goodness to pass 

me that plate? 
Will you pass me that plate, if you 
please ? 

If you please. 
As you please. 
At your pleasure. 
As you like. 
To knock at the door. 



To trust some one. 

To distrust one. 
Do you trust that man? 
I do trust him. 
He trusts me. 
We must not trust everybody 

To laugh at something. 



I laugh, thou laughest, he or she 
laughs. 

Do you laugh at that ? 

I do laugh at it 

At what do they laugh ? 



Une armee, ua regiment. 

Jo me suis rendu k cet endroit. 

II s'y est rendu. 



Crier 1. 

Aider 1, (governs the accus. and 
takes d before the inf.) 

Je I'aide S. le faire. 

Je vous aide il ^crire. 

Je veux vous aider k travailler. 
( Crier k I'aide. 
( Appcler du secours. 
I L'aide,' le secours. 



S'informer 1, de quelqu'un. 
Voulez-vous avoir la bonte de me 

passer ce plat? 
Voulez-vous me passer ce plat, s'il 

vous plait? 
S'il vous plait. 

Comme il vous plaira. 

Frapper 1, a la porte-. 



t Sc Jier 1, a quelqu'un. 

t Se defier de quelqu'un. 

Vous fiez-vous k cet homme? 

Je me fie k lui. 

II se fie cL moi. 

II ne faut pas se fier k tout le monde. 



Rire * 4, de quelque chose ; pres 

part, riant; past part. ri. 
Je ris, tu ris, il ou elle rit. 

Riez-vous de cela? 

J'en ris. 

De quoi rient-ils ; fern, elles? 



' Aide, in the signification of help, is feminine ; it is masculine when it 
means an assistant. 



276 



SIXTY-SECOND LESSON. 



To laugh in a person's face. 

We laughed in liis face. 
To laugh at, to deride some one, 
I Is'jgh at (deride) you. 
Did you laugli at us? 

We did not laugli at you. 



Full. 
A book full of errors. 



To afford. 
Can you afford to buy that horse ! 

I can afford it. 
I cannot afford it. 



Who is there ? 
It is I. 
It is not I. 
Is it he ? 
It is not he. 

Arc they your brothers ? 

It is they. 
It is not they 
Is it she ? 
It is she. 
It is not she 

Are they your sisters? 

It is they, (feininine.) 
It is not they. " 
It is I who speak. 

Is it they who laugh ? 

It is you who laugh. 

It is thou who hast done it 

Ii is you, gentlemen, who have said 

that. 
We learu French, my brother and I. 



Rire au nez de quelqu'un. 

Nous lui avons ri au nez. 
Se rire, ou se moquer de quelqu'un. 
Je me ris (me moque) de tous. 
Vous riiez-vous de uous ? (See Oba 

A. Lesson LX.) 
Nous ne nous riions pas de vous. 



Pleiu, pleme. 

Un livre plein de fautes. 



f Avoir les moyens, {de before infini- 
tive.) 

t Avez-vous les moyens d'achetei ce 
cheval ? 

t J'en ai-les moyens. 

t Je n'en ai pas les moyeiia 



Qui est la, ? 

C'est moi. 

Ce n'est pas moi. 

Est-ce lui ? 

Ce n'est pas lui. 

Sont-ce vos freres? or, 

Est-ce que ce sout vos frferes? 

Ce sout eux. 

Ce ne sont pas eux. 

Est-ce elle 1 

C'est elle. 

Co n'est pas elle. 

Sont-ce vos soeurs? or, 

Est-ce que ce sont vos soeure ? 

Ce sont elles. 

Ce ne sont pas elles. 

C'est moi qui parle. 

Sont-ce eux (elles) qui rieut? or, 

Est-ce que cs sont eux i^elles) qui 

rient ? 
C'est vous qui riez. 
C'est toi qui I'as fait. 
C'est vous, IVIessieurs, qui avez dit 

cela. 
t Mon frfere et moi nous appreuous le 

frangais. 



SIXTY-SECOND LESSON. 



277 



Obs. B. The personal pronoun must be repeated before tlie verb wlien it 
has two or more nominatives, of different persons. 



You and I will go into the country. 
You and he will stay at home. 

You will go to the country and I will 
return to town. 

A lady. 

What were you doing when your tu- 
tor was here ? 

I was doing nothing. 

What did you say ? 

I said nothing. 



t Vous et moi nous irons i la cam- 

pagne. 
t Vous et lui vous resterez a la mai- 



Vous irez k la campagne, et moi je 

reviendrai k la ville. 
Une dame. 
Que faisiez-vous quand votre institu- 

teur etait ici ? 
Je ue faisais rien. 
Que disiez-vous? 
Je ue disais rien. ^ 



EXERCISES. 
194. 

Of what illness did your sister die 1 — She died of {de la) fever.— ^ 
How is your brother "? — My brother is no longer living. He died 
three months ago. — I am surprised {etonne) at it, for he was very 
well last summer when I was in the country. Of what did he die ? 
— He died of apoplexy. — How is the mother of your friend ] — She 
is not well ; she had an attack of ague the day before yesterday, and 
this morning the fever has returned. — Has she an intermittent fever ? 
— I do not know", but she often has cold fits. — What has become of 
the woman whom I saw at your mother's % — She died this morning 
of apoplexy. — Do your scholars learn their exercises by heart ■? — ■ 
They wiir rather tear them than learn them by heart. — What does 
this man ask me for ? — He asks you for the money which you owe 
him. — If he wall repair to-morrow morning {deinain niatin) to my 
house I will pay him what I owe him. — He will rather lose his mo- 
ney than repair thither. — Why does the mother of our old servant 
shed tears I What has happened to her 1 — She sheds tears because 
the old clergyman, {le vieil ecclesiastique,) her friend, who was so 
very good to her, (qui luifaisait tant de Men,) died a few days ago. 
— Of what illness did he die 1 — He was struck with apoplexy. — 
Have you helped your father to write his letters ? — I have helped 
him. — Will you help me to work when we go to town ■? — I will help 
you to work if you help me to get a livelihood. 

195. 

Have you inquired after the merchant who sells so cheap ■? — ^I 
have inquired after him, but nobody could tell me what has become of 



278 SIXIY-SECOJMD LESSON. 

him.— Where did he live when you were here three years ago 7 — 
He lived then (alors) in Charles-street, (rue Charles,) No. 57. — 
How do you like (Lesson XLI.) this wine 1 — I like it very well, but 
it is a. little sour. — How does your sister like those apples, (la pom- 
me ?) — She likes them very well, but she says that they are a little 
too sv.-eet. — Will you have the goodness to pass that plate to me ! — 
With much pleasure. — Shall I (faut-il) pass these fishes to you ? — 
I will thank you to {je vous prie de) pass them to me. — Shall I 
ifaut-il) pass the bread to your sister "] — You will oblige her by 
{vous lui ferez plaisir de) passing it to her. — How does your mother 
like our food 1 — She likes it ver}'^ well, but she says that she has 
eaten enough. — What dost thou ask me for % — Will you be kind 
enough to (je vous prie de) give me a little bit {un petit morceau) of 
that mutton 1 — Will you pass me the bottle, if you please ? — Have 
you not drunk enough ] — Not yet, for I am still thirsty. — Shall I give 
you ifaut-il vous verser) some wine ■? — No ; I like cider better. — 
Why do you not eat? — I do not know what to eat. — 'Who knocks at 
the door "? — It is a foreigner. — ^Why does he cry 1 — He cries because 
a great misfortune has happened to him. — ^What has happened to 
you 1 — Nothing has happened to me. — Where will you go to this 
evening 1 — I do not know where to go. — Where will your brothers 
go to 1 — I do not know where they will go to ; as for me, I shall go 
to the theatre. — Why do you go to townl — I go thither in order to 
purchase some books. W^ill you go thither with me ] — I will go 
with you, but I do not know what to do there. 

196. 

Must I sell to that man on credit 1 — You may (pouvoir *) sell to 
him, but not on credit ; you must not trust him, (vous fier a lui.) foi 
he will not pay you. — Has he already deceived (tromper) anybody ' 
— He has already deceived several merchants who have trusted him 
— Must I trust those ladies 1 — You may trust them ; but as to me I 
shall not trust them, for I have often been deceived by {par les) wo- 
men, and that is the reason why I say : We must not trust everybody. 
- — Do those merchants trust you 1 — They trust me, and I trust them. 
■ — Whom do those gentlemen laugh at ] — They laugh at those ladies 
who wear red gowns (la robe) with yellow ribbons. — A'Sliy do those 
people laugh at us 1 — They laugh at us because we speak badly, 
{mal.) — Ought we to laugh {faut-il se moquer) at persons who speak 
badly 1 — We ought not to laugh at them ; we ought, on the contrar%-, 
to listen to them, and if they make blunders, (fautes,) we ought to 
correct them to them. — Wliat are you laughing at ] — I am laughing 
at your hat : how long {depuis quand) have you been wearing it so 



SIXTY-SECOND LESSON. 279 

large, (grand ?) — Since {depuis que) I returned from Germany. — Can 
you afford to buy a horse and a carriage 1 — I can afford it. — Can 
your brother afford to buy that large house 1 — He cannot afford it. — 
Will your cousin buy that horse 1 — He will buy it, if it pleases {con- 
venir *) him. — Have you received my letter ] — I have received it 
with much pleasure. I have shown it to my French master, who 
was surprised, {s''etonner,) for there was not a single fault in it. — 
Have you already received Corneille's and Boileau's works, (les 
auvres ?) — I have received those of Boileau ; as to those of Coi- 
neille, I hope to receive them next week. 

197. 

Is it thou, Charles, who hast soiled my book 1 — It is not I, it is 
your little sister who has soiled it. — Who has broken my fine ink- 
stand ] — It is I who have broken it. — Is it you who have spoken of 
me 1 — It is we who have spoken of you, but we have said of you 
nothing but good, (du hien.) — Who knocks at the door ] — It is I, will 
you open it "? — What do you want, {desirer ?) — I come (to) ask you 
for the money which you owe me, and the books which I lent you. — ■ 
If you will have the goodness tp come to me to-morrow I will return 
both to you ■? — Is it your sister who is playing on the harpsichord 1 — 
It is not she. — Who is if! — It is my cousin, (fern.) — Are they your 
sisters who are coming"! — It is they. — Are they your neighbors 
(fem.) who were laughing at you ] — They are not our neighbors. — 
Who are they 1 — They are the daughters of the countess whose 
brother has bought your house. — Are they the ladies you have 
spoken of to me "! — They are. — Shall you learn German 1 — My bro- 
ther and I will learn it. — Shall we go to the country to-morrow 1 — 
I shall go to the country, and you will remain in town. — Shall my 
sister and I go to the opera 1 — You and she will remain at home, and 
your brother will go to the opera. — What did you say when your tu- 
tor was scolding you 1 — I said nothing because I nad nothing to say, 
for I had not done my task, and he was in the right to scold me — 
What were you doing while he {pendant qu'U) was out "! — I was 
playing on the violin, instead of doing what he had given me to do. 
— What has my brother told you"! — He has told me that he would 
be the happiest man in the {du) world, if he knew the French lan- 
^age, the most useful of all languages. 



280 



SIXTY-THIRD LESSON. 



SIXTY-THIRD Li:SSO]<:. —Soixajite-troisieme Lepon. 



To get into a bad scrape. 

To get out of a had scrape. 
I got out of the scrape. 
That man always gets into bad 

scrapes, but he always gets out of 

them again 



t S'attirer 1, {se fairs,) de inauvai' 
ses affaires. 

t Se tirer 1, d' affaire. 

Je me suis tne d' affaire. 

Cet homme s' attire toujours de mau- 
vaises affaires, mais il s'en tire tou- 
jours. 



Between. 
Amongst or amidst. 



Entre. 
Parmi. 



To make some oriels acquaintance. 

To hecome acquainted with sorae- 
I)ody. J 

I have made his or her acquaintance. '^ 

I have become acquainted with him > J'ai fait sa connaissance, 
or her. J 

Are you acquainted with him, (or 
her?) 

Do you know him, (or her ?) 

I am acquainted with him, (or her.) 

I know him, (or her.) 

He is an acquaintance of mine. 

She is my acquaintance. 

He is not a friend, he is but an ac- 
quaintance. 



Faire connaissance avec quelqu'un. 



Le (ou la) connaisscz-vous V 

Je le (ou la) connais. 

II est de ma connaissance. 
EUe est de ma connaissance. 
Ce n'est pas un ami, ce n"est qu'une 
connaissance. 



To enjoy. 
Do you enjoy good health ? 

To he loell 
She is well. 



Joiiir 2, de. 

Jouissez-vous d'uue bonne santc? 
, Etre lien portant, portante. 
\ Etre en honne sante. 
' t Elle est bien portante. 

t Elle se porte bien. 

t Elle est en bonne sant^. 



' The verb to knoio is always e.xpressed by connaitre * when it signifies to 
be acquainted with, and by savoir * in all other cases. Ex. I know that 
man, that lady, je connais cet homme, ceite dame ; I know my lesson, je 
sais ma lecon ; I know what you v^'ish to say, Je sais cc que vous voulez dire. 



SIXTY-THIED LESSON. 



281 



To imagine. 



S''ima(iiner 1. 



Our fellow-creatm-es. 
He has not bis equal, or bis match. 
To resemble some one, to look like 

some one. 
That man resembles my brother. 
That beer looks like water. 
Each other. 
We resemble each other. 
They do not resemble each other. 
The brother and the sister love each 

other. 
Are you pleased with each other ? 
We are. 

As, or as weU as. 



The appearance, the countenance. 

To sho^o a disposition to. 
That man whom you see shows a 
desu-e to approach us. 

To look pleased with some one. 
To look cross at some one. 
When I go to see that man, instead 
of receiving me with pleasure, he 
looks displeased. 

A good-looking man. 
A bad-looking*man. 
Bad-looking people, or follcs. 
To go to see some one. 

To pay some one a visit. 

To frequent a place. 
To frequent societies. 
To associate with some one. 



Nos semblablery, 

II n'a pas son serublable. 

f Resemhler 1, cl quelquho.. 

Get homme ressemble tl mon fr^'^e, 

Cette bi^re ressemble k de I'eau. 

L'un I'autre, I'une I'autre. 

Nous nous ressemblons. 

lis ou elles ne se ressemblent pas. 

Le frere et la soem" s'aiment l'un 

I'autre. 
ifites-vous contents l'un de I'autre ? 
Nous le sommes. 
Ainsi que. 



La mine. 

Faire mine de. 

Get homme que vous voyez fait mine 

de nous approcher. 
Faire ho7ine mine d quelquhm. 
Faire mauvaise mine d quelquhm. 
Quand je vais voir cet homme, au 

lieu de me faire bonne mine il me 

fait mauvaise mine. 
Un homme de bonne mine. 
Un homme de mauvaise mine. 
Des gens de mauvaise mine. 
Aller voir quelqu'un. 
( Faire ime visite ) , 

\ Rendre visite ^ 1 H 
Frequenter un lieu. 
Frequenter des societes. 
I Frequenter quelqu'im. 



To look like, to appear. 
How does he look ? 
He looks gay, (sad, contented.) 
You appear very well. 
You look like a doctor. 
She looks angry, appears to be angry. 
The}' look contented, appear to be 

contented. 
To look good, to appear to be good. 



Avoir fair. 

Quelle mine a-t-il ? 

H a I'air enjou6, (triste, content.) 

Vous avez I'air bien portant. 

Vous avez I'air d'un medecin. 

Elle a- I'air fache. 

lis out I'air content. 



/ 



Avoir i'air bon. 



24* 



282 



SIXTY-THIRD LESSON. 



To driiik to some one. 
To drink some one's health- 
I drink your health. 

It is all over with me ! 
It is al! over. 



To liurt some one's feelings. 

You have hurt that man's feelings. 



A place. 
I know a good place to swim in. 



7'o experience, to undergo. 
I have experienced a great many 
misfortunes. 

To suffer. 

Dost thou suffer ? 
I do suffer. 
He suffers. 
To feel a pain in one's head or foot 
I felt a pain in my eye. 

To neglect. 
To yield. 
We must yield to necessity. 



To spring forward. 
The cat springs upon the rat. 

To leap on horseback. 



An increase, an augmentation. 
For r.iore bad luck. 
For more good luck. 
For more bad luck I liF.ve lost my 
purse. 



To lose one's wits. 
That man has lest his wits, and lie 
does not know what to do. 

Obstinately, by all means. 
Tliat man wishes by all means to 
lend me his money. 



Boire h quelqu'im. 

t Boire h la sante de quelqu'uu. 

t Je bois h votre sant€. 



t C'est fait de moi ! 
t C'en est fait. 



t Faire de la peine &, quelqu'un. 
t Vous avez fait de la peine d, cet 
homnio. 



Un endroit. 

Je connais un bou endroit pour nager 



Eprouver 1. 

J'ai eprouve beaucoup de malheurs. 



Souffrir 



pres. part, so'iffrant ; 



past part, soiiffert. 
Souffres-tu ? 
Je souffre. 
II souf&e. 

t Souffrir de la tete, du pied, 
t J'ai souffert de I'oeil. 
Nigliger 1, {de before mfin.) 
Cedei: (See Obs. A. Lesson LIU.) 
II faut ceder k la n^cessite, 



t S'elancer. 

Le chat s'elance sur lo rat. 

S'elancer sur son clioval. 



Un surcroit. 

Pour surcroit de malheur. 
Pour surcroit de bonhcur. 
Pour sm'croit de malheur j'ai perdu 
ma bourse. 



Perdre la tete. 

Cet homme a perdu la tete, et il ue 
salt que faire. (See Obs. A. Les- 
son LXII.) 

^A touts force. 

Cet homme veut a, toute force me 
pr6ter son argent 



SIXTY-THIRD LESSON. 283 



To follow. 

I follow, thou followest, he or she 
follows. 

To pursue. 

To p-eserve, to save. 



Suivre 4 * ; pres. part, suivant ; past 

part, suivi. 
Je suis, tu suis, il ou elle suit. 

Poursuivre * 4. (Is conjugated like 

suivre.) 
Conserver 1. 



EXERCISES. 

198. 

Why do you associate with those people 1 — I associate with them 
because they are useful to me. — If you continue to associate with 
them you will get into bad scrapes, for they have many enemies. — 
How does your cousin conduct himself? — He does not conduct him- 
self very well, for he is always getting into some bad scrape, (or 
other.) — Do you not sometimes get into bad scrapes'? — It is true (vrai) 
that I sometimes get into them, (jri'enfais,) but I always get out of 
them again. — Do you see those men (gens) who seem desirous of ap- 
proaching us 1 — I do see them, but I do not fear them, (Lesson 
XLIII. ;) for they hurt nobody. — We must go away, (il faut nous 
eloigner,) for I do not like to mix with people whom I do not know. 
— I beg of you (Lesson LVIII.) not to be afraid of them, (en,) for I 
perceive my uncle among them. — Do you know a good place to swim 
in ? — I know one. — Where is it 1 — On that side (Lesson XXXVIII.) 
of the river, behind the wood, (la foret,) near the high road, (le 
grand chemin.) — ^When shall we go to swim ? — This evening, if you 
like. — ^Will you wait for me before the city gate ? — I shall wait for 
you there ; but I beg of you not to forget it. — You know that I never 
forget my promises. — ^Where did you become acquainted with that 
lady ■? — I became acquainted with her at the house of one of my rela- 
tions. — ^Why does your cousin ask me for (Lesson XL.) money and 
books 1 — Because he is a fool, (Obs. Lesson XXVI. ;) of me, (car a 
moi,) who am his nearest relation, (son plus proche parent,) and his 
best friend, he asks nothing. — Why did you not come to dinner, (venir 
diner?) — I have been hindered, but you have been able to dine with- 
out me. — Do you ihink (croire *) that we shall not dine, if you can- 
aot come ■? — How long (jusqii'd quand) did you wait for me ? — ^We 
waited for you till a quarter past seven, and as you did not come we 
dined without you. — Have you drunk my health 1 — We have drunk 
yours (a la voire) and that of your parents. 



284 SIXTY-THIRD LESSOW. 

199. 

How does your uncle look, {quelle mine a — ?) — He looks (a Voir] 
very gay, (enjoue,) for he is much pleased with his children. — Dc 
his friends look (ont-ils la mine) as gay as he ■? — They, on the con- 
trary, look sad, because they are discontented. My uncle has no 
money, and is always contented, and his friends who have a good 
deal of it, are scarcely ever so. — Do you like your sister ■? — I like 
her much, and as (et comme) she is very good-natured (complaisante) 
to {envers) me I am so to her ; but how do you like yours "! — We 
love each other, because we are pleased with each other. — A certain 
{certain) man liked much wine, but he found in it {lui) two bad qual- 
ities, {une qualite.) " If I put water to it," said he, " I spoil it ; 
and if I do not put any to it, it spoils me." — Does your cousin resem- 
ble you ■? — He resembles me. — Do.your sisters resemble each other T 
— They do not resemble each other ; for the elder {Vainee) is idle 
and naughty, and the younger {la cadette) assiduous and good-na- 
tured towards everybody. — How is your aunt ] — She is very well. 
— Does your mother enjoy good health"? — She imagines she enjoys 
{s'' imagine jouir) good health, but I believe she is mistaken, for she 
has had a bad cough {la toux) these six months of which {dont) she 
cannot get rid. — Is that man angry with you "? — I think he is angry 
with me because I {de ce que je) do not go to see him : but I do not 
like to go to his house, for when I go to him, instead of receiving me 
with pleasure, he looks displeased.-— You must not believe that ; he 
is not angry with you, for he is not so bad (mechant) as he looks, 
{qu'il en a Vair.) He is the best man in the {du) world ; but one 
must know him in order to appreciate him, {pour pouvoir Vapprecier.) 
— There is a great difference (la difference) between you and him, 
(Jui ;) you look pleased with all those who come to see you. and he 
looks cross at them. 

200. 
Is it right to laugh thus at everybody 1 — If I laugh at your coat, I 
do not laugh at everybody. — Does your son resemble any one ? — He 
resembles no one. — Why do you not drink \ — I do not know what to 
drink, for I like good wine, and yours looks like vinegar. — If you 
wish to have some other I shall go down (descendre) into the cellar 
to fetch you some. — You are too polite. Sir, I shall drink no more 
to-day. — Have you known my father long ] — I have known him long, 
for I made his acquaintance when I was yet at school. We often 
worked for one another, and we loved each other like brothers. — I 
believe it, for you resemble each other. — When I had not done my 
exercises he did them for me, and when he had not done his I did 



SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



285 



ihem for him. — Why does your father send for the fhysician ■? — He 
is ill, and as {et comme) the physician does not come he sends for 
hnn. — Ah, {Ah,) it is all over with me ! — But, bless me, {mon Dieu!) 
why do you cry thus, {comme cela ?) — I have been robbed (Obs. A., 
Lesson XLIV.) of my gold rings, {la bague d^or,) my best clothes, 
and all my money ; that is the reason why I cry. — Do not make {ne 
fa'ites pas) so much noise, for it is we who have taken them all {tout 
cela) in order to teach you to take better care {avoir plus de som, 
Lesson L.) of your things, {affaires,) and to shut the door of your 
room when you go out. — Why do you look so sad 1 — I have experi- 
enced great misfortunes ; after having lost all my money I was beaten 
by Dad-looking men ; and to my still greater ill-luck, I hear that my 
good uncle, whom I love so much, has been struck with apoplexy. 
— You must not afflict yourself {^''affliger) so much, for you know 
that we must yield to necessity 



SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON. — Soixante-quatrieme Lefon. 



How good you are : 



Ois. A. How, how much, how many, before an exclamation, are trans- 
lated by que. Ex. 

Que vous etes bon ! 
Que de bont€ vous ayez ! 
How foolish he is ! | Qu'il est sot ! 

Obs. B. The adjective which in English follows how, stands in French 
after the verb ; and when que is followed by a substantive, de must always 
precede it. 



How foolish she is ! 

How rich that man is ! 

How handsome that woman is ! 

How much kindness you have for 

me ! 
How many obligations I am under to 

you! 
To be under obligations to some one. 
I aro under many obligations to him. 
How many people ! 
How happy you are ! 
How much wealth that man has . 
Flow much money that man has 

Ejjent in his life ! 



Qu'elle est sotte ! 

Que cet homme est riche ! 

Que cette femme est belle 

Que de bont^ vous avez pour moi t 

t Que d'obligations je vous ai I 

t Avoir des obligations a quelqu'un, 
t Je lui ai beaucoup d'obligations. 
Que de monde ! 
Que vous 6tes heureux ! 
Que de richesses cet homme a J 
Que d'argent cot homme a ddpens^ 
dans sa vie ! 



286 



SIXTT-rOTJETH LESSON. 



To be obliged to some one for some- 
thing. 

To be indebted to some one for some- 
thing. 

I am indebted to him for it. 
Tq thank. 



To thanh some one for something. 
I thank you for the trouble you have 
taken for me. 



fitre oblige k quelqu'tm de quelque 

chose, 
ifitre redevable k quelqu un de quel- 

que chose. 
Je lui en suis redevable. 
Remercier 1, (governs the accusative 

of the person, and the genitive of 

the object.) 
Remercier quelqvhm de qiielquc clwse. 
Je vous remercie de la peine que vous 

avez prise pour moL 



Is there any thing more grand ? 
Is there any thing more cruel ? 
Is there any thing more wicked ? 
Can any thing be more handsome ? 



Qu'y a-t-il de plus grand ? 
Y a-t-U rien de plus cruel ? 
Qu'y a-t-U de plus mechant ? 
Est-U rien de plus beau ? 



How lai-ge ? Of what size ? 
How high ? Of what height ? 
How deep ? Of what depth ? 



De quelle grandeur ? 
De quelle hauteur ? 
De quelle profondeur ? 



Ols. C. When speaking of dimension, we use in French the verb avoir, 
when the English use the verb to be ; and the preposition de stands before 
the noun or adjective of dimension. Ex. 

f Combien sa maison a-t-elle de haut 



Of what height is his or her house ? 

It is nearly fifty feet high. 

Our house is thirty feet broad. 

That table is sis feet long. 

That river is twenty feet deep. 

The size. 
Of what size is that man ? 
How was that child dressed ? 
It was dressed in green. 
The man with the blue coat. 
The woman with the red a;owu. 



ou de hauteur ? 

f Elle a environ cinquante pieds de 
haut ow de hauteur. 

f Notre maison a trente pieds de 
large ou de largeur. 

f Cette table a sis pieds de long on 
de longuem*. 

f Cette riviere a vingt pieds de pro- 
fondeur. - 

La taille. 

De quelle taille cet homme est-il ? 

Comment cet enfant etait-U habUle ? 

f n etait habUle de vert. 

f L'hommc ^ Thabit bleu. 

f La femme a la robe rouge. 



^ lu general, the substantive is more elegantly used thau the adjective, 
but deep cannot be expressed by de profond. 



SIXTY-FOURTH^PSSON 



True. 
Ifl it true that his house is bunit ? 

It is true. 
Is it not, (or is it not true ?) 



Perhaps. 
I shall perhaps go thither. 
Fo share, to divide. 



Whose 7 

Whose horse is this? 

It is mine, or it belongs to me. 

Whose horses are these ? 

They are mine, or they belong 

me. 
Whose house is that ? 
It is mine, or it belongs to me. 
Whose houses are these ? 
They are mine, or they belong 

me. 



to 



■#' 



287 



Vrai. 

Est-il vrai que sa maisou est brti- 

16e? 
C'est vrai. . 
N'est-ce pas, (n' est-il pas vrai ?) 



Peut-6tre. 

J'y ii-ai peut-6tre. 

Partager 1 



^A qui ? (See Lessons XXI. and 

XXIX.^ 
A qui est ce cheval? 
C'est le mien, ou U est &. moi. 
A qui sont ces chevaux ? 
Ce sont les miens, ou ils sont h. moi. 

A qui est cette maison ? 
C'est la mienne, ou elle est k moi. 
A qui sont ces maisons ? 
Ce sont les miennes, ou elles sont k 
moi. 



To run up. 

Many men nad run up ; but instead 
of extinguishing the fire they set to 
plundering. 

To run to the assistance of some 
one. 

To save, to deliver. 
To save anybody's life. 
To plunder, (to rob.) 
To set about something. 
Have they succeeded in extinguish- 
ing the fire ? 
They have succeeded in it. 



Accourir * 2, (conjugated like con- 

rir *, Lesson XL VIII.) 
Beaucoup d'hommes ^taient accou- 

rus, mais au lieu d'eteindre le 

feu, les mis^rables s'^taient mis ii 

piller. 
Accourir * au secours de quelqu'un. 

Sauver 1. 

Sauver la vie a quelqu'un. 

PUler 1. 

t Se mettre * k quelque choeo. 

Est-on petrvenu k ^teindro le feu? 

On y est parvenu. 



The watch indicates the hours. 

To indic'jte, to mark 



La montre marque los henrca 
Martiuer 1 ; indiquer 1. 



288 



SIXT1 



)UBTH LESSOJJ. 



To quarrel. 
To quan;el with one. 
To dispute {to contend) about some- 
thing. 
About what are these people dis- 
puting 1 
They are disputing about who shall 
.qo first. 



Se quereller 1. 

t Quereller quelqu'im 

Disputer sur quelque chose 

Sur quoi ces gens disputent-ils ? 

t lis disputent &. qui ira le premier 



Thus or so. | Ainsi 1 

To be ignorant of, or 



Not to know J ^ 

The day before. 



rl. 



The day before that day was Satur- 
day 
The day before Sunday is Saturday. 



La veille, (takes de before the noun 

that follows it.) 
t La veille de ce jour-lS. ^tait un 

samedi. 
t La veille de dimanche est samedi. 



EXERCISES. 

SOL 

Can you not get rid of that man 1 (Lesson LiL) — 1 cannot get rid 
of him, for he will absolutely (a toute force) follow me. — Has he 
not lost his wits ■? — It may be, {cela se pent.) — ^^Tiat does he asK 
you for 1 — He wishes to sell me a horse which I do not want. — 
Whose houses are those 1 — They are mine. — Do these pens belong 
to you ■? — No, they belong to my sister. — Are those {sont-ce la) the 
Dens with which she WTites so well 1 — They are the same. — ^^^1lose 
gun is this 1 — It is my father's. — Are these books your sister's ] — 
They are hers. — Whose carriage is this 1 — It is mine. — ^\Miich is 
the man of whom you complain ] — It is he (celui) who wears a red 
coat. — " What is the difference (la difference) between a watch and 
me ]" inquired {demanda) a lad}'' of a young officer. — '' Mv lady," 
replied he, (Jui I'epondit celui-ci,) " a watch marks the hours, and 
near {aupres de) you one forgets them.'' — A Russian peasant who 
had never seen asses, (un dne,) seeing (en voyant) several in France 
S3.id, {dit,) "Lord, (?no?i Dicii,) what large hares (le lievrc) there are 
in this country !" — How many obligations I am under to you, ray 
dear friend ! you have saved my life ! without you I had been lost 
— Have those miserable men hurt you'? — They have beaten and 
robbed me, and when you ran to my assistance they wexe about to 
(Us allaicnt) strip (deshabillcr) and kill me. — I am happy to have 






SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON. 289 



delivered you from the {des) hands of those rubbers. — How good 
you are . 

202. 

Will you go to Mr. Tortenson's to-night 1 — I shall, perhaps, go. — And 
will your sisters go 1 — They will, perhaps. — Had you any pleasure 
yesterday at the concert "? — I had no pleasure there, for there was 
such a naultitude of people there that one could hardly get in. — I 
bring you a pretty present with which you will be much pleased. — 
What is it ! — It is a silk cravat. — Where is it 1 — I have it in my 
pocket, {dans ma poche.) — Does it please you 1 — It pleases me 
much, and I thank you for it with all my heart. I hope that you 
will at last accept {accepter) something of me. — What do you intend 
to give me ■? — I will not tell you, for if I do tell you, you will have 
no pleasure when I give it you. — Have you seen any one at the mar- 
ket ■? — I have seen a good many people there. — How were they 
dressed 1 — Some were dressed in blue, some in green, some in yel- 
low, and several in red. — Who are those men 1 — The one who is 
dressed in gray is my neighbor, and the man with the black coat 
the physician whose son has given my neighbor a blow with a stick. 
— Who is the man with the green coat "? — He is one of my relations. 
— Are there many philosophers in your country 1 — There are aa 
many tliere as in yours. — How does this hat fit me "? — It fits you 
very well. — How does that coat fit your brother 1 — It fits him ad- 
mirably. — Is your brother as tall {grand) as you 1 — He is taller than 
I, but I am older {age) than he. — Of what size {de quelle taille) is 
that man "? — He is five feet four inches {un pouce) high. — How high 
is the house of our landlord ] — It is sixty feet high. — Is your well 
deep ] — Yes, sir, for it is fifty feet deep. — " There are many learned 
men {un savant) in Rome, are there not, {nUest-ce pas V) Milton 
asked a Roman. " Not so many as when you were there," an- 
swered {repondit) the Roman. 

203. 

Is it true that your uncle has arrived'? — I assure you that he has 
arrived. — Is it true that the king has assured you of his assistance, 
{de son assistance ?) — I assure you that it is true. — Is it true that 
the six thousand {mille ; takes no s in the plural) men, whom we 
were expecting, have arrived 1 — I have heard so. — Will you dine 
with us T — I cannot dine with you, for I have just eaten. — Will your 
brother drink a glass of wine 1 — He cannot drink, for I assure you 
that he has just drunk. — Why are those men quarrelling 1 — They 
are quarrelling because they do not know what to do. — Have they 

25 



290 



SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON 



succeeded in extinguishing the fire 1 — They have at last succeeded 
in it ; but it is said (on dit, Obs. A, Less. XLIV.) that several 
houses have be.en burnt. — Have they not been able to save any 
thing'? — They have not been able to save*any thing; for instead of 
extinguishing the fire, the miserable wretches (les miserahles) who 
had come up, set to plundering. — What has happened ] — A great 
misibrtune has happened. — Why did my friends set out without met 
— They waited for you till twelve o'clock, and seeing that you did 
not come they set out. — ^What is the day before Monday called 1 — 
The day before Monday is Sunday. — Why did you not run to the 
assistance of your neighbor whose house has been burnt i — I was 
quite {entierement) ignorant of his house being on fire, {que le feu 
fut a sa inaison ;) for had I known it I would have lun to his assist 
ance. (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 



SIXTY-FIFTH LESSO'N. —Soixante-cinqmhne Legon. 



To propose. 
I propose going on that journey. 
He proposes joining a hxmting party. 

A game at chess. 
A game at billiards. 
A game at cards. 



To succeed. 
' Do you succeed in doing that ? 
I do succeed in it. 

To endeavor. 
I endeavor to do it. 
I endeavor to succeed in it. 
Endeavor to do better. 



Since, considering. 
Since you are happy, why do you 
complain ? 



To be thoroughly acquainted icith a 
thing. 

To make one^s self thoroughly ac- 
quainted icith a thing. 



Se proposer 1, (de bef. iniin.) 

Je me propose de faire ce voyage. 

II se propose d'aller k une paitie de 

chasse. 
Une partie d'echecs. 
Une partie de billard. 
Une partie de cartes. 



Reussir 2, (d before infin.) 

Reussissez-vous k faire cela i 

J'y reussis. 

Tacher 1, (de before iufin.) 

Je t^che de le faire. 

Je ta,che d'y reussir. 

Td.chez de faire mieux. 



Puisque. 

Puisque vous etes heureux, pourqua 
vous plaignez-vous ? 



Eire aufait de queJque chose. 
Se mettre aufait de quclquc choae 



SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



291 



That man understands that bushiess 

perfectly. 
I understand that well. 

Since or from. 
From that time. 
From my childhood. 
From morning until evening 
From tJie beginning to the end. 

From here to there. 
i have had that book these two 

years. 
I have lived in Paris these three 

years. 



To Mow, to Mow out. 
To reduce. 

Dost thou reduce ? 
I do reduce. 
He reduces. 
To translate. 

To produce. 
To destroy. 
To construct. 
To introduce. 



To reduce the price. 

To reduce the price a crown. 

To translate into French. 

To ti'anslate from French into Eng- 
lish. 

To translate from one language into 
another. 

I introduce him to you. 



Get homme est au fait de cette af« 

faire. 
Je suis au fait de cela 
Dcpuis. 

Depuis ce moment. 
Depuis ma jemiesse. 
Depuis le matin jusqu'au soir. 
Depuis le commencement jusqu'ii la 

fin, 
Depuis ici jusque lb,. 
J'ai ce Uvre depuis deux ans. 

Je demeure h. Paris depuis trois ans. 



Souffler 1. 

Reduire * 4 ; pres. part, reduisant 

past part, reduit. 
Reduis-tu ? 
Je reduis. 
II reduit. 
Traduire * 4, (is conjugated Uko 

reduire *.) 
Produire * 4. " « 

Detruire * 4. " " 

Construire * 4. " " 

Introduire * 4. " " 



Reduire le prix. 
Reduire le prix un ecu. 
Traduire en fran§ais. 
Tradune du fran5ais en anglais. 

Traduire d'une langue dans une 
autre. 
) Je I'introduis chez vous. 
' t Je vous le presente. 



Self, selves 
Myself. 
Thyself. 
Himself. 
Herself. 



Mime, memes. 

Moi-meme. 

Toi-meme. 

Lui-meme. 

Elle-mdme. 



292 



SIXTY-FIFTH LESbUA. 



Ourselves. 

Yourself. 

Themselves. 

One's self. 
He himself has told it me. 
He has told it me, to myself, (not to 

another person.) 
One does not like to flatter one's self. 

Obs. Sometimes the word mime is 
word even. 

He has not even money enough to 

buy some bread. 
We must love everybody, even our 

enemies. 



Nous-memes. 

Vous-meme. 

Eux-memes, elles-memes. 

Soi-meme. 

II me I'a dit lui-meme. 

II me I'a dit &, moi-m.eme. 

On n'aime pas h se flatter soi-m6ine 
an adverb, and answers to the English 

[ II n'a pas meme assez d'argent pom 
1 acheter du pain. 
II faut aimer tout le monde, meme 
nos eimemis. 



Again, (anew.) 
He speaks again. 
To fall. 
The price of the merchandise falls. 
To deduct 

To overcharge, to ask too much. 
Not having overcharged you, I cannot 
deduct any thing. 

An ell, a yard. 
A metre, {measure.) 
To produce, (to yield, to profit.) 
How much does that employment 
yield you a j'ear ? 

An emplojTneut. 



To maJce one's escape. 
To run away, to flee. 
To take to one's heels. 
To desert. 
He deserted the battle. 

To run away. 
The thief has run away 

By no means. 
Not at all. 



De nouveau. 

II parle de nouveau. 

Baisser 1, (tomher 1, Less. LI.) 

La marchandise baisse de prix. 

Rabatire 4, (see hattre, Lesson 

XXXVI.) 
Surfaire *, (like faire *.) 
Ne vous ayant pas surfait, je ne sau- 

rais rien rabattre 
Une aune. 
Un metre. 
Rapport er 1. 
Combien cet emploi (cette charge"* 

vous rapporte-t-il (elle) par an ? 
Un emploi, une charge. 



■Prendre la fuite 

Deserter 1. 

II a desert^ la bataille. 

S' evader 1. 

Le volcur s'est ^vadd 



Pas du tout 
Point du tout 



SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON. 293 

EXERCISES. 

204. 

Well, {Eh Men .) does your sister make any progress 1 — She would 
make some, if she were as assiduous as you. — You flatter me. — Not 
at all ; I assure you that I should be highly satisfied, (tres-content,) 
if all my pupils worked like you. — Why do you not go out to-day 1 
— I would go out if it were fine weather. — Shall I have the pleasure 
of seeing you to-morrow 1 — If you wish it I will come. — Shall I still 
be here when you arrive, (a vot?'e arrivee ?) — Will you have occa- 
sion (occasion) to go to town this evening 1 — I do not know, but I 
would go now if I had an opportunity, (une bonne occasio7i.) — You 
would not have so much pleasure, and you would not be so happy, 
if you had not friends and books. — Man {Vhomme) would not expe- 
rience so much misery (Ja misere) in his career, (Ja carriere,) and he 
would not be so unhappy, were he not so blind, {aveugle.) — You 
would not have that insensibility {cette insensibilite) towards {pour) 
the poor, and you would not be so deaf {sourd) to their supplication, 
{la priere,) if you had been yourself in misery for some time, {quel- 
que temps.) — Y^ou would not say that if you knew me well. — Why 
has your sister not done her exercises'? — She would have done them 
if she had not been prevented. — If you worked more, and spoke of- 
tener, you would speak better. — I assure you, Sir, that I should learn 
better if I had more time. — I do not complain of you, but of your 
sister. — You would have no reason (vous n''auriez pas lieu) to com- 
plain of her, had she had time to do what you gave her to do. — Do 
you already know what has happened "? — I have not heard any thing. 
■ — The house of our neighbor has been burnt down, {brulee.) — Have 
they not been able to save any thing \ — They v/ere very fortunate 
{hien heureux) in saving the persons that were in it ; but out of the 
{des) things that were there, {se trouver,) they could save nothing, 
— Who has told you that "? — Our neighbor himself has told it me. 

205. 

Why are you without a light 1 {sans lumiere, Obs. A. Lesson LII.) 
— The wind blew it out when you came in. — What is the price of 
this cloth ? — I sdl it at (Obs. D. Lesson LIV.) three crowns and a 
half the ell. — I think {trouver) it very dear. Has the price of cloth 
not fallen 1 — It has not fallen : the price of all goods {la marchandise) 
has fallen, except that of cloth, (excepte celui du drap.) — I will give 
you three crowns for it, (en.) — I cannot let you have {donner) it for 
(a) that price, for it costs me (ilmecoute) more. — Will you have the 
goodness to show me some pieces {la piece) of English cloth ? — With 



294 SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON. 

much pleasuie. — Does this cloth suit you'? — It does not suit me.— 
Why does it not suit you 1 — Because it is too dear ; if you will low- 
er the price, (en rahattre quelque chose,) I shall buy twenty yards 
of it. — Not having asked too much, I cannot take off any thing. — ■ 
You learn French : does your master let you translate ■? — He lets me 
read, write, and translate. — Is it useful to translate in learning a 
foreign language ? — It is useful to translate when you (on) nearly 
know the language you are learning ; but while {quand) you do not 
yet know any thing it is entirely {tout-ci-fait) useless. — What does 
your French master make you do ] — lie makes me read a lesson ; 
afterwards he makes me translate English exercises into French on 
the lesson which he has made me read ; and from the beginning to 
the end of the lesson he speaks French to me, and I have to answer 
him {il me faut lui repondre) in the very language {dans la langue 
meme) which he is teaching me. — Have you already learned much 
in that manner ? — You see that I have already learned something, 
for I have hardly been learning it three months, and I already un- 
derstand you when you speak to me, and can answer you. — Can you 
read (it) as well 1 — I can read and write as well as speak, (it.) — 
Does your master also teach German "? — He teaches it. — ^^Yisldng 
to make {desirant faire) his acquaintance, I must beg of you (/e vous 
prierai) to introduce me to him. 

206. 

How many exercises do you translate a day '?^-If the exercises 
are not difficult I translate from three to four {trois a quatre) every 
day ; and when they are so I translate but one. — How many have 
you already done to-day ? — It is the third which I am translating ; 
but to-morrow I hope to be able to do one more, (w?i de plus,) for I 
shall be alone, (seiil.) — Plave you paid a visit to my aunt ? — I went 
to see her two months ago, and as she looked displeased, I have not 
gone to her any more since that time. — How do you do to-day '! — I 
am very unwell, {tres-mal.) — How do you like that soup ? — I think 
{trouver) it is very bad ; but since I have lost my appetite {I'appelit) 
I do not like any thing, (je ne trouve rien de hon.) — How much does 
that employment yield to your father ? — It yields him more than four 
thousand {mille has no 5 in the plural) crowns. — What news do ihey 
mention, {dire ?) — They say nothing new. — What do you intend to 
do to-morrow 1 — I propose joining a hunting party. — Does j'our bro- 
ther purpose playing {de faire) a game at billiards ! — He proposes 
playing a game at. chess. — Why do some people laugh when I 
speak ] — Those are unpolite people ; you have only to laugh also 
and they will no longer laugh at you. If you did as I do (commt 



SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



295 



moi) you would speak well. You must study (il vous faut etudier, 
a little every day, and you will soon be no longer afraid to speak.— 
I will endeavor to follow your advice, for I have resolved {se propo- 
ser) to rise every morning at six o'clock, to study till ten o'clock 
and to go to bed early. — Why does your sister complain 1 — I do not 
know ; since she succeeds in every thing, and since {et qu'elle) she 
is happy, even happier than you and I, why does she complain 1 — 
Perhaps she complains {se plaint-elle) because she is not thoroughly 
acquainted with that business. — That may be, {cela se pent.) 



SIXTY-SIXTH 'L'E,Q'SOl!i.—Soixante-sixieme Legon. 



A kind, sort, {a species.) 
What kind of fruit is that ? 

A stone, (of a fruit.) 
A stone of a peach, an apricot, a 
plum. 

Stone-fruit. 
One must break the stone before one 
comes at the kernel. 
A kernel. 
An almond. 
Kernel-fruit. 



It is a kernel-fruit. 
To gather. 

I gather, thou gatherest, he gathers. 
To gather fruit. 
To serve up the soup 
To bring in the dessert 
The fruit. 
An apricot. 
A peach. 
A plum. 
An anecdote. 
Roast meat. 



Une espece. 

Quelle espfece de fruit est cela, (or 

est-ce Ih. 1) 
Un noyau. 
Un noyau de peche, d'abricot, do 

prune. 
Fruits h. noyau. 
II faut casser le noyau pour en avoil 

I'amande : (a proverb.) 
Une amande, im pepin. 
Une amande. 
Fruits k pepin. 



C'est un fruit k pepin. 

Cueillir * 2 ; pros. part, cueillant 

past part, cueilli. 
Je cueille, tu cueilles, il cueillo.^ 
Cueillir du fruit 
Servir la soupe. 
Servir le desser 
Le fruit. 
Un abricot. 
Une peche. 
Une prune. 
Une anecdote. 
Du r6ti. 



» The verb cueillir, though of the second, is in the present of the indica- 
tive conjugated according to the first conjugation. 



296 



SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



The last. 

Last week. 
To cease, to leave off. 
I leave off reading. 
She leaves ofFspeakmg 

To avoid. 
To escape. 
To escape a misfortune. 
He ran av/ay to avoid death. 



I Le dernier, la demi^re, 

I La semaine demiere. 

I Cesser 1, de. 

1 Je cesse de lire. 

I Elle cesse de parler. 



Eviter 1, {de before inSn.) 
fichapper 1. 

tEchapper a tin malheur. 
II a pris la fuite pour 6chapper h. la 
mort. 



To do without a thing. 
Can you do without bread ? 
I can do without it. 
There are many things which we 
must do without. 



To execute a commission. 
To acquit one's self of a commis- 
sion. 
I have executed your commission. 

Have you executed my commission ? ■ 

I have executed it. 

To do one's duty. 
To discharge, to do, or to fulfil one's 

duty. 
That man always does his duty. 
That man always fulfils his duty. 



Se passer de quelque chose. 
Pouvez-vous vous passer de pain ? 
Je puis (je peux) m'en passer. 
II y a bien des choses dont 11 faut se 
passer. 



.S'acquitter 1, d'une commission. 

Je me suis acquitte de votre com- 
mission. 

Vous etes-vous acquitte de ma com- 
mission ? 

Avez-vous fait ma commission ? 

Je m'en suis acquitte. 

Faire son devoir. 

Remplir son devoir. 

Cet homme fait toujonrs son devoir. 
Cet homme s'acquitte toujcurs de 
son devoir. 



To rely, to depend upon something. 
He depends upon it. 

I rely upon you. 
You may rely upon him. 



I Compter 1, sur qiedquc chose. 

I II y compte. 

^ Je compte sur vous. 

^ Je me fie Ci vous. 
Vous pouvez vous fier ii lui 
Vous pouvez vous y fier. 
Vous pouvez compter sur luL 



SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



291 



To suffice, to be sufficient. 

Is that bread sufficient for you ? 

It is sufficient for me. 

£ suffice, thou dost suffice. 

Will that money be sufficient for that 

man ? 
It will be sufficient for him. 
Little wealth suffices for the wise. 
Has that sum been sufficient for that 

man 1 
Was that man contented with that 

sum ? 
It has been sufficient for him. 
He has been contented with it. 

To be contented with something. 
It would be sufficient for him if you 

would only add a few crowns. 
He would bo contented if you would 
only add a few crowns. ' 
To add. 
To build. 
To onbarli, to go on board. 
A sail. 
To set sail. 
To set sail for. 
To sail for America. 

To sail. 
Under full sail. 
To sail under full sail. 
He embarked on the sixteenth of last 

month. 
He sailed on the third instant. 
The instant, the present month. 
The fourth or fifth instant. 
The letter is dated the 6th instant. 



That is to say, (i. e.) 

Et ccBtera, (etc.) 
My pen (quill) is better than yours. 
I write better than j'ou. 



' Suffire * 4 ; pres. part suffisant 

past part, suffi. 
Ce pain vous suffit-il ? 
II me suffit. 
Je suffis, tu suffis. 
Cet argent suffira-t-il h. cet homme I 

II lui suffira. 

Peu de bien suffit au sage. 

Cette somme a-t-elle suffi h cet 

homme ? 
Cet homme s'est-il contente de cette 

somme ? 
Elle lui a suffi. 
II s'eu est contente. 
Se contenter de quelque chose. 
Eile lui suffirait, si vous vouliez seule- 

ment y ajouter quelques ^cus. 
II se contenterait, si vous vouli«z 

seulement y ajouter quelques ^cua. 
Ajouter 1. 
Batir 2. 
S'emlarquer 1. 
Une voile.^ 
t Mettre k la voile, 
t Faire voile pour. 
Faire voile pour I'Amdrique, (allei 

en Amerique.) 
Marcher. 

A pleines voiles, (k toutes voiles.) 
Marcher h. pleines voiles, (cingler.) 
II s'est embarque le seize du mois 

dernier. 
II a mis h. la voile le trois courant. 
Le courant. 

Le quatre ou le cinq du courant. 
La lettre est du six du courant. 



C'est-d-dire. Savoir. 

Et ccetera, (etc.) 

Ma plume est meilleure que la v6tre 

J'ecris mieux que vous. 



' Voile, meaning a veil, a cover, is masculine. Ex. She has bought t 
veil, eUe s'est achete un voile. 



298 SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON. 



They will warm the soup. 
Dhiner (or supper) is on the table, 
(is served up.) 



On fera chauffer la soupe. 
On a servi. 



Do you choose any soup ? ) 

<-,, I, T , , , > t Vous servirai-ie de la soupe? 

bnall 1 help you to some soup '■ y j r 

I will trouble you for a little. I t Je vous en demanderai un pea 



To serve up, to attend. \ Servir *. 



EXERCISES. 
207. 

I should like to (je voudrais hien) know why I cannot speak aa 
well as you. — I will tell you : you would speak quite as well {tout 
aussi bien) as I, if you were not so bashful, (timide.) But if you 
had studied your lessons more carefully (jnieux) you would not be 
afraid to speak ; for in order to speak well one must know, and it 
is very natural {tres-naturel) that he who does not know well what 
he has learned, should be timid, {soit timide, pres. subj., of which 
hereafter.) You would not be so timid as you are, if you were sure 
to make no faults. 

I come to wish you a good morning. — You are very kind, {aima- 
ble.) — Would you do me a favor 1 — Tell me what you want, for 1 
would do any thing (je ferais tout) to oblige you, (pourvous obliger.) 
— I want five hundred crowns, and I beg 3'ou to lend them to me. I 
will return them to you as soon as I have received my money. You 
would oblige {obliger) me much (beaucoup) if you would render 
prendre) me this service. — I would do it with all my heart if I could ; 
but having lost all my money, it is impossible for me (il m'est impos- 
sible) to render you this service. — Will you ask your brother whether 
he {s''iT) is satisfied with {content de) the money which I have sent 
him "? — As to my brother he is satisfied with it, but I am not so ; for 
having suffered shipwreck {faire naufrage) I am in want of the 
money which you owe me. 

208. 
Have they served up the soup ] — They have served it up some 
minutes ago. — Then {alors) it must be cold, and I only like soup hot, 
{la soupe chaude.) — They will warm it for you. — You will oblige me, 
{obliger.) — Shall I help you to some of this roast meat ? — I will 
trouble you for a little. — ^Will you eat some of this mutton 1 — I thank 
you, I like fowl better. — I\Iay I offer you {vous ojfrirai-jc) some 
wine 1 — I will trouble you for a little. — Have they already brought 
in the dessert ] — They have brought it in — Do you like fruit ? — I 



SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON. 299 

like fruit, but I have no more appetite. — Will you eat a little cheese? 
— I will eat a little. — Shall I help you to English or Dutch cheese '^ 
— I will eat a little Dutch cheese. — What kind of fruit is that 1 — It 
is stone-fruit. — ^What is it called] — It is called thus. — Will you 
wash your hands 1 — I should like to (je voudrais Men) wash them, 
but I have no towel to {pour) wipe them with. — I will let you have 
(/aire donner) a towel, some soap, and some water. — I shall be much 
obliged (fort oblige) to you. — May I ask you for {oserais-je vous de- 
mander) a little water ] — Here is some, {en void.) — Can you do with- 
out soap ] — As for soap I can do without it, but I must have a towel 
to wipe my hands with. — Do you often do without soap ? — There are 
many things which we must do without. — Why has that man run 
away 1 — Because he had no other means of escaping the punishment 
(la punifion) which he had deserved, (jneriter.) — Why did your bro- 
thers not get {se procurer) a better horse ] — If they had got rid of 
their old horse, they would have got a better. — Has your father ar- 
rived already ] — Not yet, but we hope that he will arrive this very 
lay, (aujourd''hui meme.) — Has your friend set out in time, {a temps?) 
— I do not know, but I hope he has {quHl sera, Obs. A. Less. LVIII.) 
set out in time. 

209. 

Have you executed my commission 1 — I have executed it. — Has 
your brother executed the commission which I gave him 1 — He has 
executed it. — Would you (voudriez-vous) execute a commission for 
me ■? — I am under so many obligations to you that I will always exe- 
cute your commissions, when it shall please you to give me any. — 
Will you ask the merchant whether (si) he can let me have (me don- 
ner) the horse at the price (an prix) which I have offered him ] — I 
am sure that he would be satisfied if you would add a few crowns 
more. — If I were sure of that I would add a few crowns more. — 
Good morning, my children ! have you done your task ■? — You well 
know that we always do it ; for we must be ill (jl faudrait que noii.i 
fussions malades, imperfect of the subjunctive, of which hereafter) 
not to (pour) do it. — What do you give us to do to-day 1 — I give you 
to study the sixty-sixth lesson, and to do the exercises belonging to 
it, (qui en dependent ;) that is to say, the 207th, 208t/., and 209th. 
Will you endeavor to commit no errors, { f aire des f antes?) — We 
shall endeavor to commit none. — Is this bread sufficient for you 1— 
It would be sufficient for me if I was not very hungry. — When did 
your brother embark for America 1 — He sailed on the 30th of last 
month. — Do you promise me to speak to your brother 1 — I promise 
■ you, you may depend upon it. — I rely upon you. — Will you work 



300 



SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



harder (mieux) for next lesson than 3'ou have done (que vous ri'avez 
travaille) for this "? — I will work harder. — May I rely upon it ] — Ton 
may. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH 'L'ES,SO'N.—Soixante-sej,tieme Lefon. 



To he a judge of something. 
Are you a judge of cloth? 
I am a judge of it. 
I am not a judge of it. 
I am a good judge of it. 
I am not a good judge of it. 



To forbid. 
I forbid you to do that. 

To lower. 
To cast down one's eyes. 



To draw. 

To chalk, to trace, (to counterdraw.) 
To draw a landscape. 
To draw after life. - 
The drawing. 
The drawer. 
Nature. 



To manage, or to go about a thing. 

How do you manage to make a fire 
without tongs? 

I go about it so. 

You go about it the wrong way 

I go about it the right way. 

How does your brother manage to 
do that? 

Skilfully, handily, dexterously, clev- 
erly. 

Awkwardly, unhandily, badly. 



t Sc connaitre en quelque chose 

t Vous connaissez-vous en drap ? 

Je m'y connais. 

Je ne m'y connais pas. 

Je m'y connais tres-bien. 

Je ne m'y connais pas beaucoup. 



Dessiner 1. 

Calquer 1. 

Dessiner un paysage. 

Dessiner d'apres nature. 

Le dessin. 

Le dessinateur. 

La nature. 



S'y prendre. 

Comment vous y preuez-vous poui 

faire du feu sans pincette ?^ 
Je m'y prends comme cela. 
Vous vous y prenez mal. 
Je m'y prends bien. 
Comment votre frfere s'y prend-il 

pour faire cela? 
Adroitemeut. 

Maladroitement. 



I Defendre 4, (de before inf.) 
I Je vous defends de faire cela. 

Baisser 1. 
I t Baisser les yeux. 



'All nouns ending in tte are feminine, except the two following; un 
amuletle, an amulet ; un squelette, a skeleton ; and some compounds, as ; 
an portc-mouchettes, a suuffer-stand ; un iire-botte, a boot-jack ; un casse- 
noisette, nut-crackers. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



301 



The curtain. 
The curtaia rises, falls. 
The stocks have fallen 
The day falls. 
It grows toward night. 
Night comes on. 
It grows dark. 
It grows late. 

To stoop. 



To smell, to feel. 
Ht ^inells of garlic. 
To (Bel some one's pulse. 

To consent to a thing. 

I consent to it. 



To hide, to conceal. 
The mind. 
Indeed. 
In fact. 
The truth. 
The effect. 
True. 

A true man. 
This t the right place for that pic- 
ture. 



La toile, le rideau. 

t La toile (le rideau) se leve, se baisse 

Le change a baisse. 

Le jour baisse. 

II se fait nuit. 

II se fait tard. 
Se haisser. 



Sentir *. (Lesson LIV.) 
II sent Tail. 

t Tater le pouls h. quelqu'mi. 
Consentir* a qvelque chose. (Les- 
son LIV.) 
J'y consens. 



Cacher 1. 

L'esprit. 

En verity. 

En effet. 

La verity. 

L'effot. 

Vrai. 

Un homme vrai. 

Voil&, la vraie place de ce tableau- 



To think much of one, {to esteem 
one.) 

To esteem some one. 
I do not think much of that man. 

I think much of him, (I esteem him 
much.) 

The case. 



Faire cas de quelqu'un. 

Estimer 1, quelqu'un. 

Je ne fak pas grand cas de cet 

homme. 
Je fais grand cas de lui, (je Testime 

beaucoup.) 
Le cas. 



The flower, the bloom, the blossom. 

On a level with, even with. 
That man has his eyes on a level 
with liis head. 



La fleur. 
^Afleur de. 

Cet homme a les yeux k fleur de 
tote. 



302 



SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



To blossom, {to flourish.) 
To grow. 

I grow, thou growest, he or she 
grows. 

To grow rapidly, (fast.) 
To grow tall or big. 
That child grows so fast that we 

may even see it. 
That child has grown very fast in a 

short time. 
That rain has made the corn grow. 
Corn. 



A. cover. 

A shelter. 
A cottage, a hut. 
To shelter one's self from something. 
To take shelter from something. 
Let us shelter ourselves from the 

rain, the wind. 
Let us enter that cottage in order to 
be sheltered from the storm, (the 
tempest.) 



Everywhere, all over, throughout. 
All over (throughout) the town. 
A shade. 
Under the shade. 
Let us sit down under the shade of 
that tree. 



Fleurir 2? 

Croitre * 4 ; pres. part croissant 

past part. crii. 
Je crois, tu crois, il ou elle croit. 

Croitre rapidement. 

Grandir 2. 

t Cet enfant grandit k vne d'ceil. 

Cet enfant a bien grandi en pen de 

temps. 
Cette pluie a fait grandir les bles. 
Du ble. 



Un gite. 
Un abri. 
Une chaumiere. 

> Se mettre k I'abri de quelque chose. 

Mettons-nous k Tabri de la pluie, du 

vent. 
Entrons dans cette chaumiere, pour 

etre k convert de la tempete, ou 

pour etre k i'abri des injures du 

temps. 



Partout. 
Par toute la ville. 
Une ombre.^ 
^A I'ombre. 

Allons-nous asseoir S. Fombre de cet 
arbre. 



To pretend. 
That man pretends to sleep. 



Faire semhlant de. 

Cet homme fait semblaut de dormir. 



'^ Fleurir, to blossom, is regular ; but when it means to flourish, its pres 
ent participle is florissant, and its imperfect indicative florissait, florissaieni 
Ex. Un empire florissant, a flourishing empire; une armee florissantc, a 
flourishing army ; cet auteur florissait sous son regne, that author flour- 
'shed under his reign ; les arts et les sciences florissaicnt alors, arts and 
sciences were then flourishing. 

' Ombre, a shadow, is feminine ; but omhre, a kind of fish, and Vombre, 
a game at cards, are masculine. 



SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



303 



That young lauy pretends to know I Cette demoiselle fait semblaiit do 

French. savoir le fran^ais. 

They pretend to come near us. I lis font semblant de s'approcher do 

nous. 



NoiD. 

From, since. 
From morning. 
From the break of day. 
From the cradle, from a child. 
From this time forward. 

As soon as. 
As soon as I see him I shall speak 
to him. 

For fear of. 
To catch a cold. 
I will not go out for fear of catching 

a cold. 
He does not wish to go to town for 
fear of meeting with one of his 
creditors. 
He does not wish to open his purse 
for fear of losing his money. 



Maintenant. 

Dts. 

Des le matin. 

Des le point du jour. 

Dfes le berceau. 

D5s il present. 

Des que. 

D6s que je le verrai jo lui parlerai. 

De crainte ou depeur de. 

Prendre froid, s^enrhu?ner. 

Je ue veux pas sortii*, de peur de 

m'enrhumer. 
II ne veut pas aller a la ville, de peur 

de rencontrer un de ses creanciers. 

II ne veut pas ouvrir sa bourse, de 
peur de perdi-e son argent. 



To copy, transcribe. 
To decline. 
To transcribe fairlj^ 
A substantive, an adjective, a pro- 
noun. 
A verb, a preposition, a grammar, a 
dictionary. 



Copier 1. (See Obs. A. Less. LX.) 
Decliner 1. 

Mettre * au net. (Less. XXXIII.) 
Un substantif, uu adjectif, un pro- 

nom. 
Un verbe, une preposition, une gram- 

maire, vui dictionnaire. 



EXERCISES. 

210. 
Are you a judge of cloth ■? — I am a judge of it. — Will you buy 
some yards for me, (m'en ?) — If you will give me the money I will 
buy you some, {vous en.) — You will oblige (obliger) me — Is that 
man a judge of cloth] — He is not a good judge of it. — How do you 
manage to do that ] — I manage it so. — Will you show me how you 
manage it 1 — I will show you, (je le veux bien.) — What must I do 
(que me faut-il faire) for my lesson of to-morrow ^ — You will 
transcribe your exercises fairl}^, do three otliers, and study the next 



304 SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON 

lesson, {la le^on suivante.) — How do you manage to get goods {dei 
marchandises) without money ! — I buy on credit. — How does your 
sister manage to learn French without a dictionary i (Obs. Lesson 
LH.) — She manages it thus. — She manages it very dexterously. 
But how does your brother manage it, {Mais M. voire frere comment 
s^y prend-il ?) — He manages it very awlcvv-ardly ; he reads, and looks 
for the words in the dictionary. — He may (pent) learn in this man- 
ner twenty years without knowing how to make a single sentence, 
(une seule phrase.) — Why does your sister cast down htr eyes ] — 
She casts them down because she is ashamed of not havmg done hei 
task. — Shall we breakfast in the garden to-day ? — The weather is so 
fine, that we should {qu'ilfaut) take advantage of it, {en profit er.) — 
How do you like that coffee ] — I like it very much, {excellent.) — 
Why do you stoop '\ — I stoop to pick up the handkerchief which 1 
have dropped. — Why do your sisters hide themselves 1 — They would 
not hide themselves if they did not fear to be seen. — Whom are 
they afraid of? — They are afraid of their governess {une institutrice) 
who scolded them yesterday because they had not done their tasks, 
{leur devoir.) 

211. 
Have you already seen my son ? — I have not seen him yet ; how 
is he 1 — He is very well ; you will not be able to recognise him, foi 
he has grown very tall in a short time. — ^Why does that man give 
nothing to the poor, {aux pauvres ?) — He is too avaricious, {avare ;) 
he does not wish to open his purse for fear of losing his money. — 
W^hat sort of weather is it \ — It is very warm ; it is long since we 
had any rain : I believe we shall have a storm, {un or age.) — It mav 
be, {cela se peut hien.) — The wind rises, {s''elevcr,) it thunders al- 
ready ; do you hear it 1 — Yes, I hear it, but the storm is still far off, 
{encore Men loin.) — Not so far as you think ; see how it lightens. — 
Bless me, {mon Dieu !) what a shower, {quelle averse !) — If we go 
into some place {quelque part) we shall be sheltered from the storm. 
— Let us go into that cottage, then, {done ;} we shall be sheltered there 
from the wind and the rain. — Where shall we go to now ! Which 
road shall we take 1 — The shortest {court) will be the best. — We 
have too much sun, and I am still very tired ; let us sit down under 
the shade of that tree. — Who is {quel est) that man who is sitting 
under the tree ] — I do not know him. — It seems he {il parait qu'il) 
wishes to be alone, {seul ;) for when we offer {voiiloir *) to approach 
him, he pretends to be asleep. — He is like your sister : she under- 
stands French very well, {fort hien ;) but when I begin to speak to 
her, she pretends not to understand me. — You have promised me to 



SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



305 



speak to the captain ; why have you not done so ■! — I have not seen 
him yet ; but as soon as I see him I shall speak to him. (See end 
of Lesson XXIV.) 



SIXTY-EIGHTH L'ESSO'!<i. —Soixanie-huiiieme Lefon. 

OF THE PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

(Preterit Dejini.) 

This past tense is formed from the past participle by changing, for the firat 
conjugation, e into 

Sing. 1st peis. 2d pers. 3d pers. Plur. 1st pers. 2d pers. 3d pers 
ai, as, a, dmes, ates, erent. 

For the second and fom'th conjugations i and u mto : 

is, is, it, imes, ites, irent. 

And for the thhd conjugation u into : 

us, us, ut, umes, iites, urent. 

Examples. 



INFINI- PAST 
TIVE. PART. 

Parler, parle. 
Fiuir, fini. 
Recevoir, legu. 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

Je Tu II Nous 

parlai, parlas, parlrt, parlames, 

finis, finzs, fim"^, finimes, 

legus, lequs, xegut, j:e(^umes, 



Vous lis 

parlaies, parlerewf. 
G.nites, &:drent. 
legutes, regurent. 
Vendre, vend«. veiidJs, vendis, veudit, vendhnes, \endites, vendirent 



Ohs. A. This rule holds good even throughout almost all the irregular 
verbs, with this difference only, that when the past participle ends in is '^1 
it, it is equally changed in the Preterit defini for the terminations : • 
is, is, it, imes, ites, irent. 







Examples. 








INFINI- 


PAST 




PRETERIT DEFIMTE. 




TIVE. 


PART. Je 


Tu 


II 


Nous 


Vous 


Ms 


Sentir », 


seuti. sentis 


1, sentis, 


sentit, 


sentimes, 


sentitesj 


, sentireut. 


Mettre *, 


mis. mis. 


mis. 


mit, 


mimes. 


mites. 


mireut. 


Dire *, 


dit. dis, 


dis. 


dit. 


dimes, 


dites, 


dirent. 


The following "rregnlar verbs are 


exceptions to this rule : 




INFINITIVE 




PART PART. 




PRETERIT 


DEFINITK. 




Couviir *, 


to cover, 


convert. 


Je couvris, is, it 


, imes, 


ites, irent. 


Oflrir *, 


to offer, 


offert. 


J'offris, 


" " 


" 


" 4- 


Ouvrir *, 


to open, 


ouvert. 


J'ouvris 


:, " «' 


" 


" " 


Bouffi-ir *, 


to suffer, 


souffert. 


Je souffris, " " 


" 


" 



306 



SIXTY-EIGHTH LESbON. 



INFINITIVE. 


PAST PART. 


PRETERIT DEFINITE 






Tenir *, 


to hold, 


tenu. 


Je tins. 


ins, 


int, 


inmes, 


intes 


inrent. 


Venlr *, 


to come 


venu. 


Je vins. 


" 


" 


" 


" 


" 


Mourir *, 


to die, 


mort. 


Je mourus 


us. 


ut. 


umes, 


utes. 


Tireut 


Vetir *, 


to clothe, 


vStu. 


Je vetis, 


is, 


it. 


imes. 


ites, 


irent 


Voir * 


to see. 


\TI. 


Je vis, 


is, 


it, 


imes. 


ites. 


irent. 


Pr6voir *, 


to foresee, 


pr6vu. 


Je pr6vis. 


is, 


it, 


imes. 


ites. 


irent 


Ceindre *, 


to gird, 


ceint. 


Je ceignis, 


is, 


it. 


imes, 


ites. 


irent 


Astreindre *, 


to restrain, 


astreint. 


J'astreignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Craindre *, 


to fear, 


craint. 


Je craignis. 


" 


" 




" . 


" 


Empreindre * 


to imprint, 


empreint. 


J'empreignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Enfreindre *, 


to infringe. 


enfreint. 


J'enfreignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Epreindre *, 


to squeeze. 


6preint. 


J'6preignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Feindre *, 


to feign, 


feint. 


Je feignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Joindre *, 


to join, 


joint 


Je joignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Oiiidre *, 


to anoint, 


oint. 


J'oignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Peindre *, 


to paint. 


peint. 


Je peignla,- 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Plaindre *, 


to lament. 


plaint. 


Je plaignis, 


" 


" 




11 


" 


Eestreindre *, 


to restrain, 


restreint. 


Je resfreignis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Teiiidre *, 


to dye. 


teint. 


Je teignis. 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Cuire *, 


to COOlv, 


cuit. 


Je cuisis. 


is, 


it, 


imes, 


ites. 


irent 


Conduire *, 


to conduct, 


conduit. 


Je conduisis, 


" 






" 


" 


Construire *, 


to construct, 


construit. 


Je construisis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


D6truire *, 


to destroy, 


dfitruit. 


Je d^trnisis. 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Enduire *, 


to lay over. 


enduit. 


J'enduisis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Induire *, 


tu induce. 


induit. 


J'induisis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Instniire *, 


to instruct, 


instruit. 


J'instruisis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Introduire *, 


to introduce, 


introduit. 


J'introduisis, 


" 


" 




" 


« 


Reduire *, 


to reduce. 


r6duit. 


Je r6duisis. 


" 


" 




" 


M 


Seduire *, 


to seduce, 


s6duit. 


Je s6diiisis. 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Traduire *, 


to translate, 


traduit. 


Je traduisis. 


" 


" 




" 


« 


lAiii-e *, 


to shine, 


lui. 


Je luisis. 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Nuire *, 


to hurt. 


nui. 


Je nuisis, 


" 


" 




'« 


•» 


Coudre *, 


to sew. 


cousu. 


Je cousis. 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Eci'ire *, 


to write, 


6crit. 


J'ecrivis, 


" 


" 




" 


" 


Etre *, 


to be. 


et6. 


Je fus. 


fus 


, fut, ume; 


i, iites 


;, nrenl 


Faire *, 


to do, 


fait. 


Je fis, 


fis. 


fit 


, fiine; 


5, fite: 


;, tirent 


Naitre *, 


to be born, 


n6. 


Je naquis, 


is, 


it, 


imes 


, ites, 


irent 


Vaincre *, 


to vanquish, 


vaincu. 


Je vainquis, 
REMARK. 


is. 


it, 


imes. 


, ites. 


irent 



The learner will remark, that in the above list some irregular verbs foUo^t 
the conjugation of others ; thus we see three verbs conjugated exactly like 
couvrir, to cover, viz. offrir, to offer ; ouvrir, to open ; soiijfrir, to suffer : 
venir, to come, we see conjugated like teiur, to hold ; twelve ve.'bs after 
ceindre, to gird ; ten after cuire, to bake, to cook ; and one after hiire, to 
shine, viz. nuire, to hurt. Now this is not only the case with respect to tho 
preterit defini of these verbs, but for all the other tenses. It would therefore 
be of essential importance to the learner to commit them to memon,- in the 
order wo have givsn them, as by their help the greatest difficulties of tb« 
irregular verbs are almost overcome. 



SIXTT-EIGHTH LESSON. 



307 



ON THE USE OF THE PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

This tense is so called, because it always expresses an action completed at 
a time specified either by an adverb, or some other circiunstance. Ex. 
I had done reading when he entered J'avais fini do lire, quand il antra. 
You had lost your purse lohen I found Vous aviez perdu votre bourse, quand 

mine, je trouvai la mienne. 

Ohs. B. These examples show that the pluperfect is formed in French, 
as in English, with the imperfect of the auxiliary and the past participle of 
the verb to be conjugated. 

Nous avions dine, lorsqu'il arriva. 
Le roi avait nomme un amiral, quand 

on lui parla de vous. 
Apres avoir parlc, vous vous en al- 
lot es. 
Aprfes m'etre rase, je me lavai la 

figure. 
Apres s'etre chaufTes, Us allerent au 

jardiu. 
Des que la cloche sonna, vous voja 

reveiUates. 
Des qu'ils m^appelerent, je me levai. 
Aussitot qu'il fut pret, il vint me 

voir. 
Aussitot que nous eurnes notre argent, 

nous convimnes de cela. 
Aussitot qu'U eut son cheval, il vint 

me le montrer. 
Apres avoir essaye plusiem-s fois, il3 

parvinrent k le faire. 
Aussitot que je le vis, yohtins ce 

dont j'avais besoin. 
Aussitot que je lui parlai, il fit ce que 

jo lui dis. 
L'afFau-e/«< bientdt faite. 



We had dined when he arrived. 
The king had named an admiral 

when he heard of you. 
After having spoken you went away. 

After shaving I washed my face. 

After having warmed themselves 

they went into the garden. 
As soon as the beU rung you awoke. 

As soon as they called me I got up. 

As soon as lie icas ready he carne to 
see me. 

As soon as we had our money we 
agreed to that. 

..4s soon as he had his horse he came 
to show it me. 

After trying several times they suc- 
ceeded in doing it. 

As soon as I saw him I obtained 
what I wanted. 

As soon as I spoke to him he did 
what I told him. 

The business was soon over. 



ON THE PRETERIT ANTERIOR.' 
(Preterit anterieur.) 
This tense is compounded of the Preterit Defini of the auxUiarj^ and the 
past participle of the verb to be conjugated. It is used (from its name an- 

' There is anotlier Preterit Anterieur, called the Preterit Anterieur In- 
defini, which is, however, seldom employed, It is forme i from the perfect 
of the auxiliary and the past participle of another verb. Ex Quand nous 



308 



SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



tirieur, anterior) to express an action past before another which is likewise 
past, and is hardly ever used except after one of the conjunctions : 

pAussitot que. 



As soon as. 

After. 

When. 

No sooner. 
Scarcely. 



j Sitot que. 



\ D'abord que. 
|_Des que. 
I Apres que. 
( Lorsque. 
^ Quand. 
1 Pasplutdt. 
I A peine. 



It also expresses an action as qu'ckly done. 



EX.'i.MPLES. 



As soon as I had jinislied my work 
I carried it to him. 

As soon as I had dressed myself I 
went out. 

When they had done playing they 
began singing. 

When I had dined it struck twelve. 

As soon as the guests were assem- 
bled the repast commenced. 

I had soon done eating. 

After the soldiers had pillaged the 
town, they slaughtered without 
pity the women and children. 

Scarcely had we amved when we 
were conducted to the king. 

Ho had no sooner perceived us than 
he advanced towards us. 



Aussitot que feus fini mon ouvrago, 

je le lui portai. 
Aussitot que je me fus hahille, je 

sortis. 
Quand Us eurent acheve de jouer, ils 

se mirent k chanter. 
Quand feus dine, midi sonna. 
Des que les convives se furent as- 
sembles, le repas commenga. 
J'eus bientot fni de manger. 
Apres que les soldats eurent jpille la 

viKe, lis egorgerent sans pitie les 

femmes et les enfauts. 
^A peine fumes-nous aiTives, qu'ou 

nous conduisit au roi. 
II ne nous eut pas pJutot apergus, 

qu'il s'avan^a vers nous. 



EXERCISES. 

212. 

What did you do {que fites-vous) when j^ou had finished your let- 
ter % — I went to my brother, who took {conduire *) me to the thea- 
tre, where I had the pleasure to find one of my friends whom I had 
not seen for ten years. — What didst thou do after getting up this morn- 
ing 1 — When I had read the letter of the Polish count I went to see 

avons eu dine, nous sommes alles a la promenade, when wo had done dinner 
we went to take a walk ; quand fai eu parle a voire pere, je m'cn suis alii, 
when I had spoken to your father I went away ; fai eu dejeune ce tnaiiii 
i dix heurcs, I had done breakfast this morning at ten o'clock 



SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON, 309 

(je sortis pour voir) the theatre of the prince whi'^h I had not seen 
before, (pas encore.) — What did your father do when he had break- 
fasted 1 — He shaved and went out. — What did your friend do after 
he had been a walking 1 — He went to the baron, (Ze baron.) — Did the 
baron cut the meat after he had cut the bread 1 — He cut the bread 
after he had cut the meat. — When do you set out 1 — I do not set out 
ill {je ne pars que) to-morrow; for before I leave I will once more 
see my good friends. — What did your children do when they had 
breakfasted \ — They went a walking with their dear preceptor, (pre- 
cepteur.) — Where did your uncle go after he had warmed himself? 
— He went nowhere. After he had warmed himself he undressed 
and went to bed. — At what o'clock did he get up % — He got up at 
sunrise. — Did you wake him "! — I had no need to wake him, for he 
had got up before me. — What did your cousin do when he heard of 
the death {la mort) of his best friend] — He was much afflicted, {tres- 
afflige,) and went to bed without saying a word. — Did you shave be- 
fore you breakfasted ] — I shaved when I had breakfasted. — Did you 
go to bed when you had eaten supper 1 — When I had eaten supper I 
wrote my letters, and when I had written them I went to bed. — At 
what {de quoi) are you afflicted 1 — I am afflicted at that accident. — 
Are you afflicted at the death {de la mort) of your relation 1 — I am 
much afflicted at it, {en.) — When did your relation die % — He died 
last month. — Of whom do you complain 1 — I complain of your boy. 
— Why do you complain of him? — Because he has killed the pretty 
dog which I received from one of my friends. — Of what has your 
uncle complained 1 — He has complained of what you have done. — • 
Has he complained of the letter which I wrote to him the day before 
yesterday I — He has complained of it. 

213. 

Why did you not stay longer in Holland ? — When I was there the 
living was dear, and I had not money enough to stay there longer. — 
What sort of weather was it when you were on the way to Vienna 1 
— It was very bad weather, for it was stormy, and snowed and rained 
very heavily, {a verse.) — Where have you been since I saw you ? — 
We sojourned long on the sea-shore, (Lesson LIX.,) until a ship 
arrived {jusqu^a Varrivee dhm — ) which brought us {amener) to 
France. — Will you continue your narrative ? (Lesson LIX.) — ■ 
Scarcely had we arrived in France when we were taken {conduire *) 
to the king, who received us very well, and sent us back to our coun- 
try. — ^A peasant having seen that old men {le vieillard) used {se ser- 
vir* de) spectacles {lunettes, fem.) to read, went to an optician {un 
opticien) and asked for a pair, (et en demanda.) The peasant then 



310 SIXTY-NINTH LESSON. 

took a book, and having opened it, said the spectacles were not good, 
(fem.) The optician put another pair (uhe autre paire) of the best 
which he could find in his shop {la houtique) upon his nose ; but the 
peasant being still unable to read, the merchant said to him : " My 
friend, perhaps you cannot read at all V " If I could, {si je savais 
lire") said the peasant, "I should not want your spectacles." — Henry 
IV. meeting one day in his palace {le palais) a man whom he did not 
know, {qui lui etait inconnu,) asked him to whom he belonged : " I be- 
long to myself," replied this man. " My friend," said the king, " you 
have a stupid master." — Tell us {racontez-nous) what has happened 
to you lately, {Vautre jour.) — Very willingly, {tres-volontiers :) but 
on condition {sous la condition) that you will listen to me without in- 
terrupting {interrompre) me. — ^We will not interrupt you ; you may 
be {pouvez etre) sure of it, {en.) — Being lately at the theatre, I saw 
the speaking picture and the weeping {pleurer) woman performed. 
{voir * representer.) This latter play {cette derniere piece) not be- 
ing very {trop) amusing to me, {pour moi,) I went to the concert, 
where the music {la musique) caused me a violent head-ache, {une 
violente migraine.) I then left {quitter) the concert, cursing it, 
{en le maudissant^ and went straight {et fallai droit) to the mad- 
house {un hopital des fous) in order to see my cousin. On entering 
the hospital of my cousin I was struck with horror {etre saisi d^hor- 
reur) at {en) seeing several madmen, {le fou,) who came up to me, 
{s'' appro clier de quelqu'' un,) ]\i.m.^\ng {sauter) and howling, {hurler.) — 
What did you do then 1 — I did the same, {autant,) and they set up a 
laugh {se mettre * a rire) as they were withdrawing, (^e retirer.) 



SIXTY-NINTH IjE^^O^.—Soixante-neuvieme Lefon. 



To get beaten, (whipped.) 
To get paid. 
To sjet one's self invited to dine. 



t Se faire battre. 
t Se faire payer, 
t Se faire iuviter a, diuer 



At first. D'abord. 

Fu'stly. Premieremeut, en premier lieu. 

Secondly. Secoudemeat, en second lieu. 

Thirdly, &c Troisifemement, en troisifeme lieu, &c 

T ii i 1 1 S Votre m&re est-elle chez elle ? 

Is your motlier at home ? < ^^ „ , . , 

( Votre nifere est-elle il la maisou 1 

She is. I Elle y est 

I am going to her house. | Je vais chez elle 



SIXTY-NINTH LESSON. 



311 



A cause. 
A cause of complamt. 
A cause of sadiiess. 
She has reason to be sad. 
Grief, sorrow, sadness. 
Is that woman ready to go out ? 
She is. 

Notwithstanding, in spite of. 
Notwithstanding that. 
In spite of him, her, them. 



Un sujet. 

Un sujet de chagrin. 

Un sujet de tristesse. 

Elle a un sujet* de tristesse. 

Le chagrin, la tristesse. 

Cette femme est-elle prfete a, sortii? 

Elle I'est. 



Malgre, en depit de. 
Malgre cela. 
Malgre lui, elle, eux. 



To manage. 
Do you manage to finish your work 

every Saturday night ? 
Do you manage to have your work 

done every Saturday night 1 
Try to do that to oblige me. 



Faire ensort^de. 

Faites-vous en sorte de fiiiir votre 

ouvi'age tons les samedis soir ? 
Faites-vous en sorte d' avoir fini votre 

ouvrage tons les samedis soir ? 
Faites en sorte de faire cela pour 

m'obliffer. 



Ohs. A. Whenever in order to can be substituted for the preposition to, the 
latter is rendered ui French by pour, to express the end, the design, or the 
cause for which a thing is done. 

I will do every thing to oblige you. ] Je ferai tout pour vous obliger. 



To look upon. 
The window looks into the street. 
The window looks out upon the river. 
The back-door looks into the gar- 
den. 

To drown. 
To drown a dog. 
To be drowned, to be drowning. 
To drown one's self, to get di-owned. 
To leap through the window. 
To throw out of the window. 
I am drowning. 

He jumped out of the window. 
To fasten. 
He was fastened to a tree. 



Donner sur. 

La fenetre donne sur la rue. 

La fenetre donne sur la riviere 

La porte de derri^re donne sur le 

jardin. 
Noyer 1. 
Noyer un chien. 

Se noyer. 

Sauter par la fenetre. 

Jeter par la fenStre. 

Je me noie. (See Obs. D. hcea. 

XXIV.) 
II sauta par la fenetre. 
Attacker 1. 
On I'attacha ti un arbro. 



315 



SIXTY-NINTH LESSON. 



The cattle. 
To keep warm. 
To keep cool. 
To keep clean. 
To keep on one's guard against some 

one. 
Keep on your guard against that 

man. 
To take care {to beware) of somehody 

or so77iething. 
If you do not take care of that horse 
it will kick you. 

Take care that you do not fall. 

To keep on one's guard against 
sortie one. 

To beware of somebody or some- 
thing. 

Keep on your guard against that 
man. 

Take care. 



Le betail ; pluT. les bestiauH 

t Se tenir chaud. 

t Se tenir frais. 

t Se tenir propre. 

t Se tenir en garde centre quelqu'un, 

t Tenez-vous en garde centre cet 

homme. 
Prendre garde a quelqu'un ou d 

quelque chose. 
Si vous ne prenez pas garde k ce che- 

val, il vous donnera im coup de 

pied, 
t Prenez garde de tomber. 
t Se tenir (etre) sur ses gardes atec 

quelqu'un. 
t Se garder de quelqu'un ou quelque 

chose, 
t Tenez-vous sur vos gardes avec cet 

homme. 
Prenez garde. 



A thought. 
An idea. 
A sally. 
To be struck with a thought. 
A thought strikes me. 
That never crossed my mind. 

To take it into one's head. 
He took it into his head lately to rob 

me. 
What is in your head ? 



Une pensee. 

Une idee. 

Une saillie. 

Venir en pensee, (&. I'idee, a I'esprtt. 

II me vient une pensee. 

Cela ne m'est jamais venu a I'esprit 

t S'aviser 1. 

t II s'avisa I'autre jour de me voler 

t De quoi vous avisez-vous ? 



In my, your, his or her place. 
We must put every thing in its place. 

Around, round. 

All around. 
We sailed around England. 

They went about the town to look at 
the curiosities. 

To go around the house 



^A ma, voire, sa place. 

II faut mettre chaque chose i sa place 

Autour. 

Tout autour. 

Nous naviguames autour de I'Anjle^ 
terre. 

t lis allerent 9a et Ui dans la ville, pour 
en voir les choses remarquables. 
^ Aller autour de la maison. 
^ Faire le tour de la maison. 



SIXTl -NINTH LESSON. 



313 



To go about the house. 
To cost. 
How mucli docs that cost you? 
How much does this book cost you ? 
It costs me three crowns and a hah'. 
That table costs him twenty crowns. 
Alone, hy one's self. 
I was alone. 
One woman only. 
One God. 
God alone can do that. 
The very thought of it is criminal. 
A single reading is not sufficient to 
satisfy a mind that has a trae taste. 



To kill by shooting. 
To blow out some one's brains. 
To shoot one's self with a pistol. 

He has blown out his brains. 
He has blown out his brains with a 
pistol. 



Aller c^iL et la. dojis la maiaoii. 
Coutcr 1. 

Combjen cela vous coiite-t-il? 
Combien ce livre vous coiite-t-il? 
II me coLite trois (5cus et demi. 
Cette table lui coCite vingt 6c\\s. 
Sp.uI; fern, seule. 
J'etais seul. 
Uno seule femme. 
Un soul Dieu. 
Dieu seul pent faire cela. 
La seule pensee de cela est criininello. 
Une seule lecture ne suffit pas pom 
contenter un homme qui a du gout 



Tuer d'un coup d'anne a feu. 
Bruler la cervelle k quelqu'un. 
Se brCiler la cervelle d'un coup de 

pistolet. 
II s'cst brtile la cervelle. 
II s'est brCil^ la cervelle d'un coup de 

pistolet. 



He served for a long time, acquired I II servit long-temps, parvint aux 
honors, and died contented. | honneurs, et mourut content. 

Obs. B. In some instances, when the verbs are in the same tense, the 
pronouns of the third person are not repeated. 

He arrived poor, grew rich in a short II arriva panvre, devint riche en peu 
time, and lost all in a still shorter de temps, et perdit tout en moiua 
time. de temps encore. 



EXERCISES. 

214. 

What is the matter with you ! Why do you look so melancholy, 
{avoir Voir vielancolique ?) — I should not look so melancholy if ] 
iiad no reason to be sad. I have heard just now (Lesson XLIX.) 
that one of rny best friends has shot himself with a pistol, and that 
one of my wife's best friends has drowned herself. — AVhere has she 
drowned herself"! — She has drowned herself in the river which is 
behind her house. Yesterday, at four o'clock in the morning, she 
rose without saying a word to any one, (a personne,) leaped out of 

27 



314 SIXTY-NINTH LESSON. 

the window which looks into the garden, and threw herself into the 
river, where she was drowned. — I have a great mind , (grands envie) 
to batlie (^e baigner) to-day. — Where will you bathe ? — In the river. 
— Are you not afraid of being drowned i — Oh, no ! I can swim. — 
Who taught you 1 — Last summer I took a few lessons in the swim- 
ming-school, (a Vecole de natation.) 

When had you finished your task 1 — I had finished it when you 
came in. — Those who had contributed {contribuer) most (Je plus) to 
his elevation to the throne {a son elevation sur le trone) of his an- 
cestors, were those who labored (travailler) with the most eagerness 
[le plus d'' acharnement) to precipitate {precipiter) him from it, (en.) 
As soon as Caesar {Cesar) had crossed {passer) the Rubicon, he had 
no longer to deliberate, {deliberer :) he was obliged {devoir) to con- 
quer {vaincre) or to die. — An emperor {u7i empereur) who was irri- 
tated at {irrite centre) an astrologer, {un astrologue,) asked him : 
" Wretch, {miserable !) what death {de quel genre de mort) dost thou 
believe thou wilt die "?" — " I shall die of the fever," replied the as- 
trologer. " Thou liest," said the emperor, " thou wilt die this in- 
stant of a violent death, {de mort violente.") As he was going to be 
seized, {saisir,) he said to the emperor, " Sire, {Seigneur,) order 
some one {ordonnez) to feel {qii'on me tdte, pres. subjunctive, of 
which hereafter,) my pulse, and it will be found that I have a fever." 
This sally saved his life. 

215. 
Do you perceive yonder house, (cette maison Id-bas ?) — ■ do per- 
ceive it : what house is if! — It is an inn, {une auherge ;) if 5-ou like 
we will go into it to drink a glass of wine, for I am very {bien) thirsty. 
— You are always thirsty when you see an inn. — If we enter I shall 
drink your health, (Lesson LXIII.) — Rather than (Lesson LXI.) go 
into an inn I will not drink. — When will you pay me what you owe 
me 1 — When I have money : it is useless to ask me for some to-day, 
for you know very well that there is nothing to be had of him who 
has nothing. — When do you think you will have money ] — I think I 
shall have some next year. — Will j^ou do what I shall tell you [ — I 
will do it if it is not too difficult. — Whj^ do you laugh at me ? — I do 
not laugh at you, but at your coat. — Does it not look like (Lesson 
LXIII.) yours '? — It does not look like it, for mine is short (court) 
and yours is too long, {long ;) mine is black and yours is green. — 
Why do you associate with (Lesson LXIII.) that man 1 — I would not 
associate with him if he had not rendered me great services, {le ser- 
vice.) — Do not trust him, {ne vous y fiez pas,) for if you are not on 
your guard, he will cheat {tromper) you. — Why do j'ou work so 



SEVENTIETH LESSON. 



315 



much, {tant ?)— I work in order to be one day useful to my couctry. 
—When I was yet {etant encore) little I once {unjour) said to my 
father, " I do not know (entendre) commerce, {le commerce,) and I do 
not know how to sell ; let me {permettez-moi de) play." My father 
answered me, smiling; (era souriant,) " In dealing (c'est en marchan- 
dant que) one learns to deal, and in selling to sell." " But, my dear 
father," replied {repUquer) I, " in playing one learns also to play." 
" You are right," said he to me, " but you must first {auparavant) 
learn what is necessary {necessaire) and useful."— Judge not {ne 
jugez point) that you may not (vous qui ne voulez pas) be judged ! • 
Why do you perceive the mote (une paille) in your brother's eye, 
you who do not perceive the beam (une poutre) which is in your own 
eye 1 — Would you copy your exercises if I copied mine 1 — I would 
copy them if you copied yours.— Would your sister have transcribed 
her letter if I had transcribed mine "?— She would have transcribed 

it. Would she have set out if I had set out ] — I cannot tell you 

what she would have done if you had set out. (See end of Lesson 
XXIV.) 



SEVENTIETH hESSOl:^ .—Soixante et dixicme Lepon. 
OF THE IMPERATIVE. 

The second person singular of this mood is formed, in all French verbs, 
from the first person singular of the mdicative by omitting the pronoun je, I. 
Examples : 



Present. Imperative. 

I speak, speak thou. 

I come, come thou. 

I perceive, perceive thou. 

I take, take thou. 



Present. Imperat. 2d pers sing. 
Je parle, parle.^ 

Je viens, viens. 

J'aper^ois, apergois. 

Je prends, prends. 



The five following verbs must be excepted from this rule : j'ai, I have ; 
imperat. aie, have thou ; je suis, I am ; sois, be thou ; je vais, I go ; va, go 



' When the second person singular of the imperative ends in e, it takes s 
after it before the relative pronouns en, y. Ex. Off res-en a ta swur, ofFei 
some to thy sister ; portes-y tes livres, carry thy books thither. But v/hen 
en is a preposition the imperative takes no s. Ex. Bozne en cctte occasion 
dee preuves de ton zele, give, on this occasion, a proof of tliy zeal. 



316 



SEVENTIETH LESSON. 



thou ; je sais, I know ; sache, know thou ; je vcux, am willing ; vcuille, 
be thou willing.' 

Obs. A. All the other persons of the imperative, e.xcept the third of both 
numbers, which is derived from, and is like the present of the subjunctive 
(of which hereafter,) are derived from the present of tlie indicative. 

Ayez patience. 
Soyez attentif. 
Allez-y. 
Donnez-le-moi. 



Have patience. 
Be (ye) attentive. 
Go (j-e) tliither. 
Give it me. 
Send it to him. 
Lend it to me. 
Have the goodness to liand me that 
plate. 

Obs. B. The second person singular, and the first and second persons 
plural, admit of no pronouns before them ; but the third, in both numbers, is 
always preceded by the pronouns il, Us, elle, elles, and the conjunction que, 
(of which hereafter, when we speak of the present of the subjunctive.) 



Envoyez-le-lui. 

Pretez-le-moi. , 

Ayez la bonte de me passer ce plat 



To borrow. 
I will borrow some money of you. 
I will borrow that money of you. 

Borrow it of (or from) him. 
I borrow it from him. 
Do not tell him or her. 



Emprunter 1. 

Je veux vous emprunter de TargeuL 

Je veux vous empiamter cet argeut 

Empnmtez-le-lui. 

Je le lui emprunte. 

Ne le lui dites pas. 



" The imperative va takes s, when it is followed by the relative pronoun 
y. Ex. Vas-y, go thou thither ; but when there is another verb after the 
pronoun y, va must be written without an s. Ex. Va y donner ordre, go 
thither to give the order ; va y faire un tour, go thither to take a turn. In 
the expression va-Ven, go away, an apostrophe must be placed after the 
letter t, and not a hyplien, as it is not here the euphonic t, but te, au apos- 
trophe supplying the place of e before a vow'el. 

' These verbs are also irregular in all tlie other persons of the imperative, 
which are as follows : 



Qu'il ait ; ayons, ayez, qu'ils aient. 
Qu'il soit ; soyons, soyez, qu'ils soient. 
Quil aille ; allons, allez, qu'ils aillent. 

Qu'il sache • sachons, sachez, qu'ils 

sachent. 
Qu'il veuille ; veuillez, qu'ils vcuil- 

!ent. 



Let him have ; let us have, have ye, 

let them have. 
Let him be ; let us be, be ye, let them 

be. 
Let him go ; let us go, go ye, let them 

go- 
Let him know ; let us kuow, kuoft 

ye, let them kuow. 
Let him be willing ; be ye willing, let 

them be willing. 



SEVENTIETH LESSON. 



317 



Do not return it to them. 

Patience, impatience. 
Tlie neighbor. 
The snuff-box. 



Be (ye) good. 
Know (ye) it. 



Obej' your masters, and never give 

tliem any trouble. 
Pay what you owe, comfort the af- 
flicted, and do good to those that 
have offended you. 
Love God, and thy neiglibor as thy- 
self. 

To obey. 
To comfort. 
To offend. 
Let us always love and practise vir- 
tue, and we shall be happy both in 
this life and in the next. 
To practise. 
Let us see wliicli of us can shoot 
best. 



To express. 
To express one's self. 
To make one's self understood. 
To have the habit. 

To accustom. 
To accustom one's self to something. 
Children must be accustomed early to 

labor. 
To be accustomed to a thing. 
I am accustomed to it. 
I cannot express myself in French, 
for I am not in the habit of speak- 
ing 
You speak properly. 

To converse 
To chatter. 
To prate. 



Ne le leur rendez pas. 
La patience, I'impatience. 
Le prochain. 
La tabatiere. 



Soyez bons. 
Sachez-le. 



Obeissez &, vos maitres, et ne leur 
donnez jamais de chagrin. 

Payez ce que vous devez, consolez 
les malheureux, et faites da bicn Ji 
ceux qui vous out offenses. 

t Aimez le bon Dieu, et le procliain 
comme vous-meme. 

Obeir 2. 

Consoler 1. 

Offenser 1. 

Aimons et pratiquons toujours la vertu, 
et nous serons heureux dans cette 
vie et dans I'autre. 

Pratiquer 1. 

Voyons qui tirera le mieux- 



Exprimer 1. 

S'exprimer 1. 

Sefaire comprendre. 

Avoir I'habitude. 

Accoutumer 1. 

S'accoutumer h quelque chose. 

11 faut accoutumer de bonne heuro 

les enfants au travail. 
Etre accoutume a quelque chose. 
J'y suis accoutmne. 
Je ne puis pas bien m'exprimer en 

fran^ais, parce que je n'ai pas I'hu- 

bitude de parler. 
Vous parlez comme il faut 
Causer 1. 
Bavarder 1. 
Jaser 1. 



318 



SEVENTIETH LESSON. 



A prattler. 
A chatterer. 
To practise. 
I practise speaking. 

To permit, to allow. 

Tiie permission. 
I permit you to go tiiither. 



Un causeur ; fern, eiise.* 
Un jaseur ; fern. euse. 
Exercer 1. 
Je m'exerce &, parler. 



Permettre * 4, (is conj. like met- 

tre -».) 
La permission. 
Je voiis permets d'y aller. 



Do good to the poor, have compas- 
sion on the unfortunate, and God 
will take care of the rest. 

To do good to some one. 
To have compassion on some one 
Compassion. 
Pity. 
The rest. 



Faites du bien aux pauvres, et ayez 
compassion des malheureux, et le 
bon Dieu aura scrjx du reste. 

Faire du bien a quelqu'un. 

Avoir compassion de quelqu'uu. 

La compassion. 

La pitie. 

Le reste. 



If he comes tell him I am in the I S'il vient dites-lui que je suis au jej- 
garden. | din. 

Ohs. C. The letter i suffers elision iu the conjunction si, if before the per- 
sonal pronoims, il, he ; Us, they ; but not before elle or elles. Ex. 



Ask the merchant whether he can let 
me have the horse at the price 
which I have offered him 



Demandez au marchand s'il pent me 
donner le clieval au prix que je lui 
ai offert. 



I read, and was told.- 



J'ai lu et Voa m'a racoutd. 



Ohs. D. The indeterminate pronoun on takes V with an apostrophe (JT) 
after the words et, ou, oil, or si. Ex. 



There they laugh and weep by tunis. 
If they knew what you have done. 
The country where diamonds are 

found. 
You have been, or will soon be told. 



On y lit et Fan y plem-e tour &. tour. 
Si Fon savait ce que vous avez fait. 
Le pays oti I'on trouve le diamauL 

On vous a dil, ou I'on vous dira bieu- 
t6t. 



Obs. E. Que and qui also have sometimes I'on after tliem when the har- 
mony of the sentence requires it. Ex. 



* Une causeusc means also a small sofa for two peraoua. 



SEVENTIETH LESSON. 



319 



What we conceive well we express 
cleai'ly. 

To appear before me liis merit is too 

great : 
We do not like to see those to whom 

we owe so much. 

It is from a king (Agesilaus) that we 
have that excellent maxim : 

That a man is great only inasmuch 
as he is just. 



Ce que Von congoit bien s'<jnonce 

clairement. 

Boileau, Art Poeiiqiic. ch. i. 
Pour paraitre il mes yeux, sou merite 

est trop grand : 
On n'aime pas a, voir ceux &. qui Von 

doit tant. 

Corneille, Nicomede, acte ii. sc. 1. 
C'est d'un roi (Agcsilas) que Von tieut 

cette maxime auguste : 
Que jamais on n'est grand qu'autant 

que Von est juste. 

Boileau, Satire IX. 



Ohs. F. But V must not be made use of before on when it is followed by 
le, la, or les. Say: Je ne veux pas qu'on le tourmente, I do not wish him 
to be molested, and not que Von le, ^c. 



EXERCISES. 
216. • 
Have patience, my dear friend, and be not sad ; for sadness alters 
{changer) nothing, and impatience makes bad worse, {empirer le 
mal.) Be not afraid of your creditors ; be sure that they will do 
you no harm. They will wait if you cannot pay them yet.— When 
will you pay me what you owe me '?— As soon as I have money I 
will pay all that you have advanced (avancer) for me. I have not 
forgotten it, for I think of it (/y pe7ise) every day. I am your debt- 
or, {le debiteur,) and I shall never deny (nier) it.— What a beautiful 
inkstand you have there ! pray lend it me.— What do you wish to do 
^.ith it ]— I wish to show it to my sister.— Take it, but take care of 
it, and do not break it.— Do not fear, {ne craignez ne?z.)— What do 
you want of my brother]— I want to borrow some money of him.— 
Borrow some of somebody else, (a un autre.)— li he will not lend 
me any I will borrow some of somebody else.— You will do well.— 
Do not wish for (souhaiter) what you cannot have, but be contented 
with what Providence {la Providence) has given you, and consider 
{considerer) that there are many men who have not what you have. 
—Life being short, {court,) let us endeavor (Lesson LXV.) to make 
it {de nous ''la rendre) as agreeable {agreable) as possible, {qu'il est 
possible.) But let us also consider that the abuse {Vabus) of pleasure 
(in the plural in French) makes it bitter, {arnere, fem.)— Have you 
done your exercises 1—1 could not do them, because ray brother was 
not at home.— You must not get your exercises done by your bro- 



320 SEVENTIETH LESSON 

ther, but you must do them yourself. — ^What are you doing there 1-^ 
I am reading the book which you lent me. — T ou are wrong in al- 
ways reading it. — What am I to do 1 — Draw this landscape, (Lesson 
LXVII.,) and when you have drawn it you shall decline some sub- 
stantives with adjectives. 

217. 

What must we do in order to be happy 1 — Always love and prac- 
tise virtue, and you will be happy both in this life and in the next. — 
Since {puisque) we wish to be happy, let us do good to the poor, 
and let us have compassion on the unfortunate ; let us obey our mas- 
ters, and never give them any trouble ; let us comfort the unfortu- 
nate, {les infortunes,) love our neighbor as ourselves, and not hate 
those {et ne hdissons pas ceux) that have offended us ; in short, {en 
un mot,) let us always fulfil our duty, and God will take care of the 
rest. — My son, in order to be loved you must be laborious (laborieux) 
and good. Thou art accused {o?i t^ accuse) of having been idle and 
negligent {negligent) in thy affairs. Thou knowest, however, (pour- 
tant,) that thy brother has been punished for having been naughty. 
Being lately {V autre jour) in town, I received a letter from thy tu- 
tor, in which he strongly {fort) complained of thee. Do not weep, 
{pleurer ;) now go into thy room, learn thy lesson, and be a good 
bo)"-, {sage,) otherwise {autrement) ihou wilt get nothing for dinner, 
{a diner.) — I shall be so good, my dear father, that you will certain- 
ly {certainement) be satisfied with me. — Has the little boy kept his 
word, {tenir* parole ?) — Not quite ; for after having said that, he 
went into his room, took his books, sat down at the table, (se mit a 
une table,) and fell asleep, {s''endormit.) — " He is a very good boy 
when he sleeps," said his father, seeing him some time {quclque 
temps) after. 

Good morning. Miss N. — Ah ! here you are at last, {vous voila 
enfin.') I have been waiting for you with impatience. — You will 
pardon me, {pardonner a quelqu'un,) my dear, I could not come 
sooner. — Sit down, if you please. — How is your mother ? — She is 
better to-da}'' than she was yesterday. — I am glad of it, {fe?! sui^ 
hien aise.) — Were you at the ball yesterday 1 — I was there. — Were 
you much amused, {se diveriir ?) — Only so-so, {passablanent.) — At 
what o'clock did you return (^retourner) home I — At a quarter past 
eleven. 

218. 

Have you been learning French long ! — No, Sir, I have cnly been 
learning it these six months. — Is it possible ! j^ou speak tolerably 



SEVENTY-FIRST LESSON. 321 

well \_assez hien) for so short a time, {si peu de temps.) — You jest 
{plaisanter ;) I do not know much of it yet. — Indeed, you speak it 
well already. — I think you flatter me a little. — Not at all ; you speak 
it properly. — In order to speak it properly one must know more of 
it than I know, {que je n'en sais, Obs. B. Lesson LIII.) — You know 
enough of it to make yourself understood. — I still make many- faults. 
— That is nothing, {ne fait rien ;) you must not be bashful, {timide ;) 
besides {d''ailleurs) you have made no faults in all you have said just 
now. — I am still timid, {timide,) because I am afraid of being laughed 
at, {qu'on ne se moque de moi, pres. of the subjunctive.) — They 
would be {II faudrait etre) very unpolite to laugh at you. Who 
would be so unpolite as to laugh at you 1 Do you not know the prov- 
erb, {le proverbe ?) — What proverb 1 — He who wishes to speak well 
must begin {doit commencer) by {par) speaking badly. — Do you un- 
derstand all I am telling you 1 — I understand {entendre) and compre- 
hend {comprendre *) it very well ; but I cannot express myself well 
in French, because I am not in the habit of speaking it. — That will 
come in {avec le) time. — I wish {souhaiter) it with all my heart. 

Do you sometimes see my brother ■? — I see him sometimes ; when 
I met him the other day he complained of you. " If he had behaved 
better, and had been more economical, econome^'') said he, " he 
would have no debts, (/a dette,) and I would not have been angry 
with him." — I begged of him to have compassion on you, telling him 
that you had not even money enough to buy bread. — " Tell him, 
when you see him,'' replied he to me, " that notwithstanding his bad 
behavior {la conduite) towards me, I pardon {pardonner a quelqu'un) 
him. Tell him also," continued he, " that one should not laugh 
{qu'on ne se moque pas) at those to whom one is under obligation. 
Have the goodness to do this, and I shall be much obliged to you," 
added he in going away, {s'^ eloigner.) 



SEVENTY-FIRST LESSON.— ^ouYwiie et onsieme Le$on. 



To stand up. 
To remain up. 
Will you permit me to go to the 
market ? 

To hasten, to make haste. 
Make haste, and return soon. 



Etre debout 

Rester debout. 

Voulez-vous me pemettre d'aller au 

marche ? 
t Se depecher 1. 
Depechez-vous et revenez bientot. 



322 



SEVENTY-FIKST LESSON. 



Go and tell him that I cannot come I Allez lui dire que je ne puis venil 

to-day. I aujourd'hui. 

Ohs. A. In French the verbs aller *, to go, and venir *, to come, are al- 
ways followed by the infinitive instead of another tense used in English, 
and the conjunction and is not rendered. 



He came and told us he could not 

come. 
Go and see your friends. 



To weep, to cry. 
The least blow makes him cry. 

To frighten. 
To he frightened, to startle. 
The least thing frightens liim or her. 
Be not frightened. 
To be frightened at something. 
What are you frightened at ? 



At my expense. 
At his, her, our expense. 
At other people's expense. 
That man lives at everybody's ex- 
pense. 

To depend. 
That depends upon circumstances. 
That does not depend upon me. 
It depends upon him to do that. 
O ! yes, it depends upon him. 



To astonish, to surprise. 

To be astonished, to wonder. 

To be surprised at something. 

I am surprised at it. 

An extraordinary thing happened 

v/hich surprised everybody. 
To take place. 
Many things have passed which will 

surprise you. 

To surprise. 
Many days will pass before that. 

A man came in who asked me how 
I was. 



II vint nous dire qu'il ne pouvait paa 

venir. 
Allez voir vos amis. 



Pleurer 1. 

Le moindre coup le fait pleurer. 

Effrayer 1. 

S'effrayer 1. 

La moindre chose Feffiaie. 

Ne vous efFrayez pas. 

S'effrayer de quelque chose. 

De quoi vous efFrayez-vous ? 



A mes depens. 

A ses, k nos depens. 

Aux depens d'autrui. 

Get homme vit aux depens de tout Id 

monde. 
Dependre de. 

Cela depend des circonstances. 
Cela ne depend pas de moi. 
II depend de lui de faire cela. 
Oh ! oui, cela depend de lui. 



Etonner 1. 

S'etonner 1 ^ 

Eire etonne de quelque chose. 

J'en suis €ioTxn6. 

II arriva une chose extraordinaire qui 

€tonna tout le monde. 
Se passer 1. 
II s'est pass^ plusieurs clioses qui 

vous surprendrout. 
Siirprendre *. 
II se passera plusieurs jours avaut 

cela. 
II entra un homme qui me deraanda 

comment je me portals. 



SEVENTY-FIRST LESSON. 



823 



Then, thus, consequently. 
Therefore. 

The other day 

Lately. 

In a short time. 
In. 



Done. 

C'est pourquoi. 

L'autre jour. 

Derniferement. 

Dans pen de temps 

Dans, en. 



Obs. B When speakhig of time, dans expresses the epoch, and en the 
duration. 



He will arrrve in a week, (when a 

week is elapsed.) 
It took him a week to make this 

journey. 
He will have finished his studies in 

three months. 
He finished his studies in a year. 
He has applied himself particularly 

to geometry. 



II arrivera dans huit jours. 

II a fait ce voyage en huit jours. 

II aura fini ses etudes dans troia 

mois. 
II a fini ses etudes en un an. 
II a fait mie etude particulifere de la 

geometrie 



( II a hien des amis. 
He has a good many friends. ^ jj ^ beaucoup d'amis. 

Ols. C. The' word Men is always followed by the partitive article, and 
beaucoup by the preposition de. 

You have a great deal of patience. 

They have a great deal of money. 
You have a great deal of courage. 



Vous avez bien de la patience. 
Vous avez beaucoup de patience. 
lis ont bien de I'argent. 
Vous avez bien du courage. 



To make a present of something to 
some one. 

Mr. Lambert wrote to me lately, 
that his sisters would be here in a 
short time, and requested me to 
tell you so ; you will then be able 
to see them, and to give them the 
books which you have bought. 
They hope that you will .make 
them a present of them. Their 
brother has assured me that they 
esteem you, without knowing you 
personally. 



Faire present de quelquc chose d 
quelqu'un. 

Monsieur Lambert m'^crivit l'autre 
jour que mesdemoiselles ses scEurs 
viendraient ici dans pen de temps, 
et me pria de vous le dire. Vous 
pourrez done les voir et leur donner 
les livres que vous avez achet^s. 
EUes espferent que vous leur en 
ferez present. Leur frfere m'a as- 
sure qu'elles vous estiment, sans 
vous connaitre personnellement. 



To want amusement. 
To set or be tired. 



t S'ennuyer 1. 



324 SEVEJN^TY-FIRST LESSON". 



How could I get tired in your com- 
pany ? 
He gets tired everywhere. 



t Comment pourrais-je m'ennuyei 

aupres de vous ? 
II s'ennuie partout. 



Agreeable, (pleasL g.) I Agreable. 

To be welcome. t Etre le bienvenu. 

You are welcome everywhere. I t Vous etes partout le bienvenu. 



EXERCISE. 

219. 

Will you drink a cup of tea 1 — I thank you ; I do not like tea. — 
Do you like coffee ] — I like it, but I have just drunk some.- — Do you 
not get tired here 1 — How could I get tired in this agreeable society T 
■ — As to me I always want amusement. — If you did as I do, you would 
not want amusement, for I listen to all those who tell me any thing. 
In this manner I learn a thousand agreeable things, and I have no 
time to get tired ; but you do nothing of that kind, {de tout cela,) that 
is the reason why you want amusement. — I would do ever}'' thing 
like icomme) you, if I had no reason to be sad.— Have you seen 
Mr. Lambert ? — I have seen him ; he told me that nis sisters would 
be here in a short time, and desired {prier) me to tell you so. "When 
they have arrived you may give them the gold rings {la iague) which 
you have bought ; they flatter themselves that you will make them 
a present of them, for they love you without knowing you person- 
ally. — Has my sister already written to you 1 — She has written to 
me ; I am going to answer her. — Shall I (faut-il) tell her that yoa 
are here "! — Tell her ; but do not tell her that I am waiting for her 
impatiently, {avec impatience.) — Why have you not brought (Obs. JB. 
Less. LVIII.) your sister al®ng with you ? — Which one ? — The one 
you always bring, the. youngest. — She did not wish to go out because 
she has the toothache — I am very sorry for it, for she is a very good 
girl. — How old is she 1 — She is nearly fifteen years old. — She is 
very tall {grande) for her age, {Page.) — How old are you 1 — I am 
tw43nty-two. — Is it possible ! I thought you were not yet twenty 



SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON. 



325 



SEVENTY-SECOND LESSO'N.— So ixante-douzieme Le^on. 



PLACE OF THE NEGATION. 



Not. 



Ne — pas. 
Ne — point. 
A'e stands before the verb or its auxiliary, and pas or point after it. Ex. 



Have you not my book ? 

I have it not. 

Do not speak to that man. 

Have you not seen my brother? 

Has he not learned French ? 

He has not learned it. 



N'avez-voiis pas mon livre ? 
Je ne i'ai pas. 

Ne parlez pas k cet homme. 
iV'avez-vous pas vu mon frere ? 
N' a-t-i\ pas appris le fran5ais? 
II ne I'a pas appris. 



Obs. A. Ne and pas are placed before the verb, with the preposition 
pour before an infinitive. Ex. 



He is too fond of me not to do it. 
I go away not to displease him or 

her. 
One must be a fool not to perceive 

that. 



II m'aime trop pour ne pas le faire. 
Je m'en vais pour ne pas lui deplaire- 

II faut etre peu sense pour 7ie pat 
voir cela. 



Obs. B. Ne is used without pas with the four verbs : 



To cease. 
To dare. 

To be able. 

You continually ask me for money 

She does not cease complaining. 
I do not dare to ask you for it. 
She does not dare to tell you so. 
I cannot go thither. 
I cannot tell you. 
You cannot believe it. 



Cesser 1. 

Oser 1. 

Pouvoir *. 

Savoir *. 

Vous ne cessez de me demander de 

I'argent. 
EUe ne cesse de se plaindre. 
Je n'ose vous le demander. 
Elle n'ose vous le dire. 
Je ne puis y aller. 
Je ne saurais vous dire. 
Vous ne samiez le croire. 



Obs. C Point is a stronger negation than pas ; pas is used to deny sim- 
ply, point to deny with energy. The first often denies a thing indifferently, 
the latter exclusively and without reserve. The best example that can be 
given on the difference of these two negations are the two following lines by 
i\Ioli6re : 



326 



SEVENTY-SECOND LESSOR! 



f do uot answer for my father's will, Je ne vous reponds pas des volontfis 

d'un pere, 



But I will wed no other than Valere. 



Moreover, hesides. 
Besides that. 
Besides what I have just said. 
There are no means of finding mo- 
ney now. 

To push. 
Along the road. 
Along the street. 
All along. 
All the year round. 

To enable to. 
To he able to. 
To the right. On the right side or 

hand. 
To the left. On the left side or hand. 
Could you uot toll me which is the 
nearest way to the city gate ? 

Go to the bottom of this street, and 
when you are there, turn to the 
right, and you will find a cross- 
way, which you must take. 
And then ? 
Y^ou will then enter a broad street 
which will bring you to a great 
square, where you will see a blind 
alley. 
You must leave the blind alley on 
your left, and pass under the ar- 
cade that is near it. 
Then you must ask again. 
An arcade. 
The cross-way. 
The blind alley. 
The shore, (the bank.) 



Mais je ne serai point &. d'autre qu'a 
Valere. 

Tartuffe, Acte ii. Scene 5 



En outre, d'ailleurs 

Outre cela. 

Outre ce que je viens de dire. 

II n'y a pas moj-en de trouver de 

1' argent a present. 
Pousser 1. 
Le loug du chemin. 
Le long de la rue. 
Tout le long de. 
t Tout le long de I'ann^e 

Mcttre a meme — de. 

Etre en etat ou etre a. meme — de 

A droite. Sur la droite. 

A gauche. Sur la gauche. 

Ne pourriez-vous pas me dire quel esl 

le chemiu le plus court pour arriTer 

&, la porte de la ville ? 
Suivez toute cette rue, et quand vous 

serez au bout, toumez a droite ; 

vous trouverez un carrefour que 

vous traverserez. 
Et puis ? 
Puis vous eutrerez dans une rue as- 

sez large, qui vous menera sur une 

grande place oti vous verrez un 

cul-de-sac. 
Vous laisserez le cul-de-sac k main 

gauche, et vous passerez sous lee 

arcades qui sout i c6t^. 
t Ensuite vous demanderez 
Une arcade. 
Le carrefour. 
Le cul-de-sac. 
Le rivage. 



To get married, (to enter into mat- ] + Se marier 1. 
rimony.) 1 



SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON. 



321 



To marry somebody. 

To marry, (to give in marriage.) 

My cousin, having given his sister in 

marriage, married Miss Delby. 
Is your cousin married? 
No, he is still a bachelor. 

To be a bachelor. 
Embarrassed, puzzled, at a loss. 
An embaiTassment, a puzzle. 
You embarrass (puzzle) me. 
Yoa puzzle (perplex) me. 

The marriage. 
He asks my sister in marriage. 



The measure. 
To take measures. 
I shall take other measures. 



Goodness ! how rapidly time passes 
in your society. 

The compliment. 
Vou make me a compliment vs^hich 
I do not know how to answer. 



The fault. 

It is not my fault. 

Do not lay it to my charge. 

To lay to one's charge. 

Who can help it ? 

Whose fault is it? 

I cannot help it. 



The delay 
He does it without delay. 
I must go, (must be off.) 
Go away ! Begone ! 



Epouser 1, quelqu'un. 

Marier, {donner en mai iage.) 

Mon cousin ayant marie sa eouur, 

^pousa Mademoiselle Delby 
M. votre cousin est-il marie? 
Non, il est encore garden. 
Etre garden. 
Embarrasse. 
Un embarras. 
Vous m'embarrassez. 
Vous me mettez dans I'embarraa 
Le mariage. 
II demaude ma sceur en mariage 



La mesure. 

Prendre des mesures. 

Je prendi'ai d'autres mesures. 



Mon Dleu ! que le temps passe vite 
dans votre societe, (eu votre com- 
pagnie.) 

Le compliment. 

Vous me faites un compliment au* 
quel je ne sais que r^poiidre. 



Lafaute. 

Ce n'est pas ma faute. 
Ne me I'imputez pas. 
Imputcr 1, a quelqu'un. 

■ A qui est la faute ? 

Je ne sais qu'y faire. 
Je ne saurais qu'y faire. 



Le delai. 

II le fait sans di^lai. 

Je vais me sauver. 

Sauvez-vous ! Allez-vous eu ! 



To jest. 
The jest, joke. 

You are jesting. 



I Plaisanter 1. 

I La plaisauterie, le badinago 

5 Vous badiuez. 

^ Vous vous moquez. 



338. 



SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON. 



He cannot take a joke, is no joker. 
To beg some one'' s pardon. 
To pcrdon. 
I beg your pardon. 
The pardon. 

To advance. 
The watch goes too fast, (gains.) 

To retard. 
Tlae watch goes too slow, (loses.) 
My watch has stopped. 

To stop. 



Where did we stop ? 
We left off at the fortieth lesson, page 
one hundred and thirty -six. 
To wind up a watch. 
To regulate a watch. 
Your watch is twenty minutes too 
fast, and mine a quarter of an hour 
too slow. 
It will soon strike twelve. 
Has it already struck twelve ? 
To strike. 



t II n'entend pas raillerie 
Demander pardon d quelqu'un. 
Pardonner 1. 
' Je vous demande pardon. 
Le pardon. 



Avancer I. 

La moutre avance. 

Retarder 1. 

La montre retarde. 

Ma montre s'est arretee. 

S'arreter 1. 



t Oil en etions-nous? 

t Nous etions en legou. quarante, 
page cent-trente-six. 

Monter lure moutre. 

Rdgler une montre. 

Votre montre avance de vingt mi- 
nutes, et la mienne retarde d'un 
quart d'heure. 

II va souner midi. 

Midi est-il deja, sound ? - 

Sonner 1. 



On condition, or provided. 

I will lend you money, provided you 
will henceforth be more economi- 
cal than you have hitherto been. 

Hereafter, for the future, henceforth 
The future. 
Economical. 

To renounce gambling. 

To follow advice, (counsel.) 
You look so melancholy. 

Adieu, farewell. 

God be with you, good-by. 

Till I see you again. 

I hope to see you again soon. ' 



A condition. 

Sous condition. 

Je vous preterai de I'argeut, i condi- 
tion que vous serez desormais plus 
econome que vous n'avez ^te jus- 
qu'ici. 

Desormais, dordnavant, a. Tavenir. 

L'avenir. 

Econome, ^conomique, manager. 

Renoncer an jeu. 

SuiAi'e un conseil. 

Vous avez Fair si melancoliqae. 

Adieu. 

An plaisir de vous revoir, (au revoir.) 



SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON. 



329 



EXERCISES. 
220. 
What o'clock is it ^— It is half-past one.— You say it is half-pasl 
one, and by (a) my watch it is but half-past twelve.— It will soon 
strike two.— Pardon me, it has not yet struck one.— I assure you it 
is five and twenty minutes past one, for my watch goes very well.— 
Bless me ! how rapidly time passes in your society. — You make me 
a compliment which I do not know how to answer.— Have you 
bought your watch in Paris 1—1 have not bought it, my uncle has 
made me a present of it, (e?i.)— What has that woman intrusted you 
^vith ^— She has intrusted me with a secret about a (d'un) great 
count who is in great embarrassment about the (a cause du) marriage 
of one of his daughters.— Does any one ask her in marriage ]— The 
man who demands her in marriage is a nobleman of the neighbor- 
hood, {le voisinage.)—ls he rich"!— No, he is a poor devil (diable) 
who has not a sou, (le sou.)— Yon say you have no friends among 
your schoolfellows, {le condisciple ;) but is it not your fault 1 You 
have spoken ill (rnalparle) of them, and they have not offended you. 
They have done you good, and nevertheless (neanmoms) you have 
quarrelled with them, (Lesson LXIV.) Believe me, he who has no 
friends deserves {meriter) to have none. 

221. 

Dialogue {le dialogue) hetioeen a tailor and his journe^jman, {le 
g-a,.po?i.)— Charles, have you taken the clothes to the Count Narissi 1 
—Yes, Sir, I have taken them to him.— What did he say "?- He said 
nothing but {sinon) that he had a great mind to give me a box on the 
ear, {des soufflets, plur.,) because I had not brought them sooner,— 
What did you answer him "?- Sir, said I, I do not understand that 
joke : pay me what you owe me ; and if you do not do so instantly 
I shall take other measures. Scarcely had I said that, when he put 
his hand to his sword, {porter la main a son epee,) and I ran away, 
{prendre* la fuiie.) 

222. 
What are you astonished at 1 — I am astonished to find you still in 

bed. If you knew how (comhien) sick I am, you would not be as- 

tonisned (fem.) at it. Has it already struck twelve 1 — Yes, madam, 
it is already half-past twelve.— Is it so late f Is it possible 1— That 
is not late,"it is still early.— Does your watch go well, {Men .?)- No, 
Miss N., it is a quarter of an hour too fast. — And mine is half an 
hour too slow. — Perhaps it has stopped. — In fact, you are right. — Is 



330 SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON. 

it wound up 1 — It is wound up, and yet {pourtant) it does not go.-^ 
Do you hear 1 it is striking one o'clock. — Then I will regulate my 
watch and go home.— Pray (,de grace) stay a little longer, {encore un 
veu .') — I cannot, for we dine precisely at one o'clock, (a wne heure 
precise.) — Adieu, then, till I see you again. 

223. 

What is the m.atter with you, my dear friend 1 why do you look so 
melancholy "? — Nothing ails me, (je rCai rien.) — Are you in any 
trouble, {Auriez-vous par hasard quelque chagrin ?) — I have nothing, 
and even less than nothing, for I have not a sou, (Ze sou,) and I owe 
a great deal to my creditors : am I not very unhappy ] — When a 
man is well and has friends he is not unhappy. — Dare I ask you a 
favor "? — -What do you wish 1 — Have the goodness to lend me fifty 
crov/ns. — I will lend you them with all my heart, but on condition 
that you will renounce gambling, {renoncer au jeu,) and be more 
economical than you have hitherto been. — I see now that you are 
my friend, and I love you too much not to follow your advice, 

John, {Jean !) What is your pleasure. Sir 1 — Bring some wine. — 
Presently, Sir. — Henry! — Madam 1 — Make the fire, (dufeu.) — The 
maid-servant has made it already. — Bring me some paper,"pens, and 
ink. Bring me also some sand (de la poudre) or blotting-paper, {du 
papier brouillard,) sealing-wax, {de la aire a cacheter,) and a light, 
{de la lumiere.) Go and tell my sister not to wait for me, and be 
back again {de retour) at twelve o'clock in order to carry my letters 
to the post, {la poste.) — Very well, {lien,) madam. (See end of 
Lesson XXIV.) 



SEVENTY-THIRD i:E.fi^O^—Soixante-treizieme Legon. 

To last, {to wear well.) 1 Durer 1. 

That cloth will wear well. I Ce drap durera bieu. 

How long has that coat lasted you ? Combieu de temps cet habit vous 

I a-t-il dure ? 



To ?ny liking. I ^A mon gre. 

To everybody's liking. | Au gr^ de tout le moude. 

Nobody can do any thing to bis | On ne pent rien faire a. sou gre 
likinff. I 



A boardiug-bouse. ) ^^ 

4 , ,. 1 , > Uue pension. 

A boardmg-school. ^ ^ 

To keep a boarding-liousa. | Tenir peusiou. 



SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON. 



331 



( fitre en pension. 
To board with any one or anywhere. < g^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ pension 



To exclaim. 
To make uneasy. 
To gi't or grow uneasy. 
To be uneasy. 
Why do you fret, (are you uneasy?; 
I do not fret, (am not uneasy.) 
That news makes me uneasy. 
I am uneasy at not receiving any 

news. 
She is uneasy about that affair. 
Do not be uneasy. 
The uneasiness, trouble. 
Quiet. 
To quiet. 
Compose yourself. 
To alter, to change. 
That man has altered a great deal 
since I saw him. 



To be of use. 
Of what use is that to you ? 
That is of no use to me. 
Of what use is that to your brother? 
It is of no use to him. 
Of what use is that stick to you ? 
I use it to beat my dogs. 
Of what use is that horse to your 

brother ? 
He uses it to carry his vegetables tc 

the market. 
Of what use are these bottles to you; 

landlord? 
They serve him to put his wine iu. 

To stand instead, to be as. 
I use my gun as a stick. 
This hole serves him for a house. 
He used his cravat as a nightcap. 

To avail. 
What avails it to you to cry ? 
It avails me nothing. 



S'ecrier 1. 

Inquieter 1. 

S'inquieter. 

fitre inquiet ; fem. inquieto 

P(^nquoi vous inquietez-vous ? 

Je ne m'inquiete pas. 

Cette nouvelle m'inquifete. 

Je suis inquiet de ne point recerou 

de nouvelles. 
EUe est inquiete sur cette affaire. 
Ne vous inquietez pas. 
L'inquietude. 
Tranquille. 
Tranquilliser 1. 
Tranquillisez-vous. 
Changer 1. 
Get homme a beaucoup chang^ de- 

puis que je ne I'ai vu. 



t Servir *. 

t A quoi cela vous sert-il ? 

t Cela ne me sert h rien. 

t A quoi cela sert-il k votre frere ? 

t Cela ne lui sert h rien. 

t A quoi ce bS-ton vous sert-il? 

t II me sert k battre mes chiens. 

t A quoi ce cheval sert-il h. votre 

fr6re? 
t II lui sert &, porter ses 16gumes au 

march^. 
t A quoi ces bouteilles serveut-elles 

cL votre hdte ? 
+ EUes lui servent k mettre son vin. 
t Servir * de. 

t Mon fusil me sert de bfl-ton. 
t Ce trou lui sert de maison. 
t Sa cravate lui a servi de bonnet de 

nuit. 
t Servir*, {de before inf.) 
•t A quoi vous sert-il de pleurer? 
t Cela ne me sert k rien. 



332. 



SEVENTY-THIRD LESSON. 



Opposite to. 

Opposite that house. 

Opposite the garden. 

Opposite to me. 

Right opposite. 
He hves opposite the castle. 
I hve opposite the king's hbraiy. 

To get hold of. 

To take possession of. 

To witness. 

To show. 
To give evidence against some one. 
He has shown a great deal of friend- 
ship to me. 
To turn some one into ridicule. 
To become ridiculous. 
To make one's self ridiculous. 



Vis-d-vis de. 

Vis-&.-vis de cette maison. 

Vis-i-vis du jardin. 

Vis-ii-vis de moi. 
j Tout vis-&,-vis. 
I II demeure vis-a-vis du chateau. 

Je demeure vis-&,-vis de la biblio- 
I theque royale. 

> S'emparer de 

> Temoigner 1. 

Temoigner contre quelqu'un. 

II m'a temoigne beaucoup d'amitid 

Tourner quelqu'un en ridicule. 
Tomber dans le ridicule. 
Se rendre ridicule 



To be horn. 
Where were you born? 
I was born in this country. 
Where was your sister born V 
She was born in the United States 

of North America. 
Wliere were your brothers born? 
They were born in France. 



The boarder. 
The pouch. 
A pillow. 
Down. 



Eire ne. 

t Oil etes-vous ne ? 

t Je suis ne dans ce pays 

t Ou votre soeur est-elle nee ? 

t EUe est nee au.x fitats Uuis de 

I'Amerique du Nord. 
t Oil vos freres sont-ils uds? 
t lis sout ncs en France. 



Le pensionnaire. 
La gibecifere. 
Un oreiller. 
Le duvet. 



EXERCISES. 
224. 
Sir, may (oser) I ask where the Earl of B. lives ? — He lives nesj 
the castle on the other side of the river. — Could you tell me which 
road I must (je dois) take to go thither ? — You must go {s-^ivez) 
along the shore, and you will come to a little street {quand vous screz 
au bout, prenez une petite rue) on the right, which will lead you 
straight {directement) to his house. It is a fine house, you will find 
it easily. — I thank you, Sir. — Does Count N. live here ! — Yes, Sir, 
walk in, idonnez-vous la peine d'entrer,) if you please. — Is the couut 



SEVENTJ THIRD LESSON. 333 

at home 1 I wish to have the honor {Vhojineur) to speak to him. — 
Yes, Sir, he is at home ; whom shall I have the honor to announce, 
(annoncer 1) — I am from B., and my name is {s''appeler) F. 
, Which is the shortest {court) way to the arsenal, {un arsenal ?) — 
Go down (suivez) this street, and when you come to the bottom, {au 
bout,) turn to the left, and take the cross-way, (vous trouverez un — 
que vous traverserez ;) you will then enter into a rather narrow {etroit) 
street, which will lead you to a great square, (la place,) v/here you 
will see a blind alley. — Through (par) which I must pass 1 — No, for 
there is no outlet, (une issue.) You must leave it on the right, and 
pass under the arcade which is near it. — And then ? — And then you 
must inquire, (further.) — I am very much obliged to you. — Do not 
mention it, (il n^y a pas de quoi.)— Are you able to translate an Eng- 
lish letter into French 1 — I am. — Wh® has taught you 1 — My French 
master has enabled me to do it. 

235. 
Why does your mother fret 1 — She frets at receiving no news from 
her son who is with the army. — She need not be uneasy about him, 
for whenever he gets into a bad scrape he knows how to get out of it 
again. — Last summer when we were a hunting together (ensemble) 
night grew upon us {la nuit nous surprit) at at least ten leagues (une 
lieue) from our country-seat, (la maison de campagne.) — W#l, (Eh 
bien,) where did you pass the night ■? — I was very uneasy at first, but 
your brother not in the least, (pas le moins du monde ;) on the con- 
trary, he tranquillized me, so that I lost my uneasiness. We found 
at last a peasant's hut where we passed the night. Here I had an 
opportunity to see how clever your brother is. A few benches and a 
truss of straw (une botte de paille) served him to make a comfortable 
(commode) bed ; he used a bottle as a candlestick, our pouches 
served us as a pillow, and our cravats as nightcaps. When we 
awoke in the morning, we were as fresh and healthy (Jjien portant) 
as if we had slept on down and silk. — A. candidate (un candidat) pe- 
titioned (demander a) the king of Prussia (de Prusse) for an employ- 
ment, {^un emploi.) This prince asked him where he was born. " I 
was born at Berlin," answered he. " Begone !" said the monarch, 
(le monarque,) " all the men of Berlin (un Berlinois) are good for 
nothing." " I beg your majesty's (la majeste) pardon," replied the 
candidate, " there are some good ones, and 1 know two." " Which 
are those two V asked the king. " The first," replied the candidate, 
" is your majesty, and I am the spcond." The king could not help 
laughing (ne put s''empeclier de rire) at this answer, {la reponse,) and 
granted (accorder) the request, (la demande.) (See end of Lesson 
XXIV.) 



334 



SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



SEYENTY-FOURTH LESSOR.— Soixante-quatorzieme Lefon 



To lose sight of. 
The sight. 
I wear spectacles because my sight 

is bad, (or because I have bad 

siglit.) 
I am near-sighted. 
The ship is so far off that we shall 

soon lose sight of it. 
I have lost sight of that. 
As it is long since I was in England, 

I have lost sight of your brother. 

A.S it is long since I have read any 
French, I have lost sight of it. 



Perdre de vue. 

La vue. 

Je porte des lunettes parce que j'ai 

la vue mauvaise. (See Obs. B 

Lesson XXVI.) 
t J'ai la vue courte. 
Le batiment est si loin, que uous le 

perdrons bientot de vue. 
J'ai perdu cela de vue. 
Comme il y a long-temps que jeu'ai 

ete en Augleterre, j'ai perdu votre 

frere de vue. 
Comme il y a long-temps que je n'aj 

lu de frangais, je I'ai perdu de vue. 



Obs. Ought and should are rendered into French by the conditionals of 
the verb devoir, to be obliged, to owe. Ex. 



You ought or should do that. 

He ought not to speak thus to his 

father. 
We ought to go thither earlier. 

They should listen to what you say. 

You should pay more attention to 
what I say. 

You ought to have dona that. 

He should have managed the thing 
better than he has done. 

You should have managed the thing 
differently. 

They ought to have managed the 
thing as I did. 

We ought to have managed it differ- 
ently from what they did. 



Vous devriez faire cela. 

II ne devrait pas parler ainsi k son 

pere. 
Nous devrions y aller de meilleure 

heure. 
lis devraient ecouter ce que vous 

dites. 
Vous devriez faire plus d'attentiou h. 

ce que je dis. 
Vous auriez dii faire cela. 
II aurait dil s'y prendre mieu.x qu'il 

n'a fait. 
Vous auriez dil vous y prendre d'uae 

maniere differeute. 
lis auraient dii s'y prendre comme je 

m'y suis pris. 
Nous aurions dil nous y prendre 

d'une autre maniere qu'ils ne s'y 

sont pris. 



To bid or to wish. 
I bid you a good morning. 
I wish }'ou a good morning 
I wish you a good journey. 



I Souhaiter 1, {de bef. infia.) 
) Je vous souhaite le bonjour. 
\ Obs. B. Lesson XXVI.) 
i Je vous souhaite un bon voyage. 



(Set- 



SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON, 



935 



To play a game at billiards. 

To play upon the flute. 
A fall. 
To have a fall. 
A stay, a sojourn. 
To make a stay. 
Do you intend to make a long stay 

in the town ? 
I do not intend to make a long stay 
iu it. 



To propose, (meaning to intend.) 
I propose going on that journey. 
t propose (intend) joining a hunting 
party. 



To suspect, to guess. 

I suspect what he has done. 

He does not suspect what is going to 
happen to him. 

To think of some one or of some- 
thing. 

Of whom do you think ? 

Of what do you think ? 

To turn upon. 

To he the question. 

It is questioned, it turns upon. 

The question is not your pleasure, 
but your improvement. 

You play, Sir, but playing is uot the 
thing, but studying. 

What is going on 

The question is to know what we 
shall do to pass the time agreea- 
bly. 



Faire une partie de biUard. (Seo 
Obs. Lesson LI.) 

Jouer de la fliite. (Obs. Less. LI.) 

Une chute. 

t Faire une chute. 

Un sejour. 

Faire un sejour. 

Comptez-vous faire un long sejour 
dans la villo ? 

Je ne compte pas y faire un long se- 
jour. 



Se proposer, {de bef. infin.) 
Je me propose de faire le voyage. 
Je me propose d'aller k une partie de 
chasse. ' 



Se douter, (governs the gen.; 
Je me doute de ce qu'il a fait. 
II ne se doute pas de ce qui va lui 

arriver. 
Penser a quelqu^un ou a quelque 

chose. 
A qui pensez-vous? 
A quoi pensez-vous ? 

• t S'agir de. 

II s'agit de. 

II ne s'agit pas de votre plaisir, mais 

de vos progres. 
Vous jouez. Monsieur ; mais il ne 

s'agit pas de jouer, il s'agit d'etu- 

dier. 
De quoi s'agit-il ? 
II s'agit de savoir ce que nous ferona 

pour passer notre temps agreable- 

ment. 



On purpose. 
I beg your pardon, I have not aone 
it ou purpose. 

To hold one's tongue. > t 
To stop speaking, to be silent, j 



Expres. 

Je vous demande pardon, je ue I'ai 

pas fait expres. 

Se taire 4 ; pres. part, taisant ; 

past part. tu. 



336 SEVENTY-FO'JRTH LESSON. 

Do you hold your tongrie ? > Vous taisez-vous ? 

I hold my tongue. ] Je me tais. 

He holds his tongue. i H se tait. 

After speaking half an hour, he held Apres avoir par'c pendant une demi- 
iiis tongue. heure, il se tut. 



EXERCISES. 
226. 

A thief having one day entered a boarding-house, stole three 
cloaks, (/e manteau.) In going away he was met by one of the 
loarders who had a fine laced {galonne) cloak. Seeing so many 
cloaks, he asked the man where he had taken them. The thief an- 
swered boldly ifroidement) that they belonged to three gentlemen 
of the house -who had given them to be cleaned, {a degraisser.) 
>' Then you must also clean {degraissez done aussi) mine, for it is 
very much in need of it, {en avoir grand besom,'') said the boarder ; 
" but," added he, " you must return it to me at three o'clock." " I 
shall not fail, (y maiiquer,) Sir," answered the thief, as he carried 
off {emporter) the four cloaks with which he {qu'il) is still to return, 
(n'a pas encore rapportes.) — You are singing, {chanter,) gentlemen, 
but it is not a time for {il ne s'agit pas de) singing ; you ought to 
be silent, and to listen to what you are told. — We are at a loss. — 
What are you at a loss about 1 — I am going to tell you : the question 
is with us how we shall pass our time agreeably. — Play a game at 
billiards or at chess. (See Obs. Lesson LI.)— We have pi-oposed 
joining a himting-party ; do you go with us, {etes-vous des notres?) 
■ — I cannot, for I have not done my task yet ; and if I neglect it, my 
master will scold me. — Every one according to his liking ; if you 
like staying at hoifie better than going a hunting we cannot hinder 
you.— Does Mr. 13. go with us ?— Perhaps.— I should not like to go 
with him, for he is too great a talker, {trop bavard.) excepting that 
{a celapres) he is an honest man. 

What is the matter with you ? You look angry. — I have reason 
to {avoir lieu de) be angry, for there is no means of getting money 
now. — Have you been to Mr. A.'s ■? — I have been to his house ; but 
there is no possibility {pas moyen) of borrowing from him. I sus- 
pected that he would not lend me any, that is the reason why I did 
not wish to ask him ; and had you not told me to do so, I should not 
have subjected myself {s'cxposcr) to a refusal, {un rcfus.) 

2-21. 
I suspected that you would be thirsty, and that your sister would 
be hungry ; that is the reason why I brought you hither. I am sor- 



SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON 337 

ry, however, {pourtant,) not to see your mother.— Why do you not 
drink your coffee ? — If I were not sleepy I would drink it. — Some- 
times {tantot) you are sleepy, sometimes cold, sometimes warm, and 
sometimes something else is the matter with you, {et tantot quelque 
autre chose.) I believe that you think too much of the misfortune 
that has happened to your friend, (fem.) — If I did not think about 
it, who would think about it 1 — Of whom does your brother think 1 — ■ 
He thinks of me, for we always think of each other {Vun a V autre) 
when we are not together, {ensemble.) 

I have seen six players {le joueur) to-day, who were all winning 
(gagner) at the same time, (en meme temps.) — That canno.': t)e ; for 
a player can only win when another loses. — You would be right 
if I were speaking of people that had played at cards or billiards, 
(Obs. Lesson LI. ;) but I am speaking of flute and violin players, 
{de joueurs de flute et de violon.) — Do you sometimes practise 
[faire*) music, {de la musique 1) — Very often, for I like it much. 
— What instrument (Lesson LI. Obs.) do you play ■? — I play the vi- 
olin, and my sister plays the harpsichord. My brother who plays 
the bass (la basse) accompanies {accompagner) us, and Miss Stolz 
sometimes applauds {applaudir) us. — Does she not also play some 
musical instrument, {un instrument de musique ?) — She plays the 
harp, {la harpe,) but she is too proud {fiere) to practise music with 
us. — A very poor town {une ville assez pauvre) went to considera- 
ble expense (faire une depense considerable) in feasts and illumina- 
tions (en fetes et en illuminations) on the occasion of its prince 
passing through, (du passage de son — .) The latter seemed (parut) 
nimself astonished at it. — " It has only done," said a courtier, (im 
courtisan,) " what it owed (to your majssty.") " Tisat is true," 
replied {reprendre *) another, " but it owes all that it iias done." 
(See end of Lesson XXIV.) 



SEVENTY-FIFTH l.'E^^O'N.—Soixante-quinzieme Legon. 



Towards. \ (P^^y^i-^^^Uy-) 
( (morally.) 

Flo comes towards me. 

IIo has behaved very v/ell towards 



Vers. 

En'cers. 

II vient vers moi. 

II s'est coinporte tr6s-biea envers 



me. moi. 

We must always behave well to- ' II faut nous comporler torjours bieu 



v^ards everybody. 
The behavior of others is but an 
echo of our own. If wo behave 

29 



eirvers tout le moude. 
La conduite des autres n'eat qu'un 
6cho do la nAtre. Si nous noup 



838 



SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



well towards them, they will also 
behave well towards us ; but if we 
use them ill, we must not expect 
better from them. 

To treat or to use somehody well. 
To use somehody ill. 
As you have always used me well, I 
will not use you ill. 

As he has always used me well, I 
have always used him iu the same 
manner. 



comportons bien euvers eux, ils se 
comporteront bien aussi envers 
nous ; mais si nous en usons mal 
avec eux, nous ne devoas pas at- 
tendre mieux de leur part. 

En user bien area quelqu'un. 

En user mal avec quelqu'un. 

Comme vous en avez use toujours 
bien avec moi, je n'en userai pas 
mal avec vous. 

Comme il en a toujom-s bien use avec 
moi, j'en ai toujours use de la 
meme mauiere avec lui. 



To delay, (to tarry.) 
Do not be long before you return. 
I shall not be long before I return. 

/ long to or for. 



Tarder 1, (takes a before inf.) 
Ne tardez pas a revenir. 
Je ne tarderai pas a revenir. 
t II me tarde de. 



Obs. When the verb tarder is employed impersonally, in the significa- 
tion of to long for, it requires the preposition de before the verb. E.x. 



I long to see my brother. 

He longs to receive his money. 

Wo long for dinner, because we are 

very hungry. 
They long to sleep, because they are 

tired. 



t II me tarde de voir mon frere. 

t II lui tarde de recevoir son argent. 

t II nous tarde de diner, parce que 

nous avous bien faim. 
t II leur tarde de dormir, parce qu'ils 

sont fatigui;s. 



To be at one's ease. 
To be comfortable. 
To be uncomfortable. 
I am very much at my ease upon 

this chair. 
You are imcomfortable upon your 

chair. 
What can that be ? 
We are uncomfortable in that board- 

ing-liouse. 
That man is well off, for ho has 

plenty of money. 
That man is badly off, for he is poor. 

To mal^ ^.le's self comfortable. 
Make yourself comfortable. 



Etre a son aise. 

• 

Eire mal d son aise. 

Je suis bien h mon aise sur cette 

chaise. 
Vous etes mal &. votre aise sur votro 

chaise, 
t Qu'est-ce que cela pent etre ? 
Nous sommes mal i notre aise daii3 

cette pension. 
Cet homme est Ji sou aise, car il a 

beaucoup d'argent. 
Cet homme est mal i son aise, parce 

qu'il est pauvre. 
Se mcttre a son aise. 
Mettez-vous i votre aise. 



SEVENTiT-l-IFTH LESSON. 



339 



To he uncomforlahle. 

To inconvenience one's self. 

To put one's self out of the way. 

Do not put yourself out of the way. 

That man never inconveniences him- 
self ; he never does it for anybody. 

Can you, without putting yourself to 
inconvenience, lend me your gun ? 



I Etre gene. 
/ Se gener 1. 

Ne vous genez pas. 

Cet homme ne se gene jamais ; il uf> 

se gene jamais pour personne. 
Pouvez-vous sans vous gener mo 

preter votre fusil ? 



To make entreaties. 
To beg with entreaty. 
I employed every kind of entreaty 

to engage him to it. 
To solicit, to press, to sue, to en- 
treat. 



Here and there. 
Now and then. 
From tune to time. 
Indifferently, (as good as bad.) 
I have done my composition tolerably 
well. 



To postpone, to put off 
Let US put that off until to-morrow. 
Ijet us put off that lesson until an- 
other time. 



To impart something to someliody. 

Have you imparted that to yoiu: fa- 
ther'? 
I have imparted it to hinv 



In vaiu. 
In vain I looked all around, I saw 
neither man nor house : not the 
least sign of settlement. 

A dwelling, habitation, settlement. 
In vain I speak, for you do not listen 

to me. 
hx vain I do my best, I cannot do 

any thing to his liking. 



Faire des instances. 
Frier avec instances. 
Je I'en ai Bollicite avec toutes les in- 
stances possibles. 
Solliciter 1 



Par-ci, par-lix. 
De loin en loin. 
De temps en temps. 
Taut bien que mal. 
J'ai fait ma composition tant bien quo 
mal. 



Remettre * a. 
Remettons cela &, demain. 
Remettons cette legon &, une autre 

fois. 



Faire part de quelque chose a quel- 

qu'un. 
Avez-vous fait part de cela k votre 

pere ? 
Je lui en ai fait part. 



t Avoir beau. 

J'avais beau regarder tout autour de 

nioi, je ne voyais ni homme, ni 

maison : pas la moindre apparence 

d'habitation. 
Une habitation. 
J'ai beau parler, vous ne m'^coutez 

pas. 
J'ai beau faire de mon mieux, je ne 

peux rien faire &. son grd. 



340 



SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON 



You may say what you please, no- 
body will believe 3'ou. 

It is in vain that they earn money, 
they will never be rich. 

We search in vain, for what we have 
lost v/e cannot find. 



Vous avez beau dire, personna ue 

voiis croira. 
lis out beau gagner de I'argeut, ils ne 

seront jamais riches. 
Nous avons beau chercher, nous ne 

pomTons pas trouver ce que nous 

avous perdu. 



To salute. 

I have tlie honor to bid you adieu. 

Present my compliments to him, (to 
her.) 

Remember me to him, (to her.) 

Pray present my compliments to your 
sister. 

Remember me (present my compli- 
ments) to him, (to her.) 

I shall not fail. 



Saluer 1. 

J'ai Fhonneur de reus saluer. 

' Dites-lui bien des choses de ma part 

Je vous prie de faire mes compliment&' 
h. Mademoiselle votre sceut. 

Presentez-lui mes civilites, (mes trfes- 
himibles respects.) 

Je n'y manquerai pas. 



The present, (the present time or 
tense.) 

The past. 
The future. 
The loss of time. 
Enjoy all the pleasures that virtue 
permits. 



Le present. 

Le passe. 
L'avenir, le futur. 
La pertc du temps. 
Jouissez de tons les plaisirs quo la 
vertu permet. 



EXERCISES. 
228, 
Have you made your French composition 1 — I have made it. — ■ 
Was your tutor pleased with it 1 — He was not. In vain I do my 
best ; I cannot do any thing to his liking. — You may say what vou 
please, nobody v>'ill believe you. — Can you, without putting yourself 
to inconvenience, lend me five hundred francs ? — As you hare al- 
ways used me well I will use you in the same manner. I will lend 
you the money you want, but on condition that you will return it to 
me next week. — Ydu may depend upon it, {pouvoir y compter.^ — 
How has my son behaved towards you *? — He has behaved well to- 
wards me, for he behaves well towards everybody. His father told 
him often : — The behavior of others is but an echo of our own. If 
we behave well towards them, they will also behave well towards us; 
but if we use them ill, we must not expect better from them. — May 
I Sf?o your brothers ] — You will see them to-morrow. As they have 



SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON, 341 

just arrived from a long journey {le voyage) they long for sleep, foi 
they are very tired. — What has my sister said '] — She said that she 
longed for dinner, because she was very hungry. — Are you comfort- 
able at your boarding-house 1 — I am very comfortable there. — Have 
you imparted to your brother what I told you ? — As he was very 
tired, he longed for sleep ; so that I have put off imparting it to him 
till. to-morrow. 

229. 
I have the honor to wish you a good morning. How do you do ? 
■ — Very well at your service, (a vous rendre mes devoirs.) — And how 
are all at home, (comment se porte-t-on chez vous?) — Tolerably well, 
thank God, (Dieu merci .') My sister was a little indisposed, {indis- 
posee,) but she is better, (retablie ;) she told {charger) me to give 
you her best compliments. — I am glad (charme) to hear that she is 
well. As for you, yoii are health itself, {la sante meme ;) you can- 
not look better, {vous avez la meilleure mine du monde.) — I have no 
time to be ill : my business {mes affaires) would not permit me. 
Please {donnez-vous la peine) to sit down ; here is a chair. — I will 
not detain {distraire) you from your business, {les occupations ;) J 
know that a merchant's time is precious, {que le temps est precieux 
a un negociant.) — I have nothing pressing {presse) to do now, my 
courier is already dispatched, {mon courrier est deja expedie.) — I 
shall not stay any longer. I only wished in passing {en passant par 
ici) to inquire about your health. — You do me much honor. — It is very 
fine weather to-day. If you will allow me I shall have the pleasure 
of seeing you again {revoir *) this afternoon, {cette apres-dinee,) 
and if you have time we will take a little turn together. — With the 
greatest pleasure. In that case I shall wait for you. — I will come 
for you {venir prendre) about {vers) seven o'clock. — Adieu, then, 
till I see you again. — I have the honor to bid you adieu. 

230. 
The loss of time is an irreparable {irreparable) loss. A single 
minute {une seule — ) cannot be recovered {recouvrer) for all the gold 
in the {du) world. It is then of the greatest importance {de la der- 
niere importance) to employ well the time, which consists {consister) 
only of {en) minutes, of which we must make good use, {dont il faut 
tirer parti.) We have but the present; the past is no longer any thing, 
{n''est plus rien,) and the future is uncertain, {incertain.) — A great 
many people {une infinite d^hommes) ruin themselves (^e miner) be- 
cause they wish to indulge themselves too much, {a force de vouloir 
se faire du hien.) If most men {la plupart des hommes) knew how 
to content themselves {se contenter) with what the}'' have, they would 



342 



SEVENTY-SIXTH lESSON. 



be happy ; but their greediness (lew avidite) very often makes {ren- 
dre) thein unhappy. — In order to be happy we must forget the past, 
not trouble ourselves about {ne pas s'inquieter de) the future, and en- 
joy the present. — I was very much dejected {triste) when my cousin 
came to me. " What is the matter v/ith you ]" he asked me. " Oh, 
{ah!) my dear cousin," replied I, " in losing that money I have lost 
every thing." " Do not fret," said he to me, " for I have found your 
money." (See end of Lesson XXIV.) 



SEVENTY-SIXTH 'L'ESS.O^.—Soixante-seizieme Legon. 



To mean. 
What do you mean ? 
I mean. 

What does that man mean ? 
He means. 

What does that mean? 

Thai means. 

That does not mean any thing. 

I do not know what that meaias. 



To he particular. 
I do not like to deal with that man, 
for he is too particular. 

To grow impatient, to fret. 
To not fret about that. 



To sit up, to watch. 
I have sat up all night. 

To advise. 
Tlie dress, the costume. 
An elegant dress. 

To dress one's self. 
That man always dresses well 



7*0 find fault loith something. 
That man always finds fault with 

every thing he sees. 
Do you find fault with that '' 
I do not find fault with it 



Vouloir dire. 

t Que voulez-vous dire ? 

t Je veux dire. 

t Que veut dire cet hoimne ? 

t II veut dire. 

t Qu'est-ce que cela veut dire ? 

t Que veut dire cela? 

t Cela veut dire. 

t Cela ne veut rien dire. 

t Je ne sais pas ce que cela veut dire 



t Y regarder de pres. 

t Je n"aime pas S, falre des affaires 

avec cet homme, car il y regarde 

de trop pres. 
t S'impatienter de. 
Ne vous impatieutez pas de cela- 



Veiller 1. 

J'ai veille toute la nuit. 

Conseiller 1. 

La mise. 

Uue mise elegante. 

Se mettre 4*. 

Cet homme se met tonjours bien. 



t Trourer a rcdirc a quelque chose. 
t Cet homme trouve toujours i redirt 

&. tout ce qu'il voit. 
t Trouvez-vous Ji redire k cela ? 
t Je n'y trouve rien i redire. 



SEVENTY-SIXTH LESSON 



343 



A trick, (a turn, a round.) 
To play a trick. 
To play a trick upon some cue. 
To take a turn. 
I have taken a turn round the gar- 
den. 
He has taken a couple of turns round 
the garden. 

To take a little turn. 
To travel tlirough Europe. 



More, (meaning besides.) 
You have given me three books, but 
I want three besides. 
Less. 
Three less. 
Three too many. 



My reach. 
Withm my reach. 
Out of my reach. 
Those things are not withm the reach 

of everybody. 
Within gun-shot. 
A gun-shot, (meaning distance.) 
Two gun-shots, ( " .) 
How many shots have you fired ? 



I wonder why that man makes such 
a noise. 

So long as. 
So long as you behave well people 
will love you. 

To carry off. 
A mouthful. 
To overwhelm, to heap, to load. 
To overwhelm some one with joy 
Generous. 

Charitable, beneficent. 
Vou have heaped benefits upon me 
Sincere. 
Sincerely. 
An advantage. 



Un tour. 

Jouer un tour 

Jouer un tour Ji quclqu'un. 

t Faire im tour. 

t J'ai fait mi tour de jardin. 

t II a fait deux tours de jardui. 

t Faire un petit tour. 

t Faire le tour de I'Europe. 



De plus. 

Vous m'avez donne trois livres, maii3 

j'en veux trois de plus. 
De mains. 
Trois de moiiis. 
Trois de trop. 



Ma portee. 

A ma portee. 

Hors de ma portee. 

Ces choses ne sent pas k la port6e 

de tout le monde. 
A la portee du fusil. 
Une portee de fusil. 
Deux portees de fusil. 
Combien de coups de fusil avez-vous 

tirds ? (See Less. XLVIII.) 



Je voudrais bieii savoir pourquoi cet 

homme fait un tel bruit. 
Tant que. 
Tant que vous vous comporteroz 

bien, on vous aimera. 
Enlever 1. 
Une bouchee. 
Combler 1. 

Combler quelqu'un de joie. 
Genereux. 

Bienfaisant, charitable. 
Vous m'avez comble de bieufaita. 
Sincere. 
Sincferement. 
Un avantago. 



344 



SEVENTi'-SIXTH LESSON. 



T;i6 disadvantage, prejudice. 
I shall never say any thing to your 
disacvantasre. 



Le desavantage. 

Je ne dirai jamais rieu k votre des- 
avantaje. • 



To surrender. 
The enemies have surrendered. 

To prefer. 
I prefer the useful to the agreeable. 



Se rendre 4. 

Les ennemis se sont reudus. 

Prejerer. 

Je prefere I'utile a. I'agreable. 



Ohs. A'l adjectives and verbs used substantively are masculme. Ex. 
The drinking. I Le boire. 



The eatmg. 



Le nianirer. 



To beJioId. 
Behold tliose beautiful flowers with 
theii' colors so fresh and bright. 

The color. 

The lily. 

The violet. 

The forget-me-not. 

The rose. 

An emblem. 
Fresh verdure is salutary to our eyes. 



Regarder 1. 

Regardez ces superbes fleurs uu teint 

si frais et si eclataiit. 
La couleur, le teint. 
Le lis. 
La violette. 
La germandree. 
La rose. 
Vi\ emblfeme. 
La verdure fraiche fait du bien &. noa 

yeux. 



EXERCISES. 
231. 

Why have you played a trick upon that man ■?— Because he always 
finds fault with every thing he sees. — "What does that mean, Sir ?— 
That means that I do not like to deal with you, because you are too 
particular.— I wonder why your brother has not done his task.— It 
was too difficult. He has sat up all night, and has not been able to 
do it. because it was out of his reach. — As soon as Mr. Flausen sees 
me he begins to speak English, in order to practise, and overwhelms 
me with politeness, {dlionnelete,) so that I often do not know what 
to answer. His brothers do the same, {en font autant.) However 
they are very good people, (Us ne laissent pas d'etre de fort bonnes 
gens;) they are not only {non seule/nent) rich and amiable', but they 
are also generous and charitable. They love me sincereij^ there- 
fore I love tiiem also, and consequently (par constqucnt) shall never 
say any thing to their disadvantage. I should love them still more, 
if they did not make so much ceremony, {tant de ceremonies ;) but 



SEVENTY-SIXTH LESSON. 345 

every one has his faults, {le defaut,) and mine is to speak too much 
of their ceremonies. 

232. 

Have the enemies surrendered ^ — They have not surrendered, for 
they did not prefer life {la vie) to death, (Ja mort.) They had nei- 
tlier bread, nor meat, nor water, nor arms, (wne arme,) nor money , 
notwithstanding they determined to die rather {Us ont mieux aime 
mourir) than surrender. — Why are you so sad "? — You do not know 
what makes me uneasy, my dear friend, (fem.) — Tell me, for I as- 
sure you that I share {parLager) your suflerings {la peine) as v.-ell as 
your pleasures. — I am sure that you feel for me, {prendre * part a 
mes peines,) but I cannot tell you now {en ce moment) what makes 
me uneasy. I will however tell you when an opportunity offers, (a 
Voccasion.) Let us speak of something else now. What do you 
think of the man who spoke to us yesterday at the concert ] — He is 
a man of much understanding, {de beaucoup d'' esprit,) and not at all 
wrapt up in his own merits, {et il VLest pas du tout infatue de son 
merite.) But why do you ask me that 1 — To speak of something. — 
It is said : contentment {contentement) surpasses {passer) riches ; 
let us then always be content. Let us share {partager) (with each 
other) what \yq have, and remain {demeurer) our lifetime {toute notre 
vie) inseparable {inseparable) friends. You will always be welcome 
at my house, and I hope to be equally so {aussi) at yours. If I saw 
you happy I should be equally so, and we should be more contented 
than the greatest princes, who are not always so. We shall be hap- 
py when we are perfectly {parfaitement) contented with what we 
have ; and if we do our duty as we ought {bien) God {le hon Dieu) 
will take care of the rest. The past being no longer an)^ thing, let 
us not be uneasy about the future, and enjoy the present. 

233. 

Behold, ladies, {Mesdames,) those beautiful flowers, with their 
colors so fresh and bright ; they drink nothing but water. The 
white lily has the color of innocence, {Vinnocence ;) the violet indi- 
cates gentleness, {marque la douceur ;) you may see it in Louisa's 
eyes, {dans les yeux de Louise.) The forget-me-not has the color 
of heaven, our future dwelling, and the rose, the queen of flowers, 
is the emblem of beauty and of joy. You see all that personified 
{personnifie) in seeing the beautiful Amelia, {Amelie.) How beau- 
tiful is the fresh verdure ! It is salutary to our eyes, and has the 
color of hope, {de Vesperance,) our most faithful {fidele) friend, (fem.,; 
who never deserts {quitter) us, not even in death, in la mort.) — One 



346 



SEVE^"TY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



word more, my dear friend. — What is your pleasure 1 — I forgot to 
tell you to present my compliments to your mother. Tell her, if you 
please, that I regret (regretter) not having been at home when lately 
she honored me with her visit. — I thank you for her, {de sa part^) I 
shall not fail. — Farewell then. (See end of Lesson XXIY.) 



SEYENTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 

LcQon. 



-Soixante-dix-septiimi. 



A silk gown. 
A kitchen table. 
A mahogany table. 
A brick house. 
A stone house. 
A windmill. 
A coffee mill. 



Une robe de soie. 
Une table de cuisine. 
Une table (i'acajou. 
Une maisou de brique. 
Une maison de pierre. 
Un moulin a vent. 
Un moulin a cafe. 



Ohs. A. We have seen (Lesson II.) that the preposition de is put be- 
tween two substantives, the latter of which expresses the substance of which 
the former is made ; but the preposition a is made use of when the lattei 
expresses the use of the former. In both cases the order of the two substan- 
tives is inverted in French when they make a compound in English. Ex 



A velvet bonnet. 

A silver tankard. 

A water-mill. 

A steam-mill. 

Gunpowder. 

Fire-arms. 

A one-horse wagon. 

A four-horse carriage. 

A two-wheeled wagon. 

A four-wheeled carriage. 

A one-story house. 

A two-story house. 

A three-story house. 



Un chapeau de velours. 
Un pot (i'argent. 
Un moulin a eau. 
Un moulin a vapeur. 
De la poudre a canon. 
Des armes a feu. 
Une voiture a un cheval. 
Une voiture a quatre chevaux. 
Une voiture a deux roues. 
Une voitiure d quatre roues, 
Une maison a un etage. 
Une maison a deux Stages. 
Une maison a trois etasres. 



To exaggerate. | Oiitrer 1. 

That man exaggerates all that ho Cet homnie outre tout ce qu'il dit et 

says and does. I tout ce qu'il fait. 

To take the place of, to be instead of. \ Tenir lieu de. 

C t Cet Jiomme me tieut lieu de p&re. 
That man is a father to me. < or 

' t Cet homme me sert de pire. 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH LESSON. 



347 



t Ce parapluie lui tieut lieu de canne, 
That umbrella serves him as s. stick. -^ or 

t Ce paraphiie lui sert de cajyie. 



An inch. 
On a small scale. 
On a large scale. 
Thereabouts, nearly. 
Alternately, turn by turn. 
To endeavor, to strive. 
To give one's self up to grief. 
To melt. 
To melt in teara. 



Un pouce. 
En petit. 
En grand. 
A peu pres. 
Tour &, tour. 

t S'efforcer 1, (de before the infin) 
' S'ahandonner a la doulcur. 
Fondre 4. 
Fondre en larmes. 



To give birth to, (meaning to raise, 
to cause.) 

To raise difSculties. 
To cause quarrels. 
To cause suspicions. 
The behavior of that man raised 
suspicions in my mind. 



To shake. 
Shake that tree, and the fruit will 
fall down. 



To be in want of. 

To be short of. 

To want. 
That man is in want of every thing. 
I am in want of nothing. 



A place at table, including knife, 
fork, and plate. 

A table for four persons. 
A table for ten persons. 
A writing-table or desk 
A dining-room. 
A sleeping or bed-room. 
A repeater. 
An oil-bottle. 
A mustard-pot. 



Faire naitre. 

t Faire naitre des difficultes. 

t Faire naitre des querelles. 

t Faire naitre des soupgons. 

t La conduite de cet homme a fait 
naitre des soup^ons dans mon es- 
prit. 



Secouer 1. 

Secouez cet arbre, et les fruits en 
tomberont. 



> Manquer de. 

Cet homme manque de tout. 
Je ne manque de rien. 



Un convert. 

Une table de quatre couverts. 
Une table de dix couverts. 
Une table h. ecrire. 
Une salle ii manger. 
Une chambre k coucher. 
Une montre k repetition. 
Une bouteille k I'huile. 
Un pot k moutarde. 



348 



SEVENTY-SEVENTH LESSOX. 



A pitcher 

A fowling-piece. 

A fishing hue 



Un pot ii I'eau. 
Un fiisil de chasse. 
Uiie ligne a pscher. 



1 Exiger 1. 

> Qu'exigez-vous de moi ? 

I Je n'exige rien de vous. 
I Un pot au lait. 



To exact, to want of. 
What do you want of me ? 
VVliat do you exact of me ? 
] exact nothing of you. 

A milk-pot. 

Ohs. B. When the second noun is used to determine the first more pre- 
cisely, it is preceded by au or d la for the singular, and aux for the plural 
Ex. 



The rabbit-man. 
The oyster-woman. 



L'homme aux lapins. 
La femme aux huitres. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE PROPER NAMES OF PERSONS 
TAKEN FROM THE LATIN AND GREEK.^ 

Obs. C. Proper names of inen ending in English in a are the same iu 
both languages ; but those of women and goddesses having that ending be- 
come French by changing the final a into e mute. Ex. 



Caligula. 


Caligula. 


Dolabella. 


Dolabella. 


Cleopatra. 


Cleopatra. 


Diana. 


Diane. 


Julia. 


Julie. 



Obs. D. Most proper names ending in English in as or es become French 
by changing these finals into c mute. Ex. 



En-eas. 


flnile. 


Pythagoras. 


Pythagore 


Ulysses. 


Ulysse. 


Socrates. 


Socrate. 



Obs. E- Proper names ending in o change it in French into on. Ex. 

Cicero. I Ciceron. 

Dido. I Didon. 

Obs. F. Most proper names ending in us are the same iii both languages 
when they have but two syllables ; but when they are composed of tliret 
or more syllables, they become French by changing it into c mute. Ex. 



* All those which deviate frora these rules axe separately noted. 



SEVENTY- SEVENTH LESSON. 349 



Cyrus. 
Venus. 
Camillus. 
Orpheus. 



CjTus. 
Venus. 
Camille. 
Orphee. 



Obs G. Most of those ending in al or is are the same In both languages 
Ex. 

Juvenal. I Juvenal. 

Sesostris. | Sesostris. 

Ols H. Those ending in Eughsh in ander change it in French into 
andre. Ex. 

Alexander. | Alexandre. 

Lysander. | Lys andre. 

Remark. — Tlie proper names of kingdozns, provinces, and towns, ending 
in English in a, become French by changing the ending a into e mute, and 
those of towns ending in hurg, change it into bourg? Ex. 



Arabia. 


L' Arable. 


Asia. 


L'Asie. 


Friburg. 


Fribourg. 


Hamburg. 


Hambourg. 



Dainties. 
He is fond of dainties. 
At broad daylight. 
To sit down to dinner. 



Les bons morceaux. 

II aime les bons morceaux. 

En plain jour. 

Se mettre iJ, table. 



. EXERCISES. 
234. 
Has your sister been out to-day ? — She has been out to buy sev- 
eral things. — What has she bought ■? — She has bought {s^est achete) 
a silk gown, a velvet bonnet, and a lace veil, {un voile de dentelle.) 
— What have you done with {de) my silver tankard 1 — It is on the 
kitchen-table together with {avec) the oil-bottle, the milk-pot, the 
pitcher, the mustard-pot, and the coffee-mill. — Do you ask for a 
wine-bottle ■? — No, I ask for a bottle of wine, and not for a wine- 
bottle. If you will have the goodness to give me the key of the 
wine-cellar {la cave au vin) I shall go for one. — What does that 
man want of me "? — He exacts nothing ; but he will accept what you 
will give him, for he is in want of every thing. — I will tell you that 

' Such proper names as deviate from this rule are either separately noted, 
or are the same in botli lauffuasfes. 



350 SEVENTY-SEVE^'TH LESSOrg. 

I am not fond of him, for his behavior raises suspicions in my mind 
He exaggerates all that he says and does. — You are v\-rong in hav- 
ing such a bad opinion {une opinion) of him, for he has been a fa- ' 
ther to you. — I know what I say. He has cheated me on a small 
and on a large scale, and whenever he calls he asks me for some- 
thing. In this manner he has alternately asked me for all I had : 
my fowling-piece, my fishing-line, my repeater, and my golden can- 
dlesticks. — Do not give yourself up so much to grief, else (sinon) 
you will make me melt in tears. 

Democritus and Heraclitus vt/exe two philosophers of a very dif- 
ferent character, (d^un caractere Men different :) the first laughed 
at the follies (la folie) of men, and the other wept at them. — They 
were both^right, for the follies of men deserve to be laughed and 
wept at. 

235. 

Have you seen your niece 1 — Yes ; she is a very good girl, who 
writes well, and speaks French still better ; therefore she is loved 
and honored by everybody. — And her brother, what is he doing ? — 
Do not speak to me of him ; he is a naughty boy, who writes always 
badly, and speaks French still worse ; he is therefore {aussi nest-il) 
loved by nobody. He is very fond of dainties, but he does not like 
books. Sometimes he goes to bed at broad daylight, and pretends 
to be ill ; but when we sit down to dinner he is generally better 
again, (retaili.) He is to study physic, {la medecine,) but he has not 
the slightest inclination for it, {aucune envie.) — He is almost always 
talking of his dogs, which be loves passionately, {passionnement.) 
His father is extremely sorry for it. The young simpleton {un ini- 
hecile) said lately to his sister, " I shall enlist as soon as a peace 
{Ja paix) is proclaimed, {puhlier.'''') 

My dear father and my dear mother dined yesterdaj^ with some 
friends at the King of Spain, {VEspagne.) — Why do you always 
speak English and never French ■? — Because I am too bashful, {ti- 
mide.) — You are joking : is an Englishman ever bashful ] — I have a 
keen appetite, ^grand appetit :) give me something good to eat.^ 
Have you any money] — No, Sir. — Then I have nothing to eat foi 
you. — ^Will you not let me have some {ne me donnez-vous pas) on 
credit ] I pledge {engager) my honor. — That is too little. — ^^^lat, 
{comment^ Sir ! 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



35] 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.— Soixante-dix-huiiie?ne Legon. 
PRESENT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

The formation of the subjunctive in French presents no difiicnlty, as all 
verbs of this mood end alike. The present, with a few exceptions, which 
we shall presently give, is formed from the present participle, by changing 
ant into e mute for the first and third persons singular, into es for the sec- 
ond person singular, and into ent for the third person plural. The first and 
second persons plural are exactly like the imperfect. Ex. 



Speaking — That I may speak, that 

thou mayest speak, that he or she 

may speak. 
That we may speak, that you may 

speak, that they may speak. 
Finishing — That I may finish, that 

thou mayest finish, that he or she 

may finish. 
That we may finish, that you may 

finish, that they may finish. 
Knowing — That I may know, that 

thou mayest know, that he or she 

may know. 
That we may know, that you may 

know, that they may know. 
Rendehing — That I may render, 

that thou mayest render, that he 

or she may render. 
That we may render, that you may 

render, that they may render. 



Parlant— ^Que je parle, que tu 
paries, qu'il ou qu'elle parle. 

Que nous parlions, que vous parliez, 

qu'ils ou qu'elles parlent. 
FiNissANT — Que je finisse, que tu 

finisses, qu'il ou qu'elle finisse. 

Que nous finissions, que vous finie- 
siez, qu'ils ou qu'elles finissent. 

Sachant — Que je sache, que tu 
saches, qu'il ou qu'elle sache. 

Que nous sachions, que vous sa- 
chiez, qu'ils ou qu'elles sachent. 

RendAxXT — Que je rende, quo tu 
rendes, qu'il ou qu'elle rende. 

Que nous rendions, que vous reu- 
diez, qu'ils ou qu'elles rendent. 



Ohs. A. The third person singular of the imperative, and the third per- 
son singular of the present of the subjunctive, are always alike. (See Ohs. 
A. Lesson LXX.) 

exceptions. 

A.LLANT, going — que yaille, que tu allies, qu'il aille, que nous alliens, quo 

vous alliez, qu'ils aillent. 
Tenant, holding — que je tienne, que tu tiennes, qu'il tienne, que nous 

tenions, que vous teniez, qu'ils tiennent. 

And all compounds of teiiir *, such as : obtenir *, to obtain ; con- 
tenir*, to contain, &c. 



352 SEVENTY-EiGHTH LESSOX. 

Venant, coming — que je vienne, que tu viennes, qu'il vienne, que nous ve- 
nioiis, que vous veniez, qu'ils viennent. 

And all compounds of venir *, such as : revenir *, to come back ; de- 
venir *, to become, &c. 

/icQUERANT, acquiring — que yacquiere, que tu acquieres, qu'il acquiere, 
que nous acquerions, que a^ous acqusriez, qu'ils acquierent. 

MouRANT, dying — que je mcure, que tu meures, qu'il meure, que nous 
mourions, que vous mouriez, qu'ils meurent. 

Recevant, receiving — que je regoive, que tu regoives, qu'il regoite, quo 
nous recevions, que vous receviez, qu'ils regoivent. 

And all those ending in evoir, such as ; apercevoir, to perceive ; con- 
cevoir, to conceive ; devoir, to owe, &:,c. 

PouvANT, being able — que je puisse, que tu puisses, qu"il puisse, que nous 

puissions, que vous puissiez, qu'ils puissent. 
Valant, being worth — que je vaille, que tu vailles, qu'il vaille, que nous 

valions, que vous valiez, qu'ils vaillent} 
MouvANT, moving — que je meuve, que tu meuves, qu'il meuve, que nous 

mouvions, que vous mouviez, qu'ils meuvent. 
Ayant, having — que j'aie, que tu aies, qu'il ait, que nous ayons, que vous 

ayez, qu'ils aient. 
Vodlant, wishing — que je veuille, que tu veuilles, qu'il veiiille, que nous 

voulions, que vous vouliez, qu'ils veuillent. 
6tant, being — que je sois, que tu sois, qu'il soit, que nous soi/ons, que 

vous soyez, qu'ils soient. 
BuvANT, drinking — que je hoive, que tu boives, qu'il boive, que nous buvionf 

que vous buviez, qu'ils boivent. 
Faisant, doing — que je fasse, que tu fasses, qu'il fasse, que nous fassio/is, 

que vous fassiez, qu'ils fassent. 
Prexant, taldng' — que je prenne,q\\e tu prennes, qu'il prenne, que nous pre- 

nions, que vous preniez, qu'ils prennent. 

And all compounds oi prendre *, such as : apprendre *, to learn ; com- 
prencZre *, to understand ; entreprendre*, to vaidertcLke ; se meprendre*, 
to mistake ; rcprendre *, to retake, &lc. 

Obs. B. In the above list of exceptions it will be perceived that all those 
persons which really deviate from our rule ou the present of tlie subjunctive 
are printed in italics : the verbs aller, tenir, venir, acquerir, moitrir, recevoir, 
valoir, mouvoir, vouloir, boire, and prendre, do not deviate from it in the 
first and second persons plural, and avoir does not deviate from it in the first 
and second persons singular. 

' Prevaloir, to prevail, is regular in the present of tlie subjunctive, thus; 
que jo prevale, que tu prevales, qu'il prevale, que nous prevalious, que vous 
prevaliez, qu'ils prevalent. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



353 



REMARKS ON THE USE OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN FRENCH 

A.. The subjunctive in French has scarcely any tiling in common with 
the subjunctive in English, and when it has, it is because preceding words 
require it. It is required after the follov/ing impersonals when the verb that 
follows is preceded by the conjunction que. 

faut que. 

est necessaire que. 
II est extraordinaire que. 



It is necessary that. 



11! 



It is extraordinary that. 

It is sad that. 

It is right that. 

It is wrong that. 

It is proper that. 

It is surprising that. 

It is becoming that. 

It is time that. 

It is important, or it matters that. 

It is sufficient that. 



II est facheux que. 

II est juste que. 

II est injuste que. 

II est a propos que. 

II est surprenant que. 

II convient que. 

II est temps que. 

II importe or il est important quo. 

II suffit que. 



It is to be wished that. 

It seems that. 
It is possible that. 
It is better that. 



( II est ti desirer que. 
^11 



You must have the goodness to do 
that. 

It is necessary that you should be 
here at an early hour. 

You must do that. 

It is necessary that one should have 
money. 

I must go to market. 

I must go away. 

It is right that you should be pun- 
ished. 

It is sufficient for you to Imow that. 

It is timo for you to speak. 

We must sell our goods immediately. 

Y.^'hat must I say ? 



est k souhaiter que. 
II semble que." 
II est possible que. 
II vaut mieux que. 

EXAMPLES. 

II faut que vous ayez la bont^ de 

faire cela. 
II faut que vous soyez ici de boiuie 

heure. 
II faut que voxxs fassicz cela. 
II est necessaire qu'on ait de I'ar- 

gent. 
If faut que i'aille au marche. 
II faut que je m'en aille. 
II est juste que vous soyez puni. 



II suffit que vous sachiez cela. 
II est temps que vous parliez. 
II faut que nous vendions nos mar- 

chandises tout de suite. 
Que faut-il que je dise ? 



' II semble, it seems, is also construed with the indicative, particularly 
when it has an indirect objept, as : il me semble, it seems to me ; il te seni' 
ble, it seems to thee ; il lui semble, it seems to him or her, &c. 



354 



SEVENTY-EIGH'I H LESSON. 



It is important that that should be 
dene. 

It is proper that we should set out. 

It is to be wished that you should go 
to the country. 

It is to be desired that you should 
return soon. 

It seems you are angry. 

It is necessary I should finish to- 
day. 

It might be possible that you would 
not set out before to-morrow. 

It is sufficient that you are satisfied. 

It is better that we should have ar- 
rived this mornincf. 



II importe que cela sefassc 

II est k propos que nous partions. 

II est k souhaiter que tu ailles k Ig 
carnpagne. 

II est k desirer que tu reviennea 
promptement. 

II semblo que vous soyez fache. 

II est necessaire que je finisse au- 
jourd'hui. 

II serait possible que tu ue partisses 
que demain. 

II suffit que vous soyez content. 

II vaut mieux que nous soyons ar- 
rives 06 matin. 



Obs. C. When the impersonal il est is accompanied by an adjective 
denoting evidence, certainty, or prohahility, such as, clair, clear; certain, 
certain ; vrai, true ; probable, probable, &,c., it governs the next verb m the 
indicative, when it is affirmatively, and m the subjunctive when intenoga- 
tively, negatively, or conditionally used. Ex. 

Ind. II est certain que vous avez tort. 
SubJ. II n'est pas certain que vous 
ayez raisou. 



It is certain that you are in the wrong. 
It is not certain that you are in the 

right. 

It is probable that he will do it. 
Is it probable that he will do it? 
It is true that he is capable of it. 
If it were true that he was capable 

of it. 



Ind. II est probable qu'il le fera. 
Subj. Est-il probable qu'il le fasse? 
Ind. II est vrai qu'il en est capable. 
Subj. S"il etait vrai qu'il en fut capa- 
ble. 



Remark B. The subjunctive with que is further used in French after 
verbs expressing doubt, wish, command, order, fear, ignorance, despair, com- 
plaint, or any affection of the mind, such as : 

Aimer, to like. Empecher, to hinder. 

Aimer mieux, to like better. £tre an desespoir, to despair. 

Approuver, to approve. Exiger, to exact. 

Apprehender, to apprehend Meriter, to desers'e. 

Attendre, to expect. Nier, to deny. 

Avoir peur, to be afraid. Ordonner, to order. 

Commander, to command. Permettre *, to permit 

Consentir *, to consent. Pr^ferer, to prefer. 

Craindre *, to fear. , Prendre garde, to take care 

Defendi-e. to forbid. ' Prier, to pray. 

Desapprouver to disapprove. Regretter, to regret. 

Desirer, to desire. S"t3tonner, to wonder. 

Doutor, to dtubt Se plaindre *, to complain. 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



355 



So r<;jouir, 
Souffrir * 
Souiiaiter 
Suppose!-, 



to rejoice 
to suffer. 
to wish. 
to suppose 



I wish you may succeed. 
I doubt that he is arrived. 
I wish to be obeyed. 
I wish him to be told so. 
He wishes me to have patience 
I doubt his being at home. 
I fear we shall have a storm. 
He denies having done it. 
He complains of your having ill- 
treated liim. 
I am very sorry for your having 

done it. 
I regret that yon should have been 

obliged to wait. 
You will approve of my not going 

^hither 
He disapproved of your having said 

it. 
What do you wish these men to buy ? 



Trembler, to tremble. 

Trouver bon, to approve. 

Trouver mauvais, to disapprove. 

Vouloir *, to be willing. 

EXAMPLES. 

Je desire que vous reussissiez. 

Je doute qu'il soit arrive. 

Je veux qu'on m^obeisse. 

Je souhaite qu'on le lui disc. 

II veut que j'a/e patience. 

Je doute qu'il soit k la maison. 

Je crains que nous n'aijons mi orage. 

II nie qu'il I'ait fait. 

II se plaint que vous Vayez raal- 

trait^. 
Je suis au desespoir que vous Vaycz 

fait. 
Je regrette que vous ayez ete oblig<5 

d'attendre. 
Vous trouverez bon que je n'y aille 

pas. 
II a trouv^ mauvais que vous I'ayez 

dit. 
Que voulez-vous que ces hommes 

achetent ? 
Que voulez-vous qu'il reponde ? 
Vous attendez-vous h. ce qu'il vous 

donne ses marchandises pour rien? 
Que voulez-vous que je boive ? 



What do you wish him to answer? 
Do you expect him to give you liis 

goods for nothing? 
What do you want me to drink ? 

Obs. D. All verbs expressmg the intellectual faculties of the mind govern 
the indicative when they are vised affii-matively, and the subjmictive when 
negatively or interrogatively, or when they are preceded by the conjunc- 
tion si. Such verbs are : 



A.ffirmer, 
Assurer, 
Apercevoir, 
Avouer, 
Conclure *, 
Convenir *, 
Croire *, 
Declarer, 
Dire *, 
Esperer, 
Juger, 
Jurer, 



to afiirm. 
to assm'e. 
to perceive, 
to confess, 
to conclude, 
to agree. 
to believe. 
to declare. 
to say. 
to hope, 
to judge. 
to swear. 



Maintenn *, 
Oublier, 
Penser, 
Predire *, 
Prevoir *, 
Promettre *, 
Publier, 
Savoii- *, 
Songer, 
Soutenir *, 
Supposcr, 
Voir *, 



to maintain, 
to forget. 
to think, 
to foretell, 
to foresee, 
to promise 
to publish 
to know, 
to think, 
to maintahi. 
to suppose, 
to see. 



356 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



EXAMPLES. 

Ind. Je crois qu'il a raison. 

Subj. Croyez-vous que co cheval 

vaille cent ecus ? 
Suij. Je lie crois pas qu'il zaille cent 

ecus. 
Ind. J'espere qu'il viendra. 
Subj. Esperez-vous qu'il vicnne ? 
Ind. Je pense qu'il I'a fait. 
Subj. Pensez-vous qu'il Vait fait ? 
Si vous pensez qu'il fasse beau temps, 

partons pour la campagne. 

Verbs expressing fear, such as : craindre, to fear ; avoir peur, 



I believe he is in the right 

Do you believe that horse is worth 

a hundred crowns ? 
^ do not believe that it is worth a 

hundred crowns. 
I hope he will come. 
Do you hope ho will come ? 
I think he has done it. 
Do you think he has done it? 
If you think it will be fine weather 

let us set out for the country. 

Obs. E. 



to be afraid, govern the subjunctive with ne before it, when they are not 
negatively used.^ Ex. 



Je crains qu'ils ne viennent. 
J'ai peur que vous ne parliez de moL 
Ne craint-il pas que vous n''en par- 
liez ? 



I fear that they will come. 
I am afraid you will speak of me. 
Does he not fear that you might 
speak of it? 

Obs. F. But when such verbs are used negatively they govern the sub- 
junctive without "Ke. Ex. 

I am not afraid that the man will j Je ii'ai pas peur que I'homnie vienne. 
come. 



Obs. G. The verbs douter, to doubt, and nier, to denj', require the snb- 
jmictive with ne before it when they are negatively used. Ex. 

Do not doubt my being always your Ne doutez pas que je ne sois toujourg 

friend. 1 votre ami. 

He does not deny your having done II ne nie pas que vous ne Taj^ez fait 

it. ' 



Remark C. The subjunctive is further governed by an adjective or par- 
ticiple preceded by one of the verbs, etre*, to be ; paraitre*. to appear, 
sembler, to seem. Some of such adjectives or participles are : 



Afflige, 


afflicted. 


Enchante, 


enchanted. 


Bieii aise, 


glad. 


fitonne, 


astonished. 


Cbarmc, 


chaiTned. 


Fach6, 


som'. 


Content, 


satisfied. 


Surpris, 


surprised, &c 



^ Except when the phrase is interrogative, or when it is preceded by si 
Ex. Oraigncz-vous de Foffenser ? Do you fear to ofieud him ? iSj je 
zraignais que vous le fssiez. If I were afraid that you woidd do it 



SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON. 



357 



I am sorry that she is ill. 

I am chdrmed that yon are here. 

I am glad that he hat received his 

money. 
She is angry that you are my friend. 

I am surprised that you are not more 

attentive. 
I am extremely glad that your sister 

has recovered. 
Your father is afflicted that you miss 

your lessons. 
I am surprised that you have not 

done your task. 



EXAMPLES. 

Je suis fdche qu'elle soil malade. 
Je suis charmc que vous soyez id 



Je suis bien aise qu'il ait eu son ar- 
gent. 

EUe est fachee que vous soyez mou 
ami. 

Je suis etonne que vous ne soyez pas 
plus attentif. 

Je suis enchante que votre soeur soil 
retablie. 

Votre pere est afflige que vous 7nan- 
quiez vos le5ons. 

Je »uis surpris que vous n'aycz paa 
fait votre devoir. 

Ohs. H. In all these instances the genitive de ce may be used, but theu 
the indicative must follow. Ex. 



I am charmed at your being here. 

He is glad that you have received 
your money. 



Je suis charme de ce que vous 6tea 

ici. 
II est bien aise de ce que vous avez 

eu votre argent. 



EXERCISES. 
236. 

Will you relate (raconter) something to me] — What do you wish 
me to relate to you 1 — A little anecdote, if you like. — A little boy 
one day at table (a table) asked for some meat ; his father said that 
it was not polite to ask for any, and that he should wait until some 
was given to him, {qn'on lui en donndt, imperf. subjunctive ; see the 
following Lesson.) The poor boy, seeing every one eat, and that 
nothing was given to him, said to his father : " My dear father, gue 
me a little salt, if you please." " What will you do with it V asked 
the father. " I wish to eat it with the meat which you will give 
me," replied {repliquer) the child. Everybody admired (admirer) 
the little boy's wit ; and his father, perceiving that he had nothing, 
gave him meat without his asking for it. Who was that little boy 
that asked for meat at table"?— He was the son of one of my 
friends. — Why did he ask for some meat 1 — lie asked for some be- 
cause he had a good appetite. — Why did his father not give him 
some immediately "? — Because he had forgotten it. — Was the little 
boy wrong in asking for some "? — He was wrong, for he ought to have 
waited. — Why did he ask his father for some salt \ — He asked for 



358 SEVENTY-KIC-HTH LESS0:N. 

some salt, that his father might perceive {pour que son pere s''aperput^ 
imperf. subjunctive ; see next Lesson) that he had no meat, and that 
he might give him some, {et qu'il lui en donndt, imperf. subjunctive ; 
see next Lesson.) 

Do you wish me to relate to you another anecdote 1 — You Tvill 
greatly {beaiicoup) oblige me. — Some one purchasing some goods 
of a shopkeeper, {un marchand,) said to him : " You ask too 
much ; you should not sell so dear to me as to another, because 1 
am a friend, (puis que je siiis des amis de la maisoii.") The merchant 
replied : " Sir, we must gain something by (avec) our friends, for 
our enemies will never come to the shop." 

237. 

A young prince, seven years old, was admired by everybody for 
his wit, (a cause de son esprit ;) being once in the society of an old 
officer, the latter observed, in speaking of the young prince, that 
when children discovered so much genius {avoir tant d^esprit) in 
their early days, they generally grew very stupid {en out ordinaire- 
ment fort peu) when they came to maturity, {quand ils sont avances 
en dge.y — " If that is the case," said the young prince, who had lieard 
it, " then you must have been very remarkable for your genius (avoij 
infiniment d'esprit) when you were a child, {dans votre enfancs.''') 

An Englishman, on first visiting France, met with a very young 
child in the streets of Calais, who spoke the French language with 
fluency and elegance, {couramment et avec elegance.) — " Good 
Heaven, {Mon Dieu !) is it possible ]" exclaimed he, " that even 
children here speak the French language with purity, {la purete") 

Let us seek {rechercher) the friendship of the good, and avoid 
{eviter) the society of the wicked {le mechant ;) for bad company 
corrupts {les mauvaises societes corrompcnt) good manners, {les bon- 
nes mceurs.) — What sort of weather is it to-day ] — It snows continu- 
ally, (toujours,) as it snowed yesterday, and, according to aU appear- 
ances, will also snow to-morrow. — Let it snow ; I should like it to 
snow {qu'il neigedt, imperf. subjunctive ; see next Lesson) still more, 
for I am always very well when it is very cold. — And I am {et moi, 
je me pnrte) always very w-ell when it is neither cold nor warm. — It 
is too windy to-day, and we should do better if we stayed at home. 
■ — Whatever weather it may be I must go out ; for 1 promised to be 
with my sister at a quarter past eleven, and I must keep my werdj 
{ten\r* parole.) (See end of Lesson XXIY.) 



SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON. 



359 



SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON. — Soixante-dix-neuvieme Le^on. 

IMPERFECT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE. 

The imperfect of the subjunctive is formed from the preterit definite 
(Lesson LXVIII.) by clianging tlie final ai into asse for the verbs of tlie 
first conjugation, and by adding se to all those of the other three con- 
jugations. This rule has not a single exception throughout the Frencli 
lauffuase. 



Je ■parlai — que je parlasse, que tu 
parlasses, qu'il paria,t, que nous 
parlassions, que vous parlassiez, 
qu'ils parlassent. 

Je finis — que je finisse, que tu finis- 
ses, qu'il finit, que nous finissions, 
que vous finissiez, qu'ils finissent. 

Je re^us — que je re9usse, que tu 
re5usses, qu'il re§vit, que nous re- 
gussions, que vous. regussiez, qu'ils 
re9usseut. 

Je vendis — que je vendisse, que tu 
vendisses, qu'il vendit, que uoua 
vendissions, que vous vendissiez, 
qu'ils vendissent. 

Ohs. A. As to the formation of the preterit, or preterperfect and pluper- 
fect of the subjunctive, it is exactly the same as in the indicative ; the fonner 
being compounded of the present subjunctive of the auxiliary, and the past 
participle of another verb, the latter of the imperfect subjunctive of the aiix- 
iliary and the past participle of another verb. Ex. 



I spoke — that I might speak. 



I finished — that I might fijiish. 



I received — that I might receive. 



I sold — that I might sell. 



That I may have loved. 
That I may have come. 
That I might have loved. 
That I might have come. 



Que j'aie aim^. 
Que je sois venu. 
Que j'eusse aime. 
Que je fusse venu. 



Ohs. B. The past tenses of the subjunctive are used whenever those terms 
which govern it are in the past tense or in the conditional. 

Remark Z>. on the Use of the Subjunctive.— After the following con 
junctions the verb is always put in the subjunctive mood : 



Afin que, 
A mains que, 



that, in order that, 
to the end that, 
unless. 



Au cas que, 
Avant que, 
Bien que, 



before, 
though. 



380 



SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON. 



J)e crainte qusj for fear, lest. 
De peur que, lest. 

En cas que, in case, if. 

Encore que, though. 

Jusqu'd ce que, till, until. 
Loin que, far from. 

Non que, } ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

JSon pas que, y 

Nonobsiant que, for all that, not- 
withstandinsr that. 



Pose que, 
Pour que. 
Pour peu que, 

Pourvu que, 
Quoique, 
Sans que. 
Si peu que, 
Soit que. 
Suppose que. 



suppose that 
that, in order that 
if ever so httle, how 

httle soever, 
provided, save that 
though, 
without, 
however httle. 
whether, 
suppose that' 



EXAMPLES. 



V/ill you stay here until I can go out 
with you? 

I will go out before he comes back. 

If you had what you have not, you 
would be rich. 

I send you my book, that you may 
read it. 

Unless you accompany her, she will 
not go out. 

Though your children are idle yet 
they improve. 

If a man had ever so little acquaint- 
ance with another, he was bouud 
to take a part in the dispute, a ad 
venture his person as much as if 
he had himself been angry. 
Be it as it may. 

Though she is little and bad-looking, 
she is nevertheless amiable. 

I would not have her for a wife, 
though she is rich, and has a great 
deal of wit, because she is not good- 
hearted. 



Voulez-vous rester ici jusqu'd ce que 

je puisse sorth avec vous ? 
Je sortirai avant qu'il ne revienne. 
En cas que vous eussiez ce que vous 

n'avez pas, vous seriez riche. 
Je vous eiivoie mon hvre, ajin que 

vous le lisicz. 
^A moins que vous ne Vaccompagniez, 

elle ne sortira pas. 
Bien que vos enfants soient pares- 

scux, ils font des progres. 
Pour peu qu'un homme fut counu 

d'un autre, il fallait qu'il enirdi 

dans la dispute, et qu'il payat de 

sa personne, comme s'il avait €i€ 

lui-meme en colere. 
Quoiqu'il en soit. 
Quoiqu'elle soit petite et qu'elle ait 

mauvaise mine, elle ne laisse pas 

d'etre aimable. 
Je ne Id. voudrais pas' pour femme, 

quoiqu'elle soit riche, et qu'elle ait 

beaucoup d'esprit, parce qu'eUe n'a 

pas bon coeur. 



^ Malgre que may be added to these conjunctions ; but as sucli it is used 
only witla en avoir in tlie following expressions : Malgre que j'en aie, que iu 
en aies, qu'il en ait, ^-c; malgre que j en eusse, que tu en eusscs, &.C, 
&c. ; in spite of me, of thee, of him, &c. Ex. II V a fait malgre que fen 
eusse, he has done it in spite of me ; il me fauclra pariir, malgre que j'en 
aie, I shall be obliged to set out in spite of me. 



SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON. 



361 



Provided you are my friend I am 
satisfied. 

yVhether yoa are in the right or in 
the wrong. 

l name distinctly the persons I wish 
to name, always witli the inten- 
tion to praise tl\eir virtue or their 
merit : I write their names in 
large letters, that they may be 
seen at a distance, and that the 
reader may not run the risk of 
missing them. 

Philoctetes naturally spoke less : but 
he was quick ; and however little 
his vivacity was e.xcited, he was 
made to say what he had resolved 
to keep secret. 



Pourvu que vous soyez do mes amifi 

jo suis content. 
Soii que vous ayez raison ou tort. 

Je nomme nettement les personnes 
que je veux nommer, toujoura 
dans la vue de louor lem- vertu 
ou leur mtirite ; j'ccris leurs ncmg 
en lettres capitales, afin qu'on les 
voie de loin, et que le lecteur ne 
coure pas risque de les manquer. 
(La Bruyere.) 

Philoct^te naturellement parlalt 
moins : mals il dtait prompt ; et si 
pen qu^on excitdt sa vivacitc, on 
lui faisait dire ce qii'il avait resolu 
de taire. (Fenelon.) 



Ohs. C. Some conjunctions govern the indicative when the sentence 
affirms positively that the thing in question is or will be, and the subjunctive 
when it is not certain or only wished for. They are the following : 



De faron que. 

De maniere que. 

De sorts que. 

En sorte que. 

Tellement que. 

Sinon que. 
you behave in such a manner that 

you are loved by everybody. 
Behave ia such a manner tliat you 
may be loved. 



So that, in so much that. 



Except that. 

Ind. Vous vous conduisez de fagon 

que vous etes aime de tout le moudo. 
Subj. Conduisez-vous de Ja<^on que 

vous soyez aime. 



Ohs. D. The conjunction que, employed in the second member of a sen- 
tence to avoid repetition of a conjunction occurring in the first, governs tlio 
same mood as the word it stands for. Ex 



Since you know him and are respon- 
sible for him. 

Unless you are attentive, and do 
your task regularly, you will not 
learn. 



Ind. Des que vous le connaissez et 

que vous repondez de lui. 
Suhj. ^A moins que vous ne soyez 

attentif, et que vous ne Jassiez rd- 

gulierement voire devoir, vous n'ap- 

preudrez pas. 



Ohs. E. The word que, used to avoid the repetition of si, governs the 
subjunctive. Ex. 

81 



362 



SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON. 



If your friend were here, and would 

call upon me. 
If he loved me, and sincerely wished 

my welfare. 
If anybody come, and I should not 

be at home, send for me. 

If your brother writes to you, and 
you are satisfied with his letter, I 
beg of you to let me know it. 



Si votre ami ^tait ici et quHl voulttt 

venir me voir. 
jS'il m'aimait et qu'il desirat sLncfere- 

ment mon bonheur. 
Si quelqu'uu veuait et que je ne 
fusse pas a la maison envoyez-moi 
chercher 
Si votre frere vous ecrit et que vous 
soyez content de sa lettre, je vous 
prie de m'en faire part. 
Obs. F. The subjunctive is used after the conjunction que when it is 
substituted for various conjunctions, such as : ajin que, soil que, sans que, 
avant que, a moins que, jusqu'd ce que. Ex. 



Be industrious, that your parents may 
be satisfied. 

Whether I read or write it is always 
fomid fault with. 

I can say nothing without your know- 
mgit. 

Do not begin before I give you no- 
tice. 

He is never punished mJess he has 
deserved it. 

Wait till your father returns. 



Appliquez-vous, que vos parenta 

soient contents, (que stands for 

aJin que.) 
Que je Use ou que j'ecrive on y 

trouve toujours h. redire, (que stands 

here mstead of soit que.) 
Je ne puis rien dire que tu ne le 

saches, (que stands here for sans 

que.) 
Ne commencez pas que je ne vena 

avertisse, (gue stands here for avaiit 

que.) 
Jamais on ne le punit, qu'il ne Fait 

merite, (que stands for a moins 

que.) 
Attendez que votre pere rerienne, 

(que stands for jusqu'd ce que.) 



EXERCISES. 

238. 

M. de Turenne would never buy any thing on credit of ixadesmen, 
(le marchand,) for fear, he said, they should lose a great part of it, 
if he happened to be killed. All the workmen (un ouurier) who were 
employed about his house had orders (avait oi-dre) to bring in their 
bills (unmemoire) before he set out for the campaign, (se mettre * en 
campagne,) and they were regularly paid. 

You will never be respected (respecter) anless you forsake (aian- 
donner) the bad company you keep. — You cannot finish your work 
to-night, unless I help you. — I M'ill explain to you (expliqucr) every 
difficulty, that you may not be disheartened (decouragei-) in your un- 



SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON. 



863 



dertaking, (une enterprise.)— SupTpose you should lose your friends, 
what would become of you"!— In case you want my assistance, call me ; 
I shall help you. — A wise and prudent man (un homme sage et pru- 
dent) lives with econcimy when young, in order that he may enjoy the 
fruit of his labor when he is old.— Carry this money to Mr. N., in 
order that he may be able to pay his debts, {une dette.)—'S^\\\ 
you lend me that money 1—1 will not lend it you unless you 
promise to return (rendre) it to me as soon as you can.— Did the 
general arrive 1 — He arrived yesterday morning at the camp, {le 
camp,) weary, (las,) and tired, (harasse,) but very seasonably, {tres 
a propos ;) he immediately gave his orders to begin the action, 
though he had not yet all his troops.— Are your sisters happy 1— 
They are not, though they are rich, because they are not contented. 
Although they have a good memory, that is not enough to learn any 
language whatever, (quelque langue que ce soit ;) they must make 
use'^of their judgment, {le jugement.)—QehoU how amiable that la- 
dy is ; for all that she {quoiqu' elle) has no fortune, I do not love her 
the less. — Will you lend me your violin 1—1 vnW lend it you, pro- 
vided you return it to me to-night. — Will your mother call upon me 1 

She will, provided you will promise to take her to the concert.— 

I shall not cease to importune {importuner) her, till she has forgiven 
me.— Give me that penknife, {le canif.)—l will give it you, provided 
you will not make a bad use of it. — Shall you go to London 1—1 will 
go, provided you accompany {acco7npagner) me ; and I will write 
again {recrire *) to your brother, lest he should not have received my 
letter. 



239. 



Where were you during the engagement 1 — I was in bed to have 
my wounds {une llessure) dressed, {panser.) Would to God {Plut 
a Dieu) I had been there ! I would have conquered {vaincre) or 
perished, {perir.) — We avoided an engagement for fear we should 
be taken, their force being superior {superieurs) to ours. — God for- 
bid {a Dieu ne plaise, with the subjunctive,) I should blame your 
conduct, but your business will never be done properly unless you 
do it yourself. — WiU you set out soon ■? — I shall not set out till I 
have dined. — Why did you tell me that my father was arrived, though 
you .knew the contrary 1 — You are so hasty, {prompt,) that however 
little you are contradicted {contrarie) you fly into a passion {s''empor- 
ter) in an instant. If your father does not arrive to-day, and if you 
want money, I will lend you some. — I am much obliged to you.— 
Have you done your task 1 — Not quite ; if I had had time, and if I 
had not been so uneasy about (de) the arrival (Parrivee) of my fa- 



364 EIGHTIETH LESSON. 

ther, I should have done it. — If you study and are attentive, I assure 
you that you will learn the French language in a very short time. — • 
He v.'ho wishes to teach an art, must know it thoroughly, {a fond;) 
he must give none but clear (precise) and well-digested (digerer) 
notions {la notion) of it ; he must instil {/aire entrer) them one by 
one into the minds lydans Vespril) of his pupils, and above all, {sur- 
tout,) he must not overburden {surcharger) their memory with useless 
or unimportant {insignifiant) rules. 

My dear friend, lend me a louis. — Here are {en void) tv/o instead 
of one. — How much obliged I am to you, {que d'' obligations je vous 
ai') — I am always glad when I see you, and I find my happiness in 
yours. — Is this house to be sold 1 — Do you wish to buy it 1 — Why 
not ■? — Why does your sister not speak ■? — She would speak if she 
were not always so absent, {distrait.) — :I like pretty anecdotes ; they 
season {assaisonner) conversation, {la conversation,) and amuse ev- 
erybody. Pray relate me some. — Look, if you please, at page 148 
of the book which I lent you, and you will find some. (See end of 
Lesson XXIV.) 



EIGHTIETH luKS^O^ .—Quatre-vingtihne Legon 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE— (CONTINUED.) 

However, howsoever. \ Quelque, (indeclinable.) 

Ohs. A. Quelque before an adjective is indeclinable, and governs the 
subjunctive. 



However good you may be. 
How rich soever tjiey may be. 
Whatever, whatsoever. 



Quelque bon que vous soyez. 
Quelque riches qu'iis soient. 
Quelque, (declinable.) 



Ohs. B. Quelque, followed by a substantive, and any other verb than 
etre, to be, is invariable before a noun singular, and takes an s only before 
a noun plural, without regard to its gender. It always governs the sub- 
junctive. 



Whatsoever courage you ma;' have, 

he has more than you. 
Whatsoever patience we may nave, 

we will never have enousfh. 



Quelque courage quo vous ai^ez, il 

en a plus que vous. 
Quelque patience que nous- ai/ons 

nous n'en aurons jamais assez. 



Wbatsoever riches he may have, he Quelques richesses qu'il ait, il en 
will soon see the end of them. j verra bientdt la fin. 

Whatsoever kindness I have for him, | Quelque bont^ que j'aie pour lui, je 
I never shall have as much as he n'en aural jamais autaut qu'il le 
merits. i m^rite. 



EIGHTIETH LESSON. 



30i) 



Whatsoever faults you may make, 
I will take care to correct them. 
Whatever, whatsoever. 



Quelques fautes que vous fassiez, 
j'aural soiu de les corriger. 

Mas. Quel que; plur. quels que. 
Fern Quelle que; plur. quelles 
que, (declinable.) 



Obs. C Quel que, quelle que, in two words, followed by a substantive, 
and the verb etre, to be, agrees with the substantive in gender and number, 
and governs the subjunctive. 



Whatever may be the happiness 

which you enjoy, I am happier 

than you. 
Whatsoever may be the fortune 

which you enjoy, you may lose it 

in an instant. 
Whatsoever may be the efforts v/hich 

you make, you never can succeed. 

Whatsoever may be the pains which 
you take, no one will be under 
obligations to you for them. 

None or not any. 

Whatever, whatsoever, (meaning all 
things soever.) 



Quel que soit le bonheur que vous 

aijez, je suis plus heureux quo 

vous. 
Quelle que soit la fortune dont vous 

jouissiez, vous pouvez la perdre en 

un instant. 
Quels que soient les efforts que vous 

fassiez, vous ne pouvez jamais 

reussir. 
Quelles que soient les peines que 

vous preniez, on ne vous en aura 

aucune obligation. 
Aucun; fern, aucune. 
Quelque chose que, or quoi que ce 

soit. 



Ohs. D. Whatever or whatsoever (meaning all things soever) is gener- 
ally expressed by quelque chose que or quoi que, when at the beginning of 
a sentence, and by quoi que ce soit, when after a verb, and governs the next 
verb in the subjunctive. 



Whatsoever you may do for my fa- 
ther, he will reward you for it. 

I complain of nothing whatsoever. 
Whoever, whosoever. 



Quelque chose que (or quoi que) vous 
fassiez pour mon pere, il vous re- 
compensera. 
Je ne me plains de quoi que ce soit 
I Qui que ce soit. 



Ohs. E. The indeterminate pronouns : qjii que ce soit, whoever ; quelque, 
whatever ; personne, nobody ; pas un, not one ; aucun, none or not any ; 
rien, nothing ; require the next verb in the subjunctive. 

De qui que ce soit que vous parliez 
€vitez la medisance. 

Je ne connais personne qui soit aussi 
bon que vous. 

Je n'ai rien vu qu'oa puisse bld.niei 
dans sa conduite. 



Of whomsoever you may speak, 

avoid slander. 
I know nobody who is so good as you 

are. 
I have seen nothing that could be 

blamed in his conduct. 



866 



EIGHTIETH LESSON. 



Remark E. on the Use of the Subjunctive 

i. The superlative, followed by qui or que, requires the next verb iii the 
Bubjunctive. Ex. 



You are the most amiable lady I 

know. 
He is the most extraordinary man 

that I have ever seen. 
You are the most studious pupils I 

have ever had. 
The best guard a king can have is 

the heart of his subjects. 



Vous etes la dame la plus airaable 

que je connaisse. 
C'est I'homme le plus extraordinaire 

que j'aie jamais vu. 
Vous etes les eleves les plus studieux 

^uej'afe jamais eus. 
La meilleure garde qu'un roi puisse 

avoir, c'est le coeur de ses sujeta. 



2. An ordinal number followed by qui or que. Ex. 



He is the first man who has dared to 

tell me so. 
You are the second amiable lady 

that I have met with in this town. 



C'est le premier homme qui ait os& 

me le dire. 
Vous etes la deuxieme dame aimable 

que j'aie rencontree dans cette 

ville. 



3. The words Ic seul, Viuiique, the only one, followed by qui or que. Ex. 

You are the only one upon whom I I Vous etes le seul sur qui je puisse 
can rely. | compter. 

Ohs. F. Qui or que, preceded by a genitive, does not always govern the 
subjunctive. Ex. 

C'est la plus belle des femmes qui 

^taient a I'opera. 
Je ne connais aucune des personnes 

qui sout venues chez vous ce 

matin. 
J'espere que vous ne direz rien de co 

que je vous ai confie. 
J'ai lu le second volume de I'ouvrage 

que vous m'avez pret^. 



She is the handsomest woman of 
those that were at the opera. 

I do not know any of the persons 
who called on you this morning. 

I hope you will saj^ nothing of what 
I have intrusted you with. 

I have read the second volume of the 
work which you have lent me. 



Obs. G. The subjunctive is employed at the beginning of a sentence to 
express surprise, a desire, or an imprecation. Ex. 

May heaven ever preserve you from | Fasse le del que pareil malheur ne 

such a misfortune. | vous arrive jamais. 

,v. , , ^ , , PIM ^ Dieu. 
Would to God 



Would to God it were so ! 
Would to God he had done it 



Pmt au Ciel. 

PUit k Dieu qu'il en f lit ainsli 

Plut a Dieu qu'il I'eCit fait ! 



EIGHTIETH LESSON. 



367 



Would to God that all great lords 

loved peace ! 
Would to God we may never be 

more unhappy I 
May you be happy I 



Pliit a. Dieu que tous les granda 
seigneurs aimassent la paix ! 

Plut au Ciel que nous ne fussions 
jamais plus malheureux I 

Puissiez-vous etre heureux ! 



Obs. H. The subjunctive is. also sometimes employed at the head of a 
sentence instead of quand meme, though, and a conditional. Ex. 



Dilt-il m'en cotiter tout ce que je 
possfede, je saurai me preserver 
d'un semblable malheur.' 

Fussent-ils 5. cent lieues d'ici, j'iraifl 
les chercher.^ 



I come (in order) to see you. 



Though it cost me all I have, I shall 

know how to preserve myself from 

such a misfortune. 
Though they were a hundred leagues 

hence, I would go for them. 

Ohs. I. It is essential for foreigners to observe, that in the French lan- 
guage the construction with the infinitive is preferable to that with the sub- 
junctive, whenever the former may be employed without ambiguity, and 
when the construction of the sentence permits it. Say, therefore : 

( Je viens four vous voir ; and not 
\ Je viens pour que je vous voie. 
r Je ne crois pas pouvoir sortir demain ; 
I do not think I shall be able to go J and not 

out to-morrow. ) J® ne crois pas que je puisse sortir 

L demain. 

Remark F. on the Use of the Subjunctive Mood. 

It may be remarked, in conclusion, on the xxse of the subjunctive, that, 
whenever the subordinate proposition, or the second member of a sentence, 
is united to the principal proposition, or the first member of the sentence, 
by one of the relative pronouns, such as qui, que, dont, oil, &c., it is put in 
the indicative when it expresses any thing certain or positive, and in the 
subjunctive when it relates to any thing uncertain or doubtful. Ex. 



I shall marry a woman who will 

please me. 
I shall marry a woman who must 

please me ; or, the woman I shall 

marry must please me. 
Here is a book for you which you 

may consult occasionally. 
Give me a book that I may be able 

to consult occasionally. 



Ind. J'^pouserai une femme qui me 

plaira. 
Subj. J'epouserai une femme qui me 

plaise. 

Ind. Voilii un livre que vous pourrte 

consulter au besoin. 
Subj. Donnez-moi nn livre que je 

piiisse consulter au besoin. 



' Instead oi— Quand meme il devrait m'en couter tout cc que je possedfij 



&c. 



' Instead of — Quand meme ils seraient a cent lieues d'ici, &c. 



868 



EIGHTIETH LESSON. 



Lend me that book which you do 

not want. 
Lend me a book which you may not 

be in want of. 
Do not leave a place where you are 

comfortable, and whence you hear 

well. 
Choose a place where you may be 

comfortable, and wlience you may 

hear well. 



Ind. Pretez-moi ce livre, dont vous 

li'atez pas besoin. 
Suhj. Pretez-moi un livre dont voua 

rLoyez pas bes'oin. 
Ind. Ne quittez pas une place oit 

vous etcs conmiodement, et d'ou 

vous cntendez bien. 
Suhj. Choisissez une place ou vous 

sotjez commodcmeut, et d'ou vous 

enicndiez bieu. 



SOME ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES ON THE SUBJUNCTIVE, 
TAKEN FROM THE BEST FRENCH AUTHORS. 



Like to be advised, and not to be 
praised. 

I had rather he should signify his 
name. 

And say, I am Orestes or Agamem- 
non, 

Than for him, hy a heap of con- 
fused wonders. 

To stun one's ears witliout saying 
any thing to the mind. 

We must venture at any rate the 
happy passage of tlie Rhine : 

A real duty commands us to ven- 
ture it. 

On whom, in liis misfortune, would 
you have him lean ? 

Let me then here, beneath their fresh 

foliage. 
Wait until September shall have 

brought autumn round. 
And until cheer/ul Ceres shall have 

made room for Pomona. 

Allow the trembling Hippolytus for- 
ever 

To disappear from the spot inhabited 
by your consort. 



Aimez qu'oii vous conseiUe et non 
pas qu'on vous loue. Boilcau. 

J'aimerais inieux encore qu'W de- 

clinat son nom, 
Et dil, Je suis Oreste, ou bien Aga- 

lueranon, 
Que d'aller, par tm tas de confuses 

merveilles. 
Sans rien dire 5, I'esprit ctourdir lea 

oreilles. Tlie same 

II faut au moins du Rhin tenter 

I'heureux passage : 
Un trop juste devoir vcut que nous 

I'essaijions. The same. 

Sur qui, dans son malheur, voulez- 
vous qu'il s'appuie ? Racine. 

Laissez-moi done ici, sous leurs om- 

brages frais, 
Attcndre que septerabre ait ramene 

I'automne, 
Et que CCvbs contente ait ftnt place 

ii Pomoue. Boilcau. 

Souffrez que pour jamais le treni- 

blant Hippoh"te 
Disparaisse des lieux que votre 

Spouse habite. Racine. 



EIGHTIETH LESSON. 



369 



I am willing that my eyes shall for- 
ever remain deceived. 

r am willing, to conclude my folly, 

That all wines should become vins de 

Brio for me, 
That there should be no game in 

Paris during winter, 
And that in the month of August we 

should hardly eat green peas. 

Such as he is, all the Greeks request 
that he may die. 

My father himself, alas ! since I must 

tell it thee. 
My father, in saving me, commands 

that I should die. 

Conmiand yourself to be loved, and 
you will be loved. 

My lord, fear lest cruel destiny 

Should hate you enough to grant 
your prayers. 

I feared that heaven, by a cruel help. 

Might have offered you that death 
which you always sought. 

I am fearful, to conceal nothing from 

you, that Athaliah, 
Having torn you from the altar, 

Should wreak at last on you her fear- 
ful vengeance. 

And should cast off ttie remains of a 
forced respect. 

I fear lest your just ire 

Should soon pursue in him a hateful 
mother. 



Je consens que mes yciLX soient tou- 
jours abusds. Racine. 

Jo consens de bou cceur, pour finii 

ma folic, 
Que tous les vins pour moi deviea- 

nent vins de Brie, 
Qu'k Paris le gibier manque tous les 

hivers, 
Et qu'ii. peine au mois d'aout Ton 

mange des pois verts. Boileau. 

Tel qu'il est tous les Grecs demand- 
ent qu'il pdrisse. Racine. ' 

Mon pfere meme, helas ! puisqu'il faut 

te le dire, 
Mon pere, en me sauvaut, ordonne 

que ^'expire. The same. 

Commandez qu'on vous ainie, et 
vous serez aime. The same. 

Craignez, seigneur, craignez que le 

ciel rigoureux 
Ne vous ha'isse assez pour cxaucer 

vos vceux. The same. 

Je craignais que le ciel, par un cruel 

secours, 
Ne vous offrit la mort que vous cher- 

chiez toujours. The same 

Je tremhle jM'Athalie, &, ne vous rien 
cache,', 

Vous-meme de I'autel vous faisau*. 
aiTacher, 

Wacheve enfin sur vous ses ven- 
geances funestes, 

Et d'mi respect forc^ ne depoutlle 
les restes. The same. 

Je tremble que sur lui votre juste 

colore 
Ne poursuive bientdt mie odieuse 

m6re. The same. 



370 



EIGHTIETH LESSON. 



Be careful lest the sun that sliines or. i Prends garde que jamais I'astre qui 

nous eclaire, 



Should see thee set thy rash foot m 
this palace. 

Take oare lest a vowel too hasty in 

its course 
Should stumble on another vowel in 

its road. 

It was little that his hand, guided by 

hell, 
Should have shaped the saltpetre, 

should have sharpened the iron. 



Ne te vote en ces lieux mettre nn 
pied temeraire. Racine. 

Gardez gw'une voyelle &, courir trcp 

hatee 
Ne soit d une voj-elle en son chemin 

heurtee. ■ - Boileau. 

C'eiait peu que sa main, conduite 

par Fenfer, 
Eut peiri le salpetre, eut aiguise le 

fer. The same. 



EXERCISES. 

. • 240. 

You must have patience, though you have no desire to have it , 
for I must also vs'ait till I receive my moneJ^ Should I {en cas que) 
receive it to-day I will pay you all that I owe you. Do not believe 
that I have forgotten it ; for I think of it every day. Or do you be- 
lieve, perhaps, that I have already received it 1 — I do not believe 
that you have already received it ; but I fear that your other credit- 
ors {le creancier) may already have received it. — You wish you had 
more time to stud}^, and your brothers wish they did not need to learn. 
■ — ^Would to God you had what I vdsh you, and that I had what I 
wish. — Though we have not had what we wish, yet we have almost 
always been contented ; and Messieurs B. have almost always been 
disc-ontented, though they have had every thing a reasonable man 
{un homme raisonnahle) can be contented with. — Do not believe, 
Madam, that I have had your fan, {uneventail.) — Who tells you that 
I believe it "? — My brother-in-law wishes he had not had what he 
has had. — Wherefore ? — He has always had many creditors, and no 
money. — I wish you would alwaj^s speak French to me ; and you 
must obey, if you wish to learn, and if j'ou do not ^vish to lose your 
time iiselessly, {i7iutilement.) I wish y.n were more industrious 
{assidu) and more attentive when I speak to you. If I were not 
your friend, and if you were not mine, I should not speak thus to 
you. — Do not trust {mefiez-vous de) I\Ir. N., for he flatters you. Do 
you think a flatterer {un flatteur) can be a friend ? — You do not 
know him as well as I, though you see him every day. — Do not 
tliink that I am angry with him, because his father has otfendei? 



EIt3^HTIETH LESSON. 371 

me.— Oh ! here he is coming, (Ze voild qui vienl,) you may tell him 
all yourself. 

241. 
■ What do you think of our king 1 — I say he is a great man, but 1 
add, that though kings be ever so powerful (puissant) they die as 
well as the meanest {vil) of their subjects. — Have you been pleased 
with my sisters ?- — I have ; for however plain {laide) they may be, 
they are still very amiable ; and however learned {savant) our neigh- 
bors' daughters may be, they are still sometimes mistaken. — Is not 
their father rich T — However rich he may be he may lose all in an 
instant. — Whoever the enemy may be whose malice {la malice) you 
dread, {apprehender,) you ought to rely {se reposer) upon your inno- 
cence ; but the laws {la loi) condemn {condajnner) all criminals {un 
crimineT) whatever they may be. — Whatever your intentions {une in- 
tention) maybe, you should have acted differently, {differ emment.) — 
Whatever the reasons {la raison) be which you may allege, {alleguer,) 
they will not excuse your action, blameable in itself. — Whatever may 
happen to you in this world, never murmur {murmurer) against Di- 
vine Providence, {la divine providence ;) for v/hatever we may suffer 
we deserve it. — Whatever I may do, you are never satisfied. — 
Whatever you may say, your sisters shall be punished, if they de- 
serve it, and if they do not endeavor to amend, {s'amender.) — Who 
has taken my gold watch 1 — I do not know. Do not believe that I 
have had it, or that Miss C. has had your silver snuff-box, {la taba- 
tiere,) for I saw both in the hands of your sister when we were play- 
ing at forfeits, {au gage toiiche.) — To-morrow I shall set out for Do- 
ver ; but in a fortnight I shall be back again, {revenir*,) and then I 
shall come and see you and your family. — Where is your sister at 
present "? — She is at Paris, and my brother is at Berlin. — That little 
v/oman is said {on dit) to be going to marry General (Ze general) K., 
your friend ; is it true 1 — I have not heard of it. — What news is 
there of our great army 1 — It is said to be lying {etre) between the 
Weser (Ze Veser) and the Rhine, (Ze i2Ai??..)— All that the courier told 
me seeming {paraitre *) very probable, {vraisemblable,) I went home 
Lmraediately, wrote some letters, and depaned for Londcn. 



373 



EIGHTY-FIRST LESSON. 



EIGHTY-IIRST LBSSO]:^. —Quatre-vingt-umsme Ler.on. 



Just a little, ever so little. 
Will you do me the favor of giving 

me a piece of bread ? 
Do you wish a great deal ? 
No, just a little. 



Tant soit pen. 

Voulez-vous me faire le plaisir de rae 

donuer un morceau de pain ? 
En voulez-vous beaucoup? 
Non, tant soit peu. 



To turn to account. 
To make the best of. 
That man does not know how to 

make the most of his talents. 
That man turns his money to account 

in trade. 
How do you employ your money ? 

I employ it in the stocks. 

I turn it to account in the stocks. 

To boast, to brag. 
I do not like that man because he 
boasts too much. 



t Faire valoir. 

t Cet homme ne sait pas faire valoil 
ses talents. 

t Cet homme fait valoir son argent 
dans le commerce. 

t Comment faites-vous valoir votre 

, argent ? 

t Je le fais valoir dans les fonds pub- 
lics. 

t Se faire valoir. 

1 Je n'aime pas cet homme, parce 
qu'il se fait trop valoir 



Notwithstanding that. 
For all that, although. 
That man is a little bit of a rogue, 

but notwithstanding he passes for 

an honest man. 
Although that man is not very well, 

he notwithstanding works a great 

deal. 
Although that woman is not very 

pretty, still sne is very amiable. 

Althongli that man has not tlie least 
talent, yet for all that he boasts a 
great deal. 

Although that tavern-keeper's wife is 
rather swarthy, yet for all that she 
turns the business to good account. 



Ne laisser pas de. 

Cet homme est tant soit peu fripon, 
mais il ne laisse pas de p'asserpooi 
honncte homme. 

Quo'que cet homme no soit pas bleu 
pcrtant. il ne laisse pas de tiavail- 
ler beaucoup. 

Quoique cette femrne ne soit pas bieu 
jolie, elle ne laisse pas d'etre fort 
aimable. 

Quoique cet homme n'ait aucuu ta- 
lent, il ne laisse pas de se faire 
beaucoup va-loir. 

Quoique la femme de cet anbergiste 
soit tant soit peu basanee, elle ne • 
laisse pas de faire valoir le bouchou 



EIGHTY-FIRST LESSON. 



373 



r received your letter on tlie fifth. 
On the sixth. 
To go hack, to return. 
Tlie top. 
The bottom. 
Up to the top. 

The eldest brother. 
The eldest sister. 
He is the eldest. 



To appear, to seem. 

I appear, thou appearest, he appears. 
To keep, to maintain. 
My keeping or maintenance. 
My keeping costs me six hundred 
francs a year. 

To drive in, to sink. 

To converse with. 
A conversation. 
To spare. 
Spare your money. 
To get tired. 
To be tired. 
To handle. 

To lean against. 
Lean against me. 
Lean against the wall. 

To aim at. 
Short. 
To stop short. 



Virtue is amiable. 
Vice is odious. 



J'ai re5u votre lettre le ciuq 

Le six. 

Rctourner 1. 

Le haut. 

Le has. 

Jusqu'en haut. 



Le frfere ain^. 
La scEiu" aince. 
C'est I'aine. 



Paraitre * 4 ; pres. part, paraissant , 

past part, j^aru. 
Je parais, tu parais, il parait 
Entretenir * 2. 
Mon entretien. 
Mon entretien me coiite six cents 

francs par an. 
Enfoncer 1. 
S'entretenir * avec. 
Un entretien. 
fipargner 1. 
flpargnez votre argent. 
Se lasser, {de bef. inf.) 
fitre las ; fern, lasse, {de bef. inf.) 
Manier L 
S'appuj^er 1. 
Appuyez-vous sur moi. 
Appuyez-vous centre la muraillo. 
Coucher en joue. 
Court. 
S'arrtiter lOUt court. 



La vertu est aimablo. 
Le vice est odieux. 



Obs. A. The definite article is used in French before substantives taken 
m a general sense, and in the whole extent of their signification. In such 
•uistduces no article is made use of in English. Ex. 

Men are mortal I Les hommes sent mortels. 



Gold is precious. 
Corn is sold at a crown a bushel. 
Beef costs four pence a pound. 



i'or est prccieux. 

Le ble se vend un dcu le boisseau. 

Le bcEuf coute quatre sous la livre. 



374 EIGHTY-FIRST LESSON. 



The horror of vice, and the love of 
virtue, are the delights of the wise 
man. 



L'horreur du vice, et Tamoiir de la 

vertu, sont les delices du sage. 



England is a fine country | L'Angleterre est un beau pays. 

Obs. B. The definite article is also used before the names of kingdoms 
countries, and provinces.^ Ex. 



Italy is the garden of Eurcpe. ■ 
The dog is the friend and compan- 
ion of man. 



L'ltalie est le jardin de I'Europe. 
Le chien est Tami et le compaguou 
de Z'homme. 



Obs. C. The articles are repeated in French before every substantive 
and agree with it in gender and number. Ex. 

TJiessaly produces wine, oranges, j La Thessalie produit du vin, des 

lemons, olives, and all sorts of oranges, des citrons, des ohves et 

fruit. I toutes sortes de fruits. 

He ate the bread, meat, apples, and j II a mange le pain, la viande, les 

cakes ; he drank the wine, beer, pommes et les gateaux : il a bu le 

and cider. ; vin, la biere et le cidre. 

Beauty, gracefulness, and wit, are La beaute, les graces et Z'esprit sont 

valuable endowments when heigh- des avantages bien precieux, quand 

tened by modesty. ' ils sont releves par la modestie. 



EXERCISE. 
242. 
Whither shall you go next year ^ — I shall go to England, for it is 
a fine kingdom, {le roi/aume,) where I intend spending the summer 
on (a) my return from France. — Whither shall you go inthew-inter' 
— I shall go to Italy, and thence (de Id) to the West Indies, {aux In- 
des occidentales ;) but before that I must go to Holland to take leave 
of my friends. — ^What country do these people inhabit, (Jiaiiter ?) — 
They inhabit the south {le midi) of Europe ; their countries are called 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and they themselves are Italians, Span- 
iards, or Portuguese ; but the people called Russians, Swedes, and 
Poles, inhabit the north {le nord) of Exirope ; and the names ot their 
countiies are Russia, Sweden, and Poland, {la Pologne.) France is 
separated {separer) from Italy by {jmr) the Alps, {les Alpes,) and 
from Spain by the Pyrenees, {les Pyi-enees.) — Though the Mahom- 
etans {le Mahometan) are forbidden the use of wine, {dife?idre quel- 



^ Except when preceded by en or de. Ex. J'irai en AUemagne a mon 
rctour de France, I shall go to Germany on my return from Franco. 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 



375 



que chose d quelqu'un,) yet for all that some of them drink it.— Haa 
your brother eaten any thing this morning ^— He has eaten a great 
deal ; though he said he had no appetite, yet for all that he ate all the 
meat, bread, and vegetables, (les legumes,) and drank all the wine, 
beer, and cider.— Are eggs (un oeuf) dear at present 1— They are 
sold at six francs a hundred.— Do you like grapes, {le raisin ?)-~l do 
not only like grapes, but also plums, (u7ie prune,) almonds, nuts, and 
all sorts of fruit.— Though modesty, candor, and an amiable disposi- 
tion (Vamabilite) are valuable endowments, yet for all that there are 
some ladies that are neither modest, nor candid, {candide,) nor amia- 
ble.— The fear of death and the love of life being natural to men, 
they ought to shun {fuir*) vice, Qevice,) and adhere to {s'attachei 
a) virtue. 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. — Quatre-vingt-deuxieme Lepon. 

To give occasion. 1 Bonner lieu, {de before infin.) 

Do not give him cause to complain. | Ne lui doiniez pas lieu de se plaindre. 



To leave it to one. 
I leave it to you. 



t S'en rapporter a quelqu'un. 
t Je m'en rapporte &. vous. 



A good bargain. 
To stick or to abide by a thing. 
I abide by the offer you have made 
me. 



Un bon marclie. 
t S'en tenir h. 

t Je m'en tiens k I'offre que voue 
m'avez faite. 



I do not doubt but you are my friend. I Je ne doute pas que vous ne soyez 

I mon ami. 

Ohs. When the verb douter is negatively used it requires ne before the 
subjunctive. 
I do not doubt but he will do it. ] Je ne doute pas qu'il ne le fasse. 



To suffer, to hear. 
They were exposed to the whole fire 
of the place. 



Essuyer 1. 

lis essuyferent tout le feu de la piaca 



To examine one artfully, or to draw I Tirer les vers du nez a, quelqu'un. 

a secret from one. I 

I examined him artfully, and by that, i Je lui ai tire les vers da nez, et pal 



376 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 



means I have made myself ac- | ce moyen je me suis mis au fait 
quainted with all his affairs. de toutes ses affau-es. 



To hear, or to put up with. 
Vou will be obliged to put up with 
all he wishes. 



jiiTi passer par. 

Vous serez oblige d'eu passer par tont 
ce qu'il voudra. 



Thick. 
A thick cloud. 
A thick beard. 

A burst. 

A burst of laughter. 

To burst out laughing. 

To burst out. 
To burst out a laughing. 
Splendor, brightness. 
To make a great shov/ 
To light. 



To suffer one's self to be beaten. 
To let or to suffer one's self to fall. 
To suffer one's self to be insulted. 
To suffer one's self to die. 
To let one's self be struck. 
To send back, -to send away. 

To extol, to praise up. 

To boast, to praise one's self 



Go thither. 

Let us go thither 

Go thou. 

Go (thou) thither. 

Go (thou) away. 

Let him go thither. 

Let tliem go thither. 

Go away, begone. 

Let us begone. 

Let him go awaj^, let jiim begone. 

Give me. 
Give it to me. 
Give it to him. 
Give him some. 
Get paid. 
Let us set out 



Epais ; fern, epaisse. 

Un nuage epais. 

line barbe epaisse. 

Un eclat. 

Un eclat de rire. 

Faire un eclat de rire. 

ficlater L 

Eclater de rire. 

L'eclat. 

t Faire de l'eclat. 

ficlairer 1 



Se laisser battre. 
Se laisser tomber. 
Se laisser insulter. 
Se laisser mourir. 
Ss laisser frapper. 
Renvoyer L 
Vanter 1. 
Se vanter. 



AUez-y. 

Allons-y. 

Va. 

Vas-y. (See Lesson LXX-) 

Va-t'en. 

Qu'il y aille. 

Qu'ils y ailleut. 

Allez-vous en. 

Allons-nous en. 

Qu'il s'en aille. 

Donnez-moi. 

Donnez-le-moi 

Donnez-le-lui. 

Donnez-lui-en. 

Faites-Yous payor. 

Partons. 



EIGHTY SECOND LESSON. 



377 



Let us breakfast. 

Let him give it me. 

Let him be here at twelve o'clock. 

Let liim send it me. 

He may believe it. 

Make an end of it. 

Let him finish. 

Let him take It. 

Let her say so. 



D^jeunons. 
Qu'il me le donuo. 
Qu'il soit ici h, midi. 
Qu'il me I'envoie 
Qu'il le croie 
Finissez. 
Qu'il finisse. 
Qu'il le pienne. 
Qu'elle le dise. 



The starling. 
If I were to question you as I used 
to do at the beginning of our les- 
sons, what would you answer? 



We found these questions at first 
rather ridiculous ; but full of con- 
fidence in your method, we an- 
swered as well as the small quan- 
tity of words and rules we then 
possessed allowed us. 

We were not long in finding out that 
those questions were calculated to 
ground us in the rules, and to ex- 
ercise us in conversation, by the 
contradictory answers we were 
obliged to make. 

We can now almost keep up a con- 
versation in French. 

This phrase does not seem to us 
logically correct. 

We should be ungrateful if we al- 
lowed such an opportunity to es- 
cape without expressing our live- 
liest gratitude to you. 

In all cases, at all events. 

The native. 

The insurmountable difficult}^ 



Le sansonnet. 

Si je vous posais maintenant des 
questions comma je vous ea ai 
pose au commencement de nos 
lemons, (comme j'avais d'abord 
I'habitude de le faire,) que repon- 
driez-vous? 

Nous avons d'abord trouve ces ques- 
tions tant soit peu ridicules ; mais 
pleins de confiance en votre me- 
thode, nous y avons repondu aussi 
bien que la petite provision de mots 
et de principes que nous avions 
alors pouvait nous le permettre. 

Nous n'avons pas tarde h. nous aper- 
cevoir que ces questions etaient 
calculees pour nous inculquer les 
principes et nous exercer il la con- 
versation, par les reponses contra- 
dictoires que nous etions forces 
d'y faire. 

Maintenant nous savons presque sou- 
tenir une conversation en frangais. 

Cette phrase ne nous parait pas 
logiquement correcte. 

Nous serious des ingrats si nous lais- 
sions echapper une si belle occa- 
sion, sans vous temoigner la recou- 
naissance la plus vive. 

En tout cas. 

L'homme ne dans le pays. 

La difHcult^ iusurmoutable. 



378 ^ EIGHTY -SECOND LESSON. 

EXERCISE. 
24.3. 

Will you drink a cup of coffee 1 — I thank you, I do not like cof- 
fee. — Then you will drink a glass of wine 1 — I have just drunk some. 
— Let us take a walk. — Y/illingly, {je le veux bien;) but where shall 
we go to ] — Come with me into my aunt's garden; we shall there find 
very agreeable society. — I believe it, {je le crois bien ;) but the ques- 
tion is {c''est a savoir) whether this agreeable society will admit me, 
{voiidra de moi.) — You are welcome everywhere. — What ails you, 
(qu''avez-vous,) my friend 1 How do you like that wine ] — I like it 
very well, {excellent ;) but I have drunk enough of it, {suffisamment.^ 
— Drink once more, {encore un coup.) — No, too much is unwhole- 
some, {malsain ;) I know my constitution, {le temperament.) — Do not 
fall. What is the matter with you 1 — I do not know ; but my head 
is giddy, {la tete me tourne ;) I think I am fainting, {tomher en de- 
^aillance.) — I think so also, for you look almost like a dead person, 
{un mort.) — What countryman are you 1 — I am an Englishman. — 
You speak French so well that I took you for a Frenchman by birth, 
{Frangais de nation.) — You are jesting. — Pardon me ; I do not jest 
at all. How long have you been in France ] — A few days. — In 
earnest, {serieusement ?) — You doubt it, perhaps, because I speak 
French ; I knew it before I came to France. — How did you learn it 
so well 1 — I did like the prudent starling. 

Tell me, why are you always on bad terms {etre toujours en dis- 
cbrde) with your wife'! and why do you engage in unprofitable trades, 
{s^occuper de 7netiers inutiles ?) It costs so much trouble {avoir 
bien de la peine) to get {obtenir *) a situation, {un emploi ;) and you 
have a good one and neglect it. Do you not think of {songer a) the 
future'! — Now allow me to speak also, (a 77io}i tour.) — All you have 
just said seems reasonable ; but it is not my fault, if I have lost my re- 
putation, {la reputation;) it is that of my wife : she has sold my finest 
clothes, my. rings, {une bague,) and my gold watch. I am full of 
{etre charge de) debts, and I do not know what to do. — I will not ex- 
cuse {justijier) your wife ; but I know that you have also contributed 
{contribuej') to your ruin, {la perte.) Women are generall}' good 
when they are left so, (repeat the adjective.) 

[See page 388.] 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON, 379 



TABLE 



FOR THE FORMATION OF ALL THE TENSES IN THE 
FRENCH VERBS. 



PrelimivMry Ohs. — This table holds good for the formation of the tenses 
oi regular verbs ; but in order to hold good also throughout all the irregular 
verbs, it is only necessary to know the three persons singular of the present 
tense of the indicative, (Lesson XXIV.,) snd the present and past parti- 
ciples of the verb, (Lessons XXXI. and LVII.) The knowledge of the 
three persons singular of the indicative, may be facilitated by the following 
rules : 

1. If the first person singular ends in e mute, the third has the same end- 
mg, and the second ends in es mute. 

2. If the first person singular ends in s or x, the second is the same, and 
the third changes s or a; into t; but if the final s of the first and second 
persons is preceded by c, d, or t, the third person singular is formed by 
dropping the letter s. Ex. Je vaincs, tu vaincs, il vainc ; Je prends, tu 
prends, il prend ; Je mats, tu mets, il met. 

3. In all French verbs, the imperfeot indicative, the present and imper- 
fect subjunctive, and the conditional, have their first and second persons 
plural terminated in ions and iez ; (Nous parh'ons, vous parlies ; que nous 
parlassions, que vous parlassie^r; nous parlerions, vous parler/cz ;) while all 
other simple tenses (except the perfect definite, which has a particular 
form, Lesson LXVIII.) have these persons terminated in ons and ez, except 
the following: Dire — vous dites ;- etre — nous 507/i7?ies, vous etes ; faire — ■ 
vous faites 

As to the formation of the present participle, we have, in Lesson LVII., 
when the pupils have become familiar with the terminations of the present 
tenses of almost all the irregular verbs, traced it to the first person plural, 
and mentioned the five exceptions. There remains, therefore, only the past 
participle to be known, which we have mentioned whenever it presented 
any irregularity. 

* The compounds interdire and predirc follow the rule, as : Vous inter- 
disez, vous predisez. 



380 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 





> 

o 

hH 
•S 


6 

> 

1 
< 


The first, second, and tliird persons plural are formed fioin 
the present participle, by clianging ant into ons, ez, ent. 

Examples. 

Parlant, Nous parlons. Vous parlez. lis parlent. 
Finissant, Nous fiuissons. Vous finissez. lis nnissent. 
Recreant, Nous recevons. Vous recevez. lis reroivent. 
Vendant, Nous vendons. Vous vendez. lis vendeut. 


.g 

i 


6 

a 
a 

1 
1 

a 

■a 


Is formed from the present participle by changing ant into 
12 3 12 3 

ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient. 

Examples. 
Je parlais. Tu parlais. 11 parlait. 
Nous parlions. Vous parliez. lis parlaient. 

Je iinissais. Tu finissais. 11 finissait. 
Nous finissions. Vous finissiez. &c. &.c. 


> 

c 

c 

s 
s 


c 

a 

> 

G 
< 


Is formed from the past participle by changing, for the firet 
conjugation, 

12 3 1 2 3 
e into ai, as, a, dmes, dies, ersnt. 

For tlie second and fourth conjugations, 

i and u into is, is, it, hnes, ites, irent. 
And for the third conjugation, 

u into us, us, ut, umes, utes, urent. 

Examples. 

Parle, Je parlai. Tu parlas. 11 parla. 

Nous parlames, Vous parlites. lis parlfereut. 
Fini, Je finis. Tu finis. 11 fiuit. 

Nous finimes. Vous finites. lis linireut. 
Venda, Je vendis. Tu vendis. 11 vendit. 

Nous vendimes. Vous vendites. lis veadirent 
Rcgu, Je re^us. Tu re^us. 11 rei^ut. 

Nous re9iimes. Vous re9Utes. lis re^urent 

_ J 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSONc 



381 





E 


xceptionb. 




!6tant. 


Nous sommes. 




Vo 


us 6tes. 


lis soiit. 


AVANT. 


Nous avous. 




Vous avez. 


lis ont. 


Sachant 


Nous Savons. 




Vous savez. 


lis savent. 


Faisant. 






Vo 


us faites. 


lis font. 


D IS ANT. 






Vo 


as dites. 




Allant. 










lis vont. 


Venant. 










lis viennent. 


Tenant. 










lis tiennent. 


Acquerant. 










lis acquierent. 


MoORANT. 










lis meureiit. 


Recevant. 










lis reroivent. 


Devant. 










lis doivent. 


MOUVANT. 










lis meuvent. 


POUVANT. 










lis peuvent. 


VoULANT. 










lis veulent. 


BuVANT. 










lis boivent. 


Prenant. 










lis prennent. 


Ayant. 


J'avais. 




Tu 


avais. 


11 avait. 




Nous avions. 




Vous aviez. 


lis avaient. 


Sachant. 


Je savais. 




Tu 


savais. 


II savait. 




Nous savions. 




Vous saviez. 


lis savaient. 


Couvert, 


Je couvris, 


is 




it, imes, ites, irent 


Offert, 


J'cfTris, 


i( 




" ' 


a (f 


OUVERT, 


J'ouvris, 


(I 




(( ( 


(( S( 


SOUFFERT 


Jd soufFris, 


(I 




« ( 


(C (f 


Tenu, 


Je tins, 


Ins, 


int, inmes, intes, inrent | 


Venu, 


Je vins. 


u 




" ' 


" " 


MORT, 


Je mourns, 


us 


, 


ut, times, utes, nrent | 


Vetu, 


Je vfitis. 


is 




it, in 


les, ites, irent. 


Vu, 


, Je vis, 


is 




it, imes, ites, irent. j 


Prevu, 


Je previs. 


is 




It, 


If <( 


Ceint, 


Je ceiguis. 


is 




It, -11 


les, ites, irent. 


Astreint, 


J'astreignis, 










Craint, 


Je craignis, 


(( 






1 


Empreint, 


J'empreignis, 


" 








Enfreint, 


J'enfreignis, 


(I 








Epreint, 


J'L'preignis, 


" 








Feint, 


Je feignis, 


" 






" " 1 


Joint, 


Je joignis, 


" 






it a 


OiNT, 


J'oignis, 


<c 






a a 


Peint, 


Je peignis, 


" 









382 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 







{Continued. 


a 






> 






X 






ij 






s 


i 




p 


e 




0) 






J 






a 


1 




•g 


P. 




•g" 


<; 




C) 






*o 






'?^ 






•u 
























B, 






"i s 


^ 




1 X 


s 


Is formed from the present indicative of the auxiliarj^, 


1 J 


Is 

P £3 

8 * 

< 


and the past participle. Ex. 
J'ai parle, fini, re 511, vendu. 








'"T- 






S I^ 


-3 
C 


Is formed from the preterit definite of the auxiliarj- and 




o ej 

P 


the past participle of the verb. Ex. j 
J'eus parle. Tu eus fini. 11 eut rec^u. | 




< 


Nous eiimes vendu. Vous eutes travailM. lis eurent bati. ' 


o 








•a 
c 


Is formed from the imperfect of the auxiliary" and the 


HI 


li 


past participle. Ex. 


&^>< 


1^ 




o 


< 


J'avais aime, fini, regu, vendu. 


-^ 


6 


1 
Is formed from the infinitive by changing the letter r of 


1^ 


1 


the first three conjugations, and the endhig ?-e of the 


t?^^ 


o 


fourth, into rai. Ex 


11 




Aimer. J'aimerai. Tu aimeras. 11 aimera. 


■|^ 




Nous aimerons. Vous aimerez. lis aimeront 


1 


< 


1 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 



383 





Ej 


ceptions. 








Plaint, 


Je plaignis, 


is, 


it, 


imes, 


ites. 


irent. 


ReSTREINTj 


Je restreignis. 


a 


" 


" 


" 


" 


Teint, 


Je teignis, 


a 


" 


" 


<( 


" 


CuiT, 


Je cuisis, 


is, 


it, 


imos. 


ites. 


ireiit. 


Conduit, 


Je conduisis, 


i< 


li 


IC 


(( 


<« 


CONSTRUIT, 


Je coiistruisis, 


« 


« 


(( 


(( 


(( 


Detruit, 


Jo detruisis, 


(( 


« 


<« 


" 


(( 


Enduit, 


J'enduisis, 


« 


« 


(f 


(C 


<( 


Induxt, 


J'induisis, 


« 


« 


" 


<( 


« 


Instruit, 


J'instruisis, 


<( 


<( 


<( 


« 


« 


Introduit, 


J'introduisis, 


« 


« 


« 


(C 


(C 


Reduit, 


Je reduisis, 


« 


« 


« 


" 


(( 


Seduit, 


Je s^duisis, 


« 


« 


(( 


« 


« 


Traduit, 


Je traduisis. 


(C 


(C 


(( 


« 


« 


Lui, 


Je luisis, 


<( 


« 


u 


(C 


(( 


Nui, 


Je nuisis. 


« 


(( 


(( 


(( 


(C 


Cousu, 


Je cousis, 


« 


« 


(( 


(( 


« 


ItiCRIT, 


J'ecrivis, 


(( 


(( 


<c 


(C 


<( 


Ste, 


Je fus, 


fus, 


fut. 


times. 


Cites, 


urent. 


Fait, 


Je fis. 


fis, 


fit, 


fimes, 


fites. 


fireiit. 


Ni, 


Je naquis. 


is, 


it. 


imes, 


ites. 


irent. 


Vaincu, 


Je vainquis, 


is. 


it. 


imes. 


ites, 


irent. 


AvoiE, 


J'aurai. 


Tu 


auras. 




11 aura 


&C. 


fiTRE, 


Je serai. 


Tu 


seras. 




11 sera. 


&c. 


Aller, 


J'irai. 


Tu 


iras, &c. 






Envoyer, 


J'enverrai, &c. 












Tenir, 


Je tiendrai, &c. 












Venir, 


Je viendrai, &c. 












S'asseoir, 


Je m'asseierai or 


je m'assi^rai 


,&c. 







EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 



^ 


1 
g 

d 

c3 


c 

> 
> 

< 


{Continued.) 

Fmir. Je fiiiirai. Tu finiras. II finira. 

Nons tlnirons. Vous fiuirez. lis fiiiiroiit. 

- 

Prevoir. Je prevoirai. Tu prevoiras. 11 prevcira. 

Nous prevoirons. Vous prevoircz. lis prevoiront. 

Rendre. Je reiidrai. Tu reudras. 11 rendra. 

Nous rendrons. Vous rendrez. lis reudront. 




■a 
c 

o aj 

P 
< 


Is formed from tlie future of the auxiliary and the uast 
participle of another verb. Ex. 

J'aurai aime. Tu auras fini, &:c. &c. 


^ fi o 


> 

_> S 

■a ■" 
< 


Is formed from the simple future by chauging rai, ras, 
ra, rons, rez, ront, into rais, rais, rait, rions, ricz, 
raient. Ex. 

J'aimerai'. J'aimerais, &c. &.c. 


d 


■3 

c H 

< 


Is formed from the conditional present of the au.xiliary, 
and the past participle. Ex. 

J'auraJs parle. Tu aurais fiui, &,c. &c. 


^d^ 


< 


Is formed from the first person of the indicative, by 
throwing out the pronoun je. Ex. 

J'aime; imperat. aime. 


Present of the Subjunc- 
tive. 
(Lesson LXXVIII.) 


i 

a 

(D 

> 

-a 
< 


Is formed from the present participle by changing ant 
into e mate. Ex. 

Pnrlant. Que je parle. 
Finissant. Que je finisse. 
SacJiant. Que je sache. 
Rendant. Que je rende. 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 



385 



Exceptions. 


Devoir. 


Je devrai, &c. 






Falloir. 


11 faudra. 






POUVOIR. 


Je poLirrai, &c 






Recevoir. 


Je recevrai, &c. 






Savoir. 


Je saurai, &c. 






Valoir. 


Je vaudrai, &c. 






Voir. 


Je verrai, tii verras, 


&c 




VOULOIR. 


Je voudrai, &c. 






Faire. 


Je ferai, iScc. 






Appuyer. 


J'appiiierai, &o 






Employer. 


J'emploierai, &c. 






ESSUYER. 


J'essuierai, &c. 






Acquerir. 


J'acquenai, &c. 






COURIR. 


Je courrai, &.c. 






CUEILLIR. 


Je cueillerai, &c. 






MoURIR. 


Je mourrai, &c. 






ficHOIR. 


J'echerrai, &c. 






Pleuvoir. 


11 pleuvra. 






[■ 


. 


~ 




J'ai. 


Irnperat. aie. 






Je suia. 


" sois. 






Je VAis. 


« va. 






Je SAis. 


" sache. 






Je VEUX- 


" venille.' 






All A NT. 


Que j'aille. 


MOUVANT. 


Que je meuve. 


Tenant. 


Que je tienne. 


Ayant. 


Que j'aie. 


Vena NT. 


Que je vieune. 


VOULANT. 


Que je veuille. 


ACUI'KRANT 


Que j'acquiere. 


Jl^TANT 


.Que je sois. 


MoURANT. 


Que je meure. 


BuVANT. 


Que je boive. 


Recevant. 


Que je resolve. 


Faisant. 


Que je fasseu 


PoUVANT. 


Que jo puisse. 


Prenant. 


Que je prenno. 


Valant. 


Que je vaille. 







33 



886 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 





2 =^ 


V 


la formed from the preterit definite by changing, for 


■5>>< 


c 


the first conjugation, ai into asse, and adding se for 


s2^ 

S2^ 


i 


the three other conjugations. Ex. 

Je parlai. Que je parlasse. 


'^^i 




Je finis. Que je Suisse. 


" o 




Je regus. Que je re5usso. 




<! 


Je vendis. Que je vendisse. 


i ^ 


S 




S, X 


a 






rs 


Is formed from the present subjunctive of the ausihary. 


a>'§ i 




and the past participle of another verb. Ex. 






Que j'aie aime. Que tu aies fini, &c. 


1 -S 

o 


o 

<5 




^-^ 






1 d 
<2 >^ 


a 






13 


Is formed from the imperfect subjunctive of the auxil- 


-J "(J o 


c 


iary, and the past participle of another verb. Ex. 




g 

o 


Que j'eusse chants. Que tu eusses remph, &c. 


t i 

^ 2. 


<1 




^~^ 






R> 




First Conjugation. Parler. 


:-|x 


'p 2 


Second " Fin/r. 


^s" 


.s ^ 


Third " 'Recevoir. 


'^l 


< 


Fourth " Vendre. 


t^ 


■3 




•^j- 


5 . 


Is formed from the present infinitive of the auxiliary-, 


ix>: 


as 


and the past participle of another verb. Ex. 


1 !2i4 


Avoir parld. fitre venu. 


[§.--> 


i 


May be formed from the first person plural of the 




a; 


present indicative, by changing ons into ant. Ex. 


1 


> 


Nous parlons. Parlant. 


•ti 


Nous finissons. Fiuissant. 


Si3 


■c 


Nous recevons. Recevaut. 


1^ 


< 


Nous rendons. Reudant. 


~ S 


g 


First Conjugation. Parl^. 


fe«>< 


H m 


Second " Fini. 


•^"S-l 


_S 3 


Third " Re9u. 




<! 


Fourth " Veudu. 

. 



EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON. 387 



EXJEPTIONS. 


' 










Nous AVON'S. 
Nous SOMMES. 
fl CHOIR. 
Nous SAVONS. 

Seoir. 


Ayant. 

:6tant. 

iDch^ant 

Sachant. 

Scant. 





388 EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON. 

EXERCISI^— (continued from page 378.) 

244. 

Dialogue. 

The Master. — ^If I were now to ask you such questions as I did in 
the beginning of our lessons, viz. {telles que :) Have you the hat 
which my brother has"? am I hungry'? has he the tree of ray brother's 
garden ? &c. What would you answer % 

The Pupils. — We are obliged {etre force) to confess that we found 
these questions at first rather ridiculous ; but full of confidence in 
your method, we answered as well as the small quantity of words 
and rules we then possessed allowed us. We were, in fact, not long 
in finding out that these questions were calculated to ground us in 
the rules, and to exercise us in conversation, by the contradictory 
answers we were obliged to make. But now that we can almost 
keep up a conversation in the beautiful language which you teach us, 
we should answer : It is impossible that we should have the same 
hat which your brother has, for two persons cannot have one and the 
same thing. To the second question we should answer, that it is 
impossible for us to know whether you are hungry or not. As to the 
last, we should say : that there is more than one tree in a garden ; 
and in asking us whether he has the tree of the garden, the phrase 
does not seem to us logically correct. At all events we should be 
ungrateful {ingrat) if we allowed such an opportunity to escape, with- 
out expressing {temoigner) our liveliest gratitude to you for the trou- 
ble you have taken. In arranging those wise combinations, {la combi' 
naison.) you have succeeded in grounding us almost imperceptibly 
{imperceptihlement) in the rules, and exercising us in the conversa- 
tion, of a language which, taught in any other way, presents to foreign- 
ers, and even to natives, almost insurmountable difficulties. (See 
end of Lesson XXIV.) 



EIGHTY-THIRD ISE^^O'^.—Quatre-vingt-troisieme Le^oru 



It lacks a quarter. 
It lacks a half. 
How much does It want ? 
It does not want much. 
It wants but a trifle. 
It lacks but an inch of my being as 
tall as you. 



t II s'en faut d'uu quart 
+ II s'en faut de la moitie. 
CombJen s'en faut-il ? 
II ue s'en faut pas beaucoup. 
II s'en faut de peu de chose. 
II s'en faut d'lm pouce que je eoia 
aussi grand que vous. 



EIGHTV-THIRD LJCSSON. 



389 



II s'en fallait de beaucoup que jc 

fnsse aussi riche que vous. 
La moitie. 
Le tiers. 
Le quart. 

Vous croyez m'avoir tout rendu ; il 
s'en faut de beaucoup. 
{The French Academy, edit. 1762. 
Boiste and Laveaux, Diction- 
naire des Difficultes.) 

by de when a quantity is spoken of, 
things is spoken of it is not followed 

Le cadet n'est pas si sage que I'aind, 
il s'en faut beaucoup. 
{The French Academy, edit. 1762 
and 1798.) 

II s'en faut beaucoup que nos com- 
mer^ants nous donnent I'idee de 
cette vertu dont nous parlent nos 
missionaires : on pent les consulter 
Eur les brigandages des manda- 
rins. — Montesquieu, de VEsprit 
des Lois, ch. xxi. 

t II ne s'en faut presque rien qu'il 
ne soit aussi grand que son frere. 
Lc Diet. Grit, de Feraud. 

Ohs. B. When il s'en faut is accompanied by a negation, or by a ne- 
gative word, such as pen, little ; gixere, but little ; presque, nearly ; rien, 
nothing, &c. &.c., or when the sentence is mterrogative, the subordinate 
proposition takes the negative ne. 



It lacked a great deal of my being as 
rich as you. 

The half. 
The third part. 
The fourth part. 
You think you have returned me all ; 
a great deal is wanting. 



Obs. A. II s'en faut is followed 
but when a difference between two 
by de. 
The younger is not so good as the 

elder by far. 



Our merchants are far from giving 
us an idea of the virtue mentioned 
by our missionaries : they may be 
consulted on the depredations of 
the mandarins. 



He is nearly as tall as his brother. 



A discourse impeded or embarrassed 
by nothing goes on and flows from 
itself, and sometimes proceeds 
more rapidly than even the thought 
of the orator. 



Uii discours que rien ne lie et n'em- 
barrasse, marche et coule de soi- 
meme, et il s'en faut peu qu'il 
Tz'aille quelque fois plus vite quo 
la pensee raeme de I'orateur. — 
Boileau, Traite du Sublime, ch. 
XV i- 



In a foolish manner, at random. 
He talks at random like a crazy 
mau 



t ^A tort et a trovers. 
II parle i tort et k travers commo 
un fou. 



390 



EIGHTi'-THIRD LESSON 



To resort to violence. 
A fact. 
■ It is a fact. 

Else, or else. 
To make fun of. 
To contradict, to give one the lie. 
Should he say so, I would give him 

the lie. 
His actioas belie his v/ords. 

To scratch. 



To escape. 
1 fell from the top of the tree to the 

bottom, but I did not hurt myself 

much. 
I escaped with a scratch. 

The thief has been taken, but he 
will escape with a few months' 
imprisonment. 



By dint of. 
By dint of labor. 
By too much weeping. 
You will cry your eyes out. 

I obtained of him that favor by dint 
of entreaty. 



That excepted. 
That fault excepted, he is a good 
man. 



En veuir aux voles de faiL 

Un fait. 

C'est un fait. 

Ou Men. 

Se moquer de. 

D^mentir quelqu'un. 

S'il disait cela, je le dementirais, 

Ses actions dementent ses paroles 
Egratigner 1. 



t En etre quitte pour. 

J'ai tombe du haut de I'arbre en ba% 
mais je ne me suis pas fait beau- 
coup de mal. 

J'en ai ete quitte pour une egra- 
tignure. 

Le voleur a ete pris, mais il en sera 
quitte pour quelques mois de pri- 
son. 



+ '^ A force de. 

t A force de travail. 

t A force de pleurer. 

t A force de pleurer, vous perdrez 

les yeux. 
t J'obtins de lui cette faveur a force 

de prieres. 



t ^A cela pres. 

t A ce defaut prfes c'est un bon 
homme. 



To vie with each othzr. 
Those men are trying to rival each 
other. 



Clean. 
Clean linen 
The more — as. 
The less — as. 



t ^A Venvie, (Tun de I'autre.) 
t Ces hommes travaillent il "envie 
(I'un de I'autre.) 



I Propre. 

I Du linge propre ou blauc. 

I D'autant plus — que. 

I D'autant mains — que. 



EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON. 



391 



I am the more discontented with his 
conduct, as he is under many ob- 
ligations to me. 

I am the less pleased with his con- 
duct, as I had more right to his 
friendship. 

I wish that. 
I wish that house belonged to me. 



Je suis d'autant plus m<icontent de 

sa conduite, <;tt'il m'a beaucoup 

d'obligations. 
Je suis d'autant moins satisfait do sa 

conduite, que j'avais plus de droits 

a, son amiti6. 

t Je voudrais que. 
t Je voudrais que cette maison iixt H 
moi. 



To muse, to think. 
X thought a long time on that affair. 



Rever 1, {d before noun.) 

J'ai r6ve long-temps a, cette affaire. 



To he naked. Eire nu — nue. 

To have the head uncovered. t Avoir la te-te nue. 

To have the feet uncovered. t Avoir les pieds uus. 

Ohs. C. When the adjective nu, naked, is construed with the verb etre, 
to be, it remains invariable. Ex. 



To be barefooted. 
To be barelieaded. 
To ride barebacked. 



£tre nw-pieds. 
fitre 72M-teto. 
t AUer k poll. 



To have like to, or to think to have. \ t Manqucr ou penser. 

Ohs. D. Manquer takes de before the infinitive, but penser does not. 

Ex. 

t J'ai manqu6 de perdre mon argent 
I had lilie to have lost my money. I j,^j ^^^^ perdre mon argent. 

Je pensai perdre la vie. 

Nous avons manqu6 de nous cou])ei 
les doigts. 

II a raanqu6 de tomber. 
r II a manqu6 d'etre i\x6. 
< II a pense 6tre tu^. 
( Peu s'en est fallu qu'il n'ait €i6 tu<S. 
1 II a pens6 mourir. 



I thought I had lost my life. 

We had like to have cut our fingers. 

Ho was very near falling. 

He was within a hair's breadth of 
being killed. 



He had like to have died. 

At, on, or upon your heels. 
The enemy is at our heels. 



A vos trousses. 

L'ennemi est i nos trousses. 



To strike, (in speaking of lightningOi ' t Tomber. 

The lightning has struck. La foudre est tomb^e. 

The lightning struck the ship. 1 La foudre tomba sur le vaisseau. 



392 



EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON. 



While my brotlier was on the open 

sea, a violent storm rose unexpect- 
edly ; the lightning struck the ship, 
which it set on fire, and the whole 
crew jumped into the sea to save 
themselves by swimming. 

He was struck with friglit wlien he 
saw that the fire was gaining on 
all sides. 

He did not know what to dc. 

He liesitated no longer. 

I have not heard of him yet. 

An angel. 

A masterpiece. 

Masterpieces. 

Ohs. E. Of a word compounded 
understood, the first word oi\ly takes 
Four o'clock flowers. 



Jlon frfere dtant en pleine raer, il sur- 
vint une grande tempeto ; la foudre 
tomba sur ie vaisseau qu'elle mit 
en feu, et tout I'equipage se -jeta 
dans la mer, pour se sauver a la 
nage. 

II fut saisi de fraj-eur, voj'ant que Ie 
feu gagnait de tous les cotes. 

t II ne savait quel paili prendre. 

II ne balanga plus. 

t Je n'ai pas encore eu de ses nou- 
velles. 

Uu ange. 

Un chef d'oemTe. 

Des chefs d'ojmTe. 
by means of a preposition, expressed oi 
the mark of the plural. 
I Des belles de nuit 



His or her physiognomy. 
His or her shape. 
The expression. 
The look. 
Contentment. 
Respect. 
Admiration. 
Grace, charm. 
Delightfully. 
Fascinating. 
Thin, (slender.) 
Uncommonly well. 
His or her look inspires respect and 
admiration. 



Sa ph^'siouomie. 
Sa taille. 
L'expression. 
L'aspect. 

Le contentement. - . 

Le respect. 
L'admiration. 
Les gr&.ces. 
A ravir. 
Engageaut. 
Svelte. 

Superieurement bieu. 
Son aspect inspiro du respect et de 
Fadmi ration. 



EXERCISE. 
245. 
Will you be my guest, {manger avec quelquun ?) — I thank yuu ; a 
friend of mine has invited me to dinner : he has ordered (/aire pre- 
parer) my favorite dish, {unmets favori.) — What is it ? — It is a dish 
of milk, {du laitage.) — As for me, I do not like milk-meat : there ia 
nothing like {il n\j a rien tel qii'') a good piece of roast beef or veal. 
— What has become of your younger brother T — He has suffered 



EIGHTY-FOURTH LESSON. 393 

shipwreck {faire naufrage) in going to America. — You must give 
me an account of that, {raconter quelque chose.) — Very willingly, 
(volontiers.) — Being on the open sea, a great storm arose. Tho 
lightning struck the ship and set it on fire. The crew jumped into 
the sea to save themselves by swimming. My brother knew not 
wliat to do, having never learned to swim. He reflected in vain ; he 
found no means to save his lii'e. He was struck with fright when he 
saw that the fire was gaining on all sides. He hesitated no longer, 
and jumped into th3 sea. — Well, {eh bien,) what has become of him 1 
' — I do not know, having not heard of him yet. — But who told you all 
that 1 — My nephew, who was there, and who saved himself. — As you 
are talking of your nephew, (a propos de — ,) where is he at present ] 
— He is in Italy. — Is it long since you heard of him ] — I have re 
ceived a letter from him to-day. — What does he write to you % — He 
writes to me that he is going to marry a young woman who brings 
him {qui lid apporte) a hundred thousand crowns . — Is she hand- 
some ] — Handsome as an angel ; she is a master-piece of nature 
Her physiognomy is mild and full of expression ; her eyes are the 
finest in the {du) world, and her mouth is charming, {et sa bouche est 
mignonne.) She is neither too tall nor too short ; her shape is slen- 
der ; all her actions are full of grace, and her manners are engaging. 
Her look inspires respect and admiration. She has also a great deal 
of wit ; she speaks several languages, dances uncommonly well, and 
sings delightfully. My nephew finds in her {lui trouve) but one de- 
fect, {un defaut.) — And what is that defect 1 — She is affected, {avoir 
des pretentions.) — There is nothing perfect in the world. — How 
happy you are ! you are rich, you have a good wife, pretty children, 
a fine house, and all you wish. — Not all, my friend. — What do you 
desire more ] — Contentment ; for you know that he only is happy 
who is contented. 



EIGHTY-FOURTH L^SSO^^ .—Quatre-vingt-quatrieme Legoji. 

Demeler 1. 



To unriddle, to disentangle. 
To find out. 
To disentangle the hair 
To unriddle difHculties. 
I have not been able to find out the 
sense of that phrase. 

A quarrel. 
To have differences (a quarrel) with 
somebody 



Demeler les cheveux. 

Demeler des difficultes. 

Je n'ai pas pu demeler le sena dj 

cette phrase. 
Un demele. 
Avoir des demeles avec quelqu'un. 



S94 



EIGHTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



To take good care, to shun, to he- 
ware. 

I will take good care not to do it. 

Mind you do not lend that man 
money. 

He takes good care not to ariswsr 
the question which I asked him. 
To ask a question. 

If yon take it into your head to do 
tl A, I will punish you. 



Se garder de. 

Je me garderai bien de le falro. 
Gcrdez-vous bien de preter votre 

argent h. cet homme. 
II se garde bien de repondre k la 

question que je lui ai faite. 
t Faire une question. 
Si vous vous avisez 'de le faire, je 

vous punirai. 



To become, to fit well. 



Seoir * 3 ; pres. part, seyant, or 
seant. 



Obs. This verb is used only in the third person, singular and pluraL 



Does that become me 1 
That does not become you. 
It does not become you to do that. 
That fits you wonderfully well. 
Her head-dress did not become her. 
It does not become you to reproach 
me with it I 



To follow from it. 
It follows from it that you should not 

do that. 
How is it that you have come so 

late ? 
I do not know how it is. 
How is it that he had not his gun ? 

I do not know how it happened. 



To fast. 
To be fasting. 
To give notice to. 
To let anybody knoAV. 
To v/arn some one of something. 
Give notice to that man of his bro- 
ther's return. 



To clear, to elucidate, to clear up. 
Tho weather is clearing up. 



Cela me sied-il? 
Cela ne vous sied pas. 
II ne vous sied pas de faire cela. 
Cela vous sied k merveille. 
Sa coiffure lui seyait mal. 
II vous sied bien de me le reprocher! 
{an ironical expression.) 



S'ensuivre * 4. 

II s'ensuit que vous ne devriez pas 

faire cela. 
t Comment se fait-il que vous soyez 

venu si tard ? 
t Je ne sais pas comment cela se fait, 
t Comment se faisait-il qu'il u'eiit 

pas son fusil ? 
t Je ne sais pas comment cela se 

faisait. 



Jeuner 1. 
fitre i jeun. 

- Avertir quelqu'un de quelque chose. 

Avertissez cet liomme du retour de 
son frcre 



ficlaircir 2. 

Le teuips s'eclaircit 



EIGHTY-FOURTH LESSON. 



395 



To refresh. 
Refresli yourself, and return to me 
immediately. 

To wliiten, to bleach. 

To blacken. 

To turn pale, to grow pale. 

To grow old. 

To grow young 

To blush, to redden. 



Rafraichir 2. 

Rafraichissez-vous, et revenez tout 

de suite. 
Blanchir 2. 
Noircir 2. 
Pilir 2. 
Vieillir 2. 
Rajeunir 2. 
Rougir. 



To mahe merry. 
To make one's self merry. 
He makes merry at my expense. 



Egaye.r 1. 

S'egayer. 

II s'egaie a mes depens. 



To feign, to dissemble, to pretend. 

I feign, thou feignest, he feigns. 
He knows the art of dissembling. 
To procrastinate, to go slow about. 
I do not like to transact business 

with that man, for he always goes 

very slow about it. 



Feindrc * 4 ; pres. part, feignant ; 
past part, feint. 

Je feins, tu feins, il feint. 

II poss6de Fart de feindre. 

t Trainer les choses en longueur. 

Je n'aime pas k faire des affaires avec 
cet homme, parce qu'il traine tou- 
jours les choses en longueur. 



A proof. 
This is a proof. 
To stray, to get lost, to lose one's 
self, to lose one's way. 

Through. 

The cannon-ball went through the 

wall. 
I ran him through the body. 



Une preuve. 
C'est une preuve. 



\ S'eg 

i ^A trave 
( Au trav 



arer 1. 



ravers le, or * 

•avers de. 
Le boulet a passe a, travers la mu- 

raille. 
Je lui ai passe mon ^p^e au travsre 
du corps. 



EXERCISES. 
246. 
The Emperor Charles the Fifth (Charles-Quint) being one day 
oat a hunting lost his way in the forest, and having come to a house 
entered it to refresh himself. There were in it four men, who pre- 
tended Co sleep. One of them rose, and approaching the Emperor, 
told him he had dreamed he should take his watch, and took it. 
Then another rose and said he had dreamed that his surtout fitted 



396 EIGHTy-FOURTH LESSON. 

him wondei fully, and took it. The third took his purse. At last 
the fourth came up, and said he hoped he would not take it ill if he 
searched him, and in doing it perceived ar'ound the emperor's neck a 
small gold chain to which a whistle was attached, which he wished tc 
rob him of. But the ernperor said : " My good friend, before de- 
priving me (jpriver quelqu'un de quelque chose) of this trinket, (It, 
bijou,) I inust teach you its virtue." Saying this he whistled. His 
nttendants, {ses gens,) who were seeking him, hastened to the house, 
and were thunderstruck {frappe cf etonnement) to behold his majesty 
in such a state. But the emperor seeing himself out of danger, {hors 
de danger,) said : " These men {void des liornm.es qui) have dreamed 
all tliat they liked. I wish in my turn also to dream." And after 
having mused a few seconds, he said : " I have dreamed that you all 
four deserve to be hanged :" which was no sooner spoken than exe- 
cuted before the house. 

A certain king making one da}^ his entrance into a town at two 
o'clock in the afternoon, {apres-midi,) the senate sent some deputies 
{un depute) to compliment him. The one who was to speak (.porter la 
■parole) began thus : " Alexander the Great, the great Alexander,' 
and stopped .shoft, (demeurer court.) — The king, who was very hun- 
gry, (avoir grand' faim,) said : " Ah ! my friend, Alexander the 
Great had dined, and I am {et moi je suis) still fasting." Having 
said this, he proceeded to {continuer son chemin vers) the hotel de 
ville, where a magnificent dinner had been prepared for him. 

247. 
A good old man, being very ill, sent for his wife, who was still very 
young, and said to her : " My dear, you see that my last hour is ap- 
proaching, and that I am compelled to leave you. If, therefore, you 
wish me to die in peace you must do me a favor, (une grace.) You 
are still young, and will, without doubt, marry again, (se remarier :) 
kn )wing this, I request of you not to wed (prendre*) M. Louis ; for 
I confess that I have always been very jealous of him, and am so 
still. I should, therefore, die in despair (desespere) if you did not 
promise me that." The wife answered : " My dear husband, (mon 
cceur,) I entreat you, let not this hinder you from dying peaceabl3- 5 
for T assure you that, if even I wished to wed him I could not do 
so, being already promised to another." 

It was customary with Frederick the Great, whenever a new sol- 
dier appeared in his guards, to ask him three questions ; viz. " How 
old are you 1 How long have you been in m}'- service ! Are you 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



397 



satisfied with your pay and treatment ]" It happened that a young 
sohlier, born in France, who had served in his own country, desired 
to enlist in the Prussian service. His figure caused him to he im- 
mediately accepted ; but he was totally ignorant of the German dia- 
lect ; and his captain giviug him notice that the king would question 
him in that tongue the first time he should see him, cautioned him at 
the same time to learn by heart the three answers that he was to 
make to the king. Accordingly he learned them by the next day ; 
and as soon as he appeared in the ranks Frederick came up to inter- 
rogate him : but he happened to begin upon him by the second ques- 
tion, and asked him, " How long have you been m my service ?" 
" Twenty-one years," answered the soldier. The king, struck with 
his youth, which plainly indicated that he had not borne a musket so 
long as that, said to him, much astonished, " How old are you "?' 
" One year, an't please your majesty, (n'e?i deplaise a Votre Majes- 
i!e.") Frederick, more astonished still, cried, "You or I must cer- 
tainly be bereft of our senses." The soldier, who took this for the 
third question, replied firmly, {avec aplomb,) " Both, an't please your 
majesty." 



EIGHTY-FIFTH l.'ES^Ol^i.—quatre-vingt-cinquieme Lepon. 



To double. 
The double. 
Your share, your part. 
That merchant asks twice as much 

as he ought. 
You must bargain with him ; he will 

give it you for the half. 
You have twice your share. 
You have three times j^our share. 



Double)- 1. 

Le double. 

Votre part, (fe?n.) 

t Ce marchand surfait du double. 

t II faut que vous marchandlez avec 

lui ; il vous rabattra la moiti6 
Vous avez double part. 
Vous avez triple part. 



To renew 
To stun. 

Wild, giddy. 
Open, frank', real. 
To shake somebody's hand. 
I told him yes. 
I told him no. 
To squeeze. 
To lay up, in put by 



Renouveler 1. 

fltourdir 2. 

Etourdi — e. 

Franc — franche 

Ferrer la main k quelqu'im. 

t .Te lui dis qu'oul. 

t Je lui dis que nou- 

Server 



398 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



Put your money by. " j Serrez votre argent. 

As soon as I have read my book I Aussitot que j'ai lu mon li\Te, je le 

put it by. 1 serre. 

[ do not care much about gohig to : Je ne Ine soucie pas beaucoup d'aller 

the play to-night. I k la comedie ce soir. 



To satisfy one^s self with a thing. 

I have been eating an hour, and I 
cannot satisfy my hunger. 

To he satisfied. 
To quench one's thirst. 
1 have been drinking this half-hour, 

but I cannot quench my thirst. 
To have one's thirst quenched. 
To thirst for, to he thirsty or dry. 
That is a blood-thirsty fellow. 
On both sides, on every side. 
On all sides. 



Allow me, my lady, to introduce to 

you Mr. G., an old friend of our 

family. 
I am dehghted to become acquainted 

witli you. 
I shall do all in my power to desei-ve 

your good opinion. 

Allow me to introduce to you Mr. B., 
whose brother lias rendered such 
eminent services to your cousin 

How nappy we are to see j'ou at our 
house ! 



t Se rassasier 1. 

t II y a une heure que je mange et 

je ne puis me rassasier ; or, 
t Je mange depuis une heure et je 

ne peux pas me rassasier. 
Etre rassasie. 
t Se desalterer 1. 
II y a une demi-heure que je bois 

mais je ne puis me desalterer. 
Etre desalt^re. 
Etre altere. 

t C'est un homme altere de sang. 
De part et d'antre. 
De toutes parts. 



Pemiettez, Madame, que je vous pr6- 
sente IMonsieiir de G. comme au- 
cien ami de notre famille. 

Je suis charmee. Monsieur, de faire 
votre conuaissance. 

Je ferai tout ce qui sera en mon pou- 
voir, pour me rendre digne de vos 
bonnes graces. 

jMesdames, permettez que je vous 
presente i\I. de B. dont le frere a 
rendu de si ^minents services h. vo- 
tre cousin. 

Ah ! INIonsieur, que nous sommes en- 
chantt^es de vous recevoir chez 
nous! 



It is the prerogative of great men to 
conquer envy ; merit gives it birth, 
and merit destroys it. 



C'est le privilege des grands honmiea 
de vaincre I'euvie ; le m^rite la 
fait naitre, le merite la fait mou- 
rii. 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON 



399 



IDIOMATICAL EXPRESSIONS DEPENDING 

1st.' On the Use of a Noun. 

Elle a de la grace dans tout ce 
qu'elle fait. 

VoilJi des tableaux d'une grande 
heaute. 

L'interat de VAllemagne etait op- 
pose &, celui de la Russie. 

Courage, soldats, la victoire est &. 
nous. 

Doriiiir la grasse matinee. 

fitro a deux doigts de sa perte. 

Jeter de la poudre aux yeux. 

Jeter feu et jiamme. 

Partagcr le gateau. 

Passer quelqu'un au fil de I'ep^e. 

Trouver son maitre. 



She does every thing gracefully. 

These P'-e veiy beautiful pictures. 

The German interest was contrary 

to the Russian. 
Cheer up, soldiers, the day is ours. 



To sleep veiy late. 

To be on the brink of rum. 

To cast a mist before one's eyes. 

To fret and fume. 

To share the profit. 

To put somebody to the svirord. 

To meet with one's match. 



'id. On the Use 

What day of the month is it 1 

A.11 blessings come from God. 

Is that your opinion ? — Do not ques- 
tion it. 

Are those your servants ? — Yes, they 
are. 

JIadam, are you the mother of that 
child ?— Yes, I am. 

Ladies, are you the strangers that 
have been announced to me ? — 
Yes, v/e are. 

Ladies, are you pleased with that 
music ? — Yes, we are. 

Madam, are you a mother ? — Yes, I 

am. 
Madam, are you ill ?— Yes, I am. 

Madam, how long have you been 
married 7 — A year. 

Is it long since ycu arrived ? — A fort- 
night. 

Although that woman shows more 



of a Pronoun. 

Quel quantieme du mois avons-nous? 
Tons les biens nous viennent de Dieu. 
Est-ce lb, votre opinion ? — No doutez 

point que ce ne la soit. 
Sont-ce la, vos domestiques? — Qui, 

ce les sent. 
Madame, etes-vous la mere de cet 

enfant ? — Oui, je la suis. 
ISIesdames, etes-vous les etrangeres 

qu'on m'a annoncees ? — Oui, nous 

les sommes. 
Mesdames, etes-vous contentes de 

cette musique? — Oui, nous le 

sommes. 
Madame, etes-vous Tnere ? — Oui, je 

le suis. 
Madame, etes-vous malade 7 — Oui, 

je Ze suis. 
Madame, depuis quel temps etes- 
vous mariee ? — Je le suis depuis 

un an. 
Y a-t-il long-temps que vous etes ar- 

rivee ? — Je le suis depuis quinze 

jours. 
Quoique cette femme montre plus de 



400 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



resolution than the others, she is 
nevertheless not the least afflicted. 

That woman has the art of shedding 
tears, even when she is least af- 
flicted. 

That V70man proposed herself as a 
model for her children. 

He (or she) has not succeeded in that 
stratao-em. 



ferrnete que les autres, elle n'esJ 
pas pour cela la moins afSigee. 

Cette femme a Fart de repandre des 
larmes dans le temps meme qu'ello 
est le jnoins affiigee. 

Cette femme s'est proposee pour mo- 
dele a. scs enfants. 

Cette ruse ne lui a j»as reussi. 



To be free and open. 
To be full of business. 
To take fii'e presently. 
The dry weather we had in the spring 
has destroyed all the fruit. 



To put to the vote. 

Life is at stake. 

My honor is concerned in it. 

That is understood. 

To act deliberately. 

To go full speed. 

Shall you go to the opera this even- 
ing ? — Yes, I shall. 

Would you cheerfully go to Rome ? 
— Yes, I would. 



To pass one's time merrily. 

To fall upon the enemy 

The sun is in my eyes. 

To know not which way to turn 

To give full power. 

To help. 

To give largely. 

Lucretia killed herself. 



On the Use of a Verb, viz : 

(a) Avoir. 

Avoir le ccEur sur les levres. 

Avoir des afFaii-es par-dessus les yeux 
j Avoir la tete pres du bonnet. 

La secheresse qu'il y a eu an pria- 
I temps a fait perir tous les fruits. 

(b) Aller 
Aller aux voix. 
II y va de la vie. 
II y va de mon honneur. 
Cela va sans dire. 
Aller pas k pas. 
Aller a. bride abattue. 
Irez-vous ce soir k I'opera ? — Oui, 

firai. 
Iriez-vous avec plaisir &, Rome ?- 
Oui, j'irais. 

(c) Do.\.\ER. 

I Se donner du bon temps. 

Donner sur Tenuemi. 
i Le soleil me donne dans la vua 

Ne savoir oil donner de la t^te. 

Donner carte blanche. 

Donner im coup de main. 

Donner k pleines mains. 

Lucrece s'est donne la mort. 



{d) F.4.IRE. 



Establish rules for yourself, 

never deviate from them. 
To forgive somebody 
To prosper. 
To fence. 



nd 



Faites-vous des principes donl vous 

ne vous ecariicz jamais. 
Faire grace ?i quelqu'uu. 
Faire bien ses affaires. 
Fairr des arines. 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



401 



To give a deaf ear. 

To do something secretly. 

To run all chance. 
To perform a play. 
To throw one's last stake. 



I admit that it is so. 

I cannot accomplish it. 

To fight. 

It is an endless business. 

To interrupt one who speaks. 

To allay one's passion. 

To raise an army. 

Tliat wine flies up to the head. 

Not to know which way to turn. 



I Faire la sourde oreillo. 

I Faire quelque chose sons malu, 

(e) JOUER. 

Joucr k quitte ou double. 
Joaer une piece de th6atre. 
Joucr de son reste. 
(/) All sorts of Veres. 

Je n'en disconviens pas. 
Je ne puis en venir h. bout. 
En venir aux mains. 
C'est la mer h boire. 
Couper la parole a quelqu'im. 
Mettre de I'eau dans son viu. 
Mcitre une armee sur pied. 
Ce vin porie h. la tete. 
Ne savoir sur quel pied danser. 



Obs. A. It may be also remarked, that there are in French a great many 
proverbs, or proverbial forms of expression, of which the follov/ing are most 
in use. 



Assiduity makes all things easy. 
Evil be to him that evil thinks. 
A desperate disease must have a des- 
perate cure. 
Fair words cost nothing. 
A good name is better than riches. 

It is not the cowl that makes the friar. 
All is not lost that is delayed. 
Charity begins at home. 

Barking dogs seldom bite. 

To kill two birds with one stone. 

Strike the iron while it is hot. 

A good stomach is the best sauce. 

Smooth water runs deep. 

It is better to be envied than pitied. 

Better late than never. 

All's well that ends well. 

Ill gotten goods never prosper. 
A word to the wise is enough. 
Short reckonings make long friends. 
Opportunity makes the thief. 
No pleasure without pain. 



A force de forger, on devieut forgeron. 

A qui veut mal, mal arrive. 

Aux grands maux les grands re- 

mcdes. 
Beau parler n'ccorche pas la lauguo. 
Bonne renommee vaut mieux que 

ceinture doree. 
L'habit ne fait pas le moiue. 
Ce qui est difFere n'est pas perdu. 
Charite bien ordonnee commence par 

soi-mfime. 
Chien qui aboie ne mord pas. 
I Faire d'une pierre deux coups. 
II faut baltre ie fer quand il est chaud 
II n'est sauce que d'appetit. 
II n'est pire eau que I'eau qui dort. 
II vaut mieux faire envie que pitic. 
Mieux vaut tard que jamais. 
La fin couronne I'ceuvre. 



I Qui veut la fui veut les raoyens. 
Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais. 
Le sage entend &, demi-mot. 
Les bons comptes font les bons aBiis. 
L'occasion fait le larroa. 
Nul bien sans peine. 



402 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON. 



Where nothing is to be had the king 
loses his right. 

Rome was not built in a day. 

No money, no pater-noster. 

It is one thing to promise, and ano- 
ther to perform. 

Do well, and have well. 

Nothing ventm-e, nothing have. 

Wiio makes himself a sheep, him the 
wolf eateth. 

All is not gold that glitters. 

Truth is not to be spoken at all times. 

Cat after kind. 

An honest man is as good as his word. 

One misfortune comes on the neck of 
another. 

A bird in the hand is worth two in 
the bnsL 



Oil il n'y a rien, le roi perd ses droits. 

Paris n'a pas ete fait dans un joui 
Point d'argent, point de Suisse. 
Promettre et tenir sont deux. 

Qui fera bien, bieu trouvera. 
Qui ue hasarde rien n'a rien. 
Qui se fait brebis, le loup le mange. 

Tout ce qui brille n'est pas or. 
Toute verite n'est pas boime a dire. 
Bon chien chasse de race. 
Un honnete liomme n'a que sa parole 
Un mallieu]' ne vient jamais seul. 

Un tiens vaut mieux que deux tu 
I'am-as. 



It IS the finest countiy in Europe. | C'est le plus beau pays de Z'Europe. 

Obs. B. When a relative superlative is to be expressed, the English prep- 
osition in is rendered into French by the genitive case. Ex. 

Candia is one of the most agreeable 1 Candie est une des iles les plus agrea- 
islands in the Mediterranean. bles de la Mediterranee. 



He lives in his retreat like a real I II vit dans sa retraite en vrai philo 
philosopher. | sophe. 

06s. C. Like is rendered by en when it means equal to. Ex. 



You live like a king. 
He acts like a madman. 
To behave like a blunderbuss. 
Who knacks as if he were master 
where I am? 



Vous vivez eii roi. 

II agit en furieux. 

Se conduire en ^tourdi. 

Qui frappe en maitre oti je suifl? 



EXERCISES. 
248. 
A man had two sons, one of whom liked to sleep very late in the 
morning, {la grasse matinee,) and the other was very industrious, 
and always rose very early. The latter {celui-ci) having one day 
gone out very early, found a purse well filled with money. He ran 
to his brother to inform him {faire part de quelque chose a quelqu'un) 



EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON. 403 

of his good luck, {la honne fortune,) and said to nim : " See, Louis, 
what is got igagner) by (a) rising early T' — " Faith, {ma foil") an- 
swered his brother, " if the person to whom it belongs had not risen 
earlier than I, he would not have lost it." 

A lazy young fellow being asked, what made him lie (rester) in bed 
so long 1 — " I am busied, (etre occupe,^^) says he, " in hearing coun- 
sel every morning. Industry (Ze travail) advises me to get up ; sloth 
{la paresse) to lie still ; and so they give me twenty reasons pro and 
con, {pour et contre.) It is my part {c'est a moi) to hear what is said 
on both sides ; and by the time the cause {la cause) is over {enten- 
due) dinner is ready." 

It was a beautiful turn given by a great lady, who, being {on ra- 
conte un heau trait d^ — ) asked where her husband was, when he lay 
concealed {etre cache) for having been deeply concerned in a con- 
spiracy, {pour avoir trempe dans une conspiration,) resolutely {cou- 
rageusement) answered, she had hid him. This confession {un aveu) 
drew her before the king, who told her, nothing but her discovering 
where her lord was concealed could save her from the torture, 
{qu''elle ne pouvait echapper a la torture qii'en decouvrant la retraite 
de son epoux.) " And will that do, {suffire * V) said the lady. " Yes," 
says the king, "I will give you my word for it." " Then," says 
she, " I have hid him in my heart, where you will find him." 
Which surprising answer {cette reponse admirable) charmed her 
enemies. 

249. 

Cornelia, the illustrious (illustre) mother of the Gracchi, {des 
Gracques,) after the death of her husband, who left her viuth twelve 
children, applied herself to (^e vouer a) the care of her family, with 
a wisdom {la sagesse) and prudence that acquired for {acquerir *)h.ex 
universal esteem, {Vestime xmiverselle.) Only three out of {d''entre) 
the twelve lived to years of maturity, {Page mur ;) one daughter, 
Sempronia, whom she married to the second Scipio Africanus ; and 
two sons, Tiberius and Caius, whom she brought up {elever) wdth so 
much care, that, though they were generally acknowledged {savoir 
generalement) to have been born with the most happy dispositions, 
{la disposition,) it was judged that they were still miore indebted 
{etre redevable) to education than nature. The answer she gave 
{faire *) a Campanian lady {une dame de Campanie) concerning them 
(d leur sujet) is very famous, {fameux — se,) and includes in it {ren- 
fermer) great instruction for ladies and mothers. 



404 EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

That lady, who was very rich, and fond of pomp and sho^v, {ilrf 
■passiom.e pour lefaste et Veclat,) having displayed {etaler) her dia- 
monds, (Ze diamante) pearls, (Ja perle,) and richest jewels, earnestly 
desired Cornelia to let her see her jevrels also. Cornelia dexterous- 
ly {adroitement) turned the conversation to another subject to wait 
the return of her sons, who were gone to the public schools. "When 
they returned, and entered their mother's apartment, she said to the 
Campanian lady, pointing to them, {montrer :) " These are ray jewels, 
and the only ornaments {la parure) I prize, (priser.") And such or- 
naments, which are the strength (la force) and support {le soutieri) 
of society, add a brighter lustre {un plus grand lustre) to the fair {la 
beaute) than all the jewels of the East, {de VOrient) 



EIGHTY-SIXTH 'LE^^O^.—Quatre-vingt-sixieme Ler^on. 

RECAPITULATION OF THE RULES OF SYNTAX OR CON- 
STRUCTION. 

1st. The adjectives, heau, fine ; vilain, ugly ; bon, good ; mauvais, bad 
mediant, wicked; grand, great; gros, h\g; petit, little; jeune, young, 
vieux, old ; J7ieilleur, better ; 7noindre, less ; and saint, holy ; precede tho 
substantive ;^ others, particularly those expressing the name of nations, aud 
those denoting color or shape, follow it. Also when two or more adjectives 
refer to the same noun, they are usually placed aft-er it.^ Ex. Un Ion en- 
fant, a good child ; un rnecJiant gar^on, a naughty boy; la lang'ue fran- 
gaise, the French language ; un chapeau blanc, a white hat ; un has voir, a 
black stocking ; une table ronJe, a round table ; un roi bon et genereux, a 
good and generous king; une femme jeune, riche et vertueuse, a young, 
rich, and virtuous woman. (See Obs. C. Less. XXVI. ; Obs. B. Less 
XXXVIII., and Note 1, Less. XXVI. ; and many other examples in tho 
foregoing lessons and exercises.) 



' The adjective cher, dear, also stands before the noun, except when it de- 
notes the price of a thing. Ex. Mo7i cher ami, my dear friend : ma chere 
sosur, xay dear sister ; but un fusil cher, a dear gun ; une table ch ere, a dear 
table. 

'^ In the following examples, the peculiarity with respect to the place ot 
the adjective should be observed: Un grand homme means a great mau, 
and un homme grand, a tall man ; une grosse femme, a fat woman, aud 
une femme grosse, a woman with child ; une sage-femme, a midwife, aud 
une fcmtne sage, a wise or modest woman un galant homme, a man of 
honor, and un homme galant, a courtier. 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 405 

9d. The adverb usually stands after the simple teiise, and after the aux- 
iliary in a compound tense of t le verb. Ex. Je sors plus tard que vous, I 
go out later than you, (Lesson XXX.) Allez-vous quelquefois au. hal? Do 
you sometimes go to the ball ? J'y vais quelquefois, I do go thither some- 
times. (Lesson XXXII.) Votre sceur parle bien, your sister speaks well 
Elle a bien parle, she has spoken well. Votre frfcre a-t-il bien ecrit son theme 1 
Did your brother write his exercise well? II I'a bien -€cr\i, he did write it 
well. (Lesson XXXV.) Je n'ai jamais fait de mal a. personne, I have 
never done harm to anybody. (Lesson XLIV.) And numerous other exam- 
ples in the preceding lessons. 

Ohs. A. In French the adverb is never put between the nojninative and 
the verb, as it is in English. Ex. Je le vols souvent, I often see him. Je 
lui parle souvent, I often speak to him or her. II n'a jamais en tort ni rai- 
son, he never has been either right or wrong. And numerous other examples 
in the preceding lessons and exercises. 

3d. The prepositions always stand before the word which they govern, 
and never after, as is sometimes the case in English. Ex. De quoi avez- 
vous besoin ? What are you in want of 7 (Lesson XXIII.) ^A qui ecrivez- 
vous ? Whom are you writing to ? (Lesson XXIX.) De qui parlez-vous ? 
Whom do you speak of 7 De quoi parlent-ils? What are they speaking 
of 7 (Lesson XLI.) De qui avons-nous ete blames? Whom have we 
been blamed by 7 (Lesson XLIX.) And numerous otlier examples in the 
foregoing lessons and exercises. 

4th. A sentence is («) either affirmative, (h) or inteiTOgative, (c) or nega- 
tive, {d) or it is both interrogative and negative. 

(a) In an affirmative sentence the nominative precedes the verb. Ex 
L^homme a le crayon, the man has the pencil. (Lesson VII.) II a le coffi-e, 
he has the trunk. (Lesson VII.) Ces enfants sont aimes parce qn'ils som 
studieux et sages, these children are loved because they are studious and 
good. (Lesson XLII.) Nos enfants ont etc loues et recompenses parce qu'i'Zs 
out etc sages et assidus, our children have been praised and rewarded be- 
cause they have been good and studious. (Lesson XLIX.) And numerous 
other examples in the preceding lessons and exercises. 

(b) In an interrogative sentence two things are to be considered, viz. 
1. If the nominative is a personal pronoun, or the indefiuite pronoun on, it 
follows the simple tense, and stands after the auxiliary in a compound tense 
of the verb. Ex. Savez-vous ecrire ? Do you know how to write ? Saii- 
iZlu-e? Does he know how to read ? (Lesson XXVII.) Entendez-voiis le 
bruit du vent ? Do you hear the roaring of the wind ? (Lesson XXXV.) 
A't-on apporte mes souliers? Have they brought my shoes ? A-t-on pu 
trouver les livres ? Have they been able to find the books ? Peut-on les trou- 
ver k present ? Can they find them now ? (Lesson XXXVII.) Est-il enfiu 
arriv^ 1 Has he arrived at last ? (Lesson XLII.) Vient-il enfin ? Doee 



406 EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

he come at last ? (Lesson XLII.) Veut-il se chaiiiFer ? Does he wish tc 
warm himself? (liesson XLIII.) And numerous other examples in what 
precedes. 

2. But if the nominative is a substantive, or any other than tlie just- 
mentioned pronouns, it precedes the verb, and the personal pronoun (fZ, elle. 
Us, elles) follows the verb or its auxiliaiy. Ex. L'homme a-t-il mes beaux 
pistolets? Has the man my fine pistols? Le garr.on les a-t-il ? Has the 
boy them? Les homines les ont-ils 7 Have the men them? (Lesson XL) 
Voire pere aime-t-il son fiJs? Does your father love his son? (Lesson 
XXIV.) Voire pere est-il parti? Has your father set out? Vos amis 
sont-ils partis? Have your friends set out? (Lesson XXXIV.) Le domes- 
tique revient-il de bonne heure du magasin ? Does the servant return early 
from the warehouse? (Lesson XXXVI.) Voire scBur est-elle arrives? 
Has your sister arrived ? Voire mere est-elle venue ? Has yoxa mother 
come ? Les feimnes sont-elles venues ? Have the women come ? Quel- 
qu'un est-il venu en mon absence ? Has anybody called during my ab- 
sence ? Mon chapeau est. sur la table ; le votre est-il sm" le banc, et celui de 
ma sceur est-il sur la chaise ? My hat is upon the table ; is youre upon the 
bench, and is your sister's upon the chair ? (Lesson LVII.) And a great 
many other examples in the preceding lessons and exercises. 

Ohs. B. If the personal pronoun be hi any otlier case than the nomina- 
tive, it precedes the verb in an mterrogative sentence the . same as in the 
afRi-mative sentence. See Rules 6 and 7 hereafter. Ex. L'aimez-XQus" 
Do you love him ? Le vendez-Yons ? Do you sell it ? Vous envoie-t-H le 
billet? Does he send you the note ? (Lesson XXIV.) Srecouiez-vovLsl Dc 
j^ou listen to me ? (Lesson XXVI.) Me faites-vous voir votre fusil ? Dc 
you show your gun to me? (Lesson XXVII.) M'avez-vous dit le mot? 
Have you told me the word ? Vous a-t-il dit cela ? Has he told a^ou that ? 
Lui avez-vous dit cefe ? Have you told him that ? JM'appelez-tous ? 
Do you call me ? Les avez-Yous jetes ? Have you thrown them away I 
(Lesson XXXIII.) Me promettez-vous de venir ? Do you promise me to 
come ? (Lesson XXXV.) Vous rend-\l votre livre ? Does he return you 
your book ? (Lesson XXXIX.) Vous paie-t-il le couteau ? Does he pay 
you for the knife ? (Lesson XL.) Vous ai-]e fait du mal ? Have I hurt 
you ? And a great many other examples in what precedes. 

Ohs. C. When there is an interrogative pronoun in the interrogative sen- 
tence it also stands at the head, whatever may be its case. Ex. Qui est 
Ikl Who is there ? Qu'avez-vous fait? What have you done? Que: 
garden a achet^ ces livres, et a qui en a-t-il fait present ? Which boy hac 
bought those books, and to whom has he given them ? ^A qui voulez-xouE 
repondre? To whom do you v.nsh to answer? (I,essoii XXI.) ''A qui est 
ce chapeau? Whose hat is that? (Lesson XXIX.) ''A qui ecrivez-yousl 
To whom do you write ? (Lesson XXIX.) De quoi votre ancle se rejouit- 
il? What does your micle rejoice at? \i quelle heure vous etes-vous 
oouchi3 ? At what o'clock did you go to bed ? ^A quelle heure s'est-il 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LEiSON. 407 

couche hier? At what o'clock did lie go to bed yesterday? (Lcseon 
XLIV.) And numerous other examples in the preceding lessons and 
exercises. 

(f) In a negative sentence ?ze follows immediately the nominative of the 
verb ; and the other negative words, such as, pas, point, jamais, &lc. follow 
the verb in a simple tense, and its auxiliary m a compound one. Ex. Je ne 
I'ai pas, I have it not. Vous w'avez Hen do bon, you have nothing good. 
(Lesson VI.) II ne veut pas y rester, he will not stay there. II ne va pas, 
he does not go. II ji'en a pas besoin, he is not in want of it. (Lesson 
XXIII.) Vous ?i'y avez jamais etc, you have never been there. (Lesson 
XXXI.) Je n^aX jamais fait de mal &, personne, I have never done harm to 
any one. (Lesson XLIV.) II ne peut pas vous douner de pain, car il n'en 
a pas, he cannot give you any bread, for he has none. (Lesson XLIV.) Je 
ne les ai pas conuus, I have not been acquainted with them. (Lesson 
XXXIII.^ Je ne le crois pas, I do not believe him. (Lesson XLIV.) Je 
w'ai rien ]ei6, I have thrown away nothing. (Lesson XLIX.) II n'a rien 
laisse tomber, he has not dropped any thing. Je ne me les suis pas rappeles, 

I have not recollected them. Je ne me suis pas sauve, I did not run away. 
(Lesson LI.) And numerous other examples in the foregoing lessons and 
exercises. 

Ohs. D. If the verb is in the infinitive, both negations precede it. Ex. 

II m'aime trop pour ne pas le faire, he is too fond of me not to do it. II 
faut etre peu sense pour ne pas voir cela, one must be a fool not to perceive 
that. (Lesson LXXII.) And numerous other examples m the foregoing les- 
sons and exercises. 

(d) If the sentence is both interrogative and negative, its construction is 
exactly the same as when it is interrogative, only the negative ne stands at 
the head of the sentence, and the other negative words follow the verb in a 
simple tense, and its auxiliary in a compound one. Ex. Ne savez-vous pas 
Bci'iie 1 Do you not know how to write ? Ne sait-il pas lire ? Does he 
not know how to read? iV'entendez-vous pas le bruit du vent? Do you 
not hear the roaring of the wind? &c. &c. Ne pourriez-vous |)fls me dire 
quel est le chemin le plus court pour arriver k la porte de la ville ? Could 
you not tell me which is tho nearest way to the city-gate ? (Lesson LXXII.) 
And numerous other examples in this work. .- 

5th. The personal pronouns stand immediately after the verb by which 
tiiey are governed; when it is in the imperative without a negation.' Ex. 



* The third person of the imperative cannot be considered an exception to 
this rule, as it is in fact nothing but the present of the subjunctive with a 
verb, such asje veux,je souhaite, je consens, il faut, understood, the con- 
junction que at the head of a sentence generally marking order, loish, or 
consent. Therefore, when we say, (Lesson LXXXII.,) quHl me Venvoie, 



408 EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

Donnez-le-moi, give it me. Envoyez-le-lui, send it to him. EmprunteZ' 
Ic-lui, borrow it of (or from) him. (Lesson LXX.) 

Gth. But when the verb is not in the imperative, or when it is in the 
negative imperative, or any other mood or tense, the pronouns which are 
governed by it are put immediately before it in a simple tense, and imme- 
diately before the auxiliary in a compound one. Ex. Je vous Z'ai dit, I have 
told it you. II me Z'a dit, he has told it me. Je le lid ai dit, I have told it 
him. Vous le lui avez dit, you have told it him- II le lui a dit, he has 
told it him. (0= Lesson XXIV. 0° A, Lesson XXXII., and Lesson XXXIIL) 
Je vol's le promets, I do promise you. (Lesson XXXV.) Je les lui paie, I 
pay him for them. Je vous le demande, I ask you for it. (Lesson XL.) 
Ne le lui dites pas, do not tell him. Ne le leur rendez pas, do not return it 
to them. (Lesson LXX.) II se le rappelle, he does recollect it. Je me les 
rappelle, I do recollect them. II se les est rappeles, he has recollected them. 
Nous nous les sommes rappeles, we have recollected them. lis se les sent 
rappeles, they have recollected them. (Lesson LI.) 17 vous Z'enverra, s'il 
I'a. fini, he will send it you, if he has done with it. Je le lui porte, I carry 
it to him. (Lesson LVIII.) And numerous other examples in the foregoing 
lessons and exercises 

7th. According to Rule 6, when two" or more pronouns are governed by 
the verb, they stand before it in the order presented, (Lesson XX., v.liich 
Bee.) As to the words y and en, they always precede the verb, but the per- 
sonal pronouns stand before them, and y always stands before en, as may be 
seen in Lesson XIX. Obs. Ex. Je le leur ai dit, I have told it them. 
(Lesson XXXIII.) Je veux le lui envoyer, I will send it to him. Je veux 
vans en donner, I am willing to give you some. Je veux lui en prfiter, I 
will lend some to him. (Lesson XX.) Je veux I'l/ envoyer, I will send him 
to him, or thither. (Lesson XIX.) Je les y ai conduits, I have conducted 
them thither. (Lesson XXXIV.) Je vous le remettrai demain, I will give it 
j-ou to-morrow. Ne lui en epargnez pas la peine, do not save him the 
trouble. II vous les enverra, he will send them you. II y en enverra, he 
will send some thither. (Lesson XL VI.) And a good many other examples 
in the foregoing lessons and exercises. 



!0t him send it me ; qu'il le croie, he may believe it ; qu'elle le dise, let her 
sp.y eo ; qiiHl le prenne, let him take it, it is as much as if we said : jc 
:• ux, je souhaite, il faut, je consens, qu'il mc Venvoie, qu'il le croie, qu'elle 
le di'ic^ &c. 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 409 

EXERCISES. 
250. 

POLITENESS. 

When the Earl of Stair was at the court of Louis XIV., his man- 
ners, address, and conversation, gained much on the esteem and 
friendship of that monarch. One day, in a circle of his courtiers, 
talking of the advantage of good breeding and easy manners, the king 
offered to lay a wager he would name an English nobleman that 
should excel in those particulars any Frenchman of his court. The 
wager was jocularly accepted, and his majesty was to choose his 
own time and place for the experiment. 

To avoid suspicion, the king let the subject drop for some months, 
till the courtiers thought he had forgotten it ; he then chose the fol- 
lowing stratagem : he appointed Lord Stair, and two of the most 
polished noblemen of his court, to take an airing with him after the 
breaking up of the levee ; the king accordingly came down the great 
staircase at Versailles, attended by those three lords, and coming up 
to the side of the coach, instead of going in first, as usual, he pointed 
to the French lords to enter ; they, unaccustomed to the ceremony, 
shrunk back, and submissively declined the honor ; he then pointed 
to Lord Stair, who made his bow, and instantly sprang into the coach : 
the king and the French lords followed. 

When they were seated, the king exclaimed, " Well, gentlemen, I 
believe you will acknowledge I have won my wager." " How soj 
sire ■?" " Why," continued the king, " when I desired you both to 
go into the coach, you declined it : but this polite foreigner (poiming 
to Lord Stair) no sooner received the commands of a king, though 
not his sovereign, than he instantly obeyed." The courtiers hung 
down their heads in confusion, and acknowledged the justness of his 
majesty's claim. 

25L 

MILDNESS. 

The mildness of Sir Isaac Newton's temper through the course 
of his life commanded adiairation from all who knew him ; but in no 
one instance, perhaps, more than the following. Sir Isaac had a 
favorite dog, which he called Diamond ; and being one day called 
out of his study into the next room. Diamond was left behind. When 
Sir Isaac returned, having been absent but a few minutes, he had the 
mortification to find that Diamond having thrown down a lighted 
candle among some papers, the nearly finished labor of many years 

S5 



410 EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

was in flames, and almost consumed to ashes. This loss, as Sii 
Isaac Newton was then very far advanced in years, was irretrieva- 
ble ; yet, without once striking the dog, he only rehuked him with 
this exclamation : " O ! Diamond ! Diamond ! thou little knowest 
the mischief thou hast done." 



Zeuxis entered into a contest of art with Parrhasius. The former 
painted grapes so truly, that birds came and pecked at them. The 
latter delineated a curtain so exactly, lraat Zeuxis, coming in, said. 
" Take away the curtain that we may see this piece." And finding 
his error, said, " Parrhasius, thou hast conquered : I only deceived 
birds, thou an artist." 

Zeuxis painted a boy carrying grapes ; the birds came again and 
pecked. Some applauding, Zeuxis flew to the picture in a passion, 
saying, " My boy must be very ill painted." " 

The inhabitants of a great town offered to Marshal de Tureniie 
one hundred thousand crowns upon condition that he should take an- 
other road, and not march his troops their way. He answered them, 
" As your town is not on the road I intend to march, I cannot accept 
the money you offer me." 

A corporal of the life-guards of Frederick the Great, who had a 
'great deal of vanity, but at the same time was a brave fellow, wore 
a watch-chain, to which he affixed a musket-bullet instead of a watch, 
which he was unable to buy. The king, being inclined one day to 
lally him, said, " Apropos, corporal, you must have been very frugal 
to buy a watch : it is six o'clock by mine ; tell me what it is by 
yours]" The soldier, who guessed the king's intention, instantly 
drew out the bullet from his fob, and said, " My watch neither marks 
five nor six o'clock ; but it tells me every moment, that it is my duty 
to die for your majesty." " Here, my friend," said the king, quite 
affected, " take this watch, that you may be able to tell the hour 
also." And he gave him his watch, which was adorned with bril 
Hants. 

252. 

THE HISTORY OK JOHN AND MARY, [Jean el Marie.j 

There was a merchant who went to India with his wife. He made 
there a large fortune, and at the end of a few years he re-embarked 
for France, which was his native country. He had a son and o 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 411 

daughter. The former aged four, was called John, and the latter, 
who was only three, was called Mary. When they had proceeded 
about half way, a violent storm came on, and the pilot said they were 
in great danger, because the wind drove (pousser) towards some 
islands, against which shipwreck was unavoidable. The poor mer- 
chant having heard this, took a large plank, and firmly fastened on 
it his wife and both his children ; he was going to fasten himself to 
it, but had not time ; for the vessel having struck against a rock, 
(toucher conire nn rocker,) split, {s''ouvrit,) and all the crew (et tous 
ceiix qui etaient dedans) fell into the sea. The plank, on which 
were the woman and the children, was carried by the water like a 
small boat, {se soutint sur la mcr comme un petit bateau,) and the 
wind sent it towards an island. The woman then undid (detacher) 
the cords, and advanced in the island with her children. 

On finding herself in a place of safety her first act (la premiere 
chose qiCelle fit) was tp throw herself on her knees, and thank God 
for her preservation, (de Vavoir sauvee.) She was sadly grieved to 
have lost her husband. She also thought that she and her children 
would die of hunger on this, island, or be devoured by wild beasts. 
She proceeded for some time full of these melancholy thoughts, ^nd 
perceived some trees loaded with fruit ; she took a stick, and knocked 
down {/aire tomher) some of it, which she gave to her children, and 
ate some herself. She went on further to see if she could not discover 
some cottage, but she was sadly disappointed when she discovered 
(reconnaitre *) that she was on a desert island. She found on her 
way a large hollow tree, (un grand arbre qui etait creux,) and re- 
sclved to pass the night in it. She slept (coucher) in it with her 
children, and proceeded the next day into the island as far as they 
could walk. She found also on her way some birds' nests, (des nids 
d\>iseaux,) from which she took the jeggs. Seeing that she found 
neither man nor beast, she resolved to submit to the will of God, and 
to do all in her power (faire son possible) to bring her children up 
well. She had in her pocket a New Testament (un evangile) and a 
prayer-book, (un livre de priere.) She used them to teach her chil 
dren to read, and to know God, (et pour leur enseigner a connaitre le 
ion Dieu.) One day the little boy said to her : " Mother, where is 
my father ?" " My poor child," answered this poor woman with 
tears, (en pleurant,) " your father is gone to heaven ; but you havo 
another father who is God, (le ban Dieu.) He is here, though yoa 
do not see him. It is he wlio sends us fruit and eggs ; and he will 
take care of us so long as (tant que) we love him with all our heart, 
and ser-ve him." When these little children were able to read, they 



412 EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

lead with great pleasure what was contained in their books, and 
talked about it all day. Besides, they were very good and obedient 
to their mother. 

At the end {au bout) of two years this poor woman fell ill, and she 
felt her death was near, {approcher :) she Avas very uneasy about 
(pour) her poor children ; but at last she thought that God, who is so 
good, would take care of them. She was lying in the hollow of the 
tree, and having called her children, she said to them : " My dear 
ehildren, 1 am going to die, and you will soon be motherless, {n'avoir 
plus de mere.) Remember, however, that you will not be alone, and 
that God sees all you do. Never miss {manque?') praying to him 
night and morning. My dear John, take great care of your sister ; 
do not scold her ; never beat her : you are bigger and stronger than 
she ; you will go and seek fruit and eggs for her." She also wished 
to say a few words {quelque chose) to Mary, but she had not tune, 
and died. 

These poor children did not understand what their mother meant, 
(vouloir dire,) for they did not know what death was, (ce que c'etait 
que de mourir.) — When she was dead, they thought that she was 
asleep, and they feared to make a noise, lest they should wake her. 
John went to fetch some fruit, and having supped, they lay down l.'v 
the side of the tree, and both fell asleep, {s^endonnir *.) They were 
much astonished the next morning to find that their mother was yel 
asleep, and went to pull her by the arm to wake her. As they per- 
ceived that she did not answer, they thought they had offended 
her, and began to cry, (se mettre a pleurer,) begging her pardon, and 
promised to be very good. It was in vain, {Us eurent heau faire ;) 
the poor woman could answer no more. They remained there sev- 
eral days until the body began to be corrupted, {se decomposer.) 
Mary exclaimed one morning to John : {Marie se mit a jeter de 
grands cris, et dit a Jean :) " Ah, my brother, the worms are eating 
our poor mamma; we must get them away, {arracher ;) come and 
help me." John approached, but the body smelt so bad, that they 
could not remain there, and they were obliged {etre contraint) to seek 
another tree to sleep in. 

These two children never missed praying to God ; they read their 
books so often that they knew them by heart. When they had read 
they would walk, or else {ou hien) they sat down on the grass and 
talked, {et causaient entr^eux.) One day John said to his sister : 
" I remember, when I was very little, to have been in a place where 
there were many houses and many men ; my father had many ser- 
vants ; we had also many nice frocks, {de beaux habits.) All at once 
papa put us in a house that went on the water, and tlien, on a sud- 



KIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON, 413 

den, he fastened us on to a plank, {attacher a une planche,) and has 
gone to the bottom {le fond) of the sea, whence he has not returned ; 
and our dear mother says he is -now in Heaven." "It is very 
strange, {singulier,'''') answered Mary ; " but since it has happened, 
it is because it was the will of God ; for you know, brother, (inon 
frere,) that he is almighty, (lout-puissant.'''') 

John and Mary remained eleven years on this island. One day 
that they were sitting on the shore, (au hord de la mer,) they saw a 
boat with several black men come up to them. Mary was at first 
frightened, and wanted to run away ; but John said to her : " Let 
us remain, sister, {ma sceur,) do you not know that God our father 
(que notre pere le ion Dieu) is here, and that he will prevent these 
men from hurting us V These blacks having landed, {descendre a 
terre,) were surprised to see these children, who were of a different 
color to them, {d'une autre c»uleur qu'eux.) They surrounded them, 
and spoke to them : it was in vain, for these children did not under- 
stand their language. John took these savages to the place where 
his mother's bones were, and told them how she had died ; but they 
did not understand him either. The blacks at last showed them 
their little boat, and made signs to them to enter. " I dare not," 
said Mary, "these people frighten me." Her brother comforted 
{7-assurer) her. 

They therefore entered the boat, which led them to an island that 
was not far from thence, and whose inhabitants were savages. All 
these savages received them very well : their king could not take 
his eyes off {ne pouvait se lasser de regarder) Mary ; and he often 
put his hand to his heart, to show that he loved her. Mary and John 
soon learned the language of these savages, and became acquainted 
with all that they were doing. John soou found that they made war 
on people who lived in the neighboring islands, that they ate their 
prisoners, and that they worshipped (adorer) a great ugly monkey, 
{le singe,) that had several savages to attend on him, {pour le servir,) 
so that the two children were sorry to have come to live with these 
wicked people. However the king was determined on marrying 
(voulait ahsolument epouser) Mary, who said to her brother : " I 
would rather die than be the wife of that man." " Is it because he 
is so ugly that you would not marry him ]" said John. " No, bro- 
ther," said she, " it is because he is wicked : do you not perceive 
that he is unacquainted with God our Father ; and that instead of 
praying to him, he kneels {se mettre a genoux) before that horrid 
monkey 1 Besides our book tells us that we must forgive our ene- 
mies, and do good to them ; and you see that instead of that, this wick- 
ed man has his prisoners put to death {/aire mourir) and eats them." 



414 EIGHXy-SIXTH LEi50N. 

" A thought has struck me, {il me vient une pensee,'''') said John ; 
" if we were to kill that horrid monkey:, they would soon perceive 
that it is no G/jd. Let us poison it." Mary agreed to it, and the 
monkey died. The savages who took care of it, and who were at 
its priests, told the king that Mary and her brother were the cau?e 
of the misfortune that had occurred, and that he could not be happy 
un.til these two wliites were killed. It Vv"as immediately decided 
that a sacrifice should be made to the new monkey that had just beer. 
substituted for the last, that the tvvo whites should be present, and 
that they should afterwards be burned alive, {briiler quelijuun tout 
vif.) John" having heard this resolution, said to them : " If your 
monkey had been a God, I could never have killed him ; have I not 
been stronger than he ? We must worship the great God, the Cre- 
ator of heaven and earth, and not such an ugly beast." This speech 
irritated all the savages ; they fastened John and his sister to two 
trees, and were prepared to burn them, when intelligence came 
{lorsqu'on leur apprit) that a great number of their enemies had just 
landed {aborder) on the island. They ran to meet them, {pour les 
combattre,) and were defeated, {etre vaincii.) The savages who re- 
mained the .conquerors took off the chains of the two whites, and 
conveyed (emmener) them to their own island, where they became 
the slaves of the king. 

These new savages, however, were often at war like their neigh- 
bors, and ate their prisoners. They one day took a great number; 
for they were very powerful. Among, the captives was a white 
man ; and as he was very thin, {fort jnaigre,) the savages deter- 
mined on fattening him up {de V engraisser) before they ate him 
They chained him up in a hut, and commissioned Mary to take hinp 
his food, {de lui porLer a manger.) As she knew that he was soon 
to be eaten she felt great compassion for hmi, {elle en avait grand' 
pitie.) and said, as she sadly gazed on him : " God ! take pity on 
him !" This white man, who had felt great astonishment on seeing 
a girl of the same color as himself, wondered still more {le fu\, bien 
davantage) when he heard her speak his own language. " Who 
taught you to speak French V inquired he, {lui dil-il.) " I do not 
know the name of the language I speak," answered she ; " it is ray 
mother's language, and she it was who taught it me. We have also 
two books in which we read every day." "My God!" exclaimed 
this man, as he raised his hands to heaven, "and can it be possible, 
{serait-il possible ?) But, my child, could you show me the books 
of which you speak]" "I have them not," said she, " but I will 
fetch my brotlier, who keeps them, and he will show them you." 
She went out, as she said this, and soon returned with John, who 



EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 410 

brought the two books. The white man opened them with emotion, 
and having read on the first .leaf: " This is John Morris^ book,''^ he 
cried : " Ah, my dear children ! and do I indeed see you ] Come 
and embrace your father; oh, would to God! you could give me 
news of your mother !" At these words Jo^n and Mary threw them- 
selves into the amns of the white man, and shed tears of joy. Al 
last John said : " My heart tells me you are my father ; and yet 1 
know not how -that can be, for my mother told me you had fallen in- 
to the sea." " I did in truth {effectivemenl) fall into the sea, when 
our vessel struck, {s''enl.r''ouvi-il,'''') answered this man ; " but hav- 
ing seated myself on a plank, I landed on an island, and I thought 
you lost." John then told him all he remembered. The white man 
wept, when he heard of the death of his wife. Mary also wept, but 
it was on another a,ccoant, (pour un autre sujet.) " Alas !" cried 
she, " of what use is it (a quoi seri-il) that we should have found 
our father, since he is to be killed and eaten in a few days." " We 
must cut his chains," said John, " and then we will all three escape 
to the forest." " And what should we do there, my poor children T' 
said John Morris ; " the savages will soon catch {reprendre *) us, or 
else we shall die of hunger." " Let me alone, {laissez-moi faire,^'') 
said Mary, " I know an infallible method {le moyen) of saving 
you." 

As she ended these words, she went to the king. When she had 
entered his hut, she threw herself at his feet, and said : " My lord, 
{seigneur,) I have a great favor to beg of you ; will you promise me 
to grant it V " I swear it you," said the king, " for I am satisfied 
with you." " Well," continued Mary, " you must know that the 
white man, of whom you have desired me to take care, is John's and 
my father : you have resolved to eat him, and I am come to repre- 
sent to you, that he is old and thin, and that I am young and fat ; so 
I hope you will be so kind as to eat me instead ; I only ask a week, 
that I may have the pleasure of seeing him before I die." " Truly," 
said the king, " you are so good a girl, that I -rould on no account 
{que je ne voudrais pas pour toutes chases) put you to death ; you 
shall live, and your father also. I will even tell you that every 
year a ship with white men comes here, and we sell them the pris- 
oners we do not eat. This ship will soon arrive, and then I will 
give you leave {la permission) to go." 

Mary thanked the king, and in her heart returned thanks to God 
who had inspired him with compassion towards her. She ran to 
carry these joyful tidings to her father ; and a few days after, the 
vessel of which the black king had spoken having arrived, she em- 
barked on board with her father and brother. They landed on a 



416 EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON. 

large island inhabited by Spaniards. The governor of this island 
having heard Mary's history, said to himself: " This girl has not a 
penny, {napas le sou,) and is sadly sunburnt, Qjrulee du soleil ;) but 
she is so good and virtuous that her husband will be a happier man 
(qi^elle pourra rcndre son mari plus heureux) than if she were rich 
and handsome." He therefore requested Mary's father to give her 
to him for wife, (era manage ;) and John Morris having consented, 
the governor married her, and gave one of his relations to John. 
They lived very happy m this island, admiring the wisdom of Prov- 
idence, that had only allowed I\Iary to be a slave, that c-he might 
thereby be the means of (que pour lui donncr occasion de) saving hei 
father's life. 



APPENDIX. 



CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMBERS. 



Un, m. une 

Deux 

Trois 

Qua lie 

Cinq ■ 

Six 

Sept 



Huit 8. 

Neuf. 9. 

Dix 10. 

Onze 11. 

Douze 12. 

Treize 13. 

Gnatorze 14. 

Quinze 15. 

Seize 16. 

Dix-sept. 17. 

Dix-huit 18. 

Dix-neuf. 19. 

Vingt 20. 

Vingt et iin 21. 

Vingt-deux 22. 

Vingttrois 23. 

Vingt-quatre 24. 

Vingt-cinq 25. 

Vingt-six '. ... 26. 

Vingt-sept 27. 

Vingt-huit 28. 

Vingt-neuf 29. 

Trente 30. 

Trente et un 31. 

Trente-deux 32. 

Trente-trois j^ 33. 

Trentre-quatre ^ 34. 

Trente-cinq 35. 

Trente-six ■ ■ 36. 

Trente-sep! 37, 

Trente-hui;. '■■ 38. 

Trente-neuf - ■ 39. 

Ciuarante 40. 

Quarante et un 41. 

Cluarante-deux 42. 

Ciuarante-trois 43. 

ftuarante-quatre 44. 

^uarante-cinq 45. 



Premier, m. premiere, / . . 1st. 

Deuxieme, second, seconde 2u. 

Troisieme 3d. 

Quatrieme 4th 

Cinquieme 5tli. 

Sixieme Gtli. 

Septieme. 7th. 

Huitieine 8tlt. 

Neuvieme 9th. 

Dixieme lOth. 

Onzieme 11th. 

Douzieme 12th. 

Treizieme. 13th. 

Quatorzieme 14th. 

Giiinzieme 15th. 

Seizieme 16th. 

Dix-septieme 17th. 

Dix-huitieme isth 

Dix-neuvieme ]9th. 

Vingtieme 20th. 

Vingt et unieme 21st. 

Vingt-deuxieme 22d. 

Vingt- troisieme .-. . . 23d. 

Vingt-quatrieme 24th. 

Vingt-cinquieme 25th. 

Vingt-sixieme 26th, 

Vingt-septierae 27th, 

Vingt-huitieme 28th 

Vingt-neuvieme 29th, 

Trentieme 30th 

Trente et unieme 3ls4. 

Trente-detixieme 32d. 

Trente-troisieme 33d. 

Trente-quatrieme 34th- 

Trente-cinquieme. 35th, 

Trente-sixieme 36th 

Trente-septieme 37th 

Trente-huitieme 3Sth. 

Trente-ueuvieine 39th 

Uuarantieme 40th 

Quarante et unieme 41st. 

Quarante-deuxieme 42d. 

Quarante-troisieme 43d. 

Quarante-quatrieme 44th. 

Quarante- cinquieme 45th. 



418 



CARDINAL AND 0EDIN4.L NUMBERS. 



Nomhres Cardinal 

CardinauXt Numbers. 

Quiirantesix 46. 

liu;frante-seiit 47. 

Quanvnte-huit 4S. 

Gusrante-neuf.. 40. 

Cinqiianle 50. 

Cinqnaiite et un .il. 

Cinqiuuite-detLX 5-2. 

Cinquante-Hois 53. 

Cinquante-quatre 54. 

Cinquante-cinq 55. 

Ciiiqu ante-six 56. 

Cinqaante-sept 57. 

Cinquante-huit... 58. 

Ciiiquante-neuf.. 59. 

Soi.Kante CO. 

Soi.xante et un 61. 

Soixante-deux 0-2. 

Soixante-trois 03. 

Soixante-qiiatre C4. 

Soixaiite-cinq 65. 

Soixante-six C6. 

Soixante-sept 67. 

Si)ixante-hait. 08. 

Soixante-neuf. 69. 

Soixante-dix 70. 

Soixante et onze 71. 

Soixante-dnuze 72. 

Soixante- treize 73. 

Soixantt'-quatorzs ■ 74. 

Soixante-quinze. 75. 

Suixante-seize. 76. 

Soixante-di.x-sept 77. 

Soixante-di.x-huit 78. 

Soixante-dix-neuf. 79. 

Quatre-vingt 80. 

Quatre-vingt-iin 81. 

Qiiatre-vingt-deux SO. 

Qiiatre-vingt-irois 83. 

Quatre-vingt-quatre 84. 

Quatre-vingt-cinq. 85. 

Guatre-vingt-six 86. 

Quatre-vingt-sept 87. 

Quatre-vingt-huit 88. 

Quaire-vingt-neuf 89. 

Qualre-vingt-dix 20. 

Qiaatre-vingt-nnze 91. 

Quatre-vingt-douze 92. 

Quatre-vingt-treizp 93. 

Cluatre-vingt-quatorze 94. 

Gualre-vingt-quinze 95. 

Ciiiatre-vingt-seize.. . 96. 

liUHtre vingt-dix-sept 97. 

Quatre-vingt-dix-huit 9S. 

Quatre-vingt-dii-neuf 99. 

Cent 100. 



NoTTiirreB Ordinal 

Ordinaux, Numiaera 

Ciuarante-sisieme 46tt 

Gluarante-?eptieine 47th 

Guarante-huilii-rne 43th. 

O.iiarante-iieuvienje 49th 

Cinquanlieiiie .50th 

Cinquante et miienie 5Ut 

Cinq nan te-(lEuxieme 52U. 

Cinquante-troisieme .53d. 

Cinquante-quatrieme .>4th 

Cinquante;Cinquienie 55ta 

Cinquante-sixieine oSth 

Cir.qiiante-septienie 57ih 

Ciuquante-huitieiue 56th. 

Cinquanto-neuvieme 59lh. 

Soixantieiue 60ih. 

Soixante et iznieme 61sU 

Soixante-deuxieip.e e-2d. 

Soixante-trnisieme 63d. 

Soixante-qualrieDie 04th. 

Soixante-cinquierae. C5th. 

Snixante-sixieme C6ih. 

Soixante-septieme 07th. 

Soixante-huitienie C8ih. 

Soixante-neuvieine 69th 

Soixante-dixienie 70th. 

Soixante et onzieme 71st. 

Soixante-donzieme 72d. 

Soixante-treizieine 73d. 

Soixante-quatorziC'ine 74lh. 

Soixante-quinzieme 75th. 

Soixante-seizieme 76th 

Soixante-di.x-septienie 77th. 

Soixante -di.x-huitienie 75;h 

Soixante- di.x-neuvieme 79th 

Quatre-vingtienie cOth 

Qiiatre-vingt-uniiiine Slst 

Qiiatre-viDgl-deuxienie 82d. 

Quatre-viiigt-troisienie 83d. 

Quatre-vingt-quatrieme S4th 

Qiiatie- vingt-cinquieme Soth 

Quatre vingt-sixieme 86th 

Quatre-vlngi-septieme 87th 

Gnatre-vingt-huitieme eSth. 

Qiiatre-vir.gt-neuviflfe 89th 

Qiiatre-vingt-dixieme 90th 

Guati'e-vingt-onzieme 91st 

Guatre-vingt-donzieine 92<l. 

Quatre-vingt-lreizienie 93d. 

Quatrc-vingt-quatorzieine 94'.h 

Q.ualre-vingt-qiiinzienie 95lh. 

Qnatre-vingt-seizienie 9(itli 

Quatre-vingt-dix-scplienie. 97th 

Quatre-vingt-di.x-huitieme 98th 

Qiiatre-vingt-dis-neuvicnie — . 99th 

Cenlicme lOOth 



CONJUGATION OF A. VOIR. 



419 



Somhrta 
Cardinaux* 

Cent uu ••. 
Cent deux- 
Cent trois. • 
Cent dix... 



Cardinal 
iM umbers. 

... 101. 

... 102. 

... 103. 

... 110. 



Cent onze 111. 

Cent vingt : 120. 

Cent vin^'t ei un 121. 

Deux cents. 200. 

Deux cent un. 201. 

Deux cent dsux 202. 

MiUe 1000. 

Deux inille 2000. 

Mil huit cent quarante-six 1840. 

Un million A million. 



Nombrce Ordinal 

OrdinauT, Numbers 

Cent-unieme lOIst. 

Cent-deuxieme 102d 

Cent-troisieme 103il. 

Cent-dixiiime. 110th. 

Cent-onzienie 1 lltl-i. 

Cent-vingtieme. ISOih. 

Cent vingt et unieme 121st. 

Deux centiiinie 200th. 

Deux cent-unieme 20 1 at 

Deux cent-deuxieme 202d. 

Jlillieme 1000th. 

Deux millieaie 2000th. 

Mil huit cent quarante-sixieme... 1846th. 
Millioneme. A millionth. 



PARADIGMS. 



CONJUGATION OF THE AUXILIARY VERB AVOIR, TO HAVE, 

IN THE FOUR FORMS. 

I.— AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

Infinitive Mood. 





PRESENT- 






PAST. 




Avoir, 




to have. 


Avoir eu. 






to have had. 






Participles. 










PRESENT. 












Ayant, 




havinff. 




PAST. 






PAST. 




Ayant eu. 






having had. 


Eu, m. ; cue, 


/• 


had. 
Indicat] 


VE Mood. 










PRESENT. 




1 ilETERIT 


INDEFINITE. 


J'ai, 




I have. 


J'ai eu, 






I have haA. 


Tu as, 


» 


thou hast. 


Tu as eu, 






thou hast had. 


11 a. 




he has- 


11 a eu, 






he has had. 


Nous avors, 




we have. 


Nous avons eu, 






we have had. 


Vous avez, 




you have. 


Vous avez eu, 






you have had. 


lis out, 




they have. 


lis ont eu, 






they have had. 




IMPERFECT. 




PLUPERFECT. 


J'avais, 




I had. 


J'avais eu. 






I had had. 


Tu avals, 




thou hadst. 


Tu avals eu. 






thou hadst had. 


11 avail, 




he had. 


11 avait e", 






he had had. 


Nous avions 




we had. 


Nous avicns er 






we had had. 


Vous aviez, 




you had. 


Vous aviez eu. 






you had had. 


lis avaient. 




they had. 


lis avaient eu, 






they had had. 


pRKTEir? dkf:x:te 




PRETERIT 


ANTERIOR. 


reus, 




J had. 


J'eus eu. 






I had had. 


Tu eus, 




thou hadst. 


Tu eus eu, • 






thou hadst had. 


11 eut, 




he had 


11 eut eu, 






he had had. 


Nous eumes 




we had. 


Nous eumes eu, 






we had had. 


Vous eutes, 




you had. 


Vous eutes eu 






you had had. 


ns eureiit. 




they had. 


lis eiirent eu, 






they had had. 



420 



CONJUGATION OF AVOIR. 



J'aural, 
Tu auras, 
II aura, 
Nous aurons, 
Vous aiirez, 
lis auront. 



/ shall have 

thou shall have. 

he shall have. 

toe shall have 

you shall have. 

they shall have. 



CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 



J'aurais, 
Tu aurMs, 
Jl aiirait, 
N'lHs aurions, 
Vous auriez, 
lis auraient, 



/ should have. 

thou shouldst have. 

he should have. 

we should have. 

you should have. 

they should have. 



3 aurai eu, 
Tu auras en, 
II aiua eu, 
Nous aurons en. 
Vous aurez eu, 
lis auront eu. 



PAST FCTUEE. 

7 shall 

Vwu shall 

he shall 

ice shall 

you shall 

they shall 



CONDITIONAL PAST. 

J'aurais eu, I should 

Tu aurais eu, 

II aurait eu, 

Nous aurions eu, 

Vous auriez eu, 

lis auraient eu. 



thou shouldst 

he should 

we should 

you should 

they shoull 



kat,e had 
ha :e had 
have haa 
have liaa 
have had 
have had 

have had 
have Iiad 
have had 
have had 
have had 
have had. 



Imperative Mood. 

Aie, have {thou.) 

Qu'il ait, let him have. 

Ayons, let us have. 

Ayez, have (you.) 

Q,u'ils aient, let them have. 

Subjunctive Mood. 



PRESENT. 

Que j'aic, that I may have. 

Que tu aies, that thou mayst have. 

Qu'il nit, that he may have. 

Que nous ayons, that we may have. 

Que vous ayez, that you may have. 

Qu'ils aient, that they may have. 

IMPERFECT. 

Que j'eusse, that Imight have. 

Que tu eusses, that thou mightst have. 

Qu'il eut, that he might have. 

Que nous eusslons, that we might have. 
Que vous eusslez, that you might have. 
Qu'ils eussent, that they might have. 



preterit. 
Que j'aie eu, that I may have had 

Que tu aies eu, that thou mayit have had. 
Qu'il ait eu, that he may have had 

Que nous ayons eu, that we may have had. 
Que vous ayez eu, that you may have had. 
Qu'ils aient eu, that they may have had 

PLUPERFECT. 

Que j'eusse eu, that I might") 

Que tu eusses eu, that thou mightst -^ 
Qu'il eiit eu, that he might ! .§ 

Que nous eussions eu, that we might { § 
Que vous eussiez eu, that you might ■« 
Qu'ils eussent eu, that thry might J 



PRESENT. 



No pas avoir, 



N'ayant pas, 



Je n'ai pas, 
Tu n'as pas, 
II n'a pas. 
Nous n'avons pas, 
Vous n'avez pas, 
lis n Tiut pas, 



II.— NEGATIVE FORM. 
Infinitive Mood. 

not to have. I N'avoir pas eu. 
Participles. 



not to liave had 



PAST. 



not having I N'ayant pas eu, not having had 

Indicative Mood. 

preterit indefinite. 
Je n'ai pas eu. 



I have not- 

thou hast not. 

he has not. 

we have not. 

you have not. 

they have not. 



Tu n'as pas eu, 
II n'a pas eu, 
Nous u'avons pas eu, 
Vous n'avez pas eu, 
lis n'ont pas eu, 



/ have not had 

thcu hast not had 

he has not had. 

we have not had. 

yc'i hare not had. 

tJicy have not had. 



CONJUGATION OF AVOIR. 



421 



IMPERFECT* 

Jo n ivais nas, / had not. 

Tu n'avais pas, thou hadst not. 

II n'avait pas, he had not. 

Nmis n'avions pas, we had not. 

Voua n'aviez pus, you had not. 

lis n'avaient [liis, they had not. 

PRETKRIf DEFINITE. 

J6 n'eiis pas, I had not. 

Tu ii'eiis pas, thou hadst not. 

II n'eut pas, he had not. 

Nous n'eunies pas, we had not. 

Vous n'eutes pas, you had not. 

Us n'eurent pas, they had not. 

FUTURE. 

le n'aurai pas, I shall not have. 

Tu n'auras pas, thou shalt not have. 

[1 n'aura pas, he shall not have. 

Nous n'aurons pas, we shall not have. 

Vous n'aurez pas, you shall not have- 

lis n'auront pas, they shall not have. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 

Je n'a"urais pas, / should not have. 
Tu n'aurais pas, thou shoaldst not have. 

U n'aurait pas, he should not have. 

Nous n'aiirions pas, we should not have. 

ITous n'auriez pas, yon should not have. 

Us n'auraient pas, they should not have. 



PLUPERFECT. 

Jo n'avais pas eu, / had not had 

Tu n'avais pas eu, thou hadst not had. 

II n'avait pas eu, he had not had- 

Nous n'avions pas eu, we had not had 

Vous n'aviez pas eu, you had not had 

lis n'avaient pas eu, they had not had. 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

Je n'eus pas eu, / had not had. 

Tu n'eus pas eu, thou hadst not had 

II n'eut pas eu, he had not had 

Nous n'eunies pas eu, toe had not had. 

Vous n'eijtcs pas eu, you had not had 

lis n'eurent pas eu, they had not had. 

PAST FUTURE. 

Je n'aurai pas eu, I shall not have had. 

Tu n'auras pas eu, thou shalt not have had. 
11 n'aura pas eu, he shall not have had. 
Nous n'aurons pas eu, we shall not have had. 
Vous n'aurez pas eu, you shall not have had. 
lis n'auront pas eu, they shall not have had. 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

Je n'aurais pas eu, / should not "] 

Tu n'aurais pas eu, thou shouldst not I .« 
11 n'aurait pas eu, he should not I .=; 

Nous n'aurions pas eu, we should not ( § 
Vous n'auriez pas eu, you should not •« 
lis n'auraient pas eu, they should not) 



Imperative Mood. 

N'aie pas, have not (thou.) 

Qu'il n'ait.pas, let him not have. 

N'ayons pas, let us not have. 

N'ayez pas, have not (you.) 

Qu'ils n'aient pas, let them not have. 

Subjunctive Mood. ' 



PRESENT. 

iue je n'aie pas, that I may 1 

iiue tu n'aies pas, that thou mayst 
Q,u'il n'ait pas, that he may 

Que nous n'ayons pas, that we may 
Que vous n'ayez paa, that you may 
Qu'ils n'aient pas, that they may 

IMPERFECT. 

Que je n'eusse pas, that T"^ 

Que tu n'eusses pas, that thou I 

Qu'il n'eut pas, that he [_ 

Que nous n'eussions pas, that we | 

Que vous n'eussiez pas, that yon 1 

Qu'ils u'eussent pas, that they J 



PRETERIT. 

Que je n'aie pas eu, that I may 

Que tu n'aies pas eu, that th^u mayst 
Qu'il n'ait pas eu, that he may 

Que nous n'ayons pas eu, that we may 
Que vous n'ayez pas eu, that you may 
Qu'ils n'aient pas eu, that they may 

7LUPERFKCT. 

Que je n'eusse pas eu, that J ) 

Que til n'eusses pas eu, that thou I 
Qu'il n'eut pas eu, that he [ 

Que nous n'eussions pas eti, that we ( 
Que vous n'eussiez pas eu, that you \ 
Qu'ils n'eussent pas eu, thatthq/j 



422 



CONJUGATION OF A.VOIR 



m— INTERROGATIVE FORM 

Indicative Mood. 



Ai-je, 

Ai^-tu, 

A-t-il, 

Avons-nnus, 

Avez-vous, 

Ont-ils, 

IMPERFECT. 

Avais-je, 
Avais-tu, 
Avait-il, 
Avions-iious, 
'Aviez-vous, 
Avaient-ils, 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

Eus-je, 

Eus-tu, 

Eut-il, 

Eiunes-nous, 

Eutes-vous, 

Eurert ils, 

FV 

Aura' je, 

Auras-*!!, 

Aura t-i!, 

Auron^-nous, 

Aurez-vous, 

Aurorit-i!s, 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 

Anrais-je, should I have. 

Aurais-tu, shouldst thou have. 

Aurait-il, should he have. 

Aurions-rous, should we have. 

Auriez-vous, should yoxi have. 

Auraient ils, should they have. 



have I. 

hast thou. 

has he. 

have we. 

have you. 

have they. 

had I. 

hadst thou. 

had he. 

had we. 

had you. 

had they. 

had I. 

hadst thou. 

had he. 

had we. 

had you. 

had they. 



shall I have. 

shalt thou have. 

shall he have. 

shall we have. 

shall you have. 

shall they have. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

Ai-je eii, have I hcJ. 

As-tii en, hast thou had 

A-t-il eu, has he had 

Avons-nous eu, ?iave we had. 

Avez-vous eu, have you had. 



Ont-iis eu, 



PLUPERFECT. 



have they had. 

had I had. 

hadst thou had. 

had he had. 

had we had. 

had you had. 

had they had. 



Avais-je eu, 
Avais-tu eu, 
Avail-il eu, 
Avions-nous eu, 
Aviez-vous eu, 
Avaient-ils eu, 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

Eus-je eu, had I had. 

Eus-tu eu, hadst thou had 

Eut-il eu, had he had 

Eumes-nous eu, had we had. 

Eutes-vous eu, had you Imd. 

Eurent-ils eu, had they had 

PAST FUTURE. 



Aurai-je eu, 
Auras-tu eu, 
.'\iua-t-il eu, 
Aurons-nous eu, 
Aurez-vous eu, 
Auront-ils eu, 



shall I have had 

shalt thou have had 

shaJl he have had 

shall we have had 

shall you have had 

shall they have had 



CONDITIONAL PAST. 

Aurais-je eu, should I have hai 

Aurais-tu eu, shj)uldst thou have had 

Aurait-il eu, should he have had 

Atirions-nous eu, should we have had 

Auriez-vous eu, should you have had. 

Auraient-ils eu, should they have had. 



IV.— NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE FORM. 



PRESENT. 

N'ai-je pas, 
N'as-tu pas, 
N'a t-il pas, 
N'avons-nous pas, 
N'avei'i-vous pas, 
M'ontUs pas, 



Indicative Mood. 



have I not. 
hast thou not. 

has he not. 

have we not. 

have you not. 

have they not. 



PRETERIT indefinite. 



N'ai je pas eu, 
N'as-tu pas eu, 
N'a-t-il pas eu, 
N'avons-nous pas eu, 
N'avez-vous pas eu, 
N'ont-ils pas eu. 



have I not had 
hast tltou not had 

has he not had 

have we not had 

have you not had 

have tlicy not had 



CONJUGATION OF ETRE. 



423 



IMPERFECT. 



a.\ ais-je pas, 
a\ais-tu pas, 
avait-il pas, 
avi(jns-iious pas 
Hviez-vous pas, 
avaient-ils pas, 



had I not. 

hadst thou not. 

had he n-ot. 

had we not. 

had you not 

had they not 

rRETKRIT DEFINITE. 



cus-je pas, had I not. 

eus-tu pas, hadst thou not. 

eut-il pas, had he not. 

eCimes-noiis pas, had we not. 

elites- voiis pas, had you not. 

eurent-ils pas, had they not. 

FUTURE. 

aurai-je pas, shall I not have. 

auras-tu pas, shall thou not have. 

aura-t-il pas, shall he not have. 

aiirons-nous pas, shall we not have. 

aurez-vous pas, shall you not have 

auront-ils pas, shall they not have. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 

aurais-je nas, should I not have. 

aurais-tu pas, shouldst thou not have. 

'aurait-il pas, should he not have. 

'auriiins-iious pas, should we not have. 

'auriez-vous pas, should you nut have. 

auraien*-ils pas, should they not have. 



ivais-je pas eu, 
dvais-tu pas eu, 
avait-il pas eu, 
avions-nous pas eu, 
aviez-vous pas eu, 
avaient-ils pas eu. 



PLUPEP.FECT. 

had 1 not had 

hadst thou not had. 

had he not had 

had tee not had 

had you not had 

had they not had 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

had I not had. 

hadst thou not had 

had he not had 

had we not had 

had you not had 

had they not had. 



eus-je pas eu, 
eus-tu pas eu, 
eut-il pas eu, 
eiimes-nous pas eu, 
'eutes-VDUS pas eu, 
'eurent-ils pas eu. 



PAST FUTURE. 

'aurai-je pas eu, shall I not have had 
'auras-tu pas eu, slialt thou not have had. 
aura-t-il pas eu, shall he not have hud. 
'aurons-nouspaseu, shall we not have had, 
aurez-vous pas eu, shall you not have had. 
auront-ils paseu, shall they nut have had. 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

'aurais-je pas eu, should Inot 

'auraistu pas eu, shouldst thou not 
'aurait-il pas eu, should he not 

aurions-nous pas eu, should we not ( 
auriez-vous pas eu, should you nut | 
auraient-ils pas eu, should they not) 



Etre, 



Etant, 
Et6, 



CONJUGATION OF THE AUXILIARY VERB ETRE, TO BE. 

Infinitive Mood. 

PRESENT. j PAST. 

to be. I Avoir et6, to have been 

Participles. 

PRESENT. 

past. 
Ayant 6t6, having been. 



PAST. 



being: 
been. 



Indicative Mood. 





PRESENT. 




preterit 


INDEFINITE. 


Je suls, 




T am. 


J'ai 6t6, 


/ have been 


Tues, 




thou art. 


Tu as et6. 


thou hast been 


11 est. 




he is. 


11 a 6t6, 


he has been 


Nous sommes, 




■we are. 


Nous avons 6t6, 


we have beat 


\ous fetes, 




you are. 


Vous avez et6, 


you have been. 


Ds sont, 




they an. 


lis ont 6t6, 


they have been 




imperfect. 




pluperfect. 


J'6tais, 




I was. 


J'avais 6t6, 


I had been. 


Tu ttais, 




thou wast. 


Tu avals 6t6, 


thou, hadst been 


11 6 tail, 




he was. 


11 avait 6 16, 


he had been 


Nous 61ions, 




we were. 


Nous avions 6t6, 


we had been 


Vous 6tiez, 


, 


T/oii were. 


Vous aviez 6t6, 


you had been 


lis 6taient, 




they were. 


lis avaient et6, 


they had lecn 



424 



FIRST CONJUGATION ER. 



PRETERIT DEriNITE 

Je fus, / was- 

VvL fus,' thou wast. 

II fut, he was. 

Nous fumes, we were. 

Vous futes, you iQfre. 

lis furent, they were. 



Je serai, 
Tu seras, 
II sera, 
Nous serons, 
Vous serez, 
lis seront, 



I shall be. 

thou Shalt he. 

he shall be. 

we shall be. 

you shall be. 

they shall be. 



CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 



Je serais, 
Tu serais, 
II serait. 
Nous serions 
Vous seriez, 
lis seraient, 



PRETERIT ANTEKIOR 



J'eus 6t6, 
Tu eus 6t6, 
II eut 6t6, 
Nous euiiies 6t6 
Vous eutes 6t6, 
lis eurent 6t6, 



J'aurai iti, 
Tu auras 6t6, 
II aura 616, 
Nous aurons 6t6, 
Vous aurez 6t6, 
lis auront ete, 



/ had bsen 
thou hadst been 
he had been 
we had been, 
you had been, 
they had been. 
PAST FrTURE. 

/ shall have been- 

thov shah have been. 

he shall have been. 

we shall have been. 

you shall have been. 

they shall have been. 



CONDITIONAL PAST. 



J'aurais 6t6, 
Tu aurais et6, 
II aurait 6t6, 
Nous aurions 6t6, 
Vous auriez ete, 
lis auraient et6. 



I should be. 

thou shouldst be. 

he should be. 

we should be. 

you should he. 

they should be. 

Imperative Mood. 
Sois, be {thou.) 

Qu'il soil, let him be. 

Soyons, let us be. 

Soyez, be (you.) 

Qu'ils soient, let them be. 

Subjunctive Mood. 



/ should have been, 

thou shouldst have been. 

he should have been. 

we should have been. 

you should have been. 

they should have been. 



(iue je sois, 
^ue tu sois, 
(iu'il soit, 
Que nous soyons, 
Que vous soyez, 
Qu'ils soient, 



that I may be 

that thou m.ayst be. 

that he may he 

that we may be 

that you ma§ be. 

that they may be. 

IMPERFECT. 



Que je fusse. 
Que tu fusses, 
Qu'il fut, 

Que nous fussions, 
Que vous fussiez, 
Qu'ils fussent, 



that I might be. 

that thoumightst be. 

that he might be. 

that we might be. 

that you might be 

that they might be 



PRETERIT. 

Quej'aieete, that I may have been 

Que tu aies et6, that thou mayst have been 
Qu'il ait 6t6, that he may have been 

Que nous ayons ete, that we may have been 
Que vous ayez 6te, that you may have been 
Qu'ils aient 6te, tAat they may have been 

PLUPERFECT. 

Que j'eusse etc, tiat I might) 

Que tu eusses et6, that thou mightst s 
Qu'il eut 6te, that he miglu \^^ 

Que nous eussions 6t6, that we might 
Que vous eussiez 6te, that you might 
Qu'ils eussent 6t(i, that they might _ 



FIRST CONJUGATION— IN ER. 
Infinitive Mood. 

PRESENT. I past. 



Parler 




to speak. 


Avoir parl6, 






Participles. 


Parlant, 


PRESENT 


.<<pcaking. 




Ftirl6, 


PAST. 


spoken. 


Ayant parl6 



to tare spoka 



having spoken 



/IRST CONJUGATION ER. 



425 



Indicative Mood. 



Je parle, 
Tn paries, 
11 parle, 
Xiius pnrlons, 
Vdus jiarlez, 
His parlent, 

Je pnriais, 
Tu parl.iis, 
II parlait, 
Nous parlions, 
Vous parliez, 
lis parlaient, 



/ speak. 

thou spcakest. 

he epr.aUs. 

wc speak, 

you speak. 

they speak. 



IMPERFECT. 



I was speaking. 

thou wast speaking. 

he was speaking. 

we were speaking. 

you were speaking. 

they were speaking. 



PRETERIT DEFINITE. 



Je parlai, 
Tu parlas, 
II parla, 
Nims parlames, 
Vous parlates, 
lis parlerent, 

Je parlerai, 
Tu parleras, 
II parlera. 
Nous parlerons, 
Vous parlerez, 
lis parleront, 



FUTURE. 



/ spoke. 

thou spokcst. 

h'e spoke. 

we spoke. 

you spoke. 

they spoke. 

I shall speak. 

thou shah speak. 

he shall speak. 

we shall speak. 

you shall speak. 

they shall speak. 



CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 



Je parlerais, 
Tu parlerais, 
II parlerait. 
Nous parlerions, 
Vous parleriez, 
lis parleraient, 



I should speak. 

thou shouldst speak. 

he should speak. 

we should speak. 

you should speak. 

they should speak. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 



J'al parl6, 
Tu as parl(i, 
II a parle. 
Nous avons parli5, 
Vous avez parl6, 
lis o:it parl6, 



/ have 

thou hast 

he has 

we hazs 

you have 

they have 



PLUPERFKCT. 

J'avais parl6, / had 

Tu avais parl6, thou hadst 

II avail parle, he had 

Nous avions parld, we had 

Vous aviez parlii, . you had 

lis avaient parl6, they had 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 



J'eus parl6, 
Tu eus parl6, 
II eut parl6, 
Nous efimes parl6, 
Vous eutes parl6, 
lis eureiit parle. 



/ had 

thou hadst 

he had 

we had 

you had 

they had 



PAST FUTURE. 

J'aurai parlti, / shall have 

Tu auras parl6, thou shall have 
II aura parle, he shall have 

Nous aurons parlii, we shall have 
Vous aurez parl6, you shall have 
lis auront parI6, they shall have 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

J'aurais parl6, J should have 

Tu aurais parI6, thou shouldst have 
II aurait parl6, he should have 

Nous aurions parl6, we should have 
Vous auriez parl6, you should have 
lis auraient parlS, they should hate 



spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
ipoken. 
spoken, 
fpoken, 

spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken. 

spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken. 

spoken, 
spoken, 
spoken, 
spuken. 
spoken 
spoken 

spoken 
sp.iken. 
spoken, 
spoken 
spoken, 
spoken. 



Imperative Mood. 



Parle, 
Qu'il parle. 
Parlous, 
Parlez, 
Q.u'ils parlent, 



speak or do speak {thou.) 

let him speak. 

let us speak. 

speak or do speak {you.) 

let them speak. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



Que je parle, . 
Que tu paries, 
Qu'il parle, 
Que nous parlions. 
Que vous parliez, 
Qu'ils parlent. 



that I may speak. 

that thou mayst speak. 

that he may speak. 

that tee may speak. 

that you may speak. 

that they may speak. 



PRETERIT. 

Que j'aie par 16, that I may i 

Que tu aies parl6, that thou mayst 
Qu'il ait parl6, that he may \ 

Que nous ayons parl6, that we may | 
Que vous ayez parl6, that you may ! 
Qu'ils aient parl6, that they may 



426 



SECOND CONJUGATION' iR. 



IMPERFECT, 

Que jo parlasse, 
Que tu parlasses, 
Qii'il parlat, 
Que nous pailassions, 
Que VOU-; parlassiez, 
Qu'iis parlassent, 



that I 

thai thou 

that he ! §■ 

that we ( ^ 

that you | -I' 

that they J " 



PLtTERFECT 

Que j'eusse parle, that I mighl\ 

Que tu eusses parl6, that thou mightsi j 
Qu'il ei'it parle, that he might I 

Que nous eussions parle. that we might f 
Que vous eussiez parle, that you might \ 
Qu'iis eussent parlfi, that they might j 



SECOND conjugation- 
Infinitive Mood. 





PRESENT 




PAST. 




Finir, 


to finish. 


Avoir fini, 




to have finished. 




Participles. 








PRESENT 




PAST 




Finissant 


finishing. 










PAST. 


Ayant fini, 




having finished. 


Fini, 


finished. 
Indicativ 


E Mood. 








^Ri.SENT. 


PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 


Je finis, 


I finish. 


J'ai fini, 




I have finished. 


Tu finis, 


thou finishest. 


Tu as fini. 




thou hast finished. 


11 finit, 


he finishes. 


11 a fini, 




he has finished. 


Nous finissons, 


we finish. 


Nous avons fini. 




we have finished. 


Vous finissez, 


you finish. 


Vous avez fini, 




you have finished. 


lis finissent. 


they finish. 


lis ont fini. 




they have fi.nishcd 


IMPERFECT. 


PLUPERFECT. 


Je finissais, 


I was finishing. 


J'avais fini, 




Ihad finished. 


Tu finissais, 


thou wast finishing. 


Tu avals fini. 




thou hadstfinished. 


11 finissait. 


he was finishing. 


11 avail fini. 




he had finished. 


Nous finissions 


we were finishing. 


Nous avious fini. 




we had finished. 


Vous finissiez. 


you were finishing. 


Vous aviez fini, 




you had finished. 


lis finissaient, 


they were finishing. 


lis avaient fini. 




they had finished. 


PRETERIT DEFINITE. 


PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 


Je finis. 


I finished. 


J'eus fini, 




I had finished 


Tu finis, 


thou finishedst. 


Tu eus fini, 




thou hadstfinished 


11 finit, 


he finished. 


11 eut fini, 




he had finished. 


Nous finimes, 


we finished. 


Nous etimes fini, 




we had finished. 


Vous finites, 


■you finished. 


Vous eutes fini, 




you had finished 


lis finireut, 


they finished. 


lis eurent fini, 




they had finished. 




FUTURE 


PAS 


T FUTURE. 


Je finirai, 


/ shall finish. 


J'aurai fini, 


I 


shall hare finished. 


Tu finiras, 


thou shalt finish. 


Tu auras fini. 


thou 


shalt havefinished- 


11 finira, 


he shall finish. 


li aura fini, 


he 


shall harefijiished 


Nous finirons, 


we shall finish. 


Nous aurons fini, 


ice 


shall have finished. 


Vous finirez, 


you shall finish. 


Vous aurez fini, 


you 


shall hnre finished. 


lis finiront, 


they shall finish. 


lis auront fini, 


they 


shail have finished 


CONDI riONAL PRESENT. 


CONDITIONAL PAST. 


Je finirais. 


I should finish. 


J'aurais fini, 




T should^, ~£ 


Tu fi.;iirais. 


Lhou shotildst finish. 


Tu aurais fini, 




thou shouldst 1 ,$ 


11 finirait. 


he should finish. 


11 aurait fini, 




he should 1 ■" 
we should i'^ 


Nous flnirions, 


we should finish. 


Nous aurions fini 


, 


Vous finiriez, 


you should finish. 


Vous auriez fini, 




you should j g 
t&cy should t •« 


[Is liniraient, 


they should finish. 


lis auraient fini. 





THIRD CONJUGATION OIR. 



427 



iMPERATn'E Mood. 



Finis, 

Qu il finisse, 

Finissons, 

Finissez, 

(iu'ils finissent, 



finish (thou.) 
lei liim finish, 
let us finish, 
finish (you.) 
let them finish 



Subjunctive Mood. 



PRESENT. 

Qhp je finisse, that I mny finish. 

Que lu finisses, that thou mayst finish. 

Qu'll finisse, that he may finish. 

Que nous finissions, that we may finish. 
Que vous nnissiez, that you may finish. 
Qu'ils finissent, that they may finish. 

IMPERFECT. 

Que je finisse, 

Qu tu finisses, 

Qu'il finit, 

Que nous finissions, that we ( -^ 

Que voHS finissiez, that you I -fee 

Qu'ils finissent, that they 



that /■) 

that thou I ^ 

that he [ s 



PRETERIT. 

Que j'aie fini, 
Que tu aies fini, 
Qu'il nit fini, 
Que nous ayons fini. 
Que vous aycz fini, 
Qu'ils aient fini, 



that [ may 

that thou mayst 

that he may 

that we may 

that you may 

that they may 

PLUPERrECT. 

Que j'eusse fini, that J mifrht 

Que tu eusses fini, that thou mightst 
Qu'il eut fini, that he might 

Que nous eussions fini, that we might 
Que vous eussiez fini, that youmight 
Qu'ils eussent fini, that they might 



THIRD conjugation- 
Infinitive Mood. 



PRESENT. 



Recevoir, 

Recevant, 
Regu, 



Je recois, 
Tu recois, 
II recoit, 
Nous recevons, 
Vous recevez, 
lis recoivent, 

Je recevais, 
Tu recevais, 
II recevait. 
Nous recevions, 
Vous receviez, 
lis recevaient, 



to receive. I Avoir recu, 
Participles. 



Ayant recti, 
received. 
Indicative Mood. 



to have received. 



having received. 



I receive. 

thou rcceivest. 

he receives. 

wc receive. 

you receive. 

they receive. 

IMPERFECT. 

/ was receiving. 

thou wast receiving. 

he was receiving. 

we were receiving. 

you were receiving. 

they were receiving 



PRETERIT definite. 



Je recus, 
Tu recus, 
II recut, 
Nous recunies, 
Vous reciites 
Gs recurent, 



/ received. 

thou r.eceivcdst 

he received. 

we received. 

you received. 

they received. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 



J'ai recu, 
Tu as recu, 
II a recu. 
Nous avons recu, 
Vous avez recu, 
lis out recu. 



J'avais recu, 
Tu avals recu, 
II avail recu. 
Nous avions regu, 
Vous aviez recu, 
lis avaient recu. 



/ have received, 
thou hast received 

he has received. 

we have received. 

you have received. 

they have received. 

PLUPERFECT. 

/ had received 

thou hadst received. 

he had received. 

we had received 

you had received. 

they had received. 



PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 



J'eus recu, 
Tu eus recu, 
II eut recu, 
Nous eiimes recu, 
Vous elites recu, 
lis eurcnt refu, 



/ liad received. 

tJiou hadst received. 

he had received. 

we had received. 

you had receired 

fiey had received. 



428 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



Je recevral, 
Tu recevras, 
II rccevra, 
Nous recevTons, 
Vous recevrez, 
[Is recevroiit, 

CONDIT 

Je rcccvniis, 
Tu recovrais, 
[1 recevrait, 
Nous recevrions, 
Vous rccevriez, 
lis recevraient, 



FUTURE. 

/ shall receive. 

thou shall receive. 

he shall receive. 

we shall receive. 

you shall receive. 

they shall receive. 

lONAL PRESENT. 

/ should receive. 

thou shouldst receive. 

he sJiould receive. 

we should receive. 

you should receive. 

they should receive. 

Imperativ 
Recois, 
Qu'il recoive, 
Recevons, 
Recevez, 
Qu'ils recoivent, 



PAST FUTURE. 

J'aurai recu, / shall have received 

Tu auras recu, thou shalt have received 
II aura recn, he shall have received 

Nous atirons recu, we shall have received 
Vous aurez refu, you shall have received 
lis auroni recu, they sliall liave received, 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

J'aurais recu, I should have received. 

Tu aiirais recu, thou shoztld.it have received. 
II aurait recu, he should have received. 

Nous aurionsrecU, we should have received. 
Vous auriez recu, you sliould have received. 
lis auraientrecu, they should have received. 

E Mood. 

receive (thou.) 

let h im receive. 

let us receive. 

receive (you.) 

let them receive. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



PRESENT. 

Que je recoive, 
Que lu recoives, 
Qu'i' ie'j.)ive, 
due nous recevions, 
Q,ue voiis receviez, 
Q,u'ils recoivent, 

IMPERFECT. 

Que je recusse. 
Que tu recusses, 
Qu'il recut. 
Que nous recussions, 
Que vous recussiez, 
Qu'ils recussent, 



that I') 

that thou 

that he 

that we 

that you 

that they 



that 71 ^ 

that thou -S 

that he ' tj 

that we ( -^ 

that you .^c 

that they J S 



PRETERIT. 



Que j'aie recu, 
Que tu aies recu, 
Qu'il ait recu. 
Que nous ayons recti, 
Que vous ayezrecu, 
Qu'ils aient recu, 



that I may 

that thou mayst 

that he may 

that we may 

that you may 

that they may 



PLUPERFECT. 

Que j'eusse recu, that I might 

Que tu eussesrecu, that thou miphtst 
Qu'il eut recu, that he might 

Que nous eussions recu, that we might 
Que vous eussiez recu, that you might 
Qu'\ls eussent reju, that they might 



>l 



>l 



FOURTH conjugation- 
Infinitive Mood. 



Vendre, 

Vendant, 
Vendu, 



Je vends, 
Tu vends, 
II vend, 
Nous vendons 
Vous vcndez 
Us vendont, 



to sell. I Avoir vendu, 
Participles. 

selling. 



to have sold 



past. 



Ayant vendu, havin 
sold. 
Indicative Mood. 

preterit indefinite. 

I sell. J'al vendu, I hare 

thou scllcst. Tu as vendu, thcuhast 

hesi/ls. II a vendu, he has 

we sell. Nous avons vendu, trc have 

you sell. Vous avez vendu, you have 

they sell. lis out vendu, they have 



sold 



sold, 
sold 
sold 
sold 
$old. 
sold. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



429 



CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 

Je vendrais, / should sell. 

Tu vendrais, thou shouldst sell. 

11 veudrait, he should sell. 

Nous vendrions, we should sell. 

Voiis vendriez, you should sell. 

Us vendraieiit, they should sell. 



IMPERFECT. 


PLUPERFECT. 




Jo vcndais, 


/ was selling: 


J'avais vendu, 




I had sold 


Tu vcndais, 


thou wast selling. 


Tu avals vendu. 




thou hadsl sold 


11 vendait, 


he was selling. 


11 avail vendu, 




he had sold. 


Nous vendions, 


we were selling. 


Nous avions vendu, 




we had sold. 


Vous vendiez. 


you were selling. 


Vous aviez vendu. 




you had sold. 


lis vendaient, 


they were selling. 


lU avaient vendu. 




they had sold. 


PRETERIT DEFINITE. 


PRETERIT 


ANTERIOR. 


Je vendis, 


Isold. 


J'eus vendu, 




I had sold. 


Th vendis, 


thou Boldest. 


Tu eus vendu. 




thou hadsl sold 


11 vendit, 


he sold. 


11 eut vendu, 




he had sold 


Nous vendinies 


we sold. 


Nous euines vendu. 




we liad sold 


Vous vendues, 


you sold. 


Vous eules vendu. 




you had sold. 


lis vendirent. 


they sold. 


lis eurent vendu, 




they had sold. 




FUTURE. 


PAST FUTURE. 


Je vendrai. 


/ shall sell. 


J'aurai vendu. 


/ shall have sold. 


Tu vendras. 


thou shalt sell. 


Tu auras vendu. 


thou 


shalt have sold 


n vendra, 


he shall sell. 


11 aura vendu. 


he 


shall have sold 


Nous vend^-ons. 


we shall sell. 


Nous aurons vendu. 


we 


shall have sold. 


Vous vendrez, 


you shall sell. 


Vuus aurez vendu. 


you 


shall have sold. 


lis vendront, 


they shall sell. 


lis auront vendu, 


they 


shall have sold. 



CONDITIONAL PAST. 

J'aurais vendu, I sho-uld^aT-. 

Tu aurais vendu, thou shouldst have 
II aurait vendu, he should h'tv 

Nous aurions vendu, we shovl-l hare 
Vous auriez vendu, you should have 
lis auraiont vendu, they should have 



sold, 
sold, 
sold, 
sold. 



Imperative Mood. 



Vends, 
Gu'il vende, 
Vendons, 
Vendez, 
Qu'ils vendcnt. 



sell (thou.) 
let him sell. 

let us sell. 

sell (you.) 
let them sell. 



Subjunctive Mood. 



Fit s 
Q.ue je vende, 
Clue tu venuei, 
Qu'il vende. 
Que nous vendionb, 
Que vous vendiez, 
Qu'ils vendcnt, 



ENT. 

that I may sell. 

that thou mayst sell. 

that he viay sell. 

that we may sell. 

that you may sell. 

that they may sell. 



IMPKIVFiiCT. 

Que je vendisse, that I' 

Que tu vendisses, thai thou 

Qu'il vendit, that he 

Que nous vendissions, that we (% 

Que vous vendissioz, that you | S 

Qu'ils vendissest, that they ] 



PRETERIT. 

Que j'aie vendu, that I may' 

Qi:e tu ales vendu, that thou mayst 
Qu'il ait vendu, that he may 

Que nous ayons fendu, that we may ( 
Que vous ayez vendu, that you may 
Qu'ils aient vendu, that they may} 

PLUPERFECT 

Que j'eusse vendu., that I might 

Que tu eusses vendu, t'lat thou trjghtst I 
Qu'il eut vendu, that he might { 

Que nous eussions \er''u,that wc might i 
Que vous eussiez veni'-i,that you might 
Qu'ils eussent vendu that they rrnghtj 



430 



REFLECTIVE VERB. 



CONJUGATION OF THE REFLECTIVE YERB SE LETER, TO 

RISE, IN THE FOUR FORMS. 

I.— AFFIRMATIVE FORM. 

Infisi'iive Mood. 



Sc lever, 



Se levant, 
Lev6, 



to rise. \ S'etre leve. 
Participles 



S'etant leve, 
risen. 
Indicative Mood. 



to have risen. 



having' risen. 



PRESENT. 



ie me leve, 
Tu te leves, 
II se leve, 
Nous nous levons, 
Vous vous levez, 
lis se levent, 

imperfect. 
Je me levais, 
Tu te levais, 
n se levait, 
Nous nous levions, 
Vous vous leviez, 
lis se levalent, 

preterit definite 
Je me levai, 
Tu te levas, 
II se leva. 

Nous nous levames, 
Vo-ns vous levates, 
lis se leverent. 



I rise. 

thou rises t. 

he rises. 

we rise. 

you rise. 

they rise. 

I was risivn-. 

thou wast rising-. 

he was rising. 

wc were rising. 

you were rising. 

they were rising. 



I rose. 

thou rosest. 

he rose. 

we rose. 

you rose. 

they rose. 



future. 



Je me leverai, 
Tu te leveras, 
II se levera, 
Nous nous leverons, 
Vous vous leverez, 
Ds se leveront. 



/ shall rise, 
thou shnlt rise. 

he shall rise. 

we shall rise, 
you shall rise, 
they shall rise. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 



Je me leverais, 
Tu te leverais, 
11 se leverait, 
Nous nous leverians, 
Vous voM': Icveriez, 
Us sc Icivcraient, 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 



Je me suis leve, 

Tu t"es leve, 

II s'est lev6. 

Nous nous sommes leves, 

Vous vous §tes lev6s, 

lis se sent leves, 



I hare risai 
thou hast risen 

he has risen 

we hare risen. 

you have risen. 

Vicy have risen. 

PLUPERFECT. 



II se serait lev(i, 
Nous nous serions leves, 
Vous vous seriez lev6s, 
lis se seraient lpv6s, 



/ shoiild rise. 

thou shouldst rise. 

he should rise. 

we should rise. 

you should rise. 

they should rise. 

Imperative JIoou. 
Leve-toi, rise {thou.: 

Gu'il se leve, let him rise. 

Levons-nous, let vs rise. 

Levez-vous, rise (you.) 

Q.n'ils sc levent. let Uicm rise 



Je m'etais leve, 

Tu t'etais leve, 

II s'etait leve. 

Nous nous etions leves, 

Vous vous etiez leves, 

lis s'etaient leves, 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

Je me fus lev6, I had risen. 

Tu te fus leve, 

II se fut lev(5. 

Nous nous fumes leves, 

Vous vous futes leves, 

lis se furent lev6s, 

PAST FUTURE. 

Je me serai lev6, I shall hare risen 

Tu te seras leve, tJiou shaJt have risen 
11 se sera lev6, he shail have risen 

Nous nous serons leves, we shall have risen 
Vous vous serez leves, you shall have risen 
lis se seront leves, they shall have risen 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

Je me serais leve, / should 

Tq te serais lev6, thou sheuld. 



I had risen. 

thou hndst risen. 

he had risen 

we Itad risen 

you had risen 

they had risen. 



thou hadst risen 

he had risen. 

we had risen 

you had risen 

they had risen 



he should , 
ice should 



Id) 



^^, 



you should j S 
they should} 



SE LEVER. 



431 



PRESENT. 

Gue je me leve, that I mny rise. 

Que tu te leves, that thou mnijst rise. 

Glu'il se leve, that he mny rise. 

Que noU3 nous levions, that we may rise. 
Que V0U3 vous leviez, that you may rise. 
Glu'ils se levent, . that they may rise. 

IMPERFECT. 

Que je me levasse, 
Que tu tc levasses, 
Qu'il se leviit, 
Que nous nous levassions, 
Que vous vous levassiez, 
Qu'ils se levassent, 



Subjunctive Mood. 

preterit. 

Que je me aois Iev6, that /"] 

Que tu te scis love, that thou . 

Qu'il se soit Iev6, that he \ 
Que nous nous soyons lev6s, tliat we ( 

Que vous vous soyez lev6s, that you | " 

Qu'ils se sclent lev6s, that they) 

PLUPERFECT. 

Que je me fusse le_y6, that J"] 

Que tu te fusses lev6, that thou g 

Qu'il se fut levdi, that he [■^ 

Que nous nous fussions \ev(:s,that we i S ■ 
Que vous vous fusslez lev6s, that you \ 5' 
Qu'ils se I'ussent lev6s, that they) 



that /"I 

that thou 

that he 

that we 

that you 

that they . 



II.- 



-NEGATIVE FORM. 
Infinitive Mood. 



PAST. 



Ne pas se lever, 



Ne se levant pas, 

PRESENT. 

Je ne me leve pas, 
Tu ne te leves pas, 
II ne se leve pas, 
Nous ne nous levons pas, 
Vous ne vous levez pas, 
lis ne se levent pas, 



not to rise. \ Ne pas s'fitre lev6, 
Participles. 

I . PAST, 

not rising. \ Ne s'6tant pas lev6. 
Indicative Mood. 

PRETERIT indefinite. 

I rise not. Je ne me suis pss lev6, 

thou risest not. Tu ne t'es pas levti, 

he rises not. II ne s'est pas lev6, 

!oe rise not. Nous ne nous soinmos pas levies, 

you rise not. Vous ne vous 6tes pas leves, 

they rise not. Us ne se sont pas lev6s, 
&c. &c. 



not to have ri.ten 



not having risen 



thou I .2 

Ael i 

we ( s 

you I s 

they } •« 

&c. 



III.— INTERROGATIVE FORM. 



Indicative Mood. 



Me lev6-je, 
Te leves-tu, 
Se leve-t-il. 
Nous levons-notis, 
Vous levez- vous, 
Se levent-ils, 

&c 



do I rise. 

dost thou rise 

docs he rise 

do we rise. 

do you rise. 

do they rise. 

&c. 



preterit indefinite. 



Ble suis-je lev6 
T'es-tu lev6, 
S'est-il lev6. 

Nous sommes-nous lev6s, 
Vous etes-vous lev6s, 
Se sont-ils lev6s, 
&c. 



have T risen. 

hast thou risifii. 

has he risen 

have we risen 

have you risen 

have they risen. 

&c. 



rV.— NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE FORM 
Indicative Mood. 

preterit indefinits. 
Ne me suis-je pas lev6 hai'c /I 

Ne t'es-tu pas leve hast thou I 

Ne s'est-il pas leve, has he \ 

Ne nous soinmos nous pas leves, have we 
Ne vous fites-vous pas lev6s, have you 
Ne se sont-ils pas lev6s, Acce they _ 

Sec &(^. 



present. 
Ne me lev6-je pas, do I not rise. 

Ne te levfs-tu pas, dost thou not rise. 

Ne se leve-t-il pas, does he not rise. 

Ne nous levons-nous pas, do we not rise. 
Ne vous levez-vous pas, do you not rise. 
No so levent-ils pas, do they not rise. 



433 



LMPERSONAL VERBS. 



CONJUGATION OF THE niPERSONAL VERB JVEIGER, TO SNOW. 

Infinitive Mood. 



Neiger, 



to snow. \ Avoir neigii, 
Participlks. 



PRESENT. 
PAST. 



snowing, 
snowed. 



it snows. 



Neigant, 
Neig6, 

II neige, 
II neigeait, 

PP.ETERIT definite. 

n neigea, it snowed. 

FUTURE. 

n neigera, it icill snow. 

COHDITIONAL PRESENT. 

U neigerait, it should snow. 



Ayant neige, 
Indicative IMood. 



to have snoieed 



navinsf snowed 



imperfect. 



PRETERIT INDEFIMTE. 

II a neigS, it has snoiced 

PLUPERFECT. 

it had snowed. 

PRETEPaT AJSTERIOR. 

II eut neige, it had snoiscd 

PAST FUTURE. 

II aura neigo, it -will have snoiced 

CONDmONAL PAST. 

II aurait neige, it should hate snoiced 



Subjunctive jNIgod. 



PRESENT. 

Qxi'il ncigc, that it may snow. 

IMPERFECT. 

ftn'il neigeat, that it might snow. 



preterit. 
(iu'il ait neig6, that it may hare snoiced 

pluperfect. 
Ou'il eiit neigfe, that it might have snotced. 



CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERSONAL VERB PLEUVOIR. TO RAIN. 

Infinitive Mood. 



Pleuvoir, 
rienvant, 

n pleut, 
II pleuvait, 



PRESENT. 



to rain. \ Avoir plu, 
Participles. 

rainin/r. \ Ay ant plu, 

Indicative Mood 



to hart rained 



haviTig rained 



it rams. 



IMPERFECT. 



FUTURE 



II pleuvra, it will rnm 

conditional present. 
II pleu\Tait, • it would rain 



preterit definite. 
II plut, it rained. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

PRttSENT. I imperfect. 

Un'il plouve, that it may rain I Qu'il plut, tAat U night TCjn- 



Y AVOIR AND FALLOIR. 



433 



CONJUOATION OP THE IMPERSONAL VERB Y MP'OIR, TO BE THERE. 
Infinitive Mood. 
present. past. 

I avoir, to be there. \ Y avoir eu, to have been there 

Participles. 

present. past. 

y ayant, beiitff there. \ Y ayant eu, having been Uie-i 

Indicative Mood. 



PRESENT. 

there is, or there are. 

IMPERFECT. 

there mis, or there were. 



II y a, 
[1 y avait, 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

II y eat, there was, or there were. 

FUTURE. 

11 y au»3, there will be. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 

II y aurait, there should be. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

II y a eu, there has been, or there hive been 

PLUPERFECT. 

II y avait eu, there had been. 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

II y eut eu, tliere had been. 

PAST FUTURE. 

II y aura eu, there will have bee^ 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

II y aurait eu, there should have been. 



Imperative Mood. 

du'il y ait, let there be. 

Subjunctive Mood. 



present. 
Qu'il y ait, that there may be. 

IMPERFECT. 

(iii'il y eiit, that there might be. 



PRETERIT. 

Qii'il y ait eu, that there may have been 

PLUPERFECT. 

Q,u'il y eut eu, that there might have been 



CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERSONAL VERB FALLOIR, TO BE NECESSARY 
Infinitive Mood. 



PRESENT. 



Falloir, 



to be necessary. \ Fallu, 
Indicative Mood. 



PAST PARTICIPLE. 

been necessary 



PRESENT. 

H faut, it is necessary. 

IMPERFECT. 

n fallait, it was necessary. 

PRETERIT DEFINITE. 

II fallut, it was necessary. 

FUTURE. 

n faudra, it will be necessary. 

CONDITIONAL PRESENT. 

II faudrait, it would be necessary. 

Subjunctive Mood 

PRESENT. 

Qu'il faille, that it may be necessary. 



PRETERIT INDEFINITE. 

11 a fallu, it has been necessary 

PLUPERFECT. 

11 avait fallu, it had been necessary 

PRETERIT ANTERIOR. 

II eut fallu, it had been necessary 

PAST FUTURE. 

11 aura fallu, it will have been necessary 

CONDITIONAL PAST. 

II aurait fallu, it would have been necessary. 



IMPERFECT. 

Qu'il fall&t, that it might be necessary. 



37 



PRETERIT. 

Qu'il ait fallu, that it may have been neco8 
sary. 

PLUPERFECT. 

Qu'il cut fallu, that it might have been r,e 
ccssary. 



434 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST COXJUGA- 
TION— £r. 

ALLER— To Go. 

iNFiNiTrv'E Mood. 
Present. Aller, to go. 

Part. pres. Allant, going 

Part. past. Alle, 6e, gone. 

Indicative Mood. 

P; esent. 

tu vas, il va, I go, &o 

vous allez, Us vent. 

Imperfect. 

tu allais, il allait, / was going, 8ui. 

vous alliez, ils allaient. 

Preterit 

tu alias, il alia, I went, &c. 

vous aliates, ils allferent. 

Future 

tu iras, il ira, I shall go, &ic 

vous irez, ils iront. 

Conditional. 

tu irais, il irait, I should go, £ic 

vous iriez, ils iraient. 

IiiPERATm: Mood. 

Va, qu'il aille, Go thou, && 

allez, qw'ils aillent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



Je vais, 
Nous allous, 

J'allais, 
Nous allions, 

J'allai, 

Nous all&.mes, 

J'irai, 
Nous irons, 

J'irais, 
Nous irions. 



Allons, 



J'aille, 
Nous allions. 



tu ailles, 
vous alliez. 



il aille, I may go, &c. 
ils ailleuL 



Imperfect. 

J'allasse, tu allasses, il all^t, I might go, &.& 

Nous allassions, vous allassiez, ils allasseat 



ENVOYER— To Send. 
This verb is irregular only in the Future and Conditioual Tenses 
Future. 
J'enverrai, tu cnverras, il enverra, I shall send, Alc. 

Nous enverrons, vous enverrez, ils enverront. 

Conditional. 
J'enverrais, tu enverrais, ileiiveirnnt, I should send, &c 

Nous enverrions, vous euverriez, ils eurerraient. 



SECOND CONJUGATION IR. 



433 



ep, 5 



conjugated 


like 


Venir. 
Courir. 


<( 


" 


Cueillir. 


it 


(< 


Venir. 


le 


It 


page 436. 
page 437. 
Courir. 


« 


It 


Acquerir. 
Sentir. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE SECOND CONJUGA- 
TION— /r. 

The Irregular Verbs belonging to this conjugation are — 

s'Ahstenir, to abstain, 
Accourir, to run to, 
Accueillir, to welcome, 
Appartenir, to belong to 
AcauERiR, to acquire, . 
BouiLLiR, to boil, 
Concourir, to concur, . 
Conquerir, to conquer, 
Consentir, to consent, 
Contenir, to contain, 
Contrevenir, to contravene, 
Convenir, to agree, 
Courir, to run, . 
Couvrir, to cover, 
CuEiLXiiR, to gather, . . 
Decouvrir, to discover, 
Dimentir, to give the lie, 
se Departir, to give up, 
Desservir, to clear the tables, 
Detenir, to detain, \ 
Devenir, to become, J 
se Devetir, to undress, 
Disconvenir, to disagree, 
Discourir, to discourse, 
Dormir, to sleep, 
Endormir, to lull asleep, 
s'Endorniir, to fall asleep, 
Encourir, to incur, 
s'Enfuir, to run away, 
Entretenir, to keep up, 
Entr'ouvrir, to open a little, 
FuiR, to flee, to shun, to avoid, 
Intervenir, to intervene, ) 
Maintenir, to maintain, ^ 
Mentir, to lie, ... 
MouRiR, to die, . 
Ohtenir, to obtain, 
Offrir, to offer, 
OuvRiR, to open, . 
Par courir, to run over, 
Partir, to set out, ? 

Pressentir, to foresee, ^ 
Parvenir, to attain, ^ 
Prevcnir, to prevent, > . 
Provenir, to proceed, j 
Recourir, to have recourse to 
Recouvrir, to cover again, . 
Recueillir, to collect, . 



" Venir. 

page 437 
" Ouvrir. 

page 438 
" Ouvrir. 

" Fenir. 

" Revetir. 
" Venir. 
" Courir. 

" Sentir. 

" Courir. 

" Fenzr. 
'•' Ouvrir. 
page 439. 

" Fenir. 

page 440. 
" Fe?HV. 
" Ouvrir. 

page 440. 
" Courir. 

" Sentir. 

" Fcmr. 

" Courir. 
" Ouvrir 
" Cueillir 



436 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Redevenir, to become again, 
se Rendormir, to sleep again, 
Repartir, to set out again, 
se Repp.ntir, to repent, 
Requerir, to require, . 
Resseniir, to resent, ) 

Ressortir, to go out again, ^ 
Ressouvenir, to remember, 
Retenir, to retain, 
Revenir, to return, 
Revktir, to invest, 
Secourir, to succor, 
Sentir, to feel, to smell, 
Servir, to serve, to use, ) 
Sortir, to go out, ^ 

Souffrir, to suffer, 
Soutenir, to maintain, 
se Souvenir, to remember, 
Subvenir, to supply, 
Suriienir, to befall, 
Tenir, to liold, 
Tressaillir, to start, . 
Venir, to come, . 
FeZi'r, to clothe, . 



conjugated like Venir. 

« '•' Sentir. 

" " Acqueri? 

« '•' 5'enizr. 



page 441 
" Courir. 
page 442 

«' 5eniir. 

" Ouvrir. 



" FcTzir. 



page 442 
page 443 
Revetir. 



ACQUfiRIR— To Acquire. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Acquerir, to acquire. 



Part 
Part 


pres. Acqu^raut, acquiring, 
past. Acquis, se, acquired. 




Indicative Mood. 




Present. 




J'acquiers, 
Nous acqu^rons, 


tu acquiers, 
vous acqu6rez. 
Imperfect. 


il acquiert, / acquire, &C. 
ils acquifereut. 


J'acqu^rais, 
Nous acquerions, 


tu acquerais, 
vous acqu^riez, 
Preterit. 


il acqudrait, I icas acquirhig 
ils acqu^raient. [•k.c 


J'acquis, 

Nous acquimes, 


tu acquis, 
vous acquites. 
Future. 


il acquit, I acquired, Sec 
ils acquireut. 


J'acquerrai, 


tu acquerras. 


il acquerra, / shall acquire, 


Nous acquerrons 


vous acquerrez, 
Conditional 


ils acquerrout. [Slo. 


J'acquerrais, 
Nous acquerrions. 


tu acquerrais, 
vous acquerriez, 


il acquerrait, I sJwuJd acquire, 
ils acquerraient. [<Sur, 



Acqudroiis, 



Imperative IMood. 
Acquiers, qu'il acquifere, Acquire i}iou,<kc 

acqudrez, qu'ils acquiereut 



SECOND CONJUGATION IR. 



437 



J'acquifere, 
Nous acqii6rions, 

J'acquisse, 
Nous acquissions^ 



Subjunctive, Mood, 

Present. 
tu acquiferes, 
vous acqudriez, 

Imperfect 
tu acquisses, 
vous acquissiez, 



il acquifere, i tnay acquire, &c 
ils acquierent. 

il acquit, I might acquire, Sux 
ils acqulssent. 



Je bous, 
Nous bouillons, 

Je bouillais, 
Nous bouillions, 

Je bouillis. 
Nous bouillimes, 

Je bouillirai, 
Nous bouillirons, 

Je bouillirais, 
Nous bouillirions. 



Bouillons, 



Je bouille, 
Nous bouillions, 

Je bouillisse. 
Nous bouillissions, 



BOUILLIR— To Boil. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Bouillir, to boil. 

Part. pres. HowUant, boiling. 

Part. past. Bouilli, ie, boiled. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu bous, 
vous bouillez, 

Imperfect 
tu bouillais, 
vous bouiUiez, 

Preterit. 
tu bouillis, 
vous bouillites, 
Future. 
tu bouilliras, 
vous bouillirez, 

Conditional 
tu bouillirais, 
vous bouilliriez, 



il bout, / boil, &c. 
ils bouilleut. 



il bouillait, / was boiling, &c 

ils bouillaient. 



il bouillit, I boiled, &c. 
ils bouillireut. 

il bouillira, / shall boil, &c, 
ils bouilliront. 

il bouillirait, I should boil, &c 
ils bouilliraieut. 



Imperative Mood. 
Bous, qu'il bouille, Boil thou, &lc. 

bouillez, qu'ils bouilleut. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



tu bouilles, 
vous bouiUiez, 

Imperfect. 
tu bouillisses, 



il bouille, / 7nay boil, &c. 
Us bouilleut. 



il bouillit, I might boil, &a 



vous bouillissiez, ils bouillissent. 



COURIR— To Run. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. ' Courir, to run. 

Part. pres. Courant, running. 

Part. past. Couru, ue, ruru 



438 



lEEEGTTLAR VERBS. 



.Te cours, 
Nous courons, 

Je courais, 
Nous courioiis, 

Je courns, 
Nous courumes, 

Je courrai, 
Nous courrons, 

Je courrais, 
Nous coiuniions, 



Courons, 



Je couie, 
Nous courious, 

Jo courusse, 
Nous courussions, 



Indicative Mood 

Present. 
tu cours, il court, Iran, &c. 

vous courez, ils coureut. 

Imperfect. 



tu courais, 
vous couriez. 

Preterit. 
tu coarus, 
vous courutes. 

Future. 
tu courras, 
vous comTez, 

Conditional. 
tu courrais, 
vous courriez. 



il courait, I was running, SiO 

ils couraient. 



il courut, I ran, &c. 
ils courureut. 

il courra, / shall run, (Sec. 
ils courront. 



il courrait, I should run, &c 
ils courraient. 
Imperative Mood. 
Cours, qu'il coure. Run thou, S^. 

courez, qu'ils courent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. ■ * 

tu coures, il coure, I may run, &c. 

vous couriez, ils coureut. 

Imperfect. 

tu courusses, il courdt, / might run, &c 

vous courussiez, ils courussent. 



CUEILLIR— To Gather. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Cueillir, to gather. 



Cueillant, gathering. 
Cueilli, ie, gathered. 



Je cueille, 

Nous cueillons, 

Je cueillais. 
Nous cueillious, 

Je cueillis, 
Nous cueillimes, 

Je cueillerai. 
Nous cueillerons. 



Part. pres. 
Part. past. 

iNDicATfVE Mood 
Prese7jt. 
tu cueilles, 
vous cueillez. 

Imperfect 
tu cueillais, 
vous cueilliez, 

Preterit. 
tu cueillis, 
vous cueillites, 
Future. 
tu cueilleras, 
vous cueillerez, 



il cueille, I gather, &c. 
ils cueilleut. 



il cueillait, / was gathering, 
ils cueOlaient. ""ic. 



il cueillit, I gathered, &.c 
ils cueillireut. 



il cueillera, I shall gather, && 
ils cueiileronL 



SECOND CONJUGATION IR. 



439 



'e cueillerais, 
Nous cueillerions, 



Cueillons, 



Je cueille, 
Nous cueillions, 

Te cueillisse, 
Xous cueillissions, 



Conditional. 
tu cueillerais, il cueillerait, / should gather, 
vous cueilleriez, ils cueilleraient. [&c. 

Imperative Mood. 
Cueille, qu'il cueille. Gather thou, &c. 

cueillez, qu'ils cueillent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 

il cueille, Imay gather, &c. 
ils cueillent. 



tu cueilles, 
vous cueilliez, 

Imperfect. 
tu cueillisses, 
vous cueillissiez, 



il cueillit, / might gather, &o 
lis cueillissent. 



Je fuis, 
Nous fuyoiis, 

Je fuyais, 
Nous fuyions, 

Je fuis, 
Nous fuimes, 

Je fuirai. 
Nous fuirons, 

Je fuirais. 
Nous fuirions, 



Fuyons, 



Te fuie. 
Nous fuyions, 

Je fuisso. 
Nous fuissions. 



FUIR— To Flee. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Fuir, to flee. 

Part. pres. Fuyant, fleeing, 

Part. past. Fui, ie,fled. 

Indicative Mooa 
Present. 
tu fuis, 
vous fuyez, 

Imperfect. 
tu fuyais, 
vous fuyiez, 

Preterit. 
tu fuis, 
vous fuites, 

Future. 
tu fuiras, 
vous fuirez, 

Conditional. 
tu fuirais, il fuirait, / should flee, &c, 

vous fuiriez, ils fuiraient. 

lMPERATr\-E Mood 
Fuis, qu'il fuie. Flee thou, &c. 

fuyez, qu'ils fuient. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



il fuit, I flee, &c. 
ils fuient. 



il fuyait, / was fleeing, Sao, 
ils fuyaient 

il fuit, I fled, &c. 
ils fuirent. 



il fuira, / shall flee, &c. 
ils fuiront. 



tu fuies, 
vous fuyiez. 

Imperfect. 
tu fuisses, 
vous fuissiez. 



il fuie, I may flee, &c. 
ils fuient. 



il fuit, I might flee, dec. 
ils fuissent 



440 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



MOURIR— To Die. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Mourir, to die. 

Part. pres. Mourant, dying, 

Paft. past. Mort, te, dead. 

iNDicATn'E Mood. 
Present. 
tu meurs, 
vous mourez, 

Imperfect. 
tu mourais, 
vous mouriez, 

Preterit. 
tu mourns, 



Je meurs, 
Nous mourons, 

Je mourais, 
Nous mourioiis, 

Je mourus, 

Nous mourdmes, vous mourfites, 

Future. 



il meurt, / die, &c. 
ils meureut. 



mourait, / was dying, (Sec 
ils mouraient. 



il mourut, / died, &.C. 
ils moururent. 



Je mourrai. 
Nous mourrons, 

Je mourrais. 
Nous mourrions, 



Mourons, 



Je meure, 
Nous mourions, 

Je mourusse. 



il mourra, / shall die, &.c. 
ils mourront. 



tu mourras, 
vous mourrez, 

Conditional. 
tu mourrais, il mourrait, I should die, &C. 

vous mourriez, ils mourraient. 

Imperative Mood. 
Meurs, qu'il meure. Die thou, &-C. 

mourez, qu'ils meiu'ent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 

il meure, I may die, &.c. 
ils meurent. 



tu meures, 
vous mouriez. 

Imperfect. 
tu mourusses, 



il mourilt, / might die, ic 



Nous mourussions, vous mourussiez, ils mourussent 



J'ouvre, 

Nous ouvrons, 

J'ouvrais, 
Nous ouvrions 



OUVRIR— To Open. 
Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Ouvrir, to open. 

Part. pres. Ouvraut, opening. 

Part. past. O avert, te, opened 

Indicative Mood. 
Prese7}t. 
tu ouvres, 
vous ouvrez, 

Imperfect. 
tu ouvrais, 
vous ouvriez, 



il ouvre, I open, <tc. 
ils ouvreut. 



il ouvrait, I icas opening, &a 
ils ouvraient. 



SECOND CONJUGATION IR. 



441 





Preterit. 




J'ouvris, 

Nous ouvrimes, 


tu ouvris, 
vous ouvrites, 
Future. 


il ouvrit, / opened, &c. 
ils ouvrirent. 


J'ouvrirai, 
Nous ouvrirons, 


tu ouvriras, 
vous ouvrirez, 
Conditional. 


il ouvrira, I shall open, Sec. 
ils ouvrirout. 


J'ouvrirais, 
Nous ouvririons, 


tu ouvrirais, 
vous ouvririez, 


il ouvrirait, / should open, &o 
ils ouvriraient. 




Imperative Mood. 


Ouvrons, 


Ouvre, 
ouvrez, 


qu'il ouvre, Open thou, &c. 
qu'ils ouvrent. 




Subjunctive Mood. 




Present. 




J'ouvre, 
Nous ouvrions, 


tu ouvres, 
vous ouvriez, 


il ouvre, / may open, &c. 
ils ouvrent. 


J'ouvrisse, 
Nous ouvrissions, 


Imperfect. 
tu ouvrisses, 
vous ouvrissiez, 


il ouvrit, / might open, &o 
ils ouvrisseiit. 



REVfiTIR— ro Invest. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Revdtir, to invest. 

Part. pres. Revetant, investing. 

Part. past. Revetu, ue, invested. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
Je rev6ts, tu revets, 

Nous revetons, vous revetez, 

Imperfect, 
Je rev6lais, tu revetais. 

Nous rev6tions, vous revfitiez. 

Preterit. 
Je rev^tis, tu revetis, 

Nous revetimes, vous rev^tites, 
Future. 
Je rev^tirai, tu revetiras. 

Nous rev6tirons, vous revetirez. 

Conditional. 
Je rev6tirais, tu rev6tirais, 

Nous revStirions, vous revStiriez, 



il revet, / invest, &c. 
ils revfitent. 



il rev6tait, / was investing, 

ils revfitaieut. [<S£c. 



il revfitit, / invested, &c 
ils revfitirent. 



il rev^tira, / shall invest, &c 
ils revdtiront. 



Revfitons, 



il revStirait, I should invest, 
ils revetiraient. [&c. 

Imperative Mood. 

Rev6ts, qu'il rev^te, Invest thou, &c, 

Revetez, qu'ils rev6teiit. 



442 



IRREGULAK VERBS. 



Je revete, 
Nous revetions, 

Je revetisse, 
Nous revetissions, 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 
tu revetes, 
vous revfitiez, 

Imperfect. 
tu revbtisses, 
vous revetissiez, 



il revete, I may invest, &X. 
ils revelent. 



il revetit, I might invest, &c 
ils revetissent. 



Je sens, 
Nous seutons, 

Je sentais, 
Nous aentions, 

Je sentis, 
Nous sentimes, 

Je sentirai, 
Nous sentirons, 

Je sentirais. 
Nous sentirions, 



Sentons, 



SENTIR— To Feel. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Sentir, to feel. 

Part. pres. Sentant, feeling. 

Part. past. Senti, ie, felt. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu sens, 
vous sentez, 

hnperfect. 
tu sentais, 
vous sentiez, 

Preterit. 
tu sentis, 
vous sentites. 

Future. 
tu sentiras, 
vous sentirez. 

Conditional, 
tu sentirais, 
vous sentiriez, 

Imperative Mood. 
Sens, 
sentez, 



il sent, I feel, &c. 
ils sentent. 



il sentait, I was feeling, &c 
ils sentaient. 



il sentit, I felt, &.c. 
ils sentirent. 



il sentira, I shall feel, &c. 
ils sentiront. 



il sentirait, I should feel, &c 
ils sentiraient. 



qu'il sente. Feel thou, &.<:. 
qu'ils sentent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



Je sente, 
Nous sentions, 

Je sentisse, 
Nous sentissions, 



tu sentes, 
vous sentiez. 

Imperfect. 
tu sentisses, 
vous sentissiez. 



il sente, I may feel, &,c. 
ils sentent. 



il sentit, I might feel, «fec. 
ils sentissent 



TRESS AILLIR— To Start. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Tressaillir, to start. 

Part. pres. Tressaillant, starting. 



Part. past. 



Tressailli, ie, started. 



SECOND CONJUGATIOiV- 



443 



Je tressaille, 
Nous tressaillons, 

Je tressaillais, 
Nous tressaillions, 

Je tressaillis, 



Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu tressailles, 
vous tressaillez, 
Imperfect. 
tu tressaillais, 
vous tressailliez, 
Prcieiit. 
tu tressaillis, 
Nous tressaillimes, vous tressaillites, ils tressaillirent. 

Future. 
Je tressaillirai, tu tressailliras, 

Nous tressaillirons, vous tressaillirez, 
Conditional. 
Je tressaillirais, tu tressaillirais, il tressaillirait, I should start 

Nous tressaillirions, vous tressailliriez, ils tressailliraieut. [&c. 

[No Imperative Mood.'\ 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu tressailles, 
vous tressailliez, 

Imperfect. 
tu tressaillisses. 



il tressaille, / start, &lc. 

lis tressailleut. 



il tressaillait, / was starting 

iis tressaillaient. [&c. 

il tressaillit, / started, &c. 



il tressaillira, / shall start, 
ils tressailiiront. [&c 



Je tressaille. 
Nous tressaillions, 



Je tressaillisse, 



il tressaille, / may start, &c. 
ils tressaiileiit. 



il tressaillit, Imight stzrt, Sus 



Nous tressaillissions, vous tressaillissiez, ils tressaOIissent. 



VENIR— To Come. 
Infinitive Mood. 



Venir, to come. 
Venant, coming. 
Venu, ue, co7ne. 



Je viens, 
Nous venous, 

Je venais. 
Nous venioiis 

Je vins, 
Nous vinmss, 



Je viendrai, 
Nous vieudrons 



Present. 
Part. pres. 
Part. past. 

Indicative Mood, 
Present. 

tu viens, 

vous venez, 

Imperfect 

tu venais, 

vous veniez, 

Preterit. 

tu vins, 

vous vintes, 

Futur i 
tu viendras, 
vous viendrez, 



il vient, / come, &c. 
ils viennent. 



il veiiait, / was coming, &c 
ils venaient. 



il vint, / came, &,c. 
ils vinrenL 



il viendra, / shall come, &a 
ils viendront. 



444 



IRREGTJLAE VERBS. 



Je viendrais, 
Nous viendrions, 



Veuons, 



Je vienne, 
Nous veuious, 

Je vinsse, 
Nous vinssions, 



Conditional. 
tu viendcais, il viendrait, I should come, &xi 

vous vieudriez, ils viendiaieni. 
Imperative Mood. 

Viens, qu'il vienne, Come thou, &«, 

venez, qu'ils vieuueut. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



tu viennes, 
vous veniez, 

Imperfect. 
tu vinsses, 
vous vinssiez, 



il vienne, / may come, &c. 
ils vienneut. 



il vint, 1 7night come, &c. 
ils viiissent. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION— 0» 



The Irregular Verbs belonging to 
, . ' ' > to sit down, 

s ASSF.OIR, ) 

Dkchoir, to decay, 
Echoir, to expire, 
Emouvoir, to stir up, 
Entrevoir, to have a glimpse, 
Equivaloir, to be equivalent, 
Falloir, to be necessaiy, 
MouvoiR, to move, 
Pleuvoir, to rain, 
Pourvoir, to provide, 
PouvoiR, to be able, 
Prkvoir, to foresee, 
Prevaloir, to prevail, 
Revaloir, to return like for like, 
Rasseoir, to sit down again, 
Rcvoir, to see again, 
Savoir, to know, . 
Seoir, to fit, to suit, to become.* 
Surseoir, to supersede, . 
Valoir, to be worth. 
Voir, to see, 
VouLoiR, to be willing, . 



this conjugation are — 

page 445 

page 445. 
conjugated like Dechoir. 
" " Mouvoir 

" " Voir. 

" " Valoir. 

. See page 43S 

page 446 

. See page 432 

" '' Prevoir. 

page 447. 

page 447. 
" " Valoir. 

« " Valoir. 

" " Asseoir. 

« " Voir. 

page 448 



Pretoir. 
page 449. 
page 450 
page 450. 



* Sroir, To fit, to suit, to become, is used only in the third person of each tense in 
the Indicative. 



H sied, it fits, 
Ils sieent, then fit. 
II si6ra, it will fit, 
Us si^ront, tliey uillf.t. 



II seyait, it fitted, 

lis seyaient, theij fitted. 

II sifirait, it would fit, 

lis si6raient, they would fit. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OIR. 



445 



ASSEOIR— To Sit down. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Asseoir, to sit down. 

Part. pres. Asseyant, sitting down 
Part. past. Assis, ise, sat down. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
J'assieds, tu assieds, 

Nous asseyons, vous asseyez, 

Imperfect. 
J'asseyais, tu asseyais, 

Nous asseyions, vous asseyiez, 
Preterit. 
J'assis, • tu assis, 

Nous assimes, vous assites, 

Future. 
J'assi^rai, tu assieras, 

Nous assi^rons, vous assidrez, 

Conditional. 
tu assierais, 
vous assi^riez, 



il assied, / sit, &M, 
ils asseient. 

il asseyait, / was sitting, Sio, 
ils asseyaient. 

il assit, / sat, &c. 
lis assii'ent. 

il assi^ra, / shall sit, &c. 
ils assieront. 



J'assierais, 
Nous assi^rions, 



Asseyons, 



J'asseie, 

Nous asseyions, 

J'assisse, 
Nous assissious. 



il assi^rait, / sliould sit. Sac 
ils assieraient. 
Imperative Mood. 
Assieds, qu'il asseie. Sit thou, &c. 

asseyez, qu'ils asseient. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu asseies, il asseie, I may sit, &c. 

vous asseyiez, ils asseient. 

Imperfect. 
tu assisses, il assit, I might sit, &C. 

vous assissiez, ils assissent. 



Asseoir is active, but is generally conjugated as a reflective verb. 



Je d^chois, 
Nous deehoyons, 

Je d^choyais, 
Nous ddchoyions, 



DfiCHOIR— To Decay. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. D^choir, to decay. ' 

Part. pres. [Not used.] 
Part. past. D^chu, ue, decayed. 
Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu d^chois, 
vous d^choyez. 
Imperfect. 
tu ddchoyais, 
vous declaoyiez, 



il dechoit, I decay ^ Sec 
ils dechoient. 



il ddchoyait, / was decaying, 
ils d^choyaient [&c 



446 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Je dechus, 
Nous dechumes, 

Je decherrai, 
Nous decherrons, 

Je decherrais, 
Nous decherrioiis, 



e d^ctoie, 
Nous (^choyious, 

Je dechusse, 
Nous dechussions, 



il dechut, I decayed, &c. 

ils dechurent. 



1 decherra, I shall decay, &Ci 
ils decherront. 



il decherrait, / should decay, 
ils decherraient [&c. 



PreteTit, 
tu dechus, 
vods dechutes, 
Future 
tu decherras, 
vous decherrez, 

Conditional 
tu decherrais, 
vous decherriez, 

Imperative Mood 

[Not used.] 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu dechoies, il dechoie, I may decay, &c. 

vous dechoyiez, ils declioient. 

Imperfect. 
tu dechusses, il dechM, / might decay, <Sm; 
vous dechussiez, ils dechussent. 



Mouvoir, to move. 
Mouvant, moving. 
MCi, ue, moved. 



Je meus, 
Nous mouvons, 

Je mouvais. 
Nous mouvious, 

Je mus. 
Nous mtimes, 

Je mouvrai, 
Nous mouvrons, 

Je mouvrais. 
Nous mouvrions, 



Mouvc 



MOUVOIR— To Move. 
Infinitive Mood. 

Present. 
Part. pres. 
Part past. 

Indicative Mood 
Present. 
tu meus, 
vous mouvez. 

Imperfect. 
tu mouvais, 
vous mouviez. 
Preterit. 
tu mus, 
vous mCites, 

Future 
tu mouvras, 
vous mouvrez. 

Conditional. 
tu mouvrais, 
vous mouvriez, 

Imperativk Mood 

JMeus, 
mouvez, 



il meut, I move, Ace. 
ils meuvent. 



il mouvait, / was moving, ^q. 
ils mouvaient. 



il mut, I moved, &.c. 
ils mureut. 



il mouvra, / shall move, &,c. 
ils mouvroiit. 



il mouvrait, I should move, &o 
ils mouvraient. 



qu'il meuve. Move thou, &c 
qu'ils meuvent. 



THIRD CONJUGATION — OIR. 



447 



Je meuve, 
Nous mouvions, 

Je musse, 

. Nous mussiousj 



Subjunctive Mood, 

Present. 
tu meuves, 
vous mouviez, 

Imperfect. 
tu musses, 
vous mussiez, 



il meuve, I may move, &c. 
ils meuveiit. 

il mCit, / might move, &c. 
ils mussent. • 



POUVOIR- To he Able. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Pouvoir, to he able. 

Part. pres. Pouvant, being able. 
Part. past. Pu, been able. 

Indicative Mood. 



Je puis, or peux, 
Nous pouvons, 

Je pouvais, 
Nous pouvions, 

Je pus, 
Nous pilmes, 

Je pourrai, 
Nous pourrons, 

Je pourrais, 
Nous pourrions. 



Je puisse, 
Nous puissions, 

Je pusse, 
Nous pussions, 



Present. 
tu peux, 
vous pouvez, 

Imperfect. 
tu pouvais, 
vous pouvioz, 

Preterit. 
tu pus, 
vous pdtes, 

Future. 
tu pourras, 
vous pourrez. 

Conditional. 
tu pourrais, 
vous pourriez, 

Imperative Mood. 

[Not used.] 
Subjunctive Mood, 

Present. 
tu puisses, 
vous puissiez,' 

Imperfect. 
tu pusses, 
vous pussiez, 



il peut, / can, &c. 
ils peuvent. 

il pcuvait, / was able, &c. 
ils pouvaient. 

il put, / was able, &c. 
ils pureut. 

il pourra, / shall he able. Sea 
ils pcjJTont. 

il pourrait, / should he able, 
ils pourraient. [&a 



il puisse, / 7nay be able; &c. 
ils puissent. 

il pCit, / might be able, &/C 
ils pussert. 



PRfiVOIR— To Foresee. 
Infinitive Mood. 



Present. 
Part pres 
Part. past. 



Prdvoir, to foresee. 
Prtvoyant, foreseeing. 
Pr^vu, ue, foreseen. 



448 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Je prevois, 
Nous prevoyons, 

Je prdvoyais, 
Nous prevoyions, 

Je previs, 
Nous pr^vimes, 

Je prevoirai, 
Nous prevoirons, 

Je prevoirais, 
Nous pr6voirions, 



Prdvoyons, 



Je pr^voie, • 

Nous prevoyions, 

Je pr^visse, 
Nous pr^vissions, 



Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu prevois, 
vous prevoyez. 
Imperfect. 
tu prevoyais, 
vous prevoyiez, 

Preterit. 
tu previs, 
vous prevites. 
Future. 
tu prevoiras, 
vouf3 prevoirez, 

Conditional. 
tu prevoirais, 
vous prevoiriez. 

Imperative Mood. 

Prevois, qu'il prevoie. Foresee thou 

prevoyez, qu'ils prevoient. [&.C. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



il prevoit, I foresee, &c. 
ils prevoieut. 

il prevoyait, I foresaw, &g 
ils prevoyaient. 

il previt, I foresaw, &c. 
ils previrent. 

il prevoira, I shall foresee, (Stc 
ils prevoirout. 

il prevoirait, I should foresee 
ils prevoiraient. [&,c 



tu prevoies, 
vous prdvoyiez, 

Imperfect. 
tu previsses, 
vous pr6vissiez, 



il prevoie, I may foresee, &c. 
ils prevoient. 

il previt, I might foresee, &o 
ils prdvissent. 



Je sais. 
Nous savoiis, 



Je savais. 
Nous savions, 



Je sns, 
Nous slimes, 



Savoir, to know. 
Sachant, knowing. 
Su, ue, known. 



SAVOIR— To Know 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. 
Part. pres. 
Part. past. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu sais, 
vous savoz. 

Imperfect 
tu savais, 
vous saviez. 

Preterit. 
tu sus, 
vous sCites, 



il salt, / know, Sec 
ils savent. 



il savait, / did kriow, &o 
ils savaient. 



il sut, / knew, &c 
ils sureiit. 



THIRD CONJUGATION OIR. 



449 



Je saurai, 
Nous saurons, 

Je saurais, 
Nous saurions, 



Sachons, 



Je sache, 
Nous sacliions, 

Je susse, 
Nous sussions, 



il saura, / shall know, &.c. 
ils sauront. 



il saurait, / should know, &o 
ils sauraient. 



Future. 
tu sauras, 
vous saurez, 

Conditional 
tu saurais, 
vous sauriez, 
Imperative Mood. 

Sache, qu'il sache, Know thou, &,c. 

sachez, qu'ils sacheut. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 

il sache, I may knoiv, &c: 
ils sacheiit. 



tu saches, 
vous sachiez. 

Imperfect. 
tu susses, 
vous sussiez. 



il sCit, I might know, &c 
ils sussent. 



VALOIR— To be Worth. 

Infinitive Mood 

Present. Valoir, to be worth. 

Part. pres. Valant, being worth. 

Part. past. Valu, been worth. 

Indicative Mood 
Present. 
Je vaux, tu vaux. 

Nous valons, vous valez, 

Imperfect. 
Je valais, tu valais, 

Nous valions, vous valiez, 

Preterit. 
Je valus, tu valus, 

Nous valdmes, vous val6tes, 

Future. 
Je vaudrai, tu vaudras. 

Nous vaudrons, vous vaudrez. 

Conditional. 
tu vaudrais, 
vous vaudriez. 



il vaut, I am worth, &lc. 
ils valeiit. 



il valait, / was worth, &c. 
ils valaient. 



il valut, / was worth, &c. 

ils valurent. 



il vaudra, / 
ils vaudront. 



shall 



be worth 
[&c 



Je vaudrais, 
Nous vaudi-ions. 



il vaudrait, I should be worth, 
ils vaudraieiit. f&c. 



Valons, 



Je vaille, 
Nous valions, 



Imperative Mood. 
Vaux, qu'il vaille. Be thou worth, 

valez, qu'ils vaillent. [»&& 

'Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu vailles, il vaille, I may be worth, &c. 

vous valiez, ils vaillent 



450 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Je valusse, 
Nous valussions, 



I°nperfect. 
tu valusses, 
vous valussiez, 



il valM, I might he worth 
ils valussent. [&c 



VOIR— To See. 
Infinita'e Mood. 



Present. 
. Part. pres. 
Part. past. 


Voir, to see. 
Voyaut, seeing 
Vu, ue, seen. 




Indicative M 


OOD. 




Present. 




Je vois, 
Nous voyoiis, 


tu vois, 
vous voyez. 


il voit, / see, &c. 
ils voient. 


Je voyais, 
Nous voyious, 


Imperfect 
tu voyais, 
vous voyiez, 

Preterit. 


il voyait, / did see, Sec. 
ils voyaient. 


Je vis, 
Nous vimes, 


tu vis, 
vous vites. 

Future. 


il vit, I saw, &c. 
ils virent. 


Je verrai, 
Nous verrons, 


tu verras, 
vous verrez. 


il verra, I shall see, &.C, 
ils verrout. 




Conditiona 


I. 


Je verrais, 
Nous verrions, 


tu verrais, 
vous verriez, 


il verrait, I should see, &c 
ils verraient. 




Imperative M 


!0OD. 


Voyons, 


Vois, 
voyez. 


qu'il voie. See thou, &.c 
qu'ils voient. 




Subjunctive Mood. 




Present. 




Je voie, 
Nous voyions 


tu voies, 
vous voyiez. 


il voie, / may see, &c. 

ils voient. 


Jo visse, 
Nous vissions, 


Imperfect. 
tu visses, 
vous vissiez, 


il vit, / might see, &c. 
ils visseut. 



Jo 



Nous voulons, 



VOULOIR— To be Willing. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Vouloir, to be willing. 

Part. pres. Voulaut, being xcilling. 
Part. past. Voulu, ue, been willing. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 
tu veux, il veut, / will, 6iyC. 



vous voulez, 



ils veuleut. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



451 



Imperfect 
tu voulais, 
Vous vouliez, 

Preterit. 
tu void us, 
vous voultites, 

Future. 
tu voudras, 
vous voudrez, 

Conditional. 
tu voudrais, 
vous voudriez, 

Imperative Moon- 
[Not used, except Veuillez bien, Be willing, &c.] 
Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



Je voulais, 
Noua voulrons, 

Je voulus, 
Nous voulvimes, 

Je voudrai. 
Nous voudrons, 

Je voudrais. 
Nous voudrions, 



il voulait, / would, &c 
ils voulaient. 

il voulut, / would, &c 
ils voulureut. 

il voudra, / will, &c. 
ils voudrout. 



il voudrait, / would, &.C. 
ils voudruieut. 



Je veuille, 
Nous voulions, 

Je voulusse. 
Nous voulussions, 



tu veuilles, 
vous vouliez, 

Imperfect. 
tu voulusses, 
vous voulussiez. 



il veuille, / 7nay he willing, 
ils veuillent. [&c. 

il vouldt, I might he willing, 
ils voulussent. [&.C. 



IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FOURTH CONJUGATION— iiS 

The Irregular Verbs belonging to this conjugation are — 



Ahsoudre, to absolve, 
Ahstraire, to abstract, 
Accroitre, to accrue, 
Admettre, to admit, 
Apparaitre, to appear, 
Apprendre, to learn, 
Astreindre, to restrain, ) 
Atteindre, to reach, ^ 
BoiRE, to drink, 
Braire, to bray.* 
Ceindre, to gird, 
Circoncire, to circumcise, 
Circonscrire, to circumscribe, 
Clore, to shut, 
Commettre, to commit. 



conjugated like Resoudre. 
" " Traire. 

" " Connaitre. 

" " Mettre. 

" " Connaitre. 

page 454. 

" " Feindre. 



page 455 

" Feindre. 
" Dire. 
" Ear ire. 

page 455 
" Mettre. 



* Used only in the following tenses and persons : — 

Present. Future. 

li brait, he or it brays. II braira, he or it will bray. 

Us braient, they bray. lis brairont, they v>iU &ray. 

Conditional. 

H brairait, he or it would bray. 

lis brairaient, they would bray. 



452 



lEREGULAR VERBS. 



Comparaitre, to appear, 
Complaire, to comply with, 
Cojnprendre, to understand, 
Compromettre, to compromise, 
CoN'CLURE, to conclude, 
Conduire, to conduct, 
Confire, to pickle, 
Conjoindre, to join together, 

CONNAITRE, to knOW, 

Construire, to construct, 
Contraindre, to compel, 
Contredire, to contradict, 
Contrefaire, to counterfeit, 
Convaincre, to convince, 
CouDRE, to sew, 
Craindre, to fear, 
Croire, to believe, 
Croitre, to grow up, 
Cuire, to cook, 
Decoudre, to unsew, . 
Decrire, to describe, 
Decroitre, to decrease, 
se Dedire, to recant, 
Deduire, to deduct, 
Defaire, to undo, ) 

se Defaire, to get rid of, ^ 
Dejoindre, to disjoin, 
Demettre, to disjoint, ( 
se Demettre, to abdicate, j 
Deplaire, to displease, 
Desapprendre, to unlearn, 
Deteindre, to discolor, 
Detruire, to destroy. 
Dire, to say^ to tell, 
Disparaitre, to disappear, 
Dissoudre, to dissolve, 
Distraire, to distract, 
Eclore, to hatch, 
EcriPvE, to write, 
Elire, to elect, 
Emoudre, to grind, 
Enceindre, to encompass, 
Enclore, to enclose, 
Enduire, to daub, 
Enfreindre, to infringe, 
Enjoindre, to enjoin, 
s'Entremettre, to intermeddle, 
Entreprendre, to undertake, 
Epreindre, to squeeze out, ) 
Eteindre, to extinguish, ^ 
Exclure, to exclude, 
Extraire, to extract, 
Faire, to make, to do. 



conjugated hke Connaitre 
« " PZaire. 

" " Apprendre 

" « Mcttre. 

pas'e 456. 
" " Instruire. 

" " 2)/re. 

" " Feindre. 

page 457. 
" '•' Instruire. 

" " Feindre. 

" " iJiVe. 

" " i^ajre. 

page 458. 
" « Feindre. 

page 459. 
" " Connaitre 

" " Instruire. 

" " Coudre. 

" " Ecrire. 

" " Connaitre 

" " Dire. 

" " Instruire. 

" " Faire. 

« « Feindre 

" " j¥eHre. 

" " P/a/rc. 

" " Apprendre 

" " Feindre. 

" " Instruire. 

page 459. 
" " Connaitre 

" " Risoudre. 

" " Traire. 

See Clare. 

page 460. 
" " i/re. 

" " Feindre. 

See C/ore 
" " Instruire. 

" " Feindre. 

" " JUff/re. 

" " Apprendre. 

* " Feindre. 

" " ConcJure. 

" Traire. 
page 461. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



453 



Feindre, to feign, 






page 462. 


Frire, to fry, 


conjugated like 


Rire. 


Induire, to induce, 


" 


l( 


Instruire. 


Inscrire, to inscribe. 


" 


" 


Ecrire. 


Instruiue, to instruct, 






page 4C2 


Interdire, to interdict, 


' 


(( 


Dire. 


Introduire, to introduce, 


< 


1( 


Instruire 


Joindre, to join, . . 


" 


" 


Feindre. 


Lire, to read, 






page 4G3. 


Luire, to shine. 


" 


l( 


Instruire 


Maudire, to curse, ) 


(£ 


J^ 


Dire. 


Medire, to slander, ) 






Meconnaitre, not to know, . 


<C 


" 


Connaitre 


se Meprendre, to mistake, 


« 


(C 


Apprendre 


Mettre, to put. 






page 464. 


MouDRE, to grind, 


. 




page 465. 


Naitre, to be born. 


. 


. 


page 465. 


Nuire, to harm, 


« 


" 


Instruire. 


Oindre, to anoint. 


(t 


(( 


Feindre. 


Omettrc, to omit, 


<( 


" 


Mettre. 


Paitre, to graze, ) 


C( 


(S 


Connaitre 


Paraitrc, to appear, ^ 








Peindre, to paint. 


C( 


" 


Feindre. 


Permettre, to permit, . 


« 


" 


Mettre. 


Plaindre, to pity, ) 
se Plaindre, to complain, ^ 


(( 


<( 


Feindre. 


Plaire, to please, 






page 466. 


se Plaire a, to delight in. 


(C 


(C 


Plaire. 


Poursuivre, to pursue. 


(C 


" 


Suivre. 


Predire, to foretell. 


" 


" 


Dire. 


Prendre, to take, 


«e 


" 


Apprendre. 


Prescrire, to prescribe. 


" 


(( 


Ecrire. 


Produire, to produce, 


(( 


" 


Instruire. 


Promettre, to promise. 


" 


« 


Mettre. 


Proscrire, to proscribe. 


(( 


(( 


Ecrire. 


Reboire, to drink again. 


" 


(( 


Bo ire. 


Reconduire, to lead back, . 


cc 


" 


Instruire. 


Reconnaitre, to know again, 


•< 


(f 


Connaitre 


Rccoudre, to sew again, 


<( 


" 


Coudre. 


Recrire, to write again, 


« 


C( 


Ecrire. 


Recuire, to cook again, 


C( 


" 


Instruire. 


Redefaire, to undo again, 


" 


tl 


Faire. 


Redire, to say again, . 


(£ 


(( 


Dire. 


Reduire, to reduce, 


C( 


" 


Instruire 


Refaire, to do again, 


« 


(( 


Faire. 


Relire, to read again. 


" 


" 


Lire. 


Reluire, to shine, 


4< 


« 


Instruire 


Remettrc, to put again. 


(( 


cc 


Met! re. 


Remoudre, to grind again, . 


(t 


(C 


Moiidre. 


Renaitre, to revive, 


(C 


cc 


Naitre. 


Rentraire, to fine-draw. 


(( 


« 


Traire. 


Repaitre, to feed, 


(( 


cc 


Connaitre. 


Reprendre, to take again, . 


u 


C( 


Apprendre 



454 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Resoudre, to resolve, 






page 467 


Restreindre, to restrain, 


conjugated like Feindrc. 


Revivre, to live again, 


" " Vivre. 


RiRE, to laugh, 






page 468. 


Satisfaire, to satisfy, . 






" " Faire. 


Seduire, to seduce. 






" " Instruire. 


Soumettre, to submit, . 






" " il/e«re. 


Sourire, to smile. 






" i2/re. 


Souscrire, to subscribe, 






" Ecrire. 


Soustraire, to subtract. 






" " Traire. 


SuiVRE, to follow. 






page 468. 


Siiffire, to suffice. 






« £>ire. 


Surf aire, to overcharge, 






" " Faire. 


Surprendre, to surprise, 




" " Apprendrc 


Survivre, to survive, 




" " Vitre. 


se Taire, to be silent, 




« Plaire. 


Teindre, to dye. 




" " Feindre. 


Traduire, to translate, 




" " Instruire. 


Traire, to milk, 






page 469. 


Transcrire, to transcribe. 






" '■ Ecrire. 


Transtnettre, to transmit. 






" * " Mettre. 


Vaincre, to conquer, to vanquish. 


page 470. 


ViVRE, to live, .... 


page 471. 



APPRENDRE— To Learn. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Apprendre, to learn. 

Part. pres. Apprenant, learning. 

Part. past. Appris, se, learned. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

J'apprends, tu apprends, il apprend, / learn. &c. 

Nous apprenons, vous apprenez, ils apprennent. 

Imperfect. 

J'apprenais, tu apprenais, il apprenait, / icas learning 

Nous apprenions, vous appreniez, ils apprenaient. [&c 

Preterit. 

J'appris, tu appris, il apprit, / learned, Sac. 

Nous apprimes, vous apprites, ils apprirent. 

Future. 

J'apprendrai, tu apprendras, il appreudra, I shall learn, tfcc. 

Nous apprendrons, vous apprendrez, ils apprendront. 

Cenditional. 

J'apprendrais, tu apprendrais, il apprendrait, I should learn, 

Nous apprendi-ions. vous appreudi-iez, ils appreudraieut [&;c. 

Imperative I\Iood. 

Apprends, qu'il appreuue, Learn thou, 

Apprenons, apprenez, qu'ils apprennent. [&c. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE 



455 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 

J'apprenne, tu appreimes, il apprenne, / may learn, &c 

Nous appreuions, vous appreiiiez, ils apprenuent. 

Imperfect. 

J'apprisse, tu apprisses, il a.])Tprit„ 1 7night learn, &c. 

Nous apprissious, vous apprissiez, ils apprissent. 



BOIRE— To Drink. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Boire, to drink. 



Part. pres. 
Part. past. 



Buvaut, drinking 
Bu, ue, drunk. 



Je bois, 
Nous buvons, 

Je buvais, 
Nous buvions, 

Je bus, 
Nous bfimes, 

Je boirai, 
Nous boii'ons, 

Je boirais, 
Nous boirions, 



Buvons, 



Je boive, 
Nous buvions, 

Je busse. 
Nous bussions 



il boit, / drink, &c. 
ils boivent. 



il buvait, I was drinking, &G 
ils buvaient. 



il but, I drank, &c. 
ils burent. 



il boira, / shall drink, &c. 
ils boiront. 



Indicative Mood. 

Present. 
tu bois, 
vous buvez, 

Itnperfect. 
tu buvais, 
vous buviez. 

Preterit. 
tu bus, 
vous btites, 

Future 
tu boiras, 
vous boii'ez. 

Conditional. 
tu boirais, il boirait, / should drink, &a 

vous boiriez, ils boiraient. 

Imperative Mood. 

Bois, qu'il boive, Drink thou, &C. 

buvez, qu'ils boivent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 

tu boives, il boive, / may drink, &c. 

vous buviez, ils boivent. 

I7nperfect. 

tu busses, il btit, / might drink, SlC 

vous bussiez, ils bussent. 



CLORE— ro Shut. 

Clore, and its compounds, Eclore, Enclore, have only the following 
tenses and persons in use : — 



456 IRREGULAR VERBS. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Clore, to cloee 

Part. past. Clos, closed. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 

Je clos, tu clos, il clot, / close, &c 

Future. 

Je clorai, tu cloras, il clora, / sliall close, &c. 

Nous clorons, vous clorez, ils cloront. 

Conditional. 

Je clorais, tu clorais, il clorait, / should close, &ca 

Nous clorions, vous cloriez, ils cloraieut 

SuBJUNCTR'E Mood. 
Present. 
Je close, tu closes, il close, / may close, Sec. 

*#* Enclore, to enclose, is conjugated in the same manner. Eclore, to 
hatch, has the following tenses and persons in use : — 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. ificlore, to be hatcliing. 

Part. past. ficlos, hatched. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
II ^clot, it is hatching. ' Ils dclosent, they are hatching. 

Future. 
Tl 6clora, it will he hatching. lis 6clorout, they, &lc. 

Conditional. 
II dclorait, it would he hatching. lis ^cloraient, they, &c 

» Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. ' 
E 6close, it may he hatching. lis i^closent, they, &c 



CONCLURE— ro Conclude. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Conclure, to conclude. 

Part. pres. Coucluant, concluding 

Part past. Conclu, ue, concluded. 

Indicative ]\Iood. 
Present. 
Je conclus, tu conclus, il conclut, / conclude, «Sc^ 

Nous concluons, vous concluez, ils concluent. 

Imperfect. 
Je concluais, tu concluais, il couc]ua.)t, I rcas C07icludincr, 

Nous coucluious, vous concluiez, ils concluaient [fito 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



457 



Preterit. 
Je conclns, tu coneluf?, 

Nous concliunes, vous conclCites, 

Future 
tu concluras, 
vous conclurez, 



Je conclurai, 
Nous eonclurons, 



il conclut, I concluded, &c. 
ils conclureut. 



il conclura, / shall conclude, 
ils concliuont. [&c. 



Conditional. 
Je conclurais, tu conclurais, il conclurait, / should con- 

Nous conclurions, vous coucluriez, ils coiichu'uient. [elude, &lc. 

Imperative Mood. 

Conclus, qu'il conclue, Conclude thou, 

concluez, qu'ils coucluent. [&c. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Presoit. 

il conclue, I may conclude, 
ils coucluent. [&c 



Concluons, 



Je conclue, 
Nous concluioiis, 



Je conclusse, 
Nous conclussions, 



tu couciues, 
vous concluiez. 

Imperfect 
tu conclusses, 



il coucltit, / might conclude 



vous conclussiez, ils coiiclussent. 
J* The participle past of Exclure is exclus, excluded. 



[&c 



CONNAITRE— To Knoio. 
Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Connaitre, to know. 

Part. pres. 



Part. past. 



Connaissant, knowing. 
Connu, ue, known. 



Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
Je connais, tu connais, 

Nous connaissons, vous connaissez. 

Imperfect. 
Je connaissais, tu couiiaissais, 

Nous connaissious, vous conuaissiez, ils conuaissaient. 

Pretei'it. 
Je connus, tu counus, 

Nous connumes, vous couuutes, 

Future. 
Jo connaitrai, tu connaitias, 

Nous coimaitrons, vous conuaitrez, 

Conditional. 
Je coiinaitrai-s, tu conuaitrais. 

Nous comiaitrioiis, vous counaitriez, ils coiiuaitruieut. 



il counait, I know, &c. 
ils connaissent. 



il connaissait, I did kiww, &c 



il connut, / knew, &lc. 
ils connuient. 



il connaitra, I shall knoip, &.c 
ils connaitront. 



il connaitrait, I should know. 



458 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Imperative Mood. 
Connais, qu'il ccnnaisse, Knots thou, 

Comiaissoiis, connaissez, qu'ils connaisseut. \_&ui. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 
Je conuaisse, tn coniiaisses, il ccnnaisse, / may know, &c 

Nous comiaissiciis, vous connaissiez, ils connaissent. 

Imjjerfect. 
Je coiinusse, tii connusses, il couuut, I might know, &c 

Nous connussions, vous coiinussiez, ils connussciit. 



COUDRE— To Sew. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Couth'e, to sew. 



Part. pres. 
Part. past. 



Cousant, sewing. 
Cousu. ue, sewed. 



Je couds, 
Nous cousoiis, 



Je cousais, 
Nous cousious, 



Je cousis, 
Nous cousimes, 



Je coudiai, 
Nous coudrons, 



Je coudiais, 
Nous coudiif us, 



Cousons, 



Je couse. 
Nous cousious, 



Je cousisse, 
Nous cousisiriono, 



il coud, / sew. &Ui. 
ils couseut. 



il cousait, / was sewing, &/0 
ils cousaieiit 



Indicative Mood. 

Present. 

tu couds, 
vous cousez. 

Imperfect. 

tu cousais, 
vous cousiez. 

Preterit. 

tu cousis, 
vous cousites, 

Future. 

tu coudras, 
vous coudrez, 

Conditional. 

tu coudrais, il coudrait, I should sew, &o, 

vous coudi'iez, ils coudi'aient. 

Imperative IMood. 

Couds, qu'il couse, Sew thou, &c. 

cousez, qu'ils cousent 

SuBjuNCTH'E Mood. 

Present 



il cousit, I seived, &.c 
ils cousirent 



il coudi'a, / shall sew. Sec. 
ils coudi'out. 



tu couses, 
vous cousiez, 



il couse, / mat/ sew, Sec 
ils couseut. 



Imperfect. 
tu cousisses, il cousit, / miirJit scio, &C. 

vous cousissiez, ils cousisseut 



FOURTH CONJ JGATION UE. 



459 



CROIRE— To Believe. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Croire, to believe. 

Part. prcs. froyant, believing. 
Part. past. Cru, iic, believed. 

Indicative Mood. 



Jo crois, 
Nous cruyona, 

Je croyais, 
Nous croyioiis, 

Je eras, 
Nous crCinies, 

Je croirai, 
Nous croirons, 

Je croirais, 
Nous croirions, 



Croyons, 



Je ci'oie, 
Nous croyions, 

Je crusse, 
Nous crussions, 



Present. 

tu crois, 
vous croyez, 

Imperfect. 
tu croyais, 
vous croyiez, 

Preterit. 
tu crus, 
vous crutes, 

Future. 
tu croiras, 
vous croirsz, 

Conditional, 
tu croirais, 
vous croiriez, 

Imperative Mood. 
Crois, qu'il croie, Believe thou, «Stc 

croyez, qu'ils croieiit. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 

11 croie, / may believe, &c. 
Us croieiit. 



11 croit, / believe, &c. 

lis crolent. 

11 croyait, / did believe, &c 
lis croyalent. 

11 crut, / believed, &c. 
lis crurent. 

11 crolra, / shall believe, &c 
lis crolront. 

11 croiralt, I should believe, &c 
Us crolralent. 



tu croies, 
vous croyiez. 

Imperfect. 
tu crusses, 
vous crassiez. 



11 crut, / might believe, &a 
Us crussent 



Je dls, 
Nous dlsons. 



DIRE— To Sa7j, to Tell. 
Infinitu'e Mood. 



Present. 
Part. prcs. 
Part past. 

Indicative Mood 
Present. 



Dli'e, to say. 
Disant, saying 
Dlt,* te, said. 



tu dis, 
vous ditesjt 



11 dit, / say, &c. 
lis diseiit. 



* CircoDcire, to circumcise, has circovcis \r the part past, and svjffi.re, to bo auffi 
cient, has snffi. 
t Sec Note, page 4(i0. 



460 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Je disais, 
Nous disions. 

Je dis, 
Nous dimes, 

Je dirai, 
Nous dirousj 

Je dirais, 
Nous djrioiis, 



Discus, 



Je dise, 
Nous disiop.s, 



Jo disse, 
Nous dissions, 



Imperfect. 
tu disais, il disait, / was saying, da 

vous disiez, i!s disaieut. 

Preterit. 
tu dis,. 
vous dites, 

Future. 
tu diras, 
vous direz, 

Conditional. 
tu dirais, 
vous diriez, 

Ijiperative Mood. 
Dis, qu'il dise, Say thou, 6cc 

dites,* qu'ils disent. 

SuBJUiNCTIVE I\l00D. 

Present. 
tu discs, i] dise, / may say, &-c. 

vous disiez, ils disent. 

Imperfect. 

tu disses, il dit, I might say, «feo. 

vous dissiez, ils diaseiit. 



il dit, / said, &.c. 
Us dirent. 



i! dira, / shall say, &c. 
ils dii'ont. 



il dirait, / should say, tVf 
ils diraient. 



fiCRIRE— To Write. 
IxFixiTn-E Mood. 



Present. 
Part. pres. 
Part. past. 

Indicatr'e Mood 



ficrire, to write. 
Ecrivaut, writing. 
fierit, ite, written. 



J'ecris, 

Nous ecrivons, 

J'ecrivais, 
Nous ecrivions, 

J'^crivis, 

Nous ^crivimes, 



J'ecrirai, 
Nous ecriroiis. 



Present. 

tu ecris, 
vous ecrivez. 

Imperfect. 
tu eerivais, 
vous ecriviez. 

Preterit. 
tu ecrivis, 
vous ecrivites. 

Future. 

tu ecriras, 
vous ecrirez. 



il eci'it, I write, Ace. 
ils ccrivent. 

il ecrivait, / icas writing, &<i 
ils ecrivaieiit. 



il ecrivit, / wrcte, &c. 
ils ^crivireut. 



il ^crira, I shall write, &c. 
ils ^criront. 



* All the cnniiKiinuis of Dire, except Kedir-e, make isez instead of iff*. .X.iudin 
lioubics its s thio\i};hout the verb; ex. JVoit.'! maudissons, vans maudis^cz, ila maudis 

tC7U, &C. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE 



46] 



f'dcrirais, 
Nous ^cririous, 



icrivons, 



J'^crive, 
Noils ecrivions, 

J'^crivisse, 



Conditional. 
tu dcrirais, il dcrirait, 1 should write, &c 

■yoiis dcririez, ils ^criraieiit. 

Imperative Mood 

flcris, qu'il ecrive, Write thou, &r 

ecrivez, qu'ils ecrivent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu derives, il derive, I may write, &c. 

vous dcrivie:.;, ils ecrivent. 

Imperfect. 
tu ecrivisses, il ccrivit, / might write, &C. 



Nous dcrivissions, vous ecrivissiez, ils dcrivisseiit. 



¥ AIRE— To Make, to Do. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Faire, to make. 

Part. pres. Faisant, making. 

Part. past. Fait, te, tnade. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 

Je fais, tu fais, il fait, I make, &c. 

Nous faisous, vous faites, ils font. 

Imperfect 

Jo faisais, tu faisais, il faisait, / was making, &C. 

Nous faisions, vous faisiez, ils faisaient. 

Preterit 
Je fis, tu fis, il fit, I made, &c. 

Nous fimes, vous fites, ils firent. 

Future. 
Je ferai, tu feras, il fera, / shall make, &c. 

Nous ferons, vous ferez, ils fcront. 

Conditional. 
Je ferais, tu ferais, il ferait, / should make, &c 

Nous ferion3, vous feriez, ils feraieut. < 

Imperative Mood. 

Fais, qu'il fasse, Make thou, &c 

Faisons, faites, quils fasseiit. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
' Present. 

Jo fasse, tu fasses, il fasse, I may make, &c. 

Nous fassions, vous fassiez, ils fassent. 

Imperfect. 
Je fisse, tu fisses, il fit, / might make, &c. 

Nous fissions, vous flssicz, ils fisseiit. 



402 



IRREGULAR VERES. 



Jo feiiis, 
Nous feiguons, 



Je feignais, 
Nous feiffuions 



Je feiguis, 



FEINDRE— To FeJgn 
Infinitive IMood. 
Present. Feiudre, toj'eign. 

Part. pres. Feigaant, feigning 

Part. past. Feint, Xe, feigned. 

Indicative TvIood. 
Present. 
tu feins, ii feint, I feign, &c. 

vous feignez, ils fcigneut. 

Imperfect. 
tu feignais, il feignait, / ivas feigning, &o 

vous feiguicz, ils feigiiaient. 

Preterit. 
tu feignis, i! feigait, I feigned, tScc. 

Nous feiguimes, vous feignites, ils ffigiiirent. 

Future. 
Je feindrai, tu feindras, il feiudra, I shall feign, Sec. 

Nous feindrons, vous feiudrez, ils feindiont. 

Conditional. ' 
Je feiiidrais, tu feindrais, il feindrait, I should feign, &o 

Nous feindrions, vous feindriez, ils feindraieut. 
Imperative Mood. 

Feins, qu'il feigne, Feign thou. Sea. 

feignez, qu'ils feigneut. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 

tu feignes, il feigiie, / may feign. &<^ 

vous feigniez, ils feigiient. 

hnperfcct. 
Je feignisse, tu feignisses, il feignit, I might feign, SijC 

Nous feignissions, vous feignissiez, ils feig-nissent. 



Feiguons, 



Je feigne. 
Nous feignions, 



INSTKUIRE— To Instruct. 

Infinitive I\Icod. 

Present. Instruire, to instruct. 

Part. pres. Iiistruisant, instructing. 
Part. past. lustruit,* te, instructed. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
J'instiuis, tu instruis, il instruit, / instruct, &c. 

Nous instruisoiis, vous instruiscz, ils iusliuisent. 



* Luirc and Kcltiirc, to shine and J\^(u>c, to hurt, make I^ui, Rclui, and JVui in tlia 
part, pant. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION— -RE 



463 



J'instruisais, 
Nous instruisions, 

J'instruisis, 

Nous mstruisimes, 

J'instniiiai, 
Nous instruirous, 

J'instruii'ais, 
Nous instruirioiis, 



Instruisous, 



J'iiistruise, 

Nous instruisions, 

J'instruisisse, 



Imperfect. 
tu instruisais, il instruisait, I was instTucU 
vous instruisiez, lis instruisaieut. iing^ &.c 

Preterit, 
tu instiuisis, il instruisit, / instructed, &.c 

vous instruisitos, ils instruisirent. 

Future. 
tu instruiras, il instruira, I shall instruct, &lc. 
vous instruirez, ils instruiront. 

Conditional 
tu iastruirais, il instruirait, / should instruct, 
vous instmiiiez, ils iustruiraient. [&c 

Imperative Mood. 

Instruis, qu'il instruise, Instruct thout 

instruisez, qu'ils instruiseut. [&c. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



tu instruises, 
vous instruisiez, 

• Imperfect. 
tu instruisisses, 



il iustiuise, I may instruct, &c. 
ils instruiseut. 



instruisit, / might instruct. 



Nous instruisissions, vous instruisissiez, ils instruisissent. 



[&a 



Jo lis, 
Nous lisons, 

Je lisais. 
Nous lisions, 

Je lus. 
Nous Itimes, 

Je lirai, 
Nous lirons, 

Je lirais, 
Nous lirions, 



LIRE— To Read.^ 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Lire, to read. 

Part. pres. Lisant, reading 
Part. past. Lu, ue, read. 

Indicative Mood. 

Present. 
tu lis, 
vous lisez, 

^''' Impel fe c i. 
tu lisais, 
vous lisiez. 

Preterit. 
tu lus, 

vous ICites, 

Future. 
tu liras, 
vous lirez, 

Conditional. 



il lit, / read, &c. 
ils lisent. 



il lisait, / was reading, &c. 
ils lisaient. 



il lut, I read, &c. 
ils lurent 



il lira, / shall read. Sec. 
ils lirout. 



tu lirais, 
vous liriez 



il lirait, / should read, &c. 
ils liraicnt. 



464 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Liisons, 



Jo lise, 
Nous lisious, 



Je lusso. 
Nous lussions 



Imperative Mood. 

Lis, qu'il lise, Read ihou, &G. 

lisez, qu'ils lisent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu lises, 
vous lisioz, 

Iinperfect. 

tu lusses, il Ifit, I might read, &c 

vous liissiez, ils lusseiit. 



il lise, / 77101/ read, tcc. 
lis lisent. 



METTRE— To Put. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Mettre, to put. 

Part. pres. Metta.nt, putting. 
Part. past. Mis, se, put. 

Indicative Mood. 



Je mets, 
Nous mettons, 



Je mettais, 
Nous mcttioiis, 



Jo mis, 
Nous mimes, 



Jo mettrai, 
Nous mettroiis. 



Jc mettrais. 
Nous mettrioiis 



Mettoiis, 



Jo inette, 

Nous mcttioiis 



Jo misse. 
Nous missious, 



Present. 

tu mets, 
vous mettez, 

Imperfect. 
tu mettais, 
vous mettiez, 

Preterit. 
tu mis, 
vous mites. 

Future. 
tu mettras, 
vous mettrez. 

Conditional 
tu mettrais, 
vous mettriez, 

Imterative I\Iood. 

Mets, qu'il mette. Put thou, &c 

mettez, qu"ils inetteut. 

Subjunctive i\Iood. 

Present. 



il met, / put, &,c. 
ils metteut. 



il mettait, I was putting, &o 
ils mettaieut. 



il mit, I put. &c. 
ils mireiit. 



il mettra, / shall put, &;c. 
ils mettront. 



il mettrait, / should put, &C 
ils mettraieut. 



tu mettes, 
vous mettiez. 

Imperfect. 

tu misses, 
vous missiez, 



il melto, / mat/ put, &x. 
ils metteut. 



il mit, I might put, &a 
ils misseut. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



405 



MOUDRE— To Grind. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Moudre, to grind. 



Je mouds, 
Nous moulons, 



Je moulais, 
Nous moulions, 



Je mou\^s, 
Nous moulCimes, 



. Part. pros. 
Part. past. 

Indicative Mood, 

Present. 

tu mouds, 
vous moulez, 

Imperfect 

til moulais, 
vous mouliez. 

Preterit. 

tu moulus, ■ 
vous raoultites, 

Future. 



Moulant, grinding. 
Moulu, ue, ground. 



il moud, I grind, &c. 
ils mouleiiL 



il moulait, I was grinding, 
ils moulaient. [&c, 



il moulut, / ground, &c. 
ils moulurent. 



Je moudrai, 
Nous moudrons, 



Je moudrais, 
Nous moudi'ions. 



tu moudras, 
vous moudrez, 



il moudra, I shall grind, &.c 
ils moudroiit. 



il moudrait, / should grind, 
ils moudi-aient. [&c 



Moulons, 



Conditional 

tu moudrais, 
vous moudriez. 

Imperative Mood. 
Mouds, qu'il moule. Grind thou, &lc. 

moulez, qu'ils moulent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



tu moules, 
vous mouliez. 

Imperfect. 

tu moulusses, 



il moule, / viay grind, &c. 
ils moulent. 



Je moule, 
Nous moulions, 

Je moulusse, 

Notts moulussions, vous moulussiez, ils moulusseiit. 



il moulCit, / might grind &a 



Je nais, 
Noiis naissous, 



NAITRE— To le Born. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Naitre, to be horn. 

Part. pres. Naissant, being born. 

Part. past. Ne, 6e, been born. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
tu nais, 
vous naissoz. 



il uait, / am born, &c. 
ils naisseiit. 



466 IRREGULAR VERBb. 

Imperfect. 

Je naissais, tu iiaissais, il iiaLssait, / was horn, &ic 

Nous naissions, voios naissiez, ils naissaient. 

Preterit. 

e naquis, tu naquis, il naquit, / was hoi n, &.C. 

Nous iiaqu'imes, vous naquites, ils naquirent. 

Future. 

Jo naitrai, tu iiaitras, il naltra, / shall he horn, &C 

Nous naitrous, vous uaitrez, ils naitront. 

Conditional. 

Jo naitrais, tu naitrais, il naitrait, / should le lorn, 

Nous naitrions, vous naitriez, Os naitraient. [Sux 

Imperative Mood. 

Nais, qu'il uaisse, Be thou horn, &c 

NaissonSj naissez, qu"ils naissent. 

SutJuxcTivE Mood. 
Present. 

Je naisso, tu naisses, il uaisse, / inay he horn, &c. 

Nous uaissious, vous uaissiez, ils naisseut. 

Imperfect. 

Je naquisse, tu naquisses, \\n?ii\vat,Imighthehorn,&LC 

Nouis iiaquissions, vous naquissiez, ils naquisseut. 



PLAIRE— ro Please. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Piaire, to please. 

Part. pres. Plaisant, pleasing. 

Part. past. Plu, pleased. 

Indicative T^Iood. 
Present. 
Je plais, tu plais, il plait, / please, Si,c. 

Nous plaisous, vous plaisez, ils plaiseiit. 

Imperfect. 
Je plaisais, tu plaisais, il plaisait, / did please, && 

Nous plaisions, vous plaisiez, ils plaisaieut. 

Preterit 

Je plus, tu plus, il plut, / pleased, &c 

Nous pltimes, vous pliites, ils plureut. 

Future. 

Je plairai, tu plairas, il plaira, / shall please, <fcc 

Nous plairons, vous plairez, ils plairont- 

Conditio}:al. 
Je plairais, tu plairais, il plairait, /s/joi/ZJ pZfjjse, &c 

Nous plairioiis, vous p'.airiez, ils plairaient. 



FOURTH CON ;L GATION RE. 467 

Imperative Mood. 
Plais, qu'il plaiso, Please thou, &.c 

Flalsons, plaisez, qu'ils plaisent. 

Subjunctive IMood. 
Present. 
Je plaise, tu plaises, il plaise, / 7nai/ please, &c 

NouiS plaisioiis, vous plaisiez, ils plaisent. 

Imperfect. 
Je plusse, tu plusses, il plCit, / might please, &C. 

Nous plussious, vous plussiez, ils plusseut. 



RfiSOUDRE— To Resolve. 
Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Resoudre, to resolve. 

Part. pres. Rdsolvaiit, resolving. 

Part. past. Resolu,* resolved. 

Indicative Mood. 
Present. 
Je r&ous, tu resous, il r^sont, / resolve, Si^ 

Nous r^solvous, vous resolvez, ils resolvent. 

Imperfect. 
Je r^solvais, tu risolvais, il rdsolvait, I was resolving, 

Nous rcsolvions, vous resolviez, ils resolvaient. [&c 

Preterit. 
Je rdsolus, tu r^solus, il resolut, / resolved, &c. 

Nous resolfimes, vous r^solutes, ils resoliurent. 

Future. 
Jo rdsoudrai, tu resoudras, il resoudra, I shall resolve, 

Nous r^soudrons, vous resoudrez, ils rdsoudroiit. [&.e 

Conditional. 
Je r^soudrais, tu resoudrais, il resoudrait, / should resolve, 

Nous r^soudi'ions, vous r^soudriez* ils resoudraient. [«&c. 

Imperative Mood. 

R6sous, qu'il resolve, Resolve thou, &c. 

Resolvons, resolvez, qu'ils resolvent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present, 
Jo resolve, tu resolves, il resolve, / Jiiay resolve, &c 

Nous resolvions, vous rdsolviez, its resolvent. 



• Msoudre, to absolve, and Dissoudre, tc dissolve, make .^bsous and JOiasoua In the 
poTT. past. 



468 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Imperject. 
Je r<SfiolufiS6, tu r^solusses, il resolut, I might resohe, bx, 

KouB r68olus6ions, vous r<^solussiez, ils r^solussent 



EIRE— To Laugh. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Piesent. Rire, to laugh. 



Part. pres. 
Part. past. 



Riant, laughing. 
Ri,* laughed. 



Je ris, 
Nous rioiis, 

Je riais, 
Nous riions, 

Je ris, 
Nous rimes, 

Je rirai. 
Nous rirons, 

Je rirais. 
Nous ririona, 



Rions, 



Je rie, 
Nous riiouB, 

Je risse, 
Nous rissious, 



U riait, I was laughing, &£, 
ils riaient. 



Indicative Mood 
Prcseiit. 
tu ris, il rit, I laugh, &c. 

vous riez, ils rient. 

Imperfect. 
tu riais, 
vous riiez, 

Preterit. 
tu ris, il rit, / laughed, &c. 

vous rites, Us rirent. 

Future. 
tu riras, il rira, / shall laugh, &c. 

vous rirez, ils riiont 

Conditional. 
tu rirais, il rirait, / should laugh, &jc 

vous ririez, ils riraient. 

Imperative Mood. 
Ris, qu'il rie. Laugh thou, &c 

riez, qu'ils rient- 

SuBjuNCTR'E Mood. 

Present. 
tu ries, il rie, / inay laugh, Slc 

vous riiez, ils rieut. 

Imperfect. 

il rit, I might laugh, &x> 



tu risses, 
vous rissiez 



ils rissent. 



SUIVRE— To Follow. 
iNFLMTrv'E Mood. 
Present. Sui-vTe, to folloio 



Part. pros. 
Part. past. 



Suivant, foUoiping. 
Suivi, ie, followed. 



Frirc, to fry, makes Frit in the part. poet. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



469 



Je suis, 
Nous Euivous, 



Je suivais, 
Nous suivioiis, 



Je suivis, 



Jo suivrais, 
Nous suivrions, 



Suivons, 



Je suive, 
Nous suivions, 



Je Euivisse, 



INDICATIVE Mood 

Present. 
tu suis, 
vous suivez, 

Imperfect 
tu suivais, 
vous suiviez, 

Preterit. 
tu suivis, 



il suit, I follow, &c. 
ils suivenc. 



il suivait, / was fullovying, 
ils suivaicnt. [&lc 



Nous suivimes, vous suivites, 

Future. 
Je suivrai, tu suivras, 

Nous suivrous, vous suivrez, 

Conditional. 



il Euivit, / followed, &c. 
ils Buivireut. 



il suivra, / shall follow, &c. 
ils suivront. 



tu suivrais, il suivrait, I should follow , &c 

vous suivriez, ils suivraient. 

Imperative Mood. 
Suis, qu'il suive, Follow thou, &c. 

suivez, qu'ils suivent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu suives, il suive, / may follow, &c. 

vous suiviez, ils suivent. 

Imperfect. 
tu suivisses, il suivit, / might follow, &,c. 



Nous suivissious, vous suivissiez, ils suivissent. 



TR AIRE— To Milk. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Traire, to milk. 



Part. pres. 
Part. past. 



Trayaiit, milking. 
Trait, aite, milked. 



Je trais. 
Nous trayons, 



Je trayais, . 
Nous trayioDS 



Indicative Mood. 

Present. 
tu trais, 
vous trayez, 

Imperfect. 
tu trayais, 
vous trayiez, 

Preterit. 
[Not used.] 



il trait, I milk, &C. 
ils traieiit. 



il trayait, / was milking, &X3 
ils trayaiejit. 



470 



Je trairai, 
Nous trairous, 



Je trairais, 
Nous trairions, 



Trayons, 



Je traie, 
Nous trayioiis, 



IRR-EGULAR VERBS. 

Future. 
tu trairas, il tralra, / shall milk, &c 

V0(.is trairez, ils traiiont. 

Conditional. 
tu trairais, il trairait, / should milk, Sec 

vous trairiez, ils trairaieiit. 

Imperative JNIood. 



Trais, 
trayez, 



qui! traie, Milk thou. &€. 
qu'ils traieut. 



SuBJuxcTiVE Mood. 

Present. 
tu traies, il traie, / 7nai/ milk. Sec 

vous traj^iez, ils traient. 

Imperfect. 
[Not used.] 



r 



VAINCRE— To Conquer. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present. Vaincre, to conquer. 

Part. prcs. Vainquant, conquering. 

Part. past. Vaincu, ue, conquered. 

Indicative Mood. 
Prese7it. 
Je vaiiics, tu vaiiics, U vainc, / conquer, &c. 

Nous vainquous, vous vaiuquez, ils vainquent. 

Imperfect. 
Je vainquais, tu vainquais, il vainquait, I did conquer, 

Nous vainquious, vous vainquiez, ils vainquaieut. _ [«Scc 

Preterit. 
Je vainquis, tu vainquis, il vainquit, / conquered, Sec 

Nous vaiuquimes, vous vainquites, ils vaiuquireut 

Future. 
Je vaincrai, tu vaincras, il vainera, I shall conquer, &.C. 

Nous vaincroiis, vous vaincrez, ils vaincront. 

Conditional. 
Je vaiucrais, tu vaiucrais, il vaiucrait, / should conquer, 

Nous vainciious, vous vaiucriez, ils vaincraient [ilfcc. 

iMFERATn'E MoOD. 

Values, qu"il vaiuque, Conquer thou, 

Vaiiiquous, vainquez, qu'ils vaiuqueut [&.C. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION RE. 



471 



Subjunctive Mood. 

Present. 
tu vaiiiques. 



Je vainque, 

Noiis vainquions, vous vahiquiez, 

Imperfect. 
Je vainquisse, tu vaiiiquisses, 



Nous vamquissioiis, vous vainquissioz, ils vaiiiquisseut. 



il vainque, I may conquer, «Sco 

ils vainquent. 

il vainquit, I migld conquer, 



r&<.' 



Je vis, 
Nous vivoiis. 



Je vivais, 
Nons vivions, 

Je v^cus, 
Nous vec times, 

Je vivrai, 
Nous vivrons, 

Je vivrais, 
Nous vivrions, 



Vivons, 



Je vive, 
Nous vivions, 

Je v^cusse, 
Nous v^cussious. 



VIVRE— To Live. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. Vivre, to live. 

Part. pres. Vivant, living. 

Part. past. Vecu, lived. 

Indicatu'e Mood. 
Present. 
tu vis, il vit, / live, &c. 



vous vivez. 



ils vivent. 



Imperfect. 



il vivait, / loas living, Six 
ils vivaieut. 



tu vivais, 
vous viviez, 

Preterit. 
tu v^cus, 
vous vecutes, . 

Future 
tu vivras, 
vous vivrez. 

Conditional. 
tu vivrais, 
vous vivriez, 

Imperative Mood. 

Vis, qu'il vive. Live thou, &c 

vivez, qu'ils vivent. 

Subjunctive Mood. 
Present. 



il vecut, / lived, &c. 
ils v^curent. 



il vivra, / shall live, tfcc. 
ils vivront. 



il vivi-ait, / should live, &c 
ils vivraieut. 



tu vives, 
vous viviez, 

Impel feet. 
tu vdcusses, 
vous vdcussiez, 



il vive, I may live, «Slc. 
ils viveut. 



il veedt, I might live, &o 
ils v^cuBsent. 



472 



LE JUIF ERRANT. 



PAR BERANGER. 



Chrtition, au voyageur souffrant 
Tends un verre d'eau sur ta porte. 
Jc suis, je suis le Juif errant, 
Qu'iin tourbiUon toujoiirs emporte. 
Sans vieUlir, accablii de jours, 
La fin du monde est raon seul reve. 
Chaque soir j'espere toujours ; 
Mais toujours le soleil se leve. 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre oii nioi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours toujours. 

Depuis dix-huit siecles, h61as ! 
Sur la cendre grecque et romaine, 
Sur les debris de mille etats, 
L'affreux tourbiUon me promene. 
J'ai vu sans fruit gernier le bien, 
Vu des calamit6s ftcondes ; 
Et pour survivre au monde ancien, 
Des flots j'ai vu sortir deux mondes. 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre ou moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

Dieu m'a change pour me punir: 

A tout ce qui meurt je m'attache. 

Mais du toit pret a me b6nir 

Le tourbiUon soudain m'arrache. 

Plus d'un pauvre vient implorer 

Le denier que je puis r6pandre, 

Qui n a pas le temps de serrer 

La main qtfen passant j'aime a tendre. 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre oil moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours 



Seul, au pied d'arbustes en fleuiB, 
Sur le gazon, an bord de I'onde, 
Si je repose mes douleurs, 
J'entends le tourbiUon qui gronde. 
Eh ! qu'iniporte au ciel irrite 
Cet instant pass6 sous rombrage' 
Faut-il inoins que I'etemitS 
Pour d^lasser d'un tel voyage T 

Toujotirs, toujours, 
Tottrne la terre oii moi je cours. 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

Que des enfants ■i'ifs et joyeux 
Des miens me retracent I'image, 
Si j'en veux repaitre mes yeux, 
Le tourbiUon souffle avec rage. 
VieiUards, osez-vous a tout prix 
M'envier ma longue carriere 1 
Ces enfants a qui je souris, 
Mon pied balaiera leur poussiere. 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre oii moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours. 

Des murs ou je suis n6 jadis, 
Retrouve-je encor quelque trace ; 
Pour ra'arreter je me roidis ; 
Mais le tourbiUon me dit: "Passe : 
"Passe!" et la vols me crie aussi: 
" Reste debout quand tout succombe 
" Tes aieux ne t'ont point ici 
" Garde de place dans leur tombe." 

Toujours, toujours, 
Tourne la terre ou moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujotirs, tonJouiB 



J'outrageai d'un rire inhumain 
L'homme-dieu respivant a peine — 
Mais sous mes pieds fuit le chemin ; 
Adieu, le tourbillou m'entraine. 
Vous qui manquez de charite, 
Tremblez a mon supplice etrange : 
Ce n'est point sa divinity, 
C'est rhttnianit6 que Dieu venge. 

Toujoiirs, toujoure, 
Tourne la terre oii moi je cours, 
Toujours, toujours, toujours, toujours 



INDEX. 



LIST OF TABLES. 



Dkclension of the definite article 
in the singxilar inasciihne, 9 ; mascu- 
line and feminine before a vowel or 
an h mule, 15 ; in the plural, 27 ; 
in the singular and plural feminine, 
230. 

Declension of the indefinite arti- 
cle masculine, 39 ; feminine, 233. 

Declension of the partitive article 



A. 

A,to, Obs. B. 73. A, to or at, 145. 
A la bourse, to or at the exchange ; a 
la cave, to or at the cellar ; a I'eglise, 
to or at church : a Vecole, to or at 
school, 239. ""A droits or sur la 
droite, to the right or on the right 
hand ; d gauche or sur la gauche, to 
the left or on the left hand, 326. \1 
between two substantives, the latter 
of which expresses the use of the 
former, Obs. A. 346. ^A I'avenir, in 
future; a condition, (^sous condi- 
tion,} on condition, or provided, 323. 
^A mes, ses, nos, depens, at my, his 
or her, our expense ; aux depens 
d'autrui, at other people's expense, 
322. ^A mon gre, to my liking ; an 
gre de tout lemonde, to everybody's 
liking, 330. ^A ma portee, within 
my reach ; a la portee du fusil, 
VTithin gun-shot, 343. L'homme a 
Vhahit bleu, the man with the blue 
coat ; la femme a la robe rouge, the 
woman witli the red gcwn, 286. ^A 
toute force, obstinately, by all means, 
282. 

A or AN, un, une, 39, 233. See 

A-RTICLE. 



in the singular and plural masculine, 
34 ; femuiine, 233 ; before an adjec. 
five, 35. 

Declension of the personal pro- 
nouns, 70 ; of the interrogative pro- 
nouns, 73. 

Table for the formation of all 
the tenses in the French verbs, 379 
et seqq. 



Able, (to he,) pouvoir, Note 1. 67, 
127 ; etre en Hat or etre a meme de, 
326. 

About, environ, 133. 

Above, or up stairs, en haut, 
145. 

Accent (the grave) in verbs hav- 
ing e mute in the last syllable but 
one of the infinitive, as: je mene, I 
lead, &c., Obs. A. 92. 

(the acute) on the last syl- 
lable but one of the infinitive is 
changed into the grave accent (") 
when it is follov^red by a consonant 
having e mute after it, cider, to 
yield ; je cede, I yield, Obs. A. 
221. 

According to, selon ; according 
to circumstances, selon les circon- 
slances ; that is according to circum- 
stances, it depends, c^est selon, 269. 

AccouRiR *, to run up, 287. 

Accustom, (to,) accoutumer. To 
be accustomed to a thing, etre ac' 
coutume a quelque chose, 317. 

Ache, (the,) le inal; the ear- 
ache, le mal d'oreiUe ; the heart- 
ache, le mal de caeur ; &c. 240. 

Acquainted (to be) with, connai< 
tre * ; been acquainted with, connu, 



474 



124. Acquainted (to become) with 
Bomebi)dy, to make some one's ac- 
quaintance, (aire connaissance avec 
quelqu'un ; I have become acquaint- 
ed withhim or her, fai fait sa con- 
naissance, 2S0. To be thorojghlj- 
acquainted with a thing, etre au fait 
dc quelque chose, 290. To make 
one's self thoroughly acquainted with 
a thing, se inettre aufait de quelque 
chose, 290. 

Adieu, adieu, farewell, God be 
with you, good-by. Au plaisir de 
vous revoir, (au revoir,) till I see you 
again, I hope to see you again soon, 
328. 

Adjective : agrees with its noun in 
number, Obs. 78 ; in gender, 231, 232. 
Feminine adjectives, Remark, 232 ; 
their formation from masculine adjec- 
tives, Obs. G. H. 233. Obs. I. K. 
Notes 1,3,4. 233, 234. Obs. L. Notes 
5, 6. 235. Adjectives that have no 
plural for the masculine gender, 
Obs. M. 236. Comparison of adjec- 
tives, Obs. A. 108. Adjectives that 
are irregular in the formation of their 
comparatives and superlatives, Obs. 
C. 108; D. 109. Adjectives substan- 
tively used, Obs. 344. Place of the 
adjective with regard to the substan- 
tive, Obs. C. 97. Obs. B. 147. Notes 
1, 2. 404. The adjective which in 
English follows hoio, stands in 
French after the verb, Obs. B. 235. 

Adverbs of quantity, 42. Obs. 43. 
Adverbs of place, 64, 145, 152. Ad- 
verbs of quality and manner, 132, 
133. Adverbs of number, 119, 310. 
Adverbs of time, Notes 1, 2. 65, 78, 
82, 101, 141. Comparative adverbs, 
52, 53, 101. Comparison of adverbs, 
Obs. A. B. lOS. Adverbs forming 
their comparatives and superlatives 
h-regularly, Obs. C. 108. D. 109. 
Place which the adverb is to occupy 
in the sentence. Rule 2. 405. Obs. 
A. 405. 

Advice to teachers, Note 1. 9 ; to 
pupils, Note 2. 10. 

Afford, (to,) avoir les moyevs ; 
zs.n you afford to buy that liorse ? 
avez-vous les vioi/ens d'achetcr ce 



cheval ? I can afford to buy it, feJi 
ai les mot/ens, 276. 

Afraid, (to be,) avoir peur, 15. 

After, apres, is in French fellow 
ed by the infinitive, while in Eng- 
iish it is followed by the pres. parti- 
ciple, 0= 154. 

Afterwards, ensuite, 166. 

Agree (to) to a thing, convenir * 
de quelque chose, 226. To agree to 
a thing, consentir * a quelque chose, 
301. 

Agaix, (anew,) de nouveau, 292. 

Aide, meaning an assistant, is 
masculine ; in the signification of 
succor, help, it is feminine. Note 1. 
275 

Aimer, to like, 160 Aimer mieux, 
to like better, to prefer, 210, 211. 

Aixsi, thus or so, 288 ; ainsi que, 
as, or as well as, 281. 

AisE : bien aise, glad, (takes de 
bef. inf.,) 269 : etre a son aise, to ba 
comfortable, to be at one's ease : etrs 
vial a son aise, {etre gene.) to be un- 
comfortable, 339. 

Alight, (to,) from one's horse, to 
dismount, descendre de cheval, 213 ; 
to alight, to get out, descendre de 
voiture, 254. 

All, ever}^, toui, tous, toutc, 
toutes, 81, 147, 240 ; all at onco, 
tout a coup, tout a lafois; all of 3 
sudden, suddenly, soudainement, 
240. 

Aller, to go ; alii, gone, 59. 
119. Its conjugation in the present 
tense of the indicative, 81. Ete, 
past part, of etre, in the French 
often used for alle, past part, of r.l- 
ler, to go, Obs. 116. AUcr en voilnre-, 
to drive, to ride in a carriage : alltr 
a cheval, to ride (on horseback;) 
aller a pied, to go on foot, 166. Al- 
ler, to travel to a place ; oil cst-il 
alle ? where has he travelled to ? 
165. Aller lien, to fit : cet. habil 
vous va bien, that coat fits you well, 
190. In French the verbs aJlcr *, 
to go, and venir*, to come, are al- 
ways followed by the infinitive in- 
stead of another tense used in Eng- 
lish, and the conjunctiou and is not 



475 



ftjuderod, Obs. A. 332 S'en aller, 
to go away, 171, 193, 195. 

Aljiost, prcsquc, 133. 

Alone, by one's self, seul fcm. 
seale, 313. 

Along, le long dii, de la ; along 
tlic road, le long du chemin ; along 
the street, le long de la rue ; all along, 
tout le long de, 32G. 

Aloud, liaut, or a haute voix, 
2',1. 

Already, dejd, 112. 

Always, toujours, 222. 

Amener, to bring, must not be 
mistaken for appnrter, Obs. B. 253. 

Ajio.ng, parini, 221. Amongst or 
amidst, parmi, 280. 

Amuse (to) one's self, s'amuser, 
170. 

Amuser, (s'j) to enjoy, to divert, to 
amuse one's self, takes a before inf. 
170. 

An, anxee, difference between 
these two words. Note 3. 240. 

Anecdotes: Witty answer of a 
young prince, 358. The French lan- 
guage, 358. A shopkeeper's answer, 
358. The emperor Charles V., 395. 
The entrance of a king into a town, 
396 The last request of an old man, 
396. The three questions, 396. An- 
swer of a lazy young man, 402. 
Hearing counsel, 403. Noble answer 
of a lady, 403. Cornelia, 403. Po- 
liteness, 409. Mildness, 409. The 
contest of art, 410. Zeuxis, 410. The 
corporal of Frederick the Great, 410. 
The history of John and Mary, 410, 
et seqq. 

And, et, 43. Obs. D. 318 ; and 
then, puis, 167. And is not ren- 
dered into French between the verbs 
go, aller *, and come, venir *, Obs. 

A. 322. 

Angry (to be) with somebody, etre 
fdche contre quelqu'un; about some- 
thing, de quelque chose, 269. 

Answer, (to,) repondre. To answer 
the man, repondre d Vhonime, Obs. 

B. 73. 

Any or some, (before a noun,) du, 
de la, des, 34, 233 ; before an adjec- 
tive, de, 35, 233, 234. See Some. 



A.\ybody or somebody, anyone oz 
some one, quelqu'un, 22. 

Any thing or something, quelqui. 
chose, 12. Any thing or something 
good, quelque chose de hon, 12. Obs. 
13. 

Apoplexy, (to be struck with,) etre 
frappe d'apoplexie, 274. 

Apostrophe, its use, Obs. 10. 

Appartenir, to belong, lb8. 

Appear, (to,) to look like, avoir 
Vair, la mine ; she looks angry, ap- 
pears to be angry, elle a Fair fdche, 
Sol. 

Appeler, to call, Obs. 124. 

Apporter, to bring, must not be 
mistaken for amener, Obs. D. 253. 

Apprendre *, to learn ; apprenant, 
learning ; appris, learned, 93, 132, 
95,160. Apprendre *, to hear, 204 : 
to teach, 216. 

Approach, (to,) to draw near, s'ap- 
vrocher de, 209. To approach (to 
have access to) one, approcher quel- 
qu'un, 209. 

Apres, after, is followed by the in- 
finitive in FrencMI [nj° 154. 

Around, round, autour, 312 ; all 
around, tout autour, ibid. 

Arrfver, to happen, 204. 

Article, (definite :) its declension 
in the singular masculine, 9 ; mascu- 
line and feminine before a vowel oi 
an h mute, 15 ; in the phu-al, 27, 68 ; 
in the singular and plural feminine, 
Obs. A. 230 ; used in French when 
omitted in English, Obs. A. 373 
Obs. B. Note 1. 374 ; when sub- 
stituted for the English indefinite 
article, Obs. B. 96. — Indefinite arti- 
cle : its declension masculine, 39 ; 
feminine, 233 ; used in English and 
not in French, Obs. A. 96. — Par- 
titive article : its declension in the 
singular and plur. masculine, 34 : 
feminine, Obs. F. 233 ; before an ad- 
jective, 35. 

As — as, aussi — q'le ; as often as 
you, aussi souvent que vous, lOl. 
Is your hat as large as mine ? Votre 
chapcau cst-il aussi grand que le 
mien 7 108. As much — as, as many 
• — as, autant de — que dc, 52. As 



476 



INDEX. 



soon as, aussitot que, 166, 308 ; as 
80O11 as, des que, 303, 308. As to, 
as for, quant a, 273. As, or, as well 
as, ainsi que, 281. 

Ashamed, (to be,) avoir honte, 19. 

Ask (to) a man for some money, 
demander de Vargent a un lioinme, 
JX 155. To ask too much, to over- 
charge, surf aire *, 292. 

AssEoiR *, (s',) pres. part, s'assey- 
ant ; past, assis, to sit down, 210, 
253. 

AssEZ de, enough, Obs. 43. 

Assis, fem. assise, {etre,) to sit, to 
he seated, 253. 

At, a, 145. At, chez, 59, 310. 
At translated by de, 322. At firet, 
d'ahord, 310. At home, « la maison, 
00. At last, en/i;?, 167. At present, 
d present, 78. At nine o'clock in 
the morning, « neuf heures du ma- 
tin ; at five o'clock in the evening, 
'd cinq heures du soir, 138. 

AucuN. fem. aucune, none or not 
any, Obs.' E. 365. 

AuPRES de, by, by the side of, Obs. 

A. 215. • 

Aussitot que, sitot que, as soon as, 
166, 308. 

AuTANT de — que de, as much — as, 
as many — as, 52. 

AuToua, arouii'j, ror.nd ; tout au- 
tour, all around, 312. Obs. A. 215. 

Autre, other ; un autre, another ; 
d'autres, some ether, 46. 

Autrui, others, other people, (in- 
dfterminate pronoun without gender 
or plural,) 247. 

Auxiliary. Verbs v/hich in En- 
glish generally take to have for their 
auxiliary, v/hile in French they take 
etre. Obs. E. 248. 

Avail, (to,) servir *. What avails 
it you to cry? ^A quoi vans sert-il 
de pleurer ? it avails me nothuig, cela 
lie me sert a rien, 331. 

AvANT, before, takes de before the 
inlinitive, 105 : pas avant, not until, 
263. 

Avoir, to have ; eu, had, ICT A. 

B. 118. O- C. 119. Avoir beau, in 
vain, 339. When speaking of di- 
men.sion we use in French avoir when 



the English use to be, Note I, Obs 
0. 236. 

Il y a, there is, there are, 133, 
189. Obs. A. 197. B. 198. Obs. C 
D. Note 1. 198. Obs. E. 199, 286 
II y a cannot be rendered into 
English by there is, there are, when 
it is used in reply to the question, 
How long is it since ? Obs. A. 197 ; 
nor when it is used in reply to the 
question. How far? Quelle distance? 
Obs. 203. 

Awake, (to,) reveiller,se reteiUer, 
Obs. B. 217. 



B. 



Bej (to,) etre ; been, ete, Notes 2, 
3. 115. Obs. 116. To be at home, 
etre a la maison, 60. To be in the 
countiy, etre d la campagne, 239. 

To Be is rendered by devoir when 
it is used to express futurity with the 
infinitive of another verb. Ex. Where 
are you to go this morning ? Oil de- 
vez-vous aller ce matin T I am to 
go to the warehouse, je dois aller au 
magasin, 137. 

To Be, translated by avoir * ; 
Ai-e 5-0U hungry ? Avez-vousfaim 7 
I am thirsty, fai soif ; Are you 
sleepy ? Avez-vous sommeil 1 13. 
Are j'ou warm ? Avez-vous chaud 1 
I am cold, fai froid; I am afraid, 
j'ai pcur, 15. What is the matter 
witliyou? Qw avez-vous? 11. Are 
you ashamed? Avez-vous honte? 
Am I wrong ? Ai-je tort ? You are 
right, vous avez raison, 19. How 
old are you? Quel age avez-vous ? 
I am twelve years old, j'ai douze 
ans, 132. Of what height is his or 
her house ? Combien sa maison a-t- 
elle de haut ? It is nearly fifty feet 
high, elle a environ cinquante pitds 
de haut, Obs. C. 286. 

To Be under obligations to some 
one, avoir des obligations a quel- 
qu'un, 285, 286. My feet are cold, 
j'ai froid aux pieds ; her hands arc 
cold, elle a froid aux-^mains, 265. 

To Be in want of, avoir besoin de, 
82. 



INDEX. 



477 



• To Be, translated by se porter, 
Obs. A. B. C. 225. 

To Be, translated by faiiie. Is 
it windy ? Fait-il du vent ? It ia 
stormy, il fait de Vorage. Is it 
foggy ? Fait-il du brouillard ? 159, 
IGO, 1G6, 252. See Weather, 
Warm, Cold, Dark, &c. Is it good 
travelling ? Fait-il ban voyager ? 
165, 179, 180. 

Beau, bel, fine, handsome ; how 
these two words must be employed, 
Note 2. 145, 235. Avoir beau, in 
vain, 339. 

Beaucoup de, much, many, a good 
deal of, very much, 42. Obs. 43. Obs. 
C. 108. Obs. C. 323. 

Because, parcc que, 137. 

Become, (to,) dcvenir*. What has 
become of him ? Qu'est-il devenu 7 
176. What will become of him? 
Que deviendra-t-il ? 193. What has 
become of your aunt ? Qu'est dcve- 
nue votre tante 7 268. To become 
ridiculous, tomber dans le ridicule, 
332. 

Before, avant de. Do you speak 
before you listen? Parlez-vous 
avant d'ecouter7 105. Before, c?e- 
vant, Obs. G. 200. The day before, 
la veille ; the day before Sunday, la 
ve.ille de dimanche, 288. 

Beg, (to,) prier, 254. To beg 
some one's pardon, demander par- 
don a quelqu-un, 328. 

. Behave, (to,) se comporter, 218, 
337. 

Believe, (to,) croire*. 111, 127. 
See Croire*. 

Below, or down stairs, en has, 146. 

Besides, outre ; besides that, ou- 
tre cela ; besides, (moreover,) e;? 
outre, 326. 

Better — than, mieux — que de, 
210. To be better, «aZo7r7rticwa;, 151. 
Is it better ? Vaut-il mieux 7 218. 

Between, entre, 280. 

BiEN, well, 105. Obs. D. 109, 132, 
270. Bien, well, a great deal, a 
great many, is always followed by 
the partitive article, but beaucoup is 
followed by the preposition de, Obs. 
C. 323. 



Bient6t, soon, shortly, 137 , boou, 
very soon, 208. 

Blow, (a,) un coup, 194. 

Blow, (to.) to blow out, soujjler, 
291 ; to blow out one's brains, hru- 
ler la cervelle a quelqu'un ; he has 
blown out his brains, il s^cst brule 
la cervelle, 313. 

Board (to) with any one, or any- 
where, etre en pension, se mcttre en 
pension, 331. 

Boarding-hous