FRANKLIN PARK COALITION
Published by THE FRANKLIN PARK COALITION, INC.
319 FOREST HILLS ST., BOSTON, MA 02130 - 522-7431
First published, June, 1978.
Reprinted and updated, January, 1982.
A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BOOKS ON, ABOUT
AND BY FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED AND HIS WORK
"...he paints with lakes and wooded slopes; with lawns and banks
and forest covered hills; with mountainsides and ocean views."
Daniel H. Burnham in a tribute to
Frederick Law Olmsted, 1893.
Back Bay Boston: The City as a Work of Art
Catalogue of the 1969 Boston Museum of Fine Arts exhibit with
essays by Lewis Mumford and Walter Muir Whitehill. Includes a
chapter on Olmsted with pictures of Franklin Park and the 1885
plan of the Park.
Alexopoulos , John, Nineteenth Century Parks of Hartford , Hartford
Architecture Conservancy, 1983. A welcome book on Hartford,
Connecticut's unique parks. A valuable book on one city's
landscape heritage, which includes the high country park, Keney
Park. Hartford is also Frederick Law Olmsted's home town.
Includes original plans of 7 parks plus many early illustrations.
Art of the Olmsted Landscape , Bruce Kelly, Gail Travis Guillet
and Mary Ellen Hearn , editors, N.Y. Landmarks Preservation
Commission, 1981. The catalogue for the exhibit of the same
name which opened at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on September
17, 1981. The exhibit was under the direction of Gail Guillet of
the N.Y. Landmarks Commission. The catalogue has essays on specific
aspects of the Olmsted landscape such as design and purpose (social
reform). Writers included are Albert Fein, Henry Hope Reed and
James Marston Fitch. Available from the N.Y. Landmarks Preservation
Commission, 20 Vesey Street, New York, NY 10007. $17.50
Back Bay Fens Study Report , Boston Landmarks Commission, September,
1983. Available from the Boston Landmarks Commission, City Hall,
Boston, MA 02201. $2 a copy.
Badger, R. Reid, The Great American Fair: The World's Columbian
Exposition and~American Culture , Nelson Hall Publishers, Chicago ,
Illinois 60606). One of F. L. Olmsted's greatest achievements
was also his last: landscaping the Chicago World's Fair of
1893. This book explains the history of the fair and its place
in American culture of the day. Well illustrated.
Baxter, Sylvester - Boston Parks Guide, Boston, 1898. An early and
accurate description with pictures and maps of the Olmsted Park
system. Baxter was a progressive writer for the old Boston
Transcript, a vocal proponent of parks and a friend of the
Olmsteds. Long out of print but the Boston Public Library has a
copy. The section on Franklin Park was reprinted in 1979 by The
Franklin Park Coalition. Still available.
Barlow, Elizabeth et al . - The Central Park Book , Central Park Task
Force, 1977. Olmsted's first park described from its history to
Barlow, Elizabeth (text) - Frederick Law Olmsted's New York . Catalogue
of the Whitney Museum of the American Art exhibit celebrating the
sesquicentennial of Olmsted's birth. Praeger, 1972.
Biltmore House and Gardens, 1976. Picture book with text of the
George Washington Vanderbilt estate in North Carolina. Landscape
by Olmsted between 1889 and 1895. Full Color.
Catalog - Index of Centr al Park Drawings, 1857-1934 . The Frederick
Law Olmsted Association, 1981. The project was directed by Susan
Dooha of the Association. This is a catalogue of file cards of
1400 original drawings of Central Park. This Catalog is available
from the Association, 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010. $5.
Bill Alex is director of the Association.
Cranz , Galen, The Politics of Park Design, A History of Urban Parks
in America, M..I.T. Press, 1982. Ms. Cranz 's book is systematic
and clearly written. She describes the three main movements in
park design and usage: the Pleasure Ground (such as Franklin Park),
the Reform Park (such as the former Charlesbank) and the Recreation
Facility. A section is devoted to park design and park management.
She takes a dim view of park bureaucrats but she also has little
use for advocacy planning and grass roots organizations either.
Lots to learn and argue about in this book; it takes parks out of
nostalgia and into real life.
Cook, Clarence, A Description of the New York Central Park , 1869,
reprinted by Benjamin Blom Inc., 1979. Invaluable also for its
steel plate etchings of the Park in its first decade.
Cecil, William A. - Biltmore , 1975. Black and white photo essay of
the estate. Both books can be ordered from the Biltmore House
and Gardens, Asheville, North Carolina 28803.
Emmet, Alan, et al, Cambridge Massachusetts the Changing of a Land-
scape. Harvard University Printing Office, 1978. Includes Olmsted,
Olmsted and Eliot's plans for the Charles River and Fresh Pond.
Evans, James Matthew, ASLA, The Landscape Architecture of Washi ngton,
D.C., A Comprehensive Guide . Landscape Architecture Foundation,
1982. Profusely illustrated with photographs. F. L. Olmsted Sr .
and his son Fred Jr. are well represented in Washington, D.C.
Olmsted Sr. designed the majestic west front of the capitol in-
cluding the terraces and stately circular grounds in 1874. Rock
Creek Park, Columbus Plaza and the magnificent Jefferson Memorial
grounds are a few of Fred Jr . ' s achievements.
Fabos , Milde and Weinmayr - Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. - Founder of
Landscape Architecture in America , U. Mass. Press, 1968. The best
single volume to date of Olmsted's life and work with many maps
and photos. Michael Weinmayr helped write this book. He heads up
his own urban landscape firm and is involved with plans for
Franklin Park with the Boston Parks Department and the Franklin
Fein, Albert - Frederick Law Olmsted and the American Environmental
Tradition , George Braziller, Publisher, 1972. An indispensable
source-book of Olmsted's political and professional theories and
the forces that shaped them. Copious maps and photographs.
Fein, Albert (Ed.) - Landscape into Cityscape , Cornell U. Press,
1968. Landscape presents 11 reports by F.L.O. on New York parks
and street layouts.
Franklin Park Study Report , Boston Landmarks Commission.' Copies are
available from the Boston Landmarks Commission, Room 944, City Hall,
Boston, Massachusetts 02201. $2.00 a copy.
Hanley, Thomas and M. M. Graff, Rock Trails in Central Park , Greenswood
Foundation, New York, 1976. A well illustrated geological guide.
Hardy, Stephen, How Boston Played Sports, Recreation and Community
1865-1915, Northeastern University Press, 1982. A thorough descrip-
tion of the development of active sports grounds in Boston in the
context of city-building. Thorough documentation and a 15-page
bibliography of books and articles on recreation, parks and city
Humphrey Repton, Landscape Gardener . 1975-181. George Carth, Patrick
Goode and Kedrun Laurie. Exhibit catalog, Victoria and Albert
Museum, London, 1982. The English picturesque landscape of parks
was always the supreme inspiration for Frederick Law Olmsted and
Repton was one of the great English landscape architects whose
work Olmsted admired and often returned to see on his trips to
Index to Boston Park Department Reports: 1875-1900 . Reprinted in
1981 by the Franklin Park Coalition. Available from the Franklin
Park Coalition for $5.00.
Index to "Forty Years of Landscape Architecture" prepared by Charles
Carmony for the Central Park Community Fund. Forty Years is the
bible for all Olmsted activists and scholars as it includes
valuable reports and documents on Olmsted's planning of and
thinking about urban parks, with Central Park as the focus.
The book was edited by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Theodora
Kimball in 1928. MIT Press reprinted Volume II: Central Park
in 1973. The Index is available for $2 from the Central Park
Community Fund, 9 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019.
Index of Franklin Park Drawings 1884-1980 . Between August, 1981
and February, 1982, the Franklin Park Coalition surveyed and
indexed the plans and drawings of Franklin Park at the Frederick
Law Olmsted National Historic Site (Brookline, Mass.) and at
the Boston Parks Department. This index is laid out according
to 30 different locations in Franklin Park, also including Franklin
Field and the Arborway. Available from the Franklin Park Coalition
Lancaster, Clay - Prospect Park Handbook , Long Island U. Press, 1972.
Paperback. An excellent history of Olmsted's second urban park in
Brooklyn, New York. Lancaster is a former curator of Prospect Park.
Lewis Millers 'Central Park' , The Edison Institute, Dearborn, Michigan,
1977. In 1864, a Pennsylvania carpenter named Lewis Miller made a
watercolor sketchbook guide to Central Park. Filled with marginal
notes, these uniquely folk art watercolors capture the earliest
years of Central Park. This booklet reproduces the watercolors
in black and white.
Mumf ord , Lewis - The Brown Decades , Harcourt Brace, 1931. Reprinted
in 1971 by Dover Publications. An appraisal of American art and
architecture in the post Civil War years by the eminent art and
social critic. In this book Mumf ord first brought Olmsted's career
to wide public notice after years of obscurity.
Newton, Norman T. - Design on the Land: The Development of Landscape
Architecture , Harvard U. Press, 1971. An excellent book which
puts Olmsted in perspective with regard to the history of landscape
architecture. An entire chapter devoted to Olmsted in Boston with
interesting commentary on Franklin Park was reprinted by the
Franklin Park Coalition in 1979. Still available with photo-
graphs of the Park System.
Olmsted, F. L. - A Journey in the Back Country , Mason Brothers, I860;
reprinted in paperback by Schoken, 19 70. In 1854, F.L.O. toured
the south reporting on the effects of slavery on the economy and
social fabric of the region. At this point in his life Olmsted
considered a career of political writing and reform.
Olmsted, Frederick Law, A Journey Through Texas (1857), reprinted in
1978 by the University of Texas Press, paperback. This is the
second of F.L.O. 's famous 3 books on his Southern travels between
1852 and 1854.
Olmsted, F. L. - Walks and Talks of an American Farmer in England ,
1852. Olmsted and his brother John toured England in 1850 and
what he saw of the parks there influenced his urban park design
greatly. Long out of print. There is a 1967 reprint which is
also out of print.
Olmsted, F. L. - Notes on the Plan of Franklin Park , 1886. Parks
Department Report. An essential publication to understand Franklin
Park. Excerpted in Sutton, Civilizing American Cities .
Olmsted, F. L., Jr., and Kimball, Theodora - Frederick Law Olmsted:
Landscape Architect , first published, 1928; 2 volumes. Reprinted
in volume, 1970, Benjamin Bloom, Inc., Vol. II reprinted in paper-
back, M.I.T. Press, 1973. Vol. I is the first biography of F.L.O.;
contains chronology of his life and works. Vol. II is papers and
reports by F.L.O. on and about Central Park. Many of these are
general enough to apply to Franklin Park. Olmsted was well aware
that he was defining theories of landscape architecture.
Olmsted South, White and Kramer, introduction by Albert Fein, Greenwood
Press, Connecticut, 1979. A collection of essays on F.L.O. 's
writings on and plans for the South. A unique collection which
describes Olmsted's city plans for Atlanta as well as other cities
after the Civil War. Other essays thoroughly explore Olmsted's
pre-Civil War reports for the New York Times .
Olmsted in Massachusetts: The Public Legacy , A Report of the Inventory
Committee of the Mass. Association for Olmsted Parks, Mass.
Association for Olmsted Parks, 1983. Describes ten district
Olmsted Sr . and Olmsted Brothers Parks and Reservations from
Copps Hills Terrace and Charlestown Heights in Boston to Riverside
Park in Holyoke. Illustrated with maps and photographs.
The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted , Vol. I, The Formative Years,
1822-1852. Charles C. McLaughlin, editor. Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1977. The first of seven volumes of Olmsted's papers at the
Library of Congress .
The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted , Vol. II: Slavery and the South,
1852-1857. Edited by Charles Beveridge and Charles C. McLaughlin
($27.50). The long-awaited second volume of the Olmsted papers
has been published by Johns Hopkins. Olmsted's southern writings
are possibly the least known of his writings during his long life.
To historians of American history, they are frequently the most
cited sources on the old South and slavery. The New York Times
Book Review of June 28, 1981 carried a review by David H. Donald.
The Papers of Frederick Law Olmsted: Volume III, Creating Central
Park, Charles Beveridge and David Schuyler, editors, Johns Hopkins
University Press, 1983. $28.50. Profusely illustrated with a
portfolio of early 1860 ' s photographs of Central Park.
Primack, Mark, Greater Boston Park and Recreation Guide , The Globe
Pequot Press, 1983. Paperback. $9.95. 338 pages. A reference
guide book to 135 public parks, beaches, gardens, state forests
and reservations in the Metropolitan Boston area. The Guidebook
carefully describes the Boston Park System and covers Franklin Park
in over 6 pages. Readers will learn more from this one book on
Greater Boston parks than they will from 10 other guidebooks on
Rebuilding Central Park: An Outline for a Restoration Plan , prepared
by the N.Y.C. Department of Parks and The Central Park Conservancy,
April 20, 1981. A comprehensive guide for the planning of a much
larger restoration plan for Central Park's renewal. The introduction
states that "one of the main purposes ... is to ensure that the
Park never again becomes as badly deteriorated as during the past
Reed, Henry H.; Duckworth, Sophia - Central Park, A History and Guide ,
1967, 1972. Clarkson N. Potter, Publisher. Central Park described
in a series of walking tours. Also a thorough discussion of the
development of American landscape architecture and F.L.O.'s life.
Reed is a former curator of Central Park.
Riverside Park Study Report, New York Landmarks Preservation Com-
mission, 20 Vesey St., New York, NY 10007, On February 19th,
the New York Landmarks Commission designated Olmsted's 1873
Riverside Park a New York City landmark. This report, prepared
by Commission staffers, is a comprehensive description and
history of this unique linear park along the Hudson River.
Roper, Laura Wood - F.L.O.: A Biography of Frederick Law Olmsted ,
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973. The definitive and first
complete biography of F.L.O. Mrs. Roper was a friend of F.L.O.,
Jr. for many years.
Runte , Alfred, National Parks and the American Experience , University
of Nebraska Press, 1979. Yosemite is put in perspective with an
exploration of why America chose to preserve wilderness. Olmsted's
role in Yosemite is explained as well as Olmsted, Jr . ' s contri-
butions to the Everglades and the California Redwoods.
"Beyond the Spectacular: The Niagara Falls Preservation Campaign",
by Alfred Runte, New York Historical Society Quarterly , Vol. 57,
January, 1973. F. L. Olmsted's second achievement in preserving
pieces of American scenic wonders was the Niagara Falls campaign
of 1869-1885. In this he was joined by H. H. Richardson. Runte
describes the Niagara campaign in more depth than in his book.
Schenck, Carl Alwin , The Birth of Forestry in America: Biltmore
Forest School 1898-1913 . Reprinted by Forest History Society,
P.O. Box 1581, Santa Cruz, California 95061, 1974, $4.50.
Biltmore was also 100,000 acres of forest and mountain, and
F.L.O. recommended that a scientific forestry program, the
first of its kind in America, be undertaken; Vanderbilt acceded
and Carl Schenck was hired. This book is Schenck 's 1955 memoir
on his achievements at the Biltmore Forest School.
Simpson, Jefferey, Art of The Olmsted Landscape: His Works in New
York, Mary Ellen Hearn, editor. New York Landmarks Preservation
Commission, 1981. This catalogue is also a part of the Olmsted
exhibit held at the Metropolitan. It is also available from the
N.Y. LAndmarks Preservation Con-imission .
Stevenson, Elizabeth - Park Maker , Macmillan Co., 1977. Ms. Stevenson
calls Olmsted "one of the last heroes of American history." Unlike
Roper, Stevenson has a great empathy for Olmsted's landscapes and
went to some length to visit a lot of Olmsted's creations.
Sutton, Stephanie B. - Charles Sprague Sargent and the Arnold Arboretum ,
Harvard University Press, 1970. Discusses the growth of the
Arboretum and Olmsted's design for this link in the Emerald Necklace.
Ms. Sutton wrote this book while on the staff of the Arboretum.
Sutton, Stephanie B. (Ed.) - Civilizing American Cities , M.I.T. Press,
1971. A selection of writings on city landscapes by F.L.O. Includes
several Boston reports along with Montreal, San Francisco, et al .
Tichi, Cecilia, New World, New Earth , Yale, 1979. Mrs. Tichi traces
the thread of how Americans from the Puritans through the late 19th
century viewed the land. While only peripherally concerned with
Olmsted, she nevertheless writes about him and puts his theories
into historical context. A challenge to read, but a valuable
book. Professor Tichi lectured on Olmsted at the Boston Public
Library in February, 1979, basing her talk on this book.
Turner, Paul et al. - The Founders and The Architects: The Design
of Stanford University , Department of Art, Stanford University,
1976. Olmsted landscaped Stanford University 1886-1889. A jewel
of university planning.
Weidenmann, Jacob, Beautifying Country Homes , New York, 1870. Reprinted
by American Life Foundation, 1978. A contemporary and occasional
associate of Frederick Law Olmsted, Weidenmann 's book was widely
read. Olmsted himself owned a copy and he often relied on
Weidenmann 's abilities. This is an oversize book profusely and
lavishly illustrated with his own landscape plans as well as others.
Included are Olmsted and Vaux's plans for the Retreat for the
Insane in Hartford, Connecticut and Washington Park in Brooklyn.
Zaitzevsky, Cynthia, Frederick Law Olmsted and the Boston Park System ,
Harvard University Press, 1982. This oversized book is lush with
photographs and maps. It is the long overdue history of Boston's
Olmsted Parks and fills an enormous void in Olmsted park study.
ARTICLES, CHAPTERS AND PAMPHLETS
"Buffalo's Park and Parkway System" by Charles Beveridge in Buffalo
Architecture: A Guide , The M.I.T. Press, 1981.
"The Central Park," by Walter Karp , American Heritage , April-May,
1981. Available in an offprint. 10 Rockefeller Plaza, New York,
NY 10020. Includes gorgeous full-color reproductions of the
Spring, 1981 exhibit of paintings of Central Park at the Hirschl-
Adler Gallery. This was a fundraising event by The Central Park
"The Evolution of the California Landscape," by David C. Streatfield,
Landscape Architect, March, 1976. Examines Olmsted's design for
Stanford University, Mountain View Cemetery, Oakland and other
Olmsted projects in the San Francisco area.
"Frederick Law Olmsted: Landscape Architecture as Conservative Reform,'
Geoffrey Blodgett, Journal of American History , March, 1976. A
revisionist political approach to Olmsted's theories related to
Robert Lewis' "Frontier and Civilization in the Thought of Frederick
Law Olmsted." Blodgett makes the argument that Olmsted's parks
were as much social reform as civil service, tarriff, and railroad
reforms of the post-Grant era of the last century: "Urban antidote
for the restless habits of the American majority." Blodgett's
article here is an outgrowth of his 1966 book The Gentle Reformers :
Massachusetts Democrats in the Cleveland Era .
"Frontier and Civilization in the Thought of Frederick Law Olmsted,"
by Robert Lewis, American Quarterly, Fall 1977 p. 386. Lewis, an
English university professor, contends that Olmsted's parks and
urban plans were molded by the twin themes of social progress and
social control. An interesting revisionist approach in contrast
wtih Fein's American Environmental Tradition.
"Frederick Law Olmsted and the Design of Mount Royal Park, Montreal,"
by A. L. Murray, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians ,
"Friends of the Parks," by Peter Canby, Horticulture Magazine,
October, 1983. In depth article on New York's oldest and most
famous advocacy group who have championed Central Park and Prospect
Park for nearly 20 years.
"The Greening of Boston: 1880-1900", Chapter Nine of Lost Boston by
Jane Holtz Kay, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1980. Eight pages
of early Boston park photographs. Includes a nice cut of the old
grotto near Blue Hill Avenue.
"The Great American Park of the Yo-Semite," by Frederick Law Olmsted,
1865. Yosemite Nature Notes , July, 1954. Written when Olmsted
was chairman of the first commission to manage Yosemite Valley.
"The Illuminating Olmsted Legacy" by Ron Grossman, Inland Architect
magazine. May /June, 1982. Grossman dwells more on Olmsted's
planning theories than on individual parks and more on public
spaces than on private estates. Nicely illustrated.
"Mount Royal, Montreal," edited by David Bellman, Catalogue of the
exhibit held at the McCord Museum, Montreal, December, 1977,
through March, 1978. Sutton's Civilizing American Cities
includes portions of F.L.O.'s 1881 report on Mount Royal.
"Morningside Park: Its History and Significance," Friends of
Morningside Park, 1983. Includes the 1887 plan and description
of Morningside Park as well as a description of the Friends'
work to restore this major neighborhood park designed by Olmsted
and Vaux. Available from the Friends of Morningside Park, 533
West 112th St., Apt- lA, New York, NY 10025.
"Northerners in the South: Frederick L. Olmsted and John T.
Trowbridge," Chapter VI, Patriotic Gore , by Edmund Wilson. Sub-
titled "Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War,"
1962, Oxford. The noted literary critic examines F.L.O.'s study
of and reports on the salve economy of the South in the late
1850 's. An important analysis of a much forgotten aspect of
"Olmsted in Chicago," by Victoria Ranney, R. R. Donnelly and Sons,
1972. Olmsted's work in Chicago includes parks, subdivisions,
and the Columbian Exposition.
"The Olmsted Firm and the Structures of the Boston Park System,"
by Cynthia Zaitzevsky, reprint from the May 1973 Journal of
the S.A.H. Includes some very interesting photographs of
"Riverside: A Village in a Park," the Frederick Law Olmsted Society
in Riverside, 111., 1970. Riverside is a posh suburb of Chicago
which Olmsted and his partner Calvert Vaux designed in 1869.
It's America's first planned suburb.
"32 Ways Your Time and Money Can Rescue Central Park," by Elizabeth
Barlow, New York Magazine , June 14, 1976. The subtitle of this
very interesting article says it all: "The survival or ultimate
death of New York City's parks depends entirely on how much
people care about them."
"Central Park's Renaissance," Elizabeth Barlow, New York Magazine ,
June 6, 1983. Subtitled "33 new ways you can help," this article
is an update on the New York Magazine article of 1976.
"Toward a Comprehensive Bibliography of the Landscaping and Archi-
tectural Work of Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux," compiled
by Steven Olderr and Patricial Heuel, Riverside Public Library,
Riverside, Illinois, 1982. The most comprehensive bibliography
on Olmsted and Vaux. It includes books, magazines and articles
from 1857 to 1981 arranged geographically (i.e. books and articles
about Boston will be under the East-Massachusetts heading). This
bibliography was inspired by the Franklin Park Coalition's An
Olmsted Bibliography , first published in May, 1978 as Vol. T7
No. 2 of the Franklin Park Coalition Bulletin. The Riverside
Library Bibliography is being updated for a 1985 revision.
"Who Owns the Parks," by Anne Spigelman and David Novick, Chicago
Magazine, September, 1983. The evolution of park use: the
aesthetic in competition with the athletic.
"Yosemite: The Story of An Idea," Hans Huth, Sierra Club Bulletin
(March, 1948). Olmsted was closely involved in the preservation
of Yosemite National Park. This history best describes Olmsted's
important role. Available from Yosemite National Park, California
'The Yosemite Valley & The Mariposa Big Trees," a preliminary report
(1865) by Frederick Law Olmsted, Landscape Architecture , October
1952, edited by Laura Wood Roper. Long lost for decades, it
was discovered after diligent efforts by Mrs. Roper and Frederick
Law Olmsted, Jr. in 1952. This unique document formulated a
philosophic base for the creation of State and National Parks.
REPRINTED FRANKLIN PARK DOCUMENTS
The First Report of the Boston Park Commissioners , 1876. Explains
the rationale for the expense of parks and describes the
boundaries of the proposed sites.
Notes on the Plan of Franklin Park , Parts II and III by Frederick
Law Olmsted, 1886 (from The 12th Annual Report of the Boston
Park Commissioners ) .
Boston Park Department Annual Reports for Franklin Park, in 4
volumes, 1879-1890; 1891-1900; 1901-1910; and 1911-1926.
Includes some of the original photographs.
All reprinted by the Franklin Park Coalition as issues of its
quarterly BULLETIN. The First Report of the Boston Park Com -
missioners and Notes on the Plan of Franklin Park , Parts II and
III are typeset and printed in book form, 6x9" with stiff, glossy
cover. The 4 volumes of Annual Reports are typewritten text
printed in magazine format, 8-2x11" with card stock cover.
Each publication is $5. The Annual Reports are $5 each; $17 the
set. Available from The Franklin Park Coalition, 319 Forest
Hills Street, Boston, MA 02130.