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ON THE 



CLASSIFICATION 



AM) 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 



CRUSTACEA: 



THE REPORT ON CRUSTACEA 



UNITED STATES EXPLORING EXPEDITION, UNDER 
CAPTAIN CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N., 

DURING THE YEARS 1838-1842. 



JAMES D. DANA, A.M., 

MTMBER OF THE SOC. OES. NAT. CTO. OF MOSCOW; THE SOC. PH1LOMATHIQUE OF PARIS; THE 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON; THE AMERICAN ACA* ./ OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
AT BOSTON; THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, ETC. 




PHILADELPHIA: 
PRINTED BY C. SHERMAN. 

1853. 



A REVIEW 

OP THE CLASSIFICATION OF CKUSTACEA, WITH REFERENCE TO 
CERTAIN PRINCIPLES OF CLASSIFICATION. 



THE class Crustacea exhibits a clearness of outline in its types, and 
a display of relations, transitions, and distinctions, among its several 
groups, exceeding any other department of the animal kingdom. 
This fact arises from the very great range in structure occupied by 
the species. The limits in size exceed those of any other class, exclu- 
sive of the Kadiata; the length varying from nearly two feet to a small 
fraction of a line, the largest exceeding the smallest lineally more 
than a thousand-fold. In the structure of the limbs, the diversity is 
most surprising, for even the jaws of one division may be the only 
legs of another; the number of pairs of legs may vary from fifty to 
one, or none. The antennae may be either simple organs of sense or 
organs of locomotion and prehension ; and the joints of the body may 
be widely various in number and form. In the branchial and the 
internal systems of structure, the variety is equally remarkable; for 
there may be large branchiae, or none ; a heart, or none ; a system of 
distinct arterial vessels, or none ; a pair of large liver glands, or but 
rudiments of them; a series of ganglions in the nervous cord, or but 
one ganglion for the whole body. 

Taking even a single natural group, the Decapods ; the abdomen 
may be very small, without appendages, and flexed beneath the broad 
cephalothorax out of view, or it may be far the larger part of the 
body, and furnished with several pairs of large natatory appendages ; 



1396 CRUSTACEA. 

the inner antennae may be very small, and retractile into fissures fitted 
to receive them, or they may be very long organs, constantly thrown 
forward of the head ; and descending but a single step, we come to 
species of Decapoda without proper branchiae, some having the abdo- 
minal legs furnished with branchial appendages, and others with no 
abdominal members at all. 

When we consider, that these diversities occur in a class that may 
not embrace in all over ten thousand species (riot half of which are 
now known), we then comprehend the wide diversity in the distinc- 
tions that exist. The series of species followed through, gives us an 
enlarged view of those distinctive characteristics upon which the 
limits and relations of groups depend. The network of affiliations, it 
is true, is like that in other departments ; but it is more magnified to 
the view. 

Moreover, the distinctions are obviously distinctions of rank. There 
is no ambiguity as to which is the higher or superior group, as among 
Insecta. The variations are manifestly variations in grade, and we 
may readily trace out the several steps of gradation, as we descend 
from the highest Brachyura to the lowest Lernaea. And while we so 
readily distinguish these gradations, we as plainly see that they are 
not steps of progress followed by nature in the production of species; 
but, simply successive levels (grades of types), upon which species have 
been multiplied. 

We, therefore, may consider the class Crustacea as especially well 
adapted for instruction in some of the higher principles of classifica- 
tion in Zoology ; and, if we mistake not, laws may be educed which 
have not hitherto taken form in science. These have already been 
partially alluded to in the previous pages of this volume. But we 
here bring together the facts in a connected view, in order to state 
the principles more definitely, and exhibit the full extent of their 
bearing. We leave out, however, a large part of the details, which 
may be found elsewhere in this Keport. 

The fundamental idea, which we shall find at the basis of the 
various distinctions of structure among the species is, the higher cen- 
tralization of the superior grades, and the less concentrated central forces 
of the inferior, a principle which has been applied to the animal 
kingdom in some of its larger subdivisions, but which has not been 
followed out into all the details of structure exemplified among Crus- 
tacea. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. ^397 

This centralization is literally a cepJialization of the forces. In the 
higher groups, the larger part of the whole structure is centred in the 
head, and contributes to head functions, that is, the functions of the 
senses and those of the mouth. As we descend, the head loses one 
part after another, and with every loss of this kind, there is a step 
down in rank. This centralization may be looked for in the nervous 
cords ; but the facts are less intelligibly studied there, than in the 
members, the production and position of which measure the condition of 
the forces : just as we can better measure the forces of a galvanic 
battery by the work done, than by the size or external appearance of 
the plates which constitute it. 

In the Crustacea type, there are normally twenty-one segments, and 
correspondingly twenty-one pairs of members, as laid down by Milne 
Edwards, the last seven of which pertain to the abdomen, and the 
first fourteen to the cephalothorax. Now, we may gather from an 
examination of the crab, or Macroural Decapod, acknowledged to be 
first in rank, what condition of the a system is connected with the 
highest centralization in Crustacea. 

In these highest species, nine segments and nine pairs of appendages 
out of the fourteen cephalothoracic, belong to the senses and mouth, 
and only five pairs are for locomotion. Of these nine, thr.ee are organs 
of senses, six are the mandibles and maxillae. Moreover, these organs 
are clustered into the smallest possible space, so that the six pairs of 
mouth organs hardly occupy more room than the first pair of legs. 
The organs are all small, the antennae exceedingly short, the maxillaa 
small lamellar organs sparingly jointed. The vegetative powers of 
growth have had but little play. The inner antennae are rather large 
as regards the basal joint, which is devoted to one of the senses, but 
the rest is nearly rudimentary, and the whole is snugly boxed away, to 
be extruded at the will of the animal. The exterior maxillae (or 
outer maxillipeds) cover exactly the other pairs, and shut closely 
down over the mouth, like a well-fitting operculum to the buccal area. 

We hence learn, that the condition of highest centralization in 
Crustacea, is where the cephalic part embraces the largest portion of 
the normal structure of the cephalothorax, and the whole is con- 
tracted within the smallest compass, with the least vegetative growth 
or elongation of the parts. The forces are concentrated in the more 
perfectly developed senses and the higher functions of the animal 
not in giving size to the organs of the senses, but acuteness to the 

350 



1398 CRUSTACEA. 

sensorial function. The perfection of the senses is evinced by the 
small antennae; for we infer therefrom, not only that the organ is 
exclusively an organ of sense, but also, that the delicacy of the sense 
itself is such, as not to require a long-jointed appendage to aid the 
function. 

This cephalization of the animal is farther observed in the structure 
of the rest of the thorax and the abdomen. The abdomen, in the 
first place, is reduced to its minimum size. Vegetative elongation is 
here cut short, as in the anterior part of the animal ; and the sphere 
of growth has a narrow limit, owing to the very intensity of its con- 
centration ; and we find that the limit widens as the intensity dimi- 
nishes. 

Again : the central power is indicated by the fact, that the first pair 
of legs is the strong pair ; being properly hands, they contribute espe- 
cially to the higher functions, that is, the support of the living animal, 
through their strength and powers of prehension, and not like the 
following, to locomotion. Thus, as we pass from the centre, the organs 
are of more and more humble function. 

This centre, as we have observed in another place, is properly between 
the second antennae and mandibles. The second antennae and the 
rudimentary mouth, are among the first parts that appear in the 
embryo. If we look at it as a centre of force or of growth, we remark 
that the radii on opposite sides of this centre^ before and behind, are 
very unequal, the latter being six or eight times as long as the former, 
a relation which is the inverse of the functional importance of the 
parts pertaining to each. 

Our idea of the condition of highest centralization is thus drawn 
from a study of the species. 

The most perfect state of it is seen in the Maia group, in which the 
bases of the antennae and eyes are crowded into the narrowest possible 
compass, and the mouth organs are well compacted within the buccal 
area, and the legs and whole system have the highest completeness. 

The form of the body of a Maia is a somewhat flattened ovoid, nar- 
rowest in front; and the middle point between the mouth and the 
second antennae) which we call the potential centre of the animal, is 
situated near the front, say about half an inch from the front outline 
(excluding the beak), supposing the cephalothorax three inches long. 
We may call the part anterior to this centre, A; the part posterior, 
B; and the length of the former, measured on the axis, a; of the 
latter, b. These parts may be viewed, as regards development, as 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1399 

potentially equal; and yet the anterior, A, is six times shorter and as 
much narrower and lower than the following. It would not, there- 
fore, be far out of the way to say, in mathematical language, that the 
functional importance of the two parts varies inversely as the cubic 
contents of the parts. 

We pass now to the degradations from this, the highest type. 

These degradations are seen 

First, in a widening of the space between the antennae. 
Second, in a slight enlargement of the outer maxillipeds, so that 
they do not fit snugly over the buccal area. 
Third, in an elongation of the antenna?. 

These are all evidences of a slight relaxing of the concentrating 
element. The first, marks the transition of the Maia group to the 
Parthenopidae, and thence to the Cancridae. The second, carries the 
grade a step lower, to species of the old genus Cancer, also to the 
swimming crabs and the Corystoids; and the third, marks off the 
Corystoids as the lowest of the true Brachyura. 

While there are such marks of degradation exhibited through the 
growth or. elongation of parts, there is also a mark, equally significant, 
in the obsolescence of the posterior thoracic- legs, a peculiarity of many 
Grapsoids. In the Maioids, the species are well balanced ; the type 
is perfect in its development : the sustaining of the central functions 
allows of the full and complete growth of all the other parts. But 
the diminution of force may not only be attended with a loosening of 
the cephalic hold on the remoter of the cephalic organs, but also, in a 
failure in the production of the posterior organs of the body, or those 
on the outer limits of the system : and this is what happens in many 
Grapsoids. The swimming form of the legs in Lupa and allied species 
is a similar mark of inferiority. 

Besides the above evidences of degradation, there are still others in 
the Brachyural structure, which act conjointly with the preceding, 
producing lower grades of species. They are all marks of a relaxa- 
tion of the centralization. 

Fourth. An enlargement or widening of the sternum and abdomen. 

Fifth. The abdomen becoming somewhat relaxed from the venter 
instead of remaining close-appressed to it. 

Sixth. The vulvae becoming more remote from one another, being 
situated in the bases of the third pair of legs, instead of the sternum. 



1400 CRUSTACEA. 

Seventh. The inner antennae losing their fossettes, and being con- 
stantly exsert. 

Eighth. The branchiae being more than nine in number on either 
side. 

The first of these peculiarities distinguishes many of the Grapsoids, 
as well as lower species. The second is observed in the Corystoids, 
and is an additional mark of their inferior grade. The third occurs 
in Dromia and allied. The fourth, in Latreillia. The fifth, in 
Dromia. Dromia and Latreillia have the posterior legs abbreviated, 
and in Dromia, this evidence of degradation is still stronger, in that 
the fourth as well as fifth pair is short and dorsaL 

The last three characteristics, above mentioned, mark a transition 
towards the Macroural type, and the genera of this kind belong with 
the Anomoura. This transition is seen further in 

Ninth. The eyes being without fossettes. 

Tenth. The second pair of antennae becoming exterior to the eyes. 
Eleventh. The outer maxillipeds more enlarged and subpediform. 
Twelfth. The abdomen more lax and furnished with a pair of caudal 
appendages. 

Thirteenth. The abdomen more elongated, and hardly inflexed. 

These several changes exhibit a continuation of the process of re- 
laxation in the central forces. There is thereby an enlargement of the 
antennae, and their more remote position at the anterior extremity of 
the animal ; and also, an enlargement of the posterior or abdominal 
parts of the animal, and a development of appendages in the posterior 
direction. These marks of degradation, excepting the thirteenth, are 
found in the Hippa and Porcellana groups, and the thirteenth in the 
Paguridea. At the same time that these Macroural characteristics 
appear, the body becomes elongated. The species all bear a stamp of 
imperfection in the abbreviated posterior legs, as explained above, as 
well as in the other points alluded to. The subordination of the nine 
anterior annuli to cephalic functions, which is so striking in the Maioids, 
has become less and less complete, and the organs less perfect ; more- 
over, the habits of the animals are more sluggish, and they are less 
fitted for self-preservation. The large Dromia picks up a waste shell, 
and by means of its hind legs, lifts it over its body for protection, and 
the Pagurus finds shelter in the water-worn univalves of a coast. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 14Q1 

The degradation pointed out, is hence, not merely a variation in 
the position and size of certain organs, but an actual deterioration in 
rank and intelligence. 

Other minor points exhibiting difference of grade, might be men- 
tioned : but they have already been subjects of remark. We state 
here only one the character of the fingers of the large hands. In 
the higher species, these fingers are pointed ; in a grade below, in 
some groups, they have a spoon-like extremity. This excavate form 
is often more perfect in young individuals than in adults, which is 
one evidence that it is in fact proof of inferiority. By this mark we 
learn that the Chloroclince are of lower grade than the Xantliinae; the 
Paguri, than the BernJiardi; the Mithracidve, than the Maiadce, etc. 

Let us pass now to the Macroura. In the typical Macroural species, 
the antennae, instead of being minute, with the inner retractile, are 
long exsert organs, and the outer have a large plate as an appendage 
at base ; the eyes are without sockets ; the outer maxillipeds are pedi- 
form, and do not closely cover the other mouth organs; the abdomen 
is often longer than the rest of the body, and has its six regular pairs 
of appendages. All these points show a still further relaxing of the 
centralization or cephalization of the species. There is an elongation 
of the parts anterior to the mouth, and lalso of those posterior, and 
this elongation of the two extremities is approximately proportional 
to the relative dimensions of the corresponding parts in the Brachyura. 
If we were to draw out an ovoid with the relative length and breadth 
of a Macroural cephalothorax, and place its focus so as to correspond 
with the position of the posterior margin of the epistome, in a manner 
like that proposed for the Maia among Brachyura, the ovoid would 
be very narrow, and the focus or centre proportionally farther from 
the front than in the Brachyura. 

In following down the degradation of the Brachyura to the Ano- 
moura, we have found the posterior legs becoming abbreviated, and 
the whole structure in its aspect imperfect. But, in the typical Ma- 
croura, there is nothing of this seeming imperfection. The legs are 
all fully formed ; the animals are exceedingly quick in their motion, 
instead of being sluggish ; and every organ is apparently in its most 
perfect state for the uses of the system to which it is tributary. We 
should, therefore, understand, that the process of degradation, alluded 
to above, is not one actually passed through in the system of creation ; 

351 



1402 CRUSTACEA. 

for by its progress we should never reach the Macroural structure; 
nor, in the reverse order, should we from the Macroural reach the 
Brachyural structure. In the remarks above, we speak only of the 
comparative actual conditions of the species as regards centralization. 
The Macroura and Brachyura belong to subordinate, yet correlated 
types of structure, each perfect in itself, and admitting of wide modi- 
fications, and having its own system of degradations. We add a few 
words on these degradations among the Macroura. We have seen 
that, in the Brachyura, the powerful prehensile legs are those of the 
first pair, these acting for the collection of food, and so contributing to 
the mouth. In the Macroura, there are species of high rank that 
have the anterior legs strong-handed, like the Macroura. There are 
others, in which the second or third pair is the strong-handed pair ; 
others having all the legs weak appendages, with only rudimentary 
hands or none. The several marks of degradation are as follows : 

First. The outer maxillipeds pediform. 
Second. The maxillipeds next anterior pediform. 
Third. Second pair of legs cheliform and stouter than the first. 
Fourth. The third pair of legs cheliform and stouter than either of 
the preceding. 

Thus as we descend, we find one and even two pairs of mouth ap- 
pendages beginning to pass from the mouth series to the foot series, and 
the cephalic portion is thus losing its appendages and high centralized 
character. Moreover, the power belonging to the first pair of legs in 
the higher species is transferred to the second pair of legs, as in the 
Palamions; or, to the third pair, as in the Penaeidae; indicating a 
further decrease of that centralization so remarkable in the Brachyura. 
Still lower among the species, as in the Sergestidse, all the legs are 
weak, and the posterior pair may be short or obsolete, the same 
deterioration that occurs in the lower Brachyura. 

As we descend farther, there is an increased obsolescence of organs, 
and every step is one of marked imperfection as well as degradation. 

Fifth. The branchiao become external and small. 
Sixth. The branchiae become wholly wanting, or part of the abdo- 
minal appendages. 

Seventh. The last two pairs of thoracic legs become obsolete. 
Eighth. The abdominal appendages become obsolete. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 14Q3 

- 

Ninth. The eyes and antenna} have separate segments, and the 
abdomen is very long and large. 

The fifth point of degradation is seen in the Euphamidce; the sixth, 
in the Mysidce and other Anomobrauchiates ; the seventh is found in 
several genera of the same group ; the eighth in certain Mysidae. 
The Anomobranchiates are thus degraded Macroura. There is not 
merely a relaxing of the centralization ; but the forces are so weakened 
as not to succeed in finishing out the members in the system of struc- 
ture to which they pertain. The species consequently are not modi- 
fications upon the level of the Macroural type, nor upon a distinct 
level or distinct type ; but simply imperfect developments of the 
Macroural structure below the true level of that type. They bear 
nearly the same relation to the Macroura, that the Anomoura bear to 
the Brachyura. The ninth step is seen in the Squilloidea, whose 
relaxation of system and elongation in the cephalic part, as well as 
abdomen are remarkable. 

The continuation of the line of degradation represented in the Ano- 
moura, is not to be found, as we have remarked, among the typical 
Macroura. But the structure of the Paguri may be traced into the 
aberrant Macroura, called Tlialassinidea ; and thence, both in the 
abdomen, the legs, and the branchiae, we observe a transition to the 
Squilloids, one division of the Anomobranchiates. If then, we were 
to trace out the lines of affinity in the species, it would be from the 
Mysis group to the typical Macroura, and from the Squilla group to 
the Thalassinidea, as elsewhere explained. From the latter, the 
lines lead mainly to the Anomoura and higher species. 

In our review, thus far, we recognise one only of the primary types 
of structure among Crustacea. This primary type is characterized by 
having nine normal annuli or segments devoted to the senses and 
mouth, that is, to the cephalic portion of the body. It includes two, 
or, we perhaps may say, three secondary types. The first of these 
secondary types is the Brachyural; it has the antenna? small, the 
inner pair in fossettes, the abdomen without appendages. In the other 
type (or other two, if so considered), the antennas are elongated, and 
both pairs free, the abdomen is elongated, and furnished with a series of 
appendages. This, the second type, is the Macroural ; or, if we 
assume that it embraces two distinct types (a second and third), the 
two correspond to the typical Macroura and the Thalassinidea. v 



1404 CRUSTACEA. 

Each secondary type embraces types of more subordinate character, 
which it is unnecessary here to dwell upon. 

There is a tendency in the lowest species to a transfer of the two 
posterior mouth appendages to the foot series, so as to leave but seven 
cephalic annuli ; but it is only a modification of the primary type, as 
the species have every mark of being degraded or imperfect forms, 
and are not examples of a new type. 

In this primary type, the species vary in length from half an inch 
to twenty inches. Two inches may be set down as the average length 
and breadth for the Brachyura; while three inches is the average length 
of the Macroura, the average breadth being half an inch or less. 

The second primary type among Crustacea is as well defined in its 
limits, and as distinct in its characters as the first. Instead of having 
nine annuli devoted to the senses and mouth, there are but seven, the 
mouth, including a pair of mandibles, two pairs of maxillce, and one 
of maxillipcds. The number is permanent and characteristic. There 
are, consequently, seven pairs of legs in these species, instead of five, 
the Decapod number; and the species have been appropriately styled 
the Tetradecapoda. Instead of exhibiting any appearance of imper- 
fection, or any obsolescent organs, like those lower Macroura that 
show a transition to a fourteen-footed structure, the organs are all 
complete, and the whole structure is perfect in symmetry and unique 
in character. They have not a Macroural characteristic. The eyes 
are not pedicellate; there is no carapax, but a body divided into as 
many segments as there are legs (whence our name Choristopoda) ; 
the antennae, legs, and whole internal structure are distinct in type. 
The branchiae are simple sacs, either thoracic or abdominal. 

We have, therefore, in the Tetradecapods an expression of that 
structure of body, and that size, which belongs to a system, in which 
but seven annuli or segments are concentrated in the cephalic portion 
of the structure. The structure is far inferior to the Decapodan. 
The size rarely exceeds two inches, though in extreme cases three to 
four inches ; and probably half an inch is the average length. The 
contrast between the first and second of the primary types, is therefore 
as distinct in the average size of their structures, as in their actual 
grade or rank. 

Superior rank among the Tetradecapods may be distinguished by 
some of the same points as in the Decapods. The short antennae, 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 

short compact bodies, and abbreviated abdomen of the Isopods, are 
proofs of their superiority of grade. The abdominal appendages are 
simply branchial, and in the higher species are naked or non-ciliated 
lamella?. The transitions to a lower grade are seen in the elongation 
of these abdominal lamella}, their becoming ciliated, and the abdomen 
being also more elongated and flexible; then in the abdominal lamella 
becoming elongated natatory appendages, and the abdomen taking a 
length usually not less than that of the thorax, as in the Amphipods, 
in which the branchiae are appendages to the thoracic legs. And 
while this elongation goes on posteriorly, there is also anteriorly an 
enlargement of the antennae, which in the Amphipoda are usually 
long organs. There are thus two secondary types of structure among 
the Tetradecapods, as among the Decapods ; a transition group be- 
tween, analogous to the Anomoura, partakes of some of the characters 
of both types, without being a distinct type itself. These are our 
Anisopoda. The species graduate from the Isopod degree of perfec- 
tion to the Bopyri, the lowest of the Tetradecapods. There is thus 
another analogy between this group and the Anomoura. 

The Trilobita probably belong with the second type, rather than 
the third. Yet they show an aberrant character in two important 
points. First, the segments of the body multiplied much beyond the 
normal number, as in the Phyllopoda among the Entomostraca ; and 
Agassiz has remarked upon this as evidence of that larval analogy 
which characterizes in many cases the earlier forms of animal life. 
In the second place, the size of the body far transcends the ordinary 
Isopodan limit. This might be considered a mark of superiority; but 
it is more probably the reverse. It is an enlargement beyond the 
normal and most effective size, due to the same principle of vegetative 
growth, which accords with the inordinate multiplication of segments 
in the body.* 

The third primary type (the Entomostracan) includes a much wider 
variety of structure than either of the preceding, and is less persistent 

* Prof. Guyot very happily names the three great periods of geological history usu- 
ally denominated the Palaeozoic, Secondary, and Tertiary, or, by Agassiz, the age of 
Fishes, that of Reptiles, and that of Mammals, the Vegetative, the Material, and the 
Sensorial epochs; the first, being the period characterized prominently by vegeta- 
tive growth in animal life; the second, by the increased development of the muscular 
Bystcm, as exemplified by the enormous reptiles of the epoch ; the third, by the develop- 
ment of the higher functions of the brain, exhibited in the appearance of mammals. 

352 



1406 CRUSTACEA. 

in its characteristics. It is, however, more remote in habit from the 
Tetradecapods, than from the lowest Decapods, and is properly a dis- 
tinct group. Unlike the Decapods and Tetradecapods, there are nor- 
mally but six annuli devoted to the senses and mouth in the highest 
of the species, and but five in others, the mouth including a pair of 
mandibles, and either one or two pairs of maxillae (or maxillipeds). 
This is an abrupt step below the Tetradecapods. We exclude from 
these mouth organs the prehensile legs, called maxillipeds by some 
authors, as they are not more entitled to the name than the prehen- 
sile legs in Tanais, and many other Tetradecapods, There is an 
exception to the general principle in a few species. A genus of Cyp- 
roids has three pairs of maxillae; but this may be viewed as an 
example of the variations which the type admits of, rather than as an 
essential feature of it, possibly a result of the process of obsolescence 
which marks a low grade, as in the Mysidse, whose abdomen by losing 
its appendages, approximates in this respect to the Brachyural struc- 
ture, though, in fact, far enough remote. 

The species of the Entomostracan type show their inferiority to either 
of the preceding in the absence of a series of abdominal appendages, 
and also in having the appendages of the eighth, ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh' normal rings, when present, natatory in form. 

The range of size is very great, and this is a mark of their low 
grade, for in this respect they approach the. Radiata, whose limits of 
size are remarkably wide. Nearly all of the species, and those which, 
by their activity, show that they possess the typical structure in its 
highest perfection, are minute, not averaging over a line in length, or 
perhaps more nearly three-fourths of a line. 

Taking this as the true expression of the mean normal size of the 
type, the three primary types will vary in this respect as 24 (two 
inches) : 6 : 1. 

The size in this third type, reaches its maximum in the Limuli ; 
and these are unwieldy species, whose very habits show that vegeta- 
tive growth has given them a body beyond the successful control of 
its weak system, that is, a larger frame than it has power to wield 
with convenience or defend, for it is at the mercy even of the waves 
upon a beach. 

This type has its highest representatives among the Cyclopoids, 
which remind us of the Mysis group of the higher Crustacea. In 
these, the cephalic part includes six out of the fourteen cephalotho- 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1407 

racic annuli. In the Daphnioids and the Caligoids, they include only 
five. In Limulus, only the first four can properly be counted as of 
the cephalic series. In many other Entomostraca, the mouth organs 
are nearly as perfect legs as in Limulus, and the species, although 
evidently of a low grade, cannot properly be removed from the group 
Limulus has its nearest ally in Apus, although this genus has the 
mouth organs of a Daphnia. 

The lowest species of the type are the Lernseoids. 

A fourth primary type includes the Cirripeds. It is of the same 
rank as regards cephalization as the Entomostraca ; yet, it has so 
many peculiarities of structure, that it should be regarded as a distinct 
type, rather than a subordinate division of the third type. 

The mean size of the species of this group is much greater than 
the same among the higher Entomostraca. But if we regard the 
young in its active Cypris state, and compare it with the correspond- 
ing condition of species of Cyproids, we shall discover that the species 
have, in fact, an abnormal growth; a growth which takes place at 
the expense of the powers of motion or action in the individuals. 
The body, when it commences a sedentary life, increases in magnitude 
far beyond the Cypris or Daphnia size ; and there is a corresponding 
loss of power. The same force will not move a heavy structure, that is 
sufficient for the tiny model ; and when the model is enlarged without 
a corresponding increase in the seat of power, sluggish motion is the 
necessary consequence. Thus it is with the Medusae. Individuals 
of the minuter species, or the larger species, when in the young state, 
are gifted with active powers of motion ; the structure conforms to 
the forces within : but as the species enlarge, i ihey become slow in 
movement, or lose almost every attribute of life? The same principle 
is illustrated again in the Bopyri. The male is a small active animal, 
related to Jsera and Tanais. The female, of sedentary habits, becomes 
grossly enlarged and corpulent, so as to exceed by twenty-fold lineally 
the length of the male, and nearly ten thousand times its bulk. It is 
manifest, that the nervous system, or motive power of the female, is 
absolutely no greater than that of the male; and consequently, the 
capabilities of locomotion will be ten thousand times less, or the 
female will move but a ten-thousandth of an inch at the most, while 
the male is moving one inch, a fact with regard to them, as any one 
is aware of who has seen the incapability of the female to make any 



1408 CRUSTACEA. 

progress by locomotion. This then, is an example beyond dispute, of 
a system overgrown through the vegetative process, so as to be too 
much for the motive energies within. The Lernaeoids afford a similar 
illustration of this principle. 

For the same reason, therefore, as in the Bopyri, the Medusae, the 
Lernaeoids, and the Limuli, we cannot compare the actual mean size 
of the adult Cirripeds with those of the other primary types. We 
should rather infer the mean normal size for such a comparison, from 
the size of the young before it becomes sedentary, or from that of free 
males, if such exist. Such males are announced by Darwin, as actu- 
ally occurring in some species. Moreover, they are very minute, 
varying from a line to half a line or less in length. This, therefore, 
is some reason for taking as the mean normal size, the same as given 
for the Entomostraca. 

A fifth primary type includes the KOTATORIA. In these animalcular 
species, the mouth includes a pair of mandibles and often a rudimen- 
tary pair of maxillae; and consequently, the cephalic portion may 
contain the same number of annuli as in the Daphnia group, with 
which group" many of them have near relations. They have usually 
an articulated abdomen, furcate at extremity, like the Cyclopoids. 
The grand point of inferiority to the Entomostraca, evincing the more 
infinitesimal character of the system of life within, is the absence of 
all thoracic appendages or legs. The organs of locomotion are simply 
cilioa arranged about the head; and it is quite probable that two sets 
(or more) of them correspond to the second pair of antennas, as these 
are organs of prehension and motion in many Entomostraca. In Cal- 
lidina, there are two sets, some distance from the extremity of the 
head, which may have this relation; and the two sets in the true 
Rotifers may also be of this character. In others, the corresponding 
parts are actually somewhat elongated. 

The species vary in size from a line to a sixtieth of a line. Pro- 
bably one-ninth of a line is the average size. 

The actual relation of the Rotatoria to the Entomostraca (which 
view the author sustained in his Report on Zoophytes (1845) ), can 
hardly be doubted by those who have the requisite knowledge of the 
lower Crustacea for comparison. The structure of the body, the 
jointing and form of the abdomen, when it exists, the mandibles, and 
alimentary system, the eyes when present, all are Crustacean ; and 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 14Q9 

a slight transformation of some Entomostraca an obliteration of the 
legs and substitution of locomotive cilise would almost turn them 
into Rotatoria. 

In the classification which has been developed, we have made out 
five primary types of structure among Crustacea. A grand distinction 
has been shown to consist in the different degrees of cephalization of 
the normal Crustacean structure. The consecration of nine annuli, 
out of the fourteen cephalo thoracic, to the senses and mouth, distin- 
guishes the highest type ; of seven, the second type ; of six or jive, the 
third and fourth; of five or four, the fifth. In connexion with other 
distinctions in these types, we find that they correspond to structures 
of different size, the size being directly related to the grade. These 
particulars may be tabulated as follows : 

Typical number Mean normal length, in 

of cephalic an- twelfths of inches or 

null. lines. 

% 

Type I. PODOPHTHALMIA 1 Subtype I. Brachyura, ) g ( 24 (and breadth, 24). 

or DECAPODA, j II. Maeroura, j 1 36 (and breadth, 6). 

Type II. TETRADECAPODA, .... 7 6 

Type III. ENTOMOSTRACA, . . . 6-5 1 

Type IV. CIRRIPEDIA, .... 6-5 1 

Type V. ROTATORIA, . . . . 5-4 J 

The first type is alone in having true thoracic branchiae, and pedi- 
cellate eyes. 

The second type has branchial sac-like appendages, either abdo- 
minal or thoracic, and sessile eyes. 

The third type has generally no branchige, the surface of some part 
or all of the body serving for aeration. A few species, however, are 
furnished with special organs for this function. This is, however, no 
mark of superiority in such species, for they occur even in the Limuli, 
among the lowest of the Entomostraca. The necessity of them in 
this case arises from the abnormal size of the species, both the mark 
and occasion of its inferiority; for the system is thus too large for 
the mode of surface aeration, found among ordinary Entomostraca; 
moreover, the shell, which so large an animal possesses and requires 
for the attachment of its muscles and its movements, is thick and 
firm, and this is inconsistent with aeration by the exterior surface of 
the body. The same remarks apply to the liver glands, which are 
very small or wanting in the small species. 

353 



1410 CRUSTACEA. 

The third and fourth types show their inferiority to the second, by 
the absence of a series of abdominal appendages; and the fifth a lower 
state still, in the absence of both thoracic and abdominal legs. The 
more degraded Macroura (certain Mysidae) show a transition in this 
obsolescence of abdominal organs to the third type. 

Some of the conclusions from these facts are the following. 

I. Each type corresponds to a certain system of force, more or less 
centralized in the organism, and is an expression of that force, the 
higher degree being such as is fitted for the higher structures deve- 
loped, the lower such as is fitted for structures of inferior grade and 
size. In other words, the life-system is of different orders for the dif- 
ferent types, and the structures formed exhibit the extent of their 
spheres of action, being such as are adapted to use the force most 
effectively, in accordance with the end of the species. 

II. In a given type, as the first, for example, the same system may 
be of different dimensions, adapted to structures of different sizes. 
But the size in either direction for structures of efficient action is 
limited. To pass these limits, a life-system of another order is re- 
quired. The Macroura, as they diminish in size, finally pass this limit, 
and the organisms (Mysidae, for example) are no longer perfect in 
their members; an obsolescence of some parts begins to take place, 
and species of this small size are actually .complete only when pro- 
vided with the structure of a Tetradecapod. 

The extreme size of structure admitting of the highest efficient 
activity is generally three to six times lineally the average or mean 
typical size. Of these gigantic species, three or four times longer than 
the mean type, there are examples among the Brachyura and Macroura, 
which have all the highest attributes of the species. There are also 
Amphipoda and Isopoda three inches in length, with full vigorous 
powers. Among Entomostraca, the Calanidse, apparently the highest 
group, include species that are three lines long, or three times the 
length of the mean type. 

III. But the limit of efficient activity may be passed ; and when so 
it is attended with a loss of active powers. The structure, as in the 
female Bopyrus and Lerngeoids, and the Cirripeds, outgrows vegeta- 
tively the proper sphere of action of the system of force within. This 
result is especially found in sedentary species, as we have exemplified 
in our remarks on the Cirripeds. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 14H 

IV. Size is, therefore, an important element in the system of ani- 
mal structures. As size diminishes, in all departments of animal life, 
the structure changes. To the human structure there is a limit ; to 
the quadruped also, beyond which the structure is an imposeibility; 
and so seems the case among Crustacea. The Decapod, as the size 
diminishes, reaches the lowest limit; and then, to continue the range 
of size in species, another structure, the Tetradecapodan, is instituted ; 
and as this last has also its limit, the Entomostracan is introduced to 
continue the gradation ; and, as these end, the Rotatoria begin. Thus 
Crustacea are made to embrace species, from a length of nearly two 
feet (or two hundred and fifty lines) to that of a one-hundred-and-fiftieth 
of a line. These several types of structure among Crustacea do not 
graduate, as regards size, directly from one to another, but they consti- 
tute overlapping lines, as has been sufficiently shown. 

V. In the opposite extreme of organic beings, the vegetable king- 
dom, the same principle is illustrated. Plants may be so minute as 
to have free motion and activity, as in animals. The spores of certain 
Algae are known to have powers of locomotion, and some so-called 
Infusoria, are now admitted to belong to the vegetable kingdom. 
These are examples of locomotive plants. Now, ordinary plants, like 
Cirripeds", are examples of sedentary species, that have outgrown the 
limits of activity. The life-system of a plant, is in fact sufficient in 
power to give locomotion only to the minute plant-individuals alluded 
to; and infusorial species of plants retain it, as long as they live. 
But when, as in the Algae, vegetative growth proceeds in the enlarge- 
ment of the minute infusorial spore, it immediately outgrows its 
activity, and becomes a sedentary plant. In most other plants, the 
seed have never the minute size which admits of motion. 

The mean size of the Entomostracan type was stated to be one line; 
of the Rotatorial type, one-sixth of a line ; and we may / add, that 
the mean size of the plant type understanding by this, as in other 
cases, the mean size admitting of the highest activity if deduced 
from the size of plant-infusoria, would be about one-sixtieth of a line. 

We observe, that the smallest size of the perfect Macroura (first 
type) is very nearly the mean size as to length of the animals of the 
second type. So also, the smallest size of the perfect animal of the 
second type (Tetradecapoda) is very nearly the mean size of the most 
perfect animals of the third type ; and the smallest size of the perfect 
animal of the third type is nearly the largest size in the fifth type. 



1412 CRUSTACEA. 

In order to compare allied animals of different sizes, it should be 
noted, that while there is some foundation for the conclusion, that 
under certain limitations, size is a mark of grade, rapidity of move- 
ment or action should also be considered ; and the more proper com- 
parison would be between multiples of size and activity. This deduc- 
tion, is, however, true only in the most general sense, and rather 
between species of allied groups than those of different types. We 
may occasionally find something like an exemplification of the law 
among bipeds, ludicrous though the idea may be. 

VI. We observe with regard to the passage in Crustacea to inferior 
grades under a given type, that there are two methods by which it 
takes place. 

1. A diminution of centralization, leading to an enlargement of the 
circumference or sphere of growth at the expense of concentration, as 
in the elongation of the antennae and a transfer of the maxillipeds to 
the foot series, the elongation of the abdomen and abdominal appen- 
dages, etc. 

2. A diminution of force as compared with the size of the structure, 
leading to an abbreviation or obsolescence of some circumferential 
organs, as the posterior thoracic legs or anterior antennas, or the abdo- 
minal appendages (where such appendages exist in the secondary type 
embracing the species). These circumstances, moreover, are indepen- 
dent of a degradation of intelligence, by an extension of the sphere 
of growth beyond the proper limits of the sphere of activity. 

VII. A classification by grades, analogous to that deduced for Crus- 
tacea, may no doubt be laid out for other classes of animals. But the 
particular facts in the class under consideration, are not to be forced 
upon other classes. Thus, while inferiority among Crustacea is con- 
nected with a diminished number of annuli cephalically absorbed (for 
the senses and mouth), it by no means follows, that the Insecta, 
which agree in the number of cephalic annuli with the lower Crustacea, 
are allied to them in rank, or inferior to the higher species. On 
the contrary, as the Insecta pertain to a distinct division, being aerial 
instead of aqueous animals, they can be studied and j udged of, only 
on principles deduced from comparison among insects themselves. 
They are not subject to Crustacean laws, although they must exem- 
plify beyond doubt, the fundamental idea at the basis of those laws. 

The views which have been explained, lead us to a modification, in 
some points, of the classification of Crustacea, adopted in the early 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1413 

part of this Report, and followed out through the subsequent pages. 
The question, whether the eyes are pedicellate or not, upon which 
the names Podophthalmia and Edriophthalmia are based, proves to be 
one of secondary importance. And although still available in distin- 
guishing almost infallibly the species of the first type, it is far from 
rendering it necessary or natural to embrace together under a common 
division the species that have sessile eyes (so-called Edrjophthalmia), 
as done by most writers on this subject. 

The term Decapoda, in view of these principles, has a higher signi- 
fication than has been suspected, since by expressing the number of 
feet, it implies the number of cephalic annuli characterizing the 
species. It would not be employing it inconveniently, therefore, if it 
were extended to embrace all the Podophthalmia, or all species of the 
first type, including the Mysis and Squilla groups. 

For a like reason, the term Tetradecapoda has a high significance, 
as applied to the species of the second type. The position of the Tri- 
lobita still remains in doubt. The Cirripedia and Entomostraca, third 
and fourth types, stand properly on nearly the same level. 

On the following pages, we offer a review of the classification of 
Crustacea, with the characters of the several subdivisions.* We first 
present the characters of the higher divisions of the class, that is 

The SUBCLASSES, ORDERS, and TRIBES of Crustacea. 

* References and synonymy are omitted beyond, as they have been given fully in 
other parts of the work. 



354 



CRUSTACEA. 

SUBCLASSES I. PODOPHTHALMIA (VEL DECAPODA). 

Annul! cephalothoracis cephalic! (ad sensus et appendices 
buccales pertinentes) numero novem. Oculi pedunculati. 
Branchiae aut foliosse aut filosae, sub thoracis lateribus 
dispositae, raro obsolete vel abdominales. Cephalothorax 
carapace plus minusve tectae.. 

ORDOI. EUBRANCHIATA. 
Branchiae apud thoracis latera dispositse, carapace tectae. 

TRIBUS I. BRACHYURA. Corpus latum. Abdomen in sternum 
inflexum et stricte appressum, appendicibus carens. Branchiae 
utrinque numero novem. Vulvaa in sternum excavatae. Carapax 
sutura longitudinali infra utrinque notatus, antice cum epistomate 
coalitus. 

TRIBUS II. ANOMOURA. Corpus sive latum sive multum elon- 
gatum. Abdomen saepe ac in Brachyuris, ssepe ad sternum laxe 
appressum, interdum elongatum, et non inflexum, et appendicibus 
caudali bus instructum raro appendicibus aliis. Branchiae utrinque 
numero novem vel plures. Vulvae in pedum Stiorum bases exca- 
vatae, ac in Macrouris. Carapax sutura longitudinali utrinque 
notatus, ac in Brachyuris. 

TBIBUS III. MACROURA. Corpus multum elongatum. Abdomen 
elongatum et appendicibus seriatis instructum, vix inflexum, vel 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1415 

rectum. Branchiae numero saepius plures quam novein. Vulvae 
in pedum Stiorum bases excavatae. Carapax sutura longitudinali 
raro utrinque notatus. 



ORDO II. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 

Branchiae sive apud pedum bases thoracis dispositae et apertae, sive 
appendicibus abdominis appendiculataa, sive omnino obsoletae. 

TRIBUS I. MYSIDEA. Corpus forma fere Caridoideum, non depres- 
sum. Pedes thoracis et maxillipedes nulli prehensiles, graciles, 
saepius palpigeri, palpo prope thoracem insiti. 

TRIBUS II. AMPHIONIDEA. Corpus depressum, saepe latum. 
Pedes thoracis et maxillipedes nulli prehensiles, palpigeri, palpo a 
thorace remoto. 

TRIBUS III. SQUILLOIDEA. Corpus valde depressum. Pedes qua- 
tuor et maxillipedes quatuor monodactyli prehensiles. 



SUBCLASSIS II. TETKADECAPODA. 

Annul! cephalothoracis cephalic! numero septem. Oculi ses- 
siles. Appendices branchiales simplicissimae, sive tho- 
racicae sive abdominales. Cephalothorax multi-annulatus, 
carapace carens, pedibus seriatis instructus. Abdomen 
appendicibus seriatis instructum, raro obsolescens. 

ORDO I. CHORISTOPODA. 

Cephalothorax pedibus unguiculatis interdum partim chelatis in- 
structus, pare utroque ad annulum singulum pertinente. 

TRIBUS I. ISOPODA. Pedes thoracis seriei anterioris numero sex 
seriei posterioris octo, appendicibus branchialibus non instruct!. 
Abdomen breve, appendicibus decem anticis branchialibus, duobus 
posticis styliforrnibus vel lamellatis. 



1416 CRUSTACEA. 

TRIBUS II. ANISOPODA. Pedes thoracis seriei anterioris numero 
octo, seriei posterioris numero sex, appendicibus branchialibus non 
instruct!. Abdomen sat breve, appendicibus decem anticis branchi- 
alibus vel subnatatoriis, duobus posticis ac in Isapodis. 

TRIBUS III. AMPHIPODA. Pedes thoracis seriei anterioris numero 
octo, seriei posterioris numero sex, appendicibus branchialibus 
partim instructi. Abdomen elongatum, appendicibus sex natatoriis 
sex styliformibus instructi. 



ORDO II. TRILOBITA. (An hujus sedis ?) 

? Cephalothorax appendicibus larnellatis infra instructus baud pedi- 
bus unguiculatis. Segmenta corporis numero ab norma saepe mul- 
tiplicata. 



SUBCLASSIS III. ENTOMOSTRACA. 

Annul! cephalothoracis cephalic! numero sex vel quinque. 
Oculi saspissime sessiles. Appendices branchiales seepis- 
sime nullse. Abdomen appendicibus seriatis non instruc- 
tum. Cephalothorax pedibus seriatis instructus, octo vel 
decem posticis ad annulos Svum-llinum vel 12mum perti- 
nentibus (si non obsoletis), saspius natatoriis. 



OBDO I. GNATHOSTOMATA. 

Os mandibulis maxillisque normalibus instructum, non truuciforme 
nee suctorium. 

LEGIO I. LOPHYROPODA. Appendices cephalothoracis et segmenta 
numerum normalem non superantes. 

TRIBUS I. CYCLOPOIDEA. Cephalothorax annulatus et carapace 
non instructus. Abdomen rectum et non inflexum. Appendices 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1417 

cephalothoracis mandibulares et sequentes numero 16-18, posticis 
8-10 natatoriis. 

TRIBUS II. DAPHNIOIDEA. Corpus carapace plerumque tectum, 
abdomine plus minusve inflexo. Appendices cephalothoracis man- 
dibulares et sequentes numero 12-16, 6-8 posticis subnatatoriis. 

TRIBUS III. CYPROIDEA. Corpus carapace bivalvi omnino tectum 
et bene clausum, abdomine bene inflexo. Appendices cephalotho- 
racis mandibulares et sequentes numero 10, nullis natatoriis. 

LEGIO II. PHYLLOPODA. Appendices segmentoque cephalothoracis 
numerum norrnalem superantes, corpore immodic& annulate. 

TRIBUS I. ARTEMIOIDEA. Corpus fere rectum. Cephalothorax 
multiannulatus testa sive tectus sive non tectus. Appendices 
cephalothoracis plerumque foliaceso. Oculi pedunculati. Styli 
caudales fere ac in Cyclopoideis. 

TRIBUS II. APODOIDEA. Cephalothorax testa scutiformi tectus. 
Appendices cephalothoracis posteriores lamellatae. Oculi sessiles 
Abdomen multiannulatum. Extremitas caudalis forma mirabilis. 

TRIBUS III. LIMNADIOIDEA. Corpus testa omnino tectum capite 
abdomineque inclusis ac in Cyproideis. 'Oculi sessiles. Extremitas 
caudalis ac in Cyproideis. 



ORDO II. CORMOSTOMATA. 
Os trunciforme et suctorium, basi sospe mobile. 

SUBOKDO I. PCECILOPODA. 

Quoad formam corporis Cyclopoideis plerumque affinia, saepe peltata, 
interdum subcylindrica, quoque vermiformia. Os inferius. 

TRIBUS I. ERGASILOIDEA. Cephalothorax annulatus, carapace 
non tectus. Truncus buccalis non mobilis, brevis, mandibulis in- 
terdum obsoletis (?). Pedes 8 postici bene natatorii ac in Cyclopoi- 
deis. Ova externa in sacculos gesta. Corpus saepius non depressum. 

355 



1418 CRUSTACEA. 

TRIBUS II. CALIGOIDEA. Cephalothorax sive annulatus sive cara- 
pace tectus. Truncus buccalis mobilis, mandibulis armatus. Pedes 
8 postici plus minusve natatorii, ssepe partim in laminis coaliti. 
Ova externa in tubos longos uniseriatim gesta, tubis raro obsoletis. 
Corpus saepius valde depressum et peltatum. 

TRIBTJS III. LEKN^EOIDEA. Cephalothorax vix annulatus. Cor- 
pus sive breve et obesum sive elongate vermiforme. Pedes nata- 
torii obsoleti. Ova externa sive in sacculos aggregata sive in tubos 
uniseriata. 



SUBORDO II. AKACHNOPODA. 

Quoad formam corporis fere Arachnoidea, abdomine plerumque obso- 
leto, cephalothorace brevi, annulate, pedibus longis diffusis. Os 
trunciforine frontale. 

TRIBUS PYCNOGONOIDEA. 



ORDO in. MEROSTOMATA. 

Os pedum basibus in locis mandibularum et maxillarum instructum. 
TRIBUS LIMULOIDEA. 

SUBCLASSIS IV. CIRRIPEDIA. 

Annul! cephalothoracis cephalic! numero sex vel quinque. 
Oculi sessiles vel obsoleti. Appendices branchiales nullae. 
Abdomen obsoletum. Animal sessile in testam multival- 
vatam inclusum quas nunquam in nulla parte extus exuitur. 
Oephalothorax pedibus seriatis tenuibus multiarticulatis 
instructus. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 14J9 



SUBCLASSIS V. ROTATORIA. 

Corpus minutum, pedibus totis carens et ciliis motum. Ab- 
domen saepe 2-3 annulatum et apice furcatum, interdum 
obsoletuin. Annul! cephalotkoracis cephalici numero quin- 
que vel quatuor. 



After this exposition of the subclasses, orders, and tribes, of the 
class Crustacea, here follows 

A SYNOPSIS 



OF THE FAMILIES AND SUBFAMILIES OF THE HIGHER, 
SUBDIVISIONS OF CRUSTACEA. 



SUBCLASSIS I. DECAPOD A. 

OEDO I. EUBRANCHIATA. 

TRIBUS I. BRACHYURA: 

SuBTKiBusI. MAIOIDEA. 

LEGIO I. MAIINEA vel MAIOIDEA TYPICA. Corpus saepissime oblon- 
gum, saepius antice angustum et rostratuin. Articulus antennarum 
externarum Imus sub oculo insitis, anteriusque productus, testa 
externa sine sutura coalitus. Pedes forma normales.* 

* We have modified the arrangement of the Maioidca, by separating from the family 
Maiadas, the families Inachidai and Mithracidce. The peculiarity of the outer maxilli- 
peds, adopted by De Haan as the characteristic of the Inachidae, appears to be of suffi- 
cient value to authorize the separation of the genera of this kind from the other Maiidae, 
although not so important as to require the union of the Eurypodii with the InachidaB, 
as done by this author. The Mithraces have a distinct character, removing them from 
the other Maioids. There is in the species Mithrax, a singular diversity of form 



1420 CRUSTACEA. 

Fam. I. INACHIDJ3. Oculi in orbitis retractiles. Articulus max- 
illipedis externi 3tius apice 4tura gerens. Digit! acuminati. [Pedes 
praelongi.] 

1. MACROCHEIRIN.S:. Carapax late ovatus. Kostrum furcatum. Oculi oblongi. 
G. Macrocheira, De H. 

2. INACHIN^. Carapax triangulato-ovatus. Rostrum cinarginatum aut integrura. 
G. Inachus, Fab., Microrhynchus, Bell. 

3. SALACIN^E. Oculi perbreves. Rostrum fere obsoletum, non bifidum. Corpus 
non oblong'um. Pedes 8 postici longi et crassi. G. Salacia, E. and Lucas. 

Fam. II. MAIID^E. Oculi in orbitis retractiles. Articulus maxil- 
lipedis externi Stius angulo interne 4tum gerens. Digiti acuminati. 



1. Oculi latera capitis insiti et plus minusve later aliter par recti. 



1. LiBiNiNjE. Rostrum apice emarginatum. Corpus paulo oblongum, subglo- 
bosum, lateribus altis. Oculi perbreves. Pedes sive longi sive mediocres. G. 
Egeria, Lat., Doclea, Leach, Libidoclea, E. and L., Libinia, Lh. 

2. MAIIN^;. Carapax orbiculato-ovatus, rostro prominente profunde bifido. Pars 
antennarum externarum mobilis margine orbitae orta. G. Maia, Lk., Dione, De H. 

3. PISIN^E. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro bifido, non deflexo. Pars anten- 
narum externarum mobilis margine orbita exclusa, et sub rostro non celata. G. 
Paramithrax, E., Pisa, Lh., Pelia, Bell, Lissa, Lh., Rhodia, Bell, Eyas, Lh., 
Pisoides, E. and L., Herbstia, E., Thoe, Bell, Dehaanius, M'L. 

4. PRIONORHYNCHIN^E. Pisinis affines. Rostrum breve, latissimum, bilobatum, 
non deflexum. G. Prionorhynchus, H. and J. ' 

5. MICIPPIN^K. Rostrum latum, deflexum. G. Micippa, Lh. 

6. CHORININ^E. Carapax triangulato-ovatus. Rostrum furcatum. Pars anten- 
narum externarum mobilis sub rostro celati. G. Chorinus, Lh., Chorilia, D., 
Lahaina, D., Naxia, E., Scyra, D., Ifyastenus, White, Pyria, D. 



2. Oculi frontales et par recti longitudinales, carapace antice truncate. 

1. OTHONIN^E. Oculi elongati, cylindrici. G. Othonia. 
[Cujus sedis est Siplioncecetes, Kr.] 

Fam. III. MITHRACID^E. Oculi et maxillipedes externi ac in 
Maiidis. Digiti versus apicem excavati et non acuminati. 

1. MITHRACIN.S:. Oculi longitudine mediocres. G. Mithrax, Lh., Miihraculus, W. 

2. CYCLACIN.S;. Oculi longi. G. Cydax, D. 

exceeding what is found in any other genus of Maioidea. This fact, in connexion with 
the habits of the species, and the peculiarity of the fingers, seems to require the institu- 
tion of a distinct family of Mithracidse. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1421 

Fam. IV. TYCHIDJL Oculi retractiles sed orbitis carentes, infra 
carapacem sese latentes. 

1. CRIOCARCININ.S:. Eostrum valde deflexum. Carapax oblongas. G. Criocar- 
cinus, Guer. 

2. ITCHING. Carapax oblongus, antice latus, latitudinc trans-orbitali magnii, 
rostro non deflexo, sat longo, furcato. Oculi apice paululum exscrti G. Tyche, 
Bell. 

3. CAMPOSCIN^!. Carapax oblongus, rostro fere obsolete, emarginato. Pedes 8 
postici longi. Oculi elongate pedunculati et exserti. G. Camposcia, Lat. 

Fam. V. EURYPODID^E. Oculi retractiles ad carapacis latus, non 
sese latentes. 

1. EURYPODINJE. Antennas extern* apertae. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro 
longo, furcato. Pedes longi. Oculi longi et elongate salientes. Spina post- 
orbitalis oblonga. G. Eurypodius, Guer., Oregonia, D. 

2. AMATHIN^E. [An oculi retractiles et species hujus sedis ?] Antennae extern* 
sub rostro celatae. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro furcato, latitudine trans- 
orbitali perangusta. Pedes longi. G. Amathia, Roux. 

Fam. VI. LEPTOPODID^. Oculi non retractiles. Pedes prselongi. 



A. Antennae external apertae, 

1. ACH^IN^;. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro perbrevi, bifido. Oculi longi et 
elongate salientes. Pedes 4 postici subprehensiles. G. Achceus, Lh. 

2. INACHOIDIN^E. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro elongate, simplice. G. Ina- 
choides, E. and L. 

B. Antennae externse sub rostro celatae. 

3. LEPTOPODIN^. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro elongato, simplice. Pedes 
longissimi. G. Leptopodia, Lh. 

4. STENORHYNCHIN^E. Carapax triangulato-ovatus, rostro breve, bifido. G. Steno- 
rhynchus, Lk. 

Fam. VII. PERICERKLE. Oculi non retractiles. Pedes longitu- 
dine mediocres. 



A. Antennas external apertae. 

1. PARAMICIPPIN^E. Kostrum valde deflexum. Micippce aspectu similes. G. 
Paramicippa, E. 

2. PERICERIN^E. Rostrum profunde bifidum, non deflexum. G. Perice.ra, Lat., 
Tiarinia, D., Perinia, D., HaUmus, Lat., Puyettia, D. 

356 



1422 CRUSTACEA. 

3. MENJETHINJE. Rostrum integrum vel subintegrum. G. Mensethius, E., Acan- 
thonyx, Lat., Antilibinia, M'L., Pellinia, D. 



B. Antennae externee sub rostro celatae. 

4. STENOCIONOPIN.S:. Oculi praelongi. Rostrum longum, furcatum, cornibus 
styliformibus, divaricatis. G. Stenocionops, Lat. 

5. EPIALTIN^;. Oculi longitudine aut mediocres aut perbreves. Rostrum oblon- 
gum, crassum, sive integrum, sive emarginatum. Antenna externae apicem 
rostri saepius non attingentes. Pedes 8 postici subcylindrici. G. Epialtus, E., 
Huenia, De H., Xenocarcinus, W., Leucippa, E. 

LEGIO II. PAKTHENOPINEA vel MAIOIDEA CANCBIDICA. Corpus 
sive breviter triangulatum sive valde transversum et antice arcu- 
atum. Articulus antennarum externarum Imus oculo interior, 
rarissime solutus, saepius sutura infixus, raro sine sutura externa 
coalescens. Pedes antici longiores,- toti forma normales. 

Fam. I. PARTHENOPID^E. Oculi retractiles. Carapax lateraliter 
non bene expansus. 

G. Parthenope, Fab., Lambrus, Lh., Eurynome, Lh. 

Fam. II. EUMEDONID^. Oculi non retractiles. Carapax late- 
raliter non bene expansus. 

G. Eumedonus, E., Ceratocarcinm, W. (Harrovia, W.) [An hujus sedis Gonato- 
notus, A. and W. Crust. Sam., tab. vi. f. 7.] 

Fam. III. CBYPTOPODID^:. Oculi retractiles. Carapax latera- 
liter valde expansus, pedes 8 posticos plerumque tegens. 

G. Cryptopodia, E., Eurynolambrus, E., Tlos, W. 

Fam. IV. TRICHID^. Parthenopidis quoad oculos carapacemque 
affinis; sed quoad maxillipedes externos Dromiis. 

G. Trichia, De H. 

LEGIO III. ONCININEA vel MAIOIDEA DROMIDICA. Corpus triangu- 
latum. Antennae externae e basi solutae, cylindricse. Pedes pos- 
tici breviores, subdorsales, uncinato-prehensiles. 

Fam. I. ONCINOPIDJE. 

G. Onci'nopus, De H. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1423 



SUBTRIBUS II. CANCROIDEA. 

LEGIO I. CANCRINEA vel CANCROIDEA TTPICA. Species maringe 
vel maritimae. Antennae quatuor conspicuae. Cavitas branchialia 
superficie non papillo-spongiosa. 

1. Pedes poslici gressorii. 

Fam. I. CANCRID^E. Palatum colliculo longitudinal! utrinque non 
bene divisum. Carapax saepius late transversus, interdum angustus. 
Antennaa internae plus minusve longitudinales. 

1. CANCRIN^E. Frons interorbitalis perangustus. G. Cancer, Leach, Peri- 
mela, Lh. 

Fam. II. XANTHID.ZE. Palatum et carapax ac in Canci-idis. An- 
tennae internae plus minusve transversae. 

1. XANTHIN^B. Antennae externae basi firme infixae, parte mobili ex hiatu orbitse 
non exclusa. Frons interorbitalis latior. Digiti acuminati. G. Atergatis, De 
H., Carpilius, Lh., De H., Liomera, D., Liagora, De H., Actcea, De H., D., 
Xantho, Lh. (subgenera Xantho, Euxanthus, D., Xanihodes, D., Paraxanthui, 
Lucas), Menippe, De H., Panopseus, E., Medseus, D., JBalimede, De H. 

2. CHLORODINJ. Antennaa internse transversaa. Antennas extern^ basi firme 
infixfe, parte mobili ex hiatu orbitaj raro exclusa. Frons interorbitalis latior. 
Digiti instar cochlearis excavati. [Quoad genera Xanthinaa et Chlorodinae ferine 
parallelas.] G. Etisus, Lh., Carpilodes, D., Zozymus, Lh., Actseodes, D., Daira, 
De H., Chlorodius, Lh. (subgenera Ohlorodius, Pilodius, D., Cyclodius, D.), 
Cymo, De H. 

3. POLYDECTIN^E. Antenna; internae transversaa. Antennae externae basi solutae 
et liberae. [An Pilumnis propinquior.] G. Polydectus, E. 

Fam. III. ERIPHID^E. Palatum colliculo longitudinal! utrinque 
bene divisum. Carapax saepius angustus, interdum latus, margine 
antero-laterali raro longiore quam postero-lateralis, latitudine ante- 
mediana saepissime longiore, oculis reinotis. 

1. (ETHRIN^;. Carapax transversus, lateribus valde dilatatis et rotundatis. An- 
tennae intern fere longitudinales. G. (Ethra, Lh. 

2. OziN-dE. Carapax plus minusve transversus, lateribus non dilatatis. Digiti 
acuminati. Antennas interne transversre. Orbita hiatu interno basi antennae 
occupato instructa. Abdomen inaris 7-articulatum. G. Galene, De H., Ozius, 
E., Pseudozius, D., Pilumnus, Lh., Pilumnoides, E. and L., Melia, E. [An 
hujus sedis Acanthodes, De H. ?] 

8. ACTUMNIN.S:. Orbita Ozinit similes. Digiti instar cochlearis excavati. G. 
Actumnus, D. 



1424 CRUSTACEA. 

4. ERIPHIN.S;. Orbita infra bene clausa, hiatu interno carens, articulo antennae 
basali ex orbita omnino excluso. Carapax sive paulo transversus sive subquad- 
ratua. G. Ruppellia, E., Eriphia, Lat., Domcecius, Souleyet, Trapezia, Lat., 
Tetralia, D., Quadrella, D. 



2. Pedes postici natatorii. 

Fam. IV. PORTUNID^E. Ramus maxillipedis Imi internus lobo 
interno instructus. Palatum ssepius colliculo longitudinal! utrin- 
que divisum. 

1. LUPINE. Sutura sterni mediana tria segmenta intersecans. Palatum colli- 
culis prominentibus. G. Scylla, De H., Lupa, Lh., Amphitrite, De H., D., 
Carupa, D., Thalamita, Lat., Charyldis, De H., D., Lissocarcinus, W. 

2. AREN^ETNvE. Sutura sterni mediana tria segmenta intersecans. Palatum col- 
liculis non divisum. llamus maxillipedis Imi internus ad apicem late transversim 
triangulatus, ramis duobus inter se fere convenientibus. G. Arenseus, D. 

3. PORTUNID^E. Sutura sterni mediana duo segmenta intersecans. Palatum col- 
liculis ssepe obsoletis. G. Portunus, Fab. 

Fam. V. PLATYONYCHID^E. Ramus maxillipedis Imi internus 
non lobatus. Palatum colliculis non divisum. 

G. Carcinus, Lh., Portumnus, Lh., Platyonychus, Lat., Polybius, Lh. 

LEGIO II. TELPHUSINEA vel CANCEOIDEA GRAPSIDICA. Species 
fluviales. Antennae quatuor conspicuae. Cavitas branchialis per- 
magna ac in Grapsoideis, superficie ssepe papillo-spongiosis. 

Fam. I. TELPHUSID^E. 

G. Telphusa, Lat., Valdivia, W., Potamia, Lat., Trichodactylus, Lat., Orthostoma, 
Randall. 

LEGIO III. CYCLINEA vel CANCROIDEA CORTSTIDICA. Antennae ex- 
ternae obsoletae. Carapax angustus vel suborbicularis. 

Fam. I. ACANTHOCYCLID^. 

G. Acanthocyclus, Lucas. 



SUBTKIBUS III. COKYSTOIDEA. 

Fam. I. TRICHOCERID^E. Carapax forma Cancroideus, fronte non 
rostratus. Antennas internae longitudinales. Antennae externae 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1425 

breves, flagello parce piloso. Maxillipedes extern! super epistoma 
non producti, sed marginem areae buccalis bene adaptati. 

G. TricJwcera, De H. 

Fam. II. THIIDjE. Carapax suborbicularis, non oblongus, fronte 
non rostratus. Antennae internae transversae vel obliquae. An- 
tennae externae breves, flagello parce piloso. Maxillipedes extern! 
super epistoma product!. 

G. Thia, Lh., Kraussia, D. 

Fam. III. CORYSTID.ZE. Carapax sive suborbicularis sive multum 
angustus, fronte plus minusve rostrato. Maxillipedes externi super 
epistoma product!. 

G. Telmessus, W., Atelecyclus, Lh., Peltarion, H. and Jacq., Pseudocorysta, E., 
Gomeza, Gray, CEidia, De H. (partim), Corystes, Lat., Dicera, De H. 



SUBTRIBUS IV. GRAPSOIDEA. 
1. Articulus maxillipedis externi 4<ws cum angulo Stio inferno articulatus. 

Fam. I. GONOPLACID^E. Carapax transversus. Frons 4ta parte 
latitudinis carapacis longior, paulo deflexus, lamellatus. Antennae 
internae transversae. Articulus abdominis marls 2dus sterno con- 
tiguo angustior. 
G. Eucrate, De H., Curtonotus, De H., Gonoplax, Lh. 



2. Articulus maxillipedis externi 4tus cum angulo 3tii apicali interno non articulatus 
sed media marginis apicalis sive angulo externo. 

Fam. II. MACROPHTHALMID^E. Oculi 3tia parte carapacis non 
breviores. Carapax subquadratus, saepissime transversus, antice 
latissimus, angulis anticis acutis, lateribus non arcuatis. Antennae 
internae sive transversae sive longitudinales. Articulus abdominis 
maris 2dus sterno contiguo angustior. Articulus maxillipedis ex- 
terni 3tius crista obliqua pilifera nunquam ornatus. 

1. MACROPHTHALMIN^E. Antennae internae transversas sub fronte insitae. An- 
tennae externae basi ad frontem appressae. Articulus maxillipedis externi 4tus 
apertus. G. Cleistostoma, De H., Macrophthalmus, Lat. 

2. OCYPODIN^!. Antennae internae longitudiuales, juxta frontem utrinque insitas. 

357 



1426 CRUSTACEA. 

Antennae extern* a fronte paulum remotae. Articulus maxillipedis extern! 4tus 
apertus, Stius 2do minor, G. Gelasimus, Lat., ffelaecius, D., Ocypoda, Fab., 
Scopimera, De H. 

3. DOTIN^E. Articuli maxillipedis externi 4tus et sequentes 3tio eelati. G-. Doto, 
DeH. 

Fam. III. GRAPSID^E. Oculi 3tia parte latitudinis carapacis bre- 
viores. Carapax subquadratus, saepius depressus, lateribus aut 
rectis aut arcuatis. Antennas internse transversae. Articulus 
abdominis maris 2dus sterno contiguo saepius vix angustior. Arti- 
culus maxillipedis externi 3tius sive inornatus sive cristS, obliqua" 
pilifera ornatus. Palatum colliculis (viarum efferentium limitibus) 
instructum. 

1. GRAPSIN^B. Antennaj internae fronte tectse. Articulus maxillipedis externi 
3tius crista obliqua in 2dum producta non ornatus. G-. Pseudograpsus, E., Hete- 
rograpsus, Lucas, Platynotus, De H., Brachynotus, De H., Trichopm, De H., 
Grapsus, Lk., Goniograpsus, D., Planes, Lh., Hemigrapsus, D., Cyrtograpsus, D. 

2. SESARMIN^. Antennas interns fronte tectae. Articulus maxillipedis externi 
3tius cristfi, obliqua in 2dum products, notatus. G. Sesarma, Say, Sarmatium, 
D., Cyclograpsus, E., Chasmagnathus, De H., Helice, De H. 

3. PLAGUSIN^B. Antennae internae sinubus frontis longitudinalibus apertae. G. 
Acanthopus, De H., Plagusia, Lat. 

Fam. IV. GECARCINID^E. Oculi breves. Carapax obesus, paulo 
transversus, antice latus, curvatim declivis, lateribus arcuatis et 
pone oculos large rotundati et vix dentatis. Antennas internae 
transversaa. Articulus abdominis maris 2dus sterno postico vix 
angustior. Articulus maxillipedis externi 3tius crista obliqua 
plifera non ornatus. Palatum colliculis (viarum efierentium limiti- 
bus) non instructum. 

1. UCAIN^E. Articulus maxillipedis externi 4tus. apertus. G. Uca, Lh., Gecar- 
cinicus, E., Cardisoma, Lat., Gecarcoidea, E. 

2. GECARCININ^E. Articuli maxillipedis externi 4tus et sequentes 3tio eelati. G. 
Gecarcinus, Lat. 

Fam. V. PINNOTHERID J3. Oculi perbreves orbitis insiti, raro 
non retractiles. Carapax sive obesus sive depressus, raro paulo 
oblongus et interdum parce rostratus, lateribus valde rotundatis. 
Antennae internaB aut transversae aut obliquaa. Abdomen maris 
angustum, versus basin sterno contiguo valde angustius. Palatum 
colliculis (viarum efferentium limitibus) instructum. [Species totse 
parvaa.] 
1. PINNOTHERIN^E. Articulus maxillipedis externi 2dus parvulus aut obsoletus. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1427 

Corpus sive obesum sive dcpressum. G. Pinnothera, Lat., Fabia, D., Xenoph- 
thalmus, W., Xanthasia, W., Pinnixa, W., Pinnotherelia, Lucas. 
2. HYMENICIN^E. Corpus ssepius parce rostratum, depressum. Articulus maxil- 
lipedis extern! 2dus dimidio 3tii major. G. Hymenosoma, Lh., Halicardnut, 
W., Hymenicus, D., Elamena, E. 

Fam. VI. MYCTIRID^. Corpus obesum. Carapax antice peran- 
gustus, vix rostratus, orbitis carentes. Antennae internae parvulae, 
longitudinales. 

G. Mycliris, Lat. 



SUBTRTBUS V. LEUCOSOIDBA. 

1. Appendices maris genitales basi pedum btorum ortce. [Via afferent pone 
regionem pterygostomianam ingredient.] 

Fam. I. CALAPPID^E. Articuli maxillipedis extern! terminates 
non celati. 

1. CAIIAPPIN.S:. Pedes nulli natatorii. G. Calappa, Fab., Platymera, E., Murtia, 
E., Cycloes, De H. 

2. ORITHYIN-S;. Pedes 8 postici natatorii. G. Oriihyia. 

Fam. II. MATUTID^E. Articuli maxillipedis externi terminales 
celati, 3tio triangulate, palpo vix longiore quam articulus 2dus. 

G. Hepatus, Lat., Thealia, Lucas, Matuta, Fab. 



2. Appendices maris genitales sterno ortse. 

Fam. III. LEUCOSID^E. Via afferens apud angulum palati'antero- 
lateralem ingrediens. Articuli maxillipedis externi terminales pre- 
cedentibus tecti. Pedes postici ad normam gressorii. 

G. Philyra, Lh., Leucosia, Fab., Leucisca, M'L., Ebalia, Lh., Niicia, D., Nursia, 
Lh., Ilia, Lh., Myra, Lh., Persephona, Lh., Ixa, Lh., Iphis, Lh., Arcania, Lh., 
Oreophorus, Riippell. 

Fam. IV. DORIPPID^E. Via afierens partem regionis pterygosto- 
mianae posticain ingrediens. Articuli maxillipedis externi termi- 
nales precedentibus non tecti. Pedes 2-4 postici subdorsales pre- 
hensiles. 

G. Dorippe, Fab., Ethusa, Boux. 



1428 CRUSTACEA. 

TKIBUS II. ANOMOURA. 
SECTIO I. ANOMOURA SUPERIORA. 

Oculi antennis Imis non anteriores. Antennae 2daa oculis interdum 
posteriores non exteriores. Abdomen angustum, ad sternum saepius 
appressum, appendicibus caudalibus carens. 

SUBTRIBUS I. DROMIDEA, vel ANOMOURA MAIIDICA SUPERIORA. 

Carapax subtriangulatus vel subquadratus vel suborbiculatus, fronte 
angusto, oculis approximatis. Pedes postici subdorsales. Via afle- 
rens uti in Maioideis. 

Fam. I. BROMIDE. 

G. Dynomene, Lat., Dromia, Fab., Latreillia, Roux, Homola, Lh. 

Fam. II. CYMOPOLID^E. [An hujus sedis?] 

G. Cymopolia, Roux, Caphyra, Guer. 

SUBTRIBUS II. BELLIDEA, vel ANOMOURA CANCRIDICA. 

Carapax parce oblongus, subellipticus. Pedes 8 postici inter se 
similes. Via efferens uti in Dromideis. 

Fam. I. BELLID^E. 

G. Corystoides, Lucas, Bellia, E. 

/ 
SUBTRIBUS III. RANINIDEA, vel ANOMOURA LEUCOSIDICA. 

Carapax oblongus. Via efferens osque uti in Leucosoideis. 
Fam. I. RANINID^E. 

G. Raninoides, E., Ranina, Lk., Ranilia, E., Notopus, De H., Lyreidus, De H., 
Cotmonotus, W. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1429 



SECTIO II. ANOMOURA MEDIA. 

Oculi antennis Imis non anteriores. Antennae 2dae oculis posteriorea 
et exteriores. Abdomen inflexum, sed non stricte appressum, ap- 
pendicibus caudalibus instructum. Os nunquam uti in Leucosoi- 
deis. 



SUBTRIBUS IV. HIPPIDEA, vel ANOMOURA CORYSTIDIOA. 

Carapax oblongus. Maxillipedes extern! operculiformes, articulo 3tio 
elongate et lato. Pedes 2di 3tii 4tique natatorii, 5ti debiles inflexi. 

Fam. HIPPID^E. 

G. Albun<ea, Fab., Albunhippa, E., Remipes, Lat. ; Hippa, Fab. 

SUBTRIBUS V. PORCELLANIDEA, vel ANOMOURA GRAPSIDICA. 

Carapax suborbiculatus. Maxillipedes externi male operculiformes, 
articulo 3tio paulo minore quam 2dus. Pedes 2di 3tii 4tique gres- 
sorii, 5ti debiles, inflexi. 

Fam. PORCELLANID^E. 

G. Porcellana, Lamarck. 



SECTIO III. ANOMOURA SUBMEDIA. 

Oculi antennis Imis plane anteriores. Abdomen valde dilatatum, 
inflexum sed stricte non appressum, appendicibus caudalibus carens. 



SuBTRreus VI. LITHODEA, vel ANOMOURA MAIIDICA SUBMEDIA. 

Carapax subtriangulatus uti in Maioideis. Abdomen latum, vix sym- 
metricum. Pedes nulli natatorii, 2dis 3tiis 4tisque consimilibus, 
5tis parvulis, sub carapace inflexis. 

358 



1430 CRUSTACEA. 

Fam. LITHODID^E. 

G. Lithodes, Lat., Lomis, De H., Echidnocerus, W. 

SECTIO IV. ANOMOURA IHFERIORA. 

Oculi an tennis Imis anteriores. Antennae 2dae oculis posteriores et 
exteriores. Abdomen elongatum, vix inflexum, appendicibus cau- 
dalibus instructum, saepe appendicibus quoque ventralibus. 

SUBTRIBUS YII. PAGURIBEA, vel ANOMOURA MAIIDICA INFERIORA. 

Carapax oblongus, postice mollior. Abdomen plerumque molle vel 
carnosum, appendicibus imparibus saepius instructum. Pedum 
pares 3tii 4ti dissimiles. 

Fam. I. PAGURID^E. Antennae internae mediocres, articulo Imo 
brevissimo. Maxillipedis extern! palpus flagello multiarticulato 
instructus. Species aquaticse vel littorinaa. 

1. PAGURIN.S:. Abdomen asymmetricum. G. Paguristes, D., Diogenes,D. f Bern- 
hardus, D., Pagurus, Calcinus, D., Aniculus, D., Clibanarius, D. 

2. CANCELLIN^E. Abdomen symmetricum. G. Cancellus, E. 

Fam. II. CENOBITIDJE. Antennae internae multo elongatae, arti- 
culo Imo oculis saepius longiore, valde deflexo. Maxillipedis ex- 
terni palpus flagello non instructus. Species praecipue terrestriales. 

G. Cenolita, Lat., Birgus, Lh. 

SUBTRIBTJS YIII. J3GLEIDEA. 

Carapax elongatus, textura omnino crustaceus. Abdomen extus crus- 
taceum, maris paribus appendicum obsoletis, feminoe elongatis, 
instructum. Pedum pares 3tii 4tique consimiles; 5ti debiles, sub 
carapace inflexi. Branchiae filosae. 



Fam. 

G. JEgka, Lh. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1431 



SUBTRIBUS IX. GALATHEIDEA. 

Carapax elongatus, textura superficiei omnino crustaceus. Abdomen 
extus crustaceum, marts feminceque paribus appendicum elongatis 
infra instructum. Pedum pares 3tii 4tique consimiles, 5ti debiles 
juxta carapacem inflexi. Branchiae foliosae. 

Fam. GALATHEID.E. 

Q-. Munida, Lh., Galathea, Fab., Grimothea, Lh. 



APPENDIX. MEGALOPIDEA. 
G. Marestia, D., Monolepis, Say, Megalopa, Lh., Cyllene, D., Tribola, D. 

TRIBUS III. MACROURA. 
SECTIO I. MACROUBA PAGURO-SQUILLIDICA. 

SUBTRIBTJS I. THALASSINIDEA. 

Carapax duabus suturis longitudinalibus subdivisus, saepeque sutura 
dorsali transversa. Antennse externae squama basali nulla vel 
parva instructae. Pedes 6 postici directione non consimiles; duo 
antici longiores et crassiores, fossorii et saspius chelati. 

LEGIO I. THALASSINIDEA EUBRANCHIATA. Species bran- 
chiis thoracicis instructae tantum. 

Fam. I. GEBID^E. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. Appendices 
caudales et aliaa abdominales latae. 

G. Gebia, Lh., Axius, Lh., Calocaris, Bell, Laomedia, De H., Glaucothoe, E. 

Fam. II. CALLIANASSID^E. Maxillipedes externi operculiformes. 
Appendices caudales latae. 

G. Callianassa, Lh., Trypxa, D. 



1432 CRUSTACEA. 

Fam. III. THALASSINID^E. Maxillipedes extern! pediformes. 
Appendices caudales lineares. 
G. Thalassina, Lat. 

LEGIO II. THALASSINIDEA ANOMOBRANCHIATA. Pedes 

abdominis appendicibus branchialibus instruct!. 

Fam. I. CALLISEID^:. 

G. Callianidea, E., Callisea, Guer., D. 

SECTIO II. MACROURA NORMALIA. 
SUBTKIBTJS I. ASTACIDEA, vel MACEOITEA SUPERIORA. 

Carapax sutura dorsali transversa sgepius notatus, suturis longitudi- 
nalibus obsoletis, testa antero-laterali cum epistomate connata. 
Antennae externae squama basali sive nulla sive parva instructs. 
Pedes 6 postici directione sat consimiles; antici crassiores, sive 
didactyli sive non didactyli. [Branchiae filosae.] 

1. Antennae externce squama basali carentes. Pedes antici monodactyli. 

Fam. I. SCYLLARID^E. Carapax valde depressus, margine cepha- 
lothoracis utrinque tenui, carapace lateraliter subito inflexo. An- 
tennae externae laminatse breves. Sternum trigonum. 

G. Scyttarus, Fab., Arctus, D., Thenus, Lh., Parribacus, D., Ibacus, Lh. 

Fam. II. PALINURID^E. Carapax subcylindricus, lateraliter late 
rotundatus. Antennae externae basi subcylindricae, longae. Sternum 
trigonum. 

G. Palinurus, Fab., Panulirus, Gray. 

2. Antennae externae squamd basali instructce. Pedes antici didactyli. 

Fam. III. ERYONID^E. Carapax non oblongus, depressus, lateribus 
subito inflexis, abdomine multo angustiore. 

G. Ei-yon, Desmarest. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1433 

Fam. IV. AST ACID M. Carapax oblongus, subcylindricus, abdo- 
raine parce angustiore. Sternum angustum. 

1. ASTACIN^E. Manus crassoe et latae, supcrficie convexae. G. Homarus, E., Atta- 
coides, Guer. (subgenera Astacoides, Cheraps, Erich.) Astacus (subgcnera 
Astacus, Cambarus, Erich.) 

2. NEPHROPIN^E. Manus prismaticas, lateribus fere rectae. G. Nephrops, Lh. 
Paranephrops, W. 



SUBTRIBUS II. CARIDEA, vel MACROCKA TYPICA. 

Carapax sutura nulla notatus, epistomate antice non connatus. An- 
tennae externse squama basali magna instructae. Pedes 6 postici 
directione sat consimiles; Imi vel 2di crassiores et chelati, 3tii 4tis 
similes. [Branchiae foliosae.] 

1. Maxillipedes 2di breves et lamellati. 

Fam. I. CRANGONIDJS. Mandibulae graciles, valde incurvataa, 
non palpigerae, corona perangusta, non dilatata. Pedum pares Imi 
2dique inter se valde inaequi. 

1. CRANGONIN^;. Pedes Imi 2dis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. 
Digitus mobilis in manus marginem claudens; immobilis spiniformis. Pedes 
2di non annulati. G. Crangon, Fab., Sabinea, Owen, Argis, Kr., Paracran- 
gon, D. 

2. LYSMATIN^. Pedes Imi 2dis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi pediformes. 
Digiti suboequi, uno ad alterum claudente. Pedes 2di annulati. G. Nika, 
Risso, Lysmata, Risso, Cyclorhynchus, De H. 

3. GNATHOPHYLLIN^E. Pedes 2di Imis crassiores. Maxillipedes externi lati, 
operculiformes. G. Gnathopliyllum. 

Fam. II. ATYID2E. Mandibulaa crassae, non palpigerae, corona lata, 
parce bipartit, processu terminali brevi et dilatato. Pedum pares 
Imi 2dique inter se sequi, carpo nunquam annulate. 

1. ATYINJE. Pedes thoracici palpo non instructi. G. Atya, Lh., Atyoida, Ran- 
dall, Caridina, E. 

2. EPHYRIN^E. Pedes thoracis palpo instructi. G. Ephyra, Roux. 

Fam. III. PAL^EMONID^E. Mandibuke crassae, sive palpigerae 
sive non palpigerag, supra profunde bipartitae, processu apicali ob- 

longo, angusto. 

359 



1434 CRUSTACEA. 

1. ALPHEINJE. Pedes Imi crassiores, chelati; 2di filiformes, carpo saepius annu- 
late, plerumque chelato. Mandibulae palpigerae. G. Alpheus, Fab., JBetseus, D., 
Alope, W., Aihanas, Lh., Hfppolyte, Lh., Rhyncocinetes, E. 

2. PANDALIN-JE. Pedes Imi gracillirni, non_chelati, 2di filiformes,, carpo annulato. 
G. Pandalus, Lh. 

3. PAL^IMONIN^!. Pedes 4 antici chelati, 2di Imis crassiores, carpis nullis annu- 
latis. Pedes nulli palpigeri. G. Pontonia, Lat., D., QZdipus, D., Harpilius, 
D., Anchistia, D. (An Periclimeni Costae similis ?) Palsemonella, D., Palsemon, 
Fab., Hyrtienocera, Lat., Cryphiops, D. [Hie Typton Costae, si non squama an- 
tennarum basalis nulla.] 

4. OPLOPHORIN^;. Pedes Imi sive didactyli sive monodactyli ; 2di chelati, cras- 
siores. Squama antennarum externarum acuminata, extus spinis armata. G. 
Oplophorus, E., Regulus, D. 

[Cujus sedis Autonomea, Risso?] 



2. Maxillipedes 2di tenuiter ped iformet. 

Fam. IV. PASIPH^EID^E. Mandibulse uti in Atyidis. 

G. Pasiphsea, Sav. 

SUBTEIBUS III. PEN^EIDEA, vel MACKOUEA INFERIORA* 

Ciarapax sutura nulla notatus, cum epistomate antice non connatus. 
Antennae externae squama basali magna instructs. Pedes Imi 
2dique 3tiis non crassiores, 3tii saapius crassiores longiores et che- 
lati ; raro pedes toti debiles et tenues, 3tiis sive obsolete chelatis 
sive non chelatis. 

Fam. I. PEN.5CIDJL Pedes 6 antici chelati, 3tii longiores et plus 
rninusve validiores. 

G. Sicyonia, E., Penaeus, Lat., Aristeus, Duv., Stenopus, Lat., Spongicola, De H. 

Fam. II. SERGESTID^E. Pedes toti debiles, 2di 3tiique consimiles, 
sive obsolete didactyli sive non didactyli. Maxillipedes externi 
tenues. 

G. Sergestes, E., Acetet, E., ISuphema, E. (An hujus sedis?) 

Fam. III. EUCOPIDJE. Pedes toti debiles, 2di 3tiique non chelati, 
lini maxillipedesque externi monodactyli et subprehensiles. 

G. Eucopia, D. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1435 

ORDO II. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 
TRIBUS I. MYSIDEA, 

Fam. I. EUPHAUSID^E. Cephalothorax forma Caridoideus. Pedes 
thoracis bifidi, appendicibus branchialibus externis. 

G. Thysanopoda, E., Euphausia, ~D., Cyrtopia, D. 

Fam. II. MYSID^E. Cephalothorax forma Caridoideus. Pedes tho- 
racis bifidi, appendicibus branchialibus carentes. 

1. GYNTHIN^E. Pedes abdominis appendicibus branchialibus instruct!. Antennae 
interuiu birameae, externae squama basali instructas. G. Cynthia, Thompson. 

2. MYSIN^E. Pedes abdominis appendicibus branchialibus carentes. Antennae 
internae birameas, externae squama basali instructae. G. Mysis, Lat., Promyris, 
D., Macromysis, W., Siriella, D., Loxopis, D. 

3. SCELETININ.S;. Pedes abdominis appendicibus branchiiformibus carentes. An- 
tennae internes simplices, externas birameas, squamS, basali carentes. G. Scele- 
tina, D., Rachitia, D., Mi/to, Kr. 

Fam. III. LUCIFERIDJE. Segmentum antennale valde elongatum 
carapace per suturam fere discretum. Pedes simplicea. 
G. Lucifer. 

* 

APPENDIX TO THE MYSIDEA, G. Furcilia, D., Calyptopis, D., Zoea. Bosc. 

TRIBUS II. AMPHIONII>EA. 
Fam. I. AMPHIONID^J. 

G. Phyllosoma, Leach, Amphion, Edw. 

TRIBUS III. SQUILLOIDEA. 
Fam. I. SQUILLID^E. Rostrum carapaxque per suturam disjunct!. 

G. Lysiosquilla, D., Squilla, Pseudosquilla, Coronis, Lat., Gonodactylus, Lat. 

Fam. II. ERICHTHIDJE. Rostrum est carapacis frons productus 
et acuminatus, carapace et rostro non disjunctis. 

Or. Squillerichthus, Edw., Erichthus, Lat., Alima, Lh. 



1436 CRUSTACEA. 



SuBCLAssisII. TETRADECAPODA. 

OBDO I. CHOKISTOPODA. 

TRIBUS I. ISOPODA. 

I. IDOT^IDEA. 



Appendices abdominales duse posticae bene operculiformes, appendices 
alias optime tegentes. 

Fam. I. IDOTJE1D1E. Pedes fere consimiles, plus minusve ambu- 
latorii. 

G. Idotaea, Fab., Edotea, Guer., Erichsonia, D., Cleantis, D., Epelys, D. 

Fam. II. CHJETILnXiE. Pedes 6 postici non subsequi, pan uno lon- 
gissimo, et multiarticulato. 

G. Chxtilia, D. 
[An hujus sedis Anthuridce.'] 

SUBTRIBTJS II. ONISCOIDEA. 

Appendices abdominales duaa posticce styliformes et non operculiformes 
alias appendices tegentes sat terminales, raro obsoletae. 

Fam. I. ARMADILLIDJE. Corpus bene convexum, stricte articu- 
latum. Abdomen multiarticulatum, segmento ultimo parvo. Ap- 
pendices caudales ultra abdomen non exsertae, lamellatse. Mandi- 
bulse non palpigerse. Antennas internaa inconspicuaa. 

1. TYLINJE. Appendices caudales infra abdominis segmentum posticum celatse et 
operculiformes sed parvae et alias appendices non tegentes. G. Tylus, Lat. 

2. ARMADILLIN^E. Appendices caudales inter duo abdominis scgmenta postica 
partim visee. G. Armadillo, Lat., Spherillo, D., Armadillidium, Br., Diploex- 
ochus, Br. 

Fam. II. ONISCID-iE. Corpus saspius minus convexum, vel stricte 
vel laxe articulatum. Abdomen multiarticulatum, segmento ultimo 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1437 

parvo. Appendices caudales valde exsertae, styliformes. Mandi- 
bulae non palpigerae. Antennae internae conspicuae. 

1. ONISCINJE. Maxillipedes 3-articulati, articulis duobus ultiniis brevibus et par- 
vulis. Antennae externae ad articulationem 5tam bene geniculatae. Basis appen- 
dicum caudalium perbrevis, duos stylos multum inaequos gerens, stylo intcrno 
sub abdomine partim celato. G. Oniscus, Linn, (subgen. Trichoniscus, Br., Por- 
cellio, Lat., Oniscus), Philoscia, Platyarihrus, Br., Deto, Guer. 

2. SCYPHACINJE. Maxillipedes 2-articulati, articulo 2do lamellate. Antennas 
externse ad articulationem 5tam non gcniculatas. Basis appendicum caudalium 
aut brevis aut oblongus, ranio interno interdum omnino aperto. G. Scyphax, 
D., Styloniscus, D. 

3. LYGIN^E. Maxillipedes 4-articulati, elongati. Antennae externse ad articula- 
tionem 5tam non bene geniculatae. Styli caudales longi, basi longe exserto, 
ramis setiformibus, subaequis et aeque apertis. G. Lygia, Fab., Lygidium, Br. 

Fam. III. ASELLID^E. Corpus saapius plus depressuin et laxe arti- 
culatum. Abdomen 1-6-articulatum, segmento ultimo magno, scu- 
tellato. Appendices caudales styliformes, interdum brevissimse. 
Mandibulas palpigerae. Antennas internae conspicuae. 

1. LIMNORIN^E. Abdomen 5-6-articulatum. G. Limnoria, Lh. 

2. ASELLIN^E. Abdomen 1-2-articulatum. G. Jcera, Lh., Jeeridina, E., Asellus, 
G., Janira, Lh., Henopomus, Kr., Munna, Kr. 



III. CYMOTHOIDEA. 

Appendices abdominales duae posticaa lamellatae, apud abdominis 
latera dispositae. 

Fam. I. CYMOTHOID^. Maxillipedes breves, 3-4-articulati, oper- 
culiformes, articulis terminalibus angustis brevibus. Appendices 
caudales liberae, marginibus rarissime ciliatae. Antennae sub capite 
infixae. Abdomen 4-6-articulatum, segmentis anterioribus raro 
connatis. Pedes toti ancorales. Branchiae saepissime non ciliatae. 
Epimerae conspicuae. 

1. CYMOTHOIN^;. Lamellae caudales nudae. Abdomen multiarticulatum, seg- 
mentis liberis. G. Cymothoa, Fab., Ceratothoa, D., Livoneca, Lh., Anilocra, 
Lh., Nerocila, Lh., Olencira, Lh. 

2. OROZEDKTIN^B. Segmentum abdominis posticum ac in CymothoS,; segmenta 
alia coalita et non libera. G. Orozeuktes, E. 

3. ^aATHOiN^i!. Laraellee caudales ciliatae. Abdomen multiarticulatum, seg- 
mentis liberis. G. jEyathoa, D. 

360 



1438 CRUSTACEA. 

Fam. II. JEGIDJE. Maxillipedes elongati, 4-6-articulati, articulis 
totis lamellatis, terminalibus latis et brevibus. Appendices caudales 
liberae, marginibus ciliatae. Antennae ad frontis marginem capitis 
affixae, apertae. Abdomen 4-6-articulatum. Pedes 6 antici inter- 
dum ancorales aut prehensiles, saepius simpliciter unguiculati, 8 
postici unguiculati et nunquam ancorales. Branchiae ciliatae. Epi- 
merae conspicuae. 

1. JEoiXJE. Pedes 6 antici ancorales, unguibus validis, reliquis unguibus parvulis 
confecti. G. uEga, Lh. (Subgen. ^Ec/a, Conilera, Lh., Rocinela, Lh.), Ache- 
rusia, Lucas, Pterelas, Guer. 

2. CIROLANIN.IE. Pedes nulli ancorales. G. Cirolana, Lh., Corallana, D., Ali- 
tropus, E. 

Fam. III. SPHEROMID^E. Maxillipedes elongate 5-6-articulati 
et palpiformes. Appendices caudales margine abdominis lateral! 
connatae. Antennae ad frontis marginem capitis affixae, apertae. 
Abdomen 1-2-articulatum. Pedes non ancorales (raro 4 antici 
ancorales). Branchiae ciliatse. Epimerse non discernendae. 

1. SPHEROMIN^E. Lamella appendicis caudalis externa sub internfi, se latens. G. 
Spheroma, Lat., Cymodocea, Lh., Cerceis, E., Cassidina, E., Amphoroideum, E. 

2. N.ESjEiNjE. Lamella appendicis caudalis externa saliens, sub intern, se non 
latens, usquam aperta. Pedes nulli ancorales. G. Neseea, Lh., E., Campe- 
copea, Lh. 

3. ANCININ^!. Pedes 4 antici ancorales. G. Ancinus, E. 



TRIBUS II. ANISOPODA. 
SUBTRIBUS I. SEROLIDEA, vel ANISOPODA CTMOTHOICA. 

Appendices duae posticae abdominales lamellatse, apud abdominis 
latera dispositae. 

Fam. I. SEROLIDJ3. Appendices abdominales sex anticae liberae, 
subnatatoriae, quatuor sequentes branchiales, bene lamellatae, ul- 
timae ac in Cymothoidis. Antennae Imae sub capite insitae. 

G. Serolis, Lh. 



Fam. II. PKANIZID^E. Appendices abdominales totas ac in 

Antennae Imae sub capite insitae. Pedes thoracis numero decem, 
paribus duobus anticis rudimentariis. Thoracis segmenta numero 
quinque non superantia. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1439 

1. PBANIZIN^;. Caput parvum. Mandibulae vix salientes. G. Praniza, Lh. 

2. ANCEIN^;. Caput grande. Mandibulae ultra caput longi exsertoe. G. Anceui, 
Risso. 



SUBTRIBUS II. AKCTUKIDEA, vel ANISOPODA IDOT^IOA. 

Appendices duae posticae abdominales lamellatse et bene operculiformes, 
appendices branchiales tegentes. 

Fam. I. ARCTURID.E. 

1. ARCTURIN^E. Opercula abdominis ad ventrem stride appressa. G. Arcturui, 
Lat., Leachia, Johnston. 

2. ANTHURIN.S!. (An Idotasideorum ?) Opercula abdominis ad ventrem non bene 
appressa, sed libera et latera abdominis partim tegentia. G. Anthura, Lh. 



SOBTRIBUS III. TANALDEA, vel ANISOPODA ONISCICA. 

Appendices duae posticae abdominales plus minusve styliformes, sub- 
terminales, interdum obsoletae. 

Fam. I. TANAID^E. Pedes Imi 2dive subchelati, sequentes non 
ancorales. Abdomen paribus 5 appendicurn subnatatoriis unoque 
postico stylorum instructum. 

1. TANAIN^E. Corpus lineare, segmento thoracis Imo saepe oblongo capiteque par- 
vulo. Styli caudales longi. G. Tanais, E., Paratanais, D., Leptochelia, D., 
Apseudes, Lh., Rhcea, E. 

2. LIRIOPIN^:. Corpus antice latius, postice sensim angustans, segmento thoracis 
Imo reliquis vix longiore, capite sat grandi. Appendices abdominales numero 
decem elongatas. G. Liriope, Kathke, Cryptothir, D. 

3. CROSSURIN^E. Corpus antice latius, postice sensim angustatum, segmento tho- 
racis Imo vix longiore, capite sat grandi. Appendices abdominales inferiores 
numero sex, ciliatse. G. Crossurus, Kathke. 

Fam. II. BOPYRID^E. Pedes toti plerumque aliquo modo subpre- 
hensiles vel ancorales. Maris corpus angustum ; abdomen 1-6-arti- 
culatum, appendicibus subnatatoriis stylisque duobus saspe in- 
structum, totis appendicibus interdum obsoletis. Femince corpus 
latum et obesum, oculis carens, et quoad pedes saepe partim obso- 
letum. 



1440 CRUSTACEA. 

1. BOPYRIN^:. Thorax femince appendicibus branchialibus careDS. G. Bopyrus, 
Lat., Phryxus, Kathke, Cepon, Duv., Dajus, Kr. 

2. IONINJE. Pedes thoracis femince ad basin appendices simplices branchiales 
gerentes. G. lone, Lat., Argeia, D. 



TRIBUS III. AMPHIPODA. 
SUBTRIBUS I. CAPKELLIDEA. 

Maxillipedes elongati, palpiformes. Caput oculique mediocres. Ab- 
domen obsolescens. 

Fajn. I. CAPRELLIDyE. Corpus longum et fere filiforme. Antennae 
2dse longitudine mediocres. [Species non parisiticae.] 

G. Proto, Lh., Protella,D., Caprella, Lk., jEgina, Kr., Cercops, Kr., Podalirius, Kr. 

Fam. II. CYAMKLE. Corpus latum, depressum. Antennae 2dae 
obsoletas. [Species parasiticae.] 

G. Cyamus. 

SUBTKIBUS II. GAMMARIDEA. 

Maxillipedes elongati, palpiformes. Caput oculique mediocres. Ab- 
domen appendicibus sex natatoriis et sex styliformibus instructum. 

Fam. I. DULICHIDJS. Gressoriae, habitu Caprelloideae. Corpus 
lineare, epimeris obsoletis. Pedes sex posteriores longi, subprehen- 
siles. Abdomen 5-articulatum. 

G. Dulichia, Kr. 

Fam. II. CHELURID^E. Corpus fere cylindricum, epimeris medio- 
cribus. Abdomen segmentis 4to 5toque coalitis et oblongis, stylis 
caudalibus inter se valde dissimilibus. 
G. Chelura, Philippi. 

Fam. III. COROPHID^E. Gressoriaa, pedibus partim lateraliter 
porrectis. Corpus plus minusve depressum, ssepe latum, epimeris 
perbrevibus, interdum obsoletis. Abdomen forma appendicibusque 
normale et perfectum. Antennae saepe pediformes. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1441 

1. CLYDONINJE. Styli caudales Imi 2dique simplices, subulati. G. Clydonia, D. 

2. CoROpniNjE. Antennae plus rainusve pediforines. Stjli caudales Imi 2dique 
biramei. G. Corophium, Lat., Siphonoecetes, Kr., Platophium, D., Cyrtophium, 
D., Unciola, Say, Podocerus, Lh., Cratophium, D., Cerapus, Say, Cerapodina, 
E., Erichthonius, E. 

3. ICILIN.S:. Antennae non pediformes nee subpediformes, flagellis sat longis basi- 
que sat brevi instructae. Styli eaudales ae in Uorophinis. G. Icilius, D., Ptery- 
gocera, Lat. 

Fam. IV. ORCHESTID^E. Saltatoriae, pedibus nullis lateraliter 
porrectis. Corpus compressum, epimeris magnis. Abdomen appen- 
dicibus normale. Antennae non bene pediformes. Styli caudales 
Imi 2dique biramei; 3tii simplices brevissimi et ultra 2dos non pro- 
ducti. Mandibulse non palpigerae. Maxillae Imae palpo instructae 
eive parvulo sive obsoleto. 

G. Orcheslia (subgen. Talitrus, Talorchestia, Orchestia), Allorchestes, D. 

Fam. V. GAMMARID^E. Saltatoriae vel natatoriae, pedibus nullia 
lateraliter porrectis. Corpus sgepius compressum, raro subde- 
pressum, epimeris sive magnis sive parvis. Styli caudales laxiores, 
duobus ultimis oblongis ssepiusque ultra 2dos productis, interdum 
simplicibus. Mandibulae saepissime palpigerae. Maxillae Imse 
palpo magno 2-3-articulato (rarissime 1-articulato) instructae. 



1. Pedes 10 poslici non prehensiles. 

1. STEQOCEpHALiNjE. Antennaa breves, superiores basi crassae. Mandibulae acie 
denticulata instructae, palpo brevi uniarticulato intus dentato. Epimerae per- 
magnae. Gr. Steyocephalus, Kr. 

2. LYSIANASSIN^E. Antennae breves, superiores basi crassae. Mandibulae apice 
parce dentatae et acuminatae, acie vix instructae, palpo 2-3-articulato. Maxilli- 
pedes lamellis internis magnis. Epimerae permagnae. G. Lysianassa, E., 
Phlias, Guer., Opis, Kr., Uristes, D., Anonyx, Kr., Urothoe, D. 

3. LEUCOTHOIN^;. Antennas superiores basi plus minusve graciles. Maxillipedes 
elongati, perangusti, articulo longo unguiformi confecti, lamellis internis perbre- 
vibus. Mandibulae sive palpigerte sive non palpigeroD, proccssu molari carentes 
(An semper?). Epimerao magnae. G. Slenothoe, D., Leucothoe, Lh. 

[An hujus sedis, genus Michrochcles, Kr., et Amphithoe marionis, Edw. ?] 

4. GAMMARIN^E. Antennae Imae basi graciles. Maxillipedes sat lati, lamellis 
internis sat elongatis. Mandibulae acie denticulata instructae et altera accessoria 
quoque processu molari et palpo 3-articulato. Pedes 10 postici non subprehen- 
giles. G. Acanthonotus, Owen, Alibrotus, E., Leptocliirus, Zad., Iphimedia, 
Rath,, D., (Edicerus, Kr., Amphithoe, Lh., D., Gammarus, Fab., D., Photis, Kr., 

361 



1442 CRUSTACEA. 

Mtlita, Lh., D., Mara, Lh., D., Dercothoe, D., Pyctilus, D., Atylus, Lh., Ischy- 
rocerus, Kr. [An hujus sedis Pardalisca, Kr. ?] 



2. /Wes 10 postici partim prehensiles. 

5. PONTOPOREIN^E. Pedes 3tii 4tique plus minusve prehensiles; 6 postici non 
prehensiles. G. Lepidactylis, Say, Pontiporeia, Kr., Ampelisca, Kr., Proto- 
medeia, Kr., Aora, Kr., Phoxus, Kr. 

6. Is&iNJB. Pedes 4 vel 6 postici subprebensiles. G. Jsasa, E., Anisopus, Tern. 



SOBTRIBUS III. HYPEKIDEA. 

Maxillipedes abbreviati, lamellati, operculiformes. Caput grande, 
oculorum cornels plerumque tectum. Appendices abdominales ac 
in Gammarideis, latius lamellatge. 

Fam. I. HYPERID^E. Antennae 2dae exsertaa. Abdomen in ven- 
trem se non flectens. Pedes 5ti 6ti Tmique forma longitudineque 
mediocres, 5tis 6tisve non percrassis nee prehensilibus. 

1. VIBILIN^E. Corpus form3 paulo Gammaroideum. Caput oculique mediocres. 
Maxillipedes palpo parvulo instruct}. Palpus mandibularis tcnuis. G. Vibi- 
lia, E. 

2. HYPERIN.S:. Caput tumidum. Oculi pergrandes. Palpus mandibularis tenuis. 
G. Lestrigonus, E., Tyro, E., Hyperia, Lat.j Metoscus, Kr., Tauria, D., Dai- 
rinia, D. (==Daira, Edw.), Cystisoma, Guer. 

3. SYNOPIN^:. Corpus gracilius. Palpus mandibularis sat brevis, latissimus. 
Oculi grandes. G. Synopia, D. 

Fam. II. PHRONIMID^E. Antennas 2dae exsertae. Abdomen in 
ventrem se non flectens. Pedes oti Gtive sive crassi sive elongati, 
ssepius prehensiles, quoque 3tii 4tique ssepe prehensiles. 

1. PHRONIMIN^!. Abdomen versus basin sat gracile. Pedes 5ti inagnS. manu 
didactyla vel monodactyla confecti ; 3tii 4ti extremitate graciles, non prehensiles. 
Antennae breves. G. Phronima, Lat., Prim.no, Guer. 

2. PHROSININ^E. Abdomen versus basin sat crassum. Pedes 5ti prehensiles, 
mouodactyli ; quoque 3tii 4tique prehensiles. G. Anchylomera, E., Phrosina, 
Risso, Themisto, Guer. 

3. PHORCIN.S:. Pedes 5ti Gtive valde elongati, et crassi, sed manu non confecti. 
G. Phorcus, E. 

Fam. III. TYPHID^E. Antennae 2dae sub capite thoraceve celatae 
et saepius replicataa. Abdomen in ventrem saepe se flectens. Pedes 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1443 

6 postici interdum abbreviati cum articulo Imo operculiformi, inter- 
dum longitudine mediocres. 

1. TYPHIN^E. Abdomen in ventrem so flectens. G. Diihyrut, D., Typhit, R. 
Thyropus, D. 

2. PRONGING. Abdomen in ventrem se non flectens. Caput non oblongum, an- 
tennis in capitis frontem insitis. G. Pronoe, Guer., Lycsea, D. 

3. OXYCEPHALINJJ. Abdomen in ventrem se non flectens. Caput oblongum 
antennis Imis in superficiem capitis iuferiorem insitis. G. Oxycephalut, E. 
Rhaldosoma, W. 



ORDOII. (?) TRILOBITA. 



SUBCLASSIS III. ENTOMOSTRACA. 

ORDO I. GNATHOSTOMATA. 

LEGIO I. LOPHYROPODA. 

TRIBUS I. CYCLOPOIDEA. 

Fam. I. CALANIDJ3. Oculi duo simplices minutissimi, pigmentis 
sive coalitis sive discretis; interdum oculi alii in uno coaliti infra 
caput deorsum spectantes. Mandibulae maxillaeque elongati palpi- 
gerae. Pedes Imi nunquam prehensiles. 

1. CALANIN^!. Oculi inferiores nulli. Antennae Imaa longaa, fere transversim 
porrectae; dextra maris articulatione non geniculans; 2dae non prehensiles. Max- 
illae latere interiore setigerae. Abdomen longitudine mediocre. G. Calanus, 
Leach, Rhincalanus, D., Cetochilus, Euchseta, Phflippi, Undina, D. 

2. PONTELLIN^!. Oculi inferiores distincti. Antennae Imaa longae ssepe oblique 
porrectae ; dextra maris articulatione saspius geniculans ; 2da9 non prehensiles. 
Maxillae abdomenque ac in Calaninis. G. Uemicalanus, D., Diaptomus, Westw., 
Candace, D., Ponlella, Acartia D., Catopia, D. 

3. OITHONIN^E. Oculi et antennas fere ac in Calaninis. Abdomen praelongum, 
cephalothorace vix brevius. Maxillae latere interiore digitate. G. Oithona, Baird. 

4. NQTODELPHIN^;. Antennas 2dse prehensiles, vel monodactylae. G. Noto- 
delphys, Allman. 



1444 CRUSTACEA. 

Fam. II. CYCLOPIDjE. Oculi duo simplices minutissimi coaliti 
tantum. Mandibulae palpo parvulo vel obsolete. Pedes lini plus 
minusve subprehensiles. 

1. CYCLOPINJE. Sacculi ovigeri externi duo. G. Cyclops. 

2. HARPACTICIN.S!. Saceulus oviger unicus. G. Harpacticus, Edw., Clytemnestra, 
D., Canthocamptus, Westw., Setella, D. 

Fam. III. CORYCjEID^E. Oculi duo simplices minutissimi coaliti; 
quoque alii duo portentosse magnitudinis, lenticulo prolate interno 
corneaque magna oblata in testam insita instruct!. Sacculi ovigeri 
sive duo sive unicus. Pedes Imi saepius subprehensiles. 

1. CORYCJEIN.S:. Sacculi ovigeri duo. G. Corycceus, D., Antaria, D., Sapphi- 
rina, Thompson. 

2. MiRACiN-as. Sacculus ovigerus uaicus. G. Miracia, D. 



TRIBUS II. DAPHNIOIDEA. 

Fam. I. PENILIDJE. Pedes foliacei numero duodecim, angustiores. 
Antennse anticse obsolescentes. 

G. Sida, Straus, Daphnella, Baird, Penilia, D., Latona, Str. 

Fam. II. DAPHNID^E. Pedes foliacei numero decem, latiores. 
Antennae anticse 1-2-articulatse, raro multiarticulatse. 

G. Daphnia, M., Ceriodaphnia, D., Moina, Baird, Macrothrix, B., Acanthocercus, 
Schb'dler, Eurycercus, B., Lynceus, M., Alona, Baird, Bosmina, Baird. 

Fam. III. POLYPHEMIDJE. Caput grande, oculis repletum. Pedes 
numero octo, fere teretes. Antennae anticse obsolescentes. 

G. Polyphemus, M., Evadne, Loven, Pleopis, D. 



TRIBUS III. CYPROIDEA. 

Fam. I. CYPEID.ZE. Antennae 2dse subteretes, 3-5-articulatae. 
Mandibulae apice productae et denticulatae, et lateraliter palpigerae, 
palpo a mandibulse apice remoto. Oculi pigmento unico minuto 
conjuncti, lenticulis duobus sphericis. Pedes duo vel plures tenui- 
ter pediformes. 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1445 

1. CYPRIN^E. Pedes numero quatuor; anteriores tenues pediformes, posteriores 
debiles. Abdomen elongatum, stylis duobus confectum. G. Cyprit, Muller, 
Candona, Baird. 

2. CYTHEEIN^E. Pedes numero sex, consimiles, pediformes. Abdomen breve. G. 
Cythere, Muller. 

Fam. II. HALOCYPRID^E. Antennae 2da8 basi crassae, saapius 
birameae, ramo longiore 5-7-articulato elongat& setigero. Appen- 
dices mandibulares omnino pediformes, processu molari parvo. 

1. CYPRiDiNiNjE. Pedes quatuor, articulati. Maxillae quatuor. G. Cypridina,E. 

2. HALOCYPEIN^J. Pedes duo, vermiformes. Maxillae sex. G. Halocyprk, D., 
Conchcecia, D. 



LEGIO II. PHYLLOPODA. 
TRIBUS I. ARTEMIOIDEA. 

Fam. I. ARTEMIAD^l. Cephalothorax multiannulatus usque ad 
caput, testa nusquam tectus. Pedes numerosi, foliacei. 

1. CHIROCEPHALIN^I. Corpus gracile. Abdomen longum et multiarticulatum. 
Antennae 2dae breves sed percrassse, marts prehensiles. G. Chirocephalus, Pre- 
vost, Artemia, Leach. 

2. EULIMENIN^;. Abdomen fere obsolctum. Antennae quatuor fere filiformes. 
G. Eulimene, Lat. 

Fam. II. NEBALIAD^E. Cephalothorax testa fere bivalvi bene 
tectus. Abdomen non inflexum, pauci-annulatum. Pedes plures 
posteriores biremes, ac in Ci/dopoideis, reliqui anteriores foliacei, 
branchiales. 
G. Nelalia, Leach. 



TRIBUS II. APODOIDEA. 

Fam. APODIDJE. Oculi duo compositi. Appendices duaB caudales 
rigide setiformes. Testa scutiformis. 

G. Apus, SchoeflFer. 

362 



1446 CRUSTACEA. 



TRIBUS III. LIMNADIOEDEA. 
Fam. LIMNADID^l. 

G. Limnadia, Br., Cyzicui, Aud., Limnetis, Loven (Hedessa, Lievin). 



ORDO II. CORMOSTOMATA. 
SUBORDO I. PCECILOPODA. 

* 

TBIBTTS I. ERGASILOIDEA. 

Fam. I. MONSTRILLID^E. Corpus elongatum fere cylindricum. 
Abdomen 5-6-articulatum, segmentis Imo 2doque appendicibus 
setosis munitis ac in Setelld. Maxillae, antennae posticas et pedes 
antici obsoleti, pedes octo maxime biremes. 

G. Monstritta, D. 

Fam. II. ERGASILIDjE. Corpus breviusculum, cephalothorace 
crasso, abdomine stylis caudalibus minutis setigeris confecto. An- 
tennae posticae subprehensiles ac in Corgcceo, pedes octo postici bene 
biremes. 

Or. Ergasilus, Nordmann. 

Fam. III. NICOTHOIDJE. Ergasilidis affinis. Antennas posticae 
perbreves vel rudimentarige. [Corpus lobis tumidis prodigiosis late- 
raliter prolongatum.] 

G. Nicothoe, Aud. et Edw. [Cujus sedis est Bomolocus, Nordmaun ?] 

TRIBUS II. CALIGOIDEA. 

Fam. I. AKGULID.iE. Corpus late depressum, peltatum. Antennaa 
Imae obsoletae. Pedes Imi tubulati, 2di unguiculati. Ova in tubis 
vel sacculis externis non gesta. 

G. Argulus, Miiller. 

Fam. II. CALIGID^E. Corpus late depressum, peltatum, segmento 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 1447 

antico pergrandi. Antennae Imae breves, 2-3-articulatae; 2dae cor- 
pore tectse. Pedes Imi graciles, 2dt preh ensiles vel ancorales. Ova 
externa in tubis gesta. 

1. CALIQIN^:. Truncus buccalis ovoideus, paulo oblongus, apertura oris inferiore. 
Maxillae ab ore remotae, brevissimae, crassae. Tubi ovigeri extern! recti. An- 
tennae anticae 2-articulatse. G. Calir/us, Muller, Lepeophtheirui, Nord., Cali- 
geria, D., Calistes, D., Trebius, Kr. 

2. PANDARINJE. Truncua buccalis acuminatus, apertura terminali. Maxillae par- 
vulne lamellares ad truncum appressao. Tubi ovigeri extern! recti. G. Pandarus. 
Lh., Nogagus, Lh., Phyllopliora, E., Dinematura, Lat., Euryhporus, Nord., Lepi- 
dopus, D. 

3. CECROPIN.E. Pandarinis affinea. Tubi ovigeri externi sub abdomine convo- 
luti. G. CecropSy Lsemargus. 

4. SPECILLIGIN.& Pandarinis affines. Oculi duo ac in Sapphirinis. G. Speeitti- 
gus, D. 

Fam. III. DICHELESTID.iE. Corpus angustum, segmento antico 
parvo. Antennae lime breves, 5-10-articulatae; 2dae fere frontales, 
ultra caput exsertae. Pedes Imi graciles, 2di prehensilcs. Ova 
externa in tubis gesta. 

1. DICHELESTIN^E. Segmenta corporis angusta, non foliose producta. G. Dicheles- 
tium, Herm., Nemesis, Roux. 

2. ANTHOSOMATINJE. Segmenta corporis folios^ producta. G. Anthosoma, Leach. 



TRIBUS III. LERN^EOIDEA. 

Fam. I. CHONDRACANTHIDvE. Appendices cephalothoracis 
nuinero quatuor vel plures, unguibus plus minusve ancorales. 

1. SELIN^E. Antennae antic* et pcdes thoracis postici graciles. G. Selius, Kr. 

2. CHONDRACANTHIN^E. Antennae anticae graciles vel perbreves. Pedes thoracis 
postici breviter et crasse ancorales. G. Chondr acanthus, de la Roche, Lernanthro- 
pus, BL, Lernentoma, Bl., Cycnus, E. 

3. CtAVELLiNjE. Antennae anticae obsoletee. Pedes thoracis postici crassi et 
breves. G. Clavella, Oken, Peniculus, Nord., ^Ethon, Kr. 

Fam. II. ANCORELLID M. Antennae posticoe feminarum ad apicem 
saepeque per latera connatae et disco ancorali confectae. 

1. ANCOHELLIN.*;. Antennae posticae feminarum per latera connatae et disco anco- 
rali confectae. G. Ancorella, Cuv. 

2. LERNJEOPODINJE. Antennae posticse feminarum versus apicem connatee tantum 
G. Lernaeopoda, Kr., Brachiella, Cuv., Achtheres, N., Tracheliastes, N.,ata- 
nistes, N. 



1448 CRUSTACEA. 

Fam. III. PENELLID^E. Pedes obsoleti. Caput 2-4 appendicibue 
brevibus non articulatis munitum. 

1. PENELLIN.S;. Pedes pauci rudimentarii vix obsoleti. G. Penella, Oken, Ler- 
neonema, Edw. 

2. LEKNEOCERIN;E. Pedes oinnino obsoleti. Or. Lerneocera, Bl., Lernea. 



SUBORDO II. ARACHNOPODA VEL PYCNOGONOIDEA. 
Fam. I. NYMPHIDvE. Antennis munitaj. 

G. Nymphum, Fabr., Aminothea, Lh., Pallene, J., Phoxichilidium, J. 

Fam. II. PYCNOGONID^E. Antennis carentes. 

G. Pycnogonum, Brunnich, Phoxichilus, Lat. 



SUBCLASSIS IV. CIERIPEDIA. 



SUBCLASSIS V. ROTATORIA. 



APPENDIX. 

THE following references are here added to genera of Fossil Crus- 
tacea, not mentioned in the preceding classification, excluding the 
Trilobite group. 

1. XANTHID^;. Arges of De Haan (Faun. Japon., 21 and 52, pi. 5, 



CLASSIFICATION OF CRUSTACEA. 

f. 4), a genus near Pilumnus and Menippe. Maxillipeds Cancroid, 
abdomen in both sexes seven-jointed; lateral margins of carapax 
parallel and entire, so as to resemble Cydograpsus Audouinii. Dis- 
tance between the eyes one-fifth the breadth of the thorax. 

Etyosa, Leach (Mantell's Geol. of Sussex, PI. 29, f. 11, 12), has the 
transverse form of Xantho. 

2. ERIPHIME (IJZanthopsie, M'Coy (Ann. Mag. N. H. [2], iv. 162), 
approaches Actumnus in nearly orbicular outline and convexity of 
carapax, but has the fingers "acuminated; the basal joint of the outer 
antennae just reaches the front. 

fbdopilumnus, M'Coy (loc. cit., p. 165), very near Galene of De 
Haan. It has the slender legs of our Pilumnus tenellus. 

3. ANOMOURA. Dromilites and Ogydramites of Edwards; Hela of 
Count Miinster ; Basinotopus and Notopocorystes of M'Coy (Ann. Mag. 
N. H. [2], iv. 167, 169). The form and sutures of the carapax, in 
M'Coy's genera, and the character of the arms and of the posterior legs, 
are very nearly as in JEglea. 

4. THALASSINIDEA. Magila, Aura, Cancrinos, Orphnea, Brisa, and 
Brome of Miinster ; Megachirus and Pterochirus of Brown. 

5. ASTACIDEA. Coleia, Broderip (Geol. Trans. [2], v.); Qlyphea 
and Pemphix, von Meyer (Foss. Krebse) ; Bolina, Miinster; Podo- 
cratiis, Becks ; Archceocarabus and Hoploparia of M'Coy (Ann. Mag. 
N. H. [2], iv. 173, 175). The species have the transverse suture 
across the carapax, which distinguishes the Astacidea and most Tha- 
lassinidea from the Caridea and Penaeidea. 

6. PEN.EIDEA. The following genera are referred to the Penaeus 
group by De Haan (Faun. Japon., 187) : Anirimpos, Bylgia, Drobna, 
Dusa, Blaculla, JEger, Udora, Kolga, Hefriga, Elder of Count Miinster, 
and possibly, Rauiia and Bombur of the same author. In the first 
seven of these genera all the legs are didactyle, and in Hefriga and 
Elder all are monodactyle. The genus Saga of Count Miinster, De 
Haan refers to the Mysidea. 

363 



1450 CRUSTACEA. 

7. SQITILLOIDEA. Naranda and RecTcur of Count Miinster are re- 
ferred here by H. G. Bronn (Index Palaeontologicus, ii. 575) ; and 
also, with a query, Norna and Urda of the same author. 

8. ISOPODA. Arcliceoniscus and Palceoniscus of Edwards (Ann. des 
Sci. Nat., xx. 326). Archaeoniscus, according to Edwards, is between 
Spheroma and Ancinus. 

9. ENTOMOSTRACA. T. Rupert Jones adds to the Cytherinaa the 
genera (or "subgenera") Cyfherella and Cythereis, based on the form of 
the shell. Cyprella and Cypridella of Koninck (Descript. An. Foss.) 
are genera proposed for Cyproid species found in the Belgian carbo- 
niferous beds; and Dithyrocaris, Scouler (Portlock's Geol. Rep., Lon- 
donderry, and Wm. King's Permian Fossils of England, p. 64, Palse- 
ontograph. Soc., Pub. 1850), includes Carboniferous or Permian 
species, which have been referred both to the Cyproidea and Apo- 
doidea, it being uncertain whether the shell is properly bivalve or 
not. Cytheropsis, M'Coy, includes Palaeozoic species that have been 
referred to Cytherina; Beyrichia and Ceratiocaris, M'Coy (Brit. Pal. 
Fossils, Mus. Camb., 4to, 1851, 135), are genera of other Palaeozoic 
species. All the carboniferous and Palaeozoic species are referred to 
the section Phyllopoda, near the bivalve genus Limnadia, by Bur- 
meister and M'Coy. The abnormal number of segments in other 
Palaeozoic Crustacea render it probable that this reference of them is 
right. 

Entomoconchus, M'Coy (Jour. Geol. Soc. Dublin, ii.), and DapTi- 
noidea, Hibbert (On the Burdie House Limestone, Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Edinb., xiii. 180), are other related genera. The latter may be near 
A pus. 

Eurypterus, Harlan, and Pterygotus, M'Coy, are other Palaeozoic 
genera, probably of Entomostraca. Eurypterus has been supposed to 
be related to Limulus. 

Belinurus, Koninck, Halicyne, von Meyer, are other genera, referred 
to the Poecilopoda. 



ON THE 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 



CRUSTACEA. 



I. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TEMPERATURE 
OF THE OCEANS. 

THE temperature of the waters is well known to be one of the most 
influential causes limiting the distribution of marine species of life. 
Before therefore we can make any intelligent comparison of the Crus- 
tacea of different regions, it is necessary to have some clear idea of 
the distribution of temperature in the surface waters of the several 
oceans; and, if we could add also, the results of observations at 
various depths beneath the surface, it would enable us still more per- 
fectly to comprehend the subject. The surface temperature has of 
late years been quite extensively ascertained, and the lines of equal 
temperature may be drawn with considerable accuracy. But in the 
latter branch of thermometric investigation almost everything yet 
remains to be done : there are scattering observations, but none of a 
systematic character, followed through each season of the year. 

The Map which we have introduced in illustration of this subject, 
presents a series of lines of equal surface temperature of the oceans. 
The lines are isocheimal lines, or, more properly, isocrymal lines ; and 
where they pass, each exhibits the mean temperature of the waters 
along its course for the coldest thirty consecutive days of the year. 



1452 CRUSTACEA. 

The line for 68 F., for example, passes through the ocean where 68 
F., is the mean temperature for extreme cold weather. January is 
not always the coldest winter month in this climate, neither is the 
winter the coldest season in all parts of the globe, especially near the 
equator. On this account, we do not restrict the lines to a given 
month, but make them more correctly the limit of the extreme cold 
for the year at the place.* Between the line of 74 north and 74 
south of the equator, the waters do not fall for any one month below 
74 F.; between 68 north and south, they do not fall below 68. 

There are several reasons why isocrymal are preferable to summer 
or isotheral lines. The cause which limits the distribution of species 
northward or southward from the equator is the cold of winter, rather 
than the heat of summer, or even the mean temperature of the year. 
The mean temperature may be the same when the extremes are 
very widely different. When these extremes are little remote, the 
equable character of the seasons, and especially the mildness of the 
winter temperature, will favour the growth of species that would be 
altogether cut off by the cold winters where the extremes are more 
intense. On this account, lines of the greatest cold are highly impor- 
tant for a chart illustrating the geographical distributions of species, 
whether of plants or animals. At the same time, summer lines have 
their value. But this is true more particularly for species of the 
land, and fresh-water streams, and sea-shore plants. When the sum- 
mer of a continent is excessive in its warmth, as in North America, 
many species extend far from the tropics that would otherwise be 
confined within lower latitudes. But in the ocean, the extremest 
cold in the waters, even in the Polar regions, wherever they are not 
solid ice (and only in such places are marine species found), is but a 
few degrees below 32 Fahrenheit. The whole range of temperature 
for a given region is consequently small. The region which has 68 
F. for its winter temperature, has about 80 for the hottest month of 
summer; and the line of 56 F. in the Atlantic, which has the lati- 
tudes of the state of New York, follows the same course nearly as the 

* The word isocrymal here introduced is from the Greek utog, equal, and xfufAo?, 
extreme cold, and applies with sufficient precision to the line for which it is used. These 
lines are not isocheimal lines, as these follow the mean winter temperature ; and to use 
this term in the case before us, would be giving the word a signification which does not 
belong to it, and making confusion in the science. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1453 

summer line of 70 F. In each of these cases the whole extent of 
the range is small, being twelve to fourteen degrees.* 

In fresh-water streams, the waters, where not frozen, do not sink 
lower than in the colder oceans, reaching at most but a few degrees 
below freezing. Yet the extremes are greater than for the ocean ; for 
in the same latitudes which give for the ocean 56 and 70 F. as the 
limits, the land streams of America range in temperature between 30 
and 80 F., and the summer warmth in such a case, may admit of the 
development of species that would otherwise be excluded from the 
region. 

While then both isocrymal and isothermal lines are of importance on 
charts illustrating distribution over the continents, the former are 
pre-eminently important where the geography of marine species is to 
be studied. 

The lines of greatest cold are preferable for marine species to those 
of summer heat, also because of the fact that the summer range for 
30 of latitude either side of the equator is exceedingly small, being 
but three to four degrees in the Atlantic, and six to eight degrees in 
the Pacific. The July isothermal for 80 F. passes near the paral- 
lel of 30 ; and the extreme heat of the equatorial part of the Atlantic 
Ocean is rarely above 84. The difficulty of dividing this space by 
convenient isothermals with so small a range is obvious. 

It is also an objection to using the isotheres, that those towards the 
equator are much more irregular in course than the isocrymes. That 
of 80 for July, for example, which is given on our Map from Maury's 
Chart, has a very flexuous course. Moreover, the spaces between the 
isotheres fail to correspond as well with actual facts in geographical 
distribution. The courses of the cold water currents are less evident 
on such a chart, since the warm waters in summer to a great extent 
overlie the colder currents. 

It is also to be noted that nothing would be gained by making the 
mean temperature for the year, instead of the extremes, the basis 
for laying down these lines, as will be inferred from the remarks 
already made, arid from an examination of the chart itself. 

The distribution of marine life is a subject of far greater simplicity 

* Moreover, the greatest range for all oceans is but 62 of Fahrenheit, the highest 
being 88, and the lowest 26; while the temperature of the atmosphere of the globe 
has a range exceeding 150. 

364 



1454 CRUSTACEA. 

than that of continental life. Besides the influence on the latter of 
summer temperature in connexion with that of the cold seasons, 
already alluded to, the following elements or conditions have to be 
considered: the character of the climate, whether wet or dry; of 
the surface of the region, whether sandy, fertile, marshy, etc. ; of the 
vegetation, whether that of dense forests, or open pasture-land, etc. ; 
of the level of the country, whether low, or elevated, etc. These and 
many other considerations come in, to influence the distribution of 
land species, and lead to a subdivision of the Regions into many sub- 
ordinate Districts. In oceanic productions, depth and kind of bottom 
have an important bearing : but there is no occasion to consider the 
moisture or dryness of the climate; and the influence of the other 
peculiarities of region mentioned is much less potent than with conti- 
nental life. 

We would add here, that the data for the construction of this chart 
have been gathered, as regards the North Atlantic, from the iso- 
thermal chart of Lieutenant Maury, in which a vast amount of facts 
are registered, the result of great labour and study. For the rest of 
the Atlantic and the other oceans we have employed the Meteoro- 
logical volume of Captain Wilkes of the Exploring Expedition Reports, 
which embraces observations in all the oceans and valuable deductions 
therefrom ; also, the records of other travellers, as Humboldt, Duper- 
rey of the Coquille, D'Urville of the Astrolabe, Kotzebue, Beechey, 
Fitzroy, Vaillant of the Bonite, Ross in his Antarctic Voyage, toge- 
ther with such isolated tables as have been met with in different 
Journals. The lines we have laid down, are not however, those of 
any chart previously constructed, for the reason stated, that they 
mark the positions where a given temperature is the mean of the 
coldest month (or coldest thirty consecutive days) of the year, instead 
of those where this temperature is the mean annual or monthly heat ; 
and hence, the apparent discrepancies, which may be observed, on 
comparing it with isothermal charts. 

The isocrymal lines adopted for the chart are those of 80, 74, 
68, 62, 56, 50, 44, and 35 of Fahrenheit. They diminish by 6, 
excepting the last, which is 9 less than 44. 

In adopting these lines in preference to those of other degrees of 
temperature, we have been guided, in the first place, by the great fact, 
that the isocryme of 68 is the boundary line of the coral-reef seas, as 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1455 

explained by the author in his Report on Zoophytes.* Beyond this 
line either side of the equator, we have no species of true Madrepora, 
Astraea, Meandrina or Porites; below this line, these corals abound 
and form extensive reefs. This line is hence an important starting 
point in any map illustrating the geography of marine life. Passing 
beyond the regions of coral reefs, we leave behind large numbers of 
Mollusca and Radiata, and the boundary marks an abrupt transition 
in zoological geography. 

The next line below that of 68 F., is that of 74 F. The corals 
of the Hawaiian Islands, and the Mollusca also to a considerable 
extent, differ somewhat strikingly from those of the Feejees. The 
species of Astrsea and Meandrina are fewer, and those of Porites and 
Pocillopora more abundant, or at least constitute a much larger pro- 
portion of the reef material. These genera of corals include the 
hardier species ; for where they occur in the equatorial regions they 
are found to experience the greatest range in the condition of purity 
of the waters, and also the longest exposures out of water. Their 
abundance at the Hawaiian Islands, as at Oahu, is hence a conse- 
quence of their hardier character, and not a mere region peculiarity 
independent of temperature. There are grounds, therefore, for draw- 
ing a line between the Hawaiian Islands and- the Feejees ; and as the 
temperature at the latter sinks to 74 i F. some parts of the year, 74 
F. is taken as the limiting temperature. The Feejee seas are exceed- 
ingly prolific and varied in tropical species. The corals grow in great 
luxuriance, exceeding in extent and beauty anything elsewhere ob- 
served by the writer in the tropics. The ocean between 74 F., north 
of the equator, and 74 F. south, is therefore the proper tropical or 
torrid region of zoological life. 

With respect to the line of 80 F., we are not satisfied that it is of 
much importance as regards the distribution of species. The range 
from the hottest waters of the ocean 88 to 74 F. is but fourteen 
degrees, and there are probably few species occurring within the region 
that demand a less range. Still, investigations hereafter made, may 
show that the hot waters limited by the isocryme of 80 includes 
some peculiar species. At Sydney Island and Fakaafo, within this 
hot area, there appeared to be among corals a rather greater preva- 
lence than usual of the genus Manopora, which as these are tender 

* In the author's Report on Geology, 60 F. is set down as the limiting temperature 
of Coral-reef Seas : this, however, is given as the extreme cold. 68 appears to be the 
mean of the coldest month, and is therefore here used. 



1456 CRUSTACEA. 

species, may perhaps show that the waters are less favourable for 
hardier corals than those of the Feejees, where the range of tempera- 
ture is from 74 to 80 F. ; but this would be a hasty conclusion, with- 
out more extended observations. The author was on these islands 
only for a few hours, and his collections were afterwards lost at the 
wreck of the Peacock, just as the vessel was terminating the voyage 
by entering the Columbia River. 

It is unnecessary to remark particularly upon the fitness of the 
other isocrymals for the purposes of illustrating the geographical dis- 
tribution of marine species, as this will become apparent from the 
explanations on the following pages. 

The regions thus bounded require, for convenience of designation, 
separate names, and the following are therefore proposed. They 
constitute three larger groups : the first, the Torrid zone or Coral-reef 
seas, including all below the isocryme of 68 F.; the second, the 
Temperate zone of the oceans, or the surface between the isocrymes of 
68 F. and 35 F.; the third, the Frigid zone, or the waters beyond 
the isocryme of 35 F. 



I. TOREID OK CORAL-KEEF ZONE. 
Regions. Isocrymal limits. 

1. Supertorrid, . . . . 80 F. to 80 F. 

2. Torrid, ...... 80 to 74 

3. Subtorrid, ... . . . . 74 to 68 



II. TEMPERATE ZONE. 

1. Warm Temperate, . . . . 68 to 62 c 

2. Temperate, . . . . . . 62 to 56 

3. Subtemperate, . . . . . 56 to 50 

4. Cold Temperate, . . . . . 50 to 44 

5. Subfrigid, ..... 44 to 35 



III. FRIGID ZONE. 

1. Frigid, . . . . . . 85 to 26 

A ninth region called the Polar may be added, if it should be 
found that the distribution of species living in the Frigid zone re- 
quires it. There are organisms that occur in the ice and snow itself 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1457 

of the polar regions ; but these should be classed with the animals of 
the continents ; and the continental isotherms or isocrymes, rather 
than the oceanic, are required for elucidating their distribution. 

It seems necessary to state here the authorities for some of the 
more important positions in these lines, and we therefore run over the 
observations, mentioning a few of most interest. There is less necessity 
for many particulars with reference to the North Atlantic, as our 
facts are mainly derived from Lieut. Maury's Chart, to which the 
author would refer his readers. 

1. NORTH ATLANTIC. Isocryme of 74 F. This isocryme passes near 
the reefs of Key West, and terminates at the northeast cape of Yu- 
catan; it rises into a narrow flexure parallel with Florida along the 
Gulf Stream, and then continues on between the Little and Great 
Bahamas. To the eastward, near the African coast, it has a flexure 
northward, arising from the hot waters along the coast of Guinea, 
which reach in a slight current upward towards the Cape Verde 
Islands. The line passes to the south of these islands, at which group, 
Fitzroy, in January of 1852, found the sea-temperatures 71 and 
72 F. 

Isocryme of 68 F. Cape Canaveral, in latitude 27 30', just north of 
the limit of coral reefs on the east coast of Florida, is the western 
termination of the line of 68. The Gulf Stream occasions a bend in 
this line to 36 north, and the polar current, east of it, throws it 
southward again as far as 29 north. Westward it inclines much to 
the south, and terminates just south of Cape Verde, the eastern cape 
of Africa. Sabine found a temperature of 64 to 65 F. off Goree, 
below Cape Verde, January, 1822; and on February 9, 1822, he 
obtained 66 i near the Bissao shoals. These temperatures of the cold 
season contrast strikingly with those of the warm season. Even in 
May (1831), Beechey had a temperature of 86 off the mouth of Rio 
Grande, between the parallels of 11 and 12 north. 

Isocryme of 62 F. This isocryme leaves the American coast at 
Cape Hatteras, in latitude 35 J north, where a bend in the outline of 
the continent prevents the southward extension of the polar currents 
from flowing close along the shores. It passes near Madeira, and 
bends southward reaching Africa nearly in the latitude of the Canaries. 

Isocrymes of 56 and 50 F. Cape Hatteras, for a like reason, is 
the limit of the isocrymes of 56 and 50 as well as of 62, there being 

365 



1458 CRUSTACEA. 

no interval between them on the American coast. The line of 56 
P. has a deep northward flexure between the meridians of 35 and 
40 west, arising from the waters of the Gulf Stream, which here 
(after a previous east and west course, occasioned by the Newfound- 
land Bank, and the Polar Current with its icebergs) bends again 
northeastward, besides continuing in part eastward. The Polar 
Current sometimes causes a narrow reversed flexure, just to the east of 
the Gulf Stream flexure. Towards Europe, the line bends southward, 
and passes to the southwest cape of Portugal, Cape St. Vincent, or, 
perhaps to the north cape of the Straits of Gibraltar. Vaillant, in the 
Bonite, found the temperature at Cadiz in February, 49 J to 56 F. 
(9 - 7 to 13'4 C.), which would indicate that Cadiz, although so far 
south (and within sixty miles of Gibraltar), experiences at least as 
low a mean temperature as 56 F. for a month or more of the winter 
season. We have, however, drawn the line to Cape St. Vincent, which 
is in nearly the same latitude. Between Toulon and Cadiz, the tem- 
perature of the Mediterranean in February, according to Vaillant, was 
55J to 60i F. (13-1 to 15-7 C.), and it is probable, therefore, that 
Gibraltar and the portion of the Mediterranean Sea east and north to 
Marseilles, fall within the Temperate Region, between the isocrymes of 
56 and 62 F., while the portion beyond Sardinia and the coast by 
Algiers is in the Warm Temperate Region, between the isocrymes of 
62 and 68 F. 

The line of 50 F., through the middle of the ocean, has the lati- 
tude nearly of the southern cape at the entrance of the British Chan- 
nel ; but approaching Europe it bends downward to the coast of 
Portugal. The low temperature of 49$ observed by Vaillant at 
Cadiz would carry it almost to this port, if this were the mean sea- 
temperature of a month, instead of an extreme within the bay. The 
line appears to terminate near latitude 42, or six degrees north of the 
isocryme of 56. This allows for a diminution of a degree Fahrenheit 
of temperature for a degree of latitude. A temperature as low as 61 
F. has been observed at several points within five degrees of this 
coast in July, and a temperature of 52 F., in February. Vigo Bay, 
just north of 42 north, lies with its entrance opening westward, well 
calculated to receive the colder waters from the north ; and at this 
place, according to Mr. R. Mac Andrew,* who made several dredgings 
with reference to the geographical distribution of species, the Mollusca 

* Hep. Brit. Assoc., 1850, p. 264. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1459 

have the character rather of those of the British Channel than of the 
Mediterranean. 

Isocryme of 44 F. This line commences on the west, at Cape 
Cod, where there is a remarkable transition in species, and a natural 
boundary between the south and the north. The cold waters from 
the north and the ice of the Newfoundland Banks, press the line close 
upon those of 50 and 56 F. But after getting beyond these in- 
fluences, it rapidly rises to the north, owing to the expansion of the 
Gulf Stream in that direction, and forms a large fold between Britain 
and Iceland ; it then bends south again and curves around to the 
west coast of Ireland. 

Isocryme of 35 F. This line has a bend between Norway and Ice- 
land like that of 44, and from the same cause, the influence of the 
Gulf Stream. But its exact position in this part has not been ascer- 
tained. 

2. SOUTH ATLANTIC. Isocryme of 74 F. This line begins just 
south of Bahia, where Fitzroy found in August (the last winter 
month) a temperature of 74 to 75 i F. During the same month he 
had 75i to 76i F. at Pernambuco, five degrees to the north. Off 
Bahia, the temperature was two degrees -warmer than near the 
coast, owing to the warm tropical current, which bends the isocryme 
south to latitude 17 and 18, and the cold waters that come up the 
coast from the south. The line gradually rises northward, as it goes 
west, and passes the equator on the meridian of Greenwich. Sabine, 
in a route nearly straight from Ascension Island, in 8 south, to the 
African coast under the equator, obtained in June (not the coldest 
winter month) the temperatures 78, 77, 74, 72-8, 72-5, 73, the 
temperature thus diminishing on approaching the coast, although at 
the same time nearing the equator, and finally reaching it within a few 
miles. These observations in June show that the isocryme of 74 F. 
passes north of the equator. The temperatures mentioned in Maury's 
Chart afford the same conclusion, and lead to its position as laid down. 

Isocryme of 68 F. On October 23d to 25th, 1834, Mr. D. J. 
Browne, on board the U. S. Ship Erie, found the temperature of the 
sea on entering the harbour of Rio Janeiro, 67i to 68J F. Fitzroy, 
on July 6, left the harbour with the sea-temperature 70J F. Beechey, 
in August, 1825, obtained the temperatures 68-16 to 69-66 F. off 
the harbour. The isocryme of 68 F. commences therefore near Rio, 
not far south of this harbour. Eastward of the harbour, the tern- 



1460 CRUSTACEA. 

perature increases two to four degrees. In July, Fitzroy carried a 
temperature above 68 as far south as 33 16' south, longitude 50 10' 
west, the water giving at this time 68J to 69i F. Beechey in August 
obtained 68 F. in 31 south, 46 west. The isocryme of 68 F. thus 
bends far south, reaching at least the parallel of 30. It takes a 
course nearly parallel with the line of 74 F., as different observations 
show, and passing just south of St. Helena, reaches the African coast, 
near latitude 7 south. Fitzroy, on July 10 (mid-winter), had a sea- 
temperature of 68 near St. Helena; and Vaillant, in the Bonite, in 
September found the sea-temperature 68'7 to 69-26 F. 

Isocrymes of 56 and 50 F. These two isocrymes leave the American 
coast rather nearly together. The former commences just north of 
the entrance of the La Plata. Fitzroy, in July 23 to 31, 1832. found 
the sea-temperature at Montevideo 56 to 58 F., and in August, 57 
to 54 i F. These observations would lead to 56 F. as nearly the 
mean of the coldest month. The temperature 56 F. was also ob- 
served in 35 south, 53 west, and at 36 south, 56 36' west. But 
on July 10 and 13, 1833, at Montevideo, the sea-temperature was 
46i to 47, a degree of cold which, although only occasional, throws 
the line of 56 F. to the north of this place. The temperature near the 
land is several degrees of Fahrenheit lower than at sea three to eight 
degrees distant. East of the mouth of the La Plata, near longitude 50 
west, Beechey, in July, 1828, found the temperature of the sea 61-86 
F. So in April 23 to 29, Vaillant obtained the temperature 59'5 to 
61-25 F. at Montevideo, while in 35 5' south, 49 23' west, on April 
14, it was 66-2 F., and farther south, in 37 42' south, 53 28' west, 
April 30, it was 64-4 F. ; and in 39 19' south, 54 32' west, on May 
1, it was 571 F.; but a little to the westward, on May 2, in 40 30' 
south, 56 54' west, the temperature was 48 F., an abrupt transition 
to the colder shore waters. Beechey, in 39 31' south, 45 13' west, 
on August 28 (last of winter), found the temperature 57-25 F., and 
on the 29th, in 40 27' south, 45 46' west, it was 54-20; while on 
the next day, in 42 27' south, and 45 11' west, the temperature fell 
to 47 - 83 F. These and other observations serve to fix the position 
of the isocryme of 56 F. It approaches the African coast, in 32 
south, but bends upward, owing to cold waters near the land. On 
August 20, Vaillant, in 33 43' south, 15 51' east, found the tempe- 
rature 56 F.; while on the 22d, in the same latitude, and 14 51' 
east (or one degree farther to the westward), the temperature was 
57-74 F., being nearly two degrees warmer. At Cape Town, in June 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1461 

(latitude 34), Fitzroy found 55 to 61 F., while on August 16, farther 
south, in 35 4' south, and 15 40' west, one hundred and fifty miles 
from the Cape, Vaillant found the temperature 59'36 F. The high 
temperature of the last is due to the warm waters that come from the 
Indian Ocean, and which afford 61 to 64 F. in August, off the south 
extremity of Africa, west of the meridian of Cape Town. 

The isocryme of 50 F. leaves the American coast just south of the 
La Plata; after bending southwardly to the parallel of 41, it passes 
east nearly parallel with the line of 56 F. It does not reach the 
African coast. 

Isocrymes of 44 and 35 F. Fitzroy in August (the last winter 
month) of 1833, found the sea-temperature at Rio Negro (latitude 41 
south) 48J to 50 F. But during the voyage from the La Plata to 
Rio Negro, a few days before, a temperature of 44 J to 46 was met 
with ; this was in the same month in which the low temperature men- 
tioned on a preceding page was found at Montevideo. The bend in 
the coast north of the entrance to the La Plata, is to some extent, a 
limit between the warmer waters of the north and the colder waters 
from the south ; not an impassable limit, but one which is marked 
often by a more abrupt transition than occurs elsewhere along this 
part of the coast. The water was generally three or four degrees 
colder at Montevideo, than at Maldonado, the latter port being hardly 
sheltered from the influence of the tropical waters, while Montevideo 
is wholly so. The exact point where the line of 44 F. reaches the 
coast is somewhat uncertain, yet the fact of its being south of Rio 
Negro is obvious. After leaving the coast, it passes north of 47i 
south, in longitude 53 west, where Beechey, in July, 1828, found the 
sea-temperature 40-70 F. 

The line of 35 F. through the middle of the South Atlantic, follows 
nearly the parallel of 50 ; but towards South America it bends south- 
ward and passes south of the Falklands and Fuegia. At the Falklands, 
Captain Ross, in 1842, found the mean temperature of the sea for 
July, 38-73, and for August, 38-10; while in the middle of the At- 
lantic, on March 24, latitude 52 31' south, and longitude 8 8' east, 
the temperature was down to 34'3 F., and in 50 18' south, 7 15' east, 
it was 37 F.; March 20, in 54 7' south, on the meridian of Green- 
wich, it was 33-4 F. The month of March would not give the cold- 
est temperature. The temperature of the sea along the south coasts 

366 



1462 CRUSTACEA. 

of Fuegia sinks nearly to 35, if not quite, and the line of 35 there- 
fore runs very near Cape Horn, if not actually touching upon Fuegia. 

NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. Isocryme of 80 F. The waters of the At- 
lantic in the warmest regions, sink below 80 F. in the colder season, 
and there is therefore no proper Supertorrid Region in that ocean. In 
the Gulf of Mexico, where the heat rises at times to 85 F., it sinks 
in other seasons to 74 and in some parts, even to 72 F. ; and along 
the Thermal equator across the ocean, the temperature is in some 
portions of the year 78, and in many places 74. 

But in the Pacific, where the temperature of the waters rises in 
some places to 88 F., there is a small region in which through all 
seasons, the heat is never below 80. It is a narrow area, extending 
from 165 east to 148 west, and from 7J north to 11 south. In 
going from the Feejees in August, and crossing between the meridians 
of 170 west and 180, the temperature of the waters, according to 
Captain Wilkes, increased from 79 to 84 F., the last temperature 
being met with in latitude 5 south, longitude 175 west, and from 
this, going northward, there was a slow decrease of temperature. 
The Ship Relief, of the Expedition, in October, found nearly the same 
temperature (83i) in the same latitude and longitude 177 west.* 
But the Peacock, in January and February (summer months), found 
the sea-temperature 85 to 88 F., near Fakaafo, in latitude 10 south, 
and longitude 171 west. In latitude 5 south and the same longi- 
tude, on the 16th of January, the temperature was 84; in 3 south, 
January 10th, it was 83 F.; on March 26th, in 5 south, and longi- 
tude 175 east, the temperature was 86 F.; on April 10th, in the 
same longitude, under the equator, at the Kingsmills, the temperature 
was 83i F. ; on May 2d, at 5 north, longitude 174 east, 83i F.; 
May 5th, latitude 10, longitude 169 east, 82 F. The fact that the 
region of greatest heat in the Middle Pacific is south of the equator, 
as it has been laid down by different authors, is thus evident; the 
limits of a circumscribed region of hot waters in this part of the 
Pacific, were first drawn out by Captain Wilkes. 

Another Supertorrid region may exist in the Indian Ocean, about 
its northwestern portion; but we have not sufficient information for 
laying down its limits. 

Isocryme of 74 F. At San Bias, on the coast of Mexico, Beechey 

* See, for these facts, Captain Wilkes's Keport on the Meteorology of the Expedition. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1463 

found the mean temperature of the sea for December, 1827, 74-63 
F.; for January, 73-69 F.; for February, 72-40 F. The line of 74 
F. commences therefore a degree or two south of San Bias. In the 
winter of 1827 on January 16 to 18, the temperature of 74-3 to 
74-6 F. was found by Beechey, in 16 4' to 16 15' north, 132 C 
40' to 135 west; and farther west, in the same latitude, longitude 
141 58' west, the temperature was 74-83 F. West of the Sandwich 
Islands, near the parallel of 20 north, the temperature rises five degrees 
in passing from the meridian of 165 west to 150 east, and the iso- 
cryme of 74 F., consequently rises somewhat to the north, over this 
port of the ocean. Between the meridians of 130 and 140 east, the 
temperature of the sea is quite uniform, indicating no northward flexure ; 
and west of 130 east, nearing China, there is a rapid decrease of tem- 
perature, bending the line far south. Vaillant, of the Bonite, found 
the sea off Cochin China, in latitude 12 16' north, 109 28' east, 
to have the temperature 74-12 F.; and even at Singapore, almost 
under the equator, the temperature on February 17 to 21, was 77'54 
to 79-34 F. The isocryme of 74 F. terminates therefore upon the 
southeastern coast of Cochin China. 

Isocryme of 68. Off the Gulf of California, in 25 north, 117 west, 
Beechey obtained for the temperature of the sea, on December 13, 
65 F.; on December 15, in 23 28' north (same latitude with the 
extremity of the peninsula of California), 115 west, a temperature of 
69-41 F. The line of 68 will pass from the extremity of this penin- 
sula, the temperature of the coast below, as it is shut off mostly from 
the more northern and colder waters, being much warmer. The tem- 
perature 69-41 in the middle of December, is probably two and a 
half degrees above the cold of the coldest month, judging from the 
relative temperatures of the latter half of December and the month of 
February at San Bias. Leaving California, the isocryme of 68 will 
therefore bend a little southerly to 22J, in longitude 115 west. In 
23 56' north, 128 33' west, Beechey, on January 11, found the 
temperature of the sea 67-83 F. The line of 68 passes north of the 
Sandwich Islands. The mean temperature of the sea at Oahu in 
February, 1827, was 69-69 F. 

Near China, this isocryme is bent far south'. At Macao, in winter, 
Vaillant found the sea-temperature, on January 4, 59 F. ; on January 
5 to 10, 52-7 to 50 F.; January 11, 12, 49-87 to 48-74 F.; January 
13 to 1, 50-9 to 52-16 F. ; and at Touranne in Cochin China, on 
February 6 to 24, the sea-temperature was 68 to 68i F.; in 16 22' 



1464 CRUSTACEA. 

north, 108 11' east, on January 24, it was 67; in 12 16' north, 
109 28' east, it was 74-12 F. The very low Macao temperature is 
that of the surface of the Bay itself, due to the cold of the land, and 
not probably, as the other observations show, of the sea outside. 

The line, before passing south, bends northward to the southeast 
shore of Niphon, which is far warmer than the southeast coast, along 
Kiusiu. In the Report of the Morrisons' visit to Jeddo (Chinese 
Repository for 1837), a coral bottom is spoken of, as having been 
encountered in the harbour of Jeddo. According to Siebold (Crust. 
Faun. Japon., p. ix.), the mean winter temperature (air) of Jeddo is 
57 F., while that of Nagasaki, although farther south, is 44 F. 

Isocryme of 62 F. On January 8, 1827, Beechey found in 29 42' 
north, 126 37' west, the temperature 62-75 F.; while on the pre- 
ceding day, 32 42' north, 125 43' west, the sea-temperature was 
60-5 F. Again, on December 11, in 29 north, 120 west, the tem- 
perature was 62-58 F. 

Isocryme of 56 F. At Monterey, on January 1 to 5, the sea-tem- 
perature according to Beechey was 56; but the mean temperature of 
the sea for November 1 to 17, was 54-91. In the Yellow Sea, the 
January temperature is 50 to 56 F., and the line of 56 begins south 
of Chusan. 

Isocryme of 50 F. At San Francisco, from November 18 to De- 
cember 5, 1826, Beechey found the mean sea-temperature to be 51-14 
F., and off Monterey, in longitude 123 west, the temperature was 
50'75 F., on December 6. But in December of 1826, the mean sea- 
temperature at San Francisco was 54'78 F. ; and for November, 
60-16 F. The line of 50 F. (mean of the coldest thirty consecutive 
days), probably leaves the coast at Cape Mendocino. 

Isocrymes of 44 and 35 F. Captain Wilkes found the temperature 
off the mouth of the Columbia River, through ten degrees of longitude, 
48 to 49 F., during the last of April, 1841. The isocryme of 44 
would probably reach the coast not far north of this place. The tem- 
perature on October 21, in the same latitude, but farther west, 147 
west, was 52-08 F. On October 16, in 50 north, 169 west, the 
temperature was 44-91 F. According to some oceanic temperatures 
for the North Pacific, obtained from Lieutenant Maury, the sea-tempe- 
rature off northern Niphon, in 41 north and 142i east, was 44 F., in 
March, showing the influence of the cold Polar current ; and in 42 
north, and 149 i east, it was 43 F. The line of 44 hence bends 
southward as far as latitude 40 north, on the Japan coast. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1465 

Again, in March, in 43 50' north, 151 east, the sea-temperature 
was 41 F.; in 44 50' north, 152 10' east, 39 F.; in 46 20' north, 
156 east, 33 F.; in 49 north, 157 east, 33 F.; and at the same 
time, west of Kamschatka, in 55 north, 153 east, 38 F. ; in 55 40' 
north, 153 west, 38 F. The line of 35 consequently makes a deep 
bend, nearly to 45 north, along the Kurile Islands. 

* 

SOUTH PACIFIC. Isocrymes of 74, 68, and 62 F. The tempera- 
ture of the sea at Guayaquil, on August 3d, was found by Vaillant, to 
be, in the river, from 70 i to 73 i F., and at the Puna anchorage, 
August 5 to 12, 74-7 to 75-2 F. But off the coast, August 15, in 
2 22' south, 81 42' west, the temperature was 69-8 F. ; and the 
next day, in 1 25' south, 84 12' west, it was 70 F.; on the 17th, 1 
south, 87 42' west, it was 71-28 F.; and on the 14th, nearer the 
shore of Guayaquil, in 3 18' south, 80 28' west, it was 78 F. 
Again, at Payta, one hundred miles south of Guayaquil, in 5 south, 
the sea-temperature was found by Vaillant, July 26 to 31, to be 60-8 
to 61 } F. The isocryme of 74 F., consequently, leaves the coast just 
north of the bay of Guayaquil, while those of 68 and 62 F., both 
commence between Guayaquil and Payta. Payta is situated so far out 
on the western cape of South America that it receives the cold waters 
of the south, while Guayaquil is beyond Cape Blanco, and protected by 
it from a southern current. At the Gallapagos, Fitzroy found the tem- 
perature as low as 58i F. on the 29th of September, and the mean for 
the day was 62. The average for September was, however, nearer 
66. The Gallapagos appear, therefore, to lie in the Warm Temperate 
Region, between the isocrymes of 62 and 68 F. Fitzroy, in going 
from Callao to the Gallapagos, early in September, left a sea-tempe- 
rature of 57 F. at Callao, passed 62 F. in 9 58' north, and 79 42' 
west, and on the 15th, found 68i F. off Barrington Island, one of 
the Gallapagos. 

In the warm season, the cold waters about the Gallapagos have 
narrow limits; Beechey found a sea-temperature of 83'58 on the 30th 
of March, 1827, just south of the equator, in 100 west. But in 
October, Fitzroy, going westward and southward from the Gallapagos, 
found a sea-temperature of 66 F. at the same place; and in a nearly 
straight course from this point to 10 south, 120 west, found the sea- 
temperatures successively, 68, 70, 70'5, 72-5, 73'5, 74; and 
beyond this, 75i, 76i, 77i F., the last on November 8, in 14 24' 

367 



1466 



CRUSTACEA. 



south, 13G 51' west. These observations give a wide sweep to the 
cold waters of the colder seasons, and throw the isocrymes of 74 and 
68 F., far west of the Gallapagos. Captain Wilkes, in passing directly 
west from Callao, found a temperature of 68 F., in longitude 85 
west; 70 F., in 95 west; and 74 F., in 102 to 108 west. These 
and other observations lead to the positions of the isocrymes of 74, 
68, and 62, given on the Chart. The line of 74 passes close by 
Tahiti and Tongatabu, and crossing New Caledonia, reaches Australia 
in latitude 25 S. 

In mid-ocean there is a bend in all the southern isocrymes.* 

* The following observations by Mr. W. C. Cunningham (in connexion with those of 
other navigators), establish the fact of this flexure; they were sent by him to the 
author, in a letter, dated Talcahuano, Chili. 

1. FROM THE HAKBOUR OF APIA, ISLAND OF TJPOLU, TO TAHITI. 



EAT!. 


LATITDDI. 


LONUITDBI. 


WIHDS. 


BZA.f 


Are.f 


WEATHER. 


May 11 
12 
13 
H 
16 


1502' S. 
16 02 
16 04 
17 27 
17 68 


172 W. 

172 37' 

174 43 
174 16 


N.E. 
S.S.E. 
E. by S. 
S.E. 
E. 


78-3 
78J 
78-1 
78 
78 


77 
78 
78 
78 
77 


Fine. 
Showery. 
" heavy rains. 
Dark. 
Fine, but cloudy. 


16 


18 50 


173 41 


S.B. 


78 


- 76 


u H 


17 


19 47 


173 28 


S.E. 


78 


76 


Clear. 


18 


19 37 


172 41 


S. 


77 


71 


Clear and fine. 


19 


19 67 


170 47 


S. 


76 


76 


Cloudy. 


20 


20 21 


169 11 


S. by E. 


761 


74 





21 


20 16 


167 21 


S. by E. 


76i 


72 


u 


22 


20 18 


167 03 


Var. 


76 


74 


Clear. 


23 


21 09 


166 37 


S. 


74} 


76 


Dark. 


24 


20 46 


164 29 


S. 


75 


76 


Cloudy. 


26 


26 30 


163 33 


8. 


7fl 


74t 


Fine. 


26 


19 52 


163 01 


S. 


77 


75 


Dark. 


27 


19 23 


161 53 


S.E. 


73 


75 




28 


20 07 


162 22 


S.E. 


73 


76 


Fine. 


29 


21 04 


162 64 


S.S.E. 


72 


76 


Cloudy. 


30 


21 16 


162 46 


E.S.E. 


71 


76 





31 


23 00 


162 45 


N.N.E. 


72 


78 


Clear. 


June 1 


22 06 


160 48 


Var. 


74 


T8 


Fine. 


2 


22 46 


161 19 


S.S.W. 


74 


74 


Clear. 


3 


21 00 


160 00 


E. 


74 


75 


Fine ; at Raratonga. 


11 


22 21 


160 20 


E. 


73 


72 


Fine. 


12 


22 24 


160 26 


E. 


73 


72 





13 


22 49 


169 33 


Var. 


73 


72 


K 


14 
16 


22 29 
22 25 


158 54 
169 37 


E. by S. 
N.N.E. 


78 
71 


72 

71* 


(C 


16 


22 37 


159 05 


Var. 


71 


71 


At Mangaia. 


17 


. . 




Var. 


70 


71 


Fine. 


18 






S.S.E. 


68 


72 


" 


19 


21 39 


156 42 


S.E. 


68 


72 


Dark. 


20 


21 06 


156 47 


S.S.E. 


68 


73 





21 


20 63 


164 20 


S.S.E. 


68 


74 


Fin>. 


22 


20 36 


152 34 


S.S.E. 


68 


76 


H 


23 


20 21 


151 18 


S.E. 


70 


76 


U 


24 


19 10 


151 11 


S.E. 


71 


76 


(( 


26 






E. 






At Tahiti. 



t Mean temperature. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1467 

Isocrymes of 56 and 50 F. The temperature at Callao, in July, 
averages 58 or 59 F. At Iquique, near 20 south, Fitzroy had 
58 to 60 F., on July 14, 1835 ; and off Copiapo, in the same month, 
56 i F. At Valparaiso, Captain Wilkes found a sea-temperature of 
52i F., in May; and Fitzroy, in September, occasionally obtained 
48 F., but generally 52 to 53. Off Chiloe, Fitzroy found the tem- 
perature 48 to 51 i in July. 



2. FROM TAHITI TO VALPARAISO. 



DATE. 


Him I.E. 


LONQITDD1. 


W1ICDS. 


8EA.* 


A.* 


ElMiRKS. 


Aug. I!G 
27 
28 
29 
30 


1877' 
20 10 
22 02 
22 18 
22 30 


15101' 
151 33 
152 06 
152 45 
151 38 


S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
S.E. 
Var. 


73 
72 
72 
76 
76 


76 
76 
T6 
73 
72 


Fine. 

Clear. 

H 


31 


23 15 


15247 


S.E. 


68 


72 


C( 


Sept. 1 


24 24 


152 61 


S.S.E. 


68 


72 


" 


2 


25 14 


152 12 


N.N.E. 


69 


72 


Cloudy. 


3 


26 13 


161 41 


S.W. 


69 


70 


Clear. 


4 


27 18 


150 47 


S.W. 


66 


66 


Fine. 


6 


28 46 


149 49 


S.W. 


63 


68 


Clear. 


6 


28 40 


149 19 


S.W. 


62 


M 


1 


7 


29 21 


150 21 


W. 


61 


66 


Rains. 


8 


30 19 


151 40 


S.E. 





65 


Cloudy. 


8 


31 30 


152 43 


S.E. 


68 


60 


Squally; dark. 


10 


32 30 


152 46 


S.E. 


68 


60 


" " 


11 


33 45 


151 56 


Var. 


68 


57i 


Cloudy. 


12 


34 42 


150 37 


Var. 


56 


68 


Thick and cloudy. 


13 


35 43 


148 53 


N.E. 


66 


56 


Cloudy. 


14 


36 50 


147 15 


N.E. 


66 


66 


Clear. 


16 


38 19 


146 37 


Var. 


65* 


66 


Cloudy. 


16 


39 23 


145 38 


N.N.E. 


63 


62 


" 


17 


40 18 


143 43 


N.E. 


60 


61 


Bain; dark. 


18 


40 01 


141 19 


N.E. 


62 


62 


" equally. 


19 


39 05 


139 11 


N.N.E. 


65 


64 


Clear. 


20 
21 


38 24 
38 09 


iae 58 

134 08 


N. by W. 
N.N.W. 


66 
66 


66 
64 


Foggy. 


22 


37 42 


130 38 


N.N.E. 


66 


66 


Cloudy. 


23 


37 23 


127 22 


N.N.W. 


65 


64 


Raina. 


24 


36 52 


124 06 


N.N.W. 


66 


54 





25 


37 05 


121 00 


N.W. 


68 


67 


Clear. 


26 


37 05 


117 32 


W. 


66 


65 


" 


27 


37 11 


114 18 


N.W. 


66 


64 


Squally. 


28 


37 03 


112 19 


Var. 


68 


67 


" 


29 


36 47 


IDS f,s 


N.W. 


67 


56 


Cloudy. 


30 


36 48 


106 31 


W. 


57 


66 


" mild. 


Oct. 1 


36 29 


104 12 


Var. 


53 


67 


Squally. 


2 


36 22 


103 30 


Var. 


65 


66 


ii 


3 


36 42 


101 00 


N.N.W. 


58 


66 


Cloudy. 


4 


37 12 


97 06 


N.W. 


58 


67 


" 


6 


36 58 


94 30 


W.N.W. 


68 


56 


(( 


6 


37 11 


90 20 


W.N.W. 


56 


64 


Clear. 


7 


36 18 


88 11 


W.N.W. 


57 


65 


<( 


8 


35 28 


84 55 


N.W. 


66 


56 


it 


I 


34 14 


82 08 


N.W. 


64 


56 





10 


34 06 


74 25 


Var. 


67 


67 





11 


34 03 


73 06 


S.W. 


67 


66 


Fine. 


12 


34 48 


72 10 


N.N.E. 


67 


67 


(i 


13 


33 39 


72 40 


N. 


66 


67 





14 


33 33 


72 50 


N.W. 


66 


67 


u 


16 


33 10 


72 04 


s. 


66 


66 





16 








66 


54 


It 














At Valparaiso. 



* Mean temperature. 



1468 CRUSTACEA. 

INDIAN OCEAN. Isocrymes of 74 and 68 F. Off the south extre- 
mity of Madagascar, in 27 33' south, 47 17' east, on August 4th, 
Vaillant found the temperature 69-26 F. ; and in 29 34' south, 
46 46' east, the temperature of 67-84 F.; off South Africa, August 
12, in 34 42' south, 27 25' east, the temperature 63-5 F.; on Au- 
gust 14, in 35 41' south, 22 34' east, a temperature of 63-3 F.; 
while off Cape Town, two hundred miles to the west, the temperature 
was 50 to 54 F. 

In the above review, we have mentioned only a few of the obser- 
vations which have been used in laying down the lines, having 
selected those which bear directly on some positions of special interest, 
as regards geographical distribution. 

The Chart also contains the heat-equator, a line drawn through 
the positions of greatest heat over the oceans. It is a shifting line, 
varying with the seasons, and hence, there is some difficulty in fixing 
upon a course for it. We have followed mainly the Chart of Berg- 
haus. But we have found it necessary to give it a much more 
northern latitude in the western Pacific, and also a flexure in the 
western Atlantic, both due to the currents from the south that flow 
up the southern continents. 

Vaillant, passing from Guayaquil to the Sandwich Islands, found 
the temperature, after passing the equator, .slowly increase from 76 
F., August 19, in 2 39' north, 91 58' west (of Greenwich), to 81-9 
F., in August 31, 11 15' north, 107 3' west, after which it was not 
above 80 F. The same place in the ocean which gave Vaillant 76 
F., in August, afforded Fitzroy (4 north, 96 west), on March 26 
(when the sun had long been far north), 82 i F. This shows the 
variations of temperature that take place with the change of season. 



REMAKES ON THE SEVERAL REGIONS. 

The form and varying breadth of the different regions, and the 
relations between the sea-temperatures of coasts in different latitudes, 
which they exhibit, are points demanding special remark. 

1. Atlantic Torrid Region, between 74 F. north, and 74 F. south. 
The form of this region is triangular, with the vertex of the triangle 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1469 

to the east. Its least width is four degrees of latitude ; its greatest 
width between the extreme latitudes, is forty-six and a half degrees, 
On the African coast it includes only a part of the coast of Guinea, 
and no portion is south of the equator. On the west, it embraces all 
the West India Islands and reefs (excepting the Little Bahama), and 
the South American coast, from Yucatan to Bahia, a fact that 
accounts for the wide distribution of marine species on the American 
side of the ocean. 

2. Atlantic Subtorrid Regions, between 74 and 68 F. The North 
Subtorrid Region of the Atlantic is about six degrees in its average 
width, which is equivalent to a degree of Fahrenheit to each degree 
in surface. It encloses within the same temperature limits, a part of 
the east coast of Florida, between 24 and 27i north, and a part of 
the African coast, between the parallels of 9 and 14 J north, the 
two related coasts differing ten degrees in latitude. The Bermudas, 
in latitude 33, and the Cape Verdes, in 15 J, fall within this region. 

The South Subtorrid Region has the same average width as the 
northern. 

Taking the whole Atlantic Torrid or Coral-reef zone together, its 
width on the east is about twenty-one degrees, while on the west, it 
extends between the parallels of 30 south and 34 north, a breadth 
of sixty-four degrees. As many species will thrive under the tem- 
perature of any part of the Torrid zone, the geographical range of 
such species in the Atlantic may be very large, even from Florida 
and the Bermudas on the north, to Rio Janeiro on the south, a range 
of which there are many actual examples. 

Atlantic Warm Temperate Regions, between 68 and 62 F. The 
northern of these regions has a breadth of fourteen and a half degrees 
along the west of Africa, and about seven degrees along the United 
States, south of Cape Hatteras, off the Carolinas, Georgia, and northern 
Florida. These shores and the Canaries are therefore in one and the 
same temperature zone. 

The southern of these regions averages five degrees in width. The 
eastern limit on the African coast is sixteen to eighteen degrees to the 
north of the western on the South American coast. 

Atlantic Temperate Regions, between 62 and 56 F. .The north 
Temperate Region is but a narrow strip of water on the west, termi- 
nating at Cape Hatteras, on the coast of the United States. To the 

368 



1470 CRUSTACEA. 

east it widens, and embraces the Azores and the African coast along 
Morocco, together with the Straits of Gibraltar, and a large part of the 
Mediterranean. Madeira lies upon its southern limit. It is, therefore, 
natural, that the same species should occur at the Azores, Madeira, 
and on the African coast, and be excluded wholly from the Atlantic 
coast of Europe. This, according to Prof. Forbes, is the fact with the 
Littorina striata, besides other species. The coasts of Portugal and the 
Azores are in different regions. 

The South Temperate Region extends to Maldonado at the mouth 
of the La Plata, from near the parallel of 30 ; along the African 
coast it reaches over more than twice the number of degrees of lati- 
tude, to within five degrees of Cape Town. 

Atlantic Subtemperate Regions, between 56 and 50 F. The northern 
of these regions, like the preceding, can scarcely be distinguished on 
the coast of the United States, as the lines 50 and 56 F. fall nearly 
together at Cape Hatteras. On the eastern side of the Atlantic, it 
occupies the coast of Portugal to latitude 42 north, having a width 
of five degrees. It thus corresponds to the so-called Lusitauian Region. 

The southern includes the mouth of the La Plata on one side, and 
on the other the coast near Cape Town, beyond which it extends to 
the Cape of Good Hope. 

Atlantic Cold Temperate Regions, between 50 and 44 F. The coast 
from Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras belongs to the Northern Cold Tempe- 
rate Region. Passing easterly, this region is but a narrow line of 
water for thirty degrees of longitude, after which it expands, and 
finally terminates between Western Ireland and latitude 42 on the 
Spanish coast. The British Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and Vigo 
Bay, Spain, are within the limits of this region. 

The southern embraces the coast of South America along by Rio 
Negro for about five degrees, and passes wholly to the south of Africa. 

Atlantic Subfrigid Regions, between 44 and 35 F. The coast of 
Massachusetts, north of Cape Cod, of Maine and Newfoundland, and 
all Northern Britain, the Orkneys, Shetlands, and Faroe Islands, per- 
tain to the Northern Subfrigid Region ; while the southern, includes 
the Falklands, Southern Patagonia, and Fuegia. 

Atlantic Frigid Regions, beyond 35 F. Greenland, Iceland, and 
Norway are within the northern of these regions, and the South Shet- 
lands, Sandwich Land, and South Georgia, within the southern. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 147J 

Pacific Regions. A comparison of the regions of the Atlantic and 
Pacific, and especially of the limits of those commencing at the South 
American coasts, brings out some singular facts. 

The Torrid region of the Pacific, near the American coast, embraces 
only seventeen and a half or eighteen degrees of latitude, all but three 
of which are north of the equator ; while that of the Atlantic covers a 
long range of coast, and reaches to 15 south. The south Subtorrid 
Region has a breadth of about three degrees on the Peruvian coast, 
reaching to 4 south, while that of the Atlantic extends to Rio 
Janeiro, in 24 south. The Warm Temperate Region has a breadth of 
less than a degree, reaching to Cape Blanco, in 4J south, while that 
of the Atlantic extends to Rio Grande, in 33 south. The next or 
Temperate Region has a longer range on the South American coast, 
extending to Copiapo, in 27 i south, and the Atlantic region corre- 
sponding goes to Maldonado in 35 south. The Cold Temperate 
Regions of the two oceans cover nearly the same latitudes. 

On the North American coast at Cape Hatteras, the three isocrymes 
62, 56, and 50 F., leave the coast together; and in the Pacific on 
the South American coast there is a similar node in the system of 
isocrymes, the three 74, 68, and 62, proceeding nearly together 
from the vicinity of Cape Blanco. 

Viewing these regions through the two oceans, instead of along the 
coasts, other peculiarities no less remarkable are brought out. The 
average breadth of the /South Torrid Region in the Pacific, is more 
than twice as great as that of the same in the Atlantic; and the most 
southern limit of the latter is five degrees short of the limit of the 
former in mid-ocean. So also, the Subtorrid Region at its greatest 
elongation southward in the Atlantic, hardly extends beyond the 
average course of the line of 68 F. in the Pacific, and the average 
breadth of the former is but two-thirds that of the latter. The same 
is true to an almost equal extent of the Warm Temperate and Tem- 
perate Regions. 

The breadth of the Torrid Region of the Pacific to the eastward, 
where narrowest, is about six degrees ; and to the westward, between 
its extreme limits, forty-nine degrees. The Torrid zone or Coral-reef 
Seas, in the same ocean, has a breadth near America, of about eigh- 
teen degrees, and near Australia and Asia, of sixty-six degrees. 

New Zealand lies within the Subtemperate and Cold Temperate 
Regions, excepting its southern portion, which appears to pertain like 



1472 CRUSTACEA. 

Fuegia to the Subfrigid. Van Diemens Land, exclusive of its northern 
shores, is within the Cold Temperate. 

Indian Ocean Regions. The Torrid Region covers the larger part 
of the Indian Ocean, including all north of the equator, and embraces 
the larger part of Madagascar. The Subtorrid extends just beyond 
Port Natal on the African coast (four degrees of latitude north of Cape 
Town), where there are coral-reefs. The Warm Temperate and Tem- 
perate regions each claim a part of the South African coast, and the 
latter terminates at the Cape of Good Hope. 

It hence follows that Port Natal, in latitude 30 south, the Hawaiian 
Islands, and Bermudas lie within regions of the same name. While 
Cape Town, in latitude 34 south, is in a like region with northern 
New Zealand, Valparaiso, the Atlantic shores of Portugal, and the 
sea between Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod. 

Influence of Summer Heat. The small annual range of temperature 
(twelve to fourteen degrees in most regions) has been remarked upon, 
and we have further observed, that the extreme heat has far less influ- 
ence on the distribution of species than the extreme cold. There are 
however some cases in the colder seas, in which the range has but half 
the extent here mentioned, and in such, the species are likely to differ 
from those characterizing the same region under other circumstances, 
approximating to those of the region next exterior. These cases are 
certain islands, or the extremities of continents, which are exposed to 
cold ocean winds and currents. The south shores of Fuegia and New 
Zealand appear to be examples of this kind. 

We add a table, enumerating the more important lands or coasts 
embraced in each of the regions, bringing together those which are of 
like temperature, and which consequently may be most closely related 
in species. It is partly in recapitulation of the preceding pages. 

I. TORRID ZONE. 

1. TOERID KEGION. 

A. ATLANTIC. 1. West India Islands. 

2. Coast of South America, from the northeastern cape of Yucatan, to a degree south 
of Bahia. 

3. Coast of Africa, from 9 north to 5 north. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1473 

4. Red Sea, to latitude 20 (?) north. 

5. East coast of Africa, to latitude 26} (?) south. 

B. INDIAN OCEAN. 6. Coast of Persia, India, Malacca, Siam, and Cochin China, to 
12J north, on the eastern coast of the last-mentioned country. 

7. The islands of the Indian Ocean, north of 16 south, the northern two-thirds of 
Madagascar. 

8. The East India Islands; also, the northern coast of Australia, from 22 south on 
the west side, to 25 south on the east side. 

C. PACIFIC. 9. The Pacific Islands, between 20 north and 20 south, together with 
the Ladrones, New Caledonia, excepting the southern extremity, also the Tonga Islands, 
as far as Tongatabu, the Hervey Islands, the Paumotu Islands, as far as the Gambier 
Islands, and excluding Hawaii on the north. 

10. The South American coast, from 17i north to 1 south. 



2. SUBTORRID REGION. 

A. NORTH ATLANTIC. 1. The northern and western coast of Yucatan, and the coaat 
of Mexico and Texas, within the Gulf of Mexico. 

2. Key West, and the east coast of Florida to 27 north. 

3. The Bermudas. 

4. The coast of Africa, from 9 north to 14} north. 

B. SOUTH ATLANTIC. 5. The coast of South America, from below Bahia to a degree 
or two below Rio Janeiro. 

6. Ascension Island and St. Helena. 

7. West coast of Africa, from 5 north to 7 south. 

C. INDIAN OCEAN. 8. East coast of Africa, from 26} south to 31 south, including 
Port Natal ; also, northern half of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. 

9. South extremity of Madagascar, Isle of Prance, and Mauritius. 

10. Western coast of Australia, between 22 south and 26J (?) south. 

D. NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 11. Coast of Cochin China, between 12} north and 
15 north. 

12. Formosa, Loochoo (Liukiu), and neighbouring islands, southern shore of Japan, 
Hawaiian Islands. 

13. West coast of North America, from the southern extremity of the peninsula of 
California to 17i north. 

E. SOUTH PACIFIC. 14. A small part of the coast of Eastern Australia, between 25 
south and 26J south. 

15. The southern extremity of New Caledonia, Pylstaart's Island, Mangaia, Rimetara, 
Rarotonga, Rurutu, Pitcairn's, Easter Island, and possibly the Gambier Islands. 

16. The west coast of South America, near Guayaquil, from 1 to 4 south. 

II. TEMPERATE ZONE. 

1. WARM TEMPERATE REGION. 

A. NORTH ATLANTIC. 1. Coast of Gulf of Mexico, along Louisiana, Mississippi, 

369 



1474 CRUSTACEA. 

Alabama, and the western side of Florida ; also, the coast of the United States, from 
27 north on the east side of Florida to Cape Hatteras. 

2. The Canaries, and the coast of Africa, from 14J north to 28J north. 

B. SOUTH ATLANTIC. 3. East coast of South America, from a degree south of Rio 
Janeiro to 30 south; also, the west coast of Africa, between 7 south and 14 south. 

C. INDIAN OCEAN. 4. South Africa, between 31 south in longitude 30, and 33 
south in longitude 23 east. 

5. Western coast of Australia, between 26J south, and the southwestern cape, in 
latitude 34 south, -including the vicinity of Swan River. 

D. NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 6. The Tonquin Gulf, Hainan Island, and the adjoining 
coast of China. 

7. The western coast of the peninsula of California, as far as 28J north. 



2. TEMPERATE REGION. 

A. NORTH ATLANTIC. 1. Not distinguishable at Cape Hatteras. 

2. Azores and Madeira, and the northwest coast of Africa, between the Straits of 
Gibraltar and 29 north. 

3. The Mediterranean Sea, excepting probably the eastern coast and the southern 
coast east of Tunis, and including Algiers, Nice, Naples, and Sicily. The northern coast 
borders on the Subtemperate Region, or just passes into it. . 

B. SOUTH ATLANTIC. 4. The eastern coast of South America, from 30 south to 
the eastern cape of the La Plata, and not including Montevideo. 

5. The western coast of Africa, between 14 south and 28 south. 

C. INDIAN OCEAN. 6. Southern coast of Africa, between the Cape of Good Hope 
and the meridian of 23 east. 

7. The southern shore of Australia. 

8. The western part of Kiusiu, including the bay of Nagasaki. (Possibly Subtemperate.) 

D. NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 9. Coast of California, between 28J north and 34i 
north, at Cape Conception, south of Monterey. 

E. SOUTH PACIFIC. 10. East coast of Australia, between latitudes 26J south and 
31 south(?). 

11. West coast of South America, from Cape Blanco, north of Payta, in 4J south, to 
Copiapo, in 27 J south. 



3. SUBTEMPERATE REGION. 

A. NORTH ATLANTIC. 1. Not distinguishable at Cape Hatteras. 

2. Coast of Portugal, to 42 north. 

3. Black Sea, excepting northern portion ? 

B. SOUTH ATLANTIC. 4. Mouth of the La Plata. 

5. West coast of Africa, from 28 south to Cape of Good Hope, including Table Bay. 

C. NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN. 6. Southern part of eastern coast of Niphon, and the 
Yellow Sea, from south of Chusan. 

7. Californian coast, from 34 1 north to Cape Mendocino, including the Bays of 
Monterey and San Francisco. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1475 

D. SOUTH PACIFIC. 8. Southeast angle of Australia, from 30 south, including Port 
Jackson. 

9. Northern island of New Zealand, nearly or quite to Cook's Straits. 

10. West coast of South America, from 27} south to 38, including the harbours of 
Coquimbo, Valparaiso, and Valdivia. 



4. COLD TEMPEKATK REGION. 

A. NORTH ATLANTIC. 1. Coast of the United States, from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod. 
2. Southern Britain and Ireland, British Channel, Bay of Biscay, and northern coast 

of Spain to 42 north, including Vigo Bay(?). 

B. SOUTH ATLANTIC. 3. East coast of South America, from the southern cape of 
the La Plata to 43 south, including the Bay of Rio Negro. 

4. Island of Tristan d'Acunha. 

C. INDIAN OCEAN. 5. St. Paul's and Amsterdam Island. 

D. PACIFIC. 6. Van Diemens Land, Middle Island of New Zealand, excepting 
southern extremity, Chatham Island. 

7. Middle part of Eastern Niphon to 40 north. 

8. West coast of America, from Cape Mendocino to Columbia River, or possibly to 
the Straits of De Fuca. 

9. West coast of South America, from 38 south to 49 or 50 south, including 
Chiloe. 



5. SUBFRIGID REGION. 

A. NORTH ATLANTIC. 1. Massachusetts Bay, coast of Maine, Bay of St. Lawrence, 
and Southern Newfoundland. 

2. Northern Britain, Orkneys, Shetlands. 

3. Crimea and north coast of Black Sea? 

B. SOUTH ATLANTIC. 4. East coast of South America, below 43 south, including 
Fuegia and the Falklands. 

C. INDIAN OCEAN. 5. Prince Edward's Island, Crozet, Kerguelen's Land. 

D. PACIFIC. 6. North part of Niphon, Yeso, the larger part of the Japan and Ok- 
hotsk seas; also the northwest coast of America, from 55 or 56 north, nearly or quite 
to the Columbia River. 

7. South extremity of New Zealand, with the Aucklands, and other islands in the 
vicinity. 



III. FRIGID ZONE. 

1. Eastern coast of North America, from the east cape of Newfoundland to the north- 
ward, with Greenland, Iceland, the coast of Norway, Cattegat. 

2. South Shetlands, South Georgia, Sandwich Land, and other Antarctic Lands. The 
line runs quite close to Cape Horn. 

3. The Aleutian Islands, and eastern and southern Kamschatka, and part of the 
Kuriles. 



1476 



CRUSTACEA. 



The areas of the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid zones of tempera- 
ture, either side of the equator, considering 27 as the normal limit 
between the first two of these zones, and 60 the limit between the 
Frigid and Temperate, are as follows : 



Torrid zone, 
Temperate zone, 
Frigid zone, 



8,427,000 square miles (geographical) 
7,641,000 " " " 

2,486,300 " ", " 



It is hence seen that the Temperate zone, although six degrees 
wider than the Torrid, has not as large a surface. The species of 
marine life, if distributed equally over the two, would, therefore, be 
more numerous in the Torrid zone than in the Temperate, unless the 
extent of ocean and coast line were far greater in the Temperate than 
in the Torrid zone, which is not the case. The ocean in the southern 
Temperate is much more extensive than that of the southern Torrid ; 
but the coast line is far less extensive in the former, as it does not 
abound in islands, like the Torrid zone.* 

The range of temperature is far greater in the Temperate zone than 
in the Torrid, it being 20 F. in the latter, and 33 F. in the former. 

In the Torrid zone, the Subtorrid Region has nearly one-third the 

* The following table gives very closely the surface of the zones in square geographi- 
cal miles, for every 2J degrees of latitude to the parallel of 60 : it is taken from a 
larger table by Berghaus, in his Lander- und Volker-kunde, i. 47. The first is the zone 
from the equator to the parallel of 2}, the second, from 2} degrees to 5 degrees, and 
so on. 



2} 

5 

7i 

10 

121 

15 

17i 

20 

22 i 

25 

27} 

30 



The zone from 60 to 70 has the area, 
" 70 to 80 " " 

" 80 to 90 " " 



809,824 


32} 


808,200 


35 


805,124 


371 


800,512 


40 


794,368 


42 J 


786,728 


45 


777,580 


47i 


766,952 


50 


754,868 


52 J 


740,544 


55 


726,408 


57} 


710,092 


60 



692,424 
673,440 
653,172 
631,656 
608,944 
585,064 
560,320 
534,032 
506,960 
478,924 
441,792 
420,176 

1,366,748 
837,516 
282,036 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1477 

surface of the Torrid Region, and not one-fourth as much coast line, 
facts which should be regarded in comparing the number of species of 
the two. 

Before leaving this subject of the Map, we add a few brief remarks, 
in a popular way, on the origin of the peculiar forms and positions 
presented by the isothermal lines of the ocean. The great currents of 
the globe are admitted to be the causes that produce the flexures and 
modify the courses of these lines. These currents are usually of great 
depth, and consequently the deflecting land will be the deeply seated 
slopes off a coast, beyond ordinary soundings. 

The eastern coasts of the continents either side of the equator, feel 
the influence of a warm equatorial current, which flows westward over 
each ocean, and is diverted north and south by the coasts against 
which it impinges, and more or less according to the direction of the 
coast. 

The western coasts of the continents, on the contrary, receive a 
strong polar current. In the southern oceans, it flows from the west- 
ward, or southward and westward, in latitudes 45 to 65 south, and is 
brought to the surface by the submarine lands or the submarine slopes 
of islands or continents ; reaching the continents of Africa and South 
America, it follows along the western coast towards the equator. The 
same current, being divided by the southern cape of America, flows 
also, with less volume up the eastern coast, either inside of the warmer 
tropical current, or else on both sides of it. In the Northern Seas, 
the system of polar currents is mainly the same, though less regular; 
their influence is felt on both eastern .and western coasts, but more 
strongly on the eastern. In the Atlantic, the latter reduces the tem- 
perature of the waters three or four degrees along the north coast of 
South America, as far nearly as Cape St. Roque. 

The cold currents are most apparent along the coasts of continents 
and about islands, because they are here brought to the surface, the 
submarine slopes lifting them upward, as they flow on. The limits 
of their influence towards the equator depends often on the bend of 
the coast; for a prominent cape or a bend in the outline will change 
the exposure of a coast from that favourable to the polar current to 
that favourable to the tropical, or the reverse. Thus it is at Cape 
Hatteras, on the coast of the United States ; Cape Verde, on Western 
Africa ; Cape Blanco, on western South America, etc. 

370 



1478 CRUSTACEA. 

These are important principles modifying the courses of the oceanic 
isothermal lines ; we may now proceed to the application of them. 

In the Atlantic, the warm tropical current flowing westward, is 
trended somewhat northward by the northern coast of South America, 
and still more so by the West India Islands, and thus it gradually 
curves around to parallelism with the coast of the United States. But 
south of Newfoundland, either wholly from the influence of the colder 
current which it meets with, or in part from meeting with submarine 
slopes that serve to deflect it, it passes eastward, and afterwards, 
where it is again free to expand, it spreads both eastward and north- 
eastward. The flexures in the isocrymes of 74 and 68 F., near the 
United States coast, thus have their origin. For the same reason, the 
line of 56 F. is nearly straight, till it reaches beyond the influence of 
the Newfoundland Banks, and then makes its Gulf Stream flexure. 
The line of 44 F. for the same reason, the spreading of the Gulf- 
Stream waters diverges far from the equator in its easterly course, 
and even rises in a long loop between Great Britain and Iceland. 

The cold currents, flowing down the eastern coast of America, bend 
the isocrymes far south close along the coast, and make a remarkable 
southern . flexure in the isocrymes of 68 and 56 F. outside of the 
Gulf Stream flexure. So on the western coast of Britain, the isocryme 
of 44 F. has a deep southern flexure, for a like cause. 

The waters of the tropical current gradually cool down in their 
progress, through the influence of the colder waters which they en- 
counter; and along the isocryme of 62, they have in the colder 
seasons a common temperature with that of the ocean, so that the 
course of the Gulf Stream is but faintly marked in it. And also in 
the western half of the region covered by the isocryme of. 56, the 
colder and warmer waters have reached this as a mean temperature. 
Owing to the influence of the polar current on the northern coast of 
South America, the equator of heat lies at a distance from the land. 

Up the western coast of Africa flows the cold current from the 
south and west, bending upward all the isocrymal lines; and passing 
north of the equator, it produces a large southern bend, off the coast 
of Africa, in the northern isocryme of 74 outside of the warm current 
flexure from the coast of Guinea, and also a large northern flexure in 
the heat-equator.* 

* Along the ocean, near Africa, south and southeast of the Cape Verdes, Captain Wilkes 
found a current setting to the northward for much of the time until passing the equator. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1479 

The Atlantic tropical current also flows in part down the eastern 
coast of South America, giving a deep flexure to each of the isocrymes, 
besides making these lines to diverge from the equator, through all 
their length. Again, the polar current passes northward nearer the 
coastline, bending far back the western extremity of each of the 
isocrymes. 

In the Pacific, the tropical currents show their effects near the coast 
of New Holland and China, in a gradual divergence of the lines from 
the equator. The ranges of islands forming the Tarawan, Radack, 
and Ralick Groups, appear to divert the current northward in that 
part of the North Pacific, and consequently the isocrymal lines bend 
northward near longitudes 170 west and 180; and near Niphon, 
that of 68 shows a still greater northern flexure. 

The influence of the polar currents in this ocean is remarkably 
great. The southern flows from the west and south, bending upward 
the line of 56 F. along the South American coast, producing at Val- 
paraiso at times a sea-temperature of 48 F. Still farther north, it 
throws the line of 68 F. even beyond the equator and the Galla- 
pagos ; and that of 74 F., nearly one thousand five hundred miles 
from the coast, and four hundred north of the equator. The line of 
62 F. reaches even beyond Payta, five degrees south of the equator, 
the sea-temperature at this place being sometimes below 61. 

The north polar current produces the same result along the eastern 
coast of Asia, as on the eastern of America. The isocryme of 74 F. 
is bent southward from the parallel of 23 to 12 30' north; and that 
of 68 F. from 34 to 15 north, and the latter deflection is even longer 
than the corresponding one in the Atlantic. The trend of the coast 
opens it to the continued action of this current until the bend in the 
outline of Cochin China, below which the cold waters have less 
influence, although still showing some effect upon the heat-equator. 
The isocryme of 44 is bent southward to Niphon, by the same cold 
waters, and from this part of the northern Pacific the current appears 
to flow mostly between the islands of Japan and the continent. 

In the Indian Ocean, the effects of the tropical current, as it flows 
westward, are apparent in the southern deflection of the several iso- 
crymes. The trend of the coast favours a continuation of the current 
directly along the coast, and consequently, its modifying influence on 
the sea-temperature reaches almost to Cape Town on the coast, and 
passes even beyond it at sea, carrying 56 F. to the meridian of 15 
east. 



1480 CRUSTACEA. 

By comparing the regions of the different oceans, north and south 
of the equator, we may arrive at the mean position of the several iso- 
crymes, and thereby discover on a grander scale, the influence of the 
various oceanic movements. 

For the purpose of reaching mean results, the Middle Pacific is the 
most favourable ocean for study. This is apparent in its greater 
extent, and the wide distance between the modifying continents; and 
also no less in the greater actual regularity of the isocrymes. 

We hence deduce, that the mean position of the isocryme of 74 F. 
is along the parallel of 20, this being the average between the means 
for the North and South Pacific. In the same manner we infer that 
the mean position of the isocryme of 68 F. is along the parallel of 27. 

The southern isocrymes of 56 and 62 F., are evidently thrown 
into abnormal proximity by the cold waters of the south. This cur- 
rent flows eastward over the position of the isocryme of 44 F., and 
consequently in that latitude has nearly that temperature, although 
colder south. Hence, it produces little effect in deflecting the line of 
44 F. ; moreover, the line of 50 F. is not pushed upward by it. But 
the lines of 56 and 62 F. are thrown considerably to the north by its 
influence, and the Warm Temperate and Temperate Regions are made 
very narrow. With these facts in view, we judge from a comparison 
of the North and South Pacific lines, that the mean position for the 
isocryme of 62 F. is the parallel of 32; and for 56 F., the parallel 
of 37 ; for the isocryme of 50 F., the mean position is nearly the 
parallel of 42; for 44 F., the parallel of 47; for 35 F., the parallel 
of 56. There is thus a mean difference of five degrees of latitude for 
six degrees of Fahrenheit, excepting near the equator and between 
35 and 44 F. These results may be tabulated as follows :* 

Isocryme of 80 F., . . .. . Parallel of 6 

74, ..... "20 

" 68, ....." 27 
" 62, . . . . . "32 

56, . . ... " 37 

" 50, ..... "42 

it 440 it 470 

^ ^ .* 

" 35, ..... "56 

* We may hence deduce the temperatures of those isocrymes to which the parallels of 
latitude for every fire degrees would normally correspond. They would be for 20, 74 
F. ; for 25, 70 F. ; for 30, 64-4 F. ; for 35, 58-4 F. ; for 40, 52-4 F. ; for 45, 
46-4 F.; for 50, 41 F.; for 55, 36 F.; for 60, 31 F. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

Using these results as a key for comparison we at once perceive the 
great influence of the oceanic movements on climate and on the geo- 
graphical distribution of marine life. 

The polar current of the Southern Atlantic has a more northward 
course in mid-ocean than that of the Pacific. It consequently bears 
up the isocryme of 35 F. to the parallel of 50, six degrees above the 
mean. The effect on the other isocrymes of the Atlantic is very 
remarkable. We perceive in the first place that the most southern 
point of each of these isocrymes is not far from the mean position of 
the same isocrymes in the Pacific, while the most northern point of 
each is ten to twenty-five degrees farther north. Taking the position 
of the isocrymes of 68 and 74 F., where they cross the meridian of 15 
west, as the mean position for this ocean, we find that the former is eight 
degrees in latitude farther north than 68 F. in the South Pacific; and 
the mean for the latter is in 7 south, while for the same in the 
Pacific it is 20 south, making a difference of thirteen degrees. The 
effect of the cold southern waters is consequently not along the 
African coast alone, but pervades the whole ocean. It is hence 
obvious, how utterly untenable the common notion, that the tropical 
current from the Indian Ocean is the same which flows up the west 
African coast. With a temperature of 5,6 south of Cape Town, it 
would be wholly incapable of causing the great deflections for the 
whole South Atlantic which have been pointed out. It combines with 
the polar current, but does not constitute it. The facts thus sustain 
the opinions long since brought forward by the distinguished meteor- 
ologist Mr. Win. C. Redfield, that the currents flowing north along 
the African and South American coasts are alike true polar or cold 
temperate currents.* 

We may now turn to the North Atlantic. In this part of the ocean, 
the mean positions of the isocrymes of 74 and 68 F., are near the 
normal positions deduced from the Pacific. The line of 62 F. is in a 
somewhat higher latitude, the mean position, excluding the eastern 
and western deflections, being near the parallel of 36. The line of 
56 F. has the parallel of 42i north for its mean position over the 
middle of the ocean, which is five and a half degrees above the normal 
in the Pacific. The line of 50 has in the same manner for its mean 
position over the mid-ocean, the parallel of 47i, or again five and a 

* American Journal of Science, xlv. 299, 1843. 
3T1 



1482 CRUSTACEA. 

half degrees above the normal position in the Pacific. The line of 
44 F. may be considered as having for its mean position the parallel 
of 52 north, while it rises to 60 north. The lines in the North 
Atlantic above that of 68, average about five degrees higher in. lati- 
tude than the mean normal positions, while 68 and 74 have nearly 
the same place as in the Pacific. There is hence a great contrast 
between the Pacific, South Atlantic, and North Atlantic Oceans. 
This is seen in the following table containing these results : 



Normal, deduced 


Mean position in 


Mean position in 






from Pacific. 


South Atlantic. 


North Atlantic. 


Isocryme 


of 74 F., 


20 


7 south. 


21 


north. 


" 


68 


27 


19 


28 




H 


62 


32 


29 


36 




u 


56 


37 


36 


42} 





It 


50 


42 


39 


47} 





It 


44 


47 


44 


52 


(ma: 


1C 


35 


56 


50 


61 


(ma 



(max. 60 north). 



The influence of the warm tropical waters in the North Atlantic 
lifts the isocrymes of 74 and 68 as they approach the coast of 
America^ while the same lines are depressed on the east by the colder 
northern currents. Moreover, north of 68 the whole interior of the 
ocean is raised four to five degrees in temperature above the normal 
grade, by the same waters spreading eastward ; and between Great 
Britain and Iceland, the temperature is at least ten degrees warmer 
than in the corresponding latitude of the South Pacific, and thirteen 
or fourteen degrees warmer than in the same latitude in the South 
Atlantic.* 

The influence of so warm an ocean on the temperature of Britain, 
and on its living productions, animal and vegetable, is apparent, when 
it is considered, that the winds take the temperature nearly of the 
waters they pass over. And the effects on the same region, that 
would result from deflecting the Gulf Stream in some other direction, 
as remarked by Prof. Hopkinsf and others, and substituting in the 
Northern Atlantic the temperature of the Southern Atlantic, is also 

* Ross, in his Antarctic Voyage, found the sea-temperature in 60 south and 3 west, 
311 F., in the month of March; at the South Shetlands, 61 south, the sea-temperature 
was 31 to 35 in January (midsummer); and in the same latitude, and 45 west, it 
was 30-1 in February. 

f Quarterly Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. viii., p. 56, and Amer. Jour. Sci., 1853, vol. xv. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1483 

obvious, without farther illustration. The discussion of these subjects 
would be foreign to the topic before us. 

We close these general remarks, by giving the extreme surface 
temperatures of the waters, as nearly as ascertained, for some places 
of prominent importance in marine zoological geography. The ex- 
tremes in view are the means of the coldest and warmest thirty 
consecutive days of the year. 



SOUTH AMERICA. 

Venezuela and Surinam, 74-80. 

Pernambuco, 74-83. 

Bahia, 74-83. 

Rio Janeiro, 68 J-78. 

Buenos Ayres, 50-64J. 

Rio Negro, 46-60. 

Fuegia, 36-56. 

Falklands, 37-50. 

Chiloe, 48-56J 

Valdivia, 50-63. 

Conception, 52 ?-60 ? 

Valparaiso, 52-62. 

Copiapo, 56J (July)-68 ? 

Iquique, 58 (July)-69 ? 

Callao, 57i-74. 

Payta, 60-74 ? 

Guayaquil, 69-81. 

Gallapagos, 62-80. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

Panama, 74-85 ? 
San Francisco, 51-68 ? 
Monterey, 54-70 ? 
Acapulco 82J-84 (March). 
Columbia River, 46-60 ? 
Puget's Sound, 42 1-57. 
South of Newfoundland, 35-63. 
Massachusetts Bay, 37-64. 
Cape Henry, 46-80. 
Off Charleston, 64-81. 
Key West, 72-85. 
Yucatan, 71-83. 
Cuba, 74-84. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND EUROPE. 

Shetlands, 36-56? 

Scotland, west and north, 39-68. 

Irish Sea, 45-63. 

English Channel, 46-62. 

Cape Finisterre, 50-66. 

Near Gibraltar, 58-77. 

Azores, 60-73. 

Madeira, 62-75. 

Canaries, 64-75. 

Cape Verdes, 70-82. 

AFRICA. 

Sierra Leone, 78-85. 
Ascension, 72-78. 
St. Helena, 68-74. 
Table Bay, 54-68. 
Port Natal, 72-73 (May). 

INDIAN OCEAN. 

South end of Madagascar, 69-80. 
Mauritius, 72-83. 
Entrance of Red Sea, 76-88. 
Keeling Island, 78-83 (April). 
Singapore, 74-84. 
Balabac, 77-85. 
Manilla, 79-85. 
North Luzon, 74-84. 

PACIFIC OCEAN. 

Ladrones, 79-86. 
Salomon Islands, 77-85. 



1484 CRUSTACEA. 



New Hebrides, 74-83. 
New Caledonia, 73-82. 
Kingsmills, 80-88. 
Feejees, 74-85. 
Tongatabu, 74-82. 
Samoan Islands, 74-85. 
Tahitian Islands, 74-83. 
Hervey Islands, 68-76. 



Hawaiian Islands, 68-83. 
Island of Hawaii, 72-83. 

NEW HOLLAND, ETC. 

Port Jackson, 55-71. 
Hobarton, Van Diemens Land, 50-60. 
Bay of Islands, N. Z., 54-67. 
King George's Sound, 58-68. 



A great service will be conferred on science when an isothermal 
chart for the continents is made out, with the most convenient sub- 
divisions for illustrating the subject of the geographical distribution of 
land and fresh-water species. Dove's charts contain in part the ele- 
ments as regards temperatures ; but it remains to be decided which 
isothermal boundary lines had best be adopted for this particular 
purpose ; and moreover, the actual curves of the isothermals dependent 
on the elevations of a country should be laid down. The winter lines 
of 68 and 74 for the ocean and air, appear to correspond very nearly, 
and the same lines might be used for the land chart as well as the 
marine. The former is the limit for the Cocoanut Palm as well as 
for coral-reefs, and the Torrid zone of oceanic temperature, might 
hence be called the Cocoanut-palm as well as the Coral-reef zone. 

Temperature at depths. With respect to. the change of temperature 
as we descend in the ocean, we cannot present a series of facts, as 
those that have been ascertained are too few and isolated to be of 
much service. The lowest temperature reached is 39 i F., which is 
less than that of the Frigid Region, as here laid down. Under the 
equator this temperature is not reached short of seven thousand feet, 
and somewhere between the parallels of 45 and 60, the position 
varying with the seasons and meridian, it is found at the surface as 
well as at all depths below. 

It is a question of much interest, how far temperature influences 
the range of zoological species in depth. From a survey of the facts 
relating to coral-zoophytes, the author arrived at the conclusion, that 
this cause is of but secondary importance.* After determining the 
limiting temperature bounding the coral-reef seas, and ascertaining 

* Exped. Report on Zoophytes, 1846, p. 103 ; and on Geology, p. 97. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1485 

the distribution of reefs, it was easy to compare this temperature with 
that of the greatest depths at which the proper reef corals occur. 
This depth is but one hundred feet. Now the limiting temperature, 
68, is reached under the equator at a depth of five hundred feet, and 
under the parallel of 10 at a depth of at least three hundred feet. 
There must, therefore, be some other cause besides temperature ; and 
this may be amount of pressure, of light, or of atmospheric air dis- 
solved in the waters. 

Prof. Forbes has remarked that the deep-sea species in the ^Egean 
have a boreal character;* and Lieut. Spratt, also, has ascertained the 
temperatures at different depths,f and shown that the deep-sea species 
are those which have the widest range of distribution, most of them 
occurring north, about the British shores or north of France. Yet is 
it true that the species which occur in deep water in the ^Egean are 
found in shallow waters of like temperature about the more northern 
coasts? If so, Lieut. Spratt's conclusion, that temperature is the 
principal influence which governs the distribution of marine fauna, in 
depth as well as in latitudinal distribution, will stand as true. But 
we believe that facts do not bear out this conclusion. Deep-sea 
species live in deep seas in both regions, with but little difference in 
the depth to which they extend. They are boreal in character, when 
of Mediterranean origin, because they are cold-water species ; and 
their wide distribution is because of the wide range of temperature for 
which they are fitted, rather than their fitness to endure a given tem- 
perature, which they find at considerable depths to the south, and 
near the surface to the north. 

As this point is one of much importance, we have run over the 
recent tables of dredging by Prof. E. Forbes, in the JEge&n and about 
the British Islands,! to see how far it is borne out ; and we add other 
results by R. Mac Andrew, Esq., at Vigo Bay, Portugal, Gibraltar, 
Malta and Pantellaria, Algiers and Tunis. 

The great care and thoroughness of Prof. Forbes's researches and 
those also of MacAndrew, give peculiar weight to the conclusions. 
Those species are taken from the tables which are common to these 

* Keport on the .ffigean Invertebrata, Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1843, 130. 

f Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1848, 81. 

j Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1843; and on British Marine Zoology, ibid., 1850, 192. 

Rep. Brit. Assoc., 1850, p. 264. 

372 



1486 



CRUSTACEA. 



several regions, and with regard to which the observations are free 
from doubt; and we have confined the list to the Acephalous molluscs, 
as these appear to be sufficient to test the law under discussion. The 
depth is given in fathoms. 

It should be observed, that to carry out the theory, the species 
should be confined to shallower waters to the north than to the south. 





North Scot- 
land and 
Shetland. 


South Eng- 
land and I. 
of Man. 


Vigo Bay. 


Gibraltar. 


,r.i:i':'i!. 


Malta and 
Pantel- 

laria. 


Algiers 
and 
Tunis. 


Corbula nucleus, . 


3-80 


5-50 


5-26 


8-20 


7-80 


6-50 


8-35 


Nesera cuftpidata, . 


10-80 


60 


20 


45* 


12-185 






Thracia pbaseolisa, 


0-80! 


3-30 






7-30 






Soldi pi'il uoidus, . 


7-100 


5-60 




40 






85 


Psammobia ferroensls 


8-90 


5-50 




8* 


20-40 




10 


Ti'llina domtcina, . 


1-80 


6-40 






7-45 




10 


Mactra subtruncata. 


0-12 


0-20 ( 


5-10 








Q 


Lutraria elliptica, . 


0-10 


0-20 


Low water. 










Cylherea chiono, 




10-201 




8 


7-10 


6-16 




Venus ovata, . . . 


6-1 bo' 


7-50 


8 


6-40 


29-135 


e-to 


6-^35 


Venus fasciata, . . 


5-90 


7-50 


8 


8 


27-40 


6-60 


6-35 


Venus verrucosa, . 




0-10 


6 


6 


2-40 


6-15 


6 


Artemis lincta, . . 


0-80 


5-50 


Low water. 


6 




6-15 


6-8 


Cardium echinatum, 


6-100 


6-50 


Littoral. 




7-50 






Lucina flexuosa, 


3-100 


6-60 


4 




7-11 






Lucina Bpinifera, . 


10-100 


16-30 


10-12 


'15-2S 


4-30 


6-40 


35' 


Kellia suborbiruKiris, 


t)-90 


10-40 


8 




29-15 


35-56 




Modiola tulipa, . . 


10-50 


5-25 


12 


10-25 


2-50 




85' 






2-15 






7-95 


6-^15 


6-8 


Area tetragona, . . 


10-60 


20-30 


8* 


30 


20-80 


35-60 


36 


Area lactea, . . . 




10-50 




12-20 


0-150 




6-35 


Pectunculus glycerim g, 


6-80 


5-50 


8-12 


30 


6-24 




35 


Nucula nitida, . . 


6-60 


5-30 


20-25 


12-40 




Vis' 


6-8 


Nucula nucleus, 


6-100 


6-50 


8-25 


6-20 


2-^10 


6-40 


6-35 


Lima subauriculata, 


4-100 


15-30 




35 


15-30 




35 


Pecten similis, . . 


2-80. 


20-50 


' 20* 




27-185 




85 


Pecten maximus. . 


2-40 


10-30 


8 


4-25 




S5-60' 


6-8 


Pecten opercularis, 


2-100 


5-60 


8-20 


20-40 


io-?o' 


. > ' 


36 


Pecten varius, . . 


3-20 


3-30 


8 


8 


7-65 


6-15 


35 


Anomia ephippium, 


0-80 


0-60 


10 




20-40 


35-50 


6-35 



To compare fairly this table, it should be noted that the dredging 
at the Shetlands, Orkneys, and north of Scotland, was carried to a 
greater depth than about Southern England, fifty fathoms being the 
limit in the latter region, as the waters are shallow. Making this 
allowance, we are still struck with the great depth to which the species 
penetrate at the most northern locality, instead of the small depth. 
Out of the twenty-one species which are here mentioned as occurring 
on Northern Scotland, or the Shetlands, and the ^Egean, fourteen or 
fifteen descend to a greater depth in the former than in the latter; and 
nearly all the species common to the north and south extremities of 
the British Islands, are reported from the deepest waters at the north. 
Of the observations made at Vigo Bay, Malta, Pantellaria, Tunis, 
Algiers, and Gibraltar, there is but a single example among the above 
species of a greater range in depth than occurs in the northernmost 
locality examined. The dredging in the Mediterranean by MacAn- 
drew, was not carried to as great depths; yet even allowing for this, 

* Not found living at the depth stated. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

the facts are not a little remarkable. One hundred fathoms appears 
to have been the greatest depth of the Shetland dredgings. 

Now the temperature in the ^Egean during the warmer months, 
according to Lieut. Spratt, is as follows : 

At the surface, . . 76-84. 

10 fathoms, seldom below 74 in the summer. 
20 " " " 68 " " 

35 " " 62 " " 

75 " " " 56 " " 

100-300 " " " 55-55J " " 

The temperature of the waters near Southern England in summer 
is 62; and near the Shetlands 55 or less. Consequently the surface 
summer temperature of the British Channel is not found in the 
JEgean at a less depth than thirty-five fathoms, and the surface 
Hummer temperature of the Shetlands, is the temperature at one- to three 
hundred fatJioms in the JEgean; and still species that range to a depth 
of one hundred fathoms about Northern Scotland are found within 
thirty fathoms of the surface in the .ZEgean, that is, where the summer 
temperature is 74 or more. Such facts show the hardiness of the 
species in enduring great ranges in temperature. We must, therefore, 
conclude, that it is not temperature alone or mainly which determines 
the depth to which species may live. It exerts an influence, and 
species fitted for cold waters may be found in the deeper seas where 
such waters occur; but the limit of descent depends on other in- 
fluences. 

Looking at this table in another way, we see, as recognised by Prof. 
Forbes, that species which occur at or near the surface in Northern 
Scotland, are generally met with only at greater depths in the Medi- 
terranean ; that is, the minimum depth is less in the former case than 
the latter. Thus Corbula nucleus has for its minimum depth in the 
Mediterranean six fathoms, and in the northern regions three fathoms. 
Fbammobia ferroensis has ten fathoms for the former, and three for the 
latter. Other examples will be found in the above table, sufficient to 
illustrate the principle, although many exceptions exist. Thus species 
that have the range of one hundred fathoms beyond Scotland, may 
have the same in the Mediterranean, except that in many cases they 
do not reach as near the surface, where the waters are warm. 

The Crustacea of the same seas illustrate this subject in a similar 



1488 CRUSTACEA. 

way. But the observations upon them have been made with less 
thoroughness, and we have, therefore, confined our discussions to 
Molluscs. 

Prof. Edward Forbes has with much discrimination laid down cer- 
tain zones in depth, and pointed out their zoological and botanical 
peculiarities for certain coasts. The observations on Crustacea made 
by us, were not extended to any considerable depth, and they will 
not enable us, therefore, to recognise these several zones in the follow- 
ing tables. 



II. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES. 

In making an application of the isothermal oceanic chart to the 
subject of the geographical distribution of Crustacea, we have two 
objects before us. 

First. To compare the zones and their regions with one another 
as to (a) number of species, (b) number of genera, (c) number and size 
of individuals, (d) grade of species, in order to arrive at some general 
conclusions as to the temperatures best fitted for the highest and most 
prolific developments of Crustacea. 

Second. To compare different geographical positions in similar 
regions with one another, in order to arrive' at their resemblances and 
differences, and deduce the several distinct zoological provinces; and 
also to distinguish the more or less wide diffusion of species in longi- 
tudinal range. 



1. DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA WITH REFERENCE TO THE TEMPERATURE. 

We here present a series of tables, containing, for each genus, the 
number of species that occurs in each temperature region, with a 
column also giving the sum of the Torrid zone species, and another for 
the sum of the Temperate zone species. The several regions are lettered 
a, b, c, d, &c., to h, and where one or more species in a region occur 
in another nearer the equator, it is indicated by annexing the number 
with the letter of the -column in which it occurs. Thus, 6 (2 a) in 
column b, means that there are six species in the b or Subtorrid 
Region, but two of them are found also in the a or Torrid Region. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1489 

We give first a table of the Brachyura, and following this, a recapitu- 
lation and summary, containing a summing up of the species for the 
subfamilies, families, tribes, &c. These tables afford some obvious 
deductions. Then follow similar tables for the Anomoura, Macroura, 
and remaining Podophthalmia, with a series of deductions ; and then 
the same for the Tetradecapoda. 

The perfecting of the Temperature Chart, by changing the limits of 
some of the regions (which is to be expected as new facts are brought 
in), will undoubtedly cause some modifications of these tables; but 
nothing that will affect essentially the conclusions which will here be 
drawn from them. 



373 



1490 



CRUSTACEA. 



TABLE I. 
BRACHYURA. 



1. MAIOIDEA. 


' 


a 


4. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


p. 

1 

1 
u 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


5 

Tr 



I. MAIINEA. 

I. INACHIDJE. 
1. MACROCHEIRIN.K. 
Macrocheira, .... 

2. 1 NAPKIN'*!. 


1 

4 

1 

1 
3 

4 
6 

1 
1 

8 
1 

1 

2 
1 


1(0) 
2 
2(1 a) 

l(a) 
3 (la) 

1 

2 (la) 

2 (la) 

1 
1 

5 (4 a) 
(la) 


1 

4 
2 
2 

1 
& 

1 

If 
1? 
5 

7 
1 

1 

1 
1 

9 
1 

1 

1? 
2 
1 


1 

2 

2(14) 
1 

9 
1 

1 

1 
2 
1 

1? 

2 
2(la) 


3 
3 

1 
1 

2 (lc) 

1? 

4(2c) 

1 
l(lc) 

2 (2 a) 


1 

2(16) 
2('/) 

| 


1 

3(lo) 



l(e) 
l(c) 

2(lc) 
2 

1 
1 


K/) 

1 

l(c) 

11 
1() 

2 (I/) 


1 

6 
2 

1 

1 
2 
4 

3 

4 
7 
1 
1 
1 
3 
1 
3 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 

2 

4 
2 


!(/) 


Microrhynchus, . . 
3. SALACIN*. 


II. MAIID.. 

1. l,lt:I\]\ V. 


Libidoclea, .... 


2. M \n vr. 
Maia, 


3. I'KIXX. 

Paramltbrax, . . . 


Pelia, 


Liasa, 


Rbodia, 


llV.'l". .... 




Herbstia, 


Thoe 


Dehaantus 
4. PBIONORUTNCIIINA. 
Prionorhynchus, . . 

5. Mirn-i-i.N >:. 


6. CHORIMNA. 
Cborinus, / 
Chorilia, j 
Labaina 
Naxia, 


Scyra, .... 


Hyastenns, .... 
Pyria, ... 


7. OTHOMN. 


III. MITHRACIDJE. 

11. MlTHRACINJI. 

Mithrax, 


Mithraculus, . . . 
12. CTCLACIxi. 
Cyclax 


IV. TYCIIID^;. 

1. CFIOCARCININjK. 

Criocarcinug, . . . 
2. TTCHIN*. 
Tyche, 


3. CAMPOSCINA. 
CampOFCia, .... 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1491 



M A 1 1 D E A Continued. 






13 


1 


a 


1 


1 


0. 




I 






Torrid. 


| 




)tal of Toi 
zone. 


WarmTe 


1 
1 


Sub-temp 


Cold Ten 


i 


|S 


1 







= 


-1 





8 


V 


S 


a, 


S 





\. KUUYPODID.E. 






















1. EURYPODIN.fi . 






















Eurypodius, .... 
Oregonia, 












2 




40.) 


2 




2. AM \TiiiN.t;. 






















Aniathia, . . , . 






















VI. LEPTOPODID-ffi. 






















1. ACMKIX.I;. 






























If 


1 












2. I\ vrihiimv.-K. 














1 ' 




' 




Inachoides, ... * 












1 






1 




3. LEPTOPODIN.S. 






















Leptopodia, .... 
4. STENORHTNCHIN^. 


1 




1 


3 (la?) 




l(o?) 






3 




Stenorby Debug, . . 










2 




!(<*) 


l(d) 


2 


1 


VII. PERICERIDJB. 






















1. PAR A MICIPPIN.. 






















Paramicippa, . . * 




1 


1 




1 








1 




2. PMIHJKI:I.\/E. 
























4 


3(2o) 


5 


1 














Tiarinia, 


a 




6 
















Perinea, 




^ 


















Ilaliinus. ..... 


2 




2 




1 








1 




Pugettia 










1 






1 


2 




3. MENfiTHINjB. 






















Mensethius, .... 


6 


6 (2 a) 


9 
















Acanthonyx, . . . 
Antilibinia, .... 


2 


5 (la) 


6 
1 


l(o) 


2 








3 




Peltinia, 


1 




2 
















4. STBNOC10NOPIN.fi. 






















Stenocionops, . . . 




1 


1 
















5. EpIALTIN.fi. 






















Epialtus, 




3 


3 












5 




Iluenia, . ... 


2 


3(1 al 


4 


* ' 




* ' 










Xenocarcinus, . . . 




o\.i "1 


1 




















1 


1 








1 




2 




II. FARTHENOPINEA. 






















I. PARTHENOPID^E. 






















Parthenope, .... 


3 


1 (al 


3 
















Larabrus 


13 


1(1 a) 


17 




3 








3 














1 


l(!d) 


1 




S 




II. EUMEDONID^I. 






















Eumedonus, . . . 


1 (? 6) 




1 
















Ceratocarcinus, . . 


3 




3 
















? Gonatonotus, . . . 


1 




1 
















? Zebrida, 


1 




1 
















? Uarrovia, 


1 




1 
















in. CRYPTOPODID.S:. 






















Cryptopodia, . . . 


2 




2 


1 










1 




Eurynolambrus, , . 












1 






I 




III. ONCININEA. 






















Oncinopus, .... 


2 




2 

















1492 



CRUSTACEA. 



2. CANCKOIDEA. 







6. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


A. Frigid. 


I. OANCRINEA. 
I. CANCRIDJE. 
Cancer, 


4 
5 
1 

6 

2 

2 
3 

2(+l) 

1 
3 
8 
1 
3 
4 
2 
2 

2(1+1) 

1 

2 
2 
11 


7 (4 a) 
1(3 a) 

K') 
7(?3a) 
0(2 a) 

4 (la) 
3 
1 
2 

1 

1(+D 

I (a) 
10 (4 a) 

l(a) 
2(?-l) 

4(J+7) 

1(0) 

1 
1 . 

5 (4 a) 

1(0) 

5 (2 a) 
7 (2 a) 

7(3<0 
11 (7 a) 

K-) 

2(1 I 


7 
3 
1 

2(f2) 
20 

5 
6 
1 
2 

4(.l) 

1 
4(?1) 
10 
1 
19 
4 
2 
2 

3(!1) 

1 

2C1) 
2 
3 
15(t+7) 

1 

2 

2 
2 
1 
10 
3 
1 

!(,+! 

13 
1 

11 

15 
2 

1 
2(T 1 


1 

1(6) 

2(16) 
3(26) 

2 
1(1 d) 

1 

4(24) 
l(a) 

l(a) 
2(1+6 

1 


1 

1() 

4(2a,c) 

1(6) 

2 
3 

l(c) 

IW 

9(2) 

1 
1 


7 

3 

2 

1 

2(1 d) 
1 

2 (Id) 

1 
2 


2(lc) 
l(d) 

2(3 c,d) 
2(26) 

l(d) 
1 

IW 

12(8 c,d) 

l(d) 
1(6) 


3 (Ic. I/) 

1 

1(6) 

2 (*/) 
1(6) 


10 
1 

1 

8 
2 
2 

4 

8 

7 
1 

1 
2 

4 

1 

1 

1 
14 

2 

5 


1 

1 
1 


II. XANTHID.E. 
1. XANTHINJS. 












Paraxantbus, . . . 


Panopeus, .... 


Halimede, .... 


2. CHLORODINX. 




Car pi lodes, .... 






Cblorodius, .... 
Pilodius . . . 


Cyclodius, .... 


3. POLTDECTIM.S. 
Polydectus, . . . . 

in. ERTPHID^:. 

1. (ETHRINjB. 


2. OziN.fi. 




Peeudozius, .... 


Pilumnoides, . . . 
Melia, 


1 

1 

1 

2 
1 
9 
3 

1 

!(+! 
5 
8 
1 
T 
11 
2 

1 

1? 


? Acauthodes, .... 
3. A(TI;MMN.*:. 
Actiniums. .... 
4. KRIPHIN/E. 
Ruppellia, .... 
Eriphia, . . . 


Doni.-rrius, .... 


Tetralia, 


Quad re 11 a. .... 

IV. PORTUNID.fi. 
1. LUPINE. 
Scylla, 




Amphitrite, .... 


Thalamita, .... 
Charybdis, .... 
Lfcfiocarcinus, . . . 

2. ARrN.^IXJE. 


8. PORTUNIN*. 

V. PLATYONYCHID^E 


Portumnua, .... 
Platyonychus, . . . 
Poljbiun, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1493 



CANCROIDE A Continued. 




.2 
e 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total cf Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


| 


4 


VI. PODOPIITIIALMIDjE. 
Podophthalmug, . . 

II. TELFH0SINEA.* 

III. CTOLINEA. 
Acanthocyclua, . . 


2 


. 


2 






1 






1 




3. GRAPSOIDEA. 




a 


t. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 

rone. 


I 


I. GONOPLACID^E. 
Kucrate, 
Curtonotus, .... 
Gonoplax, .... 

II. MACROPHTHALMID.E. 
1. MACROPHTHALMINJ!. 
Cleisiostoma. . . . 
Macrophthalmua, . . 
2. OCTPODIS.E. 
Gelasiuius, .... 


1 

2 
7 

10 

8 

1 

1? 

1 
1 

2 

9 
1 
2 
1 

2 
3 

2 


2 
2 (la) 

5 (2 a) 

9 (3 a) 

7 (2 a) 

2 

1 

5J3a> 
11 (3 a) 

3 (la) 
2 (2 a) 


2 
2 

5 
12 

16 

13 
1 

1 

1 

3 
1 
1 
7 
8 
2 
4 

17 
1 
6 
2 
1 

2 
6 

2 


1 

3(6) 
1(4) 

3 (3 0,6) 
2 (2 0,6) 
2(16) 

3(26) 



2(1 "K 

1 
1 

206) 
2(1 ) 


1 

2 

2 
2 (la) 

2 (la) 
2 

1(6) 

lrt+la) 
2 

1(0) 

2 (la) 


1(6) 

1(6) 

1 
1 

1(6) 


1 
1(6) 

2 


1 
2 

6 
2 

a 

2 

1 
1 

6 
3 
2 
1 
1 

3 

1 
2 

1 

3 






Scopimera, .... 
3. DOTING. 


III. GHAPSID^. 
1. GBAPSIN.K. 
P^eudograpsus, . . 
Ileterograpsus, . . 
ttrachynotua, . . . 
Kriocheir, .... 
*Platynotus, .... 
Trichopus 


Goniograpsua, . . . 


Hemitfrapsus, . . . 
Cyrtograpsus, . . . 
2. SESARMINJB. 


Sarmatium, .... 
Cyclograpsuft, . . . 
Chaamagnathue, . . 
Helice, 


3. PLAOUSINf. 

Acanthopuv . . . 


IV. GECARCINID.S. 
1. UCAINJS. 
Uca, 



* None marine. 

374 



1494 



CRUSTACEA. 



GRAPSOIDEA Continued. 




H 
a 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


. Sub-temperate. 


A 
s 


j. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


h. Frigid. 


Gecarcinicus, . . 
Cardisoma, .... 
Qecarcoidea, .... 
2. GECARCINIX.S. 
Gecarcinus, .... 

V. PINNOTHERID-ffi. 

1. PlXNOTHEKlNjE. 

Pinnothera, .... 
Fabia, . . 


1 
4 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 
1 


2 (2 a) 
1C ") 

1C) 
3 (la) 

2 (a) 
(la) 


1 
4 

1 

2 

4 

1 
1 

2 

1 


3(1*0 
1 


2 


2 

. 1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
2 
2 

1 


4(4e,d) 


2(1 d) 

2(1) 


2 

7 
2 

2 
1 

1 

3 
2 

1 




Xenopbtbalmus, . . 
Xantbasia, .... 
I'inni.Mi. 


Pinnotherelia, . . . 

2. IlYMENICINf. 

Ilynu-nosoma, . . . 
Halicarcinus, . . . 
Hymenicus, .... 


VI. MYCTIRID.E. 
Myctiris, 


4. LEUCOSOIDEA. 


. 


d 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


c. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


y. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
lone. 



4 


I. CALAPPID^;. 
1. CALAPPINA. 


6 

1 

1 

1 
1 
2 

3 
2 

1 

1 

1 
2 
3 
2 

1 
1 

4 


7 (6 a) 
2(1") 

2 (la) 
2(2a) 

4 
2 
1? 

2 (la) 
2(la) 

l(a) 

1 
4(4a) 


7 

2 

1 

1 

2 
1 
2 

7 
4 
1 

1 
2 

2 
1 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 

4 


2 (la) 

1 

1 

1 

1 
l(a) 

4 (2 a) 


l(c) 

3 

2(1 c) 

1 

2(lc) 


1 

1 

1 
If 

l(o) 


3 


2 (I/) 


2 
1 

1 
2 

1 
1 

8 

2 
1 

1 

4 
1 




Platymera, .... 




2. ORITBTIN*. 


II. MATUTID.E. 






III. LEUCOSID^I. 


Philyra, . . 


Leucisca, 
Ebalia, . . . 


Nucia, 


Nursia ... 


Ilia, 


Myra, .... 


Gimia. . 




Ipbis . . 




Oreopborus, .... 
Tlos 


IV. DORIPPID^I. 


Kthusa, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



5. CORYSTOIDEA. 










d. 




j 






1 






. 


] 


1 


1 


I 








1 


a 






E 


*i 


O QJ . 


1 


a 


.i 


o 


J 


*S V 






2 


I 


11 


P 


6 


9 

to 


a 




|o 






8 


A 


& 


u 


8 


V 


s 


Ik 


H 


< 


I. TRICHOCEKID^E. 






















Trichocera, .... 


1 


l(?c) 


1(7+1) 










1 


1 




II. TUIIDJE. 






















Thia, 










1 




1 ^d^ 




2 








2 ft-)-!} 


2 








^ 








III. CORYSTID^E. 






















Telmessus, .... 














1 




1 




Atelecyclus, .... 








1 




1 


3 (lc) 


2(2/) 


4 
1 




Peeudocorystes, . . 












1 






1 






1 




1 










1 


1 




(Eidia, ... 




1? 


ir 
























1 1 






1 llf\ 


lid) 


1/1 -t.1^ 




Dicera, 










2? 








2(f) 





In the following recapitulation, the figure in parenthesis following 
the Total for the Temperate zone of the larger groups, expresses the 
number of species common to the Temperate and Torrid zones. 



1496 



CRUSTACEA. 



6. RECAPITULATION. 




jR 

e 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


f 

-JL, 
< 


I. MAIINEA, . 
I. MAIOIDEA, . . 


82 
57 

1 

1 

21 

4 
1 

4 

4 
8 

10 
9 
1 
3 

2 
1 

1 

1 

21 
1 

11 

8 

2 

23 

16 
5 

2 

2 

157 

83 
43 

40 

4 (t+1) 
i 

16 
1 
17 
36 
35 
1 

1 

2 

72 
1 
28 
9 
18 
1 
28 
10 
13 
6 


57 
60 

16(6a 
3(la 
2 (la 
5 (2 a 

2 (1 a) 
4 (la) 

6 (4 a) 
1 

1(3) 

28 

5 (2 a) 
13 (3 a) 

8(la) 

7 
6 (2 a) 

1 

112 

61 

44j9al 
12 (4 a) 

16 
I (a) 
8(f+7,la) 

aH 
31 (15 a) 
1(> 

2(f-l) 

I (a) 

88 
4 (la) 
28 
10 (2 a) 
17 (5 a) 

4^> 
23 (6 a) 
17 (4 a) 
4 (2 a) 


122 
92 
1 

1 

32 
6 
2 

7 

ir 

5 
11 

11 
10 
1 
4 
1? 
2 
1 

1 

1 

43 
1 
14 
18 
1 
9 

28 
20 
5 
3 

2 

229 

129 
77 
49 
3 
44 
1 
23(?+7) 
2 
18 
52 
51 
1 

2 (I -1) 

131 

4 
48 
17 
30 
1 
60 
27 
26 
7 


35 
"3 
i 

18 
2(li) 

11(1+1 

If 
2 
4 
4 (la) 

4 
If 

3(1 a!) 
3 

1 
l(a) 

l(fc) 
1 

1 

22 
1 
8 
8(46) 

4 
3(f 1) 

1 
8 
6(3,i) 
1() 
2(f + 6) 

21 
1 
4 

4(26) 

12 
1(6a.b 
3(2',) 
2 (2 a) 


27 
23 
4 

3 

10 
2 

1 
7(3c) 

2(la) 

3 
1 

2 
5 
1 

2 
2 

4 

4 

25 
1 
6 

6 (4 0) 6) 

6 
5 

o (0 
l(c) 

9(2,:) 
4 

2(1<!) 



8(2a,6) 

2 (2 a) 


21 
19 
1 

1 

7 
3(16!) 

4(lc) 
1 

3 
2 
1 
2 

!(<') 
6 

5(16) 

2 
!(<) 

1 

23 
7 
6 
7(lc) 

4 
4(2d) 

2 
2(1 d) 

27 
4 
6 

10 

4 (la) 
4(16) 
3 (la) 


16 

15 
4 

3(1 c) 

8 

1 

l(c) 
4(2<!,<J) 

2 

2 
l(d) 

l(d) 

1 

1 
1 

25 
3(2c,<5 
5(66, d) 
6(56, c,<f> 

2 
1((J) 

1 
13 

1(6) 

2(8c,a;) 
2(2 6, d) 



l(d) 

1(6) 

3(16) 
1(6) 


14 
14 

!(/) 

?, U) 

3(2,/) 

6 

6(2<0 

1 

l(d) 
1 

8 
3(2c,/) 

1 
1 

3 
1(6) 

2(d,/) 
1(6) 

9 

1 
1 

1(6) 

2 
2 


92(9) 
84(9) 
10 
1 
8 

38(2) 

3 
23(2) 

3 

2 

6(3) 
6 

7 
(+!) 

8(1) 
2(?1) 

3 

2 
15(3) 

4 
3 

7 

8 
6 

2 



(12) 

6 
16(6) 

14 
12(2) 

2 
21 
6(3) 

1 W 
7(1) 

3(8) 
3 





20 
6 

4 


1 
1 


Macrochetrinae, . . 
Inachinae, .... 






M;iiili:r, 

Pisinae, 


Prionorbynchinae, . . 
Micippinac, .... 


Othoninte, .... 

3. MtTHRACID.fi, .... 

Mithracince, .... 




Criocarcinince, . . . 


Camposcinae, .... 


Eurypodince, . . . 
Amathince, .... 
6. LKPTOPODID^, .... 


IiKirliuiilina-, . . . 
Leptopodinae, . . . 
Stenorhynchinae, . . 

7. PiRICERlDi, 


Paramicippms, . . 
Pericerinae, .... 
Menceihinae, .... 
Stenocionopinae, . . 
KpUiUiiiU', .... 

II. PARTUENOPINEA, 

1. PARTitENOPID*, .... 
2. Kt M, IMMJIK .... 

3. CRYPTO PODID.S, .... 
III. ONCININEA,. . 

II. OANCROIDEA. 
I. ^ANCRINEA, . . 
1. CAKCRIU.S, . . , 


2. XANTMITU', 


Xanthinae, .... 
Chlorodinae, .... 
Pol yd retinae, .... 
3. ERI PHIS.*, ...... 


(Eth rinse, . . 




Actumninae, .... 






AreDseinee, .... 
I'ortuninse 
5. PLAT YIN YCHIDJR, . . . 

6. PODOPHTHAI.MUXfi, . . . 

III. GRAFSOIDEA, . 

1. GoNOpLACIDJE, .... 

2. MACROPHTEIALICIDA, . . 
Macr. phtbalminas, . 
Ocvpodinee, .... 
Dot i nee 


3. GRAPSIDA, . . . 


Grapxinaa 

S .-Ul Tlllll,'!', .... 

PlagURinag 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1497 



R E C A P I T U L A T 1 N Conti nued. 








1 


a. 

a 




! 


A 




! 








V 





H 


1 


a 





& 









d 


g 






1 


1 


H 





e . 


<a 




B 


i 




B 




2 


fl 


2 





& 




& 


9 


3| 


ts 




a 
m 


i 


3 


IS 







<a 


=> 


H 


<j 


a 


t 


s 







<i 


4. QBCARCINIDJB, .... 


9 


6 


10 






2 






2 






7 


5 (4 a) 


8 
















Qecarcininse, . . . 


2 




2 






2 






2 




5. PlNNOTHERIDJS, . . . 


5 


6 


8 


4 


2 


9 


4 


5 


17 




Pianotherinie, . . . 
Hymenicinm, . . . 


4 

2 
1 


3fla) 
lial 


6 
2 


4(16) 


2 


4 
5 
1 


4(4* d) 


3(1 d) 


11 
6 
1 




IV. LEaOOSOIDEA, . 


35 


33 


48 


11 


8 


6 


3 


2 


24(5) 






8 


10 


11 


3 (la) 


1 


1 






4 






7 


10 (7 a) 


10 


3 (la) 




1 






4 




Orithyiace, .... 


1 




1 


















4 


4 (3 a) 


5 






1 






2 






19 
4 


15 (3 a) 
4 (4 a) 


28 
4 


3 

4C3al 


5 

2 (lei 


3 (la) 


3 


2 (I/) 


13 
6 






V. CORYSTOIDEA, . 


2 




5 


2 


4 


2 


6 


6 


16 




1. TRICHOUERID.fi, . . . 


1 


1 C c ) 


!('+!) 










1 


1 








2 


2 




1 




1 




2 




3. CORYSTID.S, 


1 


1 


2 


2 


3 


2 




6 (3d,/) 


13 




SUMMARY. 








1 


p. 

a 


S 


1 


A 




S 






j 


1 


1 


H 


I 


1 


1 


U 


1 


TJ 








O o 








2 




O w 






| 


a 


1^ 


j 


1 




5 


9 
03 


jl 


1 




e 





EH 


" 


a 


V 


S 


J 


H 


* 




82 


67 


122 


35 


27 


21 


16 


14 


92 


3(2) 




167 


112 


229 


22 


25 


23 


25 


8 


69 


3(3) 




72 
35 


88 
33 


131 
48 


21 
11 


14 

8 


27 
5 


10 
3 


9 
2 


63 
24 




Leucosoidea, 




2 


3 


5 


2 


4 


2 


6 


6 


16 


If 
























348 


296 


535 


91 


78 


78 


60 


39 


64 





We here notice a few of the general facts or conclusions that may 
be deduced from the preceding tables. 

I. The line of division, separating the Torrid and Temperate zones 
of ocean temperature, following the isocryme of 68 or the outer limit 
of coral reef seas, marks a grand boundary in organic life, well exem- 
plified in Crustacean species. Out of the five hundred and thirty-four 
species of the Torrid and Subtorrid Regions (the Torrid zone), there 
are one hundred now known to be common to the two. But of the 
two hundred and fifty-four in the Temperate Regions, only thirty-four 
occur in the Torrid zone. A large number of genera, containing more 
than a single known species, are confined wholly to the Torrid zone : 

375 



1498 CRUSTACEA. 

such are Micippa (5 species), Menaethius (9), Huenia (4), Parthenope 
(3), Atergatis (17), Carpilius (13), all the Chlorodinae, including forty- 
nine species, nearly all the Eriphinae, including eighteen species, Cha- 
rybdis (15). At the same time, the species of the Torrid and Sub- 
torrid Regions are in many cases equally numerous. Of species of 
Charybdis, eleven species occur in each of these regions ; of the Car- 
pilii, eleven are reported from the Subtorrid and but five from the 
Torrid ; of the Menaethii, five are found in the Torrid Region, and six 
in the Subtorrid, only two being common to both. These proportions 
may be much varied by future investigations. Still it cannot fail to 
be evident from a survey of the table, that the line between the 
Torrid and Temperate zones is a natural zoological limit. A further 
examination of the other subdivisions, will show, we believe, that all 
of them are important. 

II. The Torrid species of Brachyura (Torrid and Subtorrid Regions) 
greatly preponderate over those of the Temperate zone, the proportion 
being above two to one. This fact is the subject of remarks by 
Edwards, but with different conclusions from those which we would 
deduce. 

III. The Frigid zone, as far as known, includes one species peculiar 
to it, the Chionoecetes opilio. And Stenorhynclius phalangium, Hyas 
o.raneus, Pyrtunm pusillus, Carcinus mcenas, and Cancer pagurus, are 
all that are known to extend into it from the Temperate zone. Per- 
haps the Cancer chirogonus from Kamtschatka (Telmessus cJiirogonus 
of White) should be added. This may be in part evidence of the 
little exploration hitherto made in the Frigid Seas. Yet, after the 
investigations of Beechey, Fabricius, Kroyer, Rathke, and others, we 
may be assured that the number of species is exceedingly small. 

IV. Within the Temperate zone, the species are most numerous in 
the Warm Temperate, Temperate, and Subtemperate Regions; beyond 
this, the number diminishes, being a quarter less in the Cold Tempe- 
rate than in the Subtemperate, and half less in the Subfrigid. More- 
over, in the last-mentioned region, seventeen out of the thirty-seven 
species, or nearly one-half, occur in warmer temperate latitudes, only 
twenty species being confined to the Region. 

V. In the Torrid zone, the species of the torrid region, amounting 
to three hundred and forty-eight, exceed in number those of the 
Subtorrid by only forty-two, although the Subtorrid region is not one- 
third as great, both as to surface and extent of coast line. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 149Q 

VI. Passing now from these general considerations respecting the 
Brachyura as a class to the several orders, we may look at their ratios 
among these orders and their subdivisions, for the several regions, in 
order to discover what is the relation of the species to temperature, 
and whether the cold or warm water species are the higher or lower 
in grade, or whether the torrid or temperate zone can claim species of 
the highest perfection or magnitude among the Brachyura. 

The following table gives the ratio which the number of species 
of the several orders in the Temperate and Frigid zones, bears to that 
of the Torrid zone. 

1. Maioidea, . . . . . . . 1 : 1-3 

2. Cancroidea, . . . . . . 1 : 3-3 

3. Grapsoidea, . . . . . . 1 : 2-1 

4. Leucosoidea, ... 1:2-0 

5. Corystoidea, . . . . . .1:0-3 

It hence appears that the Maioidea and Corystoidea are propor- 
tionally much more abundant in the colder seas than the Cancroidea, 
Grapsoidea, or Leucosoidea. 

If we examine into the subdivisions of the Maioidea and Cancroi- 
dea, we shall find the differences between the two groups in distri- 
bution more strikingly brought out. We shall find, moreover, that 
both groups may be divided into a warm-water and cold-water section, 
as below. 



I. MAIOIDEA. 

1. TEMPERATE ZONE SECTION. 

Torrid Temperate 
species. species. 

1. Inaehidae, . . 1 

2. Maiidze, subfamilies Libininse, Maiinae, JPisinse, Otho- 

ninee, ....... 15 35 

3. Eurypodidae, ... 07 

4. Leptopodidse, 

17 00 



1500 



CRUSTACEA. 



2. TOREID ZONE SECTION. 



1. Maiidae, subfamilies Micippince, Chorinince, Pyrince, 

2. Mithracidae, 

3. Tyehidas, 

4. Periceridae, 

5. Parthcnopinca, 

6. Oncininea, 



Torrid. 

16 
11 

4 
43 
28 

2 



Temperate. 

3 
6 

14 
8 




104 



31 



H. CANCROIDEA. 

1. TEMPERATE ZONE SECTION. 



Cancridae, 

Platyonychidae, 

Portunidse, subfamily Portuninae, 

Cyclinea, 



2. TOKRID ZONE SECTION. 



Xanthidse, .... 

EriphidaB, ..... 
Portunidae, excluding the Portunince, 
Podophthalmidae, 



Torrid. Temperate. 

11 

2 7 

15 

1 



Torrid. 

129 
44 
52 

2 

227 



34 



Temperate. 

16 
12 

7 




35 



We have here two singular facts brought out. 

First, that the cold-water section of the Cancroidea embraces those 
species that approach most nearly to the Corystoidea, and which we 
have elsewhere shown to be the lowest in grade of the Cancrinea. 
All have the lax character of the outer maxillipeds, which is a mark 
of degradation in the Corystoids; and the Cyclinea are still nearer 
that group. Many of the species moreover have the hind legs a 
swimming pair, another mark of degradation. The Corystoidea, as 
before shown, are two-thirds cold-water species. 

Second, that the cold-water section of the Maioidea contains the 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

species that are higftest in grade, and largest in size. It is headed by 
the Macrocheira of Northern Japan, the king of all crabs, whose body 
is seventeen inches long and a foot broad, or, with extended legs, 
sometimes covers a breadth of eleven feet, and whose anterior legs or 
arms are four feet long!* The species of the other genera are mostly 
among the larger of the Maioids, and have no mark of inferiority. 
Such are the species of Maia, Pisa, Libanii, Eurypodius, etc. 

But among the species of the warmer section, we find the Oncininea 
and Parthenopinea, both manifestly inferior in grade, the former 
approaching even the Anomoura, and the latter forming the passage 
of the Maioids to the Cancroids, as has been explained. We observe 
also the Periceridse and Tychidae, all very small species, excepting a 
few Pericerse : the Menaethii, Tiarinise, and Acanthonyces, are examples 
of the group. In addition, there are the Mithracidse, which although 
attaining a large size show their inferiority in their shorter epistome, 
shorter body, which is sometimes even transverse, and their spoon- 
shaped fingers. In the last character, the Chlorodinae among the 
Cancroids, similarly show their inferiority to the Xanthidae. That 
this kind of finger is such a mark of inferiority is apparent from its 
diminishing in many species as the adult size of the animal is attained, 
the tendency being towards producing the acuminated finger found in 
the highest grades. 

We are hence sustained in the conclusion that the Maioids of the 
Temperate zone are generally those that are highest in grade. It 
also shows the congeniality of cold waters to the Maioids, that the 
only Brachyuran peculiar to the Frigid zone is of this group. We 
refer to the Chionoecetes opilio. 

VII. The Brachyura, therefore, although most numerous in the 
Torrid zone, do not reach in this zone their highest perfection. On 
the contrary, the Temperate zone or colder waters are the habitat of 
the highest species. Hence, as the Maioidea stand first among all 
Crustacea, the highest development of the class Crustacea takes place, 
not in the Torrid zone, the most profuse in life, but beyond the 
tropics and coral-reef seas, in the middle Temperate Regions. 

VIII. The prevalence also of the inferior Corystoids in the colder 
waters does not invalidate this conclusion, as the fact respecting the 
Maioids is wholly an independent one ; for these last, by attaining 

* De Ilaau's Fauna Japon., Crust, p. 101. 
376 



1502 CRUSTACEA. 

their highest perfection in these coldest waters, determine the prin- 
ciple as regards themselves, the highest grade of Crustacea. Lower 
grades occur also in the colder waters^ and the laws governing their 
distribution demand separate study and consideration. 

IX. Passing a step below the Maioids, we come to the Cancroids, 
and these, with the exception of the lower Corystoid species, and 
only one-eighth of the rest, are Torrid zone species. 

X. If the Torrid zone is the proper region for the full development 
of the Cancroid type, and its heat is needed for this end, it is natural 
that species of Cancroids like the Fbrtunince, Platyonychidce, and Can- 
cridoe, found in the less genial waters of the Temperate zone, should 
bear some mark of inferiority, and it is a fact that they have such 
marks in their structure. This inferiority is not seen in their smaller 
size, for a larger size, under certain conditions, may equally evince a 
lower grade, but in the inferior concentration of the life-system, 
exhibited either in the lax outer maxillipeds, the elongation of the 
antennae and abdomen, or in the smaller size or swimming character 
of the posterior legs. 

For a like reason also, the species of Corystoidea, a grade still lower, 
naturally occur in the cold and ungenial region they frequent. 

We hence perceive, that the degradation among the Maioids takes 
place when the species become warm-water species, and the degrada- 
tion among the Cancroids, in the reverse 'manner, when the species 
become cold-water species; for the reason that the colder waters are 
the proper habitat for the Maioid type, and the warmer for the Can- 
croid type. 

XI. In the tables of the Maioidea and Cancroidea of the Temperate 
and Torrid zones, page 1499, the species are included by families 
and subfamilies, and consequently the peculiarities of some genera are 
not shown. In the families or subfamilies referred to the cold-water 
section, there is only one warm-water genus, viz., Doclea, of the sub- 
family Libinince, in which there are four Torrid and one Temperate 
zone species. 

Among those referred to the warm-water section, there are the 
following cold-water genera : 

Species in Species in 

Torrid zone. Temperate zone. 

Parthenopinea, genus Eurynome, . . .0 

" " Eurynolambrus, . . 1 

Xanthidae, " Paraxanthus, . . .0 

Ozinse, " Ozius, ... 2 3 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 15Q3 

The species of Cancrinea of the Torrid zone section, which reach 
farthest into the Temperate zone, are those of the following genera: 
XantJio, which has eight Temperate zone species out of twenty-eight 
in all; Panapeus, which in the same way has four out of ten; Pilumnus, 
which has seven out of twenty-two ; and Lupa, which has four out 
of ten. The Cold Temperate Region is the highest for each of these 
genera, excepting Lupa and Pilumnus, a species of each of these latter 
genera extending just within the limits of the Subfrigid Region, on 
the coast of Massachusetts. 

XII. The Grapsoidea, if divided between the Torrid zone and Tem- 
perate zone, according to families or subfamilies, will fall within the 
Torrid zone, excepting a single family of the Pinnotheridae, which 
contains eight species in the Torrid zone and fifteen in the Temperate. 
Considering the genera, however, we find that several among the 
Grapsidse may be called cold-water genera, or are about equally 
divided between the Torrid and Temperate zones. They are as follows : 

Torrid Temperate 
tpeclea. species. 

Pseudograpsus, . . . . .1 

Heterograpsus, ..... 1 

Brachyuotus, . . . . . .0 1 

Planes, ..... ~ 22 

Hemigrapsus, . . . . . .4 5 

Cyrtograpsus, ..... 1 

Chasmagnathus, . . . . . .2 

Five out of twelve species of Grapsus also reach into the colder 
seas. Further particulars will be gathered from the tables. 

XIII. The Leucosoids include as cold-water genera the following : 

Torrid. Temperate. 

Genus Ebalia, . . . . . .0 8 

" Ilia, . . . . . . 1 

The remaining genera are mainly confined to the Torrid zone ; out 
of the species they contain, sixty-seven in all, forty-eight are of this 
zone. Hepatus, however, contains as many cold-water as warm-water 
species, and the same is true of Dorippe, although but one of the 
species of the latter is exclusively Temperate. 

XIV. The tropics afford not only a larger number of species of 
Brachyura than the Temperate zone, but also a much greater proper- 



1504 CRUSTACEA. 

tion of individuals of the several species. Crustacean life, of this 
tribe, is far the most prolific in the warm waters of the globe. Crus- 
tacea are very abundant about coral islands, far exceeding what may 
be found in other regions. 

XV. The actual mass of Brachyura appears also to be the largest 
in the tropics, although there are genera, as Macrocheira and Cancer, 
which have their largest species in the colder waters, and which 
exceed in size any other Brachyura. The genera Atergatis, Carpilius, 
Xantho, Menippe, Zozymus, Eriphia, Thalamita, Charybdis, Calappa, 
besides others of the Torrid zone, contain many large species, which 
are of very common occurrence; while the cold-water genera of Maioids 
appear to be much less prolific in species, and the other genera, 
though abounding in individuals, as Cancer and Lupa, are still but 
few in number. Any very exact comparison, however, of the two 
zones in this particular cannot be made without more data than have 
yet been collected. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 15Q5 

TABLE II. 
ANOMOURA, MACROURA, AND ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 



1. AN.OMOURA. 




3 
tj 


6. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


d, 
1 

P 

u 


! 
i 

o 


e. Sub-temperate. 


0. 

H 

I 

s 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Tot&l of Temperate 
zone. 


a 

K 
4 


I. DROMIDEA. 
1. BROMIDE. 


6 

1 

2 

1 
1 

1 

2 

5 
1 

17 

2 
2 

9 
6 
1 
16 

8 

1 

4 

2 
1 

1 

1 


1 

6 (3 a) 

l(a) 

1 

l(a) 

13 (3 a) 

IM 
3(1 +3) 
7 (2 a) 
3 (3 a) 
Ija) 
7 (4 a) 

6 (5 a) 
l 

1 


1 

8 

1 

2 

1 
1 
1 

1 

3 

5 
2 

27 

3 
+, 

6 
1 
19 

IT 

9 
1 

5 

2 
1 

1 
1 


1 
1 
1 

3 (2 a) 

1(0) 

2(6) 
5(20,6) 

2(16) 

1 

1 
1 


2(2a,) 
2(lc) 

1 

1 
1 

2(2a, C ) 

7 (lc) 

2 
2(2 a) 

6(26,c) 
3 

1 

2ao 


2(16) 

1 
1 

l(c) 
11 (3d) 

2 ( 

4 
8(1 d) 

1 

2 
1 

1 
1 


I 

l(c) 
3(2c,d) 

2 
1 

7p) 
l() 

3(2c,) 

1 

1 
2 


l(c) 
1(0 
7(2/) 

W>Af) 

m 


2 
3 

2 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

3 
2 
1 
2 

20 

7 
2 
1 


2 
25 
7 

4 
1 

2 

4 

2 

1 

2 
1 
2 
1 
1 


2(2*) 
*(!) 


Dromia, 
Latreillia, .... 


2. CYMOPOLID2E. 
Cymopolia, .... 
Caphyra, 

II. BELLIDEA. 
Corystoides, .... 
Bellia 


III. RANINIDEA. 
Raninoides, .... 








Cosmonotua, . . . 
IV. HIPPIDEA. 


Albunhippa, . . . 


Iliomi 


V. PORCELLANIDEA. 
Porcellana, .... 

VI. LITHODEA. 
Lithodes, 




Echidnocerus, . . . 

VII. PAGTJRIDEA. 
1. PAGURID.S. 

1. I'vcil l:l\.v. 

Paguristes, .... 


Bernbardus, .... 






ClibanariuR 
2. CANCELLING. 
Cancellua, .... 
2. CENOBITID.*:. 
Cenobita, 




VIII. JEGLEIDEA. 


IX. GALATHEIDEA. 
Oalatbea, 


Grimothea, .... 
MEGALOPIDEA. 


Monoh-pis, .... 
Megalopa, .... 


Tribola, .... 





377 



1506 



CRUSTACEA. 



2. MACKOURA. 




4 


6. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


o. 
I 

P 

u 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


0. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


-3 

rft 


I. THALASSINIDEA. 
I. (JKlilD.'K 
Gebia, .....'. 


1? 

2 

1 
1 

1 

1 
2 
11 

1 

8 

4 

14 
1 

5 

3 
3 
1 
3 


1 

6(1) 

1(0) 

8 (4 a) 

2 

2 
1 
1 

17 
4(2a) 

1 


If 
1 

2 

1 

1 

6 

1 

2 
2 

2 
12 

2 

6 
1 
1 

31 
1 

7 

4 
3 
1 
3 


2 
It 

1 

1(1) 
l(a) 

ir 

i? 

i 

3<U) 

2 

1? 
1 


1 

2 

IS 

1 

1 
1 

6(?3) 

2 
1 

l(c) 

1 
2 

4(26) 
3(1 c) 

iC+i) 
1 


2(10) 

1 
1 

1 

2 
1 

1 
2 
1 

1 
3 

I?/) 


1 


2 
1 

1() 

l(d) 

2(1 d) 
2 

7(3) 
2(1 d) 

1(0 

1(0) 
6(1=) 


1 

1 

1 

!(/) 

*(2,/) 
1 

1 

4 
2 


7 
1 
1 
1? 

S 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

3 
1 

3 

2 
2 

12 

1 

3 
2 

1 

1 

1 
2 

7 
4 

1 
1 
18 
1 

8(+l) 
2 


3(1?) 
1 

19 
2(1 f) 


Axius, 




Laomedia, .... 
Olaucotboe, .... 

II. CALLIANASSID2E. 
Callianassa, .... 


HI. THALASSINID.. 
Tnalaasina, .... 

IV. CALLISEID.S. 
Callianidea, .... 
Callisua, 


II. ASTACIDEA, 
I. W'YI.I.AKII'.K. 






Parribacus, .... 


n. PALINURID^E. 
PalinurUfi, .... 
Panulirua, .... 

III. ASTACID.S. 

1. AgTACINA. 


< Agtacus, Ac. 
I Freshwater. 
2. NIPHROPINJ:. 


Paranephrops, . . . 

III. OAHIDEA. 
I. CRANGUN1D.S. 
1. CRANGONINA. 


Sabinea, 


Argis, . 


Paracrangon, . . . 
2. LYSHATI.I.S. 
Nika, 




Cyclorhynchua, . . 
3. GNiTHopaiu.ru. 
Gnatbophyllum, . . 

H. ATYIDA 
1. ATTIXJS. 
Atya, 


Atyoida, 


Caridina, 


2. EPHTKINA. 


HI. PAL.ZMONIDJE. 
1. ALPBUNA. 


Beteeus, 


Alope, 


Athanaa 


Hippolyte, .... 
Kbyncocinetes, . . . 
2. PASDALIN*. 
Pandalug, .... 

3. PAlJEMO.NIXi. 

PoDtonia, .... 
iK.|i|nis 
Harpilius, .... 
Ancbistia, .... 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 15Q7 



MACROURA Continued. 




1 
& 
d 


I 


Total of Torrid 
tone. 


I 

P 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


s 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Tempe- 
rate tone. 


4 


Palsemonella, . . . 


2 
14 
1 

1 

2 . 

8 
2 

1 


20 (2 a) 

irr+3) 

9 (3 a) 


2 
32 
1 

1 

2 

2 
1 

1 


6 

1 

3 


6(Sc) 

1 

2 
4 

1 


1 


8(2c,) 

3 

1J 


1 
1 


18 
1 

1 
2 

2 
8 

1 
1 


l 

1 

1 


Hymenocera, . . . 
Cryphiops, .... 
4. OPHLOPHOKINJE. 
Oplophorus, .... 




IV. FENJEIDEA. 
I. PBN.EID.E. 






gpongicola, .... 
II. SERQESTIDJE. 




? Euphema, .... 

III. EUCOPID^I. 
Eucopia, 


3. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 




a. Torrid. 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


e. Sub- temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Tempe- 
rate zone. 





I. SQUILLOIDEA. 
I. SQUILL1D.& 
Lyfiiosquilla, . . . 
gquilla, 


3 

6 
1 

1 
2 

2 
8 
6 

1 
3 
2 

1 

3 

1 

3 

3 

16 


8 (3 a) 
6(lo) 

4 

1 

1 

1 
1 


4 
11 
1 
1 
6 

2 
12 
6 

1 
3 
2 

1 
1 
3 
1 

3 

1 

4 

16 
1 


(*) 
2(2o,6) 

1 


1 

1(0) 

2 
2 


2(20,6) 
2(1 d) 

1 


2(26, d) 
2 


It 

1 

3 
1 

1 

2(1 /) 
2 


I 
10 

2 
1 
3 

1 

3 
1 

2 
7 
2 

2 


2 


Pseudosquilla, . . . 


Gonodactylus, . . . 

11. ERICHTHID^E. 
Squillericbthus, . . 
Ericbthus, .... 
Alima, .... 


II. MYSIDEA. 
I. EUPHADSIDJE. 
Thysanopoda, . . . 
Euphausia, .... 
Cyrtopia, 

II. MTSID*. 
1. CTHTHIN*. 
Cynthia, .... 


2. MYMIN.F.. 
Myais, 




Macromysis, .... 
giriella 




3. ScELETiriiNJl. 


Rachitia .... 


Myto. 
III. LTJCIFERID2E. 


m. AMHHIONIDEA. 
AMPHIONID^E. 
Phyllosoma, .... 
Amphion, 



1508 



CRUSTACEA. 



4. RECAPITULATION. 




a. Torrid. 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
Eone. 


c. 





d. Temperate. 


e. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


0. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
tone. 


h. Frigid. 


ANOMOURA, . . 


90 
8 
5 
3 

3 

8 
17 

45 
36 
9 

4 
6 

84 
5 
1? 

2 
2 

14 
6 
9 

54 

4 
4 

51 
20 

27 
3 

11 
10 
1 

62 
30 
13 
17 

17 
6 
8 

5 
3 
3 

15(?+1) 


59(25o) 
7 (3 a) 
7(3 a) 

2 (la) 
3 (la) 
13 (3 a) 

33 (17 a) 
26 (11 a) 
7 (6 a) 

1 

77 (14 a) 
1 

16 (6 a) 
7<2a) 
9 {4 a) 

48(4a) 

2 

4 

4 

42 (4 a) 
21 (2 a) 

21 (2 a) 

12 (4 a) 
12 (4 a) 

26 (7 a) 
22 (7 a) 
18 (7 a) 

8 

2 

1 
1 
1 
1 


125 
12 
9 
3 

4 
10 
27 

62 
52 
10 

5 

5 

147 
6 
1? 
1 

2 
2 

24 
10 
14 

98 
2 

2 

8 

8 

89 
39 

46 
3 

19 
18 
1 

82 
45 
24 
21 

20 

10 


4 

4 
17 


20 (7 a,6) 
3 
3 

6(4a,6) 
5 (2 a,6; 

saw 

3(16) 

1 

2 

23 (2 0,6) 

3 

1 

3(2a,6) 
3 (2 0,6) 

13(7+3) 
3(1+3) 

2? 

1 

13 (1 6) 

1 6 H 
6 
1 

3 

3 

8(4a,6j 
8(40,6) 

1 

1 
1 


43(llo-c) 
7(3a-) 
6(3a-c) 

2 

4(2a-c) 
7 (lc) 

21(4a-c) 
2l(4a-c) 

2(1=) 

40(86,c) 
3 
1 
2 

4f2M 
2(26,c) 

1 

28(56,c) 
8 
5(?3) 
3 

3 
1 

2 
16(56,c) 
8(26.c) 
!(>+!) 
7<8c) 

1 

6 
4 

1 

10(3a-c) 
6(3a-c) 
6(3a-c) 

2 
2 
2 

2 


34(86-d) 
2 16} . 
2(16) 

11 (3d) 

13(36,c,d) 
13(S6,c,,/) 

2 
1 
2 

35(46,c) 
B(lrt 
2>c$ 

1 

6 

3 
3 

24(36,c) 

a5 

2 

l(c) 

20(26,c 
12 

5(26,d) 
4(26,d) 
6 (3 6,d) 

1 


25(8c-) 

i8 ' 

l(c) 
3 (2 c, d) 
Sllc) 
9>3e 
9(3) 

5(2c, e) 

36(12d-e) 
4(U) 

1() 

6(2d) 

1(<0 
4(1 d) 

24 (10 c,e) 

(*) 
7(3e} 
2(1) 

14 (4 c,) 
8(3c-e) 

6 (2 c,e) 

1(4 

3(?+l) 
3 
11 

4(26,d) 
2 (2 6,d) 
2 (2 6,d) 

2 
2 
2 


19(10o-/) 
1M 

1M 

7(2/) 

ftfSMjf 
8(8 M/ 

*(3/) 

18 (3 ^) 
3 
2 
1 

!(/) 

!(/) 

14 (2^) 

5 2<V) 
5(2e/) 

8 
5 
2 
1 

1 

10 (If) 
gtt 

1 

9 (I/) 
5 (I/) 
*(!/) 


110 (15) 
8 
7 
1 
2 
2 
8 
20 
10 
44 
44 

2 

7 
7 

126(16) 

10 
6 
1 

14 
3 
4 
7 

84 
21 
14 
6 
1 
3 
1 
2 
68 
33 

2? al) 
1 
2 

11 

9 
2(1) 

33(9o,6) 
16(9) 
16(9) 

15 
4 
11 
2 
9 

2 


6(3 **) 

2(2/0) 
4(le) 

29(20) 

28(2p) 
5 (lp) 
6 (iff) 

22(10) 
19 

2(10) 

1 
1 

1 

2 

2 
2 
2 




Cymopolidae, . . . 






POKCELL \NIDEA, .... 




Paguridae, .... 
Cenohitidffi, .... 


GALATHEIPEA, . . . . . 


MAOROURA, . . 
THALASSINIDEA, . 

Oebidee 


Callianafisidae, . . . 
Thalassinidfe, . . . 
Calliseidae, .... 

ASTACIDEA, . . 
Scyliaridse, .... 
Palinuridae, .... 

Astariil.-i- (Marine), . 

CARIDEA, . . . 


Crangoninee, .... 
J.ysniatiii.'r, .... 
Qnathophyllinfe, . . 




Kpliyriiui 1 , .... 


Alpbeinae, .... 
Pandalinae, .... 

Palsemoninae, . . . 
Ophlopborinae, . . . 


PEN^IDEA, . . 






ANOMOBRAWCHIATA, 
SQU1LLOIDEA, . . 


EEICHTBID^E, 
MYSIDEA, . . . 




Cyntbinffi, .... 


Scfletininae, .... 


AMPHIONID^, . 



The following deductions may be drawn from the preceding tables : 



GEOGRAPHIC.AL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 15<)<j 



I. ANOMOURA. 

XVI. The Anomoura are nearly equally divided between the 
torrid and temperate zones, there being hardly one-tenth more torrid 
than cold-water species. Only fifteen species out of two hundred and 
twenty-five are common to the torrid and temperate zones. 

Yet it is seen from the table, that if we except the Galatheidea, 
Lithodea, and part of the Paguridea, the species hardly extend beyond 
the warmer half of the temperate zone. There are but six known 
frigid species, and these are of the two last-mentioned groups. 

XVII. The torrid zone and temperate zone sections of the Ano- 
moura, are as follows ; the frigid zone species being here added to the 
temperate. 



1. TEMPEKATE ZONE SECTION. 



DromidaB, G. Latreillia, 

JBomola, 
Bellidea, 

Raninidea, G. Notopus, 
Lyreidus, 

Hippidea, G. AlbunJiippa, 
Lithodea, 
Porcellanidea, 
Paguridse, G. Paguristes, 

Bernhardus, 

JSgleidea, 

Galatheidea, G. Munida, . 
Grimothea, 
Galathea, 



Torrid zone. Temperate tone. 











27 
3 






5 



3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

2 

10 
20 

6 

29 

2 
2 
1 
4 



* torrid and 
4 frigid. 



2. TORRID ZONE SECTION. 



Dromidae, G. Dynomene, 

Dromia, 

CymopolidjE, G. Cymopolia, 
Caphyra, 



Torrid lone. 
. 1 

8 
1 
2 



378 



Temperate tone. 



2 (1 torrid). 

1 





1510 CRUSTACEA. 

Torrid zone. Temperate zone. 

Raninidea, G. Raninoides, ... 1 

Ranina, ... 1 

Ranilia, ... 1 

Cosmonotus, . . 1 

Hippidea, G. Alluncea, . . .3 3 (2 torrid). 

Remipes, ... 5 1 (1 torrid). 

Hippa, . . . .2 2 (1 torrid). 

Paguridae, G. Diogenes, ... 5 2 (2 torrid). 

Pagurus, . . .14 7 (1 torrid). 

Calcinus, ... 6 

Aniculug, ... 1 

Clibanarius, . .19 4 

Canctllus, . . .1? 0? 

Cenobitidae, .... 10 1 

The Dromidea and Paguridea have one-third to one-fourth more 
torrid than cold-water species. 

The Raninidea and Hippidea are mainly tropical. The two extra- 
tropical species of Raninidea occur only in the warmer of the tempe- 
rate regions, and the species of Hippidea in the temperate zone (eight 
out of the whole number eighteen) have among them four that occur 
also in the tropics. 

The Lithodea belong to the coldest temperate regions, abounding 
especially in the subfrigid region. The Galatheidea are mainly of the 
temperate zone; there are five known torrid species, and seven tempe- 
rate, the latter pertaining to the colder seas. 

The genus Fbrcellana has but two-thirds as many species in the 
temperate as in the torrid zone. Yet the subtemperate region contains 
but one less than the subtorrid, and some of the largest species of the 
genus occur here ; while, on the contrary, the torrid zone species are 
quite small. Although, therefore, Porcellana may rank as a torrid 
zone genus, if we consider the relative number of species in the two 
zones, it is more properly a temperate zone genus. 

The Paguridea range through both the tropics and temperate zone, 
even passing into the frigid zone. Bernhardus is mainly a cold-water 
genus, while Pagurus, Calcinus, and Clibanarius are mostly torrid 
genera. Pagurus has seven out of twenty-one species in the tempe- 
rate zone. But it is in the torrid zone where the species of the largest 
size occur; the extra-torrid species belong almost exclusively to the 
Mediterranean. The species are exceedingly prolific in the tropics, 
far exceeding what occurs as regards any Paguridea in the temperate 
zone. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF, C RUST A C E A. 15H 

XVIII. It was found in the Brachyura, that the highest species 
among the Maioids, and the highest of Crustacea occur in the extra- 
tropical regions ; and that as we descend to the Cancroids, the species 
become mainly tropical; moreover, as we descend among the Can- 
croids (the type of which is tropical), there is in general a return to 
the less genial colder waters, as exemplified in the true Cancers or 
Cancridae and the Corystoidea, these last being mainly cold-water 
species. By these steps we find the more degraded forms among the 
Brachyura occurring in both the colder and warmer waters. We 
cannot therefore expect that the Anomoura, which are properly Bra- 
chyura of a still lower grade, should be arranged according to rank in 
one zone in preference to the other. And it is a fact that the genera 
of higher species occur about equally in the two zones. Latreillia, but 
a single step below the Inachidse, is found in the warmer temperate 
regions; and Dromia, a little lower, has three-fourths of its species in 
the tropics. Homola, again, has been found only in the temperate zone. 

Among the Paguridea, the Bernhardi or cold-water species are pro- 
bably the superior in rank; and the Lithodea, which are a grade 
higher still, are from the neighbourhood of the frigid zone. 

The Hippidea, which have been considered as in the Corystoid 
series (page 54), but below the Corystoidea/ are mostly from warmer 
waters. 

The most bulky forms among the Anomoura are found in the 
genera Lithodes, Ranina, and Dromia. The common Ranina dentata 
has a length of five inches in the Japan Seas, while in the warm East 
Indies (at the Moluccas), as De Haan states, four inches is the greatest 
length. 



II. MACROURA. 

XIX. The Macroura, according to the table, are nearly equally 
divided between the torrid and extra-torrid zones, the former including 
one hundred and forty-seven species, and the latter one hundred and 
fifty-three species. 

In the above table we have not included the fresh-water Astacidae, 
as we are treating only of marine species. Yet in a comparison of 
numbers between the zones, these should be brought in. They are 
about thirty-six in number, and all, excepting perhaps one, belong to 



1512 CRUSTACEA. 

the temperate zone. With this addition, the numbers become one 
hundred and forty-seven for the torrid zone, and one hundred and 
eighty-nine for the extra- torrid. Sixteen of the cold-water species are 
common to both the torrid and temperate zones, and twenty-nine occur 
in the frigid zone, twenty-seven being peculiar to this zone. This is 
strikingly in contrast with the Brachyura, of which two-thirds are 
torrid species, and only five or six are known to extend into the cold 
zone, of which but one is confined to it. 

XX. The Thalassinidea are mainly extra-torrid species. 

The Astacidea are divided between the warm and cold seas; the 
Palinuridge and Scyllaridae being mostly of the former, and the Asta- 
cidse almost exclusively of the latter. 

The Caridea spread largely over both zones ; but extensive groups 
are extra-torrid, and some genera contain many frigid species. 

The Penseidea are mainly of the torrid zone. 

The exact ratios will be gathered from the preceding tables. 

XXI. The geographical relations of the subordinate groups are 
shown in the following table. 



1. TEMPERATE AND FRIGID ZONE SECTION. 

.Species in the Species in the Tempe- 

Torrid zone. rate and Frigid zoues. 

Thalassinidea, .... 6 17 

Astacidea, ..... 24 50 

Astacidae, .... 1 46 

Scyllaridse, G. Arctvs, 1 

Palinuridae, G. Palinurus, 2 3 

Caridea. 

Crangonidse, ... 2 25 

Atyidae, G. Ephyra, ... 2 
Palaemonidae. 

Alpheinae, G. Betaeus, 1 4 

Alope, . . 1 

Athanas, 1 

Hippolyte, 8 37 (19 frigid). 

Pandalinse, G. Pandalus, . . 4 (2 frigid). 

Palasmoninee, G. Cryphiops, . 1 

Pasiphseidae, G. Pasiphcea, 3 (1 frigid). 

Penaeidea, G. Eucopia, ... 1 (1 frigid). 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 15J3 



2. TORRID ZONE SECTION. 

8pciei In the BpedM In the Temp*- 

Torrld ion. nU and Frigid ionei. 

Astacidea. 

Scyllaridefi, except Arctut, . 10 2 

Palinuridx, G. Panulirus, 12 1 
Caridea. 

Atyinae, .... 8 1 
Palaemonidae. 

Alpheinae, G. Alpheut, 31 7 

Falaemoninae, G. Pontonia, . 4 2 

(Edipus, 3 

Sarpiliui, . 1 

Anchistia, 3 

Palxmonella, . 2 

Pafotmon, . . 32 19 (1 frigid). 

Hymenocera, . 1 

Oplophorince, ... 3 1 

Penseidea, . . . 19 * 12 

XXII. Considering the Scyllaridae and Palinuridae as the Macroura 
highest in grade, this division of the Podophthalmia appears at first 
to have its superior developments in the tropics. But it may still be 
questioned whether this is altogether true. The Palinuridse include 
two genera, one Palinurus, mainly a cold-water genus, the other Panu- 
lirus, a warm-water or Torrid zone genus : and is the Torrid zone 
genus the superior in rank, as should be the case, if the tropics are 
the most congenial to the highest Macroural developments? Pali- 
nurus has the outer antennae nearly in contact at base, and the 
flagella of the inner antennae are very short; Panulirus, the warm- 
water genus, has the outer antennae remote at base, and the flagella 
of the inner antennae very long. The genera are thus characterized 
by marks analogous to those that distinguish the higher and lower 
species among the Brachyura, or that exhibit the superiority of the 
Brachyura as a class over the Macroura ; and if such evidence is here 
to be regarded, the cold-water genus, Palinurus, is the higher in rank. 
Moreover, the aspect of the Palinuri, the harder shell and more com- 
pact body, strike the eye at once as indicating their higher character. 
In size, they are not at all inferior ; they even exceed the Panuliri in 
bulk if not in length. Among the Palinuri, one species is afforded by 
the warm seas of the West Indies; but it is not half the size lineally, 

379 



1514 CRUSTACEA. 

of the Lalandii of the Cape of Good Hope, or the vulgaris of the Medi- 
terranean, both gigantic species, sometimes a foot and a half in length 
independent of the antennae. 

The Astacidae, the remaining family in the tribe Astacoidea, is con- 
fined almost wholly to the colder waters, and the species are numerous. 

Among the Caridea, the Crangonidse certainly have the precedence. 
The fact that the first pair of legs have perfect hands, while the other 
legs are vergiform, shows a relation to the Bfachyura, which is evi- 
dence of superiority. These Crangonidae, thus the highest of the 
Caridea, are almost exclusively cold-water species. 

In the family Pala&monidae, some genera have the anterior legs 
furnished with stout hands, while in others the second is the stout 
chelate pair. The former, for the reason just alluded to while speak- 
ing of the Crangonidae, and elsewhere farther explained, are superior 
in rank. It is among these genera of this superior grade, the Alphe- 
inse, that we find the cold-water and boreal species. The genus 
Hippolyte alone contains thirty-seven cold-water species, nineteen of 
which are of the Frigid zone ; and there are only eight torrid species. 

On the contrary, among the Palaemoninae, the inferior group, there 
are forty-six torrid to twenty-two of extra-torrid ; and only one of the 
latter is boreal. Species of Alpheus are common in the tropics about 
coral-reefs ; but the largest species of the genus, two or three inches 
long, occur beyond the tropics. 

The Penaaidea, the lowest of the tribes of Macroura, are mainly 
tropical. Yet, the very lowest species (like the lowest Brachyura) 
occur partly in the colder waters, or even in the Frigid zone. 

XXIII. Comparing the torrid and temperate species of Macroura, 
we are led to conclude, that the latter are probably most numerous in 
individuals, and the most bulky in mass. Excepting the Panuliri, 
Scyllari, and some Palaemons, the tropical species are small, and more- 
over, they are not particularly abundant about coral-reefs. The 
species of the torrid genera, Pontonia, CEdipus, Harpilius, Anchistia, 
Palaemonella, Hymenocera, and Atya, are all quite small, the greater 
part not exceeding an inch and a quarter in length, and moreover, 
the tropical Alphei are also small species, as stated above. The 
Penseidea are partly larger species. Contrast these particulars with 
the facts as to the genera of the Temperate zone. Palinurus, Astacus, 
Nephrops, Paranephrops, Hoinarus, Arctus, Crangon, and the related 
genera, Hippolyte, Pandalus, Cryphiops, contain species mostly of 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

large size, and the adult Homari and Palinuri are not exceeded in 
weight by any other Macroura. 

The Thalassinidea, which belong almost exclusively to the tempe- 
rate regions are smallest in the warmer part of the Temperate zone, 
and larger in the middle and colder part. A Puget Sound species 
(subfrigid region) of Callianassa (C. gigas) is at least four and a half 
inches long, the C. uncinata of Chili, five inches, and the Thalassina 
scorpionides of Chili, six inches. The facts respecting this subtribe, 
added to those mentioned above, strengthen much the conclusion, that 
the cold-water genera have the largest species ; for all the species are 
over an inch and a half in length. 



III. ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 

XXIV. The Mysidea, to which the Penaeidea are related, are, to a 
considerable extent, cold-water species, although many are found also 
in the tropics. There are among them twenty torrid species and 
seventeen extra-torrid species. 

In the Squilloidea we have an example of an inferior grade in a 
large lax body, with a small head and long abdomen; and they 
remind us of overgrown larval forms, or species vegetatively enlarged 
beyond the normal or most efficient size. In this particular they 
have some analogies with the earlier forms of life. They are found 
mostly within the tropics. Twenty-four of the Squillidae are Torrid 
zone species, and only seven pertain exclusively to the Temperate 
zone. Of the Erichthidae, twenty-one out of twenty-two species are 
reported from the Torrid zone. The Amphionidea, a related group, 
include seventeen Torrid zone species and two of the Temperate zone. 



1516 



CRUSTACEA. 



TABLE III. 



TETRADECAPODA. 



1. ISOPODA. 




4 


6. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 




h 




d. Temperate. 


. Sab-temperate. 


/. Cold Temperate. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


-! 


IDOTJBXDBA. 

IDOT.a:lD.a2. 
Idotasa, 


3 

1 
1 

1 
1 

4 
1 
2 
2 
1 

1 


1 
1 

2 
1 

6 
2 

3 (la) 
3 
6 

2(?<7) 


4 
1 

3 
2 

6 

1 
3 

6 

1 
5 
2 

1 

1 


l(a) 

1 

1 

6 

6 

1 

1 

1 


10 

1(<0 
5 
8 

2(1") 

2 
1 

2 

4 
1 


6 
1 

2 

6<1<0 
1 

14 
1 
1 

6 
1 

1 
2 
1 

1 
1 


ll(3d,c 
1 

1 

8 

10 

1 

2 
1 

2 

2 
1 

1 


8(10 

1 

3 (I/) 

1 

!(/) 

2(1 /) 
1 


27 
1 

1 

1 

1 

4 

6 
2 
19 

39 
1 
1 

1 
1 

9 
1 

6 

4 
1 

1 

1 
6 
1 
6 
3 


9 

2 
1 

l (/) 
2 


Fdotia, 


Krichfionia, .... 


Epelys, 


CBXTILIDX. 

Cli.Ttilia, 


ONISOOIDEA. 
ARMADILLID2E. 
TTUKM. 
Tylna, 


AKUADILLIMJB. 
Armadillo 


Spherillo. 


Armadillidinm, . . 
Diploexochua. 

ONISCID.E. 

OBMOut 

OlliMMlS.- 


Playarthrufl, .... 
Deto, 


SCTPDAClNf. 


Stjloniscus, .... 

LMBUL 


Lygidium, .... 
ABELLIDJG. 

,1,., T ;,. 




Aellu8 




Ilenopomus, .... 


CTMOTHOIDEA. 
CYMOTHOID^E. 
CTMOTHOINJE. 
Cymothoa, .... 
Oeratothoa, .... 




Nerocila, .... 


Olencira. 

O&OEEUKTINJE. 

Orozeuktes, .... 

unoou. 

^.galhoa, . . . . 



* Including Trichoniscus, Porcellio, and Philoscia. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



I S P D A Continued. 




S 
e 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
lone. 


c. Warm Tempe- 
rate. 


d. Temperate. 


f. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temperate. 


?. Sub-frigid. 

Total of Temperate 
one. 


4 


JMXM 
JEoivx. 


1 

4 
1 
2 

1 


1 
1 
3 


2 

5 

1 
2 

4 


1 

1 

1 


1 

2 

1 

1 

4 

1 
1 


1 

1 

1 

13 (1 c) 
1 


l(d) 
2 

3(1 <) 

10 (2 ) 
1 

4 
2 


2 
1 

1 

6(3,/, 
5 

1 
!(/) 


1 

1 

5 
1 
2 

4 

28 

I 
1 
1 
2 


2 


3(2<f,f) 






Acherusia, .... 


Qncunu. 


Co rail ana, .... 
AlitropuB, .... 

SPHEROMID^. 
SPHEROMiN.fi. 
Spheroma, .... 
Cymodocea, .... 


Caridina, 


Amphoroidea, . . . 
NES.XINA. 
Ncswa, 
Campecopea,. . . . 

AJKDOBA 

Ancinus, 


2. ANISOPODA. 




d 

1 

e 


)>. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Tempe- 
rate. 


d. Temperate. 


c. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temperate. 


0. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 

zone. 


a 

B 

4 


I. SEROLIDEA. 
SEROLID.E. 
Serolis, 


1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


2 
1 


1 

3 
1 

1 

1 
1 




2 
2 

1 
2 

3 
1 

1 

1 
1 


1 

2 
l(d) 


1 

3 

2 (Id) 

1 
2 

1 
l(d) 

l(cf) 
1 


s a/) 

1 

2 

!(/) 

1 
1 


4 

8 
3 

1 
3 

4 

6 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 


1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 
2 

1 


PRANIZIDJE. 




H. ARCTURIDEA. 

ARCTURIK*. 


Leachia, 


ANTHURIN^. 
Anthura, 

IH. TANAIDEA. 
TANAIDJE. 
Turin* 




Leptoehelia, .... 
Apseudes, .... 


LlRIOPIN*. 




CROSSURIN.E. 
Croftflurus, .... 
BOPYRID.E. 

BOPTRIN*. 








lONIN^. 


Argeia, 



380 



1518 



CRUSTACEA. 



3. AMPHIPODA. 









1 


1 


1 


1 
1 


I 


3 


1 






1 


1 


H 

-S 


jj 




S 

i. 


1 
I 


I 

03 


H 

*S a 


2 
1 




d 


4 


H 




a 


4 


S 


4 


&" 





CAPRELLIDEA. 






















C A i 1 1 K 1 . 1 , 11 > K. 






















Proto . 














1 




1 




Pro tell a, .... 


1 




1 
















Caprella, .... 




6 


6 


2 


1 


3 


4 


6 t^f) 


15 


4(2y,^) 


JE^ina, .... 


C) 2 




2 














2 


Cercops, .... 




















1 


Podalirlus, . . . 




















1 


CYAMID.E. 






















Cyamus, .... 










1 


3 


3(2) 


1() 


5 




GAMMARIDEA. 






















DULlcmD^. 






















Dulichia, .... 




















1 


CHELUR1DJ!. 






















Chelura, .... 














1 




1 




OOBOraiOJL 






















COROPHINf. 






















Corophlum, . . . 




O 1 










1 




1 




Siphonoecetes, . . 




















1 


Platophium, . . . 




1 


1 
















Cyrtophium, . . 


1 




1 
















Unciola, .... 














1 








Podocerus, . . . 














2 




2 


2 


Cratofilnum, . . 


1 


1 


2 
















Cerapus, .... 














2 


1 


3 




Cerapodina, . . . 






















Erichtbonius, . . 














1 




1 




Lapbystius, . . . 




















1 


ICILIX.l', . . . 






















Icilius 


1 




1 
















Pteryifocera, . . . 






















Orchestia, .... 


2 


a 


7 




4 


U 


6 (2 d,e) 


4 


26 


2 


Allnrrhrstt'S, . . 


2 


3 


6 


1 


2 


6 (Id) 




1 


9 




GAMMAKID2E. 






















STKGOCEPOALINA. 






















Stegocephulus, . . 




















1 


LTBIANASSIN*. 






















Lysianassa, . . . 




2 


2 




2 








2 




Phlias, 














1 (J) 








Opis, . . . 






















2/1 a) 


Uristes, .... 




















" \* tft 


Annnyx, .... 














1 


1 


2 


11 


Urothoe, .... 


2 




2 
















LKUCOTBOINC. 






















Stenotboe, . . . 


1 




1 
















Leucotboe, . . , 


1 




1 








1 




1 


2 


Acanthonotus, . . 














1 




1 


3 


Alibrotus, . . . 














2 




2 




Leptocbirus, . . . 














1 




1 




I phi media, . . . 




1 


1 






3 


2 


3 


8 


14 


(Edicerus, . . . 












1 






1 


1 


Amphithoe, . . . 
Gam mar us, . . . 


3 
8 


1 
1 


10 
9 


1 
2 


2 
2 


2 
3 


8 
12 (Id) 


2 (I/) 

6 


12 
23 


14(2/) 


Photis, 




















1 


Melita, 












1 


1 




2 


2 


Mara, .... 




2 


3 




2 




4 




7 




Dercothoe, . . . 


2 


1 


3 
















Pyctilus, .... 


2 


1 


3 
















? Pardalisca, . . . 




















1 


Atylus, .... 






















Ipchyrocerus, . . 




















2 


Microcheles, . . . 




















1 


Lepidactylis, . . 














1 




1 




Pontoporeia, . . . 




















1 


Ampelisca, . . . 




















1 


Protomedia, . . . 




















1 


Aora, ..... 












1 






1 




Phoxus, .... 




















1 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 151Q 



AMPHIPOD A Continued. 




a. Torrid. 


1 

Q 


ToUl of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Tempe- 
rate. 


d. Temperate. 


& Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temperate. 


g. Sab-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 

xonc. 


4 


le-EiN.E. 


1 
4 

4 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 
1 


1 

3 
1 

If 


1 

4 
1 

4 
2 

1 
4 

2 

1 

1 

If 


1 

1 

1 
2 


1 

1 
2 

1 
1 


3 

If 

1 

1 
1 


1 

2 

2f 
I 


1 
1 

l(d) 
1 


1 

1 
1 
6 

1 
If 

1 
1 

1 
2 
1 

1 
8 
2 

1 
1 

1 
1 


l 
l 
l 

8 




HTPERIDEA. 
HYPERIDJE. 

VlBIUN*. 
Viliilia. .... 


HlPIRIN*. 

Legtrigonus, .... 










Dairilia, 


Cystisoma, .... 
STNOPIK*. 


PHRONIMID.S:. 

PnonnM. 

Phronima, .... 


PHROSININJE. 
Anchylomera, . . . 




PHOECIS.E. 


TYPHID^I. 
Tirmvx. 


Typhis, 


Thyropus, .... 

PHOSOm.E. 




OXTCEPHALINi. 

Oxycepbalus, . . . 
Khabdosoma, . . . 



1520 



CRUSTACEA. 



4. RECAPITULATION. 




a. Torrid. 


b. Sub-torrid. 


Total of Torrid 
zone. 


c. Warm Temp. 


d. Temperate. 


'. Sub-temperate. 


/. Cold Temp. 


g. Sub-frigid. 


Total of Temperate 
zone. 


T3 

9 

4 


ISOPODA, . . . 


26 
3 
3 

4 
2 
2 

1 
1 

19 
11 
10 
1 

8 
1 
7 
1 

1 

5 

1 
4 
4 

48 
3 
3 

29 

3 
4 

22 

2 
2 
16 

16 
11 
3 
2 
79 


UP.) 

2 

11 
3 

8 
6 

2 

18 (1 o) 
12 (1 a 
12 (1 a 

2? 
2 
1 
1 
3 
3 

3 

3 
2 
1 

34 
6 
6 

22 

2 
8 
12 

2 
13 

6 
1 

4 
1 

,Sili 


56 
5 
5 

15 
5 
10 
6 
1 
3 

36 
22 
21 

1 
2! 
10 
2 
8 
4 
4 

8 

1 
7 
6 

1 

82 
9 
9 

51 

5 
12 
34 

4 

2 
29 

22 
12 
7 
3 
46 


19 (1 a) 
l(a) 
1() 

14 
7 
6 
5 

1 

1 
4 
1 
1 

1 
1 

2 
1 
1 

11 
2 
2 

4 

1 
3 

3 

5 
1 
1 
3 

30 (1 a) 


48 (2 c) 
10 


19 (2 c) 
6(lc) 
10 (1 c) 
8 

2(1<0 
3 
18 

7 
7 

5 
4 
1 

6 
5 
1 

14 
4 

4 
3 
7 
1 
1 

22 
2 
1 
1 
1 
14 

6 
8 

2 
6 

6 
1 
3 
2 

84 (2 c) 


67(2c,d) 
7 
34 ad) 

^ 
15 
1 
6 

26 (Ic) 
6 
6 

3 

2 
1 

18 (1 c) 

is a c) 

4(1 d) 

1 

3 (Id) 
l(d). 

42 (Id) 
6 
3 
3 
30 (Id) 

20 (1 d) 
10 

10 

1 

6 
3 
1 
2 
13 (4 c,d) 


66(9c,d,e) 
13 (3 d,c) 
12(3d,c) 

27 
8 
14 
11 

3 

25 (4 d,e) 
1 

7(2d,) 
4?ld) 
3(1<) 
17 (2 e) 
11 (2 t) 
6 

13 (3d) 
6 (Id) 

6 (Id) 

4(2<n 
2 (Id) 
2 (Id) 

61 (5 d,e) 

8 (2 ') 
5 
3(2e) 
48 (1 e) 

1 

7 
6(2d,e) 
35 (1 d) 

2 
1 

30 (Id) 

1 
5 
2 

3 

139(17c,d^) 


w 

*(!) 
(*/) 

|tij 

!j& 
</ 

4 
4 

13 (4 e,/) 

'iT/'^ 

M$ 

3(1/5 
3 2 (1/) 

1 

1 

30(5d,.f) 
7<2..n 
6 (I/) 

1 9 ^> 

1 
5 
13 

2 

11 a/) 

4(1 d) 
2 (Id) 
69(15d,,/) 


208 
31 
30 
1 
96 
31 
63 
41 
2 
10 
12 
81 
15 
15 

18 
14 
4 
49 
40 
6 
2 

34 
13 
4 

9 
8 
13 
10 
3 

157 
21 
16 
5 
112 

1 
8 
35 
68 

6 
1 
58 
2 
1 
24 
8 
6 
10 
399 


21(3<V, fl ) 
9 
9 (I/) 

(!/) 

$4) 

3 (2 dj\ 
3(2dtf) 

15 
3 
1 
2 

1 
11 
8 
3 

83 M/r) 
9 (2/.y) 

w*) 

68 (2/^) 

5 
2 
60 

W (1 ) 
39 (I/) 

6 
3 
3 

129(7d./.0) 




Chjctilidje, .... 
ONISCOIDEA, 


Armaditlidie, . . . 
Oniscidie, . . 


Oniacinie, .... 
Scypbacinae, . . . 
Lygina?, .... 
AMIida? 


CYMOTHOIDEA, 
Cymotboidae, . . . 
Cymothoinae, . . 
Orozeuktinte, . . . 
.Iv-jiithoiu.T, . . . 
JEgidee 




Cirolanina?, . . . 
Spheromidae, . . . 
gpherominte, . . . 


AnriliiliJi', .... 

ANISOFODA, . . 




Pranizida?, .... 




Tanaid&e, 


Bopyridae 

AMPHIPODA, . . 
CAPRELLIDEA 
Caprellidae, .... 




Dulichida? 
Chelurida? 


Corophidw, .... 


Giimmaridfr, . . . 
Stegocephalinse, . . 
Lysianaspinse, . . 
Leucothoina?, . . . 
Gammarinre, . . . 
Pontoporeinse, . . 

1 -:l 'i l:.->. 


Hyperida?, .... 
PbronimidsB, . . . 


Tola!, TETHADECAFODA, 



Before stating the conclusions from the above tables of the Tetra- 
decapoda, it should be observed that this division of Crustacea has 
been less thoroughly explored than that of the Podophthalmia, and 
future investigations inust vary much the proportions between the 
species of the different regions. The coasts of Europe and the 
northern seas, are within the reach of European zoologists, and have 
been carefully examined; while voyagers through the tropics have 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

usually contented themselves with collecting the larger Crustacea. 
In the genus Gammarus, not a tropical species had been reported, 
until our investigations, which brought ten or eleven to light, being 
one-third the whole number of those of ascertained localities reported 
to this genus. 

Some general conclusions may, however, be safely drawn from the 
facts already known, although the exact ratios deduced from the 
tables may hereafter be much modified. 

I. The Tetradecapoda are far more numerous in extra-tropical 
latitudes than in the tropical. 

The proportion in the above table is 521 : 146 ; allowing for future 
discoveries, it may be set down at 2 : 1, without fear of exceeding the 
truth. 

II. The genera of extra-tropical seas are far more numerous than 
those of the tropical. 

Out of forty-nine genera of Isopoda, only nineteen are known to 
occur in the tropics, and but four of these are peculiar to the tropics. 

Out of twenty genera of Anisopoda, six only are known to be 
tropical, and but two are exclusively so. 

Among the Amphipoda, out of fifty genera of Gammaridea, only 
seventeen are known to contain tropical species; nine are exclusively 
tropical, and but ten, including these nine, have more tropical than 
extra-tropical species. The Caprellidea and Hyperidea embrace thirty 
genera, fifteen or sixteen of which include tropical species. 

The variety of extra-tropical forms compared with the tropical, is 
hence very great. 

III. From the tables, the ratio of extra-tropical and tropical species 
in the 

Isopoda, is . . . . .4:1 

Anisopoda, . . . . . 6:1 

Amphipoda, . . . . . .3:1 

Among the Isopoda, the Idotseidea are the most decidedly cold-water 
species, and the Cymothoidea, the least so. The ratio of species for 
the 

Idotasidea, is . . . . .8:1 

Oniscoidea, . . 7:1 

Cymothoidea, . . . 2J : 1 

Two-ninths of the extra-tropical Idotasidea (or nine species) belong 

381 



1522 CRUSTACEA. 

to the Frigid zone, and nearly one-tenth of the extra-tropical Oniscoi- 
dea (or nine species) ; while less than a twenty-fifth of the Cymothoi- 
dea occur in the Frigid zone, and but one of these has not also been 
found in lower latitudes. 

Of the Amphipoda, the Gammaridea are most strongly extra- 
tropical, the proportion being for the extra-tropical and tropical species 
3i : 1; while the ratio in the Caprellidea, is 3 : 1; and in the Hype- 
ridea, 14:1. Out of one hundred and seventy-eight extra-tropical 
species of Gammaridea, sixty-six are Frigid zone species, besides two 
which have been found both in the Frigid and Temperate zones. 

IV. The genera which extend into the frigid region are the follow- 
ing. The names of those more especially frigid, according to present 
knowledge, are italicized; and the proportion of frigid species to the 
whole number of extra-tropical, is mentioned in decimals, where they 
are not exclusively frigid. 

IDOT-SIDEA. Idotsea (0-3), Glyptonotus. 

ONISCOIDEA. Jaera (0-25) Jaeridina, Asellus (0-20), Janira (0-5), Henopomus, 
Munna (0'66). 

CYMOTHOIDEA. JEga. (0-4). 

SEKOLIDEA. Serolis (0-2), Praniza (0-15), Anceus (0-25). 

ARCTURIDEA. Arcturus (0'5). 

TANAIDEA. Tanais (0-5), Liriope, Crossurus, Phryxus, Dofus. 

CAPRELLIDEA. Proto (0-5), Caprella (0-24), JEgina, Cercops, Podalirius. 

GAMMARIDEA. Dulichia, Siphonceceles, Unciola (0-5), Podocerus (0-5), Laphystius, 
Orchestia (0-07), Stegocephalus, Opis (0-66), Uristes, Anonyx (0-9), Leucothoe (0-66), 
Acanthonotus (0-75), Iphimedia (0-6) (Edicerus (0-5), Gammarus (0-33), Melita (0-5), 
Pardalisca, Ischyrocerus, Michrocheles, Pontoporeia, Ampelisca, Protomedeia, Phoxus. 

HYPERIDEA. Hjperia (0-14), Metcecus, Tauria, Themisto (3-0). 

The Spheromidse are nearly all cold-water species, though not reach- 
ing into the Frigid zone. There are forty-nine known species of Sphe- 
romidae in the Temperate zone, and but four in the Torrid. Serolis 
is a peculiar cold-water form, belonging mainly to the subfrigid and 
frigid regions. Orchestia is to a large extent of the Temperate zone, 
while Allorchestes is more equally distributed through the torrid and 
temperate. Amphithoe, as restricted by us, is alike common in the 
torrid and temperate regions ; while Iphimedia, the other section of 
the old group, is mainly a cold-water genus. 

The Hyperidea are mostly tropical genera. 

V. The species and genera of Tetradecapoda are not only most 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1523 

abundant in the extra-tropical regions, but besides, the individuals of 
species appear to be more numerous, or at least not less so. At 
Fuegia, the quantity of Gammaridae collected on bait dropped in the 
water was exceedingly large; and in no region visited by us, did we 
find evidence of as great profusion. The Spheromae were also very 
abundant along the shores. 

VI. Moreover, the species of extra-tropical waters are the largest of 
the tribe. In the Frigid zone, there are Idotaeidae three to four inches 
long, while the average size of the tropical species is less than three- 
fourths of an inch; there are Spheromae an inch long, while those of 
the tropics seldom exceed a fourth of an inch ; there is a Lysianassa 
three inches long, while the warmer seas afford only small species, 
half an inch in length; there is a Pterelas over an inch in length, 
while the ^Egidae of the tropics are less than half an inch. The 
Gammari of the tropics are small slender species, not half the size of 
those of the colder seas. The species of Serolis are an inch to two 
inches long. Thus, through the Idotaeidea, the ^Egidae, Serolidae, 
Spheromidae, Caprellidea, and Gammaridea, the largest species belong 
to the colder seas, and the giants among Tetradecapods, are actually 
found in the Frigid zone. 

Among the Hyperidea there is one gigantic species, belonging to 
the genus Cystisoma, which is over three inches long. It is reported 
from the Indian Ocean, but whether tropical or not is unascertained. 
Of the species of this group examined by the writer, the largest, a 
Tauria, was from the Frigid zone. 

VII. Again, the Tetradecapoda of extra-tropical waters are the 
highest in rank. Among the Isopoda (which stand first), the Idotaei- 
dea appear to be of superior grade, and these, as observed, are espe- 
cially developed in the colder seas, reaching their maximum size in 
the Frigid zone. Again the SerolidaB, the highest of the Anisopoda, 
are cold-water species. The Orchestiae among the Amphipoda, al- 
though reaching through both the Torrid and Temperate zones, are 
largest and much the most numerous in the latter. 

VIII. Those species of a genus that occur in the colder waters, are 
often more firmly put together, and bear marks of superiority in their 
habits. The Amphithoe and Gammari of the tropics are lax and 
slender species, of small size compared with those of the colder seas. 

IX. There is a tendency in the colder Avaters to the development of 
spinous species. This fact is as true of the Podophthalmia as of the 



1524 CRUSTACEA. 

Tetradecapoda. Among the former, there are the thorny Lithodes, 
the numerous Maioids armed with spines, the Acanthodes; while the 
Cancroids and Grapsoids of the tropics are usually very smooth and 
often polished species. There are the spinous boreal Crangons, the 
species of which genus in the warmer seas are without spines. Among 
the Tetradecapods, the boreal Iphimedise are often spinous or crested; 
Acanthonotus and Dulichia are spinous genera. The same tendency 
is seen in the third pair of caudal stylets in some cold-water Gammari, 
which have the branches spinulous instead of furnished with a few 
minute hairs like those of the tropics. 

There are also some spinous Crustacea in the tropics, as the Pali- 
nuridae and species of Stenopus. Such facts, however, do not lead to 
any modification of the previous remark ; for the tendency observed 
is still a fact as regards the several genera mentioned. 

ENTOMOSTKACA. 

The Entomostraca have been little studied out of the Temperate 
zone, if we except the results of the author's labours. The described 
species of most of the families are, therefore, almost exclusively from 
the temperate regions, and we know little of the corresponding species 
or groups in the warmer seas. The following table presents the 
number of known species of the torrid and extra-torrid zones, omit- 
ting the Lernaeoids : 

TABLE IV. 

Torrid zone. Extra-torrid tone. 
LOPHYROPODA. 

Cyclopoidea, .... 120 76 

Daphnioidea, ... 5 46 

Cyproidea, .... 13 61 

PHYLLOPODA. 

Artemioidea, .... 10 

Apodoidea, . 3 

Limnadioidea, .... 2 2 

PCECILOPODA. 

Ergasiloidea, .... 1 4 

Caligoidea, .... 16 33 

Were we to leave out of view the researches of the author, the 
number of species and the proportion for the Cyclopoidea, instead of 
120 to 76, would be about 3 : 50, thus not only reversing the ratio, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1525 

but giving to the Temperate zone almost all the species of the group.* 
Moreover, no Daphnioids and few Caligoids have been yet reported 
from the Torrid zone, excepting those described in this Report. The 
author's time when on land in the tropics was devoted mainly to the 
department of Geology, and consequently the fresh-water Entomostra- 
cans were not as thoroughly collected as those of the oceans. He 
therefore attempts to draw no conclusions from the above ratios. 

A few facts may, however, be deduced with respect to some genera, 
and especially those of the Cyclopoidea. The following table gives 
the number, as nearly as known, of the species of each genus of the 
Cyclopoidea, occurring in the torrid and extra-torrid zones. The 
number" common to the extra-torrid and torrid zones is mentioned in 
brackets. 

TABLE V. 
CYCLOPOIDEA. 



I. CALANID.S:. 


Torrid. 


Extra-torrid. 


Torrid. 

II. CYCLOPID^:. 


Eitra-torri 


1. Calaninae. 






1. Cyclopince. 




Calanus, . 


. 25 


12(3) 


Cyclops, ... 2 


9 


RMncalauus, 


. 2 




? Psammathe, . 


1 


Cetochilus, 


. 


1 


'( Idomene, . . 


1 


Euchaeta, 


. 4 


1 


? Euryta, . . 


1 


Undina, . 


. 3 




2. Harpacticinae. 




2. Oitlioninx. 






Canthocatnptus, 2 


4 


Oithona, . . 


. 2 


1 


Harpacticus, 


15 


3. Pontellinse. 






Westwoodia, . 


1 


Diaptomus, . 




2 


Alteutha, 


1 


Hemicalanus, 


. 4 




Metis, . . . 


1 


Candace, . . 


. 5 


1 


Clytemnestra, . 1 




Acartia, . . 


. 3 


1 


Setella, ... 5 


1(1) 


Pontella, . . 


. 22 


9(3) 


Laophon, 


1 


Catopia, . . 


. 1 




Oncsea, . 


1 


4. Notodelphinse. 






.^Enippe, . . . 


1 


Notodelphys, 




1 


Idya, .... 


1 








3. Sleropince. 










Zaus, .... 


1 








Sterope, . . . 


4 



* The whole number of Cyclopoidea described previous to May, 1842, by which time 
the author's observations were completed, was less than twenty-Jive; and of the oceanic 
Cyclopoids, one hundred and fifty species of which the author has described, not ten were 
then known. We may judge from these results of a single cruise, what still remains to 
be done in the department of Entomostraca. 

382 



rriil. 


Extra- torrid. 


Torrid. 


Extra-torrid. 






2. Miracinse. 










Miracia, . . 


. 1 


1 


18 


1 








3 


1(1) 


Total CALANIDAE, . 


. 71 


29(6) 


2 




Total CYCLOPID^:, . 


. 10 


44(1) 


15 


5 


Total CORYC^ID^E, . 


. 39 


8(1) 



1526 CRUSTACEA. 

III. CORYC.EID.S. 
1. Corycaeinee. 
Corycaeus, 
Antaria, . . 
Copilia, . . 
Sapphirina, . 

The properly oceanic genera include all the Calctnidce, excepting 
Diaptomus and Notodelpliys ; all the Corycceidce; with only the single 
genus Setella among the Cyclopidse. 

Among the CalanidaB, the genera are mainly tropical, yet each 
affords some extra-tropical species; and those which are most abun- 
dant in the colder waters are Calani or closely allied. Setella occurs 
beyond the tropics; but all the species thus far examined are found 
in the Torrid zone. Pontella is more of a warm-water genus than 
Calanus. The Corycasidge are to a large extent tropical. The genus 
Corycceus is almost exclusively so, while Sappliirma is common in the 
Temperate zone. The Steropina3 are Frigid species. 

Although the Calanidae are more varied in species within the 
tropics, they abound more in individuals in the colder seas. Vast 
areas of "bloody" waters were observed by us off the coast of Chili, 
south of Valparaiso (latitude 42 south, longitude 78 45' west, and 
latitude 36 south, longitude 74 west), which were mainly due to a 
species of this group; and another species was equally abundant in the 
North Pacific, 32 north, 173 west.* They have been reported as 
swarming in other seas, constituting the food in part of certain species 
of whale. Such immense shoals we did not meet with, within the 
tropics. 

Among the Daphnioidea, the genera Daphnella, Penilia, Cerio- 
daphnia, and Lynceus were observed by us in the Torrid zone. Of 
the Cypraids, Cypridina, Conchoecia, and Halocypris are oceanic forms, 
and mainly of the tropical oceans. 

The Caliyoids spread over both zones. Caligus and Lepeophtheirus 
reach from the equator to the frigid seas; Nogagus, Pandarus, and 
Dinematura are represented in both the Torrid and Temperate zones. 

* The species in the former case was the Pontella (subgen. Calanopia) brachiata; and 
in the latter, Calanus sanyuineus. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1527 



GENERAL REMARKS AND RECAPITULATION. 

We continue with some general deductions from the tables, and a 
recapitulation of some principles. 

A survey of all the great divisions of Crustacea, shows us that ex- 
clusive of the Entomostraca, they are distributed, according to present 
knowledge, as follows : 

a. Torrid zone. 6. Temperate zone. c. Frigid rone. 

Brachyura, . . 535 257 (34 a) 5 (4 6) 

Anomoura, . . 125 110 (15 a) 4 (1 6) 

Macroura, . . 148 125 (16 a) 29 (2 6) 

Anomobranchiata, . 82 33 (9 a) 2 

Isopoda, . . .56 208 (1 a) 21 (3 &) 

Anisopoda, 8 34 15 

Amphipoda, . . 82 157 83 (4 6) 

Total, . 1036 924 (75 a) 159 (14 6) 

Taking the sum of the Frigid and Temperate zone species (subtract- 
ing the fourteen common to the two) we have 1036 species in the 
torrid regions to 1069 in the extra-torrid, seventy-five of which are 
common to the two. This shows a nearly equal distribution between 
the zones. But excluding the Brachyura, the numbers become 501 to 
811, giving a preponderance of more than one-half to the Temperate 
zone.* 

* Adding to the numbers above, the species which have been necessarily left out as of 
uncertain locality, amounting to one hundred and. forty in all, and inserting also the 
Entomostraca, it makes the total of described living species, as follows : 

Brachyura, t 830 

Anomoura, ..... 262 

Macroura, ..... 297 

1389 

Anomobranchiata, .... 115 

, Isopoda, ...... 295 

Anisopoda, ..... 57 

Amphipoda, ..... 341 

693 

Entomostraca, . . . . . 492 

Total, . . 2689 

The number of species collected in the course of the cruise of the Expedition (exolu- 



1528 CRUSTACEA. 

The species of highest rank among the Brachyura, Macroura, Iso- 
poda, and Amphipoda, the four principal types in the above, belong 
to the extra-torrid zones ; and in subordinate groups or families, it is 
often true that the genera of superior grade are extra-torrid, in con- 
trast with the others which are torrid genera. Higher groups, cha- 
racteristic of the colder regions, sometimes show degradation among 
those species of the group that are tropical; and the tropical sections 
also may continue the line of degradation by an extension again into 
the colder seas. 

As we descend in the scale of Crustacea, from the Podophthalmia 
to the Tetradecapoda, the number of cold-water species increases, 
becoming in the latter group, three times greater than the warm-water 
species. It is an important fact, nevertheless, that this increase of 
cold-water species is still no mark of degradation; the particular 
facts that have been discussed, leading to a very different conclusion. 
Other principles follow. These are 

First, that the two types, the Decapodan and Tetradecapodan, are 
distinct types, to be independently considered, and not parts of a 
series or chain of species, a fact illustrated in the preceding chapter on 
the classification of Crustacea. 

Second, that the preponderance of cold-water species is the reverse 
of what must have been true in the earlier geological epochs, when 
the oceans had a somewhat higher temperature ; or were to a large ex- 
tent tropical. 

Third, that the progress of creation as regards Crustacea, has ended 

sive of those lost in the wreck of the Peacock, which included nearly all the collections of 
two seasons in the tropical regions of the Pacific) is nearly 900 ; and the number of new 
species described is 658, distributed among the groups as follows : 

Brachyura, . . . . .151 

Anomoura, ..... 50 

Macroura, . . . . .57 

Anomobranchiata, .... 28 

286 

Isopoda, . . . . . .67 

Anisopoda, ..... 7 

Amphipoda, ..... 110 

184 

Entomostraca, ..... 188 

Total, . .658 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1529 

not where it begun, in multiplying the species of warmer waters and 
giving them there their superior developments, but in carrying 
species to a higher perfection in the colder regions of the oceans. A 
preponderance of species in the warmer seas is perhaps to be expected, 
since warm waters have prevailed even more largely than now in 
earlier epochs. But it would seem, that the introduction of the higher 
grades of Crustacea required, not merely the cooler waters of the 
present tropics, but even the still colder temperature of the Temperate 
zone, and therefore the present condition of the globe. 

The genera of Fossil species commence with the Entomostracans 
and Trilobites in the Palaeozoic rocks. Next appear certain TJialas- 
sinidea and Astacoid species, in the Permian system; then Mysidea, 
Penceidea, many Thalassinidea, Astacoidea, and Anomoura, in the 
Oolitic system ; then a few Cancroids and Leucosoids in the Creta- 
ceous, which become much more numerous in the Tertiary system, 
along with some Grapsoids. None of the Maioids, the highest of 
Crustacea, have yet been reported from either of the Geological epochs. 

The number of individuals and the size are, for the Brachyura, 
greater in the Torrid zone than in the colder regions. But for the 
Macroura, the species of cold-water genera average nearly twice the 
lineal dimensions of those of warm waters; and the number of indi- 
viduals also may possibly be greater. 

In stating the conclusion respecting the Macroura, on a preceding 
page (p. 1515), we omitted to give in detail the mean sizes of the 
different groups. The following are the results, including the Gala- 
theidea, which are closely related to the Macroura: 

Mean length of Mean length of 

Torrid zone species. Extra-torrid specie*. 

Galatheidea, .... 0-3 inches. 3-0 inches. 

Thalassinidea, ... 2-0 " 3-0 " 

Scyllaridse, . . . . 6-0 " 6-0 " 

Palinuridse, .... 12-0 " 15-0 " 

Astacidae. Homarus, . . . 14-0 " 

Astacinae, . 3-0 " 

NephropinaD, . . 5-0 " 

Crangonidae, ... 2-0 " 

Palaemonidae. Alpheina, . . 1-5 " 1-5 " 

Pandalinse, . . 3-0 " 

Palaemoninae, . . 2-3 " 2-4 " 

Oplophorinse, . 1-0 " 

Penseidae, . . . . 3-6 " 4-5 " 

383 



1530 CRUSTACEA. 

The table shows that the torrid species, in none of the groups, 
average larger than the extra-torrid. The cold-water Palinuridse are 
as large as the largest warm-water species, and will outweigh them ; 
the cold-water Gulatheidea, are ten times the average length of the 
warm-water; the Alpheinae, Palaemoninae, and Penaeidae are at least 
as large in the temperate regions as in the torrid. There is hence 
nothing in the tropics to balance the Astacidae, a group of large 
species, some of them gigantic ; nor the Crangonidae, nor Pandalinae. 
The genus Palaemon, in the Torrid zone, averages larger than in the 
Temperate, the ratio being 3-5 to 2 - 40 ; the former amount being 
reduced to 2-3 for the Palaemoninae, by the species of the other 
tropical genera, which are mostly quite small. Yet, taking the ratio 
of 3'5 to 2'40, it affects but little the balance against the Torrid zone. 

As to bulk, also, the Temperate zone probably has the preponde- 
rance ; yet our data are less definite. In the Galatheidea, the cold- 
water species are not only ten times larger lineally (which implies 
at least eight hundred times cubically), but they are far more prolific, 
swarming in vast numbers where they occur. The Thalassinidea are 
more numerous in extra-torrid species than torrid, as well as larger in 
size. The Scyllaridae are mainly tropical; but the species are not 
of common occurrence, compared with the Astacidse, which abound 
everywhere, and these, as well as the Crangonidse and Pandalinae, are 
all Temperate zone species. The Palaemoni'nae and Penaeidae probably 
preponderate in the tropics, and this may be also true of the Alpheinae. 
Taking a general view of the whole, and considering the fact, that the 
extra-torrid species rather outnumber the torrid, we believe that the 
deduction above stated is correct. 

In the Tetradecapoda, the number of species, the number and diver- 
sity of genera, the number of individuals, and the bulk, are all greater 
in the extra-torrid seas than in the torrid, as has been explained on a 
preceding page ; and this is especially true of the Amphipoda. 

The tendency to spinose forms among the species of the colder tem- 
perate regions, or Frigid zone, has been remarked upon on page 1523, 
as exemplified among the Gammaridea, the CrangonidaB, Lithodes, 
and Maioids. 



2. DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA ACCORDING TO GEOGRAPHICAL 

PROVINCES. 

The following tables are presented, as embodying in a general way 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 153J 

the greater part of the information furnished us by the present state 
of science, with reference to the distribution of Crustacea in the diffe- 
rent parts of the globe. 

We divide the surface of the globe, for marine zoological geography, 
into three sections, the Occidental, the Africa-European, and the Oriental; 
the first, including the east and west coasts of America and adjoining 
islands; the second, the eastern side of the Atlantic Ocean, the coasts of 
Europe, and also of Africa as far as the Cape of Good Hope; the third, 
embracing the Indian Ocean and its coasts and islands, the East 
Indies, and the Pacific Ocean, with its coasts and islands, exclusive of 
the western coast of America and the neighbouring islands. The total 
number of species in each is given in a separate column. 

In the Occidental section, under the head of Western America, there 
are two columns; one (N.) for the coast north of the equator; the 
other (S.) for the coast south, together with the Gallapagos. 

Under the head of Eastern America, there are the same two divi- 
sions of north and south. Fuegia is included in Eastern instead of 
Western America. 

In the Africo-European section, we make three columns ; one (N.) 
for the coast of Europe and Africa, north of the equator; and the 
adjacent islands, the Cape Verdes, Canaries, and Azores; a second 
(Med.) for the Mediterranean Sea; a third, for the coast of Africa 
south of the equator to the Cape of Good Hope, with the islands, Ascen- 
sion, St. Helena, arid Tristan d'Acunha. 

A separate column is devoted to species in the north frigid region 
of the Atlantic. 

In the Oriental section, there are the divisions (1), East Africa, 
with the columns north (N.), and south (S.), the latter including 
Madagascar, Isle of France, and other islands near the African coast; 
(2), Indian Ocean and the East Indies, including the coast of Southern 
Asia, the islands of the oceans south, with Torres Straits and north- 
western Australia; (3), the Western Pacific, including Japan and other 
regions north of the equator, for one column, and for the other, the islands 
and shores in the Western Pacific south of the equator, embracing New 
Ireland, Eastern Australia, Van Diemens Land ; (4), the Middle Pacific, 
divided into north and south, and embracing the various islands over this 
ocean exclusive of those just mentioned, with New Zealand, the 
Aucklands, &c., on the south. 

Under each subdivision, we designate the particular temperature 



1532 



CRUSTACEA. 



region in which the species occur, by using the letters a, b, c, d, e, f, 
g, h, as in the preceding tables. Thus opposite Libinia, I e in the 
first column means that one species occurs on the west coast of North 
America, and this one in the subtemperate region (e), the position of 
which on the coast will be observed on the chart. So, opposite Hi/as, 
1 g, in the same column, implies that one species occurs in the subf rigid 
region. These letters a, &, &c., in the columns in some cases have a 
more definite signification, than simply that of indicating the tempe- 
rature region, for the reason, that species may have hitherto been 
obtained only at a single point in such a region. Thus in the column 



W. America, N., 
W. America, S., 

M 



E. America, N., 
u 

E. America, S., 

E. Atlantic, S., 
u 

E. Africa, N., 

E. Africa, S., 
it 

Indian 0. and E. Indies, 
W. Pacific, N., 
W. Pacific, S., 



Mid. Pacific, N., 
u 

Mid. Pacific, S., 



g, 



f, 



f, 
a, 

*>, 
6, 

V, 



f, 
a, 



9> 



signifies Puget's Sound. 
" the Gallapagos. 
" Peruvian coast. 

" the coast of Chili and mainly Valparaiso. 
" the coast of Chiloe. 

" Key West and the adjoining coast of Florida. 
" the coast of Georgia, and the Carolinas, to Cape 
Hatteras, but mainly Charleston, South Carolina. 
" Rio Janeiro. 
" Rio Negro. 
" Falklands and Fuegia. 
" Table Bay, South Africa. 
" Tristan d'Acunha. 
" southern half of Red Sea. 
" northern half of Red Sea. 
" Port Natal. 

Mauritius or Isle of France. 
" Swan River, West Australia. 
" Loochoo, Formosa, and part of South Japan. 
" Port Jackson, in East Australia, and Isle of King, 
north of Van Diemens Land. 

Van Diemens Land. 

Kingsmills and Wakes Island. 

Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands. 

northern part of New Zealand. 

middle part of New Zealand. 

southern extremity of New Zealand and the 
Aucklands. 



<t 

u 



Other information respecting the use of the letters will be gathered 
from the Chart. 

The order of the genera is the same as in the preceding tables, and 
the subdivisions into families may there be ascertained. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1533 



-1 
M 



PP 



<* t-lCO 



. =" a . tf a 

** t-t iH 



S ,e 



. 7 1 f-H . <M O . . -* r-t . rH W -< C* 1-1 . . rH rH . .1-1 . . (N Ol CO 



. cv- 



S 



' <f 




384 



1534 



CRUSTACEA. 



1S-3 



E. Afri 



tin 



I 

<< 

tf 

P 

>H 

n 

o 

< 
A 

M 



as- 



....... . . . . 

^H r-l M ^ 






*!& * * ^.0,0 "^ 

. . 71 :: r~ - 



is^ 



-o-i 

NCQ 



E. A 



c^ .^eq . .r-i<N ...... -i-i . . .n 



S. America. 
f 



S 



rica. 




GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1535 



-38 



' a B = a 



'A * ".o *"O a 



. e e . . e . e e .BOB . e B . e e 

ON WCO HrH COCO OeOrH rHi-* t^r-KX} 



... o a a o . 3 B 

iHlH^* CO WOiH 



.^ 

s" 



* 

--IN 'rH 



.s 



. Ol 

<r 



!* 




1536 



CRUSTACEA. 







101 




























^ 






rH 




s 


m 


" a e * o * ' 

















P* 






^s 




s 






'5 * 




S 


85 


A& 

* rH r4 N 


M * 


























. 















H , <N TH r-t 




a 










M 










t 


. 


^_ 


rH 






* 


-o-o-o ,0 












d ^H r-t^l rHrH . . rH 




a o 


" 


. . . . . . . . 






w 


M 


,9 a e cf . Q . . 

rK t-l t~ * 


..aea.. o.ee..a ea .^ e 

H rHrHrH O C* rH C4 rHrH rH rH f-4 














1 


-/' 


. - CO I-H *O .71 .1-1 






9 










K 






* 














* 


















"i 








PC 1 P gP 


* 




X 


. . 


.^HrH . _ ,C1COrH rH rH 


'S 










g 










Cj 




J H 






1 










1 










4 














m 




V W 


^H 


. 








p 


Jj 








h*j 


S 








PH 


s 


1 




-tf * 


td 












w 








o 




. 


"S 


r-C rH iy -y N 


ft! 






. .,? 




w 














^oi 












o 


; ^ 






a\ 












a o a -o 






I 










" 










w 


* 


l- I-H 


10 (J ^^ * ^S 








o o"'^' 1 


























, 










1 


DQ 


rH . rH N . rH . . 












^ ^ ^" * ' 




fr 


* 




01 rH rH 
















































4 . 










g . B .... s .... 










J ^f Lliilliif 

g A Cbla ^. o - o 

if ! Illlllllii 


g- _ _ !.-.-.! 1 . 
jiff 

lllllll!l|lllti|ilflllil |l si 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1537 



3 e 

r-l r-l 



.%> 

.0 



s ' 



1 



ff . 

? S 3 
O D 3 



> 5> .^ 5 r 
I 9 a e "B 



l^.,i 



illLit l!ltf!IIi!l!11.^iditifl lllil l|!fl-| 

:zzz5?. oESooSHKJSjwKK5J3o:oSiSw E-HH-< tioe5i3 



385 



1538 



CRUSTACEA. 





'I 


WL 


e s 








* rH rH rH 








V W 




t 




rH rH 












2 


- 


* A ' rO *,BO* B 'CBBB-OB O 

. rH . . . . rH ... rH rH . rH . . . . - '. : : i : rH 












. 




s 




1 








PH 




O 




> 


. 


* ^ 








..W .. . rH rH i-l . . .. rH rHrH ClCO CO*" 1 * . rH CO W rH 




fl fl 


S 






*n * * 


E. Ind 


. . rH 








5> o 




| 


m 


iH eT ^ * rH rH f d rHrH 




^ 








H 


. 


rH 








' 8" ' 








" 
















--. ^ -^ ^~ 








.-^IC^CIrH . rH rH . * rH. d . CO >O . .O rH . -f r- 











<1 






- -S < 


M 






rH CO ' W 


















o 




. 


V A V 


g 




to 












o 


S 






to 

d 


1 

X 


1 


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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1539 



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1540 



CRUSTACEA. 



nued. 



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1512 



CRUSTACEA. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. ^543 



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CRUSTACEA. 



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GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1545 



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3b7 



1546 CRUSTACEA. 

RECAPITULATION. 

The three subdivisions adopted in the preceding table, are desig- 
nated A, B, and C, in the following summary of the results. The 
division A, includes the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and islands of 
America; B, the European and West African coasts and islands, from 
Cape Horn to Greenland inclusive ; and C, the coasts and islands of 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans (America excluded) .* 



I. BRACHYURA. 

A. B. C. 



MAIOIDEA. 

Maiinea, . . .69 

Parthenopinea, . 1 

Oncininea, . . .0 





Total Maioidea, . 70 29 (1) 104 (1) 

CANCROIDEA. 

Cancridse, ... 10 . 3 
.Xanthidas, . : 17 , . 7 (1 a) . 129 (1 J) 

Eriphidse, ... 7 5 52 (1 i) 

Portunid*, Platyonychid* and j lg w ^ 

Podophthalmidse, j 

Telphusinea, ...6.1 7 

Cyclinea, . 1.0 .0 

Total Cancroidea, . 54 35(2) 242(3) 

GRAPSOIDEA, . . . 51 . 18 (5) 124(5) 

LEUCOSOIDEA, . . .9 . 12 . 48 (1) 

CORYSTOIDEA, . . 6 . 5 

Total BRACHYURA, . 190 99 (8) 526 (10) 



II. ANOMOURA. 

A. B. C. 

Dromidea, . . .1.9 15(16) 

Bellidea, . 2.0 .0 

Raninidea, . . .1.0 .5 

* The discrepancies between the enumeration here and the summaries of the preceding 
tables, arise from species omitted in one or both, on account of the uncertainty of their 
localities. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. ^547 





A. 


B. 


c. 


Hippidea, 


7 


2 


7 


Porcellanidea, 


. 24 


4 


19 


Lithodea, 


5 


1(1 a) . 


3 


Paguridea, 


. 26 


27 (la) . 


61 (1 6) 


^gleidea, 


2 








Galatheidea, . 


3 


6 (1 a) 


5 


Total ANOMOURA, 


. 71 


49(3) 


115 (2) 




III. MACROURA. 








A. 


B. 


c. 


Thalassinidea, 


7 


8 


9(16) 


Astacidea, 


29 


9 


27 


Caridea, 


. 40 


77 (3 a) 


85 (3 6) 


Penoeidea, 


. 4 


8 


22 


Total MACROURA, 


. 80 


102 (3) 


143 (4) 


IV. 


ANOMOBRANCHIATA. 




A. 


B. 


c. 


Squilloidea, 


. 10 


16 


32 (3 6) 


Mysidea, . 


3 


18 


15 


Amphionidea, 





9 


11 


Total ANOMOBRANCHIATA, 13 


43 


58(3) 


V 


. TETRADECAPODA. 








A. 


B. 


c. 


ISOPODA. 








Idotaeidea, 


.11 . 


25 


6(16) 


Oniscoidea, 


30 


72 (1 a) 


11 


Cymothoidea, 


. 32 


57 (1 a) 


42 (2 6) 


Total Isopoda, 


73 


154 (2) 


59 ( 


ANISOPODA, 


10 


38 


6 


AMPHIPODA. 








Caprellidea, 


13 


24 


6 


Gammaridea, 


. 55 


114 


51 


Hyperidea, 


9 


27 


17 


Total Amphipoda, 


77 


165 


74 



Total TETRADECAPODA, 160 357 (2) 139 (3) 



1548 



CRUSTACEA. 



The preceding table affords the following lists of genera of the three 
grand divisions, according to the present state of the science. 

1. GENERA EXCLUSIVELY AMERICAN OR OCCIDENTAL. 





Coast on 


Coast on 




which found. 




which found. 


1. Maioidea. 




3. Grapsoidea. 




Microrhynchus, 


west. 


Cyrtograpsus, . 


east. 


Salacia, 


(( 

. 


Uca, 


west and east. 


Libidoclea, 


. west and east. 


Gecarcoidea, . 


east. 


Libinia, 


n 11 


Fabia, 


west. 


Pelia, . 


west. 


Pinnixa, 


. west and east. 


Rhodia, 


it 


Pinnotherelia, 


west. 


Pisoides, 


a 


Halicarcinus, 


. west and east. 


Thoe, 


. west and east. 


4. Leucosoidea. 




Chorilia, 


west. 


Platymera, 


west. 


Scyra, 


u 


Hepatus, . 


west and east. 


Othonia, 


it 


Guaia, 


a 


Mithraculus, 


west and east. 


5. Corystoidea. 




Tyche, 


a a 


Telmessus, 


west. 


Eurypodius, 


it 


Peltarion, 


east. 


Oregon! a, 


west. 


Pseudocorystes, . 


west. 


Inachoides, 


a 


6. Anomoura. 


. 


Pugettia, 


a 


Corystoides, 


west. 


Epialtus, . 


west and east. 


Bellia, 


tt 


Leucippa, 


it 


Iiiiiiilin, . 


ti 


2. Cancroidea. 




Albunhippa, . 


west. 


Pilumnoides, . 


west. 


Echidnocerus, 


it 


Trichodactylus, 


east. 


7. Macroura. 




Arenaeus, 


u 


Cambarus, 


west and east. 


Potamia, 


west and east. 


Paracrangon, . 


west. 


Orthostoma, . 


east. 


^glea, . 


it 


Acanthocyclus, 


west. 


Cryphiops, 


a 



2. GENERA EXCLUSIVELY OF THE AFRICO-EUROPEAN DIVISION. 



1. Maioidea. 

Lissa. 

Stenorhynchus. 
Amathia. 
Eurynome. 

2. Cancroidea. 

Perimela. 

Portumnus. 

Polybius. 



3. Grapsoidea. 

Gonoplax. 
Heterograpsus. 
Brachynotus. 
Hymenosoma. 

4. Leucosoidea. 

Ilia. 

5. Corystoidea. 

This. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1549 



Corystes. 

6. Anomoura. 

Homola. 

7. Macroura. 

Axius. 



Calocaris. 

Ephyra. 

Gnathophyllum. 



3. 0ENERA EXCLUSIVELY ORIENTAL, OR OF THE THIRD DIVISION. 



1. Maioidea. 

Macrocheira. 

Paramithrax. 

Micippa. 

Lahaina. 

Naxia. 

Hyastenus. 

Pyria. 

Cyclax. 

Camposcia. 

Paramicippa. 

Tiarinia. 

Perinea. 

Halimus. 

Menaethius. 

Stenocionops. 

Huenia. 

Xenocarcinus. 

Parthenope. 

Eumedonus. 

Ceratocarcinus. 

Gonatonotus. 

Eurynolambrus. 

2. Cancroidea. 

Atergatis. 

Liomera. 

Liagora. 

Medaeus. 

Haliruede. 

Etisus. 

Carpilodes. 

Zozymus. 

Daira. 

Cymo. 

PolydectuB. 

(Etbra. 

Galene. 

Pseudozius. 



Melia. 

Acanthodes. 

Actamnua. 

Kuppellia. 

Domaecius. 

Trapezia. 

Tetralia. 

Quadrella. 

Scylla. 

Chary bdis. 

Lissooaroinus. 

Podophthalmus. 

3. Grapsoidea. 

Curtonotus. 

Cleistostoma. 

Macrophthalmus. 

Heloecius. 

Scopimera. 

Doto. 

Eriocheir. 

Platynotus. 

Trichopus. 

Sarmatium. 

Helice. 

Gecarcinicus. 

Xenophthalmus. 

Xanthasia. 

Hymenicus. 

Elamena. 

Myctiris. 

4. Leucosoidea. 

Mursia. 

Orythia. 

Thealia. 

Matuta. 

Philyra. 

Leucisca. 

Nucia. 



388 



1550 



CRUSTACEA. 



Nursia. 

Myra. 

Ira. 

Iphis. 

Arcania. 

Oreophorua. 

Tlos. 

Ethusa. 

5. Corystoidea. 

Kraussia. 

(Eidia. 

Dicera. 

6. Anomoura. 

Caphyra. 

Itaninoidcs. 

Ranina. 

Notopus. 

Lyreidus. 

Cosmonotus. 

Lomis. 

Diogenes. 

Aniculus. 

Birgus. 



7. Macroura. 
Laomedia. 
Glaucothoe. 
Callianidea. 
Callisea. 
Thenus. 
Ibacus. 
Astacoides. 
Paranephrops. 
Cyclorhynchus. 
Atyoida. 
Alope. 
(Edipus. 
Harpilius. 
Anchistia. 
Palsemonella. 
Hymenocera. 
Oplophorus. 
Regulus. 
Stenopus. 
Spongicola. 
Acetes. 
Eucopia. 



4. GENERA COMMON TO THE AMERICAN AND AFRICO-EUROPEAN DIVISIONS, 
BUT NOT IN THE THIRD, OR ORIENTAL. 



1. Maioidea. 

Hyas. 
Herbstia. 
Leptopodia. 
Stenorhynchus. 

2. Cancroidea. 



Atelecyclus. 

3. Anomoura. 

Munida. 
Grimothea. 

4. Macroura. 

Homarus. 



5. GENERA COMMON TO THE AFRICO-EUROPKAN AND ORIENTAL DIVISIONS, 
NOT YET FOUND IN THE OCCIDENTAL. 



1. Maioidea. 

Inackus. 

Doclea. 

Maia. 

Acheeus. 

Lambrus. 

2. Cancroidea. 

Actaea. 

Actaeodes. 

Thalamita. 

Portunus. 

Telphusa. 



3. Leucosoidea. 

Cycloes. 

Ebalia. 

Dorippe. 

4. Anomoura. 

Latreillia. 

Cyinopolia. 

Ilemipes. 

5. Macroura. 

Nika. 

Lysmata. 

Caridina. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 



1551 



6. GENERA COMMON TO THE THREE DIVISIONS. 



1. Maioidea. 

Pisa. 

Mithrax (mainly Occid.) 

Acanthonyx. 

2. Cancroidea. 

Xantho. 

Panopaeus (mainly Occid.) 

Pilumnus. 

Eriphia. 

Lupa. 

Amphitrite. 

Carcinus. 

Platyonychus. 

3. Grapsoidea. 

Grapsus. 

Goniograpsus. 

Sesarma (sparingly European). 

Acanthopus. 

Plagusia. 

Pinnothera. 

Calappa. 

4. Anomoura. 

Dromia (sparingly Occid.) 



Albunaea. 
Porcellana. 
Lithodes. 
Paguristes. 
Bernhardus. 

Pagurus (mainly Orient.) 
Clibanarius. 
Galathea. 
5. Macroura. 
Gebia. 
Scyllarus. 
Panulirus. 
Palinurus. 
Astacus. 
Crangon. 
Alpheus. 
Betaeus. 
Hippolyte. 
Pandalus. 
Palaemon. 
Sicyonia. 
- Penaeua. 



The following are lists of species common to two or more of the 
three divisions. They may be much changed by further study, 
through the discovery that the specimens from distant localities are 
not conspecific. Should this happen, there is a relation indicated 
based on their close similarity, which is important. 



1. SPECIES STATED TO BE COMMON TO DIVISIONS A. AND B., OR THE 
AMERICAN AND THE AFRICO-EUROPEAN WATERS. 

Hyas coarctata; Massachusetts and Long Island, in United States ; France; England; 

Shetlands. 

Leptopodia sagittaria; Canaries; West Indies; Valparaiso. 
Panopaeus Herbstii ; Mediterranean ; Key West, South Carolina, and New York, in 

United States. 
Carcinus manas; Mediterranean at Nice; Crimea; England; Massachusetts, United 

States. 
Grapsus pictus; Madeira; Peru and Chili ; (also various Pacific islands.) 



1552 CRUSTACEA. 

Planes minutus; Atlantic Ocean, and occasionally found on both the American and 
European coasts. 

Goniograpsus varius; Canaries; Mediterranean at Algiers, Nice, Italy; Crimea; Brit- 
tany ; and probably at Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Sesarma rcticulata ; Key West and South Carolina, in United States ; and in South 
Africa, according to M'Leay. 

Acanthopus planissimus ; West Indies ; Canaries ; Madeira ; Cape Town and Port Natal, 
South Africa (also various tropical Pacific islands). 

Plagusia squamosa ; West Indies ; Key West, South Carolina, in United States ; 
Canaries ; Madeira (also, Isle of France ; Indian Ocean ; Bed 
Sea; Port Natal). 

Plagusia tomentosa; Chili; Cape Town (also, New Zealand). 

Albunaea symnista; Canaries; Mediterranean (also, Pondicherry) ; and if the A. oxy- 
ophthalmus is the same species, it occurs in the West Indies, 
and on the coast of South Carolina. 

Lithodes maia; Great Britain ; Shetlands; Norway; coast of Massachusetts (rare). 

Bernhardus streblonyx; Great Britain; France; Mediterranean; Norway; Massachu- 
setts, in United States; (also Kamtschatka). 

Cenobita diogenes ; West Indies ; Mediterranean ; (Hawaii ?) 

Crangon vulgaris ; Great Britain ; France ; United States ; San Francisco and Puget's 
Sound, Western America. 

Crangon boreas; Norway; Iceland; Greenland; Massachusetts (in fish), (also, Kamt- 
schatka). 

Pandalus annulicornis; Scotland and Shetlands; Norway; Iceland; Massachusetts 
(rare). 

Gonodactylus chiragrus; Mediterranean; Key West; (also, Red Sea; Port Natal, 
South Africa; Isle of France; East Indies; Swan River, 
Australia; Pacific Ocean, at Feejees, Tongatabu, &c.)' 



2. SPECIES COMMON TO B. AND C., THE AFRICO-EUROPEAN AND ORIENTAL SEAS. 

Mithrax dichotomus ; Mediterranean ; East Indies. 

Achaeus Cranchii ; Mediterranean ; Japan (probably same species). 

Actaea rufo-punctata ; Canaries and Mediterranean ; Isle of France, Indian Ocean. 

Thalamita admete; Canaries; Port Natal, South Africa; Red Sea; Indian Ocean and 

East Indies; Pacific Ocean, at the Feejees, Samoa, Hawaiian 

Islands, Wake's Island, &c. 
Pilumnus Forskalii ; Canaries ; Red Sea. 
Grapsus pictus ; see above. 

Grapsus strigosus ; Canaries ; South Africa ; Red Sea ; East Indies. 
Goniograpsus messor ; Canaries; Port Natal, South Africa ; Red Sea; East Indies. 
Planes minutus ; Atlantic; Japan. 
Acanthopus planissimus ; see above. 

Plagusia tomentosa ; Chili ; South Africa ; New Zealand. 
Plagusia squamosa ; see above. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. ^553 

Cycloes granulosa ; Canaries ; Japan (probably same species). 

Kemipes scutellata; Ascension Island; Swan River, Australia; St. Christopher's. 

Lysmata seticaudata ; Mediterranean; Japan. 

Alpheus Edwardsii ; Mediterranean ; Cape Verdes ; Port Natal, South Africa. 

Pandalus pristis ; Mediterranean ; Japan. 

Squilla mantis ; Mediterranean; Canaries; Tgchutan. 

Pagurus striatus; Mediterranean; Japan. 



3. COSMOPOLITES. 

The above lists include the following species occurring in the Occi- 
dental, Africo-European, and Oriental seas. 



Grapsus pictus. 
Acanthopus planissimus. 
Plagusia squamosa. 
Plagusia tomentosa. 



Bernhardus streblonyx. 
Crangon boreas. 
Crangon vulgaris. 
Gonodactylus chiragrus. 



These are cosmopolite species.* The Grapsus, AcantJiopus, Plagusia 
squamosa, and Gonodactylus pre-eminently deserve this name, being 
found both north and south of the equator. They thrive in the 
hottest equatorial waters, and have their extreme limit in the tempe- 
rate region. The temperature they admit of is hence at least from 56 
to 88 F. 

The other species are cold-water species. Plagusia tomentosa 
belongs to the southern subtemperate region, being reported from 
Cape Town, New Zealand, and Chili, and the rest are found in high 
northern latitudes, and probably pass from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean through the Arctic Seas. 

Besides the above species, a few are found in the West Indies, 
which occur also in the Oriental Seas, but are not yet known from the 
European or West African coasts. These, which also may be styled 
cosmopolites, are as follows : 

Mithrax asper ; East Indies ; probably the same on the Peruvian coasts. 
Atergatis lobatus ; Red Sea and Indian Ocean ; West Indies. 

Carpilius inaculatus ; East Indies ; South France ; Japan ; various Pacific Islands from 
the Paumotus to the Feejees and Hawaiian Islands; West Indies 
Eriphia gonagra ; East Indies ; Port Natal ; Key West. 

* The Platyonychus bipustulatus may possibly be another cosmopolite, for it ia re- 
ported from Table Bay, the East Indies, Japan, and Valparaiso. But we believe the 
Valparaiso species to be different from that of the East Indies, and have so named ij. 

389 



1554 CRUSTACEA. 

Menippe Ruraphii ; East Indies ; Rio Janeiro and the West Indies. 

Chlorodius exaratus ; Pacific Islands ; East Indies ; West Indies. 

Lysiosquilla scabricaudis ; Indian Ocean ; West Indies ; Brazil ; South Carolina. 

From the survey already made, it is apparent, that the three grand 
divisions of the seas and coasts adopted in the preceding table, have 
very few species in common, and they correspond to a natural geo- 
graphical arrangement. They constitute three kingdoms, to which 
two should be added, one for the Arctic Seas, and the other for the 
Antarctic. These kingdoms are : 

I. The Occidental Kingdom, embracing the Atlantic and Pacific 
coasts of America to the frigid region, or some point in the subfrigid 
region. 

II. The European Kingdom, extending from Cape Horn (or Cape 
Agulhas) to the Shetlands inclusive, and embracing the adjoining 
islands. 

III. The Oriental Kingdom, including the east coast of Africa, the 
south and east of Asia, and the islands of the Indian and Pacific 
Ocean, exclusive of the American continent. 

IV. The Arctic Kingdom, including Norway, Iceland, Greenland, 
the Alascha Archipelago, and adjoining parts of the coasts of America 
and Kamtschatka, with other Arctic lands. 

V. The Antarctic Kingdom, embracing. Fuegia, the Falklands, 
Southern New Zealand, and the lands or islands of the Antarctic Seas. 

Each of the first three kingdoms are naturally divided into three 
subkingdoms : a north, a middle, and a south, corresponding severally 
to the North Temperate, Torrid, and South Temperate zones of sea- 
temperature. The importance of these divisions will be a subject of 
further remark beyond. 

The summary of the results in the preceding table, presents some 
striking facts. 

We observe, first, that there is a ratio of 1 : 1*5 between the 
Maioids of the A and C divisions (that is between those of the Occi- 
dental and Oriental seas, as just explained), while the ratio is about 
1 : 44 for the Cancroids. So also, while the ratio of the A and B 
divisions together (Occidental and European) to C (Oriental) is for 
the Maioids, nearly 1 : 1, it is for the Cancroids, 1 : 3. Here is a 
wide difference between the Occidental and Oriental seas as regards 
these groups. This last ratio is for the Corystoids nearly that for the 
Maioids, or more exactly, 1 : 0'75 ; and for the Grapsoids it is 1 : 2; 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1555 

for the Leucosoids, 1 :2i. (The Arctic and Antarctic Seas are here 
merged in the other kingdoms, with which they are most nearly 
associated.) 

If we compare these ratios with those which the same groups sus- 
tain as regards temperature, as exhibited on a former page, we discover 
that there is a very close parallelism ; showing plainly that the preva- 
lence of Maioids in the -Occidental Seas must be owing to the com- 
parative prevalence of cold waters ; and the prevalence of the warm- 
water groups, the Cancroids and Leucosoids, in the Oriental Seas, is 
owing conversely to the great extent of warm waters. 

Again, the ratio between the A and B divisions together of the 
Macroura, and the C division, is nearly as 1 : 0'8, which sustains the 
same conclusion. 

The corresponding ratio for the Tetradecapoda is as 1 : 0'26. But 
as this group, owing to the smallness of the species, has not been tho- 
roughly investigated, except in European regions, directly under the 
eyes of European observers, we cannot use satisfactorily the facts 
they present for deducing general conclusions, or' for characterizing 
zoological districts or provinces. Still, it should be observed that the 
facts conform to the same principle. 

It is hence of the highest importance before comparing the zoolo- 
gical character of different coasts, that the temperature-regions of 
those coasts should be ascertained. 

Comparative tables of the East Indies and Mediterranean, or of the 
Peruvian coast and the East Indies, or of the southeast and southwest 
coast of Africa (and so on), would lead us far astray, if this element 
were left out of view ; for a difference of temperature region, implies 
a difference of genera and species, independent of other considerations. 
On these grounds, whole continents, or sides of continents, may have 
a common character and differ widely from other continents in the 
same latitudes. 

If we look at the American continent in this point of view, we at 
once perceive a striking peculiarity. All the coasts of North and 
South America, with the Gallapagos on the west, belong to the Tem- 
perate zone, excepting a few degrees along by Panama, and a con- 
nected range of coast from Key West to Rio Janeiro. Chili and Peru 
are excluded even from the warm temperate region, and so also, the 
coast of the United States, north of Cape Hatteras. 

Now contrast America with the Oriental Seas. The whole east 



1556 CRUSTACEA. 

coast of Africa, north of the parallel of 30 south, the coasts of India 
and the East India Islands, and the northern half of Australia, 
together with the numerous islands of the Pacific, belong alike to 
the Torrid zone. In the American Seas, the torrid coasts make a 
single range, and have many species in common throughout. In the 
Oriental Seas, they reach with an uninterrupted surface over one-half 
of the circumference of the globe, and there is room for many distinct 
provinces within the same temperature region. The space for Torrid 
zone species along the American coasts in the Atlantic or Pacific, or 
that of the whole Atlantic Ocean, is small compared with the vast 
extent of the East Indies, Indian Ocean, and Middle Pacific, and this 
fact is more striking, if we consider that the Atlantic east of the West 
Indies contains no islands in the Torrid zone, besides St. Helena, 
Ascension, and the Cape Verdes, all of which are of small size. 

Again, in order to compare the coasts of America and Europe, we 
must observe that the warm temperate region is represented along the 
former by a small district from Northern Florida to Cape Hatteras, 
while this region does not reach at all the latter, and only the Cana- 
ries in the eastern Atlantic are within it. Moreover, the temperate 
and subtemperate regions are mere points on the North American 
coast at Cape Hatteras; while on the European side, the former 
embraces the larger part of the Mediterranean, and a portion of North- 
western Africa, and the latter includes the Atlantic coast of Portugal. 
But north of Cape Hatteras, the coast of America is rightly compared 
with that of Europe, north of Portugal. 

To compare the coast of Asia and Europe, we first observe in the 
same manner the temperature regions. There is in fact a striking 
similarity with the coast of the United States. Yet, the torrid and 
subtorrid regions are confined to limits much nearer the equator ; and 
the warm temperate, although embracing as many degrees of latitude 
as the warm temperate on the United States, does not on the China 
coast extend farther north than the subtorrid region of the Florida 
coast. The temperate region hardly has a place on the coast of 
China, while the subtemperate occupies the Yellow Sea. North of 
this Gulf, the coast corresponds mostly with the coast of the United 
States, north of Cape Cod. 

It is unnecessary to adduce other explanations, as the chart fur- 
nishes all that is needed for a ready comparison between the diffe- 
rent coasts. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1557 

The propriety of uniting in one kingdom both coasts of America, 
the eastern and western, and thus shutting off the latter from the 
great Pacific Ocean, may at first appear unnatural. Yet it is sup- 
ported by all facts bearing on the subject. There are no species known 
to be common to Western America and the Middle Pacific, excepting 
two or three cosmopolites. Moreover, the genera are to a great extent 
distinct, and where so, they often occur on both sides of the continent. 
The genera of Podophthalmia peculiar to America are mentioned on 
page 1548, and also the particular coast on which they occur. 

A review of some of the facts will exhibit in a strong light the 
zoological resemblances of the two sides of the continent. 

Of Cancer, there are four species found on the west coast of South 
America, three on the west coast of North America, and two on the 
east coast of North America. 

Of Hepatus, there is one species common to the West Indies and 
Brazil, a second, found at Rio Janeiro ; a third, at Valparaiso, Chili ; 
& fourth, on the Carolina coast. 

Libinia, in the same manner, has its species on the Atlantic and 
Pacific coasts of the United States, and the coasts of Western and 
Eastern South America. Mithrax is as widely distributed. 

Epialtus occurs in the West Indies, California, Brazil, Gallapagos, 
and Valparaiso, fbtamia has two West Indian and one Chilian species. 

Eurypodius of Southern South America has its representative at 
Puget's Sound, in the genus Oregonia. 

Again, the Libinia dubia of the West Indies, is hardly distinguish- 
able, according to Prof. L. R. Gibbes, from the L. affinis, Rand;, of the 
California coast. L. spinosa of Brazil is also found in Chili. Lepto- 
podia sagittai-ia'joccurs in the West Indies, and also, according to Bell, 
at Valparaiso; Acanthonyx Petiverii (?), in the West Indies, Brazil, 
and Gallapagos ; Epialtus marginatus, on the coast of Brazil and at 
the Gallapagos (Bell) ; Epialtus bituberculatus, in Chili, and at Key 
West ; Uca una, Guayaquil and West Indies; Albuncea scutellata, West 
Indies and San Lorenzo, Peru ; Hippa emerita and talpoides, both 
on East and West America, North and South. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the east and west sides of America are 
very closely related, arid differ widely in a zoological sense, from 
either of the other kingdoms. 

We observe further, that nearly all the genera peculiar to America 
are cold-water genera. They are mostly Maioids ; the large group of 

390 



1558 CRUSTACEA. 

the Cancroids, which belong mainly to warm waters, does not include 
a single genus exclusively American, and of the family Leucosidae, of 
the Leucosoids, there are only three known species. 

We also perceive why the western coast of America has no zoolo- 
gical affinity with the Pacific Islands. The temperature of their 
waters is widely different; and, moreover, the oceanic currents of the 
tropics run from the American coast to the westward, and are a 
barrier to migration eastward. 

The relations of the American or Occidental to the Africo-European 
kingdom are of much interest. The two kingdoms are widely diffe- 
rent in most respects. 

In the first place, the genera Lupa, Gelasimus, Ocypoda, Libinia, 
Epialtus, Hepatus, well represented on the American coasts, are not 
known on the European, besides others (Table 1, page 1548) of less 
prominence. 

Again, there are several genera common in Europe, not known in 
America, as Inachus, Maia, Achceus, Portunus, Ebalia, Latreillia, 
Aflianas, in addition to those included in Table 2, on page 1548. 

Still, the American and Africo-European kingdoms have a common 
character separating them from the Oriental. For example : the 
great genus Cancer occurs in both of these kingdoms, and is not known 
in Oriental seas, except in New Zealand and Tasmania. So also the 
important genus Homarus; besides Hyas, Herbstia, Leptopodia, Atelecy- 
clus, Munida, and Grimothea. The genus Homarus has one species on 
the coast of the United States, one on the coast of Europe, and one at 
Table Bay, South Africa, thus ranging over the whole Atlantic. 

We may now treat separately of the several Kingdoms, and their 
subdivision into Provinces, pointing out the naturalness of their limits, 
and the characteristics of these Provinces. Each temperature region 
along a coast makes a distinct Province, which facts, where ascer- 
tained, show to be well characterized. In some cases, a farther sub- 
division may be desirable, and when so, the subordinate divisions may 
be called Districts. The Provinces of each zone together may consti- 
tute a,'Subkingdom, as the Torrid Subkingdom, Temperate Subking- 
dom, &c. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1559 



I. OCCIDENTAL KINGDOM. 

In the Occidental kingdom, there are in the first place, two SECTIONS, 
the Eastern and the Western; and both these sections are subdivided 
into 

1. The Torrid Subkingdom; 2. The South Temperate Subkingdom; 
3. The North Temperate Subkingdom. The last two subkingdoms 
include the whole of the Temperate zone, excepting perhaps the 
extreme portions, which on zoological grounds may be separated, and 
united to the Frigid zone, forming the Arctic or Antarctic kingdoms. 

In the following mention of the provinces, we give their lengths along 
the coast; and it will be seen, that although they may appear to be 
numerous, they still have a wide extent, the length being seldom under 
five hundred miles, and sometimes full four thousand miles. 



A. WESTERN SECTION. 
I. TOKBID SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The PANAMA Province (torrid), extending from the equator or a 
degree south to a degree beyond Acapulco. Length, sixteen hundred 
miles. 

2. The MEXICAN Province (north subtorrid), reaching from the 
termination of the Panama province to the Peninsula of California. 
Length to the California Peninsula, exclusive of the Gulf, six hundred 
miles. 

3. The GUAYAQUIL Province (south subtorrid) occupying from Cape 
Blanco, the west cape of South America, nearly to the equator, and 
including the Bay of Guayaquil. Length, nearly two hundred miles. 



II. SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The GALLAPAGOS Province (warm temperate) includes the Galla- 
pagos Islands, but does not reach the continent. The genera peculiar 
to it are Microrhynchus, Pelia, Ehodia, Thoe, and Othonia. There are 
also two species of Mithraculm, one of Mithrax, one of Pisoides (also 



1560 CRUSTACEA. 

Chilian), one of Herbstia, one of Pisa, one of EpiaUus. The variety of 
Maioid forms is remarkably large. The Cancroids have not been 
described. Epialtus marginatus is also reported from Brazil. 

2. The PERUVIAN Province (temperate), from just north of Payta 
nearly to Copiapo. Length, fifteen hundred miles. The most cha- 
racteristic species appear to be the Panopceus crenatus, Xantho crenatw, 
and Albunhippa spinosa (another species of which genus occurs in 
California). There also exists here, the cosmopolite Grapsus pictus, 
of very large size, which is rare farther south ; also Libinia rostrata, 
Miihrax asper, Acanthonyx emarginatus, Porcellana mitra, Paguristes 
Weddelii; besides several Chilian species of Porcellana, and Xantho 
Orbignii, X. Gaudiclwudii, Bernhardus Edwardsii, and Pseudosquilla 
monoceros, which are common to Chili and Peru. The Pilumnoides 
perlatus is reported from Peru by D'Orbigny ; but we observed it only 
at Valparaiso, where it was originally found by Poeppig.* 

3. The CHILIAN Province (subtemperate) . Length, seven hundred 
miles. This province is distinguished from the Peruvian by the rare 
occurrence of Grapsus pictus, and the unusual number and size of the 
species of Cancer and Porcellana, three of the former and ten of the 
latter existing at Valparaiso. Both of these genera have been shown 
to reach their highest developments in the middle Temperate zone. 
Other characteristic genera are the following : Inachoides, Acantho- 
cyclus, Platymera, Pseudocorystes, Bellia, j&glea, Cryphiops, Pinnothe- 
relia, and Rhyncocinetes. Epialtus dentatus, Ocypoda Gaudichaudii, 
Grapsus planifrons, Hepatus chilensis, and Platyonychus purpureus are 
large and common species. The genera Ocypoda and Grapsus are not 
found south of the subtemperate region. Pilumnoides we suspect to 
be peculiar to Chili. The following are other genera represented in 
the Chilian seas : Libinia, Libidoclea, Pisoides, Leptopodia, Leucippa, 
Xantho (four large species), Panopceus, Ozius (also an Australian genus), 
Pilumnus, Gelasimus, Oyclograpsus, Uca, Pinnixa, Leucosia, Atelecyclus, 
Paguristes, Bernhardus, Galathea, Callianassa, Thalassina, Alpheus, 
Betceus, Palcemon, Pseudosquilla, Gonodactylus. 

The Chilian province is allied to the Gallapagos through 
Pisoides tuberculosus and perhaps, Acanthonyx Petiverii; with Brazil, 
through Libinia spinosa; with the West Indies and Canaries, through 
Leptopodia sagittaria. The Hepati of Chili and Rio Janeiro are 
closely related; and we suspect that the H. chilensis is found also at 

* Gay, in his 1 1 istoria de Chile, mentions its occurrence only on the Chilian coast. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1561 

Callao, Peru. The Eurypodii of the Patagonian seas sometimes reach 
as far north as Valparaiso. 

Among the Tetradecapoda, Amphoroidea typica is a peculiar species, 
yet it closely resembles a species from Australia. Other genera of 
Tetradecapoda represented in Chili, are the following : Epelys, Pw- 
cellio, Lygia, Spheroma, Desmarestia (Nicolet), Orchestia, Allorcliestes, 
Iphimedia, Amphithoe, Aora, Hypei-ia, Primno, Pronoe, Oxycephalus. 

4. The ARAUCANIAN Province (cold temperate), extending from 
Valdivia nearly to the parallel of 50. Length, nine hundred miles. 
The genera Eurypodius and Lithodes occur on this coast, and probably 
also Platyonychus and Pseudocorystes ; but the Araucanian species have 
not yet been studied. 

South of the Araucanian province lies the South Pataganian and 
Fuegian, the latter of which properly falls into the Antarctic kingdom. 



III. NORTH TEMPEKATE SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The SONORA Province (warm temperate) along the California 
Peninsula. Length, five hundred and fifty miles. 

2. The DIEGO Province (temperate), extending from just below the 
entrance of the Peninsula, in latitude 28^ to latitude 34, and in- 
cluding the port of San Diego. Length, four hundred arid fifty miles. 
A species of the genus Pugettia and an Albunhippa (a Peruvian genus) 
occur on this coast. 

3. The CALIFORNIAN Province (subtemperate) extending beyond 
the Bay of San Francisco to Cape Mendocino. Length, four hundred 
and eighty miles. This region has a close resemblance to the Chilian, 
in some of its genera, which is also subtemperate. Thus there are 
three species of Cancer, two of Epialtus, and one of Libinia. Tht 
Libinia is closely like the L. dubia of the United States, if not iden- 
tical with it. 

4. The OREGON Province (cold temperate), extending probably to 
Puget's Sound. Length, about four hundred and eighty miles. The 
Orangon vulgaris, common in Northern Europe, occurs on this coast, 
and the Echidnocerus of White (near Lithodes) is reported from the 
mouth of the Columbia. 

5. The POGETTIAN Province (subfrigid). Length, about twelve 
hundred miles. This province has some distinctive genera, as Ore- 
gonia (related to Eurypodius), Chorilia, Scyra, and Tdmessus; also, 

391 



1562 CRUSTACEA. 

species of Pugettia, Hyas, Pseudograpsus, Pinnothera, Fabia, Trichocera, 
with others of Bernhardus, Gebia, Callianassa, Nephrops, Crangon, 
Paracrangon, Pandalus; and among the Tetradecapoda, there are the 
genera Oniscus, Spheroma, Argeia, Orchestia, Allorchestes, Iphimedia, 
and Gammarus. 

The northern part of the North American coast, including the 
Alaschka Archipelago, belongs to the Arctic kingdom. 



B. EASTERN SECTION. 

I. TORKID SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The CARIBBEAN Province (torrid), including the West India 
Islands, and the northern and northeastern coast of South America, 
from the north of Yucatan to beyond Bahia. Length, along the South 
American coast alone, about four thousand miles. There are as yet 
no known Caribbean genera of Podophthalmia, that do not occur in 
other Provinces in this or the other kingdoms. Mithrax and Uca are the 
more characteristic genera, and the latter is reported elsewhere only 
from Guayaquil, Brazil. The following are prominent forms : Chori- 
nus heros, Pericera cornuta, and P. S-spinosa, Amphitrite forceps and A. 
S-spinosa, Ocypoda rJumibea, Calappa marmor,ata, Atya occidentalis, Pali- 
nurus longimanus, Palcemon Jamaicensis. The Torrid zone genus 
Carpiliw contains two West Indian species, one of which (C. macu- 
latus) is a cosmopolite, and allies the West Indies to the Oriental seas. 
Dromia, although a warm-water genus, has but a single representative, 
D. latior; and of Chlorodius, so common in the Orient, in like manner, 
only one species has been observed, and that occurs also in the Pacific. 
There is but a single species of Leucosidae known ; but the Caribbean 
species of Crustacea, it must be acknowledged, are not very thoroughly 
known. Through Leptopodia sagitiaria the province is related to 
the Canaries. 

2. The FLORIDAN Province (subtorrid), Key West and a part of 
Florida are here embraced, together with the Bermudas. Length on 
the United States coast, two hundred miles. The species are mostly 
those of the Caribbean Sea. A Libinia, Hyas, Epialtus, and Menippe, 
have been reported from Key West and Florida, that are not men- 
tioned as occurring about the West India Islands; also, several 
Sesarmas, a Ranilia, and a Callianassa; these genera are none of them 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. J563 

eminently Torrid zone genera. The northern species, Bernhardus pol- 
licaris, Platyonychus ocdlatus, Lupa dicantha, Panopasus limosus and 
Herbstii, reach as far south as Key West. 

3. The BRAZILIAN Province (subtorrid), including the harbour of 
Rio Janeiro, and extending north nearly to Bahia. Length, six hun- 
dred miles. The species of Crustacea are numerous, and have close 
relations to those of Key West. Among the species peculiar to the 
province are the following : Leucippa levis, Pilumnw Quoyi, Lupa 
spinimana, Eucrate crassimanus, C hasmagnathus granulatus, Hemi- 
grapsus granulatus, Hepatus fasciatus, H. angustatus, Sicyonia carinata, 
etc. The number of species of Caprellids and Cymothoids is large. 
The following species are common to Rio Janeiro and Key West, or 
the West Indies : Acanthonyx Petiverii, Gelasimm maracoani, and O. 
vocans, Uca levis?, Xantho parvulus, Lupa dicantha, Arenceus cribra- 
ria, Ocypoda arenaria, 0. rhombea, Goniograpsus ruricola, Cardisoma 
guanhumi, Scyllarus equinoctialis, Penceus brasiliensis, Pagurus granu- 
latus, etc. Epialtua marginatus occurs also at the Gallapagos, and 
Menippe Rumphii, reported as Brazilian, belongs to the East Indies. 



II. NORTH TEMPERATE SUBKINQDOM. 



1. The CAROLINIAN Province (warm temperate), extending along 
by Northern Florida, Georgia, and the Carolinas to Cape Hatteras. 
Length, six hundred miles. Several Key West species occur also in 
this province ; for example, Libinia dubia, Mithrax hispidus, Menippe 
mo'cenarius, Arenceus cribraria, Ocypoda arenaria, Sesarma reticulata, 
and S, cinerea, Plagusia squamosa. Still, the general character of the 
species is different. Among the peculiar species mentioned by L. R. 
Gibbes, are Leptopodia calcarata, Pisa mutica, Cryptopodia granulata, 
Pilumnus aculeatus, Hepatus decorus, Guaia punctata, Porcellana macro- 
cheles, Albuncea scutellata, Callianassa major, Qtbia affinis, Alpheus 
heterochelis, A. formosus, and Pontonia domestica. The following northern 
species have Charleston as their southern limit : Libinia canaliculata, 
Cancer Sayi, Bernhardus longicarpus ; Squilla empusa also reaches from 
Florida to New York. The warm-water genera of Cancroids are all 
absent ; the species of Hepatus indicates a relation to the Chilian and 
Brazilian provinces. 

2. The VIRGINIAN Province (cold temperate). It extends from Cape 
Hatteras to Cape Cod, including the shores of Virginia, New Jersey, 



1564 CRUSTACEA. 

Delaware Bay, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island. Length, six 
hundred and fifty miles. It corresponds essentially to the Pennsyl- 
vanian Province of Milne Edwards ; a name not here adopted, since 
the state of Pennsylvania has no part in the coasts, it being entirely 
inland. The giant Homarus, Lupa dwantha, Pilumnus Harrisii, Cancer 
Sayi, and G. irroratus, Libinia canaliculate,, Panopceus Herbslii, and P. 
limosus, Platyonychus ocellatus, Gelasimus vocans, Bernhardus pollicaris, 
and B. longicarpus, Palasmon vulgaris, with Sesarma reticulata (a 
southern species), occur in this province. 

The province strongly contrasts with the same province across the 
Atlantic in the fewness of its species. Only two Maioids (exclusive of 
the subfrigid Hyas coarctata, and one of the two Miihrax hispidus, is 
properly a southern species) have been reported from these shores, 
with seven Cancroids, two Grapsoids (one a Pinnothera), three Ano- 
moura (a Hippa and two Bernhardi), and three or four Macroura 
(besides Astaci). There is still one point of resemblance between 
the two regions, in that Carcinus mcenas is common to both ; also, the 
genus Homarus has a species in each, and so also the genus Cancer. 
But America has no Xantho north of Florida, while this genus on the 
other side of the Atlantic reaches to the shores of Britain. Again, 
we have species of Paiwpcei, extending even to the subfrigid region, 
none of which group occur in the British Seas. 

3. The NovA-ScoxiA Province (subfrigid) extends from Cape Cod 
to the eastern cape of Newfoundland. Length, nine hundred miles. 
Cancer irroratus, Pilumnus Harrisii, Carcinus mannas, and occasionally 
Pandalus annulicornis, Hippolyte aculeatus, Crangon vulgaris, and C. 
boreas, Lithodes maia, Hyas coarctata, Bernhardus streblonyx, occur on 
this coast, besides other species mentioned above as belonging to the 
Virginian province. We begin to find a resemblance to the Northern 
European and British shores. 



III. SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 



We know little of the Crustacea of this coast of South America. 
According to the temperate regions, there are four provinces. Two are 
north of the La Plata, and may be called the Provinces of ST. PAUL 
(four hundred and eighty miles long), and URAGUAT (three hundred 
and sixty miles) . The mouth of the La Plata from Maldonado, around 
by Montevideo, Buenos Ayres, to the south Cape, C. Antonio, consti- 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1555 

tutes a third province, the PLATENSIAN ; a fourth, from C. Antonio to 
the south cape of the bay of Rio Negro, the NORTHERN PATAGONIAN, 
five hundred miles long. A peculiar Grapsoid form of Rio Negro is the 
Cyrtograpsus angulatus. The Hemigrapsus affinis is another species, 
and this locality is the extreme outer limit of the genus Hemigrapsus, 
as far as now known. Two peculiar Idotaeid forms occur in this 
vicinity, having been taken by us from a fish : they are Cleantis 
linearis, and Chcetilia avata. The genus Scrolls occurs farther south, 
and does not appear to extend to Rio Negro. 

The subfrigid region, in its southern part at least, along Fuegia, 
belongs properly to the Antarctic kingdom ; but the rest of the coast 
may belong to another province, called the Southern Patagrmian, which 
may include also the coast of Western Patagonia south of the Arau- 
canian Province. 



H. AFRICO-EUROPEAN KINGDOM. 

The prominent differences in temperature between this kingdom 
and the Occidental have been briefly pointed out. The most influen- 
tial is the existence of a large temperate region, covering a conside- 
rable part of the Mediterranean coasts, as well as a portion of the 
western coast of Africa, with the Azores and Madeira; and also a 
subtemperate on the coast of Portugal ; both of which regions are 
unrepresented on the coast of the United States. There are many 
species peculiar to the Mediterranean ; and by their extension north, 
they give a greater variety to the British seas than they probably 
would otherwise have. 

On the African coast, we make Cape Agulhas the southern limit. 
Table Bay, however, as is natural from its situation near the borders 
between two great kingdoms, partakes of a middle character, yet 
belongs more properly to the Atlantic Ocean. It affords the Oriental 
species Platyonychus trimaculatus and Dromia hirsutissima ; but pro- 
duces also a species of the Atlantic genus Homarus, and according to 
M'Leay, the Sesarma reticulata of Say, besides four other species of 
this genus. 

The genera peculiar to the Africo-European kingdom, and those 
common to it and the other kingdoms, are already mentioned on pages 

1548, 1550. 

392 



1566 CRUSTACEA. 

The following are the provinces belonging to the three subkingdoms, 
the torrid, the north temperate, and south temperate : 



I. TORRID SUBKINQDOM. 



1. The GUINEAN Province (torrid), including the coast of Guinea to 
9 north or Sierra Leone. Length, twelve hundred miles. 

2. The VERDENSIAN Province (north subtorrid), including the coast 
from 9 north nearly to Cape Verde, and also the Cape Verde Islands. 
Length on the African coast, three hundred and fifty miles. A 
species of Actceodes (A. faba) occurs here, the only one of this warm- 
water genus yet known in the Atlantic. 

3. The BIAFRIAN Province (south subtorrid), including part of the 
African coast near the equator, about the Bight of Biafra, and reach- 
ing to 7 or 8 south; and also the islands Ascension and St. Helena. 
Length on the African coast, nine hundred miles. 

II. NORTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The CANARIAN Province (warm temperate), including the west 
coast of Africa to the latitude of the Canaries, and embracing these 
islands. Length on the African coast, one thousand miles. In 
this province there are several species from more tropical regions, 
which here reach their northern limit, such as Pilumnus fbrskalii, 
also from the Ked Sea ; TJtalamita admete, East Indies, Natal, &c. ; 
Grapsus strigosus, East Indies, &c. ; Goniograpsus messor, East Indies, 
Red Sea, &c. Oplophorus spinosa (= Palaemon spinosa, BrulU), 
Leptopodia lanceolata, Cycloes cristata, Squilla oculata, are reported 
only from the Canaries; though the Cycloes resembles closely a Japan 
species, if it be not identical with it. Many of the species of the 
British Channel here reach their southern limit ; for example, Inachus 
dorhynchus, Maia squinado, Pisa tetraodon, Xantho rivulosus, Portunus 
corrugatus, Gonoplax angulata, Goniograpsus varius, Atelecyclus cru&nr 
tatus, Dromia vulgaris, Porcellana platycheles, Galathea strigosa; these 
are found also in the Mediterranean. There are besides many other 
Canarian species that are found in the Mediterranean, which do not 
extend to the north, e. g., Herbstia condyliata, Actcea rufo-punctata, 
Eriphia spinifrons, Lupa hasiata, Amphitrite hastata, Portunus holsatus, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1557 

Calappa granulata, Dorippe lanata, Homola spintfrans, Albuntva sym- 
nista, Scyllarus latus, Arctus ursus, Gnalhophyllum elegans, Palcerrum 
Treillianus, Pagurus callidus. The cosmopolites, Plagusia aqwimosa 
and Acanthopus planissimiis are also found at the Canaries. The Lep- 
topodia sagittaria occurs here, at the West Indies, and at Valparaiso. 

2. The MEDITERRANEAN Province. The Azores and Madeira belong 
to this province. The characteristic species, distinguishing it from 
the more northern provinces are, Lissa chiragra, Dodea ovis, Acan- 
tlwnyx lunulatus, Panopceii^ Herbstii (also, N. American), Platyonychus 
nasutus, Goniograpsus maurw, Heterograpsus Q-dentatus, Brachynotus 
Q-dentatus, Ilia nuclea and I. rugulosa, Latreillia elegans; and at Madeira, 
Acantliopus planissimus and Grapsus pictus are very common species. 
Above we have mentioned some of the species that are found at the 
Canaries also; and beyond we give a list of those found in the seas of 
Britain. 

The relations of the Mediterranean region to Japan are mentioned 
by De Haan. The genera strikingly Mediterranean which occur in 
Japan, are Latreillia, Nika, Caridina, Ephyra, Sicyonia, Achceus, Pan- 
dalus, Lysmata; and the species of the last three, together with Squilla 
mantis, are probably identical, viz., Pandalus pristis, Lysmata seti- 
caudata, and the Achceus Cranchii, which last is at least hardly distin- 
guishable, according to De Haan, from the A. japonicus. Portunus 
corrugatus is also closely like a Japan species, according to De Haan. 
The Cydoes of the Canaries is another of the Atlantic species, allying 
the Atlantic region to Japan, as above mentioned. Doclea is also an 
Oriental genus, represented in the Occidental kingdom by Libinia. It 
has but one described species out of the Oriental kingdom. 

3. The LUSITANIAN Province (temperate), along the western coast 
of Portugal. Length, three hundred miles. 

4. The CELTIC Province (cold temperate) so named by Milne Ed- 
wards, including the Atlantic coast of Spain and France, the British 
Channel, and Southern Britain and Ireland. The more characteristic 
genera are Inachus, Hi/as, Pisa, Eurynome, Perimela, Cancer (C. 
pagurus), Portumnus, Portunm, Polybius, Ebalia, Atelecyclus, Bern- 
hardus, Qalatltea, Munida, Axius, Calocaris, Hamants, Crangon, Nika, 
Hyppolyte, Pandalus. Several of the species of the Celtic province, 
which reach to the Canaries, and occur also in the Mediterranean, 
are mentioned above. The following is a list of the Decapods common 
to the Celtic province and the Mediterranean : 



1668 



CRUSTACEA. 



DECAPODA COMMON TO THE CELTIC PROVINCE AND THE MEDITERRANEAN.* 



1. Brachyura. 

Maia squinado, A. 
Pisa tetraodon, A. 

" Janata (Gibsii), A. 
Achaeus Cranchii, A. 
Stenorhynchus phulangium, A. 
Eurynome aspera. 
Perimela denticulata,. A. 
Xantho floridus, A. 

" rivulosus, A. 
Pilumnus hirtellus. 
Portunus pusillus. 

" Rondeletii, A. 

" depurator (plicatus), A. 

" marmoreus. 

" corrugatus, A. 

" holsatus. 
Carcinus msenas, A. 
Portumnus latipes, A. 
Gonoplax angulata, A. 
Goniograpsus varius, A. 
Pinnothera pisum. 
Thia polita. 
Corystes dentatus. 

2. Anomoura. 
Dromia vulgaris, A. 



Porcellana platycbeles, A. 

" longicornis, A. 
Bernhardus Prideauxii, A. 

" Forbesii. 

" streblonyx. 

Clibanarius oculatus. 
Galathea strigosa, A. 
" squaraifera. 

3. Macroura. 

Callianassa subtcrranca. 
Arctus ursus, A. 
Palinurua vulgaris, A. 
Homarus vulgaris, A. 
Nephrops norvegicus. 
Crangon fasciatus, A. 

" vulgaris. 

" catapliractus, A. 
Nika edulis, A. 
Alpheus ruber, A. 
Athanas nitescens, A. 
Hippolyte varians, A. 

" viridis, A. 
Palaemon serratus, A. 
Pasiphsea sivado. 
Penaeus sulcatus (caramote), A. 



The genus Xantho, in X. rimilosus and X, floridus here reaches its 
extreme cold limit. Nephrops norvegicus, although more properly per- 
taining to the next province north, occurs also within the limits of 
this; and it has even been taken in the Mediterranean. Stenorhynchus 
phalangium and Ibrtunus pusillus, reach south into the Mediterranean 
and north to the Frigid zone ; Portunus holsatus, Galathea strigosa, and 
Porcellana platycheles, south to the Canaries and north into the sub- 
frigid. 

5. The CALEDONIAN Province (subfrigid), including Northern Scot- 
land, the Shetlands, Orkneys, and the Ferroe Islands. Hyas coarc- 
tatus, Portunus arcuatus, Galathea nexa, Munida Rondeletii, Calocaris 
Macandrece, Nephrops norvegicus, Hippolyte spinus, Pzndalus annuli- 



* Those species that are reported by Lucas from Algiers, are followed by the letter A. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1559 

cornis, and Pasiphcea Savignii, appear to belong especially to this 
province, besides some species of Bernhardus and Crang&n. Lithodes 
maia also occurs here. 



III. SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINODOM. 



The provinces of the South Temperate zone, along the west coast 
of Africa, are, the ANGOLA (warm temperate, three hundred and sixty 
miles long), BENGUELA (temperate, nine hundred miles long), and 
CAPENSIAN (subtemperate, four hundred and fifty miles long). Nothing 
is known of the Crustacea of the coasts, excepting in the last men- 
tioned province, upon which we have already remarked. Hymeno- 
soma orbiculare is one of the Table Bay species ; and it belongs to a 
group that is represented only about the southern extremity of South 
America and in New Zealand. Palinurus Lalandii, another species, is 
one of the largest of known Macrourans. 

South of the subtemperate region, in the cold temperate, stands in 
the Atlantic, the island of Tristan D'Acunha, which may be another 
province, the TKISTENSIAN. As mentioned by Krauss, the Spheroma 
tristense, Edw., is common to this island and Table Bay. 



III. ORIENTAL KINGDOM. 

Turning Cape Agulhas, we soon come into a different Zoological 
world. The coast immediately east to longitude 30, belongs still to 
the Temperate zone, and must constitute a distinct province, which 
we call the ALGOA province (from Algoa Bay), the length of which, 
measured from Cape Agulhas, is full five hundred and fifty miles. 

Passing beyond this, we reach the Natal province, and here we 
recognise at once the seas of India and the Pacific Ocean. Krauss 
mentions eighty-one Natal species of Podophthalmia, not thirty of 
which are peculiar to this region. Twenty are found in the Indian 
Ocean, eighteen in the Red Sea, thirteen in Japan, eight in Australia, 
five in the Isle of France, besides three European species, and three 
American. We observe further that, twenty-two of the species of 
Podophthalmia occur in the Pacific Islands, among which are four 
species supposed by Krauss to be peculiar to Natal, viz., Pagurus 
(Clibanarius, D.) virescens, Kr., Pagurus (Calcinus, D.) elegans, Galene 

393 



|570 CRUSTACEA. 

natalensis, Kr., Platyonychus (Kraussia, D.) rugulosm, Kr., all of 
which occur at the Hawaiian Islands.* 

Of the European species, one is the cosmopolite Qonodactylus chi- 
ragrus, Latr. The others are Alpheus Edwardsii, and Gammarus 
pulex, Fabr. Megalopa mutica and Hlppolyte ensiferus, also reported 
from South Africa, do not occur at Port Natal. The American are 
the cosmopolites Gcmiograpsus pictus, and Gonodactylus chiragrus, 
together with E)-iphia gonagra, Edw. The Sesarma reticulata, Say, 
and Plagusia tomentosa, Lk., also South African, are not from Port 
Natal. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the great ocean, from the east coast of 
Africa to the Hawaiian and Paumotu Islands, covering two-thirds of 
the surface of the globe, makes one great kingdom, closely related in 
its species, although including several zoological provinces and sub- 
ordinate districts. This fact respecting the oceans is strikingly in con- 
trast with those relating to the continents adjoining. A list of the 
genera of Decapods peculiar to this kingdom, and others of the genera 
and species common to this and the other two kingdoms, are given on 
pages 1549, 1550. 

This kingdom may be viewed as consisting of three SECTIONS. 

First, the African, including the African coast to the head of the 
Red Sea and Persian Gulf, with the adjoining islands, Madagascar, 
Mauritius, etc. 

Second, the Asiatic, from Van Diemens Land and New Holland, by 
the East Indies to North Japan. 

Third, the Pacific, including the Pacific Islands west of New 
Guinea, from New Zealand to the Hawaiian Islands.f 

The principal provinces of these three sections are as follows : 

A. AFRICAN SECTION. 

1. The NATAL Province (south subtorrid), including also South 
Madagascar, and the Isle of France and Bourbon. This region is 

* The Galene hawaiensis, D., is so closely like the G. natalensis, that we believe there 
is not sufficient reason for considering them distinct. 

f The species of these three sections are separately presented in Table VI. The two 
columns N. and S., under East Africa, include the AFRICAN species; the column E. 
Indies and Indian Ocean, and the two columns N. and S., under West Pacific, the 
ASIATIC species; the two columns N. and S., under Middle Pacific, the PACIFIC species. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1571 

called the " Madecasse" by Edwards, a name here not accepted, as 
the larger part of Madagascar is in the torrid and not subtorrid region. 

2. The ABYSSINIAN Province (torrid), including the east coast of 
Africa and the Red Sea, excepting its northern third, and also the 
larger part of Madagascar and the islands of that part of the Indian 
Ocean. 

3. The ERTTHREAN Province (subtorrid), including the northern 
subtorrid part of the Red Sea, and probably also the Persian Gulf. 



B. ASIATIC SECTION. 



I. ASIATIC TOKRID SUBKINdDOM. 



1. The INDIAN Province (torrid), including the East Indian Islands, 
Northern Australia, from its most western to its most eastern cape, 
and the coast of Asia to latitude 12J on the coast of Cochin China. 

2. The LIUKIU Province (subtorrid), including the islands of Liukiu 
and Formosa, the Meicoshimah Islands, and the southeastern coast of 
Niphon, along by Jeddo, with the eastern side of Kiusiu; the province 
has but little space on the coast of Asia, along a part of Cochin China. 

A third province exists on the west coast of Australia. 



II. ASIATIC NOETH TEMPERATE SUBKINQDOM. 

1. The TONQUIN Province (warm temperate), including the Gulf of 
Tonquin and coast of China, south of 25. 

2. The CHUSAN Province (subtemperate), including the coast of 
China north of 25 and the Yellow Sea, together with the western 
part of Kiusiu, along by Nagasaki. 

The temperate region is nearly or quite absent from the China coast. 

3. The SAGHALIAN Province (subfrigid), including the Asiatic coast 
within the Japan Sea, and part of the western and the northern shores 
of Niphon, with the islands Saghalian, Yeso, and others. 

The cold temperate region does not appear to be represented on the 
Asiatic coast, but is found on the east coast of Niphon, where it forms 
along with the subtemperate region, what may be called the NIPHON 
Province. 



1572 CRUSTACEA. 



in. ASIATIC SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINODOM. 

1. The SWAN RIVER Province (warm temperate), on the west coast 
of Australia. 

2. The FLINDERS Province (temperate), along the southern coast of 
Australia. 

3. The MORETON Province (warm temperate and temperate), on the 
east coast of Australia. 

4. The BASS Province (subtemperate), from north of Port Jackson 
to Van Diemens Land. 

5. The TASMANIAN Province (cold temperate), including Van 
Diemens Land. 



C. PACIFIC SECTION. 

I. PACIFIC TORRID SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The POLYNESIAN Province (torrid). To this province belong 
the Pacific Islands east of the East Indies, within the torrid region, 
including all the groups between 20 south, and the Hawaiian Islands 
on the north, embracing also the New Hebrides and nearly all of New 
Caledonia. There are probably several subordinate districts, but as 
they are imperfectly indicated by the Crustacea, we do not attempt to 
lay them down. Tongatabu and Tahiti lie on the borders of the sub- 
torrid region, in somewhat cooler waters than the Feejee or Samoan 
Islands. 

2. The HAWAIIAN Province (north subtorrid), Hawaiian Islands 
and others in the same range, to the north of west. 

3. The RARATONGAN Province (south subtorrid), including nearly 
all the Hervey Islands south of west from Tahiti, with Pitcairn's and 
the Gambler Islands, Ducie's, and some other islands in that vicinity. 



II. PACIFIC SOUTH TEMPERATE SUBKINGDOM. 

1. The KERMADEC Province (warm temperate and temperate). A 
few islands north of New Zealand lie in this province, and probably 
also Norfolk Island, a little farther to the west. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1573 

2. The WANGAROA Province (subtemperate) . Includes the north 
part of New Zealand, of which the Bay of Islands is the prominent 
port. 

3. The CHATHAM Province (cold temperate), embracing the Chatham 
Islands and Middle New Zealand, nearly to its southern extremity. 

In the above, the Torrid zone of the Oriental kingdom embraces in 
each of its regions three provinces, as follows : 

African Section I. Indian Section H. Padnc Section III. 

I. TORRID REGION. 1. Abyssinian. 2. Indian. 3. Polynesian. 

II. NORTH SUBTORRID REGION. 1. Erythrean. 2. Liukiuan. 3. Hawaiian. 

III. SOUTH SUBTORRID REGION. 1. Natalensian. 2. West Australian. 3. Karatongan. 



1. SPECIES COMMON TO THE THREE SECTIONS, THE AFRICAN, THE INDIAN, 

AND THE PACIFIC. 



1. Brachyura. 

Parthenope horrida. I. Fr., Red Sea; E. 

I.; Haw. 

Atergatis limbatus. R. Sea; E. I.; Feej. 
Atergatis floridus. Natal; E. I.; Tonga, 

Paumotus; Tahiti. 
Carpilius maculatus. I. Fr. ; E. I. ; Jap. ; 

Samoa, &c., to Paumotus. 
Carpilius convexus. R. Sea; E. I., Jap.; 

Feej., Haw. 

Actfea hirsutissima. R. Sea; Samoa. 
Chlorodius niger. R. Sea (N.) ; E. I. ; 

Feej., Tonga, Samoa. 
Trapezia ferruginea. R. Sea; E. I.; 

Pacific. 

Cymo Andreossyi. R. Sea ; E. I. ? ; Sa- 
moa, Tahiti. 
Scylla serrata. Natal; R. Sea; E. I., Jap. ; 

Samoa. 
Lupa sanguinolenta. Nat. ; I. Fr., R. 

Sea; E. I.; Haw. 
Thalamita admete. Nat. ; R. Sea ; E. I. ; 

Samoa, Wake's, Haw. 
Thalamita crenata. Nat; R. Sea(S.); E. 

I., Jap., Feej. 
Cleistostoma Boscii. Nat.; R. Sea; [E. 



I.?]; Feej. 



Podophthalrnus vigil. I. Fr. ; E. I., Jap.; 

Haw. 

Ocypoda brevicornis. I. Fr. ; E. I. ; Tonga. 
Acanthopus planissimus. Nat.; E. I.?; 

Samoa ; Tahiti, Paumotu, Haw. [also 

Madeira]. 
Calappa tuberculata. Nat. ; I. Fr., R. 

Sea; E. I.; Feej., Tonga, Haw. 
Calappa fornicata. I. Fr. ; E. I.; Feej. 

2. Anomoura. 

Pagurus difformis. I. Fr.; E. I.; Feej. 
Pagurus punctulatus. E. I. ? ; E. I. ; Haw. 
Calcinus tibicen. Nat.; E. I. ; Samoa, 

Wake's, Tahiti, Paumotus, Haw. 
Calciuus elegans. Nat. ; E. I. ? ; Wake's, 

Paumotus, Haw. 
Aniculus typicus. I. Fr. ; Jap.; Wake's, 

Paumotus. 

Clibanarius virescens. Nat.; E. I.; Feej. 
Cenobita rugosa. Nat. ; E. I., Jap. ; Feej. ; 

Samoa, Tonga, Paumotus. 
Birgus latro. I. Fr. ; E. I., Jap. ; Samoa, 

Swain's, Paumotus. 

3. Jdacroura. 
Parribacus antarcticus. I. Fr. ; E. I. ; 



Samoa, Paumotus. 



894 



1574 



CRUSTACEA. 



Panulirus pcnecillatus. B. Sea ; E. I. ; 
Pacific. 

Hippoly te marmoratus. ? ; E. I. ; Pa- 
cific; Haw. 

Stenopus hispidus. I. Fr. ; E. I.; Pau- 
motus. 



4. Anomobranchiata. 

Pseudosquilla stylifera. I. Fr. ; ?; Feej., 

Haw. 
Gonodactylus chiragms. Nat. ; I. Fr., R. 

Sea; E. I.; Feej., Tonga. 



Of the above species, a few occur in both the torrid and subtorrid 
regions of these three sections of the Oriental kingdom, that is, in the 
Erythrean, Natalensian, Indian, Liukiuan, Polynesian, and Hawaiian 
Provinces. These are.: Lupa sanguinolenta, Pbdophthalmus vigil, 
Galappa tuberculata, Acanthopus planissimus, Calcinus tibicen, C. elegans, 
and Gonodaciylus chiragrus. Grapsus pictus is not included ; it has 
not yet been reported from the eastern coast of Africa. The above 
list must be much increased as the species of the different regions are 
better understood. Some of the species have a range of over twelve 
thousand miles. Many species common to Natal and Japan or the 
Hawaiian Islands, are given in the above list. We add below a 
list of 



2. SPECIES COMMON TO THE NATAL AND THE LIUKIUAN (SOUTH JAPAN) OR HAWAIIAN 
PROVINCES OF THE SUBTORRID REGIONS, AND NOT TET OBSERVED IN THE TORRID 
REGION INTERMEDIATE. 



Micippa thalia. Nat. and Jap. 
Xantho affinis, De H. Nat. and Jap. 
Xantho obtusus, De H. Nat. and Jap. 
Carpilius petrseus, De H. Nat. (I. Fr.) 

and Jap. 

Charybdis granulatus. Nat. and Jap. 
Thalamita prymna. Nat. and Jap. 
Gelasimua arcuatus. Nat. and Jap. 
Gelasimus lacteus, De H. Nat. and Jap. 



Ocypoda cordimana. Nat. and Jap. 
Sesarma picta. Nat. and Jap. 
Sesarma affinis. Nat. and Jap. 
Kraussia rugulosa. Nat. and Haw. 
Galene natalensis. Nat. and Haw. 
Dromia hirsutissima. S. Afr. and Haw. 
Calappa spinosissima. I. Fr. and Haw. 
Doto sulcatus, Nat., Jap., and R. Sea. 



The Natal province, includes properly two districts, the Natal and 
the Mauritius, the latter distinguished by its more torrid character 
and its larger number of East Indian species, among which are the 
following : Doclea ovis, Camposcia retusa, Carpilius maculatus, CEthra 
scruposa, Melia tessellata, Eriphia levimana, Calappa Jbrnicata, Aniculus 
typicus, Birgus latro, Parnbacu^ antarcticus, etc. Among the species 
common to the two, not also East Indian, are the following : Ela- 
mena Mathcei (a species found also in the northern or subtorrid part of 
the Red Sea), Ocypoda cordimana and Orchestia Bottce. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1575 

The following are some of the species peculiar to Port Natal : Pisa 
fascicularw, Antilibinia Smithii, Acantlionyx Mac Leaii, A. scutellatus, 
A. k-dentatus, Eriphia Smithii, Menippe Martensii, Pilumnus xanthoides 
and P. granulatus, Actceodes Ruppdii. Among those of the Isle of 
France or Mauritius are, Stenocionops cervicornis, Dynomene hispida, 
Hemigrapsus Latreilli (the genus Hemigrapsus is not yet known to 
occur in the Torrid region), Atergatis sinuatifrons, A. and W., Car- 
pilius signatus, A. and W., Dromia fallax and D. hispida, etc.; also 
Caprella scaura, and C. nodosa. 

The Erythrean province, or the subtorrid portion of the Red Sea, 
includes several species not reported from more southern parts of the 
sea, as Elamena Matthcei, Mencetliius monoceros (a Natal species), Para- 
micippa platipes, Myra fugax, Riipp., Oreophorus horridus, Riipp., 
Nursia granulata, Riipp., Macrophthalmus depressus, Riipp. 

The Abyssinian province in its Red Sea portion contains seven 
species of Atergatis, of which A. sculptus, A. exsculptus, and A. Savignii 
are not elsewhere reported. Lambrus pelagicus, Actcea asper, Rup- 
pellia tenax?, Thalamita diaptalis, are other species, besides many that 
are common in the East Indies. Dromia unidentata is found in both 
the northern and southern parts. 

The Indian province is characterized more particularly by the fol- 
lowing genera : Egeria, Doclea, Micippa, Tiarinia, Menaithius, Lambrus, 
Parthenope, Ceratocarcinus, Cryptopodia, Tlos, Atergatis, Carpiliua, 
Actcea, Xardlio, Zozymus, Panopceus, Actceodes, Etisus, Chlorodius, 
Pilumnus, Eriphia, Lupa, Amphitrite, Thalamita, Cliarybdis, Lissocar- 
cinus, Podophthalmus, Ocypoda, Senarma, Xenophthalmus, XantJtasia, 
Calappa, Matuta, Leucosia, Ixa, Iphis, Arcania, Platyonychus, Pagu- 
ristes, Pagurus, Calcinus, Clibanarius, Cenobita, Birgus, Remipes, Tha- 
lassina, Tlienus, Panulirus, Atya, Alpheus, Palcemon, Pen&us, Acetes, 
Squilla, Gonodactylus, etc., and by the comparatively few species, if 
any, of the following Torrid zone genera, viz. Pericera, Acanthonyx, 
Mithrax, Ruppellia, and Hymenocera, besides others that have been 
mentioned as peculiarly Occidental or Africo-European. 

The relation of the Japan Seas to the Mediterranean, and also to 
the Natalensian have been remarked upon. The warm-water genera 
of Xanihidce and Lupince are abundantly represented in the Liukiuan 
province, so also the Calappince, ScyUaridce, Sesarmince, Palinuridce, 
and Squillidce. Eriocheir penecillatus, Curtonotus longimanm, Trichia 



1576 CRUSTACEA. 

dromiiformis, and Oncinopus arenaria are peculiar species. The 
Ranina dentata occurs here of a larger size than in the East Indies. 

The Jbnquin province is characterized by species of Dorippe, and 
by Liagora rubro-maculata, with some Leucosidse. The Acanthodes 
armatus of De Haan from the east coast of Niphon appears to belong 
to the Niphon province ; and the giant Macrocheira Koempferi of De 
Haan to the Saghalian. 

The Japan Seas are allied to the Hawaiian through certain species, 
as mentioned beyond. Through species of Sicyonia they are related 
to Rio Janeiro as well as the Mediterranean. The species occurring 
both in the Japan Seas and at Port Natal, are given on page 1574. 

The Swan River province on Western Australia, although of the 
warm temperate region, contains the following species identical with 
species of the Natal province, viz., PencKus canaliculatus and Gono- 
dactylus B-spinosus; also the cosmopolite, Gonodactylus chiragrus, and 
the East India species, Thenus orientalis. The following species found 
in this province, have not been mentioned from other localities, viz., 
Gelasimus forceps and Philyra porcellana. 

The Crustacea of the eastern coast of Australia have been little 
studied, excepting those of Port Jackson and the vicinity. This 
province is characterized by the presence of Halimus tumidus, D., 
Myctiris longicarpus, Ozius truncatus, Edw., Helceciiis cordiformis, H. 
inornatus, D., Cliasmagnaihus levis, D., and O. subquadratus (possibly 
N. Zealand), Helice crassa, Plagusia glabra, D., Paguristes frontalis (?), 
Callianassa ( Trypcea) auslraliensis, D., Hippolyte spinicaudis. 

The absence of the Xanthidae is one of the prominent characters 
here observed, a group of species that occur but sparingly in any sub- 
temperate region. Among the Tetradecapods there is the Chilian 
genus AmpTioroidea, affording a species closely like that of Valparaiso. 
The other genera of Tetradecapoda observed, are Idotcea, Splieroma, 
Orchestia, Allorchestes, Hyperia. 

In the great Pacific section of the Oriental kingdom, the Polynesian 
kingdom is of great extent, covering twenty degrees either side of the 
equator through the ocean to 130 west. Nearly the same genera 
are represented as in the East Indies, mentioned on page 1575. 
Among the exceptions, according to present knowledge, are Egeria, 
Doclea, Tiarinia, Parthenope, Cryptopodia, Tlos, Panopceus, L/upa, 
Podophthalmus, Leucosia., Ixa, Arcania, Platyonyclius, Thalassina, 
Acetes, Thenus, etc., while there are present, species of Pericera, Rup- 






GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1577 

pellia, Cymo, Domcecius, Galathea, CEdipus, Harpilius, Hymenocera, 
Regulus. Dromia and Ranina have not been observed in the Pacific 
except in the Hawaiian province. No species of Penceus has yet been 
reported from the Torrid region in this ocean. The Maioidea are few 
and small, the Xanthidce and Eriphidce numerous, and often large. 
Some of the species common to the Pacific and East Indies have 
already been mentioned.* 

The Hawaiian province contains the following species, not else- 
where observed : Lahaina ovato,, D., Perinea tumida, D., Huenia sim- 
plex and H. brevirostris, Xantho intonsus, D., Medceus ornatus, Chloro- 
dius nodosm, Pseudozius inornatus, some Trapezia, Thalamita pulchra, 
Lupa pubescens, Macroplithalmus telescopicus, Gelasimus minor, Ocypoda 
levis, D., 0. Urmllii, Hemigrapsus crassimanus, Sesarma trapezium, and 
S. obtusifrons, Cyclograpsus granulatus, G. cinereus, Nucia speciosa, D., 
Albuncea speciosa, Porcellana cinctipes, Galatliea spinirostris, Scyllaru-s 
latus, Randall, Nika hawaiensis, Atyoida bisulcata, Rand., Alpheus levis, 
A. pacificus, A. pugnax, A. diadema, Palcemon debilis, D., P. acutifrons, 
D., P. grandimanus, Rand., P. gracillimanus, Rand., Penceus velutinus. 

It is most closely related to the southern part of the Japan Seas, 
containing the following Japan species : Penceus canaliculatus, Podoph- 
thalmus vigil, Eanina deniata, Pagurus carinatus, Rand. (=P. asper, 
De H.} ; and the following genera that are represented in Japan and 
not in the Torrid region, viz. : Galene, Kraussia (D.), Nika, Scyllarus, 
Hemigrapsus. Several Polynesian species occur here, as Amphitrite 
vigilans (Feejees), Thalamita integra, Goniograpsus thukujar (Feejees), 
Grapsus rudis (Ladrones), Porcellana coccinea (Paumotus), Hippolyte 
marmoratus (Paumotus), Calcinus tibicen, G. elegans, G. latens, Pagurus 
punctulatus, Chlorodius cytherea, besides Grapsus pictus, Acanthopus 
planissiimis, and Calappa tuberculata, which have a wide range. Lupa 
sanguinolenta occurs here and also in the East Indies and at the Isle 

* The following oceanic Entomostraca occur in the Pacific, or East Indies, and 
Atlantic -.Pontella (PonteUina) turgida, Atlantic, to 8i N., and 4} S., 17- 
31 W.; Pacific, near Hall's and Pitts' Islands, l-3 N., 173 E. Pontella (Pontel- 
lina') crispata, Atlantic, 8i N., 23 45' W.; 5-7 N., 174J-177 E. Undina vul- 
garis, Straits of Banca; Atlantic, 9 S., 17J W., and 4} S., 25 W. Oithonaplumi/era, 
Atlantic, 4J-7 N., 20-22 W.; also 1 S., 30i W.; Pacific, near Kingsmill Is- 
lands. Corycceus varius, Atlantic, l-7 N., 18-22 W., and l-7 S., 20-30 W.; 
Pacific, 15i S., 138 J W.; 33 S., 1531 E.; Ladrones. Candace pachydactyla, 
Atlantic, 11 S., 14 W.; 4} S., 25 W.; 81 S., 150 W.; 1 S., 30 W.; China 
Sea, 300 miles northeast of Singapore. 

395 



1578 CRUSTACEA. 

of France. The relations to the Natal province are similar to those 
with Japan, as before observed (p. 1574). Goniograpsus plicatu*, a 
Hawaiian species, according to Krauss, is also South African. 

Little is known respecting the species of the Raratongan, or Ker- 
madec provinces. 

The Wangaroa province (Northern New Zealand) is distinguished 
by an absence of Cancroid forms, as in Southeastern Australia, and 
rather a prevalence of Grapsoid species. No Squillidce have yet been 
observed. Among the species peculiar to the province are the follow- 
ing : Paramithrax Gaimardii, Eurynolambrus australis, Edw., Portunus 
integrifrons, P. caniharus, Goniograpsus strigilatus, Hemigrapsus crenu- 
latus, H. Gaimardii, Halicarcinus varius, H.pubescens, Lomis hirta (pos- 
sibly from Middle or Southern New Zealand), several Porcellance, 
Paguristes pilosus, Bernhardus cristatus, B. novi-zealandice, Clibanarim 
cruentatus, Gebia hirtifrons, Paranephrops planifrons, P. tenuicornis, 
B. cequimanus, Alope palpalis, Hippotyte spinifrons, Palcemon affinis, 
with species of the Tetradecapodan genera, Idotcea, Armadillo, Sphe- 
rillo, Oniscus, Scypliax, D., Lygia, Cymotlioa, Nerocila, ^Ega, Spheroma 
(several species), Orchestia,, ALlorcliestes, Iphimedia, Melita, CEdicerus, 
Hyperia. 

The genus Hymenicus, which is near Hymenosoma, and the Pla- 
gusia tomentosa found also at Table Bay, show a relation to the Capen- 
sian province (South Africa). Palcemon Quoyanus is also stated by 
Krauss to be a South African species, found at Port Natal. 

The genera Ozius, Hemigrapsus, and Chasmagnathus, and some of 
their species, are common to the Bass province (Australia) and North 
New Zealand, showing a relation between the two. Yet the diffe- 
rence in species is still so great, that they are properly distinct pro- 
vinces. New Zealand is over twelve hundred miles from New Hol- 
land, and its Crustacea are hardly as much like those of New Holland 
as those of Valparaiso. The following genera characterize both Chili 
and North New Zealand: Cancer, Ozius, Cydograpsus, Paguristes, 
and Betceus ; and the Cancer Edwardsii and Plagusia tomentosa 
appear to be common to the two provinces, while the genus Cancer is 
not elsewhere known out of America and Northern Europe. Palcemon 
affinis of the Bay of Islands, as Edwards observes, is hardly distin- 
guishable from P. squilla of the coasts of France and Britain. The 
species of Portunus in these southern seas are representatives of the 
most characteristic of European genera, and they belong rather to the 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1579 

cold temperate than subtemperate regions of the Australian and New 
Zealand Seas. Portunus integrifrons is reported from Tasmania (Van 
Diemens Land). Ozius represents Xantho of the British Channel. 



ARCTIC AND ANTARCTIC KINGDOMS. 

With our existing knowledge of species, the Arctic and Antarctic 
kingdoms widely differ ; but much of this difference may be owing to 
the greater extent of land in the northern kingdom, and not a little 
to our limited knowledge of the latter. In the Arctic Frigid zone, 
there are the following genera of Podophthalmia : Eyas 1 species, 
Stenorhynchus 1, Cancer 1, Portunus 1, Carcinus 1, Lithodes 2, Bern- 
hardus 3, Galathcea 2, Crangon 2, Sabinea 1, Argis 1, Hippolyte 18, 
Pandalus 3, Palcemon 1, Thysanopoda 3, Mysis 3, Mi/to 1. Out of 
these, only Lithodes and GalatJiea are at present known to occur in 
the Antarctic kingdom, and as yet we are not certain that either 
reaches beyond Fuegia, near the limits of the subfrigid and frigid 
regions: further researches are required. The Thysanopoda of the 
north are represented in the south by a species of Euphausia. 

Among the Tetradecapoda, the following exist in the Arctic king- 
dom : IDOT^EIDEA, Idotcea, 9 species, Glyptonotus 1 ; ONISCOIDEA, Lygia, 

1, Jcera 2, Jceridina 1, Asellus 1, Janira 1, Henopomus 1, Munna 1 ; 
of CYMOTHOIDEA, JEga 3 ; SEROLIDEA, Praniza 1, Anceus 1 ; TANAIDEA, 
Tanais 6, Crossurus 1, Bopyrus 1, Phryxus 2, Dajus 1 ; of CAPREL- 
LIDEA, Proto 2, Caprella 6, JEgina 2, Cercops 1, Podalirius 1 ; GAMMA- 
RIDEA, Dulichia 1, Siphoncecetes 1, Unciola 1, Laphystius 1, Orchestia 

2, Stegocephalus 1, Anonyx 2, Leucoihoe 2, Acanthonotus 3, Iphimedia 
14, (Edicerus 1, Gammarus 13, Pliotis 1, Melita 2, Pardalisca 1, ^c%- 
rocerw 2, Microcheles 1, Lepidactylis 1, Pontiporeia 1, Ampelisca 1, 
Protomedeia 1, Pliaxus 1 ; HYPERIDEA, Lestrigonus 1, Hyperia 1, Metcecus 
1, Themisto 2. 

From the Antarctic kingdom, there are at present known, Glypto- 
notus 1, Idotcea 1, Cirolana 1, Serolis 1, Uristes (related to Anonyx) 1 ; 
of HYPERIDEA, Cyllopus 1, Tauria 1, Themisto 1 ; and if we add South- 
ern Fuegia, Eurypodii 2 or 3, Halicarcinus 1, Munida 1, Grimoihea 
1, LitJwdes 3, Tylus 1, Oniscus 1, Styloniseus 1, Jcera 1, Plerelas 1, 
Spheroma 3, Serolis 3, Anonyx 1, Amphithoe 1, Gammarus 1, etc. The 
contrast is again very striking. Serolis and some allied forms, with 
Glyptonolus are the most characteristic of southern Isopoda, and 4he 



1580 CRUSTACEA. 

first of these genera is not known in the north. Halicarcinus charac- 
terizes the south but not the north. Hippolyte and Crangon are 
common in the north, and have not jet been detected in the south. 
Lithodes is common to both. Eurypodius is wholly southern, but has 
its analogue in Oregonia of Northwest America. If then we were to 
characterize the kingdoms by any of the species, we should call the 
Arctic, the Hippolyte kingdom, about half of the known species of the 
genus Hippolyte being Arctic ; and the southern, the Scrolls kingdom. 
The names imply a higher zoological rank for the Arctic than the 
Antarctic Seas. 

The Arctic kingdom is naturally divided into three provinces. One 
occupying the North Atlantic Ocean ; one corresponding, north of the 
Pacific; and the third, a Polar province. The limits of the Polar 
province we cannot exactly lay down. But the more Frigid seas 
which afford only Tetradecapods (and perhaps a species or so of Deca- 
pods) should be considered as constituting a distinct province from 
that in which species of Hipp&lyte and Crangon are common. These 
provinces are the Norwegian, the Camtschatican, and the North Polar. 

The Norwegian includes the coast of Norway and Iceland, with a 
part probably of Greenland; characterized by Lithodes maia, Hyas 
araneus, Bernhardm pubescens, Galathea rugosa, Crangon lar, C. 7-cari- 
natus, and many species of Hippolyte, etc. The Camtschatican 
comprises Kamtschatka, the Aleutian Islands, and the neighbouring 
part of the North American coast, and extending it may be some 
distance beyond Behring's Straits, and is characterized by the Lithodes 
camschatica, Telmessus chirogonus, Bernhardus splendescens, Crangon 
salebrosus, Hippolyte armata, H. cornuta. 

In these Polar seas, the species have often a wide range, and pro- 
bably pass from one ocean to the other through the Polar oceans. Thus 
Crangon boreas, Carcinas mcenas, Pagurus streblonyx, Hippolyte acu- 
leatits, are not only found on opposite sides of the Atlantic, but also in 
the North Pacific. 

The Antarctic kingdom may also consist of three provinces : 

1. The FUEGIAN Province, including Fuegia, the Falklands, South 
Georgia; and characterized by Lithodes antarctica, L. verrucosa, L. 
granulata, species of Eurypodius* Halicarcinus, Galathea, SpJieroma, 
and Serolis. 

* The species of Eurypodius probably belong more especially to the South Patagonian 
or the Araucanian province, although occurring also in the Fuegian. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1581 

2. The AUCKLANDIAN Province, embracing the Aucklands and per- 
haps the south extremity of New Zealand. 

3. The SOUTH POLAR province, including the South Shetlands 
(whence comes the huge Qlyptonotua of Eights), and also the Antarctic 
lands of Wilkes and Ross. 

The group Hymenicinae, including the genera Hymenosoma, Hali- 
carcinus, and Hymenicus, is peculiarly a southern type, and through 
these genera the extremities of the continents have a common cha- 
racter! The first characterizes the Cape of Good Hope, the second 
Patagonia and Fuegia, and the third New Zealand. The Patagonian 
genus reaches north to Valparaiso, into the same temperature region 
(the subtemperate) that affords the Hymenosoma of South Africa and 
Hymenicus of New Zealand, and this subtemperate region is the 
highest northern limit of the group. Halicarcinus is developed in its 
greatest perfection in Fuegia. 



ORIGIN OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

The origin of the existing distribution of species in this department 
of zoology deserves attentive consideration. Two great causes are 
admitted by all, and the important question is, how far the influence of 
each has extended. The first, is original local creations; the second, 
migration. 

Under the first head, we may refer much that we have already said 
on the influence of temperature, and the restriction of species to par- 
ticular temperature regions. It is not doubted that the species have 
been created in regions for which they are especially fitted ; that their 
fitness for these regions involves an adaptation of structure thereto, 
and upon this adaptation, their characteristics as species depend. 
These characteristics are of no climatal origin. They are the impress 
of the Creator's hand, when the species had their first existence in 
those regions calculated to respond to their necessities. 

The following questions come up under this general head : 

1. Have there been local centres of creation, from which groups of 
species have gone forth by migration ? 

2. Have genera only and not species, or have species, been repeated 
by creation in distinct and distant regions ? 

3. How closely may we recognise in climatal and other physical 

396 



1582 CRUSTACEA. 

conditions, the predisposing cause of the existence of specific genera 
or species ? 

With regard to the second head, migration, we should remember, 
that Crustacea are almost wholly maritime or marine ; that marine 
waters are continuous the globe around ; and that no seashore species 
in zoology are better fitted than crabs for migration. They may cling 
to any floating log and range the seas wherever the currents drift the 
rude craft, while the fish of the sea-shores will only wander over their 
accustomed haunts. Hence it is, that among the Pacific Islands the 
fishes are often to a considerable extent peculiar to particular groups 
of islands, while the Crustacea are much more generally diffused. 

A direction and also a limit to this migration exist, (1) in the cur- 
rents of the ocean, and (2) in the temperature of its different regions. 
Through the Torrid zone, the currents flow mainly from the east 
towards the west; yet they are reversed in some parts during a certain 
portion of the year. But this reversed current in the Pacific never 
reaches the American continent, and hence it could never promote 
migration to its shores. Again, bey.ond 30 or 35 of north or south 
latitude, the general course of the waters is from tlie west, and the 
currents are nearly uniform and constant. Here is a means of east- 
ward migration in the middle and higher temperate regions. But 
the temperature regions in these latitudes are more numerous than in 
the tropics, and species might readily be wafted to uncongenial 
climates, which would be their destruction ; in fact they could hardly 
escape this. Moreover, such seas are more boisterous than those 
nearer the equator. Again, these waters are almost entirely bare for 
very long distances, and not dotted closely with islands like the equa- 
torial Pacific. 

In the northern hemisphere, on the eastern coasts especially, there 
are warm currents from the south and cold currents from the north. 
The former overlie the latter to a great extent in the summer and 
may aid southern species in northward migrations. Cape Hatteras is 
nearly the termination of the summer line of 70 (see Maury's Chart), 
a temperature which belongs to the subtorrid region in winter. On 
the China coast, at Macao there is a temperature of 83 in July, and 
in the Yellow Sea, of 78 to 80. But such northward migrations as 
are thus favoured, are only for the season; the cold currents of the 
winter months destroy all such adventurers, except the individuals of 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF QRUSTACEA. J583 

some hardier species that belong to the seas or have a wide range in 
distribution. Sea-shore Crustacea are not in themselves migratory, 
and are thus unlike many species offish. Even the swimming Por- 
tunidae are not known voluntarily to change their latitudes with the 
season. 

The following is a brief recapitulation of the more prominent facts 
bearing on these points. 

1. The distribution of individuals of many species through twelve 
thousand miles in the. Torrid zone of the Oriental seas. 

2. The very sparing distribution of Oriental species in Occidental 
seas. 

3. The almost total absence of Oriental species from the west coast 
of America. 

4. The world- wide distribution within certain latitudes of the 
species we have called cosmopolites. 

5. The occurrence of closely allied genera at the Hawaiian Islands 
and in the Japan seas. 

6. The occurrence of the same subtorrid species at the Hawaiian 
Islands and at Port Natal, South Africa, and not in the Torrid zone 
intermediate, as Kraussia rugulosa and Galene natalensis. 

7. The occurrence of identical species in the Japan seas and at 
Port Natal. 

8. The occurrence of the same species (Plagusia tomentosa) in 
South Africa, New Zealand, and Valparaiso; and the occurrence of a 
second species (Cancer Edwardsii (?) ) at New Zealand and Valpa- 
raiso. 

9. The occurrence of closely allied species (as species of Ampho- 
roidea and Ozius) in New South Wales and Chili. 

10. The occurrence of the same species in the Japan seas and the 
Mediterranean, and of several identical genera. 

11. The occurrence of a large number of identical species in the 
British seas and the Mediterranean; and also in these seas and about 
the Canary Islands. 

12. The occurrence of closely allied, if not identical, species (as of 
Palaemon) in New Zealand and the British seas ; and also of certain 
genera that are elsewhere peculiarly British, or common only to 
Britain and America. 

13. An identity in certain species of Eastern and Western America. 



1584 CRUSTACEA. 

The following are the conclusions to which we are led by the facts : 

I. The migration of species from island to island through the tro- 
pical Pacific and East Indies may be a possibility; and the same 
species may thus reach even to Port Natal in South Africa. The 
currents of the oceans favour it, the temperature of the waters is con- 
genial through all this range, and the habits of many Crustacea, 
although they are not voluntarily migratory, seem to admit of it. 
The species which actually have so wide a range are not Maioids 
(which are to a considerable extent deep-water species), but those of 
the shores ; and some, as Thalamita admete, are swimming species. 

II. The fact, that very few of the Oriental species occur in the 
Occidental seas, may be explained on the same ground, by the barrier 
which the cold waters of Cape Horn and the South Atlantic present 
to the passage of tropical species around the Cape westward, or to 
their migration along the coasts. 

Moreover, the diffusion of Pacific tropical species to the Western 
American coast is prevented, as already observed, by the westward 
direction of the tropical currents, and the cold waters that bathe the 
greater part of this coast. 

III. When we compare the seas of Southern Japan and Port Natal 
and find species common to the two that are not now existing in the 
Indian Ocean or East Indies, we hesitate as to migration being a suf- 
ficient cause of the distribution. It may, however, be said that drift- 
ings of such species westward through the Indian Ocean may have 
occasionally taken place; but that only those individuals that were 
carried during the season quite through to the subtorrid region of the 
South Indian Ocean (Port Natal, etc.), survived and reproduced, the 
others, if continuing to live, soon running out under the excessive heat 
of the intermediate equatorial regions. That they would thus run 
out in many instances is beyond question ; but whether this view will 
actually account for the resemblance in species pointed out is open to 
doubt. 

IV. When further, we find an identity of species between the 
Hawaiian Islands and Port Natal half the circumference of the 
globe, or twelve thousand miles, apart and the species, as Galene 
natalensis, not a species found in any part of the torrid region, and 
represented by another species only in Japan, we may well question 
whether we can meet the difficulty by appealing to migration. It 
may however be said, that we are not as yet thoroughly acquainted 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1535 

with the species of the tropics, and that facts may hereafter be dis- 
covered that will favour this view. The identical species are of so 
peculiar a character that we deem this improbable. 

V. The existence of the Plagusia tomentosa at the southern extre- 
mity of Africa, in New Zealand, and on the Chilian coasts, may 
perhaps be due to migration, and especially as it is a southern species, 
and each of these localities is within the subtemperate region. We 
are not ready however to assert, that such journeys as this range of 
migration implies are possible. The oceanic currents of this region 
are in the right direction to carry the species eastward, except that 
there is no passage into this western current from Cape Horn, through 
the Lagulhas current, which flows the other way. It appears to be 
rather a violent assumption that an individual or more of this species 
could reach the western current from the coast on which it might 
have lived ; or could have survived the boisterous passage, and finally 
have had a safe landing on the foreign shore. The distance from New 
Zealand to South America is five thousand miles, and there is at 
present not an island between. 

VI. Part of the difficulty in the way of a transfer of species between 
distant meridians might be overcome, if we could assume that the 
intermediate seas had been occupied by land or islands during any 
part of the recent epoch. In the case just alluded to, it is possible 
that such a chain of interrupted communication once had place ; and 
this bare possibility weakens the force of the argument used above 
against migration. Yet as it is wholly an assumption, we cannot rely 
upon it for evidence that migration has actually taken place. 

VII. The existence of the same species on the east and west coasts 
of America, affords another problem, which migration cannot meet, 
without sinking the isthmus of Darien or Central America, to afford 
a passage across. As yet we know of no evidence that this portion of 
the continent has been beneath the ocean during the recent epoch. 
An argument against such a supposition might be drawn from the 
very small number of species that are identical on the two sides, and 
the character of these species. Libinia spinosa occurs at Brazil and 
Chili, and has not been found in the West Indies. Leptopodia sagit- 
taria, another Maioid, occurs at Valparaiso, the West Indies, and the 
Canaries. 

VIII. The large number of similar species common to the Mediter- 
ranean and British seas may be due to migration, as there is a con- 

397 



1586 CRUSTACEA. 

tinuous line of coast and no intermediate temperature rendering 
such a transfer impossible; and the passage farther south to the 
Canaries of several of the species is not beyond what this cause might 
accomplish. Still, it cannot be asserted that in all instances the dis- 
tribution here is owing to migration ; nor will it be admitted unless 
other facts throw the weight of probability on that side. 

IX. But when we find the same Temperate zone species occurring 
in distant provinces, these provinces having between them no water 
communication except through the Torrid or Frigid zone, and offering 
no ground for the supposition that such a communication has existed 
during the recent epoch, we are led to deny the agency of voluntary 
or involuntary migration in producing this dissemination. An 
example of this, beyond all dispute, is that of the Mediterranean Sea 
and Japan. No water communication for the passage of species can 
be imagined. An opening into the Red Sea is the only possible point 
of intercommunication between the two kingdoms; but this opens 
into the Torrid zone, in no part of which are the species found. The 
two regions have their peculiarities and their striking resemblances ; 
and we are forced to attribute them to original creation and not inter- 
communication, 

X. The resemblances found are not merely in the existence of a 
few identical species. There are genera common to the two seas that 
occur nowhere else in the Oriental kingdom, as Latreillia, Ephyra, 
Sicyania, &c.; and species where not identical have an exceedingly 
close resemblance. 

Now this resemblance in genera and species (without exact identity 
in the latter) is not explained by supposing a possible intercommuni- 
cation. But we may reasonably account for it on the ground of a 
similarity in the temperature and other physical conditions of the 
seas ; and the well-known principle of " like causes, like effects" forces 
itself upon the mind as fully meeting the case. Mere intercommuni- 
cation could not produce the resemblance ; for just this similarity of 
physical condition would still be necessary. And where such a simi- 
larity exists, creative power may multiply analogous species; we 
should almost say, must, for, as species are made for the circumstances 
in which they are to live, identical circumstances will necessarily 
imply identity of genera in a given class, and even of specific structure 
or of subgenera. 

If, then, the similarity in the characters of these regions is the 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1587 

occasion of the identity of genera, and of the very close likeness in 
certain species (so close that an identity is sometimes strongly sus- 
pected where not admitted), we must conclude that there is a possi- 
bility of actual identity of species, through original creation. This, 
in fact, becomes the only admissible view, and the actually identical 
species between Japan and the Mediterranean are examples. 

XI. When we find a like resemblance of genera and species between 
Temperate zone provinces in opposite hemispheres that are almost 
exact antipodes, as in the case of Great Britain aud New Zealand, we 
have no choice of hypotheses left. We must appeal directly to crea- 
tive agency for the peopling of the New Zealand seas as well as the 
British, and see in both, like wisdom, and a like adaptedness of life to 
physical nature. The Palaemon affinis of the New Zealand seas is 
hardly distinguishable from the common P. squilla of Europe, and is 
one example of this resemblance. It may not be an identity ; and on 
this account it is a still better proof of our principle, because there is 
no occasion to suspect migration or any other kind of transfer. It is 
a creation of species in these distant provinces, which are almost iden- 
tical, owing to the physical resemblances of the seas ; and it shows at 
least, that a very close approximation to identity may be consistent 
with Divine Wisdom. 

The resemblance of the New Zealand and British seas has been 
remarked upon as extending also to the occurrence in both of the 
genera Portunus and Cancer. It is certainly a wonderful fact that 
New Zealand should have a closer resemblance in its Crustacea to 
Great Britain, its antipode, than to any other part of the world a 
resemblance running parallel, as we cannot fail to observe, with its 
geographical form, its insular position, and its situation among the 
temperate regions of the ocean. Under such circumstances, there 
must be many other more intimate resemblances, among which we 
may yet distinguish the special cause which led to the planting of 
peculiar British forms in this antipodal land. 

The close resemblance in species and genera from Britain and New 
Zealand, and from Japan and the Mediterranean, and the actual iden- 
tity in some species among the latter, proves therefore that, as regards 
the species of two distant regions, identity as well as resemblance may 
be attributable to independent creations, these resemblances being in 
direct accordance with the physical resemblances of the regions. As 
this conclusion cannot be avoided, we are compelled in all cases to try 



1588 CRUSTACEA. 

the hypothesis of migration by considering something beside the mere 
possibility of its having taken place under certain assumed conditions. 
The possibility of independent creations is as important a considera- 
tion. After all the means of communication between distant pro- 
vinces have been devised or suggested, the principle still comes up, 
that it is in accordance with Divine Wisdom, to create similar and 
identical species in different regions, where the physical circumstances 
are alike ; and we must determine by special and thorough investi- 
gation, whether one or the other cause was the actual origin of the 
distribution in each particular case. Thus it must be with reference 
to the wide distribution of species in the Oriental tropics, as well as in 
the European temperate regions, and the Temperate zone of the South 
Pacific and Indian Oceans. 

XII. With respect to the creation of identical species in distant 
regions, we would again point to its direct dependence on a near iden- 
tity of physical condition. Although we cannot admit that circum- 
stances or physical forces have ever created a species (as like can 
only beget like, and physical force must result simply in physical force), 
and while we see in all nature the free act of the Divine Being, we 
may still believe the connexion between the calling into existence of 
a species and the physical circumstances surrounding it to be as inti- 
mate nearly as cause and effect. The Creator has in infinite skill, 
adapted each species to its place, and the whole into a system of ad- 
mirable harmony and perfection. In his wisdom, any difference of 
physical condition and kind of food at hand, is sufficient to require 
some modification of the intimate structure of species, and this diffe- 
rence is expressed in the form of the body or members, so as to pro- 
duce an exactness of adaptation, which we are far from fully per- 
ceiving or comprehending with our present knowledge of the relations 
of species to their habitats. 

When therefore we find the same species in regions of unlike phy- 
sical character, as, for example, in the seas of the Canaries and Great 
Britain regions physically so unlike we have strong reason for 
attributing the diffusion of the species to migration. The difference 
between the Mediterranean and Great Britain may require the same 
conclusion for the species common to these seas. They are so far 
different, that we may doubt whether species created independently in 
the two could have been identical, or even have had that resemblance 
that exists between varieties ; for this resemblance is usually of the 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 

most trivial kind, and effects only the least essential of the parts of a 
species. 

The continental species of Crustacea from the interior of different con- 
tinents, are not in any case known to be identical; and it is well under- 
stood that the zoological provinces and districts of the land are of far 
more limited extent than those of the ocean. The physical differences 
of the former are far more striking than those of the latter. As we 
have observed elsewhere, the varieties of climate are greater; the 
elevation above the sea may vary widely ; and numberless are the 
diversities of soil and its conditions, and the circumstances above and 
within it. Hence as the creation of each species has reference most 
intimately to each and all of these conditions, as well as to other pros- 
pective ends, an identity between distant regions is seldom to be 
found, and the characteristic groups of genera are very widely 
diverse. Comparatively few genera of Insects have as wide a range 
as those of Crustacea; and species with rare exceptions, have very 
narrow limits. Where the range of a species in this class is great, 
we should in general look to migration as the cause rather than 
original creation; but the considerations bearing on both should be 
attentively studied before either is admitted as the true explanation. 

Throughout the warmer tropical oceans, a resemblance in the phy- 
sical conditions of distant provinces is far more common and more 
exact than in the Temperate zone. And hence it would seem that 
we could not safely appeal to actual differences as an argument 
against the creation of a species in more than one place. The species 
spread over the Oriental Torrid zone may hence be supposed to owe 
their distribution to independent creations of the same species in diffe- 
rent places, as well as to migration. Yet we may in this underrate 
the exactness of physical identity required for independent creations 
of the same species. We know that for some chemical compounds, 
the condition of physical forces for their formation is exceedingly 
delicate ; and much more should we infer that when the creation of a 
living germ was concerned, a close exactness in the conditions would 
be required in order that the creation should be repeated in another 
place. Infinite power, it is true, may create in any place; but the 
creation will have reference to the forces of matter, the material em- 
ployed in the creation. The few species common to the Oriental and 
Occidental torrid seas seem to be evidence on this point ; the fact that 
the Oriental species have so rarely been repeated in the Occidental 

398 






1590 CRUSTACEA. 

seas, when the conditions seem to be the same, favours the view that 
migration has been the main source of the diffusion in the Oriental 
tropics. 

As we descend in the order of Invertebrates, the species are less 
detailed in structure, with fewer specific parts and greater simplicity 
of functions, and they therefore admit of a wider range of physical 
condition ; the same argument against multiplication by independent 
creations in regions for the most part different, does not, therefore, so 
strongly hold. As we pass, on the contrary, to the highest groups in 
Zoology, the argument receives far greater weight; and at the same 
time there are capabilities of migration increasing generally in direct 
ratio as we ascend, which are calculated to promote the diffusion of 
species, and remove the necessity of independent creations. 

Migration cannot therefore be set aside. It is an actual fact in 
nature, interfering much with the simplicity which zoological life in 
its diffusion would otherwise present to us. Where it ends, and 
where independent creations have taken place, is the great problem 
for our study. This question has its bearings on all departments of 
Zoology ; but in few has migration had the same extended influence 
as in that of Crustacea. Molluscs, if we except oceanic species, are 
no travellers, and keep mostly to narrow limits. 

XIII. There is evidence in the exceedingly small number of Torrid 
zone species identical in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, that there 
has been no water communication across from one to the other in the 
Torrid zone, during the period since existing species of Crustacea 
were first on the globe. 

XIV. As to zoological centres of diffusion for groups of species, we 
can point out none. Each species of Crustacea may have had its 
place of origin and single centre of diffusion in many and perhaps the 
majority of cases. But we have no reason to say that certain regions 
were without life, and were peopled by migration from specific centres 
specially selected for this end. If such centres had an existence, 
there is at present no means by which they may be ascertained. The 
particular temperature region in which a species originated may be 
ascertained by observing which is most favourable to its develop- 
ment : we should thus conclude that the Ranina dentata, for example, 
was created in the subtorrid region and not the torrid, as it attains its 
largest size in the latter. By pursuing this course with reference to 
each species, we may find some that are especially fitted for almost 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRUSTACEA. 1591 

every different locality. Hence, we might show, as far as reason and 
observation can do it, that all regions have had their own special 
creations. 

The world throughout all its epochs in past history, has been fur- 
nished with life in accordance with the times and seasons, each species 
being adapted to its age, its place, and its fellow species of life. 



In the elaboration of the tables given in the preceding chapter, the 
following works and memoirs have been consulted : 

A. G. DESMAREST'S Considerations Ge'ne'rales sur les Crostace's, 8vo., Paris, 1825. 

MILNE EDWARDS'S Histoire Naturelle des Crustacea, 3 vols., 8vo., Paris, 1834-1840. 

MILNE EDWARDS, in Victor Jacquemont's Voy. dans L'Inde, 4to., 1844 ; and other 
papers in the Archives du Mus. d'Hist. Nat., and the Annales des Sci. Naturelles. 

MILNE EDWARDS and H. LUCAS, on the Crustacea of D'Orbigny's Voy. dans L'Ame- 
rique Meridionale, 4to., Paris, 1843. 

W. E. LEACH'S Malacostraca Podophthalmata Britannise, 4to., 1815-1817. 

SAVIONY, Crustacea of Napoleon's Egypt, folio. 

DE HAAN'S Crustacea of the Fauna Japonica, foK, 1833-1850. 

M'LEAY, in Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa, 1838. 

E. RUPPELL'S Beschreibung und Abbildung von 24 Arten kurzschwanzigen Krabben 
als Beitrag zur Naturgeschicbte des rothen Meeres, 4to., Frankfurt, 1830. 

THOS. BELL'S papers on the genus Cancer and on some Crustacea of the coasts of 
South America, Zool. Trans., i. 335, and ii. 3&. 

THOS. BELL'S British Crustacea, Parts 1 to &, 8vo-., London, 18441847. 

K. OWEN, on the Crustacea of the Voyage of the Blossom; and also, Appendix to 
Sir John Ross's Second Voyage in search of a Northwest Passage. 

H. RATHKE, Fauna der Krym, Mem. Imp. Acad. Sci. St. Petersburg, iii. 1837, and 
Beit, zur Fauna Norwegens Kais. Leop. Car. Acad. der Nat. Bonn., vol. xs., 4to., 1840. 

DR. F. KRAUSS'S Sudafrikanischon Crustaceen, 4to., Stuttgart, 1843. 

0. S. COSTA'S Fauna del Regno di Napoli, 4to., Crostacei in 1836. 

WEBB and BERTHELOT, on the Canaries. 

KROYER'S Conspectus Crustaceorum Greenlandia&, Copenhagen, and also various papers 
in his Tidskrift, published at Copenhagen ; and also the Crustacea of the Spitzbergen 
Expedition, in folio. 

NICOLET, in Gay's Historia de Chile, Zoologia, Tome III. (including the Crustacea), 
1849. 

H. LUCAS, Crustacea of Expl. de 1' Algiers, 4to., Paris. 

List of the Specimens of Crustacea in the Collection of the British Museum, 16mo., 
London, 1847. 

List of the Specimens of British Crustacea in the British Museum, IGmo., London, 1850. 



^592 CRUSTACEA. 

A. ADAMS and A. WHITE, Crustacea of the Voyage of the Samarang, 4to., London, 
1848. 

A. A. GOULD'S Invertebrata of Massachusetts, 374 pp., 8vo., with plates. Boston, 1841. 

LEWIS E. GIBBES, on the Carcinological collections of the Cabinets of Natural 
History in the United States, with an enumeration of the species contained therein, and 
Descriptions of New Species. From Proceedings of the Amer. Assoc., vol. iii., 1850. 

W. BAIBD'S Natural History of British Eutomostraea, 8vo., London, 1850. 

EYDOUX and SOULEYET, Voyage of the Bonite. 

HOMBEON and JACQUINOT, Voy. au Pole Sud. et dans 1'Oceanie. 

Besides various other Memoirs by Say, J. W. Kandall, Pb'ppig, Erichson, Philippi, 
Miiller, Wiegmann, Guerin, S. Loven, H. D. 8. Goodsir, A. White, W. Thompson, 
etc., in the Journal Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia; Wiegmann's Archiv. f. Naturg., 
Berlin ; Gueiin's Magasin de Zool., Paris, and also Revue Zoologique, Paris ; Annales 
des Sci. Nat., Paris; Vet. Acad. Forhandl., Stockholm; Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
London ; Reports of Brit. Assoc. ; Proceedings of the Zool. Soc., London ; Jameson's 
New Edinburgh Journal, etc., etc. 






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Zool Dana, James D. 
Insecta On the classification and 
D geographical distribution 

of Crustacea 

Biological 
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