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at |http: //books .google .com/I 

Esther Jean SpenC' 

Tjjtl!^^ . ., 4A> • A^ & .'c 











Hon. LL.D. and D.C.L. 


^ ^Hr j/-/tfncj 


Neb) gotit 



jiii rights rtserved 



Copyright, 1904, 

Set up and electrotyped. Published January, zgcxf' Reprinted 
March, 2905. 

Korloooli 9tMf 

J. S. Cashing & Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 






THIS volume is chiefly an abridgment of the large editii 
of Demosthenes on the Crown which was prepared by me' 
for the Syndics of the University Press and published in 1901. 
The critical notes are omitted, and such remarks on the text as 
seemed necessary are introduced in the explanatory notes. The 
notes, the Historic Sketch, and especially the Essays, have been 
f abridged, while some more elementary matter has been added in 
I the notes. I have attempted to give what I deem most essential 
1 understanding of this masterpiece of oratory. No mere 
1 commentary can make a speech like this intelligible to those 
''who have not an accurate knowledge of the events which are 
discussed, and of their relation to other events. No adequate 
treatment of historical points is possible in scattered notes, and 
references to a general history (even to Grote or Curtius) are 
not sufficient. The student of Demosthenes needs a connected 
narrative of the events which especially concern him, with refer- 

tences to the authorities, without being distracted by other details 
in which he has no immediate interest. To meet this want, I 
have given an " Historical Sketch " of the period from the 
accession of Philip to the battle of Chaeronea, in which I have 
enlarged disproportionately on the events and questions dis- 
cussed in the orations of Demosthenes and Aeschines on the 
Crown, and have alluded slightly (or perhaps not at all) to many 
important matters which are not essential to the study of these 
speeches. This would be unpardonable in a history : but this 
sketch assumes a general knowledge of the history of the period 
I which it covers, and makes no pretence to being smc\\ a. fewai 

^ wh 



1 itself. With this view, I have given what may seem undue 
prominence to the negotiations which led to the Peace of Philo- 
crates ; for a minute knowledge of these is absolutely necessary 
to a correct understanding of the brief but cogent argument of 
Demosthenes in Cor. §§ 17 — 52, and to a fair judgment of the 
whole political course of both Demosthenes and Aeschiues at 
this decisive crisis in the history of Athens. Much new light 
has been thrown upon the period which I have treated from 
icriptions recently discovered by the French explorers at 
Delphi and from the Corpus Inscrtptionitm Atticamm. In pre- 
paring this sketch I have made constant use of Grote and of 
Schaefer's Demosthenes und Seine Zeti, 

In revising the text I have in most cases followed the au- 
thority of the Codex 2, especially when it is supported by its 
companion L'. See Essay vn. In preparing the commentary 
I have been constantly aided by the long line of editors, whose 
names are too familiar to need mention. I must, however, ex- 
press my great obligation to Westermann and Blass, especially 
for references to parallel passages and for other illustrations. I 
have found it impossible to give credit for every remark and 
reference which may be borrowed from these or other recent 
editors : many of tliese are found in the notes of Dissen and the 
older editors, and many have long been in my own collection of 
notes. Nothing is harder to trace than old references, and 
most of those relating to Demosthenes on the Crown may now 
be assumed to be common property. 

I take great pleasure in expressing (not for the first time) 
my deep indebtedness to Dr Henry Jackson of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, who did me the inestimable ser\'ice of reading and 
revising the proofs of the large edition. There are few pages in 
that volume which have not had the benefit of his criticism. 

For the picture of the Scythian bowman in page 280 I am 
indebted to the kindness of my former pupil, Miss Florence A. 
Gragg, who photographed the figure in the Museum at Athens. 


I have avoided many discussions of grammatical points in 
the notes by references to my Syntax of the Greek Moods and 
Tenses (M.T.), and I have occasionally referred to my Greek 
Grammar (G.). The references to Grote ix. — xii. are made to 
the first edition ; those to earlier volumes to the second edition. 

I have made no attempt to be neutral on the question of the 
patriotism and the statesmanship of Demosthenes in his policy 
of uncompromising resistance to Philip. It seems to me that 
the time for such neutrality is past. I cannot conceive how any 
one who knows and respects the traditions of Athens, and all 
that she represents in the long contest of free institutions against 
tyranny, can read the final attack of Aeschines and the reply of 
Demosthenes without feeling that Demosthenes always stands 
forth as a true patriot and statesman, who has the best interests 
of his country at heart and upholds her noblest traditions, while 
Aeschines appears first as a trimmer and later as an intentional 
(if not a corrupt) ally of Philip in his contest with Athens. That 
the policy of resistance to Philip's aggressions failed at last is no 
discredit to the patriotism or the statesmanship of Demosthenes. 
Can any one, even at this day, read the pathetic and eloquent 
appeal of Demosthenes to posterity in Cor. §§ 199 — 208, and 
not feel that Athens would have been unworthy of her glorious 
past if she had submitted to Philip without a struggle for liberty, 
even if Chaeronek and all its consequences had been seen by 
her in advance ? Her course was plain : that of Demosthenes 
was even plainer. 


Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
Ncvember 6, 1993. 



Oration on the Crown i— ^99 

Historical Sketch: — 

1. From the Accession of Philip to 352 B.C. • . 201 — 205 
11. Early Life of Demosthenes.— Events from 352 to 

348 B.C. 205 — 209 

III. The Peace of Philocrates 210 — 228 

IV. Six years of nominal Peace, 346 — 340 B.C. . . 228 — 237 
V. The War with Philip, from 340 B.C. to the Battle 

of Chaeronea in 338 b.c 237 — 249 

Table of Dates 250 — 254 

The Attic Year 255, 256 

Essay I. Argument of the Oration, with remarks on 

§§ 120, 121 257—264 

Essay II. The ypa^ irapavofKov 264 — 269 

Essay III. The Suit against Ctesiphon .... 269 — 273 

Essay IV. Trials of Aeschines and Philocrates in 343 B.C. 273 — 277 

Essay V. Constitution of the Amphictyonic Council . 277, 278 

Essay VI. The Hero Physician and the Hero KaXafurrfi 278 — 280 

Essay VII. Manuscripts of the Oration on the Crown . 281 — 283 

Indexes 285 — 296 




nPilTON /J.ev, & avBpe; '\0ijvaioi, toJ? ffeoU 
■iske euy^o/iat TTBtri Kal Tratratf, octijii evuoiav e^^Mi' £701 
Z26 StareXw tj ie TroXei «a(. Trdiriv vfuv, roaavrr^v irrrda- 
|a( ^01 Trap' v/iSsp et? ToUTOiii TOi* aymva, lirelB' 

PROOEMimi: S§1— a. The solemn 

mmtaess with which Demosthenes 
undertook this vindication of his whole 
political life is sbown bj the unusual 
and impresave prayer with which he 
begins, and BtiU more by its repetition. 
He shows the same spirit in the ap- 
peal to the Gods in § 141, with which 
he iotcoduces bis account of the fatal 
events which led to Chaerooea, and 
in his peroration (§ 324). 

§ 1. 1. rots 6(oIf irao-i Hal irdraiit, 
M all tie Gods and GoAiesiis. eciii is 
Goddess as well aa God, Bti being 
poetic; thus 4 ^> is the common 
title of Athena. A slight extension of 
the solemn formula wisi xal Triiaa 
becomes absurdly comic in Ar. Av. 
866 tixf^' ep'iinr 'OXu^Tloii unt 
'0\vn-rlji^i iraffi ual irilirpirii'. 

2. cSmiav: iBnut may mean i£f 
VBtieit based on any superiority or 
merit, including leyalty of a subject 
to a prince or of a servant to his 
master (even of a dog to his mistress), 
lUjio/ioit ti> a benefactor, and even 
erlhasinsm for the success of a con- 
testant in the games (though felt by 
a stranger). Here it means a good 
dtizen's loyal dtsgthn to the atate. 

See Jackson's note on eliiwB in 
Trans, of Cambr. Philol, Soc. 11. p. 
115, where be explains the word in 
Arist.Po!.i.6 (l25s^ 17) as "loyal^, 
i.e. the willing obedience which an 
inferior renders to a kind and con- 
siderate superior," He refers espe- 
cially to Arist. Eth. IX. 5, ^S 3. 4 
(1167", 18), SXui !' (Buna !i iptriiy 

Kal in 

S ill Ix"! 

The words Ix'-" 
probably occurred in Ctesipbnn's de- 
cree. Aeschines (iTl. 49) quotes from 
the decree Sti iianXci sal \iyur lal 
jrpiTTi^r \ see the spurious indictment 
(b,W) § !4", Md ! Sf-. 

3. vwdptai fist, ie granlfd me (ie 
made availai/e lo me). The funda- 
mental idea of fimipx" ''" this sense 
is best seen in ri vripxarm, Ike ri- 
learcts or tie existing condiHem, i.e. 
■what is available, vihai one has la 
defenden: seenoteon liripx'"' §95'> 
and pfKTurTov iripx'^, i^- 5> 

4. d^Ava: see noteond7wi'I{l>^i, 
§ 3'.— liriiO", secottdly : simple trtira 
(without if) is the regular rhetorical 



^Trep etrrt iicuUao vtrlp vfiStv xal t^v vfier^pa^ $ 
ewreffeiai tc kuI So^i, tovto ' 7rapa(TTij&ai "rhw 
6eov; vyXv, fti) top uvtiSikov avjipovXav Trai-qtyarrBai 
wept Tov TTWS aKOvuv vp.a'i i/iov Bel {<Tj^er\iav ykp 

> 7e). 

kXXa Toif TOfioiK It 
; aXXotv Bticaioi^ i 

<p TTpc/i a-n 

TTTUi, TO o/iot'di! afL^olu aKpodaauBaL. to 
ov povov TO pt) irpoKaTeyviDKevai prjhev i 
evvoiav iin]V awoSovvai, aXXA. to Kal r^ -i 
aTToXoyia, w9 ^efiovXrjTai Koi Trpo-^pijTat 
^opdvwv eieaaToi, ovroyi eaaai j^prjoatrdai. 

w opKOV, ev U 
Oto jeypa- 

Twv aya}vi- 

"77. 235. ?4' 

gcnernlly hai 

5. frirtp (a~r\ ; sc. sCxo^kh, refei- 
ring to the whole sentence Srtp,,, 
dxpoiea-rSai. The relation of ftrep to 
toCto here is clearly that of B ti (§ 8«) 
to thefoUowine roin-o.— icrrl )idXur8' 
virip vfL&v, camcrit! you ispedally 
(more than mj-selQ. 

6. ifartpElos: tefemngtotheoath 
(§2). Greek efii^^da reached a lower 
level than our pitty, including nega- 
tive abstinence frum impiety, so that 
one who does not break hia oath is so 
far rfffepi}!. — ToiT8-iraptt<rT<(o^i V*. 
may fut tkU inlo your ktarts : tout* 
refers back emphatically to the omit- 
ted antecedent of Artp, aa otrui (§ 2') 
to that of £>!, and is explained by ^4 

8. ToOirat...St:: ciplained by t4 
Ka.l...xp'h'">'OBaiie-a&Qi%i): cf. Tcpt 
tdC Rmn. t/jAttoi' ■Xfi% f?", Plat. Rep. 

§2. I. T&v SpKDvt the Heliastic 
oath, which each jndge had sworn. 
The document in xxiv. 149 — 151 
purporting to be this famous oath 
(hardly authentic) has thisclause: Kal 

rlKpoiffOJuH ToD ■BT177dpOU lal ToC i-TIO- 

\oyovfUmv hfiolui d/i^oTh For the 

connection of the laws with the oath, 

2. ZiKalmt, Just pre, 

3. LKpe&a-airBai,: this(S)ordi(po- 
HaBiii (L) is far preferable to the 
emendation irpodumdai, thefut, iniin. 
being exceptional with ri. The infin, 

vision/br hiartng both sidt! imparti- 
ally and is not in oratio obliqua (M.T. 
96, Ml). 

4. T& p.f| 'TpoiUL-nYvaKfi'aL : aol 
having dca'dtd against (nard) either 
party in advance, the perf. expressing 
completion (M.T. 109) ; ri 11^ rpt- 
KUTayrSm would be ^meless, like ri 
iKpodaao'Sai (above) and t4 di-oSouHu 
and rd idnai (below). — oU) (bc 
Miwp), nwcB/f {cf. § 93'''). 

5. tn-i)* (pted.'i, in e^uai measure. 
— Kol TJ Tii|u...xp^i'racrBaL, i.e. to 
allow everyone to adept not only (mi) 
that order of argument but aha (irai) 
that general plan ef defence which etc. 

6. iiroXoYCf refers strictly to the 
defence, which alone remained. — hi... 
ttcao'Tof- fiaiTTsc Is made subject of 
the relative clause, as this precedes; 
we reverse the order, and translate 
it with xp^'aedtu. — t4i< d^anlo- 
ijiiuv iKOOTOt (not iKirtptt), hcc. to 
Weil, is "tout homme qui plaide sa 


IIoXXA fikv ovii eyio<y eXaTTOVfiai, icaTa ■: 
Tov ayibiia Awr^^tVov, Bva 8", w apbpei 'AOr/valoi, leal 
luyaXa, ev fikv on ov irepi rmv taiisv ajcoi/i^ofiaf ov 
flip iiTTLV (Voc vvv e/iol t^s Trap' vfioiv evvoiav Bia-' 
fiapTfip Kal TOVTio p.}) eXeiv t^ij ypa<pi]v, aXX' ifutl 5 
Hff — ou /BovKo^ai Svaj^epei ehvelv ovhkv apj^ofievot 
TOW X070U, o5to5 S" eK ■KepLovaia'; p.ov KaTijyopei. 
Srfpov B\ o (f)ViTei Trairiv av&pm-rrot^ {nrdp^ei, rSiv pen 
\oiSopca)u Kal Twc KUTij'yopi^v anoveiv jjSeo)5, roll 
fireuvovffi B" avrois ax^iaQai ' tovtiov roivvv 8 p^ 4 
ioTi irpifi Tjhavr)v toi/toi S^Sorai, 8 Se Trdmv (us ftro? 

c«ii*e," a general expression. He le- 
nuirlc* Ch>t iyuiei{tfi,ai, applies especi- 
ally to the defendaot. 

This is a. dignified appeal against 
the oReiuive demand of Aeschines 
(III. 30Z), that the court should 
rilhet rnuse to bear Demosthenes 
or (M least) compel him to follow 
hii kdversaty's ordei of argument. 
Bolb pwties could not he heard im- 
partiau]' if one were compelled iy 
til cairt i/self to preseat his case 
in the most damaging order at his 
oppoocol's dictation. 

I a. 1. vatXi: sc. l^nTTJi^aTo,, 

t. sol p«YAXa, even icrioui. 

3. 4ywl{, like d^iiiv, used 
of conteMs of all kinds, here of a 
lawHiil. Sec the pun on the mo 
[( of (l7iopJr7itffflai rcpi Sard- 

J. »)| fttiv riiv 7pa+iiv, net b, 

fill■ kU cast: cf. ■0\i^ri_a «*£,, 
oc. I. 126; ifr-^t/nf/ia riK^, Aesch. 
in. 68; ■'iiXXdi...7/iaqkij flii^fai e6it- 
liUr liXir, AnE. 2, A", 5. A victori- 
DUl dcfendaiit is said ypa•pi|^ (SlK^t) 
Aw»^vyilt,s, defeated defendant ypa- 

4,l)t (Iltqv) iipXtit.—iXk' IfLol ^fv : a 
familiar dirairiwrqirit, often quoted by 
the rhetoricians. What is plainly 
meant would sound unpleasant (Suit- 
X'p^^) 21^ suggest disaster in the 
opening of his speech. See Quint 
tX, S, 54, who quotes "quoa ego— 
sed motos praestat componeie duc- 
tus," Aen. 1. 135. 

7. f K mpunNrlof , nt an ndvantagi, 
lit. from an abundance, like a rich 
man who stakes little compared with 
his wealth, In Luke xxi. 4, the rich 
cast into the treasury "of their abund- ] 
anee" or "superfluity," ^ktoS Trepiff- 
ffdioiToi airoft. I 

8. (ripov 8" (ec. iXiTTiB/io) corre- 
sponds to it liit in 3, and keeps up 
the construction of xoXXA fKarravnai. 
in I. — i...iiwi.fy;ff,v/hiih isa natural 
dbpasitioH of At whole kumau taci: 
trairiv dv^fii^sii suggests the suhject 
of imitiv and i-xStaSa-i, which cx- 

§4. 2. {iTTi irp^ T|G<ivt|v, (ni4^i 

for pliasure ilari, ■i}ii, Schol.) : cf. 
Aeschyl. Pr. 494, &r ttn Salnavir Tpit 
itSni^r. — US iiroi tlmlr modi^es tS- 
air. Aeschines (][l. 241) had warned 
the court against the self-glorification 
of Demosthenes. 


TOVTO fiif Xeyta Tct •treO'pa'ytiiv efiavr^, ouk e^uv 
a/roKCiraffBai ret KaTTjyapTifieva S6^a> ouB' i<f>' oh 5 
a^i& TifiaffOai heiKviivaL ' eav S' i<f> S, xal ireiroCi}ica 
leai ■TTerroXheviJ.aL ffaSi^eo, TroWd/ci? Xeyeiv avayxa- 
227 a$i^aofiai lit pi ip,avToO. fiev oZv mt 
p^erpitoTara rovro Troielir • o Tt S" &v to Trpayfi,' avTO 
avayica^r), toOtoi/ rijv alruiv oCtos eVri Siictiior e^^eiv 10 
roiovTov aySiv eva'njad/ievo'i. 

Olfiai B' vfia'i Trdvra'i, & avhpei ' k.6Tjvaloi, &v 5 
ofioXoyijaai Kotvov elvai tovtovI tov aymv i/iol Kal 
KT7)ffi0o)irri Kal avSen ekuTTOt/o't d^iav awovhr)'; ifioi- 
•TrdvTtov fikv y^p inTocneptiaBai Xirmjpov cVtj koI 
j^aXeiroir, aXXcti; t£ k&v utt i^Spou Tip tovto tru/i- 5 
^altrp., p,dXiffTa Se TTJ'i Trap' vp,S)v euvoiat Koi <^tXav- 
6p(i>nia,<i, oiTipTrep xal to TV)(eiv Tointav fteyttmiv 

J. &*o\va'air0cu, : see § 50*. inlin. cf. Quint. XI. I, 22, qui iar 31 

6. Kal irtirotiiita Kal irtiraXfTiu- '""' 

|Mu: a familiar form of rhetorical 
amplification (opposed to modern 
ideas of Style), for which ordinaT; 
ipeech would use -rtToXtrtviuii alone. 
Other instances ace pepo6\ririu itnJ 

roXiTtu/itmr and Kariif^iiSou cal 
SUpaWft (S II'-''), trparttfiti lal 
8"W" (§ if), Sl^^a^^* ™l 3«Elf« 

(§ i43),/i(s«^.t «i Jifj^xflft c§ 22'"). 

ro\i)ittt Kal Siiu^iptireai (§ 31'). In 
these cases one verb is generic and 
the other specific; but sometimes two 
verbs of nearly or quite the same 
meaning are used together for a simi- 
lar rhetorical effect, a 

personal construction (M.T. 761). 
The apodosis is future in schk, after 
the future S t. 4p irayKi^. 

II. TOIO0TOV iLy&v, a stdt Hit 
tkis, i.e. in which CiesiphoB is in- 
dicted and Demosthenes accuied : cf. • 





than CL 

8. ut)UTpLiiTaTB:Gr. the full form 
idt A' Situitai ntTf*J>Ttta, % 256*. 

9. t Ti. . . AvayKilxb ifhatevir Oit 
case itself may require of me (lit. com- 
ft! mt) : with iya.yKi.iu without an 

§ S. 

when words belonging to ine wioe 
clause precede, as here djuAi vdmi 

3. oASfv iUttovoi, quite ai great. 

4. -nAvTuv iiraiTTipiIrfai, to he 
dtpritcd of anything: cf. wwna.xau, 
anywhere, % 81". 

7. hvi^tf, (by so much) as: the 
implied Tonairi^ is felt ai limiting 
^Xirrra (sc. Xi^vt^pAy jfal ^aXrrb). — 
Kal before rh Tuxeir expreMCi tile 
parallelism (so to speak) between 
losing and gaining the privileg*!: 
see i. Kal &itKu\ieii, % 60', and note. 


iiTTiv. wepl TOVTiav 8* ovroi ""hjuTOvl toO 07(1)^05, 6 
af(u Koi Seofiai wdvrav d/xotox; ii/iav aKowyal fiov 
•jrepi rSiv KaTriyopTHi^uajv a7ro\oyovij.ei/ov StKaioK, 

Burjrep 01 vo/toi KeXeuova 
^dXtov, evvov^ Siv v/ilv k 
ypa-^at, nvpioiK m^TO Sei 
hi.ica.^Qvra'i ofJ^a/iOKevdi, oi 
(fiaiverai^ aXX' opSiv art tui alTiai 
aU in Tov -Kp^Tepo^i Xeyetv a Biroi 
T^ tfxvyovTi Trapekdelv, e 
vfi&v Tr/v TrpcK Tov^ Oea 
rh TOV XeyovToi varepov 

oiJt o TiOelt e^ ^PXV'* 

■ivai aWa «oi T^i Toir? 

vfui/, mi y ifiol 7 

BiroKtDV liT^iKi. oiiK evi 
S>v hiKcttovTtov eKnffTO! 
jejieiav ipuXdrTtoi/ Kai 5 

ewo'tKwi Trpo&S^erai, 

CKpreased ing to prufose 

. GtKOiEigt belongg to dKauiFai, from 
brhich it 19 separated pailly foi em- 
Fpbasis, and pactly to bring it directly 
befoie £Ssir<p. It cannot be tnken 
with draX(i7ou;i^Kiu, ss the laws (g 2') 
have no reference to iiroXovJa, but re- 
quire the judges to bear both sides 
^ 4. i nS<l| i£ &PX^< ie- tin ""- 
lal maktr : h riiat rifled is used 
;e Mi^P^i, fortbe lawgiver, whose 
tie is perpetual. 

J. 6i||uiTiKii, afriendofihe piople 

' ef poputar gevernmint: see Ar. 

ub. 11S7, i "ZHKi-Ki i iraXaiii ^r 

miSUti/iot Tijv tpAffi V. — o4 ^vdv, . . o^H' 

i. e. Solon thought that these 

I for an impartial hearing 

lould have not metcly the ordinary 

tion which all laws have by enact' 

t (t^ tpAiliai), but the further 

curity which they gained by the 

judges swearing to uphold them. 

This double sanction was secured 

by enacting that these provisions 

of law should be a part of the 

f Hcliastic oath, ypiipw, besides mean- 

Po\dt, her. 

uMa in XXII. 21, 22. There airia is 
thus defined, as opposed to tKeyxoi: 
alrSa fiky ydp tanr SroB Tit ^i>.^ Xfi'f- 
ai^LCPOi \iiyifi fiij rapdir'y(7jTtii Flimr 
Hu \iyn,tXiyx''S Sifr«« fiv intrj) rit 
ral rdXijfi^i i/ioS Stl^jj, Commonly, 
airla refers to an accusation, whether 
true or false: cf. § 12' {tCrep ^irar 
dXi7Se«). See Shilleto on Thuc. I. 23 

3, ToO rpdripoj Xfyav : in public 
suits (7^^al) in the Hehastic courts, 
each side spoke once (though the 
time might be divided among several 
speakers), the plaintiff first; in private 
suits (_SlKai), and in the Areopagus, 
each side was allowed a second argu- J 

4. irapiXSiEv, /B escape (get by") ! ■ 
ui ^1 Sponiwo. Schol. 

fi. ■nii,hitnrn^iirrifOV,lkt seeond ' 

(laier) speaker, i.e. the defendant (roi) 
0(*7o>-r(i>): seBAr,VBap.i5,ffi>X*fo» 
rp/rripas, Dem. 1. 16, roit Ivrdrtut... 
meat of his rigils; ef. Jg^^see West,"^.. 


Kai irapda-y^div eaVTOv tVi 
aiepoaTTjv ovtw t^w Sidyifi 

Kal KOivov aji^OTepoit 

M^XXwi/ he Tov re l&lov 0iov ■rravTot, ok eoiKS, 8 
\6yov BlSovhi, TTjiiepov koI tSiv kolv^ TreiroKiTev'iiivwv, 
^ovKop-ai TrdXiv Tovi BeaiK "TrapaKoXeaaL, Kal evav- 
Ttov vp&v eu^ofiat, "Trparov p,kv, oarji/ ein/oiav eytav 
228 £70) SittTcXtS TT] TTokfi xal -rraaiv {/p,lv, Toaavrijv j 
inrdp^ai fioi ek tovtovI rov aymva, eneiff" 3 t( 
^eXXa avvotaeiV Koi Tpo? evBo^i'av kqivtj xal irpbi 
evffe^eiav ixdtrTot, rovro irapaaTrjaai irao'ii' vpXv 
Ttepl TaVTr/al TJ^s ypaefiiji yvwvai.' " 

Et pip oBv wept S>v eStWe p-ovov Ko/rr^yopTiaev 9 
hlaxiVTi<;, icayfo wepl avrov too TrpoffovXevpara^ 
eiidis &v aireKoyovpiiv eTretSr) S' ovk iXd-nii} \6yov 

— Trf»o-8i£(Tai, siali receive kiitdly, 

rendered at the eUffi/nn: see Aesch, 

take under his prottclion. 

III. 11. 12, and cf. § d^ (below), 'Ki- 

7. Kuv&v: impartial. 


S. ofrrtj repeats with emphasis the 

6. 6Ti...jKdirr¥!seenoteonArf,> 

ideSi of iropa(rxi!'i'.-.ii«(»BTiJif. — Sid- 

...84f^,, § is. 

vvttnv, decision (between two sides). 

§8. 2. X<l7»» BiEiv<u, /o r^fl-^r 

(subj,). as in S ■'■^toBto ivfivai. to 

an account, used often of the formal 

i7W thiil judgment. 

BCCouats which all officers of state 

In g§ 9—52 the orator replies to 
charges which are foreign to (he in- 
dictment (r£u T^t 7pB*gt)- We have 
(l)an introduction ID $9; then(z)he 
speaks of his private life in g§ to, 
II; then (3) of his public policy in 

%\ I2-SZ. 

Under (3) we have an introduc- 
tion (g§ 12—16), and Che defence of 
bis poucj concerning the Peace of 
Philocrates Ijgg '7-52)- The last 
contains an introduction (§ 17), the 
narration (§S iS— 49, and the con- 
clusion (§§ 50-52). 

\ 9. I. ■[.■.Ka'n)'<fdpi|ir«i', i.e. if 

ht had confined his accusatinH (in his 
speech) la tie charges in its indict- 
ment (7pa^it) ; see the same distinc- 
tion between Kirrriyoptl and i[p(wi in 
§ is».«. 

2. vpopouXtDfiaTot; the strict name 
of a bill which had passed only the 
Senate, though the less exact ^li^ur/Mi 
was often applied to it: see g 561. 

3. liBiif av diriXvYOv|U|v, / should 
al o?ice proctid(ya. di tiav) proceeding) 
lo my defence, etc. Cf. § 34*. — otK 
i3i&,tna,qailt as mveh (na in his piopei 


TaWa S'le^iQ}!/ av^Xeaxe leal ri irXelaTa Kan^^evaaro 
ftov^ avayxaiov eluai vofuXoi Kal bdcaiav afia |S/)a^e'a, 5 
& avBpe; 'AdTjvaloi, -rrepl rovTtov ei-n-elv irpatToy, "va 
fii}Self vit€>v TOK e^tudev X6yoi<{ ^yfie'i/bv aWoTpito- 
Tepov T&v imep T^? ypa<f))']V ZiKd(o>v aicoirg fiov. 

Ilfpi ij.ev Bi} TcJc l&icov otya XoSopovfievoR ^effKa- lO^J 
ff^Tlp.TjKe -rrepl e/iov, 6fd<Taa9e is a-irXa. leal Zdtcua 
Xpyw. ei p.kt> tme fie tolovtov olov oItov rjiiaTo (ov 
yap aWoSi -rrov ^e^ttoica r) Trap' ufiiv'), /iT/Be t^wvi^v 
avdayvdoe, p.ijo (l irdtna ra Koiva virepev ireTToKi- ; 
T&jfiai, aW avaa-rdvTei icaTa-\}n}<j>(a-aa-0' yBtj. ei Be 
■n-oW^ (SeXriw tovtov koX ck ^eXnoiwp, Kal nrfBeiw 

ToAXa Su^iuv belongs lo both 
iiT)Xw« anci Kii.Teijii6ira.To,—6.vf\kiiua: 
often of kvish expease. — rdirXtiirTa; 
intithesis to Ibe comp. bOk iXirToi 
a to show that the superl. is to 
be tikeo literally, llie statements 
repudiated hy Demosthenes about his 
privnte life aod the Peace of Philo- 
ctates can well be said to oiitHumbir 
all the others. 

ty. dXXorpiiiiTtpov, Uss kindly (wilA 
greatrr alienalioa). 
S. Tav...GiKa[a>v:likei1[i[ais,§7<. 
Two genitives with isaia are lare. — 

often in the omtoTS, who, however, 
often observe the comman distinction. 
Cf. I 1' and S ii^'"*", and xJtni, 19, 

§10, 11 t 

The repl;; ii 
icharges against his private life and 
teharaclei amounts merely to a scorn- 
fiil refusal to discuss Ihem, and an 
ppeal to the judges to decide against 
aim at once if they believe them. 

(10. I. npl tAv leCuv: with 
isB. fl<j3Xair^^»i7j«e (not with Wyu), 
the omitted antec. of the cognate taa 
being understood as limiting 0<iiiaf8i 

...X^iu, as rfgards all tkf caluntniet^ 
which he has abusively ullered aiout • 
myprivaulife. The whole sentence 
tfpX )ikt...\^iii is parallel to intkp iiir 
...i^trdirm in § M«. (West,, Bl.)— 
XaLSopo{l|MVDtP(^air^tiT|iu: forthe 
relation of \oiBopia and pXairipjiida to 
KaTiyyopta see S "3* flXoo^jJa is 
slander, a special form of XtiSupia, 
ahiise'xa general. QntvatAblaspheniy 

Sike many others) never goes beyond 
e special meaning which it derives 
from the ecclesiastical Greek: cf.n;^/, 
aposOe, hypocrite, liturgy, litany, etc. 

3. TeioOrav: ec. tvrii. (M.T. 911). 

4. |<<ilSt ^Hvi]v &i^irx>)0'Bi= fil^^ 

my speech al once. 

5. -irdvra rd KOivd: i.e. settle the 
case without reference to my public 

7. P(Xt£« Kal Ik PiXnivov, biUer 
and better born : cf rit iSs «ol Tlmii, 
§il6S[be!ow). SeeTerent.Ph. i. 2, 
65,bonam bonis prognatam. — )ii)Stvit 
tAv juTpCuv )(c£fiDva, i.e. quite as 
good as any of our respectable cititens 
(cf. g iz6') : ibis moderate expression 
is made more effective by Xna-.-^tyn. I 



Twi* fterpiwv, iva /iijSec etraj^dk^ Xeyco, yelpova koL 

e/ie «al tow efiois virecX-rj^die ical yiypaia-Kere, toutji 
fj^v f/LtjS' vTrep Twi/ aXKmv Tritnevere (S^Xoi' 70^ m 
6f/,oiaK awatrr iTrXdrrero), ffi,ol B', ijv Trapt 
Tov ■)(p6vov evvoiav ivSeSeix^ eVi "TroWiav ay<i)viDV 
tSu' •n-poTepof, Koi vvvl ■n-apda^ea-Oe. waKon^j;? B' 11 
till', Ata-)({irii, Toina TracreXoK eviide? mTj&jj^, tow 
irepi Totv weTrpayfievmv kuI ireTroXnevnevav \6yaiK 
atfieVTa iJ,e it pa rat XotBopiai ra? wapa erov 
i TpeT^effdac. ou Sij Troujcw tovto ' ov)^ ouro) rerv- 5 
ip(D/j,ai, • aXX' vtrep p-ev tS)v neTroXiTfUfieviov & 
KaTeyjrevBou icai Sie^aXXet efernVto, tPj^ Se irofiTreiat 
TavTijt T^<i kvthtjv yeyevTipeviji; varepoi/, av ffovXo- 
fieiiott aKovuv r} TOmoial, 

12, ivliroXX&v&YiivHv: see |§349, 
250, where he speaks of being bruught 
to trial "daily" after the battle of 

511. I. ■iiiKa^eT|t...i9i]eHip^t>i(: 

an untranslatable rapamitaalaXhe sar- 
castic effect of which, as pronounced by 
Demosthenes, can easily be imagined. 
KMio-^Stii, ill-naluriii, iHalieiBus,a in 
antithesis to (figdei, gBed-uMured (in 
thedoublEsenseofourriwi/Zi!). The 
idea (imperfectly expressecf) is ; mali- 

Tcf ai, \^ihQplo,% 

The Scholia hive : 



roi)r iWou 


t in iopri 

^ (iV/.«, 

iTed-) feUmo tkt 
ivid this f erf cell 


mdivid this perfcelly simple 

3. itnrpaYiiIra 

KaV iriiroXimt- 

is connected with Tv^Sm 
or Tti^tii, rcrij^uifui must mean / am 
distracted or crazed, like ttifipbvniTn 
(5 243'). If it is derived from tS^i, 
mist or smoke (see Lidd. & Sc), rtri- 
ipwluu means / am stupefied, befogged 
or wrapl in smote. 

7. «t>|iir(tai, ribaldryf^procession- 
ialt). SeeHarpoct. : TOfiircfaiKsi 

xai^oiTe^ iri kfi-a^taii ipepbfXfVOi 

ii aiii^TIt, g 122', and iro^rtiiEii', 

8. &vni]v, loosely, wi/hcul check: 
cf. di^T^^and iHtrvt. — &v...TDvTOka'l; 
iflktse (judges) shall wish to hear it. 
See Thuc VI. 46, ry N«:(f irpoaBexa- 
liiniti ?!■, and other examples in M.T, 
goo. Wbiston compares Liv, xxi. 50, 
quibusdam volentibua novas res fore. 

§§ 12—16. After thus dismissing 
the private charges as unworthy of a 
reply, he comes to the charges agaiost 
his conduct with regard lo the Peace 
of Fhilocrates in 346 B.C. In this 
introduction he dwells on the outrage 
of bringing such grave charges against 
a statesman in a way which neither 
allows the accused a fair opportunity 
to defend himself, nor gives the state 
any adequate remedy against him if 
he is guilty, while it may entail grave 
consequences on an innocent person. 


Ti fiev oSv KaTtjiyopTifieva woXKct, Kal Trepi uc ] 
' fieyaXa^ Kal Ta? iffyfarai ol vojioi hihoaui 
Tttitopia"; • Tov Be vapovroi ayiapov r) Trpaaipeai^ 
avTij ■ e)(dpQV fiev eiri)peiav e^fi xal v^piv Koi XotSo- 
plav Kal TrpoTTTjXaiiiiTfioi' afiov Kal "Trdvra to, ToiaVTa • 
V fievToi KaT-qyopimv Koi riav aiTiiov tSiv elpij/ievcav, 
etwep rjaav aXjj^et?, ovk evi t^ •miXeL Siki}!/ a^iap 
\a0a.v, aiih' iyyv;. av yap aipalpeiadttt to Trpoo'eK- 13 I 


§ 12. I. *<pl uv tvfuv, a6ai4t 

Ito/iicA in some lasts: iyluv qualities 

> (West.). Cf. xxvu. 23, tul Saa 

3. ^ irpoalpfns aCn] ' aurii' (so 
Z) is much more expressive than air'/i 
/with no stop), pointing vividly to the 
nUowing statement of the true pur- 
pose of AeschineS. It also gives rfflif 
/tiwrm KaTTifoptSv K,T.\.(_6) its proper 
relation to fx^poS ^i. The Schol, 
charges this passage with ijiiipeui 
ToXXi}. I'he thought is as fullows:— 
Tie charges include some of the 
(rarest known to the Ish', which 

govides the severest penalties foe 
e oflences; hut this suit vizs never 
brought to pnnish anybody for these. 
I will telt you what its object is 
(uirri)) : it is to give a personal enemy 
an opportunity to vent bis spite and 
maUce,whileitgive3 the slate no means 

tof properly punishing my crimes if I 
im guilty. The first clause, t4 iiir... 
ryiHipfoi (1 — 3), states the gravity of 
actual charges, and is apposed to 
folio wingreS Si... oSrii. The latter 
introduces the double construction, 
(a) /xfl(»C iiif.. .TOiauTO. and {i) tSIv 
^rrai...aiS fy-yis, in which the mo- 
tive of Aeschines and the inadequacy 
of this suit to deal with the alleged 
crimei are declared. The last tvn> 
claasM are confirmed, (a)bygfi7l/i... 
Uxmli, tuTit (§ i3'-')t (*) by dXX' l<p' 
...ypaipiiKva* {% 13°""). Finally, 
7ap iiiiroi..,.^p(t^aTO (g 13"-") 

shows that Aeschines, by his present 
action, virlually admits that the coursa 
just pointed out {i<f oU...ypa.ij>bne]miiM 
is the only consistent one. 

4, Wjpiiav, Bia/i«(cf. gl3')!« 
hrtiptiiiu, malieicusly iiuult, §§ I38*i| 
320*. — j^B, iiiJMihni, eoiitains. I 

7. ilmp TJa-av d\nO«Iti si vtrat ^ 
eratU (not tssmS), a simple supposi- 
tion, with nothing implied as to its 
truth : there is no need of reading ait 
iv^s in the apoilosis. — oix \n, ' 
«o( possible, i.e. by this suit. 

8. oiB'lYY*»Csi:,<lil<.»).ni.rfln>, 
thing like it. 

g 13. Here the orator give 
most striking proof of his adversary** 
malicious purpose (iinfpwaip), vii. hit 
bringing a form of suit by which he 
hoped to deprive Demosth. of the 
power to defend him.'ielf (Xiyou tv- 
Xf'i')- It must be remembered that 
Aesch. had not merely prosecuted 
Ctesiphon instead of Demosth., but 
had also (ill. 200 — zoz) besought the 
judges most earnestly not to allow 
Demosth, to speak as Ctesiphi 

S Itl 

■J the line 

omit iet, Atpaipttffdat and raOro roitTr 
with their adjuncts are subjects of 

iariv, the negation of oij and oiS 

being thrice repentei 

naturally omit oi in translation (that 




8elv T^ S^/np Koi \6yov Tv^elp — oiiB' in eTrijpeiiK ] 
rd^ei Kal iftdoi/ov tovto iroidv — ovTe fia tow i 
6p8w ej(av ovTe TroXinKOv ovre SiKaiw iiTTiv, 
avBpet 'Adijvaioi,- aW iif oh aSiKouvrd fi 
TTjU ttoKlv, ovai ye TTiXiKOVTOii J)KiKa injv eTpay^Bei 
Kal Bi€^^t, TOiS eK Toiir vojioii' Tifi.mplai'i ■trap' ■ 
TaSiK^/iara ^p^crOai, el fiev elffayje\la<; d^ia irpaT- 
rov& exttpa, elcrayyeXXovra xal toOtov tw rpoirov elt 
xpunv KaffiffrdifTa Trap' v/ilp, el Se ypd^ovTa irapd- i 
vopMf ■jrapavdp.tav ypatftoftevov oii yap hrjirov Kt^o-l- 

we miy tianElate aUrtj, we cbh give 
the emphatic aiS' (2) the force of itiH 
more (daiu, B!.), and translate, far 
to try te fake away my right to come 
bifore the people and be heard— still 
more to do this by way of malice and 
ipitt — 11 neither right nor patrintic 
(see note on 4) nor just, d^ipturflai 
is conative (cf, J 207*). For d^cu. 
fKiD-Sai as subject (where we might 
eipect t4 i.^iptisSa.i, were it not 
for the following ri irpooiXfleiii), see 
Thuc. 111. 3S, intvmreat 5^, tv 
■waStit iTi iyyvTiTi-1 Kiliityay, irrl- 
toAdp op /iiXiaTa rijy TifUiipiav dpa- 
Xa»i^i«i. — ri irpootXSctv... T«x(tv 
here ia the riEht of every accused 
citizen to be heard before the popular 
court, which is here called S^/itit, as 
it is olten addressed iflpa 'XB^miiu. 

2. iv Jnnjptfai Td^L, iy way of 
(venting) malice: cf, § 63°, i* t%... 
riitt, and XX. Si, ly ix^poS ntpii. 
So m. 31. 

3. 0Cn...o&rt...oGn after oA: sec 
Eur. frag. 322 (N.), oiK fir\r otfrt 
T^X"' '^'^f Xpiuara oIIt iWo SuiFipi- 
Xain-av oiSir iit fvir/l. 

4. ops At ttav. stronger than 
ipSiv, — woXinxiv, properly belonging 
ta thi slate (see § 246'), here doe to 
the stale from a citiien : cf. x. 74, oti« 
fffin aiSi iroXiTUcSi, Such conduct. 

In IS. 48, TFokniKon refers to the 
simple old-fashioned Spartan style 
of warfare. 

5- ^l oIs...Upa: a coadeosed 
form for iiri toii dJiinj/uiriv i iSi- 

6. oS<ri n|Xi.KaJTOL« (_=el^yTit\i- 
KaCra) , supposing them ta have been 
so great, trpay^'Su KaV SM£<aH (see 
note on § 4°), set forth in his tragic 
style (Le, pompously), referring to the 
theatrical days of Aeschines, like inro- 
KplKTa.1, § 15°. Cf. SIX. iSg, rai^ra 

S. XP^)v^^ (sc. iUaiot ^y, sup- 
plied from SlKHiiv irriy in L 4), he 
ought lo have employed. 

g, (ItraYYAXovra and Ypa^- 
pjvov (11) express the manner of 
Xp^9ai, and with it make the apo- 
doses to the conditions et-.-ldpa and 
(l..,rapdyiiii<i (ac.iiipa.). ilirayyiWui 
is to indict by iliayYtXla (a state 
piosecution), as ypitpoiuii is (prop- 
erly) ,to iniHct by ordinary fptufri. 
Notice the distinction between fpi- 
0ai-ra rapdyo^ux, proposing illegal 
measures, and xapatS/iaiy ypaipifiertiy, 
indicting for illegal proposals. For 
the double meaning of the passive 
of Tpd^u see note on % 56'. 

II. o£ Y^-'^YP^'r*^'''''- "' t^ 
StJTau belongs to both clauses, Erigr. 
Iiky and i^ V k.t.X. : for it surely 


^Ssvra /iew SiicoTot Sio>k£ip Bi.' e^e, efie S', eiTrep i^eXiy- 
^av iv6fi.i^eu, avTov'ouicaveypayp-aro. kuI hjjp et ri 14^ 
7COV aXXeov we vvvl Sie^aWt Kal Sie^jjei tj Kai a\X' 
oTioim aSiKOVvrd fie vfia-i itopa, ela-l i/ofioi vepi ' 
irdvjaip Kal Tifnoptai, Kal ay&vesi ical Kplmi.'i TriKpa 
Kal p-fydX' ej(ovcrai TairtVi'/wa, xal tovtok e^jju j 
33a 3.-!raaiv )^a-6aL- Kal oTrriviK eifiad'eTo Tavra Tmroir)- 
• «(os Kal TovTov TOP Tpovov ice)(pv f-^""^ toZs Trpo? /«, 
afLoXoyitr av jj KaTt/yopia T0t5 epyoii avrov. vvp 8' l6j 
eKO-Tai TJ)! opOr/s Kal BtKatat oSou Kal ^wywi' roin 
Trap' avra to irpdyfiaTa iXe^y^diK, ToiToinoi<i vaTepov 
^(povoit alria'i Kal ffKoi/ifiaTa Kal XoiBopia'i mi fir- 
<fiopT]er(i<i inroKpCveraf elra xaTTjyopel fief e/iov, 
Kp(va Bk TowToci, Kai rov fikv aydvo'i SXov rijv 

tonnel be thai he is proseaiHng Ctesi- 
fhan en my mcoanl, and yet -mould 
melhave indiciedme myself if etc. See 

. %i l|i), l|i} 6' ; emphatic le- 

L4. 1—3. A-n.-.i&v'i.-.ifheevir 
me etc., a simple aupposition, to 
which tittX ibiiiii and i^v are 3 natural 
Bpodosis; i^i',he might, implies no 
niueal condition. Cf. t^ eti i^pa, 
S 13^— av...SUpaU> Kal Gu^'«, i.e. 
•VAieA/ieslanderouslyrelalfd: cf. S 13". 
3 — J. vtf)kot...TdinTl)iia: there is 
'.BO tautology here. He first mentions 
tiams and their prescribed penalties 
' ii^iu), which would be used in 
■H drf/iijToi, in which the law 
:fixed the penalties; then /fKCf^i-fi and 
(■pedal) iuit!, in which heavy penal- 
ties CDuld be inflicted by vote of the 
;{<tyflMiTi^:iT-oO- AriTifcia, like 
KtTo, are especially penalties 
which the judges assess (ri/ifio-i). 

6. 6in|v(K' ii^atMTo is so nearly 
equivalent to rf irort iipaleero (M.T. 
5*8), that ifhehadtver btin seen best 
translates it. It isoften impossible to 

express an unreal condition in English 
by a relative sentence : here -wkenevcr 
he had been sitn would not be clear. 

7. KiXpT||Uvof Tot( irpdt nt, lo 
have dealt ■aiith me [managed his 
relations to me) . 

ilutXcyrtr &y, wculd have been 
' the impf. referring to the 
various occasions of ttxP'tfi""*- If 
he had brought the proper suits 
(d^iSKj Kal tplcru') against me per- 
sonally at the time of each offence, 
bis style of accusation (KarTTflpio) 
before the court would have been 
consistent with his conduct; whereas 
now KBTTTOpei' l*if fl^B, xplvti Si 
TouTBui (§ 15°), this being his present 


3. tovoCtdii drnpov \pii- 
MLf : ine Peace of PhGoccates was 
sixteen years old at the time of the 

5. inraKftinrai, he flays his port: 
cf, fTpa.yifS€i in § t3«. The word 
implies not only pomposity but dis- 
simulation. — KaTi|-yap<t...KpCvft; see 
note on § I4». 

6. ToO d-Yuvofi £Xov irpotrraTtHf m 


TTpOT eu ivBpav -TrpotoTaTau ovBauov S' eirl rairrnv I 
ttTrijrTTjKow 6^0* T17J/ er^joou ^tjtov evinfiuiv a(f)eKe- 
ffdai ^alverat. Kahoi ■rrpo'j atraaiv, S> avSpei; 18 
' ABrjvaioi., 70K aXkoK oh &v etirdv Tt? vTrkp Ktij- 
mtpayiTO'i e^oi, Kal tout efioiye Soicfl xal /j.d\' 
£i«iiT0)5 ail Xeyeiv, oti t^s ^^erejoa? ex^po-'i ^fiat 
iip' "rjpoyli "airmv "BiKaiov jji* roii e^eraafwv voiela-dai, s 
ou TO /i^i" irpm aW^XoiK aycoi/i^ea-Oai TrapaXiiTrkiv, 
krepfp S oTp KaKdv rt hwaQfuv ^tjTstv ■ inrepffoXi] yof 
aSiKiav ravro ye. 

Hdvra p.kv rolwv r^ KaTT]yoptjp,ev' o/io/on; iic 17 
TOVTOiv dv Tit tSoi ovre Biicaioit ovr eV aXij^eias 
ouBefua'! eiprjfieva ■ ^ovXofiai tk xal KaO' in eKatrrov 
avrmv i^erda-ai, kuI fidXiaB' oaa virep t^5 et/sijMjs 
Kal T^? irpea^eCai Kare-^eward p.ov, Ta veirpay- 5 
fidp' eouTp p,€r& ^tXoKpdroix; avariOeli ifioi. Itti 

hi pub foremosl in {at the ficad of) 
ill whaU suit. 

J. oiGojAoSf mrwAeri, i.e. nrtKT". 
cf. oB in § 1 aj ' with following (v- 
ToSeo. — 1*1 TaATi\v, upan tkisp-aund 
(Ihat of our enmity), keeping Ibe 
figore of 4Ti)urijicil) #(h>I, havijig met 
me — 01 iiiiA a view to tkis, i.e. lo 
fghl it out (West, Weil, BL) : cf. 

8. JviTifttav ii^XloilBt, le. to 

inflict dri/iia, which Ctesiphon would 
incur as a public tlebtor if he were 
unable to pay his fine if convicted. 

§ 16. 3. GoKit, pecaonal, sc. tii 
(from 2) : we translate it seems thai 
ene iriigil sa)i, because we must use a 
finite verb to e^p^esa iy iiiytiy (M.T. 

5. SIkowv tiv, we ought (M.T. 
416J : here of present time. — riv l^i- 
TwrpiAv iroiiiirflai, to settle np. 

7. Mpf %riif..\p{t6y,to seek what 
other man Tire ran harm, iripif 
Btaniling emphatically before the in- 

For (he argument of ^g 17 — 52 
on the Peace of Pbilocrates, with its 
three divbions, see note before § 9. 

g 17. t. i)Lalus with irdrra, all 

2. tit iXtfitlat aiZtfUat, iiiith no 
regard to truth. 

3. ilpiiii^va: or. obi. with Wai 
if. — Koif tv,singly. — Inoo-rov: obj.of 
f£(rio-n. (West.) : cf. toC I™ ?«Bffro^ 
^'^v inosrepiiy, XXt. I4.2. 

4. Airip (like TFpi) ; see note on 

6. hva.Tf!i*\^\fai,pttl'nguponme. 
Originally Aeschines prided hi 
on his close connection with Philo- 
crates in making the peace: see I, 
174, T^p (tjninji' Tilt !i' liiBV Kal ^i\a- 
KpiTovt ytytwTi^Tir. (See § 
natei and Hist. § 23.) 



S' auayKoloi', & avSpei 'A0i]vatai, koi TrpouYiKov 
io-wT, o)? KfflT iKeivoxK Touv XP°"°^ ^^X^ '''^ irpdyiiar 
ana/ivrjam, Tva ■vpm rov vKapjfoina Kaipov eKacra 


ToD yap <^a)KtKov crva-TavTOV Tro\4p,oVy ov Bi ipi iSfl 
(^ov yap eytnye e-TroXiTtvo/iijv wm to'tc), vpCtTov fiiv 

I 231 (rQ)6T}i'ai, Kaiirep ov Bi'xaia 'Trotovvrat opwinsi, ®j^ 

ySoi'ot! S' orioiiv av e^Tja-'S^vai TraBovaiv, ovk aXdyoK S 
ovS' a.BiKfO'i avToh opyitflp^voi • olt yap evTvyj^kedav 
ep AeuKTpoti ov fi^pioK kit€)(pTjVTQ • eveiS' t) TleXo- 

Kal irpo<r^KOV tngf, oKi/ ie- 

I tcming as will (as necesiary) . 

1 9. &va|ivt|irCLi : sc. A^Si, wbich U 
added ia most MSS. Cf. X)t. 76, 
Ta.v8 i/Tofiv^ai rttpdirafiai, — vpAg... 
Katpiv, ailA rifcrenct to its sperial 
accasiaH (that which beloiigedlo it). 

§ 18. I. #UKiKoe nUjiou: the 
Sacred or Phocian War began in 356 
— 355 8i"l ended io 346 b.c. Demos- 
thenes made his first speech in the 
Assembly (an the Symmories) in 354 
B.C (Hist. SS 4. 8.) 

b 3. lmiXi-niid|ii]v : cf. § 60'. 

■ 3. otrTM Si^Kttinc : when we com- 

Vpaie Ihia jndicious account of the 

n feelings of Ihe Athenians towards 

' the Fhocians and Thebacs in 346 B.C. 
and earlier with the impassiDned lan- 
guage of the speech on the Embassy 
and of the Second and Third Philip- 
pies, we see the sobering effect of 

I time and of recent events. When 

Lihe Thehans were exulting in the 

m devastation of Phocis by Philip, and 

p the political interests of Athens de- 

* manded that the Phocians should 
be protected as allies, Demosthenes 
seemed to overlook their sacrilegious 
plundering of Delphi, which he now 
acknowledges. A^in, the intimate 
ce of Thebes and Athen; in 

h.339 B.C., and still more the destruc- 

tion of Tbebea by Alexander in 335, 
had changed the Athenians' bitter 
hatred to the deepest sympathy. 
Still the orator cannot deny the old 
hostility against Thebes, nor the chief 
ground fur it. 

5- (So-Ti) i™Sv £» l<hirSttMiL 
iraSoOiriv; see M.T. 592 and HI. 
It is often hard to express in English 
the distinction between the inlin. and 
the finite roooda with Siart, especially 
when the infin. has A> and must there- 
fore be translated by a finite verb. 
The thought is, you vitre (_io) dis- 
posid (as) is misA...and to feci that 
you would be pUaud itc. (M.T. 584). 
^^ijo-SSwu S» has its protasis implied 
in -KaSaaBiv. The position of ^uit^ai 
l^"" (3) ai'i flijSi'oit S shows their 
strung antithesis, 

6. oltiJlTUxy|Kiirav, their suuessts -. 
sc. roTs cArux^/'a'''"' (o^- °'^ '"^ 
X/njwo). Cf. nfpl Siv ^ytaiiioriKt^ar, 
§94'- . 

7, Jv AtvKTpeis : for the battle of 
Lcuctra in 371 B.C. see Grote S. ch. 
78. See \s. log, showing the feel- 
ing of Demostil. himself in 355 : 
Heli^av Qtj^ilioi ittporoGffti/ iir iif^dn^t 

tal rif Ti Sltaia pai'Siireai. See note 
on g 98*.— HTufl", after rfiSrrnf 


TTOi'miiTov a-jratra oitiaT-riKei, xai ovu ot fuaowret 
AaKeSaifiovioiK ovtok tfr^^yov StuTe aveXeiP airrovi, 
oiS" 0( -TrpoTipov Bl eKeivrup ap)(pvTei Kvpiot tS>v io 
TToXetitii ^av, aWd rti ^v o-KpiToi xal irapa tov- 
TOK Kal irapa. toi<; aWoii a/waaiv epit koI rapayrj. 

I S" opiav o $t\(7r7ro5 {ov yap Jjv a^av^) toi^ 19 
Trap' e/cdtrrot^ TrpoBofai'i j^^p,aTa avaXia-Kwii irdinwi 
avveKpove Kal wpb^ avrovi irdpaTTei/ • eir iv 0Z9 
TjfidpTavov aXKoi 

tratpovp^vot rp p.rjKei tov ■KoXejiov oi roVe p^v ^apeh 
B' aTVj^eii @TiQalQi <f>aifepol -rrdinv rjoau avayva- 
-a^evyeiv e(f>' iip^dt, ^iXiTTTro'^, Xva /ii} 
TOVTO yevoiTO /irjBe avveXBotev ai WXet?, iipiv ftep 
etpjjwjij eKelvoii Bi ^or^Beiav i-TniyyeiXaro, ti ovv i 
1 Xa^elv oXiyov Setv vp.oM 
■t) T&ir aXXtov 'E.XXi^imv, 

avtfrjyaviaaT aiiT^ TrpK t 
hcovra's e^airaTrnp-evoxK ; 

S. SuL<rr^K«, via! in dissension 
(distracled). — ot ^luroOvrfg: these 
were especially the Mcsscnians and 
Arcadians, with their new cities Mes- 
sene and Megalopolis, established by 
Epaminondas, and the Arglves. 

10. d[ irpdrtpov jlpxavm are oli- 
garchies which were maintained by 
Sparta in Peloponnesus before Leuc- 
Ita, and were Qverthrowo by the later 

11. &Kpi.Tei Ipis Kali Tdpax^i 
hopeless strife and confusion, fticpirot 
is nsl admitting of setllemeni {tpliris). 

S 19. z. irpaEd-rait : for the names 
of some of these see § 481 a longer 
black list is given in § 295. 

3. rvi^poui, brought into colli- 
sioni^knocked together): cf. avtUpomr, 
', and tuyjcpDiSfiy, Thuc. I. 44.— iw 
llliApTaiViiv fiXXoi, in others' blun- 
ders, cf. elt e*Tux'i«"-a>', S 18°, itals 
tnrreM^t in § lOO", iir oU eicijy- 

ytWi^Tli' i 
■n f 258 S 

§ Z50 ', iv oil i^fnyipoiiJii 
■' oh (irTamo in § 286«, 
niSf- in % 323» ly alrroU 


6!, xcpff" 

5. Kard ir&VT(ov l^firro, he i 
groining above ail their heads, i.e 
as to threaten them all. 

6. Tip pi^KHi cf. itKtrrit 7(701 
Aescb. III. 148.— paptt) 

7. vCv B &Tux<I«; after 335 B.C. 
See Schol., and notes on §§ l8» and 
35'". — Ava^KOo-Siicrd^tvoi : in or. obi. 
with the personal ^avepoX ^mt. 

S. i[aTai|Hv)tiiV Uf vfult : no such 
possibilityis suggested by the language 
of Demosthenes at the time of the 
peace; but times had changed. 

$ 20. 2. UkCvau Bitr, ful! form of 
1IW70U (M.T. 779), q^ualifies iKbrrax 
^foirar., almost ■uiilhng dnpes'x cf. 

3. f) EXX^voav: the actual subject 


eire y^i} leaniav etr ayvoiap etre ical afttfrnrepa raVT 

eiirelv, at Troke/iov (Twej^rj Kal naKpov iro\ep.ovvTaiv 5 

ufiav, Kal rovrov VTvip Tmv Traai (TV/itpepovTtov, us 

epyip ipavepov jeyovev, ovre y(p-^iiacnv oi/re iraipaaiv 

o5t' aXX^ ovhevl tu>v airdvTOiv avveKdn^aiiov vpuv ' 

oil ical SiKaiw; xal •rrpoaijKOVTm'i opyil^oftevoL erotp-ott 

f»32 i/7r7]K0V(rare Tp ^i\i7nr(p. 5j ^i* ovv tote iTvyjfatpjf- m 

I ilprjin} hia TaOr', ou St ipe, i><i oCtos Sie,SoXXef, 

eTrpd')(di}- TO, Se tovtiov aSiK^para Kal SiapoSoK^'paT' 

€V avT^ T&v Viivl TrapoVTOiv TTpa'yp.aTwv, av TiS e'fe- 

TaJip SfKawB!, oiTi' €upi)<j-€i.. Kal TavTi •jrdvff' inrep 21 

TTJi aXtjdeiai aicpipfiKo^ovpdi 'Kal Si,e^ep-j(Ofiiu. el 

lyip ehai ri So^oi'ij ra. pdXia-T if tovtoii a.hUi}PM, 

ov&ev e'ffTi S^TTov Trpo? epe- aW 6 pkv Trparo^ eiirmv 

Kal pvTiaBfh inrep t^s elp^vii^ 'Apto-To'Sij/io? tjv 6 s 

v7roKpLTij<;, 6 S* eKSe^dpevo^ Kal ypd^jfai Kal kavrov 

qipears in Ihe alternative flrt,..ihf. 
See 5 270', and XXill. 156: ^ **«■ 
ripd, S di^p. 'A.0., ttri xP^ ^iXai^ 
Spuwlar X^«» etfi' B n 3ifxore. 

4. Koxlav, hastnes!, berc in the 

5. irtfXipAV (LaKpiv; the so-called 
Amphipolitan War with Philip (357 
— 346 B.C.), which ended with the 
Sacred Wir. See Hist. § 3, 

7. <n&|uunv, lives: cf. §66*. 
">, (ruYX.ttp^B<^^ cotiiedeiif ac* 
■sctd in : Athens showed no alac- 
in malting the peace, though she 
deceived els to the main point. 
II. Si^PoXXiv, slanilereusfy dr- 
clared: see Aesch. 111. 57 (end), 60. 
13. tS* «n'l...«ip*iirii, (ac rit) : 
the Gnn foothold in Greece which 
Philip secured hy the peace, cape- 
dally his influence in the Amphicty- 
onic CooDcil, it is implied, made him 
at last the victor of Chaeronea. 





I of-) /, 


2. iiKpiPoXoyoviiaii Kal Gu{jpxo~ \ 

3. T& pidXurr', even most eliarljr, 
with iasoiii: cf. § 95". 

4. oiUv...ffpii kffi, it is na 

cirn of mine: cf. §§ 448, 60'. 
may be an emphatic present apudosii, 
referring to the preaent condition 
implied in f\...iaKoii\, if ii should 
appear that there is (iImi) any faulty 
or it may be an emphatic future GS- . 
pressioD, Bi in V\ad.. IsCh. if. (v.) iA*\ 

KoXOr, yoit have the viheU, should «1 
share of these glories faU to you. 

J. A|HtrToGT|fm : a tragic ai 
of good repute, one of the company 
in which Aescbines once served (six. 
246). For his informal mission to 
Philip in 348— 347 B.C. see HisLS 13- 

6. A ficGtf&pcvoi, kis sttecessar (he 
who took the business frem him). — 
'Ypdi)ras: i.e. mavidibt peace, whieli 
was named from thia motion o' "' '" 

fieri TovTOv fuaBioaa^ eVi raDra ^iKoKparri's 

ovB' av ail Biappay^^ -i^euSo'/iefOf, oi &k trvvennSmev 
oTov B^-rrare evtKa (ei yap rovra j eV tcp Trapomt) 
EtJ^ofXos Kal Kr}itiiiTOtj>^v iym B' ovSki/ oiiSa/iov. 
aW' ofitoi, TOVTOiv TOtOVTOiv omtav Kal iw' avrij'! t^S 
aXyOeia"! oirt-(u tuKVVfievaiv, ek tovQ' i)«ev aPaiSeiWi 
axrr eToKfia Xeyeiv ok ap eyrii Trpos rp riji elp^vi]^ 
aiTtos y eyevrjuO at Koi KeKroXvKOK eXijv r^f TvoKtv 
fitra KoiPov KTVyeSpiov twv 'EXXiJ^oii' TavTiji' Trotj^ 
ffaadai. elr &—tC av eiTron' er4 ti? 6p6oK Trpoff- 
ehroi ; earw ottov aii •7rapQ>u, TqXiKavTrjv ivpa^iv 
Kol crvp,p,aj(iav fjkiKTiv vvvi 5(e|[je(? optiiv a^aipov~ 
p£v6v pe T9)<i TToXeo)?, f/yavditT-^ifa';, tj TrapeXBmu 
Tavra & puv KaTi)yopei<; eBiSa^a^ xal Sie^rjXdei ; 
I fil]v el TO KmXvtTM Trjv TOiV 'EXX^i 

iKpanj'; ^^^^| 
vvei-TnSmev 1 



iimfpakeii'' iyai ^ikiinrip, a-al to pi/ aiyriaai Xolttqv 

9. oW Gv o-v Ginpp 
if you split: cf. the common impre- 
catiun imfpaftlifs (Ar, Av. ~~ 


10. erou SVjiran Ihkh, far 'jihat- 
ever riaion{it may have been'): Hytart, 
like oiv, makes Sdtii iadefiniCe. This 
is 03 strong language oa Demosthenes 
wishes to use of Euhulvis, after his 
death. See Hist. § 14. 

11. oiGapiS; cf. § 15', and (ffTii' 
Sni/, % 12''. Demosth. is fuUy justi- 
Ijed in this Etrong deninl. 

g 22. 1, z. SvTiv, GtiKvv)UHtv: 
adversative (M.T. 842). 

iTDi^ffoff-flai refers to the elaborati 
charge of Aeschines (58 — 64), that 
Demoscfaenes pressed the negoliatiotis 
for peace with indecent hsste and 
thereby excluded other Greek states 
from the benefits of the treaty. The 

answer in § zjisperfectlysatlslactory. 
(Stt Hl.t. §S IS, 14.) 

5. o-wiGpCou: a special meeting 
of delegates to be summoned by Ath- 
ens from various Greek states, which 
never met; not the regular synod of 
the allies of Athens, which was in ses- 
sion when the peace was made (Aesch. 

6. A, t1 &v...irpcicr({viM; Aroaui- 
Tijirii followed by a questiun : for the 
regular position of fin before ilrtir, 
see M.T. 224. Cf. iS tI a rfiru; Ar, 
Nub. 1373. 



: ". — irapuy belongs to 
A)]i3i>...47aMi(Ti;rra!,4..,Sic|$X0Ef ,*(bs 
a whole) : the meaning is, were you 
et'er present ■aihen you sav) me, tie, } — 
irp&{iv Kal o^fiaxIai> : the general 
before the particular. In g 191' the 
order is reversed, 

g 23. 2, 3. JimrpdiciLv : even the 
best Mss. of Demnslli. give this form 



^v, aWa /SoSf Kal SiafiapTvpirTOai icai StjXovp tov- 
[»33 Toiiri. ov Tolvw eroi'ijo-a! ovBafiav tovto, ovB' rjicovae 
(TOV TavTrjv rr]v Aasvijv ovBek " oSre yap fjv vpeir^eia S 
irptK avhev a-jreirrdXfievi] to'tc tS)v 'E\X^wi>»/, aXXi 
TTflXot -Trdmev yaav i^ek-qXeyfievoi, ov9' otro^ iiyih; 
wepi TOVTtav eXp7)Kev ovSev. j^mpi9 5e TouTfUf icai &a- 24 J 
^aXXei T^f TToXiK to, txeyia-Ta ek oil yjrevStrai ■ ei fhp 
iip^lf dp^ TotW pep "EWrjPai fk -jraXep-ov irapexor 
Xetre, auTol Se 'rrpm 'PiXnnrov irepl rij^ etpijvi;? 
Trpea&ei^ e-rrepTreTe. Y^iipv^drav -Trpaypa, ou xoXewr S 
epyov quSe jf^pifmaiv afOpatiram BtiirpdT7tfT0e. aXX' 
ouK fort TdtJrd, ovK ea-ri,' ri yap Kal 0ouX6pevoi 
p€T'e7r'eflt^ktrS'*&,i/'aiirovi'''^v rovrai Tip Kaipip; eVl 
rijv eip'^in}v ; aXX' v7ri'jpx,ev airaaiv. aW iirl tov 
iroXepov; aXX' avTol Trept elprjv^ii i^ovXtveirde. lo 

the plupf., wliile thuse of Plalo 
Fvenecally have the older Altic furm 
in -V (for -to.), as ^wpiK^i in Rep. 
336 a. (G. 68j.) — ool Xovir&v j[ii, it 
remained far yoit,aKcT el irtirpAiait, 
SKppesir^ thai I had sold (a simple 
inppositlon),— poav might refer lo 
the loud voice of Aesch., like nf^iii- 
iioo-injiciii, I308"; bnt Demosth-usca 
it also of biiDself (§ I43'')i and it is 
probably no more Ihan om' cry out. 

5. oCrt ^v...dncirTaX|Uvi] rdrc 
Holmes calk this an "audacious as- 
sertion." It must he remembered 
that Jf» diTMraXti^n) is not an ordi- 
nary plupf. like avttTa\rt (M.T. 45), 
which would have meant thai no 
rmbaay had ever been seal : the com- 
pound form means [hat ttere luas no 
embassy thrn nut on iti ntssian. The 
embassies were probably infonnal in 
most cases, and no delinite report 
WHS enpecled from them in case of 
&iluie. (See Hist. S 24.) The next 


Is the whole truth, irdXm 
! had long 

before this been Ihoronghly cnniiaiieJ 
(and found wanting). Cf. 20'*ofre 
...iifuy. Even Aeschines (11, 79) took 
the same view fourteen yean earlier: 
a^flo^T 5 &v6p<jnruv iriKovpoviTat rjf 

ffunpiiircTat, n£v ti irvrtrtiiTpaTta- 

§ 24. 2. 1> oh iidGrrai: cf. § 

19'. The argument of S — 6 is that 
the negotiations for peace show that 
Athena could not have been expecting 
such envoys at this time. 

5. Edpii^&Tou irpaYiia : Eutybatui 
was a proverbial scoundrel, said to 
have been an Ephesian who was hired 
by Croesus to raise an army and gave 
the money lo Cyrus. — ir^Xtut fpTOVi 
an ail Jit for a state. 

7. oAk iaTi...)im: Hee the same 
repetition before the oath in _ 
— ri nal ^tTttrif-Tivri' iv ; viith w 
fossiile object («oi) wauld ysu halt 

vir(|px*>' "ifoo-iv, i.e. / 

lo them all! : 



oucovr rfre t^ ^ ancv^ ^PTV *K^ oiff aTi 

hnav0a vaXiv nKe-^aoBe ti' jpAy efortfrn v/mxi'Xcto 
wpdrreif teai yap ae rovntr ^ffCffAc Tie i}r o *t- 

XlvjTip irdvra avvarfuinSoft€mK, Kal rk i rpdrtrnv 
inrip ufiwv xai to t^ troKa irup^fpof ^ifrm>. efia 5 
fieu roivw eypa^^a QovKevmv avtwXeli' t^p Taj^itmjv 
TOW -rrpfff^efi eVi tow tottou? ei- ol? ov oiTa <i>t'X*7r- 
trov irvvBaprnvrai, KaX tow opicom aTToXafi^difeiv 
otroi B( ovSe ypd-<fraVTix i/iov ravra woieii' rjOeXTjirav. 
tC hi rain ^Swuto, & avtpei 'Xdijyaloi ; ryii StSd^to. 36 
^i\imra fiev ^v rrvfitfiepov w? -TrXtiarov top /lerofu 
•yfiofov yepeaOat tww opKtov, vftlv &' ok eKdjfiiTTOv. 
hia, t{; OTi vfieit fiiv ovk a<j)' ^ wftdaaff' ^fiepm 

wda^av efeXwffare ras xo^imva! Tas tow woXe/mv 

I kaii ftvfestd Ihi till (^y\s -pussa^e is 

S 26. I. T(...qGCvoro; what did 
tki, {% ZS^) lignifii' a, VIII. 57, 
X!(I. 3(. 

ri^ inttrsening time (after malcins 
the peace) A-yore ht (Philip) should 
tait tit talk, iptuv refers to Philip's 
oath, not to the oaths of tbe Iwo 
parties. See Shilleto's note on XIX. 
164: he qaotes-Ar. Av. 187 Ir lUeif 
dip iiTTi T^t, ittwetH tarli {and 
heaven): Ac h. 433, Hirai 3' Aniidiv 

'iroCf, i.e. iehmn Ihue rags and 
Ikon of Ihb. 

(slopped) : the active, though aome- 
whst less expressive Chan the middle, 
conveys tbe whole idea, and has (he 
best Mss. aaChority. 

ir. T% 4t dpx* •((^"H, i.e. ri* 
eariier stagu rf ski fi^ic. 
§ 25. I. Im^: see note on § 

J, Irraits. krrt (lemporal) : cf. 
oUwwfi, 5 15'.— ri *po«(XtTe wpir- 

hTotMuKi: DenKBlh, w«s one 
of the Senate of 500 in 347—346 B.C 
— 4«mM*^ with typ*!),*. froptsid. 
Tlie hill w«i pasicd on the third of 
Honychii'n (.^ptil 79): see Aesch. 

V. Iv •!« kr winMi 

8. »•»« 

Spirawt A«« 

t {M.T. 


19 1 

6 Se TOUT e'« vain-ln rov ■^jiovov fiaXia-T eTrpayfia- 

vpoKd^Qi TT/w TOV TOw'opkhi^' aTvotovvai, Trdtrra 
^a/on e^eiv ovh4va yap TrjV elpijinjv Xv- 1 
I ToiiTOiv eueKa. aya Trpoopaip^vo^, avSpei 'A^ij- 27 J 
al Xoyi^ofievot to i^i)^ii7fj.a tovto ypd^xo, 
TrXeti' eVt rovf Tikrovi iv ols an ^ ^iXitttto? xai 
TOUT opKOiK T^v Ta-yiaTTjv airoXafi^dveiv, "v e)(6v- 

• &paKaiv, Twc vfierepenv avfifid^tov, ravra 5 
Ta x'^P^^ ^ '^*' ovToi Bieavpe, to ^e'ppiov ical to 
"iAvpTTjvav Koi TTjV 'EpylffK^iP, ovrca y(yvQiv6' ot 
opKoi, ical prj TrpoXa^oiP iKelvoi tou? emKaipaVV Ttitv 
I Kvpio'^ Trfi %paArfi KorraaTaii)^ p.i]hk iroXK&v 
piv ■j(pi)pdT<av TToXXoli' £e <rTpaTia>Ta>v einroprjiJiK 'iK 1 

' pahtwi To'iM Xoiiroi? itrtj^eipoit) irpdyfiao'iv. 
elTci TOVTO fiiv oiij^l Xiyki' to ip-^tfuir/ia ov& avayir i 

toOt', his own plan, to prolong 
the time when Athena must be quiet 
while be coiUd act,referriQEto4i 5. — 
Ik vavris roO XP^*^**' i-^- (torn 
Fhiiip'i first suggestions of peace. 
~ 8. hvaiifo\Lpi\, all thai he might 
-I from thi city : we might have 
■r wpa\iPTj in the same sense (cf. 

10. olrS{va...Xvcr([v continues the 
', bOI. from liciv. Even an optative 
nay be thus continued, as \a I. 

_ § 27. 2. i|r^4ur|U[ Yp&^wirXiIv: 

~ cC t-ipaifia itroirXiTr (g 25 '), — toOtb, 
i.e. the decree just mentioned. 

6. Bi^crvfM, ridiatlcii [lore i« 
fifcei), refers to Aesch. 111. 82, where 
hechargesDemoslh, with niaking trou- 
ble, after the peace was concluded, by 
mentioniog all the insigniRcaiit pluces 
capluted by Philip; oDrii iaTm £ 
TpvrDi ^fvpii* tipptoif TtixDt fcal 

I BmflaKa* KaX 'EfiYlo-in)!' ksI TAvpTii!xi\t 

KoX rdm Kal FariiiSa, xapfa. iSv < 
tA iihiutta iStfitr irpirrpar. 

7. oO™, uni//r these circum!ta\ 
(hardly translatable), sums up the 
preceding ixin-uf... Epvlffirijp.— Tfl^,. 
voirS with Ira depeods on ypi^a, 
historic present. 

S. Ivucafpovs, leasanable, here ad- 
vatiiagtous for attacking the Athenian 
possessions, especially the Chersonese. 

9. KaTOTTalnand^ix'f <*'^ (") ' 
continue the final clause with tva, (4). 
— iraXXav xp^l^^^*'' f>^™ '^^ "*^ 
Thraciao gold mines. Diad. XVL 8 
says that Philip had a revenue of a 
thousand talents (ji'2tx),ooo) from hil 
mines at Philippi. 

II. ToE* Xi«iroI»(cf. 595"),i(iia/ 
rimained lo bidone. 

§28. I. X'^n — h.w{Vf»iiviiXi,re- 
ciles—hai it read (by the clerlt). 
'Kiye, properly recite, repeal, is the 
term most commonly used for read 
in addressing the clerk. ' — 


fVwaKet ■ el 5^ ^ovKeiiwv iyto wpoo'dyeii' tow Trpe- 
ff^£K p^iji" Setc, TOVTO fiov Bia^dWfi. aXXA Tiej(p^v 
/is troieXv ; fit/ irpoadyeiv ypd^jrai toik CTri tov^ 
^icavTa^, Xv vfiiv hakex^birrtv ; ij deav /ir) Kara- J 
velfJ-ai Tov ap^neKTOva avroh iceXeva-ai ; dW ev 
Toiv hvaiv o^oKatv iSedipow dv, et /lij tout' eypdcfnj. 
TO, fUKpa iTVfj.ij>epovTa rrj'i WXew? eBei fte tfivXar- 
reip, tA S" o\a, Siairep ottroi, ireTrpaKePat. ; oil SjJttou. 
Xeye raivvv fiot to ^Ir^i^icrfia TOfTi \a^a>v, o aa^w 
o5to9 ei'Sw? irdpe^T]'. 


2. TpCHr&^dV TOVS iC|>foPcis (sc. eft 
rftf iKKXitaUv) : theae were tlie am- 
bassadors sent by Philip to negotiate 
the peace. Foreign embasaies Rest 
presented themselves to the Senate, 
whicti by a. decree provided for theii 
introduction to the Assembly: see 
Aesch. II. 58, rail St (enKaU irpE- 

rpor6Sovt *poPo!i\f6ti. Such it bill 
was proposed by Deroosth. in the 
Senate before the arrival of the am- 
bassadors, appointing a special meet- 
ing of the Assembly to receive them 
on the eighth of Elaphebolion ; after- 
wards the discussion uf the peace was 
postponed to the eighteenth and nine- 

5. Uav...KcXiSa-aii (sc. ixPV') '■ 
ei^il I nul to kavi orderid the 
architect (of the theatre) ts assign 
thtm scats (as I did) 7 ^iiit, ftace to 
ste; cf. iSeiipovii (7) : this would be 
the TipofSpla (Aesch. III. 76). The 
stone Dionysiac theatre was at this 
time building under the direction of 
LycHrgns; and the lessee was called 
ipxtriKToit, as an important part of 
his duties was the superintendence of 
the work of building. See DGrpfeld 
and Reisch, Griech. Theater, 36—40, 
where the building of the theatre is 
assigned to about 350 — 325 B.C. 
Aeschines (61, 76) makes this official 

politeness of Demosthenes one ground 
of his grotesque charge of flattering 
Philip ! To Ibis Demosth, alludes in 
§ 294^, *i 7dfi Ipal it\nrirta)iAy, k.t.X. 
Aesch., however, mentions only the in- 
troduction of the envoys to the theatre, 
6. iv Totv GinEv oPoXoIv, in the 
two-obol seals, the threepenny seats 
of theordinarycitizens. Thefiu^ScMa, 
which was then given from the tbeoric 
fund as festival money to every citizen 
who asked for it, paid the entrance 
fee to the theatre. It is implied that 
the distingnished strangers could have 
been adniitted, like other people, to 
the common scats by merely paying 
their two obols. With iv rotr Sudit 
i^a\otv cf. if Ton txeiaiy, Ar. Vesp. 
789 (see Ran. 1068), in tie /A- 
mariet, iyrv liipy.Eq. 1375- 

/ twt proposed my bill, 

8. tA piiKpcL mi^fpovra : it is jo- 
cosely assumed that Aesch. objected 
to the higher price which the state 
probably paid for the front seats, or 
perhaps to the state paying for the 
seats at a11.^-+ukiTTfii', weirpajtJviu 1 
the change of tense may perhaps be 
seen in a paraphrase; ■was il my duty 
to luaich the petty interests of Iki slate, 
after I had sold her highest interests 
Hie these men? With ^o, I ' ' 



["Eiri op'JfOVTtK iirT/<riifiiX.ov, ixaTOn/iaiaiifOi fv^ koi I't'i^, 
^vX^ ■EpvTainvoiKnji Ilav&oi'iSot, Aij^UNrdtVijt Aij/ioof't- 
rovf noiai-iri^ eixTK, tjrdS^ ^lAiJnro? airiXTTtcAjis Tpia^w 
■KtfM. r^ dpijnj? o/toXoyou;io«i irfwoirjTal avvOijua^, itZoj^i 5 
T^ ^avXj KOI rm Si/fiui riu ' A&ijvaioiv, amut Sf ;j {ipijn) 
iwircXta^g ^ iinjftipaTavrfitirTa. iv rij vpiirij tititK-iftTu/, vpi- 
a^tv; iXivBai Ik iranrriav 'h6jivaiiav ijStj rivTt, rout Si ;^«- 
poTortpcrrcis dtroSij^ri', fii/Stixiav vwtp^oki)y roiovftovvt, 
oirov ov orra irwBayanTai Tov HkiTtrof, nu Tovf ^ptous !□ 
XajSciv T* 7r(if>" aiTou Kai Sovvai r^i" Taxi<TTr}v in TUts ifio- 

1O9 <<car«ptiii' (ni^fjjij;ous, wpfcfiat 

ypi&Tjirav E j^ouXos 
Ei}^uro<^v Fofivaiiai 

Taura •ypa.TJram-a'; eftov Tore xal to tt} ttoXh 30 
trvf/^pav av to •J'tXiVrrp Jj^tovito?, /Bpa^v tfipomi- 
iratTei 01 j(pj}aTol Trpeff^eii oirroi KadtjiT' ei> Maxe- 
Sovia Tpeit oXour /tjjj/a?, 5w 7^Xffe ^i'\nnro9 «« 
QpdKr}i Trdma KaraffTpe->^d[ievo^, efoc ^fitp&v S^xa, 5 


9 29. This decree is a good speci- 
BenorignarBDlforgecy. TheArdion's 
nme and the date are both wrong; 
t a called a decree of the Senate and 
be People, when it w»3 passed by 
he Senate atone; it provides for the 
ppointment of live en rays when there 
TCle ten, and these hud been ap- 
Minted long before; it provides for 
be oath9 to be taken by Athens and 
ier allies, when these had already 
ind most of the live 

a thrc 

a rhetorical 

whole months,'' i» 


of the 1 

voys ai 


cf. 28', where t4 <ru/itfi^poi' 
the gen.) is a pure substantii 
TptEsSXciuf )ii]|iai; '' 

of f 

which is corrected by Dem^th. him 
self. In XIX. S7 he says dnJq^i^a^v 
Tprit iiTJuas tKBus (cf. 158), Somewhat 
less incorrectly; but in 58 — 60 he 
gives the exact dates, by which we 
see that the embassy was absent from 
Athens only about ten weeks. (See 
Hist. § 33.) 

5. irdvTd KaTa(rTp«|/d|uva« : see 
§ 27.— J£iv...&^Exeai...irA<rai: i^ir 
represents ^f^^, and d^ixflat is a proper 
perfect (M.T. 109); lit. itwas in our 
fiinufr to Aatii (already) arrived and 
IB save tki /aulas, i.e. we might 
done both ofthi 

ighl have ^^J 



ofiai'tot Bi TpiSiv i) Tfrrdpwv, eh tov '^WrjatrovTov 
aipl^Bai ical rh ^(eapia irSicrai, Xa^ovrWi tqik opKoin 
•trplv i/ceivov i^eXeip aura ' ov yap av ^^aT ' avr&v 
•TrapovTQiv V]p.S>v^ 17 ovk &v wpici^o/iev avriiv, Sxrre t^? 
236 elp^VTj'; &v hirifiapTqicet xal ovk up af^tfioTtp' elj^e, Kal lo 
rtiii elp^injv icat rh j^aipia. 

To fikv TQiwv ev Tri Trpetr^eia irpSiTov tcXefifui 81 
fiiv ^iXiTTTTOv SajpoSoKTi/ia he tSiv aBiieoiv tovtcdv 
avQpunrmv roiovTov eyevero • vvep ot koX tote koX 
vvv Kal ael ofioXoym xal iroKefielv Kal Siaijjepeadat 
Toi>roi?. erepov B' ev$ifi e'^e^^? en tovtov ftel^ov 5 
KaKoupyripa 6edaaa6e. iireiBii yap ap-oKoyijae ttjv 32 
elp-^VTjv 6 ^/XiTTTTO? wpoXaffcau Trjv ®pdiciiv Bi& 
}vj(i 'Tvei.adevfa'i r^ e^M ^jnitjiiiTfiaTi, irdXiv 
I "Trap' avT&v ottw?' ;ii^ dwipei/ i/e MaKsBoviai 
6£0! TO T^ arpaTeiai t^t ifrl Toik ^a>Kea'; evrpewTJ 5 
iroL'^aatTO, (i-a fiij, Beup' a7rdyyeiXdvT(i>v ^fi&v oti 

6. ijialuf, fuiif as TV/:!! (as in lEti 
days) : the cummon reading pSKKov 
would mean ratktr. 

9. tt9^ivtiav—i.lrn.pTiiifV,iftiiehitd 
beenlkcri. For the vacious past tenses 
with a», ail of which are in 8 — 10, see 
M.T. 413: thus T^T dp. tt iiifiuLp- 
T^Ki is Ae viautd have failed to !t- 
cttrt the piaci (which he had already 
secured by our absence), and ofa ftu 
ifu^brtf elx' is Ae ivould not have 
hadbolA (as he did have). 

§31. t. kM|1|ia ^fv : cf. ^j; kX^ittc 
tkif, 11. 1. 132. The position of jiiu 
shows (hat the Seven words before 
liKtmia belong to both nX^fi^o and 

4. iroX(|uIvKal6[ai^{piirOai: these 

represent (in or. obi.) the past, the pre- 
sent, and the emphatic future indicated 
by tAt(, »0», and del (M.T, 32, 119). 
§ 32. 2, GiA roJTOvf oixl irti- 
rUvTos (without roilt) is, bccauu of 

their diiobedience^i^r: furi'SupaKoitTai 
oUurefiaa,!, Thuc. VI. 3, and post 
urbem conditain. This is rare in 
Greek, where we should expect Bti t4 
*i)77rEiaflg™i(M.T.8z9''). See§4ae, 
with Ti3j',,.)inrflun7dtTB>». 

4. uv(tT(iL...ETa>t ^i| airip^v. At 
tribe! Ikem (to efiect) tiial we shall 
not depart (M.T. 339) : L'wipti' {as 
fut., M.T. ag) is more regular after 
(iHiTtti than irlutiti; and has com- 
mended itself to nearly all recent 
editors, though it rests only on a 
grammarian's authority. (Bekker's 
Anted, p. izg*.) 

5. Ins. . . vot^vatTa, after the his- 
toric present lirtiTai. Tlie c1au*e 
with iiat has a linal force (M.T. 614), 
the idea being that he bribed them to 
wait /oiiff enough for him to get iis 
army ready. 

6. IvB |Lf|...iraii^inu (ii): tliepi" 
pose of liyfiTat, 



fiiWeii Kal trapaiTKeiid^eTai tropevea-dai, i^eXOoiO" 
vfiei^ Kat ■irepiirKevffaine^ thZs Tpi^peaiP ek IluXas 
Sjcnrep TrpoTepov KXei'traire tov tottov, aW' a p.' 
a«couo(Te raOr' airay^eXKoi/Thii' iji'Siv /caKtlvoi; iiTK !• 
etrj YlvKom Kal pifhtv e^oip' 5/t«5 Trot^ffai. ovrai fi* 31 
fjV 6 ^CkfTTKO'i iu i^idjitp Kal ■JToXX^ aya)via, pr) KaX 
Tavra TrpoeiXVj^oTos avroi), et vpo Toi) toiV ^coftea^ 
aTToXeadai ■^■qifiiaaia'Be ^OTjSeli/, eV0t'7O( tA Trpdy- 
fiiOT aurov, &me pKrOovrai top tcanhnvcrrov 5 
ToVTovl, ovKSTt Kotv^ p€tA, twc dWtov irpea^emv, 
oKX' IhCq aaO' avrhv, ToiavTa tt/jds vpa^ elvelv Kal 
airayyeikai &i' &v aTravr airoiXeTo. a^iSi 8e, St 34 
duhpei 'Ad'Tjvaioi, Kal Beopai Touro ptpinjaOai Trap' 
oXov Tov ay&va, OTi pi} Karriyaprjaavrat; ' Pdajfivov 
an p,r)hev e^o) ti^s ypatprj^ 0^8' av iya> Xoyav ovSAi' 
iTToiovptjv sTepav •ra'crois B' alriai'i Kal ^Xair^iq- 
piai<; apa tovtov Kij^pijpevov avdyK-rj icapol irpoi 
KaTijjopijpevwii piKp' aTTOKpivaaffat. 

time to lay Phocis waste : cf. xix, 

5. uim |iurBt>}Tai: a clear 
of &<rTt requiring the indicative ! 
(MX sS., sS3)- 

6. oAkIti Koiv^ : Aescbines alone I 
was indicted for Traparpta" ' 
§41'- , 

8. 81' av here and Si oU in § 35* 
approach eacbothervcrydoselyilrattl I 
referring to the same thing. 

§34. 1,2. dfiO, /fliiD/j-ow fai 
something dfiop); Sfajitu, / entrtat. 
See § 6=. 

4. !£» T()f -ypa^Tlt : he has already 
(§ 9) justiHed his discussion of the 
peace; and he repeats his apology 
now, chieHy to call special attention 
to what follows. 

4, 5. tiroKoi^nv S.V refers to his 
present argument (cf. J 9'). — Inpov, 


7, 8. {{ABoie' refers to the land 
force. — THpiirXiiirovTiS £<rirtp irpi- 
Tcpov cefeia to the fainous expedition 
in 35J B.c, when Athens stopped 
Philip at Thermopylae. See iv. 17; 
jns. 84, 3191 Grote Xi. 403—405; 
and IlisL g 6. 

9. K^cbrcuTC tAv Tiirov, i.e. make 
Thermopylae impassable. 

10. AiraYYEXXdyruv : present to 

past to ili>.9<Htf.. 

S 33. I. oCtoi \ antecedent of 

2. i'yuvl,, «,HfiUt (of mind)! 
Vomel refers Hesych. i» ttyuBip, kr 
tuelurs, to this passage. 

3. ttirpiToO: the older editions 
with nearly ail mss. omit fl and 
Tc&d Kal 4tpiiyoi in 4, making ^7)- 

W^tiraisdt depend on /i^^-wpi toO... 
^^ — * '—*- ■ ■ 1. hefoic he could have 

cf. Erepoi Xfryoi 


T(M9 oiv'y(TaP 01 Trapa tovtou Xayot Tore j. 
' Kot Si ois airavT a-nroKeTO ; w? ov Set Sop 

7-p' "-ircifiikijXvOevai ^iXi-jnrov eiKrat YlvXm 

yip aTravO' oaa ^ovXeuO' vnet';, av ^X'rjS' rjoVT^iav^ 

Koi a,KoviJi(jQe hvolv i5 TpiSiv rjiiep&v, oil p-ev e)(dp6'i $ 
- tJKU, cjiiXov ainov yeyevijuivov^ olt 8e 0i'A.os, TOuvav- 

Tiov i-)(6p6v. oil yap to. fn^fiara tot oiicuoTTjTai e^-r) 
Bmovv, ftdXa ffep-vw ovop.d^(ov, aXXa to Taiira 

avp,<jifpeiv CTvp,<pe'p€tP &e ^tXiTnr^ Koi ^(OKevtri koi 

vpiv 6/ioi'iiK aTracri t?}? avaXyrjaia'i k 

T0<! UTTaXXayTjVai rtp t&v %ripai 

aafievrnf Ttvei tJkovov aCnov Bi& t^ 

n7re;^^«(iu wphi Tovi ©ij/Sai'otf . Tt ovu avv40Ti nera 

V. Taira S 



; the 

S 3S. 

fuller accoant of this speecn in xix. 
20 — 22. Aescbines said tbat the 
Thebana had set a price on his head 
for his BDti-ThEbaii advice to Philip. 
See Hist. § 34. 

3. T$ voihXtiXuWviu : he begged 
the people cot to be disturbed by 
news that Philip had already passid 

5, 6. o(s |M», thaPhocians; olsSi, 
the 'rhehans. 

7. MpiaTa -. e.g. the Thebans' title 
of allies of Phlbp (cf. § 213^). 

S. ^dXa iri|ivfit ovd|Ui);uv, uii'i^ 
very leltmn exfressiom. He often 
jokes about the aturbriii of Aesch. 
See 15 130, 133, 258, and xix. aj. 

" t\v: astrik- 


9- ' 

dvaXYTjo-las, want o/fitiing, oi lip 
eiplained by the SchoLasdvair^iiirla). AvaieB 
There can be little doubt that this 
word, like imlffftjroi in g 43', refers 
to the dnlness aud lack of keen pec- 
ception for which the Thebans were 
prorerhiaL See Nep. Epam. i;, 2, 
namque illi genii plus virium quam 
Ingenii, and Alcib. ti, 3, omnes enim 

magis (iimitati corporis quam 

'. 7, Alhcnis tenue caelum, ex 
3putanturAtticii crassum 

itaque pinguei Thebani et 
valentes; Hor. Epist. 11. I, 244, 
Boeotum in ciasso aece Datum, This 
dulness, and the consequent illiteracy 
of Thebes compared with Athens, 
gave rise to the pioveib BtKurlar hv. 
Find. 01. VI, 90: see the Sehol., ri 
ikfixalo' ii^iiat, TouWrri Ti}> iraXtiidir 
iia^a\ili>TJ)v iri rg dfiDuirff . Aristotle, 
Eth. lit. 7, 7, sa^s of a man lacking 
in 0A^af, €tif 6 Ap Tit /latifitietvs ^ 

ffttr/jJif fxiiTt ifti^ra, and in 111. II, 7, 
of those insensible to pleasure, 4\\fl- 
TOPTtt di Ti Tipl Ti,t TjSoriiKal ifrrat 
tl 3cl x''ifi<"m oi irirti ylporrai- 
iK^ Itrnr i) roia^q 
avataSTiala. Aristotle here means 
stupidity and slowness, not moral 
obliquity, by both dKiX7ijToj and 
iyausSijuln.. — papHTigros: cf. § 19*. 

§ 36. a. -riiv viV SttoOo-ov (cf. 
inrtari, § 315*) : a mild way of speak- 
ing of the enmity against Thebes in 
346 B.C. See S 18^ with note. 


ravT ex/BiK, ovk elt fiaxpap; toik fiiv ■I>cOKea! btto- 
\eff6ai KaX KaraaKai^vat ra; iroXut avrStv, vfid^ B' '. 
j)av)(^Lav ayayovTat Kai roin^ •KeiaOema'i fiiKpov 
varepov ffxevaymyelv iic tS)v aypajv, tovtov Si XP"' 

ioiK Kal ©erraXow T^ TrdXei yeveaOat, 
■rijv fie x'^P^" "^^^ i/'^ep t&v ■n-en-paypMvmv '^tX^irmp. 
on S" ovTtii TavT e^ei, X^e poi to re rov KaWitrde- 37 \ 
KOV! yjfjjipia-pa koI t^v eina-ro\i]V tow 'PiXi-mrov, ef 
Siv ap<f>oreptou ravB" airavS' vpiv earai tf>avepd. 
t *H*1SMA. I 

["Eirt MnjiTtc^tXou opxovreK, avyKK^Tov eKicXijcria* utto 
tTTpaTtiyuir Kal Trpvrdvtiuv, [tfij pov\^^ yviu/ig, fuu/iaxnj- 
piUivtK StKarg &iri6vT0i, KoAAHrSo'T^s 'ErtoviKov $aX)jfKvs 
rlw* /ijjSffa. 'AtfTft^iBik priStpta Traptvpiatt iv rj X""?? 
KotTttiov yiyvttrflai, oAA' fv aoT({ Kai Hupmii, oiToi pr/ iv j 
Tois ijipoDpioK elalv airortTaypwoi ' rourtui' S CKairrovi -ijv 
vapiXt^poy Ta$iv SuiTiiptli' fi^re i'jfijp.epfvoyTu.'i /"JT£ djro- 
(nUToCiTa!. OS 8' av dirtl0^<7g rtpSt Tui i/Tjt^iV/iaTi, lvoj(OT i 
SoTdi Toif T^E itpoSmruK iiriTipioK, iai/ /iTj ti dSu'vuroi' 
hriStiKvvt] wcpX tavTov ov * ircpl Se tou dSukarou iirixpiverui 
a iTTi TTuv ojrAiui' OTparqyK »tai o fTi t^s SukkiJiteuis Kat 

ovK (h iiaMpdv (<K 
■muck laUr, not a long way off: m 
of looking forward to an end, a5 in 
§I5i',Blini;Xa(>i>. — roui|ibi...ii<™i' 
AYP'^C?)' eleven days aflcrlhe report 
of theseeondembassylo the Assembly, 
tbe alanning new9 of the surrender of 
llie Phocians at Thermopylae arrived. 
See Hilt, g 36. 

7. rmvoYu-yitv, i.e. wtre Mtiging 
_ wur goods iiile Ike Imiiris, ns ordered 
cty 'he decree of Callisthenes (§ 37). — 

;. iUv'), n 

Xpv<r(ovXaPciv : innialicious< 

8. i4|V|iiv&ir^Suav...#iX(inrf : 

i.e. Athens by her vacillating conrae 
got nothing bnt the ill will of Philip's 
Greek friends, who believed that she 
would have protected the PhoetatiB 
if she had dared to ; while Philip had 
alt the credit for ending the Sacred 
War and poaisbiDg tlie sacrilegiom 


iypav xaiTa t^ tiiX''""'J>'i to fuv ivroi oraSuuv i 
UKtxnv (IS aotrv Kai Utipaia, t^ Si iicTOi ara&iiav • 
&a>eriv tis 'EXtuo-ivo no! ^Xr/v mu 'A^iSviiv koi 'Po/ivowto 
KOI Soiififn'. j 

*'**^ ' ' 'Ap' ETTt Tui/raK raw eKirCiri Tijv elprjvqv i 
elaOf, ^ TaVT eirriyyeWeff' vfilv o5tos o fiiaBioTO^ ; 


[BocrtXfirs MoxeSot-uiv ^t'Acmros 'Aflijirai'ioi' rg (SouXJ 
fttti Tiu 5)j/iui ;^ai'pE[i'. r<rr£ ijfias jritptXijAiifldrns titjuj UuA.iot' 
Koi ra Karn r^v $<oKiSa \ii^' tnjirous irtffmij/iti'OU!, Kdl omi 
j^xv (Koririui! irpoatriBiTO riav Trokur/iaTiov, </ipoupas dira'j'ijo- 

S39 X"''"*' ''" ^* ^^ IITTOKOVOITQ KttTa KptlTO? \aff6vTK KCU, l^aV- 

'''['•' SpaTraSiadliivoi KaTCfTKail/anev. aKOuiav Sk KOi u^s ■Kapa- 
iTiMvai[«Tflai ^or/dciii avroi^ ytypaiJHi i/iHv, iva nj) im. TrXiov 
ivox\^ir6£ wcpl TovTcuv' Tois fiei- yap SKou; oiSiv p.i-rpi6v pxii 
SoKcirt irmixv, t^v tipijiojc avvOipcvoi Kal Oftotios airimipefa- 
yovVes, Ki" Tavra oiSi trt/iTrepiiiXij/i/iti'Qiy rSi" ^uiKtuiv iv 
Tais KOivais '7^iuv owd^ious. iMrrt iav pi] Ipiuvrjrc to(e 
o>ii,oKayijpeyoK, ouSev irporcp'^cn t^iu tou e^floSewu iSSt- 


7r/)OT 6;*uii eTrttTToX^ irpo; tow i 
^Tt ^70) -TTC-jroinKa tout' okc 

Biopi^erat ev tjj 4& 


4ft I 

§38. It. TtiOr' ^yy'U<^ 1 ie- 

how does the liecrec just read lo yoa 
agree with the report of Aeschines 
C§ 35) ? 

§ 39. This letter must be spurious. 
The genuine letter would have more 
definite allusions to the disaalisfaction 
of Athena, 


IB this m 

I klter 

1 S 40. Grol 

rpA« mpiftdxavt, with 
il Sioplffrai. The letter, 
though addressed to the Athenians, 
was really written for Philip'i allie*. 
" before the direcr ' " 

arlts that (M.T. 711), 



Kal Xvirovfieurav, mtTT, eiirep eJ if)poven 
Sr]0atot Kal SerraXol, toutous [lev e'x^, 
vTroXij^etrfle ifiol Se TTtCTTe 1/(7 ere, — ou toiJtok 
roll pjifiam ypd-\jfai;, ravTa Be ffov\6fi,evo^ Smci/v- 
vai. Tovyapovv e« tovtosv ^ct' eKeii/ow Xa^aiv 
eis TO /Aijo oriouu wpoopaii fSi' /iero. toOto ^ijS' 

:(j0ai, a\X' idirai •jravTa Ta Trpdyfiara eVei- lo 
coy ui^' iaVTtfi wonjaaadai ■ e^ oif Ta« TrapourraK 
aviitfiopah ol ToXanvcopoi ke)(firivr(ti. 6 Si ravrt}^ 41 
tIjS TTtirTed)? a^T^ (njvepyo'i Kal a-uvayavia-Tr}';, Kal 
} SfOp' awajyetXa^ to. y^evSrj ical <pei'dkiaa^ u/ias, 
oCto? ea-Ttv 6 ra Qij^aiav oBvpofitvo^ vuv TTaOt} Kal 
Bie^iaiP 01! otKTpa, Kal tovtiov Kal to)V ev ^atKeviTL 
~ Kal 5(7 dWa TreTToVfloo-i* ol 'E\\j?w? uttoi'- 
rw 01" aiVto9, S^Xow 7ap oTi <ri) /iec aXyeiS 
f a-vp.^E0J}KoaiV,"Ktt7X"'''h Kal toik; 6T/(3a('ows 
eXetw, /CTi)^' e;(;i»»' eji rp BoiWTi'n sal fewpyoiv tA 
iKeiv<ov, iyai Se j^ai'pco, 8? ei)5w e^^Tovp.i]v vtto tou 
1^40 Tot>To Trpd^avTOi. 


8. i^x*''''^*'*''^^'^^"'''^"'"''''''''^ 
"'on (his lOlies) oa-oj' (M.T. 895); 

e figure ii continued in cis t6 with 

e infinitives. 

1{ w, oj n rfiaA of which. 
o[ ToXalvupoL : 6<;^aii» is 
added in all Mss. except S. Of 
coutse the destruction of Thebes by 
Alexander is chiefly meant, and this 
suggests the digression in § 41 ; but 
the conditioiv of Thesaaly alter the 
peace, which had been in Philip's 
power since 351 B.C., may well be 
induded, SeelX. 26; eerTaMa tuIi 

TapiipTrTai ani Ter/iapjcfoi hot^- 
, rni ^)l ^XDP KETii iriXFii dUi 

r I 41. I. iGt...(ruMpYis,i. 

.he who 

3. &iraYYt(X(it rd <]r(vSt| 
In XIX. 4, DeiDosth. puts £> dw^yyuXt, 
Ail report, first among the things for 
which a,n ambassador should render 

4. oGvpd^vot: see the solemn 
and eloquent invocation of Acsch. 
in 111. 133, e^jSai a, e^^ai, iriXii 
iuTVyelTun^ t.T.\., with 156, 157. 

9. icHliii ix"*'' Aesch. is charged 
with holding a confiscated Theban 
estate ((!Tfl(ia is in S alone) by the 
giFt of Alexander; as in xix. 145 
PhilocrateaandAeachines are charged 
with having tHmara Kal ytupyiat 
iraKir^ieeii in Phocis by gift of Philip. 
We have no independent evidence on 
either of these charges. 

i£^Toil^i)v: Demosth. 


jUfifiliiin Ihtls lo ptrsuade his alliis: among the eight or ten Attic o 

who were demandtd by Alexandet 

'"^ fiaWov iffcw apfwcel. \4yeiv. (•jra.vUfJ.i hr) rraXiv 

hr\ Tos; airohei^eis ws to. tovtihv aBixtjuara raiv 
vvpi TrapovToiv irpaftidrmv ye^ovev aiTia. 
-LJ^i .u-'- '■^ 'ETTtiBfi yap i^j]TrdTi)i70e vftei<; xaro tqv 5 
» ^iXiVirou hia tovtoiv rSiv if rat? Trpetrffeiai^ fiLcrBc 

rravTiov kavroiK Kal Qvbkv a\i]$i'i v/ili/ atrayyei- 
\dvTaiv, e^TjTr dTjjVTO Se ol Tdkaiirtapot ^roKSK 
X\i^\.<i-^\^'^P'}"^° at -TroXeii avrStv, ri eyevero ; oi fikv ica- 43 
V rd-TTTVinoi 0eTTaXoi Kal avaiffd-ijToi %i}^aloi. tfiiXi 

eiiepyerrjv, awr^pa rov ^'iXiTnroj' fiyovvro " irdi 
iKilvai r}V avroh- ovSe ^mvTjV ^kqvov ei tii aWo 
ffovXono \eyfii'. vtieK S' iKftopm/iei/oi ra "iretrpay- 
p.eva KoX hvff^epaivovrei ■^yrre Trjv elpijvjiv o/iuw' 
ou yap Tjir 5 ri av eiroievre. Koi ol dWoi 8' "EXXjjj/e?, 
6/101(1)! viMv we^fvaicKTp.ei'at Kai BiT/tiapTiiKOTei mu 
i5X.X(iTaf, ^yoi> TT}!' eipr)VTiv \ai7 fievoi., /cal] avroi rpo- 

after hil destmction of Thebes in 
335 B.C.; Aeschinei was not See 
Gtote Z1I. 59 — 63. 

§§ 42—49. After the digression 
in S 41, the pratot here spealta of ihe 
disastrona coosequencea which have 
come from the peace and doio the 
corruption by which it was made, and 
of the miserable fate of most of the 
traitors in Greece who aided Pbilip 
in his schemes. 

§ 42. 5. liniEn] here has three 
pluperfects, while commonl)' it has 
the less precise aorist, as in §§ 25', 32 1 
(M.T. 59). So in Latin poslquam 
L than posl- 

:h irtii-^ ai 

n the idea of afttr Uiat, 
which the pipf, only emphasizes. 

6. &i,&Te{rTMV Tav. ^.tirSiiHrdv- 

tw* (i.e. ol i/iliiewirat) : contrast Sii. 
Toitrouioflx' itttadirra!, g 32^,and see 

§ 43. 2. dvalvSitroi : see note 
°°5 35"-., . , 

3. iravT MttvotTJv: cf. rdw Ijii 
iriyTai*, Thue. VIII. 95; Demetrius 
iis unus omnia est, Uv. XL. II. 

4. avSi...poil\oira (M.T. 462): 
iftome is strongly frequentative, like 
iiyoSrTo (3), and aXXo n is anything 
opposed to ^IXor, eitpyiT'qi', auT^pa. 

5. i^pii^cvoi, viewing ■wilk sus- 
picioH (Jnib hke sub in susficio). 

not Z) add iiim. This passage rep- 
resents the state of mind in which 
Demosthenes delivered his speech on 
the Peace (v.) in 346 B.C. See Hist. 
5 40. _ 

9. [tto-jMHH, KO.I] : Sand the newly 
found OiytbyDchus papyrus (and cent. 
A.D.) omit these words.— atrol... 
iroXt|io£|uvei, though Ihey themselves 




\ L 



tik' « xoWoC TroXefiov/j^voi, ore yi.p irepaav 44 

^iXnriro'i 'IWvpioir^ xal Tpi^aWow, rivat 8e ical 
EW^vcov KaretTTpei^ero, Koi SwdfieK; ■n-oWat 
Kai fieydXai eKoieiS' iiif eafr^, Kal rivei tS>v ck 
Toiv irdXeav {ttI t0 t^? (lprjvi}'i i^ouala ^aBi'^ovrei 5 
exelffe Sieij^deipovTo, S)v eh ovtd? ^i*, tots Trainee 
60' oSe TaOra TrapetTKeud^eT eKelvo^ i-jroXefiovvTO. 
£(' Sk ixrj ^rrddvovTo, ere/Jo? Xo'70! o5to9, ov w^o? e^e. 
e7(ii fiev yap irpovXeyoi/ icai hiep,apTvpaiJ.ijV Koi trap' 45 aet KoX OTTOi TrefitfyBeiiiv • al Be -TroXea h/oaovv, 
,_ywv pkv ev tw TroXneveaSai Kal frpdrTeiv htapo- 


at Siatfi0eipo/j,ev<i3v eirt ^pi'/fiaat, toiv S' 
iroXX&v TO. fiev oii Trpooprnpeutov, t^ Be S 

agaitst for a hngtimt: iro\e(«ii'f««" 
(impf.) is past to ijyop, which covers 
the whole lime of the peace to 340 B.C. 
See twithxia^tTa, % 44'. 

§ 44. 2. 'IXXupLOvt Kal Tpi- 
PnXXavi : Diodoius(xv[. 69)nientiDn9 
a victorious inroad of Philip into 
I JUyria in 344 B.C., and Porpbyrius 
I Tjr. (Mailer, Hist. Gr. nt. p. 691) 
Hja of Philip, oliroi ToAt irept TTiy 
y^fav 4iro>TBi WotXiio-aro iroXejitoui, 

paXXoil! uirorifttJ. 

3. 'EXXV»v:seeGrote}iI. 612— 
614, and Hist. §§ 41, 46 — 49.— Suvd- 
uni, like our/orwi, but including b1- 
iies{even without troops^: see § 234'. 

4. tAv iic T«v irdXtwr : he counts 
Aeach. as one of those who took 
advantage of the peace to visit Mace- 
donia, implying that the process of 
comiption was .still going on. In 
XIX. 13 he says he first disi^overed the 
coriuption of Aesch. on the return of 
*"" "■ " ' sy io the spring of 

§45. 1. 8ufiapTiipil|iT|v, /f-ofai/d/ 
(called Gods and men to witness) ; 
cf. obttslor. See § 199°. — irOip' vyXv 
ptohahly refers to orations vj., viii. 
and IX. 

Z. tirOL irt)u|>4ctT|V, liihilhcnoevir 
I ■was sent, referring to the embassies 
mentioDed in § 244 (below) and prob- 
ably to others. In § 244' we have 
5rat irii/jpSt)!', referring to some of 
the same embassies as Siroi ireti^flfhjp 
here. But there the leading clause, 
0il8ii/«iC...di9^Aii', is particular, and 
its verb is aorist, not imperfect (as 
here) ; the relative clause is therefore 
particular and has the indicative reg- 
ularly (M.T. 536). If he had said 
/o/awyi rami off superior in g 244*, 
we should have Hroi TeiitpBiliiv there ; 
see iv oli KpaT'ii8tiei'.,,Ka.TteTpiitina, 
§ 244'*. — ivdavuv; Demoslh. is espe- 
cially fond of this figure of a diseased 
state; see 11. 21; ix. 12, 39, 50; 
XIX. 259 (West ). 

I 346 ». 

Iripof Utoi I 

Hve) : cf. § I 

. (or 



4. ItI xp'if'i'^i /<"' {^'^ o 

a.\\m iy ^v \liyot. 



T^ Kaff f^iepav pa<TTfi>vr) leal tr^o^^ SeXea^ofi^ifeai 
Kal ToiavTovi tl ■trada'; irevavOoTtou airavraiv, ttX^i 
Oiiic itf)' eavTov^ eiedaTcav oloy,4v<DV to heifhu ^fi 
Koi Sta Toiv erepiov Ktvhvvatv to. eavrmv airifiaXa)'; 
ff^ijireii' oras/ ffovXavTm. cIt'. ol/iai trvii^e^ijKe^ 46 
T0« fitv irX^Seaiv avTl Trf; "rroWTi'i icai aaalpov 
paSvfj.ia'i Tr/if iXevOepiav aTroXeoXcKei/ai, to« Se 
TTpocarriKOffi icai ToXXa ttXtjV eoiTOiT olo/ievoi^ 
■KfoXfiv TTpfjiTovi kavToiK TreTrpaicdtrip altT$'ea6ai ' 5 
aVTi, yap i^CXatv KaX ^evrnv, a tot o>vofid^ovTO ^mic' 
e&rapoSoKOvv, vvv KoXaicei KaX deobi e')(6po\ Kal raXX' 
S TTpoo-^icei ■jravr' &kovov<tiv. ouSei? yap, anSpei 47 
'AOrjvaloi, TO Tov -TrpoSiBovrot av/icjiepoi/ ^t)tSjv 
^^fiOT' avaXur/eei, oijS' eTreiBav &v &v TrpitiTai 
KvpifK yevr}Tai t^ TrpoSoTjj ffu;iy3ovXji Trepi tww 
Xanratf en y^piJTai • ovBeu yap &v ^v euhaipaveme- 

ye KoX hel. aX\' 
a ^t]T&v apy(eiv ki 


Tpirra, (3), friva/, ciiizeni 
My, any men nho are not ol 

laTpbt taX ISi^rjs, Thuc. 11. 1 

bait (i^Xcup). 

plained by indiTbiv ohuivuy k. 
t\i\v o£« j^' JavTc 

9. tAv Mpuv KivSiviiiv, olhirs' 
(not o/jfr) dangirs. 

% 46. 2. Totf jilv irX^8«riv, the 
cemniau people (ci.T&froyXSr, % 45'') 

; gener- 
is i cf. 

t, apoit all but 


IS states ; cf, t 

3,5. dnXuXoc^vu (MX 109): 
i.e. Ihe result has been that lliey kavt 
lost their liberty; the idea of the per- 
fect in the neit clause apptare more 

-60£V; TToXXov 
Twc ■rvpayp.thmv eyKparrp 
aX Twc TavTa aTroBop.4vai^ 

naturally in irerpaxiiTi.r (5) than in 
iiXve4iTea,L, h find cut thai Ihiy have 
sold tiemsclvts first {lA.T. 904). For 
the case of ireirpojci<riv see G. 928'. 

S. &Ksiiovmv, audiunt, they hear 
ihemnbies called: cf. Hor. Ep, 1. 16, 
17, si euros esse quod audis. 

§47. 3. ^v&i.f...-^jnxta\, after 
he has become mailer of what he has 
iaughl {M.T. 90), For the assimila- 
tion of iS* ir rptrsTai, which really 
conditions xiptoi yirtiTui, see M.T. 

5. oiSiv...irpoEdrav, for (other- 
wise) nothing viould it happier than 
a traitor. 

wi9iv;...iA: cf. §§52', I40», 

Tdlfip; §312^ 
KoX, also, vrith Ti3» iroSoii4i 


r leal fit. 





Be iravifpla 

u «Stu? ToVc 


Kai fwrel 



TU «ai ,po 


Si- .ai 


ei 77 





Kaipm, 6 ToO y elBevai to, ToiavTa tcaipm ael 
Trdpecm tok eS ippovovai. fi^ej^pi tovtov AacrBevr^'i 
'*l' (fiiXo'i Q3vond^£TO, ew? wpovSaiKfv "OXwffov fi^j^pi 5 

TouTov Tt/j,6\w;, ews a.Tra>Xeae &^jBa'i ■ fiexP^ tovtov 
EuStKO? Kdi. Si/to? d Aapcrralo^, etoi QerraXiav vwo 

IC'tXnrxQ) ivoi-i}ffav. elr i\avvop,ev<i)V koX v^pi^o- 
8^2 p-eiMov Kal Ti Ka/cov ovy^l ■jratrxdvrmv Tracy' fj olicov- 
fievT} /iecTT^ 7e'7o;iei'. rt' S' 'Api'iTTpaToq ev ^iievSivi, 
ical Ti HepiWo^ ev Meydpot^ ; ovk aireppififienoi, ; 
ef &V Kal iTatpetTTaT ai/ Ti! iSoi on 6 /j-dXiara 
ifivXarraiv ttjv eavTOv warpiBa Kal ■n-Xela-T avTtK4- 
ya>v TOVTOit, o6to5 u/j-Iv, Altrxt'^-, tow -rrpoBLBovin 
Kal fiiffBappova-i to ej^etv €tj>' ora Sa>poSoK^iT€T£ 

S 46. 4- ^li■]^pl TofiTou with lui[, 
twice repeated. SecToXXiin § Bl^"; 
cf.o^iB§25o"'" and 321'-*, Ex- 
pressions like this show the relative 
character ol tun aad other paxticles 
meaning unlit. (M.T. 611, 6l2.)— 
A(urWv>|t: Lasthenes anil Euthy- 
cratea are often mentioned as traitors 
who betrayed Olynlhus to Philip : see 
Plut. Mor. p. 178 fi: rSii- Si rfplAa.- 
vOirtir rir 'OXivSion tyKoKoivrav tat 

rnoi Tur rrpl T6r iCkirriii- ivata- 
\eBiri,aKCUoit f^i) (k. 4>IXiiriri») ifiiira 
Kal iyiNltoui tint }ia.reS6ras jceI tjiv 
iTKa^^' irica'^it'' ^iyarfai, i.e. /A^ 
tailed a spadi a spadt. 

6. Ti|idXas* Timolaus was a 
Theban, who was probably active in 
causing the surrender of TTiebes to 
Philipaflei Chaeronea. Theopompna 
calls him the greatest voluptuary who 
c engaged in state affairs. 


SCjuK : Stmus belonged to the 

Thessalian house of the Aleuadae at 
Larissa, who called in Philip against 
the tyrants ofFheraein 352 B.C. See 
Hist. § 5. Eudicus is not otherwise 

9. tC KOKiv ov]|,V murxdvTMV ; = 
oiikr taxhf oixl [i.e. Tdvra rani) 
irarxi'"'"'. — iraT ^| otKav|Uvi) is 
properly the luhole habitable world, i.e. 
the Greek wcrlH; as in Ev. Luc. ii. I 
it is the whole Romait world. But 
here it is merely a loose expression 
with no special limit. We should 
say, "all the world is full of these 

10. 'ApCorparot, a tyrant of Sicytni 

11. IlJptXXaa, of Megara: H 
XIX. 295. Perillus and Ariatratus ai 
in the "black-list" of Cor. § 295. 
KoT Philip's intrigues in Megara see 
Grotexi. 613,621. 

§ 49. 4. t4 Ix'I'V--' TtpiirouC, 
secure! for you your opportunitiis for 
being bribed (the wherewithal ti ' 


9 • 

TTtpitTOiet, Kat bia 
I ava>\a>\elTe. 

iia Totl^ ttoX.XdiS' TOUTWct koI tov^ i 

ETrei Sid ye w/ia? auTovi? iraXat fie iH*^" 

Kai 7re/)t ^ec twc Tiire •Trpay^B^mtav iyo)\ 
■KoWa \4yuv, Kol ravra ^yavfiai TrXei'w rSti/ Uav&v . 
elpijadai. aiTio'i S' oCtos, ajinrep ernXoxpaa-iay nvd 

fiOV TTj'i TTOVTjpia'i T^? WUTOU [«a£ TUC aStjKT/yHaTlUl'] 

KaTOffKsSdrra'i, ^v afayKaiov TfV irpo'i TOiW vecoTepov; 5 
Twi' "rrevpaytxevaiv a-rrQ\v(7acrO'ai. irapri'vd>y(\Tiff8e S' 
(o-Q)! oi «ai ■jr/jix' efj,k ehrelv oriovv eiBorei rrjn rovrav 
Tore iJ^LrrBapviav, kuCtoi tftikiaii ye wai. ^eviav avTtjv 
6vofid^€i, Kal vvv etTre ttov Xeycav 6 rijii 'AXe^dir- 
Bpou ^evlav ovtihl^tov ep.01. iyto o-oi ^evtav 



7. BiiL..a{m>i>t, if you Viet 
to yourselves Q/l.T.^-ji). The i 
surprises bis audieoce 1^ this original 
reason wb; the Athenian tcaitors have 
been saved from the fate of traitors 
in other states, i.e. the honest citizens 
thwart their schemes and thus save 
them from the ruin of success, This 
brilliant attack is followed up shiLtpIv 
in »hat follows. 

§§ SO— 52 : the peroration to the 
argument on the Penoe of Philocrates. 

§ 50. I. T&v tin irpaxWt 

:. the 

5 the 

peace. This suggestion that he will 
drop the subject makes this sudden 
tecurrence to the charge of venality 
all the moTC elective. 
3. olrtM, i.e. of my speaking 

(M.T. 867), with ;uXo«:piffIa», not 
with taraufilSiau. — l«\oitpa<r(av, a 


to the audacity of Acschines (iii. 60) 
in charging Demoathenea with the 
same cooperation with Philocrates in 
making the peace which he had once 
claimed forhimself asamerit (1. 174). 
Sce| i7°Cabove). Demosthenes calls 
this treatment " deluging me with the 
stale refuse of bis own villainy." 

4. [Kal Tfiv &6[Kii)p^Tav] is in all 
Mss., but is omitted in many ancient 
quotations of the passage. 

5. viuTJpouf: Ilie youngest judges 
present might have been only fourteen 
years old in 346 e.c. 

6. diroXJiratrfai, to char myself 
of: see Thuc. VIII. 87, iroUiirSai. 
rpit alrToi! Tit! SiaP6Xd!.—irafnivi- 
X.X.T]ir6>; addressed to the older judges 
(If. JmxX.I, S 4")- . 

§51. I. ^iAlav,^v(av, properly 
ffiendihip and guest-friendship, here 
seem to lie used with little thougbt of 
the distinction. Cf. %trlav 'AXeJdt- 
ipnv (3) and dStc ^i\. ^iw oCre 
'AXe{. ^IXo» fbelow). 

X. (lw» Xiyuv: cf. tlrt ij/iavu; 
Aeachyl, Ag. 205, "spate, saying." 

3. omEftuv: Aesch.hadsaid(66), 


'AXe^duBpov ; TToeev \ii$Qini ^ tw? oftw^eWt ; ovre 
<t*(Xi7nrou ^evov ovt 'AXe^dvSpov <fii\ov etwoin' av j 
eyta ae, ovX ovrw (i-aCvoiiai., el ftri Kal Toils' Oepiarai 
teal rois dWo Tt fiiaBov Trpdrroprai ^(Xow Kat 
fei'on? hei KoXtiv tow fiiaOoxraixevaiv. aXV ovic eari I 
Tavra ■ Trodei' ; troWov ye ical Set. aXXa fiurdrnTov 
eyw ae ^iXi'mrov "rrpoTepov Kai vvv 'AXe^dvSpou 
KaXS), /cai otroi ttojtct. et S' airiarel'i, epdyvijaov 

avTOV<i ' naXXov &' £70: 

843 TTorepov, S> dvBpe^ 

Ai(Tj^ivri^ TJ ^evos elva 

' TOimjv ^Si] 
iva KUiTrep 

ToiiB' inrep aoi) -Troirjaw. 1 

'AOtivoioi, Saicel fuaSwrcK 

'AXe^dvBpov ; aicoveK a 

I trepl ri)^ ypa<j}ii^ avriji 1 
I Sie^e\0eiv tA TreTrpayfiev' i/iavr^ 
Ata-)(_lvri<; ofioi axovtrr} Si a i^ft-t 

4. *ii4(v...&{i»UvTi; with dra- 
matic energy for riStv IXapes fl liJi 
■i(fi9T]S; cf. % IZS'. 

6, fltpLrrdf, Ttapen, properly ex- 
tra farm-hanih, called in at the 

S 52. 4. oiIroL irdvTij pcobably 
I induded both court and audience. 

6. |iur6uT&t: most Mss. (2 only 
I bj correction) read (liirflioror, foHow- 
I ing the absurd story of Ulpia,n (see 
I Sehot), that Demosth. pronounced 
I this word iilTduTet to make the judges 
ect hisiccent by shouting out the 

SI 93—125. Having finisbed his 
L leply to tbe charges foreign to the 
I indictment, he now proceeds to Ibe 
I indictment itself. We have (i) an 
[ introduetion (§§ 53—59). (2) > <5is- 
on of his public life (%% 60—109), 
' (3) a reply lo ihc charge that the 

very word lutQwr^ which he wanti 
to hear. It is much more likely- 
indeed, it is certain — that he saw by 
the faces of his hearers that it was 
safe for him to put this question 
boldly; and lie was probably greeted 
byan overwheimi ng about of ^fffliurii, 
iuaQbJT^-. from both court and au- 
dience. The judges, more than four- 
fifths of whom voted in a few hours 
(o acquit Ctesiphon and to condemn 
Acschines to a line and drt/ifn, were 
by this time ready to respond 
a sudden appeal, after listening to 
this nnosl conclusive argument with 
its brilliact close. 

orator was firciiSuvoi when it was pro- 
posed to crown him (§§ tio— 119), 
(4) 1 defence of the proposal to crown 
him in the theatre (§§ izo, 121), and 
C5) a conclusion (§§ iis— 115). 

§§ 53—59. Introduction, includ- 
ing the reading of the indii 


■a( fioL Xeye Ti}v ypatf>riv auTTjV Xa.j3c 



fLivoUf Aitrjjt'vijs 'ATpo/nJrou KoSniKtSij! air^vtyKt Jrpos 
o/];(OiTa. inipovo/ifuv Kara K-njcri^uivros toC A£umt|9«-ous 
'AixK^AuoTt'ov, oTt typuilii irapavojiov iprjipuTiui, oij a/ja Sei 5 
<m<JMviiitrai ^yffimrOevrjv ^rffio(TO£VOU^ YlaULvi^a ypvuio (tte- 
tpavia, Kal aivyoptvirat Iv Tu Starpio Atonnrioii TOis /leyaXois, 
TpaycuSats KotvotS) on oret/iavot 6 S^fios AjjjuotjfloTjv Aij^o- 

tjjuiv BtartXtt tis Te tous EAAijms airavrai koi toi- Sq/wii' lo | 

Tov 'Aflijnu'uii', KQL dvSpo'j'aSHis, kal Sioti SwrtAti n-paTTiuv 
Koi Xeyuiv ri /likTHJTa ri^ Sjj/nji noi Trpodv/iOi tan Trotetv 
5 Ti fiv SinTjrtu ayaSoi', iravra ToCra i/'tuS^ ypai^as ical 55 
-TTttpavoita, tSv vo/aioi' ouk tiui'Tcui' irpiurae ^tv ^eo&rs ypa^is J 

cU Ta Sij/iofria ypofi-iiara Kam^SaXXecftuj eiro toi" iimSfluvoi' ' "1 
aTdjmvovv (fori SJ Ajj/mxTflinj! Ttixofolos nai tTri rtu fleui- I 

ptKiff TtTay/iiviK) , iri. Se /i^ ayayopeiiiw Toir aTc'l>avov iv 5 1 

S44 Ttti Searpiji AtonJuibts TpayiiiSSv r^ "aiv^, dXX' tav /jiv ^ 

^OuX^ (TTE^VOl, tV Tip pOvXtOTTIpLljl dfetTTtll', (OV St ^ JToXl?, 

g 53. 4. tAv irpo^PouX(u|i<v»v 
(pass.), strictly accurate fot /Ai pre- 
visions of the rpa^iiiXfviui of Clesi- 
phon, which had passed only the 
Senate, The cocresponding phrase 
for the ilccDB of 3. 'f/'iifiiaiui would be 
rSr iipv^ur/ifmii. CI, rSr ycipap^ 
lU>^y, § 56<. 

5. Glxaun dvnii, tiat 1 desirae: 
personal use of Sljcimi (M.T. 762), 

§§ 54, 55. This spurious docu- 
ment once passed for the "single 
undoubtedly genuine Athenian indi ce- 
ment." Cbaerondas was aichon in 

3J8 — 337 B.C.; but the indictment 
was brought in the spring of 336, 
The ypatfiii irapari/iuy came before 
the StaiweiTiu, not before the Chief 

The expression rpayifStii^ KaiHtft, 
§ 54 ^ on Ike Jay eflht iieai tragrdians, 
i.e. when new tragedies were per- 
formed, is confirmed by Tail ■tpaiyfiBit, 
Aesch. 111.45. In§550 r/ia7vawrTB 
Koitj is probably corrupt. 

See note on the spurious wpepoi- 
Xcv^ of Ctesiphon in § 1 18. 



nXijr^pt* Ki]itiiiTO<l>uiv Kiji^i(ro<i)SvrDs 'Pa/xvovavK, KXhuv 

°A fj.ev BiiUKei tov ■\^T}<i>ia [i.arot, & avSpe; ^AOif- 56 
fatoj, TavT etniv. eytn o air avratv tovtoiv TrpmTOV 
ol/iM S^\op vpXv -KOiriijeiv otl -jravTa Si«a(a>^ a.-7ro\o- 
X^oftai. • Trjv yap ainr/u rovrp irotTjirdp.evov Twf 
'yeypap-nevav rd^tp, irepl travrtov ipSt leaO' eKatrrov 5 
. ei^e^ijs Kai ovBev eKa>v vapaXfi-^m. tov p,ev ovv 57 
f^aT^at TTpd-rrovra Kal \eyovra to. ^eXriard fie rm 
J B^tfi BiareXelv aal Trp6dvfj,ov elvai Troielv S Tt Bvva- 
fuu ayaOov, koX eiraivilv cttI TOiiroiS, iv toU TTCTroXi- 
Tevfiei'oti T^i* Kplaiu eivai vofii^u} ■ atro y^p tovtcov 5 

yeypa<l>€ Krijo-n^wy ravra 

Eu&Kti : the 

aXTjOfj irepi ip^v 
vpoarjieovTa t 


e accused of 

§ 5S. I. 'A |>i> 

passages of the decree 
indictment aie all that 

J. nvra GiKafut i.iroXa-Y^<ra|iai ; 
s is a sarcastic allusion to tbe de- 
nd of Aesch. (202) that tlie court 
npel Demosth., if he is allowed to 
lat at all, to follow his opponent's 
order of argument: d|iiiffOTe ris 
Ay\lioa9iniv tJb nlirbv Tfi/not diroXo- 
[iffflBi Jnrfp Ki-fi) MTifyi/iijita. See 
Me OD § 2'. It happens that Aesch. 
itates the charges in the indictment in 
the order in which Detnosth. wishes 
to reply to ihem, juil the order which 
Aesch. is anxious to prevent him 
Irom following : in his speech he has 
.followed an entirety different order. 
Essay I. $ 4. 
Tfiy YrYpamUviov (pass.), o/lhi 

i3'. 7^(«tw«i' and typii)ii)r may 
used as passives of both ^pit^ui, 
■epoit (a bill), and "ifii-ipauaiiindicl : 

ypaipivTa, nol tvfn indUled, % laxK 
But y^paiifai is generally middle 
(seldom passive, as here] of ^pd^^i, 
indie/: see ^ (,g^,-yt-fpaiiiiimt TaOra: 
Cf. T^-Ptt^o', § 119'. 

5. KtiB' Ikod-tdv t^itit : by taking 
np each point in the order of the in- 
dictment, he will ensure completeness 


The SI 

§57. I. ToC Ypd4'aL..KalhTatvttv 
(sc. KtT)ai<pCitTa) depends on rj)v t^- 
ait (5). rpi-tTiiyra...i.yaBhv (2 — 4) 
is in substance quoted from the de- 
cree: cf. § 59^ Aesch, (til. 49) pro- 
fesses to quote the exact words, hi 
iiaTe\tt Kal Xtyair «al tpi-rtnir t4 
ipt^Ta Tif S-^pip: cf. other references 
in Aesch. loi, 237. 

4. jiruiiViiv: see § 113' and note. 

6 — 8. dXt]fl(l, irpoirfJKOiTa, and 
4KvS<t are predicates to roDra (sc. 
evTa).—tlTt Kol ilrtuSfl: Ktti, on llu 
other hand (perhaps untranslatable), 
expresses parallelism with dXifi^: ' 

■e «tl n-i, § 5. 

B«^ ytyparrai. Hid. i3; rit ypaipfrTa, before SittaMSij, § 5o*, 
Mthepropostd>neasHrti,Cot. §86'; Mt 

a <:bJ 




SA,. -i„ CO ' 

i^avov KeXevaai^ KQiviave'tv ftkv Tfyovfi-ai Kai 
TO 45 TreTToXtTeu^enon, etr' a^Lo^ elfii tov 
01/ Kol Ti)? avappr}tTe.wi t^! ev Toiirot? etje [ 
■ ■ Iti fievroi koX Tois vo/iov^ heiKTeov elvai 
\ ,^( hoKei Ka8' OUT ToOra ypdipeii' e^'iju tovtij>. 
ovTtoa-l p.kv, Si avSp€<! 'A0r)vaioL, SiKaiois /cat (iTrXw? 
T^f a-TToXoyiav ey'vajKa Troielirdai, ffaBiov/j-at S" eV,' 
oiiVa a TvewpaKTul p.oi. nal fie ftjjBeU invoXd^r} I 
a-n-apraii tov Xo'jou Ttjt 7pa0^9, e'^i' ew ' EXKiji/CKai > 
wpd^ei'i Kal Xoyov; e/nreVa) ■ o y^p Sidi/ctov tqv 
245 yfrtitpicTfiaTOi to Xeyeiv koI irpdrreiv to. dpiard fie 
Kal yeypapp.evo'! rav6' ait oiiic a,\r}6ri. otro'i earip 5 
o T0U9 TTipl awdiTaiv rSiv ifiol •tretrokiTevp.evmv 
\6yow oiKetdvi Kal avayKaiovt t^ ypacjii] xeTrotTjKws. 
elra koI ttoWmp Trpoaipeacwv ouaSiv Ti)s xoXiTtiaf 
$58. I. Ti...KfXtvcrai (3), Ihi to Toii iteitiAiTBiiUroit, which it ei- 
bidding me (in his decree) io be plains, 19 penniasible after the Ml 
crowntd...and the rroTan fa be pro- fonn in § 57'"*; wilboBt lids it would 
claimed in the theatre {itTe^iiymi* and be obscure. 

~ ■ ' . .. ^ > j^ W TovToi^: \.e. before the feefle 

(in tbe theatre). 

6. THUS vdpdniE: tbe arguments are 
given in §§ no — 121. — Ehkt^dv <Ivm 

1 the nsua.1 active form) ; 
tbis clause is repeated in roDra (4) 
Bl subject of loiKuntv. — |>t] vpotr- 
'Ypd\|iavTa. , . G$ : Aesch. makes it a 
special act of shamelessne&s in Ctesi- 
phon (see II, iz) to omit this saving 
clause. It was frequentlji added in 
such decrees: v. C. 1. Att. II. no. 114 
(343 B.C.) , rTTt^asiSfffli x/nwv TTe^iiV 
irnSir ris fiSisat Bf. This proviso, 
according to Aesch. (11), did not 
make tbe decree legal, though it 
showed a sense of shame in tbe 

...Kal >l4| (6), lit. / Mnt this 
u eoneemed juilh my public acts, 
(namely with the question) whether 
I deserve the croion etc. or not. The 
loose relation of ilr' i.\da ilfu k.t.X. 

9. PoGloGiul, / Tvill proceed (cf. 

eIwv, 'EXXi;hkQ>>, and 
s his special dcpart- 

3. ■n>fii|n]<^C<r)ui'nn, d 

5. ycypaiipivcis (middle) : see note 



ri]v trepl t^s ' EWtivik^ii irpd^eii €i\6/j.t]V eya, 
.( T«s aTTofieiJei? f*c rovroiv SiKauh etfii ■rroielaScu. 
'A fiiv o^v Trph Tov TroXinveaOai xal S7]fj.7]yo- 
pelv ifik irpovKa^e Kol Karerr-^e "^tXiTrTro?, idao)- 
ovSev yap '^ tovtiov elvai Trpo? ifii • 

iffiepav €irl raVT eVecTij:' iya> Koi SieKcaXvdT/, 
ava/iv^croi Kol Toinaiv v^e^io \6yov, Toaovrov 
iT\eoveKTijp.a, avZpe; ' hdi}vaL0i, p,ey' inr- 
^p^e ^(Xwnrw. Trapa yap tow "EXXijfftc, ou Tiulv, 
aX\' airatriv op-oiiiK, <j>opav TrpoBor&v leai ScopoS^- 
Koop Kai 6eoLi i-jfdpSiv avSparKiav avve/Si) yeverrudi 
ToaavTi^v 6ffi]v ouSii"! ttco wpoTtpov fie'p,PriTat ye- 
yovvlav ot"; crwaycovKna^ Kal crvvepyoiK Xa^aiv 
Kal -TTpotepov KaKtt)^ Tot^ "EWiji'a? e^ovrai w/>o? 

later part of his aigumenl (§§ 79 — 94, 1 
and after § 159). 

a, irp«t\afk and Ha-r^rxi 
bined have the idea of securing by I 
being btforehand. 

4. Kal GukhXvBi) : see Dote on . 
(ana § 57^ (at expresses parallel- 
ism with vpoi\ii.^t KoX tartaxf, and 
stcengtheni the antithesis between 
what Philip 1/1 1/ before Dem. appeared 
and what he viasfrevinkd from doing 
afterwards, a iixKi»\iii\ represents 
an active form a aiM* Juni^Xvira : no 
infinitive is understood. 

5. ToroSrov iiriiiriv, after pri- 
viisini tke folloiuing. Demosth. has 
no preference for the forms in -J* 
(e.g. Toffivic) in referring to what 
to follow. 

6. iirf)p£< •- cf. uirdpfoi juu., % i 
§ 61. z. i^pdv, a crop : see tt 

list of this crop of traitors in § 295. | 

For ^opi. ;-«ji,see note on % ^^\\ ' 

6. ical irpiT«pov...«xovTO»=oI int I 

irpAre)igi'j(aiiuiie()£'"'>inipf.partic. Cf, f 

S§ 60— 109. In this general de- 
fence of his public policy, (1) he de- 
fends his fixed principle of opposition 
to Philip's agfitessions (§§ 60 — ^^)^, 
(3) he speaks of the events which im- 
mediately preceded the outbreak of 
war with Philip in 340 B.C. (§§ 73 — 
lOl), avoiding all mention of the later 
Ampbisaian war and the other events 
which led to the battle of Chsernnca; 
(3) he defends his trietarchic law 
(Is 102—109). 

§60. I. irpJ ToG iroX*T(4«rflai : 
the public bfe of Demosth. properly 
with his speech on the Sym- 
in ^54 B.C. (Hist. § 8); but 
hiespDnsibility for the foreign policy 
% Athens began after the peace of 
■6(5 18"). Still, his fixed policy of 
,iposing Philip, though unsuccessful 
i first, goes back at least to the 
hst Philippic in 351) and he is here 
n§ 60 — 72) defending his public life 
\ a whole, seldom mentioning his 
.lie reserves these (or a 


See §S 45—49. 



iavTOui Kal trraffiatrTiKW eT( y^lpou SiedT/ice, Toi 
fiiv i^atraT&v, tok &e BlBoik, Toin Be irdiira rpd-TTOP 
iia^OelpcaP, icaX BieuTTjaev eh fie'pT] TroWh, evfK ToO 
trVfi^epoVTOf a.Trao'i.v owto?, KwXieiv eKelvov (le^av 
yiyveffOai. ev TotavTji Bk /coTao-Tatrei xal er ayuo:- 
Toi/ crvviiTTaiievov KaX <f>vo/iei'ov 

'EWjjciuc optcov, Bel ffieo-rrelv tifio.';, avBpei 'Ad^/valoi^' 
ri -TTpoafjieop ^f eXecrdai 'Trp'drTUv koI Troielv t^i'' 
-TToXiP, Kal TQVTWV Xoyov •jrap efiov Xa^eTv ■ o ykp 5 
evjavQ' eavTQV rafar t^? TroXtTe/a? ei// eyw, Trdre- 63 
246 pov auTjju i^pijv, AtV;^i'c?j, to (ftpdvij/M a^elaav ical 
i_( Tfj'' a^iav Tr/v avTrjS ev Ty %enaXo>v ical AoXoTrtav 

|Aj, Tofet i7iiyKaTaKTa,(79ai ^iXtinr^ tiju twv 'EXXi^vqiv 
. ^PXV^ ""^ "^^ '^^^ irpoyovav koXo. koX Bt'icai avat-^ 5 

Kol er ayvoia 62 I 

al TToielv T^i/^^^H 
.a^elv ■ a ykp 5 | 

g. EWir-rTiir(v...-irDXXd: cf. [^.J 52i 

<ciS(t, 4^?i. (BI.) 

10. KtdXftLv: in appoBition with 
Ms roO iruiupipoimi. An appositive 
inlinitive geiiera11}r has the article in 
the fully developed language. 

§62. I. tr' dYW.C»_(sc. iy)... 
ivT(rti=lr' iyrMiirrun, (t belonging 
in Kuse to iyvolf. VOmcl: guum 
adAuc i^ytarareni etc. 

2. a-vviirTa|Uveii : cf. VI, 35, (oti... 
<rv»iirroTai t4 i-pd^^oTO. 

4. irpi-miv Kal TOMtf ; sec § 4°. 
When these words do not have their 
proper distinction of Ja and maie, 
they sometimes have no apparent dis- 
tinction : see § *46''", and IV. 5, 
oiSiy iy &• yvyl reroiiiKty tTpa(ey. 

6. fcTiii)fl*...Tf|t iruXiTifai: parti- 
live. Cf. Ss9". 

S 63. 1. iriTtpova.M\vi%pfiv... 
&vaLp«[v ; iheuld ihi...havc helped 
Philip togain his dominiim mirr ihi 
Crteks, and (la) kavi scl at naugit 
the glorisvi and jmi deeds of our 

ancestors? Here.and infiJriroMf»and 
vcpLiisiy (also depending on ixPV")! 
in irpat^ns iroteii' and (6ft \iyay J) 
7pi£*(.v in § 66' *, in ixPV' 'Dnii' in 
5 69", and *a.^w. ixi>^> in § 71 ■*-«, 
we have simply the ordinary use of 
the infinitive depending on a past 
verb expressing duty or propriely, 
with none of tile idiomatic force by 
which [for example) {Set at itiBar 
often means you ti^ht to have gone 
(tut did not go). These expressions 
are all repetitions or enlargements of 
rl irpoiiTiKBV ^r in § 62*, whieh obvi- 
ously asl<s only tehut was it right for 
Athens to def with no implied idea that 
she did or did nut do the right thing. 
So in S 63' the question is simply was 
it her duty to help Philip etc ? 

2. ri ^pdnjiia Kal t1)v ijlav, her 
spirit and her dimity. 

3. h'...Td{(L implies a descent to 
their level and serving in their ranks. 
The Thessalians helped Philip in the 
Amphissian war; the Dolopians are 
probably mentioned only to dispa 
the Thessalians further. 



fKiv ; fl TovTo ft,ev fii) iroielv, Setvov yap w! oXij^ok, 
5' eoipa iTVfj.0i]t3-ofieva el /iTjSel? /cwXiivei, koI irpoij- 

erOdveff ait; eoiKev e/c 'TraWov, Tavra trepuBelv yiyiio- 

fieva ; aWa vvv eyaiye roi/ fioKiar hrnip-Sivra tO(9 64 '^ 
*jff^ ' vevpay/ievoK ^Sem'i ok fpot/J.iji', T^! ■n-oiai fifpiSoi 
|B yevetr^at' ri/v ttoKlv e^ovXtT &v, -jroTepov Tijt uvvai- 

^M Tia? TWJ' a-vfi/3e0ijK6Tiov tok "EWijo-i Kaxmv koI 

^f aliTj^paiv, T/'! av ©erTaXou? Koi tov9 ^era toiJtwi' ; 

^TTOt Ti?, ■§ T^5 •TrepieopaKvCa'i raiha ytyvdp.eva cttI 
_i^ '.•-'■ J '■■.Vj -ri}? tSi'as TrXenve^i'as iXiriSi, tj^ av 'ApKaBav Kal 

iAe<rat]viov<; Kal 'ApyeCov; 6eiijjj.€P. aXKa KaX rovriov 65 

TToXXol, /iaXXoc Se Trai^ei, ^etpojj r)p.S>v aTnjXKaj^aa-tP. 

Kal yap el fiep w? itcpd-Tijcre 4*(Xt7r7ro? ^X^'''' ^^^^^^ 
U^^y'-aVtwi' «at M^Ttt TaiH-' ^70/ ijffi'X""'' MTt-« twu avrov 
^B < ftTire ra)i> aWoip 'EXXfjy&ic p.i)t4va fitjBev S 

^H XirjTjJffaf, ^w a J/ T15 kot^ TtSc ivairrtco&einmv ok 

^K> ejrpaTTev e«eii'OS pe/i^i9 «i( KaTijyapi'a ' et Se ofioloK 
V^- a-n-avreav to a^iwfia, rnv ^yeiioviav, ti^v iXevdepiav 

wepieCKero, fiaWov Se 

L'Cf. Aesch. III. 90, d irpdSijXov jjv ^ir6- 
MH* (' ^4 i!(>i\i'(r<T-£, In both wc 
might have the future optative. 

B. tiiGtix irepuGiiv Y^I'^M'"'''' ^^ 
[T rt«« or/t /o go on; repuSeiv 
s would be /D a//a7u it4e"< /a 
pen (M.T. 148 nnd 903"). 
"1. I. inh', noiD, when the fight 
irtf is ended : toii irEirpa7/i;iMi! 
othe fight itself. — tAv fLdXia-r 
>irl)i,AiT<L, i.e. t/u severts/ critic. 
|. TtWirfloi, /ayr7in<(not A; belong 
: cf. Ar. Nub. 107, taiiriav 7e™D 

§ 65. 3. »e Jicpdnio^; i.e. at 
-onea. Philip treated Athena 
great consideration after the 
\, restoring her 2000 prisoners 
■ut rsinsoni; but wreaked hia 

aX TO! 7roXiT€('a9, Zaaiv 

vengeance on Thebes (as a formefl 
ally) and invadeil Feloponnesoa, 
Hist. 5 68. (Grote XI. 699—705.)— 
ifX"'' i»ii»v, had laktn himidf eg. 

6. -ijv &v Tis. . . KaTtiYopIo, inert 
might perhaps be some ground fir J 
blame and accusation etc.: the okIW J 
editions have S^ut ^y 4> Tit and 
icOTcb TiSi' oiK hv.vtwAirriai', with an 
entirely different meaning. 

%. &il«i)ui ^Y()uivliiv...tXtv4tplav: 

see SIX. 160, TOUTO t4 wpay/m (the 
corruption of leading men by Philip) 
BfTToAOv fiir-.-riir irteiio''iaii irai tA 
Koifiy dffui^a dirbiXuA^/rEi, nil' S' ^5-q 
Hoi TTj* Aevflepfaii xapaipeTTui- rii 
fd/i (UpoirAXEir al^rup iyiwy fiaufSttff 


For Euboea 1 

§ 7' 



XcvtrairOc i/^ol Tr'eia^evre; ; 
^n»A. ^j-fii"- ' 'A\X' eKela eTravep)( ri Ttjv ttoXiv, AtaxCvri, 68 

irpoaffice irotelv ap-}(T}V koX Tvpavvi^a twi/ 'EXX^woc 
^ ^t ^ Q_^ ^pStaav' eavr^ icaTamtcua^op^vQV ^iKtTnrov ; i) tC 

rii^ TOP avp.0ov\ov eBti Xeyuv ^ ypdtfieii' rav ' A.8rivrj<Tiv - ' 
(KaX yap T0V70 TrXetffToi' Bia^epei)^ 05 trvi/gBeiv fikv 5 
SK ■jravTO'! Tov y^povov fiexfii t^s ■fifiepa'i a0' r}t avrin 
fVt TO ^ijfia ave^ijv, ad irepl •jrpcoTemv /eol Tifiift 
Kai So^ijf ayt^vi^ofievrip rrjv warpiBa, kuI irXeioJ Koi 
j^prjp.aTa xal tymfiaTa avriXaiKvlav {rrrep ^<s 
Koi TO)P Tract iTVp,(j>ep6i'T(DV ^ Totu dXXaiv 'EXX^uwc 
inrep avriisu airrfXatKao'iP eKacTOiy kdipoiP B' airrop 
TOV ^iXiTTTTOP, TrptK OP ^P ijpXv o oTfioP, vTtep a.p'yiyi 
Koi SvpaaTeiai top otfiBaXp^i/ eKKeKOp.p.evQv, T7]V 


See Arist. Pol. vi. (cv.) 8, 3, tart 
ydp ^ jToXiTfla wi dirXui tlvtls /liC" 
6Xj7a/>x'ar koX BrifiOKpaTlai, eliitBairi 5i 
KoKeir T&t ilkt diPicXlTOI/dvii it T!ph\ 
T^v S-ifflcupaTtau iToXiTiiaif rii Si rpbi 
T^» 6\ctapx^''-'' /'oX^oi' dpiiTTOKpaTial 
aiA t6 iiaWof dioXovdcir Traidtlav jcai 


tAt , 

poiiible. So f^^i^fiirar dt^^i^iriu 

SIX. 50, dwHOX""'''^'""' lil'S/'liTUl' 

in XXVTt. iS, iSmaiiraT' ieepdnruf in 

S 66. 1. IikEv IiraWpxofuiL, /re- 
turn lo my question, i.e. after tlie 
digression in § 65. 

s'j'-T" " """■ """ " 

5. OS oTrt'n&iiv: the antecedent, 
rhr ninPovt-ov, refers to the speaker, 
and most mss. (not S and L') insert 
ilii after 'Afliinjo-iu. 
^ 6. U...%p6iiov: see § 203".— if 
i]I, HiAen (oa iM J fi), strictly i^'xBiV^ 
itirf wHick, counting from -ivhUh {as 
a date). 

8. d-]f""'l''f'"l''' '"'■ "*'- *fter 
ffUBjfatij', like dnjXujruia* (9) ; cf. fout 
participles after iiipiiir, § 67'. 

9. xp^iiara Kali viftara,, n'oney 
and liiits. With the lordly boast at 
Ibis passage compare the allusion to 
Satamis tn § Z38. — ^iXen)L(a«, her 
honour; properly love b/Aohow, but 
oiten used like ti^i). 

S 67. I. idpMv continues the 
construction of «t <ri,HfSf.» (§ 66»). 

2. fririp. . . BuHUTTtf M, con I tasted 
with inrip...suiujifrilirTiiif in § 66'. 
iuwHTTela is properly a government 
of force, not \>istd, on the piipular 
will: see S ^70^ Cf. Arist Pol. vi. 
(IV.) s, z. But Demosth. uses lura- 
areUi in § 322' of the power of 
Athens. It is gcnetnUy, however, an 
odious term. 

3. tAv 0(t>BaX)iiv lKK(Kop.)iii)>ov, had 
had Ais eye knccked out, passive of 
the active form kiximfi Tit nitrv thr 
6^6aKithv, retaining the accus. of the 
thing. The following tartKyttra. is 
passive in sense, and has the same 

Cf. i-TOTp-ifiimtt t4i 


kKeZv Kareayora, -rifv yelpa, to (tkcXot ireirijpciijiei/ov, 
irav Jf n ^ovXijOeiT/ fi,epo^ i) TV)(rj tou auftartK s 

y wapeketrffat, tovto irpolefievov. &cm ra Xoiw^ fiera 

lA* ^'^'^ ri/J.rp_ Kai fio'^i;? ^rjf ; leai fiijv oii&i roiiro 7' ovBeK 68 

jT*^^ _ &v v/iriiy i<)Kp.Tj<ja^^ is tw fkiv ev IleXXij Tpa^i^tfrt, ; 

Uw«-' X^P^^ aSo^p TOTS 7' ovTt «ai f'Ucpip, roaavTjjP 

ill , /ieyoKo'^^uj^iav TrpovrfKev ey/eueffdai Sxrrt t^ twv 

,1- 1, i-'-^^'J'"'"' ^PXV^ eTTiSvp^trai leal Toirr «'? toi' wiOj' 

•An^aXeirSaL, v/uv S' ovuiv ' A.Otjvaioi'; ko'l Kara t^c 

"0. ■^fi.dpav eKdaTTjv iv vaut ica't Xoyofi Kal Bei^prjiuuri 

' AlXJ}^ Twi* Trpoyovcov aprr^s inrofj.vTjuad' opmat rovav- 

^^ Tiji* Kaiciav uTrdp^ai mare Trj'i iXevOept'a^ avrejray- 

|^^^J^^7^Xtou? iOeXoirrai "Trapa^apiiaai <t>iXiTnrip. ouS" ai' 

cR"TaCTa ^Tjtreiev. Xonrov ralwv jjf «ai (icti7«aiof 

jiyj,. a/ta iraaiv ofc eVeti/os ewpa-rxev aStxav iifiai evavri- 


■ n0lI^liT, Xen. An. 11. 6, l, lepre- 

Lventing drfri/iai airoTi rit xtijiaXii 

l(G. 1339, wilh examples). 

I 6. ■wpoUfuwr, i.e. aljiiayi ready to 

1 tecrifia, followed by J ti PovKriBilii. 

§ 68. 2. ToXft^c-uL (so Z and L) : 

the form in -at is tat more common 

in Demosthenes and in olbei Atlic 

prose.— Jv naX-n ^pa^lm: cf. He- 

feaippua [Dem. vil.] 7, rpiit rir It 
liWilt ipiuliiierot, with the same 
■<nica!m. Pella was a small place 
Lnnti) Philip enlarged and adorned it. 
(■See Strab. vil, ft. 23: tJj» aiWar 
iw fUKpikV rpdrepou *IXit»-oj clt 
It tiC^uf Tpaif-iit Iv air^. 
fiPfeXai/\rnUi,v, lofty aspirations. 
P Aristotle (Eth. iv. 3, 3) says of the 
' ptrfaXl^vxiii^^ g''(it-souled,ot kigh- 
minded man, tout tlmi 6 iu-yi\uv 
iai/rbr lifiwr dfiDt £r. Cf. luKpo- 

•I'vxliu, 5 279'- 

(It riv mOv ^^K$a\itreal: cf. 
phrase (aie it into kii head. 
i» 'Rom. . . Si«p^|iavi, i.e. in all 

thai you hear and iic: Stifnuia i* 
very rare for Sia^m. 

8. wrojiviJiiaB' ipvo"!, bikoSding 
memorials; bpisi by a sligbt zeugma 
including X4toii: cf. Aeschyl, Prom. 


9. Koxfav; see note on { 20*. — 
'uvdpfai, like tyiiriaBiu. (4), depends 
on rpoaiJKtt. — aJrmraYY&Tatii H«- 
XovTds, as self-offered volunteers ; cf. 

s 99'". 

9 69. I. dvafKauivSiia: cf-iFoT- I 
Kalai< taX iUa.i.av S.)is., § 9^. 

2. Iirpa-rrtv dGLxov : in strong an- ' 
lithesis to iramiauaBa.!. ii.Ka.lm. 

i- ^ ^PX^= <^'= refers strictly 
only to the time of his own leadership 
(■TB^ SM ^iroXirei^^i;» y^nvi). Bat 
he modestly and speciously appears to 
'epresent his own vigoroos policy ai ~ 

-■' -*■ of earUer energy. Y 


jju^^.i- ewetfrgs koI irpooTiKSirraK, iypa^v fie xa^ ovveBoH- 
a(8 Xevof Kai eVt^ ^"^ "W ivoXiTeuSfiiji' j^poiiovi. ofM- 
Xoya. aWa tI ej^i}i' ^e Trmeli' ; ^Stj 7dp a-' epcoTm, 
•jrdvra raXV ai^ek, ' Afii}iiTTO\iv, IlvSi'av, XloreiBaiav, 
'A\6iiuTj(Tov ■ oiJSew TOi'TfiJi' fLefiUTjfiai ■ ^epptov Be 70 
Kal AopiaKOV Kal tIjv YleTrap-ijBov TrdpOrjaiv Kai Sir' 
*'*'^ oXV 7/ ttoXj! ySiKtiTO, ovS' el -yeyovev otSa. Kairat 
^ av 7' e<j>7]o-0d /ie ravra Xeyoi^a ek ey(6pav ififfaXeiv.i^jt/c 
TOUTOuo-i, Ev^ovXov Kai ' Apia-Totj>o)PTOV koI ^loweC- 5A^ 
- A.llbTvi^"'^ ^'"'' fept Tovrcav ^tj^lv naTiov ovtwv, ovk ifi&v, 
"i Xeyav eu^^pMi ti av ^ouXijO^'i. ovBe vvv TrepX 
V ipSt. aW' a TTji/ EB/Soiov SKetvoi trcfieTepi^o- 

when Philip wa3 capturing Amphipa- 
lis, Pydna, and Potiiiaea, Athens was 
supinely inactive; but Demoathenea 
was not yet a responsible adviser. 
In S^ iS and 60 tie expressly dis- 
claims all respoDsihility for these 

6. t£ Jxpflv |U iroHiv; see § 63'. 
— ifin a-' jpHTu ; the third time of 

7. A^ii^s, /caving eal ef accoitnl: 
for Amphipolis, Pydna, and Polidaea, 
see Hist. § 3; for Halonnesus, Hist. 
8S 44. 45- 53- 

§70. I. For Serrhium and Doris- 
ens see note on § 27*. For the 
sacking of Peparethua (in 341 — 340 

CO s 

: iViA 


Schol. The people of Peparethus, an 
ally of Athens, had taken Halonnesus 
from Philip and captured his garrison. 

3. oifi- A vfyoviv olSa: cf. XXI. 
78, tdBtok oiS fl -y^oKv tldiis, not 
being aware niia of his existence. 

4. tri-% l^rOa: see Aesch. ill. 
Sz, dpx^s adroit tttiltov iroX^^u kbX 
Topax^. — TaOrn X^ovTO, i.e. 6y 
evirlastingfy talking about IJusi. 

5. EipaiiXev Kol'ApurTOr^vTOs: 
in replying to Aeschines (as just 

quoted) he is glad to be able to refer 
to decrees of his political opponents 
while there were none of his own. 
Eubulus, thougli he was the leader 
of the peace party and always friendly 
to Philip, might have proposed de- 
crees directing negotiations with 
Philip about the towns captured by 
Philip or the later affair of Fepare. 
thus; and be might have proposed 
one remonstrating against the seizure 
of Athenian ships (g 73), like the 
spurious one in §5 73, 74. 

7. ofiSc..^ : tbe third rapiiVifii 
(cf. JJ 69', 70=), in which a fact U 
impressively stated by declaring that 
it shall not be mentioned. 

71. I. iKdvos: this position is 
allowed the demonstrative when an- 
other (jualilying word follows the 
article: cf. \ OTtrii a^rrr\ oSis, Xen, 
An. IV. 2, 6. But even then, the 
regular order may be kept, — a-^Mripi- 
td|uvas (from ff^^epot), afprofiriat' 
ing, mafiing his man, of unlawful ot 
unjust appropriation: cf. xxxit, 2, 
etpereplsairBai, and Aeschyl, SuppL 
39, \iicTpiis aiertp^intnr irtpijrai. 
The verb spkiUrise has been used in 
English by Sir William Jones: see 
larger edition, 


fievov Kai KaTaaKevd^cov eTmety^iaf/,' CTrt t^c 'ArTiK^r, 
'MeydpoK iTTix^ipap, xai KaTaXa/j-^dviov 'ilpeop, 
I n'drafTKaTTTayi' Ilopdp.ov, Kal Ka&unk'i iv fikv ' 
'ilpe^ ^iXtcrTi'Srjv Tvpavvov iv B' 'Kperpia KXeirap- 5 
^oc, Kal Tov 'EWjJo-ttoi'toi' v<^' eauTW 7ro(0W(i«M)?, 
Koi BuffiiTioi' TToXio/jKwu, Kai WXet? 'EWijjitSar 
as ;*£!' hvaipwv eh ai 5e tow <j>vydSa'i Kardyo}!/, 
TTOTepov ravra iravra iroLav rjhlictt koX TrapeirwdfBei 
Kai eXve ttjv elpiji'T)}/ rj ov ; Kal Ttaitpov cfiaif^vai 10 
riva Twv 'EW^i'toi' rov ravra icaiKvaovTa iroielv 
avTov e^^v ^ /aiJ ; ei fikv yb.p fir/ iy^piji/, aXXh T^f 72 
MfiTfiJj' Xeiav KaXovfie'irrjV rr/v 'EXXdS' oSffaj' a^6r}- . 
vat^^aivTav icaX oi'TtDv'AOtivaLoiu, irepieipyafff^ai fih 

1, liTLTfC^Lirpr ferl TT^v 'Attlkiiv. 

a/arlrtss conimaHiliiig Alliia. An 

tTtlxi'iia is properly a fortress in 

I snenem^'scountry, used as a military 

' 's, lilie Ihe Spsrlan fort at Decelea 

[he Peloponnesian War. Here 

I Euboea in Philip's hands is (igura- 

tively described as such a fortress 

I commanding Attica; and the sight of 

1 its high mountains across the narrow 

I strait made the figure especially vivid 

I to dwellers in the east of Attica ; see 

I S87*. This passage relates to Philip's 

1 operations in Euhoea in 343^342 B.C. 

I See § 79' with note, and Hist. § 46. 

3. MndpOLsiirixctpav: 10344— 

I 343 B.C. Philip attempted to get pos- 

'iin of Megara, with the help 

s friends in Ihe city. See g 48" 

I «nd note. Megara in Philip's hands 

p would have been another IriTtlxurim 

<,> 'Arriir/ii'. 

riv 'SUnijinravTDv : for Philip's 
I operalions in the Hellespont and at 
I Byiantintn. see §§ 87—89 and 244. 
■ 8. & fkiv...tts & Et: very rare foi: 
Krii n^F.-cfi J-ii SI : in Xu. 1 1 we have 
~ : Philem. frag. 99^ (Kock), fif ^v 
, T^x^e, Up Si Ji' ^ai/roiJf.— tovs 

■. resloriHg his 

1 but(itt'J 

own exiled parlizans. 

10. 4ioC:sc.4Jl«ii[ 
iz) flji^! ac. *B^rai. 

11. riv railTa K(oX{irovTa = II( r. 

KuUcH (final) ; in § 71= is the simple 
Kiii\VT%r; both predicates with fuv^ 

12, (xpl* "i ^■■h- tiis question is 
here put for the fourth time; see note 
on S 63'. 

§ 72. I. (I iMv Tfdp |(^ Jxpflv: 

the alternative is tl B IBei (6), — ti|W 
Kwr&v Xitav, Mysian iiocty, i.e. like 
the Mysians, a prey to everybody. 
vapoiiLia., i|f i;6i)m Aij/itip tV ApX^" 
Xa^t^v 6,Trh tQp KaTo^pafiArrtar daru- 
yiiTtruiii Tc tal Xjjo-tlSi' riju Mwlar 
Kari. Ti,v 7i,\i^v roO ffaaiMui dro- 
lT)lilap, Harpocr, This refers to the 
wanderings of Telephus, disguised as 
a beggar, in quest of Achilles, who 
had wounded him and alone could 
cure his wound. ThU was the plot 
of the much- ridiculed Telephi " "' 

sc. lxiti}v (withol 




ml ' 


B 44 

^M iyo) "TTipl Toiriov etVoif, TrepieipyafTTat S' ij irrfXi? ij , 

^V Treiff^etir' e^ot, «rTCD 8e aBiK^fiara irduff' a TreTrpcucTat ! 

Kai ajiapT^iiar ifLii, el B' eSet Tiva tovtwv Kri>Xvri}V 
249 <^avi)vat, tIv SX\ov ^ top ' ABrjvaiinv Brip-ov irpoa^KfU 
i^j j^ki^Ai^'-' i^QviffOai ^ TavTa toIvvv hroXiTevofiiiv iyo), k 
rt,^(L*^vA KaraSoyXovp^voi' TravTw; auBpom-ov; iicelvov ^caif- 

.-"' Tiav/ii]P, Kal TrpoX^tov Kal SiSda-KWP /irj trpoteffdju^io 

SiereXovv. .■ . . , '■^-^'^^j^] 

Kai fir/v TjjV elp^vT)V 7' eVeico? e\va£ to TrXoIo 73' 

ctepe S' ayri to ■ijrT)t}>i'afJ.aTa xal rrjp eKUnoXrjv 

TrjV ToO ^tXiTTTTOU, KOt Xp/C 606^^9 ' WTTlJ ^fflJJ TOVTWI' 

tA Tii'of airiof EffTi 7ei'^creTai <fiav€p6v. 

["EttI dpxovTos NtoKXeous, /iTji-o? /SovjSpo/uuivos, < 
irwis (TvyKX^ou vttq wrpaTijyuJv, Bv;8ouXos Mnp'itft'o 
TrpfWi cXttcv, CTTtiS^ TrpotnjyyetXai' ot orpaTvjyni > 
^kkXt^ici As apa AiiaSd/iJa/Tu Tov vavap}(ov xid to 
avTOv AirtXTToXivTa unaiti-ri eiKOtrtc tirl T^i' ToG crirov wtxpu- 

perhaps liastened this declaration by 
a few weeks; but after the letter of 
Philip (5 76), which was practically a 
declaration of war on hia part, only 
one course was open to Athens. 

1. Ti)v liriirToXi)v: this was a 
' ■ ■ 'of Philip's griev- 

deru a tiuless (superfluous) wori: 
irtptTTQs fal b6ic ira-yxaluyi irapifwffci 
Tc iyii sal i) r6\iz i^ vimStiaa fidnjv 
ArdirSTj (Schol.). 

5. tTTt»...tfii.: iSlKTifiaTanrdiiuip- 

iSlKttiia, irimi, and aiiAp-rriiia, blun- 
der, distinguished in § 274. 

10. |ii| irpotctrSoi, not to make sur- 
renders {net to give up your own), 
here absolute, as in Atist. Eth. lit. 
5, 14: Thrt )ikv oBf k\%* B-irrif pi\ 
roveiVfTTpoepiiK^ S oitKirifi.c, afUr ks 
ias sacrificed All heaUk. 

g 73. I. Kal |ii|v...X.ap^v: this 
(eiiuie of merchant ships, of which 
we have no other knowledge, was 
the overt act which Athens made the 
occasion ofher declaration of war. It 


conduct Coward Athens, ending with 
a formal declaration of war. The 
document numbered xil. among the 
orations of Demosthenes purports to 
be this letter. See Hist. § 55. 

5. t(s tIvos: such douhle Inter- 
rogatives are common in Greek, but 
colloquial or comic in English, as 
who's who ? An increase of the Dum- 
ber becomea comic in Greek; as in 
Xapifih^.^.tifrf aX xopi TO0 

cat T. 



'A/iiVros KaTayi;oxev ti; MoKchwiav koI iv ifivKan^ ixci, 
(Vt/itXifS^Kti ToJji -npvTavfK Kal tovs ffTpaTjjyDus mr<u« 
^ pouki] <rvva^$!j mit ocpefffltTC tt^eV/Seis Trpus 't'lAMnroi', ) 
o'tiw* jTQpaytvo^itvot SiaAt'iovrui jrpo! auTOi' Trtpt roS 71'! 
oi/ie^v(U Toi' rampjfoi' t 
KQi ei /itv 81" ayvmav ti 

fttiufiifLOiptZ o h^/iOi oiSiv aVT<^ ' ti 8e Ti irXij/ifitXoiT'ra. 
impa Ta <jr£cJTuX/Aeva \a0iiiv, on lirUTKnlidiLtvoi 'Afii^mioi , 
eirin^^ouiri diiTa T^i' T^! oytyuipins a^iav. tt Si /ti^- 
■S50 Ttpov TOVTiav ttrriv, dAA' iSip ayvui/iovouiiiv ij dffooreiXas 
^ o oTrctTToXp.ei'Oi, Kol Totro Xlydv, tm atadavo/icviK 3 
B7/U1S PmiKevtnjTa.1 n Bti jtokiv,] 

ToCto ^ci* tqIwv to tlr'^<})ia'tia EC^ouXo! eypa^lffv, 75 J 
"ic e7&>, TO B' iipe^ri^ ' Apiaroip&v, eW 'Hy^annro^t 

i n-Xoia Kal Toiit fTTpaTliiiTas. 
imrairjKev o 'A/iiVtq5, a 

^iXotcpa.T'ijV, flra Kij^i- 
'iBiv Trepl rovrtov. 

elr 'hpLiTTO^atv TtdXiv, 
ffo^toi', eiTa iravre; 


[^"Effi NtiwXtous apyfovTrK, ^mfSpo/uiavoi; Ivrj kox vef., 
ffavkiji yvui/ij, irpvravei? not (rrpoTijyoi i^^tjixarurav rk 
tK T$! iKKXr/rriai iveMytovresj Sti ISoit rip Sijfiuj irpitr^iK 
iKtirOai TTooi ^iknnrov irepi r^s roii' jrXoi'o)!' dwuto^iS^s 
KQC tWoXas SowQi Kara ri ex t^? (HKXiTirias i/fij(/ii(r^Ta. 
KOI fiXovTO TOUcSt, Kiji^UKn/nuiTa KXtiovOE Avm/iXiWuic, 
A)7/A0Kplrov Ajjfio^oirTos Avayvpa»rlov, IIoXtiitpiTov Airij- 
^VTOU KoBtoKi&rp'. irpvTaviu}, ^uX^s 'Imrofluvri'Sos, 'Api- 
OTD^uJv KoXXureus vpocSpoi ttira'.] 

§ 75. 4. V E' oiSi* irtpl roi- 
TMv; this with § 76' is a positive 
denial of the itatement of Aeschines 
(III. 55) that the decree declaring 

. war was proposed by Demosthenes ; 

L ilist:555,notes4,5. Though Demos- 

thenes was constantly proposing de- 
crees at this time, he cannot have 
proposed the one whii^h fomially 
declared war or any on the matters 
mentioned in § -jo oc about the s< 
of ships (i.e. irtpi Toiriiii'). 


'[iawep Toi'i/vv iyo} raiha SfiKVUto ra -^ri^liTfiat 
ovrra Koi av Set^ou, Aiffj^iifj, OTTotoi' iym ypdijrai 
il/~i]<jji.<7fia aiTW el/ii tdC TroXe'fiov. aXX' oiiK av 
ey^OK ■ el yap eij^e^, ovSev av avrov Trporepov wv\ 
Trapiayav. «ai ^^i''oyi''o <I>iXt7nros oiihev 
e/i' vv'ip rail ■jroXep.ov, krepai'i iyKaXoiv. Xeye S" 
ainrjv t^v iviirToXijv Tr/v rov 'PiXiTnrov. 

[BaiTlXeuf fdoKtSovwy ^I'Ximro! 'AAjraMov r^ f: 
[ r^ Sijfiif )(oiptiy. TrapayfvofUvot. xpo; i/ji ol Trap' tipJiiy 

nptXT^iWTOX, }i.TI<j}UTOltlClV KOI ATf/iOKplTOi KCU TloXvKplTO^, 

SuXfyovTO ircpl T^s riv ttWiuv d^tVctoi wv tva-uixpxtl" 
AiiuSa/uis. Kaff oAou piv ovv t/tOLyc t/mtvcirdi iv fityaXH J I 
tvqOcia iacoOai, <t oiiir$' iuX XavOdvdv on i^aircarakT] 

(K ToS EAAtjottovtot; eii A^^j-ov, jSoijfliJcTovra Se 2lJ\1^ 
^ptavois ToTs iiT (jUoE /«v xoAiopKov/teriK!, ov (ni/xjreplel- 

CTwftjKais. Kai TaCrn tniveTax^l ^V VQTOp)(u> apeu pev 78 
Tou S^fiou Tou 'ASijHu'utv, vn^D Se Tivtuv npxo'Tiui' ' 
p(uv i&iuTcuv ^tv itV ovtuh', tic wavTO^ Se TpoTrov ^trnXa/iiviav . 
roi" S^p^v dvrl T75 viV VTnip)(ovin)^ jrpos £p,e ^tXuis roi' 
TToXi/iov ava^M^tiv, jtoXAcu /iSXAoi' •^uXort/noupti'iiii' tovto 
mivT(Tf\t<Tdai TJ TOK Si7X-u;8ptai'0(s ^mj&qrrat. kqi ujroXn/t- 
iSavouo-iv oiTOi! TO TOiovTa wpoiTohov <<retrftii ■ oh fiivTM 
fUH, SoKcT ToiJTO )fpriiTi.p,ov VTra.p)((iv oii$' vpXv our ip.ol. 
Bioirep ra T£ vvv KaTayStvTa irXola irpoi Tjiim a^iiJIU vfuv, 
Kal ToC AoijtdTp, ^ii- jSovK-qadi pjj (tTiTpeneiv Toll Trpofurif- i 
Kotjiv ip.!av xaKtojPuis ■n-oXmicoOm, dXX' EVinpSrt, irtlpa.- 

'Ei^au^' ovSii/iou Aii/ioa94vT]t' y4y pa^v, 
aWiav ovBefJ.iai' tear inov. ri iroT ovv rots ofXXot? J 

. 7. iirwToXT]v ; 

m § 73". The following letter is spur 


iyKoXoii' Twc e/xol veTrpa'fueiwv oirj^i i^^tivtira^ ; oti 
T&v aBi,KT]fi,dra)U av efiefiPijTO tww avrov, « ti irepl 
■ 35a ifioO y £ypa(pev Toi/Ttuv yap elj(pp,rjv eyiA koI tov- S 
Tois ■^vavTioiifiJiv. Kal -rrpoiTov fiiv t^c ek lleXo- 
•tr6infJi<fov trpetr^eiav eypaifra, Sre Trp&rov eKelvo^ 
€k lli\o-n-6w>]aav TrapeBveTo, e'ra tyjv eh ES/Sotan, 

fjUlK Ev/j0^O9 ^TTTfTO, EiTa Tr)V cV 'ilpCO^ cfoSoi', 

ovKSTi. TvpetT^eiav, Koi ttjv (h 'Eperpiai/, eTreiBi] 10 
TvpdvvQiK eKelvo'i ev ravrai^ rah 'TroXeai xaTecrTi}- 
trev. jiera Tavra Se tov? aTramoXav^ a-jravrcK 80 
aireffTaXa,, aaO' oSk H-eppSi/T/rroi itrdidri real to Bu- 
^dpTioi/ ical Travra 01 <rvfifiaxo^- ^^ ^^ vpXv fikv 
TO, KaWiina, ewaivoi, Bo^ai,, ine^avoi, ydpire^ 
irapa rlav ev ■RerrovBdrfaii inrfipy(ov twv 5' aSiicov- S 
fiivcDv TOW V^" ^^'^ '■''■''^ Treiadeitnv ^ a-oiTijpia 
irepuyeuiTo, toZ? 6' okiyropritram to rroWdictv &v 
vfietv TTpoeiTraTe fiep-vijaOaL Kal vo/j.i^eiv /i^ 

in 341 B.C., by which the tyrannies 
Oreiu and Eretria were suppress 
See Hist. § 52. 

§ 80. I. d-iraordXaus : the orat 
use (tiriffToXoi, [icoperly a messengtr 
(N. Test. afioslU), and iTTiJun for a 

§79. 3. 6Ti...Tfiy alToOr this 
implies that Philip could Dot speak 
of any recent case in which Demps- 
Ihenes -had opposed him, without 
alluding to some disgraceful act if 
his own. 

4. (L y l^po^cv; this abso- 
lutely certain but lung neglected cor- 
rection of Dtoysen C1S39), hardly an 
emendsition, k now generally adopted 
lor the impossible yi-fpnititv (S) dt 
tiypa^ of the Mss, 

5. ilxd|ii|v, clung lo, fallaiited up 

6. id II(Xairdvvi]imi'; probably 
the embassy of 344, on which Demos- 
thenes made the speech quoted in the 
Second Philippic, 20 — 35. 

8. viutSJtTO, was ■aioriiiig kis 
wof.n'Ai/inf ■n.~.TT|v((tEi>paiav(sc. 
wpt<rp,Cay) : in 343— 342 B.C. (g 71). 

g. Tf|V tir np(av...Ep{Tpuiv: the 
two tnilitaty expeditions to Euboea 

cf. orSre 

rT6\if, oSre iriff 

K.r.X., vr. 35. 

2. dirfa-TiiXtt: properly used with 1 
JioiTTiXout, /sent out {by my decrees) ! 1 
cf. rper^flar typa<l/a, g 79'.— Xtp- 
pdvT]irai.,.irii|ipiaX<>^' see §§ S7 — Sg, 

4. l7raivoi...x^piTCf : the decrees 
"lese grateful rewards on 


after § 8< 

Tols G' oXiYUf'^o'atri : this refers 
to the Veloponnesians who neglected 
the advice of Demosthenes in 344 KC 
(9 79°) "I"! later (lit. 27, 34), and to 
the early refusal of Oieus and Eretri* 
to listen to Athens (ix. 57, 66, 68). 



fiovav Evvovt eavTOK aWa xal tppovi/iovj av6p<it- 
■n-ov; Kai fidirreK ehai- iravra yap e/c^e^T/Kev a 
TrpoeiVaTe. Kal firjp on "iraWa /j,ev av ^i^fiaT eBa>xt 
^iXiariBi]^ WITT e^eiv^Hpthv, ttoXXo Se KXeiVop^o? 
Sta-T ej^eiu 'Eperpiav, TroWa £' auro? 6 ^i'\nnr<yi 
mine -^avff \rwapyiiv i^ vfia.'i aiirio Kai Trtpi Ttav 
aWav fitjSev i^eXeyj^ea-Bat ^ijS' a -jr oimv TJiiKei 
fLTjhev i^eroXiiti iravrayov, oiJSeis ayvoel, ical irdvTwv 
^KiCTO. av- 01 yap irapa, rod KXetrdp^ov leai tov 
^tXiarihou Tore Trpecr^ets Bevp at^ncvovp^voi vapa 
crol KareXvov, AiV^ii'ij, xal trii ■wpov^aiu': airr&v 
009 7} p^eu iroXfi w! ij^Bpoii^ Kal <iv7e Si/ccua ovre 
iTvp,^4povTa Xeyovrai aTrr^XaaEV, aoX h' fjaav <pi\oi, 
oil Tolvvv hrpdj(6ij rovriop oiiSiv, w ^a/nftri/^mv trtpX 
a\ Xeyatu q>? criQ)7rw fJ.£V Xaffmv ^oat S' avaXclt- 
aXX' ov ail, aWa ffoas p.ev e^oy, Traiaet hk 
it' ecLv fi^ ae o^toi, Travaoiaiv aTtfid>aavTei 

5, Av^jXiuriv, rcjttUd (i.e. theit 

6. oA Ta£vuir...aAEH¥: j.e. noihing 
of the kind was evtr successfiU win 
mi, referring to iroXXA fiit it ■xfiiiii.a.T 

253 ep.ov t 
a at. 

S 81. 4. 
i.e. iiat Ac m 
towns under 





JHTTi TaSfl' iirdf xtiv, 

;Al have these (the IWQ 
■e two tyrants) to depend 

en. I.e. as tntfixlaitnTa irl tSjb 


5. f'ifiiii l|(U^(a4ai (sc. subj. 
aiT6r) : cf. tbe active constr. in Plat. 
Ap. 23 A, a Ik aXXoK iii\fy(u. 

6. ieo.VTa,\ai, anyuiitre : cf. xij*- 

sudden outburst of personality. 

§ 82. 2. d^iKvoii|UveL,..MCLr^ 
Xvov: the tenses imply that such 
envoys of the lyranla were regular 
guests of Aeschinea. 

3. kbtAiIMv : lodged (as we say 
put ufi), lit. Ul daain, originally wn- 
Aarnessed; cf. Od. IV, 28, naroXilffo- 
fur fiiK^ai tTTwavs, — vpoAf^is adrov, 
youwert thtir -wp^tm : this might be 
metaphorical; but thereisgood reason 
for tbinlting that Aescbinea was tlie 
ofGdal representative at Athens of 
Oceus, it not of Eretria. 

7. Hf iruinra...&vaX£iras: quoted 
from memory from the speech of 
Aesch. (21S), viS otfiai "^piir iiin 


, dnXiiircu Si nUp 

8. po^ if,ia¥,yeu keep on siouiing : 
cf. Ar. Nub. 509, t! turrd^ta lx<"! 
(M.T. 837). The Scholia understand 
Xp^lMTa with (x'-" (bs with Xa^iic) ; 
there may be a double meaning in 
^XW- — Trav«i...ira*«ri«ri*, j-Dd mill 
not slop unlfss Ihese judges slop yen. 

9. &Tt|USa^VT(i, i-e. by not giving 
you a Hflh of their votes, tbe result 
of which would be the partial drifila 
of losing the right to bring a smilai 
suit hereafter, with a line of loao 
drachmas. This was actually I 
result of this trial. 


roll Tore, Kal ypdijrai 
ffvWdpa^ aa'irep ouic 
Kai avappTjueino'i ev Tt 
SevTepov Ktipvy/iUTOV i 

Toiiniu vfiap e/i hrl tov- I 
'ApKTTopUov TO! auri? 
KTTjCTK^tHi/ vvv yeyptufifv, 

I yiyvofi^vov, — 

OUT ainelirev Alffj^ier)"; wapav oijre tov eivdvr' eypd- 
i^oTo. Kai fuu \eye Kal toGto to ■^^i.vp.a Xa^av. 

[TIjri XaipmvSov 'Hyij^wos apxovriK, yainjXioivoi ocrg Ml 
iwioimK, ifivK^^ TrflVTaitvomnj^ AeovTi'Sos, ' ApiuToviKOi 
^pcappUK tiirtv, tTTtiS!) ik-ijiUKr$h'rf: lijjfioo^EvoiFs Ilaui- 
Viius TroAAas koi /ityoAns ;y)£uis TraptV^^ijraL Tiu S^/iip Tiu 
AftjvoiBiv Kul iroAXois Twv avpLiiji\<uv Kai TrpOTCpov, Kol 
iv TiJ napoim Kaipia ^t0a-^6tiKt Sia tuiv ip-q^LafLaT-av, Kai 
Tivai tUv iv T3 Ev/ioia iroXeiuv ^XcvOipiaxf, Kai SiarcXci 
cilvous lav T-ffl Sijfiiu TIU 'Atfijuuu)!', KQi \iyti Kal irpaTTU 5 
Ti &v OWTjTiu ayaOof VTrtp Tt avTutv A&ijvaitiiv Kal TOiv 
oWcuv 'EXX-qvwv, &e&6^0ai rg |SouXg koX t<u 87/10) Tiu 'Aflij- IqH 
vmviv i-raivtaai Aij/io<r^tn]i' AjjfUOTflo^us noiaKEa koi 
(TTE^i'cuuai jjpiKTtp OTt^oi'ui, Kai avoyoptvaal tov irrtiJMVOV 
cv TU Otarpif AtowrrioK, TpayiaSoti Kaivoii, Ttjl Sc avayo- 
piijffiojs Tou tmifiovou ijTi^eXij^vni t^v TrpvrnwwiNjm' 

254 ^vX^V KOI TOV ayOVoOtTTjV. t'jTtV 'AplCTTdviltOS O #p(apf»HK.] 



i.v. lut inu uc>,iccs -tie essentially 
identical in form. In § 323' he says 
of a. later decree, rii ailrii avWafiit 
Kal rairi, ^Ji/uxTa ^jjn. Even this 
does not include sucli details as dates, 

4. iv T^ ti&TfHf : tb is anticipates 
the argument on ihe place ot pro- 
clamation (5§ 120, 121), and gives a 
precedent for Ctcsiphon's proposal. 
ScvWpou. . . TaArau -yi-YvafUviiv : 

bably refers to the crown 
by Ariatonicus, the clause i 
■yiymii^rau meaning that one crown 
had been given to Demostbeoes in 
tbe theatre before that of Ariatonicus. 
7i7M^Kiu is imperfect and we might 
have had Seihipov K^pvyfia ffJij (loi 
1 iyiytfTo, the imperif. Implying 


g the 
:ion for the second time. 

TTopiiv, tfiBsigh present. — 
: Bc. TOfiari^r. 


"ElTTlV oip WTTl! vfimv 
TToXet iTV/i^aa-ap Sia tovto 
afj.oi/ri yeXwTa, 3. vvv o5to! < 

ol8e Tiva alff^vi'r)P rp 

TO ^frijtjitffiia ^ jfXeva- 
f>7} a'VJkpria'eaBai av iyo) 
i vea Koi yviopifta iraai 
TO, Trpd'YiJ.aTa, idv re tcaXmt e^ij, '^apiTO'i rvyjf^avei, 
edv $' OK erepai^, Tifjuopiai. (paivofiat roivvv iyot 
j(dpnoi Terv'yriicuK Tore, ical ov ^^ft^MS oliSk Tt;*o>-' 

OvicovP fie'xpi f'SV tS>u ^(fiovoiv eiceCvmv iv oX<s 
, TavT iirpdj^djj, -Tnivr avcofioXoyji/iai ra aptcTa 
. A^L-ir ' •trpdrretv ry ttoKh, ra vntav or e^ovXeveade Xeytov 
leai ypdipov, r^ KaTav-pa-fddrjvai to, ypatftevra Kai 
(TTe(f>tivovi e^ avriitv rrj mXet Koi efiol Kai ■jraini' 
yeve'a-Bai, tm dva-ia^ toj? 0eol^ Kai frpoadSovi ws 
aya6mv tovtoiv ovtihv v/i.a': Trewai-iiaOat. 

'EttciS^ TDiVuf e/c rrj^ Eii^oCw 6 0i\nnro^ u^' 
vfimv e^TjkdB-rt, — T0(? p,ev ovkoi^, rrj S^ iroXtTeta Kai 
T0(! 'i^iji^iap.aai., Kav Siappdfyo)ai rit 




■icSt tv ■ 

■r (liiflpoJTrov I 

< "EX- 

6. its Irfpus, o/henvise, in the other 
way (opposed to laXiSi), used to 
avoid Koitfii. This is the advetl) 
of tA trtpor, aa iliiriuiTui (uc airai) 
of tS afrri, and in i\ijflfit of t4 
oKiiSh. See XX1[. ll,i.-yaeli ^ Birepa, 
iaa ia)iiii rtru ipXaSpoo, which shows 
the euphemistic chacactei of iis ir/pnn 

§S6. Z. -nivT... irp&miv, tiat 
I did nierylhiiig that -was bctl. It is 
difficult to choose even the moat 
probaUe reading here. Both irdiT-ai 
(Z) and Tiiirat roilr xP^""" C^'^'eO 
ace objectionable, and we seem com- 

">^rfect (fo- 

ld e between the t 


paTTo*). On the 
contrary, nxav, ta-rKrinx^'O-h snd 
Tev^ETflat are distinguished only like 
ordinary present and aoiisi inlinitives 
(M.T. 87. 96). 

4. rd 'Ypa^JVTa = & l7pa^a: sec 

5. Kai J)j.ol Kai irariv repeats the 
idea of tJ irtAxi.. 

6. irpotnSEovc, processions : cf. § 

§87. 2. Tots|ih-&ir^Dtt, /"icin, 
lif D»-m(, added, as if by afterthought, 
to limit 5^' fipMf, as irnXirei? and 
<ini<piaiiaai limit iw' t/ioO, The inter- 
ruption is colloquial and designedly 
spontaneous. See note on § I2t% 

3. k£v GuLppayuo'i, ^ sci 


efiov,—erepov Korct t^t TrdXeeor eTnreix^l^ov ef^rei, 
op&v S* 3t* a-iTtp Trdvrap av9panr<i>i' TrXeio-rp XP''*' ^ 
fied" hreKrdicTijp, ^ovXaficvo-i t^? tnrovoii-rrla'! tcvpim 
yeve'a-ffat, -rrapeKSmv eVi Spd/CTji Bv^avriov^, trvti/id- 
■}(ov^ ovrav avr^, to fikv trprnTOV rf^iou a-u/i-jroXefieiv '. 
Tov trpoi v/iai; TroXefiov, i? B' oiiK jj8e\ov ovB' ewl 
ToiSrots ee^aadv TrjV avfip-ay^Cav TreTroifjcrdai, Xeyop- . 
Tts aXi/^j}, ^dpaica ffoKofievoi -Trpov t^ iroKet Kal ^- 
liij-^avr^aT iTTKTT^ffa'i i-rraXiopKei. tovtwv 2e 7(7- 88 'J 
vop,4v(QV o TL fj,ev wpoafJKe ttoisIp u^as, ovk iiTep<o- 

'X traxra^ ai/row ; tA ( 

lirtT(iXMr|iov, i.e. Byzantium, 
1 point from which to threaten 
I Athens i see note un § 7 1 ». 

o-lrip tirairi.KTtf ; the same 

f words are found in XX. 31, where 

laid thai the grain from the 

Eiulne was about half of the whole 

amount imported by Athena. See 

Sandys's notes on XK. 31 — 33. The 

thin soil of Attica (ri \eirTiytuii, 

Thuc. I. 2) could not supply grain 

[■enough for the popuktion, even in 

mtbe best seasons, and the fruitful 

■chores of the Euiine were tie most 

Fjunporlant sources of supply. Hence 

it would have been fatal to Athens to 

have the Hellespont and the Bosporus 

in hostile hands (cf. §§ 141, 30O. 

Boeckh estimates the grain annually 

conaumedin Attica at about 3,400,000 

01 (5,ioopoo bushels), of which 

Ktmly 2,400,000 iiiSi/moi could be 

f nised at home. See the story of 

n Hdt. 1, 

■ ;■*'';. 

iropdiSuv ttA Bfu^KHf. this 
latiably refers to the advance of 
liilip to the siege of Perinthus in 
"1, when he protected his fleet in 
' ■' e Hellespont 

Chersonese. The appeal to By 
tium, as an ally, to help him in 
coming war with Athens was perhaps 
sent from Fetinthus, which he be- 
sieged unsuccessfully before he at- 
tacked Byzantium. See Hist. §| 54, 
55. — Bvtarrfous : with both -fflou and 
iro\iifirii (iz). — (Tuiinaxous : after 
Byzantium left the Athenian alliance 
in the Social war, she became an 
ally of Philip (XV. 3, ix. 35). But 
now she had been brought into 
friendship and alliance with Athens 
by the skilful diplomacy of Demo«- 
before Philip's appeal to her 

fused and dinitd. 

1 1 . x^""*^ hete a palisadi, gen- I 
erally a pale or poli: see Harpocr. 
Xii^nica' ^i\ima9ivr)i tIi<!.& 
vepct^iWairri tik; CTfaToriSif iti 

12. (iT]){.niW|[iaT tir«n^|(rn8: cf. 
IX. 17, 50. The siege of Byzantium 

■ !5 0fWi 

01JK Jiriparr^iru, 

.ichiog a 

my thiough the 

asked in §§ 63, 66, 69, 71. 


KoiKvcrai rbv 'EXX^ctttoi'toi' aXXorpieatfTJvai Kaf 
eaed'ov^ Tois j^ovou^ ; vfieU, avSpei 'Adijvaloi. 
£" vfiet'i oTav X^oi, Trjv ttoXip Xeyta. rii S' 6 tt) 
WXet XeytDc ical ypd^'env ical vpamap kuI bttXSs 
eavrov ek tA irpdyfiaT at^eiBw^ SiSoiJs ,■ ey<i>. aXK^ 89 
firji/ ffKiica Tain &<f>e\ria€i' avavTa^, ovKer eic tov 
Xoyou Bel fiaOetv, aW epy<fi treveipaaffe ■ 6 yap Tore 
eVcTTa? •?ro'Xe^09 avev toO KoXtji/ So^av iveyxelv iv 
Trdai TOt? Karh tov ffiov a<^dova)TepOL<i koi evaivare- S 
pOL'i Striyei/ Vfiav Trjk vvv tipj^vrjii, rjV ovTOt Kara Ti}5 
iraTptSo^ rijpovaiv ol j(pT)aTol eVt tcu? /leWovaaK 
eXTTKj-d', Zv BiandpTou'v, Kal p^rda-j^oiev &u vfieti 
'tA ^iXniTTa ^ovX6p.evoi tow Beow amiTe, 

&,g. \tf<av...iiSoii: these parti- 
ciples are imperfect, and so con- 
trasted with the preceding PintS-fi<ras 
etc. Few venture to accept Soh for 

rote xS^ ^ 

mosthenia aures talerasse i 

syllabas — Jfli Sois. Sed in talibus 

nihil aRinnariai," 

§ S9. 3. iic ToO Uyou, in the 
faniihar antithesis to tpyif, 

3. i Irrtif, Tohick broke oul (l)i 
IviaT'ii) : cf. ^«iffTi)im, 7mij u/d/i us, 
S 139'- 

4. &IWU, besides {vnlAoul ricton- 
ing) : cC [xill.] 7, Avev toO snii^tfar, 
atid XXlll. 112, 4ku tdiJtoii.^ — Iv 
irwri-.-EifyY''' ^M, savi you supplied 
(^carried you through) with all the 
necessaries of life in greater abun- 
danee and ckiaper. 

fdvlfiov (SchoL), the peace of De- 
mades, under which Athens had been 
living since Chaeronea.^ — ip. . , TT|poi- 
■TLv: the Macedonian party had been 
atrong enough to prevent Athens 
from openly helping Thebes in her 
revolt 335 B.C., 01 the Peloponnesians 

under Agis in 330. See Grote X 

44. 59; 380-383. 

7. xpn^^"*^- i^f' 'lie sarcastic 
XpiyffT*, % 318*.— iirl...ftirlri», in 
(^vith a view to) their hopi, of future 
gain : iXrilfivffi y&p ^Tra^Xd^tra 
Tir 'AWfBvSpo* iiri T&y nipaUp /u- 
7(t\a airoii x'V'f"'^' ^' TpoJirai! 

8 — 10. Kal |UT£irxoMV...|ii] fun- 
SoCcv ; this reading of S gives kn 
entirely different sense from that of 
the common text, Kal /lii utrdrxii'"— 
litiSl lUTaSoTei: The meaning is. 
May they fail i« liese their hopes; 
and may thty raAer be allowed to 
share with you patriots in the blessings 
for which you pray, that they may not 
involve you in the calamities which 
■would result from their policy. Mi) 

tion of the wish of )iexi-ix'^"-. the 
asyndeton would be loo harsh. It 
must be a linal clause, assimilated to 
the optative ptriaxo^t* (M.T. 182), 
as in f}Sai Si-wt 7^»ire XuT^ptoi, 
AcschjL Eum, 297, and fiwtTa.-.X* 
al MiijtgBni ynit; Soph. PhiL 314. 
See M.T. 181. I know no other 



fitTaSolii' vfilv &'p' avToi irpo^pTJiTai. Xeye B' avroU 


Kol Tois rSyv ^u^avTiav tnt^dvow Koi tow TOiV 

IltpivOiajv, oh earei^avovti e« rovriav rijv iroXtp. 



iXti^v, Ik Tat ^<^5s Aa^iiv ^'fpiV,' >"-"S^ 5 Sij^s o 

'Aftivai'tiil' ^i" rt ToTi irpoycy^vafiivoK Kolpots tvKOTuii' &ii- 

TiXia BvCatTiMS Kal ToTs av/ifuixoKi kq! crvyyei'to-i IlEpii- 

fli'ms KoJ ToAAos <tai /leyoXas XP'"*^ n-apeVx'?rui, ti' re rtu 


xopeorandn Kuipip 4'cA.iWm rui MaKe&Ji-os JxurTpoTfvoiii'Tos 

(ffl TOV X'i'P"'' '<'■' TttV TToXlV (TT amiTTaatl 6llfaVT('ui>' KUl 

Byaat TrXoi'ot! (xarov kqI (iKocrt Hat (r/r<ii itai piKtat kbi 

owAlVius t^EtXtro o^I tK Tuie iLcyaXuiv Klvlvviav koI d;roicnTt- 


OTucTC rav -naTptov iroAircuii' xut ruis vo/iu)S tai Tui; Tatfuw;, 

StS^ftit Tu Sii/Hii Tu BufutTicui- Kni ntpiv$iwv 'Aftmu'oK 


6d(*6- iiri-fa/iutc, jroAireia», iynraiTiv yds xal mKtdv, irpot- 

&putv iv ToU iyS,<Ti, -roOoBov irarl rav ^«iAa^ ««! tSv S&p^v 


wyiuTols ^eri ra itpn, to! tois Koroiitteli- iOiXovin rav iroXiv 


dXtiVoupVV^ois ^^tv jTUO-av tSi' Xeiroiipyiav ■ tTTucrat St koi 

' H 

CiKci^u; rpci^ EKKaiScKUTraxci^ tc Tiu BoirTropeciu, otei^vov- 

fUvov Tov Safiov Ttiv 'AOavaiaiv vtto tuj So/iu) tcu Bv^amuiv 


Kttl ITt/JW^lluV iirOOTElXoi St KOI BflOpCwi (S Tci! (V TlT 


*EAXdS( narayi^pwY, ''Mpia xai N€>ec. koI 'OXu/tiria xni 


Ilvdui, KQi aiixopFfat tui! OTE^ai-uis o'l eaTe4>^vwTai 

SoJiOi a 'ASavaioiv i'l> ^/lui', oxoif c^KrrtuiVTai dl 'EXAaivs 

TOV Tt 'Aflavaio.i' dptrav koi tov Bi.^nvTi'.uv koi ntpivtfion- 




A^e Kal TOW ■n-a/ja twv ev Xeppop^ao} are- 

92 H 


snch final optative in piosei but I rpoalpiira: r^f SouXcfat S<iXariri^^^| 

know no olher final clause (of any (Schol.). 

kind) depending on a wisiiing opla- ii. toIj rfiv IltpivBliiv. i.e 

live in prose, which is hardly strange. crowns voted by these towns 

lO. iJvaiTolirp<njfni»Tai, i.e. their sentlo Athena as marks of hono 




Stjaroy, "EXeouvra, 


Kai ritv Sij/iov XP^^V "' 

XapiTOS ^<i>liOV IBpVOVTU 

luyioTov dyafluii' irapaCi 

257 XTjv i\£v6ipuiv, Ta Itpd. 
ovK tXHuifiti eujjap'larJliV 

Ovkovv ail fi.6vav 
traaat, oyS^ to KnXvirai. t 
4>iX^7r7Tp yeueaSai to'tc, oi/Se 

^ouvra. Ma- '^^^H 
rni* SouXnv 5 ' 

A6i)vaiuiv Tjjv jSouX^v 5 
laftti diro roXal'Ttui' cfrjKOi'ra, KOi 
:ai 8^/i.ou 'Aflijwu'uii', on irai'Tiiic 

roSou! Ta! irarfiiSus, toijs vo^ous, 
ai «v Tcp /^ri rnEra oiivi Trairt 11 
u TTOiuii' a T( &.V Zwrpui iyaSov. 
(■(p ;SouAeurjjpi<u.] 

I '^epp6vT)aov xal Sv^dvTtay 93 
EW^a-TTOvrop virh 
rifj-acBai rrjv TrrfXtn 
iaipeai<; ^ ^/i^ «ai. ^ TfoKire'ia Bie- 
•k'pa^aTO, d\X^ icai Traaiv ehei^ev avOprnwaii ttji* re 
T^s TTo'Xeai? KaXoKayadiau Kai t^ii ^iXi'ttttou Kajciai;, 
o ^ei" 7a/3 crvp,p,axo^ ^v rot? Builocrtoi! "TroXiopK&v 
aiiroiK eaipaTO vwo Trdvraiv, oC rt jevotr' av ai<Tj(ioP 
^ ftidpiorepov ; i)[i.eti B\ 01 «ai iien-^diievot TroXkh, 94 
Kot Bixai all iiceivoi'; etx'OTtD? Trept wi* ^yiieop^inj' 
Keaav eU vfi.di ev Toir efi-rrpoa-Oev ypdvoii., ov p.6vov 
p.vri<ji,KaKQtivre; avBe -Trpolepfuhi roii^ aBiKovp.4- 

93 I 

voL^ aXX^ . 

fp^ovTfl e0( 


■ Srffai 


§ 93. I. oJiKeOv introduces the 
conclusion to which the decrees point. 

2. om (sc. ^Kii') : cf. oat, § 2', 

4. I) irpoalffcns xal J| in>X.LT(£a: 
cf. IS 292*-^ 3:7*. Iti § 192* we 
have T-Jjii TpBafpwir t5! TeXiTslas in 
□eaily the same aeose. rpoalpeirii is 
dtlibtrait choice. 

7. o^fujiaxas "v: cf. § 87'. 

§ 94. I. ol |Xip.<|id^oi £iV=at 
ffif)i.fairBt iy. — iroXXd KCil SixaC 
(wJvois; cf. Ar. Piul. 8. Aoilif ^pil-if 
Sitatarjii/ulioiiai Tai-r-riii. 

2. wv r|-yvu|u)W|Klirav tl; u)uii: 

cf, rft •*ri/x'i«T'". § "8°. This 
"want of feeling" (cf. zoj', 248^) 
refers to the conduct of Byzsntium in 
the Social war: see note on § 87^, 
and Hist. g§2, 51. 

4. )ivi)(ru(aKO0*TK : rtmtmberiiig 
old grudgis (maliciously) : cf. § 99*. 
See »i*| lir^aintnxliatit in the ottth of 
oblivion after the restoration in 403 
B.C., Xen. Hell. IT. 4, 43, 

5. 6d£(iv, tCvoLiLvi the asyndeton 
is more emphatic than fdfar vol 
rfwiav: see §§ gfi*-', 234', and XOC 


' irapa travrtnv eKrarrtfe, xai fir/v on fiev 
iroXXois iaTe(pavo>icaT ^Si; Tav TroXiTevofievaiii awaif' 
re? tffflffi ■ hi QVTiva. S' oKKov r) iriXit i<rre^dvQ>Tai, , 

avfi^ovXov Xeyai i. 
el? tl-rrelv ex°'- 
'Iva Tolwv «o 

BuftK^IM^ CTTOlJJffaTO, « Tt SyO"- 

jfepe? auToiT eirerrpaicTQ Trpot; iifia^ vTr'apipiiyifKiav, 
rrv/co'^avtiwi oCtra? CTrfSei^w f*^ p,QVOv rrp i^ewSet? 
eZi/at (rouTO /tei/ ^ap {/rrdpyuv vjiai elhorai fj-yov- - 
/idt), aXXi Koi TO), et t5 /iakiffT -rjirav aXTjOfl';, 
ouTQ)! 0)9 eyo} Ke^pJiptai tok TrpdyfiatTi avfii^epeiv ■ 
jfprftfaaQai, 'tv t) tvo ffovXofiai rotv tcad" vfidt jre- 
i ■TrpayiiePiai' xaXwu Ty Trokei. Bie^eKdelv, Kal ravr ev 
0paj(eai ■ Kal ykp'dvSpa ISia Kai "ttiSXip koiii^ irpo^ i 

7. TAviraKi.nvo)iihi»v,yitUrfuilii: 

9. oHi|iPovXov...MTopa: rbocion 
as general was probably one of the 
eiceplions here implied. 

§g 95—101. Historical paraUela 
are cited to show that the considerate 
ttestnieDt of Euboca and Uyiantium 
wasinaccordsDce with the traditional 
policy of Athens. 

§ 95. I. t4s pX<uriti)]|tbis refers 
to the long tirade of Aeschines (ill. 
S5 — 93) against the proceedings in 
Euboea in 341— 34°' There is no- 
thing in the speech of Aesch., as it 
now stand3, relating to the help sent 
to Byzantium. 

a. Swrxtpis, uHpliaiaiit, is a 
euphemism adapted to the changed 
state of feeling towards Euboea and 
Byzantium since 343. 

5. {nrdfXti'* V^ (tSdnu, that 
ystt may be preiumid to knuw. cf. 
% 2Z8'. This is not a mere expanded 
tliivoi (as if rf«ii were usedl.but we 
have the fundamental idea of 6»iipxiu 

(Sl'')Bdded. Inline II, Tuv fiirapx^'" 
Tilt applies to the glories of our 
'ors as material stored up for 



- -.- -«0:ct.5i2'.— rifiA- 

Xutt" &XT]0<!t, nei'tr so Irui : cf. J 21 ■. 
S. xpAroirflai, dta! wilk, manage. 
— Tfiv Koff ii^\, of Ike events of your 
lime, beginning with the Ginnthian 
war of 395 D.c. This war was now 
65 years old; but there were probably 
old men in the immense audience 
who distinctly remembered it and 
who wonld be pleased to have it 
ipnken of as in their day. Still, he 
feels that these earlier events hardly 
fall within his limit of Ktff ^ubi, for 
he says ri3f Tbrt 'A^roiwv in § 96', 
directly after i^P-Bttf tls 'Wlaprot, 
and ol ifUttfiti TptvoMi, followed by 
i/itU of Tptffpiirf/Mi, in S 98'. 

garii) to: cf. t6 jr/i4t ti, Aristotle's ,_ 
category of rela/iait. 


T^ KoXXiaTa Ttav inrdpxovTtev ael Set iretpi 

\onra irpdrreiv. vfiett; Toivvir, avBpe^ 'A6t}Vaiot, 

AaKtBaiftoviQjv 7?)? leal OaXdiTt)'; apvovroiv Kal tA 

levKkq) TT)^ 'Attik% KareyoVTiiiV app^oaTaK 

pall, EwiSotou, Tdnaypav, ttjv BottoTiav 

Meyapa, Aiyivaf, Keav, to? dXXa'i v^aoxK, 

ov reijfr] TJJ9 TroXeoyi tote KTi)aanivr}<i, i^^XSt 

II. T4\oiir4(cf.§a7")i°PP™s'' 
' '■i" irapxii-Tut. 

§96. 2. AaK(EaL|iavCiiiv...aipxd*- 
dv: after the Peloponnesian war, 
Lysandor established in moat of the 

which were previoiialy friendly to 
Spa[ta,a Spartan governor (&fi/Kia'Ti)i) 
with a military force (^poupct), and a 
board of ten citizens of the subject 
state (Se«:aaapx'")i ^^° "^re partizani 
□f Sparta. See Kxitaich, l.ysand. 13, 
and Giotc ix. 255.— ri kJIkX^ rffi 
'Attik^: moie ihetoiical than ri 
repl Ti}y 'Attik'/ii', itijtXv having the 
adverbial sense of around. See IV. 
4', (Sxainv Ttivra rhr tlnrov oUtiay 

S. ECpo 


. leiav. . . Al-yivav ; Euboea 
and Megara had been in the hands 
of the Spartans before the end of the 

Athens had settled with her own 
people in 431, after expelling the 
native population, was restored to its 
former owners (so far as this was 
possible) by I.ysander in 405, as he 
was on his way to attaclt Athens 
(Tbuc. II. 27; Xen. Hell. 11. 2, 9). 
Boeotia as a whole was nominally 
allied with Sparta; hut Thebes and 
other towns became disgusted with 
Sparta's tyrannical contluctsoon after 
the end of the war, and though 
Thebes had been the greatest enemy 
of Athens when the peace was made, 
she harboured Thrasjbulus and his 

fellow exiles before they attacked tl 
Thirty in 403. This disaffection 
ended in the Boeotian war in 395, 
in which Athens aided Thebes; in 
the battle of Haliartus the allies 
gained a doubtfnl victory over Sparta, 
which was made decisive by the death 
of Lysander on the field. (See Grote 
IX. 409.) The invasion of Boeotia 
by Lysander and his Spartan army 
justifies t!|v Bmurinv fiimiFav from 
the Athenian point of view. 

5. 'SAiay, Tds oXXas v^trovi, i.e. 
Ceos and the adjacent islands, Tenos, 
Andros, Cythnus, Melos, etc. Melos 
is mentioned as restored to its old 
inhabitants by Lysander (PluL Lys. 
14). The emendation K^uii', t4j 
iXXai iniirauT for KXcwBdi, AXXsi 
nio-OKS (S) removes the difficulty 
caused by the mention (for no 
apparent reason) of Ceonae, a town 
between Corinth and Argos, under t4 
KiKKif Tfli'ATTmiit. — oi vvi% oi Tttxi 
T^( KniirafUviii : Athens was re- 
quired by Sparta to demolish her 
Long Walls and the walls of the 
I^raeus, not those of the Aittu; and 
she was allowed to Iteep twelve 
war-ships: see Xen. Hell. 11. z, 
20. Here Tire urijiraijJrTjt (not 
ji(j!Ti|;i^nji) means that she had not 
yet aa/uirfii any ships ot walls 
beyond what were left her at the 
end of the war. 

6. (Is 'AXfoprAv: tee note on 


AXiaprov xal waXiv oii TroXXal'i t)ij.epai'i varepov et's 
KopivSon, Toiv TOTE ' Affiivaimv ttoXX' av i'^^oVTOiv 
fiuij&itcaKij'a-'ai k'al Kopivdiotf Kal ©Tj^aibi? t&v Trepi 
TOf Ae/ceXetKOC iroXefiOP Trpaj^de'vTasv ■ aXk' oiiie 
e-TTOtovi/ rovTO, oM' fyyw. teaiToi tots ravTa ap,- 
ifioT^pa, Alaj^ii'i), ov6' inrep evepyermv evoCavv ovt 
aKi'vBvn' kaipiov. ahX' ov SiA ravra, ■kpotftno tow 
KaTa^eU70cTas £0' eavTois, aX\' virkp eiiSo^ia^ ital 
Tip-ij'i ^8eKov Toh hetvoh avTois SiSovat, 6p6w Kol 5 § 
KoXck ^ovXevop^evbi. Trepan ph yap dvanv av- 
dpwroi'i eVrt toO y3^w OdvaTOi, Kap'ei/ oIk^k^ Tt? 
auTOV Ka&eCp^ai Tiipri • Bel Sk toik; ayaffoiiii avSpat 
e7>;«/)eii' /lev airacnv ael Tot? koXoI';, t^k ayadijv 
TTpo^aWop^voxK iXTriSa, tf>epeiv 8' &v 6 Sew 5(8^ ; 
yevvatan. Tavr hroioup ol vp,^£poi -rrpoyovot, TavW I 

often given 
when the ! 
Decclea in Attica. 

II. otf iY7*s: cf._§ 12'. 

§97. 6, irtpos p.iv...Ti(pfl : this 
was celebrated as a gnomic sa)ing in 
The meaning is □ 

ail mXAats ^|Upais : according 
L to the accepted clirunology, the battle 
I of Holiartus was in the autumn of 
, and that of Corinth in 
mer of 394, in the year of 
Eubulidea. The Corinthian war was 
the result of a combination of Athe- 
nians, Corinthians, Boeotians, Ku- 
bueans, Argives, and others against 
Sparta. la the battle of Cutinth, 
the iipartODS were victorious. See 
Grote IX. 426 — 429. The beautiful 
moinanient, representing a young 
warrior on horseback, now standing 
near the Dipylon gate of Athens, 
was erected in honour of Dexiieos, 
one of the Athenian horsemen slain 
in this battle. The inscription is 1 
AfflNcui Kvna-tiav Ooptnoi. 
^^KTO Art 'itia&tSpov ipxoeros, 
irfBart ir EiffovXlSm 
iy KopirBif rdr rime lirr^uv. 

the last years of thi 
war (413—404 B.C.) 
rtans held a fort at 

I SxoA. 

I fotainttit. 

might k 

the Oat truism, "death is the end of 

all men's lives," but atl 

have a fixed limil in death, and thi* 

is made a ground for devoting 

lives tu nubte ends, for which i 

worthy to die. 

7. hi oUtiTKip, itt a chamber : dtrl 

TeC t^utpv Tf o^K^^Ti, llarpocration 
10. irpoPa\Xop.{vavs JXirCSa, Jira 

tecting Ihevnelves by hope {Jioldini 

it before Ihem, as a shield). Se< 

Menand. fr. 572 (Kock) : 
ft-awTiirpiTT-ut Arioi', d^aSJjurtirlB! 
rSKp.-^ Sifalif tal 6e6! truWa^pduci. 



AticeXiiicAv irdX<p»-, : 


v/Mit 0( Trpea^vrepoi, o'i, ni^aKeBaifiofiav^ oh tf>i\ov^ 
oiTai ovS' evepyerai, aXX.ei^'TroWa T^f ttoXiv fjfiwv 
i/SiKijKOTa'i Kal fi€yd\a, i-rretBrf &T}/3aioi KpaTTfiravret 
iv AevKTpoK nceX'eu' i'Trej^eipovv, BieKtoXvaare, ov 
Z59 tf>offj}0etne^ rrfv to'tc ^jj^aioK pa>fiT)v leal So^aa 
{rrrdpxovaav, ovS' irrrep oXa treTroiriKOTimv afSptim-roii 
Kivhvveveme iiLa\oyi0a.f£evoi. • xai yap toi Trdcri rot? 
"E\\-i]mv iBei^are SK tovtcov oti, /cav' otiovv 'f[? ew 
v/id'i e^atJ.dpTT], tovtoiv rifv opytjv ck rdW e^ere, 
idv B' inrep o-OTJj/Ji'a? ^ iXeudeoia'i KivSvvtk T(f 
avToiri KaTaXafiffdvr], ovre funjcriiedK'^&eTt ovff' inro- 
Xoyielrrde. koI ovic errt TovTOiv p.6vov o&r(B9 ^o'X'i" 
KOTe, a\Xtt TrdXiv (j^cTepi^ofi^av %r)^aCoiv Tr}v 

then formed rennained unhrolcdb! 
though sometimes strained, until afti 
the battle of Mantinea in 362 B.C., i 
which Athena fought on the side of 

— AaKiSotpivlDus, 


obj. of itH^eii 

ing Tin*) 9i7^aioLi, or pernaps simply 
tS rpay/ia, uodetatood as its object. 
From the position of Aac. we should 
eipect it lo belong to the leading 

4. Kpa'HivtiVTis Iv AtuKTptiiiS: 

the"Leuetric insolence" of Thebes 
{Diod. XV J. 58), which made her 
rather than Sparta the natural enemy 
of Athens from 371 to 339 B.C., was 
notorious. See §§ iS' and 36^. la 
370 Epaminondas with a Theban 
army invaded Laconia and marched 
np to the city of Spatta itself; but he 
did not venture to enter the unwaUed 
town and withdrew into Arcadia. At 
this time he established Messene and 
Megalopolis, to hold Sparta in check. 
In this trying emergency, Sparta 
humiliated herself so far as to ask 
help from her old enemy, Athens, 
Her request was granted, and Iphi- 
cratea was sent into Peloponnesus 
to the aid of Sparta with 12,000 
Athenians in the spring of 369 B.C. 
This saved Spaita from another in- 
'on at lias time. The alliance 



7. i/nip ola imr- AvOp^irDiv, i.e. 
•aihat the mm kad dont for whom. 

§ 99. 3. Toiruv, far :kii, refer- 
ring to hTiovy, as jtrrii can always 
have a plural antecedent. 

4. iitiif, concerning, involving. 

5. |iiVi|iniKiurfiirrn...&irDXii'YuIcr4(i 
livriSMaKtif, though usually intran- 
sitive (cf. § 101'), may have an ac- 
cusative, as nrrieinat^tat T^r ^^'''"'i 
Ar. Nub. 999. Thus both verbs may 
here have the same object, surest ed 

6. 4irl TOvTtav (idvcv: cf, XV, 15, 
riff "PoStuii Sif^ic^ ^MP, and ix. 57, 
Trapi, Toirou pini: In these cases 
/lire* modifies the whole sentence 
loosely as an adverb, where we 
should expect the adjective iiinuit 
or iiirf with the noun. We are 
often careless about the position of 
only; as "he only went to London 


Kvffoiav oi) -rrepieiSere, oi/S' &v viro @etiuTa>vo^ Kai 
^eoBaipov wept 'UpaiTrbu rfSi'iCTjade a.vefivriiT6r}7e, 
a\X' i^07]di^tTaTe Kai Tovroi'i, rwe eOeXammv tote i 
Tpi7]pdp)(<i}v irpSiTov yevofievioi' t^ xo'Xet, mv eh rju 
eyai. a.\\' ovTra -jrepl rovrav. Kai koKou ettoit}- 
aare Kai to aaia-ai. ri/i' v^rrov, xoW^ S' en tovtov 
/cdWiov TO KaTOo^avret*^ Kvpioi koI TOiv a-wpdrmii 
Kai tSiv irokeatv airohavvai ravra BiKaicoi aurot? 
TOW i^fiapTTjKOfTiv ell vpai, p.i]&ev &u ^BiKT/cOe 
( ev oU iifunevOrjre) yiroXo-^Ltrdpeviii. /ivpia toivvv 
erep' il-jrav" e-)(aiv wapaXeiwa, vavixaj^iav, i^oBoi 
sref^!, iTTpaTeias Kai -rrdXai yeyovviai Kai pvu e^' 


control of Thebes since Leuctra, but 
in 357 B.C. a Theban anry was sent 
to quiet some disturbances in the 
island. The Athenians with great 
energy sent an armjr Co Euboea, and 
drove the whole Theban force from 
the island in ttiirty days. This is the 
famous expedition to which the ora- 
tors always referred with pride. See 
Dan. VIII. 74, 75, iv. 17; Grote XI. 
eh. 86, pp. 30& — 309; and Hist. 

8. oi ir€pM[S«T«: cf. SienuiXiiiaTc, 
§ 98'. — 6(|i[<ruvos: a tyrant of 
Erelrio, who in 366 B.C. took from 
Athens the frontier town of Oropus 
and gave it to Thebes. (Grote 
X. eh, 79, p. 392.) Oropus had 
long been a bone of contention 
between Athens and Thebes. It 
was stipulated that Thebes should 
now hold the town only until the 
right to it could be settled by arbi- 
tration (iJxP' iifVi Xen. Hell. VII, 
4, 1). The " case of Oropus " was 
a protracted one; and it is said that 
Demosthenes as a boy was flrst in- 
spired with a passion For oratory by 
hearing an eloquent plea of Callis- 
in defence of the rights of 
i(Plut. Dem, ;). 

10. TOiTois: the Euboeans.— 
MiXovTuv. . . tJ ir4X»i, i.e. lie . 
/AiH for lit first time obtained the 
services t^tno^iiimg) of volunteer tr 
archs (iSiijirral) : Tur, because these 
became an institution. 

12. dXX" ottiru inpl Ttniruv: this 
may look forward to the orator's 
acconnl of his public services in 
I 267, or possibly to the discussion 
of his trierarchic reform in §g loi — 
109. D0iru: sc. A^u, but in XIK. 
300, )i-/ivia TauTs: sc. itraiiur. 

§ 100. 2. Kai ri fTAcnu Trgv 
viJoTW, ei'tn saving tie is/and, i.e. 
rtij Ay itself, opposed to TroXXiJi S ... 
icdXXioji, sc. tmd)<!aTi. 

5. |ii]Siv. iiiroXcf urdfuvot : ;iTi- 

iiv shows thai the participial clause 
is clcaely connected with tA dTfoJoDwH, 
not with ^Toi^ooTe (understood). G. 
1611. The meaning is !6i'(*DM//«*)nj- 
into account, rather than not taking 

6. fv olos 4irnmiIfli]T« (for is /kiI- 
Ml! «), representing the active »iff- 
T(iiF{>- raSra A^?v, as &r flSlici)<rSt 
represents iSittif raura A^fir. 

7. IfiEatit iritJit, land expediiieits 
(after vQ.)j\ijL-)^{a.i)\ o-rpaT<tas, 1. '~ 



^M ^n&v airratv, at a.Trdir'd'! t) iroMi t^? t&v aXKmv 

^M '^Wr^vfuv iXeudeptai Kai aei>Ti}pia<i TrewoiijTai. elr 

m eyo) reOeatprjKoti ev raa-ovroii Kal toiovtok rijv 

I iroXiv inrep rran tok dWoK a-ufiifiepoVToiv edaXov- 

H aav aymfi^fa-^ai^ VTrep auTn<! Tpoirov nva t^5 

H ^oi/X^s ouCTij! Ti efieXKov KeXevaeiv ^ rt !rvp!^dh- 

^m Xevrreiv ainr] woieli/ ; vi) Aia 7r/)o? 

B TOW ffovXofievov'; tr^f^eaSai, /col ■a-potpda-ei'; ^j/nlv 

\j\i^ 260 81' as awatna TrpotjrrofieBa. Kai tk qIik av av4- 
_jjA*'ii'-'-^, Kreive fie Si«aio)9, « ti rmv {nrapxovTmv -nj iroXei 
- " KaXmv Xoya p.6vov Karairyx""^'-'' eirex^^pw' 

TO ye epyov ovk Av iiroL^aaB' vp^K, axpiffw ol^ 
iydi ■ el yap i^ovXeade, ri ^v ipTroBdiv ; ovk ef^i 
ovy^ inrijpxoii ol raOr' epouvre^ avrai ; 


9, 10. tI)9. ■ . <rii>Ti)p[af , rare geni- 
tive of purpose or motive, generally 
fuunil with InKa, which is added here 
in most MSS. So XIX. l6,-rair' dxirij 
Kal Tij(_nj uvnaKKviaBii rov irepl 
♦twAii i\tSfiou, with similar variety 
of teading. (SeeG. 1127.) The in- 
Gnilive with Toii is commoo in this 
constmction, especially in Thueydidea 
(M.T. 798); an example oceuta in 
§ 107', raO nil roiiTr. 

§ 101. 4. 'bwip a£Tftt...oC(n]«, 

arned herself. 

6. vj| Ala, in bitter irony : cf. :cx. 

S. El' Sa irpoijtnliula (excuses) for 
soerifidHg (final). 

9. &™pxiiv™v (cf. 5 95"): ">e 
gloties (taW) ere viewed as a public 

10. tmxiEfniir' ftv (M.T. 506) : 
there is no objection here to cJ 
/rfX''/"?'" ''> as to either grammar 
or sense. It is amply juslilied by xix. 
172: d «)) i\h. th toiItovi lfioli\xs9ai 

ei TT/KwXafl 

&r ipyifiuiF *dn> iroU 
jitra TouTMt «7rfi^o3«uira. There 
fl irpir^oKTU ii> is 1/ / would /lapt 
gone en the emiassy, as «( titx*^" 
drhere is if I laeuld hove uiidertaktit 
(for any consideration). There may 
be a justification of httx'^v' 1^' >■> 
the following t4 7' Ipyae oit it 
itroiiiaaf iiiieXt, you would net have 
done the tAing in realily (Ifyip), 
opposed to theprecedingsupposition, 
if I had been capable of uraiertakiag 
it even in word (Xiyifi). 

'3- o^ 'iirf|pxov...ovTt>t; wire 
Hot these men here ready to tell you 
this? raSra refers to ittfriSiKaK^r... 
rpoTiviiufa (6 — S). 

gS 102—109. The orator de- 
fends his Trierarchic Law against 
the attacks of Aeschines. This im- 
portant measure was enactei! in 340 
B.C., at about tbe time of the out- 
break of the war with Philip (see 
§ 1076). For an account of the 
trierarchy at Athens, see Boeckh'i 
Staatsh. d. Athenet, 1. Book i 


BovXa/iai TOLVvp erraveHBtiv e^' a rovrtov i^<; 1031 
itroXiTevdii-qv • koI aKawelTe ev tovtoii -rraKiv aB Tt 
TO T^ TToXei fiiXTiaTov ifV, opatv yap, & avBpe^ 
' A.Oi}iraloL, TO vavTiKov v/ioiv KaToKvofievov, Kal TOiK 
/iev -TrXouffiov; areXei'; (Xtto fiiKpCiv avaXtofidrtaii S 
yiyvonevovi ,T0iK; Be fierpi fj /UKpa KeKTijfi.ei'av^ rwv 
TToXiTcoP ,Ta out' diroXXvovrai, eri B' vaTepO^ovtrav 

ilC TOVTWP Ti]V •TToXlI' TWU KO-ipOiV, e9l}Ka VOfLOV KaO' 

ov Toir? pii/ T(i Biicaia iroielv Tipdyxaira, [toi^ irXoih 
(7i'ou?,] TOW Be TT^VTjTas eVauff" uBiKOVfievow, Tp i 
TToXei B' OTrep ^v j^pTjaifi-ayraTov, ev Kaipip yiyveaSai 
To.'i wapaaKeva^ eTroiijtra. icaX ypdrfiif Toif dywva 1 
toOtoi' th vfiOM el(Ti}\Oov Kal airec^vyov, Kal ro 
p,epm tSiv ^jj<^a>v a BimKmv ova eXa^ev. /eairot 
TToaa j(prinaTa Toti? i/yepAva^ rav avftp.opt&ii f/ 


§ 1Q2. 4. KaroXudfitvov, break- 
ing up: notice the follQwing descrip- 
tive present participles. 

5. &TiXf^...YiY>vfi^oti i^caminj; 
txcmpt (from all ' liturgieB ') by small 
faymtnis. As all the roembets of a 
avirrfKtia (under the foraier syntem) 
were assessed equallj' for the support 
of theit ship, the lichee suvrfKeU 
might satisfy the law (as in the Case 
fuppoaed in § 104) by paying ^ of 
the expense of one ship; and as no 
one could be required to take more 
than one 'liturgy' in the same year, 
they would thus be exempt from all 
other services. But the richest of all, 
the leaders of the aymrooriea (| 103*), 
lometimes ingeniously used their legal 
duty of advancing the money for the 
trierarchy in case of special necessity 
as a means of avoiding even their own 
legal share of the expense. They 
could bargain with a contractor to do 
all the work for a fiied sum (e.g. a 
It), which they advanced, after- 


this whole s 

an unfair part of it, on their poMM^ 
colleagues. See Dem. xxi. 155. 

7. rd irr &iroU.v(iVTa«, lestHg 
what Otty had: a strong eipreMion 
of the injustice to which the poorer 
o-uweXfii were liable. — &o~np(taivav 
...■HSv Koipuv, as we say, behind limi. 

9. [tous wXowriovsj ; these words 
probably crept into the text as an 
explanation of Totii iitv, which needs 
no such note. The text is very 
doubtful, though the sense is clear, 

§103. T. f^tfAw». 
— riv&Y^i^ ToOTOV...ilirflX8o», Le. / 
slood (entered on) my trial on Ait 
issue before you, eh A^ai implying 

ypaiptl!, meaning the trial which 
followed his being indicted. Cf.ela^X- 
flop Tftt 7)W0i(», § 105'. 

2. t4 tifpos (sc. Tr^^iTTOv) ; cf. 
§ 266". See note on § 82'. 

4. JfYC)i.dvas tUv (ru)i(iopLAv, lead- 
erso/lAesyniinaries, here prdbatAy the 
symmories of the trierarchy, thangl^fl 
the term commonly refers tr "'■ "^ 


Toin SevT^patK xal Tplrot/i oieaBi fioi SiSovat & 
fidkiiTTa fiev fii) Qelvat, tow iMi/iov tovtov, el St 
KaTaffdXXovT iav iv VTraifioaia ; roiravT , & av8pei 
'AOijvaloi, otra oicvr}tFaiii av Trpoi u^a? ehreXv. Kai 
Tavr flitoTfO'i hrpa-nov ixetnot. 7ji> yap auToli eK ] 
ftev ruiv irparepav vop-wv ovveKicaiSeica XTjToupyeip, 
auTots pev fwcpit KoX ovSen avaXuneovtri, tou? &' 

ipposed to el Si ^)j, f/hervjise, if 

richest citiiens (ol rpuiKiaioi, §171^), 
who were leaders of the symmorics 
of the property-tax (claipapA). Under 
the system B'hich prevailed from 357 
to 340 b.Ct the 1200 richest citiiens, 
who alone were hahle to the duty of 
the trieiarchy, were divided into zo 
synunories, regularly of 60 men each. 
But exemption or changes in property 
might reduce the whole number of 
120a and the number in each sym- 
mary in any year. To each of these 
symmories was naaigned a number of 
triremes to be litted out in eacli year, 
regulated by the needs of the state. 
The symmory divided itself into 
smaller bodies (avvrfKeiaC), each of 
which eijuipped a single ship. The 
expense was borne equally by all the 
members, without regard to their 
wealth. Each symmory probably 
had a single leader, and the 20 
leaders, with the two classes called 
Stirrfpoi and rpWoi (who ate not 
mentioned elsewhere), evidently be- 
longed to the TpiBKiffioi, perhaps 
including all of that class in the 
symmories (15 in each). The nev? 
law of Demosthenes imposed the 
burden of the trierarchy on the mem- 
bers of each symmory according to 
their taxable property, thus greatly 
increasing the assessment of the 
richer and diminishing that of the 
poorer members. Of this a striking 
case is given in § 104*' '. 

5. GiEdvaL, offered, representing 
iidaav.!/, which appears in § 104'". 

6. jidXurra |mv, above all things, 

(M.T. 478).-rt 1. 

7. KaTapdXXovT iav Iv iirN|iuNrlf, 

to drop it anil lei it He under notice of 
indictment (lit. under the froiccutor's 
oath te bring an indictmerU). When- 
ever anyone brought a ypii^i) irapa- 
pi^uB against a law or decree, he 
was required to bind himself by an 
oath, called uTu^uHiIa, to prosecute 
the case. This had the eflect of 
suspending the law or decree if it was 
already finally pissed, or of stopping 
a decree which had passed only the 
Senate (i.e. a irpo^oitXtujia) from 
being voted on by the A^mbly, 
until the 7)JO0i) -wapaxhiiM* could he 
tried. (See Essay II.) The meaning 
here is that Demosthenes Hras offered 
large sums if he would either decline 
to bring his new law before the m/io- 
dtrax (>ij) ^EiHii) or else quietly let it 
drop {is,') when a 7pB#Ti Tafurifiuv 
was brought against it after it was 

§ 104. I. ^v...X^TavpY(Ev, i.e. 
tliey might perform the service (of the 
trierarchy) in bodies of sixtrtn: this 
is probahty stated as an extreme case 
under the old law, in contrast with 
an equally extreme case of a man with 
two whole triremes to support under 
the new law. A rurrAno of sixteen 
implies a change from 60 in the size 
of the symmory : see note on § 103'. 

3. avroi! luT, themselves [ifsis), 
opposed to Todi J* diripoui. — piiKpi 
KaloiGiv: see note on § 102". 


airdpow T&v -jroXiTotv eimpi^ova-iv, « S^ toO ifiov 
vofMtv TO 'yiyvofi^vov Kara tijv oi/aiav eKacrov ride- 5 
Pal, KoX hvolv itfidi/ij Tpi'^papvo'i 6 rij^ fua^ Sctos kuI 
oexaTO^ Tvporepov (Twfe\T]i ' ' ovhe yap rpir/papj^oiK 
It av6p.a^ov eavroiK, aXXa avjTeXeli. Sjure Bt} 
ravra \vvijvai Kal (irj to, BiKaia Troiflti ava'yica'&Oij- 
vaiy QvK ea8' 5 Tt ovic eSiSotraf. /cai fioi Xeye -TrpSnov 1 
/KC TO ■\{r'^(j>iffpa Kaff eLtrrjXffoi' Tt]V ypatfirjv, elra 
' r tcaTaXoyow^ rov t sk rov Trporepov vo/iov icai 
V efiov, \eye. 

*H*I2MA. S 

[airi opxoyTOi TLoXukXcov^, /iiji'oi ^crqSpopia>viK (irq 

Aij/UMjfifVous IIoiai'MUi ttcrijwyKt vofLov rpLr]pap^i.Kiiv avri 
Tou irportpov, KoO ov ox dWrtXemi jjiraj' riv Tpirjpa.p'<(u>v ■ 
xoi iirtxt.ipoTovri<7cv ^ ^ovKii Kol 6 Sq/^os ' koI av'^vcyKi ii 

4, fenTptpouiri»,o'(j/r«ji)(f(jri'ni/- 

5. t1 -yiTiviiuvov TiUval, /o /fly 
(14rt> j«ii/u iwhal fell to each) : ef. 
tiWku i4i t£ff0o/K£i, xxil. 42.— nard 
Ti|v ofio-Ittv, according to kis pmprrly : 
(coTd ri rtiaitui, acmrifing to hii vaiu- 
irtfR, would be more strictly sc curette, 

liaitia, (It laxablt property y in 
iSerent clssses bote & diSeiing pro- 

o the 01 

SiMttv. , . mn-riX'^s : it nas a 
ile case lliat a man who had 
assessed (os supposed above) 
for ontf one-aixteeDth part of the 
expense of one ship niigbt he com- 
pdled to pay for two whole ships 
uniler the new law. Tf>i4fiapxiii aug- 
geslB Tfvfipai.* and rpii))Mi)s with iviuv 

8. OTiVTiXflS, fartJiers in a iruir^- 
Xiia: uxteen tnerarohs uf a single 

pw the ship, wete absurd ! 

10. tSlSoo-an, offertd: cf. aiidwul 
a$ imperfect in % loj*. 

§105. 2. ■|r^i|)La-)uii : this ci 
be the trierarcbic law itself, which j 
was no ^ij^KTAo; hut a decree [mssed 
after the tru^uio-Iii, which may have 
ordered the suspension of the law or 
have provided for the trial of the 
case. — Ka6' %=secuHihtm qum 
quo, not Propter quad (see West ^ 

3, Tous KaraXdYo-n : the stupidity \ 
of the iotecpolatoi of the false docu^fl 
ments never shows to greater advan- 
tage than in the two fragments of a 
pretended decree given as iaTdXo7at 
in g 106. The real documents were 
two lists of citizens of various decrees 
of wealth, with statements of their as- 
sesSToents for the trieratchy under the 
old law and under the law of Demos' 
thenes. ITie contrast between the two. ■ 
called forth the question with which ' 
§ 107 begins. The document in § lo; 1 
is not a decree, but a memorand " 

ili^ifnav ov Auj8u>i- air 

,( rw KuXiie KaraXayov. 


ix t5c tv TOW A,o;^6ts rniirrcXnCiv, airo eiKoi 

lis TtrrapoKoyTa, iwi trrov Tg ^op^ipXP "'/"'''"''■ J 

O^pe S^ "Trapa toOtoi/ top e« i 

[To&s TpiTjpdpxav^ aipfla&ai tVi t^i" Tpi^pij Ajto t^s 1 
DJNTLas Kara Tifir/i^iv, axo roAavruv Siko ' iav 8c irX«<ivti)V l 
^ ovirui airoTiTlp,^pirrj'-§'xprip:a.Twv, Kara Tan AvuXoyurpav 
eiDs Tpiuiv jtAoi'iov KQi v3n;peTi'KoS 7 AttroupyMi Icttuj. Kuri 
T^v avr^v St al^oyun- iiTTtu Kal ols (Xarriiiv ouirfa ctrn tSv 
ScKa ToXawiuv, <is crvvT«'\«uK '(niwiyb/itvoi's^ tis to Sim 
ToAavra.] 15 

* lUKpk ^0T}6riaai rovj wevritriv v/i&v Soicm, ^ 107 
\ ^(itp' avakStaai. &v rov'pr/^ra &ticala ■rroieiv SeXeiv. 
ol vXoviTiOt ; oh roCvvv p.6vav tm fitj Kadv(f>eii'dl "* 
ravra aepvvvopai, oiihe tu ypa<}>€l'! aTrotpvyeii/^ aXXa 
I delvai Tov v6pov xaX tw Treipav S 

lu Sv... cf. TTij^it 8i.i«ii Til iXitlSa!, Eur. 
frag, ijj.—rif vtipav EfSuK^vai, on 
the lain having givia a lest of idetf 
(sc. t4» vbput afroC). See | 195 ", 
4 7e fiTjM leipaip (Jace, with npte; 
XXTV. 24, TtifMV H^£v vdXUkii 
9fiii(airi>> (sc. ol v6fioi) (with aiT-ur 
expressed); Thuc. 1. 138" (of The- 
mistocles), Lnh roS reipar IiSoAi (vr- 
*r4( ^taivcaBa.t, i.e. ii« /ri'o/. Compare 
Ihe perfect itiaaitm with the timeleHS 
aotisis which precede (M.T. 109, 96). 

% 107. i. iiUp AtMiXuom av... 
{BAmv, i/iiej it stem likily that the 
risk wouU have been viilling to spend 
(.enfy) a little la escape doing juslicef 
With ol rXoiitriiH supply JSD'oGirir from 
J(w£tnl. I (seeM.T. 754). dtaXSimi 
depends on i6l>.ti> i.v, which repre- 
sents ItBtkty i,y. TaS |if] vaulv is 
genitive of purpose (cf. § ioo»). 

3. KaSv4>Etvai, dropping: cf. nara- 
^(iXXovra, § 103''. 

5. rv)i^povTa Oilvai riv vi]^av: 



cp75> BeBoiKCvai. irdiiTa yap tov tr^efiov ratv airo- 
tTToKoiv ytyvofievav Karct, rov voftov roc i/iov, ovj^ 
tKerripiav e0r]K€ Tpiripap')(p'; ovhe'ix ■jranroff 0(5 ahtxav- 
fievoi -Trap' vpXv, ovk iv Movviy^^ia SKade^ero, ov)( vtvo 
t5>v airotTToXerai' eSeBy), ov TpirfpTji oin e^at Kara- 1 
Xei^Setff' a-rraiXeTO T3 TrdXet, o&r' airrou a-TreXeiifidi] 
oil Swa/teVT} avayiuOat. xaiToi xari tow trpoT^pow 108 
vop-ow airavra ravTct eyiyvero. to S' airiov, ev tow 
Treitj(Tiv jjv TO X^Tovpyeiv ■ -jroXXb, S^ TaZvvaTa avvi- 
^aiv^v. iyai 8' eV tww airopiov elt Toii? (vrropavt 
fur^vey'iea' t'^! rpiifpapj^ias • iravr oi/v rk Seovr 5 
iylywra. Koi prjv ical leaT avro toOto a^iov elpA, 
ejralvov Tv^eiv, OTt irdvja rk joiavTa TTpoj}povp,i]p 
•iro\irevp.ara a<f 5>v a/^a Bo^at- Kal ripai xai Bwd- 
p.£K crvve/3aivop tJ -jroXei- ^da-xavov Sk Kal -jnicpov 
1 Kal KaKOTjOe; oiibev etm ■a-oXiTevp.' e/ioi/, oiiBk rairei- 1 



diiroirr^Xui' : ace § 80'; and 
'■ 3S' ''''''' ^ iiroiTTAAiiui »diTai 

8. Inniplav (sc ^iffSai-), sup- 
fUanfs bough, generally of olive, 
boDnd with wool, which a suppliant 
laid on the altar af 1 diviaity whose 
succoar he invoked. 

9, JvMdwlx^: ^pda itnXv Xtptv 
M<>i'iv;flat 'ApW/uSot ' xdveZ (iptiryon 
alTtm rSir rpnipipx'^' fli'ioDiTo, fl 
ravrat If rtnt rflr <£cTfli)i^wi' ir rif 
neipaal (Schol.). See Lys. XIII. 

!a9tt>ivai.t irl rir 0ui/i<> Moun- 

i». Miinychia is the high hill of 

peninsula of Piraeus. 

□. d'nmA.^v: see Jlekk. Anecd. 

1,29: iTrevTo\t!s: Siaa rbt ipiB- 

' ixBtTt! ^vat. 0! irt T^i inronir^! 

tOw rXtouaSy Tpi'/lpian mi tUv ixaya- 

lA^vur rriXuv iroStSiiy^iiKi. They 

were chosen far each occasion, and 

had charge of supplying the trierarcha 

'l tigging and other matetial for 

trirclne* frogj (be public stores, 

and of seeing that these were properly 
restored at the end of the voyage. 

10, 11. !£» KaroXiLcliStEv', aian- 
doned a/ sen ; alVroil dirtXtf^iOTir wtii 
left bihind in port.—oA-ni, on the 
spot, i,e, in port, where she was lying: 
iv ri^ \iiiiy~. diCTiir«i(o(rro( (Schol.), 
See Plat. Rep. 371 c, airou pAtorrm 
irepi T^t iriap6.v. 

§ 108. 2. Ti S' atTWv, without 
Sti, like BT^tusaiv ii and Tiit^-fifiiov H\ 

cf. \ 

II. 32. 


nsctiplions.— iSvHiTa, cases af 
siMiity. _ 

StivAjiiw, pmiier (of varioM 


irrl TOO •pi\airtav Kal iruKa^av- 


^Soi 109 I 

POP, ouSe Ti)t TToXeoi? avd^iov. ravra toipup i 
ej^iBU ev re Toh Kara tt/p ttoKip TraXireufiaen xai iv 
TOK 'EX\ijy(K0i9 ^aprjaojiai- ovre yap ev tti iroXei 
TO? irapa rwu TrXoviyitov j^dptra'i fidWov ^ to rmv 
iroXX&v Siitaia eiX6fi.7)v, out' iv rot? 'EWi)vi.koIv to, 5 
^iXiVTTOv Sapa Kat ri/p ^eviav •^yd-n-iia' dwt twc 
Koipy TTaai tok "EWjjtri avfu^epovratP, 

'YLyovp-ai roivvp Xolttov elvai poi Trepi toS K-qpvy- 110 
/xaTOf etVetu KaX t&v tvOvposp • to -yap b)5 Tapirrrd t 
ETTpaTTOP Kat Sia Travrm evpovi elpX Koi irpoSufio^ 
ev iroieiv upai, iKavo)'; ex t&p dpriiievoip hf&TjX^a-Bai 
fi.01 pop-C^m. KatToi tA p.eyiard je tSp TreTroXiTsv- 5 
fiepeav xal ireTrpaynevrnp ifxaVT^ irapaXelTvco, inroXap^ 
^dpav irpStop ^ec iifte^i)^ tow Trepi aiiroO rov irapor 

^ 109. I. -^flo*, prindpUi (of 
itXioa), political iharailir : see note 
on § 114^1. 

2. iv rets ExXiivtKots, opposed 
to it Toit jtnri tjJp ri'Kit: see 59^. 

6. dvrl, ratherlhan, like fia^Xo» Jf 

5S 110—121 contain the reply to 
the Krsl two arguments of Aeschincs, 
that on the cesponsibUity of Demos- 
thenes aa an i/ixiov at the time 
when Ctcsiphon proposed bis decree 
{_%% III— 119), and that on the place 
of proclamation C§5 ISO, izi). § MO 
is introductory. §§ I2z — 115 are a 
peroration to the division of the 
argument beginning with § 53. 

§110. I. ir<pl tdO Ki|pVY|uiT<K, 
i.e. about the place of proclamalion, 
tbia being the only point in dispute 
under this head. 


the question whether Demosthen 
was a " responsible magistrate " when 
Ctesiphon proposed to crown him. — 
ri Y^-'-<'H^> ''^- '''^ statement in 
Ctesiphon's decree tknl 1 did etc., 
subj. of UiTiKHeBai. (4) ; with this 

reference to the words of the decree 
cf. 57'. 

5. t4 [jiYw-ra refers especially to 
his important public services in the 
year before Chaoronca (339 — 338), 
the account of which comes in later 
with far greater effect. 

6. irapnXctvUf I leave aside (not 
necessarily J omit). This whole pas- 
sage is full of rhetorical art. He has 
no intention whatever of omitting 
these acts; but he skilfully implies 
that his earlier acts, already related, 
are ample for the legal justification 
of Ctesiphon, so that he could afford 
to leave his greatest achievements 
unmentioned. He also diverts atten- 
tion from the weakness of his argu- 
ment on the fSAihi by placing it 
between two most elective political 
harangues. See Essay 1. § 5. 

7. J^iE<|s> in due order: cf. £ 56*, 
oiia^viiciirTapttXd^a.where he simply 
States his general purpose of giving a 
full account of his public life.— o4to0 
ToO irafMivd|U)v, the strict question of 
illegalily,^\}^ which alone t!ie7pn^ij 
irapai^/iun' is properly concerned. 


67 I 

vofiov \6yov; airohovvai /le Setv, elra, xav ^ti^Sec 
et-TTtu irepi tS>v Xofrrav TroXiTevfidToiv, ofio^on irap' 
vfiSjv'eicdtTTip TO avvaSw inrdpy^eiv 14,01. ' 1° 

TaJw /iec ovv Xoyou, o5s oE'td? avat ical Kara 111 
BtaxvK&v eXeye irepl t5)v wapayeypanfievap i^fitov, 
otSre /ia tow deow oi/iai v/iae p.apSdveii/ ovr auTW 
eSwdiiTiv avveiviii tou9 "ttoXXou? ■ anXSyi' Se t^v 
opOriv TTfpl Ttoc Sixaicov BiaXe^o/uii. TOaovT(j> yap S 
SAj Xeyeii' ws ouk clftl virevffvi'o'i, 3 I'lJy oCto! Sie- 
iSaXXe /cat hieopt^e7o,''&<jd' airavra toj- ^loi/ Wew- 
Bvvo'i (ivat ofioXoySi &v 17 SittKc^ei'/JiKa ^ TreTroXtVei/- 
/MM TTop' v/iti'. fii^ fiSrCi y e'/c t^? tS/af oiiffla<i 112 j 

.. aii the i/imt. — wop" 

ijliv. . . iirdfXtiv (ul, M/i/ / Miy ri/)' 

iimsciBustiess of Ihint in each if 

minds: cf, § 95' itid rote. 

S 111. I. Tuv Xdvwv, depend- 

311 Toil ITbXXihSI. &VB KSl lldTM 

:imAv, mixing Ihrm in utlcr con- 
fiuian. See ix. 36, dtu 10.1 ciriii 
nvoE^Kc, and without «ai IV. 41, 

a.<ipaf.]f,ivuv : the Uus 
rhich the indicted decree (riiJeuyoB 
w) was charged with violating 

r, and this was pasted in the 

□om. See Aeseh. 111. 200: is 

: ipa^iaii TdritapathtuiittiipiK 

9 <ii-^<liiaiia aai 

tTi tS 0- 



irapa7 cypaiifiiiio, 

\t. Av. 1 

tAv Emafuv, the rights of the 

, opposed to tSii 'kirivt (i). — 

ovTf E4> X JYa*' ^"^ sBfnrfmm 

gfing'- Ttaoirif (2) with S^u as with 

inparatives : so in ix. 17. Most 

|S. have Toaaimv in both passages. 

■jS. Si^^aXXt Kol SuDpliiTO: see 

8. wv...irf«o\lT<v|Uiii, i.e. either | 
/or mony' that I ka-vi kitndUii or far 
fublic mil that I have done. 

§ 13.2. The suphisticat character 
of the argument of §g II3 — 119 ex-l 
plains the anxiet]' of the ora' 
cover its weakness by its poul 
the oration. The reply of Aeachines ' 
(III. 17 a.) to this a^uiTOB Xiyov, It 
^s\ ^yifioaBivifs, probably wiittiin or 
greatiy modified after hearing this 
passage, is conclusive. The law 
quoted by Aesch. (11), toSj fnrtv- 
tJi/Mui fij) sTttpa.mvt, certainly mad* 
no exception for those who gave I 
money to the state while in office. 
Indeed, this very claim is one which 
needed to be ealablished by the 
eiBwut, in which it might be dis- 
puted r see Aesch. aj, ituw i.ii4iir- 
pTITTJaal irai rAy ^ouMiaiHir tSu ra\i- 
tHii ill o6k ^^iuKai. The claim of 
Demosthenes at lea^ amounts to 
(bis, that any olHcer who asserts that 
he has expended more in the service 
of the state than he received should 
be exempt from the law rais iriu' 
Si/ovs fii o-Tf^flH)i!ji, The specious 
argument that a mao cannot fairly 
. for the 

dilute of I 



j64 i/TTwBvvo'i (Ivai <f>i}iit (a«oiie(5, Kurylvt} ;} ouS' oKKov 
Qvheva, ovS' av tSiv ewe' ap^ovrmv t(? &iv rv-)(^-^. 
•^dp iari vono'i roaavTi]'; aBtKuK Kal fiitravSpanria^ 5 
/j,€iT7o^ a>mk Tov Sovra ti rQ>u IBirai' Kal Troi^a'avra 
■rrpayfia (fitXdvdpcoirov Kal ihiXoSaipov t^5 ^dptro^ 
fiiv atroarepH", ei? tol^ irVKo^dvTa^ S' ayeiv, Kal 
TOVTOW eVl Tos evdvua'i &!> eScokev e^itrTavai ; aiiSe 
eh. el Se (f>ti<nv oliTO'i, Sei^drw, Kayu) 'ifTep^oi Kai lo 
o'lanr^ aW' qvk (iniv, dfBpe^ ' Adjjvaioi, aW' 113 
oCtos avKO^avT^u, Sri CTTt TM OewpiKoi rore <ov eVe- 
hoiKa tA jip-jfiara, e-n-'giieviv aiiTOP, ^tjo-Xv, 
dvvov opra. oii "jrepl tovtidp y oySei^? Sv vttei^J 

works could not release Demosthenes 
from tl$urai when he had obviously 
had public money fn his hands. 

I. th pitTOi 7* ; yc emphasieea 
the whole relative clause. 

I. iva.Ylli'^^luvot UEuKD, Aave 
ojfftreil and givttt, i.e. have given by 
my free act, openly declared. 

4. TAvtvW ipxdrrov: The Ai- 
choDE, as the chief magistrates and as 
candidates for the Areopagus, would 
be subject to special scrutiny at their 

5. pMravSpanrfot, misantkropy, op- 
posed lo ^iXdr^^wrar (7), 

S. «tt TDUC rvNa^vTm ; ironical 
allusion to tl\ xaht \v^unix, as if the 
sycophants were a board of oihcers 

9. Tovrav). . .I^LirrAvai, to settAtm 
lo audit Ike accounts etc. 

5 113. I. dU' oiK Ivnv (sc. 
(A/wr ToteCrdr). 

3. Jirl T^ OcoifHirtp £>v, being treas- 
urer of the Theoric Fund: for the 
importance of this oHice see Aesch. 
III. 25, 26, ending with Kriiri^iSv ik 


gave in addition (lo the 

P«>1 . 
his charge). , Gifts t' 
were often called iiriiiiiat: al. note 
on g r " 

3, ivanavi aMr (sc. KTijiri^w*) 
=typail'ir ircurifoi. All MSS. ei- 
cept S insert 1^ pouXi) as subject of 
iw^vfiTfr, The true subject appears 
in 1. 10, ToiJr' typaifien bSl repl iiioS. 
ixoiMEt, compliment by a volt of 
thanks, and vrE^nDr ace both u^ed 
of the vole conferring the crown, 
which included a vote of thanks : see 
S§ s;<, s«", 1I7'; 

4. OS 'trtpl TOUTav. . , eirtouKa : this 
argument assumes that an ordinary 
iVireiifluvo! could be crowned, before 
passing his tiBvpai, lot a gift to the 
state which was not connected with 
his oRice. But this was not the case 
with the gills of Demosthenes. 
These were both closely connected 
with the funds which he held as an 
officer of stale, and the argument of 
Aeschines (23) applies to them in its 
full force. Demosthenes says nothing 
which shows that Clesiphon did not 
violate the letter and even the spirjl 


duiio"; TJv, oKX' e<ft' oh i'n-eSoiica, & avKa(f)di'Ta. aXX^ 5 
Kal Tet^o'Toios rjffSa. koX Bid ye tout' opSat 

€wi}v6vfirji', OTt Tav-qKaifiev eBtoiea koI ovk eKO'yi- 
Qoi^Tlv. 6 fikv yap Xo-yiir/ior evBuvcii' xal TWf e^era- 
aomaiv irpoffSihai, ij Se Bape& j^apnov Kal e-rraiuou 
SiKai'a earl Tvyy^dveiv SioTrhp tovt' eypayjrey oBl i 
irepi €/j,ov- on 5* ovrto ravr' ou povov ev toZ? v6- 1 
poll oKXa KoX eV toi? vpeje'poi'; fjdeaiv wptarai, 
eyo} paSioK TroWay^oOei' Sei'fw, irpSyrov piv y^p 
NaU£r£«X)^5 aTpaTtjyuv i'(j>' oh a-iro tSiv iSicoP Trpoetjo ' 
iroXKaKi'; itj'Ti<f>dvrorai v<j>' vpiav ■ eW ore ra'i aaTri- 5 
Sas AtoTt^o? eSoiKe Kal wdXiP Xa/jiSij/*o?, eerre^a- 
VQVV70 ' etff oirroffl NeoTTTo'Xe/iOT •n-oXkaii' epytav CTTi- 
a-id.TT}'! Sip, iip' oh eTreScoKt TiTipijTai. a^erXiov yh.p 

of the liw Toii inraBinuj ni) imrpii- 
rovr. And yet it is more than likely 
that the friends of Demosthenes, in 
their eagerness to ccown him for bis 
noble lervices, overlooked the tech- 
nical obstacle to their actiun ; and the 
court appesn to have decided to over- 
look Iheir oversight. 

Ttixiwroiis, one of a board of 

missioners appointed to super- 

I intend the lepsirs of the city walls. 

I The argument seems to have been 

the same about both of the ofticea 

which Demosthenes held in 337— 

j 336B.C. See Essay »].§ 1. 

". tSv i{(Tiiff^VTo»ip (=ot i^tri- 

in'),mtiit0 invuligate: the present 

I would be simply iiivtsligalorst with 

DO temporal or final force. 

% 114. 2. tfitviv, your moral 

I fctHng!, which impel you to act thus, 

\ Cf. % 30^. Cf. i(fli«d, mores, moTah. 

See note on 5 27s ». 

3. ToXXaxdAcv S([£u: Aeschines 
I. anticipates or rather answers this 
I Mguraent in 193; X^eiiii^eiJyuiB... 
' ufi ?»M(na liypn^rt, aXI^ m IJSti 

rari ital irpirrpov It f pas roiat 

4. NavmiiX^s; the general who^ 
commanded the well-known espedl- 
tion which stopped Philip at Ther- 
mopylae in 352 H.c 

6. Aidnjus: mentioned in XX[. 
ZoS as a rich Irierarcfa, included by 
Arrian (l. 10, 4) among the generals 
whom Alexander demanded al^er the 
destruction of Thebes. — Xap(Gi)|m; 
of Oreus, an adopted Athenian, the 
object of severe invective in the ora- 
tion against Aiistocrates (352 B.C.]. 
He was Rrst a gucrriUa leader in the 
service of Athens, later one of the 
patriotic party, and was demanded by 
Alexander in 335. 

7. ovroirl implies that Neoptole- 
mus was well known in Athens.— 
froXXsiv {p^uv tKurri-Trp ; probably 
one of those called Sij^o'fuv tpyar 
<iriifT(iTaibyAesch.(iTi. ag), specially 
appointed to direct special works. 

8. <rxJ-rXu>v Sv (Iii...«^i: for 
the peculiar furm of conditional sen- 
tence sec M.T. 503, 407. ' 


av ell) tovt6 rye, el Tp tiv' apxv" S.p-)(ovri. ^ BiSovai 
tJ TTcfXet TO eaUTOV SiA Trji' apyrijp p.^ e^eaTai, jj rwu lo 
265 SoSevTtov aVTi too KOfi^craa-^i X^pii 'kvSvua'i 'v^'e^ei, 

0T( TOiwv TaVT aKtjSri Xeyo), Xeye ra ■^T)^i&p.aTa, ftoi 115 
TO TOUTOi? '^eyevrju^v aiira \a^a>ii. Xeye. 


ewoSn, yciufig jSouX^s nal Sij/iov, KoAAois 'I'f)e4if3/itos tTn-w, 3| 
OTi SoKet T-j ^ovXg «u ru StJ/iiu OTet^nvSirai NuuiriJtABi tov ( 
«5ri rii' 5jrA.(i>v, on 'kBTjvaliav oirXiTuiv SmjfiXitot' oiTiuv hf 
'I/ifipm Kai 0oriOoWTUiv TOis KOTOiKOVtriv 'AOijvaliof 

pOTOVTjjicvmi Sia rots j(«;i£i^9 TrAEuirat Kal fuiTdoSoT^trai 

TOUS OTtAiTUSi tK T^S iSlllS ofilTLClS ?SujK{ KUC OUK furtVpoft TOV 

S^piv, Kai avayop^iTiu rov rrriifiaiiov Aiowuioi'i rpayffScStm 


[Elm KoAAuis ^p^appioi, TrpvTtivciov ktyavTmv jSouA^s 119 
yviap.Tj, itraSii XapSij/ioi o iirl rfiv ojrAirtuv, affooToAeis 
cU SoXafiiTO, Kal AioTijiiK 6 tirl Tiii Irrtiar, iv r^ (tti 

ToS XOTOfioS ^Xfl ^"''' "■'■pnTlUlToiv TlkUJV VTTO t£v JTlAe/lHUV 

(TjitiiXtiiflEiiTtiv, <K Tuiv iSiuiv avaXoifjATUiv KU&onrX.l.iTav Tois S 
vaiV(iTKOU5 dlo'TrtViv oKraKOO-i'aii, SeSnxfini T17 ySouX^ jcoi tiu 
S^^ tm<liav!oaiu XapiSi/iiov Kal Aioti/ujv ;^if<Tiu tTTCifiav<ii, 
Kol AvayopiviraL TlavoSi/vaCoi^ tqis /ityoXois «f ri3 yu^viKijI 
dyiui't Koi iiQi^iTioi! TpayioSoti KQivois ' t5s 8e dvayoptwreius 
366 cirificXijP^i-ai dc<rno6iTa'i, TrpvrdvtK, iyuivoffiriK ,^ lO 

TouTiBi' eieaaro-i. A.t<T)(_(mi, tJ)9 m^" "/'X^' V^ HV 
^/j^ey irTTivOvi/oi ^f, «i^' 0I5 S" eme<}>avovTo ouj^ 

II, mipifa'atrflaL implies that the g 117. 2, {iji' ols Jim^KivoOTt) : 

receiver has a claim on the giver: we do not knoiv whether there wt; 

cf. droSoOiiai, § no", and Flat. Rep. any distinction between these decrees 

507A, r^M^TeiwBtraaiafirJjjidirofoBwu and that of Ctesiphon like that men 

Kni i/iat KBnlsaaffai. tioned in §113*. Aa Den -"---^ 



wrevOvvm. oukow ouB' eyof raina, yap ^t'lcai cittT'., 
ftoi TrepX -niv aiiTwv tok aWot? htmav. eiriBaKa ■ 

i SeBruKa y eiiOvva'i iickivwv, ov^ ^^ eV^' 
■.BUio'i rip^a ■ elra irapa)v, ore 
i, ov leaTJiyopeti ; 
"Iva Totvvv tBTjff oTi avrm oCto's /to( fidpTVpkX llffil 
e<^' oVi ov)^ vwevOuvo'i ?}V iaTecfiavSirdai, \a^aiv 
avdyvwOi to -^rf^iap.' oXov to ypatfie'v /ioi. oh yap 
OVK iypdyfraTO tou Trpo^oiiXeviiaTQ';, tovtoii a Bcioxei 
avtco^aVTOiv ^avrjacrai. Xe'ye. 5 

1^ At", a\> 
.ai)yov oi \6yia 

5, *wa4voS|ioi:_cf,;rjfK(rEi',§ 113* 
7. -n] AC, dU' : a more emphatic 
foim in Itatiiig an objection Itian the 
common iXXi, irij Ala : cf. XIX. 472, 
XX. 58. — irapii'; i.e. iting prfstnl 
(as you were). 

S. |i' (tirfjiiav ol XirfiiTTal ; see 
Aristot. Pol. Ath. 54, ral (kXij/mwi 

Toirint B^KOiTrpi! oSi fimin'ai dutys'ij 

Ktir- ofrot -yip elm ii4toi Tefi InrevBi- 

SiicaffTtipiev E[ait70i'rtc. Before this 
board o( auditors every magisttale 
had to appear for hi^i eCSuimi at the 
end of his tenn of office; and they 
{generally as a matter of form) 
brought him before a Heliastic court 
of 501 judges, in which anj'ooe might 
a.ppear and accuse him of any offence 
conneeted with bis office. His ac- 
counts of money expended were 
audited at the same time. See 
Aescli, IlL 17 — 23. The question 
t(i ffoiXtrai Karirfpf^y : (Aeseh. 23) 
was probably ftalted in presence of 
■ourt at the rfflumii of Demos- 
a; and to this Aescliinea did 

not respond. But Lhese iSSumi must 
have come several months after 
Qesipbon'g bill had passed the 
Senate and had been indicted by 
Aeschines, so that accusation at the 
ttffvmi was superseded. See Essay 
m. I I. 

S 118. z. fam^aTAirSsi (sc. 
ini), that the proposal to crown me 
has passed the Senate: cf. ir^trafv 
in § I13». 

3. 'Ypa^^v (101, proposed in my 

4. ToO iipaf^vktvyM.TOt : partitive 
after 0(1. The meaning i», that he 
will use the omissions from the decree 
in the indictment to show the malice 
of Aeschines in prosecuting the 
clauses which he includes. 

a Sx^Kii 

61, avKo^avTodiixy ri -rpayua. 

The orator now calls for the readmg 
of the bill of Qesiphon, ostensibly to 
prove the point just made, but per- 
haps chiefly to recall to the minds 
of the judges Ctesiphon's enumera- 
tion of his public services which the 
Senate has approved. In the fol- 
lowing spurious decree the Archon's 
name is wrong and different from 
that in the indictment (which is 



[ Etti ^xpvriK EifluKAt'ors, Trvavajnuivo^ ivarj) Awioyroi^ 
ifivX^'i ffpuraveuoiNT))! OtviftStK, KTrjiriijimii Aetoo-fitVous 'Ara- 

Xciffa* tis ra ipya airo t^s iSi'as owtmii Tpui TaXnira eTrt'Siuite 
ToCra riu 8^/«u, tat «Vi toE OtaipiKov naTatTTaOdt e7r*Bun(£ 
Tots tK ttiutHiv tZv i^u\uJv dfiiipoi^ ticaTov /ii'Ss (IS fiwrias, 
SeSd;(ftii Tg |8ouA.ij «a! Tu 8iJ/iui riu 'A^ijvaiuiy ejraii'tiral 
^rjiioif&cvrjv iij/nxrSfmus llQiai'ini operas Iwnci lau khAoko- 
ynflui^ ^« (X<"i' 8uiT(Aei tii TraiTt Kolpoj tis roi' S^pjv roc 
'AfljjvuiW, Kni UTe<(!iaiTuiTai XP'"^'? oTt^dvoi, koc drayoptvinu 
' Tov OTei^™v fv r<fj Seqt/ku Aiovmrtois T/rayijiSoii KoivoTs ' T^S 
8« awiyoptiJo-e<u5 tn-i/itXi^^^vai toV iyui'oflETijv.] 

OuKOVP a ti.ev e-jreSiujia raVT eerTti', fij' oihkv av 119 
yf^paijraf a 2e' <f)7jaiv tj ^ovXij Seiu avTt rovrtov 
yeveaSai fioi, TaOr '4it6' k Sidixeit. to Xa^elv c 
ra SiSo^ieva ofioXoy&v evvofiov elwat, to X'^P^" ''"' 
Tajc ttTToSouwii TTapavojimv ypd<f}€i. 6 5e TrafiTromipo^ i 
dv&paTTO'i icaX ^eoi? e^Spo^ /cal 0di7/edM)t 
TTotoV Tt? Aw eiT/ Trpo? Btaiv ; ovx o toiovtoi ; 

Kal prju TTepl rov y' iv Tip dedjpm KtjpvTTea-Oai, 120 
TD ftev pvpidtcK [ivpiovi Keic7]pvj^9ai ■n-apaXeiTrai xal 




S 119. Here the pruaf of the 
malice of Aeachines, promised in 
^ I lit, is given on the authority i>[ the 
riecree just read. It is argued that 
Aeschines admits the gifts and their 
' gslity by his silence concerning 

em, while he brands as illegal [he 
ptopoaal to return public thanks for 
these gifts. As if tbe thanks for a 
legal gift might not be given in an 

5. trapavd|iNV ypd^ii: cf. note 
on § 13'. 


:n had been 


means that lO^ooo in 

10,000 times 10,000 men). This 
nns jus tilled chelorically by the 
great frequency of decrees conferring 
cr.iwns to be [■rodaimed in tbe thea- 
tre ; tbe number vi these on record 
shows that any law which may 
' forbidden the proelau 


1 the theatre « 

a deuj 


TO iroWaKM atno'! eVre 
irptK Oemv ovrat aiecuZ<i t 

'. '■n-porepov. oKXk 

Sit oi Slim 

:aai X07, 

X^a.a0-ai i 

m T&i /xei/ ine^avov- 

a^apf)'0'^', T( 

^iiXov 6 aTei^avoi, 


I iivp,<f>4- 

povTOt iv T^ 

Qedrpa ' 

yiyverat ■ 

70 KYipvyp-a ; 

"o( yap 

axova-avTit wTToin-e? ek to ■jroielv dj rrju ttoXiv Tvpo- 

i-jraivovai rov "aTeij)avovp,evov ■ Bioirep tov inifiov 
TOVTOK ^ TToXw yeypatf/ei/. Aeye S* airrov pMi tow 
voiiou Xa^Qiv. 


i'Oaovi « 

'■.V auToTs CK 

Srjfiiiiv, Tiis avuyoptvirtti 

civ fi^ nms 6 Sq/iot o rii' 'AflTjituuii- >; ij ^uvXi/ trrtifiavoi, 
Tovrous S' «£ttva[ iv t^i Otdrpia AtovviriMS avnyDpewirftw.] 

3. TimXKdKLi.-.irpiiTipov: inthe 
aottoa ^83^ (diuTipiiu...yiyyoiUrov). 
I haveeivenceasona for thinking that 
the ciawD voted on the motion of 
Aiistonicus in 340 B.C., and pco- 
cUimed in the theatre, had been pre- 
ceded by another, aha proclaimed in 
the theatre, of which we have no 
other account than the alliuion in 
j 83. Theie two, with the one voted 
on the motion of Demomelea and 
Hipendt. 1. 3jS b.c. (§S ji,, =23). 
if the latter was actually proclaimed, 
justify the use a! vaWiKH, especially 
after itvpidms nuplam. 

5. ioV oft Sivoo-oi : see M.T. 
601 and 584. The meaning is art 
you se slufid that yoH are net nhU? 
while with uNTTc ^j) I^vairSai it would 

be art you sIHpid tnough net to be 

6. T6y diVriv !x" M^ov, i.e. the 
rtaiver of the trmon feels the same 
pride: {^Xoi is emulation, /r/ai in 
e:riel/iug,henct gJerying (ice 5§2I7'> 

7. iIvtKa: this Ionic and poetic 
form is often found in the best MSS. 
of Demosthenes. 

9. its t4 iroxCv «S ; this motive is 
strongly urged in many decrees con- 

§ 121. Thisshort but impassioned 
outburst cannot be a reply to the long 
and confused argument of Aeschines 
(32 — 4S). See Essay I., Remarks 01 

§§ 120, 121. - 


T0VT0U1 S* ava'/opevero}; jC oZv, & raXaiirtope, 

aVKOt^aVTW ; tI Xoyov^ TrKaTTCK ; Ti aavTov c 

aij>aipoiv fiepjj, oik oXovi Six 
XL TOK 7' op-fniiOKaai Kara, tow 
eirura roiavra tvoiSiv Xe^et^ 122 
I hrjfiariK^. Syuwtp avBpidvTa 
■.KBebwKW Kara dvy'ypacjyqv, eh' ouk ej^ovra & irpoir- 

eXXepopi^ei'! i-n 
StKijU elcrdywi/, oui 
fieTatroiHiii, toiv h' 
T/v avayiyvwcTKeaO 
vo/ioi/i -^jnjipteia-dai 


3. TOVTOvs 8" i-va-^opfviru (sc. i 
iTJpui'): the quoted passage TXi^r^ib 
..irayopiv^Tui appears to he an addi- 
ion lo the taw quoted by Aeschines 
n 32, Jit ,xii> Tim i, pouSii ffrf^a™?, 
'n Ti? Pavtttimiplip imnriplh-TraSai., 

Si fiijiajioC. This would mean that 
AeBchines read a mutilated law to 
the court, wliich in full would have 
told against him, and that Demos- 
thenes simply supplied the omitted 
words and so ended the argument. 
This is more than we can helieve 
either of Aeachines or of the court. 
Our trouble is, that we do not know 
what law the clerk read to the court 
at the end of § 120, and therefore do 
not know in what connection the 
words now quoted by Demosthenes 

5. IXXipap([iit : see Ar. Vesp. 
1489, irW rtXi^opo^, i.e. yeu are 
mad; Hor. Sat. 11. 3, 166, naviget 
Anticyram; A. Poet. 300, tribus 
Anticyris caput insanabiie. — oiS' 
at<rxuv«...i[rd-y(i>v; for the differ- 
ence between aXaxi^lta^ tliii-if\y and 
aiaxi*filiax tUriyuii, which in the 
!_ form is not very important. 

: M.T, 

. 903' 



clesriy in Xen. Cyr. 
)ilp aOii aCirxi'Viiai Acyuv to 01,., 
aiffxi'wiw*" XfTdi'.— (|ieiivou El<n]v, 
a !uil iasiil m/rtly nn ipWroi, opposed 

to dSiifii^iaTD! SlK-qt, a suit (to get 
xftAK^i) for ancgtnce (cf. § 279'). 

7. T«v G' d^iupAv |upi|, anJ cul- 
ling out farts 0/ elheri, as if roii pir 
IMTarMuiy had preceded, which is the 
reading of all hss. except 2. The 
use of Twy 5i alone gives the clause 
the appearance of a Sudden after- 
thought; and, so fat from showing 
carelessness, it may be a rhetorical 
device to give emphasis. The same 
occurs in XIX. iSo; Siroi 9id ravr 
&rira\<ji\airi rap i/uv, ol S^ ^'fjpaTa 
»rt^i-e\V ilf)\i)iceirip, and xxvii. 9; 

ttl SitiiTpat, in TtivTf lint Kal ti, 
rail 3* oOk Adrriravor 4 TptHy itfUt 
dfloi/!.. — SXous Bixoiov jfi a,va,fi.fv&- 
o-KtirSai, siighl to bi read tnliri. 

S. T<>It'Y€0|iui)uiKiiiri...i|rT)<|>L([<rS<u: 
see Aesch.lll.6,D vD,uo0^Ti]trouTDirpi3- 
TOP iritft it rfi rur SiJfaoTuj* BpHif, 
tpTj^ioGtiai KarA td^s r6p,ovt. 

§S 122—125 are a peroration to 
the division g§ 53 — 125. 

§122. 2. irdo-a: BlBSsforriMird 
(£). — T^ Si|)u>TiiK$: referring to 
Aesch. t68 — 170. — &nttp,..av<fypa,- 
4<|vi we find it convenient to trans- 
late, as if you had pui out a Etattti is 
be made 6y contract; but the participle 
with &extp (without Ivor irtO is not 
conditional, as appears by its having ad 
(not Pi) for its negative, as in g 323' 
(M.T. 867). Hairfp is simply as, or 


^Kei> eK T^s iTir/ypatftTf; KOfu^ofievof, rj Xo'7j) tow 
B-i]/J-OTiKoiK, aW' au tok trpdynaai jicai tow TroXirev- 5 
fiaai jt'yt'oxTKO/j.fvou'i. xal /Soa? piiTO, Kai appijTa 
ofoiid^aiv, Stavep e^ apa^Tjv, a crol Kal rm <rqi yevei 
trpoffeiniv, ovK efioi. KatToi icat rovro, & dvSpe^ ! 
'AfljjwoiOi. iya> Xoi&opiav "icaT-qyopiwi tovt^ hia- 
^ipeiv ^yovfiat, rat rfjf p.kv icdTiiyopiaii' aSiKtifiaT 
e;^e(f, &v ev tow vdpoLV elalv at Tificopiat, tj)V he 
Xoihoplav /3\d<T<pi}fiia<;, 5? Ka7& rijv aurdv tpvatv 5 
T0t9 ex^dpali; ir^pl aXKriXaiv avfi^aifU Xejeiv. ot- 
KoBofirjaai he tow -rrpoyovov; TauTt tA SucaiTT^pla 
inreCKjj^d ovx ""a avXXe^avrev vfid'i ek ravra otto 
roiv ISirov Ka.Ko)'; Tairoppr^ra Xeymfiev aXX^Xow, 
aXX' Xv e^^Xeyx'^k^i' caw ri? ^Si^jjkciw t( Tvyxdnji i 
ri)v TToXtv. Tavra toIvvv a'Soi? AtVj^f'cij? 


late it with a pailidplc without an 

6. f\.fVMrKttfiveivi (with Cinrtp) : 
■ecus. abs. (M,T, S53) : cf. it... 
txoTa, I X-jt'''', — jnfti Kal JippiiTo, 
dicenda, lactuda (ac. iviiuiTa), with 

7. fioTTip i{ dp££i]«: see note on 


n the d7opii,a 

ig implied 

Tfiip inaiiiy 


ihpmv dXX^Xoi ^i- rS iSv ' toEto yip 
iSp Iftn afrraf!. 

S 123. 1. Natroi KatraSra: cr. 

. XoiGopCav KanriY'^p'''^ '■ ^^ "O'^ 

_. KaT^ Ti|V avrfiv ^o-iv, op- 
I poied to ir TDi! fd^i! (4) : the acci- 
dent of personal nature is expressed 
-'- intru^a(», (6). 

Taurl TdBiKOOTyipia : most of 

■ ^/ (our 
iri Twt 

oix iiv 

8. iiri T&v iBt«)», 
stock of) private tnt 
use of irA, cf. Thuc. 
airiSt Saravuin-ei. 

9. konAs. &X^\du(, abiue one 

another ■wilk lawless epilhsls: itirip- 
pijTo. were epithets which it waa un- 
lawful to apply to 3. citizen : cf. Lys. 
X. 6, iptt ill Din Ian tu* iroppitruii' 
iiy TiS rfip TiB iraripa imn-o<^yai ■ 
tAv yip pi/iDP I 
dU' inSpoipi 

This speech shows that deSpo^imi 
j^IttafTirii, t^arpaXoSai, anil /iiyrpuXoIai 

have been much larger. 

JO, i&v...TuYX^*1l> '/ '^ shall 
happtn that anyone has wronged: 
the perfect participle is Ibe common 
form for expressing past time with 
Tvyx^"'^ etc.; ii-v dliK^rrac -rixs 
would mean if he shall fcrchamt . 
wrpngQA..-!. 144, 147 ■). 


T/Trov ifwv, TTOliTrevuv alnl : 
ov fiifv ovB' eilfaS^ "eXdrjo 

' Karrjyopelv e^Xero. 

t TTopfvaofiai, TOaQVTov 
avTOv eproTrfaat. irorepav ae Ti5, Atcr^i'iTj, t^9 tto- 
Xew? e-xPpov ij ip.6v tlvai i^ri; e/^av Srj\ov on. 
' ol p.kv ?jv Trap' ep^ov Si'«?jc Kara tow vojiovt inrep 
TOVTOiv \a0elv^ eiTrep ^Sikovv, i^eXenrei, iv rati 
eu^ucaw, eV rait ypa(j>al^, iv tuk aWaK Kpi 


(•ym p.ev aocpof; aira 
-poBe'iTfiia, r^ KekpCdi 


§124. 2. iyjii: 
— «|nrtv«i» (cf. xDfiTTEiat, s 1 1 ■): re- 
ferring to li SMf^'i § I22'i and Xoi- 
Boplav, § 123', 

ftaTTOV ix'"' '"rA9<tv, to get 
off with any liss (than he has given) : 
this fatal principle of paying off 
vituperation in the same base coin is 
the weak justiiication of the scurrility 
whichrollowa(§Sl28 — 131) andelse- 

5. vdripov...^^ ; here 03 "•.■ 
hudljr diflers from ^lut^civ,- the tbiid 
person without ni in these questions 

7. ov, whire, enpliined by iii...Kpl- 

present, as representing the whole, 

S. IJAtimt expresses habitual 

9. <{inivait: i.e. by bringing a 
suit in connection with my tSBvyai (see 
note on g 117*), like the 7pa^jj iropB- 
rpitrfirlas against Aeschines (XIS.). 

Ypa^Nitt : here ordinary/u£/iV suits, 
not including (/ffa77EXia,fB9uHii, etc, 
which come ander ypaipal in its wider 
sense. See g 249*. 

g 125. I, ov S...devot< JV 
^Ill/erf I am scof-Jree, opposed lo oB 
ji^' fl", I 124'. — Totj vd|u>is...irpd- 
Tifwv: these four grounds of immu- 
nity (explaining irairiv) do not all 
exclude each other, »Ajioi( in fact 

, TOW Vopoi'i, Tip J^pouip, 125 

ii Trepl iravTcov TroWaKti 

including all the rest, and xP^>V 
being in great part identical with rpo- 

2. T^ vpoO«r|ji[^ the limitations 
of time set by law to bringing certain 
actions. Debts were outlawed in five 
years, and this limitation applied to 
many other cases. The mover of a 
law was personally liable to the ypaifiit 

Tapay6nur only one year. Of course 
in this suit nothing could make 
Demosthenes personally amenable to 
any law, as he was only Ctesipbon's 
advocate; but the meaning of iBifm 
is that no suit coultl now legally be 
brought against him personally for 
any of the offences with which he is 
charged before the court. He bitterly 
complains of the power given to 
Aeschines by the form of this suit to 
accuse him of crimes for which he 
could not indict him: see |§ g — 16. — 

T^ KCKplo-Boi WoXXdKLt irpdT^MV (SC. 

llii) : probably referring to the cases 
mentioned in §§ 83, 222—224, which 
covered important parts of the present 
case. He may also refer to actual 
indictments against himself: for the 
time since Chaeronea we have bis 
statement in |§ z+g, 250, e.g. ™t4 
til' iinipat iniiTT^r itpiri)nif. See 
note on § 224'. For the law for- 
bidding new trials of cases already 
decided, see xxiv. 55, aix i^ iript 


aStKOfP-, Tp TToXet S' ^ TrXeoc 17 IXottoc avdyKi] rwv 
■ye SiitioiTid'TreTrpa'Yfievav fiereivai t^5 Sd^Tjt, eWaOfl' s 
aTTtjPTtiKd'i ; opa fii) Tovrav fiev ej^Spw ^, ifxol ^ 

'Exe(S^ Toiwv f) fiev eixre^rp Kal Btxaia ^0os 1 
airacTi BeSeiierai, Set B^ fie, wt eoixe, Kalrrep av <^i\o- 

. XPi;""- £[*!)■, 

3. v|iS« d&KAv: A/iai shows that 
the orator could address the audience 
in the midst of a question addressed 
to Aeschines personally. 

5- IvToflff, thtrc, referring hack 
emphatically to of (l). 

6. dir^VTi|KiK: cf. ctTqirijKiii, 

§15'.— tpa |Li)...^ set lo it that 

yoH do not prai'i to bi their entniy : 
^il with the subjunctiye always im- 
plies the future) but i^a^P^i , ' 
dXije^t iejif is I fiar that it ii tr 
(M.T. 369). 

6. ifLol : the mss. are divided g 
between inoi (£) and ^^t. 

S§ 126—226, The next main 
division of the argument is devoted 
chieflf to the acconnt of the means hy 
which Aeschines gained for Philip an 
entrance into Greece with his army, 
by getting up the Amphissian war 
I CSS 139 — <59)> ^'"^ °f ^^^ measuies 

■ by which Demosthenes opposed this 

■ joint plot of Aeschines and Philip 
1 (as he represents it), especially his 

I negotiations with Thebes in 339 — ^338 
.B.C., which led to the alliance of 

■ ihal city with Athens (gg 160—326). 
I The orator introduces these acconnts 

I general sketch of Aeschines" 
■jlife and that of bis parents, full of 
Woifeonve scurrility (§| 126 — ijl), 
i followed b; a brief account of some 
► of the lesser political offences of 
lAescWnes (§§ 132—138), 

The orator's account of his own 
political acts in the eventful year 
before the battle of Chaeronea, con- 

■ aected with his vigorous defence of 
1 the policy of Athens under his guid- 

in her last resistance lo the 

power of Philip, is the most eloquent 
passage in the oration (5§ 160—226). 
This is a direct continuation of the 
story of his political life which was 
interrupted by skilful design in g 1 lo. 
§ 126. I, bni£i] Tolrw k.t.\. 
This is one of the few undoubted 
casesof anacoluthonin Demosthenes. 
The causal sentence introduced by 
trtiS'^ goes on regularly through § 1 26, 
when the sudden turn given by the 
question tIt oix ir,.,ipe4yiaa8ai: 
causes the orator to burst forth into 
the fierce invective which follows, 
forgetting his leading sentence, the 
apod05isto^«Bit-,-*SMa(raai, This 
exclamatory diversion carries him to 
the end of § 128, where we find in a 
changed form (in S 129) what would 
be a natural apodosis lo % 126. But 
it is hardly possible that the orator 
ever thought of the beginning of 
§ 129 as a resumption of his broken 
sentence,— 1| (itrtpfi).,. i|(ft4i<>*< ' ■« ■ 
ti/ voir ivhich your oalh and justitt 
both require of you. 


zfa-yKatoraT ^^^^^ 

Tivatv oaBioK 5 ' 

Cf. c 

XoiSopov Svra, Sia Ta? vtto tovtov /3>.ao-i^?j/iias ■ 
fieva-i , kirn ttoXXiwc koX ifrevhaip avra raua-yKaioTaT 
eltrelv Trepl amov, leal Setfat TiV <ov Kai tIvihv p 
ovTO)"; apy^ei tov KaKOK X^etr, koX XtSyov; ni/a'; 
SiaiTvpfi, avTO'i elpTjicQ)^ 3 rt'? ovk av &Kvijae t&v 
fj,erpLOiii avdptavoiv if>6ey^aadai ; — el yap Ata«o9 jj 127 
' PaSap-avOvi f) MiViM? ^v o /cariryopaiv, aXXa p-r) 
crTreppoXjiyo^, irepiTpitip,' ayopa^, oXedpoi; jpapp-a- 
Tew, ovic an aiiTov olpai ravr elTrelv avB' av oiitid<; 
hra)(d€i^ Xoyov^ voplaaaOai, mtywep ev TpayipSia 5 
^owvra S> yrj Kal ^Xte Kai aperf] Kal to toiouth, 
Kol irdXiv avvEiTiv Kal -TraiBeiav eTTLKaXovjikvov, ■pro.' 

o( trade, a vagaiond, and Ecnctally a 
worthless fellow; somelitties one who 
picks up and retails amall scraps of 
gossip, a babbler at prater, as applied 
to St Paul in Acts xvii. l8. Eilher 
of the last two meanings, or perhaps a 
combination of botb, suits the present 
passage. — inpCTpiifL|i Bfopoi, a hack 
of Ikt market place : see Arist. Nub. 
447, TEpJTpifi^B ImQiv, with the en- 
planatioD in Bekk, Auecd. p. i;^, 
olav TiTptii/i/rop iKavHi rfiiyiioan; — 
JXiSpos "ypaiifULnvi, a airst of a 
scribe: see ix. 31, St^tSptv itaiitSim 
(of Philip), and xxiii. 203, di^pt^oif 
oM' ihtu94i,ovs, iXiSpaus, 

4, OVK £v...ttir(tv (repr. dirci' 3v) ; 
for the common position of Sr before 
words like oifuit, see M.T. 220^. 

5. JiraxfliEs,/o»'*™(u, effinski/ly 
pompeiis: cf. iirBj(S^j, offemivt, § 10^. 
See Af. Ran. 940, olioSiraD irrli Koiina- 
eiiirat taX j/riiti-roav itaxB^y, of the 
style of Aeschylus. — mfUrwrSax, 
frovidf one's self with, bri. 

I § I24'-'). 


TBTo § 168'. See Thuc. I. 90 Sffi-e 
iroiiixraSai ix tdu imyKaioTiTov 
t^mi%, i.e. to have the wall just high 
enough to be defensible. 

6, Uy**^ TVV&9 SiMT^ptt, ridi- 
euUi ttrlain sayings of mine. It in 
hard to decide between rinkt and 
Tlrat. With Tfmit it is what sayinsi 
of mine he ridicules, i.e. hcrui he ridi- 
eulis my sayings. The reference is to 
Aesch. HI. 167, raSra rl Iittiv, H 
K(rai3Dt; p-^iMTH 4 SaHnaTa; also to 
•J2 and 209. 

7. & Tts...+8fyEarflaii; this in- 
terrof;. rel. sentence breaks the con- 
struction. Forjier/idoi'aeen.oii § lo^ 

§127. 1. A[aKbi...Mlniit: the 
three judges of the dead in Plat. 
Gorg. 523 E. 

z. 6 KaTwyopAv is subject : Vomel 

Bsys, "Non a 
sed si 

IS accHsaret, 

ncpluMYOl : originally a little 
bird which picked vp seed from newly 
sown fields (Ar. Av. 232, 579); then 
a man who lives by picking up what 
he can in the raarliet and other places 

TpaYvSlf^ Bcs note on § 13°. 

6. a Y<)...&piTi|; thus Aesch. be- 
gins his peroration (z6o), adding noi 


fca\a Koi to, alaj(ph BiayiypwaKeraf raOra y&p S^J- 
TTOvBef riKOV€T auTov XeyovTO^. aol Se apcrffi, 
Kadapiia, 7} tok ffow ri'i fierovrrta ; tj Ka\a>ir ^ p.^ 
TotouToii' TK Bidyvaxrlk'; trodev ij ttw? a^im'SevTi';" 
TTDU Si TraiSei'ffls troi de'p.K p,vjjaOjjvai, ^? T&tf fiev w? 
aro aXij^dj; T^v-^riicoTotv ouh' av (h eiTroi wepl ainov S 
roiovTOv oiiBkv, aWa Kav erepov Xeyovro^ epvdpid- 
treie, tow S' aTroXeithOeltri fiev, axrirep <tv, Trpoa-jroiov- 
p.evoK B' VTT avaioBijOia'i to toi^ "avoiJoUTOs a\yelv 
traielv orav Xeywiriv, ov to SoKetp toiout'ois elvai, : 
•mpUunv. I 

OvK airopoiv S' 5 n y^i] vepl a-ov KaX Twc aS>v 1 
etTTilv, awopu tou irpwrau pvr)a8Ci- warep' «? 6 
■jTUT-qp aou Tpopji'i iSovXeve wap' 'EXiria Tp Trpm 

, 12S. 1. <rol ApiT^.-.Tti 
' icd6ap(uii, properly Jili/i, off- 


. partitive 

■ force with s-ptur- 
roioviiitvit (7), as in Ar. Eccl. 871, 
rpoinraii tSp xplf'*'''^''' 

6. K&«...tpV«pldcr<M: M.T. 224. 

7. Tois airaXiL^8f[<ri, SiflJ^ vAe 
Aave missfd it (cf. § 257"). 

S. dvaur0i|ir£ELS : see i-valtrdtiTaif 
J 43'. and noWong35">. 

10. irtpiuTTw, ie remains /br ihem : 

Icf. TepiffwH x/>'iMi"'o, of a balance of 

fni/neyifiiCt^Mj', See II. 2g,TcpltaTi 

• (=,i»,) .pi™ 

: indirect question (M.T. 
__ ,,, \ ■iraTiip...iSoijXjw: it is H 
iiard prolilem for historical criticism 
to evolve the real father of Aeschioes 
from this slave of a schoolmnster, 
seen with his feet in the stocks or 
_ wearing a wooden collar for pun- 
Li^ment, aad the patriotic citizen 

described by his son (Aesch. 1 
III, 191), who bait died about twe^ 
years before at the age of ninety- fivri, 
who lived through the PeloponnedU 
war, in which he lost his property, 
was banished by the Thirty Tyrants, 
served his country bravely in Asia, 
was one of the realurera of Ihc 
democracy under Thrasybulus, and 
in his old age discoursed learnedly 
and wisely to his son on the early 
history of the 7pa04 rapapi/iiiis '. 
Fortunately Demosth. speaks of him 
thirteen years before this, uhen he 

IS still living, i 

t, 281, 

calls Aeschines de sail of Atromefui 
the ukoolmasfer. From this respect- 
able station he has now descended to 
be the son of Tromes, a schuobnaater's 
slave (see § 130'). 

3. vpAt r^ Bijirtlip : in XIX. 249, 
' t is said to have kept school 

5'Bp<- T< 

shrine of the Hero PAysidan. For 
this hero, the Scythian Tonaris, a 
friend of Anachaisis and Solon, Me 
Essay VI. Cf. note on raXafilrqi _ 


T^ 07j<re(§i BiBdoKOVTC ypd/ifiaTa, jfoiviKat vaj^eias. I 
^011' Kal ^v\ov ; ij ii^ -^ fJTJjp, rot? fieBjinepivok S 
ydfioi^ iv Tw KXeitTi^ t^ irp'o^ tui KoXafiiTji ^p^ 
jfpQip,evr}, rov koXqv avBpidvTa Kai TpnayQiviiTTtiv 
aKpdv e^eSpe-^e ere; aW m a TpiJjpavXTj'i ^opfitenv, 

6 A((ovo^ Tov '^peappiov SoOXoi, averTTijaiv dvi^v j 

a-TTO ravTJj<! t^9 icaXi}^ ipyatrta'; ; aXka vij tow Aui ^^H 
Kal SeoiK OKV^ p.r} Trepl aov Tii Trpoa^uovTa Xeyatv ^ \ 
oOtot oi TTpoaTiKOinai ep.avr^ Bo^to irpotipjjadai 
"Koyovi. ravra fikv ovv edao), onr' avrSu S' t&y auTos 130 
ffc^iCDxev ap^opai • oiiBi yap Stu eTV^ev ^v, aXX' oh 

fiilT^pt! ripi ti3b v1<3p, "i lia\h 
itSpids nou." — TpLraYuvurri])' &Kpo», 
a lip-top Ikird-part-actor: sec %\ s6i, 
265, and !(l]i 246, 247, 337. 

a. &\X ws ; supply ^i^iifrSu from 
line 2, as a eiVrrf/ interrogative. — 
TpiT|p(iAi)s, galley-pipfr, who gave 
the 3tioke to the to\vers 011 a trireme. 

9. i.vtvTT[<Ttv : "TataarxzaprBSlaTi 
in lupanari Graece dici ica<9^r70iu " 
(Dissen); there is alap the idea of 
raising her from a low ocL-iiputlon. 
Cf. Aesch. I. 41. 

g 130. I. A» afrr&s pi^CuKcv, 
Ihi life he has himself Ud,~ rSiv ainif 
jSt|9<«^™^: cf. g 265 \ XXII. 13 {t4 
TD^Tv ^(jSw^™), and XIX. 199, 200. 

4. SiSdiTKOvn YpijifjATa : the 7|)ajU- 
)iitTir77-i)i was a teathet of -^ftimiaTo, 
reading and writing, the earlier -jpa-i^- 
fuirijTi!. — xofvutot iraxtCasi crassas 
compedia (Plant. Capt. in. 5, 64), 
sloeki or s&ackUs for the feet : see Ar. 
Plut. 275, al tnilLai Sf aau paiiiriv 
lai lai, r&i x"^"'" <">' ^ii r^iai 

5. fvXov, a ivcoden collar, worn 
on the neck for punishment: see 
Ar. Nub. 592, fl* ^i/«tirifre toiJtou '» 
ri DiKif Tit aixiva, and Lys, 681. 
It meant also slocks for the feet, and 
the mrreaip^iyiiv ii\ot was an in- 
strument with five holes, for neck, 
arms, and legs. See Lexicon, ^i'Kov, 
— TOl) |uBi]|i<pivots YdfuHB, a eu. 
phemiam for dayliglU prostitution : 
the stories of the mother ofAeschines 
are as trostwortby as those of his 
father (see §§ 258, 259). 

6. ^curt^ a hut, opposed to a 
bouse, aa in Lys. Xll. iS, rpiiSv ijiilv 
tlaQii oiaSy,.,.K}'tlau»- furBvriiunoi. 
See Od. xxtv. 20S. — irp4s t^ koXq- 
liC'Hl ^pfi tear the shrine (or statu/) 
of the hero laXa^inii. Many identify 
this hero with the ffpui larpkt of XIX. 
Z49, notwithstanding strong objec- 


: Bekk. Anecd. 394, 

It of 
: whom he merely oianfci/ to be. 
fin iTvx" ■* nearly equivalent to the 
common tCa> rvxifriiiv, ordinary 
people (ol trtixov), such as might 
chance to fall in one's way : cf. Isocr. 
X. 21, tl elt ^» Tr3v Tvx^fti' dX\4 iiii 
T&v itii\i SitiryKbvTWT. After such a 
statement we should naturally eipect 
to hear that he was of higher than 
cnfiHar^i parentage; but here (xapi 
tpDsSatlaii) we have dX\' ofi i Stjiiat 
■BrapBTii added. In the religious 
ceremony before each meeting of the 



6 B^fiiK KcHrdparai. oy^e'ydp '-Trare — , oyjre Xeyo) ; 
X^h t^ev oBk Kal trpiiir^v a[i' 'AOr/vaio^ ical p-qrcop 
ryeyovev Kal Svo avWaff^v wpoa&eU rov piv irarepa S 
avrl TpopTiToi eTroCrjiTtv 'ATpo'/iijToc, r^y Se pijrepa 
o-e/tKW? -wdm) VXavKodeav, ijv 'Epvovaai/ a-iravrei 
ta-aa-i KoKov/ievrjv, eV rov wdtn-a woLelv xal Tvd&j(eLV 
Kal yiyi'eirdai SijXofOTi ravrij? t?}9 evtovvpia'i Tu- 
■^ovaav ■ iroSei' yap dWoSev ; aW' o/iot? ovtm? 131 i 
aj^dpicro'! el Kal TTOv^jpb^ ^vtrei &<7t' iXevSepo'i ix 
SovXov Kal TrXoCaio'i e« ■n'TUxo" &a Tovroval ye- 
yovti)^ ovj^ oTToii x^P^" "^"'5 6;^s'5> aWi pirrOdura^ 
travrov Ka-ra TOUTOiCi 7r6\'tTev«' Kal -jrepl &v ftkv 5 



1 and the Assembly, a curse 

was invoked against ceitain 

a of offensive people : see Ulii. 

l:S^fiDi> 4 ''i)>' ^^laja>', with XIX. 7a. 
lieachines bimseir ia elsewhere in- 
kded among these "deceivers": 
Ee § 382*"', xalTOt Tl:...>:aTapaTai 

5. Sua irvUapck« irpoirStU: on 
the contrary, Deinosth, probably 
made T/iA«tji (/rini/i/er) by cutting 
off two syllables from ATpitiitroi 
7. *E|i'nx>u(rav, ho^oiliu. 
t), Kal Yl-YmrSaL: almost all 
ora omit these words, which have 
belt MS. authority and are espe- 
My Bpproprintc to the description 
Empusa, See Ar. Ran. zSg — 
Xan. tttrit- TiamiSaTih* tdD* 

Dion. 'E^i-nuirn ralnt 

oi\ i-K<iK.-il>A.i: 

? apa inrep t))9 TroXeav 

and oilx *ri came originally from 
ni A^£u Swut (or 4ti). IiiiiUnol tpeak 
of, I Toill aol say that, etc., while the 
nearly equivalent /i^ fcrwi (rate) or ^\ 
Jti came from it'f) \irie Srui (or Bri), 
ob rd/ tnetiHon thai, etc. Usually 
no/ /iJ j^n* 0/ is a good English 
equivalent; but what is nol to ba 
spoken ofmtiy be cither affirmed or 
deoied. Thus here oix Stut x^P" 
^X'"i "0' '" nienlioii your being 
grateful, means not only art you not 
gralefal \ but in Dem. XXIV. 7, six 

wo; only should I have lost my properly 
{not lo speak of losing my prapirty). 
These examples show that this con- 
struction is not related to that of nan 
owdo for non modo nun. (See M.T. 
707, 708.) 

■IfniKiv, le. iV can be contendtd that 
he has spoken, etc. djii^«rpi)T:|(Tii, 
like ilfi'pKr^iiruJ and Latin disputo, 
refers to niainlainiitg in a dispute. 
See Plato Rep. 476 d, lit d^^.i^Sip-J 
iJ! oflu dXijS^ Xlyofuv, and Ter. Andr. 
Pro!. 15, in eo disputant contani* 
non decere fibulas. 

:.. 3. r._J.._flJ'.._' inn ' 


eip7)ic£V, idcra- a 6" inrep 
hweheiyOi) TrpaTTton, raiW-' avafxvqao). 

T/s -yhp vfiSjv ovK olbev tw aTToy^-q^iud^vT 132 
'AvTt(f>&in-a, Ss eTrayyeiXdp.evos 4>(XiV7rQ) ra veatpi* ' 
iftTrpricTuv ek Trfv ttoXiv rjkSev ; Sc \a06vTO^ efiov 
KiKpu/i/iepov ev Weipaiel KaX KaraaTi^aavro'; et? Tr)v 
iKic\i)aiav, ffouv 6 ^diTieavo<i o^ro^ leaX xexpayw w? 5 
ev StifiOKpaTia Sava -KotS) tow ^TV)(jjK07a'! rmu iro- 
\itS)v v0pli^(ov Koi ctt' owci'as ffaSi^tDv dvev i^tj^C- 

Deniosthenes brought Antiphon be- 
fure theAsafmbly wilh out some ofGcial 
authority. At the time of the passage 
of liis trietiirchic law (340 B.C.) he 
held the office of ^jr.ffTcfT-qi Toii 
totriKoO (Aeauh. III. 227). Antiphon 
was probably arrestcfi by idimaa, 
dfHutieialion to the people, the pro- 
cess by which those charged with 
mutilating the Ilermae in 415 B.C. 
were dealt with. Except in the rare 
cases in which the Assembly itself 
undertook the trial (as in the ^i)nwii 
against Phidias, Pint. Pericl. 31), the 
people either sent the accused to a 
Heliastic court for tiial or discharged 
him. The appeals of men like Aei. 
chines moved the Assembly to dis- 
charge Antiphon: but the Areopagus 
interposed, and ordered (through the 
Assembly) that Antiphon be tried 
before a couit, which condemned him 
to the rack and to death. Sec Hist. 
§43- , 

6. TfruxnniTiw : referring to Anti- 
phon's " bad luck " (as Aesch. called 
it) in losing \m citizenship. 

a volt of the Assembly oc Senate. 
An Athenian citiren, like an English- 
man, looked upon his house u his 
castle. But in extraordinary cases 


§S 13Z— 138. Here the orator 
alludes briefly to some lesser otfences 
of Aeschmes, which preceded the 
outbreak of the war with Philip. In 
§ 1 39 these are called slight matters 
compared with his conduct after the 

gl32. I. tXStv,ininiiDf.—&iitii/Xi- 
+io-W»T, rejeclid from the hst of 
citizens, Id 346 — 5 B.C. a general 
revision of the lists of citizens was 
ordered at Athens; and the members 
of each deme went through its own 
list (the •^pnfi.)ia.-rfiar Xijiiapxif^'), 
voting on each name which was 
questioned. This process was called 
Sia^'i^uriT (fia^ij^ifbiioi), and the 
rejection of any person was called 
iiira^i(^ur(i (dro^ii^f^^i). De- 
mosthenes wrote his oration against 
Eubulides (lvii.) for a client who 
had t>een thus rejected and had ap- 
pealed (as every such person might) 
to a Heliastic court. Antiphon was 
probably rejectEd at the same 3ia- 
itiSfliiirij (see Dera. Lvii. 2, ttoXXSi' 
i^\TiKa.^iiiait Swctfwt ^k Trimav rHv 
IiifUdF). and afterwards offered his 
services to Philip. 

4. KaTarrfjiravTos tts •n\v bt- 
KXi|<rIav: it is hardly probable that 

officers of the 1 




/TfuiTo-!, a^evTfvai hroiTjaev. koX el fiij ij ^ov\i) ^ ef 138 | 
'Apeiov Trdyov, ro vpaffta altrdoftevt} koI Ttjv vfifr^- 
pav ayvoLav ev oii 6eo'i>Ti iTV(L0e^r)icviav tSovaat hre- 
^^Tiiffe TOP dfOpaiTov Kai (TvWa^QV<7a enavri'ya'fev 
mfu/ifi?, i^'^p-rrarfT Av o to'iovtoi Kal to &Cki}v hovvai 5 
Siiiovi . e^ejTeTTtft'Tn' an triro fov eref^voKoyov tovtovL 
vim 8''i arpt^Xmaavrei airrov aweKTewaTe, w? 
ISei ye ical tovtov. Toiydpovv elSvia Tav$' fj 0ou\i} 134 I 
rf e^ 'Apeiov Trdyov tote toi/t^i ireTrpay/xeva. •)(eip6rti- 
vijadmav atnov vfiSiv aCvoiKov inrep tow Upov too 


A^cMlvai: Anliphon was nt 
ischatged by the ^isembly with- 
uc a trial. 

§ 133. 3- t» ai tkvn (neut.)i 

muasenaMyJmtwitn itshculd not: 

' &¥iiKii>Kaiai> tU eiiiv iiav, ill. 28. 

I \Sn^va, seeing that it 

■eur'rid {er. ebl M.T. 904).— 

erdertd a nna (^-) 

itigadon of lie man's case. The 

:opagU5 in these later times eeems 

'lonBlly to have revived a part 

ancient power of directing the 

icr>l welfare u! the state. 

o^iXXaPa6<ra shows that the 
>pagua itself ordered Antiphon'i 
it; Plutarch (Dcm. I4) says tlmt 
lostli. arrested him and brought 
before the Areopagus. 

vfiSt, i.e. before the court, 

, ijled the sentence of death 

'). But Irair/iya-tfy impliea that the 

tpagua irnugil him back to some 

E, and this must be the Assembly, 

lich had sent him to the court. See 

Schjiia: KVplm cItc ri Irnvf,- 

rft, th TimirbvTirBt aiSa tari- 

' BMhn 4 &<,v\\ id aC Btawniu 

or. — Sl>r>)v SoSvat 8ioEi$: sU 

the intentional alliteration. 

6. J{<vlnpi'irr* : Ibis slight change 

im iivwiiitrr gives a form sym- 

llrical with Kfy^ta.o'r '. dif would 

7. vi)v, IIS il -Jias. — o-TpipXi&cnivTii : 
torture (pda-awO could not legally be I 
inRicted on an Athenian citizen 1 but 
Antiphon was now disfranchised. Is 
Ar. Ran. 62S, Dionysus, disguisetl al 
a slave, claims exemption from exami- 
nation under torture as an immortal 
Cod: irjisftiia t\}A, tjii n\ ^atimiitiif 1 
iSi.ya.Tat fin-'.—us IS«i f* ""l roOto* 
(sc. dronrerm) HI you might t> havt 
dealt Tvitk this man (Aesch. ). 

§ 134. 3. irvvSii[ov...A^Xf : about 
343 B.C. the Delians contested the 
ancient right of Athens to administei 
the temple of Apollo on their island. 
The case came before the Ampbic- 
tyonic Council, probably in the spring 
of 343. when Demosih. was one of ' 
the Athenian delegates to Delphi 
(XIX. 65). The Assembly chose Aes- 
chines as their counsel; but the 
Areopagus, to which the people had 
given authority to revise the election, 
rejected him and Sent Hyperides in 
his place. This showed that the 
tide had turned against Macedon. 
Hyperides then delivered his eloquent 
X470I AiiXiaKit at Delphi, and gained 
the case for Athens. See Hist, 



ev A^X^ aiTo rij'i avTifi 07COMW ^ffVep iroWA Trpot- 
""effOi tSiv' Koivoiv, u>^ -rrpoelXetrde KaieeiVTjv koX toO S 
trpdyfiaTo^ levpiav eiroiTJa'aTe^ tovtov p.kv evdiK cnr^- 
\aaev o)? ■TrpoBoTT/i', "T-jrepel^ he Xe'-yeiJ/ rrrpoaera^e' 
ical tout' awb rov ySw^oy <pepovaa ttjv ifriiipov eiipa^e, 
272 Kol oiiSefiia ■\jr7Jtf>oi r)v4-)(6ri rip pcap^ Tourat. xal &Tt 1 
tout' a\i)dTi Xeyos, xdXei tovtcou tout p,apTvpa<i. 


[MapTvpoCtri AjjfuxrSs'wi i-^ip OTrcivTufV o'St, KaX\i 

fiviniK, oTi ToE Sijfioi) irort jjttpoToi'ijfTiiiTos AiujjtVijv 
Kov iirip ToE lepoE toB ev Ai/Aijj eis tovs 'Afufu 
Sptuaavra ^/n« iKpivaiicv ^ircptl&tjy nfiov e'rai 
wrip rqs ToXeios Xtytii', itai ajreoraAij "Yn-(p€t5q!.] 

O^xoff Sre TouTou peWovTO'; Xeyeiv nTTijXf^tf-'fei' 10 
^ ffovXi] Kal -TTpoa-era^ev erepp, rare ical TrpoBoTTju 
etvai Kal kukovovv vpXv aTri^r)vev. 

"Ec p.kv Tolvvv TovTo roLovTo"wo\iTevp,a tou 136 
' TOVTOV, opoidv 7e — ov ■yap; — oh ifiov KaTt]- 

\ qnestian. See XLHI. 14, 

4, i»4. . .i^oTTip (see G. 1025) : cf. 
XXI. 155, Bre kotA TiiTTjii rijy ■^MkIh' 

i,il, (fit «••■«■) Jyi-S'- 

5. in irfKMlXtow KdK([vt]v, i.e 
viAen you had previously assodaled it 
{the Areopagus) jeilh ynurselvis in 
Uie cast, i.e. giving it the right to 
revise your choice (lit. wAen you had 
previously chosen il also, and given il 
peieer, etc.). ™1 in KiKelin\v, which 
seems awkwaril, must refer to the 
assoeiation of the two bodies in 
power; in H, WolPa emendation, 
ipwdXeffBt, Tpw- would have the 
same force as Kal. 

7. X^iv npwrtra,^: i.e. as the 
rinSitn of Athens. 

S. &iri ToS pBpAt: the most 

solemn form of voting, here on a 

lepflay, iri roG fiuiiwu •/•iporrtt Toi 
^li! Tea ifipaTplov. Cf. Hdt. Vllt, 1 
Pint. Them, 17! Cic. pro Biilbo v, 
g. 'i\vl\iT]; like i/iipaiKra (abut 
. — TO^Tip : cf. ipat t^i* ^ij^r ifveyi 
Isae. XL 18. 

§ 135. 10. TO^OD t^AXoVTOt 

\^<Lv, vihtH he toas lo be Iht speaker, 
i.e. after his election. 

1 2. 6.tii^rtfHv, declared him to be 
so by its <lv6^Birc>. 

§136. z. vtavfou: this some- 
limes (as here) eipreases wantonness 
DC insolence, like navixtn. See Eur. 
Ale. 679, ilB.* iSplS^m, Ka.1 ttartat 
\irfoi/s piTTar is i)nai, k.t.\, — oi ^dp ; 
this sarcastic L]uestion (after ye) im- 



ffopei- h-epov Sk a.va1ii)i.vyaKea0i. 'ore -yap Tlvffiova 
^tXiiriro^ ejrefi-^e top Bu^dmtov xal nrapb. rmv avrov 
avp.p,d-)(atv -Travriiiv <Tvve7rt)j.i^c 7rpetT0fii, qhj iv al- 5 
ax^vy TTOiriiTtaii ttjv iroXiv koX Sei^tou ahiKOvaav, tot 
iyoi piv T(p Tiv6(i)vi Gpaavvoiievifi KaX iraWi^ peovri 
Ka& vfia>v ouj( VTre^wpjiffa, aX\' auairrai avreiirop 
nal ra tjj! TroXetos Bucai ou^l irpovtaKa, oW nS(- 
Kovvra ^(XiTTTTOv i^^Xey^a <f>avepa><! DiiTtii<; omttc i 
TOW £Ke(vov^oij^ ainoiK aviffTapevovi 6p.oXo- 
yetu- oOto? 6^ <7VP7jyo)vi^eTo koI Tavavr(a ipaprvpei 
Tj ■jraTp/Si, Kcd Tavra i^euSiJ. 

Kai OVK a-TrexP'! ravra, aXXa TrdXiv fiera Tavff IST'J 
vcTTepop ' Xva^Cvip T<p KaratTKo-rrip avvtoiV ew rijv 
Q/JaCTWuos OiKiav eXr/^di/. icairiii omi^ tw wo t&v 
■3 troXepmv ■jzep,(f>$epri p-dvoi povai tn/i/jjet /cai ixoCvQ- 
Xoyelro, oCto? hutm tnrijpj(£ Ttj ipva-ei KaTaaieoiro^ S 
«ai -JToXepta^ Tp iraTpihi. koX oti tout' aXr^df) 
\eyo>, KoXei p.0L tqvtwv tov9 p.dpTvpa<!. 

fTtAc'STj^us KAtwvo!, iTTEpei'Svjs KoAAm'irjyjou, Ntuo^- 
yK Aux^avTou papTvpoval AijuoaSivfi xai Eiriu/toirovTO iiti 10 

es a lelf-evitlent absurdity, which 
heightened by coiling this afinir 
with Antiphon n vo\lTtviM of Acsch. 
and ao comparing it with the ro\iTt6- 
liara of Demosth. (see next note). — 
als J|ka9 KB-rqYOiMt: pTobab1y=Taii 

3. nvSuvOi: this eloquent orator 
was sent to Athens by Philip in 
343 B.C., to quiet apprehension and 
CO repent assurances of the king's 
friendiy spirit. See Hist. §g 44. 45. 

7. flp(ioTtvofJ»ip, Tviti his insoltnl 
tuanner. — iraXX^ ^vri \aff up.£v, 
riuiing upon yov vilk a fiood (of 
ncel SeeThuc.ll.5,D"Aff«Tij 

iroTB^t ifipini fii7a!, and Ar. Eq. J16 1 
(of Cratinua), t% iroXX^! ^tinia tot 
iTalnp Sid. rSv i^\Qt wtStiar tppa. 
All quote Hor. Sat. i. 7, 28, aalso 
multoque duenti, with the preceding 
ruebat flumen ut hibemum. See 

§ 199', ToXit I-y«lT01. 

8. ovx 6ir()[iSpi]<rB, didnol ri 
(before the flood). 

II. vujj.iidx""* ' i.e. the Topd Ti 
iru^M:("»»-p'!»(3f"ofl. 5. 

§ 137. 1. Avoflvf: tee Ae>-f 
chines (ill, 223, 224), 

5. airit virf|px<."KaT&oico«vt, 4c1 

imii to i? asmniid le have the n 

o/a !fy himitlf. Sec § 95'. 


tnn'tp)(6ii,fvov Inferos ets Ttjv ®pa.aaivoi oIkuiv kcu KOivoXoyav 1 
pivov 'kvaiivta, Si tKpidrj tmu KoraamnrtK Trapk ^(AiWou. f 
aural djreSoflijlrai'' at'' 'juipTVfiiai. tm Niki'ou, iiOLTOii^auovos I 

jpiTIJ lOTU/licOU.] 

Mupia ToCiivv erep' eliruv ej^oii/ wepl auTov Trapor 138 
Xenro), «ai 7af) oiJtq) ttow e;t^t. ttoW aii e7ii> eT( 
TovTcav ej^aifii Bel^ai. Siv oStot «(xt' eKeiVof? tdvs 
ypoi'QV'i T0(9 /lei' 4')(6povi i/n-i/pfTMii efioi o eTrrfped^wv 
eiipeOi). aX\' ov TtOerai ravra'Tap vftlv cK axpiff 
flv^lii}v oiiB' 7]'v TrpocrriKfV opyJiv, aWa SeSioxi 
Tivl ^dvX^ ttoWt)!/ e^ovai'di' rip povXop.4v^ tov X^J 
yovrd n r&v v/ilu <7Vp,i^fp6vTiov vTrodiceki^eii 

j^dpiTOi; TO T^? 7ro\e(D! avfi^epov dvraWaTroiievhi • 
hioirep paov eari xai arr^aX^rrTepQi' trei Toif eySpoiv 
vTTJipeTouvTa iiiaQapveiv fj TrfV {nrep vp,S}V e\op.Ei^oi> .t'-J^r- 
TOL^iv irdXiTeveaSat. 

Kat TO p.ev £^ irpo ToS •jroXefKiv tf>avep£>9 avi/a- 139 

eflet I 


lAi-uv fioni 
A, cognate object of !i-rr)per<iy and /*ii- 
ptipir: fo[the1a.tterBee^xiipciav,§iz*, 
6. i)v irpoo-ljKiv ap^v (with fli) : 
TiSerai (it ifiy^u naturally follows the 
familiar rlBfrai th ^v^^-q'- 

S. iwoTKiXtHtiv, tri/ up (cf. 

9. 'rit«...'^Bovtl« Kal xV^*"!- 

Bbusive language (\aiSapld) not only 
pUased the populace, but a)so gratifiid 
their whimi and low tastes. A good 
CKample of both itSmri) and x^P" '^ 
the scene in the Assembly when the 
second embassy reported in July 
346 B.C., described in xm. 44 — 46. 
Demosthenes was insulli^d and jeered 
at by Aeschines and Philucrates, to 

the delight of the people ; notice the 
single sarcastic lemaili: of Demos- 
thenes (46), Kol b^Xi iye\aTe. Hist. 
§§34,35; , . 

12. Ti)v...'a'(AiTCMireai is /D stn't 
Ike ilale as a patriot, opposed to tdis 
ixBpiii! iwiiperoiina /uaBapntr. 

§§ 139—159. Next follows the 
account of the conduct of Aeschines 
in stirring up the Amphissiao war in 
339 B.C. (See note on §§ 126—226.) 
§§ '39 — '44 sr= introductory, and 
li 158. IS9 "6 a peroration, 

5 139. The first sentence depre- 
ciates the acts already mentioned, done 
in time of nominal peace, to heighten 
the enormity of helping Philip in time 
of war; cl. SliTt.,,a6Tif roSra (3). 


yavi^tirBai OiXiVTrp Beivov fikv, 5 7^ koX deal, — ttw 
1 274 yap ov ;-~~KaTcL t^s -n-aTpiBo^ ■ Bore B', el 0ov\eiT0e, 
Sot' airrif tovto. aW itreiBij ^avep€>'i ^Bri to. -ttXoT 
irreavXiiTo, yieppdvTjrro'i iwopdelTo, eVt ti)^ 'ATTtK^i* S 
iiropeved' avSpm-TTO'^, ou/cer' iir afi<pia-0>)rr]aip-q> Ta 
-TrpdynaT r/v, dXX' eveiarriieei. TrdXe^o?, o Tt p.kv 
TTtuTroT ewpa^ev inrep iip-iov 6 ^daicavov o5to9 la/jr- 
^eioypd^o'i aiiie av e^oi hel^ai^ ovB' eariv avre p.el^ov 
OVT eKarrov \^jj(j>itrp,' oiSev AtV^i'w; inrep tSiv 10 
avii^epovTani Trj TToXei, ei Be i^7)(n^ vvv Bet^aTOi iv 


Demoslb. often implies that the pre- 
ceding peide WIS really a slate of 
war. See IX. 19, d^' ^s i]/i4ptis 

airAt iro\tnctp ipifoiuii. <panpSn 
■epeated in I. 4. 

3. Kard Tfls iraTpCSot: not con- 
ictedin with Suvbv, but 

independent exclamation, juatify- 
ing the assertion in ieiv^r jiit. 

4. Jv<LG4|...lvopflttTO, oflir your 
liifs had bten opirdy stUed (§ 73) 
and At ritvagittg of the Chersenese 
■was gaing art- Tfae ravaging of the 
Chersonese was marching an army 
fhroogh the Athenian territory there 
to enable his ficet to pass the Helles- 
pont for Ihc siege of Perinthus 
without molestation from Itie shore. 
Hut. S3. 

5. lirl -rii* Attikt|v JiropiucB ; 
Philip's action at Ihe Ilcllespant, if 
it had not been ehecked, would have 
opened Ihe way for him into Attica 
and the whole of Greece. Demosth. 
had repeatedly warned Ihe people of 
this peril: even in the First Philippic 
{351 B.C.) he had said (50), tSv^i^ viji' 
tefKuiiar ttei ■K<i\e,iit! aCrf, ivSiS' 
tffus A.^a.yKair6ijir6fiedii touto roifiVM 
See especially VI. 35 (3*4 B.C.), 

m\ll!...&r KaTHBTii IxelKI! K6piO! 

. r^ hrl tV 'Atth),p Hoe <al t^i ets 
I HcXBririnjtroy adpias y^ovt, and fur- 

ther ToD TpAt rfji- 'AtthJJp irtSiimu, I 
St ^UIni!^el iiin luajror ^eiJdv '"nfiS, 
■yiyoK S' it iKtlrg rfi ^liipf. See 
S !«'■ 

7, jvoiTT^Kti irdXifiof : cf i^wrctt 
ri\ttu)!, § 89'. These words end the 
clause with lirtid^. 

S. lap,^(i.0YP'^4^t, wrUtr ef lam- 
poons {lap^ila), probably refers to 
verses written by Ae^chinea in his 
youth, to which he perhaps alludes in 
I. 136, Tep£ ^i rult- roLvr^ruc &b 
^iLfTiv D^Tof ^ irrTOfT}«;^at. This 
reading has the best MS, authority; 
but laiL^um^i-yK, tater (or mcniher) 
of iambic ' * ' 


we must refer it to the cai 
Aeschines as an actor, not 
XoiSfpla, to which the ancien 
preters generally referred 1 
Etym. Magn. la/i^o^iyi 

10. Alo-xlvQ, dat. of possession 

! read lapLfiao'tiiyn, 

r of 



iv T$ j|i^ vSan. II 
this genera) formula and i 
ISariK ate often used whei 
offers part of his own ti 
opponent to prove somclhing which 
he believes cannot be proved. It is a 
mere challenge, made with no idea of 
its being accepted. For the genitive 
with ^i see LVll. 61 (end' " 
time allotted to each Speaker 


TrpaTrofievoK ^^^H 

ill^iu ' triion ' 

T^ efi^ vSari. a\X' ovie ecfTiv oi&ev. 
avTov avdrfKi) Odrepov, tj /ij;Sei' t'ok TrpafrofievoK 
vjr' tfioii TOT eypVT eyKaXeli/, (it)' ypd^iu ' trdpa 
ravO' eTepa, t} to tS>v ej^dpmi' tTVfi(j)4pov i^ijToJWa ^S 
fiij <j)epeiv ett fietrou to, tovtcov a/j,t{pa). 

^Ap' Qvv ovS' eXeyev, winrep ovB' eypatfiev, •^ui'x 
ipydaairBai Ti hioi Kaicov ;' ov /xev ovii ei-Trelv JfV 
erepip. Koi to pkv dXKa icaX <j>ep€iv ■>j&wa6', a»s 
^oiKfUy r] TTo'Xt? KoX iroiSiv ovTQ'j \av6dveiv' ev S' 
iire^ttpydaaTO, dfSpei 'A&ijvaloi, roiaVTOv q Tram 


TOtj "TTpoTepoi^ iTre6j}Ke ■ 

cases waJ measured by the clepsydra 
or water-dock (Diet. Antiq. under 
llarologiuni). a Hxed number of d^- 
^opEij or water being poured in ac- 
cording to the impurtance of the case. 
Thus Aeschines (ll. 126) says, irpJt 
ttifta lip iiu/mpiat it Siaiu/ifTpijltir^ 
Tjj Tjf/^p^ Kpiwo/iai, eleven dfi^opeis 
(about 100 gallons), allowed each 
speaker in caaes of waparptirPtla, 
being the largest amount mentioned. 
The term Siai^/UTpti/iiyi) Tjtiipa ig 
explained in Aesch. lit. 197. In 
important public suits Che <]ay was 
divided into three parts, and the 
clepsydra was lilled three times, the 
first measure of water being given to 
the accnser, the second (of equal 
amount) to the accused, and the third 
(in iyCttts Titairot, if the accused 
was convicted), a smaller measure, 
to the Tlioiait, the decision 8 ti xP^ 

iz. GvoIv...Sdr(pcv: there is no 
infinitive or other verb to be supplied, 
and atrby is subject of 7(irl^(iJ' and 
ipiptir. SuoTr BiTcptr (or Siripa), 
Afi-ipdrfpoif or ifi^&Ttpctt oSS^Ttpoj', 
and similar expressions, may stand 
empiialically, as adverbial phrases, 

other cases where we simply say 

' Toiri TTOX- 


Hi/, etc. See rlat. 
Theaet. ig? n, liv olruSpSi^t,, twii- 
Birepa, ^ fipi^ao/iiy i^' 6 ipxi/uSa, 

lirpfv. So 1\. m. fjg, in<l>6Ttpor, ^a- 
ffikc6iT iyadbi /:paTtp6i T alxfi-V^^V- 

»3— '5- FlSlv...llxovT* and ;t|- 
TaSvni are causal. — vapi. ram, ia 
oppciiHon to these. 

§ 140. I. op' oSv...!Ypa^v; 
oit'...ti6S' correspond to koI-.-koI in 
positive expressions of this kind. We 


: the 

h'S Uo 

meaningis,flj heprnpased no 
sodidhi a/ja abslam/rem , 
miiher did he tali)? The ! 

described set these of 
1 a stronger light. 
Z. olr |ilv. . . Mfif, why, ttsdcdy die 
could get a ekanre to lali I 

5. trffiipYd^aTQ : the idea of 
addilion, which ^irl (like T/iis) ex- 
presses, is further extended by hii&'jKt 
T^Xos, capped the dimax. 

6. TO-is iroUoiis Xdvovt, his many 
Tiiariis, referring to the long and 
brilliant passage (Jir. IC7 — -lag) in 
which Aeschines describes his doings 
at Delphi when he stirred up the 
fatal Amphissian war, Cf. Aeschyl. 
Ag.t456, Ida rij roXXii, rii irdm 
iroXXif >l'i<X^' i\iirii<r'. 


\ois avrfXfoae Xo-yov-i, to. tmv 'A^^tffffewy [twi 
AoKpaiv^ &e|itou ioyfiara, ok Siaarpeijrtiiv raXfidei 
TO h' ov TotovTov icTTi. TTodev ; ovBettot' eKvii^a a\ 
Taxet TveTTpayfieva aavToi- ou^ oCra) iroXX' epelt. 

ViaXoi h' ivavTiav vfiav, avBpe^ 'A^?juaio(, tow 1411 
6eois atravTai nal irdtTa<! oaai tj;i' X'^P"^ exoi'ai. 
Ti/v 'Attikt/p, Kal Tov 'ATroWfo tok nvOiop, S? 
TTaTpamv etTTi t^ irakei, xal e7r€u;^o/*a( vaat TOVTOif, 
el fxev aXyjOrf -n-po^ vp-ai e(7ro(/it Koi elwov Kal tot S 
i tvdtK iv T^ Sij^m, oTe irpwTOV H^av tovtovI top 
fuapov ToiiTOV TOv irpdj/j.aTQ^ a-Tnopevop (eyvwv 
y^p, ehOeiot eyvav'), evTV^^tav pot hovvai Kai cratTr)- 
piav, el Se irpin e}(^9pav fj i^iXaveiKia^ Ibla^ evex 
oItUiv i-rrdyo) tovt^ ■^evBij, TrdvToiP tSsv ayaBStv i 
avQVijTov fie ■rroitja'ai. 

7. rd T&v 'A|i^iira^v Sdifjiara, 
' decrets (of the Amphictyons) 
aioHl tit AmphUsiaas, like rh iitya- 
piiiif ^^i^iirtia, the Mtgarian dicrii, 
Thuc. I. 140, called in 1. 139 ri 
wt(il Mryap^v ^it^urtut. So rniruti 
if"i^uiiiii, XX. 115. Two Mss. omit 

Twr AetpCir. 

9, ri S*, iu/ in fact : thb rh !f, 
with no correlative ti iiiv, is common 
in V\tio, introducing an adyecsative 
itatemenL See Apol. 23 , 


'o^it ■ 

i Si KirSuf 


Rep. 340 D (end). 357 A.- 

tiv Irn, i.e. lAis cannot be done 

referring to ii Sia/rrpljiap ri\q9is. — 
wMev; cf. g 47«.— Iicv(4«i; cf. Act. 
Apost. xiii. 16, iti\avaai t4> aiiapTlat 
(TOV, wasA away thy sins. 

S 141. The solemn invocation in 
this chapter, resembling those which 
begin and end the exordium (g§ 1,3), 
cbUs attenlian again to the gravity of 
the charge about to be made, and to 
i [he supreme importance of the events 

which led to the fatal issue 
lield of Chaeronea. He defends hit I 
invocation and his general eameatneM 
in Jg 142—144. 

4. iraTp^o»: Apollo was the fa- 
lernalGod of Athens, not only as the 
great Ionic divinity, but as the father 
of Ion (according to Athenian belief). 
See SchoL on Ar. Av. 1517, warpl^a* 
i( Ti/tdiriii 'AtAXXuki 'AS^wibi, iril 

\tiiyos Kal Kpeaitnjs ryjs SoAdau iyivrra. 
So in the Ion of Euripides. 

5. <L &Xi]0<) «Iir(ii|ii Ka\ itirav, lit. 
if I should speak the truth to you novi 
and if I did speak it then on Ike spal: 
a double condition combininga future 
and a past supposition (M.T. 51x1), 
We should rather invert the ordet 
and say, if I then spoke the truth and 
(jhall) speak itagaiu now. Cf. § igo*. 

9. irpi» txOpaf, Tiiilh a vteui to 
enmity : cf. 5\i...tx6pa.t in g l^i^. — 
<|i>XDvtLK(iH. eanlenliausness (ogainit 
an enemy), 

ri. dviivi]Tov: so xjx. 511 


Tt oiV ravT i-Tr^pafxai Kal BieTetvdfi.7]v ourrotrl 142 
atf>oSpw ; OTi ypafi/iar' ej^mv iv t^ Sij/iOfftp Kti/ieva, 
£^ Siv Tavr iiTiBei^w aat^Si'i, ical {iii.d<; elSa>^ ri 
•jrew pay fieiia fivrjftovevirovTa^, eaeivo tj>o0oufiat, fii/ 
rmv elpyar7fj.evajv airroj aaieSiv vTroXT](j)0^ ovtoi S 
eXaTTfOv ■ ovep vporepov avve^ij, ore tow 
iraipov^ ^rUKea'i iTraiT/aev airoKeaOai ra TJrevBi) Seup' 
aTrayyeiXal. rov yap ev 'AfUpirrrrt} "TToKefiov, 
ell 'EXaretttW rjKOe ^iXm-rroi, Kal Bt bv ^pei 
' Afi(f>iKTv6v(i3v fjyeiiuiii 09 aTrayT* averpe-^e ra, t<oi/ 
'EiW^nmv, oCtot iffTiv 6 avyKaraiTKevdaa^ 
7rdvTQ)u eU avijp fieyi'irra)!' airio'; Kaxoiv. Kal 
fvBiK ifiov SiafiapTvpofieuov Kal ^aiovTOt; iv 1 
K\jj<ria TToXifiov ei? ttjv 'ATTtKrjv ttffdyeii, 
Aia-x^VT], TToXefiov 'AiKptKrvopiKOv, ol fiei 

' Si/ 143 I 

' eic I 

§3.42, I. iinipa)iai: referring to 
the whole invocatiuii uf ^ 141, but 
especially to the impr /ration in the 
lait clause, rl thiJt' {x-fipattai; is viAji 
havi ImadithUimprrcatiiiHl while 
tJ iitTEiKt^nrDiJTua'l ts^ipSrs; (aor.) 
is why did I exfiress myself •wilh all 
t&is vehiment earnesluess ? 

2. !x«v and <[S^ (3) are con- 
cesaive. — Iv T^i 6r|ji(«r£ip, in Ihe public 
record-offia: tliis was in the MiyT^or 
(see Aesch. III. 187, PaiM. I. 3, 5V 

4. |il|...lXi'miv, i.e. lest Aisckinri 
may he Ikoaght loo small a man (0 
■work so great mischief. 

6. tmp vpirtpov oiivJPt| : this 
altusion to afumier time when Aesch. 
caused the ruin of the J'hocians by 
bringing hoiiii false refiorls, can refer 
only to the return of the second 
embassy in 346 B.C. (see g§ 32—36). 
This distinct statement that Aesch. 
was then thought " too insignificant 
to do so much harm," with the 
apprehension that the court may 
make the same mistake ai>ain in the 

present case, is one of the strongest 
proofs that the case against Aeschines 
really came to trial, that the speeches 
de Falsa Legatione were actually 
spoken, and that Aeschines was ac- 
quitted by a small majority. 

§143. I. tAv (v'A|l4>tay|| vttXt- 
|uiv: foe this and the seiiuie of 
Elatea, see § 152" and note. 

3- tip*l ^yi^i-f Ss (sc. 7-«), a 
man was chosen leader, who etc (i.e. 

6. iv Tfi JkhXtjo-I^, i.e. in the 
meeting in which Aesch. made his 
report uf his doings in the Amphic- 
tyonic Council (Hist. § 6l). 

7. iLt TT|w 'ATTurijv: Demoath. 
saw at once the full meaning of the 
Amphictyonic war, and knew that it 
must end in bringing Philip into 
Greece as the Amphictyonie general 
(.« noK on S 139')- 

S. (iL.,airYKaS^|uvoL, ihost whe 
sat together by his summons, i.e. hit 
irapdnXiiToi, with wham 
packed the meeting. 


trapoKK'^tyeatv ovyKaff^/j^voi ouk ftaiu fie Xeyciv, oi 
S" edavfia^ou xal Kevtjp atrCav Bia riju iSiav e-}(Spav 
eTrdyeii' /j.' inreKaft^avoi/ avrat. fjnt h' f/ ^i/o-ts, 144 
dvSpei 'ASTji'aloL, yeyovEi' roinwv riov ■n-payfidrwi', 
Kal rCvov eiveKa raina avvea-Kevdirdi) Kal -n-Sk 
iTrpd^St), vvu vwaKOvuare. eTreiSi} tot ixaXvaiiTe ' 
Kal yap ev wpayfia rrvVTeOkv oyjreo'Oe, 
QK^eXijo-ecr^e ' 7r/)65 luToplav twc koiv&i 
SeiuoTjj? TjV iu T^ ^iXiTTTrp OedaecrSe. 
OvK yf ToO Trpos u/iov TToXe/xov 
1*76 airaWayf] ^iX^TTTrp, « p,!/ ©ij^atow 

Xow ej^dpovi iroi'^eie Tp ttoX^i ■ aXX^ icaiwep 

'■■ peydX' S 

irdpm oiiS' in 


. otx itav |u Uytiv, i.e. woulif 
Ifl mi go en speaking (sflet ray 

ning).— ol S' JSai^otDv: the or- 
f dinary citiiens were amaied at any- 
one who dared to object to the pious 
(Ojd (ai^arently) palriolic speech of 
AesehiDes. The deciee of Demos- 
thenes forbidding Athens to lake 
any part in the future action of the 
Aiiiphiclyonic Council against Am- 
phissa (Aesch. 125 — 127) was passed 
at a later meeting, after (he people 
bad opened their eyes. 

§144. 4. iiTBKO<l<raTc: see Plat. 
Theael. 163 A, rirrut xal rSt 8fj ioi\' 
lli>it\5s irat ii/ialrfra iiirai<iiiiP,and 
162 D, Tail oEp ijion 
bwaxoiiat. The general meaning is, 
neui fail your cpporhinUy to listen 
to lit story, since you were kept fi-om 
bearing it at the right time. 

5. iS 4rp<LY|ia <rvvTfOlv, that the 
plan was well ccncocted, 

6. irpis liTTOpIav, for gaining a 
tnewledge. The real history of these 
events must be disentangled from Ihc 
long story of Aeschines (106—131), 

•■•opplemcnicd and often corrected by 
' B briefer account of Demosthenes 

(145—159). See Hist. §§ 57—62. 

§145. I. e4Kf|i' |ii|irDL^r«(: 

see M.T. 696 and the examples. The 
protasis depends on an apodosts im- 
plied in oit fit...^M-wirif, the real 
meaning being Philip fell that hi 
eoulti not enii or escape the war unlesi 
he should make the Th. hostile to eur 
lily. ThisinvolvesindirecCdiscouisej 
and we might therefore have had iitr 
iLtj wm^ffii here for tl ^1) roi'ijirtu. 
Thuc, VII, 59, TdXXa, ify In 



irapfffK(in£{liwo, where the condition 
really depends on the idea te be ready 
implied in jtapttHMi-iorro, and «t... 
ToXii-tiaattf might have been used, 
Cf. Thuc. VI. 100, rphs ri,* ir6\ir, tl 
iri^Sottr, /x^paui; they marched 
towards the city, in case they (the 
citizens) should rtish oat, i.e. lo meet 
them in that case; the thought being 
^v IripoTieSiirtv. 

4. dB\f «t. . . iroX(|U)iivTagv : Chares 
and Phocion were the Athenian com- 
manders at the beginning of the war, 
while Philip was besieging Byzantium. 
Chares was much censured for i' 
efficiency, but for Phocion's genen 


•jToXefiovvrrap aur^, o^&i? vtt' airroS rov iroXdnov 
Koi Toiv Xj/aTMV /ivp" eTraiT-)(e koko.. ovre jap 
i^^yeTO Twu etc t^! 'j^ritpai yiyvofieiitim avBiv avr 

Tore KptlTTtOV VflWV., OVT 

ctKoXovdavvToyv firire 0jj- 
ce 6' aijroi, tu troXefi^ 

KparouvTi, ToiK 

fTTparriyoiS (era yhp 

TOTTOU Kal Twi' inrapyovTfDV exarepoi'; 

el p.iv ovv T^? (3i'a? ei/tic' €)^9pa<i fj row @ena\ow 1 

TJ ToiK 0ij^a(OW trvp-veidoi ^ahl^ctv i<f> vp,a<t, oiiSAi' 




ship there is only praise. These 
operations are probablj' those of Ihe 
Ifllec part of 340 — 339, when Philip 
was ID Scythia (HisL § 56). 

5. iw aJiToS ToS irnXtiuiu, i.e. iy 
the mere stall of war. 

6. Xqs-tAv: 0. state of wir natur- 
al!)' encouraged pirates and plun- 

7. tAv In t<)s X'^P'^ \.ft9ifAvmv : 

S. fir JSttT : ac. afJ/v.— atrf, 
with eJffiifn-D. 

§146. 3. |i^n...GLUvTHv, i.e. f^ 

paiiH auetec: Philip depended on 
Thessalian troops to (ill his army, but 
he would have been satislied with 
Thehes (under the circumstances) if 
she had merely made no objection to 
hismarchingthraughBoeotia to attack 
Athena. There was probably a cool- 
ness already between Thebes and 
Philip, which appears later when 
Thebes refused to attend the Amphic- 
lyonic meeting in the autumn of 339 
B.C, (SeeAeseh. jii. 128.) See Hist. 
% 57, for these relations. 

5. AirauitKrGl)ir(i4' : here relative, 
while generally relative forms with 
oSf and Hirart are indefinite. See 

ffrou iijTOTe f««a in § 11 '" (above). 
7. T«v iini.pxi*Tti» licaWpaLt, of 
the relative remurces of eaeh, i.e. of 
his own inferiority in resources, 
especially iu naval power. See 
Thuc. 1. 141', where Pericles speaks 
of the comparative resources of 
Athens and her enemies: ri hi roD 

i)! oiK iiBeriiTtpii tionen. 

S 147. This is closely connected 
in thought with the beginning of 
§ :45. How, thought Philip, can 1 
induce the TheasalianS and Thebans 
to join me? He remembered their 
zeal in the Phocian war: see XIX. 50, 
roft'A^^uriliMri ■...*o(ait,- eiyl^ljitttr 
airiBi rXJJv etiPaln ral ecrraXol. A 
new Sacred war, or any war for the 
rights of the Amphictyonic Council, 
would be sure Iu rouse their interest 

1. (t ^. . . <rutiinltoL, i.e. if he 
win to join in an allempi to persHaJe 
them etc. : rruji- implies Ihal he wonid 
depend greatly on the influence of 
his friends in Thebes and 'lliessaly. — 
Imk", on Hi: grannd of. 

2. oHUv ifi&To iifoaifyw : I omit 
iy before Irt'iro, with L, A I. nnJ 


'/ . '>)yeiia)v alpedjj, pdov ^Xiri- 

Tiyelro vpoire^eiv a 
Koivai TTpoifiao-et? Xa^ain 

fey Ta fiev wapaKpovtretrffai to, &e ireiaeiv- ri 
eVcxeipec, OedaairB' w? €v, TroXenov woirjirat 
'AfitjiLKTVoffi Kal wepl tijv TlvKaiaii Tapw^/jv' 
yap TavT £v6vt avTovt; VTre\ti/j.^av£V avTov Seijffe- 
rrSai. el /tee roiVyc tovto ?; t&v Trap eavTov •jrep.Tra- 
(levtav lepoftvrjfiovwv i) Ta>v CKelvov avp-fid-^av elfft}- 
'V^oT+S Vir, um-oyfreaSai 'to Trpayp," evo/xi^e xal Toi? 
^tf^alov; KaX Tox)<i QeTToXou? Koi iTavTas tftvXd^e- 

edilots, because Its in- 
is accounted for by the v. 1. 
Tpovljctiy, with which it wnulil be 
eqaired. (See M.T. 208.) The 
i^mple wpo(riiiiv is also supported by 
the following rapaicpo6aiirSai and rtl- 
rtif and by the infinitives in § 148. 
For the conditional forms in this see- 
tion and the following, see note on 

5 '48'. 

3. Uv,[|h6^, i.e. if ii should 
adopi (as his own) somt groumls 
tommon ta bath Thebatis and Tha- 
laiiaits, and sa be chosen gtntral. 
See t4i /Siaj rpoipiiriis, opposed to 
t4i 'AtupitTuoomi! (the real Kairit), 
in § 15S'. The actual result of the 
acbeme is seen in S§ 15I> 152. 

T& ^iv...T'<[9'<iv, i.e. to succeed 

by deception, somtlimes by 

r. For the tense of the 

iBnitiTe with iXirl^, see M.T. 136. 

6. hdroo-S' ^ »I, see how crafiily : 
cf. 5 144' — wAXijiev iraLf)iraii (not 
Toii)iraffffai), tcget up a war,\.^. to get 
the Amphict^ons into a war. 

7, ngv IIuX.a(av: the mei 
the Amphictyonic Council 
called, because twice in each year 
(in the spring and the autumn) the 
Council met first at Thermopylae in 
the sanctuary of Demeter Amphic- 
"yonis, and afterwards proceeded lo 

Delphi, where the regular sessions 

^ 5. TA 
^^LsBn% ettmes 

■^ 6. 9*i« 

:ting of 

were held. See Hyper. Epitaph. 
§ iS, itpiKvaC/uyiii yip Sli rpO 
iriatiToS lis rijf OvXalar, Btufnil 
ytr^vottai rSr tpywy ic.t.A., with 
Aesch. m. 136, mpiieiTSai td IlitXat 
Kal lit Ae\^oi>< ir Toii r tray /ti Kit 
XpbvuLs, and Strab. p. 429 (of Ther- 
mopylae) A4;(tiTpiii lepiv. It 1} Hard 
tSjox lluXnla* BuaUr ireUur ol 
' AiiipiKTivvtt. Records of Amphicty- 
ooic meetings at Delphi in the spring 
as well as the autumn are found in 
inicriptions,— <ti TaOT'...8<4to'i<rBai, 
ittould need him for these, especially 
for the war, as the only available 

§ 148. Having made up bis mind 
(0 Ihat be must have the support of 
Thebes and Thessaly (gg 145, 146), 
and (z) that he can secure this only 
by an Amphictyonic war (g 147), he 

Athenian to instigate the war, to dis- 
arm all suspicion in advance. Foe this 
important work he hires Aeschines 
(S n«)- 

2. Upop.vTjp.dvBi' : for the constitu- 
tion of the Amphictyonic Council st 
Essay v. — bctCvov, his, from the 00 
tor's point of view, )ust after ia.vT» 
his own, from Philip's: cf. XeiuJ 


Tpht Talit i>ii\oCi- 


ffBaif Ac 8' 'ABfivalo'i y koX "Kap viiStv tw 
o TOVTO TToiiuc, eviropwi X>'i<Tetv ■ onep a 
ovv TavT ETTOHjcrej' ; fitaOovTat TOVTOvi 
irpoeiB6ro<;, al/iai, to Trpdy/i ouSe ^vXaTTOcros, Sxrirep 
' f'icoOe ra roiavra Trap vfilv' yi'yveaSai, ■7rpo0X'r}0el'i 
TrvXdyopai ovrot Kal TpioiP t/ reTTapiov j^eipoTovt}- 
advTiov aiiTov avepp^Br}. cu? 8e to tt]^ TroXew? a^ioi/ia 59 
Xafiwv a^iKer eh Toiji ' A/j.(f)[KTVova^, -rravTa TaX)C 
(i0e« KoX •jra'piSiov e-irepaivev etft oU efiicBtodi], Kal 
Xrfyou? ev7rpoi7ii>irov'; Koi fivdov;, o6ev rj Kippaia 

vTrevavritav '^^^^H 
ovh(vh^ he 149 I 



. iv 8" "AOiivalos^ ■ we have the 
e antithesis here between Sc...n 
and the preceding which 
we had in § 147 between Ii.r...alpt6^ 
(3) >nd ([ murtlBoi (1). It is com- 
monly asanmed that ii.v with the 
subjunctive expresses greater prob- 
ability or likelihood that the supposi- 
tion may prove true than tl with the 
optative; anil this double antithesis 
is often cited as a strong confirmation 
of this view. Il seems to be over- 
looked that all four suppositions are 
in oralU BbHgua aftcc past tenses, and 
would all be expressed in the oratio 
recta (i.e. as Philip conceived them) 
by subjunctives, ikv rv^TciSu, al^tfid, 
iirijT^rtu, "AflijMHjs B, which would 
all be retained if the leading verb 
were present or future. If these 
forms now show any inherent dis- 
tinction between aubj, and opt. as 
regards probability, this has been 
introduced by the erafia obliaua after 
a past tense. The two subjunctives 
express the plans which Philip bad 
most at heart, and the two optatives 
express the opposite alternatives. Cf. 
note on tl jffWoipijifi/Hfl' in g 176'. 
See Trans, of the Am. Philol. ;\ssoc. 
for 1873, pp. 71, 72, and the Eng. 
Journ. of Philology v.-l. v. no. 10, 
p. tgS. 

§ 149. 3. wpopXTiflels, nominaUd-. 

the irnXiYopoi were chosen by hand 
vote (x^l|)lJTop7ItrilTio^), while the 
Upaii-rhpi^*, the higher ofHcer, was 
chosen annually hy lot (Xa^'i'i Ar. 
Nub. 613). 

4. Tpifiv 1) TtTripBV : this small 
vote shows bow little the Assembly 
understood the importance of the 

f. &^(ir>^a, prtsligf, dignity (of 1 
cgate of Athens). 
6. (Is Tols 'AiK^iMTvovos: this 
was the meeting in the spring of 339 
B.C., described by Aeschines (ill. 

5. ctirpDD-Airsvt, plausible [fair- 
faced; cf. /are/aeed) . — |i{6ovt, tales, 
referring to the eloquent account of 
the first Sacred war in the time of 
Solon (Aeach. ill. 107— III).— Ifcv... 
Ka0M|>^8i|, from lie time when the 
plain of Cirrka was eensecrottd: cf. 
Acsch. HI. 61, Uka seer /liXurTo 
TapaKB\<iu8^iriTf. We see by this 
that Aeschines repeated to the Am. 
phictyona in 339 his story of the con- 
secration of the plain of Cirrha, with 
all the terrible corses which were 
imprecated against tboae who should 
cultivate the devoted land, which he 
told in court in 330. The consecra- 
tion was made at the end of the liiat 
Sacred war, about 5S6 B.C. 


X^P"- xaOiepm$i], trvvSkX-i leaX Bu^eXdaiv, avdpio-wov^ 
direipovi \6yiDv Koi to fieWov ov wpaoptofteuov'i, 
Toy? lepofivi'ifiovaii, TreiBet ■\jfTjif)iiTaiTdai ■jrepiekdeiv 150 
T^C jfatpav rjV ol fikf 'Afiijjiaaeli a(f>oiv avTWV o^aav 
yeaypyeli/ etftaaitf, outos Se ri}'; Upa'i y^iJapa^ J/riar' 
elvai, ovBefiiav Siictjv raiir \oKpotv etrayoproyv rjp,LV, 

vvv ovTO'i TTpo^airi^eTac Xe7ftji' oiic oK'tjOij. 5 
yvaaeade 8* iicel6ev. ovk iinjn apev tov irpoaicaXe- 
■6ai Sijirov T0(5 AoKpol^ SiicTjv Kara t^? iroXeo)? 
TeXeiyaa'dal. ti's o^v eKK'jTeuaev ^/xa* ; iiTro irola^ 


lo. JLVcIpom \ifiev : " to the cotn- 
poratively tude men at Delphi, the 
speech of a Rrsl-tate Alhemaa aratoi: 
atarity." CGrote.) TheAmphic- 
[lic Council was composed chiefly 
lepicBentatives of obscure and 
icultivated statcx. It was, in CbcC, 
relic of antiquity, which hud 
^wulived its right to exist; and in 
(he time of Philip it was merely 
galvanized into an unnatural vitality, 
vhich proved fatal to Greece and 
helpful only lo the invader. See 
Grote'i remarks at the beginning of 
chap. 87. Hist, gg 59, 60. 

§ 150. I. iripuXBiiv Ti|v x'^pB*' 
temaieaniHif/clian^TrfploSos) oflAi 
lanJ. An inscription of 380 B.C. 
records an order of the Amphictyuns 
for official irepiwSot of the consecrated 
buldi and for imposing a tine on any 
1 should be found encroaching 


3. TJTiir", alleged (in his 

i^X"""- Demosthenes cannot un- 
derstand by SJjijB iita-^hrfvy what 
Aeschines means by ttaiipipot Slr/iia. 
An intention to introduce a decree 
(^tlirdifiipar) would not need a previous 
summons, which Slin)i triynr, and 
still more *Iinj» rtUtasBai (7), le 
mail a sail ready for trial, would 
require. And the further remark of 
Demosthenes, ails' a vir dEtm Tpa- 
^mrlferai (5), aeems to imply that 
Aeschines had told a diflerent story 
about the intentions of the Amphis- 
sians when he made his report of the 
meeting at Delphi (lit. 125) from 
that which he told in court. It is 
therefore difficult to judge the argu- 
ment of Demosthenes about the want, 
□t a legal sumnioos. 

8. Licii iroliu Apx^'i f' 
aHlkoril)/ :lid the aummtm: 

uired a1 

;u- ^^ 

>S(|iiav iiraYiSvTuv ; Aesch. %\ir, 
1(116) says the Amphissians intended 
la propose a decree in the Council 
(ttri^^ipoi/ ai7)ia) lining Athens fifly 
talents for hanging up on the walls 
of the new temple some old shields, 
of Plalaea, with the restored 
jption.'A^raiDi irb Mi^iuv lal 

to the officers of the law who served 
a summons on persons outside of 
Attica; see Ar. Av. 147, 1422, it\i- 
Tiuaei refers to the act of such an 
Amphietyonic «XT(T>ip. 

9._ Ulfyy. cf. Se'^or, xxix. 41.— | 
dU' ovK £v ixora: so § 76°. 


ap-)(T}'i ; eltre tov elBoTa, Setjoc. a\X' oiiic av l;^ot?, 

irepuovTO)!/ toIvvv tt}V -^lopau r5>v A(j,(f>t 
Kara ri/v vi^riyijaiv tt/ii tovtov, ■rrpo(7Trea6nTe<; 
AoKpol fiiKpov KaTi}K6vTi<Tav airavra'i, rivat Se , 
<TVV^pira(rai' to>v ifpofivrjfi.oi/wu. tiii S' awa^ ' 
iyKKijfiaTa xal TroXe/io? Trpor tow 'Afi<j}taa-ea'i irU' 
paj^O't, TO fJ.ev TTpSyrov 6 K.OTTVipo'; ovtwc rioii 
' Kfi^iKTVovuiv iiyaye aTpajidv • ai h' oi /lev 
rfKBov, oi 8' iXBovreii ouBev eirotovv, ei? Tr)V 
\lv\aiav eVi tov ^iXtinrov euBui I'/yefiov ^yoii ol 
KaTeuKevao'p.ivoi koI iroKai •Kovjjpoi rtav &eTTd\we 


10. Notice position of to,(ti|]. 

§ 151. I. trtpudvTuv: cf. irepitX- 
eetp, § 150', SeeAesch. 122, 123. 

3. lUKpofi (M.T. 779I'), a/most, 
belongs to itaTjjjciiTio-a* : cf. Aesch. 
laj, el 11^ iit^iyaitte, iKitSvi^ita/ito 
iro\4irecu. See § 269°. 

5. JYicX<i|i...iTapdx6<| : wehaveirj- 
Xtfio PTapcUiirKi>,like proelia m iscere oi 
confundere. Plat. Rep. 567 A, and 6- 

ft. Kdrrv^os; the president of the 
Council, a Thessalian of Phatsalus. 

7. abx rjXSov: e.g. Thebans and 
AtbeniatiB, and doubtless others. 

8. oJiGcv jiralom: see Aesch, 129. 
— ((c Tiiv iinoii«ro».,.rfyov (sc. Tik 
irpiiyiMTa), took inemures at once, 
against the earning meeting (autumn 
of 339). '■•' P»t Aingi (i.e. the war) 
inlo the hand! of Philip as commander. 
See Vt.. 57, A ,ii, V ^^ai ^yoi- Td 
TrpiyjlioTo, ol t irX 'WXiirxoi'. 

9. at K(LT(crMiiaa')UroL {_fisi^, those 
■aiilh whom arrangements had been 

\a. vdXoi irovTipol; ef. g l58^ 

Demosthenes distinctly implies that 
Cottyphus was made general at the 
Bpiing meeting, but that, after a mete 

pretence of war, intrigues at once 
began for superseding him by Philip 
at the autumnal meeting (fit rj)v 
liiavant nvXaia»). Aeschines, on 
the contrary, whose whole object is 
Co show that a real Amphictyonic 
war was intended, with no help or 
thought of help from Philip, and to 
represent Philip's finaJ appointmeat 
as commander as a remote after- 
thought, states that no action was 
taken against the Amphissians in the 
spring, but that a special meeting was 
called before the regular autumnal 
nuWa, to take such action (124). 
At this special meeting, which Athens 
and Thebes refused to attend (Aesch. 
ia5 — 128), Cottyphus was chosen 
general, (according to Aesch.) while 
Philip was "away off in Scythia"; 
and after a successful campaign the 
Amphissians were fined and their 




they refused to submit; and finally, 
"a long time afterwards" (iroUifi 
XP^"f unrtpmi), a second expedition 
became necessary "after Philip's 
return from his Scythian expedition"; 
— he does not even then say that 
Philip was actually made gene " 
See Hist. §§61—63. 


Kai tS>v ill Tdt? dWaK TroXea-i. Kal trpa^daeK 162 J 
eiiXoyov^ elK^^eir'av fj yap avTov^ ela<}i4peiv itai 
IxjS ^evov<! Tpe<^eiv e^aaav Seiv Kai ^rjfiioJjv roin; fijj 
Tavra TroioOcTa?, ^ 'icetvov alpdaBai. tI Set ra 
•TToKKh, \eyetv ; Tipidij yap «'« tovtcdv -^yefitiiv. Kal 5 
//era -ravT eii6m<; Bvvafitv avWe^a'i koX vapeXBatv 
(U! eVt T^c Kippaiav^ epptaaOai tf>paiTa<; iroXXa 
Kippaloif Ka't Aoicpolv, Tyu 'RXdrtiav KaTd\ap.^dvei. 
€1 ftev ovv fiT) /iereyvoKrav evdew';, tti? tovt elBov, ol 1 
dhj^aloi Koi fteff rj/ioiii iyevovro, ui<yirep ■x^tiMappovi 
av dvav tovto to vpayfi' eh tIjp ttoXiv eitr^effe- 
vvv he TO 7' i^dt^inji iv^a-)^op ainov 4«elvot, fioKiirTa 
fiiv, St dvSpev 'AOtjiialoi, 0e&v ticos evvoia Trpbt vfian, S 


kf. Ippfi<r6ai ^pdrM 'RvXXd, iiii- 
Oingmany farnvilb (a hng adifit) : 
to XIX. 24S. Cf. tppuMTo, vale. 
8. 'EXdma*: when Philip had 
passed Tbermopylae, he hardly made 
a ptetence of entering into tiie nut 
■with AmphisBa, foe which he was 
ehosen cammander; and he sonn ap- 
peared at the Phocian town of Elatea, 
wtiich commanded the pass into 
Boeotia and " the road to Athens." 
This move left no further doubt as 
to his real intentions. Aeschincs says 
(140} of Philip's sudden movement, 
Ti* riXi/iBV Sr rpirtfitu ^HXoffei' ix 
rfit xiipot r^! BoiQirSi' (i.e. the Pho- 
cian war),Toikiii' wdXtB riw airbv vi- 
Xifioi'(i,e. a similar sacred war)^^! 
■ tiA T^i ttiiKtioi it' atris ritt OijjSat. 
"^ilip must have been made general 

in the early autumn of 339 B.( 
probably seized Elatea in thi 

campaign lasted about eight or n 
months until the battle of Chaero 
in August or September 338. 
"winter battle" is naturally m 
lioned in §2r6». The startling effect 
at Athens of the news from Elatea 
is described in §§ 169 fT. 

§ 153. 2. \i.a' j]H,Av t^vuvTO, I 
joinid us. — iSinnp X'l'I'VpO'f.' '''^' * 
vsittler torrent', moat of the rivers of 
Greece are nearly or quite dry the 
greater part of the year, and in the 
winter and spring are often filled by 
rushing torrents. Many of these, 
when dry, still serve as paths over 
the mountain passes. Similar simple 
comparisons are Smttp ti^t, § IBS'* 
(cf. rvKri tnnibt, II. 1. 47); Afntp 
irKi!>m, § 308". _ _ 

3. Sirav Toflxo t4 vpS^I^ ■ "'^ 
might say this luhole thing, but with 
far less dignity. 

4. vSv, as it 7«ai, in fad, opposed 
iofl nil fi*T4^maa.i': cf;5l33' 
y ^o.i^n\t, for iht mominl. 



€(Ta fieVTOi, Kal oirov Kaff eu av&pa, Kal Si efi4- 
So! Se (lai. TO Soyfiara ravra leal tovs j(p6vov^ ev 0I9 
?KaijTa TreirpaKTai, iv elB^re ^XiKa •irpa.yfiad' rj 
fuapa Ke<j>a\r} Tapa^da-" . aCnj Biicffv ovk eBtoKev. 
X^e /iO( TO. Boyfiara. 


['Etti lepe'iBs KXamyapmi, iapivr]^ iruAnms, tSo^e toIs 
BTiXnydpois KaE to« mivtS/jois tSv 'A/^i^i 
(toti-io Tiov 'A/i^iicruOTaiv, eirtiS^ 'Afiifil 

iirl T^V iepii' )(aipav Kal mrcCpaiKn Kcu jJaa-K-^fiaai. KaTavi- 
l/ava'v, i-n-cXSelv roil TrvA/iyopovs tai tous oiWSpovS) 
cniAats StoAa/Seiv Tovv opousi toi iTreiTrerv Tois 'A^i 
(mui ToB AotTToC ^■^ fTriiSatWiv-J 


['Ejrt lEptais KAdvayopou, tapiv^s TniAoui!, ^So^e tdi^ 
1 TTvXayopoK tat rots cnii'tSpoi? rSi- 'AntfuKTvoviav koi ti5 
KOiViu riov 'AiitliiKTVoviov, iirtiSt} ol ii 'A/i^tairvj? ri/v Ifpav 
)(atpav KaTavd-pAiiaioi yeiopyoviri, kui fiouK^iiaTa vip.ovcn, Kal 
KO»A,uo^itvoi toCto woiErv, ti- roTs oirAoii Trapuyao/icroi, to 
Ktuvov riov "EAAjjcoiv irvvi&piov ic(K<uXiJ«niTi /wri /Sui!, 
Tivis St Kot TeTpau^TiKairt, tow orparjjyov tov -gprjiifvov 
Twv 'A/n^iKTUovcui' KoTT-ui^i' TOV 'ApKaSci irpta0tZaat irpos 
*lXtmnii' Toc MoKtSriva, Koi djiow iva ^oijfl^o-fl t<u T£ 
'AlroAAuil'l KOli TOl! A^l^lKTllOiriV, OJTUIS /I'^ TTfpiiSii Oiro TCUl' 

(tTa...St' ^, lit. iut beiidcs, 
so far as dependtd on any ont 
!, also through mi: the former 
:tiiraDcla Saoi'.,.itipa to tha. 
Gd'YliaTa TaOrd aie Amphicty- 
decrpcB about the Amphissian 

164 I 

" that this 
t from the ri 
e decrees 

tas an ofHcml state- 
;ords, showing that 
rere passed when 

oiTJi KfpaXij i^i\t!\u0^s K.r.X., and 
XIX. 313. 

9- TOpdEoo- : we should express 
To/KtfauQ by the leading verb, aad 
Sls-qr tit fSuitfv by ■wiiAoul being 
punished. With i-jKiy/iaTa " 


affc^iJiv 'AiJ.<lnairiaiv Tof 6iav TrXruifiAov/iivov " ko! &oti 
avTov o-TpQTijyov airoKpaTopa alpoiivTai oi '^AAijW! oi /xere- 

Arye S^ «at tow ^pofow eV oJ? tcivt eytyvero' 
eiai yap KaB' ovs e-jrv\ay6pT)ff£v o{)Ta';. Xeye. '5 



AtK Sfj Ti]p iTniTTo\i]V tjv, ow ov^ inr^Kovov oi 15fl 
&7}^atoi, ir^iXTrei tt/jo? tow ^w TJeKovovif^am avnp.d- 
jfow o ^IXm-TTOt, Xi' eiSiJTE koX eV rauTv?? o-ii0i? OTi 
T^v /ie^ a\7jOrj Trpoipaa-ii' rmu -irpayfidriav, to ravr 
sttI Tijv 'EWdSa Kal row &7]^aiov^ Kal vp.a'i -Trpdr- S 
Tell', ayreicpvTrreTO, tcoivh Se koI tois 'Afi^iKTVoat 
Ed^avra vokIv TrpoffeiroieiTo, a Se ra? aipopp.a'i 
TauTiif Koi TO? 7r/3o0ra<7«s oi/rol -rrapacrj^mv oStos ij*"- 


[ButnXeu! MuKtSdi'tu;- ^''jro? II(Ao7row?j<r[ioi' TtJv rv 151 
r§ av/xpajfiq. roT; Sijfuou/jyoit xal tols (TUfE'Spoi; KOi ToT; 
oAAois OTffi/iaxo's jracrt j(ai/j(ti'. eireiS^ AoKpoi ot koXoij- 
fUVM O^oXot, KarwKOwTt^ iv A/i,</itVtfr;, xXij/i/ieXoCiriv tis 
TO lepoi' ToB AttoAAcui'os toC iv AeA.(/jots koi W/i" lEpav )(uipav S 
Jp)(Ofi.e('<H fitff oirXoiv Xe?jXuTowi, ^ovko/jju. Tip SetJ ^^ 

g 256. [. 0^ viHJKavov: this 
must refer to a refusal of the Thebans, 
befoie the seizure of Elatex, [o join 
Philip in an expcditian against the 
Ampoiasians, against whom he pio- 
fened to be marching: see § 152', 
fiw Arl Hjii Kipfjofai'. 

a. sTijipAx"'^ " i-^- ''le Arcadians, 

Eleans, and Argives. See Isocr. v. 

-,M. 'i/rtfioi St Kal Mfffoijvioi ifol 

MfynXoiroMTai lal Tar iWui' toXXoI 


IX. 27. 

See Hist. 

'ii irpo^ireii, §§ 
'A|i^iiKTiain Bd- 
Eavra, Amphidyonic dctrits, 1 toEi 
"Aft^. fSofcv. Cf. It). 14, Td WDWir 
fSAeiii rd 7f iSifawa. The older 
Athenian decrees began with tiafy rg 

vfLuiv jimfiin 

ivSpioTrw; tinri^&v ' Zafi'irwavTaTi ^etq ruii' 

^(UKlSa, £J(OVT<S l7nalTUTII.0V IJfitpuiv TtTTapOKI 

otGtos /iJji'bs Xiuou, dig ^j/itis ayo/iei", tuj 8< 'Affipmioi, ^oij- 
SpofitSivO'i, in Si KopLi'diot, Tmvijfiou. TOLS S< /^^ (TvVavT'^aiun 
■navhrjiitl ^Tjiro/itBa [rots Se OTj/ipoiiXw! ^fiiv Kti/io-ais] 

'OpaS" Sti ifievyei Tai IBiai frpo^dawi, ek Be to? 1 
Afi(f)iKTUoviica'i KaTa(fievyei. tk ovu 6 ravra avjir 
•trapaaaevdcra'i avT<p ; ti's o tos irpo(j>dtrei'; ravrwi 
ivSov<i ; TVi 6 TOiV KaKav rStv yeyeVTjfievav /idXiffT 
aiTtof ,■ ou;^ oCtos ; ^^ Toivvv Xe'yere, iS dvhpt^ S 
'ASijyatoi, TrepuovTe; we l'i^' e^os" Totavra -rreirovBev 
fj 'EXXof afOpioTTov. ou^ u0' tea?, dXX' utto ttoWwi' 
Kal trovTipaiv rwv Trap' e/catrTOi?, w 7*} «al ^eoi^- &v 1 
el? oiroffi, 81/, el fiijSeu eiiKa 07)8 ein-a TaXij^ej elweiv 
S^i, ovK Slv oKVTjaatii eywye koivov oKnijpiov tSsv 

TOTTCov, iroKeoiv • 6 jap 

OTTepfia 1 
Bu owa>\ 

apacr)(^v, oCtos 5 
ttot' OVK evBiKi 

§ 1S8. 2. "Aji+utTMiviicis: see 
§§ 147°, 156. — KaTo^c^Y'^' '"^fi '''!/- 
Hgr, upposed to iitiyti (1). J-*"'". 

3. irpot^io^is ivBoia : cf. 'Fhuc. II. 
S7 (end), oOk ipSiimiitr wp6<jia<Fiy 
aiStiil KCKip yti^aBai. 

5. (li] U^'^ mpiLdvTH, i/o net ga 
about and tell. 

6. iiif Ivit &v6pi&in>u, i.e. by 
Philip: cf. d! dpi)yi {of PhUip), Xll. 
64. Philip (hesays) could never have 
accomplished his purpose, h&d be not 
had such accomplices as Aeschlnes. 
Notice the effective collocation in ^ 
'EWAs itSptlnrtiu. 

S 159. 3- rti|Eiv (CXapiiSivTo, 
■wit/ieut reserve. 

3. KOiiii* dXiT^piov, a common 
curse and destroyer. An d^irii/jioj is 

B man who has sinned against the 
Gods and is thereby under a curae, 
which curse he transmits to others 
with whom be has to do; also an 
avenging divinity: cf. Aen. it. 573, 
Troiae et patriae communis EriaHys 
(of Helen). See Andoeidcs 1. 130, 
131. 'A\<iriap is similarly used in 
both senses; see § 296', XIX. 305; 
see also Aeschyl. Eum. 236, 3^;i:(iu 
S* rpeu/avSs i\daTopa (one who hu 
already been puriGed); Pera. 354, 
Novell iXdirruip fl itniiii SalfUtfv lofife. 
Aeschines twice (ill. 131, 157) calls 
Demosthenes t^i 'EXXiiot dXiTiJpioi 
(see Blass). 

6. T&¥ ^ivTUV KEUC&V (sO S), ff/ 

tie harvest of woes: without icajti3», 
which many omit, we should have 



m eoiKev, iaTie Trap' v^lv irpa tT)'; oKijOeiai. 

'Siv/i^i^riKe Toivvv fiot t&p Ktira ti'j? ■jrarpiSov 160 1 
rovT^ Trevpayiievtav aT^ajievip eii et rouroi^ iuavTiov- 
fieiioi; auToi ire-rroXijevfiai, a.^l)(8aL ■ & TroKXaiv fiii/ 
I el/coTtot aKovaaiTe fi-ov, /iiiXicrTa &' oti 
ala'xpov iariv. Si avhpei! 'A6riva.ioi, el er/to ra 5 
ep'ia rwv UTtep vjiSiv irovioii, vftsls Se /j.riSe 
Tous \6yovi auTMU dve^etrSe, op^v yb.p iya> &i}- 1 

causa acbonim et stirpium, sic huim 
luctooaissimi belli semen tu fuisti. — 
8»: object of bath lS6:rr<! and art- 
arpi^Te: the latter becomes tran- 
the passive, like ^|3^u. 


15 to 


§S 160—226. The orator now 
passe* to his own agency in opposing 
the joint plot ofAeschines and Philip. 
See iptcoductory note on §§ 126—226, 
After speaking of the enmity between 
Athem end Thebea, which men like 
AdchinGE had encouraged (§§ 160 — 
163), he gives a graphic account of 
the panic excited at Athens by Philip's 
'"'ture of Elatea, and of the inannec 
which he took advantage of this 
better understanding and even to 
an alliance against the common enemy 
(SS l&S— 226). Into this account 
he introduces (§§ 1S9— aio) a moat 
eloquent and earnest defence of the 
whole line of policy in opposition to 
Fhilip which Athens had followed 
chiefly by his advice. He pleads that 
Athens, with her glorious traditions, 
could have taken no other course, 
leven if she had seen the fatal defeat 

It Chaeionea in : 

ce. 'fills 

I the I 

sage In theoratlon; anditisaddressed | 
not merely to the court, but to 1 
whole people and to future ages. 

§ 160. 4^ Amrio-aiT.: this read- 
ing, though it has slight MS. authority, I 
is necessary here, with Irtt dv i ~ 
and L. £ often has e for ai 1: 
for f, from their identity in later pro- I 

5,7. Ttt <vpa...Tait UYButi M« I 

adual labours, cuntiasled with mi 
listening to the account of them. 
Xir/if and ri tfiia, Thuc. I. 22. 

The orator introduces this conl 
ation of his political history ii 
apologetic way, as in § 1 10^ he pro- 
fessed to leave it doubtful whether he 
should speak at all of these later acts, 

t4 niyurra rtt pay ,i4vat (see 

note). This is a part of the skilful 
device by which he divides the long 
account of his public life, while at the 
same time he reminds the court that 
the brilliant passage which follows is 
over and above what is needed to 
defend Ctesiphon (see § 126'), and 
asks their attention to it as a personal 
favour to himself, 

§ 161. The orator recurs ti 
critical moment in the relatlDDS of I 
Athens and Thebes, when both w 
astounded by the sudden seizure 
Elatea, anil the gruat question wis 'I 


^aiov^ ff^eSov S^ teal vfJMi viro r&v tA ^'tXiTnroa 

^poiiovvTrnv Koi Bie<f>dapfJ.ey<ov wap' iicaTepoi^, o ftO^ 
^v dfi(fioTepoi'i ipo^epov /cat tpvKaKT]^ •!roX\i}<i ieo/ievou, 
TO Tov l^iXiTTTTOi' iav aii^dveirdai, irapopStvra'i ical S 
ovhi Kaff ev ^vXa-nofievov;, eh e'^Spav Be teal to 
vpoaKpovetv dXKTjKoii troipw; e^ovras, ottw! toCto 
fir/ yivoiTO irapaTTjpwv tisTeKovv, ovk airo riji ip-av- 
TQv yva>ni)t! p,Qvov Taina trvfi^epeiv VTroXafiffavcoir, 
aXTJ elBo)'! ' ApiaTOtfiaVTa koi iraXtv EiV^ouXov Travra 162 
TOV ■)(p6vov ^ovXap-evoVi "rrpa^ai TavTr/v ttjv <ficXiav, 
Kal irepi t&v aXXoiv TroXXdiei'; dpTiXeyovTai eavTol^ 
TovS' 6/j.oyvii>p,ovovirraq dei. ovi <rv ^avrai fiev, & 
KivaBo-i, KoXaKevwv irapt/KoXovOei^, TedpediTtov S* ovie $ 

whether Thebes would join Philip 
against Athens, or Athens against the 

1. ipAv : with rapopQirm! (k), ipu- 
AoTro;*i»i/i, and tzo"""' (M.T. 904). 

2. Wi rSir..,Zu^tap\Uvav: ex- 
piessing the agency by which the 
condition described id rapspiSirat 
etc. was effected, as if the participles 
were passive. 

3. fop' iKaWpoit, i.e. in each 
city. Foe Athens the great danger 
was EhaCberold enmity against Thebes 
might prevent her froni taking the 
onfy safe course, union with Thebes. 
For Philip's way of working in such 
cases, see § 61 . Dissen contrasts rap' 
^(car^fwii, apud utrosque seorsim, in 
iacicify,>oTfpois (4),ulrisijue 
simul, iolA, 

5. t4...o 
the omitted antecedent t ^^,, 
is the object of napapiayrai etc. 

7. SirfflSTOvTO (ri jrpoffKpofiti*) f,i] 
T^voifa (so S and L') : most MSs. 
have the more common ftr^arrai 
(M.T. 339,340)- 

S. irapanifiav SitrAouvi / iff/ 
continual iiratch. 

9. TnOra: the policy of friendship ^e 

with Thebes {raiinji' T%y «iMot, § 

163"), implied in SiriutToCTojii|7^nnT0. 

g 162. I. 'Apiirrai^vm (see § 

70°), a leading states man of the earlier 

petiot! and a strong fiicnd uf Thebes. 

Aesch. saysof him(IIl. 139], irXEUFrov 

afrfai'.— EtipouXev (cf, § 70') : see 
Grote XI. 3S7. 

2. piiuXo)Uvovf and a|Ui(wi)ia- 
vofivras (4) are imperfect, past to 
cJi^liiand Jier^Xoui': but ctrnX^airai 
(3), though Ih/y epposid aui another, 
is present to hiuiyr., to which it is 
subordinate.— TovTi]* tt|V i^iXtav: 
the friendship for Thebes during the 
oppressive Spartan supremacy, which 
appeared in the aid privately aeni by 
Athens to Thebes when she expelled 
the Spartan garrison from the Cadmea 
in 379 B.C. This friendship was 
broken after Leuclra in 371. See § 

5. ira|n]i[iiX(iilSait is more than j-oii 

you followed thrm round at Aung an 
to them in a servile way. Eubulut 
was one of the avrtnopvi who sup- 
ported Aesch. at his trial for irapaTper- 
" ' ' * ' 11.184). ITie anonymous 



ifiol, iKeieiJOV ttoXv fioXXov ■^ ifiov KajTiyopeii, t&v 
TTpOTSpop 7) iyoi Tavrrjv ttjv trvfifiay^iav hoKip.aadv- 
rav. aXK' iaela indeei^i, on tov ie ' hfuplaatj 163 
TToKe/iop TOVTOV ii.ev TTOirjiravTO'i, a-v/iir€pavd/iev<i»' Be 
Tan dXXwv rS>v avvepySiv avr<p tt}v irpiK ®i}0alov 
sS2 eyBpav, uvve^i) tov <^t\L-jnrov eXOelv itfi' ^p.S.';, o&Trep 
ev€Ka Tn? TrdXei^ oLtoi irvveKpovov, 
aveaTrjp.ev fiiKpov, aiiB' avaXa^elv 
ovrto fie')(pt TToppat irporjyayov out 
^Sj; to, nrpo^ aWriXoix;, tovtiovI 
aKowravrei Kal ran awbicpieewv ■ 
\^e TaOra \affatv. 

["Eiri ap-)(ovTO^ "HpoiniOov, pi)v6i ^Aa<fvj(8oAiii™« ektij 164 I 
0l7iVoiTOS, (j)vXrji TrpvTavtvovoT]^ 'IJpi)j8ijtSo^, jSouA^s i 

i el fit) Trpoe^- S 

iv ok S- T^r' 
I ylrTjipiapaToyv 
:a-0e. nai p.ot 

T<i>v lumytLTOvmv, 

hi TTOf^d, Kftl>a\aiM Si ■ 

ife of Aeschinea makes him a clerk 
.. both Eubulus and Arutophon. 

6. a,..(inTip.^s: Che charge of 
favouring Thebes in the tenns of the 
alliance in 339—338 H.C. (Aeach. 
141— 143). 

§163. I. hattr'.le. hlimiaiu 

crii;^ implies tlml, while Aescli. gut 
up Ihe Amphisaian ivnr by himself. 
he had aclivc hi'lpcrs in stirring up. 


t Thet 

When all was ready, Philip appeared 
at Elfllea <i\6ti, i-p' lififii, 4) : ct. 
§ i6S». 

5. ct |it|...|UKp&v, if iBf had not 
reused ouritlvis a littlt too soon (for 
(he success of the plot) '■ lutpiv chiefly 

6. dvoXaPdv, » r-i 



cf. Plat. Rep. 467 B, rm^iTai uai riji 

7. oSt« with fi^xp' '^^pp", so far. 
— irpo^i-yn^oy, airried it, i.e. the 
quarrel with Thebes. 

S, 9. <^r\^uiy.i,ve>ii, i-irOKpiatttr! 
as these documents were quoled to 
show the enmity between Thebes and 
Athens at the time of Philip's invasion, 
the •ji-^iplitnaTa were probably Athe- 
nian decrees en acting measures hostile 
to Thebea, and the replies were re- 

OQ the part of Thebea. Nothing could 
be more absurd than the two decrees 
against Philip and the ttvo letters of 
Philip which appear here in the text. 
See S 16S', where Philip is said to 
have been elated {hrapBeW) by the 
decrees and the replies, i.e. by Ihe evi- , 
dence of hostility which they showed. ^ 


'Attikyjv -mipairKevaicrai. irapayiyvtaSat, Trap ouSsv 

fiivdi -^ ^litTipas awS^KOit, Ktu Toiif opKous Xvtiv tsv' 

P^MTal KOI rip/ ttpnvijv, irapapalvioi' tm koJ 

&iS6)(Sai T_7 ^ovkjj KOI Tiu Sij/uo 7rt/i7r£iv irpos alrov vpaijiai, 

olnvfi Qiffiu StttXe'^iwrcu Koi iropaitaAtwDuo'iv avrov /laXioTa 

;iiv ■n}v Trpo'i Tjp.a% aftovoiav SuA-qpciA' Kol TO! (n)vfl^«t!, ti St lo 

fti], JTpO! TO ySoiAiiWcrflai Souvai )(p6vai/ Tg iroAti Kol ri? 

dto;^!! irmijtToo'fliii p^ixpi tov flop-yijAiivos p-qroi. jjpi6i}(Tav 

BovXayofias 'AAunrEK^dci'.J ^^H 


['EjTi ap;^oiTO« "Hpfwri'flou, /iiji'os /tou['if;(tSvos ti'ij koi 165 
vfV, wokipjip)(pv yvio/tji, i-rreiSli *iAi7nros its aXXoTpioTTjra 
0vj;9ai'ous TT/joS ^ (Vi^oAXeTQi KoiuoT^tfot, jrojjto'KfvacrTal 
St Kai sroiTi Tiu o-rpuTfu/uin Trpos roiis tyyiora t^i 'Attix^ a 
283 n-apuyiyvei70Ql tottoui, impa^aivoiv ros Trpos ij;ia« fijrop-J 
jfowjas aSr^J truvSijuas, St8djjflu r^ (SouXj; kui rtu 8)j|it^ , 
Tripifml vpai aVToV K'jpVKa xal irpitrfim, oiTifCS a^uo 

tvSi^apivia'i 87-10; PavKevaijTiu, ' koi yup yuf ou ki 
Por)9iiv fv oiSfvl Tuiv pirpLiDv. ijpiftj<mv iK t^ ftovX^ i 
Ncap;i(os Sioctvofioii, TloAuicpaTjji 'Eiri'^/ioi'O!, mit K^pusl 
Evro/ios 'AiiQ^AvoTios ck tou Sijjuou.] 

Ae'ye S^ khI tot cnroKpicreiv. 


[BuCT-iAtu! MaKi&iviav *iAi7nro5 'A9);ra^'mv vj povXij koi 
Tiu S>J/Uii )(iuptiv. y/v fiiv air' o/'X')' ''X'^^ irpos ^/las a'ptcrii',' ' 
avK dynKu, Koi Ttwx aTrovStjV ■iroUl<r6c wpatTKoXtaaaSai, jSou- S 
kapcvoi ©Ej-ToAoii! (tut 0jj/3a[cn;i, «n Si koi Boiojtdv! ' ^iKnov 
6 aiiTuiv ijipovoivTUii' Kai pf/ ^avkoptviav fiji' vp,tv jroiijtnio-ftu 
Tr)v (auTcuv aipt(Tiv, dAAi kqto, to mifi^fpov liTTapiviov, vvv 
*t VTroarpO'pTJ'i airtKTTtiXavTti ip<x% jrpos p,e irper^Sets KOt J 

1S8 1 


mjpifna <niv6i]K'uv <iJ,vrjiinv€«tTt Kot tos nvojfii? oireiirft, Kar t 
□vStf iiij)' '^iiSiv Trtjrfi.Titi.jltXijfia'Oiy iyia fiivroi JKOMnii t&v 
TtptapuiTuiv ovytiaTdrtSiiiaL Toli iro^xiKuAou/icvius KOi irotfLOi 
tlfkL irmeiffftu ris di^X"Si ay wtp tous ouk fipflit avu^ov- 


[BatrlXtus MoKcSd^uii' ^iXnrnoi ©ij^oiiuv t^ ;SovX^ koi 1 

T(u Bij/icu jfoipetv. iKOiuaaiajV Ti}V trap' VfiHiv (tthttdX^i', &' 

284 1JS /iot r^f ofiovoiav ovavkovaQt koj. t^v tJpiJvijv oitcus t/ioi 

Sai'o/tai. /iOToi SiotI ' irS&av i/iri" 'Aftjwtioi 

i^iXort/j.tai'j povKoiicyoi vfiai cruyKarliVous 5 

ytvf'ofiat roi^ iiir auftuv 'Tfa/bmtaXou/tll'bis. TrpOTcpov jUV ovv 

vftiov K0.Tiytyvw&K6v"f-rn. ria fiiWiiy inWfaBox tu« iKttviitv 

iXTTLtn. Kiu. iTm.Ko\ov6dv avTaiv Ttj irpaaipitrti, yvv 8" (wi- 

Ti[« ircpiflV eTroKoXouflctV yyiafiaK, ^ad-QV Kot'iioWov v^s lO 
tiraivb! KOTa jtoAAo, /taXioru S' iirl Tia ^ovXtvoutrdai irtpi 
Toifriui- &r<f>aXcfTTfpov koI to. n-pos ■^p.Ss ^X'"' '*' *'JVoi^' oirtp 
oi lUKpav iiiiii/ oioav t\-!ri^io powljv, t<£V irtp tV! raunys 
/ien/Tf'T^S irpoStb'ecus. ?/jp(uirft.J 

asii, Kal TOUTOt<t e-rrapffel^ tok ^fr'l](f>la^fiaa^t B 

atroKpiaeaiv, Jjxev e^tDV t'jv Bvva/j,iv ical rijv 
'KK.dTetav leaTeXa^eii, 011 oiiB' 

§ IGB, I. oStw: as the docu- 

4. ilitaiG' av...rru)i'trv(v<rdvTavfiv, 
i.e. /ee/ing {iis) ikal unJer Hopassiilt 
finumslaaas loouUi the Thebans 
aud eursthies becomi hai-mmiious : 
wiaritvirirTay Sv repreaents irv^- 
TKiiriUfiiv Ir. The Mss. a.11 have 
I muTrrEinrStTuji' it, which Bekker re- 
L tains. The future pailiLipIe with iv 

i "fivOLT ( 

is very rare and generally doubtful: 
but here it would represent the future 
optative with dr, for which there ii 
no recDguized authority, Moreover, 
the future of itria is not minu, but 
ryiiaoilat or tirevBoO^mi, and this 
should be decisive (see Veitch). See 
M.T. 216; and foe Ihe leipetition of 

'Kmrepa fikv y^p ^v, fJKe B' ayyeWiov nt di^ 16t 
Tov<{ TrpuTai/eis w? 'EKdreia KaTftXijTrTai. kuI fiera 
ravra ol fiev €v6v^ i^avaaTilvTe'i^ ^era^v BenrvoiJi'Tev , 
TOW t' €« TWi" iTKi}vS]v tSui KaTO, rijv ayopav e^elpydi/ 
ical TO yeppa iv€7rifnrpaffav, ol Be tov^ arpaTJiyovv 5 

'. \i,i.KpS. tve-yKatdTam. (so S and 

,1 ; see § iz6< and nute. Most MS^. 

give oin-A ri ni'ii7«Bi6T[tTit here, per- 

Sl 169—180. Here follows the 
fanious desctiptioD of the panic in 
Atbens when the news of the seizure 
of EUtea arrived, and of the meeting 
Df the Assembly wbich was suddenly 
called to consider the alarming situa- 
tion, lliis is a celebrated example 

of Siarirairii, vivid delinfalion. 

$169. I. Thesuccessionaftenses, 
fv, jJKE ^Aad lonie), and laTclXijTTai 
(the direct form for the indirect), 
makes the narrative lively and pictur- 
eaqiie at the outset. Much would have 
been lost if he hadsaidiiXdE 3' 1177^- 
Xuir Tij LiiT 'caTfi\r}fi/jLifTj ctjj. — ^f ra^ 
'TpvT&vtK : the message came to the 
Prytanes, the fifty senators of one of 
the ten tribes, who for their term of 
one-tenth of the year represented the 
authority of the state. Their office 
was the 0AAOI or aiciit, a round building 
with a cupola in ibe i-yopi, adjoining 
the Sen ate- house and the fnirp^orwith 
its record -office. There the i-riirTiTiis 
of the Prytanes was expected to spend 
his whole day and night of office, 
with a third of the Prytanes whom 
he had selected (Arist. Pol. Ath. 44^), 
ao as to be accessible in emergencies 
like the present; and there the state 
provided meals for all the Prytanes. 
The ei\a! is distinct from the ancient 

Prytaneum or City Hall, where cer- 
tain privileged persons {ieioiToi) hati 
their meals at a public table, to which 
ambassadors and other guests of the 
state were sometimes invited. 

4. Toiis...(r(oii'»v: cf. g 44*. 

5. ri ftptKh probably the wicker- 
work with which the booths (ffK^foi) 
in the market-place were covered. 
The word can mean also anything 
made of twigs, and is used of a wicker 
fence which enclosed the ^nnXijirla 
(see Harpocr. under yififio, and ux. 
go) . But the close connection of the 
two clauses, lirmie oul l/iose in Ihe 
booths and burnt tki yippa, shows 
that the -/fppa which were burnt were 
taken from the booths. Otherwise 
there is no reason for driving the 
poor hucksters out at all If it is said 
that this was done to prepare for the 
"monster meeting" the nest morn- 
ing, we must remember, first, that the 
Assembly was held in the Poyx, not 
in the ir/Bpi ; and, secondly, that 
there was to be b meeting of the 
Senate before that of the Assembly, 
which would give time enough to 
make all necessary preparations after 
daybreak. To suppose, further, that 
the booths were torn to pieces and 
burnt on the spot after dark, merel; 
to clear the iyapi., when there was 
DO pressure of time, even if the place 


HerenreiitrovTo koX top aa\tnKr7)v eKoKovp- koI Bo- 
I ttXjJ/jjjs 7iv r/ TroXit, Tij S" vrrrepala a/xa Ttj 
ijfiepa 01 (lev vpvrduav ttjv 0ovXi]v eKoXovv e« to 
I 285 fiovXeVTripiov, vfi€K B' ek t^u iKKki^aiav e-n-opeveaOe, 
•jrplv eKeivT)v j^prifiaTirrat Kal 7rpo0ou\iv<rai ttSs i 

[( ifrrrjf'yeiXai' oi 

Lnadmen. Such a panic as this sense- 

I'Jess proceeding would have caused 

I .was surely the last object which these 

I gnaidians of the state could have had, 

when they left their supper unfinished 

' and hasteoed into the market-place. 

Their first object certainly was to 

secure a full meeting of the Assembly 

the next morning. It will iie noticed 

that vrhilesome (Dl,uJp)oftheFrytaiics 

were engaged in clearing the booth^i, 

others (ol 5t) were summoning the ten 

Generals. The Generals and the Pry- 

tanes had the duty of calling special 

meetings uf the Assembly (ifnitiinlat 

iriryKXiJroui) [ see Thuc. Iv. 118°*, 

i|[JtXi?ffIoii S* Touitfomii Toil ffrpaTT)- 

701)5 (at Toil TpuTifKii, and n. 59" 

(of Pericles), ffAXo70f iroiijo'ni (I^i3" 

ivTpaT^ti'], There can, therefore, 

be hardly a doubt that the two acis 

were connectei! with summoning the 

Assembly. To do this elTectnally it 

was necessary to alann the whole of 

Attica immediately; and the natural 

method for this was to light bonfires 

on some of the hills near Athens, 

which would be a signal to distant 

denies to light fires on their own hills, 

A lire on Lycabettus could thus give 

signals directly and indirectly to the 

whole of Attica, and probably this 

, WHS understood as a call of the citizens 

a special Assembly. As material 

r lighting signal Bees might not 

Uways be on hand, it is likely that 

e dry covering of the booths struck 

e eyes of the Prytancs as they came 

U of Ihm oBBce, and that they toolc 

il [lera 

a Trpoa-ijyyeX- 

them in their haste for this purpoBe.B 
Their high authority was needed '~^ 
prevent resistance on the part of tl 
owners of the booths. 

6. o-oXtihtiiv : to give signals w 
his trumpet. 

7. t1)v PouXljv iKdXouv : i 
Pol. Ath. 44', ^TTtiBiku o-u 111707111171 1' 01 
rpuTdiici! Tiji' pov>.i}t 1) rip Sij/uii', 

10, xP'l|iO''r'<>*<mtalirpopevXiB(rBi, 

■e Arist. 


iO't|Ta, i.e. the people in 
thdt impatience were already seated 
in the Pnyx : iru shows that the 
Assembly sat on a hill, probably in 
the place now known as the Fnyx. 
See XXV. 9 and 20, rit i^/ioi- lU r^r 
iufXTIirlai' Ara^iiniv. For the iden- 
tity of this famous place, s< 
Papers of the American School aT' 
Athens, iv. pp. zoj — 260. 

§ 170. 1. ut i|\e<v T| pouXfj, 
when, after the adjonrnment of the 
Senate, the sejiaturs entered the 

2. &vVJYY«Xav Di irpvr&vCLf : the 
fifty Prytanes were still the chief men 
in both Senate and Assembly, though 
at this time (certainly since 377 B.C.) 
the duty of presiding in both bodies 
was given to nine vptcSpoi, who were 
chosen by lot each day from the sena- 
tors of the other nine tribes by the lri~ 
ordT-iji of the Prytanes (Arist. PoL Ath. 
44'"°). The Tpieifioi had an in- 
oTOTijt of their own, called 6 irurriT^t 
■tCm rpaiSfiidu (Aesch. III. 39). Thil 
is the office held by Demosthi 



fiev eouTDts Koi top ^icovra TrapTjy'ayov K&Kelvc 
tiTrev, ripmja fj.ep 6 Ki]pv^ Ti? ay op eve 
\tTai ; -TrapyeL S oiJSeiV. iroWdicK hk tov K^puxa^ § 
iprOTrnVTOi ovBeu fiaWov aviarar' ouSew, 
fiev tSjv ffTpaTi/yoiv Trapovrmv, airavraiv 
pijTopaiv, KoXovffi)^ Se t^ koii/^ t^9 irarptSo^ ^q»'^ 
TOV epovvS' vwep aatrrjpia^- f/v -yap 6 KTJpv^ icaTa 
TOi/i i/ofiow; i^aivrjV ai^iijm, ravrrjv KOLvfjV t^s TraTpi- lo 
So! ZUaiov eariv ■^yelaBki.. Kairoi el p.ev tow 171 
a-CD&Tjvat Tt}V TToXiv 0ouKop,evov^ TrapeXBelv eBet, 
wdvTe<; av vpeh xal oi aXKoi 'A.Oi]valoi avaardvTei 
iwl TO 0i]p.' effaBi'^ere ■ irdvre'! -yap alS' on tj-aSrjvai 
ouT^f e0ov\ea0€ • el S^ tow TrXoi/o-nuTaToi/f, ot S 
rpiaKoaioi ■ el Be rove ap-i^joTepa Taiha, xal evvov^ 
Tr) TToKei ical irKovaiain, 01 (leT^ TaSra Ta<i p^eydXaf 
iiriB6(7et<! eTnBavTef kuI yap evvoi'a xal TrXovro) 
toOt' eTrotTjffav. aXK' oi? eoixev, iitelvoi 6 xaipln 1 
Kal r] TifJ-epa 'Kelvrj ov fiovoi/ euvovv Kal TrXovinov 
dvSp' eVti\ei, nXXa Kal vapriKoXovdTjKoTa T0(5 Trpdy- ] 
/J.ai7iv e^ ap^rj^, Kal trvWekoyiif/i^uop opdai tIvo^ J 
eveKa TavT errparrev 6 ^iXnnro'; ical ti ^ovXofievo^ ■■ 
6 yap /ii} TavT etBoy; pitiS' i^jiTaicvK TroppmSev eifir- 1 
p^X&t, oUt el evuov^ tjv oUt ei TrXoiiffio?, oiiBev ' 

the last mcWing of the Assembly 
before the departure of Ihe second 
cmbasBy in 346; see Aesch. in. 7^, 

3. riv {JKovra, the messenger wba 
had brought the news about Elatea: 
cf. § jS=. 

4. tIi i.yapt6ti,v PoiXtrai; the 
regular formula for opening a debate 1 
cf, § 191*. Aeschines (ill. 2 ani! 4) 
laments the omission of the adilitional 
words, Tulf Inrip TrevT-/imrTa (tij -jTVo- 

■Afl77»a!ui», the Holonic furm. 

tJw JpoOv*' =ii IpeT, at m 

Hundred: see note on § 103*. 

6. d^<|HiTipa ToGra: see note on 
§ IJS"- 

7. Tds }i(^&Xas JviSdcrtLj, Iht targe 
cenlributiotu, made after the battle of 
Chaeronea (Hiat, § 67) : /iet4 tbw 
refers to the events which ended id 
that battle. 

<; 172. 3. irapi]Ko\oiiOi|KdTa, one 
who had followed the track of evenh. 


s •jTpoatT'XpvTe'; t 

ouTO? iv eieetvri 17S^ 
ell; vy-as^ a /iov 

'I Xe-yovTiov koI •KoKntvoixevwv 
TOif Seiifbi? ou< 'eXiTTOu, 5 
'I i^ijTa^ofiTjii TO heovO' 
lofffpoK, krepov 8e, ori 
TToXXoi 7rpo9 Tfl XoittA 


(I'' etSiJre crrt povoi ■ 
iyw Trju r7J<; evvotai 
aXKa Koi Xeyoii' Kal ypd 
inrip vp-mv iv avrol"; toi- 
fiiicpov avaXroaaVTfV XP''' 
TTJ? vdarj'i TToXiTeiai eaei 

" Tow pev wT vTTapxpvrmv &7j0ai'cov ^iXiTnr^ 
Xiav Qopv^QVpevoVi ayvaeiv to, wapovTa '^pdypaff' 
fiyovp,ai ■ f5 yap oW on, el Tovd' ovtok eriiyxp'^^ 
e^ov, ovK d.v avTov rjnavopiv iv 'EiXareia ovTa, aXX^ 5 
eiri TOK ■qpiTepoK op^oK, 5ti. ' fievTOi Xv eroipa 

BiKalev Tctfiv. The same ligure i 
seen in ifijTafiftijv (1, 6), in i(iiraaa 

^inivlhrip i>/iffly (J 277'), and in i(i 
, a musltring (as of troops), 1 

8. auEtv,..(tcr«irSaL, i.e. ivas none 
tie more likfly lo know. The best 
M5S. have jf^XXev here and in § I9Z*, 
ttJtd f^XXov in 4 101 ^. 

§173. I. ofi-D»(pred.),i'*fl(w™B, 
whom 6 i:atp4t...<iciiJi« (§ 172') : cf. 
{aSa'", tfirm tiipiBn^. 

3. a..,&i[atiraTt: relative as obj. 
of imperative, as we say iBhidi da nt 
yourptril. Forthls in oTo'0' S fpaiDv; 
and similar enpressiona, see M.T. 353. 

3. vpoo-crxdvm T&v vo1)v, a/firR- 
Hvely, cf. snimum adverlere. 

5. ■ri|V...&Lirov, / rfi'rf ma dtsert 
my fast of devolion to the stale, i.e. 
I was never guilty of Xiirerajla here. 
This military ligure was a favourite of 
DemOSthenea. See ill. 36, ;itj uri/ia- 

T^t dper9t...i{aTA.irDi'; xv. 32, 33 
with the figure often repeated); xix. 

the other of sair 

6. V^Yuv. . . I^Tati)p.i]v (se 

note), / wa! found ready fat my 
post), when the test came, spiaking 
and proposing measures, 

8. ■Kn>Kk^\fitt^a\, far more 
-•■-- ' '— ''e/u/ure in lietvholi 

1 174. 1, ttwov Bti : introduc- 
ing a direct quotation (M.T. 711). 

2, ^...^iXlinri^ in Ihe behef {iai . 
that Philip caa dependonthe Theiatu^ 
cf. 5595*. 228=. 

3. 6apii^u|i^vout, disturbed; 

6. lv'...iroi^in|Tai, i.e. to prep 
lliebes for his appearance there h 


awavTa^ eiiTpemrrral • 'fov' 

'pais eTTirrTafiOt. ok 
/iov, ijcelvov oaoir; 176 
aic if e^aTraTTftrai iiffjv, 
8' aw ctp^ij^ avBeiyTTiKO- 

Ta9 airrip teal vvv evaiTiovfiei/ou^ ouda/ioi? Treiaai 
Bvvarat. ri ohv ^ovXeTai, Kal rivos eXvexa Tr)U S 

irapaaTrfiras to. o-rrXa^raw fikv kavTov tj>iXotJs iwapai 
Kal dpaa-eli voiija-at, tow S' evavriovfi4vov<i Kara- 
Trk^'^di, Lv ^ a'Vy')(Q}pi]i7wiTi ^o^riBevre: £ vvv ovk 
iOeXovaiv, t) ^iaiy05}dv. el p.iv toiwu Trpodipi}if6p.e6' 176 
^jiek " e^rjv " ec t^ irapoini^ et n Bva/coXov TreTrpa- 
KToi Qjj/Sttt'oic Trpof !]fj.a<i, tovtov p,ep.VTiudai Ka\ 
a-KLinelii aurois w? eV Tg twc e')(6pS)V overt /MepiBi, 
irpSyrov fitv av tv^airo ^t'XiTnros Troiijaonev, eira 5 
tj} p.ri, ■Kpoahe^ap.ivwv twj' vvv ai^OeaTTiKorcov 
■ aina Kol p.ia, yvQip.p TraiTmw ^iXunri^dpTOiv, eh t^v 
'ArriKiiv ^Soi/riv a/iipoTepoi. av fi^tnoi ■jrenrffijt'' 
ifiol Kal irpin T^ oKOTrelv aXX^ firj (^XoveiKeiv irepi] 

friend : cf. dJi-p^urrai (i.e. tirptirtU 
«T.(ip-ai), § 175 '■ 

§175. 6. ir\i|>-CovS£lva|iiiv6<Ceas, 
iy maiing a display ef force in Ihiir 
neighbourhood, Eiatea being near 
enough to Thebes to make Philip's 
presence there ularming, 

7. ktia^vA (cf. itapSfh, % l6S^), 
with iroi^ai and JcaTaxXgfoi, depends 
on ^lihcrai understood, this answer- 
ing TfjSoiiXEToi; aa the following fi-'... 

S X76. I. (1 |uv...irpo(upT]r<ip«0': 
this most vivid form of future suppo- 
sition here expresses what the orator 
wishes to make especially prominent 
fay way of warning and admonition, 
though it happens that this is not what 
he wishes or what actually occurs. It 
13 an emellcnt case of Cildcrsleeve's 

"minatory and monitory conditions" 
(see Trans, of Amcr. Philol. Assoc 
for 1876, p. 13, and M.T. 447, with 
footnote). On the other hand, &p 
pirTM vem^T inol {&) happens lo 
express what he most desires and 
what actually occurs. Compare the 
tithesis of subjunctive and optative 


§ 147. 1 

3, with n 

mistic: cf. § iSg 

4. Of kv... fUplSi, loeking at them 
(it) in the light of enemies (M.T, 
"' J : cf. g 292^ and ill. 31, ^i- iirij- 


• llipti. 

ttif av X^oi 'yevj]<T0e, ol/iai Kal ra Seoina '\eyei^''io^ 

treiv. Tt ovu ijii/fii Belu ; irpiaTov fiev Totr Trapder' 17TB 
hraveli/ai ({>6/3ov, eha fLeradeffdai Kal ifio/Bei<T0ai 
•n-aVTai vwep %ri^aimv vo\v yap toii' &fivmv elrrtv 
TffiS^'i^jvrepK), Kal vpoTepoii aiiToh iariv o Klvtwoi ■ 
hreiT e^e\6aurai 'EXeuali/dSe toik en jjXiKi'a Kal 5 
Tois (TTTTea! Belial Tracnv vfia'i ai/rov<; in rot? owXok 
SvTWi, 'iva ToU ev ^-q^ai'; (f>povovcn to, vp-efep' e^ 
laov yevriTat ro Trapp'^ti-id'^eaOai Trepl Twf BiKaite)/, 
i&ovtTiv OTi, amrep roi'; TrwXoOai 'i'lkiinrip t/ip 
iraTpiSa -jrapead' r} ^orjBrjaovcra Svvapii eV 'KXareia, i 
o&Tfti TOK vwep T5)9 i\ev6ept'ai aytovti^ecrdai 0ou\o- 
ftevoK iTTrdp^eB' iipel'i erotpoi. koI fforjO-^aET edv t(S 
ett' avTov^ iTj. pxra Taura j^eipOTOiffjaat leeXeva 178 
SeKa TTpeirffet^, Kai Troijjtrat rovTout Kvplavi per^ 
T&v (TTpa-niy&v Kal tov Trore Set 0aBi^£ip etcelire Kal 

II. Sd£KT...Eu>Xf<rav: ic. l^.— 
\v...t^triKa.: lot this utdei of words 
« §§ 190'. '97°. 22°'; and for the 
immon order §S 179', 188'. 

§ 177. 2. |UTa9i 
■ explained by ■ 

'EJUwrti'dGf, to the plain of 
Elenns, " but no further, lest a friendly 
demonittation should pass fur a men- 
»ceaITbebes"CSiiQCQK). Seenoteon 
§ x-ji*. This was a convenient place 
for the array to encamp, and ' they 
would be within ao easy march of 
Tliebea. The mountain road to 
Thebes by Phyle was more direct, 
but rougher an^ with no good camp- 
ing place. — reiiflv ^XiKlfi: this term 
propctlyiDcluiied all citiiens between 
18 and 60: see Arkt. Pol. Ath. 4Z, 
' and 34 — 37. ISul those between 

U8 and 20 always ri 

; while those betwi 

1 50 

and 60 were not regularly called it 
service ajid served as iiaiTijrai, 
pulilU ai-Hltn (Arist. PoL Ath. 53, 
20—37). Here the 1000 lirireft are 
excluded from ol it ^\itlf. See aha 1 
Lycurg. 39; al S' AirJSe! t^i irtar^ 1 
ploi rif S^lUf iy roTi Imip irfmjKDiTft I 
Ittj ytyaviai. taSiiaT'^miar, i.e. when "J 
the news of the defeat a 
came, showing that those above fifty 1 
were not in the battle. i 

7. ^ tirou, en alt equatily withj 
Philip's friends. 

would sell {coaaXne) : MX 25. 

12. vTtiffjiV ]T(ii|iai, j/eH I 
rtnify at hand. 

% 178. S!. iro Liberal.., o-rpaniYdl^ \ 
i.e. to give the envoys (by decree) | 
concurrent authority with the board j 
of generals. 




T»Js e^oBov. eVetSai' B' e\6a>aiv at irpia^u^ eU 
%'^^a'i, TTWS ^(^priijaadat tw vpdyfuiTi irapiuva; 
TOVT(j} Trdvv fioi irpoffejfeTe rav vovv. fir} Si 
Qij^amv ftii&ev (aiaj(po^ yap 6 KatpK), aW iway- 
yeXXe<T8ai ^oi}6r)auv av iceXevcoaiv, w? iicelvt^v ovtoiv 
ev Toi? itr^droK, ripwv S" ap.uvov ij eKelvoL -Trpaopo)- 
p.4vaiv iv' iav p.ev Se^ati^at ravra xal ■neiaBSiaiv 
i r}filv, Kai, & ^ovXofied' 3>p.ev ' BipKt)fi'eiioi xal fteTo, 
•jrpoay^^/iaTO^ a^iov tj}? TToXeois ravra irpd^otftev, &v' 
B' dpa p.7} avp.^^ Kararvxeiv, ixdvoi /iiv avroi^ 


ject of ^oSIfEir is iiiat, the Athenian 
army. The embassy probably departed 
for Thebes at once, so as to lose no 
e in securing the confidence of the 
Thebans; but the army cguld not 
march further than Eleusis until it 
was invited by Thebea to cross her 
frontlet. This was done in due time 

ig Z15 '), after negotiations at Thebes 
SMll— au). To facilitate this 
movement when the sumn^ons should 
come, the people were asked to 
empower the embassy at Thebes, 
in concurrence with the generals at 
Eleusis, to order a march to Thebes 
at any moment, and to decide all 
questions about f&e niareh itself (r^t 

5. XP^TA"^'' ''^ irpdfiuiTt, Co 
managt the (diplomatic) buiiticss. 

6. TovT^i. . . voiJv : this special call 
for close attention was made to excite 
the audience with the expectation of 
hearing just what the embassy was to 
ask of the Thebans, and to impress 
them the more by the unexpected 
answer /il) Scl^BaK SijiSaluB ii-tiUv. 
It was indeed an unheard of thing 
fol an embassy to be sent to a semi- 
hostile state in such an emergency, 
with no demands or even requests, 
but with an unconditional offer of 
military help whenever it might be 

asked for. Aeschines does not fail 
to misrepresent this noble act of De- 
mosthenes, and to criticise the course 
of the embassy: see 111. 145, ri 
po>i\eiiT')ipiOv Tb T^i iriXfwt kbI t7(» i-ri- 
fxoKparlav Updtjif tXaOev i>^eX6/KvaT, jcal 
lar^teytcicliBi^iitiU TiivKa8pfUy. 

9. tv TOLs loxdnis, i/t extremis. 
— f||iuv,uirpoopaipfvwv (also with ut), 
on the ground that we foresee (the 
course of events) belter Oian Ik^ (tA 
litXhav is omitted with S) : tS. ri i>^ 
SivaiiSai wpaafiay. Plat. TheaeL 166A. 

10. Iv'...£ji«r Si^iipivoi, tAal vie 
may (tAen) Aave aecomflished ■aihal 
■ail ■wish : the perfect subjunctive here 
and in 1. 15 (5 veicpayfUny) is 
future-perfect in time, in contrast 
to the simple future of ^pd^ui/ier and 
(7,.xa.,. (M.T. 103). 

12. wpatrxliuiTOt, ground of ac- 
tiom rphax'^iLo. is what appears on 
the outside, which may be either mere 
show or (as here) an honest exhibition 
of the truth. Cf. the double meaning 
of irpLipajrii, ground of aetioi 
ttJit, in S 225 °.— av G dpo, bu 
all: cf. § 278». 

13. KaraTuxti*, to sucteed {=iiri' 
TUX*?'. Hesych.), ace. to Blass is not 
elsewhere found in classic writers. 
— ouToij 4YKaXa<riv, may have them- 
siivts to blame. 

%, but if after 


IrfKaXSiaiv au ri vvir i^afiapTavtocrtp, rjiilv he lii^hev 
aiiT)(pav fiTihi Td'ii'^iVov^'i)"-!reTrpay/ievov." ' 'S ' 

Tavra aal TrapaTrXTicna rovTOi<; et-Kwv leaTe^rfV. IW 
(TVV^TfaiivcrdvTmi/ hk iraVTiov koX ol 
ivatnlav ovSeu. qvk elwov p.fv TavTa o 
ovS ejpa-^a pev ovic evp4<T0eviTa Se, q 
pev ovK eweiiTa Be ©ij^aiou?, aW' ■ 
dxpi Tj)? TtXeuT^? Ste^fjXBov, Kal eBfOi 
airXw'! et! To'iV TrepierrrriKOTai t^ TrdXet kivBvuov^. 
Kal poi 0epe to ^lrj}tj>Lcrpa to tots jevopevov. 

KaiTot Ttva 0ov\ei o-e, Alaj^ivr], xal rlva epatnov 18011 
eKeivrjV r^ji j/pe'pav eivat dw ; ffovXti ipaVTOv piv, Sv 
av (TV XotBopovpevo'! xal Biaavpiov kaXetrat';, Bbt- 

c eypa-ijra Si 
>' e'rrpea^eviT 
TO T^<; apX'P 5 
ipaVTOP hplv 

§179. I. Kol irapmrX-fjona : we 
have here only a single passage of 
what must have been one of the 
most eloquent Epeeches of DemoB- 

3 — -J. nin rtirov |uv...0T|pa(aiis: 
a moit famous example of climax 
{xXfjiat, ladder^, in which the anti- 
theses of n(v und Si give a wonderful 
effeet. Each of the three leading 
negatives {oix, o6B', oi)S' ) introduces a 
pair of clauses of which the second is 
negative, and which as a lohelt it 
negatives. Thus the first oi5(t negatives 
the compound idea, / spckc, but pro- 
,, posed ne meamres; then the positive 
L concluuon thus attained, I did pro- 

tion in the next step. Without the 
help u( iiiit and Si the mixture of 
negatives would have made hopeless 
confusion. Quintiliaii (ix. 3, je) 
thus translates the passage, skilfully 
using quidim for }iAt and sfd for it : 
neHtnim dixi quidtm sed non scripii, 
nee scripsi ptidem sid non abii Itga- 
tioHfiit, tuc oiii quiiUm led non per- 
ttiaii Thebanii. 

iflrX4«, wilhout resume, abin- 

lu/ely. — Toips...KLvBvvoi's; for the order' I 
see note on § 1 76 ■!. 

S. ri i)i/|4"'''l''(^'-Y*>^)X'"'>'; cf. 
Acsch. HI. 25, Ttpiy fl rbt 'Hyii>ui™i 
tiiuip ytviuBai, and II. 160, irorov 
{vbiiav) yf]iitr3fLi Kai\6tTm- 

§ 180. \\'hile the cleric is pre- 
paring to read the decree, the orator 
by a few jokes 

It his oppo 


It, and now: cf. § 123'. — 
tIvq povXn...tIviu flA; whem will 
you thai I shall suppase you, and 
whom myself, io have been en that day? 
erDOi is imperfect infinitive (=i!(rAi) 
with pa, which in this sense takes the 
infinitive of indirect discourse: cf. 
Aesch, til. 163, ^oAXfL ire BSi ifiofiii- 
^poi; See M.T. 287, 288, with the 
discussion of Plal. Rep. 372 E. 

2. PoiiXn ip,auTiv : sc. SSilsat! — 
£v £v. , . KoX^D-aLs, i.e. as you ivpuld 

3. BdTToXov: this nickname of 
Demosthenes, which the orator said 
was given him by his nurse (Aesch. I. 
ia6), probably referred to his lean 
and sicltly look in childhood and 
youth. See Plut. Dem. 4. 


ToXov, &k Se fiTj^ ^pto Tov tvj^ovto, aXXa tovtuiV 
riva T&v a-jTO rrji OK7}vrjV, KpetripovTtjv fj Kp^i 
OP ec KoWvra itqt Olvdfiaoi/ Ko«ok eTr^rpt^o! 
Tore TOtvvv Kar tK^lvov tov icaipbv 6 Haiavievi iyo> 
BaTTaXos' OlvofLaov tov K.o9o>iciSov ffou TrXeiouo? 
a^iot wv eipdvT)!' Ty TraTpiSi. cry fie'v ye ouSip 
ovSafiov 'y^prjinp.o'i ^<T&a ■ eyiii Be Trdpd' oua TrpoaiJKe 
TQw ayaBov ttoXittjv eirparrov. Xeye to ^jJ0ti7/i<t 



["Ext Hpxot^oi NawrticXtoiiSi i^vX^s, irpuTawuowDjs Aiav- 181 
Ti'Sof, iTKtpoilioptioMK Iktq tTTi ScKO, &kTj)ixxr6ivifs AinuKrOivovs 

4. nnE" 1\iiia riv tux**"'! ""' '^"t 
a htm of the common kind: see note 
on Sit fTUxE', § 130^- — AXXd...oTcn- 
vfjs, iui one of those (great) herots of 

J. Kpfir^vTii]v, in the Cresphontea 
of Eoripides, in nhicli Mecope baa 
the chief part: cf. Arist. Elh. in, i, 
17. — Kpfavra; Aesehines played 
Creon in the Antigone of Sophocles 
as r/KT07«HffTiFii : see XIX. 247, iv 
fiiraffi TDij Spdiuuri roll TpB7iiti>fi 
i^lptT6if ittTiv Giortp 'T^fMK TOii 
TpnatiiHutTaU i4 rain rvpiyniit Kal 
Tdl^f rd ffKTiTrTpa tx^^'^t^s elffiffai. 

6. 0[vd)iaav: i.e. this part in the 
Oenamaus of Suphocles, which re- 
presented the chariot-race of Pelops 
and Oenoniaus, by which Pelopa won 
the hand of IlippodanieiB. This was 
the subject of one of the pediment- 
groups of the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia. — kuicAs Jw^pi^'OSi y<"' 
•ijBreUkediy murdtrfd (as we say of a 
bad actor). The anonymous Life of 
Aesehines (7) gives a story that 
Aesehines fell on the stage in acting 
this part. As Oenomaus was finally 
killed, there is probably a double 
meaning io laiciSi ivirpi-^s.%. — (v 
KoXXuT^ is an additional slur on the out the wordiness or technicality."' 

tragic performance ofAescbines. See 
Aescli. [. 157, xpiiijB it Tin kot' 
d-fp^tis Aioifuffiois KtiifitfiS^y SiTtap it 
-RoWvTV. See apoupaiOi 0!y6paoi, 

7. r6Tt refers to time generally: 
KOT JKtlvov rhv KaipDV to a critical 

S. Olvo\i&au ToB KoBuxiSou : Aes- 
ehines was of the deme KoSuitlSai, 

§§ 181—187 contain the spurious 
" decree of Demosthenes." Its date, 
the i6th of Scifophoiion (Jane or 
July), once brought hopeless confusion 
into the chronology of the campaign 
before Chaeronea. See Oinlon, Fast. 
Hellen, n. under 338 B.C. The real 

early winter of 339—338 B.C., the 
year of the Archon Lysimachides. 
The style of the document U a 
ridiculous parody of that of Demos- 
thenes (see g 182). Lord Brougham's 
remarks on this document, written of 
course in full faith in its genuineness, 
are now interesting. Hesnys(p. iSl): 
"The style of this piece is fnll of 
dignity, and the diction perfectly 
simple as well as chaste, with the 
solemnity of a state paper, but with- 


Tt Tiu jrapeXl/JCufloTi )^oina irapa/Saivaiv ijuilvfTai ris yeya'Tj- 
/itvQK ovTtti truvftJKQS wpov Tov 'ASjjmu'uiv S7/xav irtpi t^« 5 
tlfrijvif!, inrfpiStov'Tom opiraus icai tdi impa iratri rots'EAAip"! 
vi){UlC'>^c>^ ctvoi SiKout, KOI iroAci! TupaipciTiu duSev avT^ 
nTHxnjKoiHTas, Tivas Se kcu ABtpfaiaiv rruirw; Sa/iiViX'iS'rous 
TrtTroi'ijNtV oSSei" 7r/i'oaotKijffi« vjro Toii Sij/iov Tou 'Aflijvtuiui', 
tv T< Tt3 irapovTi, l-jrl ttoKv wpodyii TTj're jSia Koi r^ A^dnjn' !■ 
KoX yap 'EkXTjVL&us irokiK Si /liv ifiijipovpov^ TtoUi Kal ras 1 
wAtTWi KaToXuti, Tiva<i &£ Kal ciavSpairoSi^Ofitvoi KOTO- 
(^liaTTT^, m tvuK Si mti dvri EAA^viuv pappdpovi kqtcu- 
Ki£« eiri TO Kpa Ktu tous toi^ous eTrayuii', oiSiv dXXoTpSv' 
xotSi' ouTt r^ tuurou TraTpi'Sos ovrt tou rpmrov, lad rg 5 
viV aurul ■impov<ri/ Ti)([l ifaTSiidpuj's ;(pio^£VO!, ein\tXi|ii^^£Vtfe" 
iavToti on tx fiiKpov kcu tov rujjdiJros Y'^'j''"'"' QVCATrtoros 
fiiya^. Kal liuu /wv TrdAtw tiupn irapiipoaiiivov aJroc jSap- 18S 
(Sopous KQt (Stas, vTrfXa/ipavev cXaTTOv droi o S^/tos o 
'Aftpoioii' TO as aufov' VX?j/i;u(A(ccrftw " irv S« opui' 'EAXiji'i- 
8m ttoAhs Tai /wif v^pt^ofLfva^, Tas Si iiva^faToui ytymftmiS) 
Sfwov Tfyclral. tivai kiu avii^iov t^s T<iiv Trpoydkuiv Sci£>js to S 
mplopav Tois 'BAAjpai KaraSouAou/ttitivs. &o OfS6j(6ai rg 18i 
^SouXg Ktti Tip 8ij;ii[i Tcu ' k$Tivaiiav, eu^a^eVous koi Swrairas 
TCM fleoTs icni ^pwiTL Tot? KaTt;^oucTi r^v iroAiV Kol i-^v \aipav 
T^V 'AAjViu'uii', «ai ivdvp-^Cfnnai; 1^5 TWi' Trpdydvcuv dpET^s, 
1 &OTI 'fepi irAeiwos tirotoGi'TO rqv tuiv EXAjJviuc iktvOepiai/ 5 
SiaV^pciv )^ r^v iSiav itarpLSa, Biaxo(TUK raOs KadEXKctv cis 
rijv SdKarrav koX tov VQuap^ov dvinrXtiv tiros IIuAwi', imi 
Toi' oxparijyov fcat rov iTrTrapjf'"' ''"''^ TE^ae nn! ris iTTTriKiis 
Swop^K "EXeuffivaSe iiayiiv, irtfill/ai 8c kqi 7rp«cr^tis tt/jos 
TOW oAAous 'EAAijms, irpiuroc St n^diTniv jrpos 0tj/3oi'ous Siit 10 
TO cyyuTarui tlmi rov ^iKiirvov Tqs (Ketvuiv x*"?"'' Trdpdila- 18f 
Xeiv 8i BuTois /f^v KafaifS^ivra-i tov ^iAittitov dvrexEirftii 
T^s ravrSi' Koi T^s ruiv oXXuiv 'EAA^vuiv iX.cv6cpuii, xal ori o 
'Atfijraiiuv S^fios, ofiStf fivrjaikaKSiv ei ti TTpartpov yiyovtv 
dAAWptov Tols ttoXeoi JTpO! uAA^Aos, j8ov)9^ot[ Koi Swd/*nH s 



Kal ;^jjpifrt Kai piXtii kqi oxXms, eiSiui on aiffo'ii' juv irpo 
oKKijKovi SiSiiiplitJ^uv iript t!j^ ■^ytiLovut^ oEcrtc 'EAAi^o* J 
KoKoy, vnro Sc dXAa^ijA.ou dvdfKun'ou ap)(crTdai t 
/ionfl! diroo'TEptuJOiu at'oftov ttvai koI t^s tiuv 'EXA'^i'un 
S6$r]i KILL Tqs rGf m-poyoviui' operas. ?ri St otSi dAAorpiav 18B 
^yUTox itvai 6 'ABrpniuiv S^/ios Toy ®y]0aiii>v Sijiuiv ouTC rg 
<rvyycviin, ouTt Ttu o/iA'^vXio.' '' awi/ii|H^ j'KtTai ""S* kqi tos 
tSk wpoydi'iui' t£v tauToS tis tous @r/lio.(iov n-poyovoui citp- 
ytdiai KoX yap tous HpniJltoue jraiSas aTriwTepov/Mi'ovs S 
VTTO DeAxjTTOi'iTp'Hov T^s TTarptuas ap;(^s Kanjyayov, tSk ^^^ 
o^Xot! N/iarv)i7avT« rotif avT'ijduLVcif mtptu/.tei'oiis rots 'Hpo- ^^| 
(tXtou! eii-yovDii, mu Tov OISittow Kal rous ^er' ixtiyov ^^^ 
iKTTCirovTa^ VTreSffapit'aj Kat frepa xoAAA ^luv intdp\u 
291 ^iXa^flpuura Kid (»Sofa*' iff os 0>;(3atou! " Stoirtp oiSc fuk 187 
tt-nwTTjtrtrai 'AOT/vaiiav S^jios tuh- ©ijjSm'ois rt Kai toTv 
iiWoi! 'EXAjjirt (TUfiifVpovrtui'. cm'SeiflKi 'W'lrpos outous 
iTU/i/ia){i'ai' Koj. iwiya/nav wofiiiratr6M kuI opuous SoCitu Koi 

itnptiSi)^ KXiavBpav Si^tttios, MnjuiSEiSiji 
^ptdppiot, A)^juoKparij9 Sui^iXou 4>Xucii:, KoXAaiir;^ 

KoX KardaTaaK Trpmri?, rii'V^o rovToiv ei? ejfdpav 
Kai fuo'O'i Kai hiriajiav tmv TroXeoH' VTriiyfiei/mv 
inro ^ovTCov. tovto to ■<^ri(^iafia rov rare r§ wii^ 
irfpiaravra leivhvvov iraptXBelv eTToirjrrev 

§188. I. oJiTr[...vfin\,lhisiiias 
the firil slip taken and thi first sei- 
llcment efftcUd in our rilaliaas with 
Tkiia: ^(TMroreferato the progress 
□f the businesa in coming to a settle- 
ment. See Weil's note : '' 

e de T 

=axii." Cf. 
(it Ik fl\flE 

the rule of the Thirty), and At. Ran. 

1003, ^[■(IC ft» Ti 
KttStjriitis \Apjis. 

5. vap>\8iiv JMnrtp *i^t. tB pass 
by Hit a cloud, or to vanish iiie a 
passing cloud. The simplicity of this 
Bimiie was much admired by the Greek 
rhetoricians, who quote it nine times 
(see Spengel's index). See Longinui 
on the Sublime, 39, 4: IrfiiiKla Y* 
toSt-o SoKti riniiia, nol ItrTi ■ ' 


v^^xK. ^P nev Tolvvv Tov BikSiIov ttoXi'tou rdre 

eVff/Jfij'. d y&p ffVftffouXo^ ical o avKotftdintj^, ovSe 189 I 

dXXoiv ouSeu e'otwoVes, ip ravrip TrXflerrov aWjJ- 
Xtoii hiai^ipQvaiv • a fiev ^e irp'a toiv vpayfidTtov 
yvbtfiifv a.Tro^d^'erat, Kal SlBtaaiv eavt'ov inrevBiivov 
TOK ■TTeiaOelm, TJj Tii^j;, rm icaip^ rat ^ovXafLevip ' o S 
he atyTjira'i tjvCk eSet Xeyeii/, dv'ri hvaxaXav crvpffp, 

ffaaieaipei. ^v fi,ev ovf, onep flvov, eKelvoi; 6 190 ] 
KUipb'; TOV 76 ^pavri^ovTO^ ai'Spb^ t";? TroXeow Kal 
iv \6yo)v ■ eyai 6e raaavTrjv vwepffoitfv 
voiovp,ai SiiTT€, av vvv ex>} Tt? 'Set^aV n 0eXTtov, ^ 
o)iMv"eT"ri aXX' c'i^iJ" mUfiv Siv eyii> -Tj-pbeiXo/Hjv, $ 
aBiKelv ofioXoyo). (I yap ea-0' o Ti Tts vvv edpdSc'&i' 

n)t iriitiipft,.A\K' a^ij! Tjjt Siarota! 

He then discourses ud the fatal effect 
which would ceault from a change in 
the order of the words, or from the 
omijgion or additioa of a single syl- 
lable (as ilii yiipat or Hrrtp ti v^^i). 

7, Toiritv, i.e. tiaH my measures. 

In the last sentence oF % l8g, the 
orator suddenly breaks off bia uarca- 
live, and digresses into a most elo- 
quent defence of the policy of Athena 
in resisting Philip, and of his own 
conduct as ber reaponsible leader. 
See note before §§ 160—226, 

§ 1B9. I. irvp.^uXas, slalesm-m. 

leaat of all the English sycophant, 
gives the full meaning of^ this ex- 

Sessive term, though the same coni- 
zation of malicious luformer, dirty 
Kttifoggei, common slanderer and 
ckbiter, is unhappily still to be 
seen. Cf. § zoflK The word must 
have referred originally to the pelly 
_ form of proaecution for violation of 
'enue laws known as ^ctirii, in 

which half of the penalty went to the 
informer. See Ar. Eq. 300; kbJ st 

TiSv fculp Xpif! txorra «iX(ai. 

4. 6ir«tiBuvov, r/spo/uMe in the full 
Allic sense, e.g. liable to the eSeurai 
and {a the ypatpi} irapivSp^i/. 

6. EumcdXev: see note on § 176^. 

7. Paa-KaEvit, reviles: Hatpocr. 
dvrt T»C olTioTii da! lUtltfcTai Koi 
WKOipavTai' AriporB. if Ti^ iiirip Ktij* 

§ 190. I. Smp (Iirov: see the 
last sentence of § iSS, 

3. TBV SiK. U-vav: with iraipii 
(West., Bl.), 01 (better) with #^01,- 
rffoj-roi. — r(wauTT]v uv(p^\i|V iroi- 
oup,aii, i.e. I go so far beyond what 
could be asked of me. 

5. Jvf|v: used personally with ti 
aXXo : cf. Btro lin}r, g 193*. So 
ttiirrui- (II): such participles ace 
very often personal (M.T, 761). — 
uv *V^ irpotiU|iT|v : cf. § igz', r^» 
rpoalpeirlr pov r^t iroXiTtlai. 

6. dSwitv, in its so-called perfect 
sense (M.T. ^^). 

7. Tirt irpftxfliv=e/ rir irpdxSri. 




'; S avvTjv^)cev^ai>' To^e 'Trpaj^Sev, tout iyti) (j>jifii BetiA 
e;*e fit) Xadeiv. « Se h^t" etni /aiJt' ^v fi-jr &^ 

(rVfi^ovXav ixPV'' "^^oi^" I ov rwv ifiaiVQfJ.ei'tDi/ koI lo 
ivoVTwv Ta Kpo-TUTTa eXe^'dt ; tovto roivvv eirotJiaa, 191 
ToO KtjpvKO'i ipciiTtipToi, AlffviiTj, TiV ayapevetv 
^ovXeTai; oil Ti<t aiTTSer'ffa'i vep\ twv trape- 
XtjXvdoTcav ; ovBe ti? eyyv'i'iroai T^ fidWovT 
eaio-Bai ; aov h' atf>mvov aar eKe(vav<t tous y^pA- JJ 
voiK ev Tals ex/cXtia laK iedBtip,evov, eyai irapiatv ^ 
eXeyov. eV«'J^ 8' ov tots, dXXd vim Setfov- eitri ' 
ri? Tj Xo'70?, ovTtv ixP'}" ^"^opiiii, ^ uaipw ffv/j^ 
ipepcov inr e/xov •jrap£Xeirf>6i] t^ TroXet ; tk Se auf/i- 
fiaxia, TiV irpa^K, i<^' ^v' fiaXXov ^Sa fi ayayetv i 
TOUToftrt ; 

'AXXa ftrji' to ftev wapfXijXvOff! ael irapk traffiv 192 
atf>etTai, koI oi/Belv trepX tovtov trpoTiBTJiTiv ovSapoO 
^OvX-qv • TO hk fieXXov TJ TO trapov Trju toO crv/i0ovXou 
Ta^iv aTratfel! ToVe roiiwv ra fj.kv ijpeXXev, ok 

— ToOT'...Stiv 

t Ijii |iT] XaStEv, / my 
this ought not to htive cscafid me (at 
the time): iti'i'...An0f7r reptcscnta 
iiti ini /Lit \a0tii: 

S, 9, (( St..,'rf||upov: forthiscotn- 
pound pcotasia with a present, a past, 
and a. potential optative united in one 
suppoaition, see M.T. 509 : notice the 
thtee negatives and Che emphatic (at 
in /iir' flfi-.Tij^poi', See § 141'.— 
|iT|EJirB Kal 'Hiiupov, not yel, rvcn at 
this day. 

\a. Tuv i^vopJvov Kal Mrrtiv, 
0/ the flans ■which offered ihiinsthies 
to us and wtre fcasiSie. 

§ 191. 3, T{s.,.irapiXi|\v6iTCiiv,' 
a question to be addressed to a hvkh- 
^dmr^i not to a lip-^avhai. 

■J. oJirdn: ac. IScifai, — 4XX& vO* 
(M.T. 5. J). 

• vulg.), 

S. tviropitv (Z» ft 
haft been provided -u 

9. TQ irdhti: often taken wilb 
aoiupiput ; better with vapt\fl^9ii, 
as in § IOT'I, inniXera rg liXn. 

10. ^oXaov, rather than to Di]r 

§ 192. 2. i+tlTfti (gnomic), U 
dismissed from consideration. 

3. Ti]v...Td|iv, i.e. lie statesman 
at his fast: rdftB keeps up the mili- 
tary figure of § I73'>". 

4. TdT(...irap<tv: application of 
the general principle to the case io 
hand; T* lUt IJiuWty referring lo 
Chaeronea and its remits, ri S" jfii) 
Trap^t to Philip's presence at Elalea, 
Though these are now past, they were 
then future and present. 



cSoKfi, TMv S^ivmr, TO, S' ySij Trapiji/, ev o^ rri'v'S 

■n-poaipeiTiv fiov (r/eorret tjJ? TroXiTe/'aT, ftij ra (Tu/t- 

^dtna a-VKO^avreL. to ^liec 70^ ■n-e/)a!"'a)?"'ai' .. 

Baifj,a>v SovXt/dt} iravrrav yiyv'eTai,- fj he Trpoatpetrvi 

avTT] TTfV ToO avfi^ovXov Btdpoiav Bt]\oI. fii) Bi] 103 

Tovd" o>? aSiKr/fi e/iov ' P^s, el uparrjaai avvi0r} 

^iXivTT^ Tji fidj0 ■ iv "/ap t^ deal to tovtov reXos 

^c, ovie efiol. aW' 0)5 oi';^ airdina oaa evrjv 'icaT 

avSpoyrrivov Xoyca/iov eiXofiTjV, /cat BiKaicoi raOra S 

Kal eTTtfitXioi; eirpa^a Kal tj>tXoTrdi'(0<! vTrep Bwiafuv, 

fl w^ ov KaXa Koi tt)5 TrdXeoi^ a^ia Trpdyp-ara 

£ve(TTr]aa.p.iiv vol avayicala^ Tavrd p.01 Bel^ai/, Kal 

tot' ^Bt] Karijydpet, fiov. el S' 6 avp.'ffa'i o-tfijTrrw ISti^ 

[^ j(eip.a>v'\ fit} pAvov ripatv aWa. koX -rravraiv Twy 

393 oiXXav 'EXXjjywy fiil^tav yeyove, ri XPh """'f'" ; 

5. ■ri|v...iroXiTi(iis: see note on 
§ 190*. rpoalpmit implies the delib- 
eiate choice of a policy which asUtes- 
maji should make: here and in ri 

■he ffitMSou^oi and >he iruio^<irTiii 
contrasted. Foe the precise meaning 
of Tpoalptait, see Acist. Eth. ill. 2 
(especially § 17) : ilXX' api 7« t4 
rpePipavtituii^sitr (sc. ri irpoaiperii') ; 

Siarotat. iliroffiipilwip B' (out khI 
TOJira^a uiT o> irp6 iripou alpirtr, 

g. at-n\ (emphatic) : the thought 
is, purpose is the vtry Iking which 
sAoois etc. 

S 193. 3. TJ )ii!ixTt= Cbaeronca. 
— iv T$ B($. ..T&Of: of. ripat and 
iaiiMr in g lc)3'- '. See II. VII. lOI, 
a^ip vntpBtiijiltiii rflpar (^oirai iy 
iSayiTiuin Bfolmr. 

b- ^iXoir6vm W<p E4va|LLv, i.e. 
wilh greater Miour than my strength 
warranted: cf. §§ l6o^ 218', 

inrnio'&iinv, um/erlook (in- 
ted): cf. §4!'.— Kttl Avo'yKttia, 

verh for emphasis. Blass remaiks 
that the orator has not yet attained 
the height from which he speaks in 
SS '99 ft- 

§ 194. I. o-Kijirrit [fl x"*^'] : 
most recent editors omit ^ x"^'^" on 
the ground that the orator, after com- 
paring the sudden raid of Philip to 
a thunderbolt, would not weaken his 
figure by adding a common slorm. 
This holds good even when we admit 
that xe'f'i'' and (TinjirTit are not the 
Eajne thing. Aristotle (de Mundo, 4, 
tg)! after describing ntpautbt, rpTi- 
OT-iip, and Tv^iSv, adds (inurTay !i roii- 
Tiiin jtttTiwirS^ai' ctt TJjji ySjy ctv 
TTit inouA^iToi, ffiMjTtTii, therefore, 
is not only a stroke ef lightning, but 
also a furious IhunJersiBrm; while 
X'lfui' is -uiinier, a -oiiriterstorm, or a 
slorm in general. Perhaps ft x«*ni"' 
here was originally a marginal refer- 
ence to x«>i<S« x/^""**"™" (6)' 

3' 't xrt "TOMiv (sc. ^jUai), wAa/ 
Di^A/ -all Ib del The answer is given 
in the two following scntencea. The 
sense is: "What ate we to doi We J 


wiT-Trep av ei nt favieXr/poi' ttqVt'^ ettI aanijpiq 
TTpd^avra, Kal KajaaKivda-avra to ttXoIov a^ '^Y"* 
VTre\diI0ave aaOT^rrcaOai, etrn veifiSjvi -j^ptjadfievav 
Kol TTOvyjadirraiv aura toiv (TKevtov ^ Kal avinpi- 
^evj(i>v ''o\(»?, rrit vavayia'; am^JTO. aW' avt' ' 
eKV^epiiaiu t^i* vavp, <^r)<TeiEV av (Stirirep auB' iiTTpa- 
Triyovp iyai), ovre rrjt tw;^i)? kvoloi !/v. aW' eKeivi} i 
TWV ■Kavrtuv. aXA,' cKtlvo Xbyt^ov koI Spa ■ ei p-era 195 
%i]^aiav rjfiiv aycovt^fideoi'! outqj! eiftapra Trpa^ai 
T( XP^" TpocSoKav €1 HT}Be TOUTOv; eiTjfOp.ev avji/tdr \ 
^ous aXXa •J'tX/TTTrp irpo'ueoetiTOi inrfp a 

o just wbat a mhIk^ijjid! would 
do if any one weic to blame him, etc. 
He would say ' I was not tv^ipiriiTi]!, 

195 I 

of a 

s I c 

•No r 

1 I 



jTpaTTfiii. ' " The apodos 
alrijiTo being suppressed (except ftv 
in 4), its subject tait\y!pos appears in 
tbe protasis as vaiKK'^jpoi', and tbe 
implied itaircp Iv va-itiKiipoi roviiatiiy 
appears in tfujireuF &t (9) with its 
quotation, ii\X' oCr' iiai^ip>iair...T!iv 
rirray. jj/iSiv (2) and^iJi (lo) show 
that the orator identifies the people 
with himself in the comparison with 
niK^Tipas. Cf. § 143- 

4. vaiKXiipov, properly a liip- 
mtmer, who sails in bis own ship (as 
tp^opoi), but generally employs a 
tx§tprkfri\ or sniiing-masliT lo navi- 
gate the ship. In Plato's famous 
figure of the ship of State (Rep. VI, 
p, 488), the ^a^tJc^1JpoJ is the honest 
old man A^^i IIu«iifr>|!, wbo knows 
litde of navigation, and is not skilful 
eimugb lo keep a. proFesaional sailing- 
master in authority, and soon lets the 
command of tbe ship fall into tbe 
bands of tbe most artful and unscru- 
pulous landsmen on board. 

6, X'i'l"" \frr^v6^vov : the mi- 
kXijPOI is said to have met with a 
storm. — (rovi)(rdvTav o'Ktvwv, viAen 

gl9S. 3. H -uptft trpoirSoKar; 

this apodosis (like the similar one in 
lines 7 — g) has two protases, one 
simply paat, the other past with the 
condition unfulfilled. Each apodosis 
conforms to the latter condition. But 
we have in line 3 tI xPV' 'pt^SoKar; 
(without S»),butin 7 — 9 ri ir...rpaa- 
SoK^<rai XP^'i 'tis t^o sentences be- 
ing otherwise similar. We ccrtainlf 
should not notice the difference if the 
same form (either with or without ir) 
were used in both. And yet the dis- 
tinction is one of principle, and is gen- 
erally obvious and important. In the 
form without it the chief force falls on 
the infinitive, while in the form with 
it it falls on tSsi, ii^r, xp^', etc, to 
which the it belongs. Tbos t(iji aoi 
i\6eir (in this sense) is_j'oa might havt 
gene (but did not go), while ^{^v dr 
0-01 t\8eiv is it viBuld have been fiassi- 
hlefor yen lo go\a^ certain ca«e (but 
in fact it was not possible). Here we 
may translate rf X9^^ ■upaaSsKwi ; 
vikal oiigAl Tvi to havt (j/ttKi/ (which 
we did not find ourselves expecting)? 
and tI it T/maioK^aai XP^'! T'/"'t 
thculii vie (Atii Aavc had la expect 


irdaat a^rjice i^avdi ; Kal el vuv rpmv fniepav a-n-o 5 

«tVSuf05 Kal ^'^os vepiearr} rtiir woXcv, Ti ai\ et ttou 
T>js X^pa? Tauro rovro -rdOo^ avvejii}^ ■jrpoa^oxrjffat" 
y^'ffi'^'ap 010-6'' on i/Cn /Lev cfTTJpai, dvvfXffetv,' 
avavpeitrai, voWci pi'a rifiepa Kal Bvo Kal rpeZs !■ 
e&oaav riav' ei^' amrripiaii Trj -rroXa ; rire Be — ouk 
a^tov elTrelv a ye fii/Se Tretpdii eSmKe Semv Tim 
[ Kal T^t TrpoffdWeaOai Trjv TrdXlP raVTijT/ tijv 
t7Uij,p,aj(iav Tji av KaTTjyopeli. 

"Eo-Tt Se ravrl Trdvra p.oi rh. iroWa, irpK ti/ia?. 1 
avSpev SiKutTTal, Kal Tou? TrepiecTTriKOTati e^oiSeP Kal 
aKpom/ievoik, eVet Trpai ye toOtoc i ' 

^paxiK n 

jirjt e^r)pKet \6yo<i. el pev yap yv 


■t have 

ect) ? See M.T. App. ■ 

irivof Aif^*'* i|"">'^$i i-^* "'"^ 
■ all hii eUiquime : cf. Plat. Rep. 475 A, 
wifftti 0wyit iipliTe. See § 2i8^— 
TptAi' T||upAv iSiv, tAre^ dayi journey, 
i.e. from Choeconea (via Thebes) to 
the Attic frontier at El eutherac, about 
450 stadia. It was aboat 250 stadia 
from Eleutheiae to Athens; and the 
whole distance from Chaeronea to 
Athen9i9given(§ 230') as 700 stadia, 
abooE So miles. (See Blass.) 

9. v9v here and rdrc in 1. 1 1 refer 
only to opposite altetnatiyea (oj il 
■mas, and in that case), hut to the 

■ . See%3 • - ■ 

Aerie//). Cf. § g?"". 
emphasizes the con tin 
rpapa\ia0ai, would r 

1 pulling il 

s after 

rin-i dt i 

far r 

e elo- 

quent than any de 

10. AvBitHvirai: ci. 11. xi. 001, 
S\tytl Si T iiiitKvim wo\^iioio. 

iz. i. ft liTjEt irtipav iS«K<, which 
never gave us even a Irial (of their 
faoriois) : iavTult is omitted, leaving 
■Kelpuf (SiMt absolute. See note on 
S 107". The negative is /I'^Si be- 
~>4C>use the antecedent of d is iodefiiiite 
KM.T. 518). 

g 196. I. toTi lUH vpht ilUM, 
i.e. liiiliad it for you. — TavTlir&vra 
tA troXXd, all this long argument (so 
West.) : t4 ToXXi may, however, be 
adverbial, /er the most part, chiefly, 
the sense being all Ihis I inlendchiifty 
for you. 

2. TOW vtpwrTr\K6rat, the spec- 
latorsj of whom great crowds were 
present: seeAesch. III. 5C, inavrlov... 
Ti3v IWu, TD\iTuii- 6aoi Si) f^uBiv 

kiTiiuU, 7 


Kpliriiii ■ bpw 5i oii( i-ylyovi Trapitras, 
dXV AiTDUf oiSeli irtiiroTt fi^fiir/jTai rpif 
d7wi'0 5T)iiiirioi' rapayempjyous. 

4. Ppax^ ■"■'^ ""i^hs ^V^S' (bis 
he DOW puts into a dilemma, tl iii* 
fjv col irp657\\ii and it H p,it vpo^Seiv 


■irpdoTiXa^Ta fieWovra, Altrj^ti^, /idi/p Tmv SXKfOV^l 
OT e^ovXeveff" ij ttoXi? vepl tovtmi', tot' ehu -TrpoXe- 
yuv ■ el Be fii] TrpojjSew, t^« ayrij? ayvoia^ vTrevSvvo-i 
el TOK aWot?, Sicrre ri fiaWov i/ioO av ravra naTif 
194 yopeK TJ eyo> <tov ; rarrovfov y&p afielvrnv eyoi 1 
iroXmjv jeyop' eli aina ravB^ a, Xerfoi (jcai o3 
•TTepX T&ir aWaiv StaKeyofiai'), otTOV eyiii p-ev eSoiK 
cp-avTov eh to TTaat BoKovvra ffvptfiepeiv, otiheva I 
KipBvvov OKPtjo-av tBtov ovB' inTaK6yiadp,eva<t, av S % 
ovO' erep' etTTK (9eXrti» tovtcov (oij yap Slv ; 
ej(pQ}PTo'), ovT etV ravra XRV"'^/^'*" ovBev 
TTtipeo-pfe?, oTTtp S' av 6 tj>avX6TaTov leal hvafuviaror 
T09 avdponro'; rp 7rd\«, toCto ■rrewai.r}icat'i ewl Tot? 
o'vp^amv i^iJTacrai, Kal ap,' ' Apunparo'; ev Nafp t 
Kal 'Apia-ToXeaf; ev ®dcrip, ot KaSdira^ ^X^P°^ "^"^ | 
TToKeoK, TQii^ '\6r)vaioiv Kpivovtn ^I'Xoi/s ical 'AOijVTf' 1 

lAis woulJ be a sl^cirtit rtfly for 
him. i^-fjpKti sometimes has a force 
Eomewhal like that of Sltaioip ^r, (iror 
jfv, laUv i)>, etc, when tbey axe 
classed with ISei, xpv'i etc. (M.T. 
416), See Cic. Lael. xxvi. 96, aatis 
erat respondece Magnas: Ingcntes 
inquit, and Lane's Latin Grammar, 
1496, 1497. Cf. 9a.isuvnhs%v, g 248'. 

8. TaGrOi: the charge of ignorance 
which you bring against me. 

§ 197. 2. -raiff £ X*Y». i-e. the 
events which preceded Chaeronea. 

4. th. Tan 6aKoSi'Ta=d Toa-iv 
tlbai, with reference to votes of the 
people : cf. 274*. 

5. tSiov persoHal, e.g. the danger 
oi s.yp^i) vapapbiuav: cf,§|235tl^ 

6. a4..,I](pfivTo: Be tl Irep tlrtt 

•J. *\% TaBro, in support of my 

S. tinp G* &V-. ic 
lirot-^tt. See § 291*. 

g, tQ ir^ik: for the order 9 
5 176", — ir(vi»i)Kil«...^Tav«i, j'lm 
ar<? rfira/B to ^otf t/ont after the 
fvents: cf. Hdt. 1. 170, Irl J.e- 
•pBupiiiiHiiiii 'Iwri, and § 284"'. 

10. 'AfdrrpaTOf, 'ApurrdXtut ; 
these men and the condition of Naxoa 
and Thasos at this time are knuwa 
ontj from this passage. It appears 
that these islands were in the power 
of Alexander, and that his great 
successes in Asia were having the 
same effect in them as in Athens, 
encDuraging the Macedonian party to 
vex their opponeots by proaecntioos. 

11. KaS&imf 'X^PB^ aulrighl ih- 

12. Kal 'A0^vT|iriv...Kan|YOpti: 

this brings out clearly the meaning 
of TOVTO Tnr«ijiti!u (9). 


fftw AliTj^iin)i AT}fioa-04uotK Karriyopel. Kairoi 5t$) 
Tffl r&v 'EXX^ifcuf aTV)(^rifj,ar' ivfvSoKt/J.elv air^K€no, 
a-7ro\o3Kevai /iaWov o&ToV fim Si«O(0T t) xarriyopelv 
iripav koX orq) ffvveytjvoyf^amv oi avrol Kaipoi Kai 
rolt Tij'i TraXeojii i)(Opol^, ovk eiit rovroii evvovv eivai 
Tp -rrarpiSi. BtjXok be koI i^ wv ^^ Kai iraieti koI 
woXuevet Kai -TrdXtP ov TroKirevu. Trpdrrerai n 
vplv BoKoviiTQiv avu^epeiv diprovoi Ai<rj^ii>r)V. 
ameKpowe ri Kai ye'yovev alov ovk eBa ' ■wdpeariv 
Kivy^CvT}'!. Stavep tA pi'jyfiaTa xal tA trirdirpMTa, 
■.aKov TO aoifia Xa^jj, rare KivetTai, 
'FiTTeiSt} Be •^oKiK tok (rVft^e^ijKdaiv eyxeiTtu, 
ffovXofiaC n Kui TrapdSo^ov el-jre'tv. Kai fuiv irpK 



199 I 

§ 198. I. tTif...&ir&ii.'n>, jbAii 
found matter fir glorification in the 
calamitits of the Greeks: i-xttian, 
were laid up (as material). 

2. JnoGouiuiv occurs only here in 
classic Greek, ace. to Blass, who re- 
marks on tlie ease with which such 
compounds with it are made, to be 
used thus in the infinilivc: seeThuc.ii. 
44, trtDia-iiiitiniiraL and trreXeorTJsoi; 
n. 20, tvVTfia.TBW(ifVvai; Hdt II. 178, 
ivmi^at ; vl. 102, iviirieSff-oi ; Plal. 
Phaedr. 228 E, ;w«XtTa*.— EXX^vm* 
...dvlKCLTo is a dactylic hexameter. 

4. ot a<lTal...lx0poCt, i.e. the same 
oecasiom in which also Ike enemies of 
the state have foand their advantage. 

5. (CvDuv, loyal: see note on § 1^. 

6. t^iv \yp, by the life you live : 
cf.itir'aiTS>'Sppep(u«>§i3o». f5» 
is the regular present to ^t^iutirai, 

7 — 10. itpdTTCTaL...At<r]([vi]s and 
&VTbpoiHr(...AlcrxCvitT: two para- 
tactic conditional expressions, — siifi- 
fiose samelAing is done, etc See 
I 374. Dissen quotes Cicero's imita- 
tion (Phil. II. 22. 55) : Dolelia Ires 
'" s populi Romani intetfectoa : 

interfecit Antonius. Deaideratis 
clarissimos cives; eos quoque nobis 
eripuit Antonius, Auctoritas buius 
ordinis afflicta est: afflixit Antonius. 

10. ^Yl''"''^ '"■"•^ v^rdcFiaTO, rup- 
tMresandslrains: p^/iaKarUplUre, 
either of the jlesh or of a vein; ariirita 
is properly the state of tension which 
may lead to a rupture, though the two 
terms seem sometimes to be used in 
nearly or quite the same sense. See 
Hippocrates, de Flatibus 11 (LiCtre 
VI. p. 109), of ruptures of the flesh; 
and de Morb. I. 20 (Lilt. vi. p. 176), 
of the veins. See lai^e edition. 

g 199. I. iroXvt iyKiirai, is 
severe {presses hard) upon : cf. Thuc. 
IV. 22, Hdt vit. 158, and note on 
iroXX^ jifovri in g 136' (above). 

2. -n ical irapiiSe{ov: the orator 
now rises to a new height. Hereto- 
fore he has maintained vigorously (as 
in % 194) that the policy of Athens 
in opposing Philip under his lead was 
sound and hopeful, and that he cannot 
jnstly be censured now, even if events 
have shown the " mistake " of waging 
war against the Macedonian power. 
He now suddenly changes his ground. 



HtjSeU rrjv vTr'epffoXijv GaVfiaaT), oKX* 

Xsyai BeapTJiraTio. ei yap jjc otti 

a /leWovTa y€v^cr€a$ai, Kal irpa^heo 

. ail TTpoiiXeyei. Atc^ifri, /cat htep-^aprvpov 

KeKpayoi',; fi? ouS' eipOey^o}, ouS' oStq)? 

' 171', etirep f/ Sofi)5 ^ 


p.4v y awoTV)(elv BoksI rav Trpaypdraiv, Tratrt 
Koivov ecTTiv avOpanrOK orav t^ deai Tavra Sokj" 
Tore B* a^iovaa irpataTiivai rmv aW<»p, elr avo- 
crTa<ra tovtov, ^iKvTrTr^' wpo&eBmKsvat Trdvra^ 3,v 
eir^ei' aiTtau. el yap Tavra irpoetT a/cofiTt, wtpl 
S)V oi>h4va Ki'vSui'OV outiv' ouy^ inrefiuvav 01 Trpoyavot, 
rk ou;^t KaTeTnutrev av crov ; p,}/ yap t^? iroXciw! ye, 
^ijS" ep.ov, tIiti 8' 6ip6a\pOi<i irpot A109 icopSifiev &i) 201 

201 I 

row etV T^c TTcfXii' i 

He declares that there hoa been no 
"mistake," that no other policy was 
possible for Athens with her glorions 
Hnteceilenis, even if the whole future, 
with Chacronea and its baneful con- 
sequences, had been foreseen from 
the beginning. This is the final 
answer to the petty criticiEms of 
Aeschincs "after the events" (^i 

6. Ka\ iru irpoBXFyis ; the figure 
of Aescbines himself joining in Che 
general warning adds greatly to the 

7. it elX J4>e^4u, yi>H wAo did^ 
not even optn your mouth.—niV 
o6n»t, not tven then : ovrm sums up 
in one word the whole of the preceding 
condition (4 — 7). 

%. Airo<rTOTfov...^v=nnTi)f jriXip 

; a<^iKvov/ievovi, ci ri 

2, &warv)^tiv, to have failed (in 
aecuring).— T«v Trpii-Y|i£™», mere 
material objects, opposeii to the high 
principles whicb would have been 
sacrificed in the other case (t4t<). 

4. &{iothra (imperf,), m4i/ir.cj« Aai/ 
claimed, followed by the aorisl ixu- 
eraaa, and thin witkdrgui, both past 
loiaxtfiv. We might have had «toi, 
and dx^iTTij; cf. XV. 27, S» dxioTij. 

6. AkovitI, lailhoiil a slruggle, 
Sim -puivere-, cf. xiJt. 77. 

7. DJEJva Svnv o«Xj emphatic 
equivalent of iritrTB: the natural 

illogicaQy declined. 

5. (Tofl (accented), with special 
emphasis. — (li) Y&p (sc. tlir€j, doa'l 
say the stale, or mt : x6\eai\ and iimS 
merely continue the case of iroS. 

1201. I. Tlin6'...«ip<d^(i- fiv; 
hffm sheuldwe now (dare to) loot 


liev trpriyfiaT ek oirep vvvi TripietrTii , tj-^enmv hk Kat 
KVpiiK jlpdQi) 3>('XiTr7ro! aTrdmrav^ tov B' tnrkp tov fir^ 
yeve(TBat ravr ay&sia erepoi X'^P^^^ r/i^wv ^irav ttc- 5 -^^ 
•KOiTjiievoi,' Koi Tavra //.TjBeTriowoTe tt)<: TroXeo)? ev toii 
ep.irpoa6e ■)(p6vot'i au^aXetav aho^ov fioXKov i) Tof 
vrrep row KoXSiv ki'vSvvov ypTj/ieit)^ ; ti'? yap ovk 2 
otSfc 'EWiji'Mj', TiV Se ffap^dpoiv, oti xal Trapk 
^ij^aCmv Kol irapa tSjv en Tovrmv irporepov lirj(V- 
p&v yeva/ievtDii AaxeSatnoviaiv ical Trapa tov Tltp<rS>v 
^offtXefD? fiera ttoXXi}? y^dpnot tovt av aa-fiivtoi S 
eSiidt] Tj TToXei, o Ti ^ovXerat Xa^ovaj] koX to 
(avrrji £j(ovai) ,ro Ke%w6'iiei/ov -rrouiv Kal iav erepop 
TQiv 'EXXjjfoii' -Trpoeardvai ; aW' ovic r/v Tavff., i? 2 
eoiK€, T015 'AdTivaloLt irdTpik oyS" kveKJo. ovo efi- 
tftvTa, ouS' iBwijSi} TTclnroTe t^v ttoXiv ovSeh iic 

(I) f(ri iUy...iriyTuy, (a) rip S*... 
■■(TDlJi^HH, (3) KalTaSTa,..-iinin4y7is. 
tbc clause ii7t;"i»' ai..,iiri «■<.!» be- 
bngi cloiely with the preceding fl 
pii/ rtpiirTijj and rbr S (not ^f/uirp 
tj) corresponds to rd. fiiy. 

3. (U W(p vuvi, (0 M^ freitnl 
ifate, explained by ^e«ilv ti.-.ijidy- 

4. t4v...4y"'^ tkt fi^t to prevml 

5. lT(poivopUT||i£v: this pathetic 
pictun: nf Athens sitting still and see- 
ing others light the battle for Grecian 
liberty becomes more effective when 
we remember (what Demosthenes 
never forgot) that Greece at this 
crisis had no state except Athens able 
or willing to take the lead, or any 
important part, in such a struggle. 
See 5S 304, 305. 

■,d thi: 

icing the participial clause which 
completes the supposition : bence 

■ I 202. I, 2. Tts...PapP<lp«v: 

cf. nx.3l9. — wopA BilPaluv: : 
time of Epaminondas. 

3. iropi-.AaiuEaipiDvCiiiv; after 
the Peloponnesian war, and before 

4. inif>di.,.pa(riX^oK, from Xerxes; 
see the order given to Mardonius 
before the battle of PIstaea, reported 
to Athens by Alexander, king of 
Macedonia (Hdt. viii. 140) : reOro 
fity r^y ^^p ff^i djrWot, rovrn ik 4X- 
\T\y 7r/>i! ToliriJ t\iiiewy alrrai, Ijmn 
iy iflfluji, iSiTit atrdyottei. See 
note on 204' (end). 

6. B Ti pcu\tTiu,..irpo«rr&viiiL: 
i.e. ic ketf her Dvm and reciive auy- 
iliiitg she iaaHfid, on condition of 
being subject to Persia, 

g 203. t. ut louct, spoken with 
sarcasm: ef. § ii^'. 

2. ir&rpui, i.e. inktrittd from their 
anceslen. — oiS' dwKrd implies that 
they revolted morally against the 
'^-a; o48" I(i^UTa that it was against 


I xpivov, frmA 


Buccua Be trpd-novai '7rpotr8(/j,elh}V aa<f)aKw^ Sou- 
Xeveiv, aXX' aymvi^o/ieiiii Trepl Trpmredov Koi Tifi.i}^ 
i leal Bo^rj^' kiuSvuevouffa Travra tov aliava SiarcreXeKe. 
Kal ravS" aura) aeiiva icai -Trpoir^tcdi'Ta Toi? vp-eripoii 
^demv ii/j^l^ vTroXap0dver' ehai. Stare Kal twi' Trpo- 
fovojv TOW Tavra irpd^avra^ p.d\i(n' iTraiVem. 
elKOTO)^ ■ ti't -yap oiiK Av aydaatTO Twf avSp&v iiiei- 
vosv T^9 a/Jerks', oi ical Tr)V ■^dipav koX tj)P "ttoXip 
eKXiweiv inrefiewav ek ra^ rpi'^pei'; ifi^dtnei inrip 
TOV fLtj TO KeXevo/iei/ov TTOti^aai, tov ntv TavTa'cvfk- 
^ov\ei>iravTa t^efiia-rOKXea tTTpaTijyov eko/tevoi, tov 
B' VTraKOVeiv airoi^rji'dp.evov toIs eTnTaTTOfieiroii 
K-VpffiXov KaTaXiBdiirai'Te^, oil fiovov aiiTov, aXXa koX io 
at ywaticet at vfierepai Ttjv yvvaiK aurov ; ov yap 205 



lie beginning of time, a rhetorical 
fcrep(3oX)i, as in § 66=; in § 26' it 
iDcans fiom the beginning of the 

4. |i4) SCKOiiia ; )K>\, not oi, as we 
should say ot /i^ S/caia TpiTTavaiv 
(G. 161J). 

J. irpCHrStj«»T|», taking the side 
of, attaching herself tc : cf. § 227'.— 
&(r4>aXfis fhOuXtuEiv : the same idea of 
security in slavery is found in the 
speech of Pericles, Thuc. 11. 63 (em!}. 

6. &^uvi||a^vi|, as partie. of man- 
ner modifies nivSvvtCov'S'i SiiTerfKtKf. 
— wpoTflav, Tiliftt, WJt|s: cf. § 66'. 

. ^it^y, moral feelings: 



t (se, 

5. irdXiv tKXiirttv refers to the 
time before the battle of Salamis 
when, by the advice of Thcmistocles, 
Ath«n» iras abandoned to Xerxes, 
and all was slaked on a eea-iight : 
so VI. II. See Gcero, Offic. in. 11, 
48: Cyrsilura fjuendam, suadentem 
nt in uibe menerent Xcrxemque re- 

cipcrcnt, lapidibus obmerunt. Hero- 
dotus, IX. 5, tells a similar story of 
the stoning of a senator named Lyci- 
dss, with his wife and children, bpfore 
the l)attle of Plataei, when Mardo- 
nius sent his second message to Athens 
(for the earlier message see note on 

6. inrtp ToO |ii|...iraii(kTiu: help 
with the gen. of the infin. for a final 
clause, as in § 205', and in Aeach, 
III. I, inrip TaB...itlj ylyttsSai, 

8. liv {nroiKiiiiLv dva^vAfuvav, 
laie declared himself for obedience : 
cf. 7»i4(iT7' ifro*aJifr», g iSg*. 

10. KaroXiSi&a-atiTfs : ace. to BL, 
the only Attic example of caraXitfiu 
for MTttXeilu. 

11. a['Y''*<>'^1--aliTciE: Ihevivid- 
of the picture in the easy flowing 

ative is heightened by the ir- 
regular insertion of 3 new subject, si 
TuKiIifri, as if without premeditation. 
With this and g 205 compare the 
speech of the Athenian envoy at 
Sparla more than a century earlier, 
Thuc. 1. 73—75- 


i^TJrovv 0( rdr '^8-qvaioi oCre pT/Topa dCtc <7Tpa- 
Tijyov Si' OTOV SovKeua-oviTii' euTwj;(U5, aW ouSe 
^•jv ■q^lavv el fir] fier eXfvSepia'! i^etrrac tovto 
voietu. j)7€iT0 yap avraiu eKaoTOi ovyX t^ TraTpl S j 
Kal Tp /iTiTpi fiovov yeyev^ffOai^ aWa xot rp TrarpiSi. 
hia^epti Be ri ; on 6 /j,ev Toi? yoveviri fiovov yeye- 
vfja-Bai vofii^oiv' TOV Trj^'i Kal tov aiirofia- 
Toe ddvarov vepifievei^ 6 Be koX t^ irarpihi vTreprov'" 
p,ij ravriti) iinBeiv BovXevovaai' aivodiTQiTKeiv i0e- i 
Xijff«, jural <j>o/3ep<iiTepa'! ^yi^crerat' ra^ v^peiv fcal 
TO? aTip.ia'!, 5? iv Sav\evovag r^ xoXet (pepeiv 
avdyKT}, TOV 6avdrov. 

E( fiev TQivvv rovT eTvej(eipovv \er/€iv, w? eyi> 2 


g 205. 3. Gl Gtou GouXeicraucrLV ; 
I final relative (M.T. 565). With 3ou- 
I Xcinrsuvir tdruxSit (sarcastic) cf. iff- 
a Smi\t6tiv, % 203'. 
i[ )if| i£fa~rai, iflhiy could not 
f (were not to be able) : el fi.^ i^i^aira 
I might be used (M.T. 694, 695). 
I 5. dlFxl...-Y(f(vf|ir9at: cf. Flat. 
[ Ctit. 50 D— 51 b; and Arist. Elh. 1. 
7, 6, TV f aDrapKei \iyotav ait aih-^ 
li&nf rtf iCivTL |9Io> itovirr)!', d\Xft 

jt.r.X., where aih-ijj pivif and ■yBrtaai 
both depend on ffiiri (Jiving for 
hifsttf alone, and lining also for 
fariHts etc.), as intrpl, /iijTp!, and 
7aH(>iri in Demosthenes depend on 
^tyn^f*""- The passage of Aristotle 
U sometimes called un grammatical ! 

8. T&v Tilt ([lUiipfUviig (Uvamv, ike 
death of Fale, i.e. death at an ap- 
pointed time, — opposed lo voluntary 
death, Bi when one gives his iife for 
his country (cf. oi-ofliifffKeip myAati, 
lO) ; riv aVrdjiaTOv B&v. is natural 
(opposed lo violcHf) death. The two 
ace reall; the same, frelo different 
pcMnts of view. See West., with 
Aulus Geltius, ziii. I, and Cicero, 
I Phil. I. 4, 10. 

cf. § 

SavXtuowrav, in a state of 
slavery: see M.T, 885, \i,%. ^ With 
the pres. partic. cf. /iij n' liHt 
entire', not lo ite me killed, Euc, 
Orest. 746. 

$g 206—310 conclude the digres- 
Eiun which begins in § lES. The 
orator here appeals to the judges not 
to convict CtesiphoD, as this will be a 
condemnation of the people of Athens 
for maintaining the ancient glories of 
the slate, the glories of Marathon and 

§ 206. 1—3. •l...4i«x<tpoiJV... 
firiTL)i^(rtU pAi: this combination of 
a present unreal condition, if J -were 
underlatingfVritiia future conclusion, 
everybody v>ould justly censure me, is 
rare, and perhaps strictly Illogical 
(M.T. 504). We should expect an 
imperfect with tr in the apodous; 
and Ihia is implied in the condensed 
form which we have. The teal 
meaning is, 1/ / loere (now) under- 
tahingte W/j'iiii Mil, the result would 
be {%y In") that all would justly f, 



irpo^ayov v/iS? a^ta twc irpoyovaiv ■ 
eaS' ooTt? oiiK av eUoTOK i-mrift^ffeie (loi. 
iyo} fiep vfi£Tepa>{ to? to la lira? TrpoaipeaeK dTfo-'\ 
ipaiveo, Kal ieUvufiL on Kal -rrpo ep.ov tovt et)(e tSJ 
ippom^fi T) iroXfi, TJ)5 liivTOi. hiaieavini t^5 e^' kKOr J 
aroi'^"Twv treiTpayfievwv xal ipavrip fierelvai <f)7jp.i, 
297 oCto! 8e TQif oXtof xaTTjyopQfv, koX xeXevav iif/.a'! 237 
€/iOt iriKpta^ ^x^iv OK ^QtDU Kal Kivhvvoiv aiTiip 
ry TToXei, t^? p.ev ek to irapou ri^ij? ep,' avointr 
p^a-ai yXi'j^irai, tcl S' e« a/jraVTa tov Xoitov XP°' 
vov eyKtopL iifimv aqi'dipeliai. el yap ok ou ra 5 
ffeXniTTa ep,Qv ■jroXtrfvirapevov rouBl xara-^iiditelaOf, 
ripap-tt^Kevdi ^^ere, oil Tp ti}? tut^?;? ayvatpoavvr) ra 
avp^dvra iraOeiv, aXV oiiK eirnv, ovk euTiv Stthj? 208 

4. viurfpat : ac, aOrrnt. 

6. GiaKavlcK, I.e. what he tetms 
Ibe mtnial siniict is iS\ that he claims 
foe himself. This is in striking con- 
liast with hiBcliim for full recognition 
□f his public services elsewhere; cf. 
SS Z97 — 300. But in this grand glo- 
rification of Athens and her noble 
services to freedom, the more he 
depteciatea himself and exalts the 
state, the stronger does he make hia 
a^;ument that the condemnation of 
Ctesiphon now would be a condemna- 
tion of Athens herself and of all her 
glorious history. 

Notice the antitheses in this pas- 
sage: — first, the main one, d iiit and 
rly Si (§ 2o6i'=)i then, within the 
latter, ^i4 fttr and oDtoi SfJ^ 207 ') ; 
also iiitrfpat and «ai i/iavr^, irfioa-ipi- 

§207. I. tAvSXwv: opposed to 

T^t i/ iediTo.t (Jiafoi-fni), § 206'. 

3. rtifi <lt t4 irapAv rififlt: the 

if they are condemned by your vote 

5. d+aip(lTaiisconative:cf.§i3'. 

6. TouSl, Ctesiphon, like TairrvA 
in S IS"- 

7. AyiupAa-vrf), AariAiiess (want 
offeeling); cf. § 852'. ijnafiarS may 
mean io bi tkoa^ttess or inconsidtraU : 
ef- SS 94 '. 248 '. tA o^^pdrm, Tiihal 
befill yoii, including Chaeronea. 

g 208. The famous oath by the 
heroes of Marathon, Plataea, Safamis, 
and Artemisium here follows. The 
grandeur of this lolemn invocation of 
the shades of the mighty dead, to 
support the orator in his last and 
noblest assertion of the true spirit of 
Athenian liberty, will strike the most 
indifferent reader. We do not envy 
one who is strong enough to read 
this passage without emotion. Lord 
Brougham says : "The whole passage, 
which ends bete, and begins tl yip 
ToDra rparlTt ixBnrl (§ 200), is de- 
serving of close study, being one of 
the greatest pieces of declamation on 
record in any tongue," See LongiauB 


129 1 

fifidpTcre, avSpev 'AdrjValoi, Top tnrep t^! dwai'Tiuv 
iXevSepia^ xal atorijpia'i Kivhuvoii apafievot, fia toik 
Mapa9a>vi TrpOKivSvvfVffaVTa^ rmv ■Trpoyoutoi' Koi 
TOW iu nXaraiai? irapaTa^afievov^ xal tow eV S 
^a\ap,lvL vavp,ay(^^cravTa'i xal tov^ e-rr 'ApTefiiffio) 
Koi TToXXow erenow toi!^ in toii hrip.oaioi'; p,vriiJ.aai 
Keip-evovi, aya6o\K auBpa^, ovi aTravra'i opoiwi r] 
wifXt? T^9 avTTji a^toitfdcra Tiptj'i. effatfrev, AtV^fVij, 
ovjfl join KaTop$o)fravTai avrSiv oii&e tow KpaTTf- v 
aavTWi fiovow. Si^ouw? ■ 5 /lei* yap rjv avhpSiv 
ar/aSiav epyav, airam ireTrpaicTai • tji tv^^ S' f/v 6 
Saifiiov evetp^v eKoa-Toi'i, raim; Ke^pijvTat. e-rrelT, & 209 | 


Ihc Sublime 16; i,Tt(Xfi\v d ^tjiio 
rBirr)i Inrtp rfif rir6\iTeii)ifi'ii>y tia 
^ptt:.." aix 'hl^iprtTt, S rhv 6Tti\ 
rgi 'EXXiJKuv i\cuBeplai iyZiKi ipi 
/irtoi ■ tx^* ** oi«i« toStou irapa 
Btlyiiara- oilii yip ol ir MapaS^t 

1, 2. oJiKl(mv...f|)idpTrrc, is can 

mol bt that y I erred: ofiit ^rrri* ffriiii = 

3. &pd|uvai: cf. ir^M*' ApBvfai 
V. ^.— pd Ttiuii most MSS. prefix si! 
which £ omits, pi. generally 

& negal. 

^^^jt^^fo/ioL, aa in Th 
^^Buggcsteil vpoiciv. 

Attic deme, this is usually a locative 
dative! but here all MSS. except S, 
and most quotations, prefi^i t*, which 
■ rcKul^i with nXaraiaii aod SaXa- 

(ir»(G. 1.9;). 

. . • <»»« 
^ aur ancestors who bore the brunt 
of battle at Marathon: rpoKirSonia 
is here stamt forward (as irp4>mx") 
to fece the foe; from its idea of 
ttending it may take a dative like 

5. h ZaXa|j,Ivi: this battle 1 
fought /If SalamiS! the other sea-lighl ' 

7. GrifLOirloH |iW|^aa-L; tIie/«M'c 
tombs were in the outer Ceramicus, 
on the road leading to the Academy 1 
see Fans. I. 29, Thuc, II. 34. Those 
who fell at Marathon were buried 
on the battlefield, as a special 

8, dfnBoh &vGpa$, in apposition 
with the preceding accusatives: this 

. by r 



: cf. 1. 

1 of 

I rt)s airtji mutually 


avrfiv; I adopt this partitive I 
gen. rather than airais (found in " 
L'),as I am not convinced that a^c 
can have the force of especially (jHi 
fiiigtiis/ud from others), ipsos solos 
(Rauchenstein). In defence of Eng- 
lish, we may note that this renowned 
passage has no less than fifty signias 
in sixty-seven words, 

§ 209. The descent from the im- 
passioned patriotic eloquence of the 
preceding passage to the personal 
vituperation of this is depressing. 

los I 


OTTO (T TE/3^cr(U^^^^| 

Karapare Kai ypufi.fiafaKV<f>a 
tovtiopI TifiTJv ical ^iXavOpamlwi ep.' 
^ouXofievot Tpoiraia koi pdj^a^ xal fraXaC 
eXeye;, &v rifo^ ■rrpoiTeoktff' o Trapaiv ayaiv oinoal ; S 
ifie Se, & TpirayeDviara, tov Trepl Twf Trpoireimv trvpr- 
fiovXov T^ TToXei TTapiorra, to ti'ko? ^p6v7]pa Xafiovr 
ava0aiviiv e-rrl to ^^p.' ehei ; to tov tovtwi/ avd^i 2U 
ipovpTot ; SiKaioK pMvrav aTredavov, eirei, oiih' v/iaf, 
I avBpet 'AdTjvaloi, awo t^ out^s Siauoiav Set to? t' 
ISiai SiVa? Kai Tra9 &7}fiO(Ti'a'i icpifeiv, aXXa to. pip 
TOV KaO' fipepav ^lov (rupPoXaia eirl tSiu Ihltov 5 
vdp,a>v Kal epyav cncoTrouVTWi, to? Si xoiva^ Trpoatpe- 
aeit; ew ra t<oi' Trpoyouav a^ioipaT awo^XeTroiTai. 

YpO-lllUtTOKO^WV ; 

6. TfHTa^Mvurri : effectively chos- 
en with reference to rpurrelvr, which 
refers to Athens as competitor far 
the first prize in the political i-yiit, 
in wbich Demosthenea is ber adviser. 

7. Ti tCvos <^|i4vi]jia \apivT, in- 
spired by whose spirit f 

% 210. 2. ELKaCuf |j^vt£v &ir^ 
Bnvov, *H/ (in that case) /i*o«/rf*nnf 
deserved to die. pirrtit by craais foe 
Iklmoi i.v. — o46' ■B(iSs...6ii, neither 
should you (any more than 1). 

3, SiavdIos, j/(ViV (way of think- 

4. IBCcK, Ei]|UM-[ai: this has no 
reference to the ordinary distinction 
of ypo^aland JfKoi./aWfVand/riz'rtfc 
suits, which correspond generally to 
our criminal and civil processes. 
Here SU11 has its widest legal sense 
of lawsail in general, including both 
ypa^'i and SIin)(in its narrower sense). 
tSuH SUai are suits which concern 
individuals and their ordinary business 
relations (ffUfi^iXaio), which of course 

must be jwiged-ivitirtfereruelosiecial 
statutes IJvi ISluir yifiuy, cf. ir dXi;- 
Biia^, § 2z'), which may change from 
year to year, and tn special facts l_lSluiii 
Ip7«i'), without regard to the general 
policy or the traditions of the slate: 
even criminal suits (ypa^at) which 
involve nothing more than the acts of 
individuals would be included here. 
But STiii6atai SUai are suits like the 
present one, which involve a iudgmeot 
on the general policy of statesmen 
(^xoLti'S ir/K}a£pAr»i), whose acts are 
not prescribed by special statnteSi but 
must be governed to a great extent 
by general principles and traditions 
of state : these, the orator says, musi 
be judged by reference to the glorious 
deeds of the past. Demosthenes 
insists here, as elsewhere, that the 
only real question involved in this 
case is that of his own statesmanship 
and his fidelity to the best traditions 
of Athens, while Aeschines constantly 
urges the court to treat it as a common 
/fila SluTi and settle it by reference to 
ordinary facts and petty details. (See 
Aesch. 199, 300.) Aeschines saw 
that here lay his only chance of 



Kai TrapaXaixpaviiv <y af),a t^ paKTiipia xai t^ 
trv/iffok^'To (jjpoi^/ia to t^ irdXeoK voiit^eiv eicatnov 
vfiS>v Set, oTflf Ttt Sijfioffi' eli7ii}Te KpivouiTe^, ettrep i 
d^t iKeivtov TTpaTTeiv" oteaSe j^iivai. 

'AXXi yap ffiTreaoiU ei<i ra ireirpayfieva TDK 2U I 
wpoyoi'oi'i vjiSiVeaTiv a twc ■fjrrj'piiTfi.dTrDu Trapeffriv 
Kal TtSi* ■rfpayS'iPrwi/. hraveXSeli' oyc cnr^eu evravS' 
i^efftjp ^ovkofiat. 

'Cl'i yap a<f>iic6fj,e9' ek t^s 0ij^a9, KareX'dfi'ffdvofiev 5 
4'tXi'iriroii ical ®eTTd\&v ical tS)v aXXcov uvp.p.d-jfaiu 
vapofTa'i Trpea^eii, ical toi!^ /iey ^fieTepovv (^/Xovs eV 
i^'i8p, TOW S' ejceifov dpatTeit. ot( o du i't'i' TaiVa 
Xeyd) Tou avfii^epovTov eireie ifiavT^, Xeye /loi T^v 
eTTttrroX^i' ^i/ tot' iireni^aiiev eiiOifi oi irpitr^eiv. lo 
KatToi TOffavTt] y wrep^oX^ avKO^avTia'; oiTO<; S13 1 
Kej^pjjTai Witt', el jiiv t( twi' Seo'^Taii' ewpdydj}, toj* 
xaipitp, ovK ifie (ftTjcriv ahiov yeyevijaSai, tmv S' &4 
eripatv trvp-^avToiv aTrdi^wn ifie Kal t^ii ep.i)i/ TV-)(T]y 
ahlav elvai- leal, on eoiiuv, 6 avfj.0ovXo^ Kal p^royp S 

8. TQ PoKTTIplfi teal T$ (TUp^PAXlf, 

/til itoff and his ticket: each judge re- 
ceivea in the mocniag a stalf puinted 
with the sune colour as the lintel 
(v^rlo-mi) of the c 

which he v 

; after 

luv, Ldklnray, ^BiarCiy 'A^Ksfwii' 1 
iraETTCiXdpTiiii' tdi>i x-Epi Atj !iJtiiBini,M 
STi..A{'yB is connecteij i 

ntering \^e (9) hy a suppressed p 

the court, he gave up his stafT to 

officer, and received a ticket (^a6ti- 

/SaXov), which entitled him to receive 

his fee of three ubola (ii 

a&a his day's service. 
§211. He DOW cetun 

account of the embassy ti 

from which he digressed i _ 

5. di^Md)i(S' : i.e. theambiissadors. 141 and 237—339; esp. i S' 
61 TiXfarirou.,,irpfirP<is ; see"' - - .. • ^,-^ 

Dem. 18, and Philoch. frag. 

^Mrrtv Si raraXB/Ji^-oi 'Eh 

jhU KvtIi 

sAow. See Kriiger, Gr. Gr. 65, I 

10. j)v rdr iirj|ii|(a|uv : opposei 
i(n-w4>'J to ySv X^u (8). 

§ 212. These words were spoken 
to the while the clerk was preparing to read 
Thebes, the letter; cf. § 180. 

riv Kfupov: see Aesch. 137 — 

', Mm 

; Afru, 

3. m Iripus : 

4. Tixiv: sei 

jfia. trhtittjxx^^^i <^^^ °^ 


3 iHMO50ENOY5 

iyai rmv fikv i« Xoy'oViial jou ^ovXevaacrBai irpnt 

70K OTrXot? icaX Kara Tr)v tTTpaTtiyiap aTvj^Tjdevnav^ 
/lAvQi alrto^ elfai. ww av w^DTt/Jb? uVKOipdpTTjv j 
yemiT ^ KaTdpaTo^e^os ; Xeye ttjv €7rtoTO\7Jc. 

1 EniSTOAH. 

'ETreiS^ Toivvv ivoiriaavTO ttjii eieK\r}<Tiav, Trpotr- 
tiyoi/ eKiivoiK trpoTepoVi hia to ttjv -rSi^ &v'/ifid)(ti}p 
Td^iv eKeivow e^^eiv. Kal -TrapeKdome^ lhi)n,j}'y6pQVv 
TToXXa p.kv ^IXiiTtrov^oPTe'i, ttoXXo. 8' v/i&v 
KUTTjyopouj'Tei, trdvO' Baa TTorrroT evavrC eTrpd^are 
€tT}fiatoit dvap.ip.v^<iKav7ei, ro h' ow Ke-pdXaiov, 
rj^iovu Siv fiev ev 'Kerrovdeaav inro ^iXiVttoi/ "jf^dpiv 
avTow airohovvai, S>v S" vif) vp-om ■^Sikijito hiKfjv 
\a^€tv, mroTepai 0av\ovTat, ^ Si^urwi aurous e<l> 
vp^at ij avvep^akomat eh ttiv 'ArTiK-qv xal iSeC- 
Kt^S-'tiv, w? 5»yT0, eie pev wu avroX tyuve^ovXevov 
T&K Trji 'Amic^'i ^oaitripaTa Koi avhpdiroha Koi 
TaXX' aya6a et! riji' BoiaiTiau ijf oiTa, e« S' &v f/pai 

•J. wval-not, partner, opposed lo 
(liret oTriot (9). — T»v...&T1ix<|MvT«v 

§213. I. -riiv iKKXii<r{av: i.e. 

at Thebes. The nnrrative is con- 
tinued, from §an'. 

2. T&v miiii&xo* ' >-c- of Thebes. 

' -' mpoXatov, sdvetbial, in 


r the 

c of fl 

: this c 

sponds to Sit B' iiSUfirra (3). 

8. airDut: the Thebans, while 
aiToit in 9 tefecs to the Macedoniaos. 

9. ittarifHii pevXavrai, in vikich- 
rvir way they pleased, in the mood 
and tense of the diiect form, the 

exhortation being lake vengeance in 
whichever way yaii please, — EiJiTiis 
afrrous, i.e. by letting them pass 
through Boeotia into Attica (cf. 
§ 146'). The aorists Ziirr^t and 
tvtfv^aXbrriii have Ibe belter an- 
thorily here: when an aor. paitic. 
denotes that in which the action of 
a verb (usually aorist) consists, so 
that they really designate one act, 

Plat. Phaed. 60 c, tB 7' hnli^m dm- 
(tnio-ai fit, you did well lo remind me. 
(See M.T. 150, with the examples.) 

II. Ik |i(v. . . v-uv(^dXiw>i', as a 
coitseqttenee of following their advictt 
opposed to in a Sit 17/iSi iptii $An 
in 1.13. 


epeic, e^aaav rav rf) BoiUTta oiap-rrarrVrfffOfiiv inro 
Tov troXe'fiov. icai dWa -n-oWa wpS^ tovtoii, el<! i 
Tdina Se travTa avvTftmvr , eke^ov. a S' f/ixeVi irpm 814 
raOra, to, fj-ev >ca6' eKatrra iyw /iet/ ai/rl TTaiTo^ av 
Ti/xjjfrai'/iTjv flweLP ToO 01qv, vp.a<; ie Seoo'iica, fit) 
Trape\jiKv6aTa>v rCtv KaipSiv, wcrirep av^ii'idi' /cdraKXu- 
afiop "/"yei^avdi Tiav •rrpcLyfi.aTcov 'r/yovfievot, fiaTatop S 
o^kov TOin -rrepi rovrcov \6yovi vofii<Tr]7e' o Tt S" o5v 
en-tlaafiev ^/leli Kal fjiuv airmplvavTO^ aKOware. 
X^e Touri Xa^mv. 

McTM Tavra toCvvv eKoXovv i/p.a'; Kal neTerr^ft- 311 

§214. t. a G' '!i|uls : 9C. A^D;tcr. 
a. rd yiv ttaV iKOiirra, lit Jelails. 

vrith the subocdinftte iyii iiiv and liija\ 

Bt, is in antlthesia to S ti 3* alv Itrii- 
aaiur (i.e. the Eum of what we nccoi 
plished) in L 6,— AvTl...-rtiO pjov, 
as we might say, / viould givi my 
life: cf. TiiiS-v and Ti)iaa8ai used 
of estimating the penalty in a la.wsmt; 
" " " ~ ' ' iroXXuii' 4b xCiM''"'' 
not hard to see why 
iraosthenes should be unwilling to 
^peat any pact of this brilliant speech. 
The hope of succesae* of the allies 
against Philip, which he probably 
held out, had been disappointed by 
the cnishing defeat at Chacroneai 
and the destructioii of Thebes three 
years later must have made the whole 
tone of this speech now sadly untimely. 
Plutarch (Dcm. iS) gives a graphic 
account of the Theban assembly and 
of the address, which was probably 
one of the orator's greatest efforts. 
4. iirwtfiS.vtl., (you 


/iea-^ TrapaXeiTTO), 

i)y(lirBc (impf.) or &inrtp iy -liyoiiitnn 
(^fi iiyeiaee), since a conditional 

participle is not regularly preceded 
by fl (M.T. 473). But it would seem 
that the colloquial use of Hitrtp A* 
et, quasi, sometimes caused the true 
ellipsis to be overlooked and the il 
to be irregularly added. — Kal xara- 
■Awrjiii'; i.e. also a deltige, as well 
as the lapse of opportunity (iropeXir- 

5. tStv TpaYiidTu*, objective geni- 
tive after jtaTttirXucrMf. 

6. t TL 4ir(t(ra|Uv and (S n)..,&T»- 
KpIvovTO are the same thing. 

§215. I. JKdXauvu|iai,i.e.£ii//Af 
your army to Thebes. This is what 
Demosthenes provided for in § 178*^ 



the embassy go 
the generiJs c 
of the army. This march to Thebes, 
after the answer of the Thcbani had 
been sent to Athens (ytrh, raBro), is 
commonly thought to be directly 
opposed to the account of Aeachines 
"■ exclaims indifi- 




ovTOK oliceC<o<i' viiat eS/^^oiTO, 5mtt efa 7oii' oTrX^ri 

1 Kal Tom iTT-n-eav oUTtui', et's rhi owt'as Kal to air- 
h^kaffaV TTfi o-rpaTtav ivl TraiSos Kal yvvalica^ xt 
ri TifiicoTara. kuitol rpi' ev ixeiVT) rg TJf^epa ■jrocrtirj 
avSpanoK eBei^av eyKtli/J-i-a €ttjfialoi KaS" vfJ-mv tA 
KaWiara, ^v fj-ev apSpe{a<;. erepai/ Be BiKtuaaverj^, 
TptTOV Be aox^poavtni^. Koi yap tov ayaiva p.fB' 
vfiwv p,aWop ij 7r/30? vfid'; eXd/ievot -Troi^tyaaSai, Kal 
&lieivov<t elvai teal BixaioTep' a^iovv vfiSs Ixpivai 
^iKiTTTTOv ■ Kal TO.' '-Trap' ainol^ Kal Trapa Trdcn S" 

potuisse coram judicibus dici ! " But 
Aeschines saya only that the nuicoh to 
Thebes took place irpir irtpl av/i- 
fiaxlm ulay ittniy avWapiiy ypdfai 
^■UluaSifiir. Now thatthe-'decree of 
Demosthenes " (181 — 187) is known 
to be a forgery, we have no reason 
for thinking that any fonnal treaty of 
alliance preceded the invitation of the 
Athenian army to Thebes. Demos- 
thenes could have proposed such 3, 
treaty only after his retom to Athens. 
It appears froni the criticisms of 
Aeschines on the treaty (141 — 144) 
that it was an elaborate document; 
and it is probable that it was not 
made and ratified until some time 
after the march to Thebes, which 
required no further legislation than 
the decree appointing the ambassa- 
dors. It must be remembered that 
Demosthenes (§ 178) proposed that 
the embassy shauid simply ofjer the 
Athenian army to Thebes without 
insisting on any formal terms, hray- 
yiWnrSiLi piniBi\'rcit flv KeXtduHrii-. 

3. i£u.,.ivTuv; this is commonly 
referred to the Athenian army, who 
are supposed to have iirat encamped 
outside the city and afterwards ti 

ndthm^ | 

with the context to understand tl 
while the Theban infantry and cavalry 
(i.e. the whole army] were encamped 
outside the walla, the Athenian army 
was quartered in the town. The lack 
of a pronoun to designate which army 
is meant is felt in both interpretations; 
but as the subject is the Thebans, it 
is more natural to refer the absdlute 
clause to them. Again, the emphasis 
given twice to xoiSat tal yuvaXicas 
(5 and 13) implies that the men were 
absent; tai tip' vfut roiiiaarTet (jl^, 
as a testimony to the iru^poo'iiK) of 
the Athenians, implies this stilt more 

7. KoO" ipAv, upon yriu,n in VI. g, 
K0.6' i})iSiy /yxiiifuiir, not in its common 
hostile sense. See Arist. PoL in. 13. 
14, tarii Si reioirity oix trrt y6iu)i, 
airat yip elm t6imj, in risffCl to such 
mm iheri is no lavi, for ihty art a 
lain unto thciitsibia. In the parallel 
passage of St Paul, Gal, v. 23, Kar4 
Tuii'TaKiitrui'is translated against lUcA. 
See Rom. ii. 14, iaurais tlai rd/as, 
where we have the rest of the passage 
of Aristotle, 

II. SucaiiiTtp' &|ioOv, tiat yoa 

r Thebes 

s surely («ii) tvilh all laitHiind, pan 

a ikev. 
1 S', and indted 


TrXeiirTij (fivXdifij, wSiSas Kal ywaiKav, itft' 
TTOiijcraVrei. erauppaavvrj'; •jrio'Tiv "Trepl vfiS)v e^oiTK 
eSei^ap. ev oh "frSffCi', dvBpe; 'Adrjvdtot, KaTo. y' 2lS!^ 
unai opOw e^dvi}iTav iyuwKOTei. oiire yap eiV t^c 
TToXiV tlt7e\66mo'i tov (TTparoweBov , ouSeh oi/Seir oiiB' 
aBiKO)^ viilv evekSXeirii''' o^oi Waxj^poi'a^ irapeirj^e^ 
vftat avTOVi • Sii je avjinr'apdlTa^dfievoi, to! •KpuiTav, 5 
TTjV T hri rod iroTap.ov xal tt)v j^eifiepifriv, ovk 
afiefiTTTOw /ioi'ov vp.a'i aurovi aWa Kal BaVfiaaTois 
ehtl^aTe t^ ko/t/j.^,' raic TrapatTKevaK, rrj TrpoOvfita. 
eip' oTv Trapa p.ev tout dWav v/ilv iyiyvovr eiraivoi, 
irapa. S' v/i&i' Overlai Koi "Tvop-iral toI<; fltots, Ka\ ZVf\ 
erjayy rjhews av ipoifiTiv Alaj^iui]!', ore ravT iirpdr- 
T£TO icai ^tjXov Kal p^apa? Kal eiratviiiv rj 7rdX(? ^v 
fieiTTri, iroTepov aweBve Kal avvev^pdiiieTO tow ttoX- 
XoK, ^ \v7rovii.evo<; icai OTevav Kal Su<rp.ev'divit)v tow S 
Koivoiv dyadolv oikoi Ka&fjTO. el fiev ydp Trapijy «ai' 
/tCT^ Twi* dWmv i^TjTa^eTO, ttbk ov Bei'va -itokZ, 

bovTti: or. uW. with Hfifap. 

niTts, U apptarid (later) that Ihty 
had jutlged rightly (iytiii<iaais) : cf. 
5 ai5'*.— oBt«...o4B«v oW: a re- 
maikable accumulation of emphatic 
negatives: oSre correspond 9 [ore (5). 
3. o^iS'dBtKBs, Cnot)<fw«aH/W(/i'- 

5. Bit Tt...irpiiras, when you ttuict 
itoed in line viilh them in the earliest 
ettcouniers: Bome cognate object is 
implied in ff«;«r(i(jaTafri(ievoi. All 
MSS. except £ add pAxox, as if )uixt- 
ai»ra\ had preceded. The natural 
accus. would be impnTii^it, foUoning 
the meaning of rru^jrapaT-aJdftfMi and 
K) ugnifying bailie array or battles. 
Sec AeKh. m. 151, ^irJ t^h vapdTa^i' 

6. Ti[V T* Jirl ToB iroTa|iov, Ihi 
river battle, probably fought on the 

upper Cephisuit, which flows thraugh 
Ftiocia before it enters Boeotia near 
ChaeronEfl,-— t1j» x'^I*<I>^'^''i the 
"winter battle," probably fought on 
some wintry day in the hilly parts of 
Many still find chronological 


1 this 

r campaign, 

forgetling that the only trouble 
from the spurious decree in g§ 
187, dated in midsaiomer. See 
on ^5 152* and iSl— 187, with Hist. 

q, inipi. jiiv tAv UXuv bfi^ — ._ 
(double) antithesis to irapd f 


§317. 3. t*i>^o^fi"de.gloryi' 




ftaXKoe 8' ovB' oina, el u>v w apiffrtov ayro? tow 
Bioiif; hroir/a'aTO fidpTVpa^, Tavff w? ouk apiara 
301 vp.QS a^iol i^rf^irr'aij&ai ToiK'ofimiJ.OK'oTa'i Tois 

' ei Se fit] iraprjV, -rrwi qvk cnroKiDXevai -jroKXaKK earl 
BIkmo^, el etj> ok exaipov 01 aWot, raOr' iXmreio 
opeov ; \eye Si] Koi ToOra ra i^T^^tfffiaTo, fioi. 


OuKovv jj/ifi? fiev ev BvalaiM ?)pev rare, ®r)^atoi 
S' eV T&j hi f)tia^ atffSiuSat vop.L^eiv. Kai ■n-'epuia-Tijic'ei 
Tot! ^oi}6iCa^ he-qiTEaSai Soieovaiv a^" wii'hvpaTTOi/ 
o5to(, ainoifi ^oyjBilv erepoK e'^ S>v eTre'irf'iJT' ep.oi. 
aWk fxijv oia? tot rj^Ui tjjaivai; 6 ^iXnrwoi koI ev 
o^aK riv Tap'a-)(ak" %vi tovToi.'i, sk tSiv iTrtaToXStv 
T&p eKcivov fiad^rreaBe oii' et? TleXoTr6pif>)aov eTrepr- 
■jr€v. Kai poL \eye Tavra^ Xa^me, "v elBrjTe rj ep^ 
irvvey^eia Kat irXdvoi koX raXanrmpiai koI tA iroXXk 
■\lrT]<j>iffpaTa, fi vu" oCtos hteavpe, Ti aTrecpyairaTo. 

218 ' 


8. oii5' 8<ria, n/^n imfiom: cf. 

8,9. us &pC<rTwv...As oJk iipicTa: 

Willi reference to tlie words of Ctesi- 
phon's decree, flri fiiaTfXf? xal \4ytiJp 
Kal rpdiTTVP T 4 /tptff-TH r^ Si/flifi 
(Aescb. 49), If Aeschines joined in 
the thanksgivings, he declared before 
the Gods that the policy of Demos- 
thenes was good: but he now asks 
the court to declare this not good by 
condemning Ctesiphon. 

10. ap.u|uiKiiTas : of the Hebastic 

n. diroXiiiX<wi,nroXWtti.B: cf. XIX. 
1 10, T^ti a6x StbE dira\ui\iiB,t SUaKi!. 

§ 21a. 2. h T¥...™^lttiv. .« 
/Af beliif. corresponding to it Swrloii 
fl), both denoting what occupied 

3. ToI(. ■ . EoKoSiriv (iinpf.), to thrne 


jtntd Hkily to need 
-d+' 3iv nrpaTTov, 
i^ Sir ^efo^i' ' 

i.s, ipoi, ie. BH 
see Xen. Oec 


ftwi: for 

•pipa a^aiT ^ I Xe u ! tJmi, where ^IXoti 
would be more common (G.928').— 

PoilSlEv jl^pOB : Subj. of TTCfKEtlTT^nti 

it Uad came about. 

;. otas T|ibtti ^iids: cf. | 195*. 

6. irvvFTok&v: for an earlier letter 
of Philip to Peloponnesus asking for 
help, see § J56. 

9, irX&voi refers especially to his 
frequent journeys to Thebes while Ihe 
negotiations were going on, and alio 
to bis other euibaasiea (cf, § 244). — 
t\ -ireXXd, tilt moHy, 

10. BifaTip« : see the general ridi- 
cule of his decrees in Aesch. III. 


KaiToi TToXXol •jrap' vfuv, dvBpei 'KOrjvalai, yeyd- 2X9 
vaeri ^Jrope? evSo^oi Kal fieydXoi wpb ifiov, KaWt- 
OTpaTOi iKelpo^, 'Ap[(7TO0wc, Ke^aXo?, %pa<jv^ov- 
Xo9, erepoL pvptoi- aW ofiaii 'ovBeU' Traiwore toutwc 
Sia TraVTOv eBroicev kaVTOv etV ouSkv 77/ TroXet, aW' 6 5 
fiev ypd(f>ritv ovk avewpea ^evirev, 6 Be irp&T^evav oi/k 
an eypaY^v". VTre\.ti.Tre yap avjS)v eKacTOi eavr^ 
a/ia fiev paaTwinji/, a/ia B' ei t( yevon' avai^opdv, 
T( olv ; diroi TK au, av toctovtov Wepripa<i pdifty 220 
Kal joX/ij) itrre Trdvra vaielv avTtk ; ov ravra 
Xe'^dt, aW' ovrai'i iweneicrfnjv fieyav elvai rbv icar- 
eiKij^oTa k{vSvvo^'"t'^v'*-!!-6\iv Sktt ovk eBoKft fioi 
j(a)pav ovBe irpovatav ovBep.Cav t^s tSt'a? ao-<|joXeia9 5 

lay perhaps with no polenlial force; as /ie woalJ 
;i3m of the fflea till me slorics (see M.T. 249). 
^^jjri™*, ctijoymeni ef tase. 

1'-'. This rema 
er to the fierce 
tenni of the alliance with Thebes 
, 141 — 143). — t£ dirtipY^iraTO : 

the [ 

n of rJ i 



We should 


expect eiivixf' etc, to be tn the accus. 
by the usual attraction; but they are 
'ar more expressive as they stand. 

g§ 219—221 were spoken while 
the clerk was preparing to read the 
letters of PhUip. 

$219. a. KoXXdrrpaTM: the 
famouioralor whose eloquence is said 
to have inspired Demosthenes (as a 
boy) to devote himself to oratory; 
see note on S 99'. 

3. ' ApUTTDi^&v : mentioned in § 
70'.— Ki+oXos: Bee§ 251.— ©pacri- 
pouXof , of CoUytus, who served un- 
der his distinguished namesake in the 
Restorotion of 403 B.C. (xxiv. 134}. 
He was afterwards a. warm friend of 
Thebes: tee Aesch, m, 138, di-V it 
6i}|3aii Tria-rtvBdt iit atiiU trepoi. 

5. Gl& irnvrit, ilireuglwul; like 
iirXiSi, 5§88», 179'. 

61 oi^K av 4irp^o'Pcvcnv...i'ypai|Hv: 

both iterative (M.T. 162) : we often 

le ■miuld\a such iterative cxpressionB, 

ritrtal j» lasf of aiiideni: ct ti 
7^Miro depends on an apodosis im- 
plied in iyafo/idy; cf. Aeschyl. Sept. 
101 5t Cis Ait &yaffTaTj}pii,.^tt fii} ffeuiif 
Tit tuiroSibv (ffrij Sopl (M.T. 480). 
The direct fonn, iir ti -y^t^rai, might 
have been used: see Aesch, ir. 104, 
ainoii KarfXivoi' T^y elt -rb iiparis 
iya-pofi&i- inftii ril6iii)itr. The mean- 
ing comes from the middle ina'pi- 
pvrdnt, to carry ontsetf batk. 

g 220. I. Wcpfipat; did you 
excel? absolutely, or possibly sc. Tai- 
Toui, — ^)i^: i.e. so as to need no 
dwi^opii (§ 2198), 

>frraf firrirtdr^ip', / had so 
jhly convinced myself. 
&iKt\ is licst personal (sc 6 
KitSuroi); then (without diIk) under- 
stood as impersonal with i,-f«rrrT>i)i 

5. Xfipav ElBdvat is lo alloia room 
for considerations of personal safety; 
rpiroiair Stdimi h to allow thought 
for this. We should say lo ailois 
room for Ihoughl. 



302 BiSovai, aXK' ayaTnjTov elvtu d /iijSei' vapa\eiTra>i> 

T(! & Bel TTpd^eiep. eTreTreia-firjv S' vrrip i/uitnov, 

r^pa^oUT 'av'tfiov 'ypd-ifai ^eXriov fir)Be'va /ijjre 
■n-paTTovTa '-jT-pa^at, fJ.T)re trpeir^evoirra wpea-^vo-cu 
irpoOvtiOTepov p.r]Zl Sucaiorepov. Siii Tavr' ip irStaiV 
i/iavTOP erarrov. Xeye tos iirunoXa^ tA? tou 



EiS Tavra KdTeari]<re ^iknrirov ij ep-rj "TroXtTeui, 
AtV^t'w; • TavTTiV TrjV fftaivijp eKelpoi aipl}K£, iroWois 
ical BpaireLS Ta Tvpo rovratv Ty iroKei hraipop-evoi 
\6yovi. alia S)v SiKai'm^ e(7Te^avovp.i}V vtto tovtcovI, 
Koi ail Trapuiv ovk diTeXeye?, o 5k ypa^^afiiPW 
AtficSa? TO p.€poi TOii' ^jji^wiJ OVK eXa^ev. Kai p.ot 
Xa^Se ToOra to. ^i}i^tap.aTa ni Tore p.£v airiyiTe^nJ- 
yora, vtto tovtov B' oi/Si ypd^evra. 
the g 222. 


6. A-yairTiriv-.-Tpd^c 

direct form, i-inirTiTbr A 

(impers.) if vie (jhalC) 
omitting '' ' 

7. a B«t=ri ittrra, our duly : i is 
here definite; but witli a slight change 
in the view it might have heen & in 
tin or 'I S^i>' (Dobree's coojecture), 
with conditional foice. 

§221. 2. ■nniv, fiertafis, tec. a.h%. 
(M.T. 85 1 ) .— ivaio-flip-fii-, imst- 
Ussly: I follow Vflmel, Bekk., and 
West, in this reading, though asoXoBi)- 
T0» (adv.) has better ms. authority. — 
tfiat, nevtrlhiUs!, with reference ta 
dnmreijrSi'. — |i^T(...Yp&4rai: the di- 
rect farm would be odr api^e-ypd^ece 
^Atuv oASeti ; for ,u4 thus used with 
infin, in or. obi., see M.T. 685, and IJd- 
dellandScott, artM<i, B. 5, c. dt be- 
longs lo ypiijian, Tpofoi, and rpt<rfifv- 
and^Arwip to ypifai and rpa^ai. 

iiraipd)uvot, of rais- 
IH^ (as a inreat J. Harpocr.: irrl rev 
irafartti/d/xfyoSf ATj/jotr&iinfi tp 
Tifi irip KTijii^aiTDr. Cf. XIX. 153, 
oiSir if inTu etx*' iraTtlwaaBm ^- 
pip6r (of threats of Philip); and 
Eur. Iph. T. 1484, iraStrw di )iiyxi)r 
^> iiraipofiai {^poii (of a spear uplifted 
to strike). (Bl.) iratpdiiem is im- 
peifeet, as is shown by t^ Tpi radrur. 

5. vopuv, Ihough pTCSenl: see 


6. AiavSoc: mentioned with cod- 
lempt in g 249*.— t4 |iipos (sc, iriiL- 
ttm), see notes on gg 103^, 266«. 

7. (|n|i^a-|iiiiTiL : for the plural see 
note on % 123'. — diroirt^VYira, ac- 
quitted (on the ypa^^ irapay6iiay) : ri 
rPfSyoy ^))fi(i|iia, xxilt. 58, is Ikt 

8. -Ypa^'iTa, indiited: cf. ypa- 



Taurl TO. -ylrijifiitTfiaT', avSpev 'K0T]Va.loi, tck aura'; 2 
avKKapa/i icai TavrA p^/xar e;^« a-rrep irpoTfpov fikv 
^ AptcrrouiKoi vvv he KTijaiipaiv '^eypa<}>€V ouTOai. 
KoX ravr AlrrxiVTj'i our iSitu^ev oiItot ovt€ t'Ji 
fpuT^dfiei/ip avyKarijjopijaev. tcahoi Tore tov Aij- S 
liotieX-Ti TOV Tama ■ypd(f>ovTa xai tov "tv€piiBr}V, 
(itrep aXrid^ fi-ov vvv KaT-r/yopel, /j.aXKoi Sv el/ctrTay^ rj 
Tovh' iBia3K€v. St&' Ti; ori x^Se fie.v eoT aveveyieelv 2S^M 
hr' fKetvoiK Kal to? rwc Si/caaTTipiav yvrntreK Kal 
; TO rovrov avTov eiceivav p.7] KaTijfopijieevai Taina 
•ypa'^jravToiv a-rrep otJTO? vvii, koI to tovv vSfiov^; i 
fi-ij/cer iav -jrepl' Ta>v ovtw vpax^^vrmv KarijjopetVf J , 
Kal iroXX' hepa- tots B' avro to Trpdyfi av'skp^ier '** 

$ 223. t — 3- Fur the questions 
concerEiDg the decree of Arislonicus 
and tfvr^pos iiiipiyiiaTO! in §83^ 
$ee notes OQ that passage and un 


5. ■Tin(i«ini'YiSpT]ir«v, aidtd in tkt 
acfttsalion^sx evpfytipm), — ATiiiojiAi] 
...'Vw^i&i\v: the two names prob- 
ably indicate a decree moved by 
Demomeles (cousin of Deruusthe- 
nes) and amended or enlarged hy 
Hypetides. Such double or treble 
bills were commoo: see C. I. Alt. 
It. no. 4691 whence tA <l'ri<pt(ru°i''a in 

7. tlirtp — vtv KaT)]'YOpci ■- the sim- 
ple present condition is correct here, 
and more effective than G. H. Schae- 
fer's miTTyiptu The meaning is, if 
lu is now accusing me kontslly, he 
vsMtld havi kad more riasoit for 
prcseaiHng {\.c. if he had prosecuted) 
D. and H. Ihm than ht has for 
prisiciUitig Cirs. now. 

S 224. I. t4«. (like T6vSt and 
T^it in 5 333') is Clesiphon, who is 

4 ; while Aeschines is ri 
qK^' ISv. .. Kani-yapdv 

be twice 

put in jeopardy for the same offence " 
is distinctly staled in the Attic law: 
see XX. 147, d1 i^^i S' ait iQat tit 
vpit rir afiriv iripi rulv airwr oCre 
SUa! oBt' lieinat oDrt Si(iSij(ai7lav oBt 
i\K(t Twofroi' oiSir flfot, and XXLV. 
55. This could here be urged by 
Ctesiphon as a moral, though not as 
a legal, argument. Aeschiiies Is pro- 
secuting him now on the ground of 
charges against Demosthenes which 
were indirectly declared false by the 
acquittal of Hyperldea eight years 
before, — chafes for which he did not 
similarly prosecute H, then and for 
rhich he could not legally prosecute 



iiarli (which refers to 1 1^3 (end)). 
— T&v oBt« Tcpe.\HvTiav, mal/ers so 
still tii (as these charges against 
Dem.) ; see XXXVi. 60, ii/cdfiirSai " 


e0' aiiroi), Trpiv ri Tovrav ''Sr'pdXa^itv.' "''S\X' ovic ^v, 
olfiai, Ttfre S pvvl iroielv, etc waXat&i' 'xpoi/ae Kai 
■^ri^ia iiOLTtov iroXXwi' eieke^aiha a ' fi'^re irpo-^Skt 
/i.i)S€l<! fJ,^r' &P i^Bri T^fiepov piidTJvai, BiaffdWetv, 
Kal fiereveykovrS rois ;^poVow Kat irpoi^daEL'i avri 
tS>v aX7}dwv yfrevoeK fieraffevra , tois "w-eTpaY^eybii 
SoKelv T( \eyeiv, ovk fjV -rare Tavra^ aXX* e-rrX Trfi 
aXtjSeM^, iyyS^ twv epymv, en fi.eiivT}fiei/mv vfiotv Kal 
pavo'u'' OVK ev ral<; -^prnv eKarrT ejfouToiv, irdvrei 
eyiyvovT &v oi Xoyoi. Bioirep toik Trap" avri, tA 
wpdyfiaT iX£y'}(6vi<'tlivya>v vvv ^kei, pTjTopatv ayatva 
vop,l^a>v, OK y ifiol SoKel, Kal oiij^t t5)V 7re7roXiT6u/i^ 
vfov e^eramv -Troi^treiv v/xa'i, Kal \6yov Kpltriv^ ou^l 
TQV Ty TT^Xfi avfi^epoVTO'i erreiidai. 

JEiTO ao^l^erai., Kal ^Tjal Tj'pbV^Keti' tjs pikv oiKO~ 

7, li)>' aiiToQ, Bn Us awn merits: 
.e. before any judgment of the conrt 
Had been pa93ed upon the c^e. 



cept 2 hav 

1 for 7 

iroXaiAF XP'*''"' - i.e- the time of the 
peace of Philocrates, about which 
Aeschines (ill. 58—78) had cited 
many decrees which had no real bear- 
ing on the argument. 

4. |1^t' aK..^6l)raL, er thought 
VKUld be mentianed to-day (^^ififjvai 
ft.=^j;9el7| a») : seeM.T. Z2o'. The 
negati^s ^iJte etc. show that the 
antecedent of S is indelinite. — Sia^dX- 
Xjiv, to misrepresent {cast reproach 
upon) the , - - 

Demosthenes still clings to his plea 
that the story of the Peace of Philo- 

§226. I. MT^s'&kTihUis: cf. 

67 ^, xon)ffoiT£ Hi Toit 'EX\i)ffi irapi- 
Stiniui. oil X67101' Todt d7S™i -tpodii- 
irovTt! iW (fryur. Weil quotes XIX, 
217: oiSi yi-p jnyrbpajy aiii Xbywt 
Kpiirit ifiai T'/ipJpov...i!poa-itet ; 

7. XdYau...irvf>^psvTOS: AOYau 
Kpliriv is a trial of eloquence. Cf. the 
verbal forms X^ov spini,\i and rh t% 
iriXfi ffuiiiiipnr Kplteir. 

With § zz6 the orator ends his 
grand comparison (begun in § 139) 
between the part played by Aeschines 
in rousing the Amphissian war and 
his own part in uniting Athens and 
Thebes against Philip. 

§§237—296. Atga26theproper 
defence ends, with the account of the 
alliance with Thebes. The remainder 
before the epilogue, is 

3. tv Tats X*P<'"1*'> f"' 'he figure of Aeschin 

reply to three argunw 
, one comparing thiit^ 

\ OTdv olopCevoi Tri^Litvdi ^^fiara 'Ta}\i'^ i^tjirBe, au 


tpvaei ', 
yap ai 

\> Tol'i''eic'T<}v"Xoyov (ftaivofievoi^ TrpoaBi- 5 
raaBe ^o(wv oj? aaffpov, ai? eoiK^v, eirri 
o Tt av fiij Bi/caiait jj ve^payp.£vov, eV 22f 
TQv ffotjiav T0V70V Trap'a'SeiyflaTO'i iifio- 
fifiai uifapy^iiv eyvtacffi^ovj ifte fiiv 

XeyeiP inrep t^? Trarp^Sos, ainou B' inrkp "tiXAr- 


(§§ 227 — 251), a second charging 
DemoEthenes with being ill-starred 
(§§ '5'— 275). anti a "lird charging 
him with being a crafty rhetoriciaa 

In §t 237 — 251 the orator refers to 
the eihoitation of Aeschines to the 
judni (59 — 61) Co cast uide any 
prejudices in favour of Demosthenes 
which they may have, and to pro- 
ceed as they would if they were 
examining a long account, prepared 
to accept any result which the reck- 
oning may bring out. Aescbines 
tefers here only to the facts concern- 
ing the peace of Philocrates; but 
Demosthenes chooses to apply the 
remarks to his whole political life. 
While Aeschines referred only to the 
debit side of the account, Demosthe- 
nes speaks of both sides, and espe- 
cially of what stands on the credit 
ride of his own account with the 
stale, including credit for prevent- 
ing calamities by his judicious policy. 
He ends (§ 35>) by turning against 
Aeschines the case of Cephaliia, 
which had been brought up against 

1 227. I. ttra o-CM^tJerai, Hen 
he put' on airs ofmisdom, or htaimts 
very sublU, with the same sarcasm as 

d)MXl)rai, disrtgard: Aeschines 

(ill. 60) says, idfT 6,-Kirttirtia IBlSn 

3. m pulvai ^{piniari. Tip, /Aat em 
has a Manet in his favottr.—Xa-^L 
ti]irB(: cf. Aesch. III. 59, na^E/^ficfia 
iitl Toil \erfi,ff)iDi\, — &v KaSaipAo'Li'... 
inpi'Q, if Ike ceitnltrs art decisive and 
there is ho balance remaining. With 
t editors, I follow "L^ and 

im^Oirir, the [ 

1 text 

having taCopat iSo-ii . 
ferred to the counters being cleared aff 
from the abacus (*^af or i^driot): 
cf. §231'. This was a reckoning- 
board, on which counters (originally 
^^$Di, pebbles) represented units, 
tens, etc., according to their position. 
See the article Abaeus in Smith's 
Diet, of Ant. Aeschines says ($9), 
iirittiiriK i\i,eii tlrai S ti iy afrdi 6 
Xoynr/iit dpi, whatever Ike account 
primes (cf. alpiTu Tire jc>Ar™iTo). 
and there is a strong presumption 
that Demosthenes uses a similar ex- 
pression in his reply. Kochly quotes 
Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom, vii. 36, I ti 3" 
Sv al irXcfDUi yf^^Di nafiaifiuv-i, toGto 
irmitv (and aga'") slightly changed, 
in 39) : here the meaning delemiine 
is beyond question. 

5, irpori^D-Sai, acquiesce in : cf. 
rpo(r0ifiJSnir, § 203^ 

7. fl imrpoYli^vav : see § 178'*, 
and note on j lyS'". ' 

5 228, 3. W (so S)-.<T 



304 irov ov yap av ^i^'awtlffetV v^iai' eCT]Tei'f!:^ roiav-. 
oimji 'rfj't 'vTrap^ovff^v^vTroXTj-ifreaK vepl €Karepov, 
Kal piifv oTi'j 01) Sixaia Xeyei (leraSea^aL thiJtiji' 829 
T^c ho^av A^loyp'," eyai * otoofM' paSioi^, oi riBeU 
■^jji^ow (oil yap eartv a r&v Trpayp-dratv o5to5 
Xoyiir/AO?), aW' avafufivigaicoiv ^Katrr if 0paJl&Ti, 
XoyiaTal'; afia Koi fidprviri 'rot? aicavoviriv vfuir 5 
')(pdip.£vo^. Tj ykp ep.ij TToXiTtLa, ^? oCto! KaTijyopel, 
avrl p.ev toO @rj0a(ov^ /iera ^iXhr-n-ov rfvifefi^\eiv 
ctf TTjv j^dtpav, S Trdtrrev ^mo, p^B' •^p.wv vapara^a- 
fievovv eKdvovliii)tveiv^e7rolr]<jtv avri Se toO iv tj 
'AmKy rov iroKep.ov eXvai, eirraKiia'ia o-rdBia airi 
T^S TToXeo)? eVi Tot? Botwruc opioti yeveaOai • avri 
Si rou roiK XTitTTat ij^as '^epkiv Kal dyeiv ex Ttjv 
Ev^o(a'i, eir etp-^vp rtjv 'AmKijv ix ffaXaTnjs elvai s 

r|i'vous, liai il is assumtd thai ait 
(Aeach. and myself) Aiai litin thus 
/u^e^ (havetbisrepatation) ; in the 
direct form iiiripxoiut {ymutiiinn. 
It appears that tyimiiiiBit \s always 
passive (see Veitch), The personal 
constracHoD is like that of Ar. Nub. 
918, 71-iiM-fflJff-ti Toi roT 'ABijuifDii sZa 
iiiijimt Ttii iIvoi(toui, you shall bi 
shown (for it shall be shiruia), 

5. yAi TOiafiTT|s aitn\%=el /ijj 
T-oiaSrij tJii. The unique reading of 
the Chijrfi. papyrus, ^ifj roiaiiTijt 
frra^xoiif";!. is suggestive. 

% 229. 2. oJI TtBils iHl4>ou9 (con- 
linning the figure of % 227), i.e. not 
by mere aritbmetic oc book-keep- 

3. oi 'Y jif . . .Xa'YW)iis, yiir that is 
net thi viay lo reckon affairs of slalt. 

4. &va[iii)>v^'irK*iv iKmrr'; he ren- 
ders his account, not by selling bis 
services against bis sins, but by set- 
ting the positive gain from his public 
policy against the calamities which 

would have rtsulltd itom the opposite 

5. Xa-yurTatc in the double sense 
of compuUrs and camptralUrs of 
accoanii: see note on § 117*. — rots 
hinaiaixrvi: addressed equally to the 
court and the special ors. 

7. (mt4 and o-uv emphasize One 

9. KuXiiivr present, of the whole 
business of checking Philip; the aot. 
ff^vf^aXtr* (7) of an incursion. 

§ 230. %. HrraKdma irrdSui, 
about So miles! see note on § 195^ 

3. ytWo-flcLi: sc. i■<!ai■^it. By 
iploii he means the further caiifats 
of Boeotia. 

4. X.xi<rT&j: see note on § us*. 
and for pirates in Eceral [vil.] 3, 4, 
14, 15. The rescue of Oreus and 
Erctria from Philip (§§ 79, 87} pre- 
vented Euboea from being a nest for 
plunderers. — ^iftiv Kal &y(iv: the 
common term for general plundering. 

5. Ik SoXATTTjt, on tht side of tkt 
sea, with reference to ^11 T%t E6^lia. 


irdtna toji TrdXefiov avrl Se tov tov 'EW^jtrrrovTov 
ex^tv *Pi\i.'n"7roi', Xa^6vTa Bv^avriov, avfi,Tro\fiieiir 
Toui BuJ'aiTibuT /ieO' ^fiatv Trpo? eKelmv. apd aoi 
■ijr^ijiOK^o/j.6io^'"o rSii epyo)!' 'KoyitriJ.m t^aiveTai ; i} 
Belt! avraveKeiv TaOra, a\X oi/x ottius tov ' a-Trama 

■7rpotrTiOi)fu OTi Trji fiiv mpoTTiTO^, rjv ivt^ ' Ka0aTra^ 
TivSiv icvpio'i KaTfiffTJj ^rAtTTTTOS itTTLv l&Av, eripolt 
■jrfipao^v'a.1 'kviie0Tj^'' 71)9 Se t^iKavBpWTriai, i}v to, 
Xoitra. 'twi/ " Trpayp-diam eVeJeof ■rrepi0aW6pevo^ 
eVXaTTeTo, vp,ei^ icaXw VbioOi/re? tout ko/jttow 
Kocop-iade. aXK' iw ravra. 

Kai ^^1' avhk raVT ehrelv o/einjo-ojj Srt o tov 
fTQTopa 0ov\dp.evo^ SiKaitoi e^trd^eiv xal p^ avxo- 
<pavT€iv ovic &,P ola <rv vvv eXeye^ TOiavTa Karrfyopet, 


331 I 


xiy 'HXXlinirovTov : for the 

Hellespont and Byiantium in 340 
v.c see §§ 80, S7, gS, 93, 94, and 
Hist. SS 53~S5. 

g 231. 2. ih4f 4 Epeioi, cf. 
ni/iai Xaplreiraip tfui'iai, U. XVII. 51. 

3. &vTavtX(tv Tafira, /a strike 
these off (the services gf § 230) in 
balancing the account, as ^^^di would 
be removed from Ihe iBiiuot. 

4. aiiKln irpo<rT(flT]|iL, I da not go 
en ((ri) to add, i.e. lo the credit side 
of the account. 

in ob. . . MOiTfimi : as in the 
9 of 01ynlhu5, Tbessaly, and 

7. <|nXav9piiHrlos ; especially Phv- 

S's easy terms with Athens after 
aeronea, which were the indirect 
esult of the IJTin and digniHed atti- 
tude of DeniDstheoea and his friends. 
See Hist. $ 68. 

8. v(pLp<iAXd|i(vat : the common 
figure of investing oneself with any- 

" ; (like a garmeiit), hence at- 

T H"'^ 


This phra 

nately(as here^, approach - 
SB the more common iS 

ne should, as in XXI. 2, 
rA Sinam toiuv 6 iiiiat 
aural <ipylii6ti, and LVIl. 6, icitXiSt 

To show the distinction between 
laXuH woiSr and tS -rpiairiiiy, Uissen 
quotes XX. 110, Srf S' Ci^Ti naXfii 
jri>io3rrt\,,.A!itiiioy iftlviiiv TpirTtrt, 
The active expressions fS iroieii' and 
ifaiuT iroifi'i' are entirely distinct from 
icaXid! wa^ity. 

S§ 232—241. We have here an 
account of Ibe power of Athena under 
the leadership of Demosthenes, com- 
pared with her earlier resources. 

§ 232. 3. TaiavTa; cognate (sc 

4. irnpaStl-YjiaTo, like the illustra- . 
titin just discussed (g J27) : cf. § 228^ 



•jrapaSeiyfiaTa ttXiittoiv ical pijfj,aTa 
liiixovfj^vo^ (jir diru yap Trapa rovTO — oii^ 
yeyove to twi' 'EXXiJi'tDi', el tovtI to pT]fi.a aXXh p.i] 
Tovri Sie\ej(d7ji' eya>, fj Bevpi ttjv X'^^P"' ^^^^ I") 
Sevpi TrapriveyKa), aW ctt' auTwc rmv epya)v Slv S33 
eauoirei. ■rCva'; eij(ev a<f>6pp.a^ rj ttoXj? Kal TtVa? Svco- ' 
fieK, 5t' ets to, •Kpdyp.aj etVjJeti', koX Tifa<: trve^yayovM 
avrrj fiera, toOt" eVfo-Tas e7'tti,' koI ttw! e(;^;e Ta tq)!* i 
ivaiTt'aiv. eiT* ft /iey iXaTTOtM eVoiTjcra Tffl9 Svvdfiei^, | 
Trap' e/ioi TaSixiip.' &v iSei/cwen av, el Be ttoXX^ 
fiet^oiK, ovK av iavKoi^dvrei. eVe(5^ Se aii tovto 
iretfievyai;, iyio Troi^trw Kal erKOTrelje el Sixaifiyi 
Xprjuonat rip \6yrfi, 

Awa/ii-v fiiv Toivuv elxef f/ WXi5 Tois in^ffimTa'S, 2 


V 8 33 I 

ou^ aTravrai, dXXa tow ( 

— ^)ULTa,,.|i4ioii)Uvat: besides Che 
txpressions (^if^ra) repeated by 
Aeschines (probabl; with no little 
eiaggeruioD) in ui. i66, of wbich 
he ssks (167), tuBto i^ ri ^oti», iS 
cEiaSoi; ^ij^ra 4 0a[)^Ta,- we have 
in aog, rot 0ii7!i), ivipt^ 'KBtihuoi; 
rtpiypdfaTi /it- oix farir Iwoi dvo- 
TTifffoMai, quoted from Demosthenes, 
See other quotations in HJ. 71 and 
72, especially diropp^fni Tij! eipiitTj! 
Ti)F ffipHf.iix'a'- Imitations otgtUures 
{jiX'illuiTa.'} are, of contse, harder to 
detect ; but there is a plain one in 
II). 167, iciichif repiSinQy <rcairr6y. 

5, vopd TOVTO "fi^ovt, depend oh 
this. See Qc. Oiat. 8, 27: ita([ue 
se purgana iocatui Demosthenes; 
negaC in eo positas esse fort un as 
Graeciae, hoc an illo verbo osus sit, 

o^ip^: cf. § 366'. 

6. y.r\ TOVTi: in the second mem- 
ber of an alternative indirect ques- 
tion, fi'li can be used as well as ou. 
CG. 1609.) 

oi/Te yap 



2. i.^fy.i.%, means (for 
d^opni} is properly a startiHg-point, 
or somelJiing lo set out /ram (_&•/•' &r 
Tit ipiiarai), as in Thuc. I. 90, tV re 
lifXaTtivntsoi- iraeir (ipaaar Uariiw 
vital dpaj^iip^trlt re r^al i/popff^y. — 
Guv&)j.(it: here in the same general 

3. 6T...tliT)ii»: before the re- 
newal ofthewar in 340 B.C. Cf.§6o'. 

S. (l.-.^d-yy: cr.§z5z^,andxxin. 
24, ml ±i-\w! Ko! Sitaliis x^^ija^i T^i 

§234. I. Ehlvofiiv here refers to 
sources of mililary pewer, like allies, 
even when no actual troops are in- 
cluded : see otXItitv 3", IrT^a oiiint 
(;). Both iupd^tt and SAiVjiui, bow- 
ever, may denote troops: cf, § 237', 
Tulp iroKiTiKulp ivti-ntwr, and 247*5 
so Xen. An. I. 3, 12 Ifjii Simiitr xal 
Ttflj" "o' lrwiKi)t Kal reUTItlJl'. 

2. oOT)...flv: this refers to the 
early part of 340 B.C., when Chios 



Xfbf ofJre 'PoSoir ovt€ K^pxvpa fieO' fffiSiV JfV 
')(pt)lidTa>v Be cvvra^iv etv ttA/tc xal rerrapaKovra 
ToXavTa, KaX raur ^f ■jrpof^eiXey/J.eva- im-XiTrfV S", S 

I wXijV Twp oticeiaiv oiiBepa. S Se -Trdi/Taiii xai 
'io^epotTarov Kal iidXiaO' vTrkp tu" i-)(0pS>v, olnoi 
TapetTKevaKeuav tow irepij^copovi Trduraf: e')($pa<; ^ 
btXla'i iyyvTtpo), Meyapea'i, &i}0a(ov^, Eu^oeas. ra 33C 
p,ev Ti)? 7roA.€fr)? oiTws inr^p^ev ej^ovra, /cal ov&ck 
&u Exoi irapa raur' eiTreiv aW' oiSev to, Se tou 
^iXiTTTTOv^ Trpos &p 7/1/ riplv a aymv, ffKe^aaOe ttw. 
■TrpSnov fiev ?)px^ Ttoj' aKokovBovvrmv aiiTO'; airro- 5 i 
KpdTtop, 8 TOiv eh tov wokep-ov fieyKTrdp euTtv ' 
arravrtov eW o\not rk otrX' elxov ev rats X^P'^^" 
aei- eireiTa ^^pij/iaTCDi' ev-rropu, i£al errpaTTev & 
306 B6^€iev avToi, ov TrpoXeyav iv tok ■\jrj}<i>{a-p.aa-ip. 

and Rhodes were independent of 
Athens as the reiiult of the Social 
War {357—355 B.C.), but Byzan. 
L tium, which then followed Chios and 
Ijihodes, had already renewed her 
K-'fiieDdship (§ 230') : aee Hist. §§ 2, 
Corcjra, the old friend and ally 
■of Athens, had hecome hostile to her 
before 353 B.C. (see xxiv. aoi). 

4- XPni^™» nii-rojivi the pay- 
nt gf the original assessment made 
. D the Dclian confederacy by Aris- 
Vtides in 478—477 B.C. was first called 
K^ip« from ifiipa, as Thucydides 
leKplains it, evrui y/ip ibnoiiitrBi} twd 
■jtpnH'tTUi' 17 ijiopd. The Firat Athe- 
nian Empire made the name odious, 
,0 that, vhen the new federation was 

■ lormed in 378, the term in>«-aEi!, 
B BgrtemenI, was adopted for the an- 

■ nual payment.— irJvTi Kal TtTTOfxl- 

■ Morra T AavTd : Ihia sorry amount of 
L45 talents shows the decline of the 

■ power of Athens after the Social 
f War. The original tribute of 460 

Is was raiaed lo 600 under 
I Pericles (Thuc. II. 13^}, and (if we 

may trust Aesch. IT. 175 and Plut. 
Arist. 24) to 1200 or 1300 after 
the Peace of Nicias, in large part 
by the allies commuting personal ser- 
vice for payments of money (Thuc. 

5. vpDt^iXry^Jvo, coUicttd in ad- 
zianie, probably by generals to pay 
their mercenaries. Aeschines (ll. 71) 
speaks of toiIi ripl rh fifjiia Kal r^v 
inxXti^lar /iiiOo^jpeut, o( tbIu iiiv 
TnXaixcJpoui (Tjoiiirflt jtaC Ua(rTor 
imurriy i^-^Korra riXovra tlcitrpaT- 
Tup aiiirra^it. — iirXtTT|v 6', tiriria; so 
2 and L; cf § 94'. 

7. otiroi: Aeschines and his party. 

8. irap(a-KiuiiK«rav...tYYvT^piii: cf. 
Toin SioAs t\ruj aiiTtf rapa^Keud^ftv, 
Plat. Leg. 803 E. 

§235. 2. ouTi^ iirtipx**' '^X'"'''*' 
i.e. /Ais is what u-e had to depend on. 

9. oil vpoUyuv. . . pouhcuijuvos : 
two important advantages of 3 des- 
potism in war. Athens is not the 
last free state which has sulfercd from 
the opposite evils. With this whoU ^ 
passage compare g 249 and 1. 1 


ovB' iv Toi tpavep^ ffovX^vofitvot, ovS" 
ffVKOi^avTovvTfov Kpivofievoi, ovBe ypa<})av ifievyap 
irapavoiimv, ovS {mev$vi/o'i mv ouSevi, aX>C ottXw? 
auTO? SetTTroTij!, ■^yep.wv, KVpio'; travrcov. iyo) S" 6 
TTphi TOVTOV amiTeTay p.4vo'; (ival yap toOt' i^erdrrai 
Sucatov) Tivo'i Kvpto'! rjv ; ovtev&i- avro ykp to Bi}- 
fujyopelii irpmrov, ov /iovov p^relypv eyio, i^ laov 
irpoinlBeff v/j-elt TOtf Trap' eKei'vov iiia9apvov<Ti ical 
iftol, ical 6a' outoi wepiyeiioLVT ifiov {iroWa B' 
erf ly vera toOto, S(' tjv exaaTov tv^ql Trpotfiafftv), 
Tavd" v-Kep Tav i^dpmv UTr^re 0e^ovXevp,ei/OL. a\\' 387 
SfuiK etc ToiovTcav e\aTT<ap,aT(ov eyii avp.p.a-}(oiK phf: 
v/up iirolrjua Eu(3oe'a?, 'A^j^atow, KopivBiow, ©j 
fiaCotK, Meyap^av, AeVKaSiovi, K.£pKvpaiovv, cufi &v 
livptot fiev Ka\ TrevTaKia-j^iXioi feWi, Sia-j(^i\iot 
HTTrei?, aveu riov iroKiTLKmv Bwap^wv, irvv^jfOrjaav • 
j^TlfidrtaP B' oaav iZwriBiiv eym wXeio'TijV avvr4- 
\e.iav eTroii)<ra. el Be X^eii 7J rk Trpm ©Tj^at'ouv 231 

§237. 2. iKTOlMlTBvttaTT.^ 

IV. i.e. with such disadvantages a 

iVm I 

Us I 

iegiK tvilh ; 
p aliTxplis-— 
the shiiring 

% 236. 4. irpoTOv 
cf. XX. 54, X^Toi irpi 
IMT-ilXO"' ffT- impli 
of the right which tne preceamg 

5. irpB4T[fl«e",^yf«rf(Me§Z73=): 
cf. IV, I, tl trpuMSiTa \i~ieiv. 

6. S<r''Y^ivT' I|ioG, i.e. as 
oftiH as Hity got lit btUer of mc. 
The omitted antecedent of ir ap- 
pears in Tofif (8). 

7. TiixoiCM.T.53a):Ec.7erf^wi'. 
g. raoe*— ptPouXni^voi, i.e. just 

la oflin had you taken counsel in 
Ike tHimy's inleresi iiihcH you Itft 
ihe Assembly: raSe' (cognate with 
PfJtoi/Xeu*n*Mi") arethc pouXeiiiara in 
which wtpiyhoirT' iiiov, and these 
couageli yon alwa.ys took in the 
enemy's interest, Cf. Thac. II. 44", 
Fs-or Tl 4 ifvaioi (sc. ^(xiXtvfui) pniiKti- 

the outset. — 

this refers to the grand league against 
Philip, formed early in 340 B.C. by 
Dcmoathenes and Callias of Chalcis. 
See Hist. § 51 (end). Fot the 
Euboeana see g 79 (above) : for 
the Euboesns, Peloponnesians, and 
Acarnanians see Aesch, ur. 95 — 97. 

5. iivpioncalittrTaxurxlXioi: this 
includes the Theban forces, which 
were added a year ader the league 
was formed. 

soldien (of 



o-wtAculv : 

plied to the contributions of the new 
league, rather than nirraia (g 234*} : 
Aesch. (til. 97) calls them vivra-yfta. 
g 238. The oratnr here eiposei 
with great effect one of the most 


Siicaia, AMr;^ii^, tj ri. Trpos 'Bv^avriov: ^ ra tt/jw 
Eu;8oe'a?, i) Tre^i twc iffwv vuvl BiaX^yei, -n-pSnov fikv 
ayi/oei^ on Koi irpSTepov rStv i/rrkp Totv 'EXX^wbi* 
eKetfoiv a'foiviaap.evmv Tpirjpcov, TpiaKoaimv ovitmv 5 
Twi' Tratrwi', Tas S(a«o(r«x? )j iroKi'! Trapftr^ero, xal 
ovK iXaTTOVcrSai vapli^avaa oiiBk Kplvoutra toik ravra 
avp^ovXevaauTa^ auB' ayauaKTOva iwl Toiiroi? eo>- 
paTO {al<T-)(pov "fap), aX\a toI<; deolv ej;oL'o-([ ^aptv, 
et Koivov KLvhvvav tow "EXX7;<r( irepKTTa.ino'i aim) 10 
BiTiXdaia TWf aXX(ov ek ^^}V a-Kavroiv amrjjplav 
■wapea')(eTO. e'ra Kevks; \api^ei j^dpna'; tovtoutI 
• a-VKO<j>aVTS)V ep.e. ri yap vvv Xeyei'; oV e^/'^" ''^P'^'^' 23S 
TEtt*, aXX' ou TOT Siu if ry TroXei xal irapiiv Tavr 
eypa^et, etirep ii/eSilj^eTO iriipa tov^ ■jrapoma'; xai- 
pois, ev o& ouj(_ &t' •fj^ovXop.eOa aK>J offa Solrf Ta 
wpevftiOT eSei Sej^eff^ot • 7^^ avravovfuviK koX S 

Bnluclijr blunders ofAescfaines (143), 
that of charging bim with imposing 
two-thirds uE the expense uf the war 
" \ Athens, and only one-third on 
tebea. Aeachines hail forgotten 
tte fleet at Salamis, of which Athens 
furnished two-lhirds 1 

a, t4 SUbiii, our rights, 
■cal irpdrtpov, i.e. enec also in 
Jormtr days. 

5, 6. TptaKorluv, SLa«e<r(at : the 
Bumliera of the ships at Salamia are 
variously given; but nearly all agree 
in making the Athenian Beet about 
two-thirda of the whole. Aeschylus, 
was in the battle, is our best 
lauthority when (Pers. 339) he gives 
''' : tot^ as 310, and Demosthenes 
arly agrees with him. Herodotus 
(Vlll. I, 44> 48, 61) gives the total 
;U 378 (the ilenu giving 366), the 
.Athenians having 200, of which they 
ilent 20 to the Chalcidians. The 
Athenian orator in Thueydides (i. 

74°) gives the total as 400 and the 
Athenian ships as marly two-thirds, 

7. (XaTToii<rflai, tital they had less 
than their riglils. 

9. a(o^|Mv; sc. ip ^v. — Uxowira 
goes with ^ui^aTo like the preceding 
niilioiiea, Kpiwvrta, and iiavanToaa . 

g 239. 2. irop^, i.e. in ibe As- 
sembly, as Aesch. regularly was : see 

3. dinp JviS^cro: sC. raDr«.i 
7pi^«iv. — irapA.. . Kaipout, 
crises through which -we were t»m<- 

4. olx. Sir'...TpdY|UiT', no! ai 

that jve wanted (continuously), but 
all that circumitaaces (on each occa- 
sion) allowed ta (M.T. 531). aix 
So-a ^DvXof^Ai would have meant 
tiol all thai we wanted in eaih 

5. ivToveip^vot (conative), bid- 
ding agaimlMS {trying ta iuy), Cf. 

S 247*: " 



Taj(v Tou? Trap' TjfiSiv cnreXavvofi^uov^ TrpoffSefrfrj 

'AX\' el vvv eiri toi? iien-pa-yfievott Karq-^aplax ^TO 
l^a), T( Sw aietrSe, et tot efi.ov Trepl toiStmu axpi- 
^oXoyov/ievov a-rr^XBov at wdXeiS «o(. irporreOeVTO 
^iXCttttw, Kal afi Eu^oia^ icai &i!^a)v Kal Bv^af- 
riov Kvpio'! icaTetTTTi, tC ttohIv av ^ t/ Xeyeiv Toiiv 5 . 
CKTe^eli avdpam-ow rovrovai ; oiix i^f e^eSo^o-ai" / 241 
ou^ WS airriXdSriaav ffavXo/ievoi p,e8' vp.o)V eXvai ; 
eiTa TOV fiev 'KKXTjaTrovrov Bia Bv^aVTtiav iyxpa- 
TTif KaSecTTijKe, Kal t^5 ciTaTrop.wia'i ti)? Twf 'EX- 
X-qvtov KvpLO^, iroXeiioi S' ofiopo^ xat ^apw eh ttjV 5 
'ArriKriv Sii, ®rj^aUov Ke/cofxiaToi, UTrXov^ S' y 

flaXoTTO UTTO TUf iic 7^9 El3(3oi(l? op/icofiei/oi!/ Xr/CTTav 

yeyoveu ; oiie av TavT eXeyov, kuI iroXXd ye vpfK 
TovroK erepa ; Troi^poi', auSpe^ 'Adrji/aloi, ■7rov7)pov 242 
6 a-VKOij>dvTr}<; ael Kal ■iraVTa')(6dev ^daxavov Kal 

ea-Ttv, ovBki/ i^ "■PXV'' wy^ 7reTroiiijKo<i ovB' eXeu- 

G. i«'po<rEI<^|ui'OS,..]Tei|j,os, Jfas 
ready at hand to riceive Iktm and tu 
fay Ihcm loo (irpoo-) for coming. 

§240. I, vfivi opposed to c( 
Tbr'...i.iS^Sot. — (»V Tots 'mrpo'KiJ- 
voLs, \.t. for vihat I aclitally did. 

2, t1 iv oliirOf; iroKii. would 
natuially follow here, &v having its 
common pUce before ofwee (M.T. 
220'): cf. §225'. But the long pro- 
tasis e/ tIit ...nnrintTi causes iland fti- 
lo be repealed with nmri- (5); cf. 
^f- 35i '■' otfSf, iTraSif...yiiniTai, rl 

bling, splitting hairs, part of the 
unreal condition tl ar^Xfof: tbe 
partic, is temporal 

5. t1 irowiv 5v ij t[ X^y*^* teprc- 

g 241. I. six: sc, rXe7DK iy. 
So in the nent line. 

T06 (itv.-.X^orflv TfJ'Y"'*''" 
rniii seem 3 to be a continuation of the 
indirect quotation, with tilt Bv IXc70i> 
ilii understood. Bat there may be a 
change to a direct quolatian (not 
interrogative) after eTra, without ii%, 
as Viimel snj Westermann take it. 

§ 243. 2. vKvrax^Btv, in every 
■way l^from every side). 

3, (^LXnCTLav, foiid of (tllaliHoui) 
accusation: aec LVII. 34, raHro ^dp 
iffTtp A irviaitl}imjs, atnaaBat tiiw 
riFTtt i(t}.iyiai Si tti]Sir. See 
§ 189'. — Kal i^dirtL KfvaSos, a beasi 
ly his very nature: ximBot nascituf, 
cuKo^Aynii Rt. — T&vOpE&vLDv, komun~ 
cuius, refers to mental not to bodily 

4. ^riiScpov, i.e. worthy of a free- 
burn Athenian : cf. ,i.ifii» " " 
^povwi', Sopb, Phil. looG. 

avTQTpayiKX ' 


n-i'i9j)«of, apoupalo'! Olwfiaov. 5 
irapdorffioii pijTmp, tI yap fj ai/ SecvoTr/'i €« Svi}- 

^Kei T^ Tj-arpiBi ; vvv r) XeycK Trepl r&V 343 

Trapt\r)Xvd6r(i}v ; S)(7wep dp ei t(S laTpffi aaS(vov<rt 

I fikv TOK Ka/ivovaLU elaioiv fii) Xeyoi p.ij&e Seiicniot Bt 

To^iv^avTat ri}V vdaop, eTreiSi] Be rekevTrjireie 

Tis ainSiv Kal to vop.L^6p.ev avrif (fifpoiro^ aKoKavSCtv 5 

hrl TO p.vrip.a Bte^ioi el to xal to eTToi7}aev av- 

5. aiTOTporiiKitvi9r\Kat, a na/urai 
Iragit ape: ^chol. oTcodei' rbX d^' 
kavTsai *X" '■* Tiflij«(fe)ffltti. alna- 
seems to have the saine fuTCe as i^iati 
in 3 (West.). Harpocc. mitier T^a- 
7iiiit rlCiiKOi has: (Dine \^7«>' 

itT«xoli»Tei Tofl hisximv, itol iti/iovni- 
vov fiaWoi/ TpaytfiSodi ^ TpayifiStip 
Suiatiiniii. Fsrocm. Gr. 1. p. 375: 
iirl TEiTP rap A^lat ffe/ifi/M^rair- 
These descritw both the imitative and 
the buBstfuI ape. See AiisL Poet. 26, 
a. § 313', rpayiKbt Bfaiplnit. 

&povpatet Oiv^jUMt: see § l8o°-* 
and note. Aeschines is called rustic, 
probaliljr because he" murilcredOeno- 
maus" at the countiy Dionj-^ia (toii 
Kut iypeit). 

6. irapdo-q(iO!, eounterfeil : Har- 
pocr. has fit /KTn^opit [[pTjToi dxi 

§243. I. vDv Vtv X^i: vCv 
has great emphasis, and is repeated 
ID E : ti £4ii /^; Htiit you lake to talk 
to ma/ the past? 
— 2. noirfp 5v (sc. jtoioItj) «t: i.e. 
n talking to us of the past now yoa 
a fhysician {v/oiild act) if he 
I roisfi7 had been expressed 
Vf laTpbs vDuld be its subject. 
t § 194*- , 

TOl* Kdjivouo-iv; the general 
for foHents, not merely while 
re ill i&sBfKSai) but even after 
re dead (/ir(i!i! riKiVT-^eciiTii). 

(tiriiLv, i.e. in his visits. — Gi' 1I1 
iiro+rfjovmi,: final (M.T. 56O. 

4. iir»Si|...^poiTO, du/ ivheti OH. 
n/ tiiem had died and his relative 
■uiere tarrying offerings la his lomb 
(all part of the supposition), depend- 
ing on t;...aiefi<u (M.T. 177, 558, 
560), t4 w/uJineraarethefMJftfwori' 
offerings to the dead (f™7iir««Ti»j, 
brought on the third and ointb days 
after death. Aeschines says, ■tt\e\iT'fi- 
ea.r,oi U Miie tls ri. lva.Ta Sit^loi, 
and Demosthenes probably refers ti 
these ointh-day oHerings. For view. 
of Buch offerings see Smith's Diet. I 
Anliq. I, p. SS8, and Gardner and I 
Jevons's Greek Antiq. p. 367. Ae»- 
chines (225) predicts that Demos- 
thenes will use this illnstration, and 
(1S9) thathewillalludetoPbilamiDon 
the boxer (which he does in § 319); 
both predictions were of coiusc in- 
serted after the trial. 

6. ri Fivfljio, the lomb, built above 
ground, which may at the same lime 
be a monument; cf. itHfuiust, % ZOS''. 
In the same double sense we must 
take Tii^oc in the famous passage, 
Thuc. 11. 43", i-tipHi' 7dp iri^avSiv 
irSait 75 Til0Dt. — t4 Kal ri, this and 
that, one of the few colloquial relics 
of the pronominal article ; see IX. 68, 
K« yi.p t4 ml t4 Toi^roi icitl t4 /lij 
-Sivtpanras ouroirl: 





with demonstratives when the pro- 


al, c 



eira vvv \ey€K ; 

Oil TOivuv ovSe rrjv r/rrav, el TavTjj •yavpias iip' p 244 
tn4veiv o-e, w Kardpare, -rrpoafiicev, ev oiihevl -rSiv 
Trap' efj.01 yfyovvlav evpT/trere ry iroXei, ovraal Se 
Xoyi^etrde. ouhafiov TroyTroB", o-ttoi Trpetr^eVTi]'; CTre/i- 
ijiBjjV vip' vfiMV eya}, ^TTjj^ei? aTrrjXOov tSiv irapa 5 
^tKt-jrirov •jrpeiT^eav, oiix etc ^eTraXiai ovB' ef 
'AfiffpaKta^, ovK ef 'IXXvpiaiv ou&e -rrapa, rav %paicSiV 
^amXeruv, oiiit e/c Byjavrt'ou, ovic aXXodei' ovbai/49ev, 
oil T& Tekevrai' eK ©ij/Swc ■ aXX' iv ol<; /cpaT^delev oi 
trpea^eK ainov tm Xoytp, Tavra tow ottXoii eTriaiv lo 
KaT€aTpe(f>eTO. Tavr ovv airaiTei'; Trap' ip.av, xal 246 
oiiic aicrj^yiiet tqv ainhv ett re /iaXaKiai/ aKunnatv 
Kal Trp ^liXiTvirov BvvdfieoK a^iatv ei/ oma Kpetrrco 
r/eveaBai ; Kal TaOra tow Xoyoi^ ; Tivoi yap aXXov 

fcHpioi Jpi erftD; oil yap t^ 

noun emphatically points out s present 
person or thing; as Plat. Gotg. 489 s, 
oliTotrl i.i/ijp o& waiiffTat tpXvapuVf and 
505 C, oilTOt it))p o6x ijrafiim u^XoiI- 
II£hk: see Time. I, 51', i^f» iKiTeai 
^iirWowi, yonJtr are shi^s sailing 

•J, l^ppdvTifn, thunderstruct, ilu- 
pified by ^ptetlf. zl. iii.^r.^poi^%s9ai., 
Xm. Z31. For the lelation of these 
words to TfTiJ^iiijim see note on § 1 1 ^. 

8. (Ira vO* Uyils ; see note on I . 

5 244. I. Tiiv^TTa*; still having 
in mind the figure of the reckoning 
(§ M7),he nowarguea that the chief 

which b 

n the 

debit side, the defeat of Chaeron 
cannot justly be charged to him (cf. 
XoYif^ffPt in 4). 

2. tSv »ap Jjinl, of Tuhat I was 
responsible for. 

4. Inroi Mu^6i)v ; for the dider- 
ence between this and Broi ir/i^eelij* 

'ti \ 45 (referring to the same thing), 
and for l» nli Kpa.rifi^ev (9), see note 
on § 45 ". Little ia known of any of 
these embassies of Demostheoes ex- 
cept those to Byiantium (SS 87—89) 
and Thebes (§211 ff.). 

10. SirXois KartiTTp^'ro, i.e. he 
decided these cases by throwing his 
sword into the scale. 

g 24S. I, raOr' iiiratntc, yen 
call me to account for these (§ 244"). 

2. (U iioXaKlOiV: West, dtes 
Aesch. m, 148, 151, 155, and 175. 
In these Demosthenes is ridiculed 
for having run away at Chaeronea, 
when the whole allied army was put 
to flight Aeschines is never charged 
with Ibis; but he was probably not 
in the battle at all, being over Gfiy 
years old. Probably Demosthenes 
refers also to the nickiiame BdrraXm : 

5. Tfls ■^y^, Ihc life. 



T^v Tii^'^ tqIj' irapara^a/ievtDv, oiiSk rrp arpaTtiyia^, 
^; efii' a-TTaiTeif evBvvwi' ovrm aicaifK el. a\X^ fir/v 246fl 
&p y av a priTiop vjrevBvvo'i eti}, iraffav e^eTamv 
Xafi^dveTe • ou irapairovfiai.. riva o^v itrrt ravra ; 
ISav ra irpdyfiaT dp)(pp,eva xai TTpoanjueirdai koX 
•jTpoevKelv Toli dWoi';. ravTa trerrpaKTal iMti. koI 5 
eri T^f eKa<rra')(pv ffpaSuTJjTW, otcfov^, ayvoia^, 0i- 
I Xofeiiciai, & •jroXiTiKa ral^ iroXerri wpofyeffTiv utto- 
<rai^ Kal avayKaV a/iapT'^iiaTa^rauff' w9 etV iXdj(iaTa 
avoTEiXai, Kal Tovvavriov e'ls o/tofoiaf ical if>iXuxv 
Kal Tou tA SeocTo Troietv 6p/if]v TrpoTpe^ai. kcu v 
ravrd ftoi irdma ireTroiijTai, Kal ovSel'i p.rproff' evp'tj 
KOT ifie oiiBkv i\Xei<j)dep. ei toCvvp Tt5 epoiB" oirrtv- 247 J 
ovv ricri ra trXelina ^iXi-jr-n-oi &v Karen-pa^e St^ 
KtjffOTO, iravrei av etwoLev TJi arparov^Sp Kal t^ 

6. TBV irapaTaEciii^vBv, lAc com- 
Uants: S| 208', H(>\ 

7, iiClJlvM: used metaphorically. 
-vKtuiii, owhiiard (mentally) : cf. 

§246. 3. ]^a|ipdv(Ti: pluial, as 
he turns audtJenly from Aeschinea 
to tbc whole assembly. 

4. [S(iv, . , dp^^djicvn (t.T.X. : na one 
can read the earlier orations of Demos- 
thenes in the light of later events 
without feeling the justice of this 
clxim to sagacity which he pnta foc- 
nard. He, indeed, of all the states- 
men of Athens, ioai things in Ihrir 
ieginmngs, and steadily warned the 
people of the coming danger. 

7. -rBXvrixdrati wSKun, inherent 
iti (_free) gmermaenis : a striking case 
of a biVonrite Greek form of emphasis, 
which repeats the idea of a nonn in 
an adjective. Here the whole idea 
could have been expressed either by 
iroXtTiitll or by oimfa Toii riXem ; but 
it is made doubly strong by irD\triii(ib 

"> TiJwffi. The Greek constantly 

emphasiies by what we should caH 1 
tautology, as in the repetition of 1 
negatives. lo Aeachyl. Ag. 56, olmrh- 
epoay "ytev d£uj96ar, the whole idea 
could have been expressed by olutur 
-/6ov ifilt, lAriU cry e/ Uriis, but the 
idea of^rji is added in both adjectives. 
■wi\fsi here hai the same reference 
to free governments which is usually 
implied in voXiTtia (see note on 
§ 65') ; cf. Soph. Ant. 737. riXil 7!^ 
o6k its' -(ti! irSpi! itffiwis. With 
the whole passage cf, §§ J3S, 236. 

S. 09 belongs to tli i\dx"rTit, 
(b/d the iinallest fsssible cemfass: 

9. trwrHiXiUflo contract: fuiftA- J 

. (not 2 

as in At. Ran. 999; cf. Eq. i 
avartiXai rofit iW3.rrai. 

II. TnraIi]Tai: inthesamesc 

" r.'";™i '■f- mS M " °° * 

and L') havETiicaT' <(U,B , ,. 
g 247. 3, 4. T^ GiBdvai, by 

mating gifts. 


Sihovat Kal htaijjffelpeiv Toiif cVl toh/ vpaffidTtinK 
oiiKovv tSiv fiev Swdfieatv ovre icvpioi ovff ff^ettwv 
eyo), &iTre ouS' o Xo'70? Twi' Kara raura Trpaj^dePT 
Trphi ep.e. Kal p,ijv Tm Siaipdapijvai y^prip.aaiv 7) fiii 
K&cpdTtiKa '^I'Xi-inrov Simrep yap 6 wvoiiftevo^ vevi- 
KtiKC Tov XajSovra iau vplrjTai, ofirof? o p.rj Xa^aiv 
Koi Sta<f>6apeU vevlKijice rbii ojvovfievov. ware A^t- Ii 
TT)TO^ ■^ ttoXk to KaT e/ic. 

"A p.fv Toiwv iyoi ■7rapeaxQp.T)v eh to SiKauo-; 2 
Toiaiha ypdijietv tovtov Trepl ip.ov, TrptK TroXXots 
eT^poiv TavTO, Kal trapa-rrXriaia rovroi'; iffTif a S' 01 
trdvrei vf^eK, ravr JjSjj Xefo). fieri, yap riju p,d')(T)v 
eiiOvi 6 SijiiO'i, elSmv ical lopaKOK TrdvS' Str' e-n-pa- 
iy^, ev avTo'vi tois heivol^ koI ^^epoK ep-^e^i^KiiK. 
rjvuc oiiS ayvaip-ov^uat n davfunTTov rp> tou? 
\ow TTpo? e/ie, TrpSrTQV fiev Trepl (roiTtfpiai rr/i it 

5. thwdiUBv, lererring to itTpaTo- 
■r48te (3) : see note on § 234'. 

6. railra (i.e. SvyAfxtn) : cf. Kari. 
T-^f (TTparjiYiai. (§ 3il'). 

•}. T^ Giiai]iSa(if|vai •) fii], tn lie 
vtaltir of being corrupiid or not, far 
more expressive than rif h^ Sio^Sap^- 
«!. This correaponda to Tthy iiiii 
tvniptav, in place of a clause with Si. 
Cf. XIX. 4, and 7, bvip 7e Toi! rpatKo. 

8. h uvov^vot: conalive, ^ 7(;*o 
■would buy. Cf, S 239'. 

9. h ^i) Xapibv Kal GLa^iSaptlt 
(Z, L') = it Itl] fKapt Kal BitipBifi^, 
better than i^riSi Bio^frPapeii (vuig.), 
as it mote closely unites the corrup- 
tion with the bribe, Ae ^oAo refused lo 
lake the bribe and he torrupled. 

% 24S. I. (U T&...TailTav, i.e. 
to justi^ Ctesiphon'a language in hii 
decree: see 5 57I, 

3. oi irdvTts ijiitt: sc. T9,pi' 

6. IfiPi^TiKUS, Standing amid, 
surmunded by: ^i^rina, slaad, is re- 
lated to braitai as •fiyoni to eliil and 
titTTIIMl to lx<^. 

7. iptK o<ih'...irpit ^i, i.e. viien 

most men might kave sie-um same 
•want of feeling lewardi me withaul 
surprising anyone: this rather awk- 
ward translation shows the foree of 
the construction of Sojipionbr ^r 
(without 4r) and the infinitiTe, where 
the chief potential force falls on the 
infinitive. (See M.T. 415, 416, and 
Appendix V. p. 406.) We naturally 
(but incorrectly) translate when il 
Toeuld Aaiv been no wonder, throwing 
the chief force on Sautiaarir ijr, 3a 
Blass reads 

Foe a 

« Eur. 

., , y^ ^'f diroir, 

iT'71'WCTi* ^r anToSli IpaaOfimi 
Xoui, i.e. in Hat case you mtgMi 
rdonably kave been enamottredi M ' 


TO! efiat yvm/iai iyeipoiovu, icaX wdvd' oaa t^? 
^vh.aKi)'! hi€K eTTpaTTiTO, ij Sidra^i'i rii>v ^vXaKtav, i 
I ai Tdtf>poi,'Ta, eh to re^XV XP'?^*''""t ^'" ''■"''' ^M'^" 
■>lfr}<f)iaiidrtov iyiyveTO- eireid' aipovfj.fvo^ (nrtuvi^v iie 
■rrdinajp ep.' e-xeipoTov-qaev o tfip-oi. ical fiera ravra 34£ 
avtrraiiTaf oh JjU ewineKe'! KaKOK ep.k irotelv, KaX 
ypatfjai, evOvvaf, elaayyeXtai, ivdvTa Tavr i'iray6v~ 
Ta>v fiot, 0\j hC kavTSiv to ye tt^wtou, dWo tC &v 
fidXiaO' inre\dp.pavov dyvorja-eaoai (uTTe yap SjjTrou 5 
icai nep,iir)(76' on Toi/i Trpwrou? ^/WcOf? kotA Ttjv 
{jfLepav eKaaT-qv eKpivdp.r)v eyci), xal out' a/jrovota 
2w(riK\e'ow ot/TC avKo^avTia ^iXoKpdrovt oure 
AioivSov Kal MeXdiTov p.av(a o5t' aXX' oiitev airei- 

of public measures: [his ojid the 
following irisC' itsa-.i-tpitT^a do 
not include such general measuTea foi 
tbe public surety as the famous decree 
of Hyperidcs for the enfranchisement 
of slaves, tlic recall of exiles, and 

J 67). 

13 (i«. 


ti, (luWof Sta n 

1 eiXaarrav, Ump 
ivriti ToO Tro\4fwv 

II. Td^tpak-.Ttlxi] : this has noth- 
ing to do with the more elaborate 
work on the walls undertaken in the 
following year, when Demosthenes 
was rnxoToii. (§113"). 

I a. irirAvi|v, an extraordmary 
official sppoinled in special times of 
distress to regulate the trade in grain 
and to guard aEainsl scarcity. The 
grain trade was ordinarily in the 
charge of 35 aiTo^6\aiie! (ao in the 
city, 15 in the Piraeus) ; see Arist. 
Pol. Ath. 51=. 

S249. .... 

. the first c 

L patty gained courage at Athena. 

2. ffTKTTdvTuv: gen. absol. withT] 
the implied antecedent of oTi. 

3. Ypa^ds: here in the most 
slricted sense ai Drdinary puUicih 
excluding E2ira77e\(a, fiivsai, t 
The chief form of 7)!o^iS here would 
be the ypo^J) rapayd/iut (§ ajo'). — 
vdvToi Tavr': emphatic apposition^ I 
a/i Ikise, I say, 

4. oi Bi jairrfiv, not in their 0: 
names : at lirst the leading pbilippizers 
kept in the backgronnd, and put 
forward such obscure men as those 
mentioned below. 

7 — 9. dirdvdiB, lULvla: "the first 
is the deliberate desperation of a man 
with nothing to lose, (he last the 
desperation of blind passion " (Sim- 
cox).— £uiniiUovf...MtXdvTDu: So- 
sicles and Melantus are otherwise 
unknown; far Diundas see g 222"; 
Philocrates is not the one who gave 
his name to the peace of 34G B.C. 
(he disappears after he was con- 
demned on the elaayyehla. brought 
by Hyperides, xix. 116), but an 1 
Elcusiiuan (xxv. 44). The imitatiotf^ 
of this passage by Cicero (Cat. ill. 7J T 

, when Phihp's is familiar; hoc providebam Bnimo,.4 

c mihi P. Lentuli : 


parov ^v rovTOt<! Kar efioO)^ iv raiwv rovroit vaai lo 
ftaXiara fiev Bia toik deow, &€VT€pov Sk Si iifia^ aal 
TOW aXXovi ' h8t)valovi etjip^afiijv. hiKaltm'i- roino 
yap icat aXr/ffK iari Koi inrep rSiv dfJ.asfJ.oicoTmi' leai 
yvovTdJi' jh (vopKa hiKaaToiu. oiiKovv ev fiev oh 250 
dtTTjyyeWofiriv, or kvi-^rii^i^iaBe /iov Kal to fj.epo<! 
tCjv -yjr^ipQiv roll SLoiKOva-iii ov /iereS^SoTC, tot iy)rTi(f>£- 
^eade Tapiard pe TrpdrTuv eV oh Se t^? ypa^k<; 
a-rreijievyov, ei/i/oiia Kal ypdi\>eLv koX Xeyav aweBaKvv- 5 
pijv £v oh Be T09 eiidvva^ eirtaypaiviaBe, BiaaLOK 
Kal aSaipoSoKtJT<o^ Trdvra ■mirpax'^cii pot TTpoampo- 
Xoyeire. tovtiov ovv outq)? ej^ofToip, ri irpoai^Kov ^ 
tI htKaiov rjv Toi? VTT epov we7rpayp€voi<i derrdai tou 
KTi^tri^wfTa ovopa ; ovx o tw Btjpov kutpa riBipevav, lo 
oi^ h TOW opojpoKOTaf SiKaoTa?, ou^ 8 Trpi oK^detav 
Trapa iraai ^e.^aiovo'av ; 

and Pollux (' 

L. Cassii aiiipes, nee Cethegi fuiiosam 
temeritatem pertimescendaoL 

II. St ii|ias, i.e. tbiough the 

13. dXi)(l(9, in accordance ■with 
truth. — uvip.,.EiKav-rAv, io the credit 
efjuJgt!, etc. 

14. ^vdvTuv ri (SopKa, who (not 
only had swotn, but) gave jvdgmtnt 
in accordance -ailth their oaths. 

§ 250, I. iv oil cto^YY'^^F'^* 
(cf. io oTs i,tui.pi>.Mv, g 193). The 
cftraTYcMn was partly a state prose- 
cution, which was lirst brought be- 
fore thE Senate (rarely before the 
Assembly). If the Senate accepted 
the tlta.'niKia,, it referred the case lo 
the Heliastic court far trial, unless it 
settled it by inflicting a fine not ex- 
ceeding 500 drachmas. 

§§ i°3* '^^°- A comparison of Hy- 
perides (Lycoph. 8), iSid ri ^idtiamv 
aiiToa eirai rif d^uiMi, with Lycurgus 
(Leocr. 3), ri- Ihlq. si.Su^ilo^a, 

<fl, 53), shows that 
in earlier limes no penalty »as in- 
flicted on the 1(0-077 AXtiif who failed 
to get one-Rfth of the votes, but that 
afterwards he was subject to the fine 
without the iri^ia. 

4. TOf LQ-Tli )1« Vp&TTHV ! 1.6. the 

judgment of the court justilied this ex- 
pression io Qesiphon's decree (§ 57I). 

5. Iwojia -Ypd^dv: opposed to 
■Ko-pLta^a ypi^ar: see note on ypa- 
*4!. S 249'. 

6. T^ iJBuvat lirfa^)iaUnrtt, 
ful your sen! an my accounts: this 
probably refers to the oHiciBl seal of 
the 3iKa<rr4piai> before which Demasth. 
appeared to render his accounts (rE- 
Cvtvi) at the end of each term of 
office. See Aristotle, Pol, Ath. 48", 

10. rbv Sl]juiv Tiiijuvov : this re- 
peated approval of the people refers 
to the votes mentioned in § 248. 

11. SiKairrds: sc. Ti$t/iint 
The present judges are " ' 



Nat, ^tjffiv, aWa to tou Ke(f>d\ov xakov, to 251 

fir/Sefi^v ypa^Tjv ^evyeiv. xal vij M' evSatfidv ye. 
aWa ri fiaXXoir 6 TroWdKc: fi-kv ipvyaii' HTjSerranroTe 
5' e^eXey^fdeK aSiKrav iv e7«X.jJ^aT( ytyvoiT av hia 
TovTo BiicataK ; Katroi wpo'! ye tovtov, avBpe; 'A0r}- i 
valot, Kal TO ToO KetpoKov KaXop etTTftv lart fioi. 
ovSe/iiap y^p TrtinroT eypai^aTo fit oiB' eSiro^e 
ypai^rjv^ ware vtto trail y wfioXoytjfiai /iijBkv elvat 
Tov KeipdXov x^^P^^ TToXtrr]';. 

XiavTaxdOev /ih toIvw av rt? thai Trjv ayvto- 3 
lioirvvriv aiiTov xal Tr}V ^acKavlav, ovx riKiirja S" 
o^' 5>v irepX T)j9 Tti^^ijs SieXexOt]. iyo) B' oXon fj.kv. 


above (6) as if they had themselves 
judged the previous cases.— TTt» dXl\- 
fciav : with special emphasis, after 
tAf d^itou and Tod: JurarTis. 

This passage is a dignified and 
fitting caai^lnsion to the line of argu- 
ment beginning with § xzy concerning 
the orator's account (Xo7ur^4!j with 
the state. Now, after a brief allusion 
(S ^50 t° the case of Cephalus, he 
passes to another matter. 

§251. I. T4TaSKi4>dAouKaXov 
may be exclacnalory, there is the 
glory of Ccphalus; cf. I. 6, But 
ksUf is generally taken here as pre- 
dicate to tA tdO Kj*i\Du (se. ^o-tI). 
(See Aesch. ill. 194.) This Ccphalus 
(already mentioned in % iig') is not 
the (ather of Lysias, who opens the 
dialogue of Plato's Republic with 
Socrates and was ^1 Y^fioat itiiv '" 
the lifetime of Socrates; but a later 
statesman, who with Thrasvbulns of 
G^tlytus was a leader of the Theban 
par^ in Athens, and highly respected. 
— rd...^(vYiiv, Ike (gloiy of) naier 
biing tinder indictment. Aeschinea 
(194), after mentioning the boast of 
I AriMophonthathehadbeenacquitted 
(dx^^u7(ij seventy-five times on the 

f 7pa^ rapatinup, 

the higher boast of Cephalus, that I 
had proposed more decrees than a 
other man, and yet had never on 
been indicted by this proccsi. 

5. vpAt ft toOtov, IB far as ii 
max is concerned ; i.e. Aescbines b 
done nothing to prevent me frc 
making the boast of Cephalus. 

7. *S1m|i yfxu^V' praecufid , 
iWif/flifn/, cognate accusative, as 
^pd^aro Tpa^ijji. The English trar 
lation obscures the construction. 

S. |»)8<v (tvoL : see M.T. 685. 

Si 252— 275. Here Demosthendi' 

replies at great length to scattered 
remarks of Aeschines about hi 
fortune," which involved in calamity 
every person, state, or thing which 
he touched. Though Aeschines refers 
only to his general fortune, Demos- 
thenes chooses to speak chiefly of 
his fortunes in life, which he com- 
pares with those of his opponent. 
He concludes (§§ 270 — 275) with 
some forcible remarks on his fortune 
in the other sense. 

% 252. I. &Yv»|Mo^vi]v (cf. §§ 
94*. M>7'). awni' of feeling. 

' ■ ■ Aesch. 


mpares this with 114, 157, 158, with 135, 136; cf. §2; 


SaTK auOpojTTO'i ttif av0pa}Tra> Tv^rjv ■TTpoifiepei, awwj- 
Tov rfyoO/iai ' t/p yap 6 ^4\Tuna Trpdrreiv vofii^av 
leal apiaTijv ey^eiv oio/iei'o'i ovk olSev «' ~p-evel roiavnj 
fi'^XP'' '''^^ etnrepa'i, ttw XPh ""^Z^' TavTifi Xeyeiv ij 
TTW? ouetBi^eiP erepip ; eTreiSij S' ovTO'i vpts ttoXXoI? 
nXXoi? ical Trepl tovtwh v7r€pi](f)dvco^ ^ptjTai tm 
Xo'701, aice-^aa6\ & avBpei 'AOijvaiot, ica't OeapijaaO' ti 
oaw KaX aKijOetrrepoi/ ical avSpm-TTLVoyrepov eym irepX 
T^s Tu^^jjT TOVTOV SLaXi^6ij(T0fj,ai. iyai rrjf riji iro- 2 
Xetui rv'yr^v ayaBrjv r), Koi ravB' 6p£> xai tov 
Aia TOV AoiBmvalov p.avTewp.evov, t^v petnoi 
rmv TravTO}!' avdpdrrrtnv, ^ vvv (7rej(et, ^^aXfTT^J' Kol 
Seiv^p ■ riV yap 'EWjJcwi' tj rk ffap0dpcov ov woWmv S 
■ith Ihe 01 



(above). — SXut luvis opposed 
Spcciil eiception, imiii S' oCn 
i^HM^pci, launls with. 
_ ^, after snggesting the object 
of txnf, ia the object of olitv. — 
P&Turra irpd-miv: superlative of cS 
rpiTTfif. SeeSoph.O.C.567:%<J' 

t\4<i1' lioi aoS )i^f<TTivi!ii4pat (Weil). 

9, Wtpi|(t>4vav, arrogarifiy - op- 
posed to irdpuirirtiTfiioi', mare iii- 
iHOHly. i.e. more as one man should 
meak of anuther: cf. iint%...rpoiliipit 
(4). — xP^V't" '"P ^' W = cf. cl Sinnlut 
\p^opax Tifi. \^i^, § Z33 ^- 

§ 253. I. •H|v...TlJxiiv: the 
genetnl good fortune of Athena, as 
it is here understood, \s not mere 
clu.nee or luck (us in |§ 207' and 
306*), but the result of divine pro- 
tection and the care of the Gods, 
See the poem on Solon, quoted in 
xnt. 155, which begins 
"B-iitrtpaSi irSKa Karft ^r AiiiaEirOT' 


aTffar ksI patipuv dfOi 'pp4ya 

mbi 74(J peyi6ii)ua ivlimoToj 4, 


iXjlSB ri* Jiiyo. TaDrer 

li poilXs^i, ut Ap' ol Btol 
vtfl^iirti' iiiiSr tSji- iriXiii. So rv. II: 
(t^ r"i:(1t) JfTfC ifl P^Xth* J) liMf'i 

3. Tiv...Ai>Eo>vatev: cf. Tl, xvi. 

233, Zcij liu AaSiivaii, U.i>,airyiKi, 
ri7^Mt the prajier of Achilles. 
Oracles sent from Dodona to Athens 
are quoted by Demosthenes, xxi. 51; 
cf. XUt. 299, A Zel>i, ij Auini (the 
Queen of Zeus at Dodona), rimti el 
Seal. At this time Dodona wns pro- 
bably more revered at Athens because 
of the Macedonian influence at Del- 
phi : cf. Aesch. 111. 130, iij^ioffWiTit ii 
ArriXeye, 0iXiTxl{Vir tiJp Uueiar ^- 
rmar, italiei/TO! fflr i.t.X. 

4. Tvv T^VTUV &v6p(&irar, man' 
kitidin gcHtra!, as opposed to Athena 

5. voXXfiv kokAv: witness the 
destruction of Thebes by Alexander; 
and the overthrow of the Persian 
Empire, which was then going on. 
See Aesch. III. 132, 133: in 134 he 
includes Athens in the general bad 
fortune which she owes to the baneful 
influence of Demosthenes. 



KOK&p iv T^ irap6pTi ireirelparai ; to /liv rotwv 21 
wpoeXeaSai Tci KtiWta'Ta, Kai to Twf oiTJ&ePriau 
'EXXjJi'wj' el ■rrpooivS' ^/idi ef evBaipovi'^ Sid^eiv 
aurSiV dfieivov irparrTuv, t^s ayaBij^ tu^ij? t^ 
iroKeoK eli/ai 7{dij/ti ■ to Be irpoaKpovtrai, KaX fii) S 
I vavd' a)! ^ffovXofied' i)nlv <j-Vfi0ijvaL ttjs rav aWat-J 
avBponrmv TiJ^ijs to iirt^dWop i(j> ^/j-a^ fiepoi 
fiereiXtji^epai, Poni^m Tr)P •jtoXip. rrjp S' i'Smii' tv^jjc 255 
T^c ifijjp Kai TT/u evo'i r)iiS)v exdaTov ev tow ISioi^ 
efeTafctj' Sinaiop eipat Pofii^w. iyoi /iep ovt(0(ti Trepl 
Trj'i Tujfji'i a^tia, opdai'i ical SiKaioK, w? fjiavrrp SoKta, 
vofil^co hi Kai vfilv a Se tt/p IBiap TiJ^i;i' t^v iprjv 5 
TTi<i Koivrj^ TTJi TToXemf xvpiwre'pap eiPat tf>'i]<nf Tt)P 
pj.Kp&p Kol (ftavXiiP T^? ayaOrf'i Kai fieydXtji, koI 
irws cut Tovro yepeaSai ; 

Kat /iijp ei ye Tr)P efiijp TV-)(t]V -n-aPTOK i^erd^eiP, 21 
Alaj^iPTj, irpoaipet, x/jo? TrjP aavrou okottu, kSlp 
cvppi; r^f ip.i]P 0eK7i<o t^5 ff^, iravaai 




g254. t. TiirpeAla-iairiiciX- 
Xurra, our choice of thi most glorious 
course : the whole lentence through 
iluiKf trpiTTtii is the subject of 
(Ihii (5), i.e. he includes all this in 
the special good fortune of Athena. 

2. rAv abflhrrav introduces il 
rpioii6'.,.Sid^tr in or, oil, : the gen. 
depends on dfiiiKii rpirTetv (4). 

4. afiTflv; intensive with riii' 'EX- 
\ilrU',/Aantioiciier)' Greiks; almost 
reiterative.~ii|uivov irpd-rMiv : ef. 

with ilmt TWTjfu.; see I. 10, t4 jiiv 
yip i-dXXiI cliraXuXei[/ni>...T^[ ij/it- 
ripai dfuMas it tii OiIti BurafaH. 
rl/Bni/u in this sense lakes the infinitive 
regularly in or, oil.: see Aesch, m. 
163, ffo6\a at ea t/mpije^rai Kat XP'^- 
roirAu rip vavTau TpArt^; 

T& Ei irpcHTNpoGfrai «al )i.f],.. 

irv)i.p1^vai, i.e. our disaslcr (euphe- 
misticflUy called collision) and our 
not having everylAlng done as ine 
jvisked: this is the object of furciXif- 
^ilvat, with Ti, ..lUpet as appoaitire, 
Mil / belitvc that our city has received 
as the share of the general (_iad) for- 
tune of the rest of mankind johici 
falls to our lot. 

7. li JwipdXXov lUpn: cf. tA 
yiyrtnepay, tie gua/a, § :o4^. Cf. 
iwipi\\ti, % 272'. 

$255. 2. ^vToistSlois: Acsch. 
had sought for the fortuneofDemostli. 
ir rot! Stiiioalvit, as in 111. 114, avfi- 
^i&i\Kty aitrif ftrou Av irpovi'^iiTa.t... 
reirar iniamvt dvidrDii aviupopait 

4. djifi,/»(if ; ofniiialiiiS> = TavTa 
afcov ttva. ™m(j-'"- — 

5. va)ill(ii {if,ly\ sc. iotci'v 


wow TTpo? A(« fj/tiheftiav i^u^^otjjth Karayi/qi fiTj&ei^t 
ejo> yap ovt et tk Trevi'av TrpoTrijXanriiiet, vovii ^;^etf 
^yov/Mat, OVT et TiV eV a<p66voi'! Tpaffieh eTrl tovt^ 
ae/J-vvueTai ■ aW' virh tijs tovtovI tov j^aXeTrav 
ffKatr^ijfi.iW KoX aVKO^avrla'! et? ToiovrotK 'KAyoui 
i/iTrtTTTtiv avayKri^otiai, oh c'k twij iifovrcov Sk &v 
Svinoficu fierpninaTa y^p^coftai. 

'E/xol fiev Tolvvu v-rrrip^ev, Ataj^ivtj, TraiBl tA 
trpoarjitoVTa hihauKaktla, nai e^etc foa j^prj tov 
fiTjSev aityxpov •Koirjaovra hi eiiBetav, i^eXOdfTi 8* 
iie TraiBoiv a/c6\ov6a Tovrot? Trpdrreiv, %opij7e(w, 
Tpiijpapj^eiv, €l<7<jie'p€tv, /ijjSe^ita? t^iXorifiuK fi^r' S 

TToKei Koi Tou; ^lXok ^pjjirt/ioi' itv<u' ivetSij Si 
TT/ws T^ Koiva ■KpoaeXdetf eSo^e /mi, TOUtUTa ttoXi- 

57 I 

S 256. 5. i|(uj^pdTi)Tii, coldness, 
■mant o/fie!i;g. 

7. iv A+6ivois, in afflarnce. 

8. xaXtmifi, £iirf^, stronger tlian 

lo. Ik tAv. . , p^Tpui-rara, ni mdi/- 
«rofc/K flj the Halt 0/ Iht case (t4 
b/irra!) will permit. We have agaio 
an apology, perhaps an honest one, 
iat Ihe personal vituperation which 
follows, §§ 257—262. 

$257. I. iiritpgiv: the subjects 
are iitaattiOvSa. and Ihe infinitives 
lx«' and *pdTTBB, with k\iirBai (9). 
Most Mss. (not E and L') insert ^» 
81^1 ^oitSp cJt after TaiJl. 

2, 3. irpoiHiicovT(i,i.e.auchaschil- 
dten of the better classes attendeii ; 
one of the charges against his guar- 
dian Aphobus (xxvil. 46) is Toil 3i!a- 

,..»olViirovTa=:iti iroi^jirei, he u-Hb is 
to do etc. (M.T. 527, 530). — oJoTipiv, 
i.e. in\ei9ea»: this idea of Ihe igno- 
tility of toil is a commonplace with 
^ the Greeks, as a slave-holding people. 

Cf. Ar. Av. 143a, rl 7V 'iS"; 

njEixTEir yip tllK iiriaraiiat. 

4. &KdXj)u9a irp&TTiLv is explained 
by the rest of Ihe clause, x'pvy'''--- 
XPii't^f eirai.— xop'l'yrfv, TjHUpap- 
Xcivitestimonyaboutatlhis X-jjTiiviiylai 
is given in 5 267. He was xopfJTiiin 
350 B.C., when he was assaulted by 
Midias (ntl. 13 ff.); for his numerous 
trierarchies see xxi. 78, 154, Aescb. 
111. 51, 52, and cf. S 99" (above). 

5. tUr^fMiv, to pay the cla^pi, 
or fropcr^'lax: this was assessed 
" progressively," the richer being 
taied DD a larger proportirm (rf^irfia) 
of their actual property than the 
poorer, {See Eisphora in Smith's 
Diet. Antit].) The guardians of 
Demosthenes, to conceal their pecu- 
lations, continued to enroll (heir ward 
in the highest class, so that he paid 
taxes on a Tiiaiim of one-6ftb of his 
property (aiaiii.), whereas he should 
have been placed in a much low«t 
class after the inroads upon theei 
See xxvil. 7 and xxvill. 4 


[ Tevjiaff eK^aBai Smtt£ icai inro T^5 iraTpl^ot xal inr 
SXKfDV 'EW»}i'£i)i' TToWmv iroWaKK ia-rei^avaaBai, lo 
Kol fLi}hk ToiK ex^poiK vfid^ ok ou koXo, y jji' a 
■Kpoei\6ti.7jv linyeipeli' X4yuv. iym p,ev Br; Toiaiirt] 26£ 
<njfi^£0ia>Ka tvxv^ "''^ ttoW av e;\;wv erep' el-Kelv 
irepi avTT}^ TrapaXeiTru, (pvXaTTOfiei'O'i to Xirn-^ffaf 
Tiv ev oh aefivvvofiai. av S' o aett^pcK avijp Koi 
StaTrrvmi' Tois aWovv CKOiret, -jj-ptK rawnji' woia rivl 5 
KeyptjaaL Tiij^jj, Si' fjv ttow filv Siv fiera troW^i T^s 
ivBeia'i tTpadij!, a/Ao t^ TraTpl trpm Ttp oioao'KaKei^ 
TrpotreBpevai/i to fieKav Tpi^cov Kal to, 0ddpa ffTToy- 
yi^aiv Kal to ■n-aiSayatyfloi' Kopcin', oluerov Ta^tv ovk 
iXev&epov -TraiSm ex""'" ^"'IP Se yevofievo": tj p,i]rpl 25S 
TeXovirr} Ta9 0ifi\ov^ avfy Cy van icei Kal TaWa avue- 


9. AoTf, with perfect and present 

infinitive-. M.T. 590, 109. 

to. loTX^vAirBai: sec§§Sj,I20, 

II. a irpotiXdiji,t|v, i.e. riji' ifii]* 
rpOB-lpcirin cf. § 190'. 

§ 2S8. 2. <niii^fiUKa...*linlv\ 
aa accidental dactylic hexameter.— 
irdXV S.V ix»i'=if6XV fl" ifx'"'"i 
though I might etc. : cf. § 138l>^. 

3. ^vAiaTTd|iivasT&\inri)<nu(M.T. 
374} : the object intinitive takes the 

Eiace of (j); Xwri^o-ui, which in use had 
ecome an object clause (M.T.303C). 
7. wp&t T$ EiEoiTKaXf C^ 1 see notes 

S. vpartSpituiiv, al/tndiag (as a 
servant). — t& pAav TpJ^v : the iok 
was probably rubbed from a cake (like 
India iokj and miKed with water. 

g. m,\%aiiiiyilav, probably a room 
io which the Tai£a7ii)7a(, slaves who 
brought the boys to and from school, 
waited for these to be ready to go 
home: later it was used like iiSa- 
aKa\tiovioj a schoolroom. — oIk^ou... 
Ixuv: the mention of these menial 

duties implies the same condition of 
father and son as appears in § 129. 

g 259. In this section and ^ 26a 
we have a lively comic description, 
highly caricatured, of Some Asiatic 
ceremonies of initiation, in which the 
mother otAeschinea is said to have 
taken part. This was some form of 
Bacchic worship, with perhaps a mix- 
ture of Orphic mysteries. It seems 
there was a written service (riti 
^I^\dvi)i which Aeschines read like 
a clerk while his mother officiated'as 
prie^esa. The initiation of Strepsi- 
ades into the Socmtic mysteries (Ar. 
Kub. 255—262) probably caricatures 
some similar worship. 

1. Tj HTjTpl TtXov'oTi: see xix. 
281, TXaUKoBiat t^i to^i Sinffoui 
iruBa7oii(nji, i^ o![ iripa riBrtiKen 
i;peia, and cf. 249. In Itix. 199 we 
have Tdt jSi^Xout n^a^iypiiffwiPTi at 
rj liTiTpl TekBia-Q, Koi Titi ivr iv 

2. T&XXa oiiviirKcuwpaQ, j'ou hilpid 
lo conduct Ihi rest of the tiremonyt^ 


axevfopov, rrju fiev vvKra ve^pi^aip Kal Kparr^pi^an 
Ka\ Ka6aipa>v rovt rekovfievov^ koI airoftwrri 
TnjXco icaX rot5 irirupoiv, Kal avLriTai aTTO tov leaffap- 5 
/loO /teXevtoii \eyeiv e^vyav Ka/chu, eupov afieivoir, 
evt T& fi'TjSiva ■jvaitroTe ttiKikoOt oXoKv^ai rrep-wvo- 
/ievov (^ical eyiaye vofii^at " fir] yap otea6' ainov tfjffey- 
yeadai ^ev ovrm p-erja., a\6Ki}t,eiv 5' av-^ virepKaft,- 
irpov), ev Bk Tat? Tifiepam row koXow 0td<TOv<i ayiav 26C 
hia T<av oSwi", Tous ia-reipavtofiepovi to5 fiapaffa xai 


KeuupoGncu ia properl)' Uoi after 
Kfitf (of any kind), and generally 
manage, direct, dtvisi, coneocl (often 
in abad sense) ! cf.ix. 171-01 ^iilltXo- 
i»*itaif ativai^iiams (of Philip). 

3. vtppit"* Bod Nparqp(|tiiv are 
probably transitive and govern toiIi 

and i.miTi.%, i.e. drrssing ihtm in 
faiBHskins and drenching them with 
teim. See Eur. Bscch. 24, ttpplS' 
i^iyjiat XI"*'. "I"! Sandys' note. 
They are sometimes taken as neuter, 
meaning dressing yourself in a fawn- 
skin and pouring out luint. 

4. &irapAmiiv...'niTi!poit, i-e. 
plastering Ihem aver iiiilh clay and 
then rubbing Ihem clean with bran. 

5. Avurrds: the victim is sup- 
posed to be sitting during the opera- 
tion, like Strepsiades (Nub. 256). — 
Koflapfiofi: the process was a purifi- 
cation and also a charm. 

6. KtXtuMv,3ubordLDateto dnn-rii: 
i.e. mating him get up as he bids him 
say, el c . — f^ivYOV ic[iicov,n!po» El|UiiVov : 
this Carmula was borrowed from initia- 
tions and other ceremonies of a higher 
character, meaning that a new life was 
opened as the result of the ceremony 
just ended. Suidas gives (under iipu- 
tllt...ilinviiv) : idTTeToi iirl T^r dxi 
KBKoC e/t KptiTTor i\96yTwi>. The say- 
ing originally referred to the change 
from the acorns and thistles of primi' 

tive life to the more civilized bread, 
and was used at weddings and other 
ceremonies. The words form a paroe- 
miac, and probably belonged to some 
metrical formula. 

7, oXo\ii{Di, used especially of 
cries or shouts in religious worship or 
prayers: see Od. iv. 767, <it (browr 
SxiXuJe (after a prayer) : Aeachyl. 
Eum. l(m,i\d\i^are lirlrl luiK-riut: 
Eur. Bacoh. 6S9, iiWKuio i> iUsm 
o-raforo-a Bd«x=«- 

8. ^Uyy*^i» I^Y^- 'he strong 
voice of Aeschines is often mentioned 
by Demosthenes; see below, §§ 3S0, 
28s°,29i°, 313', and especiallyXDt. 
206—208, ai6, 337—340; in >'*■ 
216 he says, niiSt yt d KiMir Kal 

^1^, alluding to his own weakness 
of voice. 

§ 260. I. Iv Si rah ti^fatt 
that the ceremonies just de- 
were performed by night. — 
Oidcreus, useil especially of Baccha- 
nals; see Eur. Bacch. 63o, ipd St 
Siiamt rpiu yuntuKilijt x'f'^'' 

2. iy lupdSi)) Kal T^ XtuKji ; from 
liipaffor, fennel, Marathon is said to 
have been named (cf. titrab. p. 160) ; 
for the fondness of serpents for it, 
see Ael. Hist. Animal, ix. 16, For 
serpents in Ihc Bacchic worship, see 
Eur. Baceh. 102, 697. T 
poplar, Xei^KTj, poputus al&L 



Tj XevKf}-, Toii^ ^0«5 TOW Trapeiai; dXi^iav Koi inrep 
T^5 Ke^iaXrp alap&v, aal ffooiv evot aa^oi, koX 
ivopj^ovfievo'i ii)5 aTTTi-i otttj? u^t, ^f^^X"? "^i S 
■jrpoijye/iaiii Kal Ktrrotftopo^ icai \i,KV0^6po<; naX roiavff 
. VTTO Twv ypaSiav irpoadyopfvo/iivo'i, fiiaSbv Xafi^d- 
vatv rovTHiv ev&pwTo, koX arpemow koX ve.Tj\aTa^ 
€(ft' oh rk ovK av i? oXtiBSk ainov evhaip.Qvlaiie 
KaX TT}!/ avTov Tv^rjv ; eireiSr] S' ell tow Sjj^ta? 361 
eveypdipij^ wrraa-S^TrOTe (ew yap toOto) — CTreiSi} 7' 
(V€ypa,<pi}^, eiiSeox; to KaKkiinov efcXe'^oj t&v epywv, 
•ypap.ftareveit' Kal vmjperelv tok ap^iBioK. ok 5' 

tinned in Ar. Nub. 1007. See Bekk. 
need. p. 279: ij Si Xfiinij tA (^t tiSii 

T0S1 Topdos: see Harpocr., 
tat ifotidptvTal Tiyts 6^eii irapd^ 
ri iroficlasfuiiai'ifxCiS'xl Ael. Hist. 
An. viil. 12, i raptia! J} rapoiat 
*\jpp^ Ti^i' xp^^t rt^w^AT rd ^fH"^i 

dXXd Tppoi. These hanuless snakes 
were tlins sacred to Aesculapius, and 
! named x-apetai fiom theii fat 
lAiris. See Ar. Plut. 690. 

cAcE raPoi : as cAir, ^Bf, was 
the ciy used in tiie regular Bacchic 
wor3hip,soffa^Ewasu5edin invoking 
Zn^flm, the Phrygian Sacchus. All 
points to some Asiatic worship, more 
01 less caiicatnred. 

5. i^ts 6TTi]f ftmis 4(li: these 
mystic words stand as a cognate ac- 
cusative with iropxi^item: this is 
what he danced.— -I^pXa; ical vpoTj- 
fip^ designates Aeschines as UaJer 
o( the song or dance or both. 

6. KiTToi|idpi>s, ivy-btarer, the ivy 
I beingsacredtoBacchus. — XiKvo^pos, 
I bearer of Iht winnaviing-fan, XUmv, 
I titemysticavaHnusIacchi. SeeVerg. 
I Georg. I. 166. — Kal roiavO', i.e. Ihest 

(jliapxot K.TJt.') and similar namii. 

8. SvOpuirra, irrpurTOus, 

twhls: for tvepvnTii sec Ihe Schol^ 1 
^uitol Btt'^ Pf^peypJuit. nTptrraix- 
vXaxoSm-ai cISdi (Harpocr.), evi- 
dently from (TT/j^^u.^w^XaTB ; see. 
to Harpocration, barley buns, made 
of ncwly-ground (roasted) barley, 
soaked in honey and covered with 
plums and chick-peas. 

§261. I. (Is Toit Gii^dras Iv<- 
Ypdifn]!: each d erne was responsible 
lor the correctness of its Xijiiapx"'^'' 
fpaiiiMTeioy, at list of citizens. Aris- 
totle's Constitution of Athens (42^) 
gives us clear information on the 
whole subject of the enrolment of 

z. iirara-Gl^iroTi, somehow, with 
^TtiBi) 7* ivrypi<fii\t, refers lo the 
story that his father was a slave, in 
which case it would have been im- 
possible for the son to be legally 
enrolled as a citizen without an affir- 
mative vote of 6000 in the Assembly: 
while Ihe safeguards against illegal 
enrolment would have made this 
almost impossible. 

4- T((»|i[niTtwiv;see5§l62',209'. 
The occupation of apaid private clerk 
(not that of a clerk of the Senate or 
Assembly) was despised at Athcn*; 
see g 127', flX(B)»i y>jaii/«tT«iJi.— _ 


airrfXXayi)'! irof^ Kal roiJTOu, Trdvff S twi' aXKtav 

KaTtiyopelt avTov 7ro()j(7a9, ov KaT^iT-)(yvd% fi& Ai 
ouSiv T&P irpovTnjpyfi.ei'Wv Ta> fiera ravra. 0'''p, aWa 
/iia-Oma-at aaVTOv rot? ^apvaTovoK iviKoXov/ievoi'; 
e/ceiVois vTToicptTaU, 'S.tpvKKa xal Srowpdref, hpira- 
ytot'ia-Teiv^ ffVKa xaX ^6rp\K Kal e\dav a-vXKeytop 
wa-rrep owioprovri'i iie to>v aWorpitDv -^fiopiwv, -rrKeUt- 
Xapffdvrov airo toiito>v rj tS>v aytavcov, ow vp^lt. 
Trepl Trj"; '^VXV^ ^yoivi^eafff t/v yap tfffTTOi'So? Kolj 
oKiJ/jVKTO! vpiu Trpo^ Tovv ^ewTds -jraXefioi, v^' &tt^. 
iroWa Tpavp-ar et\ij0&i5 eUoTdX! toxk aTreipovt rmv 

here diminutive of Ipx'^ 

dpxi3.o^ is 

n the sense 

of ipxap. See Aesch. ll 

. 21, ipx*' 

iirtiBMtc, M dirojij^rp. 

". of ycur 

§ 262. 2. Tots papuo-rdvoLS, lAt 
heavy rroamrs. 

3. £L|uiKKfi (so £) ; Theophrastus 
(Athen. vni. 348*) mentiona 2i»i- 
/uitay ric lirmpiTiSi'. — iTpiTaYWvt- 
mif : a. company of EtTolling actais, 
such as performed at the country 
festivals, was probably compostd of 
two men, who played the (aSl and 
second parts and hired another Co 
play the third parts. 

4. ir€Ka...x<>>p[«v: the meaning of 
these ranch disputed words seems to 
be, that the band of players subsisted 
chiefly on the fruit which Aeschincs, 
as their hired servant, collected from 
the neighbouring farms by begging, 
slealiiig, or buying, as he found most 
convenient. He is compared to a 
small fruiterer (Irwapiivtit), who each 
morning collecte his load of fruit from 
farms which he hns hired, or wherever 
else he can get it cheapest. Pollux 
(vi. 12S) includes iTujpiinjt (with 
vopm^aaitit and dXXavTariiXiiT) in 
his long list of ^loi {4,' dIi ir ri( 

5, irX((a...&ifuvi>v, ge'liiig 
(profit) front thtsi Ihan from your 
plays (anfeili). 

6. oifi {cogn. acc.)...JiYuv[tcrO(, 

j!pAirf_CDtt played at the risk of your 
lives (or IB inkick yoM foagkt for yofir 
Itues), with apunoDthe two meanings 
of i/filiv and i,yuTliiiun, fight and 
flay: see iv. 47 -rSx, trTparTf^r 
txairrO'S Sis Kal rplt tplnrat rap bpjr 
irfpt BapiTou, irpii W roil fx^P"^' 



oiSi flTraf a^uf d^ui' 

*epl Bariroa ToX/iJ, y 

similar punon ieingti'ieil(Ayio oliiffftii ) 

/or tieir lives in court and in battle. 

7. wnrovGcn Kal iiit^pvKTOs. with- 
out truce or herald, i.e. implaeable, 
without even the common decencies 
of civilized warfare. 

9. Tpav(ULr' (t^iji^is: see xix. 
337, hrt ^<. rd Bui^TOM Kal rfi, ftri 
Tpof; Kainli iiyaAitTo, HtpiWcrt ai- 
Thv nal liesvplTTtTt it jav Stdrpln', 
Kal ii,6mr ai KaTtftficTi oEriiit &rTr 

rTijyai. This account of the wi^liot 
raalces rpaipjiT' here perfectly intelli- 
. hut the reading toi'Tuf rpai- 
in 6 (which all M5s. except £ 
have) makes endless difficulty and 
confusion. If Tpaii;ioTa in 6 istrferted 
to wounds received in stealing fruit, 
compared with those received on tlie 



TOtovTWC KifSvva}!' 0)5 SetXow trKwirrew. aWh yhp 268a 
irapeh 5>v Trjv -kevCav alridaair av t(5, irpin aini 
Ttt TOV TpoTTOv ffou ^dSiov/idt,' KaTTiyop^p,aTa. Toe- 
aVTr/v '^ap e'lXov TroXntiav, eireiS^ iroTe Kal tovt' 
iTrl}\de <70i TTOiriaai., Bi' tjv (vrv^ovatii p.ev t^ S 
varpiSo^ Xayo} ^iov e^ijs SeSia« aal Tpefioin Kal atl 
■jrXjiy^a-ea-ffat TrpoaSoKotv etfi oh aavrai a-ov^Sdi 
dSiKouvTi, ev ok h' rjTvyi^iiav ol aX\ot, dparriK &v 
v^' airdiiTaiv &-^at, kuCtol qotk ■)(iXi<ov iraXiTtav 2MJ 
wwoBavovToiv iSdppT)a€, ri o5to5 iraOeiv vtto t&p 
^vTOJv hiitaiK eariv ; iroWi tolwv erep' eiVeif 
■ 315 ex^"^ Trepl aiirov ■rrapaXel'^io • ov 'yap 5<t' &v Sei^atfii 
TTpoaavT aiaj^h rovrm Kal oveiBi}, ■jrdvr oiftai Setv S 
€vxepa>^ Xeyeiv, aW o<xa p.t]Bei/ ataj(p6f iimv «Vew 

I rtage ot after the play, there is a 
B-ttrange repetilioD of the Utter; if 
f there is a reference (as Westermann 

suggests] to fruit used in pelting the 

actora, it is hard to see tiow Egs, 

grapes, and olives could endanger 

Ihc lives of the "heavy groaners." 
10. ■) SuXoiis mttSnnat; see 

H Demosthenes (XtX. 246, Z47) says 
Vtbal Aeschines was a Tptra-yuHffT'^s 
F'also to actors of high repute, as 
^ Theodoras and Aristodemus; and he 

Tenunds him of the time when he 

used to play the part of Creon in the 

Antigone with these actors. He adds 

the following: it iraat rais fpd^rri 
"r TpayiKBii iialpcrbv inriv &arep 


ri T06, : 

tuilic life. — Kal emphasi 

iitik\.ti\o.ii, position ii 

Trag. kis- '»<:£"■ 373 (.^■), ^"7'1' 
ffley fflt, 6 xfilt irpopos Xiw*. " Di- 
euntur Uporii vilam vivtre qui semper 
anxii trepidique vivunt; nam ut est 
apud Herod, ill. itiS, i ^0761 brh 
irarri! &ript6tra,t 9i)/>'oi> KaX ipviSat 
KoX irSpiirou, ac ne somnum quidem 
capit nisi oculis apertis" (Dissen). 

8. epoirus w...u<|(ai (M.T. t<84} : 
personal passive construction. 

S 264. I. x^'*"' ^iroSavdvrttv, 
at Cbaeronea : see Diod. Xvi. 86, rSir 
S' 'A.ei,nlui> fi-cirov p.ii' iv t% pixv 
irXtiour TiSf x'^'^'j fl^oiffa* il Din 
AdrToU! j-ffl* SurxiWw. See Lycurg. 
Leocr. 142, xOnoi rUf i/uTipuit i-oXi- 
Tide ir Xaipwytiif ireitcirTJirar, Kal 
S'^iuyalf, airait 4 rdXir tBafae. Diod, 
XVI. 88 quotes an eloquent passage 
of the speech of Lycurgus at the trial 
of Lysicles, one of the 

J. TTpoirivT" nlirxp^ TOVTf : 

t Chae 
condemned (o death. 

6. Xa^w piev Itis ; Weil quotes 



'Eferoffoi' Toivvv Trap' dWrfKa tA <roi xafiol 265 
^f^iajieva, irpdon, fii} TriKpm, AtVx''"'? ' (It epani}- 
trov TovTovtrX rijv TrOTfpov tv-)(t)v av eKotS" etcarrroi 
avTanr. eSiBao'Ke^ ypati/xara, iya> S" i<f>oi'Ta3v. ird- 
Xfir, iyo) 8' ereXovfii}!'. iypafi/idrevei, eyai B' ^kkXtj- 

Ji S' idedipoi 


'lavioB rival Soki- 
aviofio \6yi]pai, 
{jTrdp^ft, Kivhv- 

ala^ov. eTpnaytaviaTeL';., eyi 

iyat 5" eavpiTTOv. t/jrep Tihv ^X^P' 

wdina, iyoi &' VTrep t^? TrarpiSo^. 

vwl T^fitpo" iya fikv mrep tov < 

fid^ofiai, TO Be /iijB' ortovi' aBiK 

<7ol Be avao^dvTTi fikv elpai Bote 

vtvei'i Be £iT£ Set a eri tovto ttoi 

adai iJ.r) jieraXa^ovTa to trefiirTov /ie'po^ tC)V ■^rj^xoi 

ayaBy y — ov^ opai ; — t^XV '^^f'^^^tcoKOii tJ)? e^^? 

% 265. In SS 265, 266, the orator 
sums up vigorously die subatLince of 
SS ^57 — 264. Westennann points out 
that of the live stages uf the life 
of Aeschines is mentioned in order, 
when he was (i) a schoolmaster's 
assistant (§ 258), (2) initiator (§§ 
aS9.26o). (3) acnbe (§ 261). (4) actor 
(5 261), (5) politician (i§ 263.2^4). 
Many ancient rhetoricians quote these 
famoos antitheses with approval and 
admiration. We are again shocked 
by the open avowal of the disgrace 
of earning an honest living ; the 

than many of oar generation in ex- 
firesiing this. 

I. rd. ■ . ^tpLU)Uva : passive of 1... 
|3e3..i««^e» (of, § 130'). 

4. i^LruVt'weiit ta scAaoi: cf. Ar. 
Nub, c)i6, Sii ai Si pturar oiStl! 



. iircp...Sox 


£Q«^a<7ia is 

ny investigal 

an to test 

the fitness or 


fa person 

for anything 

as for ofltce (i 

meaning) or 

or citizenship 

and Sea- 

fidjto^L here 

implies that this trial is 

to test his tit 

less for the cr 


6. JjiitiirTw; iKvtfi 

3. Ti,.,&GmEvi.vii|UiXdYi)|Mii: cf. 

§ SO^, inai/uiXiyifai ri ipurra rpir- 
Tiiy. The articular infinitive in er. 
Bbl. is rare (M.T. 794, 743). 

4. irol inrdfX."^ '/ w '« 'tore far 
you, — KLvGwfiitts corresponds to Son- 
ndfo>iai (2): the meaning is, the 
question viilh you is. 

5. to5to iroutv, i.e. (ego tin beinga 


6. ri irii|i'R"rov pipot: Dtndorf 
omits ritirTou because it is omitted 
in §§ 103, 222, 3$o, whereas it ap- 
pears in other speeches Ireqaently 
(=.g. ixu. 3). Wli.t modtra or.toi 
01 writer would submit to such rote* 
of coDSLStency as critics impose on 




cf. 232', 28l«. j 


^4pe hrf Kai ra? twi/ X-r}Tovpyio)v /tapTVpiai i 
\s\!)TovpyTiKa Vfilv avayvS). Trap' &! irapava/yvaOi 
KaX av fioi T«s pija-eii a; iXv/Miivov, 

««! ....,.,, S 

KOKuyytAetv /itv itrW ^jj fftXoi'xa /lie, 
KBi KUKOV Kaxcit ae ftoKiiTTa fiiv al 0eol hreiff 
ouTOt vdvTf^ airoXeaeiav, iroirtjpov Svra xal TroXt- 
Tijj' Koi TpiTayti)vi(mjv. Xeye ras iiapTvpia>i. 


Ev fxev Toivw TO*! irpoi ttjv ttoKiv toiovto^ " (v 209 

316 5e Toit t'Siots et ^^ TrawTef i(r&' oti koivo^ koi tjiiXdv- 

Bpwiro^ KaX TOK Beo/tivot^ itrapicaiv, aioyiroi KaX oiitev 

&p etTroip.1 ov&e trapaff')(olp.7)v irtpi rovrtav ovBefiiav 

ItapTvpiav, ovt et Ttca? ix tSiv voKe^tiav iKvad/ij)v, 5 

§267. t. ■^^...ivayvfi (M.T. 
257) : the orator docs not read the 
testimony himself; cf, \(yt (9), — 
X'[|T0vpYiAi': this includes the public 
■g mentioned in x'P'TI"' ^"d 
■piWopX"' in 5 357*' '.but not tlT<l>4- 
.ctf, a( the piopetty tax was not a 
\T)raviriia. For the form Xijtoii/J7(o 
see note on § ioS«. 

3. I\v)iaIvou, used to eiUragt : cf. 
Arfrpilfraj, % I So'. 

4.£Xat: the Hcatba of 
EaripidM begins 

ifitiir >»fiwr ifcuSu^ra cat iricirDi/ rAai 


, All 

MSS. except X have Xiviir for 
iSr, making the sense of the quo- 
ion complete. But such a change 
unlikely in quoting so familiar a 

(otherwise unknown), depending o 

The readings of Che best 
<o77rtX(ikor Kt*' i.-ni\\n» 
metrically impos»ble. The 
. reading is ndn' iy^iKiiv, an 
irregular fut. inlia. with dABrra (»ee 
M.T. 113). 

7. The words Kdicav KOMAt <rt... 
AiroXfa-nav are probabty an adapta- 
tion of a verse quoted from Lyoceus 
by Athenaeus, iv. 150 C, kukIk roKui 
(!t<~i>6.-„oU<ifM* ol Biol, or both 
may go back to the source of Ar. Eq. 
3, 3, KOfuc Ilii4>Xd7i>Fa...direX^iTfiaf 
tl Bml. See Blass. 

8. iren|piv; with both iroMnii 

§ 268. 2. Koivit, in public reU- 
tions, public sfirilid, in private mat- 
ters (as )ietK),dcvoltd,til the service 0/ 
all: cf. Isoc. I. lo, tdTi ^ftoil mnfit. 

3. tirapxAv, i.e. ready to keif. — 
oWiv &v ttiroiju, / had ralAer nut 
mtntion anything. 

these were 

thus I 



:d by Philip at Olyn- 
, whom DemostbcD 


oGt ei na-t BvyaTepai trvve^eSeoKa, oUre rS>v TOtoii- 
TCdv ovh4v. Koi yap ovrco ttoj? {nreiXT/tfia. eyo) 269 
vofii^m TOP fJ.ev ev TradovTa Selv fi.efipi)a0ai. -rravTa 
■vov -xpovov, TOP Se iroujiravT' evBiJi eTnXeXrja-Oai, el 
Sel TOP fiep ')(p->]ffroO top Se /ii; fiiiepo-^vx"^ Troieiv 
epyov avdpaiwov. to Se Ta? t'Sias evepyeala^ v-rop.i- 5 
fiVTjcTKeiv Kal Xeyeiv p-iiepov help op.oi6p e'oTi t^ 
oveiBl^eiP. oil St; Troirjam toioutoc ovSec, oiiBe 
irpoax6>liTOfJ.M, aXK' dttwt ttoO' inrel\i]p.pai. irepl 
TovTtov, upfcei fioi. 

BoiJ\o/io( Se Twc l&itap cnraWayeti; en p,iKpa 270 

ransomed at Pella \d 346 (Hist. § 30). 
Seexix. 166 — 170. Dem. lent various 
sums to these prisoners, which they 
paid for their raasoms; when after- 
wards Philip set the other prisoners 
free without ransom, Dem. forgave 
the Arst their debts to him {UaKo. 
Siapiii' Ttt Xiirpa), which otherwise 
they would have been strictly re- 
quired by law to pay (xix. 170). 

6. o^n^wKOi, i.e. helped poor 
citizens to endow their daughter!: 
giving a dowry was aa important 
part of giving a daughter in marriage. 
—aUTc.oiUv, nor aHylhing ilsi of 
tlu kind. These words are rather 
loosely connected with the preceding 
clauses with sCre: in all three dBtc 
repeats the negative afaiiitttdic 

that the 

is oSti iy efrai^ tQii Toairur 

S 269. I. vir(lXi]<^a: cf. pass. 
ilnTElXij^i^iai (8). — iY""-^^'! SJiiani- 

3. 7roi^<ravT r sc. rf.— 4iriX€X(|- 
■rflu: cf. vtraSaSai, § 266>. 

4. ^iKpoit^YOu:seenoteong279« 

5. virop.i|j,vgirK«v, I.e. to it always 

6. |iLKpoC S(iv, the full form of 
fu^poC, almost (M.T. 779) : cf. § iji '. 
West, quotes Cic. Lael, XX. 71, 

odiosuiQ sane genus hominum ofhcia 
exprobrantium; quae meminisse debet 
is in quern coUafa sunt, nnn com- 
memorare qui contuliti and Sen. 
Benef. il. lo, baec enim beneficii 
inter duos lex est ; alter statim obli- 
visci debet dati, alter accepti nnn- 
quami laceral animum et premit 
frequens meritorum commemaratio. 
Pericles {Thuc 11. 40) looks at the 
matter from a diFterent point of view: 
oA -yip wiaxo"" fS dXXil SpSrra 
KTibiuBa Toit 4ilyji\n- k.t.\. There 
is a New England saying, " If a man 
does you a favour, he follows yan 
with a tomahawk all your Ufetirae." 

8. wpoaxSVi<re|),EU : cf. xpoi}>:<)qr 
(sc. Tdjai), VIII. 71.— 6iro« W«tX^(i- 
)icu, as I have been understood, i.e. 
the general opinion which has been 
formed of me. 

g. &pint )M» : sc. dctwc InrtCK^^^at. 

§§ 270—275. 

Fortune (§§ 252— 

Wc have here a 

:> the discourse on 

■^IS)' '" which the 

orator cornea at last to the precise 

Kiint of his opponent's remark, that 
emosthenes has brought ill-luck 
upon every person or state with which 
he had to do (Aesch. 1 
Hitherto Demosthenes has 1 



7r/}09 vfia^ eiTreiP irepl r&v koiv&v, el fiev yctp 
e^€W, Aurx^vrjy r&v xnro rovrov rov fiXiov eiirelv 
avOpanroDp Sotl^ aO^o^ rrj^ ^iXlinrov Trporepop xal 
vuv T^9 *A\€^dvSpov Bvvcurrela^ ydyovevy fj r&v 5 
^¥iXKriv€OV fj r&v fiapfidptov^ iarto^ avr^')(€Op& rrjv 
ifirjv — eire rvj(rjv elre Svarvx^civ ovofid^cLv fiovXeL — 
irdvrtov yeyevijaOai. el 8k koX r&v firfBeTranror IBov- 271 
rodv ifik fiTfBk ifxovffV aKr^KO&rwv ifiov iroWol iroWct 
Kol Beivct TreTTovdaa-Ly fit) fwvov Kar avSpa^ aWct koX 
7rJ\€t9 SkaL KoX SOvTfy ir6a(p htKatorepov KaX aXr^di- 
arepov rrjv awdvrwv^ in eoiKCv^ avffpdmrwv rv)(r]V 5 
KOivrfV /cal <l>opdv riva Trpayfidrwv ^aXeirifV Kal ouj^ 
oiav eSei rovrwv alriav riyelaOat. aif roivvv ravr 272 
a<l)eh ifii rbv irapcL rovroial TrewoXirevfi^ov alria, 
317 Kal ravT elSw 5t4, koI el fi^ ro oXov^ p,4po^ 7' €7re- 
fidWei rrj^ pKacrif>r}p.lwi airacn^ xal fidXiara croi, 
el fikv yhp eyo) Kar ifiavrbv avroKpdrcop irepl r&v 5 

far more of his " fortunes " than of 
his *< fortune.'' See remarks before 
notes on § 252. 

§ 270. 3. {nr6 toI^tov r&v iiXiOv, 
as we say, under the Sun (poetic). 
See II. V. 267, Aro-oi tcuriv inr ijw r 
ijfKthv re: Od. XV. 349, ^(imwrip iir* 

4. dO^, unharmed \ cf. § 125S 
where we have the original meaning, 
free from ^wij, penalty y as in xxiii. 78, 
ra&ri^i Ijukv (^Sltc/fs) d^$os dipUrai, he is 

5. 8wcurTcCas : see §§ 67 2. *, 322 '^^ 
with notes. 

8. irdvrwv Ycyc vfjtrOai, has fallen 
to the lot of us all: Tdvrwv refers to 
all the Athenians^ opposed to r(av 
fifl8cT(inroT l86vT(av ifU in § 27 1 \ He 
might admit (he implies) that his own 
fortune had extended to Athens, were 
it not that foreign states had suffered 
the same ill fortune. 

§ 271. 3. Kar &v8pa, i.e. indi- 
viduals, as opposed to ir6X6(s and 

6. <^pdv riva irpaYfAdrcdv, a rush 
of events : 4>opd in this sense (impetus) 
belongs to ^4pofiai, used as in ^Ig^ 
</>4p€Tai, Plat. Fhaedr. 254 A, and 
<p€p6/jLevos, with a rush (M.T. 837) : 
(popdv, crop, in § 61 ^, belongs to </>4pWf 

bear, produce, — o^x o^'*" ^S**** not what 
it should be (present in time, M.T. 
417) ; ih€\, here is ought to be (but is 

§ 272. 3. liripdXXci : see note on 
rh hripdWov fUpoi, § 254''. 

4. diracrt: sc. rots ^Adrivalois (cf. 
TdvTiav, § 270®). 

5. cl |&cv...4povXcv6|&t|v is past, 
while ^v dv, its apodosis, is present. 
— Kar IfiavT^v airoKpdroip, an abso- 
lute autocrat: cf. abrbi adroKpdrwp, 

§ 235*- 


TTpafyLdroiV effovXevofujv, ^v cLV rote aXKoi'; prjTopi 
viilv e/i alnaffffat • el Be irap^re jikv ev raw skkKt}- 273 
O'l'ai? airdcraK, aeX S" ev koiv^ to ervfitftepov ^ ttoKk 
irpovTiOei ffKOTrelv^ Tract he javr eZonet tot dpttn' 
elvat, Kai fidXifrra txol (^ai/ yap ew evvoia y ifiol 
vapej(03peit eXTTi'Swi' xal iJTjXof xal Tifiwp, & •jrdiTa S 
^poaijn Toll TOTe TrpaTTO/ievait {/k ip.av, aWa ttj^ 
aXrjBetat T)TT<oiJ.evo<; hi}\ov6ri. koX t^ fLt^hkv e^etc 
threlv ;8c'X,Ttov), ttw? ovk ahixel'; koX Beiva TroieK 
TOVTOii vvv iyKaXwv Stv tot' ovk el^e? Xejeiv ffeXTio) ; 
irapa pev toIuvv tow aWoi^ eyaiy opH TrdtriP av6pdt- 274 
ipiapeva Koi TeTayfieva •Kca'i to 



§ 273. 2. 

(? eKdsv ■ opyrji' 

vieav&v, put jorward for public con 
sidcratiBH : cf. IV. I , cl iripX jcaiwii 

See 5 iga', rpoTlS^et PokXi}v, anc 
g 336*, ii tirau rpoSrlBert. 7i<i^^ai 
rpoTiB'twat often mesiiB In open a de 
bate: cf. Thuc. 1. 139", and Hi. 38'. 
t£v rpoj^rrui' oEAi UyHr, where 


s like o, 

ft here. 


Itt tivot^ OK/ of develien, COT- 
sponda todXXd limi^toi (7). — ijiol 
dative of advantage with TapcX''/'C"i 

ith iii timlf. 
S. M|\o«./r,V/.:see5lM». 
9. af: withpfXTi-. 
Weatemwnn thinks the argnnncnt of 

to be Baaumed that Aeschines assented 
to all which be did not oppose. But, 
apart from the obvious irony of parts 
of the argument (as in ot yip iv 
edtolf K.T.X.), it was surely not too 
much to expect of the acknowledged 
" leader of the opposition " in such a 
deapecDtB crisis, that he should at 
least protest strongly against : 
of aach vital importanceas Chose 
he censures afterwards, even 
could not propwe any poiitivi 

sures himself. Now it is an important 
pact of the argument ofDemoalbencs, 
thai Aeschines said nalAing mhalnier 
on such occasiuDsas the sudden leiiure 
of Elatea by Philip. See§I9l^<rllu^ 
i.^iJisov,..ta.9tiii.i<iau : See the whole pas- 
sage, §§ 188— 191. The only groind 
on which such neglect can be excused 
is the one here assumed, that the 
opposition had no better plan to pro- 
pose. The plain truth is, of course, 
that Aeschines really wished to let 
Philip have his own way at this time. 
§274. I. vaf>d...&v6p<&«'ois ! see 
two similar cases of irafiii in § 297*>'. 
— Tott &XXoit iroo-iy, i.e. all eitcept 

2, t4 ToiatH-a, i.e. suck (prin- 
ciples) as the following, explained by 

the St 


&EiKtt TL1 biiiv, a man (let us 
suppose) is gsiilly ef voltitilarji inius- 
tice. We have three such suppositions 
in independent sentence*, with paia- 
taclic replies or apodoaes. For a sim- 
ilar arrangement See § 117, iwitat^, 
^PXO'i dSficui fipia, with Che replies. 
See also § 198'-". 
opYtjv ital Tiptplav : 




€^fiapT€ Tts aKoiv ' cvyyvm/iriv avrX ttJ? rifjuopia^ 
Tovjqi. ovT aBiK^p Tit owT i^a/J-apTavaiv, n's to, 5 
Trafft SoKovvTa iTV/j,ip€p€iP eavrov Bov<; ou KaTWpBwae 

p.eff uTTavTrnv ouic oveiSi^eiv ovBe XoiBopelaSai tuj 
TotoiiT<p BUatov^ aWa avudyBeaOai. ipavi^acrat 
Tavra irdvB' ovTdn; ov fiovov roiii vofioi^, aWcL ical 
^ <f>va'K auTti TOK aypdipoit voftifioiv Kai rot? dv8pa>- 
irivoti ^6eai BifiipiKeir. Kl<y)(lvrt'i roiwv roaovrov 
vTrepffiffX.iiicei' oTrai'Tas dvdptinrovt ai/ioTTfTt xal },, 
aVKOifjavTta, a>tne koX mv ainm dit drvj^fiaTtiV 
ep,e/iV}To, xal ravT ifiov xarriyopei. 

Kal wpo'i Tot? dWom, St^-mp avTo<; aTrXS? KaX 276 

;. oSt &Sik«v tls OVT ifyifjiiirk- alSipos ^ytiiaii Tfrarai Sii t ixM- 

I, i.e. one who niithir is guilty of tou of 771. 

tisliit nor errs {sc. itwr). 5. w^idrqn: c(. iiiiirepoi.^ 212^. 

r. imC &*dvTBV, i.e. in common 6. in aruxil^TUk; sec Aesch. 

in. 57, tQv ii irvx^iulruv arirrur 

§§ 276—296. Here Demosthenes 
begins by alluding to Ihe slteinpl of 
Aeschines to represent bim as a skilfal 
sophist and rhetorician, who will im- 
pose on the judges hy his wily ails. 
He retorts bj showing that his own 
oratorical power has always hecn 
exerted id behalf of Athens, while 
Ihat of Aeschinei has been used to 
helphei enemies or to gratify personal 
malice. He refers lo the lestimony 
of the citiiens in choosing him to 
deliver the eulogy on those who fell 
at Chactonea, as a proof of hii 
patriotism. P'inally, he declares that 
the present calamities of Greece have 
been caused by men of the stamp of 
Aeschines in various Greek states; 
and he gives a black list of these 
traitors who have betrayed their 
countries to the common enemy. 

§ 276. I. fimf...*[pi|Ka«, i.e. 
/losing as om icAo had always spoken 
his own thoughts horusHy and loyally i 
we generally translate 




76 I 

S 275. 2. Tols v4|u>it (without iv 
2,Ai), by Ihela-ws: cf, XX. 57, TaBra 
(ol i^^i rmi KoX Ji^ii ZiiiptiiTax. 

3. TOlt &Yp&i^OLf vo^lfiOK, by the 
principles of unwrillen law, further 
explained by roir itSpaitltniix ^Besi : 
cf. § 114'. The unwritten law is 
known as the law of Nature, the 
moral hiw, the divine law, or the 
higher law, the law which is not alia 
lex Romae, alia Athenis. Aristotle 
distinguishes two kinds of unwritten 
law, one the noiMi »4*un, i naTd 
ipiaa, the universal law of Natore, 
the other a branch of the special law 
of particular Slates, by which the 
defects of the written law may be 
remedied, Ihat is, ri iTuiKit, eqvity. 
See Rhet. I. 13. As an example of 
the universal law he quotes Antig. 
45^ 457. "* 1^» Ti...ii Bt-ou >dn;, 
and the verses of Empedoclea ; 

dXXi ri iiit iriiniav tbfupav Sid t' 



fitT evvoiat ■trdvra'i elpijKoi^ tows Xoyou?, <j>v\dTTeid 
31S ifie Kal TTipeiv iiciXevev oiroi^ fit} "rrapaKpavtrofuxc- 
/iijS' efaTTdT^o-u, Seivov Kal yotjra xal aoifitiTTJjV ual 
TO, Totaur' ovofid^aip, ai? e^i* vporepm Tti eiTrri t« S 
wpotTOi/d' eauT^ irepl dWov, ical Sij ravO ourtn't 
ej(0VTa, Kal ov/teTi roii? aKovovTat aKe-^^Qp-ivovi ti? 
iroT avTOi iari.v a Tavra 'Keyav. ejw 8' olS' art 
yiyfOJiT/ceTe tovtov atravTei, koX "koKv tovt^ ii.aXK.ou 
^ 6/ioi. vofil^ere raSra wpoerelvai. KaKelv e5 o'S' on 371 
Tr}U ifirji' SeivQTtjTa — ecnm yap. Kalrot eyoiy opa 
rr)<i T<hy XeyouTcav Svvdii.eoi'; Toi? aKovovrai to TrXei- 
trTov Kvplou^ ' (05 yap av ii/^ei^ dTro^4^i}<j8e koX ■rrpo'; 
eicaiTTOv e-)(j)T eiiPoia<!, outois o Xeycev eSofe (ppoveiv. 5 
el S* oSi* iffTi Kal trap' ipoi Ti? fiiireipla ToiauTi), 
TavT7)v p,iv evpjja-eTe irdvTe'i ec Tot? Koiuots e^era^O' 
p-evr^v inrep iipMV del Kal ovSap.ov naff up-iav avK 

venience) a! if he had !poten (^uasi 
vera dixissel. West.), thougb thece is 
nothing conditioiial to tbe participle 
with 6imp, which merely expcesses 
comparison (M.T. 867) : having, as it 
■were, spoken, would be more correct, 
though less clear. See batitp oixt 
§323', and note on i«(s). 

3, 4k(Muiv ; sc, vittLi, — ftmis jit] 
'ropaKpsJsvp.aL : the subject of the 
object clause appeara by attractioo 
C;^> in the leading clause (M.T. 
3Q42). This is a reply to Aeseh. 16, 
174, ao6, 207, and other passages. 

5—7- is...o&r»s ixovra (accus. 
abs., M.T. 853), i.c. assuming that this 
must needs be so. it has no more con- 
ditional force than Siexep (1), though 

in translation (M.T. 864) : notice 06- 
k4ti with aspjiaiiinivttWiU HOl fiirlher 
consider, showing that there is noth- 
ing conditional in tbe enpression. rd 
TpDirdtifl' lOiVT^, i.e. things which are 
true of himself (cf. wpo(!iiya.t, 1. 10). 

g 277. 2. S<rTu -ydp, well! grant 
thai I have it. Having broken his 
sentence, he proceeds to say that 
the hearers have it in their power 
to neutralize the highest gifts of 
eloquence by refusing to listen. See 
X13C. 340, al tsiy toIvuv dXXat Svyifieis 

4. wf &v...vp6t Ikucttw Ix't^ 
cAvoCas. i.e. aciording to your good- 
'Oiill towards laih, tirolas being 
psrttlive with la;, as in eCt rsiiTa 
lirolas. (C. IO92.) Cf. Thuc. I. 22. 

5. oStui ^ovtlv, i.e. fS at nanuli 

6. J)iir<tpla, substituted modestly 
for the stronger lftrir'i)Ta of 1. a, the 
original construction being resumed 
byTBifri,. (7). _ _ 

7. l£«Ta[a)UVT|v vinp w(i»v. mar- 
sialled on your side, the familial 
military figure: see notes 
and § 173^ 


tSifl, T^f Be TOVTOV Tovnainiop ov ii6vav t^ \4yet» 
inrip t£v e')(9pwv, aXKa koI eX nf iXtrmja-e n rovrov lo 
ij irporreKpovffe ttov, Kara TOVrav. oii yap avr^ 
SiicaiW, ouS' i<f> a <ru/i<f>e'p€i tj TroXet, j(pTirai. ovre 
yap Tf]V opyT)v ovre ttjv E-)(0pa.v oi/t" aXK' ouSii/ t5>v 
ToiovTOiv Tov icaXav KayaBov TroXiriji' hei toik imep 
Twi* Koivmu elireXtjXvdoTa'i Sixacrrii a^tow ai/r^ 
^e^aiovv, ovB' vrrep tovtwv eh vp.av elaievai., aXXa 5 
fidXioTa fiev fif) e^etv Tavr iv rp ipvaei, (I B' ap' 
avayKij, irpdto'i xal fierpito'i SiaKtt'/J.ei'' 6)(eLv. iv 
rlaiv oZv tr^ohpov eivai tojj iroXiTem/ievov xal top 
p^TOpa Bel ; ec oh two oKcav n KivBwevejai tj 
TTokei, Kal iv oh trpo'i rovi ivavTlov; ia-rl t^ SiJa'?'. 
ew TovToii- Tavra y&p yatvaiov xal ayaOov ttoXitou. 
319 fiijSevo^ S' aBiK^fiaro"; Tranrore Bi^p-oiylov — •irpo<T0^aco 279 
Be ^i^^B' IBiQU — BiKTjV a^Ltoa-avra Xa0eip irap' efiov, 
fi^$' vTrep Tij? TToXfai? nrjB' tnrep auTov, tTTe^dvau 





5 99" 

We a 


familiar with anybody becoming Ihtm 
in conversation. The whole exprea- 
sion rf rw AiJtijo^ Ti...™ri mirav 
(gralifyiitg private grumes) is op- 
posed to oiH" mt (8). as i-rip Thv 
ixOpUr is opposed to iirtfi A^ud (8). 
§ 278. 3. ivcp Tfiv PEoivBv, with 
etirfX-iihuBirai, i.e. tt/Ao have come into 
fovrt to give judgment for the public 
good, opposeil lo ipiiie,..pfff!uoiii. 

4. &|loOv o^t^ ^PfUoCv, (0 ask 
(them) la coitjirm for him, i.e. by 
condemning his opponent. 

5. vir^ ToiTuv, for these ends, 
i.e. to gratify hia ipy^i or ix^P"- 

6. tiUiiTTa |MV, heH of all. — il 8 
Ip* AvA^mi, i.e. but if after all he 

St have thtse f/ilings. Cf. § 178". 

7. tv Ttinv...S<ii when should an 
orator ase all his yehemence? 

9, tAv&Xuvtl, any of the supreme 
(entire} interests of the state: cf. 

10. (o-tI t^ a^|ii|i, the people are 

iv ■ 

reply t< 

with strongest 

the ques- 
), he de. 

emph. , 
tion tr rlaiw...Sei; 
scribes the present 
dues notjustify vehemence in anori 

2. |1T|6' IGCou (sc. dSiKiifiaTas) 
tinues the construction of djifuia 
cf. vni. 39, 40, /x^pit flXp TH riy 


3. m^vov. . . KUTTiYopIliiV, ai 

eusa/ien agaiTtst a erevin and a 
of thanks {ivoXtov) (i.e. against a , 
position to confer these) ; nearly all 
decrees conferring a .... 



Kal eiTaluov /caTijyopiav -^Keii/ avveaKWaafievav xol 1 
rocrouTOVtrX X070W avrfKmicevat, tSlav e'xGpat; xalS 
<f>dovou Kal liiKpo^lrvy^ia'; iarl <n}/x€iov, ovSeiwM 
j(fiT)<nQv. TO Se hi] xai tout tt^o! e^' avrov nYwfas'B 
edaama vvv inl tovS' i}Keiv xal iraaav e^ei Kaxiav, 
Kal tiQL 6o«eK ex tdvtwi', Ala^ivTj, \6ycav ciriSetJic 280 
Ttiio Kai tfymuaffKtai ^ouXofifvoi iroLrjiraaBai Tovrav 
TrpoeXe<rdai tou ay&va, ovic ahiitTifJ.aro'; ouSevfK 
Xa^elf Tifitapiav. eaTi S' ou^ a Xayo'i rati prirapo';, 
Klaj^ivTi, Tip,iav, ovS' 6 ToVor t^t 0an^?, aWA to 5 
TayT^ -TTpoaipelirOai, TOi? ttoXXow Aral to tow avroii? 
p,uTilv KoX ^iKiiv ovamp &v t] Trmpk. o yap avroK 281 
e^^wv T^i* "^vyifv, oCtos eV evvoia ttovt epd' 6 &' 
a^' Siv ri TToXi! vpooparat Kivhvvov Tiv eavT^, 
TovTov; BepaTreveDii ouk iwl t^c air^'i opfiel to« 
TToXXorf, OVKOVV oiiBk T^s aff^aXfi'a? Ttjv aurrjir ej(ei 5 
trpoahoKlav. aXX' — opa^ ; — £701 ■ toutw yap ervftipe- 

B-vvurKtviuT^, /lavitig Irum/led Etolius XiU, 55 (Paroein. Gr. II. 
p. 591) : both note the ellipsis of 
iyt6pai. Another exprcaaon WM 
M i9uoT> iptici (sc. iynipair), irl r^r 
itrrifi^iit ixi"'" (Apostol. VII. 6l), 

6. ^vnfei/vjijkai, lillliness cf soul, 
opposed to /«7aXo^i;xI(i, § 68': cf. 
§ 169*.— oiStvis xFn""™"' neuter, 
cf. fiytt. rd xPI'Ti, xx. 165. 

7. T<ius,..diY>'>'MtdiravTawilh Jirl 
riti' ^ttit recurs (o the idea of § it. 

8. Kal strengthens irao-np, At very 
depth ef basmes!. 

% 280. I. Jwvoinclat, diclama- 
lion (practice of voice) : cf. § 308", 
and ^uDaiTKi^Ei and re^uvairK))«U>> 
in xrx. 255, 336. — toStsv rlv d^a- 
VB, i.e. this firm of suit (against 

6. TOilTd ir|Maip<t<rSai mis iroX- 
Xott: cf. §§ z8i', 192'. 

§ 281. 4. Toiinvi renews em- 
phatically the antecedent implied in 
d^' Jill. — aCN..,ip|itI (sc. iygipat), 
dors not ride at the same anehor, 
an oft-quoted saying. See Harpocr. 
underoi!* iwX T^t le.r.X,, and Apo- 

which Solon refers i 
parison of Athens with her two 
senates to a ship with two anchors: 
Plut. Sol. 19, alliftm i-rX Iivl ^ovXaii 
Sis-Kepi.'ii^pt.ixhpiiavnt.titTTiiii it aiXif 
TJ)V TiXiv iaiaiai. Cf. Soph. Ant. 
iSS— 190, quoted in xix. 147. 

C. oCkduv eJISl: the two negatives 
unite their force, and that of aE>, 
therrfire, remains: oinovv oiSi would 
give essentially the same sense. 

6. i|4(; see oix ipft: U 232°. 
266', and oi7ip; § 136'.—!^: the 
ellipsis may be supplied from ovrwt 
l^w rJjp fiix^>' C')' '"'h 'he pre- 
ceding Ti.../iur«i> Kal 4)iXeii'. 

7. tLXdii'qv, in the sense of 
rpoa,ptiteai (S 2So^).-^t.:ptTV^m 
clusii -^ 


povff eiKofi/qv Toirroicri, koI ouSef i^aiprrop ouS" 
iSiov TTeTTOMj/xat. ap' oiiv ovhk trv ; koX ttw? ; 8s 389 
evddwv pitra ttjv pLd)(>]V ■rrpta'fffUTi]'; e-jropevov irpiK 
^iXiTTWoVj 3? fjii rmv eKfivoti tok •)(p6voi'i iTVp,<fiopS>v 
aiTiai Tp traTptSi, ical ravr apvovp.evo'i Trdvra tot 
ifiTrpoiT&e jfpavov TavTt}V ttjh '^(fieiav, w? TraiTCT S 
taaaiv. tcaeroi Tvi 6 rr/v ttoXcv i^a-KarStv ; oiix o 
fii} XeyMc B. tppopu ; tw h' 6 xJjpv^ xaraparat 
SiVfflHBS ; ov TO) Toiovrq) ; rl Se pfil^on e^oi. tk &v 
) direlv aSiKripa uar auBprn prjropo^ f) d p.r) -ravra 
iftpovel aal Xeyei ; av toivvv o!jto^ tiipedij^. dra av 381 
t(>0eyy€L teal jSX.CTTCd' eis ra rovrrai/ irpoaoiira toX- 
/iSs; TToVep' ov^ rjyel 'yifv<i)aiceiv avrov^ o(ttit eZ ; ^ 
ToaovTov vTTvov ical X^dr/v aTrai^as ej(^eiv aitrr oi) 


{ 282. I. op' otv oiSi ori; cai 

'At lame h said also a/ you? i.e. aiSt\ 

3. irp«rP(VTi|t irpit ftXiinrav 
Aeschines (ill. 227) says of this, ^9n 

piat T^t riXiiO! ivpta^tiofuy. Ac 
Khines, Demades (froin whom iht 
peace was namecl, § 185°), and prob. 
ibly Phocion, went to Philip I 
eotiate a peace after Chaeronea. see 

5. ta.^nft -rii* XP''<i'>': this, taken 
with rbc fiiirfioaSf XP^""'' fefec!! to 
earlier personal intetcourae with 
Philip. Aeschines is now less 
anxious to repudiate this charge, in 
Ibe day of Alexander's great success 
in Asia: see ill. 66, i 74p /uoo- 
M^tSpm mi/l ipiimiii' ciroi (at rirt 
jiuro^iXlTTO! Aiinaa8trrj!,i rijv (erlav 
lltol rpa^ipwr tV ' A.\e(irSpiiv, and cf. 
SSSI, 52 (above). 

6. i )ti] U7av=i)t liii Xtya. 

7. KaTopoTiu: a moat eompre- 
liensive curse (dpi) was a part of the 

I religious ceremony at the opening 

of each meeting of the Senate and 
Assembly. See xxiit. 97 ; iidirep 
leaTa/joTBi KaS' iKivTiiy ititX-iialav i 
Kfjpvi...a T« ^a^HTf X^Q,ffl ,3o«\),« 

^ S^imr ij TJ|v ^XuifoB. Aeschines, aa 
inraypafifiaTeiup ipip real imtptTi^v T$ 
jSovX^i had the duty of dictating thii 
curse to the herald. See Diaarcb. I. 
47 (of Demostb.), Kariparm Si xaf 

fi^Hii iilipa lari t^ w6\tias cCKiiipAt, 
rffijiroTJuUii di Kal t4* J^m' lai riji" 
^»uXJ)v iraplkT^v ipi,r, cai Iripa ftir 
y-iyur (repa Si ippovEli', which 
shows that i lii} X^Mv i ippayti (6) 
was included in the same curse. See 
note on §^130!. 

10. ovros: cf. lipirttv oBro! i-fii, 
§ 173^ 

§ 283. 4. Orr oi |upv^ir4ai, 
(so) iial tkiy do not remcmbtr, not 
(so) as not to remember: this is a 
regular case of Ciatf di! with the in- 
finitive in indirect discourse, where 
the direct form would have been 
ToffoijTDu vriniv...txo<'<^"' ^r' 
^/.v^rrai (M.T. 594). 


fj^fivrjaOai tow Xo'you? ou? iStjiMijyopeii iv Tp i 
Xefi^, KaTaptofievoi Kai Sio^W'fiei'OS fiijBev elvat troll 
ical 'J'l.XtTnrp wpdyfia, aX\' i/ik ttjv 
ravTTjv eTrdyeiv riji ISi'a^ eu€K ey^ffpa^, ovk < 
aXjiS^. w? S' a-TTiiyyeXGi) TaxurG' j] fidj^i}, ovBeu 284 
TOVTOiv t^poVTiaa'i euOew; wfioXdyet? Koi Trpacrerroiov 
tpiXiav leal ^evCav elvai trot wpo<; airrov, tj fiitrdapi'ia 
ravra fieraTidefievoi to, ovoftara- ck Trot'o? yap tffTj? 
^ hiKaiwi irpo^daeaK AiV;^(Vj7 t^ V\avKo64a^ t^s 5 
jvp.TTavia-rpia'i ^ivo^ -rj ifjtXo^ t) yvmpipM^ jjc <&iX(7r- 
TTOS ; eym ovx opS), aXX' e/i.tadrodr)'; CTri t^ to, 
rovToifl ffup,cfiepovTa SiatpOti'peiV. aXX' optoy;, ovrw 
^aveptai airrov elXtipfievot -rrpohoTrj^ Kai Kara <ravTou 
piTjvvTrj^ cttJ. TOis avp^aai yeyovai';, ipoi XotBopei lo 
Kal ovfiSi^iK Tuvra, &v ndvras paXXav atriov^ 

HoXX^ Koi KaXi, xal fteydXa ^ ir^iv, Attrylvr), 285 

■t| YviipL|iat, nr evtn an a^quaiiU- 
KaT& TauTa6,..<^u)l,paa■^ an 

5. Iv T^ iroXl^fp: opposed to 
»in-i tV >"^X^' (§ 282*) when Ae- 
schines went on his embass]' to 

6. Ka-mpdjuvra Kal GLo^vifiivot, 
cursing (i.e. pcotesling, with curses 
□n himself tf lie was false) and 
netariHg; like Matth. Evang. xxvi. 
74, rJTf ijpiaTo (U4Tpoi) KKraBiiunl- 
ftir jrol d/cR^ii', thfti began he to curst 

7. t4]» atrEav TaiTT|v; i.e. iki 
chargt of intimate lelations with 

S 284. 2. (DiioXd-yti;: i.e. ^our 
friendship with Philip. 

3. +Ata» Kal £«t<iv: see §§ 51, 

4. |UTan«()wvoSi stiisHtu/ttg {ap- 
plying by exfhatigi) . 

6. T«(iirayiB-rpta», timirel-ieater : 
the Tipjranr, ielllt-drum, was a 
favourite instnunent in the Asiatic 
~ s described in Jg 259, 260. 

gzS5<) he had denied everything 
whii^toldagainst him (S 283'J. See 
% 197' and note. _ 

II. xdvras pioXXoVii.e. anyralhcr 
than myself: most Mss. (not £ and 
LO add the implied i( ^p?. 

§285. I. iraXXd Kal KaX4 
K.T.'K: these accusatives are direct 
objects of irpoefXsTo, but cognate with 
Kariipeiiiat. Demosth. invariably uses 

as i 

i 274^ oi> 

ariipg^l. If an 

object is added, 

s in XXI. 106, eJ 


lognatc: see 

Cor. S 290» 

Tol! KaTlip$Q<i¥ roil 


.tou.inv, is n, 


batants to succeed 

bnt Ihi luccas 0/ 



a wivra KttTefiSeSr, 



Kol irpoeiXcTO xal Karaipffwae Si' efiov, &v avK rj/iini- 
fj^PTjaep. ai)iieiov he- j(€tpoTOP&v yap o S^^09 701* 
ipovirr' eVi. TOW TeTekevTTjKOffi Trap' aura to. (rufi- 
fidvTa ov (re ij^eipordifijo'ei' irpo^Xrfdeina, Kahrep S 
ev^mvov oma., ouSe Ai)fid&T}p, apri irewaiTiK&Ta Tr/v 
etp'qP7}v. oi/h' 'Hy^piOva^ ovS' aWop vp-Siv ouScW. 
aXV ep.e. ical TrapeXdoPTO'i aov ical UvSoKXeov; 
: aiftw Kal UPaiBw, & Zev ical Oeol, xal Karijyopavp- 
Tcav ifiou TavB' S xai irv puvl xal \oiSopovp.^pa>p, er 1 
afiuvop ej(^EipOT6pTji7eP fie. to 8" amon ovk ayposl^ 2 
fiev, o/iQK Si iftpdirm cot Kay^. apipoTep' -jiSeaaP 
avTol, TrjP r ifir/p evpaiav Ka\ ■n-poBvi/.lav pe8' 5' tA 
xpray/ioT ewparrop, Kai T7}p vfierepap aBiKi'ap- S 
yap eii6epoiiin<ov tmu ■rrpayp.draip '^ppilaSe &iop.vv- S ] 
lUei-oi, toOt' ip oh ewTaitreP fj Tt6\i^ wpaXoyrjaare. 
Tots' oSc eVt TOt? KOtPol'; aTV^TJparTiv Sip iijipdpovp 
\a06pTai dSeiav e^Opois pep wdXai, (fiavepov; Sk 

Id succtfd in ail thing!, just preced- 
ing. In other authors Korvp^w is 
often active, as in Soph. El. 416, 

J. riv ^Ovt', i.e. the orator for 
the public funeral. The funeral 
eulogy on those who fell in battle 
was first introduced (ace. to Diod. X[. 
33) in the Persian wars. We have 
one genuine /viriipuis \iyot, thai of 
Hyperidesin honour of those who fell 
in the Lamian war (322 B.C.); the 
famous eulogy of Pericles in 430 B.C., 
giTcn in the words of Thucydides 
f 11. 35—46) ; with one in Plat. Menex. 
(236--349), sportively asorilicd to 
Aplasia by Socrates. The one as- 
cribed to Lysias (11.) is of doubtful 
aathenticLty, and that found among 
the speeches of Demoalhenes (LX.) 
is certainly spurious. 

4. Trap airi ri ini|ipdi'Ta : i.e. 
when there might have been a 

as a leader who had failed (cf. 

§ ns^). 

5. TTpo^iiUvTO, Hominated: cf. 
§ i49°- 

7. Hy^iieva, mentioned by Ae- 
achines (111. 25) ; he belonged to the 
Macedonian party at Athens with 
Demades and Pylhotles. 

S. irapcXfidvTot before iroC Kal 
UveoK\4av!, but Kar-qyopairrur after 
these words. 

lo. & sal o-ti rm\, i.e. 'UiiicA you 
again C«ai) now thargt me wilh. — 
It afuivav, all Ihi more eagerly. 

§ 286. 3. a*Tol, of ihemselvi! 
(without being told). 

4 — 6. a ^dp. . . u|ioXo^iraT4 re- 
peats for the whole Macedonian party 
what was said of Aeschines in §S 282, 
283. For JtD/ittSMcm see % 283^. 

7. Toiit. ■ .XaPdvTBi Mnav, i.e. 

miniis with 

§§ tgS, 263'. 



Tod" fj-yriaavTO aurol'i •yeyeuiia-dai. • etra xal Trpatr^ 287 
Kav [vTToXa/x^acoi'Te?] tov epovW cttI rots TereKeu- 
TijKoai leal rijv iicetViov dpeTijv KO<jfi'^aiivra f"]^ 
oiitupotpLoi/ fXTjB' oiioiTirovhov feyfifrjiievov eivai TOt? 
7r/30! eKelvovi frapara^aneuoK, fj,TiB' iieet ftip xoifta- 
^eiP Kal Traioivl^uv errl tok tSjv 'EiXKtjvwv trv/itfiOpaK 
fiera twc avToy(€ip<i3v tov ipdi/ov, Sevpo S' iXdoura 
Ttfiaadat, ^jjSe rg (f>o}v^ haiepvuv irrroicpivofievoi' t^w 
eKeivrnv TV')(r)P, aWa Trj ^tJXV cvPt'^^l^tv. tovto S' 
empwv Trap' eavrol-i Kal trap' e/ioi, jrapk S' vfiiv ov. 
Bik raiiT ep.' i-)(eipor6vq<ja.v Kal ovx v/J.a'i. Kal ovx 
6 p,iv h9ip.o^ ovTwi, 01 Be rwv TenXevnjKOTmv irwrepf^ 


287. 1. lira Kal TifoiH\Kt\,v: 
c.*>Va«-o(from§286'). I bracket 
inrB\a)i.§inirTa with Blass: a. mere 
carelessness ia style, aiming at no 
ibetocicd edect, seema innltntssible 
in this □ration : see note on § 3 1 7 °. 

4. i|jj«pii<bu>v : to be undir iht 
same rDo/^with anyone had a peculiar 
signilicance to the Greeks. Trials 
for homiciile were held in the open 

r that neither the judges nor the 
prosecutoi (usually a. relative) might 
be under the same roof with the 
accused. — ^frytviipivov ilvui, not a. 
mere pleonasm for 7n'"^*'i, but 
expressing more forcibly the com- 
bination of past [LDd future which is 
oflcn seen in ipytr^iBai (M.T. 102, 
log), i.e. they thought he should not 
be one vika had been under the iarnt 

5. irapaTa{a|iiviii$ : see §208^. 
and note on ffu;iiriV(iTo£ctf««ii, § 216*. 
— JKii Ku^dtdv: the revilling in 
Philip's camp after the victory at 
Cbseronea was notorious. See Pint. 
Dem. 20, where the story is told of 
Ihedrnnlten Philip rushing out among 
the slain and chanting the introductory 
words of the decrees of Demosthenes, 
which make an iambic tetrameter : 

TdJ' er». 

See ] 

t nai 

Aeschines ia charged with 
joining familiarly in the festivities 
held by Philip after the desCructioD 
of the Phociana (see Hist. % 38). 

7. TBv a<lTox([p''v: airhxtip U 
properly one who commits any deed 
by his own hands or by his own act, 
as in Sopb. Ant. 306, tA>> a^ijcipa 
7-oufe TDu Tiij)ov. It also, when 
ipinu is easily understood, means a 
murderer, as in Ear. H. F. 1359, 

&. TQ <^<eii^ SoKpfti* : a, strone 
metaphor, opposed to t^ ^"XTI 
<ru^a,\^el^ (9). — &irOKpi,vd|i«>«v, Hie a 
play-actor. — r^-» •rfx'l'': object ot 
SatpicLt. Blass takes it with imaKpi- 
tbiitvay, as in XIX. 246, ' km-fbinir 

1 1 . vfSit, i.e. any em of you. Ct. 
t^5.. § 285'. 

§ 288. I. o^, negativing the 
two clauses with )!** and W; cf. 
S 13", and the grand climax In § 179, 

2. irarfpts Kal dS(\i^l : the pub- 
lic funerai was in charge of a com- 
mittee of relatives of those who had 



Kai aSeXtfiol oi irtro rov Btjuov toB" alpeOevret cTri 
TO? Ta(f>a<: oXXtD* Traie' aXX^ 8eof woieiv avToin to 
TrepiSetTTPOv ow Trap' otKeiordr^ rSiv reTekeVTqKOTtov, 5 
wa-irep xaXX' eta>ffe ^C'^veaOai, tout' hroli^ffav Trap' 
e/ioi, ewcdrai!* 7a'et /icc yhp i/eaaTo-i e/cdar^y fiak- 
Xoc oiiceto^ v" eVoO, koii^ Se Trao-ti' oiBtU iyyvrepto ■ 
, ^ yii,p iKeivov<; amSijvai xal tcaTopdoiaai fi.aXi.aTa 
hie^p^n, oCto? Ka\ iraSovrmv a /i^TTOx' w^Xov Tijf >o 
inr'ep a-ndurav Xuttj;! irXettfTOK turcl'yfv. 

A.e^£ S airrip tovtI to iwiypap-fia, S hinioala 289 1 
trpoeiXed' ^ ttoXi? auroi? iTri-ypd-^^at., iv elh^, 
KiaxivT]-, Koi eV avrm ToiiTtp traVTOv ayew/xova Kai 
avKOtftdvTTjv ovra Koi ftiapov. \eye. 



ri *ip(S(Hr¥av, Mf funeral 
takqwt: see Hermann (Blflmner), 
(Gr. Priv. Ant. S 39 (p. 371); Smith, 
Diet Ant under FuniU. 

Ai irop* oliMLOT&T^ n/ Mr 
sf him viho stoed in the chsul 
fossihh retaliiin ta the deceived, as 
■ private funerals the nearest tela- 
Itvi. <lt belongs to aUtiBTirif, in the 
usual intensive sense ; cf. § 246', lij 

6. fi<nrcp,..Y(YV<v4(u, i.e. as is 
the custom at private funerLils. — 
{n)(T)<rav: like T«etr in 4. 

9. ^...SUi^ipiv, i.e. -wka had most 
at slake, i.e. in their success. 

10. Kai, likewise. — £ (iVprar &^' 
Xov (scira0(rO,1it. wJiVii would they 
had never suffered: this rather poetic 
form of an nnsttained wish is used 
here for aoimation, and again in 
I 3*>*. See M.T. 734, 736. 

% 289. t. &i])UMr(fh with Iwir 

2. vpotlXiv i| irdXif , more formal 
than iloit t^ t6\ti, perhaps impljdag 
(as H. Jackson suggests) a choice 
from epigrams sent in by competing 
poets — tv tlIrgi...)iiUipdv: eupmined 
in § 29a 

Epigram. This cannot be the 
res.1 epitaph inscribed on the public 
monument of the heroes of Cbae- 
ronea. It has too little poetic merit 
and too slovenly a style to be accepted 
ta genuine. It is not in the older 
Mss., and it appears in the Anthal. 
Graeca, rv, p. 249 (Jacobs). 

of 01 

: genui 

ie (9), 

which is quoted by Demosthenes ii 
§ zgo' (see note on this verse). A 
small fragment of an inscription has 
been found at Athens, cut (ace. to 
Kiihler) lielween 3J0 and 300 B.C., 



fULpvafUVol S* aptriji koI Sci/mtos ovk 

ijnixM AAA' 'AiSjjv Kotvov iScvro ^pa^, 

ouvtKtv EkX.T}i"Bv, ojs fi^ £uyof QUjjti'i flewcs 



■yoHi St irarpi 

ItijStv a/iapTtiv tart 6 
iv yS'DTg' fioipav 8' t 

which contains parts of six words of 
an epigram in the Antbol. Pal. vil. 
245 - '^i^ epigtam was evidently ia- 
sciibed to the heroes of Chaeronea. 
The full epigtam i; as follows, tlie 
letters found in the inscription being 
ptinted in heavy type ; — 
^(1 Xp6n, irnvTD[«» Bnrrors jrowrl- 

'A77e\<M ijpiiT^piiiv irS<ri 7£H)E ird- 

'Hc lipir aifCtiv rtifiifiirot'EtAiSa 

'BtUiirSe kKuvoU fliTfiritD/ie* itiare- 

This, though gennine, cannot be the 
inscription quoted by Demosthenes, 
aa it does not have the verse /iiji^i"... 
KaTOfidovy; hut there were undoubt- 
edly many epigrama commemorating 
the men of Chaeronea. 

V. I. Wtyra iv\a, arrayed /i/itt- 
seh-ei (lit. flaad Iheir arms) : see 
Arist. Pol. Alb. 8» «i ftp D-j-MiaiBiiffij! 
T^! TtlAtaii fi^i SiJTU t4 87rXa ^ijiJ 
pte' irtpav, i.e. joha lakts sides loilh 
neilhir party. So Plat. Rep. 440 E. 
This is enough to show that the old 
interpretation of TfflnrSni BirXa (as in 
Thuc. 11. I, twice), lo piU and Hack 
arms, is untenable, though it still 

V. 2. dir«™f6airov, sealtertd, 
broaght lo nought: a patriotic ex- 
aggeration as applied to Chaeronea, 
perhaps referring to some special 
exploits of the Atheniane. Diod. 
(XVI. 86) says, iiiy^ yAt tiwi i i-iitv 

Ala; )jSc Kpi<TL^' 

Ettiv Kai TrdvTa KaropSovv 

V TL tjivyitv t-rroptv.^ (lo) 

A)i<l>iSaiov)ifras fixe rds iXriSas r^i 
fluTji. Cf. Lycurgus (Lcoc. 49), tl 
Si Sii Kal rapadoilrraToy /Uf t/xer^ 
i\^eis Si, iKiin}, tiKwyTis itrd- 

V. 3. &p<Tf|t Kal &<l|uiTos must 
depend on ppa^i, arbilir, hy an 
kyperbaton which would he incredible 
in the genuine epitaph; oi*» 
^ux^' ^^ being introduced in place 
ofaparticipialdaaae likeoiiiiffan-ei 
■^vxii. The meaning evidently is, in 
tht battle, while ihey sarrifieed their 
lilies, Ihey left la the God of Death Is 
jui^e •mktlher ihey shotfed courage or 
fear. There is a similar kyperhaioH 
in Xen. Hell. ^'il. 3, 7: iiult TO*t 
wtpl 'Apx'l' "nl "tTriTiir,...oi •pf^T 
iytnitmrr, AW irirt rpam &iviii- 
ffftjTE in^iup-^airet (West.). 

1/. 5. oCviMv 'EtUVjvo* belongs 
to vzi. 3, 4.— IiKyiw a.i\lin. Urns, a 
strange espression for classical limci, 
but common in later poetry, as in the 
Anthology (Blass). 

V. b. i.f^\a tx"""* (with M"*). 
have about them, wear, like a yoke; 
cf. Od. IM. 4S6, nioy iiyybt d/i^li 

V, 7. tSv irXiurra Knp^VTBv, 0/ 
men ■who moil grinvuily lobeured, 
refeiringtotbe defpal; to these words 
lift {v. S) refers back. 

IT. g, 10. |iT|S<v,..iv Pmt5,i7 « 
Ihegifl of the Gods (for men) netier A 
fail and ain-ays to succeed in life, i.e. 
this is a miraculous exception in 
mortal life; opposed to which is the 



'A#cov6t9, Alax^vrfy xal iv ain^ rovrm fArjSkp afiap- 290 
relv iari Oe&p xal irdvra KaropOovv ; ov t^ 
avfi/3ov\(p rijp tov KaropOovv roxf^ aytovi^ofiA/ov^ 
av€07fK€ Bvva/uvy a\\ci> roh Oeoi^. rC o&/, & KardpaT^ 
ifjLol irepl TOVTOiP \oiBopely Kal XdyeK & aol xal roh 5 
aol^ oi 0€ol Tpdy^'cuiv ek K€<f>a\'qv ; 

IIoXX^ roCvw^ & apBp^ *A0npaloc^ Kal a\\a 291 
KaTTfyopriKdro^ avrov Kal Kare^^^apApov^ fjkd\i<rT 
iOavpMaa irdvTap Sre t&p crvpLpepriK&rwv t6t€ ry 
irdXec fiPrfaOeU oifX ^ ^^ eivov^ xal Bixaio^ iroXl- 
ny? €cr')(€ rifp ypdp^rfv^ ouS* iSdKpva-ev^ ouS* erraffe 5 
ToiovTOV ovBkv ry '^^XVi aXX' hrdpa^ t^p (fxopijv xal 

fixed rule that death is appointed for 
all, fu!ipav,.jTOp€v (sc. Zei>s /3poroct). 
The two verses contain the ix Aids 
KpUrii ; but the change of construction 
in iwipav,..tirop€v is awkward, and iv 
^lori is an unnatural addition to v, 9. 
It is now known that iirid^v &fMfyr€i¥ 
iffTi 0&»v (or OeQy) xal xdrra Karop- 
Oovv is a verse of the epigram of 
Simonides on the heroes of Mara- 
thon, of which two other lines are 
preserved : 

'EW-^iwp TpofJMXoOvTtf 'AOrivaioi 

Xpv<ro4>6p<a¥ 'NL'^duw iarSptaaw Ziva* 


Kirchhoff (Hermes VI. pp. 487 — 
4S9) quotes from a MS. scholium: x/yec 
d^ ^Lfiuvldrit iv iTiypdfi/MTi prf64vTi 
a^f M ToTi "NLapaBQpi Ttvovviv 'A0ri- 
valiaw rhv ffrlxov roOrov, Mi}d^r 
d/uaprecr iari BeoO Kal wdvra 
KaropBovv, See Bergk, Poet. Lyr., 
Simon, fr. 82, with the note. See 
Themist. Or. xxii. p. 276 B, hrtl 
hk rh iitidkv &/Mprdv€ip l^ca rijt ^ifire<as 
Keirai rijs dv6p(airljnfif,,,Tb ivlypafifJM 
d\ri$4ffT€poy 6 'AO'^vrfffiviviyiypairTai 
iv T$ rdif^tfi T(p dtiiMxrltp * Kal yiip rots 
$wTs ijMvou rb vdvra KaropOovv 

dwovifui. These two quotations refer 
to a verse in which " never to fail and 
always to succeed " is called a divine 
prerogative; while in the same words 
in the inscription quoted by Demos- 
thenes these are called a privilege 
sometimes granted by the »Gods to 
favoured mortals (see § 290). The 
original verse of Simonides, ixijSiv.., 
KaropOovv (without iv /3tor^), was 
probably used, as a well-known 
verse, in the genuine epigram on 
those who fell at Chaeronea (still 
without iv ^lori), but with a different 
meaning; and in this new sense it 
was quoted by Demosthenes in § 290. 
The writer of our epigram probably 
borrowed the genuine line (perhaps 
from the text of Demosthenes), and 
added the whole of v, 10. See notes 
of West, and Bl. 

§ 290. 4. dv46i)Kc : the epigram or 
its composer, or perhaps ij t6\ls, is 
the subject. 

5. a...€ls Kc^aX^v; cf. XIX. 130, 
d vvv els Ke4>a\^v iffxas adrf 8eT rpi- 
ypaif and § 294^ (below). 

§ 291. 4. tts &v: sc. I^xe or 
(Fxoivi cf. § 197*. 

5. Sorxc rt)v 7v^|&t|v, was disposed. 


373 yeyji^uK Kal Xapv^yi^tov ^ero fiev ifioi 
SriXoi/oTt, Belyfia B' i^e'i^pe Kaff 
yeyei/T/fiefOK avtapoii ovhei> o/ioita'i ea-)(£ tow oXKok. 
KaiToi TQV Toiu v6/ici3v Koi T^? TToXiTet'as 01 
^povTt^eip, S>mrep oJto? vvvl, Kal el fii/Siv aWo, 
TouTo 7' e^eiir Stl, ravrh. Xvjreladai Kal rauri 
yaipeiv TOK ■jToXKoL'!, Kol fti] Tp irpoaipe(T£i t«i 
KOLvwv iv rip tS)v evavrCinv p-epet jeTdj^Sai ■ S 
wPi Trerronjiedyi el 0ay*/)o?, ifi^ iravrtDv aXriov 
hC ifii e(9 TTpdyfiara <}>daK(ov ep.-7rerreli/ ri)v iroKiv, 
oi>K airh Tij? ifi-Tfi 7ro\(Tti'a? o^Se Trpoaipetreayi ap^t 
fievrov iip-wv T0t9 'EXXjjfft ^oi)8eiv • ivel efioiy 
TOVTO BoSeij} -Trap' vpav, Si ip-e u/ias ■fjvavTLuxtBi 
Tp Kara rS>v 'EW^fojii apjfp ■n-parrofievrj, pxi^u>v i 
Bo6eitj Boipea ffvp.-7raaoiP wv to« aWoi^ BeStincaj 
aW oijT av eyoi ravra ^Tiuaipi {aSiicoiijv yap c 



oW &P v/J.ii'i 

: h.p 

oil. avy)(a>pr\aaire ■ 
evtKa Trfi trpK i/ie 

•^Styymdai, riXX' iviTTiSiitii' irepiepyb- 
Tipar TV Xdpuyyi XPV"^"'' o&rws i\4- 
Ttro. Cf. Ar. Eq. 358, Xapuyyia 
roil ^i^rofKii, / n/iJi scrcich down the 

8. ScEfHA f ^ip(i he aiai making 
an exkibitioH, giving a sptcimin: cf. 
XIX. 12. — Btu...toIs oXXoij: depend- 
ina on the verbal force of Stifiia. — 
dviofols: causal diLtive 
iffictfd; cf. Uxf '■*' 


' <5>- 

rots 6XX01S: with ifiolut. 

^ 292. 1. tSiVvi^mv: Aescbinea 
began his speech (1 — -S) with a grand 
glorilicEition of the laws, and of the 
7pa4>il| irnpavA^B as the great bul- 
wark of tbe constitution. 

3. TaiTd...TaEi *oXXot$: cf. 

§ 192' and 1. a (below); see §5 93*, 

5. TtTdxBai, to be found {peMd). 

6. irfiroiTinin ; in or. oil, with (f 
^affphl (M.T. 907). 

7. irpi-yjiiiro, troubles: cf. Ar. 
Ach. 310, k-ri-rra* aXiltvi ray wpay- 
ftirat. See Aesch. 111. 57. 

8. aAK...p>n|0(tv: i.e. the polic; 
of helping friendly states against 
Pbilip has followed the true traditions 
of Athens ; see §g gj^ioo. Demosth. 
here only denies that he degan this 
policy (fiiK ipiafilniit). 

§293. 3. Tfl...irpaTTOnitTi, ilie 
dominion which was grou'ing up: cf. 

6. (C ot G £tl, aa usual, paren- 
thetic : oW IIti can be thus used eren 
with a participle, as in 



Koi Sie0a\Xev. 

'A\Xa Ti ravT itriritiai, troW^ iTj(eT\ic!>T£p' S9il 
aWa /cartj'yopiiKdTO'! avrou Kal Kaje-^iva p.m/ov ; 8s 
7ap ep-ov ifuXL-TnTiafioe, & 7^ Kal Oeoi, Karijjopet, ti 
oStos ovk av etiroi ; Kaijoi vij rov 'HpaKXea Kal 
irdirra-i deov^, « 7' iv a\Tj9eia'i teoi aKOVetadai, to 5 
icaTaip-evSiaSat icai Si ex^pa" ft Xeyeiu aveXdvrat 
ia fieaov, T{vei m? aXijOm't elinv ols av'el/coTOit xal 
BiKaioK Trfv Ttou "feyevyfiei/ion aWiau eVi t^i- Ke^aXtfV 
3a4 avaBetev airamei, tow 6p.oiov^ towt^ Trap' iied<rnj 

rStv ■n-oXerov evpoir ac, av roin ip.oi- a'i, ot ^i'296l 
acrOeifij ra ^iKiTnrov Trpdyfiara Kal koiiiSt) fUKpa, 
iroXXaKL^ •n-poXeyofrav fffiuyv koX irapaKaXovprcov 
Kal SiBatTKoUTfOv to. ^eXriara, t^? Iblav evex 
alffj^pOKtpBiiK Tw KOiv^ avfupepovra irpotevro, Toirj ; 

,): c 

1 Kal Gi^PaXXiv (with g 299. 

Id §§ 294—296 Demosthenes 
_ves a "black list" of the liallora 
who have helped Philb or Aleiandec 
in subjugating Greek states, and 
declaret that Aeachines is the repre- 
sentative of this pestilent class in 
Athens. Saving hia own country 
'ttotn the disgrace of joining or abet- 
this foul plot agsinsl liberty is the 
ervice for which he claims the 
if patriot, 
g 294. 3. JjioO ^iXiirris'iiiv: 
loe prominii is emphatic, me, of all 
Men. The word Philippic in all 
languages is a standing answer to the 
charge of Aeschines. 

6. iipAiiTtLs ix iiiraii (sc. i|U°i)> 

9. AvbSihv: ci. § ago'. 

10. ■{pOlT {ttipotti) &,v,youwottlii 

find, appealing suddenly to the court 
~~ the audience. 

the St 

£t ^v &ir4<vt), i. 

;ribed ir 

[1. 14— 

2, rd 4lX. irpdYiuiTa, 1 


3. irpoXrYivT<iiv.,.Td pJXno 
Demosthenes in the Olynthiai 
the Fnst Philippic. 

5- Toh SirdpxovTM voX(Tsv,fl 
thfir ovK Mlmii-eitiztns, those with^ 
whom each had to deal. Daochus 
and Tfarasydaus were the Theasalian 

ibassadors sent by Philip to Thebes 

' il9 \ 

. <se 


PerilTus, Timolaus, and Aristratus si 
nieationed in § 4S. Hipparchus and 
Qitarchus were set up as tyrants in 
Erelria by Philip about 343 B.C.: 
see §1 71, So, and Si. Most of the 
men in the list remain in deserved \ 

With this whole passage compare I 
§§ 45—49. and Polyb. x^ii. 14.1 
Polybius censures Demosthenes ftxl 
caUirg some of these 


tfideipoirre:, eoK SovXoik iiroit)<Tav, — &erra\ois A(f»| 
XO?i Ktvea^, &paavSao^- 'ApKaSa<i KepieiBa'i, 'leptit- 

wfio^, EiUKafiwiSa'i ' 'Apyeiotj^ Mvprt?, TeXe'Sa^o?, 
Muaffco! ■ 'HXeiov^ Ey|t'i9eo?, KX,eoTi/AO!, ' hpiffToix- i 
fioi ' M.ecrtTripiois o'l ^iXidhov toO BeoK l-)(6pQV 
iralhei "Setav Kal ©paavXo'^a';- ^iKucopioiK 'Apiinpa- 
T05, 'E7ri;^ci/3J75 ■ KopivOioiK Aeii'ap;^;o?, A'i]fia.p(To^- 
Meyapeav IlTOwStopo?, 'EXi|o9, UepiWof ©Tj^aiovs 
Tt/uft-a!, ©eoYeiTO)!', 'Ace/AoiTQ?- EufSoea? "Ittttci/j- ' 
;^o?, KXeirap'j^o^, SoKriarpaTo?. e^tTl'Kel^}ra fie \e- 296 
Fyoiifl" ^ rifiepa tA twjj -rrpoSoraip ovo/iciTa,. 
■TrdvTei etalv, avBpe^ 'AO^valot, rtav avratv ^ 

fidjtDv iv rait avrav ■n-dTpiaiu avyrep olnoi 

vfilv, dvdpeaiTOL fiiapoX koX KoXaKe; Kal aXdaropev, 5 
rjiepa)TT}piaafi.evQi rai eavrwv eKaaroi TrarpiSas, rijv 

TTrap- '5 

le \e-29fli 

TOpCT, 5 I 

maintaining that they ijid what they 
believed to be foe the best interest 
of their own states. Demosthenes, 
looking back on his long Struggle 
with Philip, felt that their selfish 
regard for the temporary interests of 
special cities, which always proved 
fata.1 to Hellenic unity, and their 
uttei disregard of the good of Greece 
as a whole, really amounted to 

g 296. I. {iriX(Ci|i(i...DV(S|ui.Ta: 

emphatic a^mdeton. Cf. the Epistle 
to the Hebrews, xi. 32, (TriXtliiei fit b 
XP*"ti and Cic. Nat. Deor. Ill, 32 
(El), dies deficiat si velim numerare. 
3. THV airfiv P(iuXcvp.dTuv, (men) 
of Iki samt purposes: thid genitive of 
quality is as rare in Greek as it is 
common in Latin. See Aesch. III. 
168, eeti^iJffttT ttiirip, »iij huaTlpav 

and Thnc. HI. 45^,iirXuiT re dSi}iiarai> 

5, dXdirropit, auHrsid wnkht! 

(applied to Philip in six. 305); 
properly victims of divine vengeance, 
as in Soph. A], 374, ^6%Ka. Ttt*i 
dXiiorgpst. OAeraif also means a 
diiiini avengir, as in Aeschyl. Peis, 
354, ipaitU 6.\inap f) KaKis tti/air. 
See note on dXiTitptat, J IS9». 

6. ■tiKpaitfpuuT^imfll'Airiavtullt- 
ragtii (lit. miiHIaUd) -. see Haipocr,, 
i-vri rai/ \t\utiatrtiini • ol yip Xvpaxir^ 
litnl riaty fiiidaat -wtptKiwrn* ii^i3> 
Ti a,Kpa. In Aeachyl. Cho. 439 and 
Soph. El. 445 there is the same idea 
in ^jiarT^taXfffflij, liarxoKlia being to 
mutilate a dead body by cutting ofl 
the extremities (rd iKpa.) and putting 
them under the armfiils (Ha'x^Xai). 
Perhaps such strong metaphors as 
this suggested to Aeschines the absurd 
expressions which he ptetends ti 
quote from Demosthenes in iti. 166, 
ipirt\avpyovel rtHi r^t* rdX^r, dK- 
TFTii'iiiciiiri Tim rd cXiJfiaTO rd roi 
S-^imv, and others. — t1|V &(v6«|i[a* 
irpoirtiriimiTfs : for the 


fXevffepiav TrpOTreTraKOTp; TrpoTtpou fikf <i>t\tTnrq> 
vvv 8' ' We^dvhpqi. Ty yacnpl fXfTpovvTf^ Kal tok 
alax"'"''Oi'! TTji' eii^aip-ovtav, tijp S" iXevdepiav leai to 
fii]BS' e)(€iv Seo-TroTJjf aurwv, & toIi TrporepoK lo I 
'EXXijffH' opoi TWK ayadS)v ^av xal Kapouet, ave 

TawTJ)9 rolwv t^? otJrai? ala^pai Kal trepi- 297 
^oTjTov avtrrdaeai'; koI icaicia';, fioXXov 8*, & avSpe; 
325 'Adijvalot, Tr/3o6offia9, el Bel fit} Xripelv, ttjv rSiv 
'^.W-rfvaiv iXevdepia'i, ^ re ttoXw Trapa -jraaiP av- 


steps by which xpoirlKj comes to 
mean reckUuty sacrifice, see LiddeU 
and ScoH, An intermediate Taesa- 
ing, freient a cup (or other gift) after 
driniiHg on^s hiall/t, is seen in xis. 
139, tIhiv xal ^(AaHf^anrcuJ^Kiiirpdi 
B^o^ i *l\irro! SWa re Jj) iroXXi, 
...mI t(X<uiuii itrtiiMT ipyupa 
Kal x/"/"^ rpoSnyiv atroi!. I.e. in 
drinking their health, he gave them 
Uiese various gifts. See also Find. 
II. 1—6, tpii.\ay ii! d Tii... 
itrai itatlf 7a«9p^ rpaTfl- 
ottoBer atnaSf, and [he SchoL 

«:ct^ ^tjpair&^VTji Toiit vpaSiS6iiTiit t 

Deor. 1.40 (113), quod dubilet 01 
quae ad beatam vitani pertinea 

1 1 . ipai Ktil KOivdvH, io 
rules, i.e. they applied thesi 
lo whatever was presented to them U 
a public good. — JLvarcTpoi^Tts, jov- -I 
ing overturnrd (i.e. reversed) their^ 

The Epilogue, %% 297—323. In 
these sections we have the four 
characteristics of the ijri\ofoj, as 
Aristotle gives them (Rhet. III. 19, i): 
uguments which will dispose the 
besrers fnyourably to the spealtec and 
nnlavourably to his opponent, am pli It- 
emotions, and recapitulation. He be- 
gins by claiming the credit of keeping 
Athens free from the notorious con- 
spiracy against Grecian liberty just 
mentioned; and be charges Aeschines 
with failing in all the characteristics 
of a patriotic citiien which his own 
course enemplifics (Sg Z97 — 300). 
He recapitulates some of bis chief 

services in providing Athens s 
means of defence, and asks ? 
similar claims Aeschines has to 
public gratitude (§§ 301—313). 
objects to being compared with the 
great men of funoer times, though he 
declares that he can bear such a com- 
parison far better than his opponent 
(§§ 3H-323). 

§297. 1,2. ir(ptp!<rf|TOV, Hdi'o'-ioai. 

3. il BeC |iti Xi]p(!v, i.e. to call it 
by its right name, vpaSosla-t. 

4. impd iroo-iv &v6pc&irol5, i.e. in 
theminds cf all mm; but iropi roii 
'EXXijffi (8), among the Grecis: in 
§ 274' both ideas are combined. 


GpofiroK avaiTio<; y^ovev i/c t&v ifi&v TroXiTcVftaTtov 
Kal iyai Trap vfuv. eiTO, fj,' e^wra? ai/rl -Troiai apeTTJf 
afiw rifj-aadai ; eyoi Be aoi Xeyai on, Twy TroXireuo- 
fie'vajv Trapa tow °EWt}aL hLa^Oapevrtov dirdfruyv, 
ap^ap,eurov a-rro aav, irporepov p,ku vwa ^iKiTnrau 
vvv S' VTv' ' AXe^diiBpov, ep.e oure Kaipo'i oSte ^ikav- 
dpwiria \6ytov o&t' eTrayyeKMU fLEytSot ovt i\wh 
oCte i^d/3o9 OUT d\\' aiiSif iirriptv ovSe irpoTjydyeTO 
&v eicpiva hiKalatv koX (rvp,ipfp6vTmv Ty TrarptBi 
ovBei' irpoSovvac, ouS", orra (Tvp.0e(iov\eVKa 
TOVTOiai, 6p,o{o3i iifiXv Stuirep av TpvTdirr) pejrwv 
TO Xrjfip^a aVfi^e^ovkevKa, aXK ott' opBrp koX Bixaias 
ical aBia^Oopov tj}? ''/I'l'X^? ' nal peyiffTwv Br/ -Trpay- 
fidrmv Tav war' ip.ainbi/ avOpdtvav TrpotTTai irdvra 
ravB' vyiw nal BiKairof -rreTroXiTevfiai, 
a^i6> TipMaOai. tov Be 7ei-)(i(Tfu>v rovrov, op <tv p,av 299 
Bteavpe:, Ka\ rijv Ta^ptiav d^ia p.€v j(dpiro<; xal 


6. tpoT^t; see Aesch. 236. 

8. AirArTuv: exaggeration; but 

g. &fi{afi(V(iiv airo roi, i.e. your- 
stlf first and foremost. 

§ 296. 3. ^<|p»i induced 
(remed) : cf.J§ 168= 175'. 

5 — 7. oili ...ijloCuv i)itv...irv}L- 
pfprfXiviKi (7), Tter AaiK /given my 

; ail 



gain like a balance, i.e. as a balance 
would incline if a weight were put 
into one of the scales: iinrip At (9c. 
(lAroi). The mss. are corrupt : Eiinrep 
ir TpuTiiv); is nearest to Utrrcpiw- 
TpvTanTji of 2. We have if TpvT. in 
A, and hv el it rpur. -vulg. This is 
illustrated by a striking passage in 
V, 12; rpoEna t4 rfiiyiutra KpLyu Kal 
Xo^f^^ac, Kal oiSiv X^^ Air otrfifZt 
fxoi "■p*' "It ^"^ rtvoKireuiuu khI 
\iy<ii SiTiai rperiipT'iiiUnr, ipBir oBi', 

3 Ti dv tat' ir aftriJii hrdpxv rUr 
rpafiidriap, ri tvptplpor ^alKraf iiM. 
Stob 3' iw\ Bdrcpa Sm-Btp fit rperiyiir 
ipyipiBi' rpvaieiynTis, ofxtrai ^pey 
Kal KaSeiXfUKt tAc Xoyurpif iifi' aM, 
Kal oiK Up ir ipfliSi eOS" iyiCi, i toOtq 
irof^craT ireplobSttii "Koyl^aiTo. 

7. opO<)s...dSia<bS<ipou:predicative 
(ef. 5 3=2»). 

8. |UYEo-n>v...&i4piiirav, lit. de 
weighliesi concirns of {any of) lie 
men of my lime (partitive). 

§299, t. TiLxuTfiiv, the repair- 
ing of the walla of Athens in 337 — 
336 B.C., for which Demosthenes wu 
TfixOTOiit. See Aescb. 111. 27. 
Demosthenes was then appointed by 
his tcihe, the Ilai^iDvh, and received 
from the treasury (aceordi ng to Aesch, 
31) nearly ten talents for the expenie* 

(cf. § II3''>').— S* iri |ioii Si£ 

cf. roiri /lav Sa^iWa § 28*. 



W, vat yi,p ov ; iroppto h^ptoi ttou tSiv 
ifiavra TreiToXiTO'fievan' riffefiai. ov Xi'floi? fTii^iaa 
Ti)V "TToKiv ovhk 'TrXivdoit eya), ouS* iirl toi/tois fieyt- 5 

" V iftavrov tppovw ■ aXK' iav rov itioi/ reij(^trrtMv 
0ov\j) Bi/caioK aieovetv, evpjjaei^ oTrXa teal 7rdX«? 
Kal TOTTovT Hal Xifj.eua'i Kal vaik xal [ttoXXow] 
iTTTTOv^ Kal TOW tnrep rovTOiv aiivvofievov;. ravra 3 
irpov^aXofiT/v e^ra Tpo t^? 'ATTiiCTJt, ocrov ^v avQpai- 
TTiVp Xoyiafi,^ BwaTov, Kal tovtok ireixio'a rt}V 
[ 3^ X'^P'^"' "^^ '^°'' *''*Xoi' rav XleLpaiai'; ovhe tou 
dfTTeoK. ou&^ y rjTrrjBrjV iyai toli; Xoyiafiol'i ^iXiV- 5 
•jTou, troXXou ye ical Bel, ovBk raw wapaffKevali, aXX' 
o( TUP avfifidxto" aTpaTrjyol Kal a.1 BvvdpeK rp 

3. irdppu, i.e. far below. 

4. dJI XlSoLi H-fCxLira Ti|virdXiv: 

a famouE pnssage, often quoted by the 
rhetoricians. See the beginning of 

the inrl^taa of Lib^nius. Plutuch 
{Lycurg. 19) quotes a saying of 
Lycurgus the lawgiver, ait i.v itt] 
dT*f3£iiT0i iriXii Sth diSpdji tut 06 
rMrftid tsTf^iniTiii. Whiston re- 
fers to Sir Win Jones's ode, " What 
cunstitutes a State?" The passage 
isBTnost effective anawerto the taunts 
of Aeschines (236} about the walls 
and ditches. 

5. vUrfaig: sun-dried bricks, of 
which no small pa(t of the walla of 

and of the Long Walls to the 
Kcaeus were built. The brick wall 
built OD a. solid foundation of 
■tone. See Thuc. I. 93, d! 9sn4\iOi 
rarroUir \l8ur iriKeLVTHi (of the 
walls of Athens). The stone walls 
of Mnnlinea, which arc atill standing 
almost complete, have at most only 

surmounted by a wall of brick : 
Pauaaniaa ( 

9. Tovt virip Toiruv d|iVt«|Ui«vi, 

the defenders of these (out fellow , 

§ 300. z, irpoiPaXd|»]v : 
§§ 97'" and 301 '.— dvflpiiMrtvi|i X 
■ni^: cf 5 193*. 

4. r&v K^icXav ToO HiLpaifit: l/ie 
ciriuil of the Piraeus was assigned 
to the tribe Pantiionis, to which De- 
mosthenes belonged, See Kaaay til. 

Xo7i(rjiols may refer to the 

nter with Python (§ 136) and 

I to the emhaaaies mentioned 

§ 244. — ^iXiipffov; with V'i- 

7. .!■ 


diss ii)Sp iftoSaiititiini 

iaiid) bri, 

iv mpipi&xuiv ■TTpaTii^l:! 

hear only of two ThebanM^ 
nd Theagenes: of these 
IS (i. 74) says, ^I ij; Tolf 
<» ell ' AiufHUaar ffuWeTt'S"' 
a irpohiT^i iyiveTO- -ij^efiiir 
il/i,\ayy<ii (at Chaeionea) 
Qeay iinii, iyBpuiret iriix^i 
Siiiot iarip oJtoj (Den 



T( XPV^ '''°'' ('^"o**" iroXiTTiP iroulv, ti top fitTa 301 
Trdat]^ TTpovoia^ nal vpo0v/j,ta^ wai StKaioavpyi uirip 
TTJt -rrarpthoi TroXnevofitvop ; oiiK ex p.ev ffakciTTT}^ 
7T}v Eijffoiav vpo^aXea-dai Trph rij'i 'Attikti'!, ck Si 
Tij5 p.Eaoje(a^ ri/p BoiaiTiav, €K Be tSiv Trpot IleXo- 
trofpria-ov Toirtov roii^ ofiopovi Tavrr) : oil rr)V 
ffiroirop-n-iav, ottw! trapa irarrap tptXiap aj^pi 
Hfipaiw-i icop,ia6riaerai, irpoiheaOai ; koX ra p.kv 
awaai rwp iiirap-^ovTiop etcTrep/TTOirra fiorjSfiat Koi 
Xeyopra /cal ypd(^ovTa Toiavra, Ti)v YlpOKOVPrjffov, 
T/fu \£pp6iri}i7ov, Tr)p Tevehop, to. B' ottm? oixela Koi 
avfipay^ inrdp^ei Tvpa^ai, to ^v^dpTi.op, t^c 'A|8u< 
T^f ES^otaf ; KoX twv p,ev rot? i^dpol^ iiTrap)(pvffav 
Bvpdpetop rai lieylaTai aijieXelP, we 5' iv^Xenre Tp 

In §S 301—313 the orator re- 
capitulates his own chief services, 
with which he compares the pubUc 
career of AescbineE. 

§ 301. I. Tl xpnv •'■J.KU. 

FW, 'mil IICT-H 301 



e of Bi 

Explained hy St 

i, each of a special act. In the 
■□Uowing series of questions, all in- 
troduced by xP^'i 'be orator slates 
the various problems which faced the 
Athenian statesman uf that day and 
the obvious solutions of them. 
3. 4« 9aXdm)t: cf § 230°. 

S 300*. With this figure of Ihrmving 
forward Euboea as a TDalt of dijince 
to Attica, compare that in § 71* (see 
note). See Aesch. 111. S4, mi, <1XX<1 
XoXui; nal (LSafwrrln)!! teIx<«'"'i <i" 
a^^ #1tr(i TJc X'^P'^' ^l'^^i^ tTtixiai, 
t5 T(3t Eipaiuf tal eijjSaiuB evp.- 

6. Toil i|idp«vt Tairn, sur tuigh- 

botirs en /his siJe, as Megara 
Corinth (cf. § 237), 

7. irap& «wav <^X(av (sc. 717*) ; 
i.e. thai Ike ccrH-lradi ihoulJ past 
ahug an tnlirify friendly coast. For 
the subject of S§ 301, 302, see ^% 71, 
79— 8a, 87—89, 240, 241, and Hist. 
§§46, 5'. S3, 54. 

§ 302, I. The measure* men- 
tioned in T& ^cv o^vai and rd S'... 
irpo^oi (4) were designed to secure a 
friendly coast for the corn-trade. 

2. poiiSilat; cf. g 305'. 

3. yft-^yra. Toiaftra, iy propos- 

4. thrui ^vdp^ irpa^L, i.e. Ai 
gel possession aflhem (cf, ira/JxiiTiiiip 

6, ECPow 

Euboea, with : 

the safety of the corn trade. 

7. TAt(«iflirTi«: especially Thebei 
in 339 B.C. — Hv JvAtiin rfl viXn, 
tiihiU the city lirctid: t\kchtti is here 



woXet, TBura vpoaQeivai ; ravra toi'vvv 
■n-^paxrai tok efioi? ifrj}(ftitTfj.atft kuI tow ifioh 
■n-aXnev/iaiTiv, a Kai 0€0ov\eviJ.tva, & ai/BpK 'Adij- 30! 
I'oioi, eav aifv iftSovov T(5 ^ovXrjTai. aKO-mlv, opB^t 
eupjjfrtt Kal TrfTrpayp.a'a ■Trdan SiKatoaiivi/, Kal tov 
indarou icaipov oii vapeS'e't'id ovo ayuojidevra ovSi 
'wpoedeura vn ip.oO, xai oa ek ecK oj/Spo? Bvvafuv s 
Kal Xoyicrp^i/ j]K€v, oiiSh iX\enl>8ep. el Be fj Saifiot»h 
Tim^ -^ Tir^rii lo'j^w y TTpari^ymv ^avXori}'; ^ 
TWV TrpohitovToiv TO? 'WoKei'; vp.iav xaKia fj irdvra 
327 tout' eXvp.aiveTO tow oKoiv ea^ averpei^ev, ti AijfiO- 
vBivTj'i aBiKei ; el S' oloi e^M irap' ifuv Kara tijv 3W 
ipuanov rd^iv, eh iv eKdari) rHiv ' E Wjji'i'Siuf •rroKimv 
avifp iyevero, p,aXXov S" el eu dvBpa fiovon ^erraXia 
Kal eu' dvSp' 'ApxaSia raira tjipofovirr' eax^" ep.ol, 
ovheli oiire rayv Ifw IlvXa}v 'EXX-qvmv ovre tS>v eXaio 5 
ToZ? trapoixji, KaKoli eKej^priT av, aWA TraiTc? av 305 1 
orres e\£v6epoi Kal avTovofiOL /iera irdar)^ aSeiat 

.atpaX&^ ev evBaipovi 

impersonal, like infeT; so Plat, Leg. 
844 B, (I Ti/Ti T6Troi3.,.i\}^clsa rSr 
draY'aluD Traii&ruiv, and 740 C, 

§ 303. I. p<pauX<utiJHa opOut 
Apifrt\ {or. ohl.) cefeis chiefly to 

4. oi irap>BJvTa.,.irpoiUvTa, ep- 

porlunitatfm cuitaque rei non per 
ntgligcnfiam prailermissam nee igno- 
ralam nee preditam (Dissen). irnpe- 
B^n-o implies iarc('«jH.rjj(cf. vln.34), 
irpotS^ira wilfulntu (cf. vill, 56), 

5. to-' implies roiraiiTut, depend- 

6. Sal^avM \ Tixi*' '^- ^^^ 

iaiiiera (at •tT\v lixt't Acseh. III. 
IIS, «S7- The strength il<,x6i) of 
tbe superhuman powers is opppsed 
"o the weakness and incapaiily {ijusv- 

Ut,,,) O: 



r the treachery of m 
notes on §§ 264' and 300''. 

9. ToisBX-w: see note on g 278*. 
— 4»*rp£<|iiv, BVinei, the faui" - 
ure of the ship of state. 

}. &SiK(t, not II //oiHg wroKgiM 

but 1 

• for : 

(M.T. 27). 
§304. 3. 6cTTaXfa...'ApKaGla: < 

see §5 63, 64, "Philip's parly in 
the one opened Northern Greece to 
him, and in the other neutralized the 
Peloponnesus'; fSimcojL). 
6. Jk^xpI'' *'■> ""^JhW havi expe- 

_ § 305. I. &v is repeated with 
i/jravi- (3), contrary to general usage, 
because of the change of time from 
it^XPV' *' to iptBUr (present time). 


aWoi; 'A0t}vaioi<; ejfoiTe^ X*'-?^" ^'' ^Z*^'- ^"'^ ^ 
etSjjTe oTt TToXX^ TOts Xo'7015 eXdrToai ^(jiafitu rSm 
epytoi/, euXapovfievo^ tov <f)66vop, \eye fioi raVTi koI 
avdyvwdt \affo)V tov api0fiov 7&i> ^orjdeiSiV Kara rh 
e/ia •ijfij<piafiaTa. 

Tavra xal roiavra -irpdrreiv, AtV^t'^, tov /eaXov 306 
Kayadov iroXiTijv Sit, 5>u KaropSov/ieeav ftev fi&- 
yiiTTOLi: a.vafi<f)ta ^tjT^Tat^ V7rt)pxev elvai, Kai to 
Sticaiai^ -TTpoafiv, qj5 eTepwi Se avfiffdmaty to yovp 
evSoKifielv TrepkoTi koX to ptjBei/a fieiiipeuOai rr/v 5 
iroXiP f/,7]Se TTjV Trpoalpecri.v airij^ aWa r^y tv^tiv 
Kaai^eiv rijv ovrta ri irpdy/iara Kpivaa-av ■ ov fia Ai" 307 

7. \t^t Kal,yvatn cf. S 28'. 

8. Poi]6fiiav: forces sent out for 
special purposes, like those menlioned 
in § 302^: see IV. 32, ni, ^oijfleio.t 
xoXf/utr {IvTepwQiier yip iirdi-nu*) 

and cf. IV. 41. The faitious expedi- 
tion which checked Philip at Ther- 
mopylae in 352 B.C. (iv. 17) is called 
a Poieaa in XIX. 84- Often ^oijfleia 
meitu a meie rati/. 

§306. I. TllOTa...VpdTT)I.V...E<t 

sums np the reply to the question rl 
Xpfjy-.-rmc-iy; in § 301', but with a 
change in tense. He asked ■aiAalwai 
tie dH^, with special reference to Che 
case in hand; and he replies in gen- 
eral terms this is Oii duly, iraitit 
{§ 301') and TipiTTCiv here have the 
same sense, as have xp^i (in X9^') 

2 — 4. KO,Ti)p6ovaAi/iiiv=rl ttarup- 
flDvr-e, (/ Ikfy Mad bcin siuassful (as 
ihey were not), to which theapodosis 
is Irw^px" tXyat, il belonged to Ki « 
fie, i.e. we should properly have been 
(M.T. 4l6).--|irY[rTaii (sc, %idt)... 

Kal T& EiKatwi irpoirf|v, i.e. indii- 

putahly, and (/ might add) jmlly, 
grcatesi: iiKaiius stands as a mere 
word with the article; and irptxr^n is 
belonged there, i.e. might properly it 

4. At iripuf, otherwise : see note 
on § 85'. — irvf,p&nov, simply tem- 
poral, now, Tiiten Ihty (have) resu/ltd 

5. v(p[«m, then is left to us : the 
subject is ri tiSoti/itiy Kal ri lafiira... 

7. Kaitltiiv: thesubject isTftrraf, 
to be Bopplied from the preceding 
suhject ikTiSifii.. The same careless- 
ness of expression is always common; 
a famous case is the clause of the 
United States Constitution concern- 
ing fugitive slaves; "No person held 
lo service or labor in one slate, escap- 
ing into another, shall... be discharged 
from said service or lalior, bul shall 
be delivered up," etc. 

§ 307. I. di |iA Li' aiv: em- 
phatic repetition, not a double 
negative : Sti is understood here 


oiiK osTTOffTaWa twk aVfufxpovreDv Tp iro'Xet fUixBm- 

aavra S' avrov to« ivavrtoit, tois inrkp tSiv ej(dpa)v 
Kaipov^ avrl Toii/ t^? TTtiTp/So! OepaTTfVftv, oii&e top 
(lev irpdynaT d^ta t»)? TrdXeoi? VTro<rTdirra \eyeiv Kai 5 
jpdijseiv Kal fieveiv inl tovtcov ffaffKalveif, av Be ti! 
IBia Ti Xi/TTTjtrjj, TOUTO /itftvrjtrdac Kal TTjpeiv, ouSe 
I y ^trvT^iav dyeiv dBiieov ical vttovXov, S crv ttokU 
TToWdicK. erTTt yap, effTiii rjuvyut Siicat'a leai avfir- 308 
(ftepovrra Tj -rroXei, -^v oi ■ttoWoI r&v ttoXitwc vfitli 
airXm dyere. nXV ov ravrriv o5to? a7t( t^u ^trv- 
jfiai', TToXXov 7e «ai Set, d\V aTroo-raij orttK avT^ 
So^ T^? woXtTei'a! {-TroWdiei^ Bk Boicel) (fivXa-rrei S 
■n-ijvuc ea-ea-de fietTTol toG trvvex'^^ Xr/orro? ^ Trapii 
TTJf '^X'}^ " ^vp.0e0-qK€v ivamiw/ia ij aWo rt Bwr- 
KoXov ye'yoi'e (^voWa Be Tdudpanriva')- elr iwi jovrq) 
TM Kaipip ptjroyp l^ai^vr}<: ck t^5 '^ffv^iat ma-rrep 
wveOp.' e<^dvTi, icat ■Kti^mvaaKijicid'i koI trui'etXoj^uK lo 
p^fiara xal Xoyotn avvilpti tovtoxk aa^w xal 

&om § 30fi^i "iid on i' i3epend the 
inliiiitives BifiairtAeii' etc. through 

a-,,,, (8). 

a. diroimivTB; strongly opposed 
to B(paTf6cii> (4) and hroiTTd^T-o (s), 

4. tAv Ttfi irarplSot (sc. Kuip^v), 
instead of the fuller fortn with uir^p 

^t»a in 3). — riv viriwTdvTO, /At man 
wio has undertaken, abject of ^airical- 
8. (iTrDuXov, lit. festering within, 
of Ihe quiet of Aesch., false, Ireach- 
ereus; see Thuc. viii. 64 (endj, Th" 
A-ri TQr' A6ii'aitai'inToa\ei' airoronlaii 
§ 30a, 3. ol imXXol bei 

(iiiTToI, hi-aialihes (to see) when yBU 
laitl be sated, an iDdirect question 
where we might expect a temporal 
clause: iriivlta. is the common 

6. Tofi miMx'^ MyovTM, viiA 
your regular speaker, i.e. the one 
who is continually advising you; see 
Pint. Cim. 5, A Sg/iot...;«irT4i Sn -raa 

S, rdvSpiiirLVa ; sc. ttayriiittaTa, 
g. M''"'*P> "' "" f"'"!'"'- predicate 
to tipiinj (gnomic), — Sunrtp irwOpi', 
with lial'pintt. 

TK^uvocrirqKas : cf. § if " 

3. hic\M, 

only proper pcrf. 

'itpiieily, ffvvtiKtxii^ (but e\ 

TvW^u, though hen 

IlilhenI pretence, opposed to kttbuXo?, Cf. aviupop'liaa.i, § 15 

: cf.§ 2J2*. — rvvf(p«t J 


aTrPeverrel, Sv7}aiv fiev oiiSefiiav ^^pomai auS' ayadi 
fCTijirtv oi/Sevot, trvfi^opati hk rp TV')(pi'Tt Twe TroXt- 
T&v KaX KoivTiv aUrj(Vut]v. KaiTOi Toi/njf Tij9 fieXenji 
Koi T^? iTTtfieXeia'!, Awr^^tVij, etTrep sk "^f^^^ hc/caiat 
eiyiyueTO Kal ra t^5 iraTpiBoi a-Vfi^e'povra Trpoppjj- 
lidnTif, Toifi KapTTOvi eSet yevvaiou^ koI koXov'; xal 
Traaiv m^eXifiov^ eivai, tTVii-tiax^'K woXeaiv, Tropov^ 5 
j^Tjfidrwv, i/iTTOpLOV KaTaaK€Vr)V, vofiriiv i7Vp,<pep6v- 
Tmv 6e<TU^, Toll aTrohei-xPel<rLV ej^OpoK ivavTUi)tj.aTa. 
TOUTOJC yap aTvdvrav ^v iv to« aura ^povoK e^i' 
(Tf?, Kai eBiDKev 6 TrapeXdoiv j^/povo'; TToXXa? a-rroBei- 
^et! avSpl KaX^ re Kayad^, ev oh ovBafiov av^ 
^avTiau yeyovoi^, oii TrpStToi, ov Seiirepo?, ov rpiVo?, 
ov Terapjo^, ov vepm-ro^, ovx eKTo^, oy;^ 

12. AirMuarrt, all in en/ brca& 
(without taking breath) . 

'3- T$ TVxivTi, cuivis, IQ any one 
wha kapptns to hiar thtm. 

14. if.avtv/1, pttilii, opposed to rf 
TVxi"i. — aWxi"]* ; Blasa refers 
thia to the speech described in § 35. 

% 309. I, 2. ^trt^, iiri)uXt((is, 
practice, study, referring lo § 308 '""''. 

3. rd-.-irpoupTipiiTp, ani tehich 
hiui made the interests of the father- 
land its choice {^upaalptBit) , connected 
byical CoSiiafat. Cf. § 315 ^ 

4. ISiii itvai, ou^ to have been, 
implying that in the case of Aeschines 
they were not so. — -ytwnlora : often 
UKd literally of fruits, as in Plat. Leg. 
844 E, rftp iftvaXar imt \tyoiiiv^y 
(TTtt^uX))!' J} ri ftsyiiXa. ffCiia ^ora- 
Ha.^)itiKi. (B1.). 

6. 4)mp(Dv KBTturKcvip' : (pro- 
bably) securing new commercial 
rights for Athens i 

; 33. ; 

with Sandys'a 

§310. I. 

tiho.B,% is aea 
in § 320'^ wli( 

ir^ or revieta of hireUngs etc., in 
which they were called forth lo show 
themselves. Here, with a genitive 
denoting public services, it means 
likewise M//in^o«^ and arf-aji(»(^auch 
services to a man's credit. (See 

:. i&ui[(v...&nGi(|ii«, i.e. the jnM 
gave loany opportunities for showing 
such services, as it were arraying 
them for a review, 

3. Iv ols, in which class (the taMl 
Te xiyaffol), as if inifiim had pre- 
ceded.— oiBii|ioS : cf. § 320'. 

5. oi\ iiracTiHra9v (cf. ivTuoSr), 
not in any rani mhatsi/ei^r. Dissen 
thinks this alludes to a Delphic oracle 
given to the Megarians, quoted in the 
Scholia to Theoc Juv. 48, 49, of 
which the last two verses are; 

&*aS«xl'I<riv, declared, open. oirt iuuiSina, 




ovKovv ivi 7' oh rj irarpXt jjvfnwTo. rk yap cru/t- 311 J 

f^a\ia (Toil -Trpa^avTot yeyove Tr/ iroXei ; rit Zi 

ffo^Oeia ^ tcTrjaK evvoiai ^ Sdjij? ; Ti? Se irpea^ila, 
329 rfe BiaKOvia Si rjv jj woKk ivri/iOTepa ; Tt t&v 
T&v 'EWjjviKOii' Kal ^ei'iKoiv oh eTreWjj? 5 
rot ; TTolai rpi'^peti ; voia, (9e'\Tj ; Trotot 
■ Til i-maKevT} th^j^wc ; 71 
) ■)(pTjrTLp.<}'i el ; TiV 

TOtS OTTOjOOt? iToKniKrj ita), KOivr} y3o 

oiihejiia. aX>C, & rav, el ^TjSf 

•jrpoQviiia • "JTOV ; tto'te ; oiTTi?, 

ouS' 0^' airavrei ac 

^rifiaTO<; eU; ffoiTijpiav CTreSi^ 

'ApiaroPiKOi to ffwci\ey/ii 

ovBe TOT ovTe irap^Xdev 01 

To« evTTopoit ^ 
'eid ^pr/iidTOiv ; 

void ye Kal 313f 



i TtXeiTaJoi' 

6. ofinoTiv (tC y ots, 0/ 3// ri'enls, 
net in malltrs in ■which, etc. 

§ 311. These questions are argu- 
ments for the judgment just pio- 
naimcEd npDn Aeschines. After the 
Qiird question, the conjunctions ace 
omitted in the speaker's vehemence. 
With the whole passage compare 

XIX. 2gZ. 

5, tAv '£XXir|vtKfiv, opposed to 

r!i> oUeliiir, is the 50-called yor«>B 

ity of Athens, i.e. her policy with 

Here rSr itHKiiv is added to 

.icludc her relations to other than 

Greelt states, both being opposed to 

i/r Jom alii policy. 

Tpi^ptiS ; sc. yty6niin rg 


TC...xp^<>*ii|tat il; -iviaf ii 

9. TaXLTLKi) Kal KOLvi] isarhetorfr'fl 
cal a.mplificatiDn, like the cases itfJ 
the note to §4'r in xxv. X2, IpamtM 
wdXiTiiiii ml KOii^t is a public 
tribiUion f&r the general good. 

§312. I. (0 Tav, a familiar for: 
of aildress, found in three other p 
sages of Demosthenes, i. 36, ir 
XXV. 78 1 in all iatcoducing an i 
inary retort of an opponent 

3. ^iS^^avT : cf. § 199^. 

4. tit vaiTHplay mSlSoouv, i.e. 
ladi coniribuHons (twiiiaia, S 1 71 ■} 

before the destruction of Thebes by 
Alexander: for the latter see XXXIV. 
38, Are idii 'AUinvSpai tli 61)^01 
xap^fi, iriS liicaiity iiiitt TiiXavTlHi 

5. T& imniXcyf '*'** (sc. ipyipiar), 
i.e. money contributed to pay some 
debt to the state which made him 
iTifiat, and thus to make him agun 

debtor w 

Every defaulting public 
ipspfacl. ■ 


atropSiv, TTw? fdp ; S? ^e K€K\r]poi'6fi7]Kav fih 
^iXanros tov Ki]Se(nov jfptip.a.Ttov -rrXetovtop ^ 7r€iT( 
ToKavrtav, hndXavTov 5' eiyei epavav Batpeau iiapk 
r&v ^ye/itii'mi' tS>u avp,p.opiSiv irfi oh iXufii^va) rov lo 
TpLT)papxLicov i/dfiov. aXX' \va p.i} Xoyov iic \6yov 313 
\4y<iiii rati TrapoWos ip-avrov eKKpov^a), TropaXet'i^w 
TaiJra. aW' art y oiij^i Sl evSeiav ovk eTre'Srawa?, ex 
TOVTiav hifkav, aXXa (fivXaTTtoP to pTjBeu evavrtop 
yeviadai -rrapa aov tovtol^, oh a-Kaina iroXnevet. S 
^1* t(<tiv ovv ail veavia'; icai iTijvtica Xap,trp6s ; fjviK 
av Kara rovratv Ti Se'jj, ef toi/toit Xafiirpo^t 
^Kjj/ioWKfOTaTO?, vTroKptrrf-i dpiaro^, Tpayiicm 0eo-^ 


Tov, kavi inherilta cat esiaie Bj your 
breiher-in-law Pkilo, viAich was (sc. 
ivTuii) marc than Jive lalenls, 

g. EiTiXnvTov ipavov, o conlribu- 
tieit of two taleii/s. There is probably 
a sarcastic reference to the common 
meaning of fpapo;. 

IQ. *v«uSvoiv:seenoteon§l03'. 
— 14> eta &U|i^vcii, far Ike damage 
yau did: oIi for a cognate S., as in 
% l8°. The attack of Aeschines on 
the trierarchic law was not made 
when iC wa5 enacted in 340 B.C., but 
probably after ChaeroDea. Oemos- 
Ihenea says (5 107°) that through tki 
whoU war (i.e. 34c — 338 B.C.) the 
naval aimaments were fitted out 
QDiler his law; and the statement of 
Aeschinea (ill. 322), iiijKiyx^^ ^' 

Twaur TpinpipTi^avi inpTjfnj/iipotf shows 
that evidence as to the working of 
the new law in details was derived 
from actual experience. 

§ 313. I . Myw U XdfDv \4rtm, 
by saying one thing afier another. 

3. TOfl TapdvTDi (sc. X4701;) J)Ulii- 
t4v JKKpoviTH, (ul myself off from<vTiTiiXiv- (iliseuasing properly) the suhjeef' 


SvKtK, that it 

o«X^ G; IvEciav tiK M- 

s net thmugh pmitrty 
mat you aia not eonlribult; each 
negative having its own force, as the 
second is not a compound (G. i6t8). 

4. dXXd connects ^uXdrrmv to ii' 
itSeiav, both being casal. — ^"'^^'■Tin' 
Ti...'yci^Oai: see M.T. 374; and 
note on §=58'. _ 

5. TOUTOW, ols! not simply lo 
those for whom (which would hardly 
be Towoii), but to these persons 
CS S'^'")./"- '"^'« ('■« "•^"^ inter- 
est), etc 

6. viBvCat, often used in the sense 
of vigorous, lively, like the adjective 
peatHKfn: il occurs twice in Demos- 
thenes, here and § 136^. — ^v(n" av... 
Ti&j)); supply ffircfi, which all Mss. 
except 2 1 insert. 

S. rpaYUtit 6nKp(vi|s : see Har- 
pocr., Tic 7o3» TiiXin iiir uwotpiT^t 
Tpayttbr udTipay Si trimoipdmir cUi- 



Elra TMv T-poTepov yeyanj/i^veDv ayadSiv apBp&v 314 | 
fiefiiffjtTai, Kal koKm^ ttoiec;. ov fieinoi SIkmov 

IV, ai/Spe^ 'Adjjvatoi, rijp -Trpm Toi)^ rereXevrijicoTav 
V7rdp')(pvirav irpoKaffSma Trap' Trpo^ 
e^erd^eiv Kal TrapaSdWeiv ifii top vvp S 
£SuTti fied" {ifiSiv. rk y&p ovit olSe roiy -TrdpTctP ori 315 | 
Toil fth ^wai TTaaiv WeiTTi T£? ^ -rrXeiaiv ^ iXdrrcov 
ffidovo^, TOW T£6peo)Ta<: S' ovSk tw' e^dpav oiiBeh 
eri fiiafl ; outqj? ovu iy^omrap tovtwp t^ tfywrei, 
Trpo? TQU9 Trpo e/iaUTOv vvp iyi) KpiV( Koi deatpta- \ 
fiai : tiJiBap.SK ' ovre yap Bikoiov ovt Xctov, Aiajf^tvq- 
aXKh TT-po? ITS Koi aXKop ei Tipa /SouXet twc rairrd 
troi TrpoTjpijfievcoi' Kal ^annrov, Katcetpo tncoirei. 316 | 
irorepop KdWioii xal d/ieipov Ty iroXei Sta rn?' twi/ 
irpoTfpoP evep-yeffiai. oijaai irn-epfiey^ffeK, — ou p.kv 

ovv etirot t(s t 


■ttI 1 

' irapovra / 

In §§ 314—323 Ihe orator com- 
plains of the unrairness of judging 
b[tn, as Aescliines has dune (17E — 
190), by compaiison with the great 
men af ancient times. But he shrinlu 
Urom nocomparison with his conlem- 
poraiies. In §§ 321—323 he states 
two points, which he claims for him- 
Ecif, in the character of the /i^r/noi 

§314. I. T&v npiTipov i(riivr\fi- 
v-y. in in. 181 Aeschincs calla on 
the court directly to compare Demos- 
thenes with Themistocles, MLltiadea, 
the heroes of Phyle, and Aristides; 
and he does this very effectively. 

3. 'Ti)v...vrr^x*'*'*'^*'i '^^ litvolien 
vAitA il is to be assumed you feet 
imaards the dead. 

4. vpoXapdvTO, securiHg for him- 
ittf in advanee, laiing advantage of. 

, See Hor. Od. Hi. 24, 31, Virtutem 
_..iiicolumem odimus, Sublatam ex 

oculis quaerrmus invidi, — irpAt hut- 

g 315. 2. Toh }iivl&v\...^96vo9, 

K.T.\.: cf. Thuc. 11. 45, *e6«K yip 
Toii futo'i irpii Ti irTlira\er, t4 3* 

TCTliiijTai. — inw-n, implying more or 
less cenceaimenl : cf. § 36 ^. 

5. Kp[v(ii|uu J am I to he judged t 
With the answer fo^fia^uT, we must 
understand itp/Hj^ioi, in the sense lit 
me net be judged: cf. Plat. Rep. 
527 C, TtPul^fi'i with answer tiBuiiiiv. 

7, 3, Here vpis irc and ttivruv 
were pronounced with special em- 
phasis. Supply ini KplmtBai. With 
irpoT]priniywi' cf. § 309'. 

§ 316. 3. o*.,.iiX.t«M, no man 
tan fell haw great: ov fxv oCv, as 
usual, is emphatic and corrective. 

4. 4«V T&v irapdvTti piov -ycpio- 
|iiv<i« (sc. tiipyealai), skoum U 
present geaeratioH. 



ytyvofievav 6« ajf^apianav Kai, irpowTJXaitieTfiop ayeu 
^ wacriv otroi t( fier fvvoiai Trpdrrovo'i t^? rovrat 
TLnfji Kal ('VpcoTr'i.a'; lieTuvdi ; koX f^V" * 
TOVT a pa Set /i tmeiv, fj fiev ifti] •n-oXire 
irpoai'pfrri'i, aii Ti? aaovrj, rots tSiv tot eTraivovp.eV(i>v 
avhpmv 6p.oi'a ical raura ^avXotievi} <pai/i^cr€Tai, 1} Be 
tri} Tall Toiv TOW ToiovTotK t6t€ avao'ipdi^ovi&ayi'- 5 
St)\ov yap oTi Kal Kar iiceiuoui fjadv Tiit?, 01 hiaav- 
povrev TOW nvTa<; roVe toiW -n-poTepov yeyei»}fie- 
vow e-rr-gvovv, Qd(7Kavav irpayp-a koX Tavro woiovvre^ 
aoi. etTa Xe'yei^ 015 ovSkv op.oio'i elfit exeti-ott iym ; 318 
ail S" op,oio?, Alaj^ii'i] ; 6 S' aSeX^o? o aot ; aXXo? 
he T4S T&v vvv prjTopaiv; iyw ftkv ydp oii&ei'a ^'>}p.i. 
aWa irpw Toiii ^aurra^, w ^^/"jo'Te, tva fJ.TjBki' a\X 
eiTTW, Tov fwiTa e^eTa^e Kal tou? Ka^ avTov, SiiT-mp 5 
ToWa TrdvTa, toik ttoij^to?, tow X"/"*^' tou9 aya- 
vioTai. 6 ^t\dp,fia}v ou^, on VXawou roD Kapu- 319 

tit ii)(apL(rT(iiv fiiYdv: cf. 
7. TL|i<)i Kal <])iXavBpuir{<H : cf. 


§ 317. I. ((...ilirltv; 

this slight apology for assc 
the following claim to be 
with the great men of old. 

3. Jir(iLvou(i(viiiv ; imperfect, lilie 

6. 8iinrupoirr«...4iri(>iouy: I keep 
Siiiiri/;>Di>TEt, with S aad L, but omit 
W before irpirepoi' (7). Stae6piii,ridi- 
cttU, is a favourite word with Demos- 
thenes: it occurs elsewhere in this 
apeech in §5 ^7', 126', iSo', 218'", 
299', 323'''i always in the same 


with i> 

§31B. 2. iG' dS(X.^is i <nit: 

Aeachines had two biothers, Fhilo- 
chares, older, and Aphobelus, younger 
than himself. 

4. a xpr|o-ri, my geod man, iron- 
ical : cf. §§30', S9'.— tva...i(ir«l 
this is generally understood to refer 
to the gentle style of address in 
XPTjffri, ts call you nothing more: 
sec West, and Bl. But it may refer 
to Trpit rait ffiiTBt (4), and imply 
tliat he will not press the slight claim 
to a comparison with the men of old 
made in § 317: it will then mean, A> 

, less exact tlisu ro^s SUdit 

G. Tovt irotT|T&f...4YUVLaTdi, i.e. 

as in dramatic and other contests of 
that nature, and in the public gamel. 
§ 319. 1. 4iXd]ijuiv is chosen ai 
an Athenian who had recently re- 
turned as an Olympic victor. Glaucui, 
on the contrary, was one of the most 
famous boxers of the time of the 


ffriov KaC Tivfov erepwv irporepov yeyeVTifi^evaiii affXTjTav 
oaBeviiTTEpo's ^i*, a.(TTe^dv<oTo<i eic t^s 'OXv/iwiai 
airgei, a\K' on rStv elaeXdovrav tt^o? aiirov apirrT 
ifidjfero, etxTe^avoOro Kal viKOiv avij7opeueTo. «o( 5 
<rv "rrpK tow vvv opa p.e p^Topa'i, trpcK aavrov, 
7rpo9 ovTiva. QovKet rajf awdvrutp ■ ovBev' e^iaraam. 
&Vj ore fiev ry voXet, toi ffeXriaS' eXeaGai Trap^v, g 
i^afiiXXdiJ Trjv et9 tJjv -irarpiS' evi'oia? iv xoiv^ wairt 
K€tp.eini<!, iyo) lepdriffra Xeymv etpaiv6p.TjV, xai TOlt 
ifiOK Kal y^Aiafioai Kal ro'/iot? xai •trpeT^elatV 
avavra hLfOKelro, Cfi.aniS' oySek ^v ovBafiou, ttXtjp ei S 
TOUTOK eTTTipedtrai ri Seal- CTreiS^ 5' a p-j^ttot axpeXev 
iTvve^T}, KoX omert avp,^ovXa>v, aWa raiv toJ? ewe- 
raTTOftei/oi'i vTnjpiTovvTwv Kal rStv Kara rfii -rra-rpi- 
£□! luaodpvetv eTOLp,Q)V Koi riav KoXaiceveii/ ^epov 
ffovXoftevoiV eferaffW, TtiviKafha irii xal tovtuv io 

uirs, who, besides gaining 
victary at Oiympia, gained two 
^hian, eight Nemean, sod eight 
Ithmian prizes. Fauaanias (vi. lo, 
—3) saw his statue at Olympia. 
See the fcaement of the ode of 
Simonidea in his honour (ft, 8, Bergk) ; 
oili no\uStiaot ffla x»pat irrelyaiT 

Kii t/kos. Aeschities (ill. 189] refers 
to this comparison as one which he 
"heard that Demosthenes would 
make." This is evidently a bold 
addition made to his speech after it 

4. ([nkbiti-ruv : cf. Soph. EL 700; 

6. tpa|U: cC.SfVpuiuu; (§315') 

7. ovSh tilmx], / sAriiii /ran 
HO ene : this reading of the beat mss. 
agrees with Lobeclc'a rule (note 
on Soph. Aj. 82), that iil<rra.iuit, 

t-Ac/inari, takes the accusative, but in 

the sense of ceArt, the dative. Fori 
the dative see Soph. Fhll. 1053, rOr t 
Si <roL 7' i,rii, /Ktrr^iroiui.,. f 

§ 320. I. uv, partitive with i 
KfdT„rr<^ ■K^i^i' (3). I 

2, i^^[XXov...Kii|iUvt)«: the figure 
of a public contest is kept up, the 
privilege of showing devotion to the 
state being a prize open to general 
competition (i(>a»iftXD«). Cf. iriiiiK- 
Xoy, Plat. Rep. 433 D. 

;, t|v ofiSa|M)i): cf. § 310'.- 


(he optative implies frequent 
IS for insulting the people. 

6. i |i*™t- fi<|>£X» (SC. n^^^Wl), 

i.e. the defeat: see s88'°, and note 
oisfrt (7), opposed to BTe.,.ira(>6)i(l). 

9. inpov: this is the vagae term 
by which Demosthenes often alludes 
to Alexander; see g 3a3'-«'. 

10. {{jrartt; the familiar military 
figure recurs, i.e. a call for these, aa 
for a review; and this is carried out 
ini,rJi..(]l). Cf. ..» 01 § 173', J 



iyoi S' aaSevrf'i, o/i^Xoyai, aW' evvov<; fidWov ii/t€iv 
TOUTOicri. Bvo B', avBpes ' Xdrjualoi, rov ipva-ei /i^Tpiov 823 
•jroXhriv ey^eiv Bet (oin-oi "/dp fioi -jrepi ifiavrov Xeyomi. 
avetri^dovwraTov eiwelv), if fiev rah e^ovalaLi ttjv 
rov yevpaiov xal toO ■wpaneiov rg vroXei irpaalpeaiv 
hiai^ivKdrreiv, iv Travrl he KaLpio Kal irpd^ei rr/v 5 
evvoiav roinov yap tj ^vcni KVptd, rov BvvaaBai be 
Koi iV^ueii' erepa. ravnjv roivvv Trap efiot fi.efi.evT)- 
Kvlav evp^rred' aTrXois. opare Se. ovk e^airovfj.ei'O'i, 32E 
332 OVK eh 'A^0t>eTTJoi/a? SiKa<i eTrajdmwV, ovk aireikovu- 

11. Emrorpii^Kit : the keeping of 
horses was a sign ai wealth, and the 
wurd impliea that Aeschiacs had 
become a richer and mure powerful 
man at Athens since the complete 
establishment of Alexander's auptem- 
acy. Cf. Ar. Nub. 15. 

12, &s{fvj)i; Aeschines (159) 
speaks of Dem. at ibis time as 

pijlia. Westennann refers this to the 
time when Philip was made a citizen 
of Athens and his statue waa erected 
in the city (Plut. Dem. 22; Paus. I. 
9, 4). It more probably refers to the 
recent honours paid to Alexander: 
lee C. I. Att. II. no. 741, dated by 
KHhler in 331 B.C., iTTe^iruv Sooiv, 
oil i 8^)ie! i 'AftiKtiu* iaTKpivaae 

g 321. I. f.hfutv: see § lo^'^. 

2, oOra (with efirertr) ; he uses 
liirpiM here modestly, as he is speak* 
ing of himself ; but he means the 
man called (lUi Ki-YoBis raXfri)) 
in g 278' and 3o6> (see Blass). 

3, 4. Iv Tal« Ifevo-Iait, i.e. ih'c... 
i\irSa.i raprir, 320', inlim/ ofpoteer. 
— Ti|v...vpoalp«rLV. Ike polity vikUh 
aims at nobilily and pri-eminence; 
and T^ irdXii Sicn^XdmLv, toguari/ 
this olttiay! for the sliite. For j-oO 
TTpUTtlDii see S 66'. 

5. irpd{ti (sc. iv iriiffij) may mean 
IB entry act (of the statesroan). Bui 
Blass is probably right in taking it 
in the sense olfirlHiie, like tt and 
kikH^ rpdrrat: see Aeschyl. Prom. 
Sgs,rpaiii-'loS!; Htit. lu. 65 (end), 
drit'Sau -raoop t-(j» iitniTaO rpSiir: 
and Soph. Tr. 294, tirvxv kXioim 

6. cGvouLV, leyal devotien to the 
state: so in § 322^. — tovtou, i.e. Tijn 
ttfoiar iin^tXiiTTeii'. 

7. Irtpo, other things, as chance 
or Fortune, which he cannot control. 
"-TaiTijv: i.e. rljii (Btoioi'. 

8. iirXOi, ahsoluUly, viilhout tx- 


A}L^tKTiav<w, before Ike 
Amphiclyonic Council: cf. Ir 'Aji- 
^iKTitVit, XIX. iSl (also without the 
article). When Alexander demanded 
the orators of Athens in 335 B.C., he 
doubtless intended to have Ibem tried 
by the Amphictyonic CouncU: see 
Aesch. tll. 161, Kai ri riyrait Stiii- 
Taror, i/itU itiv ToCro* vi rpoBitri, 
o^ tlirart KpiO^yai irr^ rdr'SWii- 
avyfSpiif. Notice the spirit 0' 

What ; 

I this 

would have been for Demosthenes, 


"' ovic ' eTrayyeXXofieutav, oiVj^t tout KiTapdraw 
TovTom &<T-7rep Oijpia fioi, vpoa-^aWovrtnv, ovhafim 
iyw trpoSeSmica ttjv eti vfiai ewoiav. to 7^^ ef 5 
apxTJi €i/0iK 6pOi}i/ icaX ZiKalav rijv otov Tr)t iroXt- 
TeuK elXo/iiie, Ta? Tifii'S, ra'S SwaaTeiai, rif euBo- 
fio? tA? t^s warptBos SepaTrevciv, ravrai av^eiv, 
fiera tovtwv elvai. oiiK eVi flip tow kreprav etnvjf^Ti- 3! 
imai <paihpK er/io KaX •yeyr^Bio^ Kara jtjv ayopap 
•rrepUpj^o/iac, rijv Se^tav irpoTeivuv koI evayyeXt^o- 



Hyperides, and Lycurgus ! Schaefer 
(ill. 19S} refeis the passages or buth 
Demostheaes and Aeacbincs to an 
attempt to bring Demosth. befuie the 
Amphictyonic Council in 330 B.C. on 
account of his complicity with the 
rebellion ofAgis (see note on^jij'). 
— SCkos fvaY^vrttv, bringing suili 
(against me) : lee § 249'. 

pifiBoj, § V)Z\ — Toirt Karopdrovi 
TofTovt, the whole pack of sycophants 
mentioned in § 249'"'. 

4, vprnrpoXXiivTuv, setling them 
on (as 9i\fii&)\ cf. -wpas^iMwsBai, to 

(s. ap6)|*..,<[UhLTiv; cf, 3x1*, 
Ti|iF...Tpoaf/Mcriv. For the predicate 
adjectives cf. § 298'. 

7. Svmo-Tilai: cf. §5 fi;"-*, 270'. 
SvraaTfla means lordly pavier; and 
when it cefecs to a ruler, it often 
means absolute prwer or despotism. 
But it can also mean (as here), in a 
good sense, the lordly power which 
Athens once eiercised over her 
dependent states, and which she 
always aipired to exercise. 

5. hpa«c41(iv, a^Env, (tvai explain 
ip9^v..Mbr (6). 

9. lurdl toAtwv ttvai, to be faithful 
A> iktse (t4( TiHit. . . t4i t^i TarpiJai) , 
lit. ta be on their side: see At. Ach. 
661, ri yip tS lur' ii>oS icat rb iUauv 

§ 323. I. e^K belongs to both 
TtpUpx-IM' (3) »nd i„^6^ (5) — 
Mpttv, i.e. the Macedonians; as 
?T(^i (10) and iTtpoo (§ 320') refer 
to Alexander. — cArvx^luiirL i the 
victories of Alexander at the Granicui 
(334 »c-). at Issus (333 B.C.), and 
at Arbela (331 B.C.), were still fresh 
in recollection, the Ust not yet a 
year old. 

3,4. (fia^y^tXiIijuvos, properly an- 
il oiincinif^oi/ /iaiM^ (_c{. liayyiXiar, 
Gospel), but here eangralulaling sn 
goad news, e.g. saying " This is a 
great ziic/ory," — toutoij au* Sv.„ 
c(ia)iat: the apparently definite ante- 
cedent is peculiar before the condi- 
tional relative clause. He means any 
of those (a well-known class) viha I 
entr think an likely to report Ihiiher 
(to Macedonia) such an event as my 
congratulating them on a victory of 
Alexander, It has, I believe, never 
been asked who these men may have 
been. There were, of course, many 
Macedonians in Athens at this time, 
and there were many Athenians who 
would welcome news of Macedonian 
victories. Eut the greatest Macedo- 
nian who ever lived, the philosopher 
Aristotle, was then a resident in 
Athens at the head of the Lyceum. 
His relations with the Court of PelU 
and with Alexander were most inti- 
mate. Who would be more likely J 


ftevoi TOVTOK o5? av iKeltr iTrayyeWetv otoifiai, Ttat 1 
tk rrf! TToXcQW dyaO&v iretfipiKai'i axoiia) xal areveoV % 

Ka\ KVTTTiav eh tt^j* yrje, Sxj'wep al Buairf^eli i 
ot rijv (lev ttoKli' Biaa-ipovinu, aiavep Qpx < 
hta(rvpavT& orair touto Troiioffip, e^ Se ^Xen-t 
Kal iv ol? aTVJ^ijirain-iov ' rUfv 'EXX^i^oc eiiTvxi<r€v 
Irepo?, TaVT e-n-aivovo-i. koX ottius tov Smavra y^opov n 
fuvei ipaal Setv r^jieii'l' ' 

M^ BrJT, at TrdvTev Oeol, /iij&ts TavO' vfiwu CTrivev- 3 
aeiev, aX\a fidXiaTa fieu Kal tovtoli 0i\ritD tlvo. 
vovv KoX ippevav iv6eit]Te, el B' ap' exovaiv actariM!, 

to report to Pella, ot even to Alei- 
ander ^imaeir, Ihat Demosthenes had 
congratulated him on the victory at 
Aibela, if he had any such pleasant 
fact to report? It would lie interest- 
ing, though not quite pleasant, to 
lind an allusion to the gteat philoso- 
pher in this striking passage. 

4. T^...d'y<>i6uv: these ttubdu/i^^i 
may he the early successes of the Spar- 
tan Icing Agis in his revolt against 
Macedonia in the spring of 330 B.C. 
(Diod. XVH. 63). Aeschines (16^) 
quotes Demosthenes as saying of this, 
wt irrtrpdrruu ' A\tiivSp<ii," d wi\07 ui 
t4 AoiMviiii iTuffT^fftti ■ ipuikDySiQiT- 
raXoui Kal Hcppai^ol); A'piarirai." 
See Grote XTI., ch. 95. The words t£» 
...iyaS^y more probably refer to the 
interest of Athens in the reverses of 
Alexander, which were occasionally 
reported from Asia. Aeschines (164) 
describes Demosthenes as once re- 
porting that Alexander was shut up 
in Cilicia, and aarUa ii£Ka t)ie\>U 
(FU/iTaTi)0i)a'cir0ai itrb rijl Iltp(riK^t 
trsav. Tills shows that the mere 
report of a disaster to Alexander 
roused the spirit of lit)erty at Athens, 
even in her deep humiliation. 

6, idlvTwv (It Ti]vyt^v: cf, Caei. 

B. G. I.3S,J, 

5 capite demisso 

7. Sioo-iipaiHrtv : see note on 
§317 °. — fiinrip oix with the participle 
shows that there is nothing conditional 
in the expression: see note on £ 276'. 

8. i(u pXJir«vin: cf. Plut. Atat 
IS, rart iXiriTif (fu ^X^uf. 

9. {vols (cf, § 19') belongsequally 
to irvxw^"^^'' ^^^ tGr^xV^*^- 

10. TaOr, tiis stale c/ things (it 
oli..ATepoi), understood alsu as sub- 
ject al)itiitl. 

§ 324. The Peroration is conGned 
to this single impressive sentence. 

the judges to hear him impartially, 
so now he implores them to change 
the hearU of the traitor! within the 
state, or, if it is too late for this, to 
annihilate them utterly as the only 
hope of safety to honest men. 

2. ii^im )i(v, ifpouibU, but tf 

3. MAt^-n, mayyeu inspire even 
in them: this combines the wish with 
an exhortation (M.T. 725). In the 
corresponding clause with ik wchsTe 



rovTOV^ fi€v avToifi Kaff iaurob^ e^coXet? /cal irpoay- 
X€t9 iv yy Koi daXdrrri Troiijo-aTe, fifilv Bi tow S 
Xoiiroi^ rijv raj^urrrjv aTraXXayrfP r&v hrrjpTrifiivoDv 
(fnififov S6t€ ical aanrjpiav aaifHiKif. ' 

4. airovs KoO* lavro^: the 

strongest expression for dy themselves, 
— 4(d&Xfi« Kal irpo^Xfis iroii^oart, 
cause them to be destroyed utterly and 
before their time : see Shilleto*s note 
on XIX. 172, i^tUKtit diroXolfAiiP xal 
irpoib\fis. Westermann quotes an 
inscription of Halicarnassus from 
Keil, Sched. Epigr. p. 36: i^dtXrit 
Koi iravdiKfis tara koX y4vos ix y4vovt, 
Kal ftiiTt 7^ ^ar^ a^Q ttifTt ^dXcurera 

5* ^ Yfi Kal OoXdrrQ, i.e. in all 
their ways. 

6. m|pTi||Uv«v, impending', for 
the passive of irapTQ see xxiii. 

140, Toaodros hr-iprifrai <fk6pos, Cf. 
Aesch. I. 175, 4>^Povs iictiprrica rots 
iKpowfUpois, i.e. / caused terrors to 
hang over them (impend ere). 

7. <r«»n|p(a V d<r 9aX% safety wh ich 
cannot be shaken. 

With these solemn but hopeful 
words of good cheer, Demosthenes 
leaves his case and his reputation 
with perfect confidence in the hands 
of the judges. Since the success of 
his burst of eloquence in §§ 51, 52, 
he has felt no anxiety about the 
judgment, and his courage has in- 
creased steadily in every stage of his 




I. From the Accession of Phiup in 359 to 352 b.c. 

1. The battle of Mantinea and the death of Epaminondas in 
362 B.C. mark the beginning of a new era in Greek history. The 
brilliant statesmanship and military genius of Epaminondas had raised 
Thebes to the highest position as a military power, and had reduced 
Sparta from her leadership of Greece to a condition of extreme 
danger. Sparta was held in check by the new hostile towns of 
Megalopolis and Messene, and she had for the first time seen an 
invading army within her streets. Athens now thought it expedient 
to forget her ancient enmity, and to make common cause with her old 
rival: at Mantinea Athens and Sparta fought side by side against 
Thebes. The death of Epaminondas at the moment of victory broke 
the spirit and the power of Thebes; Athens was suddenly relieved 
of her great alarm, and now no longer feared the removal of her 
Propylaea to the Cadmea of Thebes. Greece was left without a head, 
and Athens was encouraged to hope for a recovery of the leadership 
which she had lost by the Peloponnesian War. 

2. During the five succeeding years Athens devoted herself to 
establishing her power in the North, especially in her old dominion, 
the Thradan Chersonese, which came anew into her possession in 
357 B.c. Earlier in the same year she had made her famous expedition 



for the liberation of Enboea, of which Demosthenes often speaks with 
pride, when she cleared the whole island of Thebans in thirty days 
and wrested it permanently from Thebes, which had held it since the 
battle of Leuctra in 371 B.C. In 357 u.c. the new Athenian con- 
federacy reached its greatest power and extent. It Included a large 
part of the islands of the Aegean, Byzantium, the Chersonese and the 
south of Thrace, Potidaea, Methone, and Pydna, with much of the 
coast of the Thermaic Gulf. But in the autumn of that year the hopes 
of Athens were violently shattered by the outbreak of the Social War, 
in which Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium, encouraged by Mausolus 
of Caria, suddenly revolted and weakened her power at its most vital 
points. This disastrous war ended in the spring of 355, when Athens 
was compelled to acknowledge the independence of the four seceding 
states. Thus crippled she found herself in the face of a new and more 
dangerous enemy. 

3. In 359 B.C. Philip II. succeeded to the throne of Macedonia at 
the age of twenty-three. Macedonia had hitherto filled only a small 
place in Greek politics ; and it threatened no danger to Grecian 
liberty. Under Philip this was suddenly changed. This crafty king 
lost no time in laying his plans for his great object, the extension of 
his power and influence over Greece. His regular policy was to in- 
terfere ia a friendly way in the quarrels of Greek states, in the hope 
of getting one or both of the parties into his own power. He began 
at once by offering help to Athens in her dispute about the possession 
of her old colony Amphipolis. He proposed a treaty of peace with 
Athens, with the understanding that he would secure Amphipolis for 
her and receive Pydna (on his own coast) in exchange. These nego- 
tiations, though known to the Senate, were kept secret Irom the people 
of Athens'; but great hopes were based on Phihp's friendship, and 
Athens not only neglected to take Amphipolis when it was left un- 
garrisoned by Philip, but refiised to help the town afterwards when 
Philip was besieging it*. But when Philip captured the place in 357 
he refused to give it to her, though he had again promised to do so 
during the siege*. This soon led to a war between Philip and Athens, 
called the Amphipolitan War, which al^er eleven years was ended in 

' This is the epuXai/icyot ir6ppT)Tov of Dem. II. 5. * Dem. 1. &, _ 


346 by the Peace of Philocrates. One of Philip's first 1 

was the seizure of Pydna, which was to have been Ihe price of 
Amphipolis. He soon afterwards (356) captured Potidaea, then subject 
) Athens, and gave it to Olynthus, with which he was then forming 
Q alliance. Soon after the capture of Potidaea three messages came 
to Philip at the same time, one announcing a victory of Parmenio over 
Ihe Illyrians, another a victory of his horse in the Olympic races, and a 
third Ihe birth of his son Alexander'. In the same year he founded 
Philippi, near Mt Pangaeus in Thrace, to enable him to work the gold- 
es of that region, from which he soon derived a revenue of over a 
thousand talents yearly. In 353 he besieged and captured the Athenian 
possession Methone. 

%. He now entered upon a grander scheme of intervention, of 
which perhaps he hardly suspected the issue. This was to end in the 
bitter humiliation of Athens, the annihilation of an ancient Creek 
race, and his own instalment as the leading member of the venerable 
Amphictyonic Council. In 356 — 355 b.c. the disastrous Phocian War 
between the Amphictyonic Council and Phocis had begun. It resulted 
from a quarrel between Phocis and Thebes, in the course of which 
the Thebans and Thessalians induced the Council to fine the Phocians 
some act of real or constructive sacrilege. They refused to pay 
the fine, and the Council voted to treat them as it had treated the 
sacrilegious Cirrhaeans in the time of Solon^, by seizing their land 
and consecrating it lo the Delphian Apollo, and putting the whole 
Phocian race under a terrible curse. The Phocians, under their leader 
Philomelus, decided lo resist ; and they revived an old claim to the 
management of the temple of Delphi, which had caused a short 
Sacred War in 448 B.C.' Philomelus with a body of Phocians now 
seized the temple. The loj-al Amphictyons, now chiefly Thebans, 
Thessalians, and Locrians, raised a large army to attack them ; and the 
Phocians in turn raised a large mercenary force to defend the temple. 
After many promises to respect the sacred treasures, Philomelus was 
soon reduced to the necessity of using these to pay his soldier.s ; and 
in a few years the costly offerings of gold and silver, with which the 

I bom (Flut. Alex. 3) on the 6th of HecatombseoAl 


* See below, § 59 (end). 


religious pride of Greece and the munificence of strangers had stored 
the temple, had been melted down to supply the needs of his 
Philomelns was kilEed in a skirmish in 354 B.C. ; his 
ir Onomarchus condaued the spoliation of the temple with stili 
r energy. He and his successors gave the most precious relics, 
as the necklaces of Helen and of Harmonia, to their wives or 
mistresses to wear. This state of things caused a scandal throughout 
Greece, which made it easy and attractive for an unscrupulous out- 
sider like Philip to intervene on the side of piety, and thus to pose as 
the champion of the God of Delphi. This Philip did at the earliest 

5. He had already interfered in Thessaly by aiding the Aleuadae 
of Larissa against Lycophron, despot of Pherae. In 353 — 352 B.C. 
he attacked Lycophron with such vigour that the despot invoked the 
aid of Onomarchus. The Phocians had now become so powerful that 
they had marched forth from Delphi and were practically masters of 
Boeotia and of the whole region south of Thermopylae. A force 
of Phocians under Phayllus, the brother and afterwards the successor 
of Onomarchus, which marched to the aid of Lycophron, ivas defeated 
by Philip, and compelled to retreat beyond Thermopylae. Onomarchus 
then entered Thessaly with his whole army, and defeated Philip in two 
battles. But Philip soon returned with a new army, and defeated the 
Phocians completely. Onomarchus, it was said, was slain in the 
retreat by some of his own men. Lycophron abandoned Pherae, 
which was taken by Philip, who also captured the seaport of Pagasae, 
which gave him control of the Pagasaean Gulf. The Phocian army 
was annihilated ; but Phayllus took his brother's command, and easily 
raised another mercenary force by offering double pay, which the sacred 
treasures still provided', 

6. While this new force was collecting, the road through Ther- 
mopylae lay open to Philip. Since his defeat of the Phocians he was 
hailed as a protector fay their enemies; and he was already recognized 
as the avenger of Apollo, who was to restore the holy temple to its 
rightful lord ; and it was confidently expected that he would pass 
Thermopylae with bis army and become a power in central Greece. 
But at this momentous crisis Athens became fully alive to the danger 

' Grote X[. 408—418. 


\ which threatened Greece and especially herself. With an energy 
I which was unusual at this period and recalled the most glorious of her 
K older days, she sent a force by sea to Thermopylae, which prevented 
I Philip from even attempting to force the pass, and which (strange to 
I say) arrived in time. Demosthenes often alludes with pride to this 
exploit of Athens', which took placeshortly before midsummer, 352 B.C. 
I Though Philip received this temporary check, he was now recognized 
I as a power to be reckoned with in the settlement of the Sacred 
I War; and he used this position with great skill, until six years later 
as enabled lo end the war on his own terms, to humiliate Athens, 
tand by a single blow to make himself a recognized partner in Greek I 


II, Ej\rly Life of Demosthenes. — Events from 352 to 

348 B.C. 

7. la 354 B.C., two years before Philip was repulsed at Ther- 
mopylae by Athens, a statesman appeared in [he Athenian Assembly 
\ who was to be his most able and persistent opponent, and to whom 

s chiefly due that his plans for the subjugation of Greece v 

[ delayed more than fifteen years. Demosthenes, son of Demosthenes, 

I was bom at Athens, according to the date now generally accepted, 

1 384—383 B.C., the year in which probably Aristotle was born at 

I Stageiros'. The father of Demosthenes died in 376 — 375, leaving his 

n his eighth year and a daughter in her fifth. He left an estate 

of about fifteen talents (/3000 or ^15000)', to be managed during the 

son's minority by three guardians. These mismanaged the property 

ten years in the most dishonest manner, so that the estate had nearly 

vanished when their ward attained hb majority in 366 at the age of 

1 Dem, Cor. 32, iv. 17, 35, xtx. 84, 

' The lives of Demosthenes and Aristotle coincide almost exactly, aa \ 
Aristotle died at Chalds in the autumn of 32a B.C., a few weeks before tbt 
death of Demnsthenes at Cslauria. 

» I give the modern value of the weight of silver in the Solonic talent 
(S7| lbs. avoir.) at /^zoo or piooo, thisbeing the average value for many years 

n silve 

before the . 
I 1903 this weight of silvei ha: 

(see Liddell and Scott under riXauro.). In , 
been worth less than ^vx. 

MnnrasiCAJL sxtitJi 

-j^slX. Boc &r isood k ■■pos5£sle to obcain 

ii "nil r iiii ^?i \ iiiiii m\ wTj i m ii ar The traiiiiiig 

jui£ ^i"*!?*''!; *3flC3. Dciiwjitf .IK lis g^t'd ni prepariD^ for this 

m mJA g*ntnp^gL amf TPK j'^raprTwary s ti^ OVtSL VCVC broo means lost. 

He imnf tttw^K 2C I3e ^e cf twcsiT-three. ■amir dqxndent on 
li'iMM y ^T»- wijiM w r r 2ad ^ aAn i Ced the fai i frsftiim of Xayty^m^as or 

k^ii art'ytiPT, tu dnoes of vitkh ti m h^lrti viiting ^leechcs for clients 
IP ^e&cr ox osiBt. Bat he soon aimed at somrthii^ modi hi^^ier 
speeches and giiing adiice in prirate lawsuits. B^ore 
dortr jeais old he had cfistinguished hw^^^lf as an advocate 
of nnportant pabGc interest, in which the constitiitionality of 
deciecs was ja£ciaIlT tested. His arguments in sodi cases 
(355—351 B.C.) are those against Androtion (xxn.), Leptines (xx.), 
Tlmoorates (xxnr.). and Aristocrates (xxm.). He had already twice 
j |ipe M red as a ^xaker in the Athenian Assembly, once in 354 — ^353, 
whem he d^rcred his speech on the Sjmmories (xiv.), pn^x>sing a 
leform in the system of a.ssfssing taxes and equipping the navy, and 
once again in 353 — ^352, vihen he defended the rights of M^alopolis 
(^-i.> against Spartan aggression. In neither of these public speeches 
is tiiere anything which shows that the orator was seriously anxious 
about the dangers whidi already threatened Athens from the north; 
bttt he probably thought that the moment for open and energetic 
speech and action on his part against Philip had not yet come. 

9^ Probably the sudden panic in 352, which roused Athens to 
her energetic movement to Thermopylae (§ 6), gave the question of 
checking Philip a more serious importance. A few months later 
(Nov« 352) the alarming news came that Philip was besieging Heraion 
T^ichos^ a fortified post near the Thracian Chersonese. Again Athens 
acted with energy, and voted to -equip forty triremes and to levy a tax 


of sixty talents. But a report that Philip was ill, followed by another 
that he was dead, stopped these preparations, and nothing was done ^. 
Philip's cruisers committed some daring aggressions on the coasts 
of Euboea and even of Attica. In the spring of 351 the Athenian 
Assembly met to consider hb hostile behaviour, which was now a 
familiar subject. Demosthenes was the first to speak, and he spoke 
with no uncertain sound. This earliest of his speeches against Philip, 
the First Philippic, is an earnest and solemn appeal to the people to 
take decisive steps against an enemy who is every day becoming more 
dangerous. Demosthenes is now thoroughly aroused, and henceforth 
the single object of his political life is to excite the Athenians to 
effective action against Philip. He now proposes a new plan for a 
permanent military and naval force, to supersede the spasmodic efforts 
of the past. In this speech he established his claim to statesmanship, 
on the ground of ^ seeing things in their beginning and proclaiming 
them to others"; and in his final review of his political life twenty- 
one years later he appeals to this with honest pride ^. So £&r as we 
know, this great speech produced no effect. 

A few months after the First Philippic, probably in the autumn of 
351, Demosthenes made his speech in the Assembly for the Freedom 
of the Rhodians (xv.). 

10. Philip's intrigues in Euboea soon made new troubles. Since 
the victorious expedition in 357 (§ 2) Euboea had been nominally in 
friendship with Athens. But after Philip gained control of southern 
Thessaly (§ 5), he constantly used his influence to alienate the island 
from Athens. In the First Philippic letters were read from Philip to 
Euboeans, showing hostility to Athens ; and we hear of his cruisers 
off Geraestus*. Early in 350 the Athenians were asked to help 
Plutarchus, a sort of despot in Eretria, who was hard pressed by his 
enemies and professed to be a friend of Athens. Against the strong 
opposition of Demosthenes, it was voted to send an army to help 
him, under the command of Phocion. This expedition had various 
fortimes in a few weeks. Plutarchus proved treacherous, and the 
Athenians were for a time in great danger; but Phocian gained a 

^ Dem. III. 4, IV. II. 

* Cor. § 246 : lb€iv rd TpArnuxro, dpx^/**Pfi fc.r.X. 

» IV. 34, 37. 


decisive victory at Tamynae, and soon returned to Athens with most 
of his army. Affairs remained in this position two years, until a peace 
was made in 348, in which the independence of Euboeawas recognized. 
Athens and Enboea remained unfriendly, until the intrigues of Philip 
in 343 — 342 again brought them into amicable relations'. 

1 1 . The Great Dionysiac festival of 350 was important for ihe 
fortunes of Demosthenes. His tribe, the Paadionis, chose no choregus 
for this year, and he volunteered to talie the duties and bear the 
expense of Ihe yop'Tf''^ While he was sitting in the orchestra of the 
theatre at the festival, amid all the pomp and slate of the ceremony, 
being a sacred as well aa a public oificial, wearing his crown of office, 
his old enemy, the wealthy Midias, came forward and struck him in 
the face with his clenched fist". This was not merely a personal 
outrage, but an insult to the state and to a great religious festival ; and 
it could be dealt with only by the most public legal process. This was 
the Trp^okri, in which the case first came before the Assembly for its 
preliminary judgment, and afterward, if the decision was adverse to 
the accused, could be tried before an ordinary popular court. The 
Assembly, at a special meeting in the Dionysiac Theatre, unanimously 
condemned Midias. After this decisive victory it is not surprising 
that the young orator yielded to the advice of judicious friends and 
avoided a further contest with a powerful man, who could always give 
him trouble in his public career. He compromised the case, and 
received a sum of money as damages. The existing oration agMnst 
Midias (XXI.), which appears to have been composed for delivery in 
court about a year after the assault, was never spoken. 

12. A year later (in 349) Philip took a most important step in bis 
grand plan by attacking the Olynthiac confederacy of thirty-two free 
Greek towns in the Chalcidic peninsula. In less than a year he hsd 
captured and destroyed all these, and sold the inhabitants into slavery. 
Olynthus, the head of this confederacy, had long been an important 
and flourishing dty, generally hostile to Athens, and before 35Z 
friendly to Philip. He encouraged her in her enmity to Athens by 

iSee§ 46 (below). 

' For the affair of Midiaa and its conseijuencea, see Dem. xxi., afiainst 
Midias; Grote xi. 47S, 479; Schaefer, Dem. 11. 94—101, The date is 
disputed: see large edition, p. 240. 


giving her Potidaea, which he took from Athens in 356 (§ 3). But 
the rapid advance of Philip's power in 353 — 352 alarmed the enter- 
prising dty, and in the autumn of 352 she was in friendship, if not 
in alliance, with Athens ^ In the autumn of 349 an embassy from 
Olynthus came to Athens, asking help against an attack from Philip, 
and proposing a formal alliance^. Athens accepted the alliance; but 
nothing was done with sufficient energy to save Olynthus or any of her 
confederate towns. Three embassies came from Olynthus to Athens, 
and three fleets were sent by Athens to Olynthus ; the last fleet was 
still at sea when Olynthus fell. The city was captured, after a brave 
defence, by the help of traitors within the walls, probably in the early 
autumn of 348 •. Many Athenian citizens were captured with the city. 
With Olynthus fell the other Chalcidic towns, and the destruction was 
complete and terrible. Seldom had anything shocked the feelings of 
the Grecian world like this. Travellers in Peloponnesus (Aeschines 
among others) saw on the roads troops of Olynthian captives driven 
off* to slavery*. 

During the Olynthian war Demosthenes delivered his three 
Olynthiacs, masterpieces of eloquence, full of earnest appeals to the 
patriotism and public spirit of the Athenians and to their sense of duty 
and honour. The wise prediction of the First Philippic, " if we do not 
now fight Philip there (in the north), we shall perhaps be compelled 
to fight him here*," is now repeated in fresh words and with redoubled 
force. No more powerful arguments were ever addressed to any people ; 
and yet the quieting influence of Eubulus and his party prevented all 
efficient and timely action. At the end of the Olynthian War (348) 
Demosthenes was probably in his thirty-sixth year. All the public 
speeches made by him before the events of 347 — 346 B.C. have already 
been mentioned. 

^ Dem. XXIII. 109, €7r 'OXt^i^toi \ijkv fjao-i rh fjtiWov rpoopav^ ir.r.X. 
2 I. 2, 7. 

• Diod. XVI. 53, </>$€Lpas xp4ibia0-i...E^^i;Kp(iri7y re xal Aaff$4priv, ic.r.X. See 
Dem. VIII. 40, IX. 56, 66, xix. 265, and Grote XI. 454 ff. 

* Dem. XIX. 305, 306, and Grote xi. 505, 510. » iv. 50. 


The Peace of Philocrates. 

347—346 B.C. 

13. When Philip had destroyed Olynthus and the thirly-lwo Greek 
towns of Chalcidice, he naturally turned his eyes to the land of his 
hopes beyond Thermopylae. He now saw that at least a temporary 
peace with Athens was absolutely necessary. Even before the capture 
of Olynthus envoys from Euboea had brought to Athens a pleasant 
message from Philip that he wished for peace. Soon after this Phrynon 
of Rhamnus was captured by one of Philip's cruisers. He was released 
on payment of a ransom, and he persuaded the Athenians to send a 
public envoy with him to ask Philip to restore his ransom money. 
Ctesiphon (not the defendant in the suit on the Crown) was sent with 
him on this mission. Philip received tliem with great kindness and 
granted their request. Ctesiphon reported that Philip wished to make 
peace as soon as possible'. The Athenians were delighted; and it 
was unanimously voted, on the motion of Philocrates, that Philip might 
send a heraid ajid envoys to Athens to treat for peace. 

At about this time Olynthus was captured (§12). The consternation 
caused by this event did much to excite the almost universal desire (or 
peace at Athens. The relatives of two Athenians captured at Olynthus 
appeared in the Assembly with suppliant olive-branches and besought 
the people to rescue their kinsmen. The people were deeply moved, 
and voted to send the actor Aristodemns, who was professionally 
intimate at the Macedonian court, to intercede with Philip for the 
prisoners. This mission also was perfectly successful. Aristodemus 
reported that Philip was full of kindness and wished both peace aud 
alliance with Athens, Aristodemus was complimented by a crown. 00 
the motion of Demosthenes. His return to Athens took place after 
the beginning of 347 — 346, the arehonship of Themistocles. in which 
Demosthenes was for the second time a senator, the year of the peace 
of Philocrates. 

14. In the previous year, after the fall of Olynthus, a significant 
movement against Philip was made by Eubulus, with the active aid of 
Aeschines. Eubulus was the conservative statesman of the day, iiai- 

' For this and the following events of § 13. sec Acich. 11. i 


versally respected, incomiptibly honest, but a strong advocate of peace 
at any price ^. Of Aeschines we then hear for the first time in political 
life. The famous rival of Demosthenes was the son of respectable 
parents, who had been reduced to poverty in the Peloponnesian War. 
We cannot accept as historical either of the two accounts of his parent- 
age and his youth which are given by Demosthenes^. Neither orator 
is authority for the life or personal character of the other. Like 
Demosthenes, he was left to his own resources to earn his living ; but he 
was less favoured by genius and by fortune than his rival. As a young 
man he was a play-actor and took many important parts, as that of 
Creon in the Antigone and that of Oenomaus in the tragedy of 
Sophocles of that name*. He also did service as a clerk, publicly 
in the Senate and Assembly, and privately in the employ of Aristophon 
and Eubulus. His friendly relations with Eubulus were often of great 
service to him in his public life. He was strong and vigorous, had a 
powerful voice, and was a ready speaker*. In all these respects Nature 
had given him a great advantage over Demosthenes ; but he lacked the 
steady rhetorical training by which his rival, even as a young man, made 
himself an accomplished orator. Though he was about six years older 
than Demosthenes, he appeared in public life much later. 

15. On the occasion referred to (§ 14), probably in the winter or 
spring of 348 — 347, Eubulus addressed the Assembly, calling Philip 
the common enemy of the Greeks and swearing by his children that 
he wished that Philip were dead. He proposed a decree for sending 
embassies to the Peloponnesus and all other parts of Greece — 
Demosthenes says, "all but to the Red Sea" — to summon an Hellenic 
synod at Athens and inaugurate a general Greek war against Philip*. 
This measure was eloquently supported by Aeschines and was adopted 
with enthusiasm. Demosthenes says that Aeschines then professed 
to be the first Athenian who had discovered that Philip was plotting 
against the Greeks. Aeschines was one of the envoys sent out ; and 
on his return he repeated the fine speeches which he had made in 

^ For Eubulus see Grote xi. 387, 388. 

* Cf. Dem. XIX. 249, 250 ; Cor. 129, 130. • xix. 246, 247 ; Cor. 180. 

* See Cic. de Orat. iii. 28 : suavitatem Isocrates, subtilitatem Lysias, 
acumen Hyperides, sonitum Aeschines, vim Demosthenes habuit. 

* Dem. XIX. 292, 304. 


behalf of Athens against Philip at Megalopolis '. Demosthenes appears 
to have taken no interest in these embassies, of which he speaks in a 
disparaging tone. He probably distrusted any movement in which 
men tike Eubulus were leaders, and experience had shown him that 
their grand plan of uniting all Greece in a war agdnst Philip would 
end in failure and give Philip fresh encouragement for conquest. The 
event proved Deniosthenes right. No Hellenic synod met in Athens, 
and within a year Eabulus and Aeschines were bolK playing inlo 
Philip's hands. It must be remembered that the "still absent envoys," 
who play so important a part in the story of the peace (as told by 
Aeschines in 330 B.C.), for whose return Demosthenes is said to have 
tefiised to delay the negotiations for peace, are these very messengers 

16. A year later it is certain that the prospect of an honourable 
peace with Philip was extremely welcome to all sober-minded men at 
Athens. Her recent losses and disasters secured a favourable hearing 
for the friendly messages from Pella. There can be no doubt that 
Demosthenes then felt strongly inclined to peace, as a matter of policy; 
and it is hardly possible that he had yet begun to suspect the crafty 
scheme by which peace with Philip would be turned to the disgrace 
of Athens and the triumph of her bitterest foes. And yet it seems 
hardly possible that the terrible spectre of the Sacred War, just beyond 
their borders, should not have filled all sober Athenians with alarm, 
especially when they remembered Philip's march to Thermopylae five 
years before (§ 6). Philip himself, we may be sure, never lost sight of 
the prije which had once seemed within his grasp. 

17. Since Philip's repulse from Thermopylae in 352, the Sacred 
War had been waged with increasing bitterness, but with no prospect 
of 3 conclusion. In 351 the death of Phayllus left the leadership 10 
Phalaecus, son of Onomarchus (g 5), a mere boy. The Thebans were 
now the chief opponents of the Phocians, and Boeotia became the chief 
seat of war. Neither side gained any decisive advantage, and the 
resources of both parties were now exhausted. The Phocians had 
come to the end of the Delphic treasures, after robbing the temple of 
gold and silver of the value of about 10.000 talents- They received 
help from various Greek states, including 1000 men from Sparta and 

> Dem. XIX. II. ' See § 24 (below) . 



213 j 
r fell below J 

•3 from Achaia. It is probable that their army i 
fifoa '. (See S 36.) 

rhe Phocians were now aniious lest a new invasion from , 
rhessaly with help from Philip might suddenly end their power. Their 
> mutinous from lack of psy, and the authority over it was 
^vided. Envoys were sent to Athens asking help, and offering the 
Athenians the towns commanding the pass of Thermopylae. This 
r pleased the Athenians greatly ; and tliey ordered Proxenus to 
session of the three towns, and voted to call out the citizen 
lisoldiers up to the age of thirty and to man fifty t 
Proxenus now found men in authority at Thermopylae who repudiated 
the message sent to Athens ; he was dismissed with insult, and the | 
fleet and army were never sent. Still Athens felt that the fate of 
H1>reece depended on having Thermopylae held secure against any 
^BnvasioD from the North. Notwithstanding the sacrilegious plunder- 
^Hlig of Delphi, which no one ventured to approve openly, Athens had 
K'the strongest political reasons, which were easily reinforced by moral 
motives, for protecting the Phocians at Thermopylae, especially against • 
Philips. There was a formal alliance between Athens and Phocis, 
and it was naturally assumed at Athens (except by Philip's friends) | 
that peace with Philip would protect the Phocians against all danger ] 
from him. It was probably in this spirit that Athens received the ' 
friendly propositions which Arislodemus brought from Philip. Soon ' 
after the cordial reception of Aristodemus (§ 13), Philocrates proposed 
a decree for sending ten ambassadors to Philip, to discuss terms of 
peace and to ask him to send ambassadors to Athens with full powers 
to regoliate'. The following were sent: Philocrates (the mover), 
Demosthenes, Atschines, Ctesiphon (the former envoy to Philip), , 
Phrynon, latrocles, Aristodemus, Nausicles, Cimon, Dercylus, To 
these Aglaocreon of Tenedos was afterwards added by the Assembly ' 
as a representative of the allies. The embassy was appointed and 
sent in February, 346 a.c. 

19. We depend chiefly on Aeschines for the account of the first 
embassy *. The envoys went by land to Oreus, in the north of Euboea, 
i thence by sea to Halus, on the south side of the Gulf of Fagasae, . 

' Dem. SIX, 230. 

' Aesch. II. 18, 111. 63. 

«Detn. Cot. 18"-*. 

* See Aesch. 11. ao — 43. 

214 HISTORICAL SKETCH [March, April, 

a town claimed by Athens as an ally. Parmcnio, Philip's general, 
was then besieging Halus, which Philip wanted to give to his friends 
the Pharsalians. The embassy passed through the Macedonian camp 
to Pagasae, Larissa, and Pella. On arriving at Fella the envoys 
were courteously received by Philip at a formal interview, in which 
they addressed the king in the order of their ages, Demosthenes 
speaking last, directly after Aeschines. Aeschines devotes the greater 
part of his story to his own eloquent argument, in which (as he says) 
he made a powerful appeal to Philip in defence of the right of Athens 
to Amphipolis. He spoke of the appointment of Iphicrates as tlie 
Athenian commander there, and reminded Philip of the occasion when 
his mother, Eurydice, placed him with his brother Perdiccas (both 
children) on the knees of Iphicrates, and begged the general to treat 
her two boys with brotherly aJTection, as their father Amyntas had 
adapted hira as a son. 

20. Aeschines then describes the appearance of Demosthenes 
before Philip. He was (we are told) so embarrassed that he could 
hardly utter a word ; and after a few vain attempts to speak he 
became silent. Philip encouraged him and tried to relieve his 
embarrassment, but all in vain. He remained speechless, and the 
herald conducted the embassy from the royal presence. This account 
is probably much exaggerated ; but it is hardly possible that the 
whole story Is an invention. Grote is probably right in thinking that 
Demosthenes was taken with a kind of '"stage fright" when he 
suddenly found himself formally addressing the king whom he liad so 
often denounced, and when he was probably insulted by the officers 
of Philip who were in attendance, so that he may well have been 
physically unable to speak'. Philip soon recalled the embassy, and 
replied to their arguments, ending his address with the usual assurances 
of friendship. Most of the envoys were struck by the dignity, wit, and 
gracious manners of Philip, and by his skill in replying to what had 
just been said to him'. 

21. The returning envoys arrived in Athens about the first of 
Elaphebolion (March 39) 346 B.C. They made their regular reports 
to the Senate and the Assembly; and they received the regular 
complimentary votes and the invitation to dinner in the Prytaneum. 

' Grote XI. 530. ' Aesch. II. 41 — 43: cf. 51, ^d 


2"S I 

"hey brought home a letter from Philip, expressing great friendship I 
1 his hope of both peace and alliance. There can be no doubt I 
t Demosthenes returned fully persuaded that some peace should 
de as soon as possible, to settle the important questions which 
r kept open. Down to this time — ^in fact, until the nineteenth 
_ ' Elaphebolion— he had no suspicion of the loyally and political 
"honesty of Aeschines". There can be little doubt that Philocrates 
was already secured for Philip's interest ; and it was not long Ijefore 
Aeschines (perhaps honestly at first) was acting with him to gain 
Philip's ends. 

2Z. Immediately after the return of the embassy Demosthenes 
proposed two decrees in the Senate to secure peace at the earliest 
moment. The Great Dionysiac festival was approaching, during 
which all public business would be suspended. These decrees 
enacted that safe-conduct should be granted to Philip's envoys and 
herald, who were now on their way to Athens, and that the Prytanes 
should call a special meeting of the Assembly, to be held on the 
eighth of Elaphebolion (April 5) if Philip's embassy should then have 
arrived, to discuss terms of peace. The envoys came too late for this 
day ; but after their arrival Demosthenes proposed another decree 
appointing the eighteenth and nineteenth of Elaphebolion (April 15 
and 16), after the Dionysia, for two meetings, in which both peace 
and alliance with Phihp should be considered. The two meetings 
were held on the appointed days, and the Macedonian envoys, 
Antipater, Parmenio. and probably Eurylochus, were present during 
a part of the sessions. Demosthenes, as senator, showed the dis- 
tinguished envoys all proper courtesies, and proposed decrees to 
admit them to the Assembly and to make them guests of honour at 
the Dionysia. He personally escorted them to the theatre, where 
curtains had been provided to shield them from the early morning 
air and cushions lo cover the stone seats. And when they departed 
for home he hired three yoke of mules for them and escorted them 
to Thebes. 

One of the strangest charges made by Aeschines against 

^ Dem. nx. 

13: Mi (l^Xpi T 

'...lit^Sapn4ret val rtrpaiiii iavr 

r. The remainder of XIZ> J 


Demosthenes is that of corrupt collusion with Philocrates in making 
the peace. Philocrates went into exile as a convicted criminal earlj 
in 343 B.C., fleeing from Athens to escape the sentence of death which 
was soon passed upon him for treachery and bribery in making the 
peace which is a reproach to his name. Aeschines can henceforth 
think of DO graver charge than this, with which he introduces his 
accusation of Demosthenes with regard to the peace : " Now I return 
to the peace which you and Philocrates proposed." Can it be 
believed that this is the same Aeschines who fifteen years before 
had described this same peace as " the peace made by me and 
Philocrates " ! ' His chief argument for the collusion is that Demos- 
thenes caused the peace to be made in such unseemly haste that the 
Greek states which had been invited by Athens to an Hellenic council 
for mutual defence could not be represented in the negotiations. He 
constantly alludes to "the still absent embassies, which you sent (0 
the Creeks." 

24. These are the "roving envoys," which had been sent out 00 
Ihe motion of Eubulus, more than a year before, to unite the Greeks 
in a common cause against Philip. (See § 15.) Aeschines himself 
says that, when Philip's envoys came to Athens, the Athenian envoys 
were still absent, " summoning the Greeks against Philips." On whil 
possible ground now could Aeschines, who was one of the embassy 
which invited Philip's envoys to Athens to negotiate a peace, demand 
after their arrival that all negotiations should be suspended until the 
return of envoys who had been absent more than a year stirring up 
hostility against Philip, and had shown no signs of returning or 
reporting? These " absent envoys " were pure inventions. Aeschines 
declares positively that not one of them had returned when the peace 
was made, and Demosthenes that there was no embassy then out'. 
This contradiction can be reconciled only by the explanation given by 
Demosthenes, that all the Greeks had long ago been tried and found 
wanting— in feet, that Athens could find no states ready to join 
her in resisting Philip. Aeschines expressed the same opinion ia 

' Compare Aeach. III. 57 with 1. 174. See the reply in Dem. Cor. a 
* Aeach. itl. 65, 68. 

" Aescb. II, 58, 5g; Dem. Cor. is"-'. See note on the last pasi 
the whole of Cor. 30 and 14. 

Sb.c] discussion of terms of peace i\7 \ 

.' It is most prabable that no reports had been made simply I 
; there were no favourable responses to report, and that no f 
jiflelay of the peace would have changed the result. 

25. We have the most contradictory accounts from the two I 
s of the proceedings in the two meetings of the Assembly, la 
pthe Arst, on the eighteenth of Elaphebohon, the Macedonian env 
appeared and stated plainly and firmly the terms on which Philip 
would make peace. These were, in general, (kqt^ous a t)^a■alI^.v Ix^iVt 
uH possidetis ; that is, no questions were to be raised as to Philip's 
right to any of the places which he had taken from Athens and still 
held, of course including Amphipolis. It was also stated that Philip | 
would not recognize as allies of Athens either the Halians or 
Phocians. In conformity with these announcements, Philocrates pro- 
posed a formal decree, establishing peace and alliance between Philip 
and his allies and Athens and her allieS] excepting the Halians and 
Phocians '. It is evident that the last clause was heard by most 
of the Athenians with surprise and alarm. It signified plainly that 
Philip would do, in spite of the peace, the very thing which it was 
supposed the peace would prevent, that is, pass Thermopylae and 
overwhelm the Phocians with the help of the Thebans, while Athens 
would have her hands lied by the peace. Demosthenes now had his 
eyes thoroughly opened. Though he had favoured and even urged 
peace, as preferable to disastrous war, he was no advocate of " peace 
at any price," and he now saw that the price was to be too high'. He 
strongly opposed the motion of Philocrates, and advocated " the 
resolution of the allies," which was, according to Aeschines, favoured 
by himself and all the other speakers in the first Assembly*. From 
Aeschines, who appears to be not yet in the complete confidence of 
Philocrates and the Macedonian envoys, we have a final burst of 
exalted patriotism. As Demosthenes reports him, he declared that, 
though he thought a peace should be made, he would never advise 
Athens to make the peace proposed by Philocrates so long as a single 
Athenian was left alive'. Finally, on the motion of Demosthenes, the 

r. 79. 

X. 159 and 321 (quoted § 27, r 


Assembly rejected the proposition of Philocrates and adopted what 
was called the resolution of the allies, whose regular sjiiod (rrvvE'Sptov) 
was then in session at Athens. The Macedonian envoys were then 
recalled and informed of this action '. 

26. It is somewhat uncertain what is here meant by " the resolu- 
tion of the allies" (to tZiv trv/i^x""' 8oy/*a). We have two accounts 
of this from Aeschlnes*. In one he mentions only a clause reeom- 
mendiug a postponement of the discussion about peace until the 
return of the "absent envoys"; but the fact that the discussion was 
going on by generai consent makes it impossible that this clause was 
advocated by "all the speakers in the former Assembly." In the 
other he mentions a recommendation that only peace, and not 
alliance, should be discussed; but this he deduces from the entire 
omission of the word "alliance" in the resolution, and it is obvious 
that neither Demosthenes nor all the other speakers could have 
opposed alliance". He there mentions also the proposed provision 
that three months should be allowed after the making of the peace, 
in which any Greek state might claim its advantages and be recorded 
on the same column with Athens and her allies'. This is the only 
part of the resolution which had any significance whatever on that 
day; and it must be this, and this alottt, which was adopted by th« 
Assembly. This provision, if it were granted by Philip, would ensure 
the safety of the Phocians ; for they could then have claimed the 
protection of the peace as Greeks, without being recognized by Philip 
as allies of Athens. This important provision, supported, as it 
appears, by the authority of the synod of allies, was advocated by 
Demosthenes, as the only substitute for the fatal proposition of 
Philocrates which was at all likely to be accepted by the Assembly- 
Aeschines says that the general opinion, when the first Assembly 
adjourned, was that there would be peace, but that alliance would 
be made (if at all) later, in conjunction with all the Greeks. 

27. The following night brought about a great and sudden change 
in the whole situation. Philocrates had been too bold in pressing on 

' Dem. %vL. 144. 

' Aesch, II. 6d and III. 69, 70, 71. * Aesch. 111. 68, 71. 

* Aesch.' 111. 70: Hfimi Tiji ^av^afkiyif ruii' 'EXXtS«iiv t» TpiffI ittislv tls Tij» 
bUtV rr^fiv i™7e7p''?P'" >"r' 'ASijwituiu n«) fKT^fiB T«» ^ui 



Hrthe Assembly the plan of the Macedonian envoys. The sudden I 
^'disclosure of Philip^s designs against the Phocians had caused so ' 
great excitement and opposition, that it was hopeless to attempt to ' 
pass the original excluding clause. At the same time it was seej 
to be fetal lo at) Philip's plans to allow the proposition of the allies to 
be finally adopted. Philocrates therefore amended his decree during 
the night, probably in consultation with Antipaler and Parmenio. 
He brought it before the Assembly the next day without the excluding 
clause, reading simply "the Athenians and their allies." This change, 
which after the statements of the previous day meant nothing, appears 
to have allayed the excitement in great measure, and the decree in 
this fonn was finally passed without much opposition. This could not 
have been effected until ihe public apprehensions about the Phocians 
had been quieted by diplomatic promises, like those which were so 
effectual after the return of the second embassy a few months later'. 
Antipater and Parmenio simply maintained their ground, that Philip 
could not admit the Phocians as patties to the peace ; but their friends 
in the Assembly (Philocrates and perhaps Aeschines) assured the 
people "on authority" that, though Philip then could not offend the 
Thebans and Thessalians by publicly recognizing the Phocians, he 
would still, when the peace gave him greater freedom of action, do all 1 
that Athens could ask of him 1. 

28, It is impossible to determine precisely what was said or "' 
done by Aeschines and Demosthenes in the second meeting of the 
Assembly, in which the peace was actually voted. Nowhere are our 
two witnesses more hopelessly at odds. Demosthenes says that 
I Aeschines, after his eloquent speech the day before, protesting 

Dem. SIX. 159 : tiJi- re -ihp tlp-fvijv o^x' Siirjteirrat iLt trtxilfiV" 

*t\DKpilToui TttCra ^1- iTra\ti'l'ai, ypiifiat S' imupvs 'APiji-oioUf iral 
Toit 'ASriyalwv auniidxovt. See also 321 : irrtvStr ol fiiv rap' iKtln\i 
rpiirpen irpoSXefoir 6pTr Srt ^UK^at oi rpaal^xertu ^ftiirirot irvupixBtii- otroi 
a* USfx^piyol ToiauT iSilliTrfipi"'y, us ttianpUt pit oixl KaX«! tx" TV *lMinr^i 
TpDo-S^fauflm TOili *wi[^ai aupiiixom iii. Toil Sij^afoui koI rah QiTToKoii, 
iu ii v^ifljTai Twv Trpa-iiii.Tay Kipio! tal t^s t/pijviji Tiixu, irep it aurBitr9ai 
tSv dkiiiaaipe' airir, raSra Toniiei t4te. See further 220: ^Jfora fl no/ 
'Ajt^tToXif eS TToiiiaav 6pai iit rixTI ^V' «'p'i»TIi. EBjSoio* 'apwtrir iroSJiatiw, 




[April, ^^^ 

vehemently against the motion of Philocrales, now told the people 
not to remember their ancestors nor to listen to stories of ancient 
sea-fights and trophies, but to enact that they would not help any who 
had not previously helped Athens (meaning the Phocians)'. Instead 
of simply denying that he had made such a speech and proving his 
denial by witnesses, Aeschines undertakes to show that he could not 
have spoken at all on the second day because by the decree of 
Demosthenes no speeches were to be made on that day'. But this 
argument (in 343 B.C.) is answered by his own account thirteen years 
later of a speech made by Demosthenes in that very meeting. He 
quotes what he calls a " disagreeable metaphor " then used by 
Demosthenes, that we must not ■wrench off {airopptj^ai) alliance from 

Though Aeschines denies so stoutly that no one could have spoken 
in the second meeting, he further recounts a speech of his own, which 
must have been the one to which Demosthenes alludes, in which he 
says he advised the people to remember the glorious deeds of their 
ancestors, but to forget their mistakes, like the Sicilian expedition 
and the delay in ending the Peloponnesian war*. But he maintains 
that this speech was made in the first meeting. When we consider 
that our testimony comes from the two opposing orators at the trial of 
Aeschines, and make all possible allowance for exaggeration and 
misrepresentation, we must admit that Aeschines reports his speech 
more fairly than Demosthenes, but we must decide that it was 
delivered on the second day, as Demosthenes declares, Eubulus 
finally told the people plainly that they must either accept the terms 
proposed by Philocrates, or man their fleet and levy a war tax'. 
We have the statement of Demosthenes that at the second meeting 
he opposed Philocrates (whom the people at first refused to hear) and 
tried to amend his proposition for the peace, still advocating the 
resolution of the allies'. He was probably made more hopefiji by the 

' Dem. XIX. 16. ' Aesch. II, 63 — 66. ^^^ 

' Aesch. HI. 71, 72. ^^^H 

* See Aesch. n. 74 — 77, where the substance of this speech is given^^^^l 
> Dem. XIX. ogt. ^^H 

* Ibid. 15 : i(ioS ry Twy <rv)iiidx<-iy ^vriffoptStTDs Sdyiiari tal t^f ^^^^H 
JSruT fri) xal Sitaia 7/vijTai wpiTTorrnj. Cf. 292, ^^^H 

refusal of the pcoplt 


; lo exclude the Phocians by name, which left 
and he perhaps trusted in the power of Athens 
stop Philip again at Thermopylae if he should attempt to force the 


n to doubt 
I desperate 

pass after the ratification of the peace^. There is 
that he did his best, tightiag almost single-handed i 

The Peace of Philocrales, thus voted by the Athenian Assembly 
on the nineteenth of Elaphebolion (April 16), 346 B.C., ended the 
Amphipolitan War, which was begun in 357. A few weeks later, 
the aged Isocrates sent to Philip his address called iJiAiirTro?, in which 
he expressed his joy at the peace and his hope of much good to result 
from Philip's leadership. 

29. A few days after the peace was voted, the same ambassadors 
were appointed to return to Macedonia and receive the oaths of Philip 
and his allies to the peace and alliance. As Aescbines gives us our 
chief account of the first embassy, so Demosthenes tells the story of 
the second'. Demosthenes urged his colleagues to set out with all 
speed to administer the oaths to Philip, knowing well that every day 
might be of the greatest importance to Athens. Philip was all this 
time vigorously pressing his conquests in Thrace, after Athens had 
tied her hands by making the peace. As entreaties availed nothing, 
Demosthenes procured (3rd of Munychion, April 29) a decree of the 
Senate (which the people had empowered to act until the next 
Assembly), directing the embassy to depart at once, and ordering 
Proxenus, who still kept his fleet north of Euboea, to convey them to 
Philip, wherever he might be. In defiance of this vote, the embassy 
first waited a long time at Oreus ; and then, instead of sailing with 
Proxenus, travelled by a circuitous land route to Pella, where they 
arrived twenty-three days after leaving Athens. There they wailed 

' The mixed feelings of Demosthenes appear in XIX. 150: jiAxp'. t 

w6\ta>s, irrl ti TOitrmp S>i Ti Pau/ida-in iyaSi ifiiir liieWiv (aiaBai. 

^ We have in Dem. xix. a clear and full account of the second embi 
and its results, genetally in the following order; Ijo — 173, 17 — 66i 
Cor. 25 — 27, 30 — 36, a lirief but graphic resume of the same events, somewhat 
modified by the lapse of thirteen years. Though Aescbines denies some of the 
details, be says nothing which breaks the force of the clear and straightlocward 
statemCDts of Demosthenes. 




twenty-seven days for Philip's return from hb conquests 

In the lime thus gained he had captured several Thracian towns. 

30. The Athenians found at Pella envoys from Thebes, Thi 
Sparta, and other Creek stales, awaiting Philip's return. There 
also envoys from Phocis, anxiously waiting to learn their &te- Philip 
received the Athenians in the presence of the other envoys, and 
surrounded by his army, which was ready for his march to 
Thermopylae. While the envoys were at Pella, Philip sent them 
large presents of gold, of which Demosthenes refiised to accept his 
share'. He devoted much of his time to procuring the release of the 
Athenian captives who were still in Philip's hands. He lent several 
of these the money needed for their ransom, which he later reftised 
to receive back when Philip released the other prisoners witliout 

31. When Philip took his oath to the peace, the majority of the 
embassy allowed him formally to exclude the Phocians. the Kalians, 
and Cersobleptes from the recognized allies of Athens *. Demosthenes 
was generally outvoted in the deliberations of the embassy. They 
refused by vote to send to Athens a letter written by him, and 
sent one of their own with a different account of their doings^. 
Demosthenes hired a vessel to take him home alone; but Philip 

s state of things we can easily believe 
: would willingly mess with De- 
an with him''. 

o the peace, the embassy had no 
at Pella. Then fallowed a most 
disgraceful and humiliating spectacle. Philip marched forth from his 
capital with his army for the invasion of Greece, the result of which^ 
whether he favoured the Thebans or the Phocians — must be the 
humiliation of a proud people; and in his train followed meekly (with 
one exception) an Athenian embassy which had basely betrayed the 
interests of Athens. There followed also a band of Phocian suppliants, 
who must now have known that their race was doomed. When they 

forbade him to depart', in this 
what Aeschines says, that r 
mosthenes or lodge at the s 
32. After Philip had sv 
further pretext for wasting 1 

'Dem. XIX. 154,155: se 
'Dem. XIX. 166—168. 

• Ibid. 44, 174, 278. 

• Ibid. 51, 323. 

in Cor. S 30*. 

' Ihid, 169, 170. \ 
' Aesch. u. 97. 


^Hsnived at Pherae, the long-neglected duty of administering the oath 
^V-to Philip's allies^^jr rather to those whom Philip saw fit to s 

as their representatives — was performed in 

which was dlsgraccfijl and unworthy of Athens," as Demosthenca I 


33. The embassy now returned to Athens without more delay, J 

» arriving on the thirteenth of Scirophorion (July 7), after an absence H 
of about ten weeks. When they arrived, Philip was already at ( 
Tbermopylae, negotiating with the Phocians for a peaceable surrender 
of the pass^. This was just what Philip had planned. The Athenians 
had now little time to consider whether they should send a fleet to 
defend Thermopylae, and he trusted to the quieting reports of his 

t friends on the embassy to prevent any hostile action. The scheme 
worked perfectly. A temporary obstruction was caused by the report 
of Demosthenes to the Senate. There he told the plain truth, that 
Philip was at the gates of Hellas, ready to attack the Phocians ; and 
he urged that an expedition should even then he sent to Thermopylae 
with the fifty triremes which were kept ready for such an emergency. 
The Senate believed Demosthenes, and passed 3 vote expressing 
their approval of his conduct. They insulted the embassy i 
unprecedented manner, by omitting the customary vote of thanks 1 
and the invitation to dine in the Prytaneum'. 

34. But Philocrates and Aeschincs had planned their scheme too ] 
artfully to be thus thwarted ; and in the Assembly of the sixteenth of I 
Scirophorion, probably held the day after the meeting of the Senate J 
all was changed. Here Demosthenes found a body of his enemies, * 
who would not permit him to be heard or the vote of the Senate ti 
read*. Aeschines at once took the platform, and easily carried the 
meeting with him by disclosing the private information about Philip's 
real plans which (he said) Philip had confided to him at Pella. He 
assured the people that, if they would stay at home quietly two or 
three days, tliey would hear that Philip was besieging Thebes, and 
compelling the Thebans (not the Phocians) to pay for the treasure 

' Dem. XIX. 158. ' Ibid. 58. 

' Ibid. 18,31,33; and 322, tV Si pa'/fiaa.vtSa (wXDirai ri)' ('t rii IlfXa^ J 

4>| ol TtrriiKama Tpt^pta i/tat iip^iievv. See Cor. 31'' 


□ his 



ilolen from Delphi. He repeated the advice to thb effect which 

iaid) he had given to Philip, for which a price had been set 
head at Thebes. He also implied that Euboea was to be given 
Athens as a recompense for Amphipolls, and hinted obscurely at a 

itution of Oropus to Athens'. Then Philip's letter was read, fiill 
of genera] friendliness, but containing absolutely nothing about tlie 
Fhodans and no promises of any kind. 

55. In this temper the Assembly was ready to vote almost any- 
thing which would make it easy for Philip to carry out his beneficent 
plan. A decree was passed, on the motion of Philocrates, publicly 
thanking Philip for his friendly promises, extending the peace and 
alliance to posterity, and enacting that, if the Phocians still refused to 
surrender the temple "to the Amphictyons," the Athenians would 
compel them to do so by force'. They then appointed ten ambassa- 
dors, chiefly members of the previous embassies, to report these pro- 
ceedings to Philip at Thermopylae. Demosthenes at once refused to 
go on this embassy. Aeschines made no objection at the time; hut 
afterwards, when it was thought that his presence in Athens would be 
important at the coming crbis, he excused himself on the ground of 
illness, and his brother went in hb place*. 

Soon afterwards came two letters from Philip, inviting the Athe- 
nians to send a force to join him at Thermopylae*. As Demosthenes 
shows, these were really seat to prevent them from marching out. as 
Philip thought this cordial invitation would quiet their alarm, and 
so be the surest means of keeping them at home. We hear of no 
appeals from Aeschines or his friends urging the acceptance of the 
invitation. Indeed, public opinion at Athens was clianging, so that 
perhaps there was danger of the invitation being accepted in a 
difTerent spirit. 

• Dem. XII. 19—23, 35, 74, 3», 3*4—3*7; Cot. 35; vi. 30; cf. Aesch. 
II. 135. 

1 Dem. XIX. 48 — JO : here it is said of the so-called Amphictyoiu, rofau; 

eH Tip i|»ap oAtMi ii\%y Btt^o-tv. taX QrrraKal. ' "^ 

'Ibid. Ill — 134. 

* Ibid. 51, 52: ^i«TBXdit i&^ laXsii^ai i^^i, e^x I>'f Afciri 
II. 137: ifiTu ik ait Iriiifficr iviirTaXijw i ^IXittot /(tini rdvp rf 1 
/J<.i,fli(iI<i»TOi ToTi BiKoloii; ta/if/p fhi iause 0/ jusHct I 





36. There were Pbocian envoys at Athens on the return of the 
embassy, and they remained until after the meeting of the Assembly. 
The action then taken showed Ihem that they had nothing to hope 
from Athens, and they returned home with this unwelcome news. 
With the help of Athens by land and sea, Phalaecus and his army of 
10,000 infantry and 1000 cavalry might still have held Thermopylae 
against Philip. But without help this was impossible'. The Lacedae- 
monians had already deserted them, and now nothing was left but t 
smrender on the best terms which could be made. Demosthenes I 
declares that the action of the Assembly on the 16th was the direct I 
cause of the surrender of the Phocians on the 23rd'. 

37. The third Athenian embassy set out for Thermopylae about J 
the 2lat of Scirophorion (July i;). When they came to Chalcis, they ] 
heard that the Phocians had surrendered, while Philip had o])en1y 1 
declared himself for the Thcbans, and all the hopes of Athens were at 
an end. As the envoys had no instructions to meet this emergency, 
they returned to Athens at once. One of tliem, Dercylus, came 
directly into a meeting of the Assembly in the Piraeus (on the 27th) 
and reported his alarming news from Tjiermopylae '. The people 
were struck with panic at the tidings, and voted, on the motion of 
Callisthenes, to remove the women and children into protected places, 
to put the Piraeus and the forts in a stale of defence, and to hold the 
coming Heraclea, usually held in the country, within the city walls*. 
Such a panic had not been known in Athens since the last days of the 
Peloponnesian War. They also voted to send to Philip the same 
embassy which had returned from Chakis, with instructions to watch 
the proceedings of the Amphictyonic Council, which Philip was 
expected to summon at once*. The Athenians were not only in great 
alarm, but in absolute uncertainty about Philip's next step. He might 
even join the Thebans in a march upon Athens ; and the road was 

'Dem. XIX. 58, 123. 

' See the calculatioo in Dem. XlX. 58, 59. Allawing four days for th«3 
news of the l6th to reach the Phocia.D9 and three days more for making teinu, ^ 
he puts the surrender on the ^yA (July 17). Four days later the news ca; 
to the Assembly in the Piraeus. 

* Dem. XIX. 60, 125, * Ibid, 86, Cor. 36; Aetch. HI. to. 

" Aesch. II. 94, 9S. 



open. Even Acschines admits the bitter disappointmeat a.t Athens 
and the bitter feeling against the ambassadors. 

Soon after the surrender of the Phocians, Philip addressed a 
diplomatic letter to the Athenians, deprecating their indignation at 
his uiiexpected course, and trying to conciliate them by assurances of 
his continued friendship. 

38. The embassy soon departed on its new mission by way of 
Thebes. Aeschines had now no fear of the Thebans or of the price 
ihey had set upon his head. They arrived at Philip's camp just in 
time for the festivities with which he and the Thebans were cele- 
brating their triumph over the sacrilegious Phocbns ; and they appear 
to have bad no scruples gainst joining in the celebration '. Philip 
had entered Phoeis as the champion of Apollo, whose violated temple 
he was to restore to ihe Amphictyonic Council. He therefore lost no 
time in calling a meeting of this venerable body, or rather what he 
chose to call by this distinguished name^. The Council voted to expel 
the Phocians, and (o give (heir two votes to Philip'. The Phocian 
towns, except Abac with its ancient temple of Apollo, twenty in 
number, were to be destroyed, and the people to be divided into 
villages of not more than fifty houses ; their horses were to be sold 
for the benefit of the temple, and their arms thrown down precipices; 
and they were to pay sixty talents yearly to the temple until the stolen 
treasure should be made good*. We have records of large payments 
made by the Phocians on this account from 344 to 337 b.c.' Any 

< Dem. Xix. ilS, 130, Cot. 287. See the lame defence of Aeschines, 

* Demosthenes (v. 14) calls this assembly Toii avnXi7Xufl4roi rmfTOVi «ttl 
^dffKOiTot 'A;uJnK7-ilopai nr tlwii. Sec XIX. 50: oiStrft B' 4XXou TOflarrvt 
TiSu 'Afi^iKTuipunp irXJ)!' OfTToXuiv cat 6ii3o!uv. Cf. 7.17.. 327. 

* A ne»ly found inscription at Delphi records a meeting of the board of 
noiroioi, Temple-builders, in 346 — 345, tiitl a. ilp:^ya tyiytra, at which 
Thessalians, Thebans, Athenians, Spartans, and a Delphian were present, but 
no Phocians. In their place stands the ominous enlry, ^Xivrot HatiSiir, 
TifianplBat MantSibi: 

' Diod. XVI. 60; Paus. X. 3, 3: Dem. xix. 81. 141, Cot. 36, 42, ix. 19, 16. 
Cf. Aeich. H. 9, HI. 80. 

' Tbe French have found an iaterestitig inscription at Delphi 1 
several of IheM payaMntl made by the Phocians, published by Bourgq 



227 ' 


Phocian who was personally guilty of plundering the temple was de- 
clared accursed and outlawed. This terrible sentence was executed 
with more than strict exactness, with the Thebans for executioners. 
When Demosthenes went to Delphi more than two years later, he 
witnessed the pidable condition of Phocis and its wretched people, 
with walls and houses destroyed, and nobody to be seen except old 
women and little children and miserable old men'. A harder fate stilt 
befell Orchomenus and Coronea for their adherence to the Phocians. 
Their walls were raied and the inhabitants sold into slavery. Boeotia, 
with a substantial piece of Phocis", was then brought under the domin- 
ion of Thebes. Sparta, for assisting the Phocians, was excluded from 
Delphic temple. The irpotuxvrva, precedence in consulting the 
Oracle, which the Phocians had granted to Athens ia the time of Peri- 
cles for her help in the short Sacred War of 448 B.C., was taken from 
her and given to Philip'. Still, it was the decided policy of Philip I 
have no open breach with Athens at this time. 

39. The Pythian games were celebrated by Philip at Delphi : 
their regular time, in September 346 B.C., with unusual splendour 
No delegates were present from either Athens or Sparta. For 240 
years Athens had sent her deputation to these games with great pomp 
and ceremony over the Sacred Way, which Apollo had once troddeo 
on his progress from Delos to Delphi ; and her absence now was an 
historic event. Thus was Philip formally installed in his long-coveted 
position as a power in Greece. 

So ended the disastrous Sacred War, after a duration of more than 
.ten years, with the exaltation of Philip and the humiliation of Athens, 
'though neither was a party to the war or was even Interested in it when 

40. Philip now determined to secure from Athens a formal recog- 
laition of his new position as an Amphictyonic power. He therefore 
gent thither a deputation to ask for a confirmation of his election to 
the Council^. The conspicuous absence of Athens from both Council 


the BuU. de Corresp. Hellen. (Athens), 189 
journal of Archaeology, iSgg, p. 30G.) 

' Dem. XIK. 64, 66, 325. 

» Pint. Per. 21 ; Dem. IX. 32, 

< Diod, XVI, 60. 

, pp. 321 — 344. (See American 




and games embarrassed and annoyed Philip greatly, 
a delicate prositioa. It would have been simple madness, in her isob' 
tion and humiliation, to defy him by a downright refusal. But the 
people were in no mood to assent to what they deemed a disgrace to 
Greece and an insult to themselves. When Aeschines came forward 
alone to urge compliance, he was hooted and could get no hearing, 
Demosthenes was perhaps the only man ia Athens who could persuade 
the Assembly to take the humiliating course which prudence now 
made necessary. This he did in his speech On the Peace (v.), in 
which, while he makes no attempt to conceal the felse position in 
which Athens had ignorantly allowed herself to be placed, he yet 
advises her not court fiirther calamity by a vain resistance 
accomplished fact*. 

IV. Six Years of nominal Peace. 

346—340 B.C. 

41. The peace of Philocrates lasted, at least in name, trotil the 
formal renewal of the war with Philip in 340 B.C. But all this time 
Philip was busy in extending his power, especially to the detriment of 
Athens. He interfered in the disputes of Sparta with Argos, Messene, 
and Megalopolis, sending help to the latter. Athens, on the motion 
of Demosthenes, voted to send envoys to Peloponnesus to counteract 
this dangerous influence, and of these Demosthenes was chief In the 
Second Philippic he repeats parts of his speech to the Messenians, in 
which he warned them of the fate of Olynthus and exhorted them lo 
repel Philip's friendly advances'. But Philip's promises were more 
powerful than the eloquence of Demosthenes, and we soon find Argos 
and Messene (instigated by Philip) sending envoys to Athens, com- 
plaining that she supported Sparta in preventing them from gaining 
their freedom. With these came envoys from Philip, complaining that 
Athens had charged their ma-ster with breaking his promises, 

42. In the Assembly which discussed the reply to be given to these 
embassies (late in 344 B.C.), Demosthenes delivered his Second Phi- 
lippic. This gives a statesmanlike review of Philip's conduct towards 
Athens since the pieace, showing that he had been constantly aggressive 

' See the speech On the Peace, 

VI. 9, 13, 15.10—15. 



and deceitful, while Athens had been kept quiet by his partisans, who 
assured her of his friendly intentions. He proposed a delinite answer 
to the embassies, of which we can judge oniy by the firm character 
of the speech itself. We heat of no positive results of this mission, 
but we hear no more of the disputes in Peloponnesus which caused it. 
SHll, Philip continued to acquire influence there, and the governmenls 
leaned on him for support and became more and more subservient to 
his wishes. 

43. In the same year there occurred the summary arrest and 
condemnation of Antiphon, a disfranchised citizen, who ofiered his 
services to Philip to burn the dockyards at the Piraeus. He was 
arrested by the authority of Demosthenes, and brought before the 
Assembly; but was released on the protest of Aeschines, He was 
again arrested by the intervention of the Areopagus, brought to trial 
and condemned to the rack and to death '. 

Not much later occurred aa important trial before the Amphic- 
tyonic Council, in which the ancient right of Athens to control the 
temple of Delos was contested by the Dellans. The Athenians chose 
Aeschines as their counsel in this case ; but the Areopagus, to which 
the people had by special vote given the right to revise the election, 
rejected him and clio.'ie Hyperides in his place. The election was 
made in the most formal and solemn manner, each senator taking 
his ballot from the altar'. At the trial Hyperides delivered his famous 
Delian oration, in which he defended the cause of Athens so eloquently 
that her rights in the Delian temple remained undisturbed. I 

44. A little later (probably before midsummer in 343 B.C.), Philip | 
sent Python of Byzantium to Athens, to tell the old story of his un- 
alterable firiendship and of his grief on hearing the calumnies which his 
enemies reported in the Assembly and the Athenians believed. He 
assured the people that he was ready to revise the peace if there was 
anything amiss in it, and begged them not to believe the orators who 
misrepresented him and his intentions. Python was an eloquent orator, 

a pupil of Isocrates, and his statement of Philip's grievances moved 
the Assembly greatly. He was accompanied by envoys from all Philip's 
and he was supported by Aeschines. But his "tide of eloquence" 
lemmed by Demosthenes, who replied to Philip's complaints so 

> Cor. 132, 133, with notes. » Ibid. 134, 135. 


effectively that the feeling of the Assembly was soon turned agEinsI 
PythoQ '. He was followed hy Hegesippus, another patriotic Athenian, 
who made two propositions for revising the peace. He proposed 
(i) that the clause which provided that each should keep 'oihat they had, 
fiaxripovii ivwi a. fvotxni', uti possidelu, should be changed to each 
ihould have tluir own {iKaTtpum «X"'' ''^ tauruv) ; (3) that the 
freedom of all Greek states not included in the treaty should be recog- 
nized by both parties to the peace, who should agree to defend them 
if they were attacked. A decree was passed with these two provisiona ; 
and Hegesippus was sent with other envoys to Philip to ask his ap- 
proval of these terms, and further to ask for the return to Athens of 
the island Halonnesus, which Philip then held, and for the surrender 
of the towns in Thrace (Serrhium, Doriscus, etc.) which he had taken 
after the peace was made. This embassy was rudely received by 
Philip, who ignored all his promises about a revision of the peace, and 
it returned to Athens with nothing accomplished. 

45. Eight or nine months later (early in 342 B.C.) Philip sent a 
letter to the Athenians, in which he once more deplored the mis- 
representations of hostile orators and replied to some of the demands 
of Athens. We have the speech of Hegesippus in the Assembly, in 
which Philip's letter is discussed^. Philip (1) offered \a gcvt Halon- 
nesus to Athens if she would accept it as a gift from him. He (3) pro- 
posed a treaty (o-u/*^oXa) with Athens to provide for the trial of 
lawsuits between Macedonians and Athenians, reserving to himself 
the final ratification of the treaty. He (3) agreed to recognize and 
defend the freedom of Greeks who were not parties to the peace. He 
(4) offered to submit to arbitradon all questions about the captured 
towns, with that about Halonnesus. He fiirther denied that he had 
broken any promises. 

Hegesippus in reply objects to receiving Halonnesus as a gift, while 
the right of Athens to the island is denied. He treats the proposed 
(ni/i^a\a as a mere trick of Philip, and spurns his offer of arbitration. 

' Aesch. II, 125; Dem. Cor. 136. 

* This (VII. in editions of Demosthenes) is now universally recognized u 
a speech of Hegesippus. It profesaea to be made by the mover of the two 
proposals sent to Philip, who was also one of the embassy. This sp eerfih 
the aatbority for many of the details of g§ 44 and 45. 


Demosthenes also discussed Philip^s letter in the same spirit^. So £cir 
as we know, no result followed these negotiations. 

In the late summer or autumn of 343 b.c. Aeschines was brought 
to trial on the charge of Tra/xurpcajScca for his misconduct on the second 
embassy to Philip in 346. The speech of Demosthenes as accuser 
(xix.) and that of Aeschines as defendant (11.) were delivered at the 
trial ; and Aeschines, who was defended by Eubulus, was acquitted by 
a small vote. (See large edition, Essay IV.) 

46. At about this time Philip renewed his intrigues in Euboea. 
The formal peace which Athens had made with the towns of Euboea 
in 348 B.C. recognized the independence of the island^. Philip saw 
more and more plainly the importance of Euboea as a basis of opera- 
tions against Athens, and he never lost an opportunity of establishing 
his influence there. In 343 — 342 he supported Clitarchus, who had 
made himself tyrant of Eretria, and he sent troops to expel the popular 
party. An embassy sent by Athens on the motion of Demosthenes to 
counteract the intrigues of Philip was refused a hearing at Eretria, 
and the town fell into Philip's power. The banished democracy took 
possession of Porthmus, a harbour of Eretria, and Philip sent against 
them 1000 soldiers and destroyed the walls of Porthmus. He also 
sent troops to Oreus, to establish there the tyrant Philistides; and 
under the Macedonian influence the popular leader, Euphraeus, was 
sent to prison, where he slew himself to escape the vengeance of his 
enemies ^ Athens, by the help of Demosthenes, was more fortunate 
in establishing her influence at Chalcis, where two brothers, Callias 
and Taurosthenes, who had once acted in Philip's interest, were now 
firm friends of the Athenians. Callias sent an embassy to Athens, and 
a treaty for mutual defence was made*. Aeschines violently attacks 
Callias as a friend of Demosthenes and an enemy of Athens. 

47. In the winter of 343 — 342 Philip marched into Epirus, and 
placed Alexander, brother of his queen Olympias, on the throne*. 

^ The speech of Demosthenes is lost; but Aeschines probably alludes to it 
when he ridicules Demosthenes for " quarrelling about syllables." See Aesch, 
III. 83: * KKhvvqvov itihoM' ic.t.X. 

2 See § 10 (above). 

« Dem. IX. 57—62, 66: Cor. 71, 79, 81. 

* Aesch. III. 91 — 93. 

^ See Paus, i, 11*-^; Just. vii. 6, vin. 6. i. 


He also threatened to attack Leucadia and Ambracia. (colonies of 
Corinth) and to cross into Peloponnesus. He made a treaty with the 
Aetolians, in which he agreed to restore to ihem Naupactus, which 
the Achaeans then held. He was foiled by Athens, which sent 
Demosthenes and other envoys to urge Corinth and Achaea to defend 
their rights". 

48. On his return from Epirus, Philip entered Thessaly, where he 
appointed tetrarchs, one for each of the original districts of Thessaly, 
^Thessaliotis, Phthiotis, Pelasgiotis, Hestiaeotis', This completed 
the subjugation of Thessaly, which had been one of his majn objects 
since his attack on the despots of Pherae in 353—352*- At about 
this time (342) Philip sent for Aristotle and made him the tutor of hi5 
son Alexander, who was now fourteen )'ears old. In this year he gave 
great offence to Greece by sending a deputy to hold the Pythian games 

49. Early in 343 B.C. Philip undertook to complete his conquest 
of Thrace, and especially to wrest the Thracian Chersonese from 
Athens, This ancient possession of Athens was equally important 
to her as a protection to her trade with the Euxine, and to Philip as a 
fwint of departure for invading Asia. Soon after the peace of 346, 
Athens had sent settlers to the Chersonese under Diopilhes*, an able 
and enterprising general, who was determined to defend the rights of 
Athens to the last extremity and to brook no interference from Philip. 
The Cardians, who had been admitted to the peace in 346 as Philip's 
allies, annoyed the Athenian settlers in every way. Philip sent troops 
to aid the Cardians, and Diopithes raised an army in Thrace to attadc 
them, with which he invaded Philip's territory beyond Cardia. Against 
this Philip protested vehemently in a letter to the Athenians, and a 
meeting of the Assembly was held to consider the question. In this 
Demosthenes delivered his eloquent oration on the Affairs of the 
Chersonese. He admits that the action of Diopithes has not been 
precisely peaceful, but maintains that Philip has broken all the terms 
of the peace and that Athens is really at war with him by his own act. 

' Dem. IX. 27, 34, 72. See § 65 (below). 

' Dem. IX. 26. * See 5 S (above). 

* See Dem. IX. 32, roilt SoiiXaui iritayaStrifetirtas wiforu. 

^R|i B.C.] THIRD PHILIPPIC 233 ^^| 

^Blie stoutly objects to making any concessions to Philip at this crisis, ^^^^| 
^^and above all he protests against recalling Diopithes or passing any ^^^^| 
^^ vole which might discredit him or his conduct in Thrace'. ^^^^ 

50. Soon after this speech, before midsummer 341, Demosthenes 
delivered his Third Philippic. This powerful argument deals with the 
whole history of Philip's aggressions since the peace was made. He 
declares that Athens has been actually at war with Philip for a long 
time, indeed ever since the destruction of the Phocians^. He earnestly 
beseeches the people to recognize this fact and to prepare for active 
warfare. He justifies the recent proceedings of Athens in the Cher- 
sonese only as measures of defensive war, to whicli Philip's offensive 
acts have driven her. It would be madness, he urges, for the Athenians 
to allow Philip to wage war on them and not to defend themselves by 

^fcums. J 

^1 The whole tone of the Third Philippic and the speedi on the-i 

^VChersonese shows that Demosthenes had no longer the least expects* ^ 

tion of maintaining even a nominal peace ; while (he increasing 

boldness of Philip's aggressions shows that he merely aimed at 

securing all possible advantages before the inevitable declaration of war. 

51. We have only meagre and scattered accounts of the events of 
the year 341 — 340, before the outbreak of the war. One important 
resiUt of the powerful arguments of Demosthenes was that Athens 
now universally recognized his leadership and gave him almost 
complete control of her foreign affairs. For this department, from 
this time until the battle of Chaeronea, he declares himself responsible 
in the fullest sense'. One of his wisest strokes of policy was his 
forestalling of Philip's designs on Byzantium by his embassy thither, 
probably in the summer of 341. He thus secured for Athens the 
friendship and alliance of Byzantium, the control of the Hellespont, 

1 For B full discussion of these important events, which led directly to the j 
renewal of the war with Philip, see the two orations of Demosthenes On the 1 
Chersonese (vjil.) and the Third Philippic (IX.). See Gtote XI. 623 — 625. 

^ Detn. IX. 19 ; i,^ Jjt T)nipaj i,ircT\c'tuiii4as,Avi thAttii lyi/y airir ■r<i\tiiM 
ipl{0liat. See also IX. 9, 15 — 18, and many similar passages in this speech. 
■Cor. 59, 88, 218, 298 (iieyi''rw'...Tp</aTdi): c(. Cor. 3!0. Aeschine 
30) alludes to Demosthenes before the battle of Chaeronea as 
MI T^t SfSoiiii^i i>^' ifiiiy Bih-f i^oiiaiat. 




and the protection of her trade with the Euxine. Athens and 
Byzantium had had so many grounds of enmity, especially since 
the Social War, that it now required no ordinary diplomatic skill to 
bring them into friendship. Later in 341 — 340 an embassy was sent 
to the King of Persia, perhaps on the suggestion of Demosthenes, 
asking for help against Philip ; but the King sent back a very insulting 
letter, refusing his assistance'. 

Even more important were the embassies to Peloponnesus which 
were undertaken by Demosthenes with Callias of Chalcis. These 
resulted in the formation of a powerful league agdnst Philip, which, 
according to Aeschines, proposed to raise 100 talents, and to equip 
too ships of war, 10,000 foot soldiers, and 1000 horsemen, besides 
2000 militia from Peloponnesus and 2000 from Acarnania. The 
leadership of the league was given to Athens, and a formal meeting 
of the allies at Athens was appointed, which probably was never held'. 
But the proposed forces appear to have been actually raised, as 
Demosthenes gives the number of the allies in the field as 15,000 
mercenaries and 2000 cavalry, besides the militia'. 

52. These vigorous preparations, which preceded the open out- 
break of the war, amply justify the boasts of Demosthenes about the 
allies and the revenues which were raised for Athens by his infiuence'. 
One of the most important results of the close union between Demos- 
thenes and Callias was the formal alliance of Athens and the cities of 
Euboea, which grew out of the treaty made two years before^. This 
alliance was closely connected with the expulsion of Philip's tyrants 
at Oreus and Eretria. In the summer of 341, on the motion of 
Demosthenes, an expedition was sent, which freed Oreus from the 
tyrant Philistides, who was put to death^. Several months later a 
more decisive expedition was sent under Phocior 

' Aeachines (ill. 238) probably refers to the King's reply ; (fii i/ilj 
ofl Jiio&i ■ /iij fii airiiTt ■ oi yi-p ^l}^^f ofle. 

* Aeseh. ill, 94—98. 
■ Cor. 237, where he includes the later Theban allies. The 

poijCtiulf (Cor. 305) prolably contained all the forces raised directly 
indirectly by Demosthenes. See Cor. 301, 302. 

* Cor, 234—237. * See § 46 (above). 
« Cor. 79", Titr /t 'Qpti, f(oS->f: cf, 87. 



imosthenes, which liberated Erelria from the tyrant Clitarchus, who 1 
put to death i. This completed the liberation of Euboea from ■ 
Philip's influence, and made the island a firm friend of Athens. The 
Athenians expressed their gratitude to Demosthenes for these succ 
ful labours by the gift of a crown of gold, which was conferred in 
theatre, at the Great Dionysia of 340, in the very terms which were 
.subsequently used by Ctesiphon in his own decree*. 
I 53. The dispute between Athens and Philip about Halonnesus ii 
^43 — 342 left the island in Philip's hands, as Athens refused to lake it ' 
as a gift from him, while he refused to " restore " it. At last, probably 
in 341 — 340, the people of Peparethus seized Halonnesus and made 
the Macedonian garrison prisoners. Philip soon avenged this act by 
sending a fleet to ravage Peparethus \ Athens then directed her 
commanders to make reprisals upon Philip. This shortly preceded J 
the outbreak of the war. 

Before midsummer 340 it was generally recognized throughout ' 
Greece that war was inevitable. Philip was then engaged ia 
conquest of Thrace, and had corae lo the point where the possession 
of Byiantium was indispensable to him. It was also of the utmost 
importance for him to become master of the grain traffic of the 
Euxine. He now called on the Byzantines, as his friends and former 
aUies, to promise htm their aid in his pending war with Athens, 
here his way was blocked by the alliance already made by Demos- 
thenes with Byiantium, and she refused lo join him *. Upon this he 
resolved to secure her by force ; and he began by attacking the 
neighbouring city of Perinthus. To this end he sent his fleet through 
the Hellespont, and he guarded it against attack during its passage by 
marching an army through the Chersonese to keep the Athenians 
well employed on shored 

54. Perinthus was attacked vigorously (probably late in the 
of 34°) by land and by sea, but it was also vigorously 
fended. Though Philip brought to the siege an army of 30,000'! 

Diod. XVI. 74: ^utiflur viu xnTtTa\4int<re KXelraiiX'"' T^* 'E/'^p'ol 1 
ripafvop KaOiffTafifyof iirb ^i\iirirov. 

" See Cor. 83=-*, with note. See large edition, p. 280, note 3. 
» Cot. 70 '. * See § 5 1 (above) ; Cor. 87. 

Cor, 139' (see note). 




men, besides his large fleet, and employed the most improved engines 
of war and towers two hundred feet high, the defenders were finaily 
successful. They were constantly .aided by their neighbours of 
Byzantium, and at last by a force sent by the King of Persia ; though 
no help came from Athens or any other Greek city. Philip at length 
decided to abandon the siege; but he still hoped to surprise 
Byzantium, which was his real object, by a sudden attack. The 
better and larger part of the Byiantine army was at Perinlhus. He 
therefore left about half his army at Perinthus, under his best 
commander, to make a show of continuing the siege, while he 
hastened with the rest to Byiantium and besieged it with ail his skill. 
The Byzantines were at first greatly alarmed; but timely help came 
to them from a powerful friend. Athens was now openly at war with 
Philip, and her naval power soon came to the help of her new ally. 
A fleet under Chares, which was previously crubing in the northern 
Aegean, was sent to Byzantium, and was followed by another under 
Phocion, which was more powerful and more efficient. Chios, Cos, 
and Rhodes also sent their help. Byzantium was rescued, and Philip 
wisely abandoned this second siege. By some skilful device his fleet 
eluded the Athenian ships in the Bosporus and escaped into the 

55. In the late summer or early autumn of 340, probably after 
the siege of Perinthus was begun, Philip sent to the Athenians a long 
letter, full of complaints of their agressions and justifications of his 
own '. To this communication, which ended in a declaration of war, 
Athens replied only by her own declaration of war and a vote to 
remove the column on which the treaty of 346 B.C. was inscribed. 
The special occasion alleged by Demosthenes for the declaration of 
war was the capture of some Athenian merchant ships by Philip's 
cruisers in the Hellespont ^ ; but war had been an avowed fact on both 
sides many weeks before it was declared. 

When the Byzantine war was ended by the help of Athens and the 
wise counsels of Demosthenes, the gratitude of Perinthus, Byxantium, 

I A document purportiog to be this letter appears as do. Xlt. in the edition) 
of Demosthenu. Thi; is accepted a; genuine, at least in substance, by Grot^ 
Weil, and Blass. The document in Cor. 77, 78 is spurious. 


■land the towns in the Chersonese was expressed to Athens as their 
sliverer by votes of thanks and crowns'. 

56. We have very scaiiiy accounts of Philip's movements from 
lis time (probably early in 339 b.c.) until we find him the next 
immer fighting with the Scythians and the TribaUi. An un- 
important quarrel with Ateas, a Scythian king, gave him a ground 

ivading his dominions ; and the aged king himself was defeated 

■ on the Danube and killed. Philip carried off as booty 20,000 boya 
amen, much cattle, and 20,000 breeding mares. On his return 

from Scythia, he passed through the country of the Triballi, with 
whom he had previously been in conflict^. These watlike mountaineers 
attacked him furiously ; and in the battle he was severely wounded, 
his horse was killed under him, and he was thought to be dead. In 

»lhe panic which followed, the Triballi took possession of the Scythiaa 
booty. Thus again humiliated, Philip returned to Macedonia'. 
About llie time of the renewal of war with Philip, DemosthencB 
proposed and carried his important trierarchic reform, by which the 
navy of Athens was put on a new footing and many old abuses were- 
corrected. It was under this new system of trierarchy that all the 
fleets were fitted out during the war, and its success in removing 
L grievances is described by Demosthenes with glowing pride and. 
f: satisfaction *. 

The War with Philip, from 340 B.C. to the Battlb | 

OF ChAERONEA in 338 B.C. 

57. When Philip returned from Scythia in the summer of 339 B.C. 
Phe found that his war with Athens had been waged on both sides 
[fduring his absence without decisive results. Though the Athenianf 

■ bad generally been defeated by land, yet the Macedonians felt 
1 Cor. 89 — 93. ' Cor. 44 ' with note. 
B See Justin IX. z,and Lucian, Ms.ciob. tl. Aeschines alludes briefly 

r the Scythian expedition, when he says of Philip in the summer of 339, c 
^irtSi)fio3rrai h MaiceSai'tf •^I'M-rrau, dW oH' it rf 'EWiSi vapiyrot, &\\' Ir 
Znitfaii DVTu untfit dirivro!. At the time of the regular meeting of the 
Amphictyonic Council (Aug. or Sept.), he had already returned, and he was 
then made general of the Amphictyons (Cot. 15a ; cf. Aescb. ill. lag), 
* Cat. 102 — 108; sec note on 103*. 


s 1 


severely their naval weakness, by which they suffered a constant 
blockade of their coast without being able to retaliate by sea'. It 
was obviously impossible for Philip to invade Allica by land without 
the cooperation of both Thessaly and Thebes, and his relations with 
them did not warrant even a proposal to thb end. Thessaly had l)een 
alienated by the abolition of her free governments ; and Thebes, 
though slie had gained the lion's share of the spoils at the end of the 
Sacred War, was deeply offended by the loss of Nicaea in the pass of 
Thermopylae, which Philip had given to Thessaly, and of her own 
colony Echinus, which Philip had taken for himself^. Without the 
consent of Thessaly he could not command the pass of Thermopylae; 
and without Thebes he could not use the fertile plain of Boeotia for 
military operations. Some undertaking which would unite the two In 
a common interest with himself seemed indispensable". Such was 
Philip's perplexity when he found himself again at war with Athens 
after six years of noroinal peace. When he departed for Scythia this 
problem was still unsolved, though possibly he may already have 
confided to Aeschines directly or indirectly some practical hints for 
its solution. However this may have been, it so happened that before 
Philip's return Aeschines bad suddenly stirred up an Amphictyonic 
war, which delivered him from all his difficulties and opened the way 
for himself and his army into the very heart of Greece'. He had 
passed Thermopylae in triumph in 346 as the champion of the God of 
Delphi ; he was now to enter Greece a second time clothed with the 
same sacred authority, to aid the Amphictyonic Council in punishing 
new offenders who were openly defying their commands. 

58. We are here reduced to the alternative of believing either 
that Aeschines deliberately devised this Amphictyonic war to give 
Philip a free passage into Greece (or at least took advantage of a 
slight incident at Delphi to excite a general conflict), or else thai iie 
ignorantly and recklessly roused a war which could have no other end 
than bringing Philip into Greece at the head of an army. The latter 
alternative attributes to Aeschines a reckless ignorance of Greek 
politics with which we have no right to charge him. We are almost 
wholly dependent on his own graphic narrative for the facts as to the 

' Cor. 14s, 146. 

«. 34 (with Schol.) i Aesch. i 





n oflhis baaeful war, and he must be caodemned, if at all, 01 
'n testimony'. And this evidence, in my opinion, strongly confirms I 

of Demosthenes, that Philip saw that his appointment : 
immander in an AmpbicCyonic war was the surest way in which t 
Id march an army into Greece without the opposition of Thessaly i 
Thebes ; that such a war would be useless to him if it were stirred | 
up by any of his own delegates or friends ; and that he must employ ai 
Athenian to devise a scheme which should secure this end without excil 
log suspicion in the Amphictyonic Council. At all events, Aeschines ' 
was ready at Delphi to do him this very service. 

59. In the archoDship of Theophrastus (340-339), the Athenian 
delegation to the spring meeting of the Amphictyonic Council 
consisted of Diognelus, the Hieromnemon of the year, and three 
Pylagori, Midias, the old enemy of Demosthenes, Thrasycles, ant 
Aeschines^ These four were present at the meeting in Delphi, wher 
Diognetus and Midias were attacked by fever and Aeschines suddenly ' 
found himself in a position of great importance. The Athenian 
delegates had been privately informed that the Locrians of Amphissa 
itended to propose a vote in llie Council to fine Athens fifty talents 
because she had re-gilded and aflixed to the newly-built Icmple of 
ifilphi* some shields, probably relics of the battle of Plataea, and had ^ 
iliewed the old inscription, 'kOrpraioi iirit MjjSiuv lau ©ti^oIihv 

AeschineB tells how he stirred up the Amphictyons Co war in III. 107— 
and he slurs over the highly important matter of the appointment of Philip 1 
as comnBodeT in izS, 129, without expressly mentioning the appointment. 1 
Demosthenes, Cor. 149—152, alludes briefly to the Amphictyonic meeli 
Delphi, being in essential agreement with Aeschines as to the main faet^, and I 
to Philip's appointment; in 163 — l-jg and 21 1 — 2l3 he gives the subsequent I 
^nts which led to the alliance of Athens and Thebes and those which f 
followed that alliance. 

For the constitution of the Amphictyonic Council and the distinctii 
two classes of delegates, Hicromnemons and Pylagori, see Essay V. 

See Aesch. 111. n6 Bri xp^aas iairiSas itiBtfitr irpis rir ttutbt 
wplr i^apiaaaBai, This "new temple" was not the temple built by the 
AlcmBconidae two centuries before, nor any addition to that bailding. The 
temple built by the Alcmaeonidae was destroyed early in the fourth century B. 
See HomoUe, Bulletin de Corresp, Hellfn. for 1896, pp. 667— 701. Tl 
disputed word t^apiaatBai probably refers to some ceremony of dedi cation. 



jayB-vrta. roIs'EAAijiriv t^xomo. This renewal of the ancient disgrace 
of Thebes in fighting on the side of the Persians at Plataea was, it 
must be confessed, neither a friendly nor a politic act ; it shows the 
abiding exasperallon between Thebes and Athens which followed 
the victory of Leuctra. But this was of little consequence now. 
The Hieromnemon sent for Aescbines, and asked him to attend tbe 
Amphictyonic meeting on that day in his place, as if he were a 
delegate with full powers, and defend Athens against the Locriin 
accusation. Aeschines was therefore present at the meeting by special 
authority. As he began to speak, apparently referring in some excite- 
ment to the threatened charge against Athens, he was rudely interrupted 
by an Amphissian, who protested against the very mention of the 
Athenians, declaring that they should be shut out of the temple as ac- 
cursed because of their alliance with the Fhocians. Aeschines replied 
in great anger ; and among other retorts " it occurred to him ■" to men- 
tion the impiety of the Amphissians in encroaching on the accursed 
plain of Cirrha, which had been solemnly devoted to everlasting 
sterility and desolation by the Amphictyonic Council about 250 
years before, on the motion of Solon', at the end of the first Sacred 

60. Cirrlia was the ancient seaport of Delphi on the Gulf of 
Corinth, while Crissa (often confounded with it) was a town on the 
height above the river Pleistus, on the road to Delphi (near the 
modern Xpuffd)'. The broad plain of Cirrha, one of the most fertile 
in Greece, lay between the foot of Parnassus and the coast, and was 
called by both names Cirrhaean and Crissaean. In obedience to the 
Amphictyonic curse, Cirrha with its harbour was destroyed, and the 
plain had remained uncultivated until recently, when the Amphissians 
had re-established the ancient port as a convenient landing-place for 
visitors to Delphi, and levied tolls on those who used it. They had 
also cultivated a part of the accursed plain and erected buildings upon 
it. The Amphictyons seem to have quietly acquiesced in this violation 

' Aeach. ill. 115 — itS. The destruction of Cirtha and the consecration of 
itl plain took place in 5S6 B.C., at the end of the ten years' Sacred War. 

* The ancient walls of Crissa, enclosing a large apace on the brink of the 
cliff, are still to be seen, though buried and oveigiown so as often to etcapc 


of the sacred edict, doubtless seeing the advantages of the newly 
opened port to themselves, and thinking little of the almost forgotten 
But they were not proof against the arts and eloquence of aa 
accomplished Athenian orator, who ingeniously presented the case in 
Impassioned language and with powerful appieals to the prejudice* 

I the bigotry of an antiquated religious assembly, with which a 
Irene rable curse had greater weight than the strongest political 
Inolives or the abstract idea of Hellenic unity. From the hill near 
Delphi where the Amphictyonic Council sat under the open sky, there 

I magnificent view of the sacred plain, extending to the gulf of 
Corinth. Here Aeschines stood in the excited assembly, and showed 
tbem the plantations and buildings of the Amphissians on ths 
orbidden land; and he caused the terrific imprecations of the 
mcient curse to be repeated, which declared any man, city, or state, 
which should cullivate or occupy the plain of Cinha, accursed of 
Apollo, Artemis, Leto, and Athena, and devoted to utter destruction 
■rith their houses and their race. He reminded them that the same 
i invoked on all who should permit others to violate the 
lacred edict. We cannot wonder that the whole assemblage was 
fired with fierce enthusiasm to avenge the wrongs of Apollo upon the 
sacrilegious Amphissians. When Aeschines had finished his speech, 
5 he tells the court, the question of the Athenian shields was wholly 
(brgotten, and the only thought was of the punishment of the Amphis- 
The flame had now been kindled, which was to end in the 
Mnflagration that Philip was eager to see. An Amphictyonic war 

i begun, which could be ended only by the intervention of Philip 
md his army. Thebes and Thessaly could now be united in a 
; with Philip'. 
Late in the day the meeting adjourned ; and a herald was 
ordered to proclaim that all Delphians, freemen and slaves, above the 
age of eighteen, and all the Amphictyonic delegates, should meet the 
next morning at daybreak with spades and picks, ready " to aid the God 
and the sacred land"; and that any state which failed to obey 
should be accursed and excluded from the temple. This Amphictyonic 
inob assembled and descended to the plain, where they burned tt 
[bouses and destroyed the moles which enclosed the harbour. 

' Aesch. 111. iig — 122. 




their way back to Delphi, they were atlacked by a crowd fioni 
Amphiasa, and barely escaped with their lives : some of the Council 
were captured. The next day an Amphictyonic Assembly (tKitXi^tria) 
was summoned, consisting of the delegates and all other dtisens 
of Amphictyonic stales who happened to be at Delphi. This body 
voted that the Hieromnemons, after consulting their respective states, 
should meet at Thermopylae at some lime before the regular 
autumnal meeting of the Council, prepared to take some definite 
action concerning the Amphissians ', When this vote was first 
reported at Athens by her delegates, the people "took the pious side" 
(as Aeschines calls il) ; but a few days later, after a little consideration 
and when the influence of Demosthenes had prevailed, it was voted 
that the Athenian delegates "should proceed to Thermopylae and 
Delphi at the times appointed by our ancestors,^' and further that no 
Athenian representatives should take any part in the irregular meet- 
ing at Thermopylae, "either in speech or in action," This wise step 
precluded Athens in the most public manner from taking any [lart 
in the mad Sacred War which Aeschines had stirred up : in his own 
words, ■■ it forbids you to remember the oaths which your ancestors 
swore, or the curse, or the oracle of the God'." 

62. The appointed meeting was held at Thermopylae, with no 
representatives from Athens, and (what was more ominous for Philip's 
designs) with none from Thebes, It was voted to make war upon the 
Amphissians, and Cottyphus, the president of llie Council, was made 
commander. The Amphissians at iirst yielded, and were fined and 
ordered to banish the leading rebels. But they paid no fine, and soon 
restored their exiles, and banished again "the pious" whom the 
Amphictyons had restored. The autumnal meeting of the Council 
(339 B-C.) found things in this condition ; and it is hard to believe that 
the leaders in this miserable business expected any other issue. The 
Council was told plainly and with truth, that they must either raise a 
mercenary array and tax their stales to pay for it, fining all who 
refused to do their part, or else make Philip the Amphictyonic general. 
It is not surprising that Philip was at once elected". We are now 

' This seems to be the meaning of the obscure words (Aesch. iii. 1*4), 
Ixnrria ihrtiux (?) KaP" i ti JJnai Jiiirowrti' ot 'An^uro-eii. 

' Aesch. HI. IM — 127. 

•Dem. Cor. 15a; gee the whole description 149 — 153. 



just beyond the point at which Aeschines thought it wise to stop in 
his exciting narrative. When he told of the first expedition against 
Amphissa under the command of Coltyphns, he added that Philip was 
then " away off in Scythia," so that of course he was in nobody's mind. 
After this, he could not tell of Philip's election a few weeks later 
without an absurd anti-climax, which would be all the more ridiculous 
when he was compelled lo add that the first act of the new 
Amphictyonic general in this pious war was one of open hostility 
to Athens and Thebes. Accordingly he does not mention in .this 
narrative either the appointment of Philip or the seizure of Elatea 
which immediately followed his appointment. Instead of stating 
these important facts, the direct results of his own deliberate action, 
he bursts forth with a new flood of eloquence, and dilates on the 
terrible omens and the more terrible calamities which followed the 
L refiisal of Athens to take the leadership in the holy war against 
' Amphissa, to which she was called by the voice of Heaven ; and he 
once alludes to Eiatea in the vaguest manner, without hinting that its 
seizure by Philip was an event for which he was himself even in the 
slightest degree responsible', 

63. Demosthenes describes the action of Aeschines in stirring up 
the new Sacred War very briefly, but very plainly, representing it 
as a deliberate plot, devised by Philip and executed by Aeschines, 
for securing Philip and his army free admission into Greece to 
attack Athens. He mentions the choice of Philip as general, and 
adds that Philip immediately collected an army and entered Greece, 
. professedly bound for the plain of Cirrha ; but that he suddenly 
bade the Cirrhaeans and Locrians " a long farewell," and seized and 
fortified Elatea. This old Phocian town, which had been dismantled 
in 346 B.C., held a military position of the greatest importance for 
Philip's plans. It stood at the outlet of one of the chief passes leading 
from Thermopylae, and it commanded the broad plain through which 
the Cephisus flows on its way to Boeotia. It was also the key to the 
rough roads leading westward to Doris and Amphissa. From this 
lint Philip threatened both Athens and Thebes so directly as to 
re no doubt of his purpose in entering Greece. He hoped that 

* See the end of III. 139, with its mysterious and obscure language, and 



the tradiliona] feud between Athens and Thebes would bring Thebes 
into his alliance ; but he trusted to his commanding position on the 
frontier of Boeotia to convince her that her only hope of safety lay 
in his friendship. The prospect of Boeotia being the seat of war 
was an alarming one, from which a united invasion of Altica by 
Thebes and Philip was the only sure escape*. Demosthenes states 
that the Macedonian party in both Athens and Thebes bad long 
been fomenting discord between the two cities, which were now 
so estranged that Philip felt that there was no possibility of their 
uniting against him. 

64. We are almost wholly dependent on Demosthenes for what 
we know of the skilful diplomacy by which Thebes wxis secured as an 
aliy of Athens against Philip^, This was the crowning achievemeot 
of the political life of Demosthenes, and he always alludes to it with 
honest pride. We have his own graphic story of the wild excitement 
at Athens when a messenger at evening brought the news from Elatea, 
and of the solemn meeting of the people the next morning when he 
made his eloquent speech, by which he laid the foundation for a right 
understanding with Thebes and secured the appointment of a friendly 
embassy, of which he was himself the leader. He then describes 
briefly but clearly the critical negotiations with Thebes, which ended 
in a treaty of alliance. We are not informed of the details of this 
treaty; but the carping criticisms of Aeschines indicate that the liberal 
spirit towards Thebes which inspired Demosthenes in his first proposals 
was felt in all the negotiations. Aeschines gives one important item, 
designed to protect the alliance against the defection of any Boeotian 
cities to Philip. This provided that in case of any such defection 
Athens would stand by "the Boeotians at Thebes*." Demosthenes 
brings forward a letter addressed by Philip to his former friends in 
Peloponnesus when the Thebans deserted him, in which he solicits 
their help on the ground that he is waging an Amphictyonic war in 
a holy cause*. During the campaign which followed, Demosthenes 
appears to have had equal influence at Athens and at Thebes. 
Theopompus says that the generals at Athens and the Boeotarchs at 
Thebes were equally obedient to his commands, and that the public 

• Dcm. Cor, 213, * Ibid. 165— 1S8, in— 316. 

' Aeach. m. 142. * Dem. Cor. 156, 158. 


assembly of Thebes was ruled by him as absolutely as that of 
Athens ^ 

65. Of the campaign itself very little is known. We hear of one 
" winter battle " and one " battle by the river," in which the allies were 
victorious 2. These victories were celebrated by festivals and thanks- 
givings ; and they caused Philip to renew his solicitations for help in 
letters to the Peloponnesians. The alliance with Thebes was so 
popular in Athens, that Demosthenes, as its author, was publicly 
crowned at the Great Dionysia in the spring of 338'. The allies 
suffered one serious defeat near Amphissa, which Philip — perhaps for 
the sake of appearances — finally attacked and destroyed*. He also 
captured Naupactus, put to death the Achaean garrison with its com- 
mander Pausanias, and gave the town to the Aetolians, thus fulfilling 
his promise of four years before ^ At some time during this campaign, 
he sent a herald with proposals of peace to Thebes and Athens, which, 
it appears, the Boeotarchs were at first inclined to entertain. Even 
at Athens a peace-party appeared, with Phocion as its advocate. 
Aeschines relates that Demosthenes was so disturbed by the peace- 
movement at Thebes, that he threatened to propose to send an 
embassy to Thebes to ask for the Athenian army a free passage 
through Boeotia to attack Philip*. We hear no more of this move- 
ment, and a visit of Demosthenes to Thebes probably brought it to a 
speedy end. 

66. Our accounts of the battle of Chaeronea are as meagre as 
those of the preceding campaign^. This decisive battle was fought on 
the seventh of Metageitnion (either August second or September first), 
338 B.C. At first the battle was rather favourable to the allies ; but 
soon the superior discipline of the Macedonians prevailed, and the 

iTheopompus, fr. 239: see Plut. Dem. 18: ^ripereiv Sk 11^ fUpov toi>j 
TTpariffoi^s rffi ArifjLO<r04vei vowOvTai t6 TpoaraTTbiuvov iXKdL Kal robt /Socwrdp- 
Xaf, BvoixeiffBai di rds iKKkrialas iirdaat o^kp lyrrov inr^ iKtlvQV t&tm rdf 
Bflfialup I1 rdf 'Adrivalwv, 

* Dem. Cor. 216, 217. 
' Ibid. 218, 222, 223. 

* Polyaen. iv. 2, 8; Strab. 427; Aesch. ill. 147. 

* See § 47 (above). 6 Aesch. iii. 148— 151. 
7 Sec Died. xvi. 86. 


Greeks were driven back on both wings. A general flight ensued, 
after which the Greeks were scattered, so that there was no longer 
any military force between Philip's camp and Thebes or Athens. 
These cities lay at his mercy ; their armies were disbanded, and neither 
could help the other. A thousand Athenians were killed, and about 
two thousand were taken prisoners. The Boeotian loss was also great, 
and the famous Sacred Band of three hundred Thebans perished to a 

67. The panic and despair in Athens when the first tidings of 
the defeat arrived were most pitiable. No one knew how soon the 
victorious army might follow in the steps of the messengers who brought 
the terrible news'. But the leaders of the people who were at home, 
especially Lycurgus and Hyperides, and Demosthenes after his r 
fi-otn the battlefield, did all that was possible to restore courage, and the 
panic soon changed to a resolute determination to save the dty from 
destruction or capture. Hyperides, who was one of the Senate of Five 
Hundred (regularly exempt from military service), immediately proposed 
a bill ordering the Senate to go to the Piraeus under arms and there 
to hold a meeting to provide for the safety of the port ; and further 
providing that all slaves in the mines and the country districts who 
would enlist should be h^e, and that exiles should be recalled, public 
debtors and other an/uH should be restored to their rights, and metics 
should be made citizens, on the same condition. It was hoped that 
these last measures might furnish a force of 150,000 men for immediate 
defence^. It was also voted to bring the women and children and 
such sacred property as was movable from unprotected [ 
the Piraeus. Lycurgus, who had charge of the finances, did wondeis 
in replenishing the empty treasury, and in providing arms and ships 
for the emergency. Large sums of money were raised by private 
contributions, the /ityiiAai tiri&Mrdt of Cor. § 171, Demosthenes giving 
one talent. Demosthenes devoted himself especially to preparing the 
city for immediate defence, especially by repairing the dil^idated 

' See Lycucg. Leoc. 39, 40. 

' Lycurg. Leoc. 37, 41; Hyper, fr. 29 (Bliiss). When Hyperides 
indicted by 7pa*!l for the illegality of some of these measnn 
replied ; itttuthfrti, pai th. MancSdi'wi' flrXa' ovk tfii tA jl'f^iir/ui tipK^a,^ 
Xaipwytlf ,iixv. 




walls and other defences and by raising money for this object', 
adopting all these energetic measures the people showed that the I 
spirit of Marathon and Salamis was not wholly extinct at Athens. 

When Philip heard of these preparations for receiving him, he 
iturally thought seriously of his next steps. As a former ally, who 
id deliberately turned against him at a critical moment, Thebes could 
expect only severe punishment. Accordingly, he compelled her to 
ransom her prisoners and even to pay for the right to bury her dead 
at Chaeronea'; he broke up the Boeotian confederacy and made all 
the other towns independent of Thebes ; he placed a Macedonian 
garrison in the Cadmea; and he recalled the exiles who were opposed 
to the Athenian alliance, and established from these a judicial council 
of three hundred. Some of the old leaders were exiled, and others 
put to death ; and their estates were confiscated '. Philip's knowledge 
of the position of Athens in Greece probably convinced him that it 
would be the worst possible policy for him to treat her in this way. 
Athens could not he taken without a siege, which might be protracted 
into the winter ; and such treatment would unite Athens against him 
in hopeless enmity. He fortunately had a good, though unprincipled, 
adviser at hand, the Athenian Demades. He was taken prisoner at 
Chaeronea; but had ingratiated himself with Philip, so (hat he was 
released and remained as a friend in the king's camp. Philip accord- 
ingly sent him as his messenger to Athens. The Athenians replied 
by sending Demades, Aeschines, and probably Phocion as envoys to 
Philip, to ask for a release of the Athenian captives. Philip received 
this embassy with great cordiality and immediately invited them to his 
lie*. He released all the prisoners without ransom, and promised 
return the ashes of those who had fallen. He sent these remains 
Athens in charge of no less a person than Antipater, with whom 

' See Cor. 248" and note; Lycmg. Leoc. 44. Aeschines, lit. 236, ridicules 
the patriotic fervour with which this work was done 
Xfi) Ti T(Ixi "^'^ Td^oi/i iijfioffioui i,ttKhtTa. 

^L * Justin IX. 4' : Thebanorum porro non modo captives vl 

^H^Etarum sepulturam vend id it. 

^K » Died. XVI. 87; Pbu*. iK. 1, 8 ; Justin \t. 4. 

^H * See note on Coc. 287*, with the references. 


AlexaniJer himself went as a special messenger with offers of peace 
and friendship'. The result was the treaty of peace, kno 
Peace of Demades, by which both peace and alliance * 
established between Philip and Athens. The Athenians wen 
free aniJ independent, and Philip probably agreed never to send ships 
of war into the Pwaeus. Oropus, which had been taken from Thebes, 
was now at length restored to Athens, Athens was to bold certniii 
islands, among which were Salamis, Samos, and Delos ; but all trace 
of her recent alliance and all thought of maritime empire had dis- 
appeared for ever^. Philip left it open to her to join the general 
Greek League which he proposed to form, and of which he was to be 
the head. This step would sacrifice the independence of Athens in 
many important points; but in the absence of Demosthenes, and in 
spite of the scruples of Phodon, who asked for more time to consider 
the question, the Assembly adopted the proposals of Demades in foil, 
and these made Athens a member of the League'. By this step, 
which was probably a necessary one under the circumstances, Athens 
ceased to have any independent political existence ; and the peace 
of Demades ends her history as a free slate and as a power Ju the 
Hellenic world. 

69. The feeling of Demosthenes about this peace after eight yeats' 
experience is seen In Cor. § S9. While he doubtless acquiesced quietly 
in it at the beginning, he never forgot the bitter humiliation. Under 
the Influence of this quiet submission to Philip's authority, cloaked 
under the name of independence, the Macedonian part)', with Aeschines 
at its head, again became powerfiil at Athens'. It was then that it was 
safe for the whole herd of the enemies of Demosthenes to persecute him 
with every form of process which was known to the Attic law, when 
(as he says) he was " brought to trial every day." But he mentions 
this only to testify to the affection of his fellow citizens, who always 
acquitted him in the popular courts, and thus justified his conduct in the 
most effective manner'. Indeed, though the party of Aeschines then 
had the courage to speak its sentiments more freely than ever before', 

> Sec Folyb. v. 10; Justin ix. 4'; Diod. xvl. 87. 

' See Pans. I. 25. 3. « Rut. Phoc, i6. ' 

' Dem. Cor. 320. ' Ibid. 348 — 150. 

« Ibid. a86". ■■ 


and in so doing gained the favour of Philip and his partizans. the sober 
sense of the people always recognized the services of men like Demos- 
thenes in better times and expressed itself whenever an occasion offered. 
There was no testimony of the public esteem and affection which Demos- 
thenes valued more highly than the choice of the people in making him 
their orator to deliver the eulogy on the heroes of Chaeronea^. Here 
the genuine feeling of patriotic gratitude to the man who had fought the 
battle of Grecian liberty almost single-handed impelled the citizens to 
reject all candidates who were in sympathy with Philip or his cause, 
including Aeschines and even Demades, and to choose the man who was 
most heartily identified with the lost cause for which these heroes had 
died. And the same public respect for Demosthenes and for his honest 
and unswerving devotion to what was now seen more clearly than ever 
to have been the cause of Grecian liberty, the cause which had made 
their ancestors glorious, was shown in the overwhelming vote by which 
the popular court acquitted Ctesiphon and condemned Aeschines, at the 
very moment when such a judgment might have been deemed a public 
defiance of Alexander's authority, while the whole Greek world was 
ringing with the news of the victory of Arbela. 

1 Dem. Cor. 285. 



38*— 383. Birlh of Demosthenes. (§ 7.)' 

38)— 381. Birth of Philip of Macedon. (§ 3.) 

378—377, New Athenian Confederacy formed. Finapcial reibnns 

of Nausinicus. Introduction of Symmories for property 

376—375. De*lh of Demosthenes, father of the orator. Guardiani 

appobiled for the son. (§ 7.) 
yt*~-yf^ B««le of Leuctra (July 371). 
jfifr— jij. Dftmosthencs comes of age at 18; devotes two years lo 

preparation for the lawsuit against his guardians. (§ 7,) 
364—363. Trial of suit against Apbobus. (§ 8.) 
361 — 361. Battle of \fiintinea and death of Epaminondas. (g I.) 
359—358. Accession of Philip of Macedon. (§ 3.) 

Artaxeries 111. (Ochus) becomes king of Persia. 
358 — 357. Symmories for the Trierarchy established. 
357 — 356. Athenian expedition to Euboea frees the island from the 

Thebans. (§ 3.) Outbreak of Social War, (§ a.) Philip 

captures Amphipolis, which leads to war with Athens, 

and takes Pydna and Poiidaea from Athens. (§ 3.) 
356—355- Birth of Alexander the Great, July sr, 356 B.C. (§ 3,) 

Beginning of sacred (Phodan) War; seizure of temple 

of Delphi by Philomelus. (§4.) 
End of Social War, spring of 355. {§ 2,) 
355~354- Speeches of Demosthenes against Androtion and Leplines. 
354—353- I^irst public speech of Demosthenes, on the Symmories. 

(§ 8.) Eubulus lakes charge of the finances of Athens- 
Philomeliis killed. Sacred War continued by Onomarchus. 

Spoliation of temple of Delphi. (§ 4.) 
353— 351- Philip takes Mcthone from Athens. (§ 3.) 

He attacks and defeats Lycophron of Pherae ; has battles 

1 The references in ( ) a 



with Phocians, and finally defeats Onomarchus, who ii 

slain. He secures control of Gulf of Pagasae. (§ 5.) 
Speech of Uemosllienes for the Mcgalopolitans. (§ 8.) 
Athens sends force to Thermopylae and closes the pass toj 

Philip, before midsummer 352. (§ 6.) 
Philip besieges Heraion Teichos in Thrace, Nov. 352. (§9.)! 
First Philippic of Demosthenes, spring of 351. (§ 9.) 
Speech of Demosthenes for the Rhodians. (§ 9.) 
Athena sends Phocion with an army to help Plutarchus in I 

Euboea (Feb. 350). Battle of Tamynae. (§ 10.) 
Midias assaults Demosthenes at the Great Dionysia (March J 

350), and is condemned by vote of the Assembly, (g II.J f 
Demosthenes Senator : writes speech against Midias. \ 


Philip attacks the Olynthian confederation and besieges I 
Olynthus. Alliance of Olynthus with Athens. Demos- * 
thenes delivers his Olynthiacs. (§ II.) Philip sends 
peaceful messages to Athens and releases Phrynon. 

(S n-) 

Olynthus captured by Pliilip, with all its confederate towns , 
(early autumn of 348); consternation in Greece. (§S i: 

Philociates first proposes negotiations for peace witkl 

Philip. (§13.) 
Mission of Aristodemns to Philip. {§ 13.) 
Movement of Eubulus and Aeschines against Philip, and I 

embassies to Greek states. (§§ 14, isO 
Tiiemistodes Archon, Demosthenes again Senator- Aris- | 

todemus brings friendly messages from Philip. (§ 13.) 
Thebans and Phocians both exhausted by Sacred War. I 

Phocians ask aid from Athens (early in 346), but reject 1 

it when sent. (§§17, 18.) 
On motion of Philocrates (Feb. 346), ten envoys are sent ] 

to Philip to propose negotiations for peace (First Em 

bassy). Envoys return end of March. {§§ 18— Ii.) 
Two meetings of Assembly, to discuss terms of peace wit 

Philip's envoys, i8th and 19th of Elaphebolion (Apriil 

IS, 16), 346 : peace voted on second day. (§§ 22—28.) T 




34? — 346. Same envoys sent again to Philip, to ratify the peace 
(Second Embassy). (§ 29.) 

Assembly 25th of Elaphebolion, Demosthenes presiding; 
see nole on Cor. § 170'. *tAiinr(K of Isocrates. (§ 38.) 

Decree of Senate ordering the departure of (he Embassy 
(April 29). Further delays. (§§29 — 31.) 

Return of Embassy to Athens, 13th of Scirophorion (July 
7). Reports to Senate and Assembly. Philip already 
at Thermopylae. Assembly votes i6th of Scir. (July 10) 
to compel the Phodans to deliver the temple of Delphi 
to " the Amphictyons." Philip's letters. (§§ 33 — 35.) 

Ten envoys (Third Embassy) sent to Thermopylae, to 
report action of the Assembly to Philip : they depart 
about 2ist of Scirophorion (July 15). (§§3S — 37-) 

Phalaecus surrenders Thermopylae to Philip 23rd of Sciroph. 
(July 17). Athenian envoys hear this news at Chalds 
and return. Meeting of Assembly in Piraeus 27th of 
Scir. (July 21). Embassy ordered to proceed to Ther- 
mopylae, and departs at once. (§§ 36—38.) 

End of Sacred War. (g 39.) 
346 — 345. Demosthenes and Timarchus begin proceedings against 
Aeschines for TrapairpiO^fuiL (autumn of 346). See 
Essay IV. i, 2. 

Archias Archon. Philip summons Amphictyonic Council, 
which expels the Phocians and gives their two votes to 
Philip. Terrible punishment of the Phocians. (g 38.) 

Philip celebrates the Pythian games (Sept. 346). (§39.) 

Philip demands recognition of his position in Amphictyonic 
Council. Speech of Demosthenes on the Peace. (§40.) 

Prosecution of Timarchus by Aeschines (winter). See 
Essay IV. I. 
34; — 344. Philip interferes in disputes in Peloponnesus. Demosthe- 
nes sent as envoy to counteract his influence. (§ 41.) 
344—343, Second Philippic of Demosthenes (late in 344). Philip's 
influence in Peloponnesus. (§42.) 

Trial and condemnation of Antiphoa. (§ 43.) 

Prosecution of Philocrates on tifrayyeXici by Hyperides,^ 
his exile (before midsummer 343). See Essay IV. J 


253 , 

Case of temple of Delos before Amphictyonic Council; 

Hyperides advocate of Athens. {% 43.) 
Mission of Python to Athens (before midsummer 343). 

Discussion of the peace and of Halonnesus. (§ 44) 
Trial and acquittal of Aeschines on charge of ■mipa.-npiii^tlxi. 

(late summer or autumn of 343). (§45-) See Essay IV. 
Philip's intrigues in Euboea ; he supports tyrants at Eretria 

and Oreus. Chalcis makes treaty with Athens. (§ 46.) ] 
Philip invades Epirus, threatens Ambracia and Acarnania, I 

and establishes telrarchs in Thessaly. (§§ 47, 48.) 
Philip's letter to Athens about Halonnesus and modifi- 
cations of the peace. Speech of Hegesippus on Halon- 

Desu. (Dem. v.,.). (S 45.) 
Aristotle made tutor of Alexander. (§ 48.) 
Philip extends his power in the Thracian Chersonese, and | 

comes into conflicl with the Athenian general, Diopithes 

Speech on the Chersonese and Third Philippic of De-J 

mosthenes (before midsummer 341). (§§ 49. 50.) 
Mission of Demosthenes to Byiantium (summer) : alliance \ 

of Athens and Byzantium. (§ 51.) 
League against Philip formed by Demosthenes and Caitias 

of Chalcis. (^ 51.) Expeditions of Athens to Euboea, 

which overthrow tyrants in Oreus and (later) in Eretria. 

(S !2.) 
Alliance of Athens with Euboea. Demosthenes crowned ] 

at the Great Dionysia for liberating Euboea. {§ 52.) 
The people of Peparethus seize Halonnesus. Philip ii 

return ravages Peparethus. (§ 53.) 
Theoplirastus Archon. Philip besieges Perinthus (late 

summer of 340) : in autumn raises this siege and attacks 

Byiantiura. (§g 53,54.) ' 

Before the attack on Byzantium Philip makes open declara- 9 

tion of war. Two fleets sent by Athens to reliev&J 

Byzantium: siege raised by Philip. (§§ 54, 55.) 
Philip (winter) invades Scythia. Returning with booty, he 1 

is attacked by the Triballi and wounded. (§ 56.) 
Speech of Aeschines at Delphi (spring of 339), which stirg^ 

up the Amphjssian War. (§§ 59, 60, 61.) 


339 — 33^* Amphictyonic Council (early autumn of 339) chooses Philip 
general. (§62.) Shortly afterwards Philip passes Ther- 
mopylae and seizes Elatea. (§ 63.) 
Negotiations between Athens and Thebes, ending in 

alliance against Philip. (§§ 63, 64.) 
Campaign (winter and spring) : allies victorious in " winter 
battle" and "river battle." Capture of mercenaries and 
destruction of Amphissa by Philip. (§§ 64, 65.) 
338 — 337. Battle of Chaeronea, 7th Metageitnion 338 (August 2 or 
September i) : utter defeat of the allies. (§ 66.) Active 
measures at Athens. (§67.) 
Action of Philip. Peace of Demades. (§ 68.) 
Position of Demosthenes after the peace. He delivers the 
eulogy on those who fell at Chaeronea. (§ 69.) 
337 — 336* Demosthenes director of the Theoric Fund and retxoTrocos. 
Ctesiphon proposes to crown Demosthenes at the Great 
Dionysia (spring of 336). Aeschines brings yfXKJnj 
irapavofiiav against Ctesiphon. (See 330 — ^329.) 
337 — 33^* Philip assassinated, summer of 336. Alexander succeeds 

335 — 334. Rebellion of Thebes. Alexander captures and destroys 
the city (autumn of 335). 
Alexander demands the delivery of Demosthenes, Lycurgus, 

Hyperides, and other Athenian orators. 
AristoUe returns to Athens and teaches in the Lyceum. 
331 — 330. Alexander's victory at Arbela (Oct. i, 331). 

Rebellion of Spartan King Agis (early in 330), crushed 
by Antipater. 
330 — 329. Aristophon Archon. Trial of suit of Aeschines against 
Ctesiphon (August, 330). Ctesiphon acquitted by more 
than four-fifths of the votes. See Essay III. 
324 — 323. Demosthenes condemned to a fine of 50 talents in the 
affair of Harpalus. Unable to pay, he went into exile. 
Death of Alexander the Great (May, 323) at Babylon. 
323 — 322. Triumphant recall of Demosthenes from exile. 
322. Death of Aristotle at Chalcis, autumn of 322. 

Death of Hyperides October 5, and of Demosthenes 
October 12, 322. 


The Amc Year. 

The Athenians had a lunar year of 3114 days, consisliog of twel^ 
Months, alternately of 30 and 29 days, equivalent to 12 lunar months 
of 29I days each. The longer months were called jr\jjpu5, the sliorter 
RnXoi. This fell short of the solar year by 11^ days, the difference 
in eight years amounting to 90 days. This was regulated by making 
the third, fifth, and eighth year in each cycle of eight years (oKratTT/pis) 
a leap year with 384 days, thus making the number of days in each 
cycle correct. (Thus (354X 5) + (384X3) =2922=365i><8.) The 
islight errors which remained were equaled in various ways. The 
aatural beginning of the Attic year was the .summer solstice ; but the 
great difference in the length of the years allowed the beginning to< 
^lary from about June 16 to August 7. 

The twelve months in the ordinary year were as follows; i Heca- 
tombaeon, 2 Metageitnion, 3 Boedromlon, 4 Pyanepslon, j Maemac- 
terion, 6 Posideon, 7 Gamelion, 8 Anthesterion, 9 Elaphebolion, 
10 Munychion, 11 Thargelion, 12 Scirophotion. In the leap years 
\ month of thirty days, Posideon II., was intercalated after Posideon. 
The same months appear to have been itXripm and koTXdi in different 
years. The first day of every month was generally called vav^i-qvuL, 
and the last day tvjj koi via., old and new ; the latter name, which 
probably was first applied to the full months, showing that the thirtieth 
day in these months was supposed to belong equally to the old and 
■ month. The days from the 2nd to the 9th were called 
Jeurepn, TpCri}, etc., sometimes with IcrTaftivov or ipjfpiiivov (sc. fir/voi) 
added; the loth was the StKcis; those fi-om the iilh to the 19th were 
called vpioTT}, StvTtpa, etc., with iwl S™ or /itcrowros added, though 
this could be omitted when it was obvious that the middle of the month 
was meant. The ioth was the iikm; and the days from the 2lst to 
the 29th in the full months were generally counted backwards, StKarr] 
bfiivovrot (21st), evaTij, oySo'ij, etc. to Scvrepa ^Bivovrot (32nd, 23rd, 
tc. to 29th). It is generally thought that the Scurcpa ^Olvavrot was 
omitted in the "hollow" months. 

The following is a possible statement of the arrangement of thej 
fliirteen months in 347 — 346 B.C., the year of the peace of Philoeratesi 




This was a leap year of 384 days, b^inning July 6 and ending July 24. 
Other arrangements are possU>le; but these would not affect any of 


Hecatombaeon (30 days) begins July 


347 B.C 


Metageitnion (29 „ ) 






Boedromion (30 „ ) 






Pyanepsion (29 ^ ) 






Maemacterion (30 ^ ) 






Posideon (29 „ ) 






[Posideon II.] (30 „ ) 






Gamdion (29 „ ) 



29, 346 B.C. 


Anthesterion (30 „ ) 




• >> 


Elaphebolion (29 „ ) 






Munychion (30 „ ) 






Thargdion (29 „ ) 






Scirophorion (30 „ ) 






hus Elaphebolion 18, 19 = April 15, 


Munychion 3 = April 29 

Thargdion 22 = June 


Scirophorion 13 =July 


W 23 = Yi 


„ 27 = »> 


Hecatombaeon 346—345 begins July 25. 



The Argument of the Oration^ with Remarks on §§ 120, 121. 

1. The argument of this Oration follows no recognized model, 
and it cannot be brought under any rhetorical S3rstem of rules. The 
occasion was unique; and the orator treated it uniquely, and with a 
masterly skill which is far beyond the art of a mere rhetorician. 
Demosthenes is technically defending a client on a question of consti- 
tutional law ; he is really defending his own public life and his reputa- 
tion as a patriot and a statesman against the unscrupulous charges 
of a personal enemy. He feels sure that the large body of his fellow- 
citizens who form the court will listen chiefly to his defence of himself 
and of his public policy and will overlook the technical questions of 
law ; and he judges rightly. The skill, however, with which he keeps 
these technical questions in the background, so that the judges shall 
never lose sight of the higher questions of state policy, and the art by 
which he conceals this art, are worthy of careful study. 

2. The indictment (ypafjnf irapavofitov) brings three charges of 
illegality (irapdvofm) against Ctesiphon^s bill for conferring .a crown on 
Demosthenes: (i) the bill proposes to crown Demosthenes while he 
is a responsible magistrate (apxi^^v \nrfv6vv09), which is forbidden by 
law; (2) it proposes to proclaim the crown in the theatre at the 
Great Dionysiac festival, whereas the law requires such a crown to be 
proclaimed elsewhere ; (3) it violates the law forbidding the insertion 
of £cdse statements into the public records, such false statements being 
found in the clauses of the bill which praise Demosthenes, especially 

s 257 



in the words aptr^i t 

WpaTTiov Ta apiora tiu inni-f, 

1 avSpayadia's, — an SuircXct koi ktyaiv koI 
— and irpodvuK tart imitiv 5 ti Suwtrm 
iyaOov'. Aeschines, who must have felt the weakness of the vague 
charge of illegality to the last count, dwells with great energy and with 
his most powerful arguments on the first count, on which (so far is 
we can see) his position was legally unassailable. He shows beyond 
question that Demosthenes held two important offices at the time of 
Ctesiphon's proposal, for which he would still be responsible ilnrtv$vr<K) 
when the crown was proclaimed ; and this would be illegal. He 
naturally puts this strong argument in the front of his attack. On 
his second point, the illegality of the proposed place of proclamation, 
the actual state of the law is uncertain, and we cannot judge of the 
strength of the argument. He then discusses the life and character 
of Demosthenes, to show that the statements on which Ctesiphon 
justifies his proposal to crown him are and therefore illegal. 
After a few words of introduction, followed by a short account of the 
private life of Demosthenes, he treats of his public life at great length, 
under four heads (see 3). He occupies the remainder of his time in 
the discussion of various matters, aiming in all to show the falseness 
of the terms used by Ctesiphon. He urges the judges not to allow 
Ctesiphon to call on Demosthenes to plead his cause ; or, if they 
permit Demosthenes to speak at all, to compel him to follow the same 
order of argument in the defence which he has himself adopted in 
the attack. This last would have compelled Demosthenes to reply in 
the beginning to the strong argument of Aeschines on the illegality 
of crowning a responsible magistrate ; this Demosthenes has no idea 
of doing, as it would weaken his whole position before the c 
3. The argument of Aeschines, briefly slated, is as follows: 

I. Prooemium : §§ 1—8. 

H. Argument on the responsibility of magistrates : §§ 9— i 

III. Argument on the place of proclamation : S§ 32—48. 1 

IV. Review of the Life of Demosthenes (§§ 49—167) : — 'J 

1. Introduction: §§49,50. 

2. Private life of Demosthenes : §§ 51 — 53. 

' See Aesch. Ill, 49, 837, Dera. Cor. 57, where the genuine dec 
feises to be quoted. 


3. Four divisions of the Public Life of Demosthenes, §§ 54 — ■ \ 
57, discussed as follows : — 
(a) The Peace of Philocrates {346 B.C.) ; §§ 58—78 
(i) The time of peace until the renewal of war with Philip 1 

in 34° B.C.: §579-105- 
(c) The Amphissian War, and other events ending with tho j 

Battle of Chaeronea in 33S B.C. ; §§106-158- 
(rf) The time from 338 to 330 B.C. (the year of the trial)).* 
§§ 159-167- 

V, Discussion of various points in the life and character rfl 
Demosthenes, and general arguments ; §§ 168—259. 

VI. Peroration: §260- 

\. It might seem natural for Demosthenes to reply to the thre. 
charges of the indictment in regular succession. But this would have 

:riticed the argumentative power of his speedi to mere simplicity of 
arrangement. If he had followed the order of Aeschines, and dealt 
first with the question of his responsibility as a magistrate, he would 
have begun his argument at its weakest point, on which he had nothing 
to say which really answered the cogent legal argument of Aeschines, 
Nothing could have been worse for his case than this. If, on the 
other hand, he had introduced this matter after the discussion of his 
public life, the weakness of his conclusion would have injured {perhaps 
fatally) the effect of his previous argument. It was important, there- 
fore, to bring in this weaker argument between two divisions of his 
historical statement, and thus conceal its defects'. He could not 
make a sin^e break in hb narrative and there introduce this foreign 
Bubject without making his design too obvious. But he artfully 
divides his account of his public life into three parts, for plausible 

sons, which do not surest his real object- In § 9 he complains of 

■ Libanius saw this aitful device : see his Hypothesis, %(i: i> ii fii/Tuip tal 
I rfli ToXirtid! riir ipx^' ^""oi^ffaTO «ol riKm clt TOiirJii' rby \iyor Kart- 
arpeif/t, TexmcSis rot&r ■ Sfiyip ipxftr0al 7t iiri tiSu lirxi'p'Tipuir jcal Xi[7«' 
adra - ^im Si TdSiist ri Ticpt rSr ti/uiiy. See also the second Hypo- 
thesis, § S : TeJt pkv yip ftXJiout 56<i ft/xoU!, t6* ts tSu IrrivSiniir Kal rAi/ 
S iii)p6yfiaTQt, els tJ iU<rov rav \ir/ov dWppnI'f, irTparijymCit "naiteit it 
■iriiar i\iiraas" (see //. IV. 299), rij) Sf UxvpordTti tit t4 itpa wporx^ 



the charges "foreign to the indictment" (liai t^« ypai^s, § 34) which 
Aeschines has brought against him ; and to these he proposes to reply 
before he comes to the charges which properly belong to the case. 
Under this head he puts the charges relating to the Peace of Philo- 
crates (346 B.C.), and he proceeds at once to deal with the negotiations 
which led to this event. He would never have thought of omitting 
this important matter, in which later events had triumphantly vindi- 
cated his OWQ course of action ; and his indignation at Aeschines for 
bringing it into the case is all feigned. He is thus able to tell the 
story of this important period of his public life before he begins 
the real argument (as he represents it), even before the reading of the 
indictment. This has the effect of securing the goodwill of the court 
for himself and damaging the case of Aeschines in advance, by an 
eloquent harangue on a subject which (he claims) has been unfairly 
brought into the case (§§ 17—52). 

5. After the reading of the indictment and a few general remarks 
upon this document, he proceeds (§§60 — loi) to a general defence of 
his policy of opposition to Philip, and of the course taken by Athens 
under his leadership before the renewal of the war with Philip in 340. 
He then speaks of his own trierarchic reform (§§ 102 — '09)1 and now 
{§ no) declares that he has brought forward sufficient evidence to 
justify the language of Ctesiphon's decree in hb praise. He states 
that he is here omitting the most important of his public acts (those 
concerning the alliance with Thebes and the other events which 
preceded the battle of Chaeronea), and he leaves it doubtful whether 
he will speak of these hereafter. He really has not the slightest 
intention of omitting these most important events, in which he gained 
the greatest diplomatic triumph of his life ; but he postpones them 
until he can introduce them later as an offset to the acts of Aeschines 
done in Philip's interest, where the account of them forms the most 
eloquent passage in the oration (§§ i6c3 — 226). By this skilful plan 
he gains two important objects. First, he divides the account of liis 
political life into three parts, and avoids wearying the judges by telling 
the whole story (covering eight most eventful years) in one continuous 
narrative, in which it would have been far less effective. Secondly, 
he succeeds in introducing his replies to the arguments jrtpi tot! 
TrnpavofAOv (§ no) just after one exciting historic narrative and JU^ 
before another, where they are least conspicuous, and where the «||^^| 


ness of the reply on the ev^vai is soon forgotten amid the exciting 
events which led to Chaeronea. The three courses of events thus 
divided are so naturally distinct, that nothing is lost by their division 
to be compared with the double gain. 

6. The following is the course of the argument in the oration on 
the Crown 1. 

I. Prooemium : §§ 1 — ^8. 

II. Reply to charges foreign to the indictment (§§ 9 — 52) : — 

1 . Introduction : § 9. 

2. Charges against private life : §§ 10, 11. 

3. Public policy (§§ 12 — 52) : — 

A. Introductory : §§ 12—16. 

B. Peace of Philocrates (§§ 17—52) : — 
{a) Introductory : § 17. 

(^) Narrative : §§ 18—49. 
\c) Conclusion : §§ 50—52. 

III. Reply to the charges of the indictment (§§ 53 — 125) : — 

1 . Introductory : §§ 53—59. 

2. Defence of his public policy (confined chiefly to the period 

from 346 to 340 B.C.) and of his trierarchic law: §§60 — 


3. Rej^y to charge ti responsibility as a magistrate : §§ 110 — 


4. Reply to argument about the place of proclamation : §§ 120, 


5. Conclusion : §§ 122—125. 

IV. Life and character of Aeschlnes: and his public policy in 

the interest of Philip, compared with his own agency 
in negotiating an alliance with Thebes against Philip 
(§§ 126—226) : 

1. Parentage and life of Aeschines : §§ 126—131. 

2. Lesser political offences of Aeschines : §§ 132 — 138. 

* The subject of each of the seven main divisions is stated with greater detail 
in the notes where the division begins. See the remarks which precede the 
notes on §§ i, 9, 53, 126, 227, 297, 324. 

262 £SSAyS 

3. The Amphissian War, stirred up by the speech of Aeschioes 

at Delphi (339 B-c) = §§ 139-159. 

4. Negotiation of Theban alliance by Demosthenes (339— 

338 B.C.), — continuation of narrative interrupted at § no. 

Into this account is introduced {§§ 189—210) a defence 

of the whole policy of Athens, under his leadership, ici 

opposition to Philip : §§ 160—226. 
With § 226 the defence of Ctesiphon, properly so calied, is finished. The 
orator has reviewed his whole political life and has justified the language of 
Ctesiphoo'a decree ; and he has replied briefly to the other charges of illegality. 
In the time which remains he discusses other matters suggested by the ^wedl 
of Aeschines. 

V. Replies to three arguments of Aeschines (§§ 227—296) : — 

1. Discussion of the comparison (Aeschines 59 — 61) of the 

case Demosthenes to an account of money ex- 
pended : §§ 227-251. 

2. Reply to the remarks of Aeschines upon his "bad fortune," 

and comparison of his own fortune with that of Aeschines: 
5§ 262-275. 

3. Reply to the charge of beinga crafty rhetorician : §§ 276—296. 

VI. The Epilogue follows, in which he compares himself with 

Aeschines, protesting against the comparison of himself 
with the heroes of the past. There is also a recapitulation 
of some matters already discussed: g§ 297—323. 

VII. The Peroration, in a single earnest sentence, is an app eal tl 

the Gods for help to Athens in her humiliation ; 

Rtmarks on the Argument of §§ 120, i 


(i) In these sections Demosthenes replies briefly, but with wrsthlnl 
indignation, to the elaborate argument of Aeschines (32 — 48) about the place 
of proclamation. He simply quotes a few words from a law, which was 
read entire to the court, and then bursts out in triumphant invective against 
Aeschines for his audacity in suppressing the one important clause in iiu 
law in presenting it before the court. Unfortunately we have only a &»g- 
ment of the law presented by Demosthenes; but this must be authentic: 
irXJji' iit TiVBi D S^*"" fl h (9ouXi) il'tj^diijriii- radrtvi J* im-iopeuiru. It 


263 1 


^B must have been a clause which did not make the passionate outbreak whicltfl 
^P followed appeal ridiculous to the court. On the other hand, we cannot fi: 
B monieat believe that Aeschines (32) produced a law requiring those who w 
cniwaed by the Senate or by the Assembly to be crowned before those bodiei 
actually suppressed a clause of that very taw, which 
<i Assembly to make an exception to the law at its 
ileasure. When we remember that this mutilated law most hare been quoted I 
n the indictment, read to the court by its clerk after being submitted ti 

scrutiny of the presiding Thesmothbt: 

: at the 1 

and also posted in tli0;fl 
iee note on § lil^), we cannot ascribe such audacity c 
such careless ioiiiffereace at once to sU archons, the cou: 


(2) I think we must assu 
the proclamation in the theatrt 
inosthenea appears to make to i 
which (as he claimed) applied 

le (n) that Aeschines quoted a law forbidding 4 
and that Ikis lain had no such addition as De- 
, and (if) that Demosthenes quoted another law, 
but had the proviso iiv ^ij (or 

irX^r tir) rtvas i i^fWi tj 4 |SouXJ| ^ij^iiirTiTai, etc. This supposes a conRict of 
laws, or at least two laws which could be harmonized only by a forced inter- 
pretation. The elaborate argument of Aeschines (37 — 39), to prove that no 
luch conflict could occur in the Athenian laws, at once makes us suspect that 
this is the real solution. Even he admits that such conflicts might sometimei 
occur, Kir ri rawCrer (iplst:uitir (39). What now was the law which Dcmol- J 
thenes brought before the court? It must have been the Dionysiac law, which I 
Aeschines prediits (35) that Demosthenes will bring into the case. n 

(3) Aeschines thus describes this law in 44: imppiii-^r Bira7Dfin)ci fiifr' 
oU/riir dre\etiBtpo3r ir Tij; ffiirpiii, pijfl" InrA twp pi/KerSii' 1) !7(|ioTr3» dfayapti- 
taBai •TTti.atoipcK)!' fnifl' iis' iWau (tfiriirl) fii|3e»4!, fl irtpor cluai rin 
ic^pvco. He argues that the words p.^^ inr 2XXoi/ p.^^Sivis caimot apply to 
any except foreign crowns, and then (47) ailds: Kal Sii roSTO tpnstS-riKcr i 
ropaBiritt /iJj otpiTTttBai riv AWiTpior <r-ri^y<iy iy r^ Siirpif fir pi] ifii)- 
^iffijTai 6 SjjuDt. It will be noticed that he does not quote the last clause 
(iiiy..,S^pos} in connection with the law itself in 44, but only atter Aii o 
interpretation of the law in 47. This is of itself suspicious, as it conceals ^ 
the only important point, the exact relation of this clause to the rest of the | 
law. Now the clause in 47, p't) trripinTtaBai Thv dXXJT^ov ariipanr I 
Stdrpif, is certainly no part of the law, for with this the taw could need 
no interpretation. Further, the authentic words following t\))v Wy.-.^ij^t- 
atrrat in Demosthenes (izi)< Toiroui i' iraiopcviTu, have no sense if added 
ivords in Aeschines (47). They have, however, a very signil 
f added to fl Atiphv tlvat rir f/ipvua in Aeschines (44), supp 



i t^pti^ as the subject of the tmpeiative. Now the las( part of Aeschines 44 
and iir )ii) ^ri^lfftiTai i S^tuit in 47 tie the only leal quotations from the 
Dionyaiitc law in Aeschiues, and xXj;r idy Tii'a!,.,iyi>pei!iTiii is evidently a 
([uolation from the law read by Demosthenes (izi). If we lit these tt^ether, 
we have the most probable reconstruction of the Dionysiac law as it whs 
pteseoted by Demosthenes, as follows; — fi'!'"' ofifriji" irihivdepevr ir rf 
Biirpif, li-liff inch TUF t^uXerSv 4 itiiurrlit ivaiopticaSat nTfijtatQitusnv li-^S' 
ir' dXXov ^lyierii, ^ iTtfiov cThii rir KT^jitKa, tX^iv jdf tIvsi 6 S^/iot ( 
^ ^DuXi) ^ij^liTiiTai, Toi^riiu! ^ drayopEu^u. This might easily have been 
read to the court in opposition to the other law read by order of Aeschines ; 
and, so far as we can see, Demostbenes was justified in assumioE that t«}fl' frr 
AWoi; /iiiSipit referred to all who had crowns to confer, not ex'luding the 
Senate and the Assembly. 

(4) This explanation becomes much simpler if we suppose that all the 
confused talk about the Dionysiac law in Aeschines is an addition to his speech 
made after hearing the reply of Demosthenes. It seems incredible thai 
Demosthenes could ignore so elaborate an argument as that of Aeschines 
(35 — 4*) ''" ^'^ '^p'j' ""d merely quote " the law " as if there were but one. 
The court would never have been satisfied with so eontempluous an answer, 
which look no notice of the account of the Dionysiac law which they had just 

One fact is now made certain by inscriptions : whatever may have been the 
letter of the law against proclamation in the theatre, sach proclamations were 
very frequent at Athens in the fourth century B.C., and earlier and later. TIk 
law was a dead letter, and Demosthenes was justi^ed in making 1 
part of the accusation. See note on Cor. g 120'. 

TVie ypuifiii 7rapavofi.uiv, 

I. The Athenian ypai^ irapavofi-iiiv, or indictuuttt for proposing 
illegal measures, could be brought by any citizen agaiost one who 
was charged with proposing a decree (i/fij^ur/ia) which violated a law 
(i-d/tot), or with causing the enactment of a law which was opposed to 
an existing law without expressly providing for the repeal of the latter. 
The laws (vd^ot) of Athens were a comparatively fixed code, ascribed 
generally to Solon, but consisting of the original Solonic I 
larged and otherwise modified by succeeding enactments. Thea 


VWlt ! 

THE ■ypa'l>Ti wapavo/iviv 


iperiar to the enactments of the Senate and the Assembly and were I 
it subject to repeal or modilicatJOD by these bodies. An enactment ^ 
of the Senate and Assembly, the ordinary legislative bodies (in the 
modern sense of the term), was called a decree or ^^tfurrfui. Thb 
could legally contain no provisions which were opposed to a vo/ios, 
and any sucli provision made it void. The ypaipji irapavo/uuv was the 
. simple but efficient process provided by the Attic law for causing an 
i** illegal" decree or law to be annulled, and also for punishing the 
proposer. The mover, however, could be held personally responsible 
only for one year from the time of the proposal of a decree or the 
enactment of a law ; after a year the decree or law could be attacked 
and annulled by the same process, while the mover was exposed 
to no risk. Whoever brought a ypaftiV ■"apavonaiv was required ti 
bind himself publicly by an oath (called vinofu>tTai) to prosecute the 
case ; after this oath was taken, a decree or law was suspended if it 1 
had already been enacted, and a decree which had passed only the 
Senate (a Trpoffovkcvfia) could not be brought before the Assembly for 
action until the suit had been tried and settled in &vour of die 
defendant. (See note on Cor. § 103 '.) It is probable that the ypai^ 
au^KU/o^iiiv could be brought against a vofio% only after its actual enact- ■ 
ment, while it could be brought against a tjrijipuriia at any one of threa | 
stages: (t) after its acceptance by the Senate, (z) after passing the I 
Assembly, (3) after the lapse of a year from its proposal. 

The dLsdnction between a vo/uk and a \jnjti>iiTfia at Atl 
most important. A i/j^i/mr/ia was an enactment of the Senate and | 

^Assembly, which, if it was not in conflict with a vofios, had 

f a law. A vniioi could be changed only by an elaborate 

, which was chiefly under the control of a court of law. In 

; first Assembly in each year a general question was piit to the 

K.people, whether they would permit propositions to be made for changes 
in the laws. If the people voted to permit these, all who had such 
proposals to make were required to post them in the market-place, and 
the clerk of the Assembly read the proposals to the people in each of 
the two following meetings. In the last of these meetings (the third 
of the year), the people, if they saw fit, voted to refer the proposed 
changes to a special commission, called vo^tofltVoi, chosen like an 

_ ordinary court (ZiKaar^piov) from those who were qualified t. 

k^dges for that year and had taken the Heliastic oath. The wbolej 

266 £SSAyS 

proceeding before this board was conduOed according to the forms of 
law. The proposer of tiie new law appeared as plainttfT and argued 
his case against tlie old law and for his own proposal, while advocates 
appointed by the state defended the existing law. The question of 
enacting the new law or retaining the existing oae was decided by a 
vote of the vopodeTai, which, if favourable to the new law, made that one 
of the fixed code of vofioi. It was strictly commanded by the Solonie 
law, that no new law should be enacted unless all laws opposed to it 
were expressly repealed ; and, further, that no law should be repealed 
unless a new law were proposed, and accepted by the vofuidcnu as 
suitable and fitting (tiriTiJStios) to take its place. 

3. It was natural, as the democracy increased in power, that the 
distinction between decrees and laws should be neglected, aod thai 
the sovereign people should pass decrees which usurped the functions 
of laws and violated the spirit, if not the letter, of exbting laws. 
Against this dangerous tendency the ypa-'t'y} irapavoiiior W'as the only 
legal security. We cannot wonder, therefore, that this is extolled as 
the great stronghold of constitutional liberty, the chief protection of 
free government against lawless demagogues. Even Aeschines, who 
was doing as much as any man to degrade the process, speaks of it 33 
we speak of the habeas corpus '. It is significant that one of the first 
Steps taken by the oligarchs who established the government of Four 
Hundred in 411 B.C. was the suspension of the ypat/iq wupavd/Kui''. 

4. The principle upon which the ypa^ri irapavoniov is based must 
always be recognized wherever the legislative power is limited by a 
superior code of laws or a written constitution to which all its enact- 
ments must conform. In such a case the allegiance of every citizen is 
due, first and foremost, to the superior law, as the supreme law of the 
land, and he cannot legally be compelled to obey the lower enactment. 
But as each citinen cannot be allowed lo decide for himself whether an 
act of the legislature is or is not in harmony with the superior law, 

' See Aesch. IIT, 3 — 8 r tr Aroftei-iriTai /tipos rflt riXiTclat, al Tur irapa- 
tifiuii ypai/iiil. tl a Tdtirat jtaTnXiJir!Tf,...7rpoX#yw iiur Sri Jiifo'fTt lard iiupir 
Tijs IroXiTtfai thtI rapaxwpiaarrei (5). See the whole passage. 

'Tbuc. VIII. 67: ie-^veyKdr iWo nir eiSir, airi Si touto, /fei«ii u^' 
AtiHior ttrtir yy6y,vf ^v it tis poAijTai ■ flf if tii rir e/irJiTO fl Tpi^iiTal 
Tapa*hn»r 4 i^\t rf rpiwifi pXit^j), luyiKai {^/tlat iriSiiray. So A 
Pol. Ath. 39". 


THE ypa<jiri wapavofiwt 


I the decision must be entnisled to some tribunal which has authority 
J prevent a cilinen from suffering unjustly if he disobeys an illegal 
t, and also to prevent the law from being disobeyed 
caprice of individuals. 

his principle was first recognized, so &r as we know, 
Athenian ypa<f>yj Trapavofiaiv. Precisely ttie same principle is at th 
of what is now known as "the American doctrine of Consritutional 
Law," under which the Supreme Court of the United States has the 
power to declare acts of Congress or of the state legislatures uncon- 
stitutional and to treat them as without authority'. The Constitution 
of the United States is declared in one of its own articles to be -'the 
supreme law of the land," to which all legislation of Congress and of 
the several states must conform. To enable the Supreme Court to 
act on a constitutional question, a case must come before it in the 
ordinary course of litigation, generally when a person who feels 
aggrieved by the operation of a law which he believes to be un- 
constitutional appeals from the decision of a lower court on this point 
and thus brings the constitutional question directly before the Supreme 

6. In the comparison which we are making, the decrees of the 
Athenian Senate and Assembly correspond to the laws of the U.S. 
Congress or of the stale legislatures, and the Solonic laws of Athens 
to the U.S. Constitution. But this comparison regards only the 
relation of authority between the two codes in either case. The 
Solonic code dealt with all manner of details, while the U.S. Constitu- 
tion is chiefly confined to broad statements of genera! principles. 
Further, it may seem strange to compare the solemn action of the 
U.S. Supreme Court in deciding a question of constitutional law with 
the trial of a citizen at Athens, before a court consisting of 501, looi, 
or 1501 ordinary men, chosen by lot from the great tmdy of citizens, 
for proposing an unconstitutional decree or law. But the fundamental 
principle is the same in both. Both courts have the same duty to 
perform, that of deciding whether a given enactment is or is not in 
conflict with a superior code. Athens, like the United States, assigned 

^67 ^M 

hority ^^^H 
illegal ^H 
at the^^H 


e basis ^^^H 

1 The Supreme Courta of the aevera! states have the ! 
f onconstitutional and null acts of their own state legi: 
with either the stats constitution or the U.S. Constitutio 

le right of declaring;! 
ures, as COpflictingB 

268 £SSAyS 

this duty to the highest court in her judicial system. WLeo we come 
to the details, the differences are more striking. The most serious 
fault in the Atheaian process was its personal character as a criminal 
suit, which any citizen could bring directly before the court, and tlie 
liability of tiie defendant to be punished at the discretion of the court 
by a fine or even by death. This of course embittered the whole 
process, which leoded to degenerate into a vituperative quarrel of rival 
litigants. This evil was to a great extent removed after the expiration 
of a year, when the process became a sober and dignified trial of 
a legal question, the nominal defendant being now exposed to no 
personal risk. We may fairly compare the arguments addressed to 
the judges in such cases (as in that of Leptines), after making due 
allowance for the composition of the court, with those addressed to 
modern judges in similar cases. 

7. Even in the ordinary criminal process we notice a marked 
difference between the older cases of ypa^ Trapavoiuuv in which 
Demosthenes appears as counsel for the plaintiff and the process 
against Clesiphon as it is managed by Aeschines. The speeches of 
Demosthenes against Androtion (355 B.C.), Timocrates (353 — 352), 
Aristocrates (352), like that against Leptines (355), are in great part 
legal arguments of high character, showing great legal knowledge, and 
delivered with dignity and authority. This is especially true of the 
discussion of the Draconic law of homicide in the oration against 
Aristocrates (§§ l8^^4), which is our chief authority for this important 
department of Attic law. But when we come from these legal argu- 
ments to the speech of Aeschines against Clesiphon, we are struck at 
once, in the greater part of it, by the almost total absence of all that 
makes the ypa</>^ vapavoiiMv worthy of its name. Aeschines devotes 
less than a tenth of his speech to a strictly legal argument, that on the 
responsibility of Demosthenes as a magistrate; this is the strongest 
point in his argument, and he elaborates it with great skill and cogent 
reasoning. He also speaks more briefly of another legal point, the 
question of the place of proclamation ; but this concerns a law of 
which we have very little knowledge. The greater part of the speecli 
is taken up with a most absurd attempt to connect his general account 
of the public life and the character of Demosthenes with his legal 
argument. He charges the references to Demosthenes in Ctesipho n'a 
decree, in which he is said to seek the best interests of Athe 


that he says and does, with violating the 1^91 forbidding the falsiftcatiofi 
of the public recordsX It is absurd to suppose that the htW in question 
had any reference to a case like this: for this would have exposed 
every personal compliment in a laudatory decree to public prosecution 
at any one^s will. It dearly related to malicious and fraudulent 
falsification of the public records in the Metroum by adding, erasing, 
or changing. And yet this is brought forward soberly and earnestly 
by Aeschines as a legal argument in support of his indictment. Of 
course Demosthenes, as the defendant's advocate, was bound to reply 
to the plaintifTs argument, so that we cannot fairly compare this later 
with his earlier treatment of the ypa^ irapavdfuuv; But the case 
against Ctesiphon, as Aeschines presents it, is in striking contrast to 
the cases against Leptines, Aristdcrates, and others as Demosthenes 
presents them. 


The Suit against Ctesiphon. 

I. Late in the year of Chaerondas (June 337 B.C.) Demosthenes 
proposed and carried a measure for permanent repairs of the walls of 
Athens. The hasty work done under the excitement of the defeat at 
Chaeronea had been only temporary. A commission of ten rci;(07rou>i, 
one to be appointed by each tribe, was now established, to hold 
office during the following year, that of Phrynichus, 337 — 336 b.c.^ 
Demosthenes was chosen by his own tribe, the Pandionis, to be one of 
this commission. The fortifications of the Piraeus were assigned him 
as hb special charge, and he is said to have received ten talents from 
the state to be used in the work, to which he added a substantial 
amount on his own account, usually stated as a hundred minas 

1 Aesch. III. 27. As Ctesiphon*s bill proposed to crown Demosthenes 
during his year of office, and as the bill was indicted shortly after it passed the 
Senate, the bill and the indictment belong to the year of Phrynichus (337 — 336). 
This agrees with the statement of Aeschines (219) that he brought the indictment 
before Philip's death (summer of 336), and with other data. This chronology 
was once hopelessly confused by the date in the spurious indictment in 
Cor. § 54. 



(if talents), He also held the important office of superintendent of 
ihe Theoric Fund, which Aeschines says at that time included " nearly 
the whole admiabtratioa of the state'." It was gratitude for his great 
public services in these offices and for his generous gift, together with 
the increasing confidence in his statesmanship and patriotism, which 
had recently been expressed in his appointment to deliver the funeral 
oration on those who fell at Chaeronea, that caused his political 
friends to propose lo crown him In the theatre at the Great Dionysia 
in the spring of 336, as a mark of the public approbation of his whole 
political life. 

2. Clesiphon accordingly proposed a bill in the Senate to crowo 
Demosthenes with a golden crown for his services and generosity in 
bis two offices and for his life devoted to Ihe interests of Athens. The 
bill passed the Senate at once, and it would doubtless have passed 
Ihe Assembly with equal alacrity if it could have been brought to a 
vote there. Before it could be presented to the people, Aeschines 
brought a ypa^fii] Trapavoiuav against Ctesiphon, charging his bill with 
illegality. This made it impossible to carry the measure further until 
the lawsuit was settled. For reasons of which we are not informed, 
but in which both Aeschines and Ctesiphon as well as Demosthenes 
must have acquiesced, the trial was postponed more than six years, 
until August 330. The destruction of the Persian Empire after the 
battle of Arbela (Oct. i, 331 B.C.), when Darius was a fugitive and 
Alexander was at the summit of his glory, probably seemed lo 
Aeschines a good occasion to revive his suit. He must have felt 
that no lime could be more favourable for a judgment against 
Derao.sthenes ; while Demosthenes naturally felt that shrinking from 
the trial would imply want of confidence in the goodwill of his fellow 
citizens, of which he was constantly receiving most flattering tokens. 
For these or other reasons, this famous case came before the Heliaslic 
court, under the presidency of the six Thesmothetae, in the late 
summer, probably in August, 330 B.C.* We do not know the number 

' Aesch. III. 25, 26. 

' We have several independent data which fix this lime. (l) See Dkrn. 
Hal. ad Amm, I. 12 (p. 746) ; oBtdi (the speech on the Crown) yip iiint th 
SiKOSTiipMt ttaiK'ii\v8ty furd rbr irh\tiuiv (the campaign of Chaeronet), tw' 
'ApuTTo^uipTDt ipxniTO^ (330 — 329), 4ySii(i tii' inaur^ /leri t^i* ty '.' 
Mxi' (338), *in-<(i a I^Ti Tin *i\lrrov Tc\ivTiit (336), 1 


^Bf the Judges. A SixaiTT^pun' commonly consisted of joi ; but we I 
Hp«ar of 1001, 1501, and 2001, and in so important a case one of the ■ 
Targer courts was likely to be impanelled. The long-delayed trial 
brought to Athens great numbers of visitors from all ijarts of Greece, 
who were eager to witness this final contest between the rival o 
It can hardly be doubled that the crowd of listeners were as deeply 
moved by the earnest eloquence of Demosthenes as the judges, and 
that they would gladly have followed the court in giving him 1 
than four-fifths of their votes. 

3. The day was divided into three parts for the trialofaypa^ 
s«pava;Uuiv, an equal amount of water being poured into the clepsydra 
for the plaintiff and the defendant, and a third (a smaller amount), in 
case of the conviction of the defendant, for the assessment of the 
penalty (n/iijuis)'. The largest amount of water wliieh is mentioned 
is that assigned to the trial of the ypa<tni jropairpto-^^tuxs ( 1 1 afi<fiopeK, 
about 100 gallons), and this is probably the maximum^. The speech 
of Demosthenes against Aeschines in this suit (XIX.) is the longest 
that we have. That on the Crown is shorter, but much longer than 
any of the others delivered in a ypafttr] Trapayoitiav ; and wc may 
presume that the orator here used all of his time. Aeschines, as 
plaintiff, spoke first ; after his argument, the court called on Ctesiphoo, j 
as defendant, to reply. He probably repeated a short speech composed I 
for him by Demosthenes, and then asked leave of the court to call on I 
Demosthenes, as his advocate, to finish his defence^. Strictly, each ] 

'AX^»8piit ritr it 'ApP^XaiT ifUa tiixv- This places the date after mid- ] 
summer 330 B.C. (2) The year 33a — 329 began June 28 (Boeckh, Mond- 
cyclen.p. 43). The death of Darius occurred in Hecatombaeon {i.e. July) of 
this year : Arrian 111. 22^. The news of this had not come to Athens before 
the trial, as Aeschines (132) speaks of him as a fugitive. This would not 
allow the trial to be later than August. (3) Again, Aeschines (254) says, 
illitpSir liiv iXlyuiv /i^Wei ri 116011 ylynaeai. The Pythian games came in 
the third year of each Olympiad, near the end of the Delphic month Boutinot, 
which corresponds to the second month of the Attic year (Mctageitnion). 
W This would place the trial after the middle of August. 
H ' Aesch. ni. 197 ; Harpocralion under iiaiK^erpTDi^mt Vf^^p". 
^M ^ Id. II. 126 : Tpbi ifStKayip iiiipopfat iif &ia/iiiieTpi}^xiyT} r^ ^fJ^p^ Kpipop^ai. 1 

^L ■ Id. III. 201 : iTTtiikv irpoikeiiii itrrauSai KTitaiipClii Sie^XSTi rpbt in&i I 
^^moSre iii ti turTtraytUnr airi} rpootfuor. I 


parly to the suit was required to plead his own cause; or, if he called 
in advocates, as Aeschiaes summoned Eubulus, Phodon, and others 
to support him in the suit for false legation, to do this at the end of an 
elaborate argument of his own. But here, as Demosthenes was the 
real defendant, it would have been absurd to object to his arguing 
the case in full. That the procedure was unusual is shown by the 
audacious attempt of Aeschiues to induce the court to refuse Demos- 
thenes a hearing'; and his argument shows that the court had a 
legal right to refuse to hear any except the parties to the suit. Bui 
the great audience had not come to hear Ctesiphon, and we hear of no 
further attempt to interfere with the argument of Demosthenes. The 
orator probably delivered his famous speech substantially in the form 
in which it has come down to us. 

4. When the arguments were finished, Ihe judges voted on the 
question of convicting Ctesiphon ; and the result was his triumphant 
acquittal by more than four-fifths of the votes ^ This subjected 
Aeschines to the two penalties of malicious prosecution, a fine of a 
thousand drachmas, and partial Ari/ila, which deprived him of the right 
to bring a similar suit hereafter*. This result mortified him so deeply 
that he withdrew from Athens and spent the rest of his life chiefly in 
Rhodes, where he is said to have been a teacher of rhetoric in his later 

1 Aesch. III. S02 — 205. 

* Plut. Dem. 24; oStui XofiTpwi irfXviriii Sum t4 irinHTay lUpos rHv 
V"i*iOP A/ffxf'')' f^ iKTa>^^tii>. Cf. Dem. Cor, 82, 266. 

* Hatpocr. under iir ni: tit Tti YpaV'diUtPOl /lij ^raXd^p tJ tiiamt 
lUptt rSyr itij^ujp, <lfl>\iffi!ii«i X'^'»' «■' irpiirdTTin aTijila th. TheophrastiU 
(in SchoLloDem. p.593, 24 R.)Bdds to this (explaining')Bloii rb ^fiini 
It-fyrf ypiifiaaBai, Ttaptmipwr ^i^re ipairtit liiiTt i^iijyilirBai, Bat see Andoc. 1. 76, 
iripiiii ovK ijii ypi^aaSai, rori Si IrSti^ia, where ■ypiil'a.ireat seems tu include ill 
Vpo^al. See also [Dem.] xxvi. 9, firai- t« irefni» ^j) ttrraXi^^ ri Tiiarar 
nipti T^i ^-fiijiwv, i'p' ols ot ti/ioi itXfimiai ri Xoiirip ^t) fpiiticaOai fiqjt' di-dynr 
^i)i' ^^ij7frg'Sai. Tbese quotations leave the precise nature of the paitial drifiln 
somewhat uncertain. But Theophrastus seems to mean that the iniiai lost 
his right to bring the same form of ordinary 7pa^ii in which he b>d been 
defeated (of which he gives the fpaip^ wapaiiiiuiiy as an example), or taj one 
of the special forms of ypap'^ (in Che wider sense), like elaayyiXta^ 4 
i<p-iyri<rit, etc. See the full enumeration of ypa^L in Polks, 40, 41. 

years'. After such a decisive vindication of Demosthenes, there c 
be no doubt that his friends reneweti in the Senate the bill for crowning 1 
him, and that this was promptly passed in both Senate and Assembly I 
in time for the orator to receive his golden crown with enthusiastic I 
applause at the Great Dlouysia of 329- 


^1 The trials of Aeschines and Phihcraks for misconduct in 
^1 making the Peace of 346 B.C. 

^B 1. The trial of Aeschines in 343 D.c.^ for his conduct on the 

^VjKcond embassy, wliich negotiated the peace with Philip in 346, and 

^pthe speech of Demosthenes as his accuser, have an important bearing 

on the discussions of the peace in the orations of Aeschines and 

Demosthenes thirteen years later. The suit against Aeschines was 

technically called tu^urai, i.e. a process arising from (he euSuwi or 

»' Plut. Dem. 24: %1i9i% U r^i TiliKtm VX" iriijr, ital rcpl 'PiSav gal 
'Itiptar iroitiurrtiiiy taTiffiwae. Vit. X. Orat. S40D: dvipat ih tV 'P6Ear, 
irrauBt irj£DXi|f jrnTniTTiiiTi/ie™! /Sliartfr. While teaching at Rhodes, 
Aeschines is said to have read his speech against Ctesiphon to a Rhodian 
audience ; and when all were asComshed that he Vras defeated after so 
elaqaeat a plea, he replied, o6k &r iSavnittrt, 'PiSuii, il irpis raDra Aij^ui' 
aeinav! X^otrot ^toilo-oTe, Vit. X. Orat. ibid. Other versions of the story 
give hia answer, il iiKoiaart toS Siiptoii ittlmv, oix iii ifiiii roSro i)ir4- 
/niTo. See Phot. Bibl. No. 61. 

* Dionys, ad Ainm. I. 10 (p. 737), undei the archonship of Pythodotui 1 
{343—342) ■■ fol rbf KOT Afffx'w TWiTiiaTK Xfryoi', ifre t4j eieiyas 
Tgj SfUT4pai ir,)(C|8e(B! T^t irl rais SpKOVt. Hypoth. 2, § (t, to Dem. 
pjid6m% o! 'Aft;™™ ttiv tuo 'tax/uit ird}\fiiii;...tiFri rpla ^Tij flati 
A^tuifi4fT)s KaTt)yop-)iaut Airx^^o"- It has often been doubted whether the 
case ever came to trial, chiefly because of a doubt of Plutarch (Dem. 15), 4 St 
Kar Al^x^*"' ^Vi rapattpiv^ita! dSi7Xi)r el \f\tiiTiii ■ khItoi ipit'lt 'ISofaiicfit 
rapA TpidKorra ii6rat rit A/irx'»Tj'' iirot/iuytTy. For Plutarch's objection, that 
~ ler orator mentions the trial in the speeches on the Crown, see no 
LCor. 14a'. See also note 3, p. a77. 



scrutiny nhich Aeschines, as an officer of state, was required to pass 
before be could be relieved of his responsibility as an ambassador'. 

Witliin tiiirty days after the return of the second embassy to Athens 
(13 Scirophorion, 7 July, 346), Aeschines must have presented himself 
for his ciidwai. Demosthenes and Timarchus, with perhaps others, 
there appeared against him with a ypail>i) Trapa.Ttpcrr^tia'!, an indiclnunl 
for misconduct oh an tinbassy *. The presiding Logislae, who liad the 
presidency also in this suit, would naturally have brought the case at 
once before a Heliastic court. But before this could be done, Aeschines 
challenged the right of Timarchus to appear as an accuser in the 
courts, on the ground that he had once led a shameless life (luirxywt 
jSe^Suukoiu). He served upon him publicly an cnuyyeXia Zoki^uvjuk, 
i.e. a summons to appear at a SoKipurui priropiav, an investigation of h>s 
right to appear as a pj/roi/j'. He charged him with iraipijaK and also 
with squandering his paternal estate, both of which disqualified a man 
from appearing as a speaker in either the Assembly or the courts of 
law. This case came to trial early in 345 B.C.. and Timarchus was 
easily convicted. Aeschines then delivered the first of his three 
orations. This result suspended the case against himself for a time; 
and by disgracefiilly disqualifying one of his accusers, dbcredited tlie 
case in the eyes of the people. It is strange that such a man as 
Timarchus was allowed to be associated with Demosthenes in so 
important a political suit, and it soon appeared that tills was a most 
fatal mistake. 

2. This mortifying rebuff put oiF the trial more than two years. 
In the meantime the friends of Demosthenes prepared the way for 
a renewal of his suit against Aeschines, by a slate prosecution of 
Philocrates for treasonable conduct in negotiating the peace which 
bore his name. Early in 343 b.c. Hyperides brought before the Senate 
of Five Hundred an tlaayyeXia against Philocrates, charging him v 

* See Dem. xix. 1 7, ix t^i rptirptlai Ta^7)s, Ji^wip itrlr at vu 
and 82, 133, 156. 

^ Hypolh, a, S 10, to Dem. XIlLr iwimi Tijiapx" ital &7iiiaa9trtit ■ 

* Aesch. I. 19, 20, aS — 32: rtyas S ovu firii Ssir 'S^nt; rait aloxfiwt 
Pafiit^Ki/rar • roi^oifi oig i^ S^jfiijyopf^y.^Santfiairla ptjTipatv, iif Til X^g if 
r^ S'/JHf rir ruripa TijTTUiy ^ Tijc ia)Tdpa,..fl TiroprfUfJl'OS t) Viil/»|i(ii| 
t4 rrnTp^B naTiSTidoicilit, CI, 1. 134. 

■ for 


lerving Philip for bribes to the detriment of Athens. The Senate 
:cepted the (iirayyfAui, thus malting the suit a public one"^. It went 
for trial to a Heliastic court, and the state appointed advocates, : 
(hem Demosthenes, to assist Hyperides in managing the case. 
indictment (called titrayytXia) Hyperides quoted verbatim five 
decrees of Philocrates in support of his charge'. There was no lack of 
decisive evidence. Philocrates had made an open show of his newly 
acqiared wealth after the peace, by building houses, selling wheat, 
transporting timber, changing foreign gold openly at the bankers' 
counters in Athens; and (according to Demosthenes) he had even 
confessed that he received money from Philip". He gave up his 
defence, and left the court and Athens before the judgment was 
declared^ and in his absence he was condemned to death, the penalty 
which Hyperides proposed in his tiirayyeXui. He passed the rest of 
his life in exile'. This result shows how public opinion about the 
peace had changed in three years, so that Philocrates, whose word 
was law when the peace was made, was now left to his fate, friendless 
and helpless. No man of influence, like Eubulus, attempted to save 
him ; and we hear of no anxiety lest his condemnation should cause 
^mity with Philip. Demosthenes, as prosecuting attorney for the 
impiained that Philocrates alone was selected for prosecution 
ihile others equally guilty were left untouched'. 

; on Cot. § 250'. The state process called tiaafiiKin wu 
provided for the special trial of (1 ) those charged with conspiracy against the 
democracy of Athens, (a) those charged with betraying towns or miiitary or 
naval forces to public enemies, or with holding treasonable communication 
with these, {3) orators (^liropat) charged with being bribed by public enemies 
to give evil advice to the people. See Hyper. Eux. §§ 7, 8. It will be seen 
that e/ira77cXia, so far from being applicable chieHy (or only} to crimes which 
were not provided for in the laws (as was once believed), is definitely restricted 
to certain high offences, all of which, moreover, might be dealt with by other . 
processes, as is seen in the different treatment of the similar cases of Philo- 
crates and Aeschines. 

" Hyper. Eux. §§ 29, 30. 

' Dem. XIX. 114: ti /iii /ihray iIi^id^^fi rap' iftiv it i^ I^MV ToXXditii, dXXA 
lent lielxmitt inTB, xupoiuXui', o(Ko3ofn5i',...fu\ij7iSi', t4 xpuirlat loraXXoTTi- 
fMvm ^mrcp^ ivl rait rpaHpnt. Gold coins in Athens were generally foreign. 
Aeach. U. 6, 111. 79, 81; DLnarch, I. 2&. ' Dem. XiX. 11( 


2/6 ESSAYS tJv. 

3. This triumphant success inspired Demosthenes with new hopes 
for his own suit against Aeschines. This came to trial after mid' 
summer in 343 b.c. when Demosthenes and Aeschines delivered thdr 
speeches trtpi rqs irapajtptiT^tuit. The court probably consisted of 
1501 judges ; and the Logistae presided, as tlie case still belonged 
to the iJidvvai of the second embassy, for which Aeschines was still 
wmJtfiiTOS. Demosthenes brings his accusation under five heads, 
covering the five poinls on which an ambassador should be called 
to account at his tii$vyai. These are (1) uiv dTnjyyeiAe, {2) Siv tirtare. 
(3) wv Trpoaeriiiiat tarrQ, (4) toiv )(p6inav, (5) ti aSio/joSoKijrais ^ fi^ (or 
Toij TTpotKa 5 fi^)- In his elaborate argument he strives to prove thai 
Aeschines (i) made a felse report, (2) advocated pernicious measures 
on the ground of his report, (3) disobeyed his instructions, {4) wasted 
jiis time, (5) acted corruptly, being bribed by Philip'. The argument 
on these five heads occupies §§ 17 — 178, the remainder of the oration 
being chiefly given to general arguments tending to show the corrup- 
tion of Aeschines and his collusion with Philips. 

4. The reply of Aeschines, though eloquent and effective in certain 
passages, is weak and trifling as an answer to the powerful argument 
of Demosthenes. Though he denies some special statements, perhaps 
successfully, he says nothing which breaks the force of the main 
argument against himself. In cases in which we have other evidence, 
we sometimes find his most solemn assertions (alse or misleading'. 
He answers the grave charge of falsely reporting Philip's intentions 
by saying tliat he "only made a report and promised nothing*." 
He replies to the charge of joining Philip in the paeans and other 
rejoicings over the destruction of the Phocians by saying that, though 
he was present, he was only one of two hundred, and that Demoslhenra 
(who was not present) has no evidence whether he sang witti the 
chorus or not' ! 

' Dem. SIX. 4 — 8, 177 — 179. 

* See, for example, the argument in 106 — lia 
» See Hist. § 18. 

* Aesch. 11. 119. The best that Aeschines could say on this subject 
thirteen years later ia seen in ill. 79 — 83. 

^11. 162, 163: e.g. Koi TJJ ye S^Xpi ijv, et »iii fe Hartp iy toij X"*"" 


5. He brought before the court his aged father, his two little 
children, and his two brothers, to excite pity^ ; and he finally called on 
Eubulus, Phocion, and other influential men to come forward as his 
supporters^. Eubulus addressed the court in his behalf, and probably 
urged prudential reasons for acquitting Aeschines. It might easily be 
thought by cautious men that the recent sacrifice of Philocrates was 
as much as it was safe to demand under the circumstances ; and this, 
added to the influence of men like Eubulus and Phocion, probably 
saved Aeschines from conviction. We are told merely that he was 
acquitted by only thirty votes'; and this was no triumph — Indeed, no 
justification — ^for a man in his position. 


The Constitution of the Amphictyonic Council 

I. Aeschines (11. 116) gives eleven of the twelve tribes which 
formed the Amphictyonic Council as follows: Thessalians, Boeotians 
(" not merely Thebans"), Dorians, lonians, Perrhaebians, Magnesians, 
Locrians, Oetaeans, Phthiotians (i.e. the Achaeans of Phthiotis), 
Malians, Phocians. He professes to give twelve names, and it is 
generally assumed that the Dolopians are accidentally omitted. An 
important inscription recently discovered at Delphi seems to me to 
show clearly that the Delphians are the omitted people. Bourguet, 
in the Bulletin de Correspondance Helldnique, 1896, p. 241, gives from 
this inscription a list of the Council at the time of Alexander. This 
has the Thessalians, " King Alexander," Delphians, Dorians, lonians, 
Perrhaebians (with Dolopians), Boeotians, Locrians, Achaeans (i.e. of 
Phthiotis), Magnesians, Aenianians, and Malians, each with two dele- 
gates. King Alexander now holds the two Phocian votes ; the Aeni- 
anians represent the Oetaeans, of whom they were an important tribe ; 
the Dolopians are included with the Perrhaebians ; and the Delphians, 
who are constantly mentioned in the Delphic Inscriptions relating to 

1 Aesch. II. 179, 180. 2 Ibid, ,84, 

' Vit. X. Orat. 840 C: k<fi i (irpefffielq,) KarifyoprideU Wb ArifUxrOipovt,,., 
<rvv€t.irbvTOi a^$ E6po^\ov,..,TpidKovTa ^ij^oij diriipvyey. ' 

278 £SSAyS 

the Council, are added. If we add the Delphians to the list of 

Aeschines, the two lists substantially agree. 

3. Each of the twelve tribes had two votes in the Council, ^vea 
by delegates caiied Upoityq/uiyti, two of whom were sent by each 
Amphictyonic tribe. But the Dorians, lonians, and Locrians were 
geographically divided, so that each of two divbions had a single 
Hieromnemon with a single vote. Thus the two Dorian votes might 
be divided between the Spartans (with other Dorians of Peloponnesus) 
and the ancient Dorian Tetrapolis, near Parnassus ; the loniac votes 
between the Athenians and the other lonians (in Euboea and Asia 
Minor) ; the Locrian votes between the Eastern and Western Locrians. 
Aeschines explains that each tribe had the same representation with 
two equal votes. The Hieromnemon of Athens was chosen eacli year 
by lot : see Arist. Nub. 623, Xaj^uiv "Yttep^oXw r^res Itpoiivrntovttv. 

3. Besides the twenty-four Hieromnemons, certain towns sent 
another clas.s of delegates, called trvXayopoi, who appear to have had 
the right to speak, but not to vote, in certain meetings of the Council. 
They represented the towns which sent them, not the tribe as a whole. 
Athens sent three, chosen by the people apparently for each Am- 
phictyonic meeting. The meeting at which Aeschines made his in- 
flammatory harangue, which stirred up the Amphissian War, appears 
to have been one of the tcpo/iv^/tovc; exclusively, which Aeschines, 
as a BTiXttyopos, attended by special invitation of the Hieromnemon 
only as his representative, but with all his rights. See Hist. 

Tie Hero Physician and the Hero KaXaiUrrp. 


1. In Demosthenes xix. 249 the father of Aeschines is said to hart 
kept a school near the shrine of the Hero Physician (wpo^ r^ rev 11^ 
Toii tarpoC) ; and in Cor. 129 his mother is said to have lived a shameful 
life near the shrine of the Hero KoAa/uVijs (irpw t<S KoAa/u'r^ ^pm), 
while his father is said to have been the slave of a schoolroaster near 
the Theseum (irpot rcu @ri<Tt{if SiSarrKovn ypdmiara). Many scholars 
identify the two heroes, though on slight evidence. If the Hero 

fvi.] THE HERO PHYSICIAN AND HERO Y.a>^^xifi 279 j 

s might meaa bowman, (or J 
" arrow, like OTrXtVijs from ' 


■ physician was called KoXtyuVij?, this r 
^ arrirw-man) from koXu/ui;, in the sens 

■ 2, Reiske recognized in the Hero Physician the Scythian Toxaris, 
I of whom LucJan gives a pleasant account in his SKu'di^ -7 Ilpofci^ 

■ Toxaris, according to Lucian, came to Athens in the time of Solon, by 
whom he was kindly received. He was a physician and a ma 
general cultivation, though not of high rank at home. Whei 
countryman, Anacharsis, came to Athens, he was recognized and. 
welcomed by Toxaris, who introduced him to Solon. Toxaris died 
and was buried in Athens. When the plague was raging i 
Peloponnesian War, the wife of an Areopagite reported that Toxaris 
came forth from his tomb and told her that the plague would c 
if the narrow streets of the city were freely sprinkled with wine. This 
was done, and the plague disappeared. The tomb was examined, and 
the remains of Toxaris were found within, which were identified by a 
mutilated inscription, and also by the figure of a Scythian sculptured 
on the gravestone, having in his left hand a strung bow a 
right what appeared to be a book (^tjiXiov, is (Sokh). Lucian says that ' 
more than half of the figure was to be seen in his time, with the botr 
and the book entire. The upper part of the stone with the face waa 
gone. The monument, he says, was not far from the gate Dipylum, 
on the left of the road leading to the Academy ; the stone was lying 
flat on the ground. On account of his wonderful skill in stopping (he 
horrors of the plague, Toxaris was made a hero and worshipped as 
the " Hero Physician." He had a shrine within the city walls ; and 
his tomb was always decked with wreaths, and miraculous cures were 
wrought there. 

3. It happens that in the excavations outside the Dipylum gate 
at Athens a iigure was found (now in the Museum at Athens) which 
In many respects agrees wonderfully with Lucian's description. It 
represents a headless crouching Scythian, in his native dress, who 
had once held a bow in his lefi hand (the opening through which the 
bow passed still remains) ; while under the left arm and held by 
the right hand is what, when viewed in front, appears to be a writing 
tablet but from the side is seen to be a pointed quiver. The chief 
— point in which (his figure fails to agree with Lucian's description is 
:ian calls the monument a imjAt;, while this is a statue. This | 



might be explained by the figure lying fiat on the gronod, as Ludaa 
describes it; and il must have been fiat on its back, or the pointed 
quiver could never have been mistaken for a book. If it was so 
covered by earth that only the front and the two hands, with the bow 
and the apparent book, were visible, it would have been a natural 
mistake to call it a crnjAij. Indeed, any tiorther exposure of the figure 
would at once have made the quiver visible. I therefore think there 
is sufficient evidence to identify this figure with the one seen by Ludaa 
or bis infonnant. See note on Cor. g 129*. 



Tlie Manuscripts of the Oration on the Crown. 

I. The chief of all the >rss. of Demosthenes, the basis of the 
present text, is 2 or 5, of the tenth century, written on parchment, 
no. 2934 of the Greek Mss. of the National Library of Paris. On 
its last leaf is written, in a hand of a later period, Bi^Aiov fiov^^ tCiv 
SoxravSpQiv, showing that it once belonged to a society of monks 
named after Sosander, who is not otherwise known. The manuscript 
first appears in Europe in the possession of Janos Lascaris, a learned 
Greek, who left Constantinople after the Turkish capture and was 
in high favour with Lorenzo de' Medici at Florence. Lascaris was 
twice sent by Lorenzo to Greece and the neighbouring lands in search 
of manuscripts for the Medicean library. How rich a store he brought 
back to Florence may be seen from the curious manuscript now in 
the Vatican library, which was published by K. K. Muller in the 
Centralblatt fUr Bibliothekswesen for 18S4. This contains a wonderfiJ 
list of 30Q or 400 books which were " bought " for Lorenzo by Lascaris, 
and also a iriVof rail' ^i^kiuiv roii AaitKapcuis, airtp ?j(ei wap iavTOV. 
Among the latter we find ^jjii.aaBivij';, Trcpyafi,i}v6v. The sanie 
volume probably appears in a list of the books of Lascaris made after 
his death at Rome in '535- Here we find Ajjjixoo-flecTjs, wakaio^, 
no. 34 (corrected to 35). In the catalogue of the books of Cardinal 
Ridolfi, who is said to have acquired the books of Lascaris after his 
death, we find " 35. Ajjfi,orT$ivovi Koyoi ifi'," evidently the same book. 

Ridolfi's manuscripts after his death came into the possession of 
Queen Catherine de' Medid. The title "Demoslhenis Orationes" 
appears in a catalogue of the Queen's library, in the inventory of her 
goods after her death in 15S9, and again in 1597 in the list of her 
books which had passed into the Royal library. The CodeTC S still 
has a splendid binding of red leather, bearing the united arras of 
France and Navarre and monograms of Henry IV., with the date i602. 
From this dme it appears in the various catalogues of the Royal 
library, until it was entered in the catalogue of 1740 with its present 
"jiiunber 2934. We are therefore safe in assuming that S is one ol 



manuscripts which Lascaris, as the envoy of the Medici, brought 
Florence from Greek lands at about the lime of Lorenzo's death in 
1491 ; and it may have come from Mount Athos, as Dindorf asserted. 

The manuscript is written with great care, in large square apright 
minuscules, which mark the transition from the uncial to the cursive 
text. It is unquestionably by far the best manuscript of Demosthenas, 
and with its recently discovered companion L it forms a distinct class, 
which preserves a purer and older text than any others- The passages 
are few in which 2 and L' are not decisive against all other mss. 

The photographic &csimile of S has brought this precious docu- 
ment within the reach of scholars in all parts of the world. This, with 
the reproductions of the Medicean Aeschylus, the Laurentlan Sophocles, 
and the Bodleian Plato, is a special boon to American scholars. 

2. L (Vbmel's Laur. S), the new companion of 2, is in Ibe 
Laurentian Library at Florence (Lvi. 9, no. 136), It is written by 
various hands. It contains orations vi., vii., vni., ix., x., XL, xxii.. 
XXIV., all written in the 13th century (with some parts of !X. and X. 
wanting), followed by xx., xviii., xix., in another hand of the same 
century, and further by xxiii. in another of the same age, and by Xll- 
in a later hand. Orations i., 11., and 111., and the missing parts of 
IX. and X., are added by a much later hand. The older parts, as 
originally written (L'J, generally have the same purer form of the leit 
which is in 2; but, though the two mss. have a common archetype, 
L was not copied from 2 or descended from it. The second hand 
of L (L") generally agrees *ith the class represented by F and B. 
One interesting bond of union between the first hands of 5 and L 
is that both omit the same disputed passages in the Third Philippic. 

3. A I, Augustanus primus, formerly at Augsburg (whence its 
name), now no. 485 in the Royal Library at Munich, on parchment, of 
the nth century, is generally reckoned as next in rank to 2 and 
L'. It is the chief basis of the text current before Bekker's study of 
2, the text as established by Reiske. It represents a text far below 
that of 2 and L in purity, and much corrected by grammarians. 

4. A 2, Augustanus secundus, formerly at Augsburg, now in the 
Munich Library, is a paper manuscript of the ISth century. It has 
little distinctive character of its own. 

5. F (or M) and* (or Q) of the nth century, in St Mark's lihwr 
in Venice, and B (or Bav.), Bavaricus, in Munich, of the 13th ct^^H 


represent the Vulgate text emended by the help of mss. of the better 
class. B closely follows F, and is either copied from it or of a common 
origin with it. 

Other MSS. are now of less account, since the supremacy of S has 
been established^. 

^ A more detailed account of the important MSS. containing the Oration on 
the Crown will be found in the larger edition. 




• ' 




The references are made to pages, and relate especially to the notes. 

dyairriTbv ctvai 138 

dydaaiTO 126 

dyvolq. (Av ip) 38 

dyviatixxrifvrt 54, 128, 1 55 

dypa<pa vbiufia. 169 

dyibv, lawsuit, 4, 8, 1 1. dyOivfi, elC' 
eXdeip 61 

dycjvla 23 

dy<avil;'ofiai 3, 60, III, 126, 162 

ddeiav XajSetv 175 

dSUri/Aaf dfjudpri/jfia, dT^xVM^t distin- 
guished 168, 169 

ddiKd) as perfect 187 

d0(fios 76, 167 

air la 5 

dx'^pvKTos t6X6/aos 162 

dKOPLTl 124 

dKo^ovffiv, audiuntf 30 

dKpQJTripid^ia 182 

dXdariap 182 

dXiTi^ptof ICX> 

dWd vvv 118 

Afxeivov Trpdrreiv 157 

diMTrvevcrrel 190 

* AfJL(/>LKTli0V€S 94, 96, 196. * AfJl^lKT^OCL 

Sd^avra 99 
dfj.'pia'^i^Tiijcris w$ 81 
* Afii>Lcrcr4(ay 567/xara 89 
dfjL(/>6T€pa ravra 88, 108 
dvayKaibrara (adri t4) 78, I06 
dvai<r6rfjla, dvaMtiTOi. 24, 28, 79 
dvaka^eiv 103 

dvaX7i;(r£a, di'(£X7i7ro( 24, 28 
dv after comma 4; dp w. all past 

tenses of indie. 22 
dyaTi^vcrat 121 

dva4>opd 137 

dviSifv 8 

dKcv, besides f 52 

dKra»'cXc?y 143 

dvr/, rather than, 66 

dtrruvoi&fiepos (^comiive), bidding, 147 

dvw ica^^To (in the Pnyx) 107 

di'bi Ka2 icdro; dia/cvictuv 67 

d^ifa), juc^e, 157 ; d^tu; #cal 84ofmi 5, 

23. d|iou(ra as impf. 124 
d^lufia 94 
dinji^i;/ca 12, 77 
d^XiDs 189 

dird PcjjMV <l>4p€ip yprj^v 84 
dir6 To/as dpxvsi 95 
dToXi^<ra(r^a( 32 
dToXwX^vat ToXXdicts 136 
diro/xdrrwv 160 
dir6)«ia and frnvla 153 
diroTC0€V76Ta 138 
dirbppniTa 75 
diro(r((6in7a-(s 3, 1 6, 1 21 
dTO(rToX6?$ 65 

dir6<rToXos and diroo'r^Xai 47, 65 
dir6^aa'i$ (of Areopagus) 84 
diro\f/ii^i(ni and diro\prf<pll;ii>fMi 82 
dpovpacos Olvbfioos 149 
dppi/ra 75 

dpx^ «cal KaTdaToais 1 16 
dpxvriKTwv (of theatre) 20 
ds M^v.,,&s 84 43 
diriroi'dos T6Xe/A0S 162 
d<r 0aXci)s dovXei^ip 126 
drifitbiraPTes and drifUa 48 
Atttis it^s 161 
drvx'n^^vra 1 32 
adreiraYYArous ^^eXoyrdf 4I ; of, ^q 




oih-oG, an the ipal, 65 
d^aipewflai (conalive) 9, i; 

Soiifw 4, 35, 163 
Patnipla 131 
^Bfwri 14 
BdrraXai 113, 114 
^S* 17. Pot,fx->i' 48 

^fiTlOTO TpdTTf If 156 

(ScXtIu nai iK ^eXriivuv 7 
pXaa^ula and ^Xair^ijfittl 7, 55, 

T«»iW''i>'' w. ^^ififf^M 113 
7^ppa (tA) 106, 107 
7(7M(rSiti, genuine, 81 (§ '30°) 
7i7»6/if«v (tS), quota, 63 
ypifilMTa bo 

ypaiijiaTanii^aiv 130 

3. — 7p<f^(rCBi 155. ypaiii-li in 
narrower Mnae 153 
ypi<pa, propose, inact, J. 35, 186. 
7pd*o>iai (mid.)p '"^^'f'. >Oi 49. 73. 
7fvpafi/iai and ;7pii^iju pass, of 
both ypii^a and ypiijioiuix 35, 50, 
71, 72, 13S. 7pd^«v irnpdtflHa and 
ypdtpttrSat rapafbfiav 10, 72. 

ifXeoJa/ir^Hiip 30 

dtiiripov KTipiytaiTas 49 ; cf. 73 

S^fM! used for Heliastic court 10 

Sijw'iit*! 5t 74 

Bii i^uSi a^oiSi (cood.) 32 

Sli Totfrovi Otlvl TfiffP^JTO! 23 (cf. 

Si Hv and 81 oin 23 

iiBKOvfa 12S 
SLafutprApofiaL 29 
iiaiitpfrpTiuiy^ 4^^po S8 
iiniti^Biu 19, 78, 136. 194, 198 I 
iiaTfXui w. paiticiple t, 
Siar^hxrir 106 
Sia^i^fHirit and Sia^ii^fjii/cai I 
9tBd[r>r«i> 7pd^^ra So 
3ii4Mn, «i3ocroB, o^rrifl', 62, 63 

iicoioi' ?v, Di^ ought, 12 

ilimai elrai (peiSOD>l),4, 34. 9fi 

Jiiai^cpa dfioiii' 134 
Sftot ;irii7fiv 95, 153, 197 
Ria^tMa 20 
BoKinoola 164, 274 
Sifav, fCraitti' 54 
Biii'o^ii 29, 65 (w. refer.). 

ii/vsffTeJs 40, 167, 197 
Jimry BiTipor (without verb) ^ 
Biwiy ii|9oXoii' (Jv To7») a- 
Bi/trxoW 110 

fyypi^KuBai (eh BijjiAtoi) 1 
^nXiJ/inra iTOpd^^l 

iyyiimyjii always passive 1.43 

fftXDvTTit 4t, 59 

i; w, roTi, i}y. and ft» r^o. 118 

ef w. fut. ind. and Hy w. aubj. com- 
pared no. il w. opt. and iic w. 
subj. compared gz. 93, 94 

fly lyparfitr (for ei 7^pa^(») 47 

(i ioKoIij-.-oWi' Atti 15 

ical efxo 


il ireXfip^' dv 60 
fl ixiX'ip'ii"', oix iv Ariri;«i( 
fl/tapfUyTii edrarat 127 
tr«.fl 73,91, no 

c/i TJir inoDaay HuXaiaT 96 
(I; tA> roup iii.piWt<ieai m 
tls rai)i ruKopiirrat iycit 68 
<[£ra77eMa and ilirayyiWtiy 
eltrifiiipi 158 

rfTe...rfT( (after article) 15 
in xnirii to5 xp4»u 19, 40, 
/nW^n 89 



iKirliTTeip 164 

*EX6v<rti^de III 

iXKepoplj^eis 74 

*E\\rfpiKiif olKeia, and ^piKd 19 1. 

*E\\riviKiLS irpd^eis 36 
ifjLPePrfK(bs 1 52 
ififip6vTriT€ 150 
"E/ATOvira 81 
^i' fjLeplSi 1 10 
^v o<) d^ovTi 83 

^i'do^6raTa dirdvrwv 40 

^iftcm^fcet 87 

ivriv (personal) 117 

ivdpwra 161 

ivbffovv (figurative) 29 

imrrds 52 

ipTav6t dTiji^iyicas; 77 (cf. 12) 

^^ A/*d^7$ 75 

^^ c&i' fS$ 123 

i^aiTo^pjevoi 1 96; i^To6fJLfiv 27 

^|a£0n7$ (t6 7*) 97 

4iap4<ra<r0ai 239 

^€r(i^e(rdai and i^^Tatris 109 (w. 

references), 170, 190, 195 
i^€Tafffji6s (rare) 12 
i^'^pK€if satis era/, 121, 122 
i^UrrafMi w. ace. and dat. 195 
ii^dovt Te^ds 59 
^^w 6pT(av 134 
^^(i)X6i$ ical T/>o(6Xe(t 199 
^ayycX/a 274 
^a776(Xd/Dt6yot 68 

^ax^cs 78 

iirihuKa 68 

^irci^Tiy<re 83 

hreiBdv w. aor. subj. 30 

iveihii w. plupf. and aor. 28 

^ireira (without h4) after TpQrop fUp 


Ire^eipyd^raTO 88 

iirepwri/jirii) 5 1 

iTrTJpeaep 68 

^TT'^pafMi 90 

iw/ipeia and /n^ped^W 9, 10, 86, 

195 , 
linipTrifitPWP 199 

^' dXi7^e/at o^cfufit 12 

^T* AT(<rtr 52 

^l r^ iXriitlas 140 

^2 rott Wfifici^ IP 122, 174 

^ir2 xp'tfMO'f' 29 

^Tiddlreif 108 (cf. hriduKo) 

ivurrdTifS tov pavriKov 82; ^. Tt&v 

vp\ndp€iap 106; ^. rwi' irpo4dp<ap 

hriTifda 12. iiriTlfua (rd) II 
iiriTelxKrfUL and ^TtretxiO'/^Mt 43, 51 
ipptaaSiu 4>pd<ras 97 
^o-rti' ^ov (temporal) 16 
^<rTl T/)6$ ^Soinji' 3 
^(TTW 7dp 170 
irepos of Alexander — Irepot of the 

Macedonians 197, 198. Urcpop^ 

dXK&rpiop 2^, iriptp^ip 12, trepot 

\hr)fO% oDros 29 
t^9ti 8 
tUdvpai, 66, 67 — 72, 76, 273. tiddpat 

iirearjfiaipeade 1 54 
tCvoia I (see note), 6, 109, 168, 170, 

193. 196, 197 

eCvovs 123, 179 

e^Taapot 161 

eihrpwrtbirovt 94 

e^(r^j36ia 2 

^0' a^ou 140 

^^d/uXXos 195 

iipcffTTjK&ra (Klphvpov) III (w. refer- 

%<t>vyop KOK^Pf etpop Afieipop 160 

iXPV^* ^^ct» c^c., not implying unreal 
condition 38 (w. refer.). 

^X^^ ^* SmtcXQ I 

^wXoicpcur/a 32 

iw (final) 22 

i^Xof 73, 135, 168 
j^(&PT<ap Kal 6ptwp 43 

IjBos, IjBii 66, 69, 126, 169 
ifXiKlq, (pi 4p) III 
iifuWep 109, 118 
Ijp.^.dvcaToKfjJpri (not plupf.) 1 7 
^p, ^K€, fcare/Xiyirrat (tenses) 106 


$4ap KaTapeifMi 20 

$€6s masc. and fern. (^ tff6f, for 

Athena) i 
dtpurrdi 33 

288 GREEK INDEX ^^^ 

eiisovi 160 

UiK-^ 160, 161 1 

e.^pvjMa 4' 

XpTTol 142 ' 

PiXpt 106 

0paavnnlnf 85 

6:, 62, 65, 165 ^^^BH 


X..»>«^po, 161 ^^H 

XoyiiTTal 71, 142 ^^^^M 

Un^ttaypi^oi and lan&eio'Uloi 87 

\by,* SMy<u (UT Xo^crv) 6, 3S:^^^H 

C'ini licii 8i;m«"1" ii<al I30 

Xiho' '« Xd^ou X^uv 192 ^^^H 

,«(..» Cd»i Tfl.) 75 

XAyoi; Kplai! 140 l^^^^l 

iSuiiriiv 29, 30 

Ifpoiif^lioiKt 95, 139, Essay V. 


i«r7,pl« (ic. MAS") 65 

Xo(Td>'ft> 17 ^^H 

r»a w. perf. subj, 11a 

Irrorpii-Oi 196 



fulplfp 25 ^^^1 

*iaWa and irdma 153 ^^^^H 

™,r i^cv .34 

liApaB<ii,\eiK^ 160, 161 ^^^H 

«affo.pacri, (,a* lA^*"') 141 

.iSapfia 79 

/lairx''^'^' 182 ^^^^H 

fa9apiifn 160 

(odu^Eiuai 64 

^0i)^pin)l ^dMOt So ^^^HH 

itfll expr. parallelism 4, 35, 37 

/ii^XXojTO! X*>ei» S4 -^^T 

taxarri\iiv 165 

^p*. or >«p(J. (^0 110. iSo ^ 

itMfa 15,41.54. '7= 

(i^pos (Ti, or ri x^^jttoi') tSi' ^i}*u> 


61. 138. '64 J 

Ko\!i>iir,i (Jlpait) So, Essay VI. 

fWtTToi TOU (TUKXlSl \iyi>IITat |8q I 

™x& xo«r» 143 

^TaBiaBm III 2^^H 

ic(t»w«-.!,/flAVn&, 149 

f^ToEll (tA" ^ XP^lVr) iS ^^^H 

naTnuXiKr/iiv w, tUv rpayfiAray I33 

fi^rpiDT 7, 73 ^^^^1 

naTttXifliJiraiTei 116 

p4xP>..M' ^s 40 ^^H 

MTaXiu, /fl4«, 48 

/i^;ifl» Tii^rou lu( 31 ^^^^^M 

f^i, uitaSoUi' (S) 52, 53 ^^^H 

icaTTTopIa and noTin-Dpfi 6, (1, 75 

xa-ropeS) w. accus. 174, 175 

/'^'VErit S2 ^^^^1 

K.«dXou (ri ™X6-) 155 

p.-iT- iy ifiBvh^^yu 140 ^^H 

KAoi,, Tit (for KXtoiult) 56 

MijTWO* 90 1 

«(«io! 148 

;««pou, n/wBi/, 96 (cf. iUyao). fUKpoH 1 

IClTT0lp6p0i 161 

suy m 

KXtlffW* 80 

MK/x^ux'o 166, 172 J 

(cWfl/M 23 

^0on6, 33 ^^^ 

miicAi 165 

^<r»a«r. 54; as active 58 ^H 

tvpifa.a6a<. xip" 7° 

Mvtrw.' X>Ia 43 ^^H 

KpaT.7p(ftoy 160 

«7Tj(rtt»i^«]i, a^^uired, 56 

«i;«XV (rd) 56 

niKKvpo^. figure of, 120 ^^^H 


rtariai 84, 192 ^^^^1 

K^plitdr 160 ^^^^^1 

\ayi, pio, 163 

w^^/.»a C-i) ^^P"" 149 ^^H 

\a.p,r,yiiwv 180 

vuv, oj it ivas, 97 -^^^H 

\^n and dwyiyfiuffitei (of docu- 

vuK and Ttrt, not temporal, latJ^^H 

ments) .9 

MS ^H 



Oivilian 1 14, 149 

rfxomat w, paitic. 27, 39 

»a (ri) zo, 128, 171, 187 

IXcdpoi 78 

oMyau *«> 14 (cf. ^mtpoi!) 

d\DAtif<» 160 

o/uifui, quilt as iottl, 23 

A/Mop6^iot 176 

o»T)»(iiB w. unreal cond. II 

4irX(Tij.i' l»rAi 145 

*tXo« (toii ;i^i.) 50 

SrXsit KOTCirrpiipeTii I50 

TE^iflSfleljjv and ftrm iwd/i^Brif 29, 

. '50 

■f (rel.) 9 

f 190 

d/iScSt tx"" 10 

^wv di-oXa/ijSiireii. and draioPrai 

ig, 19 
ip/tfii- /tJ Tits nfr^! ;sc. d7ictfpBj) 1 72 
Is mrndeir 40 

8ri before direct quotation 26, tog 
Srou i^TOTE ?«™ j6 
JrV iir^iriiTO 123 
oivip; 84,85 
oD...^)TnC9B 76, 77 
oils' ac {£[ 41 

oiT iyrh 9. S7 

oOe foia 136 

ei^ 0. 

I 124 

oMajuiC (temporal) la, 16 

a^i (si:, nifoi') 3,54 

oil Af irpiaptwar (iter.) 137 

oiSff ?i....ei ^^ «-oiii«M 91 

eSimvr irt y oIi 191 

oSmiur otiS^ 172 

oiiff-lo and rlniiiut 63, 158 

oBrt, oUrt, oDre, aftec o£ 10 

oStui lUxpi rippw 103 

ofxS»-wt...<lXX(t 81 

oix ipf'! and i,)$t,- 144, 164, 172 


raiSayuyttoy 159 
idrra fl» (ri«) a8 
rirra t4 ti)XX(£ lai 

'■*"■"". o«r^!n^, 4 
ira>)rl roiJTD 7^ii« 144 
rapaycypaufifni cS/m 67 

rapttTa^a^unt lay, 135, 1 76 
*aprf^*70 47 

iropfroi 6 ' 

JTOpfAStrv iSrirfp ip^0oi 116, 117 
»<VH,<oXoi;9«, 102. TapijKoXouflijitiT-a 

xapiSf 16, 49, 71, 138, 147 
xaira ij oltan/iirti 31 
TaTp^ioj ('Ax6)i\w») 89 
TfTpai- JiJiwn 64, 121 

r<xaEioA(i 164 

i^nX\4;«w)t 143 




xepieXeErip, xepH^Mi 95, 95 

» 79- x<p«r«u xp^/iari rif 


x<piu)(Fi' w. pre*, 
infia. 39 

WtplOIMTlas (it) 3 

^tplTptfi^a dTopSi 78 

xX)i<rior Jeifai no 

rXfiiAii [85 

x6ft.,. 30 ^„. refer.), 89. rien... 

ieii^S4vTi; 33, 79 
xoidi and vpirra 4, 38, 151 
iroXiTiTai (Ariatotle) 59, 40 

woMTcvfia 84, 85 

xoX.TwJ) nal mint 191 

raXiTiKir 10 

raXhf^fayn 85 

xoMxEta and xoAxrf..,. 8, 75, 76. Q. 

xoniffdvTuip (TtnriS^ |ao 
Tp3it,,firtuHe,i-jk. xpii,, toX ffvu^ 

/"X'"' 16, 118 
rpdTTu and »o<(5 4, 38, 151 
rpi T^ dXflfltiot loi 

390 GREEK 


„Krt<rri, 119 ^^^1 

172, 177, 190, 196. irp«ipfff« 

irM><^Tai 140, 141 ^^^H 

ToKTlUt 36, 119. »^pfff.I Mi 

ffTdO^TS ^^^^H 

mXiTflo 54, 194. cf. 180 

artfifoM/^m 78 ^^^^H 

rpo^LWivSat 4\xii<i, <n,M^x^", etc. 

.7Tp<^\.i<rayT« 8j ^^H 

57. 121. 185, 186 

nperraii 161 ^^^^1 

Tpop\y,B€l, 94, 175 

avytae-Z^/iini 90 ^^^H 

i,po^\^ 208 

xpopoiXru^ {of Senate) 6 

■.v«^»T,s U7, 148 

r^po«^o™ 34, 107 

<,i^o\o, 131 

ipicjpoi 107 

irii>(iriifiaTit{dfHrsi r&t rpiaTas 13J 

rpatBi-^a. mA ittpteina 187 

ffu^iTKMFiiTwi' dr (not -ffifTHv) IOC, 1 

irpMlXitrflt &t 

.06 j^U 

rpotitit^lUta 145 

trirtiKO! 83 ^^^^H 

wpoeit^la 76 

"'"1^'^ 111 ^^1 

TpBlwAai 41, 44. TpieiVTO 157 

rpoKivSuitiw 129 

airraiii 145 ^^^| 

Tpmlru iSi, 1S3 

ffKH-rt^,, <r:-x7A«« 62. 63, I46.^^H 

xpi! iBTopiav 91 

iriianvujpoi'M'" >59> ii>° ^^^^H 

ir(>ii T.w 7(7«ffaai IIO 

,rv,rTti\ai 151 ^^M 

rpcffdiH^ {xpifffiiu) lit UfX^aiar lO 

c<p,Ttp>tAiiiPoi 42, 58 ^^H 

irpweXSeiB t^ iJiw 10 

votrnpiat (gen. of purpose) 60 | 

ir,«w^fTtT4r»0. 112. irpMoxiiTO 

T. mir 109 


TirpitiJt 11 

wplxJXWO. 112 

Ta», S 191 

rporMyat 168 

Tdfd (;>■) 10, jS, 19s 

■wpoCXa^i ml <aT/(rX' 37 

Td£.rA,«. .09(wrcf.) 

w^^o,,, 140 (cf. U.) 

ropd-ro-f,* (acl. and pass.) 96, 98 

T^liVlt 199 

T/lWliwi! J06, 107 

Teix"""""''! t>o»"' ofi ^ 2*9 

Tu\iT>fio. 94, 139, Esujr V. 

Ttrii^wW" 8 

nuXola 93 

tI ^Jiiraro iS 


tI Hani, oix'; 3i 

rffh,^ w. infid, in or. obi. 157. riM»' 

^p:rTj«, 137 

Trf.1. 5 

pjruc M tA X^Mio >S4 

rlnrifui and D&rfa 63. 158 

p^lfliaTa nal (nrdrr/iara 123 

Ti/i'^aatitT,- *» (w. drrt and gen.) I33 

^TjTi (at ipptiTfl 75 

Tti dyopcicit poOeran loS 

^tiripu' iydir 140 

Tj,fl.(w.aor. partie.)5l 

tIj 7-(mi.. 44 


Ti jr orTioi- fwilhout Jri) 6S 


tA 3^ (wiLhout Ti >ij«) 89 

f.^»\iy<,« 83 

tA Mi t4 149 

ff<(i»4Tij. (of Aesch.) 24 fw. ref.) 

Ti ir6X« (or iriXrui) avp.<t4pe>' 20^11 

w/iffi, 14. 81 

T(iX(iiirr»i (opt.) 41 

rlrot /rdoaiirat 51 

TOffoi^T-u (or Toaoirav) Ha 67 

ff<T^»,,t 153 

Toij iriirc J» |S<i8irc» III, ttz 

irKa.6, 151 

ToSt TTsXXoAt Xiyovi 88 

ir«uo7uy<ri- 25 

rpayvi"! «a'"«" (lempotal) 34 





rpay(p8Cj, rpayipSLa 10, 78 

TpiaK6aiot, ol 61, 62, 108 

T/>ti;pajJXi;s 80 

TptTayojvi<rTi/ls 80, 130, 162, 165 

rpvTdvrj 1 84 

Tvyxdf'f^ w. perf. partic. 75 

TVfjLTravKTTpla 174 

Tvx^v, perhaps^ 138 

r^) dia^dapijpai ^ /r^ 1 52 

Tw»' 5' (without /*^i') 74 

TUP Kaff vfids 55 

ru^v <f>JJVT(av KaKwv lOO 

vSart, ^i' rf ififfi 87, 88 
i'^s &TT7JS 161 
inraKotLfffare 91 

i)ir<lpx« I, 3» I7» 37» 48, 55» 60, 67, 
85, 109, III, 141, 142, 145, 164, 
1 8 1 . Twv inrapxf>vT(ap iKaripois, 92. 
{fvijpxcv w. infin. like ^8et etc. 188 

inreCKrj^af ifTretXiffifiai 166 

inr4p and ircp/ 7 (w. refer.), 12 

vWp rcDv ix^P^^ /Se/SovXev/A^yot 146 

VT^p iS'^iDv 2 

{fTreprjtpdpcjs 1 56 

weiJ^uMs 67, 68, 70, 71, 117 

inroKplpcadai II, 176 

inroiJLPi/jlxa6^ 6pdp 41 

i>TO<riccX/^ctv 86 

wrovXos ij<TvxlcL 1 89 

irn-<afw<rlq.f ip 62 

if<f>op(»)fiepoi 28 

05 Ttf ; 76 
<f>Obvov SLki} 74 
0(XtTTt0-/i6s 181 
^(Xoi'eifc/a 89 
ipoiToip 164 


0opd vpayfidrcjp 167 
<f>povpd (Spartan) 56 
ippovpoi (Athenian) iii 
4>^€<rdai icard Tdyrwi' 14 
0(;Xarr6/u£i«s rd XuT^irat 159, 192 
ipT&vTcjp KaKiop 100 
i/xapdif irdtras d4>7JK€ 121 
0wi^ haKp^iv 176 

X<ipajca 51 

Xeifmppovs 97 

Xo/micas ical ^i)Xov 80 

XP^j/Adrwv iri^PTa^is 145 

XP^i' irpoadoKap w. two protases 120. 

XP^»' and XP^" *" 120 
Xfyn(rT4 (ironical) 194 
XP^Ttti TV X67y 156 

\l/ri<f>ov dirb ^tapjov 4>4p€iv 84 
ypvxpirrjs 158 


a>/LtoXo7err* di' II 

cDv PepiuKCP 80 

^v %TVX€P 80 

(^mrat dirwf /a^ dvi.iJLtv 22 

d>poifiepos (conative) 152 

ws w. partic. (not cond.) 170 

us hv €XVf' evpolas 170 

its els iXdxtcra 151 

us Mpus 50, 131, 188 

&<FV€p (not conditional) 169, 170; 

&<nr€p o^x ^9^» &(rT€p dip el 

iiyo(fit£Poi. 133 
&ffT€ w. pres. and aor. infin. 41, 48 : 

w. perf. and pres. infin. 159; w. 

infin, and 4v 13 ; w. indie. 23, 73. 

&aT€ oi w. infin. 173 


The references are made to pages. 

Abydos i86 

Achaeans 146 

Aeacus, Rhadamanthus, and Minos 78 

Aegina 56 

Aeschines: parentage and youth 79, 
80, 211; as clerk 161, 211; as 
actor 1 14, 162, 163; opposes Philip 
w. Eubulus 211, 212; at Megalo- 
polis 212; envoy to Philip 213, 
221, 224, 226; suit ag. Timarchus 
274; rejected as counsel in case of 
Delos 83, 84, 229 ; supports Python 
85, 229 ; tried for irapairpea'pela and 
acquitted, Essay IV.; speech at 
Delphi (339 B.C.) 239 — 241 ; envoy 
(w. Demades) to Philip after Chae- 
ronea 247; indicts Ctesiphon, trial 
of case and acquittal of Ctesiphon, 
Essay III.; voluntary exile at 
Rhodes 272; five periods of life 
164; his two brothers 194 

Aleuadae of Larissa, aided by Philip 

Alexander I. of Macedonia 125 

Alexander the Great: born 203; 
destroys Thebes 27, 28, 254; de- 
mands Attic orators 28; receives 
crowns from Athens 196; dies at 
Babylon 254 

Amphictyonic Council 94, 96, Essay 
V. ; summoned by Philip in 346 B.C. 
226; addressed by Aeschines 239 — 

Amphipolis 42, 202, 203, 214 

Amphipolitan War 15, 202 

Amphissa destroyed by Philip 245 

Amphissian War stirred up by Aesch. 
91 — loi, 103, 240, 241 

Anacharsis 279 

Anacoluthon 77 

Anaxinus 85 

Antiphon condemned 82, 229 

Aphobetus, brother of Aesch. 194 

Aphobus 206 

Apollo, iraTpQoi of Athens 89 

Arbela, battle of 249, 254, 270, 271 

Arbiters, public III 

Arcadians 14 

Areopagus 82, 83, 229 

Aristides 145 

Aristodemus 15, 210 

Aristoleos of Thasos 122 

Aristonicus 49, 73, 139 

Aristophon 42, 102, 137 

Aristotle quoted 40, 127, 169; birth 
205; tutor of Alexander 232; in 
Athens in 330 B.C. 197; death 205, 

Aristratus, of Sicyon 31, 182; of 

Naxos 122 
Artemisium 129 
Assembly (Athenian), two meetings 

to discuss peace in 346 B.C. 217 — 

Athenian Confederacy (New) 202 
Athens and Philip at war (340 B.C.) 

Atrometus, father of Aesch. 79 — 81 
Attic year 255, 256 





Battalus 113, 114 

Boeotians, dv(u(r0ri<rla and\yri<rla 

of 24 
Byzantium 47, 51, 53, 143, 202, 



Callias of Chalcis 146, 231, 234; 
embassies to Pelopon. w. Demosth. 

Callisthenes, decree of 25, 225 

Callistratus, heard by Demosth. 59, 

Cephalus 137, 155 

Cephisophon 16, 45 

Cersobleptes 222 

Chaeronea, battle of 39, 150, 163, 

245, 246; panic in Athens follow- 
ing 246; measures of Hyperides, 
Lycurgus, and Demosthenes after 

246, 247; eulogy of Dem. upon 
heroes of 175, 176, 249 

Chares 91, 236 
Charidemus 69 
Chersonese 47, 201 ; ravaging of 87, 

235 ; Demosth. speech on 232 
Chios 145, 202 
Cirrha, plain of 94, 240 
Qepsydra 87, 88 
Qimax, example of 113 
CHtarchus of Eretria 48, 231; 

killed 235 
Collytus 114 
Corcyra 145, 146 
Corinthian War 56, 57; battle of 

Corinth 57 
Corinthians 146 
Cos 202 

Cottyphus 96, 243 
Cresphontes 114 

Ctesiphon f envoy to Philip) 210, 213 
Ctcsiphon ^defendant in case of the 

Crown) 10, 35, 270, 272 
Curses in Senate and Assembly 80, 

81. 173 
Cyrsilus 126 

Decelean War 57 

Delian contest at Delphi 83, 84 

Delphi, temple of, pillaged by Pho- 
cians 203, 204, 212; destroyed 
about 373 B.C., rebuilt before 330 
B.C. 239. Inscriptions recently 
found 226, 227 

Demades, envoy to Philip 173, 175; 
peace of 248 

Demomeles 139 

Demosthenes: birth 205; father's 
death 205; under guardians 205; 
consults Isaeus 206; suit against 
Aphobus 206; voluntary trierarch 
59; speeches ag. Androtion, Lep- 
tines, Timocrates, and Aristocrates 
206, 268; on Symmories and for 
Megalopolis 206; First Philippic 
37, 87, 181, 207, 209; speech for 
Rhodians 207; assaulted by Midias 
208; suit against Midias 208; 
01ynthiacs209; twice Senator 210, 
251; envoy to Philip 213; speech 
before Philip 214; 2nd embassy to 
Philip 221 — 223; ransoms prisoners 
222; Second Philippic 47, 87, 228; 
arrests Antiphon 229; speech on 
the Peace 228; opposes Python 
229, 230; discusses Philip's letter 
231; indicts Aeschines for vapa- 
irpeffpela Essay IV. ; opposes Philip 
in Euboea 231; mission to Cdrintn 
and Achaea 232; speech on Cher> 
sonese 232; Third Philippic 233; 
embassy to Byzantium 233; em- 
bassies to Pelopon. (w. Callias) and 
formation of league ag. Philip 234; 
frees Euboea from tyrants 235; 
receives thanks and crowns from 
Byzantium and Perinthus 236, 237; 
trierarchic reform 61 — 66, 237; 
speech after seizure of Elatea 109-— 
113, 244; negotiations with Thebes 
244; energy after Chaeronea 246, 
247; delivers eulogy on the fallen 
175, 249; speech on the Crown 
249, Essays I. and III. Later 
events (330—322 B.a) 254. Death 
at Calauria 254 

Dercylus 225 

Dexileos, monument of, w. inscrip- 
tion 57 

Diondas 138, 153 



Dionysiac Theatre 20 

Diodmus 69 

Documents in text of Dem. 21, 34, 

Dodona, oracle of 156 
Dorpfeld and Reisch on Dionysiac 

Theatre 20 


Elatea, seizure of 90, 97, 103, 106, 

Embassies of Athens to Philip (346 
B.C.) : First 213 — 215 ; Second 
221 — 223; Third (to Thermop.) 
224, 225, returns to Athens 225, 
sent again to Philip 225, 226 

Empusa, 81 

Epaminondas 14, 58, 201 

Epigram on heroes of Chaeronea (not 
genuine) 177, 178 

Epilogue, Aristotle on 183 

Euboea 42, 43, 47, 48, 50, 145, 146, 
186, 202, 207, 231, 234, 235 

Eubulides, speech against 82 

Eubulus 16, 42, 102 ; w. Aeschines 
against Philip 210 — 212 

Euphraeus 231 

Euripides: Hec. i — 3 quoted 165; 
Telephus 43 

Eurybatus 17 

Eurydice (Philip's mother) 214 

Hegemon 175 
Hegesippus 230 
Heliastic oath 2, 5, 74 
Hellespont 43, 143, 148, 235—237 
Hero KaXa^Uri/s and Hero Physician 

79, 80, Essay VI. 
Hyperides 73, 83, 139, 153, 175, 246 


lUyrians 29, 150 
Infin. w. rb 2, 50 
Iphicrates 58, 214 
Isaeus 206 

Kings of Thrace 150 

Lasthenes 31 

Leuctra, battle of 13, 58. "Leuctric 

insolence " of Thebes 58 
Long walls of Athens destroyed 56 

Lycophron of Pherae 204 
Lycurgus (Athens) 20, 246 
Lynceus, verse of 165 
Lysander's governments 56 
Lysicles condemned 163 

Foreign policy of Athens 37, 38, 191 

Fortune 128, 188; of Demosth. i^, 

167 — 169; of Athens 155 — 157 

Gildersleeve cited no 

Glaucothea, mother of Aesch. 81, 159 

Glaucus 194 

Grain imported by Athens 51 

Greek League formed by Philip 248 


Haliartus, battle of 56 
Halonnesi» 42, 230, 235 
Halus and Halians 213, 214, 217, 222 
Harmosts and Decarchies of Lysander 


Mantinea, battle of 58, 201; walls 

of 185 
Manuscripts of oration on the Crown 

Essay VIL 
Marathon, heroes of 129 
Mausolus of Caria 202 
Megalopolis 14, 58, 201, 206, 212, 228 
Megara 43, 56, 145, 146, 190 
Melantus 153 
Messene 14, 58, 201, 228 
Methone 203 
Midias 158, 208, 239 
Munychia 65 
Mysians 43 


Nausicles 69 




Oath by the heroes of Marathon 129 
Oenomaus 114. Gen. i^povpaMt 149 
Olympias (Philip's queen) 231 
Olynthiacs of Demosth. 209 
Olynthus and Olynthiac confederacy 

203, 208. Olynthus captured by 

Philip 209, 210 
Onomarchus 204 

Orators demanded by Alexander 27 
Oreus and Eretria freed 47, 234, 235 
Oropus 59 

Peace of Demades 52, 248 

Pella 41, 214, 222 

Peparethus ravaged 42, 235 

Perf. subj.y opt., and infin. 16, 20, 21, 

24,30, 112, 113 
Perillus (of Megara) 31, 182 
Perinthus besieged by Philip 5i> 53> 

235» 236 

Phalaecus 212 

Phayllus 204, 212 

Pbilammon 194 

Philip II. of Macedon: succeeds to 
the throne 202; takes Amphipolis 
202; Amphipolitan War w. Athens 
202, 203; founds Philippi, captures 
Pydna, Potidaea, and Methone 
203; interferes in Thessaly 204; 
aggressions upon Athens 206, 207 ; 
intrigues in Euboea 207; attacks 
Olynthiac confederation 208; takes 
Olynthus 209, 210; proposes peace 
w. Athens 210; receives 1st em- 
bassy 214; sends embassy to 
Athens 215; receives 2nd embassy 
222; march to Thermopylae 222, 
223; surrender of Phocians to 
225; celebrates victory in Sacred 
War 226; summons Amphictyonic 
Council, and is made a member 
226; celebrates Pythian games 227; 
asks recognition of Athens as an 
Amphictyon 227, 228; at peace 
w. Athens (346^—340 B.C.) 228; 
intrigues in Peloponnesus 228; 
sends Python to Athens 229; sends 

letter to Athens 230; supports 
tyrants in Euboea 231 ; enters' 
Epirus 231; subjugates Thessaly 
232; makes Aristotle Alexander's 
tutor 232; attacks Chersonese 
232; dispute about Halonnesus 
230, 235 ; ravages Peparethus 235 ; 
besieges Perinthus and Byzantium 
235, 236; letter to Athens, declaring 
war 236; Scythian expedition 237; 
made general of Amphictyons in 
Amphissian War 242, 243; seizes 
Elatea 243; destroys Amphissa 245 ; 
proposes peace w. Athens 245; 
victory at Chaeronea 245, 246; 
drunken revels after battle 176; 
sends Demades to Athens 247; 
peace of Demades 248; assassi- 
nated 254, 270 
Philistides at Oreus 48, 231; killed 

Philochares, brother of Aesch. 194 

Philocrates, peace of 210 — 221 

Philomelus 203 

Phocian (Sacred) War 13, 14, 23 — 
25, 203, 212, 213, 227 

Phocians plunder temple of Delphi 
203, 212; send envoys to Philip 
222; surrender Thermopylae to 
Philip 25, 225 ; punishment of 226, 
227; records of payments of fine 

Phocion 91, 173, 207, 236, 248 

Phrynon of Rhamnus 210 

Pindar quoted 183 

Pluperfect in -eiv and -i? 16, 1 7 

Plutarchus of Eretria 207 

Pnyx at Athens 107 

Polybius cited 181 

Porthmus destroyed 43, 231 

Potidaea 42, 203, 209 

Prisoners ransomed by Demosth. 
165, 166 

Property tax 158 

Proxenus 213, 221 

Prytanes, Proedri, etc. 106 — 108 

Pydna 42, 202, 203 

Pythian games in 346 B.C. 227 

Pythocles 17c 

Python at Athens 85, 229, 230 



Rhodes 202, 272 
River battle 135, 245 

Salamis 129. Ships in battle of 147 
Scythian exped. of Philip 237 
Senate and Assembly summoned by 

Prytanes 106, 107 
Serrhium, etc. 19, 42 
Simonides, epigram on heroes of 

Marathon 179 
Simus of Larissa 31 
Solon 5; poem of 156 
Sosicles 153 

Sparta invaded by Epaminondas 201 
Statesman and <rvKo<l>dpTrfs compared 

Subj. and fut. indie, contrasted 1 10; 

subj. and opt. 94 
S3rmmories, leaders of 61, 62, 108 
Symmories, speech on 13, 37, 206 
Synod of allies of Athens 16; reso- 
lution of 217, 218 

Talent (Attic), modem value of 205 
Tamynae, battle of 208 
Taurosthenes of Chalcis 231 
Telephus 43 
Theagenes 185 

Theatre, Dionysiac 20 

Thebes after Leuctra 58; feeling of 
Demosth. towards 13; coolness 
of Thebes and Thessaly towards 
Philip in 339 B.C. 92, 238; Thebes 
allied w. Athens in 339 B.C. 244; 
Athenian army in 133, 134; de- 
stroyed by Alexander 13, 27, 28 

Themison of Eretria 59 

Theoric fund 68 

Thermopylae, Philip checked at 23, 
69, 205, 206; surrender of, l^ 
Phocians 25, 225 

Theseum 79, 278 

Thrace, kings of 150 

Thracian gold mines 19 

Thrasybulus of Collytus 137 

Timarchus, trial of 274 

Timolaus 31 

Toxaris 79; see Essay VI. 

Triballi 29, 237 

Tribute of Athens 145 

Trierarchs 59, 63. Trierarchic re- 
form of Dem. 61 — 66 

Tromes (Atrometus) 81 


War between Philip and Athens 
(Amphipolitan) 15, 202, 203; re- 
newed in 340 B.C. 44, 4^, 236 

Winter battle (339— 33o B-C) 97» 
135» 245. 

i 1; 

• : 

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