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V - 













WBlii.M. s-ini M-i..-..u IN ENOLANP. rnOM THE ANOLOSSSH^^^H 



UBDLNAlir I'li!NTIKl3 T7P&S. ^^^| 

A jiX'AR&oraEaKXT of riuiF. v. s. <.>» xkhoiiis nn tee lAxauAiut ap ^^^^| 

OI-tVCEH jUCI) «OWi£, A^ll KKI'UIXT* 'If TItS BUS T&lCia KIT ULBOrSt ^^^| 

i<x xxaum, iw, *xi) wkuh, i jct. asd bi ujtcLEv OS peKKcn, 1S3I. ^^^| 


•vntti, ■>>■■•■ ot I» ™r.clu or m. ntuiLnoim K>ciiiTr. fokMiui ^^^H 

•cum u« lumtl R.MSIBM. IJ. U>7. ^^^H 


■ XVI Tit CENXrBlKS. ^^H 


■ tfALESBr&Y. BABCLEY. HART, DULt.ORAli. titl.U ^^H 


^^^^ft ITBI-t^ItBD rnB THE StIITlKTT HT ^^^^^^| 


.:f---^ . 

>;. I ■ 
--"■■» _ 




EXTRA \OLUME, 18/1. 


H^ d^nslish pronimtintioit, 

^lulispcrc and (Chaucfr. 


-iMnxxatattsx OF PKOF. v. j. c-mtn's nmtomit on tub lasgca'ib tir 
R AXi> udWKU, ANu etd-ur.-vN of T^E bibb tucib kt aALBtmrxT 
nt, idiTi txn wKiAn, loCT, asp ov dauci-kv ox r&v.sai, iS2l. 



XVI r» oiiNTunrEs, 




rrBi.ifliiBD rnn tub society jit 


(Saiig (Uiifllislt iJ«t ^ocictg. 


fWilh poatr la add Tl'iiriir$ to tluir 


HENET B. WHEATLEY, ESQ.. B3, Bebmshs Stubbt. Lo.><bos. W. 


The PablicaHoDs tor 1865 i 
)>Di been opened for tlieir i 

Uiroe for IStiS, hare been reprinted. Subiicriben vho dtwirft the Teils »( ill o] . 
ortheu^eiinBlioiildwDd thpimamflaatoiice tu tbeHon. Secmtory.iiBfeicnil bunitrei 
kilditioa&l uaiDU are required before the Toxtt for IBOfl um be lent to preu. 
The Pdbliaitiau/or 1864 (anr^X'Va] art .-— 

I. L«UI>En Olf TIlB 

n* Puiliiialianijer 1S69 [aat pmiun) art:^ 

K BtrifrB QBTtioaatPHiB ahd oosanvniB or ti 

I -»,'ed.Iir. KInnlu. 

tiLJ.J.ttninU. II, 

a, Bi^rarotrs nBou in 

Thr P,Mkalf«i,-hy ISIlS (o». »«/«(■ 
M. IIBU.IN, Furl III, MllMlUr U. a.WlisU) 
J. *. Btiun tiUnnli, Bw|, lu. 

M. WIUIM-t- Vl«lil( (ir PIKHS PLOWMAN, 

W;W.NM.K*. IM lU. 
M; lUK ALLlUnjiTIVfl BuilANON OF ttIB 

Biii|:"aitd It* Hn, a, A. (■ulso? ■■■rl L i 
Tht PuiliraliMtfor IBTU. art ;— 
M. BNGLtSH GILDS, IWir nu'iiln >»d Tm 


» • 




cx)irrAiNmo an investigation of the coebespondencb op 












aoccRT, nmvB ov thb couvcil ov thb vhilolooical bocibtt, vobmbbly 














• •'-. :': -.COaRIGEifDi" AND ■A3)BfeNDA. 

In Part I. 

pp. 2TD-Z97. In addition to the urgumcnla there adduced to ihew thst the 
encient Kmad of lon^ ■ was {ii) or (ii], and aot (ei. ai, ei], Mr. Jnmea A. 
H. Murray hu commonicated to me aoniE striking proofs (Vom the Gaelio 
fomu of Engliali nords and names, and English fomu of Gaelic names, 
which will be giran in Part IV. 

p. 302, 1. H, Hut u erroneoualj treaUd u a French word, hut 'm the Altha- 
BBTioAL List on the aame paga it is correctly given >■ anftloeaion. The 
oorrectiona which this oTer»i(tlit renders neuessarj will bfl gi«en in Pnrt IV., 
in the Ehape of a cancel for this paire, wbieh could not he prepared in time 
for tfii. PiTt. 

In Part II. 

p. 142, F^temetttr, col. S, y 

ia'doon' rtaidoon. v. 

S.fiir don, i 
p. 113, Crti/o 1, col. 2. lL4and7,/orlaT'ud,dtd,r«><fka'Terd, deed; Crrdai, 
"1. 2, Ime i./or lo»-«rd read lo 

V. 4 and 8, 
d loo-Tc: 
p. 4S2, iWKi, I. 2. far Rithard read Richard. 
pp. 4fll-C. On the use of f for j, and the pOBsihilitt of } having been occaaion- 
ailj oonftued with {■] in gieech, Mr. W. W. Skeat calls atleutioii to the 
remarlci of Sir F. Madden, in bis edition of Lajaraon, 3, 437. 
p. 468, TranilttlioM, col. 2, 1. i.for bil rtid bill. 

p. 473, note, col. 2,1. l./or 446 rmrf 447 i 1. 17,/nr(mee, dee, swee, pee) read 
(mnr, iig, sw«, pw] j 1. 18, for nuti/ read May; 1. 24-5 far (eintm^l) read 


p. SD3. 1. 9, pnmmiBialinn, for deadlilahc rtad doad'liitahe. 

p. 640. 1. 9,/Dr bafSdi rmrfhnRIi. 

p. o49, 1. 5 from bottom of text, for manuugur (maau'S(E<ei'i«r), read man- 
sauncur (maan-stpceiq'g'.ir) . 

p. 560. Mr. O. 8«e«E has commimicaled to mo the sounds of Icelandic letters as 
noted by Mr. Melville Bell from the pronunciation of Mr. Hjaltalin, which 
will be given in Part IV. 

p. 663, voTK 30, col. 1, 1. 4, for alikklfii read a/ikUQ; col. 2, I. 4,/araB'ti- 
kaaul'Tj read aa'likaaul'vi'. 

p. 5S9. intbe HausllBngi 1. 1, for et read a, 1.2, for rr read ea\ 1. 4,/or bauge 
read bsugi ; I. S, for Hel'iesbror . . . hau'ga rtad Het'lnbrar . . . bau'g« ; 
line Ti for iaamleila rrudlaamlaiki. " iTt,^ ^ ~- 

p. fi60, note 1. 1. 2, for Ifinjr rtad XbJm. \^ ^ t/XX O 

p. 699, cot 2, 1. 14, for demrane read Senufot. 

p. 600, col. 1, 1. 6, for EugeoB read jjiigene. 

p. 614, CloBBotype as a Byetem of writing is superseded by Glossic, etplained in 
the onpendii lo the notice preSied to Part III. 

p. 617, col, 2, under n, 1. 4,/Dr Ipand rfd><pland. 
/.. Purl III. 

p. 639, note 2 for (epii-svli. speanli) rtad (spii-sbnli, spesb'BlO. 

p. 661. The numbcn in the Table on tUia page are oorrecUd on p, 726. 

p. 063, note 1. The memoir on Pennsylvania German by Prof, S, S, flaldemnn, 
was toad before the Philological Society on 3 June, 1870. and will be piib- 
Uihcd Hparatelj ; Dr. Mombert, having gone to Europe, \\3s not furnished 
any ndditiona to that memoir, which n rich in philologienl tniertst. 

p. S80 to p. 125. Some tdfiing errors in printing the Critical Text and Fionun- 
cintion of Chaucer's Prologue are corrected on p. 724, note. 

p. 764, note 1,/ar (abitee-ahun) read (abi'taa-siUn). 

p. T8e, col. 1, the reference alter \mial shoold be 769*. 

p. 791, col. 2, under much good do il yon, tbr mi/ehi/oditio read mychgaditio ; and 
to the refeTcnces add. p. 938, nole 1 . 

pp. 919-096. All the references to the Globe Sbakspere relate to (be issue of 
1864, with which tcit every one has been verified at press. For later iasnen, 
the number of thejiA^ [and page only) here given, when it exceeds 1000, 
murt be diminished by 3, thus VA 8 (1003), must bo read as VA 8 (1000), 
and PT42{10S7'), must he read as PT 42 (10a4> The cause of this dif- 
ference is that pages 1000, 1001, 1003, in the ihuo of 18S4. containing only 
the singU word Pouu, have been cancelled in sulwequent imea. 


NOTICE, pp. T-xii. 

GL088IC, pp. xiii-xx. 

CHAPTEB VII. Illustrations of the Pronunciation of English 


§ 1. Chaacer, pp. 633-726. 

Critical Text of Prologue, pp. 633-634. 

PronimciAtion of Long U and of AT, ET, as deduced firom a com- 
parison of the Orihograpliies of Seyen Manuscripts of the Can- 
terbury Tales, pp. 634-646. 

Treatment of Final E in the Critical Text, pp. 646-648. 

Metrical Peculiarities of Chaucer, pp. 648-649. 

Chaucer's Treatment of French "Words, pp. 650-651. 

Pennsylvania Oerman the Analogue of Chaucer's English, 
pp. 652-663. 

F. W. Gescnius on the Language of Chaucer, pp. 664-671. 

M. Rapp on the Pronunciation of Chaucer, pp. 672-677. 

Instructions for Reading the Phonetic Transcript of the Prologue, 
pp. 677-679. 

Critical Text of the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, from a 
collation of seven MSS., in a systematic orthography, pp. 680- 
724 (even numbers). 

Conjectured Pronunciation of the same, pp. 681-725 (odd numbers). 
§ 2. Gower, pp. 726-739. 

The Punishment of Nebuchadnezzar, from Gower' s "Confessio 
Amantis," Lib. 1, texts of three MSS., and conjectured pronun- 
ciation, pp. 728-737. 

Message from Venus to Chaucer, sent through Gower after his 
Shriit, texts of two MSS., systematic orthography, and con- 
jectured pronunciation, pp. 738-739. 
§ 3. Wycliffe, pp. 740-742. 

CHAPTER VIII. Illustrations of thb Pronunciation op English 


{ 1. William Salesbury's Account of Welsh Pronunciation, 1567, 

pp. 743-768. 
{ 2. William Salesbury's Account of English Pronunciation, 1547) 

original Welsh text, and translation by Mr. £. Jones, revised by 

Dr. B. Davis, pp. 768-788. 
Index to the English and Latin Words of which the Pronunciation 

is given or indicated in Salesbury's two Tracts, pp. 788-794. 
} 3. John Hart's Phonetic Writing, 1569, and the Pronunciation of 

French in the xvi th Century, pp. 794-838. 
Account of Harf s original MS., 1551, pp. 794-797, notes. 


AlEiander Borcley's French Pronuncibtion, 1521. pp. 803-SH. 
Tbc LmnbeCh Fnt^ent on French FroDunciation, 1SZ8, 

pp. SU-816. 
PalagruvD on French FrODundatioD, IS30, pp. 816-819. 
French Fionnncialion aocoidiiig to tho Fiencli OrthocpUli of tlie 

iTlth Cantnry, pp. 819-836. 
French Orthographic Bules in the xvth Century, pp. 636-838. 
:. TVilliflio BiUIolar-g Phonetic Writing, 1680, etc., pp. 838-846. 

English Pronunciation of Latin in tho XTitliCentuiT, pp.813-B46. 
i. Alezondur Gill's Phonetic Writing', IG21, irith on ciBmination of 

Spenser's and Sidney's Bhyme*, pp. 846-871. 
EitraiW from Spoaaor'a Faerie Queen, with Oill'a pronunciation, 

pp. 847-862. 
Extroctt from 3ir Philip Sidney, Sir John Harrington and othsl 

poela, with Gill's pronunciation, pp. B62-S66, 
Gitracta from the Authorized Verxioa ol' the Pealma, with GiU'i 

pronnnciadon, pp. 8Sfi-B57. 
An Examination of Spenser's Rhymes, p. 868. 
Faulty Bh^mes observed in Moore and Tennyson, pp. 868-862. 
Spenser's Bhymes, pp. 862-871. 
Sir Philip Sidney's Rhymes, pp. 872-874. 
I. Cliarlet Butler's Phunvtie Writing, and List of Words Like tmi 

UnKke, 1833-^, pp. 874-877- 
■ Pronouncmg Vocabulary of the xvlth Century, collected from Pals- 

graro ISBO, Salcsbury 1647, Cheke I66D, Smith 1568, Hart 

1669, Ballokar 1680, GUI 1621, and Butler, 1633, pp. 877-910. 
Extracts from Richard Mulcastcr's Elemcntaric, lfi82, pp. OlO-Slfi, 
Remarks from an Anonymous Black-letter Book, probably of the 

ITlth Century, pp. 916-917. 
!. On the Pronunciation of Shakspere, pp. 917-9B6. 
Bbakspere's Puns, pp. 920-927. 
Shakapere's Uctrical PeculiariticB, pp. 927-929. 
Miscellaneous Notes, pp, 020-930. 
Unonal Poation of Accents, pp. 930-931. 
Gill on Accent and Metre, pp. 932-939. 
Contracted Words, pp. 939-940. 
TrissylUhic Ueasmrrs, pp. 940-943. 
Aleiandrine Tersea, pp. 043-946. 
Shuksperian " Resolutions," Dissyliables oorreeponding to Modem 

Monosyllables, pp. 947-963. 
Shakspere's Rhymes, pp. 963-966. 

Mr. Richard Grant WMte'sElizabetlianProoaiiciatdon, pp. 966-973, 
Summary of the Conjectured Pronunciation of Shakspere, pp. 973- 

Specimens of the Conjocturod Pronunciation of Shakspere, hejng 

Extracts from his Plays, following the Worda of the Folio 

EditJoQ of 1623, with Modern Punctuation and Arrangement, 

pp. 986-996. 


Indisposition, arising from oyerwork, has greatly delayed the 
appearance of this third part of my work, and a recent relapse, 
rendering the revision of the last seventy pages and the preparation 
of this notice extremely difficult, has compelled me to postpone to 
the next part the illustrations for the xm th and XYin th centuries, 
which were announced to be included in the present. Three years 
or more will probably elapse before the remainder of the book can 
be published. 

The fourth and concluding part of this treatise is intended to 
consist of four chapters, two of which, devoted to the xvnth and 
nrn th centuries respectively, are now completely ready for press, 
and will therefore certainly appear either under my own or some 
other superintendence. In chapter XI., I am desirous of giving 
some account of Existing Varieties of English Pronunciation, dia- 
lectic, antiquated, American, colonial, and vulgar, for the purpose 
of illustrating the results of the preceding investigation. This can- 
not be properly accomplished without the extensive co-operation of 
persons familiar with each individual dialect and form of speech. I 
invite all those into whose hands these pages may faU to give me 
their assistance, or procure me the assistance of others, in collecting 
materials for this novel and interesting research, which promises to 
be of great philological value, if properly executed. Many hundred 
communications are desirable. There cannot be too many, even 
from the same district, for the purpose of comparison and control. 
As I hope to commence this examination early in 1872, it will be 
an additional favour if the communications are sent as soon as 
possible, and not later than the close of 1871. They should be 
written on small-sized paper, not larger than one of these pages, 
and only on one side, leaving a margin of about an inch at the top 
for reference notes, with the lines wide apart for insertions, and .aU 
the phonetic part written in characters which cannot be misread. 
Correspondents would much add to the value of their communi- 
cations by giving their full names and addresses, and stating 
the opportunities they have had for collecting the information 
sent. For the purpose of writing all English dialects in one 
alphabet on an English basis, I have improved the Glossotype of 
Chapter YI., and append its new form under the name of Glossie, 
with specimens which will shew the reader how to employ it, 
(pp. xiii-xx.) For the sake of uniformity and general intelligibility, 
I should feel obliged if those who favour me with communications 
on this subject would represent all peculiarities of pronunciation 
in the Glossic characters only, without any addition or alteration 
whatever. The littie arrangements here suggested will, if carried 



out, Bare on immense amonQt of labour in makiiig iixc of any com- 

Tho following tabic will shew the kind of work wanted. All 
the varieties of sound there named are known to exist at prencnt, 
and there are probably many more. It ia wished to localize them 
aeeuraUly, for the purpose of understanding the unmixed dialectic 
English of the xii th and xm th centuries, and to find traces of the 
pronunejatione prcvaleat in the more mised forma of the xrrth, 
XTi th, and ivii th centuries. If any of the latter will be found in 
Ireland and America, and in the ' vulgar* English everywhere. No 
pronunciation shonld be recorded which has not been actually heard 
&om some speaker who uses it naturally and habitually. The older 
peasantry and children who have not been at school preserve the 
dialectic sounds most purely. But the present facilities of com- 
munication are rapidly desljoying all traces of our older dialectic 
English. Market women, who attend large towns, have generally 
a mixed style of speech. The daughters of peasants and small 
farmers, on becoming domestic servants, learn a new language, and 
corrupt the genuine Doric of their parents. Peasants do not speak 
naturally to strangers. The ear must also have been long familiar 
with a dialectic utterance to appreciate it thoroughly, and, in order 
to compare that utterance with the Southern, and render it correctly 
into Olossic, long familiarity with the educated London speech is 
also neceasary. Kesident Clergymen, Nonconforraiat Ministers, 
National and British Schoolmasters, and Country Gentlemen with 
literary tastes, are in tho best position to give the required informa- 
tion, and to these, including all members of tho three Societies for 
whom this work has been prepared, I especially appeal. But the 
number of persons more or less interested in our language, who 
have opportunities of observing, is so great, that scarcely any one 
who reads these lines will be unable to ftimish at least a few obser- 
vations, and it should be borne in mind that even one or two casual 
remarks lose their isolated character and acquire a new value when 
forwarded for comparison with many others. It is veiy desirable 
to determine the ayateras of pronunciation prevalent in the Northern, 
"West and East and Central Midland, South Western, South Eojitem, 
and purely Eastern dialects. The Salopian, Lincolnshire, and Kent 
Dialects are peculiarly interesting. Mr. Jamea A. H. Murray's 
learned and interesting work on Lowland Scotch (London, Aaher, 
1871) will shew what is really wanted for each of our dialectic 

In the following, unfortunately very imperfect. Table a few sug- 
gestive words are added to each combination of letters, and the 
presumed varieties of pronunciation are indicated both in Olossic 
and Falaeotypc, but only in reference to the particular combinationB 
of letters which head the paragraph. The aymbols placed after 
the sign ^, shew the various sounds which that combination of 
letters is known to have in some one or other of the exemplificative 
words, in some locality or other where English is the native lan- 
guage of the speaker. In giving information, however, the whole 

word fllionld be written in Glossic, aa conmderable doubt may 
attach to local pronunciations of the other letters, and the name of 
the locality, and of the class of speakers, should be annexed. The 
quantity of the vowel and place of the accent should be given in 
erery word, according to one of the two ayateme explained in the 
Key to ITnivcrsal Glossic, p. xvi, and exhibited on pp. xix and kx. 
la writing single words, the accentual Hystem, used on p. xx, is 
preferable. Great attention should be paid to the analysis of diph- 
thongs, and the Glossic «*, oi , ou, eu, should only be employed where 
the writCT, being unable to anulyse the sound accurately, confines 
himself to marking vaguely the class to which it belongs. The 
trilled r when occorring without a vowel foUowing should always 
be carefully raarked, and the untriUed r should never be marked 
onlesg it is diirtinctly heard. Each new word, or item of infor- 
mation, should commence on a new line. Thus : 

cord taa-rf or Idad Bath, workmen, petty traders, etc. 

card ka-d or idd Bath, as before. 

bracon iai-ktt or bdtkn Bath, as before. 

key kav or X-di Bath, as before. 

tsaiftir or/ayirr/iii/sr/dt/u' Bath, country farming man. 

Tablb op Pbbsuued Vasietiks of Eholibh Pbondhcutio'i. 


A ihort in : tap cap had cat mad «k\, 

W;doabtful in: stuff calf hrUfcaha 

hijVe aftermath path father pasa 

tail hst niaih mub hand land plant 

«,w,M = (a,»,ah,B, a, 


g mada ache caito a^e 
jiagBB nh av* awnthe bathe pa- 
liaioe oceailoi] ale pale rare name 

EA in : leap eat >«at meat knead moad 
read apeak squeak l(?aguc leaf leave 
wreathe heath breathe cnaue caM 
leash weal L'ar, a tear, scam wean ; 

ica great break hum wear, to lear : 
upt iveat instead head thread 
spread heavjr heareD weapon leather 
weather measure health wealthc^M, 
ni, I, at ; uK, aik' ; yaa = (ii, M, 
ece, BBB;ii',«.-.«.J 
£E in : she«p weed heed seek beef 
bcevec teeth seethe fleece trees beel 

AI, AT in: way hajr pay play bray 
day clay pray say lay mny nay. bait 
wait aid maid waif waive aU pail 
nil fait hair chaii pair stair =h, ai. 

El, EY in: either neither height 
sleight Leigh Leigh tea conceive 
neiva seiie convey key prey hey grey 
= M, ai; aag, uuy^ "y = (ii, " ; u, 

AC, AW i«; paw daw thaw saw la* 

KU. EW in pew few hew yew ewe 
knew, to mew, the mews, chew Jew 

raw maw gnaw, bawl mini mannder, 

HBl haODt gaunt daughter =iiit, eh. 

new shew shrew Shrewnburj slow 

•ifc «,«;«»..«» = (.a. M, **, 

threw sew gniw brew =Jrtr, i<e. tiu,. 

eo, « ; aa. »u). 

to.', anr, av, ui, m, nnr, to, mc, », 

Bskoit ID : kept swept nrh prettv wet 

oa, DOW KUtr,-oa,oA, oB,-yM = (in, 

»«1 fcckla. keg Seth rae« "gufsa 

lu, ra. en, lu. sn. it. yy, yu, «. to. 

nry hall hem hen ye. yet = i, i. 

H, t, ■ = (.*. e,..«,e) 

I ih^rT'i "\^ i^nb' pit hid" s^k (rig 

B long b : gleda complete decent 

stiff, K. live, smith smithy wilhy hia> 

mmae here there where me he .he 

bis fish All swin sin tint poasible 

«t br=«, at, ^■..■f =[ii,«,«e. 

charily fumitore = «. .-. ,, a, *, », 


«■= (i,.-, e, >, «j. B,e). 

1 long in : wtpo gibe lute bide itriko 
kniie knivBa wi^ vireB (cytbe bljche 
ine twice thrioe win pile bile rime 
pine fire ihire; tight ri|;bt might 
light night [right fight pight ; tight 
rje my lio nigh fry fye pie = i, it, 
ai, im; i>, oiy, «y, say, ahg fluy, 
uji, 't^y_= {", ii, «, *A; ii, rt, ei, 

IE in : heliere gnelo Bieve ftiend fiend 
field yiald-H, (.f,o- = (u. i, i, e, b). 

«hart> >nd doubtftil. in: mop knob 
knot cud knock fog dog un office 
nntb broth brother mother pother 
other mo» CroH tnst pollard Tom 
ton Bon done gone morning song 
101^=0, oa,oo, du, oa, B, uo = (a 03, 

the goes Ii 
d fofd auld 



1 bluff biWT 
ih push nun 

nh. i. e, 
long nnd 


mnt« fruit 

bniise cr 

to use, 


refuse, W 




«u = (iuii, in, 

yy. yu 


«, ra,*3 


mute or 

=P. /, ". "■, 



00*, sua, *u, en, an, Je, in, la ; ksd). 

01, OT in : join loin rroin pnint joint 
joiat hoist foiat bou oil soil poison 
ointment -, joy hoy toy moil noiae 
boialerona foiiion=(y, any, any, oay, 
•oy, uy, urn/, Boy, ■ ; icany, ifuvy, 
ict>y= (oi, ii. ai, oi, oi, oi, d, ui, ai 
wu. trxi, woi). 

00 in ; hoop hoot aoot hood food aloof 
groore sooth soothe ooie tool groom 
room soon moon ; cook look shook 
brook ; loose goose = <n, ug, «>, ue, 
m; enV, Mh\ nhu'='(du a, u, n, 
yy. » .• «■, 00-, au}. 

CD. OW in: down town now how 
flowOT »ow oow, to bow Jlrclerf, 
a bow arau, a bowl of soup 
cfialhiH, ■ bowling ftetn ; plough 
round aound mound hound thou out 
house flour ; found bound ground ; 
onr; brought sought fought bought 
thought ought ni'Dgbt aoul four; 
blow anow below, a low bough, iho 
DOW lowe, a row of bairow), a great 
tow lumultm, crow, know ; owe, 

an, an, Don. oon, rn. yu, jo. jy. <Ey). 

U diort in : pup cab bat put bad cod 

padding much judge such lug mgar 

Chard and E in : cat card cart sky etc. 

= *, V.i'.J'!'' = Ctkj,g,gi). 
C8oft = «, .A=(B, ah). 
CH in : beseech church cheese inch 

much etc, = FA, k, kh, kj/h, tA = (tsh, 

k, kh, ii. ah). 
D=rf.rf*,(.(A = [d,db,t,th). 
F=/,r=(f, V). 
G hard in : guard garden, etc. =y, gy', 

y = (g, gj, j), ever heard before n aa 

ID ; imaw. mat ? 

ridge fidget 

I J in : brid£« r 

blnah bnahel ctubiou 

IH in : neigh weteh high thigh nigh 
burgh laugh diiughter : ' ' 

thorough trough sough toagh = Hiii(< 
or J, gh, gjth. kh. iuS, /, f, IfA, 
«■. «.,p = {g, gli.Akli,*b.Aph, 
wh, w. u, p). 

H regularlv pronoonoed F rcgnlarly 
mute F often both, in (be wrong 
place! F coslom in : honest habita- 
tion humble habit honour exhibi- 
tion prohibition hour hoapital host 
hostler hoatage hostile shepherd 
cowherd Hebrew hedge herb hermit 
homage Hughe* hue humility (h)it 
(h)us ab(h)ominBbly f 

3 see G soft. 

£ see C hard ; eier heard before n in : 
know knit knave knebF 

L mute in : talk walk balk blcou fault 
vault. almsF Brllabio in: stabl-ing 
juggl-er F sounded uol, ul, A'l = {ia, 
si, "I} ailer o long F voieeless as M F 

H any TsrietieB F syllabic in : id-m, 
whcl-m, fll-m. wor-m. wai-m F 

K naialiiing preceding Towel F ever = 
tia F not lyUahic in : fall'n, etcrn, 

NG in : long longer hanger danger 
stranger linger finger singer, strength 

ere* n^ or ngt={t^, qk) when 
in : ring thine Qotmng ? 
t ainibwd witli t? ever post- 

QD = 

K Bol precediiu; a rowrt i vocil = r = 
(j), wttiilled= r- = {r), or gnlmml 
= *r, VA = (r, rh), or mute V How 
doe* il affect the preceding vowel 
in : far curt w»rt pert (iirt ehirt 
ihort hort fair cure feor ahoro o«r 
eomt poor ? e^er trangposed in : 
ftmm bird etc. ? trilled, and develop- 
ng ui additional vowel in : «or-td 
CDr-1 wor-m war-k ai-m t 

Kprecediug a vowel ; hIwbtb trilled = 
r- = (r). or guttoral = V = (r) 
eier laWal = -u!, 'ta- = (m, brh) ? 
Inserifd in : d™w{r)ing, aawfrling, 
Uw(rl «{ Uod. etc. ? 

B tietwE«n vowels: a singlo trilled r', 
or a voesl r followed br a trilled r' = 
nr-, *V^(ir,-r)? 

Sici, t, f*. lA f = («, 1, sh, ill ?) ; rcgu- 
larlr »f r^p''"''')' li«pod = ('A? = 

SB =., .*. rf = (». A, ih), or, rtgnUrljr 

rt = (.b)P 
T=f, i, Ih, t, »A, (A = f t, d, lb, >, 

TH»(. <(, /A, H*. dh.f={t, d. th, tth, 

db. t? in : fifth Mith eighth with 

ihoogb whether other nothing etc. 

T-*,.-, ir=(bb, wf, or regularly IF • 

Tsw. *', i!=(w, bb, V). la there « 

Elar intsTTtaanfe of c, af inserted 


«0 and 01 in; 
paint «tc. ? regulariy omitlod in : 
>Md wooed WDtild woo wool womui 
womb, etc. F pronounced at all in : 
write, wring, wrong, wreak, wrought. 
wrap. cte. i any iaitaDces of wl pro- 
nmncnl as in : lisp wlonk Inkewarm 
wlating loathing wtappe wlile F 
TH =«■, »A, /, /■, *w* = tw, wh, f, 
ph. ktfh). 

T inaerled tn : ale bead, etc. ; regn- 
Uriy omitted in yr, yir/rf, jvi, jrrr, 

Uoaccentcd SyllablcB. 
Mark, if poerible, the obscnm lonnds 
vbleb aettialljr replace unaccented 
•o«*U bofbre and alter the accented 
If liable, and upeciail)^ in the unacccDt- 
«l ttnnitiitiona. of which the following 
worda (re tpccinuni, and in any other 
Ibnod noteworthy or peculiar. 

1) -and, hiuband brigand beadland 
luidlind, 2) -md, divideni} legend, 3) 
•tmd, diunond almond, 4] -tnd. ruM. 
cund Jocaud, S) -at-d, haggaid niggsnl 
Hioggard ronard leopard, 8) -wrf. hal- 
berd ihephprd, 7) -a»«, guidance de- 
pendanM abundance cleanrace temper- 
ance ignorance roiisLance, 8) -met, 
lieenco confidence dependence patience, 
S] -apr. Tillage image manage cabbage 
nurriage, 10) -effe, priTilege college, 
1 1) -unnr, meddleMme irksome quairel- 
•ome, 12) -nrt, plcaaure meanire lei- 
sure donire fissure, 13) -lurt, creature 
furniture vulture venture, 14) -alf, [in 
noana] laureate frigate Bgurate, 16) n/, 
cymbal radical logical cjnical mMricn! 
poetical local medial lineal, IB) -il, 
camel pannel apparel, 17) -o/, carol 
witlol, IS) -am, madam quondam Clap- 
bam. 19) -ant, freedom seldom rathom 
venom, io) -in, suburban lo^cian hln- 
torian Chiinian metropalitan, and the 
compounds of xmn. a*; woman, etc., 
21) 'tH, garden children linen 
woollen, 22) -on, deacon pardon 
fashion legion laiaion occasion pae- 
aion TocalioQ mention question felon, 
23) -tm, eastern oveni, 24) -ar, vicar 
culBr vinegar Kholnr secular. 26) -cr, 
Tohber chamber member render, 26) 
-or. ^itcndor superior tenor enor actor 
riclor, 27) -BUT, labour neigbbonr 
coloor favour, 28) -a»l, pendant ser- 
geant in&nt quadrant assistant truant, 
29) ■fill, innocent quiescent prerident, 
80) -aty. fallacy primacy obstmaty, 311 
-BHTj/, infency tenancy constancy, 33} 
-ene^, decency tendency corrency, 33) 
-aiy, beggary summary granary lite- 
rary noliry. 34) -try, robbery bribwy 
gnnnerj, 38) -«ry, priory etmory ora- 
tory victory history, 36) -ur^, usury 

Alto the tenninntions separated by n 
hvpbEn. in the following words : so'f-a 
idi'-a. sirr-ah, lier-o stnce-o polat-o 
tobncc-o, wid-ow yeil-ow fell-oiv tbad- 
-ow sorr-ow sparr-ow, val-ue neph-ew 
sber-iff, benn-ock hadd-ock podd-ock 
= frog, poes-ible pnsa-ibilily, ilom-ach 
lil-aeh, no-ticc poul-tice, prel-ncy pol- 
-icy, cer-tain, Lat-in, a sing-ing, a 
bu-ing, pulp-it vom-it rabb-it, mouth- 
-tnl Borrow-fnt. lerri-^ rigni-fy, cbild- 
-hood, Diaiden-head, rap-id riv-id 
lep-id, un-ion commun-ion, par-ish 
per-ish, oUye resl-ivo, bapt-iie civil- 
-iie, ev-il dot-il, tru-ly sure-Iy, har- 
-mnny matri-roony, bind -most ut- 
-moat better-most fore-moet, sweet- 

a pleiit-6i 

MeDd-elup, tire-iome whole-some, na- 
-tion na-tionBl, pre-cious prodi-gious, 
offi-ciai pu-titl par-tialitj, spe-ciol 
Biie-[HBlityspe-ci]iJtj, veT'tlure or-duru, 
fi-guro, in -jure con -jure per-jure, plia- 


a cen-aiire pres-sure fiB-rare, fea- 

■tnic-tuTH cul-lum tul-tnre ven-ture 
cap-turo rap-tnra Bcnp-turc tlepar-ture 
tor-turn jaa-toro vEB-turc fu-ture fll- 
-ture 9oii-iire, for- ward back-word 
up-WBid dowa-ward, lilte-wise side- 
BUq, mid- wife bou.'e-wife ^ood-wife. 

All inflexional tenniDaQona, as in : 
breatli-ed princ-ca prince-'s church-M 
dhurch-'B path-s path-'B woW-ea ox-ea 
Tii-en, etc. Forms of participle and 
Torbal noun in -ing. 

Note also the vavel in mincceiitcd 
prafiiea, mch aa thcae separated by 
a hjphen in the folloiring words : 
a-mong B-«trido o-laii. ab-uu, a-itrt, 
ad-iance, ad-apt ad-mire ac-ceptaf-fii' 
an-noonoe ap-pond, a-l-ert', lU-coie 
a-bju, auth-cnUo, be-set bo-^^n, bin- 


n-trol. do-pend do-ipiic dc-bato de- 
-stroy de-feat, de-fet, dia-melet, di- 
•rect dis-cQss, o-lope, en-dose in-clon, 
ex-CGpt e-Tent e-mit ec-lipie, for-bid, 
fore-tell, ?ain-iay, mis-de«l mii-^de, 
ob-ject^ ob-liKO i>c-caBion op-posB, per- 
-Tcrt, pre-cede pro-fer*, pro-mote pro- 
-duce' pro-pose, pur-aue, re-pose, eab- 
-jecf snf-nee. Bur-rey Bur-pasa. bub- 
■pend, lo-marrow to-^her, traas-rer 
tians-BCribe, Rn-Gt, an-tiL 

Foaitioa of Ace«nt. 
Mark any •cords in whicU nnmaBl. 

Culinr, or variabla positions of accent 
'e l>een obaeriM, as : illiu'trate 
iriuilrale, demon'strate dem'onstrate, 
ap'plicable npplic'able, dea'picuble 

tiar methods of Mtmting peculiar 
cIbbbcs of objects. Ordinals, Drat, le- 
cond, etc., to twentieth, thirtieth, etc.. 
to hundredth, then thousandth and 
millionth. Numeral Bdverbs ; once, 
twice, thrice, fonr times, some timea, 
many timea, often, seldom, never, etc., 
Siuj^le, simple, double, treble, qoadru- 
ple, etc., fourfold, mani-faid, etc, thtee- 
eome, ttc, £b(^ either, neither, both. 

rijnontitioi o( any kind by 
which pnrticnlar kinds of goods are 
bought and sold or hiral. with their 
eqmialcats in imperial weights and 
measures. Names of diiision of time . 
minute, hour, day, night, neck, days 
of vcck, scTennigtit, fortnight, montb, 
DamcB of months, quarter, half-qnarter, 
half, twelvemonth, year, century, a^, 
etc., CbristmBB, Michaelmas, Martm- 
mas, Caodlemaa, Lammas, Lady Day, 
Uidsummer, yule, any spocial fcstiTals 
or days of settlement. Any Church 
ceremanicB, as christeniug, borying, etc. 

Articles ; the, th', f , e', a, an, etc. 
DemonstratiTes : this, that, 'at, thick, 
thack. thuck, they = ]>e, them = tiaia, 
tiiir thor thors these. Personal pro- 
nouna in all cases, especially peculiar 
foniiB and remnants of old forms, as: 
I me icb 'ch, we us. hu« huz, thou thee, 
TB you, he hiro 'en=hine, ehehoo = 
neo her, it bit, its bis, they tbcm 
'em =hem, etc. 

Auxiliary rerba : to be, to hare, in 
all their forma. Use of shall and will, 
should and would. All irregular or 
peculiar fuma of Tcrbe. 

Adverbs and conjunctirai : no, yes, 
and, but, yet, how, perhaps, etc. Pre- 
positioRB : in, to, at, till, Irom, etc 

Peculiai syntax and idioms: I arc, 
we is, Choc loves, thou beest, thou iat, 
he do, tJivy does, I see it =aaw it. etc. 

NegBlive and other contracted forma : 
don't doesn't aint aren't ha'nt isn't 
wouldn't cauldn't shouldn't musn't 
. wanna dinna didn't. 

etc., I'm thou' 
rid I'd I'll, et 


; I'Ti 

Names of nnmerals 1, 2, by anits to 
20, and by tens to 100, with tboasHiid 
and Tiillisn. Peculiar names of num- 
bers as : pair, eonple, leash, half doiMl, 
dozen, long doie«, gross, long ™s, 
half teore, score, long acore, long hun- 
dred, etc., with interpretatioQ. Feco- 


l%e above illmitrated in connected 
forms, accented and nnspcented, by short 
sentences, introducing the commonest 
Tcrbi : take, do, pray, beg, stand, tie 
down, come, think, Snd. love, belicre, 
shew, atop, sew, sow, must, ought, to 

mt. Dead, Isj, plcue, suffer, Hts, to 
t«id, doabt. eat, drink, tuste, mcitl, 
care, etc., and the nouns and v«rbB ro- 
lating to : bodily pnrtB, food, olothing. 
(belter, family and wwial relntiona, 
igrienltDre uid minufiicture, procesaea 
tnd implemcnta, domestic animals, birdi, 
fifb. boDae vermin, besTsnlj bodies, 

Sentenca constmotod like those of 
Ptcncb, German, and Tonotdale in 
Gloaic. p, lii, to acenmulate all the 


I uf dialectic 

K»erT peeuliar sentence and word 
(honid V written Inlly in Gloaaic, and 
hale it! interpretation in ordinary 
tanpnage and spelling, at litoral as 
pndble, and peculiar construetJons 
(hoold be eiplained. 

Comparative Specimen. 
Id order to compare diffatent dialecta. 
it it adrinble to haTe one passage wriC- 
tm in the idiom and pronuitciacion of 
all. pB^o^ea from the Bible are highly 
objectiimjible. Our next moat familisr 
boM u, pcrhRpa, Sbakipere. The fnU 
lamng exlracta fturn the Ttca Gentle- 
wm ^ Vmna, act 3, «. I, ip. SD-133, 
Ian Men aelecled for thdr nuCiD tone, 
MTtnl portions baring been omitted aa 
inappropriate or for brevity. TraiiBla- 
lions into the proper words, idiom, and 
prananciatioa of everr £ngliah dialect 
WDvld be rery Tolnable. 

Tkt MiOmaid, htr Tirtutt and Viea. 


to be m love. Tet 1 a: 


iliick that from me, oor who 'tin I 
Dve— and yet 'tia ft woman. But 
■ I woman. I wiU not tell rnyaelf- 
Tet 'lit a milkmaid. Here is a 
'tog of her condition. ' Imprimia : 
Hbo ran fetch and carry.' Why a 
hone tan do no more ; nay, a horse 
asDot fetch, but only carry ; there- 
fore ia (he better than a jade. ' Item : 
She can milk ; ' look yoo, a awceC 
■tine in « mud with clean bBods. 
[E<tttr Speed. 
J^wdL How now! what newa in 
jmtfp^wr r 

Lvmtt. The blsckeat 
<it*T thou heardcA. 
faaarf. Why. man. how black P 
U«nti. VTb.-}, as black a* ink. 
fjpmrf. Let ms read them. 


Launa. Fie on thee, jolt.head ! 
tbou canat not read- 

Sprrd. Thoa lieat; I can. Come, 
fool, oome ; try me in tby paper, 

Lauiicc. There; and Sunt Nicliolaa 
be thy speed ! 

Sprtd. \readi\ ' Imprimia ; ahe Con 


Laanee, Ay, tKat she can. 

Spud. ' item : ahe bmwa good ale.* 

Lamar. And thereof comea the pro- 

rerb -. ' Blessing of your heart, you 

brew good ale.' 
Sp^d, 'Item: ahe can aew.' 
haunec. That's as much as to any. 

Can she so r 
S^ed. ' Item : She can wash and 

Launet. A apecial virtue ; for then 
she need not be washed and aconred. 
Spud. ' Item : she can apin.' 
Laawx. Then may I set the world 
on wheels, when she can apin for her 

Spitd. ' Here follow her vices.' 
Zaimm. Close at the heels uf her 

Spad. ' Item : ahe doth talk in her 
matter for that, ao 

ahe aleep n< 
Spted. 'Item: abeiailow inworda.' 
Leunct. O villain, that set down 

among her rices ! To be slow in words 

is a woman's only virtue : I pray thee. 

out wiib't, and place it for her chief 

Spttd, ' Item : she is proad.' 
Launa: Ont with that too ; it was 
Eve's legacy, and cannot be ts'< 

Sprtd. ' Ttom : she will often praise 

ZnHHH. If her liquor be good, ahe 
shall ; it she will not, I will ; for good 
things should be praised. 

Sptrd. 'Item: ahe hath more hair 
than wit, and more faults than hairs, 
and more wealth than faults.' 

Launa. Stop there; I'll bare her; 
she was mine, and not mine, twice or 
thrice in that last article, lUbearse 

ic bath m 

that 01 

Launet, Here hair than wit P It 
may be ; Til prove iL Tbe cover of 
the salt bides the salt, and Cborcfare it 
is more than the salt : the hair that 
coTcra the wit is more than the wit, for 
the greater hides the less. What'anettF 


BpMd. 'And man! fsulu (hui hain.' 

Laima. Tbnt'B tnooBUDUi: 0, ibat 
that were out I 

Bpttd. 'And more wealth than faulta.' 

tauMCf. Wby, that word ntaktB tho 
faults grucioua. Well. I'll huve bcr : 
and if it be H match, ai nathlag le im- 
possible, — 

Speed. What then f 

Lamiet. Why, tben nill I tell thee 
— that thy maaUr stays tot the« at the 

Sprtd. For me f 

LauMft. For tbw ! Bj, who art thou F 

he bntb Gtayed for a better mai 

Spud. And moat I go tobim? 

Launct. Thou must run to hira, for 
thou hoot stayed 90 long, that going will 
scarce serre the turn. 

Spied. Why didst thou not tcU me 
sooner ? pOI of Your love-letters ! 


Launee. Kow will bo be swrnged 
for reading my letter — ao unnijinnerly 
slare, that wUl thrust himself into 
secrets t I'll alUr, to rejoice in the 
boy's correction. [Eiil. 

Of course it woiild be impossible to enter upon the subject at 
great length in Chnpter XI. The results will have to be given 
almost in a tabular form. Bat it is highly desirable that u complete 
account of our exiHtiiig English language should occupy the atten- 
tion of on ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY, and I solicit all cor- 
respondentH to favour me with their viewB on this subject, and to 
state whether they would be willing to join such a body. At the 
same time I must request permission, owing to the necessity of 
mental repose on this subject, to abstain from more than atmply 
acknowledging the receipt of their communications during 1871. 

In Chap. XII. I hope to con.iider the various important papers 
which hare recently appeared, bearing upon the present invostiga- 
tiona, especially those by Dr. Weymouth, Mr. Payne, Mr. Murray, 
Mr. Fumivall, and Herr Ten Brink, together with such criticiHms 
on my work as may hare appeared before that chapter is printed. 
Any reader who can point out apparent errors and doubtful con- 
clusions, or who can draw my attention to any points requiring 
revision, or supply omissions, or indicate sources of information 
which have been overlooked, will confer a great favour upon me by 
eoromunicating their observations or critieisms within the year 
1871, written in the manner already suggested. The object of 
these considerations, as of my whole work, is, not to establish a 
theory, but to approximate aa closely as possible to a recovery of 
Early English Pronunciation. 

Those who have read any portion of my book will feel assured 
that no kind assistance that may thus he given to mc will be left 
unacknowledged when publifihed. And us the work ia not one for 
private profit, but on entirely gratuitous contribution to the history 
of our language, produced at great cost to the three Societies which 
have honoured me by undertaking its publication, I feel no hesita- 
tion in thus publicly requesting aid to make it more worthy of the 
genercttity wliich has rendered its existence poa^blc. 

Alexasdeb J, Ellis. 

25, ^STU. Ra:iD, Eehsikotok, Lokdon, W. 
13 Fiimtry, 1871. 

Appendix to the Notice prefixed to Part UL 




Bead the large capital Utters aiwaye in the senses they have in the 
following words, which are all in the usual spelling except the three 
underlined, meant for foot, then, rouge. 

bEEt bAIt bAA cAUl cOAl cOOl 

kwIt kEt gkAt kOt kUt fUOt 

hEIght fOIl fOUl fEUd 

Yea Wat WHet Hat 

Pea Bee Toe Doe CHest Jest Keep Gape 

Fie Vie THiw DHen Seal Zeal kuSH bouZHe 

saE E'ikg eaEE'dto Lat Mat Nat siNG 

R is Tocal when no vowel follows, and 
modifies the preceding vowel form- 
ing diphthongs, as in pEER, pAIB, 
bOAR, bOOK, hERb. 

Use R for R' and RR for RR\ when 
a vowel follows, except in elemen- 
tary books, where r* is retained. 

Separate M, dh^ sh, shf n^ by a 
hyphen (•) when necessary. 

Read a stress on the first syllable 
when not otherwise directed. 

Hark stress by (*) after a lon^ vowel 
or eiy 01, om, ew, and after tne first 
consonant following a short vowel. 

Mark emphasis by (*) before a word. 

Pronounce el, em, en, er, ^, a, ob- 
Bcurelv, after the stress syllable. 

When tiu-ee or more letters come to- 
gether of which the two Jir»t may 
form a digraph, read them as such. 

Letters retton their usual names, and 
alphabetical arrangement. 

Words in customary or NOMIC spell- 
ing occurring among GLOSSIC, 
and conversely, should be underlined 
with a wavy line ^v^v^, and printed 
with spaist letters, or else in 
a different type. 

Spesimen ov Ingglish Qlosik, 

Nox'iK, (dhat iz, knstemeri Ingglish speling, soa kaold from 
did Greek nom'os, kustem,) konvai'z noa intimai'shen oy dhi 
risee-yd proantmsiai'slieii oy eni werd. It iz konsikwentli yeii 
difikelt too lem too reed, and stil moar difikelt too lem too reit. 

Ingglish Glosee (soa kaold from dhi Greek gloas'sa, tmig) 
konvai'z whoteyer proanonsiai'shen iz intended bei dhi reiter. 
Glosik buoks kan dhairfoar bee maid too impaar't risee'Yd 
aurthoa'ipi too aol reederz. 

Ingglish Glosik iz yen eezi too reed. Widh proper training, a 
cheild OY foar yeerz oald kan bee redili taut too giy dhi egzak't 
sound OY eni glosik werd prizen'ted too him. Aafter hee haz 
akwei'rd familiar 'iti widh glosik reeding hee kan lem nomik 
reeding aulmoast widhou't instruk'shen. Dhi hoal teim rikwei*rd 
£eiur leming booth glosik and nomik, iz not haaf dhat rikwei*rd 
&ur leming nomik aloa*n. Dhis iz impoa'rtent, az nomik buoks 
and paiperz aar dhi oanli egzis'ting soarsez oy infermai'shen. 


Glosik reiting iz akwei-rd in dhi proasea ov glosik reeding. Eni 
wun boo kan. reed glosik, kan rcit eni veid &z wel az hec kan 
speek it, and dhi proper moad ov specking iz lemt bei reeding 
glosik buoka. But oaing too its pikcu'lier konatnik'sbea, glosik 
speling iz imce'dietli intel'ijibl, widLou't a koe, too cni nomik 
reoder. Hens, a glosik reitcr kan komewnikait widh aul reederz, 
wbedher glosik aur nomik, and Imz dhoirfoar noa need too biknm' 
a nomik reiter. But hee "kan bikum' wun, if serkemstensez render 
it dizei-rrobl, widh les trubl dhan dhoaz hoo hav not lemt gloaik, 

Dhi novelti ov dbi prezent akeem four deeling widh dhi Speling 
Bifikelti iz, that, wheil it maika noa chainj in dhi habits ov egzis'- 
ting reederz and reiterz, and graitli fasU-itait* leming too reed our 
prezent buoks, it entei'rli obviaita dbi nisesiti ov lemiag too reit 
in dhi euzbeuel kompLikoited fashen. 

Shi abuv aar edcukai'shenel and aoashel eusez ov Oloaic. It 
iz heer introadeu'et Eoalli az a mecnz ov reiting Aul Egzisting 
Varei-itiz ov Inggliah Proanunsiai'ahen ' bei meenz ov Wun Alfc- 
bet on a wel noan Ingglisb baiais. 

!cvn nmnne* heili edroliBited Ing- 
al'iben egzia'i 


aibl too iprcc'shisit n 
souad, dhoB it redili dukrimiimita 
bruud diferansex. Too mnt dltis diQ- 
kalti dhia skecm hax betn diveidcd intoo 
■too. Dbi fenl, aur lagfr'i''' Gloaik, 
ii adap'tcd faui reiting InggliEh ai wel 
HI dhi aatben or proanoaii eing dik- 
shenerii euibeaeli koatcmplait. Dhi 
Mkead but EuniTerael Glosik, aimz at 
^ring simbetz fsiir dhi nioast minea't 
loanetik anil'ieis votachee'id. Dhos, 
in dhi feist, dhi four dii^hon^ ri, ni, 
Du, n>, aar itriktU konvf^D'ahcnel Btini, 
and pal noa bccd too dbj gruit varciiti 
ov wail in which at leeat aura or dhem 
twr babit'cueli pronnou-net. Agave, 
ttr, air, oar. nor, ma «til ritn widh ™, 
01, oa, DO, auldhoa' on aten'tiv limer 
inl redili reki^eii a minea t aulto- 

when not under dhi stres, faur dhnai 
obakeuT eoundi which aar aoa preva- 
lent in speech, dhoa rrprohaited bei 
aarthoa'ipieu, and aingk dhi diiting-k- 
«b«n bitween ■*, and «, nnder dhi aaim 
■erkematcntez. Aulaoa dhi aDnnda in 
defer, occur, deferring, oconr- 
ring may hra aulwaiz nin with er, 
ibMidiftr; okir, difcrring, eitr'ring, 
dhi dnbliag cr dhi r in ^ 'too laait 

werdi likea'rring dhi voakel kamktei 
ov dhi fefBt r, and dhi tril ov dhi 
sekend, and dhus disting'gwiahini; 
dheei loandt from dhoax herd in Air-- 
iiig, Bkuveni. Konsid-orubl flkapein- 
riena auiea-tfi dbix u a koavocnieitt 
pTsktikel anrtboa-ipi. But faur dbi 
repriientai'sben oi ieiolekle, wee re- 
kwei'r jenereli a much rtrikler nnatu'- 
iihen, and faur aunhoaep'ikel diikiip'- 
■hen, aur Bciendfik loanet'ik dii- 
kush-en, aumthing atil moar painhoU 
minen't. A f^u sent^naei aar anek'at. 
ai dhai aar renderd bei Wanker and 
MelvU Bel, adiag dhi Authera oan 
koloakwiel nlerene, ai wel az hee kan 

Pbakteku.. Enderer faur dbi beat, 
and proavei'd aj^n'st dhi werat, Ni- 
aai'iti ii dhi mudher ov inven'shen. 
Hw boo wonta konlen't kanot feind 
an eeii chiir. 

Waukes. Endevnr ftur dho beat, 
and pr'oovaay-d agen-st dhc wurst 
Heescs-eetec ii dbe mndb-nr ov inven'- 
■buo. Hee' boo wonta knnten't kan-- 
not faaj'nd an ce'ice chai'r. 

Mklvil Bel. Endaevu'r fo'r dhi' 
baeat, and pr'sovaajd a'faenh'st dhi' 
wunrat. Neetaca'iti it dhi' niiiudh a'r 
o'v invaenh'ihu'n. Hee- boo wauah'ts 
ko'ntaenh't kano't faajnd a'n ec'ti 

Elis. Endevu" fu')dhi)bM-t tfn)- 
pr'oa'vnyd u'geu'at dbijwu'at. Ni- 
Bos itJ)E dhi)inudh'n'r' u'rlinven'abu'n. 
Hee- bo(i)won*tB kn'oten't tanttt fbj-nd 


Small Cxpitala ihrou^bout indicate 
EAgliiti Oloaeic CharacteiB asonp. liii. 
Irfoge capiulf point out the most Im- 
— ' — -j-i!.' iTowelmgna. 

it I 

ll 1 




oo ni' m 
0* OS' EO 
*o so' no" 

U- V I 

AA A' ■ 

AH E' A 

md. Sound. 

DO no- UE 

AO ao- OE 
o- oo' 

DO OS in EngUatl full, UDman, doet. 
uo' Swedish long 0. 
no usuul proTJnoiol variely of u. 
Ku' Guelic sound uf ao in laogi ; tij 
to pronounce oo with op«n lipg. 

Sficiai. Bijus fob Vowsu. 
Ascertun cirefultj the received iiro- 
nuDciation of the first 12 ke; ironls on 
p. xiii, (aroiding the after-BoundB of « 
and eo, lerj commonly pBraeptible aftar 
«' and oa) . Observe (£at lbs tip of tha 
tongue is depressed and the nuddls or 
front of the tongue raised for alt of 
them, Bieept h ; and that the lijia are 

1 for o 

fimnr Ket t 


n Eng- 

A ■■ in Engliah i/aal. 
A' (reed ti-huok) Sne lOuthe 
liih atk, hetween on and e. 
AA aa in English baa. 
A£ uanal provincial English c, Frengh 

AH broad German ah, between aa & au. 
Al *> in English bail, with no alleT- 

•oand oftv. 
AO open Italian o, between d and do. 
ae' doaer sound of oo, not quite no. 
AC aa in English eaul. 
an' doaer uand of km, aa ■' in Iriah or. 

n AerL 
nan hu Polish y, Taiiety of «. 
n Engliih itel. 
•c French m in hu, fm. 

V opener soond of i, not quite «, 
aa ( in Englirti Ahum*, Welsh H. 

o aa in English not, opener than an. 

»' aeloaer snund ofo. 

OA •* in Eugliih coal, with no nfter' 
sound of en. 

m' eloMT sound of aa 

OH, 0. Observe that for i, 
parts of the mouth and throet be- 
hind the narrowest passage between 
the tungue and palate, ore more widely 
opened thuB fur tr, al, no. 

Having ee quite clear and distinct, 
like the Italisn, Spanish, French, and 
Gcrmaa ■' long, practise it bufora all 
the English consonants, making it as 
long and as short aa posaiblu, and when 
short remark the difforence between 
H and i, the French Jtni, and English 
Jinny. Then lengthen i, noticing the 
distinction between Imp lip, ileal ilili, 
feet fit, when the latter words are sung 
to a long note. Sustaining the sound 
fint oF ft and then uf i. bring the Upa 
together and open them altcmitclyi 
observing tho new sounds gonuratco, 
which will be hi and w. A proper 
apprecialion of the towels, priroaty m, 
wide I, round iii', wide round w, will 
render all the others easy. 

Obtain 00 iHiite clear and distinct, 
like Italian and German u long. French 
oM long. Pronounce it long and short 
before all the English consonants. Ob' 
serve the distinction between pool and 
pull, the former having ao, the latter uu. 
The true short oo is hoard in French 
poult. English fiili and French potd», 
differ as £nglish firniy and French 



vntf, German □. as 

OB opes French eu i 

w* opener sound of «. 

oo as in English huJ. 

f as in BngUsb uur. 

D* obaeoTD u. w « in English mmtiim. 

■• OMB provincial Tariety of m, 

wt uigfctlT closor iM. 

UB Fnnoh m, German ■'. 

mi freriiuial Ger. i, aearty sr, 8w«d. y. 

■r Swedish lung u. 

lips fifi, by widening. Observe that the 
back of the tongue is decidedly raised 

tongue is decidedly n 

the soft palate for oo, hs, a. 

tbe front was to the hard palate for 
re, ■' ,' and that the lips ore rounded. 
While continuing to proaouBco oo or 
HO, open the lips without moving the 
tongue. This will be difficult to do 
Toluntarily at first, and the lips should 
be mechanically opened by the fingeii 
till the habit is obtained. The results 
are tho peculiar indistinct sounds •■■' 



le of 01 


and «*, of wMch 1/ 

monest obscuro and unaccented sonods. 
In Btlmng », ai, at, the narroirinE 
of the pnBjazc bolwron the toncao and 
bard palate i> mudo hy tliu middle or 
front of the tongue, wliich ia gradually 
more retracted. The at, at, aie the 
Frencb i, i, Italian 1 rhima and 
« aperte. Tbo last ae in very rommon, 
irhen abort, in many Eng-bsh moDths. 
The widening of too opeoing at Ibo 
back, conTerta a, ai, at, into ■', e, a. 
Noir s ia mnch finer than if, and re- 
places it in the South of England. 
Cara must be taken not to ronfuMi 
English a with na. The true b nevniii 
■IniosC peculiar to the Southern and 
Wertprn, thu refined Northeni, and 
the Irish pronuncintion of English. 
The enact DoundBries of the illiterate 
a and aa hare to be aMertaincd. 
Bounding the lips changes «, ai, ai, 
into ni. to, n'l of vhich « ii Teiy 
common. Bonnding tbe lips oUo 
cbaagrs 1, e, a, into ur, oe, aif, of which 

On ntteiing w, en, au, the back of 
the tongue descends lower and lower, 
till for nil the tongue lies almost en- 
tirely in the lower jaw. The widening 
of these gires NO, «>, 0. The distinction 
between oh.o, is neocsgarily very slight; 
u is also thai between ae and a. But 
an is Teiy common in our diilecta, and 
is known at apttlo in Italy. The 

C'oiary forms of no, on, au, prodoced 
opening Ihe lips, are the obscun 

in tho provinces, being a deeper, thicker, 
broader sound of n. But the wide 
sounds Kg, as, e, on opening the lipa, 
produce h', aa, aK, Hero aa is the 
true Italian and Bnaabh a, and ah is 
the ducper sound, henrd for long a in 
Sootlond and Germany, often confused 
with the rounded form au. 

Of the miicd Towels, the only im- 
portant primary Towel is m, for which 
the tongue lies flat, half way between 
the upper and lower jaw. It is aa 
colourless as possible. It usually re- 
places HH in unaccented syllables, and 
altogether replaces it in refined South- 
em speech. Its wide form a' is the 
modern Frencb flne a, much used also 
for aa in tbe South of England. The 
Tonnded form ox' seems to replace h or 
>iH in some dialects. The mixed sound 
resulting from atlcmpiing to utter ah 
and a together is t', which Mr. Bell 
considers to he the true vowel in herd. 

IKstinctians to be carefully drawn in 

writing dialeots. BE and I. AI and 
E, AE and E. AA, AH and A. 
OA and AO. AO, AU and AH. 00 
and UO. CTT and U, Dl, UE and 
EKW. IW, TOO. UE and EO. 
UE and U. 


All ToweU are to be read shorty or 
medial, except otherwise marked. 

The Stress (') placed immediately after 
a vowel shews it to bo lonj^ and ac- 

The Holder {■■) placed imme^ately 
after a tqwcI or consonant shews it 
to be long, as au-gm't, nttdt- ; tho 
Streaa Holder (— ) abcws that tha 
consonant it fonows, is held, Ihe pre- 
ceding Towel being short and aeoeitt- 
ed, compare hop-i, hap—i, ha-pi, 
hayi; in theoretical writing only. 
Practiwilly it is more convenient to 
double a held consonant, aa liap'it 
kap-pi, ha-ppi. 

Stop (..) subjoined to any letter indi- 
cates a eaught-up, imperfect utter- 
ance, as ha.., kal.. fur kat ; great, 
abruptness ia marked hv (...) 

Accent marks may also be used when 

It ! 1 I II 

without si 

If the first letter is a capital the accent 

marks may be placed on the second, 

aa Aiffiul, aiijiil, iilaiau, 


The strossless element of a diph- 
thong ia systematically indicated by ■ 
J- — tomed comma y called 

preceding ' 

< It. I 

Fr. Ini. Bat when, as is almost always 
the ease, this element is '« 'mi, or 'hi, 
it may be replaced by its related con- 
sonant y, V or ,10, as m*/aiy, LaawraOy 
Ifcet. Any obscure final element ss 
*t(, 't, 't', la EufiicLcntly eipressed by 
the sign of simple voice A', oa provin- 
cial neth't night, tireth'tn f' 



The ibnr English Glome diphthongs 
K, oi, on, Bv are nn^rstematio, and 
are Tanonsly Dfononnoea, thos : 
■I is My in tne Sonth, sometimes a*$ff 
may; and is often broadened to uuy^ 
mk^^ AvVt ™ ^® proTinces. 
OI is oy in &e Soath, and becomesoiiy, 

OfU IS MIT in the South, sometimes a'tr, 
mtno^ and is often broadened to umo 
oMwj oaw, aow ; it becomes o€^w in 
IkTonshire, and aew in. Norfolk. 
HU Taries as tir, enr, poOy yiw, yuw. 

The Londoners often nuspronoonce 
▲I as M'y, miy^ ty or nearly iiy, and oa 
as 6a*ir, oavjy ow or nearly uw. 

English Tocal b, is essentially the 
same as H% forming a diphthong with 
the preceding vowel. Thns £igUsh 
glome petTy patTf boar, boor, fer^ dtfer^» 
ring J are systematic jn* A', pe'h\ bao'h\ 
kmo-h\ fe'h* or ^u% dife*h*'ring or 
dif wring. Bnt r is nsed where ?^ or 
fy, or AV may be occasionally heard. 


Differences from English Glossic con- 
lonants are marked by adding an A in 
the usual way, with y* for palatals, 
and «r* for labials, by subjoining an 
apostrophe (' } or by prefixing a turned 
comma ( ' ), a turned apostrophe ( ^ ), 
or a simple comma (,). 

Simple conaonanttf and added O, 

T, W, H ; P B, T D, J, K O, P Y, B Z, 
TOCal B, L M N, MO. 



KB, GH German eh^g in Daehy Tage ; 
are the hissed Toiceless forms of 
y, r*, /, m, «, ng* 

Added T and TE. 

TT, DT, KT,GT*, LT , NT, NGT, 
are palatalised or moMi//^ Tarieties 
of /, d^ kf a, I, n, ng, SB in virtue, 
verdure, old cart, old guard, Italian 
yA y»S vulgar Frenc h, il n*y a 
pae^ngy'aa pah. LTH is the 
hiwed Toioelen form of LT*. 

KTH, GTU are palatal yarieties of 
KH, GH as in German ieh, Jliege, 

Added W* and WE. 

TW, DW\ KW, GW. RW, R'W, 
LW*, N W, &c., are Ubial varieties 

of t, d, k, g, r, r', I, n, &c., pro- 
duced by rounding the lips at or 
during their utterance, French tot, 
data, English quiet, guano^ our, 

French roi, loi, noix, &c. 

EWH, GWH are labial varieties of 
KH, GH as in Ckrman tfngA, eaugen, 
and Scotch ^A. HWH is a whistle. 

Added apottrophe C) eaUed •* Hook.** 

H* called atVA-AuoA^is the simplest emis- 
sion of voice: H'W is A* with round- 
ed lips ; H'WH a voiced whistle. 

T*, D', allied tee-huok, dee^huok, dental 
t, d, with tip of tongue nearly 
between teeth as for th, dh. 

F', y ', called ef^huok, vee-huok^ tooth- 
less /, -v, the lip not touching the 
teetn ; t^ is true German w. 

&', or B before vowels, is trilled r. 

N' read en-huok, French nasal n, which 
nasalizes the preceding vowel. To 
Englishmen tne four French words 
vent, vont, vin, un sound ron*, voan\ 
van*, un* ; but Frenchmen take 
them as vahn\ voan*, vaen*, oen*. 
Sanscrit unuosvaa^. 

K*, G' peculiar Picard varieties of 
Ay*, yy*. nearly approaching ch, j\ 

CH', J', tS*, pt monophthongal 
Roman varieties of eh, j, te, dz. 

TR, D'H lisped varieties of «, z, imi- 
tating th, dh; occasional Spanish 
t, d. 

S' not after t, Sanscrit vieu^rgu, 

Prejixed comma (,), called ** Comma** 

,H read koma-aieh, lax utterance, op- 
posed to .H. 

,T ,D read koma-tee, koma-dee peculiar 
Sardinian varieties of t, d, the 
ton^e being much retracted. 

,L Polish barred /, with ,LH its voice- 
less, ,LW its labial and ,LWH 
its voiceless labial forms. 

; read hamza, check of the glottis. 

Prejixed turned comma f), called 

i read ein, the Arabic iaayn or bleat. 

*H, *T *D, *S *Z, *K, read huok-aieh, 
huok'tee, &c. ; peculiar Arabic 
varieties of A, t, d, s,t, k; 'G the 
voiced form of 'K. 

<KH, <GH, called huok-kai-aieh, huok- 
jee-aich; the Arabic A A, yA pro- 
nounced with a rattle of the uvula. 


'W, 'PR, 'BR, read Suei-duit-eH,&e.: 
lip trilli, the flnt viUi liKht rmd 
tiic othen with Idok tipa ; Uie Grat 
is tbe common Engltih defectivo w 
tor r", M Kt'wi cirao, the last is 
used for stopping boTsea in GDnDan<r. 

*B read Anoi^aar, the French r grattfy^ 
and NorthumberUnd borr or i'rnep 
= 'fli4.; 'RH its voiceless fonn. 

■LH, *I, read huaktl-ilch. huok-il, 
Welsh U, and ite voiced Manx Form. 

'F, 'V, read A(iDit-r/&c.;/,v with back 
of t«ngue isiaod ai for w. 

Frtfixtd turned apailropht Q, tailtd 

,AA, read km-<ia, an as pranouncod 
dirough tba nose, as in ma-ay parts 
of QGrmanj and America, dalTerent 

> for <■ 


'K. or A'. 

.T ,D, ,SH, .B, .L, ,N read ifn-tn &c., 
Sanscrit "ocrebril" (. rf, ih, r', /. n; 
prodnoed by tinning the under part 
of the tongue to tbe ruof of the 
mouth and attempting ta utter 1, d, 
tk, r'. ;, «. 

^ read ken-aiei, a post aspirafaoD, 
consi»Unff of the emphatic utUr- 
BDce of the following rowel, in one 
Bjllable with the consonant, or an 
cmphaCicBllf added final afpirate 
after a consonant. Common b 
Irish •English, and Hindoaatauice. 

W is the consonant related to ue, as 

Clitki, — ipoifn Kith wcIi'mi itopj 
C, tfingoe in f porition, English (i 

(^ tongue in ,( pontic.. 

Z, tongue in (y position, but unilateral, 
that is. with the left edge dinging 
to the palat«, and the right free, aa 
in English clicking to a hotse. C, 
q, X, ore used in Appleyard's Gi/re. 

QC, tongue in fy nusiuon. but not 
nnilatemli from lloyce's Hattmlol, 

EC, tongue retracted to the '£ position 
and dmging to the soft palat«. 

WAiiprrt or Ftati. 
*H, called irrkl-nirh, doiplo whisper; 

°H' whisper and voice together 

'°H' diphthongal form of "A". 
*A A , read terkl-aa, whispeTod an, and 

so for all rowels. 
*B, °D, read •erki-brt etc., the sound of 

b, d, heard when whispering, as dis- 

EngliEhmon lilce p, I when stand- 
ing for b, d, and like b, d when 
Btaoding for p, t. °G. whispered f, 
does not occur in Satonv. 
°T, "DH, -Z. °Ze, 'L, "fi, °N read 
ttrkl-vet etc., rimilar theoretical 
English rarieties. final, or interposed 
between Toiced and Toicelen letters. 


The tones should be ptaced after the 
Chinese word or the English sjltable 
lo which they refer. Thnj are here, 
for convenience, printed over or un- 
der the vowel o, bnt in writing and 
printing the vowel shimtd be cut oat. 
D, s, high or low letri tone, pjiing', 
6, f, tone rising from high or low pitch, 

6, i rise and fall, (that is, foo-kytK 

sAoonj',) or tall aiid rise. 
d, p falling hinc to high or low pitch, 

kya>' or i.Aof. 
6, g sudden catch of the voice at a 

high or low pilch, sAeo', Juf, 


Hyphen (-], nsed to sepanite oonibina- 
tions, as in mii-hap, in-fol. In 
tckBir-efer, r is vocal ; tlm fauin 
are monoeytlables, il-m, /buI-h art 
diisyllablea ; Jldltr has two syllables, 
^i-tr three syllables. 

Divider ), occisionally used to aaiiit 
the reader by icparuting to the eye, 
words not separated to the ear, m 
lll)cr dhat)! duo. 

Omisrion (J, occasionally used to aanit 
the reader bj indicating tbe omissioii 
of some letters osually pronounced, 
as hay J doB)^i. 

Gap (:) in^cst«s an hiatni. 

CloBure (.) predied to any letter indi- 
catea a very emphatic utterance M 
mil Mi for my n/e, 

Emphogis [■) proHiai to a woni, ohewi 
that the whole word is more em- 
phatically uttered, OB fl -IHU dkat 
'dhat dhat 'dhat man ard va ronp ; 
•ft gaiv ■too things too -too mni, dfuf 
■Am jaiV too, ■((«, tDO -too, -too. 

The fallowing are subjoined to indicate, 
J emission, | snction. j trill of the 
organs implicatfd. f inner and 4- 
outer position of the organs impli- 
cated, { tongue protrude^ \ unilata- 
rality, • linking of the two letters 
between which it stands to form ■ 
third sound, ( eit 

Arking Toirel 

un'n)on'fon' bao'my' 
,. Ee aet too ? 

ue-blu' foyrcDRyhu' 
ii' mahkhu'n! YTjah- 

" Eariy 


*•* The Beader iboold paf particular sttcatioii to the Eulci for il 
qusntttj laid iam in the Eej, p. itL 


f\rtneh. — Ai pjTree uen vyaiy ka'raony' oi 
o«i' von'due deo moavae van' oa pocplh bue-t 

Otrvtan. — Ahlch ! aaynu' aayntseegyhu' 
mnelni' koentu' t'ooI uhwkwh mvckyh boe*z 
Bzoa* ! Ea loot moer" oonieo-dleckyh laoyt ! 
Old English. 
Coi^tured Pronunciation of Chaucer, irantUteraUd froi 
EtglM Pronunciation," p. 6Bli 

WLaan dhaat Aa-pri'l with)is ahiMTCs HWao'tc 
Dhe droo'kwht aof Uaarch hoath per'sed tao dhe lao'te, 
A&nd baa'dhed evri- vaayn in swieh li'kooT 
Aof which ver'tue- enjen'dreii is dheflooT; 
Wbaau Zefiroos, e'k, withjiB awe-te bre-the 
Innpi-red haath in evri' haolt aand hethe 
Dhe tendre kropes, aand dhe yoonge aoone 
Haath in dhe Raam i«)hiialfe koo'i^s iroon'e, 
Aand smaa'Ie fwles maa'kcn melaodi'e, 
Dhuat sle'pen aal dhe nikyht with ao'pen i'e, — 
8ao priketli hem naa'tueT in her' kaoTaa-jea; 
Dhuon laongen faolk tao gao'u aon pil'gri'maa'jes, 
Aand paalmerz faur* tao sc'ken Btraawnje straondes, 
Tao fer'ne baalwes koo'th in Boon'dri- laondca ; 
Aand spes'iaali' fraom evri' shi'res enile 
Aof Engelaond, tao Kaawn'tcr'bcr'i' dhaay wcndc, 
Dhe hao-li- bUrfool maar'-tiT faor tao wke, 
Dhaat hem haath hoolpen, whaan dhaat dhaay wcr ae'ke. 
DuLBCiic Ebblish akd Scotch. 
Strmttd Pronunciation. — Whot dlyoo wont? Vulgar Coeiwy, — 
Tan'chi wamit? l)ciioruhir«.~—W&t d)yiie want? Tifethirc. — 
Tbnu't aV yi' waanjn ? Tevioldalt. — Kwhiiht er' ee wahntun ? 
TetriotdaU, from th» dictation of Mr. Murray of Hawiei. — Dhe)r' 
ti'wkwh sahkwhs graowun e dhe Ri'wkwh Hi'wkwh Hahkwh, 
— Kwhabt er" ee ab'nd um ? lJ')in ah'nd um naokwht. — Tunw un 
•mey el gu'ng aowr* dhe deyk nn pnuw o pey e dhe mutmth e 
ICoi'y. — Hey}l bey aowr* dhe -naow nuuw. 
JhertUm. — Faat foaT" di'd dhe peer' si'n vreet tl)z mi'dhet" ? 
Gla*gou>. — Wu)l ait wur" bred n buu;ur' doon dhu waa;!!^. 
Lothian. — Muhh' koanshuns ! hahng u' Bcyli ! — Gaang u'wah", 
lasdi ! pa tu dhu hoar's, soi 3\ ! un shoo em 'baak ngi'n' ! 

Norfolk. — Wuuy dao'nt yn' paa-)mi dhaat dhur "tue pacwnd vn' 
aO')mi, bo ? Uuy dao'nt 8Q-)yii' nao "tue paewnd. Yuuw -dne ! 

Storing Shop in the Torhhire Dalti. — 1. yaan, 2 taih'n, 3 tedh- 
ani, 4 medhuru (edhuru), 5 pimp (pip), 6 naa-jia (scc'ku), 7 laa-jis 
(rein), 8 sao'Ta (koturu), 9 dao-ru (hau'nu), 10 dJk, II yaan 
nboo-n, 12 tain uboo'n, 13 tedhur" uboo-n, 14 mwlhur' nboon, 
Ifijigit, 16 yaanngeeh'-n, 17 tain ugeeh'n, 18 t«dUur' ageeh'-n, 
19 inedbnr' ngcch'n, 20 gin agcch'n (bumfit). 


DriLEtTS or thu Peas or Derbtshibe fkom the i 

Mb. TnnMAs Hillav, op Uakcbesteb, a satttg of tob Feax. 
*,■ Mr. Hnllam considera that he said n', ui. vow. rdei/i, wbere I Eeemed (u hear 
"At. nallam diccattd the quantitiea. 


T/i)Sia'nfg v) S^lumwi, Cidapt'ur li)- 

1. Afi)in tb^rSai n)Sbaenia tU3}th]- 
lim a)tb T&nlliz. 

2. Lityk th)Um nmoa'ng thlarni, 
■tii'o u mibj liJuT umdi'ng tb)- 

B. L&hjk th)aappl t'tiy vmi^a'ni! 
tlilt"rtyz o)th wdnd, aiii'w 
hilbatil nmok'ne th)(Aa'iut, I 

d'ringk, k<lamfilrt)iiii 

wjjt tn)mi 

6. Ii lift dot)! 6a'nd'n: 
iui)u riyt 6tit tbiM)nii. 

7. Aa EhAaij};!], Ob diiawt't'n ii)S\- 
rtii'waluni. bi)tli)rdax, uii)l)l)(tiiiit±'gi 
i))lh)fiTlt, lu ta> muQ nAiidhiir atOuc, 
nor wl'kn mipuT, tU)iy)pUeU'eaii. 

8. Tb)»(l'Ti u)ini)bil(jn.d! Lii:«k. 
ilkliumx lieli'pin oa'pa)th)m)kB«iituu, 
Mv'lppin 6a'pu}th lli. 

9. Mi]bn{inid]xlitbjkn)rSa.iir')ti)- 
r6B'ng tik'g ' l^i'nk, ij stAndi ntu 
bH'kja iu)«itn, if IdiVks ^vt ut)- 
tb)n'lTidiu, nulubSu iniel tbiili'v)' 

10. Mi}bU(iaTd ip[iuk, nn)s&i>d 
tAi'w)mi, Gj'aet da'p. mi)lliuT, mi)- 
i8Gi')im, nn)kdam uwii. 

11. Fnr, ICii'wt th'/wlnt'oi^i piast, 
llB)th)riiii)x oar un}g^un. 

12. Th)fliiawurx iu]kaDmiii As'pn)- 
th) BTkawnd, thjlihymji kbuinii iL(>]th)- 
l)Tl£ ilDsn, nn)Ih]Ta';i a)th}tduitl)i 
lord i)au'{k6iL'nt'ri. 

18. Tb)ng t'riy» or) gj'ietin grijn 

flfi Sn. nn)[h)vub)-M p^l 
imikel wi)th)TuB'ng grfiipi 
• ■ liJiauT, "■" " 

1 "c'-i" 


Jtast*]]]!!, ODJkiimi 

li. Oi mibv d6>v. tti)urt)i)tb]Cliri 

athJKlk. i)tb)^ikrit ip6M u)th •laera, 
slffli iiy dhiJfSis, ftejmi «r dhi). 
Tl'ja ; ^)dhi) jk'ji ia awlyl^ iiii)dbi)- 
flii it Tilerri prilah. 


d^wn wi grael dlly 
ab&adn, nnjiijlriii'iTt iTur)Bi 

4. ly br(iuwt)iiii ta)th)r£Gh'Etin 
iaiTB, im)iE^19^'s dai mi wur ICiaT. 

fi. KtVSenirtholTni ^ wijiaa'mnt- 
nij^pplz : for 


Ti)Sia'tifff ti)SulHmim, Chiaptur th)- 

I. Aa)m tb)iSu nlShieinu Dulth}- 
Um u)lb v^llii. 

a. D< th)lilli umia'ng thfii 
il Dtuu IduT um6a'Dg tbjdiiuvrtliiiz. 

3. U> th)&appl tr&cy aniAa'ne ib)- 
IrAejta u]th w6a'd. ado)! m^u bilduvd 
umoa'ng thj<tla"ni. Ad alb diawn wi 
rt^t dl^T da'ndoi'^ shlodu, iid)Ii1- 
iri-wt wtirjswileyt tajmijiiist 

*. A*ybrttiwt)niiln)th)taertinUTi, 
un)ii)flu"^ 6ar)rai war liiuv. 

fi. Ky uojp mi fta'p wi' aSa'mut" 
drlnjk, kliumfurt)nii wijiapplz ; fur 

rtuwalnm, bi)tli rial, iiiill>i)th)»li'in 
"Hli I'fti-yll, •"■■■■ --' '-■■- " 

8. Tb^TS 
aey kdumx 1 
tins, iky'ippin iVpultb lit 

B. Mi)bi[ftuvd)B Uhyl ujrSii, nr-Jn)- 
yflnng BtiVg; Itiuwti. ney «t6ndi ul). 
t)>)biak)n JbiJiFua. aRf ICiuitIib ^wt 
nt)th)wladai, unlshaai uaael ihrdunr)- 
th.)li»tii. ' 

10. Mi)biItiQTd aplink, iui)8&cd 
t&Dwjmi, Gy'ler'jia'p. mijlduv, mi). 
fier'Jun. tin)kauDi uwSe. 

11. Fur. Ibawk. th}wiiitui]t piLajt, 
uii)lh)r«)n)i: a«r Dn)gtun. 

12. Tbjfloawur! urjldumio 6»'pu). 
tb)griannd, tb}tubTin]i kunmn aa)th]- 
bridi ilngn, un)th)TahT» ultblHrnrllli 
eerd ijaarlkda-ntri. ' 

13. Thjnglriflyiiirjgj'aelingrafTn 
fiBi 6n, un}ib)vabjiu gy-ln ojulbvi 
amuol wi)lh)raa'ng giJip,. Qflvx')- 
^.a-p. mi)Wa», rai)laBr'}im. imjktmm 

14. Oa mln dSav, iulait)i)lb)nlk) 
i)}tb)TAk. i)lb)a»cbrit ipAts u]th]sti>(.'ni 
lae}rai alley dlii)mii, fte)mi ier dbi)- 

*•* Separate Copies of this Kotics and Appendix , 
imt on i^UetitHM to tht Author. 


• •• - 

» .» • 


Illustrations of thb Pronunciation of English during 

THB Fourteenth Century. 

§ 1. Chaucer. 

Cbitigal Text op Prolooub. 

In aooordanoe with the iiitimation on p. 398, the Prologue 
to the Canterbury Tales is here giyen as an illustration of 
the conclusions arrived at in Chap. lY., for the pronuncia^ 
tion of English in the xivth century. But ifc has been 
necessary to abandon the intention there expressed, of follow- 
ing the HarL MS. 7334 as closely as possible, for since the 
passage referred to was printed, the Chaucer Society has 
issued its magnificent Six-Text Edition of the Prologue and 
Xniffht's Tale, and it was therefore necessary to study those 
MSS. with a view to arriving at a satisfSustory text to pro- 
nounce, that is, one which satisfied the laws of grammar and 
the laws of metre better than the reading of any one single 
MS. which we possess. For this purpose the systematic 
orthography proposed on p. 401, became of importance. The 
value of exact diplomatic reprints of the MSo. on which we 
rely, cannot be overrated, ^ut when we possess these, and 
endeavour to divine an original text whence they may have 
all arisen, we ought not to attempt to do so by the patch- 
work process of fitting together words taken m>m different 
MSS., each retaining the peculiar and often provincial or- 
thography of the originals. The result of such a process 
oouM not but be more unlike what Chaucer wrote than anv 
systematic orthography. Chaucer no doubt did not spell 
unifoimly: It is very difficult to do so, as I can attest, alter 
making uie following attempt, and probably not succeeding. 
But a modem should not venture to vary his orthography 
according to his own feelings at the moment, as they would 
be almost sure to lead him astray. Whenever, therefore, a 
text is made out of other texts some sort of systematic ortho- 
graphy is inevitable, and hence, notwithstanding the vehe- 


. • • • 

• • 

• • 

, • * •• • 


c • 

• • • 

• < 


Chap. VII. § 1. 

ment denunciation of the editor of the Six-Text Edition,^ 
I have made trial of that one proposed on p. 401, in all its 
strictness. The result is on tne whole, better than could 
have been expected. Notwithstanding the substantial agree- 
ment of the Harleian 7334, and the Six New Texts, there is 
just sufficient discrepancy to assist in removing almost every 
difficulty of language and metre, so far as the prologue is 
concerned, and to render conjecture almost unnecessary. 
The details are briefly given in the footnotes to the following 
composite text. 

Pronunciation of Long TJ and of AY, EY as deduced from a comparisoit 
OF THE Orthographies of Seven Manuscripts of the Canterbury 

The investigatioiis in Chap. IV. for the determination of the pro- 
nunciation of the XIV th century, were avowedly founded upon the 
single MS. Harl. 7334 (supr^ p. 244). Kow that large portions 
of six other MSS. have been diplomatically printed, it is satisfactory 
to see that this determination is practically unaffected by the new 
orthographies introduced. The Cambridge and the Lansdowne 
MSS., indeed, present us at first sight with what appears to be 
great vagaries, but when we have once recognized these as being, 
not indeterminate spellings of southern sounds, but sufficiently 
determinate representations of provincial, northern, or west midland, 
utterances, mixed with some attempts to give southern pronuncia- 
tion, they at once corroborate, instead of invalidating, the conclu- 
sions already obtained. That this is the proper view has been 
sufficiently shewn in the Temporary Preface to the Six-Text 
Edition, p. 51 and p. 62, and there is no need to discuss it further. 

* Temporary Preface to the Six- 
Text Edition of Chaucer's Canterbury 
Tales, Part I., by F. /. Fumivall^ pp. 
113-115. A uniform system of spell- 
ing did not prevail in the xit th cen- 
tury, and as we have seen, can scarcely 
be said to prevail in the xix th, but 
variations were not intentional, and the 
plan I advocate is, from the varied 
spellings which prevail, to discover the 
system aimed at, but missed, by the old 
writer, and adopt it. All varieties of 
grammar, dialect, and pronunciation, 
when belonging to the author, and not 
his scribe, who was often i^orant, and 
still oflener careless (p. 249), should be 
preserved, and autographs, such as 
Orrmin's and Dan Michers, must be 
followed implicitly and literatim. In 
such diplomatic printing, I even object 
to insertions between brackets. lliey 
destroy the appearance of the original, 
and hence throw the investigator into 

the editor's track, and often stand in 
the way of an independent conjecture. 
At the same time they do not present 
the text as the editor would shew it, 
for the attention is distracted by the 
brackets. The plan pursued for the 
Prisoner's Prayer, suprk pp. 434-437, 
of giving the original and amended 
texts in parallel columns, is the only 
one which fully answers both pur- 
poses. Where this is not possible, it 
It appears to me that the best course 
to pursue is to leave the text pure, and 
submit the correction in a note. This 
serves the purpose of the [] or m«, 
much more eifectually than such dis- 
turbances of the text, which are only 
indispensable when notes are incon- 
venient. The division of words and 
capitals of the original should for the 
same reason be retained. See the 
Temp. Pref. p. 88. 

Chap. VII. } 1. 



These MSS. may lie looked upon as authorities for the words, but 
not for the southern pronunciation of the words, and they shew their 
writers' own pronunciation by using letters in precisely the same 
sense as was assigned from the Harl. MS. on p. 398 above. Two 
points may be particularly noticed because they are both points of 
difTerence between Mr. Payne and myself, (supr^ pp. 582, 583) 
and in one of them I seem to differ from many of those who have 
formed an opinion on the subject. 

Long u ^Pter an examination of all the authorities I could find, 
was stated on p. 171 to have been (yy) during the xvith century. 
There did not appear to be any ground for supposing it to be 
different in the xivth century, and hence it was assumed on 
pi. 298 to have had that value at that time. This was strengthened 
by the proof that (uu), the only other sound which it could 
have represented, was written ou, p. 305. A further though a 
negative proof seems to be furoished by the fact that I have 
not observed any case of long u and au rhyming together, or 
being substituted one for the other in the old or any one of the 
nz newly published texts. ^ I cannot pretend to have carefrilly 
examined them for that purpose, but it is not likely that in my 
frequent references to them for other purposes, such a marked 
peculiarity should have escaped me. It has however been already 
pointed out that in the first half of the xm th century (uu) was 
represented by u, and not by oti, and for about thirty years, includ- 
ing the end of the xm th and beginning of the xivtii century, both 
signs were employed indiscriminately for (uu), and that this use of 
<m seemed to have arisen from a growing use of « as (yy), pp. 424, 
470, 471 note 2, etc.' Hence the predominance of oti in the be- 

^ Compare ,/br^oM^, buke in Hampole 
(iiipriL p. 410, n. 2). The two ortho- 
grmpbies boke, huke^ stinggle with each 
other in Hampole. In the Towneley 
Mftterits^ I have also observed the 
rh3rme, goode infude^ which however, 
may be simply a bad rhyme, the spelU 
ing is Northern and of the latter part 
of the xTth centnry. On examining 
the Harl. MS. 2253 for the rhymes : 
bur mesaventur, bure coverture, quoted 
from the Cam. MS. of King Horn on 
p. 480, I find that the first rhyme diB> 
appears. Thus v. 325, Lumby's edition 
Of the Cam. MSS. has 

Went ut of my bur 

Wib muchel mefaventur 
and the Harl. reads fo. 85, 

Went out of my boure, 

ihame ye mott bylhoure ; 
and T. 649, the Cam. MS. has 

heo ferde in to bore 

to fen auenture, 
and the Harl. has, fo. 87, 

Horn ne ]>ohte nout him on 

ant to boure wes yg^n. 

Judging however by the collation in 
F. MichePs edn. the Oxf. MS. agrees 
with the Cam. The text is clearly 

But V. 691, which in the Cam. MS. 

he li]> in bure 
under cou^rture 
becomes in the Harl. fo. 87, 
he byht nou in boure, 
vnder couertoure, 
where the scribe by adopting the or- 
thography <m has clearly committed 
himself to the pronunciation (uu) and 
not (yyj. It would, however, not be 
safe to oraw a general conclusion from 
these examples in evidently very un- 
trustworthy texts, which have yet to 
be properly studied in connection with 
dialectic and individual pronunciation^ 
supr& p. 481. 

* On p. 301, note, col. 1, a few in- 
stances of the Devonshire substitutes 
for (uu) are given, on the authority of 
Mr. Shelly's pronunciation of Nathan 
Hogg's Letters. The new series of 



Chap. YII. { 1. 

ginning of the xivth century and the subsequent strict severance of 
long u and au, which seem so far as I have observed, to have been 
never conAised, as short u and ou certainly were (p. 304). The 
conclusion seems to be inevitable, that long u and au represented 
different sounds, and that the long u must have had in the zivth, 
what Bullokar in the xn th century called its '' olde and continued'' 
sound, namely (yy). This, however, is. directly opposed to Mr. 
Payne's opinions given on p. 583. 

those letten there named, hating an 
improyed orthography, using u, a, for 
(7> ®)» — ^ot (a), as there misprinted, — 
has allowed me to make some eollee- 
tions of words, which are curious in 
connection with the yer^ ancient west- 
em confusion of u, «, t, and the pro- 
nunciation of long u as (yy). It may 
be stated that the sound is not always 
exactly (yy). In yarious mouths, and 
eyen in the same mouth, it yaries 
considerably, inclining towards Tuu), 
through (uv F)t or towards (99) the labi- 
aUsed (ee). The short sound in did 
seemed truly (cbd). But in eouldf goody 
I heard yery distmcUy (kyd, grd) with 
a clear, but extremely short ^), firom 
South Deyon peasants in the neigh- 
bourhood of Totnes. Nor is the use of 
(yy) or (uu, 99) for (nu) due to any in- 
capacity on the part of the speaker to 
say (uu). The same peasant who 
caued Combs^ (Kyymz) or (E«/mz), 
[it is difficult to say which, and appa- 
rently ^he sound was not determinate], 
and eyen echoed the name thus when 
put to him as (Kuumz), and called brook 
(bryk), with a yery short (y), talked 
of (muur, stuunz, ruud] for more^ sUmeSy 
road. Hr. Murrajr, in his paper on 
the Scotch dialect in the Philological 
Transactions, has some interesting spe- 
culations on similar confusions in 
Scotch, and on the transition of (u) or 
(u) through (9) into (a) and finally (a). 
On referring to pp. 160-3, supra, the 
dose connection or(uu, yy) will be seen 
to be due to the fact that both are 
labial, and that in both the tongue is 
raised, the back for (uu) and front 
for (yy). The passi^ from (uu) 
to (yy) may therefore be made almost 
imperceptibly, and if the front is 
slightly lowered, the result becomes 
(«*). The two sounds (jry, 99) are 
consequently greatly conmsed by 
speakers in Scotland, Norfolk, and 
l^eyonshire. Mr. Murray notes the 
resemblance between {9^ o), — which in- 
deed led to the similarity of their nota- 

tion in palaeotype — as shewn b)r Mr. 
M. Bell's assigning (a) and my giying 
(9) to the French mute e, whicn othen 
again make hh). If then (u) travds 
through (y, 9) to (0^, its change to (k) 
is almost impercepnole, and the slight- 
est labialisation of the latter sound 
S'yes (0). Whateyer be the reason, 
ere can be no doubt of the fust that 
(u, y, », 9, s, 0) do interchange pro- 
yincially now, and hence we must not 
be surprised at finding that they did 
so in ancient times, when the drcum- 
stanoes were only more £iiyourable to 
yarieties of speecn. These obsexrationB 
will seire in some denee to explain 
the phenomena alluded to in the text, 
and also the following lists from Nathan 
Hogg's second series, in which I re- 
tain the orthography of the author 
(Mr. H. Baird), where we should read 
fi, a as (y, se) short or long, and other 
letters nearly as in glossot^. 

EW and lone U become (yy) , as : 
bltf, btity, cruel, curyiss curious, cut, 
acute, duce deuce, duty, hu hue yew^ 
humin human^ kinklwd conclude, mvzic, 
n« new, pwr pure, rwin'd, stt< ttcw, 
stwpid, trM, truth, ttm, yltd; flute, yu 
view few, yum fume, yutur future^ 
yuz'd %ued, zuant euant. 

Long and short 00, OXJ, 0, XJ, 
usually called (uu, u) become (yyt 7) or 
{99, 9), as : balu hullahbaloo, blum bloom, 
bruk brook, buk book, chuz ehooee, cruk 
crook, cud could, curt court, cus couree 
coarse, dru through, drupin drooping, 
du do, gud good, gulden golden, intu, 
kushin cushion, luk look, lus'nd loosened, 
minuyer manoeuvre, muy move, nun 
noon, pul'd pulled, pruy prove, puk 
pook. Turn room, shu shoe, shud should, 
skule school, stud stood, trupin trooping, 
tu too two to [emphatic, uncmphatic 
ta = (ta)], tuk took, turn tomb, u who, 
yul full fool, rut foot, yu you, zmuthe 
smooth, zun soon. 

Short XJ, 00, usuaUy called (a) 
become (>), as : blid blood, dist do*st, 
honjist, uty'ust, jist jttst ady., rin run 

Chap. YII. i 1. 



The aeoond point is extremely difficult, and cannot be so cursorily 
dinnissed. What was the sound attributed to at ay, ei ey in 
Chancer ? The constant confusion of all four spellings shews that 
it was one and the same.^ Here again the voice of the xnth 
oentory was all but unanimous for (ai), but there is one remarkable 
exception, Hart, who as early as 1551 (in his MS. cited below 
Chap. Tin, § 3, note 1), distinctly asserts the identity of the 
sounds of these combinations with tlurt of e, ea, that is (ee). For 
printing this assertion in 1569 he was strictly called to order by 
Gill in 1621, suprii p. 122. ALL the other writers of the xnth 
century, especially Salesbury and Smith distinctly assert that (ai) 
was the sound. Hence on p. 263, (ai) was taken without hesitation 
to be the sound of ay, ey, in Chaucer. We are familiar with the 
change of (ai) into (ee), p. 238, and with the change of (ii) into (oi, 
ai), p. 295, but the change of (ee) into (ai), although possible, and 
in actual living English progress (p. 454, n. 1), is not usual. 
There was no reason at all to suppose that ay could have been (ii), 
and little reason to suppose that it would have been (ee) before it 
became (ai). On examining the origin of ay, ey, in English words 
derived from ags. sources, the y or i appears as ttie relic of a former 
y a (gh, ^h, j) and then (i), which leads irrresistibly to the notion 
of the diphthong (ai), p. 440, 1. 14, p. 489. But it certainly does 
not always so arise, and we have seen in Orrmin (ib.) that the 
n a (j) was sometimes as pure an insertion as we occasionally 
find in romance words derived from the Latin,' and as we now find 

[abo to urn], rish'd rushed, tich*d 
ttmehed, vlid Jlood, wid'n would not, 
winder irom^, wisser hwmt, zich 
wcA, rin nm mm, zmitch smutch. 

Short £, I, usually called (e, t] are 
frequentlT replaced by (9) or (a), as : 
benU hefeli, W bfll, hxiicWd Pelched, 
horry'd htried^ churisli cherish, eszul 
himself, etszul itself, meznl myself, 
midkin milking, mnller miller, purish 
perish^ shallins shillings, spul spell, 
fporrit spirit [common even in London, 
aad compare sgrop, stirrup"], tnllee tell 
you, tnrrabul terrible, ulbaw*d elbowed. 
Toller fellow [no r prononnccd, final or 
ne-consonantal truled (r^ seems nn- 
known in DeTonsbirel yullidgo village, 
Tulty jSlthg, ▼urrit ferrH, Tury very, 
mg^JIrst, wnl well, wnWare welfare, yul 
ysU, ynr'd hetird, zinul smell, znlf self 

The words znp'd swept, indtid indeed, 
dud did done, humman hummen woman 
w^men, do not exactly belong to any 
of these categories. 

The aboTe lists, which, being only 
derired from one smaU book, are ne- 
oemrily Tery incomplete, serve to shew 
the importance of modem dialectic 
skiidy in the appreciation of ancient 
and thereibfe diiuectio EngliBh (p. 681). 

^ Not in Scotch, where the spellings 
ai, ei seem to have been deyeloped in- 
dependently in the xt th century, for 
the Scotch long a, e, and perhaps 
meant (a«, en), compare Sir T. Smitn, 
supr& p. 121, 1. 18. These spellings 
were accompanied by the similar forms 
oi, ui, oui for the long 0, u, ou, per- 
haps =(ob, ye, ub), though the nrst 
was not much used. We must recol- 
lect that in Scotch short i was not (i) 
or (»), but (e), and hence might casuy 
be used for (v) or (9) into which un- 
accented (e) readily ae^nerates. For 
this information I am mdetrted to Mr. 
Murray's paper on Scotch (referred to 
in the last note), which was kindly 
shewn to me in the MS. The notes 
there furnished on the development of 
Scotch orthography are highly interest- 
ing, and tend to establish an intentional 
phonetic reformation at this early 
period, removing Scotch spelling from 
the historical affiliation which marks 
the English. 

' ** In Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, 
and Provencal, Latin A remains un- 
altered. Some deviations into ai or e 
must be admitted. . . . The most im- 
portant and frequent case is when a by 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

in English after the sound of {ee) in what many persons recognize 
as the "standard" pronunciation of our lauguage, for instance 
(ntfrim) for name. There are a few straggling instances in even 
xrn th century MSS. where ay appears to rhyme to e, the chief of 
which turn on apparently a dialectic pronunciation of saide as sede^ 
which is also an orthography occasionally employed (p. 484, 1. 15, 
p. 481, 1. 33). Dr. Gill, 1621 {Logonomia p. 17), cites (sed) as a 
northern pronunciation for (said), Mid classes it with (saa) for (sai). 
Mr. Payne has pointed out similar cases in the Owl and Nightingale, v. 
349, 707, 835, 1779. The orthography ude occurs also, v. 472, 548, 
1293, and probably elsewhere.^ Mr. Payne also notes the less usual 
rhymes: bigrcde upbreide 1411, misrode maidc 1061, gredo maide 
1335. These rhymes are certainly faulty, because in each case the 
ags. has a ^ in the second word but not in the first, and we cannot 
suppose them to have rhymed at this early period.* In Floris and 

the action of an inserted coalescing • 
or tf according to the indiridaal ten- 
dency of the language, passes into at, 
or eiy or e and ie : pro v. air^ sp. aire 
firom aer : prov. priniairan (otherwise 
only primer primier), port, primeiro, 
span, primero, it. primieroy firom pri" 
marius ; proT. eselairar firom esclariar 
which also exists; prov. baisj port. 
beijo. span, beso from basium\ prov. 
/aiY, port./<?iVo, span, hecho horn, f actus 
c bein? palatalised into i. ... This 
vowel nas suffered most in French, 
whore its pure sound is often obscured 
into ai^ e and ie. We must first put 
aside the common romance process, 
just noticed, by which this obscuration 
IS effected by an inserted t as in air, 
premier^ baisery/ait." Translated firom 
Diez, Gr. der rom. Spr. 2nd. ed. i. 136. 

1 The Jesus Coll. Oxf. MS. reads 
seyele in each case. 

* The orthography and rhymes of 
the Owl and Nightingale as exhibited 
in the Cott. MS. Cjuig. A. ix., fol- 
lowed by "Wright, in his edition for the 
Percy Society, 1843, are by no means 
immaculate. The MS. is certainly of 
the XIII th century, before the introduc- 
tion of OH for (uu), that is, before 1280 
or probably before the death of Henry 
III., 1272, (so that, as has been con- 
jectured on other grounds, Henry II. 
was the king whose death is alluded to 
in the poem), and is contained in the 
same volume with the elder text of 
Lajamon, though it is apparently not 
by the same scribe. Nor should I be 
inclined to think that the scribe was a 
Dorsetshire man, although the poem 
is usually ascribed to Nicholas de 
Guildford, of PortiBham, Dorsetshire. 

The confusions of e i, o ey e Oj recall 
the later scribe of Havelok. Dreim 21, 
cleine 301, are obvious scribal errors, 
corrected to dreni cletie in the Oxf. MS., 
and : crei 334, in Oxf. MS. rrey, although, 
put in to rhyme with dui^ must be an 
error for eri. We have cases of omitted 
letters in : rise wse 53, wrste toberste 
121, wlite wto 439, for wise, verste (?), 
wite. There are many suspicious 
rhymes, and the following are chiefly 
assonances: worse mershe 303, hei- 
sugge stubbe 606, worde forworthe 
647, igremet of-chamed 931, wise ire 
1027, orcve idorve 1151, flesche cwesse 
1385, fli}ste vicst 406, and, in addition 
to the eif t rhymes cited in the text, 
we have: forbreideth nawedeth 1381, 
in Oxf. MS. ne awede^. As to the 
present pronunciation of ay, ey in 
Dorsetshire, the presumed home of the 
poet, Mr. Barnes gives us very precise 
information : " The diphthongs ai or 
ay, and ei or ey, the third close long 
sound [that is, which usually have the 
the sound of a in mate^t as in May, 
hay, maid, paid, rein, neighbour, prey, 
are sounded — like the Greek at, — the 
a or e, the first open sound, as a in 
father, and the i or y as ee^ the first 
close sound. The author has marked 
th a of diphthongs so sounded vrith a 
circumflex : as mdy, hay, maid, paid, 
vain, naighbour, pray." Poems of 
Rural Life, 2nd ecL, p. 27.— That is, 
in Dorsetshire the sound (ai), which 
we have recognized as ancient, is still 
prevalent. This is a remarkable com- 
ment upon the false rhymes of the 
MSS. Stratmann's edition, 1868, is of 
no use for the present investigation, on 
account of its critical orthography. 

Chap. YII. { 1. 



Blancheflur, Lumby's ed. occurs the rhyme : muchelhede maide 51, 
which is siinilarly fatilty.^ See also p. 473 and notes there. We 
have likewise seen in some faulty west midland MSS. belonging to 
the latter part of the xvth century, (supdl p. 450, n. 2), that ey 
was regarded as equivalent to e. In the Toumeley Mysteries we 
also find ay, ey^ tending to rhyme either with a ot e. In fact we 
have a right to suppose that in the xvth century, at least, the pro- 
nunciation of ey, ay aa (ee) was gaining ground, for we could not 
otherwise account for the MSS. mentioned, for the adoption of the 
spelling in Scotch in 1500, p. 410, n. 3, and for the fact that Hart, 
— ^who firom various other circumstances appears to have been a 
West Midland man — seemed to know absolutely no other pronun- 
ciation of ay than (ee) in 1551.' We have thus direct evidence 
of the coexistence of (ee, ai) in the xvi th century, each perhaps 
limited in area, just as we have direct evidence of the present co- 
existence of both sounds in high German (p. 238), and Dyak (p. 474, 
note, col. 2). Such changes do not generally affect a whole body 
of words suddenly. They begin with a few of them, concerning 
which a difference prevails for a very long while, then the area is 
extended, till perhaps the new sounds prevail. We have an in- 
stance of this in the present coexistence of the two sounds (a, u) 
for short », p. 175 and notes. It is possible that although (Hll in 
1621 was highly annoyed at maids being called (meedz) in place of 
(maidz) by gentlewomen of his day (supra, p. 91, 1. 8), tMs very 
pronunciation might have been the remnant of an old tradition, 
preserved by the three rhymes just cited from the xm th century 
to the present day, although this hypothesis is not so probable as 
that of scribal error. And if it were correct, it would by no means 

^ On conraltiiig the Auchinleck MS. 
text of Floris et Blancheflur, the diffi- 
coltj TanislieB. Lamby*s edition of 
the Cam. MS. reads, v. 49 : 

l»u art hire ilich of alle jfinge, 
noth of femblauitt and of mtnninge. 
Of fiumefle and of muchelhede, 
Bate)>a ert a man and heo a maide ; 

where the both of the second line makes 
the third line altogether suspiciously 
tike an insertion. The Auchinleck 
MS., according to the transcription 
kindly fumishid me by Mr. Halkett, 
tile liorarian of the Advocates Library, 
Edinburgh, reads, y. 53 : 

pou art ilich here of alle )>inge 
Of iemblant and of mourning 
But ^u art a man and }he is a maide 
pons ]>e wif to Florice faide. 

Another bad rhyme in the Cam. MS. 
is y. 633. 

Hele ihc wulle and no)>ing wreie 

Ower beire cumpaignie 
which in the Abbotuord Club edition 

of the text in the Auch. MS. runs thus, 
y. 618 : 

To the king that }he hem nowt 

Where thourgh thai were iiker to 
The editor suggests biwrei^e, which 
would not be a rhyme. The r^ read- 
ing is manifestly to deye, arising, as 
Mr. Murray suggests, from the com- 
mon MS. confusion of y, ]>. Admiralia 
both in the Auch. and Cott. MSS. 
constantly spelled -ay/, and hence we 
must not be offended with the rhyme, 
Admiral confail 799, for there was 
evidently an uncertain pronunciation 
of this strange word. 

» This day (9 July, 1869) a work- 
man, who spoke excellent English to 
me, called specialiu (spii'SBlt). Had 
he any idea that others said (spes-Blt') P 
The facts in the text are perhaps partly 
accounted for by the influence of the 
Scotch orthography and pronunciation, 
referred to on p. 637| n. 1. 

640 AI AY, EI BY, IN SEVEN MSS. Ceap. YII. { 1. 

prove that the general pronunciation of ay in all words from ags. 
was not distinctly (ai) and that the (ee) pronunciation was not 
extremely rare. 

In a former investigation it was attempted to shew that Norman 
French ei, ai, had at least frequently the same sound (ai), supriL 
pp. 453-459. Mr. Payne on the contrary believes that the sound 
was always pure (ee), and that the Norman words were taken into 
English, spellings and all, retaining their old sounds. He then 
seems to conclude that all the Engli^ ay, eu, were also pronounced 
with pure (ee), and maintains that this view agrees with all the 
observed facts of the case (p. 582). Prof. Bapp also, as we shall see, 
lays down that Early English Orthography was Norman, and as he 
only recognizes (ee) or (ee) as the sound of Norman 0», of course 
he agrees practically with Mr. Payne. Modem habits have induced 
perhaps most readers to take the same view, which nothing but the 
positive evidence of the practice of the xvi th century could easily 
shake. ^ But it would seem strange if various scribes, writing by 
ear, and having the signs e, ee^ ea, ie^ at hand to express the sound 
(ee), should persist in a certam number of words, in always using 
ey^ ay J but never one of the four former signs, although the sounds 
were identical. This is quite opposed to all we know of cacogra- 
phists of all ages, and seems to be only explicable on the theory of 
a real difference of sound, more marked than that of (ee, ee). N ay, 
more, some occasional blunders of e for «y, etc., would not render 
this less strange to any one who knows by painfril experience (and 
what author does not know it ?) that he does not invariably write 
the letters he intends, and does not invariably see his error or his 
printer's or transcriber's errors when he revises the work. The 
mistake of e for ey we might expect to be more frequent than that 
of ay for e. When the writer is not a cacographist, or common 
scribe, but a careful theoretical orthographer as Orrmin or Dan 
Michel, the absolute separation of the spellings e, ey becomes 
evidence. We cannot suppose that Dutchmen when they adopted 
pau called it anything but (pais), why then should we suppose Dan 
Michel, who constantly employs the spelling pais^^ pronounced 

^ I was glad to learn lately from so adrayiik]>, agray}*!, etc., anpayri, apar- 

di8ting:ai8h^ an English scnolar as ceyue]>) apayreb, asayd, asaylcd, atrayt, 

Prof. H. Morley that he was always of bargayn, oatayie, baylif, baylyes, bay)>, 

opinion that oy, ey, were (ai) ana not contraye, cortays, cortaysic, cooaitise, 

(ee^. dayes, defayled, despayred, eyder either^ 

• Mr. Morris's index to Dan Michel's eyx^air, ejttii=egg8j eyse =eMey faili, 

Ayenbite refers to p. 261, as contain- fayntise, fomayce, germayn, graynes, 

ing^9«^for peace, I looked through greyner, longaynes, maimes, maines 

that page without discoyering any in- retinue^ maister, mayden, maystrie, 

stance of pese, but I found in it 11 in- meseyse, meyster, nejebores, nejen, or- 

stances of j9ai«, /Hiyff and 3 of ^ayfid/i^. dayni ordenliche, oreysoune, payes 

Thinking Dan Michel's usages impor- please, payenes =pa^a?My pays, paysible, 

tant, I haye extracted those words giyen plait, playnercs, playni, playty, por- 

in the index, which of course does not uaye]>, porueyonce praysy, quaynte, 

refer to the commonest ags. words of queayntese, queyntiso, raymi, [ags. rea^ 

constant occurrence. This is the list, mtanArym^iM, to cry out,} strait, strayni, 

the completeness of which is not gua- tuay, mleynie, uorlay, wayn =gain^ 

ranteed, though probable : adr^t» wayt, weynerixidemen, ybylea, zaynt. 

Crap. YII. } 1. 



otherwise? And wlien we see some French words in Chaucer 
always or generally spelled with e which had an «»' in French, as : 
resonn 276, sesonn 348, pees 2929, plesant 138, ese 223, 2672, 
why should we not suppose that in these words the (ee^ sound 
was general, but that in others, at least in England, the (ai) sound 
prevailed ? Nay more, when we find ese occasionally written eyu 
for the rhyme in Chaucer (suprii p. 250 and note 1, and p. 265), 
as it is in Dan Michel's prose, why should we not suppose that two 
sounds were prevalent, just as our own (niidh'i, naidh'i) for neither ^ 
and that the poet took the sound which best suited him ? This 
appears to me to be the theory which best represents all the facts 
of the case. It is also the theory which best accords with the 
existing diversities of pronunciation within very narrow limits in the 
"Rwgliab provinces. It remains to be seen how it is borne out by the 
orthography of the Ha. Harleian 7334, and the six newly published 
MS. texts, E. EUesmere, He. Hengwrt, Ca. Cambridge, Co. Corpus, 
P. Petworth, and L. Lansdowne of the Canterbury Tales. For this 
purpose I have looked over the prologue and Knightes Tale, and 
examined a large number, probably the great majority of the cases, 
with the following results. The initial italic words, by which the 
HstB are arranged, are in modem spelling, and where they are 
absent the words are obsolete. Where no initials are put, all the 
M8S. unnamed agree in the preceding spelling so far as having one 
of the combinations at, ay, ei, ey is concern^, small deviations in 
other respects are not noted, but if any other letter is used for one 
of the above four it is named. The numbers refer to the lines of 
the Six Text edition, and they have frequently to be increased 
by 2 for Wright's edition of the Harleian MS. 


Amglosaxon and Scandinayian 


i^iM, agayn 991 

§fimat, a^DB Ca., agejiiB 1787 

•Uetk, eyleth 1081 

4mAm, aiflshes Co., asshen 2957 

bncray, bewreye 2229 

day, OAj, 19 and frequently 

du, deyen Ca., Co., dyen £. He. P. 
dy^en L. 1109, deyde 2846 

dty, dreye Ca., drye 420, 1362, dreye 
[rh. were] 3024 

dyer, deyer Ha., dyere 362 

eytf eye E. Ca., eyghe P., yhe Ha. L., 
iye He. 10, eyen E. He., eyghen 
Ha. P., eyjyyn Ca., yghen Co., 
yhen L. 267 uid frequently 

/mm, fajn 2437 

/«>, iBore 1685. 1941 

><A, fleinh Ha. Co., flessh 147 

htiffht, heght P., heighte 1890 

Utidy leyde 1384 and frequently 

Utp, Uj 20 and frequently 

maidens^ maydens 2300 

nails^ nayles 2141 

neighbour, nyjhebour Ca., neighebore 

neither, neither 1135 
niffh, neigh H. He., ncyh Co., nyghe 

P., nyhe L., nyb Ca,, ny E., 732 
saidy seyde 219, 1356, and fi^uently 
My, seyn 1463 
teen, seyn E. He. Ca. Co. L., seen Ha., 

sene P. 2840 
tlain, slayn 992, 2038, 2552, 2708; 

slayn P. L., sleen 1556, sle sleen 

sleiffhty sleight 604 
tpreynd Ha. E. He. Co. P., sprend Ca., 

sprined L. 2169 
two, tweyc 704 
wailethy wayleth 1221 
way, way 34, 1264, and often. 
weighed, wci^hedcn 454 
whether, whcither £. He., whethir Ha., 

wheber Ca. Co. L., whedere P., 



AI AY, EI EY, IN SEVEN MSS. Chap. VII. § 1. 

Fbench Words. 

acquaintance, aqueyntaonce 246 
«!««/, aiel E. He. Ca. ayel Ha., ayell 

Co. L. eile P. 2477 
airy eir 1246 
apayd frh. ysaid] 1868 
apparelling y apparaillynge 2913 
array, array 41 73, and often. 
attain, atteyne 1243 
availeth, anailleth 3040 
bargains, bargaynes 282 
barrefi, barayne 1244, baran L., bareyn 

battle, bataille 988, 2540 

braided, breidod P., broyded E. He. 

Ca. Co., browded Ha. L, 1049 
caitiff, catiff P., caytyf 1552, 1717, 1946 
certain, certeyn 204 and often. 
chain, cheyne 2988 
chdtaigne, chasteyn 2922 
chieftain, chevetan Ha., chieftayn 2656 
company, compaignye E. He. Co. P., 
cumpanye Ca., companye Ha. L. 
331, compaignye E. He. L., cum- 
panye Ca. Co. P., company Ha. 
2106,2411 ^ 

complain, compleyn 908 
conveyed, conuoyed E., conveyed 2737 
counsel, conseil Ha. E. He. Co. P., 

counsel L., cuntre Ca. 3096 
courtesy, curteisie E. He. Ca., curtesie 

Ha. Co. P. L. 46, 132 
dais, deys Ha. E. He. Ca. Co. P. dese 

[rh. burgeise] L. 370 
darreyne, 1609, 2097 
debonnair, debonnaire [rh. iaire] 2282 
despair, dispeir 1245 
dice, deys Ca., dys 1238 
disdain, disdeyn 789 
displayeth, desplayetb 966 
distraineth, destreyneth 1455, 1816 
dozen, do8e}'ne 578 
fail, faille 1854, 2798 
finest, feynest Ca., fynest 194 
florin, tforeyn Ca. Co. P., floren Ha. 

L., floryn E. He. 2088 
franklins, frankeleyns 216 
fresh, fresshe Ha. E. He. P. L., frossche 
Ca., freissche Co., 92, ffreisch Ha.l 
2176, 2622 '' 

furnace, forncys 202, 559 
gaineth, gayne'th 1176, 2756 
y«y, gay 73 
eolyardeys 560 

Xflrw^acrf, barneysed 114, 1006, 1634, 
2140 ' 

kerchiefs, kevercbefe Ha., couercbeis 
Ca. rtbe proper Norman plural, 
according to Mr. Payne], couer- 
cbiefe E. He. Co. L., couerchefes 
P. 453 

leieure, leyser 1188 
Magdalen, Maudelayne 410 
maintain, maynteyne H. E., mayntene 

He. Ca. Co. P., maiten L. 1778 
master, mystir Ca., maister 261 
mastery, maistrie 166 
meyned 2170 
money, moneye 703 
ordained, ordeyned 2653 
paid, ypayed 1802 
pain-ed, peyned 139, pevne 1133 
painted, peyntid 1934, 1976 
palace, palcys 2613 
palfrey, palfrey 207, 2496 
plain, pleyn 790, 1464 
plein, pleyn 315 

portraiture, portreiturc Ha. E. He. Ca. 
Co., pourtrature P. L. 1968, fpur- 
treture Ha.] 2036 
portray, portray 96 

portrayer, portreyor Ha., portreitour 
E., purtrejour He., purtreiour 
Co., purtraiour P., portretour Ca., 
purtreoure L., 1899 
portraying, portraying Ha., portraying 
Ca. Co.. purtraiynge P., por- 
treyynge E. He., purtreinge L. 
pray, preyen 1260 
prayer, prayer 2226 
purveyance, purvciance E. He., pur- 
ueance Ha. Co. P. L. puruyance 
Ca. 1665, purueiance E. H., pur- 
ueance Ha. Co, P. L., puruyance 
Ca. 3011 ' 

quaint 1531, 2321. 2333, 2334 
raifteth, reynith 1535 
reins, reynes 904 
sovereign, souereyn 1974 
straight, streite 457, stryt Ca., streyt 
1984 ^ 

suddefilu, sodanly L., sodeynly 1630, 

sodoinlicbe 1676 
sustain, susteyne Ca. L., sustene 1993 
trace, trays 2141 
turkish, turkeys 2895 
tumeiynge'E. He. Co. tumeynge Ha., 
tumyingc Ca. tomyngo L., tor- 
namente P. 2657 
vain, vc)Ti 1094 
vasselage Ha. E. He. Co. L., Tanalage 

P., wasseyllage Ca. 3054 
vein, veyne 3, 2747 
verily, verraUy E. He. Ca. Co. verrely 

P. L., verrily Ha. 1174. 
very, verray 422 

villany, vileynye E. He., Telany Ca,, 
L., vilonye Ha. Co. P. 70, fvUanye 
Ha.] 740 » L / 

waiting^ waytinge 929 

Ckap. YII. { 1. 



The general unanimity of these seven MSS. is certainly remarkahle. 
It seems almost enough to lead the reader to suppose that when 
he finds the usual ay, ey replaced by a, e, i in any other MSS., the 
scribe has accidentsdly omitted one of the letters of the diphthong, 
which being supplied conyerts a, e, % into ay, ey, at or ei respectively. 
Thus when in v. 1530 all but L. use ey or ay, and in v. 1575 all, in- 
cluding L., use ey in sodeynly, sodeyrUiche, we cannot but conclude 
that eodanly in L. 1530, is a clerical error for sodaynly. We have 
certainly no right to conclude that the a was designed to indicate 
a peculiar pronunciation of a as ay or conversely. But it will be 
best to consider the variants seriatim as they are not many in 


Anolosaxon akd Scandinavian 


Apaitut 1787 has still two sounds 
(vgemst*, Bgenst') which seem to cor- 
respond to two such original sounds as 
(again* agen*). 

Ashes, aisshes Co. 2957 represented 
really a duplicate form, as appears from 
hi haying been presenred into the 
XVI th century, p. 120, 1. 6. 

Die 1109, see variants on p. 284. 

Dr^f 420, see variants on p. 285. 

I>yer, the general orthography dt/er 
362 is curious, for the ags. deagan 
would naturally give deyer, which how- 
ever is only preserved in Ha., the rest 
E'ving dyere, and the Promptorium 
iving dyyn ; Ha. has deye in 11037. 
It would almost seem as if habit had 
confused the two words dye, die, and 
hence given the first the same double 
sound as the second. There is no 
room for supposing the sound (dee) in 
either case. 

Eye 10, see variants on p. 285. 

Flesh, 147 is one of the words men- 
tioned on p. 265, as having two spell- 
ings in Ha. see also p. 473 note 1, for 
a possible origin of the double pronun- 

Height, h^ht P. 1890 is of course 
a clerical error for hcighte. 

Neighbour 535, folK>ws nigh in its 

Nigh 732, 535. The variants here 
seem to shew that this word should be 
added to the list given on pp. 284-6, 
as having a double pronunciation, 
especially as we have seen that the (ii) 
sound is preserved in Devon, p. 291, 
as it is in Lonsdale. 

Seen, The orthography seyn 2840 
for seen is supported by too many 
MSS. to be an error, it must be a du- 

plicate form, retaining in the infinitive 
the expression of the lost guttural, 
which crops up so often in different 
parts of this verb, Oothic saihwan, 
compare the forms on p. 279. 

Slay 992, see p. 265; the double 
sound (ee, ai^ may have arisen from the 
double ags. rorm, without and with the 

futtural, the latter being represented 
y (ai) and the former by (ee), which 
is more common. 

Spreind, isprend, isprind 2169 must 
be merely clencal errors for ispreined, 
as in most MSS., because both words 
rhyme with ymeynd, which retains its 
orthography in each case. 

Whether, 1857, has certainly no 
more title to (ai) than beat or them, 
but nevertheless we have seen Orrmin 
introduce the (i) or (j) into these words, 
p. 489, hence it is not impossible that 
there may have been some provincials 
who said tcheider, but still it is more 
probable that the ei of £. and He. in 
1857 are clerical errors. The word is 
not common and I have not noted 
another example of it in £. He. 

Frbnch Words. 

Barren, baran L. 1977, must be a 
clerical error for barayn. 

Braid 1049, seems to have had 
various sounds, corresponding to the 
ags. bregdan, icel. brcgda, and to the 
French broder, which would give the 
forms breyde, brotcde. while broyde 
would seem to be an uncertain, or mis- 
taken mixture of the two (braid*e, 
bruud'e, bnSid'e). We do not find 
brede (breed'e^. but as the g was some- 
times omittea even in ags. it would 
have been less curious than brayde. 

Caitiff. The ortho^phy eatiffV. 
1552, 1717, 1946, bemg repeated in 



Chap. YII. § 1. 

tiiree places, although opposed to the 
other SIX MSS. which determine eaytif 
to be the usual form, may imply a dif- 
ferent pronunciation rather than be a 
clerical error. The French forms of 
this derivatiye of the Latin captivus, 
as given by Roquefort are yery numer- 
ous, but all of them contain t, or an 
deriyed from at, thus: caitif, caipti^ 
caitieu, caitis, caitiu, caitivi^, ceti^ 
oetis, chaitiou, chaitif, chaitis, chaitiu, 
cheitif, chetif, chety, quaitif^ quetif. 
Boquefort gives as ProTenqal and 
Languedoc forms : caitiou, caitious, 
caitius, caitivo. The Spanish eautivo 
has introduced the labial instead of the 
palatal modification, while the Italian 
only has preserved the a pure by as- 
similating Pf thus, eatiivo. If then 
the a in P. was intentional, it was very 

Chieftain, cheveten Ha. 2565, should 
according to the general analogy of 
such terminations be eheveteyn, and it 
will then agree with the other MSS. 

Company. In compaignye 331, 2105, 
2411, the t is conceived by M. Fran- 
cisQue Michel to have been merely 
oruographical in French, introduced 
to make gn monilU, just as 1 was intro- 
duced before // to make it mouilU, 
Compare also p. 309, n. 1, at end. It 
is very possible that both pronuncia- 
tions prevailed (kumpainire, kum- 
pantre) and that the first was con- 
sidered as French, the latter as Eng- 
lish. There is no room for supposing 
such a pronunciation as (kumpeentt*^ 
with (ee). 

Conveyed, Conuoyed £. 2737 is not 
a variant of the usual conueyed, but 
another word altogether, a correction 
of the scribes. 

Counsel, counsel L. 3096, is probably 
a clerical error for counseil as in the 
other MSS. 

Courtesy, Curteisye 46, vileynye 70, 
may be considered together. They 
were common words, and the second 
syllable was usually unaccented, where- 
as in eurteisy vileyn, it was frequently 
accented. Hence wo cannot be sur- 
prised at finding ey strictly preserved 
in the latter, but occasional deviations 
into non-diphthongal sounds occurring 
in the former. Careful scribes or 
speakers seem, however, to have pre- 
served the ey of the primitive in the 
derivative. The vilonyo of fla. Co. P. 
70, which is r^laoed by vilonye in Ha. 

740, serves to corroborate this view, 
as evidently the scribe did not know 
how to write the indistinct sound he 
heard, a difficulty well known to all 
who have attempted to write down 
living sounds, bee also Mr. Payne's 
remarks, supriL p. 585. To the same 
category belong the variants of por^ 
traiture, purveyance, verily. 

Dais, dese L. for deys=dsda 370, in 
opposition to the six o&er MS. is pro- 
baoly a clerical error for deyse the nnal 
e being added also to the rhyming 
word hurgeise in L. which retains the t . 

Lice, Deys Ca. 1238 for dys is 
clearly an error as shewn by the rhym- 
ing word paradys, but dys itself seems 
to have been accommodated to the 
rhyme for dees, which occurs in Ha. 
13882, and is the natural representa- 
tive of the French dis. 

Finest, The ortho^phy feynett 
Ca. 194, must be a clerical error. 

Florin, The floren, florin, floreyn 
2088 may be concurrent forms of^a 
strange word, and the last seems more 
likely to have been erroneous. 

Fresh 92, had no doubt regularly 
(ee), but the older (ai) seems to have 
been usual to some, the frosshe of Ca. 
is a provincialism of the order noted 
on p. 476 

Kerchiefs, Couercheis Ca. 453, is 
probably a mere clerical error for 
couerehefs, i having been written for 
f, as we can hardly suppose the provin- 
ml scribe of Ca., to have selected a 
Norman form by design. 

Maintain, Maynteyne 1778, sus- 
teyne 1993, belong to the series of words 
derived from tenere. There is no dis- 
agreement respecting the ay in the 
first syllable 01 maynteyne; sustens is 
fully supported by the rhyme, p. 265, 
1. 1, and hence mayntene, sustene are 
probably the proper forms. I have 
unfortunately no note of the Chau- 
cerian forms of obtain, detain, retain, 
contain, appertain, entertain, abstain, 
but probably -tene would be found the 
right form. The spelling ey and pro- 
nunciation (ai) may have crept in 
through a confusion with the form 
'teyne ^hEit, 'tingere, of which I have 
also accidentally been guilty p. 265, 
1. 25, as : atteyne, bareyne, must rhyme, 
1243, 8323, and as -stringere produoei 
-streyne 1455, 1816 in all MSS. 

Master, mystir Ca. 261 for master is 
probably a cterical error. 




Bfrtrmitmn 1968, portrtfer 1899; 
tkd Ttfianti may be explained as in 
Ofmi M ^, which see. 

T&rtra^ng, In pcrtr9fffng^ por^ 
tn^fmg 1938 there is an omission of 
one y on account of the inoonyenienoe 
ef die yy in the first form, oreroome 
l^ changing the first y into t in P. 

Fmrtf^anm 116^, the rariants may 
be explained as in OmrUty, which see. 

Straight, Stnrt Ca. 1984, mnst be 
% derical error ror strefft^ as the ab- 
ience of # is quite nnaccoantable. 

Suddmiy. Sodanly L. 1530 must, aa 
we hare seen p. 643, be an error for 

Smtain 1993 see Maintain, 

T^imeynge Ha. 2667; the TariantB 
are to be explained as those oi portray" 
inff, which see. 

Verilp 1174, the variants may be 
explained as in Courtety^ which see. 

ViUany 70, see Courtety. 

WasseyUage Ca. 3064, certainly 
arose from a confusion in the scribe's 
mind, vattelage valour being unusual^ 
he reverted to the usual waueyl for an 
explanation, and in wasseyl we have an 
ey for an ags. «, which may be com- 
pared with fy for «a in Omnin, supri 
p. 489. 

The natural effect of this examination has been to place the 
Tariants rather than the constants strongly before the reader's mind. 
He most therefore recollect that out of the total of 1 1 1 words the 
following 73, many of which occur very frequently, are invariably 
spelt with one of the phonetically identical forms a», ay^ ei, ey^ 
in each of the seven MSS. every time they occur : — 

again, aileth, bewray, day, fidn, fair, dozen, fiiil, franklins frankeleyns, fur- 

laid, lay, maidens, nails, neither, said, 
say, sleight, two tweye, waileth, 

way, weigned. acquaintance, a'ieul^ 

air, apttyd^ apparelling appara%Uyng$^ 
amy, attain, availeth, bargains, battle 
hataillej certain, chain, ehAtaigne^ com- 
plain, darreyne^ debonnaur, d^air, 
dice, disdain, d^layeth, distraineth, 

nace fomeySf gaineth, ^y, golyardeyt^ 
harnessed hameysed^ leisure, Magdalen 
Maudelayne, mastery, meyned, money, 
ordained, paid, pained, painted, palace 
paleyff palfrey, plain, pUin, portray, 
pray, prayer, quaint, raineth, reins, 
sovereign, trace trays^ turkish turk^tf 
vain, vein, very, walling. 

On the other hand, the variants only affect 38 words, of which 
few, except those already recognized to have two forms in 
use, occur more than once, while the variants confined to one or 
two MSS. display no manner of rule or order, and are far from 
shewing a decided e form as the substitute for ay, ey. They may 
be classified as follows : 

16 Clbiucal Errors : h^ht 
keght, gpreyned sprend sprined, whether 
wheither, barren hinHf ehieftain, 
chevetan, counsel counsel, dice deys, 
/nett feynest, kerchieft couercheis, 
maintain maynteyne mayntene, master 
mystir, straight s^ryt, suddenly sodanly, 
sustain susteyne, tumsiynge tumyinge 

12 DouBLi Forms: ashes aisshes 
aashen, die deyen dyen, dry dreye drye, 
dyer dyere deyer, eye eighe yhe, Jlesh 
flcissh flessh, neighbour noighebore 
nyihebour, nigh neigh nyghe, seen seyn 
seen, slain slayn sleenf — braided 
breided browdid, fr^h fresshe freisshe. 

6 Indistinct Unaccbnted Stlla- 

BLBS : courtesy courteisie curtesie, poT' 
traiture portreiture pourtrature, por^ 
trayer portreyor purtreoure, purvey- 
ance purveiance purueance puruyance, 
verily verraily verrely verruy, villany 
vileynye velany vilonye. 

6 Miscellaneous : <;aiY»^ may have 
been occasionally catiJJ^aa well as caytif 

conuoyed was a different readmg, 

not an error for conveyed Jlorin 

being a foreign coin may have been 
occasionally mispronounced Jloreyn^ 

portreing was an orthographical 

abbreviation of portreiynge was^ 

seyllage was a manifest error for the 
unusual vasselage, the usual voasseyl oc- 
curring to the scribe. 

The variants, therefore, famish almost as convincing a proof as 
the constants, that ay^ ey represented some sound distinct from e 



Chap. TIL } 1. 

(ee). But if there was a distinct sound attachable to these com- 
binations ay, ey^ in Chaucer's time, what could it have possibly been 
but that (ai) sound, which as we know by direct evidence, subsisted 
in the pronunciation of learned men and courtiers (Sir T. Smith was 
secretary of state) during the xvi th century, and which the spelling 
used, and no other, was calculated to express, and was apparently 
gradually introduced to express. The inference is therefore, that 
Chaucer's scribes pronounced ay, ey 2a (ai) and not as (ee), and 
where they wished to signify the sound of (ee), in certain well- 
known and common Korman words, they rejected the Korman or^ 
thography and introduced the truly EngUsh spelling e. The in- 
ference again from, this result is that there was a traditional English 
pronunciation of Korman at, ei, as (ai), which may have lasted long 
after the custom had died out in Kormandy, on the principle already 
adduced (p. 20), that emigrants preserve an older pronunciation. 


As the following text of the Prologue is intended solely for the 
use of students, it has been accommodated to their wants in various 
ways. First the question of final e demanded strict investigation. 
The helplessness of scribes during the period that it was dying out 
of use in the South, and had already dUed out in the Koith, makes 
the new MSS. of little value for its determination, the Cambridge 
and Lansdowne being evidently written by Northern scribes to 
whom a final e had become little more than a picturesque addition. 
It was necessary therefore to examine every word in connection 
with its etymology, constructional use, and metrical value. In 
every case where theory would require the use of a final e, or other 
elided letter, but the metre requires its elision, it has been replaced 
by an apostrophe. The results on p. 341 were deduced from the 
text adopted before it had been revised by help of the Six-Text 
Edition, and therefore the numbers there given will be slightly 
erroneous *, but the reader will by this means understand at a glance 
the bearing of the rules on p. 342. 

The treatment of the verbal termination -ede, required particular 
attention. There are many cases in which, coming before a con- 
sonant, it might be -ed* or -de^ and it was natural to think that the 
latter should be chosen, because in the contracted forms of two 
syllables, we practically find this form ; thus : fedde 146, bledde 
145, wente 255, wiste 280, spente 300, coude 326, 346, 383, kepte 
442, dide 451, couthe 467, tawghte 497, cawghte 498, kepte 512, 
wolde 536, mighte 585, scholde 648, seyde 695, moste 712 and 

] The number of elisions of essential 
e^ stated at 13 on p. 341, has been re- 
duced. The only important one left is 
meer' 541, and that is doubtful on ac- 
count of the double form of the rhym- 
ing word miUeer, sec p. 389. The 
number of plural -<*« treated as -« has 
been somewnat increased. The fol- 

lowing arc examples : palmer's 13, 
servawnt's 101, fether's 107, finger's 
129, hunter's 178, grayhound's 190, 
sleev's 193, tavern's 240, haven's 407, 
housbond's 460, aventur's 796. Of 
course (^) is not used as the mark of 
the genitive cases, but only to shew a 
real elision. 

Chap. Vn. } 1. TREATMENT OF FINAL B. 647 

many otherB. But even here it is occasionally elided. Mr. Morris 
observes that in the Cambridge MS. of Boethius, and in the elder 
Wycliffite Version (see below § 3), the -ede is very regularly written. 
This however does not prove that the final e was pronounced, be- 
cause the orthography hire, herej owrej youre, is uiiiform, and the 
elision of the final -e almost as uniform. The final e in -ede might 
therefore have been written, and never or rarely pronounced. It is 
certain that the first e is sometimes elided, when the second also 
vanishes, as before a vowel or ^ in: lov'd' 206, 533, gam'd' 534, etc. 
But it is also certain that -ed^ was pronounced in many cases with- 
out the e, supr^ p. 355, art. 53, Ex. Throughout the prologue I 
have not found one instance in which -edey or -^de, was necessary to 
the metre,^ but there are several in which -ed^ before a vowel, is 
necessary. If we add to this, that in point of fact -ed^ remained in 
the XVI th century, and has scarcely yet died out of our biblical 
pronunciation, the presumption in favour of -«?' is very strong.' On 
adopting this orthography, I have not found a single case in the 
prologue where it failed, but possibly such cases occur elsewhere, 
and if so, they must be compared to the rare use of hadde^ and 
BtQl rarer use of toerej here for the ordinary hadd\ tcer\ her\ 

The infijiitive -e is perhaps occasionally lost. It is only saved 
by a trisyllabic measure in: yeve penawnce 223. If it is not 
elided in help^ 259, then we must read whelpe 258, with most MSS. 
but unhistorically. On the other hand the subjunctive -e remains 
as : ruste 500, take 503, were 582, spede 769, quyte 770. 

Medial elisions must have been common, and are fully borne out 
by the Cuckoo Song, p. 423. Such elisions are: ev'ry 15, 327, 
ev'ne 83, ov'ral 249, ov'rest 290, rem'nawnt 724, and : mon'th 92, 
tak'th 789, com'th 839. The terminations -er, -el, -en, when run 
on to the following vowel, should also probably be treated as 
elisions. As respects -er, -re, 1 have sometimes hesitated whether to 
consider the termination as French -r^, or as assimilated into English, 
under the form -^, but I believe the last is the right view, and in 
that case such elisions as: ord'r he 214, are precisely similar to : 
ev*ry 15, and occasion no difficulty. Similarly, -el, -fo, are both 
found in MSS., but I have adopted -el, as more consonant with the 
treatment of strictly English words, and regarded the cases in which 
the / is run on to the following word, as elisions, thus : simp'l and 
119. Such elisions are common in modem English, and in the case 
of 'Uy they form the rule when syllables are added, supr^ p. 52. 
In : to fest'n' his hood 195, we have an elision of eia en, and a final 
$ elided, the full gerundial form being to festenej as it would be 
written in prose. 

^ Th6 plural weyghedtn 454, is not tably$^ sadlya^ fadrysy modrya^ bnt its 

in point. snbeequent restoration, accompanied 

^ Mr. Murray obserres that lovde by a suppression of the y before the «, 

woold be an older form than loved for in the more recent forms tabylla 

/!»rfd!f, and grounds his observation on sadyilt^ fadyrs^ modyrs. These analo- 

the fact of the similar suppression g^es are valuable. All that is implied 

of the f before / in tabyll^ sadyll, in the text is that the form -ed seems 

ftdyr^ modyr^ in the old Scotch plnnls to have prevailed in Chancer. 

648 Chaucer's mbtrs. oeap. til { i. 

Ab the text now stands there is no instanoe of an open «, that is, 
of final tf preserved before a vowel (supri p. 841, 1. 2. p. 863, art 
82, and infir^ note on v. 429), but there is one instance of ^lal 
preserved before he, (inM note on v. 386). 

Mbtbioal PEcuLiA&inn of Ohaucbb. 

T)ie second point to which particular attention is paid in this 
text is the metre. Pains have been taken to choose such a text as 
would preserve the rhythm without violating the laws of final « , and 
without having recourse to modem conjecture. Eor this purpose 
a considerable number of trisyllabic measures (supri p. 334) have 
been admitted, and their occurrence is pointed out by the sign lii 
in the margin. The 69 examples noted may be classified thus: 

•- , arismg from the nmmng on of i to a following Towel, either in two 
words as : many a 60, 212, 229, etc., bisy a 321, oari* a 130, stodi' 
and 184, or in the same word, as : Inyieer 80, curions 196, bisier 321, 
which may be considered the rule in modem poetry, see 60, 80, 130, 
184, 196, 212, 229, 303, 321, 322, 349, 360, 396, 438, 464, 630, 

660, 764, 782, 840, instances 20 

-^, arising from running this unaccented syllable on to a following 

yowel, in cases where the assumption and pronunciation of -V wo^ 

be harsh, as : deliver, and 84, sommer hada' 394, water he 400 ; and 

in the middle of a word, as : colerik 687, leccherous 626 ; instances 5 

-e/, not before a preceding Towel, as : mesurahel was 436, mawnoipel 

was 667, mawncipel sett' 686, instances 3 

-m, not before a preceding Towel, as : yeomen fit>m 77 ; or before a pre- 
ceding Yowef or A, wnere the elision *n would be harsh, as : wntea 

a 161, geten him 291, instances 3 

-«, arising from the pronunciation of final 0, where it seems unnecessary, or 
harsh, to assume its suppression, as 88, 123, 132, 136, 197, 208, 223, 
224, 276, 320, 341, 343, 461, 464, 476, 607, 610, 624, 637, 660, 630, 

648, 660, 706, 777, 792, 806, 834, 863, instances 29 

Miteellaneous^ in the following lines, where the trisyllabic measures are 
italicised for convenience. 

Of Engelond', to Cawnterbery they wende. 16 " 

To Cawnterbery withful devout corage. 22 

His heed was ball^, and tchoon as any glas. 198 
And thryes hadd' ahe been at Jerusalem. 463 

Wyd was his i^taUch and Aowses fer asonder. 491 
He was a schepp^ef, and not a mercenarie. 614 

Ho waited afif^ no pomp* and reverence. 626 

Ther coude no man brin^ him in arrerage. 602 
And dso war' him of a significant. 662 

Total 69 

It would have been easy in many cases by elisions or slight 
changes to have avoided these trisyllabic measures, but after con- 
sidering each case carefully, and comparing the different manu- 
scripts, there did not appear to be any siifficicnt ground for so doing. 

Allied to trisyllabic measures are the lines containing a super- 
fluous unaccented syllable at the end, but to this point, vrhich was 
a matter of importance in old Italian and Spanish versification, and 
has become a matter of stringent rule in classical French poetry, no 
attention seems to have been paid by older writers, whether Frcnch 
or English, and Chaucer is in this respect as ^ee as Shakspere. 

> instances 9 

Chap. TIL f 1. CHAUCBR's BfSTRB. 649 

There are a few cases of two superflnouB unaccented syllables, com- 
parable to the Italian versi sdrucdoliy and these have been indicated 
by (+) in the margin. There are only 6 instances : berye merye 
207, 208, apotecaryes letuaryes 425, 426, miscarye mercenarye 513, 
514, all of which belong to the class t-, so that the two syllables 
practically strike the ear as one. 

But there are also real Alexandrines, or lines of six measures, 
which do not appear to have been previously noticed, and which I 
have been very loth to admit. These are marked vi in the margin. 
There are four instances. In : 

But sore wepte sche if oon of hem wer* deed. 148 

the perfect unanimity of the MSS., and the harsh and unusual 
elision of the advcrbiid -€ in sore, and the not common elision of the 
imperfect e in wepte, which would be necessary to reduce the line to 
one of five measures, render the acceptance of an Alexandrine im- 
perative, and certainly it is effective in expressing the feeling of 

the Prioresse. In : 

Men mote yeve silver to the pore freres. 232 

the Alexandrine is not pure because the caesura does not fall after 
the third measure. But the MSS. are unanimous, the elisions mof 
yev* undesirable, and the lengthening out of the line with the tag 
of "the pore freres," seems to indicate the very whine of the 
begging Mar. In 

With a tiiredbare cop\ as a pore scoleer. 260 

the pore which lengthens the line out in all MSS., seems introduced 
for a similar purpose. The last instance 

I ne sawgh not this yeer so mery a companye. 764 

is conjectural, since no MS. gives the reading complete, but : I ne 
wgh, or : I sawgh not, are both unmetrical, and by using both 
obtain a passable Alexandrine, which may be taken for what it 
is worth, because no MS. reading can be accepted. 

The defective first measures to which attention was directed by 
Mr. Skeut, supra p. 333, have been noted by ( — ), and a careful 
consideration of the MSS. induces me to accept 13 instances, 1, 76, 
131, 170, 247, 271, 294, 371, 391, 417, 429, 733, 778, though 
they arc» not all satisfactory, as several of them (131, 247, 271, 
391, 778) offend against the principle of ha\ing a strong accent on 
the first syllable, and two (417, 429) throw the emphasis in rather 
an unusual manner, as : weel coud' he, weel knew he, where : weel 
eaud^ he, well knew he, would have rather been expected, but there 
is no MS. authority for improving them. 

ThrcK? instances have been noted of saynt forming a dissyllable, 
as already suggested, (suprii pp. 264, 476), one of which (697), 
might be escaptnl by assuming a bad instance of a defective first 
measure, but the other two (120, 509,) seem clearly indicated 
by MS. authority. Sec the notes on these passages. They are 
indicated by ai in the margin.^ 

' Mr. Murray has obserred cases in then it had its Scotch value (an), «aipr& 
Scotch in which ai was dissyllabic, but p. 637, n. 1. Ho cites from Wyn- 


650 Chaucer's French words. Chap. VII. { i. 

Chaucer's Treatment of French Words. 

The tliird point to which attention is directed in printing the 
text of the prologue, is linguistic rather than phonetic, but seemed 
of sufficient interest to introduce in a work intended for the use of 
the Chaucer Society, namely, the amount of French which Chaucer 
admitted into his English. ** Thank God! I may now, if I like, 
turn Protestant!" exclaims Moore's Irish Gentleman on the evening 
of 16th April, 1829, when the news of the royal assent to the 
Catholic Relief Bill reached Dublin.* And in the same way it 
would appear that the removal of the blockade on the English 
language, when after **J?e f^rste morejrn," 1348, "John Comwal, 
a maystere of grammere, chaungede J?e lore in gramere scole,"* and 
Edward III. enacted in the 36th year of his reign, 1362-3, that aU 
pleas should be pleaded and judged in the English tongue, the 
jealous exclusion of French terms from English works, which marks 
the former period, seemed to cease, and English having become the 
victor did not disdain to make free use of the more " gentle" 
tongue, in which so many treasures of literature were locked up. 
Even our older poems are more or less translations from the French, 
though couched in unmistakable English. But in the xrvth 
century we have Gower writing long poems in both languages, 
and Chaucer familiar with both, and often seeking his originals in 
French. The people for whom he principally wrote must have 
been also more or less familiar with the tongue of the nobles, and 
large numbers of French words must have passed into common use 
among Englishmen, before they could have assumed English in- 
flectional terminations. We have numerous instances of this in 
Chaucer. "Whenever a French verb was employed, the French 
termination was rejected, and an English inflectional system sub- 
stituted. Thus using italics for the French part, we have in the 
prologue: percod 2, engendVod 4, 421, impired 6, ^«ed 29, honoured 
60, etnbroudvd 89, hnrneysLd 114, entunod 123, pepned 139, rosted 147, 
jpirtchid 151, gatcded 159, crouncd 161, purfylvd 193, farsod 233, 
accorded 244, enrymd 342, chavngvd 348, pasned 464, encombred 
608, spgcod 526, yptmiah^d 657, trusH'd 681, feynod 705, assembled 
717, «^rred 749, gt awn fed 810, prayWvn 811, reulvd 816, siudicih 

841. flouting' 91, harping' 266, oaring' 450, 489, assoylm^ 661, 

cry' 636, rod\ hroyll\ Jrye 383, re/ters' 732, feytic 736. Again 

we have an English adjective or adverbial termination affixed to 
French words, as: 8pecia1\y 16, fetislj 124, 273, certairilj 235, 
solemnelj 274, staatlj 281, estaatlich 140, verrayly 338, really 

town's Oryg}Tial Cronykil of Scotland, search of a religion, by Thomas Moore, 

circ& 1419-30, in reference to Malcolm chap. i. 

Malcolm kpg, be lnwchful get, * See the whole noteworthy passage 

Had on his wj-f Saynt Marprret. from Trenisa's translation ot Higden, 

Where, however, M argret might rather printrd from the Cott. MS. 'I'iberius 

have been trissyllabic. D. VII., by Mr. II. Morris, in his 

Specimens of Early English, I867» 

^ Travels of an Irish gentleman in p. 339. 

Chap. VII. { 1. CHAUCER's FRENCH WORDS. 65 1 

=royally 378, devouflj 482, scarslj 583, pHvelj 609, suhtillj 610, 

privelj 652, playnXj 727, properly 729, r«<^ly 734. deU'lees 

582. In My 441, pomely 616, we have rather the change of the 

French -€ into -y, which subsequently became general, but the eae 
remains in : ^^ly 469. In : doffgeer 113, 392, we have a substan- 
tive with an English termination to a French root. Footman^/ 
472, is compounded of an English and French word. In : daliat^^n^ 
211, loodmannoy^ 403, deyery^ 577, French terminations only are 
assumed. A* language must have long been in familiar use to 
admit of such treatment as this. What then more likely than the 
introduction of complete words, which did not require to have their 
terminations changed? The modem cookery book and fashion 
magazines are full of French words introduced bodily for a similar 
reason. Of course the subject matter and the audience greatly 
influence the choice of words, and we find Chaucer sensibly changing 
his manner with hiiJ matter — see the quantity of unmixed English 
in the characters of the Yeman, the Ploughman, and the Miller. 
To make this admixture of French and English evident to the eye, 
all words or parts of words which may be fairly attributed to French 
influence, including proper names, have been italicised, but some 
older Latin words of ecclesiastical origin and older Norman words 
have not been marked and purely Latin words have been put in 
small capitals.^ The result could then be subjected to a numerical 
test, and comes out as follows : 

Lines containing no French word . 

„ only one „ „ . 

„ two French words 

tt three „ „ 

„ four „ „ 

» five „ „ 

Lines in the Prologue . 858 100-0 

If the total number of French words in the prologue be reckoned 
from the above data, they will be found to be 761, or not quite one 
word in a line on an average. The overpoweringly English character 
of the work could not be more clearly demonstrated. 

Chaucer's language may then be described as a degraded Anglo- 
Saxon, into which French words had been interwoven, without 
interfering with such grammatical forms as had been left, to the 
extent of about 20 per cent., and containing occasionally complete 
French phrases, of which, however, none occur in the prologue. 
To understand the formation of such a dead dialect, we have only 
to watch the formation of a similarly-constructed living dialect. 
Such a one really exists, although it must rapidly die out, as there 
are not only not the same causes at work which made the language 
of Chaucer develop into the language of England, but there are 
other and directly contrary influences which must rapidly lead to 
the extinction of its modem analogue. 

* These are rcry few in number, see Mawr' or of 8aynt Bmeyt. 173, in 
6, 162, 254, 336, 429, 430, 646, 662. which the French words were in- 

* The line ii: The rti^ of 8aynt dispensable. 

. 825, 

per cent. 


. 343, 


. 167, 


. 87, 


. 12, 


. 1, 




Chap. YII. f 1. 

Pennstlyakia Obbman ths Analooub ov Chaitcbb*8 English. 

Fully one half of the people of Pennsylvania and Ohio in the 
United States of America understand the dialect known as Penn- 
sylvania German. This neighbourhood was the seat of a great Ger- 
man immigration from the Palatinate of the Bhine' and Switzer- 
land. Here they kept up their language, and established schools, 
which are now cdmost entirely extinct. Surrounded by English of 
the xvnth century they naturally grafted some of its words on 
their own, either as distinct phrases, or as the roots of inflections ; 
and, perhaps, in more recent times, when fully nine-tenths of the 
present generation are educated in English, the amount of intro- 
duced English has increased.* The result is a living dialect which 
may be described as a degraded' High German, into which English 

^ See supra, p. 47, Unes 5 to 15. 

* Some of these particulars have 
been taken from the preface to Mr. E. 
H. Ranch's Pennsylvanish Deitsch ! 
Be Breefa fiim Pit S^hwefflebrenner nn 
de BeYYy, si Fraw, fun Schliifletown 
on der I)rucker film " Father Abra- 
ham," Lancaster, Pa., 1868, and others 
from information kindly furnished me 
by Rev. Dr. Mombert, Lancaflter, Penn- 
lylyania, U.S., in April, 1869. 

^ This does not mean that it is a 
degraded form of the present literary 
high German, but merely of the high 
Oerman group of Germanic dialects. 
On 19 Aug. 1869, the 14th meeting o( 
tiie German Press Union, of Pennsyl- 
vania, U.S., was held at Bethlehem, 
when an interesting discussion took 
place on Penosylvama German, or das 
De%UBch'Pennsylvani9ehe^ as it is termed 
in the Reading Adler of 31 Au^. 1869, 
a German newspaper publistied at 
Beading, Berks County, Pa., U.S., from 
which the following account is trans- 
lated and condensed. Prof. Notz^ of 
AUentown, who is preparing a Penn- 
sylvania German grammar, drew at- 
tention to the recent German publi- 
cations on Prankish, Upper- Bavarian, 
Palatine, Swabian, and Swiss dialects, 
and asserted that the Penn. Germ, had 
an equally tough existeicc {zdhes Lebi-n) 
and acserved as much study. Mr. Dan 
£. Sehbdier declared that the Germans 
of Pennsylvania could only be taught 
literary high German, in which their 
divine service had always been con- 
ducted, by means of their own dialect. 
Dr O. Kdlner justified dialects. He 
considered that liiigul<;ts, including J. 
Grimm, had not sufficiently compre- 
hended the importance of dialects. 
Speech was as natural to man as walk- 

ing, eating, and drinking, and the 
ong^al language of a people was dia- 
lectic, not literary, which last only 
finally prevailed, to use Max Miiller^ 
expression as the high language, {Hoeh' 
sprache). The roots of a literary 
langUHge were planted in its dialects, 
whence it drew its strength and wealthy 
and which it in turn modified, polished 
and ennobled. Was Penn. Germ, such a 
dialect P Many English speakers, who 
knew nothing of German dialecti, 
might deny it, and so might even many 
educated north Germans, who were un- 
acquainted with the south German 
dialects, and regarded all the genuine 
southern forms of Penn. Germ, as a 
corrupted high German or as idioms 
borrowed from the English. They 
would therefore style it a jargon, not a 
dialect. Certainly, the incorporation 
of English words and phrases had given 
it some such appearance, but on re- 
moving these foreign elements it re- 
mained as good a dialect as the Alsa- 
tian after bcin^ stripped of its Gkd- 
licisms, in which dialect beautiM 
poems and tales had been written, 
taking an honourable positi(m in Ger- 
man literature. Penn Germ., apart 
from its Eni^lish additions, was a south 
German diulect, composed of Frankish^ 
Swabian. Palatine, and Allemanic, 
which was interlarded with more or 
less English, according to the oountiee 
in which the settlements had occurred ; 
in some places English was entirely 
absent. AH that marked a dialect in 
Germany was present in Penn Germ., 
and since new immigration was per- 
petually introducing fresh high Ger- 
man, tne task would be to purify the 
old di ilect of its English jargon, and use 
the result for the benefit of the people 

Chap. Yll.if 1. 



words have been interwoven, without interfering with such gram- 
matical forms as had been left, and containing occasionally complete 
English phrases. On referring to the first sentence of the last 
paragraph, the exact analogy of Pennsylvania Dutch to Chaucer's 
EngHsh will be at once apprehended. The dialect is said to possess 
a somewhat copious literature, and it is certainly an interesting 
study, which well deserves to be philologicaUy conducted.* For 
the present work it has an additional special value, as it continually 
exhibits varieties of sound as compared with the received high 
German, which are identical with those which we have been led to 
suppose actually took place in the development of received English, 
as {oo, ee, aa) for (<ui, ai, an). 

The orthographical systems pursued in writing it have been two, 
and might obviously have been three or more. The first and most 
natural was to adopt such a German orthography as is usually 
employed for the representation of German dialects, and to speU 
the introduced English words chiefly after a German fashion. This 
is the plan pursued, but not quite consistently,* in the following 
extract, for which I am indebted to Dr. Mombert. The English 
constituents are italicised as the French are in the following edition of 
the prologue. A few words are explained in brackets [ ], but any one 
fiimiliar with German will understand the original, which seems to 
have been written by an educated German familiar with good English. 

<tf Pennsylyania. The Penn. Germ, 
prae WB8 the champion of this move- 
nent, by which an entire German 
funflj would be more and more im- 
hned with modem German culture. 
Ai a itrikine proof of the identity of 
hdatine with PennsyWanian German, 
be referred to Nadler's poems called 
FriklUk Ffalz^ Oott erhalfs, which, 
written in the Palatine dialect, were, 
when read out to the meeting by Dr. 
Ldaenring, a bom Penn. German, as 
mdily intelligible to the audience as if 
thej had been written in Penn. German. 
Pirof. Notz also observed that in Ger- 
Bianr the people still spoke among one 
another in dialects, and only excep- 
tionally in high German when they 
q>oke with those who had received a 
nperior education— and that even the 
latter were wont to speak with the 
people in their own dialect. This was 
eorroborated by Messrs. Rosenthal, 
Hene, and others. On the motion of 
Prof. Notz, it was resolved to prosecute 
an inquiry into the Germanic forms of 
expression in use in Pennsylvania, and 
to report thereon, in order to obtain 
materials for a complete characterisa- 
tion of the dialect. 

^ Prof. S. S. Haldeman, of Columbia, 
Peansylfania, to whom I have been 

under great phonetic obligations, and 
who has been familiar with the dialect 
from childhood, has promised to for- 
nish the Philological Society with 
some systematic account of this pecu- 
liar hyorid language, the living repre- 
sentation not only of the marriage of 
English with Norman, but of the 
breaking up of Latin into the Romance 
dialects. The Rev. Dr. Mombert, for- 
merly of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but 
now of Dresden, Saxony, who has long 
been engaged in collecting specimens, 
has also promised to furnish some ad- 
ditions. The precedmg note shews the 
interest which it is now exciting in 
its native country. In this place it is 
only used as a passing illustration, but 
through the kindness of these com- 
petent 2:uide8, I am enabled to give 
the reader a trustworthy account so 
ffu* as it goes. 

* Thus h/ is used for ee in keyn = 
(k^'rtij, or rather rk^/in) according to Dr. 
MomDcrt,and ee for ih (ii) in TWr, which 
are accommodations to English habits. 
Cowskin retains its English form. A 
more strictly German orthography is 
followed in L. A. WoUentoehet' n Ge- 
miilde aus dem Pennsylvanischen Yolks- 
leben, Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1869, 
p. 76. 



Chap. VII. i 1. 

Ein Gesprach. 

1. Ah, Ddvee, was hot Dich 
gestem Owent [Abend] so ver- 
tollt schmdrt aus Squeier Esse- 
beises kumme mache? War 
ebbes [etwas] letz* ? 

2. !Nix apartiges! ich hab 
jusht a bissel mit der Pally 
gespdrkt [played the spark], als 
Dir ganz imvcrmuth der olte 
Mann derzu kummt, ummer 

Snd mir] zu vershte' gibt, er 
t des net gleiche.^ 

1. Awer [aber] wie hot er's 
dir zu vershteh' gegewe' (gege- 
ben] ? Grob oder hoflich ? 

2. Ach net [nicht], er hat 
ke3rn [kein] wort geschwatzt. 

1. Well, wie hot er's dann 
g'mocht ? 

2. Er hat jusht de Teer 

[Thiire] ufg'mocht, mir mei' 
Huth in de Hand 'gewe' un' de 
Cowskin von der Wand g'kricht 
[gekriegt]. Do hob' ich g'denkt, 
er that's net gleiche, dass ich die 
Pally shpdrks that un bin grod 
fortgange ; des wcr alles, Sdm, 

1. Ja, geleddert hot er Dich| 
Ddvee, dann du bist net gange, — 
g'shprunge bischt Du als wenn 
a dutzend Hund hinnig [hinter] 
Dich her waren. Ich hab dich 
wohl geseyhne [gesehen]. 

2. Well, sei nur shtiU drfon 
[da von], und sags Niemand, 
Bonst werd' ich ausgelacht. 

Sdm versprach's ; awer »om- 
how muss er sich doch ver- 
schnappt hawe [haben], sonst 
hatt's not g'druckt werde konne. 

The second style of orthography is to treat the whole as English 
and spell the German as well as the English words, after English 
analogies. This apparently hopeless task,^ was undertaken by Mr. 
Ranch, who in his weekly newspaper. Father Abraham, has weekly 
furnished a letter from an imaginary Pit i.e. Peter Schwefflebrenner, 
without any interpretation, and in a spelling ** peculiarly his own."* 
Perhaps some of the popularity of these satirical letters is due, as 

^ South German Mz, letseh, Idtteh, 
wrong, left-handed, as in high German 
linktj for which Prof. Haldcman refers 
to Stalder, and to Ziemann, Mittel- 
hochdeutsches Worterb. 217. See also 
Schmeller, Bayerisches Worterb. 2, 
630, '* (Miar is Mz) mir ist nicht rccht, 
d. h. iibel." Compare high German 
verletzen, to injure. 

' Dr. Mombert considers gleichen in 
this sense of *^ like, approve of," to be 
the English word like Germanized. 
But Dr. Stratmann, on seeing the 
passage, considered the word might be 
nrom the old high German lichen^ to 
please. This verb, however, was in- 
transitive in all the Germanic dialects, 
and in old English fsee Prol. 777 
below : if you liketh, where you is of 
course dative). The present active use 
seems to be modem English, and I 
have therefore marked it accordingly. 

' An attempt of Chaucer*s scribes to 
write his language after Norman ana- 
logies, as Eapp supposes to have been 
the case, would nave been precisely 
analogous. Fortunately thb was not 
possible, supra p. 688, n. 4, or we 
might have never been able to recover 
his pronunciation. 

* In the praspectus of his newspaper, 
Mr. llauch says: '*So weit das mer 
wissa, is der Pit Schwefflebrenner der 
eantsich monn in der United States 
dflcrs Pcnnsylvanish Deitsh recht shreibt 
un bushtaweort exactly wc's g'shwetzt 
un ous g'shprocha wwrd," t.^., as for 
as we know, Pit Schwefflebrenner is 
the onl^ man in the United States 
who writes and spells Pennsylvania 
German correctly, exactly as it is gos- 
sipped and pronounced. 

Chap. VII. { 1. 



some of the fan of Hans Breitmann's Ballads^ certainly is, to the 
drollness of the orthography, which however furnishes endless diffi- 
culties to one who has not a previous knowledge of the dialect.* 

The third orthography would be the usual high German and 

1 Huis Breitmann's "poems are writ- 
ien in the droll broken English (not to 
be confounded with the Pennsylvanian 
German) spoken by millions — mostly 
imeducated — Germans in America, im- 
migrants to a great extent from south- 
ern Germany. Their English has not 
yet become a district dialect; and it 
would even be difficult to fix at present 
the Tarieties in which it occurs." — 
Preface to the 8th edition of Hans 
Breitmann's Party, with other Ballads, 
by Charles G. Leland, London, 1869, 
p. xiii. In fact Mr. Leland has played 
with his dialect, and in its unfixed con- 
dition has made the greatest possible 
fan out of the confusion of p with 6, t 
witii dy and g with Ar, without stopping 
to consider whether he was giving an 
organically correct representation of 
any one Grerman's pronunciation. He 
has consequently onen written combi- 
nations which no German would na- 
turally say, and which few could, even 
after many trials, succeed in pronoun- 
cing, and some which are scarcely 
attackable by any organs of speech. 
The book has, therefore, plenty of vis 
wmica^ but no linguistic value. 

• The following inconsistencies 
pointed out by Prof. S. S. Haldeman, 
are worth notice, because similar ab- 
lordities constantly occur in attempts 
to reduce our English dialects, or 
barbaric utterances, to English analo- 
gies, by persons who have not fixed 
upon any phonetic orthography, such 
u the Glossoiype of Chap. VI., } 3, 
and imagine tnat the kaleidoscopic 
character of our own orthography is 
not a mere "shewing the eyes and 
grieving the heart." Prof. li. says : 
**The orthography is bad and incon- 
sistent, sometimes English and some- 
times Gorman, so that it requires some 
knowledge of the dialect, and of English 
spelling to be able to read it. 

** The vowel of they occurs in ferstay, 
mrA, nay, ^ Ans, hen and ha^e ( » bose, 
angry), h^rst i — heisst^ called) Mwich, 
dMt, ^ea — ea oeing mostly used (as in 
h/Huay tsirea) ; but gedreat (also dreH) 
rhymes its English form treaty and 
intU, [=dr0htf turns) with fate. 

*' The German a is as in what and 
fall, but the former falls into the vowel 
of hut, hid. Fail is represented by ah 
in betzaAla, and aa in poor, but usually 
by aw (aM in aauga) as in au' {attch, 
also) g*sawt (said, gesagt). Hawa = 
haben, should have been haw-wa. The 
vowel of what is represented by a or 
0, as in was, war, hab, konn, donn, 
norra, gonga. 

" of no occurs in boAna, so amoAl, 
=eiiimal, coaxa (=to coax!) doch, 
hoar { = haar hair), woch, frok^. 

" When German a has become Eng- 
lish M of br4, it is written m, as in hut 
i^hat^ has), and a final, as in macha, 
denka =denkm^ [which = (b)], an = ein. 

" The vowel of ft>ld occurs in wi>, 
shptVla, d^, shA-fs, kr^a = (kriiyhB), y 
is used throughout for {gh) of regen. 
The y of my occurs in sW, s», my and 
m^i, hei, dyfel, subscri'ba. 

" W^ when not used as a vowel, has 
its true German power (bh), as in 
tsM'ea = «m, hsiwti — haben, trea8ht = 
weissty trenich and i€e&n\c)S\ = wemg, 
atver—aber, and some other examples 
of b have this sound. 

** Das is for doss that, and des is 
used for the neuter article das. The s 
is hissing (s). The r is trilled (.r) as 
in German. P b, t d, k g, are con- 
fused. The lost final n is commonly 
recalled by a nasalised vowel. 

*• Oo in f<wl, fwll, appears in ft», 
when used for und, uf for auf, wQ = 
MOO where, Zeitung pure German, shoola 
= schools. /r/ir<'/= trouble. 

** English words mostly remain Eng- 
lish in pronunciation, as in : meeting- 
house, town, frolic, for instance, horse- 
race, game poker shpeola, bensa pitcha 
= pitch pence, iif course; but many 
words are modified when they cross a 
German characteristic, thus greefibacks, 
the national currency, is rather (kriin*- 

•'The vowel of fat occurs in 
BSrricks = Berks county, lodwirrick 
lodwiSrrick = latwrrge electuary, k»r- 
rich = kirchf, wiert = tcert A , hiur = her. 
'le is only an En<?lish orthography for 
el or '/, «A is English." 



Chap. VII. { 1. 

English orthographies for the words used, which would of course 
convey no information respecting the real state of the dialect. The 
only proper orthography, the only one from which such information 
can be derived, is of course phonetic. The kindness of Prof. Halde- 
mann has enabled me to supply this great desideratum.* The 
passage selected is really a puff of a jeweller's shop in Lancaster, 
ra., and was chosen because it is short, complete, characteristic, 
varied, and, being not political, generally intelligible. It is given 
first in Mr. llauch's peculiar Aiiglo-German spelling, and then in 
Prof. Haldemann's phonetic transcript, afterwards by way of ex- 
plaining the words, the passage is written out in ordinary &igh 
uerman and English, the English words being italicised, and finally 
a verbal English translation is fiimished. On pp. 661-3 is added 
a series of notes on the peculiarities of the original, referred to in 
the first text. The reader will thus be able to form a good idea of 
the dialect, and those who are acquainted with German and English 
will thoroughly appreciate the formation of Chaucer's language. 

^ Professor Haldeman not haying 
ipoken the dialect naturally for many 
years, after completing his phonetic 
transcript, saw Mr. Ranch the author, 
and ascertained that their pronuncia- 
tions practically agreed. The phonetic 
transcript, here furnished, may there- 
fore be relied on. Prof. Ualdeman 
being an accomplished phonetician, and 
acquaintcd%,witn my palaeotype. wrote 
the pronunciation himself in the letters 
here used. Of course for publication 
in a newspaper, my palaeotype would 
not answer, but my glossotj'pe would 
enable the author to give his Penn- 
sylvania German in an English form 
and much more intelligibly. Thus the 
last paragraph in the example, p. 661, 
would run as follows in glossotype, 
adopting l^of. llaldeman's pronuncia- 
tion : " Auver iyh kon der net oUas 
saugha. Va-rr [vehrr] mai-ner vissil 
▼il, oonn varr [vehrr] farrst raiti 
Erishtaukh sokh vil— dee faaynstioonn 
bcshti bresscnts, maukh solverr dorrt 
ons Tsaunis gtii^ oonn siyh selverr 
soota. Noh mohrr et press' nt. Peet 
Shveff'lbreiincrr." But the proper 
orthography would be a glossotype 
upon a German instead of an English 
basis The following scheme would 
most probably answer all purposes. 
The meaninf^ of the symbols is ex- 
plained by German examples, unless 
otherwise marked, and in palaeotype. 
Long vowels : ie liVb (ii), ee beet («), 
ae spruche (eb, sae^, aa Aa\ ioa)^ ao 
£ng. awl (aa), oo Boot {po)y uh ViuhX 

(uu), ue Uehel (yy), oe Oe\ (oeoe). 
Short Vowels : i Stun (i, •), e Bett 
(e, e), o £ng. bat (b, ae), a all (a), I 
Eng. what (a o), o Motte (o o), u Pfwnd 
fu, w), u Fulle (y), o Bocke (oe), e evne 
re), Eng. but («, a), (J sign of nasality. 
Diphthongs : at Hatn (oi), oi Eng. 
joy, Hamburgh Eu\e (oi), aii theo- 
retical Eu\q (ay), au kat/en (ou). 
Consonants : j Ja, (j), w wie ^bh), 
Eng. w (w) must be indicated by a 
chanee of type, roman to italic, or con- 
versely, A hen (h), j3 4 (jah),td{t dj, 
tich dah (tsh dzh), ir ^ (k g), Ath (kn), 
/ V (f v), th dh (th dh). m Numc (s^, 
8 wie«o (z), »ch ah (sh zh), eh gh (^n 
kh, g\i gh), r I m n (r I m n)^ ng nk 
(q (\k.). German reaaers would not 
require to make the distinction m, «, 
except between two vowels, as Wiese, 
Niisse, Fuesse. They would also not 
find it necessary to distinguish between 
«, € final, or between rr, er, unaccented. 
For similar reasons the short vowel 
signs are allowed a double sense. This 
style of writing would suit most dia- 
lectic German, but if any additional 
vowels are reouired I'A, eh, ah^ oh, are 
available. The last sentence of t^e 
following example, omitting the dis- 
tinction e, 6, would then run as fol- 
lows : '* Aower ich kon der net olles 
saoghe. Waer meener wiase wil, an 
waer ferst recti Erischtaoch sokh wil, 
— die fainsti un beschti bressents, maokh 
selwer dort ons Tsaoms geee, un sikh 
selwer suhte. Noo moor et press'ni. 
Piet Schwefflbrenner." 

chaf. yn. { 1. 



BAUCH't Obthoorapht. 

Pennsylyanish Deitsh. 

Mr.* Fodder Abraham' Printer 
— ^Deer Sir : Ich kon mer now 
let? helfa* — ^ich mus der yetz 
imohl* fihreiva* we ich un de 
Bevvy' ousgemocht hen doh fer- 
gonga" we mer in der shtadt 
Lancaster wara. 

Der hawpt* platz wu*** mer 
onna" sin, war dort in selly 
Zahm's iwer ous sheana Watcha" 
on Jewelry establishment, grawd 
dort om eck" fun was se de Nord 
Qneen Strose" hcasa un Center 
Shquare — ^net weit fiin wu das 
der office is. 

In all meim leawa hab ich ne 
net 80 feel tip-top sheany sacha 
g'sea, un sell ^^ is exactly was de 
Bevvy sawgt." 

We mer nei sin un amohl so a 
wennich rum geguckt hen, donn 
•echt" de Bcwy — loud genunk" 
das der monn 's hut heara kcnna 
— " Now Pit,"" secht se, "weU 

Prop. Haxdeman's Pronunciation. 

PEnstlvtftf *nish Daitsh. 

MfS't'r FAd*'r rAA'brahAm 
prin:t'r — Diir Sor : /Xh kAn m*r 
nou net helf'B — ikh mus d'r jets 
mnooV shroibh'B bhii iXh un di 
Bebh'i ous'gBmAkht nen doo 
f rgAq"B bhii m'r in d'r shtAt 
Leq'kesht'r bhAA'rB. 

Wt HAApt pUts bhuu m'r au'b 
sm, bhAr dArt tn sel't TsAAms 
»bh''r avLs sh^^'UB bhAtsh^c un 
tshu'-clr* estep'l/shmBnt, grAAd 
dArt Am ek fiin bhAs si di Nort 
Kfiin Shtroos Kee'BB un Sen't*r 
ShkbhtfOT — net wait fun bhuu 
dAS ai*'r Af'i's ts. 

In a1 maim Wbh'B HAb ikh. 
nii net so fiil ttp'tAp shee'ni 
8Akh"B ks^^'B un scl ts ekssk'h' 
bhAs di Pebh't SAAkt. 

Bhi m'r noi stn un "Bmool soo 
« bhen'iX-h rum gBgukt* nen, 
dAn se^ht di Bebh't — ^laut gt?- 
nuqk' dAS d'r mAns nat neer'B 
ken-B — **Nau Ptt," seA:ht si, 

3. German and English Translation, 

4. Verbal English Translation, 

PennsjlTanisches Deutsch. Pennsy lyania German. 

Mr. VatCT Abraham, Printer— Dear 
Sir: Ich kann mir now nicht helfen — 
ich mmw dir jetzt einmal sehreiben wie 
ich and die Barbara ausgemacht haben, 
da Tergangen, wie wir in der Stadt 
Lancaster waren. 

Der Haupt-Platz wo wir an sind, 
war dort in selbiges Zahms iiberaos 
idibne Jratehe und Jewelry Estab- 
lishmentj ^ade dort an-der £cke von 
was sie die Nord Queen Strasse heis 
•en and Centre Square — ^nicht weit von 
wo dass encr ojien ist. 

In all meinem Leben habe ich nie 
nieht so riele tiptop schbne Sachen 
mehen, and selbiges ist exactly was 
die Barbara sagt. 

Wie wir hinein sind and einmal so 
ein wenig herum geguckt haben, dann 
Mgte die Barbara — laut genug dass der 
Maim 68 hat horen konnen — *^Ifow, 

Mr. Father Abraham, Printer — 
Dear Sir : 1 can myself now not help 
— I must to-thee now once write, how I 
and the Barbara managed [i.e. fared] 
have there past, as we in the town 
Lancaster were. 

The chief-place where we arrived 
are, was there in same Zahm*s over- 
out beautiful JFatehcs and Jewelry 
Establishment f exactly there at comer 
of what they the North Queen Street 
call, and Centre Square — not far from 
where that your ojiee is. 

In all my life have I never not so 
many tiptop beautiful thinQ;8 seen, and 
same is exactly what the Barbara 

As we hence-into are, and once so a 
little around looked have, then said the 
Barbara — loud enough that the man it 
has to-hear been-able — '* Now, Ptter^** 



Chap. VII. { 1. 

1. RaueK» Orthography ^ continued. 

Be der di watch g'shtola hen 
dort in !Nei Yonick," musht an 
neic kawfa, un doh gookts das'^ 
wann^ du dich suta** kennsht."** 

We se sell g'sawt hut, donn 
hen awer amohl de kaerls" dort 
hinnich** em counter uf geguckt. 
Eaner hut si brill gedropt,** 
un an onnerer is uf g'shtonna 
un all hen mich omg*« frcind- 
lich aw" geguckt. 

Donn sogt eaner — so a wen- 
nich an goot guckicher** ding — 
secht er, ** Ich glawb doch now 
das ich weas wser du bisht." 
" Well, " sog ich, ** wser 
denksht ?" " Ei der Pit Schwef- 
flebrenner." ** Exactly so," hab 
ich g'sawt. ** Un des doh is 
de Bevvy, di alty," secht er. 
** Aw so," hab ich g'sawt. 

Donn hut er mer do bond 
gev\*a, un der Bevvy aw, un 
hut g'sawt er bet shun feel fan 
meina breefa g*leasa, un er waer 
orrig froh mich amohl selwer 

3. Oerm. ^ Eng. Tramlation, eont. 

Pefer^** safft^ sie, "well sie dir deine 
Watch j^ostohlen haben dort in Neu 
York^ musst du oiuc ncuc kaufcn, nnd 
da g^uckt es [als] dass wann du dich 
suitQn konnest." 

Wie sie selbiges j?osa^ hat, dann 
haben aber einraal die Kerl.« dort hin- 
terig dera counter aufpej^ckt. Einer 
hat seine Brillc ^^dropX,^ und ein an- 
dcrcr ist auf|u:estanden und allc haben 
mich arp freundlich anj^ej^ruckt. 

Dann sap^t einer — so ein wenif^ ein 
gutfTuekijrt's Dinpf — sajorte er, " Ich 
glaube doch mnr dass ich weisa wer du 
bist." ''WtU:' sa«re ich, "wer 
dcnkest?" "Ei, der Vvtvr Schwefel- 
brenner." " Kxacthi m," habe ich 
gesajct. " Und das da ist die Barbara, 
aoine Alte," sagte ur. *' Auch so," 
habe ich ffesa^. 

Dann h t er mir die Hand gegeben, 
und der Barbara auch, und hat ^esa^ 
er hatte 8ch<>n viel von meinen Briefen 
gelesen, und er ware arg froh mich 

2. Maldeman*8 ProHunciatioftf ami. 

''bhoil si dir dai^ bhAtsh 
kshtool"B Hen dArt «n l^ai JAT'tk, 
musht tsn nai"B kAAf'B, un doo 
gukts dAs bhin du dt^h suut'B 

Bhi si sel ksAAt Hat, dAn Hen 
AA'b'r vmool' di kaerls dArt Hin*- 
ikh vm kaunt*'r uf gBgukt*. 
JSff'n'r Hot soi bril godrApt", un 
en An-Brar is uf kshtAn"B un a1 
Hen mt^h Ar'ildi fraind'lt^h aa^ 

Dau sAkt wn'r — soo « bhen'tibh 
VR guut guk'i^h'r d/q — seX^ht ot, 
^* Ikh glAAb doA:h nou dAs ikh 
bhif^s bha;r du bi'sht." ** Bhel," 
sAga-h, " bhter deqksht ?" '' Ai 
d'r Pit Shbh^<?f-lbren-'r." " Ek- 
saBk*h'soo,"HAb«^hksAAt." "Un 
dea doo is di Bebh'i, d^ii Alt'f," 
se^ht ser. " :Aa soo," HAb tifeh 


Dau Hot 8Br m'r di HAnd 
gebh'tj, un d*r Pebh't aa, un Hat 
ksAAt aer net shun fiil fun main'B 
briif'a gl^tf'SB, un aer bhseeer 
Ar't/rh hoo raikh. tjmool* scl'bhOT 

4. Verbal Eng, Translation, cont, 

said she, "because the^ to-thee thy 
watch stolen have there in New Tork^ 
must thou a new (one) buy, and there 
looks it [as] that if thou thee nUi 
mightest. ' 

As she same said has, then have 
again once tlie fellow« there behind the 
counttr up-looked. One has his spec- 
tacles dropped, and another is up-stood, 
and all have me horrid fricndlily on- 

Then says one — so a little a good- 
lookinjij thing — said he, " I belieTe, 
however, now that I know who thou 
art." " WtU:' sav I, "who thinkert 
(thou that I am) F'" "Eh, the Peter 
Sulphurbumer." " Exactly so** have 
I said. " And that there ist the 
Barbara, thy old-woman,** said he. 
** Also s«>," have I said. 

Then has he me the hand given, and 
to-the Barbara also, and has said he 
had already much of my letters read, 
and he w^as horrid glad me once self to 

Chap. YII. { 1. 



1. MaueKi Orthography^ continued. 

tsa seana.** Donn sin mer awer 
amobl on bisncss. 

Watclia hen se dort, first-raty 
far 16 dahlcr bis tsu 450 dahler. 
Noch dem das mer se amohl 
recht beguckt hen, is de Bevvy 
tsa der conclusion kumma an 
Amerikanishe watch tsu kawfa. 

Dort hen se aw was se Ter- 
mommiters heasa — so a ding 
dass earn* weist we kalt s' wetter 
18, nn sell dinkt mich kent mer 
brancha alleweil. Any-how mer 
hen eans gekawft. 

De watch is aw an first-raty. 
Ich war als^* uf** der meanung 
das de Amerikanishe watcha 
waBrra drous in Deitshlond 
g'macht, un awer sell is net 
wohr. Un de house-uhra ; chee- 
many*® fires awer se hen about 
Bheany ! Uf course mer hen aw 
eany gekawft, for wann ich 
amohl Posht Mcashder bin mus 
ich eany hawa for** in de office 
ni da. 

3. Germ. ^ Eng. Tranalation^ eont. 

eiiimal selbcr zu sehen(en). Dann Bind 
wir aber einmal an busifiess. 

Watrhe haben sie dort, JirsUrate-e 
fijii sechzehn bis zu vicr hundert ^und) 
fiiafzie Thaler. Nachdem dass wir sie 
einmal recht beguckt habcn, ist die 
Barbara zu der conelunion gekommen 
eine Amerikanische watch zu kaufen. 

Dort haben sie auch was sie Ther- 
momcterx hcissen— so ein Ding das 
einem weisct wie kalt das Wetter ist, 
and selbiges diinkt mich konnten wir 
brauehen alleweile. Anyhow wir 
kabcn eines gekauft. 

Die Watch ist auch eine Jirst-rate-Q, 
Ich war also auf [alles auf, also o/*?] 
der Meinung dass die Amorikamschen 
Watehc waren draussen in Deutschland 
gemacht, und aber selbiges ist nicht 
wahr. Und die Ilausuhren ; Gemini 
Jirts ! aber sie haben abottt schdnc ! Of 
comrMe wir haben auch eine gekauft, 
for wann ich einmal Past Master bin, 
mofiB ich eine haben for in die ojice 
hinein [xu] thun. 

2. Saldeman's Pronuneiation, eont, 

tsu s^^n'B. Dah stn m'r AAbh''r 
vmool' An bis'UBS. 

BhAtsh'i} nen si dArt, farst 
r^^'ti f'r 8ek\i't8ee his tsu fiVr- 
Hun'Brt-fuf'tsiTrh tAAl'Br. !NAkh 
dem dAs m'r sii umool* rekht 
bugukt* nen, ts di Pebh'» tsu d'r 
kAnkluu'shtJu kum'u nn :Amerj- 
kAA'ntshB bhAtsh tsu kAAf'B. 

DArt Hen si aa bhAs si ter- 
num'tVrs h^<fs*a — so n diqdAs eem 
bhaist bhi kAlt 's bhet*'r is, un 
sel diqt TRikh kent m'r broukh'B 
Al'obhrtil. En'tHau m*r nen 
ems gckAAft-. 

Dii bhAtsh ts aa «n farst r^^'t*. 
Ikh. bhAr aIs uf der m^^'nuq dAS 
dii lAmerikAA'nisht? bhAtsh *« 
bhser'B drous in Daitsh'Unt 
gmAAkht', un AA*bh*r sel fs 
net bhoor. Un dii nausuu'rB; 
tshii'mBui* f^irs ! AA*bh*r si nen 
Tibflut' shwni! Uf koors m'r 
nen AA een'i gnkAAft*, fr bhAn 
ikh tjmool* Poosht M^esh't*r bin 
mus ikh ee'ui HAA'bhB for tn di 
Af'ts nai du. 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation^ eont, 

see. Then are we again once on 

Watcher have they there, ^r*<-ra/^ 
^ones) for sixteen up-to four hundcrd 
(and) fifty dollars. After that wie 
them once rightly beseen have, is the 
Barbara to the c^nc/mion come, an 
American watch to buy. 

There have they also what they 
Thermometer* call — so a thing that 
to-him shows how cold the weather 
is, and same thinks me might we use 
presently. Anyhow we have one 


The watch is also a first-rate (one). 
I was always on [all up = entirely 
of, always of] the opinion that the 
American watches were there-out in 
Germany made, and but same is not 
true. And the houseclocks ; Gemini 
Fires ! but they have about beautiful 
(ones) ! Of course we have also one 
bought, for when I once Post Master 
am, must I one have, for into the 
office hence-in (to) do. 



Chap. VII. f 1. 

1. Bauch's Orthography, continued, 

Se hen aw an grosser shtock 
ftin Silvemy Leffla, Brilla, nn 
ich weas net was olles. De 
Bevvy hut gedu das well ich 
yetz boll amohl** an United 
Shtates Government Officer si 
weer, set ich mer aw an Brill 
kawfa, un ich hab aw eany 
krickt das ich now net gewa 
deat fer duppelt's geld das se 
gekosht hut, for ich kon yetz 
noch amohl so goot seana un 
leasa das^ tsufore. 

Un we ich amohl dorrich my 
neie Brill geguckt hab, donn 
hab ich aersht bHI de feiny sacha 
recht beguckt, un an examina- 
tion gemacht fun Breast Pins, 
Rings, Wat<;h-kctta,*' Shtuds, 
Messcra un Gowella, etc. 

Eans fun sella Breastpins hut 
dor Bevvy about goot aw-g'- 
shtonna, awer er hut mer doch a 
wennich tsu feel g'fuddert der- 
fore — 25 dahler, un donn hab 

2. Saideman't ^ronuneiaiumf 0(mt» 

8ii nen jljl vn groo'se shtAk 
fun Sil'bhBmt Lef''lB, Bnl's nn 
t^h bh^ra net bhAs a1*ds. Dii 
Pebh'i Hdt geduu* dAs bh/iil ikk 
Jets bAl vmool' vn Jumd'tot 
Sht^^ GofrmBut Of'tser m 
bha^aer, set ikh m'r aa bu Bnl 
kAA'fo, un ikh HAp AA ee'Tii krikt, 
dAS ikh. nan net gebh'B dM fr 
dup*'lts geld dAS sii gBkasht* 
Het, f r ikh kAn jets nokh vmool* 
soo guut Me'JiB un lee'BB dha 

Un bhii ikh. vmool' dAr'ii&h 
moif nai'i Bnl gBgukt* HAp, 
dAn HAp i^h sersht a1 dii fai'm 
SAkh'B re/^ht bsgukt* un va 
ekssemmrah'n gBmAkht* fttn 
Bresht'pms, Rt'qs, BhAtsh'ket'v, 
Shtots, Mes'BrB un GAbh*'lB, 

Eens fun sel'B Bresht'pins Hat 
d'r Bebh'» vibant' guut aa/- 
gsht'AAU'B, AA'bh'r aer Hat mtr 
ddkh B bhenfXh tsu f iil gfud''rt 
d'rfoor- — finf un tsbhln'stkh 

3. Oerm, f Eng. Tramiaiion, eont, 

Sie habcn auch cincn erwsen stock 
yon silbemen Loffcln, Brillen, and ich 
weiss nicht was alles. Die Barbara 
hat gethan dass wcil ich jetzt bald 
einmal ein United States Governnunt 
Officer sein werde, nollte ich mir auch 
eine Brille kaufen, und ich habo auch 
eine gukriegt, dass ich uow nicht geben 
thate fur doppelt-das Geld das sie 
gekostet hat, for ich kann jetzt noch 
einmal so gut sehen und lesen [als] 
dass zuvor. 

Und wie ich einmal durch meine 
neue Brille gr^ckt habe, dann habe 
ich erst alle die feinen Sachcn rccht 
beguckt und an exataination gemacht 
von BreoMfpiMSf Riuga^ JHi^rA-ketten, 
Studs, Messer und Gabeln, etc. 

Eins von sclbi^^ Breastpins hat der 
Barbara about gut angestanden, aber er 
hat mir doch ein wenig zu viel gcfodert 
dafiir — ^fiinf and zwanzig Thaler— and 

4. Verbal Eng. translation, cont. 

They have also a great stock of silver 
spoons, spectacles, and I know not 
what all. The Barbara has done [es- 
timated] that because I now soon onoe 
a Unitea States Governmetit Officer be 
shalU should I me also a pair-of-spee- . 
tacles buy, and I have also one got, 
that I now not c:ive would-do for 
double the money that it cost has, for 
I can now still once so good see and 
read [as] that before. 

And as I once through my new 
spectacles looked have, then have I 
first all the fine thing^s right be-scen, 
and an examination made of Breast* 
pins, Rings, Watehf^zxnA, Studs, knives 
and forks, etc. 

One of the same Breastpins has the 
Barbara about good on-stood [suited], 
but he has me, however, a little too 
much asked therefore— five-and-twenty 

Chap. YIL § 1. 



1. MMueh*8 Orthography^ eontinued, 

ich mer tsuletsht eany rous ge- 
packt fer drei fsertle dahler, fer 
sellj sogt de Bevvy, is anyhow 
ah^d fan ennicher'* onnery in 

Awer ich konn der net alles 
aawya. Waer meaner" wissa 
will, un waer first raty krishdog 
sach will — de feinsty un beshty 
presents, mog selwer dort ons 
Zahms gea un sich selwer suta. 
No more at present. 

Pit Schwefflebrenner. 

2. Saldeman*8 PronunciatioHf cont, 

tAA'l'r, .un din HAb ikh. mtir 
tsuletsht* ee'ni raua gBp/kt* fr 
trtfi faer't'l tAA'ltir, fr sel** SAkt 
di Bebh'» f*s en'iHdu chet* fun 
en'iX'hBF An'Bri in Shl/f'lt^iun. 

:Aa*bb*r ikh kAn d'r net aI'bs 
sAA'ghB. Bhaer mtf«i**r bhis'o 
bhil, un bhaer ferst re?^'* Krish*- 
tAAkh sAkh bh/1 — dii fain'sht* 
un besht't bres'ents, mAAkh sel*- 
bh*r dArt aus Tsaahis g^^'B un 
Bi^h sel'bh'r suu'tB. Noo moor 
et bres'^nt. 

Piit Shbheflbren-'r. 

S. Oerm, 4^ Eng. Translation, oont. 

dum habe ich mir zuletzt eine heraas 
ge/»i>iH fur drei Viertel Thaler, for 
•elbiges sagt die Barhara is anyhow 
mhemd Yon einiger anderen in SchUffel- 

Aher ich kann dir nicht alles sagen. 
Wer mehr wissen will, and wer Jirst- 
rmtt'e Christtag Sachen will — die 
feinsten and beaten presents^ mag selber 
doit an' 8 Zahms gehen nnd sich selber 
auitea. No more at present. 

Peter Schwefelbrenner. 

4. Verbal Eng, Translation^ eont, 

dollars — and then have I for-me at- 
last one out picked for three-quarten 
(of a) dollar, for same says the Barbara 
is anyhow ahead of any other in 

But I can thee not all say. Who 
more know will, and who Jlrst-rate 
Christmas things will — the finest and 
best presents^ may himself there to-the 
Zahm's (house) go, and him self suit. 
No more at present. 

Peter Schwefelbrenner. 

Note9 on the above Text. 

> Mister if used as well as the 
German form (m««h't'r). — S. 8. 

' Father Abraham means the late 
prendeot Abraham Lincoln, assumed 
w the title of Ranch's newspaper. 

* The guttural omitted, as frequently 
!■ nirhf, niehts. 

* The infinitive -^ for -*», as fre- 
qnently in Chaucer, and commonly 
BOW on the Rhine. 

' Einmal, a common expletive, in 
which the first syllable, even among 
■ore educated German speakers sinks 
into an ind'stinct (b). Observe the 
transition of (a) into {oo). 

* I he common change of (b) into 

' BoTvy, or Perry, is a short form 
of Barbara, a rather common name in 
the dialect. Both forms are used in the 
following; specimen. — S.S. M . German 
Bahbc, babohen, compare the English 
Bah, Babby. 

* Doh here, fergonga recently, an 
adverb, not for vergangens Woche. — 

s. s. n. 

» Observe the frequent change of 
the German am, indisputably (au, ou) 
into English (aa), precisely as we find 
to have occurred in English of the 
xvu th century, 

'0 The not unfrequent changes of o 
lon^ into (uu) are comparable to 
similar English changes xv th century. 

^^ Onna^ the preposition an used as a 
verb, as in the English expression, 
*' he ups and runs." I take this view 
because sind is an auxiliary and a 
present tense form, but the adverbial 
tendency of onna (as if thither) must 
nevertheless not be ovtTlookod. A 
German will sometimes use in English 
an expression like ** out en the candle !" 
rarely heard in English — S S. II. 

*' Observe here a Gennan plural 
termination e affixed to an English 



Chap. VII. § 1. 

*• Ecke being feminine, the correct 
form is an der Ecke, although -eek in 
composition is neuter, as dreieck, vier- 
eck. — S.S.H. In Schmeller's Bayr. 
Wdrt. 1, 26, ''das Eck, eigenthch 
Egg " is recognized as south German. 
In the following word fun for vott, 
short o becomes (u) or (m). 

** This change of German a to o is 
common, as in (shloof'v) for schla/en, 
(shoo/) for sehaf, etc.— S.S.H. See 
note 5, and compare this with the 
change of ags. (aa) into South English 
(00, oo)y while (aa) remained in the 

^* This frequent and difficult word 
has been translated selbiges throughout, 
as the nearest high German word, and 
aelly, 9 lines above it, may, in fact, in- 
dicate this form . Compare Schmel- 
ler's Bayr. Wort. 3, 232, " Selb [de- 
clinabelj in Schwaben ofter nach erster 
Declin.-Art (seler, e, es), in A. B. 
lieber nach zweiter [der, die, das (s'l, 
den s'ln, di sMn), etc.] gebraucht, statt 
des hochd. jeiter, e, es, wclcluis un- 
volksUblich ist. [Fiir der, die, das 
selbe im hochd. Sinn, d.h. idem^ eadem, 
idem, braucht die Mundart der die, 
das nendiche.'] (s'l as ma\, d^s s'l maX, 
s'l'malz) jenes Mel, (s'l a tsait) zu 
jener zeit, (s'l ot-Hwlb-m) oder (-bhegq) 
desfjenigen] wegen." 

^'^ iSaivgt=sagf, says, secht ^ sagt, 
instead of sagte, said, with the Umlaut. 
— S. S. H. The weak verb has there- 
fore a strong inflection. This distinc- 
tion is preserved throughout. Compare 
the common vulgar (and older ?) forms 
slrp^ sivf^p, with the usual slept, wept, 
and see suprk p. 355, art. 54. 

*^ Genufik, with educed k, is com- 
mon in archaic and provincial German, 
and RoUenhagen rnymes Jung, pro- 
nounced ./mwcX: dialectiailly, with trunk. 
— S. S. H. See supri p. 192, n. 1. 

*" (P/t) or (Piit) may be used for 
this short form of Peter. — S.S.H. It 
is the English Pefe, not a German 
form as the vowel shews 

1* Observe the vowel educed by the 
strong trill of the ( r). For con- 
venience (r has been printed through- 
out, but the reader must remember 
that it is always distinctly, and some- 
times forcibly,' trilled with the tip of 
the tongue, and never sinks to (j). 

20 l)as wann, that though, as 
though. — S S. H. Oookts das wann, 
for sieht es aus aU ob, it looks as if. 
See note 36. 

2* Observe the German infinitive 
termination -0 for -enj added to a 
purely English verb. 

*' The development of s into (sh) is 
remarkable in nigh German. It is 
acknowledged as the proper pronun- 
ciation before t, p at the beginning of 
a syllable, throughout Germany, even 
North German actors not venturing to 
say (st-, sp-) even in Hamburg, as I 
am informed, the capital of that pro- 
nunciation. But in final -st, the 
common (-sht) is looked upon as a 
vulgarism, even in Saxony. 

^ Kfrrls, may have an English «, 
but the form is often playfully used by 
good speakers in Germany, and hence 
may have been import^ and not 

** Hinnich for hinter has developed 
a final -ig, but this is a German ad- 

** Gedropt, the German participial 
form for dropped. So also elsewhere I 
find gepunished, which may be oom- 
pared with Chaucer's ypunish'd, Prol. 
V. 657. 

^ Orrig, very, Swiss arig (Stalder 
1, 110), German org, but not used in 
a bad sense. — S.S.H. The word aiy 
implies cunning and annoyance, but 
its use as an intensitive is comparable 
to our horrid, awfully, dreadfulif. 
which are firequentlv used in a good 
sense, as : horrid oeautiful, awfully 
nice, dre4id fully crowded. Das ist eu 
arg ! that is too bad. too much ! is a 
common phrase even among educated 

^'' Aw for German an is nasalised, 
which distinguishes it from the same 
syllable when used for the German 
auch, also. — S. S. H. This recent 
evolution of a nasal sound in German, 
common also in Bavarian, may lead ns 
to understand the comparatively recent 
nasal vowels in French, infra Chap« 
VIII, § 3. 

•i» I he gender is changed because it 
refers to a man ; so in high German it 
is not unfre(]uent to find Eriiulein, 
Miidchen, although they have a neuter 
adjective, referred to by a feminine 

?r(moun, as : *' das Fraulein hat ihren 
landschuh fallen lassen," the younff 
lady [neuter] has dropped her [fem.J 

*• In an earlier line g'sen ior gesehen^ 
but here we have a double infinitive, 
as if zu sehenen. This is also used for 
the third person plural of the preeeni 

Chap. VII. { 1. 



tenae, as in tie gehen-a, they go. — 
8.S.H. Compare also ieh hob dich, 
¥}okl gesttfkne^ in the Oesprdeh, p. 
654. This seems comparable to what 
Ptof. Child calls the protracted past 
participle in Chaucer, supr^ p. 357, 
art. 61. It is impossible to read 
the present specimen attentively with- 
oat being struck by the similarity 
between this PennsylTania German 
and Chaucer's English in the treat- 
ment of the final -e, -m of the older 
dialects. The form (sel-bhsr) in the 
^receding line preserves the b in the 
nmn (bh). Schmeller also allows selber 
to preserve the b as (s'l'bd), see n. 15. 

^ Da9 earn tceitty that shews him, 
that shews to one or a person. — 
S. S. H. JSam —eiuem, not ihm. 

** This aU is Swiss, which Stalder 
defines by ehedem hitherto and immer 
alwajrs, compare ags. eal^nge altoge- 
ther and eal-wig always. — S. S.H. See 
also Schmeller Bayr.-W6rt. 1, 50. Dr. 
Mombert takes ais to be an obsolete 
high German contraction of ailes in 
the sense of ever, mostly, usually. 

" Prof. Haldeman takes uf for «m/, 
but dtr MetHung^ and not auf der 
Meinung^ is the German phrase, and 
hence the word may be English, 
aa afterwards, uf eour»e. But this 
is hazardous, as uf in this sense could 
hardly be joined with a German dative 
ier Meinung. Can aU uf be a dialec- 
tic expression for alUs auf literally all 
up, that is, entirely.^ Compare, Schmel- 
ler, Bayr. Wort. 1, 31, ''auf und auf 
von onten (ganz, ohnc Unterbrcehun^) 
Ins oben, auf utui nider vom Eopf bis 
nun Fuss, ganz und gar." 

^ Chcetnany \& the English exclama- 
tion Ok jeemany. — S.S.H. The Eng- 
lish is apparently a corruptitm of: ()h 
Jesus mini, and has nothing to do with 
the Gemini. But what is the last part 
of this exclamation : fires ? Prof, 
flaldeman. suggests, hell firea ! Dr. 
Mombert derives from the shout of: 
^rt ! Can the near resemblance in 
lound between cheemany and chimney^ 
have suggested the following fires? 
Such things happen. 

** For in dt office ni du seems to 
stand for um in die office hinein zu 
tkun. The use of for for wn is a mere 
Anglicism, but why is zu omitted be- 
fore thun / By a misprint, or dialec- 

tically for euphony? It is required 
both by the German and English 
idiom. Dr. Mombert considers the 
omission of zu dialectic in this place, 
elswhere we find zu do. 

^ Boll amohU bald einmal, pretty 
soon, shortly. This use of einmal once, 
appears in the English of Germans, as 
in : " Bring now here the pen once.** 

*• Bas, This is not the neuter 
nominative article das, which isdesm 
this dialect, but a contraction of aU 
dassy with the most important part, 
ah, omitted. — S.S.H. I am inclined 
to take it for dass used for als, as in 
the former phrase das wann = als ob, 
see note 20. According to Schmeller, 
Bayr. Wort. 1, 400 '^ dass schliesst 
sich als allgemeinste conjunction, in 
der Rede des Volkes, gem andem con- 
junctionen erklarend an, oder vertritt 
deren StelUr 

^ JVatch'Jcetta, a half English, half 
German compound, is comparable to 
CYiiiMCGTS foot mantel, half English and 
half French, in Prol. infr^ v. 472, and 
8upr& p. 651, 1. 6. 

** This may be the English any. 
like the German einig, treated like 
einiger, or it may be a legitimate de- 
velopment of this, as eins is eens. — 
S.S.H. The latter hypothesis seems 
the more probable, and then the Eng- 
lish signitication may have been at- 
tached to the German word from simi- 
larity of sound. Dr. Mombert thinks 
the word may be either any treated as 
a German word, or irgend einer cor- 
rupted. Observe the frequent use 
of (ee) for (ai) as eens for eins. The 
transitions of (au) into (aa), (ai) into 
{ee), (aa) into (oo), and ocasionally (o) 
in (u), are all noteworthv in connection 
with similar changes in English. 

'* Meaner for mehr is obscure. Com- 
pare Schmeller, Bayr. Wort. 2, 581 ; 
** manig, Schwab, menig, meng^ a) wie 
hochd. manch .... Comparativisch 
steht in Amberg. Akten v. 1365 "An 
ainem stuck oder an mcngem.** . . . 
Sonst hbrt man im b. W. wie in 
Schwaben einfacher den Comparativ 
mener, mehr, welchcr eher aus (mee, 
me) als aus menger cntstellt schcint ; 
oder sollte es noch unmittelbar zum 
alten mana^ gehorenP" 




Two German scholars, Professors Gesenius and Rapp, have pub- 
lished special studies on the language and pronunciation of Chaucer, 
of which it is now necessary to give an account. The following is 
a condensed abstract of the treatise entitled : Be Lingua Chauceri 
commcntationem grammaticam scripsit Fridericus Guilelmus Qe- 
eenius, Bonnae, 1847, 8vo. pp. 87. The writer (who must not 
be confounded with the late Prof. Wilhelm Gesenius. of Halle, the 
celebrated Hebraist,) used Tyrwhitt's text of the Canterbury Tales, 
according to the 1843 reprint. In the present abstract Wright's 
spelling and references to his ed. of Harl. MS. 7334 (which have 
all been verified) are substituted, and much relating to the pecu- 
liarities of Tyrwhitt's text is omitted ; inserted remarks are 
bracketed. Gesenius's ags. orthography has been retained. 

Part I. The Letters. 

Chancer seems to add or omit a final 
t at pleasure, both in ags. and fr. 
words, as was neci^ssary to the metre ; 
and he used fr. words either with the 
ir. accent on the last syllable or with 
the present English accent, for the 
same reason. 

Chap. 1. Vowels derived from AnfflO' 

Short vowels are followed by two 
consonants, or by either one or two in 
monosyllables, and long vowels have a 
tinele consonant followed by e final. 

I. Ags. short a is preserved in : land 
402, hand 401, bimin 5767, ran 4103, 
drank G044, thanked 927 ; but fiuctu- 
ates often between a and o. as : londcs 
14, bond 108, out^^prong 13526, bygon 
7142, nat 2247, drank 13970, i-thanked 
7700 [in the three last cases, Tyrwhitt 
has J. 

Short a answers to ags. a, according 
to Grimm's separation d = goth. a, 
and (r=gothic e, as: what, that pron., 
ags. hviit ytLt; attc. ags. at 29; glas 
152, have ags. habban, etc. 

Short a also answers to ags. ^a, as 
in : alle ags. cull 10, scharpe ags. 
scearp 114, hallc 372, barme 10945, 
Btarf 9M5, 4703, halpe [Tyrwhitt. hilp 
Wright] 5340, karf 9647, hals 4493. 

Long a is either a preserved ags. a 
long, or a produced ags. a short, as : 
make ags. niacjan 4763, name, fare 
7016, ham, ags. ham 4030. That this 
last word was pronounced diff'erently 
to the others, which probably even 
then inclined to d (fk), is shewn by 
its interchange with home, whereas a 
always remains in tnakef name, etc. 

Long a also arises from ags. d short, 
as : smale ags. smal 9, bar 620 ; fador 
100, blake 2980, this last vowel ii 
sometimes short as 629. 

Long a like short a also arises firom 
ags ca. as: gaf. ags. gcaf 177, mary, 
ags. mcarh 382, jape ags. geap 4341, 
ale 3820, gate 1895, care, etc. 

II. Chaucer 8 e replaces several dis- 
tinct ags. vowels. 

Short e stands 

for ags. e short, in : ende 15, wendt 
16, bedde, selle 3819, etc. 

for ags. •', y, in : cherche (Wr. 
chirche), ags. circe 4987 ; selle an. 
syl, threshold, 3820, rhyming with 
selle, ags. sylle ; scheeld ags. scjld 
2895, rhyming with heeld, ags. h^ld, 
kesse ags. cyssan 8933 ; stenten, 
stintan 906 ; geven, ags. gifan, 
917, etc. These forms are only 
when wanted for the rhyme, and t is 
the more common vowel. 

for ags. ea, ed in : erme, ags. ^ar« 
rojan 13727; erthe, ags. card, eorSe 
1K98 ; ers, ags. cars 7272 ; deme, agt. 
dearn 3200, 3297 ; herd 272 ; est, agt. 
east 1905. 

for ags. eo. in : sterres, ags. steom 
270 ; cherles ags. ceorl, ger. kerl, 
7788 ; yeme ags. gcorne, ger. gem, 
6575; leme. ags. leomjan. 310; swerd 
112, werk 481, derkest 4724; yelwe, 
ags. geolu 677. 

Long e stands 

for ags. short e in : ere, ags. erjan 
888 ; queen, ags. even 870, ete. 

for ags. long e, more frequently, in : 
seke, ag9. s^an 13 ; kene 104, grene 
103. swete 5, mete 1902, wepyng 2831, 
deme 1883. 



ibr ags. ae long : beres, ags. haer 
657; breede, 1972; lere, ags. laeran 
6491 ; see 59, yeer 82, reed 3527, 
depen 10, clene 369, specbe 309, strete 
3823, etc. 

for ags. e6 as in : seke, ags. 8e6c 18, 
as well as : sike, ags. sioca 245, these 
dipbtbongs m, to, bad probably a simi- 
lar pronunciation and are bence fre- 
quently confused, so heofan, hiofon^ 
and /«dS, lio^; scbeene, ags. 8ce6ne, 
beautiful, 1070 ; leef 1839, &eef 3937 ; 
tene, ags. te6na, grief, 3108; deepe 
129, cbese 6480, tree 9337, tre 6341, 
prertea 164, prest 503, etc 

for ags. ea and ed in : eek 5, gret 84, 
betetb 11078, neede 306, reede 1971, 
bene 9728, cbepe 5850, deef 448, 
sftremes 1497, teeres 2829, eet 13925, 
nere 544. 

Notbing certain can be concluded 
concerning the pronunciation of these 
«^8, which arose from so many sources. 
They all rhyme, and may have been 
the same. In modem spelUng the e is 
BOW doubled, or more fr^uently re- 
Tertsto ea. 

III. The Yowel i has generally re- 
mained unchanged at all periods of the 
language. Mention has already been 
made of its interchange with e where 
tiie ags y was the mutate of u or eo, to, 
tiius: fist 6217, fest 14217, ags. f^st; 
mjUe 4113, melle 3921, ags. myll ; 
fisl 5090, fiUe 10883, ags. feof ; deyeles 
7276, deryl 3901 [divel Tyrwhitt, 
itml Heng. and Corp.], ags. dioful. 
The t generally replaces a^. y, and e 
replaces ags. to, I/ong t similarly re- 
places long ags. y, as occasionally in 
tgs. Short ags. i seems to baye been 
lengthened before M, nd^ [no reasons 
ire adduced,] as in: wylde 2311, 
ehylde 2312, fynde 2415, bynde 2416. 
Undoubtedly this long t was then pro- 
nounced as now, namely as German 
#i (ai). [Pronunciatio longs yo€»lis 
f sine dubio iam id aetatis eadem fuit 
qnam nunc, id est ft.] In the con- 
tracted forms Jlntj print for Jindethf 
frindetA, there was Uierefore a change 
of foyrelt Jint haying the German short 
I, MSid Jindeth German ei, [No reasons 
adduced. 1 

IV. Short stands 

for ags. short o in : wolde 651, 
god 1254. 

for ags. short u : somer ags. sumer 
396 ; wonne ags. wunnen 51 ; nonne 
118, Sonne 7, domb 776, dong 532, 
londry, ags. sunder, 14, 25. Nearly 

all these words are now written with ii, 
and preserye Chaucer's pronunciation, 
for aumtMr is written, but sammer 
spoken [i.e. Gesenius did not distin- 
guish the sounds (a, o).] 

for a^. short a, as already obseryed, 
and IS generally preferred before ndj 
and remains in Scotch and some 
northern dialects. 

Long stands 

for ags. long o in : bookes, ags. bfle, 
1200 ; stooden 8981, stood 5435, took 
4430, foot 10219, sone 5023, sotbely 
117, etc. 

for ags. long a in : wo, ags. y& 8015, 
moo 111, owne, ags. dgen 338, homly 
7425, on 31, goost 205, hoote 396, 
ooth 120, loth 488. In such words a 
is uncommon, the sole example noted 
being ham 4030. Both o's rhyme to- 
gether and were therefore pronounced 
alike. At present the first is u and the 
second o. 

for ags. short u in : sone 79 ; wone, 
ags. yunjan 337, groneth 7411. 

y. Short u stands for ags. short u 
in: fal, ags. fiill 90, lust 192, but 142, 
cursyng 663, uppon 700, suster 873, 
shulde probably arose from some form 
aeulde^ not sceolde^ as we haye no other 
instance of ags. eo becoming short u. 
There is no long u in Chaucer. 

YI. The yowel y is occasionally put 
for t. 

YII. The diphthong ay or ai stands 
for affs. Hg in : day, ags. dag 19, weie 
793, lay 20, mayde 69, sayde 70, faire 
94, tayl 3876, nayles 2143, pleye 236, 
reyn 592, i-freyned, a^s. nagnan 
12361. These examples snew that «y 
was occasionally written for ay, and 
hence that ey^ ay must haye been pro- 
nounced alike. 

YIII. The diphthong ey or ei arose 
from ags. fd as in : agein, ags. age&n 
8642, or from edg as : eyen, a^ e&^ 
152, deye, ags. de&gan 6802, [mort, is 
there such a word in ags. P it is not in 
Bosworth or Ettmuller; Orrmin baa 
dej^enn^ supr& p. 284. There is a 
deagan tingere.] The change in these 
two last words may be conceiyed thus : 
first g is added to ft, then replaced by 
j (j) and finally yanishes, as eige^ eife^ 
eie or eye. From eah comes eighj as 
eahtaj hedk, nedh, aledh^ which giye 
eyght, beygh, neygh, sleygh. This 
orthography is howeyer rare, and higkef 
nig he, alighe, or hie nie slie, without 
ghy which was probably not pronounced 
at that time, are more common. Tha 



', Til. i I. 

ihong Of 
r before 

word eifkl eipUinB the origin or night, 
might, eU., from age. nrahl, mfahl. 
wluch WBre probably first written 
Hrifhl, meighl. niid tben dropped the 
t. [There is no historical ground for 
this inppoiition.l 

IX. The diphlhoi 
end of worda oi ' 
■p. long u (na I 
diecBl Gonnim u). in : hour, agi. bQr 
1SIA3, oure 34, schowree 1, loun, ogi. 
tCtn 217 ; rooned, age. Htn 7132, donn, 
Iff. diin 954 ; hoiu 23S, oule 6863, hook, 
«g». bOce, Germ, banish, 2748. Booked 
S326, brooke, ngs. brilcan, ase. 10182, 
eto. In many of these wordi ow ia 

Before Id and nd, o« stands somedmei 
for ags. ihort m. Bofure gh, on arises 
from agg. long d, and aniwen to middle 
Oennan ub, at: inough. agi. gcnQg. 
mbg. genuoc 37S ; rougbt. Bg«. rSbto 
8661, 3770, for which au ii lometiniei 
[band, compare lali 41B5, ti/uile 1261. 

Finallj an sometimea arises from 
ags. tit!, fu in : foure, aga. fe^Tcr 210 ; 
tnntlie, aga. tre6ith, 46, clc. 

X. The diphthong cw, etc, will bo 
trsated under u>. 

Chep. 2. CoHKHiiati derimd from 

1. Liquids i. m, n, r. 

L is nsoilly Eingle at the end of 
worda. thnugh oR«n doubled, aa it is 
medially between a short and anv 
towdI, but between a long rowel and 
■ eonnnant it rcmiina single. 

The meUthesia of R wbieh occim 

bnddes 2931, 10925 ; . . 

fluetteoe 7841, thritty U437 ; thargb 
2S19. But as these words hare re- 
gained their primili»e forms bird, 
third, Ihreugh, we oerceive that the 
metatheuB was aociaontal. In other 
wordi the transposed sga. form disap- 
pears in Chaucer, thus : gothic rinnaH, 
■g*. imoii. Chancer renne 3888; 
frankio driitaH, ags. heritaa, Ch. 
threiuhe fi38, threiashfold 3482 aga. 
JireacTotd, f erscrold ; frank, prettnn, 
Bgs. icrtloH, Ch. itrti {Harleian and 
unadowne hrtiltn Ellesmere and 
Eengwnrth, and Corpus, brttlyn Cam- 
briit^] 1982; goth brinwin, aga. *•>- 
nun, Cb. bren 2333 ; modem run, 
[Hm in Deyonahire], tkratk, but burn 

lamb 4879, but uot aJw*^ m Ifma 
4881, now limit. 

B is used for b in Hfmpyiia 4927. 

F, which between two Towela was * 
in ags., is lost in hied 109, aga. hedfod, 
htdiod. There acems t« be a aimilar 
elision of/ from i^. tfenfard in m/am 
3237 {tmfonh Elleamere. Hongwrt. 
Corpus, wrArd! Cambridge, hnttforth 
PetwortK infor'^i Lnnsdowne], com- 
pare han for ham 754, 1048, etc. T 
la generallj final, as : wif 447. Ijf 
22J9, g^ 1902, haC 2430, stryf 183B 
knTf 3958, more larel; medi^ [^ 
instances cited have final /in Wright], 
whera it ia generally replaced by », 
not found aga., as: wjve 1862, Ijra 
1720, gcien 917, heren 2111,steTan, 
■gs, stefen 10464; haTonea 409. 

V is ncTcr used finaU;^, but ia re- 
placed by w. followed sometimes by (, 
ns: iBi«gb20ig,draw 2349, now 2266, 
■owe 2021, towe 2026, knew 207O, 
bliew 10093, fewo 2167, ncwe 17291, 
trawe 17292. In the middle of a word 
ai", oa are replaced by au, au, but 
before i>, w ia retained, »«; bowre 
3909, achowre 3910. 

H'arisesfrDoiagB.f,asin: lawe,Bga. 
lagB 311 1 dawes, ags. dag, 11492, ud 
as day is more common for the last, we 
also find lag for the first, 4796. Com- 
pare also fawe ap. fiiegen 5802 rhjitl' 
ing with laipt, i->lawa 946, for fain, 
i/aiH, W also replaoea g in : aawe 
IS2S, 6241, roawe 4906, wawcs 1960, 
■orw 10736, morwe 2493, borwe 10910, 
herberw 4143, heibergh 767, 11347. 

III. Linguslarf, I. Ih, i. 

The rule of doubling medial conso- 
nants is neglected HD stands for aga. K, 
■a : thidur 4564, whider 6968. gaSerd, 
Icgeder, etc., in the preterits did* 
3421, 7073, 8739, and hade 566, 619. 
[Ellesmere and a few MSS. where it 
seems to have been an accommodittion 
to the rhymes ipadt, jfodr.] Similarly 
i-written 161. i-write 5086, although 
the Towel waa short in aga. [It i« 
lengthened by BuUokar in tbo xvtth 
centuiT. p. 114. 1. 7.] Perhaps liM 
has a long i in Chaucer's time, see 87, 

8 final ia often single, as ; blia 4843, 
gins 153, nmys 17210,) 

The termination ti in some adiBrha 
is n..w ce, as : oones 3470, twyos 4346, 
thriL« 63, hennes hens 16972, 14102, 
henen 4031 [in Tyrwhitt, heylhm 
Ellesmere, hrilhcn Corpus, no cor- 
responding word in Harleian], heiui* 



2US ; koines 5463, 4930, thenne 
6728; whennet 12176. 

Hie ainpirate TM had a double cha- 
neter y tf in ags., and a doable sound, 
which probably preTailed in Ghancer'i 
tbne, uthoagh scarcely recoc:nized in 
writing. That th was used in both 
senses we see from : breeth, ags. bracS 
6 ; heeth, ags. haeS 6 ; fetheres, ags. 
MSet 107 ; forth, ags. forS 976 ; waflc- 
e& 1064, etc; that, ags. baet 10 — 
ther 43, thanked 927. The use of 
medial and final d for th are traces of 
C, as : mayde, ags. maeg^ 69 ; qnod, 
aga. craiS 909 ; wheder ags. hya'Sre 
4714 [whether, Wright] ; cowde ags. 
enrS 94; whether and eou^e are auo 
found. Again, we also find [in some 
MSS.] the ags. d replaced by ^A, in : 
fother 7937, gather 1056, wether, 
1036e, mother 5433, [in all these cases 
Wright's edition has d]. But t on the 
other hand is never put for ags. ^. 

The relation of th, <, is shewn by 
their flexional interchange in ^eth, -et . 

The elision of th gives wher 7032, 

lY. Gutturals, e, k, eh, g, h, j, g, x. 

K is used before e, i, and e before 
0, 0, M, hence kerver 1801, kerveth 
17272, but : carf 100. Medial ags ee 
becomes ek or kk, as nekke, ags. hnecca 
288; thikke, ags. )>icca 551 ; lakketh 
2282, lokkes 679. Modem ek after a 
riiort Yowel is sometimes k, as : seke 18, 
Uake 2980. 

Grimm lays down the rule that e, k 
fall into eh before e, i except when 
these Towels are the mutates of a, o, u, 
in which cases k remains, (Gram. 1', 
615.) ech has arisen from ags. ee in 
the same way as kk, as : wrecche, ags. 
Traecca 1 1 332 fecche, ags. feccan (>942 ; 
eaeche MeL, strecche, recche, etc. 
Probably the pronunciation was as the 
present teh, 

K was ejected fix>m made, though 
the form maked remains 2526. In 
r£uU 173, if it is not derived from the 
French, the g of ags. regulj regol, has 
been ejected. 

O was probably always hard, and so 
may have been gg, in: brigge, ags. 
brycg 3920 ; eggyng ags. ecg, 10009 ; 
higge, ags. hecg 16704. From this 
certainly did not much differ that gg 
which lx>th in Chaucer and afterwaras 
passed into ft,as : ligge, lye ags. lecgan, 
2207; legge, ags. lecgan, 3936; ab^ge, 
abtye, aga. bycgaa 3936. 

The g and y were often interchanged, 
as give yeve, foi]PBte, foigate, gate yate, 
ayen agen, etc. They replaced guttural 
g [due to editor] as in : yere, yonge, 
yeme, ey ; and also in words and ad- 
jectives where y arises from ig, as: 
peny, very, mery, etc., and in the pre- 
fix y or » for ags. g$j as : ylike, ynough, 
ywis, ymade, ysLun, ywriten, ysene, 
ysowe 5653. And^ we have seen is 
also interchanged with w. 

The hard sound of ags. A is evident 
from the change of niht, leoht, JUht, 
viht, etc., into nighty light, ^ighi, 
wight, etc. 

Ags. 80 had always changed into ah, 
German teh. In some words mA re- 
places ah as: fresshe, ags. fr«sc 90, 
wessch 2285, wissh 4873, asshy 2886. 
There is also the metathesis ea on xtor 
ae in axe. 

Chap. 3. Vowel mutation, apocope, and 
junetion of the negative particle. 

I. There is no proper vowel mutation 
{umlaut), but both tne non-mutate and 
mutate lorms, and sometimes one or the 
other, are occasionally preserved, as: 
sote 1, swete 6 ; grove 1637, greves 
1497, 1643 to rhyme with Icffca ; wel- 
ken 9000, ags. wolcen. Germ, wolke ; 
the comparatives and superlatives, 
lenger, atrenger, werat, aud plurals, men, 
feet, geea. 

II. Apocope; lite, fro, mo, thoss 

III. Negative junction; before a 
vowel: non^ne on, nother, neithirsz 
ne other, ne either, iit«=ne is, nam:= 
ne am ; before hot w: nod = ne bad, 
10212, nath - ne hath 926, iit/=ne 
will 8522, nolde—ne wolde 662, nere 
=ne were 877, not = ne wot 286, 
nyaten = ne wysten 10948. 

Chap. 4. Vowela derived from the 

French words with unaltered spelling 
were probably introduced by Chaucer 
himself, and the others had been pre- 
viously received and changed by popu- 
lar use. 

I. The vowel « in unaccented syl- 
lables had probably even then approxi- 
mated to e, and hence these two vowela 
are often confounded. Thus Chauoer'a 
a replaces fr. e, ai, and again Ch. a re- 
places fr. a, thus : vasseUge [see mm- 
aelage, p. 642, col. 2, and waaaegllagc, 
p. 645], fr. vaaselage 3056, vilanye [see 
villany, p. 642, ooL 2, and cemrietp, 
p. 644, ooL 1], fr. Tilenia, vilaiue. 


T28 ; uompanya, fr. compuignii) 46S'(, 
cbcale^ [o/untiyH, chalayii, in MSS., 
MB p. 6«,] fr. ohaBtaigne 3fl24, 

Witli the intorchnnge of the aga. 
towoIb a, 0, we may compnre the chance 
oF IV. a, au, the hitter harinf; nrabablj 
• rough louDd as of so united, whicD 
took place before n;, «, n;, nd, nl in 
both langiiBgei, bnt au nas more fre- 
quent in ChsuCBT and a in French, B* : 
grerance 112G3, greTBonce 16999, uid 
otiier onm and anf tenninulioiu, iiIbd : 
romBUniB, ti. romance I630S ; en- 
h«ana«n, ft. enhanier 1436 ; Btraunge 
fr. estrange lOfiOO, 10403, 10381; 
demaundes, fr. demande 8224 ; laonde 
fr. lande, uncroltiTatcd diatriot, 1603, 
180H ; tvraiint, fr. tinint 0863, tjrant 
ISfiBO; 'graunted B4rB. Bfi96; bannt 
fr. luinle 449. With the eireption of 
the last word all these have noir a. 

II. Long ( frequently ariioi from 
French ui, a* in : ptesaunce, fr. plai- 
rance24S7-, appMO, fir. apaiaier S3D9 i 
freeltee, fr. fraileU ; peere, &. paire 
I6fi40. Snmetimes it replaces i>, ta: 
nece, fr. nies 14611 ; aege 930, siege 
£6 1 and the < ia even ihart in : eberte, 
fr. duert£ 11L93. Similarly fr. i ia 
omitted in the infinitive termination 
Mr, oompare araa, enarwt, darrtini, 
MUtr, eto.. in the list uf obaolete fr. 

Long * also replaces fr. m in : _pepla 
2662 [the word la omitted in Harl., 
other HSS. have prpU, poepU, pupUX 
meblea [morblu Harl.] 9188. To this 
we ahoutd refer : reproef 6698, ypreued 
{prot/d Harl., pnmud Hcngwrt] 487. 

III. That the pronunciation of i 
flaotualed betwsen >' and t we see by 
the frequent intercbango of tbeae let- 
ters ; the fr, shews t for It. >, as i de- 

' B 122, divjn 15643, divide 15676, 


n acecnted sj'llahfes, as : eorer- 
ohefee [raaat HSS., ilnwcWiHatl.] fr. 
ooavTwiuef 4fifi ; corone, fr. couronne 
2392 ; bodor, fr. houcler 40 1 7 ; goteni- 
■unue, fr. gouTemance 106S6 ; aove- 
rejn, fr. wuverain 67. More rarely 
Cb. wit. OH, as : tume [most MSS., 
(auriM Harl.], fr. toumer 24S6 ; oar- 
teaje, fr. coortoisie 16082. 
V. Fr. » ia oftvo replaced hy Ch. h, 

as: tunnont [tormail Harl.l, fr. 1 
mente 6266; abundaantly, fr. habon- 
dant 6290 ; purveana, fr. porviwiice!, 

rurveance 1667; in aatuagt 11147. 
assoager, assouager, the t> had cer- 
tainly the sound of k, compare aticaft 

For long H we occaaionallv End ew, 
which was c-ertainly pronounced as in 
the present frui, dnu. thus: salcwith 
[Hart, and the sii MSS. read lalM^M] 
1494, tranamewed [Iratslalrd Harl., 
IraHtmetuyii Univ. Cam. Dd. 4. 24] 826 
raewe, fr. mue 331 [auuv BUeamara 
and Hengwrt MSS.] jewiae. fr, juiss 
[jBieyM Hart, and roost M88., itm* 
Petworth, luyn Lansd.] 1741. 

VI. The vowels y and i are inter- 
changed in fr, as in ags. words. 

VII, The fr. diphthongs ai, oi, 
osually appear as ti in Chaucer, and 
mnst bave been pronounced identicallTi 
aa; aeyaU, fr, saint 611; doseyn, fr. 
dosaine 680 ; ohesteyn, fr, cbsatugue 
2924 1 peyneth, fr. paiuer, peiner 4740 ; 
coveitous, fr. covoileuz, Mel. These 
diphthongs interchange in Ch. as well 
as in fr. [different MSS, differ ao 
much that Gesenioi'i references to 
Tyrwhitt's edition on this point are 
worthless]. For the inteichooge of a 
and at see I. 

This ia very probable 
unosti woTUB which now contain a or •■ 
in place of the diphthong, bnt less so 
in those which hnvo preserredau; a* 
these had even then perhap the sound 
of Germou au. Ex, nouinbrc 6607 ; 
^ound, fr. foconde 13466, soun, fr. 
eon 2434 ; abounde fr, habondcr 16234. 
[The other eiampleshaveoin Wright'* 
cd , or likcjloHr 4 are not. to the point i 
the above are now all nasal «■.] 

C^ap, 5, Conmnauli dtrivedfrom tin 

The doubling of final consonanta ia 
ftcqaently neglected. 

I. Liquids. 

[The examples of doubling /, r, arc 
•o different in Wright's ed. that they 
cannot be cited,] 

P inserted: dnmpned GS30, damp- 
nacioun 6640; sompne 6920 =aotaone 
TlfiO, aompnour 6900, solempne 209. 
This p is also often found in old fr. 
Similarly in Provencal dompna, tomp- 
fur, Diez. Gram. I, 1»0 (ed. l.j. 

Chap. VII. { 1. F. W. GESEinUS ON CHAUCER. 


II. Labials. 

Pfor b; sipser, fir. gibecier 359; 
cainil, fr. caoal 7732. The letter v, 
which was adopted from the romance 
kmgiiagea into English, had no doubt 
tile same sound as at present, that is, 
it was the German w^ and the w was 
tiie German u, [That is, Ges. con- 
ftises (y, w) with (bh, u) in common 
with most Gennans,] 

As in ags. p passes into German tr, 
to in fir. words initial w becomes g or 
fu. Whether this change was made 
m English by the analogy of the ags. 
dements or from some other dialect of 
old fr., in which probably both forms 
were in use, it is difficult to determine. 
The following are examples : wiket, fr. 
gnichet 10026 ; awayt, fr. aguct 7239 ; 
wardrobe, fr. garderobe 14983. To 
these appear to belong warice and 
wmttearf though they may derive from 
the frankic toarjan wattan, 

m. linguals. 

Z is an additional letter, but is sel- 
dom used, as lazer 242. Ch. generally 
writes 8 for z, 

IV. Gutturals. 

C before ^ t was probably a as now. 
Fr. gn now pronounced as German f|;, 
(nj) is reduced to it in Ch., as Coloyne 
468, feyne 738, barreine, essoine, oine- 
ment. O was doubled after short 
Towels in imitation of ags. 

The aspirate A, which seems to have 
eome from external sources into Eng- 
lish, and was scarcely heard in speech, 
was acknowledged by Ch., but has now 
disappeared, as : abhominaciouns 4508. 
In proheme 7919, the h seems only in- 
Mrtod as a diseresis. 

Fr. qu before e and t is often changed 
into k, as : phisik 913, magik 418, 
practike 5769, cliket 10025. 

Chap. 6. Apfutresis of unaccented 
French e, a. 

Initial e is frequently omitted before 
t<, «p, 9c^ as : stabled, ir. establir 2997 ; 
spices, ft, espece 3015 ; specially 14, 
squyer, fr. escuver 79, scoler, fr. escolier 
262 ; straunge, n*. estrange 13. Similarly 
•, f, are rejected in other words where 
they are now received, as : potecary 
14267, compare Italian bottega a shop ; 
prentis 14711, pistil 9030, compu^ 
Italian pistola, chiesa. The initial a 
in mvyeioun 16600, has been subse- 
quently rejected. 

Pabt II. Flexion. 

Chap, 1. On Nouns. 

Chap, 2. On Atff'eetivee, 

Chap, 3. On Pronouns f Numerals. 

Chap, 4. On Verbs, 


1, Obsolete Chaucerian words of 
Anglosaxon origin, 

[All Gesenius*s words are inserted, 
though some of them are still in fre- 
quent use, at least provincially, or have 
been recently revived. To all such 
words I have prefixed f. The itaUc 
word is Chaucer's, the roman word is 
ags., meanings and observations are in 
brackets. Gesenius seems to have sim- 
ply extracted this list from Tyrwhitt*s 
Glossary without verification, as he has 
occasionally given a reference as if to 
Cant. Tales, which belongs to Bom. of 
Bose. The Mel. and Pers. T. refer to 
the tales of Melibeus and the Persoun, 
without any precise indication, as edi- 
tions differ so much.] 

abcgge abycgan [abide] 3936, abeye 
13515, abye 12622 agrise agrisan 
[frighten] 5034, algates algate algeats 
[in any case] 573, 7619, anhang an- 
hangan [hang on] 13690, attry otter lu 
atter atterlic Persons Tale [poisonous], 
awreke avrecan [wreak] 10768. 

bale [p. 379], barme bearm flapl 
10945, bedred oeddredda [bedridden] 
7351, 9168 ; biknowe becnavan [con- 
fess] 5306, blynne blinnan [cease] 13099, 
blyve [quickly, supr& p. 380, col. 2], 
bwrwe [supr^ p. 380, col. 2 ; where for 
loan read security]^ bouk biice [bell]^^] 
2748, byleve frank, pilipan, germ, blei- 
ben, [remain] 10897. 

-fchaffare cc&p + faran P germ, kauf- 
fahren [chaffer, bargain] 4558, clepe 
clypjan [call] 3432, [name] 121, ete., 
colde [to turn cold] 5299, fcop cop 
[top] 556, <2a/'dofjan [daft] 4206, ders 
derjan [hurt] 1824, 10554, <29m« deam 
dym [hidden p. 382] 3278, 3297, 
dighten dihtan [dispose] 6349, 16015, 
-fdomesman [judge] 15976. 

eft Mft eft Ijagain] 1671, 5212, eft- 
sones [soon again] 6390, eftsoone 16082, 
-^eek e&c [eke] 5, -felde yldo eldo [old 
age] 6797, emforth [supr& p. 666, col. 2, 
1. 8,] iere erjan [to plough] 888, erme 
earmjan [to pity] 13727, ers, ears an 
[arse] 3732, 7276. 

fele fela feola [many] 8793, fere 

[companionship, supr& p. 383], "^fit fitt 
song] 15296, JiAne aflyman [drive 
awayj llH^JIo flogaP [arrow] 17196, 


V. w. aesKNtos on chaccke. 

Chat. TIL f Q 

/mj< ftngnn [take] 4797, farpmt 
plnao [waste awij] 20S, foncard fore- 
Teord [promise] 831, 850, Sfi4, 446D, 
/nyiu gefrcgnan [ask] 12361, /mniji 
fremed [strange] 10743. 
yofc gBlan TyeU] 64H, 6918, f/ar 

E'ttrraD [make; the wnrd ia jsf in 
irL, Heng., Corp., gar in Tjnrbitt] 
4130, girdm gcard gjrrdf [cat 0?] 
ie032, eltide glgd [heat] 3379. gnidt 
gnidlQ fto T)T., girdyng Harl., jij- 

fynjf EUea., Cam., gyggmgi Ueng., 
pyrfyiiS Corp, jiiin'n? tans., tig^n$ 
YtA.^ 2*04, jraiM grama, ger, gram 
[grief] 13331, jreylA hratgao [pre- 
pare] 4307, itsitht 16080. 

kaU heals fneck] 4493, haUe bcala< 
jan [embrace] 150fi6. [heende frank, 
pihandi, germ, behendo [iwiftFcour- 
teoiu, snpri p. 3S5] 3199, 6868, Kenlt 
gehentan (to take] 700, Kent 7082, 
W* hirde [ahephcrdl 605, 12121), 
A«-i> hoijan [prauc] £292, 8492, A««f« 
haae [oammBiid] 140*5, AJ/ArM" 4431, 
h-ti\9toraiafS\ 2400. ilri« 47*4, f A>>*e 
[eaUriOlfi, t*« higan, im Ay* [in 
buWl 2981, >N Ayji«< [in haetp] 4629. 
Ai)M Tuni [hind p. 38S] 806, \lalt 
holt, genu, holl fKood] 6. 

jap* geap [joke] 707, 4341, 13240, 
[to joke] 1*104. 

Kf A( C!«an [annonnce] 7191, kikid 

Srm. gncken [Corp., feilfl' Harl., liktd 
ang.J 344*. latertd [delayed] Fen. 
TfUe, t'"'*' li^e 3902. '!«'"' iT^en 
[language] 10749, famiM leoma [rav; 
tfmmHarl.] 16416, f»vlaBran[tcacli1 
6491, 10002, latM [lightning] lige F 
more probablr than, hlifjan *B98, 
finoaf lierd leaved [ignorant] 6028, 
7S90, liuti lYsan [loon-d] 11482, [re- 
niarion] 116SD, lilh US [limb] 16361, 
lUiitrlg IfSi ia« [bad], ger, liederlioh, 


[wife] 9698,''[mat<:G] 2**8. 

nnifmni nemnan nemjan [name] 
4927, no" notn [business] 4006. 

imeil [nnitedl 7S50. 

fpan panne [brainpan, skull] 1*438. 

ralhti braS hriiiS [quiek] 14510, 
tferlu rScan [r«ck, care) 2247, 4514, 
rttd raed [advice] 3*27, [to adrise] 
3073, rryt goth. nrraisjan [travel] *4, 
tyi arlmn, germ, reisholi [twig] 3324, 
nunt tin 7132, rmeiie 10630. rorfi 
Tilde [niddiniaa, face] 3317. 1*138. 

ftaire sagu finying] 1528. «Aoip« 
■cuia scua [bhade, grove] 4306, 6968, 
ihyierj/ng aciman ecimjan, ger. ichini- 
tnani, [fieng., flymeryng Had.] 4299, 

tcheene Bptne sccAne scBne, ger. acfaOll ' 
[beandlul] 1070, 10202. ^thepm aej- 
pen, ger. icboppen [stable] 6454, 
Khonde sccbnde [di^sce] 15316, 
tn*4« rib [relation] Mel., tikwlg 
ftank. sihbur, germ, richer 137, (rmr 
[ib.] 9*82, tilkt ri« [timea] 6*7*, *153, 
lilhm tilA lin aiSSan 4478. 1817. -th 
*234, KhtHchith scenmn [pour out 
wine] 9*96, ttnytke amiCan [forge] 
3760, timdi sand [message, messenger] 
4808, 14630, fiparrf sparran [spot] 
— ■ rf stfflrf [died] 936, 4703, 

[parenli] 8D33,(uvf(> sveltan 

[die] 3703. twildt 1358, iwnvn svi-fea 
[dream] 16408, etc., luiitkt trX 
[qoickly] 6067- 

ftsnt te6na [loss] 3108, thfictt \Ay 
[morals] 828*. tkolid hSljan [suffer] 
7128, ■\threpe )>reapjan [bhime] 127*4, 
ItcyHHi trtnjan tvc6niin [doubt, aep^ 
rate] 837, 13845. 


ribt [injury] 

teoHhiipr vniijan + hopa [at 
12*1, veliiii vlacjanF Irank. welcbfin, 
germ, verwelkt [withered] 141*3, 
ficcliai volcen 9000, [dart, reads 
A«*fl 16217, TjT. Kf/im], fM"* 

[went] 21, wA.7 (T [abortlj, '-• ■" 

13256, fichitvm bnlum, g 
86), »■>■< vtsan [shew] 6680, i 
vunjaa [dwell] 337, f inwf v5d [m 
1331, (TwrfifA [ragetb] 1239*. 

j/eriie georne 6*7*. tyedt eode [wi 

13069, jfu'yi gewis [certainly] 6040. , 

II. OiKltti Chauterian tear 

Prtnch origiu. 

[The italic word is Chaucer' . 
roman the old French as given 
GeseniuB on the aathoritv of Eoqoefo 
when this is not added the word " 
nnchanged hj Chaucer. Mcaninga 
remarks are in brackets. This list a; 
contains many words not really o 
lete, here marked with f,] 

ajregge aeregior [aggravate] Hdi 
aifUHitfle [admonish] Me!., am- "-' 
anientir [annihilated] Mel., a 
racliier [tear] 8979. farrnf/, [on 
8138, [state, eondition] 718, 81 
4719, [dr«<] 8860, [osoortj SSSI. {tSr\ 
put in order] 8837, aret<f aresterjao- 
Buso, impnte] 726 [Harl,, Corn., Pet., 
Lans.. have rri, niu, the oibeniu' 
rttU], 2731, foaatle [aolve, absolve] 

S52S, attain attempm 16324, Hd, _ 



aTBnter Fboast] 5985, ovatni- 
t9mr [boaster] Mel., avtmtrie [adultery] 
6888, mdv<mtrie 9309, auter autier 2294, 
mffoft ag:aet [watch] 7241, 16211, 
a|i«/ aiel [grandfather] [oy^/ HarL, 
ifwff Corp., Laos., aiel Elles, Heng. 
(km^ eiU Pet] 2479. 

fkeMripne haraigne [barren] 8324, 
kri yn 1979, fdaudeiy baudene [joy] 
1928, fbe$tuoun beneison 9239, blandite 
blandir Pers. T., bobaunee boubance 
8151, hor^ burel [roogh dark dress] 
59S8, Trough] 11028, bribe [broken 
meat after a meal] 6960, [beg] 4415, 
kmmsd bnmir 1985. 

emmtel [fragment] 3010, ^eatel catels 
[goods] 542, 4447, feharboele [carbim- 
^1 15279, ehesteyn chastaigne [chest- 
intj 2924, chivachie chevauch^e [ca- 
Talry expedition] 85, ehivache 16982, 
dtrieoun dergeon [acolyte] 14914, 
etrrumpable [corruptible] 3012, eoetage 
roost] 5831, eovine [practice, cunning] 
606, eoulpe [fault] Pers. T., custumanee 

i custom] 15997, creaunce creancier 
act on credit] 14700. 14714. 

iereyne derainier [prove justness of 
daiml 1611, 1633, delyver delivre 
[quica] 84, f disarray desarray [con- 
rasion J Pers. T., dieputisoun disputison 
[dispute] 11202, dole dol [grief, no re- 
Krenoe giTcn, 4*38], drewery druerie 
[fideUty] 15303. 

egrimoigne agrimoine [agrimony] 
12728, eneheaoun enchaison [cause] 
10770, engendrure [generation] 5716, 
tngrtgge engreger [aggravate] Pers. T., 
tmhorte enhorter [exhort] 2853, fentent 

Sintentionl 3173, feschue eschuir 
avoidf Mel., estaine essoigne [excuse] 
}en, T., eetres [situation, plan of 
bouse] 1973, 4293. 

faiteur faiteor [idle fellow, no re- 
ference], false falser [to falsify] 3175, 
Xfey f<e [faith] 3284, \fers [fierce] 
1600, Utys [beautiful] 157, Jiaunce 
fiance [trust, false reference, 6*167] 
fortune fortuner [render prosperous] 

garget gargate [neck] 16821, fgent 
[genteel] 3234, gyn engin [trick] 10442, 
18093, giteme giiteme guiteme [?uitar] 
S833, 4394, gonfenan [standam 6*62, 
f9mmfa%»c<mn 6'37]. 

fharie harier [persecute] 2728 [rent 
Wr., kariedy the Six MSS.], herburgage 
[dw^ling] 4327, humblesse [humble- 
new] 4585. 

jambeux [leggings] 15283, jangle 
jaagkr [to jest] 10534, [a jest] 6989, 

fuunte juise [judgment] 1741, iratu 
ireux [angry] 7598. 

laehesse [negligence] Pers. T., letua- 
Ties [electuanesj 428, 9683, letterure 
lettr6ure [literature] 15982, 12774, 
loot los [praise, g^ood fame] 13296, 
Mel., losengour [flatterer] 16812. 

Mahoun Mahon [Manomet] 4644, 
fmaistrie [master's skill] 3383, [mas- 
tery] 6622, 9048, f malison maleiceon 
[malediction] Pers. T., t't^'*^'^ n^^- 
nacher [menace] 9626, maat mat [sad] 
957, matrimoigne [matrimony] 9447, 
maumet mahommet [idol] Pers. T., 
mereiable [merciful] 15099, mesel 
Reper] Pers. T., meseJrie [leprosy] Pers. 
T., fmewe mue [place for keeping oirds] 
351, 10957, mester fmyBtery, business, 
trade] 615, 1342 [except in Harl., 
which reads cheer.] 

nakers nacaires [kettledrums] 2513, 
nyee [foolish] 6520, nyeete 4044. 

foynement oignement 633, olifaunt 
olifant [elephant] 15219, opye [opium] 

f palmer palmier 13, parage [parent- 
age] 5832, parjlght parfyt parnt [per- 
fect] 72, 3011, j9ar/«parter [take part 
in] 9504, ^penance [penitence] Pers. 
T., [penance] 223, [affliction] 5224, 
11052, penant [penitent] 15420, po- 
raille [poor people] 247, prow prou 

fprofitj 13715, fpurveanee pourveance 
providence, forethought] 1254, 6152, 
3566, puterie [whorSlom] Pers. T., 
putottr [whoremonger] Pers. T. 

rage ragier [sport] 3273, real [royal] 
15630, rially [royally] 380, reneye 
rentier [renounce] 4760, 4796, repeire 
rretum] 10903, respite 11886, f route 
[crowd] ger. rotte, 624. 

-f solas [ioy, pleasure] 800, 3654, 
sourde sourare [to rise] Pers. T., «#r- 
guedrie [presumption] Pers. T. 

talent [inclination, desire] 5557, Pers. 
T. tester testiere [horse's head armour] 
2501, textuel [texted wel Wr., having 
a power of citing texts] 17167, trans^ 
m^u'tf transmuer \JranslatedWT,] 8261, 
tretys traictis [well made, streight Wr.j 
152, ftriaele [remedy] 4899, trine trin 
[triune] 11973. 

vasselage [bravery] 3066, fverray 

Etme] 6786, fversijlour versifieur 
versifyer] Mel., viage v^age [journey] 
7, 4679, fvitaille [victuals] 3551, void 
voider [to remove] 8786, [to depart] 
11462, [to leave, make empty] 9689. 

wariee garir [heal] 12840, [grow 
whole], Mel. -^wastour gasteur [waster] 


M. Rapp on tkb Pbonunciatton or Ciudcrb. 

Dr. Moritz Rapp, at the conclusion of his VergUichmi* Gram- 
matik, vol. 3, pp. 1G6-1T9, hua giveu Iiis opmioii coaceming the 
pronunciation of Chauoer, tliiefly on d priori grounds, using Wright's 
edition, and hiia appended a phonetic transcription of tbu opening 
lines of the Canterbury Tales aa a specimen. This account is here 
annexed, slightly abridged, with the phonetic spelling transliterated 
into paliieotypo, preserving all the peculiaritiea of the original, such 
as absence of accent mark, duplication of consonants, tiermon (bh) 
for (w), modern English errors of pronunciation, etc. A few re- 
marks are added in brackets. 

The liquids are to be jirononnced aa 
wiitlsD, and bence I la not mule, 
llioiig:h there U a trace of ito dbap- 
nearance in tbc form (aaf) for (aalf). 
Tbe truuposition of r u not raniplete ; 
we igain find (renne) for (imun), and 
(brenae) for (birnon], Engliih (rann, 
bnn), (tbuikh) throngU is nnuhiuiged, 

aird) ftnd (brid) are both used, 
iresbe) replaces (thenliaD), and 
(breste) replaces (berstim), Englisb 

Among the labiidi, 6 remaiDB after 
m in (txmb), but (limmj is without tbe 
pWMUt mute 4, For (nemnan) we 
nave tbe peculiar (nempncn), and 
nnikrlf (dampncn) to diunn. Final 
/ B» in (bhiif ) wife. U also written 
medially tciri, that i>, in the French 
&«hion, becBune v tended towardi / in 
da middle ages. But ini^sUj, in 
order to preserrc the pure German (bh), 
recourse was had to the rednpiieatian 
uu or IP. On IS after a towel >ee 
below. (Bh) BometimpB ariaes from a 
guttural, as mrfi, that is, (sorbhe) 
now «tToU' = (sarroo), from torg. 

Among the dentals d and ( occasion 
no difficulty, and a hai, by French in- 
fluence, bwomo pure (b), [Dr. Eapp 
hold* it to huto been (sj) in ags-J 
Mpecinlly as it sometimes results from 

LThe c is mereiy an t. The most 
cnlt point is Ih. In sgs., we bnie 
shewn [supri p. CM, note] that it had 
only one value (th). I consider that 
this is also tbc case for this dialect. 
As regards the initial eonnd, which in 
tbe !&iglish pronouns is (dh), there is 
not only no proof of Ibis softeninBi t""' 
the contrary results froni r. 12fi89 

So fsren we, if I scbal sav the sethe. 

Now, quod ourc ost, yit let me talke 

nl; ban! 
lofd ba. 

and English (snuth), [it may be tlu 
adterbiu >, or thr defimto >, according 
as ihi is taken as the pronoun or the 
definite article.] which must thcrefora 
have here been called (saolhe), aa this 
th is always hard, and aa lo lAi, i.e. 
(tdd ther) rhymes with it, shewing that 
the I of^ tot/ie was audible if not long, 
and that the li a! to l\c was necea- 
hard, as tbe English (tuu dbii) 
rhyme, [but see 

, .illow thee, and (, . 
youth, (nil thee] hie thee, and (sbbiitbe) 
quickly, [supri^ pp. 318, 444, n. 2]. The 
Anglosaxon value of the lett«n must 
be presumed until there is an evident 
sign of some change having occurred. 
For the medial English (A we have a 
distinct tatimony that the Icelandic 
and Danish sottenine of d into (dh) 
had not yet occurred, for the best MS9. 
retain the ags. d, thus: ags. (latder) 
bere (fader), now (faadher), ^aderjonj 
here (gader) now(gEdbdh3r),(tog«Ddere) 
here (tngsder) now (tagEdbdherj. (bbB> 
der) here (bbEderj now (uEdhdhor), 
weather, (mwdnr) here (mooder} now 
(m»ibdh»r) mother, (khbhider) hne 
(kbbhidcr) now (hnidhdhar) wkitber, 
(tbider) hero (thider) now (dhidhdhar) 
thither. Inferior MS. have fathtr, 
galJitr, thitkrr, etc., shewing that the 
softening of d into the Danish (dh) 
began soon after Chancer. But when 
we find the d in Chaucer it follows as 
that the g 
J ,thl as in (br« 

have bad the b 
not have been pronounced like the 
(brjdlidhar. fsdhdliar}. The ags. ktAt 
is here (kuth) and alM (kud) or (knud) 
for (kun-dc.) 

Among the gutturals, k a writtM 
for e when ( or ■ follow^ and befon 

Chap. VII. } 1. 



fl M (knxn] knew. The reduplicated 

fmn u ck. The g is pure (e) in the 

€enDin words, but in French words 

^ frlkbles gt^ gi, haTe the Proyen^al 

Mmdf (dzhe, dzhi), which is certainly 

bflTOod the Imown range of Norman or 

oIb Froieh, where g is resoWed into 

osple (xh), but here gentil is still 

(dtkentii) not (zhentil). Similarly 

ramnic ch is (tsh), and this value 

is ipplied to old naturalised words, 

in which the hiss has arisen from 

k, u (tshertsh) from (kirk), (tsh^rp) 

from rkeapjon) cheapen, and m 

thoroiifhly German words (tshild 

from O^d) child ; and (aelk) be- 

nmes (ertih) each. Eeduplication is 

opreaied by eeh, representing the 

ilnqmied (tsh) [i.e. which shortens the 

preeeding vowel] so that (bhrskka) 

enle becomes ncreeehej and sometimes 

wrOek, which can only mean (bhrEtsh) ; 

mnilariy frt>m (fekk^n^ comes (fetshe) 

•nd in the same way (retshe, stretshe) 

•nd the obscure eaccke = (kotshe), 

vhieh C(Hnes frtnn the Norman eaekier, 

itthongh (tshose) also occurs from the 

Frendi ekasur. The reduplicated a 

oeettions some difficulty. In French 

voidi Mregier can only give abregge 

=(sbredzhe), and loger gives (lodzhe), 

(te , bat the hiss is not so certain in 

hnpi bridge, egge edge, point, hegge 

kedge, as now prevalent, oecause we 

iad ^ ligge uid lie from (liggon) 

Mv (lai), legge and (IxEie) from Heg- 

5) now (jjeeV and (absBie^ nrom 
^sn) now (rai). Similarly (bEgge) 
beg, now (bEg), which, as I be- 
lieve, was formed from (buug<m) or 
l^igem) to bow. Here we find mo- 
jem (dzh) and hence the (dzh) of the 
^^tmer cases is doubtfol. 

The softening of g into (j) is a 

^lighter difference. The letter (j) does 

JHit occur in ags., and has been replaced 

m uncertain wa^ by t, g^ ge. In 

ineer the simple sien y is employed 

"\ generally 3, the y is due to the 

, p. 310], which often goes fur- 

than in English, as we nave not 

(itft) a year, but give and (jevc, 

-^ forjBte, Jot, ojEn, ojEust) and (ee) 

** (jii) an egg. 

Tbe termination ig drops its g, as 

Qjtni) for penig, and the particle ge 

^»«wne8 the form t, as (inuukh) enough, 

V^Wiis-) certain, and in the participles 

Ouken) taken, (imAAd) maae. (isUA) 

^^TfidiBn) slain, (ise^e) seen, (ibhriten) 

•^ntten, etc. From (geliike) comes 

Siik^ or (iliitsh), and the suffixed 
iiik) is reduced to (li^. 

The old pronunciation (qg^ most be 
retained for ng^ thus (loqg, lM)ger) or 
(leqfi^r) ; there is no certain evidoiee 
for Joqq). The French nasal is in |n«- 
ference expressed by n. What the 
Frenchman wrote r«t#0M and pro- 
nounced (rsEsoq*) is here written rtwtm 
and calleid (resuun), as if the (^) were 
unknown. As the termination in 
givende has assumed the form (jiving)^ 
we might conjecture the sound to be 
^giviq), because the form comes direct 
m>m (givin), as the Scotch and com- 
mon people still say, but we must re- 
member that giving also answers to the 
German Gebung, in which the g is 

We now come to A, which is also 
a difficulty. That initial k before a 
vowel had now become (h^ as in Ger- 
man of the xni th century, is very pro- 
bable, because A was also writtcm in 
Latin and French words, and is still 
spoken. Chaucer has occasionaUy 
elided the silent e in the French fashion 
before A, which was certainly an error 
[tctu freilick ein Missgriff war! 
shared by Orrmin, supr& p. 490, and 
intermediate writers, who were free 
from French influence.] For the me- 
dial A, the dialect perceived its differ- 
ence from (h^), and nence used the new 
combination yA, known in the old 
Flemish, where the soft (kh) has been 
developed from g. The ags. nikt^ 
(nikht) became nigkt — (nikht), and 
similarly tkurgk = (thurkh). For 
(khlBakh<m) we have lawky and 
latighy both = (Uxkh) ; (sEakh) gives 
eawk — (sAAkh) or eeigk = (sBEkh). 
Before /, », r, the ags. A has disap- 
peared, but ags. (khohiite) is here 
somewhat singularly written wkite, a 
transposition of hwite. Had A been 
silent it would have been omitted as in 
A/, A«, Ar, but as it was different from 
an ordinary A before a vowel, this ab- 
normal sign for (khbh), formed on the 
analogy of gh, came into use, and 
really signified an abbreviated heavy 
ghw. Hence (khbhiite) retained its 
Anglosaxon sound in Chaucer's time. 
[Rapp could not distinguish English w 
irom (u), and hence to him wk was 
(hu), the real meaning of wh thus 
escaped him. His theory is that A 
was always (kh) in the old Teutonic 

We have still to consider ek and k». 


The former was soften^ to (njlu) in 

r, and hecue proporcd the wuy fur 
■impU (ah), uid thia maj; have 
nearly oceurred bt Chuueer's time, a» 
b* writes ich which heara the lame re- 
Utimt to the French i-Asftsh), bs the 
Italian ten to ci, i shewijie the omiuian 
of the initial (. Some MSS. use >iA 
and even the present ih, the guttural 
being cndjely forgotten. The aga. *i 
remoiiu, bat ik is still traneposiid into 
ii in the bid old way, aa axt = (a)ue) 
fin (rake). 
For the Towela, Geaenius bas i 

on Grinun'i 

to hii hiTJng been pieoccu 
modenl Engliah, and ha«D 
foundation. The Engliihmen of the 
preaent day have no mom idea how to 
read their own old langusffa. than the 
Fronchmen thcin. We ueimanB are 
leaa prqudiced in these matten. and 
can jndge more freely. Two conditioDS 
are nei»»ar; for reading old English 
oorrectly— first, to read Anglosaxon 
EOTTeotly, whence the dialect arose; 
■eoondly, to read old French correetly, 
on whose orthography the old Eng-lish 
was qnite anmutiikably modeled. 
[The complete catena of old English 
writera now known, renders this nsser- 
n doubtful. See >upri 

mpiod with 

- . . O] 

We most preinme that the old 
Franch a was pure (a). The aga. a, 
waa lowerc:(a). The English ortho- 
graphy paid no attention to this diffpr- 
eooe, and hence spoke French a is (a). 
There can be no doubt of this, if we 
obserre that thii a was lencrtheDed into 
an or ate, the voloe of which from a 
French point of Tiew was (aa), ai it 
■till ia in English, as itraiingi. He- 
mamidt, lyrannt, graunli, hauntt. In 
alt these easci tbe £o)>lishman en- 
deaTOurs to imitate French nasality by 
the combination {mm). [This au for 
a only oecun before n, ace mptk p. 
143, and infri Chap. VIII., { 3}. 

The old short Towe] a hence renuuna 
(a) aa in nga, thiia [makjoD) b in the 
oldeat documents (mtkie, mski) and 
aftorwarda (mnke), where the (o) need 
no more be prolonged by the accent 
than in tbe Gemtan mafhfn (mukh'Fn). 
and we maT read (mnkkc). [But see 
Omnin's matf»u. p. 4921. 

The most important point is that the 
igi. fiUse diphthongs are again over- 
come ; initead of (ulle) we hare the 

Cuts. VII. i I. 

older form (aIle),iQEtead or(sksaTp)wa 
find (shnrpe) etc. The nasal (un), aa 
in age., is diiposed lu fall into («u), aa 
(bond, land, drouk. bogonaiij, elc. 

The greatest doubt might arise from 
the Ojgs. a or rather (x) appearing aa 
(a) without mutation; thu;, ags, (t£eet. 
khbhiel. bhieter, imsl) again fall into 
(thnt, khbbst, bhiter, smal). The mu- 
tation ia rovokod— that meann, tbe agl. 
mutation bad preraileal in literature, bnt 
not with the whole mass of the peonle, 
and hence in the present popular For- 
mation might revert to tbe older sonod, 
for it is undeniable that althoogh the 
present Englishman aays (dhat) with. 
a mntoted a, be prononncea (Huit, 
UAAtsr, sm**l} what, ' ■ - " 

a mutate In n 


non-mulatiMl form may be explained by 
a flexion, for if (dicg) in bfi. gave tlie 
plural [dagan), we may understand how 
Chaucer writes at one time (dsF) day 
and st another (du) daw for day, 

Short e remains unchanged aa (a) 
under the accent, when nnaecented it 
b»d perhaps become (a). Even in an. 
it interchanges with S jT, as (tahirtah) 
or (tabertsh) church. The ags. n> is 
again overeome, for although forms like 
beo, iioy, still occur in ike oldest monn- 
ments. i u the Uier form, so - tbst 
(ataorra) alor again becomea (stBrm], 
and (gBolu) yellow gives (jElbbe, jalu), 
(fEol) fell becomes (fall, flU), e(«. A 
short {k) sometimes rhymes with along 
one in Chaucer, as (made, rride) mea- 
dow, red. Such false rbymec are how- 
ever found in German poetry of the 
III! Ih century, and they ore far &um 

I'ustiiying oa in introducing tbedodeni 
ong vowel into auch words as (nurke, 
made), etc. 

Tbe old long vowel « is here (m], m 
appears all tbe more certainly from ill 
not being distinguished in writing from 
the short. [Bspp writes i i, but ho 
usually pairs e e, ii £ = (« c, ki n), the 
(a) being doubtful, (». ee}. Thia 
arises from German habits, but in 
reality in elosed syllables (e) is more 
frequent than (c), if a dis^ction has 
to be made. It wonld perhaps bare 
represented Itapp more correctly to 
have written (m e, be e), bat I coo- 
sidered myself bound to the other dis- 

absurdity of making (m, i 

tribution, although 

lurdity of makii „ , . 

e onontity of the aj;;s. must 

DM, bence (aivkim. 

) the 

pair J. 

Chap. VII. { 1. 



(iblMte] we also obtun (soote), with 
ontted (tijf compare None (soeoBt) 
iveei [The Gareral notation of qnan- 
Hkf by Orrmin points him ont as a 
better anthohty for this Uiter period.] 
Lear («) also replaces ags. a as Qigeret 
8M, UMpe) hare, sea, sleep, and the old 
kxig ^ as (8«fke, \eefe Wve, d^rpe, 
tahnae) seek, lief, deep, choose, and 
iuDj the old long ^ as (eek) from 
{kk)^ and similarly (gr«^, iM^ne, 
tAi^) ereat, bean, cheapen. These 
fiferent {ee) rhyme toother and have 
nnhriy beeome (ii) in modem £ng- 
lin. There is no doubt abont short 
i»iad long i could not ha?e been a 
diphthong, because the French ortho- 
gnphy had no suspicion of such a 
mod. Ags. y is sometimes rendered 
br w as fuire fire, which, however, 
loeidy rhymes with (miire) and must 
tboffore haTC sounded (fiire). The 
hj) had become (ii) even in ags., so 
■It (bruud) becomes (briide), etc 
LeMt of all can we suppose short t in 
(hhilde, tshilde, finde) w&d, child, find, 
to bt diphthongal, or e?en long, as the 
orttiography would hare otherwise been 
^pate different. 

Short may retain its natural sound 
lA and often replaces ags. «, thus 
wma) giTes (sommer), and (khnut, 
^irtbor) gire (not, farther) nut, further. 
^ theie cases the Engushman gene- 
^j recurs to the mutate of (u), to be 
/^Wently mentioned. 

Long o in Chaucer unites two old 

^^1^ Towels, (aa) in (noome), some- 

^Unee (HAm), (goost from (gAAst), 

C^rtfae) from (aaw) oath, (Hoote) from 

v^At) ; and the old (oo) in (booke, 

"^ foote, Bo«the). Both {oo) rhyme 

and must have, therefore, 

resembled each other ; they can 

y have been the same, as they 

uds separated ; the latter may 

▼e indinea to (u) and has become 

ite (u). 

The sound of (u) is in the French 

' ion constantly denoted by ou, [But 

- luprit p. 426, 1. 3. Rapp is pro- 

^*tWy wroi^ in attributing the intro- 

^ncfcian to Aench influence.] French 

TjMwi was written raisun by the Anglo- 

x^onaan, and resoun by Chaucer, which 

c^bave only sounded (resuun). A 

diphthong is impossible, as the name 

^^"wwoiw Caucasus rhymes with hou^, 

^ rtmnm with toun. Hence the 

•wad must haTe been (huus, tuun) as 

Uk lU German dialects of this date. 

Hence we hare (fluur) flower for tlM 
French (flcBcer). The real difficulty 
consists in determining the quantity m. 
the Yowel, as it is not shcMm by tht 
spelling. Position would require a 
short fu) in cases like (shulder, bund, 
stund, Dunden) shoulder, old (skulder), 
hound, hour, bound ; but the old 
(Bookhte) must produce a (suukhte) 
sought ; and cases like (brukhte, 
thukhte) brought, thought, are doubt- 

On the other hand the rowel written 
w, must hare been the mutate common 
to the French, Icelander, Dutchman, 
Swede. The true sound is therefore 
an intermediate, which may have fluc- 
tuated between (od, u, y), (lyst, kyrs) 
desire, curse. These u generally de- 
rive from ags. m, not y. The use of 
this sound in the unaccented syllable is 
remarkable. The ags. (bathjan) has two 
forms of the participle (bathod. bathed). 
Hence the two forms in Chaucer, 
(bothyd) or rather (bathud) exactly aa 
in Icelandic [where theM = (9), not (u), 
supr& p. 548], the second (bathid, 
bathed). Later English, however, 
could not fix this intermediate sound, 
and hence, forced by the mutations, gare 
the short u the colourless natural Towel 
(a), except before r where we still hear 
(9), [meaning, perhaps (ao). This theo- 
retical account does not seem to re- 
present the facts of the case.] The 
above value of short (u) in old Eng- 
lish is proved by all French woros 
having this orthography. Sometimes 
Chaucer endeavours to express long 
(yy) by m», as fruit , where, however, 
we may suspect the French diphthong ; 
but generally he writes nature ror 
(not^e) without symbolising the 
length. We should not be mided by 
the retention of the pure (u^ in mo- 
dem English for a few of tnese mu- 
tated Uj as (full, putt, shudd, fruut). 
These anomalies establish no more 
against the clear rule than the few pure 
(a) of modem English prove anytning 
against its ancient value. 

The written diphthongs cause pecu- 
liar difficulties. The combinations at, 
«y> ^»» <'y> must have their French 
sound (ee), but as they often arise 
from (8D^) there seems to have been an 
intermediate half-diphthongal or triph- 
thongal (EEi) ; thus (dapge) gives (dsEi) 
or (qee). From ^age) we have the 
variants eye^ ye^ ciyhe^ yffhc^ so that 
the sound varies as (r^je, iije, iie, 

sikhe, iikhe). SimilaTly (nilkhe) and 
(uiie) high, and (niFkhe, niie) nigb. 
"We have slrcadj considered an, au>, to 
have been (it). The oga. (Ugu, lakh) 
law, gives lawt, nhich perhaps hor- 
dered an > tnphthongal (UAne). In 
the uune way we wcanonally find 
(dxiae) daj, in two syllables, ineteod 
of thu usual (dsB), aja. (dieg, dagai), 
and from an. (sAAbhl) comn lauk — 
(iiale) and taulr, which could baye 
odIt bean fsuule). The medial oui = 
Ml. that ii, (nu). but before a vowel it 
might alao border en a triphthong; 
Uttu (wA — (luukb) low, is also whtl«n 
loot ^ (loDne) F OupAen ^^ (uakhen), 

(nm). Similarly grmre may have 
varied between (ip:iiae, grocue) and ao 
on witb many others. These cmcb 
pve mort room for donbt, aad the 
dialect was probably onsettled. But 
(he dipbtbong tii, tw, leaves no room 
for doubt ; it cannot br French ((p) 
for Anu-r hour is here (uyyrc) [proba- 
bly a misprint for (auure)], and for 
ptiipU we bIeo find (p«ple). On the 
other hand the French beaul^, which 
WW called (bianlw, bSot«) ia here 
written b^cU. which wna clearly 
{biutf). Similarly German words, ns 
kneui., cannot bavc been anything but 
(kneo, kuEu). Similarly (nine) new. 
The French diphthong di as in voii 

Kbbboo that AfiiMi^ bhlih bIb ibunm utrA 

CHAUCER. Chap. VII. ( 1. 

voice, wus bikoD over unatlered, and 
also replaces Tomanic ui, which waih 
too far removed from Bnglieb feelulga ; 
wc have seen fmil pass into (ftyyti 
fruut) ; rORuyrr becomes (ami) uld 
detlrnire ia written deilriiu, dettrit, 
but had the aame sound (destrai) . 

As regarda the ao-called nrnte t, it 
was nndeniably biatoricid in Chancer 
and represented old inflections, yet il 
was, with equal certainly, in many 
cases merely mechanically tmitalra 
(Vom the French. But we cannot iciui 
Chancer In the French fashion, with- 
out omittiiig or inserting the mute « at 
our pleasure, and in a critical edition 
of the poet, the spoken * only ongbt to 
be written. What was its sonnd when 
spoken t Certmnly not (a) ai in 
French, but a pure [e] with some in- 
clination to (x). This ia shewn by the 
rhyme (aoothe, too thw) already cited, 
and many others, as eUrkn, atrk i» ; 
(drnd is, decdes) etc. At present 
Englishmen pronounce this final * in 
the same way as i, and in general t,i 
present aa natura! a inplwiticum t» the 
French {»), 

The following ore the opening line* 
of the Canterbury Talcs reduced to a 

[Some misprints seem to occur in 
the original, but 1 have left them nn- 

AnA bbil bbe bbnm anyd otM bnU, 
Rod Hod il spoken bbllb xua rvTiub-mo 

brnlli B;t nutbelui, khbhiili U nnbb lUm and 

Bath in tbe Ram hIb Haife ktrn ironne. 


ttfra al tbs nlkbl bbitb nspen iie, 
kelli nam na\jji^ \a niir kr^ddahvs, 

vLmcn Itn too BMken aU'Ajkndsb* 

T» tint BBlbbn, kanth- In imdrl landn, 

OfEq«loodli»KantjrbTriUi"bbEoda IS 

That ■■m until nolpen UibhaD thot tb(( 

BltnU that bi'tbal (Koon m a dn 

.h t}\ devi 

mhlp. and pitttriaia btifn 


Ulu, SO 

Thg tibombiin t 

It tbET bliaa and tl 

Tmutbaad Hmuur. frrfdHim and kjrtaaUa. 

jAd tbirliM Bodd Be rid«n DwimaB brre M 
Jb bhil in krismdMm « HBAhenBoc 
Aai ITCT Bgnanrd for bIb bbntblnne. 
Jt Allanndi. Rcbboi kbhhan h bboB bhtnaa, 
Fvl Dftc Ulm BC Bodd Ike bord Ug«m> A 

In Leltnon Budde ratsed and in Rjse 
Noo kriBlm man bod ofi at <aii iemt. 
In Oinnwl-allc^idilieBaddBebM, H 



d botxxls Hodd Be hua fiifUme 61 
liten for aor fxitth at TromoasMne, 
thiiiai and kk bIkko ms too. 
bhortbi knikht Hadd hem disoo 64 
t htixh the lord of Pal/itiie 
aotber H««then in Tyrkiie, 
rmoor He Hadd a sormn priis. 
kh that He bhas bhotthi He bhos 
w 68 

!■ port OS miik as is a msBd. 

* lit a yilonii ne ssid 

hit, jntoo Txoo maner bhikht. 

• ytmrrmz pxi-fikht dshmtil knikht. 
»• tslle juu af Hia arm, 73 

bhos good, byt ne ne bhoe nukht 

II Be bhsred a dzhepann 

Urjd bhith His naberdzhnnn, 76 

lura Ut komen from bIs viodxhe 

ate for too doon uis pilgrimadxhe. 

Bim thxr bhas hu son, a joqg 


and a lysti batsheleer 80 

Bhith lokkee kryU- as thM bbv Imad In 

Of tbhKnti JMT He bhas of adzh- ii gesse, 
Of His statjyr- ne bhas of xren Isqthe 8S 
^nd bhondvrli delirr- and greet of strsqthe, 
And He hodd b««n somtiim in tshiTatshiie 
In Flondres, in Artals and Pikardiie, 
.^d bom Rim bhsl, as in soo litel sposo 
In Hop too stonden in his ladi grase, 
Embruudid bhas ne as it bheCT* a msde 88 
^1 fyl of fimhe flnores, khbhiit- and rtsde. 
Biq^qg Be bhas or fluutiqg al the dMM, 
He bhas a» frxsh as is the moonth of mxB, 02 
Short bhas Bis guon bhith sl^sres loqg and 

Bhsl kuud Be sitt- on Bors and fkzre riide, 
He kuud soqges bhsl make and endiite, 
Dyhystn- and eek. dAAns- and bhxl pyrtm 

and bhriite. 96 

Soo Boot He loTde, that bii nikhter-tole 
He sl0«p nomoor than dooth a nikhtiqgale. 
Kyrtxxs ne bhas, Inkhii {or loonU) Aid 

And karf befom Bis fodyr at the table. 100 

I the above we read (ee, e) and (oo, o) for (m, e) and (<w>, o), 
) for (e) which is a slight difference, and also (tV, i) for (ii, i), 
not insist on (a) for (a^, and also read (w, wh) for the nn- 
1 (bh, khbh), the difi^rences between this transcript and 
n, reduce to 1) the treatment of final e, which Rapp had not 
ntly studied ; 2) the merging of all short u into (y), certainly 
>us ; 3) the indistinct separation of the two values of ou into 
*u), and 4) the conception of (ee), an un-English sound, as 
dper pronunciation of ey^ ay as distinct from long e. It is 
able that so much similarity should have been attained by 
distinctly different course of investigation. 

TICKS FOB Rbadino thb Phoxetio Trakscbipt of ths Prolooui. 

application of the results of Chapter IV. to the exhibition 
pronunciation of the prologue, has been a work of great 
by, and numerous cases of hesitation occurred, where analogy 
3uld decide. The passages have been studied carefrilly, and 
T to judge of the effect, I have endeavoured to famUiarise 
with the conception of the pronunciation by continually 
: aloud. The examination of older pronunciation in Chap, 
on the whole confirmed the view taken, and I feel con- 
[e confidence in recommending Early English scholars to 
>ur to read some passages for themselves, and not to pre- 
he effect, as many from old habits may feel inclined. As 
ifficulty may be felt in acquiring the facility of utterance 
ry for judging of the effect of this system of pronunciation, it 
t be out of place to give a few hints for practice in reading, 
I how those who find a difficulty in reproducing the precise 
which are indicated, may approximate to them sufficiently 
purpose. These instructions correspond to those which I 
iven in the introduction to the second edition of Mr. B. 
\ Chaucer, 
x>man vowels (a, e, o, u) must be pronounced as in Italian, 


with the broad or open «, o, not the narrow or close sonnds. They 
are practically the same as the short vowels ia G^erman, or the 
Prench short a, k^ o, ou. The (a) is never our common English a in 
fat, that is (se), but is much broader, as ia the provinces, though 
Londoners will probably say (ae). For (o) few will perhaps use 
any sound but the familiar (o). The (u) also may be pronounced 
as (t<), that is, t« in bull or oo in foot The long vowels are 
(aa, ee, oo, uu) and represent the same sounds prolonged, but if 
any English reader finds a difficulty in pronouncing the broad and 
long (ee, oo) as in Italian, Spanish, Welsh, and before r in the 
modem English mare, more, he may take the easier close sounds 
{ee, oo) as in male, mole. The short (t) is the English short • in 
pit, and will occasion no difficulty. But the long (tV) being un- 
usual, if it cannot be appreciated by help of the directione on p. 
106, may be pronounced as (ii), that is as ^0 in feet. The vowel 
(yy), which only occurs long, is the long French u, or long German 
U. The final (-e) should be pronounced shortly and iadistinctly, 
like the German final -e, or our final a in China, idea, (suprik p. 119, 
note, col. 2), and inflectional final -en should sound as we now pro- 
nounce -en in science, patient. It would probably have been more 
correct to write («) in these places, but there is no authority for 
any other but an (e) sound, see p. 318. 

For the diphthongs, (ai) represents the German ai, French, «l 
Italian ahi, Welsh ai, the usual sound of English aye,^ when it is 
distinguished from eye, but readers may confound it with that 
sound without inconvenience. The diphthong (au) represents the 
German au, and bears the same relation to the English dw in naw^ 
as the German ai to English eye, but readers may without iucon- 
venience use the sound of English ow in now. Many English 
speakers habitually say (ai, au) for (oi, ou) in eye, now. The diph- 
thong (ui) is the Italian ui in lui, the French oui nearly, or more 
exactly the French oui taking care to accent the first element, and 
not to confound the sound with the English we. 

The aspirate is always represented by (H h), never by (h), which 
is only used to modify preceding letters. 

(J j) must be pronounced as German j in ja, or English y in y#0, 
yawn, and not as English j ia Just. 

The letters (bdfgklmn p'r s t v w z) have their 
ordinary English meanings, but it should be remembered that (g) 
is always as in yay, go, get, never as in gem', that (r) is always 
trilled with the tip of the tongue as in ray, roe, and never pro- 
nounced as in air, ear, oar ; and also that (s) is always the hi^ in 
hi«« and never like a (z) as in hi«, or like (sh). The letter (q) has 
altogether a new meaning, that of m^ in sing, singer, but ng in 
finger is (qg). 

^ This word is yariously pronounced, text is generally used in the South of 

and some persons rhyme it with nay. England, but this pronunciation is per- 

In taking Totes at a public meeting the haps unknown in Scotland, 
lound intended to be oonyeyed in the 


STh, dh) represent the sounds in Min, ^Aen, the modem Greek S. 
Sh, zh) are the sounds in me«A measure, or pi<A, vi^on, the 
Fr. eh,j. 

(Kh, gh) are the usual German ch in ach and g in Ta^e. But 
careful speakers will ohserve that the Germans have three sounds 
of f A as in ich^ eLchy BXLchy and these are distinguished as {khy kh, 
kirh) ; and the similar varieties (^h, gh, gu^h) are sometimes found. 
The reader who feels it difficult to distinguish these three sounds, 
may content himself with saying (kh, gh) or even (h*). The (kw^h) 
when initial is the Scotch quh, Welsh chWy and may be called 
fkhw-) without inconvenience. Final (gwh) differs little firom 
(wh) as truly pronounced in toheUy wh&ty which should, if possible, 
be carefully distinguished from (w). As however (wh) is almost 
unknown to speakers in the south of England, they may approxi- 
mate to it, when initial, by saying (h'u), and, when final, by 
saying (uh*). 

The italic {tv) is also used in the combination {kw) which has 
precisely the sound of qu in queen, and in (rt^) which may be pro- 
nounced as (rw), without inconvenience. 

(Tsh, dzh) are the consonantal diphthongs in chest /est, or each 

The hyphen (-) indicates that the words or letters between which 
it is placed, are only separated for the convenience of the reader, 
but are really run on to each other in speech. Hence it frequently 
stands for an omitted letter (p. 10), and is frequently used for an 
omitted initial (h), in those positions where the constant elision of 
a preceding final -e shews that it could not have been pronounced 
(p. 314). 

These are all the signs which occur in the prologue, except the 
accent point {'\ which indicates the principal stress. Every sylla- 
ble of a word is sometimes followed by (•), as (naa'tyyr*), in order 
to warn the reader not to slur over or place a predominant stress 
on either syllable. For the same reason long vowels are often 
written in unaccented syllables. 

If the reader will bear these directions in mind and remember 
to pronounce with a general broad tone, rather G^rmanesque or 
provincial, he will have no difficulty in reading out the following 
prologue, and when he has attained facility in reading for him- 
self, or has an opportunity of hearing others read in this way, he 
will be able to judge of the result, but not before. 

The name of the poet, GeofBrey Chaucer, may be called (Dzhefrai* 
Tshau'seer'), but the first name may also have been called (Dzhef*- 
lee*), see supr^ p. 462. The evenness of stress seems guaranteed 
by Gowcr's even stress on his own name (Guu'eer*), but he uses 
Chaucer only with the accent on the first syllable, just as Chaucer 
also accents Gower only on the first. 

680 TEXT OF Chaucer's prologue. Chap. VII. § i. 


— IB prefixed to lines containing a defectiye first measure. 

-4- is prefixed to lines containing two superfluous terminal syllables. 

iii is prefixed to lines containing a trissyilabic measure. 

vi is prefixed to lines of six measures. 

ai is prefixed to the lines in which »a^ appears to be dissyllabic. 

(' ) indicates an omitted e. 

Italics point out words or parts of words of French origin. 

Small capitals in the text are purely Latin forms or words. 


— Whan that April with his schoures swote 

The drought of March hath perced to the rote 

And bathed' ev'ry vet/n^ in swich licour, 

Of which vertu engendWQd'* is the^/fowr ; 4 

Whan ZEPHTKUS, eek, with his swete brethe 

InspiredH hath in ev'ry holt' and hethe 

The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 

Hath in the Kam his halfe coura ironne 8 

And smale foulcs maken melodye 

That slepen al the night with open ye, — 

So pricketh hem natwr* in her* corage» ; 

Than longcn folk to goon on pilgrymageSy 12 

And palmeer^s for to seken »trawnge strondes 

To feme halwes couth' in sondry londes ; 

And speciallljf from ev'ry schyres ende 
iii Of Engelond, to Cawnterbery they wende, 16 

The holy blisful martyr for to seke. 

That hem hath holpen whan that they wer' seke. 
Bifel that in that sesoun on a day' 

In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, 20 

Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage 
iii To Cawnterbery with ful devout corage, 

At night was com' into that hostelrye 

Wei nyn' and twenty in a companye 24 

Of sondry folk', by aventur* ifalle 

In felawschip', ond pilgrim^ » wer' they alle, 

That toward Cawnterbery wolden ryde. 

The chamhres and the stabeVs weren wyde, 28 

And wel we weren esed atte beste. 

And schortly, whan the sonnc was to reste 

So hadd' I spoken -^dth hem ev'rych oon, 

That I was of her' felawschip' anoon, 32 

Preliminary Note. ferred to thus : £. EUesmere, He. 

SeTcn MSS. only are referred to, Hengwrt, Ca. Cambridge, Go. Corpoiy 

unless others . are specially named. P. Petworth, L. Lansdowne. 
Ha. is the Harl. 7334, as edited by 

Horns. **The Six MSS." are those 1 Defectiye first measure see p. 

published by the Chaucer Society, and 333, note 1. The six MSS. do nol 

edited by Fumiyall. They are re- favour any other scheme, but all wiile 




tt) See pp. 106, 271, readers may say (n) for eonyenienoe, p. 678. 

oo) See p. 95, readers may read (oo, o) for (oo, o) for conyenience, p^. 678. 

-) Initial often indicates an unpronouncea (h), and that the wora is run on 

to the preceding ; at the end of a word it denotes that it is run on to 

the following. 

/n t r o d u k" 8 f n u n*. 

Wlian dhat Aa'pml with -is shuur'es swoot'e 
Dhe dmukti^ht of Martsh nath pcrs'ed too dhe root'e, 
And baadh'cd evrtV vain m swttsh lirkuur*, 
Of whitsh ver'tyy endzhen'dred ts dhe fluur ; 4 

Whan Zef'tms, eek, with -ts sweet'e breeth*e 
AspiVr'cd Hath tn evrtV Holt and Heeth'e 
Dhe ten'dre krop'es, and dhe xuq'e sun'e 
Hath tn dhe Ram -lis Half'e knurs trun*e, 8 

And smaal'e fuul'es maak'en melodtre, 
Dhat sleep'en al dhe mX;ht with oop'en tre, — 
8oo prtk'eth Hem naa'tyyr* in Her koo'raadzh'es ; 
Dhan loq*en folk to goon on pil'grtmaadzh'es, 13 

And pal'meerz for to seek'en straundzh'e strond'ea. 
To fem'e nal-wes kuuth in sundri lond'es ; 
And spes'taltV, from evru shur'cs end*e 
Of Eq'elondy to Kaun*terber*iV dhai wend*e, 16 

Dhe Hoo'lfV blts'ful mar'tnr for to seek'e, 
Dhat Hem Hath Holp'en, whan dhat dhai weer seek'e. 

Btfel* dhat in dhat see-snun* on a dai 
At Suuth'werk at dhe Tab'ard* as If lai, 20 

Reed'iV to wend'en on mi pil'gninaadzh'e 
To Eann'terber'ii with fill devnut* koo'raadzh'e. 
At nikht was kuum tn too dhat os'teln're 
Weel nun and twen'tii tn a kam*x>antt*e 24 

Of sun-dnt folk, bti aa*ventyyr tfal*e 
/n fel'anshtVp, and pil'grimz wer dhai al'e, 
Dhat too'werd Kann terber*tt wold*en nVd'e. 
Dhe tshaam'berz and dhe staa'b'lz wce*ren wttd'e, 28 
And weel we wee*ren ees*ed at'e best'e. 
And short'lit, whan dhe sun'e was to rest'e 
8oo Had /t spook'en with -em evriVtsh oon, 
Dhat It was of -er fel'aushiip anoon, 82 

ir indieate a final e to April, which French prommeiation had been imi- 

ii igunst Ayeril 6128, April 4426. tated. The yerse is wanting in Ca. 

8 Ram« See Temporary Prefifice to which howeyer reads Caun. in y. 769. 

ftt Six Teit Edition of Chancer, p. 89. 18 w h a n t h a i, L. alone omiti 

16 Cawnterbery. £. He. Go. that, and makes were a dissyllabls^ 

•od HuL 1758, write Caun,, and P. which is nnusnal, and is not vajho- 

wdicatea it. It woold seem as if the nious in the present case. 



TEXT OF Chaucer's prologue. Gsir.YII. fi- 



And made foorward eerly for to ryse, 
To tak' our' wey theer as I 70a dwyM, 
But natheles whyl's I hay' tym' and %pacey 
Eer that I ferther in this tale paee^ 
Me thinketh it aeeordaumt to resoun 
To tellen you al the eondicumn 
Of eech' of hem, so as it semed' me ; 
And which they weren, and of what deffre^ 
And eek in what array that they wer' inne, 
And at a knight than wol I first beginne. 

1. The Knight. 

A Knight ther was, and that a worthy man. 

That £ro the tyme that he first bigan 

To ryden out, he loved' ehivalrye^ 

Trouth and honour^ fredoom and eurUysye, 

Ful worthy was he in his lordes werre. 

And thcerto hadd' he ridden, no man ferre. 

As weel in Cristendom as hethenesse, 

And ever' honoured for his worthinesse. 

At AlisaumiPr he was whan it was wonne, 

Ful ofte tym' he hadd' the hoord bigonne 

Aboven aUe naciouns in Prtue. 

In Lettaw* hadd' he reysed and in Ettsef 

No cristen man so oft' of his dsgre. 

At Gemad^ atte »eg* eek hadd' he be 

Of Algesir^ and ridden in Palmyry$ 

At Lyey» was he, and at Satalye 

Whan they wer' wonn' ; and in the Grete Se 

At many a nob* I aryve* hadd' he be. 

At mortal hatayV» hadd' he been fiftene, 

And fowghten for our' feyth at I^amaaame, 

In U»tes thrycs, and ay slayn his fo. 

This ilke worthy knight hadd' ben also 

Somtyme with the lord of Palatye, 

Ayeyn another hethen in Turkye : 

And evremor' he hadd' a sov^rayn prys. 

And thowgh that he wer' worthy he was wys, 










33 foorward, promise. No 
MS. marks the length of the Yowel in 
foor, but as the word came firom 
forwDwrd^ it would, according to the 
usual analogy, evidenced by the mo- 
dem pronunciation of fore^ have be- 
come lengthened, and the long vowel, 
after the extinction of the ^, oecomes 
UBeM in distinguishing the word from 
forward, onward, for to ryse 
is the reading of the six MSS. 

36 eer, E. He. L. read er^ the 
others or ; in either case the vowel wm 
probftbly long m ia modem vrt. 

38 tellen, theMSS.have telle, 
the n has been added on account of the 
following y. 

46 curteysye, so £. He. Ca., 
the rest have curtesye; the ey 
has been retained on account of 
c u r t e y 8. See Caurteay^ p. 644. 

66 e e k is inserted in the six MSS. 

67 Palmyrye, the MSS. have 
all the unintelligible Belmarye. 
This correction is due, I believe, to 
Mr. W. Aldis Wright, who has kindly 
favoured me with his collation of v. 
15733 in various MSS. 


And maad'e foor*ward eer'ltV for to miB'e, 

To taak aur wai dheer as /• ran devtVs'e. 

Bat naa'dheles, whtils Jt -aay tmn and spaae'e, 

Eer dhat /• feidher tn dhts taaie paas'e, 36 

Methtqk'eth it ak'ord'aunt* to ree'saun* 

To tel'en xuu al dhe kondts'iuun' 

Of eetah of Hem, soo as 1 1 seem'ed mee, 

And whftsh dhai wee'ien, and of what dee'gree'i 40 

And eek in what and* dhat dhai wer ih'e 

And at a kniilht dhan wol /• first begtn*e. 

1. Dhe Kn»l;ht. 

A knti;ht dheer was, and dhat a wnrdh'iV man, 

Dhat finoo dhe tttm*e dhat -e ftrst htgan* 44 

To rtid'en uut, nee laved tshtV'valnV'e, 

Traath and on*aar', free'doom* and kar'taisiVe. 

Fal wardh'tV was -e in -m lord'es wer*e, 

And dheer-to Had -e n'd'en, noo man fer*e, 48 

As weel in Elrtst'endoom*, as needh'enes'Oi 

And ever on'nard* for -is wardh'iines'e. 

At AaliVsaan'dr -e was whan it was wan'o, 

Fol oft'e tiim -e Had dhe boord bigun*e 52 

Abaaven al'e naa*siaanz* in Pryys'e. 

In Let'ooa Had -e raiz*ed and in Byys'e, 

Noo kn'st'en man soo oft of his dee'gree*. 

At G^r-naad' at*e seedzh eek Had -e bee 56 

Of Al'dzheesiir, and rid'en in Pal mini'e. 

At Lii'ais was -e, and at Saa*taalii*e 

"Whan dhai wer wan ; and m dhe Greet*e see 

At man'i a noob'l- aa'n'rvee* Had -e bee. 60 

At moriaal* bat'ailz* Had -e been fifteen'e 

And fonktrht'en for nor faith at Traa'maaseen*e 

In list'es thn'res, and ai slain -is foo. 

Dhis ilk'e wnrdh i i laiikhi -ad been alsoo* -64 

Snmtiim'e with dhe lord of Faa'laatii'e, 

Ajain anadh'er needh'en in Tyrkii'e : 

And evremoor' -e Had a savrain pnVs. 

And dhooaki^h dhat nee wer wardh'ii nee was wiis, 68 

Cenobia, of Palmire the qaeene, 

Harl. 7334. 
Cenobie, of Pal}nnerie Qnene, 

Uniy. Cam. Dd. 4. 24. 
Cenobia, of Palimerye qneene, 

Do. Og. 4. 27. 
Cenobia, of Paljmer je qoene, 

Do. Mm. 2. 6. 
Cenobia, of Belmary qnene, 

Trin. Coll Cam. R. 3. 19. 
Cenobia of Belmary qoene, 

Do. R. 3. 16. 
Cenobia, of Palemirie the qoene, 

Do. R. 8. 8. 

The trinyllabic measore wai over- 
looked in toe enomeration on p. 648, 

BOb. -tfH. 

60 arjTe*, lo Ha. and Ca., the 
others have armeye, arme, for 
which the word nooT will have to 
be nob el, in two syllables, which 
is not osoal before a Towd, and the 
constroction to be mt an arme, 
seems doubtfol, while to be mt an 
aryyee or landing in the Grete 
S e is natoral. 

68 w e r*, so £. He. Ca., the others 

684 TEXT OF Chaucer's frolooue. Chap. VIL § i. 

And of his pooit' as meek as is a mayde. 

Ne never yit no vilayny* he seyde 

In al his lyf, unto no maner* wight. 

He was a veray perfyt gentil knight. 72 

But for to tellen you of his aray, 

His hors was good, but he ne was not gay, 

Offtuttan he wercd' a yipoun^ 
— Al bismoter'd with his hiawb&ryeoun, 76 

iii For he was laat' yeomen £rom his vyag$^ 

And wente for to doon \na pilgrymage. 

2. The Sqvyees. 

With him ther was his son', a yong 8quy$er, 
iii A lovieer, and a lusty hacheleer, 80 

With lockes crull* as they wer* leyd' mpreae. 

Of twenty yeer he was of oo^' I gesse. 

Of his statur* he was of ev'ne lengthe 
iii And wonderly deliver^ and greet of strengthe. 84 

And he hadd' ben somtym' in ehivachye 

In Flavmdres, in Artoys^ and Pieardyey 

And boom him weel, as in so lytel iptiee^ 
iii In hope to stonden in his lady grace. 88 

Enibroudedi was he, as it wer' a mode 

Al ful oi freschQ floure9 whit' and rede. 

Singing' he was, or^udng* al the day ; 

He was asfresch as is the mon'th of May, 92 

Schort was his goun, with sieves long and wyde. 

Weel coud* he sitt' on hors, and fayre ryde. 

He coude songes mak' and weel endyte, 

Juif and eek daumc^ and weel purtray* and wryte. 96 

So hoot he loved', that by nightertale 

He sleep no mooi^ than dooth a nightingale. 

Curteys he was, lowly, and sertfUahel, 

And carf bifoom his fader at the tahel, 100 

3. The Yemait. 

A Yeman hadd' he and urvaumfs no mo. 

At that tym', for him liste ryde so ; 

And he was clad in coot' and hood' of grene. 

A Bcheef of pocock arwes bright' and kene 104 

Under his belt' he baar ful thriftily. 

Weel coud* he dress' his tackel yemanly, 

His arwes drouped' nowght with fethres lowe, 

And in his bond he baar a mighty bowe. 108 

A notheed hadd' he, with a broun visage. 

Of wodecraft weel coud' he al th' mage, 

90 f re she was not counted in the enumeration will be given in a fboi- 

enumeration of the fr. words p. 651. note to the last line of the Prologne. 
In oorreoting the proofe seyeral other 109 notheed, a closely cropped 

ominioDS haye been found and a new poll. Tondre^ ** to aheere, dip, caty 


And of -IS pooit as meek as »s a maid*e. 

Ke never Jtt noo YirlaintV* -e said'e 

In all -IB ItVf, nntoo' noo man'eer* wikht. 

He was a yer*ai per'ftVt dzhen'ttl kntJUit. 72 

But for to tel'en xun of nts arai*, 

Htis Hors was good, but nee ne was not gai, 

Of ftis'tfaan' -e weer*ed a dzlitV*pnun% 

Al biismoot'erd with -ts Hau'berdzliann* 76 

For nee was laat ikam'en from Hi's vt't 'aadzh'e, 

And went'e fi)r to doon -tis ptl*grtmaadzh'e. 

2. Dhe Sktrtreer. 

With Hnn dheer was -is sann, a jnq Sktrtreer*, 

A luY'teer, and a lust'u baaiishelcer*, 80 

With lok'es kml as dhai wer laid in pres'e. 

Of twen'ttV Jeer -e was of aadzh /• ges'e. 

Of uis 8taa*tyyr' -e was of eevne leqth'e. 

And wun'derltV deh'ver, and greet of streqth'e. 84 

And nee -ad been sumtiim* in t8hiV*yaat8htV*e 

Hi Flann'dres, in Ar'tuis*, and PtV'kardtre, 

And boom -im weel, as m soo lirt'l spaas'e, 

Hi Hoop'e to stond'en in -«b laad'iV graas'e. 88 

Embruud'ed was -e, as it wer a meed'e 

Al fal of fresh'e flnur*es, wlifVt and reed'e. 

Siq'tq* -e was, or fluu'ttq*, al dhe dai ; 

He was as fresh as is dhe moonth of Mai. 93 

Short was -is gunn, with sleeves loq and wttd'e. 

Weel kuud -e stt on nors, and fed're riid'e, 

He kuad'e soq'es maak and weel endiVt'e, 

Dzhust and eek dauns, and weel pnrtrai* and nrtVt'e. 96 

So Hoot -e luY'ed dhat btV niiUit'ertaal'e 

He sleep noo moor dhan dooth a ntibht'tqgaal*e. 

Kor'tais* -e was, loou'ltr, and serviVs*aa*b1, 

And karf bifoom* -ts fiEiad'er at dhe taa'b'l. 100 

3. Dhe Jee'man. 

A Jee'man Had -e and servaunts* noo moo. 

At dhat ttVm, for -tm Itst'e rtVd'e soo ; 

And nee was klad in koot and Hood of green'e. 

A sheef of poo'kok ar'wes brtibht and keen'e 104 

Un'der -is belt -e baar ftil thnft'iltV. 

Weel kuud -e dres -ts tak*'l jee'manltV ; 

Hi's ar'wes druup'ed noukirht with fedh-erz loou'e. 

And m -is nond -e baar a miith'tii boou'e. 108 

A not'Heed Had -e, with a bruun Yii'saadzh'e. 

Of wood'ekrafb weel kuud -e al dh- yysaadzh'e. 

powle, noti, pare round," Cotgraye. loiith of Scotland as a term of derision. 

See Athenaumt 15 Maj, 1869, p. 678, synonymous with blockhead. Jiott in 

eol. 8. ^* Not'head is broad, bull- Dunbar, nowt in Bums, oxen. — 

bMdad. JV0fi'NA#m; is used in tht W.J. A." Ibid., 6 June, I860, p. 77S, 

^^H 686 TEXT OF Chaucer's PROLOGUE. Chap. Til. j i. 

^^V Upon his arm' he boar a gay Iraeeer, 

^^^M And by his syd' a swerd and a boacUar 


^^H And on that other syd' a gay daggecr 

^^^M SamiyiaA vreel, and st^harp a& poynt of spcr' ; 

^^H A CrUstofr' on his brest' of silver schene. 

^^^1 An hom he baar, the hawdrik waa of grene ; 


^^^^ A fortUer was ho sootHy, as I gease. 

^^H 4. The Pbtobesse. 

^^H Ther was also a Nonn\ a PryortfM, 

^^H That of hir' smyling' was ful aimp'l and coy ; 

^^^H u Hir' grctest ooUi was but hy Saynl Loy ; 


^^^1 And sche was depcd madam' EnyUniyne, 

^^^1 Ful weel acho sang the nsmyie divyne, 

^^K iii EfUimed in hir' cooBe ful semely ; 

^^^H And Fremch sche spaak ful fayr' and/*(Mly, 


^^H Aitcr the scool' of Stratfonl atte Bowe, 

^^H For Frentch of Parit was to hir' unknowe. 

^^^H At mete weel ytawght vaa sche withtille ; 

^^H Sche leet no morml &om hir* llppes fallc, 


^^^H Ne wett' hir' finger's in hir' eawce dcpe. 

^^^H iii Weel coud' sche cari' a moriel, and weel kepe, 

^^^H — That no droppe fil upon hir" breste. 

^^^H iii In c«rtey»y« was set ful moeh' hir lest«. 


^^^^H Hir' overlippe wyped' sche so clcne, 

^^H That in hir' cuppe was no ferthing sene 

^^^1 Of greso, whan sche dronkcn hodd' hir' drawght. 

^^^H iii Ful semely after hir' mete sche rawght'. 


^^^H And sikerly sche was of greet diipoorte, 

^^H And ful pUiavint, and amtabV of poorU, 


^^^H And to b«en hoolden dign' of revtrenet. 

^^^H But for to spekcn of hir' eonteimin. 

^^H Sche was so eharttab'l and so pitou$. 

^^^1 Sche woldc weep' if that sche sawgh a mous 


^^H Cawght in a trapp', if it wer' deed or bledde. 

^^M Of amale houndes hadd' seho. that sche fedde 

^^^H With rootled flesch, and milk, and teatlel breed. 

^^^H vi But sore vcpte sche if oon of hem nor' deed. 


^^V .lol. 3. JimieBon gites tha fomiB noil, and 6^7 infrA for the probable oom- 

^^^" •uwf for blark catUe, properly oteii aional dissyllabic use 

of saynt w 

P witb the mcondary man of laul, uid (aaa'Dt). As this bod 

Qot be4n ob- 

1 refers to loel. ttnat (ntcteit), Dan. n«i served, Tyiwhitt proposes to com- 

P (nteqedh), Sw. nil (niBift), sod ags. plete the motra by reading Eloj. 

1 iKdr, our modem neat (niit] cattle. with no MS. aDthority 

Prof. Child 

1 lis Cristefr', this was accident- proooBes otbe (supra 

p. 390, ni. 

1 ally not counted among the French aath). thus : Hir' (^reliiet othe Du 

1 words on p. 661. but by Saint Loj, and 

Mr. Morris 

L 120 suynl. See sopril, pp- 264, would read ne was as in t. 7i. 

^^^ 476, 649, note, and notes on tt. 609 tbm: Hir" gretest ooth n 

e was but by 


Upon* -fB ann -e 1>aar a gai biaa-seer, 

And biV -IB Bttd a Bwerd and a buk'leer, 112 

And on dhat ndh'er at id a gai dag*eer 

HarnaiB'ed weel, and sharp as puint of speer ; 

A ExMt'ofr- on -ts brest of st l*yer sheen'e. 

An Hom -6 baar, dhe ban'drtk was of green'e. 116 

A forsteer was -e Booth'ltV, as It ges'e, 

4. Dhe P r • •* r e 8' e. 

Dheer was al'soo* a Nun, a PrtV'ores'e, 

Dhat of -tVr smul'tq was fdl stm'pl- and kui, 

HtVr greet'est ooth was but bn saa'tnt Lni ; 120 

And ^ee was klep'ed maa'daam* Eq*lentfVn*6. 

Fal weel she saq dhe serytVs'e dmrne, 

Entyyn'ed tn -ttr nooz'e fdl seem'eltV, 

And Frensh she spaak fill fedr and fee'ttisltiy 124 

Aft*er dhe skool of Strat'ford at*e Boou*e, 

For Frensh of Paa*rttiB* was to hi tir unknoon'e, 

At mee'te weel itauku^ht* was shee wtthal'e, 

8he leet noo morsel from -ur Itp'es fal*e, 128 

Ne wet -ur fiq'gerz tn -ur saus'e deep*e. 

Weel kuud she kar't a morsel, and weel keep'e 

Bhat no drop*e ftl upon -ur brest'e. 

in kur*taistV*e was set fdl mutsh -ur lest'e. 132 

HiVr overlip'e wup*ed shee soo kleen'e, 

Dhat in -ur kup*e was no ferdh'tq seen*e 

Of grees'e, whan shee druqk'en Had -ur drauku^ht. 

Ful see'melu aft'er -ur meet'e she rauktrht. 136 

And stk'erlu she was of greet dtspoort'e, 

And fdl plee'zaunt* and aa'mtaa*bl- of poort'e, 

And pain'ed Hur to kunn'trefeet'e tsheer*e 

Of kuurt, and been estaat'litsh of man'eere, 140 

And to been Hoold'en diVn of reeyerens'e. 

But for to speek'en of -ur kon*stens*e, 

She was soo tshaa'rtVtaa'bl- and soo pu-tuus*, 

She wold'e weep, if dhat she saugtch a muus 144 

Kauku^ht m a trap, if tt wer deed or bled'e. 

Of smaal'e Hund'es Had she, dhat she fed*e 

With roost'ed flesh, and mtlk and was'tel breed, 

But soore wep'te shee if oon of Hem wer deed, 148 

Sunt Lot. Both the last sngj^estions 
Bake a lame line by throwing the 
aoeent on by, nnlees we make by 
laynt Loy, a quotation of the 
Nonne's oath, which is not probable. 
The Ha. has n a s, the Six MSS. have 
was simply. For o t h e, which is a 
?erj donbtnil form. Prof. Child refers 
to 1141, where Ha. reads: This was 
^yn otiie and myn eek oertayn, which 
would require the exceptional preser- 

Tation of the open rowel in othe, 
bnt all the Six MSS. read: This was 
thyn ooth, and myn also certeyn, only 
P., L. write a saperflnons e as othe. 
122 serryse. See 8aprii,p. 831. 

131 f i 1, all MSS. except He. read 
ne fil. The insertion or ne woold 
introduce a iii. 

132 fnl soE. Ca.Go. L. 

148 So all MSS., prodncing an 
Alexandrine, see supri p. 649. 




Or if men smoot' it with a yerde smerte, 

And al was consciene* and tentPre herte. 

Ful semely hir' wimp'l jpinched was ; 

Hir* nose streyt ; hir* eyen grey as glas ; 

Hit' mouth ful smaal, and tibeerto soft' and reed, 

But sikerly sche hadd' a fayr foorheed. 

It was almoost a spanne brood, I trowe. 

For hardily sche was not undergrowe. 

'Exdfetis was hir' clook* as I was waar. 

Of smaal coraal about hir' arm sche baar 

A payr^ of bedes ffawded al with grene ; 

And theeron heng a brooch of goold ful schene, 

On which ther was first writen a erouned. A 

And after : Amob th^ cit omsul. 




5. 6. 7. 8. Anothee NoNinB Ain> thee Fbsesies. 

Another H^onn* also with hir* hadd' sche, 
That was hir' ehapellayn, and Preestes thre. 


9. The Monk. 

A Monk ther was, a fayr for the fnay%try$j 
An out-rydeer, that loved* vwerye ; 
A manly man, to been an abbot ahel, 
Ful many a deynte hors hadd' he in itahel: 
And whan he rood, men might his bridel here 
Gtinglen, in a whistling* wind' as eler$ 
And eek as loud* as dooth the ehapel belle 
Theer as this lord was keper of the celle. 
The reuP of Saynt Mawr* or of Saynt Beneyty 
"S^cafjoa^ that it was oold and somdeel streyt, 
This ilke Monk leet it forby him pace. 
And heeld after the newe world the space. 
He yaaf nat of that text a pulled hen, 
That sayth, that hunter's been noon holy men, 
Ne that a monk, whan he is recchelees, 
Is lyken'd to a f isch' that's waterlees ; 
This is to sayn, a monk out of his cloystery 
But thilke text heeld he not worth an oyster. 





1 59 p a T T ' . This was accidentally 
not counted among the French wor^ 
on p. 651. 

164 Chapellayn. See Temp. 
Pref. to Six-Text Ed. of Chaucer, p. 92. 

170 Gin^len. E. gyngle, 
He. gyngelyn Ca., gyn^lyng 
Co. Pe. L. In any case the line has 
an imperfect initial measure, and the 
reading in He. has only four measures. 

175 This line has evidently caused 
difficulties to the old transcribcors. The 
following are the readings : 

This uke monk leet forby hem pace. 


This ilke monk leet olde thyngea 

pace. — The six MSS. 

Now the Ha. is not only defective ia 

metre, but in sense, for there is no 

antecedent to hmn. The two mlet 


Or tf men smoot it with a lerd'e smeit'e, 

And al was kon'stens* and tend're nert'e. 

Ful scem'eltV -tVr wfimpl- tptntah'ed was, 

HfVr nooz'e strait, HiVr ai*en grai as glas, 152 

HtVr munth fnl smaal, and dheer'too* soft and reed, 

Bat stk'erlti she Had a fair foor'heed*. 

it was almoost* a span*e brood, li troou*e, 

for Har'dtltV she was not nn'dergroou'e. 156 

Fnl fee 'tis was -tVr klook, as li was waar. 

Of smaal koo'raal* abuut' -tVr arm she baar 

A pair of beed*es gaud*ed al with green -e ; 

And dheer'on neq a brootsh of goold fal sheen*e, 160 

On whitsh dher was first r«7it*en a kraun*ed A a, 

And aft'er, Aa'mor y in* sit om*niaa. Anudh'er Nun'e and three Preest'es. 

Anadh'er Nun alsoo* with HiVr -ad shee, 

Bhat was -iir tshaa'pelain*, and Preest'es three. 


9. D h e M u q k. 

A Muqk dher was, a fair for dhe mais'tni'e, 

An unt'nideer*, dhat luved vee*neni'e, 

A man-lti man, to been an ab'ot aa'b'l. 

Ful man'i- a dain'tee Hors -ad nee tn staa'b'l : 168 

And whan -e rood men mikhi -is bnV*d*l neer'e 

Bzhiq'glen in a whtst'liq wind as kleer'e 

And eek as lund as dooth dhe t8haa*pel* bel'e 

Dheer as dhts lord was keep'er of dhe sel-e. 172 

Dhe ryyl of saint Maur or of saint Benait*, 

Bekaus* dhat it was oold and sum'deel strait, 

Dhts ilk'e Muqk leet it forbii -tm paas*e, 

And Heeld aft'er dhe neu'c world dhe spaas'e. 176 

He jaaf nat of dhat tekst a pul'ed nen, 

Dhat saith dhat Hunt'erz been noon hooI'ii men, 

Ne dhat a muqk, whan nee is retsh'elees, 

h lii'k'end too a ftsh dhat -s waa*tcrlces ; 180 

Dhat IS to sain, a muqk uut of -is kluist'er. 

Bat dhilk'e tekst neeld nee not wurth an uist'er. 

named being leparated by or, have been 
i ig fe f ied to as i^ in the preceding line. 
I therefore conjecturally insert it and 
change kem to him, though I cannot 
Vring other instances of the use otfarby 
Asm. The reading of the six MSS. 
geta oat of the difficulty by^ a clumsy 
tcpetition of old, and by leaTing a sen- 
lonee incomplete thus : " the r^e . . . 
b«oanM that it was old . . . this monk 

let old things pass," which must be 

179 recchelees, so thesiz MSS. 
It probably stands for rejhel-lees, 
without his rule, which not being a 
usual phrase required the explanation 
of y. 181, and the Ha. cloysterles 
was only a gloss which crept into the 
text out of y. 181, and renders that 
line a useless repetition. 

690 TEXT OF Chaucer's pbologue. Chaf.vii. } 

And I sayd' his opynioun was good, 
iii What! schuld' he Httdf, and mak' himselven wood, 184 

Upon a book in chystW alwey to poure, 

Or swinke with his handes, and lah<mr$, 

As Awstin bit ? Hon schal the world be MTved f 

Let Awstin hay' his swink to him rM^ired. 188 

Theerfor' he was a prikasour aright ; 

Grayhound's he hadd' as swift as foul in flight, 

Of priking' and of hunting* for the hare 

Was al his lust, for no cost wold' he spare. 192 

I sawgh his slcv's purfyled atte honde 

With grt/8^ and that the^nest of a londe, 

And for to fest'n' his hood under his chin 
iii He hadd' of goold ywrowght a curious pin ; 196 

iii A loveknott* in the greter ende ther was. 
iii His heed was balled and schoon as any glas, 

And eek hisfaac^ as he hadd' been anoynt; 

He was a lord fill fat and in good poynt ; 200 

His eyen steep, and ro//ing' in his heed, 

That stemed, as eifornays of a leed ; 

His hotes aoupU^ his hors in greet estaat, 

Nou csrtaynlj he was a fayr prelaat ; 204 

He was not pal* as a forpyneid goost. 

A fat swan lov'd' he best of any roost 
+ HiB palfrey was as broun as is a berye. 

10. The Fbebe. 

+ iii A Frere ther was, a wantoun and a merye, 208 

A limitour, a fill solemne man. 

In alle th' ord*res fowr' is noon that can 

So moch' of ^BHiawnc* and fayr langage. 
iii He hadd' ymaad fal many a fayr mariage 212 

Of yonge wimmen, at his owne cost. 

Unto his ordW he was a nobel post. 
iii Ful weel bilov'd Bud familieer was he 

With frankeleyns ov'ral in his cuntre, 216 

And eek with worthy wimmen of the toun : 

For he hadd' poueer of confessiourif 

As sayd' himself, more than a curaat. 

For of his ord*r he was licenciaat. 220 

Ful swetely herd' he confessioun, 

And plesaumt was his ahsoludoun ; 
iii He was an esy man to yeve penawnce 
iii Theer as he wiste to haan a good pitawnce ; 224 

184 Btudi', although taken from modem u = (9), and has therefore bee 
the French, so that we should expect adopted. 

u = (yy), Ca. and L. read stoaie, 201 s t e e p, bright, see steap o 
shewing a = (a), which agrees with the p. 108 of Cockayne's St. Marheret 

(suprii p. 471, n. 2). 


And if said hw oo*ptViiniim* was good. 

What ! shnld -e stad'V and maak -tmselyen wood, 184 

Upon* a book m kloist'r- al'wai to pnu*re, 

Or swtqk'e with -tis Hand'es and laa'bua're, 

Ab Anst'tn btt ? Huu shal dhe world be served ? 

Let Anst'tn naav -is swtqk to Htm reserved. 188 

Dheerfoor -e was a prtV'kaasnnr* Biikht\ 

Grai'Hnndz- -e nad as swtft as fnul in flight ; 

Of prt*k*tq and of Hunt'tq for dhe naar'e 

Was al -ts Insty for noo kost wold -e spaar*e. 192 

if sankt^^h -tis sleeyz purftVl'ed at'e hond'e 

Wfth grits, and dhat dhe ftth'est of a lond'e, 

And for to fest'n- -tis Hood nn*der* -tis tshtn 

He Had of goold tn^nkt^^ht* a kyyrtuns pm ; 196 

A Inye-knot tn dhe greet'er end'e dher was. 

His Heed was bal'ed and shoon as an*tt glas, 

And eek -ts faas, as nee -ad been annint*. 

He was a lord fill fat and tn good puint ; 200 

Hts ai'en steep, and rool'tq tn -tis need, 

Dhat steem'ed as a for'nais* of a leed ; 

Htis boot'es sup'l-, -ts Hors tn greet estaat*. 

Nun ser'tainltf -e was a fair prelaat' ; 204 

He was not paal as a forpith'ed goost. 

A fjBit swan luv'd -e best of an'tV roost. 

HtiB pal'firai was as bmun as ts a ber'te. 

10. Dhe Freere 

A Freer'e dher was, a wan'tunn and a merte, 208 

A Iff 'mtt'tuur*, a fill soo*lem*ne man. 

Li al'e dh- or'dres foonr ts noon dhat can 

8oo mutsh of daa'ltauns* and fair laq'gaadzh'e. 

He Had tmaad* M man*t a fair mar*taadzh*e 212 

Of juq'e wtm'en, at -tis ooun'e kost. 

Untoo' -ts ordr- -e was a noo'b'l post. 

Fol wcel btluvd* and faa*mtlieer* was nee 

Wtth fraqk'elainz' ovral* tn Hts knn'trcc*, 216 

And eek wtth wurdh'tt wtm*en of dhe tunn : 

For Hee -ad puu'eer* of konfes'tuun*, 

As said -tmself, moore dhan a kyy*raat% 

For of -ts ordr- -e was Itt'sen'si'aat*. 220 

Fol sweet'cltf nerd nee konfes'iuun*, 

And plce'saunt* was -tis ab'soolyystiinn* ; 

He was an eez'tt man to jeeye penauns'e 

Dheer as -e wtst'e to naan a good ptrtauns'c ; 224 

202 for nay 8, see Temporary 219 See saprii p. 831, note. All 

PtafiuM to the Six-Text edition, p. 99. MSS. agree. 

212 f Q 1 occurs in all six MSS. 

217 wimmen, wommen Ha. £. 223 yeve, all MSS. except L. 

He. Co. P., wemen Ca., wemmen L. hare the final e. 


For unto a por* order for to yeve 

Is si^ns that a man is weel yschreve. 

For if he yaaf, he dorste mak' avaumtf 

He wiste that a man was repmtawnt. 228 

iii For many a man so hard is of his herte, 

He may not wepe though him sore smerte. 

Theerfor* insted* of weping* and preyeret^ 
y\ Men moote yeve silver to the porefrerM, 232 

His tipet was ay /ar«ed fill of knyfes 

And pinnes, for to yeve fayre wyfes. 

And certaynlj he hadd' a mery note, 

Weel coud' he sing' and pleyen on a rote, 236 

Of yedding's he baar utterly the prys. 

His necke whyt was as the flow-^e-lys, 

Theerto he strong was as a ehawmpioun. 

He knew the tavem^s weel in ev'ry toun, 240 

And ev'rich osteUeer or gay tapsteer, 

Better than a laneer or a beggeer, 

For unto swich a worthy man as he 

Accorded not, as by YnsfacuUe^ 244 

To haan with sike lasteer** acqueyntaumee. 

It is not honesty it may not avaumee^ 
— For to delen with noon swich porayle^ 

But al with rich' and seller's of vitayle, 248 

And ov'ral, ther as profit schuld' aryse, 

Curteys he was, and lowly of eervyse. 

Ther was no man no wheer so vertuotu. 

He was the beste beggecr in his hous, 252 

For thowgh a widwe hadde nowght a sho, 

So pleeawnt was his In pbincipio, 

Yet wold' he haan a ferthing er he wente. 

His pourchaas was weel better that his rente. 256 

And rag^ he coud' and pleyen as a whelp, 

In lovedayes coud' he mochel help'. 

For theer was he not lyk' a eloystereer^ 
vi With a threedbare eop* as a pore ecoUer^ 260 

But he was lyk' a mayster or a pope. 

Of douhel worsted was his eemicopey 

232 All MS S. agree in making this 249 a b omitted in Ha. Ci^ found 

a line of six measures, and it seems to in the rest. 

portray the -whining beggary of the 252 After this line He. alone in- 

cry, snpr^ p^ 649. serts the eonplet — 

ftor X J.V X n -Ajid yaf a cMeyn ferme, for tlie 

236 note, throte Ca. grannt^ 

240 tavern's weel, the six Noon of his bretheren, cam ther in 

M8S. haye this order. Ha.wel the his haunt?, 

tayernes. * 253 So all the six MSS., meaning, 

although a widow had next to nothin|^ 

247 non E. He. Ca., the others in the world, yet so pleasant was hii 

omit it. introductory lesson In prineipio erei 


For mi'to a poor ord'er for to jeeve 

/s stV'iie dhat a man tis weel tshree've. 

Por if -e jaaf, -e durst'e maak ayaunt'. 

He wt'st'e dhat a man was ree'pentannt*. 

For man* I a man soo Hard is of -tis Heit'e, 

He mai not weep'e dhoonktrh -im soor*e smert'e. 

Dheer'foor* tnsteed* of weep'iq* and prai'eer-es, 

Men moot'e jeeve sil'ver too dhe poor*e &eer*e8. 

Hts ttp'et was ai fars'ed fill of knitfes, 

And pih'es for to jeeve fai're wiVfes. 

And sertainlii -e Had a mer'ti noot'e. 

Weel kuud -e stq and plai'en on a root'e. 

Of jed'tqz nee baar ut'erlit dhe prtiiB. 

His nek'e whiVt was as dhe fluur de liis. 

Dheer'too" -e stroq was as a tshaum'piuun*. 

He kneu dhe taa'Temz* weel in evni tuun. 

And evrttsh os'teleer* or gai tapsteer, 

Bct'er dhan a ka-zeer* or a beg'eer*. 

For nn'to switsh a wurdhiV man as Hee 

Akord'ed not, as bii -is fak'ultee 

To Haan with siik'e laa'zeerz aa'kirain'tanns'e ; 

It is not on'est, it mai not avauns'e, 

For to deel'en with noon switsh poor'ail*e 

But al with ritsh and sel'erz of Tii*tail*e. 

And oT'ral', dheer as profit shuld ariis'e, 

Eur'tais' -e was, and loou-lii of ser*yiis*e. 

Dher was noo man noo wheer soo yer'tyyuus*. 

He was dhe best'e beg'eer* in -is huus, 

For dhoouku^h a wid'we nad'e nonkirht a shoo, 

So plee'sannt' was -is In p r i n* s i i* p i o o, 

Jet wold -e naan a ferdh'iq eer -e went*e. 

His puur'tshaas* was weel bet'er dhan -is rent*e. 

And raadzh -e kuud, and plai'en as a whelp, 

In luy-edai'es kuud -e mutsh'el Help. 

For dheer was nee not liik a kluist*ereer% 

With a threed'baar'e koop as a poo re skol'eer*, 

But nee was liik a mais'ter or a poo'pe. 

Of duu'b'l wor'sted was -is 8em*ikoop*e, 










(See Temp. Pref. to Six-Text 
of Cluaoer, p. 93) that he would coax 
% trifle oQt of her. The Ha. reads 
^mt ichoo, on which see Temp. 
^nt p. 94. That we are not to take 
Hie words literallj, bat that tehoo was 
^Mrely used as a representatiTe of some- 
fkaxkg utterly worthless, which was 
•OBTenient for the rhyme, just as pulled 
km 177, or oy»ter 182, and the nsoal 
Imn, §tnne, modern^, farthing, etc., 
ii alMwn b J its use in the Prologe to 

the Wjf of Bathe, 6288 at pointed 
OQt by Mr. Aldis Wright, — 

The clerk whan he is old, and maj 
nought do 

Of Yenns werkii, is not worth a eoho. 

266 weel, so the six MSS., omitted 
in Ha. 

260 So all MSS. except Ca. whiok 
reads, as is a soholer, againat 
rhythm. Compare t. 232. See alao 
Temp. Pref. to dix-Text£d. of Chancer, 
p. 100. 

694 TEXT OF Chaucer's pbolooue* Ohap. YII. i i. 

And rounded as a bell' out of the presse. 

Somwhat he lipsed, for his wantouimesse, 264 

To mak' his Englisch swet' upon his tonge ; 

And in his harping', whan that he hadd' songe. 

His eyghen twinkled in his heed aright. 

As doon the sterres in the frosty night. 268 

This worthy limitour was call'd Huberd. 

11. The Maschawitt. 

A Marehaumt was ther with a forked herd, 

— In motlee and heygh on hors he sat, 

Upon his heed a Flaumdnaf^ bever hat ; 272 

His botes elapsed fayr* BJiAfetisly. 
His reaouns spaak he fill solemnelj, 
Sounin.^ alwey th' encrees of his winninge* 
iii He wolde the se wer* kept for any thinge 276 

Betwixe Middeburgh and OreweUe. 
"Weel coud' he in esehaumge scheldes selle, 
This worthy man ful weel his wit bisette ; 
Ther wiste no wight that he was in dette^ 280 

So staatlj was he of his govenMioneey 
"With his bargayn^s, and with his chevtsawnee. 
For sooth' he was a worthy man withalle, 
But sooth to sayn, I n'oot hou men him calle. 284 

12. The Clerk. 

A Clerk ther was of Oxenfoord' also, 
That unto lopk hadde long* ygo. 
So lene was his hors as is a rake. 

And he n'as not right fat, I undertake, 288 

But loked' holw', and theerto soberly. 
Ful threedbar' was his ov'rest courtepy, 
iii For he hadd' geten him yet no benefyce, 

Ne was so worldly for to hav' offi/ce, 292 

For him was lever hav' at his bedd's heed 

— Twenty bokes, clad in blak and reed, 
Of ArUtoVly and his philosophyey 

Than robes ricK or fith'l or gay sawtrye, 296 

264 his, so the six MSS., omitted but the order of the words is oonjee- 
in Ha. which therefore required lip- torally altered on account of the rhylum. 
s e d e for the metre. 

271 motlee, so all but Ha. L. rRVJ.vALl\l'7?f^ '/" "^'.^ *T' 

which have m 1 1 e 1 e y. The word is &J?^ ^^^\ Tk ""t^ ^ ^"^ ^ 

obscure, and may be ^elch mudliw, l^l^TfL i?!' ^^^^'l^.^'Sif? 

(mWUu)ofachLgingcolour. Jt'^Jr4rt^1L^^^^ 

274 All MSS. read he spaak, as French. 

Cmap. yn. { 1. pbokhngiation of chauceb's pbolootjs. 695 

And raund'ed as a bel nut of dhe pres'e. 

Sum'what* He lip'sed, for -tis wan'taimnes'e, 264 

To maak -ts Eq'b'sh sweet upon* dhe tiiq*e ; 

And m -is nar'piq, whan dhat nee -ad suq'e, 

Htfl aiAh'en twiqk'led tn -ts need arikht', 

As doon dhe steres m dhe frost'iV ni^ht. 268 

DhtiB wuidh'iV lii'mu'tanr' was kald Hyy'beid*. 

11. Dhe Martshaunt. 

A Marishannt* was dher with a fork'ed herd. 

In motlee* and naikh. on Hors -e sat, 

Upon' -w Heed a Flaun'drtJBh beever Hat ; 272 

His boot'es klaps*ed fair and fee'ttslti. 

Hm ree'sauns' spaak -e ful soolem'neliV*, 

Saun'iq- alwai* dh- enkrees* of Hts wtn'tq'e. 

He wold'e dhe see wer kept for an'tV thtq*e 276 

Betwtks'e Mtd'eburkh and Oo*rewel'e. 

Weel kuud -e in es'tshaundzh'e sheld'es sel'e. 

Dhi's wurdh'ii man fid weel -is wit biset'e ; 

Dher wi'st'e noo wiitht dhat -e was tn det'e, 280 

Soo staat'lii was nee of -is gun vemanns'e, 

With Hts bargainz' and with -is tshee'TiiiBauns'e. 

For sooth -e was a wurdh'ti man withal*e, 

Bat sooth to sain, It n- -oot nnn man -im kal'e. 284 

12. Dhe Klerk. 

A Klerk dher was of Ok'senfoord* al'soo*, 

Dhat nn'to lodzh'ik had*e loq igoo*. 

So leen*e was -ts Hors as is a raak*e, 

And Hee n- -as not n'Arht fat, /i nndertaak'e. 288 

Bat look'ed hoI'w- and dheer'too soo'berlii. 

Fnl threed'baar was -ts ovrest kor'tepii, 

For nee -ad get'en -im jet doo benefiis'e, 

Ne was soo wnrdl'ti for to naav ofits'e. 292 

For Htm was leever naav at his bedz need 

Twen'tii book'es, klad tn blak and reed, 

Of Aristot'l-, and His fii-loo-soo'fire, 

Dhan roob-es n'tsh or fidh'l- or gai sautn're. 296 

281 itaatlj, bo Co., the rest He. Ca.; jit geten him no P., 

hftfe e ■ t a a 1 1 J, and Ha. alone omits nought ^eten him jet a Ha., 

hii, against the metre. If we read: geten him no, Co. L. 

so estaatl J, the first measure will 292 worldlj £. He. Co., wordelj 

be trissjUabic. Ca., wordlj P., werdlj L., Nc 

aoo » "on n va— wasnotworthjtohaTeuan 

288 n as.soE.Ca.Co.,butwas office Ha. ^ 

Aa. He. P. and L. 296 g a j, so aU MSS. except Ha. 

291 geten him jet no, £. which omits it. 




But albe that he was a philosopher ^ 

Yet hadd* he but a lytel gold in cofer^ 

But al that he might' of his frendes hcnte, 

On bokes and on leming' he it spente, 

And bisily gan for the sowles preye 

Of hem, that yaaf him "wherwith to scoleye. 

Of studie tok he moost cur* and moost heed. 

Not 00 word spaak he more than was need ; 

And that was seyd mform and reverence^ 

And schort and quik, and ful of heygh sentenee, 

Sounmg^ in moral vertu was his speche, 

And gladly wold' he lem' and gladly teche. 





• • • 


■ • • 


• • • 


13. The Seboeawih? of Lawe. 

A Sergeawnt of Lawe, waar and wys, 

That often haddc ben at the parvySy 

Ther was alsoo, ful rich^ of excellence. 

Discreet he was, and of greet reverence. 

He semed' swich, his wordes wer' so wyse. 

Juetyo* he was ful often in asst/se 

By patent, and by pleyn commissioun^ 

For his ecienc\ and for his heygh renoun; 

Of fees and rohee hadd' he many oon. 

8o greet a pourcliaaour was no wheer noon. 

Al was fee simpel to him in effect. 

His pourchasm^ ne mighte not ben infect. 

No wheer so bisy a man as he ther n'as, 

And yit he semed* bisier than he was. 

In termes hadd' he caas and domes alle, 

That fro the tym* of king William wer' falle. 

Theerto he coud* endyt ' and mak* a thing. 

Ther coude no wight pincK at his writing*. 

And ev'ry statut coudl he pleyn by rote. 

He rood but hoomly in a medlee cote. 

Gird with a ceynt of silk with barree smale ; 

Of his array tell* I no longer tale. 






297 So the six MSS., the Ha. is 
iinmetzical. The long vowels in p h i- 
losopher, gold, coffer, are 
Tery ooubtM, and it is perhaps more 
probable that short vowels would be 

298 "a" is only fonnd in Co. If 
it is omitted, the wnt metre becomes 

303 moost heed, so the six 
M8S.; heed Ha. 

306 So all the six MSS. (H. has 
spoke), but Ha. has the entirely dif- 

ferent line : Al that he spak it wis of 
heye prudence. The "vniole of the 
clerk's character is defective in Ha. 
In ** Cassell's Magazine" for May, 1869, 
p. 479, col. 1, there occurs the follow- 
ing para&praph : *' The following pithy 
sketch 0? Oxford life half a dozen cen- 
turies ago is from the pen of Wydiffe : 
— The scholar is f&med for his loeie ; 
Aristotle is his daily bread, bat otner- 
wise his rations are slender enough. 
The horse he rides is as lean as la a 
rake, and the rider is no better off. 
His cheek is hollow, and hia eott 


But al bee dhat -e wer a firloo*8oof-er, 
Jet Had -e but a lirt'l goold in koofer, 
And al dhat nee mikht of -tis frend'es Hent'e, 
On book'es and on lem'tq nee it spent 'e, 
And btz'tltV gan for dhc sooul'es prai*e 
Of Hem dhat jaaf -t'm wheerwith to skolai'e. 
Of stud'te took -e moost kyyr and moost heed.* 
Kot 00 word epaak -e moor'e dhan was need ; 
And dhat was said th form and ree'yerens'e, 
And short and ktrik and ful of naiy^h sentens'e. 
Sau'ntq* in moo'raal* ver-tyy* was -is speetsh'e, 
And glad'ltV wold -e lem, and glad'lii teetsh'e. 




13. Dhe Ser dzheeaunt* of Lau'e. 

A Ser'dzheeaunt* of Lau*e, waar and wiVs, 

Dhat of-ten nad'e been at dhe par'viVs*, 

Dher was alsoo*, ful ntsh of ek-selens'e. 

Diskreet* -e was and of greet rec*verens*e. 312 

He secm'ed switsh, -is word'es wer soo wtVs'e. 

Dzhyyst'tVs* -e was ful oft'en in asiVs'e 

Bit paa'tent, and btV plain komts'iuun*, 

For HIS sirens, and for -ts nai^h renuun* ; 316 

Of fcez and roob'es nad -e man*iV oon. 

8o greet a puur'tshaa'suur* was noo whcer noon. 

Al was fee sim'p'l too -im in efekt*, 

Hfs puur'tshaas'iq* ne mt'Arht'e not been ihfekt*. 320 

1^00 wheer soo biz'i a man as nee dher n- -as, 

And Jft -e seem'od bi'z'icr dhan -e was. 

in term'es Had -e kaas and doom'es al'e, 

Dhat froo dhe tiVm of kiq Wil'iaam* wer fal'e. 324 

Dheertoo' ne kuud endiVt* and maak a thtq. 

Dher kuud'e noo w/X'ht pmtsh at Hfs rtriVt'iq*. 

And evnV staatyyt kuud -e plain biV root'e. 

He rood but Hoom'liV* in a med'lcc koot'e, 328 

Gird wtth a saint of silk with bar'es smaal'e ; 

Of HIS arai' tcl It noo Icq'ger taal'e. 

%hreadbare. Ilis bedroom is his study. 
K)jeT his bed's head arc some twenty 
>rolamefl in black and red. Whatever 
^Coin he f^ts goes for books, and those 
^^ho help him to coin will certainly 
^Mje the advantage of his prayers for 
the rood of their souls while they live, 
«r their repose when they arc dead. 
ISLia words are few, but full of mean- 
'Ing. His highest thought of life is of 
learning and teaching.' This is ob- 
Tiously a modem English translation 
«f the present passage. Is there any- 
thing like it in WycUffe ? 

306 heygh, so the six MSS., 
^ r e t Ha. apparently because of h o y e 
in the prcceuing line of that recension. 

307 vertu, so the six MSS. 
mane re Ha. 

310 at the, so all MSS. except 
Ha. and P., see suprii p. 331, note. 

320 infect, so all nx MSS., 
snspecte Ha. 

327 p I e y n, Fr. pMn, fully com- 
pare V. 337. 


698 TEXT OF ghauceb's pbolooxjb. Okap. til { 1. 

14. Thb Fbakxslkxiv. 

A Erankeleyn was in his eampanye ; 
Whyt was his herd, as is the dayesye. 332 

Of his complexioun he was sangwt/n. 
Weel lov'd' he hy the morrw' a sop in wyn'. 
To ly ven in delyt* was e'er his wone, 
For he was Epiciibus owne sone, 336 

That heeld opinioun ih&tpleyn delyt 
Was verraylj felicite p^rfyt. 
An housholdeer, and that a greet was he ; 
Saynt Jultaan he was in his ountr&e, 340 

iii His hreed, his ale, was alwey after oon ; 

A hettr' envyned man was no wheer noon, 
iii Withoute hake mete was ne'er his hous 

Of fisch' and flesch', and that so plentevoui 344 

It snowed in his hous of met' and drinke 
Of alle dcyntees that men coude thinke. 
After the sondry 9e9(nm9 of the yeer*, 
So chawnyed* he his met' and his soupeer. 348 

iii Ful many a fat partrich hadd' he in tneue^ 
iii And many a hreem and many a Iw^ in tUm. 
Woo was his cook, hut if his Mwce were 
Poynawnt and scharp, and redy al his gere. 352 

His tdbel dormawnt in his hall' alwey 
Stood redy covered al the longe day. 
At aessiouns thecr was he lord and syre. 
Ful oft* tym' he was knight of the schyre. 356 

An anlas and a yipseer al of silk 
Heng at his girdcl, whyt as mome milk. 
A shyrrcev hadd' he heen, and a countaur. 
Was no whcer such a worthy vavasour. 360 

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. The Kabkrdascheer, Caxfesteeb^ Wxbbe, 

Dteeb, and Tapiceer. 

An Haberdascheer, and a Carpent^er^ 

A Webb', a Dyeer, and a Tapiceer^ 

Wer* with us cek, clothed in oo liv'ree, 

Of a solemn^ and greet fratemite, 364 

Ful frcsch and new' her* ger' apyked was ; 

Her' knyfes wer* jcliaped not with bras, 

But al with silver wrowght ful clen' and weel 

Her* girdles and her' pouches ey'rj deel. 368 

Weel seemed' eech of hem a fayr huryeys 

To sittcn in a y eld' hall' on the deys. 

834 Bop in wyn, so all six 348 So all six MSS. Ha. __ 

MSS., sop of wyn Ha. He chaun^ed hem at mete and 

soper, whicn is clearly wrong: 


14. Dhe Fraqk'elain. 

A Fraqk'elain was «n -is kum*pa]iiV*e ; 

WhtVt was -ts berd, as ts dhe dai'esire. 332 

Of -ts komplck'stuun* -e was saqgwtin*. 

Weel luvd -e tn dhe mom a sop m wiVn. 

To liVyen in deliVt* was eer -w wunn'e, 

For nee was Ee'ptikyyrus ooiin*e suun'o, 336 

Dhat Heeld oo'pirnniun* dhat plain deliVt* 

Was ver'ailiV fee-ltrsiV'teo* per'fiVt*. 

An Huus'hooldeer', and dhat a greet was Hee ; 

Saint Dzhyy'liiaan' -o was tn nts kun'tree*. 340 

Ht's breed, nts aa'le, was al*wai after oon ; 

A betT- enviin'ed man was noo wheer noon. 

Wtthuut'e baak'e meet'e was neer -is nnus 

Of ft sh, and flesh, and dhat soo plent'evaus 344 

It sneu'ed tn -ts nuns of meet and driqk'e 

Of al*e dain'tees dhat men kuude thtqk'e. 

Aft'er dhe sun'driV seesuunz* of dhe jcor, 

Soo tshaundzh'cd nee nts meet and ms saupeer*. 348 

Ful man't a fat partritsh* -ad Hce tn myye, 

And man* I a breem and man*t a lyys in styy*e*. 

Woo was -IS kook, but if -ts saus'e weer*e 

Pain-aunt* and sharp, and reed'tt al -ts geer'e. 352 

Ht's taa-b'l dorTnaunt- tn -is nal alwai* 

Stood red'tV kuverd al dhe loq*e dai. 

At ses'iuunz- dheer was -e lord and stVre. 

Ful oft'c tiVm -e was kniil:ht of dhe shtVr'e. 356 

An an'las and a dzhtp'seer* al of stlk 

Heq at -ts gir-d'l, whiit as mom-e milk. 

A shiVr'reev Had -e been, and a kun'tunr. 

Was noo wheer sutsh a wurdh'tt Yaa'vaasunr. 360 Dhe Hab'ordash'cer, Karpenteer, 
Web'e, Dti'oer, and Taa'ptt* seer. 

An Hab'erdaah'eer* and a Kar-penteer*, 

A Web, a Di'reer*, and a Taa'p/rseer*, 

Weer with us eek, cloodh'ed tn oo lirvree*, 

Of a soo'lem'n- and greet fraa*tcr-niVtce*. 364 

Ful fresh and neu -er geer api'ilc'ed was ; 

Her kniVf'es wer ttshaap'cd not w/th bras, 

But al with stl*ver rirouktrht fal klecn and weel 

Her gi'r dies and -er puutsh'cs evrtV deel. 868 

Weel seem'cd eetsh of nem a fair bur*dzhais* 

To sit'en tn a Jcld'nal on dhe dais. 

S62 dyeer, BothorixMSS., Harl. 365 apjked, so all six MSS., 

4ejer, lee d^ery p. 643. piked Ha. 






Ev'rich for the wisdom tliat he can, 
Was schaaply for to been an alderman. 
For catel hadde they ynongh and rente. 
And eek her' wyfes wold* it weel cusente ; 
And elles certayn weren they to hlame. 
It is fill fayr to be yclept Madame, 
And goo to vigilyen al bifore, 
And haan a mantel reallj ybore. 

20. The Cook. 

A Cook they hadde with hem for the nones, 
To hoyle chicknes with the mary bones, 
And poudre-marchawnt tart, and galingale, 
Weel coud* he know* a drawght of London ale. 
He coude roo8t\ and seeth', and hroyVy and f rye. 
Make mortretcee, and weel bak' a pye. 
But greet harm was it, as it scmed' me. 
That on his schinn' a mormal hadde he ; 
For hlankmangeer that maad' he with the beste. 

21. The Schipmaw. 







A Schipman was ther, woning* for by weste ; 

For owght I woot, he was of Dertemouthe. 

He rood upon a rouncy as he couthe. 

In a goun of falding* to the kne. 

A dagyeoT hanging* on a loos hadd' he 

About* his neck* under his arm adoun. 

The hoote sommer hadd* mad* his hew al broun ; 

And certaynlj he was a good felawe. 

Ful many a drawght of wyn hadd* he ydrawe 

From Bourdewx-vrardj whyl that the chapman sleep. 

Of nyce conscienc^ he took no keep. 

K that he fowght, and hadd* the heygher hand, 

By water he sent* hem hoom to ev*ry land*. 400 

But of his cratt to reckon weel the tydcs. 

His strcmes and his dawnyer^s him bisydes. 


371 eYcrich, so all six MSS., 
eTery man Ha. 

376 weren they, so, or: they 
were, read all the six MSS., hadde 
they be lla. 

380 mary, ags. mearh, the h be- 
coming unusually palatalised to -y, 
instead of lahialised to -we ; the paren- 
thetical remark p. 254, n. 1. is wrong. 

381 poudr c-marchawn t, see 
Temp. Pref. to the Six-Text Ed. of 
Chaucor, p. 96. 

386 Prof. Child reads : That on 
his Bchyne — a mormal hadd' he, supr^ 

p. 363. The Six MSS. render many 
of the examples there cited suspicious, 
see note on v. 120 for v. 1141. In T. 
1321, He. reads moot, and the line 
may be : Withouten dout' it mote 
stondcn so. For v. 1337 all six MSS. 
read : And let him in his prisoun stille 
dwcllc. For V. 2286 all six MSS. 
read : But hou sche did' hir* ryt* I 
dar not telle. For v. 2385, E. He. 
Ca. Co. L. read : For thilke peyn' and 
thilke hote fyr. In t. 2714, E. He. 
Ca. have : Somm' hadden saWes and 
somm' hadden charmes. For t. 1766, 


• • • 

• ■» 


« 4 

• »• 






ErTttah for dhe wts'doom dhat -e kan, 
Was ahaap'ltV for to been an al'derman. 
For kat'el Had'e dhai tnuuku^h' and rcnt*e, 
And eek -er wtVf'es wold «t weel asent'e ; 
And el-es sert'ain wccr'cn dhai to blaam'e. 
7t M f ul fair to be tklept* M a a' daam* e. 
And goo to vtV'dzhttln'es al btfoor'e, 
And Haan a man*t'l ree*altV iboor'e. 

20. Dhe Kook. 

A Eook dhai nad'e with -em for dhe noon'es, 

To buil'e tshtk'nes with dhe mar'i boon*es, 

And puud're mar'tshannt* tart, and gaa'liqgaal'e. 

Weel kuud -c kuoou a drauku^ht of Lun'dun aal*e. 

He kuud'e roost, and seedh, and brail, and frtre, 

Maak'e mortreu'es, and weel baak a pire. 

Bat greet Harm was it, as it seem-ed mee, 

Dhat on -is shtn a mor*maal* nad'c nee ; 

For blaqk'maan'dzheer dhat maad -e with dhe best-e. 

21. Dhe Ship- man. 

A Ship'man was dher, waun'i'q fer bti west'e ; 

For ooku^ht It woot, ne was of Der'temuath'o. 

He rood upon* a ruun'siV as -e kaath'e, 

in a gaun of fal'diq* too dhe knee. 

A dag'eer noq'iq on a laas -ad nee 

Abaat' -iib nek on'dcr -ts arm adunn*. 

Dhe Hoot'e sam*er -ad maad -ts neu al braon ; 

And sertainlti -e was a good fel'au'e. 

Ful man-i a drauktrht of wttn -ad nee t'draa*e 

From Baur'deus-ward, whttl dhat dhe tshap'man sleep. 

Of ntVs'e kon'sicns* -c took noo keep. 

/f dhat -c fouku7ht and Had dhe HaLlh'cr Hand, 

Bti waa-ter -e sent -em Hoom to evrii land. 400 

But of -ts kraft to rck'en weel dhe titd-es, 

Hts streem'CB and -is daun'dzherz Htm btsitd'os, 




£. He. Ca. Co. L. read : The trcspas 
of hem both* and eek the cause. For 
T. 4377 (in which read »iffht fur niffht) 
£. He. Pe. L. practically agree with 
Ha., but it would be easy to conjec- 
ture : Til that he hodd' al thilke 
light' yievn. For t. 4405, £. reads 
rotie in place of rote^ but He. Pe. L. 
agree witn Ha. The form ro/i>, which 
ii more ancient, sec Stratmunn's Diet, 
p. 467, would save the open vuwel. It 
IS possible, therefore, that the other 
examples of open e preserved by ca»ura 
ia Ciiaiioer, would disappear if more 

MSS. were consulted. Again, in the 
first line cited from Oower, i. 143, we 
see in the example below that two 
MSS. read : he wept' and with Ail 
woful teres. The practice is therefore 
doubtfuL But final e often remains 
before he at the end of a line in Gower, 
supri, p. 361, art. 76, a. Hence the 
division in the text is justified. There 
is no variety in the readings of the 

387 that maad' he, so all 
six MSS. Ha. he made. 

391 falding, ^Testis tqui nl- 

«. t • 

• • • • 
• • • 

» ... 








His herbergh and his moon', his loodmano^tf, 
Ther was noon swich from Hulle to Cartage. 
Hardy he was, and wys to undertake ; 
With many a tempest hath his herd been schake. 
He knew weel al the hayen's, as they were, 
From Scotland to the caap* of Fynietere^ 
And every cryk' in BretayvC and in Spayne ; 
His harg^ ycleped was the Mawdeleyne, 

22. The Doctoue op Phistk. 

Ther was also a Doctaur of Fhisyk, 

In al this world ne was ther noon him lyk 

To spek' oiphUyh and of surgery e ; 

For he was grounded in astronomye. 

He kept' his pacient a fol greet deel 

In howres by his magyk natureel, 

Weel coud* he/or^M«en th' ascendent 

Of his images for his pacient. 

He knew the caws^ of ev'ry maladye^ 

"Wer* it of coold, or heet', or moystf or drye, 

And wheer engendred and of what humotir ; 

Ho was a verray parfyt practisour. 

The caws* yknow*, and of his harm the rote, 

Anoon he yaaf the syke man his bote. 

Ful redy hadd' he his apotecaryes 

To send' him drogges, and his letuaryeSy 

For eech* of hem mad* other for to winne ; 

Her* frcndschip* was not newe to beginne. 

Wecl know ho th' old* Escttlapius, 

And Deiscorides, and cek Rufus ; 

Oold IpocraSy Haly, and Qalien ; 

Serjlpion, RazySf and Avycen ; 

Averrois, Damascen, and Constantyn ; 

Bernard and Gatesdcn and Gilhertyn. 

Of his dyete mesurabel was he, 

For it was of noon superfluite^ 

But of greet nourischm^ and digestyhel. 

His studie was but lytcl on the ByheL 

In sangwyn and in pers he clad was al, 

Lyncd with taffata and with sendaP. 

Aid yit he was but esy in dispenee ; 

He keptc that he wan in pestilence. 

For goold in phisyk is a cordial ; 

Thecrfor* he loved* goold in special. 












losa, see Temp. Pref. to Six-Text Ed. 
of Ch. p. 99. 

403 loodmanage, pilotage, 
8ee Temp. Pref. to Six-Text Ed. of 
Chaucer, p. 98. A 1 o o d m a n must 
haye heem. a pilot, or leading-man, 

compare loadstone^ loadst&r. The 
is a French termination. 

415 a ful greet deel,8oall 
six MSS., wondurly wel Ha. 

425 See Temp. Pref. to the Six- 
Text £d. of Chaucer, p. 99. 

Ckaf. yn. § 1. PRONUNCIATION OF CHAUCEB's prologue. 703 

Hts Herberkh and -ts moon*, -tis lood*manaadzh*e, 

Bher was noon swttsh from Hul-e too Kartaadzh'e. 404 

Hard'iV ne was, and w»t8 to nn'dertaak-e ; 

"Wtth man*i a tem'pest nath -is berd been shaak'e. 

He kneu weel al dhe Haa'Tenz, as dhai wccr*e, 

From Skotland too dhe kaap of FtV'ntsteer'e, 408 

And evrtV kn'ik in Brce'tam and «n Spain'e ; 

Hw baardzh iklep'ed was dhe Maa*dclain*e. 

22. Dhe Doktuur of Ftt'zttk-. 

Dher was alsoo* a Dok-tum" of FirziVk", 

In al dhe world ne was dher noon -im Itik 412 

To speck of fw'ziYk* and of sur'dzhenV'e ; 

For Hcc was gniund'ed in astroo'nomtVe. 

He kept -ts paa'sient' a ful greet deel 

in uures hit -is maa'dzhiik naa*tyy*recl*. 416 

Weel kuud 'hco fortyyn-en dh- as'cndent* 

Of His imaadzh'cs for -is paa-sient*. 

He kneu dhe kauz of eyrii maa*laadii'e, 

"Weer it of koold, or neet, or muist, or drii'e, 420 

And wheer cndzhen'dred, and of what Hyymuur* ; 

He was a ver*ai par'fiit prak'tii'suur*. 

Dhe kauz iknoou', and of -is Harm dhe root'e, 

Anoon* -e yaaf dhe su*k-e man -is boot'e. 424 

Ful red'ii nad -e nis apoo tee'kaa-ries 

To send -im drog-cs, and -is let'yyaa'nes, 

For eetsh of Hem maad udh*er for to win'e ; 

Her frend'shiip was not neu'e too begin'c. 428 

"Weel kneu 'nee dh- oold Es*kyy*laa*pius, 

And Dce,f8kor*idees, and cek Slyy-fus; 

Oold /pokras*, Haalii*, and (Jaa-lieen* ; 

Seraa-pioon-, Raa'ziis' and Aa-viiseen* ; 432 

Aver '0, is, Daamosccn* and Eonstantiin* ; 

Bernard* and Gaa-tcsdcn* and Gilbertiin*. 

Of His diiect'e mec*syyraa'b*l was 'Hee, 

For it was of noon syy-perflyyitoe, 436 

But of greet nuur-ishiq- and dii'dzhes'tii'b'l. 

His stud'ie was but lii't'l on dhe Birb*l. 

In saq'gwiin* and in pers -e klad was al, 

Liin'ed with taf-ataa* and wtth sendol*. 440 

And Jit -c was but eez ii in dispense ; 

He kept*e dhat -c wan in pesttlcns'e. 

For goold in fii'ziiTt is a kordiol*; 

Dhcerfoor* -o luvcd goold in spcs'ial*. 444 

429 Suprii p. 341, I. 2 and 13, I first measure, and to elide the e in the 

treated this an a full line, thinkin^^ that regular way, on the principle that ex- 

thc e in o 1 d c was to be preserved, ceptional usa^s should not be un- 

Further consideration induces me to necessarily assumed, 
mirk tiie line as having an imperfect 

704 TEXT OF chatjcbr's prologue. Chap. YII. { 1. 

23. The Wtp op Bathe. 

A good "Wyf was ther of bisyde Bathe, 

But sche was somdeel deef, and that was skathe. 

Of cloothmaking' sche hadde swich an hawnt^ 

Sche passed^ hem of Ypres and of GaumL 448 

In al the pariscN vryi ne was ther noon, 

That to th' ofl&ing' bifoom her schulde goon, 
iii And if ther dide, certayn so wrooth was sche, 

That sche was out of alle chariU. 452 

Hir' kever chefs fxAfyne wer* of grounde ; 
iii I durste swere they weygheden ten pounde 

That on a Sonday wer* upon hir' heed. 

Hir* hosen weren offyn scarlet reed, 456 

Ful streyt^ ytey'd, and schoos ful tnoyst* and newe. 

Boold was hir' faac\ and fayr, and reed of hewe. 

Sche was a worthy woman al hir* lyfe. 

Housbond's at chirche dore sche hadd' fyfe, 460 

Withouten other company^ in youthe. 

But theerof nedeth nowght to spek' as nouthe. 
iii And thryes hadd' sche been at Jerusaleem ; 
ill Sche hadde passed many a strawnge streem ; 464 

At Rome sche hadd' been, and at Boloyne^ 

In Oalic\ at saynt Jaam\ and at Coloyne. 

Sche couthe moch' of wandring' by the weye. 

Gaat-tothed was sche, sooth'ly for to seye. 468 

Upon an amhleer eselj sche sat, 

Ywimpled weel, and on hir' heed an hat 

As brood as is a honcleer or a tarye ; 

A iooi-manUl about' hir' hippes large^ 472 

And on hir' feet a payr^ of spores scharpe. 

In felawschip* weel coud' sche lawgh' and carpe. 
iii Of remedy^ s of love sche knew parchawncCy 

For sche coud' of that art the oolde dawnce. 476 

24. The Peesoun. 

A good man was ther of reliyiourij 

And was a pore Persoun of a toun ; 

But ricK he was of holy thowght and werk', 

He was also a lemed man, a clerk, 480 

That Cristcs gospel gladly wolde preche ; 

His parischens devoutly wold' he teche. 

462 was out, so the six MSS., weyedyn Ca. weiden L., henoe 
was thanno out Ha. all but Ha. give the plural e n. 

463 ful fyne wer', so the six .^- o -r. tt ^^ 

MSS., weren ful fyne Ha. 460 So E. He. Ca., a 1 1 e, Co. Po., 

att j>e L., nousbondes atte 

464 weygheden, weyghede chirche dore hadde sche 
Ha. w e y c d e n E. He. Co. P., f y f e Ha. which is unmetrical. 


23. Dhe Wtif of Baathe. 

A good wtVf was dher of btsiVd'e Baath'e, 

But shee was sum-dccl deef, and dhat was skaath'e. 

Of klooth'maak'tq* she Had'e swttsh an naunt, 

She pas'ed Hem of /rpres and of Oaunt. 448 

In al dhe par'tsh wtVf ne was dher noon, 

Dhat too dh- ofrtq' b»foom* -er shnld'c goon, 

And tf dher dtd'e, ser-tain' so rei^ooth was shee, 

Dhat shee was nut of al'e tshaa'rtrtee'. 452 

HtVr kevertshefs fid ftin'e weer of gmnnd'e ; 

It durst'e sweer*e dhai waUh*eden ten puund*e 

Dhat on a Sun*dai weer upon* -tVr heed. 

Hiir Hooz'en weeren of ftVn skarlet reed, 456 

Fnl strait itaid*, and shooz fdl muist and neu'e. 

Boold was -ttr faas, and fair and reed of neu*e. 

She was a wurdh-iV wum*an al -iVr liVfe. 

Haus'bondz' at tshtrtsh-e door*e shee nad fitf'e, 460 

Withuut'en udh*er kum'pantr in juuth-e. 

But dhecr'of need*eth nouktrht to speck as nuuth'e. 

And thnV'es nad she been at Dzbeeruu'saleem* ; 

She nad'c pas'cd man't a straundzh'e streem ; 464 

At Room-e shee Had been, and at Bolooin*e, 

hi Gaa'ltfS', at saint Dzhaam, and at Eolooin*e. 

She kuuth'e mutsh of wand'rtq bit dhe wai*e. 

Gaat-tooth'cd was she, sooth'liV for to sai'C. 468 

Upon' an am'bleer' ees'cltV she sat, 

/wtm'pled wecl, and on -iir need an Hat 

As brood as ts a buk'lccr* or a tardzh'e ; 

A foot'mantcl- abnut* -tVr Ht'p'cs lardzh'e, 472 

And on -iVr feet a pair of spuur'es sharp'c. 

/n fel'aushtip wcel kuud she laugu^h and karp'e. 

Of rcm'cdiVz* of luuve she kneu partshaunse, 

For shee kuud of dhat art dhe oold'c dauns'e. 476 

24. Dhe Persuun*. 

A good man was dher of rclt'rdzhmun*. 

And was a poor*c Per'suun* of a tuun ; 

But rt'tsh -e was of noolwi thouku^ht and werk. 

He was alsoo* a lem*cd man, a klcrk, 480 

Dhat Kri'st'cs gospxl glad'lfi wold-e prectsh'e ; 

His par'f shcnz devuut'ltV wold -e teetsh'e. 

465, 466. Boloyne, Coloyne. pronunciation assigned is quite con- 

The MSS. are Tory uncertain in their jcctural. The following pronunciations 

orthography. Boloyne, Coloyne, of the termination are also possihle: 

^^ypear in ila. He. Ca., and Boloyne (-oon'je, -oon'e, -uin'c, uiq-nc) The 

in P. L., but we find B o 1 o i ^ n e, modem Cockncyism (Bubin*, Kabin*) 

Coloigne in £. Co., Coloigne points to (-uin'c). See also note on 

inP., tnd Goloyngne in L. The t. 634. 




BenygrC he was and wonder dylygifd^ 
And in adversiie ful pacient ; 484 

And such he was jpreve^ ofte sythes. 
Ful looth wer* him to curse for his tythes, 
But rather wold' he yeven out of dauU, 
Unto his pore parischens aboute, 488 

Of his offiing', and eek of his auhstaumee. 
fie coud' in lytel thing haan wffisawnce, 
"Wyd was his parischy and houses fer asondcr, 
But he ne lafte not for rcyn ne thonder, 492 

In sikness' nor in meichief* to vtsgte 
The ferrest in his parisch\ moch' and lyte, 
Upon his feet, and in his hond a staaf. 
This noh^l ensampel to his scheep he yaaf, 496 

That first he wrowght', and after that he tawghte. 
Out of the gospel he tho wordes cawghte, 
And this fyur^ he added' eek therto, 
That if goold ruste, what schuld' yren do ? 500 

For if a preest be foul, on whoom we truste, 
No wonder is a lowed man to ruste ; 
And scham' it is, if a preest take kep', 
A schyten schcpperd and a clone scheep ; 604 

Weel owght' a preest ensampel for to yive 
By his cleenncss', hou that his scheep schuld' live. 
He sette not his henefyce to hyre. 

And left' his scheep encomhWedi in the myre, 508 

And ran to London', unto $aynt Fowles, 
To sekcn him a chawnterye for sowles. 
Or with a brethcrhccd to been withhoolde ; 
But dwelt* at hoom, and kepte weel his foolde, 512 

So that the wolf ne mad* it not miscarye, 
+iii fie was a schepperd, and not a mercenary e ; 
And thowgh he holy wer' and vertuouSf 
fie was to sinful man nowght dispitotts, 516 

Ne of his speche dawngerous ne dyyne, 
But in his teching' discreet and henygne. 



• • • 



493 mes chief, so all but Ca., 
which reads m y 8 c h i f, and L. which 
has m e B c h e f. The old French fonns, 
according to Roquefort, are meschef^ 
meschief, meachieSy meachiez^ mesciefj 

499 eek E. He. Co. P., y i t Ha., 
omitted in Ca., L. has eke he 
h a d d d. Ca. reads a d d c d e, but 
no particular value is attachable to 
its final e's. 

503 So all six MSS., if that 
Ha. in which case tak' most be read, 

but the omission of the sabjunctiTe e 
is harsh. See the same rhjrme and 
phrase in the imperative and henoe 
tak not take, 6014, 13766. Only Ca., 
which is generally profiise in mial e, 
reads kep schep, in accordance 
with ags. analogy. 

504 It is a curious example of the 
different feeling attached to words of 
the same onginal meaning, thai 
schuten is banished from polite society, 
and dirty (ags. dritan cacare) is luea 
without hesitation. 


BeniVn* -e was and wnnd'er dtrltidzlieiit*. 

And in adversttee* fnl paa*8tent% 484 

And sutsh -e was ipreeyed oft'e stVdh'es. 

Ful looth wer Htm to knrs'e for -is tiidli'es, 

Bat raadh'er wold -e jecven nut of duut'e, 

Untoo* -ts poor'e par-tslicnz abuut'e, 488 

Of Hw ofrtq', and eek of nts sabstauns'e. 

He kuud in lii't'l thiq naan syf'tsauns'e. 

Wild was -ts par'tsh, and nuus'es fcr asund'er, 

Bat Hce ne laft*e not for rain ne thund'er, 492 

In sik'nes nor tn mes-tsheef- to vtrzttt'e 

Dhe fer'cst in -ts par'ish, mutsh and liVt'e, 

Upon* -ts feet, and tn -ts nond a staaf. 

Dhis noo'bl- cnsam'p'l too -I's sheep -e jaaf, 496 

Dhat ftrst -e rei^ouku^ht, and after dhat -e taakti^h'te. 

Unt of dhe gos-pel Hce dho word'es kanki^h'te, 

And dhts ftrgyyr" -e ad'ed eek dhertoo", 

Dhat if goold rust'e, what shuld tVr*en doo ? 500 

For if a preest be ftiul, on whoom wo trust'e, 

Noo wund'er is a leu'ed man to rust'e ; 

And shaam it ts, if a preest taak'e keep, 

A shirtcn shep'erd and a kleen'e sheep ; 504 

Weel ouktrht a preest cnsam'p*! for to Jttve 

Bit Hts kleen'nes', huu dhat -ts sheep shuld Itive. 

He set'e not -ts ben'efiVs'e to nirre, 

And left -ts sheep enkum'bred in dhe mtV're, 508 

And ran to Lun'dun, un'to saa'tnt Pooul'es, 

To seek'cn mm a tshaun'tertV'e for sooul'es, 

Or with a breedh'erneed to been withnoold'e; 

Bat dwelt at noom, and kept'e weel -is foold'e, 512 

Soo dhat dhe wnK ne maad it not mtskar'te. 

He was a shep'erd, and not a mersenar'ie ; 

And dhoouktrh -e nool'tV weer and ver'tyyuus*, 

He was to sin 'ful man noukt/^ht dts'pirtuus*, 516 

Nee of -IS speetsh'e daun-dzheruus* ne diin*e, 

Bat in -IS teetsh'iq dis'kreet' and benttn'e. 

609 ■ a jn t, Ha. and Co. add an e, 
thu 8 e 7 n t e for the metre, the other 
fire MS8. have no e, and the gram- 
matical construction forbids its use. 
Tmrhitt, to fill up the number of 
•yilablGfl, rather than the metre, (for 
be plays hatoc with the accentual 
rhytom which commentators seem to 
have hitherto much neglected, but 
which Chaucer's ear must hare appre- 
ciated,) changes the first to into 
QBto, thus: And ran unto Jjondon, 
mto Seint Poulcs, but this is not 
•auctioned by any MS. The solution 

of the difficulty is to be found in the 
occasional dissyllabic use of saynt, see 
note on t. 120. P o w 1 e s, sec suprik 
pp. 145, 148. Mr. Gibbs mentions 
that he knows (Poolz^ as an existent 
Londoner's pronunciation in the phrase 
M old as rowVsf see Buprk p. 266 for 
Chaucer's usage. 

512 foldc, the final e is excep- 
tional, suprk p. 384, col. I. 

514 and not a,8oaU the six 
MSS., and no Ha. 

708 TEXT OF Chaucer's fbolooue. Chap. VII. { i. 

To drawen folk to heven by faymesse, 

By good ensampel, was his besinesse ; 520 

But it wer' eny persaun ohstinaat^ 

Whatso he wer' of heygh or low' estaat. 

Him wold he snibbe scharply for the nones, 
iii A bett're preest I trowe ther nowheer noon is. 624 

iii He way ted! after no pomp* and reverence^ 

"Ne maked' him a spyced coruciencej 

But Cristes loor', and his apostel's twelve, 

He tawght', and first he folwed' it himselve. 528 

25. The Ploughman. 

With him ther was a Ploughman, was his brother, 
iii That hadd' ylaad of dong' ful many a fother. 

A trewe swmker and a good was he, 

Living' in pees and perfyt charite, 532 

Gk)d lov'd' he best with al his hole herte 

At alle tymes, thowgh him gam'd' or smerte. 

And than his neyghebour right as himselve. 

He wolde thresch' and therto dyk* and delve, 636 

iii Por Cristes sake, for ev'ry pore wighte, 

Withouten hyr', if it lay in his mighte. 

But tythes payed! he ful fayr* and weel, 

Booth of his prop* re swink', and his catel. 540 

In a tabbard* he rood upon a meer'. 

Ther was also a reev' and a milleer, 
A somnour and a pardoneer also, 
A mawncip'l and myself, ther wer' no mo. 644 

26. The Milleeb. 

The Milleer was a stout carl for the nones, 
Pul big he was of hrawfiy and eek of bones ; 
That prevedH weel, for ov'ral ther he cam. 
At wrastUng' he wold* hav' awcy the ram. 648 

He was schort schuld'rcd, brood, a thikke knarre, 
iii Ther n'as no dore that he n'old' heev' of harre 
Or breek' it with a renning' with his heed. 
His herd as ony sou' or fox was reed, 552 

And thcerto brood, as thowgh it wer' a spade. 
Upon the cop right of his noos' he hadde 

619 fayrnesse E. He. Co. P. pare — 
L., clennesso Ha. Ca., with He., Ye Ecbulde be al pacicnt and meke, 

b y, the rest. And have a swcte spiced conscieiifl, 

625 and E. He. Co. P. L.. ne ^'^}^^ ^m'"^'' *° "^ ^"^ ^ 
Ha. Ca.. but this would introduce two 529 w'a b h i ^ so all the aii MS8. 
tnssyUabic measures. ^,^^pt (,»., which has that wtt 

626 spyced conscience, com- h e s e, introducing a trissyllabic 

Chap.yii. § 1. PR02ruNciATioN OF chaucer's fbologue. 709 

To drau'en folk to Heven btV faimes'e, 

BtV good ensam'p'l, was -ts besines'e ; 520 

But ft wer en'tt per'suun* ob'sttnaat*, 

"What'soo* -e weer of Koikh or loou estaat*, 

Htm wold -e sntb'e sharp'liV for dho noon'es. 

A bct're preest It troou'e dher noo wheer noon is. 524 

He wait'ed aft'er no pomp and recverens'e, 

Ne maak'ed Him a sptVs'cd kon'stens'e, 

Bat Kn'st'es loor, and his apos't'lz twelve, 

He taukt^hti and first -e fol'wed ft Htmselve. 528 

25. Dhe Pluukfrli'man. 

Wfth Him dher was a Pluuku^h'man, was -ts broodh'er, 

Dhat Had tlaad' of duq ful man't a foodh'cr. 

A treu'e swtqk'cr and a good was nee, 

LiVvtq tn pees and per*fiVt* tsbaa'nVtce*. 532 

God luvd -e best with al -is hooI'c Hcrt'e 

At al'c tiVmes, dhooukirh -tm gaamd or smert'e, 

And dhan -is naiJthcbuur* rikht as -tmselve. 

He wold'e thresh and dher'too diVk and delve, 536 

For Kn'st'es saak'e, for evriV poo*re wiX'ht'e, 

Withuut'en Hiir, tf ft lai in -is mikht'e. 

But tiVdh'es pai'ed hoc ful fair and weel. 

Booth of -IS prop're swiqk and -is kat'el*. 540 

In a tab'ard* -e rood upon* a meer. 

Dher was alsoo* a reev and a mil-eer*, 
A sum'nuur* and a par'doneer* alsoo*, 
A maun'sipl- and miVself*, dher weer no moo. 544 

26. Dhe Mil-cer. 

Dhe Mil'eer* was a stuut karl for dhe noon'es, 

Ful big -e was of braun, and eek of boon'es ; 

Dhat prccved weel, for ovral* dhecr -e kaam. 

At rM^ast'liq Hce wold naav awai- dhe ram. 548 

He was short shuld'rcd, brood, a thik'e knar'e, 

Dher n- -as no door'e dhat nee n- -old neev of Har*e 

Or breck tt w/th a rcnw'q' with -is need. 

Hi's herd as on*iV suu or foks was reed, 552 

And dheer'to brood, as dhooukt^h it weer a spaa'de. 

Upon* dhe kop riXht of -is nooz -c nad'e 

^nre ; h i b Ha. againRt the metre ; the col. 1), to adding^ a superfluous e to 

^MDUiion of the rclatiye that before mill cer, supru p. 254. Thelcelandio 

'Ibese words is curious, so that Ca. may mar, Danish mtrry Swedish miirr also 

ViTe the proper rcadiu}^. omit the e. Chaucer generally uses 

637 for £. Ca. Co. P. L., with the form mare. 

Sa. He. 648 hav' awey, Co. P. L., 

641 meer', I have preferred elid- ber' awoy Ha., hay' alwey £. 

ing the eaeiitial final e (suprik, p. 388, He. Ca. 


A wert', and theeron stood a toft of heres, 
Kecd as the berstles of a soues eres. 556 

His nosc-thirles blake wer' and wyde. 
A swerd and boucleer baar he by bis syde. 
His mouth as greet was as a greet fomaya. 
iii He was ajangleer and a goliardeys^ 560 

And that was moost of sinn' and harlotryes. 
Weel coud' he stele com, and toUen thryes ; 
And yet he hadd' a thomb' of goold', parde ! 
A whyt coot^ and a blew hood wered he. 564 

A baggepype coud' he blow' and soune, 
And theerwithal he browght us out of toune. 

27. The Mawitcepel. 

iii A gentel Maumcipel was ther of a tempel^ 

Of which achatours mighten tak' exempel, 568 

Por to be wys in bying' of vttaille. 

Por whether that he paf/*d^ or took by tatUe^ 

Algat' he fray/ed' so in his achate 

That he was ay bifoom and in good state. 572 

Nou is not that of God a ful fayr ffrace^ 

That swich a lewed mannes wit schal pace 

The wisdom of an hcep of lem'de men ? 

Of mat/sterns hadd' he moo than thryes ten, 576 

That wcr' of law' expert and curious^ 

Of which ther wer' a doseyn in that hous', 

Worthy to be stiwards of renV and londe 

Of any lord that is in Engelonde, 580 

To mak' him lyve by his propre good' 

In honour dett^lQCSy but he were wood, 

Or lyr' as scarslj as he can desyre ; 

And abel for to helpcn al a schyro 584 

In any caas^ that mighte fall' or happe ; 
iii And yit this mawnctpel sfttt' her' aller cappe. 

28. The Reve. 

iii The Rctc was a sclender colerik man, 

His herd was schav' as ncygh as e'er he can. 588 

His heer was by his cres round yschoom. 

His top was docked lyk a precst bifoom. 

Pul longe wcr' his leggcs and ful lene, 

Ylyk a staaf, ther was no calf yscne. 592 

"Weel coud' he keep a gerner and a binne, 

Ther was noon awditour coud' on him winne. 

Weel wist' ho by the drought,' and by the reyne, 

The yeelding of his seed' and of his grayne, 596 

659 fornajR, sec note to v. 202. 569 bying, see sapr^ p. 286. 

564 a blew, £. He. Ca., Co., a 
blewe F. L., blowe Ha. 572 state has only i datiTt c 

CiAP.Yn. {1. PBONTJNciATioN OF Chaucer's PROLOGUE. 711 

A werty and dheer'on stxx)d a toft of neeres, 

Beed as dhe bers'tles of a suu'es eer'es. 556 

His nooz'e thtrl'cs blaak'e wer and wtVd'e. 

A swerd and buk'leer* baar -e btV -f s stVd*e. 

Uts muuth as greet was as a greet for*nais*. 

He was a dzbaq'lcer* and a gool'tardais*, 560 

And dhat was moost of stn and Har'lotrires. 

Weel kuud -e steel'e kom, and tol'en tbrires ; 

And Jct -e Had a thuumb of goold, paidee* ! 

A whtVt koot and a bleu Hood weer'ed nee. 564 

A bag'epu'pc kuud -e bloou and suun*e, 

And dheer'wtthal* -e broukt^ht ns uut of taim*e. 

27. Dhe Maun'stp'l. 

A dzben't'l Maun'sip'l was dher of a tem"p'l, 

Of whi'tsh atshaa'tuurz* mi7;ht'cn taak eksem'p'l, 568 

For to be wiVs m btV'iq of viitail'e. 

For whedh'er dhat -e paid or took biV tail'e, 

Algaat' -c wait'ed soo in his atshaat'e, 

Dhat Hee was ai btfoom* and th good staat'e. 572 

Nun ts not dhat of God a ful fair graas'e, 

Dhat swttsh a leu'ed man'es wtt shal paas'e 

Dhe wis'doom of an neep of lem'de men ? 

Of mais'terz nad -e moo dhan thn'res ten, 576 

Dhat wer of lau ekspert* and kyyrmus*, 

Of whi'tsh dher weer a duu'zain* in dhat Hiius, 

Wurdh'ii to bee stiwardz* of rent and lond'e 

Of an'iV lord dhat is in Eq'clond'e, 580 

To maak -im liVve bii -is prop'ro good 

/h on'uur det'lees, but -e weer'c wood, 

Or li'iV as skars'l/i as -e kan dcstVr'e ; 

And aa'Vl for to nelp'cn al a shiVr*e 584 

/n an'iV kaas dhat miX'htc fal or nap'e ; 

And J it dhis maun'si'p'l set -er al'cr kap*e. 

28. Dhe Reeve. 

Dhe Reeve was a sklcnd'er kol'crilc man, 

His herd was shaav as naU-h as oer -o kan. 588 

Hi's Heer was bi'i -I's eer'cs ruund ishoom*. 

His top was dok'ed liVk a prcest bifoom*. 

Ful Iwye weer -is Icg'es and ful leen*e, 

Jliik' a staaf, dher was no kalf /seon'e. 592 

Weel kuud -e keep a gem'er and a bi'n'e, 

Dher was noon au'di'tuur* kuud on -I'm wih'o. 

Weel wfst -e biV dhe druuku^ht, and bii dhe rain*e, 

Dhe jeeld'iq of -is seed and of -ts grain'e. 596 

678 that, BoollsixMSS., an Ha. 692 ylyk, bo all six MSS., ml 

687 iclender, all soTcn MSS. like Ha., yiene, lupri, p. 367, 
«grw in the initial tei or tkl, art. 61. 

712 TEXT OF Chaucer's prologue. Chap. vn. { i. 

His lordes scheep, his neet, his dejeryi, 
His swyn, his hors, his stoor, and his pultryi^ 
Was hoolly in this reves governing', 
And by his covenawnV yaf the rek'ning, 600 

Sin that his lord was twenty yeer of age ; 
iii Ther coude no man bring* him in arrerage. 
Ther n'as ballyf, no herd', ne other hyne. 
That they ne toew' his sleyght and his eovyne ; 604 

They wer' adraad of him, as of the dethe. 
His woning was ful fayr upon an hethe. 
With grene trees yschadwed was his place. 
He coude better than his lord purchace. 608 

Pul rich* he was a«^cd privelj, 
His lord wecl couth' he plese suhtillj, 
To yeev' and leen' him of his owne good', 
And hav' a thank, and yet a coot^ and hood. 612 

In youth' he lemed hadd' a good mesie&r ; 
He was a weel good wright, a carpenteer. 
This reve sat upon a ful good stot'. 

That was ^pomely grey, and highte Scot. 616 

A long surcoot^ of pers upon he hadd'. 
And by his syd' he baar a rusty blaad. 
Of Northfolk was this reev' of which I telle, 
Bysyd' a toun men callen Baldeswelle. 620 

Tucked he was, as is &/reer\ aboute. 
And e'er he rood the hmd'rest of the route. 

29. The Soiotovb. 

A Somnour was ther with us in that place, 

That hadd' a fyr-reed chcrubynes/ae?^, 624 

For aawceflem he was, with eyghen narwe. 
iii As hoot he was, and leccherous, as a sparwe. 

With skallcd browes blak', and pylcd herd ; 

Of his vysage children wcr' aferd. 628 

Ther n'as quiksilver, lytarg\ or brimstoon, 
iii Boras, ceruce, ne oyl of tarter noon, 

Ne oynement that wolde clcns' and byte. 

That him might helpen of his whelkcs whyte, 632 

Nor of the knobbes sitting* on his chekes. 

Weel lov'd' he garleck, oynounSy and eek lekes, 

697 d eye rye, the termination 612 so He. Ca. Co. P.; and in 

seems borrowed from the French, for hoode L., a thank, a cote, and 

efey see Wedgwcod'sEtjTn. Diet. 1,424. eek an hood Ha., a thank, yet 

598 stoor, I am inclined to con- a gowne and hood £. 
aider this a form of steery ags. steor, 

rather than store^ as it is usually in- 615 ful E. Ca. Co, L., wel the 

terpreted, as the swine, horse, steer, others. 

and poultry go better together. On 618 blaad, suprii, p. 269. 
the interchange of (ee) and (oo) see 

lupr^ p. 476. 623 somnour Ca. P., somp- 


Hts lord'es sheep, -is neet, -ts dai'ertre, 

His Bwttn, -«s Hors, -ts stoor, and Hts piiltrtt'e. 

Was Hool'lfV fh dhtiB reeyes gayemtq*, 

And bit -f 8 kuY'enaunt* jaaf dhe rek'ntq*, 600 

Sin dliat -ts lord was twen'ttt jeer of aadzh'e ; 

Dher kuud*e noo man brtq -tm tn ar'ee*raa*dzhe. 

Dher n- -as bal'ttf*, nee Heerd, nee udh'er HtVn'e, 

Dhat dhai ne kneu -ts slaijlht and Hts koYtth'e ; 604 

Dhai weer adraad' of Htm, as of dhe deeth'e. 

HtiB wunn'tq was fol fair upon* an Heeth'e, 

With green'e treez tshad'wed was -ts plaas'e. 

He knud'e bet*er dhan -ts lord pnr'tshaas'e. 608 

Ful rttsh -e was astoor*ed prtveltt, 

fitis lord weel kuuth -e pleez'e sub'ttl'ltV, 

To jeev and leen -tm of -ts ooun'e good, 

And Haav a thaqk, and jet a koot and Hood. 612 

In juuth -e lem*ed Had a good mes'teer* ; 

He was a weel good nrt'Aht, a kar'penteer*. 

Dhts reeve sat upon* a fol good stot, 

Dhat was a pum*elit grai, and Htitht'e Skot. 616 

A loq syyrkoot* of pers upon* -e Had, 

And btt -ts sttd -e baar a rust'tt blaad. 

Of North*folk was dhi's reev of whttsh it tel*e, 

Btsttd* a tuun men kal*en Bal*deswel*e. 620 

Tuk*ed -e was, as ts a freer, abuut'e, 

And eer -e rood dhe Htnd'rest of dhe ruut*e. 

29. Dhe S u m* n u u r. 

A Sum'nuur was dher wt'th us tn dhat plaas'e, 

Dhat Had a fttr*reed tshee'rubttn*es faas'e, 624 

For sau'seflem -e was, wt'th aiAh*en nar*we. 

As Hoot -e was and Ictsh'eruus, as a spar'we, 

Wt'th skal'ed broou'es blaak, and pttl*ed herd ; 

Of Hts Yt't'saa'dzhe tshtl'dren weer aferd*. 628 

Dher n- -as ku^tk'stl'ver, It't'tardzh*, or bnm'stoon*, 

Boraas', seryys-e, ne uil of tart*er noon, 

Ne uin'ement dhat wold*e klenz and bttt*e, 

Dhat Hi'm mikht nelp'en of -ts whelkes whttt*e, 632 

Kor of dhe knob'es stt'tq on -ts tsheek'es. 

Weel luvd -e gar'leek*, un'juunz*, and eek leek*es, 

Sour Hi., tomonour £. He., 
iomjnonr Co. L. See Temp. 
IW. to the Six-Text Ed. of Chaucer, 
p. 100, under eitator, 

625 8 a wee fl em, from taUum 
fkUema^ Tyrwhitt'i Olossary. 

639 or Co. P. L. : this is more 
AjTthmical than n e Ha. £. He. Ca., 
which wonld introduce a very inhar- 
maatnu triMjUahic meaaure. 

634 oynoni Ha. E. He. Co., 
onjoni L., onyonnnyi Ca., 
oynyonns P. Ihe pronunciation 
(un'Juunz^ is, of course, quite conieo- 
tural, ana moulded on the moaem 
sound, though the more common 
oynons might lead to (uiu'uni), 
wnich seems hardly probable. Com- 
pare the modem Tulgar (tq'ni) and 
note on t. 466. 







And for to drinke strong wyn reed as blood. 

Than wold' he spek' and cry^ as he wer* wood. 

And whan that he weel dronken hadd' the wyn. 

Than wold' he speke no word but Latyn. 

A fewe termes hadd' he, two or thre, 

That he hadd* lemed out of som deere ; 

No wonder is, he herd' it all the day ; 

And eek ye Imowe weel, how that a /ay 

Can clepe Wat, as weel as can the pope. 

But whoso coud' in other thing' him grope, 

Than hadd' he spent al his philosophye, 

Ay, QuESTio QUID JI7BIS ? wold* he erye. 

He was a pentel harloty and a kinde ; 

A bett're felawe schulde men not finde. 

He wolde suffer for a quoH of wyne 

A good felawe to haan his eoncuhyne 

A twelvmoon'th, and exeua^ him atte fulle. 

And privelj a finch eek coud' he pulle. 

And if he fond oowheer a good felawe, 

He wolde techen him to haan noon awe 

In swich caas of the archedek'nes curs, 

But if a mannes sowl wer* in his purs ; 

For in his purs he schidd' jpuntseh^d be. 

Purs* is the archedek'nes hel, seyd' he. 

But weel I woot he lyeth right in dede ; 

Of cursing' owght eech gilty man to drede ; 

For curs wol sle right as assoyliag savetk ; 

And also war' him of a sigkipicavit. 

In daumger^ hadd' he at his owne gyse 

The yonge girles of the dyocyse. 

And knew her' counseyl, and was al her* reed. 

A garland hadd' he set upon his heed, 

As greet as it wer* for an alestake ; 

A houcUer hadd' he maad him of a cake. 










30. The Pabdoneeb. 

With him ther rood a genUl Pardoneer 
Of Rouncival, his freend and his compeer ^ 
That streyt was comen from the court of Rome. 
Ful loud' he sang. Com hidcr, love, to me ! 


648 not, the six MSS., n o w h e r 
Ha. felawe, compare v. 395, 650, 
and 653. Hence it seems best to leaye 
f e 1 a w e in 648, although f e 1 a w fre- 
quently occurs, see supra p. 383, col. 2. 

655 such a caas Ha. only. 

656 purs, see supr^ p. 367, art. 
91, col. 1, 1. 13, it is spelled without 
an in all MiSB. but L. 

657 ypunisch'd; ypunysBhed 
£. He.,puny8sched Ha. Co., pun* 
yscbede L.,pony8chid Ga., 
punshed P. Tne two last readingi^ 
m connection with the modem pro- 
nunciation (pon'tsht), lead me to a£pt 
(ipun-isht) lor the old pronmiciaiioB, 
notwithstanding the French origin w 
the word. Compare note on t. 184. 


And for to dnqk*e stroq wtVn reed as blood. 

Dhan wold -e speek and krtV as nee weer wood. 636 

And whan dhat nee weal dmqk'en sad dhe wtth, 

Dhan wold -e speek'e noo woni but Lattth*. 

A feu'e term'es Had -e, twoo or three, 

Dhat nee -ad lem*ed nut of sum dekree* ; 640 

Noo wund'er is, -e nerd it al dhe dai ; 

And eek je knoou'e weel, huu dhat a dzhai 

Kan klep'c Wat, as weel as kan dhe poop*e. 

But whoo'BOO' kuod tn ndh-er thtq -tm groop'e, 644 

Dhan Had -e spent al -lis ftVioo'soo'ftV *e, 

Ai, Ku? est* too kwid, dzhyyrts? wold -e krtre. 

He was a dzhcn't'l Har*lnt, and a kt nd*e ; 

A bet're felau'e shnld'e men not fmd'e. 648 

He wold'e suf'cr for a ktrart of wiVn*e 

A good felau'e to naan -ts kon'kjybftn'e 

A twelvmoonth, and ekskyyz* -tm at'e ful*e. 

And pnV'elit a ft'ntsh eek kund -e pnl'e. 652 

And if -e fiind oowheer a good felau'e, 

He wold'e teetsh -im for to naan noon au'e 

/n switsh kaas of dhe artsh*edeek*nes kurs. 

But if a man*es sooul weer in -ts purs ; 656 

For in -IS purs -e shuld ipun'tsht bee. 

Purs is dhe artsh*edeek*nes nel, said nee. 

But weel 7i woot -e lii'eth rikht in deed'e ; 

Of kurs-iq ouktrht eetsh giltiV man to dreed'e ; 660 

For kurs wol slee rikht as asuiriq saaveth ; 

And al'soo waar -im of a sign if* ikaav'ith. 

7h daun'dzhcer Had -e at -is ooun'e gtis'e 

Dhe juq'e girl*es of dhe dirosiM'e, 664 

And kneu -er kuun'sail, and was al -er reed ; 

A gar-land Had -e set upon -tis Heed, 

As greet as it wer for an aaiestaak'e ; 

A bukieer Had -e maad -tm of a kaak'e. 668 

30. Dhe P a r d o n e e r. 

With Hf'm dher rood a dzhcn't'l Par'doneer* 
Of Ruun*8tVal', his fireend and his kom"peer, 
Dhat strait was kum'en from dhe kuurt of Room*e. 
Ful luud -e saq, Kum Hid'er, luve, too me! 

668 8 e yd*, 80 all six MSS., quoth I lore another, and elles were I to 

Ba. blame, 3709. 

M2 see rapii p. 259. On p. 254, n. 3. I marked the 

M3 gyse, 80 sdl six MSS., usual reading eompanu as doubtftil, 

assise Ha. and ga^e the readings of sereral MSB. 

672 to me. To the similar The result of a more extended compa- 

rhymes on p. 318, add: rison is as follows: compamt Lans. 

As help me Ood, it wol not be, com, 861, Harl. 1758, Reg. 18. G. ii, Sloane 

ba me ! 1685 and 1686, Uniy. Cam. Dd. 4, 24, 


This tomnour baar to him a atif burdoim, 
Was novcr tromp' of half bo greet a loun. 
This fardoiutr hadd' heer as yelw' as wei, 
But smooth' it heng, aa dooth a stryk' of flex, 
Ey ounces heng" his lockes that he hadde, 
And theerwith he his schiild'res overspradde, 
Fill thinn' it lay, hy ealpoun't oon and oon, 
And hood, iarjolitf, ne wcr'd' he noon, 
For it was (rwied np in his walet. 
TTim thowght' he rood al of the newe get, 
Diichevei', saw/his capp', he rood al bare. 
Swich glaring' eyghen hadd' he aa an hare. 
A vgmik'l hadd' he sowed on his cappe. 
His -ffalet lay hlfoom him in his lappe, 
Brerdfiil otpardoun com' of Rom' al hoot. 
A voi/t he hadd' as smaol as cny goot. 
Ho herd n' hadd' he, ne never achold' he have, 
Ab smooth' it was aa it wcr' laat' ysehare ; 
I trow' he weer' a gelding or a marc. 
But of his craft, fro Berwick unto Ware, 
Ne was ther swich another ^rifen««r : 
For in hie maaF he hadd' a pilwebeer, 
■Which that, he sayde, was oui^ lady vm/l: 
He seyd' he hadd' a goiet of the seyl 
That Mj/nt Peter hadd', whan that ho wente 
Upon the Be, til Jhesu Crist him hente. 
He hadd' a cros of tatoun ful of stones, 
And in a glass' he hadde pigges bones. 
But with thys' relygues, whan that he fond 
A port perioun dwelling' upon lond', 
TJpon a day ho gat him mor' monti/t 
Than that the perioun gat in mon'thea tweye. 
And thus with/<jyned_/6i(«-y' and japes, 
He made the ptrsoun and the pep'l his apes. 
But trewely to tellen atto laste. 
He was in chirch' a nob'l eeeltaioite. 

and Mm. 2, 6, Bodl. 686. Christ 
Church, Oiford, MS. C. 6, Tetworth, 
—tvpaiM, DdIt. Cuii. Gg. 4, 27— 
com pamt Harl. 7334, Reg. 17. D. it, 
Ooipui, — nomt pawn, Oif. Bail. 20, 
and Laud 600— cddi po me, Hengwrt 
—eombamt, Trin. Coll. Cam. B. 3, IS, 
OiT. Arch, Seld. B. 14, Now College, 
Oxford, M8^ Ko. 314, —com* 6anu 
HuL 1336, UniT. Cun. IL 3, 26, Trin. 
OoIL Cun. R. 33, Rsvl. MS. Poet 
111, — eiin btmt, Bodl. iH.—danu 
Olt Hatton 1,— eo™ «a mi: Bawl. 
HiK. 1183 and Laud 739. The verb 

Come net, idj apouae, let me ba thf 
«heke, 6016, 
and the BulwtantiTB ia in Skelton 
(Djce'i ed. i. 22), where a dniolcen 
lover lays hia head in hia miatma' 
lap and aleep«, while 

With ba, ia, ia, and int. iaa, bat. 
She cherjahcd hym both cheke and 

To ia baaiare (Catullus 7 £ 8) ni 
diatiuctfrora toiiiii, oaculari, compare; 
Thanne kiaseth me, ijn it may be 
nobett. 3716. 


Dhtis gummuur baar to Htm a sUT bniduim'i 673 

Was never tramp of Half so greet a suun. 

Dhts par'doneer* Had neer as jel^w- as weks. 

But smoodh tt neq, as dooth a striik of fleks ; 676 

BtV uns-es neq -ts lok'es dhat -e nad-e, 

And dheer*with nee -ts shuld'res 0Y*ersprad*e, 

Fal thtn tt lai btt kul'pumiz oon and oon, 

And Hood, for dzhol'ttee*, ne weerd -e noon, 680 

For tt was trus'ed up tn Hts wal'et*. 

Htm thoukf^ht -e rood al of dhe neu*e dzhet, 

Dtiaheyel, sauf -ts kap, -e rood al baar*e. 

Swttsb glaa-nq ai^h'en Had -e as an naare. 684 

A yer'ntld- -ad -e soou-ed on -ts kap'e. 

Hts wal'et* lai btfoom* -tm on -tis lap'e, 

Brerdiul of parduun kum of Boom al Hoot. 

A Yuis -e Had as smaal as en'tt goot. 688 

Noo berd n- -ad nee, ne never shuld -e naave, 

As smoodh tt was as tt wer laat tshaave, 

It troou -e weer a geld'tq or a maaTe. 

But of -ts kraft, fro Ber'wt'k un-to WaaTe, 692 

Ne was ther swttsh anudh'er par'doneer*. 

For tn -ts maal -e Had a ptl'webeer*, 

Whttsh dhat, -e said'e, was uur laa'dtV vail : 

He said, -e Had a gob'et of dhe sail 696 

Dhat saa't'nt Peeiier Had, whan dhat -e wente 

Upon* dhe see, ttl Dzhee-syy Knst -tm nent'e. 

He Had a kros of laa*tuun fal of stoon'es, 

And tn a glas -e nad'e ptg'es boones. 700 

But wtth dhtVz rel'tt'kes, whan dhat -e fond 

A poo're per'suun* dwel'tq up'on* lond, 

Up'on* a dai -e gat -tm moor munai'e 

Dhan dhat dhe per'suun* gat tin moou'thes twai*e. 704 

And dhus with fain'ed flatertt' and dzhaap'es, 

He maad'e dhe pcr*suun* and dhe pee'pl- -ts aap'es. 

But treu'eltt to tel*en at'e last'e. 

He was in. tshtrtsh a noo'bl- eklee'stiast'e. 708 

Com ha m*! was probably the 
Btme of 1 song, like that in t. 672. 
or the modem '^Kiss me quick, ana 
fOy my lore." It is dso probable 
ttiat Abeolon's speech contained alln- 
aons to it, and that it was yery well 
known at the time. 

677 ounces, so all six MSS., 
vnees Ha., which probably meant 
the aune thing, supri p. 304, and not 

679 colponn's, I hare adopted 
a systematic spelling, c u 1 p o n s Ha. 
P., colpons £. He., calpones 

L., onlponnnys Ga., colponwa 
F Co., modem French eoupont, 

687 brerdful. the MSS. haTt 
all an anintellinble bret fnl or 
bretfnl, probably a cormption by 
the scribes of Orrmin's brerdful ^Xmm' 
ffol ; breirdf brerd are found in Scotch, 
see Jamieson. 

697 So all the MSS. Either 
saynt is a dissyllable, see note to t. 
120, or the line has a defectiTe first 
measure, to which the extremely un- 
acsented nature of that is oppoaed. 


+ Weel coud' he reed' a Usaoun or a ttorie, 
+ But altherbest he sang an offertarie ; 

Por weel he wiste, whan that song was songey 

He moste preeh\ and weel affyV his tonge, 712 

To winne silver, as he right weel coude ; 

Theerfoor' he sang so mery' and so loude. 

Ghawcerbs Pbetxb. 

Nou hay' I toold you schortly in a elawse 
Th' estaat^ th' array ^ the nomhr*, and eek the eaw$e 716 
Why that assembled was this companye 
In Southwerk at this gentel hostelry s. 
That hight the Tahhard, faste by the Belle. 
But nou is tyme to you for to telle 720 

Hou that wo baren us, that ilke night, 
"Whan we wer* in that hostelry' alight ; 
And after wol I tell* of our' vyaye, 

And al the rem'naumt of our* pilgrimags, 724 

But first I prey"* you of your' eurteysye 
That ye ne rett' it nat my vilaynye 
Thowgh that I playnlj spek' in this nMtere^ 
To tellen you her* wordes and her* ehsre ; 728 

Ne thowgh I spek' her' wordes properly. 
Eor this ye knowen al so weel as I, 
Whoso schal tell' a taal' after a man'. 
He moost' rehers\ as neygh as e'er he can, 732 

— Ev'ry word, if it be in his eharye, 
Al spek' he ne'er so r«<^ly or larye : 
Or elles he moot tell' his taal' untrewe, 
Or feyne thing, or find' his wordes newe. 786 

He may not spare, thowgh he wer' his brother ; 
He moost' as weel sey oo word as another. 
Crist spaak himself fal brood' in holy writ, 
And weel ye woot no vilayny* is it. 740 

Eek' Plato seyth, whoso that can him rede, 
The wordes moot be cosin to the dede. 
Also I prey^ you to foryeev' it me, 

Al haaV I not set folk in her' deyre 744 

Her* in this taal' as that they schulde stonde ; 
My wit is schort, ye may weel understonde. 

711 weel he wiste, so all the follows; compare Ihude^ murie in tiie 

six MSS., wel wyst he Ha. Cuckoo Song, sapr^ p. 427. HoiM 

714 so merily P., ful me- the above conjectaral readinr. 

riely Ha. so merielj Co., the 727 1 playnly speV, so all 

murierly £., the muryerly the six MSS., 1 speke al pleyn 

He., the meryerely Ca., so Ha. 

merely L., the regular form would 733 ey'ry word Ha., euericba 

be merie, as in loude, which word P., tne other MSS. insert «, 


Weel knud -e reed a les'ium or a stoo'ne. 

But al'dherbest -e saq an ofertoo'rte ; 

For weel -e wtst'e, whan dhat soq was saq*e, 

He moost'e preetsh, and weel afnT -is tuq'e, Yl2 

To wtn-e stl'ver, as -e rikht weel kuud'e ; 

Dheer'foor -e saq soo mer*» and soo luud*e. 

Tshau'seer es Prareer. 

Nuu Haay It toold ju short'ltV in a klauz'e 

Dh- estaat*, dh- arai*, dhe num'br-, and eek dhe kauz'e 716 

WhfV dhat asem'bled was dhtis kumpantV'e 

In Suuth'werk at dhts dzhen't'l ostelnre, 

Dhat mkhi dhe Tab'ard*, fast'e btV dhe fiel'e. 

But nan is ttrme too ju for to tel'e 720 

Hnu dhat we baar*en us dhat flk*e nil;ht| 

Whan wee wer tn dhat ostehtV* slikht ; 

And aft'cr wol li tel of uur viraadzh'e, 

And al dhe rem-naunt' of uur pt I'gn'maadzh'e. 724 

But ftrst li prai juu of juur kur'taistre 

Dhat jee ne ret tt nat mii YW*lai*ntt*e, 

Dhoouku^h dhat li plain'ltV speek tn dhis matee*re. 

To tel'e JUU -er word'es and -er tshee're ; 728 

Ne dhoouktrh li speek -er word'es prop'erltV. 

For dhts je knoou'en al so weel as /», 

Whoo'soo shal tel a taal aft'er a man, 

He moost reners*, as naL^h as eer -e kan, 732 

Evrti word, tf tt bee tn -ts tshardzh'e, 

Al speek -e neer so ryyd'eltV or lardzh'e ; 

Or el'es Hee moot tel -ts taal nntreu'e, 

Or fain-e thtq, or find -ts word'es neu-e. 736 

He mai not spaare, dhooukiffh -e wer -m broodh'er; 

He moost as weel sai oo word as anoodh'er. 

KrtiBt spaak -t'mself' ful brood tn Hoo'ls m^tt^ 

And weel je woot noo Ytt'lai'ntt* is tt. 740 

Eek Plaa'too saith, whoosoo' dhat kan -tm reed'e, 

Dhe word'es moot be kuz'tii too dhe deed'e. 

Alsoo' li prai juu to forjeey* ft mee, 

Al Haay li not set folk tn ner degree* 744 

Hcer tn dhtis taal, as dhat dhai shuld'e stond'e ; 

Mtt wtt is short, je mai weel un'derstond'e. 

II enerich i word E., apparently more correct. Omnin writes o^<rr for 

to aToid a defectiye first measure. the adjectiTo, and both o^err and oyyr , 

738 another. I hare throughout for the conjunction. That distinction 

pronounced other as (udh'er), b^use has been carried out in the pronunda- 

of the altematiye ortnography out her ^ tion of the Proclamation of Henry I1I.» 

nprk p. 267. This rhyme, noweyer, lupri pp. 601-3-6. 

shews &at there must haye also been a 744 not set folk, soallthesiz 

Mmd (oodh'er), which is historically MSS., folk nat set Ha. 


Ta£ HooBTE um his Mebth. 

Greet cker» maad' our' hooH' us ev'rychoon, 

And to the smipter sett' he ua anoon ; 7- 

And itrvei us with vytayV atte boate. 

Strong was the wyn, aud weel to drinlt' ua lest*. 

A aeem'Iy man our' hootta was withalle 

For to haan hccn a martehal in an hallc ; 7f 

A large man was he with eyghen stepe, 

A fair're hurgeyg is ther noon in Chepe : 

Boold of his apcch', and wya, and weel ytawght, 

And of maahodc lacked' hiiu right nawght. 7! 

iii Eek theerto lie was right a merye man, 

And after toupeer pleyen ho higau, 

And apaak of merth' amonges other thinges, 

Whan that we hadde maad our" reckeninges ; 7f 

And aeydc thus : Lo, lording's, trewely, 

Ye been to me weelcomen hert«Iy, 

For by my trouth', if that I achul not lye, 
vi iii I ne sawgh not this yeer so mery a companyg 7( 

At ones la this herhergh, as is nou. 

Fayn wold I do you inorthe, wist' I hou, 

And of a merth' I am right nou bithowght, 

To doon you ee>', and it schal eotto nowght. 7t 

Ye goon to Cawnterbery : God you apede, 

The blisful martyr qut/te you your' mede ! 

And weel I woot, as ye goon by the woye, 

Te sohapen you to talken and to pleye; T' 

For trewely comfort ne merth is noon 

To ryde by the weye domh' as stoon ; 

And theerfoor' wol I make you diapoort, 

As I seyd' erat, and do you som nomfori. 75 

iii And if you [yketh alle by oon a»*«nt 
— For to stunden at mjjuggenunl; 

And for to werken as I schal you seye, 

To morwe, whan yc rydcn by the weye, 71 

Nou by my fader sowle that is deed, 
iii But ye be merye, smyteth of myn heed. 

Hoold up your bond without* more speche. 

Our' coumeyi waa not longe for to seohe ; 71 

TTs thowght' it n'us not worth to maak' it wys, 

And ^nirn'cd him withonte mor* avya, 

And bad him sey' his rordyt', as him leate. | 

Lording's, quoth ho, nou hork'ncth for the besto, 7g8 

■ 75S lacked' him, this ia con- 759 amongei E. He. Co. 

iectural; Inkkede he Ha., him 764 I ne snwgh not,thiiii 

Isokede the tii MSS. Furiiinslj a composile reading: I nc asuBh 

ipelled, in vhirh case the £nn] e most Ha,, I Haw eh not the other USS. 

be proDoanccd, which ia so unuaaal variouil)' spotted. The na. hu there- 

that I hsTe preferred adopting the order fore a trissyltabie first measure, whieh 

of Ha. and the construction of tho is luinaual and daabtfU ; lo write boUi 

othrr MSS. tu and net introdncea an AleiaudrijieL 


Dhe Oost and Hts Merth. 

Oreet tsheer*e maad uur Oost us eyrtttshoon', 

And too dhe suup'eer* set -e us anoon ; 748 

And serveth us with virtail* at'e best*e. 

Stroq was dhe witn, and weel to dnqk us lest'e. 

A seem'lti man uur oost*e was wtthal'e 

For to Haan been a mar'shal tn an nal'e ; 752 

A lar'dzhe man was nee with ai^h'en steep'e 

A fSedr-re bur-dzhais ts ther noon tn Tsheep'e : 

Boold of -ts spcetsh, and wtVs, and weel ttaukt^ht*, 

And of man'Hood'e lak*ed Htm rtilht naukt^ht. 756 

£ck dheer'too nee was rt'Aht a mer*te man, 

And aft'er suup'eer* plai'en Hee btgan*, 

And spaak of merth amuq*es udh*er thtq'es. 

Whan dhat we nad'c maad uur rek'entq'cs ; 760 

And said'e dhus : Loo, lord'tqz, treu'ehV, 

Je been to mee weel*kum*en Her'teltV, 

For btt mti truuth, tf dhat /t shul not lire, 

li nee sauku^h not dhi's jeer so mcr*t a kumpantV'e 764 

At oon*es in dhtis ner'berkh, as ts nuu. 

Fain wold It duu ju merth'e, wtst li nuu, 

And of a merth 1% am liJckt nuu btthoukti^ht*, 

To doon juu ces, and tt shal kost'e noukti^ht. 768 

Je goon to Kaunt'crber'tt : God juu speed'e, 

Dhe bli's'fiil mar'ttir kti^tVt'e juu juur mecd'e ! 

And weel li woot, as jee goon btt dhe wai'e, 

Je shaap'cn juu to talk'en and to plai*e ; 772 

For trcu'eltt kumfort* ne merth ts noon 

To nVd'e btV dhe wai*e dumb as stoon ; 

And dheer'foor wold li maak'e juu di'spoort', 

As li said erst, and doo ju sum kumfoit*. 776 

And ii ju lit k'cth al'e bit oon asent* 

For to stand'en at mtV dzhyydzh-ement* ; 

And for to werk'en as li shal ju sai'e. 

To mor'we, whan je nVd'en bit dhe wai'e, 780 

Nuu bit mtt faad'cr sooul'e, dhat ts deed, 

But Jeo be mer'te, smtVt'cth of miVn need. 

Hoold up juur nond wtthuut'e moor'e speetsh'e. 

Uur kuun'sail was not loq'c for to seetsh'e ; 784 

Us thoukti^ht tt n- -as not worth to maak tt wtts. 

And graunt'cd ntm wtthuut'o moor avtts*, 

And bad -tm sai -is ver'dtVt as -im leste. 

Lor'di'qz*, ktroth nee, nuu Herk'neth for dhe best'e, 788 

We might read the Ha. I ne saw^h this yere swiche a eompagnie, which 

thii j^^Ty asan Alexandrine with \b probably conjectoral. See p. 649. 

t defective first meararo. Perhaps / 782 smytoth of myn heed 

■ amiitake, and ne sawgh this Ha., I wol yeye you myn heed 

yeer, or this yeer sawgh not, £. He. Co. F. and Sloano MS. 1685, 

may be correct, but there is no autho- yariously spelled, I ) e n e ) o w e 

rityforit. Tyrwhitt reada : I law not Mine hede L. Bat if ye £. 

722 TEXT OF Chaucer's prolooub. Okap.YII. f i. 

But taak'th it not, I prey^ you, in diideyn, 

This is the poynty to speken schort andplayn; 

That eech of you to schorte with your* weye, 
iii In this vyage schal telle tales tweye, 792 

To Cawnterbery-ward, I meen' it so, 

And hoomward he schal tellen other two, 

Of aventur*s that whylom haan bifalle. 

And which of you that beer'th him best of alle, 796 

That is to seyn, that telleth in this eaai 

Tales of best sentenc' and moost solaas, 

Schal han a soupeer at your* alther cost 

Heer* in this place, sitting* by this post^ 800 

Whan that we com' ageyn from Cawnterbery. 

And for to make you the more mery, 

I wol myselven gladly with you ryde, 

Right at myn ow'ne costy and be your* yyde. 804 

And whoso wol my jugyement withseye 
iii Schal paye for al we spenden by the weye. 

And if ye vowhesawf iimt it be so, 

Tel me anoon, withouten wordes mo, 808 

And I wol erly schape me theerfore. 

This thing was yraumtedij and our* othes swore 

With ful glad hert', and prey^den him also 

He wolde vouchesawf ioi to doon so, 812 

And that he wolde been our* yovemour, 

And of our' tales j'uy^ and reportour, 

And sett' a soupeer at a certayn prys ; 

We wolde rented be at his d&vys 816 

In heygh and low', and thus by oon assent 

We been accorded to hia jugyement. 

And theerupon the wyn was fet anoon ; 

We dronken, and to reste went' eech oon, 820 

Withouten eny leng're ^oryinge. 

We btdek fobth. 

A morwe whan the day bigan to springe. 

Up roos our' hoost, and was our* alther cok, 

And gader'd us togider in a flok, 824 

And forth we ryd* a lytel moor* than poos, 

Unto the watering' of Saynt Thomas. 

And theer our* hoosf bigan his hors areste, 

And seyde, Lordes, herk'neth, if you leste. 828 

Ye woot your' foorward, I it you recorde^ 

If evesong and morwesong accorde, 

795 whylom E. He. Co. P. L., which is unUkely, as they must ham 

and 80 Tyrwhitt, Sloane MS. 1685, all known them; why lorn' is 

omits the word ; of aventnres suitable for both sets of tales, and i 

that ther han bifalle Ha, word of that kind is wanted. The 

which wonld refer only to the second Sloane MS. 1685 also spells ayen- 

stories and imply that they should toures, see p. 635, note 1. Tbs 

relate to adyentores at Canterbury, passage is wanting in Ca. 

CxAP. yn. i 1. FBONUKGiATioK OF chaucer's fbolooue. 723 

But taakth it not, /• prai jnu, in dtsdain*, 

Dhf 8 IS dhe puint^ to speek'en short and plain ; 

Dhat eetsh of jnu to short *e with juur wai'e, 

In dhfs Tiraadzh'e shal tel'e taal'es twai'e, 792 

To Kaunt'erhor'iiward, It meen it soo. 

And hoom'ward Hee shal tel*en udh*er twoo. 

Of aa'Tcntyyrz* dhat whiVl'om Haan bifal'e. 

And wh»t^ of jnn dhat beerth -tm best of al'e, 796 

Dhat IS to sain, dhat tel'eth tn dhts kaas 

Taal'es of best sentens* and moost soolaas*, 

8hal Haan a suup'eer* at Juur al'dher kost, 

Hccr tn dhts plaas'c, stt'tq* btV dhts post, 800 

Whan dhat we kum again* from Kaun'terber'ii. 

And for to maak'c juu dhe moor'e mer'tV, 

li wol miVselven glad'ltV with jun n'id'e, 

Bt'A:ht at mtVn oou'ne kost, and bee Jnur gtVd'e. 804 

And whoo'soo wol miV dzhyydzh'ement wtthsai*e 

Shal pai'e for al we spend'en bti dhe wai'e. 

And tf jc ynntsh'esauf * dhat ft be soo, 

Tel me anoon* wrthuut'en word'es moo, 808 

And /f wol er'ltV shaap'e mee dheerfoor*e. 

Dhts thtq was graunt'ed, and nur ooth'es swoor'e 

Wtth fill glad nert, and prai'den Htm alsoo* 

He wold'e yuutsh-esauf' for to doon soo, 812 

And dhat -e wold'e been uur guu-vemuur', 

And of uur taal'es dzhyydzh and rep'ortuur*, 

And set a suup'eer' at a sert'ain* prtVs ; 

We wold'e ryyl-ed bee at Hts devttiB' 816 

In HaiA;h and loou ; and dhus bti oon asent* 

We been akord'ed too -ts dzhyydzh'emcnt'. 

And dheer'upon' dhe wtVn was fet anoon ; 

We druqk'en, and to rcst'e went eetsh oon, 820 

Wtthuut'en en'tt Icq-re tar't,tq'e. 

We riid'en forth. 

A morwe whan dhe dai btgan* to sprtq*e, 

Up roos uur oost, and was uur al'dher kok. 

And gad'crd us togtd'er tn a flok, 824 

And forth we rttd a Itt't'l moor dhan paas, 

IJntoo* dhe waa'ten'q' of Saint Toomaas'. 

And dhcer uur oost btgan' -ts Hors arest'e. 

And said'e, Lord'es, nerk'ncth, if juu lest'e. 828 

Je woot Jur foor'ward, li tt juu rekord*e, 

If cevesoq and mor'wesoq akord'c, 

798 moost, so aU the six MSB., sworne, and if the ellipsis be not 

of Ha. asBinned before swore it must at 

least occur before prey 'den. 

810 our* othes swore, Prof. 

Child points out an ellipsis of w e as 824 in a flok He. P. L., Sloane 

in T. 786, see snprii p. 376, art. Ill, MS. 1686, the others haye alle in 

£z. h. The past partidple would be a f 1 o c k, with Taxions spellingi 


Let Bee nou who schal telle first a tale. 

As ever' moot I drinke wyn or ale, 

"Whoso be rebel to raj juggement 

Schal paye for ol that by the wey' is spent. 

Sou (fraweth ent, ecr that wo forthcr twinne ; 

And which that hath the Bchortest schal beginne. 

Syr' knight, quoth he, my snayster and my lord, 

Nou draweth cut, for tLat ia myn accord. 

Com'th neer, quoth he, my lady pryoreue, 

And ye, tyr' clerk, lut be your sehamfastnesBe, 

Ne s/urfieth nat ; ley hand to, ev'ry man ! 

Anoon to drawen ov'ry wight bigan, 

And Bchortly for Xo tellen as it was, 

"Wer* it by avtntur\ or tort, or coat, 

The sooth is this, the cut fil to the knight'. 

Of which fill blyth' and glad was ev'ry wight, 

And tell' ho moost' his tal' as was resoun, 

By foorward and by eompoaicioun. 

As ye haan herd ; what neileth wordes mo ? 

And whan this gode man sawgh it was so, 

As he that wys was and obedient 

To kcp' his foorward by his fre asient. 

He seyde : Sin I schal biginne the game, 

"What ! Wcelcom be the cut, in Goddes name ! 

Nou lat us rjd', and herk'neth what I seye. 

And with that word we ryden forth our' weye ; 

And he bigan with right a merye chere 

His tal' onoon, and seyd' in thu mature. 

In correcting the proofs of this test and conjectured pronimcia- 
tion of Chaucer's Prologue I have had the great advantage of Hr. 
Henry Nicol's assistance, and to his accuracy of eye and judgment 
is duo a much greater amount of correctness and consistency than 
could have been expected in so difficult a proof.' Owing to sug- 
gestions mode by Mr. Nicol, I have reconsidered several indicationfl 
of French origin. One of the most remarkable is Powles v. 509, 

1 Some trillinR errors escaped obeer- 
TBtion till the Bbeeteliad Ixien printed 
off, whioh the reader will hare no diffi- 
culty in donccting, sach sb e, o, i for 
M, 00, 7, elc. The following are nioce 
unportant. B«ed in Text, t. 15 
•pKw/ly, V. 69 poarC, r. 123 mltomd, 
I. Ifi2 ttrej/l, V. 208 Frrre, V. 260 
pore, Y. 289 loberlf, r. 366 frtucfi, 
V. MO vylai/k, t. fi70 mvit, t. 69U 
governing, T. 001 ape. Read in the 
PaoNUHCUTlON, V. U aimdrii, y. S3 
knm, T, 3i whi'ili, t. 13 ferre, t. 63 

AbuT-en, t, 66 Ajaio', v. 71 al. ». 72 
dihcn't'l, r. 107 fedh-re», ». lU Bakwh, 
T. IS!, Dbia. V. 210 katx, v. 241 
er-nVtBh, t. 26G bi'i tuq'o, v. 281 men, 
V. 292 world-lii, T. 33* hii dhe morw-, 
T. 4U FTuod-ed, T. 424 inaf. Bead 
in the Footnotbb, on t. 60, L 3 
noh'l, on T. 120, 1. 1 Bsjnl, on 
T. 130, last lioe hut three, "all the lix 
MSS. except L.", tad add at the and 
of the note "and L. omits also," oa 
V. 247, 1. I noon, on v. 306, L I Hn 
on T. 612, 1.1, foolde. 


Let see nnu whoo ahal tel*e first a taal*e. 

As ever moot /•' dr»qk*e with or aal'e, 832 

Whoo'Boo* be reb'el too mtV dzliyydzli'ement' 

Shal pai'e for al dhat btV dhe wai ts spent. 

Nnu dran'eth knt, eer dhat we fiirdh'er twtn*e ; 

And whttsh dhat Hath dhe short'est shal bigm'e. 836 

Stir knt'Aht, kiroth Hee, mtV maist'er and miV lord, 

Nun dran'eth kut, for dhat ts mttn akord*. 

Enmth ncer, ktroth Hee, nut laa'diV pm*ores*e, 

And jee, sitr klerk, lat bee Jur shaam'fastnes'e, 840 

Nee stnd'ieth nat ; lai Hand too, evm man ! 

Anoon* to drau'en evriV wt^ht bigan*, 

And short'ltV for to tel'en as it was, 

Wer it btV aa'ventyyr*, or sort, or kaas, 844 

Dhe sooth ts dhts, dhe kut ftl too dhe kniAht, 

Of whttsh fill blttdh and glad was evm wt Aht, 

And tel -e moost -ts taal as was ree'suun*, 

Bit foorward and bit kompoostts'inun*, 848 

As jce Haan Hcrd ; what need'eth word'es moo ? 

And whan dhts good*e man saokirh tt was soo. 

As Hee dhat wtis was and obee'dtent* 

To keep -ts foor'ward bti -ts free asent*, 852 

He said'e : Sin li shal bigin*e dhe gaam*e. 

What ! weel'kum* bee dhe kut, in Gbd-es naam*e ! 

Nun lat us ritd, and nerk'neth what /i sai'e. 

And with dhat word we riid*en forth uur wai*e. ; 856 

And Hee bigan with rikht a mer'ie tsheer'e 

His taal anoon*, and said in dhis man'eer'e. 

kiB tale anoon, and seyde MSS. in yarious spellings. 
ts ye may hee re, the other 

which seemed to have a French pronunciation, but which ought 
perhaps to be marked F o w ' 1 e s, the form F o w el appearing in 
T. 13938, supra p. 266, a direct derivative from Orrmin's Fa well 
with a long a. The alterations thus admitted affect the calculation 
on p. 651, which was made from the MS. As now printed (making 
the coirections just mentioned^ the numbers are as follows : — 
lines containing no French word . . 286, per cent 33*3 
„ only one „ „ . . 359, „ 41*7 

„ two French words . 179, „ 20*9 

„ uiroe „ ,, • • *9, „ o*o 

„ fonr „ „ . . 4, w 0*6 

W "^® »» f» • • 1» » 0*1 

Lines in Prologue . . 868 100*0 

These numbers are not sensibly different from the former. The 
nmnbcr of Trissyllabic measures after correction appears as 76, the 
munbers in the six classes on p. 648 being respectively 25, 6, 3, 4, 
29, 9. The number of lines with defective first measures, p. 649, 
remains 13, as before. The number of lines with two superfluous 
syllables, p. 649, is now 8, w. 709, 710, having been added. 




g 2. Gower. 

Johan Oowcr, died, a Tciy old man, between 15 August and 24 
October 1408, having been blind since HOO, the year of Chuucer's 
death, KJ" three principal worka are Spteulum Medilanlu, written 
in French, which is entirely loat ; Fox Clamanlis, in Latin, still 
prcBcrved ; and Confettio Amantit, in Engliah, of which there are 
Beveralfine MSS., and which was printed by Caxton in 1483, In 
this edition Caxton calls him: "Johan Gower sq^uyer home in 
Walys in the tyme of kyng richard the 8ee«nd." The district of 
Gowerland in 8, "W. Glamorganahiro, between Swansea bay and 
Burry river, a peninsula, with broken limestone coast, ftill of caves, 
and deriving its name from the Welsh gwi/r "^ (guu'yr) oblique, 
crooked, traditionally claima to be his birth place. How Gower's 
own pronunciation of his name results &om two couplets, in which 
it is made to rhyme with power and rtpoter. The first passage, ac- 
cording to the MS. of the Society of Antiqaaries, is ^m 
Scbe sie]> mc what was mj name ^^| 
Mudsme I Tejde Joh'in Gnircr. ^^H 
Now Johan qnod fcbe in my power, ^^H 
ThoQ mufte aa of Jii loue ftonde. in 3fi3 ' ^B 
The other will be found below, pp. 738-9. The sound was therefore 
(Guu-eer'), which favoura the Webh theory. The modem form of 
the name is therefore (Geu'cj), and Gowerland ia now called 
(Gau-ejleend) in English. 

But the correctnesB of this Welsh derivation has been disputed. 
Leland had heard that he was of the family of the Oowers of 8tit*n- 
ham in Yorkshire, ancestors of the present Duke of Sutherland. 
The Duke has politoly informed me that the family and traditional 
pronunciation of his patronymic Oowar is a dissylkble rhyming 
to motrer, groieer, that is (Gwej). Now this sound could not bo 
the descendant of (Ouu-eer'), and hence this pronunciation is a pre- 
sumption against the connection of the two tiimilies, strengthening 
the argument derived from the difference of the eoats of arms.' 

He was certainly at one time in friendly rolationa with Chaucer, 
who, in hifl Troylus and Cryseyde, writes : — 

O moril Oowcr, thta boke I directe , J^| 

To the, and to tlie philuaophinl Strode^ ^^| 

To vouabeniBuf, ther nnic ia, lo correcH, ^H 

Of joare beoii^tcK and zdEi ^od". S'TT ^| 

And Gower, in some manuscriptn, makes Yenus send a message to 
Chaucer, as her disciple and poet, which is printed as an example 
below, pp. 738-9. 

The toxt of Gower has not yot been printed from the manuscripts, 

I Thew referencw thron^hont an to 
Putli'i editdon, u eipLained suprft, p. 

* For othtr piirticuliir« of tbe life of 
Oower, derived ftum legal papers, sbcw- 
mg tiiat he wni poawsHfl of lund ia 
Kent, we the lile prefisod to faDll'i 

edition of the Confeaaio Amuitii, ud 
Sir Harris NicoIiu'b Notice of Gowsi, 
in the RetroBpective Ecriew, N. S., Tij. 
ii. No weight ia to tie BttribntedloMa 
eatling himself £h?'"A' vtii^a ashing M 
he excnsod for faults in French, id * 
French poam. He woold Iut* m 

Chaf. VII. § 2. JOHAN GOWER, 727 

or from any one MS. in particnlar. Fauli's edition is founded on 
Berthelette's first edition, 1532, " carefully collated throughout" 
with the Harl. MSS. 7184 and 3869. Of the first Pauli says: 
"This volume, on account of its antiquity and its judicious and 
consistent orthography, has heen adopted as the hasis for the spelling 
in this new edition." Pauli says that he has also used Harl. MS. 
8490, and the Stafford MS. where it was important, and that his 
" chief lahour consisted in restoring the orthography and in regu- 
lating the metre, hoth of which had heen disturbed in innumerable 
places by Berthelette." As the result is eminently unsatisfactory, 
it has been thought best, in giving a specimen of Gower, to print 
the original in precise accordance with some MSS. 

The following MSS. of Gower's Confessio Amantis are described 
by PauU. At Oxford, having the verses to Richard II, and those 
on Chaucer: MS. Laud. 609, Bodl. 693, Selden, B. 11, Corp. Chr. 
Coll. 67 ; — without these verses : MS. Fairfax 3, Hatton 51, Wad- 
ham Coll. 13, New Coll. 266;-— with the first and without the 
second, MS. Bodl. 294 ; — dedicated to Henry of Lancaster, and with 
verses on Chaucer ; MS. New Coll. 326. In the British Museum, 
Harl. 7184, 3869, 3490. MS. Stafford, in the possession of the 
Duke of Sutherland. Paidi does not mention the MS. 134, of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

The MSS. most accessible to me were the four cited supr^ p. 253. 
Of these the orthography of Harl. 3869 appeared to me the best, and 
I have therefore printed it in the first column. In the second 
column I have given the text of Harl. 7184, which Paidi professes 
to follow ; and in the third the text of the MS. of the Society of 
Antiquaries, No. 134.^ The fourth column contains the conjectural 
pionunciation. By this means the diversities of the orthography 
and the uniformity of the text will be made evident. It is the 
former in which we are most interested. The passage selected for 
this purpose is the story of Nebuchadnezzar^s punishment, as being 
unobjectionable in detail, and sufficient in length to give a complete 
conception of the author's style. 

But as the Message from Venus to Chaucer possesses great interest 
from its subject, I have added a copy of it according to Harl. MS. 
S869, from which Pauli states that he has taken the copy printed 
m his edition. In the second column I have annexed the same text 
according to the MS. of the Society of Antiquaries, and, since the 
passage does not occur in the other two MSS., in the third column I 
have added my own systematic orthography, and in the fourth column 
the conjectured pronunciation. For these two last columns a compo- 
site text has been chosen, founded on a comparison of the two MSS. 

In all cases the phonetic transcript has been constructed on the 
aame principles as that of Chaucer in the preceding section. 

dovbt considered himself an English- hetween z }, but writes the gnttural 

man, as he spoke English and was an with the same z that it uses in Nabu- 

Enffliflh subject and landowner, even if fi;odonozor, I have used z throughout 

be nad been bom in Wales. its transcription. 
1 As this MS. makes no distinction 

Ban. MS. 3869, fotio 49* (o 62. 

Ther wu a kinge {>at isdcIigI mjhte 
VUch NabugodoDoror hihte 
Of whom bat .1. Ipak liier tofoTo 

Ab ^aime of Icin^eH to hia licho 
Wa» non fo mybty ne fo riche 
Totua empire and to bia lanes 
Ab who ('«i)> al in bilke dawea 
Were obvifliiat and tribnt bere 
Ai ^ogb be godd of Er{ie were 
Wib DicngJ'e be putte kfngca mder 
Am wrogbt« of pride many n vronder 
He WB» fo full of Tcino gloiro 
That he ne baddc Bo mcmoire 
That )>er was enj good hot ho 
For pride of hia profpfrite 
Til >at )<e hihc kinfi; of kingea 
Which faj> and kQowe)i alle Jiiuges 
Whoa jbe mai nojiing aftcrte 
The pnuetes of mannia berto 

i 137 
Thei fpcke and fonnca in hia Ere 
Al t^oRb )id londe vtyndes «roiQ 
He bik venganco vpon fia pride 
Bot for he wolde a while a bide 
To loke if ho him wolde amende 
To bim aforotokne be fende 
And ^at wa« in hia flep be nyble 
Thii proude kjng a wonder ryht« 
Hadde in hb fHeuooe )>er be lay 
Eim )ioeht ipon a merie day 
A> he bebield '^e world a huate 
A tree fdlgrowe he fyh Jieroute 
Whiche ftod fe world amidde» euene 
Whos heihic ftraehto »p to fe heucne 
The lenea werea bire and large [fol. 60] 
Of fruit it bar fo ripe a charge 
That alle men it nubte fede 
He lih alfo be bowes fpriede 
A bouc aJ Erbc in which were 
The kynde of alle briddes )>ere 
And eke him |<oght he fib alfo 
The kynde of alio bellM go 
Ynder hia tree a houte round 
And fedden hem vpon )ie pround 
Al he ^ig wonder nod and lib 
Bim boghtc be berdc a tois on Mb 
(Mcode and feide a boaen alle 
Hew doon \a tree and lett it falle 
The leues let defoulc in bafte 
And do ^ fruit deftnue and wafte 



i 136 

Ther waa a king that moohel m^l* 
Which Nahu^adonofor highte, 
or whom thai I fpak hiere toton. 
Yit in the bible hia name i* htm 
For al the world in the orient 
Was hoU at his covnnaaademeDt 
And of kinges to his liche 
Was non Tn mi)ti ne so riche 
To hii empire and to hii lawei 
As who feitb all in thilkc dawM 
Wore obeiflant and tribnt bere 
Aa thouj he eod of erihc were 
With ftrengtlie be put kingei mdn _ 
And wioujt of pride mnn^ a wondBi J 
He was fo full of reingloire, fl 

That he ne had no memoire, H 

That ther was any good h«t be 1 

For pride of his profperite 
Til tbal the bieb king of kingss 
^Hiich feth and knnweth alle thing* 
Whoz ybe may no thing aftorta 
The pnuituei of mannei herte 

i 137 

To apeke and sounen in hii hen 

Ab thoU) thei loudc wyndea were 

He toke Tengcaanec Tpon this piidt 

Bat for be wolde a while abide 

To loke if he wolde him amende 

To him afore tokene he fende [fo.23,11,3] 

And that was in bis flep be nifte 

This proude king a wonder figtita i 

Hadde in bis fweuene ther he ixj ^ 

Him thouft Tpon a merr day ■ 

As be bebield the world abouts ■ 

A tree foil growe ho figh theronta | 

The whlcb Hode the world amiddea ennie 

Wboi heightc ftraaght vp to the heuenl 

The Icues wcren taire and large 

Of fruit il bar fo ripe a charge 

That aUe men it might fede 

He aigh alfo the bowea apriede 

Ahoue all ertbe in which were 

ThckiDdeof alle briddes then 

And eke him tbnu^t he sigh alfo 

The kinde of alle belles go 

Ynder the tre abonte round 

And fedden hem vpnn the gnnmd 

Ab he this wonder flode and firii 

Him thou^te be berde a voii on high J 

Criend and feide abouen alle 

Bcwe doun rhis tree and let it I 

The teues let defoule in haAe 

And do the fniit deAroie and wi 




rf Antigtiariet, M8, 134, folio 
66, h, 2 to 58, a 2. 

i 136 

r was a kinge ^ot mochell myzte 
B Nabagodonozor hyzte 
m >at .7. fpak here to for« 
^ bible his name is bor« 
^ orient world in orient 
wl at his comau/fdemmt 
ne of kingM to his liche 
mil fo myzty ne fo riche 
empire and to his lawis 
) (aye^ all in )>ilke dawis 
beyfant and tribute here 
I he god of er^ were 
treng^e he putte kyngM Tndir 
•ouzte of prtde many awondir 
I fo full of vayne glorye 
B ne hadde no memorye 
tr was eny god bnt he 
ide of his profpmte. 
t ^ hyze kinge of kingM 
» see^ and knowe^ all ^ingM 
re may no ]>yMge afterte 
inete of mannis herte 

i 137 
)eke and fownen in his ere 
I ^ey loude wyndis were 
TeMiaoitce vp on bis pride 

he wole awhile aoyde 
I yf he him wolde amende 

a fore token he fende 
i was in his flepe benyzte 
oiide kynge a wondir fyzte 
in his fweuen ^er he lay [fo. 57t 
mzte Tp on a mery day a, 1] 
lehelde ])e world abonte 
ill growe he fyze Reroute 
) ftod ])e worla amiddis enene 
leyzte ftrauzte vp to ])e henene 
ds weren fayre and large 
s it bare fo ripe a charge 
1 men it myzte p' fede 
; alfo ])e bowis fprede 
fdl er])c in whiche were 
nde of all briddis ^ere 
c him boozte he fyze alfo 
ie of all beilis goo 
*is tre abonte ronnde 
Iden hem rp on ])e g^nnde 
'is wondir ftod and fyze 
fuzte he herde anoys on hyze 

and feyde abouen alle 
(Oil ]>is tre and lete it fdle 
is let do fottle in haile 
^ frute destrine and wafte 

C<n^i§ctured PronuneUtum, 

i 136 

Dher was a ktq dhat mntsh'el mtjtht^ 
Whttsh Naa'bnu'goo'doo'nooz'or HtJtht*i^ 
Of whoom dhat 1% spaak beer tofoor*e. 
Jet tn dhe Bttb-l- -tis naam ts boore, 
For a\ dhe world tn Oo-rient* 
Was Hool at hm komannd-ement*. 
As dhan of kiq-es too -ts littsh*e 
Was noon soo mtkht't't nee soo rttsh'e; 
To HM empttr* and too -tis lau'es, 
As whoo saith, al tn dhtlk'e dances 
Wer oo'baisannt*, and tni'byyt beere, 
As dhoottktrh -e God of £rth*e weere. 
Wtth streqth -e pate ktq*es un'der, 
And r«K>aktrht of prtt'de man*t a wim*der. 
He was so ful of vain'e gloo-rtie 
Dhat Hee ne Had'e noo memooTte 
Dhat dher was en*tt God bnt Hee, 
For prttd of hm prosper'ttee*. 
Ttl dhat dhe HtiArh-e Ktq of ktqes, 
Whttsh saith and knoou*eUi al'e thtq*eiy 
Whoos tt-e mai noo'thtq* astert'e, — 
Dhe prtV'Teteez* of man'es nert'e, 

i 137 
Dhai speek and snnn'en tn -ts eer*e, 
As dhoonkii^h dhai laud*e wtnd'es weere — 
Hee took Tendzhanns* npon* dhM pritd'e. 
But, for -e wold a whttl abtid*e 
To look tf Hee -tm wold amend'e, 
To Htm a fooretook*n- -e send'e. 
And dhat was, tn -ts sleep btt ntArht*e, 
Dhts pruud'e ktq a wun-der st>tht*e 
Had, tn -ts sweevne dheer -e laL 
Htm thouktcht upon* a mer-tt dai, 
As Hee beneeld* ohe world abuut'e, 
A tree fulgroou* -e stArh dheemut'e 
Whttsh stood dhe world amtd-es eerme, 
Whoos Haiilrht'e strauktcht up too dhe HeeT*]ie 
Dhe leeves weer*en fair and lardzh-e, 
Of fryyt tt baar soo rtip a tshardzh*e 
Dhat al*e men tt miXht-e feed*e. 
He stArh al'soo* dhe boon es spreed*e 
AbuT* al erth, tn whilsh'e weeTe 
Dhe ktnd of al*e brtd'es ^ee*re. 
And eek -tm thouktcht -e stXh al*ioo* 
Dhe ktnd of al-e beest'es goo 
Un'der dhts tree abuut'e mnnd* 
And feed'en nem upon* dhe grand. 
As nee dhts wun*der stood and stJth, 
Htm thonktcht -e nerd a Tuis on Ktiih 
Crtt'end*, and said abaT*en id*e : 
<* flea dnnn dhts tree, and let tt fid*e I 
** Dhe leeT*es let defnul* tn nast'e, 
<( And doo dhe fiTyt destnii* and waii*el 



Sari. MS. 3869. 
i 138 
And let of fahreden euatjr branche 
Bat a Bale let it ftaojivhe 
Vbaa ftl hia Fiide is caft to ponnde 
The rote lohal be fafte bonnde 
And fchal no mannea herte bera 
Bot eaery lull he fclml forbera 
Of mitn. and lich an Dig hi> mete 
Of gnu he r<^hBl poDTchiche and eta 
Tit fFat fie water of be beoelie 
Eaao waiirhen him be times feuene 
Bo Jint he be J^urgknowe ariht 
Wbnt in t>e bcaenelicbe myht 
And be mad hnniblo to fe wille 
Of him which at md fauc and fpille 
This Ljnge out of hia fwefoe abreida 

And be vpan fe raorwe it feida 
Vnto ]>e clerkea which ho hadde 
Bat non of hem )>e fo]>e arulde 
Was non his fweueno cowrie rndo 
And it ftod Jrilke time fa 
This kjng haddo in fubiccci'on 
Jude. and of affoccion 
A bouc alle o{pre on Daniel 
He louef, for he cowfo wel 
Dinine f nt non ofFer eow>B 
To him were aUa fiinps cowjie 
Ai be it hadde of eoddca erace 
fie was befarc )ie kingi» Eice 
Afent. and bade }ai he firholde 
Vpon Jie pobt fe king af tolde 

i 139 
The fbrtone of his fwenene exponnda 
Aa it fcholde aflervord be founds 
Vhanne Daniel Jiis fweuene betde [fb. 
He (tod long time er bo anfUerde Mt] 
And made a wonder heaj' chiere 
The king lok hiede of his manera 
And bud him tetle J^nt he wide 
As ha to whom, he machel trino 
And feidc ho wolde noght be wroji 
Bot Daniel was wonder lofi 
And feido Tpon )>i fomcn alle 
Bire king yi fweuene mote falle 
And najieles . touchonde of this 
t wol ye tcUen how it u 
And what defefe ii to bee rchnpe 
Ood wot if )>oa it fchalt afcape 

The hihe tre which )>ou haft fein 
■Wiji lef and fruit fo wel befein 
The which Hod in fe world amiddca 
Bo Jrat )<e beftca and ^e briddes 
Gouerned wero of him al one : 
Bire king betokne)i ^i prrfone 
Which Rant a buue all erjili Jilnges 
Thus Tfgncn vnder }e fe kinges 
And al fo poeplo *nta fc louteJ> 
And al >e wsild f i pouei doubt«^ 

And let of flueden eueri branncha 
But ate roote let it flaunche 
Whan all his pride is rail to gnmnda' J 
The root* (hall be fad boonde 
And thall no mannea hert here 
But eneri loft he Ihall forbere 
or man and lich an hoie his meb 
Of grati he ehall purehaee and etc 
Til that the water of the honene 
Uauc wulHicn him be tyiQci fcuM 
So that he throu) knowo aright 
What ia the heuenljcb might 
And be mad humbte to the wille 
Of him which ol maj fane and fmlle 
This king out of ma fweuene ahrsida 

And he vpon the morwe it l«ds 
Vnto the clerkea which he badda 
But nan of hem Ibe foth aradde 
Wac non his fweuene couthe rado 
And it atode thilke time fuo 
This king bad in fubieccion 
Judee. and of affcccion 
Abuue al othir odd Oaniell 
He loueth. for bo couthe well 

n othir cottthe [(a. 2S, i. 


To him wore all tbingea couthe 
Aa he it hadde of goddes grace 
He was before the kingca face 
Afent and bode that he ahnlds 
Tpon the point the king of tolde 

i 139 
The foTtone of hia fweuene ei , _ 
Aa it sbuld aftirward be fonnde 
Wban Daniel this (wcucne berda 
He (iod long tymc or he anfwerda 
And made a wonder henj chiere 
The kine l^k hiede of bis manera 
And bail him telle Chat he wifte 
As ho to whom that mochel trifte 
And feid he wolde nou|t be wroth 
£ut Daniel was wonder loth 
And feide rpon thi fomen alio 
Sir king thi fweuene mot falle 
And nathcles tuuchend of thia 
I wol the tellea bou it ia 
And what defefe b to the fhlpe 
God wot if thou it IhoU efcape 

The high tree which thou ball M 
With lef and fruil fo wel befeia 
The which stood in the worM amidd 
So that the beftes and the briddei 
Gauemed were of him alone 
Bir king betokeneth thi perfone 
Which Itant aboue al] ertbeli tbingN J 
Thus reignen vnder the kingca , 

And all the people Tuto the loateth 
And all the woild (hi power do(ibtatt> 1 



Soe. Ami, MS. 134. 
i 138 
lid Jett of fchiedeii euerj branche 
But tt rote lete it itaiuicne. 
▼hm all )as pride is cafte to g^mide 
T^ rote fdiall be fiifte bounde 
lid Kball no nuuinis herte beie. 
Bit eofry Infte he fchall fbrber^ 
Of mn and liehe an oze bis mete 
Of naa be fchall pnrchace and ete 
M>«t >e miter of ye henen 
Haae waichen him be timia aenen. 
8o ^ bee jborgh knowe arjzte 
▼bit ii ^ heaen liehe mjzte. 
lad he made Tmble to fe wille. 
Of him whiche all may fiuie and fpille. 
This kTNge oute of hia fweoeit 
lad hee YD on ^ morow it fejde 
Tb to ^ derkis whiche he hadde 
te none of hem ye fo)>e aradde. 
Wh Bonn hia fweae*i oon)>e Tndoo. 
Aad it flood >flke tyme foo [fo. 57, a, 2] 
That kjNge hadde m fnbiecdonii 
Jide aad of affeccyonii 
Aboae alle ofer tmn danidl 
He kae) for be eon^ well 
Bioife ytt nonn o^ cou^ 
To him werf all ytn^ couye 
ii he hadde of goddu ^race 
He wu tofore ]^ hyngia face 
iftat and bode yat be fcbnlde 
Vf on )e pojttte ^e hyi^ of tolde 

i 139 
IVc Ibrtone of hia fwenefi exponde 
iiit feholde af t ir w ard e be foojide 
Whan danieU y'lB fweaen herde 
Be fiood longe tjme er he anfwerde 
lid made a woirair beay cbere 
^hynge tok bede of hia maner« 
Aid M him telle >«t be wifte. 
Aid he to whom he mochel trifte 
Aid fejde be wolde nonzt be wro^ 
^ dniid waa wondir lo^ 
^ fejde rpoayj fomen alle 
^ kynge py f weneii mot laUe 
^id na^diea tooehende of yiM 
^"Wol be tellen bow it ia 
^^ what defefe ia to >e fdiape 
^^ ^^ jf' h^ • i^ fchall afchape 
^^^ hTie tre which .^oil baft feyne 
J^^fti leef and irate fo wel befeyne 
whiche flod in be world amiddw 

^^ ^ ^ beftia and ^ briddia. 
^^xm«riiid were of bim allone 

i 138 
" And let ofabieed-en er^'i b r aimlah f^ 
'^ But at-e roote let ft ataimtah-e. 
"Whan al ^ pntd tf kaat to Mad-e, 
*^ Dhe root*e ahal be fuxe bii]ia*e. 
" He ahal noo maa'ca nert-e beere, 
*^ Bnt eTTtV Inat -e ahal fo rbeeie 
** Of man, and liitah an oka -tf meetv 
" Of graa -e ahal pvrtabaaa*, and ecTe, 
"Ttl dhat dhe waa-ter of dhe 
** Haav waiah-en Him hii t«rm-ca 
*< Soo dhat Be bee tharkirb'knoo«- arOkt^ 
^ What SB dhe Heer-enbrtih-e aaiibs, 
''And bee maad nmb'l too dbe wil-e 
" Of Him, wbitah al mai aaaT and a^- *" 
Dbca ktiq not of •» 

And nee npon* dbe mor-w- H aaad^ 
Untoo- dhe klerk-ca whAah -e BBd-a^ 
Bnt noon of nem dhe aooth arad-c, 
Waa noon -u aweer-ne kvnth oadoo^. 
And tt atood dkilk-e tiim-e ao, 
Dbca ktiq nad tin aobdzbekiraan' 
Dzbyydc«-, aad of aiek*f<iraB* 
AbsT* al odbT- oon Daanaied' 
He luT^etfa^ for ne knnth't wd 
DiTti-ne dhat noon ndb-er kndk-e 
To Bi'm weer al-e tb*q*ca knsth-e 
Aa nee rt Had of God-ca gramie. 
He waa befoor dbe kiq-ca faaie 
Aaent*, aad boo'de dhat -e ahold e 
Upon- dhe pant dhe ktq oftMld'e, 

i 139 

-^^g ^g® bitokene^ Yj prrfone 
^SJ]'^® fiante abone all er^ely ^ynge« 
*^J*haa regnen Tndir Je be kyngea 
* of ye pepl^ Tn to pe loate)^ 
all ye world >j power doiite> 

Dhe fortwjn' of -ci 

Aa it ahold aflcrwaid be ftm^ 

Wban Daa-Bjwd* dhia fwcer-ne Htidia 
He atood loq ti'tm eer H«e anawerd'c, 
And maad a wnn-der Her't'i tofacere. 
Dhe kiq took need of bbb maa^irre 
And bead -tm tel*e dhat -e waat-e, 
Aa nee to wboom -e mntah-e trcat'C^ 
And aaid -e woki'e nonkirht be la i^atiL 
But Daa-nteel' waa wnn'der iMrth, 
And aaid: *^ Upon* dhit foonaM* al'«, 
" Sitr kiq. dhtt aweev-ne uM^rU £>!'« ! 
''And, naa-dheleea, talab'csd* idikm, 
'* It wol dhee tel'cn nun tt ia, 
^ And what diaecs* ta to dhe* ahaa'pe* 
"God wot ff dfaoo ft ahalt takaa-pc ! 

** Dhe Hiib'e tree whrt*h dhon Maat aaifl 
" With leef «nd fryyt wmj wel beaau', 
^ Dhe whcUh atorxl in db<( world antd'ia, 
^ So dhat dhe U^eftea uid 4h^, \frA'«st 
"GoTem-ed w«r of mioi lu'MHt'f 
"Siir kiq, bett^'A-wAh 4hn p^rv/'m', 
** Whitfth atant abur- tu trth itt thit^'tm, 
•' Dhna reenen under dh«>i; dii« kjq'ca, 
** And al dhe peep 1- uuUmj dii** luot'eth, 
«^ And al dhe world dhti puueer doafatki, 


Sari. MS. 3866. 
So fit «i^ Tein boDoui deceiued 
Thou ban be reuerence vcyucd 
Fro him which ia Jii king a bouD 
That Jon (be drede ne for bus 

So that with Toin bonour doMined 
Thou ball the reucrence weyued 
Fro him which i> thi king nbous 
That thou for drede no for loue 

WoH nojiing- knowen of fi godd 
Whicb now for ]>o faa)> mud a rodd 
Thi leine gloire and >i folie 
With grete peines to cbaflie 
And of pe vois {ion hcrdeft fpeke 
Which bad pa bowoi for to breke 
And bene and f^lto doun f» tree 
That word beiongoji thIo fee 
Thi regne fchal ben onerJirowB 
And |!ou desnuiled for a [towb 
Bot ]iat pn Eote fcholde (londe 

And A of ]iat }ion hcrdeft fvie 

To take a manneB berte a woio 

Ind aotto liere a bcftial 

Bd >at he lich an Oie fchal '. 

Paflnre . and {'Ot hcbe b«Toincd 

Ba times fcfne and fore pcincd 

Til bat he knowe hia goddes mihtef 

[fol. 61j 
Than fchotde be flonde a|ein vprihtes 
Al ^ia betokneb yin snat 
Which nov wi}< god is in debat 
Thi maniies forme Fchal bo kffcd 
Ti! eeuene ler ben onerpaffcd 
And in pn liknefOi of abeRe 
Of graa fcbal bo )i real feile 
The vreder Ibhnl vpon ft reins 
And vnderftond Jiat al )ii peine 

i 141 
Which )iDa fchal fcffrc {^ilke tide 
I> fchapD al onli for bi pride 
Of Tcine gloiro and of pe Hnne 
Which )>ou had loage lionden inne 

80 fpon Jiia coDdici'on 
Thi fwcuene ha^ eipollcfon 
Bot er ))iB )iiDg bernlle in dode 
Amende }>eo, {>iswoIde.I. rode 
}if and deparie f-in almiffo 
Do nurcy (orf wif rihtwifnclTe 
Befecb. and prei. ^e hibe grace 
For fo ^ou mibt )>i pea pnrcbtice 

Wib godd. and llond in good acord 
BOt Pride b lob t« Icne hia lord 
And wol noght aoffre humilito 
Wib him lo Hondo in no degree 
And whan a fchip ha^ toft hit fttere 
If non fo wji ftt mu him Itiera 

Thi veingtoim and thi folie 
With gret poinn to chaHie 
And of the Toia tbou hcrdeft fpeka 
Which bad the bowes for to brclta 
And bcwc and felle doun the tne 
That word bclongelb Tnt« the 
Thi roigne fhall bo ODorthiows 
And thoa dcfpuiled for a throwe 
Bnl that the roole (hall flonde 
But that tbon ftinlt net Tnderllonde 
Thcr aball a biden of thi reigne 
A trmc ayoin whan thoo ahalt regne 

[fol. 23, i, 2] 
And eke of that than herdeft feie 
To take n mnnnoa hert aweie J 

And fetle there a beftiall H 

So that he like an oio (hall^ ■ 

Paftnie. and that he be bcrrined ^ 
Be tymea fefne and fore peined. 
Till that he knowe his goddea nu)ta^ 

Thau (hold he Sonde ayein TprighiM 
All tbia betokeneth thine eatat 
Which now with god ia in debat 
Thi mannes forme (hall be laObd 
Til feuen joro ben ooerpafled 
And in the likncfTi! of a befte 
Of gras shall bo thi roiall fefte 
The weder (hall vpon the rajno 
And inderftonde that all tui peine 

i UI 
Which tbon (halt fnffre thillie tidt 
la (hape all only for thi pride 
Of Teuigloire and of the linne 
Wbich thon haft longe ftonden inM 
So Tpon this condicion 
Thi fweuene hath erpoficion 
Bat er this thing betnlle indeda 
Amende the this wold I reda 
Yif and depone thine almelTe 
Doth meni]' forth with nghtwiltaefft 
Belbcho and praie the high graoe 
For BO thou mi)t thi poce purchMM 

With god and ftonde in good acoid. ' 
But pride 11 loth to leoe hi* lordt 1 
And wot not fnffre hnmilite 
With him Co ftonde in no degree 


cmap. vn. i 1 



Soe, Ant. M8. 184. 

So fsi with Tejne honours deceyned. 
Tboa haft he reu^rence weyned 
Fro him wniche is )>y kynee aboue 
That feu for drede ne for lone. 

i 140 ... _- 

Wolte no ^fige knowen of hj god [fo. 

"Whiche now for ^e ha^ made arod 

Thj Tayne glory and fy folye 

Wib gret peynis to chaftye 

And of ^e voyce )>ou heraeil fpeke. 

Whiche bad pe bowis for to breke 

And hewe and falle doun )>e tre 

That worde bilon^)> yn to ]>e 

Thy reg^e fchall ben oufr)>rowe 

And )>oa defpuiled for a )>rowe 

Bot yd ye rote fcbolde flonde 

Be yat .you, fcbalt wel yndirilonde 

Ther fcblall abiden of ^y regne 

A tyme azen whan yovL fchidt regne 

And eek of yai you herded fay. 
To take amannis herte awey 
And sette yer a beftiall 
So yd he liche an oxe fchall 
Fuinr^ and yat he be bereynid 
Be tymes feuene and for^ peyned 
Till yat he knowe his goddiB myztifl 

Than fchulde he flonde ozcn ypryztifl 
All y\B bctokenc)^ )>yne allate 
Whiche now witA god is indcbate 
Thy nuutnis forme fchall be lailid 
Til senen zere ben ou^aflid 
And in ye liknefTe of abcfte 
Of gras fchall be ^y riall fefle 
The wcdir fchall yp on ye reyne 
And yndirftonde yai all y\a peyne 

i 141 

Whiche ,you. fchalte foffre yWke tyde 
Is fchape all only for by pryde 
Of yayne glory and of py fynne 
Whicne .y<m. hade longe ftonden inne 

So yp on his condicioun 
Thi fwcuen ha]> expoficioim 
But er ^s yjnge bo fallo in dcde 
Amende be pis wolde y rede 
Zif and aeparte yjn almefle 
Do m^rcy lory with ryztwifneiTe 
Befeche and preyc ^e nyze grace. 
For fo .^n. myzte )>y pees purchace 

[fo. 67, *, 2] 
WitA god and ftonde in good acorde 

Bnt prtde is lo^ to leue his lorde 
And wolde nouzt suffre humilite 
WitA him to flonde in nodegre 
And whafine a fchip ha^ lofte his flere 
Is noun fo wis yat may him flei» 

Ootffeetured Jhronuneiation, 

** Soo dhat, wtth yatn on*nar desaiyed, 
** Dhun Hast dhe rey*erens*e waiyed 
" Froo Htm, whttsh is dhn ktq abnye, 
** Dhat dhau for dreed'e nee for lay*e 

i 140 

'* Wolt noo*ihtci knoou'en of dhis God, 
** Whttsh nnu for dhee uath maad a rod, 
'* Dhti yaine glooTt and dhti folire 
'* Wtth CTeet'e pain'es to tshasttre. 
'' And of dhe ynis dhau uerd'est speek'e, 
''Whttsh baad dhe boou-es for to oreek'e^ 
*' And Hen and fel'e duun dho tree, — 
" Dhat word beloq-eth un-to dhee. 
'* Dhtt reen-e shal been oy*erthroon*e, 
*' And dhau despuil'cd for a throoa*e. 
" Bat dhat dhe root*e shold'e stond'e, 
'* Btt dhat dhau shalt wel an*derstond*e, 
'' Dher shal abiVd'en of dhtt reen*e 
'* A tttm ajain* whan dhau shalt reen*e. 

<' And eek of dhat dhuu uerd'est sai'e, 

'* To taak a man'es uert awai'e, 

'' And set'e dheer a bees'tiaal', 

'* So dhat -e ItilL an oks*e shal 

" Pastyyr, and dhat -e bee berain*ed 

'* Bit tttm'e 8cey*n- and soo're pain*ed 

** Ttl dhat -e knooa -is God-es mtA:ht*ei» 

" Dhan shold -e stond ajain* aprtA:ht*et-^ 
*' Al dhis betook'neth dhiin estaat*, 
" Whitsh nuu with God ts in debaat*, 
** Dhti man'es form'c shal be las-ed 
" Ttl seeyne jeer been overpassed, 
" And in dhe liik'ncs' of a beost'e 
" Of gras shal bee dhii rccal fcest'e 
'* Dhe wcd'er shal upon' dhee rain'e. 
« And nn'derstond* ahat al dhis pain*e 

i 141 

" Whitsh dhun shalt suf-cr dhilk-o tiid-e, 
** Is shaap al oon'lii for dhii priid'e 
" Of yain*e gloo-ri and of dhe sin'e 
'* Whitsh dhuu nast loq'e stond'en th*e. 

^* Soo up'on' dhis kondii'siuun 
** Dhii swceyn- -ath eksposii'siunn. 
** But eer dhis thiq befal* in deed'e 
" Amende dhee. Dhis wold Ji reed'e, 
** Jt'y, and depart'e dhiin almes-e, 
'' Doo mer'sii forth with riArht'wisnere, 
'* Beseetsh* and prai dhe utldi'e graas'e. 
'* For soo dhun mikht dhii pees pnrtshaare 

** With God, and stond in good akord*." 

But priid is looth to leey -is lord, 
And wol nouktrht suf^r- yymii'lii'ter 
With nim to stond in noo deegree*. 
And when a ship nath lost -is steere 
A noon soo wtit dhat mai -im fteert 



p. VII. { t 

Sari, US. 38e9. 
Aiein ^e wanes in a rage 
This proodo king in his coraga 
Huinilite ha^ fo forlore 
That for no fweucne be Tih toton 
Se git for a] ]iat Daniel 
Him hB|i conreiled euirridd 
He let it palTe out of hia mynde 
Tliiugh «eine gloire. and as )ie bUnda 
He r^ no weie. er bim be wo 
And tel] wiliinne a time fo 
As be in bnbiloinfl went 
pe Taziil« of pride Um bente 

i u: 
Hii borte aroB of Teine gloire 
80 [iBt be dronb into memoirs 
His lordTc^UpB and his rogalis 
Wib wordoB of Sorquidcrie 
And wbannE tat ho him moft annoNto^ 
That lord which Tcine gloire dsuntcji 
Al fodeinlicbe as wbo fpith treis [fn. 
Wber >Bt be ftod in bis Paleia bli] 
He tok him fro )ie mennea Chto 
Wm noD of hem. To war ))at mibta 
Bette fho. wber jiat he becom 
And ]ma was he irom his kiagdon 
Into ^e Wilde Foreft drawe 
Wher bat fe mihti gnddes lawo 
Tbargh his pouer dede bim tronffomie 
Fro mao into a beftea forme 
And tich an. One vnder )>e fot 
He grare)> aa bo nodes mot 
To geten him hia liuea fade 
Tbo yaaht him coldo grates goode 
Tliat whilom eot Jw hole fpiwa 
Thus W4U ho lomed fro doUnea 
The wyn wbtche be was wont to drinle 

He toll ^anne of ho wellca brinke 
Or of be pet or ot fa (lowb 
It foghle him fanne good ynowb 
In ftede of chambrea wel arroied 
He woa tanae of a bnilTh wel paiud 
The barde groundo he laj vpon 

barde groundo he laj 
o)<re pilwea ba^ be ni 

i 143 

Such was ]fe hibe god 
Til fenene ger an endi; toko 
Tpon himfelf )>o gan be loke 
In ftede of mote gna and strea 
In node of bandea longe clea 
In flede of man a beftca lyke 
He feib and J-anne be gan to frke 
For olob for gold and for porno 
Vbioh him «u wonte to magnefle 

Barl. MS. 7184, 
Arein the wawea in a rage 
This proude king in his coraga 
Humtlite bath so foriore 
That for no fwi-ttone be (igb lolbiv 
Ne yit for all that Danioll 
Him hath connfoiled oneridell 
He let it f airp out ot his mjmde 
Throu) Temgloire and as tht bltnda I 
Ho [nth no weie er him be wo I 

And fel withinne a tyme To 
As be in Babiloine wcnte 
The vamt« of pride him bente 

i 142 
Hifl harte aros of Teingloiro 
So that be droogb into memoira 
Hia lordlhip and hia regalia [fo. 
With wordfs of furqiudeio 
And whan that he him mod an 
That lord which reingloire daui 
Al fodeinlich na who ftith treis 
Whcr that he Sood in bis paleii 
Ho took him fro the mennea fig 
Was non of hem ao war that migta 
Sette ybc whcr that he becom 
And was be from bis kingdom 
In to the wilde forcfl drawe 
Wher that the raighti godde* U 
ThroQ] his poaer dede him trai 
Fro man in to a beSes forme 
And lich an oie Tnder the fote 
He grafcth as ho nedes m 
To goton bim his Ivum fooe 
Tbo thouit him colde grafei goode 
That whilom cet the bote fpicea 
Thus was be tomed fro delices 
The wyn which he was wont to drinks 

Ho took thanne of the wcllea biiuka 
Or of the pit or of the slough 
It thoujl him thanne good Inonf 
In dede oF cbanibres well arraied 
Be was thanne of a boflh wel paiad 
The barde groaud be lay rpoD 
For othir pilwea bad he nan 

i 143 
The flormea and the reinea falls 
The windes blowe vpon him alle 
He was tonncnt*d day and night 
Such was the high goddea migt 
Til feuene yere. andende look 
Vpon bim felf tho gan he look 
In Ocde of nieto graa and trea 
In ft«de of hundoi long cleea 
In ftede of nan a hcftes like 

id fhanno he gan to ■ 
)f gold and of porrie 
Which him was wont to mopiiAe 

Catr. Til. J 2. 

5«. Ant. XS. 131. 
Aien ^ wairis in a rare 
Thia pronde kynre in hia corage 
fiomilite ha^ fu for lore 
TIul for no (wenen he TTze to fore 
Ke xil for all )i4t daniell 
'Him ht.y connferlid emrj deell 
He lete it pstTe ante of his mynde 
Tluntnr rayne glorjp and as )>e blfnde 
Hs l«cb no wvle er him be woo 
And fell iriUinne a tyme foo 
Ai hr in bubilDrnc wenCe 
f* Tuite of pn'de him hentc 
i U2 

of Tayne glorye 

drow in to m«morje 
~ lipe and bis regaly e 
is of furquidrye 
AaA whune fat h« biio moft anaantu^ 
Th«t lorde whirhp vayne glorrc datinlo)' 
AH faderneUcbB u who fafeih trcii 
Thcw fat be Hood in hi« jinleys 
H< take him fro y^. mrnnis fyztc 
Via noma of hem to war ("it myzte 
Belle je wbetr )>at be bicome 
And Jnii was he tioia bis Idngdomm 
In lo >e »ilije (brent drawe 
'When fol fe mjitv poddis lawo 
Thoniw bia power did bin tnuinorme 
Vn van in to abcftii farme 
And liche an oie vndir fe foU 
H« grafe^ u he nedii mut 
To getot him bia livis foode 
Tho ytMxte him wide graflia goode 
Thsl whilom eel fe boot fpicia 
vu be tiinud fro delicis. 

wbicbc he was wont« to 
[fo. 58, a, 1] 
of fe welli» brynko 
or of tho lloghe 
him )>anne good y nowo 
of cbambriB wel amypd 




He WM ba 

The hwde 

For D^ puowia ha)> he 

i 143 
n* ftonni* and |ro raynia bile 
Tb» wyndia blowe vp on bim alio 
Ba waa turmcHtid day and nyite 
Vhielu wa> yt hyic goddis myzte 
311 feaen terc an cnde tok 
Tp on him felfe f o g^o he luke 
Ib lted« of mete grai and treia 
In lledc of handii lon^e elna 
In fted* of mim a brilii like 
Ha tjt* and f annc bo )^n lo fika 
Kir clo^ for goldn and Ye penj 
~~ " ■ ■ ' wonte to mogiiJiyB 

Ei'tb to foor-e 

ChtfjtelHrfd Froauneiiitifm. 
Aiain' dbe wan-ea in a raadzh-e. 
Dbia prnud'e kiq ■*□ hu kaomadih'e 
Tymirliitee- natb boo fb 
Dhat lOT Doo iwet-T'n- -c 
Ne lit for b1 dbat Daa*ni 
Him aatb kunBiil'td evWi" deel — 
Be let it paa nut of -in mind'o 
Thrakwh rainT gloo-ri. and, as dbe bli'nd-e, 
He Beetb new wai, eer Him be woo. 
And fel wi'tbiQ a tiim'e ma, 
Ai Hee in Bsbiloo-nie went 
Dbe Tsa'Diitee of pri'i'd -im sent. 

i 112 


Bo dhat He drooakich I'ntoo' memooTiB, 

Hie lord'shiip, and -u rce'gaalii'e 

Wi'tb word-ea of lyyrki'i'derire. 

And, whan dhat uee -I'm moost QTannteth, 

Dbat Lord, whiUb tainc gloom dnnnt'etJi, 

Al md'ainlittsb-. as who soith : Traia ! 

Wheor dbat -0 Blood in ma polaia-. 

He look ->m (too dbe men-es tiihft. 

Was Doon of Hem mo woar, dbat mi':tht'e 

Set I'l'e wbeer that Hce bekoam', 

And dbiu waa uee from iii's kiqdoom' 

Jntoo* dbe wilde fbr'eM- diaae, 

Wbeer dbat dbe miitbt-ii God-ea lan-e 

Tborku^b HIS pnn-eer, ded aim tranafoim-e 

Fro man i'ntoo- a boert'ta fbrm-e. 

And tiitefa an oka on-der dbe foot'e 

He graai'eth, as -c need'ei moofe 

To get'en Him -is liti-eii food'o. 

Dhoo tboukirbt -im koold-u giM'ea good-e, 

Dbat wbiil-oom ett dbe Boot-e ipiia ea, 

Dbua was -e tom'ed (too deliises. 

Ube wii'n, wbitib -e wiu woont to dn'qk'o, 

He look dhan of dbe «cl-en hnnk-e, 
Or of dhe pit, or of dhe slimkipb. 
It Ibonkumt -im dhan-e good inuukwh'. 
fa iteed of Ishaiim ben we! arai'ed, 
He was dhan of a busb wcl pai'ed. 
Dbe uard-e pnnd -c Ini upon' 
For udh re pil'wes Halb -e noon. 

i 113 

Dhe storm-ea and dhe rain'a fal'e, 
Dbe wind'es blouu' npon' -im al-e. 
He waa lurmentod diii and ni'Abt — 
Suleb wiu dhe Mith-c God-ea mikht— 
Til iMV-no Jwr an cnde took-e. 
Upon- -imaelf- dhoo gen -e look-e. 
/n steed of meet-e g[Tas and itreez, 
/n steed of Hand-es loq-e kleea, 
7n atecd of man a bee«t-n liik-B 
He liih. and dban -e gan to si'ik-e 
For klootb of goold and for perire, 
Vht'tah Him waa wont to mag-nifk't. 



Barl. MS. 3869. 

Whan he bohield hu Cote of heret 
He wepte. and with fdlwoful teres 
Yd to ])e heuene he cade hiB chiere 
Wepende. and ])Oghte in ^\a manere 
Thogh he no woraea mihte winne 
Thus feide his hcrte and l^ak withinne 
mjhti godd bat al hail wroght 
And al myhto orins^ ajein to noght 
Now knowe .1. wel. hot al of fee 
This worlde ha]? no profpmte. 
In J^in afpect hen alio licho [fo. 52] 
pe ponere man and ek ^e riche 
Wiboute fee J>er mai no wi^ht 
Ana bou a hone alle oj^re miht 

minti lord toward my vice 
Thi mercy medle m]f iuftice 
And .1. woll make a couenant 
That of my lif )>e rcmenant 

i 144 

1 fchal it he \>i grace amende 
And in f i lawe so defpcnde 
That Teine gloire I fchal efchine 
And howe ynto fin hefte and iiue 

Hnmilite. and bat .1. Towe 

And fo fenkcnae he gan donnhowe 

And fogh him lacke vois and fpcche 

He gan rp wif his feet a rechc 

And wailendc in his hefUy fteucne 

He made his plcigntc Tnto \>e heuene 

He knelef in his wife and hraief 

To feche merci and afluicf 

His god. whiche made him noting 

Whan fat he iih his pride change 
Anon as he was humble and tame 
He fond toward his god be fame 
And in a twinklingc of afok 
His manncs forme a^ein he tok 
And was reformed to the rcgne 
In which fat he was wont to rcgne 
So fat f e Pride of veine gloire 
Eu^re afterward out of memoiro 
He let it palfe. and f us is fchcwcd 
"What is to ben of pride vnf ewed 
Ajein f e hihc goddes lawe 
To whom noman mai he felawe. 

ffarl. M8. 7184. 

Whan he behield his oote of herea 
He wepte. and with wofnll teres 
Yd to the heuene he caft his chiere 
Wepend and thouyt in this manere 
Thou) he no wordes mijte winne 
Thus faid his hert and fpak withinne 
mighti god that haft all wrou|t 
And al mi}t hringe ayein to nought 
Now knowe I wel hnt all of the 
This world hath no profoerite [fol. 24. 
In thine afpect ben alle liche a, 2] 
The poner man and eke the riche 
Withoute the ther may no wight 
And thou aboue aU othre mi}t 

mi}ti lord toward my vice 
Thi mercy medle with iuftice 
And I woll make a couenant 
That of my lif the remenaunt 

i 144 

1 shall he thi g^race amende 
And in thi lawe fo dcfpende 
That Teingloire I shall efcheae 
And howe ynto thine hefte and ^ne 

Humilite. and that I Towe 

And fo thenkend he gan doun howe 

And thou} him lacke vois and fpeche 

He gan Tp with his feet areche 

And weiland in his beftli fteuene 

He made his pleinte vnto the heuene 

He kneleth in his wife and braieth 

To feche mercj and aflaieth 

His god. which made him nothing 

Whan that he iigh his pride change 
Anon as he was humble and tame 
He fond toward his god the fame 
And in a twinkeling of a look 
His mannes forme ayein he took 
And was reformed to i,he r^ne 
In which that he was wont to reigne 
So that the pride of veingloire 
£uer aftirward out of memoire 
He let it paffe and thus is fhewed 
What is to ben of pride vnthcwed 
Ayein the high goades lawe 
To whom noman may befelawe. 

QiAP. YIL { 9. 



8oe. Ant. M8. 184. 

Wkm he bihilde his cote of heris 
He wepte and wttA iiilwofall tens 
Yp to pe heneit he cafte his chere 
wepende and ^ooite in ^is maner« 
Thmii he no wordis myxte wyime 
Thus fejde his herte and fpek wttAinne 
O myztj god ^ot all haft wronzte 
And all myzte brynge azen to nouzt 
Now knowe .1. well bnt all of )>ee 
This world ha)> no profpmte 
In ^yn afpet ben all licne 
pe poo/re meN and eek ^e liche 
WtiA onte ^e \er may no wyzte 
And .^n. abone all oyer myzte 

myzty lorde towarae my yice 
Thy m^rcy mcdle wttA iustice 
And .1. wol make a couenaonte 
That of my lyf ])e remenannte 

i 144 

1 fchall it be ^ grace amende 
And in Yj lawe so dcfpeitde 

That yayne glorye .y. fchall efchine 
And bowe yn to ^yne hefte and (iue 

[fo. 68, a, 2] 
Hnmilite and ^ot .y. vowe 
And fo ^enkende he gan dou/i bowe 
And ^Qz him lacke Toys of fpcche 
He gan rp witA his feet arcche 
Ana waylende in his beftly ftoucn 
He made his playnto vn to \g heuen 
He knele^ in his wife and praye^ 
To fechc m^rcy and aflaycth 
His god whiche made him no ^ynge 

When ^at he fyze his pride chaunge 
Anonn as he was ymblo and tamo 
He fonde towardc his god ^o fame 
And in a twynkely/ige of a loke 
His mannis forme azen he tok 
And was reformid to the regno 
In whiche \ai he was wonte to rcgne 
So ^t J)>e pryde of vayne glorye 
Eiirr amrwarde oute of mcmorye 
He lete it paifc and ]>tM it fchewid 
What is to ben of pride ynj'ewid. 
Asen )>e hyze goddis lawe 
To whom no man may be felawe. 

Conjectured Pronuneiatioru 

Whan Hee bcHeeld* -is koot of Heeres, 
He wept, and with ihl woo'Ail teer'es 
Up too dhe HecT-n- -e kast -is tsheer'e, 
Weep'end*, and thonktrht tn dhts maneere. 
Bhooukirh Hee noo word*es miArht'e wtn'e, 
Dhus said -ts nert, and spaak wtthtn*e. 
'< Oo miArht'ii God I dhat al nast rtix>nki9ht, 
'* And *al miArht briq ajain* to nonkt^ht ! 
'* Nun knoon It wel, bnt unt of 'dhee 
'' Dhts world -ath noo prosperittee*. 
'* /n dhtin aspekt* been al'e littsh'e, 
'* Dhe pooYTO man, and eek dhe ritsh'e. 
'* Withuut'e *dhee dher 'mai noo wiA:ht| 
'' And dhnn abuv* al udhnre miXht. 
" Oo miitht'ti Lord, toward* mti vtis'e, 
*' Dhii mer'sii med''l with dzhystiiiB'e, 
'< And /i wol maak a kau'venannt*, 
'* Dhat of mil liif dhe rem'cnaunt* 

i 144 

'* It shal it bit dhii graas amend'e, 
" And in dhtt lau'e soo despend'e, 
'* Dhat vain'o gloo'rt /t shal estshyye, 
'* And baa ontoo* dhiin Best, and syy*e 

" Yymirliitee*, and dhat It rau'e ! '* 
Ana 800 theqk'cnd' -e gan daan baa*e, 
And dhooaku;h -tm lak*e Tois and speetsh'e, 
He gan ap with -is feet areetsh'e, 
And wail'cnd' in -ts becst-lit stcevne, 
Ho maad -ts plaint untoo* dhe neeyne. 
He kneel *eth in -ts wtis and brai'eth, 
To scotsh'e merstt, and asai'eth 
His God, whitsh maad -tm noo'thiq* 

Dhan dhat -e siith -ts priVd'e tshaondzh'e. 
Anoon* as nee was om'ol- and taam'e 
Ho fand toward* -is God dhe saam'e, 
And, tn a twtqk'liq* of a look, 
His man'cs form ajain* -e took. 
And was reform'cd too dhe reen*e, 
/n whttsh dhat nee was woont to reen'e, 
800 dhat dhe pritd of vain'c gloor'ie 
Eer af'terward* nut of memoor-te 
He let it pas. And dhus ts shea-ed 
What IS to been of priid ontheu'ed 
Ajain* dhe Hti(rh*e God'cs laa*e. 
To whoom noo man mai bee fel'aa*e. 



ffarl. MiS. 3190,/d. 2U, *, 2. 
Myn bolj Fadet graunt mercy. 
Quod I tji bjm. aod to the qweens. 
I telle on knees vpnon ibe grene. 
And toke my leue for to mnde. 
Bot fhe that wotde malie an ende. 
Ma therto with I wae tnofle able. 
Ji peire of bedea blakke a« (able. 
She tooke and hen^ my nekke abon 
Tppon the gaudea at withoote. 

iii 373 
Wai write of ^Ide pour repofir, 
Lo tboa (he feide Johan Qower. 
Now thon art at the tade csfte. 
Thii hauo I for thyn Gafe cade. 
That thou no more of loue fi?che. 
Bot my willc ie that thou befech. 
And prey here aftir for the pees. 

!. BfAntipmriaMS. I34.fb.24S, a.I.I 
ii 372 

_rernant ,. 

and to ]>e qnene. 
I fel on kneis vp on }>e grene. 
And t«ak my leue for to wende. 
But foho ^ni wolde make an enda 
Aa Jwrto whiche I was motl abla. 
A peyre of bedie hUk aa fable. 
Srae took and binee my nocke a] 
Vp on )>e gaadia ail witA oi ' 

ui 373 
Waa write of golde pur repofor. 
Lo yas fche feyde Jonan (jower. 
Now bou arte at )>e lafle caalle 
Tbia hare I for >me efe calle. 
That >DU no more ofloue feche. 
But my wille is ]iut l<au bifeche. 
And praye hern aftyr lor fe peea. 

iii 374 
Thi felf and I nener aftir tliis. 
None haue I feide althat ther ia. 
Of loae at for tby IVnal ende. 
A diea for I mote fro the wende. 
And grete wvUe Chaucer whan ye mete. 
As my direiple and my poetc. [fa. 216, 
For in the flonrea of his youth. a, 1] 
In fondry wife aa he wel couth. 
Of dyt*es and of fonges glade. 
The wich he for my fnko mode. 
The loude fulfilled is ouer alte. 
Wborof to hym in fpecialle. 
AbouG alte otbit I am moll holde. 
For tbi nowe in bis daies olde. 
Thon (halle hym telle this meflUge. 
That he rppon his later [ige. 
To sett an ende of aite hta werke. 
Aa be wioh is myn owno clerke. 
Do make his teftamsnt of loue. 
As thou haft do thie (hrifte nbone. 
Bo that my court it may recordc. 
Madame I can me wet aeeorde. 
Qnod I to telle as ye mo biddc. 
And with that worde it ao bilidde. 
Oute of my fiht alle fodeynly. 
Enclofud in a lierrie flcye. 
Vp to the heuene venns llniaht. 

Where as with al myn hole entente. 
Thus with my bedes rpon honde. 
For hem that true lone foode. 
I thenke bidde while I lyue. 
Tppon the poynt wioh I un Ihiiff. 

Tbi felfe and I neon- aftir fia 
How bane I feyde all >rrt Jiw i«; 
Of loue as for yi Goal ende. 
A dieu for I mot fro )<e wende. 

And grvtn wel ehaucrr whan le 
As my difciple and my poete 
For in ^e flouru of hu ioufe 
In fondry wife aa he wel cott>e 
Of dileis and of fongia glade. 
The whiche he for my fake toftdfl. 
The londe fulfilde is onenl. 
Whcri-of to him in fpeeiall. 
A bone allc ofer I am most holde. 
For I'i now iu bis davcs olde. 
Thon (ehalt him telle yis meflbge. 
That he vp on his latter ^e. 
To fetle an ende of all bis werke 
As he whiche is myn owen clerke. 
Do make his testemfnt of loue. 
As ]isu hast da }>i fchryfte abooe. 
Bo fat my coune it may rccorde. 

Madame I can me nil acorde. 
Quod I to telle as yc me hidde. 
And witA tot world it ao bitidde. 
Oott of my fyetc all fodenly. [fo. S*« 
Enelolld in s flerrid sky. i, 1« 

Vp to )>o heuen venus ftrauzte 
And I my ryzt wey cauzte. 
Hom fro fe wode and for]" I w . . . 
Where as wi'tA all mjn hool cntent*! j 
Thus witA my bedis vp on honde. 
For hem Jiat trewe love londe. 
I tbunke bidde while I lyue. 
Vp on >e poynte which 1 am ftiujf 

Cbap. TII. } 2. 




SfftUwuUie Orthography, 

iii 372 
*'MTn bolj Fader grawnd mercy !'* 
Qaod 1 to bim, and to the quene 
I fel on knees upon the grene, 
And took my leve for to wende. 
B«t iche, that wolde mak' an ende, 
Ar tiieertowith I was most abel, 
A pair' of bedes blak' as sabel 
She took, and heng mj nekk' abonte. 
Upon the gawdes al witbonte 

iii 373 
Was writ of gold* Bnur repoter, 
** Lo !" thus she seyde, ** John Goneer, 
*' Non thou art at the laste caste, 
** This baye I for tbyn eee caste, 
** That thon no moor' of Iotc seche, 
** But my will' is that thon biseche, 

«• And prey' berafter for thy pees. 

• • • • 

** For in the law* of my comone, 
** We be not shapen to comnne, 

iu 374 

^ Thyself and I, never after this, 
** Xoa baye I seyd* al that ther is 
" Of loy' as for thy fynal ende. 
** Adien ! for I moot fro the wende. 
"And greet wel Chawcer, whan ye mete, 
''As my discypl', and my poeto. 
** For in the flonres of bis yonthe, 
''In sondry wys', as he wel couthe, 
" Of dytees and of songes glade, 
"The which he for my sake made, 
"The lond fiilfil'd is oyeral. 
" Wherof to him, in special, 
" AboT* all' oth'r' I am moost bolde. 
"Forthy non in his dayes oolde 
" Thon sbalt bim telle this message : 
" That be upon bis later age 
" To sett* an end* of al his werk, 
"As he which is myn ow'ne clerk, 
" Do mak' bis testament of love, 
"As thon bast do thy schrift' above, 
" So that my coort it mai recorde." 
" Madam , I can me wel acorde," 
Qnod I, " to tell' as ye me bidde." 
And with that word it so bitidde, 
Out of my sight', al sodainly 
Enclosed in a sterred sky 
Up to the beven Venus strawghte. 
And I my righte wey [then] cawghte 
Hoom fro the wod', and forth I wento 
Wheeras. with al myn hool entente, 
Thni with my bedes upon honde, 
For hem that trewe love fonde 
I thinke bidde, whyl' I lyve. 
Upon the poynt^ wnich I am schryre. 

Oot^feetured Pronuneiation. 

iii 372 
"Mtin HOO*ltt Faa'der, graund mersiY!" 
Ktrod /•' to Htm, and too dhe kti^eeu'e 
It fel on kneez up'on* dhe g^reen*e. 
And took miV leeve for to wend*e. 
But shee, dhat wold'e maak an end*e 
As dbeer'towitb* /• was most aa*b'l, 
A pair of beed*es blak as saa'b'l 
She took, and neq mit nek abuut'e. 
Up'on* dhe gand'es al withunt*e 

iii 373 
Wasnrtt ofgoold, Pnur reepoo'seer. 
'* Loo !" dhus she said*e, ** Dzhon 6uu*eer, 
" Nun dhuu art at dhe laste kast'e, 
" Dhts Haav Ji for dhtin ce'ze kast'e, 
'* Dhat dhuu noo moor of luve seetsh'e, 
** But miV wtl ts dhat dhuu btseetsb'e, 

" And prai -eeraft*er for dhit pees. 

• • • • 

" For tn dhe lau of mit komyyn*e 
" We bee not shaap'cn too komyyn'e, 

iu 374 
" Dbiself and /t, neer aft*er dbn. 
" Nuu Haav It said al dhat dber ts 
'* Of luv', as for dhtt f«in*al ende. 
" Aden* for Ji moot frtx) dhe wende. 
" And g^reet weel Tsbau'scer, whan je meet*e, 
'* As mtt distrpl- and mii pooeet*e. 
" For tn dhe miures of -ts juuth*e, 
'* /n sun'drii wtis, as Hce wel kuutb'O, 
'* Of dit'tees and of soq*es glaad*e, 
" Dhe wbttsb -e for mii saak'e maad'e, 
" Dhe lond fulfild* ts overal*. 
" Whcrof* to Htm, tn spes'taal* 
" Abuv* al udh'r- /• am moost nold'e. 
'* Fordhtt* nuu tn -ts dai*es oold*e 
" Dhuu sbalt -tm tel*e dhts mesaa'dzbe : 
'* Dhat nee upon* -ts laa'tcr aa*dzbe 
" To set an end of al -ts wcrk, 
" As nee wbttsb ts mtVu oou'ue klerk, 
" Doo maak -t s test'ament* of luve, 
'* As dhuu uast doo dhtt shrift abuve, 
" Soo dhat mil kuurt it mai rekord*e." 
'* Madaam, It kan me wel akord'e," 
Kirod it, " to tel as jce me bid*e." 
And with dhat word tt soo bitid'e, 
Uut of mil Slight, al sud'ainlit 
Enklooz'ed tn a ster*ed skti. 
Up too dhe Heeven Yee-nus straukirbt*e. 
And li mtt rikht*e wai [dhen] kaukirh'te 
Hoom froo dhe wood, and forth /• went'e, 
Wheeras*, with al mtin hool entent-e, 
Dhus with mil becd-es up-on* hond-e, 
For Hem dhat trcu*e luve fond*e 
It thtqk-e bide, whiil /• liVve, 
XJp'on* dhe pnint^ which li am shrtiVe. 


Jolm "WycliffQ bom 1324, died 1384, is BUpposed to have com- 
menced hia version of the Scriptures in 1380, just aa Chaacer was 
working at his Canterbury Tales. "We are not sure how much of 
the Tersions which pass under bis name, and which have been 
recently elaborately edited,' are due to him, but the older form of 
the versions certainly represents the proso of the nv th century, 
as spoken and understood by tho people, on whose behoof the 
version was undertaken. Hence the present series of illustrations 
would not be complete without a short specimen of this Tencrable 
translation. The parable of the Prodigal Son is selected for com- 
parison with the Anglosason, Icelandic, and Gothic Tersions already 
given (pp. 534, 550, 561), and the Authorized Version, with modem 
English pronunciation, inserted in Chap. XI., § 3. 

The system of pronunciation here adopted is precisely the same 
88 for Chaucer and Gower, and the tt'rminatioa of the imperfect 
of weak verbs, here -irf*, has been reduced to (id), in accordance 
with the condasions arrived at oa p. 646-7, 

OuiSR 'WTCLiFFm; Vebsion, Lpke xt. 11-33, 

11. Forsothe he seith, 8um 
man hadde tweye sones ; 

12. and the jougere scide to 
the fadir, Fadir, jyue to me the 
porcioun of eubstaunce, tlhir 
eatel, that byfaUith to me. And 
the fadir departide to him the 

1 3. And not aftir manye dayes, 
aUe thingis gederid to gidre, the 
jongerc gone wente in pilgrym- 
age in to a fer euntree ; and 
there be wastide his substannce 
in lyuynge lerchorously. 

14. And aftir that he hadde 
endid alle thingis, a strong hun- 
gir was maad ia that euntree, 
and he bigan to haue nede. 

15. And ho wente, andclcuyde 
to oon of tho citescyns of that 
cnstree. And ho sentc him in 

' Tbe Holy Bible, eontaining tho 
Old uid New Testaments with the 
ApTodTphol booliB, in tho Eatliest 
Engliflh Versions, made from the Ladn 
Vulgntc by John Wjcliffe and his foU 
lovei^ edited by the BeT. Jodoh Fot- 


Conjeelured PrmunctatM 

11. Forsooth' -e saith, 
man Had'e twai'e suu'nes ; 

12. and the juq'ere said-e to 
dhe faadir, Faa'dir, jiVve to mee 
dhe por'smun of sub'staunii, 
edh-tr kat-el', dhat bifal-eth to 
mee. And dhe faa'dir deparlid 
to Eim dbo suh-Btauns. 

13. And not af'tir man'te 
dai'es, al'e thiq'is ged-er«i to 
gidTe, dhe Jini'ero suu-nc went 
in pil'grimaadzh th to a fer 
kun-tree' ; and dher -e was'ttd -i» 
sub'stauna in liviqe letsh'emsltt. 

14. And aft-tr dhat -e Bad 
end'id ale tbiqts, a atroq Huq'- 
gtr was maad in dhat kun'tree', 
and -e bigau' to naav need'e. 

15. And -e wcnt'e, and 
klee-vid to oon of dhe sit'tzBin> 
of dhat kun'tree'. And nee sent 

stiall, F.R,8., etc., late feilowtifExrtaf 
Colkgo, and Sir Frodvrio Madden, 
K.n., F.R-S., etc., keeper of tho M38. 
in the British HuBeum, Oxford, ISM, 

gbap. yn. { 8. 




to his touiiy that He Bchulde 
feede hoggis. 

16. Ajid he coneitide to fille 
his wombe of the coddis whiche 
the hoggis eeten, and no man 
|af tohlm. 

17. Sothli he, tamed a^en in 
to him silf, seyde, Hon many 
hirid men in my fadir hous, han 
plente of looues ; forsotlie I 
pezische here thui^ hnngir. 

18. I Bchal ryse, and I schal 
go to my fadir, and I schal seie 
to him, Fadir I haue syimed 
ajens heuene, and bifore thee ; 

19. now I am not worthi to 
be clepid thi sone, make me as 
con of thi hyrid men. 

20. And he rysinge cam to 
his fadir. SotliJi whanne he 
was fit fer, his fadir sy^ him, 
and he was stirid by mercy. 
And he rennynge to, felde on 
his necke, and kiste him. 

21. And the sone seyde to 
him, Fadir, I haue synned 
a^ens heuene, and bifore thee ; 
and now I am not worthi to be 
olepid thi sone. 

22. Forsoth the fadir seyde 
to his scniauntis, Soone bringe 
|e forth the firste stoole, and 
clothe fe him, and fyuo ^e a 
zing in his bond, and schoon in 
to the feet ; 

23. and bryngc ^e a calf maad 
fiit, and sle ^c, and etc we, and 
plenteaously etc we. 

24. For this my sone was 
deed, and hath lyucd a^cn; he 
perischide, and is fonnden. And 
alle bigunnen to eat plente- 

25. Forsoth his eldere sone 
was in the feeld; and whanne 
be cam, and nei^cde to the houS| 

Conjectured Pranuneiatton. 

-tm m to -»s tuTuii dhat -e 
shuld'e feed'e Hog*ts. 

16. And -e kuvait-id to f tl -m 
womb'e of dhe kod't's whttsh'e 
dhe Hog'fs eet'en, and noo man 
jaay to ntm. 

17. Sooth*l«V Hee, tuni'id ajen* 
tn to Hfin stlf, said*e, Huu man** 
HfV 'rid men m mt faa-dtr Hnus, 
Haan plent'e of loo'vts; for- 
sooth'e 1% per'tshe neer thurktrh 

18. J% shal nV'se, and 1% shal 
goo to mt faa'dtr, and 1% shal 
sai'e to ntm, Faa'dtr, It -aay 
sth'ed ajens' neevene, and bf- 
foo're dhee ; 

19. nuu it am not wnrdh'tV to 
be klep'td dhtV suu'ne, maa'ke 
mee as oon of thiV niV'n'd men. 

20. And nee, rtVs iq kaam to 
Hts faa'dtr. Sooth'ltV whan -e 
was Jtt fer, nts faa'dtr stkh -tm, 
and Hee was sttr'td btV mer'st. 
And nee, ren'tq to, fold on -m 
nek'e, and ktst -tm. 

21. And dhe sau*ne said*e to 
Htm, Faa'dtr, it -aay sth'ed 
ajens* neevene, and btfoo're 
dhee ; and nuu It am not wurdh'tt 
to be klep'td dhtt suu'ne. 

22. Forsooth* dhe faa dtr said'e 
to -ts ser*yaun*ti8, Soo'ne brtq*e 
je forth dhe ftrst'e stoo'le, and 
kloodh*e je Htm, and Jtty le a 
rtq fh -ts Hond, and shoon m to 
dhe feet; 

23. and bnq*e je a kalf maad 
fat, and slee je, and ee'te we, 
and plen'teyuslfV ee'te we. 

24. For dhts mtV soo'ne was 
deed, and nath Ityed ajen ; nee 
per'tsh'td, and is funden. And 
al*e btgon'en to eete plen'te- 

25. Forsooth' hm cl'dere snu'ne 
was in dhe fceld ; and whan -e 
kaam, and naL&h'td to dhe huus. 



Chip. yn. i 3. 


he herde a eymphonye and a 

26. And he clepide oon of 
the seruaimtis, and axide, what 
thingis thes weren. 

27. And he seide to him, Thi 
brodir is comen, and thi fadir 
hath slayn a fat calf, for he re- 
ceynede him saf. 

28. Forsoth he was wroth, 
and wolde not entre. Therfore 
his fadir, gon out, bigan to preie 

29. And he answeringe to his 
fadir, seide, Lo I so manye ^eeris 
I seme to thee, and I brak 
neuere thi comaundement ; thou 
hast neuere ^ouun a kyde to me, 
that I schulde ete largely with 
my frendis. 

30. But aftir this thi sone, 
which deuouride his substaunce 
with hooris, cam, thou hast 
slayn to him a fat calf. 

31. And he seide to him, Sone, 
thou ert euere with me, and alle 
myne thingis ben thyne. 

32. Forsothe it bihofbe to ete 
plenteuously, and for to ioye; 
for this thy brother was deed, 
and lyuede ajeyn; he peryschide, 
and he is founden. 

Canjeetured Pronuneiatum. 

He Herd a stm'fonu'e and a 

26. And -e klep'td oon of dhe 
ser'yaTin'tfs, and ak'sid, what 
thtq-is dheez wee'ren. 

27. And -e said'e to Him, DhtV 
broo'dtr is kuum*en, and dhn 
faa'df'r Hath slain a fat kalf, for 
Hee resaiv'td -tm saaf. 

28. Forsooth* nee was n^ooth, 
and wold'e not ent*re. Dheer- 
foo're Hfs faa'df'r, goon uut, 
btgan* to prai -tm. 

29. And Hee aun'swertq to -ts 
f)Eia*dfr, said'e. Loo ! soo man*te 
jee'n's 1% serv to dhee, and It 
braak nevre dhti komaun'de- 
ment; dhuu nast nevre Joo*yen 
a kfd'e to mee, dhat It shuld'e 
eet'e laar'dzheliV wtth mu 

30. But afb'tr dhts dhn 8un*ne, 
whitsh devuu'rtd -ts sub'staunB 
wtth Hoo'rts, kaam, dhuu -ast 
slain to mm a fat kalf. 

31. And -e said'e to Htm, 
Suu'ne, dhuu ert evre wtth 
me, and al*e mtV*ne thtq'tis been 

32. Forsooth* tt btHoof'te to 
eete plen'tevusltt, and for to 
dzhui'e ; for dhts dhtt broo'dtr 
was deed, and ItV'td aien* ; ne 
per'tsh'td, and -e ts fund'en. 




THB Sixteenth Centttrt. 

WilHam Salesbury's Account of Welsh Pronunciation, 1567. 

Ths accoTint which Salesbury famished of the pronimciation 
of English in his time being the earliest which has been found, 
and, on account of the language in which it is written, almost 
unknown, the Philological'and E^ly English Text Societies decided 
that it should be printed in extenso, in the original Welsh with 
a translation. This decision has bc^n carried out in the next 
section, where Salesbury's treatise appropriately forms the first 
fllostration of the pronunciation of that period. But as it explains 
English sounds by means of Welsh letters, a previous acquaintance 
wiUi the Welsh pronunciation of that period ia necessary. Fortu- 
nately, the appearance of Salesbury's dictionary created a demand 
to know the pronunciation of Welsh during the author's life- 
time, and we possess his own explanation, written twenty years 
later. The book containing it is so rare, that it ia advisable to 
print it nearly in extenso, omitting only such parts as have no 
phonetic interest. Explanatory footnotes have been added, and 
the meaning of the introduced Welsh words when not given by 
Salesbury, has been annexed in Latin, for which I am chiefly 
indebted to Dr. Benjamin Davies of the Philological Society. 
It has not been considered necessary to add the pronunciation 
of the Welsh words as that ia fully explained in the treatise, 
and the Welsh spelling ia entirely phonetic. A list of all the 
English and Latin words, the pronunciation of which is indicated 
in this tract, will form part of the general index to Salesbury 
given at the end of the next section. 

There are two copies of this tract in the British Museum, one in 
the general and the other in the GrenviUe library. The book is 
generally in black letter (here printed in Boman type,^ with certain 
words and letters in Roman letters (here printed in italics). The 
Preface ia Roman, the Introductory letter italic. It is a small 
quarto, the size of the printed matter, without the head line, being 
6} by 31 inches, and including the margin of the cut copy in the 
general ubrary, the pages measure 7^ by 5^ inches. It contains 
6| aheetsi being 27 leaves or 54 pages, which are unpaged and 


unfolioed. In this tnmscript, howerer, the pages of the original 
are supposed to have been numbered, and the commeneemeiit of 
each page is duly marked by a bracketed number. The title is 
lengthy and variously displayed, but is here printed uniformly. 
In the Eoman type (here the italic type) portion, W, w, are 
invariably used for "W, w, and as there is curious reference to thia 
nnder the letter W, this peculiarity has been retained in the follow 
ing transcript. Long f is not preserved except in the title. 

[1] A playne and a familiar Introductio, teaching tow to 
pronounce the letters in the Brytiflie tongue, now com- 
monly called Welflie, whereby an Englylh man Ihall 
not onely wyth eafe reade the fayde tonge rightly : but 
marking the fame wel, it Dial be a meane for nym wyth 
one labour to attayne to the true pronounciation of other 
expedient and moat escellent languages. Set forth by 
VV. Saleftury, 1550. And now 1567, pervfed and 
augmeted by the fame. 

This Treatife is most requifite for any man, yea though 
he can indifferently well reade the tongue, who wyl 
be thorowly acquainted with anie piece of tranllation, 
wherein the fayd Salefbury hath dealed. (*) 

Imprinted at London by Henry Denhara, for Humfrey 
Toy, dwellj-ng at the fygne of the Helmet in Faulea 
church yarde. The .xvij. of May, 1567. 

[3] T\> tnij louing Frimda Maiiter Humfrey Toy. 
[4] ■ ■ ■ Some cxclamed . . . that I had pemertcd the whole 
Ortographio of the [English] tonnge. Wher in deode it is not so : 
but true it is that I altered it very litle, aad that in very few 
wordcB, as shall manifestlye appearo hereafter in the latter end of 
this booke. No, I altered it in no mo wordes, but in suehe as I 
coulde not fynde in my hart to lende my hand, or abuse my 
penno to wryte them, otherwyse than I haue done. For who 
m the time of most barbarousnes, and greatest corruption, dyd 
ener wryte euery worde as he soflded it; As for example, they 
than wratc, £go dtco tibi, and yet read the same, Egu dtieu Uibn, 
they wrate, Agnm Dei qui tollit, but pronounced Angntu Dett juei 
towllyi.^ And to come to [5] the English tung. VHiat yong 
Scoler did ener write Byr Lady, for iy our Lady ? or nunlle for 
mkle ? or mychgoditio for much good do it yov ? or lein for tigne ?' 

' Tbese Latin 
were thorefore (eg' 
Aq'Diu Dee i kwei toool'iB). Prabiibly 
(De«-i) should be (Dwei), but it u 
Dot to muked. The pbonetisatioD u 
not entirely Weltb, The pronunciation 
(tocol'ia} WM in acoorduice with Iha 

intmciations ^ennol annnd of long s before /, Ms 

'ku tei'bei. aupriV p. IS4. 

^ The Englifb ciampleA vers pro* 
bablr pronounced jbei'r laa*di. nuqk'l, 
mitah-gud-it-iu, sein}. It aretas ictiM- 
l7probablDthatan(o) should haTGbM 

Gbap. YIU. i 1. SALBSBURT's W£L8H pbonunciation. 745 

And tlias for my good wil molested of such wranglers, slial I con- 
diflcend to confirme their vnskylful custome .... Or E^all I proue 
what playne Dame Truth, appearing in hir owne lykenes can 

woorke against the wrynckled face neme* Custome? 

Soiumihg at your house in Paules Churchyarde, the 6, of llaij. 
1567. TouTy aasuredfyy welwyUer W. Salesbury, 

[6] If To hys louing Friende Maister Richard Colyngbome, 
Wylliam Salesburie wysheth prosperous health and perfect felicitie. 

[These two pages have no interest. They are dated — ] [7] At 
Thames Inne in Holbume more hastily, then speedily. 1550. 

[8] Wyllyam Salesbury to the Beader. 

[These two pages set forth that after the publication of his 
dictionary persons wanting to know Welsh asked him whether his 
dictionary would serve their purpose, and] [9J . . • . amongst 
other communication had, they asked, whither the pronounciation 
of the Letters in Welsh, dyd dyffer from the Englysh sounding of 
them : And I sayde very muche. And so they perceiuing that they 
could not profite in buildyng any ftirther on the Welsh, lackyng 
the foundation and ground worke (whych was the Welsh pronoun- 
ciation of the letters) desired me eftsoones to write vnto them (as 
they had herd I had done in Welsh to my Country men, to intro- 
duct them to pronounce the letters Englysh lyke) a fewe English 
roles of the naturall power of the letters in our toungue. 

And so than, in as much as I was not onelye induced wyth the 
premises, but sAao further perswaded, that neither any inconuenience 
or mischiefe might ensue or grow thereof, but rather the encrease 
of mutual amitie and brotherly loue, and continuall friendship (as 
it ought to be) and some commodity at the least wyle, to suche as 
be desirous to be occupied there aboutes. As for all other, euen as 
it shall neuer woorke them pleasure, so shall it no displeasure. 

Euen therefore at the last, I haue bene so bolde as to enterprise 
(condesceniUng to such mens honest request) to inuent and wryte 
these playne, simple, and rude rudimentes of the Welsh pronouncia- 
tion of the letters, most humbly desiring the Readers to accept them 
with no lesse benouolent humanitie, then I hartily pretended to- 
waides them, when I went about to treate of the matter. 

[10 Blank] 

[11] K The pronouncialion of the Letters in the Brytyeh tungue. 

The letters in the British tungue, have the same figure and 
fuhion as they haue in Englysh, and be in number as here vnder- 
neath in the Alphabet appeareth. 

footL, yoN, which was not pronomiced in ^ Thus printed in the original ; the 

the sustained form See p. 166, 1. 24, word h i(t no: been identified. Wright 

for Cotgnve's account of this phrase, quotes William d • Shoreham for kepe 

Salesbury does not recognize (j, w) as nenu, pay atti'nion. — Diet, of Obs. 

ditferent from (i, u), but 1 have always and ProT. English. 
ned (j, w), as the difference of ortho- 
graphy is merely theoretical (p. 186). 



salesburt's wbubh pronunciation. Chap. Ym. i 1. 

A. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. ff. g.* h. i. k.' 1. IL m. n. o. p.* r. 
8. t. th. V. n. w. y.* 

^ w. in auncient bookes bath the figaie of 6: and perhaps 
because it is the sixt yowell.' 

1[ These be the vowels. 

a e i u w y. 
These two vowels 

a. w. be mutable.* 

^ The diphthonges be these, and be pronounced 
wyth two soundes, after the verye Greeke pro- 

Ae ai au aw ay 
ei ew 

ia ie io iw 
oe ow oy 
^ These letters be called consonauntes ; 

b. c. ch. d. dd. f. g. ff. k. 1. U. m. n. o. p. r. s. t. th. v. 

[12] H An aduertisment for Writers and Printers. 

% Ye that be young doers herein, ye must remember that in the 
lyncs endes ye maye not deuide these letters chf dd, ff, U, th : for in 
this toungue euery one of them (though as yet they haue not proper 
figures) hath the nature of one entiere letter onely, and so as vn- 
naturall to be deuided, as h, e, d, f, or t, in Englysh. 

^ The pronounciation of A, 

A, In the British in euerye word hath y« true pronounciation of « 
in Latine.® And it is neuer sounded like the diphthong a«, as 

^ Here the modem Welsh alphabet 
introduces ng = (a). 

* Not used in Modem Welsh. 

3 "Here ph (f) is introduced in mo- 
dem Welsh but only for proper names, 
and as a mutation of p, 

* Salcsbury's explanations gire the 
foUovring values to these letters, — 
A aa a, fi b, C k, CH kh, D d, DD 
dh, E ee e, F V, FF f, G g, NG q, 
H H, I ii i, E k, L 1, LL Ihh, M m, 
N n, 00 0, Pp, PH f, R r, 8 8, T t, 
THth, Vv, Uy, W u, Y y. The 
pronunciation of the Welsh U and Y 
will be specially considered hereafter. 

* This is of course merely fanciful. 

* The vowel o is also mntable: 
** Compare the German Umlaut^ thus 
bardd [sacerdos], pi. beirdd ; com 
[cornujf pi. cym \ dwm [pugnns], pi. 

"* This is by no means a complete 
list of modem Welsh diphthongs, and 
no notice has been taken of the numer- 
ous Welsh triphthongs. The Welsh 
profess to pronounce their diphthong! 
with each vowel distinctly, but there 
is much difficulty in separating the 
sounds of ae ai au ay from (ai), and tip 
from uw (iu, yu), oe^ oy fall into (oi), 
and ei sounds to me as (ai). In la w m 
initial, Welshmen conceive that they 
pronounce (ja je jo), and similarly in 
M7t, try thev believe they say (wi, wy). 
This is doubtful to me, because of the 
difficulty all Welshmen experience, tl 
first, in saying ye woo (ji wuu), whidi 
they generally reduce to (i uu). 

^ That is the Welsh pronounce Latin 
a as their own a. Wallis evidentlT 
heard the Welsh a as (a^se, as), snpim 
Pi 66, 1. 18. Compare p. 61, note. 

Cmaf. vin. i 1. salesbury's welsh pronunciation. 747 

the Frenchmen sonnde it commyng before m or n, in theyr toTingae,' 
nor 80 fiiUy in the mouth as the Germaynes sound it in this woord 
wagen : ' Ne\ ther yet as it is pronounced in English, whan it 
oommeth before ge, Uy shy tch. For in these wordes and such other 
in Englyshe, domage, heritage, language, ashe, lashc, watch, calme, 
call, a is thought to decline toward the sound of these diphthonges 
4N, aUy and the wordes to be read in thys wyse, domaige, heritaige, 
langoaige, aishe, waitche, caul, caulme.' But as I sayd before a in 
Welsh hath alwayes but one sound, what so euer letter it folow or 
go before, as in these wordes ap, cap, whych haue the same pro- 
noonciation and signification in both the tongues^ 

[13] Much lesse hath a, such varietie in Welshe, as hath Aleph 
in Hebrue (which alone the poynts altered) hath the sound of 
euerye vowell.* Howbeit that composition, and deriuation, do oft 
tymes in the common Welsh speache chaunge a into 0, as in these 
wordes, vnweith [semel] aeithfed [septimus]. So they of olde tyme 
tamed a into e or at in making their plural number of some wordes 
reseruing the same letter in the termination, and the woord not 
made one Billable longer, as apostol [apostolus], epestyl [apostoli] : 
eaeth [servus], caith [servi] : dayU [dens], daint [dentes], map 
[filiusj, maip [filii] ; sant [sanctus], saint [sancti] : tat [pater J, 
iait [patresj, etc., where in our tyme they extend them thus, apos- 
idwHy or aposiolieity caethion : dannedd or dannedde : maibiony santU 
or ieinie : taidie or tadeu. But now in Northwales dairU & taid 
are become of the singular number, taid [avus] being also altered 
in signification Neuertheles e then succeedcth, & is also wrytten 
in the steede of a : so that the Reader shall neuer be troubled 

^ The sound of B. 

B in Welsh is vniuersally read and pronouced as it is in Eng- 
lyshe. Albeit whan a woorde begynneth wyth 3, and is ioyned 
wyth moe woordes commyng in a reason, the phrase and manor of 
the Welshe speach (muchc like after the Hebrue idiome) shal alter 
the sound of that 3, into the sound of the Hebrue letter that they 
call Beth not daggessed, or the Greek Vetay* either els of v being 
consonant in Latine or English: as thus where as &, in thys 

1 Saprji p. 143, 1. 1, and p. 190. 

' Meant to be sounded as (vo^g'en, 
fMihg'en, TAAg'en)? The ordinary 
pronunciation of modem 8axony 
founds to me (bha<i^h'en) 

* Probably (duro-aidxh, Hcrttaidzh, 
laqiraidzh, aish, waituh, kaul, kaulro). 
For the change to at see pp. 120, 190 ; 
for that to aif see pp. 143, 194. 

^ l*robabIy ap means ape\ it does 
Bot occur in Saleebury's own diction- 
ary, but he has '* ab ne ti'ik nb An ape,** 
iDd ** leap a cappe." The word tiak \m 
meant for (ihakj,and (shak) for (dzhak). 

The Welsh now sometimes pronounce 
9% as (sh), as eei»%o petere (kai'sho^, 
and they use it to represent English 
(sh, tsh, zh. dzh), which sounds are 
wanting in their language. Hence the 
paiisage means (ab ne dzhak-ab), an 
ape or a Jack -ape, as I learn from Dr. 

^ As aUph is only (]) or (;) in point- 
ed Hebrew, (p. 10,) it has no relation 
to any Towel in particular. 

* The Qreek 3* is called (vii'ta) in 
modem (ireek (pp. 618, 624). Salee- 
bury seema to have pronounced (?ee*ta). 



Bo doe thsM welib words 
nwif , eutieul, vimm, wbieh 
be dtnioed of euUlut, at- 

Walahe [14] word Jy# a fynger, u th« 
primitiuo (or if I should borow the Hebroa 
tenne) the radical letter, which cammingin 
the context of a reason, shall not than b« 
calle d i, hut e, as in thys t«xt: «' ry* hia 
finger. And sometyme b aholl ho turned into m, ae for an example: 
vyinyi my fynger ; dengmkvydd for dechlwydd, ton yeare old. And 
yet for all the alteration of thys letter b, and of diuera other (aa 
ye shall perceyue hereafter) whych by their nature be chaungeablo 
one for an other, it shall notbyng let nor hynder anye man, &om 
the true and proper readyng of the letters bo ultercd. 

For as soone as the ydiome or proprietie of the tungue receyueth 
one lettfer for an other, the radicall ia omitted and left away : and 
the acceeaorie or the letter that commeth in steede of the radical, ia 
forthwith written, and so pronounced after hia own naturu and 
power, aa it ia pLiyne inough by the former example. "Whych rule, 
wrytyng to the learned and perfectly skyllcd in the idiomc of the 
tongue, I do not olwaycs obseruu, but not vnblamed of some, but 
how iuatly, let other some iudge. 

Prouided alwayea that such transmutation of letters in spcakyng 
(for therein consisteth all the diffleultie) is most diligently to be 
marked, obserued, and taken hede vnto, of bim that ahall delite to 
ipoake Welsh a right' 

^ How C. M pronounced. 

C nakctb k, for look what power hath e in Englishe or in Latine, 
when it commeth before a, o, u, that same shall it bane in 
Welshe [16] before any vowell, diphthong, or consonant, whatsoeuer 
it be. And as M. Melanckthon offinncth, that c. k. g. had one sound in 
times past wyth the Latines : so do al such deducted wordes thereof 
into the Welsh, bcare witnes, aa, accen of onvntii, Caisar Ceuart, 
cicut of cieuta, cist of citltt, croc of cruce, raddic of radio, Luc of 
Xuca, Hue also of luM, Lluci of Lueia, llucem of lucerna, Mauiic of 
Mauricio : natalio of nalalieiit. 

How be it some of our tyme doe vse to wryte A. rather than e. 
where Wryters in tymes past hauc left e. wrytten in thi'ir auncient 
bookes, specially before a, o, u, and before all maner cunsoaantes, 
and in the latter end of wordea. Also other some there be that 

the Welsh (and C«ltio lan^iges sDnerallT) 

iiiU bavo tbree, some twu. and same only 

hich Chcj hsTu Ui be lued du not teea. 

general principle. The maiatioiu in WaUv 

are a great peculiarily. Somu cod 

one muUlion, and the occasioriB o 

oapabli! of being reduced to a g 

are aa follows:— 

™«( t d g 

natal mh nh ngh 
atpirsti ph th ch 

Tho (■) indicstea the entire low □ 

ts s«fr gOBt, rfji fl/r thy gi.ot ; mh 

»gk »re not (mb. nh. gh). but (ma 



Constnictift is taken here 
for the ioyning: toother of 
wordes ouerwise called a 
reason. Carw is the ab- 
solut word. 

flonnd now 0, as y, in the last termination of a word : Example, oc 
[juYentas], eoe [moles], Uoc [agger] : whych be most commonly 
'wd, (y, cog, Uog} 

Furthermore, it is the nature of (;. to be turned into eh^ and other 
whyles into g. But I meane thys, when 
a word that begynneth wyth e, commeth 
in construction as thus: Carw a Hart, 
Bovie a' Charw, a Hynde and a Hart. 
Either els when e. or k. (for they be both 
one in effect) is the fyrst letter of a word 
that shall be compounded, as for an example, Angraff, angred, 
mgriit, which be compouded of an and of eraff, crsd, Christ.^ 

% 2^ Bound of Ch. 

Ch doth wholy agree with the prononnciatio of eh also in the 

Qermayne* or ♦Scottyshe* toungue, of 

the Greeke Chy,* or the Hebrue [16] J^^^^^^ " the Scotishe 
/>! ji • i» 1 • "CI ^' x. 1 A J 'f Scnueners oDseme, as 

Cheth^ or of gh in ^English.' And it richt, mycht, &c. 

bath no amnitie at all wyth ch in Eng- 

lysh, except in these wordes, Mychael, Myehaclmas,^ and a fewe 
Bach other, ch also when it is the radical letter in any Welsh 
woordc, remayneth immutable in euery place. But note that their 
tongue of Southwales giueth them to sound in some wordes A onely 
for eh* as hwech, for chtweeh [sex], hvvaer for chwaer [sororj. 
Further eh sometyme sheweth the feminine gender, as well in 
Yerbes as in Nownes, as ny thai hon y chodi fnon digna ilia quse 
leTetur] : y char hi [amator illius mulicns] : lor if the meanyng 
were of any other gender, it shuld haue been sayd i godi and 
not • ehodiy t gar, and not % char, &c. 

f ThcioundofD. 

D is read in Welshe none other¥ry8e then in Englyshe, sauyng 

onelye that oftentymes d in the fyrst syllables shalbe turned 

into dd^ resemblyng much Daleth the Hebrue d}^ And sometyme 

^ Mr. E. Jones observes that ** this 
tt in accordance with a general ten- 
dency in modem Welsh to nse the 
medial for the tenuis." Dr. Davies 
dimbts this tendency. 

* The modem Welsh forms are 
mmghraf hebes, annghred infidelitas, 
mmghrist anti-Christus. 

* Where it has really three sounds 
(ih, kh, ktrh) dependent on the pre- 
eeding yowel (p. 63). Probably Sales- 
hory only thought of (kh). 

^ The Scotch words cited in the mar- 
gin, are pronounced (reArht meArht). 

* The modem Greek Xf according to 
one account 1 received, is always (2h), 


(kh), but Prof. Yaletta (p. 61' 
t. 2) used both (A:h, kh). 
* Th« Hebrew n and 3 are by Euro- 

peans confounded as fkh); taking the 
Arabic pronunciation 01 the correspond- 
ing r> ^ they are (A, krh). 

7 This therefore confirms the exist- 
ence of a sufficiently distinct (kh) in 
EngliBh, which may have been ocoa- 
siousdly (4;h). 

* It is not to he supposed that eh in 
these words was (kh) at that time. But 
the text certainly implies that the eh 
was not (tsh), and was therefore pro- 
bably (k) as at present. All that is 
meant, then, probably, is that (kh) is 
more like (k) than (tsh). 

* The modem use in South Wales 
is to say (wh) initially for (ku^h), as 
(whekh) for (ku^hekh). 

w Hebrew ''ll =(d,dh). 



when a word begynnyng wyth rf, is compoiinded wyth an : 
ehall alyp awuy, ub anann [in-donum] of an [in] and dMfHt 
[donum] ; ameth [in-doctus] of on [in] and doet/i [doctiiB]. 

J)d ia nothing lyke of pronounciation to dd in EngljTh or Latme. 
For the double dd in Welsh hath the very same sound of dhtlta^ 
or dhaUlh, dashed wyth rapht,'^ or of d betwyxt .ij. voweb in the 
Hispaniah tongue,* eyther els of (A, as they be coraonly sounded in 
these Englysh wordes, the, that, thys, tbyne.* Neither do I meane 
Dothyag lease then that dd in WoMc is sounded at any tyme [171 
after the sound of th these wordeaof Englisbe, wyththynne, thanle* 
But ye shall (yndc in olde wrytten Englysh bookes, a letter faauing 
the ^guro of a Eomayae y, that your auncesters called dhom, whych 
■was of one cfflcacic wyth the Welsh dd.' And this letter y' I 
Bpeake of, may you see in the boote of the Sermon in the Englyshe 
Saxons tonge, which the most reuerend father in God D. M. P, 
Archbishop of Canturitiri/ hath lately set forth in prynt.' And 
thcr be now in some countries in England, that pronounce dd euen 
An ingtrumet '° these wordcB "addt*, feddtr," according as they 
of a Cooper ^ pronouoed in the Welsh. And ye must note 

that dd, in Welsh is not called double dd, neither 
is it a double letter (though it scemeth so to b«) wherefore it doth 
not fortiiy nor harden the siUable that it is in, but c^useth it to 
be a great deolc more thyckc, soft, and smoothe. For he that first 
added to, the second d, ment thereby to aspirate the d,' and signifie 
that it should bo mote lyghtly sounded, and not the contrary. 

' If the Sponith d in this plate i* 
not true (dli), it ii lo like it that 
SpRniards hear English (dh} a» th«t 
Bound, and English that sound a* (dh). 
Don Mariano Cubi i Soler. a good 
linguist, who Rwkn English remarkaU^ 
well, in his Nuero SiMtiaa . . . yar* 
pnmaatiar , , . I» 

■ Modem Greek S is (dh). This, 
and the sound given ahore to (p. 717 
note 6), shews that the present modern 
Greek system of pronunoiation (p. 623) 
was then prcrnlent in England, see 
Dp, a20-S30 and notes. Su Thnmu 
Smith's book, edioeating the Eraitniian 
■ystom of pronouncing Greek, vas not 
published till 160H. a year after this 
■eeond edition of Salesbury's book. 

' "Formerly, when Htlgetk was not 
found in snv of the nD31]3 leltera. a 
maik called rtgl Sn-phi, waa pbiced 
aboTe it, in order to shew that the point 
had not beep omitted b; mistake. 
With the ancient Syrians this was no- 
thing more than a point made with red 
ink. The Hebrews probably wrote it 
in the same way: but. as this point 
miglit be mistaken for the vowel 
KkSUm, when printed, or, for one of 
tlie aceenta, the form of it was altered 
for a short line thus (-), which is still 
fbimd in tha Hebrew nanusmpta, 
though Yory rarely in printed books." 
8. Lit, Grsjnmar of the Hebrew Lan- 
guare, Srd edit p. £1, Hence *l with 
rflpir was equiTalcnt to the ordinary 

1 .(dk). 


sound may be (c), p. 4. 

• Pronounced {dhe, dhat, dhia, dhein). 

• Pronounced (with, thin, thaqlt). 

• This alludes to the common prae- 
tica of piintinB y for ]>, which letur 
is usually colled (thorn) not (dhom), 
but see p. fi41,notc 2. 

' As this was GrM written in 1£S0, 
the Archbishop most haTe been Cran- 

' AidU additu, now written a4tt, 
is generally called (»dz). FedJtr it 
perhaps meant for /rather (fedhi] bnl 
may ht-faihcr, provincially (fce-iUij). 

> The Welsh has iM, ' ff, II (dh, C 
Ihh], all meant as so-called aspirsljiuu 

CBip. vni. 4 1, salksboby's wklsb pbonunciation. 


Bnt I tbynkc it had be easier, more meete, and leasts straunge to 
the Reader, if that he had put A, after the former d, in a aigne 
of asperstion, thun to adde an other d thereto. 

And as it semcth it in not passing three or foure C. ycarca ago, 
lynce they began to douhle their d, for before that tyme by lykely- 
kwde they vsed one constant maner of prnnouaciatiDa of their 
letters euen as the Hebrucs did at the beginning. 

[18] ZW also begynning a word, sheweth that it commeth in 
nmstructitin : for there is no woord commying absolutely that his 
fjrSt syllable begynneth wyth dd, 

Moreouer, dd relateth the maaculyne gender, as {At ddtuvraich 
•r M ddmyfTon) [illius hominia hraehia duo super itliu.s hominis 
pcctora duo] for in on other gender, it would he sayd, ^i deuvraick 
at n dwyron [illius mulieris, &c. at suprit]. 

ffmo E ought to h» lounded. ' 

E without any exception hath one permanent pronounelation in 
Wcbhp' and that is the self pronunciation of EptHon in Greke,' 
or of e in Inline, being sounded aryght, or « in Englyshe, as it is 
nnnded in these woordcs, a were, vvreke, hrekt, vvreate* 

And the learner must take good hedc that he neuer do reade the 
■aid « aa it is red in these English wordea, vrt, heUue : * For than 
by so doing shall he eythcr alter the signification of the word 
vlu>riu the same « ia so corruptly rcade, either els cause it to 
betoken nothing at all in that speche. Example : pe [sij siguifieth 
is English and if, now, ye rede it ^t. than wil it betoken this letter 
p, or the byrd that ye call in Englyahe a Pye. And so gevt is, a 
but if ye sound a as » reading it gvvi, then hath it no signi- 
■ theWelshe. 

least peraduenture the forcsoyd example of the "Welch or 
_e tong be somwhat obscure, [19] then take this in your 
mother tong for an explanation ofthat other : wherby ye shall 
perccinc that the diuereitie of pronounciation of e in these Englysb 
iroordes eabaeribcd hereafter, wyll also make them to haue diuera 
ngnificatids, and they be these wordes, here, pert, hele, melt.* 

f. TfiS) : uid Did Michel tod otbers 
W9 m ht (sh), (sapri pp. 409, 411) 
vlucb mm; eonaidui u an Mpirate 
•f h Of coune there u no upirslion, 
ttwagb the writing (dh). as Sulesburj 
M on to lora™!, hu iiiTm'n from 
oil old cTTOr. Compare the IccUadiD 
^/t U, in, Ar, All, taprit p. oH, 
I 1'be modem Welih e li, and leemi 


iMning («] of courae. 
(Weet, wreek iweek, breek, wrest, 

• (Wii, biliii] u ippuii from what 
nwdiateljr fuUows, 

' (Biii) wet or boer, (b«r) biar, (piirl 
Mr, (pter) pau, (mil) bed, (hmI) 

heal, (miil) meel = muddle r. (me^) 
meal, p. 79. Mr. Moiray saggvata 
that mml in the acnse of food consumed 
at one time. Gorman nnU. aga. mad, 
Scotoli (mirt) may haie bvcn (mcel), 
■nd wim( in the Mnw of flour, GennU 
mrU, aga. melu, Scotch (mil) may hare 
bren (miil) and that thc«e were th« 
two donndi Salisbury meant to dicdn- 

Cah. Thia ii k priori most likely, 
I Iho orthographies leaTe the matter 
in gntt perplexity. Promplorium : 


fariiitt m^ale of meate rfptinl, Lenns : 

IS grawndjn', 



An obsoruation far 
writing of English 
whych in pryiilyng 
oaaotao well be kept. 

Neither yet doe we vse in Welali at any time to write 4 in tte 
middle or last ailliibles, £ to leaue it vnspokea in reading : as it it 
done by Kheiia in Hebrue, or ba the maner of wrytyng and reftd- 
yng of the same ia accastomed in Englysh, as it shall be more 
manifeat by these wordes that followe : golde, tylke, pureue», C/up»- 
It/da : wherein (as I suppose) e m not written to the entent it 
might be read or spoken, but to molliiye the syllable that it is 
pat in.' 

But now I am occasioned to declyne and stray somewhat &om 
my purpoBC, and to reueale my phantaHO 
to youg wrytew of EngUahe, who (me 
thinkeUi) take ouer mucho payncs, and 
bestowe vnrequiaite cost (hauing no re- 
spect to the nature of the Englysh ending 
*) in douhlyng letters to harden the syllable, and immcdiatly they 
adde an «, whyoh is a eigne of mittigatyng and aoftniug of the 
syllable, after the letters so doubled, as thus : manne, viorsMppt, 
Oodde, vcette, cri/she, goodnesis, htmme, aetta : ' whych woordes 
wytb Buch other lyke, myght with lease labour, and as well for the 
purpose, he wrytten on thys wyse : maun, vvorihypp. Godd, veoU, 
Bvyth, goodneKs, htmm, nalt : or rather thus : man wortkyp, God, 
vcott, goadiies, hem, net. 

[20] -i^d though thys principle be most true Frualra id jit ptr 
plum, quod fieri potest per paueiora, that is done in vayne by the 
more, that raaye be done by the lesse : yet the Printers in con- 
sideration for iustifiyng of the lynes, as it is sayde of the makera 
to make vp the ryme, must be borne wythall.' 

Hmp F. it eommonly founded. 
F la "Welsh being sj-ngle, and v when it is consonant in "Welah, 
English, or Lntine, be so nygh of sounde, that they vse mosta 
commonly to wry to in Welsh indiSerently the one for the other. And 
I my selfe haue heard Englysh men in some countries of England 
Bound/, euen as we sound it in Welsh.* For I haue marked their 
maner of pronounciation, and speciollye in soundyng these woordes : 

' This may ba partly an etnlnnatioB 
of the variptiea of orlhographT in tba 
XVI th century in printed boalu, but 
will not cipUin the aenrlj equal 
varieties in miuiDBcnpt. I hate noWd 
St least Itt waji of apelling longiu im 
in Salcabury's own book : tongas, 
toDg«, tang, loangne, touoge. loong, 
tuugue, tunge, tang, toDg ; ag«. tongs. 

■ This a west eonntry. itill heard in 
Somersetshire and Devonshire. In 
early English books of the Wot of 
Englanii h is constantly used for /■ Wa 
also tind it in Dnn Michel's Kontiih 
dialect ISiQ (p. 400). Theiame plaosi 
gin alio I for f. 

eata the difference (meel, mill) in an 
•lastly opposite direction, hutasLeviog 
bii : Dale eel snqiiilla, beale heel tpi- 
JiHHu, dcalc declc porlio, he may bavs 
meant to imply that these words vera 
in ■ tnulsition state. The meaning of 
llie two words (miil, meel) then, intend- 
ed by Sslesbury. nioat remain doabtful. 

' The ullvr ritinction of the feeling 
far the Bnalr is here wtll shewn. Uow 
a s]>thibte can ba "mollifled" without 
■nj utterance, is nut apparent. The 
words are (goold, silt, pyyr'uea, 

' (Man. war'sbip. God, wot, wish. 

■ nuipruit fat nelte. 

(kAF.vni.fl. salesburt's wslsh pbonukciation. 763 

py rtWy dmigure^ vish^ vox : where they would say, foure^ fiu$f 
iiBUur$, fyih, Fox, &c.^ 

But who soener knoweth the soimde of the letter called Digammt^ 
(whose figure is much lyke F, but ouerwhelmed Eolicnm j 
tpsydedowue, as ye see here ^) he shall also know 
thereby the verye sounde of the syngle f in Welsh.' They of South- 
walea rather vse t^,' where Northwales writers commonly occupye/. 

f Theioundofff. 

ff In Welsh hath but the same sounde that the syngle/ hath in 
Englysh. And they are faine to rse the double ff for the 
lyngle /, because [21] ^ey haue abused / in steede of i^ a conso- 
nant. But in such wordes as haue p for the fyrst letter of their 
Qiiginall (for to keepe the orihographie) the Learned wryte ph^ and 
not ^ as thus, Fetr a' Phawl^ Peter and Paule. 

^ The pronouneiatum of O, 

O In euery word in Welsh soundeth as the Hebrue Ggmel:^ 
or ^ in Dutcho,' or as y in Englyshe soundeth before a, o, u. 
And marke well that g neuer sounded in Welshe as it doth in Eng- 
hah in these woordes, Oeorge, gynger.^ G also in Welsh sometyme 
(when it commeth in a reason) shall be turned into rA, and somtyme 
elided or left cleane out of the word as ^ . , 
ftn^ a chvveiy hynny fac postquam] ^n^ed'SlT SSy 
%§9vn ntrwad [satisfactio vel sanguis J : koch o^oad Olat 
n$ *la$ [rufus vel yiridis] : and not koch 
n$ glas : dulas [viridis nigrescens] of du [niger] and gloi [viridis]. 

And otherwhyle wordes compounded shall put away g, as these 
do, serlogWf dulaa: whose symple be these, tor [aster], glogvp 
[purus], du [niger] glas [viridis]. 

Also g is addea to tne beginning of such words as be deriued 
of the Latine, whych begyn wyth t;, as Gvvilim, gvvt'c, gvvynt^ 
Otvent^ gvvin, goaper of VyUielmui^ vieus^ ventuif Venta^ t^tnum, 

ICoreoucr, g intrudeth wrongeously into many wordes, namely 
•Iter 11, as JJating for Llatin^ Katering for Kath$r%n^ pring for 
prin [vixj. 

[22] Of the aspiratum of H. 

H In euery word that is wrytten in Welshe, hath hys aspiration 

in speakyng also, and is read, eacn as in these woordes of 

Englysh, hard, heard, hart, hurt:^ And therefore whersoeuer A 

11 wrytten in Welshe, let it be read wythall, and not holden styll, 

^ (Foov, feiT, di«fig*7yr, fish, foki). in low Dutch or Datch of Holland « 

* That is, when the sound of the (gh), or more nearly (grh, r). Snpri 
ficamma has heen previously settled, p. 209, note. 

Was it (f. T, wh, bh) P See supri e (Dzhoidih, dzhindzher.) 

Bu wloi note 3> a , , * ■w^ %^ ^ 

• " Not now B D " ^^"^ " common in French and 

* I s(ir) 3 = (gh) Italian. In endeaTouring to say (wa) 

• O mkiph Duteh or German gene- ^^J "*y fe*^)' ^^ *^^ ^)' 
aQy B(g) and occaaionaUyB^h, ^h), * (Hard, Herd, Hard, Hart, Kurt). 

754 salesbdry's welsh pronunciation. Ch*p, Tin, }I. 

as it is done ia French and Englysh, in Buch worde« aa be deriaed 

oat of Latyne, as these : honett, habitation, humhU, habiU.^ &c. 
Kxcept when A is setled betwene two voweb in Wplshe, wordes : 
for then it forceth not greatlye whether h be aouodod or not, aa 
in these wordes that followe: dtheu [dexleritnsl, AyAyr fmusculus] 
mthtin [ndept], gveehsu, keheu,* gvcehydd [tf xtorj, gohir [moni]. 6x. 

Moreouer, A sometime sheweth the gender. & somtyme the 
nnraber of the word that it is set before, as in this word, Ar y hael: 
Tpon her, or their brow. Further, A oflentimos is caused or en- 
gendred of the concourse of vowels, oi herwydd, for oi trvtydd, 
utd Bometimcs by accenting, us tiugarha, for trugard. Then be- 
cauB eA is not of the essence of the word, I Icauc it for most 
port vnwrjtten. 

TA* lound of I. 
I In Welsh hath the mere pronounciution of i in Latine, as learned 
meii in our time vse to soud it, and not as they y' with their 
lotacisme corrupting the pronunciation make a [23] diphthong of 
it, saying : veidet, teibei for vtdi, tibi. Hut looke now i soundeth in 
I^glysh, in these words, tinging, ringing, drinking, winking, nigh, 
tight, might, right.' So then i in euery syllable in Welaho hath 
euen the same sounds as « hath in Englyshe in these wurdes, pt>w, 
tee, three, bee. And i is neuer sounded so broade in Welsh as it ia 
in thj^ English word *!.* And besyde that i is neuer consonant 
in Welsh,' but eaer remaining a vowel, as it doth ia y* 
• Egn Germuyne tongo, or as Iota in the Groke. And because 
they that haue not tasted of the preceptca of Graramer do 
not lightly vnderatando what thys tcrme consonant meaneth; I 
wyll speake herein as playne aa I caa, for to induce them to vn- 
derstand my meanyng. 

Therefore when we say in spollyng ma, ma: % e, it : 
when i a gi g^ ,if . maieite : or J e, le : »»#,«« ; Jetus : now 
**''"''''"°^ in these two wordes, maiettt, and Jeiai, i is consonant 
vhsn I is ^'^^ when I spell on thys wyse : t per te t, o r k, ork, 
towbI. and wyth doyng them togyther, rcade tork, : then » 

is not called consonant, but hath the name of a vowelL 

' (On-Mt, abitea'sbuD, umbl, tbit). • Thai ia, never has the sonnd of i 

Seeabovep. 220. ConBonantory in English. thM is,(dih). 

» The words fucSeu, fuKtu, haye Saleabur)- neter thinks of (j) bk a con- 
not been identified. eonant, but only iw the lowel (."). Thit 

- ._ - - . muit be bome in mind in reading 

what followi. in which a cnrioui ex- 

nurse his argoment is perfectly wortb- 
eas. There i< * diepule. u abeady 
5 !''')• but oie some- mentioned, ooncemini the Weltb i 
i and aometimes the preceding another vuwel. Mr. S. 
olhBT. supri p. 113, note 1 The ^^^^ ^^ q, d.^ks both conridu 
(niTiht) and not (nei) or (ncikhl) aound Welsh i to be (j) to rach words i»vm 
of ni;* la bora pintcd out by the ,,„a, /j^. i„ EnglUh, Smith and 
^™'**'- Hart consider (j) and (i) to be the mow 

* Ueuing («i}. sonndi, luprk p. ISfi. 

Ciup. ym. { 1. salesbubt's welsh pronunciation. 755 

And therefore if ye lyst to reade ryghtly Welshe woordes where- 
in t is wrytten, an other vowell immediatlye folowing (for therein 
else is there no hinderaance for the straunge 
Beader) than must you harken how f (whych ? ^^^ '♦ "* *^? ^^^ 
I wryte for y) is sounded in these Englysh Z^^u' ^^ 
woordes : i-ane, i-arde^ ielde^ % elk, % elle, ieloWj & read as it is in 
MTtf, iok, ion^f iau^th, lorke, iau : And thoughe Welsh. 
theese woordes hee wrytten here [24] t^ow 
wyth 1, in the first letter of euery one, yet it is mcnt that you 
should reade them as the t were y, and as they had heen wrytten 
on thys fashion : t/ane, yarde, yelde^ yell, yelow, yere, yok^ yon^t 
yougtk^ yorke, youJ* 

Now I trust that the dullest wittcd chylde that neuer read hut 
two lynes, perceaueth so familiar a rudiment. 

U The sound of K. 

E Foloweth the rule of c in euery poynt, and therefore looke for 
the effect of k, where it is treated of the letter e. 

f The sound of Z, 

L Hath no nother differece iu soud in Welsh than iu Englysh. 
And note that it ncyther causcth a, nor o, when they come 
before it, to sounde anye more fuller in the mouth, than they do 
else where sounde, commyng before anye other letter.' And for 
the playner ynderstandyng therereof, looke in the rules that do 
Ireate of the sounde of a and o. 

And marke whan soeucr ye see / to be the fyrst letter of a worde, 
that eyther the same word commeth in construction, eyther else the 
woord is of an other language, and but vsurped in Welsh. 

A worde beginning wyth I hauyng U in hys [25] radical, maketh 
relation of the masculin gender, as yn y law in his hand : for yny 
Haw is in her hand. 

Item thys lysping letter / is now smotheley receyued in some 
wordes, contrary to their original nominations, as temestl for tempest; 
rrisel^ trtsclyn, for rrise or rriscyn [cortex] : pytnysl or pymystl for 
pemhlys [quinque digiti]: so named of the rcsemblace that the 
rootes haue wyth mans nngcrs : which is now better knowen by a 
more ynapte name euen Cecut y dwr^ and in Englysh Water small- 

Bo likewyse to this letter / a loytring place is lent to lurk in this 
English word syllabled And thus much, that the wryters hereafter 
maye be more precise and circumspect in accepting tiie vnlettereds 
pronunciation by the authority of theyr hand wryting. 

> I haTe not met with this form %y$ pronunciation of taU, toll as (tanl, 

•iaewhere, except in the Heng. MS. toool^, supr^ p. 193-4 

of C. T. T. 10. The sound seems to be ^ Apparently eicuta virout^ Water 

(ii^ as in the Scotch word ee for eye. cowhane. Water Hemlock, now spelled 

^ (Jaon, jard, jiild, jel, jel'oou, jiir, eegid in in Welsh. 

Jook, jnq, jnnth, Jork, juu). The or- * This, in conjunction with the pre- 

tkogmhy y<mgth for youth is peculiar, ceding, is meant to point out the i^lft- 

< This alludes to the old English bio (T), see p. 195. 


^ Of the atrattnge tovnd of double II. 

Li can not be declared anye thyng lyke to the pntpose in wrytbg, 
bnt onely by mouth ; il' yo the wyll leiime how it ought to be 
eoitnded: For (ilb it is sayd before of i^) so the second / b added 

Tide OtMlaiHtKdium ' ^ Bt«de of A : ' but looke bow Lamhda com- 
ming before Iota is sounded in the Greekc ;' 
eucn so pronounce we II in the Welsh. And if ye could hyt 
kyndely on the right and iuat pronounciation of Ih thus aspirated : 
not leauyng unsoiided the entire energie, and the whole strength of 
the aspiration : than shoulde not you bee forre dissonant Iroin the 
true [26] sound of our Welsh II. 

For the Welsh II is spoken the tongue bowed by a lyltle to the 
roufe of the mouth, and with that somwhut extendyng it selfe 
betwyxt the fore teeth the lyppcs not all touching together )bnt 
leaning open as it were for a wyndow) the right wyke of the mouth 
for tK> breathe out wyth a thycke aspirated spirite the same U. Bnt 
as I eayde before, and if ye wyll haue the very Welsh aounde of 

' JoBiiTieB <EcoIamptuliiia, thn Latin- 
iied Dime of Johaon Uaiisschein, (he 
refbrmcr, 14H2-1A31, who studied 
Greek onder both Rcuchlin and Eros- 
rntu, the teachers of the rival Greek 

» The Welsh « ii not (Ih) the 
whisper of (I), for in (Ih) the breath 
escape* amoothl; on hoth aides of the 
tongue, rud the tonnd maj be fre- 
qneail;r heard, with very litilo escape 
of breath, in French, tabU (Ublh) for') He p. 6% and in loeUndic, p. 
S. But for the Welsh II. one side 
[eeDemlly the left) of the tongue lies 
■long the whole of the palate to u 
entirolT to prereQl the passage of air, 
iatt as for the English cl'ck (i) p. II, 
by which we eicito bor^s, and the 
ucath is forcibly ejected (ioni the 
right aide, making it vibrate, B.t the 
same time thai tlivre ii a conaiderable 
rattle of saliva, thus much resembling 
(kh) or rather (krh), and the sound ia, 
perhaps for tbta reason, conceived as a 
guttural afpirale by WeLdi grommor- 
lana. The Welah » is n Toiceteaa or 
whispered consonant which I represent 
by (Ihh) p. e, the second (h) to the right 
tjpii^ing the ejection of breath on the 
right side, and the initial (Ih) the re- 
semblance of the wund to (Ih) which 
when energetic may be substitnlcd foe 
it without loss of intelligibility, al- 
though the Welnh ear immediately 
detects the difference. The tips may 
be fully open, or only opened on the 
light; the effect is «ntiray dne to the 

action of the t«ngne and is very peBU> 
liar. At a distance llaa (Ibban) when 
shouted sounds like (tlan). Thtre 
is no resemblance to (thlan) which 
Engli-hmea generally substitute for it, 
When the table of palaeotrpe irai 
drawn up I hod never heard the vtriced 
form of (Ihh), which for canveniencti 
may be written (/hh). It is possible 
also to have palatalised varieties of 
both, which must then be wriWen (Ijhh, 
/jhh). All lb™ forms with (hh) sua 
very awkward, but they are sufficientij 
distinctive, and the aouudi are veiy 
rare. In t 11 ynn|;elo di S. Matteo 
Tolgarizzato in dialcCto Sardu Sanares* 
dal Can. O. Spano accoiDpugnalo da 
oeservai:ioni nitla pronunzia di questo 
dioletto e sn tarj punti di rassomigli- 
ama che il mHleaimo pri:senta eon le 
lingne dette Celtiche, sia ne' canibi*- 
menti iniziali, sia nel suono della letter* 
L, del Principt Luigi'Luriaiio Boitt. 
pnrli, Lundra 1866, it ia slated tfaat 

J Ihh, /hh. Ijhh) occur in the Saidiniaa 
ialect of BasMri, and (Ihh. Ihh) is 
the dialect of the Isle of Mnn. The 
Prince pronounced all these soundi (a 
me, bnt he laid no alnas on thdr mu- 
lateral character, or rather disowned 
it. In this ease (fb, ifh) were Teally 
the Bounds uttered for (Ihb /hh), as- 
cording to Mr. M. Bell's views, Vuiik 
SpitcJi, p. S3, and Mr. Bell on heansg 
them, Bnaly^ed them thus. 

' Here Salesbury most probably 
elevated (li) first into (Ij) and thsB 
into (Ijh}, Sm also p. 6i6, n. I. 

CaiF. Tni. i 1. SALESBTmy's welsh pbonttnciation. 


fkys letter, gene eare to a Welshmil when he speaketh euHtM^ 
whych betokeneth a knyfe in Englysh : or ellj/U a ghoste. 

The Welshman or the Hitspaniarde compose their moathes mnch 
titer one fiuhion whan they pronounce their //,' sauyng that the 
Welaheman vttereth it with a more thicker and a more mightier 
ipirite. The Englyshe mans tonngne when he would sound Uf 
ifydeth to tl 

The Qermanes lykewyse, as writeth John Aumtin, as we do now^ 
did in anncient time aspirate /, but pronouncing it somewhat 
hardish in the throte. And in an other place he recordoth that in 
M Charte|9 he findeth / aspirated, nameelye ia proper names, and 
after thys manner H L.* Thus you see how tonges though &r 
hane som affinitie in one thyng or other. 

The iound of M, 

[373 ^ ^^ Welsh hath such a sound as ye heare it hane in 
Englysh or Latine : but yet it is one of the letters that be 
duumgeable in construction as thus : mtry, moe, llai ne rrry, lesse 
ormore, mvrywvy, more and more: mal hyn, or val hyn^ as 
thus : megiB or vegtB^ as. 

The Bound of N. 

K Is none otherwyse sounded in Welshe then in Englyshe : but 
sometyme, after the Latine maner, whan it commeth before h 
or /I in composition, it is than turned into m, as ymblaen [coram], 
which is compounded of yn and hlaen : ampareh [conturoelia] of an 
in] and parch [reverentia] : ampovyll [impatientia], or an if pwyU 

N also 18 often times accessory, I mcane such as intrudeth into 
many wordes, namely beginning with c or /t, as vyncar [mens 
Gtnis] vy-car, vyndew [mens dcus], for vy^derv^ or vynyvv. 

And because in suche woordes it is nothyng of the essence 
thereof, I doc, but not without offence to some Readers, ottentymet 
omit the writing of it, thynckyng that it is not more meete to 
admyt n in our so sounded wordcs, than in these Latino vocables 
epiuMj maynust iynis, at what tyme they were thus barbarously 
loonded, anynus^ manynus^ %nyn%B. After this sort crept n into 
meBBanyer coming of mesiaye. By y^ like analogie pof anger (which 
I thynke no man doth so write) must be written for potayer^ and 
10 corrupt Portinyal for Portuyal.^ 

S28] But I will prescribe nothing herein, least of some Renussian 
be termed a Precisian. 

1 The Spanish // is (Ij)* "o that 
Saleibury uas elevated it to (Ijh), see 
piece<iing note. No doubt in attempt- 
iig to imitate it he put his own tongue 
into the familiar Welsh position, and 
took it for the Spanish. 

* On the 8{rs. and Icelandic hi lee 
mgtk pp. 613, 646. 

* Compare nightingale a^. nihte- 
gale, Lcffrington ags. Loofnc, passen- 
ger fr. pasfAgier. porrin^r quad por- 
ridger, Armin^r It armiger. popinjay, 
ola e. popingay, old fr. papegai. See 
these and othei examples of an inserted 
M in Mdtttter, Englische Grammatik, 



Tkt sound of 0. 
In Welsh is souudtMi sccordyng to the right sounding of it in 
Latin : eyther clai; aa the sounde of o is in these Enclyshe wordes : 
a Doe, a Hoe, a. Toe : ' and o neuer soundcth in Welsh ae it doth in 
these words of Englysh: to, do, two.' £ut marks that o in Welshe 
going hefure II, anundeth nothing more hoystous,' that is to Bav, 
Uiat it inclineth to the sounde of the diphthong ou (as it doth in 
Eu^ishe}* no more than il' it had gone before any other letter. 

TheMund of P. 
P in Welsh differeth not from the Englysh soond of p, lAt p cotn- 

myng in conHtmction foloweth the rules of the Hehiiie Ph»,* 
sauing that Bomtyme it is turned into h, as thus : pedtnar n«u ttmp 
[quatuor Tel quinque], for pemp. And sometyme p in composition 
U chaunged also into 0, as whun we say ymbeU [longe], for yaptU. 
And one whyle it ia left out of the compounde woordes : as whan 
these wordes : ki/mell, kymorth, be wrytton for iympeU [compello], 
kymporth [coraporto]. 

And an other whyle our tongue geucth va to sound it as it were 
an A, as when we say : ymhlt [29] ymhlvvy, ymhlai for ympU [?], 
ym-plevy [in plcbe] ym-plat [in pUatio]. 

But p turned into ph, makeUi relation of the feminine gender, 
as 0*1 phlant, of her children, gcvite % phen, the attire of her head. 

The sound of Q. 
Q Is not receined amog the numbrc of the letters in Welshe as jet, 
hut i Bupplyeth his rownie, and vsurpeth his office in enery 
place. And the Greckes are fayne to practice the same feste, u 
ye may sec done. Zue. tV and So. 16. where Kyriniott is written 
for Quirino, Kttartot for Caorio.' 

The sound of R. 
B Is Bounded a like in Welsh and Englysh, but r, in Welsh for the 
most part is pronounced wyth n^irution, especially being the 
first lettor of the word. And lor the aspiration h, they commonly 

• {Don. rem, too). In my obwrra- 
tioni of Welsh, Iha long Bad short o 
were invBriablj (oo, o). 'I he sounds 
(m, d) seem practically unlLnowu, uad 
not appredatcd bj Welchmen. Thut 
thete were also the EngliHb loiindii in 
the ivi th centory 1 infer m in p. flS. 

■ (Til duu, tun). 

■ Boyttnu, probably (buiat'iu) doe* 
not appear to be a miaprinl, but a 
moT« CDitcct fona Lban the modem 
tMiMnuu. I hv I'rornptiirium ha> boy- 
tMtu, the CHthoticon 6uilui, tlio Ortui 
Voc. iojiinw, I'baucer AoyiloM/ji 86B7 
(Wright readi buyitreiuly incorTeetlf, 
the r not oceoning in Barl, 788<, 

Cam. UniT. MS. Dd. 4. 21. has iou- 
loiufy,) and JD seieml other places, the 
Wjoliffite vureion has bOKloui; Math. 9, 
Iti, as painted out by Mr. Wuy on thi 
word in the I'romplortDm. The ongin 
■ecm! Ui bo tho Welsli bvyit wildnon, 
butyit savage, bicytlJU vild beait, 
bwyttui brutal ferocioua. which ac- 
DOunt properly for the diphthong in 
the first lyllable Mr. R. Monii i»- 
fen the word to bo^H, Welsb bint. 

* 'Ibis again refers to the Engliib 
Ml= (tooul). 



pat to r,' as they play by d and and J, enen thus : rrvvygwyd 
ffractus], rrodreB [vanitas], rrirtgell [miles], Rufain [Roma]. But 
the maner of some is to wryte one great capital! R (when it is the 
fyrat letter of a woord) for the twoo double rr. Also r serueth the 
tone that n doth in Englysh, that is to wyt, to be put betwene 
Towels meeting together in two sundry wordes, for to stop the 
Tncomely gaping in spech, as ye shall percejrue by these woordes 
of both the [30 J tongues : gr-avvr : a-n houre : for mother nature 
wyll not admyt that we should pronounce i/ awr, or a hour. But 
itepmother Ignorance* receyueth both r and n into some places 
where they are abused, as yr Llating, for y Llatin, 

f The sound of S. 

8 Sonndeth in Welsh as it doth in Latin : neither hath it two 
diners soundes as it hath in Engliahe or Frenche. for when it 
oommeth betwene two vowels in these two languages, it is so 
lemissely and lithly sounded, as it were e, as by these two wordes 
of both the speaches it is manifestly proued, Feisant a Fesant.' 

f The sound of T. 

T Lykewyse hath but one sounde, and that as the Latines sound it 
in these wordes : aiat^ tute^ tegit : Neyther do I meane that t in 
Welsh is sounded at any tyme lyke M, as some barbarous lyspers 
do, who depraue the true Latine pronounciation, reading amaih^ for 
§mat^ dederithy for dederiU &c.^ 

Now be it marke well thys exception, that t is ncuer read lyke e 
thorowout the Welsh tongue, as it is commonly read 
of Englyshemen in Latine verbales ending in tio^ as Exception 
pnmunciafiOf electio, suhiectio, 

[31] Marke also, that it is the nature of ^ to be turned into d, 
ana sometime into th^ and some other tyme it is so lightly spoken, 
that the t is quite left away, and there remayneth but the h in 
fteede of the t. But thys is to be vndcrstande when t is the fyrst 
letter of a word set in construction to be construed or buylt together 
on thys fashion : Na thric yuhy dwy avvr ne d<iir [No mane in domu 
dnas horas vel trt^s]. For before they be hewcHi, squared, and 
io3med together wyth theyr tenantes and mortesses, they lye in 
rude and vndressed timber after this maner of sort : JVa tryc yn ty 
iwy aver ne tair. Furthermore i in deriuation is 
left out of the deriued wordes or turned in n, that The absolute 
they myght sound more pleasaunt to the eare, as ye 
may take these for an example : chwanoc or chwaa 


* 2b r, that is, two r's, or rr. The 
Bodern form is rA, rather ('rH) than 
(rb), io that Rhyt ('Ku'^e) sounda 
■ore like (Hts) than (rts). 

* Of coarse "an hour" is the old 
form, and '^ a" comes from the omission 
ef n hefore a comtonant. The igno- 
mice is therefore rather in Salesbnry. 

' This occasions difficnlties in writ- 

ing the sounds of English words in 
Welsh letters 

« PaUgravc says of the French d 
thiit he sres *'oo paiticular thyng 
wherof to wame the lernar saue that 
they Bounde nat d ot ad in these words 
adultere, adoption^ adov/cer, like th^ as 
we of our tonge do in these wordes of 
Latine ath aihiuuandum for ad adiu* 
fKmdum corruptly." 



ff<M ; gvenec or gwnnroe mmtieeni or tnonpvmni : heinieu or A 

of ehvvant Qibido], gwynt [vcntus], monwtnt [monumentnm], 

luant [peetig]. 

f TAt sound of Th. 
Th Iiath the semblable and lyke sound in Welsh as it hath in 
Englysh in these woordes, thorovvt, thycke, and Ihynne ; ' but it 
is neuer so lythly spoken as it is commonly soundtd in these other 
irords : Ifial, thou, Mm, thi*} 

Moreoiter tk wiytttti for the (yrst letter of any worie, ehewoUi 
the same wooid to be than in conBtruetion. For there is no Welsfae 
■woorde standing absolutelye that hath th for hys fyrst letter : but 
(is hys natiue and originall letter, for the [32] which in oon- 
Btniction th is commonly vsed. Keither yet do wo vse to wryt« M, 
in any woord, and to reade the same as j or ^, as is commonlye done 
in these English wordes ; Tkotncu, (krone, threasure, Thauiei Inne : 
Th«Qiea la which be most uniuersally spoken alter this sorte : 

Totnaa, trone, treamrt, Diiuie* Imie." 
Item th Bomctyme significth the word to pcrteyne to the feminine 
gender, as Oi Ihuy of her house, othcrwyse said, oi duy, of hjrg 

Ths tound of V hting eontonanl. 

T specially being wryttcn in thya maner of fashion o, soundetli in 

"Welshe as in Englyshe or Laline, whan it is a eonsonant.* And 

it lightly neuer begynneth a woorde, except 

the woord be conslructed and ioyned wyth one 

or more wordea. For othiT i or m, being the 

originall or nidicall letter, is transmuted or 

ehauged (according to the congniitio of the 

tonngue into v a consoDant. 

But Latine wordes begynnyng with «, and vsurped in the "Welsh, 
ghall receyue g to their fyrst letter, as is declared more at large in 
the treatice of the letter ti, and sometyme B, as bi'nar of ricaritu. 
^ Th« tound of u heyng a vaweU 
But u written after this manner u, is a vowel, and soundeth ■■ 
the vulgar English people sound it in these wordes of English : 
tnut, hurn, bu>g, JIu[Zi]l'erdei.' But know well that it is neuer 
sounded in Welsh, as it is done in any of these two Englysho wordes 
(notwythstonding the diuersitie of their sound) ture, lueis.' Also 

There i» no woorde 
in welali that be- 

Einnelh wilh t 
eiag rsdicall. 

' (Thurodu, thil. thm). 
' (nhat. dboa, dhein. dhia). 
» ('lomas, Iniiiii) «co ncit Mction 
nnder Th [treezsyr. Davi> Int. 

• The asc of c is quite dJBconlinnpd 
in Welsh, and / is aiwuya used in iu 

* No dunbt that he meant the aonnd 
of (triit. bin', hij-i, Hilcerfen). 
(Tnit)«iiU oecun in Scatlnnd. Ihitl) 
nu ttca then man luuall; (ber-i) but 
ii the eommuD Sootoh now, and ^bii-i') 

rentains. Huimlai is probiblj A» 
brrldrn, hut I CRonot liod Bueh pUoe. 
There ii n HuhlKrilm in Soath Poa< 
broke, whii'h therefore mny btvt th* 
H pronounced in the Welsh maiuw 
anrt an Jdiirlim in North DoiMt 
les [ can And. 

tifyine the »ounrt n 

Hart ha» laiur) meaning («jjr).p. 1«, 

and Saleabuiy wiiie* mitTt wiA Hi* 



the Bound of n, in French, or ii, wyth two prickes oner the heade 
is Dnch, or the ScottiBh pronimciatiou of u' alludeth somii*hat 
nere vnto the sound of it in "Welahe, thongho yot nono of them all, 
doetb BO exactly (as I thynk) expresso it, as the Hebrnick Kubnts 

For the Welsh u is none other thing, but a meane sounde be- 
twyxte « and y beyng Latyne rowels.' And therefore who bo euet 
wyll distinctlye leamc the Wclah sound of u let hym once geue 
are to a Northcn Welsh man, whan ho speaketh in Welsh, the 
vordes that aignifie in English obedient (or) * chaff singlerly : 
whych be theae in Welshe, uvudd, iuuh.' AJid this vowell u alone 
■monge all the letters in Welsh, swarueth in sound &om the true 
IiKtiae pronunciation. 

ThjB u is more in vre wyth vs of Northwales than wyth theim 
of the South parteia ; whose wrytera abuae it, whan they wryte 
thoB, UN yn for y» un * 

The lound of W. 
V In Webho and Englyshe hath but one iygurc and power, 
though it chaunceth to haue .ij. diners names : for in English 
ye call it double «« and in Welahe we geue it the [34] name of a 

nw meuiiiig. pp. les, 172, and in- 
ed tbu pussage is Buffiiient to «hew 
•t he did not mean (»yiir). Saiilh 
d BaUokur botli giro (luk). 
■ ■" ■ ' r Ibe Bound of (vy), 

Dt there are occncionnl 
of Mond, but Dot sc- 
French (yj), German (ii). 

■ttbonzh >t 

h (ira), S 

h («). 

* Hi* of conne means that Salea- 
hny proDOODCod the Hebrew ^3i? 
Jdbbtu), generally conwdered ni (k) 
m the line way as WcUh u ; aleo he 
ihnri by writing Ibe name kubalt, that 
ka pre the tame toiind to the tint 
rani in the name, generally ideatiSed 
villi (i). This serial to abew. in con- 
JBuIioa with bii opening scatence, 
Ihal h» aoniid of WeUh u did nut much 
iffv from (i, i), nnd that where be 
Mi it for thti rep[e«i>utation of English 
Mndl, he certainly meant (i) or (0- 

* It ia difficult lo dclermine what 
HUlli the Wdsbman gave to Latin 
K y, bccauw thiwe ue prcciiely the 
Wtlifa Towcll about which there ii a 


Ity. The m 

be (i). By the Vindneu or Dr. Daviea 
I had on opportunity of consulting 
tbrM Welsh Btudenls at the Itejfenfa 
Park CoDege about the Welsh u, y. 
The sound of » in Bute appeared to 
be (0. in lleicyrehu it was not distin- 
guiabable from (i), in dtthnuad, git- 
UuHi, I could not diatinguiBh the diph- 
thong eu tima the EngliBh (ai), thaa^ 
the BOund of «t in gair wu du- 
tinutly (ai] and accaiionalty (oai), 
but at, at, au were nearly if not 
quite indiatinguii^bable ; at moet (ai, 
ii, ai) would mark the distinction*. 
I underalood from Dr. Darius that the 
theoretieal pranunciBtJan of u ww (y), 
and that in Bolemn dcclaniBtion on at- 
tempt was made to preserve the sound, 
but that QBUolly ii became (ii, i) or 
even (I'j. This i> perfectly similar to 
the common German aubstilntion of 
(ii) for (yy) in the prouonciatiou of 
their u, an alteration never made in 
French. In Danish and Swedish the 
y, tbeo ■ ■■ 

'tr, would lead us to suppose that 
Ul ]>tin H was (u], as it wua diSerent 
fron the WeLib ; but itbat his Latin 
>, property (j), may have been, cannot 
M Mid. jusnining. however, that it 
VM (i], then the mean sound onght to 

practically i 

I'dh, liiin) which latter i 
perfectly caiT to English organs, 
intelligiblB throughout Wales, 
This refers only to tha orthogi^hy. 



sjn^ld u but than soimdyng it after the Latine proDuctatio or f^ 
as you DOW soundo your oo.' 

But the lesser Greeke o ioyned togyther wyth the Greko y made 
If diphthong,' or Hehraio Vau cum pvmto tchurei i» ventre,* either 
00 in these Kng liali vocables : bouke, looko, boorde, woorde,* ehall 
rather expresse hjB name, than hys proper nature. 

But hya owne power, and peoulier office in Welshe, shall there 
no letter nor letters more precisclye set it forth than the w it selfe, 
or 00 wyth the Englysh pronunciation. For all tboaghe the Ger- 
maynes vse a vt yet in some wordes soundc they it (to my hearing) 
as the forther u were a vowel, and the latter o consonant,* wher 
we the Britons sonnde both vv wholy togyther as one vowell, wyth- 
out anye seuerall distinction, but beynge alwayes eyther the foither 
or the latter parte of a dyphthonge in Englysho on thya wyae : 
vyth aw : and in Welshe as thna : vvyth, ai^ven.* 

And though, as I sayd before, I fynde in som anncient writerB 
6 for w, yet in other I find ttv in words now vsually written w' r or 
/as eithaw, lor tithac or «ithaf. In which kynde of wordes, bycanse 
they of Southwales vse yet to kcpe y* pronuciatio of it, saying twely 
where we sayo tanlu or tafiu [jaeioj), I doe rather vse for the more 
indifferencle to wrjte v thmi /, eve that they may the more aptly 
TCBolue [35] it ""to their woonted vowell w, and we maye sounde 
the same after our moro consouaunt acceptation. But contraiyly, 
we saye deunydd where they sound devnydd or defnydd [substantia], 
and Eume corrupters donvydd. 

Tht gomd r>/ X. 
S Is not founilo as yet in the Welshe Alphabet : Por the Welshe 
epcache bath no neede of hys office : because that suche Walshe 
woordes aa be deducted of the Latine, tume their x into a, as doe 
these : »M, ui^ntia, etcemmun, ettran, bicies, mouao, esculio. Sat or 
Sait, which come of nox, extendo, sxeommtmicatus, extraneui, hUtX' 
tut, exeuio, exctilio, Saxo. 

romprchcnd, aai tho dlllicalty a in- 
CniBsed by the mtEprint o, for H or O. 
Bo divides <e, aa he printa it, into *v, 
which h« immcdiitcly colli ■«, 1ml 
which of thcM two leRera ho cotiridan 
"the further" and whicli Ihn "latter," 
IB nut plain. The heat I can make oat 
ia, thut ho benrd Gcrnisn a ns (tu), 
thua tBfl«n = (Toan), nearly (Yw«n) or 
perhaps (Tican). The lost ia oot a xeti 
inapt way of representing (bhao), laa 
ODD whieh 1 hare heoid f^ven hi manj 
persona, aa the best means of in^cating 
the sound of initial (bh) to English or 
French ippakers. 

• Here, in riiyM, TTi»inlhe"'fi>ttll«f " 
part, and in off™ in the " Iniler" put 
of the diphthong, which ought to mikt 
Suleahury's German i* = (n»), m 
(nTan), which being' diMyllaUo ii an 

' Hebrew pDltP (shunreei"), n 

^ (Buuk,lua][,bnurd, wuurd). Bul- 
lokai and Gill also jpie (Inuk] , the short 
ening of the yowel into [Ink) or rather 
(Ink) is quite modem. North country 

Konancialiun is stiU (luuk], though 
T. MelTiUe Bell anil Mi. MurTay 
eoniiider the difference between the 
Scotch and south country Bounds to bo 
merely qualitatiie, tho former (Ink), 
the kttet (Ink). Gill baa (wnrd), 
Bullcr (wuurd, wurd). BaariU wafl 
tho spelling at that lime for ioard, aa 
in (he rroiaplorium, Levina has board, 

d Butler pronouni 

* The meaning ol 



The englishc Scolen tongues 
be marueilouslj tormentea in 
soQdyng of the Greke i/psilo 
and yet atain not to the right 

f The sound of Y. 

T Is BOTUided in Welsh, as it is in these English wordes : y»^ 

8j/nnef ySy thynne, wynne.^ Nejrther 
yet as it is sounded of the commune 
people in anye of these two woordes 
followyng : vvyde, wynge} Also y 
beyng a woorde, counteruayleth the 
sygnification of ^^^ in Englysh, and 
of Z« in Frenche, or of the Articles Ha, Ho, in Hebrue and Greeke, 
as thus : y dyn, whose proper sygnification in Englyshe is not com- 
munlye vsed, except a man shoulde saye, the person : [36] but 
L$ homme shall well declare it to any tiiat shal be skilled iu the 
French : And by,meanes hereof we vse to expresse the excellencie 
that the Euangelistes attribute to Testis, when they adde the Greeke 
article thereto : whych they seeme aduisedly to do, omitting to 
write it when they speake in the name of the lewes or Gentiles. 

The sound of Z, 
Z In Welsh is vnknowen, in so muche that it was neuer placed in 

poesible. As Salcsbury does not recog- 
nize (j) he also does not recognize (w), 
hence try /A aw — with awe, is to him 
(nith au), not (with au). It is hope- 
lew to look for agreement upon this 
point of theory. Supra p. 613, n. 2. 

* (/n, Sin, tz, thin, win). There 
can be little doubt as to the pronuncia- 
tion of these words because sin^ thin, 
vifi^ also occur in Smith. Air. £. 
Jones remarks : ** I" has two sounds in 
Welsh, and it is the only letter that 
has two sounds. In monosyllables as 
djfn it is nearly =(e Eng. as deeu (diiu), 
in polysyllables as ffynion=u in but 
(don'ion). " On which Dr. Davics 
observes, "rather i in hi fit'' = (din ion). 
In the examination of this sound as 
pTonounci*d by the Welsh students at 
ttegents Park College, (suprii p. 761, 
note 3,) the word dynion seemed more 
like (dm-ion) than (don-ion), but I 
noted the following pronunciations, gyd 
(gad), yn y (on a), tnvyddo (truu'idho), 
ynddo (an'dho) bywyd (bou'i'd), sydd 
(liidh), lUtcytrhu (Ibheworkh-i), tywy- 
Uwch (tow,ilhh-ukhJ and (towilhh'ukh) 
in North Wales ; tnc words are all in 
John i., 1-6. According to Dr. Davies 
the theoretical sound in all places is {a), 
which ifl aimed at in solemn or stately 
style, but in South Wales the universal 
Bound is (i, t). In North Wales (a, t), 
or (a, t) are heard. The sound maj 
be (y). The sound (a), or (a), u 
quite familiar. Salcsbury evidently 
only knew om lound, and it b im- 

portant with regard to his English 
to be sure that he did not know the 
sound (9), which we do not find recog- 
nized in English till the xviith century, 
see p. 174. The following are the 
rules usually accepted fbr the pronun- 
ciation of Welsh y. In the mono- 
syllables dy, dydy dyt, fy, myn, y, yrf, 
ydd^ym, yn, yr, ys, it is pronounced 
fa), in all other monosyllables (y). In 
nnal syllables it is always (y). In the 
prefix cyd, and sometimes ctfn, as 
ey deist eddy eynoesoedd^ and in adjectives 
and adverbs prefixed as eryf-arfog, it 
is also (y). After m; it is generally (y) 
as gwynfydy mtcynhdu, bwyta, but to 
this rule there are several exceptiona 
especially if tr is short or follows a 
vowel, as ehtcymu, chtcyau, llewyrehu, 
tywyllu, awyddUy ewyllya in which it 
is (0). In all other cases not specified 
in these rules it is (a). 

' (Wcid, weind). The first word 
is clear, but the second is doubtfuL 
Wynge should = M?i«y, which was cer- 
tainly called (wi'q). There is a Norfolk 
word tcinge to shrivel, in Wright's 
Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial 
English, but that is probably (windgh). 
Most likely wynge is a misprint for 
vvynde, which, even as a substantive, 
is called (weind) by Bullokar, and 
(waind) by Gill. 

' The Greek v was originally (y), but 
was (i) at the time Sulesbury wrote. 
What he alludes to in this marginal 
observation is not dear. 



any Wclshe woord hytherto:' Neither needed I once to speake 
of it, but because I would put the reader vtterly oat of doubt in 
this behalfe. How be it, z may conueniently hereafter be vsurped 
in woordes borowed of straunge tongaes, euen that they keeping 
their orihographie, mayc the more apparantlye declare them * ' 
at the least, to the learned. 

0. seliu^^H 

0/the Ahhrematiotu. 

{Thia section hut ao interest.]. ..[37] 
[38] Annotation. [ThU alio hoa no interest] [39] 

[40] A hriefe reheriaU of all the ruleg before, with etrtayne otkw 
additioM thtreto yertayning. 

A oompnrijio of the pronunti- A la moat vnlyke of pronounciatioo 
itionof thclettersinWelshe, t^ the Hebruea AUph. 

t^. aTr,..'^'' •» -^. »*'"'!' r=«,»bktl,th.,,.to 
of Betk. 
C and K be not Tulyke in eonnd vnto Caph and Koph. ' 
Ch, ehi, eheth and citph wyth raphe,* be of one sounde, 
D soundcth as Baleth, Daghtuata.* 
Dd contayuetli the power but of one letter, and that of Dhelta, or 

of dhaltth not daggesMt.^ 
[41] E is much spoken after the sounds of the vowels Segol or 

J" and Stth wythont the pojnt Daggu or the Grek Ytta be oi 

in sounde.' 
ff (or) ph agre in pronunciation with tho Greke Phg or the J 

braick phe not jxjynted wyth Dages." 
G is sounde as Gimel or the Dutch g.' 
H and th' aspiration Be be equal in power." 
/ in euerye poynt agreeth wyth the Greke /o(a." 
L Lamedh, and Lamhdha, disugxe not in sound," 
Zl eountreuayleth Lambda comming before /d(<i." 
Jf Jf, Mtm Nun and J/y Ny diifer not in sound," 

' Hence in hia tmnicript of Englieh 
irorda tbe lound of (z) must bo pycn 
to hi» a when necessary, ae indicated bjr 
other anlhoritiea. 

■ 3. (l,)i.>|,P -(«)!• 
*|lp = [Kooph). 

» That ie 3 vrfthont the dageali point 

~* 1 = (d). » T = (d!i), ! = (dh). 

• b^lp = (aoogboot') is the ahort (e), 
( ma the aame. 

' 3 = {bb), fl = M or (bh), suprl p. 
fits. E. A. Sophoclei (Romaic Gram- 
mar accompamrd by a Chrcatumathf 
^thaTocabiilary.Hiulford, U.S. 1842, 
and withoDt the Yovabolajj, London, 
Trubner 1B6B) diatineUr asdgni (bh) 


as tbe modem pTononcUlua of A 
Trince Louis Lucien Bonaparte mm 
that thia ia a mistalco, Rnil that U« 
CcnEtautinopolitan Grceka inradahly 
aaj (t). Sue remarks on Icelandio r. 
Supri p. SI 9. 

■ ^ = <.!) 01 (ph) see lopri p. G13, 
note 2; B = [iih). 

' l = (g), Gennaii5 = (g) generallj. 
» n = (H). 

" "Except in being ocoasionallj * 
consonant iia (j).— B.D." 


" Xi= (li), ace abore p. 7S6, not« 3, 
and p. 7S7, note I. 
"Oi,Mr = (m,li). 


and Omega ahall sound as one.^ 

P doeth as well imitate Fhe and Phy in sound as in other conditions.' 

R hath a peculiar concinnitie with Rho.^ 

8 Samech and Sigma may go togyther well iuough for their tone.* 

T Boundeth as Teth or Tav dagesset m the Hebrew/ 

Th hath the very sound of Theta or Tav hauing no Doges} 

Fbeyng consonante soundcth as Beth wythoute Dagee or as Veta 

V beyng yowell is read as KibiUe and not much ynlyke vnto 

Fhath the verye sound TpBtlon^ 

^ What further concinnitie the Lettere in Welsh ehaue wgth the 

Oreeke Letters. 
[This only comes to dividiiig the consonants as follows :] [42] 

The thynne letters be these, c or it, h p 1 1. 
The thycke letters are these, ch ph U. 
The middle letters be these, g v dd. 

Of the sounds of ch^ g, i. 

These thre letters chy g, i haue neucr the 
like sounde in the Welshe tong, as they haue in 
these Englysh wordes, chere, gentle^ lacke,* 

[43] Of contraction vsed in welshe. 
[This section possesses no interest]. 


The obseruation of acccnte is it that shall do muche towarde the 
attaynyng of the natiue pronunciaton of any language, in so muche 
that somtyme the alteration of acccnte shal altcro also the significa- 
tion of the word, as in these woordes in Greke: I/eos^ Tomoif 
jfharos. and these in Welshe : gvvgdd, gvpgll, gwyr : and in Eng- 
liahe : these, differ^ prouidcy denye. &c,^° 

Chin welsh is 
bat one letter. 

' Ci=i{po) in modem English nro- 
ximciation of Greek, but (oo) in modem 
Greek, snpr^ p. 623, as in modem 
irelsh, where pob peth is called (poob 
peeth) not (poob peth), and tiie older 
Akglish, p. 96. 

* Fhe means & = (p^, but what does 
j»Ajf mean P It should be ^, but that 
has been already appropriated Ui ff = 
(/). Probably phy is a misprint for 

* The ''peculiar concinnitie" refers 

Shape to the aspirated form h which 
esbury accepts as his rr^ modem rA, 
BOW frH; rather than (rh). 

* D, 0* taken as = (s), as they were 
certainly then pronounced though the 
determination of the orinnal sound 
of each letter presents difficulties. 

* D = (0, A = (t), they are generally 

• a, n=(th). 

^ Supr& p. 747, n. 6, and p. 764, n. 7. 

• Kthutthsn is kubuU on p. 761, 
where see note 2. Greek v s ^)y for- 
merly (y). 

• (Tsheer, dzhentl, Dzhak). 

^ N^ot young, v%6s fresh land, fallow 
and the Ionic gen. of ravt a ship; r^ut 
a cut, a piece cut off, rofi^t cuttmf, 
sharp ; ^apot any large piece of doth, 
a cloth, sheet, shroud, cloak, ^ctpot 
lighthouse from the island ^Afot. In 
the first three words the Dosition of the 
accent mark causes a diflerence in mo- 
dem Greek pronunciation, (ne'oe, neos*, 
to'moe, tomo6*)hut both the latter words 
are (fa*ros). But the accent mark in 
Welsh is only used to indicate 
length, and is generally omitted both 
in printed books (even dictionaries) and 
wnting. Ch^yid (gau'fdh) ptftnrt 

salesburt's welsh PROSHNCLVTION, ChaT. VIII-J 

Certaym EnglUke wordei wher of ye may gather the WeUh» 

cialion of the letters. 

ArchangoU, Beyngo, Called, Michael, Discomfyted *J)de, Encr 

•Fillaynous. Fend, Gget Him, Itch I-eldyngc, Kest, 

Mtcrrth Laye, Mellctt, Murmurynge, Not Oner, Preuayled, 

'■^ ^ KfflUenyng, Horrible, Saton, Tormented, Thorowe, 

TJalJftnt, iJusines, Woithye, Yll.' 

Cartaine tcitrdea tohtrm the letters be most vnlilely sounded to JF« 

pronunination of them. 

[44] All, Combo, Domhe, Ceaaao, Cyue, Ctecke, Adder, 

Fyshe, Guador, Engyn, Humour, Honour, In, loundii-e. Fall, 

*OfijU, Reason, Season, Tfaomae, Thauiet Innt, 

The bUckB byrf That, Vnole, Ydle, Synging.' 


The eiffnification of A. in Wehh. 
[Thia liw no wferenca to prononoiKtioQ.] 

The signification of Y. 
[This has alsu no reference to pronuncintion.] 

ground tliat haa been formerly plough- 
ed) B weaver, gaydd (gwyydh) wooJ, 
or a WESver'a loom; gaytl (gna-ylhb] 
a hag, goblin, ghoet; gvji/ll (gw^lhh) 
«ludeififjii'(gan'yyr) obliqno, sloping, 
am aopri p. 726; jtrjr [gwiir) (resh 
TigorouB verdant. The English exnm- 

C' M are mora diffioolt ; dificr ie pro- 
bW difftr drjir ; prmidt in uuiuUl- 

ligible for oiilv prwtdt occuw, not 
prAvidi, tbongb we bate providml. 
Mr. Broclc niggeatx that priuich may 
ba meant for proved; dmyt only oocnrs 
•i dtn^, but dtnim- it lioth denitr a 
French coin, accented dealer' (deneer-} 
in 6hakepere,Illcbaid III., act 1, ee. 2, 
lut speecb, t. •152 — tbe other two 
paut^^ in whish it ocean are in 
proae, — and dmier one who denies. 


looks like mtlMl, but the I ii , 

in the GTcnnllo copy, it i« ponibly 

(ooT-er, OT'flr), prttaiUd (preTaild'J, 
rnvfniii} (faT-eniq), horriblt, (Hor-iVlj, 
Satan (eaa'ton), tommted (torment-ed). 
Ikonugk (thorn), valiant (val-jant), 
buiiniu (biz''nee), vKrlhy (wnrth-n, 

' Probably all (nnl). eomi (kuUKi) u 
a bill, dnmi (dum), hbm (sses), titeit 
" as water in a mW Machado,aclS,M. 
1, V. 6. 1623 ed., (biV), ohict (tAefc), 

ire probably an 
t the word it 

is explained in tho margin as the 6l»ti- 
bird, which answers to the aue^ll of 
Lerins, awtyi of Hutoot, the modem 
oiue/or Biart (uuz'el} is sometime* nted 
for a blackbird nurala valgarii, though 
more cotnmanly for the water onsel, 
dipper, water crow or pyet mmtU 

(reez'an), Kaum {seeEtm), Tiam— 
(Tom'aa), Thaviti Inn (Dat-i'i in], MoT 
(dhstJiMBpfa (nqk-1) or perhaps (nngk'l) 
see p. m, and note 2 ; idU (eS-l), 
(ain<kh iq) tiriffing bacauao {aivi^ 
doubtful; lay (Ui), would be like the VTelch sound oTdM 
...... \ _i ,^^_ 

' These words mim to be, Arehangrl 

likaly to be Spenser's word "which 
forth she kest,'' F. Q. 6, 12, 15, it ia 

ill ; lay (Ui ). 

I battered aiM 

Chap. YIII. { 1. salesburt's weush psonxtnciation. 


[46] .... ^ -4 generaU rule for the ready ng of FFehh, 

T Hongh there be diuera precepts here tofore wrytten of the "Welsh 
pronunciation of the letters, I would thinke it not oucrmuch dis- 
sonant, nor yet to wyde from the purpose, to admonishc you in 
thys behalfc, that is, that you ought not to reade the Welsh accord- 
yng as ye do the Englyshe or French, but euen after the reading 
of the latin. For in reading English or French, ye do not rede 
some wordes so ftdly as they be wrytten. 

And in many other ye seme to sound the Billables more fully 
tha the expressed letters do giuc. Which maner of reading is so 
vtterlye eschued in Welsh, as ye percejrue it to be exactly obscrued 
of them that pcrfitely reade the Latinc tonge : Nei[46]ther do I 
meano here to cal them perfite and Latinelike Readers as many as 
do reade angnus, magmiSy for agnus^ magnitSf tngnie, for ignis, santtUj 
for Mnctue, %awly for sal: eovvl, for sol: and for tnihi, meichei: and 
egotVy for ego: tuvv for tu : and quith ligithy in stede of quid legit, &c.' 
Therefore ye must leamo to forget such maner of pronunciation, 
agaynst ye prepare your solues to reade y« Welsh. Moreouer, ye 
ought to know, that* these wordes: dringo [scandere], gvcittgo 
[calcitrare], kynga [sermo], myngen [juba], anglod [reprehensio], 
angred [inhdelitas], and the most part of suche like Welsh wordes, 
hauing ng in them, and being of moe Billables then one, shal be 
red as these English wordes be (but ye must admit them to be red 
now as of two Billables euery word) Kynges, rynges, hryngethy syngeth : 
For euen as ye do not rede them Kyn-ge$^ ryn-ges, hryn-geih, syn- 
geth : but rather in thys wyse, Kyng-es^ ryng-es, hryng-eth, syng-eth :• 
enen so do we sound dring-o, and not drin-go : grving-o, not 
gwin-go: myng-en and not myn-gen. Albeit, yet as ng may be 
Bcucrcd and parted in this Englysh word syn-geth (but the signifi- 
cation nltred)' so haue we some wordes in Welsh (when they are 
spoken) in whom the sillables may bo seuered in ng, as in these : 
tm-gerth, Zlan-gwrn, tringyrch, &c. 

rrhen follow seyen entire pages and two portions of paces of a letter to Mr. 
CoTlingbom epeakin^ of the advantages to Welshmen of learning Knglish, the 
low itate of Welsh literature, &c., with many wordy digressions, and ending thus :] 

[64] But now If, Colinghomey least peraduenture, where I 
thynke my selfe but familiarlyo to talke here wyth you, and other 

^ Agnut magnus (aq'nns maq'nus), 
igntM (iq*nis), Manet tts (sant'us), Mai 
(hii1),«o/ (sooul), mihi (mei'khei) com- 
pare the present Scotch sound, ego 
(eg-oon, ejfu) we p. 744, tu (tyy), quid 
legit (kwith lU-dztth h). '* The Scandi- 
aarians hare lost the sound (q^), both 
nedial and final . . . Hence (q) is 
leg^nlarly represented by ng, or by n in 
nk^ or oy g in gn, according to the 
Germin school tradition (abbreviations 

like mang for magnus in the popular 
dialect). This pn forms a part of the 
receivrd pronunciation in Swedish, 
where the frequent combination gn if 
always assimilated to (qn), fonning 
an accidental analogy with the mn 
which arises from an original fn, bm 
pn F"— Rapp, Vhys. der Spr. 3, 241. 
• (Kiqz, riqz, bri<j*eth, siq*eth), 
' (Smdzh-eth) = singes, most pro- 


my familiars (as my meanyng is none other in doede) 

les taunter entermeddle and soy Tnto me, alludyng to that mocke 

oi Siogtnee, eiri Myndi partat ocdudire, ne guando vrbi VMtra 

egrediaiur, meanyng this therby, my good friend haue 

done 'nith your Welsh confabulation, hauo douo : 

I'or els your ioly prooemton, and 

your goodly pdrtrgon shalbe 

longer tlien aU your 

booke besyde. 

therefore at the 

laat I make 

an end. 


in the cpntral one of the four inner _. 

thieo outer openbgi ,1>etwe«D the hanu of the ureavmit, evidently referring to 
IWm 73, V. 7: ^y, ''TX'^ (ead b'lii' jareo'aA), so long at the moon eadtvelli, 
literoUjf , until fulure-of moon.] 


William Saksbury's Account of English Pronunciation, IJ 

The Welsh test of the Introduction to Salesbury's CictioDary 
is here reproduced literatim with all the errors, nuHprints, false 
collocations of letters, antique spelling, of the original, but without 
the long f, and in lloman type in lieu of black letter. Those who 
are intereated in antiquarian Welsh will prefer se^g it in this 
form, and will be better pleased to set it right for themselves than 
to have it reduced to form and order fur them, while the English 
traualation will enable the English reader to dispense with the 
"Welsh. English and Foreign words are italicised 

There are two perfect copies of this work in the British Musenni, 
one in the general library (628, f, 25), and one in the Grenrille 
Librai^ (7512). The volume is a small quarto, 7i by 5^ inches, 
including the margin ; the letter-press, without tiie headline, niea- 
BonDg G\ by 3| inches. It is in black letter, unpaged. The 
signatures are ; none to the first sheet, Bi. Bii. Biii. C.i. Cii, and 
then, alW a blank leaf, the signatures go from A to S, the laat 
letter having only 6 pages. The title oecupies the first page, and 
is in English only, ns follows : 

A Dictionary in Englyflie and Welilio moche necef- 
fary to all fucho "Wellhemen as wil fpedly learae the 
englylhe tojigue thought vnto the kyngea maieftie very 
mete to be fotte forthe to the vfe of his graces fub- 
iectes in Wales : wherevnto is prefixed a litle treatyfe of 
the englyfhe pronunciacion of the letters, by Wyllyam 


% Imprynted at London in Foder lane, by me lohn 
Waley(1547). Cum priuilegio ad I'mprimeruium solam.(',') 

Immedifltely after the title is a dedication in Engliflh only : " To 
tiie Moost Victorioufo & Redowbtede prince Henry theyght by 
ttie grace of God Kynge of Englande, Fraucee and Irelande de- 
fender of the faytUe And of the Chui'che of Englande and alfo of 
Irelande in erthe the fuprcame Hcddc bo al profpcritye in con- 
tinnaU honour," This dedication extends over three pagea, and con- 
clnde-s : " Touio poore and humble fubiecte Wyllyam Salefburye," 
Then follows the address to the reader, occupying five pagea. 
The beginning of each page ia marked in the following transcript 
by a black fignre in brackets as [5]i and in numbering tbe pages 
of the book I reckon the title as p. 1, and the bock of it as p. 2. 
On p. 1 1 commences the actual treatise on the sounds of the letters, 
and, counting the two blank pages at the end of the third sheet, 
on p. 25 biggins the dictionary itself of which the fti-st page is 
annexed as a specimen, shewing the arrangement in four columns 
and the many Welsh words left untranslated. Indeed, as may be 
expected, it is eitremely deficient, hut it extends t o 141 pages. 

Tbe English translation of the Welsh address to the reader and 
account of English Pronnnciotion was kindly made by Mr. £. Jones, 
of the Sibemion Schools, Idrerpool, and obligingly revised by Dr. 
Benjamin Davies, of Begent's Park College, London, one of the 
Conncil of the Philological Society. No attempt has been made to 
imitate Salcsbury's quaintnesa of language, but the meaning of the 
Votds is given as carefully as possible. In this English translation, 
vhero Salesbury cites an English word in the spelling of the 
time, it is printed in small capitals, his pronunciation in Welsh 
ehantcters ts subjoined in italics, and then the interpretation vrhich 
1 gtTB to that phonetic transcript is added in palaeotype in a poren- 
theeia, and when Salesbuiy gives no phonetic transcript, tbe con- 
jectured paloeotypic fonn la given. If Salesbury adds the meaning 
m Welsh this is subjoined also in Italics, and a translation of it 
into Latin is annexed in brackets. When Salesbury pvcs no traus- 
lotioiD the Latin is still added. Thus: "ladbbe ini-rfr (ladder) y*m/ 
racals]," give the old English spelling lAnoafi, Salesbur/s phonetic 
Welsh transcript lad-dr, the palaeotypic meaning of the some 
(lad'er), the Welsh translation of the original word gtcol, and the 
Tjh™ translation of the Welsh translation [scala}. Boferenees are 
added throughout to the page in which the passage is quoted or in 
vbich illustratiTe remarks occur, and these are Inclosed in a paren- 
%bm» thus (p. 61), meaning, supril page 61. This will avoid the 
atT of subjoining footnotes. After the specimen of the dic- 
- u added an alphabetical list of all tlie words of which Salcs- 
indieatea the pronunciation, in this or the foregoing 
ith a reference to the different pages in this book where it 
supplementing the references in the text. 



L 7 breauin. e 
(lurtot y btrniun j 
goa dduw. 

[6] H Wj-Uyam Salesburi with y darlloawdr. 

Onid odit ddnrllcydd bonheddigaidd nid anghysBylltbell vyssra 
dduigna a datclario pa lesaad pa vudd a phwy broffit a ddebai 
ir neb a dreullai ddim amser wrth ddallca a mc^f'yrinw or y llyfi-r 
hwn Oni byssei ddarfod or blacn i oniwchel- 
dub awn harglwydd Trenliin ay gynoor 
edrych amaw ai ddcrbyn eiftsoes yn lowedic 
gymradwy o help a fhachorthwy kychwynisd 
tywysogaeth at laith saesnaec A chan vod 
hefyd llywadracth kalon breiJiiii (vegys y kyttystia rystrythar Ian) 
drwy law ddew, yr hwn a gatwo cu ras yn hirhoedloc Iwyddionus 
ffynadwy Amen. Onid bellach i nessaii tu ar peth kyfrcitiaf a 
cbysaonaf yngan a sonio am tanuw yn j vaugre hon Sef er mwyn 
Kymbry or nid oes gantunt angwonec o ddyfyndcr athrowlythyr 
onid medry o vraidd ddew, ddorllon iaith eu maiaeu, ir hai hyimy 
yn vnio o ehwenychant Tegya y dylcnt vynny iyfrwyddyt i ddarlten 
a deall iaith Sacsncc iaith heddyw vrddedic o bob rhvw orenddysc 
ittith gyflawn o ddawn a bud'dygoliaetb ac iaith nid chwaith 
nnhawdd i dyacy vegys y may pop nasaiwn yn i hyfydyr dd3^cy eb 
edrych yn Uygat y boen nar gost ac yn angenrhoitiach i ni r 
Kymbry no neb wrthoi or esnculnset genyin am y peth : Ir hai 
an nyscedic hyny meddaf yd yscrifenned hyno wan[6jatra- 
voeth ac nid ir Eai tra chyffarwydd. Onid atolwg i chwi y 
Kei sydd a raowrddysc gcnweh ac a wyddoeh Rac mor werthfewr 
yw Dyscymwneuthur awcfa hunain yn ol ddull saint Pawl ympm 
peth i pawp A moeswch hefyd (val y dywuid yr vnrhyw Pawl) 
modd yr abwydir rhni bychain a bara a llaeth borthi o hon- 
awch chwithen yr anyscedic a mwydion ych gorachelddyec 
ac nid a godido wocrwydd athronddysc. Ac velly os ehwcliwi ui 
chudddiwch di-yssor yr Arglwydd onid i gyfranny yny gytie ir 
angenogion o ddysceidactha doetliineb ai pyliyw bethcu eroiU: 
Gobeitb.0 i dyry duw vnth ysprydoldeb vddiint hwytheu ac na 
sathrant val moch d'"! och gemau nach main gwyrthlawT ac na 
chodant ich erbyn val kwn ar vcdyr awch brathy/ Eithyr eth> 
eilwaith i ymady a chyfeilornson / ae or diweddi ddeiirea ar hysbysy 
a rilltau hanes ac ystyriaeth y llyfer yma Ac yn 
TetjriaeOi y gymeint nad ynt y Uytthyrcnnen yn vn ddywedUt 
^" ° ■ nac yn vn draythiad yn saanec ac ynghymraec : 

Yn gyntaf dim y ddya yn (latkan ac yn honnj 
Gain tljiyr. paddelwy dorUeir ac y trayther hwy yn ol 
tafodiad y Bason ac yno osamplen o eirieu kyfaddaa 
yn kynlyn/ A chwedy hynny y mae y Gairllyfyr ner Geiriawa 
saeanec 3m deehiy yr hwn a clwir yn saesnec an Englia di(^- 
sionary ys cb yw hyny kycnllfa o eirieu seisnic/ achoa ky- 
nulleidta o eirieu eeisnic yd jrwr boll llyfer hoyaoh / 
gcimiL ^^ y ^"^ "® dfliwch yn dda arnaw y ddys jn 

kadw order a threfyn ynto : o bleit ni cbymyaced 
dim or geiricu bendromwnwgyl ynto val y damwyniai rddunt 
eyrtMo ym meddwll or tro kyntaf : Eithyr ef adfeddylied yyth H 


[6] II Winiam Salesbnry to the reader. 

rdbly, gentle reader, it would not have been irrelevant to shew 
and declare what advantage, what gain and what profit, would 
result to any one, who should devote any time to reading and study- 
ing this book, but that his majesty, the king, 
together with his council has received it, as an AuAorisation of the 
acceptable and suitable help ."md dd for the thl''^auS:ritJ"'!; 
udaction of the principality into the English from God. 
Imguage, and because the inclining of the 
heaurt of the king (as shewn by the holy scripture) is firom God, who 
I pray may preserve his grace in long life prosperity and success. 
Amen. But now to come to the most important and necessary sub- 
ject to be treated of in this place, that is, for the sake of "Welshmen 
▼ho do not possess more learning than the bare ability to read their 
own tongue, and of those only who may, as they ought, desire in- 
itraction in reading and understanding the English language, a 
language at present renowned for all excellent learning, full of 
tal^t and victory, a language moreover not difficult to learn, 
▼hich persons of every nation acquire fluently, without regarding 
trouble and expense, and to Welshmen more necessary than to 
iny other people, however much we may neglect it. Por these 
untaught persons, then, so much elementary teaching was written, 
[6] and not for the well versed. But I desire of you who are 
possessed of higher attainments, and know how valuable is educa- 
tion, that you would after the maimer of Saint Paul, make your- 
selves all things to all men, and condescend also (as the same 
Paul says,) since babes are fed with bread and milk, to feed the 
ignorant with the crumbs of your superior knowledge, and not with 
the excellency of high scholarship. And thus if you do not hide 
the treasure of the Lord, but dispense it as opportunity offers, by 
supplying it to those in need of learning and wisdom, and other 
like things, I trust God may grant to them such a spirit, that 
they may not like swine, trample your gems and precious stones 
under their feet, and that they may not rise like 
dogs against you, ready to bite you. But now again Object of the 
to leave all digression and to begin to set forth the whole book. 
object and import of this book. Inasmuch as all the 
letters are not said and sounded alike in English and in Welsh, first 
^ all we declare and affirm the mode in which they are read and 
•oonded acconling to the pronunciation of the English people, with 
examples of suitable words following. After which 
the English Wordbook or Dictionary begins, which Name of the 
means a collection of English words, for the whole Book. 
"book is, indeed, a collection of English words. In q^^^ ^^ ^^ 
^hich if you carefully notice, order and ammgement Words. 
vie kept: for the words are not mixed belter skelter 
in it, as they might happen to tumble to my mind at first thought. 
^ut with constant reflection, for the sake of the [7] unlearned, 




Hodd y kefii 

mwyn yr a[7]nyacedio gy fry y vodd ac j darfy helkyt pop gair 
(hyd y deuei kof) yw von gyfaddas chunan : Ac veliy yr holl 
eirien ac / a / yn y Dythyrtn gyntaf oe dechreu a gymiUed i gyd ir 
vtdle : A phop gnir yu dechry a b / yn yn llythyr kyntaf u honaw 
a ossodet or netilltuy / Ar geirieu a c / yn en dechreuad a '«'a)umed 
liwytheu or neulltuy ; Ar geirieu a ddechreant ac ch, a ddidolet 
hwyntc ebunnin / A rhei a d / yn i kychwya a gaaolet ac a ossodet 
mewn man arall/ Ac val hyn y rayod y llaill pop vn i sefyll doo 
vaner i Captelythyr ddcchreuol / Ac wrtJi hynny 
pan chwe nychoch gaffael Saeancc am lyw aar 
-— -— - oj— itainberaec ; Yn gyntaf / edrychwch pa lythyren 
TO ynnechreu r gair hwnw yn anianol / o bleit oef 
a / ^-ydd hi / Hpiwch am tanaw ynplith y Bestyr 
eirien a vont yn dieclire ac a/ ac yn y van bono ar y gyfer yn y 
rhea o eirien soesnoc y keffwch Saxonaeo iddo/ Eitbyr gwiliwcn 
yn dda rhac ycb twyllo yn kam gciaio gair all an oe van briod 
gyfaddas/ vegys pe I keiaiccb vn or geirieu byn yr yetym ar 
agwedd y macnt yn gorwedd yn y ponill yma Jfiw t mi gangm dto 
o ytdwen Achoa ni wasnaetba ywcb wrtb geisio saeauec am (^an^«n) 
chwilio am danaw yrayso y geirieu yn docliren a g / namyn ymhiitn 
y geirieu a vo k yn y dccbreu/ y dylyecb ospio am danaw /ay 
Baeanec vydd gar i vron : Caays y gair kroyw kyssefiuydy w kingeit 
ac nid gangen kyd bo r ymadrodd kymraeo yn kyfleddf'y k yn g / ac 
yn peri sonio t/ val A I ah/ val v / yn y geiriey byn dee o vedwtft/ 
Ac am byny rhoit i cbwi graffy bytb pa lytbyren a to yn deohie 
r gair pan draetber ar y ben ebun allan o ymadrodd vegys y 
dangosseis Tchod/ Ac velly yn ol y dadawc naturiol dractbifid y 
mae i cb[8]wi gciaio o mynwcb cbwi gaol pop gair yu y gairll3ffep 
yma/ bleit vegyanaddysgwyl neb onidyniyd pan el i wiala ir 
koet gaffaol gwiail yn tyfy yn vn ystym y byddant wody r oJlio am 
gledyr y plait/ velly r vn modd ni ddiscwyl neb onid rby angcel- 
fyyd gafiael pop rbyw air yn y gairUyiyr yn vn ystym nag yn vn 
agwedd i ddywediat a cbwe dy i bletby ym- 
KwOTjOTwla parwyden ymadrodd/ Ac eb kw byn oU a 
^ yofj ddywedais ymbluenllaw/ Kymerwcb byn o gyngor 

gyd a chwi y Bawl gytary a cbwenycboch ddyscy 
gartref wrtb tan Saeanec / Nid amgen no gwybod o honawcb na 
ddarlleir ac na tbraethir pop gair saeanec mor Uawnllytbyr ac mor 
hollawl ac yd screfenner Vegya byn God ie ayth j/ou yr hwn a 
dractha r kyflredin / God biwio : A swm o eirien erciU a yscrifemp 
hefyd Hyw wJllafctt yntbuat yn tu ffunut eitbyr ni ddarlleir ddim 
bonunt or vn flynyt val y rbai byn or naill ddarlleyad bourt, erowi, 
trow* ar hain a ddarlleir bo bwa ; kro / bran : tro/ tybyeid/ A rhai 
hyn hefyd a escrifenir y pen diwaytbaf vdddunt yr vn ffunut ao 
ir llaill or blaen cithyr i ddarllen a wnair yn amgenach cowe, lom, 
nmee, narrows, tparoae y rbai a ddywedir yn gyl&'cdin val hyn 
kow/ buwch: low/low-io: now yn awr: narrw kyting : sponr 
cderyn y to/ Ac am gy&yw ddamwynieu yr hyn y byddd 
ryddygyn ir ddarlleydd i nodi pe doe kof cbwaith i scrifeny 
sme goreu kyngor a vctrwyf vi ir neb (val y dywedaia j 


every word (so far as memory served) was chased to its own proper 
poeitioii. Thus all the words having a for the first letter were at 
the outset collected into the same place. Then all words heginning 
▼ith h were placed apart. So with Cy and chy and d. Thus also of 
an the rest, every word is ranged under the standard of its captain 
letter. Thus when you require the English for any Welsh word ; 
First observe what is the first letter naturally; 
if it is a for example, look for the word under the The mode 
series a, and having found the word, in the opposite EngShto 
eolnmn for English you will get the English for it. Wdah. 
Bat be very careful not to be misled, to seek amiss 
a word out of its own proper place. For example, if you trace the 
irords in the form and aspect in which they lie in the following line 
Mae i mi gangen dec o vedwen [Est mihi ramus pulcher betidlae]. 
For it will not serve you to look for the English for gangen 
among words which begin with ^, but under h, because the pure 
ndiciil word is kangen not gangen^ and the English meaning will be 
found opposite the radical word. Por it is a peculiarity of the 
Welsh to soften the initial consonant, as i& to ^, t to d^h to Vym 
certain positions, as in the words dee o vedwen [ramus betullae]. 
Therefore you must always consider what is the initial letter when 
the word stands alone, out of connection, as I observed above. 
So it is in the normal natural utterance of the word that you are 
to seeky if you wish to find every word in this lexicon. For as 
none but an idiot would expect, [8] when going to gather osiers, 
to meet with rods growing in the form they are seen after being 
]ilaited round the frame-work of a basket, in the same manner 
none but an unskilful person will expect to find every word in 
the dictionary in the form and shape in which it is found when 
woven in the partition wall of a sentence. In addition to all 
I have already said obser\'e this further direction, . , . . 
mch of you, Welshmen, as desire to learn English Welahmen 
at your own firesides. You cannot fail to know that 
in English they do not read and pronounce every word literally 
and fully as it is written. For example, God be wrm tou, which 
the commonalty pronounce God hiwio (God bii'wijo). And a 
beap of other words also are written, as to some of their syllables 
in the same way, but arc not pronounced in the same way, as 
the following : bowe, crowe, trowe which are read ho (boo) hoa 
rarcusT, kro (kroo) Iran [comix], tro (troo) tyhyeid [opinor], 
fllie following also have precisely the same termination as the 
mbove but are differently read, cowe, lowe, xowe, xakrowe, 
SPABOWE, which are usually spoken kow (kou) huwch [vacca], lew 

Su) hwio [mugire], now (nou) yn awr [nunc], narrw (nar'u) 
fing [angustusj, sparw (spar'u) ederyn y to [passer]. With re- 
gard to such cases as the reader may find too difficult to remem- 
Iwr, much less write, the best advice I have for such as may 
xiot be able to go to England (as I have already said), where the 


or ni edy anghaffael iddo vyned i loecr Ue mae r iaith yii 
gyncnid / ymofyn o honaw ac vn a wypo Saesncc (o blcit odit c 
blwyf ynkymbry eb Sasnigyddion yntho) [91 paddelw y gelwii 
y petb ar peth yn sasnec. Ac yno dal a cbra£^pa vodd y traythai 
ef y gair ne r gcirieu hyny yn saisnigaidd / a chyd a byny kymeiyd 
y llyfcr yma yn angwanec o goffadunactb yn absen atbrawon/ a( 
yn diffic dyscyawdwyr yr iaith. Dewcb yn acb a 

Dyscwcb nes oesswch Saesnec 

Doetb yw e dysc da iaith dec. 

^ Y gwyddor o lytbyrennen bycbain. 

A a. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. E. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. U. m. 
n^. n. i\. 0. p. r. t. f. (T. s. ft. t. th. v. u. w. y. 

^ Egwyddor or llythreneu kanolic o yaint. 

•{« a. b. c. d. e. f. g. gh. b. i. k. 1. m. no. o. p. q. r. t, 
f. 8. t. V. u. X. y. z. ff. ifc ft. "w. &. a. 9. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. K. L. M. K 0. P. a B. 8. 
T. F. Y. 

^ Gwyddor or vath vwyaf ar lythyreu. 


[10] blank 
[11] 1[ Natur a sain y llytbyreu vchod yn Saesnec. 

A- Seisnic sydd vn natur ac (a) gymrcic/ val y may yn eg^u 
yn y gcirieu hyn o saesnec ale/ aid: ac yiuhymraec kwrw : jpa/i 
paal: sale sal: ddieithyr Ryw amser y kaiff/ a/ sain y dipton 
(aw) yn enwe<lic pan ddel ef o vlayn //no 11/ val y may yn eglnxad] 
drwy y goiiiou Lynn : balde bawld mod hall bawl, jyel : wall wawl 
gwal : Ond )ti llyw eiiieu i dodant weithie (a) yn lledsegur er a 
gjiiifwn a yinarlc rai oe north ehunan / namyn yn hydrach ynuitbio 
yn Rith yn bocal (e) ni a wnae ir darlleydd, val hyn ease ies e»- 
niwy thdra : leaue lief kenad : sea see mor : yea / ie / Ond nitli 
rwystyr vath eirieu ahyn di ond yn anlynech. 

B. yn. sacsonacc a / b / yn Camberaec ynt vnllais val yn y geirieD 
bynn : babe baab / baban : brede bred / barn. Ac ni newidir b, 
seisonic am lytliyren aran val y gwnair a / b / gymberaec. 

C- wrth i darllcn yn sasonaec a chambraec sydd yn vn Uef onid o 
vlayn e / i / y / canys o vlayn y tair llythyren hyn val s / vydd i son 
vegys hynn Face ffas wyneb gracyouse grasiws / rraddlawn / codicyon 

Ch' iii<l yw dim tebyc yn sacsonacc ac ymghamberaec : Ac nid 
oes ynghamraec lythyren na Uythyrcnneu ai kyfflyba yn iawn / cithyi 
may sain / tsi / kyn gj-fflypet iddi ar efydd ir aur / val yn y gair hwn 
churohe tsurts ecleis. 


langoagc is native, is, let him inquire of one who knows English 
(for there is scarcely a parish without some person in it conversant 
with English), [9] and ask how such and such a thing is called 
in English. And observe carefully how he sounds the word or 
words in English, and, in the absence of masters, and lack of 
teachers of the language, take this hook, as an additional re- 
minder. Come then and 

Learn English speech until you age ! 

AVise he, that learns a good language ! 

^ The Alphabet of small letters. 

A. a. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. ft. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. U. m. 
n\. n. I). 0. p. r. z, f. ff. s. s. ft. t. th. v. u. w. y. 
% The alphabet of medium letters. 

•{« a. b. c. d. e. f. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. m. n. o. p. q. r. c. 
f. 8. t. V. u. X. y. z. ff. ir. ft. w. & 2, 9, 

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. K. L. M. N. 0. P. Q. R. S. 
T. U. Y. 

% The Alphabet of Capital letters. 


[10] hlanh. 

[11] H The nature and sound of the above letters in English. 

A in English is of the same sound as a in Welsh, as is evident 
in these wonls of English, ale aal (aal) Jcwrw [cerevisia] ; pale 
foal (paal) [pallidus], sale sal (saal) [vcnditio] (p. 61). Except 
sometimes a has the sound of the diphthong aw (au) esipecially 
when it prcccnlcs l or ll, as may be more clearly seen in these 
words : balde hawld (bank!) moel [calvus], ball lawl (haul) pel 
[pila], wall wawl (waul) gwal [mums] (p. 143, 194). But in 
certain words they place a sometimes, as we should consider it, 
rather carelessly acconling to our custom, out of its own power and 
rather metamoq)ho8cd into th(i vowel e, as ease e^g (eez) esmwythdra 

Eotium], LEAUE leef (leev) kenad [venia, licentia], sea see (see) mor 
mare], yea fe (jec) Letiam] (p. 80). But words of this kind will 
not often perplex thee, gentle Reader. 

B in English and h in Welsh have the same sound, as in these 
words : babe haah (buab) lahan [infans], bkede bred (breed, bred) 
lara [panis]. And b in English is not changed for another letter 
as is done with h in Welsh. 

C in reading English, as in Welsh, has the same sound, except 
before e, i, y, for before these three lettei-s it is sounded as s (s). 
For example face ffaa (faas) wyneh [facies], gkacyouse grasiws 
(graa'si,us) rraddlawn [gratiosus], coNDicYOif coiidUywn (kondis'tun) 

Cll is not at all like in English and in Welsh. And there 
tre not in Welsh any lett^»r or letters which correctly represent it, 
bat the sound of tsi (tsi, tsj) is as like it as brass is to gold, as in 
the following word churcue Uurtt (tahtrtsh) idiU [eccleaia]. 


[13] D. ymghamraec a Bacsonaec nid amrafaelia i gallu tbI 3 
dyellir yn y geirieu hyim or ddwy iaith: Duk»/da\tk due: dan 
dart dart. Eithyr nota hyn yn dda pan welych dwy / dd / yn dyfixJ 
ynghyd yn Basouee nid vol/ dif gymbcreic rydd i grym / ond cadw 
awno pop vn i llaia gynefinol: Ac nid lleddiy A wnan ond cledy yi 
gledachvegys yny gcricii hyn laddre lad-dr/ yacol bladii' blttd-dd 
chwysaige. D. hefyd yw teriyn berf o nmsorea pcrphaith amper- 
phaith amwy nag amherifaith/ yoI am y gair hwnn loued/ carwn/ 
kereia/ carysawn dc, 

E- a ddarllcir yn sasnaec gweith val / e / gymheraic gwaith val/ i / 
gymbcroic / a gweithe ereill yniwedd gair i (am ac i bydd rut tb] 
ieheva yn hebriw nen regys y gwelwch/ w/ yn diwed' y geirieu 
hynn o Cambera«c kynddclw/ ardelw/ kefnderw/ syberw/ buddelv/ 
marwnad / catwdorw : yny rhain wrth en darlain ay traythy / w / 
a da-wdd ymaith ac vully y dywedyt a -wnair kyndeU/ 'ardel/ 
ke&der/ cyber/ budel/ mamad/ catderw/ Velly/ e/ yn diwedyy 
geirieu sneaiec a dawdd ymaith a cham mwyat" o ddiwed pop 
gair wrth i draithy vegya o ddiwedd y geirieu hynn tmptrovn 
emperwr ac nid emperwrey darlleir : yr hwn air sasnec arwyddoka 
ymghymraec ymcrawtr: Ac TcUy am eu*rmore efermwor tragowydd. 
Ac yn y ddenair saemec Tchot may y ddwy (e/ e) gyntaf o bob th 
ynTn lluLs ac e/ gamberaec/ neu c/ llatin neu qwylon o roeo, Ar 
e / ddiwaethaf yn tewi / val y may / w / yny geirieu a soniaia am 
tanun gyancf. Ond yn enwedic pan ddel/ e/ yn ol/ 1/ ne/ r/ 
yniwedd gair aacaonaec [13] ni chJywir dim o ywrthei ar dauod 
sais : ond o chlywyt pcth o ywrthei / kynt y dyfalyt y bot hi o 
Tlaen 1/ ne r/ nag t>e ho! : val y traythant hi ar y geineu yma/ able, 
sabU. twt/ncle, teryncU, thodre, wondre, yr hyn eirieu ac vreill a 
deniynant yn \'n odyl a rai hyn ni chlywn i sais yni darllain onid 
Tegya pe byddcm ni yw scriueny drwy adael/ ej heibo/ val hynn/ 
abl/ aabl/ twinkl/ wrinkl/ thwndr/ wndr; neu ral pe bay/ e/ 
vlayn yr 1/ ne yr r/ val hyn ladddl, Ihtmdtr: Ond ni ddylie Tot 
chwaith dieithjT vath ddarlleyad a hwnw i ni yr tombry paam onid 
•pa nineu yn darllcin drwy doddi ymaith dwy ne dair o amnfael 
lythyreu vegys y may yn cglur yn y geirieu yma popl droB popol, 
kwbl droa kwhwl ; papr / ac eithr lie y dylem ddy wedyt papyr / ac 
eythyr/ Ond raid yw madde i bob taiiiwd i ledlef, a goddcf i bob 
iaith i phriodoldeb. Heuyd natur y vocal/ e/ pan oqihenno tax 
aacflonaec eemwythau no voddalhau y sillaf a ddel oe vlayn tb] 
hynn Aop« hoo]> / gobeith : Jal*, baak / poby ; chtu j tsia caws. 
iSthyr dal yn graff ar ddywedyat y gair ackw oAm*, bleit yr 
0/ gyntaf sydd vu llais ac, i, on hjaith ni: ar c, ddiwaythaf yB 
flciyll yn vnt val y dywodaia or blayn y darowyniai iddi vod tyw 
amaer. E, hefyd vlayn b, ynniwedd enweu llioaawc, sef yw 
hynny ir anyscedio geineu a arwyddockaant vch pen rhifedl vm 
peth, a ddinlanna wrth eu dywedyt val o ddiwedd yr enweu neur 
geirieu hynn kyjigti, brenhincdd ; /rend**, kereint : ttntts, pepyll/ yr 
hain a ddarlleir lungs / fiinda / tenta. A gwybyddet y darUeydd 


[12] D in Welsh and EngEBh do not disagree in their powers, 
■E may be ooderstood in these words from the two languages : duke 
itaek (dyyk) doc [dux], dabt dart (dart) dart [ joculumj. But notfl 
this well when you nee two HB coming together in English, they 
have not the power of iM in Welsh (dh), hut each retains ita usual 
aoond. And it does not soften, on the contrary it hardens the 
Mund, as in the following words: laddkb hd-dr (lad'cr) yseol 
fscala], bljldd' hlad-der (blad*er) chwgiaifffn [vesical D also is 
the termination of the perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect tenses, as 
in the word loted (luvd) eanm, kereu, earyuum [amabam, amavi, 

£ is prononnced in English sometimes as « Welsh (e), sometimes 
aa I Welsh (i), and sometimes at the end of words, it is silent or 
mate as lAwn in Hebrew, or aa you see w at the end of these words 
in Welsh : kffnddalie, ardelw, htfitd^ra iijh»ra>, buddelto, marvmad, 

Hw, in which the w is melted away in reading and speaking 
tbey ore sounded kyndell, ardel, kefndtr, %yher, hudel, marnad, 
I, Similarly e final in English words is melted away, for 
at part, from the end of every word in pronunciation, as in 
[owing words : ejipbeourb pronounced tmpntcr (em-pcrur), 
sod not empenorey (emperun-rei) which word in Welsh sigcifles 
jpiurawir [imperatorj. And so etebuooe eftrmwor {evcrmoor-, 
eTOTmuur-, evermwor') iragouiydd [semper]. In the two Enghsh 
words above, the two first e, e, of each, has the same soimd as the 
Welsh » or Latin e, or the Greek tpiylon. And the final e is mute 
as w is in the words I have already mentioned. Moreover especially 
when E final follows l or r, [13] it is not heard from English 
tongues. But if it is beard at all, it is rather before the l or k than 
after, as they pronounce the following words : able, basle, twtkcle, 
WBTvcLX, THONDBE, woKDBE, which wonU, together with others of 
the same termination, in hearing an Englishman read tbem, seem 
u if written without the e, thus : obi, tabl, twinkl, wrtnkl, thumdr, 
mtdr, (aa^b'l, saa'b'l, twiqk-'l, wrt<ik-'l, thun*d'r, wnn'd'r), [potcns, 
niger, scintillare, ruga, tonitni, miraculum,}; or as if the e were 
VBtten before the l or b : thus sAnDsu., thohskr (sad'el, thuu'der), 
[ephippium, tonitni.] But such pronimeiatione ought not to be 
■tnnge to us Welshmen, for do we not also in reading melt away two 
or three letters at times, as may be seen in the following : popl for 
fOpel fpopnlus}, kuibl for kwbwl [totus], papr and eithr, where wo 
iboulu say papyr [papynisl and eythyr [scd]. But every tongue 
moat be pudoacd its pccnliaritieB, and every language allowed its 
idioma. Further it is the nature of e final to soften and prolong 
ible which precedes it as: hope hoop (noop) gobttlh [spi's], 
' (baak) poby [coquere panem ut pistor], chese tti* (tahiiz) 
us]. But observe carefully the word cuese, for the fiiBt 
sound of t in our tongue, and the e final is mute as before 
E also before s at the end of plural nouns, — that ia, (for 
the sake of the unlearned,) names which signify a number of any- 
thing, — disappears in pronunciation, as in the following : ktmces, 
hniAiittdd [regcsj, pkxkdks ktrnnt [amici], tehtbs p«pytl [tenteria], 


yw [14] A gwyhyddet y dftrUeydil nod yw y Buwl yma 

1 ddcl c, ch, I 

gwasanaythy i bob enw Uiosawc o 1 
arall o vlayn y ddywodetic e, pally a wan j niwl hon csnys yna c, 
a dniythir yn vunf^is aen val ya y, ni : val yn y geirit-u hyan 
dychn deitsys / ffoBsydd : fatti: ffacea / wynebeu : oranyw, oreintays/ 
afelo orayda : treet, triys prenneu. 

f, Beicsonic ehun aydJ gymeint o Hynnwyr ynthei ac mewn Ayrj 
f, f, gambereic wedy gwascy en pennen yngkyd val hyn ; /elt, ffwi, 
ffol ne ynuyd 

ff, ac/, yn sasnec a dreythir yn vnmodd, eytiyr Jf, yn ddwyscach, 
ae y] yn yscafiiach a gymerir : /, yn yscofti, val ymay c}t/-fi', tiiiff 
pennaf j ff, ja ddwysc neu yn drom val yn y gair hwu fuffrt, 
swffffer dioddef : 

Q neisnic a ch/o saemec ynt daran debyc en sain iemor debyc i 
aon yw gilydd ac yd yscrinraia sage ny bo diB dyscedic yn aill yn 
Uer llall vegya y damwaia yn y gair hwn churg» yn lie ehmvhM 
tsiurtB eglwys, Eytliyr g/ yn saanec o vlaen, a, o, n, a gwcitho o 
vlayn e/ neu y, nid adweynir i llais rac g, gambercic, val hyn 
galaunt gaia-aiit I gelding golSiog/ plage, plaagpk/ God, dyw / giUU f 
gwt oolnddyn/ Gytt«-( / gilbert : Ondpan ddel g/ o vlacn/e/i/ nen 
y/ val eh, aeianic nen tsadde o hobrew vydd i Uef or rban vrnychaf 
vegya hyn gyngitr tsinteir/ ninsir^ Gwilia hyn etto yn dda pan 
ddelont dwy ggj ynghyd/ kydleiaio eulldwyedd ac g/ gamraec a 
wnant val hyn beggyngt begging/ yn cardota/ naggs nag keffylyn/ 
»ggt), eg wy. 

[16] Gh, Bydd vn lief an ch, ni ond i bot hwy yn traythyyT ^ / 
eioilunt yn yecaftidoo o ddieythyr y mwnwgyl a ninneu yn pro- 
nwnsio yr ch / einom o eigawn yn pyddwi'uu. A vegya y mayn 
anhowddgar gan Bacson glywc-d rhivnck yllythyrhon gh/vclly may 
Kymbry deheubarth yn gwachel son am ch, ond lleiaf gaUant. Con 
ti ay klywy hwy yn dj-wedyt Awow a hureck lie ddym ni o ogledd 
kymbry yn dywodyt ekteaer a ehoteh. 

Ac ctwa mi an gwelaf nineu yn mogclnd traythy ch, yn vynech 
o amser vegys y may yn ddewiaach gcnym ddywedyt (chwcgwaith) 
no (chwechgwaitli) a (chwo vgain) na (chwech vgain). Ac im tyb 
i nid hoffach gan y Groecwyr y llythyr ch, pan ymchwelynt or 
ebryw laliannet yn llo lockanna j ac Itaac droa littc/iack: A 
chyffelyp nad gwoll gan y Uatinwyr y llythyr vchot pryd bont 
yn dylyn yr vnwedd ai groocwyr ar drosai yr hebrcw ir llatin / ac yn 
dywcdyt mihi a nihil droa miehi a niehil Ond i ddibenny yt/ 
kymer y chwmolat hwnw yn yaoa&iaf ac y del erot With ddyweoyt 
ioith Saxonacc. 

H, ^ydd vnwedd yn hollawl y gyd ar Sason a ninen, vol y may 
Aaiw haf, hwde/ harl cnlon no carw/ My boli snntaidd/ ne kcl}^. 
Onid yn rhyw eiricu llatin wedy aaeanigo nid anedsir h, val yny 


wbich ^iro read kinffs Qdqz)^ frinds (Mindz), tents (tents). [14] 
And be it known to the reader that this rule does not apply to 
erery plural, for when c, ch, o, or another e precedes the said e the 
role fEolSy for then e is pronounced obscurely or as our y (t), as in 
the following dtches deitsys (deiish'iz) ffossydd [fossae], TACBsffaces 
(fiEUM'ez^ wynebeu [facies], o&akoes or&inuys (or'emdzhtz) afale oraydt 
[aunntial teees triys (trii'iz) prenneu [arbores]. 

F in Knglifth has singly as much power as two Welsh / /, with 
tiieir heads pressed together, thus : fole jffwl (fiiul), ffol ne ynuyd 

vp and F in English are pronounced alike but ff harder than f, 
which has a lighter sound, as in chsfe tsiff (tshiif ) pennaf [prin- 
wpa] ; ff hard as m suffbs swj^er (suf'fer) dkddef [j)ati]. 

G is sounded in English very similar to ch, so similar indeed that 
Bnglishmen not well educated write the one for the other, as in the 
word OHUBOB for ohubche tsiurts (tshtrtsh) eglwys [ecclesia]. But 
6 in English before a, o, u, and sometimes before e or y is not dis- 
tinguished from g Welsh (g), thus oalaunt galawnt (gal'aunt) 
[Ibitis] (p. 143), OELDDfo gelding (geld'iq) [canterius], TLxo^plaag 
(jplaag) pla [pestis], Gon (god) dyw [deusj, outte gwt (gut) coluddyn 
[intestinumj^ otlbert gilbert (gil'bert). But when o comes before 
B, I, or T, it is sounded as ch in English, or as tsadde T in Hebrew 
for the most part, as oyvoer teintsir (dzhin'dzhcr) einsir [zinziber]. 
Note well this again when two oo come together, they are sounded 
as one, like g Welsh, thus : BBeoYNOE begging (beg'tq) yn cardota 

Emendicans], kagoe nag (nag) keffylyn [monnusj, eooe eg (eg) wy 

[161 Oh ^^ the same sound as our eh^ except that they sound 
gh sofuy, not in the neck, and we sound ch from the depth of our 
throats and more harshly (p. 210), and as it is disagreeable to the 
TtngliA to hear the gratmg sound of this letter so Welshmen in 
the South of Wales avoid it as much as possible. For you hear them 
ny hwaefy and hwech (whair, whekh), where we in the North of 
Wales say ehwaer^ and chwech (khwair, khwekh ; ktrhair, ku^hekh ?). 

And still I find that even we often avoid pronouncing chy as we 
prefer saying ehwegwaith (kircgtr'aith) for ehwechgwaith (kt^hekh*- 
gMttith) [sexies], and <rAtrfp^am(ktrhei*gain, ktrhec'i'gain?) ior chwecK 
Wfom (ktrhekh yygain) [centum et viginti]. And in my opinion 
tne Greeks were not overfond of this souncl when they transferred 
from the Hebrew, Johannes instead of lochanna, and Isaac for litschach. 
And in a similar manner the Latins had no great liking for the 
above letter, for they follow the Greeks in transferring fix)m Hebrew, 
and say mihi and nihil for michi and nichil (mi'ni ni'nil, miX'h'i 
mHi*il). But to conclude you may take this guttural as light in 
q^eaking English as you can. 

H is precisely the same in English as in Welsh, as we see in 
HAins haf (nav) hwde [accipe], habt hart (nart) calon ne earto [cor 
Tel cervus||, holt holy (nool'i, nol'i) santaidd ne kelyn [sanctus vel 
aquifoliumj. But in some anglicized Latin words h is not sounded 

780 salesbuby's English pronunciation. Cair. VIII. j 2. 

thain hottetlf oncet / kinoure oaoi f aiu-hyi&lif exhthilion ecsibiBiwn/ 
kynheilaeth/proAifttWoiiproibi'uwii/ gwahardd. Nid ynganaf viyn 
bot ni y t« yr wrhon mor ddidiiarwybot a djTcedyt gwyd4 dios 

JIj oe hiaith hwy sydd gymeint ar ddwy lythyren yma n, 
ni / od gwescir y gyd ai dywedyt yn vn aUltif Eoa dypt- 
thong, val yny gair hwn, t, ei/ mi ne myfi. Eythyr pan gydsemio 
i, a bocal araJl vn sain vydd hi yna a, g, scisnic, ac achos eu bot 
hwy mor gyffelypsou mi weleia rei ympedniBter a dowt pa vn ai 
ac, i, ai ynte a, g, yd scriuenyBt ryw eiriou ar rain mateitie, penlylt, 
gtloutyt ; a rhai yn Bcrifenny habrftoune ac eroill hebergt/H, llaiic : 
Ac velly mi welof ynghylct yr vn gyffelybrwydd rwng y tnir 
llythyren seisuic hynn ch, g, i, a rhwng y plwm pewter ar ariant, 
sL'f yw hynny, bod yn gjnbebyc yw gylydd ar y golwc kyntaf oc 
yn amrafaelio er byny with graffy anutnt. Esompl 0, i, yn gyd- 
aain Tuu, tsiesuw, leeu : John tsion a sion lediaiUi : ac leium 
ynghamroec loyw ; ioynt, tsioynt kymal. 

K, ynghymraec a saesnec vn gyneddf yw/ ond yn saeanec an- 
uynychach o beth y dechy air vul y gwelwch yma, boh bwk Uyfyr 
hueit bwck bwch : k, yn dechry gair ki/ngt king / bn-'nhJn : knot 
kwlwm: kmt. 

Ij. yny ddwyaith ddywededic nid amgena ond yn amunylair ^M 
llais vat byn lyl^ liii / ladt/ ladi arglwyddes lad bachken. ■ 

U, yn eacsnec nid ynt ilim t«byc eu hansawd in 11. ni : an 11, 
ni ny ddpc byth yn iawn dyn ardlia ith i thraythy ddierth yny 

LI, hciyd yn saoanec nid yw yn dwyn enw vn lly thyren eithyr 
dwbyl 1, ncu 1, ddyplyc i gelwir; a llais I, sydd yntbun yn wastat, 
neu lais lambda pan ddel [1 7] o vlayn iota / Ond yn rbyw wlcdydd 
yn Uoeer va! w, y traythant 1/ ac 11/ mewn rbyw cirion val byn 
ioipd yn He bold : he droa bull/ caio di'os eal. Ond nid yw vath 
ddywcdiut onid Ilcdiaith / ac nid pctb yw ddylyn oni vynny vloysci 
y gyd a bloyscon. 

Ml ac n / kynggany awnant yny ddwyaith einom/ ie ac ympop 
iajth oc i gwn ni ddim o y wrthynt / yn Saionacc a dwyts val byn 
man gwr men gwyr. 

0. kymyscltf an o / ac an w/ ni vydd/ ac nid ar vnwoith nac JT» 
yr vn siDaf onid mewn vn Hillat yn 0/ mown arall yn w/ y treytiiir 
val hynn (oto/ bys troet : bo ao velly Iteo tw/ dau/ lo tw/ ar at/ "' ' 
lohole scwl / yaeol, 

0, heiyd o vlaen Id/ ncu 11/ a ddarileir vegys pe bay w/ TynL 
ac wynt/ mal byn eolda, cowld oer bolls, bowl/ toUt towl batL, 
Eithyr dwy 00 ynghyd yn sasncc a soniant val w/ ynghymraec 
val hyn good, gwd da ; poore pwr / tlawd : 

P, yn Baemec nid yw vn ddeddf a phi yn hebniw yngroec U 



aa HOirxsTB otutt (on-est) 
[lionos], BXBiBinoN eeii'l 

HONOiraE onor (on -or) anrhydtdd 

n ( kynhtilaeth [expoaitio], 
PBOHXBiTTOK proiiinwn (proo,ibiB-i,im) gwaharM [prohibitio]. I 
will not mention that we are at present so negligent an to say gteydd 
(gvydh) tor gutkyid (gwecnydh) [teitor], 

[16] I in their language ia equivalent to the following two 
lettere in ours ei (ei), but they are compressed so aa to be pronounced 
in one sound or a diphthong, us in that won! of theirs I ei (ei, si) mi 
[ego] or tngfi [egomet]. But when it ia joined f« another vowel it 
baa the sound of a English, and as they are so near edike, I hav6 
met with some in hesitation and doubt, whether they should write 
certain words with i or with o, aa the following: maikstib, oENXfix, 
oxLousTE, and some writing HAUBSiocifE and others hbbebgtii lluryg 
[lorical. Thus I observe the same likeness between these three 
Kn^ish letters en, o, and r, as exiats between pewter and sOver, 
th&t at first eight they appear very like each other, but on close ex- 
amination they differ. For example, Ie80 Uietuw (Dzheezyy) Itmt 
[/esns], lonif Uion (Dzhon) and *wn [Shon] by corrupt pronuncia- 
tion, and lenan [lohannea] in pure Welsh, iotst Uioynt (dzhoint) 
ijMtw/ [juncturaj (p. 131). 

K has the same power in "Welsh aa in English, but it is cot bo 
frequent at the commencement of words aa may be seen in the fol- 
lowing: BOKE btek (buuk) Uyfyr [liber], bucke htcek (buk) hweh 
Edama maa] : k at the beginning of words xtsok king (kiq) brenhin 
fot], xsot (knot) kwlwm [nodus] ; Kekt. 

X IK the two languages docs not differ in sound, aa ltlt Uli 
(lil-i) [lilinm}, lady (adi (laa'di) arglieyddes [domina], Lin (lad) 
Uefiien [JuveniB|. 

U in English is nothing like in sound to our // (Ibh), and our U 
will no foreigner ever lenm to prenounco properly except in youth. 

Ll in English has no distinct name, it is simply called dtahyl I 
(dnb'il el] or twofold l, and it has always the sound of /, or 
of lambda [17] before iota. But in some districts of England it 
is Munded like w (u), thus bowd (boould) for boui [audax], bw 
(buu) for BCLL [taurus] ; caw (kau) for ciu, [voco]. (p. 194.) But 
tltis prononciation is merely a provincialism, and not to be imitated 
tuilesa yon wish to lisp like these lispers. 

M and N are of the same sound in the two languagea (and 
indeed to every other language I know). In English they are 
^Mlcen thus nan {man) gwr [vir], m«n (men) gwyr [viri]. 

O takes the sound of o (o) m some words, and in others the 
■ound of w (u); thus to lo (too) by* trout [digitus pedis], so lo (aoo) 
MQy [nc], TWO tie (tuu) datt [duo], to tu> (tu) ar, at, ■ [ad], bcholi 
Mv/ (sknnl) ytcol [schola], (p. 93.) 

alM before ld or ll is pronounced aa though fo were inserted 
bftwecn them, thus colde eowU (koould) o«r I Mgidus], bolle hotel 
(booul) [crater], iollk toiel (looul) toll [vectiga]] (p. 194). But 
twe 00 together are sounded hke w in Welsh (u), as qood gwd (gud, 
gund) da [bonus], poorb ptcr (puur) tlawd [pauper] (p. 93). 

P in English has not the some rule as phi in Hebrew, Greek, or 

782 SlAlesbcry's English pbonubciation. Chap. TIU. | t:^ 

yngamroec achos yny toirioith hyn J by woitiie yn rhyw eirien 

Eithyr sain Auuadwy eydd iddi yn sasnec ympop gair vol : papyr 

! apyr/ pappt/ papp bron gwraic neywd; penne ydyw piim yscri- 
Bony : Ac viil hyn y traytha Sais y Uytber p / mewn ymadrodd / 
otti wj/tk a ptnne : oc a pbina : ac nid wj/th a phnne aeu ffemie 
y dywaid el', 

Q, llythyr dicythyr ymgammee yw ac nid mawr gaitrefigach yn 
saeanec ra gyfraith a cha k/ [18] y koffir q/ val Lyim queue kwiii 
brenhinos : quarter kwaitor ehwarter neu pedwerydd ran ; quayU 
Bofyliar: A gwybydd may u/ yw kydymeith q / can ni welir byti 
q / ob u / yw cbyiilyn rawy nar goc heb i gwicli«lll, 

R/ sydd anian yny ddwyiaith hyn eytiiyr'ni ddyblyr ao nid 
hanedlyr U/ i-yth yn decbivu gair sasnec val y gwnair yngraec 
ac yncamroec modd hyn 

iikoma rrufain no rbufain: Ond val hjTi yd yacrifenir ac y 
treithir geirie seisoic ac r / yathunt ryght nobt lawn rwii rent rw 
ros nc rosim, 

S / yn yr ieitboedd yma a syrth yn vn sain val hyn tyr syr/ teate 
■eesyn amser umsetawl no amser kyfadd«s : Eytbyi- pan ddel a / yn 
aauBnec rhwng dwy vocal Deddfy ecu vloyscy a wna yn wynech 
umscr val hyn : mute innwws mouyrio : mata maaa madrondot. 

B / o dodir hi o cirhanec at diwedd enw vnic / yr enw vnic / 
nieur gair vnic hw&w a liosocka no arwyddockn chwancc noe vn peth 
vegys hynn hade band yw Uaw : handes hand* ynt llawe ae 
ddwylo ; nai/le nayl ewin ne boyi hayom naylee nayla ewinedd ne 
boylion beyrn : rayle rayl canllaw : raifUi rayls conllawen / ne 
ederia regen yr yd. 

Sh / pan ddd vlayn vn vocal vn vrunt ar aillaf hwn (ml , 

val bynn thappe asiapp gwedd oe lun : th^t eaiip dauad ne dde;uid< '4 i 

Sh / yn dyfod ar ol bocal yn (iss) y galwant i vegys hyn suA* 
aiaa/ onnen ; tcauhe laaml golcbi. Ac ym pa rywvan bynac ao air 
i del/ ssio val neidyr gyflSitfrous a wna^ nid yn anghyssylltpell o 
y wrth swn y llythyr hcbrew a elwir eehtn : Ac o mynny chwaneo 
o hyBpysrwydd ynkylcb i llaJa gwrando ar byscot kregin yn dechrea 
bvrwi o domwain vnwaith vddunt leisio. Eymenvcb hyn o athio 
wlytbyr kartrefic rac ofyn na chyrayddo pawp o honawch ~ 
wrth i law tafodioc seiamo yw baddysty. 

T/ hefyd a wna yr va wyneb i Saia a ohymro val hyn 
tresuwr trysor tov,rf towr twr : top top nen. 

Th/ saeanec a chymracc a vydd gyfbdyl ac vn nertb owl yn 
rhyw eirieu hi a ddarllcir kyn yw;(&ed ar dd / einom ni : Egliirdeb 
un gyfio wnlluia th/ clddunt h^: through thrwch tiywodd: the/gtU 


Welch, fiv in these languages it is Bometimes changed in worcU 

fiat in English it has a permanent eound in every wori as faptb 
fUffr (paa-pir) [papyrus], pafpb pap^ Cp^^p) fr*""" gmraie n» ywd 
[winmniR vel iofaatium cibus], pbnse pinn yatrifenny [calamos]. 
And an EngUahman pronounccB the letter v thus, in the phrase Aitn 
WTTB A PKNNE (and with a pen) ac a phnm [at eum calamo], and not 
TTTTH A FHENSB Or FPESiTB with double ef {vi\h a fcn). 

ft is a Strang Iett«r in Welsh, and Rcorcely more at home in 
Bnglisb. It is tie mme in sound as k, [18] as quknk kuim (kwiin) 
hnmhinit [regiuaj, qvakteb kwarUr (kvart'or) chwarter [quortA 
pars] ; WITLE (kwail) tofyliar [cotumix]. And bear in mind that 
V is the cumpanioQ of o, for q is never seen without v following 
it, as the cuckoo without her screecbor. 

£ is of the same nature in the two languages except that B is 
never doubled or aspirated at the beginning of words as in Greek 
and Welsh. 

Rhoma, rrv/ain or rhufain [Koma], hut English words beginning 
with B are thus proaouneed: btout richt (riiht) iaum [rectus], 
KKXT rent (rent) [acissuru], eos (rooz) rot ne rosim [rosa}. 

S in these languages is of the same sound, thus sin (yr (str) 

[dominns], heaboh teeayn (seez'tu) amaer amt^atal ne amner ti/fadd<u 
tempaitaa, tempestivuB vel occa«o]. But when s comes between 
two vowels it has the flat sound, or it is lisped, thus ursE muwrn 
(mryz) mrayno [meditari], hasb moot (maaz) tnadrondot [stupor]. 

o when addea to the end of a word in the singulw, makes it 
plural, or to signiiy more than one, as kanse hand (saud) is Haw 
[una manus], qasdes hand* (Handz) arc llawe ne ddwylo [^mks 
Td duffi manus], katlb nayl (nail) eunn ne koyl hayam [ungtus 
T«l fiernus clams], navles naylt (nailz) ewinedd m hoylion htym 
[ungues vcl ferrei clavi], kati.e rayl (rail) eanliato [concellus], 
batlbs rayU (ratlz) canltawen ne ederin reyen yr yd [cancelli vel 
ovces piatenses] (p. 119). 

Sh when coming before a vowel is equivalent to this combination 
mi, thus niAPPS ui^ip (shnp) gteedd ne Itm [species vcl forma], 
■HKPi tnip (shiip) dauad ne daeueid [ovie vel ovcsj.^ 

8h coming after a vowel is prononnced tw, thus assue atM (ash, 
aish?) onnen [iraxinus]; wasshz teatu (wash, waish?) ffolehi 
[Uvarel. And wherever it is met with it hisses, like a roused scr- 
ptmt, [19] not unlike the Hebrew letter calleil Khtn f. And if 
jon wish nirthcr information respecting this sound, you should Ustcn 
to the hissing voice of shellfish when they begin to boil. Take this 
as an homely illustration lest you may not all be able to find an 
English tongue at hand to instruct you. 

T also shews the same face to an Englishman as to a Welshman, 
bb trbsfrk trMiHor (trcE-yyr) tryior [thesaurus], tourb towr (tour) 
(wr[ turns], top top (top) nen [vertex J - 

til in ^glish rhymes with the same oombiuation in Welsh (th), 
bnt in some words it rends flat like our dd (dh). Examples of the 
VeUh sound of (A ; thbouqh thrwch (thruukh) trywodd [per], 


thysti yscall ; Eglnrwch am th/ vol awn dd/ ni ihit ddys hwn/ hoaf 
ne hyn. velly ddyin nine yn cam arfer yn satliredic o dd/ dros th/ 
yny gair yma (ddialaydd) yn lie (dialayth) Kota hyn heiyd / y 
darlleont tli / Tal t / yny gcirieu hynn Thomcu tomas : throM trwn 

W y^ gydson nid lunrafailia i rhmwedd yn lloecr mwy 
yngymry val hyn vyne vein gwin wydden : vaynt vayn gwyHaai 
ne wac : f«/i«( velfet melfot. Eithyr u/ yn vocal a etty! hwex y 
ddwy lythyren gamberaechyn, u, w, ai henw kyffi«ilin vydd yn, 
nw, vegys y tyatolaytha y geiricu hyn (ru* truw kywir; vertne 
vertuw rhinwedd A rhyw amaer y koiffl hiawn eaw gantunt oc 
y darlleir yn ol y llatinwyr sef y galwant yn vn llais an w/ ni : 
val yny [SO] goirieu hyny/ bttckf bwck bwch/ lust Iwst chwant 
Eithyr annynech y kyssona eu booal u/ hwy an bocal, u, ni/ eissues 
yn y gair hwu tiwy busi prysur ne ymyrus. ^ 

^F, Bcianic oc w/ gymrcic nid amgenont i gnllu val hyn/ wav« 
waw tonn ar tot / wyta wcin gwin : wynne wynn ennill. Eithyr 
henw y Uythyren w/ o aaesnec vydd dowbyl «w/ sef yw hjnny u 
dduplic / At sason wrth ddyscy i Slant aillafy ne epclio ai kymerant 
hi vol kydson ac nid yn vocal ae yn v, per le val y ddym ni yw 
chymryd : Ond y ddym ni ar hyrmy yw^harfer hi or modd hawBof 
i ieunktit ddyfod y ddarllen yn ddeollus, 

Eetyd diatewi a wna w/ wrth ddiweddy Uawor gair c 
vftl yn diwedd y rai hynn / 
modd hynn : a/ ofyn bo bwa : w/ kary 

X, nid yw chwaith rhy gartrefol yn sacsonaec mwy nac yn 
Camberoec a llais cb/ neu gs/ a glywir yntliei vegya yny/ geirien 
hynn/iwe fflace Uin ax« ags/ bwyflU, Geirieu liada a Icdieithantir 
aacsonaec neu a^ Gamberaec a newidiant s/ am b/ va] y geim' ' 
hyn/ emx croaae croes no crwe/ exemplum eaampyl/ a ' 
eatennaf : exeommunieatiu eseoinjn 

Y, a gaiff yn amyl/ enw y dyphthong (ei) val hynn i 
ddeia tan ne eiddot : ai enw ehun val yny gair hwn thynne thyi 

y*i a thityl val, e, vach vch i phen a wna ihe o aaesnec val h 
y* tiUM dde man, y gwr : y* ox» ddo oca/ yr ych 

w/ wrth ddiweddy llawor gair eaeaneo^^H 
n / aiet, low« woat j y rhajn a ddarlleantj^^H 
va : w/ kary ^^^B 

yt, a chroea vochan val t, veil i ffen sydd gymeint [21] yn Q 
wnllythyr a that ddat, hyny ne yr hwn. 
y", ac u, awcb i phen a wna thou ddow, ti ne tydi 


thystl (thtsil) yseall fcarduusl. Examples of th like onr 
dd; THIS ddy$ (dhis) hwn hon n$ hyn [nic hacc yel hoc]. So also in 
fiwniliar conversation we mispronounce dd for th in the word ddialaydd 
tot iMayth [sine tristiti&]. Ohserve also that they read th as ^ in 
these words: Thomas UmoB (Tom-as), throne trwn (tniun) pM 

JJ consonant is not distinguished in power in Welsh and English, 
thus : VTWE vein (vein) gwin wydden [vitis], VATins vayn (vain) 
pwythen ne wac [vena vel vanus] (p. 119), velttet vel/et (vel-vet) 
mul/et [holosericum]. But tj vowel answers to the power of the two 
Welsh letters u, w^ and its usual power is uw, as shewn in the fol- 
lowing words TRUE truw (tryy) kywir [verus], vebtue vertuw 
(vertyy) rhintoedd [virtus]. And sometimes they give it its own 
proper sound and pronounce it like the Latins, or like our w, as 
fSO] in the words btjcke hwek (huk) bwch [dama mas], lust Iwtt 
(lust) chwant [libido]. But it is seldom this vowel sound corres- 
ponds with the sound we give the same letter, but it docs in some 
cases as in bttst htm (btz'i) prytur ne ymyrus [occupatus vel se 
immiscens] (p. 164). 

W En^Ush and w Welsh do not differ in sound, as wawe waw 
(wau) tonn or vor [unda maris] (p. 143), wyke wein (wein) gwin 
rvinum], wtnite wynn (wtn) enniU [pretium fcrre]. But the Eng- 
fish name of this letter is dowhyl uw (dou'bil yy), that is double u. 
And the English in teaching children to spell, take it as a consonant, 
and not as a vowel, or w per se (u per see) as we take it. But still 
we use it in the most easy mode for youth learning to read intelli- 

Also w is mute at the end of words in English, as in the follow- 
ing AWE, BOWE, wowE, which we pronounce thus: a (aa) o/yn 
rteiTor] (p. 143), ho (boo) htva [arcus] (p. 150), w (uu, wuu?) 
ury [amare, ut procus petere]. 

X Neither is x much at home in English any more than in Welsh, 
and the sound is et (ks) or ys {gz) as in the words ruLXEjiaee (flaks) 
fiw [linum], axe ays (agz) hoyaU [sccuris]. Latin words in their 
passage into En^Ui^ or Welsh exchange x for s, as in the words 
entx csossE eroes^ or onios^ exemphtm esampyly exUndo estennaf^ ezoom- 
mamieatus eseomyn, 

Y often has the sound of the diphthong e% (ei, oi), as thtite 
ddem (dhein) tau ne eiddot [tuus vel tibi], and its own sound as in 
the word thtkite thynn (thtn) teneu [gracilis] (p. 111). 

y* with a tittle like a small e above makes the English, as 

T* XAK dde num (dhe man) y ywr [vir ille], t^ oxe dde oee (dho oks) 
yr yeh [bos ille]. 

yt with a small cross above it, is equal [21] at ftdl to that ddat 

(dhat) hyny ne yr hwn [ille vel qui]. 

y^ with u above it, signifies thou ddow (thou) ti ne tydi [tu]. 

786 salesbubt's English PBONUNciATioar. cbuLP. Ym. ^ 2. 

Y, ddoedd gan yr hen sciifeimydclioii samec lyttiyien tixaa 
debyc i, y^ ond nad oedd i thzoed yn gwyro i yyny val pLadnr Tal j 
may troet, y, ac nid antebic i Uim yr rkuumnol^ y^ nea i yptplen 
^o$e ne ghayn ja hebrew ac hyd y daw im kof ddcm i klywais 
ynwaith ben ddarlleydd o sau yn y he nwi vn aUn an dd oi nea ar 
ddelta roec y doedd. Ond nid yw hi arferedic ymplith Saaom «r 
pan ddoeth kelfyddyt print yw myso onit kymeryd tan vn (y^ 
drostei : ar (th) wcithie yny lie : Ac aros hynny may yn aahawa i 
dd3m arallwlad dreuthy eu (th) hwy jn. seisnigaidd o achoB i hot 
ryw amser jn gwasa naythy yn Ue yr hen llythyren a elwynt dom 
yal y gwelsoch jn eglur yny geirien or blayn. Ac velly pan aeth 
y vloyBclythyr wrcigaidd honno ar gy feilom ouysc Saaon y derby- 
nassom nincr Eymbry hihi ac aethom i vloyscy Tal mamaethod ac 
y ddywcdyt dd dros d, th dros t^ a d dros t, b ac ph, dros p, &c. 
Ond maddeuwch ym rhac hyyd y trawschwedyl yma a mi a dalfynf 
yn gynt am y sydd yn ol orllythyren ereilL 

Z, hefyd o yddynt yn amer yn yawr o honei, yn U© s/yndiwedd 
gair val : kyngez kings, brcnhmedd. A rhai yw dodi dlroe m, ac 
eraill (peth oedd vwy yn erbyn i natnr) dros gh, yn j chymetyd : 
yal hyn ryzt richt kyfiawn Jmytt knicht marchawg yiodoL 

^, nid llythyren yw namyn gair kyftm wedy ddefeido yn yyih, 
yal y gwelwch ymay rhac mor [22] yynech y damwain ympop 
ymadrodd o bob ryw laith yr hwn pan yscrifener yn llawnllythr yn 
Uatin (et) yydd <md yn saeoaee : ac (ac) yn Gamberaec a arwy- 

^ 3m y Gwydhor hon ddisot y kynwyseir sum a chrynodeb yr 
hoU ruwls vchot : Ac am hjmy tybeid nad rhait angwauec a addyac 
na mwy eglurdeb arnei / ir neb a chwanych ddarllein y Uyfer or 
pen bwy gylydd. 

e f ff g c i 1 

e f ff g gh h i k, 1, 
i f ph tsi h ei w 

1 k ssi th nw fi 

11, m, n, 0, p, q, r, s, ssi, t, th, u, v, 
1 w iss dd/t/ u/ y/ 

^ Neu yal hynn 

ai c k tsi e f tsi ch ei 11 w k 

If a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, gh, i, k, 1, U, m, n, o, p, q, 
aw 8 if iwl o 

iss th, t u y cs ei, y s and 

r, 8, sh, t, th u, y, w,x, y, z, *l 

ssi dd uw f gs i ch m 

a, ai 

c, k 












ei, y 8 and 

W, X, 

y, 25, 1 


i ch/m 


Y9 The old English writers had a letter } yerv much like y, only 
that the stem was not curved upward as a scytne like the stem of 
the y, and it is not unlike in shape to the Eoman t or the Qreek 
«ifwtZMi T, or the Hebrew ghatfn y, and as near as I can remember, 
an old English reader once called the name of it ddam (dhom), and 
he pronounced it like our dd (dh) or like the Greek delta B (dh). 
But it is not in use among the English since the art of printing was 
introduced, but y is sometimes used for it, and sometimes th. And 
on this account it is more difficult for a stranger to pronounce their 
ZH in English, because it serves sometimes the place of the letter 
they call ddorn (dhom), as may be noticed in the foregoing remarks. 
80 that when that e£fcminate lisping letter was lost from the Eng- 
lishf it was introduced to us the Welsh, and we commenced lisping 
like nursing women, and to say dd (dh) for d (d), th (th) for i (t^, 
and d for t^ h and j^A ( f ) for /9 &c. ^ut pardon the length of this 
digression of speech, and I will bring my remarks respecting the 
other letters sooner to a close. 

Z was also frequently used instead of s at the end of words as 
XYXGEZ tin^s (kiqz) hrenhinedd [reges]. Some also used it for x, 
and others (which was more contrary to nature) foir gh in the words 
KYZT rieht (jUcht) kyfiawn [rectus], knyzt hnicht (knij&ht) marehtrng 
vrddol [eques]. 

ft. This is not a letter but an abbreviation for a whole word as 
may be seen from the following [22] how frequently it is used in 
every language. When written in full it is d^ in Latin, Ain> in 
English, ae in Welsh. 

^ The table below gives a summary and the substance of all the 
above rules : and therefore it was not considered necessary to give 
more explanation or instruction respecting it to any one desirous to 
read the book from beginning to end. 

a, ai 

c, k tsi 







i 1 

fa b 

c ch 







i k, 1, 










ei w 

1 ok ssi th, uw, fi cs ci, s and 

U, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, ssi, t, th, u, v, w, z, y, z ft 

1 w iss dd,t u, V gs i ch)m 

% Or like this. 

aick tsieftsicheill wk 
|a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, gh, i, k,l, U, m,n,o, p, q, 

aw a if iwl o 

iss th, tuT csei, y s and 

Fi e, sh t, th u, v, w, x, y, «, & 

ssi ddt uw f gs i ch,m 

788 salesburt's English pbontjkciation. Chap. ym. { 2. 

FntsT Page of Salbsbtiby's Welsh akd Ekglish Dictignast. 
[23] [24] llank. [26]— 

f Kamberaec 




A. G vlaen b. 



Ab ne siak ab 

An ape 


A roude knot 

Ab ne vab 



Abe ne afon 

A ryner 


Aber ne hafyu 


A. vlaen d. 


The facra- 


Be, agayne 




Aberth eflferen 

Sacryng of 


A fouler 

Aberth ne of- 



To f olde a- 










A buyldynge 






Adeiyn / edau 




A wyuge 



Adain py | co- 



Adnabot (dyn 


Abwy burgyn 



A brayde 








A. vlaen c 

Adwy bwlch 







A. vlaen dd. 







Mote, apte 





An acte 


A. vlaen cb. 


Eype , 





Ach diaiieah 

Hole, founde 






A vowe 

Imdbx to the English and Latin Wobds of which thb Pbonunciatiox 
IS orvEN OR indicated in Salbsburt's two Tbaots. 

In the following list the words quoted from the Treatise on 
Welsh pronunciation are given in italics, followed by the old 
spelling there used by Salesbury in small capitals, and the pro- 
nunciation indicated. In that treatise the pronunciation is seldom 
or ever explained in Welsh letters, but some important part of it 
is indicated, and the rest has been added from conjectiue. The 
numbers which follow give the pages in this work where the word 
is referred to, (the small upper figure being the nimiber of the foot« 
note,) the bracketed numbers the page of the tract as here printed| 
and Uie capitals the letters under which the words occur. 



The words quoted from the Treatise on English pronunciation 
are in Roman letters, followed by the old spelling in small capitals, 
the Welsh transliteration in italics, the palaeot^ic pronunciation 
in ( ), the Welsh interpretation in italics, and its translation into 
Latin in [ ], and finally references as before. 

Latin words are distinguished by a prefixed f . 

▲DDBR rad-er). 766*, [44] 

f ADDBS (adh'es) proTindal. 7 W, 

e ABLB M (aa-b'l) [potens]. 62, 195 

776, [13, E] 
ale ALB oat (aal) kwrw [cereyida]. 61, 

62, 776, [11, A] 
and AZTD (and). 787 
mil ALL (aul). 766>, [44] 
tiyMM (aq'iiiis), erroneotu. 62, 744^, 

767S [3, 46] 
fmiuit (am'ath) barbarous. 769\ [301 
mrtkangel archanoell (ark'an'dzhel). 

766', [48] 
mtk ASHE (aish). 120, 747^, [12, A], 

ash A88HB aUt (ash, aishP) onnen 


€We LW 

inns]. 783, [18, SH]. 
(au). 143, 762«, [34, W]. 


AWB a (aa) ofyn [terror]. 143, 785, 
[19, W]. 
axe Axs a^« (agz) hwydl [secnns]. 62, 
785, [20, X] 

babe babk baab (baab) haban [infans]. 

62, 776, [11, B] 
bake BAKB baak (baak) /x)^ [ooquere 

panem ut pistorj. 62, 777, [13, £1 
bald BALDB bawld (bauld) moel [cai- 

Tus]. 143, 194, 776, [11, AJ 
ball BALL iawl (haul) pel [pila] 143, 

194, 775, [11, A] 
AfBBB Cbu),754, [23, 1] 
htttr BEHB (beer). 79, 751«, [19, E] 
begging BBOOTNOB begging (beg'iq) 

yM cardota [mendicansj. 80, 112, 779, 

[14, G] 
Mng BBTNOB (bii-tq). 766 [43] 
htlwee BBLBUB (biluT-). 751S [18, £] 
bier BBBB (biir). 79, 751^ [19, £] 
bladder bladd* blatUder (blad'er) 

ekwyuigen [vesica]. 62, 199, 777, 

[12, D] 
bola BOLD bowd (boonld) [andax] pro- 

Tincial. 194, 781, [17, LL] 
book BOKB bwk (bniik) ligfyr [liber]. 

99, 781, [16, K] 
bow BOWB bo (boo) bica [arcus]. 150, 

773. 785, [8. 20, W] 
bowl BOLLB bowl (booul) [cratcr]. 194, 

781, [17, 0] 
bread bhbdb bred (breed, bred) bara 

[panis]. 79, 775, [11, B] 

brMk bbbkb (breek). 79, 751', [18 £] 
bringeth b&tmobth (brtq'etln not 

(briq-geth). 767^, r46] 
buck BUCKS bwek (bok) bweh [dama 

mas]. 165, 781, 785, [16, K. 20, U] 
bnll BULL bw (bun) [uranis] proTin- 

ciaL 165, 194, 781, [17, LL] 
bur^ BURT (btrti Totgar. Ill, 164, 

760*, [32, U] 
bu8ineu businbs (btz'tnes). 766S [48] 
bwg BUST (b£z*t; Tulgar. Ill, 164, 

760«, [32, U]. busy bust busi (btrf) 

prytur ne ymyrua [occnpatns yel se 

immiscens). 112, 165, 786, [20, U] 
by our lady bt& laot (bei'r laa'di). 

744«, [6j 

call call (kanl). 747*, [12, A], call, 
CALL eaw (kau) [tocoJ. proT. 194, 
781, [17, LL]. calUd called (kanl*- 
ed). 766S [481 
calm CALME (camm). 747', [12, A] 
cease cbassb (sees). 766',J[44] 
Cheapeide chepestde (Tsheep'seid). 
7521, [-19^ Ej 

check CHLECKE (tshek^. 766', [44] 
cheese chese teis (tsniiz) cawe [casens] 

79, 777, [13, E] 
chief cuEFE ^«t^(tshiif) pennaf [prin- 

ceps]. 779 [14, F] 
church chu&che teurte (tshtrtsh) eeleie 

[ecclesia]: UiurU (tshtrtsh) egltcys 

[ecclesiaj. 165, 199, 775, 779, [11, 

CH. 14, G] 
cold coLDE cowld (koonld) oer [frigidns] 

194, 781, [17, 0] 
eombf COMBE (kuum P), 766', [44] 
condition comdicto:^ condisjwn (kon- 

distan) [conditio]. 99, 112, 191, 215, 

775, [11, C] 
cow oowE kow (kou) buwch [yacca]. 

773, [8] 
crow OBOWE kro (kroo) bran [comix]. 

150, 773, [8] 

dSdffMi^tf DOicAOE (dom'aidzh). 120, 747', 

[12, A] 
dart DART dart (dart) dart [iaculom]. 

777, [12, D] 
fdederit (ded'erith) barbaroos. 759«, 

[80, T] 
defer dufbr (difier' P) 765^0, [43] 


44', [4] 
iui", [13]; U 

(ilnqk-i<j), 754". 

^Lii (dee-ra). 

dmy DSMTB (diiiei' i^ 7Su'°, ^ 

■«<»nd word meant bj Dutya, hiu 

not been idsntill^, 
+A« (deitu). in.T44>, [4] 
difm- DiTFHB (difcrf) 7e»'". [43] 
di»eim\fittd oacaitFTiso (dislnmi'fit- 

ed). 766' [43] 
di^figan (difTig'TTT} pNTincial. 753', 

[20, P] 
ditehes htchw *nV«y» (deit«h-is) ^■ 

■yiM rrowtel. lU, 779, [14. £] 
<£> DO (dun). 93. 7SS<, [2S, 0] 
doe DOB (dm). 93, 758', [28, 0] 
double 1 dabj/l I (dab-Ael}. 781, [ir, 

LL]. double n dovbi/l hid [dou-bil 

yy), 160, J86, [20. W] 
dritiiiag t " ' 


duko ouu <ft<icA (dTTlc) (fBc [dull. 165, 

777, [12, Dl 
dmni i>DMBB (dimi). 766', [44] 

eSBGSASB i>i,«iF (jnz, eczP) etmffth- 
tfra foduin]. 80, 77B, [U, A] 

■J BLB (a). 766*. [44] 

e^ BOOi «s («g) »y [onun], 80, 779, 

™1*, G] 

t'^a (egTi). 80, 744', [4] 

emperour bhfbrddhe trnpfrmr (em'- 
pemr) jwrawfr [impeiutor], 150, 
199, 777, [12, E] 

mgiii KiOTK (an'dihin). 766>, [44] 

BWr lUSB (oT'ot). 766', [43] 

eronnore mubbmobb rjenauxa' (ever- 
muur, eyemlwor^) tregoieyjd [«em- 
porj.79, 99, 199, 777. [12, E] 

biB' ktpikeHaith [L'ipoaitioJ. 99, 
113,191,215,781, [16, H] 

(Tnu'eji) tcpwbeu [tkdaij. 779, [14, 

faU PALI. (hul). 766>, [Ml 

fatlttr? BBDDB»f ((edh'eil provmdsl. 

760", [17. D] 
fimd FEHD (fraud). 758' [43] 
fith FYdH, PTBMB (fish. Villi) pTOYin- 

eial, 7fi3', 786'. [20. F. 44] 
fiM riUB (»Bi») provinciBl. 763', [20,F] 
flu n.AIiB.^aM (flnJu) Uin [linum].62, 

786, [20, X] 
fool roLB ffwl (fuul) fit m yHngd 

[staltoi]. 99, 779, [H, F] 
' - T (tout) prorincial. 753', 

[20, Fl 


(HondB, pRBNUEa fiimli 
lifrHHi [wnici], 79, 80, 777, 779, 

i) provincial, 768', [20,? ' 


gallant OAiiCwr fQlattM 

1,71*, U] 

). 766', [«] 
:t,. 781, [16,1] 
H (Dzbordih). 753<, ^1. 

[caiiUria*]. 8 

gtl OQET igei). 786', [43] 

Gh Gh th (kh). 779, [16, QH] 

Gilb4;n, Gtlbbbt gilbert (gil'bcrt]. 
BO, H2, 199, 779, [U, Q] 

SiojFfT OTlfOBE (d/hm-d«h(T). 80, 763». 
[21, G] 1 ttinttir (dzbia-diW) «im«- 
[linzibu]. 80, 112, 199, 779,[14,G1 

God GuDDE (God). 763> [19, SJ. Qui, 
God (god) dyy> [domt 99, 779, [14, 
01 Gm be with you, Qua ub wttb 
YOU, 0«/ ii»w (God bii-wo). 112, 

773, [8] 
gM aou>B (goold). 753'. [19, E] 
good ouoD ffwd (gud guudj da [banvB]. 

goeda,ii aooDttBUB [(md'nca). 7S3> 

[19, E] * '^ 

gramaua ohaotogijb ^ranuv (gru-- 

n,us] rroddiavm[gi»tiiMia].6i,ll% 

160, 216, 776, [11, C] 
^t ai'TTB s^el fpit) ealaddjiii [iiitw> i 

toium]. 165, 779, [14, G] J 

habergeon s&BftBiocm BSBzaaiKl 

781, [16. 1] 
kabit HABiTB (ab it}. 220, 7S4>, [23, H] 
AniiVndun kibitatio> (nbitsa'siun). 
220, 734', where (nbitoe-ihun) is er- 
roneunaly given an the pronimdatJan, 
[22. H] 
hand HANDE hand (aand) llavi [una 
msnus]. 62, 783, [IS, S]. handa 
HANDBB handi (nsndz) llmee Me 
dihcylo [dnuo vel plurea mantu]. 62, 
783, [18, 8]. 
hard HAH© (uard), 763", [22. H] 
hart HART (anit). 763', [22, fi], atd 

have HAUB Aa/ (krv) hifde [aceipe]. 

62, 779, [16, H] 
heal BKLB (Heel). 79, 763', [19, El 
JiMrrf HB*BD (Herd ?). 753% [32, fl] 
henrt hnrt haht hurt (uart] eaUm w» 

enrw [oor vel cervns], 779, [16, H] 
hetl HELB (aiil), 79, 751', [19, B] 

A.'« iini (B.m). 766', [43] 
hoUy m holy 
holy holly, holt Aufy (Hoo'li- r 

tantaidd ne kityn [naautoi nil a 

foUiim]. 99, 113, 779, [15, H] 



BOHMT (oii'eft]. 220, 754S [22, 
H]. honest homzstb omtt (on'ost} 
[hooMtni]. 99, 781, [15, H] 
k am o m ' horoxtb (on-or) 220, 766', [44]. 
honour HOiroTTiui onor (on*or) amr' 
hydedd [honosl. 99, 150, 199, 781, 
[15, H] 
hope HOP! Aoop^oop) gobeitk [spes]. 

w9, 777> [18, jBJ 
horribU ho&riblb (Hortbl). 766^, [48] 
hour Homi ((Diir), 759, [30, R] 
MmBBDiN (Htb'erden) ynlgnr. Ill, 

164, 760, [82, 88, Ul 
kttmbU HUXBU (um'Dl). 220, 754*, 

[22, H] 
hmmtr huvouk (HTT*mnr). 766*, [44] 
kmt H17&T (Btirt). 753^, [22, H] 

/ («}. 754S [28, 1]. 1 1 M (ei, oi) mi 

Jego]. 111,781, [16, 1] 
idh TDLB (eidl). 766>, [44] 
t^w (Mrnii) bad. 767, [46] 
m XLL (tt). 766S [43] 
tft T3f (in). 763S 766U;35, Y. 44] 
U TS (ii). 768S rS5, tj 
ii€k ITCH (ftdi). 766^ [43] 

fiM lAiTNDtoi (dzhaim'dts). 766', 

wdoiuT oUiOusTi. 781, [16, 1] 
Jcfo, IBSU tmffMfi^ (Dshee'zyy) /mm 

[Jesoal 80, 165, 781, [16, U Jemu 

JESUS (Dzhee-sns). 754, [23, 1] 
Jdin loHK ^noM iion (Dzhon Shon) 

/«iMM [Johannes]. 99, 781, [16, 1] 
joint xoTNT ttioynt (dzhoint) kfmal 

[junctnn]. 131, 781, [16, 1] 

Kent Kent. 781, [16, E] 

KTKOBS Kingi (kiqs) hrmhintdd 
[regesj. 112, 777. 779, [13, E] 
KDfOES. 787, [21, Z] 
mm/ kbst (kiBt P), 7661, [481 

kniffht urrzT kmcht (knUrht) inar- 
rAoMy vrddol [equesj. 112, 787, 

. [21, Z] 

knot KNOT (knot) Arir/irm [nodus]. 781, 
[16, K] 

lad LAD (lad) hmekJUn [juTcnis]. 781, 

[16, L] 
ladoer laddri lad^r (lad'cr) tficol 

fscala]. 62, 79, 199, 777, [12. D] 
\aif LADT ladi (laa-di) arglwyddu 

[domina]. 62, 112, 781, [16 Lj 
imtfMogg LANOUAOB (laq'gidudih). 

120', 747», [12, A] 

lath LABHi (laish). 747*, [12 A] 
lap LATB (Un). 766S [43] 
leaye lbaub lief, Uef? (beer, leet P) 
ifcM4uf [Tenia, lieentia]. 80, 775, [11, 

^Ugit (lii-dzhfth) had. 767S [46] 
lily LTLT lili (lil-i) [liUum]. 112, 781, 

[16, L] 
lored LovBD (Invd) mnon [amari]. 

777, [12, D] 
low LOWS low (loo, loon P) kmi^ 

[mngire]. 150, 773, [8] 
luek LUCKB (Ink). 760«, [83, U] 
hut LUST hott (lust) MtMifi/ [Uhido]. 

165, 785,. [20, U] 

€l). 79, 75l», [19, El 
liil). 79, 751* T19,S] 
i) ytryr [virij. 781, [l7. 

fifui^niM (maq*nnB) had. 767, [46] 
mqfettjf kauste (madzh'estt). 754, 

[23, I], majesty, maxistie. 781, 
man mannb (man). 753', [19, El. man 
fpia» (man) gwr [yir]. 62, 781, [17, 

mase mass maas (maas) madnrndot 

[stupor]. 62, 783^ [18, S] 
mMl melb (meel). 
meel ? melb (mill), 
men men (men) 

Michael Mtchael (mei'kdP). 749*, 

766S [16, CH. 43] 
Miehaelmae Mtchablkas (Mik'el- 

mas P). 749*, [16, CH] 
might XTCHT (mikht) Scottish. 749*, 

[15, CH] 
tmiAi (miXli-i) correctly. 779, [15,GH] 
much good do it you much oood do it 

Tou mychgoditio (mitsh'good'ttjo). 

165, 744', [6] 
murmuring mubmuktnge (mnrmortq) 

766S [43] 
muse MUSE muunce (myyz) fneugrio 

[meditari]. 165, 783, [18, S] 

nag NAGGE nag (nag) kefylyn [man- 

nus]. 62, 779, [14, G] 
nail katlb nayl (nail) ewin n$ h&yl 

hayam [unguis Tel ferreus cIstus]. 

119, 783, [18, 8]. nails, naylbs nayU 

fnailz) ewinedd ne hoylitm heym 
ungues Tcl fenrci claTil. 783, [18, S] 
ff«< UETTE (net). 75». [19, E] 
nigh NIGH (ntkh). 75A [23, 1] 
fMiAtV (niiUi-U) correctly. 779, [15, 

narrow nabbowb narrw (nam) ky/ing 

[angustus]. 61, 62, 150, 773, [8] 
not NOT (not). 766S [43] 
now NOWE now (nou) yn awr [nunc]. 

150, 778, [8] 


,L (uttzMl?). 766', [44] 

LE pool (poalj [pallii 

5, [11, &J 

'B papp (pBg) irtm g 

lallidus]. 61, 


62, 776, , 
pap PAJ-PB 'papp fpag) 

yu'i/ [maintiia Ttil infautium cibus]. 

62, 783, LI7, P] 
paper Piria popj/r (paa-pir) [papr- 

nu]. 62, na. 199, 783, [17, P] 
pen PBNNB. 783, [17, P] 
p«ir PBna (peer). 79, 751', [19, B] 
pttr PBKE ^r). 79, 7fil', [19, E] 
plague PLAOH plaag (plasg) pla [portia'T 

62, 779, lli, Q] 
poor pooRB par (poorj llated [pauper]. 

93, 99, 781, [17. 0] 
rortugal POETUCAL frurfiqgal), cor- 

tiipt. 767. [27, N] 
potajer potaoeb [pot-audzlier Y), cor- 

rapt. 757", (27, H] 
pmaik^ PBiKJAYLED (prevaild'). 766', 

prohibilioii pKOHraiTiON proihinvm 
(proo,ibi»-i,Ull) girahardd [prohibi- 
tio]. 99, 112, IBl, 21fi, 7Bi;Tlfi, 

.B(pruiiyed 11765'", [43] 
DB (proTeid'fJ 766'", [43] 
joiEa rDTVT-neal. 762r 

[19, E] 

quail aoATLE tqfyliar [coluraii], 119, 

783, [18, QJ 
quarter qdabtrr kicarirr (kwart'er) 

chieartfr [quaita pars]. 62, 166, 199, 

783, [18, O] 
Ctteeti QVma kwin (Itwiin) brenhiHtt 

[reginol. 80, 166, 783. [18, Q] 
tsu.tkwei)-"!, 744', [4] 
\quid (kwfth) bad. 767, [46] 


7.1 ragl (rail) eanllinc [cancel- 
119, 783, [18, S]. ruls raylbb 
(railz) caiillatci^ ne edtriit 

ringi ktnqh Crid'ea] not (riq-gei}. 

767, [46]^ 

sable 8ABLB loil (aaa-bl) [niger]. 62, 

196, 777. [13, E] 
saddle flAUDEU, [ephippium]. 777, [13, 

f«il (snul) bad. 767, [46] 
aale sale mI aaal [Tenditia], 61, 63, 

776, [11, A] 
tjo-irtw (aan'tui) bad. 767, [46] 
Batart SATAN (Saa-lsn). 766', [13] 
Mbool ecBoi.B teit'l (>kuul) yttct 

[•chok]. 83, 99, 781, [17, 0] 
wa, BBA lu (m«) »»- [mari-]. 80, 776, 

[11, A] 
Ma»» BBAaoi. (Mwmi). 766', [*4J. 

eeaeon sbason ireiyn (s«ez'<u) amair 

amttrawt nr atmer loffaMtu [tempe»- 

taa, teoipesdTus Tel ucoasia]. 80, 99, 

783, [18, 8] 
<M 8BE (sii). 764, (28. I] 
sbape aiLAPPB mo/ip (ahap) gioedd m 

Ihh XgHiciei rel forma]. 62, 783. 

ahvep BUBPR tiiip (iblip) danad nt 
ddeuitd [oii» Tel oTea]. 783, [18, SB] 

It). 764', [23, T\ 
-ffH BioNB iBemj. Ill, 744', [fi] 
liik BTLKH (silk). 762', (19, E] 
«■» STJiBB (am), 763, (36. T] 
tingitA BYMOWH («q-etb)not(««-geth) 

767, [46] 
Mi«fUg iuiOiHo (>jq'.*(|). 764, (23, IJ 
■ir STB tgr (sir) [domrnna]. 199, 783. 

[18, SI 
80 BO «(«)o)w(/y[sic].93. 781.(17,0] 
tM/ (sooiU) bad. 767, [46] 
■pairow, gpABowB iparui (»p«r^ 

nfcrjiu y la [pMger]. 61, 62, IH, 

773, [8] 
suffer, avrita tvffftr (suf-far) diiMiJ 

[pad]. 80, 166, 199, 779, [14, F] 


reflwn rbasoh (reei-un). 766*, [44] 
rent rent rent (rent) [sciseura]. 80, 

788, [18, R] 
rigM BiouT (nltbt). 764', [23, I] 
rigbt BVGHTn'cAf (rilht}i'>ii»i[recCui]. 

7B3, [18, E]. Hr»T rieht (ri*ht) 

kyfi««fr, [rojtus]. 112, 787, [21. Z] 
Titiging RUtsDia ^f^'i'q). 764*, [23, 1] 

tenta ibntw ta>U (t«nt») ptp^U [teo- 

toria]. 777, 779, [13, E] 
thank TKAMXB (tbouk). 219, 7SD*, 

[17. D] 
(An( (dbat) 219, 769*. 760', 766', [l^ 

D. 31, TH. 44). that, ikat t» ibi 

(dbat Ayny ti» yr Aien [iOe vel ottj]. 

62, 319, 786. [21, Y'] 
Thmin Inn Thaciib Ivnb (Oai'il 

Ixl). 219, 760', 766', [32, TH. 44] 

Chap. Ym. 1 2. INDEX TO salesbuby's tracts. 


IA# Tn (dhe) 750*, 766\ [16, D. 43] 
the, TBB T« d& (dhe) y [iUe]. 80, 
«19, 78d, [20, Y«] 

(thil). 219, 760S [31, 


/im THTiTNS (thin) 750«, 760i, 7531, 
[16, D. 31, TH. 36, Y] thin, thtnnb 
MjfMM (thtn) <«fMM [jpradlis]. Ill, 
219, 786, [20, Y] 

tfJlMw THTMB (dhein). 760S 760>, [16, 
D. 31, TH] thine, thtnb ddein 
(dhein) tau ne eiddotltawi yel tibi]. 

111, 219, 785, [20. Y] 
MitTBTS (dhta). 219, 750«, 760*, [16, 

D. 81, TH]. this thu ddyt (dhis) 
Aim, hon ite hyn [hie haec Tel hoc J. 

112, 219, 785, [19, TH1 

"tildBtle THTRTLB thyttl (thts'tl) vseall 

[cmrduM]. 112, 219. 785, [19, TH] 
Siomat TuoMASjfTom'aiO .760', 766>, 

[32, TH. 44]. Thomas Thomas tomat 

(Tom*as). 99, 219, 785, [19, Tli] 
tkirtmgh tuorowb (thur'u). 219, 760^, 

766», [81, TH. 48] 
tltm THOU (dhou). 219, 760>, 766S 

[31, TH. 43]. thou thou t^ ddow 

(dhoa) ^t ne tydi, [ta]. 150, 219, 

785. [21. r*] 
<iln€ THRBB (thrii). 754. [23, I] 
tkrmu (truun f). 760^, [32, THJj. throne 

THRONB trwn (tniun) pall [solium]. 

99, 219, 785. [19, TH] 
through THROUGH thrtceh (thruukh) 

tfy^codd [per]. 219. 783. [19. TH] 
thunder thondrb thwndr (thun d r) 

[tonitrul. 79, 99. 199, 777, [13, K] 
-ftibi (teibei). Ill, 744*, 754, [4. 

to TO (tuu). 758», [28, 0]. to to <fr 

(tu) ar, at, t, [ad]. 93, 99, 781, 

[17, 0] 
lot tob (too). 7581, ^28, 0]. toe, to to 

(too) byi troet [digitus pedis]. 93, 

99, 781, [17. 0] 
toll TOLLB towl (tooul) toll [Tectig^l]. 

194, 781, [17, 0] 
-ftollit (tooul-is). had. 744S [4] 
top, TOP top (top) nen [vertex]. 99, 

783, [19, T] 
imrmented tobmbntbd (torment'ed). 

766», [43] 
tower TouRB towr (tour) twr [turns]. 

783, [19, F] 
trmturt thrbasurb (trce-zyyr). 760*, 

!32, TH]. treasure treburb tresuwr 
trcz*^7r) trtftor [thesaurus]. 80, 165, 
199,2*15, 219. 783, [19, T] 
trees tkbbs triyt (trii'tz) prmneu 

[arbores].80, 779. [14. £] 
trow TROWB tro (troo) tybyeid [opinor]. 
160, 773, [8] 

true TRUB truw (tryy) kffwir [Terns]. 

165, 785, [19, IJ] 
tnut TRUST (trtst) Tulgar. Ill, 164, 

760», [32, U] 
ftu (try) had. 767, [46] 
twinkle twtnclb twinkl (tw»qk*'l) 

[scintillarel. 112, 195, 777, [13, E] 
two TWO (tuu). 758». [28, 0]. two two 

tw (tuu) dau [duo]. 93, 99, 781. 

[17, 0] 

uneU tnklb (nuqk'l). 744', 766*, [5. 

Tain sMTein 

valiant ualiant (Talvant) 766^ [43] 

yein yain tatttb vayn (Tat'n) gwythem 

neicae [vena Tel Tanus]. 119, 785, 

[19. U] 
TeWet TELUBT vflfet (vel'Tet) milfoi 

[holosericum]. 80. 785, [19, U] 
fvidi (Teidci). 754, [23, I] 
villanus fillatnous (Ttl*anus). 766^, 

Tine TTNB vein (vein) gwin wyddm 

[Titis]. Ill, 119, 785. [19, U] 
Tirtue TEKTUB vertuw (Ter'tyy) rAtn- 

iotdd [Tirtus]. 80, 165, 199, 785, 

[19, U] 

wall WALL tratr/ (waul) gwal [mums]. 

143, 194, 775, [11, A] 
wash WA88HB wai89 (wash, waishP) 

gokhi [lavarc]. 783, [18, SH] 
watch (waitsh). 120, 747, [12, A] 
wave 8ec waw 
waw WAWB waw (wan) tonn ar vor 

[unda maris]. 143. 785. [20. W] 
we WBB (wii). 751«. 754. [18. £. 23, 1] 
weir WERE (wcer) 79. 75 1». [18. E] 
wide WYDE (wcid). 763». [35, Y] 
win WYNNE (win). 763', [35. Y]. win 

WTNNB icynn (win) <^ini7/ [prctium 

ferre]. 112, 785. [20, W] 
wind wyxgeP (wcind). 763», r36, Y] 
wine WYNE tcein (wein) gwin [TinumJ. 

Ill, 785. [20, W] 
winking winking (wtqk'tq). 754', 

[23, I] 
wish wyshb (wish). 752<. [19, E] 
with wyth (with). 143, 219, 760*, 

762«, [17, D. 34, Wl 
wonder wondrb irw</r (wun'd*r) [mi- 

raculum]. 79, 99, 185, 199, 777, 

[13. E] 
woo wowE w (uu. wuu P) kary [amore, 

ut procus peterc]. 93, 150, 185, 785, 

[20, W] 
worehip worshipfb (wmrshtp). 752% 

[19, E] 
%99rthy WOBTKTB (wurdht). 766^, [48] 



wot wcnTB (wot). 752-, [19, E] 
tcTfuk WHRKB (wreek = nocA). 79, 

7fil'. [IB, El 
««rnl WKEBTB (wnot-rwest). TS,7fil', 

wnnklo »HTi(n.B terinkl (wria'k-'l = 

t«iqk''l) [ruga]. 112, 195, 777, [13, 


yard tardb (jbtJ). 7B.1*, [24 I] 
yatcn YANB (jaun). 756', [24, 1] 

y«.riERH(jMr), 755', 134,1] 
ytll TELL (ml), 765', [34, I] 
p(«oio TEiow («I-a). 76fi>, [24, I] 
yuU TBLDB (jiild). 7«6', [24, I] 
j/uUing i-ildtkqb fjiilll'iq), 


yofc Toi (look), 7S5«, [24, 1] 
yor* YoBKB (jork). 75S', [24, 1] 


u (jno). 


§ 3. John Sart'i Phonetic Writing, 1569, and the FrORUn- 
ciation of French in xvi th Century. 

Since the account of Jolm Hart's OrthogTaphie (p. 35) waa in 
type, the original manuscript of his " former treatise," bearing date 
1551, has been identified in the British Museum, and some account 
of it is given in the annexed footnote.* It may he observed that 

' Mr. Brock, who ie stct on the 
look ont for unpublishEd trcatiafs in- 
teresting lo the Eurly English Text 
Society, railed niy attention, throogh 
Mr. Fumivall. to the MS. Keg. 17. C. 
vii., which wBsdeacribed iathe printed 
ettaJoguo of those M 3S. as " John 
Hsra'a CEnsaic of the English Lan- 
putge. A.D. 1651, paper." It is ■ 
im»ll l\m qnatto oi 117 folios, the 
Gut two pDg»i not numbvrcd, uid the 
othen paced from I to 230, IS lin^ in 
■ pase, about 7 words ill a line, in a 
fine English hnnd of the xvi tli century, 
cireniJly but pceuliarly (pelled, by no 
means accardine to Hart's recommenda- 
tions. Tbe Latin qnotatioDB arc in an 
Italian hand. It was labelled on the 
back " Hare on the English Lnngnago." 
Being dcairoui of getting at the autboi's 
asoount of our sounds, when I examin- 
ed tha HS. on 28 Oct. tSr'B, 1 skipped 
the preliminary matter and at once at- 
tacked (he Gth and 8th chapters ; " Of 
the powers and ahuping uf Ivttera, 
and first of the toela," and "of the 
afflnitG of con-onnnts." I was im- 
mcdialcly stturk with mnnjr peculU- 
ritie* of expression and opinion which 
I was familiar with in Hart's Ortho. 
graphic, and no other book. On tum- 
iDg to the dedication to Edward VI., 
I fouad (p. 4, 1. 8,) the name of the 
author diaKnctly as John Hart, not 
Hare, although the t waa written so as 
to mislead a cursory reader, bnl not one 
^"■iliiLr with the handwritiag. Then, 

similarly, in Harfs Orthocniphie tlie 
anthor'a name is mpnlionid in (he d^ 
diearion: "Tothetlonbtftillot thoEng- 
liiih Orthographie John Hnrt Cheater 
heralt wlaheth all Itealth and prca- 
paritie," wbiah bad not been ohaened 
whop p. 36, 1. 20, was priattd, and not 
on the title. On comparing this printed 
book with the MS. I found many pas- 
sages and quotatlDns Tcrhatim tbeatune; 
sec capecially the first chapltirs of the 
HS.and priniad hook "what lottenar, 
and of their right use," where ri'fUt u 
not in t^e MS. The identity waa tbns 
securely established, and the US. hat 
consequently been re-tottored : " Qait 
on English Orthography, 1661." 

The title of the HS. is: "Th* 
Opening of the unreasonable wtitine 
of ouringlish toung: wherin iishewid 
whet necewnrili is to be left, and what 
folowcd for the perfect writing ther- 
of," And the following liu(«. on tha 
fly leaf, in the author's hand-writing, 
seem to shew that thia Urst draught, 
thus curiously brongbt to light after 
317 years' rejrase, waa never iatoadad 
for publication, but ' 
be followed by another truatiaa, i 
was of courao the printed book. 

" The Booke lo the Author. 

"Father. ke«p me still with fbe,' 
leant Abuse shnld me liuionslt da- 




Ws pronunciation remained practiooUy constant during these eighteen 
yeare, and the chief difference of the treatises is the greater extent 
of the second, and the important introduction of a phonetic alpha- 
bet, followed by a full example. 

or ibnt me np &om tbe lyght of the 
whom to reidit I doabt to bSTS the 

" The Author to the Boolto 
Fear not mj eonne, tbaugh he doo 

on the loner, 
fbr ReBsOD doth the eTcriohvre de- 

I ihU Bend thie brother «oom lok- 

kiet hower. 
yf AUvpoa doo not hast my Ijrea 

Id oonfound Abiuei lothBoom lookei 

"Abnae." meaning the 
(f letten, that is applying 
muMb tor which thev wero nm, m- 
tadod in the Latin alphabet, is a fo- 
TDDTitt term of Hart's, and nith tbe 
atriont oitbography voel tot twctl. led 
Me u mtpeot Ibc real author from the 
bit The fotlawiag dcscriplian uC the 
TO«ab ie ilightlj dilfcrent from, and 
■ut be Donaidered oa lupptcmeDlary 
b Hioae avea aboTe in Ifac pages hiirc- 
rfter eitM ; the bracket Sgnm gire the 
f^ee of the US. A few remarks ore 
ibo iDKrIrd in bnckete. 

"[77] Lptt UB begin then with 

oneful nse 
; tiiem to 

noied month eo mouch as : 
{nionfih leaw wold serve) therwith 
•asnung rrom the breaat, and be shall 
•f tant brinju: forth one limple sound 
wUeh we moik with tbe a (p. 03) : 
Hd tniil t'T' g your moatb les«e so as the 
bngf port of your toung may lonch 
lh> lyke inner part of yoiir [78] upper 
iewM yon shall with your Toice Irom 
jan Mat nuke that sound wherfure 
WB doo often (and sbtild ilwaia) writ 
" 1 (p. 80) ; then somthing your 

voice wherefore we doo often (and shnld 
alwais) tmt the o (p. 93) ; and last of 
all holding ao atil his toung and teeth 
untoncbt ehrinklng his lippes to so 
litell a hole as the breath may issne. 
with the sound ^m [79J the breaat be 
ahal of force make that simple voice 
wherefore we doo aomeUnies riebtly 
(and ahuld alwavs] write tbe u Tcv r- 
tainly (u) here]. . , , [SI]. Now 
es for the a, we ow in hU proper power 
as WD ought, and aa other nntiona bate 
alwais doone (p. S3). But I End that 
we abuse all the olhets, and first of tbe 
e, which most communely we use pm- 
perly ; as in tbeia wordcs better and 
ever ; but often we change his sound 
making yl to usurp tbe poner of tbe i, 
as in we, be £ be (p. 80], in which 
Eound we uae the i properly : as ia 
tbeis wurdes sinne, in and him. Where- 
fore this letter o, ihuld have his aun- 
dent sound as other nations use yt, and 
which is aa we sound yt in Iwttur and 
ever. Tbe prolit thereof shuldbe, 
that [83] we shuld not fcure tbe 
myatating of bis sound in i : ai we 
bu'e loage doon : and thcrforc (and 
partly for Isk of a note for time) we 
bare conunuucly abased the diphthong 
ey or ei, ay or al and bb : to the great 
increase of our labour, confiisyon of ihe 
letters, in dcpnviDg them of the * * *' 

their nght 
the reader. 


{in this book Hart proposes ei 
circumSei or redupbeation as tbe mark 
of quantity]. For the voel e, doelb of 
voice impirt ao moehe in better and 
ever and in mani other vordes and 
slllables, aa we do communely use to 
pronounce the diphthongs oy or ei. ai, 
or ay, or the ca, except yt bo when 
they are scporate and Iro Irom diph* 
thong whicho lo aiguifie we ought to 
— — . .. ,i)jibe s-"-* '"' 

taaag further liirtb with your iowiw, proposes the by|>hen.] Then the 

iMTtDg but the forepart open, 

the first is it ._.. 
we geve it a brode snund (contrary lo 
all peoples but the Sootta : aa in tiua 
scutcnco. [83] he borowed a swurd 
from hi a mans aide (o save tbiu Ufv : 
where we auund tbe i in bi, side, thie 
and life as we sbuld doo the ei itiph- 
tbong ... The other ib-[81J-ugv of 
the I, ii that wa make jt a eonsouut 


This pronunciation cannot have been in all respects the preralent 
■nd received pronunciation of his time, for Hart frequently disagrees 
■with Palsgrave, Saiesbtuj, Smith, and Bullokar, and Dr. Gill 

irithoat mj diTenifijne of hii ehape 
from tho roeU . . . [BflJ The forth now 
ii the 0, whoieabiue (tor that it Cometh 
onli by leaTing the proper ubo of the 
Dl caiueth me to speak upon the a. 
We abuse [87] the ii, two waia the one 
u in conionrmt indifferentli witb bolbe 
his figures u and T . . . . [88]. The 
other abuse of the a, is that we Bound 
vt B9 tbc Ekottes and French men doo, 
m t^eis wordes gud and fust [SB] : 
Whenis most communel]^ we our selves 

i which Ibe Grekes, Latinea, the vulgar 
taliena, and Germuincs vith othen 
doo olwaial kepe his true aouod : as in 
theis wordea, but, mito, and further. 
[This thorougbty eicludes all suspicion 

othcn of the Skottish and frcnch abuse) 
f ou shat And the aouod of tbo diph- 
thong iu, keping both the i and u, in 
their proper vertu, both in sound and 
Toel, as afore is said wo oughl : sonnd- 
ing yt in that voice wherefore we now 
abuse to write, you." The ideatifica- 
tion with the French and Scotch 
sounds ought lo imply that that long u 
was (yy), but its denUGcatJon with yoa 
makes it (in) ; Hart bowever, in his 
orthographie also riaee (iu) for both 
sounds, as in the passage reprobated by 
Gill, BuprJi p. 122, where he writes 
you nse sis (iu joi) ; yet if any value is 
to bo atttibuled to his descriptiaD of 
long H, aaprii p. 1S7, he certainly meant 
(ju yyz) and it was only his ndtation 
which led him into an ambiguity which 
also deceived Oil!. But hers it is 
evident that he had not yet heard the 
difference between yfu; you, which Sir 
T. Smith writes (yy, iu), p. 166. This 
therefore may be a case 0l education of 
the ear, lie asks nowt "What dif- 
ference find you betwixt the sound of 
5 on, and u in gud and fust F Where- 
ire yf onr prcdeccHoure have thought 
it necesasri Co take tbrei.' voels for that 
voice, which in another place [90] Ibey 
(observing dBrivations) writ with one, 
there appeareth lo bo a confusion and 
nncvrtainte of the powers of letters, as 
they used tbeim. Lett ua then receive 
the perfet meone belwiit theis two 
doubtfull extremities ; and use the 
1 alwais for the sound of 

yon, and of u in sner, shut i braer, 
and souch lyke, writing theim thus 
shint, siuGT, hriuer :'' &e» the word 
^^Ht iMhI meanni'f oriAosffsMn^ri 
p. 216,n. 1, "whereforeinourwritingi, 
we nead cureftilli to put a sufficient dif> 
ference, betwixt the n and n : as theil 
and the prinles geve lufficient exunple. 
Now see you whether we doo well to 
writ the o in theis wordcs do, to & 
other (signifijng in latine n/iiu) wImo 

Sya the proper sound of the o : or 
r [91] the lyke sound (o dooble th« 
: as in poore, good, root, and soUch 
like of tfaat Bound ; bnt 1 find the sane 
dooble 0, nriten with reason in some 
wordea, when yt signylieth the louger 
time: as in moost, guost and goo. . . . 

J do] Then the nomhru of our voek is 
ve as the Grekes (concerning voioe) 
the Latines, the Germsinia, tboItalieM, 
tho Spayneyardes and others bare tlwaii 
hod, declared in aoucb their riagnlei 
power, as they hauc and doo, use t&eiu. 
. . . [96] ■ diphthong ii a ioinyng of 
two voela in one syllable keping thmr 
proper sound, onli somewhat shorten- 
ing the quantite of the first to the 
longer quanlite of the lost (p. I8S) : 
which is the onli divcraite that s diph- 
thong hath, from two voels commyug 
ti^tlier yet serving for two syllables, 
and therfore ought to be marked with 
the Hgure Siofpfirii, as tbalbc said." 
Among the dipliihongs he places flntt y 
considered as Greek m, and mom- 
mends its disuse, and then ui oonsidend 
as HH. for whieh be would write h. 
[101] "Wherefore we take the usiwrte 
to have so moch power as the w : ht 
this figure a, shall not (or ought not) 

e well V 

what, thus huen, urit and huat: and 
so if their lyke, oleane fonaldng tte 
w. Now the ea. so oRen as 1 see yt 
abused in diphthong, it is Tor the sound 
of the long e : wbeKn is the neveasita 
■puken of, for the use of u mark, for 
the accident of longer time (a* ben- 
after shalbe said) fur that the wiiind • 
Icngtb-I I02j-ned wil serve for the com- 
mune abusrd diphlhcmgs ea. ai or ay 
and ei or ey (p. 123): ibopowetsof 
which vooU wo DOW myi together cob* 

cb*». l,^^. { 3 

hakt's phonetic 


especially reprobates his proaimciatioii in many particulars {p. 122), 
Still we can hardly refuse to believe that Hart tried to exhibit that 
pronimciatioD of which he himself made uae, and which he conceived 
to be that which others either did or should employ. Moreover hig 
work contains the earliest connected speciraon of phonetic English 
vritiiig which I have met with, as Palsgrave, Saleabury, and Smith 
mij gave isolated words or phrases. Although Hart's hook has heen 
n![ax>diiced hy Mr. Isnac Pitman, the ordinary spelling in phonetic 
Aoithand, and the phonetic portion in facsimile writing (with tolera- 
ble but not perfect accuracy), yet as many persons would be unable to 
Ksd the shorthand, and would not therefore obtain a proper know- 
ledge of the meaning of the other portion, and as it is desirable, also, 
to reduce bU these phonetic accounts of English spelling to the one 
ftnndard of palaeotype for the purposes of comparison, I have 
thought it best to annex the whole of the last Chapter of Hart's 
book, according to my own interpretation. This Chapter gives 
Hart's notions of contemporary French pronunciation, a subject 
which has been already so much alluded to in Chap. III., that the 
remainder of this section wilt be devoted to it. Hart does not 
idntit of (w, j) but uses (u, i) for them, even in such words as 
wJUrA, write, which he exhibits as (uuitsh, ureit). I have else- 
where restored the (w, i) which were certainly pronounced, but 
in Uiis tnmshtcratioii it seemed best to follow him exactly in the 

hnbU nuking the Bound of the aame 
lasg e, aad not of an; pnrfiut ^pb- 
Ihodg : a« io thirii ciamplcs of the ea in 
Kara which <fc pronoance aoanding no 
{■It of the X, And for the si ar aj, at 
m Mm word bire pronounciag nether 
T : nlBO ;n udotn where 
thriphthong. Alio ei or 
B pronounce not in theta wordes 
" "~1 Ihfyio, and much lyke: 
eouau the o long as in nil 
Iha othm. Now for the ec, we abuBo 

IbdM I 

e heed the birdo doo 
ed : also for the ie in 
in lilcewiM for the co, 
), we onli lound the i long, 
f abuae the eo in the «ound of 

fi!U for lev : in deu. for dew, anil nnuch 
lyl(o (p. 138). The ue, as in question : 
in hucn, for when ; io uei, for well. 
Also the iu Ba in triath, for troeth : 
in rebiulc, for rcbutie : and in riule for 
mle. And the ui alone for our [lO^I 
falite aouadiug of we : and as in huich 
for nbich : uitniss for wittnesse, and 
aouch liko : [thia he idrntifln with 
Greek iri] . . . [106] n't for young, 
yoke and beyond, iong, iokn, and he- 
lond. Then the oi ia wel uaed in ap- 
tnint, enjoi, poison, and a hoi barke, 
[here there la a difference from hia 
IateroTthography(ntiei)(p,132)]. And 
not to he over tedious, we ii*e aright 
ttm diphthong ou in home, out, our 
and about (p. 152) : wherein we may 
perceive bow we have hept the anncient 
of the n: the aame diphthong 

L ■ rightTr mei (p. HI), u 
1 ud Inn, hnt not law. Then 
u wcl used in uarra, for warro : 
ad in'huat for what. Further the ei, 
I wel and propcTli u«ed in bet for by : 
B leil^ for lyle : and in aeid, for ajda 

ignoranlli writ theim, when we pro- 
nounce but the u, in hjT proper soond." 
Thia use of oh for (u) a frequent ia 
this MS. loucA, loHnji, noHeh, being 
conunou forma. The above eiCrscto 
socm to po»F8S auScioot intereat to 
admit of reproduction, but the work 
itself is entirclf supeneded by tha 


nse of {n, i). Hart also systematically employs (iu) for Ion 
but, as I have already pointed out (p. 1 67 ) and as will appear in the 
course of this example, lie meant the French M=(yy), and I have 
therefore restored that orthography, to prevent ambiguity. Where 
however t« clearly meant (ju, i,u), the latter forms are used. 
Hart does not mark the place of the accent, hut uses an acuto 
accent over a vowel occasionally to mark that it was followed by 
a uouhled consonant in the old orthography.' This acute accent 
is retained, hut the position of the accent is marked conjectnrally 
OS usual. Hart uses a daah preceding a word to indicate capitals, 
thus jiiaiian; I give the indicated capital. His ditereaia is re- 
presented by (,) as UBual. There are, no doubt, many errors la 
the marking of long vowels, which were indicated by underdotting, 
but I have left the quantity as I found it. The (s, z) are also 
left in Hart'a confused state. As I con find no reason for sup- 
posing short t to have heon (t) in Hart, although I believe th&t 
that was hJH real pronunciation, I employ (i) throughout. The 
frequent foreign words, and all others in the usual spelling, are 
printed in italirs. The foreign words serve partly to fix the value 
of Hart' a symbols. 

Exam'p'U iiou ser'tea udh'er nas'iona du sound dheer 
let 'era, both, in I>atiD, and in dheer mudh'er tuq, 
dherbei' tu kno dlie beefer hou tu prououns- dheer 
spiitsh'es, and so turiid dhem as dhee du. Kap. viij. 
For die konfirmas'ion ov dhnt nuitsh is seed, for dhe sounds 
az-ucl of vo'.ela az of kon ■ sonants ; auldhoH' ci Hoav in divers 
plas'cB Hicr-hcfoor- 8heu-,gd iu, hou ser'ten udh'er nas'ions dn 
sound part ov dheer Wt-ers : ei thont it gud mer, not oon-li to re- 
kapit'ulat and short'li reHorr, part ov dhe befoor- men-trioned, but 
aul'so tu giv iu t- understand' hou dhee du sound sutah dheer 
let'ers, az dh- ignorant dher-of shuld aprootsh- noth-iq neer tu 
dheer pronunaias'ion bei riid'iq dlieer ureitiqs or printa. Haer- 
for, hue so-iz dezei'rous tu riid dh- Itnl'ian and dhe Latin ax 
dheo du, ni must sound dlie vo',elz az ei noar sufis'ientli seed 
treat'iq ov dhem, and az ci naav yyzd dhem in aul dhisnyy man'cr, 
on'li eksept'iq dhat dhee maak dhia fig'yyr «, kon'sonant aa-uel u 
dhis V, Dheer e, dhee yyz aft'er aul vo',elz az wi dhe k, (as dbeer 
prodzhen-itors dhe Lat'ins did) and yyz not i at aul : but dhee- 
abyyz' dhe e, bifoor- e, and t, in dhe sound ov our cA or tsh, &x mm 
and aceioche, dhee sound ok~tBhe, aktsbioke', franeaco frant^es'ko, 
fiee, facendo, amid, fe-tahe, fatshcnd-o, ami-tdii : and for the sound 
ov dhe A, dhee yyz ch. Dheer g, dhee Hip az ei Haav dun aft-er 
TD*,elz, and befoor' a, a, and u ; but befoor' f and i, dhee saar 


' He lap : " I teane also all doublo 
Mnaoouitc : hauing a miLrke for Che 
loiif; TDwell, there U tberbj aufficioat 
knonledge giaea that euorje Tnmuiked 
Towell La short : jet vhems b} ciutome 
of double oonioitaiits lliere may b« 

doabt of the lenf^h. 

mark ouer it, of the a< 

thus (■)." What the mponinj 

acute accent is oo finiU totc 

Freach words, is not apparent. 

mny ne tlM 

CuiT. Till, j 3 

hart's phonetic writing. 


(byyzd' it widh as, for whitali ei Hanr yyzd dzh, and tu kiip dhat 
•otind bcfoor' a, o, and «, dhce uzurp' gi, aa Hath bin seed, and 
dberfoor' dhee never maak dhcer i, kon'sonant, fur dhee see not 
tgiuto but ainto, as mce bi dhua ai-uto. Bhi> t, dlicc never sound 
in «, az in praleUion, latit/altion, dhce sound dli6 t, nard, and dhcr- 
Ibor dub-'l it in dhooz nurdz and man-i-udh-era : but in giurisdi- 
lioHt, militia, tetilmtia, tnUnlione, and mani-udh crs dhee du not 
dilb''l it, iet dhee sound it as it iz, and never turn it in'tu dhc 
•ound ov t, but iv iu mark it ucl, dhee breth ov dhc t, pae'iq thruH 
dbe tjith, and tnni'iq tu dhc-i, duth inaak it siim as it ueer neer 
dhe sound or dhc, i, but iz not dhcifoor* so in €fekt'- For dher gli, 
dhee du not sound g, so Hard az ui uld, but so soft'li az it iz oft'n 
until and print-ed uidhout- dhe g. Dheer » dhee sound most 
k6m'oli dhe first », in (, as in forlena, gratidema, deitretza, but at 
nun teimz dhce sound dhcm az dhee du ee, as for dhiz naam dhce- 
nreit indtf'erentli Bccellino, or EfsuUino. Dhee naav aul-so dhe 
mind ov our fh or sh, euitHh diee-ureit »c, bcfoof, e, or i : dhec- 
yyi tn-ureit dhe th, but not for our tk, or th : for dhee naav not 
dhe sound dherof' in aul dheer npiitsh, nor ov dh, and sound it in 
MoUhio, az mee bt matnio, as of CA, iz seed in Thomas and T/iatnet. 
And for lak ot a knol'e<lzh for dhe kuantitiz ov dhcer TO',clii 
dbe^-fir konstreend' tu dub''l dheer kon'sonanta oft'n and mutsh ; 
■nd for dhe loq-er teim ov dheer vo'ela, dhee naav no mark : mier- 
fboT" Huo BO'.iz dczei'ruz tu riid dher ureit'iq uel, and im'itaat 
dheer prbnunsias'ion Had niid tu naav sum instruk'sion bci dhc 
leiv'li vOjis. And Kucn dhce du rcez dheer tyyn ov dhcer urds 
(snitBh iz ofl-n) dhee noot it uidh dhe Latin graav tyrn, dhus andd, 
varlA, » moilrd la nouild, al pothitA d» la tilth. And in riid'iq dhe 
ut'in, aul ilhat dhee ft'ind urit'n, dhee du pronouns', iivn as dhee 
ja dheer mudhcr tuq, in dho vcri sounds befoor--sood.* 

' Al (he proniinciitiini of Italian hu 
been olUn referred to. and m H. I. H. 
Princa Iiouu Lacten Baaapurte has 
htdy fpTcn mc bU liewt upon fome 
painn of tnUreet in ttalion proDUoda- 
tion, it «M>nu MinTcnioDl to make a 
Bote of thoin in lliii place. Tbemedial 

aatitj of Italian roweli hai already 

Mp. i 

3 andn. I). The 

TOw«l t bat two Miund* {e) cliwe and (b) 
open, the ialennrdiale (e) being on- 
nown, whrica* it it tbc opU t in 
Spwiisb. The towcI d bin abo two 
antuida, vbich buve in thii work been 
hitherto anum^ ai (nh) cloao and (o) 
men. The prince docs not allow 
nil : to biin (Mb) ii Swedith o long, 
ud (o] ii Bpaniah g. Ilia Italian 
doac doa Dot differ from (a), and hii 
open t is (a) ui (a), probablj' tho far- 
BW. His theorj u that wbcn * loD- 
f<H^ has onlj one «, e, as in Spanish 
wd modaa (ireck (raptit p, 633, L S 

(nun bottom), Welch, and therefore in 
Latin and earl^r EngUsb, it is (r, o) ; 
vben it has two t, and two s. thoj 
arc {«, i) and {». j) rrspectirolj. 
Again in the prononciatiim of the 
consonants in Italian, the Prinoe din* 
ting^iishes, an emphatic and a weak 
QtleranMt. The former is niDallj 
written doable, bnt, ho insiiU. is not 
oronounoed double, in the sense of p. 
' bat onlf empbatic, as if preceded 

onlv ei _ 
bj the sifni (.) P' ^^i~ 

a tbc oombi- 

wrongly u 

nations (.1, .A) 'in place of (th, if), or 
' outer" (t, d). The (bllowuig are tha 

words (ib. p. xut). " Si dii 
poich^ le coiitunanti ■ecmpi 
to in italiano < 


For die ma dutsh dhee sound aul dheer vo',elz in dhe v 
Bort : and never mask dhe i, kon-Bonant, nor abyyz- dhe p. bcfoor 
dhe e, and i, oz dh- Italian duth, but kiip it aul'ucz bcfoor' dhcm, as 

1) AUorchl, eeaenda iniziali, Tongono 
io priocipio di fiaae, ria al oominciar 
di OD periodo o di aaa dBBBnla twachd 
brcTe. sis dupo nna virgoln. 2) Al- 
loicbi, caminciiindo la siltaba, tooo 
preoodute du altra coiuonaiite. 3] Al- 

loTch^ O 

no' inonoBilUbi iT, dtl, Ac, i) Quando 
la roce prccedeate, bench! lenninat* 
in vocale, ria un ossitano opporo itn 
monosillabo derirato da Toce lalina 
tenninata in consoaante, la qual con- 
■onante pin reanc lopprEasa nel fand 
italiana o saraareaG detta iiicc talina. 
Cosl la prepoeizione a dcrivata dalla 
latina uf, la cangiaBzione t corriapon- 
dente ad e(, il »! derivato dal lir, il 
"ai" H«, le parole tranche come 
"ani6" amavil, " poti" poluit hanno 
tatU la proprietiL di dar pronunzia forte 
•Ua conranaata iniziale della Tuce 
Beniente; ed aTTCgnanh^ m ^^gS^ 
Kntto : a Pictro, c vei, li graiule. Hi 
guuto tie quttio, ami motto, poli poai, 
nan ai ode altrimenti che: appitiro, 
Irvei, tiggraiidt nagaato neequrlia, 
amommolto, peteppero. II suono debole 
delle eonaoiianCi, all' incoatro, avr& 
laof^ quando la Toce chc le precede ai 
tormina in tocsIc, eccetniati i caai 
nolati ncUe regole che preccdono. Coal 
in : di Maria, i doni, la ««n(r, U doiate, 
mi dia, ti lamia, si gade, ewa tnolto 
^t/ peea, multa largo, le eanw>nanti 
miziali della aeconda Toee ai proaun- 
liano deboli qaali ai veggono acritte, 

Zeaaere le parole latjoe corre»pon- 
td alia prima roce : di, Hit, ilia, 

Tonaie, oppare perch^, come in amo 
moite e muilo largo, le Yoci ama e inolto 

(10, ton, which have been anamed in 
tbia work to be (tah, dzb, to. di) i«- 
rormin^ tme cnnsonuiUl 

aimple soanda, capable of prolongatUD 
and dunbling. and he ceHainly so pto- 
nouncrd them. Sir T. Smith, and 

1 I'a. 

I auU- 

Tliia e 


aillaba." Compare the doable 
iDund of r, auprik p. 108, n. 2. 

iiphatic proQuncialion, in the 
m» orfpb. ti, kg) co™i,Um. 
firmer contact and conseqncntly i 
explosive nlteranee of the loll 
Towel; ia the case of {/, r, i) i..., _ 
a closer appruiimation of the urgana 
and a sharper biaa or buix. But in 
Sardo BoBBareBc, the weak proauncia- 
tion generatea new Miunds, weak (p, t, 
k, t) becoming [b, d, g, bh). The 
Prince waa alao teej particular reapect- 
ing the pnnuBCiatioti e,f,t ia «, gi; 

Hart both uaed simple signs (or (Uh, 
dih), Gill tiaed a aimple sign for (dih) 
but otutljited it into (dijj. HnTt,bow- 

considored (lah] •■ 
simple, but hie wordi are not clear. 
The eSect of the simple sound used hj 
the Prince, was thai of (t*ah, d'lH, 
(■a, d*z), that is an attempt to niaka 
both pairs of effects at oace. Thia n- 
aulta m a closer and more forward coa- 
tact, nearlj (shf, lh^ sf. tt) bat Ihe 
fit's, d»i) did not resemble (th. db). 
This effect majr b« oon»enientljf written 
(]sh, izh, IS, n)- The effect of (]>h, 
;zh) on English ean is nmbiguotia. At 
oae time it aonnds (sh, ih) and at an- 
other (Uh, dib], with a decided initial 
(t, d) conloctat we pronounce in Eng- 
lish, and the Prince again heati mr 
(tab, dzb) as his (ish, izh). It wonld 
almost seem that (ish, )zh} wen the 
true iatenncdiate aoDoda between (kj, 
gj) aad (tah, dzh). But a Piunl 
Torietj of (kj, gj) which may for dia- 
tinctnesa be wnlten (ly; g» U a atiU 
more unatabie sound to foreign CMi. 
In precisely the same way (k's, k*dl) 
may be produced, the tongue being 
more retnicled and the tongue cloaer 
to the palate than for (a, ah). In tlM 
Sardo Tcmpieae dialect (k*eb) occnra 
and is written Ice. Tboc sounds m^ 
be written (i[a, ^sh) in iuiitation at 
{v, ^b). Waa the Attic initiBl t, r 

tact of tongue and lips, which prabaUj 
oocura in Atrican dialects may be h(p, 
Ip), as Blightly different from (kir, 
tu<). The Hliiilants may now be greatlf 
multiplied. Tho pnace prononoGed 
the following : (s z, ah ili ; ai ij. ehj 
ihj ; IS ji, ish izb ; laj wj, isbi iriy) 
all OS aimple auunda. Emphatic pio- 
nunciation, aimultancooa proauBciabon, 
and BuccesaiTD prononciatioa atiU m- 
quire mnch fl^>a^fideTa^i"7^ wnd pr" -'^^* 



befoor a, o, and u ; and dhe Flcm-iq tu bi syyr tu kontin-yy dhat 
lonnd, dudii jjz it befoor' «, and t', widh, k. Nor Hath dho Dutsh 
[over nor nedh-er) dhat sound nuitsh iz dhe leik of our j, kon-aonant, 
ittd dh* itul'ian g, bcfoor'-seed, for Huitab ei yyz ilxh, but dbe 
breth dher-of dbe Eia Dutsh Haav, and ureit it widL Uch, And 
bodb dhe fifryps for dhe feivth yo-,el, dhee yyz uidhout" an-i serten 
dlf'erens Huit^h ehuld bi vo',q1 or Buitsh kon-sonant: and dhen 
assT (Ibec dhe dif'thoi^s befoor' naamd, Huit^h ar tu bi noot'ed 
OT dhat Iq'ILsb man Huitsb shaul dczcir- tu leem dheer tuq.' And 
do-yyz tu dub''I dLttr vo'.elz for dheer loq-er teim. Dhoe Haay 
anl'Bo our sound ov nh, or sh, for Huitsh dhee yyz teli, as gehain, 
leMe, JUiich, and Jitch, dhee sound as ui mee shaam, ahcl, flush, 
fiafa, and ae«, sex, dhee sound az duth aul-so dh- Italian : anil ax ui 
dn she, shi. Dhee never put dhe c, ia-tu dhe sound of a, but yyz 
i, tu hi-ont of dout. Dhee yyz dhe Q ver-i sel'dum, but dhe k, 
nntsh in plaas dher-of, and dhe a dhee du- oft n sound brood'er 
dheu m duu, but mutsh aul'so-as wi do. And for the rest dhee 
^Honotuia- aol dhee ureit, and kiip dheer l^t*er3 in dhe self sound, 
aoer-iii dhee riid aul-so dher Latin. 

Nou third'li for dhe Spaniard, ui abyyz'cth dhe t, and u, in kon-- 
aoDasts as ui-and dho Frensh du, and dhe u, oft-n, in dho Frcnsh 
■nd Skot-ish sound: and dhe ch, in muehaeho az ui du in tahalk and 
tahius : but for aul dheer udh'er vo',etz and let'ers dhee yyz dhem 
in dhe saam sounds dhat du dh-Ital-ian and Ihitsh, but <lhat dhee 
jjTB dhe y az ui naav duun (Buit«h nedh'er Itat-ian nor Dutsh 
mid) tu bi dhcrbci- eezd ov dhe dout ov dhe t, kon'socant nuiteh 
sound leik dhe Frentsh. Dhe c dhee yyz in a, uidhout- an-i 
Uf-erena befoor' *, and t. but befoor- a, o, and «, dhee nnav 
a-lit-'l, J, under dhus, j : dhee-yjK ncv-er dhe i, but dhe 
, dh-Ital-iau : dhec-yyz dhe II in ilhe sound of '1, uidh d 

Dho u, in giUB 
mmru, dhee sound as ui 
kHp dbe aun-xient Latii 
It^'ian and Dzhcr*niiiin 
mdh a-lit-'l instrukaion 
dl- Ital-ian.* 
obtenttian of exi^nfr nwgei. The 
dittculty f KpoTAtrng the aanal spccoh 
Unb of the nsU-nrr and ipcak^r, and 
of BOt URiming the lint tu bo a eoncct 
Moooal oT tlie Mcond. is mote and 
nan ftU u Uie knowlod^ uf the pba- 
Mlio preocM inoreucu. We hnvc m 
fMaaOMMril; given «a nndao amount 
■WMnridenitioii to uuljaii, in order to 

a^JMt «f the Importsnt atudj of (70- 
flin^ wbMiae alone eon mult the pro- 
pw soneeption of national speech with 
tk whole nrm of Itgata. ttaaato. phu- 
BUie unmilation, phonetic diirup- 
tioB, iLua, intonation, qaautitj, t^m- 
pbiii of letUr, tjUahle, word, of the 

;iid, out, dheo du seldum sound, as for qu« 
mee ke kier-es. And for aul dhe rest dhee 
sound, and so riid dheer Lat'in az du dh- 
. and for aim dhat Hath the Lat'in tuq 
iz oz ez'i tu riid and under-stand- az iz 

ntniDst importance to oompiirati'C phi- 
lologist, and almost totally uaknown to 
oomparstive philolagiita. 

' The prMMje referral la ii at fiil- 
lowt : " The Dntch doe th also au, ti, 
and it, rightlj it» I do hereafter, and 
a, in the (unnde of a, or (e) long : s, in 
the fonodo of a, or (en) ; li in tha 
lonnd of (jy), or the French and Scot- 
tiih u -, ifot HI, and ti for (un), long, 
or French ou." Fa. M 4. mitpriHUd 
fo, 31, f. 3, IH lU arigiaai rrfirt^e*. 

< The Sponiih hw onlj five ToweU 
(b, e, i, 0, u) of medial Icn^h (p. SIS, 
n. n. The Spanish eA it oqf i_ti.ti) or 
()ih). Prince Loni* Ltlcicn Uonnpart* 


And nou last ov ftul, dhe Frensb, uidh dh-abyys ov dhe u, in 
dhe skot'ieh leik souud ov dhe I'u diphthoq, nuitah, nor Ital ian, 
nor Duteh did ever giv tu ti, and yyz'iq dhe j?, and J, kon'sonaat 
in dhe eound Hucr-of, our sh, iz dbe bredh'cd koD'souant: and 
turn-iq dhe i, ia-tu c, Huen ui, uidh aiU die rest, du aoimd the «, 
(eksept' dhe Spon'iard, itz ui saav aul'so yyzd betuikst- tnu 
To-elz) and kiipiq an udh-er tcim in dLcr vo-,elz dhen ui du, and 
yyz'iq dheer e, in deivers BOunda, and dhe o eiun'Euat aui'so : bd 
not sound'iq dhe u, in qui, und qua, hut az uii mee kii and kee, 
uidh leeT'iq mon'i or dheer let'ers unsound-ed, dutb kanz dheer 
spiitsb Tcr'i nard tu bi lernd bci art, and not ecz'i bei dhe 
leivli vo'jis, az it iz notor'i.uzli knooa. So az if ei shuld ureit 
Frensh, in dhe let-era and or'der nuitah ei du nou-yyi, ei-am ser-ten 
dhat iu shuld muteh suun'er kum tu dheer pronunsiss'ion, 
dher-bei, dhen bei ureitiq az dbee du. And tu eksperiment dhe 
mfit'er, and tu maak sutsh az understand- Frensh, di^hudzh'es 
dber-of, ei uil ureit dhe Lords preer az dbee du, nuitsh shuld be 
prezent'ed tu sutsb an oon, az kan riid dbia mas'er, and iet under- 
etand'^tb not dhe French, and pruuv nou si kan riid and prononni- 
it : and dhen present' it nim in dliia man'er ov ureit'iq, az mcr- 
after : and kompoar" His pronunsias'ion tu dbo fonu'cr, and in 
shuld pruuv dbut ^fekt', nuitsh kan not bi bront tu pas bei our 
fonn-er nmn*er. And dber-foor nier fot'uetb dhe lorda preer first 
in Fronsh in dheer raan-cr ov ureit'vq : Noitre pert qui m ii eieiue, 
Tan nam »oit aanctifie. Ton Regnf adutenne. Ta voionlf loU fait» 
en la terrt eommt au del. Donnt-nmu au-iourd'kai/ nottrt p«m 
quotidian : St notu pardonn* not offetuti, eommt ttout pardonitont 
A eeux qui nou» ont offtntet. £t nt nou» indui point en ientalion: 
ntait nouf deliure du mal. Car d toy est Is rtgnt, la puissance, et la 
gloire it tieeUi, det sieelet. Amen. Nou iu dhis nyy mau'er 
az fol'u.eth, Nootrae pceran ki-ez eez aicuz, tun Num Boit 
santifi^. Tun Kenan avienan. Ta uolunt^ aoit Kt4iH, an U 
tArae kiiman oo aiol. Diine-uuuz ozdzhuurdiii uootraH pcen 
kotidian. E nuu pardunan noz ofanses kuman nuu pardunuuns 
a scuz ki nuuz unt otansez. E ne uuuz indui point an tan- 
taa'ion : meez nuu delivmn dyy ma'l. Kar a toe cet le recn-an, 
la pyy,isanBe e la gloeraa eez Hieklea dez siekles Aman. Nou 
kon-trariueiz uil ei ureit nier-un-der in dheez nyy let-ers (and 
kiip'iq dheer sound az bcfoor") nou dhe Frensb du pronouns' dheer 

dsnim that (v, dh, z] occur in Spanish, 
but admits {£, tb, s], bh aounda of/, i, (or 
e before i, i,) and «. Thia pronunciation 
of c, ( is doubtfol. It mafbe (sh}i and 
cvrtaialv bj Bome d is piononnced 
either (dh) or (zl"], rapcciall)' vhea 
final. In the common termination -oiAi, 
tho rf is often quito lost, but the votteU 
are kept distinct in tiro syllabln, and 
do not form n diphthong. In the ter- 
minitian -ido, the d is acTcr loit. The 
(a) aound of r, i, is not acknowledged 
in Madrid. The letters ^ v are pro- 

nounced alike and as (bh). The >la 
by some said to be a pivnttaT ^ttinttl, 
bat the Prince identifies it with (kh). 
LI. n arc (Ij, nj]. Hart oonftwa U 
with Welih U, as does Saleriw;, 
(sapril p. T57J, but Hart alio oonftiMi 
the Boand with ('!), or It in abU {amri 
p. l^S\ ; which he probablv called 
(W'blhj as in French (supra p. 63). 
There aeenu to be no foundation for 
lupposine that Spaniah u waa ever i]), 
aa stated bf Uart. 


Lst'in: and dhat aul'so In dkc Lords prcer, miitsh iz oz dhua. 
Paater noster ki ez in scliiz, suntiliBet)yr nomen tyy.yyni, atveniat 
refnyym tyy,yyni fiat volantaaz tyya sikjyt in aelo e in t^ panem 
nosbyym kotidianj'ym dn nobiiz odiie et dimiite nobii debiita 
nostra, HJkyyt et noz Jimijttmyyz debitoribyyz nostriiz, Et ne 
noE indyykaaz in t«ntnsionem: Sot libera noz a malo. And ci 
remem'bcr ov a mer'i dzhest ei Hoav nerd ov a buce miiteh did 
Betp a Frensb priiat at mas, huo eee'iq dominyy Tobiikyym, dhe 
buee Heer-iq it sound stmndzh-li-in niz ecr, auneuered, eth kum 
tiileri tiikyym, and bo uent laun'iq His ucc. And so pcr- 
•dren-tyyT iu-uil at dlie riidnq, az in mee biliiv mc-ei did at 
dhe oreit'iq Hii?r-of. Ei kuld urcit aul'so hou dbe frensh and 
ndli'er for'ens du spek Iq'lish, but dhccr man'er is so plen'tifnl in 
man-i-of otir eerz, az ei thiqk it HUper'fli,U2. Dho rez'on Huei 
dbee kan not sound our apiitsb, iz (az in tnce pcrseeT* bei dbat is 
seed) bikauz' ai naar and yyz scr'tecn sounds and breedhz suitsh 
dhee HBav not, and du-aul*so yyz tn sound sum of dhooz let-erz 
Kuitab dbee-yyz uidh us, udb'cnieiz dben dbee duti : and dhee 
for revendzh' sum ov ourz udh'erueiz dhcn ui duu. nuitsli iz dhe 
k»uz aul'ao dhut dhecr Hpiitshcz ar Hard for us tu riid, but dhe 
aound ouns kuoon, ui kan eez'ili pronouns' dhers bei dbu rez'on 
ahuv'seed. And dhus tu-end if in thiqk lit''l prof'it tu bi in dhis 
Buer-in et Bav kaus'eil iu tu pas iar teim, ei uil iet disUhardzh' 
mei self dhat ei-am fiayy-rcd it kan du-iu no narm, and so dhe 
ralmiat'i Gad, giver ov aul gud thiqs, bliis uz aul, and send us 
sis groas in dhia tron'Ritori leif, and in dhe uorld tu kum, leif ever- 
last-iq. So bi-tt. FINIS. Sat ciio ti »at bme. 

Alexandbh Bakclit'b French FBONUNCiATiaii, 1621. 
In the introductory Authoura Epittell to th» K^ngts Graft, pre- 
fixed to Palsgrave's Eiclarcittement, he says : " Oncly of this thyng, 
pnttyn^ your highnesse in remenibraunce, that where as besydes 
lit great nombre of clcrkca, whichc before ecason of tbia mater 
luNe written nowe sithe tfi« boginnyng of your most fortunate and 
moat prosperous raigne," that is, between 22 April 1509 and 18 
lair 1630, " the right vertuous and excellent prince Thomas late 
Dnke of Northfolko, hath commanded the studious clerke' Alexandre 

ind what myn opinian is therin, it shall 
well inough apcre in m; boVes soUe, 
though I ittke therof no frrthet ex- 
presgn meDcian ; lane that I haoe woe 
>a olde boko writtca in purchemeat 
in muneT in sll thyngea liku to his ujd 
Introductorj : whiuhe, by cuuiccture, 
wu nst Tnvrittcn Ihii hundred jera. 
I TOt nat if hG hupponed to farlano 
npon lueho bd other : for •rbn it «u 
Gummaundud that the gmniniiirmustcn 
shulde t«bo Ui youth of Knglimdo 
ioyntly latin with frtnohc, there were 
diuone lacbo bokci diuyeod: wher- 
vpon, u I n^poK bcgui eno gt»t 



Barkclay, to crabusy hym sclfe about ibis escercyBC, BJid that n _ 
sayd synpiler good lorde Charles dnke of Suffolke, by cause th^ 
my poore labours required a longre tracte of tyme, hath alao in the 
mcane eoaeou encouraged maistcr Fetnis TJallensys, scole maister 
to his excellent yong Bonne the Erie of Lyncolue, to shewe his 
lemynge and opinion in this behalfe, and that the synpuler clerke, 
maistcr Oylcs Dowcr Bomtyme instructour to your noble grace in 
this selfo long, at the eBpcoiall inataunce and request of dyuera of 
your highe cstatee and noble men, hath also for his partyc written 
in this matter." For the last treatine, see supri p. 31. The 
second I have not seen.' A copy of the first, which is extremely 
raro and does not seem to have been known to A. Sidot, as it is not 
found in his catalogue, (see p. 589, n. 1), exists in the Douce Col- 
lection at Oxford (B 507) and the following are all the part* in it 
relating to French pronunciation, according to the transcription of 
Mr. G. Porker, of Oxford, who has also collated the proof with the 
original. The whole is in black letter ; size of the paper 10} in. 
X 7 in., of the printed text 8j in. x 5J in. ; 32 pages, neither 
folioed nor paged, the register at bottom of recto folio is : A 1-6, 
B 1-6, C 1-4. In this reprint the pages are counted and referred 
to, as in the editions of Saleshury. The pages are indicated by 
thick numbers in brackets. Remarks are aJso inserted in brackets. 
The / point is represented by a comma. Contractioca are ex- 
tended in italics. 

[1] If Here begynneth the introductory to wryte, 

and to pronounue Frcnche eompylcd by Alexander 

Barcley compendiously at the com mauw dement of the 

ryght hye excellent and myghty prynce Thomas duke 

of Northfolke. 

[Plate representing a Hon rampant supporting a shield containing 

a white lion in a border. Then follows a French baUod of 16 lines 

in two columns, the first headed " B. Coplandc to the whyto lyon," 

and the second " K Ballade."] 

[2] Blank at back of tiUe. 

hiiue ss gooA a toa^e to auunde all 
moner sp^i^hca paiiilSlj ue anT other 
nacjon in Europa." — Book I, cb. iixt. 
According to this, 1) there ought to bo 
many old MS. treatisca on French 
Grammar, and 2) the English pronnn. 
ciatjon of Latin whb moulded on tba 
French, gupril p. 246. 

' There is also an older trestiie 
" Hora begjTinetli h lytcU Treatyse for 
to learDD the Enghbhe and Frene^hc. 
Emprynlsd at weatminBt«r by my 
Winken dc Worde. Quarto," ob cit*3 
in Dibdin'i edition of Ames Typ. Ant. 

1512, Tol, 2, p. 328. The tvpf he 
refers to belonged to Mr. Reed of 
Staplo's Ino, then to the Man]iiia of 
Blandford (Cataloena libromm qui in 
Bibliotheca Bland^rdicnsi reperinntnr, 

1513, tiasc. 2. p. 8) and itas Bold by 
anction at Eiaus'i salo of While 
Knighls Library 1S19, to Rodd tha 
bookseller, for 91. 16>., aSiKT which I 
have not been able to trace it, bat Hr. 
Bradshaw says it is only a reprint of s 
vork of Caxton's (Tbc book of TraTel- 
Icrs, Dibdins Ames, 1. 31o. dl6). oon< 
tuining French phrases, bst no infot- 
mation on pronunciation. A mutilated 

of Caxton'i book ia In the Doom 

copr of Ca* 




]S] [% The prologue of the auctonr. On Pronouns.] 

]4J [^0- joined with Verbs. On this page occurs the follow- 
ing, beginning at line 6 : — ] 

% Also whan these wordes. nous. vous. and ilz, be set before 
Terbes begynnynge wttA ony consonant, than amonge comon people 
of fi!aance the ,s, and ,z, at ende of the sayd wordes, nous. yous. 
and ilz, leseth the sounde in pronouncynge though they be wryten. 
But whan they are ioyned with yerbes begynnyng wttA ony yoweU 
fhan the .s. and .z. kepcth thcyr full sounds in pronouncynge. 

[6-8] [On Verbs. At p. 8, 1. 21, we read] 

Hsre after foloweth a smal treatyse or introductory of ortogra- 
phy or true wrytynge, wherby the dyligcnt reder may be infourmed 
tnAy, and peifytely to wryte and pronounce the frenche tunge 
after the dyuers customes of many cou'itrccs of frau»UM3. For lyke- 
wysc as our englysshe tunge is dyuersly spoken and varycth in 
certayne countrees and shyres of Englandc, so in many countrees 
of frauitce yaryeth thcyr langage as by this treatyse euidently shall 
appere to the redcr. 

\ First how the. lettres of the A. b. c. are pronounced or sounded 
in frenche. 

% Lettres in the. A. b. c. be. zxii. whiche in frenche ought thus 
to be sounded. 

ab c defg hiklmnopq 
A boy^ coy doy e af goy asshe ii' ka el am an oo poy cu 

rstyx y z& parle 9 parse, 

aar ees toy y yeux ygregois zedes et parlui. 9 parlui. or, parsoy. 

^ And albeit that this lettre .h. be put amonge the lettres of 
the alphabcte, yet it is no Icttrc, but a note of aspcracyon, or token 
of sharpc pronouncynge of a wordc.' Also .&. and .9. are not 
counted amonge the lettres : and so remayneth. xxii. lettres in the 
alphabcte bcsyde .h. and .9. as sayd is. 

^ Compare Palflgrave's Introduction 
to his second Book : " In the namyng 
of the sayd consonantcs the frenche-men 
diffre from the latin tong, for where as 
the latines in soundynge of the mutes 
b^grn with the letters sclfc and cndo 
in £, sayng B£, CE, D£. &c. the 
frenche men in the stode of £ sound 
Oy and name them Boy, Coy, Doy/' 
ete. Ilence the oy in these words was 
not (ec) as it has now become. Pals>^ 
ftwe adds : '* and where as the latines 
in sooifdyng of theyr liquidcs or semi 
Towclles begyn with £. and ende with 
them, sayngc £1, £m, £n, the frenche 
• ible 

doable the liquide or semi vocale, 
and addc also an other £ and name 
them £llc, £mme, £nno, gcyung the 
accent upon the iyrtt £, and at the last 

£ depressyng theyr Toyce." This is 
different from Barcley. 

' This must surely be a mispxint. 
The dots are faint. The vowel 11 doei 
not occur in this alphabet. 

* This explanation of aspiration^ 
renders the real sound of A doubtful ; 
as to whether it was (h) or (,) as at 
present. The fo.lowing quotations 
trom a French newspaper, contained 
in the DaiVy Ntw8, 14 Sept. 1869, 
illustrates this modem use. "L*H 
est-il aspire dans llugoP Fautildire 
Victo Kugo ou Victor UgoP II mo 
semblo, moi, que Taspiration scrait 
plus respectueuse." Observe that no 
H is written in either case, but that 
the runnini^ on of the R, or the hiatus 
before U a£>ne mark the absence and 


^ Theee sayd : xxiL lettres be deuyded all into vowels an 
■onBMtes .V. of them be called Towels, wbiehe be these, a. e. i. o. a, 
these fyue be called vowela for eche of them by them^lf ioyned 
wtU none othn' Icttrc maketh a full and paifect worde. Y. is a 
greko ToweU. and is not wry ten in latyn wordca, but in greke wordes. 

[91 H And wordes of other laigagea wi'tAout one of tliesa 
vowels : no lyttfral voyce may be pronunced' of these .v. Toweb 
.ii. leBeth thcyr strength somtyme : and become consonantis whiche 
.ii. be these. I. and v. whiche ar consonantis whan they are put in 
the begynnyn^ of a syllablo ioyned with another vowel and syl- 
lablyd or spellid with the flame, as in these wordes in frencho lonei 
to play vonter, to boate : and so in other lyke,' 

IJ The other .svi. letters called be consonantis : for they be 
(ouadyd with the vowels and make no syllable nor wordc by them 
selfe eiceptc they be ioyncd with some vowel, consonantis be these, 
b. e. d, f. g. k. 1. m. n. p. q. r. 8. t. I. z. 

^ These consonantis be deuydyd agayne into mutes Uquidos and 
Bcmy vowels of whom nedyth not to speke for oar purpose. A 
dyptonge is a ioynyngo to gyther of .ii. vowels kepyng eche of 
them his strength' in one self syllable : of them be .iiii., that is to 
say, aa, eu, ei,' oy. In latyn timge ,au, and ,eu be bothe wryt«n 
and sounded' .ay, and ,oy, be wryten but not sounded, hat in 
&enche and englyeshe tunge bothe ay oy au and eu be wryten and 
Bounded,* as in these examples in frenche of au. voycy \-ng beim 
filz, here is a fayre sone. of ea, deux homes font plus quo vng: 
two men dooth more than one, of ay, ie ne diray point ma pcnoee 
a toutz gentz. I shall not tell my thought to all folkes. Of 
oy as, toy mcimes ma fait le lo tort, thy self hast none me the 
wronge. That the same dyptonges be both wryten and sounded 
in englyashe it appereth by the examples. As a maw, strawe, 
tawe, dcwe, sewe, fewe. fray, say, may, pay. noy, boy, toy, ioy. 
And thus haae we more lybeito bothe in frcnche and englys^ie in 

preseius of aipiratioD. And this mnir 
Lire haea Barcle^'s meaning. But 
see iaSri p. SOU, 1. i. 

' Tho poiniidg ie eridently wrong. 
There should bu a period here, and Uie 
colon Wler "yowiiIb" seems mi">"~-> 
The enpresBion "lytlBral vojca" 
then, rather obBcuro. 

> ThU onsht (o mean that the sound 
of eaph is heard, and ooi^ht to dinlin- 
inisb real diphtlioaus from digraphs. 
Bat the Bultior eo little understands 
the nature uf speech that he may 
merely mean that iho two letters being 
jnitaposed modify each others sigiiili- 
cation, producing it tertium quid. The 
LambeU Iragmcnt (supri p.226,n. 1), 
livta 3 ijIlablM to tidir,aueim, 6 U 

inlltur, ■ 

» nireux, which wonld alt 

then it proceeds to gi*e 3 
syllables to amr, in which there oui ba 
no douht that on was a dignph. 

* The omisaioD of oi is lery remaA- 
ahle. But from vhat foilowa it can 
hardlj bo doubtal that ai was intludd 
under ei, or that ei was a miipiut 

■ This ought lo imply that I«tin 
au, til, were then called (an, eu), tad 
this would agreo with oiboT indieatfoDi 
of English oouicniporary pronnneiatiMb 

' As we know from Salnbiirr ^^ 

about 30 years later English ay, of, mt, 
were cb1!«1 (ai, oi. au) at least in Mma 
coses, these words ought lo imply thai 
they hod the same sound in Freuoh. 
This would agree at any rate witb 

Cmat. TUL i 3. baxcley's french pronunciation. 807 

wiytynge and Bouiidynge than in latyn as touchynge the .iiii. 

% Also here is to be noted that of lettres we make syllabes : of 
syllabes we frame wordes, and of wordes we combyne reasons, and 
1^ reasons all scyences and speches be yttred. thus resteth the 
groonde of all scyences in lettres, syllabes, wordes, and reasons. 
Vherfore (as of the fyrst foundacyon of frenche tunge and also of al 
other langages) fyrst I intende by the ayde and socour of the holy 
goost to treate how the lettres be wrytcn and sounded in frenche. 

^ Of the soundynge of this lettre .A. in frenche. 

Tnis lettre .A. in frenche somtyme is put onely for a lettre. 
And somtyme it is put for this englysshc worde. hath. Whan it is 
pat but for a lettre it is often sounded as this lettre e. as in this 
frenche worde, staues^ vous : in englysshc, can ye. In whiche 
worde and many other as, barbe, and rayre. witA other lyke this 
lettre. A. hath his soundc of this lettre .e. But in some countrees 
JL is sounded with full sounde in lyke maner as it is wryten as^ 
layre, and suche other whan this lettre .A. is put for a worde it 
betokcneth as moche in englysshc as this worde .hath. But some 
frenche men than adnex .d. withall as, ad. as il ad, he hath. But 
Buche mancr of wrytyngc is false, for this lettre. d. is not sounded 
nor pronounced in frenche, nor founde often wrytcn in the ende of 
ony worde. And though some wolde say in these frenche wordes, 
▼iande, meate. demandc, enquyre or aske. and that .d. is sounded 
in ende of the worde, it is not so. for in these wordes and other 
lyke, suche as truly pronounce frenche resteth the sounde on the 
last letter of the worde whiche is .e.' and not .d. 

riO] H Also in true frenche these wordes, auray, I shal haue. 
ana, auroy, I had : be wryten witAout e in myddes of the worde, 
Md in lykewyso be they sounded without, e but in ccrtayne 
conntrees of fraunce in suche maner of wordes this lettre e is 
sounded and wryten in the myddes as thus, aueroy, aueroie : 
whiche is contrary bothe in the true wrytynge, and also to the true 
pronuncyacion of perfyte frenche' 

^ How this lettre b ought to be wrytcn and sounded in frenche 
thempi*rour for the emperour^, and so of other lyke. 

% Also this worde auec may be wrjrten in dyuers maners after the 
cnstome and vsage of dyuers countrecs of fraunce as thus, auccques: 
waeque. And some w/tAout reason or ortography wryte it with .s. 
i« the myddes as aues(}Uf. but how so euer aueqti« be wryten in 
frenche it soundoth as moche in englysshc as tliis pr^posycyon with. 
And also this worde solonc may be wryten witA c, or els witAout c 

1 The words st aves votM arc not ' Implpng, of course, that the final 

dear. The use of a in the sound e e, now mute, was then audible, but 

teems to be dialectic in barbr^ sec the onl^ faintly audible, or else the error 

quotation from Chcvallet, p. 75, at which he combats, could not have 

bottom. But in raj/re, (which ought arisen. 

■ot to be rarCf but the book is so full 'In this case probably u prcscrred 

of errors that it may be,) to scrape or its consonantal power, the remnant of 

ihtTe, the remark seema to imply a^ the Latin d. 


at the esde as boIosc or soIon, but than o ought not to be bi 
yf a conBonant immedyatly folowe. 

[Then follow the headings, Of Nombres, in one paragraph, uid 
Of Gendrea, in four paragraphs, the last of which ia :] 

^ Many mo rules be ooueemyiiBe wrytynge and spekynge of 
frenche, which were to longe to expres in this small trcatyse: hut 
the moate periytenes of this langage is had by customc and vse of 
ledynge and spekynge by often enquyrynge : and frequentynge of 
company of frenchemen and of suche ua haue perlyteoes : in spek- 
ynge the sayd langage. 

[H] [Treatyso of dyuerse frenche wordes after order of the 
Alphabete .A. B., and then on 1. 8 from bottom the author proceeds 

^ This lettro. B. eet in the myddcs of a frenche worde ought to 
be Boundyd in maner as it is wryten, aa debriscr. ta hniae, troublot. 
to trouble, but in these wordea folowynge .h. ia wryt«n in the 
myddes and not soundjd aa, dehte. dctte, endehter. deaoubz. vnder- 
neth, desabz. abouo, eoubte. a ribbe, vng subget. Also these 
verbes doubter, to dout, tresdouhter. greatly to dout, substiner with 
all theyr modes and tensya as well syoguler as plurell with all 
nowuea and porticyples deacendynge of them, muat bauc .b. wryten 
in the myddea of them and not soundyd, aa wryt«n double tres- 
douhtc. and aoundyd doutc, and tresdoute. 

[12] Of. C. f This letter .C. wryten in myddea of a wordo 
hathe Boratyme the sounde of this letter .s. or .z. aa these woidea. 
ca. on this half. piccA. a whyle agonc. roncon a ranson. frnnoois. 
frenche. and in many other lyke wordes whiche aomidyth thus with 
.8. ea piesa ranson froncois. Also this letter ,c. somtyme hath the 
Bounde of .k. oa in these wordes in frenche crou. cm. cause, and 
oar. Also these wordes done and iouc are wryten with .c. in the 
ende in synguler nombre, hut in Me plurell nomber the .c. in them 
is toumyd in to .x. as doux ioux. 

Of. E. II E. for the moate parte ia aouadjd almost lyke .a.' and 
that namely in the ende of a worde. as in this example. A moR 
premier commencement soit dieu lo pcre omnipotent. At my fyrsto 
hegynnynge be god the father aimyghtj". II a Tug bon entendc- 
ment. these wordes commencement omnipotent entendement vent 
with other lyke. be aoundyd with a. as cofnmencemant. omnipotant 
antandemant vant and other lyke. and all suche wordes must have 
a short and aharpe attcnt or pronunciacion at the ende. 

li And here ia to he notyd that al maner nownes of the mascu- 
lyne gender endynge in the synguler nomber in .c. g. or .£ at 
blanc. whyt. vyf. quielie, long, longe, shall be wryten in the plorell 
nombre with .s. Lauynge .c. g. or .f. put awaye from them, ae 
blana. vis. lona. 

Of. 0. ^ Whan this letter .g. is wryten in frenche in myddcs of 

' ThonRh eiprMsed gcnoralljr, this JTart also pronounced (mil, «nprl p. 

remarlc cvidoDtJ; refnra eti^lusivcl; to 802, Sev hJbo mfci Iti Uiis } lor ul 

tho ajfllabla m where it is now pro- the Frcoah oisBls during iho XTlth 

Bounoed (u), whioh wb h»e sesD nentury. 


t worde bytwene a vowell and a consonant, than shal it bo soundyd 
Ijke .n. and .g. As compaigon, compaige. How be it somo wryte 
rache wordes as they muste be soundyd with .g. and .n.^ as com- 
pagnon. a felawe. compaigne. a company. 

Of. H. % H. is no letter but a tokyn of asperacion or sharpynge 
of a worde, as in these wordes, hors. out, dehors, without, honte. 
shame, haut. hye, and in other lyke in whiche wordes and lyke .h. 
ii sounded. oUicr wordes be in whiche. h. is wryten and not 
ioundyd as heure. an houre, helas. alas, homme. a man, witA other 

Of. I & E. ^ I. and. E. or ony other two vowels ioyned 
tender in myddes or in the ende of a worde. whan they are put 
lyytwcne two consonants, or bytwene a vowell and a consonant. 
tban eyther of them shall haue his founde as in these wordes 
biens. goodes, riens. no thjrnge, loie. loy, voic. a way. And suche 
lyke wordes. yet some holdc oppynyon that in these wordes, and in 
nche other .1. or E shall not be soundyd. 

^ Also in true frenche these wordes. le. ce, are. wryten without 
o. in theyr ende but in pycard, or gascoygnc, they are wryten with 
o. at the ende, as thus ieo ceo 

Of. K. ^ This letter .K. in dyuerses speches is put for. ch. As 
kinal. kien. vak. but in true frenche it is not, but these wordes and 
sache lyke be wryten with ch. as cheual. a hors, chicn. a dogge, 
vache. a cowc, Also in certaynes countrcs of Fraunce for c. is 
wiytcn ch. as piccha. for a pieca, a whyle ago, tresdoulche for 
tn^oulce. ryght swete. And so of other lyke.' 

[IS] 1[ In lykewyse in some countrees of Fraunce names of 
dygnyte and offyce whiche are the syngulcr nombrc are wryten 
piurell -withy s, at the ende, as luy papes de Home, luy roys de 
franco, luy sains espcris: but in true frenche these names be 
wryten without, s. as le pape de romc, the pope of rome. le roy do 
franco, the kynge of fraunce. le saint espcrit, the holy goost. and so 
of lyke. 

Of. L. If This lettre .L. set in myddes of k worde immedyatly 
before a vowell shall kcpc his full sounde, as nouellement, newly, 
annuelement, yerely. continuelement contynually parlant, spekyngc. 
egallcment, egally. But yf a consonant folowe. 1 immedyatly than 
X shall bo sounded as ,u, as loyalmcnt, principalment, whiche are 
Bounded thus, loyaument, faythfully. principaument, pr^Ticipally.' 
Except this worde ,ilz. in whiche worde ,1, and ,z, hath no sounde 
somtjrme. as ilz vont ensemble, they go togyder. and somtyme ,1, 
bath his sounde and ,z, leseth the sounde whan ,ilz, cometh before 
a worde begynnynge with a vowell, as ilz out fait : they haue done. 

' The reversal of the order in the interchan^ of (k, sh) in Freneh an- 

detcription of the pronunciation may swering to that of (k, tsh) in English. 
be accidental. This loose writing, 

bowever, gives no reason to suppose ' The general ohsen'ation evidently 

that the sound of this yn was either refers to the particular case, at pro- 

(ng) or (gn). nounced as au^ hut whether as (au) or 

* These remarks must refer to pro- {oo^ cannot he deduced from such loose 

natuX pronunciations, and indicate an wnting. 



Whan ,1, is wryten in the ende of a wonlc, and that the worde 
folowyng begyn with a consoniuit than ahnll -1. in aucho vordca 
le§e lus owne soimde and be Boimdeil lyke an ,u. as ladmiral deitgle- 
terre, the adm}TQll of englande, but yt' thn worde folowynge ,1, 
begyn with a vowcll than ,1, shall kcpe bis ownc soundc : u nol 
home, no man. nul anltre, none other, nul Tsage, no vsage. Also ,1, 
put in the ende of a worde of one syllable %hal haue no eounde at 
oil ai il gen est ale^ he is gone, ic le vcul bien, I wyll it well. la 
BUcbe wordes il and veul, and other lyko ,1, lescth his sounds .U. 
double in myddes of a wordc must be Hounded with hole and lull 
Toyce.' as lille, a doughter. fillette, a lytcU mayde. oraillc, an eere. 
and so other lyke. 

Of. N, K This lettre. N. put betweno a vowell and a conaonant 
in ende of ony worde whiche is a vcrbe of the thyrdc persone pluittU, 
and the indycatyf, or optotyf mode what t«nB eo euur it be, it shall 
not be sounded in true pronouncynge of frenche, as ilz ayment, 
they louc. ilz lisent, they rede, whiche wordes and all other lyka 
must be sounded thus without ,n. ilz aymct. ilz liset. % Oat of 
this rule be except* verbes of one syllable in whiehe ,ii, must haue 
the sounde. as ilz vont, they go : ilz ont, they haue : ilz sont, tliey 
are: ilz font, they make, witA all theyr modes: tens: and com- 
potmdes. in whiche, n phall kepe his ryght sounde. 

Of, P. H Whan ,P. is wryten in the ende of a worde in frenche, 
and the next wordc immedyatly folowynge begynnynge witli a oon- 
■onant than shall it lese the sounde, as thus, il a trop grant anoir, 
he hath to grete goodes. il vient trop tard, he cometh to late, trop 
hault, to hyc. trop bus, to lowo. in whiche wordc trop ,p, hath not 
his sounde, but it must ho sounded thus, tro hault. txo has, tn 

^ Of this rule be except propre names cndynge in ,p. in whicho 
,p, must haue his full sounde, as, philip. £ut yf a worde «nde in 
,p, and the wordo nexte folowynge begyn with a vowell than .p^ 
shall haue his full sounde. as mioulx vault asscz qu« tiop aunr, 
better is ynough than to haue to moche. Also theeo wotdea 
sepmaine, a weke. temps, tyme. corps, a body, and this vsrba 
escriprc, to wrjte, with [14] all nownes and participles conmyngB 
therof, indifferently may be wryten with p. or without p. but 
though p. be wryten in them it ahaU nut be soundyd : aa semaine, 
tems, C0I8 cBcrire. 

Of. (L ^ U. in pronouflsyngo muste haue a softe and lyght 
Boundo,* And it shall nat be wryten in any frencho worde, without 
two vowels, immedyatly folowynge : of whiche two voweU the 
fyrste shalbe u. as qui que, the whiche, quar, for. querir, to aoko, 
quant, whnn, and suche other, but some be whiche wry to q. in 
suche wordes without thia vowell .u. folowynge as qi, qe, ftc 
whiche moner of wrytynge is vnscmely : And also it is coMtrazy to 
all rules of ortography or true wrytyng aswell in frenche, I ^ 

> The nmtiUi wnuid of I ia Fmach > TLe 

(Ij) is certainly very badly tipxatei thftt it is Ic 
ov iImm nwaniiiglM* word*. 


0tlier langages and no reason haue they whiche wryte suche wordes 
without n. to assyst them saue theyr vnresonable vse agaynst all 
rales, and good custome. More ouer these wordes quar, querir, 
foaiit. &c. maye bo wryten indifferently : with, q. k. or c, as quar, 
or car, or els kar. &c. 

Of. R. % This letter. R. put in the ende of a worde shall kepe 
kis owne full sounde, as cueur, as thus lay grant mal au cueur, I 
haue graet dysease at my herte : le vous prie pour me consailler, 
I pray you counsell me : hut in some countres .r. is soundyd, as 
tins letter, z. as compere, a gossyp, is somtyme soundyd thus 
oompez,^ and so of other wordes endynge in this letter. R. 

Of. s. syngle. % A syngle .s. in myddes of a worde ought nat 
to be soundyd if a consonant folowe immedyatly : as tresdoulce, 
ryght swete : tresnoblc, ryght noble : tresgracious, ryght gracyous : 
bat .s. in myddes of these wordes folowyng hath lus fidl sounde : 
18 thus: prosperite, chesticn, substance, esperance, meschant^ 
Instituer, escharuir, transglouter, Augustyncs, Inspirer, dcscharger, 
estaincher, estandre, peschics, constrayndre, despenser, escuser, 
with al nowncs, and aduerbcs commyngc of them. In whicho .8. 
must be soundyd, if ^ a consonant immedyatly folowe .s. But if a 
Towel folowe this letter, s. in the myddes of a worde and no letter 
betwene .s. and the vowell, than shall .s. haue his fidl sounde, as 
it is wryten, tresexcellent, ryght excellent : treshault, ryght hye : 
treshonore, ryght honoured : treshumble, ryght humble. 

Of double .ss. % Whan this letter .ss. double is wryten in myddes 
of a worde it must alway be soundyd : as puissant, myghty with 
sach lyke. More ouer if this letter .s. syngle, be wryten in the 
ende of a worde, whiche is a pronowne coniunccion verbe or pre- 
posicion, if the worde folowynge .8. begyn with a consonant, than 
.8. shal nat be soundyd : as dieu tous sauue, god sauc you. dieu 
vous gard, god kepe you. voules vous boire, Wyl ye drynke. nous 
lommcs beaucoup dcs gens, wc be moche folke, in which wordes .s. 
dud nat be soundyd. But whan this letter .8. is wryten in the 
code of a worde in frcnche and that the next worde folowynge 
begyn with a vowel than must .s. haue his full sounde. as le vous 
tyme, I loue you. Ic vous emprie, I pray you. estcs vous icy, be ye 
here, and in suche other wordes. But in these wordes folowynge. 
B. Bhidl haue no sounde, all if the wor[16]de folowynge begyn with 
A vowell. vous ditcz "VTay, ye say trouth. vous ditez vrayment^ 
je Bay truely. In whicho wordes .s. shall Icse his sounde. Also 
in this worde dis, whan it is a nowne of nombre and taken for ten. 
if there folowe a consonant .s. shall not be soundyd, as to say dis 
Hares .x. H. it muste be soundyd di. ii. But this nombre ten in 
frenche moost vsually is spelled with .x. as .dix. and not with .s. as 
dig. But whan ditz is a participle, and betokcneth asmoche as 
layd than in the same worde .s. or .z. shall kepe his sounde. as les 
heores sent ditez the houres be sayde 

^ See the extract from Palsgrave, exceptions to the rule. See"aUif" = 
nmr^ p. 198. although, infrk p. 812, L 26. 

I Miming Mlthough^ as these are the 



Of. T. U ThJH letter T. put in (Ae cndo of a worde beynge a 
Twbe of the tiiirde p^reone syngulcr and present or prrteiyt tens of 
the indicatyf mode if the worde folowyng begyn witA a vowell, it 
Bhflll bo Houndyd. as eat U preat, is he redy, 11 eatait alostel, bo 
was at home. Bat if the worde folowynge begyn wi'tA a consonaflt, 
than T. shal nat be sotindyd. aa quest co quil diat, what is tAat 
he Bayth II est prest, he ia redy. il fiiafc tout eabahy. he was al 
fthasshed. II ny a. que vanito en cest monde There is nonght 
but Timyte in this worldo. Also all nowues and participles, whiche 
ende in the synguler nombro in t, in Me plurell nombre muate be 
■wiyten wrtJ. s. or wi'tA z. the aamet. [^same t] put away from 
the ends .of the word as thus worde, saynt, boly. is wryt^n in the 
iynguler nombre witA t. in (Ac plureU nombre it is thus wiTtcn, m 
Biiinz. or siiins without, t. but in some places of frauuce they wryto 
Buche wordos in the plurcl nombre wi'tA t. c. and z. or s. at tho cnde 
alter (Ae mosto vsod Ortography of frenche. For amonge &enehe 
men this is a general rule. (Aat as ofte as t. is put in myndes 
of a worde beynge a nowno of tAo femynyno gender it shall not be 
wryten wttAout a vowell iwmedyotly folowynge, as lee aaintes 
vierges du ciel ne ceasent de loupr dieu, the holy virgyns of heue» 
ccsseth not to lande god. II yu des femmes que sont bien riehea 
marchartdes, there bo women whiche be well ryehe marehandes. 
And BO may other freaehe wordea endynge in tea. he wryten wttA L- 
and ca. or wt'tA z. or s. without t. hut it accordeth not to reason to 
vryte these wordes thus saintz toutz marchnntz in the plurell 
nombre, all if they be wiTten witA t. in the synguler nombre. for in 
the plurell nombre they ought nat to be writen with t. for ony of 
these two letters s. or z. in fronche stonde for as moche as ts. or tx. 
But for a concluBion though suche wordea in in ccrtayne coontrei 
of Fraunce he wryten with ts. or wi'tA tz. in Ihe ende. as thos mon 
amy sont now litz faitz, my frcnde are our bcddes made. Beau dr 
sont mez pourpointz fititz, faire air bo my doublettos made, yet 
after true ortogruphy of frenche these wordes and other suche muste 
bo botlic wryten and sonndyd without t. as lis fais pourpoins 
^ Also these wordes filz, a aone. nuculz better, fois one tymc. ajao, 
ynoughe. voua poues, yo may. vous prenes, ye take, voua enseigncs, 
ye teeho, vous lisez, And suche other ought to bo wryten witbont 
t. but some be whiche wrongly wryto these wordes with t. As 
filtz, micultz, foitz, assetz, pouetz, prenetz. &c. whiche wordes in 

7ght frenche haue no t. neyther in soundynge nor in wtytyngo. 
Also this coniuncoion. betokcneth the same thynge in frencbs 
that it doth in latyn. that ia to aay, and, in cnglyssho in whiche 
coniuttccion t. is neucr soundyd though it be wryten witA ct. ■• 
et le voua faia a scauoir, And I make you to wytte or knowe. 

[16] Of. U. 1] U. Wryten in myddcs of a worde shall often bane 
no soundc, bothe in latyn frenche and other langugca. And that whan 
it ia wiytcn immcdyatly after ony of these tbre letters, that is to 
aay. q. g, or, s. Ab qui que, language, langue, a tonge. qucrir, to 
icke : grierre, warro, and auche other. In whiche wordes n. is 
wryten but not eoundyd. Neuertberles in dyuers Countrea i 


the foresayd letters they sounde w, doubled as quater, quare, 
qnajsy. Englysshe men, and Scott^« alway sounde u. after the 
letters both in Latyn and in theyr Uulgayre or common langage. 
In lyke wyse do dutche men, and abnayns. As quare, quatuor 
quart, quayre, qwade. and suche lyke. 

Of. X. % This letter X. put in thende of a worde. may eyther 
kepe his owne sounde, or els it may bo soundyd as. z. as cheualz, 
or cheualz. hors, doulx, or doulz. swete mieulx, or mieulz. better 
which wordes may indyfferently be wryten with. x. or with z* 
Also this worde dieulz, ought not to be wryten with x. in the 
ende except it be in the nominatyf, or vocatyfe case, but by cause 
of lyme somtyme it hath x. in other cases. And whan x. is wryten 
in suche cases somtyme it is soundyd and somtyme not. As if 
dieux be wryten in the nominatyf case and a consonant folowe 
immediatly than x. shal not be soundyd. as dieux vous sauue, god 
saue you. dieux vous garde, god kepe you. but if this worde dieux 
be set in the yocatyfe case: than shall x. kepe his sounde. As 
benoit dieux ais pitie de moy, blessyd god haue pyte on me. 

Of. Y. % This letter y. hath the sounde of tlus letter I and in 
many wordes of Frenche it ought to be wryten in stede of I by cause 
of comelynes of wrytynge. In latyn wordis y. ought not to be 
wryten, but whan ony greke worde is mynglcd with latyn wordes 
Ibr curyosite of the wtyter or diffyculte of interpretacion in suche 
greke wordes y. muste be wryten in stede of I. in Englysshe wordes 
y. is moste commonly wr3rten in stede of I, soo that the englysshe 
worde be not deducte of ony latyn worde: but specyally y: 
muste be wirten for I, in the ende of englysshe wrodes, and whan 
n : m, or u, IS wr3rten before, or behynde it. 

Of. z. ^ z. Put in the ende of a worde muste be soundyd lyke s. 
as qtierez, seke ye. auez haue ye. lisez, rede ye. And lyke wyse 
as 8. in the ende of a frenche worde is somtyme pronounced, and 
somtyme not, ryght so, z. put in the ende of a woide folowcth the 
same rule : somtyme to be soundyd, and somtyme not as aperyth 
in the rule of .s. 

% Here is also to be noted for a generall rule, that if a worde of 
one syllabe ende in a voweU, and the worde folowynge begynne 
dlao with another vowell, than both these wordes shalbe ioyned to 
gjther, as one worde :* both in wrytynge and soundynge. As 
dargent : for de argent, ladmiral, for le admiral, whiche rule also 
is obseruid in englysshe, as thexehetour, for the exchetour : thex- 
peryence, the experycnce. 

[Here ends p. 16.] 

[17-28] [Nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, in alphabetical 

[29-30] [Numbers, Days of the "Week, Months, Feasts.] 

[30] [I^y^e of the graynes, French and English ; the English 

^ Another general rule applicable only to a particular case, as shewn by the 
following examples. 



part btgim : — God aaue tho ploughs And he tbo whiche it li 
Firsto ere the groundc After sowe the whete, or barly.] 

[30-31] [Fishes. Proceed at p. 31, 1. 14 aa foUows.] 

^ And also here is to be notyd thai many worde* he which 
sounds nere vnto lat yn and he vsed in hotho the hmgages of Frenche 
and Englysshc amonge eloquent men, as tennes mdiiferently be- 
longynge to both frcnehe and englysahe. So that the samo sygny- 
fycocyon, whiche U gyven to them, in &enche is also gytten to 
tJiom in englysahe,' as thua. 

K Amite. Auauncement. Audacite. Bounte. Beaute. Brcuyte. 
Beniuolence. Benignito. Courtoya. Curioaite. Conclusion. Conspi- 
racion. Coniuracion. Conpunction. Contricion. Confederacion. Con- 
iunution. Dctcatacion. Detraccion. Denominacion. Deuulgacion. 
Diuinite. Dignite. Diaeaperance. Exchange. Eaperonce. Fuidcnee. 
Fable. Frealte. Fragilite. Fragrant. Gouenumce. Grace. Huray- 
litc. Humanitc. Intelligence. lutoUcction. Interpretacion. Insur- 
reccion. Indenture. Laudable. Longage. Murmuracion. Mutabilite. 
Magnaniinite, Patron. Patronage. Picture. Kflse. Eoyall. Begsl, 
Soueroyne. suatajne. Trajtre. Tounnent Trechery. Trayaon. 
Trauera. Trouble. Tremble. Transitory. Ualiant. Uariancc. Uaiiablc. 

^ Theao wordeB wi'tA other lyke betoken all one thynge m 
englysahe aa in frenche. And who so doayreth to knowe more of 
the eayd longago must prouyde for mo hokca made for the some 
intent, wherby they shaU Ihn aoaer come to (Ae parfyte knowlege of 

^ Here endeth the introductory to wryte ani to prouoaace 
frenche compyled by Aleiander barclcy. 

[The above enda at p. 31, col. 2, 1. 9 ; after which: ^ Here 
foloweth tho maner of dauncyngo of bace daunces after tlic Tse of 
fraunce and other places translated out of ft-enche in englysahe by 
Hobert coplondc. Then follow on p. 32, col. 1, L 4 from bottwn; 
% Baco dauncca ; at the end of which come the two concluding 
paragraphs in tho book.] 

^ Theae daunees have 1 set at (^e ende of this boke to thentent 
that euery lemer of tho sayd boko after theyr Uylygent atudy may 
reioyce somwhat theyr spyrytca honestly in eechewyngo of ydel- 
nesae the portreHse of vyeca. 

1 Imprynted at London in the Fletcstrote at tie aygno of 
the rose Garlandc by Robert coplande. the yere of our lorde. 
M.CCCCC.iii. the. xxii. day of Warche. 

Tbb LiJiBHTn FoAOHBHT OH Fhe«cu Peondhcutwh, 162$, 

This haa already been described (supra p. 226, note I), b 

following extracts relating to tho pronunciation, being part o 

' Thu {>nib>bly does not iniply that the loimd wu the sane in bolb li 


npbied hj Mr. Maitland, should be here leprodaced, as the 
tieatue was unknown to A. Didot. 

'* De la prosodie, ou, accent, comme 
on doibt pionstcer. briefue admonition 
A. aa (J Yoelles 

b be a. e. i. o. u. 
c ce Toultes aultres letren sent 
. d d cosonates, demsees en mu- 
e e tes et demy voelles. 

effe (J mutes 

g g b. 0. d. f. g. k. p. q. t 
h hache q Demy yoelles 

i ij f. L m. n. r. s. 

1 elle Sur toultes choses doibuit no- 
m erne ter gentz Englois, quil leur 

n enne fault acustumer de pronu- 

00 cer la demiere Icttre du mot 

p pe fracois, quelq; mot que ce soit 

q qu (rime exceptee) ce que la 

r erre langue englesche ne permet. 

8 esse Car la ou Lenglois dit. 

t te goode breade, Le francois 

T ou diroit go o de .iii. sillebes 

X ex et breade .iii sillebes 

2 zedes et &. q con 

Ces diptongues sone aisi pronucces. 
Ai aider, iii. 

au aucun. iiL 

ie faict meillieur, y. sillebes 
eu eureux iiii 

ou ouir iii B 1 

i. OQght to be pronounced from the bottom of the stomak and 
4 openly. E. a lytell hyer in the throte there proprely where the 
^jaahe man soundeth his a 
i more.hyer than the e within the mouthe 
in the roundenesse of the lyppes 

T in puttynge a lytell of wynde out of the mouthe thus, ou^ and 
^^ you. And ye must also gyve hed fro pronouncynge e for i, 
^W ay, for i, as do some that for miserere say maysiriri.' 

A. also betokeneth, hawe or hat, wha it comcth of this verb in 
Wtin, habeo, as here after ye may se. 

Of two consonantes at Uie cnde of a word often the fyrst is left, 

^nd is not pronounced, as in this worde, penLs, the d, is not pro- 

Xnronced. Et ie fiedngz g is not pronouced. Jc conscntz, t is not 

tUQDonced, but thus ben they wryte by cause if j^ orthography, 

^nd to gyve knowledge, y^ perds cometh of this ucrbe in lutin, 


^TUiprobaUyiiidictiasaBEii^ish 8d|iM[fe^'bei) with the modern 

^ '-' O^-atii-n). CooQHca [mT ^^o/. 

816 palsgrave's fbench pronunciation. Chap. VIII. ( 8, 

perdo, and not of pera that is a coulour. And tlius may ye ymagyn 
of the others How-he it, I am of opynyon y' hotter ^olde be to 
pronouco eueiy Icttre and say. . . . [the examples ore tuken from 
the French ride]. le perds voatre accointaee en pronflccant le d) 
que le pers. Pronocc vng chactin come il luy plaira, car trap est 
difBcille a corriger vielles erreure. 

8, in the niyddlc of a worde leaeth a lyteU his sowne, and is not 
so moche whyateled, as at y* ende of y* wordc, as tousioura, 
deaioyndre, d espryuer, estre, despiyser Deux, bs, togyder ben 
moche pronounced, as essayer, assemhlcr, assurer, oasiegcr. 

8. betwcno two vowellcs, prononnceth by -k. as ai*e. aiae, 
mizericorde misericorde, vsage. and I heleuc that hy aucho pro- 
unntiacyon, ia the latyn tongue comipte for prcacnlly yet some 
Bay mizerere for miserere, 

8p, rt, ct, ought not to be denyded asondcr, but we ought to say, 
e sperance, not cs perance, and e spaigne, not cs paigne. And 
e Bperit not ea pent, e atriner, not cs triuer, e stoint, not ea toinL 
Satiafa ction, non eatisfac tion. Corre ction. &c. 

C. the moost ofl^n ia prononnced by s, as. france pieca, ca. And 
yf a conBonante, or other letters is ioyned with the vocide tlut is 
after the c, y" e shall be prononnced by q, as Cardynal, concordanoe, 
casaer Comhyen, couraige, cuider. 

G. somtymc ia pronounced by i, as, bourgois bourgoisse, gregou, 

what 80 euer it be, I conceille, y* they folowe some good autour, 

w'out to gyue or to make so many rules, that ne do but trouble and 

muTO the vndeistandynge of people 


pAutoBAVB on FaBHcn PnonvKcUTiDit, 1G30. ^H 

In addition to the many quotations from Palsgrave's First BooK^ 
scattered through the above pages, the following cxtractii from tLo 
"Brefo Introduction of the authour for the more parfyte under- 
Btandyng of his lyrat and seconde bokea," ought to find a place here ; 
" The frenche men in thoyr pronunciation do chefly regarde a]id 
couet thro thynges. To be armonioua in theyr speking. To be biefe 
and Bodayne in soundyng of theyr wordea, auoydyng all maner of 
Larshcncssc in theyr pronnneiation, and thirdly to ^yue euery 
worde that they abjdc and reste vpon, theyr most audible sonnde. 
To be armonyous in theyr spekyng, they vsu one thyng which nono 
other nation dothc,' but onely they, that is to say, tbey make a 
maner of modnlation inwardly, for they forme cortayne of theyr 
Towelles in theyr brest, and avSfm nat the sounde of them to pacM 
out by the mouthe, but to assendo from the brest straight up to lAf 
palate of the mouth, and so by reflection yssueth the sounde of 
them hy the nose. To be brefe and sodnync, and to anoyde till 
maner harshenesse, whiche myght happen whan many eonaonante* 

Cbap. Tin. § a. palsgrave's french pronunciation. 817 

come betwene the vowelles, If they all shnldc haue theyr distyncte 
aounde. Most commenly they neuer vse to sounde past one onely 
eonsonant betwene two vowelles, though for kepyng of trewe 
orthographie, they vse to write as many consonantes, as the latine 
▼ordes haue, whiche theyr frenche wordes come ont of, and for 
ike same cause, they gyve somtyme unto theyr consonantes but a 
aleight and rcmisshe sounde, and farre more dyuersly pronounce 
them, than the latincs do. To gyue euery worde that they abyde 
vpon his most audible sound, .... the frenche men iudg3nig 
a worde to be most parfaytly herde, whan his last end is sounded 
hyghest, vse generally to gyue theyr accent vpon the last syllable 
ondy, except whan they make modulation inwardly, for than 
gyneng thcjrr accent vpon the last syllable saue one, and at the 
hst syllable of suche wordes, they sodaynly depresse theyr voyce 
agayne, forming the vowell in the brest .... 

"Where as I haue sayd that to be the more armonius they 
make a maner of modulation inwardly, that thyng happeneth in 
the soundyng of thre of theyr vowelles onely A, E, and 0, and 
that nat vniuersally, but onely so often as they come before M, or 
N, in one syllable, or whan E, is in the last syllable, the worde nstt 
hauyng his accent vpon hym ... so that these thre letters M. N, or 
E, fynall, nat hauyng the accent vpon hym, be the very and onely 
causes why these tlie vowelles A, E, 0, bo formed in the brest 
and sounded by the nose. And for so moche as of necessyte, to 
fonne the different sounde of those thre vowelles they must nedes 
at theyr first formyng open theyr mowth more or lesse, yet whan 
the vowell ones formed in the brest, ascendeth vpwardes and must 
haue M, or N, soxmded with hym, they bryng theyr chawes to gether- 
▼ardes agayne, and in so doyng they seme to sound an v, and 
make in maner of A, and 0, diphthonges, which happeneth by rayson 
of closyng of theyr mowth agayne, to come to the places where M, 
and N, be formed, but chefely bycause no parte of the vowell 
at his expressyng shuldc passe forth by the mowth, where as els 
the firenchemen sounde the same thre vowelles, in all thynges lyke 
as the Italicns do, or we of our nation, whiche sounde our vowelles 
aryght, and, as for in theyr vowell I, is no diffyculty nor difference 
from the Italien sounde,^ sauyng that so often as these thre letters 

from Palsgrave's, but that he disap- 
proved of that general usage, which 
we know must have been ^ei), and prac- 
tically identified the "right" sound, 
that IS, his own sound of long t, with 
(ii). Tct that it was not quite the 
same is shewn by the passage on p. 109. 
Hence the conclusion that it was (ti) 
appears inevitable. And as this con- 
clusion is drawn from premises alto- 
gether different from those which led 
to the same result for Chaucer's pro- 
nunciation (p. 282), it is a singular 
corroboration of the hypothesis there 
started for the first time. 

' This passage, which had not been 
noted when the observations supra p. 
110 were written, seems to confirm the 
eondiisionB there drawn respecting 
P)dflgraTe*8 pronunciation of English 
long t, which he here identifies, when 
•onnded ** aryght** with the French 
nd Italian t. Concerning the Italian 
•oond there was never any doubt. Con- 
eeming the French there is also perfect 
mumimity, except in the one passage 
from Pal^nrave himself, cited supr& 
p. 109. Tne limitation "aryght," ap- 
plied to English sounds, implies that 
tiie general pronunciation was different 

818 palsgrave's FBBNCH PRONTTKCIATIOK. Chaf.VII 

I, L, L, or I, G, N, come before any of the fyrat thre vowelB A, B,4l 
0, they sound an I, brefely and confiisely botwene the last consonant 
and the vowell folowyng, where as in dedo none is written .... 
whiche Boundynge of I, where he is nat written, they recomponco 
in theyr t, for thoughe they wiyte hym after these three conso- 
nantes F, 0- aad Q, yet do they onely aounde the vowell next folov- 
ing V. . . . So that, for the most genertUte, the tronche men 
sounde all theyr fyue Towelles lyke as the Italiens do, except onely 
theyr v, whiche euer so often as they Tse for a vowel ttlone, hath 
with them suche a sounde as we gyue this diphthong nc, in our 
tong in these wordcs, rewe an herbe, a mewe lor a hawlcc, a clew« 
of threde. 

"And as touchynge theyr dipbthongea, besydes the sise, whiche 
be formed by addyng of the two last vowellea vnto the thra fyrat, 
as oi, ei, oi, an, ct, oy, they make aJso a seuynth by addyng of the 
two last voweUes together vi, vnto whiche they gyue anche a 
Bounde as we do vnto wy in these wordes, a swyne, I twyne, I 
dwyne, soundyng v, and y, together, and nat distynctly, and as for 
the other sixe hauc suche sounde with them aa they hiiue in latin, 
except thre, for in atede of ai, they sounde most commenly ei, and 
fo oi, they sounde oe, and for av, they sounde most commeujy ow, aa 
wo do in these wordes, a bowe, a erowe, a snowe,' .... 

" What con8onant«a so euer they write in any worde for kopyng 
of trewe orthogniphie, yet so moche couyt they in rodyng or 
Bpekyng t^ haue all theyr vowellcs and dipbtbong« clerty herde, 
that betwene two vowelle*, whether they chaunce in one worde 
alone, or as one worde fortunetb to folowo after an other, they 
uener sounde but one consonant atones, in so moche that if two 
different consonantes, that is to say, nat beyng both of one sortd 
come together betwene two vowelles, they leue the fyrst of thran 
Tnsounded, and if tlire consonantea come together, they eaer leae 
two of the fyrst TUsounded, pnttyng here in as I haue Ba3rd, no 
difference whether the coasonantes thus come together in one 
worde alone, or as the wordes do folowe one another, for many 
tymes theyr wordea ende in two consonantes, hycauae they taka 
awaye the last vowell of the latin worde, as Corps commeth of Corpua, 
Temps, of Tempus, and suche lyko, whiche two consonantes shalbe 
leflo vnsouiided, if the next worde folowyng begyn with a conso- 
nant, as well as if thre consonantes shuld fortune to come together 
in a wotde by hym solfe. But yet in this thyng to showe alw 
that they forget nat thoyr temarius nnmerus of all theyr oonao- 
iiant««, they haue from this rule priuyleged onely thre, ii, N, and 
B, whiche neuer lose tbeyr soundo where so ener they bo fonnde 
written, except onely N, whan he commeth in the thyrdo parson 
plurcll of verbea after E 

" The hole reason of theyr accent is grounded chefely vpon thre 
poyntea, fyrst there is no worde of one syllable whieho with them 


hath any accent, or that they vse to pause vpon, and that is one 
great cauae why theyr tong semeth to ys so brefe and sodayn and 
10 harde to be ynderstanded whan it is spoken, especially of theyr 
paysantea or commen people, for thoughe there come neuer so 
many wordes of one syllable together, they pronounce them nat 
diatinctly a sender as the latines do, but sounde them all vnder one 
Toyce and tenour, and neuer rest nor pause upon any of them, 
•xeept the commyng next ynto a poynt be ike cause thereof. 
Seconde, euery worde of many syllables hath his accent ypon the 
last syllable, but yet that nat withstandynge they yse ypon no 
9ii€he worde to pause, except the commyng next ynto a poynt be 
the causer therof, and this is one great thyng whiche inclmeth the 
frenchemen so moche to pronounce the latin tong amysse, whiche 
contrary neuer gyue theyr accent on the last syllable. The thyrde 
poynte is but an exception from the seconde, for, whan the last 
lyllable of a frenche worde endcth in E, the syllable next afore 
Um must haue the accent, and yet is nat this lule euer generall, 
for if a frenche worde ende in Te, or haye z, after E, or be a 
preterit partyciple of the fyrst coniugation, ho shall haue his accent 
ypon ihs last syllable, accordyng to tiie seconde rule. . . . 

''Whan they leue any consonant or consonantes ynsounded, whiche 
folowe a yowell that shulde haue the accent, if they pause ypon 
hym by reason of commyng next ynto a poynt, he shalbe long in 
pronunciation, So that there is no yowell with them, whiche of 
aymselfe is long in theyr tong .... As for Encletica I note no 
■10 but onely the primatiue pronownes of the fyrst and seconde par- 
aonea ayngular, whan they folowe the yerbe that they do goueme." 



The following are the principal authorities, many of which have 
already been quoted, so tiiat it will only be necessary to refer to 
them, and to complete this sketch by a few additional citationa. 
They will be referred to by the following abbreyiations. 

Bar. Barcley, 1521, supr^ pp. 803-814. 

L. Lambeth fragment, 1528, supr^ pp. 815-6. 

P. Palsgrave, 1530, eu^rk p. 31. 

8. Jacobi SyMi Isagcvge, 1531, suprik p. 38. 

6. du Guez, 1532, supr^ p. 31. 

H. Meigret, 1545 and 1550, supril pp. 31 and 33. 

Pell. Pelletier, 1555, supr& p. 33. 

B. Ramus, 1562, supra p. 33. 

B. Beza, 1584, supra p. 33. 

£. Erondellc, 1605, supr& p. 226, note, col. 1. 

H. Holyband, 1609, suprli p. 227, note, col. 1. 

See especially Liyet (supra p. 33), and Bidot (supdi 589, note 
1)» for accounts of all these writers except Bar. L. E. H. Didot's 
Bistorique des r(formes orthographiqueB proposies ou accomplish, 
forming appendix D to his work, pp. 175-394, carries the list of 
authors down to the present day, and is yery yaluable. 

In the following tabular yiew, simple numbers following any 



author's name refer to the page of this work in which the required 
quotation will be found ; if p. ia prefised, the reference is to the 
page of the author's own work, of which the title is given in the 
pEtssages just referred to. No pretension is made to completeness. 

In order not to use new types, the three varieties of * are repre- 
sented hy B, e, «, in all the authorities (except Sylvius, where 
they could not he clearly distinguished, and where his own signs 
axe i, i, i, therefore employed), and if, l, are used for Meigret'e 
forms for », I, mouilUt. In llamus certain comhinations of letters, 
as an, eu, ou, eh, ore formed into new letters, and are here printed 
in small capitals thus ad, kd, ou, en. Sylvius emplop al, ol, 
&c., ns diphthongs, where the properly extends over hoth 
letters, but the modem form has been used for convenience. 

7^ Vowelt and 
A = {a) L.815. J = (a)P.SB, ^=(a) 
"Drelargitor didocto profertur" S. 2, 
A-^{a) G. 61, unc<irtiin (i, a) M., 
Pel.,R, A = tfi) B. ,4 = (o), E. S26,n. 
Afterwards English writers identiFf 
it with (lu). In lhi« unccrtaintjf it 
is boat taken to be B (Wl {«), but not 
(ah). PS B. wnnia, aayiug ''Hico vo- 
calii. aono in mcticc lin^s boUb 
bacibUB fonaato, ore hiiinte elari et 
vmeri h Fmncts elfeTlui, quani 
illam Genniuii obieuriiH ct aooo 

rdom sd quutam Tocalcm o occe- 
te proDuittient." I), p. 12. In 
the tcnniuation -agi ={fi) P. 12D. 
" ytm moBt note that o ia not pro- 
nounced in the«e wonb, Aotat, taoul, 
aomrr, aoriilr, which word<s miut 
bee pronounced na if the; were 
whtbai thus, not, wo, onur, oritite." 
.^=(«i) Bk. 806. donbtfal, L. 816, 
AI=[v ei)P. 118. "DiphthongoB ^ 
Orscia potnaimiun mntuati Tidemur, 
scilicet, ai, el, ot. af , lA, ed, oQ. Eol 
tamcn quim csctcri EoropHt populi 
plenins et pnrioa pronunuationc, si 
rniid jndico, cipKnumna. Si ipne 
iimul concretiB. debent in eadcm 
■jUaba vim Boarn, hoc eat, poCesta- 
tem ct pronontiatioacm retinerc, at 
corte CI ana deSnitione debent. 
Fnutra enim diitinctat sont tarn 
litem qnbn diphthongi, li aono et 
potestste nihil diffeniat. Naini|Q« 
at Gmda propriam, Latinia quibna- 
dam poetia usorpatam. non ee aen ^ 
comOneris: non li divisiu vocalei 
cam poetis Latinia, »ed al nnn lyU 
Uba utrinique tncnlii aonam Icoiter 
exprimenle, pronuntinmus : qoalia 
Toi (EgTotis et derepeate Icsia est 
pluriioa." B. p. 8, This ahoold 


mean, "not {%), nor Ki). hot (ai)," 
eapeciallf as (u) is v. comraoo for^gn 
EToaa answering to the Engluh 
(oou!). But the following pasiagcs 
Tender this eonclusion doabtfol: 
"at diphthoQgum OnEcum ut scpa 
djvidunt Lutini, dicentM iiro ) ^mm 
Miii-o. i dial Ai-BX, & Aului, arqoii. 
pictsi, teirai pro anlm, iquic, temc. 
Bic DOS eandem modo caninnctun 
scrramos, modo dividimns ad ai^nifl- 
cundumdj versa, utU-etrsi [g- is the 

It (ih), t ia 11 
ral] id est traho ct sagiltam emitto, 
quaoi ob id traict & tractus Toeamna. 
Q-t trm, id wt prodo et in traadaa 
traho, licet hoc \ trado Tided qoeat. 
G'-ha!, id est habea et teneo: iiifini- 
tivo hauotr, Q-k hai et ^-k ht, id 
est, habco odio et odi. inSottivo hair, 
nti k tral traitr^ ; a trai trair infl- 
nitivo« hubcmua" S. p. H. " Dian- 
lis, id eat divisia nnius s;r'l*b* in 
duos, ut Albai, longai, sjliia! ttimU 
lobn : pro Albc, longic, aylflv du- 
syllabaa. Eadcm modo et OalU 
$i<nta¥ bota, id cat lignum et rfVn. 
bdie, id est buxui. Ilabeo g'-bal 
id est teneo, et g-h hai, id M, odi 
8. p. 68. Bcnce perhaps SvlTio^a 
diphtbong was really (■) alllionril 
he diselaiioa it. ^ = (ai, ei, b) A* 
laat two more frequently, U- Wi, 
Fell., R. 119, B. A=if) in I'a^ 
w/eray. = (a,i) in Eia-y-t, abba-f^ 
= (i) in aim, ainfoii, ainn, B. 
ntatlj the aame H. 227 note. Tb* 
nsago of U., Pell, n., B. aeenu to 
be as followB. 
(ai) — aymant, aydant, hair, pajiB^ 



mi, aiBul, hair, R. — aimer, in 
Finrdy, B. 683, note 4. 
(«, Ei)--80udcin, vrcy, vrayes (fo. 
121) ecriueins, einsi, 9Ertcin, mar- 
rein, eyt, iey, seinte, retreintif, 
mein, Ejm^, and throughout the 
Tcrh fo. 109^1114, je repondrey, 
je le ferey, syder, j'ey, j'aorey, 
q'il Byt, &c M. — ein^oEs, con- 
treint, CBrtein^man^ creint^, de- 
deigner, eyant, cinsi, eid^, eidant, 
eyoDB, Trei, Treye, Romein^, mein- 
t«nant, procheinete, je creln con- 
nein, &c. Pell. — ^fontsin^, crEindr^ 
■ertmntf, EimEr, nimant, EtEin, 
msin, pntsin, viet=ai/entf Einsi, 
prochmn^, krEint=erai>i/, simc, 
sime^, d^mEin, &c R.— gueine = 
gaine, B. 
(x, e) — grammEre, fet, rezons, trEt- 
ter, mss, fEro, deriuEzon, mszon, 
IE8 c= aaisj nvEs = Mtat«, niEze, 
sze, n' Et = ait, Iessc, contrEre, 
liBzon, maouEz*, trEre, fEzant, 
trsze = 13, sezc = 16, dizESEt = 17, 
deplEt, oculEre &c. M. — sez, fEt, 
tfsr^ jamEs, clcr^mant, mEs, fEr^, 
malsse^ = maiaisees, nEtr«, ncces- 
eertj **Icr uns dis^ eimer^ Ics autres 
emtr" "les uns disrt piesir, les 
autrcs pfEsir par un e clos', rESon, 
▼ulguertf = vulgaire, &c., Pell. — 
Trermcnt, tErmiuEzon, kontrErf, 
pain, pE, mEs, parfEt, parfEs, 
ToIgEr^, VEsz-AU, Sfre =««•<»■, aure 
=:aurai^ vre, parfcs, fE9, =fait8^ 
B. — After the passage quoted suprii 
p. 683, note 4, 13. says, ^'sicut 
autcm posteriores Latini Aulai et 
Pictai di8S)'llaba quae poetie per 
Ztdi\vaty tnssyllaba fecerunt, muta- 
mnt in Aulte et PictE, ita etiam 
Franci, licet servata Tcterc scrip- 
tura, coDperunt hanc diphthongum 
per Of pronuntiarc ; sic tamcn Tt 
m eiua prolationc, nequc a nequo 
audiatur, sed mixtus ex hac 
Ttnu^ue yocali tertius sonus, is 
Tidelicet "quem e aperto attribui- 
mus. Quum cnim vocalis e pro- 
prie penc conjunctis dentibus 
enuntictur, (qui sonus est e ouem 
dausum vocuvimus) in hue uiph- 
thongo adjectum a prohibet dentcs 
occludi, et vicissim e vetat no a 
claro illo et sonoro sono profera- 
tur," B., p. 41. 
AOU={o,u) il. 142,— "Nous auona 
me diphthongue de a et ou que nous 
escripuons par aou, commc en ce mot 
AoHtt, qui est en Latin Menaia Au^ 

gu»tu8, Mais cest en ce seul mot, 
qui se prononce toutefois auiourdhuy 
presques par la simple Toyelle com- 
me oust : et nest ia bcsoing pour yng 
mot de faire Tue regie : Ceste diph- 
thongue est fort Tsitee en Latin, 
comme en ces roots, Author ^ AudiOy 
Augeo ; ou la premiere syllabe doit 
estre prononcee comme en Aoust." 
B. p. 36. 

-4t7'=(au) ? Bar. 806. u4?7'=(au, oou) 
P. 1 4 1 , 8 1 7, n. *' Super han;, av cu, cum 
Onecis : an, eu, cum Latinis pronun- 
tiamus, ut a^6viovs auton6, ^horfyi" 
\iov euangild (in quibus tamen u sen 
u consonantem sonat, non vocalem 
Onecis, Latinis, Gal lis) audire auir, 
neutre neiitre" S. p. 8., this is quite 
unintelligible. ^6''=(ao) M. 141. 
AU={p)? Pell. AU^{oo)? "vne 
Yoyclle indiuisible ; . . . ceste voyelle 
nest ny Grecquc ny Latine, elle est 
totallcment Francoyse," R. p. 6 mean- 
ing perhaps that au\& not pronounced 
in this way in Latin or Greek, but 
only French, R. 143, note. AU=i 
(o) " sic vt Tel parum vcl nihil ad- 
modum differat ab o yocali," B. p. 
43, see 143, note. "Pronounce 
au almost like 6 long, as aultre 
d*autanif aumosney almost, but not 
altogcather, as if it wcrc'writton otre, 
dotaunt, 6 money** £. That is {oo) 
instead of (oo) P Was the change 
(au, ao, o) P 

^=(e), L. 816, 226, note, G. 61 ; ^ 
= (e, e P), and, when now mut« and 
final = (o. ?) P. 77, 181 n. 6, and 818. 
**LitenB omncs vt apud Gnecos & 
Latinos, ita quoque apud Gallos 
sonum in pronuntiando triplioem ex* 
primunt, plenum, exilem, medium. 
Plenum quidem, exempli gratia, 
Tocales, quando aut punc sunt, ant 
syllabas tiniunt, vt ago, e^, ibo, 
oua, Tnus. Exilem quando ips® m 
vel n, in eadcm syllaba antecedunt, 
vt am, em, im, vm, an, en, in, on. 
Medium, quando consonantes alias, 
Tt, al, el, il, ol, ul. . . . E Gallis 
tam frcquens qui^m a Italis et Nar- 
bonensibus, sonum plenum obtinens, 
(id est quotics aut purum est, aut 
syllabam finit) h, Gallis trifariam 
pronuntiatur, plcnc scilicet, oualiter 
Latini pronuntiant in verbo legere ; 
tuncquo ipsum Tel at acuti accentus 
Tirgula signamus, ob id qu6d Toce 
magis exerta profertur. Tt amatus 
amc, bonitas bonte ; et ita in cantoris 
fermd nominibus in as, et in partiei* 



qntindo wilicet i pncccdjt, teii G^ 
pronuntiant. Deinde eiiliter, ot 
VDCO prupomodum inula ; quod tnm, 
grauii wc^ntoa Tir^a notamoa, 
qnaAiam vox in «i kngneeceng 
»elut intermoiitur, *t snui atmSs, 
Petras Pierre. Medio deniquci modo, 
qnod liacola ik linistru in dntram 
partem nqnoliter & rcete duFtn 
oitendimus vt smnU aimes. Adda 

C:id Byllabam el, nnnnnnquam Toee 
tjaorum proferimnt, Tl erudelU 
erne], qua modo Gabriel, aliquando 
antota ore niops hianCi : Tt illu cll£. 
E etiam UDte r, s, t, i, & qniisdjim 
a]ia« oouflonaatcfi, in amiubus Apud 
Latinos yocBin nan habet eandera. 
Natiuum enim Bonam in pater, e» k 
nun, et teiCng pronnntiatione qno- 
mndam retineL In crro BDt«m, 
g:ent«9, docvt. ei, nimis eiertum, et, 
n rie dicun, dilutum. Sio apud 
Oallos Bono genuino profertur in 
yir, k par par- - '- ' " — 


munt Galli i 

aulem et lin^;ua in palatum magis re- 
dnnta, didoctlaqne denCibn* in erra- 
«er pro eraeer, id est, cradicare : a, 
id e«t asns ; eicrirft [« means i mnlc], 
id est reribere ettone, id eat attwutoa ; 
& p«do pet : epppllat, id est nppel- 
lare, eitraitd: id est extrabere. — 
8. p. 3. Tbe pawa^ is verj diScnll 
to nnderstand. Qia ^ iteems to ba 
(H), hU i (a), his > (e), and his ex- 
ceptional e to U (v). i'— (e, t f) M. 
119, note, =(l, e,af)PeU.B. 119,n. 
<■ Tertins huins rocaUs Kiniu Gnneit 
at Latinis ignobu, is ipse est qui ab 
Eebneis pnnclo quod Seva raptum 
fooant, Qalli Tero e foemineam 
propter imbeeillam et rii sanoram 

~ ippellaDt." B. p. 13. — "i 

e hsth no aecent, and is 
a the banning: or midst 
of ■ word, as •Knurrr, mcner, ladle. 
mml, but moBic cammonlT at the ende 
of vordeB, as MU JSIU, inniu Dame, 
hauini bat halfo the sonnd of the ^ 
nascidinv, and is nronoQiieed as the 
Mcond syllable of these latine wordcs 
firtrt, kfiirv, or as the second Billable 
otKomfly.ia English, and like these 
niglish wordei Madanie, lablt, sauinp 
that in the tint, the english makcth 
but too siUables. and we mak? three, 
as if it were oritlon Ita-da-mt and 
in t»bl* the english piDnounoBth it 

Feminine b 

as if the i were bet«»nic the i and 
the I thus, label, and the French doe 
soand it thus, la-blt ; yea miut take 
heede not to lilt vp your Toieo at 
the last e but rather deprease it. ( 
Feminine in these wurdn, /( liioye, 
I'neripuajft, and snch like, ia nut 
aoundod, and Bericth there for na 
othur rse then to Dtako the WOTd 
long ; doc not sonnd e in thia word 
dra, us. Buy dea Memitir, anj onw 
ilo : sound this word hhin as if it 
werewritten /aa," E. And, nmilarir i 
"We do not call, i, masenlino fat 
the respcot of any gender, but be- 
cause that it is sounded liuelf : M 
dole, lapidr, me. Is in latine : . . . 
and by adding another, e, it shall be 
called e, feminine, because that it 
hath bat balfe the sonnd af the otheri 
i : as frnuA', faviU^n, &c. where the 
first is sharpe, but the atbcr goeth 
slowly, and an it were deadly .... 
VVhereaoeuer you Und this, i. at tlie 
words end, it is an, t, fcminiae .... 
pronounce it as the second sylUtde 
of bodelg in English, or the seeond 
otfaure in Latin," H. n. 156. The 
transition in case of the prennt ( 
muel seems to haic been (r, «, t) is 
French, and in German to tun 
etoppiid gGoerally at {b), Ihoogli («) 
is still oocasionally heaij, 196, b. 2. 

EAU={t»o)'ii.\.Zl. EAU=[v,r)?tL 
who notes the Pariuan error vn n# 
if id for un ttau J'mk, p. IT, shewing 
only a variety in the initial letter. 
EA U= (iB=),BB cmajKsu, mantr*t>.IL 
p. 37.— "In hac tnphthongo andit« 
t claqsun cam diphthongo an, qnasi 
seribos to, n fan aqoa (quam Tocem 
maiorcs nostri seribebant et proftre- 
bant addito r fa^minino taut)," B. p. 
62. " Pronounce these wonlea Ian, 
(vsH.abnostcaB if there were no e,"E. 

Sr={iA, oei) P. 118, "et quoqae [ae« 
Sylvins remarks on ai}, sea «, bob i 
tiuitum cum OrtBcis, neqoe none i, 
nunc e cum Lntinis. banc in hci is- 
terieotioneserTBDtibuB, inTuceanteoi 
Gncca in i, aliqnando in c prmWan- 
tibus ot pronuntiontibns ; nee U di- 
uisss tocalea efTcrimui. sed et ma- 
nosyllabum, rncc scilicet ipsa et 
Ttraqae in unam concrcto, nt iBgA- 
nium engein, non engen, nvc engin." 
S. p, 8. Tbis onght to mean - nol 
(i). nor (e), nor (e,i), but (ei)," jrt 
the description cannot be tmstM. 
aea AI. We find : peine, peintni. 
9eintur«, B', to IL-a 


Mdgnt, meilheara, peine, pareilhe, 
Pel. — ^psine, &indr#, pEindre, nm^, 
Ssme, Blsiiie = H^I^ne, R.— " Hsbc 
diphthongUB [et] non profertur nisi 
mox lequente n, et ita pronuntiatur 
«t panluliim pronoB ab t simplici 
diflerat, Tt gueine vagina [ =^galni^, 
piem plenns; cnjns tamen foemini- 
nmn pletu, nsuB obtinait nt absque 
t Kiibatar et cfferator, Picardis ex- 
ceptis, qui ut sunt vetostatiB tenaccs, 
Kribant et int^ro sono pronuntiant 
pleiH0y* B. p. 46. — " Pronounce these 
wordee fi^^f, ttigne^ or any words 
irhere hath • or y^ after it like d 
luwcoline, as though there were no 
% at al." £. 
SUrz (eu, ey ?) Bare 806, L. 816, EU= 
(ea,y)P.137. — "Eusonumhabetvari- 
vm, aliquando eundcm cum Latinis, 
hoc est plenum, ut cos cotis c^edt, 
lecunis sedr, maturus meiir, qualis 
in eogc, Tydeus [this should be (cu)]. 
ftliqnando exilem et proprius acce- 
dentem ad sonum diphthong! Gasecee 
m, ut cedr [in Sylvius the sign is eu 
with a circumflex over both letters, 
and a bar at the top of the circum- 
flex, thus indicated for convenience], 
•oror seur, raorior g-^ medr : nisi 
ondd u in his, non vclut f sonat 
(quomodo in av et cv) sed magis in 
■onum u vocalis inclinat (can this 
mean (ey) F] : id scribendo ad ple- 
num exprimi non potest, pronunti- 
indo potest. Sed in his forte et in 
quibusdam aliis, hiec vocis ed varie- 
ias propter dictionum diifercntiam 
inuenta et reccpta est. lUam ed, 
banc §(i lineola in longum supeme 
producta, sonum diphthongi minus 
eompactum et magis dilutum signifi- 
eante notamus.'* S. p. 9. The dif- 
ficulty of distinguishing "round" 
vowels, that is those for which the 
Ups are rounded, from diphthongs, 
Mpecially in the case of (y, ?),-— see 
Hart, supr& p. 167, p. 796, n. col. 1, 
and B.'s remark below, makes all 
inch descriptions extremely doubtful. 
8. may have meant (y, 9) or (y, oe) 
by these descriptions, and these are 
the modem sounds. EU={ej) M. 
137, sec note on that page for 6. des 
tatels. Pel. B.— "La sixiesme voyelle 
eest vng son que nous cscripuons 
par deux voyelles e et m, comme en 
oes mots, Peur, Meur, Seur, qui 
■emble aussi auoir este quclque dipn- 
thongue, que nos ancestres ayent 
pnmonoee et eicripte, et puis apres. 

comme nous auons diet de An 
que ceste diphthongue ayt este 
miuicte en vne simple voyelle: ou 

bien que Ion aye pns a pen pres ce 
que Ion pouuoit." K. p. 9. — "In hac 
diphthongo neutra vocalis distinct^ 

sea sonus quidem [quidam P] ex e et 
u temperatus auditur, qucm et Orsecis 
et Latinis ignotum vix liceat ulla de- 
Bcriptio peregrinis eiprimere." B. 
p. 46.—" e In these words, du feu 
which signifieth fire, vn peu a little, 
demeurer to dwell or tarye, vn leu a 
Playe or game, tu veulx thou wilt, 
are not pronounced like these: le 
feu I was, Vay peu I haue bene able, 
reu I had, le lea ay veu9 I haue 
secne them : for these last and such 
like, ought to be pronounced in this 
wise le fu^ Fay pu, lu, vus, as 
though there were no e at all, but t«, 
and in the former wordes, e is pro- 
nounced and io)7ied with m." E. As 
eu is frequently interchangeable with 
or derived from 0, om, the probability 
is that the transition was (u, eu, oe, 
9) both the sounds (oe 9) being now 
prevalent, but not well distinguished, 
see 162, note 3, and 173, note 1. 
It will be seen by referring to this 
last place that I had great difficulty 
in actormining what sounds M. 
Feline intended by " Ve sourd " and 
eu in modem French. I there de- 
cided that the former was {9) and 
the latter (oe). M. Feline has been 
dead several years, but Prince Louis 
Lucien Bonaparte, who conversed 
with him on the subject, says that I 
have just reversed the values of 
Feline's letters, and that Feline's 
c 6 are my (oe, 9) respectively. 
Hence wherever I have hitherto cited 
Feline's pronunciations this correc- 
tion must be made, and especially 
on 327, the signs (9, oc) must be in- 
terchanged throughout, as (koe Iob 
siel kelkoe zhur) for (k^ b siel kelkp 
zhur). It will be seen in the same 
place, 8upr& 173, note 1, that M. 
Tarver made no distinction between 
the two sounds. M. 'Edouard Paris, 
in the introduction to his translation 
of St. Matthew into the Picard 
dialect of Amiens, brought out by 
the Prince, makes e " sourd " in 1^, 
p«u, d«, \euj meaning, as the Prince 
informea me (b, p, d^, zhp), and 
eu "ouvcrt" in yeuf p^wple, mean- 
ing, on the same authority, (voef, 
pceplh). On turning to M. Feline's 


enaea compti pronnntictit, Loi, ciol, 
dot, g-ol, pot, toi, pro lie, ce, ie, ec, 
te ; Qua miniu nunim ot GrUToi 

Eanominn mot toi ml pronnntia>re. 
^nant iptuz Ficardia, puritalen 
lingnse ct nnliquitatcm intecriiu 
senuintibus illudere Calli. qubd di- 
cant mi, ti, si raio ; et mt. td, >^ ft 
mihi tel mi, tibi, sbi, rcl ti, d, 
analogin primie p«nonie, Qoan- 
qa&m moi. tot, loi. tolerabiliora nnt. 
et forts Grteoanics, vt in pranomi- 
ne oatendimus. Neqne poslhu in 
Normannas cauiUentur, omnia bee 
prodiuta et ootuimiliii nan pet ot. 
Bed per e pnmontiHniai, telt, e«l«llft 
[(ou-dfor S.'b mack of mate It], a6i, 
■or, d6. tcct, vel£, -tirb, c6, 16, amM, 
&c. aim^S, &c [modem, toile, 
floile, >oie, aotr, doia, toil, Toile, 

tho Prince, (tai. pi, d . 
piEpl}, so (bat in Uie two words li, 
dt, F£line differs hom '£. Paris, 
and tbe lattci* agiers wilb me in Ibe 
■oond I hare assigned to tbcee 
words. According to the Prince, half 
France saja (b, dj], and tbe other 
half (Ice, die). In German; also tbe 
■onoiu [», IE) are ronlused, and bace 
BO difference of meaning. In Ice- 
landic thej are kept diitmoC bj the 
different ortbographies u = («), 0^= 
[(d), G4G, 548. Compare also the 
mnlaQon or utNlaul, (« . , i=9h, 
t, I). fifi7. 

7=(i, ii)L.815. P. G. 100. 110, o«a- 
•bnalljf (iV Y) P. 100. 817, n. /= (i) 8. 
U.Pel.R,fi.— "OuTiuaoundedoiJ, 
in these engliah words, it, ii, or as 
the englisb double, » as ti i»w awt 
tiri, sonnd as if it were written to 
VMM But Itcri." E. 

0=(o) P. 93. "A, i. 0, Latinomm 
pronnntiationem, quod sciam, apad 
GalJDs non malaat." 3. p. 2. The 
traditional pronuncintioa of Latin o 
in Italy is (o) ; and (o), as dialin- 
gniahed from (o) which must be at- 
tribnled to au, ncems In bo tbo 
aound accepted for Fioncb o, by 
the other aulbhoritjea. Sec aUo 
B. 131, note col. 2.—" o Is Bounded 
as in Engliib. and in the same 
Tse, as pel, ml, oppnirt, unin^ 
that in these wordcs follawinp, u la 
sounded like tho cnj^liab double iw, 
as mal, fol, tst, tvl, which muat be 
pronounced, leaning /. tbna •■ foo, 
men, wd, nw, except tbis word Sol, 
M m am Sol, a Crowne of the Sun : 
where eaerjr letter is pranonnaed." E. 

OEU. " [scribimua] onmrt. vatv, omf 
. . . tn^uihui tamen onnibtu a pcni- 
tns quiescit. Pronunlismns enim 
mun, tut, ieuf." B. p. 6*. 

OI=(oi. ee?) flaro. SOB, 0/=(oi, oe, 
oaf P. 130. "oi, nan i, cum 
Graicii, ncc ib cum Idtinis, icd >i 
Ttriusquo 'ocalip wraBta, ut mona- 
ohns moinS: datiuo/ui, id catmibi 
mot, Eodem suno o; pT'onaitiamus 
Bt geniliro imo, id cit mci mdj." 8. 
p.8. Tbis ou^ht to mean ai = (oi], 
and the last remark ma; refer onl? 
to the nae of mnl in French for both 
fuN, iioa in Greek. As>inhusays: 
"Quid quod hicc dipblhoNgua pro o 
lupposita ParthisienaibuB adco pla- 

II pronim- 
le accoUnm 

aimoraje f anmrem] Oua 
tialionem velut poatliroini 
hodiS audlmui in aomii: 
hnioa vrbis et incolaniBi, at^ue 
Porrhisionsinm. vt rerum nt Hon- 
tiaunm illud, Multa rcnascentnr, 
aaie iam cecidere. Ease quid hoa 
dicflmP pro Stella eitoill^ diranl 
adhuo nonnnlli. pro stcUaiua anlem 
■i qui cHolllf, noa artelle, pro ad- 
ueralua (aic enim pro ouerta i* et 
afBrmnta toquuntiLr) au-o!r£, aoB 
au-ord [a- ■=(»)]: enduibtc ab in- 
debitatus, id eat ore alicno oppmnis, 
non cndobt£; soicti non acete, dimi- 
nutiuum i aericuin prononlict, om- 
nes ritu enori et barbanim e^lo- 
dere." S. p. 31. Viewed in relatton 
to modem habits, some of thcae UMi 
ore >er; curious. 0/= (oi. oe, oi ?) M. 
130. 07=(oi,o».»).Poll--l*in«ht 
following words: saurou, FraDfoas, 

i=ariiinil, praDanfoBt, cmn, toi, 
aparoKtrr, moa, tRrronr, tdveIii, foH> 
— -"et cirtoin par Ut Ecnt de* 
Vious llimeurs FnnijnEi. qn'ii disoat 

les autrea melft i* au y an la p£nal- 
tinu e disrt j'emoaje, j'oBji 
oIesautr«s. Lea uns diwt Beia# 
lea notrrs Ronnf. Mimn ■ la 
pios part des Courtirans ti 


.11.1. 1 


I ietmBDtix, pel ot Putliui- 


85, — 01 = (oi) moindrc, p^Hodn, 
point, oun, toin, vojant, ojant, 1^ 



majBBt, fbnldroyant, and « (ob), 
oxiBi, Tosla, fto &. 0/=(oi, ox) 
and (oa) firaltUy, B. 130 note.— 
** Whereas onr ConntTymcn were 
wont to pronounoe these wordes, eon- 
MOM/rv to knowe, apparoutra it shall 
^qi^ere, // parle b<m Francois he 
raeaketh good French, £11$ est An- 
^ttnm she is an English-woman, as 
it is written hy ot or oy : Now since 
fewe y^eres they pronounce it as if 
it were written thus, coontire, up* 
ptuHiray frawMit^ Aungldze** £. 
O V^ (ou ?) L. 816. [7 = (u) P. 149, 
^ ov sen oCk cum neutris [OrsBcis et 
I^tinis] pronuntiamus : siquidem 
nee per n Orsecorum more, sea con- 
tra Q in ov sen od persepe mutamus: 
Hac antem diphthongo caret sermo 
Latuins." S. p. 8. 9. As there is 
no reasonable doubt that old french 
0«c3 (uu), this passage is quite unin- 
telligible, unless, by saying that the 
Gre3cs called it m, he meant to imply 
that they called it (yy). No other 
pawnge in S. elucidates this. OTJ 
u cafied •< o dds," =(iih T) M. 149, 

but see 131, note, col. 2 ; Pell, k R. 
evidently take 0[7=(u). — "In hae 
diphthongo ne(iue o sonorum, neque 
M exile, Md mixtus ex rtroque sonua 
auditur, quo Orseci quidem yeterea 
suum u, Bomani yer6 suum y yocale 
yt et nunc Germani, efferebant." B. 
p. 49. — E. writes the sound oo in 
English letters. 

I7'=(y) L. 816, P. 163. "ordine postre- 
mum, ore in angustum clause, et 
labiis paululum exporrectis" S.p. 2, 
probably M. 164; and similarly 
Pell., K.— "HsBC litera, quum est 
yocaUs, est Onecorum ypsilon, quod 
ipsa qnoque figura testatur, effert- 
urque yeluti sioilo constrictis labris 
eflfato," B. p. 17.— E. 227, note 1 ; 
H. 228, note. 

XII<t is not alluded to by any other 
authority except P., probaoly be- 
cause it occasioned no mfficulty, each 
element having its regular sound (yi) 
as at present. But P. is peculiar, 
1 10, 818. E. writes the sound vm in 
English letters. 

Tht NoBol Consonants and their effect on the Vowels, 

r« ^in the frenche tong hath thre 
dyners soundes, the soundyog of 
m, Uiat is most eenerall, is suche as 
he haJtAi in the latyn tong or in our 
tong. If m folowe any of these thre 
yowelles a, e, or o, all in one syllable, 
he ahalbe sounded somthynfi^ in the 
nose, as I haue before deelarea, where 
I have shewed the soundyng of the 
layd thre vowels [143, 160. and also : 
**if m or n folowe nexte after e, all in 
one syllable, than e shall be sounded 
lyke an Italian a, and some thynge 
in the noose."] If m, folowyng a 
vowell, come before b, p, or ^, he 
shalbe sounded in the nose and al- 
most lyke an n, as in these wordes 
plombf eol6mbf champs doftipUr^ 
eirtumapeetion^ and suchlike. " P. 
folio 3, see also supra 817. — 
** M, est ferme au commencement de 
la syllabe: en fin elle est liquide, 
eomme Marie, Martyr, Nom, Bam, 
Arrierebam : qui a este cause a noe 
Grammairiens denseigner que tn de- 
vant p, estait presqucs supprimee, 
comme en Camp, Champ. N est vo- 
lontiers ferme au commencement du 
mot, et en la fin: comme Nanin, 
fiofi, mais au milieu elle est quelque- 
fois Uquide, comme en Compaignon, 

Etpaignol" R. p. 24. Here the 
''liquid" n appears to be (nj), and 
n final is '* firm ' as well as n initial, 
but a difference between m final and 
m initial is found, the latter only 
being "firm" and the former 
"liquid," and this liquidity, which 
is otherwise incomprehensible, would 
seem to imply the modem nasality 
of the previous vowel, were not final 
ft, the modem pronunciation of which 
is identical, reckoned *^ firm." The 
two passages are therefore mutually 
destmctive of each other's meaning. 
In his phonetic writing R. makes no 
distinction between firm and liquid 
m, but writes liquid n (nj) by an n 
with a tail below like that of 9. 
JV=(n) only, Bar. 810. iV" in the frenche 
tong, hath two dyuers soundes. The 
soundyng of n, than is moost generall, 
is suche as is in latyne or in our 
tonge. If n folowe any of these thre 
vawclles a, e, or o, all m one syllable, 
he shalbe sounded somthyn^ in the 
nose, as I have before declare, where 
I have spoken of the sayd thre 
vowclles. That n leseth never his 
soundc, nother in the first nor meane 
syllables, nor in the last syllables, I 
mive afore declared in the generall 



it it ii DBt to h« forgoten, 
. a the Iflst STllnble of the 
IhirdB panons pliueltea of vcrbes 
end^gucflf.iBCTerleflo Tnaounded.' ' 
P.fol.13.— iDthepbrOBOMaJ^onCH. 
heard Kii naliant, witb the game n 
kt the end of tbe 6ret word as Bt the 
bennning of tbe second, IBS. — 
" FranciM aio re«t& scripseri* Firm 
("fli ett alU, quod lamen tie eSeren- 
dum est, Pim-f i'™ nrat alli, Sio 
on m'm a parlt aa a wriptnm eise^ 
m m'ea no parli, illo ndeUcot pn 
orii dictionia n dogbcssato, et cum 
Tocali aequentem (ocem ineipiente 
coniuncta, pro ra qnod PniuienBium 
TolguB proBuntiat : H i> ntit allii 
on nu iia parlt, p<r e faunincnin rt 
in pranominibun it et rat. Sed boo 
in primis curandnm est poregriDia 
otDiiibiu quod idtett in bt«run m 
monoi [ita ridelicet it non mod6 
labia non occludantoi, eed edsm 
lio^uie macro dentium radicem non 
fenat p. 30], nempe hano lileram 
qooties ayllabum nuit. qoaai dinii- 
dialo MDO pronuntiandam esse, mn- 
etotti vidvbcet liaguie minimf illiso 
■npuriOTtini dentium ladici, alioqui 
t^tura molestiuima pronontistione : 
qno Titio inter Franooi Inbarant 
etiamnnm hodie Nortmanni. Grascos 
■ntem hand alitcr banc literam ante 
K, y, x< pronantiare canmicuine an- 
notit ei Niffidio Fi^o Agelliua." 
B. p. 32. Tttia descnption aeenu to 
indicate the modern pronunciation 
neadj. E. and n. have no remarki 
AM, AJf^(aa,m. au.n) P. 143, 180. 
hut this namliutiun ia rendered 
donhtfnl hv hii treatment of final e 
u (oj 181. note 5. and 81T.-For 
B. tee under E, mprik p. S22, col. 1. 


jl/,V=(Ein), see under JI. for aumer- 
oua eiamplc*. AI={ia)," Aiao in 
these wonleB, ainn. ai«(oii. aiRti, or 
anj othiir word vbere a u iojnod 
with in, a lD«eth bis sonnd and it 
pronounced aa eDgUeh men doe pro- 
nounce their /, sa if it wure int, 
I'ruH. imoit. Also pain, rUain, iaH- 
lain, rtmaiii, are to bee prononnccd 
aa the english i." E.— ^/=(inn 
" Wo sound, oiN, aa. IB : an in steed 
of Main, maiHr»i<in(, JftnaiH, taint 
. . . aaf, min,mintmant,drmin,tiia: 
but Then ,», foUowsth ,n, tbe vowel 
,1, nMth more toward ,a ; si Mmni 

a whale, Mtp-maini n weeke, 

and to make it more plaino, rMMM, 

ia clean altered, ao thqt. nm 
as Ton aound, vaitu, in Engl 
1 like, but more shorter.' 



an Br(tagn< an Anjuu 
lleinf . . . ii prononcrt I'o dauant 
n un pen bicn grorannant, e quasi 
oomme I'il i auoat auti par diftoneus 
fwhieh according to hii (alue of an 
should ^ (oun], but he probabl; 
meant (aunjn qnand iz disrt N o r- 
maund, Hanntta, A angers, 
1( Mauns: grannd cherr, e tea 
antrra. Hm t«lc maaivr« it pro- 
noncer aaut ion tumji d'un/ lim*." 
Pelt, p. ISA. "Pronounce alwaiea 
•■ or Drill aa if it were written oxn, 

Aina). "Alao in Ihese words fol. 
lowing, e ii not aonndad, an paon, 

£M, £?!'= (em, en F) ciccpt u 
'he 3rd person plunJ; ' ' 
nO;£M, JA'=(a,m,a 
before a Towel, P. 189, 
Parrbinenaca e pro a, et 
aertim m vol n aeqnenlf, elisn) in 
Latinia dietionihua, Ceiuorini exem- 
plo, et Hcribiml ct pronuctiBnt, mag- 
na Slope infamia. dum amentea pro 
amantea, et contrlk amuntei pro 
amentea, ali&que id genua rationecon- 
fundunt." 8. p. 11. It U not quite 
certain whether S. ia referriag to the 
Puisiun pronunciation of Latin or 
French, as tbe ciample ia only Latin, 
but probabl)-, both are meant Ob- 
serre hia remarka nndfir E. supri p. 
821, col. 2. £M. fj\'=(nn, nV 
H. 189. EM, EM = (aiD, an). Pell, 
who ubjecti to the praatmdMion 
(im, bd) of M., and anj^a: "m«n 
auie Bl dc dmoBr ccrirr toutaa IdM 
dicciona plus lot par a que par a. 
Cm dr dir' :ju'I i Et diferane* en U 
prolacion des deua dEmiiRVB nlabN 

ceus qui Trgardrt di trop praa, on 
qui Teulrl parler Irop migiionnflnant: 
Bamblablnniuit antir lc« pmnltimM 

h pent on ancoi' plni carlcitwumtt 
CounoEtrr, quand on pronoiiM Ota 
deus propDSiciona qui lont d* Biinw 
oDja, nu* da dians aaa^ U ■• 

■■ Quid qnod 


in'an m>Dd< mot. CambiGa 
qof propri'niaiLt ■ \a rigneor ct as 
iDzt oi d ni I. E. conli&s^ que les 
■Uabia A)neln nans m«t«DS e aaimt 
n, m* aarollirt aatiint malEsecB a rc- 
proantcr par Istrn Latitus, que nnles 
aatcit qtif nous eyom en notr« Ftan- 
piB*. Brief, IV qu'on met mlgoerf- 
mant an ■ c i e n c e lonnr BUtrcmaat 
qiuIVdf Bcientis Lntm: la du 
lonprcmant D u pronoDO «iiaiii« an 
FraDtoaa cslni it antitn, tin, Hen.'' 
Pel. p. 2a. "TontrfoEs piiiir cod- 
bner Terite, na toutcs teln diccioDB, 

uoam Umen gylUbam coaleacentis, 
qoauTig scribatoi ir.liteia u sequente 
atqnv dictionem Gniente. Sic in hit 

Uqnea i it diuan » 

Ka mistioni ds deoa coulmira sAoa U 

Chu e If moioB it cbacuni') tontefoES 
Km partiGipc pins d'o qae d'e. £ 
par Cf qu> botmrmant il i feodioEt 
mu nouuBlf Istri, <u qmr jg a'intro- 
dni pM bien hurdunBiit, comnw j'e 
ja dll qnzlqan foM ; puiu Ir nioins 
an alondsu^ il me Holblc mpilbetir 
d'i metre un a. E «ans donte, il i i 
plus grande difltinocion an 1' Itolien, 
t mKoui on notce FiouDan9aI, an 
prDDon^ant la Toynte ( auant ti. Csc 
DDiu, e cos la pranontone utcrrmant. 
Comm«BU lieu qur tous diM aantir 
» mantir dmn* I'n, nous pro- 
Donifons ssntir e loGDtir 
dram 1' r : e d font i)a]ui tontn 
antna nadoni fon Its Fran^oEB." 
Pel. p. 126. — K. write phonetically ; 
■n. oitemscs, snvoier, Enfuia, &<i 
Uko M. — "Coaleeecoa e in eandem 
•jrllftham cum m, Vt trmportl Wmpo- 
mlii, rel h, eiue sola «t aanaru it 
fmlen rgo intelligo : >iuo ndlnncto 
i n fiilmd int«lligit ; rel vt- emifent 
contentui -, prDnundatur at n. Itaqno 
in hia Tocibni eoititanl constons: 
and cohIihI contcntua, An annus, 
and m in, diuersa est Mriptura, pro- 
Donciatio lero recta, tc) codem, vol 
teouinimi discriminis, el quod vii 
auribiu pempi poasit. Eidpe 

Cior bae Tucnlai, annrn tHBailla- 
antiqiius ; lien Tinculum, and 
wwijen mraium, JItm Gmus, diaiyl- 
laba; and quotidim quotidiauua, 
quatnor ajtllabamm : denique omnia 
gintilU nomina, rt Pariiieu, Pariai- 
enii*, Sauoitim SabnudiFUtiiB ; in 
qnibna * olannim icribitur ot distineti 

bongiun conoenienCibus. . . . Alter 
bnnt litem aaoui adulterinus cat ide« 
>^M Stem I 'geminatte doplid^ in 

positig ; Fi'cn venio. vel veni cum 
comporitis : qnic omuia Tocabula ito 
k pur^ pronimtiantibas «tf«runtllt 
Bc si acnptum esset •' duplici biitn 
chiitH &c" B. p. IS.— "Wh«n * 
fuminine makuth nne Billable with 
m or n, it Ib wauded almost lilie n, 
aB en/arilraml, emmttilloter, pro- 

ammalliiilcr, Dicept nhen i or y 
commeth before en oa niajTn, di-j/en, 
(tniMm, or in wordea of one billable, 
aa nini, lint, ehien, nm, »*»>, which 

Boa pluml that due end ii 
Ik ditmt. Hi rieal, Ik faitount, 
lit ehoHloi/tal, tiiere s ia aounded ac 
hauiug no n at all, bat rather oa if 
it were written thua : » dial, m 
rirt, et faiatytt, ee thaataytt'' E. 

£7,V=(oin, ain), w» nnder AI for 
Bomeroua eiampluB, and the quota- 
tina from B. luuler £/. It «eumB 
impossible to Buppoae that in the 
m til reuturyit had alreudy reached 
its modem farm (ca), into which 
modem tn haa also iBllen. 

JJV=[in). No authority aoticea any 
difference in the Towel, db M., Pell, 
E. nil write I'li ia their phooelic 

EUiuB, and it b not one of tfa« 
ce roweU, o, «, o, fltat«l by P., 
under M, N, to be nffeeltd by the 
following m or n. Sec the quota- 
tiouB frean "&. and H. under AIN. 
E. ^Te> the pronunciation of Asoo- 
m let pfinert as ineri U fretnea, 
which acema ducisire. 
O.V=(onf) Bar.810,(nn)P.H9.— M. 
Pel. R, write simply on = (on). E. 
firra the pronunciation of now en 
parltnme aprie rllet qui liira on, as 
HooH-aui -parltroon-taprii- iclltt, tf 

I7jV=(yn). "V Tocalii apud Latinoa 
nan minus qoilm aiiud Gatlua, Minam 
dnplicem quibundan exprimit ee- 

3uente n. in eodem irUnbu. Vt onim 
lorum quidnn 


Deeds thai : " Ita Oklli tww to 
communia eommnn, defiiDGtiu de- 
funct, et alia qiuednni, souo roMlU 
■eruato pronuntiuit, [that is, as (jn)]. 
CoDtra vndecim u'Hcii. uncia n^noe, 
truNcaa trwmo, ct ploimiiia alia, non 
■liter pranuntiaat cjuim d per o 
soribereHter." 8, p. 4. No other 
anthoritj mGntioni or girc* the 
slightest reason for snppaaing that 
either u or n differ in this eombiiw- 
tion from the qmol valne. P. writes 
en for hit ung, and U. has wi, tn*, 
FelL has wi, E. pronounces i7 at tn 
honnorabU peruniHagt M w-M-hui- 
nanorablt periumnagt. 

pongo, fiingor, proferuiit, adoltCTats 

u vDcnliB Toce gcnnina. Id quod se- 

quetite tn. in cBdcni sirllal)^ oninas 

Latin i Tbiqne fociunt, scnmniun, 

dominnni, mnHnini, ct cietera pro- 

nnnliantes perinde ac si per o 

icribercntur : ita vt aliud noa 

■onet o, in tondere, sontes, rhom- 

boa. qnam n ia tundoro, sunto, 

Wmba. Atqni o djdnctiore rictu 

pronontinndum est qu&m n." S. 

p. 3. This seems to refer to tiie 

French pronuDciation of Latin, 

Ta&er than of French, and it Oj^rees 

mtli the modem practice. S. pro- 
The condusion' from thcao rather conflicting Btatements seenw to 
be, that eomctime bcl'ore the xn th ccnturj' ain, en, ein, ien, in, m 
were proQouDced (ain eeh, En, cin, ien, in, jn) without a trsce 
of nasality; that during tho XTith contnry a certain naanlity, not 
the same as at present, pervaded an, on, changing them to (a^, o,n)t 
and perhaps (a,n, o,n), so that, aa explained hy P. 817, foreignen 
hoard a kind of (u) sound dcTclopcd, and English people confused 
the wundfl with {au,n, U;n). In the beginning of the iTnth 

eorlj dote at which en an were can- 
founded in Frenoh, which ti most com- 
plete, eihauBtiTO and interesting, dots 
not vatablieh theii- pronunciation ■■ 
the modem uual rowi'la. H, Uejer 
gives Bi the result of his intesti- 
gHtion: "£n Normuidie, et, aelog 
touto probability, dons lea pnj ■ rotnaiw 
situ£i sous In meme latitude, bh ftatt 
encore distinct de an su Rioment dt 
la conqu&t« de I'Anglotcrre (I06S), 
mais 1 assimilation klait compUti 
environ un li^cle plui tard. p. 
SG2. He adds : " en anglo-uonoaiul 
m et an sont toajours restjs distincta, 
et ils le (ont encore aDJourd'hni dao* 
les mots romans, qui ont pass^ dam 
I'anplais," and saits we must acknow- 
ledge "qu'en oe point comme en plii- 
aiiun autre*, Ic nonnnnd trouporM (b 
AngleterTB a siiivi une di[«otion 4 Id, 
one Toio indfpendonte de odl« oA 
('cngageait le normuid indistec;,*' 
After M. Meyer's ocuto and laborioo* 
deiena nasalis£.'' p. proof of the contii)ion of m, ■■ i> 
e, and their distinction in Big- 
we need not be astonished if ai, 
>i m England also retained the soDod 

iai) loaesfter it had gentfrallv sank to 
ee) in France. These are onlf addi- 
tional instances of the peraiatcnoc of 
old pronunciations among on emigni- 
ing or eipatriated pvopb- 

I the pafsogo 
I M. Paul Me 

[eyer's elaborate 

de LinguisHque dt Paris, vol. 1, 

24t-276). Hsvmg first drown di 

tion to the occasionnl derivation of Fr. 

an, tn from Latin in, he saTs: "Notons 

ici qne le passage d'ln k rn et cetui 

d' m ik on Bont deux pb^nom^nos pho- 

n£tiques d'onlre fort diffirents. Dens 

1« premier eas 1' n est encore assei 

dklacbcD de ta Toyelle et 1' ■ s'fteitit 

an r, ce dont on a de nombreui ei- 

omples d^s le temps des Romnins, Le 

passage de I't Ik I'a ne pourroit se jnsti- 

Ber de m^me. Aussi est-il ntcGssaire 

de sappoier qu'an temps oa !e son «■ 

s'cst confondu avec le son an, Tn foiaoit 

d^ja corps avcc la voyelle. Oe n'est 

pas e pur qui est devcuu a pnr, mais » 

nasalise qui oit deiena o nasalis£.''p. pr 

246. But this is theoretical. We Franc 

hare the tiwt that fimmg has become land, 

(&m) in speech, conatinlly so rhyming 

in Freneh elasuca, and that tolmnel is 

(solanel) and a large class of words 

Uke itiiUmMenl (CTidoBiHi) change em 

into ain without tbe least trace of a 

nasal vowel havine interposed. Ilenca 

th« proof that M. Uejer gives of the 


century these sounds, or else (A^n, u^n) were adopted by the French- 
man E., in explaining sounds to Englishmen. As to m, it became 
(an) or perhaps (a,n), even in xti th century probably not before, but 
it must have differed £rom an, because Englishmen did not confuse it 
with (aun), many Frenchmen wrote (eu), and P. 817, does not allow 
it to be nasal. The complete fosion of an, en, into one nasal probably 
took place in xynth century, except in the connection i^n, where 
m either remained (xn) or was confused with in. The combina- 
tions atn, tn, seem to have been quite confused, and we have no 
reason to suppose that they were pronounced differently from (in). 
Whether ein followed their example it is difficult to say. Probably 
it did, as it is now identical in sound. But un remained purely (yn). 
We had then at the close of the xvith century an, any in, tfn=-(a«n, 
o,n, in, yn). Now in the xvn th or xvin th century a great change 
took plaice in French ; the final e became absolutely mute. Simid- 
taneously with this change must have occurred the disuse of the 
final consonants, so that words like regard regards, which had been 
distinguished as (regard regardB), were still distinguished as (regar 
ragard), now (r^gar, regard). It then became necessary to dis- 
tinguish un, une, which would have become confused. About this 
time, therefore, I am inclined to place the degradation of (in, 3m) 
into (e^n, p,n). We should then have the four forms {aji, o^n, e,n, 
•^), which by the rejection of n after a nasalized vowel, a pheno- 
menon with which we are familiar in Bavarian German, would 
become (a, o^ e, 9^). The change thence to (aA, oa, ca, pa) or 
(aA, OA, OA, oa) the modem forms is very slight. The subject is a 
very ^fficult one, but there seems to be every reason to suppose 
that there was scarcely a shade of nasality in Chaucer's time, except 
perhaps in an, on, which generated his (aun, uun), and that the 
complete change had not taken place till the end of the xviith 
or beginning of the xvin th century. One important philological 
conclusion would result from this, namely that the modem French 
nasalisation offers no ground for the hypothesis of a Latin nasalisa- 
"tion. If this last existed, it must be otherwise traced. The history 
of Portuguese nasalisation now becomes interesting, but I am as 
yet unable to contribute anjrthing towards it. The fact however 
that only two romance languages nasalise, while the Indian lan- 
guages have a distinct system of nasalisation, and nasality is ac- 
complished in Southern Germany, and is incipient, without loss of 
the n, in parts of the United states, is against the inference for 
liatin nasidisation from the existent nasalisation of French and 

Other Consonants. 

L mouilU, The nature of the sound hauyn^ an 0, commyn^ next before 

cannot be inferred from Bar. 810, hym, tney Yse to sounoe an i shortlj 

though it seemB to be acknowledged. and confusely, betwene the lost i 

— ''Whan Boeuer the.iiii. letters ilia, and the vowel folowyng : albe it that 

ille, or illo come to gither in a nowne in writtyng they expresne none suche, 

fabttantiue or in a Terbe, the i nat as these wordes, ribattdailU, failU, 


iaiUer, ftUBdrl, milldrl, bilUrt, 
/millt, Jillt, eliealUt, qaoeguUU, ar- 
tUll&H, iatlilUn, eoviiliH, and nicbe 
like, in redjngo or apokynge thef 
•oonde thus : riia«dailli4, faillit, 
iitilliir, jaiiliari, utilliart, Ulliarl, 
/ihSIu, jaiii, eimUUt, gmcquillie, 
ardillien itutillimt, eoniUivH : but, 
u I bane »fd, if the i have an o 
coRimfug next before hym, in all 
(nche wordea thej uunde none i after 
the letter 1, «a that thcae nownoi 
sabftlantynes moflle, uaill; loilU, 
and mohe Ijilie be except from this 
rule. ■ • Except also from this mlo 
mile whiuhe Boundeth nono i aftec 
hie latter 1." P.i,7.— "There iatwo 
muiei of wordea horde for to lie 
pronounced in French. The iyret U 
writtenvith a doable ff whiche must 
he souned to^der, as lla, lie, Ug, llo, 
lilt, u in these woidra, bailla gave, 
tailla cuttc. cadle gttder./cn/fe lefo, 
ially bajrly, /u/iy fiiYlc, meullet 
vhitc, mgtntiUUt knefc, mallot a 
tytaer faamer, fmUu loll of lence«, 
ioullH." O.— M. and R. have new 
Oharacten for thlt sound ; PcU. 
■dopta^e PoitngneBe form Ch. E. 
talks of // which " must be sounded 
liqoid" in aonie words and "with 
thu unde of the lonpoe" in others. 
But H. explains well; "whea two, 
II, follow, ai, ei, o>. or hi, they he 
pronounced with the flat of the 
tongue, touching smoothty the roolb 
uf the mouth ; yong boyca here in 
England do eipremo it verie well 
when they pronuunoe lucm or taitta : 
tnd Englutunen in sounding Collitr, 
and Seoliitm ; likewise the ICalinn 

Jranonncing vogliB, dtmglio: for thoy 
a not souiM them with the rad, but 
with the Bat of the ton^e, as lailtrr 
to cut, Inillii a grate, oumum/fc a 
distaffe, bouiihr to seethe ; where 
you most note that, >', [which he 
prints with s cross under it to shew 
that it is [uate,] senieth for nothing 
in words of till and auill, but to 
canse the two, II, to be pronounced 
as liqHiim." H. p. 171. Tbs 
transition from (li) through (lOto 
(Ij) wai therefore complete in H.'l 
tunc. The sound haa now fallen 
generally to (i, j, jh), 
N mouilU. at Gy. Bar, 809 and note. 
is iniUitinot. — "Also wban so crer 
thcae .iii. letters gna, gne,or gno eunio 
lo gjflier, eyther in a nowne sub- 
■btotiue or in ■ mbe, the reder ihall 

ynge. aa for : gaignd, tngtiiur, 
nti^ncSfi, c?lampigH6n, utrgnlgyit, 
maitiliiHjpa, charnlfiu, he shall 
Boonde, gaigtiia, ttignitur, mi/mon, 
thompinion, utrgeigmt, tlianifnU, 
mainliengnis, nat ehaungrnge thm- 
fore the accent, no more tnan thoogli 
the aayd i were vnaounded. Bnt 
from aua rule be excepted these two 
Bubataiityvca sfgne and r£gnc, witlt 
their lerbee signer and re^fr, which 
with all that bs formod of them 
the reader ahall sonnde u they be 
wryttcn onaly." P. — "The aecond 
maner horde to pronouDce ben 
wTitl«n with gn, before a noweU, as 
gna, gitt, gni, jrno, gmi. As in these 
wordos gagna wan, taigtui dyd blede, 
ligiu lyne, pigni combe, Hiywe ryne, 
ti^ne scabbe, tumpagiit felowe, laifftu 
swell, migHon wanton, n^NSrA 
wanton, ye ahal except many wordea 
that be so written and nal so pro- 
nounced, ondyng specially in r, as 
dignt Worthy, eigm iwnnno, magna, 
ninu hygbe coroge, ett. Thej that 
oan pronounce these woidea in Utyn 
after the Italians maner, as [flfttrnt, 
digniu, magnuiy HurfMSRiatHS,] haTa 
bothe the undentandyng and Iha 
pronooncynge ot the sayde rnle and 
ofthHWOrdes.'' O.— M.&B.haTBdii- 
tinct sifma for this sound; see B. 836 
under ^. Pell retains yit. — "Wlitai 
you meete gn, melt the g with the la, 
as agnan mignim, pronounce it thai, 
onion, minim." E. — "Wc pro. 
nounce pn, almost as En^Iisbaen do 
sound, MiniDM ; lu melting, g, and 
uching the roofe of the mouth with 

not eompag-m. When the Ilaliaa 
Bsith guadngno, bitogna, he express- 
cth our gn, verio wdl." H. p. 198. 
It ia not possible lo say whether the 
original sound was (ni, nj) or (qi, 
aj), but from H. it is clear that at 
Uie beginning of the iriith century 

Fittal totmHiofti wore Dfuallv prO' 
nounecd, L. 815, andallauthonliM 
write them, although we find in P. i, 
27, " Whan so euet a ^nche wonk 
hath bat one consonant onely afl»r 
his last rowel, the consonant sbalba 
but remlssely sounded, as •«(<(, tojf/, 
Jtl, beavroip, met, ahalb« sounded m 
maaet aw, »r, A h 

Ckat. nn. f 8. FBBNCH OBTHOEFI8T8 OF XVI TH OEinUBT. 831 

be H the eonaoiuuit shall haue some ^ Contra yerb in yernacnlis Gallicii 

lyttell sounde : but if t or p folowe soribitor simul et pronunciatnr aspi- 

a or e, they shall bane tbeyr distinct ratio, ut in illis quse k Latinis non 

■oniide^ as ehatj dMtj ducdt, eombdt. aspiratis dedncuotnr/' and, as to the 

kamdp, deerdtt ngr4ty etUremdt ; and qiudity of the sound, he says : " aspi- 

■0 of all sache other." These ex- rationem Franci quantom fieri po- 

amples cross the modem practice of test emolliunt, sic tamen Tt onmino 

omission and sounding in seyeral audiatur, at non asperd ex imo gut- 

^acea. tore efflata, quod est magnoperd 

JT if a Terj doubtful letter, B. 805 Oennams et Italis prsesertim Tuscis 

and note 8. The question is not obseruandum." B. 25. Tlus seems 

whether in certain French words H to point to the modem hiatus, 

waa aspirated, but whether the mean- 8 was constancy used as an ortho- 

ing attached to '' aspiration '' in old graphical sign to make « into ^, to 

French was the same as that in lengthen a and so on. Hence many 

modem French or in Engtish. P. rules and lists of words are given for 

5 '.Tea a list of 100 ^'aspirateid" words. its retention or omission, which may 

. 67 says : '* Aspirationis nota in be superseded by the knowledge of 

TodbuBGrtBciset Latinis aspiratis, et the modem orthography, with the 

in Francicam linguam traductis, scri- usages of which they seem precisely 

bitur ouidem sea quiescit," except to agree. 
kackgf harenjff Sector, Henri, harpe. 

The other consonants present no difficulty. We may safely 
aarome ^=(b), C (k, s), Ch (sh), D (d), F{f), G (g, zh), /(zh), 
Boprk p. 207, ^(k), Z(l), P(p), ew(k), i2(r), ^ (s), T(t), 

r(T), X(8,Z),Z(Z). 

The roles for the omission of consonants when not final, seem to 
agree entirely with modem nsage, and hence need not be collected. 

Sufficient examples of French phonetic spelling according to M., 
f elL, and K. have been given in the above extracts. But it is 
interesting to see the perfectly different systems of accentuation 
pursued b^ P. and M., and for this purpose a few lines of each may 
le transcribed. 

Prom P. i, 63. " Example how the same boke [the Komant of 
the Bose] is nowe toumed into the newe Frenche tong. 

Maintet gentee di^nt que en tongee M&iutoiandiet, kan86yngo8 

iV# mnt que f ablet et tneneongee Nesoynkof&bles e mansongos 

Maie on peuU teh eonges eongier MaysoTnpeyttczsdTngosoyngi^r 

Qm n§ eont mye mensongier KeuesoynmyomansoYngi^r 

^pns eont apree hien apparant, ^e, AynsoTutaprebieuappar&Tut, &c. 

In M. the accent is illustrated by musical notes ; each accented 

syllable corresponds to F of the bass, and each unaccented syllable 

to the G below, so that accentuation is held to be equivalent to 

ascending a whole tone. So far P. agrees with M., for he says 

(book 1, ch. 56) ''Accent in the frenche tonge is a lyfbinge vp of 

the voyce, vpon some wordes or syllables in a sentence, aboue the 

lesydue of the other wordes or syllables in the same sentence, so 

that what socuer worde or syllable as they come toguyder in any 

aentence, be sowned higher than the other wordes or syllables in the 

flame sentence vpon them, is the accent." The following are some of 

U.'s examples, the accented syllable being pointed out by an acute : 

" 9*6t mon mdleur, 9'Et mon frere, 9*Et mon am* t mon espoEr, 

9'it ma grdn'mere, 9'it mon bon compdNon, or £t fl bon ^y, j^ 


TOEB & toE, t ioE £ moG, (1 n'Et paa f6rt bon, tj'tt yd biSn boii h 
mon compdNon, i vizCan, mon con&ere, vit sdjemKUt." 

P. constantly admits the accent on tile last syllable, M. says it is 
a Iforman peculiarity, whicb is very disagreeable, and proceeds 
thns : " il faot preiuieremEnt Entendre qe jamEs Vac^Knt eleue, se 
86 rEncontr' En la dErniero syllabo ilea diOTyllabiqea, ne poUsylla- 
biqes. e qe le ton declinant ou ^ireonllExe, ne ao treuue point q'sn 
lapenultime syllabe, bI b11' Et long" e la dEmiere brieue, pouruu q' 
Elle ne eoEt point tErmine' En c brief: car allora U y pent auenir 
diuErait^ de ton, selon la diuETs' assiete du vocable. . . . ear il faot 
EntEndre qe 1b' monosyllabea En notre lange, font varier 1e' tons d' 
aocuns vocables dissyUabiqes, ny n'ont eu' mEtnes aocun ton atable." 
fo. 133 a. 

PalagroTc Bays : " Generally all the wordes of many Killables in 
the frenehe long, haue thcyr accent eyther on theyr last siUable, 
that is to say, sounde the lasto vowell or diphthong tbat they be 
written with, hygher than the other vowels or diphthongucs con- 
myng before them in the same worde. Orela they Iwue thcyr accent 
on the last sillable save one, that is to say, sounde that vowel or 
diphthong, that is the last sane one hygher than any other in the 
same worde commyng before hym : and whan the redar hath 
lyftvp his voyce at the souwlyng of the said vowel or diphthong, 
he shal whan ho cotnmcth to the last sillable, depressc bis voyce 
^aync [compare snpri p. 181, note, col. 2], bo that there is no 
wonie through out all the frencho tongc, tbat hath hia accent eyther, 
on the thyrdo sillable, or on the forth syllable trom the la^t, like t> 
diuerae wordes banc in other tonges : but aa I haue sayd, eyther on 
the very last aillable, orela on the next sillable onely. And note 
that there is no worde in the frenehe tong, but he bath his place 
of accent certainc, and hath it nat nowc vpon one sillable, nowo vpou 
another. Except diueraite In signification canseth it, where the 
worde in writtyng is alone." Book I. chap. Iviii. 

B. is very peculiar ; he begins by saying: " Sunt qui contendant 
in Francica luigua nullum esse acccntibua locum," which shews, in 
connection with the diversity of opinion between P. and M., thrt 
the modem practice must have begun to prevail. Then he proceeds 
thus : " Sunt control qui in Francica Ungua tonoa perinde vt is 
Oneca lingua constituant. Magnus est vtrorumque error : qnod 
mihi fncU^ concessuros arbitror quicunque aures suas attentJ con- 
Bulnerint. Dico igitur Fnmcicie lingua;, vt & Gnecse & Latinte, 
duo esse tempera, longum vnum, alterum breue : itidcmqu« tras 
tones, nempe, acutiim, grauem, circumflexam, non ita tainen vt in 
illis linguis obscruatoa. Acuunt cnim Gneci syUabaa turn longu 
turn breues, & Latinos idem facere magno consensu volunt Onun- 
matici, quihus plani non assentior. Sed hac de re alias. lUad 
autem certi dixerim, aio oecurrere in Francica Ungua tonnm ocatnm 
cum tempore longo, vt nulla syllabu prodncalur quin itidem noB 
attollatur ; nee attollatur vlla quii) non itidem acuatur, oc pruinde ait 
eadem syllaba acuta nuse prodncta & eadem grauis quw correpta. Scd 
tonua vocia intentionem, tempns productionem voualts indicst .. 


Ilia Ter2> productio in Francica lingua etiam in monosyllabis ani- 
maduertitary quae est propria vis accentus circmnflc2ds." E. there- 
fore seems to confuse accent and quantity, as is the case with so 
many writers, although he once apparently distinguishes an accented 
from an unaccented long syllable, thus in entendementy he says that 
although the two first are naturally long, the acute accent is on the 
second; whereas it would be on the last in entendement hon, on 
account of the added enclitic. He lays down important rules for 
quantity, and without repeating them here, it will be interesting to 
gives his examples, marking those which he objects to^ Wrong 
m^stress^ mess^ fest^ prophest^ mYs^ilcord^ parole. Right mals- 
trSss^ m^ss^ fatct^ proph^t^ mts^rtcord^ p&rol^ ; ie veu, tu veux, 
il Teut ; veil votumy veiix vota ; beuf beiifs, neiif neufs, eulx, ceulx; 
tit/eeiif fist faceretf fiit fuity fust esset, e\it hahuit eust haberety est, 
lost, tost, plalst placet, plust pltneret, ^t et, platd contentio iudiealis^ 
pleiit plaeuit, pliit pluit ; ie meur morioTy tu meurs tnoreris, meiir 
maiurusy medrs maturiy mcur^ maturay si i^ dl, qui est c^. Eule 1, 
mts^iYcord^, entendement, ^nyl^s^n vi^, envteux. Eule 2, en- 
d5niiYr, feindr^, tclndr^, bonte, temporal, bon p&ts, somm^ conmiS 
donn^ bonn^ sonn^ tonn^, consomm^ ordonn^ resound estonn^, 
aSnger besongne ; ennc^ml. Kule 3, atme^ fondu^ y^lu^ ; mu^ nu^, 
du£ fl^ ll^ &ml^ jou^ lou^ mou^ nou^ alj^, plalj^ ioij^ volj^y 
£nTo!j£ ; miier nfier fter Iter ioiier loder noder, envotj^r. Kule 4, 
aultr€, autant, haultain, hault^ment, haultatng, hault ^t drotct. 
Bule 5, «sb(z), iasdr brals^ saison plalsir caus^ bis^ mls^ prls^ os^r 
chosS pos^r choistr loisir nois^ tols^ us6r ruse miis^ frlsl caus^ra 
08£r& embras^riL reposdriL choialriL prlslr^, cuistn^, us^ra, accus^i^, 
excus^riL, u^g^, Ylsagg, c&mus^ ; pilse^ accusee exciisee [the last 
S should evidently be £] ; p^s^r g^str g^sln^ ; tr^z^ qu&torz^, 
motsT, cr&motsi, votstn cousin, votsln^ codstn^. Eule 5 bis, aill^ 
bailie caill^ faillg maille^ pallia salllg taillg yaillg. Eule 6, 
p§ssc, aimasse, oulsse. Eule 7, (« mute) hastS Isle, blasm^, 
aim&sme, esmeut^, esmouvotr, blesm^ mcsm^, c&resmg b^ptesmS, 
^sciYvIsm^, seiismSs, r5ceum<?s, vlsm^s, flsm^s, ent^ndlsm^s, Cosm? ; 
ftsnS &lesn^ [erroneous in original], Eosn^ ; esp^ron esp^ronn^, 
ferroneous in original], espl^r; est r5st tost fust fist oust, hast^ 
tftst^ test£ best£ estrS malstr^ naistr^ fest^ gIstS vlst^ croust^ 
voust^ ; dosnotjer ; 5st5 ^^pro verbo esse et pro astate,^ rostlr rostS ; 
ndfltr^ malson, vostrS ralson, i5 suls vostrS, pit^nostr^. Eule 8, 
catalrr^, c&talrreux ; ferr^r guerrS ferrS pourrir, enterrSr. Finally 
B. notices the absence of accent in enclitics, and the final rising 
inflection in questions, observing, in accord with Mcigrct, '' cuius 
pronuntiationis ysquo adeb sunt obscruantes Normanni, vt etiam si 
nihil interrogent, scd duntaxat negcnt ant affirmcnt aliquid, ser- 
monis finem acut^, non sine aurium offensione pronuntient." 

P.'s rules amount to placing the accent on the pcnultim when the 

^ Beza*0 treatise is now very acoes- fortunately the editor sometimes eoT" 
sible in the Berlin and Paris reprint, rtett the original in the text itself. 
1868, with pre£M>e by A. Tobler. Un- 


last contains what is now mute f, and on the last in all otH^^ 
cases. Both M . and P., make accent t« be a rising inflexion of the 
voice. The French still generally use auch an intonation, but it 
doea not seem to be fixed in position, or constant in occurrence 
upon the same word, but rather to depend upon the position of the 
word in a sentence, and the meaning of the speaker. In modem 
French, and apparently in older French (suprA p. 331) there is 
nothing approaching 1« the regular fixed stress upon one syllable ot 
every word, which is so marked in English, the Teutonic lan- 
guages, and Sclavonic longoagcs, in Italian, Spanish and Modem 
Greek. The nature of tie stress and the efi'ect on unaccented 
syllables differ also materially in different languages. In English 
Uie syllables following the principal stress are always much more 
obscure than those preceding it. This is not the case at all in 
Italian. In Modem Greek, the stress, though marked, is nothing 
like so strong as in English. Mr. Payne considers that the ancient 
Normans had a very strong stress, and that the syllables without 
the stress, and which generally preceded it, became in all caacs 
obscure. With the extremely lax notions which wo find in all 
ancient and most modem especially English writers, on the ques- 
tions of accent, vocal inflexion, and stress, with its effect on quan- 
tity, it is very difficult to draw any conclusions respecting ancient 
Eractice. A thorough study of modem practice in the principal 
terary languages of the world, and their dialects, seems to be an 
essential preliminary to an investigation of ancient usage. 

E. gives 12 dialogues in French and English with the pronunci^' 
tion of such French words as he considers would occasion diffienltj", 
indicated in the margin. The following list contains all the most 
important words thus phoneticised. The orthography both ordinaiy 
and phonetic is that used by E. 

Aehtpl^ a>het£, aetomlremrtili HCoo- noitnnea kooafwance, earpi otfr, «mM 

tTaiuau.e4iiaiiefrit aaaaatei^,aiguilIon kiSW, eautliau kooted, anulfra cootoii 

^geetleeuoB, atnti ineec, rn'omriiw ma- ereipi or^pe, eretptlvt kr^peln, #Mr»- 

in^DO, iTAiigloit daunglfi, a« 6, aucun ortiilt corarcllie. 
6kai], auettiu 6kuno, sii-ioiir-J'/iay Sriiioiu deaoona, dtmandrrtm d»- 

oioordwee, raaiitt lAne, aullre btre, maundeTDona, lUmtilrr ittaHet, A- 

aullrrmttil dtremwi, fanllruy d6tr»Ce, amiur Aivawil, dtmotiirU itaooet, 

r«Mnwnirt 16m£aier, auMi 6iaee, dttpouilla dcpooUiet, ditt dMt, ifiBMr 

aHtanl atann. deeoer, ioigli doi, ttouliU daate, Av* 

Saillr: bdli^ boUiei, hapliitz bntefiz^ d(Ml. 

bezooniM, Uantt bknu, borvf Enfanti nabniu, erueigntBt tutt- 


, boiili bolU, bordrurr, bordure, nraiUBt, tnuifinent amiatt, rtittmii 

touclii bowhe, houiUi boollee, beuillie iuitaa, m'tntorlilUr maatorte^licr. 

boollie, braeeltti liraMlfi, briUandt ittliortha fkonh^, nconduirt toxm- 

brUliamu, trutUr bniler. dweore,irnur/dlrdfkirlale. Facrifraf 

Caitttlta kollietle, eeinltire aintnre, l^reeri!. iitmtr tqoier, d'ugard d^gv, 

fttUiAe,ch«ir^et,ehaiild i'a6,ehwna]it dj^art (before a Tovel), ttjari tgut 

ahdnfTD, eheutulx abends. etmitUKr* m'ttgratigna mt^Tsteoaiei, f /nitn 

■bflucmn, eAmiUi abeaecllitf, (ArMfinu egaicn, FrtguitrT \tpi-jta, NgtaUm 

kratieiis,«i^fw(Men(it,nnu-M<iiudeua, cgulUes, VaguilUUt UgMlli^ • 

' keiu, toifmri coiftire, te/ o 

r6d«, iTttpargHtr difpimiar, 

«p6Ut, t^iiifU <poet^ Ci 


noffl noon, noilre nStra, nouueBuli noo- 

Tedl6, niiir( nweet, n'out ninnt. 
OimifiHK omelooni, milladia enl* 

liodf, EEHiTM euare, late: 6t£. 

itiraprh pnrap^z, paittirt panne, 
patti p&te, ptij/na pim^e.pri^nu puues, 
pngaeoir pmioir, ptiffHt! p^nieE, jitaja, 

pi^ jiAiiff p] jt pku pin, plwaoil plntd. 
poielriat jHitreene, poignarrb poniara, 
poignit pooiet, pouldeeux poodrBUi, 
jwxr poor, prtita prfite*, preili prel, 
proehaint proahiaB, pnpieialioH pio- 
peaieeiiBMeon. pimhIimi B£6meB, jihu- 

ItpeeiiKlerf, wpriV opreot, of £, ;u'«- 
(Mt tetfton, Hf<r> ^, ud'd ^tifz, 
TntomtuK lectomiik, Mrillur ^trcelier, 
Tmturgtait Utorgeon, i'eilu]/ letwce, 
attiliii (atH^iey aumtail evantail, 
■wrmwrci mescDzer€. 

A^/« bgog, /aftJwil fiillict, fait 
ftt, /«f« Kt, [faHldra fddra, /auf-il 
" -"i ftntttra fenetres, ftrct- Urii, 
-^ '" . JHIrut feeilienl, //fcufc 
" feei, fondtmnili fooa- 
fou Fnuncez, /mtri 

( galliard. gcotdt ^hdb, gawht 
gmtiliommi ianteellioommo 
auit goot. 
^ I nbeelU, n' Aaii'Ifar mabeelliar, 
~Utt, ha«ll> b6t, Aexro eu, 
■ ■ enoir, Aowiik oominc, AoHiinir 
, Jtcuppe hoope, Auitt weet, 
fhitii Inee, Aumaini Tmiiu, AnniJiM 
mble, itimilil^ rmeeleeti. 
Jrimiuf deccelwoe, jw'ffe too. 
Anu ^riit lesu-kreet, ioyaux'myde. 
litt Uet, A»i;j Iddg. 
MtdamoMU moiImofzellD, nwiH min, 
■MMffWM, taitteue, maluaite mdufze, 
MmeAcBH mannshoon, mara<(r( mkrutre, 
NfiUmr m^enr, nin'rf« meeM, ni<ra>i- 
cUilt melankolJe, merviills memellie, 

HSi^sniAr inorrDQiiB, MOMieair moosboir, 
mmitltr mooliei, mvull, moo. 

Niunlmsiitgi neaonmoins, ntpteu 
■men, n'M( ni, niipei niem, nomj neu, 

At the close of the xvm th century Sir William Jonea ("Worka 
1799, 4to, i, 176) aupposea an Engliahinan of the time to represent 
"hia pronnnciation, good or bad," of French, ia the following 
tnanner, which he aays is "more resembling the dialect of BBTages 
than that of a poliahed nation." It is from an imitatioit of Horace 
by Malherbe. 

L&v mure aw day rcogycwrs aw nool otmh paiellyuh, 

Onni! aw bo law prniav ; 
Law crooellynh keltay eoli boushuh lays orelljuh, 

Ay noo laj^uh croeay. 
Lah poire oog saw cnwbawn oo lah chomuh lull coaviiih 

Ay loozyet aw nay Iwaw, 
Ay law ^wranh kee velly b bawryaymh dyoo Loomih 
Nong daylong paw no rwaw ! 
The interpretation may bo left to the ingenuity of the reader, and 
the orthography may be compared to the following English-French 
and French English, in Punch's Alphabet of 2A Sept., 1B69. 

Quatraim kodrini. 

Saecoiatris rocootraz, neeu resQ, 
rmdi ran, reteomfort rficomfor, n^nmet 
reponw, reipondrt rtpoondre, rhmmt 
rume, rideauli recdeo, rogntt rooniS, 
ivHih roonn, roimariit roomBiin, royaitlx 
royds, Tubrndi ruban. 

laiflfi am, laile s&le, lauuegardt sone- 
gatdo, ifSM ak, leondi aEgo6n, Kteht 
s^abe, ttpt set, lotnr ttaa, moIs boo, 
tpiritvtlt ipeeiceta£. 

Tailhur tallieui, (»t( tauo, lentoil 
taunt&t tempt, tin tans, ttitt t^te, tail 
t6t, loHche tooabo, lounourj tooioor, 
tout too, toHta taoU. 

Vtoir voir, I'lwy Toy, vtrdi iota, vatir 
ler, valu T^tu, C(U to, vtttlx veui, 
vee, via yeeae, niiti Totte [veete F], 




favoured by TE^^ 

Since the above pages veTe in type, I have been favoured by S 
Payne with a full tronBcript of that part of the Mag. Coll, Oxford 
MS. No. 188, (supri p. 309, n. 1), which contains the 98 rulea for 
French BpclUng, partially cited by M. P. Oenin in his Preface to tho 
French Govomment reprint of Palsgrave. This MS. is of the xr th 
century, but the rules appear to have been much older. They in- 
cidentiiLly touch upon pronunciation, and it is only thoae portions of 
them which need here be cited. The numbers refer to the rulee. 

*'l. Dimio gnllica diotata habcni 
prinum nillabHm rel mediam in £. 
itridto ore pronunuiatam, Toquirit honu 
liUram 1. nnte E, Turbi gratia bjen, 
chien. ri«Q. picre. miurc. ot nmilit." 
Here is a dutitict recognition of a 
"close <," and tho cxsmplci identify 
the lounds iapirr, nicra, now open, but 
eloae accordini; to tho ortboepiiti of 
tbe iTitb ecntiuy, nitb the Tuwel in 
bieu, ehien, n'm, which thereforo lends 
to confirm the apinion eipreaaed abore 
p. 82S, Ibnt en wa« not then noulized 
in the modem lense, "3. Quanda- 
onmqne bee uocslii. E. pronuadatnt 

lerbi gntia, -beuei. t> 
leoei." As each ezamplo has 
■fllablM in t, it is difficult to 
whether the rule mjplics to one or 

and henoe to n 
of ■■ 

The li 

enierallv regardod b> " oiaseulinc." 
bat the dnt in " beum, tenoi," was the 
the "feminine" and in "leuei" tbe 
"open" according to other writen. 
Nor is this obscuritf mnch lightened 
by da following rules: "3. QuamviaE. 
in principio alicuiua sUabe acute pro- 
onnciatur in fine auterioris sillabe 1. 
bene potest preponi Tt biea. priei. lei. 
affies Ac." Hero if bitt = BiaU, we 
hare tbe same miitore of mascoUite 
■nd cpen < as before. The two next 
nilM lena to call the " feminine t," 
that is, tbe modem t mate, a " fall <■'' 
"i. Qnnndooumque sdiectiuom feme- 
nini Rcnerii t^rminat in .E. plene pro- 
nnnoata guminabil ee. rt tret honouree 
diune. S. QiuuniiB a^ectiunm mas- 
culini generis tecminet [in ?] E plena 
pronunciatnm non geminabit .E. vt 
trethonouro ore nisi ad diSeronciam 
me Comilee anglicd a shire. Vu 

Domite anglice a counte 6. 

Qnamiis adiectiuum mauulini generis 

rient. homme sdjectiuuin tamen fcmi- 

K implen [?] prononeiatui it metote 
temme Toe femme." There can be no 
doubt that t femiabe was fullv pro- 
nounced, hut how hi it diOetod aon, 
ther "iCricto ore," and <" acute prv- 
nunciatum," it is not poasible to dJMt 
from these cntt reraarkii. It is obterr- 
able that «o and > are noted as indiffenot 
spellings in certain words now hanu 
the " muto-guttural «." " 8. Item ille 
■illabe. ie, ee. iso. ceo. indiflerenter 
posBunt scribi cum ceo tcI ce sine o." 

"12. Omnia lubalantius te 
per Eonum .8. debent scnbi cum .8. *l 
siffDors lordot. dames ludj'ea." This 
pmrnl i was therefcre audible, but tb« 
writer immediately proceeds to point 
out numerous exceptions where I'ww 
written foi t, as 13. in gnt, ploral 
^mli or }entz, 11. inj!':, IS. orvbrs 

ImctioQ 9 for tu in ivfl ^ nan*, 1 7. in 
net m> IVom notler vrtltr, either ( or a 
may be used. In all thesa caaea it 
would howcTer appear that (t] was 
actually heard, and if any meaniag yt 
to be attached to " aspirstion " <n 
1 (t) was souodfd 



qiiaodocumquu aliqua eillaba proaia- 
ciatur cum aapiruoioce ilia silUba debet 
scribi com s. ot t. loco ispiraoiotie nttt 
KTRtia est fest plein." Tbe not ti 
obscure. "19. Item >i .d. acribitar 
post .E. ct .M. immediate nqiiiiar i, 
potest mutari in s." In 21. SI. aai 
94. we Hnd s mute in jtmra. litmumt, 
Mawiamtnr, and prabaMy by96. inttiM 
laiuC, and possibly also in : " 78. Ittm 

in terbispreeeotisetpteleri"^"— 

■cribetur. st. a pres I e. a. 
tifitv fist est test lust ix " thi 
partially clashes with IB. 

V «ft«r L. M, N, 
" a. Item quandocamque 
I. ponitnr post ■"-■'> 


mi fonle. loiAlment bel oompaigneoan." 
This does not mean that al, waft pro- 
Bonneed (aj), bnt that it was pro- 
Bomioed as ofi was pronounced, and this 
DAT haye been (ao) as in Meieret or 
(m) as in other orthoepists of the six- 
teentti^ century. With this rale, and 
not with S, we most connect : '* 67. 
Item aliqnando s. scribitnr et Ysonabitor 
com ascnn sonabitor acnn,** ancun P as 
M. O^nin transcribes. " 36. Item iste 
dlabe sea dicciones quant grant De- 
mandant sachant et huiusmodi debent 
leribi cum simplici jl sine .y. sed in 
nmimiciatione debet .y. proferri &c." 
ThiB can scarcehr mean that an was 
pronoanced as if written aun with au 
m the same sense as in the last rule 
dted. It must allude to that pro- 
nmciation of an as faun) to wnich 
PUsffraye refers and wnich introduced 
in Kiglish (aun), suprk p. 826, col. 1, 
tad therefore confirms the older Eng- 
lish accounts. 

Oy and E. 
"26. Item moy. toy. soy. nossunt 
KriU cum e. yel o. per y. yel I in- 
£fferenter.— 58. Item in accusatiuo 
■ngnlari scribetur me in reliquis casibus 
moy." This, together with Barcley's 
munes of the letters, p. 805, is well 
iDustrated by the curious passage from 
Bjlyius, p. 824. 

Final Consonants. 
'* 27 Item quandocumque aliqua 
dictio incipiens a consonante sequitur 
ilk|aam diecionem terminantem in con- 
sonante in racionibns pendentibus [in 
eoBnected phrases] consonans interioris 
diedonis potest scribi. Sed in pro- 
mnciacione non proferri yt a pres 
Biaaffer debet sonari a pre manger. — 
297ltem 1. M. N. R. T. C. E. quam- 
yis consonans subsequitur bene possunt 
nnari per se vel per mutacionem litere." 
Does tnis mutation refer to the follow- 
ing P *' 51. Item scias quod hec 
liksre C. D. E. F. G. X. F. S. et 
T. Debent mutari in sono in strietura 
c ante uocalem yt clerici. clers et debet 
in gallico clcrs rudi homines ruds 
bommes et debet sonari ruz hommes. 
bones dames debent bon dames et 
tmc .u. sonari solempnc yyts hounte 
[hommc P] loget yis homme ct sic Do 
alijs. — 52. Item quando ista diccio 
grannt sight magnitudinem adjungitur 
eun feminino gencre ita yt e sit sequens 

t. mutatur in D. yt grande dame grande 
charge." Obsenre this xyth century 
use of English sight for great^ as an 
adjectiye. — " 53. Item quando grant 
amungitur masculino generi yt grant 
seignour yt quando signat confessionem 
non mutabitur t. in D. quamuis E. 
sequitur yt iay grante." 

*' 89. Item quandocumque hec litera 
.n. scribitur immediate post g. quamuis 
sonet ante e. non debet immediate 
prescribi yt signifiant Sec. — 40. Item si 
.n. sonat g. et non subsequitur bene 
potest A immediate prescribi. — 41. 
Item seignour ton seignour son seignour. 
— -92. Item quandocumque .n. sequitur 
I in media diccione in aiuersis sUlabis 
g debet interponi yt certaignement be- 
nignement &c. sed g non deoet sonari." 
All these seem to refer awkwardly and 
obscurely to (nj). 


*^ 46. Item qi qe quant consueuerunt 
scribi per k sed apud modcmos mutatur 
k. in q. concordent cum latino I k. 
non reperitur in qu qd' quis sed I. — 
54. Item posr G. yel E. quamuis y 
scribatur non debet sonari yt quatre 
guerre. Debent sonari qatrc gerre." 

Words Like and Unlike. 
**50. Item diuersitas stricture facit 
Differentiam aliquam quamuis in yoce 
sint consimiles ycrbi gratia ciel seel 
seal celee oeele coy quoy moal moel 
cerf serf teindre. tenir attendre [G6nin 
has: teindre tendre tenir attendrel 
esteant esteyant a\inGr amcr foail fel 
stal [G6nin : feal]'yeele yiel yeileyeile 
yille vill* [Gcnin : yeele yiel yeile yille 
yill] brahel breele erde berde euerde 
essil hmssel assel nief ncifsuef noeffG^- 
nin : soef] boaile. bailc bale balee litter 
litere fomier forcr forier rastel rastuer 
mesure mcscirc picl peel berziz berri 
grisil greele grelc tonne towne neym 
ncyn." The transcript was made by 
Mr. Parker of Oxford, but the proof 
has not been read by the origmal; 
G6nin certainly often corrected as he 
edited ; here tbe transcript is strictly 
followed. — " 86. Item habctur diuersitas 
inter apprendro prendre et rcprendro 
oez oeps yys ot nuys knnyl ct kenil. 
— 90. Item habotur diuersitas inter 
estreym strawe et estreyii hansel. — 91. 
Item inter daym et dayn." 

These seem to be all the passages bearing upon the present dis- 

838 bullokab's phonetic wRmsG. Ciur. vill.a 

caission. They are not numerous, nor very important, nor alw^^^ 
very intelligible, but they seem all to point to such a previoua state 
of pronunciatiDn of French, as our English experience would lead ns 
to suppose might have preceded that of the svith century as so 
imperfectly colligible from the writings of eontemporary orthoepista. 
It should also bo mentioned that the Claudius U^yhand whose 
French Littelton is described on p. 227, note, under date 1609, is 
caUed BbWrianJ in a previouB edition of the Bome book, dated 1566, 
in the British Muecum. This is 3 years before Hart's book, and as 
this older edition also contains the passage cited supr^ p. 228, note, 
saying that the English seem to Frenchmen to call their u like yeic, 
and to name q ii'ou, whoreaa the Frenchmen pronounce like tho 
Scotch u in gud, while Hart gives I'u as the English sound, and 
identifies it with the Scotch and French vowels (ace especially p. 796, 
note, col. 1, [88]) — we are again led into uncertainty as to the 
sound that Hart really meant, and to consider that the (iu) aotmd, 
though acknowledged by no orthoepist before Wilkins, may have 
penetrated into good society at a much earlier period. Agaiu, the 
coniiision of spelling in HolyhanA and Holli^oanA, reminds ua of 
Balesbury'a identification of holy and holly (supri p. 779, 1. 2 from 
bottom). And lastly it should be mentioned that this name is bnt 
a translation, imd that tho author's real name, as he writes it else- 
where, is DeiainlitnB (under which his works are entered in the 
British Museum Catalogue) being the same as Livet's de Saint- Lies, 
or & Santo Vinculo (aupri p, 33, 1. 8 from bottom). The Latin 
work there cited is not in the British Uuscum, but as its dnte ia 
1580, and the 1566 edition of the French Littelton there preserved 
does not differ Bonsibly from that of 1609 here quoted, this occa- 
flions no incompleteness in the present coUections from Frendi 
Orthoepista of the xvi th century. 

§ 4. William Bulhkar'a Phonetic Writing, 1580, andj^f 
Pronunciation of Latin in the xvi th Century. ^^^ 

Bnllokar concludes his Book at Large with a prose chapter bo* 
tween two poetical ones. The poetry is ho bad that tho reader will 
be glad to pass it over. The prose contains a little inTormatiim 
amidst on overpowering cloud of words ; and as a lengthencil speci- 
men of this important contribution f« the phonetic writing of the 
XTi th century is imlispcnsablo, I shall transliterate bis Chapter 12, 
There is some difficulty in doing so. Long a, », y, o are lengthened 
by Bccenta thus d, i, i/, 6 when they apparently mean (aa, ce, O, 
oo), and ■ is said to be lengthened by doahling aa ly, yi, when it 
would also be (I'l) according to the only legitimate conclusion at 
which I could arrive in treating of Bnllokar's pronunciation of thia 
sound, pp. 114, 817, note, Tho mention of this eombinution iy, yi^ 
which amounts to a reduplication of i, although 1 have not found anj 
instance in which it hoJd been used by Bnllokar, and the constant 
omission of any distinction between long and short t, confirmed 

Gbaf. Ym. 1 4» bullokab's phonetic writing. 839 

former theory that he called long t {it). In the present transcript 
only such yo'wels are marked long as BuUokar has actually so 
nuurkedy or indicated hy rule, as (uu, yy). Bullokar's doubled 
oomBonantSy though certednly pronounced single, have also been 
retained. Bullokar has also a sign like Greek ^ which ho iises for 
both $ and s, but which he identifies with 9. It will be trans- 
literated (s) or (s) according to circumstances. EuUokar's gram- 
matical " pricks and strikes" are entirely omitted. They have no 
relation to the sound, and are quite valueless in themselves, 
although he laid great store by them. On the other hand I have 
introduced the accent mark, for which he has no sign. The title 
of the chapter is left in ordinary spelling. 

ir The 12. Chapter. 

Sheweth the Tse of this amendment, by matter in prose 
with the same ortography, conteining arguments for 
the premisses. 

Hiir-tn iz sheu'ed an ek'serstVz of dhe amend'cd ortog'raft biifoor* 
ftheu'ed, and dhe yys of dhe priks, strtVks, and noots, for dcvtVd'tq 
of sil'lab'lz akord'tq tuu dhe ryylz biifoor* sheu'ed. Wheer-in iz 
tan bii noot'ed, dhat no art, ek'sersiVz, miks-tyyr, srens, or okkyy- 
pas'ion, what-soever, iz inklyyd'ed in oon th<q oon'lt : but Hath 
m it severa'l dtstiqk'stbnz cl'cmcnts, prtn'sip'lz, or devtz'ibnz, hi 
dhe whttsh dhe saam kum'eth tuu ntz per'fet yys. And bikauz* 
dhe stq'g'l devtz'ronz for iiq'ltsh spiitsh, aar at dhis dai so unper*- 
fietli ptkiyyTed, hi dhe el'ements (whitsh wii ka'l let*terz) pro- 
Ttfd'ed for dhe saam (az mai appiir* plain'h' m dh»s foor'mer 
tieet*ts) li nav set furth dhts wurk for dhe amend'ment of dhe 
■aam : whttsh /• Hoop wtl bii taa'k'n in gud part akkord'tq tuu 
m» meen'tq : for dhat, dhat it sha'l sav tshardzh-ez in dhe elder 
sort, and sav greet tttm in dhe Juth, tuu dhe greet komod'ttt 
of a'l estaats', un*tuu whuum tt iz ncs'esan', dhat dheer bii a 
knoou'ledzh of dheir dyyt», un'tuu God tshiif-h', and dhen dheir 
dyyt* oon tuu an udh'er : »n knoou-iq of whttsh dyytt konst'st'eth 
dhe Hap't estaat* of manz ItVf : for tg'norans kauz'cth mau't tuu 
goo uut of dhe wai, and dhat of a'l estaats*, tn whuum tg'norans 
dauth rest: wheer-b» God tz greet'lt d»s'plecz*ed, dhe kom'on 
kwt'etncs of men n/nd'ered: greet komon wclths dcvttd'ed, 
madzh'tstraats dt's-obei'ed, and tnfer'tbrz desptVz'cd: prtvat gain 
and eez sowht and dhecr-bt a kom*on wo wrowht. 

And az dhe dzhudzh'ment of dhe kom'on welth and wo, duuth 
not li tn prt'vat per'sonz, (and spes'ta'llt of dhe thfer'ior sort,) jet 
owht dheer tuu bii tn evert oon a kaar of hi'z dyytt, dhat niz 
pitvat litf bii not kon'trari tuu dhe kom'on kwt'etnes, and welth 
of a'l men dzhen*era*llt, (and spes'tVllt of dhe wcl mthd'cd sort, 
whuu aar tuu bii boor'n wtdha'l* tn sum respckts* for dheir tg'no- 
FUis, when tt reetsh'eth not tuu dhe giivtq okkaz'ion of liVk offens* 
in udh'er : for whuu kan wash Htz nandz klecn of a'l fa'lts ? 
And syyerlt (tn mt opm'ton) az fa'lts Hav dheir biigth'iq of dhe 



firet fa'l of Ad'am, so tz dbe naom enkrceis'ed bi t'giioniiu : dhovh 
emu wuiild Wr'm it tuu bii dbe mudb-er of god-li'nes : for if mea 
weer not ('g-nonmt, but did knoou wheer-in tiyy telis-iU d»d 
konsist, dhci wuuld not fs'l in'tuii soo mon'i' er'orz, tuu d»-k»t'6t 
dLeir miVnda, and enda'n-dzher dbeir bod-iVz for tran-siton thiqz, 
and flum'tiVmz for ver-i tnf-'lz. But sum wil sai, a'l tbi'<jz in dbw 
wor'ld aai tran-stlon, whi'tsb It wtl konfes", az tuutah'iij a'l 
kree'tyjTz and ek'BeraiVzez in dbe saam. 

Jet dbe gi'ft of spiitab and wnit-iq iz litli-U'est tuu kontin-jy 
witb die last, az loq az dbeer tz an-t bii'i'i^ of man : and Ibr dbat, 
it tz dbe spes'ia'l gi'tt of Ood, vbeer-bi wii bii I'natrukt'L-J of uui 
dyy'tiE from ti'i'm tuu ttVm, booth nuu, nav biin, and eba'l bii az 
loq az dbecr I'z an't bii'tq of man, let us yyz dbe sanm m dbe 
per'fetcst yys, for eez, profit, and kontin-jrims, whitab dbia 
amendinent wd perfoo'r'm in iiq'lisb Bpiitsh, and ni'n-dcreth not 
dbe roed'i'q and wriit-i'q of udb-er laq'gadzlicz : for !i Hav left uut 
no let-ter biifoor" in yys- And dbowh wii duu sum-what rar-t &oin 
udb'er naa-ionz in dbe naam'iq of aura let'tcrz, (spes-ia'lli wbeer 
wii nav di'f fcri'q Buundz I'n vols,) jet dbeer I'z no fa'lt in it, as loq 
tu! wii yyz naamz agrii'iq tuu uur ooun loq'gadzb : and in udh'er 
laqgadzhez, let ua yyz naamz akkordiq tuu dbe Eunnd of dbe saam 
loq'gadzb, dbat wii wuuld leer'n, t'f dbei bii proriid'ed of siifM'ient 
let'tfirz : and if dbe ortogTaft for dbcir laq'gatlzh bii unper'ft-t, wbaa 
niid tuu bii offend'ed, if wii (for HpiJd'i leeT'niq) yyz fig-yyra and 
naamz of let'terz, akkord'iq tuu dbe suundz of dbeir spiitsh. 

Bbe Lat'in moi remain* az t't duutb, bikauz* it iz yrz'ed u to 
ntan't kun-trii'z, and dhat bunks pn'nt'ed in liq'land mai bii yyz-ed 
in ndh-cr kun'tnz, and hik-wtiz dbe pnntt'q m udb'tT kun'trnz, 
mai bii yyz'ed itiir : but if a tfietsb'or (for dbe cez of a juq iiq'liA 
leeVnor of dbe Lat'in) duu ad dbe strtVk tuu e. g. i. e.' bikauz' of 
dbeir diy'erz aevera'l suundz, and naam th elz it weer but oon 
lot'er, az th : and eai dbat :u: after q iz syyperflyyns;' and 
tsba'ndzh :«: for :»: bo auunded biitwiin- twuu Tuuelz, whan 
kuuld dzbust-li fiind fa'lt with-a'l? when dhc Lat-in iz so suund'ed 
bi UB iiq'ltsh : wbitsb unpcr'fetncs must bit maad plain bi oon wai 
or ndh'er tuu a lee-r'nor and most bii duunn oidb'er bi per-fct 
fig'yyr of per-fet naam agrii-iq tu hiz suund in a word, or bi" dub"*! 
naam'iq of let-terz dub-'l suund'ed : udb'erwiiK, dbe lee-r'nor 
muat of neses'Biti leer'n bi root, ges, and loq jj» : oz uur naa'ton 
waz dnV-cn tu duu hi leeVniq of iiqliab spiitab whit&h w«« 
Bard*er tuu bii lee'r'ned (dbowb Hii sad dbe euund and jya 
dbeer-of from HizHi-fansi)dbBiidbeLat'in, wbeer-of niiun'derstuBd 
never a word, nor skant nii'ardd an"! word dbeer-of, miuud'ed in 
a'l Htz liif biifoor' ; dbe rez''n ncer-of waz, bikaus' dbe lot'ton 
in yys for Lat'in, d»d a'l'mooBt fur'nisb everi soT'ora'l divis-MD nt 
dhe saom spiitsh : ckseptiq dhe dub''l enund-ed lett'one rf"'r rwirti 

> Bullalmr 


id (. for (dih).' flaUc 
I ordinary ipeuing. 


whftah dnb*'l and treb*'l suimd'tq (no dunt) gryy^ bi korrup'tiq 
dhe saam from tnin tun ttVm, bt udher nas'tbnz, or bt dhe Lat'tnz 
dhemselyz' mtq'g'led with utb'er nas'tbnz : for (/t suppooz') dhe 
Ttal'ftBii duuth not at dhts dai maak :t: a kon'sonant bufoor* an't 
ynu'ely and giiv un'tuu it dhe saiind of :dzh: az wii iiq'ltsh duu 
a'l'wais in dhat plas ; but maak-eth it a' sA'lab'l of it-self, az in 
dhis word liacob: of thrii sil'lab'lz in Lat'tn: iaeohus of foou'r 
sQ'lab'Ls ; and wii iiq*lish sai, dzhak'ob : of twuu stl'lab'lz, 
dshakobiis of thrii sil'lab'lz ; and tn miir iiq'ltsh : Dzhaamz : of 
oon sil'lab'l ; dhe /tal'tan a'l'so for dhe suund of uur : dzh: wnVt'etb 
/t : whttah iz not yyz'ed tn dhe Lat'tn but :y: oon'lt for dhooz 
twnu suiindz of ,g, and, dzh : or, t, biifoor* a, o, u, and sum'ttVm 
biifoor* ,0, in Lat'tn : bt whttsh wii mai a'l'so ges, dhat ,€, in Lat'tn 
at dhe biigih'tq Had dhe suund of ,ky oon'li, for dhat, dhat dhe 
Lat'tn Hatii dhe suund of : k : and noo udh'er let'ter jiild'ed dhat 
Buundy but yCf oon '11 in dhe Lat'tn : eksscpt' : qu: suplt'-ed dhe mum 
sum aim : for dhe Lat'tn rcseiy' not ,^, in'tuu dhe num'ber of dheir 
let'terz. And for dhe His'iq suund of ,<?, (thowirt radh-er tuu bii 
krept m bt ltt''l and ltt''l) dhe Lattn was sufts'tentlt provttd'ed bt 
dbeir let'er ,«, whuuz suund wii iiq'li'sh duu moost ttVmz tn dhe 
Lat'tn, and tn uur o'ld ortog-raft, yyz in dhe suund of ,z, when ,«, 
kmn'eth biitwiin' twuu vuu'elz : whttsh ,z, iz thowht tu bii no 
Lat'm let'ter : and dheer-foor tt mai bii thowht dhat dhe Lat'tn 
liHt'lt suund'ed dtd not jiild so groon'tq a suund tn dheir ht's'tq 
saund of : «. 

And for uur thrii suundz yyz'ed in ,!?, dhe Frentsh duu at dhts 
dai yyz oon'lt twuu un*tuu tt : dhat iZf dhe suund agrii'iq tuu hiz 
old and kontth'yyed naam, and dhe suund of dhe kon'sonant ,r, 
wheer-bt wii mai a'l'so ges, dhat dhe Lat'in at dhe biigm-tq yyzed 
,v, for dhe suund of dhe kon- sonant : and yyz'cd :u: for dhe sound 
of dhe vuu'el. 

But Huu-soever dub'^l or trcb''l suund'tq of let*erz kaam lii : 
wht tz tt not lau'ful tuu enkrees' let'terz and ftg'yyrz, when suundz 
in spiitsh aar enkrees'cd ? for spiitsh waz kauz of let'terz : dhe 
whttsh whuu-soev'cr first invent'cd, nii Had a regard tuu dhe 
dtyiz'ionz dhat mint bii maad in dhe vols, and waz wil'iq tuu 
proviid* for everi of dhcm, az wel az for oon, or sum of dhem : 
and if (sins dhat tiim) dhe suundz in vois nay biin fuund tuu bii 
man'i moo and diyerz, amoq' sum udh'er pii'p'l, whi shuuld not 
let'terz bii aksept'ed, tuu fur-nish dhat laq'gadzh whitsh iz prop''r 
tuu a god'li and sivil nas-ion of kontin*yya*l guyer'nment, az 
dhtis uur nas'ion iz? and dhe bet'er izj and ev'er sha'l bii if leer'niq 
(with Qodz gras) flur'ish in dhe saam: dhe gruund of whitsh 
lee'r'niq, and dhe yys and kontinyyans dheer-of iz let'terz, dhe 

^ Bnllokar writes '^greV, thre'w.*' 11th Chap, he marks as synonymons 

He represents (ii) by e', and (u) by the signs : cV, e*M, v, u, o'w. Ilence 

T or u with a small semicircle below his gre'w, thre'w = (gryy, thryy) and 

which may be indicated by Italics, have been so transcribeu. 
Then after distinctly referring his 

■imple T or a to French (yy), m hii ' Misprinted (rcseoi). 



un-per'fetnes wheer-of over-thryy man't gud v 

and waz kauz of loq ttVm lost tn dhem dbat apuuu Dest. 

Dhe Lat'm wbk mooBt-eez-t tnu ub iiq-ltsh tuu bii leeVned first, 
biikaiiz' of ssj. letterz, xiij. or xiiij. weer perfetli perfot, agrii iq 
m naam and Buund, and no let'ter m/spla'eed, Byypcrfljyiu, or 
suunded, and not wriit'n, eksept~ in abrevias-t'onE, and e^ept' bi 
mifi-yya (az li taak it) wii jiq-lish suund'cl ignartu az iqnar'UB : 
fiiaffuiu az maq'nuB. A'l'so lignum az lig'aum, and eo of udh't-r 
wordz, wheer a vnii-el kaam nekst biifoor' ig: in oon siMab'l, and 
:n; biigaE' an udh'cr Bil'lab'i fol-oomq : a'l'so dhe nn-perfct 
let'terz of dub-'l or treb-*l suund in Lat-i'n, Had oon of dhooa 
Buundz, agrii'tq tuu dhe naam ot dhem, so dlicer want'ed but ftr 
or Biks fig-yyra or let'tera tuu fur'ni'sh even* severa'l dtVtz-ion of 
dlie voia in dhe Lat'in, az wii iiqdiah suund die saam : whttah Mi 
dhecz, c' ^ [' ^ e' ' (tuu bii suppooz-ed radh'er ab-yyz"ed hi 
tsha'ndzh of trVm, dhan bo un-scr'tcin at dhe biigi'u'tq,) biisiVdz' 
dhi's, dho Lat'in aath dho aapiVraa-iba or letter (A) ver-i tdil-dum 
, aft'er an'i kon'sonant in oon Bil'lab'l, and dhat aft'er '.t: in dhe 
EUuud of :th: oonlt and after :e: in dhe sutmd of :k: oou'I^ and 
after :r: in dho miuud of :r: oon-li, in a feu wordz dertived from 
dhe griik : oeidh'or Hath dho Lat'tn dhe auund of, tab. ii. an. ah. 
dh. w. wh. J, (nor dho suund of the thrii ha'lf vuu'elz, '1. 'm. 'n. 
in dhe per'fet suund of iiqdiBh spiitsh) neidh-er in Btq.g'l let'ter, 
Billab'l,_nor suund in word: a'l whiteh aar verikomon in iiqlfah 

Wheer-for dhe Lattn tcetah'orz, with Lat-in ortografi, did not 
(nor kuutd) auifiB'ientli fur'niah iiij'lish spiitBh with Ict'tcrz, b«t 
potsh'cd it up az viA ax dhei kauld (or at dhe leest, az wel as dhei 
wuidd) but nothiq perfet for ilqltsh spiitah, az appiireth bi dhe 
foormer treo-tffl, so dhat of, xxxvij. severa'l divia-ionz in rois 
for iiq'liah spiitah,' oon'lt dhecz siks, a. b. d. f. h. x, wcer perfctW 
peritt, and dheer-bi xxxi diviz'ionz in vois unper-fotli fiir-niahed: 
whoer-of aum uur ut-erli wanfiq, sum dub'l or treb-'l snund'ed, 
and Bum mis-naam'cd, biisiid' sum mis-plaas-ed, sum wnV'fn, and 
not suund'ed, and sum aunnd'ed dhat aar not wrii't'n. Whitih 
un-per-fetnes maail dhe nat'iv Uq'lish tuu spend loq ttVm in lee-r'ni'q 
tuu reed and wriit dhe saam (and dhat tshiif-li bi root) Hol-p'n b» 
kontiu'yya'l oksoraiiz biifoor- Had in niz oerz, bt Hii'anq 
udher, and bi* Hia ooun jrya of speek'iq whitsh irii wax Cain 
tuu leen moor untuu', dhan tu dhe giid'iq of dhe o'ld ortografi, 
so for un-pcr'fct for ii<}'l/Bh spiitsh : whitsh uelp of ek'aeiwra 
biifoor- sheu'ed in dhe nativ iiq-lish, dhe Btra'n-dzher wm 
uttorli void of, biiaiid" sum stra'ndzh divizionz of snundz in 
vois in iiqiiah spiitsh, amoq- stra'n-dzherz, utterli unfyyz-cd : 

■ Bullokar't 37 letlcn ugiTen in hi* 
elcvenlh chapter will be found auprilp. 
37, 1. IB from bottom. SKVcral of bu 


whttah kauz'ed dhem at dhe first stnt, not oon'h' tun kast dhe 

buiik awai', but a'l'so tuu thtqk and sai, dhat uur spiitsh wa^ 

80 ryyd and bar'baros, dhat it waz not tun bii lee'med, hi wnVt'iq 

or prtnt'iq : whttsh dispair* man** of uur ooun nas'ton (wil*/q tuu 

leer'n) did fa*l m'tuu : for dhe moor w»l*tq nii was tuu fol-oou dhe 

naam of dhe let'ter, dhe fard-er-of nii waz, from dhe tryy suund of 

dhe word : and ad'tq niir-untuu' an un-pas*tent and un-d/skreet* 

teetah'or, man*! gud wits weer over-throou*n in dhe biigm'tq, 

whnu (udh'erwtVz mtnt nav gon foo'r'ward, not oon'liVn reediq 

and wriit'tq dheir nat**V laq'gadzh, but a'l'so (bt dhe abil*«t* of 

dheir friindz^ prosiid'ed in greet*er duu'tqz, tuu dheir ooun prof-it 

And stci in dhe kom'on wolth a'l'so : of whttsh sort, weer dhe juth 

of noo'b'l bind, and sutsh az Had par'ents of greet abtl'itf : whuuj 

per'ents (throwh tend'er luv*) kuuld not hard'l* enfors* dhem tuu 

treed dhat pain'ful maaz : and dhe Juth f/md'iq it Hard, and dheer- 

1>> Had noo delint* dheer-in, took an*i dhe leest okkaz'ion tuu bii 

ok'kyypied udh-erwiVz wheer-bi knoou'ledzh waz lak'iq in sutsh, 

in whnum dhe kom*on welth (for dheir abil'it* and lo-ed'/t) re- 

Icirtrred moost, and sutsh az bi a'l reez*'n mint bii Imts tuu giVd 

ndh'cr, and stciz tu up-Ho*ld udh*er, nav biin dr»v*n man-i tiVma 

tun bii giVd'ed bi udh'er dheir far-infer* ibrz : whuu (for nescs'sit* 

or udher okkaz'ion) man*i tnmz ab-yyz- duu'iqz privat, and Hum*- 

t^Vm pertain'tq tuu dhe kom*on welth, wh/tsh iz tshiif'li maintain 'cd 

"bi leeVniq (Godz gras biifoor* a*l th/qz prefer*ed) : whitsh 

XeeVniq in dhe infer 'lorz, kauz-eth dyy obeid/ens toward* dhe 

sjyper'torz, and bii*iq in dhe syyper'iorz teccheth dyy guv*cr'nment, 

zmd fitWUi teetsh'eth a'l estaats* tu liv in oon yy *nit* of dhe estaat" 

of dhe kom'on welth, ever* estaat* in dheir dcgiii* and ka'l*/q, 

^ot withuut* dhe partjk*yylar prof-it, kt^^retnes, and saaf-gard of 

^vcn* estaat* : wheer-untuu* if // nave ad'ed an*i thiq hi dh/s mi 

«unend*ment of ortog*raf*, for dhe yys and prof*?'t of locr'norz and 

clhe saam aksept'cd akkord*i'ql/, li w/1 not oon*!/ spiid*/!* mipr/nt. 

<^he Gram*ar, but a*lso put mi nelp*/q nand untuu. a nes'cssan 

XHk'Si'onan' agrii'i'q tuu dhe saam, if God lend me 1/Yf, and dhat 

-^1 mai bii cez*ed in dhe bur*d*n, dhat dyy*t> hi nat-yyr kompel*eth 

Xnii spes/a'Ui tuu taak kaar of. 

English Pronunciation of Latin in the xvith CENTrRY. 

Information respecting this subject is given incidentally by Pals- 
|2;rave, Salesbury, Smith, liuUokar and Gill. Palsgrave generally 
lllastrates the French sounds by the Latin, ** when pronounced 
bright'' (supr^ p. 59), implpng that there was a wrong, and there- 
fore perhaps a usual pronunciation, which is the one we most desire 
to learn. By combining these authorities the result seems to be as 

A aa, a, iE ee, B b, C k, s, CH k, D d, dh, th, E ee, e, F, f, 
O g, clzh, GX qn, H n, I ci, », J dzh, K k, L 1, M m, N n, NG qg, 
00 o, u, (E ee, P p, QU kw, R r, S s, z, T t, tli, TH th, U, yy, u, 
Vv, Xks, Y= I, Zz. 

^ By omusion of the diacritiGs, this word \b misprinted (lou). 


A may have been {a, a, as), but probably (a) only. 

M, (E PalBgrave says (i, 10) "bo written in latino and nat 
Munded," i.e. I suppose, not sounded aa diphthongs. It ae«me 
clear from Smith (supra p. 121) that the real sound of M, and 
therefore probably of Qi, ■waa (ee). ^^H 

ytOA (k) before a, o, u and (s) before », i according ^^| 
present custom, and probably (s) before te, ce. ^^H 

CH=(k) according to Bullokar, supra p. 842, 1. 19. ^H 

D. The only proper sound was (d), but we fiud FaUgraTe saying 
cf French D (i, 30) : " D in all roaner thynges confermeth hym to 
the general rules aboue reherscd, so that I se no particular thyng 
wherof to -wamc the lemar, save that they sounde nut d of nrf is 
these wordca, adulUre, adopti6n, adoulcir, like Ik, aa we of our 
tenge do in tbcae wordes of latine ath athjuuandum for ad adjvuan- 
dum corruptly." I have assumed this th to mean (dh) as being 
derived from d. But Saleabury writ«B (kudth) for quid. 

E. Besides the regular sound of (ee, e), fialesbuiy shews that 
(ii) bad crept in occasionally, compare (liidzb- ii^=Ugit, p. 767, I 
do not find this mentioned by any other authority. 

G=(g) before a, o, u and (dzh) before t, t, as at present. Both 
Saleabury ond Bullokar note and stigmatdsc the use of (qn) for ON, 
■which seems to have been in general use. 

1 short =(»') throughout. I long "(ei) in Salesbury, (si) in Gill 
most probably. Whether BuUokar said (ti) or (ci) dcpenii on his 
English pronunciation of long I. It is to be obaerved that he aa 
well ns Smith (p. 112), does not admit the sound of (ii] in Latin. 
Hence Bulloknr's soundof long i must have been quite distinct frvm 
(ii), as (ii, ii) are at this day kept quita distinct in Iceland and 
Teviotdale, in both cases perhaps by inclining (n) towards («), 
p. 544. 

T. usually (t), but when final often (th) aa (am'ath) amat, ac- 
cording t« SalesbHry, see D. Folsgrave also finds It necessary to 
say, in reference to the French word eit : " if the next worde 
folowyng begyn with a vowell, it shall be sounded rt ; but neuer tH 
sounding s, nor elh, soundynge t like th, for t hath neuer no suche 
sounde in the frencho tonge," (i, 44), which seems to be directed 
against this Latin usage. 

TH-(th) see suprit p. 842, 1. 19. 

U vowel, when long seems to have been generally (yy) supil 
p. 841. But Palsgrave eevms to consider this wrong, and to prefer 
(uu), supra p. 149. The short vowel could have been notliing 
but (u. «). 

ExAHFLBs. — Latin spelling in Italics, pronunciation in Boman 

Salesbury gives : agnua aq'nus, amai am'ath, d^derti ded'erAh, 
dei dce'ci, dico dei-ku, ego cg-u, igni» iq-nt's, Jetu Dzhee'«yy, 
Ugit liidzhith, magniu maq-nus, qui kwei, quid kiHth, xU snul, 
tanelKa san'tus, »oi sooul, tihi tei bei, tollii toou'lts, tu tyy, eidi 
veidei, but objects to every one of these pronunciations. 

Sullokar writes, translating his symbols literatim; Cwvro i 


rica MguloB vteUj Sts'ero rethor »ka s»iq-gyylooz vt *8«t, eorvus non vou 

eueuUum koryus non vo*se kyykulium, p. 4. Oeorgius Gigas ei 

Oiiberius gerunt gladium ad exttnguendum gibhum germinantem in 

gtila Bzheordzhtiis Dzht'-gas et GU'lber'tus dzhernint glad* mm ad 

ekstiqgaen'dam gtl)*bum dzhermuian'tem in gyy'la, p. 5. Injiistui 

jeftmai j'aetuosi non juxta juramentum Johannis mdzhus'tus dzhc- 

dzliy7*nat dzhaktyjo'ze non dzhuks'ta dzhjyramen'tum Bzhonan*- 

nis p. 5. InvuuB miter non deledatur placidis musis mvrzus mrzcr 

non delekta'tnr plas'tdts myy'ziB, p. 6. Vitiosi judicium fugiunt oh 

^jnmUumem itultitia suayisio'zi dzhyydts-tumfyy'dzhmnt ob pyynt- 

atb'nem stultts'tee syyee. Uhus vestrum cumtdavit hune acervum 

jynufl vesiarum kyymyyla'vtt nuqk aser'vum, p. 7. Thraso, 

J%ale8f Thessalia, Thra-so, Tha'les, Thessalt'a. Ignarus, magnu$, 

Jigmun^ tqna'rns, maq-nusy liq*num. BuUokar in these examples 

lias neglected to nse his accents which mark length. 

(Hll writes a few Latin names thus, the numbers refer to the 
jMiges of his Logonomia : Julius Casar Dzhyylius Se*zar 43. Cicero 
IStz-eroo 43, 85. Terentia Terentia 84. Crassus Krasus 85. 
Jlippia Hip'fa 85. Sglla Sil*a 85. Quintius Kwiu'sirR 86. Venus 
^en-UB 100. CynMw Sinthta 101. P^^i^ Feebe 101. Chariua 
Xaris'a 101. Corydon Kor-»don 103. Pyrocles Piroo-kles 108. 

The nse of (ei) for long I, seems to guarantee the old use of (tV), 
"^hich may have been Bullokar's pronunciation. And the use of 
(yy) for long XT, seems to confirm the conjecture of its old use in 
"Uie same sound, suprll p. 246, rather than (uu), because as (iV) 
cihimged into (ei), so would (uu) have changed into (ou), whereas 
Cyy) *® naturally preserved. This confirms to some extent the 
^remark on p. 583, note 8. The only other important point is the 
^lon'-development of «-, ti- before a vowel, into (sht-), hereby con- 
£nning the absence of this development in English, supdi p. 214. 

§ 5. Alexander OilVa Phonetic Writing ^ 1621, with an 
examination of Spenser* s and Sidnet/s Rhymes. 

Dr. Gill, bom in the same year as Shakspere, and occupying the 
Xiigh literary position of head master of St. Paul's School, London, 
^t the time of Shakspere' s death, must obviously be considered as 
^tiie best single authority for the pronunciation of the more educated 
^slaases in Shakspere's lifetime. Hence it is necessary in these 
examples to give prominence to what has fallen from his pen. We 
\iaTe had frequent occasion to lament that Dr. Gill has not ex- 
plained the value of all his signs with sufficient clearness. The 
I'^easonB why I suppose his j to have been (ai), and his d and au to 
lutve been (aa) will be found on pp. 115, 145. 

The greatest difficulty in transcribing Dr. Gill's phonetic passages 
arises frx^m the carelessness of the printing. Dr. Gill has famished 
a list of Errata, which he requests may be corrected before reading, 
but in some instances these contain no corrections at all, and they 


" SylkbEB quse naturii mifi commuiips sunt, possunt ctiam indif- 
fcrenter per vocales long;as imt breves deacribi, vt (shal) aut (sHaaI), 
(dona) iLut (diAns), (Li bu, dcd dt'ed, vhoom whuom, modlier, 
oiudhcr, Boi eoai, mui moai, &c.) QaoidBm accentu variant, vt ibt 
dictum est : itoque in hia nil titubabia. Errata leuiora pneteribis : 

cognita et agnita nic restitues. Quinetiam charactcrum 

pcnuriam in I, pro J, qnotics opus refarcicB. Denique capita 25 et 
dcinccps, accentuum notatio, longorum vocallum quantitati Teiuanx 

It ia evident that owing to theae cirara much doubt must be felt 
by a reader of the xixth century on many of tbe very paints 
respecting wbiuh precise information ia desirable. I had en- 
deavoured to correct errors by a reference to other occurrences of 
the same word. But after much consideration I determined to 
give a literal transcript of the text as it stands, as I have done 
for Hart and Bullokar, correcting only the errors marked in the 
errata and supplying the accent mark (■), so that the reader will 
be able to form hia own opinion. I have used (0 for the short i, 
believing it to have been the sound intended by Dr. OilL See also 
§ 7 of this Chapter. But I have let (i) stund for short i vhen it 
appeared to bo a misprint for i=(ii)- 

Almost the only examples of phonetic writing as such, given by 
Dr. Gill, are Psabns 62, 67, 96, 97, 104 according to the Authorised 
Version, and as that version had only been published ten years 
when his book appeared, these transcripts possess a peculiar interest 
and ore given at length. 

The poetical examples are chiefly odduced to give instances of 
rhetorical figures, and are principally taken from Spenser and 
Sidney, — not one line irom Shakspere being quoted throughout the 
book, which need not escite anrprise, as the first folio editiou of 
Shakaperc's plays did not appear till two years aft«r the pnblicatian 
of Gill's second e^tion. There are a few epigrams trom Harring- 
ton, a poem of Withers, a eoDg of Ben Jonson, and one of tiro 
other songs eited. Z have thought it best to give all the ionger 
quotations from Spenser's Faerie Queen in the order in which they 
occur in the poem, and to collect the other quotations according to 
the authora. We have thus a very tolerable collection of literary 
examples differing materially from the dry stjcks furnished by 
Hart and Bullokar- Their main interest, however, consista in their 
being written phonetically by a man who was contemporary with 
nearly all tho writers, and who therefore was able to furnish us 
with the pronunciation of English current iu their time. We shall 
not go far wrong if we read like Dr. Gill. At the same time he 
clung to the older form of pronnneiation, not admitting Harts (ec) 
for Bi', although he does allow (deaeev, konscev) which were thv 
current pronunciations of the xvn th century, and apparently aii- 
mitt«d (tri, kA.) which properly also belong to that period. It w31 


be faand that his quotatioiis from Spenser aften differ from Mr. 
Monis'B (Olobe) edition, sometimes designedly, sometimes perhaps 
from carelessness. 

How far Dr. G^'s pronunciation represented that of Spenser, 
Sidney, and the other authors themselves, is an interesting question ; 
"bat there is no direct means of answering it. The only path open is 
an examination of their rhymes. Accordmgly Spenser's and Sidney's 
rhymes will be considered immediately eiter the specimens which 
CKll has given. And in the last section of this chapter not only 
Shakspere's rhymes, but also his puns will be examined for the 
purpose of determining his individual pronunciation. 

Extracts from Spenser's Faerie Queen. 

The references are to the book, canto, and stanza of the F. Q., and to the page 

of Gill's Logonomia. 

Mutsh gan dhei praaiz dhe triiz so straikht and noi 

Dhe sail'iq pain, dhe see'dar proud and tAAi, 

Dhe voinprop elm, dhe popular never drai, 

Dhe biild'er ook, sool kt q of for'ests aaI, 

Dhe as'pih gud for staavz, dhe sai'pres fyyneral. 

1. 1, 8, p. 106. 
Dhe laa'dt sad tu sii h»z soor konstraint*, 

Kroid out, iN'ou nou, s»r knoikht, shcu what juu bii. 

1, 1, 19, p. 108. 
Non, when dhe rooz*»-f/q*gred mom'iq faier 
"Wee'rt of aadzhed Toi'thoonz safem bed. 
Had spred Her pur-pl roob thrukh deu't aier, 
And dlie noikh hiIz Trtan dtskuvcrcd. 

1. 2, 7, p. 106. 
Az when tun ramz, sttrd wtth ambts'ius proid, 
Faikht for dhe ryyl of dhe fair fliis'cd flok ; 
Dheir Hom'ed fronts so feers on eidh-cr said 
Du miit, dhat wtth dhe ter-or of dhe shok 
Aston'ted booth stand scns-les as a blok, 
Forget'ful of dhe naq-iq vtktorai : 

So stuud dheez twain unmuuved az a rok. 

1, 2, 16, p. 99. 
. . . Mer*8», mersi^' (Sir) voutsaaf tu shcu 
On stl'f daam subdzhekt* tu hard mistshans*. 

1, 2, 21. p. 116. 
Htz dii'crest Laa'di deed with fecr nii found, 

1,2, 44. p. 111. 
Her siim'tq deed nii found, wtth fain'ed feer. 

1, 2, 46. p. 111. 

g[i mai frail eiz dheez lainz with tcerz du stiip, 
Tu thiqk Hou shii, thrukh gail'ful, han'dltq 
Dhokh tryy az tut«h, dhokh daukh'ter of a ktq, 
Dhokh faair az ever Itviq waikht waz fair, 
Dhokh not in word nor diid il mcr'rtiq, 
/z from Her knaikht divors'ed in dispair*. 

1, 3, 2. p. 114. 


Of grsiz-li Plu-to shii dlie dAAkhter wctz, 

And Bod ProBer'ptiuL dhe kwiin of bel : 

Jet shii did thiqk Her pii'erlea wurth tu pas 

Dhat parcntadzh, with prsid shii eo did ewel : 

And thua-drtq Dzhoov dliat noikh in nevn dutli dwel 

And wiild dhe world, shii klaim^ed for her sair; 

Or »f dliat an-i els did Dzhoov eksel" ; 

For tu dhee Dsi-est ehii did etil aspair- 

Or if ooukht noi-er weer dhen dhat, did it dee«air'. 

1,4, 11. p. 110. 

Ful man-i mis-tahiiffi fol-ou kryyel wrath; 
Abhor-cd blud-shed, and tyymul'tyyus straif, 
Unman'li mur'dhor, and imthri-fti akath, 
Bit'er dispait, with raqk-erus rust'i knaif, 
Dho swel'iq Bpliin, and Ixen'zt radzh'iq raif. 

1, i, 8G. p. 106. 
Dhe wAilz wecr Hal, but noth iq stroq, nor thik ; 
And goold-n fuuil aaI over dhem displaaid' : 
' Bhat pyyrcst ekai with brgikht'nes Sheei dismaaid'. 

1, 4, 4. p. 9S. 
With nid'eus nor'or booth togeedher smait, 
And B0U3 so aoor, dhat dheci dhe nevu a&ai'. 

1, e, 8. p. 9B. 
Hii dzhcntbi askt, wheer aaI dhe piip! bii, 
Whitah tn dhat ataat'li biild-iij wunt tu dwel ? 
Whuu an'sworecd Bint ful soft, nii kuuld not tel. 
Hii aakt again-, whccr dhat saaia knaikht was laid, 
"Whoom greet Dt^'lio with pyyia'ans fel 
Had maad niz kai'tiv thral ? again" Hii said, 
Hii kuuld not tel. Hii asked dhen, whitsh wai 
Hii in msikht paa ? /gnaa-ro kuuld not tel. 

1, S. 31. p. 111. 
But, neidh'er dark'nes foul, nor fil'thi hands 
lHai noi'us smel, hiz pur'pooz kuuld wt'thHoold*. 

1, 8, id. p. 104. 
But noi-UB smcl Btz pur'pooz kuuld not aoould 
But dhat with kon'staut zeel and kour-adzh boould, 
Aft'er loq painz and laa-bors mau'ifoould ; 
Hii found dhe mcenz dhat priz'uer np tu rcer. 

1, 8, 40. p. lOfi. 
Dhen ehal ai juu rckount' a ryj'ful kaaa 
(Said nii) dhe whitah with dhis unluk'i ei 
gi laat biiHi?ld' ; and nad nut greet'er graas 
Mii reft from it, had biin partaak'er of dhe plaas. 

t, 9. 26. p. 100. 

Wii met dhat vil-aa, dhat vail mis-kieant, 

Dhat kurs'cd waikht, from whoom ai akaapt whsileer', 

A man of Hel, dhat liAtlz nimself' Despair'. 

1,9,28. p. lOfi. 
For what nath bif, dhat moi it hived maok? 
And givz not raadher kAiz it dai-lai tu foiuakf 

CsikP. yni. i 6. gill's fbonttncution of sfbnseb. 849 

Peer, st knes, aadzh, los, Iaa*bor, 8or*ooii, straif, 

Pain, Eaq'ger, koold, dhat masks dhe Hart ta kwaak ; 

And ever ft*k*l fortyyn radzh'tq raif ; 

:Aa1 whttsh, and thonz'andz moo, duu mak a loth'sum laif. 

1, 9, 44. p. 103. 
Hii dhat dhe blnd-red btl'oonz, laik a waaI 
On eidh'er said dtspart'ed wtth mz rod ; 
Tf 1 aaI mz aim*ai drai-funt thmkh dhem jod. 

1, 10, 58. p. 106. 

Dhfs said, adoun* nii lunk'ed ta dhe ground 

Ta Haav retomd* ; but daazed weer mz ein 

Thrakh pas'ifq braikht'nes whttsh dtd kwait konfound* 

Hfz f iib'l sens, and tan eksiid'iiq shain. 

So dark aar thtqz on eerth kompaard ta thiiqz dtvain*. 

1, 10, 67. p- 116. 
So doon mi fel, and fdorth mz laif dtd breeth 
Dhat Yan-tsht tn'ta smook, and kloud*ez swtfb : 
So doon mi fel, dhat dh-eith nun undemeeth' 
Did groon, az f iibi so greet lood ta lifb : 
So doon nii fel, az a nyydzh rok'f kltfb 
Whaoz fiAls foondaa'stbn waavz hay washt awai*. 
And roool'tng donn greet Nep'tyyn dath dismai*. 

So doon mi fel, and laik a heep*ed monn'tain lai. 

1,11,54. p. 121. 
. . . moost wretsh'ed man 
Dhat ta afek'stbnz duz dhe braid'l lend : 
/n dheir begtn'nfq dhei ar week and wan. 
Bat suun throakh suf 'ferans, groou tu feer'ful end : 
Whailz dhei are week, bttaimz* with dhem kontend*. 
For when dhei oons tu per'fekt streqth du groou, 
Stroq warz dhei maak, and kryyel batTi bend 
Gainst fort of Eeez*n, ft tu overthroou. 
Wrath dzhel'osf, griif, Iuy, dhtis skwair nav laid thus loou. 

Wrath dzhel'osf, griif, luv, du dhus ekspel* 
Wrath IB a fair, and dzhel'ost a wild ; 
Griif iz a flud, and luv a mon'ster fel : 
Dhe fbir of sparks, dhe wiid of l»t*l siid ; 
Dhe flud of ^ps, dhe mon'ster filth dtd briid : 
But sparks, siid, drops, and ftlth du thus delai* : 
Dhe sparks suun kwentsh, dhe spnq*tq siid outwiid*, 
Dhe drops drei up, and ftlth waip kleen awai*. 
So shal wrath, dzhel'ost, griif, luv, dai and dekai*. 

3, 4, 34. 36. p. 123. 
No trii, whuuz bran*tshez dtd not braavlt sprtq ; 
No brantsh, wheron* a fain burd dtd not sit ; 
No burd, but dtd his shnl noot swiit'lai stq ; 
No Boq, but did kontain* a luvlat dtt, 
Triiz, bran'tshez, burdz, and soqz, weer firaam*ed fit 
For to alyyr* frail maindz tu kaar-les eez : 
Kaar'les dhe man suun woks, and Htz week wtt 

850 gill's pronunciation of SFENSEB. Chap. VIII. 1 6. 

Waz overkum of thtq dhat did Htm plecz. 

So pleez'ed, did h»z wTath*ful kuur'adzh fair apeez'. 

2, 6, 13. p. 123. 
And iz dher kaar m Heevn ? and iz dher luv 
In Heevnldi spir'fts tu dhecz kreo'tyyrz baas, 
Dhat mai kompas'tbn of dheir iivlz muuY ? 

2, 8, 1. p. 118. 
. . . AaI dhat plees'tq %z tu Itvtq cer, 
Waz dhcer konsort'cd in oon nar*monii. 
Burdz, Yois'oz, m'stryyments, waa'terz, waindz, aaI agrii. 

Dho dzhoi'us burdz shroud'cd in tsheerM shaad 

Dheir noots un*tu dhe vois attem'pred swiit : 

Dh- andzheel'ikal soft trem*bliq vois'ez maad 

Tu dh- tn'stryyincnts diVoin* respon'dens miit : 

Dhe Btl'Ycr sound'tq ih'stryyments dtd miit 

Wtth dho baaz mur'mnr of dhe waa*torz fAAl : 

Dhe waa'terz fAAl with dtf'erens dtskriit* 

Non soft, nou loud, nn'ta dhe woind dtd kAAl, 

Dhe dzhent'l war'bltq woind loou an'swered un*tu aaI. 

2, 12, 70. 71. p. 118. 
Ne let Htz faair-est Sth'thta refyyz* 

/n mtr'orz moor dhcn oon Herself* ta sii, 

But eidh'er Gloortaa'na let Htir tflhyyz 

Or in BeKee'be fash*t6ned tu bii : 

In dh- oon ner ryyl, in dh- odh-er Her raar t^has'tttii. 

Prff, to 8, St. 6. p. 101. 
Hyydzh see of sor'oou, and tempest'ous griif, 
Whcenn* moi fiib'l bark tz tos'ed loq, 
Far from dhe noop'ed naavn of reliif* : 
"WTiai du dhoi kryy'cl btl'ooz beet so stroq, 
And dhai moist moun'tainz ectsh on odhcr throq, 
Threet'iq tu swal'oou up moi* feer'ful loif ? 
du dhoi kryy-el wrath and spoit-ful wroq 
At leqth alai*, and stmt dhoi storm*! stroif, 
"WTittsh tn dhecz trub'led bou'clz rainz and raadzh*eth raif. 
For els moi fiib'l ves'el, kraazd and kraakt, 
Kan'ot endyyr*. 

3, 4, 8, p. 99. 

Fordhoi* shii gaav n«n wam*iq evert daai 
Dhe luv of wim'cn not tu entertain* ; 
A les*n tuu tu nanl for h'viq klaai. 

3, 4, 26. p. 100. 
So ttk'l bii dhe t<?rmz of mor*tAAl staat, 
And ful of sut'l sof*f zms whitsh du plai 
"Wtth dub'l scns-ez, and with fAAls debaat.* 

3, 4, 28. p. 97. 
Unthaqk*ful wretsh (said nii), iz dhw dhe miid 
With whitsh Her soverain mer'st dhou dust kwoit ? 
Dhoi loif shii saav*ed boi Hcr graa*sius diid : 
But dhou dust meen with vtl'enus dtspoit* 


Ta blot Her on-or and Her Heevnlf leikht. 
Dai, radh-er del, dhen so dtsloi'aldi 
Diim of Her Boikh dezert*, or siim so loildit, 
Faair deeth ft iz tn shun moor shaam, dhen dai ; 
Dai, radh-er dai, dhen ever luv dtsloi-alai. 

But if ta lav dtsloi'altai it bii, 

Shal ai dhen naat ner [dhat] &om deeth'ez door 

Mii bronkht ? aH, far bii sutah reprootsh* from mii. 

What kan ai les du dhen Her lav dherfoor*, 

Sith ai Her dyy reward* kannot' restoor* ? 

Dai, raadh'er dai, and dai'iq duu Hcr serr, 

Dai'iq Her serv, and liviq Her adoor. 

Dhai laif shii gaav, dhai laif shii duth dezerv*. 

Dai, raadh'er dai, dhen ever from Her serv'ts swerv. 

3, 6, 45. 46. p. 121. 

DiBkuriieas, disloi'AAl Brit'omart ; 
What Ten'dzhans dyy kan ek'wal dhei dezart ; 
Dhat Hast with shaam'ful spot of sin'ful lust, 
Defaild* dhe pledzh komtt'ed ta dhai trust ? 
Let ug'lai shaam and end* les in'famai 
Kul'er dhai naam with foul reproo'tshez rust. 

4, 1, 53. p. 118. 

Amoq" dheez knoikhts dheer weer thrii bredh'em boo old, 

Thrii booulder bredh'em never wer ibom*, 

Bom of oon mudh-er in oon nap'i moould, 

Bom at oon burdh'en in oon nap'i mom, 

Thraiz nap'i mudh'er, and thrais hap'i mom, 

Dhat boor thrii sutsh, thrii sutch not ta bii fond. 

Her naam waz Ag*ape, whuuz tshtl'dren weem 

:Aa1 thrii az oon ; dhe first naikht Froi 'amend, 

Dhe sck'ond Dai*amond, dhe juq-gest Trai'amond. 

Stout Frai'amond, but not so stroq tu straik ; 

Stroq Dai'amond, but not so stout a knaikht ; 

But Trai'amond, waz stout and stroq alaik*. 

On Hors'bak yyzcd Trai'amond tu faikht, 

And Frai'amond on fnut Had moor delait* ; 

But Hors and fuut knyy Dai'amond tu wiild. 

With kurt'akfl yy'zed Dai'amond tu smait ; 

And Trai amend tu nand'l speer and shiild, 

But speer and kurt'aks both, yyzd Frai'amond in f iild. 

4, 2, 41, 42. p. 124. 

. . . Doun on dhe blud'i plain 

Herself' shii thryy, and teerz gan shed amain', 

Amoqst' Her teerz immiks'iq prai'erz miik, 

And with Her prai'erz, reez'nz tu restrain* 

From blud'i straif. 

4,8,47. p. 110. 


Shii Held hk wrath-M Hand from ven-djilmns soor. 
But drAA'i'q neer, ecr mi Hir wel biheld ; 
Iz dhi's dho faith, (shii said ?) and said no moor. 
But turnd hh fast, and flod awftr for evennoor. 

4, 7, 3S. p. 103. 
Fresh shad-onuz, fit tu shroud from sim-t mi ; 
Fair landz, tu taak dhe Bim tn eeez-n dyy; 
Swiit apriqz, tn vhi'tsh a thouz'and ni'mfs did plai; 
Soft rum-bl(q bruuks, dhat dzhenfl Blumb'er dryy ; 
Heikh reefed mounts, dhe landz about tu vyy ; 
Loou luuk'tq daalz, di'sloind' from kom'oa gaaz ; 
Deloit'fUl boiiTz, tu aol-fl» Inverz tryy; 
Fair lab'ennths, fond run'erz eiz tu daaz : 
:Aa1 whtteh bsi naa'tyyr maad, did Daa'tyyr eelf amoaz'. 

1. 10, 24. p. 114. 
But Hii Hcr snp-liant nondz, dhooz uaDdz of goold ; 
And iik Her f iit, dhooz f iit of silver trai- 
Whi'tsh Booukht unraikh'teusnea and dzhust'fs poold, 
Tshopt of, and noild on Hsikh, dhat aaI moikht dhem bisoold*^' 

5, 3, 26. p. HI. 

ExlracUfrom Sir Philip Sidruy't Arcadia. 

. . . Eeez'n tu mt pas'ion iild-ed 
Fas'ion us'tu mt raadzh, madzh tu a Hast't revendzh'. 

3, 1. p, no. 
And Baaviq plaastm^i thoukhtB,moithoitkht8 dhusploa'eei 
Mil thoukht ; noi, syyr ei woz, oi waz in fanir'est Wud 
Of Samothe'a land, a land dhat whail'um etund 
An on-or tu dhe world, whail on-or waz dheir end. 

4, 9. p. 113. 

l>he feii tu aii mii wroqd for aq-ger bnrn-oth, 
Dhe aai'er in t«erz for main afltli-eton wiip*eli, 
Dhe Bee for griif tu eh hi'z floou'tq tum*eUi, 
Dhe eerth wtth pit't' dul HOr sen'ter kiip'eth, 

Faam iz wtth wunder blaais'ed, 

Taim fliiz awai' for sor'oou, 

Plaaa standeth stil amaaz-cd, 

Tu sii msi ndikht of iivlz whttah natb no moroou, 

Alas, aaI oon'loi ehii no ptt'i taak'eth 

Tu knoou mai mi'z'craiz, but tfihaast and kiyyel 

Mai £4a1 Hir gloo-n' maak-eth. 

Jit stil Btz ciz giV tu moi &mxaz dheir fyyel. 
Fair, bum mii kwait til mme of bum-t'q leev mii ; 
Aier, let me drAA dhi'a breth no moor m aq-guish : 
Sec, drouud in dhii of vi'tal brcth bireev mil : 
Ertb, taak dlii's eerth whcen'n' msi epir't'ts laq'gui'sb : 

Faam, aai oi waz not bom, 

Taim, aast mai doi-Mi ou-er : 

Flaaa, sii mai graav uptom 

Fair, i 

I, eerth, faam, taim, ptaas, shea tma pour. 


Alas', from aaI dheir helps am oi eksaild*, 
For Herz am ai, and deetti feerz hit displeez'yyr ; 
Foi deeth, dhou art bigoil'ed, 
Dhokh oi bii Herz, shii sets boi mil no treez*yyr. 

3, 15. p. 125. 

JEztracU from Sir John HarringtovCi EpigravM (a.d. 1561-1612. 

Foi but a mans dtsgraast*, noo*ted a novts. 
Yee bnt a mans moor graast, noo'ted of no yois. 
Dhe miid of dhem dhat luv, and du not ItV amts*. 

2,17. p,113. 
31 kAAld dhii 00ns moi dii'eerest Mai m vers. 
Whttsh dhus oi kan iQter'pret iT oi wtl, 
Moi dii'erest Mai, dhat tz, moi kost'liest fl. 

2, 81. p. 112. 
Tu praaiz moi woif, jruur dAAkht'er, (so ai gadh'er) 
Junr men sai shii resem-bleth moost nir fadh'er. 
And oi no les tu praiz juur sun, Htr brudh'er. 
Affirm* dhat mi iz tuu mutsh laik Htz mudh-er. 
Ei knoou not tf wii dzhudzh aroikht*, or er, 

Sut let H»m bii laik jruu, so ai laik Her. 

2, 96. p. 112. 
Markus neer seest tu ven'ter aaI on proim, 
Til of H»z adzh kwait waas'ted waz dhe praim. 

2, 99. p. 112. 

Wheer dwelz Mister Eaaries ? 

Dzhest'erz nav no dwel'iq. 
Wheer laiz m ? 

In Hiz tuq bai moost menz tel'tq. 
Wheer boordz m r 

Dheer wheer feests aar found bai smel'tq. 
Wheer baits m ? 

:Aa1 behaind*, gainst aaI men jcl'i'q. 
, 3, 20. p. iia. 

Konsem'tq waivz Hoould dhtis a ser*tain ryyl, 
Dhat tf at ftrst juu let dhem naav dhe ryyl, 
JuurseK* at last wtth dhem shal naav no ryyl, 

Eksept' JUU let dhem ever-moor tu ryyl. 

3, 33. p. 109. 

Songs and Miscellaneous Extracts, 

What tf a dai, or a munth, or a jeer, 

Eroun dhai dezairz* with a thou'zand wtsht konten'ttqz ? 
Eannot dhe tshauns of a naikt or an oucr 

Eros dhai delaits* with a thou'zand sad tormen'tiqz ? 
For'tyyn, on*or, beu'ti, jyyth, 
Aar but blos'umz draiq [dai'iq] : 

Wan'ton plecz'yyr, doot*/q luv, 

Aar but shad'doouz flai*?q. 
:Aa1 our dzhoiz, aar but toiz 
;^di thoukhts deeseeviq. 

854 gill's pronunciation of songs, etc. Chap. YIII. i 5. 

Noon Hath pou'er of an ou'er 
/n dheir loivz bireeviq. 

Th<nnas Campian, p. 144, with the miiric. 
Faaier bai na'tyyr bii'tq bom, 
Bor'ooud beu'ti shii duth skom. 
Hii dbat kt's'cth hct, niid feer 
Noo unHool'sum ver'ntsh dheer ; 
For from dhens, idi oon*lei sips 
Dbe pyyr nek'tor of Her lips : 
And wfth dhcz at oons nii klooz'ez, 
Melt'tq ryy'btz, taher'fz, rooz'ez. 
Qeorg$ Withers, p. 98. 
Nou dhat dhe nerth iz kround wtth smoil'tq faier 
And sum du drtqk, and sum du dAAns, 
Sum nq 
Sum siq, 
And aaI du straiv t- advAAns* 
Dbe myyz'tk Hoi'er : 

Whecrfoor' shuuld oi 
Stand srlcnt bai ? 
Wbuu not dhe leest 
Booth luv dhe kAAZ and AA'torz of dhe fecst. 

Ben JontoHf ode 14. p. 143. 
Main eiz, no eiz, but foun-tainz of mai teerz : 
Mai teerz, no teerz, but fludz tu moist mai nart : 
Mai Hart, no nart, but nar'bour of mai feorz : 
Mai feerz, no feorz, but f iil'tq of mai smart. 

Mai smart, moi feerz, mai iiart, mai teerz, main eiz, 
Ar blaind, droid, spent, past, waust'ed w/th mai kraiz. 
And J«t main eiz dhokh blaind, sii Uaaz of o^if : 
And Jtt mai teerz, dhokh draid, run doun amaain* : 
And Jtt mai nart, dhokh spent, atciulz- reliif- : 
And Jit mai fcHTz, dhokh past, fiikrees- moi paain : 
And Jit ai 1/v, and h'v/q fiil moor smait : 
And smart'/q, krai m vain, Brei;k hev/ imrt. 

Song, " Break Ihavy JItart:* p. 1 19. 
Swiit thooukhts, dhe fund on wh^'tsh ai fiidiq starv ; 
Swiit teerz, dhe driVjk dhat moor AAgmenl' mai thirst ; 
Swiit eiz, dhe starz bai whi'tsh mai kours duth swarv ; 
Swiit noop, mai deeth whitsh wast moi loif at f/'rst ; 
Swiit thooukhts, swiit teerz, swiit noop, swiit eiz, 
llou tshAAnst dliat deeth in swiit'nes laiz ? 

Song, " Deadly SwtrtHess." p. 119. 
Maa-tshil iz naqcd, Dhe diil naz -t'm faq-ed 

And brened I'z n/z byyks. In hiz kr}'yk*cd klyyks. 

J)hokh Maa'tshil iz nacj-ed Maa'tsh;! iz naq'od 

Jtt nii tz not wraq*ed. Anb [and] bren*ed tz nti byyka. 

Rnu Macchiavdlun^ Northern Dialect, p. 122. 
Kaaz'tq mai noops, on ntlz of naikh dezair*, 
Thtqk'tq tu skaal dhe necvn of nir Hart, 
Mai alend'er mcenz prezumd* [prezyymd] tuu Hsi a part. 

CHir.Yin. {5. gill's bible pronxjnciatiom. 855 

Herthnnd'er of disdain* forst nui retair*, 
And thryy mii doun &c. 

J)aniely Delia, Sonnet 81. p. 99. 

Kontent* wlmu h Vz with traid estaat, 
Niid feer no tshandzh of froun*tq faat : 
But Hii dhat siiks, for un'knooun' gain. 
Oft livz bdi los, and leevz with pain. 

Specimen of Fhonetie Spelling, p. 20. 

Dhe loq ar laa*zi, dhe lit'l ar lond : 
Dhe fair ar slut'tsh, dhe foul ar proud. 

p. 76. 
Praiz of an Haikh rekntq*, an a trtk tu bii greet'lii renonn'ed 
Juu with juur pnk*et pnr-tshast. Lo dhe vik'tort feui'miiB 
With tuu godz pak-fq* oon wnm-an stMi tu kuz'n. 

Accentual Hexameters. Stanihurt^s Trantlation of 

Virg, Mn. 4, 98-96. p. 100. 

P«a/m 62. p. 20. 

1 Tryy-loi mai sooul wait'eth upon* God : from niin kum*eth moi 
Balu[v]aa-8fon. 2 Hii oon-loi iz moi rok and moi salvaa'sibn: Hii iz 
mai dfifens-, ai shal not bi grcet'loi muuved. 3 Hou loq wil jii 
tmadzh'm mts'tshiif against' a man ? jii shal bi slain aaI of juu : 
Az a bou'tq waaI shall ji bii : and az a tot'enq fens. 4 Dhcci 
ooD'bi konsult* tu kast Him doun from his ek'selensai, dheei delait 
m laiz : dheei bles with dheeir mouth, but dheei kurs in'wardloi* 
Selan. 5 Mai sooul wait dhou oon'loi upon* God : for mai ekpek- 
ta'Sfbn tz from Htm. 6 Hii oon'lai tz mai rok and mai salvaa'sion ; 
Hii \i mai dcfens* ; ai shal not bi mnuved. 7 in God iz mai sal- 
yaa-Bwn and mai gloo*r» ; dhe rok of mei streqth and mai ref'yydzh 
tz m God. 8 Trust in Him at aaI taim» ji piip'l ; pour out Juur nart 
Kfoor Htm : God tz a refyydzh for us. Sel'an. 9 Sy^'lai men 
of loou degrii* ar van'itoi, and men of nai degrii* ar a lei : tu bi 
laid HI dho bal*ans, dheei ar AAltogedh'cr laildit*er dhen van'itai. 
10 Trust not in opres*ion, bikum* not vain tn roberoi ; if rttsh*ez 
•ifees*, set not juut nart upon* dhem. 11 God nath spook'n 
oons; twais naav ai naard dhts, dhat pour biloq*eth un*to God. 12 
:Aa1-8o un*to dhii, oo Lord, bUoq-eth mer'st : for dhou ren'derest 
^ er-erai man akkord'iq tu h»z wurk. 

Ttahn 67. p. 21. 

1 God bi mer*s/ful yy[u]n*tu us and bles us : and kAAz niz faas tu 
Bbdin upon* us. Sel*aH. 2 Dhat dhai waai maai bi knooun upon 
*^, dhai saav'iq neelth amoq* aaI naa'sionz. 3 Let dhe piipl 
pndz dhi, oo God; let aaI dhe piip'l prais dhii. 4 let dhe 
ttki'stbnz bi glad, and stq for dzhoi : for dhou shalt dzhudzh dho 
M'l mkht'euslai, and govern dhe naa*stonz upon* eerth. Sel'aH. 
f Lei dhe piip'l praiz dhii oo God ; let aaI dhe piip-l praaiz dhii. 
% Shen shal ^be eerth jiild gfcjyk rees ; and God, iivn our ooun 
flod| ibd bles lu. 7 Ood ^IMHM'''' ^^^ ^ ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 
1 MttihilfiBaratiiL ^^^^S 

856 gill's bible pronunciation. Cb»p. Vlll. ^* 

Ptalm 96. p. 22. 
I siq un-tu die Lord a nyy soq ; siq un'tu dLo Lord aaI dho 
eerth. 2 Si'q lu'tu dhe Lurd, blea hiz noiim ; shell fuurth hiz 
salTaa'Bion from dai tu dai. 3 Deeklaar' Htz gloo'n' amoq' dhe 
Heedh-en: hiz irmi'derz amoq- Ail piip'l. 4 For dhe Lord « 
greet, and greetlai tu bi praiz-ed : Hii t'z tu hi fcer'ed abuv aaI 
0od2. 5 For aaI dhe godz of dhe naa'stouz ax si'dols : but dhe 
Lord tnaad dhe neec-iiz. 6 On-or and Maa'dzhestei ar bifoor- 
Htm : rtreqth and beu'ti or in hiz sank'tuarai. 7 Giv un-tu dhe 
Lord (oo jii kin-drcz of dhe piip'l} giV un'tu dhe Lord glooTi and 
streqth, 8 Giv un-tu dhe Lord dhe giooTi dyy un'tu hi*z naam : 
hriq an of-rifi and kum ih'tu hiz kuurta, 9 wur-Bhip dhe Lord 
tn dhe beu'ti of Hoo'lmes: feer bifoor- aim aaI dhe eertb. 10 
Saai amoq- dhe needh-en dhat dhe Lord reei-neth : dho world 
aa1-so shall bi ertab-li'shed dhat it ahal not bi muur-ed : Hii shal 
dzhudzh dhe piip'l raikh'teuslai. 11 Lot dhe Heev'nz reikhob-, 
and let dhe eerth bi glad : let dhe see roor and dhe ful-nes dheerof-. 
1'2 Let dho fiild bi dzhoi-ful, and aaI dhat iz dhenn* : dhen ahal 
aaI dhe triiE of dhe wud redzhois- 18 Bifoor- dhe Lord ; for Hii 
kum-eth, for Hii knmeth tu dzbudzh dhe eerth : Hii aha] dzbodzh 
dhe world with raikh-teusneB, and dhe piip-I with hiz t ry yt h. 

Psalm 97. p. 22. 
I Dhe Lord reein-eth ; let dhe eerth redzhois : let dhe mnl'ti- 
tyyd of dhe aUz bi glad dierof. 2 Kloudz and durkTieB ar round 
about aim : roikh'teuancB and dzhudzh-mcnt ar dho Habitaa-si'on of 
niz throon. 3 A fai-er go-cth bifoor- ni'm: and bum-eth up siz 
en-cmoiz round about- 4 Hiz laikht-niqz inlaikhfned dhe world : 
dhe eerth sau, and trem-bled. 5 Dhe Hilz melt cd bik waks at 
at dhe prez'cna of dho Lord ; at dhe prez'ens of dhe Lord of dhe 
whool eerth. 6 Dhe BCT'enz dcklaar- ntz raikh-teusnes : and aaI 
dhe piip"l aii hiz gloo-ri'. 7 Konfound'ed bi aaI dheei dhat eerr 
graav'n si-modzhcz, and boost dhemselvz of ai-dolz : wur'ship nim 
aaI )i godz. 8 Si'-on naard, and waz glad, and dhe dAAkh-tnn 
of /u-da rcdzhois-ed : bikanz' of db^^i dzhudzh-ments, oo Lord. 
9 For dhou Lord art bsikh abuv- aaI dhe eerth ; dhou art eksal-ted 
far abuv- aaI godz. 10 Jii dhat luv dhe Lord, naat iiv-1 ; Hii 
prezcTT'etb dhe eooulz of aiz Buints : Hii deliv-creth dhem oat of 
dhe Hand of dhe wtked. II Lsikht iz sooun for dhe raikh-tens, 
and glad-nes for dhe up'r^ikht in nart : 12 Redzhois- in dbo Lord, 
jii rsikh'teus : and giiv thaj^ks at dhe remom-brons of niz Hoo'lines. 

Pialm 104. p. 23. 
1 BlcB dhe Lord, oo moi sooul : oo Lord mai Qod dhou ti 
greet : dhou art kloodh-cd with On-or and Madzh-estai. 3 
kuvereHtdhiU aelf with bikht, az with agur-ment: whuu atn 
out dhe Hevnz laik a kurtain; 3 'Whuu lai-eth dhe hecmz o 
tflhani'herz th dhe waatcrz ; whuu moak'cth dho kloudu i 
tsharet: whan walk'eth upon- dhe wiqz of dhe wsind. 4 ^ 


maak'eth mz an'geks sptrtts: mz mtn'tsterz a flaam'iq fai'er. 
6 Whua laid dhe foundaa'sibiiz of dhe eerth : dhat tt shuuld not 
bi remnuved for ever. 6 Dhou kuverest tt with dhe diip az wiih 
a garinent : dhe waa*terz stand abuv* dhe moun'tainz. 7 At dhai 
rebyyk' dheei fled: at dhe vois of dhoi thund'er dheei Haast*ed 
awai. 8 Dheei go up bai dhe mount'ainz, dheei go doun boi dhe 
Tal'leiz an*ta dhe plaas whitsh dhou Hast found-ed for dhem. 9 
Dhoa Hast set a bound dhat dheei mai not pas over : dhat dheei 
tiim not again- tu kuver dhe eerth. 10 Hii sendeth dhe spn'qz 
m'ta dhe "i^'leiz ; whitsh run amoq* dhe Htlz. 1 1 Dhcci giV driqk 
ta evrai beest of dhe f iild ; dhe weild as'es kwentsh dheeir thirst. 
13 Bai dhem shal dhe foulz of dhe Hevn naav dheeir nabitaa'sion, 
whttsh siq amoq* dhe bran'shez. 13 Hii waat'ereth dhe nAz from 
Hfk tsham'berz : dhe eerth iz sat'isfaied with dhe fryyt of dhai 
wnrkz. 14 Hii kAAz eth dhe gras tu groou for dhe kat'el, and 
Herb for dhe ser'vis of man : dhat nii mai brtq fourth fuud out of 
dhe eerth. 15 And wain dhat maak'eth glad dhe nart of man, and 
oil ta maak hiz faas tu shain, and breed whitsh streqth'neth mans 
Hart. 16 Dhe triiz of dhe Lord ar ful of sap : dhe seo'darz of 
Leb'andn whitsh Hii nath plant'ed. 17 Whecr dhe birdz maak 
dheeir nests : az for dhe stork dhe fir triiz are Hir nous. 18 Dhe 
Hoikh Htlz ar a refyydzh for dhe waild goots : and dhe roks for 
dhe kun'iz. 19 Hoi apuuint'ed dhe muun for seez*nz ; dhe sun 
knoou'eth niz goo'iq doun. 20 Dhou maak'cst dark'ncs, and it iz 
naikht : wheenh* aaI dhe beests of dhe for'est du kriip fuurth. 
31 Dhe juq lai'onz roor afb*er dheeir prai, and siik dheeir meet 
from Gk)d. 22 Dhe sun araiz'eth, dheei gadh'cr dhemsolvz* tu- 
gedh'er, and lai dhem doun in dheeir denz. 23 Man go*eth 
fdurth un'tu hiz wurk ; and tu hiz laa*bor, until* dhe iivniq. 24 
O Lord Hou man'ifoould ar dhai wurks ? in wtz'dum nast 
dhou maad dhem aaI : dhe eerth iz ful of dhai ritsh-ez. 25 
So iz dhis greet and waid see, wheenh* ar thtqz kriip *iq 
mnum'erably booth souaI and greet beests. 26 Dhccr go dhe 
ships; dheer iz dhat Levrathan f Levai'athan ? ] whuum dhou 
Hast maad tu plai dhecrin*. 27 Dheez wait aaI upon dhii dhat 
dhoa maist giV dhem dheeir meet in dyy seez'n. 28 Dhat dhou 
gvv'est dhem dheei gadh'cr: dhou oop'nest dhci Hand, dheei ar 
ffl'ed with gud. 29 Dhou naid'est dhai faas, dhei ar trub'lcd : 
dhoa taak'est awai* dheeir breth dheei doi, and return* tu dheeir dust. 
80 Dhou send'cst forth [fourth] dhai sptr*it, dhei ar kreaat'ed : 
and dhour enyy-est dhe faas of dne eerth. 31 Dhe gIoo*ri of dhe 
Lord shal indyyr* for ev*er : dhe Lord shal redzhois* m niz wurks. 
33 Hii luuk'oth on dhe eerth, and it trem*blcth: nii toutsh*eth 
rtatsh'eth ?] dhe Htlz and dhei smook. 33 ^i wil siq un*tu dhe 
Lord az loq as ai liV: ai wil praiz mai God whail oi naav mai 
hii'iq. 34 Mai mcdttaa'sibn of Him shal bi swiit : oi w/1 be glad 
tn dhe Lord. 35 Let dhe sth'erz bi konsum-ed fkonsyym'cd?] out 
of dhe eerth, let dhe wik*ed bii no moor : bles dhou dhe Lord, oo 
mai soouL Praiz jii dhe Lord. Amen. 




An Eiaminatioii or SrBMaBx'a Rbthes. 

An inspection of the examples of Spenser's pronunciation as given 
by Dr. Gill, pp. 847-852, shews that aa Dr. Gill read thorn the rhymes 
■were not unfrcquently faulty.' If then this authority is to be 
trusted wo have entirely left the region of perfoct rhymes, and have 
entered one where occasional rhymes are no guide at all to the pro- 
nunciation, and very frequent rhymes are but of slight value. Still 
it eccmed worth while ti extend the comparison furtlier, and see 
how far Spenser in his rhymes conformed to the roles of pronun- 
ciation which we gathered ft«m contemporary authorities in Chap. 
III. Before, however, giving the results of an examination of aU 
the rhymes in the Faerie Queen, I ahull examine the bad rhymes in 
contemporary poems of conRiderahle reputation, in order that we 
may see and understand what limits of approximation in the Bound 
of rhyming vowels and oven consonants, some of our beat versifiers 
deem to bo occasioually or even generally sufficient, that is, how 
closely they approach to final or consonantal rhyme (p. 245) on the 
one side, and assonance on the other. For this purpose I have se- 
lectod Thomas Moore and Alfred Tennywn. Every one admits tlt&t 
Moore was at least a master of the mechanical part of his art. His 
lines are generally rhythmical, and his rhymes good, as might be 
expected from a song writer with a delicate perception of music. 
Of his writings I choose the most elaborate, the Zovti of the Ang§lt, 
and Lttlh Rookh, and note all the rhymes which are false according 
to my own pronunciatiDn. Of Tennyson, who is also a master of 
his art, I select the In Memoriam, as his most carcfiil production 
in regular rhymed verse, and do the like with it. The following 
are the results. 

Mode of Etfermct. 

FW 1, 2 FiiewonhippGrB, part 1, parngreph 2. 

LA pro!., Loiei of the Angeii, proluguo. LA 2, 

LH 6, Light of the nurcm, paiugrnpb S. 

PP 24. pBradise and the Pen, parngraph 24. 

TP 3, 17. Veiled Prophet, part 3, paragraph 17. 

1 28, TeDDy»oD'< In Mcmorioni, sectiun 2S. Tep. Do. epilogue. 

The eiiLmples are arranged according to the raanda, nhick, according < 
pTouunciation, are different, hat must have been identicni, according to tti( 
noDciatioa of the pocta, if the rhfmca are perfect. 

Faulty Shymei obterved in Moore and Tennyton. 
I. BolH rhyming lyllailtt aeeettltd. 
hut hart TP 2, 24 
[in oil thcae cues the Ant irord U 
occadonally pronounced with {■}, 
mare flequently vith [ah].} 

[Britomart' dezart' 4, 1, 53. Bar-maitii 
a^ 2, 12, 70. tahaa-titii bii 3. iatr., 0. 
duloi'alai dai 3, S, 46.) The 8peUiB( 
here used a the preceding tranuHan- 
tion of Dr. Qill'i, the relermeaa are to 
book, canto, etonia, of the Feerj* Qmme. 

. Do., ntoiy 2, paragraph ii^^^H 

Do. epilogue. ^^^| 

ada, nhich, according to B^^^H 
ticul, according to the f*o^^^H 

nd Tennyton. ^^B 

command hand VP 3 6— T ep. 
glance evfmte LA 1, 20. PP fi 

' In the few eitraota that are given 
■« And: (Ail SffTimA 1. I. 8. wm 
paa 1, 4, 11. whaileer- dtepair I, 9, 2B. 
luT muuT 2, B. 1, mora wcera 4, 2, 41, 
faikbt unait 4,2,42.} And the fol- 
loving »eem to be foreed, a double 
nine to -«r, and -y being aammed, 



(aa)»(Ay AA, 0, oo) 
riuzd lord T 124 
SaimtB wants T 96 [the first word has 

flometimes (aa), and the second either 

(A) or (0).] 

(aai)-(ei, i) 
hetfih earth T 30. 76 

». rthe £ 

TSM grace VP 2, 6. [the 'first word is 
Tery rarely called {yees), or (vevz) 
genmlly (taaz^ yaaz) J 

(A)-(aa), ses (aa)=A) 
(aa) a (aa), see (aa) = (aa), 
(aa)=»(w), Bee («tf)=(AA) 
(8B)=(aa), see (aa)«(8B) 


amber chamber FW 4, 37 [the second 
word in these cases is usually 
(isbMm'bj), occasionally (tshaam'bj); 
I do not uow ftshsm'Di).] 

damber chamber FW 1, 8 

haye graye T 64 

dcilih fidth T 80. 106. 112. 

aid maid VP 1, 28 [the word taid is 

pobaps occasional^ called (s^).] 
imaaid maid T 72 

baayen driyen Fw 1, 1. 1, 15. 2^ IK 

4, 8. LA 2, 42. VP 1, 33. 2, 33. 
ba ayen forgiven LA 1, 14. 2, 13. 2, 65. 

FW 4, 1. PP 32. 
baayen gvyen FW 1, 2. 4, 4. 4, 7. 4, 

24. LA 1, 9. 2, 8. 2, 37. 2, 46. 3, 1. 

3, 6. LH 23. VP 1, 3. 1, 19. 1, 25. 

2, 8. 2, 24. 2, 27.— T 16. 39 
baayen o'erd riven T 61 
baayen riyen FW 8, 1. LH 6 
heayen unriyen VP 3, 11 

[any attemnt to say (ntynj would 

no doubt naye be^ scouted by any 

poet, but all poets allow the 


inherit spirit PP 14 [(sper*tt) is now 

though t yul gar] 
yet this FW 3, 2 [compare Sir T. 

Smithy taptk p. 80]. 

breath beneath LA 1, 15. 2, 2. TP 2, 

breath underneath T 98 
breath wreath LH 18. 22. VP 1, 9 
dtaih beneath FW 1, 17. 1, 18. 3, 6. 

8^ 14.~T 40 

death sheath FW 4, 28. VP 1, 2. 

death wreath FW 2, 13.— T 71 

death underneath VP 3, 17 

deaths wreaths LA 2, 63 

heaven even FW 1, 17- LA 1, 6. 2, 

38. PP 26. VP 1, 34 
treads leads v, FW 4, 25 

(ei, i)=(oai, ooi) 
earth forth LA 3, 13. LH 30 

(ej[,j)=(aaj) see (aaj)=(ej, j) 

done upon FW 2, 11 

done gone LA 1, 12 

dusk kiosk VP 1, 24 

one gone LH 5 

one on T 42. 80. 82. ep. 

one upon LA 2, 71.. PP 32 

rough off LH 5 

run upon VP 1, 34 

shun upon LA 2, 43. 2, 62 

sun upon LA 2, 17. VP 1, 1 

above grove LH 2 
above love wove LA 3, 8 
beloved roved LH 3 
come home LA 2, 74. 3, 8. LH 18 

twice. 22. VP. 2, 33. 3, 17.— T 6. 

8. 14. 39. 
discover over LH 4 
love grove LH 20 
love rove VP. 1, 18. 2, 35 
lover over LH 1. 6. 
loves groves FW 1, 9. LH 6. VP 1, 13. 
one alone LH 24.— T 93 
one shone VP 1, 15. LA prol. 5 
one tone FW 4. 25 

blood good T 3. 33. 53. 82. 104 
blood stood FW 2, 12. 2, 13. 4, 9 
blood understood VP 1, 27. 3, 21 
bud good T ep. 
flood good T 126 
flood stood FW 1, 13. 1, 18. 2, 8. 3, 

11. 4.29. PP 9 
flood wood LH 25— T 84 
floods woods PP 12.— T 83 
shut put T 35 
thrush push T 89 

beloved movedT 51 
blood brood FW 1, 2, 8, 1. 4, 4. 
blood food FW 3, 14. 
come dome FW 1, 1. 
come tomb FW 2, 9.— T 83 
flood food VP 2, 5, 

love move FW 4, 7. LH 5.— T 17. 
25. 39. 100 



love prove T prol. 26. 47. 83. 

loYed proved PP 16. VP 1, 20.— T 103. 

129. ep. 
loved removed LA 3, lO.—T prol. 13. 
loved unmoved FW 1, 3. 2, 12. LA 1, 

16. VP 2, 27 
loves moves T ep. 
lome dome ==;'t^7n^/ VP 1, 16 

(oi, i)=(oi, ooi) 

corse horse T 6 

words chords LA 2, 36. 2, 67. LH 33. 

VP 2, 17.-T 47 
word lord LA proL 2. 

(91, l) — {ooi, ooi) 

retum'd moum'd FW 2, 13 
urn mourn T 9 

[some persons say (muuin] 
word adored VP 1, 29 
word sword FW. 1, 13. 2, 3 
words swords VP 1, 2. 1/8 


bear fear T prol. 
bears years T 61 
wears tears », LA 1, 16 

(^)=(aa), see (aa)=(w) 

{ee)={e), see (e)=(#tf) 

to day quay T 14 


Christ mist T 28 

Christ evangelist T 31 

behind wind *. VP 1, 8 

blind wind *. VP 3, 6 

find wind «. T 8 

kind wind s. VP 3, 2.— T 106 

mankind wind 8, T 28 

[many readers always read (wdind) 
in poetry instcodf of wtnd ; Gill 
has generally (waind) even in 


I joy T ep. [the pronunciation (di 
dzhai) would De out of the question] 

(9u)= (oo, oou) 

brow below LH 6 
brow know T 89 
down grown VP 2, 10 
down own LA 2, 39. PP 24 
now low T 4 
powers doors T 36 

ahower pour LH 2. [the pronimciation 
(pauj; is now vul^.] 

(»)-(e), w(e)-(*) 
(*)=(9i), aw(ai)-(f) 

did seed T ep. 

(ii)=(e), see (e)-(ii) 
(ii)=(ee), see (ee)=(ii) 
(ii)=(w), see (M)«=(ii) 


anew through LA 3, 10 

anew two VP 3, 27 

dew through VP 2, 4 

ensue through T 116 

few true FW 1, 17 

hue drew LA 1, 20 

hue knew through LA 1, 16 

hue threw LH 26 

hue too VP 1, 36 

hue true FW 3, 10 

hue who VP 3, 3 

[if hue is pronounced (jhmi) and not 
(niu) the six last oaaea may be 
esteemed rhymes.] 
knew too FW 1, 13 
new too T 13 
perftime bloom LA proL 2 
perfdme eloom T 93 
lure sure VP 1, 29 
lute shoot VP 1, 29. [some lay (hrai, 

mute flute VP 3, 2. [some say (flintVl 
view true VP 1, 28. [some lay (tria).J 
use chose T 34 
yew through T 74 

(o)=(aa), see (aa)—(o) 

(o)«=(9), «w(a)=(o) 

font wont T 29. [some say (wont) and 

others (want).] 
Ck)drodeFW3, 6. 4. 16 
gone alone LA 1, 20. 2, 71. LA proL 

6. VP2, 10— T 103 
gone shone FW 2, 9. PP 18. VP 1, 

29. LA 1, 3. [some say (shan).] 
loss gross T 40 
lost boast T 1 
lost ghost T 91 

lost most LA 3, 7. 3, 9— T. 27. 83 
tost host VP 3, 6 
on shone LA 1, 2. 2, 20. VP 1, 7. 

[some say (shon).] 
wan shone FW 4, 16 

(oi)=(9i), see (9i)«(oi) 

(oj)=(9i, i), see (ar, i)— (ax) 

(or, ooj)— (ooi, ooi) 
lord adored FW 4, 12 

Our. Vm. { 6. HOOBK AND TEMimON's BHTMES. 


itomi fonn T 16, ^some fay ffoann) 
ahraji, othen dutmgiush (foaim) 
ahi^e, (ibann) seat.] 

(oo)=»(9), $ee (9)«(<w) 

(oo— (9u), see (9ti)=(oo) 

. (oo)-(i*) 
mode good T 46 


door moor T28. [some fay (mooi).] 

hope groap FW 4, 16 

more moor T 40. [probably a rhyms 

ruMs p. 246, as : here hear T 35.] 
more poor T 77 

(ooj)—(ei, i), eee (ei, i)=(o<u) 
(oai)=(9i), see (oi)=(oai) 

(90ii)»(9i, i), see (91, i)«=(ooj) 
{oaa) » (9Ti), see (9u) »* (oou) 
(•i)=«(9), see (9)=(tt) 

foot brate Tprol. 
good food VP 2, 33 
woods moods T 27. 36. 87 

(iiu)»(9), see (9)=«(uu) 
(Tiii)=»(m), see (iu)=(uu) 
(iiii)=(oo), see ((w)=*(uu) 

(uu)=«(w), see (tt)=(uu) 

breathe wreath s, YP 2, 7 


breathes sheaths FW 1, 2 
breathes wreathes LH 2 

(i)=(m, ooi), see (oi, ooi)=(i) 
(j)=(ooi, ooi), see (poif ooi)=(j) 


bliss his YP 1, 2 

else tells T 76 

face gaze T 32 

grace vase YP 2, 6 [adopting the pro- 
nunciation (vaas, TjLAz) or (tms), 
this is faulty ; only the unusual (vms) 
sayes therhyme.J 

house ». boughs T 29 

(tli)=(dh), see (dh)-(tli) 
(z)-(8), see (8)=(z) 

house «. bows T 35 

house «. yows T 20 

ice flies T 105 

paradise eyes LA 2, 11. YP 1, 3.— T 

24. ep. 
peace disease T 104 
peace these T 88 
race phase T ep. 
this u PP 10.— T 20. 34. 83. 

II. An Unaeeented Rhjfming with an Accented SyUabU. 

(uz, J) unaeeented^{ei^ j) accented 
ialander myrrh YP 3, 4 

(ei, I unaee,^(Tii) ace, 
onxyerse fierce YP 1, 26 

(bI, 8b1) unaee,=^{kkl) ace, 
tetiyal all YP 3, 19 

(vn, flen) «fMi«r.«(aan, ahn) ace, 

dztunstance chance T 62. [some say 
fax'kmnstams*) with a distinct secon- 
dary accent on the last syllable.] 

eomtenanee chance T 112 

deliyerance trance YP 3, 18 

inhabitants plants LH 10 

utterance trance LH 33 

▼intant haunt YP 1, 12 

(mn, 9m) unace,^{oam) ace, 
masterdom home T 100 

(Bn, 9n) unacc^^QVi) ace, 

Lebanon sun FW 2, 11. PP 22 
orison one YP 1, 22 

(i) unaee,^{o\) aee, 
agony I, LA 2, 42 
energies cries T 111 
harmony die LA 2, 42 
insufficiencies eyes T 110 
miseries eyes F W 4, 7 
mysteries replies T 37 
OMCurity lie LA 2, 60 
prophecies rise T 90 
sympathy die T 30 
sympathy I T 61 
tastefully hie YP 2, 2 

(i) unaee,^{ii) aee, 

agonies sees FW 1, 13 
armory see YP 3, 1 
canopies breeze YP, 3, 2 
constancy be T 21 
desperately sea FW 1, 17 
destinies please LA 3, 15 
energies ease YP 2, 7 
eternities seas YP 2, 7 
exquisite sweet FW 3, 13 
harmonies breeze YP 2, 10. LH 17 
history be T 101 


immenaity aec LA 1, 20 partiiUy tliec VP 1, 21 

immortidity thoe VP 2, 9 philosophy be T 62 

impadcntl; mc LH 10 poesy Itiee T S 

iiuUiitly Bcn LH 19 purity bee LA 3, IS 

mockenea breeze TF 1, 9 parity be LA I, 7. I, 16 

mjntcrj thee T 95 colenmly she LA 2, 44 

mjitoiy sea LA 2. 3S vitchiuy fne LH 24 

myilenea these LA, 2, 41 yioliliiiglj throe LA prol. * 

Some of thuae rhymes, as may be seen, ore justifiiiblc b; diyer-^ 
sities of pronunciation. Othera are really rhymes of long and short 
vowels. But others cannot be mado into rhymes with the help of 
any known received pronunciations. Thus: — 1) bar war, guard 
lonl, clamber chamber, acihcr chamber, have grave, heaven given 
[very common], heaven even [also common], death beneath, death 
ahcath, &c. [common], earth forth, one gone, rough off, above grave, 
oomo homo [very common], love grove &c., one alone &c., blood, 
good &c,, flood stood &c., tnrush push, blood food, come tomb, lov« 
move &o., curse horse, word lord [so that as we have : guard lord, 
we might have : word guard !] word sword, Christ mist, I joy, hnw 
below, down grown &c,, now low, loss gross, lost boast Ac, mode 
good, hope group ; — 2} breathe wreath, breathes sheaths, bliss his, 
ebo tells, house a. boughs &c., ice flies &c. — are about as had rhymes 
as can be, the first division being purely consonantal rhymes, and the 
second mere assonances. The rhymes of an unaccented and accented 
syllable are all bad, hut the double use of unaccented final -y, -»m, 
to rhyme either with (-ii, -ilz) or (-ai, -aiz) at the convenience of the 
poet is really distressing ; compare: agony I, agonies sees; energies 
erics, energies ease; harmony die, harmonies hreoze; mysteries re- 
plies, mysteries these &c. It is at once evident that any attempt to 
derive the pronunciation of the xocth century from an examination 
of modem rhymes must utterly fail. 

Now the extended examination of Spenser's rhymes above named, 
leads to a similar result. It would not only he impossible from 
them to determine his pronunciation, but his usages cross the 
known niles of the time, even if we include Hart's varieties, so 
multifariously, that the poet was evidently hampered with tho 
multiplicity of rhyming words which his stanza nccessitatc-d,' and 
became careless, or satisfied vrith rough approximations. 

The language in which he wrote was artificial in itself. It was 
not the language of the ivi th century, but apod, without reflecting, 
that of the xvth. Tho contrast between the genuine old tongue of 
Chaucer, or modem tongue of Shokspere, and the trumped up tongue 
of Spenser, which could never hove been spoken at any time, is 
painful. Coming to the examination of Spenser's rhymes fresh fiom 
those of Chaucer, tho eficct on my ears was simitar to that pro- 
duced by reading one of Sheridan Enowles's mock Elizabethan Eng- 
lish dramas, aft«r studying Shaksperc. It is sad that so great a poet 
should have put on such motley. 

e i c t, aecetntating S, 3, uid 1 

Cbap. Till, i 6. EDMUND Spenser's rhymes. 


Sometimes, either the author or the printer, — ^it is impossible to 
say which, but in all subsequent citations I follow Mr. ATorris,'"^— 
seems to think he can make a rhyme by adopting an unusual spell- 
ing. At other times unusual forms of words, long obsolete or else 
provincial, are adopted, and different forms of the some word chosen 
to meet the exigencies of the rhyme. 

Unusual Spellings and Forms for appearance of Rhymes, 

infofld ohiisd=rAM^ used 2, 2, 5 

fire yre Btire=«^ir 2, 5, 2. 

draws mwes vfdi-weB— waves 2, 12, 4. 
[see balesbury, suprk p. 785.] 

strond bond fond sUmd.= strand hand 
found ttrandf 2, 6, 19. lond foiid = 
Imndfoutid 3, 2, 8. hand understand 
fond=/own<f 3, 1, 60. [here the two 
first words have been left unchanged.] 

mboord affoord foord =a^oar<^ afford 
ford 2, 0, 19. 

entertayne ^emAjae^ demean 2, 9, 40 

paramo'ure succoure floure =Jloor poure 
2, 10, 19. 

fayre hayre=A^tr shayre =«Aar« 2, 10, 

weet =trt^ r. feet 2, 10, 71. [weet is con- 
stantly used.] 

gate hate a.waUi = await 2, 11, S. 

assault exault withhault = withheld 
fault 2, II, 9. fault hault assault 6, 

2, 23. 
tooke8trooke=«/n/<:A:2, 12, 38. strooke 

looke 2, 12, 38. broken strokcn 

WToken, 6, 2, 7. tooke strooke 

awooke looke 6, 7, 48. 
Tels=sm7 unhele conccle 2, 12, 64. 

▼ele appele revele 3, 3, 19. velc con- 

cele 4, 10, 41. Florimele rele 5, 3, 

paynt faynt taynt fkLynt^ dainty 3, 

intr. 2. 
way conyny = convey a^say way 3, 1, 2. 
surcease encrease preassc =/>r^M peace 

3, I, 23. "preocQ^presa surcease 
peace 4, 9, 32. 

fayre debonayre compayrc= compare, 
repayre 3, 1, 20. fayre prepayre = 
prepare 3, 4, 14. chayrc —ehere, dear, 
ayre, &yre 3, 5, 51. 

sex wex = wax v. vex flex =Jlax 3, 1, 47. 

beare appeare thcare 3, 2, 11. 

accomptishid=-e«^hid 3, 3, 48. 

» The Globe edition Complete Works 
of Edmund Spenser, edited from the 
original editions and manuscripts by 
B. Morris, with a memoir by J. W. 
Hales, London, 1869. In this edition 
the ftttnzas of tiie Faerie Queen are 

c\im= climb swim him 3, 4, 42. 

alive deprive atchive=flrAt>r<? 3, 6, 26. 

strowne sowne overflowne=or<r/foM7«rf 

3, 9, 35. 

townc crowne downc compassiowne 3, 

bloud stoud remoud =^/oo^ stood re^ 

moved 3, 9, 43. 
furst nur8t=^ra^ nursed 3, 11, 1. 
rowme renowmc = room reuotoi 3, 1 1> 47- 
food feood =/(nM/ blood brood 4, 1, 26. 
craft draft = draught beraft = bereft 

engraft 4, 2, 10. 
burds=^trrf» words lords 4, 2, 35. 
appcard reard affeard Bvcard = sword 

4, 3, 31. 33. 

Bpeajc)i = speech empcach reach 4, 10, 36. 
yeares peare8=^£wa 4, 10, 49. 
powre recoure= r^cM'fr bouro stoure 4, 
10, 58. lowre conjure rccure = r^-cor^ 

5, 10, 26. 

Watcrford boord=^offr^ 4, 11, 43. 
clicife grieffe=r/i/^riV/'4, 12, 5. 
grieve misbelieve shricve mievo=f»u>rtf 

4, 12, 26. 

layd sayd mayd denayd=rf^wiV'rf 4, 12, 

course sourse wour8e=M«rrf worse, 5, 

intr. 1. 
hard outward BYiSiTd= shea red 5, 1, 10. 
achieved believed prievcd =y;/'o»rf o, 4, 

33. grieved relieved reprieved, 5, 

6, 24. 

enter, bent her, advcnter = Wc<*«/Mrtf, 

center 5, 5, 6. 
knew rew =row vew dow 5, 5, 22. 
threw alcw^haiho few 5, C, IS. 
hight keight=r<7M^^^ dight plight 3, 

2, 30. fight dight keight 5, C, 29. 
wond fond komd — woned found conned 

5, 6, 35. 

bridge ridge, lidge = /f</^c 5, 6. 36. 
%mot =sinote forgot not spot 5, 7, 29. 

numbered, and hence my references to 
book, canto, and stanza can be easily 
verified. It has not been considered 
necessary to extend this examination 
beyond the Faerie Qutene, 


■tiooke nDOok« = >(ri(i^ imtlu logb 

ahooke G, It, 22. 
Aao\«^dolt Echoole fooU S, 11, 3S. 
aakL-w buir uew— on ar0wbU«=MiH 


3, S. 3. 
tbrwvl tn)mi=(i'Mrf t. 6, 10, E. 
flud=y(o«J mud 6, 10, 7. 
breat diMt cbiwt k(sl=ir«ajf irt— 

lAiit nail 6, 12, IS. 
l^eD =^in V. men nben 6, 12, 37. 

hntt=iiiril fiut past 5, S, 8. just liut 

thniat 'braet=iur'l 5, 8, 22. 
itrooke ehooke <]aaoVe=i/val!ed 5,B,9. 

b«toake sliooke quooku 6, 7> 24. 
hod bod iprad 5, 9. 2G. 
price dvtiM flourdelico 6, 9, 27, 
Eirane [in two Bjllsblei] clooe »treBe = 

((rain, race 5, 9, 22. 
treat exlreat=tttTael ^at seat 6. 10, 1 . 
hippiOBsae decesse = ifafttMf inetched- 

QcsteS, 10, II. 
left theft reft gieft=j.y) 6, 10, U. 
rtreighl bright qiiight despight =9hi'(« 

dapilt 6, 11, 5. quight fight dei- 

pigbt light 0, 11, 2S. 

Occafiionnlly, but not very often, Spensor mijulges in umnistakBble 
asBonances, or mere consouuntiLl rbymee, or anomalies, irhich it ■■ 
veiy difficult to classify &t all, aa in the following list. I 

Atiomalus, Ei/e Rhymei, Auonancst. H 

nonst front 1, 10, C3. 
tyieihjTB oonspyre yre 1, 11, 14 [here 

ihgri was a mere rhjme to the eje.] 
awBj decn; da; Spaa 1, II, 30. 
bath«ratbhBt'th^JnffMhath2,2, 4. 
bongh enough 2, 6, 26 [vhrre tnovgh 

ii nuantitatiTe and not namorativu.] 
mouth drouth iautb=«i«U i, 7, G8. 

towre ^Jure sure 2, 9, 21. 

aanU) rhjms,] 
deckt mti'^dtchei it % 12, 48. fan 



fthi! vtry oeit stanm, whereas the 

fonner epelling u rererted to in 3, 

nestoTerkcat^iirrrivuf, oppreitS, 6, 10, 
more atorr jrure horrors = horror 3. 6. 36. 
■Lard atrayd Ba)*d dcnnjrd = denied 3, 

7, fi7. day twoj dena j = rfwry diamay 

gotten aoften often 4, inti. E. [an 

health weulth deal'th'^iAaWA iteallh 
4, 1, 6. [thia may onlr bo ■ long and 
■hort vowel rhTming.J 

naligne benigne indignc bring 4, I, 30. 
[even if -i^e ia prtmounced (-ign), 
u oceanonally in Gill Ihia will only 

foUie joUie dallie 4, t, 3S. 

erill dretill derill 4. 2, S. [even when 


-e usually apidled, na drivp 

I only formrJ comonnntal ruyniei 
the flnt, and the ipeUiog wenu 

to hare been changed to mak* IKil 
eye -rhyme,] 
ybom mame mome weme^uvrm 4, 

2, 41. [aeo aboVH p. 8S8, note.] 
mid hid tbrid sCArnuf nndid 4, S, 49 
emperieht cheridit Euariaht llorilhl 4, 

3, 29 [consonantnl rhympa,] 
diacover mother other brother 4, 3, 40 

aimed ordained 4, 4, 24 fanonanoe] 
TBtitrod = tNw(i(i«i entrrd = fiitrr«< 4, 

7, 3 1 [this would ha*« been a rhjma 

in the im th tentury.] 
dum =i dumb ovcicum mum brcnin = 

buomt 4, 7, 44, fbere tho ■] 

rhyme being, probably, good.] 
fonre poramoure 4, " " - - 

and eye rhyme] 
«ooDt = >cfln( bnnt fi, 4, 29, [chan 

"pelling probably used to i-^ 

correot pronunciation, 

wount hunt S, 11, 9. 
naare few 6, 4, 37 [Ibis ma; b« « 

aidendaa an asionano^ (ne— *- 

wbiob lakea off much of Ifa 

neta apparent in tha i 

grovell levell 6. 4, 40 
wane marre darre tun = le 

dart far S, 4, 44, [the ipelliiiga 

parently allured to aecannnadd 

dan, which had a long vowd, ■ 

others batJDg short vowels ] 
thondred soudred encombrcd nombltd 

L>, 5, 19, encomber thoader BNuds 

6, 5, 19, [aaaonaiice] 
andeTODT laWr faTOor behavioni 6, 6^ 



85 [part asBonance, part consonantal 
■Itend hemd = hemmed kemd = kempt 
eewtbed jwrtend 5, 7) 4, [assonance, 
it 18 enrious that kemd was nnne- 
MMarily forced in spelling.] 
diieorer loyer endeyer ever 5, 7, 22 
[eonsonantal rhyme]. 

•tronger longer wronger = icrong doer, 
6, 8, 7. [bid Spenser say (stroq'er 
rvoq-er^, or (stroq'er, rtro^'ger), 
or did ne content nimself with an 
asKmanceP I lately heard (stq'gj) 
from a person of education.] 

dtiynes betymes crymes clymes = deeigni 
hetimee Crimea elimbe 5, 9, 42. [as- 

tempted consented inyented 5, 11, 50. 

WMht wawAA^waehed aeratched 6, 12, 
30. [assonance.] 

roade glade =did ride, glade 6, 2, 16. 
[consonantal rhyme.] 

most ghost host eafont ^enforced, 6, 
8, 39. [not only are the consonants 
different in the last word, but the 
yowel is probably short and not long 
as in the others.] 

qneason reason season seisin 6, 4, 37. 
[With the last rhyme compare Sales- 
billy's eeetyn (seez'in) for bbason, 
p. 783.] 

mancr dishonor 6, 6, 25. 

hideous monstmous hous battailous 6, 
7, 41. [consonantal or eye rhyme, 
unless Spenser called hous (hus).] 

live V. give driye thrive 6, 8, 35. [con- 
sonantal or eye rhyme], forgiye driye 
live V. grieve 6, 9, 22. 

alone home 6, 9, 16. [assonance.] 

wood stood bud aloud flud =Jlood 6, 10, 
6. [Did Spenser, like Bidlokar, say 

(aluud-)f] , 
tume moume leame 6, 10, 18. [con- 
sonantal rhyme] 

The above examples, which it does not require any historical 
knowledge to appreciate, are amply sufficient to prove that Spenser 
allowed himself great latitude in rhyming, so that if we find him 
continually transgressing the rules of contemporary orthocpists, we 
cannot assume that he necessarily pronounced differently from aJl of 
them, or that he agreed with one set rather than another. When 
however we come to examine other words which he has rhymed 
together, where his rhymes, if they could be relied on would be 
valuable orthoepical documents, we find not only apparent anticipa- 
tions of usages which were not fixed for at least a century later, 
bat such a confusion of usages that wc cannot be sure that he was 
even aware of these later pronunciations. Hence his rhymes not 
only do not shew his own custom, but they do not justify us in 
npposing that the more modem practice had even cropped up in 
stray cases. The principal conclusion then to be drawn &om such 
an examination is that we have left the time of perfect rhymes, ex- 
emplified in Chaucer and GK)wer, far behind us, and that beginning 
at least with the xvith century we cannot trust rhymes to give us 
information on pronunciation. The previous examination of the 
rhymes of Moore and Tennyson shew that the same latitude yet 
remains. The esthetic question as to the advantage of introducmg 
lach deviations from custom does not here enter into consideration. 
But it would seem sufficiently evident that they arose at first from 
the difficulty of rhyming,^ and there is no doubt that they remain in 
the majority of cases for the same reason. Their infrequency, and 
the mode in which they are generally disguised by othography, or 
apparently justified from old usage, would seem to imply that the 
poet did not in general consciously adopt them, as musicians have 
adopted and developed the use of discords, in order to produce a 

^ See what Chancer says, wiprk p. 254, note 2. 



determinate effect. Hudibnia is of coureo an eicpption, 
bnrleBque poems, where the effect intended is evident and always 
appreciated, but is not exactly such as ia soaght for in seriooa 
poems.' The following examples from Spenser may seem over 
abimdant, but the opinion is so prcTolcnt that old rhymes determine 
Bounds, and Spenser's authority might be so easily eit«dto upset the 
conclusions maintained in the preceding pages on some points of im- 
portance, that it became necessary to diow his iaeonsi'rtency, and 
the consequent valucloaaness of hia testimony, by estentdve citatione. 
The arrangomcjit as in the case of the modem poets is by the sounds 
made equivalent by the rhymes, but Dr. Gill's pronunciation, as de- 
termined by his general practice is substituted for my own. At the 
conclusion a few special tcnninations and words are considered, 
which I could not eonrenicntly classify under any of the preceding 

Anomalout and MisceHoTUoug Hhymet m Spenser. 


awakt WLt^ai.aixd lurkid 2, 8, SI. 

blacke lake make partake 5, 11, 32. 

' Thoso who w[sh to s«e the ladicrons 
tnd CMUcduenllj undpainibio effect 
whicli u often producHl bj nteh Wae 
rhymea, Bbouid contsult a very amiuing 
bnok oilled : RhTmca of tho PiMta b; 
Felix Ago. (Prof, 8, 8. H^Jdnmao), 
Phikdelphin, 18RH. Sto. pp. 56. 
Tfaeee rhymes are lelectod from 114 
writeia, chiefly of the xni th and 
XVIII lb eunturics, and were often cdr- 
raot according to prnnnneuitionE then 
current. The following extract is from 
tha pie&ce : "It it betitr ta spoil a 
rhfirtt l/uin a irvrd. In modem a 
mill English therefore, every 
whieh hus n dellnite eouud and Kccem 
in conrcrution. should retain it in 
Tone i grrat ihuold never he perverted 
into gritt to thu usr, tinned into eignal. 
griimtd into grind, or wind into icinrf " 
{wfnd, woind). "A few words have 

re rhyme with 

teaa ; ana again, which 

!. Dryden. and Th. Moore 
rhyme with plain and fhm, and Suck- 
lii^ with I'lui." " The learned Sir 
Wuliam Jones ia the puroat rhymer 
known to the author, qucstiaoiLble 
rhymea being so rare in hia yeiw as not 
to attract attention. His Arcadia of 
3S8 lines has bat /arlorn and Aorn; 

gard kocd ward prepaid i^j 

ho rite* tbe 

]»stiaat^hiuU 1,4,49. 

(fliead of m/adaic being tntd m 
Hutd)." In a foot note ' 
rhymes ; mead bead, 
Lrgdev, tread head Brrriek, mead 
reed Johaion. "Caieia of 334 linn, 
SoLlUA of 104, and Lausa of IfiO, 
are perf«:t. Thb Setss Fovktusb. 
of 5-12 lines, baa only ihone—ntn, and 
itooi — blood. Thb ENCBAxtSD PwiT, 
674 linos, bns tconnd^-grotuti twice. 
which some asfimilale. The feirinKs- 
tionable rhymes might have beta 
atoidodi and tbeaii poems va oif- 
fictently extended lo ahow what can be 
done in the wny of Ugitimute rhyme 
Venifleis cxcnae hod rhymes in wrenl 
waya. ai Dr. GBrth[A.o, 167a-171»]— 
III lina. but like {11 palntiiim. m allow^ 
To nt off (Dd 10 rRnniiscod xbe toeA : 
but it ia doubtliil whether the Doetor 
wonld tboB have aasocialed allme'd aad 

tixid, if bo conld have readily pn>cond 
»s dissonant eqniralenta. ContiBri- 
wise, some authon make efGcient uai 
of what to them are allawablo rhvmca. 
and much of the spirit of Hndibnw 
would be loat without them. 
Cnrdin t»lW 



Chap. VIII. f 5. EDMUND SFENSEB's rhymes. 



pn most of the following as in lome 
of the preceding one of the words has 
now («r).] 

ime=am came shame 1, 5, 26. 
propor'd hard far'd 2, 11, 3. reward 

bard prepar*d 3, 5, 14. [compare 3, 

a, 14. 4, 2, 27. 5, 4, 22.] 
hMMt chaste fast 1, 6, 40. haste past 

fast hast r. 1, 9, 39. tost = taste cast 

2, 12, 57. [compare 3, 2, 17. 3, 7, 38. 

6, 10, 35. 6, 12, 16.] 
gwfe have crave brave I, I, 3. wave 

save have 2, 6, 5. brave have sclave 

2, 7, 33. [compare 2, 8, 24. 2, 10, 6.] 

•9 initial does not affect the 
subsequent a ? 

wan 1, 8, 42. man wan a, began 
overran 2, 2, 17. ran wan v, wan a, 
can 2, 6, 41. began wan a. 3, 3, 16. 
starre firre= are warre 1, 2, 36. 
^"ard saufgard far'd 2, 5, 8. reward 
far'd shard 2, 6, 38. 2, 7, 47. 
hard regard reward 3, 1, 27. 3, 5, 
14. 4, 2, 27. word unbard = un- 
barred fifir'd 4, 9, 5. 
^^warfc Bcarfc 5, 2, 3. 
^as gras has 1, 1, 20, was pas 1, 1, 30. 

1, 8, 19. was grass pas alas ! 1, 9, 36. 

2, 1, 41. 2, 6, 37. was masse 2, 9, 
45. has was mas 2, 12, 34. 3, 4, 23. 
5, 7, 17. was chace 6, 3, 50. 

a/=(al, aal, aaI)? 
&11 fimerall 1, 2, 20. fall martiall call 

1, 2, 36. shall call fall 3, I, 54. vale 
dale hospitale &\elc=ho8pital avail 

2, 9, 10. 

[The following rhymes in one stanza 
shew that ea could not have had the 
same sound as long a : spcake awake 
wetke shake sake be stroke knee bee = 
6e, 1, 5, 12, but the spelling and 
rhyme would lead to the conclusion 
that ea and long a were identical in :] 

weake quake bespake 3, 2, 42. 

dare spear 3, 10, 28, fare share com- 
pare appeare 5, 2, 48. fare whyleare 
prepare bare 6, 5, 8. 

regara rear'd 3, 8, 19. 

grace embrace cace^eate encreaso 2, 
7, 16. 

late gate rctrate = retreat 1, 1, 13. 
estate late gate retrate 1, 8, 12. 4, 
10, 57. 5, 4, 45, 5, 7, 35. intreat 
late 4, 2, 51. treat late ingrate hate 
6y 7, 2. entreat obstinate 6, 7, 40 

nature creature feature stature 4, 2, 44. 

receave =reecive gave have 2, 10, 69. 

endevour, save her, favour, gave her 5, 
4, 12. have save gave leave 5, 11, 
46, leave have 6, 1, 9. save reave 
forgave gave 6, 7> 12. 


[The word proclaim has a double 
form with or without t, as we have 
seen supra p. 253, and similarly for 
claim ; the latter word has both rorms 
in French, hence such rhymes as the 
following are intelligible.] 
proclame overcame dame same 1, 12, 20, 

frame same nnme proclame 2, 5, 1. 

came game fame proclame 5, 3, 7. 
clame shame 4, 4, 9. came name clame 

same 4, 10, 11. came clame tame 

4, 11, 12. 

[The following rhymes, however, 
seem to lead to the pronunciation of a» 
as long a, and if we took those in the 
conjunction with the preciding, where 
ea IS e^ual long a, we Hhould have ai = 
fa as m Hart, and both = long a, con- 
trary to the express declarations of 
contemporary orthoepists, and to the 
rhymes of long a with short a already 

fiven. As Spenser's contemporary, 
ir Philip Sidnciy apparently read at 
as (ee) in Hart's fashion, m-o below p. 
872, Spenser may have adopted this 
pronunciation also, and then his rhymes 
of at, a, were faulty. But it b im- 
possible to draw any conclusion from 
Spenser's own usage.] 
Hania day 2, 10, 24. sway Menevia 3, 
3, 55. pray day JEmylia 4, 7, 18. 
say Adicia 5, 8, 20. 
staide=«^ay<^</ made shade displaide 1, 
1, 14. 5, 4, 38. made trade waide 
^weighed I, 4, 27. made dismaide 
blade 1, 7, 47. 6, 10, 28. lavd saydo 
made 1, 8, 32. said made laid 2, 7* 
32. displayd bcwrayd made 2, 12, 
66. mayd hXnui^^blade dismayd 3, 
1, 63. playd made shade 3, 4, 29. 3, 
10, 10. decayd disswade 4, 9 34. 
taile entraile mayle bale 1, 1, 16. 
whales scales tayles 2, 12, 23. faile 
prevaUe bale 3, 7, 21. assayle flaylo 
avayledale 5, 11, 59. 
slaine paine bane 2, 11, 29. retaine 

Glonane 5, 8, 3. 
aire rare spare 1, 2, 32. fayro dispapo 
shayre =«Aar« 1, 3, 2. chaire fare 
sware bare 1, 3, 16. faire bare 1, 4, 
25. ware —aicare faire 1, 7, 1. declare 
fayre 1, 7, 26. fare whylebaredispayre 
rare 1, 9, 28 [see p. 858, note.] &yre 


bayre tiajTS=ihare 2, 10, 33. S, 3, 
17. lapBirs cars misfare shais 4, B, 
S. HUB aire Mrs 4. S, S. hair<) = Adi> 
[certamlT (tHjer)] bnre are [ccrtainlj 
\ui)] faire 4, 11, 48. flitre ultd 6, 9, 
40. fairs denuiro empure nu^bn, 
fi, 11, 48. 

faire oompare, 1, 2, 37 [we : compara 
•ppearo under (ee) = (»a).] pujra 
prepare 1, 3, 34, fayrc prepairo stayrs 
declare 1, 4, 13. f^jre aarre ^ iair 
(ecrlainlf (seer) eren in CliaQcer,] 
ayie prepayre 1, 6, 2. rare fairs com- 
paiia 1, 6, 15 faire repairs v. ruion 
rare 1, S, £0. 3. 2. 22. fsyre di<- 
payre ayre prepayre 2, 8, 7 com- 
payre fayre 2, 6, ^9, fairs debonaire 
prepaire airs 2, S. 28, ayre prqiayre 
2, 11, S6. 3, 4, 14. fair tbrccaqunis 
■pare pKpare 3, 1, 4. farro delnn- 
ayre sompayrs repnyrs 3, 1, 2S. 3, 6, 
B. faint somparc ehare 4, 3, 39. rare 
fars prcpora fsire 4, 10, 6. repayre 
fayre prepayre ayre 4, 10, 47. 

grats v. bayte 2, 7, 34. itato late debate 
baite, 4, intr. I. late gate awaits 
prate 4, 10, 14. gate wiute S, 5, 4. 

dai«d T^lA = diiud rained, 1, I, IS. 
aouue gaxe praize 6, 1 1, 13. 


itrei^htmight flght fi, 10, SI. itreight 
bright qnJzhl despigbt 5, 11, 6. 
atreight right fight 6, 1 2, 8 ; [if wo 
adopt the theory that Speneer'a <i 
was generally (oc), theae eiamplea 
(hew s rstvtitioa of the old sound a> 
in the modem height, ilriffhl, al< 
thoogh (hoct. (Isot) may mi oeca- 
Bian^y beard.] 

aught = ought 
ranght ought lrnaghtBaugbt = <>nu;Af 2, 
8, 40. raaghtwruught taught wrought 
2, S, 19. 

Isieb =phytician teach l,S,44. speach = 

ffHteh teach S, 4, 37. 
proceedc = (pro«ced-) breeds 1, 6, 32. 

doth Isadi oread, brsd. ■ead^'iMiJ I, 

10, fil. did lead, oread tread 2, 1, 7. 

ntA^rtad weed atesd aerscd 4, 4, 

IB. tread prooead areau dread 1, 

8, 13. 
wreaks weette. seeks 6, 7, 13. 
congwUsd hsBld = A^W ooneeai'd 1, 6, 

39. beheld yecld 4, 3, 14. beheld 

wcld = uiifW4, 3, 21. 
beams t«me = ((8ni 1, 4, 36. csteeme 
e S, 8, 26. 


destasd i> 

3, 38. dsemc citreme 4, B, 1. 

teene heene slcaaekeeDe — (ee, ii, se,ii) 

1, 7, 33, beeae secne dene wecne 1, 

10, f>8. queene onsesno clsens 2, 1, 1. 
moans leen atwsene beao=ia« 3, 1, 
G8. kceno usne dsane 3, 8, 37. S, 
13, 2D. fi, 0,49, grecne dene boMeiM 
beelle = (ii, oc, Ii. ii) 6, 6. 38. 

feend =fitnd otteiid defend ipend 3. 
7, 32, freond =Jritnd n 
amend 4, 4, 45, defend liie: 
iniinf send 5, 11, 20. 

keepu shespe deopo chepe=cA<a{> 6, 

hears F. [ = (Hiir)ses{7]iieaTe inqum 
weare 1, 1, 31. tears v, feare neara 
1, S, 31. fears therereqoere 1, 3, 13. 
heaie tearet. =(Ciir) feare inqoere 1, 
3, 16. heare = Aai> beare appcan 
dearo 1, 4, 34. deare appsire wan 
hears p. 1, 8, 14. fare whylcare dia- 
payre rare, 1, 9, 38. [see nnd«T (ai] 
= (aa),] wcTD appeore feore Mara 1, 

11, 13. years forbeare noare weoKz 
vim 2, 1, S3. Tearo deare appswt 
3, 3, 40. yearea poarea^jwin tsatw 

1. 3, 10, 63, were drears teai« r, 
beare v. 2, tl, 8. deare, i 

2. II. " 

fere = companion I 
clears cheare— cAnr despcyre 6, fi. 

« pon! = 

!, 13, 6. 

(fear, derc = c^r 6, 7, 39. 

slocr bears tenro v. neareO, IS, 12. 
were horo 1, 8, 49, tbers neoro fsuq^ ~ 

9, 34. there hsare appean i, " ' 

tours V. then heara S, 8, 41. 
weary cherry merry 6, 10, 33. 
perse force reherce = pitret Jtirtti 

huTK I, 4, fiO. errt pearMcj ' 

6, 1, 4S. 
peace preace =pr«i rslease o< 



boait broat:^irRUf luppmt 1, 3, IB. 
1, 8, IS. brauta bcU«t« 1, 4, IS. 
feaat heart detea«t = rfrt«( 1, 4 "" 
1, 11, 49. beast. crensl^avM 
addrest 1, 8. C, ooM oreaat 1, I 
beasts ereats gaesti 3, 13, 39. 
increait gect 3, 2. 24. 

heat Bwoet eat threat = (so, ii, ss 
1, 3, 33. heals iweat sat 1, 4, 
great heat threat beat 1, S. 7. 
great eicbsat 1, fi, 25. 3, i 30. 3, II, 
32. gr«at MM inf-^- ' -" — *- 




ree)=(ta)] diicKte 1, 7, 40. heat 
BRget sweat 2, 6, 80. threat entreat 
Sy 4, 16. greater better 4, 1, 7. en- 
treat threat retreat 4, 7, 37. 

death breath mieath 1, 9, 38. 2, 1, 27. 
together ether «= #t^A^ theikher = 
thither 6, 12, 10. 

eonedT'd pereeiT'd berer'd grieVd 3, 

Ml bereft gift lift 6, 8, 1. 

S* 't merit 4, 2, 34. 
eat breat wnBtssaddr$»ted brtatt 
wrist 2, 3, 1. 
■tt bitt forgett fltt 1, 3, 14. 

dieffis gneSerzelifarufi, 12, 6. 
fiddbmld kild JkM=kill€d»kiil€d2, 

10, 73. wield shield field skUd 4, 4, 


(t) imaccented»(ii) accented. 

tagedie d^pree hee 2, 4, 27. aee jeo- 
pudeethee 3, 4, 10. 

diTersly free he 1, 2, 11. 

ixesee memoree 2, 9, 49. 

bee thee perplexitie 1, 1, 19, knee see 
niaie8tce=mi|^'«ff^y 1, 4, 13. batterce 
bee chastitee see 1, 6, 5. see libertee 
j<dlitee free I, 9, 12. courtesee 
modestee degree nicetee 1, 10, 7. bee 
modestee see 2, 9, 18. 

lUfe reriTe give riye 2, 6, 45. liVd 
depriy'd snrriT'd deriVd 2, 9, 57. 

(f) imaccented«(ai) accented. 

prerogatiTe repriye =r«prMV0 alire 4, 

tvyie lyes p. melodies 2, 12, 17. jeo- 
pardy ly spy descry 2, 12, 18. jeopardy 
ery enimy 3, 1, 22. supply jeopardy 
aby lie 3, 7, 3. able remodie 3, 10, 3. 

fly fimtasy priyily sly 1, 1, 46. greedily 
ny 1, 3, o. divcrsly jollity hye=AiJA 
daintily 1, 7, 32. enyy by continually 

1, 7t 43. thereby die eternally 1, 9, 
54. incessantly eye industry 2, 7, 61. 
suddenly hastily cry 2, 8, 3. fhriously 
aby by fly 2, 8, 83. by victory readily 
armory 3, 3, 59. cry forcibly dy 3, 
10, 13. fly eye fhriously diyerscly 3, 
10, 14. 

flyes applyes enimies lyes 1, 1, 88. flyo 
dye cnimy 2, 6, 39. enimy dy destiny 

2, 12, 36. 

harmony sky hj^hiffh dry 1, 1, 8. 
company fly yenery eye 1, 6, 22. bye 
If tyranny Dy and oye 1, 8, 2. ery fly 

espy agony 2, 12, 27. jealousy fly 
yiUany thereby 3, 1, 18. eye destiny 
8, 3, 24. lyes supplyes progenyes 3, 
6, 36. eye villany mmily spie 5, 6, 35. 

yictorie lye armory cnimie 1, 1, 27. 
eyes miseryes plyes idolatryea 1, 6, 
19. itherebjr memory dy 1, 11, 47. 
peijury fly injury 1, 12, 27. dmise 
miseries 2, 1, 36. eye skye chiyatiye 
bye 2, 3, 10. I enimy victory 2, 6, 
34. arise flies skies injuries 2, 9, 16. 

fealty agony dy 1, 3, 1. deilye flye 
nye=mffh 1, 3, 21. cry dishonesty 
miseij chastity 1, 3, 23. eye skye 
chastitye 1, 6, 4. eye bye majestye 
tye, 1, 7, 16. enimy tragedy ery 
libertie 1, 9, 10. mortali^ by fly 
victory 1, 10, 1. apply melancholy 
jollity 1, 12, 38. flye hye=AM per- 
plezitye 2, 4, 13. sKye cnvye pnnci- 
pality incessantly 2, 7, 8. thereby^ sty 
dignity 2, 7, 46. envy soverainty 
enmity fly 2, 10, 33. majestic victone 
faery dy 2, 10, 75. apply captivity 
infinnity tyranny 2, 11, 1. oye tran- 
quillity ooystrously 3, 10, 58. 

r^umerous poeticus proparoxytonis 
in [i] ssBpe vltimam productam acuit, 
vt, (mizoroi*, konstansai-, destinar) : 
vnde etiam in prosil fcr6 obtinuit, vt 
yltim& vel longd vcl breui a)qualiter 
scribatur, et pronunciotur, non acu- 
antur tamen. — Oill LogoHomiOf p. 130.] 


wilde defilde vilde jUdd^wUd d^/U$d 
viU yi$ld I, 6, 3. 

(oi) = (oi). 

ehyld spoild beguvld boyld 5, 5, 53. 
ezyled defyld aespoylcd boyled 5, 

beguild recoyld 1, 11, 25. 

wmle fbyle gnylo style 4, 2, 29. despoile 
ffmle foilo 6, 6, 34. 

awnile toyle turmoyle 2, 12, 32. spoile 
turmoile while toilo 6, 8, 23. 

stryde ryde annovd guide 4, 8, 37. re- 
plide annoyd acstroyd 6, 1, 7. side 
annoyde dcstroydc pryde 6, 5, 20. 

vile spoile erowbilo stile 2, 8, 12. pyle 
guyle spoile toyle 2, 11, 7. wyld des- 
povld toj^ld 3, 10, 39. awhile vile 
exile spoile 3, 11, 39. whUe toyle 
spovlo 4, 9, 12. 5, 2, 11. guile des- 
poile 5, 4, 31. awhile mile toile spoile 
6, 4, 25. 

spyde destroyd applyde 3, 8, 2. 

awhile soyle 3, 3, 33. toyle awhile 
ioyle 4, 3, 29. 4, 4, 48. 


•. Till. { S. 


row npose loss 3. 1, i6. diapossj 

looid 1, S, 6. looB'd Gnelos'd diacloB'd 

4, 6, 16, whom bccotno i, 7. 11. 

womb* eome roam home 4, 12, 4. 

racke brolie S, 12, 7. vroth luth 

E3th=jM(A 2. 12, 57. wroth loth 
[o'tii ^hloiftih 3, 7, 8. alone anonc 
bemone iwoae = tcaioan mvon B, 

e, 80, 

loid odor'd Bcor'd void 1, 1, 2. morae 
retoume maome 1,12,41, sword void 
ibhord 2, 1, II. sbord ford word 
lord 2, 6, 4. foure panunoure 2, 9, 
31. puramoara Buccoare floure pours 
=jkoT jwHT 2, 10, 19. atlone done 
' " 17. tetourae forlorne 6, 


iDong hi: 

fta.'g 1, int. 2. aloDg toug 
"~ ' ' 34. tong hung 

, prolong wrong dang long 2 
D, -ti, strong nlong aprong omon 
2, 12, ID. BproDg emong flong 3, 4 
41. hong strong 3, 1 1, 62. 

o«,Mff=(ou)?or =(uu)? 

dowBB iowne=wM'irf «wowne = »wc» 

toWDGl, 1,41. bawreboWTDBlowren 

ho\eer hour ilnur 1, 2, 7. 2, 3, 34. 

iowre powro aconro ronqueroure 1, 

2, 20. nowre lowro powre emperoor 

I, 2, 22. wound etound found 1, 7, 
26. wound eownd 1, B, U. found 
hound wound 2, 1, 12. bower bsviour 

3, 2, Ifi. towre endure sure 2, 9, 31. 
wondenius hideous thus piteous 2, 

II, SB. hous Tuloroi 

3, 4, 66. hous glorious 3, S, 12. thui 
bans 3, 11, 49. thus oatrsgeoua 4, 


none owno unknowuo 1, 4. 28. foe Sow 
show grow I, 6, 9. bo foe OTcrtbtae 
woe i, 4, 10. ovorthrowoB knownc 
owite DonoB, 1, 14. 


fborth worth birth 2, 3, 21. 


hirteaAMr^ imorb part* desaiiss 

dturh 2, 2, 2fi. deairt pui 2, 4, 26. 

Mrre Uam 2, 6, 34. wane deMrre 

Bwpire 3. 7, 63 [(cr) or (nr)f] dart 
■mait penait=inntert hart=:A<art 

3, II, 30. Brttomurt pan heart de- 
■art 4, 1, 33. depart hart art leTett 

4, S, 43. hart enuut dnrt contort 6, 

5, 2S. partB Bmarts art« desart* S, S, 
33. regard niBrdprefard = «Mirr(«ij7r»- 
firral 0, B, 40. [Id referenoe to 
tliia coohuioa of {er, ni) it my be 
noticed that Prnf. Btackie of £din- 
bnigh, Id his public iKturcs, pro- 
nounces aocented «- in manv wordi, 
in Bueb a mannor that it ia'difficult 
to deeido nrhetbcr the sound he 
means to utter is (sr, sr. or), the r 
bcin^ Hligfatl)', but certninlj, trilled. 
A Bimilar indiBtinctness may hare 
long prevajied in earlier dmea, and 
would account for these confnMOU.] 

marincrc lears 1, 3, 31. [doe* lliii 
rbjrmo (or, ecr) F] 

brood nood good wiuistood 1, 10, 33. 
blood good brood 1, 10, H, groon* 
come Bonune =^ iHw S, 6, S, mood stood 
woo'd S, 6, 16. 8ppro»e moto loTO 3, 


Lud good 2, 10, 46. tio^ mad blood 
good 0, a, 37. woont hunt 6, 4, 2B, 

posh rush gush I, 3. 3G. rush btuib 3, 
3, 21. rush push 3, 1, 17. 

but put 1, B, 24. 

truth cnm'th jouth mth 1, 6, 12. 3, 8,2. 

(5) = {Z). 

bits ononus^Uiii nuntHi, 9, ie.prii« 
=pria 'CiuiK = thriei oawaidise oi- 
prise 6, 3, 16. 

-f, -ed syllabic. 
to the long larnee at ber commuide- 

ment 3, 4, S3, 
salvQffem mh* Jhmm, shewing aeent 

wit 3, 4, 39 [MbmjHu hns its final 

t elided, Jhtftit prescrrcd, sheiring 

wondered answered conjectured 3, 4, >9. 

accompUshid hid 3, 3, 48. led ap- 

pDTpled garnished 3, 3, 59. fed tar- 

wearied bed dread 5, 5, SO. [but •«' 

is constantly =^(-d, -t].] 
formerly prounded and tost setleled 3,^ 

12, 1. [this a romarkable for bntli 

the last BjUable*]. 



gh mute, 
^riglit sight qiiight=^tftf0 sight 1, 1, 
4o. diTersdy jollity hye^At^A dain- 
tily 1, 7, 32. 1, 8, 2. 2, 8, 38. unites 
dites=cft^A/« smites ]ii&&=l%ght» 1, 
8^ 18. exerdse emprize lies thies = 
ikigha 2, 3, 35. bite night 3, 6, 22. 
wnte, lij^ht, knight 3, 9, 1. bite 
knight nught 6, 6, 27. delight [gene- 
rally without ^A] sight knight sight 
6, 8, 20. 

made trade waide=tr^AM? 1, 4, 27. 
[see also (aa) =(ai).] 

bsyt wayt straytst^ra^A^ sleight 2, 7, 
64. [see also (ai) =(8i).] 

heard =^ (Hard) = (nerd) ? 

enkbaid=embttrred 1, 2, 31. re- 
H^ard h^urd 1, 12, 16. heard far'dpre- 
par'd 2, 2, 19. heard unbard prepaid 
B:unbarred prepared 5, 4, 87. heard 
xeward 5, 7, 24. heard hard debard 
^f 9, 36. 

beard afeard seared 1, 11, 26. 
Sieard affeared reard 2, 3, 45. 2, 12, 2. 
lieerd beard heard stearcMl = ateered 3, 
^ 80. heard feard reard beard 5, 11^ 

Jmr^ (Hair) = (naar) = (Hoer). 
hayre 1, 12, 21 

,yres shayres hayres cares 2, 10, 37. 
heyre 2, 10, 61. 

*^mquire « (tnku^eer *) » (tnkfrair*). 

cjaere spere =«;7ear 2, 3, 12. nere = 
-w^ear were inquere 3, 10, 19. inquire 
'werenere 5, 11, 48. 

inquire desire 5, 2, 52. 

-f-on in two syllables. 

^Hilimision compassion affliction 1, 3, 6. 
derotion contemplation meditation 1, 
10, 46. Philemon anon potion 2, 4, 
30. upon anon confusion 2, 4, 42. con- 
ations abusions illusions 2, 11, 11. 
fiwhion don complexion occasion 3, 6, 
38. fashion anon gon =gone 3, 7, 10. 
[tiiese examples or/ojA-i-on, areValu- 
•ble, because the th spelling seemed 
to imply fash'ion in two syllables], 
compassion upon affliction stone 8, 8, 
1. foundation reparation nation fash- 
ion 6, 2, 28. oiscretion oppression 
subjection direction 5, 4, 26. Gergon 
o ppre ssion subjection region 6, 10, 9. 
Coridon contention 6, 10, 33. 

indina-tion fa-shion 6, 9, 42. 
[Whether the two last syllables are 

to De dirided or no, it is difficult to say ; 

if they are, the lines have two super- 

fluous syllables. The stanza begins 

thus — 
Bat Oalidore, of courteous inclination 
Tooke Coridon and set him in his place. 
That he should lead the dance as was his 

On account of the laxity of Spenser's 
rhymes it is impossible to say whether 
this was a rhyme or an assonance, that 
is, whether the -^um was pronounced as 
'Shion, I am inclined to think not. 
See the remarks on Shakspere's rhyme: 
passion fashion, below § 8.] 


witch pitch unlich = unlike twitch 1, 5, 
28. oewitch sich=«fi«A lich=/tA# 3, 

loTC hoTc move 1, 2, 31. approve move 
loTe 2, 4, 24. love behoTe aboTe re- 
prove 6, 2, 1. 

one shone gone 1, 1, 15. throne one 
fone =foe$ 3, 3, 33. gone alone one 3, 

f^tfu^ss (shoo, shoo; sheu)? 

show low 1, 2, 21. slow show 1, 3, 26. 
foe flow show grow 1, 6, 9. slow low 
show 1, 10, 5. shewn known, own 
thrown 5, 4, 18. show flow know 5, 9, 
13. foreoe, showe 6, 1, 27. shewed be- 
strowed unsowed sowed 6, 4, 14. moe 
^rnore showe knowe agoe 6, 11, 11. 

view yew shew 1, 2, 26. 2, 3, 32. 3, 1, 

41. 5, 3, 23. Tew knew shew crew 1, 
4, 7. newcs shewes 1, 7, 21. subdewd 
shcwd 2, 8, 56. shew yew knew hew 

2, 9, 3. 2, 11, 13. grew hew shew 3, 

3, 50. dew shew 3, 6, 3. hew new trew 
shew 4, 1, 18. drew threw shew hew 

4, 8, 6. trew embrew shew rew. 5, 1 , 
16. yew pursew shew 6, 5, 22. vew 
shew askew hew 6, 10, 4. 

wotdd, cotddy should. 

mould could would 1, 7, 33. tould would 
1, 7, 41. mould should defould 1, 10, 

42. gold bold would mould 2, 7, 40. 
behould should hould 3, 1 1, 34. be- 
hold hold would 4, 10, 16. would hould 

5, 5, 55. mould could should 5, 6, 2. 
could behould 5, 7, 5. gould could 
would hould 6, 1, 29. hold would 
hould 6, 5, 15. 

wound, noound, 

wound round sound I, 1, 9. stownd 
ground wound 2, 8, 32. found swound 
ground 4, 7, 9. 


Sir Philip Sidnfy's Rhymei. 

Gill citeB several paseages from Sir Philip Sidney (a b. I554-B6] 
■who waa the contemporary of Spenser (a.d. 1552-99). Mr. N. 
W. Wyer has kindly fumiahod mo with a collection of rhymes 
from Sir Ph. Sidney's version of the Psalms, which I have arranged 
as follows. It will be seen that Sidney was a more carefnl rhymer 
thou Spenser. But he seems to have accepted the mute gh. Hart's 
pronnnciation of at as (ee), the inexpediency of distinguiGfaing Uxya) 
and (oo), and the liberty of making final -y=(') rhyme \vith either 
(ii) or (ei). His other liberties arc comparatively small, and 
his imperfect rhymes very few. In the following list the numbera 
refer to the numbers of the psalms in which the rhymes occur. 

The arran<:ement is not the s 
rather alphabetical. 

Apparently imperfect fihymes. 

Cradle a\ilc 71. u a mere auonsnce- 

Hewne one 80, in difficult to under- 
itand, unleu Anen like thtum, had oo- 
cuionally an [oo) loimd. 

Abanoon randan = rnnili>in B9, tfaeim- 
perfecldon is here rather apparent than 
real, as rimdim is the oorrect oH form. 

Proceeding reading 19, it is verj 
powible tbat in preec^, tueceed, preertd, 
the t wu more correctlr pronounced 
(«), or it leait that a double pronnniria- 
tion preruliid. Bm SpeaB«r'i rbfinee, 
_ — .,....,_,, ,.[j_ 


placa 37, host last 9. 
are SB, 10^, prut hsitei>i),wsj!i=:U'«ig 
plaat St. plac'd hut 6. 8, plast fast 31, 
cut deTast 74, but caita IS, oreeiut 
tait le, hath vratli 2. 

£awrli7aiea with : naTeG. le,craTe 
!6,WTe !». 33, wa»o72. 

W doi'4 not alfect tbe following a, in : 
wait Uat 9, was pawc 1 8, fl.uhed waihed 
66, qnairell apparrell 89, wander mealt- 
der Ua, 


I7iM«rtain, {■i)«r(ee] -.tma^^pTtyt 
ilugi tay my ny 38, nmutl loide 3, 

tnitbti/ imprrfett, ai = (aa) ; praiae 
phrate 31, repniiv are 91. 

Nttrtj, rfTlmo ai = {M), nnw bteu 
Gill writfia eoaait irilh (eo), thongh ho 
admits («i, eei) in Ihiy DMy : they laye 
3, eonoeile wiite 20, watte decstte 38, 
MiiMita iMte 40, obey dais U. 

1 for Spenser's rhymes, but 

Quite etrlaii oi = (ce), scaa lain 33, 
aca survey 72, seaway 13G, pr«is« «*w 
10, dnics ease 37, pleased praised IS, 
praiaeplesicwaies raise 6B, stline clMnw 
32, meane vaine 2, cbaine meane IB, 
sCreames claims 32. waite gn*t« M, 
waiCeth seateth 1, disdayiunff nnniu 
37, boreavea gtaiTcs leares 78, hmn 
wore 90, and hencer sire heire 8. nW* 

itrongly oonfirma tha 
nboie were natural rhymes t< 
ear, and consBqueutly the co 
of (ai, ee) for Iho sound of 
iTith century rnnona 
- = ■■ - ■■ Gill'. 

AU, AW. 

The following few rhymea do ■ 

tablisb anything, but they aerveto , 

firm the orthtx'piflt'a dJctom of ita 
82, brr deTelopmont at (n) after {a) when (Q or 
(n) foIloBs; omwl'il nppol'd 74, ^all 
appall B, all ahall 2, Taunting wiasiag 
fi2, chauitcea glnncoa 63. 

Probably Sidney said (freod) and 
(friiBd) aupri p. 779, r" "~ " 
wend 3S, frend defend 47. 



The confusion of n _ . ^ 

■pelling, and the rtijnes of ■ 

orthogrtiphica, confirm the genend pt^ 
nunciation of «■ as (ee) ; greater bMkt 
71, greats sett 21, greate nato 48, di*- 
tresse release 74, encreut oppnM 36, 
Teat brest neast 4, head tprcd >, Imfli 
leads 1, ieade tread 2A. trcodeth leadMfe 
84, seote treat 100. 103, encreaaepMM 
144, peartxd rebsamd 33, bitok vak. 

Geap. YIII. { ^ SIR PHILIP sidnbt's bhymes. 


The iniliMBee of r is felt in fhe fbllow- 
iag words, where m or e would be 
aatnitllT pronounced (ee), bnt was nn- 
donbtodly at times (ii), p. 81, and poets 
may baye taken the liberty of using 
man j^ronnndation as best suited their 
€fNi¥«Bi0nce : heere teare, 66, here nere 
91, deere hcAre appeare 20, heare ap- 
Miie 6. 67, eare feare appeare where 
M^ appeares yeares endeares spheares 
89, neere cleere 34, there heare 102, 
iMiure there 66, hm bear 34, beare 
were 22, deere were beare cleare 66, 
iMcra weareBU^^# 48, eare ontbeare 
^neare weare cheere feare weare 49, 
apnere encleare 77» heire forbeare mere 


The rhymes : heard barr'd 34, guard 
iMardllG, which certainly corresponded 
to a preValent, though not generally 
acknowledged pronunciation, properly 
Iwlong to the same category as : parts 
\s=hMrts 12, avert heart 61, desert 
hart 6, avert hart 119, preserved 
~ 37, art subvert 100. 102. See 
p. 871, 0. 1, under kemrd. 

ETI, EW, lEW, U. 
Theae all belonj^ together. The or- 
^thoqpical distinctions (yy, eu) seem to 
IiftTe been disregarded. Whether they 
"^rere sunk into (lu, ju) cannot be deter- 
^omed, and is perhaps not very likely at 
90 early a period. See however the 
remarks on Holyband's observation in 
3666, suprii p. 838 : true adieu 119, view 
^voxBue 46, ensue grew new view 60, 
^oxiue dew new 105, you pursue 116, 
joa true renewe 31, renew ensue you 78, 
mnew true rue 18, new you 96, grew 
&ihnie 78, subdue brew 18, chuse re- 

We know that the guttural was only 
'flynily pronounced (supriL p. 779) al- 
Ihopgh even Hart found it necessary to 
^dieate its presence by writing (h). 
^The poets of the xvi th century how- 
«Ter g^erally neglected it in rnyming 
«•: 'prayeog weighing 130^ waign 
«lway alley stay 55, pay weigh 116, 
amreyin^ waighing 143, day decay 
stray wai^h 107, laide weighd 108, de- 
lighted cited 1, sprite wiffht 9, sight 
qfoiffht 26, quite si^ht spi^t light 69, 
wi^t quite 89. bite spi^t 3, sprite 
adght 13, high thy 43, high awry 119, 
•ye high 131, I high 46, high dy cry 
9, though goe 43, wrought thought 
caught 9, aloft wrought 77. 


After a vowel the g appears to have 
been re^^ularly mute as: Assigned kind 
find minde 44, assigned enciined 11, 
remaineth raigneth 3. 


There was probably some little un- 
certainty in the pronuDciation of t in 
the following words, as we know that 
Qill had great doubts concerning build: 
build shield 35, shield fil'd yeeld 28, 
fidd reconciled 60, theevery delivery 
76jgive releeve greeve 82. 

Tne uncertainty of the final -y, 
which Gill gives Doth as (ai) and (ii), 
is shewn by the following examples 
which are quite comparable with 
Spenser's, p. 869, coL 1. 

High apply perpetually 9, unceas- 
santly cry 77, eye effectually 116. 

Sacrifie ly 4, magnify hie 9, fly 
slippery 36, misery supply 79, memorie 
file I orderlie 50, injunes suffice applies 
lies 68, memory relye 105; — but: be 
chivalry 20. 

Jollity eye 31, jolities tiranize 94, 
veritie he 31, verity hie 57, ly iniquity 
10, high vanity lie 4, high try equity 
6; — ^but: infirmity me 41, see vanity 
89, equity me thee 4, be vanity 39, thee 
etermty 21, be iniquity he 36, bee thee 
see degree me treachery free enemy 64, 
be constancy 34. 


It would seem that the practice of 
omitting / in folk, was at least known, 
if not admitted, by Sidney, as he 
rhymes : folk cloak 28, tolkes in- 
vokes 32, 


The following rhymes all point to 
the pronunciation of long and short o 
as (oo, o) and not as {oo, o) : crossed 
engrossed 69, coast hoast 33, ones bones 
42, one alone moane 4, mones ones 74, 
none bone 109, therefore adore 66, 
borne scorn 2, floore rore 96, abroad 
God 10, God load 67, upon stone 40, 
foUy holy 43, sory glory 42. 

The following imply that o was also 
occasionally pronounced as (uu) or (u), 
though the three last rhymes were more 
probably imperfect : approve love 1, 
love move 12, moved behoved 20, love 
above g^ove remove 45, doe unto 119, 
begunn undunn doun 1 1, become dumb 
88, sunn done 79, slumbered encom- 
bered 76, pumshed astonished 76, dost 



VB have the asme curioiu emaneipatiaD 
of ou from tilB category that was ob- 
served in Spenser, p. B73, col. 2, and U 
still occaaioDotlj mot iritb, u I hsTe 
heard it in roe myself. 
Id : sonle roirle = roll 26, aauJe eitoU 

The rhymes here are insufficient to 
conTey much infonnation, yet perhaps 
they rather imply (oi) than (ui) : an- 
Doia enjo^'d 81, destroi'd onoi d ID. 


This ia used rather nncertainly, as 
(uu, uj and even aa rhyming to (oo) : 
good Wood B, brood hlouil 67, poore 
more 69, wordce lioordeB affordoi 78, 
lord worde GO. The rhyme: badda 
goodea, is strongly indicatire of the old 
pronunciation of h aa («) without any 
tunt of the xrn th ceatury (a). 


The following are quite regular as 
(on) : nound undioirne'l 68, wound 
bound found 105, power howBr = *anr 
23, thou bowo 99, thou now IDD. 

In: thou two I2B, yours towres 69, 
the older sound of (uu) seems to hare 
prevailed, and in : mouni torn 69, us 
elorioua IIG, snob touch much 36, we 
have the rcgulai short (u), belonging to 
the aame class. 

In: could gold 21, wouhd hold 27, 

have apparently the regolar ac- 

~ I long to produce (oou),butthe 

' - ahewtl 

following rhymes ahew that evra if the 
(a) hud not been developed the rhyme 
would have been permiasible : know io 
72, unknown one 10, knowera aftar- 
goera 8G, alone unknown none foi^one 
44, dowes inclose 105, blows fool 3, 
ahowes goes 10, bealoe got 100, t^rv* 
ahow goe 18, woe goe ahow ; woe tow 
show 107, repose growea 92, woe gtowo 
41, own one 16 — and the rhyme: owner 
honor 8. 37, in coanectioQ with theae, 
ahews how indifferent the long and short 
sounds of D were Io the ear of a rhymer. 

In ^ this is ID, is his nisae 11, ii 
misse 115, bliiBC i> 4, rased debced 79, 
we have a confiuion of (s) and (i),bltt 
in: presence easonce 68, sacrifice crieaGO, 
BBcnfices mie* 66, the rhymoa may 
have been pore. In : sent paaient 6, we 
have an indicalian i ' * 
into (sh). 

§ 6. Chatle» Bufler's Phonetic Writing, and list of Words Like 
and Unlike, 1633-4. 

The indistinctness with irliicli Butler bos explained, and tho 
laxity with which he apparently denotes his vowela, have occasioned 
me considerable difficulty in attempting a transcription of hie pho- 
netic writing. But inaamuch as he has printed two books of feii 
dimeneions, his Grammar and his Feminint Xonarehy, in his own 
character, eo that he ia the moat voliuninous phonetic writer with 
whom we have to deal, it waa impossible to paaa him over, and I 
have therefore cndeaToured to tranBliterat« a abort passage from hia 
FtmininB Monarehy or Hiniori/ ef Beet, 1634, which waa prijit«d in 
the ordinary aa well as well the phonetic orthography. The vowel 
Eyatem ia, so far as I can understand it, more truly of the xn th 
century than even Dr. Gill's, and therefore thia is the proper place 
for it, although it waa published after the first third of the xvnth 
century. At t)ie conclusion are annexed aomo extracts from hia 
List of Words Like and Unlike, in hia own orthography, using italica 
to represent his variants of old forms. In the following extract 
probably (i) should be read for (i), hut the whole vowel system ii 
too uncertain to inaist upon such minute distinctions. 

Chap. VIII. { 6. BUTLER's PHONETIC \\TimNG. 875 

Xxtraet fronh ButUr^s Femhttne Moitabcht, p. 2-4. 

And anl dhis un'der dhe guyemment of oon Mon'ark ... of 
whnum, abny anl thingz, dhei naav a prin'sipal kaar and respekt* 
hinving reverenfiing and obei'ing Her in aul thingz. — If shii goo 
fanrtiii tn soo'laas nir self, (as suum'teim shii wil) man*i of dhem 
attend' Her, gard'ing mr per'son bifoor* and bineind' : dhei whitsh 
knmn fhnrt^ bifoor* ner, ever non and dhen rctum'ing, and Inuk'ing 
bak, and maak'ing withaul* an ekstra,ord'inari nois, as if dhei spaak 
dhe lang'gwaadzh of dhe Knikht Mar'shalz men; and soo awai* dhei 
flei tugedh'er and anon* in leik man'er dhei attend' ner bak again' 
. . . If bei mr vois shii bid dhem goo, dhei swaarm; if bii'ing abrood* 
shii dialeik* dhe wedh'er, or leikh'ting plaas, dhei kwik'li* ritum* 
Hoom again' ; wheil shii tshiir'eth dhem tu bat'el, dhei feikht ; wheil 
shii is wel, dhei ar tshiir'fnl about' dheir wunrk; if shii druup 
and dei, dhei "wil never af "ter endzhoi' dheir noom, but eidher 
kng*gwish dheer til dhei bii ded tun, or jiild'ing tu dhe Rob'bcrz, flci 
awai' with dhem. . . . But if dhei naav man'i ftin'ses (as when twuu 
flei awai* with oon swaarm, or 'when twuu swaarmz ar neived 
togedii'er) dhei wil not bii kwei'et til oon of dhom bii cassiir-ed ; 
wUtsh suum'teim dhei bring doun dhat iivning tu dhe man'tl, wheer 
m mai feind ner kuverd with a lit'l neep of Biiz, udh'erweiz dhe 
nekst dai dhei kar'ri Her fuurth ei'dher ded or ded'li wound'ed. 
Konsem'ing whit<»h mat'ter, ei wil niir rilaat' oon mem'orabl 
eksper'iment. " Twuu swaarmz bii'ing put tugedh'cr, dhe Biiz on 
booth seidz as dheir man*er is, maad a mur'muriog noiz, as bii'ing 
dis'konten'ted with dhe sud'dain kon-grcs of straiu'dzherz : but 
knoou'ing wel dhat dhe moor dhe mer'rier, dhe saa'fer, dhe warm'er, 
Jee, and dhe bet'er proveided, dhei kwik-li maad friindz. And 
Baaving agrii'ed whitsh Kwiin shuuld rein, and whitsh shuuld dei, 
thrii or foour Biiz brooukht oon of dhem doun bitwiin* dhem, pulling 
and naal'ing ner as if dhei weer leed'ing ner tu eksekyy'siun 
whitsh ei bei tshaans perseeiving, got noould of ner bei dhe wingz, 
and with mutsh aduu' tuuk nor from dhem. After a wheil (tu su 
what wuuld kunm of it) ei put ner in'tu dhe Heiv again : noo suun'er 
was shii amung* dhem, but dhe tyy'mult bigan' afresh* greet 'er dhan 
bifoor ; and pres'entli dhei fel tugedh'er bei dhe eerz, feers'H 
feikht 'ing and kil'ling oon an udh*er, for dhe spaas of moor dhan an 
our tugedh'er: and bei noo miinz wuuld sees, until' dhe puur 
kondem'ned Kwiin was broukht fuurth slain and laid bifoor* dhe 
duur. Whitsh duun dhe streif pres'entli end'ed, and dhe Biiz agrii'ed 
wel tugedh'er." 

Index op Woords Like astd Ynlike. 

*' Soam woordB of lik* sound hav*- different writing : as boov filiuSj 
BUN sol : soom of hk' writing hav' different sound : as a mous mtu^ 
xous itrues pi. of mou : soom of like sound and writing differ in de 
accent : as PREC^DEirr pracedens, padcEDExr exemplum quia pracedit: 
and soom of lik* sound, writing, and accent, differ yet in signification: 
mc den must bed discerned by the sens of dQ woords precedent and 


butler's phombtic wbttino. Gkaf. Yin. ) 6. 

subsequent : as £▲& auris, sab spiea, to ear aro : wenc* rarabli 
arabilis. Of tnc sorts you hay* htf^reafter oder examples." 

The object of the list which is thus introduced by the author 
seems to be to discriminate words of like sound as much as posaible 
by yarious spellings, which in Butler's system would represent 
different but nearly identical sounds. The list therefore is not of 
much yalue or assistance, especially as the like and unlike words 
are not inserted separately. He seems to haye trusted to an ortho- 
graphy which is extremely difficult to understand from his descrip- 
tion. Hence instead of giying the whole list, 28 pages long, it will 
be sufficient to extract those parts in which some mention of 
pronunciation is made, and for these to adopt the author's own 
orthography, as in the aboye citation, because of the difficulty of 
interpreting it. The italic letters represent generally simple yarieties 
of ordinary types, thus, oo, are joined together, forming one type, and 
so for 60, and r, d, &c., haye bars through them, ^ is :^ a turned t» 
and so on. These will occasion no difficulty. The final (') answers 
to mute e. It is the yalue of the simple yowels and digraphs and 
the effect of this mute (') as a lengthener, which it is so difficult to 
determine satisfactorily from Butler* s indications. The small capitals 
indicate the usual orthography and generally replace Butler's black 

a CoFEB, D. KopPBE, F. cofre, (yet 
WM writ^ and sound it wi^ a sing^l* f, 
to distinguigh it from cowysB wie ia 
•oiinded coffbb). 

Devil, or nuferDeeviLnotdivel: (as 
loom* far fetong it from diabolut woold' 
hay it). 

'Rsovg tatiSf but importing number 
it la hot* written and pronounced wi^out 
ifeaflpirat^: as Ecclus. 36. 1. Slc&i- 
PICI8 BNou. Enou for even nou, mode: 
In de pronouncing of tde 2 woords, de 
on*ly difference is de accent : tde de first 
h&t in de last, and de last in de first. 
For ENou^ w«0 commonly say vsvv: 
aa for lau^ DAU^r, soom say laf, 
dafteb: for cow^ all say oof: and for 
de Duittf AiirrEB, wee altoge<ier bo^* say 
and writ* afteb. 

to Enteb intrarej to bnt^b m- 

£ae auriSf to eab aro, ebe before 
priu», EKST first jwtfwd, (not tee terst) 
as in DuU; ere, ekst. Hence ebenoon', 
bbewilS and erelt i. former : as of 

■BSLY f INOB I WIL <fBB TEL : for uAc IB 

nou written (I know not ^7) feblt. 

Certain woords beginning wi^ ss ar 
soomtim' spoken and written wi^out b : 
aa bscapS especial, espi ; scape, spe- 
dalf spi: to bspoub, and to estbamob, 
[yerbs ;] bpous, and btbanoe [nouns :] 


BAT, 8TABLI«, 8TAT* *. 80 BXAKFLS and 

BxcuB* ; witoUT Eo, bampl' Bcua' : and 

BXrANOB, wi^OUt XX, tfANOB. 

Ew not TEW 0VM fmmelia / aa xw 
not TTw, (yid. Iw taxut) dowg dt r 
btf# yulgarly sounded in dem bo<S 

JSmoLAND ... IB yolffarly writtan 
England; butalway8souiiaed.fiagland; 
as wee now bo^* sound and writ* many 
Oder woords wi^ Ee, tcic anciently ware 
written wi< E: as 8«rM*, bmds*, utK\ 

In st«0d of our f d» Nedierlanden bay* 
T . . . me dialect iB yet found in de 
Western partes. 

Hat foMumf of de Sax. KAim 
eeeare, becaus it ia out gnm, a hst or 
ounni-net, ofde Fr. Aoy {wie dej Boud 
hef^ ; . . . and wee ar as reddy, bot in 
sound and writing, to follow tlsai sound, 
as de\i writing: trer' dej writ* mtmiom 
and say mootton, wee writ* and Bay 
icooTTON ; dej writ' quatre and aay^ eotrt, 
wee writ* and say catbb : dej writ' hem 
and say boone, wee writ' and aay nom'; 
dej wnt' plaid and say plead, wee writ' 
and say plead) [a hedg]. 

Iw [TBjee] not tiw, doug it btf# ao 
soundea : de Frene heemg If, and de 
Duittf nF, iben ob Bisxif : aa wee mj 
TEW, and yet wrif sw oviefmmMm, 

Nic' or coy eurioeue, a niab hank, 


[not oi eras] F. fiMM^ It. nidaso, teikea 
oat of tne neast ; as a hauk flown ia 
called a bran^er. 

Wm^ yiniim^ to windS torqueo, a 
wind' or wniD yentUB : bene* a wind- 
MB, i. e. a door' for de wind' to enter : 
(aa in Qieek* OvpHs of 0^pa) dowg now d% 
glaa, in most' places, doo^ rat it out. 

WouNi), of to winds tortut, a woond', 

Tov •«•, aonnded acoording to ife 
OMinal, Tu. [Here Bntler refers to 
•a rarmer note on bis p. 40 : " tou, D. 
v: ao TOUB, D. itwb, 6. uwbk. So 
ibX, aa wel by original as sound, dies' 
woorda, sboold' raSer bee written tu, 
aad TUB^ : fiir on ia a dipb^ong, wbicb 

ba^ an o<fer sound: as in dov and 


TBjQvg by, or by means of, tonow, 
from on' sid' or end' to da oder: as 


i$BB&' pur* or unmixt sintplez, as 
fSBB.' com, «ebr' boom', cleer' water : 
[here B. adds in a nundinal note: of 
wbich a toun in Dorcet. and a village 
in Hampt. is called Sb^flrboom;] to 
«BAR, or nder «bbr', as it is pro- 
nounced, D. M«RBN Umdeo: anciently 
it was written «br', e for m, as «fe maner 
den was : bene' «ar', a part' or portion ; 
and «ir', a counti or part* of a dominion : 
udtf, in de Sent part's, is sounded fEBR', 

{ 7. Pronouncing Vocabulary of the Sixteenth Century^ collected 
from Palsgrave 1630, Salesbury 1547, Cheke 1550, Smith 
1568, Hart 1569, BuUokar 1580, GiU, 1621, and Butler 

For ascertaining and comparing the different accounts of the pro- 
nunciation of the ZTith century which have come down to us, it is 
necessary to have an alphabetic list of all or most of the words 
which have been spelled phonetically by various writers, with a 
uniform transcription of their various notations. This is attempted 
in the present section. The following vocabulary contains : 

1) all the English words cited by Palsgbave, p. 31, with the pro- 
mmciations as inferred from his descriptions. 

2) all the English words cited by Salesbust, pp. 32, 34, in his 
accounts of Welsh and English Pronunciation, with the pronunciation 
he has actually or inferentially assigned to them, as explained in the 
peasages cited pp. 789-794. 

3) numerous words from Sir John Chexe's Tramlation of Matthew.'^ 

4) all the words pronounced in Sir Thomas Smith's Treatise p. 34. 

6) all the examples of diphthongs, and a few other words only 
from Habt, pp. 35, 794, whose pronunciation, as has been already 
frequently mentioned, was in several respects exceptional. 

€) All the exemplificative words in Btjllokab's lists, with many 
others collected from various parts of his Booh at Large^ pp. 36, 838. 

^ The Oospd according to Saint 
Matthew and part of tbe first chanter 
of the Gospel according to Saint Mark 
translated nrom the Greek, with original 
notes, by Sir John Cbeko, knight &o. 
Ptefizea is an introductory account of 
the nature and object of tbe transla- 
tion, by James Goodwin, B.D., London, 
PkkttiBg, 1843, 8to. pp. 124. Cheke 

was bom 16th June, 1514, and died 
<' of shame and tegret in consequenee 
of hii recantation of Protestantism, 
13th Sept., 1567. This translation, of 
which the autographic MS. is preseryed 
^ot quite perfect) at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, is supposed by 
Mr. Goodwin to bafe been made about 



7) all, or almort all words in Gul's lAgonomia, pp. 36, 845; the 
provincialisms are not quite fully given, but Gill's whole uccount 
of them will be found below, Chap. XJ, § 4, and they are best 
CDURulted in that connection. 

8) A few cbarantcriatio words from Bptleb, pp. 39, 874, 

The modem orthography has been tbllowcd in tlie arrangemeDt 
of the yocabulary. Palsgrave and Saleabury occasionally give an old 
orthography different from that now in use, but the variation is 
not material. The others only give the phonetic spelling. Oc- 
casionally short observations frora Smith and Oill have been added 
in the original Latin, and ia some cases tha Latin translation given 
by these authors is inserted. Some doubts may arise as to the pro- 

Erioty of retaining so many words about the pronunciation of which 
ttle hesitation con be felt hy those who have nui8t«rod the main 
principles, such as, abandon, abhor, abound, ab$t7tee, abtenf, ifc. 
bill, bit, bleu, boait, boat, ^c, but after much consideration, it has 
been resolved to retain them, as no rale of exclusion could bo 
framed, which did not seem to assume the very knowledge and 
familiarity which the vocabulary was meant to supply, and it 
is only by such accumulated proofs that the certainty of the results 
can impress itself on the reader's mind. These results are however 
extremely important in the history of our language, as they presont 
the first sure ground after the time of Orrmin, and the only means 
by which we are able to rise Ja the proouneiBtion of Chaucer. 
Thus the certainty of the pronunciation of on, ow as (uu) hy Pals- 
grave and £ullokar, and tho probability of their pronunciation of 
long t as (ii), are great helps towards conceiving tho general use 
of these sounds in the srv th century. 

The various phonetic orthographies of the above writers {except 
Chekc's) have been translated into palarotype to tho best of my ability, 
although a few, unimportant, cases of doubt remaia, generally pointMl 
out by (?). The position of the accent is always hypothetical, except 
for the wordfi cited from G. 12B-188, in which Gill has generally 
marked or indicated the accent. It was at first intended to refer 
to Levins (p. 36,) for the position of the accent in each ame, but his 
usage was found too uncertain to be made available. The um of 
(w, j) at the beginning of combinations where some writers employ 
(u, i), and conversely the use of (n, i) at the end of combinations 
where some writers employ (w, i), has been consistently maintained. 
The difference between these writers and myself is purely theoreti- 
cal : wo mean to express the same sounds in each case. Qu has 
been interpreted as (kic) throughout, because this is believed to 
have been tho sound intended. Bullokar nses the single letter f. 
The initial ter has been left, but (rw) has been subjoined with ■ 
(?) as this is believed to have heen the sound. Except in the woids 
tpanglt, entangle, where the sound (qg) is especially indicated, 10, 
the mtroduction of (qg) for ng in the following vocabulary is quite 
hypothetical, for none of the writers cited seem to have thou^t 
the distinction between (q) and (qg) worth marking at all times. 
There was a great diMculty in determining the length of tt 

hnf thil 



Towels. Palsgrave does not note the length and Salesbury is not 
consistent in his notation. Smith, Hart, and Gill generally use 
diacritical signs, and Bullokar does so in many cases. JS'ow when 
this is the case the diacritical sign is often omitted by either the 
writer or printer, and it is difficult to know in any given case 
whether it ought to be added or not (p. 846, 1. 3). The difficulty is 
increased when the diacritic implies a difference in quality as well as 
quantity, thus if, i are (ei, t ) in Smith but (ii, «)in Gill, and i « are 
probably (iV, «} in Bullokar (p. 113). In these cases I have gene- 
rally searched for other instances of the word, or been guided by 
the use of other writers, or by analogy. In Bullokar y is not un- 
freqnent, but «y, yi may be said never to occur, although he gives 
both as marks of the long sound, and « is most frequently used for 
both (t'O and (0 although i ought to have been used in the former 
case. By reference to pp. 110, 114, the reader will see the great 
difficulty which attaches to the value of long t in Palsgrave and 
Bullokar, and the. reasons which have induced me, after repeated 
consideration for several years, to consider that it must have been 
(it) or some closely cognate sound, acknowledging at the same time 
that this pronunciation was quite archaic at the time, just as ohUege^ 
Meeti (obliidzh*, obHist'} in Scotland and ohleecht (obliitsht*) in 
English are still existent archaic forms, for which the greater 
number of English speakers say (oblaidzh*, oblaidzhd*). Por the 
reason why Gill's y has been rendered (oi) rather than (ei) see p. 115, 
and the reason why his d, au, are each rendered by (aa) is given on 
p. 145, where we may add that GKll in adducing " Hall Henriculus, 
HALS trahere, et hall aula," says : '' exilior est a in duabus vocibus 
prioribus, in tertia fere est diphthongus," (G. 3,) so that he possibly 
hesitated between (au) and (aa). Hart's (yy) has been considered 
on p. 167, p. 796 note, col. 1, and p. 838. 

Another source of error is tiiie use of an old letter in a new sense. 
Thus Smith employs c for (tsh) and he consequently continually 
leaves e for (k, s) where his old habits misled him. Gill employed 
^ for (oi), and the confusion between ♦, j in his book is very per- 
plexing. Extremely slight distinctions in the forms of the letters 
are also confusing. Thus Smith distinguishes (i, e) as e, e, which 
have a diaeresis mark superposed to imply length. The consequence 
is that it is sometimes extremely difficult to determine whether he 
means (ii) or (ee), and, considering that in his time the distinction 
of the sounds had not yet been thoroughly established by the 
orthographies ee, ea, this confusion is perplexing and annoying. 

For any errors and shortcomings of this kind, the indulgence of 
the reader is requested, and also for another inevitable source of 
error. The nature of the compilation, rendered it impossible to 
verify every word afterwards by referring to the passage from which 
it was quoted. I have therefore had to rely on the accuracy of my 
original transcript, and it is impossible that that should have been 
always correct. 

Sir John Choke's orthography is rather an attempt to improve 
the coirent spelling than strictly phonetic. Hence it has not been 


tranfiliteTated, but left as he wrote it^ and is therefore printed i 
Italics. The following appear to have been the values of his symca 
bols, which were not always unambiguous: oa ^(aa), 0$s:(ai, ee?]^^ 
(ee?) unfrequent, ^=(ee) and —(ii), «s=(ai, ee?) ^'s=(ei, '* 

ii?), o«=(o) and (u), oas=(oo?), oo— (oo?) and (uu), ooir=a(oon), 
s(uu) only? ot^«=(ou)y uMs(yy). The • most commonly did sen 
vice for («') and (j), but y was sometimes used as (j), althou^ i 
most frequently stands for (th) and (dh), for which also th 
sionally occurs. The use of ( is doubtfdl, sometimes it seems m< 
for ir»>(ei)y sometimes as in itfi it would seem only to indicate 
diphthong, but it is used so irregularly that no weight can be 
tached to its appearance. The terminations -ty, -hU^ occasii 
appear in the forms -Uej -hil. Final 0, being useless when thei« 
a destinct means of representing long vowels, is generally, bat 
always omitted. The comparison of Gheke's orthography with 
phonetic transcriptions of others seems to bring out these points. 

The authority for each pronunciation is subjoined in chronologl. 
order, but not the reference to the passage, except in the 
Gtill and Chcke. The figures refer to the page of the second 
of Gill's Logonomia (suprii p. 38) and tiie chapters of Sir J< 
Gheke's translation of Matthew. The references to Salesbnij 
be found in the index, supril pp. 789-724. Smith and 
words can generally be easily found in their books, from 
systematic lists, llie example from Bullokar p. 839, and 
p. 798, are also sufficient guarantees of the correctness of 
transcription. The. authors' names are contracted, and a =: 
abrcviations are used as follows. All words not in 
with exception of the authors' names, are in Italics. 








Auitrales ; Southern Eng- 
lish Pronunciation. 

BoreaJss; Northern Eng- 
lish Pronunciation. 

Butler, 1633. 

Bullokar, 1580. 

Chcke, 1550. 

eorrupte ; a pronunciation 
considered as corrupt by 
the author cited. 

Gill, 1621. 
Hart, 1569. 

LincoJn%m%e%y Lincolnshire 

Gill's Mbpaae, and Smith's 
muh'erculaSt supr^ pp. 90, 
91; indicating an effemi- 
nate or thinner pronun- 





Oeeid&niaUB ; 
English Pronunoiat]^' 
Orientales; Eastern 
lish Pronunciaticm. 
Palsgrave, 1530. 
po0t poetM. 
pr prafatio, the pie&oe 

Gill, which is not 
prov provincialUer ; any 

vincial pronnBciatJon -^-"^^^ 
S Smith, 1568. 
Sa Salesbury, 1547 & 16< 
&e Seoti; Sootch 

Trauir IhmiirmimH; 
the river Trent. 
? inteipietation iffoiMb^^J^ 
ispputui eaar^ or " 


Pbohouncino Yocabulabt of thb Siztbbiith Gentu&t. 

M brn tton abaa*d(m G 138 

M rm i atum abreytas'ton Bull 

MiAar abhor* Bull, abhorred abhor'ed 

a 106 
au aa-bl Sa, 8, Bull, 6 65, abl G 32 

JhnffUm Ab*tq'tun 99$ TrumpingUm 


abound' G 89 
abuut* Bull, about' G 23 
iloM abuT* Bull, abur G 22 
ulraiitf abrood- G 60, abrooad P G 138, 

«Ai«Mrab§enB G 66 
Umii ab-sent G 84 
tAudhe abzolT* G 85 
Mkttttm abstain- G 89 
§hm ianee abun'dauns P, abun'dans G 

dbmitkmt abun-dant G 84 
dktm abyTB* Bull 

uetpUtbls aksept-abl G 84 
MtoipUmee akaep'tanB G pr 
•eoording akora*tq G 21 
M99o m U akount' G 89 
MtcuM tkyjz' S, akyyz* G 46 
uemtomea akuB*tomed G 84 
•eh$ aatah Bull, Hart, ue headache^ 

acku=axu9 axe* C 8 
adkmoufUdge akknoou'ledzh G 32 
uquaint akiraint* S, aeguaintmi 

ak«Mdn*ted G 129 
Hp$aintance aku^ain'tans S 
§9fmt aktrtt* aut aktroit G 15, akirtt* 

acre aa-ker G 70 

addressed adres'ed G 133 
m^mdj^e addzhudzh* G 32 
admonish admon'ish G 85 
adore adoor* G 122 
adorn adorn* G 141 
aduUery adult*en>i G 85 
adva n c e advAAns* G 143 
adaentyre adyen'tyyr G 30 
adaerb adTerb Bull 
adfrise advdiz* G 87, 181 
adt addiee addbs adh'es j^rov, Sa 
^fk%r8 a&irz- G 37, afaairs* G 122 
•fictions afek*gibn8 G 123 
afict afekt* G 103, affects afokts-G 141 
^firmaSirm-Q 112 
fjiictum afltk'stbn G 125 
afird afuurd' B 
afreiy afrai* G 98 

afore afoor. G 80 

afraid efraid* per proihcsin pro fraid 

G 135 
after after G 79 
affain again* G 24 
against agenat* frequentius, against* 

doeti interdum G pr^ againat* G 20| 

age aadzh 8, G 70 

agree agrii- Bull, G 118 

ague B&'gjj G 92 

oitfaidGU, 113 

air ai-er G 106, aai-er G P air aier 6 

air^ aeroi aereus G 14. a'eri /«r» tris- 

syUabum G 16 
d^ aal 8a, G 37 
algate al'f^i} G109 
all aul 8, a'l Bull, aal G 23, al G 89, 

aaI G 25 
aUay alai- G 99 * 
allhail AAl'Haail* omnis solus G 64 
allure alyyr G 123 
alone aloon* G 45, 145 
aloud aluud- Bull, aloud* G 109 
also a'l*8o Bull, AAB^or/»ro aaI-bo G 17 
altar— auUer C 5 
although AAldhokh* G 65 
altogether AAl*togedh*er G 21 
alum al*um 8 
am am G 52 

amain amaain* G 119, amain* G 110 
amate amaat* terreo G 82 
amaze amaaz* G 88 
ambitious ambiii'tUB G 99 
amiss amts- G 113 
among amoq* G 21 amooq* P G 79, 

amuq* B 
on an G 10 

andiron a'nditr'n Bull 
angels aq*gelz P see next word, G 24 
angelical andzheel-tkal G 119 
anger aq*ger G 91 
angry aq*grt G 84 
anguish aq*gwuih Bull 
anothers anodh*erz G 95 
answer an*swer non aun*8uer Gpr, 

answered an*Bwered G 119, answeerd 

ansuferable an*8werable G 84 
any an-i Bull, G 45, prima naturd sud 

brevis G 133 
ape aap, 8a 8 
apparel apar'cl G 38 
appear apiir* Bull B, appeer 6, 4^ 

peared apiird G 94, appered appeared 

G 1, 2, appeareth apii*reth Bull B, 

apier*eth G 87, appearing apiiriq 

G 138 



ioA.baabSa, 26, iai» = ««iA« C ,)^ 

apperteiA apcrbun- G S7 

i^jy baa-boi G 26 ^H 

*»>/y apUi' G 80 

««.r^ bak S ^H 

itppomiid i.^wmi-(A0 2i 

J<MiKy<ri baU'vurd G 28 ^H 

&»>»< baak-n Bull, baak'D G 38 ^H 

an t4i Bull, G 66, nr G 21 

badhv^malutS ^H 

iffi^e bodzh G 12 ^^| 

aright araikht- G 135 

A^ bue S, G 89 ^H 

ariutk aniiz-cth G !S 

itdii bail Bull ^H 

1 >»«ifatm'EdG82 

iatfy bceti* cor B ^H 

a™. Mw» G 37 

««( bait G 14 ^H 

< army «rm-oi G 106 

«<iJvbaakSs,S ^H 

1 arrat srai- S, Biaai- G 128 

JofanM bal'iuu Bull, bHlsoa 21 ^H 

1 ari-tmarl anniiiart hydropiptr G 3B 

«a j<< bcDld 3a S, ba' Id Bull ^H 

^r(A«r Artut G 107 

idb baal Bull ^ 

ojmBhUG 13,95 

6d« bnu! Sa, S, bn'l Bull, b*Al G U 

1 euh Biih Sa, Ksh 6, ufut aah'ei G 

biUm buul'm = ba-l'ra Boll, b*Alm powW 

37, 128 

j.«m b*Am G pr-, hAAlm G 38 

1 «i aka et aik S, ask Q 68, «t<d ukt 

bof^'baaii^ G 116 


«ar bai S, Bull ^H 

, NfiM aa-pi'n G ISO 

! -p.nrt.wftEpirM-.onBnU 

farJary Bai-bari' G U7 ^H 

a>pi><Bn)oir-Q 111. 

OM u Bull, aj»» asee G 24 

««ri* barbs t G 37 ^H 

Aon baor S, Bull ^H 

(ifaay ami-, aiiay Chcmof xadrAAkh' 

S«r;a.>i b»i"^n G 93 ^H 

Ow, 18 

^iricy bai-k^ G 37 ^H 

B«.>( Mwt- G 141 

iort. baai'n Bull ^H 

1 »woi7 BK.U- G 8fi, 89 

iam. bar'ou Bull ^^H 

atturanu anyr-ranB 83, 117 

inrrffl baren BuU ^^^^^H 

1 <u»in asiryr- G 128, naByj'f G 32 

«av baas G 98 ^^^^^H 

«aj&T[ bas-kot BuU ^^^^^H 

df »t G 79 

iiwbaazrQllS ^^^^^H 

jaf bat S ^^^^^1 

t attmd niend- G 133, attcndt atendl' 

baU baat S ^^H 


batk bath, B ^^H 

<i((ir( dhe dien ati'or ? «m' corntMi G43 

&ifjl< baadb badb 5 ^H 

attriiutt t. atr>b'V)'t G 8fi 
miift'tar AA'di'tor G 129 

Aon^ batTi- G 133 ^H 

Afllfbt bataUB G 104 (in SpeoaeO ^^ 

aagtr iiBger G U 

alVflWNf ugmeut' G 119, 142 

BALL pi7rt, rt tn bAAl BAWLB VMl/k 

anWiintP GIO 

rnri G 14 

tUhon Ai-tora G U3 

boy bai MiW Bull 

awni atan- 87, <it«ii'/>a avail'eih 

ba9-lr» bai-trii Bull, i«y< bail IN^H 


GMl ^H 

i« bi G 23 ^H 

Mtiu av-enz earyophgllatum G 37 

beak beck B ^H 

o«r aver- 32 

i«i«i becmi G 23 ^H 


ioin BRAKE bMu P, BuU 

«» au aa Bn, au S, AAu G 14 


«e/UAA-fiilG ISO 

4«r beet P. b«et Sa. birnr •»-«» BiUl. 

iiii>ryawrii=ar«t<iP P 

btar ban bom bom, b«er biar bOM 

on an 6b, aki S, G 13 

.M"8,eEiGpr, 1fi,m G 16, ai G 

G60. toTMboor-nBaU 


»«»( becet P. Bull, 11 


bet virbtraham dialMtH, «•(. Q 4S 

Baal Baal Boll 

htauty b<ni-ti' G 22. 98, beauti' B ^^m 

*«*4fc .. baab-l nug^ G 26, r, babl ih- 

bttaim bikuz- G 91 ^^H 

finlum fficrr balbutin G 26 

«<ei bek B ^^H 

»«ui>» bikum- G 21, 67, AooMH tdh^^l 

«*W»y Ub-liq f arrWilM 26 

Gse ^^1 


Mbed 8,047 
MHdAn=Udn$d C 9 

bun O 66 leO 
ittis biits biitum G 37 
hme» biiYX G 39 
UfiOleth biiOAleth G 87 
kl^br§ bifoor S biifoor Bull, bifoor* G 

21, 23, 80 
%iii begin* G 133, beginning b^n'iq 

G. 123 
%0iM biigoon- P G 81 
kJkmvt biHaay* G 61 
hekmd beHdind* G 79 
Mold biihoo'ld BoU, beheld bmold- 

hthooeth biHWireth G 96 
hting bii-M] 6 26 
Mimfe, beliiy, Sa, G 87, biluy G 100, 

128, beUev G 24, believing biliiytq 

MoKv bel'oouz G 37 
Mmgeth bUoq*eih G 21, 86 
beloved bUuYed G 129 
Belphoebe Belfee'be G 101 
be$ul bend 6 48 

betteath biineedh* Bull, bineth* G 79 
beneJU benefit G 133 
benign bentgn bentq'n G 30 
bent hentS 

bereave bireey* G 126, bereev^ G 48 
beoeem bisiim* G 67 
betide biaaid- G 79 
beoought bisooukht* G 127 
te beet G 12, 34 
beitow bistoou' G 86 
Affbetpro bet er 186 
beUke bitaak' G 32 
bethink bithtqk- 32 
betid past tenee bitaid* G 108 
betimoe bitaimz- G 123 
betrayed bitraid- G 146 
bettor beter G 34 

betwotn biitwiin' Bull, bitwiin* G 79 
begond bliond* G 79 
bid bid S, bid G 88, bidden btd*n G 20 
bior biir P, biir Sa, beer epelled beabb 

rhgming with nbare in the paeeage 

ofSponoer (6, 2, 48) cited in G 103 
*i» bil S 

billowe bil'oous G 99 
bind baind G 116, bijnd G 18 
bird bird S, G 24, burd G 88, Hrde 

burdz G 118 
bU bit S, biU biti 37 

bitch b^sh, 8c et Tranttr, bik 8 
di^beit S, bait mordeo^ bit bit tnordebam, 

have bitten naav bit*n momordi G 48 
bitter biter G 40 
bladder blad'er Sa. 

blafne blaam G 86, blamed blamd P G 90 
blazed hitULzedQ 126 
bleee bios G 21 
blithe blaidh G 107 
block blok G 99 
blood bluud S, bind BulU G 4, 38, 

bloud G 27 
bloodg bludi G 100 
bloseome blos'umz 144 
blow bloou Bull, bloum blooun G 2 
blueh blush S, bluehed blusht G 117 
blue blyy S 
board buurd Sa, B, boord G 47, boards 

boordzG 118 
boast boost G 23, 89 
boat boot S, Bull, doo^ G 4 
body bod-i G 72, 133 
boil bcil tdcus S, buuil coquo G 16 
bold bond prov Sa, bould S, boould G 

bombast bum'bast G 38 
bondmen bondmen G 41 
bone boon, Sc baan bean S 
book buuk Sa, Sm, Sc byyk S, buuk-s 

G 3, 41, byyks Bor G 122 
boot buut S, Bull 
booth buudh Bull 
dore boor P, G 60 
bom boor*n natus, bor'n allatus the 

present use reversed Bull, bom G 60, 

98 boom=natus G 2 
borrow boroou G 88, borrowedhorooyxadi 

bot bot lumbricus equorum S, Bull 
do^<;A botsh S 
both both G 39, 98, beadh Bor G 16, 

bough bowh buuH Bull, bou G 16 
bought bouHt S, boouHt Bull, bokht 

G 12, booukht G 109 
boundhoxmd. G 16, 24 
bounty boun-ti G 29, 82 
bourn bur*n Bull, buum B 
bow boo arcus Sa 34, 68, boon areus bou 

JUctere S, boon arcus^ buu flectere 

Bull, boon arcus G 16, bowing 

bouiq G 20, bowed^boud G 18 
doire/j butt-elz Bull, bou-elz G 37, 94 
bowera hours G 114 
bowl booul «t;iMm Sa, S, Bull, G 16, B, 

boul sphaera S, G 16, B, huul globus 

box boks S, G 107 
boy bui P, hoi, fortasse bui, edii boa 8, 

hwee H, boi Bull, booi, mom bne G 


pr, bnoi ;««■ G 92. 136, boi Bar 

iB/war* bul-wark G pr ^^ 

G Ifi, bwoe B 

*««S buq B 

hraa brod elat'M, lim capili B 

buoy bwui H. bnui BiUI, Q Ifi 


burden bur-d'n Bull 

trail bulk ruplurit, braiik 4fl)<"i(fl, Jilix 

turn burn Bull, burn 109, hmM 

&e„ BuU, iraai = rvpit C IS 

bnmelh G 23 ^^M 

tratniU hrhmU G tl 

burr bur lappa B ^^^H 


»uryb>ri8a,«HrfCB ^^H 

buih buBb G 73 ^^H 

branehu bmn^'ez G 24, bnmtab eE 

buiiat bri-i'ed G 91 ^^H 

hraa biu Q 3T 

«wy b.-i-<' Sa ^H 

brxada brsTsa-da G 28 

«af bat 8, Bull, G 20, 133 ^^H 

bramlv'bm&i-MQ m 

iufeA«r bubih-er, Jfop. bilili-er 3 ^^H 

brKKh breUh f 5; H Tramtr. brek S 

»u» bat Bull ^^H 

ArsHi bred P Sa, breed S, G 21, 37, 

»<^(«rbut'er0 3S ^^1 


JMfofl but-'n BuU ^^M 

trui breek So, breek, i.«p braak br<«k 

% bei S, Q 89 ^^H 

brtatk brelb BuU 

buyer bei-ei H ^^| 

iff b.S, b*iH,Q10,79,lS6,ly«r 

ir«.(A. brecdh Bull, breoth P G 111 

ladg bei-r Lu'di' Sa, iy dfM< Ijm, n 


INI) SI, bii and blip 

bTKth briiteh S*r TranitT. it Bor briik 

8, hrucht. bntoli'tis, briiki Bor G 17 

C- ^_ 

hwdbriidS. G 124 

<Mp« ksadzh 3 .^^l 

Armiwfbren'ed iJ»-G122 

Min/' ku'tif MiMT S, kai-tn Q^^H 

hMfArm biedb-ren ant biedb'em 11, 



Mlaidi kal-endi G 37 ^^H 

hrtw brTT S. brn^^ bruuMl ? S 

«,//ka-lfBaU,™/«.kaU«Bnll ^^ 

4Wrf< bKiid 112 

«>/f kaul Sa. 8, ka'l BnU, ksa jxw 8> 

6ridegreom=Aro<iarpnm C 2fi 

««.i kal-M «mf(r««to BuU 

*ru«. bra-It' Sbri>i'<3 G 20, 123 

„alm kftulm 8. 4, kaTm BuU 

cambrU kaam'bnk, M^. kMIB'bdk 

trifilntu braikbtnes G 

Q17 ^H 

BrUaiH Brft-ain (i.. Spnttr) G 104 

*««( brood S,G 70 

<iiinf»( kauat pr, kuinot G 4S ^^^| 

, brail broH/orlaut bruU B, broU bniuil. 

uiHor kanon ? G 28 ^^M 

candh kau'tU 98 ^^M 

^^K tn>im brook-n G 61 

conixu kan-Tu G 38 ^^M 

^^^1 irvoWbruudS, GlDl 

cap iap So, S, G \2 ^^M 

^^^1 iraaitbruukBOlU 

tape kaof hupamea fUamy S ^^^| 

^^r tram bruum BuU 

eaptri kap-erz G 37 ^^^| 

^" hvllUr brudb-er G 27, 41, 112, B, 

tapo« koaVn BnU, ka^-pn, Jf^ I^^M 
el fere kiip-D G 18 ^^^1 


brot/^k^ bnidh-erHnud Q 27 

eapttvi kap'tiV G 116 ^^M 

CM kan S ^^M 

ArBught broukht G 10 

a™™ bruun Bull 

eare kaar Bull ^^| 

4™i«rf =A™«rf C 21 

<».r,>/k««r-nUQ84 ^H 

habu bub-i B 

«>r<^H kaarlu G 123 ^H 

*«* buk <<anio MM Bi, S, G 3, /v=- 

earpmter kar-pcuter G 129 ^^H 

(n(.«m 6 37 

Oarthast Etrthidih 66 ^H 

incite- bak-ler BnU 

«a« ksii G 36, 100 ^^ 


tdifmnt kuu-ment, G 37 

Mr* budzh jwri^r^Mt «ii,p,lliM S 

taikit kaakot 3fi 

iuiUcIA b)7ld-elh boUd-etb buld'oth 

(«i(ksitG^,4S,kMtkua'u BorQl6 

bild'fltb, pro iHopli evutqm wgrnie 

eat kut S, 3Ji 

G4,W« = *u«C7 

<af» kaaU G 37 

' tNiU^biilderaiOS 

cotcA kitsh S, G 149, M • htldk-.m^ 

Au<'U>« buld'iq G 111, buadi«s' = 



eattk kat-el Bolt, Q 34 

»uU bul, S, Bnil, bno j>r«> Si 

»■•< kaul =k«'l Boll ^^^^^ 


§milikvn kaii'dof'n, Bull 

MKM kAiu Bull, kAAi G 21, 103, 148 

MMMMy kau'ri Bull 

«M kaa¥ G 77 


•mmJ west G 112, MMM^teereit G 102 

mimn see-dan G 24, 106 

cMuor sen-sor G 66 

emin sent'er G 126 

mrUin sertain G 67 


eJkMlk tshAAk 6 38 

Aaikmge tshaa-lendzh G 109 

tUmberM tsham-ben G 23 

€kanc$ tshans S, tshauiiB B, ehaneeth 

tehaaoseth G 66, tshaiis-eth G 86, 

ekaneed tshAAiist G 111, 119 
tkmieeUor tshan'sler G pr 
Aange tshandzh S, G 12, 20, tsliandzh 

BnU, tshaindzh B 
thm^eahU tsha'ndzh'ablBiill 
thmUer tshant'er cantor S 
ciUjp tBtaty Jlfidi per m out vmto S 
eh^ tshaap ferrum qw>d amHt unam 

papinam S 
ektipel tahap'el 8 
dicr tshaar P 
ehtnye tshardzh Bull 
tkarity tshar'tte S 
tkarm tshar'ni BoU 
tkarriot tshiret G 23 
tktU tshaast G 77, 100 
eUwUn tshas't'n Bull 
iUttity tshast-ttii G 101 
•hmo tshAA G 14 
eluap tshiip ? lieitari p, Chmp»ide 

Tsheep'seid Sa 
iAMTtBhirP vulttuQ 
thmfiU tsheerftil G 118 
thsete tshiiz Sa, 8 
dUrisA tshertsh Bull, tsheer-ish H 

tdier tsh G 127 
§kirry tsheri 8, eherrie§ tsher^ G 99 
Ckuterton Tshestertiin G 134 
•hidden tshttd'n ? Bull 
#AM/tshiif Sa, BuU, G 77, eheef C 6 
thild tshildP 8, tshaild G 42, child 

01,2, children tBhtl-dren G 42 
ehildiehnees tshttldislines Bull 
ehin tohtn P, G 80 
chisel tshu-z*! Bull 
eholer koler G 38 
cholic koltk G 38 
ehooH tshinrz G 101, chuae 13 choee 

tihooz 6 118, chosen tshoo'z'n Bull, 

G 66, 162 
shop tshop seindere 8, chopped tshopt 

Christian Krt8*t»an G 160 
church tditrtah Sa, tihirtrii tdmrtdi 

vel tshyTrtsh, Sc et Transtr, kjTrk, 

kurk S, tshurtsh G 92 
churchyard tshurtsh'jard G 128 
churl tshurl P, tshur'l Bull 
cider Bid-eT? G 38 
Cimmerian S«mer*ian G 136 
citizen stt'izen G 86 
city stt't Bull 
civet stT'et G 39 

claim klaim S, claimed klaim*ed G 110 
daw klau S 

clay klai G 38, klaai G 101 
clear kUer G 147, kliir B 
cleave kliiy P 8, kleey G 60 
cleft kleft G 60 
clew klyy P 
clif kl*f Bull 
climb klaim, climbed klaimd, igmd ms' 

tieos autempro imperfeeto habes kloom 

klaam klum G 49 
climes klaimz G 141 
dive kleiy haerere 8 
cloak klook G 46 
dod klod gleba 8 
dooks klyyks Bor G 122 
close kloos G 141, doses klooz'es G 98 
cloth kloth G 62, klooth Bor G 16, 

clooth C 6 
clothed kloodh-ed G 23 
clothier kloodhter G 62 
clouds kloudz G 23, kloud'ei in Spenser 

G 121, 137 
doven kloovn G 60 
cloy klwei, [klui P] dare ad fastidium^ 

aut equi ungulam davo vuinerare 8 
coal kool G 12, 62 
coast koost B, eoostes C 2 
coat koot 8 Bull 
cobble kob'l ruditer faeere 8 

coil koH, fortaeu kuil, verberare 8 
cold kould 8a, kould koould 8, koo'ld 

BulL koould 6 103 d err. 
collier kolier G 62 
colour kulor Bull, G pr kul*er G 84, 

118, 129 
cdl kol eollum ampledi G 12 
cdwort kool'wurt B 
comb koom et kem, combed kemt coms' 

6am G 48 
come kum Bull, G 48, B, eotneth kum*eth 

G 20, came kam G 48 
comely kum'lt G 123 
comfort kumfort Bull, G 106, 146 
comfortless kum'furtles G 77 
command komAAud* G 87, komaund* B 
commanders komAAU'derz G 74 
commendation komendaa'stou G 30 
committed Vomit; ^ G 118 
commodious komod'ius G 30 


f 7. 

.■on welth a 43 
eompartji Ininilianoi O 1 10 
eomparable kompnrabl G 30 
»ompar> \ompaar- G 86 
BMiqMrKf koRipaard' O 1)6 
MmpdHion kompiwsioD O fir, kompai-- 

nn Q I IB 
€Oinpelilar kompot'tt'ir G 129 
anHpotilion komposiK-ion Bull 
eimeem konsenj' (i 87 
ermiimii kundenui' Y G 65 
eowligH koDdi(;'ii koodi'qn G 30 
eondiliim comdicion koudu'ion S& 
nUKyikoniz Boll, kDn-iz Q 21 
em/at konfes' G 112 
tonfidnua kon'fidena G 30 
Kn/wnrf konfound' O 116 
mffinmiiti konfound-ed G 23 
M«!/iMd konfm-ed G 107 
m^nnr kDn'dzhureT, nsn kiut'dihsrsr 

at UNJiMfHf (•«» aum ttgucm, Q pr 
emicrt konaort' G 48, totiiniriiil kon- 

MTt-edO 118 
uiutofiEy kon'staiiBi G 30 119, kan- 

atenaai- poet Q ISO, lupm p. 669, 

eel. 2. 
eimttant hoa'stant O IDS 
ConaUialiwpU Eon-aUntinDpl G 129 
AMHtrain konstrain- G 129 
amilrainl koiiBtraiat* G 107 
muul kon'sul 30 
muvU konsult' G 21 
amtiimrd konsum cd ? G 2fi, . 

eounltrehange konntertshaadlfa' fi 33 

touHttr/tU ktin terfet Boll 

eotmtat koan'tas G 43 

KDUnfry ktrntn O 43, eontru C 14, 

(wuMriu kus'tri'iz Hull 
«Hpi« koap'lyuiifcrf 5, coopled C I 
tmtragtYooi-aizb G 105, kau-iadzh 

123, karudzh B 
eourw koora rkuun F] US 
nwrt kuort G 103, nwrd kBorU Q 
anrltout tnrtetta G 66 
eourttty kur*tcn' 82 
euEjT knver, kiver Oc Q 17, m 

kaT'errat O 23 
cowl kuret G SO 
tevtlnu knT'utiu G 90 
AW kun, P, koD Sa, O 4l 
tful kani S, B 
wy kui (?) P, koi. fartam kid, ahi E 

vnii krab B 

eraektd knakt P G 99 

■ToJfe kru-dl G 101 

erajryy krag-i O 146 

crated ktaaid O 99 

ereanit kreeni nut kmiu, Mti 

fringilUrit nlinaaih G 37 
«raifol kreaat'Ed G 2fi 
crAirw«) krenlTyrt G 118 
«r«fi(krad-Jt G43 

koMTyaiia G 127 
MnlaiH koDteiD Bull, k 

D Bul1,koataiii-G4fi 
amitnt konUot' G 20 
wnfMiM kontin'jy Bull 
a»lt knnk 8, Q 17, Se kyyk S, kyjk 

weikuul 8 
eeol kaot gmm aimlu aliam niaeulam 

tn/nrtli gmru S, Boll, B 
topper kop-er G 39 
tork kork 3 

torn kooT'D Bull, korn 39 
MTH koonG 128 

MMH koi'D O 100 

tot k(Ht G, 89 B 

enlmHonftr koe'terdmuqger G 129 

(wt/ufl koit-lieat Q 112 

cot kot iitmlaemm, kool cold 8 

Mf ton kof'D Bull 

Calneold KooU'vooutil Q 70, Eat-iat 

Hwulould S, kuold Bull, G S6, B 
migh kooQH S 
«MMwJ kooD'sel so 

crwiu kraaei O 37 
criiblt krib'l miii/iitiu jmtu 8 
crwrf kreid G 78 
eroottd krjyk Ed B«- G 122 

eroum kronn G 70, eraientd k: 

cui't kyji koit, i^rWiH 
awtuin S, euiltd cyyted, d I 
(wwAkJo otniB tog%mt Q 4 

<^Ikul 8 

fH-iiiH kum'i'B G 37-38 

ammH3 kun-i'q G 83 

atp kup 8 

a.;»<J Ejyp'i'd 136 

eur kur nui'* rwdiflu 8 

(vrw kun Q 21, emtd knn'td Q ■ 

i*Mo.i. kur-tain O 23 

mrlan kuit-aki G 124 

CM kut 8, O 48 

cfprui oi'pres 106. 


dnfadowndillia dafBdaundit'i'i G IM 
i^i/f dai'lai G 3S 

dainty daiit-ti*, ddn-U diUealta % 
dainti Q 128, dkinriM dain-Ui gg 


Mi^ dal'ilmUre Q 
4tm dam heituB etf^uavis mater 6 3 
dnm'aidzh P Sa 
daam G 3, 116, 123 
diLAiifl G 143, dans, deans Or G 17y 

tUmml=idaunsed C 14 
4mi0ir da'ndzh-er fiull, dain-dzher B 
VAanwrt Daaois vulgo G pr 
imt daar 8, dwi duist G 69 
imk^dtrh C 27 
imhmtMB darknes G 23 
4w^ dart 8a 

IfAubigney DAAb'nei vulgo G pr 
DA%Ar%dg€'Court Dab'skot vulgo Qpr 
damgkter dAAkhter G 110, daughters 

dAAkht'en G 23, tome say daf *ter B 
ibw dan P, 8 
iaf dai, ruttiei daai, Mops dee, Sc et 

TVanstr daa S, dai G 22, 70 
dam daac G 114 

4faHldied ?mortMus S, deed G,deedG9 
4iM/deef 8,(200/0 11 

diir 8, dier G 84 109, diier G 15, 

deer G 101, deer rightly, not diir, B 

wrUng deerling, fiot dar'ling B 
Math deeth G 12, 109, 119, death's 

deeih*ei in Spenser G 118 
Miate debaat- G 97 
^UU det 8, debts=detts C 6 
^sears dtk'ars deeades G 72 
W^My dekai* G 124 
Meeive deseer* G 97, deceived deeseeyed 

G 112, deceiving deeseev'tq G 144 

deeklaar G 22, 23, 86 
dii nomen liter ae 8 
diim G 32 
diip 8, G 24, 70 
diier G 15, 41 
^kfenee defens- G 20 
^bfmd defend- G 31 
«ig!^ defer- G 133 
difirmid defrAAd- G 81 
dS^ d^rii BuU, G 21 
^wht deltHt- BuU, delait- G 21,delighte 

debits* G 141 
deUvereth deliV-ereth G 23 
demand demAAnd* G 88, 116, demaund- 

demurely demyyr'lt G 150 
dem den 8, dens denz G 25 
d enials d^di'AAlz G 150 
depart depart* G 90 
deprive depraiy* G 85 
diptfty^MiteeQ 14 
derive deraiv* G 48 
deeeended desended G 83 
tfnirtdezart- G 118, 141,dezert* G 116, 

121, des'ert solitude, dezert* meritum 

G pr, dezert* meritum, dez*ert deser- 

turn aut solitude G 130 
deserve deserr* G 89, deserves dezem* 

desire dezair G 90 133, deczair* P G 111 
desirous dezaiTus G 83 
despair despair* G 105 
destiny des-tent G 129, destmdi G 97, 

destmai* poet G 130, suprd p, 869, 

determined deter*mtned G 76 
Devereux Deu'reuks P G 42 
DevU Du*Til 8, diil .Bor G 122, deoel 

C 9 
devUishly =deviUisehU 6 
devoid devoid G 83 
i^deuP, 8, B 
dewy den'i G 106 
diamond dramond G 79, 91 
dieedeiA aleae 8 
Diek Dtk 8 

dictionary dtk*stbnart Bull 
dies deiz moritur 8, died ddd mortuux 

8, G116 
dijhr difer G 90 
dijbrence dtf'erens G 119 
dilapidation dtlaptdaa'ston G 30 
dUigently dil-tdzhentbi G 90 
dim dim 8, dimmed dand G 98 
din dm 8 
(ftiMdein 8 
dip dtp G 48 

diH durt G 88 
disallow d«salon* G 3d 
disburden diiBbiirdh*en G 85 
discourteous dakur-teus G 118 
discovered daknyered G 106 
discrete dtfkriit* Bull, G 77 
disdain disdain* P, 8, G 4, 98 
disease dtseez* Bull 

dij^/lgure dwfig-yyr, prov dfSY%*yyr 8a 
disgraced dtiBgnuEMt* G 1 13 

dishonest dnon'est Bull 
dishonesty dison-estai G 89 
dishonour duon'or G 89 
disloigned dtelomd' G 114 
<f»^a/ dcsloi-AAl P G 118 
disloyaltu dtsloraltai G 118 
disfnay dismai* G 121 
diemayed dtsmaaid* 
disparted d«Bpart*ed G 106 
dispiteous disptt'eus G 32 
displaced dwpiaast' G 102 
diidayed displaud' G 98, 132 
displeasure dtsplee'zyyr G 125 
DiT dtt G 123 
ditches deitsh-tz, 8a 


diMTi dima- F BoU, d.V-en P G 93 

dmt dmt 25, 38 ^^| 

dividi deviii- fiuU, diviM dersi'ded 

i><.(eA dubh d.'t<h B ^^1 


dufy dvy-ti Bull, G 110 ^^H 

iHviM diVain- mtiiu guatn derein F G 

dy^ dm-er H ^^H 

tfjfuv d3''>q 1S4 ^^H 

AniiM, dr>fE->aD. deTii-iim BoU 


«hA Mtdi O 09 ^^H 

da dun 8a, S, da G 24. AO, 134, B, doa 
C e, d»<f duust a fiS, B, d«nl C 7, 

Mob Eeg'l IS ^^M 

«>r eer, «r iir B, Mr. ewi 10S,J^H 

Mh duth G 40, 6S, DON duuD «/iir«J 

G 102, did m G 60, 134, did<t d.d« 

Alc eerl, iUU ei\ O IS ^^H 

G 66, rfoiii? du-i'q /irima naCird lud 

irn.« G133,rfo .« dot p™ du it G 

<ar(A erth Butl, ecrlh G 2t ^^^H 

136, Awe don G 60, dmin £or 17. 

MM jeet (f ) Ss (H;n-d j>. 80, «M 8, I^^H 

iduu-0«G 18,rfB»iC6 

GI6. 66, 123 ^^H 

dwfcjr doklor G 30 

tauinnt eoz'meat Q 27 ^^M 

documml dak-yytnent G 30 

«f(=Ml«i(0 3 ^^H 

<fM doo. 8«. S 

eujr eori Bull ^^M 


mt cet Q )o, aaton eetn Q M ^^H 

ibnuiMfl doinin-<'on G 30 

MCM Mn G 37 ^^H 

do«ndiima Q32,116 

wAa ek'o G 143 ^^H 

ift»r duur Bitium S, door BoU, O US, 

^u>( S'dihi'pt ? G 66 ^^H 

A»ri dtmn 95 


<V«' uU>t 71 ^H 

rfodBd doofiq G 144 

•^Un- Mkhfiin G 71 ^H 

<i>uib dnb-1 doQb-1 8^ dnbl Bull, Q 

97, 112, B 

«^JV«A aikht G 71 ^^1 

dimil dant Bull, dout 109, B 

lights aikbU Q 71 _^^H 


«<tA«r ddh'GT ow S, Midh-w <^^H 

dough doou miiperiio S 

eidh'CTOlOl ^^^H 

dote don «>i»iiiJa S, iJoto dHW C 3, 10 

**< iik lit ^^1 

•Inm eUT-n Q 71 ^^H 


Otomtk eleT-Dth 71 ^^H 

down doUD G 21 

«tfalOT0 ^^H 

«ta el'm Bull, elm lOS ^^H 

duffl diiz-n G 72 

<Jc»«m«el'ok<reiuiG43 ^^H 
miMIui embel'uh Q 29 ^^H 

drathmi dramz G 93 

drafiial 88 

■mi<wW emboud' 107 ^^H 

.JronA diaqt Q SO 

(mmow emunv- 136 .,^^H 

draie, 86. dravnmff drjli-iq 

tmpentr em-pemr 8a, em-pcrocr I^^^H 

104. drawn drAin G 14fl 

mpirc em-psir Q 73 ^^H 

.frMiJdreodS'GS3 ^H 


dng, dregi G 37 

nJitt wdait' 6 110 ^^H 


<N[«(uiind-|nGll8 ,^^H 

drink driqk Q PT drinking driqk-iq Sa 
itrHw dmi S, ilrait G 49, driiwi dr>i-a 

tndun ixxAjrr Q 3S, vndTTT- S^^H 

m«my on-sffiai O S2, *»ii^ «>^^^H 


G23 ^^H 

tfroM droB G 38 

mfortt enroll- 128 ^^^1 


England, iq-glandi ISO ^^H 
BnfiliX iiq-liah iiqglMi iq-flMir^^H 

drunk-tn drunk-n SO 
dry drei 106, <fri C 13 

/q-gl«hG14r* ^' ^H 

dock duk d-di B 

<nK>y enatboi' G 87 ^^H 

dmAjj^a 32, IDS 
rfw; dug mamiUa S 

mougrA inukh' G 9, «u<Mi inuf ««1^^^| 

rfBfadyitSi, 8 

TOlu G 10 ^^^H 



<fMf» dnq G 12 

ml*r entor 33 ^^H 

^^ dmit,Jdar, 

wMrta^ ratnuiu' Q 100 ^^H 


mUrmlt en'tralz G 37 

emirtat intreet* G 87 

«N|f en'Tt G pr^ 38 

equal ee*kiral G 84 

#r» eer G 104 

rrr erG 112 

errmtd erand pro eer*aiid G 185 

errweroT G 117 

«fM|f esai* ientare S 

sttmUished establMhed G 22 

mtmte estaat* Bull, G 20 

m ta tm estiim* G 89 

i tmu eh =eunoueh C 19 

#M» iiT-n G 22, 93 

$9emHff iiT'niq G 25 

ever ewer Q 40 

evermore evermoor Sa ?, G 104 

everp everai G 21, ever* G 80, eTtai 

pro ey'erdi utitatierimue G 136 
m/ evtl F S, iiTl G 23, ii-yil B, evOe 

UT'lz G 118, 
ewe tea H, yy Bull, eea G 15, ea B 
ewer eaii*er U. ceu'er aquaUa G 10 
esaltsd eksalted G 28 
exan^itlet cksam'plz G 68 
eseeedmff eksiidiq 6 84, 116 
excellency ek'selensdi G 21 
except eksept* G 65 
exeeee ekses* G 123 
exeKange ekstshandzh* G 93 
exeitte eluVyyz* Bull 
exempt eksempt* G 89 
exereiee ek'seraitz Bull 
exhibiiion eksil)t8'»un Sa 
exOe ek'saU G 30, exiled eksdild* G 125 
expeetmtion ekspekta*8ton G 21 
expert ekspert* G 83, 116 
explicaU eks-pltkaat G 81 
expone ekspoon* G 31 
extretnes^extreem C 11 
extremity =extremitee C I 
iy« ei S, Gpr, 15, eyee eiz S, eyne ein, 

pro eiz Spenser, G 137 
eyihright ei-braikht G 38 

JeHc faabl S 

fiee fiuu Sa, G,/a^ faa*8ez Sa 

Feiry Faaeri G 97 

/u/ &1 S, G 9,/at7f failz G 93 

Jain fain P, faain S, fain Bull 

Jtkint fiednt feint languidua S, faint G 149 

/«r faai-er G 27, 98, faair fai-er G 74, 

fiur G 99, faireet faai rest G 101 
fairly faai'erlai G 27 
feith faith G 39, 104 
faithlees faithlcs O 145 
M foul S, fa'l Bull, fill G 40, &1 P 


false &'1b Bull, iaals G 97, faleeet 

fA^lsest G 118 
falsely fAAlslai G 139 
fame foam G 125, 135 
famous faamus G 30, 35, 100 
fan fan S 
fany faq arripe, Oee ya^; hefanged to 

me at the font, Oec nil yaqd tu mi at 

dheyant, in baptisierio pro me suseepit 

G IS, fanyed faqd ^or G 122 
far far S, far G 23 2A,far=fur C 8 
farther far-dcr Bull, fardher G 34, 

farthest far-dhost G 34 
farthiny =fi:ryiny C 5 
faretael fasLwel' S 
fashioned fash'tonod G 101 
fat fat S, G 38, 74 
fate faat G 20 
father fedh-er prov Sa P flEidher G jw, 

112, fayer faather C 3, 4, fathers 

faa'dhcrz G 75 
fault fa'lt Bull, fAAt frequentius, fsalt 

docti inlerdum G pr, fAAlt fAAult G 

S6t faults =^faut8 C 6 
favour favnr Bull, favor Qpr^ 82 
faze faaz itifiia deducere S 
/wr feer G 20, 22, 98 
feast fcc8t G lid, feasts feests G 118 
fed fedS 

feeble f iib-l G 99 
feed f iid Bull 

feel fiil ^,feeliny fiU-iq G 119 
/tftf^fiitS, G40,/w<C7 
/n^ &in fcin S, fein Bull, feiyncd 

fain-edG 111 
/if«fclS, G47, 124 
fellow fcl-oou, veloou Or G 17 
fen fen S 
fence fens S, O 20 
fents fents scisnurae S 
FERE feer «orius G 1 1 
/ifrw fer'n Bull, fern G 37, fcem G 73 
fetch fetsh S, O, AuMt vetsh G 17 
fett fct adporta S 
/<w feu P, S, G 100, feeu G 15 
Jlants foi'ants riiicta vulpis G 37 
Jkklef tk'l G 103 
Jie fi ? fiH* S 

/<fWfiild Bull, G 22, 124 
fierce feers G 99, fiers C 8 
fifteen f iTtiiu G 71 
fifth fift G 71 
/fty f if ti G 71 
^ fig S 

f^ht feit S, fdikht G 80, 99 
J^ure f igyyr Bull 
JUe feil S 
fUl fil S, fil, ^«tt/ vil G l7,/«w;fil-ed 




JUthy mih'i 104 
> fill 8 
JInal fai-nat G 30 
Fimh Finah O 42 
fntiian S, fein Q 12, 123 
fngar fiq-ger f G 70 
fir Or 8 
firt ftir S, fei-er, H, him Q 16, 23, fir 

OrQ 17. (u-er^DrG 16 
firtt tint, 8, G 71, 34 
JItA fish, finr Ti'sh Sn, fieh S, O 26, 47, 

Jlihmji fish'iq, Aa u gmt a-fithn^ 

HBi (F) ii sroon Birthf Ow 18 
fithmotiger fMh-nrnq-gcr G 32 
/I fit S, O U,fit<at tV('<ist O 118 
fin feit Sa, 8, jirot Teiv 8«, foiT G 

70,Jlw C 2fi 
ylu fi'i, ttriJar igntiu 8 
jSitter flat-er G 26 
Jtammg Baam-iq G 24 
fiax flaks Sa. Q 33 

fitdge llidih epia velan, Btr flog 8 
fiMctd flii-ard O 99 
filth itcBh 6, O 38 
/nf HjT SO 
jli'HHf d>t ed G 146 
Jbat c. Boot Qiit, dialcclta varvit, Qpr 
fioti flok O i)9, /Mia floka O 87 
/borfflond, Sb flyjd 8, find Bnll, 134, 

jfndjfludzG 119 
fioHfith fliiTiah G 47, B 
fiounT QoaoT H, fiounri flon'en fiarn, 

flon-QTB (F) Moim G 39 
jfoiM floann 50 
fiMH fljyt 8 
A »■ =/*« flei f =J'" fl*' ' PiA •■ *^' 

flii tUaUetM variat Q pr, flai O SO, 

/m foo G 82, /om fooD pro foox Bptn—r 

/o« foil./wfaaa* fnil, *nw«ii 8 
foined ianiaA punclim fcriibat G 78 
/>M foould G irrala 
folk foolk ^(I'na quam fdok pr 
/oilAw fol-aon G 90, 129, fol'a Bor 

G 16 
/<>«y fol-> O 3S 
Jimd fond >(i>/«fM 8, G 1 U 
fiod hiud O 24, 3S 

fool ftiul Sa, 8, G 37.>>Ii (ank O 89 
/ooJiiA ruul'ish O 27, 103 
/m( fUnt Boll 
fooUttpt taaVWuv* 147 
/w for S, G 21. B 
faritar torl>e«r- Gill 
/onwd font G 09, fornmg foora-i'i] S 1 39 
fom* foarHi Q 100 

I O 18S ^^H 

fottgo foTEoo' anitlD, iom-^ao- p nmi a 

G 6&,firejBin3 foorgoiq G 129, I3t 
>i'Mf for'«3t G 24,62. 134 
fiirattr, fos-tvr Mmsni nutM, 8 
forftalUr foorstiilcr G 139 
for, foor B 
/wrfett foortel' G80 
/orye foniib G 1 18 
/oiy(( forget- G 66, Jtrydl 

/orjoHm forgot-n G IT' 
forgmf=fot$^ C 9, 

giT-tq G 133 
forgoutg forgo-tq O 33 
forU-m (briam- G 33 
fiirtsln fonaak- O 103. 
fortfMkitig foorapeek-iq 
fbrnetar foraweet* G 33 
forth ftiarth G 22, 21 
forths foidhai- G 100 
fhrvard foo'rwnrd Bull 
>Mbnl<iirruS. G74, 104 
fimd tbniid G 136, fond in Sjmmr O 

/oHHifiif i«u fnundun'oDI G 31 
foundtrt fonnd'ed Q 24 
foimlaw fooD'ttmi Q 119 
four four, prov vcmr Sa, fbon'r WU, 

(bonr G 37, 70 
faurltm fooortiia O 71 ftorUm fim' 

Uat xiiv C 1 
fmrth fouarth, H, fooartb G Tl 
f>Kl foul S,fiHPl> foolz O 34 
fox tola Sa, S, pror rok« 8« 
frailbaUG 114, 123 
^merf&aa'med G 123 
Avner, PriAwa G 70, FrRBU B ^^^ 
franim fran'tan O 120 ^^H 

/ray free iw B ^^1 

fne mQ 83, 89 ^^H 

fnea frib 47 ^^ 

Frauh Prenali G TO 

/w«y fren-w G 106 

/rim./ frind 117, iriind ^.fr^rndQ 

II, frimdi biindi Sa, BoU, (r^b 

frimdlo), friind'le* B 
frimdly &>'nd Ini G 84 
frindiliip frind-ahip O 8! 
froiit fruil f P 
fiym from 8, G 20, 7B 
franft fronte O 99 
freil ftort G 47 
froi/y Irag-tt G 146 
frolh froth 38 
frovardrmi fro'wanlnei O 82 
froumins froun-tq G 20 
fraiai frool'n. Ore ifroOT" inon 
Jrufality trjjpil-Aai O 89 


frmikm fruM-MOD P Q 80 

JwU tfyel Q 126 

fiigitnf€ fyy'dzhftoiT G 86 

>0 fol S, BnU G 82 

fidtma ftd-nes G 22 

fidmm$ M'Bom G 28 

J^mmrai fjjuaal G 84, 106 

fwkmg niT'loq G 70 

furwtety frmn-eittt O 87 

Jkrmie9^Jum$i9 Q 6 

./WnmA ftirnfsh Boll 

fiamituf ftnitjp Q 48 

fmrtktr fardher nirdher forder, dio' 

kghu variat, G pr, Airdher G 34, 

furiketi fur-dhert G 34 


MMgainG20, 79 

V«M< gainst G 124 


iuOmU gal'umt Sa 

$ tmg nl gaqiel or gaq'grel .8or, A«mo 

ignmntg, G 17 
flip* gaap S, G 88 
$m4tn g^aar'd'n Boll 
§miand garland G 103 
fmrlie gu'ltk G 88 
farmeni garment G 28 
yt<#gaat Bull 
fwMtfr j^adher G 25, 112 
fiygai,gaeiP 8 
fau gaaz S, G 88, 114 
ftkUnff ffeld'ing S 
fmural dzhen*eral G 133 
£imroua dzhon'eroB G 30 
ftmtive dzhen'fttV Bnll 
fmtle dzhentfl P S 
^mtletconun dzhen*tl,wini*en, M^u 

dzhentl,ini'm G 18 
jwi^/y dzhentlai G 111 
jfmmeiry dzheom*etroi G 38 
Omrgt Dzhordzh Sa, S 
£UU dzhests G 107 
^ get 8, gai eat genuit 8 
jhott^ghoMtQ 1 
jibUU dzhtbletB G 27 

jrt^ gifts 
GU Dzhil 

\i[fxmina kvU S, G 36 

Oilhert Gilbert Sa 

GiU$ Dzhnilz G 42 

Oaian Dzhd'ian G 36 

QUI G/1 G 42, gil hranehia piseis 8 

GiUtland Gilz land G 136 

gk*ger dzhin-dzhtr Sa 

girdU girdl G 46 

gw$ gir S. G 18, ejiy Ball G 23, gii 
Mop9 G 18, gijvKj 18, govt gay jaav 
jaaf S, gaay G 49, given giiVn Bull, 
giVn G 67 

gladf^ G21 

glaa glas G 42 

gloomy gluu'mt G 147 

glorious glor'ins P O 30, ^loo*rtns ? B 

glory glooTi G 21, gloort 15 

glovt gluy G 70 

glm glyy P, G 38 

glut glut G 89 

^0 go G 17, 24, goeth go*eth G 25, 
going go'ing prima ayllaha naturd 
aud brewis G 183, gang gaq Bor G 
17, gone goon S, G 65, goon C 2, jmv 
imper/eeto patree noetri eubetituerunt 
oi jeed aut 9i jood G 64, 65, pro 
went, jed aut jood ibam, Lineohti- 
eneet ab antiquit etianmum retineni 

^oo^^good 8 

goats gootB G 24 

God God Sa, S, G 20, God be with you, 
God bii'wijo, Sa 3 

gold gonld Sa, goonld G 37 ^ errata 

golden gooald'n G 98, et errata 

goldsmith goonld'smith G 82, e^ errata 

good girad god P Sa, god, gaud 8, god 
G 12, gyyd Bor G 17 

goodlihead gud'liHed G 98 

goodly gud*lai G 27 

goodness guud-nes Sa 10 

goose gnus G 38, geese giiB G 40 

gorgeous gordzheus G 107 

gosling goz'ltq G 35 

gout gout G 38 

govern goyem G 21, 66 

government gayer'nment Boll 

gown goon, gAxn geAAn Bor G 16 

grace graas Boll, G pr, 29, S3 

gracing graas'tq G 150 

gracious graa'si,UB Sa B 

graft grai Bull 

Grahams Gre-Hamz G 73 

grammar gram'ar G 38 

grange gra'ndzh Bull 

grant grxAut G 86, 116 

grass gnu Bull G 24, 37 

grave graay Ball G 125 

graven graavn G 23 

graze gruz P Bull 

grease grees G 38 

great greet magnus^ greeet ingens G 35, 
greet C 7 

greatly greet'loi G 20 

Grecian Grefsian G 73 

greedy griid-i G 83 

green griin G 3 

greenish grin'tsh P G 36 

grew gryy G 1 10 

grey greei P 

^/griif G 

grieve ^pis B 

grieved = greened C 18 

W 892 pRONODNcrac vocabdlary of xtith cekt. Cbap. Vin. 4 7. 

1 fritoui gTiivQs Q 8i 

hnrvmt BBi-tmA G 131 ^^^ 

H friti gtin lnqutHt Q 3 

A«fnj HaMt'iid G 24 ^^M 

■ oriod^gryndCii 

m grMygrAzMQlVi 

hatlj, uas'U G 147 ^^M 

^ groan gTOon Bull 

^^^^B fraaa=anKiliiC 18 

hatclu, Babhet 37 ^^H 

^^M gmurul ground G 103 

hau Kaat S, G 33 ^^H 

^^^B gmn gfooa G 2t, US 

Adored Bao'trrd F ^^H 

^^V fM^<»>gudE!.'eoafG77 

hateful Ha«t-ful G S4 ^^H 

^^^ pm. ges BuU 

AstA HHth G fi4, Hez .Bar G IT ^^H 

■ fu*,li=swU>C\i 

Amw HanT P. 5a, S, G 11, lUT nd^^H 

■ ruNir giii Suil 

A<MM» BaaT-n G 99 ^^H 

■ ;u<V</Ki](iG47 

Aaio uau P, unmU in ocmk Bna ^^M 

1 ssr-""" 

Aoy hd /™«« Bull, hai/mw. O «^" 


■ ^Htffv gtlf. Q i, *S 

Ai Hii P, G 10, Huu Ai»l 17 

I guiM gilt BuU 

A«flrf bed 8, Bull, He*d G 102 

1 ^Hl/^fBuU 

hcadacU hed-aaWh G 38, m> AelU 

f gumgimS 

]ual hmI S«, 8. Bull 


A«i;f A Hiieltli G 21 

htap BBcp Bull, Aiopf Kfcps G 107 


}^r unr, a>r um B, Amt^A^AmA 


C7 -^^ 

htard nuLTd G 21, 23, Heenl, Mr MtH 

•on G 23, 130 

B, A«rrf C e ^^H 


Adrrfan Hccrk'u, nr BKikti B ^^^| 

iair HGer Bull, A«r C 5 
Aai7 utuii! aalvi G 61 
Ja;««rrf HiAlbcrd Hul-Wd 

Axirt uart Sa, C 21, 23. 79, B ^H 
kearl-tating Hart'eei'iQ C 131 ^^^^ 


A«r(A Berth G 142 


Aw( = A«( C 20 

fcife aaai G 3 

A«<A« Heedhen G J2 

Gpr.HiAlfG 140 


hta€>» ney-n Bull, Amhii 6, Amnm 

HeeT-nz G 22, 13 i^M 

J.//p™f.j H»A-peni G 32 

AxicyuwT'iGlIS, B ^^H 

hall HBul S, G 3, E«a Hal Honnouln* 

A«^> Bvdih S .^^H 


And uiU G 113, A«l AW U, U^^H 
Aiel uiil 8>i, 8, BaU ^^^1 

Aam Hail'm or ibd'er BuU 

Aam Hun Bull, B 

A<vAl seikhl G 84, 124, tit, Aff^^l 

Aamt iisam, dhe wud ldip-inf> tbunt- a 

uora'koler Bull 

A<u-'cA«te- C 21 ^^^1 

iUn<i Hand Ss, G S, Rond 

kM Bcld G 49 «i^^H 

G 137, hand* hnndi Bn, buid-cs in 

luU ui>t 8, Bull. C 38 -l^H 


VI Hiil, mist Jor pre Hii «il, G-I^H 

JUnrf/nJ nand-ful O 70 

ham aoYm Bull ^H 

AaRf/^m; uaad'liq G 114 

n Sjjmnr 

A<miien]Si>,G 141 ^H 

anw ,„l- 

A<m;> aemp Bull. G 38 ^^H 

Ubk,. a,,.-q 

Am neu S. A«n. houi F, S ^H 

Jbfl^nj Bflqd G 122 

Amm Hem 8 ^H 

A«nM/«-(ABeniforth'G ll>,htMM^^H 

, happnuik nap-uetli G 56 
^^^ Aiffiy hup-' 124 

GUT ^^H 

Aar aer G 44, 7fi, a* G 22, 76 -^^" 

^^K AoriMT um-bour F 11» 

hirb H«rb G 24 

^^H Adr<{ Hard S> 

lun Hiir hmMikww bcct Bull, mi-w C 

^^^H Jtortfm nardn G 47 

76, niii B. Amt C 15 

^^^r Aarrfy Hirdi G 27 

^^^ Aar/™ Hurk-n G 86 

W AorttOflyliarmoniiOllS 

Ba-Bd= HeerooJ G 2 ^^H 

■ fi^irryHar-iOHS 

A^n Bcer'D BuU ^^M 

■ kmhnif Hanh-nu, G 32 

Asv Hea Bull, B ^^H 

^^^ Aarl BMt P, 8» 

A«r/Bi»iG ^^^^^1 

Chap. VllL { 7. PBONOUKCINO vocabulary 01* XVI TH CENT, 893 

kuU Hod S, hidett Beidert G 25, hid 

Bid S, 6 130 
Aid$tmt mdreuB Q 78 
A^A haikh G 23, 99 
A^A Bei G 21, 74, 98, 105, higher 

naret H, Hsi-er G 34, higheH Hai'est 

km Btl S, hilU Htl2 G 23 
AtM B«m G 44, «m Bwr G 122 
AiMwI/Btmself G 128 
hmdirtik Hin-dreth G 136, hindered 

Hui'deTed Bull 
Airv wAt G 15, 114 
Aif Hts G 21 
kU Htt G 48 

kUker Btdh-er G 66, Bedh-er B 
Ao«r BOOT 8 
komrde^hoorde C ^ 
AotfTWBOon S 
AoUy Bob-t P 

So^ Bodzh Bogerculue ruatieorum S 
Ao/tf Bo'Id Bull, Boonld G errata, holden 

Hoouldii G 49, et errata 
keie BOol foramen 8 
koiimeie BOO'ltnes G 22 
koOow Bol'oou G 103 
koUp Bol't aquifolium Sa, Bull 
kUm Boorm ilex Bull 
kotf BOoW eanetue 8a P, G 12 
k um a t on'Cst P, 8a, Bull, oncst non 

Bonest G pr^ B- 
komutjf on-estf G 
AoMy Bunt' G 38 
komntr on*ur P, on*or 8a 44, ou'or non 

Bonor nee oner Gpr, 22, 87, ou'ur B 
konourabU on*orabl G 129, 139 
kood Bud Buud, i^ ayyd 8 
Aoo/buuv 8 
Am^ Buup Bull 

Aop Bop o, Bull, A<>p« Bopfr G 37 
A^ hoop Sa, 8, Bull 
k^fia Boopfiil G 32 
kopilets Boop'les G 32 
korekound noor-Bound G 38 
koHzon Bor^'zon G 29 
korrar Bor'or G 98 
korae non 8, Bull, G 10 
koreeman Hors'mau G 32, 128 
Am# booz G 41, Booaz Bor, booz'U 

kottnd Bound H 
kour ou'er, e inierpoaito acrihatur ou'cr 

Aoni, id enim etprolatio ferre poteat, 

et aenaua kane differentiam (our 

noaterf ou*er hora) requirit, G pr, 70 
homed Born'ed G 99 
houae a, Bous G 24, v. bouz G 47 
houaehold Hous'hoould G 81 «^ errata 
howled Bould G 109 
ho^a Buciz (=Hweiz=wheiz P) H 
Evberden Htberden Sa 

huge Hyydzh S, G 99, 121 
humanity Hy3rman*tt« G 29 
Humher Hum'ber G 40 
humble um-bl Sa, humbleneaa Bum'blnei 

G 135, humbkaae Humblef' G 135 
hundred Bun'dred G 71 
hundredth Bon'dreth G 71 
hunger Huq'gcr P G 103 
himt flunt G 90 
hurt Burt P, Sa, G 48, 87 
huaband=houabond G 1 
hutch BUtsh 8 
Ay / Beei G 15 
hypocritea^hypocrijta G 6 
hyaaop ai'zop 6 38 

/ ei Sa, 8, ai non ei G pr^ Auat ch ut 
cham, chil, chi voor ji pro ai am, oi 
wtl, ai war'ant jou G if 

iee eifl S 

idea aidz G 37 

idle=idil C 20 

idola ai'dolz G 22 



/'// ail aist, ail aist Borpro ai wtl G 17 

illuatrioua ilus'trius G 30 

imagea ai-madzhesP G 23, un'aadcb 

imagine imadzh'tn G 20 

immixing im,mi'kB*iq G 110 

impair impair* empair* G 33 

impart impart* G 31, 85 

implacable im'plaakab'l G 109 

impoaaible tmpos'tbl G 30 

importune »mpor*tyyn G 31 

impotency tm-potcnsi 6 30 

impotent tm 'potent G 135 

impoveriah fmpoyerish G 29 

impregtuible tmpreg'nabl G 29 

impute tmpyyt' G 85 

in m Sa 

incenae p. inscns* G 31, a, tn'sens P G 38 

inch tnsh G 70 

incivility tnstvtl'ttf G 1 12 

included inklnd'ed P Bull 

increaae cnkrecs* Bull, inkrees* G 21, 22 

incredible inkred'il)! G 30 

indeed tndiid* G 52 

indenture indcn'tyyr G 30 

India /nd'ta, aire /nd G 70 

Indian /nd'tan G 70 

indure indyvr* G 

infamy tn'ramai G 118 

inferior tnfer'ior Bull 

ifigcnioua indzhen'ius G 148 

ingratitude ingrat'ttyyd G 30 

inkt tn-let G 33 

innocency in'oscnsai G 73 

innumerable innum'erabl P G 25 


inttead insteed* G 103 
instrutnent in'stryymeat G 129, instru- 
ments tn'stryyments G 118 
insult V. insult' G 86 
intangU see entangle 
interchange tntertshandzh* G 33 
interfere en*terfeer' G 33 
intermeddle tntenned'l G 33 
interpret interpret G 112 
intimate tnttmaat Q 31 
into tntu G 79 
invade invaad* G 117 
inwardly tn'wardlai G 21 
inm ei'em G 94 

inmmattger ai'emmaq'ger G 129 
tf tz Sa, G 20, w it istpro tz it G 136 
isles ailz G 22, 148 
it ft G 44 
Ueh itsh S 

i9ory ivorai P G 117 
iufis ciwis* eert^ S 

Jack Dzhak iaeeus vel ioannidior S, 

jade dzhaad equus nihili S 
James Dzhauaz Bull 
Jape dzhaap ludere antiquis mine ob- 

seoenitis signijieat S 
Jar dzhar G 133 
Jaundice dzhAAii'dis G 38 
Jawe dzhAA G 14 
Jag dzhai graculus 8 
JsaUmsy dzhel'oet G 124 
Jerk (hhirlLjlagellare S 
Jerkin dzher'kin sagulum S 
Jesse dzhespedica accipitrum S 
Jesses dzes'ez G 37 
Jesters dzhcst'crz G 118 
Jesu Dzhee'zyy Sa 
Jesus Dzhee'zuB Sa 
Jet dzhet gagates S 
Jews Dzhyy-es P S 
Joan Dzhoon S 
John Dzhon fals^ Shon, Sa, G, Djon 

Wade apttd G pr, Dzhon G 35, Joan 

Join dzhauin G 86 
Joint dzhoint Sa, Bull, dzhuuint G 15, 

Joist dzhuist B 

Joseph Dzhoo-zef Bull, Dzhosef G pr 
Journey dzhur-noi G 92 
/<wDzh(H)v G 110 
Joy dzhoi G 10, 15, 21, 89 
Joyful dzhoiful G 22 
Joyous dzhoi 'UB G 118 
Judae dzhudzh S, G 11, 112, Judges 

dzhudzh-ez G 152 
Judgement dzhudzh 'ment Bull, G 11 
Judicious dzhyydiB'ius G 81 

/M^dzhuff 8 
jugglers azhug*l,un Bull 
Juice dzhyys S, dzhuiB P Bull 
J%ut dzhust S, Bull 

justice dzhu8*tcB G pr^ dvurt'ti Wmis^ 
apud G pr 

keen ImnQ 12 

keeplaip S 

ken ken S 

Kent Kent Sa, 8 

ketch ketsh rapere S 

kicked kikt G 78 

kill kfl S 

kin kin S, G 12 

kindness kaind'nefl G 82 

kindred kindred G 98, kindreda kaa*- 

dredz G 22 
kine kain G 12, 41 
king kiq Sa, S, kings ktqi Sa 
kingdom =kingdoom C 2 
kinsman kinz-man G 40 
kis kis Sa, G 42, kieseth kis^eth 6 98 
kitchen kitah-en Bull 
kitting kit*liq eatului G 86 
kiz kiks myrrhis S 
knee knii Bull 
knew knyy G 116, 124, B 
knife kniif Bull, knaif G 100 
knight knikht Sa, kniHt Bull, kankkt 

knit kuit Bull, G 48, 146 
knobs knops bullis S 
knock knoK Bull, knocks knoks 8 
knot knot Sa, Bull 
knoweth knoou'eth G 24 known knoouB 

tion knoon G pr^ 21 
knowledge knoou'ledzh Bull, G 77 
ktiuckle knuk'l BuU 

labour laa'bur Bull, laa'bor G 88, 100, 

141, laabur B 
labyrinths lab'erinthfi G 114 
lack lak Bull, S 
;<m; lad Sa, S 
ladder lad'r Sa 

lade laad, onerare S, laden laad*n 8 
ladiei mantle laa'dtz man*tl G 38 
lady laadi Sa, G 107, lady-ladm laad-t- 

ladii' choriambus G 133 
laid laidjpofi^^ S, G 21, 111 
lake^ laak, 8 
lamb lam G 35 
lambkin lam'kin G 35 
lament lament. Bull, lamented\Mmiait^ 

lamps = laampes C 25 
lance launs B 
land lond pro land mi 8p$nmr O 187 



fmmfwMfe laq*gwaidzh, Sa, laq'gadsh. 

Boll, liq-giudzli O 146 
UmgmUh laq-guish O 126 
lq» lap tinut S, lap9 laps 8 
lmrfma$ UurdzhiB G 29 
Imak laiflh Sa, lash p9nr$ S, huhed 

l«< last G 40, lotting laattq Q 74 
lastlf laife-lt G 110 
Art lat^bMvitS 
lirt# laat G 100, 8 
MA lath Ball 
UAkt laath horreum Bull 
ImiyA laaa, laf^ 8, Ujkh^ H dialeetU 
plmeet laf , pro ai IxAkhed atMf ie* ai 
Ivnkh out ai lyyUi G 49, iaughed 
Umkht G 109, 
UmghUr lanH'ter 8 
Xoiira LAA*ra G 150 
imw laan 8, Iaah G 10 
imwfia, lan-ftd Bull, XkatM G 67 
fofcw Uan G 14 Ifofw leen G 17 
lawndt lAAnda in Spenser (4, 10, 24,) 

iMvyir lAA-jer G 81 
Imx, ]B^proluvium ventris 8 
liy lai ponere^ rustiei laai, lfop« lee, 
Se, et Transtr laa 8, lojfett laist 8, 
^tf<A lai-eth G 23 
Im^s laia (laiz P) terra ineulta et resti' 

bilegj 8 
tey ]aa*£t G 12, 74 
iemd leed cfiiMfv out plumbum 8, leed 
^mAkjh G 39, did leed=dueebat C 2 
Umf 8, Bull, G 73, Itavee leevz Bull 
ImA leek BuU, 8 
IMM leen Bull, G 74 
Iffi^leep 8 

lemm lem G 27, leem G 141, learning 
leem-iq G 82, learned lemed G 
68, leem-ed G 69 
lemmer leer*nor Bull, lem*er G 27 
leoi leei lea paeeua 8 
Uaee lees loeatio aut heatumie instru^ 

menium 8 
ieath lesh leesh, temio eanum 8 
least leert 8, Bull, G 34, leestQB 
leather ledher G 38 
leave Ijeer P tuprd p. 80, 8a, Icev G 38, 

48, Mcps liiT G 18 
UdeVdd genua 8 

leeeh leaeh liitsh leetsh, medicut 8 
/ImA liik porrum 8, Bull 
|00< liit, diet Juridieus 8 
Ar/K IT. left G 48 
/^ leg Bull 
^<f lend G 48, 88 
lesest liist liia'tBt perdis 8 
/^ lea &, G 32, lesser les-er G 34 
/(M#M les-ez relieta porei, Q 37 

jiMfofi leB*n G 101 

let let sinere etiam impedire^ 8 

iMt^« leten G 43 

leviathan leyiatbanP G 25 


lib l»b eastrare 8 

Libyan Ltb'ian G 148 

liee leis 8, lais G 41, laia or lils Bbn 


/u;A Ilk 8, Bull 


/m lai yoob fnentior^ lay lai jaeebam^ 

lied laid mentiebary ai uaay lainyoMM, 

laid mentitus sum G 51 
/i^liif canim 8 
^ leis mendaeia 8, laiz G 21 
lieutenant liiften-ant G 66 
life laif G 68 
light ItHt leit, /imp aut levis 8, ltH*t 

Bull, laikht G 23, lighter laikhter 

lightnings laikht'ntqz G 23 
lightsome laikht'sum G 148 
like Ilk 8, laik G 23, 32 
liken laikn G 85 

likewise laik'waiz G 32, lijkwijse G 21 
lily Itl't Sa 
limb lim S 

lime leim 8, loim G 38 
lineh li'ntsh or stiip seid of a Htl, Bull 
lines lainz G 37 
link liqk BuU 
Uons Idi'onz G 24 
lips lips 8 

list lest 8, Itst G 110 
lit lit tingere 8 

literature lit'eratyyr G 30, 129 
littU lit-1 parvus Bull, G 34, 74, UitT 

valdi parvus, G 35 
live V. liY G 20, 25, living Itv iq G 101 
liverwort liverwurt G 38 
load lood G 89 
loaf loof panis vulgato more rotundus 

foetus 8, loaves Bslooves 16 
loath loth Bull 
loathe loodh Bull 
loathsome loth'sum G 103 
lob lob «^m/^im S 

lock lok 8, Bull, look inelusum Bull 
A>^tf lodzh 8 
lofiv loftt G 141 
^log 8 

/otV^r loi'ter Bull 
London Lon'dn S, Lun*don G 70, Lon*- 

don P G 134, Lun'un Wade et tobeU 

larii apud G jpr, Luu'un lintrarii 

long loq G 20 
loof lum proeul 8 


look lank S, Bull, looketh liiuk*eth 

loose luuB Sp loot4s lous loos C 18, 19 
lord loord S. Bull, lord G 21 
lordship lord'ship 6 27 
los$th^looseth CflO 
^OM lo8 S, G 20, 90 

lot lot SOTS 8 

^otKJ loud G 74, B 

lowe \ovtB pediculus S, G 41, louz pedi' 
eulos legere S 

htuy louz*i S 

love luuY 8, luY G 69 ei passim^ loov 
G 23, loved luved G 36, 64, luvd 
usitatissimus est hie metaplasmtts in 
verbalibus passivis in ed G 136, 
loved' St luvedst non luvcdest G 63 

lovely luvloi G 101 

lovers luvers P G 1 14 

loving luY'tq G 36 

low lou muffire Sa, loon humilis G 21, 
40, 114, 119 

luek luk Sa, S, Bull, G 38 

lug lug auriculas vcllere S 

Luke Lyyk P BuU 

lukewarm le}7k-war'm P Bull 

/m// lul G 101 

lump lump Bull 

lurden lur'dcu ignavus 8 

lustXmi Sa,G 118 

lustihead lus'ttHod G 27 

lusty lustt G 27 


maee maas elava vel sceptrum S, Bull, 

made maad G 22 
magnify ma^-niidi G 31, 134 
maid maid, ifc>^« meinl G 18 
mainprise main'priz Hull 
fnaintain mainti>in* Bull 
maintetiance main'tcnans G 28 
maize maiz G 28 
majesty mudzlroRtt Sa, maa'dzhestdi 

G 22, madzh-cstai G 23 
make maak Bull, maak C 3, waketh 

maak-eth G 23 
malady mal*ad.)i G 133 
Maiden MAxl'den G 91 
male maal G 12 
malice mal-is G pr 
mall mAAl marma G 12 
mallow mal'oou G 41 
malt malt G 37 
man man Sa, S, G 24 
manage man-adzh G 1 22 
mand ma'nd spurta Bull 
mane maan S 
manicle man'ikl G 30 
manifold man'ifoould G 26, 106 

masmws man-en G 43, 94 
mangueller man'kirel'er homicida 8 
manure manyyr* G 132 
many man't G 39, 101 
fNor mar eorrumperey a 
mare maar equa 8 
margent mar'dzhent G 80 
marriageable mar'idzhabl G 129 
marry mar't G 74, married marM G 

mark mark G 110 
muirl marl G 38 
marvel marv*ail G 88, marvtUadesimar* 

mash mash aquam hordeo ti mp era r if H 

macula retium 8 
mass mas mes missa 8, mas Bull 
master mas'ter G 76, 96 
mat mat 8 
match matsh 8 
matchable matsh'abl G 100 
material material G 30 
maw man F, 8 
fluiy mai poMMfN, rustiei maai, Se Trmmitr 

maa 8, mai non me G pr^ 24, miai 

G 21, mee cor B, maycst maiit tm^ 

mai'est G 64 
mau maaz 8a, 8, Bull 
me mil P, 8, G 10, 44 
meal meel Sa 
mean miin intelligere 8 {^wUmt^vtiU 

tus P seep, 112 n ) meen med io c r e 8, 

Bull, meen G 77, mcancth meeii*edi 

meat meet, miit Mops G 18, meat Bar 

meditation meditaa'ston G 26 
MMArmukG 110 
m«e;/ miil se immiseeret Sa 
fN««^ miit S, G 67 
melancholy melankolai place of accmU 

not marked and uncertain G 38 
melted melt'ed G 23, mdting melt-tq 

men men Sa, S, G 21, 39 
merchandise mcr'tsba'ndiz Boll 
merchantable mar'tshantabl G 129 
merchants mar'tsbants G 93 
merciful mer'siftil G 21 
Mercury Mcr'knrai P G 84 
mercy merst G pr 21, 116, 121, 

mersdi G 149 
mere miir Bull 
meridional mertd* tonal G 30 
meriting mer'tttiq G 114 
mess mcsferculum^ 8 
message mes'adzb G 118, 146 
mettle met'l d metallum G 30 ' 
mew [for a hawk)y myy P, 8, men 

eatorum 8, mien H 


meaa 8, mais G 41, jdoob or miis 

Bbk Jonson. 
Mkkmd Md-kel P Sa 
MitiMbmut Mei'kelnuu P Sa 
miidn mtds P medium S 
wdfki mtkht Sa, mtHt Boll, mtkht 

G 52, maikht G 38, 66 
fnttmilkS, G38 
wtUium mtl*fon G 71 

mttnd Boll, maind G 83, 52, 90 
rnoin Gpr, 10 
mtn*fbn G 129 
mimuUri min'raten G 24 
mmt mint G 41 
mmut4 min'jjt G 70 
wtirrori miron G 101 
mirtk merth G 38, mtrth G 145 
w tt t ek mie t mistsliaiis* G 116 
muchie/miB'tBhufG20, 106, 149 
wtiteameeiped mnkonseeyed G 112 
mi9ermnt mM'krcant G 105 
«u» mds iumptut vel of a cenfiaiA modi' 

9mr mai'zer G 134 
mmrahU mtz-erabl G 129, 184 
mmry mti'ert G 129, 134, mizerai* 

p9it G 130, miteriea miz'eraiz G 125 
MAytM mogtv- G 33 
MtqvJMf misplaas' G 33 
mm mM eareo S 
miUake mistaak- G 32 
mtks'tyTr Bull 
moon G 145 
modtrmtor moderaa*tor G 30 
ii0M< moist G 99, 119 
moUUn moiBt'n G 133 
Mo^^ molest- G 117 
Monday Hundai B 
mmtUr mon-stcr G 124 

itniB valdi prodigiotumj moooon'stnis 

prodigioaum adeo ut hominam itupidet 

iMfwy-f mun*t-z G 41 
fltonMmunthG 144, B 
witmimmi mon'yyment G 
mood muud S, bull 
moon muon G 12, 24 
SMfv moor S, G 25, moor C 5 
mommg morn'tq G 106 
morrow moroou G 125 
iNorto/ mortAAl P G 97, 116 
mortar mor*ter cementum G 38 
Moui^MooteetC 19 
flioMmos S 
moot moost G 34 
Mo(A#rmudh'erBull, G 112, Bymoothir 

M0y«r 2, mooytr C 12 

mould moould G 124 

mound mound B 

mountains moun*tamz G 24 

mourn mnur'n Bull 

mouoo mous miw , mouz dovoraro S, mous 

mouth mouth G 21, B 
move muuT G 118 B, moved muuT'ed 

mow muu F, men meta fcmij moou 

mitore aut irridere os dittorquondo, S 
much mutsh S, much good do it you, 

mttsh-ffood'itjo, Sa, mutsh G 34, 89 
mmk muk S, G 38 
mud mud S, G 38 
mule myyl mula S 
mulet myylet mulue^ S 
multipluAle mul-t^biabl G 129 
multiply mul'ttplei G 31 
multitude multttyyd G 22, 30, 129 
mum mum taee, o 
mumble mom'bl emum edentulorum 

more mandere, aut inter dentee mueei- 

tare S, mumbled mum-bled G 101 
murder mur'der, mur'dher dialeetue 

variat G pr^ mur-dher G 106 
murmur mur*mur G 119 
murr mur rancedo S 
murrain murain B 
mute myyz Sa, S 

mueie myyzik G 38, muu'ztk P G 150 
must must G 64 
mustard mus'terd G 38 
mutton mut'n G 39 
My mai Otpr'N 


fM^nag Sa, S 

nail natl, fiot^ natlz Sa 


name naam Bull, G 22, naam C 1 

narr nar ringere more eanum S 

narrow nar-u Sa, narrower nar*oouer, 

Oec narg-er G 18 
nations nas'ionz Bull, naa^sionB G 21 
nativity nattT'ttt G pr 
nature naa'tyvr Bull, na-tjyr P G 98 
naught nAAKut vitiosum aut maium G 

naughty =noughti C 21 
nay nai S, nee eor B 
near niir S, neer H, ncer G 34, 104, nier 

G 84, niir B, nearer ncr-er P G 34 
neat neet G 7 
neb neb rostrum S 
necessary nes-esari Bull 
necessity neses'ftt Bull, G 139 
neeknA S 
nectar nek'tar G 98 
need raid Q 20, 87, 98 
medle^nedelC 19 


M0*tfr neer G 112 

IMM0 niiz stemutamentum 8 

fmiher neidh-er G 75, neeidh'er G 46, 

NepUme Neptyyn G 121 
fttffA nesh tener S 
mat nest S, nesta nests G 24 
ii#< net Sa, G 7, 77 
new ny nyy S, Bull, nyy G 22, news 

nyyz G 27 
mm:/ nekBt G 34 
mMe ntb'l Sn 
nigU9 ntf -In fta«7 S 
nigh ntkh Sa, naikh G 79 
iii^A/ ntkht S, noikht G 92 
niU ml noA) G 32, 65 
ftufi nim nem eape^ Oce G 18 
iiifMnain G 71 
nimUm nain'tiin G 71 
iiifi#^ noin'tt G 71 
ninth nainth G 71 
MO no S, G 20 

nobU noobl Bull, G 148, nobl P G 83 
none noon G 9, 75 
nones noonz G 37 
noon nnnn G 12 
north north Bull 
noes nooz, S 
not not S, G 20 
noU noot S, G 123, 134, noted noo'ted 

MO^Atn^ nothtq Bull, G 32, 38 
nought nouHt nauHt S, noukht G 82 
WoM nould P noUbam G 65 
MovruA nur'tsh B, fwurisheth nur*»8lietli 

MOPi^noY'tB G 113 
nofous norus G 104 
now nou Sa, G 100 
number num'ber Bull, nwnbersnxaa'herz 

G 141 
numerous num'erus P G 141 
nymphs nimfs G 114 

oak ook BuU 

oaken oo'k'n Bull 

oaih ooth Bull, ooth C 26 

oaten ot-n P G 146 

obey obeei- P, obei* Bull, obai- G 87 

oceasion oka*zion Bull, okaa*zion triS' 

syllabus, usitatissimus G 131, 136 
occupy ok* jTpii ? Bull,oc(rMpi^ok'y7pdier 

o*eloek a kick G 93 
odtff odzG41 
of of S, Bull, OY frequentiusy of doeti 

interdum G pr^ 20 
o/ofBull, G79, 103 
of»l of al G 39 

ofines ofeoB* G 82 

ofinr of 'er Bull, G 88 

Bering of Tiq G 22 

ofipring of 'spring G 76 

ifi oft G 20 

oftentimes of'tentoimz G 142 


ointment ointment Bull 

old o'ld Bull, oould G 70, et emOet 

omn^tent omnip'otent G 186 

OM on G 79 

oMMOons G21, 93, 116 

one oon Bull, G 70, oon C 6 

only oon-lf G 20, oonlai G 21, comli 

ooMs ma G 7, ooz P G 37 
open oop'n G 20, openest oop*neBt 6 226, 

opened oop'ned G 4T 
opinion opth'ton G 30, 129 
opposed opooz-ed G 133 
oppreseedj opres*ed G 43 
oppression opres'ton G 21 
oranges or-emdzbtz Sa 
order or'der G 30 
ornament or'nament G 107 
orthography ortog'raft Bull 
other odh'er aut ndh'er aUi S, vdh'cr 

Bull, udh'er frequentius^ odh*er dMti 

interdum G pr, 45, udh*er B 
ought owht BoU, ooukbt G 68, 80, 

ooukht Bor B 
our nur Bull, our G pr^ 22, on'er B 
Ouse Ouz Isis G 40 
out nut Bull, out G 23, 66 
outlet out-let G 33 
outptaking out'pcek'iq G 136 
outrage out'raaazh G 128 
outrun out'run G 128 
over over Bull, G 24 
overcome OTcrkum* G 117, 

OTcrkaam* G 107 
overseer oversi'er G 36 
overtake overtaak* G 33 
overthrow oT'erthroou Bull 
overthwart overthwart Bull 
overture overtyyr G 30 
owest^ouest C 18 
own ooun G 22 
ox oks Sa 60, oxen oksm G, oksii 

oksen G 20, 42, 146 
0*/brrf Oks ford G 70 
oyez, jii etiam d praeonibus phamUme 

effertury oo jiiz, 6 vos omnes et etttauU 


pace paas/HiMtM S, paas G 70 
packing ^ak'iq G 100 
page paozh vemula S 
pain pain P, S, G 20, 119, 


p&mt pdnt peint S, paint G 52 

jMtr poi-er Bull 

jM&paal Sa, 6 91 


/M^p«r paa'pir Sa 

pmiiu par'adaifl G 38 

pariom pardon G 88 

pmrmUagt par*entadzh G 110 

pmrmU paaTentB G 68, 102 

jwrtaibrpartaa'ker G 100 

jMft pas d, G 24, 110 

pmuion pas-ton G 110, m rA# foUowinf 
qmtaiion from 8ydney*$ Arcadia, 
3, 1, being iJu etmelutum of an <m- 
m ntual hexameter ^ and the whole of 
am accentual pentameter^ in each of 
which it f^rmt « dactyl^ — reez*n ta 
mt pas'ion iil^ed — Pas'ton un'in mi 
raaash, raadzh in a Hast't reyendzh'. 

pat pat ietut 8 

patient pas'icnt Bull 

patience paa'siens G 109 

patroniee pat'Tonaiz G 141 

JPkutFe Fooulz in the French mamwr B 

pawn pAAn G 14, 93 

pay pai, rustieipaai, Mope pee, Sc et 
Tranatr paa S, pai G 88, Lin paa 
ahfecto i ; Auet poet diphthongum 
dialyein a odiose producunt, paai G 
17, paai G 86, pee cor B, paya paaii 

paynim painitm Gill 

peace pees G 73, peae G 20 

lM«rpeerF 6a 

peau peei pita S, peez G 41, Occ peex*n 

/Mc^pek 8 

ped piil 8, p«l of an ap*% Bull 

peer piir P, Sa 

peerUee pii'crlcs G 110 

pen pen Sa, S 

pence pens G 42 

penny pen'i G 42 

pennyroyal pcn-irai'al G 38 

pent "pent 8 

P^nteeoet Pcntekost G 134 

peopU piipl Bull, G 4, 41, "R.peopUQ^ 

pepper pep -or G 38 

perceive persev* ? G 29 

perch pcertah G 70 

perfect perfct Bull, perfekt G 123, 
pjlyht C 6 

p er form perfoo'r'm Bull 

pereonal personal G pr 

pereonality pcrsonal'itt G pr 

pereone pcrs'onz non pers'nz G pr, 72 

perepieuity penpikjy'tti G 29 

pertpieuoue persptk'vyus G 30 

pertain pertain* Bull 

perveredy pervcrs'li G 141 

pettitoee pet'itooz G 37 

pewter peu'ter G 69, B 

Fharieeee^Pharisaia C 23 

pheasant fcz'aunt P Sa 

Philip Ftl-tp Bull 

philotqphere filos'ofen G 74 

phlegm fleem G 38 

phanix fce'ntks B 

physician ^phieition C 9 

pick pik 8 

pickrel pikTel luptdus G 35 

picture pik'tyyr BuU 

piece piis Bull 

piesi^Sz 8 

pig pig S 

pike peik lueius S, paik G 35 

Pilate =PilaatG 21 

pile peil Bull, pail G 28 

piU pil Bull 

pillory ptl'on Bull 

pin pin Bull 

pine poin emaciare 8, Bull, pain G 105 

piss pw 8 Bull, 

pit ptt S 

pitch ptteh G 38 

pith pith 8 

jpiVypttiG/w, 83,87, 129 

place plaas Bull, G 24, 98, 100, 125 

plague plaag Sa 

plaice plais passer piscis Bull 

plain plain G 85 

plaint plaint G 130 

planted plant'cd G 24 

plate plaat vasa argentea G 38 

P/ato Plato G 74 

play plai 8, G 18, Mops plee G 18, 

plec cor B, plays plais Bull 
pleasant pleez'ont G 142 
please pleez S, pleaseth pleez*eth G, 

pleasing plees'tq P G 1 18 
pleasure plee'syyr G 144 
pledge plcdzh 6 88, 101 
plentiful plen-tifril G 84 
pock pok scabies grandis S 
poesy po'csi G 141 
point point, /orto«M pnint, muero, indice 

monstrare, et ligtUa S, puuint G 88 
/wAvpook 8 
pole pool pertiea G 7 
poll pol eapitulum lepidissimum G 7 
pool puul S 

poor puur Sa, 8, G 141 
pop pop, bulla^ aut popismsUf et irri' 

dendi nota, S 
pope poop papa, S 
poplar pop*lar G 105 
porch poortsh G 123 
pore poor proprius intueri ut luscioei 

faciunt 8 
Pirtugal Foor'tiqgal cor Sa 
pot pot 8 
potager pot'andzher Sa 


poUnt poo*tent G 134 
pottage pot'adzh G 37 
poundage poundadzh G 27 
pour^ma'poxiifunde; pour oat tfitude 

8, ponur H, pour G 21, pouer B 
power poQ'er S, H, pour G 21, 79, 126, 

praise praiz G 21 
praiteworthy praiz*wurdh*ei G 32 
pray prai non pre dpr, prai, Mops pree 

prayers prai-erz G 110 
preach prcetsh G 13 
precious prcs'ius Bull 
prepare =prepaar C 2 
presence prcz-ens G 23 
present prccz'cnt G 69, 84 
preserveth prezerv'cth G 23 
president prez-ident G 110 
press ^prease presse C 21 
presumed prezjrymd* G 99 
jirM>m< precvenl* P G ^1, prevented i^i^' 

Tent-ed G 133 
prey prai G 24 
price V, prin Bull, prab G 89 
prick prik S, Bull 
pricket priket G 100 
pride preid G 43, 99 
priest priist Bull 
prime ^reim G 112 
prince prtns G 107, princes pn'ns'es G 

prism prtz'm S 
prisoner priz'uer G 105 

private privat ? Bull 
privily pnvili G 79 
privities privitois G 39 
proceeded prosiid'cd Bull 

prodigal proo-digAAl P G 148 

projame profaan* G 1 34 

profanely profium'lai G 134 

profit prof-it G pr 31, profited profited 

profitable profitahl G 31, 84 

prohibition^ prooibts'fun Sa 

prolong proloq* G 133 

promise prom* is G 83 

proper prop-er G 84 

prophets -p^phcets C 11 

propone propoon* G 31 

propose propooz* G 86 

prosperous pros-p^rufl B 

prostrate pros'truat G 149 

proud proud B, G 74, 106 

prove pruuv B 

provide provi/d- Bull, provaid* G 86 

prowess prou'ca G 116 

prudent prudent P G 30 

puissance p)7is-an8 G HI 


pulley pul't Bull 

punish punish G 89 

nisehed C 10 
pure pyyr 8, pyyer H 
pureness pyyr'nee 8a 
purge purazh B 
purity pyyTritai G 39 
purple pur*pl G 106 
purpose purpooz G 104 ^ 
purslain pur'slain portuUMt G 38 
pursue pursyy G 90 
push push G 88 
put put jMfto G 48 


quaU kirail Gtpr 

quake kiraak G pr, 103 

qualUies ktralittz G 13^ 

quarrel ktrar*el 8 

quassy (P) ktras*! insedubris S 

quarter ktrar'ter Sa, 8, H 

quash Vwti&\iOpr 

quean ktreen, scortum 8, Bull 

queen kudin Sa, S, G pr, 110, kunn ? 

quench kioentsh Bull, G 24, 124 
quern, ktt;aar*n mola trusatilis Boll 
quest, ktrest consilium 8 
question ku^est'ton G 88 
quick ktrtk 8 
quickly kirtkli G 84 
quicken ku^tk'n Bull 
quiet ktreit quietus 8, kiri'et ? G 38 
quiU kwa 8, quills ktrtlz G pr 
quilt kunlt tapetis st^fuUi lana gemu 

quince ktrins 8, G 12 
quit, kwit, quietum aut liberaium, S, 

kwit G pr 
quite V, kireit liberare aut aeeeptum 

firre S, Vwoit G 121, adc. ktrait G 

quoit koit, fortasse kuit, jaeere discum, S 
qvoth koth vel ktroth G 64 


race raas soboles G 39 

rag rag 8 

rageth raa'dzeth G 99 

rail rail Sa, rails, ratlz 8a 

rain rain V, G 66, rain C 6 

raising raa'ztq ? G 99 


ram ram 8, rams ramz G 99 

rancorous raq-kerus G 106 

range raindzn B 

rank a. raqk, Aust roqk G 17 

rare raar Bull, G 101 

ro^ rat 8 

rate v, raat G 89 

ratlines rat'ltqx G 87 

rather raadher G 103 


rm9%mg raaytq G 148 

rmwtm S 

riMAreetsh Bvll 

rMtf leed Ugo Bull, G 48, red leetum 8, 

G 48, 134, riading leed'tq turn 

ziid-tiq, 6 0r, 95 
r$ai^ red-t G 84 
rmUm reelm G 122 
rMpreep 8 

fwr leer 8, G 105, r»ar«i ree-red G 114 
/liMM reezii Bull, rtaaont reez*ii£ G 

rOuk* reb)ryk- G 24, rehuuk <3 11 
fwiniw reseir Bull, reseev* G 89 
r^ek riik P eitrart 8 
fwibmfi^ rek-ntq G 100 
uwmU rekount\G 86 

Biddiff'Rz.i'MS Q pr 
ndeem rediim- G 102 
TtdoubtTedyyitfmunimiHtum pro tern' 

por§ aut occasione factum G 29 
rmhund redound- G 86 
rmheu redrcs* G 149 
rtduce redyys* G 31 
rmda riidz G 146 
rwiriik B 
f«p^ reft G 100 
rifliffi ref'yydzh G 21 
rifuM V. rel'yyz- G 101, 132 
renter redzh'/ster G 129 
rtprater regraa'ter G 129 
nipn rein Bull, reignetk reein'eth G 22, 

rtignM rainz G 99 
t^oiee redzhois' G 22 
rtteiM rclees* G 89 
r«^/reliif- G 38, 99 
rtUgiout relulzh'tus G 81 
remaineih remaiu'eth G 87 
rmmmber remem'ber G 40 
remembrance remcm'brans G 23 
removed remuuved G 24 
rend rend G 48 
render redder G 21 
renetceet rcn}7*cst G 25 
reH&wned rcuoun*ed G 100 
rent rent Sa 

repine repiin* ? inpideo G 88 
reported report'cd G 67 
rqrroach roprootsh* G 118 
requite rckiroit* G 87 
reeiet reBist* G 87 
reeort rczort* G 142 
resound rezound* G 142 
retpondcMce respon'dons G 119 
restore rcstoor* G 122 
restrain nistroin* G 89 
retain retain* G 103 
retire retoir* G 99 
retrieve rctriiv* reindagari 8 
r^um return* G 33 

revenge reyendzh* G 110 

revive rcvaiv* G 141 

rtfu; reu B 

reward reward* G 89, 122 

rAyiiM rdim G 141 


rich rttsh, Bor raitsh G 17 

riches rttsh'cz G 21 

riek rtk B 

ruf rid G 89 

ride reid H, Bull, ridden n'd'n 8 

fi^^redzli 8 

Hfe roif G 99 

right rtXrht 8a 

righteous raikh'tcus G 27 

righteously raikht'cuslai G 21 

righteousness rdikh'teusnes G 27, righ^ 

tuousnes C 5 
ring n'q G 93, ringing rtiq*fq 8a 
rip np dissuere 8 
ripe reip 8 
rice rais G 37 
risev» = rijs C 12 
river river Bull 
roach rootsh 8 
roam rooum Bull 
roar roor G 22 
rod rob 8, G 85 
robe roob 8, G 106 
robbery rob'erai G 21 
rock rok oolus vet rupee 8, rok rupee 

G 20, 99 
rWrod 8 
rotfroo 8a 

rolling rooul'tq G 121 
Borne Ruu*m Bull 
rooAr ruuk 8 
room ruum Bull 
root ruut B 
rope roop 8 
ropp rop intestinum 8 
rose rooz P 8a, roose C 2, roses roo'iez 

rosecheeked rooz-tshiikt G 150 
roeg-Jingered roo*ziftq*gred G 106 
rote root Bull 
roiiMrfrouzd G 107 
rove Tooy 8 

row roou remigare Bull 
royal roi'al G 104 
rud rub 8 
rubies irybiz G 99 
ruck ruK aeerrusy rucks ruks 8 
rue Tjj P, ryy ruta 8, ryy w pomitere 

rwe/W ryyful G 100 
ruffvjlpiscis perca similis 8 
ruin ryyain* P in an accentual pentti- 

meter from Sydney* a Arcadia 3, 1, 

O ju, alas ! so oi faund, Iulaz of hit 

on'li ryyain* G 146 


ri*;* rj)-! BuU, G 88 

nAwfskuulSa ^^| 

nwip rump, Lin atrunt laaX Ionia G 17 

Khodmaitn- BlcDutinU'tei G &S ^^M 

ntmbling Ttaa-yAiaQ lU 
rtM nm, ran ran G 13,49 

raiding aloontd'tq G Sfi ^^H 

(AWBkodrG?! ^H 

rwum-t runcrz G 111 

warn ekoTU GSS. HI, Monud^wiMr^^H 


C27 ^^M 

uoftr skour B ^^H 

rwf nut 118 

teourgt Hkurdzh B ^^H 


•f«oJ nkoul B ^^H 


KTwA cW Fkreik-Dul BuU ^^ 


Kripiurc urip-tur P •« Ultratnn Q SO 




«»mVi(s' gknril'At G 112 

(KbAXA rakkloth e 128 

ua Me 8a, G 22. tM C 4, *Mf MM Q 11 



M<Ufe 8a, «sd'l Boll, wdl Q 133 

>«»■ seem od^ 38 

_ :S"=rjs^'s'°" 

Kareh Mrt>h G 90 

««»> «»i-.-a Sa, MuoMMcmi GU 

^^H 4t^HiJ-emG106 

«wO=i«« C 23 ^^ 

^^K wM led n»lK^. said »M sed Q pr, 67, 

H«mi{wk-0DdG35,Tl ^H 

^^H BOdJDrproBiudGlT 

mwonkrjr G 147 ^H 

^^V MOMBdild G 146, »>V< V aul-tq Q 105 

^H MM^Buuta G 23 

M, sii Sa, 8, G 23. Mm Mb O T ^^M 

**U=Mfli U fi 

fwfa mida Bull ^^H 

fOJaU* snaUbl G 32 

<Nit S, >iik G 20 ^^H 


HU«n .ul'dum Bull ^^M 

&»■»! Snl-tut G 84 

mJ/ self Bull, ttlf Mill Aor G 17, jd^^H 

Hh»n «im-on G 77 

«l™ Bull ^^^ 

wit Mlt S. luU G 27, 61 

«;/ eel 8,0 89 

M&uA stAl'ti'sh a 

um&lanci aem-blaui 107 

i^WdftDH BBluUa'Bion ? 30 

imJ Bond G 48. undith wud-edi G ^^H 

MMt Bium BuU. G 4fi. loom C fi 

MHCfuiiry Baqkluanii G 22 

mif8entG43 ^^H 

HM<i«rj Bun'derz MnroJuu 37 

$fn«fl^ eenB'l«9 G 99 ^^M 

jMtcb aan-ikl 3D 

lit Bet G 48 ^^M 

tap up G 24 

KrgeaM serdibaDt G S2 ^^H 

ttrvml lerT-aDt 40 ^^^H 

MUf«ti«i Htt»rak-Bron d lafino m », 

wc« wrr G 23 ^^^H 

preprium tainm iuemlim,mitut in 

urvift terra G 24 ^^^H 

uttatpiantantd ^^H 

.««. »« r«flrrf-rf 0* («w lyBo*;-. 

*»«B«T-tlG7l, fMVMOle ^^H 

Mf w^ utt-Mfii G ST, latufisd Mftafned 

MttmUtn Bevntiin 6 71 ^^^H 


»<>m(A«<^t'nthG71 ^^H 


Kvtntg Boc-oti G 71 ^^^H 

aa>U Saul S 

Smerti Sev-orn G 40 ^^^H 

MMnai S, lating laar'fq 21 

«W MU S, >AA G 14 

MuwfwQUdG ^^H 


Muvr Ku-CT Bull, leeu-er d^ifir ^^^M 

mn an noK le G pr, OM G 22, su £m- 

lAaibshaadGllS ^^H 

•ifKMia 17, xu Or Q 17,>Mi Mr 

iliadou; Bhad'ooui G 114, 144 ^^H 


thai, ahaal 3 ^^H 

imJ^ ikaal G se 

,\aki Bbaak S -^^H 


,haU shal Bhaul S, aba'] Boll, A^^H 

JMtb akflth Q lOG 

20, 23, *A«;i Btia-lt Boll, Mi^^^l 

^^H tMpfrv MD't'r Hull 

ai-Bt Mf M-it dhoD-tt Hii-M Xi^^H 

^^^L leitru* ti-ea' Bull 

dhcUt o«( dhei wl. O 17 ^^H 

^^H «pi»ar* ..'t-en G 37 

^^^H Mkfar skolar poTw ptam akoler pr, 
^^H wMmakDl'UiJ^p.Bk.l-anOIS 

lAwnt tbaam Q 13, 38 ^^H 

M^.b.pS. ^H 


fWfvthaar PP 
i l aiy tharp Bull 
lAflMihaaT G 
iSiUw SliAA 6 14 
fA^BhiiP, 8,6 44 
akmn dierz G 37 
fiW died 8, G 106 
<A49 ahiip Sa, 8, Boll, G 41 

9k§pk§rd^9ekeephtrd C 9, MhtpkertTi 

pwTM shep'herdz-pon G 38 
dbv ihea 8, G 22, 98, B, 9chew C 12, 

tiktwM sboooz G 130, tihtw^d sheu'ed 

Bull, sheud G 107 
MM ahiUd G 103, 124 
akittimfft shtl'iqz G 89 
Mh thin P, 8 
auM shein 8, shdin G 21, 24, 116, 

9ehwt G 6 
thip sum Bull, «AtjM shtps G 25 
iit>A0oi( shm-Huuk G 128 
tkirtf tm JForcesterthire 
tkbrt shirt P, sbtrt eam%9eia^ Lm sark 

tihUia shttel kvit 8 
iAm/ ahool 8 
timk Bhok G 99 
lAoi, tpelled shoo, shaa P 
abopsbop 8 
lAortf short G 47 
tkortm short-n G 47 
9k(mld shuuld G 24, Un sud G 17 
«iloM^ shuul Bull 
•hmt shout G 109 
9kr§w shreu P 
•krmcd shrend G 75 
tArt{/ shnl S, Bull, G 123 
•hnmd shroud G 114, throudt shroadz 

•AuffU shuf *'l or sleid oon tbtq upon* 

•Aim shun 8, G 147 
9ide seid 8, said G 99 
•i$g$ siidzh obtidio et iedes, 8 
•ift stft 8 
migh stH soiu 8 
Might sikht Sa, sm't Bull 
mgn sein S, sain G 4, 7, ^^fw seinz 8a, 

sainz 107 
aO^w sil'cns ? G 48, silent sarlent G 

150, silent P G 143 
9ilk silk Sa 
tOly silt G 100 
iilvtr stl'vcr G 37, 91 
•inumy nim ont G 133 
tintpU stm pi G 98 
•in Bin Sa, S, G 7, 82 
timtirt sin'erz G 25 

nnfulsin'M G 118 

titig stq, uifMl ztq G 17, titiffing siq'iq 

npt stps G 98 

Mr sir Sa 

iiitm- scBt'er Bull 

tit sit 8, 0<;<; zft am m^ G 18 

jirsiksS, G71 

ti^h sikst G 71 

iixtien si'ks'tiin G 71 

tixty si'ks'ti G 71 

fir# soir G 110 

ik^ skips S * • 

«&idbi sUkt G 120 

$lav=slee C 5, «/am slain G 20, Hain 

«2#0re sliiy 8 
f^MsIaay G 141 
tknder slend-er G 99 

dey sleei P, a weaver' $ rted Wbioht 
9lime slaim G 39 
ti^iper slip'or G 116 
«/iftiM slyys Bull 

slumber slumber G 101, tHomber C 25 
$kttti»h slut-rah G 74 
tmaU smaul S, sma*l Bull, smAAl G 25 
miuirt smart G 119 
smOt smelt G 77 
imiling smail'iq G 143 
Mii<0smait G 124 
tmo«A smok S 
smoke smook fumus 8, G 25, it smokes 

it smuuks S 
smother smudh'cr B 
smuff smug kvit politus 8 
snajle snaf'l fiull 
snoff snag G 89 
sfiateh snatsh G 107 
MM^ snyy ningcbat S 
ffiti^ snuf irasci aut ogre ferre pree^ 

sertim dum iram exe^fUmdo luiibus 

ostendit quis S 
sosoo Sa 
loop soon 8 

sober so'oer ? G 91, soo'ber G 149 
soek sok, socks soks S 
«o/l softs, G34, 111 
soil soil fortasse suil S, soil sauil m- 

differenter G 15, suuil G 39, J0i7 «. 

soil G 146 
sotaee wA'UiR G 114 
fo/iisoould Bull 
solder sod-er G 146 
soldierlike sool'dicrloik G 35 
soldiers sool'diers G 74, souldiars C 27 
iofosoolG77, 117 
soles soolz G 102 
some sum G 45, R 
MmtfirAa^ sum'what G 45 
«0fi son 8, G 13, 112, B, son Boll 


iOHff 8oq O 10 

wnnet 8on*et G 146 

toon snun S, 6, G 34, 123 

toot sunt G 39 

aoothe suudh Bull 

iop sop oj^a S 

iophianu sof'tzmz G 97 

tore soor P, G 98, 103 

torrow sor'ooa G 74, soro G 148, torrowt 

soroouz G 149 
torrowjul sor'oouful, Oee sorg'er pro 

moor soroooful G 18 
tOUffht MUH't S,*80wht Bull 
toul Boovl G 20, 136, B 
tound snund Bull, sound G 15 
tour suur Bull, sower 25 
toute sous G 98 
touth suuth Bull 
tovereign sovcrain G 110 
tow suu 8Wi P, sou tut B, soou tero tuo, 

towed sooud aerebam tuebam^ ai Haav 

Booun Mvi, sooud «f«t G 51, town sooun 

M^uffi G 23, 8oowed=terebam 26 
tower soou'or teminator Bull 
Spain Spain G 70 
tpake spaak G 49 
tpan span G 70 
tpangle spaq*gl, g ad n ratione tequentit 

liquids quodammodo dittrahitur G 10 
Spanish Spau'ish G 70 
tpared spaar-ed G 75, sparing spaar'tq 

sparks sparks G 124 
sparrow spar-u Sa 
speak spook G 49, speek C 26, tpoken 

spoo'ku G 21, 49, spojc'n Zin G 6 
spear spcer G 124 
special spes'm'l Bull 
speech spiitsh Bull 
tpend spend G 48 
spice spcis S, spiVs Bull 
spies speiz S, spitz Bull 
spirit spirit 24, 133, sprite C 3, 

sprites spraits G 141 
spit spit, sput spucbam diaUetus est 

tpken spliin G 106 
spoil spoil Bull, spuuil G 85 
spoon Bpuun G 13 
sport sport G 109 

spraints spraints relicta lutra G 37 
spread sprwl G 106, spreed C 9 
«^n spun G 13 
spy spii J- P 
squire skw,)ir G 124 
stabi'r stujibl S, stoab'l Bull 
stack stnk conff tries S 
«<a/"8taf S 
«/aAr stauk S 
stalk stAAk G 73 
stand stand S, G 49, 89, standing 

Btandiq G 93 

«tor star G 119, sterr C 2 

ttare stAAr P G 88 

«forr« Starr G 119 

ttate Btaat G 97 

ttately staai'U G 111 

ftot^M staavz G 106 

ttoff stee ror, B, ttayed staid G 118 

«f«a>t steck o^a earnit S 

steal = steel C 6, «/o^n stoolii G 82 

tf^MeiTstiid B 

tttek tteke steik (P) stiik difUilem 

steep stiip S, G 114 
f^/e stiip-l G 134 
ttem stem S, G 141 8ter*n Boll, 
ttick stik, sticks sttks S, sttk G 139 
ttifBtif S 

f^tVf stirz G 82, «^trr«f stt'id G 99 
ttoek stok truHcus aut tort 8 
f tofo stool S 
ttone stoon, 5<; staan stean 8, stoon Boll, 

stoon G 38, stones =stoont G S 
ttony stoon*> G 35 
ttood stuud G 24, 49 
ttool stuul S 
ttork stork G 24 
ttormy storm • G 99 
ttout stout G 124 
f^OKM^ stound G 120 
ttraight straikht G 105, ttrtigkt G 7 
Strange Strandzh G 42 
ttranger straind'^h*er B 
ttraw strau S, strAAU G 10 
ttray straai G 102 
strettgth streqth G 21 
strengtheticth Ktr<iqth*neth G 24 
stretehest stretslrest G 23 
ttrewy strcu S, H, strAA G 104 
strife streif S, straif G 39 
ttrike v. stroik G, imperf, straak strik 

strook Htruk G 51, v. pret, etraik, 

pret, strik G 134 
strive streiv S 
stroke strook G 120 
stubborn stub'orn G 120 
study stud'i G pr 
stuff %t\ii^ 
stumble stum'bl S 
tubject sub'dzhckt subdituty sabdzhekt* 

tubjicio G ;;/•, 116 
tubtcribe subsknub* G 48 
substitute 8ub*8titvn G 30 
subtle sut-1 G .SO, 97 
succour sukur B 
»MrAsutsh G 118 
sucklings = HON k/i»ges C 21 
sudden sud'ain G 111 
suer syy'or hull 
suet syy-et Bull 
suffer suf -cr Sa, G 87 
sufferance suf'urans G 123 


ii#w sofa* P 87 

Hf/tetMt, softs-lent Bnll 

M^ar tsjj'jOLr fiull 


luUtimp snlkiq O 146 

MMSiim Bull 

MR son 8, G 13, B 

AoMfay Sun-dai O 92 

nmdry san-dri 6 39 

nmmmp 8im*«q 6 91 

wmy snii't O 114, 141 

JWMsf son-set 92 

wperjiutma syTperflyyin Bull 

mpe ri or sapertor P Gr 30 

tapper sup-er O 93 

uppKant sap'ltant O 111 

n^ieaie snp'ltkaat G 31 

mppoBe supooz- BqU, G 31 

mreeatetk sonees-eth G 131 

tarv sTyr Sa, syyer H, Boll, syjr G 
IS. 73 

9itr9l9 syyrlm G 21, §u$rU C 3 

•uret^ syjrU G 86 

•utttnanee siu*teiiaiis G 28 
•UftMle swad'el 8 
•%cain swaain G 98 
•%oaUow 8wal*ooa G 99 
•togmt swam G 60 
*%omrt swart lividut 8 
•lowir sweer 8, Boll, G 60, 101, 8war$ 
swaar, awore swoor, npom swoom 
*^O0ai sweel adwren erinea Bnll 
^HmU sweet S, swet Bull, sweat audo, 

•wet tudabam G 48, 134 
••OM^y swiip Bnll 
9%oeet swiit 8, Bnll, G 26, 106 
•toell Bwel Bnll, aweUing swel*»q G 106 
lofrre swaiT G 119, swenr G 122 
•M>im swim G 60 
•loiif^ swiVn P P, sw9in G 41 
•^oink swiqk G 116 
•totnJbr BW»qk-er G 146 
•toonf swanrd swnid B 
•tovm swnm G 60 
^ymagoguea^atfnagooga C 10 

tmOtling tak*liBg G 48 
t«il tail 8 

TkiUeboU Talbois G 42 
t9ka taak 8, Bnll, G 61 
tsbn taa-k'n Bull, taak-n G 61 
TMot Tal bot G 73 
M^taal 7 
Utk ta*lk Hull, tAjJk jpohM quam iuk 

Qpr, 103 
iaU tAAl S, G 7, 106 
telbir taloon G 7 
tartars, G 89 
lars taarS 

toff^A/ tauHt 8, tAAkht 49, 69 

ieaeh teetsh G 27 

taal teel attatia gentta 8 

tMr tcer rumpere aui laeryma 8, teer 

laeerartj tiir laeryma B, v. ^«^ C 7, 

rear< a, teerz G 100, 142 
teeth tilth G 41 

temperance tem'perans G 30, 129 
temperate tem'perat G 30 
tempeatwma tempcst'ens G 99 
ten ten 8, G 71 
tenderly ten-derldi G 120 
tenor ten'or G 120 
Tmterdeu Ten*terden G 133 
tenth tenth G 71 
tenia tents 8a 
terma terms G 97, 103 
terror teror G 99 
tew ten emoUire frieando 8 
tewly tyy'lt vaUtudinnriua 8 
2!^iiM Taam Tatna G 40 
^AtfmM Temz G 74 
than dhcn G 79 
thank thaqk 8a, G 9 
that dhat Sa, Bull, G 46 
Thaviea* Inn Davtz In 8a 
thaw thoou 8 

<Atf dhe Sa, the evil dhi ey-il, P 8 
^Am dhii te P, S, Bull, thii valere Bnll 
^AWr dheeir G 21, theer yeer G 1, theira 

dheeirz G 46 
them dhom G 44 themaelvea dhemselvs* 

then dhen 8 
^Am«» dhens G 98 
there dhaar, dheor 8, dhcer, dhoor Bor, 

therefore dhocr'for, Bull therfoor C 1 
^A^#o/dhcerof- Hull, G 22 
^A^fdheezG 13, 46, B 
they dhei non dhe G pr, 10, dhd dhai 

G 19, dheei G 20, 23, dhed ata 

dhaai G 44, dhei, Auat in dhaai 

poat diphthongi dialyain a odioae 

produeunt G 17. the; 1 
thick thik Sa, Bull, denawn, meaoaax- 

onieiy dhtlk Tranatr, 8, thtk G 70, 

thief thuf G 92, thievea thiiTi G, 

theepeaC 6 
lA^A thiH, Bull 
thimbU thimVl Bull 
lAm thin Sa, 8, Bull, quibuadam dhtn, 

MtfM dhcin Sa, 8, dhain G jir, 10 
Miii^ thiq G pr, 9 
<Aifa thiqk G 9 
third third G 36, 71 
thirat thirst 24, 119 
thirtty thirs-U' G 83, thuratt 5 



thirteen thi'riiny thtrtiin*, Oee throt'iin 

G 18, 70 
thirteenth thtr-tenth (P) Bull, thcr-timth 

thirtieth thir-tith Bull 
thirty thirti G 71 
this dhiB Sa, Bull, G 9, 45 
thistle thtstl Sa, th»st-'l Bull, thtst-1 G 

thither dhidh'er B 
Thomas Tom-as Sa, G 73 
Thor ? Thoor nomen proprium^ S 
thorns = thooms C 7 
thorough thor'ou (?) Sa, thuroou, 

thruuH, Bull, thuT'O aut throukh 

those dhooz Bull G 45 
thou dhou Sa, S» G 23, dhuu Bull 

thowC 1 
though dhoo, dhoou quamvis et quibut- 

dam tunc S, dhoouH dhowh Bull, 

dbokh G 12, 65, 114 
thought thowht Bull, thooukht G 49, 

54, 144 
thou'll dhoul, dhoust Bor pro dhou 

wtlt, dhou shalt G 17 
thousand thuu'zand Bull, thouz*and 

thousandth thuu'zandth) Bull, thou*- 

zanth G 71 
thread threcd, S 
threaten thret''n Bull, threatning 

threct'uing, G 
threating threetn'q G 99 
three thrii Sa, G 28, 70 
thresher thrt'sh'or Bull 
Mr^M? thnv G 99, 110 
thriei thr'n's G 93, thries C 26 
thrift thrift G 39 
thrive thrciv S 

throne tniun Sa, throon G 23, 104 
throng throq G 99 
through thruukh Sa, thruwh thruuu 

Bull, thrukh G 91, 102, throukh P 

G 123 
throughout thruuii-uut' Bull 
throw throou Bull, G 40, throion 

throoun IJuU, G 15, throoum C 5 
thrust thnisit G 88 
thy dhiii G pr 

thunder thun'd'r Sa 40, thund'or G 24 
tick tik ricinusy S 
tickle tiki G 97 
iiU tcil S 
till til Jo'iec S 
tillagt tiladzh G 27 
timber tmrber G 39 
time tiini Hull, teim, Lin tuum G 17, 

timtH t.umz G 21 
tin tiu S, G 37 

<tfid^ ttn*der G 39 

tine tein perdere S 

tiny tai'ut G 35 

Tithon*s Taithoonz O 106 

titU teitl G 20 

to tu Sa, S, Bull, tu G 21, 79, 44, to 

G 45, to me til mil S 
toe too Sa, S, Bull, tou tooz 8, G 16, 

Lin toaz, G 16 
together tugedh'er G 25, togeedh*er 

G 98, together 1, togUher C 2 
toil toil, fortasseiiwl S, tuuil Bull, 

toil tuuil indifferenter, Q 15, taoil 

G 106, B 
toilsome tYil*8um P G 28 
token =tooken 16 
toU tooul Sa, S, tooul ilUeere^ too'l 

veetigal. Bull 
ton tun dolium S 
tongs toqz G 37 
tongue tuq G 14, 103 
too tuu S, foo foo tu tu nimium S 
took tuuk 8, took P Bull, tauk G 51, 

tookC 1 
tool tuul Bull 

tooth tuuth BuU, G 41, toth G 5 
top top Sa, tops tope 8 
tom^toom C 27 
tose tooz moUirs lanas S 
toss tos S, tossed tos'od G 99 
to to to to sonus eomuum 8 
tottering tot'criq G 20 
touch tutsh G 114, toueheth toatih*eth P 

tough tou touH lentum durum 8 
touse touz G 58 
tow toou S, Bull, G 39 
toward toward* G 28, tuward* P B 
towards toward-z* G 79 
towel tuu'el Bull 
tower tour Sa, touur H 
town toun S 
toy toi, fortasse tui, alii toe, ludierum 

S, toys toiz G 15, 144 
trade traad G 147 
tragedies tradzh'eddiz G 141 
traitor trai'tor G 149 
transpose transpooz* G 120 
travail imvceleor B 
tread treed S, Bull, tretd C 7, iroddm 

=^trooden 5 
treason trecz'u G 83 
treasure tree'zyyr 8, trez'jyr G 77, 

treasur C 6 
treatise trcc'tis Bull 
trees trii'iz Sa, triiz G 22 
trembled trcm'blod G 23, tnmUiMg 

trembli'qG 119 
trentnls treu'talz G 117 
triek trik G 100 
trim trtm elegant 8, G 68 


iriqk-eti intirumMtta doUario- 
mm quihut vintim ab uho vote ex- 
kmuritur m a/tntf 3 87 

trimmph trsiiimf G 66 

2Vit^ Trodzh-an G 74 

tnmhk traM B> troab'l G 69, 15S, 
B, trombUd trub-led G 25, trebled 

Iroirf tnmt B 

tnw troo Sa, troou G 27 

frw* tryyi G 89 

frw tryy P, Sa, S, Bull, G 27» B P 

tr mt et m mg ia77*8iim-q G 82 

Wm^twm^trtUom [t.«., true rendering 
•rirmneUUion] C 10 


Ihmpingion Tnim*piq'taii adeo darut 
eU teeenitu in primo tnttyUabo, licet 
poeitione non eleuetttr, Hte tamen 
ettUelA opne, nam si ad poeitionem 
L n. m/ q. eoneurraty media eyllaba 
prodncitnr G 134, [compare AbingUm 
Sempringhamj JFymondham, toilful' 

inut tnrt Sa, tnut G 21, 27, 89 

(TM/y trosti G 27 

truth trath ? G 39, tryyth G 22 

try trei purgare Boll, troi G 111 

tuft tuf Bull 

tumultuous tyymiil*tyyiis G 106 

fiM tun 6 14 


tmtiele tyrnikl G 80 

turf turfs 

Turkey Turks G 147 

turmoil tor'moil, foriaue torinuil labo' 
rare 8 

turn turn G 24, 93, 104 

tusk tush dettsexertus et interfectio oon^ 
temptus 8 

twain twain G 99 

tu>elfth tuelfth G 71 

twelve tudy G 71 

twentieth twcntith Bull, tucn*ttth G 71 

twenty tuen'ti G 70, 71 

twice twdis G 21, 89 

twine twiin P P, twein 8 

twinkle twiak'l Sa 

twist twist 8 

twizzle twtz*'l or fork in a buuH of a 
trii. Bull 

two tuu Sa, 8, G 13, 70, twnu Bull, 
twoo C 4, two men tuu men 8 

tympany tim'panoi G 38 

udder nd*er 8 
ngly u^'lai G 118 
umbUa um-blz iutestina eervi G 87 
unabli unaa'bl G 105 

unblamed = vnblaamd C 12 
u$tele nuqk'l Sa, uqk'l G 10 
uncleanness = vneleenes C 23 
under under Bull, G 34, 79 
underneath undemceth* G 121 
tiiu^«tofi</ understand* G 28, understood 

undcrstuud* Bull 
uneasy uneez't Bull, G 77 
imhonest unou'est Bull 
universities yyntyersttaiz G 77 
unknown unknooun* G 20 
unlucky unluk't G 100 
tinmorMfunmuuYcd G 99 
tfft^t/ unttl- G 25, 107 
unto un-to G 21, 24 
unwitting unwii'tiq G 102, [in a quotas 

tion from Spetiser, answering to the 

orthography * unweetifig*] 
unworthy unwurdh't G 83 
tip up G 79 
upon upon' G 20 
upright upraikht* G 23 
tw us 6 7, 21, 44 
use yyz utiy yys usus 8, Bull, yyz non 

iuz Gj9r, 7, 87, i«#«rfyyz'ed G 124 
utterly uterli Bull 


tMttii vain Sa, Bull 

valleys val'eiz G 24 

valour Yol'or G 43 

value val-yy G 89, valew C 6 

vane faan, amussium venti index 8 

vanity van'tti G 21 

vanquished van'ktrisht G 105 

varlet vcflat Bull 

varnish vcr'nish G 98 

vault vault insilire equo, vaut fomicarSy. 

Bull, voout camera 8, yaut B. 
vaunt YAAnt G 89 
veal yeel <i 39 
veil yail G 9 
vein yain Sa, ycin Bull 
velvet velvet Sa, G 28 
vengeance ven-dzhans G 103 
venger vcndzh-er G 135 
vent vent S 
verily ver il» S 
verses vcrs'cz G 112 
very veri S, G 23 
vetch fitsh G 37 

vicar vikar S, G 17, Aust filcar G 17 
vice vois G 1 13, viets voises ? G pr 
victory vilc'torai G 99, vil'tori G 100 
view vyy G 114, riewtd yyj'ed S 
viewtr vj-yer H 
vigilant vi^-flant P G 30 
vigilaHC't v/d/hilnnsi G 129 
viU veil S, voil G 105 
villain vil-au G 105 
viUanous vil'enus G 121 


pine yein Sa 

vinegar vtn'iger S, Ttu'eger, Antt fin*- 

egcr G 17 
vine-prop vein-prop G 106 
vineyard = v\;net/ard vf^iard 20 
virago yaraa*gpo G 30 
virgin vtrdzhm G 30 
virtue ver'tyy Sa, virtyy, O/w, 73 
virtuoM vir-tuuB P G 77 
viscount Yttkuimt Ball 
vital Yi'Ud ? G 125 
vitrijiable tnirum dixerie ti Umum in 

quinta repererie, tamen §io iegt, 

▼itTtfaiabl G 129 
voice Yois Ball, G 24 
void Toid S 
voucheafe TOutBhsaaf* G 110, Touiiaaf* 

vowed Toa*ed S 
vowel vo',el H, vao'el Ball 

waded waad'ed G 80 

waggon* wag-onz G 146 

wail wail S, G pr 

wait wait S, G, 20, 25 

wake waak G pr 

Walden Waldn JFaldinam S 

walk WAAlk potius quam^ WAAk G pr^ 

walketh walk-eth G 23, walked 

WAAlkt G 70 
im// waul Sa, waal P S, wal G|ir, waaI 

G 20, walh waaIz G 98 
wallow walloa P G /n* 
wan wan paUidm S, G 123 
wand wand S 
wander wander S, Boll, wandered wbh''^ 

dred G 102 
wane waan imminutio luminia luna S 
want want Bull, G 87, wanting want-tq 

war war S, Ball, G 100, warr war 

warbling war'bb'q G 119 
wards wardz G 117 
ware waar S, Bull, G 60 
warlike war'bik G 32 
warm war'm Bull 
want waar'n Bull, warns wanu G 147y 

warning waru'iq G 100 
wary waaTi G 149 
warren war-en Bull 
%oas was S, H, was wast were wai 

wast woer, G 66, were weer G 66, 

wecr, Bull, B, weer C 
wash waish ? 8a, wash G pr, 6S, washed 

wasp wasp G pr 
waste waast 8, G 10, waast 26^ 

wasted woasted G 66, 112 

Wat Wat, lepus S, H, (/or 7F«ft«r, 

IMMM o/ tKs AoTf, « €hetnticlstr, 

Reynard are names of the eoek emd 

watch waitsh Sa, watched wataht G 118 
water waa'ter, H, Boll, wat-er G 10» 

38, WAA-ter G 81, watereth waa-ter- 

eth G 24, waters waaten O 23, 24 

Waterdoum Waa-terdovii G 124 
waves waavz G 117 
waw wan unde^ Sa 
wax waaks S, waka G 23 
way wai, rustici waai« Mops wee, Sa at 

I^anstr waa, S, wai mom «e G jir 

16, waai G 21 
iM wii P, Sa, to» ourselves wii uonelTr 

Boll, wii non oil G |»*, 44 
weak week S, G 
wealth welth Boll, G 39 
wean ween ablactare 8 
wear weer G 60, 98, warvmtwmeier G 3, 

iooTM worn G 60 
wearling weer'ling not warlinff B 
weary weeri G 84, 100, B, wiirt €mr B 
weasel^ wiis'l B 
weather tsweyer G 16 
wed'wed S 
to«0<f wiid S, Boll 
week wiik S 
«w/ wiil nassa G 11 
toem wiin opinari S, G pr 
weeipot wiit-pot/arotuwM Oee^O 18 
weesway wiiz'wai^crfiMm Oee^ G 18 
weighs waiz G 93 
weight waikht G 9, 181, weights « 

tratV<'« [M« sign Libra] C 20 
io^'r weer Sa 
welcome wel'kum G 33 
well wel befie S, H, Gpr, 10 
we*ll wiil Borpro wii wil G 17 
wefi wen S 
wend wend G 66 
wench wentsh Ball 

went went G 66, jed, jood LitSy O 16 
were [see * was '] 
fT^f^i =were weem Q 124 
ir«^ wet S, G 13 
wevil wii* VI 1 B 

whale Huaal uHaal (swhaal P) S 
what Buat UHat S, what G pr, 11, 44 
itAm/ Huecl UHecl («x wheel f)pustulmB 
wheat wheet triticum S, Hueeft (« 

wheet) H, wheet G 37 
wheaten whce*t'n Bull 
wheel uuiil, UHiil (swhiil) S. whiil 

where Hueer (swhoor) H, B, 

G 24, B, wher 2 
wherry wher-i B 
whsl whet G 13, S 


fOMer wbedh-er Q 11, 45 
wkkk whUdi BuU O 14, 44 
wAftb Hnea imeU (awheil) S, whoil 
112, whiUa Hoils (uueiLi P) w 
wlMik S, huoLk H 
wkUtn wbdileer 6 106 
wMbw whailmm G 113 
wkM wher^l, fiuU 
wJUr^tool wher'l.pinil, Boll 
wAirheind whtrl-wtnd 6 149 
^Aiitled whtatld G 146 
tfJUu whtft Btill, whsit G 74 
tfikUktr whedh-er, Bull, B 
9JkiUU wbtVl wjih a kntif Boll 
vA» whan Bull, G 44, wham Huom 
(EQOom P), UHom (=whoom Tj S, 
^nbooiii G 105, whanm G 44, wKoom 
8, whoM whauz G 44, mnii P G 

wlraneT-er G 135 
whool BqU, G 23, hooU G 4 
*Jkol$9oms HOol*8ii]n 6 
whuap Ball 
HQur, Se Kjjr 8 

=ichoor0doome C 19 
whua'floeT'er G 33 
Hnt (Huei ?), uHt (swhei P) S 
^hai G 99 whi 26 
'm^stMfifrG 12 
^^k$d wtoked G 23 
weid Sa, woid G TO' 
wiild G 110 
wtdoou P G pr 
^*L/« wtiif, icivei wi'ivs, Bull 
^JfiUness wtl'tidneee, fM 7)rumpin^on 

4 184 
"if/^ wtl S, H, wtl G pr, Lin -1 ut 
«i-l, d^oa-1, Hii-l, wii-1, jou-l' dhei-1, 
<J 17, unit wilt G 64 
^♦J/iam Wtliam G 77 
^^imhUdoH Wan-bldnn G 134 
*^n win 8a, 8, Ball, G 7 
^^nek wtntsh Boll 
^^nd wtind vm^iM Boll, wdind fwn/iM 

6 10, 28, winds =icifnds 7 
^'n^ witnder Boll 
^ndUu witnd-las Ball 
^miow witxid*oor Bull, wtud'oou G 81 
'<NiN^ Wf tndt Bull 

N>^ wein Sa, 8, Bull, W9mQ pr, 7, 38 
*eMy#weiiidzh, m# tuprdp, 763, n. 2, Sa 
^•iNM wiqi G 28 
^nkinp wtqk'tq Sa 
teip$ witp Bull, Wdip G 124 
v& weis 8, weiz H, wuz Bull, waiz 

O 106, wp't 6 
^ritdom wiis'dum Bull, wtz'dum G 26 
wiidoomO 11 

with wtsh Sa 10, 8, wnh Sa, G 48 

wished yrmhi f G AS 
wist Wttt sciebam G 64 
te^7 wit S, Bull, iritQpr, 91 110, v. 

wtt seio G 64 
trfY<;A witsh Bidl, G 14 
wite V. wait vituperOfftrk svanuit G 64 

Uheprontmeiation assigned was thers* 

jbrs probably eat^ectural'] 
with With Sa, Bull, wtdh fnqwntius^ 

With doeti inUrdmn^ G pr^ with G 

20 et passim 
withdraw wtthdrAA* G 128, withdrew 

withdryy- G 91 
Witham Widh*am G 70 
withhold withuoould- G 33, 104 
wUhin within- G 79, B 
without without- G 33, 79 
withstand Withstand- G 128 
withy widh't salix Bull 
witness wtt-nes G 42 
wisard^wisard wissards G 2, 3 
wood wod P glastum 8 
fixo# woo S, G 81, 142 
woeful woo-ful G 102 
wolf wulf S, B 
%oomb womb 8, wuum B 
woman wum-an G 41, wuu-man B, 

women wi'm-en G 41, wiim'cn G 77 
fcwi wun 8 
wonder un-der ( = wun-der) Sa, wun'dcr 

G 88, B, wonders, wun-den G 22 
wondrous wun-drus G 122 
tron^wuntG 111, 142, B 
woo nu (=wuu?) Sa, wooed uoed ( = 

woo-ed P) d procis ambita 8 
wood wud 8, G 10, 22, woods wuda G 

wool u-ul (=wul?) lana 8, wul G 

Wbrcesterthire Wus-tenhiir G 70, 8 
word wurd Bull, G 10, word G 114, 

wuurd wurd B 
wore V, woor G 60 
work wurk Bull, G 21, works wurks 

workman wurk-man G 28, workmen = 

woorkmen C 20 
world worl'd Bull, world G 10, 23, 110 

worm wuur'm Bull, wurm G jtt, B 
worse wuTB G 34 
worship wurshtp Sa, G 22 
worst wurst G 34 
worth wurth Bull, G 110 
worthy wurdh- f G 83 
wost wust »eis B 
wot 9, wot Sa, G 64 
would wuuld 8, Bull B 
would* St wuuldit G 64 

mulcasteb's ELEMENTARIE, ISB^. Chap.VIH. } T. 

iBound vound vulniu S. wunnd, Six- 
WiAild (periapt htrc to it rtad 
(wRund)j G 16, tcimndt wnond'ei tit 
Sj>.««T 137 

va-. woti G 133 

wraas^ irriiq''lor (ciciiq'lDr) Boll 
wrai/i vntb (rieUh.) O 90 
tentti/Hi wretb-fii! (rwalbfU) G 103 

twwf wcett tneat] o> 
tmKJ> WTMt^l (nnst-'l) BnH 
■»nU« meUli fneetih) Bull, G 146, 
mrttelud w»tih-ed (rioitoh-ed) GUT 
WriHlcU wriqk-'l (npiqk-'l) Sit 
wrtVe WTsit (rwjit), wrft {ricrt) teribt- 
bam, wroot (nroot) imperfitlum cem- 
mimi, vTBit (rmat) Bar, ai hut 
writn (rtoit'n) teripti G iB, iwiHnt 
wrift-'n (rtnit-'D) BuU nfird p. 114, 

wrong imni(nDOq)G 95, wmnffedmani 

(nraqd) Bor Q 122 
tmlh tmtth (rtroth) BuU, wrooth 

{rxHMth) 123 
wnugkl wrooUBt, (iwouut F) wrowbt 

ftuTiwlil) Bull, wronuiit wrowht 

(ncmmHt nwiwbt) BuU, wrooakht 

(nraoukht) G AS 
Wymomlham Wimund'Em ntdia if/l- 

lata pmUuitta- \ta Trtmpiiigtm'] 



yard jnn) So, tard virga aut arta, S, 

laordG TO 
yari hehinii nr)i beumd- pmlerieriiui 
pediiiH iieuler; ft propria /quormm S 
van laafa DuU, jam O lU 
iUifBiium S 
(>u 'jfiMi' goat diciMiu 

y<U( jaat qwii 

yawn «aun F Sa 

i'ajcley Jalwloi nostm ^TiipriiiM 8 

ya lii Bull, G 20, 44, ti 141 

y« Jco Sa 3£ 

y«r Jiir Sn. Ball, B, leor G TO 

yait liisl (mmnf ybr leot f} «rrM« 

tpHmii yuuit n/i j barm xoeatl S 
)W^ leld ? Sa 
yif/ ju] 6a 
StlbiK jel'ou 9b. S 
ywMnfl jeni'an F S, jn-man Boll 
yu jtB afn (OMnf jea S, ta G 10 
yttttrdan jes'terdai S, JwCerdai G IT 
911 lii, »Ui vma«t jet S O 103 
yMff TT (dZKi urAiir S 
yiVl/jiild r Sa, jiild S, Bull, 33. 8S, 
teld (>f>»<vuil S, yitiitd uld cd G 110, 
jiUd'cdOllT, iWtMClS 
yorfi jod O 106, *» Wmt 
yekt took G 10. 43, iwi 11 
yo/i looYjagtim 6, jelk vinUum G 10 
uonfar toU'doT ten-der S, lon-dar H 
Tor/i Jork Sa 

yoa loa f>i» 8, JBQ H, BuU, im tm 
oiwrva Jon lie $eriii totfr^ tl at 
aligiobiH priHHmfiari al d pinitgtm 
laa, lamen gnta Mot momliuii uHfm 
G 46, JQD nnn iu G, pr, juo G 45. 
lou G 14, jou Mopi ja G 18, yw C 
6, KW yw 10 
jnHcy juq, Sn, S. BuU, B. G 24, 113 
yoHr mur, BuU, juur G 21, 96, ywi 

jaUM G 4S, yotTM C 6 
i/unk/r JUqk'or adaUten- gnuretiw S 
yntcA jauth f St^ jutii Bull, ijjih Q 
13, 46. Juulb B, yoMAi jmba G M 
cMti iml G 13, 105 ^^_ 

ltd aed h'I*ra t, S ^^^^| 

wodiak lo-dtak F O M ^^H 

Zovtk Zoubh O 42 ^^H 


Gill Bays in the preface to Iuh Logonontta, " Occarroro qoiikqii 
huic vitio [cacogTaphico] viri boni et literati, sed irtito conatn ; 
ox equestri online Thomas Smilkius ; cni volumtn bene magnum oj^- 
posuit Rich. ifulcMterut : qui post magnam teinporis et bons ehails 
porditionem, omnia Cousuctndiiu tonquam tyranno pennittotuta 
oenBct." Mulcaster's object in short was to teach, not the spcUiai; 
of sounds, but what ho consideied the neatest style of HpeUing as 
derived from custom, in order to avoid the great confusion which 
then prevailed. Ho succeeded to the extent of largely infafnomg 
subsequent nuthoritics. In £eii Jonson's Orammar, the Cht|i(en 
on orthograpliy ure little more than abridgements of UulcflBtcr'a. 
Sometimes the same examples arc used, and the vurr &ulta vl 
doacriptioD are followed. It would have boen difficult to ■ 


Chap. YIIL i 7. mulgaster's SLEMENTARIE, 1582. 


anything out of liulcaster without the help of contemporary ortho- 

epists, and it appeared useless to quote him as an authority in Chap. 

III. But an account of the xn th century pronunciation would be 

incomplete without some notice of his book, and the value of his 

remarks has been insisted on by Messrs. Noycs and Pcirce {infrk 

p. 917, note). A few extracts are therefore given, with brackettcd 

remarks. Chronologically, Mulcaster's book should have been 

noticed before Gill's, p. 845. But as he was a pure orthographer 

'who only incidentally and obscurely noticed orthoepy, these 

extracts rightly form a postscript to the preceding vocabulary. 

The title of the book, which will be found in the Grenville coUec- 

idon at the British Museum, is : — 

The first part of the elementarie which entreateth 
chefelie of the right writing of our English tung, set 
furth by Eichard Mvlcaster. Imprinted at London 
by Thomas Yautroullier dwelling in the blak-friers 
by Lud-gate, 1682. 

In Herbert's Ames, 2, 1073, it is said that no other part was ever 
X^^bUshed. In the following accoxmt, all is Mulcaster's except the 
^es inclosed in brackets, and the headings. The numbers at 
end of each quotation refer to the page of Mulcaster's book. 

ieuh-, seu&e,*' 161. — ^Where the grave 
accent seems to mark absence of stress, 
the(jualityof the Towel changing or not.] 
Which diuersitie in sound, where occa- 
sion doth require it, is noted with the 
distinctions or time [meaning stress in 
reality, which he indicates by ' **, be- 
cause'in English Tersification imitating 
the classical, quantity was replaced by 
stressl and tune [meaning length, whicn 
he indicates by accent marks, and hence 
confuses with tune], tho generallie it 
nede not, considering our daielie cus- 
tom, which is both our best, and our 
commonest gfde in such cases, is our 
ordinarie leader [and hence unfortu- 
nately he says as little as possible 
about it]. — 110. 


I call that proportion, when a num- 
ber of words of like sound ar writen 
with like letters, or if the like sound 
haue not the like letters, the cause why 
is shewed, as in hear, fi^^^ dear, gear^ 
wear [where the last word, which was 
certainly (weer), sliould determine the 
value ot ea in tho others to have been 
(ce) in Mulcaster's pronunciation, 
though, as others suid (uiir, fiir, diir) 
even in his day, this may be too hasty 
a conclusion]. — 124. 

The Yowels Generally. 

The Towells generallie sound either 
l^mg as, comparing, retienged, endiiing, 
^^m^ture, presuming: or short as, ran- 
^^ktMg^ reid^llifig, penitent, omnipotent, 
"hrtHnat : [here the eiample revenged, 
hicb haa certainly a snort vowel, 
hewB that by length and brevity, 
Tulcaster meant presence and absence 
^^ stress, which applies to every case ;] 
^^ther sharp, as m&te, mete, ripe, h6pe, 
^^dke. or flat as : m^t, met, rip, hop, 
^^(ik. [Here he only means long or 
i^hori, and does not necessarily, or in- 
^^eed always, imply a difference of 
quality, as will appear under E. Oc- 
^sasionally, however, he certainly does 
denote a difference of quality by these 
accents, as will be seen under 0. In 
^ia ''general table" of spelling, these 
«ftooentB seem froauently used to differ- 
entiate words, wnich only differed in 
tkheir consonants, and it is impossible 
from his use of them to determine the 
aoonda he perhaps meant to express. 
Thus in his chapter on Distinction, he 
aays : " That the sharp and flat accents 
ar onelie to be set vpon tho last syllab, 
where the sharp bath manie causes to 
present it self: the flat onlio vpon som 
rare difference, as refuse, refuse, present, 
present ^ record^ record, differ, differ. 




A Besides this eenerall note for tlie 
time and tunc, hatn no particular thing 
worth the ohseroation in this place, as 
a letter, but it hath afterward in pro- 
portion, as a syllab. All the other 
yowells hauo manic pretie notes. [This 
might mean that a always presenred its 
sound, and the other vowels did not. 
It is possible that the '* pretie notes " 
only refer to his observations on them, 
ana not to diversit^r of sound.]— 1 1 1 . 

AekSf brach^j with the oualifj^ing e, 
for without the e, t, goeth before eh. 
as patch, tnateh, eatehy tmatehj watch. 
The strong ch. is mere for^, and 
therefor endeth no word with vs, but 
is turned into k, as stomak, numark. 

SThis context makes a long and ch = 
tsh) in acheszisoitsh). Yet in his 
general table p. 170, he spells both 
acht and ake. Sec the illustrations of 
ache in Shakspere, iotrk § 8.]— 127. 

AI, EI. 

Ai, is the mans dipthong, and 
soundeth full : ei, the womans, and 
soundeth finish [ = rather fine] in the 
same both sense, and vse ; a woman is 
deintie, and feinteth soon, the man 
fainteth not hycause he is nothing 
daintie, [Whether any really phonetic 
difference was meant, and if so of what 
kind, is problcmaticaL Smith had 
said the ramc thing, suprh p. 120, but 
with Smith the word diphthong had a 
phonetic meaning, with Mulcaster it 
was simply a digraph, and he may 
have at most alluded to such differ- 
ences as (ira?, ee) or (ec, ec). Compare 
the following parngraph.] — 119. 

No English word c^deth in a, but 
in aie, as decaicy assaic, which writing 
and Bonnd our vse hath won. [Does 
this confuse or distinguish the sounds 
of a, aif It might do both. It ought 
to distinguish, because the writing of 
ai being difftTcnt from the writing of 
a, the mention of its sound should 
imply that that sound was also dif- 
ferent But we cannot tell. Sec what 
follows.]— 125. 

Oaie^ grair^ traie. And maid, said, 
guoify English for coif, quail, sail, rail, 
mail, onelfsse it were better to write 
these with tlic qualifying, e, quale, fait, 
rale, male, [If any pnonctic consistency 
were prcdicahle of an orthographical 
reformer. — w!»irh, however, we are not 
justified in assuming, — this ought to in- 

dicate a flimilaritj of prmunm 
between ai and a. To the sam 
dusion tend :] Howbeit both t1 
minations be in vse to dioene 
Oain, pain, if not, Pane, gone, r 
and such as these terminatioDa, 1 
vsod to dinerse ends, [these "< 
ends "^ beine^ of course not to i 
diversity of sound, but diven 
sense ; it would be quite enoQ 
Mulcaster to feel that the vow 
long, and that a final «, and not 
serted t, was the "proper" i 
marking length.] . . . Fair, pair, 
not Fare, part, are, both termii 
also be vsed to diuerse ends. 
strait, if not Wate, strate. 8tra 
streight, bycanse ai and ei, do 
change vaes. Aim, or ame. 
Faint, restraint, faint, or fn$U, ^ 
or queint . . . JBte, eight, sleight, 
weight, feUd, yeild, sheild, the 
between ei, and ai, maketh i 
anie where so ordinarie, as in 
terminations. [If we were 
siderate enough to suppose thai 
caster had any thought of reparei 
the different soun£, as distiufi 
firom the length, of vowels, aU 
cases, would be explicable by asi 
ai =s n = (ee), and a long s= 
But this would be somewhat o 
to other parts of Mulcaster, i 
the writings of eontcmporaries, 
founded upon the grounoless assu] 
just mentioned. As to the sin 
of ai, a, see suprii p. 867, col. 
Mr. White's account of Elisa 
pronunciation, infri.] — 136-7. 


Whensoeuer E, is the last lett 
soundeth, it soundeth sharp, as 
wi. agri. sauing in the^ the arti 
the pronown, and in Latin wordi 
a Latin form, when theie be vsec 
lish like, as eertiorare^ quandare, 
e, soundeth full and brode aft 
originall Latin. [Here, as we 
that the- sounds were ^mii, si 
ogrii*, dhe), though (je) is not i 
tain from other sources, we migl 
pose 6 = Jii), h = (e). Ben J 
nowever, in abstracting and ad 
this passage, distinctly makes the 
^ii), sayine (Gram. chop, iii.), •• 
it is the last letter, and soundc 
sound is sharp, as in the French 
ample in m^. se. agr^, g^. sh^, 
saving the article thi** Obsen 
y^ is now (jii) and not (je). C 

Ceap. TIIL i 7. inrtCASTER's BI.EMBI<TAIITE, 1682. 


alio thftt ^vandarf is referred to a 
Latin origin, quam darty as if they 
were the fint words of a writ.! Wben- 
Meoer e, is tiie last, and sonndeth not, 
it either ^nalifieth som letter going 
before, or it is mere silent, and yet in 
neitiier kinde cncreaseth it the nnmber 
of 8yllal)8. I call that E, qualifying, 
whose absence or presence, somtime 
altereth the yowcll, somtime the con- 
sonant going next before it. It alteretii 
the soiuid flengthl of all the yowells, 
eoen quite thorough one or mo conso- 
nants, as m&de, st^e, 6che, kinde, 
itrtpe, 6re, c<ire, Unste sound sharp 
with the qualifying E in their end : 
wheras, m&d, st^m, ^h, frind, strip, or 
ear, tost, contract of tossed, sound flat 
without the same E. [Now as we 
know that tteam, each, were (steem, 
eeeh), it follows that d represented 
cither (ii) or (ee), that is, that the 
acute accent only represented length, 
independently of alteration in qualify of 
tone ; there was such an alteration in 
«6r«, eur, certainly, and in tiripef 9trip, 
«eecmling to the current pronunciation ; 
"bat there was or was not in «^, stSme, 
compared with tUm, and hence we 
hare no reason to infer that there was 
any in mdde^ mad, 6re, or. Ben Jonson 
alters the passage thus : << Where it [£1 
«ndeth, and soimdeth obscure, ana 
fidntly, it serres as an accent, to pro- 
duce the Voicell preceding: as in mdde, 
■MHm. stripe, ire, ekrt, which else 
would sound, mad. eUm, atrip, or. dir" 
It is tolerably clear that by using 
''produce" in place of Mulcaster's 
"alter the sound," he intended to 
avoid the difficulty of considering stdme 
e steam as (stiim), unless, indeed, he 
meant it to be a contraction for esteem. 
He omits the example eaeh for a simi- 
lar reason.] — 111. 

Bert, desert, the most of these sorts 
be Ussyllabs or aboue : besides that, 
I, dealeth rerie much before the r, 
[meaning probably that er was often 
sounded (ar)1. By deserue, preeerue, 
eemerue, it should appear that either 
we strain the Latin s to our sound, or 
that theie had som sound of the z, ez- 

K by 8, as well as wo, [did he say 
r\') ?] —132. 


I, in the same proportion [supr& p. 
911] sonndeth now sharp, as giut, 
tkriue, aliue, vvlue, title, bible, now 
quik, as giue^ Hue, tiue^ titliy biik^ 

which sounds ar to be distinguished by 
accent, if acquaintance will not seme 
in much reading. [As Ben Jonson 
uses the same words and notation, and 
we know that he must have distin- 
guished his /, i, as (oi, t) there is no 
reason for supposing that Mulcaster's i 
was anything out (ei) or (ai). But at 
the same time there is nothing to mili- 
tate against the contemporary Bullo- 
kar's (t»). And Mulcaster's pronunci- 
ation of OK as (uu), iafrk p. 914, which 
is about the only certain result that 
cai^ be elicited from his book, renders 
the {ii) probable.] — 116. 

I, besides the time and tune thereof 
noted before, hath a form somtime 
Towellish, somtime consonantiBh. In 
the Towellbh sound either it endeth a 
former syllab or the verie last. When 
it endeth the last, and is it self the last 
letter, if it sound gentlie, it is qualified 
by the e, as manie, merie, tarie, carte, 
where the verie pen, will rather end in 
e, than in the naked i. If it sound 
sharp and loud, it is to be written y, 
having no, e, after it, as neding no quah- 
fication, detty, ery, defy, [This at any 
rate goes against Gill's use of final (ai), 
supr^ p. 281, which, however, he only 
attributes to " numerus poeticns," Log. 
p. 130, in his Chap. 25, quoted at 
length, infr^ § 8.]— 113. 

If it [I] end the last syllab, with 
one or mo consonants after it, it is 
shrill [long] when the qualifying e, 
followeth, and if it be shrill [long] the 
qualifying e, must follow, as, repine^ 
vnwise, minde, kinde, fiete [foist fj. If 
it be flat and quik, the qualifying e, 
must not follow, as, examin^ behind, 
mist, Jlst, [ObecMrve (beHtnd-) with a 
short vowel, and hence certainly not 
(beneind-J.] — 114. 

The quik i, and the gentle passant e, 
ar so near of kin, as theie entcrchange 
places with pardon, as in deterged, or 
detergid,Jlndeth, or Jindith, hir, or her, 
the error is no hcrcsie. — 115. 

If it ri] light somwhat quiklie vpon 
the B, then the s is single, as promts 
tretisy amis, aduertis, ertfranchis, etc. 
[This seems to establish (advertis, en- 
iran'chts) as the common pronunci- 


is a letter of as great vnccrtaintie 
in our tung, as e, is of direction both 
alone in vowell, and combined in diph- 
thong. The cause is, for that in vowell 


the diphthong ou. in those irarfl^ 
it is BuiJ to "aounJ mora u|hiii. I 
then >pon the, o," bad, at with I 
kar and Fala^Te, the •oand of 
It i« in fact diSlcult to conccirc 
Mulculel pronouneed otberwiie. 
this soundulf nf s» u (uu), lea 

nntursll, . ... 

which a, is itill niiturallte shor^ and, 
A6m, ffiani, maiker. which o, is na- 
torallie long. In the diphthong it 
souadeth more Tpon the, u, then Tpon 
the, 0, as in fowid, uowuf, cow, mui, 
hav}, how, now, and bdut, i6ui, leriughi, 
iught, mdio, trdttgh. Notwithstanding 
thu Yftriecie, yet oar ctulom is so ac- 
qnainled with'the vse thereof, as it wil- 
be inore difficultie to alter a known 
cooftuion, thi:n profitable to 
an inknown rdonnntjon, in sDCh aa 
argument, where acqauntana 


. p. 913, t 

picionofsonndino'MaDg'aa (it).]- 
0, in the end u said Id 

no [shrew F],_/n 
. .. before, 


And yet where difference by note si 
seem to be ni'tossarie the titles of pro- 
portioH aud dutiHdlian will not omit 
the hi>tp. In the mean time thus much 
is tu h« noted of D ; besides his time 
long and aliort. beiidee his tone with or 
wimout the qaulihing e, sharp or Qat, 
that when it is (he laslletter in the word, 
it soundeth sharp aad loud, Qs agi, ti, 
t6, nd. sane in l6 (he preposidon, tui 
the numerall. di the lOrb : his com- 
poonds as. iWo, his derioatines as diin^. 
In the midle eyllaba, Tor turn-, it is 
sharp, as here, or flat if a consonant 
end the syllah after o. For time the 
polTsyllah will bewraie it self in oar 
oailiB pronouncing : considering tho 
vbildren and leamets be ignorant, yet 
he is a verio simple Uachur, that know- 
oth not tho tuning of our ordinarie 
words, yea tho tbeie bo enfranchised, as 
^noraM, impHdcnt, inipoleiil, O va- 
ried the sound in the same proportion, 
nue oftimes in theBameletten,as tom, 
yU(K, dom. Mat, muix, and I6ut, 
gritu, ihriHC, niiu. This dnble soand 
of 0, in tho Towell is Latinish, where 
a, and n, be great cosans, as in voIIum, 
voUii, coin. And vuUiu, vullii, occula: 
in tbe diphthong it is Orekisb, for theie 
sound thoir ou, still Tpon the u, tho it 
be contract of 00. or a a [there is some 
misprint in these oo, o i which is imi- 
tated here], wherein as their president 
[precedent] is our warrant against ob- 
lection in these, so must acquaintance 
be the mean to discern tho aable force 
of this letter, where wo finde it, and he 
that wilt learn oar tnng, must lean 
the writing of it to, being no more 
strange then other tungs be eiien in the 
rriting. [It would seem br the general 

dipthoug causeth the 11, be dnl 
as Intl. And if a consonant fbU 
0, commonlie hath the same Ion 
the 1, ho but nngte, lold, wU, 

liu.] 0, before m, in tlia be^i 
or midle of a word, leading tbi 
labs Boundeth flat t-pon the o. i 

soundeth still vpon, the u. as wm 
dota, [hence the llrst is (i>), the s 
(u]] and therfor in (heir derioi 
and compounds as atkom, Imi 
fiBWcaiD. camierioiH, kinfdom. It 
after tbe m, aa ham, mami, 
[roamP], aad ye( ichom, Jroai. 
DO, e, by prtrogalitu of Tie, tho 
bane it in aonnd and seminj^ft 
are called (uoom froom], wlit 
strange, especially as xt^iisftew 
Or is a termination of som truMe, 
a consonant followeth, byconse it ■ 
eth so much Tpon the u, as worm, 
[(ftirmjf] iuwrd, wwrf, and yi 
qualifying c, after wil bewraie si 
the absence thereof will bowniie 
ttanou, a, warm, n, Ivrii o, A«rd 

Oood, ttood, j/acd. Boa/, rao/. 
loek, ioai. Hoot. School, tooL C 
bioom. Hiop, cqpp- If cniton 
not won Ihb, why not ml f Byct 
tbe sound which thcHO dipbthungi 

the, u. I will note tbe o, soaodin^ 
himself, with the streight aoera 
causa that o, leudeth the lessv ni 
Bite, knits, liw, and Bite, aiie 
mdw. [That is (bun, suu, knn, 
but there leem to be soma mispri 
wbat follows, compare the vr 
oighl, miic, Irittgh, giten m 
Onteh, erauleh, tteteleh. Lawdt, I 
Hon/, alouf. Qouftt houft. t 
iught, owjht, of itt, with, «, fn> 
pnmitiae. P^ht, moii^jU, a 
vir&ught, aaig/a. again, Jl 
monghi, Jotifht. BfttMrB-' 



mnarngk. Soul, eoul, tkouL Why not 
IS well 88 with 00 P Roum^ wroum, 
kum, NintHy eroun, dotin^ doun, Oum, 
^rowiif ypon the deriuatiiie. Stoup, 
bt^droupfCoup. Soundf ground, found. 
Oir •commonlie abreuationlike as oury 
the termination for enfranchisments, 
as amUmtj procuratour, as, «r is for our 
OMTy as iuter, icriter : Bour, louvyjlourf 
/hr, alone Tpon the, 6, Mourn, ad- 
ioum. Howte, lowae, mowse, the verbes 
and deriuatiaes Tpon the, z, as House, 
hui$, tnouse, the nouns ypon the, s, 
Ous, our i^lish cadence for Latin 
words in osus, as notoriotta, famous, 
populous, riotous, gorgeous, being as it 
irere the vniting of the chefe letters in 
the two syllabs, o, and u, osus» Clout, 
lout, dout, [These instances are strong- 
ly oonfirmatiue of the close ou haying 
beeoi (nu) to Mulcaster, and his only 
knowmg the open ou or (oou).] — 136. 


Thirdlie, oi, the diphthong sounding 
▼pon the 0, for difference sake, from 
the other, which soundeth ypon the u, 
irold be written yrith a y, as ioy, anoy, 
toy, boy, whereas anoint, appoint, foil, 
and such seme to haye an u. And yet 
when, i, goeth before the diphthong, 
the it sound upon the u, it were better 
or then oi, as ioynt, ioyn, which theie 
snail soon perceiue, when theie mark 
the spede of their pen : likewise if oi 
With 1, sound upon the o, it male be 
x&oted for difference from the other 
sound, with the streight accent, as boie, 
eniw.— 117-8. 


V besides the notes of his form, be- 
sides his time and tune, is to be noted 
slso not to end anie English word, 
which if it did it should sound sharp, 
Ss nil, tru, vertd. But to auoid the 

nakednesse of the small u, in the end 
we yse to write those terminations with 
ew the diphthong, as ftew, trew, vertew. 
[Whether this implies that u was 
called (in), or that ew was called (yy) 
occasionally, as in Smith and Fab- 
grave, it is hard to say.] — 116. 


I call that a bissyllab, wherein there 
be two seuerall sounding yowclls, as 
Asur, rasur, masur, and way not lasur ? 
[Are these words azure, rasure, meo' 
sure, leisure ? If so the orthography, 
or the confusion of a, ea, ei^ into one 
sound, is yery remarkable. Further on 
he writes :] Natur, statur, Measur, 
treasur. fProbably this settles the 
question of measure; but the spelling 
would indicate that the final 'ture, 
•sure, were (-tur, -sur,) which would 
haye immediately generated the xyii th 
century (-tar, -sar), and not Gill's 
(-tyyr, -syyr). Probably both were in 
use at that time.] -1 37. 'this shortnesse 
or le/;gth of time in the deriuatiues is 
a great leader, where to write or not 
to write the qualifying, e, in the end of 
simple words. For who will write, 
natur, perjit, measur, treasur, with an, 
e, in the end knowing their deriuatiues 
to bo short, naturall, perfttlie, mea- 
siired, treasurer P . . . . And again, 
fortun profit, comfort, must haue no, e, 
hy cause fortunate, profiting, eomfSrter^ 
haue the last saue one short. [It will 
be seen in Chapter IZ. § 2, in Uodges's 
list of like and unlike words, after the 
vocabulary, that the pronunciation (-ter) 
or (-tar) prevailed at least as early as 
1643. See also the remarks in Mr. 
White's Elizabethan Pronunciation, 
infr^. The examples fortun, fortH' 
nate, point to the early origin of the 
modem vulgarism (f^At'u, f^t-ntt.)] — 

Rkkarks from an Anonymous Black-lbtteb Book, probably op the 

XVI TH Century. 

As these pages were passing through the press, I met with 
an 8vo. black-letter book, without date or place, the date of 
which is supposed to be 1602 in the British Museum Catalogue, 
press-mark 828, f. 7, entitled : 

" Certaine grammar questions for the exercise of young 
SchoUers in the learning of the Accidence." 

In the enumeration of the diphthongs, occur the following remarks 
which clearly point out ea as (ee), and distinguish i short and i long 
as having characteristically different sounds, probably (t ei) or (ai) : — 


*'eafoTefun great 

#0 or ii0 for i uned greefo 

ui for ♦ hroade guyde.'^ 
The following enrious passage shews that «i- was by error occa- 
sionally pronounced (sh) in reading Latin words, and hence had most 
probably the same im^cognized English sound at the close of the 
XYi th century. It is- unfortunate that the book is of unknown date, 
and that there is nothing which suggests the date with certainty. 
The type and spelling have the appearance of the xti th century, 
and there is a written note ''happening byforhond," appended to 
Accidents on the last page of sig. £, which is apparently of that 
date, but there are other words on the next page in a much later 
hand. The information then must be taken for what it is worth, 
but it seems to be of Shakspere's time, and is important as the 
oldest notice of such a usage. 

** Q. Nowe what thinges doe yee obscrue in reading 5 

E. These two thinges. l' ( ^'^ *'«"^»'V' 

Q. Wherein standeth cleane sounding i 

R. In giuing to euery letter hi& iust and fall sounde. In break- 
ing or diuiding euery worde duely into his senerall syllables, so 
that euery syllable may bee hcordo by himselfe and none drownd, 
nor slubbered by ill fauouredly. In the right pronouncing of <•*, 
whiche of vs is commonly sounded ci when any vowel doeth follow 
next after him or els not. And finally in avoyding all such vice» 
as arc of many foolishly vsed by euHl custome. 

Q. What vices be those i 

E. lotacismus. sounding i too broade. 

2. LahdacismuB, sounding / too full. 

3. Ischnotes. mincing of a letter as feather for feither. 

4. Traulismus, stammering or stutting. 

5. Plateasmus. too much mouthing of letters. 

6. Cheilostomia, maffling or fumbling wordes in the mouth. 

7. Abusing of letters, as v for /. vat for fat, s for < as muza 
for tnusa, sh for ci, as faslio for facie dosham for doceam fodishum 
ioTfelicium and such like. 

Q. Wherein standeth due pawsing ? 

E. In right obscruation of the markcs and prickes befoFe 

Here the lotacismus may be considered to reprobate the pronunci- 
ation of Latin i as (ci). The Lambdacismus alludes to the intro- 
duction of (u) before (1). For both errors, see supr^ p. 744, note 1. 
The ischnotes (supra p. 90, n. 1) oi feather for father y either mcaiiB 
the actual use of the sound (feedh'cr) for (faadh'er), in which case 
this would be the earliest notice of the pronunciation of a long as 
(ee), but still as a reprobated vulgarism, antedating its recognition 
by nearly a century, — or else it means merely thinning a from (aa) 
to (a>a5), which was no doubt sporadically existent at this early 
period. The enigmatical y2;(2£^ of Salesbury may, as we have seen, 
also refer to father (suprii p. 750, n. 8), and both may indicate an 



anomalous pronxmciatioii confined to that single word. The ahmng 
of letters reminds one of Hart, supdi p. 794, note 1. It is observable 
that the use of (z) for (s), in mt^a, is reprobated, although pro- 
bably universal, as at present, and is placed in the same category 
with (v) for (f ), a mere provincialism, and (sh) for ci-, which we 
here meet witii for the first time, and notably in terms of reproba- 
tion, and after the distinct mention of the '' right pronouncing of ti " 
as "of vs commonly sounded «*," meaning (si) "when any vowel 
doth follow next after him or els not." As late as 1673, E. Coote 
writes in his English SehoolmaaUry p. 31 : " Rob. How many ways 
can you express this sound si? Joh. Only three; <i, ci, and set 
or x», which is est. Roh, Ifow have you erred as well as I ; for ti 
before a vowel doth commonly sound «»." So that (sh) was not 
even then acknowledged. It is curious that there is no reference to 
the use of (th) for t and d final, see supra, p. 844, under D and T. 

§ 8. 'On the Pronunciation of Shakspere. 

Our sources of information respecting the pronunciation of Shak- 
spere are twofold, external and internal. The external comprises 
those writers which have been examined in Chap. III., and illus- 
trated in the preceding sections of the present chapter.^ Of these, 

1 The first published attempt to 
gather Uic i>ronimciation of Shakspere 
from the writings of preceding ortnoe- 
pists is, so far as I know, an article in 
the '* North American Review " for 
April, 1864, pp. 342-369, jointly writ- 
ten by Messrs. John B. Noyes and 
(Siarles S. Peirce. Unfortunately these 
gentiemen were not acquainted with 
Stlesbury, whose works are the key to 
lU the others. Had they known this or- 
thoepist, the researches in my third and 
eighth chapters mifht have oeen unne- 
cessary. Salesbury s Welsh Dictionary 
tint fell under my notice on 14 Feb. 
1869 ; his account of Wdsh pronunci- 
ation was apparently not then in the 
British Museum, and seems not to have 
been aequired till some years afterwards, 
during which time I vainly sought a 
eopy, as it was necessary to establish 
the value of his Welsh transcri|)tions. 
I bad finished my first examination of 
Salesbury, Smith, Hart, Bullokar, Gill, 
BuUer, Walhs, Wilkins, Price, Miege, 
Jones, Buchanan, and Franklin, and 
seat the results for publication in the 
Appendix to the 3rd edition of my PUa 
(snprii p. 631, note) in 1860, but the 
printing of that work having been in- 
terrupted by the outbreak of the Civil 
War in America, thej have not yet 
tppeazed. My atteatioii- was directed 

to Messrs. Noycs and Peirce*8 artiele 
in March, 1865, and I noted all the 
works they quoted, some of which I 
have unfortunately not been able to 
see ; and others, especially R. Mulcas- 
ter's Elemcntarie, 1582 (supdi p. 910), 
and Edward Coote's Schoole- Master, 
1624 (supr^ p. 47, 1. 19), which Mr. 
Koves considers as only inferior to Gill 
ana Wallis, I have scarcely found of 
any value. When I re-commenced my 
investigations at the close of 1866, 
since whieh time I have been engaged 
upon them with scarcely any inter- 
mission, I determined to conduct them 
independently of Messrs. Noyes and 
Peirce's labours, with the intention to 
compare our results. It will be found 
that we do not much differ, and the 

Soints of difference seem to be chiefiy 
ue to the larger field here covered 
(those gentlemen almost confined them- 
selves to Elizabethan times), and per- 
haps to my long previous phonetie 
training. The following are the ola 
writers cited by Messrs. Noyes and 
Peirce : — Palsgrave, Giles du Guei, Sir 
T. Smith, BuUokar, ''iSsops Fables in 
true Ortography, with Grammar Noti, 
8vo., 1585 " (which I have not seen), 
P. Bales, 1590 (not seen). Gill, Butler, 
B. Jonson, WaUis, Baret, Gataker, 
Coote, Perdval's Spanish Grammirf 

Ohap. Tin, f 

however, Palsgrave, SaloBbury, Smith, and Hart, wrote before 
Shaksperc's birth or when he was b, baby (see table p, 50), and 
although Bullokar publiaheii his book when Sbokspere was sixteen, 
it represents a much more archaic form of Inoguago than Hnife, 
of which the first draft (supra p. 794, note) was written six years 
before Shaksperc's birth. Gill, who was bom the same year as 
Shakspere, shoultl naturally be the best authority for the pronoii- 
ciation of the time. He was head master of St. Paul's School 
during the last eight years of Shaksperc's life, aod he published the 
first edition of his book only three years after Shakapere'a death. 
But Gill was a favourer of old hahit«. We have on record his 
contempt of the modem thinness of utterance then affected by the 
ladies (pp. 90, 91) and his objections to Hart's propensities in that 
direction (p. 122). Gill was a Lincolnshire man, of East Midland 
habits. Shakspere was a Slaifordshire man, more inclined to West 
Midland. Hence, although Gill no doubt represented a recognused 
pronunciation, which would have been allowed on the stuge, it is 
possible that Shakspcre's individual luibits may have tended >n the 
direction which Gill reprobated. The pronunciation of the stage 
itself in the time of the Komblcs used to be archaic, and our tra- 
gedians (or such of them oa remain) still seem to affect similar 
habits. But it is possible that in Shaksperc's time a different cus- 
tom prevailed, and that dramatic authors and actors rather affected 
the newest habits of the court. Hence the necessity for proving 
the indications of Gill and other writers by an examination of Shak- 
sperc's own usage, so for ba it can be uet«rmined from the veiy 
unsatisfactory condition in which his text has come down U> us. 

The internal sources of information are three in number, pons, 
metre, and rhyme.' The first is peculiar and seems to offer many 
advantagi's in determining identity of sound, accompanied by diver- 
sity of spoiling, but ifl not really of so much use as might have been 
expected. The metre, properly examined, determines the number 
of syUables in a word and the place of the accent, and, so for as it 
goes, is the most trustworthy source of information which we pos- 
sess. The rhyme, after our experience of Spenser's habita, must 
be of very doubtful assistance. At most we can compare general 
habits of rhyming with the general rules laid down by contemporary 
orthoepists. A few inferences may be drawn from peculiarities M 

1623 (not wen), OoCfrraTe, Mat Strong 
(not Ken),WilkiDl, Mulcultn, Featcau, 
1S73 (pot aeon), Denult, 1608 (not 
teen). De Is Touclie, 1710 (nut iccd), 
Tsnoon, 174S (not teen), Shani on 
SngUsh Ptoaunciiition, 17S7. rmd the 
fuIlowiDg', which I have not eiamined, 
Nsrea. I7S4, Heihsm 1660, Pomvy, 
IG90, SaiDD 1737. Ucmre. Nojea 
ud Peiree'i conclomoiM will t* inaortcd 
M foutnotcs to the mbseotioD headed 
" Conjectured Pronandatiun of Sbsk- 

tnen at the end of this chapter. 

' An clnhoiste attempt to detenniM 
the proDonciatiDa of tooie toifcIb it* 

coneDauute bi; mcaiu uf rhTai<«, puM 
and muinielUiiKS, wu mude bj Mr. 
Richard Oiant White in hii edition of 

tg«K, immedisteljr beibra the Bpeoi. Bhsl 

pagea were paMina; through the pn«. 
An abstract of his rMcorthM. tM» 
rcmarlu. will be found below. iniiu£- 
BlelT slier the pceacnt e 

It after t 



Bpellingy bnt when we recollect that Shakspere did not revise the 
text, and, if he had done so, might not have been very careful in 
correcting literals, or have had any peculiar notions of orthography 
to enforce, we cannot lay much store by this. Nevertheless I have 
thought it right to read through the whole of Shakspere with a 
view to his puns and rhymes, and, during the latter part of this 
task, I also noted many metrical and accentual peculiarities. The 
results obtained will have more or less interest to Shaksperean 
students, independently of their phonetic bearing. 

The following system of reference has been adopted in which I 
have had in view the owners of ant/ modem edition, and have more 
especially consulted the convenience of those who possess Mac- 
millan's Globe edition, of which the text is the same as that of 
the Cambridge Shakspere, edited by Messrs. W. G. Clark and W. 
Aldis Wright. 

OoHtracted Names of the Plays and Poemtf with the pages on which they Mm- 

menee in the Olobe edition. 

AC, Antonyand Cleopatra, p. 911. 
AW, AU'8 Well that Ends Well. 

p. 254 
AT, AsToaLikeit. p. 205. 
C, Coriolanus. p. 654. 
CE, Comedy of Errors, p. 93. 
Cy, Cymbeline. p. 944. 
H, Hamlet, p. 811 

Henry IV., part I. p. 882. 

Henry IV., part II. p. 409. 

Henry V. p. 439. 

Henry VI., part I. p. 469. 

Henry VI., part II, p.«496. 

Henry VI.,_part III. p. 626. 

Henry VIII. p. 592. 

Julius Caesar, p. 764. 

King John. p. 332. 
KL, King Lear. p. 847. 
LC, Lover's Complaint, p. 1050. 
LL, Lovers Labour Lost. p. 185. 
M, Macbeth, p. 788. 
HA, Much Ado about Nothing. 

p. 111. 
MM, Measure for Measure, p. 67. 




MN, Midsummer Night's Dieam. 

p. 161. 
MV, Merchant of Venice, p. 181. 
MW, Mernr Wives of Windsor, p. 42. 
0th, OthcUo. p. 879. 
P, Pericles, p. 977. 
PP, Passionate Pilgrim, p. 1058. 
PT, Phoenix and I'urtle. p. 1057. 
R', Richard II. p. 356. 
R', Richard III. p. 556. 
RJ, Romeo and Juliet p. 721, 
RL, Rape of Lucrcce. p. 1014. 
S, Sonnets, p. 1031. 
T, Tempest, p. 1. 
Tim, Timon of Athens, p. 741. 
TA, Titus Andronicus. p. 688. 
TC, Troilus and Crcssida. p. 622. 
TO, Two Oentlemen of Verona. 

p. 21. 
TN, Twelfth Night, p. 281. 
TS, Taming of the Shrew, p. 229. 
VA, Venus and Adonis, p. 1008. 
WT, Winter's Tale. p. 804. 

In case of the plays the first figure following the title represents 
the acty the second the semey and the third the number of the speech. 
The speeches are generally not numbered. The speeches in each 
scene were, I believe, first numbered by me in phonetic editions of T 
and M in 1849, and Mr. Craik, in his edition of JC, numbered the 
speeches from beginning to end of the play, thinking that he was 
me first person who had done so. There may be some doubt in 
some plays, as AC, regarding the number of the scenes, and in a 
few scenes as to the number of speeches, but those who have been 
in the hubit of using Mrs. Cowden Clarke's Concordance to Shak- 
spere, whore the reference is to act and scene only, will readily ac- 
Imowledge the great convenience of having only to count the 

920 shakspere's puns. chap. vrn. i 8. 

speeches to find the passage with tolerable certainty, instead of 
having to read through a whole long scene. It would be a great 
boon }£ subsequent publishers of Shakspore would adopt this plan 
of numbering the speeches, which would give a means of reference 
independent of the size of the page, and serving for the prose por- 
tions as weU as for the verses. In the specimens at the close of 
this section the speeches are numbered in the way proposed, the 
current number being prefixed to the name of the speaker. Finding, 
however, that this reference is not always minute or convenient 
enough, I have inserted two other numbers in a parenthesis, the 
first referring to the page (number unaccented denoting the first, and 
number accented the second column) in the Globe edition, and the 
second poruting out the line of the previously indicated scene in 
that edition. When the scene consiBts wholly of verse, this num- 
ber coincides with that of the line in the Cambridge edition, but 
when any prose has preceded, as the number of words in a li"^ in 
the Globe edition is less than that in the Cambridge edition, the 
number of the line in the former is somewhat greater than that in 
the latter. Thus 

gilt guilt 2H* 4, 5, 81 (482', 129) 

shews that the pun, gilt guilt, is found in the second part of Henry 
lY, act 4, scene 5, speech 31 ; Globe edition, page 432, column 2, 
verso 129 of this fifth scene. The reference is always to the first 
line and first speech in which the several words which form the 
pun and rhyme occur. Consequently the reader will have to refer 
to some foUowuig lines, and even speeches, occasionally, to fiind the 
full pun or rhyme. The order of the words in the rhyme as cited 
is generally, but not always, that in which they occur in the 
original, and hence the reference must bo considered as belonging 
to either word. 

The Sonnets are referred to by the number of the sonnet and 
verse, with the page or column in the Globe edition, so that 

prove love S 117, 13 (1045') 

shews that the rhyme prove love, occurs in sonnet 117, verse 13; 
Globe edition, page 1045, column 2. 

For the other poems, VA, RL, LC, and PT, the annexed num- 
bers give the verses and column in the Globe edition. PP gives 
the number of the poem and verse of the poem as in the Cambridge 
edition, and the column and verse in the Globe edition. 

Shakbpbrb'b Puw8. 

The word pun is modem and is not used in Shakspere. The 
following terms have been noted : 

Quips TG 4, 2, 1 (36', 12), MW 1, Crotchets, MA 2, 3, 16 (US', 68). 

3, 27 (45, 46). AY 6, 4. 28 (22r, Jests MA 2, 3, 68 (119', 206). LL L 

79). H* 1, 2, 11 (883', 61). 2, 178 (166, 873). 2, 1, 86 (Ul, 

Snatehes MM 4. 2, 3 (83, 6). 206), H« 6, 3, 22 (406', 66). 

Double meaning MA 2, 3, 81 (120, Conceits LL 6, 2, 180 (164, 260). H* 

267). 4. 1, 27 (486', 102). 

EqaiTOcation H 6, 1, 61 (841, 149). Quilleti OtL 3, 1, 16 (892, 26). 




Dsts are not merely piins.^ They include catchings np, mis- 
lings, intentional or ignorant, false pronunciations, humor- 
cms, involuntary associations of sound, even in pathetic 
coarse douhlea mtendresy and jokes upon words of every 
B kind. Many of these defy notation, and are also useless 
esent purpose. By far the greater number of real puns 
> difference of spelling, and were therefore not worth 
lut so inveterate was Shakspere's habit of playing upon 
at I have marked specimens in every play except AC, 
it probably I have overlooked some covert instance. 

Lowing, although they present a slight tlifference of spell- 
y little if any information. 

2, 3, 3 (26', 42). 
W 6, 5, 1 (64', 12). 
[E 4, 8, 16 (104, 64). MY 
(191', 23). AY 3, 2, 9 
In the last instance dam^ 
med or wedged. The more 
istance in MV, disconnte- 
) dam-ned nsnally preferred 
« in M 6, 1, Id (806', 39). 
mdemn*) is probably an 

MA 2, 1, 22 (116, 82). 
is in fiivonr of the pro- 
i of French m, supr^ p. 827. 
dayKJS, 1, 10 (340', 82). 
nds ns of Salesbury's con- 

fusion of holy, holfyf stxprk p. 99, 
n. 3. 

gilt guilt 2 H* 4, 6, 81 (432', 129). 
H» 2, prol. (443, 26). This agrees 
with the preceding yocabnlary p. 892, 
and shews the u was not pronounced 
in guilt. 

Lacies laces 2 H< 4, 2, 26 (616\ 47). 
This makes the pronunciation of final 
-es, as (-is) or (-tz), probable, but not 
certain. Dick, the butcher, speaks it. 

presents presence 2 H* 4, 7, U (619^, 
Z2). This cannot be relied on for 
indicatine the habitual omission of 
t in the first word ; the joke is one of 
Jack Cade's. 

lowing shew the indistinctness with which unaccented 
I, 'ily or -aVy ^er, -our were already pronounced. 

I H« 4, 10, 1 (621', 11). 
lelMWl, 1,51 (43,120). 
)1 H 8, 2, 23 (828, 108). 
lerAT3, 2, 31(216, 126). 
91 (768, 307). 
• T 2, 1, 9 (7, 18), MM 1, 
60) KL 2, 4, 19 (859, 64). 
irite pun also indicates the 
){ the first in dolour. 
EJ 1, 1, 2 (712, 3), H* 2, 
93, 866). This makes o 
)rLLl, 1,66 (137,208). 

}lay upon words : the ex- 
not yet been satisfactorily 
Serenius would explain it 
andic funalegr frivolous, 
n, Nares by the obsolete 
>ound, so that it would 
in *to beat and hammer 
me word ; ' Mahn refers 
o-saxon punian to bruise, 
English point, French 
££ Mueller, £tymolo« 

This makes a short in manor. Form 
(a seat), form (manner) ibid, shews 
that Walker's distinction, which 
makes the first (foojm) and the 
second (fAAim), was a recent deyelop- 
consort concert BJ 3. 1, 16 (726', 48). 
This discountenances the modem en* 
deavour to make the 'ort of eonwrt 
distinct (kan'soit*). But compare 
consdrt, TO 4, 1, 84 (36, 64), KL 2, 
1, 30 (856', 99). 

gisches Woerterbuch der Englischen 
Sprache. Wedgwood adopts Nares's 
explanation. What is the age of the 
word ? That it was not used in Shak- 
spere, where he had so much need of it, 
seems CTldence against any ancient 
derivation, and to reduce it to the 
chance associations of comparatively 
modem slang. There is little use in 
looking for old roots unless the word 
itself IS known to be old. 



cbm. vni. } 8. 

The rery vogue allnsions in tho foUowiap jokes shew how care- 
ful we must be not to lay too much stress on the identity of the 
sounds in each word. 
larad iMt TG I, I, 39 (22. 101). 
lovur lubber TO 2, S, 26 (29, 4B), 

&W I, 3, ! 

addle tgg, idle he»d TO I, 2, 7* (B2V, 

CMnr, Keiwr, Pheesir 
(«, B). 

bnnci bond CE 4 3, 8 (103', 30). 

noting nothini; MA 2, 3, IB (US', 60). 
See Mr. WTiite'l EUisbethan pro- 
nimciliticni, infri, under TH. 

beaido, bytbe side MA S, I, 46 (130, 

tittle (jtle LL 3, I, 25 (144. 86). Tbii 
il a mere alliteratian, like the pre- 
ceding raga rebts. 

iiuitiaBte iuwuiiu LL G, 1, S (130, !8). 

cWeg doyen LL 5, 2, 318 (168. 654). 

StoioluBhMikaTS 1, 1,2(232.31). 

court ber, cart hcrTS 1, 1. 6 (237, (14). 

mutes, maid, mated TS I. 1, 8 (232, 60). 
It ii impoirible to suppose Ihal mata, 
maid (Buprii p. 867. col. 2). had the 
same rowel, and jet the play upon 
tho phonetic resemblance is endent. 

rhetorio ropetrick TS 1, 2, 26 (23S, 

Bight knight H' 1, 2, 7 t383', 27). 
■ " Let not ns that Bro squire* of the 
niifht'i hodj be colled thieves of the 
day'a bettnty." The pun is romplet* 
in modern English, We have no 
reason to BUnpoae that li in knight 
iraa diaueed till long nflcrwnrda 
(anpr^ p. 208). There is also a 
rague nmUaricy of Mond in body, 
itaulg (bod'i lien'ti), but no reel 
pun at Mr. Grant White supposes, 
Mt his Eliiubeihan Pronunciation, 
infrA, Qtider EAU. 

purae person 3 H' 2, 1, 34 (415', 127). 


I (483, 31 

)3, 3). 

e, cArronTC H" 
The manifeat diffeiei 
here, shews thai we . . 

to UHume identit]' in the last tuse. 

To this sumo category belonR tho following plays 
French words, intended to imply ignorance. 


feast-won, faat-lott Tim 2, 1, S3 (748', 
ISO). Read (feeat. faait) or (fttt). 

surecaw a<icce« M 1. 7, I (783, 4). 
Ecud (Burseca- sukses-) and thu plat 
OD the sound will be endeut. il u 
quite lost in tho modem (tnui^ 

suitor shooter LL 4, 1, ST (114*. 100), 
on this uncertain alluaton we nprl 
pp. 216-218 and footnotn. In ad- 
dition t« the citations there made. 
Mr. Edward Tilea haa kindly fat- 
niabed me with the following ; — 
" Thcra woB a Lodr in Spaim, wlw» 
after the decesae of Kir Father haddtf 
three mton, (and yet neuer a eooii 
Archer,]" Lylj's Eupbues ana hi* 
England, p. 203, Arber's rcprint- 
Thia ia froin the book on which lAr 
is, so to itpcak, founded, and h«H0 
eatabliahea the eliMcnce of the joke 
in Shikipcre'a time. Wesbftll,hav— 
ever, baye occanon to tee that tiio 
resolQtion of (ai) into (sh) waa not 
the receiypd, or polite ewlom of dia& 
period, althoagh it was kncnrn umS 
rcprobal«d (suprA p, SIS) : In tha 
same way a mudem jofco migbt b« 
made from pifhd Aer pitlHrt, which. 
Coopcr. ISS.f. ^yet aa ■btololdr 
idrniica] in sound, althoDgh (pA^> 
ia now a pure yulgarism. 

goata Goths AY 3. a, 3 (31S'. S). SeCT 
Mr. White's Eliiabethaa prDDnnci-' 
ation, inftik. under TH. 

witbdwiUold LL 6. I. 26 nsV,6S). 

gteen wit, green withe LL !, i. SI 
(138'. 91). See Mi. White's Elin- 
betimn pronnndalioii ander TH, 

I Latin (md 

imt hot, hang hog MW4. I, 26 (fifl, common 


mrit carrot MW 4. 1. 30 [59, Sfi). 
Shewing iirohabty that carrl was 
pmnoiinced with a abort, and not 
with tho modem Etonian faahion 
with a long (kcej rut). 

korum whore MW 4. 1, 87 (69, 63). 
Conntenaudng the sound (Koor) 


37 <S9, 64). This d0(« aot wtll* 
(Dihen'i) in preference lo (Daliiii't) 
as now, (ur gmitm mieht havw iMaa 
heard or apokeo with {i). Sea 
rhymes of (o. i) below. 
ad dmnghill, od oognem LL 6. t, U 
(ISO', 81). At y 



1mm1ou*«MW1, 1,8(*2.17). ThU 
woaU wetta to indicate the o^ pro~ 
nnninslioii (Iirie) for tliti nncsnitnuD 
word, to which tho French was aa- 
rimilsWd, hilt the coiiftision is crediled 
to > Welahmnn. and hence u of no 
authority in Englnh apeech. 

ni/raiieAiM, one Frances LL 3, 1, S4 
(Hr, 12). 

■Himoy H»l. i, 7 (iSV, U). 

tnu b»» H> 4, 1, 9 (459', IB). 
ProbablT indicating the continuL'd 
prononciation oF final >. 

f anit im-a inoi a ton of mop H* 4, 4, 
11 (469*, 13). That in. Pistol eohoea 
The following instances are 

vhich they mninly illustrate. 

hlteh<!atTS4,1.67(24fi.2D9). Then 
11 DO doubt of the pronnuciation of 
•■ = (ee), and this pujsage would he 
twintelligible unless th« sound of 
long a were quite distinct, the piny 
btinc nmply on the consnnitnls. The 
wordi are : " as we watch these kitea 
That iaii and tint and will not be 
obedieat." We may therefore leel 
rare that lonen was NO( = (i.te). Siuih 
■Ilusions aie like the heraldic motto 
Am ipiro ipera. 

parity gnrj 2 H' 1, 2, 55 (413, 183). 
" CAW" Jmlien. There is not a 
whita hur oa pur bend, but should 
haT9 his effect of gruvity. — FaUlaJ. 
Hii effect of grary. grary, gruvy.'' 
The mocking joke ii entirely luat in 
the modem (gnBt'iti', grrs'Ti). The 
old pronunciation niu^t haic hud the 
lame rowel in each case, (pav iti, 
RH'Ti). This inslanpc and the last 
therefore determine that Shakspete'i 
long a could not have been (ee). and 
mint have been the same as his short 
alengthened = (aa) or (aah), 
«W aM MN A, 1. 87 fl7t), 312). 
" Fyramiu. Now die, die, die, die, 
die. Dem. Ho die, hut an act, for 
him i for be is but one" A double 
pt>lionan=<Mi, andiEc^nnc. "Ly. 
Leas than an iift, man : fur he is 
dead: he ia nuthinir." since is lets 
Hun 1. ■■ Tlu. With the help of 
k nngeon he might yet lecoier ind 

paTdonHH nisi as (a ton o moi). Com- 
pare Hart s (pardunan) for parilomt, 
supra p. 802, 1. 6 from bottom of 

frr firi ferret H» 4, 4, 15 (*5fl'. 29). 

pnettU puizle H> I, 4, 17 (474', 107). 
This IB not meant to be an identitV, 
hut merely an allosion, as in the fol- 
lowing dolphin and dtigJUh: "Fiael 
or ISagtt, Dolphin or Dog-liiib. Your 
hearts lie stampe out with my Horses 
hetles." Hence it does mt counten- 
ance the supposition that the sound 
of French n was impossible to an 
Enghshman. /Xix/fc is spelled iVu/ 
Ihron^huut in the fo. 1923. 

foot, gown. H> 3. 4, 33 (4,^1, A4). 
Katherine's unfortunate mistakes as 
to these words at least shew the 
French on was = EngliBh no (uu), 
and French -oh = English -own 
(oun), snpri pp. 825, 827. 

ranged under the orthographies 

This is to the same 
IS the last, and is conlirmcd by 
Judes Jude-ass LL 5, 2, 299 (167', 

bass base TO 1, 2. 61 (23', 96). TS 
3, 1, IT (240'. 4&). E* 3. 3, 23 
(372, 180). Both must have been 
(biuis) as both are now (bfoi). 

Ham r murrr R> 1, 3, 33 (661, 08). 
RJ 1,3. 16(718,62). Theflrstwas 
the eiclumation, Mary ! addressed to 
the Virgin, which therefore could not 
have been called (MeeiTi) as now. 

marrying marring UW I. 1, 12 (42, 
2S). AY 1.1. 6 (205, 34). AW 2, 
3, 109 (264, 315). This fa*earit« 
pun, in which the modem marring 
(maa-n'q) retains its andent soan^ 
with at most the vowel lengthened, 
confirms the last remark. 

allswl JC 1, 1. 12 (764, 26). This 
might have be«n either (a'l,