Skip to main content

Full text of "On early English pronunciation : with especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer, containing an investigation of the correspondence of writing with speech in England from the Anglosaxon period to the present day ..."

See other formats





























. 1871. 




In Part I. 

' PP- 270-297. In eddition to the arguments there adduced to shew that the 
ancient sound of long f was (it) or (ii), and not (ei, ai, ai), Mr. James A. 

VII. Murray has communicated to me some striking proofs from the Gaelic 
forms of 'English words and names, and English forms of Gaelic names, 

which will he given in Part IV. 
p. 302, 1. 14, blue is erroneously treated as a French word, hut in the ALPHA- 

BETICAL LIST on the same page it is correctly given as anglosaxon. The 

corrections which this oversight renders necessary will he given in Part IV., 

in the shape of a cancel for this page, which could not he prepared in time 

for this Part. 

In Part II. 

p. 442, Paternoster, col. 2, w. 4 and 8, for don, miis'doon- read doon, mis-doon 1 . 
p. 443, Credo 1, col. 2, 11. 4 and 7, for faverd, ded, read laa'verd, deed ; Credo 2, 

col. 2, line 4, for loverd read loo'verd. 
p. 462, verses, 1. 2, for Siehard read Richard. 
pp. 464-5. On the use of f for }, and the possibility of } having heen occasion- 

ally confused with (s) in speech, Mr. w. W. Skeat calls attention to the 

remarks of Sir F. Madden, in his edition of Lajanion, 3, 437. 
p. 468, Translation, col. 2, 1. 4, for hil read hill. 
p. 473, note, col. 2,1. 1, for 446 read 447 ; 1. 17, for (mee, dee, swee, pee) read 

(mee, dee, sw, p*e) ; 1. 18, for may read May ; 1. 24-5 for (eint'mynt) read 


p. 503, 1. S, pronunciation, for dead'litshe read dead'liitshe. 
p. 540, 1. 6, for hafSdi rar^hafSi. 
p. 549, 1. 5 from bottom of text, for mansaugur (maan-sceoeivOT), read man- 

saungur (maan-soeceiq-gjr). 
p. 650, Mr. H. Sweet has communicated to me the sounds of Icelandic letters as 

noted by Mr. Melville Bell from the pronunciation of Mr. Hjaltalin, which 

will be given in Part IV. 
p. 553, verse 30, col. 1, 1. 4, for alikalfii read aJikalfi ; col. 2, 1. 4, for aa-li- 

kaaul-vt read aa'ltkaauVvf. 
p. 559, in the Haustlong ; 1. 1, for er read es, 1. 2, for ei read es; 1. 4, for bauge 

read baugi ; 1. 5, for HeMesbror . . . bau'ge read HeHtsbror . . . bau-gc ; 

line 7, for isarnleiki read isamleiki. 
p. 560, note 1, 1. 2, for read langr. 
p. 699, col. 2, 1. 14, for demesne read demesne, 
p. 600, col. 1, 1. 6, for Eugene read .EWgene. 
p. 614, Glossotype as a system of writing is superseded by Glossic, explained in 

the appendix to the notice prefixed to Part III. 
p. 617, col. 2, under n, 1. 4, for Ipand read pland. 

In Part III. 

p. 639, note 2 for (spirstjlt, spes-Bl) read (spii'shclt, spesh'Blt). 

p. 651. The numbers in the Table on this page are corrected on p. 725. 

p. 653, note 1. The memoir on Pennsylvania German by Prof. S. S. 11 aide-man, 
was read before the Philological Society on 3 June, 1870, and will be pub- 
lished separately; Dr. Mombert, having gone to Europe, has not furnished 
any additions to that memoir, which is rich in philological interest. 

p. 680 to p. 725. Some trifling errors in printing the Critical Text and Pronun- 
ciation of Chaucer's Prologue are corrected on p. 724, note. 

p. 754, note I, for (abitee-shun) read (abt'taa-smn). 

p. 789, col. 1, the reference after famat should be 759 4 . 

p. 791, col. 2, under much good do it you, for mychyoditio read mychgoditio ; and 
to the references add, p. 938, note 1. 

pp. 919-996. All the references to the Globe Shakspere relate to the issue of 
1864, with which text every one has been verified at press. For later issues, 
the number of the page (and page only) here given, when it exceeds 1000, 
must be diminished by 3, thus VA 8 (1003), must be read as VA 8 (1000), 
and PT 42 (1057'), must be read as PT 42 (1054'). The cause of this dif- 
ference is that pages 1000, 1001, 1002, in the issue of 1864, containing only 
the single word POEMS, have been cancelltd in subsequent issues. 


NOTICE, pp. v-xii. 

GLOSSIC, pp. xiii-xx. 



1. Chaucer, pp. 633-725. 

Critical Text of Prologue, pp. 633-634. 

Pronunciation of Long U and of AY, EY, as deduced from a com- 
parison of the Orthographies of Seven Manuscripts of the Can- 
terbury Tales, pp. 634-646. 

Treatment of Final E in the Critical Text, pp. 646-648. 

Metrical Peculiarities of Chaucer, pp. 648-649. 

Chaucer's Treatment of French Words, pp. 650-651. 

Pennsylvania German the Analogue of Chaucer's English, 
pp. 652-663. 

F. W. Geseuius on the Language of Chaucer, pp. 664-671. 

M. Eapp on the Pronunciation of Chaucer, pp. 672-677. 

Instructions for Reading the Phonetic Transcript of the Prologue, 
pp. 677-670. 

Critical Text of the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, from a 
collation of seven JJSS., iu a systematic orthography, pp. 680- 
724 (even numbers). 

Conjectured Pronunciation of the same, pp. 681-725 (odd numbers). 
2. Gower, pp. 726-739. 

The Punishment of Nebuchadnezzar, from Gower' s " Confessio 
Amantis," Lib. 1, texts of three MSS., and conjectured pronun- 
ciation, pp. 728-737. 

Message from Venus to Chaucer, sent through Gower after his 
Shrift, texts of two MSS., systematic orthography, and con- 
jectured pronunciation, pp. 738-739. 
$ 3. Wycliffe, pp. 740-742. 


$ 1. William Salesbury's Account of Welsh Pronunciation, 1567, 

pp. 743-768. 
2. William Salesbury's Account of English Pronunciation, 1547, 

original Welsh text, and translation by Mr. E. Jones, revised by 

Dr. B. Davis, pp. 768-788. 
Index to the English and Latin Words of which the Pronunciation 

is given or indicated in Salesbury's two Tracts, pp. 788-794. 
3. John Hart's Phonetic Writing, 1569, and the Pronunciation of 

French in the xvi th Century, pp. 794-838. 
Account of Hart's original MS., 1551, pp. 79-1-797, notes. 


Alexander Barcley's French Pronunciation, 1521, pp. 803-814. 
The Lambeth Fragment on French Pronunciation, 1528, 

pp. 814-816. 

Palsgrave on French Pronunciation, 1530, pp. 816-819. 
French Pronunciation according to the French Orthoepists of the 

xvi th Century, pp. 819-835. 

French Orthographic Rules in the xv th Century, pp. 836-838. 
4. "William Bullokar's Phonetic "Writing, 1580, etc., pp. 838-845. 

English Pronunciation of Latin in the xvi th Century, pp. 843-845. 
5. Alexander Gill's Phonetic "Writing, 1621, with an examination of 

Spenser's and Sidney's Ehymes, pp. 845-874. 
Extracts from Spenser's Faerie Queen, with Gill's pronunciation, 

pp. 847-852. 
Extracts from Sir Philip Sidney, Sir John Harrington and other 

poets, with Gill's pronunciation, pp. 852-855. 
Extracts from the Authorized Version of the Psalms, with Gill's 

pronunciation, pp. 855-857. 
An Examination of Spenser's Rhymes, p. 858. 
Faulty Rhymes observed in Moore and Tennyson, pp. 858-862. 
Spenser's Rhymes, pp. 862-871. 
Sir Philip Sidney's Rhymes, pp. 872-874. 
6. Charles Butler's Phonetic "Writing, and List of "Words Like and 

Unlike, 1633-4, pp. 874-877. 

7. Pronouncing Vocabulary of the xvi th Century, collected from Pals- 
grave 1530, Salesbury 1547, Cheke 1550, Smith 1568, Hart 

1569, BuUokar 1580, Gill 1621, and Butler, 1633, pp. 877-910. 
Extracts from Richard Mulcaster's Elementarie, 1582, pp. 910-915. 
Remarks from an Anonymous Black-letter Book, probably of the 

xvi th Century, pp. 915-917. 

8. On the Pronunciation of Shakspere, pp. 917-996. 
Shakspere's Puns, pp. 920-927. 
Shakspere's Metrical Peculiarities, pp. 927-929. 
Miscellaneous Notes, pp. 929-930. 
Unusual Position of Accents, pp. 930-931. 
Gill on Accent and Metre, pp. 932-939. 
Contracted "Words, pp. 939-940. 
Trissyllabic Measures, pp. 940-943. 
Alexandrine Verses, pp. 943-946. 
Shaksperian " Resolutions," Dissyllables corresponding to Modern 

Monosyllables, pp. 947-953. 
Shakspere's Rhymes, pp. 953-966. 

Mr. Richard Grant "White's Elizabethan Pronunciation, pp. 966-973. 
Summary of the Conjectured Pronunciation of Shakspere, pp. 973- 


Specimens of the Conjectured Pronunciation of Shakspere, being 
Extracts from his Plays, following the "Words of the Folio 
Edition of 1623, with Modern Punctuation and Arrangement, 
pp. 986-996. 


Indisposition, arising from overwork, has greatly delayed the 
appearance of this third part of my work, and a receut relapse, 
rendering the revision of the last seventy pages and the preparation 
of this notice extremely difficult, has compelled me to postpone to 
the next part the illustrations for the XTII th and xvin th centuries, 
which were announced to be included in the present. Three years 
or more will probably elapse before the remainder of the book can 
be published. 

The fourth and concluding part of this treatise is intended to 
consist of four chapters, two of which, devoted to the xvnth and 
xvin th centuries respectively, are now completely ready for press, 
and will therefore certainly appear either under my own or some 
other superintendence. In chapter XI., I am desirous of giving 
some account of Existing Varieties of English Pronunciation, dia- 
lectic, antiquated, American, colonial, and vulgar, for the purpose 
of illustrating the results of the preceding investigation. This can- 
not be properly accomplished without the extensive co-operation of 
persons familiar with each individual dialect and form of speech. I 
invite all those into whose hands these pages may fall to give me 
their assistance, or procure me the assistance of others, in collecting 
materials for this novel and interesting research, which promises to 
be of great philological value, if properly executed. Many hundred 
communications are desirable. There cannot be too many, even 
from the same district, for the purpose of comparison and control. 
As I hope to commence this examination early in 1872, it will be 
an additional favour if the communications are sent as soon as 
possible, and not later than the close of 1871. They should be 
written on small-sized paper, not larger than one of these pages, 
and only on one side, leaving a margin of about an inch at the top 
for reference notes, with the lines wide apart for insertions, and all 
the phonetic part written in characters which cannot be misread. 
Correspondents would much add to the value of their communi- 
cations by giving their full names and addresses, and stating 
the opportunities they have had for collecting the information 
sent. For the purpose of writing all English dialects in one 
alphabet on an English basis, I have improved the Glossotype of 
Chapter VI., and append its new form under the name of Glossic, 
with specimens which will shew the reader how to employ it, 
(pp. xiii-xx.) For the sake of uniformity and general intelligibility, 
I should feel obliged if those who favour me with communications 
on this subject would represent all peculiarities of pronunciation 
in the Glossic characters only, without any addition or alteration 
whatever. The little arrangements here suggested will, if carried 



out, save an immense amount of labour in making use of any com- 

The following table will shew the kind of work wanted. All 
the varieties of sound there named are known to exist at present, 
and there are probably many more. It is wished to localize them 
accurately, for the purpose of understanding the unmixed dialectic 
English of the XH th and xm th centuries, and to find traces of the 
pronunciations prevalent in the more mixed forms of the xivth, 
xvi th, and xvii th centuries. Many of the latter will be found in 
Ireland and America, and in the ' vulgar' English everywhere. No 
pronunciation should be recorded which has not been actually heard 
from some speaker who uses it naturally and habitually. The older 
peasantry and children who have not been at school preserve the 
dialectic sounds most purely. But the present facilities of com- 
munication are rapidly destroying all traces of our older dialectic 
English. Market women, who attend large towns, have generally 
a mixed style of speech. The daughters of peasants and small 
farmers, on becoming domestic servants, learn a new language, and 
corrupt the genuine Doric of their parents. Peasants do not speak 
naturally to strangers. The ear must also have been long familiar 
with a dialectic utterance to appreciate it thoroughly, and, in order 
to compare that utterance with the Southern, and render it correctly 
into Glossic, long familiarity with the educated London speech is 
also necessary. Resident Clergymen, Nonconformist Ministers, 
National and British Schoolmasters, and Country Gentlemen with 
literary tastes, are in the best position to give the required informa- 
tion, and to these, including all members of the three Societies for 
whom this work has been prepared, I especially appeal. But the 
number of persons more or less interested in our language, who 
have opportunities of observing, is so great, that scarcely any one 
who reads these lines will be unable to furnish at least a few obser- 
vations, and it should be borne in mind that even one or two casual 
remarks lose their isolated character and acquire a new value when 
forwarded for comparison with many others. It is very desirable 
to determine the systems of pronunciation prevalent in the Northern, 
"West and East and Central Midland, South "Western, South Eastern, 
and purely Eastern dialects. The Salopian, Lincolnshire, and Kent 
Dialects are peculiarly interesting. Mr. James A. H. Murray's 
learned and interesting work on lowland Scotch (London. Asher, 
1871) will shew what is really wanted for each of our dialectic 

In the following, unfortunately very imperfect, Table a few sug- 
gestive words are added to each combination of letters, and the 
presumed varieties of pronunciation are indicated both in Glossic 
and Palaeotype, but only in reference to the particular combinations 
of letters which head the paragraph. The symbols placed after 
the sign r=, shew the various sounds which that combination of 
letters is known to have in some one or other of the exemplificative 
words, in some locality or other where English is the native lan- 
guage of the speaker. In giving information, however, the whole 



word should be written in Glossic, as considerable doubt may 
attach to local pronunciations of the other letters, and the name of 
the locality, and of the class of speakers, should he annexed. The 
quantity of the vowel and place of the accent should be given in 
every word, according to one of the two systems explained in the 
Key to Universal Glossic, p. xvi, and exhibited on pp. xix and xx. 
In writing single words, the accentual system, used on p. xx, is 
preferable. Great attention should be paid to the analysis of diph- 
thongs, and the Glossic ei, oi, ou, eu, should only be employed where 
the writer, being unable to analyse the sound accurately, confines 
himself to marking vaguely the class to which it belongs. The 
trilled r when occurring without a vowel following should always 
be carefully marked, and the untrilled r should never be marked 
unless it is distinctly heard. Each new word, or item of infor- 
mation, should commence on a new line. Thus : 

cord kaa-d or Mad Bath, workmen, petty traders, etc. 

card ka-d or kdd Bath, as before. 

beacon bai-kn or bdikn Bath, as before. 

key Jcai' or kdi Bath, as before. 

fnirfeir OT fayer fdyer fdyu* Bath, country farming man. 


A short in : tap cap bad cat mad sack 
bag; doubtful in: staff calf half calve 
halve aftermath path father pass 
cast fast mash wash hand laud plant 
ant want hang = r<?, a, a, aa, ah, au, 
o, ao, oa = (E, ae, ah, a, a, A, o, oo, od). 

A long iu : gape grape babe gaby late 
skate trade made ache cake ague 
plague safe save swathe bathe pa- 
tience occasion ale pale rare name 
same lane wane=^, at, e, ae, a, a', 
aa ; aiy, aiti, aiu, ey, eeh',eeu = (]i, 
ee, ee, EE, aeae, aah, aa ; eei, ee', eea, 
eei. ii', iia.) 

AT, AY in: way hay pay play bray 
day clay gray say lay may nav, bait 
wait aid maid waif waive ail pail 
trail fair hair chair pair stair =ee, at, 
e, ae, aa ; aiy, aay, aa'y = (ii, ef t 
ee, EE, aa; eei, ai, aai.) 

AU, AW in ; paw daw thaw saw law 
raw maw gnaw, bawl maul maunder, 
aunt haunt gaunt daughter = aa, ah, 
au, ao, oa ; aaw, auw = (aa, aa, AA, 
oo, oo ; au, AU). 

E short in : kept swept neb pretty wet 
wed feckless keg Seth mess guess 
very hell hem hen yes yet = f, e y 
at, ae, a = (t, e, e, E, ae.) 

E long in : glede complete decent 
extreme here there where me he she 
we be=^, ai, e, ae, a? =(ii, ee, ee, 
EE, tew ?) 


EA in : leap eat seat meat knead mead 
read speak squeak league leaf leave 
wreathe heath breathe crease ease 
leash weal ear, a tear, seam wean ; 
yea great break bear wear, to tear ; 
leapt sweat instead head thread 
spread heavy heaven weapon leather 
weather measure health wealth re, 
ai, e, ae ; ech', aih* ; yaa = (ii, ea, 
ee e, EE E ; ii', ee*, ja.) 

EE in : sheep weed heed seek beef 
beeves teeth seethe fleece trees heel 
seem seen =ee, ai ; aiy, ey = (ii,ee; 
ei, ei) 

El, EY in : either neither height 
sleight Leigh Leighton conceive 
neive seize convey key prey hey grey 
=ee, ai ; aay, uuy, # = (ii, ee;&\, 
ai, ai). 

EO in : people leopard Leominster 
Leopold Theobald =ce t e, ', eeoa, 
eeu = (ii, e, i, iioo, iia). 

EU, EW in pew few hew yew ewe 
knew, to mew, the mews, chew Jew 
new shew shrew Shrewsbury stew 
threw sew grew brew =>, iw, aiw, 
ew, aeiv, aw, ui, tie, new, eo, eow, oo, 
oa, oaw uuw ; aa, ah, au ; yoa = (iu, 
iu, eu, eu, EU, seu, n, yy, yu, a, au, 
uu, oo, oow, EU ; aa, aa, AA ; JOG.) 

I short in : hip crib pit bid sick gig 
stiff, to live, smith smithy withy hiss 
his fish fill swin sin first possible 
charitv furniture =ee, t, e, as, a, a, 
u' = (i, i, e, E, K, 9, B). 



I long in : wipe gibe kite hide strike 
knife knives wife wives scythe blithe 
ice twice thrice wise pile bile rime 
pine fire shire ; sight right might 
light night fright fight pight ; sight 
rye my lie nigh fry fye pie = t, ee, 
at, au; iy, aiy, ey, aay, ahy auy, 
uy, uuy = (it, ii, ee, AA. ; , , ei, 
ai, ai, Ai, ai, ai). 

IE in : believe grieve sieve friend fiend 
field yield =ee, i, e, g = (ii, i, i, e, E). 

short, and doubtful, in : mop knob 
knot nod knock fog dog off office 
moth broth brother mother pother 
other moss cross frost pollard Tom 
ton son done gone morning song 
long=o, oa, co, au, aa, u, o = (o oo, 

0, 0, A AA, a, 3, M). 

O long, A, and OE in : hope rope soap 
note gcat oats rode road oak stroke 
joke rogue oaf loaf loaves oath loth 
loathe goes foes shoes lose roll hold 
gold fold sold home roam hone groan 
=00, oa, ao, au, ah, aa; ee, ai ; 
eeh', aih', oah', aoh', oati, aaw, uw, 
ttuw ; ye, ya, yaa ; woa = (uu, o oo, 
o oo, AA, aa, aa ; ii, ee ; ii', ee 9 , oo', 
oo', ooa, au, au, au, je, jae, ja ; woo). 

01, OY in : join loin groin point joint 
joist hoist foist boil oil soil poison 
ointment ; joy hoy toy moil noise 
boisterous foison=oy, auy, aay, oay, 
aoy, uy, uuy, ooy, u ; waay, tcuuy, 
woy = (oi, Ai, ai, oi, oi, ai, ai, ui, a ; 
wai, wai, woi). 

00 in : hoop hoot soot hood food aloof 
groove sooth soothe ooze tool groom 
room soon moon; cook look shook 
brook; loose goose =00, uo, ui, ue, 
eo ; eoh', och', wtw = (uu u, , n, 
yy, 9 ; 93', oe', au). 

OU, OW in: down town now how 
flower sow cow, to bow Jlectere, 
a bow arciis, a bowl of soup 
eyathus, a bowling green ; plough 
round sound mound hound thou out 
house flour ; found bound ground ; 
our ; brought sought fought bought 
thought ought nought soul four; 
blow snow below, a low bough, the 
cow lows, a row of barrows, a great 
row tumultus, crow, know ; owe, 
own =00, uo, uo', oa, oa', aa, ah, 
au, ai ; aaw, uw, mm; oaw, aow, 
uitc, uew,eow, eo,tc, o0 ( ? = (uuu, uu 
u, u\\, oo o, oh, aa, aa, AA, ee; au, 
ou, au, o&u, oou, ru, yu, rn, y, cey). 

U short in : pup cub but put bud cud 
pudding much judge suck lug sugar 
stuff bluff busy business hush bush 
crush push rush blush bushel cushion 

bull pull hull hulk bulk bury burial 
church rum run punish sung = , 
uu, uo, oa', i, e, ue, eo (a, a, u, 
oh, *', e, y, a). 

U long and UI, UY in: mute fruit 
brnise cruise, the use, to use, the 
refuse, to refuse, mule true sue fury 
sure union yoo, eew, ue, uew, ufw, 
eo, eoic, fow = (juu, iu, yy, yu, un, 


B mute or =p, /, v, v', to = (p,f, T, 
bh, w). 

C hard and K in : cat card cart sky etc. 
= *, ty, g, ay' =(k, kj, g, gj). 

C soft=, /t = (s, sh). 

CH in : beseech church cheese such 
much etc. = c/S, k, 1;h, kyh, aA = (tsh, 
k, kh, A-h, sh). 

D =d, dh, t, th = (d, dh, t, th). 


G hard in : guard garden, etc. =a, ay', 
y (& SJ> J )i ever heard before n aa 
in : gnaw, gnat ? 

G soft, and J in : bridge ridge fidget 
fudge budge ==/, ^ = (dzh, g). 

GH in : neigh weigh high thigh nigh 
burgh laugh daughter slaughter 
bough cough hiccough dough chough 
shough though lough clough plough 
furlough, slough of a snake, a deep 
slough, enough through borough 
thorough trough sough tough =mute 
or g, ah, gyh, kh, kyh, f, /*, tch, 
w, oo, p = (g, gh, 0h, kh, kh, f, ph, 
wh, w, u, p). 

H regularly pronounced ? regularly 
mute ? often both, in the wrong 
places ? custom in : honest habita- 
tion humble habit honour exhibi- 
tion prohibition hour hospital host 
hostler hostage hostile shepherd 
cowherd Hebrew hedge herb hermit 
homage Hughes hue humility (h)it 
(h)us ab(h)ominably ? 

J see G soft. 

K see C hard ; ever heard before n in : 
know knit knave knob ? 

L mute in : talk walk balk falcon fault 
vault, alms ? syllabic in : stabl-ing 
juggl-er? sounded uol, ul, h'l=(u\, 
al, '!) after o long ? voiceless as lh ? 

M any varieties? syllabic in: el-m, 
whel-m, fil-m, wor-m, war-m? 

N nasalizing preceding vowel ? ever = 
tiff ? not syllabic in : fall'n, stol'n, 
swell' n ? 

NG in : long longer hanger danger 
stranger linger finger singer, strength 



length =, t ff, ngg, nj, n = (q, qg, ndzh, 
n) ; ever ngg or ngk=(qg, qk) when 
final in : sing thing nothing ? 

P ever confused with b ? ever post- 
aspirated as p ( h = (pn) ? 

QU = kio\ kiv, kwh ? =(kw, kw, kwh ?). 

H not preceding a vowel ; vocal = r 
(i), or trilled = >-* = (r), or guttural 
= 'r, 'rh = (r, Hi), or mute ? How 
does it affect the preceding vowel 
in : far cart wart pert dirt shirt 
short hurt fair care fear shore oar 
court poor ? ever transposed in : 
grass bird etc. ? trilled, and develop- 
ing an additional vowel in : wor-ld 
cur-1 wor-m wor-k ar-m ? 

R preceding a vowel ; always trilled = 
r' = (r), or guttural = ( r = (r) 
ever labial = '>, 'br = (in, brh) ? 
Inserted in : draw(r)ing, saw(r)ing, 
law(r) of land, etc. ? 

R between vowels : a single trilled r\ 
or a vocal r followed by a trilled r' = 
rr\ h'r' =(.tr, 'r)P 

S=, 2, sh, zh ? = (s, z, sh, zh ?) ; regu- 
larly z? regularly lisped = fh ? = 

SH =s, sh, zh = (s, sh, zh), or, regularly 
zA = (zh)P 

T = t, d, th, s, sh, t t h = (t, d, th, s, 
sh, tH). 

TH=f, d, th, tth, dk,f=(t, d, th, tth, 
dh, f ) in: fifth sixth eighth with 
though whether other nothing etc. 

V=f, v', w/- = (bh, w), or regularly w ? 

"W =w, *', v = (vr, bh, v). Is there a 
regular interchange of v, w ? inserted 
before and 01 in : home hot coat 
point etc. ? regularly omitted in : 
wood wooed would woo wool woman 
womb, etc. ? pronounced at all in : 
write, wring, wrong, wreak, wrought, 
wrap, etc. ? any instances of wl pro- 
nounced as in : lisp wlonk lukewarm 
wlating loathing wlappe wlite ? 

WH=w>, wh, f, /', kwh =(w, wh, f, 
ph, kwh). 

X = &, ks, </z? 

T inserted in : ale head, etc. ; regu- 
larly omitted in ye, yield, yes, yet, 
etc. ? 

Z=z, sh = (z, zh). 

Unaccented Syllables. 
Mark, if possible, the obscure sounds 
which actually replace unaccented 
vowels before and after the accented 
syllable, and especially in the unaccent- 
ed terminations, of which the following 
words are specimens, and in any other 
found noteworthy or peculiar. 

1) 'and, husband brigand headland 
midland, 2) -end, dividend legend, 3) 
-ond, diamond almond, 4) -und, rubi- 
cund jocund, 5) -ard, haggard niggard 
sluggard renard leopard, 6) -erd, hal- 
berd shepherd, 7) -ance, guidance de- 
pendance abundance clearance temper- 
ance ignorance resistance, 8) -ence, 
licence confidence dependence patience, 
9) -age, village image manage cabbage 
marriage, 10) -eye, privilege college, 
11) -some, meddlesome irksome quarrel- 
some, 12) -sure, pleasure measure lei- 
sure closure fissure, 13) -ture, creature 
furniture vulture venture, 14) -ate, [in 
nouns] laureate frigate figurate, 15) al t 
cymbal radical logical cynical metrical 
poetical local medial lineal, 16) -el, 
camel pannel apparel, 17) -ol, carol 
wittol, 1 8) -am, madam quondam Clap- 
ham, 19) -om, freedom seldom fathom 
venom, 20) -an, suburban logician his- 
torian Christian metropolitan, and the 
compounds of man, as : woman, etc. , 
21) -en, garden children linen 
woollen, 22) -on, deacon pardon 
fashion legion minion occasion pas- 
sion vocation mention question felon, 
23) -ern, eastern cavern, 24) -at; vicar 
cedar vinegar scholar secular, 25) -er, 
robber chamber member render, 26) 
-or, splendor superior tenor error actor 
victor, 27) -our, labour neighbour 
colour favour, 28) -ant, pendant ser- 
geant infant quadrant assistant truant, 

29) -ent, innocent quiescent president, 

30) -acy, fallacy primacy obstinacy, 31) 
-ancy, infancy tenancy constancy, 32) 
-ency, decency tendency currency, 33) 
-ary, beggary summary granary lite- 
rary notary, 34) -ery, robbery bribery 
gunnery, 35) -ory, priory cursory ora- 
tory victory history, 36) -ttry, usury 

Also the terminations separated by a 
hyphen, in the following words : sof-a 
icle-a, sirr-ah, her-o stucc-o potat-o 
tobacc-o, wid-ow yell-ow fell-ow shad- 
-ow sorr-ow sparr-ow, val-ue neph-ew 
shcr-iff, bann-ock hadd-ock padd-ock 
= frog, poss-iblc poss-ibility, stom-ach 
lil-ach, no-tice poul-tice, prel-acy pol- 
-icy, cer-tain, Lat-in, a sing-ing, a 
be-ing, pulp-it vom-it rabb-it, mouth- 
-ful sorrow-ful, terri-fy signi-fy, child- 
-hood, maiden-head, rap-id viv-id 
top-id, un-ion commun-ion, par-ish 
pur-ish, ol-ive rest-ive, bapt-ize civil- 
-izc, ev-il dev-il, tru-ly sure-ly, har- 
-mony matri-mony, hind-most ut- 
-most better-most fore-most, sweet- 


-ness, riglit-eous pit-eous pleiit-eous, 
friend-ship, tire-some whole-some, na- 
-tioa na-tional, pre-cious prodi-gious. 
offi-cial par-tial par-tiality, spe-cial 
spe-ciality spe-cialty, ver-dure or-dure, 
fi-gure, in-jure con-jure per-jure, plea- 
-sure mea-sure trea-sure lei-sure cock- 
-sure cen-sure pres-suro fis-sure, fea- 
ture crea-ture minia-ture na-ture 
na-tural lilera-ture sta-ture frac-ture 
conjec-rure lec-ture architec-ture pic- 
-ture stric-ture June-tare punc-ture 
struc-ture cul-ture vul-ture ven-ture 
cap-ture rap-ture scrip-ture depar-ture 
tor-ture pas-ture ves-ture fu-ture fix- 
-ture seiz-ure, for-ward back-ward 
up-ward down-ward, like-wise side- 
wise, mid-wife house-wife good-wife. 

All inflexional terminations, as in : 
speak-eth speak-sadd-s spok-enpierc-ed 
breath-ed princ-es prince-'s church-es 
c'liurch-'s path-s pat'a-'s wolv-es ox-en 
vix-en, etc. Forms of participle and 
verbal noun in -ing. 

Note also the vowel in unaccented 
. prelixes, such as those separated by 
a hyphen in the following words : 
a-mong a-stride a-las, ab-use, a- vert, 
ud- ranee, ad-apt ad-mire ac-cept af-fix' 
an-nounce ap-pend, a-l-ert', al-cove 
a-byss, auth-entic, be-set be-gin, bin- 
- ocular, con-ceal con-cur con-trast* 
con-trol, de-pend de-spite de-bate de- 
-stroy de-feat, de-fer', dia-meter, di- 
-rect dis-cuss, e-lope, en-close in-close, 
ex-cept e-vent e-mit ec-lipse, for-bid, 
fore- tell, gain- say, mis-deed mis-guide, 
ob-ject' ob-lige oc-casion op-pose, per- 
-vert, pre-cede pre-fur', pro-mote pro- 
-duce' pro-pose, pur-sue, re-pose, sub- 
-joct' suf-iice, sur-vey sur-pass, sus- 
-pand, to-morrow to-gether, trans-fer 
trans-scribe, uu-fit, un-til. 

Position of Accent. 

Mark any words in which unusual, 
peculiar, or variable positions of accent 
have been observed, as : illus'trate 
illustrate, demonstrate demonstrate, 
applicable applicable, des'picable de- 
spic'able, as'pect aspect', or'deal (two 
syllables) orde'al (three syllables), etc. 


Names of numerals 1, 2, by units to 
20, and by tens to 100, with thousand 
and million. Peculiar names of num- 
bers as : pair, couple, leash, half dozen, 
dozen, long dozen, gross, long gross, 
half score, score, long score, long hun- 
dred, etc., with interpretation. Pecu- 

liar methods of counting peculiar 
classes of objects. Ordinals, first, se- 
cond, etc., to twentieth, thirtieth, etc., 
to hundredth, then thousandth and 
millionth. Numeral adverbs : once, 
twice, thrice, four times, some times, 
many times, often, seldom, never, etc., 
Single, simple, double, treble, quadru- 
ple, etc., fourfold, mani-fold, etc., three- 
some, etc. Each, either, neither, both, 
some, several, any, many, enough, enow, 
every. Names of peculiar weights and 
measures or quantities of any kind by 
which particular kinds of goods aie 
bought and sold or hired, with their 
equivalents in imperial weights and 
measures. Names of division of time : 
minute, hour, day, night, week, days 
of week, sevennight, fortnight, month, 
names of mouths, quarter, half-quarter, 
half, twelvemonth, year, century, age, 
etc., Christmas, Michaelmas, Martin- 
mas, Candlemas, Lammas, Lady Day, 
Midsummer, yule, any special festivals 
or days of settlement. Any Church 
ceremonies, as christening, burying, etc. 

Articles ; the, th', t", e', a, an, etc. 
Demonstratives : this, that, 'at, thick, 
thack, thuck, they=)>e, them=j>am, 
thir thor thors these. Personal pro- 
nouns in all cases, especially peculiar 
forms and remnants of old forms, as : 
I me ich 'ch, we us, bus huz, thou thee, 
ve you, he him 'en=hine, shehoo = 
heo her, it hit, its his, they them 
'em =hem, etc. 

Auxiliary verbs : to be, to have, in 
all their forms. Use of shall and will, 
should and would. All irregular or 
peculiar forms of verbs. 

Adverbs and conjunctions: no, yes, 
and, but, yet, how, perhaps, etc. Pre- 
positions : in, to, at, till, from, etc. 

Peculiar syntax and idioms: I are, 
we is, thee loves, thou beest, thou ist, 
he do, they does, I see it = saw it, etc. 

Negative and other contracted forms : 
don't doesn't aint aren't ha'nt isn't 
wouldn't couldn't shouldn't musn't 
can't canna won't wunna dinna didn't, 
etc., I'm thou'rt he's we're you're I've 
Pld Pd I'll, etc. 


The above illustrated in connected 
forms, accented and unaccented, by short 
sentences, introducing the commonest 
verbs : take, do, pray, beg, stand, lie 
down, come, think, find, love, believe, 
shew, stop, sew, sow, must, ought, to 


use, need, lay, please, suffer, live, to 
lead, doubt, eat, driuk, taste, mean, 
care, etc., and the nouns and verbs re- 
lating to : bodily parts, food, clothing, 
shelter, family and social relations, 
agriculture au'd manufacture, processes 
and implements, domestic animals, birds, 
fish, house vermin, heavenly bodies, 
weather, etc. 

Sentences constructed like those of 
French, German, and Teviotdale in 
Glossic, B. xix, to accumulate all the 
peculiarities of dialectic utterances in a 

Every peculiar sentence and word 
should be written fully in Glossic, and 
have its interpretation in ordinary 
language and spelling, as literal as 
possible, and peculiar constructions 
should be explained. 

Comparative Specimen. 

In order to compare different dialects, 
it is advisable to have one passage writ- 
ten in the idiom and pronunciation of 
all. Passages from the Bible are highly 
objectionable. Our next most familiar 
book is, perhaps, Shakspere. The fol- 
lowing extracts from the Two Gentle- 
Men of Verona, act 3, sc. 1, sp. 69-133, 
have been selected for their rustic tone, 
several portions having been omitted as 
inappropriate or for brevity. Transla- 
tions into the proper words, idiom, and 
pronunciation of every English dialect 
would be very valuable. 

The Milkmaid, her Virtues and Vices. 

Launce. lie lives not now that 
knows me to be in love. Yet I am in 
love. But a team of horse shall not 
pluck that from me, nor who 'tis I 
love and yet 'tis a woman. But 
what woman, I will not tell myself 
and yet 'tis a milkmaid. Here is a 
caie-log of her condition. ' Imprimis : 
She can fetch and carry.* Why a 
horse can do no more ; nay, a horse 
cannot fetch, but only carry ; there- 
fore is she better than a jade. ' Item : 
She can milk ; ' look you, a sweet 
virtue in a maid with clean hands. 

\Enter Speed. 

Speed. How now ! what news in 
your paper ? 

Luunce, The blackest news that 
ever thou heardest. 

Speed. Why, man, how black ? 

Launce. Why, as black as ink. 

Speed. Let me read them. 

Launce. Fie on thee, jolt head ! 
thou canst not read. 

Speed. Thou liest; I can. Come, 
fool, come ; try me in thy paper. 

Launcd, There; and Saint Nicholas 
be thy speed ! 

Speed, [reads] ' Imprimis : she can 

Launce, Ay, that she can. 

Speed. ' Item : she brews good ale.' 

Launce. And thereof comes the pro- 
verb : ' Blessing of your heart, you 
brew good ale.' 

Speed. ' Item : she can sew.' 

Launce. That's as much as to say, 
Can she so ? , 

Speed. ' Item : She can wash and 

Launce. A special virtue ; for then 
she need not be washed and scoured. 

Speed. ' Item : she can spin.' 

Launce. Then may I set the world 
on wheels, when she can spin for her 

Speed. ' Here follow her vices.' 

Launce. Close at the heels of her 

Speed. ' Item : she doth talk in her 

Launce.. It's no matter for that, so 
she sleep not in her talk. 

Speed. 'Item: she is slow in words.' 

Launce. villain, that set down 
among her vices ! To be slow in words 
is a woman's only virtue : I pray thec, 
out with't, and place it for her chief 

Speed. ' Item : she is proud.' 

Launce. Out with that too ; it was 
Eve's legacy, and cannot be ta'en from 

Speed. 'Item : she will often praise 
her liquor.' 

Launce. If her liquor be good, she 
shall ; if she will not, I will ; for good 
things should be praised. 

Speed. l Item : she hath more hair 
than wit, and more faults than hairs, 
and more wealth than faults.' 

Launce. Stop there ; I'll have her ; 
she was mine, and not mine, twice or 
thrice in that last article. Rehearse 
that once more. 

Speed. ' Item : She hath more hair 
than wit.' 

Launce. More hair than wit ? It 
may be ; I'll prove it. The cover of 
the salt hides the salt, and therefore it 
i > more than the salt : the hair that 
overs the wit is more than the wit, for 
the greater hides the less. What's next ? 


Speed. 'And more faiilts than hairs.' he hath stayed for a better man thau 

Launce. That's monstrous : 0, that thee. 
that were out ! Speed. And must I go to him ? 

Speed. 'And more wealth than faults.' Launce. Thou must run to him, for 

Lauuce. Why, that word makes the thou hast stayed so long, that going will 

faults gracious. Well, I'll have her : scarce serve the turn. 
nd if it be a match, as nothing is im- Speed. Why didst thou not tell me 

possible, sooner ? pox of your love-letters ! 

Speed. What then ? [Exit. 

Launce. Why, then will I tell thee Launce. Xow will he be swinged 

that thy master stays for thee at the for reading my letter an unmannerly 

North-gate. slave, that will thrust himself into 

Speed. For me ? secrets ! I'll after, to rejoice in the 

Launce. For thee ! ay, who art thou ? boy's correction. [Exit. 

Of course it -would be impossible to enter upon tbe subject at 
great length in Chapter XI. The results will have to be given 
almost in a tabular form. But it is highly desirable that a complete 
account of our existing English language should occupy the atten- 
tion of an ENGLISH DIALECT SOCIETY, and I solicit all cor- 
respondents to favour me with their views on this subject, and to 
state whether they would be willing to join such a body. At the 
same time I must request permission, owing to the necessity of 
menial repose on this subject, to abstain from more than simply 
acknowledging the receipt of their communications during 1871. 

In Chap. XII. I hope to consider the various important papers 
which have recently appeared, bearing upon the present investiga- 
tions, especially those by Dr. "Weymouth, Mr. Payne, Mr. Murray, 
Mr. Furnivall, and Herr Ten Brink, together with such criticisms 
on my work as may have appeared before that chapter is printed. 
Any reader who can point out apparent errors and doubtful con- 
clusions, or who can draw my attention to any points requiring 
revision, or supply omissions, or indicate sources of information 
which have been overlooked, will confer a great favour upon me by 
communicating their observations or criticisms within the year 
1871, written in the manner already suggested. The object of 
these considerations, as of my whole work, is, not to establish a 
theory, but to approximate as closely as possible to a recovery of 
Early English Pronunciation. 

Those who have read any portion of my book will feel assured 
that no kind assistance that may thus be given to me will be left 
unacknowledged when published. And as the work is not one for 
private profit, but an entirely gratuitous contribution to the history 
of our language, produced at great cost to the three Societies which 
have honoured me by undertaking its publication, I feel no hesita- 
tion in thus publicly requesting aid to make it more worthy of the 
generosity which has rendered its existence possible. 


13 February, 1871. 

Appendix to the Notice prefixed to Part III. 




Read the large capital letters ahcays in the senses they have in the 
following wards, which are all in the usual spelling except the three 
underlined, meant for foot, then, rouge. 

BEEi BAIi sAA cAUL cOAi. cOOi, 
KJ*IT ifEi GNAi H()T 






R is vocal when no vowel follows, and Mark emphasis by () before a word. 

modifies the preceding vowel form- Pronounce el, em, en, er, ej, a, ob- 

ing diphthongs, as in pEER, PAIR, scurcly, after the stress syllable. 

sOAR, BOOR, HERs. When three or more letters come to- 

Use R for R* and RR for RR', when gether of which the two first may 

a vowel follows, except in elemen- form a digraph, read them as such. 

tary books, where r* is retained. Letters retain their usual names, and 

Separate th, dh, sh, zh, 'tig by a alphabetical arrangement. 

hyphen (-) when necessary. Words in customary or NOMIC spell- 
Read a stress on the first syllable ing occurring among GLOSSIC, 

when not otherwise directed. and conversely, should be underlined 

Mark stress by () after a long vowel with a wavy line ^^^, and printed 

or ei, oi, ou, eu, and after the first with spaist letters, or else in 

consonant following a short vowel. a different type. 

Spesimen ov Ingglish Glosik. 

NOSTIK, (dliat iz, kustemeri Ingglish speling, soa kauld from 
dhi Greek nom'os, kustem,) konvarz noa intimai'shen ov dhi 
risee-vd proanunsiarshen ov eni werd. It iz konsikwentli veri 
difikelt too lern. too reed, and stil moar difikelt too lem too reit. 

INGGLISH GLOSIK (soa kauld from dhi Greek gloas'sa, tung) 
konvarz whotever proanunsiai'shen iz inten-ded bei dhi reiter. 
Glosik bucks kan dhairfoar bee maid too impaart risee'vd 
auHhoa'ipi too aul reederz. 

Ingglish Glosik iz veri eezi too reed. Widh proper training, a 
cheild ov foar yeerz oald kan bee redili taut too giv dhi egzak't 
sound ov eni glosik werd prizen-ted too him. Aafter hee haz 
akwci'rd familiar'iti widh glosik reeding hee kan lern nomik 
reeding aulmoast widhou't instruk'shen. Dhi hoal teim rikwerrd 
faur leming loath glosik and nomik, iz not haaf dhat rikwei'rd 
faur lerning nomik aloa'n. Dhis iz impoa'rtent, az nomik buoks 
and paiperz aar dhi oanli egzis'ting soarsez ov infermai'shen. 



Glosik reiting iz akwei'rd in. dhi proases ov glosik reeding, Eni 
wun hoo kan reed glosik, kan reit era werd az wel az hee kan 
speek it, and dhi proper moad ov speeking iz lernt bci reeding 
glosik buoks. But oaing too its pikeirlier konstruk'shen, glosik 
speling iz imee'dietli intcl'ijibl, widhou't a kee, too eni nomik 
reeder. Hens, a glosik reiter kan konieirnikait widh aul reederz, 
whedher glosik aur nomik, and baz dbairfoar noa need too bikunv 
a nomik reiter. But hee -kan bikunv wun, if serkemstensez render 
it dizei'rrabl, widh les trubl dban dhoaz hoo hav not lernt glosik. 

Dili novelti ov dbi prezent skeem faur deeling widh dhi Speling 
Dinkelti iz, that, wheil it maiks noa chainj in dhi habits ov egzis-- 
ting reederz and reiterz, and graitli fasil'itaits lerning too reed our 
prezent buoks, it entei'rli obviaits dhi nisesiti ov lerning too reit 
in dhi euzheuel komplikaited fashen. 

Dhi abuv aar edeukai'shenel and soashel eusez ov Glosic. It 
iz heer iutroadeu'st soalli az a meenz ov reiting Aul Egzisting 
Vareritiz ov Ingglish Proanunsiarshen l bei meenz ov Wun Alfa- 
bet on a wel noan Ingglish baisis. 

1 Eevn amung- heili edcukaited Ing- 
glishmen, maarkt vareiitis ov proa- 
nunsiai'shen egzis-t. If wee inkloo d 
proaviirshel deialekts and vulgaritiz, 
dhi number ov dheez varei'itiz wil bee 
inairrmusli inkree st. Dhi eer ri- 
kwei rz much training, bifoa r it iz 
aibl too apree-shiait mineu-t shaidz ov 
sound, dhoa it redili diskrinvinaits 
braud diferensez. Too meet dhis difi- 
kelti dhis skeem haz been diveided mtoo 
too. Dhi ferst, aur Ingglish Glosik, 
iz adap-ted faur reiting Ingglish az wel 
az dhi autherz ov proanoun sing dik- 
sheneriz euzheueli koutemplait. Dhi 
sekend aur Euniversel Glosik, aimz at 
giving simbelz faur dhi moast mineu-t 
foanet'ik auaHsis yet achee'vd. Dhus, 
in dhi ferst, dhi foar difthongz ', oi t 
ou, eu, aar striktli konveu'shenel seinz, 
and pai noa heed too dhi grait vareriti 
ov waiz in which at leest sum ov dhcm 
aar habit-eueli proanou-nst. Agarn, 
eer, air, oar, oor, aar stil ritn widh ce, 
ai, oa, oo, auldhoa- an ateirtiv lisner 
wil redili rekogneiz a mineu t aulte- 
rai-shen in dheir soundz. Too fasil'itait 
reiting wee mai euz <7, eni, en, ej, a, 
when not under dhi sties, faur dhoaz 
obskeu-r soundz which aar soa preva- 
lent in speech, dhoa reprobaited bei 
aurthoa-ipists, and singk dhi disting-k- 
shen bitwee-n ', and ee, under dhi saim 
serkemstensez. Aulsoa dhi sounds in 
defer, occur, deferring, occur- 
ring may bee aul waiz ritn with e/; 
citrus (lifer; oker; dif erring, okerring, 
dhi dubling ov dhi r in dhi 'too laast 

wcrdz sikeu-rring dhi voakel karakter 
ov dhi ferst r, and dhi tril ov dhi 
sekend, and dhus disting'gwishing 
dheez soundz from dhoaz herd in her- 
i>iff, oktir'cns. Konsid'erabl ekspee'r- 
riens sujes'ts dhiz az a konvee-nient 
praktikel aurthoa-ipi. But faur dhi 
reprizentai'shen ov deialekts, wee re- 
kwei-r jencreli a much striktcr noatai-- 
shen, and faur aurthoaep'ikel diskrip*- 
shen, aur seientif-ik ibanet'ik dis- 
kush'en, sumthing stil moar painfuoli 
mineu-t. A feu sentensez aar anek'st, 
az dhai aar renderd bei Wauker and 
Melvil Bel, ading dlii Autherz oan 
koloa-kwiel utereus, az wel az hee kau 
estimait it. 

PiiAKTiKKL. Endever faur dhi best, 
and proavei-d agen-st dhi werst. Ni- 
ses-iti iz dhi mudher ov inven-shen. 
Hee- hoo wonts konten't kanot feind 
an eezi chair. 

WAUKER. Endevur faur dhe best, 
and pr'oavaayd agen-st dhe wurst. 
Neeses'eetee iz dhe mudh-ur ov inven 1 - 
shun. Hee' hoo wonts konten't kan-- 
not faaynd an ee'zee chai'r. 

MELVIL BEL. Endaevu'r fo'r dhi' 
baest, a'nd pr'aovaay d a'gacnh'st dhi' 
wuurst. Neesaes'iti iz dhi' muudh u'r 
o'v invaenh'shu'n. Hee* hoo waunh'ts 
ko'ntaenh't kan o't faaynd a'n ee'zi 

ELIS. Endev u' fu')dhi)bes't u'n)- 
pr'oa'vuyd u'gen-st uhi)wu'st. Ni- 
ses - iti)z dhi)mudh'u'r' u'v)invcn'shu'n. 
Hee' hoo)won'ts ku'nten't kan'ut fuynd 
u'n)ee-zi che-u'. 




Small Capitals throughout indicate 
English Glossic Characters as on p. xiii. 
Large capitals point out the most im- 
portant additional vowel signs. 


I . ,i . .1 

"O <J 

3 x 

P 8 


uu' ea EE 


U' I' i 

AA A' B 


ua ua' AE 

AH E' A 


Wid Sound. 


oo ui' ui 

uo uo' UE 


OA oa' EO 

AO ao' OE 


AU au' eo 1 

o o' oe' 


A as in English gnat. 

A' (read ai-'wok) fine southern Eng- 
lish ask, between aa and e. 

AA as iu. English baa. 

AE usual provincial English e, French 
e, German a. 

AH broad German aJi, between aa & au. 

AI as in English, bait, with uo after- 
sound of ee. 

AO open Italian o, between o and oa. 

ao' closer sound of ao, not quite oa. 

AU as in English caul. 

au' closer sound of au, as i in Irish sir. 

E as in southern English net. 

E' modification of e by vocal r in herb. 

ea Russian hi, Polish y, variety of ee. 

EE as in English beet. 

EO close French eu in peu, feu. 

eo' opener sound of eo, not quite oe. 

i as in English knrt. 

I" opener sound of ', not quite e, 
as e in English houses, Welsh u. 

o as in English not, opener than au. 

o' a closer sound of o. 

OA as in English coal, with no after- 
sound of oo. 

oa' closer sound of oo; with lips 

OE open French eu in veuf, German 6. 

oe' opener sound of oe. 

oo as in English cool. 

v as in English nut. 

U' obscure u, as o in English mention. 

ua, open provincial variety of u. 

ua' slightly closer ua. 

UE French u, German w. 

ui provincial Ger. w, nearly ee, Swed. y. 

ui' Swedish long /. 

uo as in English full, woman, booh, 
uo' Swedish long o. 
UU usual provincial variety of u. 
uu' Gaelic sound of ao in laogh ; try 
to pronounce oo with open lips. 


Ascertain carefully the received pro- 
nunciation of the first 12 key words on 
p. xiii, (avoiding the after-sounds of te 
and oo, very commonly perceptible after 
at and oa). Observe that the tip of the 
tongue is depressed and the middle or 
front of the tongue raised for all of 
them, except u ; and that the lips are 
more or less rounded for oo, uo, oa, 
au, o. Observe that for i, e, tio, the 
parts of the mouth and throat be- 
hind the narrowest passage between 
the tongue and palate, ai e more widely 
opened than for ee, ai, oo. 

Having ce quite clear and distinct, 
like the Italian, Spanish, French, and 
German i long, practise it before all 
the English consonants, making it as 
long and as short as possible, and wheu 
short remark the difference between 
ee and i, the French Jini, and English 
Jinny. Then lengthen i, noticing the 
distinction between leap lip, steal utill, 
feet Jit, when the latter words are sung 
to a long note. Sustaining the sound 
first of ee and then of f, bring the lips 
together and open them alternately, 
observing the new sounds generated, 
which will be ui and ue. A proper 
appreciation of the vowels, primary ee, 
wide i, round ui, wide round ue, will 
render all the others easy. 

Obtain oo quite clear and distinct, 
like Italian and German u long, French 
CM long. Pronounce it long and short 
before all the English consonants. Ob- 
serve the distinction between pool and 
pull, the former having oo, the latter uo. 
The true short oo is heard in French 
pottle. English pull and French poule, 
differ as English Jinny and French 
Jini, by widening. Observe that the 
back of the tongue is decidedly raised 
as near to the soi't palate for oo, uo, as 
the front was to the hard palate for 
ee, i ; and that the lips are rounded. 
While continuing to pronounce oo or 
uo, open the lips without moving the 
tongue. This will be difficult to do 
voluntarily at first, and the lips should 
be mechanically opened by the fingers 
till the habit is obtained. " The results 
axe the peculiar indistinct sounds UH 



and w', of which if is one of our com- 
monest obscure and unaccented sounds. 

In uttering ee, at, ae, the narrowing 
of the passage between the tongue and 
hard palate is made by the middle or 
front of the tongue, which is gradually 
more retracted. The at, ae, are the 
French e, e, Italian e ehiuso and 
e aperto. The last ae is very common, 
when short, in many English mouths. 
The widening of the opening at the 
back, converts ee, ai, ae, into i, e, a. 
Now e is much finer than ae, and re- 
places it in the South of England. 
Care must be taken not to confuse 
English a with aa. The true a seems 
almost peculiar to the Southern and 
"Western, the refined Northern, and 
the Irish pronunciation of English. 
The exact boundaries of the illiterate 
a and aa have to be ascertained. 
Hounding the lips changes ee, ai, ae, 
into ui, eo, eo', of which eo is very 
common. Rounding the lips also 
changes i, e, a, into ue, oe, oe', of which 
oe is very common. 

On uttering oo, oa, au, the back of 
the tongue descends lower and lower, 
till for au the tongue lies almost en- 
tirely in the lower jaw. The widening 
of these gives MO, ao, o. The distinction 
between au, o, is necessarily very slight ; 
as is also that between ao and o. But 
ao is very common in our dialects, and 
is known as o aperto in Italy. The 
primary forms of oo, oa, au, produced 
by opening the lips, are the obscure 
*, MM, Ma, of which M is very common 
in the provinces, being a deeper, thicker, 
broader sound of . But the wide 
sounds tio, ao, o, on opening the lips, 
produce u', aa, ah. Here aa is the 
true Italian and Spanish a, and ah is 
the deeper sound, heard for long a in 
Scotland and Germany, often confused 
with the rounded form au. 

Of the mixed vowels, the only im- 
portant primary vowel is u, for which 
the tongue lies flat, half way between 
the upper and lower jaw. " It is as 
colourless as possible. It usually re- 
places MM in unaccented syllables," and 
altogether replaces it in refined South- 
ern speech. Its wide form a" is the 
modern French fine a, much used also 
for aa in the South of England. The 
rounded form oa' seems to replace u or 
MM in some dialects. The mixed sound 
resulting from attempting to utter ah 
and a together is e 1 , which Mr. Bell 
considers to be the true vowel in herd. 

Distinctions to be carefully drawn in 

writing dialects. EE and I. AI and 
E. AE and E. A A, AH and A. 
OA and AO. AO, AU and AH. OO 
and UO. UU and U. UI, UE and 
EEW, IW, TOO. UE and EO. 
OE and U. 


All vowels are to be read short, or 
medial, except otherwise marked. 

The Stress () placed immediately after 
a vowel shews it to be long and ac- 
cented, as au-gust ; placed immedi- 
ately after a consonant, hyphen (-). 
gap' (:), or stop (..), it shews that 
the preceding vowel is short and ac- 
cented, as augus't, aamao:', pa 1 pa?..' 

The Holder () placed immediately 
after a vowel or consonant shews it 
to be long, as au-gus-t, needl" ; the 
Stress Holder () shews that the 
consonant it follows, is held, the pre- 
ceding vowel being short and accent- 
ed, compare hap-i, hapi, ha-pi, 
ha-p-i ; in theoretical writing only. 
Practically it is more convenient to 
double a held consonant, as hap'i, 
hap'pt, ha'ppi. 

Stop (..) subjoined to any letter indi- 
cates a caught-up, imperfect utter- 
ance, as ka.., kat.. for kat ; great 
abruptness is marked by (...) 

Accent marks may also be used when 
preferred, being placed over the first 
letter of a combination, thus : 

I! ! 1 1 II 

with stress aa" aa da da 
without stress cia" aa da aa aa 
If the first letter is a capital the accent 

marks may be placed on the second, 

as August, august, kdazda. 


The stresslcss element of a diph- 
thong is systematically indicated by a 
preceding turned comma (') called 
hook, as m'eeai'ee It. miei, Laa'ooraa 
It. Laura, p'aaoo'raa It paura, I'ucce 
FT. lui. But when, as is almost always 
the case, this element is 'ee 'oo, or 'ue, 
it may be replaced by its related con- 
sonant y, w or ,P, as myaiy, Laawraa, 
Ijcee. Any obscure final element as 
*u, 'e, 'e', is sufficiently expressed by 
the sign of simple voice h', as provin- 
cial neeh't night, sireeh'm stream 
wih'kn waken. In applying the rule 
for marking stress and quantity, treat 
the stressless element as a consonant. 



The four English Glossic diphthongs 
El, or, ou, EU are unsystematic, and 
are variously pronouncea, thus : 
EI is uy in the South, sometimes a'y, 
any ; and is often broadened to uuy, 
ahy, au'y, in the provinces. 
01 is oy in the South, and becomes any, 


ou is uw in the South, sometimes a'w, 
aaw, and is often broadened to uuw 
ahw, oaw, aow ; it becomes oe,w in 
Devonshire, and aew in Norfolk. 
EU varies as iw, eew, yoo, yiw, yeew. 

The Londoners often mispronounce 
AI as ai'y, aiy, ey or nearly uy, and OA 
as oa-w, oaw, ow or nearly uw. 

English vocal R, is essentially the 
same as H', forming a diphthong with 
the preceding vowel. Thus English 
glossic peer, pair, boar, boor, fer, difer"- 
ring, are systematic pi- ti, pe-h', bao'h\ 
buo'h', fe'h' or fw, dife'K'ring or 
difu-ring. But r is used where r', or 
rr', or h'r' may be occasionally heard. 


Differences from English Glossic con- 
sonants are marked by adding an h in 
the usual way, with y for palatals, 
and w" for la'bials, by subjoining an 
apostrophe ( ' ) or by prefixing a turned 
comma ( ' ), a turned apostrophe ( , ), 
or a simple comma (,). 

Simple consonants, and added G. 

Y, W, H ; P B, T D, J, K O, F V, 8 Z, 
VOCal B, Ii W N, NG. 

Added H. 


KH, GH German ch,g inDach, Tage ; 

are the hissed voiceless forms of 
y, r\ I, m, n, ng. 

Added T and YH. 

TY', DY', KY;,GY', LY', NY', NGY', 

are palatalised or mouille varieties 
of t, d, k, g, I, n, ng, as in virtue, 
verdure, old cart, old guard, Italian 
gl, gn, vulgar French, il n'y a 
pas=ngy'aa pah. LYH is the 
hissed voiceless form of LY'. 
KYH, GYH are palatal varieties of 
KH, GH as in German ich, fiiege. 

Added W and WH. 

TW', DW, KW', GW', RW, R'W', 
LW, NW, &c., are labial varieties 

of t, d, k, g, r, >', J, n, &c., pro- 
duced by rounding the lips at or 
during their utterance, French toi, 
dots, English quiet, guano, our, 
French roi, lot, noix, &c. 
KWH, GWH are labial varieties of 
KH, GH as in German auch, saugen, 
and Scotch quh. HWH is a whistle. 

Added apostrophe (') called " Hook." 

H' called aich-httok,is the simplest emis- 
sion of voice: H'W is /t' with round- 
ed lips ; H' WH a voiced whistle. 

T', D', called tee-huok, dee-huok, dental 
t, d, with tip of tongue nearly 
between teeth as for th, dh. 

F', V, called ef-huok, vec-huolc, tooth- 
less /, v, the lip not touching the 
teeth ; v' is true German w. 

n', or R before vowels, is trilled r. 

N' read en-huok, French nasal n, which 
nasalizes the preceding vowel. To 
Englishmen the four French words 
vent, vont, vin, un sound von', voan', 
van', un' ; but Frenchmen take 
them as vahn', voan', vaen', oen' . 
Sanscrit unuosvaa t ru. 

K', G' peculiar Picard varieties of 
ky', yy'. nearly approaching ch, j. 

CH', J', TS', DZ' monophthongal 
Roman varieties of ch, j, ts, dz. 

T'H, D'H lisped varieties of *, z, imi- 
tating th, dh; occasional Spanish 
, d. 

S' not after t, Sanscrit vimygu. 

Prefixed comma (,), called " Comma?' 

,H read koma-aich, lax utterance, op- 
posed to ,H. 

,T ,D read koma-tee, koma-dee peculiar 
Sardinian varieties of t, d, the 
tongue being much retracted. 

,L Polish barred I, with ,LH its voice- 
less, ,LW its labial, and ,LWH 
its voiceless labial forms. 
; read hamza, check of the glottis. 

Prefixed turned comma, ('), called 

i read ein, the Arabic iaayn or bleat. 

'H, 'T 'D, 'S 'Z, K, read hmk-aich, 
huok-tee, &c. ; peculiar Arabic 
varieties of h, t, d, s, z, k ; 'G the 
voiced form of 'K. 

'KH, 'GH, called huok-kai-aich, huok- 
jee-aich ; the Arabic kh, gh pro- 
nounced with a rattle of the uvula. 

XVI 11 


W, TE, 'BR, read luok-duM-eu, &c.; 
lip trills, the first with tight and 
the others with loose lips ; the first 
is the common English defective w 
for >', as ve'wi t'tcoo , the last is 
used for stopping horses in Germany. 

'R read huok-aar, the French rgrassey'e, 
and Northumberland burr or fcruop 
= 'ffh ; 'RH its voiceless form. 

'LH. 'L, read huok-el-aich, huok-el, 
Welsh II, and its voiced Manx form. 

F, 'V, read htiok-ef &c. ; /, v with back 
of tongue raised as for oo. 

Prefixed turned apostrophe ( ( ), called 
" Curve." 

4 AA, read kerv-aa, an an pronounced 
through the nose, as in many parts 
of Germany and America, different 
from aan', and so for any vowel, 
a h, or h\ 

,T ( D, ,SH, ,R, .L, ,N read kerv-tee &c., 
Sanscrit "cerebral" t, d, sh, r', l,n; 
produced by turning the under part 
of the tongue to the roof of the 
mouth and attempting to utter t, d t 
sh, r', I, n. 

,H read kerv-aich, a post aspiration, 
consisting of the emphatic utter- 
ance of the following vowel, in one 
syllable with the consonant, or an 
emphatically added final aspirate 
after a consonant. Commun in 
Irish-English, and Hindoostaanee. 

,W is the consonant related to tie, as 
w is to oo. 

Clicks, spoken with suction stopped. 

C, tongue in t position, English tut ! 

Q, tongue in f position. 

X, tongue in ty position, but. unilateral, 
that is, with the left edge clinging 
to the palate, and the right free, as 
in English clicking to a horse. C, 
q,x, are used in Appleyard's Caffre. 

QC, tongue in ty position, but not 
unilateral ; from Boyce's Hottentot. 

KG, tongue retracted to the '& position 
and clinging to the soft palate. 

Whispers or Flats. 

H, called serkl-aich, simple whisper ; 
H' whisper and voice together 
<0 H' diphthongal form of A'. 

AA, read serkl-aa, whispered aa t and 
so for all vowels. 

B, D, read serkl-bee etc., the sound of 
b, rf, heard when whispering, as dis- 
tinct from p, t, common in Saxony 
when initial, and sounding to 

Englishmen like p, I when stand- 
ing for b, d, and like b, d when 
standing for p, t. G, whispered g, 
does not occur in Saxony. 
V, DU, Z, ZH, L, M, N read 
serkl-vee etc., similar theoretical 
English varieties, final, or interposed 
between voiced and voiceless letters. 


The tones should be placed after the 
Chinese word or the English syllable 
to which they refer. They are here, 
for convenience, printed over or un- 
der the vowel o, but in writing and 
printing the vowel should be cut out. 
o, o, high or low level tone, p t hing~. 
o, y, tone rising from high or low pitch, 

o, o rise and fall, (that is, foo-kyen 

shfiang',) or fall and rise, 
o, o falling tone to high or low pitch, 

kyoo" or kjioe'. 

&, n sudden catch of the voice at a 
high or low pitch, shoo', z/iee", 
nyip", or yaap'. 


Hyphen (-), used to separate combina- 
tions, as in mis-hap, in-got. In 
whair-ever, r is vocal ; elm fauln 
are monosyllables, el-m, faul-n are 
dissyllables ; fidler has two syllables, 
fidl-er three syllables. 

Divider ), occasionally used to assist 
the reader by separating to the eye, 
words not separated to the ear, as 
teT]er dhaf)l doo. 

Omission ( ), occasionally used to assist 
the reader by indicating the omission 
of some letters usually pronounced, 
as hee)J, doo) t. 

Gap (:) indicates an hiatus. 

Closure (.) prefixed to any letter indi- 
cates a very emphatic utterance as 
mei .hei for my eye. 

Emphasis () prefixed to a word, shews 
that the whole word is more em- 
phatically uttered, as ei -neu dhat 
'dhat dhat 'dhat man sed woz rang ; 
'ei gaiv 'too things too 'too men, and 
hee gaiv 'too, 'too, too 'too, 'too. 

The following are subjoined to indicate, 
I emission, ; suction, ,; trill of the 
organs implicated, t inner and 
outer position of the organs impli- 
cated, J tongue protruded, unilate- 
rality, * linking of the two letters 
between which it stands to form a 
third sound, ( extreme faintness. 



** The Reader should pay particular attention to the llules for marking vowel 
quantity laid down in the Key, p. xvi. 


French. Ai p<wee uen vyaiy ka'raony' ai un'n)on'fon' bao'rny' 
oan' von'due deo moavae van' oa poeplh bae"t. Ee act voo ? 

German. Ahkh! aaynu' aayntseegyhu' ue-blu' foyreegyhu' 
mucku' koentu' v'oal ahwkwh meekyh boe'zu' mahkhu'n ! Yhalr 
szoa - ! Es too't ineer' oon:en'dleekyh laayt ! 


Conjectured Pronunciation of Chaucer, transliterated from "Early 
English Pronunciation" p. 681 : 

Whaan dhaat Aa-prrl with)is shoo-res swao-te 

Dhe droo'kwht aof Maarch haath per'sed tao dhe rao-te, 

Aand baa'dhed ev'ri* vaayn in swich Irkoo-r 

Aof which ver'tue* enjen'dred is dhe floo'r; 

Whaan Zefiroos, e-k, with)is swe'te bre'the 

Insprred haath in evri' haolt aand he "the 

Dhe tendre kropes, aand dhe yoonge soone 

Haath in dhe Raam is)haalfe koo-r's iroon'e, 

Aand smaa'le fooies maa-ken mclaodre, 

Dhaat sle-pen aal dhe nikyht with ao-pen re, 

Sao priketh hem naa'tue'r in her' kao-raa-jes; 

Dhaan laongen faolk tao gao - n aon pil-gri-maa-jes, 

Aand paalmerz faor' tao se-ken straawnje straondes, 

Tao fer'ne haalwes koo-th in soon'dri- laondes ; 

Aand spes'iaalr fraom evri' shi-res ende 

Aof Engelaond, tao Kaawn'ter'berr dhaay wende, 

Dhe hao'li* blisfool maar'-trr faor tao se'ke, 

Dhaat hem haath haolpen, whaan dhaat dhaay we*r se'ke. 


Received Pronunciation. Wliot d)yoo wont? Vulgar Coclcney. 
i wau*nt? Devonshire. Wat d)yue want? Fifeshire. 
Whuu't u'r' yi' waan;n ? Teviotdale. Kwhaht er' ee wahntun ? 
Teviotdale, from the dictation of Mr. Murray of Hawiclc. Dhe)r' 
ti'wkwh sahkwhs graowun e dhe Ri'wkwh Hi'wkwh Hahkwh. 
Kwhaht er' ee alrnd um ? TJ')m ah'ndum naokwht. Yuuw un 
mey el gu'ng aowr' dhe deyk un puuw e pey e dhe muunth e 
Mai'y. Hey)l bey aowr' dhe *naow nuuw. 

Aberdeen. Faat foa-r' di'd dhe peer' si'n vreet tl)z mi'dher' ? 
Glasgow. Wu)l ait wur' bred n buu;ur' doon dhu waa;ur'. 
Lothian. Mahh' koanshuns ! hahug u' Be'yli ! Gaang u'wah", 
laadl ! gai tu dhu hoar's, sai xx ! tin shoo em. 'baak ugi'n* ! 

Norfolk. Wuuy dao-nt yu' paa - )mi dhaat dhur -tue paewnd yu* 
ao*)mi, bo ? Uuy dao'nt ao - )yu' nao -tue paewnd. Yuuw 'due ! 

Scoring Sheep in the Yorkshire Dales. 1. yaan, 2 taih'n, 3 tedh- 
uru, 4 medhuru (edhuru), 5 pimp (pip), 6 saa-jis (see*zu), 7 laa-jis 
(re-ru), 8 sao'va (koturu), 9 dao-vu (hau'nu), 10 dik, 11 yaan 
uboo'n, 12 tain uboo-n, 13 tedhur' uboo'n, 14 medhur' uboon, 
15 jigit, 16 yaan ugeeh'-n, 17 tain ugeeh' 'n, 18 tedhur' ugeeh''n, 
19 medhur' ugeeh' *n, 20 gin ageeh' n (bumfit). 



** Mr. Hallam considers that he said ', MO. ww, vaeys, where I seemed to hear 
and wrote aa, oa', ui'w, va'ys. .Mr. Hallam dictated the quantities. 


TJtjSoa'tiffff ti)S6lumun, Chuaptur th}~ 

1. A6)m th)roaz u)Shaerun un)th)- 
lilli u)th vaalliz. 

2. Us th)lilli uaida'ng thaurnz, soo 
iz mau liiuv umoa'ng th)duuwtturz. 

3. Us th)aappl traey um6a'ng th)- 
traeyz u)th woa'd, soo)z mau biluuvd 
umoa'ng th)s6a'nz. Ad sit daawn wi 
greet dlaey 6a'ndur')iz shaadu, un)iz)- 
fri'wt wur)swaeyt tu)mi)taist. 

4. Afey bruuwt)mi tu)th)feestin aaws, 
un)iz)fla'g 6ar)mi wur luuv. 

5. Ky'aeyp mi oa'p wi' soa'mut" 
dringk, kuumfurt)mi wi)aapplz ; fur 
au)m luuv-sik. 

6 Iz lift 6nd)z oa'ndur mi)yaed, un)- 
iz rae)-t ond tlips)mi. 

7. Au tael)yu, 6a duuwtturz u)Ji- 
ruuwslum, bi)th roaz, uu)bi)th)sta'gz 
u)th faeylt, dhut yda mun noadhur stuur 
nur wilakn mau luuv, til aey lahyks. 

8. Thjvatiys u;mi) biluuvd! Luuwk, 
aey kuumz l5eppm oa pu)th)maawn- 
tinz, sky'ippin 6a'pu)th ilz. 

9. Mi)biluuvd)z lahyk u)r3a, ur')u). 
yoa'ng sta'g : luuwk, aey stondz ut). 
th)baak)n aar)wau, aey luuwks aawt 
ut)th)windus, un)t>h6az "issael thruuw)- 

10. Mi)biluuvd spauk, un)saed 
tuuw)mi, Gy'aer'Jda'p, mi)lfiuv, mi)- 
^er')un, un)kuum uwee. 

11. Fur, luuwk, th)wintur)z paast, 
un)th)reen)z oar un)gaun. 

12. Th)flaawurz ui-)kuumin oa'pu)- 
th)graawnd, th)tahym)z kuumn us)th)- 
bridz singu, un)th)vahys u)th)tuui-tl)z 
eerd i)aar)k6a'ntri. 

13. Th)figiraeyzur)gy'aetingraevn 
flgz on, un)th)vahynz gy'in u)nahys 
smael wi)th)yoa'ng graips. Gy'acr')- 
oa'p, mi)luuv, mi)faer')un, un)kiium 

14. OS mau doav, uz)urt)i)th)niks 
u)th)rok, i)th)seckrit spots u)th)staerz, 
lae)mi saey dhi)fais, lae)mi eer dhi)- 
vahys; fur)dhi)vahys is swaeyt, un). 
dhi)fais iz vaerri praati. 

olumtm, Chdapt'ur tfi)- 

1. Au)m th)roaz u)Shaerun un)th)- 
lilli u)th vanlliz. 

2. Lahyk th)lilli umoa'ng thaurnz, 
sui'w iz mahy luuv uinoa'ng th)- 

3. Lahyk th)aappl t'riy umoa'ng 
th)t'riyz u)th woa'd, sui'w iz mahy 
biluuvd umoa'ng th)soa'nz. Au sit)mi 
daawn wi graet dliy 6a'nd'ur')iz 
shaadu, un)iz)frui'wt wur)swiyt tu)mi 

4. ly bruuwt)mi tu)th)feeh'stin 
aaws, un)iz)fla'g oar mi wur luuv. 

6. St'i-aengthu)mi Tvi)s6a'mut" 
d'ringk, kuumfurt)mi wi)aapplz : fur 
au)m luuv-sik. 

6. Iz lift 6nt)s oa'nd'ur mi)yaed, 
an)iz riyt ont tlips)mi. 

7. Au chaarj)yu, Oa duuwt't'rz u) Ji- 
rui'wslum. bi)th)roaz, un)bi)tn)sta'gz 
u)th)fiylt, uz yoa mun noadhur stQur, 
nur wa'kn mi)luuv, til)iy)pleeh'zuz. 

8. Th)va'ys u)mi)biluuvd ! Liii'wk, 
iykuumz Ifeeh'pin oa'pu)th)maawutinz, 
sky'ippin 6a'pu)th ilz. 

9. Mi)bilunvd)z lahyk u)roa, ur')u)- 
yoa'ng sta'g : lui'wk, iy stondz ut)- 
ba'k)u aar)wau, iy lui'wks aawt ut)- 
th)windus, un)sh6az issael thrui'w)- 

10. Mi)biluuvd spiuk, un)saed 
tui'w)mi, Gy'aet oa'p, mi)luuv, mi)- 
faer')un, unjkuum uwai. 

11. Fur, lui'wk, th)wint'ur)z paast, 
un)th)rain)z oar un)gaun. 

12. Th)flaawurz ur)kuumin oa'pu)- 
th) graawnd,th)tahym)z kuumnus)th)- 
bridz singn, un)th)va'ys u)th)tuurtl)z 
eerd i)Sar)koa'nt'ri. 

13. Th)fig t'riyz ur) gy'aetin griyn 
flgz on, un)tli)vahynz gy'in u)nahys 
smael wi)th)y6a'ng graips. Gy'aet 
oa'p, mi)luuv, mi)faer')un, un)kiium 

14. Oa mahy doav, uz)ui-t)i)th)tlifs 
ti)th)r6k, i)th)saikrifc sp6ts u)th) staerz, 
lae)mi siy dhi)fais, lae)mi eer dhi^- 
va'ys; fur)dhi) va'ys is swiyt, un)dhi)- 
fais iz vaerri praata. 

\* Separate Copies of this Notice and Appendix on Glossic will oe 
sent on application to the Author. 



1. Chaucer. 


IN accordance with the intimation on p. 398, the Prologue 
to the Canterbury Tales is here given as an illustration of 
the conclusions arrived at in Chap. IV., for the pronuncia- 
tion of English in the xiv th century. But it has been 
necessary to abandon the intention there expressed, of follow- 
ing the Harl. MS. 7334 as closely as possible, for since the 
passage referred to was printed, the Chaucer Society has 
issued its magnificent Six-Text Edition of the Prologue and 
Knight's Tale, and it was therefore necessary to study those 
MSS. with a view to arriving at a satisfactory text to pro- 
nounce, that is, one which satisfied the laws of grammar and 
the laws of metre better than the reading of any one single 
MS. which we possess. For this purpose the systematic 
orthography proposed on p. 401, became of importance. The 
value of exact diplomatic reprints of the MSS. on which we 
rely, cannot be overrated. But when we possess these, and 
endeavour to divine an original text whence they may have 
all arisen, we ought not to attempt to do so by the patch- 
work process of fitting together words taken from different 
MSS., each retaining the peculiar and often provincial or- 
thography of the originals. The result of such a process 
could not but be more unlike what Chaucer wrote than any 
systematic orthography. Chaucer no doubt did not spell 
uniformly. It is very difficult to do so, as I can attest, after 
making the following attempt, and probably not succeeding. 
But a modern should not venture to vary his orthography 
according to his own feelings at the moment, as they would 
be almost sure to lead him astray. Whenever, therefore, a 
text is made out of other texts some sort of systematic ortho- 
graphy is inevitable, and hence, notwithstanding the vehe- 




CHAP. VII. 1. 

ment denunciation of the editor of the Six-Text Edition, 1 
I have made trial of that one proposed on p. 401, in all its 
strictness. The result is on the whole, better than could 
have been expected. Notwithstanding the substantial agree- 
ment of the Harleian 7334, and the Six New Texts, there is 
just sufficient discrepancy to assist in removing almost every 
difficulty of language and metre, so far as the prologue is 
concerned, and to render conjecture almost unnecessary. 
The details are briefly given in the footnotes to the following 
composite text. 


The investigations in Chap. IV. for the determination of the pro- 
nunciation of the xiv th century, were avowedly founded upon the 
single MS. Harl. 7334 (supra p. 244). Now that large portions 
of six other MSS. have been diplomatically printed, it is satisfactory 
to see that this determination is practically unaffected by the new 
orthographies introduced. The Cambridge and the Lansdowne 
MSS., indeed, present us at first sight with what appears to be 
great vagaries, but wben we have once recognised tbese as being, 
not indeterminate spellings of southern sounds, but sufficiently 
determinate representations of provincial, northern, or west midland, 
utterances, mixed witb some attempts to give southern pronuncia- 
tion, they at once corroborate, instead of invalidating, the conclu- 
sions already obtained. That this is the proper view has been 
sufficiently shewn in the Temporary Preface to the Six-Text 
Edition, p. 51 and p. 62, and there is no need to discuss it further. 

1 Temporary Preface to the Six- 
Text Edition of Chaucer's Canterbury 
Tales, Part I., by F. J. Furnivall, pp. 
113-115. A uniform system of spell- 
ing did not prevail in the xiv th cen- 
tury, and as we have seen, can scarcely 
be said to prevail in the xrx th, but 
variations were not intentional, and the 
plan I advocate is, from the varied 
spellings which prevail, to discover the 
system aimed at, but missed, by the old 
writer, and adopt it. All varieties of 
grammar, dialect, and pronunciation, 
when belonging to the author, and not 
his scribe, who was often ignorant, and 
still oftener careless (p. 249), should bo 
preserved, and autographs, such as 
Orrmin's and Dan Michel's, must be 
followed implicitly and literatim. In 
such diplomatic printing, I even object 
to insertions between brackets. They 
destroy the appearance of the original, 
and bence throw the investigator into 

the editor's track, and often stand in 
the way of an independent conjecture. 
At the same time they do not present 
the text as the editor would shew it, 
for the attention is distracted by the 
brackets. The plan pursued for the 
Prisoner's Prayer, supra pp. 434-437, 
of giving the' original and amended 
texts in parallel columns, is the only 
one which fully answers both pur- 
poses. Where this is not possible, it 
it appears to me that the best course 
to pursue is to leave the text pure, and 
submit the correction in a note. This 
serves the purpose of the [ ] or tic, 
much more effectually than such dis- 
turbances of the text, which are only 
indispensable when notes are incon- 
venient. The division of words and 
capitals of the original should for the 
same reason be retained. See the 
Temp. Pref. p. 88. 


These MSS. may be looked upon as authorities for the words, but 
not for the southern pronunciation of the words, and they shew their 
writers' own pronunciation by using letters in precisely the same 
sense as was assigned from the Harl. MS. on p. 398 above. Two 
points may be particularly noticed because they are both points of 
difference between Mr. Payne and myself, (supra pp. 582, 583) 
and in one of them I seem to differ from many of those who have 
formed an opinion on the subject. 

Long after an examination of all the authorities I could find, 
was stated on p. 171 to have been (yy) during the xvith century. 
There did not appear to be any ground for supposing it to be 
different in the xrvth centuiy, and hence it was assumed on 
p. 298 to have had that value at that time. This was strengthened 
by the proof that (uu), the only other sound which it could 
have represented, was written OM, p. 305. A further though a 
negative proof seems to be furnished by the fact that I have 
not observed any case of long u and ou rhyming together, or 
being substituted one for the other in the old or any one of the 
six newly published texts. 1 I cannot pretend to have carefully 
examined them for that purpose, but it is not likely that in my 
frequent references to them for other purposes, such a marked 
peculiarity should have escaped me. It has however been already 
pointed out that in the first half of the xin th century (uu) was 
represented by , and not by ou, and for about thirty years, includ- 
ing the end of the xrn th and beginning of the xrv th century, both 
signs were employed indiscriminately for (uu), and that this use of 
ou seemed to have arisen from a growing use of u as (yy), pp. 424, 
470, 471 note 2, etc. 2 Hence the predominance of ou in the be- 

1 Compare fortone, litke in Hampole Judging however by the collation in 

(supra p. 410, n. 2). The two ortho- F. Michel's edn. the Oxf. MS. agrees 

graphics boke, buke, struggle with each with the Cam. The text is clearly 

other in Hampole. In the Towneley doubtful. 

Mysteries, I have also observed the But v. 691, which in the Cam. MS. 

rhyme, goode infudf, which however, runs 

may be simply a bnd rhyme, the spell- he lij? in bure 

ing is Northern and of the latter part under couerture 

of the xv th century. On examining becomes in the Harl. fo. 87, 

the Harl. MS. 2253 for the rhymes : he byht nou in boure, 

bur mesaventur, bure coverture, quoted vnder couertoure, 

from the Cam. MS. of King Horn on where the scribe by adopting the or- 

p. 480, I find that the first rhyme dis- thography ou has clearly committed 

appears. Thus v. 325, Lumby's edition himself to the pronunciation (uu) and 

of the Cam. MSS. has not (yy). It would, however, not be 

"W ent ut of my bur safe to draw a general conclusion from 

Wibmuchel mefaventur these examples in evidently very un- 

and the Harl. reads fo. 85, trustworthy texts, which have yet to 

"Went out of my boure, be properly studied in connection with 

fhame )>e mott byflioure ; dialectic and individual pronunciation, 

and v. 649, the Cam. MS. has supra p. 481. 

heo ferde in to bure * On p. 301, note, col. 1, a few in- 
to fen auetw?-e, stances of the Devonshire substitutes 
and the Harl. has, fo. 87, for (uu) arc given, on the authority of 
Horn ne Jrohte nout him on Mr. Shelly' s pronunciation of Nathan 
ant to boure wes ygon. Hogg's Letters. The new series of 



CHAP. VII. f 1. 

ginning of the xrv th century and the subsequent strict severance of 
long u and on, which seem so far as I have observed, to have been 
never confused, as short w and ou certainly were (p. 304). The 
conclusion seems to be inevitable, that long u and on represented 
different sounds, and that the long u must have had in the xiv th, 
what Bullokar in the XTI th century called its " olde and continued" 
sound, namely (yy). This, however, is directly opposed to Mr. 
Payne's opinions given on p. 583. 

those letters there named, having an 
improved orthography, using u, a, for 
(y, se), not (a), as there misprinted, 
has allowed me to make some collec- 
tions of words, which are curious ia 
connection with the very ancient west- 
ern confusion of u, e, i, and the pro- 
nunciation of long u as (yy). It may 
be stated that the sound is not always 
exactly (yy). In various mouths, and 
even in "the same month, it varies 
considerably, inclining towards (uu), 
through (uu?), or towards () the labi- 
alised (ee). The short sound in did 
seemed truly (d>d). But in cculd, good, 
I heard very distinctly (kyd, gyd) with 
o clear, but extremely short (y), from 
South Devon peasants in the neigh- 
bourhood of Totnes. Nor is the use of 
..(yy) or (ru, ) for (uu) due to any in- 
capacity on the part of the speaker to 
say (uu). The same peasant who 
called Combs, (Kyymz) or (Kwmz), 
[it is difficult to say which, and appa- 
rently the sound was not determinate], 
and even echoed the name thus when 
put to him as (Kuumz), and called brook 
(bryk), with a very short (y), talked 
*f (muur, stunnz, ruud} for more, atones, 
rood. Mr. Murray, in his paper OH 
the Scotch dialect in the Philological 
Transactions, has some interesting spe- 
culations on similar confusions in 
Scotch, and on the transition of (u) or 
(M) through (a) into (a) and finally (a). 
On referring to pp. 160-3, supra, the 
close connection of (uu, yy) will be seen 
to be due to the fact that both are 
labial, and that in both the tongue is 
raised, the back for (uu) and front 
for (yy). The passage from (uu) 
to (yy) may therefore be made almost 
imperceptibly, and if the front is 
slightly lowered, the result becomes 
(#>). The two sounds (yy, ) arc 
consequently greatly confused by 
speakers in Scotland, Norfolk, and 
Devonshire. Mr. Murray notes the 
resemblance between (, a), which in- 
deed led to the similarity of their nota- 

tion in palaeotype as shewn by Mr. 
M. Bell's assigning (a) and my giving 
(9) to the French mute e, which others 
again make (?h). If then (u) travels 
through (y, 3) to (), its change to (a) 
is almost imperceptible, and the slight- 
est labialisation of the latter sound 
gives (o). "Whatever be the reason, 
there can be no doubt of the fact that 
(n, y, 9, a, a, o) do interchange pro- 
vincially now, and hence we must not 
be surprised at finding that they did 
so in ancient times, when the circum- 
stances were only more favourable to 
varieties of speech. These observations 
will serve in some degree to explain 
the phenomena alluded to in the text, 
aud also the following lists from Nathan 
Hogg's second series, in which I re- 
tain the orthography of the author 
(Mr. H. Baird), where we should read 
, a as (y, EC) short or long, and other 
letters nearly as in glossotype. 

EW and long U become (yy) , as : 
blw, bwty, cruel, cwryiss curious, ct, 
acute, dwce deuce, duty, hu hue yew, 
humin human, \dokltid. conclude, muzic, 
DM new, pwr pure, rwin'd, st< stew, 
st?qrid, trw, truth, tun, \\ui flute, vu 
view few, vwm fume, vutur future, 
\Kz'd used, zuant suant. 

Long and short 00, OU, 0, TJ, 
usually called (uu, M) become (yy, y) or 
(33, }, as: bal? hullahbaloo,\t\um bloom, 
brk brook, bwk book, chwz choose, crwk 
crook, cwd could, curt court, CMS course 
coarse, drw through, drwpin drooping, 
Ait do, gwd good, gulden golden, intw, 
kushin cushion, luk look, lus'nd loosened, 
minwver tnattoeucre, mv move, nn 
noon, pwl'd pulled, prv prove, pwk 
pook, rm room, shw shoe, shl should, 
skule school, stud stood, trpin trooping, 
ttt too two to [emphatic, unemphatic 
ta = (to)], tk took, t,vm tomb, u who, 
vwl full fool, \ut foot, VK you, zmuihe 
smooth, zwn soon, 

Short U, 00, usually called () 
become (i), as : blid blood, dist do'st, 
honjist, 1'iij'ut. jist just adv., rin nm 

CHAP. VII. { 1. 



The second point is extremely difficult, and cannot be so cursorily 
dismissed. What was the sound attributed to ai ay, ei ey in 
Chaucer '? The constant confusion of all four spellings shews that 
it Avas one and the same. 1 Here again the voice of the xvrth 
century was all but unanimous for (ai), but there is one remarkable 
exception, Hart, who as early as 1551 (in his MS. cited below 
Chap. VIII, 3, note 1), distinctly asserts the identity of the 
sounds of these combinations with that of e, ea, that is (ee). For 
printing this assertion in 1569 he was strictly called to order by 
Gill in 1621, supra p. 122. All the other writers of thexvith 
century, especially Salesbury and Smith distinctly assert that (ai) 
was the sound. Hence on p. 263, (ai) was taken without hesitation 
to be the sound of ay, ey, in Chaucer. We are familiar with the 
change of (ai) into (ee), p. 238, and with the change of (ii) into (ai,, 
ai), p. 295, but the change of (ee) into (ai), although possible, and 
in actual living English progress (p. 454, n. I), is not usual. 
There was no reason at all to suppose that ay could have been (ii), 
and little reason to suppose that it would have been (ee) before it 
became (ai). On examining the origin of ay, ey, in English words 
derived from ags. sources, the y or i appears as the relic of a former 
g = (gh, g\\, j) and then (i), which leads irrresistibly to the notion 
of the diphthong (ai), p. 440, 1. 14, p. 489. But it certainly does 
not always so arise, and we have seen in Orrrnin (ib.) that the 
gg = (j) -was sometimes as pure an insertion as we occasionally 
find in romance words derived from the Latin, 2 and as we now find 

[also to tint], rish'd rushed, tich'd 
touched, vlid flood, wid'n would not, 
winder wonder, wisser worscr, zich 
such, zin sun son, zmitch smutch. 

Short E, I, visually called (e, z) are 
frequently replaced by (a) or (a), as : 
bevul befell, oul bell, bulch'd belched, 
burry'd buried, churish cherish, eszul 
himself, etszul itself, mexul myself, 
mulkin milking, mullcr miller, purish 
perish, shullins shillings, spul spell, 
spurrit spirit [common even in London, 
and compare syrop, stirrup], tullee tell 
you, turrabul terrible, ulbaw'd elbowed, 
vuller fellow [no r pronounced, final or 
pre-consonantal trilled (r) seems un- 
known in Devonshire], Tullidge village, 
vulty filthy, vurrit ferret, vury very, 
vast first, wul well, wulvare welfare, yul 
yell, yr'd heard, zmul smell, zulf self. 

The words xwp'd swept, indwd indeed^ 
dd did done, humman htimmeu woman 

1 Xot in. Scotch, where the spellings 
ai, ei seem to have been developed in- 
dependently in the xv th century, for 
the Scotch long a, e, and perhaps 
meant (at?, CB), compare Sir T. Smith, 
supra p. 121, 1. 18. These spellings 
were accompanied by the similar forms 
oi, tti, oui for the long o, u, ou, per- 
haps = (OB, ytt, UB), though the first 
was not much used. We must recol- 
lect that in Scotch short * was not (i)' 
or (), but (e), and hence might easily 
be used for (B) or (a) into which un- 
accented (e) readily degenerates. For 
this information I am indebted to Mr. 
Murray's paper on Scotch (referred to 
in the last note), which was kindly 
shewn to me in the MS. The notes 
there furnished on the development of 
Scotch orthography are highly interest- 
ing, and fcend to establish an intentional 
phonetie reformation at this early 

women, do not exactly belong to any period, removing Scotch spelling from 
of these categories. the historical affiliation which marks 

The above lists, which, being only the English. 
derived from one small book, are ne- 
cessarily very incomplete, serve to shew 
the importance of modern dialectic 
study in the appreciation of ancient 
and therefore dialectic English (p. oSl). 

2 " In Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, 
and Provencal, Latin A remains un- 
altered. Some deviations into ai or e 
must be admitted. . . . The most im- 
portant and frequent case is when a by 



CHAT. VII. 1. 

in English after the sound of (<?<?) in what many persons recognize 
as the " standard" pronunciation of our language, for instance 
(neeim) for name. There are a few straggling instances in even 
xm th centuiy MSS. where ay appears to rhyme to e, the chief of 
which turn on apparently a dialectic pronunciation of saide as sede, 
which is also an orthography occasionally employed (p. 484, 1. 15, 
p. 481, 1. 33). Dr. Gill, 1621 (Loyonomia p. 17), cites (sed) as a 
northern pronunciation for (said), and classes it with (saa) for (sai). 
Mr. Payne has pointed out similar cases in the Owl and Nightingale, v. 
349, 707, 835, 1779. The orthography sede occurs also, v. 472, 548, 
1293, and probably elsewhere. 1 Mr. Payne also notes the less usual 
rhymes: bigrede upbrcide 1411, misrede maide 1061, grede maide 
1335. These rhymes are certainly faulty, because in each case the 
ags. has a g in the second word but not in the first, and we cannot 
suppose them to have rhymed at this early period. 2 In Floris and 

the action of an inserted coalescing i 
or e, according to the individual ten. 
dency of the language, passes into ai, 
or ei, or e and ie : prov. <>, sp. aire 
from aer : prov. primairan (otherwise 
only primer pr inner), port, primeiro, 
span, primcro, it. primiero, from pri- 
ntarius; prov. esclairar from esclariar 
which also exists; prov. bais, port. 
beijo. span, beso from basium ; prov. 
fait, port, ftito, span, heeho from facius 
e being palatalised into *. ... This 
vowel has suffered most in French, 
where its pure sound is often obscured 
into ai, e and ie. "We must first put 
aside the common romance process, 
just noticed, by which this obscuration 
is effected by an inserted t as in air, 
premier, baisn;fait." Translated from 
Diez, Gr. der rom. Spr. 2nd. ed. i. 135. 

1 The Jesus Coll. Oxf. MS. reads 
tcyde in each case. 

~ The orthography and rhymes of 
the Owl and Nightingale as exhibited 
in the Cott. MS. Calig. A. ix., fol- 
lowed by Wright, in his edition for the 
Percy Society, 1 843, are by no means 
immaculate. The MS. is certamlv of 
the xm th century, before the introduc- 
tion of ou for (uu), that is, before 1280 
or probably before the death of Henry 
III., 1272, (so that, as has been con- 
jectured oa other grounds, Henry II. 
was the king whose death is alluded to 
in the poem), and is contained in the 
same volume with the elder text of 
Lajamon, though it is apparently not 
by the same scribe. Xor should I be 
inclined to think that the scribe was a 
Dorsetshire man, although the poem 
is usually ascribed to Nicholas de 
Guildford, of Portishain. Dorsetshire. 

The confusions of e *, o e, e a, recall 
the later scribe of Havelok. Dreim 21, 
cleine 301, are obvious scribal errors, 
corrected to drein dene in the Oxf. MS., 
and: crei 334, in Oxf. MS. erey, although 
put in to rhyme with dai, must be an 
error for cri. We have cases of omitted 
letters in : rise wse 53, wrste tobcrste 
121, wlite wte 439, for wise, verstc (?), 
wite. There are many suspicious 
rhymes, and the following are chiefly 
assonances: worse mershe 303, hei- 
sugge stubbe 505, worde forworthc 
547, igremet of-chamed 931, wise ire 
1027, oreve idorve 1151, flesche cwesse 
1 385, fiijste vicst 405. and, in addition 
to the ', e rhymes cited in the text, 
we have: forbreideth nawedeth 1381, 
in Oxf. MS. ne awcde]>. As to the 
present pronunciation of a;/, ey in 
Dorsetshire, the presumed home of the 
poet, Mr. Barnes gives us very precise 
information : " The diphthongs at or 
ay, and ei or ey, the third close long 
sound [that is, which usually have the 
the sound of a in mate], as in May, 
hay, maid, paid, rein, neighbour, prey, 
are sounded like the Greek <u, the 
a or f, the first open sound, as a in 
father, and the i or y as ee, the first 
close sound. The author has marked 
th a of diphthongs so sounded with a 
circumflex : as may, hay, maid, paid, 
vain, naighbour, pray." Pufins of 
Jtiird Life, 2nd ed., p. 27. That is, 
in Dorsetshire the sound (ai), which 
we have recognized as ancient, is still 
prevalent. This is a remarkable com- 
ment upon the false rhymes of the 
MSS. Stratmann's edition. 1 868, is of 
no use for the present investigation, on 
account of its critical orthography. . 

CHAP. VII. 1. 



Blancheflur, Lumby's cd. occurs the rhyme : muchelhede maide 51, 
Avhich is similarly faulty. 1 See also p. 473 and notes there. We 
have likewise seen in some faulty west midland MSS. belonging to 
the latter part of the xvth century, (supra p. 450, n. 2), that ey 
was regarded as equivalent to c. In the Towneley Mysteries we 
also find ay, ey, tending to rhyme either with a or e. In fact we 
have a right to suppose that in the xv th century, at least, the pro- 
nunciation of ey, ay as (ce) was gaining ground, for we could not 
otherwise account for the MSS. mentioned, for the adoption of the 
spelling in Scotch in 1500, p. 410, n. 3, and for the fact that Hart, 
who from various other circumstances appears to have been a 
West Midland man seemed to know absolutely no other pronun- 
ciation of ay than (ee) in 155 1. 2 We have thus direct evidence 
of the coexistence of (ce, ai) in the xvi th century, each perhaps 
limited in area, just as we have direct evidence of the present co- 
existence of both sounds in high German (p. 238), and Dyak (p. 474, 
note, col. 2). Such changes do not generally affect a whole body 
of words suddenly. They begin with a few of them, concerning 
which a difference prevails for a very long while, then the area is 
extended, till perhaps the new sounds prevail. We have an in- 
stance of this in the present coexistence of the two sounds (a, ) 
for short u, p. 175 and notes. It is possible that although Gill in 
1621 was highly annoyed at maids being called (mecdz) in place of 
(maidz) by gentlewomen of his day (supra, p. 91, 1. 8), this very 
pronunciation might have been the remnant of an old tradition, 
preserved by the three rhymes just cited from the xiiith century 
to the present day, although this hypothesis is not so probable as 
that of scribal error. And if it were correct, it would by no means 

1 On consulting the Auchinleck MS. 
text of Floris et Blancheflur, the diffi- 
culty vanishes. Lumby's edition of 
the Cam. MS. reads, v. 49 : 
]>u art hire ilich of alle )>inge, 
Both of femblau;<t and of nuo-niwge, 
Of fairnefle and of muchelhede, 
Bute)>u ert a man and heo a maide ; 
where the both of the second line makes 
the third line altogether suspiciously 
like an insertion. The Auchinleck 
MS., according to the transcription 
kindly furnished me by Mr. Halkett, 
the librarian of the Advocates Library, 
Edinburgh, reads, v. 53 : 

pou art ilich here of alle )>inge 
Of semblant and of mourning 
But J?ou art a man and }hc is a maide 
pous ]>e wif to Florice faide. 
Another bad rhyme in the Cam. MS. 
is v. 533. 

Hele ihc wulle and noting wreic 
Ower beirc cumpaignie 
which in the Abbotslbrd Club edition 

of the text in the Auch. MS. runs thus, 
Y. 518: 

To the king that jhc hem nowt 

Where thourgh thai were fikcr to 


The editor suggests biwrefye, which 
would not be a rhyme. The real read- 
ing is manifestly to deye, arising, as 
Mr. Murray suggests, from the com- 
mon MS. confusion of y, ]>. Admiral is 
both in the Auch. and Cott. MSS. 
constantly spelled -at/I, and hence we 
must not be offended with the rhyme, 
Admiral confail 799, for there was 
evidently an uncertain pronunciation 
of this strange word. 

2 This day (9 July, 1869) a work- 
man, who spoke excellent English to 
me, called specially (spirsBlt). Had 
he any idea that others said (spes-tjlt) ? 
The facts in the text are perhaps partly 
accounted for by the influence of the 
Scotch orthography and pronunciation, 
referred to on p. 637, n, 1. 


prove that the general pronunciation of ay in all words from ags. 
was not distinctly (ai) and that the (ee) pronunciation was not 
extremely rare. 

In a former investigation it was attempted to shew that Norman 
French ei, ai t had at least frequently the same sonnd (ai), supra 
pp. 453-459. Mr. Payne on the contrary believes that the sound 
Avas always pure (ee), and that the Norman words were taken into 
English, spellings and all, retaining their old sounds. He then 
seems to conclude that all the English ay, ey, were also pronounced 
with pure (ee), and maintains that this view agrees with all the 
observed facts of the case (p. 582). Prof. Rapp also, as we shall see, 
lays down that Early English Orthography was Norman, and as he 
only recognizes (ce) or (EE) as the sound of Norman ai, of course 
he agrees practically with Mr. Payne. Modern habits have induced 
perhaps most readers to take the same view, which nothing but the 
positive evidence of the practice of the xvi th century could easily 
shake. 1 But it would seem strange if various scribes, writing by 
ear, and having the signs e, ee, ea, ie, at hand to express the sonnd 
(ee), should persist in a certain number of words, in always using 
ey, ay, but never one of the four former signs, although the soxinds 
were identical. This is quite opposed to all we know of cacogra- 
phists of all ages, and seems to be only explicable on the theory of 
a real difference of sound, more marked* than that of (EE, ee). Nay, 
more, some occasional blunders of e for ey, etc., would not render 
this less strange to any one who knows by painful experience (and 
what author does not know it ?) that he does not invariably write 
the letters he intends, and does not invariably see his error or his 
printer's or transcriber's errors when he revises the work. The 
mistake of e for ey we might expect to be more frequent than that 
of ay for e. When the writer is not a cacographist, or common 
scribe, but a careful theoretical orthographer as Orrmin or Dau 
Michel, the absolute separation of the spellings e, ey becomes 
evidence. We cannot suppose that Dutchmen when they adopted 
pais called it anything but (pais), why then should we suppose Dan 
Michel, who constantly employs the spelling pais, z pronounced 

1 I was glad to learn lately from so adraynk)>, agrayji, etc., anpayri, apar- 

distinguishcd an English scholar as ceyuej?, apayreb, asayd, asayled, atrayt, 

Prof. H. Morley that he was always of hargayn, batayle, baylif, baylyes, bay]?, 

opinion that ay, ey, were (ai) and not contrayc, cortays, cortaysie, couaitise, 

(ec). dayes, defayled, despayred, eyder cither, 

- Mr. Morris's index to Dan Michel's eyr=iV, eyren = r0ys, eyse =?, faili, 

Ayenbite refers to p. 261, as contain- fayntise, fornayce, germayn, graynes, 

ing pese for peace. I looked through greyner, longaynes, maimes, maine = 

that page without discovering any in- rttinite, maister, mayden, maystrie, 

stance of pese, hut I found in it 11 in- mesevse, meyster, nejebores, nejen, or- 

stances of pain, pays and 3 of paysi'ule. daynl ordenliche, oreysonne, paye = 

Thinking Dan Michel's usages impor- phaxe, payenes = pagans, pays, paysible, 

tant, I have extracted those words given plait, playneres, playni, playty, por- 

in the index, which of course does not uayeb, porueyonce praysy, quaynte, 

refer to the commonest ags. words of queayntese, queyntise, raymi, [ags. reo- 

constant occurrence. This is the list, mian hryman, to cry out,] strait, strayni, 

the completeness of which is not gua- tuay, uileynie, uorlay, wavn =fftrii>, 

ranlecd, th^ngh probable : adrevnt, wayt, weyuerindemcn. yfayled", zaynt. 

CHAP. VII. $ 1. AI AY, El EY, IX SliVEN MSS. 641 

otherwise? And when we see some French words in Chaucer 
always or generally spelled with e which had an ai in French, as : 
resoun 276, sesoun 348, pees 2929, plesant 138, ese 223, 2672, 
why should we not suppose that in these words the (ee) sound 
was general, but that in others, at least in England, the (ai) sound 
prevailed ? Nay more, when we find ese occasionally written eyse 
for the rhyme in Chaucer (supra p. 250 and note 1, and p. 265), 
as it is in Dan Michel's prose, why should we not suppose that two 
sounds were prevalent, just as our own (niidh'j, noidh-j) for neither, 
and that the poet took the sound which best suited him ? This 
appeal's to me to be the theory which best represents all the facts 
of the case. It is also the theory which best accords with the 
existing diversities of pronunciation within very narrow limits in the 
English provinces. It remains to be seen how it is borne out by the 
orthography of the Ha. Harleian 7334, and the six newly published 
MS. texts, E. Ellesmere, He. Hengwrt, Ca. Cambridge, Co. Corpus, 
P. Petworth, and L. Lansdowne of the Canterbury Tales. For this 
purpose I have looked over the prologue and Knightes Tale, and 
examined a large number, probably the great majority of the cases, 
with the following results. The initial italic words, by which the 
lists are arranged, are in modern spelling, and where they are 
absent the words are obsolete. Where no initials are put, all the 
MSS. unnamed agree in the preceding spelling so far as having one 
of the combinations ai, ay, ei, ey is concerned, small deviations in 
other respects are not noted, but if any other letter is used for one 
of the above four it is named. The numbers refer to the lines of 
the Six Text edition, and they have frequently to be increased 
by 2 for "Wright's edition of the Harleian MS. 


ANGLOSAXON AND SCANDINAVIAN maidens, maydens 2300 

WORDS. Mails, nayles 2141 

neighbour, nyjhebour Ca., ueighebore 
again, agayn 991 535 

against, ajens Ca., ageyns 1787 neither, neither 1135 

aikth, eyleth 1081 nigh, neigh H. He., ncyh Co., nyghe 
ashes, aisshes Co., asshen 2957 P., nyhe L., nyh Ca,, ny E., 732 

bewray, bewreye 2229 said, seydc 219, 1356, and frequently 

day, day, 19 and frequently say, seyn 1463 

die, deyen Ca., Co., dyen E. He. P. seen, seyn E. He. Ca. Co. L., seen Ha., 

dyjen L. 1109, deyde 2846 sene P. 2840 

dry, dreye Ca., drye 420, 1362, dreye slain, slayn 992, 2038, 2552, 2708 ; 

[rh. wove] 3024 slayn P. L., sleen 1556, sle sleen 

dyer, deyer Ha., dyere 362 1859 

eye, eye E. Ca., eyghe P., yhe Ha. L., sleight, sleight 604 

lye He. 10, eyen E. He., eyghen spreynd Ha. E. He. Co. P., sprend Ca., 

Ha. P., eyjyyn Ca., yghen Co., sprined L. 2169 

yhen L. 267 and frequently two, tweye 704 

fain, fayn 2437 waileth, wayleth 1221 

fair, faire 1685. 1941 way, way 34, 1264, and often. 

flesh, fleissh Ha. Co., flessh 147 weighed, wcighcden 454 

height, heght P., heighte 1890 whether, \vheither E. He., whethir Ha., 
laid, Icydc 1384 and frequently whef-cr Ca. Co. L., whedcre P., 

lay, lay 20 and frequently 1857 



CHAP. VII. $ 1. 

acquaintance, aquejTitaunce 245 
a'ieul, aicl E. He. Ca. ayel Ha., ayell 

Co. L. eile P. 2477 ' 
air, eir 1246 
apayd [rh. ysaid] 1868 
apparelling, apparaillynge 2913 
array, array 41 73, and often. 
attain, atteyne 1243 
availeth, au'ailleth 3040 
bargains, bargaynes 282 
barren, baraync'l244, baran L.. bareyn 


battle, bataillc 988, 2540 
braided, breided P., broyded E. He. 

Ca. Co., browded Ha". L, 1049 
caitiff, catiff P., caytyf 1552, 1717, 1946 
certain, certeyn 20 - 4 and often. 
chain, cheyne 2988 
chataigne, chasteyn 2922 
chieftain, cheveteu Ha., chieftayn 2555 
company, compaignye E. He. Co. P., 
cumpanye Ca., companye Ha. L. 
331, compaignye E. He. L., cum- 
panye Ca. Co. P., company Ha. 
2105, 2411 

complain, compleyn 908 
conveyed, coiraoye'd E., conveyed 2737 
counsel, conseil" Ha. E. He'. Co. P., 

counsel L., euntre Ca. 3096 
courtesy, curteisie E. He. Ca., curtesie 

Ha. Co. P. L. 46, 132 
dais, deys Ha. E. He. Ca. Co. P. dese 

[rh. burgeise] L. 370 
darreyne, 1609, 2097 
debonnair, debonnaire [rh. faire] 2282 
despair, dispeir 1245 
dice, deys Ca., dys 1238 
disdain, disdeyn'789 
displayeth, desplayetli 966 
distraineth, destreyneth 1455, 1816 
dozen, doseyne 578 
fail, faille 1854, 2798 
finest, feynest Ca., fynest 194 
Jlorin, floreyn Ca. Co. P., floren Ha. 

L., floryn E. He. 2088 
franklins, frankeleyns 216 
fresh, fresshe Ha. E. He. P. L., frosscbe 
Ca., freissche Co., 92, [freischHa.l 
2176, 2622 

furnace, forneys 202, 559 
gaineth, gayneth 1176, 2755 
ff<*y, gay 73 
golyardeys 560 
harnessed, harneysed 114, 1006, 1634, 


kerchiefs, keverchefs Ha., couercheis 
Ca. [the proper Norman plural, 
according to Mr. Payne], couer- 
chiets E. He. Co. L., coucrchefes 
P. 453 

hisure, leyser 1188 

Magdalen, Maudclayne 410 

maintain, mayntcyne H. E., mayntene 

He. Ca. Co. P., maiten L. 1778 
master, mystir Ca., maister 261 
mastery, maistrie 165 
nieyned 2170 
money, moneye 703 
ordained, ordeyned 2553 
paid, ypayed 1802 
pai,i-ed, p'eyned 139, peyne 1133 
painted, peyntid 1934, 1975 
palace, pale'ys 2513 
palfrey, palfrey 207, 2495 
plain, pleyn 790, 146i 
plein, pleyn 315 

portraiture, portreiture Ha. E. He. Ca. 
Co., pourtrature P. L. 1968, fpur- 
treture Ha.] 2036 
portra>j, portray 96 

portrayer, portreyor Fa., portreitonr 
E., purtreyour He., purtreiour 
Co., purtraiour P., portretour Ca., 
purtreoure L., 1899 
portraying, portraying Ha., portreying 
Ca. Co.. purtraiyngc P., por- 
treyynge E. He., purtrciage L. 

pray, preyen 1260 
prayer, prayer 2226 
pur-veyanee, purveiance E. He., pur- 
ueance Ha. Co. P. L. pnruyance 
Ca. 1665, purueiance E. H.'pur- 
ueance Ha. Co. P. L., puruyance 
Ca. 3011 

quaint 1531, 2321, 2333, 2334 
raineth, reynith 1535 
reiru, reynes 904 
sovereign, souereyn 1974 
straight, streite 457, stryt Ca., strevt 

suddenly, sodanly L., sodeynly 1530, 

sodeinliche 1575 

sustain, susteyne Ca. L., sustcne 1993 
trace, trays 2141 
turkish, turkeys 2895 
turneiynge'E. "He. Co. turneynge Ha., 
turnyinge Ca. tornynge L., tor- 
namente P. 2557 
vain, veyn 1091 
vasselage Ha. E. He. Co. L., vassalage 

P., wasseyllage Ca. 3054 
vein, veyne 3, 2747 
verily, verraily E. He. Ca. Co. verrely 

P. L., verrily Ha. 1174. 
very, verray 422 

villany, vileynye E. He., velany Ca., 
L., vilonve Ha. Co. P. 70, fvilanve 
Ha.] 740 
waiting, waytingc 929 

CHAP. VII. 1. 



The general unanimity of these seven MSS. is certainly remarkable. 
It seems almost enough to lead the reader to suppose that when 
he finds the usual ay, ey replaced by a, e, i in any other MSS., the 
scribe has accidentally omitted one of the letters of the diphthong, 
which being supplied converts a, e, i into ay, ey, ai or ei respectively. 
Thus when in v. 1530 all but L. use ey or ay, and in v. 1575 all, in- 
cluding L., use ey in sodeynly, sodeynliche, we cannot but conclude 
that sodanly in L. 1530, is a clerical error for sodaynly. "We have 
certainly no right to conclude that the a was designed to indicate 
a peculiar pronunciation of a as ay or conversely. But it will be 
best to consider the variants seriatim as they are not many in 




Against 1787 has still two sounds 
(vgeenst-, ngcnst-) which seem to cor- 
respond to two such original sounds as 
(again- agen-). 

Ashes, aisshes Co. 2957 represented 
really a duplicate form, as appears from 
its having been preserved into the 
xvi th century, p. 120, 1. 6. 

Die 1109, see variants on p. 284. 

Dry 420, see variants on p. 285. 

Dyer, the general orthography dyer 
362 is curious, for the ags. deagan 
would naturally give dcyer, which how- 
ever is only preserved in Ha., the rest 
giving dyere, and the Promptorium 
having dyyn; Ha. has deye in 11037. 
It would almost seem as if habit had 
confused the two words dye, die, and 
hence given the first the same double 
sound as the second. There is no 
room for supposing the sound (dee) in 
either case. 

Eye 10, see variants on p. 285. 

Flesh, 147 is one of the words men- 
tioned on p. 265, as having two spell- 
ings in Ha. see also p. 473 note 1, for 
a possible origin of the double pronun- 

Height, heght P. 1890 is of course 
a clerical error for heighte. 

Neighbour 535, follows nigh in its 

Nigh 732, 535. The variants here 
seem to shew that this word should be 
added to the list given on pp. 284-6, 
as having a double pronunciation, 
especially as we have seen that the (ii) 
sound is preserved in Devon, p. 291, 
as it is in Lonsdale. 

Seen. The orthography seyn 2840 
for seen is supported by too many 
MSS. to be an error, it must be a du- 

plicate form, retaining in the infinitive 
the expression of the lost guttural, 
which crops up so often in different 
parts of this verb, Gothic saihwan, 
compare the forms on p. 279. 

Slay 992, see p. 265; the double 
sound (ee, ai) may have arisen from the 
double ags. form, without and with the 
guttural, the latter being represented 
by (ai) and the former by (ee), which 
is more common. 

Spreind, isprend, isprind 2169 must 
be merely clerical errors for ispreincd, 
as in most MSS., because both words 
rhyme with ymeynd, which retains its 
orthography in each case. 

Whether, 1857, has certainly no 
more title to (ai) than beat or them, 
but nevertheless we have seen Orrmin 
introduce the (i) or (j) into these words, 
p. 489, hence it is not impossible that 
there may have been some provincials 
who said wheidtr, but still it is more 
probable that the ei of E. and He. in 
1857 are clerical errors. The word is 
not common and I have not noted 
another example of it in E. He. 


Barren, baran L. 1977, must be a 
clerical error for barayn. 

Braid 1019, seems to have had 
various sounds, corresponding to the 
ags. bregdan, icel. bregda, and to the 
French broder, which would give the 
forms breyde, browde. while broyde 
would seem to be an uncertain, or mis- 
taken mixture of the two (braid'e, 
bruud-e, bruid'e). We do not find 
brede (breed'e). but as the g was some- 
times omitted even in ags. it would 
have been less curious than brayde. 

Caitiff. The orthography catiffY. 
1552, 1717, 1946, being repeated in 



CHAP. VII. 1. 

three places, although opposed to the 
other six MSS. which determine caytif 
to be the usual form, may imply a dif- 
ferent pronunciation rather than be a 
clerical error. The French forms of 
this derivative of the Latin captivus, 
as given by Roquefort are very numer- 
ous, but all of them contain i, or an e 
derived from ai, thus: caitif, caiptif, 
caitieu, caitis, caitiu, caitivie, cetif, 
cetis, chaiticu, chaitif, chaitis, chaitiu, 
cheitif, chetif, chety, quaitif, quetif. 
Roquefort gives as Provencal and 
Languedoc forms : caitiou, caitious, 
caitius, caitivo. The Spanish eautivo 
has introduced the labial instead of the 
palatal modification, while the Italian 
only has preserved the a pure by as- 
similating p, thus, cattivo. If then 
the a in P. was intentional, it was very 

Chieftain, cheveten Ha. 2555, should 
according to the general analogy of 
such terminations be cheveteyn, and it 
will then agree with the other MSS. 

Company. In campaign ye 331, 2105, 
2411, the i is conceived by M. Fran- 
cisque Michel to have been merely 
orthographical in French, introduced 
to make gn mouille, just as t was intro- 
duced before II to make it mouille. 
Compare also p. 309, n. 1, at end. It 
is very possible that both pronuncia- 
tions prevailed (kumpaintre, kum- 
pam're) and that the first was con- 
sidered as French, the latter as Eng- 
lish. There is no room for supposing 
such a pronunciation as (kumpeenu'-e) 
with (ee). 

Conveyed. Conuoyed E. 2737 is not 
a variant of the usual conveyed, but 
another word altogether, a correction 
of the scribes. 

Counsel, counsel L. 3096, is probably 
a clerical error for counseil as in the 
other MSS. 

Courtesy. Curteisye 46, vileynye 70, 
may be considered together. They 
were common words, and the second 
syllable was usually unaccented, where- 
as in cu-rteis, vileyn, it was frequently 
accented. Hence we cannot be sur- 
prised at finding ey strictly preserved 
in the latter, but occasional deviations 
into non-diphthongal sounds occurring 
in the former. Careful scribes or 
speakers seem, however, to have pre- 
served the ey of the primitive in the 
derivative. The vilonyc of Ha. Co. P. 
70, which is replaced by vikuye in Ha. 

740, serves to corroborate this view, 
as evidently the scribe did not know 
how to write the indistinct sound he 
heard, a difficulty well known to all 
who have attempted to write down 
living sounds. See also Mr. Payne's 
remarks, supra p. 585. To the same 
category belong the variants of por- 
traiture, purveyance, verily. 

Dais, dese L. for deys=Anis 370, in 
opposition to the six other MS. is pro- 
bably a clerical error for deyse the final 
e being added also to the rhyming 
word burgeise in L. which retains the i. 

Dice. Deys Ca. 1238 for dys is 
clearly an error as shewn by the rhym- 
ing word paradys, but dys itself seems 
to have been accommodated to the 
rhyme for dees, which occurs in Ha. 
13882, and is the natural representa- 
tive of the French des. 

Finest. The orthography feynest 
Ca. 194, must be a clerical error. 

Florin. The floren, florin, floreyn 
2088 may be concurrent forms of a 
strange word, and the last seems more 
likely to have been erroneous. 

Fresh 92, had no doubt regularly 
(ee), but the older (ai) seems to have 
been usual to some, the frosshe of Ca. 
is a provincialism of the order noted 
on p. 476 

Kerchiefs. Couercheis Ca. 453, is 
probably a mere clerical error for 
couerchefs, i having been written for 
/, as we can hardly suppose the provin- 
cial scribe of Ca., to have selected a 
Norman form by design. 

Maintain. Maynteyne 1778, sus- 
teyne 1993, belong to the series of words 
derived from tenere. There is no dis- 
agreement respecting the ay in the 
first syllable of maynteyne ; sustene is 
fully supported by the rhyme, p. 265, 
1. 1, and hence mayntene, sustene are 
probably the proper forms. I have 
unfortunately no note of the Chau- 
cerian forms of obtain, detain, retain, 
contain, appertain, entertain, abstain, 
but probably -tene would be found the 
right form. The spelling ey and pro- 
nunciation (ai) may have crept in 
through a confusion with the form 
-teyne = 'La.t. -tingcre, of which I have 
also accidentally been guilty p. 265, 
1. 25, as : atteync, bareyne, must rhvme, 
1243, 8323, and as -stringere produces 
-streyne 1455, 1816 in all MSS. 

Master, my stir Ca. 261 for master is 
probably a clerical error. 

CHAP. VII. $ 1. 



Portraiture 1968, portray er 1899; 
the variants may be explained as in 
Courtesy, which see. 

Portraying. In portreyyng, por- 
treyny 1938 there is an omission of 
one y on account of the inconvenience 
of the yy in the first form, overcome 
by changing the first y into f in P. 

Purveyance 1165, the variants may 
be explained as in Courtesy, which see. 

Straight. Stryt Ca. 1984, must be 
a clerical error for streyt, as the ab- 
sence of e is quite unaccountable. 

Suddenly. Sodanly L. 1530 must, as 
we have seen p. 643, be an error for 

Sustain 1993 see Maintain. 

Tvrneynge Ha. 2557 ; the variants 
are to be explained as those of portray- 
ing, which see. 

Verily 1174, the variants may be 
explained as in Courtesy, which see. 

Villany 70, see Courtesy. 

"Wasseyllage Ca. 3054, certainly 
arose from a confusion in the scribe's 
mind, vasselage valour being unusual, 
he reverted to the usual wasseyl for an 
explanation, and in wasseyl we have an 
ey for an ags. <e, which may be com- 
pared with ey for ea in Orrmin, supra 
p. 489. 

The natural effect of this examination has been to place the 
variants rather than the constants strongly before the reader's mind. 
He must therefore recollect that out of the total of 1 1 1 words the 
following 73, many of which occur very frequently, are invariably 
spelt with one of the phonetically identical forms ai, ay, ei, ey, 
in each of the seven MSS. every time they occur : 

again, aileth, bewray, day, fain, fair, dozen, fail, franklins frankeleyns, fur- 
laid, lay, maidens, nails, neither, said, 
say, sleight, two ticeye, waileth, 

way, weighed. acquaintance, a'ieitl, 

air, apayd, apparelling apparaillynge, 
array, attain, availeth, bargains, battle 

bataille, certain, chain, chataigne, com- 
plain, darreyne, debonnair, despair, 
dice, disdain, displayeth, distraineth, 

nace forneys, gaineih, gay, golyardeys, 
harnessed harneysed, leisure, Magdalen 
Maudelayne, mastery, meyned, money, 
ordained, paid, pained, painted, palace 
paleys, palfrey, plain, plein, portray, 
pray, prayer, quaint, raineth, reins, 
sovereign, trace trays, turkish turkey*, 
vain, vein, very, wailing. 

On the other hand, the variants only affect 38 words, of which 
few, except those already recognized to have two forms in 
use, occur more than once, while the variants confined to one or 
two MSS. display no manner of rule or order, and are far from 
shewing a decided e form as the substitute for ay, ey. They may 
be classified as follows : 

15 CLERICAL ERRORS : height 
heght, sprtyned sprend sprined, whether 

wheither, barren baran, chieftain, 

chevetan, counsel counsel, dice deys, 
finest feynest, kerchiefs couercheis, 
maintain maynteyne mayntene, master 
mystir, straight stryt, suddenly sodanly, 
sustain susteyne, turneiynge turnyinge 

i2 DOUBLE FORMS : ashes aisshes 
asshen, die deyen dyen, dry dreye drye, 
dyer dyere deyer, eye eighe yhe, Jlesh 
fleissh fiessh, neighbour neighebore 
nyjhebour, nigh neigh nyghe, seen seyn 

seen, slain slayn sleen, braided 

breided browdid, fresh fresshe freisshe. 


BLES : courtesy courteisie curtesie, por- 
traiture portreiture pourtrature, por- 
trayer portreyor purtreoure, purvey- 
ance purveiance purueance puruyance, 
verily verraily verrely vernly, villany 
vileynye velany vilonye. 

5 MISCELLANEOUS : caitiff may have 
been occasionally catiffzs, well as caytif 

conuoyed was a different reading, 

not an error for conveyed Jlorin 

being a foreign coin may have been 
occasionally mispronounced Jloreyn, 

portreing was an orthographical 

abbreviation of portreiynge was- 

styllage was a manifest error for the 
unusual vasselage, the usual wasseyl oc- 
curring to the scribe. 

The variants, therefore, furnish almost as convincing a proof as 
the constants, that ay, ey represented some sound distinct from e 


(ec). But if there was a distinct sound attachable to these com- 
binations ay, cy, in Chaucer's time, what could it have possibly been 
but that (ai) sound, which as we know by direct evidence, subsisted 
in the pronunciation of learned men and courtiers (Sir T. Smith was 
secretary of state) during the xvi th century, and which the spelling 
used, and no other, was calculated to express, and was apparently 
gradually introduced to express. The inference is therefore, that 
Chaucer's scribes pronounced ay, ey as (ai) and not as (ee), and 
where they wished to signify the sound of (ee), in certain well- 
known and common Norman words, they rejected the Norman or- 
thography and introduced the truly English spelling e. The in- 
ference again from this result is that there was a traditional English 
pronunciation of Norman ai, ei, as (ai), which may have lasted long 
after the custom had died out in Normandy, on the principle already 
adduced (p. 20), that emigrants preserve an older pronunciation. 


As the following text of the Prologue is intended solely for the 
use of students, it has been accommodated to their wants in various 
ways. First the question of final e demanded strict investigation. 
The helplessness of scribes during the period that it was dying out 
of use in the South, and had already died out in the North, makes 
the new MSS. of little value for its determination, the Cambridge 
and Lansdowne being evidently written by Northern scribes to 
whom a final e had become little more than a picturesque addition. 
It was necessary therefore to examine every word in connection 
with its etymology, constructional use, and metrical value. In 
every case where theory would require the use of a final e t or other 
elided letter, but the metre requires its elision, it has been replaced 
by an apostrophe. The results on p. 341 were deduced from the 
text adopted before it had heen revised by help of the Six-Text 
Edition, and therefore the numbers there given will be slightly 
erroneous *, but the reader will by this means understand at a glance 
the bearing of the rules on p. 342. 

The treatment of the verbal termination -ede, required particular 
attention. There are many cases in which, coming before a con- 
sonant, it might be -eff or -'de, and it was natural to think that the 
latter should be chosen, because in the contracted forms of two 
syllables, we practically find this form ; thus : fedde 146, bledde 
145, wente 255, wiste 280, spente 300, coude 326, 346, 383, kepte 
442, didc 451, couthe 467, tawghte 497, cawghte 498, kepte 512, 
wolde 536, mighte 585, scholde 648, seyde 695, moste 712 and 

1 The number of elisions of essential lowing are examples: palmer's 13, 

e, stated at 13 on p. 341, has heen re- servawnt's 101, fether's 107, finger's 

duced. The only important one left is 129, hunter's 178, grayhound's 190, 

mcer' 541, and that is doubtful on ac- sleev's 193, tavern's 240, haven's 407, 

count of the double form of the rhym- housbond's 460, aventur's 795. Of 

ing word milker, see p. 389. The course (') is not used as the mark of 

number of plural -es treated as -* has the genitive cases, but only to shew a 

been somewhat, increased. The fol- real elision. 


many others. But even here it is occasionally elided. Mr. Morris 
observes that in the Cambridge MS. of Bocthius, and in the elder 
Wycliffite Version (see below 3), the -ede is very regularly -written. 
This however does not prove that the final e was pronounced, be- 
cause the orthography hire, here, oure, youre, is uniform, and the 
elision of the final -e almost as uniform. The final e in -ede might 
therefore have been written, and never or rarely pronounced. It is 
certain that the first e is sometimes elided, when the second also 
vanishes, as before a vowel or A in: lov'd' 206, 533, gam'd' 534, etc. 
But it is also certain that -ed' was pronounced in many cases with- 
out the e, supra p. 355, art. 53, Ex. Throughout the prologue I 
have not found one instance in which -ede, or -de, was necessary to 
the metre, 1 but there are several in which -ed', before a vowel, is 
necessary. Jf we add to this, that in point of fact -ed' remained in 
the xvi th centuiy, and has scarcely yet died out of our biblical 
pronunciation, the presumption in favour of -ed' is very strong. 2 On 
adopting this orthography, I have not found a single case in the 
prologue where it failed, but possibly such cases occur elsewhere, 
and if so, they must be compared to the rare use of hadde, and 
still rarer use of were, here for the ordinary hadd', tver', her*. 

The infinitive -e is perhaps occasionally lost. It is only saved 
by a trisyllabic measure in: yeve penawnce 223. If it is not 
elided in help' 259, then we must read whelpe 258, with most MSS. 
but unhistorically. On the other hand the subjunctive -e remains 
as : ruste 500, take 503, were 582, spede 769, quyte 770. 

Medial elisions must have been common, and are fully borne out 
by the Cuckoo Song, p. 423. Such elisions are: ev'ry 15, 327, 
ev'ne 83, ov'ral 249, ov'rest 290, rem'nawnt 724, and : mon'th 92, 
tak'th 789, com'th 839. The terminations -er, -el, -en, when run 
on to the following vowel, should also probably be treated as 
elisions. As respects -er, -re, I have sometimes hesitated whether to 
consider the termination as French -re, or as assimilated into English, 
under the form -er, but I believe the last is the right view, and in 
that case such elisions as: ord'r he 214, are precisely similar to : 
cv'ry 15, and occasion no difficulty. Similarly, -el, -le, are both 
found in MSS., but I have adopted -el, as more consonant with the 
treatment of strictly English words, and regarded the cases in which 
the I is run on to the following word, as elisions, thus : simp'l and 
119. Such elisions are common in modem English, and in the case 
of -le, they form the rule when syllables are added, supra p. 52. 
In : to fest'n' his hood 195, we have an elision of e in en, and a final 
e elided, the full gerundial form being to festene, as it would be 
written in prose. 

1 The plural weyyheden 454, is not tablys, sndiys, fadrys, modrys, but its 
in point. subsequent restoration, accompanied 

2 Mr. Murray observes that lorde by a suppression of the y before the , 
would be an older form than loved for in the more recent forms tabylls 
lovede, and grounds his observation on sadt/lls, fadyrs, modyrs. These analo- 
the fact of the similar suppression gies are valuable. All that is implied 
of the y before I in tabyll, sadyll, in the text is that the form -ed seems 
'fadyr. modyr, in the old Scotch plurals to have prevailed in Chaucer. 


As the text now stands there is no instance of an open e, that is, 
of final e preserved before a vowel (supra p. 341, 1. 2. p. 363, art. 
82, and infra note on v. 429), but there is one instance of final e 
preserved before he, (infra note on v. 386). 


The second point to which particular attention is paid in this 
text is the metre. Pains have been taken to choose such a text as 
would preserve the rhythm without violating the laws of final e, and 
without having recourse to modern conjecture. For this purpose 
a considerable number of trisyllabic measures (supra p. 334) have 
been admitted, and their occurrence is pointed out by the sign iii 
in the margin. The 69 examples noted may be classified thus : 

i- , arising from the running on of f to a following vowel, either in two 
words as : many a 60, 212, 229, etc., bisy a 321, cari* a 130, studi' 
and 184, or in the same word, as : luvieer 80, curious 196, bisier 321, 
which may be considered the rule in modern poetry, see 60, 80, 130, 
184, 196, 212, 229, 303, 321, 322, 349, 350, 396, 438, 464, 530, 

560, 764, 782, 840, instances 20 

-tr, arising from running this unaccented syllable on to a following 

Towel, in cases where the assumption and pronunciation of -r would 

be harsh, as : deliver, and 84, sommer hadd' 394, water he 400 ; and 

in the middle of a word, as : colerik 587, leccherous 626 ; instances 5 

-el, not before a preceding vowel, as : mesurabel was 435, mawncipel 

was 567, mawncipel sett' 586, instances 3 

-en, not before a preceding vowel, as : yeomen from 77 ; or before a pre- 
ceding vowel or h, where the elision ' would be harsh, as : writen 

a 161, geten him 291, instances 3 

-e, arising from the pronunciation of final e, where it seems unnecessary, or 
harsh, to assume its suppression, as 88, 123, 132, 136, 197, 208, 223, 
224, 276, 320, 341, 343, 451, 454, 475, 507, 510, 524, 537, 550, 630, 

648, 650, 706, 777, 792, 806, 834, 853, instances 29 

Miscellaneous, in the following lines, where the trisyllabic measures are 
italicised for convenience. 

Of Engelond', to Cawnterbery they wen&e. 16" 

To Cawnterbery withful devout corage. 22 

His heed was ballerf, and schoon as any glas. 198 

And thryes hadd' she been at Jerusalem. 463 

Wyd was his pameA and houses fer asonder. 491 ^ instances 9 

He was a schepperd, and not a mercenarie. 514 ' 

He waited after no ponp' and reverence. 525 

Ther coude no man bring' him in anrerage. 602 

And also war' him of a significavit. 662 

Total 69 

It would have been easy in many cases by elisions or slight 
changes to have avoided these trisyllabic measures, but after con- 
sidering each case carefully, and comparing the different manu- 
scripts, there did not appear to be any sufficient ground for so doing. 

Allied to trisyllabic measures are the lines containing a super- 
fluous unaccented syllable at the end, but to this point, which was 
a matter of importance in old Italian and Spanish versification, and 
has become a matter of stringent rule in classical French poetry, no 
attention seems to have been paid by older writers, whether French 
or English, and Chaucer is in this respect as free as Shakspere. 


There are a few cases of two superfluous unaccented syllables, com- 
parable to the Italian versi sdruccioli, and these have been indicated 
by (+) in the margin. There are only 6 instances : bcrye merye 
207, 208, apotecaryes letuaryes 425, 426, miscarye mercenaiye 513, 
514, all of which belong to the class *-, so that the two syllables 
practically strike the ear as one. 

But there arc afeo real Alexandrines, or lines of six measures, 
which do not appear to have been previously noticed, and which I 
have been very loth to admit. These are marked vi in the margin. 
There are four instances. In : 

But sore wepte sche if oon of hem \ver' deed. 148 

the perfect unanimity of the MSS., and the harsh and unusual 
elision of the adverbial -e in sore, and the not common elision of the 
imperfect e in wepte, which would be necessary to reduce the line to 
one of five measures, render the acceptance of an Alexandrine im- 
perative, and certainly it is effective in expressing the feeling of 
the Prioresse. In : 

Men mote yeve silver to the pore freres. 232 

the Alexandrine is not pure because the cocsura does not fall after 
the third measure. But the MSS. are unanimous, the elisions mot'' 
yev* undesirable, and the lengthening out of the line with the tag 
of "the pore freres," seems to indicate the very whine of the 
begging friar. In 

"With a thredbare cop', as a pore scoleer. 260 

the pore which lengthens the line out in all MSS., seems introduced 
for a similar purpose. The last instance 

I ne sawgh not this yeer so mery a companye. 764 

is conjectural, since no MS. gives the reading complete, but : I ne 
sawgh, or : 1 sawgh not, are both unmetrical, and by using both 
we obtain a passable Alexandrine, which may be taken for what it 
is worth, because no MS. reading can be accepted. 

The defective first measures to which attention was directed by 
Mr. Skeat, supra p. 333, have been noted by ( ), and a careful 
consideration of the MSS. induces me to accept 13 instances, 1, 76, 
131, 170, 247, 271, 294, 371, 391, 417, 429, 733, 778, though 
they are not all satisfactory, as several of them (131, 247, 271, 
391, 778) offend against the principle of having a strong accent on 
the first syllable, and two (417, 429) throw the emphasis in rather 
an unusual manner, as : weel coud' he, tveel knew Jie, where : weel 
coud' he, well knew he, would have rather been expected, but there 
is no MS. authority for improving them. 

Threj instances have been noted of saj/nt forming a dissyllable, 
as already suggested, (supra pp. 264, 476), one of which (697), 
might be escaped by assuming a bad instance of a defective first 
measure, but the other two (120, 509,) seem clearly indicated 
by MS. authority. See the notes on these passages. They are 
indicated by a'i in the margin. 1 

1 Mr. Murray has observed cases in then it had its Scotch value (an), suprA. 
Scotch in which ai was dissyllabic, but p. 637, n. 1. He cites from Wyn- 




The third point to which attention is directed in printing the 
text of the prologue, is linguistic rather than phonetic, but seemed 
of sufficient interest to introduce in a work intended for the use of 
the Chaucer Society, namely, the amount of French which Chaucer 
admitted into his English. "Thank God! I may now, if I like, 
turn Protestant !" exclaims Moore's Irish Gentleman on the evening 
of 16th April, 1829, when the news of the royal assent to the 
Catholic Relief Bill reached Dublin. 1 And in the same way it 
would appear that the removal of the blockade on the English 
language, when after "J?e furste moreyn," 1348, "John Comwal, 
a maystere of grammere, chaungede }>e lore in gramere scole," 2 and 
Edward III. enacted in the 36th year of his reign, 1362-3, that all 
pleas should be pleaded and judged in the English tongue, the 
jealous exclusion of French terms from English works, which marks 
the former period, seemed to cease, and English having become the 
victor did not disdain to make free use of the more "gentle" 
tongue, in which so many treasures of literature were locked up. 
Even our older poems are more or less translations from the French, 
though couched in unmistakable English. But in the xrvth 
century we have Gower writing long poems in both languages, 
and Chaucer familiar with both, and often seeking his originals in 
French. The people for whom he principally wrote must have 
been also more or less familiar with the tongue of the nobles, and 
large numbers of French words must have passed into common use 
among Englishmen, before they could have assumed English in- 
flectional terminations. We have numerous instances of this in 
Chaucer. Whenever a French verb was employed, the French 
termination was rejected, and an English inflectional system sub- 
stituted. Thus using italics for the French part, we have in the 
prologue: perced. 2, engendered. 4, 421, inspired. 6, esed. 29, honour 'd. 
5Q,embrouded. 89, Jtarneyscd. 114, entuned. 123, peyned 139, ro*ed 147, 
ypinched. 151, gawded. 159, crouned. 161, purfyled. 193, farscd 233, 
accorded 244, entyned. 342, chatcnged. 348, passed. 464, encombred. 
508, spyced. 526, ypunish'd. 657, trussed, 681, feyned. 705, assembled. 
717, served. 749, graicnted. 810, pray'den 811, reuled. 816, studieih 

841. /opting 5 ' 91, harping 266, o/ring' 450, 489, assoylmg 661, 

cry' 636, rost', Iroyll', frye 383, niters' 732, feyne 736. Again 

we have an English adjective or adverbial termination affixed to 
French words, as: specially 15, fetisly 124, 273, certainly 235, 
soletnnely 274, staatly 281, estaatlich 140, verrayly 338, really 

town's Orygynal Cronykil of Scotland, search of a religion, by Thomas Moore, 

circA 1419-30, in reference to Malcolm chap. i. 


Malcolm kyng, be luwchful get, 2 See the whole noteworthy passage 

Had on his wyf Saynt Margret. from Trcnisa's translation of Higden, 

Where, however, Margret might rather printed from the Cott. MS. Tiberius 

have been trissyllabic. D. VII., by Mr. E. Morris, in his 

Specimens of Early English, 1867, 

1 Travels of an Irish gentleman in p. 339. 


=royally 378, devoutly 482, scanly 583, prively 609, sultilly 610, 

prively 652, playnly 727, properly 729, rudely 734. cfe^'lees 

582. In esy 441, pomely 616, we have rather the change of tho 

French -e into -y, which subsequently hecame general, but the ese 
remains in : esely 469. In : daggeer 113, 392, we have a substan- 
tive with an English termination to a French root. "Foot-mantel 
472, is compounded of an English and French word. In : dulimcnce 
211, loodmannojj^ 403, deyerye 577, French terminations only are 
assumed. A language must have long been in familiar use to 
admit of such treatment as this. What then more likely than tho 
introduction of complete words, which did not require to have their 
terminations changed? The modern cookery book and fashion 
magazines are full of French words introduced bodily for a similar 
reason. Of course the subject matter and the audience greatly 
influence the choice of words, and we find Chaucer sensibly changing 
his manner with his matter see the quantity of unmixed English 
in the characters of the Yeman, the Ploughman, and the Miller. 
To make this admixture of French and English evident to the eye, 
all words or parts of words which may be fairly attributed to French 
influence, including proper names, have been italicised, but some 
older Latin words of ecclesiastical origin and older Norman words 
have not been marked and purely Latin words have been put in 
small capitals. 1 The result could then be subjected to a numerical 
test, and comes out as follows : 

Lines containing no French word . 
only one 
two French words 
five 2 

325, per cent. 37'9 






Lines in the Prologue . 858 100-0 

If the total number of French words in the prologue be reckoned 
from the above data, they will be found to be 761, or not quite one 
word in a line on an average. The overpoweringly English character 
of the work could not be more clearly demonstrated. 

Chaucer's language may then be described as a degraded Anglo- 
Saxon, into which French words had been interwoven, without 
interfering with such grammatical forms as had been left, to the 
extent of about 20 per cent., and containing occasionally complete 
French phrases, of which, however, none occur in the prologue. 
To understand the formation of such a dead dialect, we have only 
to watch the formation of a similarly-constructed living dialect. 
Such a one really exists, although it must rapidly die out, as there 
are not only not the same causes at work which made the language 
of Chaucer develop into the language of England, but there are 
other and directly contrary influences which must rapidly lead to 
the extinction of its modem analogue. 

1 These are very few in number, see Mawr* or of Saynt Bcneyt. 173, in 
5, 162, 254, 336, 429, 430, 646, 662. which the French words were in- 

2 The line is : The reul' of Saynt dispensable. 



CHAP. VII. $ 1. 


Fully one half of the people of Pennsylvania and Ohio in the 
United States of America understand the dialect known as Penn- 
sylvania German. This neighbourhood was the seat of a great Ger- 
man immigration from the Palatinate of the Khine 1 and Switzer- 
land. Here they kept up their language, and established schools, 
which are now almost entirely extinct. Surrounded by English of 
the xvnth century they naturally grafted some of its words on 
their own, either as distinct phrases, or as the roots of inflections ; 
and, perhaps, in more recent times, when fully nine-tenths of the 
present generation are educated in English, the amount of intro- 
duced English has increased. 2 The result is a living dialect which 
may be described as a degraded 3 High German, into which English 

ing, eating, and drinking, and the 
original language of a people was dia- 
lectic, not literary, which last only 
finally prevailed, to use Max Mtiller's 
expression as the high language, (Jloeh- 
sprache}. The roots of a literary 
language were planted in its dialects, 
whence it drew its strength and wealth, 
and which it in turn modified, polished 
and ennobled. "Was Penn. Germ, such a 
dialect ? Many English speakers, who 
knew nothing of .German dialects, 
might deny it, and so might even many 
educated north Germans, who were un- 
acquainted with the south German 
dialects, and regarded all the genuine 
southern forms of Penn. Germ, as a 
corrupted high German, or as idioms 
borrowed from the English. They 
would therefore style it a jargon, not a 
dialect. Certainly, the incorporation 
of English words and phrases had given 
it some such appearance, but on re- 
moving these foreign elements it re- 
mained as good a dialect as the Alsa- 
tian after being stripped of its Gal- 
licisms, in which dialect beautiful 
poems and tales had been written, 
taking an honourable position in Ger- 
man literature. Penn. Germ., apart 
from its English additions, AVOS a south 
German dialect, composed of Prankish, 
Swabian. Palatine, and Allemanic, 
which was interlarded with more or 
less English, according to the counties 
in which the settlements had occurred ; 
in some places English was entirely 
absent. All that marked a dialect in 
Germany was present in Penn. Germ., 
and since new immigration was per- 
petually introducing fresh high Ger- 
man, the task would be to purify the 
old dialect of its English jargon, and use 
the result for the benefit of the people 

1 See supra, p. 47, lines 5 to 16. 

8 Some of these particulars have 
been taken from the preface to Mr. E. 
II. Ranch's Pennsylvanish Deitsch ! 
De Breefa fum Pit Schwefflebrenncr un 
de Bevvy, si Fraw, fun Schliffletown 
on der Drucker fum " Father Abra- 
ham," Lancaster, Pa., 1868, and others 
from information kindly furnished me 
by Eev. Dr. Mombert, Lancaster, Penn- 
sylvania, U.S., in April, 1869. 

3 This does not mean that it is a 
degraded form of the present literary 
high German, but merely of the high 
German group of Germanic dialects. 
On 19 Aug. 1869, the 14th meeting of 
the German Press Union, of Pennsyl- 
vania, U.S., was held at Bethlehem, 
when an interesting discussion took 
place on Pennsylvania German, or das 
Deutsch-Penmylvanische, as it is termed 
in the Reading Adler of 31 Aug. 1869, 
a German newspaper published at 
Reading, Berks County, Pa., U.S., from 
which the following account is trans- 
lated and condensed. Prof. Notz, of 
AUentown, who is preparing a Penn- 
sylvania German grammar, drew at- 
tention to the recent German publi- 
cations on Frankish, Upper-Bavarian, 
Palatine, Swabian. and Swiss dialects, 
and asserted that the Penn. Germ, had 
an equally tough (zdftes Lebeii) 
and deserved as much study. Mr. Dan 
E. Schodler declared that the Germans 
of Pennsylvania conld only be taught 
literary high German, in which their 
divine service had always been con- 
ducted, by means of their own dialect. 
Dr. G. Kellner justified dialects. He 
considered that linguists, including J. 
Grimm, had not sufficiently compre- 
hended the importance of dialects. 
Speech was a? natural to man as walk- 

CHAP. VII. $ 1. 



words have been interwoven, -without interfering with such gram- 
matical forms as had been left, and containing occasionally complete 
English phrases. On referring to the first sentence of the last 
paragraph, the exact analogy of Pennsylvania Dutch to Chaucer's 
English will be at once apprehended. The dialect is said to possess 
a somewhat copious literature, and it is certainly an interesting 
study, which well deserves to be philologically conducted. 1 For 
the present work it has an additional special value, as it continually 
exhibits varieties of sound as compared with the received high 
German, which are identical with those which we have been led to 
suppose actually took place in the development of received English, 
as (00, ee, AA) for (aa, ai, au). 

The orthographical systems pursued in writing it have been two, 
and might obviously have been three or more. The first and most 
natural was to adopt such a German orthography as is usually 
employed for the representation of German dialects, and to spell 
the introduced English words chiefly after a German fashion. This 
is the plan pursued, but not quite consistently, 2 in the following 
extract, for which I am indebted to Dr. Mombert. The English 
constituents are italicised as the French are in the following edition of 
the prologue. A few words are explained in brackets [ ], but any one 
familiar with German will understand the original, which seems to 
have been written by an educated German familiar with good English. 

of Pennsylvania. The Pcnn. Germ, 
press was the champion of this move- 
ment, hy which an entire German 
family would be more and more im- 
bued with modern German culture. 
As a striking proof of the identity of 
Palatine with Pennsylvania!! German, 
he referred to Nadler's poems called 
Frohllch Pfalz, Gott erhalt's, which, 
written in the Palatine dialect, were, 
when read out to the meeting by Dr. 
Leisenring, a born Penn. German, as 
readily intelligible to the audience as if 
they had been written in Penn. German. 
Prof. Notz also observed that in Ger- 
many the people still spoke among one 
another in dialects, and only excep- 
tionally in high German when they 
spoke with those who had received a 
superior education and that even the 
latter were wont to speak with the 
people in their own dialect. This was 
corroborated by Messrs. Eoseuthal. 
Hesse, and others. On the motion of 
Prof. Notz, it was resolved to prosecute 
an inquiry into the Germanic forms of 
expression in use in Pennsylvania, and 
to report thereon, in order to obtain 
materials for a complete characterisa- 
tion of the dialect. 

1 Prof. S. S. Haldeman, of Columbia, 
Pennsylvania, to whom I have been 

under great phonetic obligations, and 
who has been familiar with the dialect 
from childhood, has promised to fur- 
nish the Philological Society with 
some systematic account of this pecu- 
liar hybrid language, the living repre- 
sentation not only of the marriage of 
English with Norman, but of the 
breaking up of Latin into the Romance 
dialects. The llev. Dr. Mombert, for- 
merly of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but 
now of Dresden, Saxony, who has long 
been engaged in collecting specimens, 
has also promised to furnish some ad- 
ditions. The preceding note shews the 
interest which it is now exciting in 
its native country. In this place it is 
only used as a passing illustration, but 
through the kindness of these com- 
petent guides, I am enabled to give 
the reader a trustworthy account so 
far as it goes. 

2 Thus ey is used for ee in Keyn = 
(keen), or rather (kmn) according to Dr.. 
Mombert, and ee for ih (ii) in Tecr, which 
are accommodations to English habits. 
Cotcskin retains its English form. A 
more strictly German orthography is 
followed in Z. A. Wollenweber' s Ge- 
malde aus dem Pennsylvanischen Volks- 
leben, Philadelphia und Leipzig, 1869, 
p. 76. 



CIIAP. VII. } 1. 

Ein Gespriich. 

1. Ah, Dtivee, was hot Dich 
gestern Owent [Abend] so ver- 
tollt schmart aus Squeier Esse- 
bcises kumme mache? War 
cbbes [etwas] letz 1 ? 

2. Nix apartiges! ich hab 
jusht a bissel mit der Pally 
gesp'drkt [played the spark], als 
Dir ganz unvermuth der olto 
Mann derzu kummt, umraer 
fund mir] zu vershte' gibt, er 
dat des net gleiche* 

1. Awer [aber] wie hot er's 
dir zu vershteh' gegewe' (gege- 
ben] ? Grob oder hoflich ? 

2. Ach net [nicht], er hat 
keyn [kein] -wort geschwatzt. 

1. Well, wie hot er's dann 
g'mocht ? 

2. Er hat jnsht de Teer 

[Thure] ufg'mocht, mir mei' 
Huth in de Hand 'gewc' un' de 
Coicskin von der Wand g'kricht 
[gekriegt]. Do hob' ich g'denkt, 
er that's net gleiche, dass ich die 
Pally shparke thiit un bin grod 
fortgange ; des wer allcs, Sam. 

1. Ja, geleddert hot cr Dich, 
Duvee, dann du bist net gange, 
g'shprunge bischt Du als wenn 
a dutzend Hund hinnig [hinter] 
Dich her waren. Ich hab dich. 
wohl geseyhne [gesehen]. 

2. Well, sei nur shtill drfon 
[davon], und sags Niemand, 
sonst word' ich ausgclacht. 

Sam versprach's ; awcr som- 
how muss er sich doch ver- 
schnappt ha we [haben], sonst 
hatt's net e'druckt werde konne. 

The second style of orthography is to treat the whole as English 
and spell the German as well as the English words, after English 
analogies. This apparently hopeless task, 3 was undertaken by Mr. 
Eauch, who in his weekly newspaper, Father Abraham, has weekly 
furnished a letter from an imaginary Pit i.e. Peter Schwefflebrenner, 
without any interpretation, and in a spelling " peculiarly his own."* 
Perhaps some of the popularity of these satirical letters is due, as 

1 South German Ms, letsch, latsch, 
wrong, left-handed, as in high German 
links, for which Prof. Ilaldcman refers 
to Staldcr, and to Zieniann, Mittel- 
hochdeutsches "Wcrterb. 217. See also 
Schmcller, Bayerisches Wb'rterb. 2, 
630, " (Mior is fetz) mir ist nicht recht, 
d. h. iibel." Compare high German 
verletzen, to injure. 

* Dr. Mombert considers gkiehen in 
this sense of "like, approve of," to be 
the English word like Germanized. 
But Dr. Stratmann, on seeing the 
passage, considered the word might be 
from the old high German lie/tin, to 
please. This verb, however, was in- 
transitive in all the Germanic dialects, 
and in old English (sec Prol. 777 
below : if you liketh, whore you is of 
course dative). The present active use 
seems to be modern English, and I 
have therefore marked it accordingly. 

3 An attempt of Chaucer's scribes to 
write his Innguage after Xormau ana- 
logies, as Rapp supposes to have been 
the case, would have been precisely 
analogous. Fortunately this was not 
possible, supra p. 588, n. 4, or we 
might have never been able to recover 
his pronunciation. 

* In the prospectus of his newspaper, 
Mr. Hauch savs : ' So weit das mer 
wissa, is der lit Schwefflebrenner der 
eantsich ruonn in der United States 
da?rs Pennsylvanish Deitsh recht shreibt 
un bushtaweert exactly we's g'shwctzt 
un oas g'shprocha wojrd," i.e., as far 
as we know, Pit Schwefflebrenner is 
the only man in the United States 
who writes and spells Pennsylvania 
German correctly, exactly as it is gos- 
sipped and pronounced. 

CHAP. VII. 1. 



some of the fun of Hans Breitmann's Ballads 1 certainly is, to the 
drollness of the orthography, which however famishes endless diffi- 
culties to one who has not a previous knowledge of the dialect. 2 
The third orthography would be the usual high German and 

1 Hans Brcitmann's "poems are writ- 
ten in the droll broken English (not to 
be confounded with the Pennsylvania!! 
German) spoken by millions mostly 
uneducated Germans in America, im- 
migrants to a great extent from south- 
ern Germany. Their English has not 
yet become a district dialect ; and it 
would even be difficult to fix at present 
the varieties in which it occurs." 
Preface to the 8th edition of Hans 
Breitmann's Party, with other Ballads, 
by Charles G. Leland, London, 1869, 
p. xiii. In fact Mr. Leland has played 
with his dialect, and in its unfixed con- 
dition has made the greatest possible 
fun out of the confusion of p with b, t 
with d, and g with k, without stopping 
to consider whether he was giving an 
organically correct representation of 
any one German's pronunciation. He 
has consequently often written combi- 
nations which no German would na- 
turally say, and which few could, even 
after many trials, succeed in pronoun- 
cing, and some which are scarcely 
attackable by any organs of speech. 
The book has, therefore, plenty of vis 
eomica, but no linguistic value. 

2 The following inconsistencies 
pointed out by Prof. S. S. Haldeman, 
are worth notice, because similar ab- 
surdities constantly occur in attempts 
to reduce our English dialects, or 
barbaric utterances, to English analo- 
gies, by persons who have not fixed 
upon any phonetic orthography, such 
as the Glossotype of Chap. TL, 3, 
and imagine that the kaleidoscopic 
character of our own orthography is 
not a mere "shewing the eyes and. 
grieving the heart." Prof. H. says : 
"The orthography is bad and incon- 
sistent, sometimes English and some- 
times German, so that it requires some 
knowledge of the dialect, and of English 
spelling to be able to read it, 

" The vowel of th-ey occurs in ferstay, 
rack, nay, ehns, b#s and \)ase (=b<ise, 
angry), hst (=heisst, called) eawich, 
dat, gea en being mostly used (as in 
hcasa, tswea) ; but gedreat (also dreet] 
rhymes its English form treat, and 
drcat, (=zd>-eht, turns) with fate. 

" The German a is as in what and 
Ml, but the former falls iuto the vowel 
of hwt, bi<t. Fall is represented by ah 
in betza/fla, and aa in paar, but usually 
by aw (au in sauga) as in aw (atick, 
also) g>sawt (said, gesagt). Hawa = 
haben, should have been haw-wa. The 
vowel of what is represented by a or 
0, as in was, wcr, hab, kann, donn, 
norra, gonga. 

" of no occurs in b?Ana, so amo&l, 
=einmal, coaxa (=to coax!) doch, 
hoar ( = fmar hair), woch, froke-. 

" When German a has become Eng- 
lish w of but, it is written u, as in hift 
(=hat, has), and a final, as in macha, 
denka = denkm, [which = (B)], an = ein. 
" The vowel of field occurs in w<V, 
shpiVla, de, shees, kr^ya = (krii^hB), y 
is used throughout for (yh) of reyen. 
The y of my occurs in set, si, my and 
met, bet, dyfel, subscriba. 

" W, when not used as a vowel, has 
its true German power (bh), as in 
tswea = zwei, haw,=Aa$ew, weasht= 
weisst, wenich and ?eanich!=<;ewt^, 
&wer=aber, and some other examples 
of b have this sound. 

"Das is for dass that, and des is 
used for the neuter article das. The * 
is hissing (s). The r is trilled (.r) as 
in German. P b, t d, k g, are con- 
fused. The lost final is commonly 
recalled by a nasalised vowel. 

" Oo in fool, Ml, appears in MM, 
when used for und, uf for atef, wu = 
wo where, Zeitung pure German, shoola, 
= schools, truvel-= trouble. 

" English words mostly remain Eng- 
lish in pronunciation, as in : meeting- 
house, town, frolic, for instance, horse- 
race, game poker shpeela, bensa pitcha 
= pitch pence, tif course; but many 
words are modified when they cross a 
German characteristic, thus greenbacks, 
the national currency, is rather (kriin-- . 

"The vowel of fat occurs in 
Barricks = Berks county, lodwarrick 
lodwserrick = latwerge electuary, kier- 
rick=kircfo, wiert=iw<A, hisr=her. 
-U is only an English orthography for 
el or 7, s/i is English.'' 



CHAP. VII. 1. 

English orthographies for the words used, which would of course 
convey no information respecting the real state of the dialect. The 
onlv proper orthography, the only one from which stich information 
can he derived, is of course phonetic. The kindness of Prof. Halde- 
inann has enabled me to supply this great desideratum. 1 The 
passage selected is really a puff of a jeweller's shop in Lancaster, 
Pa., and was chosen because it is short, complete, characteristic, 
varied, and, being not political, generally intelligible. It is given 
first in Mr. Ranch's peculiar Anglo-German spelling, and then in 
Prof. Haldcniann's phonetic transcript, afterwards by way of ex- 
plaining the words, the passage is written out in ordinary High 
German and English, the English words being italicised, and finally 
a verbal English translation is furnished. On pp. 661-3 is added 
a series of notes on the peculiarities of the original, referred to in 
the first text. The reader will thus be able to form a good idea of 
the dialect, and those who are acquainted with German and English 
will thoroughly appreciate the formation of Chaucer's language. 

1 Professor Haldeman not having 
spoken the dialect naturally for many 
years, after completing his phonetic 
transcript, saw Mr. Ranch the author, 
and ascertained that their pronuncia- 
tions practically agreed. The phonetic 
transcript, here furnished, may there- 
fore be relied on. Prof. Haldeman 
heing an accomplished phonetician, and 
acquainted with my palaeotype. wrote 
the pronunciation himself in the letters 
here used. Of course for publication 
in a newspaper, my palaeotype would 
not answer, but my glossotype would 
enable the author to give his Penn- 
sylvania German in an English form 
and much more intelligibly. Thus the 
last paragraph in the example, p. 661, 
would run as follows in glossotype, 
adopting Prof. Haldeman' a pronuncia- 
tion : " Auver iyh kon der net ollas 
saugha. Va-rr [vehrr] marner vissa 
vil, oonn va-rr [vehrr] fairrst raiti 
Krishtaukh sokh vil dee faaynsti oonn 
beshli bressents, maukh selverr dorrt 
ons Tsaunis gnia, oonn siyh selverr 
soota. Nob. mohrr et press'nt. Peet 
Shveff'lbrennerr." But the proper 
orthography would be a glossotype 
upon a German instead of an English 
basis. The following scheme would 
most probably answer all purposes. 
The meaning of the symbols is ex- 
plained by German examples, unless 
otherwise marked, and in palaeotype. 
LONG VOWELS : ie lieb (ii), ee beet (ee), 
tie sprtiche (EE, a?ae), oa Aa\ (), ao 
Eng. aid (AA), oo Boot (oo), uh Pfw/<l 

(uu), w nbel (yy), oe Oc\ (ceco). 
SHORT VOWELS : i Smn (i, t), e Bett 
(e, E), a Eng. bt (E, a)), a all (a), a 
Eng. what (A o), o Motte (o o), Pfrmd 
(u, n), a Fw'lle (y), o Bb'cke (CD), e eine 
(B), Eng. bt (v, a), ( ( ) sign of nasality. 
DIPHTHONGS : ai Hfn (i), of Eng. 
joy, Hamburgh Eu\e (oi), an theo- 
retical ule (ay), an kawen (au). 
CONSONANTS : j j& (j), w vne (bh), 
Eng. w (w) must be indicated by a 
chauge of type, roman to italic, or con- 
versely, h Aeu (H), p b (p b), t d (t dj, 
tsch dsh (tsh dzh), k g (k g), ks (ku), 
/ v (t v), th dh (th dh), ss Nibse (s), 
* wiese (z), sch sh (sh zh), ch gh (k\\ 
kh, gh gh), r I m n (rim n), ng nk 
(q qk). German readers would not 
require to make the distinction ss, s, 
except between two vowels, as Wiese, 
Niisse, Fuesse. They would also not 
find it necessary to distinguish between 
e, e final, or between er, er, unaccented. 
For similar reasons the short vowel 
signs are allowed a double sense. This 
style of writing would suit most dia- 
lectic German, but if any additional 
vowels are required ih, eh, ah, oh, are 
available. The last sentence of the 
following example, omitting the dis- 
tinction e, e, would then run as fol- 
lows : " Aower ich kon der net olles 
saoghe. Waer meeuer wisse wil, un 
waer ferst reeti Krischtaoch sokh wil, 
die fainsti un beschti bressents, maokh 
sclwer dort ons Tsaoms geee, un sikh 
selwer suhte. Noo moor et press'nt. 
1'iet Schwefflbrcnncr." 

CHAP. VII. 1. 




Pennsylvanish Deitsh. 

Mr. 1 Fodder Abraham 2 Printer 
Deer Sir : Ich kon mer now 
net 3 helfa 1 ich mus der yetz 
amohP shreiva 6 we ich. un de 
Bevvy 7 oxisgemocht hen doh fer- 
gonga 8 we mer in der shtadt 
Lancaster wara. 

Der hawpt 9 platz wu 10 mer 
onna 11 sin, war dort in selly 
Zahm's ivver ous sheanaWatcha 12 
un Jewelry establishment, grawd 
dort om eck 13 fun was se de Nord 
Queen Strose 14 heasa un Center 
Shquare net weit fun wu das 
eier office is. 

In all meim leawa hab ich ne 
net so feel tip-top sheany sacha 
g'sea, un sell 15 is exactly was de 
Bevvy sawgt. 16 

We mer nei sin un amohl so a 
wennich rum geguckt hen, donn 
secht 16 de Bevvy loud genunk 17 
das der monn 's hut heara kenna 
" Now Pit," 18 secht se, "weil 

3. German and English Translation. 


PEU silver "nt'sh Daitsh. 


prm-t'r Diir Sor : 7/rh kAn m'r 
nau net helf'B ik\i mus d'r Jets 
Tjmool' shraibh'B bhii ikh un di 
Bebhi aus-guniAkht Hen doo 
f rgAq/B bhii m'r m d'r shtAt 
Leq'kesht'r bhAA'rs. 

D'r HAApt pkts bhuu m'r AITB 
sm, bhAr dArt m seH TSAAHIS 
tbb/'r aus shee-nv blutsh'B un 
tshu'Blr* estep-Lshnitmt, grAAd 
dArt Am ek fun bhAs si di Nort 
Kfiin Shtroos H^-ST? un Sen't'r 
Shkbhwr net wait fun bhuu 
dAs ar'r Af'/s ^s. 

/n A! maim l^bh'B HAb iKh 
nii net so nil . ts'p'tAp slwm 
sAkh'B lisee"B un sel 's ekssek'lt 
bhAs di Pebh'*' sAAkt. 

Bhi m'r nai sm un tjmool soo 
B bhen't&h rum gBgukt' Hen, 
d.ui seA-ht di Bebh'i lout gB- 
nuqk' dAs d'r mAns Hat Heer"B 
-B "Nau Pit," seAht si, 

4. Verbal English Translation. 

Pennsylvanisches Deutsch. Pennsylvania German. 

Mr. Vater Abraham, Printer Dear 
Sir : Ich kann nrir now nicht helfen^ 
ich muss dir jetzt einmal schreiben wie 
ich und die Barbara ausgemacht haben, 
da vergangen, wie wir in der Stadt 
Lancaster waren. 

Der Haupt-Platz wo wir an sind, 
war dort in selbiges Zahms iiberaus 
schb'ue Watche und Jewelry Estab- 
lishment, grade dort an-der Ecke von 
was sic die Nord Queen Strasse heis 
sen und Centre Square nicht weit von 
wo dass ener office ist. 

In all meinem Leben babe ich nie 
nicht so viele tiptop schone Sachen 
gesehen, und selbiges ist exactly was 
die Barbara sagt. 

Wie wir hinein sind und einmal so 
ein wenig herum geguckt haben, dann 
sagte die Barbara laut genug dass der 
Mann es hat hovcn konnen "Now, 

Mr. Father Abraham, Printer 
Dear Sir : I can myself now not help 
I must to-thee now once write, how I 
and the Barbara managed [i.e. fared] 
have there past, as we in the town 
Lancaster were. 

The chief-place where we arrived 
are, was there in same Zahm's over- 
out beautiful Watches and Jewelry 
Establishment, exactly there at corner 
of what they the North Queen Street 
call, and Centre Square not far from 
where that your office is. 

In all my life have I never not so 
many tiptop beautiful things seen, and 
same is exactly what the Barbara 

As we hence-into are, and once so a 
little around looked have, then said the 
Barbara loud enough that the man it 
has to-hear been-able "Now, Peter" 



CHAP. VII. $ 1. 

1. Ranch's Orthography, continued. 
se der di watch g'shtola hen 
dort in Nei Yorrick, 13 musht an 
neie kawfa, un doh gookts das 36 
wann 20 du dich suta 21 kennsht.' m 

"We sc sell g'sawt hut, donn 
hen awer amohl de kajrls 23 dort 
hinnich 24 em counter uf geguckt. 
Eaner hut si brill gedropt, 23 
un an onnerer is uf g'shtonna 
un all hen mich orrig 26 freind- 
lich aw 27 geguckt. 

Donn sogt eaner so a wen- 
nich an goot guckicher 23 ding 
secht er, " Ich glawb doch now 
das ich weas wa?r du hisht." 
" "Well, " sog ich, " wosr 
denksht ?" " Ei der Pit Schwef- 
flebrenner." " Exactly so," hab 
ich g'sawt. " Tin des doh is 
de Bevvy, di alty," secht er. 
"Aw so," hab ich g'sawt. 

Donn hut er mer de hond 
gewa, un der Bevvy aw, un 
hut g'sawt er het shun feel fun 
meina breefa g'leasa, un er waor 
orrig froh mich amohl selwer 

3. Germ. Eng. Translation, eont. 

Peter," sagte sie, " weil sie dir deine 
Watch gestohlen habcn dort in Neu 
York, musst du cine neue kaufcn, and 
da guckt es [als] dass wann du dich 
fttiten konnest." 

"Wie sie selbiges gesagt hat, dann 
haben aber einmal die Kerl* dort hin- 
terig dem counter aufgeguckt. Einer 
hat seine Brille gedropt, und ein an- 
derer ist aufgestanden und alle haben 
mich arg freundlich angeguckt. 

Dann sagt einer so ein wenig ein 
gutguckiges Ding sagte er, " Ich 
glaube doch now dass ich weiss wer du 
hist." "Well," sago ich, "wer 
denkest ?" " Ei, der Peter Schwefel- 
brenner." " Exactly so," habe ich 
gesagt. " Und das da ist die Barbara, 
deine Alte," sagte er. " Auch so," 
habe ich gesagt. 

Danu hat er mir die Hand gegeben, 
und der Barbara auch, und hat gesagt 
er hatte schon viel von meinen Briefen 
gelesen, uud er ware arg froh mich 

2. Haldeman's Pronunciation, cont. 
"bhflil si dir dfli, bhAtsh 
kshtool'B nen dirt in Ni jAr*k, 
musht un nai'B kAAf'B, un doo 
gukts dAs bhAn du d*h suut'B 

Bhi si sel ksAAt not, dAn nen 
AA'b'r Bmool' di ka>rls d.Art nm'- 
ikli Bm kunt''r uf gcgukt*. 
JEc-n'r not s<zi bril gedrApt', un 
en An'Brar is uf kshtAn'B un A! 
nen mtth Ar'tkh fraind'h'Ah AA t 

DAU sAkt wn'r soo v bhen-%-h 
un guut guk-^h'r dzq seht ur, 
" Ikh glAAb doA-h nu dAs i/ch 
\)hees bhaer du b?'sht." " Bhel," 
sAgth, U bha3rdeqksht?" " A\ 
d'r Pit Shbhefibren-'r." " Ek- 
saek'l* soo, ' ' HAb Ah ksAAt. " ' ' Un 
des doo is di Bebh'i, dai Alt'*," 
seiht aer. " :AA soo," HAb ikh 

DAU nat nsr m'r di HAnd 
gebh'B, un d'r Pebh't AA, un H9t 
ksAAt ser net shun fiil fun min'B 
briifa glee'su, un ser bhseaer 
Ai'ikh froo mi'^h Bmool' sel'bht?r 

4. Verbal Eny. Translation, cont. 

said she, "because they to-thee thy 
watch stolen have there in New York, 
must thou a new (one) buy, and there 
looks it [as] that if thou thee suit 

As she same said has, then have 
again once the fellows there behind the 
counter up-looked. One has his spec- 
tacles dropped, and another is up-stood, 
and all have me horrid friendlily on- 

Then says one so a little a good- 
looking thing said he, " I believe, 
however, now that I know who thou 
art." " Well," say I, " who thinkest 
(thou that I am) ? " " Eh, the Peter 
Sulphurburner." " Exactly so," have 
I said. " And that there ist the 
Barbara, thy old-woman," said he. 
" Also so," have I said. 

Then has he me the hand given, and 
to-the Barbara also, and has said he 
had already much of my letters read, 
and he was horrid glad me once self to 

CHAP. VII. 1. 



1. Ra^tetis Orthography, continued. 
tsu seana. 29 Donn sin mcr awer 
amohl on bisness. 

Wateha hen se doit, first-raty 
for 16 dahler bis tsu 450 dahler. 
Nocli dem das mer se amohl 
recht beguckt hen, is de Bevvy 
tsu der conclusion kumma an 
Anicrikanishe watch tsu kawfa. 

Dort hen se aw was se Ter- 
mommiters heasa so a ding 
dass earn 30 weist we kalt s' wetter 
is, un sell dinkt mich kent mcr 
braucha alleweil. Any-how mer 
hen eans gckawft. 

De watch is aw an first-raty. 
Ich war als 31 uf 32 der meanung 
das de Amerikanishe watcha 
waerra drous in Deitshlond 
g'macht, un awcr sell is net 
wohr. Un de house-uhra ; chee- 
many 33 fires awer se hen about 
sheany ! Uf course mer hen aw 
cany gekawft, for wann ich 
amohl Posht Heashder bin mus 
ich eany hawa for 34 in de office 
ni dti. 

3. Germ. $ Eng. Translati<m, cont. 
einmal selber zu sehen(en). Dann sind 
wir aber einmal an business. 

Watche haben sie dort, first-rate-& 
fiir sechzehn bis zu vier hundcrt (and) 
fiinfzig Thaler. Nachdem dass wir sie 
einmal recht beguckt haben, ist die 
Barbara zu der conclusion gckommen 
eine Amerikanische watch zu kaufen. 

Dort haben sie auch was sie Ther- 
mometer* heissen so ein Ding das 
einem weiset wic kalt das "Wetter ist, 
vnd selbiges diinkt mich kbnnten wir 
brauchcn alleweile. Anyhow wir 
haben eines gekauft. 

Die Watch ist auch eine first-rate-e. 
Ich war also auf [alles auf, also o/P] 
der Meinung dass die Amerikanischen 
Watche waren draussen in Deutschland 
gemacht, und aber selbiges ist nicht 
wahr. Und die Hausuhren ; Gemini 
fires ! aber sie haben about schonc ! Of 
course wir haben auch eine gekauft, 
for wann ich einmal Post Master bin, 
muss ich eine haben for in die office 
hinein [zu] thun. 

2. Haideman's Pronunciation, cont. 
tsu seen-v. D\n sm m'r AAblr'r 


Blutsh-B sen si dArt, forst 
vec'ii f'r sekh-tsee he's tsu fiir- 
iiun-Brt-fuf-tszI-h tAAl'tir. ISTAkh 
dem dAs m'r sii tmiool' re/fcht 
bcgukt- nen, is di Pebh-e tsu d'r 
kAnkluu'shcn kuure ran :Amen- 
kAA'm'shtJ bliAtsh tsu kAAf'B. 

Hen si AA blus si ter- 
'Vt'rs liees'a so 12 dz'qdAs eem. 
bhaist bhi kAlt 's bhet''r t's, un 
sel d/qt m^-h kent m'r braukh-u 
En*Hu m'r Hen 


Dii bluish is AA un forst fee'ii. 
//(h bhAr A!S uf der m^e'nuq dAs 
dii :AmerfkAA - nishu bhAtsh/u 
bhaer'B draus in Daitsh'lAnt 
gmAAkht', un AA'bh'r sel is 
net bhoor. Un dii HUS'UUTB; 
tshirmum' fairs ! AA'bh'r si Hen 
Tsbaut' shee'nil Uf koors m'r 
Hen AA een'i gckAAft", f'r bhAn 
i/ch. t?mool' Poosht Meeslrt'r bm 
mus i/ch ee-ni HAA'bhu for *n di 
nai du. 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation, cont. 
see. Then are we again once on 

Watches have they there, first-rate 
(ones) for sixteen up-to four hunderd 
(and) fifty dollars. After that wie 
them once rightly beseen have, is the 
Barbara to the conclusion come, an 
American ivatch to buy. 

There have they also what they 
Thermometers call so a thing that 
to-him shows how cold the weather 
is, and same thinks me might we use 
presently. Anyhow we have one 

The watch is also a first-rate (one). 
I was always on [all up = entirely 
of, always of] the opinion that the 
American watches were there-out in 
Germany made, and but same is not 
true. And the houseclocks ; Gemini 
fires ! but they have about beautiful 
(ones) ! Of course we have also one 
bought, for when I once Post Master 
am, must I one have, for into the 
office hence-in (to) do. 



CHAP. VII. 1. 

1. Ranch's Orthography, continued. 

Sc hen aw an grosser shtock 
fun Silvcrny Leffla, Brilla, un 
ich weas net was olles. De 
Bevvy hut gcdu das weil ich 
yetz boll amohl 35 an United 
Shtates Government Officer si 
waer, set ich mcr aw an Brill 
kawfa, un ich hab aw eany 
krickt das ich now net gewa 
deat fer duppelt's geld das se 
gekosht hut, for ich kon yetz 
noch amohl so goot seana un 
leasa das 38 tsufore. 

Un we ich amohl dorrich my 
neie Brill gcguckt hab, donn 
hab ich sersht all de feiny sacha 
recht beguckt, un an examina- 
tion gcmacht fun Breast Pins, 
Eings, Watch-ketta, 37 Shtuds, 
Messera un Govvella, etc. 

Eans fun sclla Breastpins hut 
der Bevvy about goot aw-g'- 
shtonna, awer er hut mer doch a 
wennich tsu feel g'fuddert dcr- 
fore 25 dahler, un donn hab 

2. Haldeman's Pronunciation, cont. 

Sii Hen AA un groo'srj shtAk 
fun S/1'bhimu Lef''ln, Br/l'B un 
/Ah Hhees net bhAs A!"BS. Dii 
Peblr/ not gcduu* bh/ril iA'h 
jets bAl vmool' im Junari'tBt 
Sheets Gofrnrent Of'tser si 
bhicaor, set tkh m'r AA tm Br/1 
kAA'fc, un /Ah HAp AA ee'ni kr/kt, 
d.vs /Ah nau net gebh'tj CLeet f r 
dup - 'lts geld dAS sii gukosht' 
net, f r ifch kAn jets nokh vmool' 
soo guut see'nv un lee'se dAS 

Un bhii ilch -eraool' (LwiKh 
mai ( nai'i Br/1 gsgukt* HAp, 
dAn HAp ikh scrsht A! dii fxrni 
sAkh'tj re^ht br?gukt' un r?n 
eksaem/n^sh-'n gumAkht' fun 
Brcsht'pms, E/qs, BliAtsh-ket-e, 
Shtots, Mes'^re un GAbh-'lu, 

Ecus, fun sel'tj Bresht - p/ns Hat 
d'r Bcbh*/ ubaut' guut AA 4 '- 
gsht'AAn'T?, AA'bh'r SRT not m/r 
dokh B bhen/Ah tsu fiil gfud-'rt 
d'rfooi" f/nf tin tsbhln's/kh 

3. Germ. $ Eng. Translation, cont, 

Sie haben auch einen grossen stock 
von silbernen Lbffcln, Brillen, und icb. 
weiss niclit was allcs. Die Barbara 
hat gethan dass well ich jetzt bald 
cinmal cin United States Govenimmt 
Officer sein werde, sollte ich mir auch 
cine Brille kaufen, und ich habe auch 
einc gekriegt, dass ich noic nicht geben 
thate fur doppelt-das Geld das sie 
gekostet hat, for ich kann jetzt noch 
einraal so gut sehen und lesen [als] 
dass zuvor. 

Und me ich einmal durch meine 
neue Brille geguckt habe, dann habe 
ich erst alle die feinen Sachen recht 
beguckt und an examination gemacht 
yon Breastpins, Rings, TTafrA-ketten, 
Studs, Messer und Gabeln, etc. 

Eins von selbigcn Breastpins hat der 
Barbara about gut angcstanden, abcr er 
hat mir doch ein wenig zu viel gefodert 
dafiir fiinf und zwanzig Thaler und 

4. Verbal Eng. Translatioti, cont. 

They have also a great stock of silver 
spoons, spectacles, and I know not 
what all. The Barbara has done [es- 
timated] that because I now soon once 
a United States Government Officer be 
shall, should I me also a pair-of-spec- 
tacleg buy, and I have also one got, 
that I now not give would-do for 
double the money that it cost has, for 
I can now still once so good see and 
read [as] that before. 

And as I once through my new 
spectacles looked have, then have I 
first all the fine things right be-seen, 
and an examination made of Breast- 
pins, Rings, Watchchsmis, Studs, knives 
and forks, etc. 

One of the same Breastpins has the 
Barbara about good on-stood [suited], 
but he has me, however, a little too 
much askfd therefore tive-and-twenty 

CHAP. VII. 1. 



1. Ranch's Orthography, continued. 

ich mer tsulctsht eany rous ge- 
pickt fer drei faertle dahler, fer 
selly sogt de Bevvy, is anyhow 
ahead fun ennicher 38 onnery in 

Awer ieh konn der net allcs 
sawya. Waor meaner 39 wissa 
will, un wa3r first raty krishdog 
sach will de feinsty un bcshty 
presents, mog selwer dort ons 
Zahms gea un sich selwer suta. 
No more at present. 

Pit Schwefflebrenner. 

3. Germ. $ Eng. Translation, cont. 
dann habe ich mir zuletzt cine heraus 
gcpicki fiir drei Viertel Thaler, for 
selbiges sagt die Barbara is anyhow 
ahead von emiger anderen in Schiiffel- 

Aber ich kann dir nicht alles sagen. 
"Wer mehr wissen will, und wer Jlrst- 
rate-e Christtag Sachen will die 
feinsten uud besten presents, mag selber 
dort an's Zahms gehen und sich selber 
tuiten. No more at present. 

Peter Schwefelbrenner. 

2. Haldemau's Pronunciation, cont. 

tAA'l'r, un dAn HAb iKh nur 
tsuletsht' ee'ni rus gupz'kt' f'r 
tiva fajrt'l tAA'kr, f'r seK SAkt 
di Bebh'i is cn'isau uhet* fun 
en'^hur An-rcn in Shl/fitun. 

:Aa-bb'r ikh kAn d'r net Al-vs 
sAA-ghe. Bhter mmr'r blm'tj 
blu'l, un bhaer ferst reeti Krz'sh'- 
tAAkh sAkh bhl dii faiu-sht* 
un beshW bres'ents, niAAkh sel*- 
bh'r dArt AUS TSAAUIS gee'v un 
s?'h sel'bh'r suu'tc. Noo moor 
et bres-'nt. 

Piit Shbhef-lbren-'r. 

4. Verbal Eng. Translation, cont. 
dollars and then have I for-me at- 
last one out picked for three-quarters 
(of a) dollar, for same says the Marbara 
is anyhow ahead of any other in 

But I can thee not all say. "Who 
more know will, and who Jirst-rate 
Christmas things will the finest and 
best presents, may himself there to-the 
Zahm's (house) go, and him self suit. 
No more at presmt. 

Peter Schwefelbrenner. 

Notes on the above Text. 

1 Mister is used as well as the 
German form (m^sh't'r). S. S. 

2 Father Abraham means the late 
president Abraham Lincoln, assumed 
as the title of llauch's newspaper. 

3 The guttural omitted, as frequently 
in nicht, nichts. 

4 The infinitive -e for -en, as fre- 
quently in Chaucer, and commonly 
now on the Rhine. 

5 Einmal, a common expletive, in 
which the first syllable, even among 
more educated German speakers sinks 
into an indistinct (TJ). Observe the 
transition of (a) into (oo). 

6 The common change of (b) into 

7 Bevvy, or Pevvy, is a short form 
of Barbara, a rather common name in 
the dialect. Both forms are used in the 
following specimen. S.S.H. German 
Biibbe, Babchen, compare the English 
Bb, Babby. 

8 Doh here, fergonga recently, an 
adverb, not for -cergangcne Woche. 
S. S. H. 

* Observe the frequent change of 
the German au, indisputably (au, au) 
into English (AA), precisely as we find 
to have occurred in English of the 
xvn th century. 

10 The not uufrequent changes of o 
long into (uu) are comparable to 
similar English changes xv th century. 

11 Oiina, the preposition an used as a 
verb, as in the English expression, 
" he ups and runs." I take this view 
because sind is an auxiliary and a 
present tense form, but the adverbial 
tendency of onna (as if thither) must 
nevertheless not be overlooked. A 
German will sometimes use in English 
an expression like " outen the candle !" 
rarely heard in English S.S.H. 

w Observe here a German plural 
termination e affixed to an English 



CHAP. VII. 1. 

ls Ecke being feminine, the correct 
form is an der Ecke, although -eck in 
composition is neuter, as dreieck, vier- 
fck. S.S.H. In Schmeller's Bayr. 
Wort. 1, 25, "das JEck, eigenthch 
Egg " is recognized as south German. 
In the following word fun for von, 
short o becomes (u) or (). 

14 This change of German a to o is 
common, as in (shloofu) for schlafen, 
(shoo/) for schaf, etc. S.S.H. See 
note 5, and compare this with the 
change of ags. (ad) into South English 
(oo, oo), while (aa) remained in the 

15 This frequent and difficult word 
has been translated selbiges throughout, 
as the nearest high German word, and 
selly, 9 lines above it, may, in fact, in- 
dicate this form . Compare Schmel- 
ler's Bayr. Wort. 3, 232, " Selb [de- 
clinabelj in Schwaben 6'fter nach erster 
Declin.-Art (sel'er, e, es), in A. B. 
lieber nach zweiter [der, die, das (s'l, 
den s'ln, di s'ln), etc.] gebraucht, statt 
des hochd. jener, e, es, welches un- 
volksiiblich ist. [Fur der, die, das 
selbe im hochd. Sinn, d.h. idem, eadem, 
idem, braucht die Mundart der die, 
das nemliche."] (s'l'os msl, des s'l mal, 
s'l-mfflz) jenes Mel, (sTa tsait) zu 
jener zeit, (sTDt-Hfflb-m) oder (-bhegq) 
desfjenigen] wegen." 

18 Sawgt=sagt, says, teeht = siigt, 
instead of sagte, said, with the Umlaut. 
S. S. H. The weak verb has there- 
fore a strong inflection. This distinc- 
tion is preserved throughout. Compare 
the common vulgar (and older ?) forms 
slep, swep, with the usual slept, wept, 
and see supra p. 355, art. 54. 

17 Genunk, with educed k, is com- 
mon in archaic and provincial German, 
and Rollenhagen rhymes Jung, pro- 
nounced /c& dialectically, with trunk. 
S. S. H. See supra p. 192, n. 1. 

18 (Prt) or (Piit) may be used for 
this short form of Peter. S.S.H. It 
is the English Pete, not a German 
form as the vowel shews. 

19 Observe the vowel educed by the 
strong trill of the ( r). For con- 
venience (r) has been printed through- 
out, but the reader must remember 
that it is always distinctly, and some- 
times forcibly, trilled with the tip of 
the tongue, and never sinks to (a). 

20 Das tcann, that though, as 
though. 8. S. II. Gookts das warm, 
for sieht es aus als ob, it looks as if. 
See note 36. 

21 Observe the German infinitive 
termination -e for -en, added to a 
purely English verb. 

2i The development of * into (sh) is 
remarkable in nigh German. It is 
acknowledged as the proper pronun- 
ciation before t, p at the beginning of 
a syllable, throughout Germany, even 
North German actors not venturing to 
say (st-, sp-) even in Hamburg, as I 
am informed, the capital of that pro- 
nunciation. But in final -st, the 
common (-sht) is looked upon as a 
vulgarism, even in Saxony. 

23 Karls, may have an English *, 
but the form is often playfully used by 
good speakers in Germany, and hence 
may have been imported and not 

2 * Hinnieh for hinter has developed 
a final -ig, but this is a German ad- 

25 Gedropt, the German participial 
form for dropped. So also elsewhere I 
find gepunished, which may be com- 
pared with Chaucer's ypunish'd, Prol. 
v. 657. 

26 Orriff, very, Swiss arig (Staldcr 
1, 110), German arg, but not used in 
a bad sense. S.S.H. The \vord arg 
implies cunning and annoyance, but 
its use as an intensitive is comparable 
to our horrid, awfully, dreadfully, 
which are frequently used in a good 
sense, as : horrid beautiful, awfully 
nice, dreadfully crowded. Das ist zu 
arg ! that is too bad, too much ! is a 
common phrase even among educated 

27 A w for German an is nasalised, 
which distinguishes it from the same 
syllable when used for the German 
attch, also. S. S. H. This recent 
evolution of a nasal sound in German, 
common also in Bavarian, may lead us 
to understand the comparatively recent 
nasal vowels in French, infra Chap. 
VIII, 5 3. 

28 The gender is changed because it 
refers to a man ; so in high German it 
is not unfrequent to find fratilein, 
Madchen, although they have a neuter 
adjective, referred to by a feminine 

S'onoun, as : " das Fraulein hat ihren . 
andschuh fallen lassen," the young 
lady [neuter] has dropped her [fem.J 

29 In an earlier line g' 'sea forgeseften, 
but here we have a double infinitive, 
as if su sehenen. This is also used for 
the third person plural of the present 

CHAP. VII. $ 1. 



tense, as in sie ffehen-a, they go. 
S.S.H. Compare also ich hab dick, 
wohl geseyhne, in the Gesprdch, p. 
654. This seems comparable to what 
Prof. Child calls the protracted past 
participle in Chaucer, supra p. 357, 
art. 61. It is impossible to read 
the present specimen attentively with- 
out being struck by the similarity 
between this Pennsylvania German 
and Chaucer's English in the treat- 
ment of the final -e, -en of the older 
dialects. The form (sel-bht?r) in the 
preceding line preserves the b in the 
form (bh). Schmeller also allows selber 
to preserve the b as (sTba), see n. 15. 

30 Das earn weist, that shews him, 
that shews to one or a person. 
S. S. H. Eam=einem, not ihm. 

51 This als is Swiss, which Stalder 
defines by ehedem hitherto and imtner 
always, compare ags. eal-enge altoge- 
ther and eal-wig always. S.S.H. See 
also Schmeller Bayr.- Wort. 1, 50. Dr. 
Mombert takes als to be an obsolete 
high German contraction of alles in 
the sense of ever, mostly, usually. 

32 Prof. Haldeman takes uf for auf, 
but der Meimtng, and not auf der 
Meinung, is the German phrase, and 
hence the word may be English, 
as afterwards, uf course. But this 
is hazardous, as uf in this sense could 
hardly be joined with a German dative 
der Meinung, Can als uf be a dialec- 
tic expression for alles auf, literally all 
up, that is, entirely ? Compare, Schmel- 
ler, Bayr. Wort. 1, 31, "auf und auf, 
von unten (ganz, ohne Unterbreclmng) 
bis oben, auf und nidcr vom Kopf bis 
zum Fuss, ganz und gar." 

M Chcemany is the English exclama- 
tion Oh j'eeinany.S.S.'R. The Eng- 
lish is apparently a corruption of: Oh 
Jesus mihi, and has nothing to do with 
the Gemini. But what is the last part 
of Ibis exclamation : fires ? Prof. 
Ilaldeman. suggests, Ml fires ! Dr. 
Mombert derives from the shout of: 
fire! Can the near resemblance in 
sound between cheemany and chimney, 
have suggested the following Jircs ? 
Such things happen. 

31 For in de office ni du seems to 
stand for um in die office hinein ztt 
thun. The use of for for um is a mere 
Anglicism, but why is zu omitted be- 
fore thun ? By a misprint, or dialec- 

tically for euphony? It is required 
both by the German and English 
idiom. Dr. Mombert considers the 
omission of zu dialectic in this place, 
clswhere we find zu do. 

85 Boll amohl, bald einmal, pretty 
soon, shortly. This use of einmal once, 
appears in the English of Germans, as 
in : " Bring now here the pen once." 

36 Das. This is not the neuter 
nominative article das, which is des in 
this dialect, but a contraction of als 
dass, with the most important part, 
als, omitted. S.S.H. I am inclined 
to take it for dass used for als, as in 
the former phrase das wann = als ob, 
see note 20. According to Schmeller, 
Bayr. Wort. 1, 400 "dass schliesst 
sich als allgemeinste conjunction, in 
der Eede des Volkes, gern andern con- 
junctionen erklarend an, oder vertritt 
der en Stelle." 

37 Watch-ketta, a half English, half 
German compound, is comparable to 
Chaucer's footmantel, half English and 
half French, in Prol. infra, v. 472, and 
supra p. 651, 1. 6. 

38 This may be the English any. 
like the German einig, treated like 
einiger, or it may be a legitimate de- 
velopment of this, as eins is eens. 
S.S.H. The latter hypothesis seems 
the more probable, and then the Eng- 
lish signification may have been at- 
tached to the German word from simi- 
larity of sound. Dr. Mombert thinks 
the word may be either any treated as 
a German word, or irgend einer cor- 
rupted. Observe the frequent use 
of (ee) for (ai) as eens for eins. The 
transitions of (au) into (AA), (ai) into 
(ee), (aa) into (oo), and ocasionally (o) 
in (u), are all noteworthy in connection 
with similar changes in English. 

39 Meaner for mehr is obscure. Com- 
pare Schmeller, Bayr. Wort. 2, 581 ; 
"maniff, Schwab, menig, meng, a) wie 
hochd. manch .... Comparativisch 
steht in Amberg. Akten v. 1365 " An 
ainem stuck oder an mengern." . . . 
Sonst hb'rt man im b. W. wie in 
Schwaben einfacher den ComparatiT 
mencr, mehr, welchcr eher aus (mee, 
me) als aus menyer entstellt scheint ; 
oder sollte es noch unmittelbar zura 
alien mana- gehoren?" 



Two German scholars, Professors Gescnius and Rapp, have pub- 
lished special studies on the language and pronunciation of Chaucer, 
of which it is now necessary to give an account. The following is 
a condensed abstract of the treatise entitled : De Lingua Chauceri 
commentationem grammaticam scripsit Fridericus Guilelmus Ge- 
senius, Bonnae, 1847, 8vo. pp. 87. The writer (who must not 
be confounded with the late Prof. "VVilhelm Gesenius, of Halle, the 
celebrated Hebraist,). used Tyrwhitt's text of the Canterbury Tales, 
according to the 1843 reprint. In the present abstract "Wright's 
spelling and references to liis ed. of Harl. MS. 7334 (which have 
all been verified) are substituted, and much relating to the pecu- 
liarities of Tyrwhitt's text is omitted ; inserted remarks are 
bracketed. Gesenius's ags. orthography has been retained. 


Chaucer seems to add or omit a final 
e at pleasure, both in ags. and fr. 
words, as was necessary to the metre ; 
and he used fr. -words either with the 
fr. accent on the last syllable or with 
the present English accent, for the 
same reason. 

Chap. 1. Totvels derived from Anglo- 

Short vowels are followed by two 
consonants, or by either one or two in 
monosyllables, and long vowels have a 
single consonant followed by e final. 

I. Ags. short a is preserved in : land 
402, hand 401, bigau 5767, ran 4103, 
drank 6044, thanked 927 ; but fluctu- 
ates often between a aud o, as : londcs 
14, houd 108, outsprong 13526. bygon. 
7142, nat 2247. drank 13970, i-thanked 
7700 [in the three last cases, Tyrwhitt 
has o ]. 

Short a answers to ags. a, according 
to Grimm's separation a = goth. a, 
and =gothic e, as: what, that pron., 
ags. hvat )?at; atte. ags. at 29; glas 
152, have ags. habban, etc. 

Short a also answers to ags. i-a, as 
in: alle ags. call 10, scharpe ags. 
scearp 114, halle 372, barme 10945, 
starf 935, 4703, halpe [Tyrwhitt. hilp 
"Wright] 5340, karf 9647,'hals 4493. 

Long a is either a preserved ags. a 
long, or a produced ags. a short, as : 
make ags. macjan 4763, name, fare 
7016, ham, ags. ham 4030. That this 
last word was pronounced differently 
to the others, which probably even 
then inclined to a (EE), is shewn by 
its interchange with home, whereas a 
always remains in make, name, etc. 

Long a also arises from ags. a short, 
as : smale ags. sraal 9, bar G20 ; fadur 
100, blake 2980, this last vowel is 
sometimes short as 629. 

Long a like short a also arises from 
ags. ea, as: gaf. ags. geaf 177, mary, 
ags. mearh 382, jape ags. ge'ap 4341, 
ale 3820, gate 1895, care, etc. 

II. Chaucer's e replaces several dis- 
tinct ags. vowels. 

Short e stands 

for ags. e short, in : ende 15, wende 
16, bedde, selle 3819, etc. 

for ags. t, y, in: cherche (Wr. 
chirche), ags. circe 4987 ; selle ags. 
syl, threshold, 3820, rhyming with 
selle, ags. sylle ; scheeld ags. scyld 
2895, rhyming with heeld, ags. hedld, 
kesse ags. cyssan 8933 ; stenten, ags. 
stintan 906 ; geven, ags. gifan, gyfan 
917, etc. These forms are only found 
when wanted for the rhyme, and t is 
the more common vowel. 

for ags. ea, ed in : erme, ags. ear- 
mjan 13727; erthe, ags. e'ard, eorSe 
1898 ; ers, ags. ears 7272 ; derne, ags. 
dearn 3200, 3297 ; herd 272 ; est, ags. 
east 1905. 

for ags. eo in : sterres, ags. steorra 
270 ; cherles ags. ceorl, ger. kerl, 
7788 ; yerne ags. georne, ger. gem, 
6575; lerne, ags. leornjan, 310; swerd 
112, work 481, derkest 4724; yelwe, 
ags. geolu 677. 

Long e stands 

for ags. short e in : ere, ags. erjan 
888 ; queen, ags. even 870, etc. 

for ags. long e, more frequently, in : 
seke, ags. secan 13 ; kene 104, grene 
103, swete 5, mete 1902, wepyng 2831, 
deme 1883. 


for ags. ae long : heres, ags. haer 
557 ; breede, 1972 ; lere, ags. laeran 
6491 ; see 59, veer 82, reed 3527, 
slepen 10, clenc 369, speche 309, strete 
3823, etc. 

for ags. eo as in : seke, ags. seoc 18, 
as well as : sike, ags. sioca 245, these 
diphthongs eo, io, had probably a simi- 
lar pronunciation and are hence fre- 
quently confused, so heofon, Mofon, 
and Ii>6$, lio'S ; scheene, ags. sceone, 
beautiful, 1070 ; leef 1839, theef 3937 ; 
tene, ags. te'6na, grief, 3108; deepe 
129, chese 6480, tree 9337, tre 6341, 
prcstes 164, prest 503, etc. 

for ags. ea and ed in : eek 5, gret 84, 
beteth 11078, neede 306, reede 1971, 
bene 9728, chepe 5850, deef 448, 
stremes 1497, teeres 2829, eet 13925, 
mere 544. 

Nothing certain can be concluded 
concerning the pronunciation of these 
's, which arose from so many sources. 
They all rhyme, and may have been 
the same. In modern spelling the e is 
now doubled, or more frequently re- 
verts to ea. 

III. The vowel i has generally re- 
mained unchanged at all periods of the 
language. Mention has already been 
made of its interchange with e where 
the ags y was the mutate of u or eo, io, 
thus: fist 6217, fest 14217, ags. fyst; 
mylle 4113, melle 3921, ags. myll ; 
fel 5090, fille 10883, ags. feol ; develes 
7276, devyl 3901 [divel Tyrwhitt, 
deuel Heng. and Corp.], ags. dioful. 
The f generally replaces ags. y, and e 
replaces ags. eo. Long i similarly re- 
places long ags. y, as occasionally in 
ags. Short ags. i seems to have been 
lengthened before Id, nd, [no reasons 
are adduced,] as in: wylde 2311, 
chylde 2312, fynde 2415, bynde 2416. 
Undoubtedly this long i was then pro- 
nounced as now, namely as German 
ei (ai). [Tronunciatio longae vocalis 
I sine dubio iam id aetatis cadem fuit 
quam nunc, id est '.] In the con- 
tracted forms fint, grint for findeth, 
grindeth, there was therefore a change 
of vowel, Jint having the German short 
i, KtAfindeth German ei. [No reasons 

IV. Short o stands 

for ags. short o in : wolde 651, 
god 1254, 

for ags. short : somer ags. sumer 
396 ; wonne ags. wunnen 51 ; nonne 
118, sonne 7, domb 776, dong 532, 
sondry, ags. sunder, 14, 25. Nearly 

all these words are now written with n, 
and preserve Chaucer's pronunciation, 
for summer is written, but sommer 
spoken [i.e. Gesenius did not distin- 
guish the sounds (9, o).] 

for ags. short a, as already observed, 
and o is generally preferred before ltd, 
and remains in Scotch and some 
northern dialects. 

Long o stands 

for ags. long o in : bookes, ags. boc, 
1200 ; stooden 8981, stood 5435, took 
4430, foot 10219, sone 5023, sothely 
117, etc. 

for ags. long a in : wo, ags. v& 8015, 
moo 111, owne, ags. agen 338, homly 
7425, on 31, goost 205, hoote 396, 
ooth 120, loth 488. In such words a 
is uncommon, the sole example noted 
being ham 4030. Both o's rhyme to- 
gether and were therefore pronounced 
alike. At present the first is u and the 
second o. 

for ags. short u in : sone 79 ; wone, 
ags. vunjan 337, groneth 7411. 

V. Short u stands for ags. short u 
in: ful, ags. full 90, lust 192, but 142, 
cursyng 663, uppon 700, suster 873, 
shulde probably arose from some form 
sculde, not sceolde, as we have no other 
instance of ags. eo becoming short u, 
There is no long u in Chaucer. 

VI. The vowel y is occasionally put 
for f . 

VII. The diphthong ay or ai stands 
for ags. ay in : day, ags. dag 19, weie 
793, lay 20, mayde 69, sayde 70, faire 
94, tayl 3876, nayles 2143, pleye 236, 
reyn 592, i-freyned, ags. fragnan 
12361. These examples shew that ey 
was occasionally written for ay, and 
hence that ey, ay must have been pro- 
nounced alike. 

VIII. The diphthong ey or ei arose 
from ags. cd as in : agein, ags. agean 
8642, or from edg as : even, ags. eage 
152, deye, ags. deagan 6802, \inori, is 
there such a Avord in ags. ? it is not in 
Bosworth or Ettmuller; Orrmin has 
de^enn, supra p. 284. There is a 
deagan tingere.] The change in these 
two last words may be conceived thus : 
first g is added to ei, then replaced by 
j (j) and finally vanishes, as eige, eije, 
eie or eye. From eah comes eigh, as 
eahta, hedh, nedh, sleuh, which give 
eyght, heygh, neygh, sleygh. This 
orthography is however rare, and highe, 
nighe, slighe, or hie nie slie, without 
gh, which was probably not pronounced 
at that time, are more common. The 




word eight explains the origin of night, 
might, etc., from ags. rieaht, meaht, 
which were probably first written 
neight, -weight, and then dropped the 
'. [There is no historical ground for 
this supposition.] 

IX. The diphthong on, or ow at the 
end of words or before e, answers to 
ags. long M (as the German au to me- 
dieval German u), in : bour, ags. bur 
16153, oure 34, schowres 1, toun, ags. 
tun 217 ; rouned, ags. run 7132, doun, 
ags. dun 954 ; hous 252, oule 6663, bouk, 
ags. buce, Germ, bauch, 2748, souked 
8326, brouke, ags. brucan, use, 10182, 
etc. In many of these words ow is 
now written. 

Before Id and nd, ou stands sometimes 
for ags. short u. Before gh, ou arises 
from ags. long o, and answers to middle 
German o, as: inough, ags. genog, 
mhg. genuoc 375 ; rought, ags. rohte 
8561, 3770, for which au is sometimes 
found, compare sale 4185, sowh 4261. 

Finally ou sometimes arises from 
ags. eov, as in : foure, ags. feover 210 ; 
trouthe, ags. treovth, 46, etc. 

X. The diphthong eu, ew, will be 
treated under w. 

Chap. 2. Consonants 'derived from 

I. Liquids I, m, n, r. 

L is usually single at the end of 
words, though often doubled, as it is 
medially between a short and any 
vowel, but between a long vowel and 
a consonant it remains single. 

The metathesis of B which occurs 
euphonically in ags., is only found in : 
briddes 2931, 10925 ; thrid 2273, 
threttene 7841, thritty 14437 ; thurgh 
2619. But as these words have re- 
gained their primitive forms bird, 
third, through, we perceive that the 
metathesis was accidental. In other 
words the transposed ags. form disap- 
pears in Chaucer, thus : gothic rinnan, 
ags. inian, Chaucer renne 3888 ; 
frankic drescan, ags. bercw, Ch. 
threisshe 538, threisshfoid 3482 ags. 
Jrescvold, )>erscvold ; frank, prestan, 
ags. brrstan, Ch. berst [Harleian and 
Lansdowne bresten Ellesmere and 
Hengwurth, and Corpus, brestyn Cam- 
bridge,] 1982 ; goth. brinnan, ags. bir- 
nan, Ch. bren 2333 ; modern run, 
[urn in Devonshire], thrash, but burn 

II. Labials b, p, f, w. 

B is added euphonically to final m in 

lamb 4879, but not always, as lymes 
4881, now limbs. 

P is used for b in nempnen 4927. 

F, which between two vowels was v 
in ags., is lost in heed 109, ags. hedfod, 
hedvod. There seems to be a similar 
elision of/ from ags. efenfurd in enforce 
2237 [emforth Ellesmere, Hengwrt, 
Corpus, enforte Cambridge, hemforth 
Petworth, enforce Lansdowne], com- 
pare han for haven 754, 1048, etc. F 
is generally final, as : wif 447, lyf 
2259, gaf 1902, haf 2430, stryf 1836 
knyf 3958, more rarely medial, [the 
instances cited have final /in Wright], 
where it is generally replaced by v, 
not found ags., as : wyve 1862, lyves 
1720, geven 917, heven 2441, steven, 
ags. ste'fen 10464; havenes 409. 

V is never used finally, but is re- 
placed by w, followed sometimes by e, 
as : sawgh 2019, draw 2549, now 2266, 
sowe 2021, lowe 2025, knew 2070, 
bliew 10093, fewe 2107, newe 17291, 
trewe 17292. In the middle of a word 
aw, ow are replaced by au, ou, but 
before v, w is retained, as : howve 
3909, schowve 3910. 

7F arises from ags. g, as in : lawe, ags. 
lagu 311 ; dawes, ags. dag, 11492, and 
as day is more common for the last, we 
also find lay for the first, 4796. Com- 
pare also fawe ags. faegen 5802 rhym- 
ing with lawe, i-slawe 945, for fain, 
slain. W also replaces g in : sawe 
1528, 6241, mawe 4906, wawes 1960, 
sorw 10736, morwe 2493, borwe 10910, 
herberw 4143, herbergh 767, 11347. 

III. Linguals d, t, th, s. 

The rule of doubling medial conso- 
nants is neglected if D stands for ags. S, 
as : thider 4564, whider 6968, gaderd, 
togeder, etc., in the preterits dide 
3421, 7073, 8739, and hade 556, 619, 
[Ellesmere and a few MSS. where it 
seems to have been an accommodation 
to the rhymes spade, bladeJ] Similarly 
i-written 161, i-write 5086, although 
the vowel was short in ags. [It is 
lengthened by Bullokar in the xvi th 
century, p. 114, 1. 7-] Perhaps litel 
has a long t in Chaucer's time, see 87, 

S final is often single, as : biis 4842, 
glas 152, amys 17210.) 

The termination es in some adverbs 
is now ce, as : oones 3470, twyes 4346, 
thries 63, hennes hens 10972, 14102, 
henen 4031 [in Tyrwhitt, htytJien 
Ellesmere, heithen Corpus, no cor- 
responding word in Harleian], henne 



2358 ; thennes 5463, 4930, thcnne 
6723; whenncs 12175. 

The aspirate TH had a double cha- 
racter j? *5 in ags., and a double sound, 
which probably prevailed in Chaucer's 
time, although scarcely recognized in 
writing. That th was used in both 
senses we see from : breeth, ags. brae'S 
5 ; heeth, ags. hae'S 6 ; fetheres, ags. 
feiSer 107 ; forth, ags. forS 976 ; walk- 
eth 1054, etc. ; that, ags. baet 10 
ther 43, thanked 927. The use of 
medial and final d for th are traces of 
ft, as : mayde, ags. maegft 69 ; quod, 
ags. cvaS 909 ; wheder ags. hvaSre 
4714 [-whether, Wright] ; cowde ags. 
cut! 94 ; whether and coulpe are also 
found. Again, we also find [in some 
MSS.] the ags. d replaced by th, in : 
father 7937, gather 1055, wether, 
10366, mother 5433, [in all these cases 
Wright's edition has ef]. But t on the 
other hand is never put for ags. J>. 

The relation of th, s, is shewn by 
their flexional interchange in -cth, -es. 

The elision of th gives wher 7032. 

IV. Gutturals, c, k, eh, g, h, j, q, x. 

K is used before e, i, and c before 
a, o, u, hence kerver 1801, kerveth 
17272, but: carf 100. Medial ags. cc 
becomes ck or kk, as nekke, ags. hnecca 
238 ; thikke, ags. Jncca 551 ; lakketh 
2282, lokkes 679. Modern ek after a 
short vowel is sometimes k, as : seke 18, 
blake 2980. 

Grimm lays down the rule that c, k 
fall into ch before e, i except when 
these vowels are the mutates of a, o, u, 
in which cases k remains, (Gram. I 2 , 
515.) cch has arisen from ags. cc in 
the same way as kk, as : wrecche, ags. 
vraecca 11332fecche, ags. fe'ccan (J942 ; 
cacche Mel., strecche, recche, etc. 
Probably the pronunciation was as the 
present tch. 

K was ejected from made, though 
the form maked remains 2526. In 
reule 173, if it is not derived from the 
French, the y of ags. regul, regol, has 
been ejected. 

G was probably always hard, and so 
may have been gg, in : brigge, ags. 
brycg 3920 ; eggyng ags. ecg, 10009 ; 
hegge, ags. hecg 16704. From this 
certainly did not much differ that gg 
which both in Chaucer and afterwards 
passed into z, as : ligge, lye ags. lecgan, 
2207; legge, ags. lecgan, 3935; abegge, 
abeye, ags. bycgan 3936. 

The g and ;/ were often interchanged, 
as give yeve, forgete, forgate, gate yate, 
ayen agen, etc. The y replaced guttural 
g [due to editor] as in : yere, yonge, 
yerne, ey ; and also in words and ad- 
jectives where y arises from iff, as: 
peny, very, mcry, etc., and in the pre- 
fix y or i for ags. ge, as : ylike, ynough, 
ywis, ymade, yslain, ywriten, ysene, 
ysowe 5653. And g we have seen ia 
also interchanged with w. 

The hard sound of ags. h is evident 
from the change of niht, leoht, Jliht, 
viht, etc., into night, light, flight, 
wight, etc. 

Ags. sc had always changed into sh, 
German sch. In some words ssh re- 
places sh as : fresshe, ags. fre'sc 90, 
wessch 2'285, wissh 4873, asshy 2885. 
There is also the metathesis cs or x for 
sc in axe. 

Chap. 3. Vowel mutation, apocope, and 
junction of the negative particle. 

I. There is no proper vowel mutation 
(umlaut), but both the non-mutate and 
mutate forms, and sometimes one or the 
other, are occasionally preserved, as: 
sote 1, swete 5 ; grove 1637, greves 
1497, 1643 to rhyme with leves ; wel- 
ken 9000, ags. wolccn, Germ, wolke ; 
the comparatives and superlatives, 
lenger, strenger, werst, aud plurals, men, 

feet, gees. 

II. Apocope; lite, fro, mo, tho = 

III. Negative junction; before a 
vowel: Mo = ne on, nother, neithir 
ne other, ne either, nis=ne is, nam = 
ne am ; before h or w : nacl = ne had, 
10212, nath = ne hath 925, z7=ne 
will 8522, nolde=ne wolde 552, nere 
=ne were 877, not = ne wot 286, 
tiystcn = ne wysten 10948. 

Chap. 4. Vowels derived from the 

French words with unaltered spelling 
were probably introduced by Chaucer 
himself, and the others had been pre- 
viously received and changed by popu- 
lar use. 

I. The vowel a, in unaccented syl- 
lables had probably even then approxi- 
mated to e, and hence these two vowels 
are often confounded. Thus Chaucer's 
a replaces fr. e, ai, and again Ch. e re- 
places fr. , thus : vasselage [see v as- 
selage, p. 642, col. 2, and wasseyliage, 
p. 645], fr. vasselage 3056, vilanye [see 
villany, p. 642, col. 2, and courtesy t - 
p. 6-14, col. 1], fr. vilenie, vilainie, 



728 ; companye, fr. eompaignie 4554, 
chesleyn [dbHtty*, ehextayn, in MSS., 
see p. '642,] fr. chastaigne 2924. 

With the interchange of the ags. 
rowels 0, o, we may compare the change 
of fr. a, au, the latter having probably 
a rough sound as of ao united, which 
took place before ne, ns, na, nd, nt in 
both languages, but au was more fre- 
quent in Chaucer and a in French, as : 
grevance 11253, grevaunce 15999, and 
other atice and ant terminations, also : 
romauns, fr. romance 15305 ; en- 
haunsen, fr. enhanser 1436 ; straunge 
fr. estrange 10590, 10403, 10381; 
demaundes, fr. demande 8224 ; launde 
fr. lande, uncultivated district, 1693, 
1698 ; tyraunt, fr. tirant 9863, tyrant 
15589 ; graunted 6478, 6595 ; haunt 
fr. hante 449. With the exception of 
the last word all these have now a. 

II. Long e frequently arises from 
French at, as in : plesaunce, fr. plai- 
sance 2487 ; appese, fr. apaisier 8309 ; 
freeltee, fr. fraiiete ; peere, fr. paire 
15540. Sometimes it replaces ie, as : 
nece, fr. niez 14511 ; sege 939, siege 
56 ; and the e is even short in : cherte, 
fr. ehierte 11193. Similarly fr. t is 
omitted in the infinitive termination 
ier, compare arace, crcance, darreine, 
auter, etc.. in the list of obsolete fr. 

Long e also replaces fr. eu in : peple 
2662 [the word is omitted in Harl., 
other MSS. have peple, poeple, puple], 
meblcs [moeblis Harl.] 9188. To this 
we should refer : rcproef 5598, ypreued 
[proved Harl., procued Hengwrt] 487. 

III. That the pronunciation of f 
fluctuated between f and e we see by 
the frequent interchange of these let- 
ters ; the fr. shews e for It. i, as : de- 
vine 122, divyn 15543, divide 15676, 
divided 15720 [Tyr. has devide in the 
first case], enformed 10649, fr. in- 
former, enformer ; defame 8416, dif- 
fame 8606 ; surquidrie snrquedrie, 
chivachee chevachie, see obsolete fr. 
words below. 

IV. Chaucer frequently writes o for 
fr. on in accented syllables, as : cover- 
chefes [most MSS., keverchcfs Harl.] fr. 
couvrechief 455 ; corone, fr. couronne 
2292 ; bocler, fr. boucler 4017 ; govern- 
aunce, fr. gouvernance 10625; sove- 
reyn, fr. souverain 67. More rarely 
Ch. =fr. on, as : turne [most MSS., 
tvurne Harl.], fr. tourner 2456 ; cur- 
tesre, fr. com-toisie 15982. 

V. Fr. o is often replaced by Ch. u, 

as: turment [torment Harl.], fr. tor- 
mente 5265 ; abundauntly, fr. habon- 
dant 5290 ; purveans, fr. porveance, 
pourveance 1667; in assuage 11147, 
fr. assoager, assouager, the u had cer- 
tainly the sound of >, compare aswage 

For long we occasionally find etc, 
which was certainly pronounced as in 
the present feiv, dew, thus : salewith 
[Harl. and the six MSS. read sal 'net h~] 
1494, transmewed [translated Harl., 
transmeeuyd Univ. Cam. Dd. 4, 24] 826 
mewe, fr. mue 351 [miiwe Ellesmere 
and Hengwrt MSS.] jewise, fr. juise 
[juwyse Harl. and most MSS., iives 
Petworth, iwjse Lansd.] 1741. 

VI. The vowels y and are inter- 
changed in fr. as in ags. words. 

VII. The fr. diphthongs ai, oi, 
usually appear as ei in Chaucer, and 
must nave been pronounced identically, 
as: seynte, fr. saint 511; doseyn, fr. 
dosaine 580 ; chesteyn, fr. chastaigne 
2924 ; peyneth, fr. painer, peiner 4740 ; 
coveitous, fr. covoiteux, Mel. These 
diphthongs interchange in Ch. as well 
as in fr. [different MSS. differ BO 
much that Gesenius's references to 
Tyrwhitt's edition on this point are 
worthless]. For the interchange of a 
and ai see I. 

VIII. When the diphthong ou arose 
from fr, o, it was perhaps pronounced 
as long o. This is very probable in 
those words which now contain o or u 
in place of the diphthong, but less so 
iu those which have preserved ou ; as 
these had even then perhaps the sound 
of German au. Ex. noumbre 5607 ; 
facound, fr. faconde 13465, soun, fr. 
son 2434; abounde fr. habonder 16234. 
[The other examples have o in Wright's 
ed., or like^wr 4 are not to the point; 
the above are now all nasal ow.] 

Chap. 5. Consonants derived from the 

The doubling of final consonants is 
frequently neglected. 

I. Liquids. 

[The examples of doubling /, r, are 
so different iu Wright's ed. that they 
cannot be cited.] 

P inserted : dampned 5530, damp- 
nacioun 6649 ; sompne 6929 =somone 
7159, sompnour 6909, solempne 209. 
This p is also often found in old fr. 
Similarly in Provencal dainpna, somp- 
nar, Diez. Gram. 1, 190 (ed. 1.). 



I T. Labials. 

P for b gipser, fr. gibecier 359 ; 
capul, fr. cabal 7732. The letter v, 
which was adopted from the romance 
languages into English, had no doubt 
the same souod as at present, that is, 
it was the German w, and the -w was 
the German u. [That is, Ges. con- 
fuses (v, w) with (bh, u) in common 
with most Germans.] 

As in ags. g passes into German w, 
so in fr. words initial w becomes g or 
ffit. Whether this change was made 
in English by the analogy of the ags. 
elements or from some other dialect of 
old fr., in which probably both forms 
were in use, it is difficult to determine. 
The following are examples : wiket, fr. 
guichet 10026 ; awayt, fr. aguet 7239 ; 
wardrobe, fr. gardcrobe 14983. To 
these appear to belong warice and 
wasieur, though they may derive from 
the frankic warjan wastan. 

III. Linguals. 

Z is an additional letter, but is sel- 
dom used, as lazer 242. Ch. generally 
writes s for z, 

IV. Gutturals. 

C before e, i was probably s as now. 
Fr. <jn now pronounced as German /, 
(nj) is reduced to n in Ch., as Coloyne 
468, feyne 738, barreine, essoine, oine- 
rnent. G was doubled after short 
vowels in imitation of ags. 
The aspirate h, which seems to have 
come from external sources into Eng- 
lish, and was scarcely heard in speech, 
was acknowledged by Ch., but has now 
disappeared, as : abhominaciouns 4508. 
In proheme 7919, the A seems only in- 
serted as a diaeresis. 

Fr. qu before e and f is often changed 
into A, as : phisik 913, magik 418, 
practike 5769, cliket 10025. 

Chap. 6. Apharesis of unaccented 

French e, a. 

Initial e is frequently omitted before 
at, sp, sc, as: stabled, fr. establir 2997; 
spices, fr. espece 3015; specially 14, 
6(]uyer, fr. escuyer 79, scoler. fr. escolier 
262 ; straunge, fr. estrange 13. Similarly 
, e, are rejected in other words where 
they are now received, as : potecary 
14267, compare Italian bottega a shop; 
prentis 14711, pistil 9030, compare 
Italian pistola, chicsa. The initial a 
in avysioun 16600, has been subse- 
quently rejected. 


Chap. 1. On Nouns. 

Chap. 2. On Adjectives. 

Chap. 3. On Pronouns tif Numerals. 

Chap. 4. On Verbs. 


I. Obsolete Chaucerian words of 
Anglomxon origin. 

[All Gesenius's words are inserted, 
though some of them are still in fre- 
quent use, at least provincially, or have 
been recently revived. To all such 
words I have prefixed f. The italic 
word is Chaucer's, the roman word is 
ags., meanings and observations are in 
brackets. Gesenius seems to have sim- 
ply extracted this list from Tyrwhitt's 
Glossary without verification, as he has 
occasionally given a reference as if to 
Cant. Tales, which belongs to Rom. of 
Rose. The Mel. and Pers. T. refer to 
the tales of Melibeus and the Persoun, 
without any precise indication, as edi- 
tions differ so much.] 

abegge abycgan [abide] 3936, abeye 
13515, abye 12622 agrise agrisait 
[frighten] 5034, algates algate algeats 
[in any case] 673, 7619, anhang an- 
hangan [hang on] 13690, at try utterly 
alter atterlic Persons Tale [poisouous] r 
awreke avrecan- [wreak] 10768. 

bale [p. 379J, bar-me bearm Rap] 
10945, bedred oeddredda [bedridden] 
7351, 9168 ; biknowe becnavan [con- 
fess] 5306, btynne blinnan [cease] 13099, 
blyve [quickly, supra p. 380, col. 2], 
bonce [supra p. 380, col. 2 ; where for 
loan read security], bonk bftce [belly] 
2748, byleve frank, pilipan, germ, blei- 
ben, [remain] 10897. 

^chajfare ce&p + faran ? germ, kauf- 
fahren [chaflfer, bargain] 4558, clepe 
clypjan [call) 3432. [name] 121, etc.,. 
eo'lde [to turn cold] 5299, i-cop cop 
[top] 556, dfl/dofjan [daft] 4206, der* 
oerjan [hurt] 1824, 10554, derne dearn 
dyrn [hidden p. 382] 3278, 3297,. 
dighten dihtan [dispose] 6349, 16015, 
\domesman [judge] 15976. 
' eft aft eft [again] 1671, 5212, eft- 
sones [soon again] 6390, eftsoone 16082 r 
feek eac [eke] 5, felde yldo eldo [old 
age] 6797, emforth [supra p. 666, col. 2, 
1. 8,] -^ere erjan [to plough] 888, erme 
earmjan [to pity] 13727, ers, cars are 
[arse] 3732, 7276. 

fele fela feola [many] 8793, fere 
[companionship, supra p. 383], ^Jit fitt 
[song] 15296, feme aflyman [drive 
away] 171H,> floga? [arrow] 17 196, 



CHAP. VII. J 1. 

fonge fangan [take] 4797, forpine 
pinan [waste away] 205, forward fore- 
veard [promise] *831, 850, 854, 4460, 
freyne gefregnan [ask] 123G1, fremcie 
fremcd [strange] 10743. 

galegalan [yell] 6414, 6918, -fyar 
gearvan [make; the word is get in 
HarL, Heng., Corp., gar in Tyrwhitt] 
4130, girdm geard gyrd? [cut off] 
16032, gleede gled [heat] 3379, gnide 
gnidan [so Tyr., girdyng HarL, gig- 
gynge Elles., Cam., gyggynge Heng., 
gydyng Corp. gid-eing Lans., sigyng 
Pet.] 2504, grame grama, ger. gram 
[grief] 13331, greyth hraSjan [pre- 
pare] 4307, graithe 16080. 

hals heals [neck] 4493, halse heals- 
jan [embrace] 15056, [heende frank, 
pihandi, germ, behende [swift ? cour- 
teous, supra p. 385] 3199, 6868, hente 
gehentan [to take] 700, Kent 7082, 
horde hirde [shepherd] 605, 12120, 
Aerie herjan [praise] 5292, 8492, heste 
haes [command] 14055, byheste 4461, 
heete [promised] 2400, htte 4754, ^hight 
[call] 1015, f/n'e higan, on hye [in 
haste] 2981, in hyghe [in haste] 4629. 
him hina [hind p. 385] 605, fholt 
holt, germ, holz [wood] 6. 

jape geap [joke] 707, 4341, 13240, 
[to joke] 15104. 

kithe eySan [announce] 7191, keked 
germ, gucken [Corp., loked HarL, liked 
Heng.] 3445, lettered [delayed] Pers. 
Tale, \leche laece 3902, lydne lyden 
[language] 10749, leemes leoma [ray : 
foemes HarL] 16416, lere laeran [tench] 
6491, 10002, levetie [lightning] lige ? 
more probably than, hlifjan 5858, 
Clewed laevd leaved [ignorant] 6928, 
7590, lisscd lysan [loosed] 11482, [re- 
mission] 11550, lith IrS [limb] 16361, 
lit her ly lv*5r luS [bad], ger. liederlich, 

make maga mag, [husband] 5667, 
[wife] 9698, [match] 2553. 

nempntn nemnan nemjan [name] 
4927, note notu [business] 40G6. 

oned [united] 7550. 

fpan panne [brainpan, skull] 15438. 

rathe liraS hraft [quick] 14510, 
i-t-ccche recan [reck, care] 2247, 4514, 
reed raed [advice] 3527, ['to advise] 
3073, reyse goth. urraisjan [travel] 54, 
rys arisan, germ, reisho'lz [twig] 3324, 
roune run 7132, rowne 10530, rode 
rude [ruddiness, face] 3317, 15138. 

\tta\ce sagu [saying] 1528, schatce 
scuva scua [shade, grove] 4365, 6968, 
f-J>ymeryng sciman scimjan, ger. schim- 
mern, [Heng., glymeryng HarL] 4295, 

scheetie seine sce'one scone, ger. shon 
[beautiful] 1070, 10202, ^litpen scy- 
pen, ger. schoppen [stable] 6453, 
schonde sceonde [disgrace] 15316, 
^sibbe sib [relation] Mel., ikurly 
frank, sihhur, germ, sicher 137, seeur 
[ib.] 9582, sit he si<5 [times] 5575, 5153, 
sithen sith sin si'SiSan 4478, 1817, seth 
5234, sehenchith scencan [pour out 
wine] 9596, smythe smiiSan [forge] 
3760, sonde sand [message, messenger] 
4808, 14630, -f-sparre sparran [spar] 
992, starf stierf [died] 935, 4703, 
steven ste'fen [voice] 10464, stoitnde 
stund [space of time] 3990, -fstreen 
streouan [parents] 8033, swelte sveltan 
[die] 3703, swelde 1358, sit-even svefe'n 
[dream] 16408, etc., sicithe svi'S 
[quicklj r ] 5057. 

\-tcne teona [loss] 3108, thewes ]?eav 
[morals] 8285, tholid J>61jan [suffer] 
7128, -\threpe jircapjan [blame] 12754, 
ticynne tvinjan tveonjan [doubt, sepa- 
rate] 837, 13845. 

unethe eaiSe [uneasily] 3123, unhele 
unhaelu [affliction] 13531, unrig ht un- 
riht [injury] 6675. 

wanlwpe vanjan + hopa [despair] 
1251, welkid vlacjan ? frank, welchon, 
germ, verwelkt [withered] 14153, 
ficelken volcen 9000, [HarL reads 
heven 16217, Tyr. welken], ^wende 
[went] 21, ichil er [^shortly, just now] 
13256, + whilom hvilum, ger. wcilard 
86), icisse visan [shew] 6590, wone 
vunjan [dwell] 337, \\rwid vod [mad] 
1331, woodith [rageth] 12395. 

yenie georne 6575, fyede code [went] 
13069, ywys gewis [certainly] G040. 

II. Obsolete Chaucerian words of 
French origin. 

[The italic word is Chaucer's, the 
roman the old French as given by 
Gesenius on the authority of Roquefort ; 
when this is not added the word was 
unchanged by Chaucer. Meanings and 
remarks are m brackets. This list again 
contains many words not really obso- 
lete, here marked with f-] 

agregge agregier [aggravate] Mel., 
ainoiieste [admonish] Mel., ainentissed 
anientir [annihilated] Mel., arate ar- 
rachier [tear] 8979, -farmy, [order] 
8138, [state, condition] 718, 8841, 
4719, [dress] 8860, [escort] 8821, [to 
put in order] 8837, nrette arester [ac- 
cuse, impute] 726 [HarL, Corp., Pet., 
Lans., have ret, rette, the others na- 
rette], 2731, ^assoile [solve, absolve] 
9528, attempre attcmprcr 16324, Mel., 



avaunte avantcr [boast] 5985, avaun- 
tour [boaster] Mel., avmttrie [adultery] 
6888, advoutrie 9309, outer autier 2294, 
awayt ague* [watch] 7241, 16211, 
ayel aiel [grandfather] \ayel Harl., 
ayell Corp., Lans., aiel Elles, Heng. 
Cam., file Pet.] 2479. 

\bareigne baraigne [barren] 8324, 
lumjH, 1979, \baiulery bauderie [joy] 
1928, \benesoun beneison 9239, blandise 
blandir Pers. T., bobaunce boubance 
6151, borel burel [rough dark dress] 
5938, [rough] 11028, bribe [broken 
meat after a meal] 6960, [beg] 4415, 
burned burnir 1985. 

cantel [fragment] 3010, ^catel catels 
[goods] 542, 4447, ^charbode [carbun- 
cle] 15279, chesteyn chastaigne [chest- 
nut] 2924, chivachie chevauche"e [ca- 
valry expedition] 85, chivachc 16982, 
clergeoun clergeon [acolyte] 14914, 
corruntpable [corruptible] 3012, costage 
[cost] 5831, covine [practice, cunning] 
606, eoulpe [fault] Pers. T., custumance 
[custom] 15997, creaunce creancier 
[act on credit] 14700, 14714. 

dereyne derainier [prove justness of 
claim] 1611, 1633, delyver delivre 
[quick] 84, -^disarray desarray [con- 
fusion] Pers. T., disputisoun disputison 
[dispute] 11202, dole dol [grief, no re- 
ference given, 4'38], drewery drucrie 
[fidelity] 15303. 

egrimoigne agrimoine [agrimony] 
12728, enchcsoun enchaison [cause] 
10770, engcndrure [generation] 6716, 
engregge engreger [aggravate] Pers. T., 
enhorte enhorter [exhort] 2853, -fentent 
[intention] 3173, feschue eschuir 
[avoid] Mel., essoine essoigne [excuse] 
Pers. T., estres [situation, plan of 
house] 1973, 4293. 

faiteur faiteor [idle fellow, no re- 
ference], false falser [to falsify] 3175, 
ifey fee [faith] 3284, t/'* [fierce] 
1600, fetys [beautiful] 157, JSauiice 
fiance [tmst, false reference, 6-167] 
fortune fortuncr [render prosperous] 

garget gargate [neck] 16821, \gent 
[genteel] 3234, gyn engin [trick] 10442, 
13093,^tfrrw<?gisterne guiternc [guitar] 
3333, 4394, gonfenon [standard 6'62, 
ffouiifaticoun 6'37]. 

f harie harier [persecute] 2728 [rent 
"Wr., haried, the Six MSS.], herbtirgnge 
[dwelling] 4327, humbksse [humble- 
ness] 4585. 

jambeux [leggings] 15283, jangle 
jaugler [to jest] 10534, [a jest] 6989, 

jutoise juise [judgment] 1741, irons 
ircux [angry] 7598. 

lachcsse [negligence] Pers. T., letua- 
ries [electuaries] 428, 9683, letterure 
lettreure [literature] 15982, 12774, 
loos los [praise, good fame] 13296, 
Mel., losengour [flatterer] 16812. 

Mahoun Mahon [Mahomet] 4644, 
^maistrie [master's skill] 3383, [mas- 
tery] 6622, 9048, -\-nialison maleiceon 
[malediction] Pers. T., ^manace ma- 
nachcr [menace] 9626, maat mat [sad] 
957, matrimoigne [matrimony] 9447, 
maumet mahommet [idol] Pers. T., 
merciable [merciful] 15099, mesel 
[leper] Pers. T., meselrie [leprosy] Pers. 
T., -fmewe mue [place for keeping birds] 
351, 10957, tnester [mystery, business, 
trade] 615, 1342 [except in Harl., 
which reads cheer."] 

nakers nacaires [kettledrums] 2513, 
nyce [foolish] 6520, nycete 4044. 

\oynement oignement 633, olifaunt 
olifant [elephant] 15219, opye [opium] 

^palmer palmier 13, par age [parent- 
age] 5832, parjight parfyt parfit [per- 
fect] 72, 3011, parte parter [take part 
in] 9504, -^penance [penitence] Pers. 
T., [penance] 223, [affliction] 5224, 
11052, penant [penitent] 15420, po- 
raille [poor people] 247, prow proa 
[profit] 13715, -\purveance pourveance 
[providence, forethought] 1254, 6152, 
3566, puterie [whoredom] Pers. T., 
putour [whoremonger] Pers. T. 

rage ragier [sport] 3273, real [royal] 
15630, rially [royally] 380, reneye 
reneier [renounce] 4760, 4796, rcpeire 
[return] 10903, respite 11886, Bronte 
[crowd] ger. rotte, 624. 

fsolas [joy, pleasure] 800, 3654, 
gourde sourdre [to rise] Pers. T., sur- 
quedrie [presumption] Pcrs. T. 

talent [inclination, desire] 5557, Pers. 
T. tester testiere [horse's head armour] 
2501, texttiel [texted wcl Wr., having 
a power of citing texts] 17167, trans- 
mewe transmuer [frtfiu/afafWr.] 8261, 
trctys traictis [well made, streight AVr.] 
152, \lriacle [remedy] 4899, trine trin 
[triune] 11973. 

vasselarje [bravery] 3056, -\-verray 
[true] 6786, -fversifiour versifieur 
[versifyer] Mel., viage veage [journey] 
77, 4679, \vitaitte [victuals] 3551, void 
voider [to remove] 8786, [to depart] 
11462, [to leave, make empty] 9689. 

warice garir [heal] 12840, [grow 
whole], Mel. f;ras<0Kr gastcur [waster] 



CHAP. VII. 1. 


Dr. Moritz Rapp, at the conclusion of his Vergleichende Gram- 
matik, vol. 3, pp. 166-179, has given his opinion concerning the 
pronunciation of Chaucer, chiefly on a priori grounds, using Wright's 
edition, and has appended a phonetic transcription of the opening 
lines of the Canterbury Tales as a specimen. This account is here 
annexed, slightly abridged, with the phonetic spelling transliterated 
into palaeotype, preserving all the peculiarities of the original, such 
as absence of accent mark, duplication of consonants, German (bh) 
for (w), modern English errors of pronunciation, etc. A few re- 
marks are added in brackets. 

The liquids are to be pronounced as 
written, and hence I is not mute, 
though there is a trace of its disap- 
pearance in the form (iiaf) for (naif). 
The transposition of r is not complete ; 
we again find (renne) for (irnan), and 
(brenne) for (birnan), English (rann, 
twrn), (thurkh) through is unchanged, 
(bird) and (brid) are both used, 
(threshe) replaces (therskan), and 
(breste) replaces (berstan), English 

Among the labials, b remains after 
in in (lamb), but (limm) is without the 
present mute b. For (nemnan) we 
have the peculiar (nempnen), and 
similarly (dampnen) to damn. Final 
f as in (bhiif ) wife, is also written 
medially wire, that is, in the French 
fashion, because v tended towards f in 
the middle ages. But initially, in 
order to preserve the pure German (bh), 
recourse was had to the reduplication 
uu or w. On w after a vowel see 
below. (Bh) sometimes arises from a 
guttural, as sonce, that is, (sorbhe) 
now sorrow = (sorroo), from son?. 

Among the dentals d and t occasion 
no difficulty, and * has, by French in- 
fluence, become pure (s), [Dr. llapp 
holds it to have been (sj) in ags.J 
especially as it sometimes results from 
J>. The z is merely an *. The most 
difficult point is th. In ags., we have 
shewn [supra p. 555, note] that it had 
only one value (th). I consider that 
this is also the case for this dialect. 
As regards the initial sound, which in 
the English pronouns is (dh), there is 
not only no proof of this softening, but 
the contrary results from v. 12589 

So faren we, if I schal say the sothe. 

Now, quod oure ost, yit let me talke 

to the. 

The form sothe has here assumed a 
false French c, since the ags. is (sooth) 

and English (suuth), [it may be the 
adverbial e, or the definite e, according 
as the is taken as the pronoun or the 
definite article,] which must therefore 
have here been called (soothe), as this 
th is always hard, and as to the, i.e. 
(too thw) rhymes with it, shewing that 
the e of sothe was audible if not long, 
and that the th of to the was neces- 
sarily hard, as the English (tuu dhii) 
would have been no rhyme, [but see 
supra p. 318]. Similar rhymes are 
(aluu thee) allow thee, and (juuthe) 
youth, (nii thee) hie thee, and(sbhiithe) 
quickly, [supra pp. 318, 444, n. 2]. The 
Anglosaxon value of the letters must 
be presumed until there is an evident 
sign of some change having occurred. 
For the medial English th we have a 
distinct testimony that the Icelandic 
and Danish softening of d into (dh) 
had not yet occurred, for the best MSS. 
retain the ags. d, thus : ags. (feder) 
here (fader), now (faadher), (gaderaan) 
here (gader) now(gacdhdhar),(togaxicre) 
here (togEder) now (togEdhdhar), (bliE- 
der) here (bhEder) now (uEdhdhar), 
weather, (moodor) here (mooder) now 
(madhdhor) mother, (khbhider) here 
(khbhider) now (huidhdhar) whither, 
(thidcr) here (thider) now (dhidhdhar) 
thither. Inferior MS. have father, 
gather, thither, etc., shewing that the 
softening of d into the Danish (dh) 
began soon after Chaucer. But when 
we find the d in Chaucer it follows as 
a matter of course that the genuine 
old J> (th) as in (broother, fether) when 
here written brother, fether, could only 
have had the sound (th), and could 
not have been pronounced like the 
(bradhdhar, fEdhdhar). The ags. ku\*e 
is here (kuth) and also (kud) or (kuud) 
for (kun-de.) 

Among the gutturals, k is written 
for c when e or i follows, and before 

CHAP. VII. 1. 


as (knEu) knew. The reduplicated 
form is ck. The g is pure (g) in the 
German words, but in French words 
the syllables ye, gi, have the Provencal 
sounds (dzhe, dzhi), which is certainly 
beyond the known range of Norman or 
old French, where g is resolved into 
simple (zh), but here gentil is still 
(dzhentil) not (zhentil). Similarly 
romanic ch is (tsh), and this value 
is applied to old naturalised words, 
in which the hiss has arisen from 
k, as (tshertsh) from (kirk), (tshecp) 
from (keapjfl-n) cheapen, and in 
thoroughly German words (tshild 
from (kild) child ; and (selk) be- 
comes (wtsh) each. Reduplication is 
expressed by eeh, representing the 
sharpened (tsh) [i.e. which shortens the 
preceding vowel] so that (bhrsekka) 
exile becomes wrcechc, and sometimes 
wretch, which can only mean (bhrEtsh) ; 
similarly from (fekkn^ comes (fetshe) 
and in the same way (retshe, stretshe) 
and the obscure eaccht = (katshe), 
which comes from the Norman cachier, 
although (tshase) also occurs from the 
French chasser. The reduplicated g 
occasions some difficulty. In French 
words abbrcgier can only give abregge 
= (bredzhe), and loger gives (lodzhe), 
etc , but the hiss is not so certain in 
brigge bridge, egge edge, point, hegge 
hedge, as now prevalent, because we 
find also ligge and lie from (liggan) 
now (lai), legge and (lEEie) from (leg- 
gan) now (lee), and ( from 
(byggrtn) now (bai). Similarly (bEgge) 
ask, beg, now (bKg), which, as I be- 
lieve, was formed from (buugem) or 
fbEgean) to bow. Here we find mo- 
dern (dzh) and hence the (dzh) of the 
former cases is doubtful. 

The softening of g into (.T) is a 
slighter difference. The letter (j) does 
not occur in ags., and has been replaced 
in an uncertain way by *, g, ge. In 
Chaucer the simple sign y is employed 
[.nore generally 3, the y is due to the 
editor, p. 310], which often goes fur- 
ther than in English, as we have not 
only (leer) a year, but give and (JEVC, 
jf, forjEte, Jt, ajEn, ajEnst) and (EE) 
or (EEI) an egg. 

The termination ig drops its g, as 
(pEni) for penig, and the particle ge 
assumes the form i, as (inuukh) enough, 
(ibhis-) certain, and in the participles 
(itken) taken, (imAAd) made. (islAA) 
or (islEEn) slain, (iseene) seen, (ibhriten) 
written, etc. From (geliikc) comes 

(iliik) or (iliitsh), and the suffixed 
(-liik) is reduced to (li). 

The old pronunciation (qg) must be 
retained for ng, thus (loqg, loqger) or 
(leqger) ; there is no certain evidence 
for (loqq). The French nasal is in pre- 
ference expressed by n. What the 
Frenchman wrote raison and pro- 
nounced (rEEsoq-) is here written resoun 
and called (resuun), as if the (q) were 
unknown. As the termination in 
givende has assumed the form (giving], 
we might conjecture the sound to be 
(giviq), because the form comes direct 
from (givin), as the Scotch and com- 
mon people still say, but we must re- 
member that giving also answers to the 
German Gebung, in which the g is 

We now come to A, which is also 
a difficulty. That initial A before a 
vowel had now become (H') as in Ger- 
man of the xui th century, is very pro- 
bable, because h was also written in 
Latin and French words, and is still 
spoken. Chaucer has occasionally 
elided the silent e in the French fashion 
before A, which was certainly an error 
[was freilich ein Missgriff war ! 
shared by Orrmin, supra p. 490, and 
intermediate writers, who were free 
from French influence.] For the me- 
dial A, the dialect perceived its differ- 
ence from (H'), and hence used the new 
combination gh, known in the old 
Flemish, where the soft (kh) has been 
developed from g. The ags. niht = 
(nikht) became night = (nikht), and 
similarly thurgh = (thurkh). For 
(khlEakhrn) we have lawh, and 
Ifrityh, both =(lAAkh); (sKakh) gives 
sawh = (sAAkh) or seigh = (sEEkh). 
Before I, , r, the ags. A has disap- 
peared, but ags. (khbhiite) is here 
somewhat singularly written white, a 
transposition of hwite. Had A been 
silent it would have been omitted as in 
/tf, AH, hr, but as it was different from 
an ordinary A before a vowel, this ab- 
normal sign for (khbh), formed on the 
analogy of gh, came into use, and 
really signified an abbreviated heavy 
ffhtc. Hence (khbhiite) retained its 
Anglosaxon sound in Chaucer's time. 
[Rapp could not distinguish English w 
from (u), and hence to him wh was 
(HU), the real meaning of wh thus 
escaped him. His theory is that h 
was always (kh) in the old Teutonic 

We have still to consider sk and ks. 



CHAP. VII. 1. 

The former was softened to (sjkj) in 
ags., and hence prepared the way for 
the simple (sh), and this may have 
nearly occurred by Chaucer's time, as 
he writes seh which bears the same re- 
lation to the French c/t = (tsh), as the 
Italian sci to ', s shewing the omission 
of the initial t. Some MSS. use ssh 
and even the present /, the guttural 
being entirely forgotten. The ags. ks 
remains, but sk is still transposed into 
ks in the bad old way, as axe = (akse) 
for (ffske). 

For the vowels, Geseuius has come 
to conclusions, which are partly based 
on Grimm's Grammar, and partly due 
to his having been preoccupied with 
modern English, and have no firm 
foundation. The Englishmen of the 
present day have no more idea how to 
read their own old language, than the 
Frenchmen theirs. We Germans are 
less prejudiced in these matters, and 
can judge more freely. Two conditions 
are necessary for reading old English 
correctly first, to read Anglosaxon 
correctly, whence the dialect arose; 
secondly, to read old French correctly, 
on whose orthography the old English 
was quite unmistakably modelled. 
[The complete catena of old English 
writers now known, renders this asser- 
tion more than doubtful. See supri 
p. 588, n. 2, and p. 640.] 

"We must presume that the old 
French a was pure (a). The ags. a, 
was lower =(). The English ortho- 
graphy paid no attention to this differ- 
ence, and hence spoke French a as (). 
There can be no doubt of this, if we 
observe that this a was lengthened into 
au or aw, the value of which from a 
French point of view was (AA), as it 
still is in English, as straunge, de- 
maunde, tyraunt, grannie, haunte. In 
all these cases the Englishman en- 
deavours to imitate French nasality by 
the combination (AAU). [This au for 
a only occurs before , see supra, p. 
143, and infra Chap. VIII., 3]. 

The old short vowel a hence remains 
(a) as in ags, thus (makjan) is in the 
oldest documents (nwzkie, maki) and 
afterwards (nwke), where the (a) need 
no more be prolonged by the accent 
than in the German machen (nwklrm), 
and we may read (makke). [But see 
Orrmin's tnakenn, p. 492], 

The most important point is that the 
ags. false diphthongs are again over- 
come ; instead of (Ealle) we have the 

older form (fllle), instead of (skuarp) we 
find (shrpe) etc. The nasal (an), as 
in ags., is disposed to fall into (on), as 
(bond, lond, drank, begonuc), etc. 

The greatest doubt might arise from 
the ags. ce or rather (a;) appearing as 
() without mutation ; thus, ags. (tha;t, 
khbhaet, bhajter, smajl) again fall into 
(that, khbht, bhrcter, sml). The mu- 
tation is revoked that means, the ags. 
mutation had prevailed in literature, but 
not with the whole mass of the people, 
and hence in the present popular for- 
mation might revert to the older sound, 
for it is undeniable that although the 
present Englishman says (dhset) vdth 
a mutated a, he pronounces (Hut, 
UAAtar, smAAl) what, water, small, 
without a mutate. In most cases the 
non-mutated form may be explained by 
a flexion, for if (daeg) in ags. gave the 
plural (dflgrts), we may understand how 
Chaucer writes at one time (dEE) day 
and at another (dAA) daw for day, 

Short e remains unchanged as (E) 
under the accent, when unaccented it 
had perhaps become (o). Even in ags. 
it interchanges with i, y, as (tshirtsh) 
or (tshertsh) church. The ags. eo is 
again overcome, for although forms like 
beo, beo]>, still occur in the oldest monu- 
ments, e is the later form, so that 
(stEorra) star again becomes (stErre), 
and (gEolu) yellow gives (julbhe, JE!U), 
(fEol) fell becomes (fsll, fill), etc. A 
short (E) sometimes rhymes with a long 
one in Chaucer, as (mEde, rmle) mea- 
dow, red. Such false rhymes are how- 
ever found in German poetry of the 
xni th century, and they are far from 
justifying us in introducing the modern 
long vowel into such words as (make, 
msae), etc. 

The old long vowel e is here (ee), as 
appears all the more certainly from its 
not being distinguished in writing from 
the short. [Rapp writes e e, but he 
usually pairs e e, a e = (ec e, EE E), the 
(ee) being doubtful, (ee, ee). This 
arises from German habits, but in 
reality in closed syllables (E) is more 
frequent than (e), if a distinction has 
to be made. It would perhaps have 
represented Rapp more correctly to 
have written (ee e, EE e), but I con- 
sidered myself bound to the other dis- 
tribution, although it leads here to the 
absurdity of making (ee, E) a pair]. 
The quantity of the ags. must be re- 
tained, hence (serktzn, kcme) can only 
give (srckc, keen) seek, keen, and from 

CHAP. VII. 1. 



(sbhceie) we also obtain (soote), with 
omitted (ee), compare Norse (scooDt) 
sweet. [The careful notation of quan- 
tity by Ovrmin points him out as a 
better authority for this later period.] 
Long (ee) also replaces ags. <e as (heere, 
see, slrpe) hare, sea, sleep, and the old 
long eo as (swke, leefe \ec\e, deepe, 
tsheese) seek, lief, deep, choose, and 
finally the old long ea as (eels.) from 
(cak), and similarly (grcete, bmie, 
tshwpe) great, bean, cheapen. These 
different (ee) rhyme together and have 
regularly become (ii) in modern Eng- 
lish. There is no doubt about short 
', and long * could not have been a 
diphthong, because the French ortho- 
graphy had no suspicion of such a 
sound. Ags. y is sometimes rendered 
by ui as fuire fire, which, however, 
already rhymes with (miirej and must 
therefore have sounded (fiire). The 
(yy) had become (ii) even in ags., so 
that (bruud) becomes (briide), etc. 
Least of all can we suppose short f in 
(bhilde, tshilde, finde) wUd, child, find, 
to be diphthongal, or even long, as the 
orthography would have otherwise been 
quite different. 

Short o may retain its natural sound 
(o), and often replaces ags. u, thus 
(sumnr) gives (sommer), and (khnut, 
further) give (not, forther) nut, further. 
In these cases the Englishman gene- 
rally recurs to the mutate of (u), to be 
presently mentioned. 

Long o in Chaucer unites two old 
long vowels, (AA) in (Hoome), some- 
times (HAHI), (goost from (gAAst), 
(oothe) from (AAth) oath, (noote) from 
(HAt) ; and the old (oo) in (booke, 
tooke, foote, soothe). Both (oo) rhyme 
together, and must have, therefore, 
closely resembled each other ; they can 
scarcely have been the same, as they 
afterwards separated ; the latter may 
have inclined to (u) and has become 
quite (u). 

The sound of (u) is in the French 
fashion constantly denoted by ou. [But 
see supra p. 425, 1. 3. Eapp is pro- 
bably wrong in attributing the intro- 
duction to French influence.] French 
raison was written raisuit by the Anglo- 
Norman, and resoun by Chaucer, which 
could have only sounded (resuun). A 
diphthong is impossible, as the name 
Cawcasotts Caucasus rhymes with hous, 
and resoitn with toun. Hence the 
sound must have been (HUUS, tuun) as 
in all German dialects of this date. 

Hence we have (fluur) flower for the 
French (floorer). The real difficulty 
consists in determining the quantity of 
the vowel, as it is not shewn by the 
spelling. Position would require a 
short (u) in cases like (shulder, hund, 
stund, bunden) shoulder, old (skulder), 
hound, hour, bound ; but the old 
(sookhte) must produce a (suukhte) 
sought ; and cases like (brukhte, 
thukhte) brought, thought, are doubt- 

On the other hand the vowel written 
, must have been the mutate common 
to the French, Icelander, Dutchman, 
Swede. The true sound is therefore 
an intermediate, which may have fluc- 
tuated between (cc, u, y), (lyst, kyrs) 
desire, curse. These u generally de- 
rive from ags. u, not y. The use of 
this sound in the unaccented syllable is 
remarkable. The ags. (bthjn) has two 
forms of the participle (bathod, bthed). 
Hence the two forms in Chaucer, 
bthyd) or rather (brtthud) exactly as 
in Icelandic [where the = (?), not (u), 
supra p. 548], the second (bathid, 
bthed). Later English, however, 
could not fix this intermediate sound, 
and hence, forced by the mutations, gave 
the short u the colourless natural vowel 
(a), except before r where we still hear 
(?), [meaning, perhaps (go). This theo- 
retical account docs not seem to re- 
present the facts of the case.] The 
above value of short (u) in old Eng- 
lish is proved by all French words 
having this orthography. Sometimes 
Chaucer endeavours to express long 
(yy) by ui, as fruit, where, however, 
we may suspect the French diphthong ; 
but generally he writes nature for 
(nartyyre) without symbolising the 
length. We should not be misled by 
the retention of the pure (u) in mo- 
dern English for a few of these mu- 
tated u, as (full, putt, shudd, fruut). 
These anomalies establish no more 
against the clear rule than the few pure 
(a) of modern English prove anything 
against its ancient value. 

The written diphthongs cause pecu- 
liar difficulties. The combinations ', 
ay, ei, ey, must have their French 
sound (EE), but as they often arise 
from (aeg) there seems to have been an 
intermediate half-diphthongal or triph- 
thongal (EEI) ; thus (dajge) gives (dEEi) 
or (OEE). From cage) we have the 
variants eye, ye, eighe, yghe, so that 
the sound varies as (eac, iije, iie, 



CUAP. VII. 6 1. 

Kikhe, iikhe). Similarly (mikhe) and 
(Hiie) high, and (nEF.kiie, niie) nigh. 
"We have already considered att, aw, to 
have been (A A). The ags. (kgu, Iffkh) 
law, gives laice, which perhaps bor- 
dered on a triphthongal (lAAue). In 
the same way we occasionally find 
(dAAue) day, in two syllables, instead 
of the usual (dsp.), ags. (dreg, Aagas), 
and from ags. (sAAbhl) comes saule = 
(sAAle) and soule, which could have 
only been (suule). The medial <nv 
o, that is, (uu), but before a vowel it 
might also border on a triphthong ; 
thus lowh = (luukh) low, is also written 
lowe = (looue) ? Oughen = (uukhen), 
and also owen = (oouen), now own = 
(con). Similarly groice may have 
varied between (gruue, grooue) and so 
on with many others. These cases 
give most room for doubt, and the 
dialect was probably unsettled. But 
the diphthong eu, ew, leaves no room 
for doubt ; it cannot be French (03) 
for heure hour is here (Hyyre) [proba- 
bly a misprint for (nuure)], and for 
peuple we also find (pcple). On the 
other hand the French beaute, which 
was called (beauts, \>eotee] is here 
written beicte, which was clearly 
(bEuto). Similarly German words, as 
knew, cannot have been anything but 
(kneo, knEu). Similarly (iiEue) new. 
The French diphthong oi as in voii 

Khbhnn that ^4prille bhith His shtnires soot 
The drukht of martsh Hath parsed too the 


And bathyd KTH TEHH in sbhitsh likuur 
Of khbhitsh vertyy- KiulzliKndred is the 

fluur, 4 

Khbban Scflrys <rck bhith HIS sbheete breeth 
Enspiiryd Hath in Evri nolt and Heeth 
The tKndre kroppes, and the joqge sonne 
Hath in the Ham uis nalfe kurs irouue, 8 
.And smnle fuules mnken melodiie 
That sleepen ol the nikht bhith oopen iie, 
800 priketh H>;m natyyr- in HW korndzhcs, 
Than loqgen folk too gon on pilgrimadzhes, 
-Ind palmers for too sctken strAAudzbe 

strondes 13 

Too fwne nalbhes, kuuth- in sondri londes, 
And spesiolli from Kvri ghiirrs Knde 
Of Eqprlond too Kontyrbyri thee bhr.nde 16 
The Hooli blissfyl mnrtir for too st-rke 
That HKHI north Holpen khbhan that thee 

hheer wcke. 

Bif nil that in that sesuun on a dRK 
In Suuth-bhRrk at the tnbbard os ii IKE, 20 
Kftdi too bhxnden on mii pilgrimndzhe 
Too Ktentyrb-ri bhith fyl devuut kra<lzhe, 
At nikht bhas kom intoo that hostelriie 
Bhsl niin and tbhEnti in a kompaniie 24 
Of sondri folk bii nventyyr- ifalle 
In f Klrtship, and pilffriras bhcr bhi alle 
TAat tobhrd KantjTbyri bholdon riide. 
The Chambers aiid the stables bherren 

bhiide. 28 

voice, was taken over unaltered, and 
also replaces romanic ', which was 
too far removed from English feelings ; 
we have seen fruit pass into (fryyt, 
fraut) ; eimui/er becomes (anoi) and 
destntire is written destruie, destric, 
but had the same sound (destroi). 

As regards the so-called mute e, it 
was undeniably historical in Chaucer 
and represented old inflections, yet it 
was, with equal certainty, in many 
cases merely mechanically imitated 
from the French. But we cannot scan 
Chaucer in the French fashion, with- 
out omitting or inserting the mute e at 
our pleasure, and in a critical edition 
of the poet, the spoken e only ought to 
be written. What was its sound when 
spoken ? Certainly not (a) as in 
French, but a pure (e) with some in- 
clination to (i). This is shewn by the 
rhyme (soothe, too thee) already cited, 
and many others, as clerltes, derk is ; 
(diwd is, deedes) etc. At present 
Englishmen pronounce this final e in 
the same way as i, and in general e,i 
present as natural a cuphonicum as the 
French (a). 

The following are the opening lines 
of the Canterbury Tales reduced to a 
strict metre. 

[Some misprints seem to occur in 
the original, but I have left them uu- 

AnA bhul bhe bheeren e<>syd atte bEste, 
^4nd shortli khbhan the sonne bhfls too reste 
Soo Had ii spoken bhith rvritsh-oon 
That ii bhas of H>:V fElnship a'noon 32 

And niAAde forbbnrd Krli too ariise 
Too tnk- uur bhkiK th>;r as ii juu debhiisc, 
Byt nAAtheLEss, khbhiils ii nabh tiim and 


Or that ii fErther in this tale pase 36 

Me thiqketh it akordant too resuuu 
Too U'lle juu all the kondiiduun 
.4nd khbhitsh thee bbeeren and of khb/tat 


Of eetsh of Hwn, soo as it seemed mre 40 
^Ind eek in khbhat orriiE that thee bheer- 


^Ind at a knikht than bhol ii first beginne. 
A knikht thEr hhas and that a bhorthi 


That from the tiime that He first bigan 44 
Too riiden uut He loved tshivalriie 
Truuth and Ronunr, freedoom and kyrtosiie. 
Fyl bhorthi bhas He in His lordes bhp.rre 
^Ind thKrtoo Kodd He riden nooman fr-rre 48 
AK bhxl in kristendoom as HeetheiiEsse 
^tnd v.ver Honutird for His bhorthinKSse. 
At Alisindr- He bhns khbhan it bhas bhonne. 
Fyl ofte tiim He uadd the bord bigonne 52 
A\>o\en alle nasiuuns in Pryse, 
In Lettwou nadde rr.Ksed and in Ryse 
N'oo kristen man soo oft of His degree, 
lu Gunad- alte biidzhe nadd Be bee, 66 


At mortal batEEls nadd we been fiifteene fil Bhith lokkes kryll- as the* bliEr iKEd in 
AnA fukhten for uur fEKth at Tramasseene, prtsse, 

In listes thriies and EK t-lr.En His foo. Of tbhp.nti jeer He bhas of nd/h- ii gesse 

This ilke bhorthi knikht uadd been alsoo 64 Of ids statyyr- He bhs of Even iKqthe 83 

Somtiime bhitA the lord of Palatiie AnA. bhondyrli delivr- and greet of strsqthe 

ASK-KO. another neethen in Tyrkiie, ,4nd He hadd been somtiim'in tshivatshiie 

And Kvermoor He Hadd a SOVTEEII priis. Jn Flandre*, in Artsis and Pikordiie, 

.dnd thukh that He bhas bhorthi He bhas And. born Him blu:!, as in soo litel spase 

bhiis, 68 In Hop top stonden in his ladi graee. 

And of His port os miik as is a meed. Embruudid bhas ne as it bheer a niEde 88 

He nsver jit a vilonii ne sEKd Al fyl of fi-Eshe fluures, khbhiit- and reede. 

In al nis liif, yntoo noo maner bhikht. Siqgiqg He bhas or fluutiqg al the dEE, 

He bhas a VEITEK pxrflkht dzhsntil knikht. He bhas as frEsh as is the moonth of niKE, 92 

Byt for too tulle juu of nU an-EE, 73 Short bhas His guun bhith sleeves loqg and 

His HOI-S bhas good, byt He ue bhas nukht bhiide, 

gEK, BhEl kuud He sitt- on nors and fr-Ere riide, 

Of fystian He bhEred a dzhepuun He kuud soqges bhEl make and eudiite, 

Al bisiuoteryd bhith nis Haberdzhuun, 76 Dyliystn- and eek UAAIIS- and bhr.l pyrtrEE 
For He bhas latkomen from Bis viad/he and bhriite. 96 

^.nd bliKuta for too doon nis pilgrimadzhe. Soo Hoot HB lovde, that bii nikhter-tale 

Bhith Him thsr bhas his son, a joqg lie sleep nomoor than dooth a nikhtiqgale. 

skbhieer, KyrtEES He bhas, lukhli (or loouli) and 
A lovjer and a lysti batsheleer 80 SErvisable 

And karf befurn His fadyr at the table. 100 

If in the above we read (ee, e) and (oo, o) for (ee, e] and (oo, o\ 
and (e) for (E) which is a slight difference, and also (, t) for (ii, i), 
and do not insist on () for (a), and also read (w, wh) for the un- 
English (bh, khbh), the differences between this transcript and 
my own, reduce to 1) the treatment of final e, which Eapp had not 
sufficiently studied ; 2) the merging of all short u into (y), certainly 
erroneous ; 3) the indistinct separation of the two values of ou into 
(uu, oou), and 4) the conception of (EE), an un-English sound, as 
the proper pronunciation of ey, ay as distinct from long e. It is 
remarkable that so much similarity should have been attained by 
such a distinctly different course of investigation. 


The application of the results of Chapter IV. to the exhibition 
of the pronunciation of the prologue, has been a work of great 
difficulty, and numerous cases of hesitation occurred, where analogy 
alone could decide. The passages have been studied carefully, and 
in order to judge of the effect, I have endeavoured to familiarise 
myself with the conception of the pronunciation by continually 
reading aloud. The examination of older pronunciation in Chap. 
Y., has on the whole confirmed the view taken, and I feel con- 
siderable confidence in recommending Early English scholars to 
endeavour to read some passages for themselves, and not to pre- 
judge the effect, as many from old habits may feel inclined. As 
some difficulty may be felt in acquiring the facility of utterance 
necessary for judging of the effect of this system of pronunciation, it 
may not be out of place to give a few hints for practice in reading, 
shewing how those who find a difficulty in reproducing the precise 
sounds which are indicated, may approximate to them sufficiently 
for this purpose. These instructions correspond to those which I 
have given in the introduction to the second edition of Mr. R. 
Morris's Chaucer. 

The roman vowels (a, e, o, u) must be pronounced as in Italian, 


with the broad or open e, o, not the narrow or close sounds. They 
are practically the same as the short vowels in German, or the 
French short a, e, o, ou. The (a) is never our common English a in 
fat, that is (a?), but is much broader, as in the provinces, though 
Londoners will probably say (33). For (0) few will perhaps use 
any sound but the familiar (o). The (u) also may be pronounced 
as (), that is, u in lull or oo in foot. The long vowels are 
(aa, ee, oo, uu) and represent the same sounds prolonged, but if 
any English reader finds a difficulty in pronouncing the broad and 
long (ee, oo) as in Italian, Spanish, Welsh, and before r in the 
modern English mare, more, he may take the easier close sounds 
(ee, 00} as in male, mole. The short (t) is the English short in 
pit, and will occasion no difficulty. But the long (ii) being un- 
usual, if it cannot be appreciated by help of the directions on p. 
106, may be pronounced as (ii), that is as ee in feet. The vowel 
(3T) which on ^7 ccurs l n gj is the long French u, or long German 
ii. The final (-e) should be pronounced shortly and indistinctly, 
like the German final -e, or our final a in China, idea, (supra p. 119, 
note, col. 2), and inflectional final -en should sound as we now pro- 
nounce -en in science, patient. It would probably have been more 
correct to write (B) in these places, but there is no authority for 
any other but an (e) sound, see p. 318. 

For the diphthongs, (ai) represents the German at, French, al 
Italian ahi, Welsh ai, the usual sound of English aye, 1 when it is 
distinguished from eye, but readers may confound it with that 
sound without inconvenience. The diphthong (au) represents the 
German au, and bears the same relation to the English ow in now, 
as the German ai to English eye, but readers may without incon- 
venience use the sound of English ow in now. Many English 
speakers habitually say (ai, au) for (ai, au) in eye, now. The diph- 
thong (ui) is the Italian ui in lui, the French out nearly, or more 
exactly the French out taking care to accent the first element, and 
not to confound the sound with the English we. 

The aspirate is always represented by (H H), never by (h), which 
is only used to modify preceding letters. 

( J j) must be pronounced as German j in ja, or English y in yea, 
yawn, and not as English/ in just. 

The letters (bdfgklmnprstvwz) have their 
ordinary English meanings, but it should be remembered that (g) 
is always as in gay, go, get, never as in gem; that (r) is always 
trilled with the tip of the tongue as in ray, roe, and never pro- 
nounced as in air, ear, oar ; and also that (s) is always the hiss in 
his* and never like a (z) as in his, or like (sh). The letter (q) has 
altogether a new meaning, that of ng in sing, singer, but ng in 
finger is (qg). 

1 This word is variously pronounced, text is generally used in the South of 

and some persons rhyme it with nay. England, but this pronunciation is per- 

In taking votes at a public meeting the haps unknown in Scotland, 
sound intended to be conveyed in the 


(Th, dli) represent the sounds in thin, then, the modern Greek 6 S- 

(Sh, zh) are the sounds in mesh measure, or pisA, vision, the 
Fr. ch,j. 

(Kh, gh) are the usual German ch in ach and g in Ta^e. But 
careful speakers will observe that the Germans have three sounds 
of ch as in ich, ach, auch, and these are distinguished as (/th, kh, 
kwh) ; and the similar varieties (^rh, gh, gwh) are sometimes found. 
The reader who feels it difficult to distinguish these three sounds, 
may content himself with saying (kh, gh) or even (H { ). The (kM?h) 
when initial is the Scotch quh, "Welsh chtc, and may he called 
(khw-) without inconvenience. Final (g^h) differs little from 
(wh) as truly pronounced in when, what, which should, if possible, 
be carefully distinguished from (w). As however (wh) is almost 
unknown to speakers in the south of England, they may approxi- 
mate to it, when initial, by saying (H'U), and, when final, by 
saying (UH'). 

The italic (w) is also used in the combination (k?) which has 
precisely the sound of qu in queen, and in (rw) which may be pro- 
nounced as (rw), without inconvenience. 

(Tsh, dzh) are the consonantal diphthongs in chest jest, or snck 

The hyphen (-) indicates that the words or letters between which 
it is placed, are only separated for the convenience of the reader, 
but are really run on to each other in speech. Hence it frequently 
stands for an omitted letter (p. 10), and is frequently used for an 
omitted initial (H), in those positions where the constant elision of 
a preceding final -e shews that it could not have been pronounced 
(p. 314). 

These are all the signs which occur in the prologue, except the 
accent point (), which indicates the principal stress. Every sylla- 
ble of a word is sometimes followed by (), as (naa'tyyr), in .order 
to warn the reader not to -slur over or place a predominant stress 
on either syllable. Por the same reason long vowels are often 
written in unaccented syllables. 

If the reader will bear these directions in mind and remember 
to pronounce with a general broad tone, rather Germanesque or 
provincial, he will have no difficulty in reading out the following 
prologue, and when he has attained facility in reading for him- 
self, or has an opportunity of hearing others read in this way, he 
t/ill be able to judge of the result, but not before. 

The name of the poet, Geoffrey Chaucer, may be called (Dzhef'rai' 
Tshau'seer), but the first name may also have been called (Dzhef*- 
ree 1 ), see supra p. 462. The evenness of stress seems guaranteed 
by Gower's even stress on his own name (Guu'eer), but he uses 
Chaucer only with the accent on the first syllable, just as Chaucer 
also accents Gower only on the first. 



is prefixed to lines containing a defective first measure. 

4- is prefixed to lines containing two superfluous terminal syllables. 

iii is prefixed to lines containing a trissyllabic measure. 

vij is prefixed to lines of six measures. 

ai' is prefixed to the lines in which saynt appears to be dissyllabic. 

(') indicates an omitted e. 

Italics point out words or parts of words of French origin. 

Small capitals in the text are purely Latin forms or words. 


Whan that April with his schoures swote 

The drought of March hath perced to the rote 

And bathed' ev'ry veyn' in swich licour, 

Of which vertu engend'red' is the flour ; 4 

"Whan ZEPHYRS, eek, with his swete hrethe 

Inspired.' hath in ev'ry holt' and hethe 

The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne 

Hath in the Ram his halfe cours ironne 8 

And smale foules maken melodye 

That slepen al the night with open ye, 

So pricketh hem natur* in her' corages ; 

Than longen folk to goon on pilgrymages, 1 2 

And palmeer's for to seken strawnge strondes 

To feme halwes couth' in sondry londes ; 

And speciality, from ev'ry schyres ende 
iii Of Engelond, to Cawnterbery they wende, 16 

The holy blisful martyr for to seke. 

That hem hath holpen whan that they wer' seke. 
Bifel that in that sesoun on a day' 

In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, 20 

Redy to wenden on my pilgrymage 
iii To Cawnterbery with ful devout corage, 

At night was com' into that hostelrye 

"Wei nyn' and twenty in a companye 24 

Of sondry folk', by aventur' ifalle 

In felawschip', and pilgrim's wer' they alle, 

That toward Cawnterbery wolden ryde. 

The chambres and the stabeVs weren wyde, 28 

And wel we weren esed. atte beste. 

And schortly, whan the sonne was to reste 

So hadd' I spoken with hem ev'rych oon, 

That I was of her' felawschip' anoon, 32 

Preliminary Note. ferred to thus : E. Ellesmere, He. 

Seven MSS. only are referred to, Hengwrt, Ca. Cambridge, Co. Corpus, 

unless others are specially named. P. Petworth, L. Lansdowne. 
Ha. is the Harl. 7334, as edited by 

Morris. ''The Six MSS." are those 1 Defective first measure see p. 

published by the Chaucer Society, and 333, note 1. The six MSS. do not 

edited by Fnrnivall. They are re- favour any other scheme, but all write 



(it) See pp. 106, 271, readers may say (ii) for convenience, p. 678. 

(oo) See p. 95, readers may read (oo, a) for (oo, o) for convenience, pp. 678. 

(-) Initial often indicates an unpronounced (H), and that the word is run on 

to the preceding ; at the end of a word it denotes that it is run on to 

the following. 

/n t r o d u k* s *'u u n\ 

"Whan dhat Aa'pm'l w'th -is shuures swoot'e 
Dhe druuktfht of Martsh Hath pers-ed too dhe root'e, 
And baadlred evm vain m swi'tsh liY'kiiur, 
Of wlu'tsh vertyy endzhen'dred is dhe fluur ; 4 

Whan Zef'mis, eek, w/th -'s sweet'e breeth'o 
/nspnred Hath m evrtV Holt and neetlre 
l)he ten'dre krop'es, and dhe Juq/e siure 
Hath in dhe Ram -is nalre knurs mure, 8 

And smaal'e fuul'cs maak'en melodw'e, 
Dhat sleep'en al dhe n/X'ht with oop'en ii'c, 
Soo prik'eth nem naa'tyyr' m Her koo-raadzh-es ; 
Dhan loq'en folk to goon on ptTgn'maadzh-es, 12 

And pal'meerz for to seek'en stranndzh-e strond'es, 
To fenre nal-wes kutith tn sun-dii lond-es ; 
And spes'ialzV, from evm shtYres end'e 
Of Eq'elond, to Kaun'terber-u dhai vrcnd-e, 16 

Dhe noo'ltV bh's'ful mar'tzVr for to seek'e, 
Dhat Hem Hath nolp'en, whan dhat dhai weer seek'e. 

B/fel p dhat m dhat see 'sunn' on a dai 
At Suuth-werk at dhe TaVard' as Ii lai, 20 

Eeed'n to wcnd'en on mi pzl'grz'maadzh'e 
To Katur.terbertV w/th ful devuut- koo-raadzh'e, 
At nikht was kuum in too dhat os*telr*V'e 
Weel nVn and twen'tiV in a kum'panj're 24 

Of sun'divV folk, biV aa'ventyyr tial'e 
In fel'auahiVp, and pt'l'grnnz wcr dhai al*e, 
Dhat too'werd Kaun'terber'n wold'en rtVd'e. 
Dhe tshaanvberz and dhe staa'b'lz wee Ten wtVd'e, 28 
And weel we wee'ren ees'ed at'e best'e. 
And short'hV, whan dlie sun'e was to rest'e 
Soo Had /*' spook'en with -em evnVtsh oon, 
Dhat /*' was of -er fel'aushfYp anoon, 32 

or indicate a final e to April, which French pronunciation had been imi- 

is against Averil 6128, April 4426. tated. The verse is wanting in Ca. 

8 Ram. See Temporary Preface to which however reads Cann. in v. 769. 

the Six Text Edition of Chaucer, p. 89. 18 whan that, L. alone omits 

16 Cawnterbery. E. He. Co. t h a t, and makes w e r e a dissyllable, 

and Harl. 1758, write Caun. % and P. which is unusual, and is not eupho- 

indicates it. It would seem as if the nioua in the preient case. 






And made foorward eerly for to ryse, 

To talc' our' wey theer as I you devyse. 

But natheles whyl's I hav' tym' and space, 

Eer that I ferther in this tale pace, 36 

Me thinketh it accordawnt to resoun 

To tellcn you al the condicioun 

Of ecch' of hem, so as it seined' me ; 

And -which they weren, and of what degre, 40 

And eek in what array that they wer' inne, 

And at a knight than wol I first beginne. 


A Knight ther -was, and that a worthy man, 

That fro the tyme that he first bigan 44 

To ryden out, he loved' chtialrye, 

Trouth and honour, fredoom and curteysye. 

Ful worthy was he in his lordes werre, 

And theerto hadd' he ridden, no man ferre, 48 

As weel in Cristendom as hethenesse, 

And ever' honour' & for his worthinesse. 

At AlisawncFr he was whan it was wonne, 

Ful ofte tym' he hadd' the loord bigonne 62 

Aboven aUe nacioum in Pruse. 

In Lettoio* hadd' he reysed and in Ruse, 

No cristen man so oft' of his degre. 

At Gernad' atte seg 1 eek hadd' he be 56 

Of Algesir, and ridden in Palmy rye 

At Lyeys was he, and at Satalye 

"Whan they wer' worm' ; and in the Grcte Se 

At many a noVl aryve* hadd' he be. 60 

At mortal latayTs hadd' he been fiftene, 

And fowghten for our' feyth at Trama&sene. 

In Hates thryes, and ay slayn his fo. 

This ilke worthy knight hadd' ben also 64 

Somtyme with the lord of Palatye, 

Ayeyn another hethen in Turkye : 

And evremor' he hadd' a sov'rayn prys. 

And thowgh that he wer* worthy he was wys, 68 

33 foorward, promise. No 
W S. marks the length of the vowel in 
foor, but as the word came from 
foreweard, it would, according to the 
usual analogy, evidenced by the mo- 
dern pronunciation of fore, have be- 
come lengthened, and the long vowel, 
after the extinction of tho e, becomes 
useful in distinguishing the word from 
forward, onward, for to ryse 
is the reading of the six MSS. 

36 eer, E. He. L. read , the 
others or ; in either case the vowel was 
probably long as in modem ere. 

38 tellen, theMSS.have telle, 
the n has been added on account of the 
following y. 

46 curteysye, soE. He. Ca., 
the rest have curtesye; the ey 
has been retained on account of 
c u r t e y s. See Courtesy, p. 644. 

56 e e k is inserted in the six MSS. 

57 Palmyrye, the MSS. have 
all the unintelligible Belmarye. 
This correction is due, I believe, to 
Mr. "W. Aldis Wright, who has kindly 
favoured me with his collation of v. 
15733 in various MSS. 


And maad'G foorward eerlii for to riis-e, 

To taak uur wai dhecr as li juu deviz's'e. 

But naa'dheles, whi/ls li -aav tizni and spaas'c, 

Eer dhat /*' ferdh-er in dhis taaie paas-e, 30 

Methiqk'eth it ak'ord-aunt* to ree-suun' 

To tel'en Juu al.dhe kondis'iumr 

Of eetsh of Hem, soo as it seenved mee, 

And whitsh dhai wee'ren, and of what dee'grcc', 40 

And eek in what arar dhat dhai wer in'e 

And at a kni/fcht dhan wol li first begin-e. 

1. Dhe Kniiht. 

A kniht dheer was, and dhat a wurdh'ii man, 

Dhat froo dhe tiinre dhat -e first bzgan- 44 

To rz'id'en nut, nee luved tshii-valrz're, 

Truuth and on'uur, free'doom* and knr'taisii'c. 

Ful wurdh'ii was -e in -is lord'es wer'e, 

And dheer'to.nad -e n'd'en, noo man fer'e, 48 

As weel in Krist'endoonv, as seedlrenes'e, 

And ever on'uurd 1 for -is wurdh'iines'e. 

At Aa'liisaun'dr -e was whan it was wun*e, 

Pul oft'e tiim -e sad dhe boord bigun-o ,52 

Abuuven al'e naa'siuunz- in Pryys'e. 

In Let-oou Had -e raiz-ed and in Eyys'e, 

Noo krist'en man soo oft of His dee'gree'. 

At Gernaad' at'e seedzh eek Had -e bee 56 

Of Al'dzheesiir, and rid'en in Pal'mmre. 

At Lii'ais was -e, and at Saa'taalii'e 

Whan dhai wer wun ; and in dhe Greet-e see 

At mau'i a noob'l- aa-rirvee- Had -e bee. 60 

At rnortaal' bat'ailz' Had -e been fifteen-e 

And foukw?ht*en for uur faith at Traa f maascen'e 

7h Iz'st'es thrii'es, and ai slain -is foo. 

Dhis ilk'e wurdh'ii knight -ad been alsoo* 64 

Sumtiim'e with dhe lord of Paa'laatii'e, 

Ajain anudh'er needh'en in Tyrkii'e : 

And evremoor* -e Had a suvrain priis. 

And dhooukwh dhat nee wer wurdh'ii nee was wiis, 68 

Cenobia, of Palmire the queene, 

Harl. 7334. 
Cenobie, of Palymerie Qucne, 

Univ. Cam. Dd. 4. 24. 
Cenobia, of Palimerye queene, 

Do. Gg. 4. 27. 
Cenobia, of Palymer ye quene, 

Do. Mm. 2. 5. 
Cenobia, of Belmary quene, 

Trin. Coll. Cam. E. 3. 19. 
Cenobia of Belmary quene, 

Do. R. 3. 15. 
Cenobia, of Palemiiie the quene, 

Do. K. 3. 3. 

The trissyllabic measure was over- 
looked in the enumeration on p. 648, 

SUb. -frtt. 

60 aryve*, so Ha. and Ca., the 
others have armeye, arme, for 
which the word n o b 1' will have to 
be n o b e 1, in two syllables, which 
is not usual before a vowel, and the 
construction to be at an arme, 
seems doubtful, while to be at an 
a r y v e e or landing in the G r e t e 
S e is natural. 

C8 wer', so E. He. Ca., the others 
was. - 


And of his poort' as meek as is a mayde. 

J^e never yit no vilayny' he seyde 

In al his lyf, unto no maner' wight. 

He was a veray perfyt gentil knight. 72 

But for to tellen you of his aray, 

His hors was good, hut he ne was not gay. 

Of fustian he wered' a gipoun, 

Al hismoter'd with his hawbergeoun. 76 

iii For he was laat' yeomen from his vyage, 

And wente for to doon his pilgrymage. 


"With him ther was his son', a yong Squyeer, 
iii A lovieer, and a lusty bacheleer, 80 

"With lockes crull' as they wer 5 leyd' in presse. 

Of twenty yeer he was of aag' I gesse. 

Of his itatur* he was of ev'ne lengthe 
iii And wonderly deliver, and greet of strengthe. 84 

And he hadd' hen somtym' in chivachye 

In Flawndres, in Artoys, and Picardye, 

And hoorn him weel, as in so lytel space, 
iii In hope to stonden in his lady grace. 88 

JZmbrouded. was he, as it wer' a mede 

Al ful of fresc/tc foures whit' and rede. 

Singing* he was, or^oMring' al the day; 

He was asfresch as is the mon'th of May. 92 

Schort was his goun, with sieves long and wyde. 

"Weel coud' he sitt' on hors, and fayre ryde. 

He coude songes mak' and weel eridyte, 

Just' and eek daicnc?, and weel purtray 1 and wryte. 96 

So hoot he loved', that by nightertale 

He sleep no moor' than dooth a nightingale. 

Curteys he was, lowly, and servisabel, 

And carf bifoorn his t'ader at the label. 100 


A Yeman hadd' he and servaicnfs no mo, 

At that tym', for him liste ryde so ; 

And he was clad in coot' and hood' of grene. 

A scheef of pocock arwcs bright' and kene 104 

Under his belt' he baar ful thriftily. 

"Weel coud' he dress' his tackel yemanly, 

His arwes drouped' nowght with fethres lowe, 

And in his hond he baar a mighty bowe. 108 

A notheed hadd' he, with a broun visage. 

Of wodecraft weel coud' he al th' mage. 

90 f re she was not counted in the enumeration will be piven in a foot- 
enumeration of the fr. words p. 651. note to the last line of the Prologue. 
In correcting the proofs several other 109 notheed, a closely cropped 
omissions hare been found and a new poll. Tondrr, " to sheere, clip, cut, 


And of -is poort as meek as is a maid-e. 

!N"e never jit noo virlainii- -e said'e 

In all -is liif, untoo' noo man-eer mifcht. 

He was a verai perfiit dzhen'til kni'Aht. 72 

But for to tel'en juu of nis wear, 

His Hors was good, but nee ne was not gai, 

Of fus-tiaan- -e weered a dzhii'puun-, 

Al bismoot'erd with, -is nau'berdzhuun* 76 

For see was laat ikunren from His vt'i'aadzlre, 

And went'e for to doon -is pjTgrimaadzh'e. 

2. Dhe 

With Him dheer was -is suun, a juq 

A luvieer, and a lust'ii baa'tsheleer', 80 

With lok-es kml as dhai wer laid in pres'e. 

Of twen-tii Jeer -e was of aadzh li ges'e. 

Of sis staa'tyyr -e was of eevne leqth'c, 

And wun-derl?V deliver, and greet of streqtb/e. IW 

And nee -ad been sumtiim' in tslui'vaatshi're 

In Flaun*dres, in Ar'tuis*, and P/i'kardii'e, 

And boorn -im weel, as in soo lii't'l spaas'e, 

In Hoop'e to stond'en in -is laad'n graas'e. 88 

Embruud'ed was -e, as it wer a meed'e 

Al ful of fresh'e fluur-es, wbiit and reed'e. 

Siq'iq* -e was, or fluu'tiq*, al dlie dai ; 

He was as fresh as is dhe moonth of Mai. 92 

Short was -is guun, with sleeves loq and wiid'e. 

"Weel kuud -e sit on nors, and farre rz'id'e, 

He knud'e soq-es maak and weel endiit'e, 

Dzhust and eek dauns, and weel purtrai' and rnit'e. 96 

So Hoot -e luved dhat bii ni^ht'ertaal'e 

He sleep noo moor dhan dooth a niArht'iqgaal'e. 

Kur'tais' -e was, lopu'lii', and ser'viis'aa'b'l, 

And karf bifoonr -is faad'er at dhe taa'b'l. 100 

3. Dhe Jee'man. 
A Jee'man Had -e and servaunts- noo moo, 
At dhat tiim, for -im list'e riid'e soo ; 
And nee was klad in koot and nood of green'e. 
A sheef of poo-kok ar'wes bright and keen'e 104 

Un'der -is belt -e baar ful thrift'tli'i. 
Weel kuud -e dres -is tak 1 '! jee'manlii ; 
His ar'wes druup'ed noukM?ht with fedlrerz loou'e, 
And in -is nond -e baar a mi^h'tii boou'e. 108 

A not'Heed Had -e, with a bruun vii'saadzh'e. 
Of wood'eki-aft weel kuud -e al dh- yy saadzh'e. 

powle, nott, pare round," Cotgrave. south of Scotland as a term of derision, 

See Athenmim, 15 Maj', 1869, p. 678, synonymous w-ith blockhead. Nott in 

col. 3. " Not-head is broad, bull- Dunbar, notct iu Burns, oxen 

headed. Fowt-head is used in the V.J.A." Ibid., 5 June, 1869, p. 772, 


Upon his arm' he baar a gay braceer, 

And by his syd' a swerd and a boucleer 112 

And on that other syd' a gay dagger 

JIarneyscd. weel, and scharp as poynt of sper' ; 

A Cristofr* on his brest' of silver schene. 

An horn he baar, the lawdrik was of grene j 116 

Aforsteer was he soothly, as I gesse. 


Ther was also a Nonn\ a Pryoresse, 

That of hir' smyling' was ful simp I and coy ; 
a'i Hir* gretest ooth was but by Saynt Loy ; 120 

And sche was cleped madam 1 Englentyne. 

Ful weel sche sang the servyse divyne, 
iii Entuned in hir* noose ful semely ; 

And Frensch sche spaak ful fayr' and^wly, 124 

After the scool' of Stratford atte Bowe, 

For Frensch of Paris was to hir' unknowe. 

At mete weel ytawght was sche withalle ; 

Sche leet no morsel from hir' lippes falle, 128 

Ne wett' hir' finger's in hir' sawce depe. 
iii Weel coud' sche car? a morsel, and weel kepe, 
That no droppe fil upon hir' breste. 
iii In curteysye was set ful moch' hir leste. 1 32 

Hir* overllppe wyped' sche so clcne, 

That in hir' cuppe was no ferthing sene 

Of grese, whan sche dronken hadd' hir' drawght. 
iii Ful semely after hir' mete sche rawght'. 136 

And sikerly sche was of greet dispoorte, 

And ful plesawnt, and amiabV of poorte, 

And pcyncd.' hir' to countrefete chere 

Of court 1 , and been estaailich of tnanerc, 140 

And to been hoolden dign 1 of reverence. 

But for to speken of hir' conscience, 

Sche was so charitaVl and so pilous, 

Sche wolde weep' if that sche sawgh a rnous 144 

Cawght in a trapp', if it wer' deed or bledcle. 

Of smale houndes hadd' sche, that sche fedde 

AVith roosted, flesch, and milk, and tcastel breed, 
vi But sore wepte sche if oon of hem wer' deed, 148 

col. 3. Jamieson gives the forms nott, and 697 infra for the probable occa- 

nou-t for black cattle, properly oxen sional dissyllabic use of saynt as 

with the secondary sense of font, and (saa-int). As this had not been ob- 

refers to Icel. naut (noeoeet), Dan. nod served, Tyrwhitt proposes to com- 

(nocoodh), Sw. not (ncecet), and ags. plete the "metre by reading Eloy. 

neat, our modern neat (niit) cattle. with no MS. authority, Prof. Child 

115 Cristofr', this was accident- proposes othe (supra p. 390, ?<5. 

ally not counted among the French oath), thus : Hir' gretest othe nas 

words on p. 651. but by Saint Loy, and Mr. Morris 

120 seynt. See supra^ pp. 264, would' read ne was as in T. 74, 

476, 649, note, and notes -on VY. 609 thus: Hir' gretest" ooth ne was bat by 


Upon- -is arm -e baar a gai braa-seer, 

And bzY -is szYd a swerd and a buk'leei", 112 

And on dhat udh'cr sd .a gai dag-cer 

Harnais'ed weel, and sharp as puint of speer 

A Kri'st'ofr- on rta brest of ssTver sheen'e. 

An norn -e baar, dhe bau'drtk was of green'e. 116 

A for steer was -e sootb/hY, as li ges'e. 

4. Dhe P r i i' o r e s* e. 

Dheer was al'soo' a Nun, a Prii'ores*e, 

Dhat of -iiv simYl'tq was ful s/urpl- and kui, 

Hiir greet'est ooth was but bii saa-int Lui ; 120 

And shee was klep'ed maa'daam* Eq-lentiore. 

Ful weel she saq dhe serviYs'e divirne, 

Entyyn'cd in -lYr nooz'e ful seenvelii, 

And Frensh she spaak ful fair and fee'tisltV, 124 

Aft'er dhe skool of Strat'ford at'e Boou'e, 

For Frensh of PaaTiYs* was to mYr unknoou'e, 

At mee'te weel itaukoht* was shee wzthal'e, 

She leet noo morsel from -nr 1/p'es fal'e, 128 

Ke wet -zYr fzq'gerz m -iYr saus'e deep'e. 

"Weel kuud she kart' a morsel, and weel keep'e 

Dhat no drop'e fil upon -lYr brest'e. 

_Zh kur'taisire was set ful mutsh -Hi lest'e. 132 

Hwr overlip'e wwp'ed shee soo klecn'e, 

Dhat in -lYr kup-e was no ferdh'iq seen'e 

Of grees'e, whan shee druqk'en Had -iir draukwht. 

Ful see'meltY aft'er -lYr meet'e she raukwht. 136 

And s*k*erlY she was of greet dispoort'e, 

And ful plee'zaunt* and aa-nu'aa'bl- of poort'e, 

And pain'ed Hr to kuun'trefeet'e tsheer-e 

Of kuurt, and been estaat'1/tsh of man'eere, 140 

And to been noold'en d-wn of reeverens*e. 

But for to speek'en of -zYr kon'szens'e, 

She was soo tshaa'rutaa'bl- and soo pY*tuus p , 

She wold'e weep, if dhat she saugwh a muus 144 

Kauk^ht in a trap, if tt wer deed or bled'e. 

Of smaal'e Hund'es Had she, dhat she fed'e 

"With roost'ed flesh, and milk and was'tel breed, 

But soore wep'te shee if oon of Hem wcr deed, 148 

Saint Loy. Both the last suggestions vation of the open vowel in o t h e, 

make a lame liiie by throwing the but all the Six MSS. read: This was 

accent on b y, unless we make b y thyn ooth, and myn also certeyn, only 

saynt Loy, a quotation of the P., L. write a superfluous e as othe. 
Nonne's oath, which is not probable. 122 servyse. See supra, p. 331. 
The IJa. has nas, the Six MSS. have 131 fil, all MSS. except He. read 

was simply. For othe, which is a ne fil. The insertion of ne would 

very doubtful form, Prof. Child refers introduce a iii. 
to 1141, where Ila. reads: This was ; 132 ful, so E. Ca. Co. L. ; 
thyn othe and myn eek -certayn, which 148 S6 all MSS., producing OR 

would require the exceptional preset-.. Alexandrine, sec supra p. 619* ' 



Or if men smoot' it with a yerde smerte, 
And al was conscienc and tend' re herte. 
Ful semely hir' wimp'l y/wwt'7<ed was ; 
Hir' nose streyt; hir' even grey as glas : 152 

Hir' mouth fill smaal, and theerto soft' and reed, 
But sikerly sehe hadd' a fayr foorheed. 
It was almoost a spanne brood, I trowe, 
For hardily sche was not undergrowe. 156 

Tfulfetis was hir' clook' as I was waar. 
Of smaal c&raal about hir' arm sche baar 
A payr 1 of bedes gatcded. al with grene ; 
And theeron hcng a brooch of goold ful schene, 160 

iii On which ther was first writen a crouncd A 


Another 2fbnn' also with hir' hadd' sche, 

That was hir' chapellayn, and Preestes thre. 164 


A Monk ther was, a fayr for the maystrye, 
An out-rydeer, that loved' venerye ; 
A manly man, to been an abbot dbel. 
Ful many a deynte hors hadd' he in stabel : 1 68 

And whan he rood, men might his bridel here 
Ginglen, in a whistling' wind' as clere 
And eek as loud' as dooth the chapel belle 
Theer as this lord was keper of the celle. 172 

The reuV of Saynt Mater 1 or of Saynt Jb'eneyt, 
Jlecaws 1 that it was oold and somdeel streyt, 
This ilke Monk leet it forby him pace, 
And heeld alter the newe world the space. 176 

He yaaf nat of that text a pulled hen, 
That sayth, that hunter's been noon holy men, 
KC that a monk, whan he is recchelees, 
Is lyken'd to a fisch' that's waterlees ; 180 

This is to sayn, a monk out of his cloyster, 
But thilke text heeld he not worth an oyster. 

159 payr*. This was accidentally 175 This line has evidently caused 

not counted among the French words difficulties to the old transcribers. The 

on p. 651. following are the readings : 

164 Chapellayn. See Temp. This like monk leet forby hem pace. 
Pref. to Six-Text Ed. "of Chaucer, p. 92. U a. 

170 Ginglen. E. gyngle, This ilke monk leet olde thyngcs 
He. gyngelyn Ca., gynglyng pace. The six MSS. 

Co. Pe. L. In any case the line has Xow the Ha. is not only defective in 

an imperfect initial measure, and the metre, hut in sense, for there is no 

reading in He. has only four measures, antecedent to fiei. The two rules 


Or if men smoot it with a jcrd'e smert'e, 

And al was kon's/ens' and tend're nert'e. 

Ful seenveliY -iir wimpl- tptntslred was, 

Hw'r nooz'e strait, H?Yr ai'cn grai as glas, 152 

HtVr muuth ful smaal, and dheertoo- soft and rocd, 

But sk*erli she Had a fair foorheed'. 

It was almoost* a span'e brood, li troou'e, 

For nardzltY she was not un'dergroou-e. 156 

Ful fee 'tis was -iir klook, as li was waar. 

Of smaal koo'raal' abuut 1 -iVr arm she baar 

A pair of becd-es gaud-ed al with green-e ; 

And dheeron neq a brootsh of goold ful sheen'e, 160 

On whYtsh dher was first rwit'en a krumrcd A a, 

And afVer, A a' m o r \ i n' s i t o nv n * a a. Anudb/er Xun'e and three Preest'es. 

Anudh'er Nun alsoo- with Hr -ad shee, 

Dhat was -wr tshaa-pelain 1 , and Preest'es three. 164 

9. Dhe Muqk. 

A Muqk dher was, a fair for dhe mais-tnY-e, 

An uut'mdeer', dhat luved vee'nertre, 

A man-hV man, to been an ab'ot aa'b'l. 

Ful man-i- a danrtec sors -ad see m staa'b'l : 168 

And whan -e rood men mz^ht -is bm'xl'l neer - e 

Bzhzq'glen in a wh/st'h'q wmd as kleer'e 

And eek as luud as dooth dhe tshaa'pel- bel'e 

Dheer as dhi's lord was kecp'er of dhe sel-e. 172 

Dhe iyyl of saint Maur or of saint Benait-, 

Bekaus- dhat it was oold and sunvdeel strait, 

Dim n'lk'e Muqk leet it forbn -im. paas'e, 

And neeld afVer dhe ncii'e world dhe spaas'c. 176 

He jaaf nat of dhat tekst a pul'ed Hen, 

Dhat saith dhat Hunt'crz been noon nool'u men, 

~Ne dhat a muqk, whan HCC is retsb/elees, 

Is l"k'end too a fish dhat -s waa'terlees ; 180 

Dhat is to sain, a muqk uut of -is kluist'er, 

But dhj'lk'e tekst neeld HOC not wurth an nist'cr. 

named being separated by or, have been let old things pass," which must he 

referred to as it in the preceding line. erroneous. 

I therefore conjecturally insert it and 179 recchelees, so the six MSS. 

change hem to him, though I cannot It probably stands for re^hel-lees, 

bring other instances of the use offorby without his rule, which not being a 

him. The reading of the six MSS. usual phrase required the explanation 

gets out of the difficulty by a clumsy of v. 181, and the Ha. cloysterles 

repetition of old, and by leaving a sen- was only a gloss which crept into the 

tence incomplete thus:'" the rule . . . text out of v. 181, and renders that 

because that it was old ... this monk line a useless repetition. 


And I sayd' his opynioun was good. 
iii "What! schuld' he stttdi 1 , and mak' himselven wood, 184 

Upon a book in cloyst'r alwey to poure, 

Or swinke with his handcs, and labours, 

As Awstin bit 3 Hou schal the world be served. ? 

Let Awstin hav' his swink to him reserved. 188 

Theerfor' he was a prikasour aright ; 

Grayhound's he hadd' as swift as foul in flight, 

Of priking' and of hunting' for the hare 

"Was al his lust, for no cost wold' he spare. 192 

I sawgh his slev's purfyled. atte honde 

"With grys 1 and that the fyncst of a londe, 

And for to fest'n' his hood under his chin 
iii He hadd' of goold ywrowght a curious pin ; 196 

iii A loveknott' in the greter ende ther was. 
iii His heed was balled and schoon as any glas, 

And eek his faac' as he hadd' been anoynt ; 

He was a lord ful fat and in good poynt ; 200 

His eyen steep, and rolling' in his heed, 

That stemed, as afornays of a leed ; 

His lotes soup' I, his hors in greet estaat. 

Nou certaynlj he was a fayr prelaat ; 204 

He was not pal' as a forpyned goost. 

A fat swan lov'd' he best of any roost. 
4- His palfrey was as broun as is a berye. 


+ iii A Frere ther was, a wantoun and a merye, 208 

A limitour, a ful solemne man. 

In alle th' ord'res fowr' is noon that can 

So moch' of faHawnc' and fayr langage. 
iii He hadd' ymaad ful many a fayr manage 212 

Of yonge wimmen, at his owne cost. 

Unto his ord'r he was a nolel post. 
iii Ful weel bilov'd and. faniilieer was he 

With frankeleyns ov'ral in his cuntre, 216 

And eek with worthy wimmen of the toun : 

For lie hadd' pouter of confessioun, 

As sayd' himself, more than a curaat, 

For of his ortfr he was licenciaat. 220 

Ful swetely herd' he confessioun, 

And plesawnt was his absolucioun ; 
iii He was an esy man to yeve penawnce 
iii Theer as he wiste to haan a good pitawnce ; 224 

184 studi', although taken from modern u = (a), and has therefore been 

the French, so that we should expect adopted. 

u = ()7) Ca. and L. read stodic, 201 steep, bright, see steap on 
shewing u.*=(u),. which agrees with the p. 108 of "Cockayne's St. Marherete 
(supra p. 471, n. fy. 


And It said HJ'S oo'pzY'muun' was good. 

"What ! shuld -c stud'*' and maak -tmselven wood, 184 

Upon' a book in kluist'r- al'wai to puu'rc, 

Or swiqk'e with -is nand'es and laa'buu-re, 

As Aust'/n bit ? Huu shal dhe world be served ? 

Let Aust'in naav -is swiqk to Him reserved. 188 

Dheerfoor -e was a prii'kaasuur ari/tht', 

Grai'Hund/' -e Had as swift as fuul in flight ; 

Of przk'iq and of nunt'i'q for dhe naare 

Was al -is lust, for noo kost wold -e spaare. 192 

li saukwh -is sleevz purfiil'ed at'e hond'e 

"WYth griis, and dhat dhe fmrest of a lond'e, 

And for to fest'n- -is Hood mrder -is tshm 

He Had of goold irwoukwht' a kyynuus pm ; 19G 

A luve-knot in dhe greet'er end'e dher was. 

His need was bal'ed and shoon as an'n glas, 

And eek -is faas, as nee -ad been anuint*. 

He was a lord ful fat and in good puint ; 200 

He's ai'en steep, and rool'tq m -is need, 

Dhat steenved as a furnais* of a leed ; 

Hzs boot'es sup'l-, -is nors *n greet estaat'. 

Nuu ser'tainbV -e was a fair prelaat' ; 204 

He was not paal as a forpmred goost. 

A fat swan luv'd -e best of an'n roost. 

His pal'frai was as bruun as is a berie. 

10. Dhe Preere 

A Freer'e dher was, a wan'tuun and a mer'i'e, 208 

A bY'imY'tuur, a ful soo'lenvne man. 

In al'e dh- ordres foour is noon dhat can 

Soo mutsh of daa'h'auns' and fair laq'gaadzh'e. 

He Had i'niaad' ful man'* a fair mariaadzlre 212 

Of Juq'e w/m'en, at -is ooun'e kost. 

TJntoo* -is or'dr- -e was a noo'b'l post. 

Ful weel b*luvd' and faa'nu'h'eer was nee 

We'th fraqk'elainz* ovral* m nis kun'tree', 216 

And eek w/th wurdh'n w/nven of dhe tuun : 

For nee -ad puu'eer' of konfes'nuur, 

As said -emself, moor'e dhan a kyyraat*, 

For of -is or'dr- -e was Krsen-smat'. 220 

Ful sweet'ehY nerd nee konfes'tuun', 

And plee'saunt' was -is ab'soolyyszuun' ; 

He was an eez'u man to Jeeve penauns'e 

Dheer as -e w/st - e to Haan a good pzY'tauns'e ; 224 

202 fornays, see Temporary 219 See supra p. 331, note. All 

Preface to the Six-Text edition, p. 99. MSS. agree. 

212 ful occurs in all six MSS. 

217 wimmen, wommen Ha. E. 223 yeve, all MSS. except -L. 

He. Co. P., wemen Ca., wemmcn L. have the final e. 


For unto a por' order for to yeve 

Is signe that a man is weel yschreve. 

For if he yaaf, he dorste mak' avatcnt, 

He wiste that a man was repentaicnt. 228 

iii For many a man so hard is of his herte, 

He may not wepe though him sore smerte. 

Theerfor' insted' of weping' and prey eres, 
yi Hen moote yeve silver to the porefreres. 232 

His tipet was ay/czr*cd ful of knyfes 

And pinnes, for to yeve fayre wyfes. 

And certaynlj he hadd' a mery note. 

"Weel coud' he sing' and pleyen on a rote. 236 

Of yedding's he baar utterly the prys. 

His necke whyt was as thejlour-de-li/s. 

Theerto he strong was as a chawmpioun. 

He knew the tavern's weel in ev'ry toun, 240 

And ev'rich ostelleer or gay tapsteer, 

Better than a lazeer or a beggeer, 

For unto swich a worthy man as he 

Accorded, not, as by ~hisfaculte, 244 

To haan with sike lazeer's acqueyntawnce. 

It is not honest, it may not avatonce, 
For to delen with noon swich porayle, 

But al with rich' and seller's of vitayle. 248 

And ov'ral, ther as profit schuld' aryse, 

Curteys he was, and lowly of servyse. 

Ther was no man no wheer so vertuous. 

He was the beste beggeer in his hous, 252 

For thowgh a widwe hadde nowght a sho, 

So plesawnt was his Ix r-Enrcrpio, 

Yet wold' he haan a ferthing er he wente. 

His pourchaas was weel better that his rente. 256 

And rag' he coud' and pleyen as a whelp, 

In lovedayes coud' he mochel help' . 

For theer was he not lyk' a cloystereer, 
vi "With a tlireedbare cop' as a pore scoleer, 260 

But he was lyk' a mayster or a pope. 

Of doubel worsted was his semicope, 

232 All MSS. agree in making this 249 a omitted iu Ha. Ca., found 

a line of six measures, and it seems to in the rest. 

portray the whining beggary of the 252 After this line He. alone in- 

cry, supra p. 649. serts the couplet 

. . . , ,, And vaf a certeyn ferme. for the 
2oo note, throte Ca. 

240 tavern's weel, the six Noon of his bretheren, cam ther in 
MSS. have this order. Ha. w e 1 t h e his haunts. 

tavernes. 253 So all the six MSS., meaning, 

although a widow had next to nothing 

247 n o n E. He. Ca., the other* in the world, yet so pleasant was his 
omit it. introductory lesson In principio erat 


For un'to a poor ord'er for to jceve 

7s sirne dhat a man is weel ishree've. 

For if -e jaaf, -e durst'e maak avaunt', 

He wist'e dhat a man was ree-pentaunt*. 228 

For man** a man soo Hard is of -is nert'e, 

He mai not weep'e dhooukwh -im soore smert'e. 

Dheerfoor insteed' of weep'iq- and prareeres, 

Men moot'e jeeve sil'ver too dhe poore freeres. 232 

His tip'et was ai fars'ed ful of kmYf-es, 

And pin'es for to jeeve fai're wiif'cs. 

And sertainlii -e nad a merii noot'e. 

Weel kuud -e siq and plaren on a root'e. 236 

Of Jed'iqz nee baar ut'erlii dhe priis. 

His nek'e whiit was as dhe fluur de IMS. 

Dheertoo* -e stroq was as a tshaunrpiuun*. 

He kneu dhe taa'vemz' weel m evrti tuun, 240 

And evn'tsh os'teleer* or gai tapsteer*, 

Bet'er dhan a laa-zeer* or a beg'eer*, 

For un-to swz'tsh a wurdh'u man as nee 

Akord'ed not, as bY -is fak'ultee 244 

To iiaun with szVk'e laa'zeerz aa-kM'ain*tauns > e ; 

It is not on'est, it mai not avauns'e, 

For to deel'en with noon switsh poor'ail-e 

But al with ritsh and sel'erz of vii'tail'e. 248 

And ovral', dheer as prof'it shuld ar?Vs'e, 

Kur'tais* -e was, and loou'l/i of servjYs-e. 

Dher was noo man noo wheer soo vertyyuus*. 

He was dhe best'e beg'eer* in -is HUUS, 252 

For dhoouk^h a wid'we nad'e noukwht a shoo, 

So plee-saunt' was -is In p r i n- s i i- p i o o, 

Jet wold -e naan a ferdh'iq eer -e went-e. 

His puurtshaas' was weel bet'er dhan -is rent'e. 256 

And raadzh -e kuud, and plaren as a whelp, 

/n luvedai'es kuud -e mutsh'el Help. 

For dheer was nee not liik a kluist'ereer*, 

With a threed'baar'e koop as a poo - re skol'eer*, 260 

But nee was liik a mais'ter or a poo-pe. 

Of duu-b'l worsted was -is sem'ikoop-e, 

verbum (See Temp. Prcf. to Six-Text the Wyf of Bathe, 6288 as pointed 

ed. of Chaucer, p. 93) that he would coax out by Mr. Aldis Wright, 

a trifle out of her. The Ha. reads The clerk whan he is old, and may 

but oo schoo, on which see Temp. nought do 

Pref. p. 94. That we arc not to take Of Venus werkis, is not worth a scho. 

the words literally, but that schoo was 256 weel, so the six MSS., omitted 

merely used as a representative of some- in Ha. 

thing utterly worthless, which was 260 So all MSS. except Ca. which 

convenient for the rhyme, just as pulled reads, as is a scholer, against 

hen 177, or oyster 182, and the usual rhythm. Compare v. 232. See also 

bean, straw, modern^, farthing, etc., Temp. Pref. to Sil-TestEd. of Chaucer, 

is shewn by its use in tke Prologe to p. 100. 


And rounded, as a bell' out of the presse. 

Somwhat he lipsed, for his wantounnesse, 264 

To mak' his Englisch swet' upon his tonge ; 

And in his harping', whan that he hadd' songe, 

His eyghen twinkled in his heed aright. 

As doon the sterres in the frosty night. 268 

This worthy limitour was call'd Huberd, 


A Narchawnt was ther with a forked berd, 

In motlee and heygh on hors he sat, 

Upon his heed a Flawndrisch bever hat ; 272 

His botes elapsed fayr' and/<?^ly. 
His resouns spaak he ful solemnelj, 
Sounrng' alwey th' encrees of his winninge. 
iii He wolde the se wer' kept for any thinge 276 

Betwixe Middeburgh and Orewelle. 
Weel coud' he in eschawnge scheldes selle, 
This worthy man ful weel his wit bisette ; 
Ther wiste no wight that he was in dette, 280 

So staatlj was he of his governawnce, 
With his bargayn's, and with his chevisawnce. 
For sooth' he was a worthy man withalle, 
But sooth to sayn, I n'oot hou men him calle. 284 


A Clerk ther was of Oxenfoord' also, 
That unto logik hadde long' ygo. 
So lene was his hors as is a rake, 

And he n'as not right fat, I undertake, 288 

But loked' holw', and theerto soberly. 
Ful threedbar' was his ov'rest courtepy, 
iii For he hadd' geten him yet no benefyce, 

Ne was so worldly for to hav' offyce. 292 

For him was lever hav' at his bedd's heed 

Twenty bokes, clad in blak and reed, 
Of Aristofl, and his philosophy e, 

Than robes ricK or fith'l or gay sawtrye. 296 

264 h i s, so the six MSS., omitted but the order of the words is conjec- 
in Ha. which therefore required lip- turally altered on account of the rhythm, 
s e d e for the metre. 

271 motlee, so all but Ha. L. ai 
whichhavemotteley. Thewordis ^S?* \ A 7 
obscure,and may be ^elch mudliw, 

274 All MSS. read he spaakj as French. 


And ruund'ed as a bel uut of dhe pres'e. 

Sunrwhat* He hjrsed, for -is wan'tuunnes'e, 264 

To maak -is Eq-l?sh sweet upon' dhe tuq-e ; 

And in -is narpsq, whan dhat nee -ad suq'e, 

Hi's aiAh-en tw/qkied in -is need ar?7.:ht', 

As doon dhe stores in dhe frost* V ni/cht. 268 

Dim wurdh'n Iw'nm'tuur was kald Hyyberd'. 

11. Dhe Martshaunt. 

A Martshaunt* was dher with a fork'ed berd, 

In motlee- and naU-h on Hors -e sat, 

Upon' -is need a Flamrdnsh beever nat ; 272 

He's booties klaps-ed fair and fce'ttslzV. 

Hs ree'suuns* spaak -e ful soolem'neb'r, 

Suun'z'q 1 alwai' dh- enkrees* of m's w/n'iq'e. 

He wold'e dhe see wer kept for an'ii th?'q-e 276 

Betwiks'e Mz'd'eburkh and Oo'rewel'e. 

Weel kuud -e in es'tshaundzh'e sheld'es sel'e. 

Dh/s wurdh'n man ful weel -is wit biset'e ; 

Dher wz'st'e noo w^-ht dhat -e was in det'e, 280 

Soo staat'lw was nee of -is gmrvernauns-e, 

With H/S bar'gainz' and with -is tshee'VMsauns'c. 

Por sooth -e was a wurdh'n man wtthal'e, 

But sooth to sain, li n- -oot nuu man -im kal'e. 284 

12. Dhe Klerk. 

A Klerk dher was of Ok'senfoord' al'soo*, 

Dhat un'to lodzh'tk had'e loq goo\ 

So leen - e was -is nors as fs a raak'e, 

And nee n- -as not ri'Arht fat, li undertaak'e. 28S 

But look'ed nol'w- and dheer'too soo - berl. 

Ful threed'baar was -is ovrest kur'tepw, 

For nee -ad ge.t'en -im Jet noo benefm'e, 

Ne was soo wurdHY for to naav oftYs'c. 292 

For H'm was leever naav at HIS bedz need 

Twen'tiV book'es, klad in blak and reed, 

Of An'stot'l-, and m's fjV'loo'soo'fn'e, 

Dhan roob-es ri'tsh or ft'dhi- or gai sautnV'e. 296 

281 staatly, so Co., the rest He. Ca. ; yit geten him no P., 

have estaatly, and Ha. alone omits nought geten him yet a Ha. r 

his, against the metre. If we read: geten him no, Co. L. 

so estaatly, the first measure will 292 worldly E. He. Co., wordely 

he trissyllabic. Ca., wordly P., werdly L., Ne 

-, _ _ , , -was not worthy to haven an 

288 n as, so E. Ca. Co., but was office Ha. 

Ha. He. P. and L. 296 g a y| so ^ Msg< eiccpt Ha> 

291 geten him yet no, E. which omits it. 


But albe that he was a philosopher, 
Yet hadd' he but a lytel gold in cofer, 
But al that he might' of his frcndes hente, 
On bokes and on lerning' he it spente, 300 

And bisily gan for the sowles preye 
Of hem, that yaaf him wherwith to scoleye. 
iii Of studie tok he nioost cur 1 and moost heed. 

!N" ot oo word spaak he more than was need ; 304 

And that was seyd inform and reverence, 

And schort and quik, and ful of heygh sentence, 

Sonning' in moral vertu was his speche, 

And gladly wold' he leru' and gladly teche. 308 


A Sergeaicnt of Lawe, waar and wys, 

That often hadde ben at the parrys, 

Thcr was alsoo, ful rictt of excellence. 

Discreet he was, and of greet reverence. 312 

He semed' swich, his wordes wer' so wyse. 

Justyc 1 he was ful often in assyse 

By patent, and by plcyn commissioun, 

For his scicnc 1 , and for his heygh renoun; 316 

Of fees and roles hadd' he many oon. 

So greet a pourchasour was no wheer noon. 

Al was fee simpel to him in effect, 

iii His pourchasing ne mighte not ben infect. 320 

iii No wheer so bisy a man as he ther n'as, 
iii And yit he semed' bisier than he was. 

In termes hadd' he caan and domes alle, 
iii That fro the tym' of king "William wer' falle. 324 

Theerto he coud' endyt ' and mak' a thing. 

Ther coude no wight pinch' at his writing'. 

And ev'ry statut coud' he pleyn by rote. 

He rood but hoomly in a medlee cote, 328 

Gird with a ceynt of silk with bar res smale ; 

Of his array tell' I no lenger tale. 

297 So the six MSS., the Ha. is ferent line : Al that he spak it was of 
unmetrical. The long vowels in phi- heye prudence. The whole of the 
losopher, gold, coffer, are clerk's character is defective in Ha. 
very doubtful, and it is perhaps more In "Cassell's Magazine" for May, 1869, 
probable that short vowels would be p. 479, col. 1, there occurs the follow- 
correct. ing paragraph : " The following pithy 

298 "a" is only found in Co. If sketch of Oxford life half a dozen cen- 
it is omitted, the first metre becomes turies ago is from the pen of Wycliife : 
defective. T ae scholar is famed for his logic ; 

, , , ., Aristotle is his daily bread, but other- 

303 moost heed, so the six wige hig rations ^ glend ; r h 

JdbS. ; n : eel Ma. The horge he ridcg is M kan M P a 

305 So all the six MSS. (H. has rake, and the rider is no better off. 
apoke), but Ha. has the entirely dif- His cheek u hollow, and bis coat 


But al bee tlhat -e wer a fjrloo-soof-er, 

Jet nad -e but a liY't'l goold in koof er, 

And al dhat nee mikht of -is frend'es nent'e, 

On book-es and on lenre'q nee it spent'e, 300 

And biz'ilii gan for dhe sooul'es prare 

Of Hem dhat jaaf -mi wheerwith to skolare. 

Of stud* i e took -e moost kyyr and moost heed. 

'Not oo word spaak -e moore dhan was need ; 304 

And dhat was said in form and ree'verens'e, 

And short and kwik and ful of nai/th sentens-e. 

Suu'm'q' in moo-raal- vertyy was -is speetsh'e, 

And glad'liV Avoid -e lern, and glad-In teetsh-e. 308 

13. Dhe S er dzh e eaunt* of La ire. 

A Serdzheeaunt' of Lau*e, waar and ws, 

Dhat of'ten nad'e been at dhe parvtYs', 

Dher was alsoo*, ful r/tsh of ek-selens'e. 

D/skreet' -e was and of greet ree'verens-e. 312 

He secured sw/tsh, -is word-es wer soo wm'e. 

Dzhyyst'MS' -e was ful oft'en n asas-e 

Bw paa'tent, and bn plain koims-j'uun-, 

For H?S sw'-ens, and for -is naU-h renuun' ; 316^ 

Of feez and roob'es Had -e man-jY oon. 

So greet a puurtshaa'suur- was noo wheer noon. 

Al was fee sz'nrp'l too -im in efekt', 

HYs puur'tshaas^q- ne nn'Aht'e not been zhfekt*. 320 

Noo wheer soo l>iz'i a man as nee dher n- -as, 

And jit -e seenred btzVer dhan -e was. 

In term-es Had -e kaas and doonres al'e, 

Dhat froo dhe tiim of ka'q W/l'mam- wer fal'e. 324 

Dheertoo* He kuud endwt' and maak a the'q. 

Dher kuud-e noo wt&ht p/ntsh at H/S rwnt'i({'. 

And evm staa-tyyt kuud -e plain b*Y root'e. 

He rood but HoonrliY* in a med'lee koot'e, 328 

Gird with a saint of szlk w/th bares smaal'e ; 

Of H/S arai- tcl li noo leq'ger taal'e. 

threadbare. His bedroom is his study. 306 heygh, so the six MSS., 

Over his bed's head are some twenty e r e t Ha. apparently because of h e y e 

volumes in black and red. "Whatever in the preceding line of that recension, 
coin he gets goes for books, and those 

who help him to coin will certainly 307 vertu, so the six MSS. 

have the advantage of his prayers for m a n e r e Ha. 
the good of their souls while they live, 

or their repose when they are dead. * IQ A* the > 60 X a11 MSS. except 

His words are few, but lull of mean- Ha - and p - see 8U P ra P- 331 ' note - 

ing. His highest thought of life is of 320 infect, so all six MSS., 

learning and teaching." This is ob- suspecte Ha. 
viously a modern English translation 

of the present passage. Is there any- 327 p 1 e y n, Fr. plein, fully corn- 
thing like it in Wycliffe ? pare v. 337. 





A Frankeleyn was in his companye ; 

Whyt was his herd, as is the dayesye. 332 

Of his complexioun he was sangwyn. 

Weel lov'd he by the morrw' a sop in wyn'. 

To lyven in Aelyf was e'er his wone, 

For he was EPICURUS owne sone, 336 

That heeld opinioun that pleyn delyt 

Was verraylj f elicits perfyt. 

An housholdeer, and that a greet was he ; 

Saynt Juliaan he was in his cuntree. 340 

iii His hreed, his ale, was alwey after oon ; 

A bettr' etivyncA. man was no wheer noon, 
iii Withoute hake mete was ne'er his hous 

Of fisch' and flesch', and that so plenterous 344 

It snewed in his hous of met' and drinke 

Of alle deyntees that men coude thinke. 

After the sondry sesouns of the yeer*, 

So chawngetf he his met' and his soupeer. 348 

iii Ful many a fat partrich hadd' he in meue, 
iii And many a breem and many a luc' in stew. 

.Woo was his cook, hut if his sawce were 

Poynawnt and scharp, and redy al his gere. 352 

His tabel dormawnt in his hall' alwey 

Stood redy cover* A. al the longe day. 

At sessiouns theer was he lord and syre. 

Ful ofte tym' he was knight of the schyre. 356 

An anlas and a gipseer al of silk 

Heng at his girdel, whyt as morne milk. 

A shyrreev hadd' he been, and a countour. 

Was no wheer such a worthy vavasour. 360 


An Haberdascheer, and a Carpenteer, 

A Webb', a Dyeer, and a Tapiceer, 

Wer' with us eek, clothed in oo livree, 

Of a solemn 1 and greet fraternile. 364 

Ful fresch and new' her' ger' apyked was ; 

Her' knyfcs wer' ychapcd not with bras, 

But al with silver wrowght ful clen' and weel 

Her' girdles and her' poiicJtes cv'ry deel. 368 

AVeel seemed' ecch of hem a fayr burgeys 

To sitten in a ycld'hall' on the deys. 

334 sop in wyn, so all six 
MSS., sop of wyn Ha. 

348 So all six MSS. Ha. reads : 
He chaurcjrcd hem at mete and at 
sopor, which is clearly wrong: 


14. Dhe Fraqk'elain. 

A Fraqk'elain was in -is kunvpam're ; 

Whiit was -is berd, as is dhe daresj're. 332 

Of -is komplek'smun* -e was saqgwMir. 

Weel luvd -e in dhe morn a sop in wmi. 

To UVven m delwt' was eer -is wuuire, 

For nee was Ee-pnkyyrus ooun-e suture, 336 

Dhat Heeld oo-prrnmun- dhat plain delwt' 

Was verailn fce'b'rsw'tee' perfiYt'. 

An Huus'hooldeer, and dhat a greet was nee ; 

Saint Dzhyylnuur -e was m ms kun - tree\ 310 

Hz's breed, H/S aa'le, was al'wai after oon ; 

A bet'r- envmred man was noo wheer noon. 

W*thuut'e baak*e meet'e was neer -is HUUS 

Of fz'sh, and flesh, and dhat soo plent-evuus 344 

/t sneired in -is HUUS of meet and dn'qk'e 

Of al'e dain'tees dhat men kuiid'e thi'qk-e. 

Aft'er dhe sun'dr/t see'suunz- of dhe Jeer, 

Soo tshaundzh'ed nee HJ'S meet and nis suupcei". 348 

Ful man - &' a fat partr/tsh* -ad nee tn myye, 

And man-*' a breem and man'* a lyys in styyc-. 

Woo was -is kook, but if -is saus-e weer - e 

Puin-aunt* and sharp, and reed'u al -is geere. 352 

His taa'b'l dormaunt- *'n -is nal alwai- 

Stood red'n kuverd al dhe loq-e dai. 

At ses'tuunz' dheer was -e lord and sure. 

Ful oft'e Him. -e was km'&ht of dhe shiVr'c. 356 

An an'las and a dzhzp'seer' al of s/lk 

Heq at -s g"d'l, whiVt as morn-e milk. 

A shnr-reev Had -e been, and a kun-tuur. 

AVas noo wheer sutsh a wurdb/n' vaa-vaasuur. 360 Dhe Hab-erdash-eer, Kar penteer, 
Web-e, Dtfeer', and Taa'per seer-. 

An HaVerdash'eer' and a Kar'penteer-, 

A Web, a Dzreer, and a Taa - pn''seer, 

Weer with us eek, cloodh'ed in oo In'-vree', 

Of a sooienrn- and greet fraa'ternjYtee-. 364 

Ful fresh and neu -er geer apwk'ed was ; 

Her fctmf-es wer tshaap - ed not wj'th bras, 

But al with sel'ver r^oukefht ful kleen and weel 

Her g/r'dles and -er puutsh'es evm deel. 368 

Weel seenred eetsh of Hem a fair burdzhais- 

To sz't'en m a jeld'nal on dhe dais. 

362 d y e e r, so the six MSS., Harl. 
deyer, see dyer, p. 643. 

365 apyked, so 
piked Ha. 




Ev'rich for the wisdom that he can, 

"Was schaaply for to been an alderman. 372 

For catel hadde they ynough and rente, 

And eek her' wyfes wold' it weel assente ; 

And elles certayn weren they to blame. 

It is ful fayr to he yclept Madame, 37G 

And goo to vigilyes al hifore, 

And haan a mantel reallj yhore. 

20. THE COOK. 

A Cook they hadde with hem for the nones, 

To loyle chicknes with the mary bones, 380 

And poudre-marchawnt tart, and galingalc. 

Weel coud' he know' a drawght of London ale. 

He coude roost' ', and seeth', and broyl\ and/ry<?, 

Make mortrewes, and weel bak' a pye. 384 

But greet harm was it, as it semed' me, 

That on his schinn' a mormal hadde he ; 

For Uankmangeer that maad' he with the bcste. 

21. THE ScHiPMAff. 

A Schipman was ther, woning' fer by wcstc ; 388 

For owght I woot, he was of Dertemouthe. 
He rood upon a rouncy as he couthe, 

In a goun of falding' to the kne. 

A daggeer hanging' on a laas hadd' he 392 

About' his neck' under his arm adoun. 
iii The hoote sommer hadd' mad' his hew al broun ; 

And certaynly he was a good felawe. 
iii Ful many a drawght of wyn hadd' he ydrawe 396 

From Hourdewz-vfard, whyl that the chapman sleep. 

Of nyce conscienc 1 he took no keep. 

If that he fowght, and hadd' the heygher hand, 
iii By water he sent' hem hoom to ev'ry land'. 400 

But of his craft to recken weel the tydes, 

His stremes and his daumger\ him bisydes, 

371 everich, so all six MSS., p. 363. The Six MSS. render many 

every man Ha. of the examples there cited suspicious, 

375 weren they, so, or: they see note on v. 120 for v. 1141. In v. 

were, read all the six MSS., hadde 1324, He. reads moot, and the line 

they be Ha. may be : Withouten dout' it mote 

380 mary, ags. mearh, the h be- stonden so. For v. 1337 all six MSS. 
coming unusually palatalised to -y, read : And let him in his prisoun stille 
instead of labialised to -we ; the paren- dwelle. For v. 2286 all six MSS. 
thetical remark p. 254, n. 1. is wrong. read : But hou sche did' hir' ryt' I 

381 poudre-marchawnt, see dar not telle. For v. 2385, E. He. 
Temp. Pref. to the Six-Text Ed. of Ca. Co. L. read : For thilke peyn' and 
Chaucer, p. 96. thilke hote fyr. In v. 2714, E. He. 

386 Prof. Child reads : That on Ca. hare : Somm' hadden salves and 
his schyne a mormal hadd' he, supra somm' hadden charmes. For T. 1766, 


Evritsh for dhe wis'doom dhat -e kan, 

Was shaapitY for to been an al-derman. 372 

For kat'el nad'e dhai inuukwb/ and rent-o, 

And eek -er w/Yf'es wold it weel asent'e ; 

And el-es sert'ain weeren dhai to blaanre. 

It is ful fair to be iklept' M a a- d a a nr e, 376 

And goo to vii'dzhulii'cs al bifoore, 

And naan a man't'l ree'alii iboore. 

20. Dhe Kook. 

A Kook dhai nad-e with, -cm for dhe noon'es. 

To buil'e tshik'nes with dhe mari boon-es, 3SO 

And puud're martshaunt' tart, and gaa-liqgaal'e. 

"\Veel kuud -e knoou a draukwht of Lun-dun aal'c. 

He kuud'e roost, and seedh, and bruil, and frii'e, 

Maak'e mortreu'es, and weel baak a pii'e. 384 

But greet Harm was it, as it seenved mec, 

Dhat on -is shin a mormaal' nad'e nee ; 

For blaqk'maan'dzheer dhat maad -e with dhe best'e. 

21. Dhe Ship-man. 

A Ship'man was dher, wuun'iq fer bii west'e ; 388 

For oukwht li woot, ne was of Der'temuuth'e. 

He rood upon' a ruun'sii as -e kuutlre, 

In a guun of fal'diq* too dhe knee. 

A dag-ecr' naq'iq on a laas -ad nee 392 

Abuut' -is nek un-der -is arm aduun-. 

Dhe Hoot'e sum-er -ad maad -is HCU al bmun ; 

And sertainlii -e was a good fel'au'e. 

Ful man-i a draukwht of wiin -ad nee idrau'e 396 

From Buur'deus-ward, whiil dhat dhe tshap'man sleep. 

Of niis'e kon-s?'ens - -e took noo keep. 

If dhat -e foukwht and Had dhe naiMrer Hand, 

~Rii waa'ter -e sent -em nooni to evrii land. 400 

But of -is kraft to rek'en weel dhe tiid-es, 

His streenves and -is daun'dzherz Him bisiid'es, 

E. He. Ca. Co. L. read : The trespns MSS. were consulted. Again, in the 

of hem both" and eek the cause. For first line cited from Gower, i. 143, we 

v. 4377 (in which read sight for night] see in the example below that two 

E. He. Pe. L. practically agree with MSS. read : he wept' and with ful 

Ha., but it would be easy to conjee- wofiil tercs. The practice is therefore 

ture : Til that he hadd al thilke doubtful. But final e often remains 

sight' yseyn. For v. 4405, E. reads before he at the end of a line in Gower, 

rotie in place of rote, but He. Pe. L. supra, p. 361, art. 76. a. Hence the 

agree with Ha. The form rotie, which division in the text is justified. There 

is more ancient, see Stratmann's Diet. is no variety in the readings of the 

p. 467, would save the open vowel. It MSS. 

is possible, therefore, that the other 387 that maad' he, so all 

examples of open e preserved by czesura six MSS. Ha. he made, 
in Chaucer, would disnppear "if mort 3D1 fa Id ing, =vcstis cqni viL- 


His lierbcrgh and his moon', his loodmanage, 
Ther was noon swich from Hullc to Cartage. 404 

Hardy he was, and wys to undertake ; 
iii With many a tempest hath his berd been schake. 
He knew wecl al the haven's, as they were, 
From Scotland to the caap' of Fynistere, 408 

And every cryk' in Bretayn' and in Spayne ; 
His barg' ycleped was the Mawdeleyne. 


Ther was also a Doctour of Phisyk, 

In al this world ne was ther noon him lyk 412 

To spek' ofphisyk and of surgerye ; 

For lie was grounded in astronomy e. 

He kept' his patient a ful greet deel 

In houres by his magyk natureel. 416 

Weel coud' hefortunen th' ascendent 
Of bis images for his patient. 

He knew the caws 1 of ev'ry malady e, 

Wer' it of coold, or heet', or moyst, or drye, 420 

And wheer engendred. and of what humour ; 

He was a verray parfyt practisour. 

The caws' yknow', and of his harm the rote, 

Anoon he yaaf the syke man his bote. 424 

+ Ful redy hadd' he his apotecaryes 
+ To send' him drogges, and his letuaryes, 

For eech' of hem mad' other for to winne ; 

Her' frendschip' was not newe to beginne. 428 

"Weel knew he th' old' ESCULAPIUS, 
Gold Ipocran, Haly, and Galien ; 

SERAPION, Razys, and. Avycen ; 432 

iii Averrois, Damascen, and Constantyn ; 

Bernard and Gatesden and Gilbertyn. 
iii Of his dyete mesurabel was he, 

For it was of noon superfluite, 436 

But of greet nourishing' and digestybeL 
iii His studie was but lytel on the Bylel. 

In sangwyn and in pers he clad was al, 

Zyned with taffata and with sendaV. 440 

And yit he was but esy in dispence ; 

He kepte that he wan in pestilence. 

For goold in phisyk is a cordial ; 

Thecrfor' he loved' goold in special. 444 

losa, see Temp, Pref. to Six-Text Ed. compare loadstone, loadstar. The -aye 

of Ch. p. 99. is a French termination. 

403 loodmanage, pilotage, 415 a ful greet deel, so all 

see Temp. Pref. to Six-Text Ed. of six MSS., wondurly wel Ha. 

Chaucer, p. 98. A 1 o o d m a n must 425 See Temp. Pref. to the Six- 

have been a pilot, or leading-man, Text Ed. of Chaucer, p. 99. 


BYs nerberkh and -is moon-, -is lood'manaadzh'e, 
Dher was noon sw/tsh from Hul-e too Kartaadzh'c. 
Hard-n He was, and wits to mrdertaak-e ; 
Wth man-* a tenvpest Hath -is herd been shaak'e. 
He kneu weel al dhe naa'venz, as dhai weere, 
From Skotland too dhe kaap of Fw'-m'steere, 
And evrn knYk m Bree-tain and m Spanre ; 
Hzs baardzh aklcp'ed was dhe Mau'delairre. 

22. Dhe Dok-tuur of F-z**k-. 



Dhcr was alsoo 1 a Dok'tuur 

/n al dhe world ne was dher noon -nn Ink 

To speck of fii'ziik' and of surdzherare ; 

For nee was gruund-ed m astroo-normre. 

He kept -is paa's/ent' a ful greet deel 

In uur-es b?Y -is maa'dzlmk naa'tyyreeK 

Weel lorad 'see fortyyn-en dh- as'endent' 

Of nis zmaadzh'es for -is paa-sz'ent'. 

He kneu dhe kauz of evrw maa-laadtre, 

Weer it of koold, or neet, or muist, or drire, 

And wheer endzhen'dred, and of what Hyymuui" 

He was a verai par'fw't prak'tt'rsuur\ 

Dhe kauz i'knoou', and of -is Harm dhe root'e, 

Anoon' -c yaaf dhe szYk-e man -is boot'e. 

Ful red'ii Had -e Hi's apoo tee'kaa-nes 

To send -im drog-es, and -is letyy-aa'n'es, 

For eetsh of Hem maad udh-er for to wm-e ; 

Her frcnd'shiYp was not neu'e too begm'e. 

Weel kneu 'nee dh- oold Es'kyylaa'pms, 
And Dee,'skor-dees, and eek Ryyfus; 
Oold /pokras', HaalzY', and Gaa-lzeen' ; 

Seraa-pj'oon', Eaa'zws- and Aa-vsYseen- ; 

Aver-o,is, Daamaseen- and KonstantzYn' ; 

Bernard 1 and Gaa-tesden- and G/lbertzYn-. 

Of nis diYeet'e mee'syyraa-b'l was -nee, 

For tt was of noon syyperflyy Ytee, 

But of greet nuurYsbYo,; and dzV'dzhes'tM'b'l. 

IL's stud'te was but lw't'1 on dhe Bi'fb'l. 

/n saq'gwzYn 1 and m pers -e klad was al, 

Lmred wtth taf-ataa- and w*th sendal'. 

And jit -e was but eez ii m d/spens - e ; 

He kept'c dhat -e wan ra pest/lens'e. 

For goold m frrzw'k is a kordzal' ; 

Dheerfoor -e luved goold m spes'&al'. 










429 Supra p. 341, 1. 2 and 13, I 
treated this as a full line, thinking that 
the e in o 1 d e was to be preserved. 
Further consideration induces me to 
mark the lino as having an imperfect 

first measure, and to elide the e in the 
regular way, on the principle that ex- 
ceptional usages should not be un- 
necessarily assumed. 



A good Wyf was ther of bisyde Bathe, 

But sche was somdeel deef, and that was skathe. 

Of cloothmaking' sche hadde swich an hatcnt, 

Sche passed' hem of Tpres and of Gawnt. 448 

In al the parisch' wyf ne was ther noon, 

That to th' oflring' bifoorn her schulde goon, 
iii And if ther dide, certayn so wrooth was sche, 

That sche was out of alle charite. 452 

Hir' keverchefs fnlfyne wer' of grcmnde ; 
iii I durste swere they weygheden ten pounde 

That on a Sonday wer' upon hir' heed. 

Hir' hosen weren offyn scarlet reed, 456 

Ful streyt' ytey'd, and schoos ful moyst' and newc. 

Boold was hir' faac', and fayr, and reed of he we. 

Sche was a worthy woman, al hir' lyfe. 

Housbond's at chirche dore sche hadd' fyfe, 460 

Withouten other company' in yoiithe, 

But theerof nedeth nowght to spek' as nouthe. 
iii And thryes hadd' sche been at Jerusaleem ; 
iii Sche hadde passed, many a strawnge streem ; 464 

At Rome sche hadd' been, and at Soloyne, 

In Galic', at saynt Jaam', and at Coloyne. 

Sche couthe moch' of wandring' by the weye. 

Gaat-tothed was sche, sooth'ly for to seye. 468 

Upon an ambleer eselj sche sat, 

Ywimpled weel, and on hir' heed an hat 

As brood as is a boucleer or a targe ; 

A foot-mantel about' hir' hippes large, 472 

And on hir' feet a payr' of spores scharpe. 

In felawschip' wecl coud' sche lawgh' and carpe. 
iii Of remedy's of love sche knew parchawnce, 

For sche coud' of that art the oolde dawnce. 476 


A good man was ther of religion, 

And was a pore Persoun of a toiin ; 

But rich' he was of holy thowght and work', 

He was also a lerned man, a clerk, 480 

That Cristes gospel gladly wolde preche ; 

His parischens devoutlj wold' he tcche. 

452 was out, so the six MSS., weyedyn Ca. weiden L., hence 

was thanne out Ha. all but Ha. give the plural e n. 

433 ful fyne wer', so the six 

M 88., weren ful f v n e Ha. /^ S T E - H G - Ca - a 1 1 e, Co. Pe., 

att p e L., housbondes atte 

454 weygheden, weyghede chirche dore hadde sche 

Ha. weyeden E. He. Co. P., fyt'c Ha. which is unmetrical. 


23. Dhe Wiif of Baath-e. 

A good wf was dher of bisiid-e Baatlre, 

But shee was sunrdeel deef, and dhat was skaath-e. 

Of klooth-maakv'q; she aad'e switsh an Haunt, 

She pas-ed nem of /rpres and of Gaunt. 448 

In al dlie parish wiif ne was dher noon, 

Dhat too dh- ofriq* bifoonr -er shuld'e goon, 

And if dher dz'd-e, sertain- so rwooth was shee, 

Dhat shee was uut of al-e tshaa-rn'-tee-. 402 

Hnr kevertshefs ful finre weer of gruund'e ; 

li durst'e sweere dhai wai/dreden ten puund e 

Dhat on a Siurdai weer upon* -iir heed. 

Hiir Hooz-en weeren of fiVn skarlet reed, 456 

Ful strait itaid', and shooz ful muist and ncu'e. 

Boold was -iir faas, and fair and reed of Heire. 

She was a wurdh-tV wunran al -Or Inf-e. 

Huus-bondz- at tsh/rtslre door-e shee Had f*Vf-e, 460 

"Withuut'en udh-er kum'panir in. juuth-e, 

But dheer'of need-eth noukwht to speek as nuuth'e. 

And thrires Had she been at Dzheeruu'saleenv ; 

She nad'e pas'ed man-* a straundzh'e streem ; 4G4 

At Roonvc shee Had been, and at Bolooure, 

In Gaa'hYs*, at saint Dzhaam, and at Kolooin'e. 

She kuuth'e mutsh of wand'r/q bu dhe ware. 

Gaat-tooth-ed was she, sooth'ltV for to sai-e. 468 

Upon* an anvbleer ees - elV she sat, 

/wrarpled weel, and on -iir Heed an Hat 

As brood as is a buk'leer- or a tardzh-e ; 

A foot'mantel- abuut* -iir Ht'p-es lardzh'e, 472 

And on -iir feet a pair of spuures sharp -e. 

/n fel'aushiVp weel kuud she laugw?h and karp-e. 

Of rem'edn/' of luuve she kneu partshauns-e, 

Por shee kuud of dhat art dhe oold'e dauns'e. 47G 

24. Dhe Persuun*. 

A good man was dher of relirdzhiuun-, 

And was a poore Per'suun' of a tuun ; 

But n'tsh -e was of nooHi thoukwrht and werk, 

He was alsoo' a lenred man, a klerk, 480 

Dhat Krist-es gosp-el glad 'In wold-e preetsh-e ; 

His par'ishenz devuut'lii wold -e teetsh'e. 

465,466. Boloyne, Coloyne. 
The MSB. are very uncertain in their 
orthography. Boloyne, Coloyne, 
appear in Ha. He. Ca., and Boloyne 
in P. L., but we find B o 1 o i g n e, 
Coloigne in E. Co., C o 1 o i gn e 
in P., and Coloyngne inL. The 

pronunciation assigned is quite con- 
jectural. The following pronunciations 
of the termination are also possible : 
(-ooirje, -oon-e, -uin'e, uiq-ne) The 
modern Cockneyism (B<loiir, Kaloin-) 
points to (-uin'e). See also note on 
v. 631. 


' he was and -wonder dylygent, 

And in adversite ful patient ; 484 

And such he was jpreved ofte sythcs. 

Ful looth wer' him to curse for his tythes, 

But rather wold' he yeven out of doute, 

Unto his pore parischens aboute, 488 

Of his offring', and eek of his substawnce. 

He coud' in lytel thing haan suffisawnce. 
iii Wyd was his parisch, and houses fer asonder, 

But he ne lafte not for reyn ne thonder, 492 

In sikncss' nor in metcliief to visyte 

The ferrest in his parisch 1 , moch' and lyte, 

Upon his feet, and in his hond a staaf. 

This noVl ensampel to his scheep he yaaf, 496 

That first he wrowght', and after that he tawghte. 

Out of the gospel ho tho wordes cawghte, 

And this^w' he added' eek therto, 

That if goold ruste, what schuld' yren do ? 500 

For if a preest be foul, on whoom we truste, 

No wonder is a lewed man to ruste ; 

And scham' it is, if a preest take kep', 

A schyten schepperd and a clene scheep ; 504 

"Weel owght' a preest ensampel for to yive 

By his cleenness', hou that his scheep sehuld' live. 
iii He sette not his Itenefyce to hyre, 

And left' his scheep encomVreft. in the myre, 508 

ai And ran to London', unto saynt Powles, 
iii To seken him a chawnterye for sowles, 

Or with a bretherheed to been withhoolde ; 

But dwelt' at hooin, and kepte weel his fooldc, 512 

+ So that the wolf ne mad' it not miscarye. 
+iii He was a schepperd, and not a mercenary e ; 

And thowgh he holy wer' and vertuous, 

He was to sinful man nowght dispitous, 516 

Ne of his speche dawngerous ne dygne, 

But in his teching' discreet and lenygne. 

493 mes chief, so all but Ca., but the omission of the subjunctive e 

which reads myschif, and L. which is harsh. See the same rhyme and 

has m e s c h e f. The old French forms, phrase in the imperative and hence 

according to Roquefort, are meschef, tak not take, 6014, 13766. Only Ca., 

meschief, meschies, meschiez, mescief, which is generally profuse in final e, 

mesciis. reads kep schep, in accordance 

499 e e k E. He. Co. P., y i t Ha., **& *& analogy. 
omitted in Ca., L. has eke he 

hadded. Ca. reads add ede, but ,.J 04 It is a curious example of the 

no particular value is attachable to Cerent feeling attached to words of 

its final e's. *" e same on o ma l meaning, that 

schyten is banished from polite society, 

503 So all six MSS., if that and dirty (ags. dritan cacarc) is used 

Ha. in which case tak' must be read, without hesitation. 


BemYn' -e was and wund'er dz'rhYdzhcnt', 

And m adversttce' ful paa'sa'ent', 484 

And sutsh -e was a'preeved oft'e swllres. 

Ful looth wer m'ru to kurs'e for -is tiYdh'cs, 

But raadh'er wold -e jeeven uut of duut'c, 

Untoo- -is poor'e par-i'shenz abuut'e, 488 

Of HIS ofr/'q', and eek of m's substauns'e. 

He kuud m hV't'l tlu'q Haan syf'a'sauns'e. 

WiVd was -is parish, and HUUS'CS fer asimd'er, 

But iree ne laft'e not for rain ne thund'er, 492 

In si'k'nes nor m mes'tsheef' to \ii'ziit'Q 

Dhe forest m -is parish, mutsh and IzYt'e, 

Upon' -is feet, and in -is nond a staaf. 

Dh/s noo-bl- ensanvp'l too -is sheep -e jaaf, 490 

Dhat first -e iwoukwht, and after dliat -e tauk?drtc. 

Uut of dhe gos-pel nee dho word'es kaukwh'te, 

And dlus fn'gyyi" -e ad'ed eek dhertoo-, 

Dhat if goold rust'e, what shuld eYren doo ? 500 

For if a preest be fuul, on whoom we trust'e, 

Noo wund'er is a leu'ed man to rust'e ; 

And shaam it is, if a preest taak'e keep, 

A shn'ten shep'erd and a kleen'e sheep ; 504 

"W eel oukwht a preest ensam'p'l for to siive 

Bn He's kleen'nes', HUU dhat -is sheep shuld ItVve. 

He set'e not -is ben'cfzVs'e to Hrre, 

And left -is sheep enkunvbred in dhe nu'rre, 508 

And ran to Lun'dun, un'to saa'iht Pooul'es, 

To seek'en aim a tshaun'ten're for sooul'es, 

Or w^th a breedh'erneed to been wtthnoold'e ; 

But dwelt at Hoora, and kept'e weel -is foold'e, 512 

Soo dhat dhe wulf ne maad it not mzskar'ee. 

He was a shep'erd, and not a mersenar'te ; 

And dhooukz^h -e nool'M wecr and ver'tyyuus', 

He was to sm'ful man nouk?ht di's'pjV'tuus', 516 

!NTee of -is speetslre daun-dzheruus' ne dwh'e, 

But in -is teetsh'zq des'kreet' and bemYn'e. 

509 saynt, Ha. and Co. add an e, of the difficulty is to be found in the 

thus s e v n t e for the metre, the other occasional dissyllabic use of saynt, see 

five MSS. have no e, and the gram- note on v. 120. Powles, see supra 

matical construction forbids its use. pp. 145, 148. Mr. Gibbs mentions 

Tyrwhitt, to fill up the number of that he knows (PoolzJ as an existent 

syllables, rather than the metre, (for Londoner's pronunciation in the phrase 

he plays havoc with the accentual as old as Fowl's, see supra p. 266 for 

rhythm which commentators seem' to Chaucer's usage, 
have hitherto much neglected, but 

which Chaucer's ear must have appre- 612 folde, the final e is excep- 

ciated,) changes the first t o into tional, supra p. 384, col. 1. 
unto, thus : And ran unto London, 

unto Seint Poules, but this is not 514 and not a, so all the six 

sanctioned by any MS. The solution MSS., and no Ha. 


To <lra wen folk to hcvcn by fayrncsse, 

13y good ensampel, was his besinesse ; 520 

Hut it wer' eny perxoun obstinaat, 

"Whatso he wer' of heygh or low' estaaf, 

Him wold he snibbe scharply for the nones. 
iii A bett're preest I trowe ther nowheer nooii is. 524 

iii He tray ted' after no pomp' and reverence, 

Nc maked' him a spt/ced conscience, 

But Cristcs loor', and his apostcl's twelve, 

He tawght', and first he folwed' it himselve. 528 


"With him ther was a Ploughman, was his brother, 
iii That hadd' ylaad of dong' ful many a t'other. 

A trewe swinker and a good was he, 

Living' in pees and perfyt char He, 532 

God lov'd' he best with al his hole herte 

At alle tymes, thowgh him gam'd' or smerte, 

And than his neyghcbour right as himselve. 

He wolde thresch' and therto dyk' and delve, 536 

iii For Cristes sake, for ev'ry pore wighte, 

"Withouten hyi 1 ', if it lay in his mighte. 

But tythes^fl^ed' he ful fayr* and weel, 

Booth of his prop ''re swink', and his cafel. 540 

In a tabbard' he rood upon a meer'. 

Ther was also a recv' and a milleer, 
A somnour and & pardoneer also, 
A mawncip'l and myself, ther wer' no mo. 544 


The Milleer was a stout carl for the nones, 
Ful big he was of brawn, and eck of bones ; 
That prered? weel, for ov'ral ther he cam, 
At wrastling' he wold' hav' awey the rain. 548 

He was schort schuld'red, brood, a tliikkt- knarre, 
iii Ther n'as no dore that he n'old' heev' of hurre 
Or breek' it with a renning' with his heed. 
His berd as ony sou' or fox was reed, 552 

And theerto brood, as thowgh it wer' a spade. 
Upon the cop right of his noos' he hadde 

619 fayrnesse E. He. Co. P. pare 

L.. clennesse Ha. Ca., with He., Ye schulde be al pacient and meke, 
b y, the rest. And have a swete spiced consciens, 

525 and E. He. Co. P. L., ne Si ^ en %$* - of Jobes P a ' 
Ha. Ca but this would introduce two 529 w ' a g h j g so all the six MSS> 
trissyllabic measures. except p^ w ^ ch hag tha ^ wag 

526 spyced conscience, com- h c s e, introducing 1 a trissyllabic mca- 


To drau'en folk to neven bii fairnes'e, 

Bii good ensanrp'l, was -is besines'e ; 520 

But it wer en'ii persuun- ob-stinaat', 

AVhat'soo 1 -e weer of Haih or loou estaat', 

Him wold -e snib'e sharp 'lii for dhe noon'es. 

A bet're preest li trooire dher noo wheer noon is. 524 

He wait'ed aft'cr no pomp and reevercns'e, 

He maak'ed Him a spiis'ed kon'siens'e, 

But Krist'es loor, and HI'S apos't'lz twelve, 

He taukwht, and first -e fol'wed it nimsclve. 528 

25. Dhe Pluukwlrman. 

With Him dher was a Pluukwlrman, was -is broodh'er, 

Dhat Had ilaad' of duq ful man'i a foodb/er. 

A treu'e swiqk'er and a good was nee, 

Liiviq in pees and per-fizt' tshaa*riitce\ 532 

God luvd -e best with al -is nool'e nert'e 

At al-e tiim'es, dhooukzph -im gaamd or smert'e, 

And dhan -is naiX-h-ebuur- rt'Kht as -imselve. 

He wold'e thresh and dhertoo diik and delve, 536 

For Krist'es saak'e, for evrii poo're wiAht'e, 

Withuut'en niir, if it lai in -is mi^ht'e. 

But tiidh'es pai'ed nee ful fair and weel, 

Booth of -is prop*re swiqk and -is kat'eK 540 

/n a tab'ard' -e rood upon' a meer. 

Dher was alsoo* a reev and a rmTcer*, 
A sum'nuur' and a pardoneer alsoo', 
A inamrsipl- and miz^self*, dlier weer no moo. 544 

26. Dhe M i 1- e e r. 

Dhe MiTeer was a stuut karl for dhe noon'cs, 

Ful big -e was of braun, and eek of boon-es ; 

Dhat preeved weel, for ovral- dheer -e kaam, 

At rwast'liq nee wold naav'awai- dhe ram. 548 

He was short shuld'red, brood, a thik'e knare, 

Dher n- -as no doore dhat uce n- -old neev of nar'c 

Or breek it with a ren'iq' with -is need. 

His herd as on'ii suu or foks was reed, 552 

And dhcerto brood, as dhooukwh it weer a spaa'de. 

Upon* dhe kop ri/;ht of -is nooz -c nad'c 

sure; his Ha. against the metre ; the col. 1), to adding a superfluous c to 

omission of the relative that before m i 1 1 e e r, supra p. 254. The Icelandic 

these words is curious, so that Ca. may mar, Danish mar, Swedish miirr also 

have the proper reading. omifc the e. Chaucer generally uses 

537 for E. Ca. Co. P. L., with the form mare. 

Ha. He. 548 hav' awey, Co. P. L., 

541 meer', I have preferred elid- her' awey Ha., hav' alwey E. 

ing the essential final e (supra, p. 388, He. Ca. 


A well', and theeron stood a tuft of heres, 
Reed as the berstles of a soues eres. 556 

His nose-thirles blake wer' and wyde. 
A swerd and boucleer baar he by his syde. 
His mouth as greet was as a greet fornays. 
iii He was ajangleer and a goliardeys, 560 

And that was moost of sinn' and harlotryes. 
"Weel coud' he stele corn, and tollen thryes ; 
And yet he hadd' a thouib' of goold', parde ! 
A whyt cootf and a blew hood wered he. 564 

A baggepype coud' he blow' and soune, 
And theerwithal he browght us out of toune. 


iii A gentel Mawncipel was ther of a tempel, 

Of which achatours mighten tak' exempel, 568 

For to be wys in hying' of vitaille. 

For whether that he pay 'd' or took by tattle, 

Algat' he tcayted' so in his achate 

That he was ay bifoorn and in good state. 572 

Nou is not that of God a ful fayr grace, 

That swich a lewed mannes wit schal pace 

The wisdom of an heep of lern'de men ? 

Of may Bier's hadd' he moo than thryes ten, 576 

That wer' of law' expert and curious, 

Of which ther wer' a doseyn in that hous', 

"Worthy to be sti wards of rent' and londe 

Of any lord that is in Engelonde, 580 

To mak' him lyve by bis propre good' 

In honour detf\Qes, but he were wood, 

Or lyv' as scarslj as he can desyre ; 

And dbel for to helpen al a schyre 584 

In any caas' that mighte fall' or happe ; 
iii And yit this maioncipel sett' her' aller cappe. 

28. THE EEVE. 

iii The Eeve was a sclender colerik man, 

His herd was schav' as neygh as e'er he can. 588 

His heer was by his eres round yschoorn. 

His top was docked lyk a preest bifoorn. 

Ful longe wer' his legges and ful lene, 

Ylyk a staaf, ther was no calf ysene. 592 

"Weel coud' he keep a gerner and a binne, 

Ther was noon awditour coud' on him winne. 

Weel wist' he by the drought,' and by the reyne, 

The yeelding of his seed' and of his grayne. 596 

559 fornays, see note to v. 202. 569 by ing, see supra, p. 285. 
564 a blew, E. He. Ca., Co., a 
blewe P. L., blewe Ha. 572 state has only a dative e. 


A wert, and dheeron stood a tuft of neeres, 

Heed as dhe bers'tles of a smres eeres. 556 

Hi's nooz'e therl'es blaak'e wer and weYd'e. 

A swerd and buk'leer* baar -e ~bn -is szVd'e. 

His muuth as greet was as a greet for-nais-. 

He was a dzhaq'leer and a gooHardais', 560 

And dhat was moost of sin and Harlotr/res. 

Weel kuud -e steel'e korn, and tol'en thn'res ; 

And jet -e Had a thuumb of goold, pardee* ! 

A wlmt koot and a bleu Hood weered nee. 564 

A bag'epn'-pe kuud -e bloou and suun-e, 

And dheerwtthal' -e brouktpht us uut of tuun p c. 

27. Dhe Maun-stp'l. 

A dzhcn't'l Maun'sip'l was dher of a tenvp'l, 

Of whitsh atshaa'tuurz' miKht'en taak eksenvp'l, 568 

For to be wm in bii'iq of viitail'e. 

For wliedh'er dhat -e paid or took bw tail'e, 

Algaat* -e wait'ed soo m m's atshaat'e, 

Dhat nee was ai btfoorn* and m good staat'e. 572 

Nuu is not dhat of God a ful fair graas'e, 

Dhat swz'tsh a leu*ed man'es w't shal paas'e 

Dhe wz's'doom of an neep of lern'dc men ? 

Of mais'terz nad -e moo dhan thrn'es ten, 576 

Dhat wer of lau ekspert* and kyyriuus', 

Of whitsh dher weer a duu'zain' m dhat HUUS, 

Wurdh'iV to bee stz'wardz* of rent and lond'e 

Of an'M lord dhat is in Eq*elond - e, 580 

To maak -ira. liive beV -*s prop - re good 

In on-uur* det'lees, but -e weer'e wood, 

Or UYv as skars'lw as -e kan desjVr'e ; 

And aa-b'l for to nelp'cn al a slmre 584 

In an - u kaas dhat m^ht'e fal or nap'e ; 

And sit dhis mauns^p'l set -er al'er kap'e. 

28. Dhe Eeeve. 

Dhe Reeve was a sklend'er kol'erzk man, 

Hi's berd was shaav as nai&h as eer -e kan. 588 

Hzs neer was bu -is eer '6s ruund z'shoorn*. 

HYs top was dok'ed leVk a preest b^foorn*. 

Ful loq'e weer -is leg'es and ful leen-e, 

71n"k- a staaf, dher was no kalf ?seen-e. 592 

Weel kuud -e keep a genrer and a bwre, 

Dher was noon au'dituur kuud on -an wm'c. 

"Weel west -e bn dhe druukwht, and \>ii dhe rain'e, 

Dhe jeeld'iq of -is seed and of -is grain-e. 596 

578 .that, so all six MSS., an Ha. 592 ylyk, so all six MSS., al 
587 sclendcr, all seven MSS. like Ha., ysene, supra, p. 357, 
agree in the initial scl or ski, art. 61. 


His lordes sclieep, his neet, his dejerye, 
His swyn, his hors, his stoor, and his pultryc, 
"Was hoolly in this reves governing', 

And by his cocenawnf yaf the rek'ning, 600 

Sin that his lord was twenty yeer of age ; 
iii Ther coude no man bring' him in arrerage. 
Thcr n'as balli/f, ne herd', ne other hyne, 
That they ne knew' his sleyght and his covyne ; 604 

They wer' adraad of him, as of the dethe. 
His woning was fill fayr upon an hethe, 
"With grene trees yschadwed was his place. 
He coude better than his lord pur dunce. 608 

Ful rich' he was astored priv ely, 
His lord weel couth' he plese subtiRj, 
To yeev' and leen' him of his owne good', 
And hav' a thank, and yet a coot 1 and hood. 612 

In youth' he lerned hadd' a good mesteer ; 
He was a weel good wright, a carpenteer. 
This reve sat upon a ful good stot', 

That was apomely grey, and highte Scot. 616 

A long surcootf of pers upon he hadd', 
And by his syd' he baar a rusty blaad. 
Of Northfolk was this reev' of which I telle, 
Bysyd' a toun men callen Baldeswelle. 620 

Tucked he was, as is a, freer', aboute, 
And e'er he rood the hind' rest of the route. 

29. THE SoMxora. 

A Somnour was ther with us in that place, 

That hadd' a fyr-reed cherubynes face, 624 

For sawcefam he was, with eyghen narwe. 
iii As hoot he was, and leccherous, as a sparwe, 

With skalled browes blak', and pyled berd ; 

Of his vysage children wer' aferd. 628 

Ther n'as quiksilver, lytarg' ', or brimstoon, 
iii Boras, ceruce, ne oyl of tarter noon, 

Ne oynement that wolde clens' and byte, 

That him might helpen of his whelkes whyte, 632 

Nor of the knobbes sitting' on his chekes. 

"Weel lov'd' he garleek, oy nouns, and eek lekes, 

597 deycrye, the termination 612 so He. Ca. Co. P.; and an 
seems borrowed from the French, for ho ode L., a thank, a cote, and 
dey see Wedgwcod'sEtym. Diet. 1,424. eek an hood Ha., a thank, yet 

598 stoor, I am inclined to con- a gowne and hood E. 
sider this a form of steer, ags. steor, 

rather than store, as it is usually in- 615 ful E. Ca. Co. L., wel the 

terpreted, as the swine, horse, steer, others. 

and poultry go better together. On 618 blaad, supra, p. 259. 

the interchange of (ee) and (oo) see 

supri p. 476. 623 so inn our Ca. P., somp- 


HYs lord'es sheep, -is neet, -is darenY'e, 

H's swtYn, -is Hors, -is stoor, and m's pultn're, 

Was nooHtV in dim reeves guvenu'q*, 

And bY -is kuvenaunt' jaaf dhe rek'mq;, 600 

Sm dhat -is lord was twcn'tn jeer of aadzh'e ; 

Dher kuud'e noo man bnq -im in aree'raa'dzhe. 

Dher n- -as bal'tYf', nee neerd, nee udh'er mYn*e, 

Dliat dliai ne kneu -is slaiht and HS kovmre ; 604 

Dhai weer adraad' of H/ni, as of dhe deetlre. 

Hi's wuun'fc'q was ful fair upon* an neeth'e, 

W*th green'e treez ishad'wed was -is plaas'e. 

He kuud'e bet'er dhan -is lord purtshaas'e. 608 

Ful n'tsh -e was astoored pn'velY, 

His lord weel kuuth -e pleez'e sub'tHY, 

To jeev and leen -im of -is ooun-e good, 

And naav a thaqk, and jet a koot and nood. 612 

/n juuth -e lenred Had a good mes'teer- ; 

He was a weel good rwifcht, a karpenteer. 

Dht's reeve sat upon* a ful good stot, 

Dhat was a punvehY grai, and n/Aht'c Skot. 616 

A loq syyrkoot' of pers upon* -e Had, 

And bY -is seYd -e baar a rust'sY blaad. 

Of North'folk was dhj's reev of whi'tsli /*' tcl'e, 

Bz'snd' a tuun men kal'en Bal'deswel'e. 620 

Tuk'ed -e was, as is a freer, abuut'e, 

And eer -e rood dhe nmd'rest of dhe ruut'e. 

29. Dhe S u nv n u u r. 

A Sunvnuur was dher with us m dhat plaas'e, 

Dhat Had a ftYrreed tshee'rubj'm'es faas'e, 624 

For sau'scflem -e was, w/th ai/ch'en nar'we. 

As Hoot -e was and letslreruus, as a sparwe, 

"Wt'th skal'ed broou'es blaak, and pTed berd ; 

Of Hts vmaa'dzhe tshil'dren weer aferd'. 628 

Dher n- -as kwk'sTver, hY'tarclzh-, or brtm'stoon', 

Boraas', seryys-e, ne uil of tart'er noon, 

Ne uin-ement dhat wold'e klcnz and biYt'C, 

Dhat Him im'Aht nelp'en of -is whelkes wluiVe, 632 

Nor of dhe knob'es sit't^ on -is tshcek'es. 

Weel luvd -e garleek', unvuunz', and eck leek'es, 

n o u r Ila., somonour E. He., 634 o y n o n s Ila. E. lie. Co., 

somynour Co. L. See Temp. onyons L., onyounnys Cn., 

Pref. to the Six-Text Ed. of Chaucer, oynyouns P. The pronunciation 

p. 100, under citator. (uirjuunz) is, of course, quite conjec- 

625 sawceflem, from salsum tural, and moulded on the modem 

phlegma, Tyrwhitt's Glossary. sound, though the more common 

629 o r Co. P. L. ; this is more o y n o n s might lead to (uiirunz), 

rhythmical than ne Ha. E. He. Ca., which seems hardly probable. Com- 

which would introduce a very inhar- pare the modern vulgar (/q-'nz) and 

monious trissyllabic measure. note on v. 465. 



And for to drinke strong wyn reed as blood. 

Than wold' he spek' and cry* as he \ver' wood. 636 

And whan that he weel dronken hadd' the wyn, 

Than wold' he speke no word but Latyn. 

A fewe termes hadd' he, two or thre, 

That he hadd' lerned out of som decre ; 640 

No wonder is, he herd' it all the day ; 

And eck ye knowe weel, how that a jay 

Can clepe Wat, as weel as can the pope. 

But whoso coud' in other thing' him grope, 644 

Than hadd' he spent al his philosophye, 

Ay, QUESTIO QUID JTOIS ? wold' he crt/c. 

He was a gentel liarlot, and a kinde ; 
iii A bett're felawe schulde men not finde. 648 

He wolde suffer for a quart of wyne 
iii A good felawe to haan his concubyne 

A twelvmoon'th, and excvd him atte fulle. 

And privelj a finch eek coud' he pulle. 652 

And if he fond oowheer a good felawe, 

He wolde techen him to haan noon awe 

In swich caas of the archedek'nes curs, 

But if a mannes sowl wer' in his purs ; 656 

For in his purs he schuld' jputrisch'A. be. 

Purs' is the archedek'nes hel, seyd' he. 

But weel I woot he lyeth right in dede ; 

Of cursing' owght eech gilty man to drecle ; 660 

For curs wol sle right as assoylwg m-cth ; 
iii And also war' him of a SIGXHTCAVIT. 

In dawnger 1 hadd' he at his owne gyse 

The yonge girles of the dyocyse, 664 

And knew her' counseyl, and was al her' reed. 

A garland hadd' he set upon his heed, 

As greet as it wer* for an alestake ; 

A boucleer hadd' he maad him of a cake. 668 




With him ther rood a gentel Pardoneer 

Of Rouncival, his freend and his compeer, 

That streyt was comen from the court of Home. 

Ful loud' he sang, Com hider, love, to me ! 672 

648 not, the six MSS., no wher 657 ypunisch'd ; ypunysshed 

Ha. felawe, compare v. S95, 650, E. He.,punyssch ed Ida. Co!, pun- 

nnd 653. Hence it seems best to leave yschede L., ponyschid Ca., 

f e 1 a w e in 648, although f e 1 a w fre- punshed P. The two last readings, 

quently occurs, see supra p. 383, col. 2. in connection with the modern pro- 

655 such a caas Ha. only. nunciation (pan-isht), lead me to adopt 

656 purs, see supra p. 367, art. (tpuirtsht) for the old pronunciation, 
91, col. 1, 1. 13, it is spelled without notwithstanding the French origin of 
an f in all MSS. but L. the word. Compare note on v. 1&4. 


And for to dnqk-e stroq wfm reed as blood. 

Dlian wold -e speek and km as nee weer wood. 636 

And whan dhat nee weel druqk'en Had dhe wYn, 

Dlian wold -e speek'e noo word but LattYir. 

A feu'e ternves nad -e, twoo or three, 

Dhat nee -ad lenred nut of sum dekree- ; 640 

Noo wund'er is, -e nerd tt al dhe dai ; 

And eek Je knoou'e wcel, HUU dhat a dzhai 

Kan klep'e "Wat, as weel as kan dhe poop'e. 

But whoo'soo- kuud m udh-er thjq -im groop-e, 64-1 

Dhan Had -e spent al -is fjrloo-soo'f/re, 

Ai, K west- too kwid. dzhyyrts? wold -e km'-e. 

He was a dzhen't'l narlut, and a kmd'e ; 

A bet're felau'e shuld'e men not f/nd'e. 648 

He wold'e suf'er for a kzrart of wi'nre 

A good felau'e to naan -is kon'kyybzYn'e 

A twelvmoonth, and ekskyyz- -im at'e ful'e. 

And prtv'eltY a fmtsh eek kuud -e pul-e. 652 

And if -e fund oowheer a good felau-e, 

He wold'e teetsh -im for to naan noon au'e 

/n swtsh kaas of dhe artsh'cdcck'ncs kurs, 

But if a man'es sooul weer *n -is purs ; 656 

For m -is purs -e shuld ipun*tsht bee. 

Purs is dhe artsh'edeek'nes nel, said nee. 

But weel li woot -e h'reth. rikht in deed'e ; 

Of kurs'/q oukwht eetsh gUt-ii man to dreed'e ; 660 

For kurs wol slee rikht as asuil'/q saaveth ; 

And al'soo waar -im of a s * g n i f i k a a v i t h. 

In daun'dzheer Had -e at -is ooun'e giis-o 

Dhe Juq'e gtrl-es of dhe cUY'OBtYs'e, 664 

And kneu -er kuun-sail, and was al -er reed ; 

A gar-land Had -e set upon -is need, 

As greet as tt wer for an aa'lestaak'e ; 

A buk'leer Had -e maad -im of a kaak-e. 668 

30. Dhe Par- donee r - . 

"With mm dher rood a dzhen-fl Par'doneer- 
Of Ruun'sjval', H/S freend and H/S kom'pecr, 
Dhat strait was kum'en from dhe kuurt of Eoom'e. 
Ful luud -e saq, Kum Htd'er, luve, too me! 

658 seyd', so all six MSS., quoth I love another, and elles were I to 

Ha. hlame, 3709. 

662 see supra p. 259. On p. 254, n. 3. I marked the 

663 gyse, so all six MSS., usual reading cotnpame as doubtful, 
a s s i s e Ha. nnd gave the readings of several MSS. 

672 to me. To the similar The result of a more extended compa- 

rhymes on p. 318, add: rison is as follows: compame Lans. 

As help me God, it wol not be, cow, 851, Ilarl. 1758, Eeg. 18. C. ii, Sloane 

ba me ! ' 1685 and 1686, Univ. Cam. Dd. 4, 24, 


This somnour baar to him a stif burdoun, 

Was never tramp 1 of half so greet a soun. 

This pardoneer hadd' heer as yelw' as wex, 

But smooth' it hcng, as dooth a stryk' of flex, 676 

By ounces heng' his lockes that he nadde, 

And theerwith he his schuld'res overspradde, 

Ful thinn' it lay, by colpoun's oon and oon, 

And hood, foTjolite, ne wer'd' he noon, 680 

For it was trussed, up in his walet. 

Him thowght' he rood al of the newe get, 

DischeveV, satr/his capp', he rood al bare. 

Swich glaring' eyghen hadd' he as an hare. 684 

A vernik'l hadd' he sowed on his cappe. 

His walet lay bifoorn him in his lappe, 

Brerdful of pardoun com' of Rom' al hoot. 

A t'oys he hadd' as smaal as eny goot. 688 

No berd n' hadd' he, ne never schold' he have, 

As smooth* it was as it wer' laat' yschave ; 

I trow' he weer' a gelding or a mare. 

But of his craft, fro Berwick unto Ware, 692 

Ne was ther swich another pardoneer : 

For in his maaT he hadd' a pilwebeer, 

Which that, he seyde, was our' lady veyl : 

He seyd' he hadd' a gobet of the seyl 696 

ai That saynt Peter hadd', whan that he wente 

Upon the se, til Jhesu Crist him hentc. 

He hadd' a cros of latoun ful of stones, 

And in a glass' he haddc pigges bones. 700 

But with thys' relyques, whan that he fond 

A pore per soun dwelling' upon lond', 

Upon a day he gat him mor' moneye 

Than that the persoun gat in mon'thes tweye. 704 

And thus with feyne&Jlatery' and japes, 
iii He made the persoun and the pep 1 1 his apes. 

But trewely to tellen atte laste, 

He was in chirch' a noVl ecclesiaste. 708 

and Mm. 2, 5, Bodl. 68G, Christ ba occurs, in : 

Church, Oxford, MS. C. 6, Petworth, Come ner, my spouse, let me ba thy 

eupamf, Univ. Cam. Gg. 4, 27 cheke, 6015, 

com pame Harl. 7334, Reg. 17, D. xv, and the substantive ba in Skelton 

Corpus,^ come pame, Oxf. Barl. 20, (Dyce's ed. i. 22), where a drunken 

and Laud 600 com pa me, Hengwrt lover lays his head in his mistress' 

combame, Trin. Coll. Cam. R. 3, 15, lap and sleeps, while 

Oxf. Arch. Seld. B. 14, New College, With ba, ba, ba, and bas, bag, bas, 

Oxford, MS., No. 314, come bame She cheryshed hym both cheke and 

Harl. 7335, Univ. Cam. li. 3, 26, Trin. chyn. 

Coll. Cam. R. 33, Rawl. MS. Poet. To ba basiare (Catullus 7 & 8) was 

141, cum bame, Bodl. 414. bame distinct from to kiss, osculari, compare : 

Oxf. Hatton 1. conte ba me, Rawl. Thanne kisseth me, syn it may be 

Misc. 1133 and Laud 739. The verb no bett. 3716. 


Dhis sum'nuur baar to Him a stif burduun', 673 

Was never trump of naif so greet a suun. 

Dhj's par'doneer' Had neer as jel'w- as weks, 

But smoodh it neq, as dooth a stri/k of fleks ; 676 

Bii uns-es neq -is lok'cs dhat -e nad-e, 

And dhecrwith nee -is shuld'rcs oversprad'e, 

Ful then it lai bii kul-puunz oon and oon, 

And Hood, for dzhol'itee', no weerd -e noon, 680 

For it was trus'ed up in His wal'et*. 

Him thought -e rood al of dhe neu-e dzhet, 

Dishevel, sauf -is kap, -e rood al baare. 

Switsh glaa'riq aUh'en Had -e as an naar'e. 684 

A vernikl- -ad -e soou-ed on -is kap - e. 

His wal'ct' lai bifoonr -im on -is lap'e, 

Brerd'ful of par'duun kum of Room al noot. 

A vuis -e Had as smaal as en'iV goot. 688 

Noo berd n- -ad nee, ne never shuld -e naave, 

As smoodh it was as it wcr laat ishaave, 

li troou -e weer a geld'iq or a maa-re. 

But of -is kraft, fro Berwik un-to Waa-rc, 692 

l*Te was ther switsh anudh'er par'doneer'. 

For in -is maal -e nad a pe'l'webeer, 

Whz'tsh dhat, -e said'e, was uur laa'dzV vail : 

He said, -e Had a gob'et of dhe sail 696 

Dhat saa'/nt Pee*ter Had, whan dhat -e wente 

Upon* dhe see, til Dzhee-syy Krzst -im nent'e. 

He Had a kros of laa-tuun ful of stoon-es, 

And in a glas -e Had*e p/g'es boon'es. 700 

But with dhtVz rcl'/ikes, whan dhat -e fond 

A poo-re persuun* dwcl'iq up'on' lond, 

TJp'on' a dai -e gat -em moor munai'e 

Dhan dhat dhe pcrsuun- gat in moon-thes tware. 704 

And dhus with fain'ed flaterii' and dzhaap-es, 

He maad'e dhe per'suun' and dhe pee'pl- -is aap'es. 

But trcu'elii to tel'en at'e last'e, 

He was in tshirtsh a noo'bl- eklee-smst'e. 708 

Com ba me! was probably the L., culpounnys Ca., colpouns 

name of a song, like that in v. 672, ? Co., modern French coupons. 

or the modern "Kiss me quick, and 687 brerdful, the MSS. hare 

go, my love. It is also probable all an un i n t e lligible bret ful or 

that Absolon's speech contained allu- bret ful, probably a corruption by 

sions to it, and that it was very well the Bribes of Orrmin's fcwWrf-brim- 

known at the time. ful breird brcrd are found - m Scotch, 

677 ounces, so all six MSS., see Jamieson. 
unces Ha., which probably meant 

the same thing, supra p. 304, and not 697 So all the MSS. Either 

inches. s a y n t is a dissyllable, see note to v. 

679 colpoun's, I have adopted 120, or the line has a defective first 

a systematic spelling, c u 1 p o n s Ha. measure, to which the extremely uik. 

P., colpous E. He., cul pones acseuted nature of t h a t is opposed. 


4- Weel coud' he reed' a lessoun or a storie, 
4- But altherbest he sang an offertorie ; 

For weel he wiste, whan that song was songe, 

He moste precK , and weel affijl' his tonge, 712 

To winne silver, as he right weel coude ; 

Theerfoor' he sang so mery' and so loude. 


Nou hav' I toold you schortly in a clawse 
Th' estaat, th' array, the nombr ', and eek the cawse 716 
Why that assembled, was this companye 
In Southwerk at this gentel hostelrye, 
That hight the Tablard, faste by the Belle. 
But nou is tyme to you for to telle 720 

Hou that we baren us, that ilke night, 
Whan we wer' in that hostelry* alight ; 
And after wol I tell' of our' vyage, 

And al the rem'nawnt of our' pilgrimage. 724 

But first I prey 1 you of your' curteysye 
That ye ne rett' it nat my vilaynye 
Thowgh that I playn\j spek' in this matere, 
To tellen you her' wordes and her' chere ; 728 

]Ne thowgh I spek' her' wordes properly. 
For this ye knowen al so weel as I, 
Whoso schal tell' a taal' after a man', 
He moost' Tellers', as neygh as e'er he can, 732 

Ev'iy word, if it be in his charge, 
Al spek' he ne'er so rudely or large : 
Or elles he moot tell' his taal' untrewe, 
Or/<?ywe thing, or find' his wordes newe. 736 

He may not spare, thowgh he wer' his brother ; 
He moost' as weel sey oo word as another. 
Crist spaak himself ful brood' in holy writ, 
And weel ye woot no vilayny' is it. 740 

Eek' PLATO seyth, whoso that can him rede, 
The wordes moot be cosin to the dcde. 
Also I prey' you to foryeev' it me, 

Al haav' I not set folk in her' degre 744 

Her' in this taal' as that they schulde stonde ; 
My wit is schort, ye may weel understonde. 

711 weel he wiste, so all the follows; compare Ihttde, mitrie in the 

six MSS., wel wyst he Ha. Cuckoo Song, supra p. 427. Hence 

714 so merily P., ful me- the above conjectural reading, 

riely Ha. so meriely Co., the 727 I playnly spek', so all 

murierly E., the muryerly the six MSS., I speke al pleyn 

He., the meryerely Ca., so Ha. 

merely L., the regular form would 733 ev'ry word Ha., eueriche 

be m e r i c. as in 1 o u d c, which \v o r d P., the other MSS. insert a, 


"Weel kuud -e reed a les-uun or a stooT/c, 

But al'dherbest -e saq an ofertocme ; 

For weel -e wist'e, whan dhat soq was suq-e, 

He moost-e preetsh, and weel afttT -is tuq-e, 712 

To wzire sTver, as -e r*ht weel kuud'e ; 

Dheerfoor -e saq soo mer- and soo 

Tshau'seeres Prareer. 

Nuu naav li toold ju short'hY m a klauz-e 

Dh- estaat', dh- arai-, dhe nunvbr-, and eek dhe kauz'e 716 

Whu dhat asenrbled was dim kumpam're 

In Suuth- werk at dim dzhen't'l ostelr/re, 

Dhat mKht dhe Tab'ard', fast-e bzV dhe Bel'e. 

But nuu is tw'ine too ju for to tel'e 720 

Huu dhat we baaren us dhat lk - e n?Z-ht, 

"Whan wee wer in dhat ostelm- ali/cht 

And aft'er wol li tel of uur vw'aadzh-e, 

And al dhe rem'naunt* of uur ptTgn'maadzlre. 724 

But ftrst li prai Jim of JUUT kurtaist're 

Dhat jee ne ret it not mii vM'lai'ntre, 

Dhoouktch dhat li plaurltY speck in dhzs matee're. 

To tel-e Juu -er word'es and -er tshee're ; 728 

Ne dhooukz0h li speek -er word'es prop-erlw. 

For dim je knoou'en al so weel as li, 

Whoo-soo shal tel a taal aft'er a man, 

He moost reners', as naU-h as eer -e kan, 732 

Evm word, if it bee in -is tshardzh'e, 

Al speek -e neer so ryyd'ebV or lardzlre ; 

Or el*es nee moot tel -is taal untreu'e, 

Or fain-e thz'q, or fmd -is word'es neu'e. 736 

He mai not spaar'e, dhoouk7h -e wer -is broodh'er ; 

He moost as weel sai oo word as anoodh'er. 

Kr'st spaak -nnself* ful brood in noo'U' rtoit t 

And weel je woot noo vz'rlai'n/r is it. 740 

Eek Plaa'too saith, Ayhoosoo* dhat kan -in\ reed'e, 

Dhe word'es moot be kuz*n too dhe deed'e. 

Alsoo* li prai Juu to forjeev it mee, 

Al naav /*' not set folk in ner degree* 744 

Heer m dhz's taal, as dhat dhai shuld'e stond'c ; 

MiV wit is short, je mai weel un'derstond'e. 

as en erich a word E., apparently more correct. Orrmin writes o]>err for 

to avoid a defective first measure. the adjective, and both olwr and oj>J>r 

738 another. I have throughout for the conjunction. That distinction 

pronounced other as (udlrer), because has been carried out in the pronuncia- 

ofthe alternative orthography outher, tionof the Proclamation of Henry III., 

supra p. 267. This rhyme, however, supra pp. 501-3-5. 

shews that there must have also been a 744 not set folk, so all the six 

sound (oodh'cr), which is historically MSS., folk nat set Ha. 



Greet chere maad' our' boost' us ev'rychoon, 

And to the soupeer sett' lie us anoon ; 748 

And sm'ed us with vytayl' atte bestc. 

Strong was the wyn, and wcel to driiik' us leste. 

A seeui'ly man our' kooste was withalle 

For to haan been a marschal in an halle ; 752 

A large man was he with eyghcn stepe, 

A fair' re lurgeys is ther noon in Chepe : 

Boold of his spech', and wys, and wecl ytawght, 

And of manhode lacked' him right nawght. 756 

iii Eek theerto he was right a mcrye man, 

And after soupeer pleyen he bigan, 

And spaak of merth' amonges other thinges, 

"Whan that we hadde maad our' reckeninges ; 760 

And seyde thus : Lo, lording's, trewely, 

Ye been to me weelcomen hertely, 

For by my trouth', if that I schul not lye, 
vi iii I ne sawgh not this yeer so mery a companye 764 

At ones in this herbergh, as is nou. 

Fayn wold I do you merthe, wist' I hou, 

And of a mcrth' I am right nou bithowght, 

To doon you ees\ and it schal coste nowght. 768 

Ye goon to Cawnterbery : God you spede, 

The blisful martyr quyte you your' mede ! 

And weel I woot, as ye goon by the weye, 

Ye schapen you to talken and to plcye ; 772 

For trewely comfort ne merth is noon 

To rydc by the weye domb' as stoon ; 

And theerfoor' wol I make you dispoort, 

As I seyd' erst, and do you som comfort. 776 

iii And if you lyketh alle by oon assent 
For to standen at my juggement ; 

And for to werken as I schal you seye, 

To morwe, whan ye ryden by the weye, 780 

Nou by my fader sowle that is deed, 
iii 3>ut ye be mcrye, smyteth of myn heed. 

Hoold up your hond withoutc more speche. 

Our' counxeyl was not longe for to seche ; 784 

Us thowght' it n'as not worth to maak' it wys, 

And grau'ntcd. him withoute mor' avys, 

And bad him sey' his verdyt', as him leste. 

Lording's, quoth he, nou herk'neth for the beste, 788 

756 lacked' him, this is con- 759 amonges E. He. Co. 

iectural ; lakkede he Ha., him 764 I ne sawgh not, this is 

1 a c k e d e the &ix MSS. variously a composite reading ; I ne saugh 

spelled, in which case the final e must Ha., I sawgh not the other MSS. 

be pronounced, which is so unusual variously spelled. The Ha. has there- 

that I have preferred adopting the order fore a trissyllabic first measure, which 

of Ua. and the construction of the is unusual and doubtful ; to write both 

other MSS. tic and not introduces an Alexandrine. 


Dhe Oost and nfs Merth. 
Greet tsheere maad uur Oost us evm'tshooir, 
And too dhe suup-eer set -e us anoon ; 748 

And serreth us with vtY'tail- at'e best'e. 
fctroq was dhe wYn, and weel to driqk us lest'e. 
A seenrhY man uur oost'e was withal'e 
For to iiaan been a marshal tn an nal-e ; 752 

A lardzhe man was nee with ai/tlren steep'e 
A fair-re burdzhais is ther noon m Tshecp-e : 
Uoold of -is speetsh, and w's, and weel ttaukteht', 
And of mau'Hood'e lak'cd Hnn Ttkht nauktpht. 756 

Eek dheertoo nee was n'A-ht a mere man, 
And aft'er suup-eer' plaren nee btgan-, 
And spaak of merth amuq'es udh'er thtq-es, 
Whan dhat we nad'e maad uur rek-em'q-cs ; 760 

And said'e dhus : Loo, lord't'qz, treu*el*V, 
Je been to mee weel'kuuren Her'teltY, 
For bt't mii truuth, tf dhat li shul not l're, 
li nee saukwh not dhs jeer so mert' a kumpantre 764 
At oon-es tn dh/s ner'berkh, as *'s nuu. 
Fain wold li duu ju merth'e, wist It HUU, 
And of a merth li am n'Aht nuu brthouktcht', 
To doon juu ees, and t't shal kost'e noukM?ht. 768 

Je goou to Kaunt'erber'tV : God juu speed'e, 
Dhe bh's'ful marttYr keceVt'e juu Jnur meed'e ! 
And weel li woot, as jee goon bw dhe ware, 
Je shaap'en juu to talk'en and to plai'e ; 772 

For treu'eliV kumfort' ne merth is noon 
To ri'td'e bn dhe wai'e dumb as stoon ; 
And dheerfoor wold li maak'e Juu dt'spoort', 
As li said erst, and doo ju sum kumfort'. 776 

And tf ju ItVk'eth al'e bt* oon asent* 
For to stand'en at mtV dzhyydzh'ement' ; 
And for to werk'en as li shal ju sai'e, 
To mor'we, whan je rttd'cn bit dhe ware, 780 

Nuu bn mtt faad'er sooul'e, dhat is deed, 
But jee be mer'te, smtVt'eth of nmn need. 
Hoold up juur nond wtthuut'e moor'e speetsh'e. 
Uur kuun-sail was not loq-e for to seetsh'e ; 784 

Us thoukwht t't n- -as not worth to maak t't wns, 
And graunt'ed Htm wi'thuut'e moor avt't's', 
And bad -t'm sai -lis ver'dtVt as -tin leste. 
Lordi'qz-, k^oth nee, nuu nerk'neth for dhe best'e, 788 

"We might read the Ha. I ne sawgh this yere swiche a compagnie, which 

this yeer, asan Alexandrine with is probably conjectural. See p. 649. 
a defective first measure. Perhaps I 782 smyteth of mynheed 

is a mistake, and ne sawgh tnis Ha., I wol yeve you myn heed 

yeer, or this yeer sawgh not, E. He. Co. P. and Sloanc MS. 1685, 

may be correct, but there is no autho- variously spelled, '. j e u c > o w e 

rity for it. Tyrwhitt reads : I saw not Mine hedeL. But if ye E. 


But taak'th it not, I prey* you, in disdeyn, 

This is the poynt, to speken schort and playn ; 

That eech of yoti to schorte with your' weye, 
iii In this vyage schal telle tales tweye, 792 

To Cawnterbery-ward, I meen' it so, 

And hoomward he schal tellen other two, 

Of aventtir's that whylom haan bifalle. 

And which of you that beer'th him best of alle, 796 

That is to seyn, that telleth in this caas 

Tales of best sentenc' and moost solaas, 

Schal han a soitpeer at your' alther cost 

Heer 5 in ibis place, sitting' by this post, 800 

Whan that we com' ageyn from Cawnterbery. 

And for to make you the more mery, 

I wol myselven gladly with you ryde, 

Eight at myn ow'ne cost, and be yoiir' gyde. 804 

And whoso wol ray juggement withseye 
iii Schal paye for al we spenden by the weye. 

And if yc vouchesawf that it be so, 

Tel me anoon, withouten wordes mo, 808 

And I wol erly schape me theerfore. 

This thing was grawnted, and our' othes swore 

"With ful glad hert', and prey* fan him also 

He wolde t-oucfiesawf for to doon so, 812 

And that he wolde been our' governour, 

And of our' tales /w/ and report our, 

And sett' a soupeer at a certayn prys ; 

"We wolde reuled be at his devys 816 

In heygh and low', and thus by oon assent 

"We been accorded to his juggement. 

And theerupon the wyn was fet anoon ; 

We dronken, and to reste went' eech oon, 820 

"Withouten eny leng're taryinge. 


A morwe whan the day bigan to springe, 

Up roos our' hoost, and was our' alther cok, 

And gader'd us togider in a flok, 824 

And forth we ryd* a lytel moor' than paas, 

Unto the watering' of Saynt Thomas. 

And theer our' boost' bigan his hors areste, 

And seyde, Lordes, herk'neth, if you leste. 828 

Ye woot your' foorward, I it you recorde, 

If evesong and morwesong accorde, 

795 why lorn E. He. Co. P. L., -which is unlikely, as they must have 

and so Tyrwhitt, Sloane MS. 1685, all known them; why lorn is 

omits the word ; of aventures suitable for both sets of tales, and a 

that ther han bifalle Ha, word of that kind is wanted. The 

which would refer only to the second Sloane MS. 1685 also spells aven- 

stories and imply that they should toures, see p. 635, note 1. The 

relate to adventures at Canterbury, passage is wanting in Ca. 


But taakth it not, II prai mu, in. disdain-, 

Dhis is dhe puint, to speek'en short and plain ; 

Dhat eetsh of juu to short'e with juur ware, 

/n dhis vii'aadzh'e shal tel'e taal'es twai'e, 792 

To Kaunt'erberiiward, Ii meen it soo, 

And hoonvward nee shal tel'en udh'er twoo, 

Of aa'ventyyrz' dhat wlmTom naan bifal-e. 

And whitsh of juu dhat heerth -im best of al'e, 796 

Dhat is to sain, dhat tel'eth in dhis kaas 

Taal'es of best sentens' and moost soolaas*, 

Shal naan a suup-eer at Juur al'dher kost, 

Heer in dhis plaas-e, sit'iq- \>ii dhis post, 800 

Whan dhat we kum again* from Kamrterberii. 

And for to maak'e JTIU dhe moore merii, 

Ii wol miiselven glad'lzi with juu riid'e, 

Ri/cht at mitn oou'ne kost, and bee juur giid-c. 804 

And whoo-soo wol mii dzhyydzh-ement withsai-e 

Shal pai'e for al we spend'en bii dhe wai'e. 

And if je vuutsh-esauf- dhat it be soo, 

Tel me anoon- withuut'en word'es moo, 808 

And Ii wol erlii shaap-e mee dheerfoore. 

Dhis thiq was graunt'ed, and uiir ooth-es swoor'e 

With ful glad Hert, and prarden nim alsoo- 

He wold'e vuutsh-esauf- for to doon soo, 812 

And dhat -e wold'e been uur guirvernuur, 

And of uur taal-es dzhyydzh and rep'ortuui", 

And set a suup'eer at a sert'ain' pries ; 

We wold'e ryyl'ed bee at His deviis' 816 

In nai^h and loou ; and dhus bii oon asent* 

We been akord'ed too -is dzhyydzlrement'. 

And dheer'upon' dhe wmi was fet anoon ; 

We druqk-en, and to rest'e went eetsh oon, 820 

Withuut'en en'ii leq're tar'i,iq*e. 

We riid'en forth. 

A mor'we whan dhe dai bigan- to spriq'e, 

Up roos uur oost, and was uur al'dher kok, 

And gad'erd us togid'er in a flok, 824 

And forth we riid a lii't'l moor dhan paas, 

Untoo' dhe waa'teriq' of Saint Toomaas*. 

And dheer uur oost bigan' -is nors arest'e, 

And said'e, Lord'es, nerk'neth, if juu lest'e. 828 

Je woot Jnr foor'ward, Ii it juu rekord'e, 

/f ecvesoq and mor'wesoq akord'e, 

798 moost, so all the six MSS., sworne, and if the ellipsis be not 

o f Ha. assumed before swore it must at 

least occur before p r e y 'd e n. 

810 our' othes swore, Prof. 

Child points out an ellipsis of w e as 824 in a flok He. P. L., Sloane 

in v. 786, see supra p. 376, art. Ill, MS. 1685, the others have alle in 

Ex. 6. The past participle would be a flock, with various spellings 


Let see nou who schal telle first a tale. 

As ever' moot I drinke wyn or ale, 832 

Whoso be rebel to my juggement 
iii Schal paye for al that by the wey' is spent. 

Nou draweth cut, cer that we forther twinne ; 

And which that hath the schortest schal beginne. 836 

Syr 1 knight, quoth he, my mayster and my lord, 

Xou draweth cut, for that is myn accord. 

Com'th neer, quoth he, my lady pryoresse, 

And ye, syr* clerk, lat be your schamfastnesse, 840 

iii Ne studicih nat ; ley hand to, ev'ry man ! 

Anoon to drawen ev'ry wight bigan, 

And schortly for to tellen as it was, 

Wer' it by aventur\ or sort, or caas, 844 

The sooth is this, the cut fil to the knight', 

Of which ful blyth' and glad was ev'ry wight, 

And tell' he moost' his tal' as was resoun, 

By foorward and by composirioun, 848 

As ye haan herd ; what nedeth wordes mo ? 

And whan this gode man sawgh it was so, 

As he that wys was and obedient 

To kep' his foorward by his fre assent, 852 

iii He seyde : Sin I schal biginne the game, 

What ! Weelcom be the cut, in Goddes name ! 

Nou lat us ryd', and herk'neth what I seye. 

And with that word we ryden forth our' weye ; 856 

iii And he bigan with right a mcrye chere 

His tal' anoon, and seyd' in this manere. 

854 the cat, so all the six MSS., 808 SoE. ; his tale and seide 
thou cut Ila. right in this manere Ha.; 

In correcting the proofs of this text and conjectured pronuncia- 
tion of Chaucer's Prologue I have had the great advantage of Mr. 
Henry Nicol's assistance, and to his accuracy of eye and judgment 
is due a much greater amount of correctness and consistency than 
could have been expected in so difficult a proof. 1 Owing to sug- 
gestions made by Mr. Nicol, I have reconsidered several indications 
of French origin. One of the most remarkable is Powles v. 509, 

1 Some trifling errors escaped obser- Abuven, v. 66 Ajain-, T. 71 al, v. 72 

Tation till the sheets had been printed dzhen't'l, v. 107 fedh-rcs, v. 144 sakwh, 

off, which the reader will have no diffi- v. 181, Din's, v. 210 kan, v. 241 

culty in correcting, such as e, o, i for evm'tsh, v. 265 HZ'S tuq-e, v. 284 men, 

ee, oo, y, etc. The following are more v. 292 world'ltt, v. 334 on dhe morw-, 

important. Read in TEXT, v. 15 v. 414 grund-ed, v. 424 jaaf. Read 

specially, v. 69 poor?, v. 123 entuned, in the FOOTNOTES, on T. 60, 1. 3 

T. 152 streyt, v. 208 Frere, v. 260 nob'l, on v. 120, 1.1 saynt, on 

pore, v. 289 soberly, v. 365 frescfi, v. 120, last line but three, "all the six 

T. 569 vyfayle, v. 570 tayk, T. 599 MSS. except L.", and add at the end 

governing, v. 601 age. Eead in the of the note " and L. omits also," on 

PRONUNCIATION, v. 14 sundrtt, v. 23 v. 247, 1.1 noon, on v. 305, 1. 1 lie, 

kuni, Y, 3o wht'tlz, v. 48 ferre, v. 53 on v. 512, 1. 1, foolde. 


Let sec nuu whoo shal tcl'e first a taal-e. 

As ever moot /* drjqk'e w*Yn or aal'e, 832 

Whoo'soo' be reb'el too nm dzhyydzb/ement* 

Shal pare for al dhat bw dhe wai fs spent. 

Nuu drau'eth kut, eer dhat we furdh-er twiire ; 

And wht'tsh dhat Hath dhe short-est shal bt'giire. 836 

SiYr km'Aht, kwoth nee, nm maist'er and nw lord, 

Nuu drau'eth kut, for dhat is nmn. akord'. 

Kumth neer, kwoth nee, nuY laa'diY pm'*ores-e, 

And jee, szYr klerk, lat bee jur shaanrfastnes-e, 840 

Nee stud'feth nat ; lai Hand too, evrtY man ! 

Anoon' to drau'en evrtY vrikht btgair, 

And shoit'ltY for to tel'en as it was, 

Wer it biY aa'ventyyr-, or sort, or kaas, 844 

Dhe sooth t's dh/s, dhe kut fil too dhe km'Aht, 

Of wht'tsh fill blmlh and glad was evnY we'Arht, 

And tel -e moost -is taal as was ree-suun-, 

BiY foor'ward and biY kompoostYs'/uun-, 848 

As jee naan nerd ; what need'eth word'es moo ? 

And whan dhis good'e man saukw;h ft was soo, 

As nee dhat wYs was and obee'dfent* 

To keep -is foor'ward biY -fs free asent*, 852 

He said'e : Sm It shal bfgiire dhe gaam'e, 

"What ! weel'kum* bee dhe kut, in God'es naam'e ! 

Nuu lat us riYd, and nerk'neth what 7i sai-e. 

And with dhat word we m'd'en forth uur wai'e. ; 856 

And nee btgan with rikht a mer'fe tsheer'e 

He's taal anoon 1 , and said in dhis man'eere. 

his tale anoon, and seyde MSS. in various spellings, 
as ye may heere, the other 

which seemed to have a French pronunciation, but which ought 
perhaps to be marked P o w ' 1 e s, the form P o w c 1 appearing in 
v. 13938, supra p. 266, a direct derivative from Orrmin's Pa well 
with a long a. The alterations thus admitted affect the calculation 
on p. 651, which was made from the MS. As now printed (making 
the corrections just mentioned), the numbers are as follows : 
Lines containing no French word 286, per cent. 33-3 

only one 

two French words 
three ,, ,, 
four ,, 



Lines in Prologue . . 858 100-0 

These numbers are not sensibly different from the former. The 
number of Trissyllabic measures after correction appears as 76, the 
numbers in the six classes on p. 648 being respectively 25, 6, 3, 4, 
29, 9. The number of lines with defective first measures, p. 649, 
remains 13, as before. The number of lines with two superfluous 
syllables, p. 649, is now 8, vv. 709, 710, having been added. 

726 JOHAN G01VER. CHAP. VII. 2. 

2. Gmcer. 

Johan Gower, died, a very old man, between 15 August and 24 
October 1408, having been blinu since 1400, the year of Chaucer's 
death. His three principal works are Speculum Meditantis, written 
in French, which is entirely lost; Vox Clamantis, in Latin, still 
preserved ; and Confessio Amantis, in English, of which there are 
several fine MSS., and which was printed by Caxton in 1483. In 
this edition Caxton calls him : " Johan Gower squyer borne in 
"Walys in the tyme of kyng richard the second." The district of 
Gowerland in S. W. Glamorganshire, between Swansea bay and 
Burry river, a peninsula, with broken limestone coast, full of caves, 
and deriving its name from the "Welsh gwyr = (guu'yr) oblique, 
crooked, traditionally claims to be his birth place. Now Gower's 
own pronunciation of his name results from two couplets, in which 
it is made to rhyme with power and reposer. The first passage, ac- 
cording to the MS. of the Society of Antiquaries, is 

Sche axe)> me what was my name 

Madame I feyde Johan Gower. 

Now Johan quod fche in my power, 

Thou mufte as of )>i loue ftonde. iii 353 * 

The other will be found below, pp. 738-9. The sound was therefore 
(Guu'eer), which favours the "Welsh theory. The modern form of 
the name is therefore (Geu'ea), and Gowerland is now called 
(Gau-eala5nd) in English. 

But the correctness of this "Welsh derivation has been disputed. 
Leland had heard that he was of the family of the Gowers of Stiten- 
ham in Yorkshire, ancestors of the present Duke of Sutherland. 
The Duke has politely informed me that the family and traditional 
pronunciation of his patronymic Gower is a dissyllable rhyming 
to mower, grower, that is (Goo'ea). Now this sound could not be 
the descendant of (Guireer), and hence this pronunciation is a pre- 
sumption against the connection of the two families, strengthening 
the argument derived from the difference of the coats of arms. 2 

He was certainly at one time in friendly relations with Chaucer, 
who, in his Troylus and Cryseyde, writes : 

moral Gower, this boke I directe 

To the, and to the philosophical Strode, 

To vouchensauf, ther nede is, to correcte, 

Of youre henignites and zeles good?. 5'77 

And Gower, in some manuscripts, makes Venus send a message to 
Chaucer, as her disciple and poet, which is printed as an example 
below, pp. 738-9. 

The text of Gower has not yet been printed from the manuscripts, 

1 These references throughout are to edition of the Confessio Amantis, and 

Pauli's edition, as explained supra, p. Sir Harris Nicolas' s Notice of Gower, 

256. in the Retrospective Review, N. S., vol. 

* For other particulars of the life of ii. No weight is to be attributed to his 

Gower, derived from legal papers, shew- calling himself English, when asking to 

ing that he was possessed of land in be excused for faults in French, in a 

Kent, see the life prefixed to Pauli's French poem. He would have no 


or from any one MS. in particular. Pauli's edition is founded on 
Berthelette's first edition, 1532, "carefully collated throughout" 
with the Harl. MSS. 7184 and 3869. Of the first Pauli says: 
" This volume, on account of its antiquity and its judicious and 
consistent orthography, has been adopted as the hasis for the spelling 
in this new edition." Pauli says that he has also used Harl. MS. 
3490, and the Stafford MS. where it was important, and that his 
"chief labour consisted in restoring the orthography and in regu- 
lating the metre, both of which had been disturbed in innumerable 
places by Berthelette." As the result is eminently unsatisfactory, 
it has been thought best, in giving a specimen of Gower, to print 
the original in precise accordance with some MSS. 

The following MSS. of Gower's Confessio Amantis are described 
by Pauli. At Oxford, having the verses to Eichard II, and those 
on Chaucer: MS. Laud. 609, Bodl. 693, Selden, B. 11, Corp. Chr. 
Coll. 67 ; without these verses : MS. Fairfax 3, Hatton 51, Wad- 
ham Coll. 13, New Coll. 266; with the first and without the 
second, MS. Bodl. 294 ; dedicated to Henry of Lancaster, and with 
verses on Chaucer ; MS. New Coll. 326. In the British Museum, 
Harl. 7184, 3869, 3490. MS. Stafford, in the possession of the 
Duke of Sutherland. Pauli does not mention the MS. 1 34, of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

The MSS. most accessible to me were the four cited supra p. 253. 
Of these the orthography of Harl. 3869 appeared to me the best, and 
I have therefore printed it in the first column. In the second 
column I have given the text of Harl. 7184, which Pauli professes 
to follow ; and in the third the text of the MS. of the Society of 
Antiquaries, No. 134. 1 The fourth column contains the conjectural 
pronunciation. By this means the diversities of the orthography 
and the uniformity of the text will be made evident. It is the 
former in which we are most interested. The passage selected for 
this purpose is the story of Nebuchadnezzar's punishment, as being 
unobjectionable in detail, and sufficient in length to give a complete 
conception of the author's style. 

But as the Message from Venus to Chaucer possesses great interest 
from its subject, I have added a copy of it according to Harl. MS. 
3869, from which Pauli states that he has taken the copy printed 
in his edition. In the second column I have annexed the same text 
according to the MS. of the Society of Antiquaries, and, since the 
passage does not occur in the other two MSS., in the third column I 
have added my own systematic orthography, and in the fourth column 
the conjectured pronunciation. For these two last columns a compo- 
site text has been chosen, founded on a comparison of the two MSS. 

In all cases the phonetic transcript has been constructed on the 
same principles as that of Chaucer in the preceding section. 

doubt considered himself an English- between z j, hut writes the guttural 

man, as he spoke English and was an with the same z that it uses iii Nabu- 

English subject and landowner, even if godonozor, I have used z throughout 

he had been born in "Wales. its transcription. 
1 As this MS. makes no distinction 



CHAP. VII. $ 2. 


Sari. MS. 3869, folio 49* to 5'2a. Harl. JtfS.7184,/ofto23,, 

i 136 

Thcr was a kinge bat mocliel myhte 
Which Nabugodonofor hihte 
Of whom bat .1. fpak hier tofore 
Jit in be bible his name is bore 
For al be world in Orient 
Was hoi at his comandement 
As banne of kinges to his liche 
Was non fo myhty ne fo riche 
To his empire ana to his lawes 
As who fei)> al in bilke dawes 
Were obeiffant nnd tribut bere 
As bogh he godd of Erbe were 
Wib ftrengbe he putte kynges vnder 
And wroghte of pride many a wonder 
He was fo full of veine gloire 
That he ne hadde no memoire 
That ber was eny good hot he 
For pride of his profpmte 
Til bat be hihe king of kinges 
Which feb and knoweb alle binges 
Whos yhe mai nobing afterte 
The pnuetes of mannes herte 

i 137 

Thei fpeke and founen in his Ere 
As bogh bei lowde wyndes were 
He tok vengance vpon bis pride 
Bot for he wolde a while a bide 
To loke if he him wolde amende 
To him aforetokne he fende 
And bat was in his flop be nyhte 
This prpude kyng a wonder fyhte 
Hadde in his fweuene ber he lay 
Him boght vpon a merie day 
As he behield be world a boute 
A tree fulgrowe he fyh beroute 
Whiche ftod be world amiddes euene 
Whos heihte ftraghte vp to be heuene 
The leues weren faire and large [fol. 50] 
Of fruit it bar fo ripe a charge 
That alle men it mihte fede 
He fih alfo be bowes fpriede 
A bouc al Erbe in which were 
The kynde ot alle bridde? bere 
And eke him boght he fih alfo 
The kynde of alle beftes go 
Vnder bis tree a boute round 
And fedden hem vpon be ground 
As he bis wonder ftod and (ih 
Him boghte he herde a vois on hih 
Criende and feide a bouen alle 
Hew doun bis tree and lett it falle 
The leues let defoule in hafte 
And do be fruit deftmie and wafte 

i 136 

Ther was a king that mochcl mijte 
Which Nabugadonofor highte, 
Of whom that I fpak hiere tofore. 
Tit in the bible his name is bore 
For al the world in the orient 
Was holl at his commaundement 
And of kinges to his liche 
Was non fo mijti ne so riche 
To his empire and to his lawes 
As who feith all in thilke dawes 
Were obeiflant and tribut bere 
As thouj he god of erthe were 
With ftrengthe he put kinges vnder 
And wroujt of pride many a wonder, 
He was fo full of veingloire, 
That he ne had no memoire, 
That ther was any good but he 
For pride of his profperite 
Til that the high king of kinges 
Which feth and knoweth alle thinges 
Whoz yhe may no thing afterte 
The priuitees of mannes herte 

i 137 

To speke and sonnen in his here 
As thout thei loude wyndes were 
He toke vengeaunce vpon this pride 
But for he wolde a while abide 
To loke if he wolde him amende 
To him afore tokcne he fende [fo.23,o,2] 
And that was in his flep be nijte 
This proude king a wonder fighte 
Hadde in his fweuene ther he lay 
Him thoujt vpon a mery day 
As he behield the world aboute 
A tree full growe he figh theroute 
The which ftode the world amiddes euene 
Whoz heighte draught vp to the heuene 
The leues weren faire and large 
Of fruit it bar fo ripe a charge 
That alle men it might fede 
He sigh alfo the bowes spriede 
Aboue all erthe in which were 
The kinde of alle briddes there 
And eke him thoujt he sigh alfo 
The kinde of alle beftes go 
Vnder the tre aboute round 
And fedden hem vpon the ground 
As he this wonder ftode and figh 
Him thoujte he herde a vois on high 
Criend and feide abouen alle 
Hewe doun this tree and let it falle 
The leues let defoule in hafte 
And do the fruit deftroie and wafte 




Society of Antiquaries, MS. 134, folio 
56, b, 2 to 58, a 2. 

i 136 

There was a kinge ]>at mochell myzte 
Whiche Nubugodonozor hyzte 
Of whom )>t . y. fpuk here to fore 
Zit in be bible his name is bore 
For all }>e orient world in orient 
Was hool at his comauwdemewt 
As ]?awne of kingfs to his liche 
Was nouw fo rayzty ne fo riche 
To his empire and to his lawis 
As who fave)? all in Jnlke dawis 
Were obeyfant anil tribute bere 
As }>ouz he god of er)>e were 
With ftrengj'e he putte kynges vadir 
And wrouzte of pride many awondir 
He was fo full of vayne glorye 
That he ne hadde no memorye 
That \er was eny god but he 
For pride of his profperite. 
Till \>at ]>e hyze kinge of kinge* 
Whiche see]? and kuowej) all jinges 
Whos ye may no fywge afterte 
The priuete of ma/mis herte 

i 137 

They fpeke find fownew in his ere 
As J'ouz J?ey loude wyndis were 
He tok vewiauHce vp on Jis pride 
But for he wole awhile abyde 
To loke yf he him woldc amende 
To him a fore token he fende 
And ]>at was in his flepe benyzte 
This proude kywge a wowdir fyzte 
Hadde in his f\veue ]>cr he lay [fo. 57, 
Him Jiouzte vp on a mery day a, 1] 
As he behelde }>e world aboute 
A tre full growe he fyze ]>erouto 
Whiche ftod J>e world amiddis euene 
Whos heyzte ftrauzte vp to j-e heuene 
The leuis were fayre and large 
Of frute it bare fo ripe a charge 
That all mew it myzte p' fede 
He fyzc alfo J>o bowis fprede 
Aboue all er|>e in whiche were 
The kynde of all briddis }>ere 
And eek hij }>ouzte he fyze alfo 
fe kynde of all bcftis goo 
Vndir J>is tre aboute rouude 
And fedden hem vp on ^e grounde 
As he ]>is wondir ftod and fyze 
IIi; jiouzte ho hcrdc auoys on hyze 
Criende and feyde abouew allc 
Hew douw J>is tre and lete it falle 
The leuis let do foule in hafte 
And to j?e frute destriuc and waftc 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

i 136 

Dher was a kiq dhat mutsh-el m7ht-e, 
Wlu'tsh Naa-buu-goo-doo-nooz-or Ht/At'e, 
Of whoom dhat li spaak heer tofoore. 
Jet in dhe Bu'b'l- -ts naam ts boore, 
For al dhe world in Oo-rt'ent- 
Was HOO! at HI'S komaund-ement'. 
As dhan of ke'q-es too -is Intsh-e 
Was noon soo mi'kht'n nee soo n'tslre; 
To HIS einpur- and too -is lau-cs, 
As whoo saith, al in dht'lk-e dau-es 
Wer oo'baisaunt 1 , and trtrbvyt beer-e, 
As dhooukwh -e God of Ertlre wecrc. 
With streqth -e put'e kiq-es un-dcr, 
And rwouktt'ht of prii-de man-i a wun'der. 
He was so ful of vain-e gloo-r/e 
Dhat nee ne nad'e noo memoo'rie 
Dhat dhcr was en-ii God but nee, 
For pm'd of HIS prosper-itce-. 
Til dhat dhe Ht'i&lre Kiq of kiq-cs, 
Whrtsh saith and knoou-eth al-e thiq'es, 
Whoos ii - e mai noo'thzq' astert'e, 
Dhe pru'vetcez 1 of man-es nert'e, 

i 137 

Dhai speek and suiuren in -is core, 
As dhooukw;h dhai luud'c wind-es wecr-e 
Hee took vendzhauns- upon- dhis priid-e. 
But, for -e wold a whiil abiid-e 
To look if Hee -im wold amcnd'C, 
To Him a fooretook-n- -e send-c, 
And dhat was, in -is sleep biz n/^ht'e, 
Dhis pruud'e kiq a wun-dcr- s^-ht'e 
Had, in -is sweevne dheer -e lai. 
Him thoukwht upon 1 a merit' dui, 
As nee beneeld' dhe world abuut e, 
A tree fulgroou- -e si/A dheeruut-c 
Whitsh stood dhe world am/d-es eevnc, 
Whoos nai/rht-e straukw'ht up too dhe Heevne 
Dhe leeves weeren fair and lardzh-e, 
Of fryyt it baar soo r*Vp a tshardzlre 
Dhat al'c men it miht-c feed-e. 
He sikh al-soo- dho boou-es sprccd-e 
Abuv al erth, in whitsh'e WCCTO 
Dhe kind of al-e br/d-es dhee're. 
And cek -im thoukwht -e siKh al'soo* 
Dhe kind of al-c beest-es goo 
Un'der dhis tree abuut'e ruund' 
And feed-en neni upon- dhe gnuul. 
As nee dhis wun'der stood and st'A-h, 
Him thoukit'ht -e iierd a vuis on iit'i^h 
Cm'-end 1 , and said abuven al-e : 
" Heu duun dhis tree, and let it fal-e ! 
" Dhe leeves let defuul- in nast-c, 
" And doo dhe fryyt destrui- and wast'c ! 




HarL 3fS. 2339. 

i 138 

And let of fehreden euery branehe 
Bot a Rote let it ftaunche 
Whan al his Pride is caft to grounde 
The rote sehal Le fafte bounde 
And fchal no mannes herte bere 
Bot cuery luft he fchal forbere 
Of man. and lich an Oxe his mete 
Of gras he fuhal pourcliache and ete 
Til fat fe water of fe heuenc 
Haue waiffhen him be times fenene 
So fat he be furgknowe ariht 
What is f c heueneliche myht 
And be mad humble to f e wille 
Of him which al mai fane and fpille 
This kynge out of his fwefne abreide 

And he vpon f e monve it feide 
Vnto f e clerkes which he hadde 
Bot non of hem f e foj>e aradde 
Was non his fweuene cowf e vndo 
And it ftod )>ilke time fo 
This kyng hadde in fubieccfon 
Jude. and of affecc/on 
A boue alle of re OH Daniel 
He louef . for he cowf e wel 
Diuine fat non of er eowf e 
To him were alle f inges cowf e 
As he it hadde of goddes grace 
lie was before f e kinges face 
Afcnt. and bode fat he fcholdc 
Vpon J>e point f e king of tolde 

i 139 

The fortnnc of his fweuene expouwde 
As it fcholde afterward be founde 
Whanne Daniel f is fweuene herde [fo. 
He ftod long time er he anfuerde 50&] 
And made a wonder heuy chierc 
The king tok hiede of his manere 
And bad him telle fat he wifte 
As he to whom, he mochel trifte 
And feide he wolde noght be wrof 
Bot Daniel was wonder lof 
And feide vpon f i fomen alle 
Sire king }>i fweuene mote falle 
And naf eles . touchende of this 
I wol f e tellen how it is 
And what defefe is to fee fchape 
God wot if f ou it fchait afcape 

The hihe tre which )>ou haft fein 
Wif lef and fruit fo wel befein 
The which ftod in f e world amiddes 
So fat f e beftes and f e briddes 
Gouerned were of him al one i 
Sire king betoknef f i p^lonc 
Which ftant a boue all erf li J-i:-.gcs 
Thus regneu vnder f e ]>e kinges 
And al f e poeple vnto f e loutej> 
And al f e world } i poucr double]' 

JTc.r!. .VS. 7184. 

i 138 

And let of fhrcden eueri braunche 
But ate roote 1st it ftaunche 
Whan all his pride is caft to grounde 
The roote fhall be faft bounde 
And fhall no mannes hert bere 
But eueri luft he fhall forbere 
Of man and lich an hoxe his mete 
Of gras he shall purchace and ete 
Til that the water of the heuene 
Haue waffhen him be tynies feuene 
So that he throu} knowe aright 
What is the heuenlich might 
And be mad humble to the wille 
Of him which al may fane and fpille 
This king out of his fweuene abreide 

And he vpon the morwe it feide 
Vnto the clerkes which he hadde 
But non of hem the foth aradde 
Was non his fweuene couthe vndo 
And it stode thilke time foo 
This king had in fubieccion 
Judee. and of affeccion 
Aboue al othir oon Daniell 
He loueth. for he couthe well 
Diuiue that non othir couthe [fo. 23, b, 
To him were all thinges eouthe 1] 
As he it hadde of goddes grace 
He was before the kinges face 
Afent and bode that he shulde 
Vpon the point the king of tolde 

i 139 

The fortune of his fweuene expounde 
As it shuld aftirward be founde 
Whan Daniel this fweuene herde 
He ftod long tyme or he aufwerde 
And made a wonder heuy chiere 
The king took hiede of his manere 
And bad him telle that he wifte 
As he to whom that mochel trifte 
And feid he wolde noujt be wroth 
But Daniel was wonder loth 
And feide vpon thi fomen alle 
Sir king thi fweuene mot falle 
And natheles touchend of this 
I AVO! the tellen hou it is 
And what defefe is to the fhape 
God wot if thou it fhall efcape 

The high tree which thou haft fein 
With lef and fruit fo wel befein 
The which stood in the world amiddes 
So that the beftes and the briddes 
Gouerned were of him alone 
Sir king betokeneth thi pcrfonc 
Which ftant aboue all ertheli thinges 
Thus reignen vnder the kinges 
And all the people vnto the loutcth 
And all the world thi power doubteth 

CHAP. VII. 2. 



Soc. A,>t. MS. 134. 

i 138 

And Ictt of fchredcw curry brancuc 
But at rote lete it stauncbe. 
Whan all )>is pride is cade to grounde 
The rote fehall be fafte bounde 
And schall no ma/mis herte berc. 
But euwy lufte he fchall forberc 
Of man and liche an oxe his mete 
Of gras he fchall purchace and ete 
Till )>ai j^e water of ]>e heuc;t 
Ilaue wafchen hi> be timis seue. 
So )it hee )mrgh knowe ary/.te 
"What is )>e heuen liche myxte. 
And he made vmble to J^e willo, 
Of him whiche all may fuue and fpille. 
This kyge oute of his IVeue/* 


And hee vp on J?e morow it feyde 
Vn to )>e clerkis whiche he hadde 
But none of hem )>e fo)>e aradde. 
Was nonw his fweuc/i cou)>e vndoo, 
And it ftood J>ilke tyme foo [fo. 57, , 2] 
This kywge hadde in fubiccciou;* 
Jude and of affeccyoiu* 
Aboue alle o'per on daniell 
He loue] for he cou)>e well 
Diuife j>t nonw o^er couje 
To him wer all )>ingtf* cou)>e 
As he hadde of goddis grace 
He was tofore )?e kyngis face 
Afent and bode j?t he fchulde 
Vp on J>e poynte J>e kynge of tolde 

i 139 

The fortune of his fweue exponde 
As it fchulde aftirwarde be ibude 
Whan daniell Jis fweuew herde 
He ftood longe tyme er he anfwerde 
And made a wowlir beuy chere 
pe kynge tok hcde of his manere 
And bad hiwt telle }>t he wifte. 
And he to whom he mochel trifle 
And feyde he wolde nouzt be wroj> 
But daniel was wondir lo]> 
And feyde vp on )>y fomew alle 
Ser kjTige Jy fweuew mot falle 
And na^eles touchende of Jus 
I wol )>e tellen how it is 
And what defefe is to )>e fchape 
God wot yf. j>ou . it fchall afcliape 
The hyze tre which .f ou. haft feyne 
"Wit A leef and frute fo wel befej-ne 
The whiche ftod iu J>e world amiddes 
^o J?at fe bcftis and )>e briddis. 
Gouprnid were of hij allone 
Sere kynge bitokenej> Jy pwfone 
Whiche ftante aboue all er^ely Jyng^s 
Thus regnew vndir J>e te kyng 
And of >e peplt vn to )>e loute]? 
And all )>e world J>y power doutcj' 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

i 138 

" And let of-shrecd-eu evr/ brauntsh-c, 
1 But at-e root-e let tt stauntsh'e. 
" Whan al -is pnYd *s kast to grund-e, 
" Dhe root-e shal be fast-e bund-e. 
" He shal noo man - es nert-e bee-re, 
" But evru lust -e shal forbee-re 
" Of man, and lu'tsh an oks -is meet-e 
" Of gras -e shal purtshaas-, and cct - e, 
" Til dhat dhe waa-ter of dhe neevne 
" Haav waish-en Him bu ttim-cs seevnc, 
" Soo dhat ne bee thurkwh'knoou- ar*'/tht, 
" What is dhe iieevenl/z'tsh-e m;'/tht, 
" And bee maad unvb'l too dhe wj'l-e 
" Of Him, whtsh al mai saav and spd-e." 
Dhs ki'q uut of -is sweevn- abraid-e. 

And nee upon' dhe mor-w- it said-e 
Untoo' dhe klerk-es whz'tsh -e iiad-e, 
But noon of Hem dhe sooth arad-e, 
Was noon -is sweevne kutith undoo*. 
And it stood dhdk-e t^'m-e so, 
Dhi's ki'q Had in subdzhek'saiuu' 
Dzhj-ydec-, and of afek*stuun* 
Abuv al udh-r- oon Daa-nz'eel' 
He luveth, for He kuuth-e wel 
Dt'vi'rne dhat noon udh-er kuut.h-e. 
To Htm weer al - o thiq-es kuuth'e 
As nee it Had of God-es graa-se. 
He was befoor dhe k'q-es faa-se 
Asent', and boo-de dhat -e shold-e 
Upon' dhe puint dhe k/q of-toold'e, 

i 139 

Dhe fortyvn- of -is sweevn- ekspuun-de, 
As it shoid afterward be fuirde 

Whan Daa'Ui'eel- dh/'s sweevne nerd-e 
He stood loq ttYni eer HOC answcrd'e, 
And maad a wmrder HCV/I tshee-re, 
Dhe ki'q took need of H/S mance-re 
And baad -tin tel'e dhat -e wi'st-e, 
As nee to whoom -e mutsh'c tn'st'e, 
And said -e wold-e noukfrht be ricooth. 
But Daa-nt'eel 1 was wun-der looth, 
And said : " Upon- dht* foo-men al-e, 
" Siir k/q, dht't sweevne moo-te fal-e ! 
"And, naa-dhelees, tutsh-end' of dhjs, 
" It wol dhee tel*en HUU it 's, 
" And what dj'seez' is to dhee shaa'pe, 
" God wot ff dhuu it shalt eskaa-pe ! 

" Dhe Ht'A-h-e tree wht'tsh dhuu nast sain 
" With leef tmd fryyt soo wel bcsain-, 
" Dhe whi'tsh stood in dhe world ami'd-es, 
" So dhat dhe beest-es and dhe br<d'es 
" Guvern'ed weer of Htm aloon-, 
" Siiv ki'q, bctook'ncth dim persoon", 
" Whi'tsh staut abuv al erth-hV thtq-cs, 
" Dims reoiren un'der dhee dhe kj'q'os, 
"And al dho peep-1- untoo' dhee liiufeth, 
"And al dliu world dh/< puircor* duut'eth, 


CIIAI-. VII. } 2. 

Harl. MS. 3869. 

So fat wif rein honour deceiued 
Thou haft f e reuerence weyued 
Fro him which is f i king a boue 
That J>ou for drede ne for loue 

i 140 

Wolt noting knowen of f i godd 
Which now for f e haf mad a rodd 
Thi veine gloire and f i folie 
With grete peincs to chaftie 
And of f e vois f ou herdeft fpeke 
Which bad f e bowes for to breke 
And hewe and felle doun f e tree 
That word belongef vnto fee 
Thi regne fchal ben ou<wf rowe 
And f ou despuilcd for a f rowe 
Bot fat f e Rote fcholde ftondc 
Be fat f ou fchal wel vnderftonde 
Ther fchal a biden of f i rcgne 
A time ajein whan f ou fchalt regne 

And ek of fat f ou herdeft feic 

To take a mannes herte a wcie 

And scttc here a beftial 

So fat he lich an Oxe fchal '. 

Pafture . and fat hebe bereined 

Be times fefne and fore peined 

Til bat he kuowe his goddcs mihtes 

[fol. 51] 

Than fcholde he ftonde ajein vprihtcs 
Al f is betoknef bin aftat 
Which now wif god is in debat 
Thi mannes forme fchal be laffed 
Til seuene jer ben ouerpaffed 
And in be likneffe of a bcfte 
Of gras fchal be f i real fefte 
The weder fchal vpon f e reine 
And vnderftond fat al f is peine 

i 141 

Which f ou fchal foffre f ilke tide 
Is fchape al only for f i pride 
Of yeine gloire and of f e finne 
Which f ou haft longe ftoA'den inne 

SO vpon f is condici'on 
Thi fweuene haf expoficion 
Bot er f is f ing befalle in dcde 
Amende fee. f is wolde .1. rede 
}if and departe fin almeffe 
Do msrcy forf wif rihtwifneffe 
Bcfech. and prei. f e hihe grace 
For fo f ou mint f i pes purchace 

Wif godd. and ftond in good acord 
BOt Pride is lof to leue his lord 
And wol noght soffre humilite 
Wib him to ftonde in no degree 
Ana whan a fchip haf loft his ftiere 
Is nou fo wys fat mai him ftiere 

Ilarl MS. 7184. 

So that with vein honour deceiued 
Thou haft the reuerence weyued 
Fro him which is thi king aboue 
That thou for drede ne for loue 

i 140 

Wolt no thing knowen of this god 
Which now for the hath made a rod 
Thi veingloire and thi folie 
With gret pcines to chaftie 
And of the vois thou herdeft fpeke 
Which bad the bowes for to breke 
And hewe and felle doun the tree 
That word belongeth vnto the 
Thi reigne fhall be ouerthrowe 
And thou defpuiled for a throwe 
But that the roote fhall ftonde 
But that thou fhalt wel vnderftonde 
Ther shall a biden of thi reigne 
A tyme ayein whan thou shalt rcgne 

[fol. 23, l>, 2] 

And eke of that thou herdeft fcic 
To take a mannes hert aweie 
And fette there a beftiall 
So that he like an oxe fhall 
Pafture. and that he be bereined 
Be tymes fefne and fore peined, 
Till that he knowe his goddes mijtes, 

Than fhuld he ftonde ayein vprightes 
All this betokeneth thine estat 
Which now with god is in debat 
Thi mannes forme fhall be laffed 
Til feuen ycre ben ouerpaffed 
And in the likneffe of a befte 
Of gras shall be thi roiall fefte 
The weder fhall vpon the rayne 
And vnderftonde that all his peine 

i 141 

Which thou fhalt fuffre thilke tide 
Is fhape all only for thi pride 
Of veingloire and of the sinne 
Which thou haft longe ftonden inne 
So vpon this condicion 
Thi fweuene hath expoficion 
But er this thing befalle indede 
Amende the this wold I rede 
Yif and departe thine almeffe 
Doth mercy forth with rightwifnefle 
Befeche and praic the high grace 
For so thou mijt thi pees purchace 

With god and ftonde in good acord. 
But pride is loth to leue his lorde 
And wol not fuffre humilite 
With him to ftonde in no degree 
And whan a fhip hath loft his ftiere 
Is non fo wys that may him ftiere 

CHAP. VII. 2. 



Soe. Ant. MS. 134. 

So Jwt \vit/ veyne honoure deceyued. 
Thou haft )>e reuerence weyued 
Fro hi? whiche is J?y kynge aboue 
That j?ou for drede ne for loue. 

i HO 

57, 6, 1] 

Wolte no J>yge knowew of )iy god [fo. 
Whiche now for )>e ha]> made arod 
Thy vayne glory and )?y folye 
Wi> gret peynis to chaftye 
And of )>e voyce j>ou herdeft fpeke. 
Whiche bad ]>e bowis for to breke 
And hewe and falle dourc }>e tre 
That worde bilongej> vn to )>e 
Thy regne fchall ben ouerjn-owe 
And ]?ou defpuiled for a )>rowe 
Bot Jt }>e rote fchulde ftonde 
Be ))t .J><m. fchalt wel vndirftonde 
Ther fchall abiden of J>y regue 
A tyme azen whan Ipou fchalt rcgne 

And eek of J>t ]>ou herdeft fey. 
To take amawnis herte awey 
And sette J>er a beftiall 
So }>t he liche an oxe fchall 
Pasture and j)at he be bereynid 
Be tymes feuene and fore peyned 
Till ]>at he knowe his goddis myztis 

Than fchulde he ftonde azen vpryztis 
All J>is betokenc^ Jyne aftate 
Whiche now witA god is indcbate 
Thy ma;mis forme fchall be laffid 
Til seuew zere ben ousrpaffid 
And in J?e likneffe of abefte 
Of gras fchall be )>y riall fefte 
The wedir fchall vp on )>c reyne 
And vndirftowde >at all J?is p'eyne 

i 141 

Whiche .>ou. fchalte fuffre >ilke tyde 
Is fchape all only for J>y pryde 
Of vayne glory and of }>y fynne 
Whiche jou. hafte longe ftonden i;me 

So vp on }>is codiciou; 
Thi fweuew ha]> expcficiouw 
But er )>is ]>y>'ge be falle \n dede 
.Amende J?e |>is wolde y rede 
Zif and dcpartc \>yn almefle 
Do mercy for]? witA rj-ztwifnefle 
Befeche and preye Je hyze grace. 
For fo .Jou. myzte )>y pees purchaco 

[fo. 57, b, 2] 
Wt'tA god and ftonde in good acorde 

But prt'de is lo]> to leue his lorde 
And wolde nouzt suffre humilite 
WttA him to ftonde in nodcgre 
And whawne a fchip ha]> lofte his ftere 
Is nou fo wis )>t may him ftcrc 

Conjectured Pron unciation. 

" Soo dhat, we'th vam on'uur- desaived, 
*' Dhuu nast dhe reverens-e waived 
" Froo Htm, wlu'tsh is dhw' k'q abuve, 
" Dhat dhuu for dreed'e nee for luve 

i 140 

" Wolt noo-thjq knoou-en of Shis God, 
" Whftsh nuu for dhee Hath maad a rod, 
" Dhu vain-e gloo-rt and dim folu'-e 
" Wt'th greet'e pam-es to tshastu'-e. 
' And of dhe vnis dhuu nerd'est speek-e, 
' Whttsh baad dhe boou'es for to breek'e, 
' And neu and fel-e duun dhe tree, 
' Dhat word beloq-eth un-to dhee. 
' Dim reen-e shal been overthrooife, 
" And dhuu despuil-ed for a throou-e. 
" But dhat dhe root-e shold'e stond-e, 
" Bii dhat dhuu shalt wel un-derstond-e, 
" Dher shal abnd-en of dhw rcen-e 
" A turn ajain- whan dhuu shalt reen-e. 

" And eek of dhat dhuu nerd'est sai'e, 

" To taak a man*es Hert awai'e, 

*' And set'e dheer a bees't/aal-, 

" So dhat -e litk an oks-e shal 

" Pastyyr', and dhat -e bee berain-cd 

" BzV tunre seevn- and SOOTC pain*ed 

" TJ! dhat -c knoou -is 

" Dhan shold -e stond ajain* uprz'/cht'es 
" Al dhz's betook-neth dhu'n estaat-, 
" Whj'tsh nuu wj'th God is in debaat', 
" Dim man-es form-e shal be las-ed 
" Til seevne jeer been overpas-ed, 
" And m dhe h'/k-nes- of a beest'e 
" Of gras shal bee dhn ree-al feest'e 
" Dhe wed'er shal upon* dhee rain'c. 
" And un'derstond' dhat al dhz's pain - c 

i 141 

" Whttsh dhuu shalt suf-er dhlk-c tiYd-e, 
" 7s shaap al oon-lu for dhn prnd-e 
" Of vahre gloo'rt and of dhe szh'e 
" Whitsh dhuu nast loq-e stond-en tn-e. 

" Soo up-on- dht's kondw-smun 
" Dhu swcevn- -ath ekspostrseuun. 
" But eer dh/s thi'q befal- in deed-e 
" Amend-e dhee. Dhis wold It reed'a, 
" Jz'v, and depart-e dhtVn almes-e, 
" Doo mer-su' forth with r'&ht'we'snes'e, 
" Bcseetsh* and prai dhe Htkh'e grans-c. 
" For soo dhuu nu'A'ht dhu' pees purtshaas'e 

"Wt'th God, and stond in good akord'." 

But prt'z'd is looth to leev -is lord, 
And wol noukwht suf-r- yymu-h't-tee' 
With Him to stond in noo deegree*. 
And when a ship Hath lost -t's steere 
Js noon soo wti's dhat mai -im steer a 



Sari. MS. 3869. 

Ajein be wawes in a rage 

This proude king in his corage 

Humilite hab fo forlore 

That for no fweuene he fib. tofore 

Ke jit for al bat Daniel 

Him hab confeiled eumdel 

He let it pafle out of his mynde 

Tliurgh reine gloire. and as )>e blinde 

He feb no weie. er him be wo 

And fell wibinne a time fo 

As he in baoiloine went 

pe vanite of pride him herite 

i 142 

His herte aros of veine gloire 

So )>at he drowh into memoire 

His lordfchipe and his regalie 

Wib Wordes of Surquiderie 

And whanne bat he him moft anau?<teb 

That lord which veine gloire duu^teb 

Al fodcinliche as who feith treis [fo. 

"\Vher bat he ftod in his Paleig bib] 

He tok him fro be mennes fihte 

"Was non of hem. fo war bat mihte 

Sette yhe. wher bat he becoin 

And Jus was he from his kingdon 

Into }>e wilde Foreft drawe 

Wher bat }>e mihti goddes lawe 

Thurgh his pouer dede him tmiffonne 

Fro man into a beftes forme 

And lich an. Oxe vnder be fot 

He grafe]> as he nedes mot 

To gcten him Ms liucs fode 

Tho boght him colde grafes goode 

That whilom eet be hote fpices 

Thus was he tomed fro deiices 

The wyn whiche he was wont to driuke 

He tok banne of be welles brinkc 
Or of be pet or ol }-e flowh 
It J-oghte him banne good ynowli 
In ftede of chambres wel arraied 
He was baniic of a buiffh wcl paied 
The harde lie lay vpou 
For oj>re pUwes ha)> he non 

i U3 

The donees and be Ilcines falle 
The wyndes blowc vpon him alle 
He was tonnented day and nyht 
Such was be hihe goddes my hi 
Til feuene jer an ende toke 
Vpon himfelf bo gan he loke 
In ftede of mete gras and stres 
In ftede of handes longe eles 
In ftede of man a beftes lyke 
He feih and banne he gan to fyke 
For clob for gold and for pome 
"Whicli kim wag wculc to marrncfic 

Harl. MS. 7184. 

Ayein the wawes in a rage 
This proude king in his corage 
Humilite hath so forlore 
That for no fweuene he figh tofore 
Ne jit for all that Daniell 
Him hath counfeiled eueridell 
He let it pafle out of his mynde 
Throw veingloire and as the blinde 
He feth no weie er him be wo 
And fel withinne a tyme fo 
As he in Babiloine wente 
The Tanite of pride him hente 

i 142 

His hcrte aros of veingloire 

So that he drough into memoire 

His lordfhip and his regalie [fo. 24, 

With wordes of furquideie a, 1] 

And whan that he him moft auaunteth 

That lord which vcingloire daunteth 

Al fodeinlich as who feith treis 

Wher that he ftood in his paleis 

He took him fro the mennes fighte 

Was non of hem so war that niijte 

Sette yhe wher that he becom 

And was he from his kingdom 

In to the wilde foreft drawe 

Wher that the mighti goddes lawe 

Throuj his pouer dcde him tranfforme 

Fro man in to a beftes forme 

And lich an oxe vnder the fote 

He grafeth as he nedes mote 

To geten him his lyues fode 

Tho thoujt him colde grafes goode 

That whilom eet the hote fpices 

Thus was he tomed fro delicts 

The wyn which he was wont to driake 

He took tlianne of the welles brinke 
Or of the pit or of the slough 
It thoiut him thanne good Inouj 
In ftede of chambres well arraied 
He was tlianne of a bufth wel puied 
The hardc ground he lay vpou 
For othir pihves had he non 

i 143 

The ftormes and the reines falle 
The windes blowe vpon him alle 
He was tormented day and night 
Such was the high goodes mijt 
Til feuene yere. and ende took 
Vpon him fclf tho gan he look 
In ftede of mete gras and tres 
In ftede of handes long clees 
In ftede of man a beftes like 
He figh and tlianne he gan to fike 
For cloth of gold and of penie 
Which him was wont to maguifie 

CHAP. VII. 2. 



Soc. Ant. MS. 134. 

Azen Je wawis in a rage 

This proude kynge in his corage 

Humilite ha]? fo for lore 

That for no fweucu he fyze to fore 

Ne zit for all J>t danicll 

Him ha)> counfeylid ecry deell 

He lete it pafle oute of his myndc 

Thorow vayne glorye and as )>e blyndc 

He feej> no wele er him be woo 

And fell wtt/nnne a tyme foo 

As he in babiloyne wente 

pe vanite of pride hi.w hente 

i 142 

His herte aros of vayne gloryo 

So )>at he drow in to memorye 

His lordfchipe and his regaiye 

Wit/ wordis of furquidrye 

And whawne J>t he him moft auauntc]> 

That lorde whiche vayne glorye dauntej? 

All fodeyneliche as who fayeth treis 

Where ]>at he flood in his paleys 

He toke hiw fro J>e me/mis fyzte 

Was nonw of hem fo war \ai myzte 

Sette ye where )>t he bicome 

And Jnis was he from his kingdowtm 

In to J>e wilde forest drawe 

Where }wt )>e myzty goddis lawe 

Thorow his power did hiw* tranfforme 

Fro maw in to abeftis forme 

And liche an oxe vndir jie fote 

He grafej> as he nedis mot 

To getc hi;n his livis foode 

Tho )>ouzte hiw colde graffis goodo 

That whilom eet ]>e hoot fpicis 

Thus was he tumid fro delicis. 

The wyne whiche he was wonte to 

drynke [fo. 58, a, 1] 

He tok j>ane of Je wellis brynke 
Or of }>e pitte or of the floghe 
It )>ouzte hiw j>ane good y nowe 
In ftede of chambris wel arrayed 
He was J>a;<ne of a bufche wel pt 
The harde grounde he lay vp on 
For o]>er puowis ha]? he none 

i 143 

The ftormia and )>e raynis fallo 
The wyndis blowe vp on hi alle 
He was turmewtid day and nyzte 
Whiche was J?e hyze goddis myzte 
Til feuew zere an ende tok 
Vp on him felfe Jo gan he loke 
In ftede of mete gras and trcis 
In ftede of handis longe dees 
In ftede of man a bcftis like 
He fyze and }>a/me he gan to (Ike 
For clo)> for golde and )>e perry 
Whicho him was wontc to magnifye 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 
Ajain- dhe wau-es n a raadzh-e. 
Dhi's pruud-e k/q tn IK'S kooroadzh'c 
Yymu'-lu'tec- nath soo forlooro, 
Dhat for noo sweevn- -e sifch to foor'e 
Ne jit for al dhat Daa-meel- 
H'm nath kunsail-ed evr' deel 
He let it pas uut of -t's mind-e 
Thrukech vain-e gloo'ri, and, as dhe bl/ud'e, 
He seeth noo wai, eer Htm be woo. 
And fel w'thm a tunre soo, 
As nee m Babzloo-nt'e went 
Dhe vaa'imtee of prad -m nent. 

i 142 

Ht's nert arooz- of vain-e gloo-rt'e, 
So dhat He drooukwh *'ntoo - niemooT/c, 
Hi's lord-shu'p, and -'s rce-gaalu-c 
With word-es of syyrkirderfre, 
And, whan dhat nee -t'm moost avaunt'eth, 
Dhat Lord, whttsh vanre gloo-r'e daunt'eth, 
Al sud-ainln'tsh-, as who saith : TraLs ! 
Wheer dhat -e stood in H'S palais-, 
He took -t'm froo dhe men-es sj'A-ht-o. 
Was noon of Hem soo waar, dhat m/V.-'at-e 
Set n'-e whcer that HOC bekoour, 
And dhus was nee from H;'S kz'q-doonr 
/ntoo- dhe wild'e for-est' drau-e, 
Wheer dhat dhe mt'^ht'/t God-es laii'c 
Thurkwh HJ'S puu'eer-, ded mm transform-e 
Fro man t'ntoo- a becst-es form-e. 
And hYtsh an oks un'der 1 dhe foot'e 
He graaz'eth, as -e need-es moot-e 
To get-en Him. -is h'tves food-e. 
Dhoo thoukzt'ht -'m koold-e gras-cs good-e, 
Dhat whzVl-oom eet dhe noot-c sp;Vs es, 
Dhus was -e turn-ed froo deh'is-es. 
Dhe wu'n, whttsh -e was woont to drtqk-e, 

He took dhan of dhe wel-es bn'qk-e, 

Or of dhe pj't, or of dhe sluukidi. 

It thoukwht -ira dhan-e good t'uuukjfh'. 

/n steed of tshaum-berz wel arai-cd, 

He was dhan of a bush wel pared. 

Dho nard-e grund -e lai upon- 

For udh're pd-wes Hath -e noon. 

i 143 

Dhe stornves and dhe rain-cs fal-c, 
Dhe wmd-es bloou- upon' -t'm al-e. 
lie was torment'ed dai and nt'/'ht 
Sutsh was dhe nt'h-e God-es mi'klit 
Tl seevne jeer an end'e took-c. 
Upon* -t'mself' dhoo gan -e look-c. 
Jn steed of meet-e gras and street, 
Jn steed of nand'es loq-e kleez, 
/n steed of man a beest-es luVe 
He sikh, and dhan -e gan to stVk-e 
For klooth of goold and for pert't'v, 
Whj'tsh uz'ni was wout to mag-ntfu-e. 



Earl. MS. 38G9. 
'Whan he behield his Cote of heres 
He wepte. and with fulwoful teres 
Vp to J-e heuene he cafte his chiere 
Wepende. and boghte in bis manere 
Thogh he no wordes mihte winne 
Thus feide his herte and fpak withinne 
myhti godd bat al haft wroght 
And al myhte bringe ajein to noght 
Now knowe .1. wel. hot al of bee 
This worlde ha b no profpmte. 
In J-in afpect ben alfe liche [fo. 52] 
pe pouere man and ek be riche 
Wiboute bee ber mai no wight 
And bou a bone alle obre miht 

mihti lord toward my vice 
Thi mercy medic wib iuftice 
And .1. woll make a couenant 
That of my lif ]>e remeuant 

i 144 

1 fchal it be bi grace amende 
And in bi lawe so defpende 
That veme gloire I fchal efchiue 
And bowe vnto bin hcfte and fine 

ITumilite. and bat .1. TOWC 

And fo benkende he gan donnbowe 

And Jogh him lacke vois and fpeche 

He gan vp wib his feet a reche 

And wailende in his beftly fteuene 

He made his pleignte Tnto be heuene 

He kneleb in his wife and braieb 

To feche merci and affaieb 

His god.' whiche made him nobing 


Whan bat he fih his pride change 
Anon as he was humble and tame 
He fond toward his god be fame 
And in a twinklinge of alok 
His mannes forme ajein he tok 
And was reformed to the regne 
In which bat he was wont to regne 
So bat be Pride of veine gloire 
Euwe afterward out of memoire 
Jle let it paffe. and bus is fchewed 
What is to ben of pride vnbewed 
Ajein he hihe goddes lawe 
To whom noman mai be felawe. 

Harl. MS. 7184. 

Whan he behield his cote of heres 
He wepte. and with wofull teres 
Yp to the heuene he caft his chiere 
Wepend and thoujt in this manere 
Thout he no wordes mute winne 
Thus faid his hert and fpak withinne 
mighti god that haft all wroujt 
And al mijt bringe ayein to nought 
Now knowe I wel but all of the 
This world hath no profperite [fol. 24, 
In thine afpect ben alle liche a, 2] 
The pouer man and eke the riche 
Withoute the ther may no wight 
And thou aboue all othre rnijt 

mijti lord toward my vice 
Thi mercy medle with iuftice 
And 1 woll make a couenant 
That of my lif the remenawnt 

i 144 

1 shall be thi grace amende 
And in thi lawe fo defpende 
That veingloire I shall efcheue 
And bowe vnto thine hefte and fiue 

Humilite. and that I vowe 

And fo thenkend he gan doun bowe 

And thouj him lacke vois and fpeche 

He gan vp with his feet areche 

And weiland in his beftli fteuene 

He made his pleinte vnto the heuene 

He kneleth in his wife and braieth 

To feche mercy and aflaieth 

His god. which made him nothing 


Whan that he figh his pride change 
Anon as he was humble and tame 
He fond toward his god the fame 
And in a twinkeling of a look 
His mannes forme ayein he took 
And was reformed to the regne 
In which that he was wont to reigne 
So that the pride of veingloire 
Euer aftinrard out of memoire 
He let it paffe and thus is fhewed 
What is to ben of pride vnthewed 
Ayein the high goddes lawe 
To whom noman may befclawe. 

CHAP. VII. 2. 



Soc. Ant. 3fS. 134. 
Whan he bihilde his cote of heris 
He weptc and wtA fulwofull tens 
Vp to }>e heuew he cafte his chere 
Wcpendc and )>ouztc in Jus manere 
Thouz he no wordis myzte wy/me 
Thus feyde his herte aud fpak wz'tAinne 
O myzty god Tpat all haft wrouzte 
And all myzte brywge azen to nouzt 
Now knowe .1. well but all of fee 
This world ha)> no profpmte 
In )>yn afpet ben all liche 
To pouwe men and eek }>e riche 
WYtA oute J>e )><T may no wyzte 
And .)>0u. aboue all ob<y myzte 

myzty lorde towarde my vice 
Thy mmiy medle wztA iustice 
And .1. wol make a couenaunte 
That of my lyf ]>e remenaunte 

i 144 

1 fchall it be ]>y gv?ce amewde 
And in ]>y lawe so defpewde 

That vayne glorye .y. fchall efchiue 
And bowe vn to byne hefte and fiue 

[fo. 58, a, 2] 

Humilite and ]>at .y. vowe 
And fo fenkcnde he gan don;z bowe 
And }>ouz him lacke voys of fpeche 
]Ie gan vp wt/ his feet areche 
And waylende in his beftly fteuew 
lie made his playnte vn to j>e heuen 
He knele)> in his wife and prayef 
To feche mercy and affayeth 
His god whiche made him no Jywge 


When fat he fyze his pride chaunge 
Anonw as he was vmble and tame 
He fonde towarde his god ]>e fame 
And in a twynkelywge of a loke 
His iiuumis forme azen he tok 
And was reformid to the regno 
In whiche )>0t he was wonte to regne 
So jwt )>e pryde of vayne glorye 
Euw aftirwarde oute of memorye 
He lete it paffe and \>us it fchewid 
What is to ben of pw'de vnfewid. 
Azen fe hyzc goddis lawe 
To whow no maw may be felawe. 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

Whan nee beneeld 4 -'s koot of neer-es, 
He wept, and wt'th ful woo-ful tecr-es 
Up too dhe neevn- -e kast -is tsheer'e, 
Weep-end', and thouk;rht tn dh/s maneer-e. 
Dhoouktph nee noo word'es mt7.-ht - e wfn'c, 
Dhus said -is nert, and spaak wrth/n-e. 
' Oo mt'Arht'u God ! dhat al nast rtoonkMtht, 
' And -al mt^ht br/q a.iain' to noukwht ! 
' Nuu knoou li wcl, but nut of -dhee 
' Dhts world -ath noo prosper-u'tee 1 . 
' In dhnn aspekt' been al - c h'/tsh-c, 
' Dhe poovre man, and cek dhe n'tslre. 
' Wtthuut'e 'dhee dher -mai noo wt'Arht, 
' And dhuu abuv al udh-re ni^ht. 
' Oo mrtht'u' Lord, toward' niu vu's-e, 
' Dhu mer-su med-'l with dzb-ysti'is'e, 
' And li wol maak a kuu'venaunt', 
Dhat of m liVf dhe rem-enaunt- 

i 144 

7* shal it hit Ahii graas amcnd-e, 
And m Ahii lau-e soo despend-c, 
Dhat vain g e gloo-rt /*' shal estshyye, 
And buu uutoo- dhn'n nest, and syye 

" Yymtf'ltee*, and dhat It vuu-e ! " 
And soo theqk-end- -e gan duun bmre, 
And dhooukwh -tm lak-e vuis and speetsh-c, 
He gan up with -is feet areetslre, 
And wail-end- m -is beest-lu' steevne, 
He maad -is plaint untoo- dhe neevne. 
He kneel-eth m -is w's and brai-eth, 
To seetsh'e raersii, and asai'eth 
Hi's God, wlu'tsh maad -tm oo'th*q' 


Dhan dhat -e sikh -is prn'd-e tshaundxlre. 
A noon 1 as nee was um-bl- and taanve 
He fund toward- -t's God dhe saam-c, 
And, m a tw/qk-ltq- of a look, 
H's man-es form ajain- -e took, 
And was refornred too dhe reen-e, 
Jn wht'tsh dhat nee was woont to reen-e, 
Soo dhat dhe prn'd of vaiire gloor-ee 
Eer af-terward- uut of memoort'e 
He let t't pas. And dims is sheu-ed 
Whfft is to been of pru'd unthcu-ed 
Ajain- dhe Ht'^h-e God-es laire, 
To whoom noo man mai bee fel-au-e. 



CHAT. VII. 2. 


Sari. MS. 3490,/0. 214, b, 2. 

iii 372 

Myn holy Fader graunt merer. 
Quod I to hym. and to the qweene. 
I felle on knees vppan the grene. 
And toke my leue lor to wende. 
Bot {he that wolde make an endc. 
As therto with I was mofte able. 
A peire of bedes blakke as fable. 
She tooke and henge my nekke aboutc. 
Vppon the gaudes al withoute. 

iii 373 

Was write of golde pour repofir. 
Lo thus (he feide Jouan Gower. 
Now thou art at the laftc cafte. 
This haue I for thyn eafe cafte. 
That thou no more of loue feche. 
J5ot my wille is that thou befech. 
And prey here aftir for the pees. 
* * * ' 

For in the lawe of my comune. 
We benot fhapen to comune. 

iii 374 

Thi felf and I neuer nftir this. 
Nowe haue I fcide althat ther is. 
Of loue as for thy Anal ende. 
A dieu for I mote i'ro the wende. 
And grete welle Chaucer whan ye mete. 
As my difciple and my poete. [fo. 215, 
For in the flourcs of his youth. , 1] 
In fondry wife as he wel couth. 
Of dytees and of fonges glade. 
The wich he for my fake made. 
The londe fulfilled is oner aile. 
Wlierof to hym in fpecialle. 
Aboue alle othir I am moft holde. 
For thi nowe iu his daies olde. 
Thou {halle hym telle this mcflage. 
That he vppon his later age. 
To sett an ende of alle his werke. 
As he wich is myn owne clcrke. 
Do make his teftament of loue. 
As thou haft do thie flirifte aboue. 
So that my court it may recorde. 
Madame I can me wel accorde. 
Quod I to telle as ye me bidde. 
And with that worde it so bitidde. 
Oute of my fiht alle fodeynly. 
Enclofed in a fterrie flcye. 
Vp to the heuene venus ftrauht. 
And I my riht wey cauht. 
Home fro the wode and forth I wente. 
Where as with al myn hole entente. 
Thus with my bedes vpon hoade. 
For hem that true loue fonde. 
I theuke bidde while I lyuc. 
Yppon the poyiit wiuh I am fhriff. 

Soc. of Antiquaries MS. 134. fo. 248, a. 1. 

iii 372 

Myn holy fadir graunt mercy. 
Quod I to him and to }>e quene. 
1 fcl on kneis vp on )<e grene. 
And took my leue for to wende. 
But fche jvrt wolde make an ends 
As Jwto which e I was moft able . 
A peyre of bedis blak as fable. 
Sche took and hinge my necke aboute. 
Vp on J>e gaudis all witA oute. 

iii 373 

Was write of golde pur repofer. 
Lo )ms fche feyde Joh/m Gower. 
Now J>ou arte at J>e lafte casfte 
This have I for June efe cafte. 
That )>ou no more of loue feche. 
But my wille is ]>at }>ou bifeche. 
And praye here aftyr for e pees. 
* * * 

For in ]>e lawe of my comune. [fo. 248, 
We be not fchape to comune. a, 2] 

iii 374 

Thi felfe and I nevur aftir is 
Now haue I feyde all J>rzt \er is. 
Of loue as for )?i final ende. 
A dieu for I mot fro )>e wende. 

And grete wel chauc<r whan ze mete. 
As my difciple and my poete 
For in fe flouris of his zouj?e 
In fondry wife as he wel couj?e 
Of ditcis and of fongis glade. 
The whiche he for my fake made. 
The londe fulfilde is ouwal. 
Whereof to him in fpeciall. 
A boue alle o)w I am most holde. 
For Ji now iu his dayes olde. 
Thou fchalt him telle J-is jneflage. 
That he vp on his latter age. 
To fette an ende of all his wevke 
As he whiche is my owen clerkc. 
Do make his testemet of loue. 
As )>ou hast do )>i fchryfte aboue. 
So }><7t my courte it may recorde. 

Madame I can me wel acorde. 
Quod I to telle as ye me bidde. 
And witA )>at world it so bitidde. 
Oute of my fyzte all fodenly. [fo. 248, 
Enclofid in a fterrid sky. b, Ij 

Vp to }>e heue venus ftrauzte 
And I my ryzt wey cauzte. 
Horn fro )>e wode and for)> I wente 
Where as wtA all myw hool entente. 
Thus witA my bedis vp on honde. 
For hem ]>ai trewe love fonde. 
I thenke bidde while I lyue. 
Vp on }>e poynte which I am fchryue. 

CHAP. VII. 2. 




Systematic Orthography. 

iii 372 

" iVFyn holy Fader grawnd mercy !" 
Quod i to him, and to the quene 
I f'ol on knees upon the grene, 
And took my leve for to wende. 
But sche, that wolde mak' an eude, 
Ar thcertowilh I was most abcl, 
A pair' of bedes hlak' as sabel 
She took, and heng my nekk* aboute. 
Upon the gawdes al withoute 

iii 373 

"Was writ of gold' Pour reposer. 
" Lo !" thus she seyde, " John Goueer, 
" Nou thou art at the laste caste, 
" This have I for thyn ese caste, 
" That thou no moor' of love seche, 
" But my will' is tbat thou biseche, 
" And prey' herafter for thy pees. 
* * * 

" For in the law' of my comune, 
" "We be not shapen to comune, 

iii 374 

" Thyself and I, never after this, 
" Nou have L seyd' al that thcr is 
" Of lov' as for thy fynal endc. 
<: Adieu ! for I moot fro the weude. 
" And greet wel Chawccr, whan ye mete, 
"As my discypl', and my pocte. 
" For in the ilonrcs of his youthc, 
"In sondry wys', as he wel couthe, 
" Of dytees and of songes giade, 
" The which he for my sake made, 
" The lond fultil'd is overal. 
" Wherof to him, in special, 
" Abov' all' oth'r' I am moost holdc. 
" Forthy nou in his dayes oolde 
" Thou shalt him telle this message : 
" That he upon his later age 
" To sett' an end' of al his work, 
" As he which is myn ow'ne clerk, 
" Do mak' his testament of love, 
" As thou hast do thy schrift' above, 
" So that my court it mai recordc." 
" Madam', I can me wel acorde," 
Quod I, " to tell' as ye me bidde." 
And with that word it so bitidde, 
Out of my sight', al sodainly 
Enclosed in a sterred sky 
Up to the hcven Venus strawghte. 
And I my righte wey [then] cawghte 
Iloom fro the wod', and forth I wente 
"\Yheeras, with al myn hool entente, 
Thus with my bedes upon honde, 
For hem that trewe love fondc 
1 thinkc biilcle, wh\T 1 lyve, 
Upon the poynt, which i am schryve. 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

iii 372 

"Mrni Hoo-lft Faa-der, graund mersu!" 
Kteod li to Htm, and too dhc kw?een-e 
li fel on kneez up-on- dhe green-e, 
And took m leeve for to wend'C. 
But shee, dhat wold-e maak an 
As dheertowz'th- /*' was most na-b'l, 
A pair of beed-es blak as s--a:vb'l 
She took, and neq mil nek abuut'e. 
Up'oir dhe gaud'es al w<thuut-e 

iii 373 

"Was nrit of goold, P u u r reepoo'&eer. 
"Loo!" dims she said-e, "Dxhon Guu-eer, 
" Xuu dhuu art at d!ie last e kasi'e, 
" Dh?'s Haav li for dh/m ecvc kast'c, 
' Dhat dhuu uoo moor of luve syetsh-e, 
* But mil \v/l f's dhat dhuu b/'sect.slre, 
" And prai -ecraft'er for dh pees. 
* * * * 

" For in dhc lau of nnY komyyn-e 
" We bee not shaap-en too komyyire, 

iii 374 

" Dh/self- and /', neer aft-er dh/s, 
" Nuu naav li said al dhat dber is 
" Of luv', as for dh/ fmral ende. 
" Adeu- for li moot froo dhe wende. 
" And greet weel Tshau-seer, whan je meet-e, 
"As nm di'siV-pl- and met pooeet'e. 
" For in dhe fluures of -is juuth'e, 
" In suirdri'i WN'S, as nee wel kuutlre, 
' Of dtV'tees and of soq'es glaad'e, 
' Dhe wht'tsh -e for mii saak-e maad'e, 

Dhe lond fulftld' t's overal 4 , 
' Wherof' to H/m, t'n spes'j'aal* 
' Abuv al udh-r- li am moost nold-c. 
' Fordhir nuu t'n -t's dares oold-e 
' Dhuu shalt -im tel'e dh/s mesaa'dzhe : 
' Dhat nee upon- -is laa-fcer aa-dzhe 
' To set an end of al -t's werk, 
' As nee whYtsh 's mi'm oou-ne klcrk, 
' Doo maak -t's test'amcnt' of luvc, 
' As dhuu Hast doo dim shrift abuve, 
' Soo dhat imY kuurt it mai rekord-e." 
"Madaam, /*' kan me wel akord-e," 
K;rod li, "to tel as jce me b/d'e.'' 
And w;'th dhat word tt soo bitd'c, 
Uut of mii si'iht, al sud-aiuh't 
Enklooz'ed 'n a ster'ed ski'i, 
Up too dhe neeven Vec-nus straukirht'e. 
And li mii rt'kht'e wai [dhcn] kaukwh'te 
Jloom froo dhe wood, and forth li wcnt'e, 
Wheeras-, w/th al mnn hool entent e, 
Dhus wi'th nm beed-es up-on liond-e, 
For Hem dhat troire luvc fond'e 
li thqk-e bwle, \\hiil li lu've, 
Up'oji- dlie puint, whf'ch li am shrtVvc. 



CHAP. VII. 3. 

3. Wyclife. 

John "Wycliffe born 1324, died 1384, is supposed to have com- 
menced his version of the Scriptures in 1380, just as Chaucer was 
working at his Canterbury Tales. "We are not sure how much of 
the versions which pass under his name, and which have been 
recently elaborately edited, 1 are due to him, but the older form of 
the versions certainly represents the prose of the xrvth century, 
as spoken and understood by the people, on whose behoof the 
version was undertaken. Hence the present series of illustrations 
would not be complete without a short specimen of this venerable 
translation. The parable of the Prodigal Son is selected for com- 
parison with the Anglosaxon, Icelandic, and Gothic versions already 
given (pp. 534, 550, 561), and the Authorized Version, with modern 
English pronunciation, inserted in Chap. XL, 3. 

The system of pronunciation here adopted is precisely the same 
as for Chaucer and Gower, and the termination of the imperfect 
of weak verbs, here -tde, has been reduced to (id), in accordance 
with the conclusions arrived at on p. 646-7. 

OLDEB "WxcxnrnE YEKSIOI^, LUKE xv. 11-32. 


11. Forsothe he seith, Sum 
man hadde tweye sones ; 

12. and the jongcre scide to 
the fadir, Fadir, jyue to me the 
porcioun of substaunce, elhir 
catel, that byfallith to me. And 
the fadir departide to him the 

13. And not aftir manye dayes, 
alle thingis gederid to gidre, the 
jongere sone wente in pilgrym- 
age in to a fer cuntree ; and 
there he wastide his substaunce 
in lyuynge leccherously. 

14. And aftir that he hadde 
endid alle thingis, a strong hun- 
gir was maad in that cuntree, 
and he bigan to haue nede. 

15. And he wente, andcleuyde 
to oon of the citeseyns of that 
cuntree. And he sente him in 

1 The Holy Bible, containing the 
Old and Xew Testaments with the 
Aprocryphal books, in the Earliest 
English Versions, made from the Latin 
Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his fol- 
lowers, edited by the Rev. Josiah For- 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

11. Forsooth* -e saith, Sum 
man nad-e tware smrnes ; 

12. and the juq'ere said'e to 
dhe faa'dtr, Faa'dzr, jiive to mec 
dhe porsaiun of sub'stauns, 
edh'ir kat'el', dhat bifal'eth to 
mee. And dhe faa'd/T departid 
to H/m dhe sub'stauns. 

13. And not af'ter man'ie 
dares, al'e thiq'/s ged'enxl to 
gid're, dhe juq'ere suu'ne went 
t'n psTgrraiaadzh in to a fer 
kun'tree' ; and dher -e was'tal -is 
sub'stauns inl/viqe letsh'erusln'. 

14. And aft'f'r dhat -e nad 
end'/d al'e thiq-j's, a stroq nuq - - 
gr was maad in dhat kun'tree', 
and -e b/gan' to naav need'e. 

15. And -e went'e, and 
klee'v?xl to oon of dhe sz't'/zainz 
of dhat kun'tree'. And nee sent 

shall, F.R.S., etc., late fellow of Exeter 
College, and Sir Frederic Madden, 
K.H., F.R.S., etc., keeper of the MSS. 
in the British Museum, Oxford, 1850, 
4to., 4 vols. 

CHAP. VII. $ 3. 



to his toun, that he schulde 
fccde hoggis. 

16. And he coueitide to fille 
his wombe of the coddis whiche 
the hoggis eeten, and no man 
jaf to him. 

17. Sothli he, turned ajen in 
to him silf, scyde, Hou many 
lurid men in my fadir hous, han 
plente of looues ; forsothe I 
perische here thurj hungir. 

18. I schal ryse, and I schal 
go to my fadir, and I schal seie 
to him, Fadir I haue synned 
ajens heuene, and bifore thee ; 

19. now I am not worthi to 
be clepid thi sone, make me as 
oon of thi hyrid men. 

20. And he rysinge cam to 
his fadir. Sothli whanne he 
was jit fer, his fadir sy$ him, 
and he was stirid by mercy. 
And he rennynge to, felde on 
his neckc, and kiste him. 

21. And the sone seyde to 
him, Fadir, I haue synned 
ajens heuene, and bifore thee ; 
and now I am not wortlii to be 
clepid thi sone. 

22. Forsoth the fadir seyde 
to his scruauntis, Soone bringe 
je forth the firste stoole, and 
clothe je him, and jyue je a 
ling in his hond, and schoon in 
to the feet ; 

23. and brynge je a calf maad 
fat, and sic je, and etc we, and 
plenteuously etc we. 

24. For this my sone was 
deed, and hath lyued ajen ; he 
perischide, and is founden. And 
alle bigunnen to eat plente- 

25. Forsoth his eldere sone 
was in the feeld; and whanne 
he cam, and neijede to the hous, 


Conjectural Pronunciation. 

-im in to -is tuun, dhat 
shuld'e fecd'c uog'/s. 

16. And -e kuvait'id to f il -is 
womb-e of dhe kod-is whilsh-e 
dhe nog-is cet'en, and noo man 
jaav to nnn. 

17. Sootlrlii nee, tunrid ajen' 
in to mm. szlf, said'e, Huu man't 
Hii-rid men in mi faa-dir HUUS, 
naan plent-e of loo-vis; for- 
sooth'e li perishe neer thurkt^h 

18. li shal rw-se, and li shal 
goo to mi faa-d*r, and /*' shal 
sai-e to mm, Faa-d/r, It -aav 
sored ajens' neevene, and bt- 
foo're dhee ; 

19. nuu It am not wurdh'zV to 
be klep-d dhzV suu'nc, maa-ke 
mee as oon of thjV Hirri'd men. 

20. And nee, rtis iq kaam to 
m's faa'd/r. Sooth'l' whan -e 
was sit fer, m's faa'dn* stkh -im, 
and nee was stir'id \>ii mer-s?. 
And nee, ren f /q to, feld on -is 
nek'e, and k^'st -im. 

21. And dhe suu'ne said'e to 
Him, Faa'dir, li -aav sin'ed 
ajens* Heevene, and b/Too're 
dhee ; and nuu li am not wurdhvV 
to be klep'id dhii suu'ne. 

22. Forsooth* dhe faa'dir said'e 
to -is ser'vaun'tis, Soo'ne briq'e 
je forth dhe first'e stoo'le, and 
kloodh'e Je Him, and jiiv Je a 
riq in -is Hond, and shoon in to 
dhe feet ; 

23. and briq - c Je a kalf maad 
fat, and slee Je, and ee'te we, 
and plen'tevuslii ee'te we. 

24. For dhis mi* soo'ne was 
deed, and Hath lived ajcn ; nee 
perish-id, and is fund'en. And 
al - e bigun'en to eet'e plen-te- 

25. Forsooth- His el'dere suu'ne 
was in dhe fceld ; and whan -e 
kaam, and nai/ih'id to dhe HUUS, 



CHAP. VII. 5 3. 


he horde a syinphonye and a 

26. And he clepide oon of 
the seruauntis, and axide, what 
thingis thes weren. 

27. And he seide to him, Thi 
brodir is comen, and thi fadir 
hath slayn a fat calf, for he re- 
ceyuede him saf. 

28. Forsoth he "was wroth, 
and wolde not entre. Therfore 
his fadir, gon out, bigan to preie 

29. And he answeringe to his 
fadir, seide, Lo ! so manye jeeris 
I seme to thee, and I brak 
neuere thi comaundement ; thou 
hast neuere puun a kyde to me, 
that I schulde etc largely with 
my frendis. 

30. But aftir this thi sone, 
which deuouride his substaunce 
with hooris, cam, thou hast 
slayn to him a fat calf. 

31. And he seide to him, Sone, 
thou crt euere with me, and alle 
myne thingis ben thyne. 

32. Forsothe it bihofte to ete 
plenteuously, and for to ioye; 
for this thy brother was deed, 
and lyuede ajeyn; he peryschide, 
and he is founden. 

Conjectured Pronunciation. 

He nerd a sinvfomY'e and a 

26. And -e klep'nl oon of dhe 
servaun-t/s, and ak-sid, what 
thiq-i's dheez wee'ren. 

27. And -e said'e to H/m, Dim 
broo'dtr is kuum-en, and dim 
faa-dir Hath slain a fat kalf, for 
nee resaivl -?m saaf. 

28. Forsooth- nee was rwooth, 
and wold'e not ent-re. Dheer- 
foo-re HIS faa'dir, goon uut, 
bzgan- to pi-ai -em. 

29. And nee aun-swen'q to -is 
faa-di'r, said'e, Loo ! soo man-ie 
jee-m li sery to dhee, and li 
braak nevre dhu komaun'de- 
ment; dhuu nast nevre joo-ven 
a kzd'e to mee, dhat li shuld'e 
eet-e laar-dzheln wtth mn 

30. But aft-ir dhzs dhiV suu'ne, 
wh/tsh devuu'n'd -is sub'stauns 
With HooTi's, kaam, dhuu -ast 
slain to H/m a fat kalf. 

31. And -e said'e to mm, 
Suu'ne, dhuu ert evre with 
me, and al'e mn'ne thtq'is been 

32. Forsooth- it benoof'te to 
ee'te plen'tevushV, and for to 
dzhui-e ; for dins dhw broo'd/r 
was deed, and h'v'td ajen- ; He 
per-*sh-d, and -e is fund'en. 





William Saleslury's Account of Welsh Pronunciation, 1567. 

THE account which Salesbury furnished of the pronunciation 
of English in his time being the earliest which has hcen found, 
and, on account of the language in which it is written, almost 
unknown, the Philological and Early English Text Societies decided 
that it should be printed in extenso, in the original "Welsh with 
a translation. This decision has been carried out in the next 
section, where Salesbury's treatise appropriately forms the first 
illustration of the pronunciation of that period. But as it explains 
English sounds by means of "Welsh letters, a preAdous acquaintance 
with the "Welsh pronunciation of that period is necessary. Fortu- 
nately, the appearance of Salesbury's dictionary created a demand 
to know the pronunciation of Welsh during the author's life- 
time, and we possess his own explanation, written twenty years 
later. The book containing it is so rare, that it is advisable to 
print it nearly in extenso, omitting only such parts as have no 
phonetic interest. Explanatory footnotes have been added, and 
the meaning of the introduced "Welsh words when not given by 
Salesbury, has been annexed in Latin, for which I am chiefly 
indebted to Dr. Benjamin Davies of the Philological Society. 
It has not been considered necessary to add the pronunciation 
of the Welsh words as that is fully explained in the treatise, 
and the Welsh spelling is entirely phonetic. A list of all the 
English and Latin words, the pronunciation of which is indicated 
in this tract, will form part of the general index to Salesbury 
given at the end of the next section. 

There are two copies of this tract in the British Museum, one in 
the general and the other in the Grenville library. The book is 
generally in black letter (here printed in Roman type,) with certain 
words and letters in Eoman letters (here printed in italics). The 
Preface is Roman, the Introductory letter italic. It is a small 
quarto, the size of the printed matter, without the head line, being 
5 1 by 3i inches, and including the margin of the cut copy in the 
general library, the pages measure 7^ by 5J- inches. It contains 
6f sheets, being 27 leaves or 54 pages, which are unpaged and. 


unfolioed. In this transcript, however, the pages of the original 
are supposed to have been numbered, and the commencement of 
each page is duly marked by a bracketed number. The title is 
lengthy and variously displayed, but is here printed uniformly. 
In the Roman type (here the italic type) portion, W, w, are 
invariably used for W, w, and as there is curious reference to this 
under the letter "W, this peculiarity has been retained in the follow- 
ing transcript. Long f is not preserved except in the title. 

[1] A playne and a familiar Introductio, teaching how to 
pronounce the letters in the Brytifhe tongue, now com- 
monly called "Welfhe, whereby an Englyfh man fhall 
not onely wyth eafe reade the fayde tonge rightly : but 
marking the fame wel, it fhal be a meane for hym wyth 
one labour to attayne to the true pronounciation of other 
expedient and most excellent languages. Set forth by 
VV. Salefbury, 1550. And now 1567, pervfed and 
augmeted by the fame. 

This Treatife is most requifite for any man, yea though 
he can indifferently well reade the tongue, who wyl 
be thorowly acquainted with anie piece of tranflation, 
wherein the fayd Salefbury hath dealed. (*) 

Imprinted at London by Henry Denham, for Humfrey 
Toy, dwellyng at the fygne of the Helmet in Paules 
church yarde. The .xvij. of May. 1567. 

[3] To my louing Friends Maister Humfrey Toy. 

[4] ' Some exclamed . . . that I had pcruerted the whole 
Ortographie of the [English] tounge. "NVher in deede it is not so : 
but true it is that I altered it very litle, and that in very few 
wordes, as shall manifestlye appeare hereafter in the latter end of 
this booke. No, I altered it in no mo wordes, but in suche as I 
coulde not fynde in my hart to lende my hand, or abuse my 
penne to wryte them, otherwyse than I haue done. For who 
in the time of most barbarousnes, and greatest corruption, dyd 
eucr wryte euery worde as he souded it : As for example, they 
than wrate, Ego dico tibi, and yet read the same, Egu deicu teibei, 
they wrate, Agnus Dei qui tolh's, but pronounced Angnus Deei quei 
toivllys. 1 And to come to [5] the English tung. What yong 
Scoler did euer write Syr* Lady, for by our Lady ? or nunlde for 
vnkle ? or mychgoditio for much good do it you ? or sein for signe ? 2 

1 These Latin mispronunciations general sound of long o before /, see 

were therefore (eg-u dei'ku tei'bei, supra p. 194. 

Aq-nus Deei kwei toouKs). Probably 2 The English examples were pro- 

(Dee-i) should be (Dee-ei), but it is bably pronounced (bei'r laa-di, nuqk-1, 

not so marked. The phonetisation is im'tsh-gud-it-ju, sein). It seems scarce- 

not entirely Welsh. The pronunciation ly probable that an (o) should have been 

(toouHs) was in accordance with the used in a familiar pronunciation of 


And thus for my good wil molested of such wranglers, shal I con- 
discend to confirme their vnskylful custome .... Or shall I prouc 
what playne Dame Truth, appearing in hir owne lykenes can 

woorke against the wryncklcd face neme 1 Custome? 

Soiurning at your house in Panics Churchyarde, the 6, of Maij. 
1567. Your, assuredly, welwyller W. Salesbury. 

[6] H To hys louing Friendo Maister Richard Colyngborne, 
Wyllium Salesburie wyshcth prosperous health and perfect felicitie. 

[Those two pages have no interest. They are dated ] [7] At 
Thauies Inne in Holburne more hastily, then speedily. 1550. 

[8] Wyllyam Salesbury to the Reader. 

[These two pages set forth that after the publication of his 
dictionary persons wanting to know Welsh asked him whether his 
dictionary would serve their purpose, and] [9] .... amongst 
other communication had, they asked, whither the pronounciation 
of the Letters in Welsh, dyd dyffer from the Englysh sounding of 
them : And I sayde very muche. And so they pcrcciuing that they 
could not profite in buildyng any further on the Welsh, lackyng 
the foundation and grouwd worke (whych was the Welsh pronoun- 
ciation of the letters) desired me eftsoones to write vnto them (as 
they had herd I had done in Welsh to my Country men, to intro- 
duct them to pronounce the letters Englysh lykc) a fcwe English 
rules of the naturall power of the letters in our toungue. 

And so than, in as much as I was not onelye induced wyth the 
premises, but also further perswaded, that neither any iuconuenience 
or mischiefe might ensue or grow thereof, but rather the encrease 
of mutual aniitie and brotherly louc, and continuall friendship (as 
it ought to be) and some commodity at the least wyle, to suche as 
be desirous to be occupied there aboutcs. As for all other, euen as 
it shall neuer woorke them pleasure, so shall it no displeasure. 

Euen therefore at the last, I haue bene so boldc as to enterprise 
(condescending to such mens honest request) to inuent and wryte 
these playne, simple, and rude rudinicntes of the Welsh pronouncia- 
tion of the letters, most humbly desiring the Headers to accept them 
with no lesse benouolent humanitie, then I hartily pretended to- 
wardes them, when I went about to treate of the matter. 

[10 Blank.] 

[11] H The pronounciation of the Letters in the Brytysh tungue. 

The letters in the British tungue, have the same figure and 
fashion as they haue in Englysh, and be in number as here vnder- 
neath in the Alphabet appoarcth. 

good, you, which was not pronounced in J Thus printed in the original ; the 

the sustained form. See p. IGo, 1. 24, word has not been identified. Wright 

for Cotgrare's account of this phrase. quotes William dc Shorcham for kepe 

Salesbury does not recognize (j, w) as neme, pay attention. Diet, of Obs. 

different from (i, u), but I have always and Prov. English, 
used (j, w), as the difference of ortho- 
graphy is merely theoretical (p. 185). 



A. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. ff. g. 1 h. i. k. 2 1. 11. m. n. o. p. 3 r. 
s. t. th. v. u. w. y. 4 

^f w. in auncicnt bookes hath the figure of 6 : and perhaps 
because it is the sixt vowell. 5 
5[ These be the vowels. 

a c i o u w y. 
These two vowels 

a. w. be mutable. 6 

^f The diphthonges be these, and be pronounced 
wyth two soundes, after the verye Greeke pro- 

Ae ai au aw ay 
ei ew 

ia ie io iw 
oe ow oy 
^ These letters be called consonauntes ; 

b. c. ch. d. dd. f. g. ff. k. 1. 11. ra. n. o. p. r. s. t. th. v. 
[12] U An aduertisment for Writers and Printers. 
^f Ye that be young doers herein, ye must remember that in the 
lynes endes ye mayc not dcuide these letters ch, dd, ff, II, th : for in 
this toungue euery one of them (though as yet they haue not proper 
figures) hath the nature of one cntiere letter onely, and so as vn- 
naturall to be deuided, as b, c, d, f, or t, in Englysh. 

^f The pronounciation of A. 

A In the British in eueryc word hath y c true pronounciation of a 
in Latinc. 8 And it is neuer souwded like the diphthong au, as 

1 JTere the modern Welsh alphabet 7 This is by no means a complete 

introduces ^ = (q). list of modern Welsh diphthongs, and 

* Not used in Modern Welsh. no notice has been taken of the numer- 

s Here ph (f) is introduced in mo- ous Welsh triphthongs. The Welsh 

dern Welsh but only for proper names, profess to pronounce their diphthongs 

and as a mutation of p. with each vowel distinctly, but there 

4 Salesbury's explanations give the is ranch difficulty in separating the 

following values to these letters, sounds of ae ai au ay from (ai), and iw 

A aa a, B b, C k, CH kh, D d, DD from uw (iu, yu), oe, oy fall into (oi), 

dh, E ee e, F v, FF f, G g, KG q, and ei sounds to me as (ai). In ia ie io 

11 v, I ii i, K k, LI, LL Inh, M m, initial, Welshmen conceive that they 

N n, oo o, P p, PH f, R r, S s, T t, pronounce (ja je jo), and similarly in 

Til th, V v, U y, W u, Y y. The wi, wy they believe they say (wi, w//). 

pronunciation of the Welsh U and Y This is doubtful to me, because of the 

will be specially considered hereafter. difficulty all Welshmen experience, at 

6 This is of course merely fanciful. first, in saying ye woo (ji wuu), which 

6 The vowel o is also mutable : they generally reduce to (i uu). 

" Compare the German Umlaut, thus 8 That is the Welsh pronounce Latin 

bardd [sacerdos], pi. beirdd ; corn a as their own a. Wallis evidently 

[cornu], pi. eyrn ; dwrn [pugnus], pi. heard the Welsh a as (sea?, se), supra 

dyrnau. B.D." p, 66, 1. 18. Compare p, 61, note. 


the Froncliraen sounde it commyng before tn or n, in theyr toungue, 1 
nor so fully in the mouth as the Germaynes sound it in this wooixl 
wagen : 2 Neyther yet as it is pronounced in English, whan it 
comrneth before ye, II, sh, tck. For in these wordes and such other 
iii Englyshc, domage, heritage, language, ashe, lashe, watch, calme, 
call, a is thought to decline toward the sound of these diphthonges 
ai, au, and the wordes to be read in thys wyse, domaige, heritaige, 
languaige, aishe, waitche, caul, caulrne. 3 But as I sayd before a in 
"Welsh hath alwayes but one sound, what so euer letter it Mow or 
go before, as in these wordes ap, cap, whych hauc the same pro- 
nounciation and signification in both the tongues. 4 

[13] Much lesse hath a, such varietie in Welshe, as hath Aleph 
in Ilebrue (which alone the poynts altered) hath the sound of 
euerye vowell. 4 Howbeit that composition, and deriuation, do oft 
tymcs in the common Welsh speache chaunge a into e, as in these 
wordes, vnvveith [semel] seithfed [septimus]. So they of olde tyrne 
turned a into e or ai in making their plural number of some wordes 
reseruing the same letter in the termination, and the woord not 
made one sillable longer, as apostol [apostolus], epestyl [apostoli] : 
caeth [servus], caith [servi] : dant [dens], daint [dentes], map 
[filius], maip [filii] ; sant [sanctus], saint [sancti] : tat [pater], 
tait [patres], etc., where in our tymc they extend them thus, apoa- 
tolion, or apostolieit, catthion: dannedd or dannedde : maibion, santie 
or seinie : taidie or tadeu. But -now in Northwales daint & taid 
are become of the singuler number, taid [avus] being also altered 
in signification. Neuertheles e then succeedeth, & is also wrytten 
in the stcede of a : so that the Reader shall neuer be troubled 

Tf TJie sound of B. 
B in Welsh is vniuersally read and pronouced as it is in Eng- 

lyshe. Albeit whan a woorde begynneth wyth b, and is ioyned 
wyth moe woordes commyng in a reason, the phrase and maner of 
the Welshe speach (muche like after the Hcbrue idiome) shal alter 
the sound of that 5, into the sound of the Hcbrae letter that they 
call Beth not daggessed, or the Greek Veta* either els of v being 
consonant in Latine or English : as thus where as I, in thys 

1 Supra p. 143, 1. 1, and p. 190. The "Welsh now sometimes pronounce 

2 Meant to be sounded as (\aag-en, si as (sh), as ceisio petere (koi-sho), 
vaahg-en, VAAg-en)? The ordinary and they use it to represent English 
pronunciation of modern Saxony (sh, tsh; zh, dzh), which sounds are 
sounds to me (bhaffgh'en). wanting in their language. Hence the 

3 Probably (dunraidzh, Hcr-ftaidzh, passage means (ab ne dzhak-ab), an 
laq-waidzh, aish, waitsh, kaul, kaulm). ape or a Jack-ape, as I learn from Dr. 
For the change to ai see pp. 120, 190 ; Davies. 

for that to au see pp. 143, 194. 4 As aleph is only (j) or (;) in point- 
* Probably ap means ape; it does ed Hebrew, (p. 10,) it has no relation 
not occur in Salesbury's own diction- to any vowel in particular, 
ary, but he has " ab ne siak ab An ape," 6 The Greek j8, is called (vii-ta) in 
and " IMP a cappe." The word siak is modern Greek (pp. 518, 524). Sales- 
meant for (shak), and (shak) for (dzhak). bury seems to have pronounced (vee'ta). 


Walshe T141 word bus a fvnger, is the 

So doe these welsh words . . . L * J .,. T *?.. J ! Vr v 

euvit, cuvicul, vicses, which pnmitiue (or if I should borow the Hebrue 
be deriued of cubitus, cu- terme) the radical letter, which comming in 
biculum, bisextus. the context of a reason, shall not than be 

calle d b, but v, as in thys text: ei vys his 

finger. And sometyme I shall be turned into m, as for an example : 
vymys my fynger : d-engmlcvydd for decblvvi/dd, ten yeare old. And 
yet for all the alteration of thys letter b, and of diners other (as 
ye shall perceyue hereafter) whych by their nature be chaungeable 
one for an other, it shall nothyng let nor hynder anye man, from 
the true and proper readyng of the letters so altered. 

For as soone as the ydiome or proprietie of the tungue receyueth 
one lettter for an other, the radicall is omitted and left away : and 
the accessorie or the letter that commeth in steede of the radical, is 
forthwith written, and so pronounced after his own nature and 
power, as it is playne inough by the former example. Whych rule, 
wrytyng to the learned and perfectly skylled in the idiome of the 
tongue, I do not alwayes obserue, but not ynblamed of some, but 
how iustly, let other some iudge. 

Prouided alwayes that such transmutation of letters in speakyng 
(for therein consisteth all the difficultie) is most diligently to be 
marked, obserued, and taken hede vnto, of him that shall delite to 
speake Welsh a right. 1 

^[ How C. is pronounced. 

C maketh k, for look what power hath c in Englishe or in Latine, 
when it commeth before 0, 0, u, that same shall it haue in 
Welshc [15] before any vowell, diphthong, or consonant, whatsoeuer 
it be. And as M. ^lelanchtlion affirmeth, that c. k. q. had one sound in 
times past wyth the Latinos : so do al such deducted wordes thereof 
into the Welsh, bcare witnes, as, accen of acceniu, Caisar Ctesare, 
cicut of cicuta, cist of cista, croc of cruce, raddic of radice, Luc of 
Zuca, Hue also of luce, Lluci of Lucia, llucem of lucerna, Mauric of 
Mauricio : natalic of nataliciit. 

How be it some of our tyme doe vse to wrytc k. rather than c. 
where Wrytcrs in tymes past haue left c. wrytten in their auncient 
bookes, specially before a, o, u, and before all maner consonantes, 
and in the latter end of wordes. Also other some there be that 

1 The initial permutations in the "Welsh (and Celtic languages generally) 
are a great peculiarity. Some consonants have three, some two, and some only 
one mutation, and the occasions on which they have to be used do not seem 
capable of being reduced to a general principle. The mutations in Welsh 
are as follows : 

radical p t c 
vocal b d g 

natal mh nh ngh 

b d g 
f dd - 
m n ng 

11 rh m 
1 r f 

aspirate ph th ch 
The (-) indicates the entire loss of g preceding vowel which can be run on 
as gafr goat, dy afr thy goat ; mh nh to the (m, n, q), a murmur is inserted 
ttffh arc not (mh, nh, gh), but (nm nu as ('nan, 'nn 'qn). 
(gu) and consequently if there is no 


Constructio is taken here 

reason. Carw is tha ab- 
solut word. 

sound now c, as g, in the last termination of a word : Example, oc 
[juventus], coo [moles], Hoc [agger] : whych be most commonly 
read, og, cog, ttog. 1 

Furthermore, it is the nature of c. to be turned into ch, and other 
whylcs into g. But I meane thys, when 
a word that begynneth wyth c. commeth 
in construction as thus : Care, a Hart, 
JZKVic a 1 Charvv, a Hynde and a Hart. 
Either els when c. or k. (for they be both 
one in effect) is the fyrst letter of a word 
that shall be compounded, as for an example, Angraff, angred, 
angrist, which be compoudcd of an and of craff, cred, Christ* 

^f The sottnd of Ch. 

CH doth wholy agree with the pronounciatio of ch also in the 
Germayne* or *Scottyshe* toungue, of 

the Greeke Chy> or the Hebrue [16] ainel y as th , c Scotishe 
SIL ji R jf i : -o v -L i A i ~L Scnucners obseruc, as 

Cheth* or of gh in English. 7 And it richt> ht> &c> 

hath no affimtie at all wyth ch in Lng- 

lysh, except in these wordes, Mychael, Mychaelmas? and a fewe 
such other, ch also when it is tlie radical letter in any Welsh 
woorde, rcmayneth immutable in euery place. But note that their 
tongue of Southwales giueth them to sound in some wordes h onely 
for ch, 9 as hvvech, for chvvoch [sex], hvvaer for ohvvaer [soror]. 
Further ch sometyme sheweth the feminine gender, as well in 
Verbes as in Nownes, as ny thai hon y chodi [non digna ilia qua> 
levetur], : y char hi [amator illius mulieris] : for if the mcanyng 
were of any other gender, it shuld haue been sayd t godi and 
not chodi, i gar, and not * char. &c. 

f The sound of D. 

D is read in "Welshe none otherwyse then in Englyshe, sauyng 

onelye that oftentymes d in the fyrst syllables shalbe turned 

into dd, resemblyng much Daleth the Hebrue d. w And sometyme 

1 Mr. E. Jones observes that " tbis 
is in accordance with a general ten- 
dency in modern Welsh to use the 
medial for the tcmus." Dr. Davies 
doubts this tendency. 

2 The modem Welsh forms are 
annyhraf hebes, annghred infidclitas, 
atmghrut anti-Christus. 

3 Where it has really three sounds 
(ih, kh, kwh) dependent on the pre- 
ceding vowel (p. 53). Probably Sales- 
bury only thought of (kh). 

4 The Scotch words cited in the mar- 
gin, are pronounced (reht meht). 

6 The modern Greek x, according to 
one account I received, is always (A-h), 
never (kh), but Prof. Valetta (p. 517, 
n. 2) used both (A-h, kh). 

The Hebrew R and 3 are by Euro. 

peans confounded as (kb) ; taking the 
Arabic pronunciation of the correspond- 
in . tl are (h krh) ^ 

C C J 

7 Thl3 therefore confirnw the cxist- 
ence of a sufficiently distinct (kb.) in 
English, winch may have been occa- 
sionally (k\\}.. 

8 It is not to be supposed that ch in 
these words was (kh) at that time. But 
the text certainly implies that the ch 
was not (tsh), and was therefore pro- 
bably (k) as at present. All that is 
meant, then, probably, is that (kh) i 
more like (k) than (tsh). 

9 The modem use in South Wales 
is to say (wh) initially for (kwh), as 
(whekh) for (kwhekh). 

10 Hebrew IT = (d, dh). 



when a word bcgynnyng wyth d, is compounded wyth an : the d 
shall slyp away, as anavvn [in-donum] of an [in] and dawn 
[donum] ; anoeth [in-doctus] of an [in] and doeth [doctus]. 

Dd is nothing lyke of pronunciation to dd in Englysh or Latine. 
For the double dd in "Welsh hath the very same sound of dhelta 1 
or dhaleth, dashed wyth raphe? or of d betwyxt .ij. vowels in the 
Hispanish tongue, 8 eyther els of th, as they he comonly sounded in 
these Englysh wordes, the, that, thys, thync. 4 Neither do I meane 
nothyng lesse then that dd in Wclshc is sounded at any tyme [17] 
after the sound of-th these wordes of Englishe, wyth thynne, thanke. 5 
But ye shall fynde in olde wrytten Englysh bookes, a letter hauing 
the fygure of a Eomayne y, that your auncesters called dhorn, whych 
was of one efficacie wyth the Welsh dd. G And this letter y* I 
speake of, may you see in the booke of the Sermon in the Englyshe 
Saxons tongc, which the most reuerend father in God D. M. P. 
Archbishop of Canturlury hath lately set forth in prynt. 7 And 
ther be now in some countries in England, that pronounce dd euen 
A ' tni "t ^ t nese wor( les *addes, fedder* according as they 
of a Cooper ^ c pronouced in the "Welsh. And ye must note 
that dd, in Welsh is not called double dd, neither 
is it a double letter (though it seemeth so to be) wherefore it doth 
not fortify nor harden the sillable that it is in, but causeth it to 
be a great deale more thy eke, soft, and smoothe. For he that first 
added to, the second d, ment thereby to aspirate the d, 9 and signifie 
that it should be more lyghtly sounded, and not the contrary. 

1 Modern Greek S is (dh). This, 
and the sound given above to ft (p. 747 
not* 6), shews that the present modern 
Greek system of pronunciation (p. 523) 
was then prevalent in England, see 
pp. 529-530 and notes. Sir Thomas 
Smith's hook, advocating the Erasmian 
system of pronouncing Greek, was not 
p'ublished till 1568, a year after this 
second edition of Salesbury's hook. 

2 " Formerly, when Dvgesh was not 
found in a iv of the nSSIJH letters, a 
mark called PIBT Ra-phd, was placed 
above it, in order to shew that the point 
had not been omitted by mistake. 
With the ancient Syrians this was no- 
thing more than a point made with red 
ink. The Hebrews probably wrote it 
in the same way : but, as this point 
might be mistaken for the vowel 
Kholem, when printed, or, for one of 
the accents, the form of it was altered 
for a short line thus (-), which is still 
found in the Hebrew manuscripts, 
though very rarely in printed books." 
S. Lee, Grammar of the Hebrew Lan- 
guage, 3rd edit. p. 21. Hence 1 with 
raphe was equivalent to the ordinary 
T =(dh). 

3 If the Spanish d in this place is 
not true (dh), it is so like it that 
Spaniards hear English (dh) as that 
sound, and English that sound as (dh). 
Don Mariano Cubi i Soler, a good 
linguist, who spoke English remarkably 
well, in his Nuevo Sistema . , . para, 
aprcnder a leer i pronunciar . . . la 
lenytia ingle&e, Bath, 1851, gives (p. 8) 
the Spanish dtidad deity, as a threefold 
example of (dh). Yet the Spanish 
sound may be (e), p. 4. 

4 Pronounced (dhe, dhat, dht's, dhein). 

5 Pronounced (with, thm, thaqk). 

This alludes to the common prac- 
tice of printing y for J>, which letter 
is usually called (thorn) not (dhorn), 
but see p. 541, note 2. 

7 As this was first written in 1550, 
the Archbishop must have been Cran- 

8 Addis addice, now written adze, 
is generally called (aedz). Fcdder is 
perhaps meant for feather (fedh-.i) but 
may be father, provincially (fee'dha). 

9 The Welsh has dd, ff, II (dh, f, 
Ihh), all meant as so-called aspirations 
of their d, f, I (d, v, 1). Similarly 
Salesbury has rr for modem rh (infra 


But I thynke it had be easier, more meete, and lesse straunge to 
the Header, if that he had put h, after the former d, in a signe 
of asperation, than to adde an other d thereto. 

And as it semeth it is not passing three or foure C. yearcs ago, 
synce they began to double their d, for before that tyme by lykcly- 
hoode they vsed one constant nianer of pronunciation of their 
letters euen as the Hebrues did at the beginning. 

[18] Dd also begynning a word, sheweth that it commcth in 
construction : for there is no woord commying absolutely that his 
fyrst syllabic begynneth wyth dd. 

Moreouer, dd relateth the masculyne gender, as (Ai ddeuvraich 
ar ei ddvvyvron) [illius hominis bniclu'a duo super illius hominia 
poctora duo] for in an other gender, it would be sayd, Ai deuvraich 
ar ei dvvyron [illius mulieris, &c. ut supra]. 

How E ought to le sounded. 

E without any exception hath one permanent pronounciation in 
"Welsh, 1 and that is the self pronunciation of Epsilon in Greke, 2 
or of e in Latine, being sounded aryght, or e in Englyshe, as it is 
sounded in these woordes, a were, vvreke, Ireke, vvreste* 

And the learner must take good hcdc that he neucr do rcade the 
said e as it is red in these English wordcs, me, leleue : * For than 
by so doing shall he eythcr alter the signification of the word 
wherin the same e is so corruptly rcadc, either els cause it to 
betoken nothing at all in that spcche. Example : pe [si] significth 
in English and if, now, ye rede it pi, than wil it betoken this letter 
p, or the byrd that ye call in Englyshe a Pye. And so yvve is, a 
webbe : but if ye sound e as * reading it gvvi, then hath it no signi- 
fication in the Welsho. 

And least pcraduenture the foresayd example of the Welch or 
straunge tong be somwhat obscure, [19] then take this in your 
own mother tong for an explanation of that other : wherby ye shall 
pcrceiue that the diuersitie of pronounciation of e in these Englysh 
woordes subscribed hereafter, wyll also make them to haue diuers 
significatios, and they be these wordes, bere, pere, hele, mele? 

p. 758) ; and Dan Michel and others heal, (mill) meel = meddle ?, (meel) 

use * for (sh), (supra pp. 409, 441) meal, p. 79. Mr. Murray suggests 

which many consider as an aspirate that meal in the sense of food consumed 

of s. Of course there is no aspiration, at one time, German mahl, ags. mael, 

though the writing (dh), as Salesbury Scotch (mfel) may have heen (meel), 

goes on to suggest, has arisen from and meal in the sense of flour, German 

this old error. Compare the Icelandic tehl, ags. melu, Scotch (mil) may have 

hj\ hi, kn, hr, Jn\ supra p. 544. heen (miil) and that these were tho 

1 The modern Welsh e is, and seems two sounds Salisbury meant to distin- 

to have always heen (ee, e) and never guish. This is a priori most likely, 

(ee, e), and hence I so transcribe it. put the orthographies leave the matter 

z Meaning (e) of course, in great perplexity. Promptorium : 

8 (Weer, wreck rw;eek, brcek, wrest, meel of mete ; melc or mete, commcstio 

ru-est). cibatus ; meele of come growndyn', 

* (Wii, biliiv) as appears from what farina far. Talsgrave : meale of corue 

immediately follows. farinc, meale of mcate repast. Levins : 

6 (Biir) bier or beer, (beer) bear,(piir) ineale farina, by flock meale mimttiui, 

peer, (peer) pear, (mil) heel, (ueel) meele ceeita, wtiich would seem to indi- 


Neither yet doe -we vse in Welsh at any time to write e in the 
middle or last sillablcs, & to leaue it vnspoken in reading : as it is 
done by schetta in Hcbrue, or as the maner of wrytyng and read- 
yng of the same is accustomed in Englysh, as it shall be more 
manifest by these wordes that followe : golde, sylke, purenes, Clwpe- 
syde : wherein (as I suppose) e is not written to the entent it 
might be read or spoken, but to mollifye the syllable that it is 
put in. 1 

But now I am occasioned to declyne and stray somewhat from 

my purpose, and to reueale my phantasie 

An observation for to y ong: wr yt e rs of Englishe, who (me 

wh^in prying thinkctl1 ) ^ kc oucr muche P^ 68 ' and 
canot so well be kept. bestowe vnreqiusite cost (hauing no re- 
spect to the nature of the Englysh ending 

e) in doublyng letters to harden the syllable, and immediatly they 
adde an e, whych is a signe of mittigatyng and softning of the 
syllable, after the letters so doubled, as thus : vtanne, vvorshippe, 
Godde, rrotte, vvysJie, gooflnesse, Jwmme, ttette : 2 whych woordes 
wyth such other lyke, myght with lesse labour, and as well for the 
purpose, be wryttcn on thys wysc : maun, vvorshypp. Godd, vvott, 
vvysh, goodness, hemm, nett : or rather thus : man vvorshyp, God, 
vvott, goodnes, liem, net. 

[20] And though thys principle be most true Frwtra id Jit per 
plura, quod fieri potest per pauciora, that is done in vayne by the 
more, that maye be done by the lesse : yet the Printers in con- 
sideration for iustifiyng of the lynes, as it is sayde of the makers 
to make vp the ryme, must be borne wythall. 8 

How F. is commonly sounded. 

F In "Welsh being syngle, and v when it is consonant in "Welsh, 
English, or Latinc, be so nygh of sounde, that they vse mostc 
commonly to wryte in Welsh indifferently the one for the other. And 
I my selfe haue heard Englysh men in some countries of England 
sound/, euen as we sound it in Welsh. 4 For I haue marked their 
mancr of pronounciation, and speciallye in soundyng these woordes : 

cate the difference (meel, miil) in an 3 This may be partly an explanation 

exactly opposite direction, but as Levins of the varieties of orthography in the 

lias : eale eel anquilfa, beale beel spe- xvi th century in printed books, but 

lunca, deale deele portio, he may have will not explain the nearly equal 

meant to imply that these words were varieties in manuscript. I have noted 

in a transition state. The meaning of at least ten ways of spelling tongue in 

the two words (miil. meel) then, intend- in Salesbury's own book: tongue, 

ed by Salesbury, must remain doubtful. tonge, tong, toungue, tounge, toung, 

1 The utter extinction of the feeling tungue, tunge, tung, toug ; ags. tunge. 
for the final e is here well shewn. How 

a syllable can be "mollified" without * This is west country, still heard in 

any utterance, is not apparent. The Somersetshire and Devonshire. In 

words are (goold, slk, pyyrnes, early English books of the "West of 

Tsheep-seid-). England w is constantly used for/. We 

2 (Man, wurshi'p, God, wot, wish, also find it in Dan Michel's Kentish 
gud-nes, Hem, net), since uette must dialect 1340 (p. 409). The same places 
be a misprint for nette. give also z for s. 


voure, viue, disvigure, vish, vox : where they would say, fours, fue, 
disfigure, fysh, Fox, &c. 1 

But who soeuer knowcth the sounde of the letter called Digamma 
(whose figure is much lyke F, but ouerwhclmed Eolicum j 
vpsydedowne, as ye see here j) he shall also know 
thereby the verye sounde of the syngle f in Welsh. 2 They of South- 
wales rather vse v, 3 where Northwales writers commonly occupy e/. 
H The sound of ff. 

ff In "Welsh hath but the same sounde that the syngle / hath in 
Englysh. And they are faine to vse the double ff for the 
syngle /, because [21] they haue abused / in steedc of v a conso- 
nant. But in such wordes as haue p for the fyrst letter of their 
originall (for to keepe the orthographies) the Learned wrytejp/t, and 
not/, as thus, Petr ' Phavvl, Peter and Paule. 

^[ The pronounciation of G. 

G In euery word in "Welsh souudeth as the Hebrue Gymel:^ 
or g in Dutche, 5 or as g in Englyshe soundeth before a, o, u. 
And marke well that y neuer soundeth in Welshe as it doth in Eng- 
lish in these woordes, George, gynger* G also in Welsh sometyme 
(when it commeth in a reason) shall be turned into ch, and somtyme 
elided or left cleane out of the word as 

thus, a chvvedy hynny [ac postquam] ^ is but very seldom 
, jr J .. J .. J \ TJ i turned into ch. Gwedy 

tavvn nevvad [satisiactio vel sangnisj : koch Qwad Glat 

ne V<w [rufus vel viridis] : and not koch 

ne glas : dulas [viridis nigrcscens] of du [niger] and gla* [viridis]. 

And otherwhyle wordes compounded shall put away g, as these 
do, eerloyvv, dulas: whose symple be these, ser [aster], gkyvv 
[purus], du [nigcr] glas [viridis]. 

Also g is added to the beginning of such words as be deriued 
of the Latine, whych begyn wyth t?, as Gvvilim, gvvic, gvvynt, 
Gvvent, gvvin, gosper of PTilielmus, vicus, ventus, Venta, vinum, 
vesper." 1 

Moreouer, g intrudeth wrongeously into many wordes, namely 
after n, as Llating for Llatin, Katering for Katherin, pring for 
p-rin [vixj. 

[22] Of the atpiration of H. 

H In euery word that is wryttcn in "Welshe, hath hys aspiration 

in speakyng also, and is read, euen as in these woordes of 

Englysh, hard, heard, hart, hurt : 8 And therefore whersoeuer h 

is wrytten in Welshe, let it be read wythall, and not holden styll, 

1 (Foour, feiv, d*%-yyr, frsh, foks). in low Dutch or Dutch of Holland = 

2 That is, when the sound of the (gh), or more nearly (grh, >). Supra 
digamma has been previously settled. p. 209, note. 

Was it (f. v, wh, bh) ? See supru 6 (Dzhordzh, dzhm-dzher.) 

P- , 51 ., 8 l r n ? te 3- -n -n ,, 7 This is common in French and 

< it ?TTJ w ' Italian - In endeavourin & to M y ( va ) 

i 4* Dntet or German gene- the >' ^ fe wa )' and then ^ a )' 
rally =(g) and occasionally =- (gh, yh), 8 (Hard, nerd, Hard, Hart, nurt). 


as it is done in French and Englysh, in such wordes as be deriucd 
out of Latync, as these : honest, habitation, humble, halite. 1 &c. 
Except when h is setlcd betwene two vowels in Welshe, wordes : 
for then it forceth not greatlye whether h be sounded or not, as 
in these wordes that followe: deheu [dexteritas], kyhyr [musculus] 
mehein [adept], gvvcheu, heheu,~ gvvehydd [textorj, gohir [inora]. &c. 
Moreouer, h sometime shewetli the gender, & somtyme the 
number of the word that it is set before, as in this word, Ar y hael : 
vpon her, or their brow. Further, h oftentimes is caused or en- 
gendred of the concourse of vowels, oi hervvydd, for oi ervvydd, 
and sometimes by accenting, as trugarha, for trugard. Then be- 
caus eA is not of the essence of the word, I leaue it for most 
part vnwrytten. 

The sound of I. 

I In Welsh hath the mere pronounciation of i in Latine, as learned 
men in our time vse to soud it, and not as they y* with their 
lotacisme corrupting the pronunciation make a [23] diphthong of 
it, saying : veidei, teibei for vidi, tibi. But looke how i soundcth in 
Englysh, in these words, singing, ringing, drinking, winking, nigh, 
sight, might, right? So then 4 in euery syllable in "Welshe hath 
euen the same sounde as e hath in Englyshe in these wordes, wee, 
see, three, lee. And is neuer sounded so broade in "Welsh as it is 
in thys English word *!.* And bcsyde that * is neuer consonant 

in Welsh, 5 but euer remaining a vowel, as it doth in y* 
* Ego Germayne tonge, or as Iota in the Greke. And because 

they that haue not tasted of the preceptes of Grammer do 
not lightly vnderstande what thys temie consonant meaneth : I 
wyll speake herein as plaync as I can, for to induce them to vn- 
derstand my meanyng. 

Therefore when we say in spellyng m a, ma : i e, ie : 
when i is s f ^ s f e . niaieste : or 1 e, Ie : 8 u s, sus : Jesus : now 
consonan , j n ^ nese wo wor d eS) maieste, and Jesus, i is consonant, 
when f is But when I spell on thys wysc : i per se i, o r k, ork, 
vowel. and wyth doyng them togyther, reade iork, : then i 

is not called consonant, but hath the name of a vowell. 

1 (On-est, abitee-shun, um-bl, ab'it). 5 That is, never has the sound of f 

See above p. 220. consonant or./ in English, that is, (dzh). 

The words gwcheu, hehcu, have Salesbury never thinks of (j) as a con- 

not been identiaed. sonant, but only as the vowel (t). This 

must be borne in mind in reading 

3 (Siq-iq, rtq-.q, drtqk-tq, w^qkzq, what f u ws, in which a curious ex- 

nlh, szkht, mikht, nkht). Salesbury amplc of tlie mode of spe ui n g out 

here however means (i) not (), which wordg in old English is presented. Of 

he generally marks by y Welsh, let course llis argument is perfectly worth- 

Welshmen at present do not seem acute less . Therc is a dispute, as already 

in distinguishing (i, t), but use some- mentioned, concerning the Welsh t 

times one sound and sometimes the preceding another vowel. Mr. E. 

other, supra p. 112, note 1. Ihe j ones and Dr< Davies both consider 

(mkht) and not (nei) or (neikht) sound Wclgh i to be (j) in such words iaw>t 

of niyh is here pointed out by the iaehf Ies ^ In English, Smith and 

context. jj art; consider (j) and (i) to be the same 

* Meaning (ci). sounds, supra p. 185. 


And therefore if ye lyst to readc ryghtly Wclshe woordcs whcre- 
in is wrytten, an other vowell immediatlye Mowing (lor therein 
else is there no hinderaunce for the straunge 
Reader) than must you harken how (whych * for c in tbe won * 

I wryte for y) is sounded in these Englysh iye (" 4 '>' is " ow 

*, . y ' . 7-7,7 77 77 7 J commoly written 

woordcs: i-ane,i-arac, iclde, ^ elk, i elle^elovv, & read as it is in 

iere, iok, iong, iougth, Jorke, iou : And thougho Welsh. 

theesc woordes bee wrytten here [24] now 

wyth , in the first letter of eueiy one, yet it is mcnt that you 

should reade them as the f were y, and as they had been wrytten 

on thys fashion : yane, yardv, yelde, yell, yelovv, yere, yok, yony, 

youflth, yorke, you. 2 

Now I trust that the dullest wittcd chylde that ncuer read but 
two lynes, perceaueth so familiar a rudiment. 

^[ The sottnd of K. 

K Foloweth the rule of c in eueiy poynt, and therefore looke for 
the effect of k, where it is treated of the letter c. 

^f The sound of L. 

L Hath no nother differece in soud in Welsh than in Englysh. 
And note that it neythcr causeth a, nor o, when they come 
before it, to sounde anye more fuller in the mouth, than they do 
else where sounde, coiumyng before anye other letter. 3 And for 
the playner vnderstandyng therereof, looke in the rules that do 
treate of the sounde of a and o. 

And marke whan socuer ye see I to be the fyrst letter of a worde, 
that eyther the same word commcth in construction, eyther else the 
woord is of an other language, and but vsurped in Welsh. 

A worde beginning wyth I hauyng II in liys [25] radical, maketh 
relation of the masculin gender, as yn y law in his hand : for yny 
llavv is in her hand. 

Item thys lysping letter I is now smothcley rcccyued in some 
wordcs, contrary to their original nominations, as temestl for tempest; 
rriscl, trisclyn, for rrisc or rriscyn [cortex] : pymysl or pymystl for 
pcmblys [quinque digiti] : so named of the resemblace that the 
rootes haue wyth mans fingers : which is now better knowen by a 
more vnapte name eucn Cecut y drvr, and in Englysh Water small- 
edge. 4 

So likewyse to this letter I a loytring place is lent to lurk in this 
English word syllable.* And thus much, that the wryters hereafter 
maye be more precise and circumspect in accepting the vnlettereds 
pronunciation by the authority of theyr hand wryting. 

1 I have not met with this form iye pronunciation of tall, toll as (taul, 

elsewhere, except in the Heng. MS. tooul) , supra p. 193-4 

of C. T. v. 10. The sound seems to be * Apparently cicala virosa, "Water 

(ii) as in the Scotch word ee for eye. cowhane, Water Hemlock, now spelled 

3 (Jaun, jard, jiild, jel, jel-oou, jiir, cegid in in Welsh, 

jook, juq, juuth, Jork, juu). The or- * This, in conjunction wilh the pre- 

thography yougth for youth is peculiar. ceding, is meant to point out the sylla- 

3 This alludes to the old English bic ('I), see p. 195. 



^ Of the straunge sound of double II. 

LI can not be declared anye thyng lykc to the purpose in wryting, 
but oncly by mouth : if ye the wyll leame how it ought to be 
sounded: For (as it is sayd before of d) so the second I is added 

VM n j j- i in stede of 7< : but looke how Lambda com- 

Vlde Occolamnaduims -if r . i i >, ^ i ^ 

mmg before Iota is sounded in the Greeke : 3 

euen so pronounce we II in the Welsh. And if ye could hyt 
kyndely on the right and iust pronunciation of Ih thus aspirated : 
not leauyng unsouded the entire energie, and the "whole strength of 
the aspiration : than shoulde not you bee farre dissonant from the 
true [26] sound of our Welsh II. 

For the "Welsh II is spoken the tongue bowed by a lyttle to the 
roufe of the mouth, and with that somwhat extendyng it selfe 
betwyxt the fore teeth the lyppes not all touching together )but 
leauing open as it were for a wyndow) the right wyke of the mouth 
for to breathe out wyth a thycke aspirated spirite the same II. But 
as I sayde before, and if ye wyll haue the very Welsh sounde of 

1 Joannes (Ecolampadins, the Latin- 
ized name of Johann Hausschein, the 
reformer, 1432-1531, who studied 
Greek under both Reuchliu and Eras- 
mus, the teachers of the rival Greek 

2 The Welsh U is not (Ih) the 
whisper of (1), for in (Hi) the breath 
escapes smoothly on hoth sides of the 
tongue, and the sound may he fre- 
quently heard, with very little escape 
of breath, in French, tulle (tablh) for 
(tabl') see p. 5'2, and in Icelandic, p. 
545. But for the Welsh II, one side 
(generally the left) of the tongue lies 
along the whole of the palate so as 
entirely to prevent the passage of air, 
iust as for the English cl'ck () p. 11, 
by which we excite horses, and the 
breath is forcibly ejected from the 
right side, making it vibrate, at the 
same time that there is a considerable 
rattle of saliva, thus much resembling 
(kh) or rather (krh), and the sound is, 
perhaps for this reason, conceived as a 
guttural aspirate by Welsh grammar- 
ians. The Welsh II is a voiceless or 
whispered consonant which I represent 
by (Ihh) p. 6, the second (h) to the right 
typifying the ejection of breath on the 
right side, and the initial (Ih) the re- 
semblance of the sound to (Ih) which 
when energetic may be substituted for 
it without loss of intelligibility, al- 
though the Welsh ear immediately 
detects the difference. The lips may 
be fully open, or only opened on the 
right ; the effect is entirely due to the 

action of the tongue and is very pecu- 
liar. At a distance llan (Ihhan) when 
shouted sounds like (tlan). There 
is no resemblance to (thlan) which 
Englishmen generally substitute for it. 
When the table of palaeotype was 
drawn up I had never heard the voiced 
form of (Ihh), which for convenience, 
may be written (/hh). It is possible 
also to have palatalised varieties of 
both, which must then be written (Ijhh, 
/jhh). All these forms with (hh) are 
very awkward, but they are sufficiently 
distinctive, and the sounds are very 
rare. In: 11 Vangelo di S. Matteo 
volgarizzato in dialetto Sardo Sassarese 
dal Can. G. Spano accompagnato da 
osservazioni sulla pronunzia di questo 
dialetto e su varj punti di rassomigli- 
anza che il medesimo prescnta con le 
lingue dette Celtiche, sia ne' cambia- 
menti iniziali, sia nel suono della lettera 
L, del Principe Luigi-Luciano Bona- 
parte, Londra 1866, it is stated that 
(Ihh, hh, Ijhh) occur in the Sardinian 
dialect of Sassari, and (Ihh, hh) in 
the dialect of the Isle of Man. The 
Prince pronounced all these sounds to 
me, but he laid no stress on their uni- 
lateral character, or rather disowned 
it. In this case (th, <fh) were really 
the sounds uttered for (Ihh flih), ac- 
cording to Mr. M. Bell's views, Visible 
Speech, p. 93, and Mr. Bell on hearing 
them, analyzed them thus. 

3 Here Salesbury most probably 
elevated (li) first into (lj) and then 
into (Ijh). See also p. 546, n. 1. 


thys letter, geue eare to a Welshma when he speaketh culltell, 
whych betokcneth a knyfe in Englysh : or ellyll a ghoste. 

The Welshman or the Hispaniardc compose their mouthes much 
after one fashion whan they pronounce their II, 1 sauyng that the 
"Welsheman vttereth it with a more thicker and a more mightier 
spirite. The Englyshe mans toungue when he would sound II, 
slydeth to tl. 

The Grermanes lykewyse, as writeth Tohn Auenlin, as we do now, 
did in auncient time aspirate /, but pronouncing it somewhat 
hardish in the throte. And in an other place he recordeth that in 
old Charters he findeth I aspirated, nameelye in proper names, and 
after thys manner H L. J Thus you see how tonges though far 
distant, haue som affiuitie in one thyng or other. 

The sound of M. 

[27] 3 In Welsh hath such a sound as ye heare it haue in 
Englysh or Latine : but yet it is one of the letters that be 
channgeable in construction as thus : tnvvy, moe, llai ne vwy, lesse 
ormore, mvvyvvvy, more and more: mal hyn, or val hyn, as 
thus : meg is or vegis t as. 

The sound of JV. 

N Is none otherwyse sounded in Welshe then in Englyshe : but 
sometyme, after the Latine maner, whan it commeth before b 
or p in composition, it is than turned into m, as ymblaen [coram], 
which is compounded of yn and Uaen : amparch [contumeha] of an 
[in] and parch [reverentia] : ampwyll [impatientia], or an fy pvvyll 

N also is often times accessory, I meane such as intrudeth into 
many wordes, namely beginning with c or k, as vi/ncar [meus 
cams] vy-car, vyndevv [meus deus], for vy-devv, or vynyvv. 

And because in suche woordes it is nothyng of the essence 
thereof, I doe, but not without offence to some Readers, oftentymes 
omit the writing of it, thynckyng that it is not more mccte to 
admyt n in our so sounded wordes, than in these Latine vocables 
agnus, magnus, ignis, at what tyme they were thus barbarously 
sounded, angnus, mangnus, ingnis. After this sort crept into 
messanger coming of message. By y e like analogic potanger (which 
I thynke no man doth so write) must be written for potager, and 
so corrupt Portingal for Portugal? 

[28] B U ^ I will prescribe nothing herein, least of some Eemissian 
I be termed a Precisian. 

1 The Spanish II is (Ij), so that 8 Compare nightingale ags. nihte- 
Salesbury has elevated it to (Ijh), see gale, Letfrington ags. Leofric, passen- 
precedmg note. No doubt in attempt- ger fr. passagier, porringer quasi por- 
ing to imitate it he put his own tongue ridger, Arminger It. armiger, popinjay, 
into the familiar Welsh position, and old e. popingay, old fr. papegai. See 
took it for the Spanish. these and other examples of' an inserted 

z On the ags. and Icelandic M see M in Mdtzner, Englische Grammatik, 

supra pp. 613, 546. I860, vol. i. p. 174. 


The sound of 0. 

In Welsh is sounded accordyng to the right sounding of it in 
Latin : eyther else as the sounde of o is in these Englyshc wordes : 
a Doe, a Roe, a Toe : l and o neuer soundeth in Welsh as it doth in 
these -words of Englysh : to, do, two.- But marke that o in "Welshc 
going before II, snundeth nothing more hoystous, 3 that is to say, 
that it inclincth to the sounde of the diphthong ou (as it doth in 
Englishe) 1 no more than if it had gone before any other letter. 

The sound of P. 

P in "Welsh diffcreth not from the Englysh sound of p, but p com- 
myng in construction foloweth the rules of the Hebroe Phe,* 

sauing that somtyme it is turned into b, as thus : pcdvvar neu lemp 

[quatuor vel quinque], for pemp. And sometyme p in composition 

is chaunged also into 6, as whan we say ymbell [longe], for ynipett. 

And one whyle it is left out of the compounde woordes : as whan 

these wordes : kymell, kymorth, be wrytten for kyntpett [compello], 

kymporth [comporto]. 

And an other whyle our tongue geucth vs to sound it as it were 

an h, as when we say : ymhle [29] ymJilcvy, ymhlas for ymple [?], 

ym-plvvy [in plebe] ym-plas [in palatio]. 

But p turned into ph, maketh relation of the feminine gender, 

as (fi phlant, of her children, gmisc i phen, the attire of her head. 

The sound of Q. 

Q, Is not receiued amog the numbre of the letters in 'Welshe as yet, 
but k supplyeth his rowme, and vsurpeth his office in euery 
place. And the Greekes are fayne to practice the same feate, as 
ye may see done. Luc. ii and Ro. 16. where Kyriniou is written 
for Quirino, JKuartos for Quarto. 6 

The sound of It. 

R Is sounded a like in "Welsh and Englysh, but r, in "Welsh for the 

most part is pronounced wyth aspiration, especially being the 

first letter of the word. And for the aspiration h, they commonly 

1 (Doo, roo, too). In my observa- Cam. TJniv. MS. Dd. 4. 24. has bois- 
tions of "Welsh, the long and short o tously,) and in several other places, the 
were invariably (oo, o). The sounds Wycliffite version has bostous, Math. 9, 
(oo, o) seem practically unknown, and 16, as pointed out by Mr. "Way on the 
not appreciated by Welchmen. That word in the Promptorium. The origin 
these were also the English sounds in seems to be the Welsh bwyst wildness, 
the xvi th century I infer as in p. 95. bicyst savage, bwystjil wild beast, 

2 (Tu, duu, tuu). bwystus brutal ferocious, which ac- 
' Eoystous, probably (buist'us) does count properly for the diphthong in 

not appear to be a misprint, but a the first syllable. Mr. R. Morris re- 
more correct form than the modern fers the word to boast, "Welsh bost. 
boisterous. The Promptorium has boy- 4 This again refers to the English 
stows, the Catholicon bustus, the Ortus toll = (tooul) . 
Voc. boystous, Chaucer boystottily 8667 5 B = (p), B = (ph) not (f). 
(Wright reads boystrously incorrectly, 6 Luke 2, 2, Kvpyvlov, Rom. 16, 23, 
the r not occurring in Harl, 7334, Kovapros. 


put to r, 1 as they play by d and and I, euen thus : rrvvygtvyd 
[fractus], rrodres [vanitas], rringell [miles], Rufain [Roma]. But 
the manor of some is to wryte one great capitall R, (when it is the 
fyrst letter of a woord) for the twoo douhle rr. Also r serueth the 
tui-nc that n doth in Englysh, that is to wyt, to be put bctwenc 
vowels meeting together in two sundry wordes, for to stop the 
vneomcly gaping in spech, as ye shall perceyue by these woordes 
of both the [30] tongues : yr-avvr : a-n houre : for mother nature 
wyll not admyt that we should pronounce y avvr, or a hour. But 
stepmother Ignorance 2 receyueth both r and n into some places 
where they are abused, as yr Llating, for y Llatin. 

f The sound of S. 

S Soundeth in "Welsh as it doth in Latin : neither hath it two 
diuers soundes as it hath in Englishe or Frenche, for when it 
commeth betwene two vowels in these two languages, it is so 
remissely and lithly sounded, as it were z, as by these two wordes 
of both the speaches it is manifestly proued, Feisant a Fesant. 8 

If The sound of T. 
T Lykewyse hath but one sounde, and that as the Latinos sound it 

in these wordes : atat, tute, tegit : Neyther do I meane that t in 
Welsh is sounded at any tyme lyke th, as some barbarous lyspers 
do, who depraue the true Latine pronounciation, reading amath, for 
amat, dederith, for dcderit, &c.* 

Now be it marke well thys exception, that t is ncuer read lyke c 
thorowout the "Welsh tongue, as it is commonly read 
of Englyshemen in Latine verbales ending in tio, as Exception 
pronunctatio, electio, subiectio. 

[31] Marke also, that it is the nature of t to be turned into d, 
and sometime into th, and some other tyme it is so lightly spoken, 
that the t is quite left away, and there remayneth but the h in 
steede of the t. But thys is to be vnderstande when t is the fyrst 
letter of a word set in construction to be construed or buylt together 
on thys fashion : Na thric yuhy dvvy avvr ne dair [Ne mane in domu 
duas horas vel tres]. For before they be hewed, squared, and 
ioyned together wyth theyr tenantes and mortesses, they lye in 
rude and vndressed timber after this maner of soil : Na tryc yn ty 
dvvy avvr ne fair. Furthermore t in deriuation is 
left out of the deriued wordes or turned in n, that 
they myght sound more pleasaunt to the eare, as ye 
may take these for an example : chvvanoc or chvvaa 

1 To r, that is, two r's, or rr. The ing the sounds of English words in 

modern form is rh, rather ('rii) than Welsh letters. 

(rh), so that Rhys ('Rn'ys) sounds * Palsgrave says of the French d 

more like (HIS) than (ris). that he sees " no particular thyng 

,1. u wherof to warne the lernar sane that 
* Of course an hour is the old tfl g()unde t rf f ad . thege WQr(la 

form, and a" comes from the omission ^ ado fo M ^ th ^ 
ot before a consonant. The igno- we f ^ do in thes ' e worde ; of 
ranee is therefore rather in Salesbury. Latine a(h at f imMndum for ad a(ti . 

3 This occasions difficulties in writ- vandtim cormptly." 


noc; ffvvnoe or gvvnnroc monvrcni or monvvenni : fie linen or heinnieu 
of chvvant [libido], gvvynt [ventus], monvvent [monumentum], 
haint [pestis]. 

f The sound of Th. 

Th hath the semblable and lyke sound in "Welsh as it hath in 
Englysh in these woordes, thorovve, thy eke, and thynne : l but it 
is neuer so lythly spoken as it is commonly sounded in these other 
words: that, thou, thine, this* 

Moreouer th wrytten for the fyrst letter of any worde, sheweth 
the same woord to be than in construction. For there is no Welshe 
woorde standing absolutelye that hath th for hys fyrst letter : but 
t is hys natiue and originall letter, for the [32] which in con- 
struction th is commonly vsed. Neither yet do we vse to wryte th, 
in any woord, and to reade the same as t or d, as is commonlye done 
in these English wordes : Thomas, throne, threasure, Thames Inne : 

Thauies In which be most uniuersally spoken after this sortc : 
Tomas, trone, treasure, Dauies Inne. 3 

Item th sometyme signifieth the word to perteyne to the feminine 
gender, as Oi thuy of her house, otherwyse said, oi day, of hys 

The sound of V being consonant. 

V specially being wrytten in thys maner of fashion v, soundeth in 
"Welshe as in Englyshe or Latine, whan it is a consonant. 4 And 
it lightly neuer begynneth a woorde, except 
There is no woorde the woord be constructed and ioyned wyth one 
in welsh that be- wordes. For other b or m, being the 

gmneth with v . . ,, ,. ,, , ,, . , fo , 

beim? radicall. original! or radicall letter, is transmuted or 

chauged (according to the congruitie of the 
toungue into v a consonant. 

But Latine wordes begynnyng with v, and vsurped in the "Welsh, 
shall receyue g to their fyrst letter, as is declared more at large in 
the treatice of the letter G, and sometyme B, as Hear of vicarius. 

^[ The sound of u beyng a voicell. 

But u written after this manner , is a vowel, and soundeth as 
the vulgar English people sound it in these wordes of English : 
trust, bury, busy, Hut &$]berden.* But know well that it is neuer 
sounded in "Welsh, as it is done in any of these two Englyshe wordes 
(notwithstanding the diuersitie of their sound) sure, lucke.* Also 

1 (Thuroou, thtk, thm). remains. Huberden is probably Su- 

2 (Dhat, dhou, dhein, dht's). bertden, but I cannot find such place. 

3 (Tom-as, truun), see next section There is a Hubberston in South Pem- 
under Th, (tree-zyyr, Davt'z In). broke, which therefore may have the 

4 The use of v is quite discontinued u pronounced in the "Welsh manner 
in "Welsh, and / is always used in its and an Ibberton in North Dorset, 
place. These are the nearest names I can find. 

6 No doubt that he meant the sound (Syyr, luk). Bullokar gives 

of (tr/st, bt'ri, biz**, HArerden). (syyer) and he is particular in iden- 

(Tn'st) still occurs in Scotland, (btrt) tifying the sound with the French u. 

was even then more usually (beri) but Hart has (siur) meaning (syyr), p. 167, 

is the common Scotch now, and (btz-i) and Salesbury writes attwr, with the 


the soimd of w, in French, or , wyth two prickes ouer the heade 
in Duch, or the Scottish pronunciation of u l alludeth somwhat 
nere vnto the sound of it in Welshe, thoughe yet none of them all, 
doeth so exactly (as I thynk) expresse it, as the Hebraick Kubuts 
doeth. 2 

For the Welsh u is none other thing, but a meane sounde be- 
twyxte M and y beyng Latyne vowels. 3 And therefore who so euet 
wyll distinctly e leame the Welsh sound of u let hym once geue 
care to a Northen Welsh man, whan he speaketh in Welsh, the 
wordcs that signifie in English obedient (or) * chaff singlerly : 
whych be these in Welshe, uvudd, ustm.* And this vowell u alone 
amonge all the letters in Welsh, swaructh in sound from the true 
Latine pronunciation. 

Thys u is more in vre wyth vs of Northwales thau wyth theim 
of the South parteis : -whose wryters abuse it, whan they wryte 
thus, un yn for yn un 5 

The sound of W. 


In Welshe and Englyshe hath but one fygure and power, 
though it chaunceth to haue .ij. diuers names: for in English 
ye call it double MM and in Welshe we gcue it the [34] name of a 

same meaning, pp. 165, 172, and in- 
deed this passage is sufficient to shew 
that he did not mean (syur). Smith 
and Bullokar both give (luk). 

1 All meant for the sound of (yy), 
although at present there are occasional 
faint differences of sound, but not ac- 
knowledged, French (yy), German (n), 
Swedish (uu), Scotch (93). 

2 This of course means that Sales- 
bury pronounced the Hebrew }*3j? 
(idbbu*), generally considered as (u) 
iu the same way as Welsh u ; also he 
shews by writing the name kubuts, that 
he gave the same sound to the first 
vowel in the name, generally identified 
with (i). This serves to shew, in con- 
junction with his opening sentence, 
that his sound of Welsh did not much 
differ from (i, t), and that where he 
uses it for the representation of English 
sounds, he certainly meant (i) or (*). 

3 It is difficult to determine what 
sounds the Welshman gave to Latin 
, y, because these arc precisely the 
Welsh vowels about which there is a 
difficulty. The next sentence but one, 
however, would lead us to suppose that 
his Latin u was (u), as it was different 
from the Welsh ; but what his Latin 
y, properly (y), may have been, cannot 
be said. Assuming, however, that it 
was ('), then the mean sound ought to 

be (i). By the kindness of Dr. Davies 
I had an opportunity of consulting 
three Welsh students at the Regent's 
Park College about the Welsh , y. 
The sound of u in Duw appeared to 
be (i), in llcwyrchu it was not distin- 
guishable from (i), in dechretiad, go- 
leuni, I could not distinguish the diph- 
thong eu from the English (ai), though 
the sound of at in gair was dis- 
tinctly (ai) and occasionally (aai), 
but ai, ae, an were nearly if not 
quite indistinguishable; at most (ai, 
ae, &t) would mark the distinctions. 
I understood from Dr. Davies that the 
theoretical pronunciation of was (y), 
and that in solemn declamation an at- 
tempt was made to preserve the sound, 
but that usually u became (ii, i) or 
even (t). This is perfectly similar to 
the common German substitution of 
(ii) for (y) r ) in the pronunciation of 
their ', an alteration never made in 
French. In Danish and Swedish the 
y, theoretically (y), becomes (i) or, 
to my ear, practically (i, i). 

* Theoretically (yyvydh, yys.yn), 
practically (iivj'dh t'rsm) or even 
(iivt'dh, ii-stn) which latter sounds, 
perfectly easy to English organs, would 
be intelligible throughout Wales. 

8 This refers only to the orthography. 
Sec below under y. 



syngle u but than soundyng it after the Latinc pronuciatio or ells 
as you now souncle your oo. 1 

But the lesser Greeke o ioyned togythcr wyth the Greke y made 
a diphthong, 2 or Hebraic Vau cum puncto schurek in venire, 3 either 
oo in these English vocables : booke, looke, boorde, woorde, 1 shall 
rather expresse hys name, than hys proper nature. 

But hys owne power, and peculier office in "Welshe, shall there 
no letter nor letters more preciselye set it forth than the vv it selfe, 
or oo wyth the Englysh pronunciation. For all thoughe the Ger- 
maynes vse a vv yet in some wordes sounde they it (to my hearing) 
as the farther u were a vowel, and the latter o consonant, 5 wher 
we the Britons sounde both uu wholy togyther as one vowell, wyth- 
out anye seuerall distinction, but beynge alwayes eyther the forther 
or the latter parte of a dyphthonge in Englyshe on thys wysc : 
wyth aw : and in Welshe as thns : wyth, avven. 6 

And though, as I sayd before, I fynde in som auncient writers 
6 for vv, yet in other I find vv in words now vsually written w* v or 
/ as eithavv, for eithav or eitJiaf. In which kynde of wordes, bycause 
they of Southwales vse yet to kepe y 6 pronuciatio of it, saying tavcly 
where we saye tavlu or taflu [jacio]), I doe rather vse for the more 
indifferencie to wryte v than /, eve that they may the more aptly 
rcsolue [35] it into their woonted vowell vv, and we maye sounde 
the same after our more consonaunt acceptation. But contraryly, 
we saye deunydd where they sound dcvnydd or defnydd [substantia], 
and some corrupters denvydd. 

Tlie sound of X. 

X Is not founde as yet in the "Welshe Alphabet : For the "Welshe 
speache hath no neede of hys office : because that suche Walshe 
woordes as be deducted of the Latine, turne their x into *, as doe 
these : nos, estenna, escommun, estran, licses, escuso, escutio, Sas or 
Sais, which come of nox, extendo, excommimicatus, extranevs, bisex- 
tus, excuso, excutio, Saxo. 

1 Meaning (uu, u). comprehend, and the difficulty is in- 

2 Modern Greek pronunciation (uu) creased hy the misprint o, for u or a. 
for ov. He divides w, as he prints it, into vv, 

3 Hebrew pTM? (shuureex'), mean- which he immediately calls , but 
jjjo- <| _ ( uu \ " which of these two letters he considers 

** (Buuk, luuk, buurd, wuurd). Bui- "the forther" and -which the "latter," 

lokar and Gill also give (luuk), the short- is not plain. The best I can make out 

ening of the vowel into (luk) or rather 1S . that he heard German w as (vu), 

(lk) is quite modern. North country taus " = (vuan), nearly (vwan) or 

pronunciation is still (luuk), though perhaps (vwan). The last is not a very 

Mr. Melville Bell and Mr. Murray inapt way of representing (bhan), and 

consider the difference between the onc M I have heard given by many 

Scotch and south country sounds to be persons, as the best means of indicating 

merely qualitative, the former (luk), the sound of initial (bh) to English or 

the latter (Ink). GUI has (ward), French speakers. 

Butler (wuurd, wurd). Soorde \vas 6 Here, in vvyt h, v vis in the "forther" 

the spelling at that time for board, as part, and in avven in the " latter" part 

in the Prouiptorium, Levins has boord, of the diphthong, which ought to make 

and Butler pronounces (buurd). Salcsbury's German w = (uv), as 

* The meaning of this is difficult to (uvan), which being dissyllabic is im- 


The cnglishc Scolevs tongues 
be marueilously tormented in 
soudyng of the Greke ypsilb 
and yet atain uot to the right 
sound. 3 

If The sound of Y. 

Y Is sounded in "Welsh, as it is in these English wordes: yn, 

synne, ys, thynne, vvynne. 1 Neyther 
yet as it is sounded of the commune 
people in anyc of these two woordes 
followyng : vvyde, vvynge? Also y 
beyng a woorde, counteruayleth the 
sygnification of the in Englysh, and 
of Le in Frenche, or of the Articles Ha, Ho, in Hebruc and Greeke, 
as thus : y dyn, whose proper sygnification in Englyshe is not com- 
munlye vsed, except a man shoulde saye, the person : [36] but 
Le homme shall well declare it to any that shal be skilled in the 
French : And by mcanes hereof we vse to cxpresse the cxccllencie 
that the Euangelistes attribute to lesus, when they adde the Greeke 
article thereto : whych they seeme aduisedly to do, omitting to 
write it when they speake in the name of the Icwcs or Gentiles. 

The sound of Z. 
Z In Welsh is vnknowen, in so muche that it was ncuer placed in 

possible. As Salesbury does not recog- 
nize (j) he also does not recognize (w), 
hence wyth aw with awe, is to him 
(utth au), not (wt'th au). It is hope- 
less to look for agreement upon this 
point of theory. Supra p. 513, n. 2. 

1 (/n, s'n, tz, thin, wm). There 
can be little doubt as to the pronuncia- 
tion of these words because sin, thin, 
win, also occur in Smith. Mr. E. 
Jones remarks : " Fhas two sounds in 
Welsh, and it is the only letter that 
has two sounds. In monosyllables as 
dyn it is nearly =ee Eng. as deen (diin), 
in polysyllables as dynion=u in but 
(dan-ion). " On which Dr. Davies 
observes, "rather f in hint" (dtn-ion). 
In the examination of this sound as 
pronounced by the Welsh students at 
llegents Park College, (supra p. 761, 
note 3,) the word dynion seemed more 
like (dm'ion) than (dan-ion), but I 
noted the following pronunciations, gyd 
(gad), yn y (on o), tnvyddo (truu-dho), 
ynddo (an'dho) bywyd (bau-td), sydd 
(siidh), llewyrchu (Ihhewarkh'i), tywy- 
llwch (tawalhh-ukh) and (tawtlhh'ukh) 
in North Wales ; the words are all in 
John i., 1-5. According to Dr. Davies 
the theoretical sound in all places is (.?), 
which is aimed at in solemn or stately 
style, but in South Wales the universal 
sound is (i, ). In North Wales (9, i), 
or (a, t) are heard. The sound may 
be (y). The sound (a), or (a), is 
quite familiar. Salesbury evidently 
only knew one sound, and it is im- 

portant with regard to his English 
to be sure that he did not know the 
sound (a), which we do not find recog- 
nized in English till the xviith century, 
see p. 174. The following are the 
rules usually accepted for the pronun- 
ciation of Welsh y. In the mono- 
syllables dy, dyd, dyt, fy, myn, y, yd, 
ydd, ym, yn, yr, ys, it is pronounced 
(a), in all other monosyllables (y). In 
final syllables it is always (y). In the 
prefix cyd, and sometimes eyit, as 
cydcistedd, cynoesoedd, and in adjectives 
aud adverbs prefixed as cryf-arfog, it 
is also (y). After w it is generally (y) 
as gwynfyd, mivynhuu, bwyta, but to 
this rule there are several exceptions 
especially if w is short or follows a 
vowel, as chwyrnu, chwysu, llcwyrchtt, 
tyivyllu, aii-yddu, ewyllys in which it 
is (a). In all other cases not specified 
in these rules it is (a). 

* (Weid, weind). The first word 
is clear, but the second is doubtful. 
Wynge should = winy, which was cer- 
tainly called (w j'q) . There is a Norfolk 
word ivinge to shrivel, in Wright's 
Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial 
English, but that is probably (wmdgh). 
Most likely vvynge is a misprint for 
vvynde, which, even as a substantive, 
is called (weind) by Bullokar, and 
(waind) by Gill. 

3 The Greek v was originally (y), but 
was (i) at the time Salcsbury wrote. 
What he alludes to in this marginal 
observation is not clear. 


any Welshe woord hytherto t 1 Neither needed I once to speake 
of it, but because I would put the reader vtterly out of doubt in 
this behalfe. How be it, z may conueniently hereafter be vsurpcd 
in woordes borowed of straunge tongues, euen that they keeping 
their orthographic, maye the more apparantlye declare them selues, 
at the least, to the learned. 

Of the Abbreuiatiom. 
[This section has no interest.]... [37] 

[38] Annotation. [This also has no interest.] [39] 

[4O] A briefe rehersall of all the rules before, with certayne other 
additions thereto pertayning. 

A comparisS of the pronunti- _/\_ Is most vnlyke of pronounciation 
ation of the letters in Welshe, to the Hebrues Aleph. 

& SPStSUL? * mos ' ", My rpsemWeth the ta 

of Beth. 

C and K be not ynlyke in sound vnto Caph and Koph. 2 
Ch, chi, cheth and caph wyth raphc, 3 be of one sounde. 
D soundeth as Daleth, Daghcssata.*' 
Dd contayneth the power but of one letter, and that of DJtelta, or 

of dhaleth not daggesset. 6 
[41] E is much spoken after the sounde of the vowels Segol or 

F and Jiet/t wythout the poynt Dagges or the Grek Veto, be as one 

in sounde. 7 
ff (or) ph agre in pronunciation with the Greke Phy or the He- 

braick phe not poynted wyth Dages.* 
G is sounde as Gimel or the Dutch g* 
11 and th' aspiration He be equal in power. 10 
/ in euerye poynt agreeth wyth the Greke Iota. 11 
L Lamedh, and Lambdha, disagre not in sound. 12 
LI countreuayleth Lambda comming before Iota. 13 
M N, Mem Nun and My Ny differ not in sound. 11 

1 Hence in his transcript of English as the modern pronunciation of /3. 

words the sound of (z) must be given Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte says 

to his when necessary, as indicated hy that this is a mistake, and that the 

other authorities. Constantinopolitan Greeks invariably 

8 3 = (k) in PJ3 =(kaph), p =(K) in say (v). See remarks on Icelandic v. 

f]ip = (Kooph) . supra p. 549. 

3 That is 3 without the dagesh point 8 </> = (f) or (ph) see supra p. 613, 

= (kh). note 2; B = (ph). 

* J = (d). 8 T = (<lh), 8 = (dh). 9 3 = (g), German ? = (g) generally. 

6 >i3p = (seeghool-) is the short (e), 10 n = (n). 
c was the same. n Except in being occasionally a 

1 3 = (bh), ft = (v) or (bh), supra p. con sonant as (j). B.D." 
618. E. A. Sophocles (Romaic Gram- u L . m 
mar accompanied by a Chrestomatby '**"*"/ 

with a vocabulary, Hartford, U.S. 1842, 3 *=(li), see above p. 756, note 3, 

and without the vocabulary, London, an d P- 757, note 1. 
Trubner 1858) distinctly assigns (Lh) " D 3, ft. v = (m, n). 




and Omega shall sound as one. 

P doeth as well imitate Phe and Phy in sound as in other Conditions. 

It hath a peculiar concinnitio with Rfio. 3 

8 Samech and Sigma may go togyther well inough for their tune.* 

T soundcth as Tetli or Tav dagesset in the Hebrew. 9 

Th hath the veiy sound of Theta or Tav hauing no Daqes* 

Fbcyng consonante soundeth as Beth wythoute Dages or as Veto, 

doeth. 7 
V beyng vowell is read as Kibuts and not much vnlyke vnto 

Fhath the vcrye sound Ypsilon? 

1f What further concinnitie the Letters in Welsh ehaue vvyth the 

Grceke Letters. 

[This only comes to dividing the consonants as follows :] [42] 
The thynne letters be these, c or k, b p 1 1. 
The thycke letters are these, ch ph II. 
The middle letters be these, g v dd. 

Of the sounde of ch, g, i. 

PK ;*, , ~(\,- These thre letters ch, g, i hauc neucr the 

Ch in welsh is vi 3 1 -ITT til n , 

but one letter. ll!ie sound e m the VVelshc tong, as they hauc m 
these Englysh wordes, chere, gentle, lacke.* 

[43] Of contraction vsed in tvehhe. 
[This section possesses no interest]. 

Of accente. 

The obscruation of accente is it that shall do muche towarde the 
attaynyng of the natiue pronunciaton of any language, in so muche 
that somtyme the alteration of accente shal altere also the significa- 
tion of the word, as in these woordes in Greke: Neos, Towos, 
pharos, and these in "Welshc : gvvydd, gvvyll, gcvyr : and in Eng- 
lishe : these, differ, prouide, denye. &c, 10 

1 n = (oo) in modern English pro- 6 6, fl = (th). 

nunciation of Greek, but (oo) in modern 7 Supra p. 747, n. 6, and p. 764, n. 7. 

Greek, supra p. 523, as in modern 8 Kibiits here is kttbitts on p. 761, 

Welsh, where pob peth is called (poob where see note 2. Greek v = (i), for- 

peeth) not (pwb peth), and the older merly (y). 

English, p. 90. (Tshecr, dzhcnti, Dzhat). 

2 Phe means B = (p), but what does 10 Noy young, vt6s fresh land, fallow 
phy mean ? It should be <f>, but that and the Ionic gen. of ravs a ship ; r6fj.ot 
has been already appropriated to ff a cut, a piece cut off, rofids cuttiug, 
(/). Probably phy is a misprint for sharp ; ipapos any large piece of cloth, 
py=v. a cloth, sheet, shroud, cloak, <{>dpos 

3 The " peculiar concinnitie" refers lighthouse from the island *cps. In 
perhaps to the aspirated form p which the first three words the position of the 
Salesbury accepts as his rr, modern rh, accent mark causes a dift'erence in mo- 
now ('rn) rather than (rh). dern Greek pronunciation, (ne-os, neos-, 

4 D, ff taken as = (s), as they were to-mos, tomos 1 ) but both the latter words 
certainly then pronounced though the are (fa-ros). But the accent mark in 
determination of the original sound "Welsh is only used to indicate 
of each letter presents difficulties. length, and is generally omitted both 

5 O = (#), Fl = (t), they are generally in printed books (even dictionaries) and 
confounded. writing. Gwydd (guu-ydh) posture 


Certayne Englishe wordes ivlier of ye may gather the Welshe pronun- 
ciation of the letters. 

Archangcll, Beynge, Called, Michael, Discomfyted *Dde, Encr 

*Fillaynous. Fend, Ggct Him, Itch I-eldyngc, Kest, 

Dd forth Laye, Mellett, Murmurynge, Not Ouer, Preuayled, 

I" for V Rauenyng, Horrible, Satan, Tormented, Thorowe, 

Ualiant, Busines, "Worthye, Yll. 1 

Certaine ^oordes ivherin the letters be most vnlikelii sounded to Welshe 
pronunciation of them. 

[44] All, Combe, Dombe, Ceasse, Cyue, Checkc, Adder, Ele, 
Fyshc, Gender, Engyn, Humour, Honour, In, laundice, Fall, 
*0syll, Reason, Season, Thomas, Thames Inne, 
The blackc byrd That, Vncle, Ydle, Synging. 2 

The signification of A. in Welsh. 
[This has no reference to pronunciation.] 

The signification of Y. 
[This has also no reference to pronunciation.] 

ground that has been formerly plough- 
ed; a weaver, gwydd (gwyydh) wood, 
or a weaver's loom ; gwyll (guu-ylhh) 
a hag, goblin, ghost; gwyll (gwolhh) 
shade; gwyr (guu-yyr) oblique, sloping, 
see supra p. 726; gwyr (gwiir) fresh 
vigorous verdant. The English exam- 
ples are more difficult; differ is pro- 
bably differ dtfer ; prouido is unintel- 
ligible for only provide occurs, not 
provide, though we have provident. 
Mr. Brock suggests that prouide may 
be meant for proved; dtnye only occurs 
as deny", but denier is both denier a 
French coin, accented denier (deneer) 
in Shakspere, Richard III., act 1, sc. 2, 
last speech, T. 252 the other two 
passages in which it occurs are in 
prose, and denier one who denies. 

1 These words seem to be, Archangel 
(ark-an-dzhel), being (bii'tq), called 
(kaul-ed), Michael (Meik-el ?), dis- 
comfited (dtskunvfited), tin (dhe), ever 
(ever), vLlanous (vrl-anus), fiend 
(fcend), get (get), him (turn), itch (t'tsh), 
yielding (jiikHq), Jcest this is hardly 
likely to be Spenser's word "which 
forth she test," F. Q. 6, 12, 15, it is 
more probably an error for tutfkiued, 
but the word is doubtful ; lay (lai ), 
melktt has the second I battered and 

looks like ntelrctt, but the I is plainer 
in the Grenville copy, it is possibly 
meant for millet (mtTct), murmur- 
ing (murmunq), not (not), over 
(oover, over), prevailed (prevaild'), 
ravening (ravem'q), horrible, (Hor'jVl), 
Satan (saa'tan), tormented (torment-eel), 
thorough (thuru), valiant (val'jant), 
business (bt'z'*ncs), worthy (wurtlr/'), 
ill (tl). 

2 Probably all (aul), conil (knum) as 
a hill, dumb (dum), cease (sees), sieve? 
" as water in a sitte" Much ado, act 5, sc. 
1, T. 6, 1623 ed., (siv), check (tshek), 
adder (ad-er), eel (iilY^fA (f 'z'sh), gender 
(dzhend'cr), engine (eirdzhm), humour 
(nvymur), honour (on'iir), in (tn) ?. 
jaundice (dzhaun'd>'s),/rtft (faul) ; otujll 
is explained in the margin as the black- 
bird, which answers to the oitsyll of 
Levins, owsyl of Huloet, the modern 
otisel or ouzel (uuz-el) is sometimes used 
for a blackbird merula vulgaris, though 
more commonly for the water ousel, 
dipper, water crow or pyet merula 
aquatica, cinclus aquaticiis, reason 
(recz-un), season (seez*un), Thomas 
(Tom-as), Thavles Inn (Davt'z in), that 
(dhat), uncle (uqk'l) or perhaps (nuqk'l) 
see p. 744, and note 2 ; idle (cid-1), 
(sindzh't'q) singeing because (si'q'f'q) 
would be like the Welch sound of the 


[45] . . . . H A general rule for the readyng of Wehh. 

T Hough there be diners precepts here tofore wrytten of the "Welsh 
pronunciation of the letters, I would thinko it not ouermuch dis- 
sonant, nor yet to wydc from the purpose, to admonishe you in 
thys behalfe, that is, that you ought not to rcade the Welsh accord- 
yng as ye do the Euglyshe or French, but euen after the reading 
of the latin. For in reading English or French, ye do not redo 
some wordes so fully as they be wrytten. 

And in many other ye seme to sound the sillables more fully 
tha the expressed letters do giue. "Which maner of reading is so 
vtterlye eschued in Welsh, as ye perceyue it to be exactly obscrucd 
of them that perfitely reade the Latino tonge : JNei[46]thcr do I 
meanc here to cal them perfite and Latinelike Ecadcrs as many as 
do readc angnus, magnus, for agnus, magnus, ingm's, for ignis, sanltts, 
for sanctus, savvl, for sal: sovvl, for sol : and for mihi, meichei: and 
egovv, for ego: luvv for tu : and quith ligith, in stede of quid legit. &C. 1 
Therefore ye must learne to forget such manor of pronunciation, 
agaynst ye prepare your selues to reade y Welsh. Morcouer, ye 
ought to know, that' these wordes: dringo [scandcre], gvvingo 
[caleitrare], kynga [sermo], myngen [juba], anglod [reprehensio], 
angred [intidelitos], and the most part of suche like Welsh wordes, 
hauing ng in them, and being of moe sillables then one, shal be 
red as these English wordes be (but ye must admit them to be red 
now as of two sillables euery word) Kynges, rynges, bryngeth, syngeth : 
For euen as ye do not rede them Kyn-ges, ryn-ges, bryn-geth, syn- 
geth : but rather in thys wysc, A'yng-es, ryng-es, Iryng-eth, syng-eth : 3 
euen so do we sound dring-o, and not drin-go : gvving-o, not 
gvvin-go : tnyng-en and not myn-gen. Albeit, yet as ng may be 
seuercd and parted in this Englysh word syn-gcth (but the signifi- 
cation altrcd) 3 so haue we some wordes in Welsh (when they are 
spoken) in whom the sillables may be scuered in ng, as in these : 
an-gerth, Llan-gvvm, tringyrch, &c. 

[Then follow seven entire pages and two portions of pages of a letter to Mr. 
Collingborn speaking of the advantages to Welshmen of learning English, the 
low state of Welsh literature, &c., with many wordy digressions, and ending thus :] 

[54] But now N. Colinglorne, least peraduenture, where I 
thynke my sclfo but familiarlye to talke here wyth you, and other 

1 Aqnux magnus (aq-nus maq-nus), like many for magnus in the popular 
ignis (t'q'nts), sanctus (sant-us), sal dialect). This gn forms a part of the 
(saul), sol (sooul), mihi (mei-khei) com- received pronunciation in Swedish, 
pare the present Scotch sound, ego where the frequent combination yn is 
(c^-oou, egu) see p. 744, tu (tyy), quid always assimilated to (qn), forming 
legit (kwtth lii'dztth ?). " The Scandi- an accidental analogy with the titu 
navians have lost the sound (qg), both which arises from an original fn, bn 
medial and final . . . Hence (q) is pn ?" Rapp, Phys. dcr Spr. 3, 241. 
regularly represented by ng, or by n in 2 (Ki'qx, rtqz, brj-eth, seq-eih), 
vk, or by g in gn, according to tho 3 (Smdzlreth) = singes, most pro- 
German school tradition (abbreviations bab!y. 


my familiars (as my mcanyng is none other in deede) some thank- 

les taunter entermeddle and say vnto me, alludyng to that mocke 

o Diogenes, viri Myndi portas occludire, ne quando vrbs vcstra 

egrediatur, mcanyng this thcrby, my good friend haue 

done with your Welsh confabulation, haue done : 

for els your ioly prooemion, and 

your goodly pdrergon shalbe 

longer then all your 

booke besyde. 


therefore at the 

last I make 

an end. 



[The colophon consists of three crescent moons interwoven, .with the word *1JJ 
in the central one of the four inner interstices, and the word v3 in each of the 
three outer openings .between the horns of the crescent, evidently referring to 
Psalm 72, v. 7: DT v^'iy (gad b'lir jaree-aA), so long as the moon endureth, 
literally, until failure-of moon.] 

William Salesbury's Account of English Pronunciation, 1547. 

The Welsh text of the Introduction to Salesbury's Dictionary 
is here reproduced literatim with all the errors, misprints, false 
collocations of letters, antique spelling, of the original, but without 
the long f, and in Roman type in lieu of black letter. Those who 
are interested in antiquarian Welsh will prefer seeing it in this 
form, and will be better pleased to set it right for themselves than 
to have it reduced to form and order for them, while the English 
translation will enable the English reader to dispense with the 
Welsh. English and Foreign words are italicised 

There are two perfect copies of this work in the British Museum, 
one in the general library (628, f, 25), and one in the Grcnville 
Library (7512). The volume is a small quarto, 7^ by 5^ inches, 
including the margin ; the letter-press, without the headline, mea- 
suring 6-^ by 3f inches. It is in black letter, unpaged. The 
signatures are : none to the first sheet, Bi. Bii. Biii. C.i. Cii, and 
then, after a blank leaf, the signatures go from A to S, the last 
letter having only 6 pages. The title occupies the first page, and 
is in English only, as follows : 

A Dictionary in Englyfhe and "Welfhe moche necef- 
fary to all fuche "Welfheinen as wil fpedly learne the 
englyfhe tongue thought vnto the kynges maieilie very 
mete to be fctte forthe to the vfe of his graces fub- 
iectes in Wales : wherevnto is prefixed a litle treaty fe of 
the englyfhe pronuwciaciun of the letters, by Wyuyam 


The colophon is 

If Imprynted at London in Fofter lane, by me lohii 
Waley (1547) . Cum priullegio ad imprimemhim solum.(',') 

Immediately after the title is a dedication in English only : "To 
the Moost Victorioufe & Redowbtedc prince Henry theyght hy 
the grace of God Kynge of Englande, Fraunce and Irclande de- 
fender of the faythc And of the Chnrche of Englande and alto of 
Irelande in erthe the fuprcamc Hedde be al prcfperitye in con- 
tinuall honour." This dedication extends over three pages, and con- 
cludes : " Youre poore and humble fubiecte Wyllyam Suleiburyc." 

Then follows the address to the reader, occupying five pages. 
The beginning of each page is marked in the following transcript 
by a black figure in brackets as [5], and in numbering the pages 
of the book I reckon the title as p. 1, and the back of it as p. 2. 
On p. 11 commences the actual treatise on the sounds of the letters, 
and, counting the two blank pages at the end of the third sheet, 
on p. 25 begins the dictionary itself of which the first page is 
annexed as a specimen, shewing the arrangement in four columns 
and the many Welsh words left untranslated. Indeed, as may bo 
expected, it is extremely deficient, but it extends to 141 pages. 

The English translation of the Welsh address to the reader and 
account of English Pronunciation was kindly made by Mr. E. Jones, 
of the Hibernian Schools, Liverpool, and obligingly revised by Dr. 
Benjamin Davies, of Regent's Park College, London, one of the 
Council of the Philological Society. No attempt has been made to 
imitate Salesbury's quaiutness of language, but the meaning of the 
words is given as carefully as possible. In this English translation, 
where Salesbury cites an English word in the spelling of the 
time, it is printed in small capitals, his pronunciation in Welsh 
characters is subjoined in italics, and then the interpretation which 
I give to that phonetic transcript is added in palacotype in a paren- 
thesis, and when Salesbury gives no phonetic transcript, the con- 
jectured palaeotypic form is given. It' Salesbury adds the meaning 
in Welsh this is subjoined also in Italics, and a translation of it 
into Latin is annexed in brackets. When Salesbury gives no trans- 
lation the Latin is still added. Thus: "LADDRE lad-dr (lad'er) yscol 
[scala]," give the old English spelling LADDKE, Salesbury's phonetic 
Welsh transcript lad-dr, the palaeotypic meaning of the same 
(lad'er), the Welsh translation of the original word yscol, and the 
Latin translation of the Welsh translation [scala]. References are 
added throughout to the page in which the passage is quoted or in 
which illustrative remarks occur, and these are inclosed in a paren- 
thesis thus (p. 61), meaning, supra page 61. This will avoid tho 
necessity of subjoining footnotes. After the specimen of the dic- 
tionary is added an alphabetical list of all the words of which Sales- 
bury gives or indicates the pronunciation, in this or the foregoing 
tract, with a reference to the different pages in this book where it 
is to be found, supplementing the references in the text. 


[>] ^f "WVllyam Salesburi wrth y darllca\vdr. 

Inid odit ddarllcydd bonheddigaidd nid anghyssylltbell vyssei 
ddangos a datclario pa lesaad pa vudd a phwy broffit a ddelsai 
ir neb a dreuliai ddim amscr wrth ddallen a mefyriaw ar y llyfer 
hwn Oni byssei ddarfod or blaen i oruwchel- 

Awdurdot y llyuer j a ^ awn harglwydd vrenhin ay gyncor 
Sot y^brcnhiiTy edrych arnaw ai dderbyn eissocs yn lowedic 
gan dduw. gyrnradwy o help a chanhorthwy kychwyniad . 

tywysogaeth at laith saesnaec A chan vod 

hefyd llywadraeth kalon brenhin (vcgys y kyttystia rystrythur Ian) 
drwy law ddew, yr hwn a gatwo cu ras yn hirhoedloc Iwyddianus 
ffynadwy Amen. Onid bellach i nessau tu ar peth kyfreitiaf a 
chyssonaf yngan a sonio am tanaw yn y vangre hon Sef er mwyn 
Kymbry or nid oes gantunt angwanec o ddyfynder athrowlythyr 
onid medry o vraidd ddew, ddarllen iaith eu mamcu ir hai hynny 
yn vnic o chwenychant vcgys y dylent vynny kyfrwyddyt i ddarllen 
a deall iaith Saesnec iaith hcddyw vrddedic o bob rhyw oreuddysc 
iaith gyflawn o ddawn a buddygoliaeth ac iaith nid chwaith 
anhawdd i dyscy vegys y may pop nassiwn yn i hyfedyr ddyscy eb 
edrych yn Uvgat y boen nar gost ac yn angenrheitiach i ni r 
Kymbry no neb wrthei er escculuset genym am y peth : Ir hai 
an nyscedic hyny meddaf yd yscrifenned hyno wan[6]atra- 
waeth ac nid ir Hai tra chyffarwydd. Onid atolwg i chwi y 
E,ei sydd a mowrddysc genAvch ac a wyddoch Itac mor werthfawr 
y~w Dyscymwnenthur awch hunain yn ol ddull saint Pawl ympop 
peth i pawp A moeswch hcfyd (val y dywaid yr vnrhyw Pawl) 
modd yr abwj'dir rhai bychaiu a bara a llaeth borthi o hon- 
awch chwitheu yr anyscedic a mwydion ych goruchelddysc 
ac nid a godido wocrwydd athronddysc. Ac velly os chwchwi ni 
chudddiwch dryssor yr Arglwydd onid i gyfranny yny gj'fle ir 
angenogion o ddysceidaetha doethineb ai gyfryw bethcu ereill: 
Gobeitho i dyry duw vath ysprydoldeb vddunt hwytheu ac na 
sathrant val moch dim och gemau nach main gwyrthfawr ac na 
chodant ich erbyn val kwn ar vedyr awch brathy/ Eithyr etto 
eilwaith i ymady a chyfeilornson / ac or diweddi ddechreu ar hysbysy 
a silltau hancs ac ystyriaeth y llyfer yma Ac yn 
Ystyriaeth y gymeint nad ynt y llytthyrenneu yn vn ddywediat 
nac yn vn draythiad yn sasnec ac ynghymracc : 
Yn gyntaf dim y ddys yn datkan ac yn honny 
Enwr llyfyr. paddelwy darlleir ac y trayther hwy yn ol 
tafodiad y Sason ac yno esampleu o eirieu kyfaddas 
yn kynlyn/ A chwedy hynny y mac y Gairllyfyr ner Geiriawc 
saesnec yn dechry yr hwn a elwir yn saesnec an Englis dic- 
sionary ys cs yw hyny kynullfa o eirieu seisnic/ achos ky- 
nullcidfa o eirieu seisnic yd ywr holl llyfer hayach / 
^ n y 1 " hwn os deliwch yn dda amaw y ddys yn 
kadw order a threfyn ynto : o bleit ni chymysced 
dim or geirieu bendromwnwgyl ynto val y daaiwyniai vddunt 
syrthio ym meddwll or tro kyntaf : Eithyr ct' adfeddylicd vyth er 


[5] H William Salesbury to the reader. 

Possibly, gentle reader, it would not have been irrelevant to shew 
and declare what advantage, what gain and what profit, would 
result to any one, who should devote any time to reading and study- 
ing this book, but that his majesty, the king, 
together with his council has received it, as an Authorisation of the 

acceptable and suitable help and aid for the bo , b ? *' ie - t kil1 ?' 
. , r ,. . . T, r . , ,, -r, ,. . whose authority is 

induction ot the principality into the English f rom G ot j t 

language, and because the inclining of the 
heart of the king (as shewn by the holy scripture) is from God, who 
I pray may preserve his grace in long life prosperity and success. 
Amen. But now to come to the most important and necessary sub- 
ject to be treated of in this place, that is, for the sake of Welshmen 
who do not possess more learning than the bare ability to read their 
own tongue, and of those only who may, as they ought, desire in- 
struction in reading and understanding the English language, a 
language at present renowned for all excellent learning, full of 
talent and victoiy, a language moreover not difficult to learn, 
which persons of every nation acquire fluently, without regarding 
trouble and expense, and to Welshmen more necessary than to 
any other people, however much we may neglect it. For these 
untaught persons, then, so much elementary teaching was written, 
[6] and not for the well versed. But I desire of you who are 
possessed of higher attainments, and know how valuable is educa- 
tion, that you would after the manner of Saint Paul, make your- 
selves all things to all men, and condescend also (as the same 
Paul says,) since babes are fed with bread and milk, to feed the 
ignorant with the crumbs of your superior knowledge, and not with 
the excellency of high scholarship. And thus if you do not hide 
the treasure of the Lord, but dispense it as opportunity offers, by 
supplying it to those in need of learning and wisdom, and other 
like things, I trust God may grant to them such a spirit, that 
they may not like swine, trample your gems and precious stones 
under their feet, and that they may not rise like 
dogs against you, ready to bite you. But now again Ohject of the 
to leave all digression and to begin to set forth the whole book, 
object and import of this book. Inasmuch as all the 
letters are not paid and sounded alike in English and in Welsh, first 
of all we declare and afiirm the mode in which they are read and 
sounded according to the pronunciation of the English people, with 
examples of suitable words following. After which 
the English Wordbook or Dictionary begins, which Name of the 
means a collection of English words, for the whole Back. 
book is, indeed, a collection of English words. In Order of the 
which if you carefully notice, order and arrangement Words, 
arc kept: for the words are not mixed hcltcr skelter 
in it, as they might happen to tumble to my mind at first thought. 
But with constant reflection, for the sake of the [7] unlearned, 


mwyn yr a[7]nysccdic gyfryw vodcl ac y darfy helkyt pop gair 
(hyd y deuci kof ) yw van gyfaddas chunan : Ac velly yr holl 
ciricn ac / a / yn y Uythyren gyntaf oe dechreu a gynulled i gyd ir 
vnlle : A phop gair yn dcchry a b / yn yn llythyr kyntaf o honaw 
a ossodet or neulltiiy / Ar geiiieu a c / yn eu dechreuad a wahaned 
hwytheu or neulltuy : Ar geiiieu a ddechreant ac ch, a ddidolet 
hwynte ehunain / A rhei ad/ yn i kychwyn a gasclet ac a ossodet 
mewn man arall/ Ac val hyn y rayed y llaill pop vn i sefyll dan 
vaner i Captelythyr ddechreuol / Ac wrth hynny 
pan chwe nychoch gaffael Saesnec am ryw air 
raec. CC kamberaec : Yn gyntaf / edrychwch pa lytliyren 

vo ynnechreu r gair hwnw yn anianol/ o blcit os/ 
a / vydd hi / spiwch am tanaw ynplith y Rcstyr 
eirieu a vont yn dechre ac a / ac yn y van hono ar y gyfer yn y 
rhes o eirieu saesnec y keffwch Saxonaec iddo/ Eithyr gwiliwch 
yn dda rliac ych twyllo yn kani geisio gair allan oe van briod 
gyfaddas / vegys pc i keisiech vn or geirieu hyn yr ystym ar 
agwedd y macnt yn gorwedd yn y penill yma Mae i mi gangen dec 
o vedwen Achos ni wasnaetha ywch wrth geisio saesnec am (gangen') 
chwilio am danaw ymysc y geirieu yn dechreu a g / namyn ymhlith 
y geirieu a vo k yn y dechreu / y dyiyech espio am danaw / ay 
Saesnec vydd gar i vron : Canys y gair kroy w kyssefmydyw kangen 
ac nid gangsn, kyd bo r ymadrodd kymraec yn kyfleddfy k yn g / ac 
yn peri sonio t / val d / a b / val v / yn y geiriey hyn dec o vcdwen, / 
Ac am hyny rhait i chwi graffy byth pa lythyren a vo yn dechre 
r gair pan draether ar y ben ehun allan o ymadrodd vegys y 
clangosseis vchod/ Ac velly yn ol y dadawc naturiol draethiad y 
mae i ch[8]wi geisio o mynwch chwi gael pop gair yn y gairllyfer 
yma / bleit vegys na ddysgwyl neb onid ynfyd pan el i wiala ir 
koet gaffael gwiail yn tyfy yn vn ystym y byddant wedy r eilio am 
gledyr y plait / velly r vn modd ni ddiscwyl neb onid rhy angcel- 
fyyd gaffael pop rhy w air yn y gairllyfyr yn vn ystym nag yn vn 
agwedd i cldywediat a chwe dy i blethy ym- 
Krngor ysmala p av wyden ymadrodd/ Ac eb law hyn oil a 
ddywedais ymblaenllaw/ Kymerwchhyn o gyngor 
gyd a chwi y sawl gymry a chwenychoch ddyscy 
gartref wrth tan Saesnec/ Nid amgcn no gwybod o honawch na 
ddarllcir ac na thraethir pop gair saesnec mor llawnllythyr ac mor 
hollawl ac yd screfenner Vegys hyn God b& wytk -you yr hwn a 
draetha r kyffredin / God biwio : A swrn o eirieu ercill a yscrifenir 
hefyd Ryw sillafcu ynthunt yn vn ffunut cithyr ni ddarlleir ddim 
honunt or vn ffynyt val y rhai hyn or naill cldarlleyad bowe, croice, 
trowe ar hain a ddarlleir bo bwa : kro / bran : tro/ tybyeid/ A rhai 
hyn hcfyd a escrifenir y pen diwaythaf vdddunt yr vn ffunut ac 
ir llaill or blaen eithyr i ddarllen a wnair yn amgcnach cowe, lowe, 
noioe, narroice, sparoice y rhai a ddywedir yn gyffredin val hyn 
kow / buwch : low / lowio : now yn awr : namv kyfing : spanv 
ederyn y to/ Ac am gyfryw ddamwynieu yr hyn y byddei 
ryddygyii ir ddarlleydd i nodi pe doe kof chwaith i scrifeny 
mac gorcu kyngor a vetrwyf vi ir neb (val y dywcdais ymlacn) 


every word (so far as memory served) was chased to its own proper 
position. Thus all the words having a for the first letter were at 
the outset collected into the same place. Then all words beginning 
with b were placed apart. So with c, and ch, and d. Thus also of 
all the rest, every word is ranged under the standard of its captain 
letter. Thus when you require the English for any Welsh word ; 
First observe what is the first letter naturally ; 
if it is a for example, look for the word under the ' riie 
series a, and having found the word, in the opposite E 
column for English you will get the English for it. Welsh. 
But he very careful not to he misled, to seek amiss 
a word out of its own proper place. For example, if you trace the 
words in the form and aspect in which they lie in the following line 
Mae i mi gangen dee o vedwen [Est mihi ramus pulcher betullae]. 
For it will not serve you to look for the English for gangen 
among words which begin with g, but under k, because the pure 
radical word is kangen not gangen, and the English meaning will be 
found opposite the radical word. For it is a peculiarity of the 
Welsh to soften the initial consonant, as k to g, t to d, b to v, in 
certain positions, as in the words dec o vedwen [ramus betullae]. 
Therefore you must always consider what is the initial letter when 
the word stands alone, out of connection, as I observed above. 
So it is in the normal natural utterance of the word that you are 
to seek, if you wish to find every word in this lexicon. For as 
none but an idiot would expect, [8] when going to gather osiers, 
to meet with rods growing in the form they are seen after being 
plaited round the frame-work of a basket, in the same manner 
none but an unskilful person will expect to find every word in 
the dictionary in the form and shape in which it is found when 
woven in the partition wall of a sentence. In addition to all 
I have already said observe this further direction, Advice to 
such of you, Welshmen, as desire to learn English Welshmen 
at your own firesides. You cannot fail to know that 
in English they do not read and pronounce evciy word literally 
and fully as it is written. For example, GOD BE \VYTH YOU, which 
the commonalty pronounce God liivio (God birwiro). And a 
heap of other words also are written, as to some of their syllables 
in the same way, but are not pronounced in the same way, as 
the following : BO WE, CROWE, TKOWE which are read bo (boo) bwa 
[arcus], kro (kroo) Iran [comix], tro (troo) tybyeid [opinor]. 
The following also have precisely the same termination as the 
above but are differently read, COWE, LOWE, NX>WE, NAKROWE, 
SPABOWE, which are usually spoken k&w (kou) buwch [vacca], low 
(lou) lowio [mugire], now (nou) yn aicr [nunc], narrw (naru) 
kyfing [angustus], sparw (sparu) ederyn y to [passer]. With re- 
gard to such cases as the reader may find too difficult to remem- 
ber, much less write, the best advice I have for such as may 
not be able to go to England (as I have already said), where the 


or ni cdy anghaffael iddo vyned i loecr lie mae r iaith yn 
gynenid / yinofyn o honaw ac vn a wypo Saesnec (o blcit odit o 
blwyf ynkymbiy eb Sasnigyddion yntho) [9] paddelw y gelwir 
y peth ar petli yn sasnec. Ac yno dal a chraffy pa vodd y traythai 
ef y gair ne r geirieu liyny yn saisnigaidd / a chyd a hyny kymeryd 
y llyfer yraa yn angwancc o goffaduriaeth yn absen athrawon/ ac 
yn diffic dyscyawdwyr yr iaith. Dewch yn ach a 

Dyscwch nes oesswch Saesnec 

Doeth yw e dysc da iaith dec. 
^f Y gwyddor o lythyrcnneu bychain. 

A a. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. ff. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. 11. m. 
n\. n. i\. o. p. r. i. f. ff. s. ft. t. th. v. u. w. y. 

^[ Egwyddor or llythreneu kanolic o vaint. 
fi a. b. c. d. e. f. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. m. no. o. p. q. r. i. 
f. s. t. v. u. x. y. z. ff. ff. ft. w. &. a. 9. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. K. L. M. K 0. P. Q, R. S. 
T. U. Y. 

^f Gwyddor or vath vwyaf ar lythyreu. 


[10] blank 
[11] ^f Natur a sain y llythyreu vchod yn Saesnec. 

A. Seisnic sydd vn natur ac (a) gymreic/ val y may yn eglur 
yn y geirieu hyn o saesnec ale / aal : ac ynihymraec kwrw : pale 
paal: sale sal: ddieithyr By w amser y kaiff/ a/ sain y dipton 
(aw) yn enwedic pan ddel ef o vlayn // ne II I val y may yn eglurach 
drwy y geirieu hynn : balde bawld moel ball bawl, pel : wall wawl 
gwal : Ond yn Ryw eirieu i dodant weithie (a) yn lledsegur er a 
gyfrifwn a ymarferai oe nerth ehunan / namyn yn hydrach ymrithio 
yn Eith yn bocal (e) ni a wnae ir darlleydd, val hyn ease ies es- 
mwythdm : leave lief kenad : sea see mor : yea / ie / Ond nith 
rwystyr vath eirieu ahyn di ond yn anfynech. 

B. yn sacsonaec a / b / yn Camberaec ynt vnllais val yn y geirieu 
hynn: babe baab/ baban: brede bred/ baxa. Ac ni newidir b, 
seisonic am lythyren aran val y gwnair a / b / gymberaec. 

C- wrth i darllen yn sasonaec a chambraec sydd yn vn lief onid o 
vlayn e / i / y / canys o vlayn y tair llythyren hyn val s / vydd i son 
vegys hynn Face ffas wyneb gracyou&e grasiws / rraddlawn / codicyon 

di. nid yw dim tebyc yn sacsonaec ac ymghamberaec : Ac nid 
oes ynghamraec lythyren na llythyrenneu ai kyfflyba yn iawn / eithyr 
may sain / tsi / kyn gyfflypet iddi ar efydd ir aur / val yn y gair hwn 
churclie tsurts ecleis. 


language is native, is, let him inquire of one who knows English 
(for there is scarcely a parish without some person in it conversant 
with English), [9] and ask how such and such a thing is called 
in English. And observe carefully how he sounds the word or 
words in English, and, in the absence of masters, and lack of 
teachers of the language, take this book, as an additional re- 
minder. Come then and 

Learn English speech until you age ! 
Wise he, that learns a good language ! 
^f The Alphabet of small letters. 

A. a. b. c. ch. d. dd. e. f. ft. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. 11. m. 
n\. n. i). o. p. r. t. f. ff. s. s. ft. t. th. v. u. w. y. 

^f The alphabet of medium letters. 

| a. b. c. d. e. f. g. gh. h. i. k. 1. m. n. o. p. q. r. t. 
f. B. t. v. u. x. y. z. ff. ff. ft. w. & 2. 9. 

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. K. L. M. ff. 0. P. Q. R. S. 
T. U. Y. 

f The Alphabet of Capital letters. 


[10] Monk. 

[11] U The nature and sound of the above letters in English. 

A in English is of the same sound as o in Welsh, as is evident 
in these words of English, ALE aal (aal) Jcwrw [cerevisia] ; PATE 
paal (paal) [pallidus], SALE sal (saal) [venditio] (p. 61). Except 
sometimes A has the sound of the diphthong aw (au) especially 
when it precedes L or LL, as may be more clearly seen in these 
words : BALDE lawld (bauld) moel [calvus], BALL bawl (baul) pel 
[pila], WALL w awl (waul) gwal [murus] (p. 143, 194). But in 
certain words they place A sometimes, as we should consider it, 
rather carelessly according to our custom, out of its own power and 
rather metamorphosed into the vowel e, as EASE ees (ecz) esmwythdra 
[otium], LEAUE leef (leev) Icenad fvenia, licentia], SEA see (see) mor 
[mare], TEA ie (jee) [etiam] (p. 80). But words of this kind will 
not often perplex thee, gentle reader. 

B in English and b in Welsh have the same sound, as in these 
words : BABE baab (baab) baban [infans], BEEDE bred (breed, bred) 
bara [panis]. And B in English is not changed for another letter 
as is done with b in Welsh. 

C in reading English, as in Welsh, has the same sound, except 
before E, i, Y, for before these three letters it is sounded as s (s). 
For example FACE ffas (faas) wyneb [facies], GEACYOUSE grasiws 
(graa'si,us) rraddlawn [gratiosus], CONDICYON condisyicn (kondis'i'un) 

Ch is not at all like in English and in Welsh. And there 
are not in Welsh any letter or letters which correctly represent it, 
but the sound of tsi (tsi, tsj) is as like it as brass is to gold, as in 
the following word CHURCHE tsurts (tshfrtsh) ecleis [ecclesia]. 


[12] D- ymghararaee a sacsonacc nid amrafaclia i gallu val y 
dyellir yn y geirieu hynn or ddwy iaith : Duke / duwk due : dart 
dart dart. Eitliyr nota hyn yn dda pan welych dwy / dd / yn dyfod 
ynghyd yn sasnaec nid val / dd / gymbereic vydd i grym / ond cadw 
awuo pop vn i llais gynefinol: Ac nid lleddfy A wnan ond cledy yn 
gledachvegys yny gerieu hyn laddre lad-dr/ yscol lladd 1 blad-der 
chwyssige. D. hcl'yd yw tcifyn bcrf o amsereu perphaith amper- 
phaith a mwy nag amherffaith / val am y gair hwnn lotted/ carwn/ 
kereis/ carysswn &c. 

E. a ddarllcir yn sasnaec gweith val / e / gymbcraic gwaith val/ i / 
gyinberaic / a gweithe ereill yniwedd gair i tau ac i bydd vut val 
scheua yn hebriw neu vegys y gwelwch/ \v/ yn diwed' y geirieu 
hynn o Cambcraec kynddelw/ ardelw/ kefnderw/ syberw/ buddelw/ 
marwnad / catwderw : yny rhain wrth eu darlain ay traythy / w / 
a dawdd ymaith ac vclly y dywedyt a wnair kyndell/ ardel/ 
kefnder/ syber/ budel/ marnad/ catderw/ Velly/ e/ yn diwedyy 
geirieu saesnec a dawdd ymaith a cham mwyaf o ddiwed pop 
gair wrth i draithy vegys o ddiwedd y geirieu hynn emperoure 
emperwr ac nid emperwrey darlleir : yr hwn air sasncc anvyddoka 
ymghymraec ymerawtr: Ac velly am euermore efermwor tragowydd. 
Ac yn y ddcuair saesnec vchot may y ddwy (e / e) gyntaf o bob vn 
yn vn llais ac e/ o gamberaec/ neu e/ llatin neu epsylon o roec. Ar 
e / ddiwaethaf yn tewi / val y may / w / yny geirieu a soniais am 
tanun gynnef. Ond yn enwedic pan ddel/ e/ynol/1/ne/r/ 
yniwedd gair sacsonaec [13] ni chlywir dim o ywrthei ar dauod 
sais : ond o chlywyt peth o ywrthei / kynt y dyfalyt y hot hi o 
viaen I/ ne r/ nag oe hoi : val y traythant hi ar y geirieu yma/ able, 
sable, twyncle, wryncle, thodre, wondre, yr hyn eirieu ac ereill a 
deruynant yn vn odyl a rai hyn ni chly^vn i sais yni darllain onid 
vegys pe byddem ni yw scriueny drwy adael/ e/ heibo/ val hynn/ 
abl / sabl / twinkl / wrinkl / thwndr / wndr : neu val pe bay / e / o 
vlayn yr 1 / ne yr r / val hyn saddell, thonder : Ond ni ddylie vot 
chwaith dieithyr vath ddarlleyad a hwnw i ni yr kambry paam onid 
ym nineu yn darllein drwy doddi ymaith dwy ne dair o amrafael 
lythyreu vegys y may yn eglur yn y geirieu yma popl dros popol, 
kwbl dros kwbwl : papr / ac eithr lie y dylem ddy wedyt papyr / ac 
eythyr / Ond raid y w madde i bob tafawd i ledlef, a goddef i bob 
iaith i phriodoldeb. Heuyd natur y vocal/ e/ pan orphenno air 
sacsonaec esmwythau ue veddalhau y sillaf a ddel oe vlayn val 
hynn hope hoop/ gobeith : bafo, baak/ poby: chese / tsis caws. 
Eithyr dal yn graff ar ddywedyat y gair ackw chese, o bleit yr 
e / gyntaf sydd vn llais ac, i, on hiaith ni : ar e, ddiwaythaf yn 
Bcfyll yn vut val y dywedais or blayn y damwyniai iddi vod ryw 
amser. E, hefyd o vlayn s, ynniwedd enweu lliosawc, sef yw 
hynuy ir anyscedic geirieu a arwyddockaant vch pen rhifedi vn 
peth, a ddislanna with eu dywedyt val o ddiwedd yr enweu neur 
geirieu hynn kynges, brenhinedd : frendes, kereint : tentes, pepyll/ yr 
hain a ddarlleir kings / frinds / tents. A gwybyddet y darlleydd nad 


[12] D in Welsh and English do not disagree in their powers, 
as may be understood in these words from the two languages : DUKK 
dnivk (dyyk) due [dux], DART dart (dart) dart [jaculum]. But note 
this well when you see two DD coming together in English, they 
have not the power of dd in Welsh (dh), but each retains its usual 
sound. And it does not soften, on the contrary it hardens tho 
sound, as in the following words: LADDRE lad-dr (lad-er) yscol 
[scala], BLADD' blad-der (blad-er) chwyssigen [vesica]. D also is 
the termination of the perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect tenses, as 
in the word LOVED (luvd) carwn, kereis, carysswn [amabam, amavi, 

E is pronounced in English sometimes as e "Welsh (e), sometimes 
as i Welsh (i), and sometimes at the end of words, it is silent or 
mute as shcca in Hebrew, or as you see to at the end of these words 
in Welsh : kynddelw, ardeliv, kefnderw syberic, luddelw, wanenad, 
catwderw, in which the w is melted away in reading and speaking 
and so they are sounded kyndell, ardel, keftider, syber, budel, marnad, 
catderw. Similarly E final in English words is melted away, for 
the most part, from the end of every word in pronunciation, as in 
the following words : EMPEROTTRE pronounced etnperwr (curperur), 
and not emperwrey (emperuu-rei) which word in Welsh signifies 
ymerawir [imperator]. And so EUERMORE efermwor (evermoor, 
evermuur, evermwor) tragotcydd [semper]. In the two English 
words above, the two first E, E, of each, has the same sound as the 
Welsh e or Latin e, or the Greek epsylon. And the final E is mute 
as w is in the words I have already mentioned. Moreover especially 
when E final follows L or r, [13] it is not heard from English 
tongues. But if it is heard at all, it is rather before the L or E than 
after, as they pronounce the following words : ABLE, SABLE, orwrarcLE, 
WRANGLE, XIIONDKE, woNDKE, which words, together with others of 
the same termination, in hearing an Englishman read them, seem 
as if written without the E, thus : all, sail, twinkl, zcrinkl, thtendr, 
ivndr, (aa'b'l, saa'b'l, twiqk-'l, wrz'qk''!, thun'd'r, wun'd'r), [potens, 
niger, scintillare, ruga, tonitru, miraculum,] ; or as if the E were 
written before the L or R : thus SADDELL, THONDER (sad'el, thun'der), 
[ephippium, tonitru.] But such pronunciations ought not to be 
strange to us Welshmen, for do we not also in reading melt away two 
or three letters at times, as may be seen in the following : popl for 
popol [populus], kwbl for kwbwl [totus], papr and eithr, where we 
should say papyr [papyrus] and eytJiyr [sed]. But every tongue 
must be pardoned its peculiarities, and every language allowed its 
idioms. Further it is the nature of E final to soften and prolong 
the syllable which precedes it as: HOPE hoop (noop) gobeith [spes], 
BAKE baak (baak) poly [coquere pancm ut pistor], CKESE tsis (tshiiz) 
caws [caseus]. But observe carefully the word CHESE, for tlie fir^t 
E has the sound of in our tongue, and the E final is mute as before 
described. E also before s at the end of plural nouns, that is, (for 
the sake of the unlearned,) names which signify a number of any- 
thing, disappears in pronunciation, as in the following : KYNGI, 
Ircnhinedd [regcs], FREXDES kcreint [amici], TETTTES pepyll [tcntoriu], 



vw [14] A gwybyddet y darllcydd nad yw y Ruwl yma yn 
gwnsanaythy i bob enw lliosawc o bleit pan ddel c, ch, g, neu e, 
arall o vlayn y ddywedetic e, pally a wna y ruwl hon canys yna e, 
a draythir yn vungus ncu val yn y, ni : val yn y geiricu hynn 
d yokes deitsys / ffossydd : fates : ft'aces / wynebeu : oranges, oreintsys / 
afale orayds : trees, triys prenneu. 

f, seicsonic ehun sydd gymeint o synnwyr ynthci ac mown dwy 
f, f, gambereic wedy gwascy eu penneu yngkyd val hyn : folc, ffwl, 
ffol ne ynuyd 

ff, ac/, yn sasncc a dreythir yn vnniodd, eythyr jf, yn ddwyscach, 
ac /, yn yscafhach a gymerir : /, yn yscafu, val ymay chefe, tsiff 
pennaf / ff, yn ddwysc neu yn drom val yn y gair hvrn suffre, 
swffffer dioddef : 

G, seisnic a ch/ o saesnce ynt daran dcbyc eu sain ie mor debyc i 
son yw gilydd ac yd yscriuena sags ny bo dra dyscedic yn aill yn 
Her Hall vegys y damwain yn y gair hwn churge yn lie churche 
tsiurts eglwys. Eythyr g/ yn sasnec o vlaen, a, o, u, a gweithe o 
vlayn e / neu y, nid adweynir i llais rac g, gambereic, val hyn 
galaunt galawnt / ge Iding gelding/ plage, plaagpla/ God, dyw/ gutte / 
gwt coluddyn/ Gylbert / gilbert : Ond pan ddel g/ o vlacn/ e/ i/ neu 
y/ val ch, seisnic neu tsadde o hebrew vydd i lief or rhan vrnychaf 
regys hyn gynger tsintsir/ sinsir/ Gmliii hyu etto yn dda pan 
ddelont dwy gg/ ynghyd/ kydleisio eulldwyedd ac g/ gamracc a 
wnant val hyn leggynge begging / yn cardota / nagge nag keflylyn / 
egge, eg wy. 

[15] Gh, sydd vn lief an ch, ni ond i hot Invy yn traythy yr gh / 
ciddunt yn yscafudcc o ddieythyr y mwnwgyl a ninneu yn pro- 
nTrnsio yr ch/ einom o ciga-wn yn gyddwfcu. A vegys y mayn 
anhowddgar gan sacson glywcd rhwnck y llythyr hon gh/velly may 
Kymbry deheubarth yn gwachcl son ana ch, ond lleiaf gallant. Can 
ti ay klywy hwy yn dywedyt hwaer a hwech lie ddym ni o ogledd 
kymbry yn dywedyt chwaer a chwech. 

Ac etwa mi an gwelaf nineu yn mogclud traythy ch, yn vynech 

amser vegys y may yn ddewisach genym ddywedyt (chwegwaith) 
no (chwechgwaith) a (ch\ve vgain) na (ch\vech vgain). Ac im tyb 

1 nid hoffach gan y Groecwyr y llythyr ch, pan ymchwelynt or 
cbryw lohannes yn lie lochanna / ac Isaac dros It'tschack : A 
chyffelyp nad gwell gan y llatinwyr y llythyr vchot piyd bont 
yn dylyn yr vnwcdd ar groecwyr ar drossi yi- hebrew ir llatin / ac yn 
dywedyt mild a nihil dros michi a nichil Ond i ddibenny yt/ 
kymer y chwrnolat hwnw yn yscafnaf ac y del erot wrth ddy wedyt 
iaith Saxonaec. 

H, *ydd vnwedd yn hollawl y gyd ar Sason a nineu, val y may 
Jiaue haf, hwde / hart calon ne carw / holy holi santaidd / ne kelyn. 
Onid yn rhyw eirieu llatin wedy sa^snigo nid anedsir h, val yny 


which arc read Icings (kiqz), f rinds (friinclz), tents (tents). [14] 
And be it known to the reader that this rule does not apply to 
every plural, for when c, CH, G, or another E precedes the said E the 
rule fails, for then E is pronounced obscurely or as our y ('), as in 
the following DYCHES deitsys (deitsh'tz) ffossydd [fossae], FACES faces 
(fuas'ez) wynebeu [facies], ORANGES oreintsys (oreindzlw'z) afale orayds 
[aurantia], TKEES triys (triHz) prenneu [arbores]. 

F in English has singly as much power as two Welsh /, /, with 
their heads pressed together, thus : POLE ffwl (fuul), ffol ne ynuyd 

FF and F in English are pronounced alike but FF harder than r, 
which has a lighter sound, as in CHEFE tsiff (tshiif ) pennaf [prin- 
ceps] ; FF hard as in SUFFRE swffffer (suffer) dioddef [paii]. 

G is sounded in English very similar to CH, so similar indeed that 
Englishmen not well educated write the one for the other, as in the 
word CHUEGE for CHURCHE tsiurts (tslu'rtsh) eglwys [ecclesia]. But 
G in English before A, o, u, and sometimes before E or Y is not dis- 
tinguished from y "Welsh (g), thus GALAUNT galawnt (gal-aunt) 
[fortis] (p. 143), GELDING geldinj (geld'iq) [canterius], PLAGE plaag 
(plaag) pla [pcstis], GOD (god) dyw [deus], GUTTE gwt (gut) coluddyn 
[intestinum], GYLBERT gilbert (g*Tbert). But when G comes before 
E, i, or Y, it is sounded as en in English, or as tsadde Y in Hebrew 
for the most part, as GYNGER tsintsir (dzhzn'dzher) sinsir [zinziber]. 
Note well this again when two GG come together, they are sounded 
as one, like g Welsh, thus: BEGGYNGE legging (bcg'i'q) yn cardota 

Emendicans], NAGGE nag (nag) keffylyn [mannus], EGGE eg (eg) wy 

[15] Gh. nas the same sound as our ch, except that they sound 
f/h softly, not in the neck, and we sound ch from the depth of our 
throats and more harshly (p. 210), and as it is disagreeable to the 
English to hear the grating sound of this letter so "Welshmen in 
the South of Wales avoid it as much as possible. For you hear them 
say htcaer, and hwech (whair, whekh), where we in the North of 
Wales say chwaer, and chwech (khwair, khwekh ; kwhair, kw'hekh ?). 
And still I find that even we often avoid pronouncing ch, as we 
prefer saying chwegwaith (k^egwraith) for chwechgwaith (k^hekh'- 
g^-aith) [sexies], and c7w^am(kwhei'gain, k0hee'/gain?) forchicech 
rgain (kwhekh yygain) [centum et viginti]. And in my opinion 
the Greeks were not overfond of this sound when they transferred 
from the Hebrew, lohanncs instead oflochanna, and Isaac for litschacb. 
And in a similar manner the Latins had no great liking for the 
above letter, for they follow the Greeks in transferring from Hebrew, 
and say MM* and nihil for michi and nichil (mi'ni nrnil, milri 
nU-h'il). But to conclude you may take this guttural as light in 
speaking English as you can. 

H is precisely the same in English as in Welsh, as we see in 
HATJE haf (nav) faode [accipe], HART hart (Hart) colon ne carte [cor 
vel cervusl, HOLY Jioly (nool'i, noli) santaidd ne kelyn [sanctus vcl 
aquilbliuniij. But in some anglicized Latin words n is not sounded 


rhain Jtoncste oncst/ honoure onor/ anrhydcdd/ exhibition ecsibisiwn/ 
kynheilaeth/ prohibition proibisiwn/ gAvahardd. Nid ynganaf vi yn 
bot ni y to yr o wrhon mor ddiddanvybot a dywedyt gwydd dros 

[16] I, oe hiaith hwy sydd gymcint ar ddwy lythyren yma ci, 
on laith ni / od gwescir y gyd ai dywedyt yn vn sillaf neu dyph- 
thong, val yny gair hwn, f, ei/ mi ne myfi. Eytliyr pan gydseinio 
i, a bocal arall vn sain vydd hi yna a, g, seisnic, ac achos en bot 
hwy mor gyffelypson mi weleis rei ympedrustcr a dowt pa vn ai 
ac, i, ai ynte a, g, yd scrinenynt ryw eiiieu ar rain maiestie, gcntyll, 
gelomye : a rhai yn scrifenny habreioune ac ereill hebergyn, lluric : 
Ac velly mi welaf ynghylch yr vn gyffelybrwydd rwng y tair 
llythyren seisnic hynn cA, g, i, a rhwng y plwm pewter ar ariant, 
sef yw hynny, bod yn gynhcbyc yw gylydd ar y golwc kyntaf ac 
yn amrat'aelio cr hyny with grafly arnnnt. Esampl o, i, yn gyd- 
sain 7<WM, tsiesuw, lesu : lohn tsion a sion o Icdiaith : ac leuan 
ynghamroec loyw : ioynt, tsioynt kymal. 

K, ynghymraec a saesnec vn gyneddf yw/ ond yn sacsnec an- 
nynychach o beth y dechy air val y gwelwch yma, lake b\vk llyfyr 
bucke bwck bwch : k, yn dcchry gair kynge king / brenliin : knot 
kwlwm: kent. 

L- yny ddwyaith ddywcdcdic nid amgcna ond yn anamylair i 
llais val hyn lyly lili / lady ladi arglwyddcs lad baehkcn. 

LI, yn saesnec nid ynt dim tebyc en hansawd in 11. ni : an 11, 
ni ny ddysc byth yn unvn dyn arallia ith i thraythy o ddieith yny 

LI, hefyd yn saesnec nid yw yn d^vyn enw vn lly thyren eithyr 
dwbyl 1, neu 1, ddyplyc i gelwir : a llais 1, sydd ynthun yn wastat, 
ncu lais lambda pan ddcl [17] o vlayn iota/ Ond yn rhyw wledydd 
yn lloecr val w, y traythant 1 / ac 11 / mc\vn rhyw cirieu val hyn 
bowd yn lie bold: bw dros bull / caw dros cal. Ond nid yw vath 
ddywediat onid llediaith / ac nid peth yw ddylyn oni vynny vloysci 
y gyd a bloyscon. 

M ac n / kynggany awnant yny ddwyaith cinom/ ie ac ympop 
iaith ac i gwn ni ddirn o jrwilhyut / yn Saxonacc a dwyts val hyn 
man gwr men gAvyr. 

0, kymysclef an o / ac an w/ ni vydd/ ac nid ar vnwaith nac yn 
yr vn sillaf onid mewn vn sillaf yn o/ mown arall yn w/ y treythir 
val hynn to to / bys troet : so so velly two tw/ dau/ to tw/ ar at/ i/ 
tchole scwl / yscol. 

0, hefyd o vlaen Id / neu ll/ a ddarlleir vegys pe bay w / ryngto 
ac wynt/ mal hyn colde, cowld oer bolle, bowl/ tolle towl toll. 
Eithyr dwy oo ynghyd yn sasnec a soniant val w/ ynghymraec 
val hyn good, gwd da : poore pwr / tlawd : 

P, yn sacsnec nid yw vn ddcddf a phi yn hcbrnw yngroec ncu 


as HONESTE onest (orrcst) [honestus], HOXOTTKE onor (oiror) anrliydcdd 
[honos], EXHIBITION- ecsibisiion (eksibis'i,un) kynlieilaeth [expositio], 
PROHIBITION proibisiwn (proo,ibis - i,un) gwahardd [prohibitio]. I 
will not mention that we are at present so negligent as to say gicydd. 
(gwydh) for gwehydd (gwee'iiydh) [textor]. 

[16] I in their language is equivalent to the following two 
letters in ours ei (ei), but they are compressed so as to be pronounced 
in one sound or a diphthong, as in that word of theirs I ei (ci, oi) mi 
[ego] or myfi [cgomct]. But when it is joined to another vowel it 
has the sound of G English, and as they arc so near alike, I have 
met with some in hesitation and doubt, whether they should write 
certain words with i or with o, as the following: MAIESTIE, GEXTYLL, 
GELOtrsYE, and some Writing HALKEIOUNE and others HEBERGYN lluryy 
[lorica]. Thus I observe the same likeness between these three 
English letters en, G, and i, as exists between pewter and silver, 
that at first sight they appear very like each other, but on close ex- 
amination they differ. For example, IESU tsiesuw (Dzhee'zyy) lesu 
[Jesus], IOHN tsion (Dzhou) and sion [Shon] by corrupt pronuncia- 
tion, and lenan [Johannes] in pure Welsh, IOYKT tsioynt (dzhoint) 
kymal [juncturaj (p. 131). 

K has the same power in "Welsh as in English, bxit it is not so 
frequent at the commencement of words as may be seen in the fol- 
lowing: BOKE Iwk (buuk) ttyfyr [liber], BUCKE Iwck (buk) bwch 
[dama mas] : K at the beginning of words KYNGE king (kiq) Irenhin 
[rex], KNOT (knot) kwlwm [nodus] ; KENT. 

L in the two languages does not differ in sound, as LYLY Uli 
(liH) [lilium], LABY ladi (laa'di) arglwyddes- [domina], LAD (lad) 
lachken [juvenis]. 

U. in English is nothing like in sound to our II (Ihh), and our II 
will no foreigner ever learn to pronounce properly except in youth. 
LL in English has no distinct name, it is simply called dwbyl I 
(dub'/l el) or twofold L, and it has always the sound of /, or 
of lambda [17] before iota. But in some districts of England it 
is sounded like w (u), thus bowd (boould) for BOLD [audax], bw 
(buu) for BULL [taurus] ; caw (kau) for CALL [voco]. (p. 194..) But 
this pronunciation is merely a provincialism, and not to be imitated 
unless you wish to lisp like these lispers. 

M and N are of the same sound in the two languages (and 
indeed in every other language I know). In English they are 
spoken thus man (man) gwr [vir^, men (men) gwyr [viri]. 

takes the sound of o (o) in some words, and in others the 
sound of w (u) ; thus TO to (too) lye. troet [digitus pcdis], so so (soo) 
velly [sic], TWO tw (tun) dau [duo], TO tw (tu) ar, at, i [ad], SCHOLE 
scwl (skuul) yscol [schola]. (p. 93.) 

also before LD or LL is pronounced as though w were inserted 
between them, thus COLDE cowld (koould) oer [frigidus], BOLLE bowl 
(booul) [crater], TOLLE towl (tooul) toll [vectigal] (p. 194). But 
two oo together arc sounded like w in Welsh (u), as Goongtcd (gud, 
guild) da [bonus], POOR*: pier (puur) tlawd [pauper] (p. 93). 

P in English has not the same rule as phi in Hebrew, Greek, or 


yngamroec achos yny teirieith hyn y try weithie yn rhyw eiiieu 
yn ph : 

Eithyr sain sauadwy sydd iddi yn sasnec ympop gair val : papyr 
papyr/ pappej papp bron gwraic neywd: penne ydyw pinn yscri- 
i'enny : Ac val hyn y traytha Sais y llytlier p / mewn ymadrodd / 
and wyth a penne : ac a phinn : ac nid wyth a phenne neu ffenne 
y dywaid ef. 

Q, llythyr dieythyr ymgamraec yw ac nid mawr gartrefigach yn 
saesnec vn gyfraith a cha k/ [18] y kcffir q/ val hynn quene kwin 
brenhines : quarter kwarter ch waiter ncu pedwerydd ran : quayle 
sofyliar : A gwybydd may u / y w kydymcith q / can ni welir byth 
q / eb u / y w chynlyn mwy nar goc hcb i gwicbclll. 

It/ sydd anian yny ddwyiaith hyn cythyr ni ddyblyr ac nid 
hanedlyr E. / vyth yn dechreu gair sasnec val y gwnair yngroec 
ac yncamroec modd hyn 

Jihoma rrufain no rhufain : Ond val hyn yd yscrifenir ac y 
treithir geirie seisnic ac r/ ynthunt ryght richt iawn rent rent ros 
ros ne rosim, 

S / yn yr ieithoedd yma a syrth yn vn sain val hyn syr syr/ seaso 
seesyn amser amserawl ne amser kyfaddas : Eythyr pan ddel s / yn 
saesnec rhwng dwy vocal lleddfy neu vloyscy a wna yn wynech 
o amser val hyn : muse muwws mcuyrio : maze maas madrondot. 

S/ o dodir hi o cwhanec at diwedd enw vnic/ yr enw vnic/ 
neur gair vnic hwnw a liosocka ne arwyddocka chwanec nac vn peth 
vegys hynn hade hand yw Haw : handes hands ynt llawe no 
ddwylo : nayle nayl e\vin ne hoyl hayarn nayles nayls e~wincdd nc 
lioylion heyrn : rayle rayl canllaw : rayles rayls canllaweu / nc 
ederin regen yr yd. 

Sh / pan ddel o vlayn vn vocal vn vraint ar sillaf hvrn (ssi) vydd 
val hynn shappe ssiapp gwedd ne lun : shepe ssiip dauad ne ddeueid. 

Sh / yn dyfod ar ol bocal yn (iss) y galwant : vegys hyn assJie 
aiss/ onnen : wasshe waiss/ golchi. Ac ym pa ryw van bynac ac air 
i del / ssio val neidyr gy [19]ffrous a ~\vna / nid yn anghyssylltpell o 
y wrth swn y llythyr hebrew a elwir schin : Ac o mynny chwanec 
o hyspysrwydd ynkylch i llais gwrando ar byscot kregin yn dechreu 
berwi o damwain vnwaith vddunt leisio. Kymerwch hyn o athro 
wlythyr kartrefic rac ofyn na chyrayddo pawp o honawch gaffael 
wrth i law tafodioc seisnic yw hacldyscy. 

T/ hefyd a wna yr vn wyneb i Sais a chymro val hyn tresure 
tresuwr trysor toure towr twr : top top nen. 

Th / o saesnec a chymraec a ^dd gyfodyl ac vn nerth ond yn 
rhyw cirieu hi a ddarlleir kyn yscafaed ar dd/ cinom ni : Eglurdcb 
am gyfio wnllais th/ eiddunt hwy : through thrwch tiyvvodd : thystle 


Welsh, for in theso languages it is sometimes changed in words 
to ph. 

But in English it has a permanent sound in every word as PAPYR 
papyr (paa-pzr) [papyrus], PAPPE papp (pap) Iron, gwntic ne ywd 
[mamma vel infautium cibus], PEN T XE ptim yscnfenny [calamus]. 
And an Englishman pronounces the letter r thus, in the phrase AXD 
wrrn A. PEXNE (and w/th a pen) ac a phinn [et cum calamo], and not 
wrrn: A PIIEXXE or FEE^NE with double ef (with a fen). 

Q, is a strange letter in Welsh, and scarcely more at home in 
English. It is the same in sound as K, [18] as QU.ENE kwin (kwiin) 
brenhines [regina], QUAETEH kwarter (kwart'cr) chwarter [quarto, 
pars] ; QTJAYLE (kwail) soft/liar [coturnix]. And bear in mind that 
u is the companion of Q, for a is never seen without u following 
it, as the cuckoo without her screecher. 

R is of the same nature in the two languages except that E is 
never doubled or aspirated at the beginning of words as in Greek 
and Welsh. 

Rhoma, rrufain or rhufain [Roma], but English words beginning 
with E are thus pronounced: EYGHT richt (ri&ht) iawn [rectus], 
EEJJT rent (rent) [scissura], EOS (rooz) ros ne ros/iit [rosa]. 

S in these languages is of the same sound, thus SITE syr (sz'r) 
[dominus], SEASON seesyn (seez'm) amser amserawl ne amser kyfaddas 
[tempcstas, tempestivus vel occasio]. But when s comes between 
two vowels it has the flat sound, or it is lisped, thus MUSE muwws 
(myyz) meuyrio [mcditari], MASE maas (maaz) madromlot [stupor], 

8 when added to the end of a word in the singular, makes it 
plural, or to signify more than one, as HANDE hand (nand) is Haw 
[unu manus], HANDES hands (nanclz) are llawe ne ddwylo [plures 
vel dua3 manus], NAYLE nayl (na'l) &ivin ne hoyl hayarn [unguis 
vel ferreus clavus], NAYLES nayls (najlz) ewinedd ne hoylion heyrn 
[ungues vel ferrei clavi], EAYLE rayl (ra/1) canllaw [cancellus], 
EAYLES rayls (razlz) canllawen ne ederin regen yr yd [cancelli vel 
creccs pratenses] (p. 119). 

Sh when coming before a vowel is equivalent to this combination 
ssi, thus SIIAPPE ssiapp (shap) gioedd ne lun [species vel forma], 
SHEPE ssiip (shiip) dauad ne ddeueid [ovis vel ovesj. 

SH coming after a vowel is pronounced iss, thus ASSHE aits (ash, 
aish?) onnen [fraxinus] ; WASSHE waiss (wash, waish?) (jolchi 
[lavare]. And wherever it is met with it hisses, like a roused ser- 
pent, [19] not unlike the Hebrew letter called schin B>. And if 
you wish further information respecting this sound, you should listen 
to the hissing voice of shellfish when they begin to boil. Take this 
as an homely illustration lest you may not all be able to find an 
English tongue at hand to instruct you. 

T also shews the same face to an Englishman as to a Welshman, 
as TEESTTEE tresuwr (trez'yyr) trysor [thesaurus], TOUEE towr (tour) 
twr [turris], TOP top (top) nen [vertex]. 

Th in English rhymes with the same combination in Welsh (th), 
but in some words it reads flat like our dd (dh). Examples of the 
Welsh sound of th ; THEOUGH thrwch (thruukh) trywodd [per], 


thystl yscall : Eglurwch am th/ val awn dd/ ni this ddys hwn/ hon/ 
ne hyn. volly ddym nine yn cam arfer yn sathrcdic o dd/ dros th/ 
yny gair yma (ddialaydd) yn lie (dialayth) Nota hyn helyd/ y 
darlleant th/ val t/ yny geirieu hynn Thomas tomas: throne tnvn 

"07 yn gydson nid amrafailia i rhinwcdd yn lloecr mwy nac 
yngymry val hyn vyne vein gwin wyddcn : vayne vayn gwythen 
ne Avac : velvet velfet melfet. Eithyr u/ yn vocal a ettyl bwcr y 
ddwy lythyren gamberaecliyn, u, w, ai hemv kyffredin vydd yn, 
uw, vcgys y tystolaytha y geirieu hyn true truw kywir : vertue 
vertuw rhinwedd A rhyw amser y kuiffi hiawn enw gantunt ac 
y darlleir yn ol y llatinwyr sef y gahvant yn vn llais an w/ ni : 
val yny [20] geirieu hyny/ lucke bwck b\vch/ lust Iwst chwant 
Eithyr anuynech y kyssona eu bocal u/ hwy an bocal, u, ni/ cissoes 
yn y gair hwn busy busi prysur ne ymyrus. 

"W, seisnic ac w/ gymreic nid amgenant i gallu val hyn/ wawe 
waAV tonn ar vor/ wyne wein gwin : wynne wynn ennill. Eithyr 
hcnw y llythyren w/ o sacsnec vydd dowbyl u\v/ sef yw hynny u 
dduplic / Ar sason wilh ddyscy i blant sillafy ne spelio ai kymerant 
hi val kydson ac nid yn vocal ne yn w, per se val y ddym ni yw 
chymryd : Ond y ddym ni ar hynny yAv harfer hi or modd hawsaf 
i ieunktit ddyfod y ddarllen yn ddeallus. 

Hefyd distewi a wna \v/ wrth ddiweddy llawer gair saesncc 
val yn diwedd y rai hynn / awe, lowe woice / y rhain a ddarlleant 
modd hynn : a/ ofyn bo bwa : w/ kary 

X, nid yw chwaith rhy gartrefol yn sacsonaec mAvy nac yn 
Camberaec a llais cs / neu gs / a glywir ynthei vcgys yny / geirieu 
hyirnjlaxe fflacs llin axe ags/ bwyall. Geirieu llatin a ledieithantir 
sacsonaec neu ir Gamberaec a newidiant x/ am s / val y geirieu 
hyn/ crnx crosse croes ne crws/ exemplum esampyl/ extendo 
estennaf : excommunicatus escomyn 

Y, a gaiff yn amyl/ enw y dyphthong (ei) val hynn tlnjne 
ddein tau ne eiddot : ai enw ehun val yny gair hwn thynne thynn 

y e , a thityl val, e, vach vch i phcn a wna the o saesnec val hyn 
y 6 man dde man, y gwr : y* oxe dde ocs / yr ych 

yt, a chroes vechan val t, vch i ffen sydd gymeint [21] yn U* 
wnllythyr a that ddat, hyny ne yr hwn. 

y 11 , ac u, uwch i phen a wna thou ddow, ti ne tydi 


THYSTLE thystl (this'tl) yscall [carduus]. Examples of TH like our 
dd; THIS ddys (dlu's) hwn hon ne Injn [hie hacc vel hoc]. So also in 
familiar conversation we mispronounce dd for th in the word ddialaydd 
for dialayth [sine tristitia]. Observe also that they read in as t in 
these words: THOMAS tomas (Tonvas), THUONE trwn (truun) pall 

XJ consonant is not distinguished in power in "Welsh and English, 
thus : VYNE vein (vein) gwin wydden [vitis], VAYNE vayn (yam) 
gw ijthcn ne wae [vena vel vanus] (p. 119), VELTTET velfet (vel'vet) 
melfet [holosericuni]. But u vowel answers to the power of the two 
"Welsh letters u, tc, and its usual power is uw, as shewn in the fol- 
lowing words TKUE truw (tryy) kytcir [verus], VEKTUE verluw 
(vertyy) rhinwedd [virtus]. And sometimes they give it its own 
proper sound and pronounce it like the Latins, or like our w, as 
[20] in the words BUCKE bwck (buk) bwch [dama mas], LTJST Iwst 
(lust) chwant [libido]. But it is seldom this vowel sound corres- 
ponds with the sound we give the same letter, but it does in some 
cases as in BUSY faisi (btz'i) prysur ne ymynis [occupatus vel se 
immiscens] (p. 164). 

^ff English and to Welsh do not differ in sound, as WAWE waw 
(wau) tonn ar vor [unda maris] (p. 143), WYNE icein (wein) gwin 
[vinum], WYNNE wynn (win) ennill [pretium fcrre]. But the Eng- 
lish name of this letter is dowbyl uw (dou'bsl yy), that is double u. 
And the English in teaching children to spell, take it as a consonant, 
and not as a vowel, or w per se (u per see) as we take it. But still 
we use it in the most easy mode for youth learning to read intelli- 

Also w is mute at the end of words in English, as in the follow- 
ing AWE, BOWE, WOWE, which we pronounce thus: a (aa) ofi/n 
[terror] (p. 143), bo (boo) Iwa [arcus] (p. 150), w (uu, wuu?) 
kary [amare, ut procus petere]. 

X Neither is x much at home in English any more than in "Welsh, 
and the sound is cs (ks) or gs (gz) as in the words FLAXE fflacs (flaks) 
llin [linum], AXE ags (agz) bwyall [sccuris]. Latin words in their 
passage into English or "Welsh exchange x for s, as in the words 
crux CBOSSE croes, or crws, exemplwn esampyl, extendo estennaf, excom- 
municatus escomyn. 

Y often has the sound of the diphthong ei (ci, oi), as THYNE 
ddein (dhein) tau ne eiddot [tuus vel tibi], and its own sound as in 
the word THYNNE thynn (thm) teneu [gracilis] (p. 111). 

y e with a tittle like a small e above makes THE English, as 
T 6 MAN dde man (dhe man) y gwr [vir ille], Y 6 OXE dde ocs (dhc oks) 
yr ych [bos ille]. 

yt with a small cross above it, is equal [21] at full to THAT ddat 
(dhat) hyny ne yr hwn [ille vel qui]. 

y u with u above it, signifies THOU Mow (thou) U ne tydi [tu]. 


Y, ddocdd gan yr hen scrifcnnyddion sasnec lythyren taran 
dcbyc i, y, ond nad oedd i throetl yn gwyro i vyny val pladur val y 
may troct, y, ac nid antebic i llun yr rhuttemol, y, neu i ypsylon 
groec ne ghayn yn hebrew ac hyd y daw im kof ddorn i klywais 
vnwaith hen ddarlleydd o sais yn y he nwi vn allu an dd ni neu ar 
ddelta roec y doedd. Ond nid yw hi arfcredic ymplith Sason er 
pan ddoeth kelfyddyt piint yw mysc onit kymeiyd tan vn (y) 
drostei : ar (th) weithie yny lie : Ac arcs hynny may yn anhaws i 
ddyn arallwlad dreuthy eu (th) hwy yn seisnigaidd o achos i bot 
ryw amser yn gwasa naythy yn lie yr hen llythyren a elwynt dom 
val y gwclsoch yn eglur yny geirieu or blayn. Ac velly pan aeth 
y vloysclytliyr wreigaidd honno ar gy fcilorn ouysc Sason y dcrby- 
nassom niner Ivymbry hihi ac aethom i vloyscy val mamaethod ac 
y ddywedyt dd dros d, th dros t, a d dros t, b ac ph, dros p, &c. 
Ond maddcuwch ym rhac hyyd y trawschwcdyl yma a mi a dalf yraf 
yn gynt am y sydd yn ol orllythyren ereill. 

2, hefyd o yddynt yn aruer yn vawr o honei, yn lie s / yn diwedd 
gair val : kyngez kings, brenhinedd. A rhai yw dodi dros m, ac 
eraill (peth oedd vwy yn erbyn i natur) dros gh, yn y chymeryd : 
val hyn ryzt richt kyfiawn knyzt knicht marchawg vrddol. 

% nid llythyren yw namyn gair kyfan wedy ddefeisio yn vyrh, 
val y gwelwch yma / rhac mor [22] vyncch y damwain ympop 
ymadrodd o bob ryw iaith yr hwn pan yscrifencr yn llawnlly thr yn 
llatin (ef] vydd and yn saesnec : ac (ac) yn Camberaec a arwy- 

^[ yn y Gwydhor hon o ddisot y kynwyssir sum a chrynodcb yr 
holl ruwls vchot : Ac am hyny tybeid nad rhait angwauec a addysc 
na mwy o eglurdeb arnei / ir neb a chwcuych ddarllein y llyfer or 
pen bwy gylydd. 

a, ai c, k tsi d e f ff g c i 1 

^a be ch d e f ff g gh h i k, 1, 
aw s d i f ph tsi h ei w 

ok ssi th uw f i cs ci, y s and 

11, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, ssi, t, th, u, v, w, x, y, z, T; 

w iss dd/t/ u/ v/ gs i ch/m 

^[ Neu val hynn 

ai c k tsi e f tsi ch ei 11 w k 

Ja, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, gh, i, k, 1, U, m, n, o, p, q, 
aw s if iwl o 

iss th, t u v cs ei, y s and 

r, s, sh, t, th u, v, w, x, y, z, 1 

ssi dd uw f gs i ch m 


Y, The old English writers had a letter ]? very much like y, only 
that the stem was not curved upward as a scythe like the stem of 
the y, and it is not unlike in shape to the Roman T or the Greek 
upsilon T, or the Hebrew ghayn y, and as near as I can remember, 
an old English reader once called the name of it ddorn (dhom), and 
he pronounced it like our dd (dh) or like the Greek delta B (dh). 
Hut it is not in use among the English since the art of printing was 
introduced, but Y is sometimes used for it, and sometimes TH. And 
on this account it is more difficult for a stranger to pronounce their 
TH in English, because it serves sometimes the place of the letter 
they call ddorn (dhorn), as may be noticed in the foregoing remarks. 
So that when that effeminate lisping letter was lost i'rom the Eng- 
lish, it was introduced to us the "Welsh, and we commenced lisping 
like nursing women, and to say dd (dh) for d (d), tk (th) for t (t), 
and d for t, b and ph ( f ) for p &c. But pardon the length of this 
digression of speech, and I will bring my remarks respecting the 
other letters sooner to a close. 

Z was also frequently used instead of s at the end of words as 
KYXGEZ kings (kiqz) Irenhinedd [reges]. Some also used it for M, 
and others (which was more contrary to nature) for GH in the words 
BYZT richt (ri/fht) kyfiawn [rectus], KNYZT knicht (knight) marchawg 
vrddol [eques]. 

&. This is not a letter but an abbreviation for a whole word as 
may be seen from the following [22] how frequently it is used in 
every language. "When written in full it is et in Latin, A> T D in 
English, ao in Welsh. 

^f The table below gives a summary and the substance of all the 
above rules : and therefore it was not considered necessary to give 
more explanation or instruction respecting it to any one desirous to 
read the book from beginning to end. 

a, ai c, k tsi d e f ff g c 
ya be chdofffg gh,h, i k, 1, 

aw s d i f ph tsi h ei w 

1 o k ssi th, uw, fi cs ei, s and 

11, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, ssi, t, th, u, v, w, x, y, z & 
1 w iss dd,t u, v gs i ch,m 

Tf Or like this. 

ai c k tsi e f tsi ch ei 1 1 w k 

^a, b, c, ch, d, e, f, g, gh, i, k, 1, U, m,n,o, p, q, 


f iwl 

iss th, t u v cs ei, y s and 

r, s, sh t, th u, v, w, x, y, z, & 

ssi dd, uw f gs i ch,m 


[23] [24] blank. [25] 

f Kamberaec 




A. o vlaen b. 



Ab ne siak ab 

An ape 


A roude knot 

Ab ne vab 


A chub 

Abe ne afon 

A ryuer 


Aber ne hafyu 

] Eauen 

A. o vlaen d. 


The iacra- 


Re, agayne 



A byrde 

Aberth efferen 

Sacryng of 


A fouler 

Aberth ne of- 



To folde a- 










A buyldynge 






Adefyn / edau 





A wynge 



Adain py | co- 


Adnabot (dyn 


Abwy burgyn 



A brayde 








A. o vlaen c 

Adwy bwlch 







A. o vlaen dd. 







Mete, apte 





An actc 


A. o vlaen ch. 







Ach diaficah 

Hole, founde 






A vowe 


In the following list the words quoted from the Treatise on 
Welsh pronunciation are given in italics, followed by the old 
spelling there used by Salesbury in small capitals, and the pro- 
nunciation indicated. In that treatise the pronunciation is seldom 
or ever explained in "Welsh letters, but some important part of it 
is indicated, and the rest has been added from conjecture. The 
numbers which follow give the pages in this work where the word 
is referred to, (the small upper figure being the number of the foot- 
note,) the bracketed numbers the page of the tract as here printed, 
and the capitals the letters under which the words occur. 

CHAP. VIII. $ 2. 



The words quoted from the Treatise on English pronunciation 
are in Roman letters, followed by the old spelling in small capitals, 
the Welsh transliteration in italics, the palaeotypic pronunciation 
in ( ), the Welsh interpretation in italics, and its translation into 
Latin in [ ], and finally references as before. 

Latin words are distinguished by a prefixed f . 

adder ADDER (ad-cr). 766 2 , [44] 
adiliee ADDES (adlres) provincial. 750", 


able ABLE abl (aa'b'l) [potens]. 62,195 

776, [13, E] 
ale ALE aal (aal) kwrw [cerevisia]. 61, 

62, 775, [11, A] 
and AND (and). 787 
all ALL (aul). 766", [44] 
\agnus (aq-nus), erroneous. 62, 744 1 , 

767 1 , [3, 46] 

famat (anrath) barbarous. 759 1 , [30] 
archangel AKCHANGELL (ark-an'dzhel). 

766', [43] 
ash ASHE (aish). 120, 747 3 , [12, A], 

asli ASSHE aiss (ash, aish ?) omten 

[fraxinus]. 783, [18, SH]. 
awe AW (to). 143, 762, [34, W]. awe 

AWE (aa) ofyn [terror]. 143, 785, 

[19, WJ. 
axe AXE ays (agz) bwyal [securis]. 62, 

785, [20, X] 

babe BABE baab (baab) baban [infans]. 

62, 775, [11, B] 
bake BAKE baak (baak) poby [coquere 

panem ut pistorj. 62, 777, [13, E] 
bald BALDE baivld (bauld) moel [cal- 

vus]. 143, 194, 775, [11, A] 
ball BALL bawl (baul) pel [pila] 143, 

194, 775, [11, A] 
be BEE (bii), 754, [23, I] 
bear BERE (beer). 79, 751 s , [19, E] 
begging BEGGYNGE beg 'I/in ff (bog-iq) 

yn cardota [mendicans]. 80, 112, 779, 

[14, G] 

being BEYNGE (bii-iq). 766 [43] 
believe BELEUE (biliiv). 751 4 , [18, E] 
bier BEKE (biir). 79, 751 s , [19, EJ 
bladder BLADD* blad-dtr (blad-er) 

chwyssigen [vcsica]. 62, 199, 777, 

[12, DJ 

bold BOLD bowd (boould) [a\idax] pro- 
vincial. 194, 781, [17, LL] 
book BOKE biv k (bunk) llyfyr [liber]. 

99, 781, [16, K] 
bow BOWE bo (boo) bioa [arcus], 150, 

773, 785, [8. 20, W] 
bowl BOLLE lowl (booul) [crater]. 194, 

781, [17, 0] 
bread BREDE bred (breed, bred) bar a 

[panis]. 79, 775, [11, B] 

break BREKE (breek). 79, 751 3 , [18 E] 
bringeth BRYNGETH (br'q-eth) not 

(bnq-geth). 767 ? , [46] 
buck BUCKE bwck (buk) bweh [dama 

mas]. 165, 781, 785, [16, K. 20, II] 
bull BULL bw (buu) [taurus] provin- 

cial. 165, 194, 781, ri7, LL] 
bury BUKY (b*rt) vulgar. Ill, 164, 

7604, [32, U] ' 

bttsiness BUSINES (bt'z'tnes). 766', [43] 
busy BUSY (biz-*) vulgar. Ill, 164, 

760, [32, UJ. busy BUSY bust (b*z-) 

prysiir ne ynujrus [occupatus vel se 

immiscens). 112, 165, 785, [20, U] 
by our lady BYR LADY (bei'r laa-di). 

744*, [5] 

call CALL (kaul). 747 s , [12, A], call, 

CALL caw (kau) [voco]. prov. 194, 

781, [17, LL]. called CALLED (kaul-- 

ed). 766', [43] 

calm CALME (caulra). 747 3 , [12, A] 
cease CEASSE (sees). 766 2 , [44] 
Cheapside CHEPESYDE (Tsheep'seid). 

752S [19, El 

check CHECKE (tshek). 766 2 , [44] 
cheese CHESE tsis (tshiiz) caws [caseus] 

79, 777, [13, E] 
chief CHEFE tsiff (tshiif) pennaf [prin- 

ceps]. 779 [14, F] 
church CHURCHE tsurts (tslu'rtsh) ecleis 

[ecclesia] : tsiurts (tshirtsh) eglwys 

[ecclesial. 165, 199, 775, 779, [11. 

GH. 14, G] 
cold COLDE cowld (koould) oer [frigidus] 

194, 781, [17, 0] 
comb, COMBE (kuum ?), 766 2 , [44] 
condition CONDICYON condisywn (kon- 

dis-mn) [conditio]. 99, 112, 191, 215, 

775, [11, C] 
cow COWE kow (kou) luicch [vaccal. 

773, [8] 
crow CUOWE kro (kroo) bran [comix], 

150, 773, [8] 

). 120, 747\ 

[12, A] 
dart DART dart (dart) dart [iaculum]. 

777, [12, D] 
\dcdcrit (ded'erith) barbarous. 759 4 , 

[30, T] 
defer DIFFER (difer- P) 765 10 , [43] 



tDei (dee-ei). SO, 111, 744 1 , [4] 
deny DENYE' (dinei- F) 765 10 , [43] ; tbe 

second word meant by DENYE, has 

not been identified. 
\-dico (dei-ku). Ill, 744 1 , [4] 
differ DIFFER (d/'fer F) 7G5 10 , [43] 
discomfited DISCOMFYTED (dskunrfrt- 

ed). 766' [43] 
disfigure (desvi'g'yyr) provincial. 753', 

[20, F] 
ditches DYCHES deitsys (deitsh'j'z)^b- 

sydd [fossae]. Ill, 779, [14, E] 
do DO (duu). 93. 758', [28, 0] 
doe DOE (doo). 93, 758', [28, 0] 
double 1 dwbyl I (dub-il el). 781, [17, 

LL]. double u doicbyl uw (dou-btl 

yy). 150, 785, [20, W] 
drinking DRINKING (dn'qk'tq). 75-1 3 , 

[23, I] 
duke vvKTzdutek (dyyk) due [dux]. 165, 

777, [12, D] 
dumb DOMBE (dum). 766 2 , [44] 

case EASE tf, ces F (jeez, eez F) esmyth- 
dra [otinm]. 80, 775, [11, A] 

eel ELK (iil). 766-, [44] 

egg EGGE eg (eg) try [ovum]. 80, 779, 
[14, G] 

t<yo (eg-u). 80, 744 1 , [4] 

emperour EMPEROUUE cmperwr (enr- 
pcrur) ymeraictr [imperator]. 150, 
199, 777, [12, E] 

engine KNGYN (en-dzhm). 766 2 , [44] 

ever EUER (ever). 766', [43] 

evermore EUERMORE efermicor (ever- 
muur, evermwor F) traqoicydd [sem- 
per]. 79, 99, 199, 777, '[12, E] 

exhibition EXHIBITION ecsibisitcu (eksi- 
bis-i,un) kynheilaeth [expositio]. 99, 
112, 191, 215, 781, [15, H] 

face FACE ffas (faas) wyneb [facies]. 62, 

775, [1 1 ,C]. faces FACES faces fases ? 

(faas-ez) icyncbeu [facies]. 779, [14, 


fall FALL (faul). 766 2 , [44] 
father ? FEDDF.R F (fedlrer) provincial. 

750*, [17, D] 

fiend FEND (feend). 766 1 [43] 
fish FYSH, FYSIIE (fj'sh, vf'sb) provin- 

cial. 753 1 , 766 2 , [20, F. 44] 
five FIVE (veiv) provincial. 753', [20,F] 
flax FLAXE fflacs (flaks) llin [linum].62, 

785, [20, X] 
fool FOLB ffwl (fuul) ffol ne ynuyd 

[stultus], 99, 779, [14, F] 
four FOURS (vour) provincial. 753 1 , 

[20, F] 

fox FOX (voks) provincial. 753', [20,F] 
friends, FRENDKS frinds (friindz) 

kereint [amici]. 79, 80, 777, 779, 

[13, E] 

gallant, OALAVXT galaicnt (gal-aunt) 
[fortis]. 62, 143, 190, 779, [14, G] 

gelding, GELDING gelding (geld-iq) 
[canterius]. 80, US, 779, [14, G] ' 

gender GENDER (dzhend-er). 766 2 , [44] 

gentle GEXTYXL. 781, [16, I] 

George GEORGE (Dzhordzh). 753 6 , [21, 


get GGET (get). 766 1 , [43] 
Gh GH ch (kh). 779, [15, GH] 
Gilbert, GYLBERT gilbert (gtl'bert). 

80, 112, 199, 779, [14, G] 
^'$wGYNGER(dzhm-dzher). 80, 753", 

E21, G] ; tsintsir (dzhm-dzher) siiwir 
zinziber]. 80, 112, 199, 779, [14, G] 
God GODDE (God). 752 2 , [19, EJ. God, 

GOD (god) dyw [deus]. 99, 779, [14, 

G] God be with you, GOD BE win 

TOU, God biwio (God birwuo). 112, 

773, [8] 

gold GOLDE (goold). 752 1 , [19, E] 
good GOOD gwd (gud guud) da [bonus]. 

93,99, 781, [17,0] 
goodness GOODNESSE (gud'ncs). 752 7 , 

[19, E] 
gracious GRACYOTJBE grasiics (graa - - 

si,us) rraddlau-n [gratiosus], 62, 112, 

150, 215, 775, [11, C] 
gut GUTTE gwt (gut) coluddyn [intes- 

tinum]. 165, 779, [14, G] 


781, [16, I] 

habit HABITE fab'tt). 220, 754 1 , [22, H] 
habitation HABITATION (abi'taa-smn). 
220, 754 1 , where (abitee-shun) is er- 
roneously given as the pronunciation, 
[22, H] 

hand HANDE hand (nand) Haw [una 
manus], 62, 783, [18, S]. hands 
HANDES hands (nandz) llawe ne 
ddwylo [duae vel plures manus]. 62, 
783, [18, 8]. 

hard HARD (nard). 753 9 , [22, H] 
hart HART (Hart). 753 11 , [22, II], and 

see heart 
have HAVE haf (uav) htcde [accipe]. 

62, 779, [15, H] 

heal HELE (neel). 79, 753 s , [19, E] 
heard HEARD (nerd?). 753", [22, H] 
heart hart HART hart (Hart) colon ne 

cane [cor vel cervus]. 779, [15, II] 
heel HELE (niil). 79, 751*, [19, E] 
hem HEMME (Hem). 752*, [19, E] 
heritage (ner-ttaidzh). 120, 747^, [12, 

A l 

Aim HIM (Htm). 766 1 , [43] 

holly see holy 

holy holly, HOLY holy (noo-lt Hol-) 
santaidd ne kelyn [sanctus vel aqui- 
folium]. 99, 112, 779, [15, H] 



honest HONEST (on-cst). 220, 754 1 , [22, 
H]. honest HONESTE onest (on-est) 
[honestus]. 99, 781, [15, H] 
hmwur HONOUR (on-or) 220, 766 2 , [44]. 
honour HONOUIIE onor (on'or) aiu-- 
hydt-dd [honos]. 99, 150, 199, 781, 
[15, H] 
hope HOPE hoop (noop) goleith [spcs]. 

99, 777, [13, E] 

horrible HORRIBLE (iioribl). 766 1 , [43] 
hour HOUKE (our), 759, [30, R] 
HUBERDEN (HzVerden) vulgar. Ill, 

164, 760, [32, 33, Uj 
humble HUMBLE (um'bl). 220, 754 1 , 

[22, II] 

humour HUMOUR (Hyymur). 766', [44] 
hurt HURT (Hurt). 753 8 , [22, H] 

/ (ci). 754 4 , [23, I]. 1 1 ei (ei, ai) mi 

[ego]. 111,781, [16, 1] 
idle YDLE (eid-1). 76G 2 , [44] 
t>t* (tq-nis) bad. 767, [46] 
ill YLL (/I). 766 1 , [43] 
tw YN (n). 763', 766', [35, Y. 44] 
is YS (). 763', [35, YJ 
itch ITCH (ttsh). 766 1 , [43] 

jaundice JAUNDICE (dzhaiurdt's). 76G 2 , 

jealousy OELOUSYE. 781, [16, I] 
Jcsu, IESU tsiesuw (Dzhee-zyy) Icsu 

[Jesus]. 80, 165, 781, [16, 1] Jcsua 

JESUS (Dzhee-sus). 754, [23, I] 
John IOHN tsion aim (Dzhon Shon) 

L-uan [Johannes]. 99, 781, [16, I] 
joint IOYNT tsioynt (dzhoint) kijmal 

[junctura]. 131, 781, [1C, I] 

Kent KENT. 781, [16, K] 

king KYNGE kitty (kiq) brenhin [rex]. 
781, [16, K]. kings KYNGES (kzYj-es) 
not (k'q-ges). 767, [46]. kings, 
KYNGES kings (kiqz) brenhinedd 
[regesj. 112, 777, 779, [13, E] 
KINGEZ. 787, [21, Z] 

kissed KEST (ktst ?), 7.W 1 , [43] 

knight KNYZT knieht (kni/rht) mar- 
chawq vrddol [eques]. 112, 787, 
[21, Z] 

knot KNOT (knot) kwhvtn [nodus]. 781, 
[16, K] 

lad IAD (lad) bachken [juvenis]. 781, 

[16, L] 
ladder LADDRE lad-dr (lad-er) yscol 

[scala]. 62, 79, 199, 777, [12, D] 
lady LADY ladi (laa-di) arglwyddcs 

[domina]. 62, 112, 781, [16 L] 
language LANGUAGE (laq-g?mdzh). 

120', 747 3 , [12, A] 

lash LASHE (laish). 747 s , [12 A] 
lay LAYE (hi). 766', [43] 
leave LEAUB /'/. lecf? (beev, leev ?) 
kenad [venia, licentia]. 80, 775, [11, 

A ] 

i-legit (lii-dzhtth) bad. 767', [46] 
lily LYLY lilt (lil-i) [liliuni]. 112, 781, 

[16, L] 
loved LOVED (luvd) earwn [amavi], 

777, [12, D] 
low LOWE low (lou, loou ?) lowio 

[mugire]. 150, 773, [8] 
luck LUCKE (luk). 760, [33, U] 
lust LUST livst (lust) chwant [libido]. 

165, 785, [20, U] 

s (maq-nus) bad. 767, [46] 
majesty MAIESTE (madzh-esti). 754, 

[23, I], majesty, MAIESTIE. 781, 

[16, I] 
man MANNE (man). 753 2 , [19, E]. man 

man (man) ywr [vir]. 62, 781, [17, 

M, N] 
maze MASE maas (maaz) madrondot 

[stupor]. 62, 783, [18, S] 
meal MELE (meel). 79, 751 s , [19, E] 
meel? MELE (miil). 79, 751*, [19, E] 
men wen (men) gwyr [viri]. 781, [17, 

M, N] 
Michael MYCHAEL (mei'kel?). 749 s , 

766 1 , [16, CH. 43] 
Michaelmas MYCHAELMAS (Mik'el- 

mas?). 749", [16, CH] 
might MYCHT (mtkht) Scottish. 749 1 , 

[15, CH] 

tiA (miA-h-i) correctly. 779, [15.GH] 
much good do it you MUCH GOOD DO IT 

YOU mychyoditio (nu'tslrgood't'tjo). 

165, 744 2 , [5] 
murmuring MUKMURYNGE (mur'murq) 

766 l , [43] 
muse MUSE muwws (inyyz) meuyrio 

[mcditari]. 105, 783, [18, S] 

nag NAGGE nay (nag) keffylyn [man- 

nus], 62, 779, [14, G] 
nail NAYLK nayl (nail) ewin tie hoyl 

hayarn [unguis vel fcrreus clavus]. 

119, 783, [18, S]. nails, NAYLES nayls 

(na/lz) ewinedd nc hoylion heyni 

[ungues vel ferrci clavi], 783, [18, S] 
net UETTE (net). 75 - 2 3 , [19, E] 
nigh NIGH (n/kh). 754 :l , [23, I] 
^irikil (ni/th'il) correctly. 779, [15, 

narrow NARROWE name (naru) kyfing 

[angustus]. 61, 62, 150, 773, [8] 
not NOT (not). 765 1 , [43] 
now NOWE now (non) yn awr [nunc]. 

150, 773, [8] 




oranges ORANGES orcintsys (oreindzh*z) 
afale orayds [aurantia]. 99, 190, 779, 
[14, E] 

ousel OSYLL (uuz-elr). 766 2 , [44] 

over OUER (over). 766', [43] 

ox OXE ocs (oks) ych I bos]. 99, 785, 
[20, Y e ] 

pale, PALE paal (paal) [pallidus], 61, 

62, 775, [11, A] 
pap PAPPE pc.pp (pap) Iron gtcraic ne 

ywd [mamina vcl infantium cibus]. 

62, 783, [17, P] 
paper PAPYK pupyr (paa-p'r) [papy- 

rus]. 62, 112, 199, 783, [17, P] 
pen PENNE. 783, [17, P] 
pear FERE (peer). 79, 751 5 , [19, E] 
peer PERE (piir). 79, 751*, [19, E] 
plague nuGBplaag (plaag)^fo [pestis] 

62, 779, [14, G] 
poor POORE pwr (puur) tlawd [pauper]. 

93, 99, 781, [17, 0] 
Tortugal PORTUGAL (Port'j'qgal), cor- 

rupt. 757, [27, N] 
potager POTAGKR (pot-andzher P), cor- 

rupt. 757 s , [27, IN] 
prevailed PREUAYLED (prevaild 1 )- 766 1 , 

. . 

prohibition PROHIBITION proibisiwn 
(proo,ibis-i,un) gwahardd [prohibi- 
tio]. 99, 112, 191, 215, 781, [15, H" 
proved PROVIDE (pruuved?) 765">,[43 
provide PROVIDE (proveid'i-) 765 1 ", [43_ 
pureness PURENES (pyyrnes). 752 1 . 
[19, E] 

quail QUAYLE sofyliar [coturnix]. 119, 

783, [18, QJ 
quarter QUARTER kwarter (kwart-er) 

ch-warter [quarta pars]. 62, 165, 199, 

783, [18, Q] 
queen QUENE hwin (kwiin) brenhines 

[rcginaj. 80, 165, 783, [18, Q] 
t? (kwei). Ill, 744 ', [4] 
\-quid (kw/th) bad. 767, [46] 

rail RAYLF. rai/l (ral) canllaw [cancel- 
lusl 119, 783, [18, S]. rails RAYLES 
rayls (railz) canllawtn ne ederin 
rcgen yr yd [cancelli vel creces pra- 
tenses]. 119, 783, [18, S] 

ravening IIAVENYNG (ravenz'q). 766 1 , 

reason REASON (reez-un). 766 2 , [44] 

rent RENT rent (rent) [scissura]. 80, 
783, [18, R] 

right RIGHT (n'kht). 754 3 , [23, I] 

right RYGHTrtWtl (riA;ht) iaurn [rectus], 
783, [18, 11]. RYZT richt (riht) 
kyifiaivn [rectus]. 112, 787, [21, Z] 

ringing RINGING (rtq-tq). 754 3 , [23, I] 

rings RYNGES (n'q-es) not (r/q-ges). 

767, [46] 

roe ROE (roo). 93, 758 1 , [28, 0] 
rose ROS ros ne rosim [rosa]. 99, 783, 

[18, E] 

sable SABLE sail (saa'b'l) [niger]. 62, 

195, 777, [13, E] 
saddle SADDELL [ephippium]. 777, [13, 


fsal (saul) bad. 767, [46] 
sale SALK sal saal [veuditio]. 61, 62, 

775, [II, A] 

^sanctus (san'tus) bad. 7G7, [46] 
Satan SATAN (Saa'tan). 766 1 , [43] 
school SCHOLE scwl (skuul) yscol 

[schola]. 93, 99, 781, [17, 0] 
sea, SEA see (see) mor [mare]. 80, 775, 

[11, A] 
season SEASON (seez-un). 766 2 , [44]. 

season SEASON seesyn (sce/.-m) aimer 

amseraivl ne amser kyfaddns [tempes- 

tas, tempestivus vel occasio]. 80, 99, 

783, [18, S] 

see SEE (sii). 754, [23, I] 
shape SHAPPE ssiapp (shap) gwedd ne 

lun [species vel forma]. 62. 783, 

[18, SH] 
sheep SHEPE ssiip (shiip) dauad ne 

ddeuied [ovis vel oves]. 783, [18, SH] 
sieve CYUE (siv). 766 3 , [44] 
sight SIGHT (szkht). 754 3 , [23, I] 
sign SIGNE (sein). Ill, 744*, [5] 
silk 8YLKE (silk). 752>, [19, E] 
sin SYNNE (sin). 763, [35, Y] 
singeth SYNGETH (si'q-eth) not (siq-geth) 

767, [46] 

singing SINGING (si'q-'q). 754, [23, I] 
sir SYR syr (st'r) [dominus]. 199, 783, 

[18, S] 

so so so (soo")vcHy [sic]. 93, 781, [17, 0] 
tsol (sooul) bad. 767, [46] 
sparrow, SPAROWE sparto (sparu) 

ederyn y to [passer]. 61, 62, 150, 

773, [8] 
suffer, SUFFKE swfffer (suffer) dioddef 

[pati]. 80, 165,' 199, 779, [14, F] 
sure SURE (syyr). 164, 760, 6 [33, U] 
syllable SYLLABLE (sjl-ab'l) 755*, [25, 

tents TENTES tents (tents) pepyll [ten- 

toria]. 777, 779, [13, E] 
thank THANKE (thaqk). 219, 750*, 

[17, D] 
that (dhat) 219, 750 4 , 760 2 , 766 2 , [16, 

D. 31, TIL 44]. that, THAT yt ddat. 

(dhat hyny ne yr hwn [ille vel qui]. 

62, 219, 785, [21, Y 1 ] 
Thavies Inn THAUIES INNE (Dav'z 

Jn). 219, 7603, 766!j [32, TH. 44] 



the THE (dhe) 750, 766 1 , [16, D. 43] 
the, THE Y Me (dhe) y [ille], 80, 
219, 785, [20, Ye] 

thick THYCKB (thk). 219, 760 1 , [31, 

thin THYNNE (thin) 750*, 760>, 763 1 , 
[16, D. 31, TH. 35, Y] thin, THYNNE 
thynn (thm) teneu [gracilis]. Ill, 
219, 785, [20, Y] 

thine THYNE (dhein). 750', 760 2 , [16, 
D. 31, TH] thine, THYNE ddein 
(dhein) tau tie eiddvt [tuus vel tihi]. 

111, 219, 785, [20, Y] 

this THYS (dhts). 219, 750 4 , 760 2 , [16, 
D. 31, TH]. this THIS ddys (dhts) 
hwn, hon tie hyn [hie haec vel hoc]. 

112, 219, 785, [19, TH] 

thistle THYSTLE thystl (thi's'tl) yseall 

[carduus]. 112, 219, 785, [19, TH] 
Thomas THOMAS (Tom-as) .760*, 766 2 , 

[32, TH. 44]. Thomas THOMAS tomas 

(Tom-as). 99, 219, 785, [19, TH] 
thorough THOIIOWE (thuru). 219, 760 1 , 

766 1 , [31, TH. 43] 
thou THOU (dhou). 219, 760 ? , 766', 

[31, TH. 43]. thou THOU Y ddow 

(dhou) ti tie tydi, [tu]. 150, 219, 

785, [21, Y u ] 

three THREE (thrii). 754, [23. I] 
throne (truun ?). 760 3 , [32, TH]. throne 

THRONE trwn (truun) pall [solium]. 

99, 219, 785, [19, TH] 
through THHOUOH thrwch (thruukh) 

trywodd [per]. 219, 783, [19, TH] 
thunder THONDUE thwndr (than d'r) 

[tonitru]. 79, 99, 199, 777, [13, E] 
t* (tei-bei). Ill, 744 1 , 754, [4. 

to TO (tuu). 758*, [28, 0]. to TO tw 

(tu) ar, at, *, [ad]. 93, 99, 781, 

[17, 0] 
toe TOE (too). 758', [28, 0]. toe, TO to 

(too) bys troet [digitus pcdis]. 93, 

99, 781, [17, 0] 
toll TOLLE fowl (tooul) toll [vectigal], 

194, 781, [17, 0] 
Vollis (toouKs), bad. 744 1 , [4] 
top, TOP top (top) en [vertex]. 99, 

783, [19, T] 
tormented TORMENTED (torment'ed). 

766 1 , [43] 
tower TOURE totor (tour) twr [turris], 

783, [19, F] 
treasure THREASURE (trec-zyyr). 760 3 , 

[32, TH]. treasure TKESURE tresuwr 

(trez-yyr) trysor [thesaurus]. 80, 165, 

199,215,219,783, [19, T] 
trees TREES triyt (trii'j'z) premieu 

[arbores]. 80, 779, [14, E] 
trow TROWE fro (troo) tylyeid [opinor]. 

150, 773, [8] 

true TRUE truto (tryy) kywir [vcrus]. 

165, 785, [19, U] 
trust TRUST (trt'st) vulgar. Ill, 164, 

760, [32, U] 
f* (tyy) bad. 767, [46] 
twinkle TWYNCLE twinkl (twi'qk-'l) 

[scintillarel 112, 195, 777, [13, E] 
two TWO (tuu). 758*, [28, 0]. two TWO 

tw (tuu) dau [duo]. 93, 99, 781, 

[17, 0] 

uncle VXKLB (nuqk-1). 744 1 , 766 ? , [5. 

vain see vein 

valiant UALIAXT (valiant) 766', [48] 

vein vain VAYNE vayn (van) gwythen 

tie wac [vena vel vanus]. 119, 785. 

[19, U] 
velvet VELUET velfet (vel'vct) nielfet 

[holosericum]. 80, 785, [19, U] 
tvidi (vei-dei). 754, [23, I] 
villanus FILLAYNOLS (vil-anus). 766*, 

vine VYNE vein (vein) ftpfn wydden 

[vitis]. Ill, 119, 785, [19, U] 
virtue VERTUE vet-taw (ver'tjy) rhiii- 

wedd [virtus]. 80, 165, 199, 785, 

[19, U] 

wall WALL wawl (waul) gwal [mums], 

143, 194, 775, [11, A] 
wash WASSHE waiss (wash, waish ?) 

golehi [lavare]. 783, [18, SH] 
watch (waitsh). 120, 747, [12, A] 
wave see waw 
waw WAWE waw (wau) tonii ar vor 

[unda maris]. 143, 785, [20, W] 
we WEE (wii). 751 4 . 754, [18. E. 23, I] 
weir WERE (weer) 79, 751 3 , [18, E] 
wide WYDE (weid). 763-, [35, Y] 
win WYNNE (wtn). 763', [35, \]. win 

WYNNE icynn (wi'n) ennill [pretium 

ferre]. 112, 785, [20. W] 
wind WYNOE ? (wcind). 763 2 , [35, Y] 
wine WYNE wein (wein) gtvin [vinumj. 

Ill, 785, [20, W] 
winking WINKING (wiqk'iq). 754 3 , 

[23, I] 

wish WYSHE (wtsh). 752 2 , [19, E] 
with WYTK (w*th). 143, 219, 750*, 

7626, [17, D. 34, W] 
wonder WONDRB wndr (wun'd'r) [mi- 

raculum]. 79, 99, 185, 199, 777, 

[13, E] 
woo WOWE w (uu, wuu ?) kary [amaro, 

ut procus petere]. 93, 150, 185, 785, 

[20, W] 
worship WORSHIPPB (wursht'p). 752', 

[19, E] 
worthy WORTHYE (wurdht). 766 1 , [43] 




wot WOTTE (wot). 752 2 , [19, E] 
wreak WREKE (wreck = ru-eek). 79, 

751 3 , [ 18, El 
wrest WHKSTE (wrest =ru>est). 79, 751 3 , 

[18, EJ 
wrinkle WRTNCLE wrinkl (wriqk''l = 

nnqk-'l) [ruga]. 112, 195, 777, [13, 


yard YARDE (jard). 755 3 , [24 I] 
yawn TASK (jann). 755 2 , [24, 1] 
vea TEA te (jee) [etiam]. 80, 775, [H,A] 

year YERE (jeer). 755*, [24, I] 
yell YELL (jel). 75o 2 , [24, I] 
yellow YELOW (jel'u). 755-, [24, I] 
yield YELDE (jiild). 755 2 , [24, I] 
yielding I-ELDYNGE (riild't'q). 766\ 


yoke YOK (jook). 755 2 , [24, I] 
lor* YORKE (jork). 755*, [24, I] 
you YOU (juu). 75o 2 , [24, I] 
young YOXG (juq). 755 3 , [24, 1] 
youth YorGTit (jruuth). 755*, [24, I] 

3. John Hart's Phonetic Writing, 1569, and the Pronun- 
ciation of French in xvitfA Century. 

Since the account of John Hart's Orthographic (p. 35) was in 
type, the original manuscript of his "former treatise," bearing date 
1551, has been identified in the British Museum, and some account 
of it is given in the annexed footnote. 1 It may be observed that 

1 Mr. Brock, who is ever on the 
look out for unpublished treatises in- 
teresting to the Early English Text 
Society, called my attention, through 
Mr. Furnivall, to the MS. Reg. 17. C. 
vii., which was described in the printed 
catalogue of those MSS. as "John 
Hare's Censure of the English Lan- 
guage, A.D. 1651, paper." It is a 
small thin quarto of 117 folios, the 
first two pages not numbered, and the 
others paged from 1 to 230, 19 lines in 
& page, about 7 words in a line, in a 
fine English hand of the xvi th century, 
carefully but peculiarly spelled, by no 
means according to Hart's recommenda- 
tions. The Latin quotations are in an 
Italian hand. It was labelled on the 
back " Hare on the English Language." 
Being desirous of getting at the author's 
account of our sounds, when I examin- 
ed the MS. on 28 Oct. 188, I skipped 
the preliminary matter and at once at- 
tacked the 6th and 8th chapters ; " Of 
the powers and shaping of letters, 
and nrst of the voels," and " of the 
affinite of consonants." I was im- 
mediately struck with many peculia- 
rities of expression and opinion which 
I was familiar with in Hart's Ortho- 
graphic, and no other book. On turn- 
ing to the dedication to Edward VI., 
I found (p. 4, 1. 8,) the name of the 
author distinctly as John Hart, not 
Hare, although the t was written so as 
to mislead a cursory reader, but not one 
familiar with the handwriting. Then, 

similarly, in Hart's Orthographic the 
author's name is mentioned in the de- 
dication : " To the doubtfull of the Eng- 
lish Orthographic John Hart Chester 
heralt wisheth all health and pros- 
peritie," which had not been observed 
when p. 35, 1. 20, was printed, and not 
on the title. On comparing this printed 
book with the MS. I found many pas- 
sages and quotations verbatim the same ; 
see especially the first chapters of the 
MS. and printed book " what letters ar, 
and of their right use," where right is 
not in the MS. The identity was thus 
securely established, and the MS. has 
consequently been re-lettered: "Hart 
on English Orthography, 1551." 

The title of the MS. is: "The 
Opening of the unreasonable writing 
of our inglish toung : wherin is shewid 
what necessarili is to be left, and what 
folowed for the perfect writing ther- 
of." And the following lines, on the 
fly leaf, in the author's hand-writing, 
seem to shew that this first draught, 
thus curiously brought to light after 
317 years' repose, was never intended 
for publication, but was perhaps to 
be followed by another treatise, which 
was of course the printed book. 

" The Booke to the Author. 

" Father, keep me still with the, I the 


least Abuse ehuld me furiousli de- 

CHAV. VIII. $ 3. 



his pronunciation remained practically constant during these eighteen 
years, and the chief difference of the treatises is the greater extent 
of the second, and the important introduction of a phonetic alpha- 
bet, followed by a full example. 

voice wherefore we doo often (and shuld 
alwais) writ the o (p. 93) ; and last of 
all holding so stil his toung and teeth 
untoucht shrinking his lippes to so 
litell a hole as the breath may issue, 
with the sound from [79] the breast he 
shal of force make that simple voice 
wherefore we doo sometimes rightly 
(and shuld alwais) write the u [cer- 
tainly (u) here]. . . . [81]. Now 
as for the a, we use in his proper power 
as we ought, and as other nations have 
alwais doonc (p. 63). But I find that 
we abuse all the others, and first of the 
e, which most commundy we use pro- 
perly : as in theis wordes better and 
ever : but often we change his sound 
making yt to usurp the power of the i, 
as in we, be & he (p. 80), in which 
sound we use the i properly : as in 
theis wordes shine, in and him. Where- 
fore this letter e, shuld have his aun- 
cient sound as other nations use yt, and 
which is as we sound yt in better and 
ever. The profit thereof shuldbc, 
that [83] we shuld not feare the 
inystating of his sound in i : as we 
have longc doon : and therfore (and 
partly for lak of a note for time) we 
have communely abused the diphthongs 
ey or ei, ay or ai and ea : to the great 
increase of our labour, confusyon of the 
letters, in depriving them of their right 
powers, and uncertainte to the reader. 
[In this book Hart proposes either the 
circumflex or reduplication as the mark 
of quantity]. For the voel e, doctb of 
voice import so moche in better and 
ever and in mani other wordes and 
sillablcs, as we do communely use to 
pronounce the diphthongs ey or ei, ai, 
or ay, or the ea, except yt be wheu 
they are seperate and rre from diph- 
thong whiche to signific we ought to 
use an accent as shalbe said. [lie 
proposes the hyphen.] Then the i, 
we abuse two wais : the first is in that 
we geve it a brode sound (contrary to 
all peoples but the Scotts : as in this 
sentence, [83] he borowed a swerd 
from bi a mans side to save thie life : 
where we sound the i in bi, side, thio 
and life as we shuld doo the ei diph- 
thong . . . The other ab-[8i]-use of 
the i, is that we make yt a consonant 

or shut me up from the lyght of the 

whom to resist I doubt to have the 


" The Author to the Booke. 
" Fear not my sonne, though he doo 
on the lower, 

for Season doth the everiwhcre de- 
feud : 

But yf thou maist not now the thing 

I shal send thie brother soom luk- 
kier hower, 

yf Atropos doo not hast my lyres 

to confound Abuses lothsoom lookes 

"Abuse," meaning the wrongful use 
of letters, that is applying them to 
sounds for which they were not in- 
tended in the Latin alphabet, is a fa- 
vourite term of Hart's, and with the 
curious orthography voel for vowel, led 
me to suspect the real author from the 
first. The following description of the 
vowels is slightly different from, and 
must be considered as supplementary 
to those given above in the pages here- 
after cited ; the bracket figures give the 
pages of the MS. A few remarks are 
also inserted in brackets. 

"[77] Lett us begin then with an 
opened mouth so mouch as a man may 
(though lesse wold serve) therwith 
sounding from the breast, and he shall 
of force bring forth one simple sound 
which we mark with the a (p. 63) : 
and making your mouth lesse so as the 
inner part of your toung may touch 
the lyke inner part of yottr [78] upper 
iowes you shall with your voice frowt 
your brest make that sound wherfore 
we doo often (and shuld alwais) writ 
the e (p. 80) : then somthing your 
toung further furth with your iowcs, 
leaving but the forepart open, and 
your sound from the brcst wil make the 
voice wherfore we doo often (and shuld 
alwais) write the i : forthli a man 
making his lippes in souch a round, as 
the compasse of the topp of his litell 
finger (his teeth not touching, nor 
toung the upper iowes) with the sound 
from the brest he shall make the simple 




This pronunciation cannot have been in all respects the prevalent, 
and received pronunciation of his time, for Hart frequently disagrees 
with Palsgrave, Salesbury, Smith, and Bullokar, and Dr. Gill 

without any diversifiywg of his shape 
from the voell . . . [86 J The forth now 
is the o, whose ahuse (for that it cometh 
onli by leaving the proper use of the 
u) causeth me to speak upon the u. 
"We abuse [87] the u, two wais the one 
is in consonant indifferentli with hothe 
his figures u and v .... [88]. The 
other abuse of the u, is that we sound 
yt as the Skottes and French men doo, 
in theis wordes gud and fust [89] : 
Wheras most communely we our selves 
(which the Grekes, Latines, the vulgar 
Italians, and Germaines with others 
doo alwais) kepe his true sound : as in 
theis wordes, but, unto, and further. 
[This thoroughly excludes all suspicion 
of an (a) sound.] Yf you marke well 
his uzurped sound in gud and fust (and 
others of the Skottish and french abuse) 
you shal find the sound of the diph- 
thong iu, keping both the i and u, in 
their proper vertu, both in sound and 
voel, as afore is said we ought : sound- 
ing yt in that voice wherefore we now 
abuse to write, you." The identifica- 
tion with the French and Scotch 
sounds ought to imply that that long u 
was (yy), but its dentification with you 
makes it (ju) ; Hart however, in his 
orthographic also rises (iu) for both 
sounds, as in the passage reprobated by 
Gill, supra p. 122, where he writes 
you use as (iu iuz) ; yet if any value is 
to be attributed to his description of 
long , supra p. 167, he certainly meant 
(ju yyz) and it was only his notation 
which led him into an ambiguity which 
also deceived Gill. But here it is 
evident that he had not yet heard the 
difference between yew, you, which Sir 
T. Smith writes (yy, iu), p. 166. This 
therefore may be a case of education of 
the ear. He asks now: "What dif- 
ference find you betwixt the sound of 
you, and u in gud and fust ? Where- 
fore yf our predecessours have thought 
it necessari to take three voels for that 
voice, which in another place [90] they 
(observing derivations) writ with one, 
there appeareth to be a confusion and 
uncertainte of the powers of letters, as 
they used theim. Lett us then receive 
the perfet meane betwixt theis two 
doubtfull extremities ; and use the 
diphthong in alwais for the sound of 

you, and of u in suer, shut & bruer, 
and souch lyke, writing theim thus 
shiut, siuer, briuer :" does the word 
shut xhiut mean suit or shoot ? see supra 
p. 21 6, n. 1, " wherefore in our writings, 
we nead carefulli to put a sufficient dif- 
ference, betwixt the u and n : as theis 
and the printes geve sufficient example. 
Now see you whether we doo well to 
writ the o in theis wordes do, to & 
other (signifijng in latine aliui) when 
yt ys the proper sound of the u : or 
for [91] the lyke sound to dooble the 
o : as in poore, good, root, and souch 
like of that sound : but I find the same 
dooble o, writen with reason in some 
wordes, when yt signyfieth the longer 
time : as in moost, goost and goo. . . . 
[95] Then the nombre of our voels is 
live as the Grekes (concerning voice) 
the Latines, the Germaines, theltaliens, 
the Spayneyardes and others have alwais 
had, declared in souch their singulcr 
power, as they hane and doe, use theim. 
. . . [96] a diphthong is a ioinyng of 
two voels in one syllable keping their 
proper sound, pnh somewhat shorten- 
ing the quantite of the first to the 
longer quantite of the last (p. 1 32) : 
which is the onli diversite that a diph- 
thong hath, from two voels commywg 
together yet serving for two syllables, 
and therfore ought to be marked with 
the figure Utaipto-ts, as shalbe said." 
Among the diphthongs he places first y 
considered as Greek vi, and recom- 
mends its disuse, and then w considered 
as tut, for which he would write u. 
[101] " Wherefore we take the u single 
to have so moch power as the w : for 
this figure u, shall not (or ought not) 
henceforth be abused in consonant, nor 
in the skottish and french sound. Then 
may we well writ for when, writ and 
what, thus huen, urit and huat : and 
so if their lyke, cleane forsaking the 
w. Xow the ea, so often as I see yt 
abused in diphthong, it is for the sound 
of the long e : wherin is the necessite 
spoken of, for the use of a mark, for 
the accident of longer time (as here- 
after shalbe said) for that the sound c 
leugth-[102j-ned wil serve for the com- 
mune aoused diphthongs ea, ai or ay 
and ei or ey (p. 122) : the powers of 
which voels we now myx together con- 




especially reprobates his pronunciation in many particulars (p. 122). 
Still we can hardly refuse to believe that Hart tried to exhibit that 
pronunciation of which he himself made use, and wliich he conceived 
to be that which others either did or should employ. Moreover his 
work contains the earliest connected specimen of phonetic English 
writing which I have met with, as Palsgrave, Salesbury, and Smith 
only gave isolated words or phrases. Although Hart's book has been 
reproduced by Mr. Isaac Pitman, the ordinary spelling in phonetic 
shorthand, and the phonetic portion in facsimile writing (with tolera- 
ble but not perfect accuracy), yet as many persons would be unable to 
read the shorthand, and would not therefore obtain a proper know- 
ledge of the meaning of the other portion, and as it is desirable, also, 
to reduce all these phonetic accounts of English spelling to the one 
standard of palaeotype for the purposes of comparison, I have 
thought it best to annex the whole of the last Chapter of Hart's 
book, according to my own interpretation. This Chapter gives 
Hart's notions of contemporary French pronunciation, a subject 
which has been already so much alluded to in Chap. III., that the 
remainder of this section will be devoted to it. Hart does not 
admit of (w, j) but uses (u, i) for them, even in such words as 
which, write, which he exhibits as (miitsh, ureit). I have else- 
where restored the (w, j) which were certainly pronounced, but 
in this transliteration it seemed best to follow him exactly in the 

fuzibli making the sound of the same 
long e, and not of any parfait diph- 
thong : as in theis examples of the ea in 
feare which we pronounce sounding no 
part of the a. And for the ai or ay, as 
m this word faire pronouncing nether 
the a, or i, or y : also yn saieth where 
we abuse a thriphthong. Also ei or 
ey we pronounce not in theis wordes 
theine and theym, and souch lyke: 
where we sound the e long as in all 
the others. Now for the ee, we abuse 
in the sound of [103] the i long : as in 
this sentence, Take heed the birdes doo 
not feed on our seed : also for the ie in 
thief and priest : in likewise for the eo, 
as in people, we onli sound the i long. 
We also abuse the eo in the sound of 
the u voel as in ieoperdi, which we 
pronounce iuperdie. The oo we have 
abused as afore is said .... Now 
lett us understand how part of this fore- 
said and others shall serve us, and doo 
[104] us great pleasure : even as roules 
nccessari for us lykely to cowtrefait 
the image of our pronunciation. First 
the au is rightly used (p. 144), as 
in paul and lau, but not law. Then 
the ua, is wel used in uarre, for warre : 
and in huat for what. Further the ei, 
is wel and properli used in bei for by : 
iu Icif, for lyi'e : and in bcid, for syde 

(p. 113). Also en, we use properli in 
feu for few : in den, for dew, and souch 
lyke (p. 133). The uc, as in question : 
in huen, for when : in uel, for well. 
Also the in as in triuth, for trueth : 
in rebiuk, for rebuke : and in riule for 
rule. And the ui alone for our [105] 
false sounding of we : and as in huich 
for which : uitness for wittnesse, and 
souch like : [this he identifies with 
Greek vi] . . . F106] writ for youwg, 
yoke and beyond, iong, ioke, and bc- 
lond. Then the oi is wel used in ap- 
point, enjoi, poison, and a hoi barke, 
[here there is a difference from his 
later orthography (nuei) (p. 132)]. And 
not to be over tedious, we use aright 
this diphthong ou, in house, out, our 
and about (p. 152) : wherein we may 
perceive how we have kept the auncient 
power of the u : the same diphthong 
ou, being sounded farre otherwise then 
in bloud, souch and should', as some 
ignorantli writ thcim, when we pro- 
nounce but the u, in hyr proper sound." 
This use of ou for (u) is frequent iu 
this MS. souch, toung t motich, being 
common forms. The above extracts 
seem to possess sufficient interest to 
admit of reproduction, but the work 
itself is entirely superseded by the 
later edition. 


use of (u, i). Hart also systematically employs (in) for long it, 
but, as I have already pointed out (p. 1 (>7) and as will appear in the 
course of this example, he meant the French =(yy), and I have 
therefore restored that orthography, to prevent ambiguity. Where 
however iu clearly meant (ju, i,u), the latter forms are used. 
Hart does not mark the place of the accent, but uses an acute 
accent over a vowel occasionally to mark that it was followed by 
a doubled consonant in the old orthography. 1 This acute accent 
is retained, but the position of the accent is marked conjecturally 
as usual. Hart uses a dash preceding a word to indicate capitals, 
thus [italian; I give the indicated capital. His diaeresis is re- 
presented by (,) as usual. There are, no doubt, many errors iu 
the marking of long vowels, which were indicated by underdotting, 
but I have left the quantity as I found it. The (s, z) are also 
left in Hart's confused state. As I can find no reason for sup- 
posing short * to have been () in Hart, although I believe that 
that was his real pronunciation, I employ (i) throughout. The 
frequent foreign words, and all others in the usual spelling, are 
printed in italics. The foreign words serve partly to fix the value 
of Hart's symbols. 

Exanrp'ls HOU serten udlrer nas'ions du sound dheer 
let'ers, both in Latin, and in dheer mudh'er tuq, 
dherbei* tu kno dhe beet'er HOU tu pronouns' dheer 
spiitslres, and so tu riid dhera as dhee du. Kap. viij. 

For dhe konfirmas-ion ov dhat nuitsh is seed, for dhe sounds 
az-ucl of voxels az of kon'sonants : auldhon* ei naav in divers 
plas'cs irier-befoor shcu',ed iu, HOU ser*tcn udlrcr nas'ions du 
sound part ov dheer let'ers : ei thont it gud nier, not oon'li to re- 
kapit'ulat and short'li rcners', part ov dhe befoor men'sioned, but 
aul'so tu giv iu t- understand* HOU dhee du sound sutsh dheer 
let'ers, az dh- ignorant dher-of shuld aprootsh' noth'iq neer tu 
dhccr pronunsiasion bei riid'iq dheer ureitiqs or prints. Huer- 
for, huo so-iz dezei'rous tu riid dh- Italian and dhe Latin az 
dhee du, ni must sound dhe vo',elz az ei naav sufis'icntli seed 
treat'iq ov dhem, and az ei naav yyzd dhem in aul dhis nyy man'er, 
on'li eksept'iq dhat dhee maak dhis fig'yyr , kon'sonant az-uel az 
dhis r. Dheer c, dhee yyz aft'er aul vo',elz az wi dhe k, (as dhecr 
prodzhen'itors dhe Lat'ins did) and yyz not k at aul : but dhee- 
nbyyz' dhe c, bifoor e, and t, in dhe sound ov our ch or tsh, a/ eece 
and accioche, dhee sound ek'tshe, aktshioke', francesco frantshes'ko, 
fece, facendo, amid, fe'tshe, fatshend'o, ami'tshi : and for the sound 
ov dhe k, dhee yyz ch. I)hecr g, dhee kiip az ei naav dun aft'er 
vo*,elz, and befoor a, o, and u : but befoor e and *, dhee naav 

1 He says : " I leaue also all double doubt of the length, we may vse the 

consonants : hauing a marke for the mark ouer it, of the acute tone or tune, 

long vowell, there is therhy sufficient thus (')." What the meaning of this 

knowledge giuen that euerye rnmarked acute accent is on final vowels, as in 

Towell is short : yet wheras by customc French words, is not apparent. 
of double consonants there* may be 

CHAP. VIII. { 3. 



abyyzd' it widh us, for whitsh ei naav yyzd dzh, and tu kiip dhat 
sound befoor a, o, and u, dhee uzurp- gi, as Hath bin seed, and 
dherfoor dhee never maak dheer ', kon'sonant, for dhcc see not 
agiuto but aiuto, as mee bi dhus ai-uto. Dhe t, dhee never sound 
in , az in protettion, satisfattion, dhee sound dhe t, Hard, and dher- 
foor- dub-'l it in dhooz uurdz and man-i-udlrers : but in giurisdi- 
tioni, militia, sentcntia, intentione, and man'i-udh'ers dhee du not 
dub''l it, iet dhee sound it as it iz, and never turn it in'tu dhe 
sound ov s, but iv iu mark it uel, dhee brcth ov dhe t, paViq thruH 
dhe tiith, and tunriq tu dhe-*', duth maak it siini as it ueer neer 
dhe sound ov dhe, *, but iz not dherfoor* so in efekt'. For dher gli, 
dhee du not sound g, so Hard az ui uld, but so soft'li az it iz oiVn 
urit'n and print'ed uidhout* dhe g. Dheer zz dhee sound most 
konvoli dhe first z, in t, as in fortezza, grandezza, destrezza, but at 
sum teimz dhee sound dhem az dhee du cc, as for dhiz naam dhee- 
ureit indif-erentli Eccellino, or Ezzettino. Dhee Haav aul'so dhe 
sound ov our *h or sh, nuitsh dhee-ureit sc, bcfoor, e, or i : dhee- 
yyz tu-ureit dhe th, but not for our th, or th : for dhee naav not 
dhe sound dhcrof' in aul dheer spiitsh, nor ov dh, and sound it in 
Jfatthio, az mce bi rnatnio, as of th, iz seed in Thomas and 2'hame. 
And for lak ov a knol'edzh for dhe kuan'titiz ov dheer vo',elz 
dhee-ar konstreend' tu dub*'l dheer kon'sonants oft'n and mutsh : 
and for dhe loq'er teim ov dheer vo'els, dhee Haav no mark : nuer- 
foor nuo so'-iz dezei'ruz tu riid dher ureit'iq uel, and invitaat 
dheer pronunsias'ion nad niid tu naav sum instruk'sion bei dhe 
leivli vo,is. And nuen dhee du reez dheer tyyn ov dheer urds 
(nuitsh iz oft'n) dhee noot it uidh dhe Latin graav tyyn, dhus andd, 
parld, e mostrd la nouitd, al podestcL de la cittH. And in riid'iq dhe 
Lat'in, aul dhat dhee feind urit'n, dhee du pronouns', iivn as dhee 
du dheer mudh'er tuq, in dhe veri sounds befoor-seed. 1 

1 As the pronunciation of Italian has 
been often referred to, and as H. I. H. 
Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte has 
lately given me his views upon some 
points of interest in Italian pronuncia- 
tion, it seems convenient to make a 
note of them in this place. The medial 
quantity of Italian vowels has already 
been noticed (p. 518 and n. 1). The 
vowel e has two sounds (e\ close and (E) 
open, the intermediate ie) being un- 
known, whereas it is the only e in 
Spanish. The vowel o has also two 
sounds, which have in this work been 
hitherto assumed as (h) close and (o) 
open. The prince does not allow 
this ; to him (wh) is Swedish o long, 
and (o) is Spanish o. His Italian 
close o does not differ from (o), and his 
open o is (o) or (A), probably the for- 
mer. His theory is that when a lan- 
guage has only one e, o, as in Spanish 
and modern Greek (supra p. 5'2'j, 1. 6 

from bottom), "Welch, and therefore in 
Latin and early English, it is (e, o) ; 
when it has two e, and two o, they 
are (e, E) and (o, o) respectively. 
Again in the pronunciation of the 
consonants in Italian, the Prince dis- 
tinguishes, an emphatic and a weak 
utterance. The former is usually 
written double, but, he insists, is not 
pronounced double, in the sense of p. 
55, but only emphatic, as if preceded 
by the sign (.) p. 10, which has been 
wrongly used (pp. 4, 9) in the combi- 
nations (.t, .d) in place of (if-, dh), or 
" outer" (t, d). The following are the 
rules he lays down in his Sardo Sas- 
sarese example (supra p. 756, n. 2, col. 
2), which it is best to give in his own 
words (ib. p. xxxv). " Si dice spesso, 
poichfc le consonant! scempie si pro- 
imnziano, tanto in italiano quanto in 
Mssarese, come se fossero scritte doppie, 
in foraa delle sfguenti regole generali : 


CHAP. VIII. i 3. 

Fordhe HIH dutsli clhee sound aul dheervo',elz in tlhe veri saara 
sort : and never maak dhc , kon'sonant, nor abyyz' dhe g, befoor* 
dhe e, and /, az dh- Italian duth, but kiip it aul'uez befoor dhom, az 

1) Allorche, essendo iniziali, vengono 
in principio di frase, sia al cominciar 
di un pcriodo o di una clausula benche 
breve, sia dopo una virgola. 2) Al- 
lorche, cominciando la sillaba, sono 
precedute da altra consonante. 3) Al- 
lorche occorono in fin di voce, come 
ne' monosillabi il, del, &c. 4) Quando 
la voce prccedente, benche terniinata 
in vocale, sia un ossitono oppure un 
monosillabo derivato da voce latina 
terniinata in consonante, la qual con- 
sonante poi venne sopprcssa nel farsi 
italiana o sassarese delta voce latiua. 
Cosl la preposizione dcrivata dalla 
latina ad, la congiunzione e corrispon- 
dente ad et, il si derivato dal sic, il 
"ne" nee, le parole tronche come 
"amo" amavit, "pote" potuit hanno 
tutte la proprieta di dar pronunzia forte 
alia consonante iniziale della voce 
seguente ; ed avvegnache si vegga 
scritto : a Pietro, e voi, si grande, ne 
questo we qudlo, amo molto, pote poco, 
non si ode altrimenti che : apptetro, 
evvoi, siggrande necquezto nccqitello, 
amommolto, poteppoco. II suono debole 
delle consonanti, all' incontro, avra 
luogo quando la voce che le precede si 
termina in vocale, eccettuati i casi 
notati nellc regole che precedono. Cosl 
in : di Maria, i doni, la mente, le donne, 
mi dice, ti lascia, si gode, ama molto 
pote 1 poco, wolto largo, le consonant! 
iniziali della seconda voce si pronun- 
ziano dcboli quali si veggono scritte, 
per esserc le parole latine correspon- 
denti alia prima voce : de, illi, ilia, 
illte, me, te, se, pottti terminate in 
vocale, oppure perche, come in ama 
molto e multo largo, le voci ama e molto 
non ricevon 1'accento tonico in sull' 
ultima sillaba." Compare the double 
Spanish sound of r, supra p. 198, n. 2. 
This emphatic pronunciation, in the 
case of (p b, t d, k g) consists in a 
firmer contact and consequently a more 
explosive utterance of the following 
vowel ; in the case of (/, v, s ) &c., in 
a closer approximation of the organs 
and a sharper hiss or buzz. But in 
Sardo Sassarese, the weak pronuncia- 
tion generates new sounds, weak (p, t, 
le, v) becoming (b, d, g, bh). The 
Prince was also very particular respect- 
ing the pronunciation c, y, z in ce, aia, 

zio, zero, which have been assumed in 
this work to be (tsh, dzh, ts, dz) re- 
spectively, forming true consonantal 
diphthongs, the initial (t, d) having an 
initial effect only (supra p. 54, 1. 20). 
The Prince considers them all to be 
simple sounds, capable of prolongation 
and doubling, nnd he certainly so pro- 
nounced them. Sir T. Smith, and 
Hart both used simple signs for (tsh, 
dzh), Gill used a simple sign for (dzh) 
but analyzed it into (dzj). Hart, how- 
ever, seems to have considered (tsh) as 
simple, but his words are not clear. 
The effect of the simple sound used by 
the Prince, was that of (t*sh, d*zh, 
t*s, d*z), that is an attempt to make 
both pairs of effects at once. This re- 
sults in a closer and more forward con- 
tact, nearly (sli f-, /h (-, s (-, z [) but the 
(t*s, d*z) did not resemble (th, dh). 
This effect may be conveniently written 
(;sh, ?zh, ^s, i|z). The effect of (^sh, 
ijzh) on English ears is ambiguous. At 
one time it sounds (sh, zh) and at an- 
other (tsh, d/.h), with a decided initial 
(t, d) contact as we pronounce in Eng- 
lish, and the Prince again hears my 
(tsh, dzh) as his (;sh, qzh). It would 
almost seem that (^sh, qzh) were the 
true intermediate sounds between (kj, 
gj) and (tsh, dzh). But a Picard 
variety of (kj, gj) which may for dis- 
tinctness be written (k/, g/) is a still 
more unstable sound to foreign cars. 
In precisely the same way (k*s, k*sh) 
may be produced, the tongue being 
more retracted and the tongue closer 
to the palate than for (s, sh) . In the 
Sardo Tempiese dialect (k*sh) occurs 
and is written kc. These sounds may 
be written (\s, jjsh) in imitation of 
(qs, qsh). Was the Attic initial |, re- 
placing or, really (\s), and the original 
Sanscrit ^J (l*h) r 1 The double con- 
tact of tongue and lips, which probably 
occurs in African dialects may be (^p, 
?p), as slightly different from (kit 1 , 
tip). The sibilants may now be greatly 
multiplied. The prince pronounced 
the following : (s z, sh zh ; sj zj, shj 
zhj ; :js qz, qsh qzh ; qsj qzj, qshj qzhj) 
all as simple sounds. Emphatic pro- 
nunciation, simultaneous pronunciation, 
and successive pronunciation still re- 
quire much consideration and practical 


befooi- a, o, and u : and dhe Flenriq tu bi syyr tu kontiiryy dhat 
sound, dudh yyz it befoor' e, and *', widh, h. Nor Hath dhe Dutsh 
(over nor nedh'er) dhat sound nuitsh iz dhe leik of our^', kon'sonant, 
and dh- ital'ian g, bcfoor-seed, for nuitsh ei yyz dzh, but dhe 
breth dher-of dhe HIH Dutsh Haav, and ureit it widh tsch. And 
bodh dhe fig-yyrz for dhe fcivth vo-,el, dhee yyz uidhout' ani serten 
dif'erens Huitsh shuld bi vo',el or nuitsh kon-sonant: and dhcn 
naav dhee dhe dif'thoqs befoor naamd, Huitsh ar tu bi noot'ed 
ov dhat Iq-lish man nuitsh shaul dezcir tu leern dhcer tuq. 1 And 
du-yyz tu dub-'l dhecr yo-,elz for dheer locker tcira. Dhee Haav 
aul-so our sound ov th, or sh, for Huitsh dhee yyz sch, as scham, 
schale, fleisch, and fisch, dhee sound as ui mee shaam, shel, flesh, 
fish, and see, sci, dhee sound az duth aul'so dh- ItaHan : and az ui 
du she, shi. Dhee never put dhe c, in'tu dhe sound of s, but yyz 
k, tu bi-out of dout. Dhee yyz dhe Q veri sel'dum, but dhe k, 
mutsh in plaas dher-of, and dhe a dhee du- oft n sound brood'er 
dhen wi duu, but mutsh aul'so-as wi du. And for the rest dhee 
pronouns' aul dhee ureit, and kiip dheer let'ers in dhe self sound, 
nuer-in dhee riid aul'so dher Latin. 

!Nou third'li for dhe Spaniard, Hi abyyz'eth dhe i, and M, in kon'- 
sonants as ui-and dhe Frensh du, and dhe u, oft'n, in dhe Frensh. 
and Skot'ish sound: and dhe c/i, in muchacho az ui du in tshalk and 
tshiiz : but for aul dheer udh'er vo',elz and let'ers dhee yyz dhem 
in dhe saam sounds dhat du dh-Ital'ian and Dutsh, but dhat dhee 
yyz dhe y az ui naav duun (miitsh nedh'er Ital'ian nor Dutsh 
niid) tu bi dherbei' eezd ov dhe dout ov dhe , kon'sonant Huitsh 
dhee sound leik dhe Frentsh. Dhe c dhee yyz in s, uidhout' an'i 
noot of di'f-erens befoor e, and . but befoor' a, o, and u, dhee naav 
deveizd' a-lit''l, *, un-der dhus, f : dhee-yyz never dhe k, but dhe 
Q, with dh-Ital'ian : dhce-yyz dhe II in dhe sound of '1, uidh dhe 
ualsh. Dhe u, in qua and, qui, dhcc du seldum sound, as for que 
quieres, dhee sound as ui mee ke kieres. And for aul dhe rest dhee 
kiip dhe aun'sient Lat'in sound, and so riid dhecr Lat'in az du dh- 
Ital'ian and Dzher'main : and for Him dhat Hath the Lat'in tuq 
uidh a-lit''l instruk'sion iz az ez'i tu riid and under-stand* az iz 
dh- Italian.* 

observation of existing usages. The utmost importance to comparative phi- 
difficulty in separating the usual speech lologist, and almost totally unknown to 
habits of the listener and speaker, and comparative philologists, 
of not assuming the first to be a correct i The passage referred to is as fol- 
account of the second, is more and lows : " The Dutch doe vse also M, ei, 
more felt as the knowledge of the pho- and ie t rightly as I do hereafter, and 
netic process increases. We have as {n the founde of Qr (e) . . in 
yet necessanly given an undue amount th(J founde of a or ,$A ^ the 
of consideration to analysis, in order 'to gound of ( j or the Fr ^ enc ^ and gcot _ 
ascertain the elements ot speecn, to the , v ^ f> . . . . 
neglect of the important study of syn- ^ " 5 for f a " d . f 7 r ( uu )' lon % 
thesis, whence alone can result the pro- r french ou. Fo. 3o b. mispnnted 
per conception of national speech with f- 31 > P> 2 . thc or 'ff ial reference. 
its whole array of legato, staccato, pho- 2 The Spanish has only five vowels 
netic assimilation, phonetic disrup- (a, e, i, o, u) of medial length (p. 518, 
tion, stress, intonation, quantity, em- n. 1). The Spanish ch is our (tsh) or 
phasis of letter, syllable, word, of the ftsh). Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte 


And nou last ov aul, dhe Frensh, uidh dh-abyys ov dhe u, in 
dhc skot'ish leik sound ov dhe m diphthoq, nuitsh, nor Ital ian, 
nor Dutsh did ever giv tu u, and yyz'iq dhe g, and /, kon'sonant 
in dhe sound Huer-of, our sh, iz dhe bredlred kon'sonant : and 
tunriq dhe *, in'tu z, nuen ui, uidh aul dhe rest, du sound the , 
(eksept' dhe Spaniard, az ui naav aul'so yyzd betuikst' tuu 
vo'elz) and kiip-iq an udh'er teim in dher vo',elz dhen ui du, and 
yyz'iq dhecr e, in dervers sounds, and dhe o sunrnuat aul'so : bei 
not sound'iq dhc , in qui, and qua, but az uii mcc kii and kee, 
uidh leeviq man-i ov dheer let'ers unsound-cd, duth kauz dhecr 
spiitsh veri nard tu bi lernd bei art, and not eez'i bei dhe 
leivli vo-,is, az it iz notori,uzli knoon. So az if ei shuld ureit 
Frensh, in dhe let'ers and order miitsh ei du nou-yyz, ei-am ser-ten 
dhat iu shuld mutsh suun'er kum tu dhecr pronunsias'ion, 
dher-bei, dhen bei ureitiq az dhee du. And tu eksperiment dhe 
mat'er, and tu maak sutsh az understand' Frensh, dzhudzh'es 
dher-of, ei uil ureit dhe Lords preer az dhee du, nuitsh shuld be 
prezent'ed tu sutsh an oon, az kan riid dhis man'er, and iet under- 
stand'eth not dhe Frcnsh, and prauv nou ni kan riid and pronouns* 
it : and dhen present' it mm in dhis man'er ov ureit'iq, az Hier- 
after: and kompaar iiis pronunsias-ion tu dhe fornrer, and iu 
shuld pruuv dhat efekt', nuitsh kan not bi bront tu pas bei our 
fornver man'cr. And dher-foor nier fol'ueth dhe lords preer first 
in Frensh in dheer man'er ov ureit'iq : Nostre pere qui es es cieux, 
Ton nom soit sanctifc. Ton Regne aduienne. To, volonte soit faite 
en la tcrre comme au del. Donne-nous au-iourd 1 huy nostre pain 
quotidian : Et nous pardonne nos offenses, comme nous pardonnons 
(L ceux qui nous out offensez. Et ne nous indui point en tentation : 
inais nous deliure du mal. Car d. toy est le regne, la puissance, et la 
gloire es siecles, dfs siecles. Amen. Nou in dhis nyy man'er 
az fol'u,eth. Nootraii peeran ki-ez eez sieuz, tun Num soit 
santifie. Tun lie nan avienaH. Ta uolunte soit fetan, an la 
taran kuman oo siel. Dune-nuuz ozdzhuurdui nootran peen 
kotidian. E nun pardunair noz ofanses kuman nuu pardunuunz 
a seuz ki nuuz unt ofansez. E ne nuuz indui point an tan- 
tas'ion : meez nuu delivran dyy ma'l. Kar a toe eet le reen'an, 
la pyy,isanse e la gloeran ecz sickles dez sickles Aman. Nou 
kon'trariueiz uil ei ureit nier-un'der in dheez nyy Ict-ers (and 
kiip'iq dheer sound az befoor') nou dhe Frensh du pronouns* dheer 

denies that (v, dh, z) occur in Spanish, nounced alike and as (bh). The j is 

but admits (f, th, s), as sounds of/, :, (or by some said to be a peculiar guttural, 

c before r, t,) and*. This pronunciation but the Prince identifies it with (kh). 

of c, z is doubtful. It may be (s f-), and LI, n are (Ij, nj). Hart confuses II 

certainly by some d is pronounced with Welsh //, as does Salesbury, 

cither (dh) or (z(-), especially when (supra p. 757), but Hart also confuses 

final. In the common termination -ado, the sound with ('!), or le in able (supra, 

the d is often quite lost, but the vowels p. 195) ; which he probably called 

are kept distinct in two syllables, and (aa-blh) as in French (supra p. 52). 

do not form a diphthong. In the ter- There seems to be no foundation for 

mination -ido, the d is never lost. The supposing that Spanish M was ever (y), 

(s) sound of r, z, is not acknowledged as stated by Hart, 
in Madrid. The letters A, v are pro- 


Lat'in: and dhat aul'so in dhc Lords precr, nuitsh iz ax dhus. 
Paater noster ki ez in seliiz, santifisetyyr nomen tyy,yym, atveniat 
remyym tyy,yym fiat voluntaaz tyya sikyyt in selo e in team panem 
nostryym kotidianyym da nobiiz odiie et dimiitc nobii dcbiita 
nostra, sikyyt et noz dimiitimyyz dcbitoribyyz nostriiz. Et no 
noz indyykaaz in tentasionem : Set libera noz a malo. And ei 
remenvber ov a meri dzhest ei naav nerd ov a buee imitsh did 
Help a Frensh priist at mas, nuo see'iq dominyy vobiikyym, dhc 
buee neeriq it sound strandzh'li-iir niz eer, amrsuercd, eth kum 
tirlert tiikyym, and so uent lauiriq nis uee. And so per- 
adven-tyyr iu-uil at dhe riid'iq, az iu mee biliiv me-ei did at 
dhe ureit'iq nier-of. Ei kuld ureit aul-so HOU dhe frensh and 
udlrer forens du spek Iq'lish, but dheer marrer is so plentiful in 
nian'i-of our eerz, az ei thiqk it super 'fii,uz. Dhe rez'on nuei 
dhee kan not sound our spiitsh, iz (az iu mee perseev bci dhat is 
seed) bikauz- ui naav and yyz scrteen sounds and brcedhz nuitsh 
dhee naav not, and du-aul'so yyz tu sound sum of dhooz let-erz 
Huitsh dhee-yyz uidh us, udh-erueiz dhen dhee duu : and dhee 
for revendzlr sum ov ourz udlrerueiz dlien ui duu. nuitsh iz dhe 
kauz aul'so dhat dheer spiitsh ez ar nard for us tu riid, but dhe 
sound oons knoon, ui kan eez'ili pronouus* dhers bei dhe rcz'on 
abuvseed. And dhus tu-end if iu thiqk lit*'l prof-it tu bi in dhis 
Huer-in ei nav kaus'cd .iu tu pas iur teim, ei uil iet distshardzh* 
mei self dhat ei-am asyyred it kan du-iu no Harm, and so dhe 
aulmint'i God, giver ov aul gud thiqs, bliis uz aul, and send us 
nis graas in dhis tran'sitori leif, and in dhe uorld tu kum, leif ever- 
last'iq. So bi-it. FINIS. Sat cito si sat lene. 


In the introductory Authours Epistett to the Kynges Grace, pre- 
fixed to Palsgrave's Esclarcissement, he says : " Onely of this thyng, 
puttyng your highnesse in remewbraunce, that where as besydcs 
the great nombre of clerkes, whiche before season of this mater 
hawe "written nowe sithc the beginnyng of your most fortunate and 
most prosperous raignc," that is, between 22 April 1509 and 18 
July 1530, "the right vertuous and excellent prince Thomas late 
Duke of Northfolke, hath commanded the studious clerkc 2 Alexadre 

1 Further on he is not so compli- and what myn opinion is therin, it shall 

mentary, as he remarks : " Where as well inough apere in my bokes selfe, 

there is a hokc, that goeth about in this though I m;ike thcrof no ferther ex- 

realme, intitled the Introductory to p/rsse mencion : saue that I haue sene 

writte and pronounce frenche, compiled an olde boke written in parchement 

by Alexander Barcley, in whiche k is in maner in all thyngcs like to his sayd 

mochc vsed, and many other thynges Introductory : vhiche, hy coiiiecturc, 

also by hym amrmcd, contrary to my was nat vnwrittcn this hundred yeres. 

sayenges in this boke, and specially I wot nat if he happened to fortune 

in my sccoude, where I shall assaye to upon suche an other : for whan it was 

expresse the declinations and coniuga- commaunded that the grammar maisters 

tynges : with the other congruites ob- shulde techc te youth of Englande 

serued in the frenche tonge, I suppose ioyntly latin with frenche, there were 

it sufficient to warne the lernar, that diuerse suche bokes diuyscd : wber- 

I haue red oucr that boke at length : vpon, as I suppose began one great 


Barkclay, to cmbusy hym sclfe about this excorcyse, and that my 
sayd synguler good lorde Charles duke of Suffolke, by cause that 
my poore labours required a longre tracte of tyme, hath also in the 
meane season encouraged maister Petrus TJallensys, scole maister 
to his excellent yong sonne the Erie of Lyncolne, to shewe his 
lernynge and opinion in this behalfe, and that the synguler clerke, 
maister Gyles Dewes somtyme instructour to your noble grace in 
this selfe tong, at the especiall instauwce and request of dyuers of 
your highe estates and noble men, hath also for his partye written 
in this matter." For the last treatise, see supra p. 31. The 
second I have not seen. 1 A copy of the first, which is extremely 
rare and does not seem to have been known to A. Didot, as it is not 
found in his catalogue, (see p. 589, n. 1), exists in the Douce Col- 
lection at Oxford (B 507) and the following are all the parts in it 
relating to French pronunciation, according to the transcription of 
Mr. G. Parker, of Oxford, who has also collated the proof with the 
original. The whole is in black letter; size of the paper 10 in. 
X 7 in., of the printed text 8 in. x 5 in. ; 32 pages, neither 
folioed nor paged, the register at bottom of recto folio is : A 1-6, 
B 1-6, C 1-4. In this reprint the pages are counted and referred 
to, as in the editions of Salesbury. The pages are indicated by 
thick numbers in brackets. Remarks are also inserted in brackets. 
The / point is represented by a comma. Contractions are ex- 
tended in italics. 

[1] ^[ Here begynneth the introductory to wryte, 
and to pronounce Frenche compyled by Alexander 
Barcley compendiously at the commauwdemewt of the 
ryght hye excellent and myghty prynce Thomas duke 
of Northfolke. 

[Plate representing a lion rampant supporting a shield containing 
a white lion in a border. Then follows a French ballad of 16 lines 
in two columns, the first headed " R. Coplande to the whyte lyon," 
and the second " f Ballade."] 
[2] Blank at back of title. 

occasyon why we of England soude 1812, vol, 2, p. 328. The copy he 

the latyn tong so corruptly, which refers to belonged to Mr. Heed of 

haue as good a tonge to sounde all Staple's Inn, then to the Marquis of 

maner speches p/-fitcly as any other Blandford (Catalogue librorum qui in 

nacyon in Europa." Book I, en. xixv. Bibliotheca Blandfordiensi reperiuntur, 

According to this, 1) there ought to be 1812, fasc. 2, p. 8) and was sold by 

many old MS. treatises on French auction at Evans's sale of White 

Grammar, and 2) the English pronun- Knights Library 1819, to Eodd the 

ciation of Latin was moulded oil the bookseller, for 9J. 15.*., after which I 

French, supra p. 246. have not been able to trace it, but Mr. 

Bradshaw says it is only a reprint of a 

1 There is also an older treatise work of Caxton's (The Book of Travel- 
"Hcre begynneth a lytell Trcatyse for lers, Dibdins Ames, 1, 315. 316), con- 
to learne the Englysshe and Frensshe. taining French phrases, but no infor- 
Emprynted at Westminster by my matiou on pronunciation. A mutilated 
Winkcn de Wordc. Quarto," as cited copy of Caxtcn's book is in the Douce 
in Dibdin's edition of Ames Typ. Ant. Collection. 



[3] [II The prologue of the auctour. On Pronouns.] 
[4] [Do. joined with Verbs. On this page occiirs the follow- 
ing, beginning at line 6 : ] 

^f Also whan these wordes. nous. vous. and ilz, be set before 
verbes begynnynge with ony consonant, than amonge comon people 
of fraunce the ,s, and ,z, at ende of the sayd wordes, nous. vous. 
and ilz, leseth the sounde in pronouncynge though they be wryten. 
But whan they are ioyned with verbes begynnyng with ony vowell 
than the .s. and .z. kepeth theyr full sounds in pronouncynge. 
[5-8] [On Yerbs. At p. 8, 1. 21, we read] 

Here after foloweth a smal treatyse or introductory of ortogra- 
phy or true wrytywge, wherby the dyligent reder may be infourmed 
truly, and perfytely to wryte and pronounce the frenche tunge 
after the dyuera customes of many countrees of frauwce. For lyke- 
wyse as our englysshe tunge is dyuersly spoken and varyeth in 
certayne countrees and shyres of Englande, so in many countrees 
of fraunce varyeth thep' langage as by this treatyse euidently shall 
appere to the reder. 

% First how the. lettres of the A. b. c. are pronounced or sounded 
in frenche. 

^[ Lettres in the. A. b. c. be. xxii. whiche in frenche ought thus 
to be sounded. 

ab c defg hiklmnopq 
A boy 1 coy doy e af goy asshe u 2 ka el am an oo poy cu 

rstvx y z& parle 9 parse, 

aar ces toy v yeux ygregois zedes et parlui. 9 parlui. or, parsoy. 

^f And albeit that this lettre .h. be put amonge the lettres of 
the alphabete, yet it is no lettre, but a note of asperacyon, or token 
of sharpe pronouncynge of a worde. 3 Also .&. and .9. are not 
counted amonge the lettres : and so remayneth. xxii. lettres in the 
alphabete besyde .h. and .9. as sayd is. 

1 Compare Palsgrave's Introduction 
to his second Book : " In the namyng 
of the sayd consonantes the frenche-men 
diffre from the latin tong, for where as 
the latines in soundynge of the mutes 
begyn with the letters selfe and ende 
in E, sayng BE, CE, DE. &c. the 
frenche men in the stede of E sound 
Oy and name them Boy, Coy, Doy," 
etc. Hence the oy in these words was 
not (ee) as it has now hecome. Pals- 
grave adds : " and where as the latiues 
in souyidyng of theyr liquides or semi 
vowelles begyn with E, and ende with 
them, saynge" El, Em, En, the frenche 
men double the liquide or semi vocale, 
and adde also an other E and name 
them Elle, Emme, Enne, geyung the 
accent upon the fyrst E, and at the last 

E depressyng theyr voyce." This i 
different from Barcley. 

3 This must surely be a misprint. 
The dots are faint. The vowel does 
not occur in this alphabet. 

3 This explanation of aspiration, 
renders the real sound of h doubtful ; 
as to whether it was (H) or (,) as at 
present. The following quotations 
from a French newspaper, contained 
in the Daily New*, 14 Sept. 1869, 
illustrates this modem use. " L'H 
est-il aspire dans Hugo ? Faut il dire 
Victo Hugo ou Victor Ugo? II me 
semble, moi, que 1'aspiration serait 
plus respectueuse." Observe that no 
ll is written in either case, but that 
the running on of the R, or the hiatus 
before 17 alone mark the absence and 


If These sayd : xxii. lettres be deuyded all into vowels and con- 
sonantes .v. of thew be called vowels, whiche be these, a. e. i. o. u. 
these fyue be called vowels for eche of them by themself ioyned 
wtt/* none other lettre maketh a full and parfect worde. Y. is a 
greke vowell and is not wryten in latyn wordes, but in greke wordes. 

[9] ^ And wordes of other langages wj'tAout one of these 
vowels : no lytteral voyce may be pronunced 1 of these .v. vowels 
.ii. leseth theyr strength sowtyme : and become consonantis whiche 
.ii. be these. I. and v. whiche ar corcsonantis whan they are put in 
the begynnynge of a syllable ioyned with another vowel and syl- 
lablyd or spellid with the same, as in these wordes in frenche loner 
to play vanter, to boste : and so in other lykc. 2 

If The other .xvi. letters called be consonantis : for they be 
soundyd with the vowels and make no syllable nor worde by them 
selfe exccpte they be ioyned with some vowel, consonantis be these, 
b. c. d. f. g. k. 1. m. n. p. q. r. s. t. x. z. 

If These consonantis be deuydyd agayne into mutes liquides and 
semy vowels of whom nedyth not to speke for our purpose. A 
dyptonge is a ioynynge to gyther of .ii. vowels kepyng eche of 
them his strength 3 in one self syllable : of them be .iiii., thai is to 
say, au, eu, ei, 4 oy. In latyn tunge ,au, and ,eu be bothe wryten 
and sounded* .ay, and ,oy, be wryten but not sounded, but in 
frenche and englysshe tunge bothe ay oy au and eu be wryten and 
sounded, 6 as in these examples in frenche of au. voycy vng beau 
filz, here is a fayre sone. of eu, deux homes font plus que vng : 
two men dooth more thaw one. of ay, ie ne diray point ma pencee 
a toutz gentz. I shall not tell my thought to all folkes. Of 
oy as, toy meimes ma fait le le tort, thy self hast none me the 
wronge. That the same dyptonges be both wryten and sounded 
in englysshe it appereth by the examples. As a maw, strawe, 
tawe, dcwe, sewe, fewe. fray, say, may, pay. noy, boy, toy, ioy. 
And thus haue we more lyberte bothe in frenche and englysshe in 

presence of aspiration. And this may meilleur, 4 to cureux, which would all 

have been Barcley's meaning. But agree with a real diphthongal pronun- 

see infra p. 809, 1. 4. ciation, hut then it proceeds to give 3 

1 The pointing is evidently wrong. syllables to ouir, in which there can be 
There should be a period here, and the no doubt that ou was a digraph, 
colon after "vowels" seems incorrect. 4 The omission of at is very remark- 
The expression "lytteral voyce" is, even able. But from what follows it can 
then, rather obscure. hardly be doubted that at was included 

2 Compare Salesbury's explanation under ei, or that ei was a misprint 
of the consonantal value of t, u, supra for at. 

p. 754. * This ought to imply that Latin 

3 This ought to mean that the sound au, eu, were then called (au, eu), and 
of each is heard, and ought to distin- this would agree with other indications 
guish real diphthongs from digraphs. of English contemporary pronunciation. 
But the author so little understands 6 As we know from Salesbury that 
the nature of speech that he may about 30 years later English ay, oy, au, 
merely mean that the two letters being were called (ai, oi, au) at least in some 
juxtaposed modify each others signifi- cases, these words ought to imply that 
cation, producing a tertium quid. The they had the same sound in French. 
Lambeth fragment (supra p. 226, n. 1), This would agree at any rate with 
gives 3 syllables to aider, awun, 5 to Palsgrave. 


wrytynge and soundyngo than in latyn as touchynge the .iiii. 

^f Also hero is to be noted that of lettres we make syllabcs : of 
syllabes we frame wordcs, and of wordes we combyne reasons, and 
by reasons all scyenccs and spcches be vttred. thus resteth the 
grounde of all scyences in lettres, syllabes, wordes, and reasons. 
Wherfore (as of the fyrst foundacyon of frenche tunge and also of al 
other langages) fyrst I intende by the ayde and socour of the holy 
goost to treate how the lettres be wryten and sounded in frenche. 

^[ Of the soundynge of this lettre .A. in frenche. 

Tnis lettre .A. in frenche somtyme is put oncly for a lettre. 
And somtyme it is put for this englysshe worde. hath. Whan it is 
put but for a lettre it is often sounded as this lettre e. as in this 
frenche worde, staues 1 vous : in englysshe, can ye. In whiche 
worde and many other as, barbe, and rayre. wt/t other lyke this 
lettre. A. hath his sounde of this lettre .e. But in some countrees 
.A. is sounded with full sounde in lyke maner as it is wryten as, 
rayre, and suche other whan this lettre .A. is put for a worde it 
betokeneth as moche in englysshe as this worde .hath. But some 
frenche men than adnex .d. withall as, ad. as il ad, he hath. But 
suche maner of wrytynge is false, for this lettre. d. is not sounded 
nor pronounced in frenche, nor founde often wryten in the ende of 
ony worde. And though some wolde say in these frenche wordes, 
viande, meate. demande, enquyre or aske. and that .d. is sounded 
in ende of the worde, it is not so. for in these wordes and other 
lyke, suche as truly pronounce frenche resteth the sounde on the 
last letter of the worde whiche is .e. 2 and not .d. 

[10] ^[ Also in true frenche these wordes, auray, I shal haue. 
and, auroy, I had : be wryten 'without e in myddes of the worde, 
and in lykewyse be they sounded without, e but in ccrtayne 
countrees of fraunce in suche maner of wordes this lettre e is 
sounded and wryten in the myddes as thus, aueroy, aueroie : 
whiche is contrary bothe in the true wrytynge, and also to the true 
pronuncyacion of perfyte frenche. 3 

^[ How this lettre b ought to be wryten and sounded in frenche 
themperour for the emperoure, and so of other lyke. 

^f Also this worde auec may be wryten in dyuers maners after the 
custome and vsage of dyuers couwtrees of fraunce as thus, auecques : 
aueqwtf. And some wttAout reason or ortography wryte it wt'tA .s. 
in the myddes as auosq<?. but how so euer aucque be wryten in 
frenche it soundeth as moche in englysshe as this prcposycyon with. 
And also this worde solonc may be wryten wttA c, or els w/tAout c 

1 The words st aves votts are not 2 Implying, of course, that the final 

clear. The use of a in the sound e e, now mute, was then audible, but 

seems to be dialectic in barbe, sec the only faintly audible, or else the error 

quotation from Chevallet, p. 75, at which he combats, could not have 

bottom. But in rayre, (which ought arisen. 

not to be rare, but the book is so lull 3 In this case probably u preserved 

of errors that it may be,) to scrape or its consonantal power, the remnant of 

shave, the remark seems to imply ay the Latin b. 
= (ee). 


at Me ende as solonc or solon, but than o ought not to be souwded, 
yf a consonant immedyatly folowe. 

[Then follow the headings, Of Nombres, in one paragraph, and 
Of Gendres, in four paragraphs, the last of which is :] 

^[ Many mo rules be concernynge wrytynge and spekynge of 
frenche, which were to longe to expres in this small treatyse : but 
the moste perfytenes of this langage is had by custome and vse of 
redynge and spekynge by often enquyrynge : and frequentynge of 
company of frenchemen and of suche as haue perfytenes : in spek- 
ynge the sayd langage. 

[11] [Treatyse of dyucrse frenche wordes after order of the 
Alphabete .A. B., and then on 1. 8 from bottom the author proceeds 

^f This lettre. B. set in the myddes of a frenche worde ought to 
be soundyd in maner as it is wrytew, as debriser. to bruse, troubler. 
to trouble, but in these wordes folowynge .b. is wryten in the 
myddes and not soundyd as, debte. dette, endebter. desoubz. vnder- 
neth, desubz. aboue, coubte. a ribbe, vng subget. Also these 
verbes doubter, to dout, tresdoubter. greatly to dout, substiner with 
all theyr modes and tensys as well synguler as plurell with all 
nownes and particyples descendynge of them, must haue .b. wryten 
in the myddes of them and not soundyd, as wryten doubte tres- 
doubte. and soundyd doute, and tresdoute. 

[12] Of. C. ^f This letter .C. wryten in myddes of a worde 
hathe somtyme the sounde of this letter .s. or .z. as these wordes. 
ca. on this half, pieca. a whyle agone. rawcon a ranson. francois. 
frenche. and in many other lyke wordes whiche soundyth thus with 
.s. sa piesa ranson francois. Also this letter .c. somtyme hath the 
souwde of .k. as in these wordes in frenche crou. cm. cause, and 
car. Also these wordes done and iouc are wryten with .c. in the 
ende in synguler nombre, but in the plurell nomber the .c. in them 
is tournyd in to .x. as doux ioux. 

Of. E. ^f E. for the moste parte is soundyd almost lyke .a. 1 and 
that namely in the ende of a worde. as in this example. A mon 
premier commencement soit dieu le pere omnipotent. At my fyrste 
begynnynge be god the father almyghty. II a vng bon entende- 
ment. these wordes commencement omnipotent entendement vent 
with other lyke. be soundyd with a. as commencemant. omnipotant. 
antawdemawt vant and other lyke. and all suche wordes must haue 
a short and sharpe attent or pronunciacion at the ende. 

^f And here is to be notyd that al maner nownes of the mascu- 
lyne gender endynge in the synguler nomber in .c. g. or .f. as 
blanc. whyt. vyf. quicke. long, longe. shall be wryten in the plurell 
nombre with .s. hauynge .c. g. or .f. put awaye from them, as 
blans. vis. Ions. 

Of. G. Tf Whan this letter .g. is wryten in frenche in myddes of 

1 Though expressed generally, this Hart also pronounced (an), supra p. 

remark evidently refers exclusively to 802. See also infra in this lor all 

the syllable en where it is now pro- the French nasals during the xvi th 

nounc'ed (OA), which we have seen century. 


a worde bytwcnc a vowell and a cosonat, than shal it be soundyd 
lyke .n. and .g. As compaigon, co/wpaige. How be it some wryte 
suche wordes as they mustc be soundyd with .g. and .n. 1 as com- 
paguon. a felawe. coiupaigne. a company. 

Of. H. 5| H. is no letter but a tokyn of asperacion or sharpynge 
of a worde, as in these wordes, hors. out, dchors. without, honte. 
shame, haut. hye, ami in other lyke in whiche wordes and lyke .h. 
is sounded, other wordes be in whiche. h. is wryten and not 
souudvd as heure. an houre, hclas. alas, howraie. a man, wj't/i other 
lyke. " 

Of. I & E. ^f I. and. E. or ony other two vowels ioync-d 
togyder in myddes or in the ende of a worde. whan they are put 
bytwene two consonants, or bytwene a vowell and a co?zsonant. 
than eyther of them shall haue his fonndc as in these wordcs 
biens. goodes, riens. no thynge, loie. loy, voie. a way, And suche 
lyke wordes. yet some holde oppynyon that in these wordes, and in 
suche other .1. or E shall not be soundyd. 

^| Also in true frenche these wordes. le. ee, arc. wryte?t without 
o. in theyr ende but in pycard, or gascoygne, they are wryten with 
o. at the ende, as thus ieo ceo 

Of. K. <[ This letter .K. in dyuerses spechcs is put for. ch. As 
kinal. kien. vak. but in true frenche it is not, but these wordes and 
suche lyke be wrytew with ch. as cheual. a hoi's, chien. a dogge, 
vache. a cowe, Also in certaynes countrcs of i'rau.'ice for c. is 
wryten ch. as piecha. for a pieca, a whyle ago, trcsdoulche for 
tresdoulce. ryght swete. And so of other lyke. 2 

[13] ^f In lykcwyse in some countrces of Fraunce names of 
dygnyte and offycc whiche are the synguler nombre are wryten 
plurcll wit/*, s, at the ende, as lay papcs do Home, luy roys de 
france, luy sains esperis : but in true frenche these names be 
wryten wttfout, s. as le pape de rome, t/ie pope of romc. le roy do 
france, the kvwge of fraunce. le saint esperit, the holy goost. and so 
of lyke. 

Of. L. ^f This lettre .L. set in myddes of a worde immedyatly 
before a vowell shall kcpc his full sounde, as nouellemewt, newly, 
annuelement, yerely. cowtinuclemewt contynually parlant, spekynge. 
egallement, egally. But yf a consonant folowe. 1 immedyatly than 
,1, shall be sounded as ,u, as loyalment, principalmcut, whiche arc 
sounded thus, loyaument, faythfully. principaumcnt, pryncipally. :l 
Except this worde ,ilz. in whiche worde ,1, and ,/, hath no sounde 
somtyme. as ilz vont ensemble, they go togyder. and sointyme ,1, 
hath his sounde and ,z, leseth the sounde whan ,ilz, cometh before 
a worde begynnynge with a vowell, as ilz ont fait : they haue done. 

1 The reversal of the order in the interchange of (k, sh) in French an- 

description of the pronunciation may s\vering to that of (k, tsh) in English, 
be accidental. This loose writing:, 

however, gives no reason to suppose 3 The g-eneral observation evidently 

that the sound of this yn was either refers to the particular case, al pro- 

(ng) or (gn). nounccd as ax, but whciher as (au) or 

c a These remarks must refer to pro- (ooj cannot be deduced from such loose 

viucial pronunciations, and indicate au writing. 



"Whan ,1, is wryten iu the cndc of a worde, and that the worde 
i'olowyng begyn with a consonant than shall .1. in suclie worries 
lese his owne sounde and be sounded lyke an .u. as ladmiral dengle- 
tciTC, the admyrall of onglande, but yf the worde folowynge ,1, 
begyn with a vowell than ,1, shall kepe his owne soiijzdc : as nul 
home, no man. nul aultre, none other, nul vsage, no vsage. Also ,1, 
put in the ende of a worde of one syllable shal haue no souwde at 
all as il sen est ale, he is gone, ie le vcul bien, I \vyll it well. In 
suchc wordes il and veul, and other lyke ,1, leseth his sounde .11. 
double in myddes of a worde must be sounded Avith hole and full 
voyce. 1 as fille, a doughter. fillette, a lytell mayde. oraille, an ecre. 
and so other lyke. 

Of. K". ^[ This lettre. N. put bctwcne a vowell and a consonant 
in ende of ony worde whiche is a verbe of the thyrde pcrsonc plurell, 
and the indycatyf, or optatyf mode what tens so cuer it be, it shall 
not be sounded in true pronouncynge of frenche, as ilz aymcnt, 
they loue. ilz lisent, they rede, whiche wordes and all other lyke 
must be sounded thus without ,n. ilz aymet. ilz liset. ^f Out of 
this rule be excepte verbes of one syllable in whiche ,n, must haue 
the sounde. as ilz vont, they go : ilz ont, they haue : ilz sont, they 
are : ilz font, they make, wttA all theyr modes : tens : and com- 
pouiides. in whiche, n shall kepe his ryght sounde. 

Of. P. ^[ Whan .P. is wryten in the ende of a worde in frenche, 
and the next worde immcdyatly folowyngc bcgronynga with a con- 
sonant than shall it lese the sounde, as thus, il a trop grant auoir, 
he hath to grete goodes. il vient trop tard, he cometh to late, trop 
hault, to hye. trop has, to lowe. in whiche worde trop ,p, hath not 
his sounde, but it must be sounded thus, tro hault. tro has. tro 

^f Of this rule be except propre names endynge in ,p. in whiche 
,p, must hnue his full sounde, as, philip. But yf a worde ende in 
,p, and the worde nexte folowywge begyn with a vowell than ,p, 
?hall hiuie his full sounde. as mieulx vault assez qwe trop auoir, 
better is ynoiigh than to haue to moche. Also these wordes 
sepmaine, a weke. temps, tyme. corps, a body, and this verbc 
escripre, to wryte, with [14] all nownes and participles cowmynge 
therof, indifferently may be wryten with p. or without p. but 
though p. be wryten in them it shall nat be souj.'dyd : as seinaine, 
tems, cors escrire. 

Of. Q. ^f Q. in pronouHsynge muste haue a softe and lyght 
sounde, 2 And it shall nat be wryten in any frcnchc worde, without 
two vowels, iwmiedyatly folowynge : of whiche two vowels the 
fyrstc shalbe u. as qni quc, t/t? whiche, <piar, for. querir, to seke, 
quant, whan, and suche other, but some be whiche wryte q. in 
suchc wordes without this vowell .u. folowyngc as qi. qe. &c. 
whiche maner of wiytywgc is vnsemely : And also it is contrary to 
all rules of ortography or true wrytyng aswell in frenche, as in 

1 The moniUtl sound of / in French J The writer probably only means 

(Ij) is certainly very badly expressed thnt it is (o be (k) nnd not (k"'}. 
tv Hirst- meatiinfflpps words. 


oilier Ian gages and no reason hanc they whiclic wryte suclie wordes 
without 11. to assyst thcw* sane theyr vnresonablc vse agaynst all 
rules, and good custome. More ouer these wordes quar, querir, 
quant. &c. maye be wryten indifferently : with, q. k. or c, as quar, 
or car, or els kar. &c. 

Of. K. ^f This letter. II. put in the endc of a worde shall kepe 
his owno full sounde, as cueur, as thus lay grant mal an cucur, I 
liaue graet dysease at my hertc : le vous prie pour me consaillcr, 
I pray you counsell me : but in some couwtres .r. is soundyd, as 
this letter, z. as compere, a gossyp, is somtyme soundyd thus 
compez, 1 and so of other wordes enclynge in this letter. R. 

Of. s. syngle. ^[ A synglc .s. in myddes of a worde ought nat 
to be soundyd if a consonant Iblowc immcdyatly : as trcsdoulcc, 
ryght swete : tresnoble, ryght noble : trcsgracious, ryght gracyous : 
but .s. in myddes of these wordes folowyng hath his full sounde : 
as thus : prosperite, chestien, substance, espemnce, meschant, 
Institucr, cscharuir, transglouter, Augustynes, Inspirer, descharger, 
estaincher, estandre, peschics, constrayndre, dcspenser, escuser, 
with al nownes, and aduerbcs commynge of them. In whichc .s. 
must be soundyd, if 3 a consonant immcdyatly folowe .s. But if a 
vowel folowe this letter, s. in the myddes of a worde and no letter 
betwene .s. and the vowell, than shall .s. haue his full sounde, as 
it is wryten, tresexcellcnt, ryght excellent : treshault, ryght hye : 
treshonore, n'ght honoured : treshumblc, ryght humble. 

Of double .ss. ^f Whan this letter .ss. double is wryten inmyddes 
of a worde it must alway be soundyd : as puissawt, myghty with 
such lyke. More ouer if this letter .s. syngle, be wry ten in the 
eude of a worde, whiche is a pronowne cowiunccion verbe or pre- 
posicion, if the worde folowynge .s. begyn with a consonant, than 
.s. shal nat be soundyd : as dieu vous sauue, god saue you. dieu 
vous gard, god kcpe you. voulcs vous boire, "NVyl ye drynke. nous 
so/nmes beaucoup des gens, we be mochc folke, in which wordes .s. 
shal nat be soundyd. But whan this letter .s. is wryten in the 
ende of a worde in frenche and that the next worde folowynge 
begyn with a vowel than must .s. hauc his full sounde. as le vous 
ayme, I loue you. le vous empric, I pray you. cstcs vous icy, be ye 
here, and in suchc other wordes. But in these wordes folowynge. 
s. shall haue no sounde, all if the wor[15]<lc folowynge begyn with 
a vowell. vous ditez vray, ye say trouth. vous ditez vraymewt, 
ye say trucly. In whiche wordes .s. shall lese his sounde. Also 
in this worde dis, whan it is a nowne of nombre and taken for ten. 
if there folowe a consonant .s. shall not be souwdyd, as to say dis 
liures .x. li. it muste be soundyd di. H. But this no/wbre ten in 
frenche moost vsually is spelled wit/t .x. as .dix. and not wttA .s. as 
dis. But wharc ditz is a participle, and betokenetu asmoche as 
sayd tha in the same worde .s. or .z. shall kepe his sounde. as les 
heures sont ditez the houres be saydc 

1 See the extract from Palsgrave, exceptions to the rule. See "all if " = 
supn\ p. 198. although, infra p. 812, 1. 2G. 

- Meaning aliJioiyfi, as these arc the 


Of. T. e ' Tliis lelUT T. put in tic ende of a worde beynpjc a 
v<rbe of the thirde p^rsone syugul'jr and present or p/vteryt tens of 
the indicatyf mode if the worde folowyng begyn AVtt7< u vowell, it 
shall be soundyd. as est il prest, is he redy. 11 estoit alostel, lie 
was at home. But if the worde folowynge begyn -with a cowsonawt, 
thaw T. shal nut be souwdyd. as quest ce quil dist, what is that 
he sayth II est prest, he is redy. il fust tout esbahy. he was al 
abasshed. II ny a qwu vanite en cest mo;lc There is nought 
but vanyte in this Avorldc. Also all novrnes and participles, whiche 
ende in the syngulcr nowtbre in t, in the plurell no/bre muste be 
wrytcn with. s. or with z. the samet. [ = same t] put away from 
the ende of lite word as thus worde, saynt, holy, is wryteji in the 
synguler nombre with t. in the plurell nowbre it is thus wiyten. as 
saiuz. or sains w/t/rout. t. but in some places of fraunce they wryte 
suche wordes in the plurel nowbre with t. c. and z. or s. at the endo 
after the mostc vsed Ortography of frenche. For amonge frenche 
men this is a general rule, thai as ofte as t. is put in myndes 
of a worde beynge a nowne of the fcmynyne gender it shall not be 
wiyten without a vowell iwmedyatly folowynge. as les saintez 
vierges dit ciel ne cesscnt de louer dieu, the holy virgyns of heue/* 
cesseth not to laude god. II ya des femmes que sont bien riches 
marchawdes, there be women whiche be well lyche marchamles. 
And so may other frenche wordes endynge in tes. be wiyten with t. 
and es. or wtA z. or s. wft/tout t. but it accordeth not to reason to 
wiyte these 'wordes thus saintz toutz marchawtz in the plurell 
nowbre. all if they be wryten with t. in Me synguler nowtbre. for in 
the plurell nombre they ought nat to be wiiten with t. for ony of 
these two letters s. or z. in frewche stande for as moche as ts. or tz. 
But for a conclusion though suche wordes in in certayne countres 
of Fraunce be wiyten with ts. or w*t/j tz. in the ende. as thus mon 
amy sont no/w litz faitz, my frende are our beddes made. Beau sir 
sont mez pourpointz faitz, faire sir be my doublettcs made, yet 
after true ortography of frenche these wordes and other suche muste 
be botiie wiyten and soudyd without t. as lis fais pourpoins 
*[ Also these wordes iilz, a sone. mieulz better, fois one tyme. assez, 
ynoughe. vous pones, ye may. vous prenes, ye take, vous enseigucs, 
ye teche. vous lisez, And suche other ought to be wiyte/ without 
t. but some be whiche wrongly wiyte these wordes with t. As 
iiltz, mieultz, foitz, assetz, pouetz, pix^netz. &c. whiche wordes in 
ryght frenche haue no t. neyther in sou/lyngu nor in wiytynge. 
^f Also this coniunccion. betokeneth tlie same thynge in frenclie 
that it doth in latyn. that is to say, and, in englysshe in whiche 
eoiriunceion t. is neuer souwdyd though it be wiyten with et. as 
et le vous fais a scauoir, And I make you to wytte or knowc. 

[18] Of. U. ^1 U. "Wiyten in myddes of a worde shall often haue 
no sounde, bothe in latyn frenche and other lawgages. And that whan 
it is wryten iminedyatly after ony of these thre letters, that is to 
say. q. g. or. s. As qui que, language, langue, a tonge. qnerir, to 
seke : guerre, waiTe, and suche other. In whiche Avordes u. is 
A^iytew but not sonndyd. Jfeucrtherles iu dyuers Countres after 


the forcsayd letters they souwle w, doubled as quatcr, quure, 
quaysy. Englysshe men, and Scottc* ahvay sounde u. after the 
letters both in Latyn and in theyr Uulgayre or cowmon hmgage. 
In lyke wyse do dutche men, and almuyiis. As qtiare, quatuor 
quart, quayre, qwade. and suchc lyke. 

Of. X. <j| This letter X. put in thende of a worde. may eyther 
kepc his owne souwdc, or els it may be soundyd as. z. as chcualx, 
or cheualz. hors, doulx, or doulz. swete miculx, or mienlz. better 
which wordes may indyficrctttly be wryten with. x. or with z. 
Also this worde dieulz, ought not to be wry ten with x. in Me 
ende except it be in the nomiuatyf, or vocatyl'e case, but by cause 
of ryme somtyme it liath x. in other cases. And whan x. is wrvten 
in suche cases somtyme it is soundyd and somtyme not. As if 
diexix be wryten in the nominatyf case and a coiuonawt folowe 
immediatly than x. shal not be sou;?dyd. as dicux vous sarnie, god 
saue you. dieux vous garde, god kepe you. but if this worde dieux 
be set in the vocatyfe case : than shall x. kepe his sou/?dc. As 
bcnoit dicux ais pitie de moy, blessvd god haue pyte on me. 

Of. Y. [ Tliis letter y. hath the' sounde of this letter I and in 
many wordes of Frenche it ought to be wryten in stede of I by cause 
of comelynes of wrytyngc. In latyn wordis y. ought not to be 
wrytew, but whaw ony greke worde is myngled with latyn wordes 
for curyositc of the wryter or diffyculte of interprctacion in suche 
greke wordes y. muste be wr}'tcn in stedc of I. in Englysshe wordes 
y. is mostc cownnonly wryten in stede of I, soo that the cnglysshe 
worde be not deduete of ony latyn worde : but specyally y : 
muste be wryten for I, in tJtc ende of cnglysshe wrodes, and whan 
n : m, or u, is wryten before, or behynde it. 

Of. z. ^f z. Put in the ende of a worde muste be sou.vdyd lyke s. 
as quercz, seke ye. aucz haue ye. liscz, rede ye. And lyke wyse 
as s. in the eude of a frenche worde is somtyme pronounced, and 
sutfttyme not, ryght so, z. put in Me ende of a Avorde foloweth Me 
same rule : sowtyme to- be soundyd, and somtyme not as aperyth 
in the rule of .s. 

*H Here is also to be noted for a gcncrall rule, that if a worde of 
one syllabe ende in a vowell, and the worde folowynge begynne 
also with another vowell, thaw both these wordes sluilbe io} ncd to 
gyther, as one worde r 1 both in wrytynge and souiulynge. As 
dargcnt : for dc argent, ladmiral, for le admiral, whiche rule also 
is obscruid in englysshc, as thexchetour, for the exchetour : thex- 
peryencc, the expcryence. 

[Here ends p. 1C.] 

[17-28] [Nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, in alphabetical 

[29-30] [Numbers, Days of the "Week, Months, Feasts.] 

[30] [Lyik of the grayncs, French and English ; the English 

1 Another cneral rule applicable only to a particular cn?c. as shown l.y Hie 
following examples* 


part begins : God sauc the ploughc And he the whit-he it ledeth 
Firste ere the groundc After so\ve the Avhcte, or barly.] 

[30-31] [Fishes. Proceed at p. 31, 1. 14 as follows.] 

^[ And also here is to he notyd that many word<?s he which 
soimdc ncrc vnto latyn and he vsed in hothe the langagcs of Frenche 
and Englysshe amonge eloquent men, as termes indifferently be- 
longynge to both frenche and englysshe. So that the same sygny- 
fycacyon, whiche is gyuen to them, in frenche is also gyuen to 
them in englysshe, l as thus. 

^[ Amite. Aua\iMcemet. Audacite. Bouwte. Beaute. Brcuyte. 
Beniuolence. Benignite. Courtoys. Curiosite. Conclusion. Conspi- 
racion. Coniuracion. Compunction. Contricion. Confederacion. Con- 
iunction. Detestacion. Detraccion. Denominacion. Dcuulgaciow. 
Diuinite. Dignite. Disesperance. Exchange. Esperance. Euidence. 
Fable. Frealte. Fragilite. Fragrant. Gouemance. Grace. Humy- 
lite. Humanite. Intelligence. Intellection. Interpretacion. Insur- 
rccciow. Indenture. Laudable. Langage. Murmuracion. Mutabilite. 
Magnanimite, Patron. Patronage. Picture. Bage. Royall. Regal. 
Souerayne. sustayne. Traytre. Touiment Trecheiy. Trayson. 
Trauers. Trouble. Tremble. Transitory. TJaliaut. Uariance. TJariable. 

^[ These wordes wi'tA other lyke betoken all one thywge in 
englysshe as in frenche. And who so desyreth to knowe more of 
the suyd langage must prouyde for mo bokes made for the same 
intent, wherby they shall the soner come to the parfyte knowlege of 
the same. 

^f Here endeth the introductory to wryte and to pronounce 
frenche compyled by Alexander bare-ley. 

[The above ends at p. 31, col. 2, 1. 9 ; after which: ^[ Hero 
foloweth the maner of dauncynge of bace dauwces after the vse of 
fraxince and other places translated out of frenche in englysshe by 
llobert coplande. Then follow on p. 32, col. 1, 1. 4 from bottom : 
c t ; Bace daunces ; at the end of which come the two concluding 
paragraphs in the book.] 

^f These daunces have I set at the ende of this bokc to thcntcnt 
that euery lemcr of the sayd bokc after theyr dylygent study may 
reioyce somwhat theyr spyrytcs honestly in cschewynge of ydel- 
nesse the portrcssc of vyces. 

^[ Imprynted at London in the Flctcstrcte at the sygne of 
the rose Garlaude by Robcit coplande. the yere of our lorde. 
M.CCCCC.xxi. the. xxii. day of Marchc. 


This has already been described (supra p. 226, note 1), but the 
following extracts relating to the pronunciation, being part of those 

1 This probably does not imply that the sound rras the same hi both language*. 


reprinted by Mr. Maitlaad, should be hero reproduced, as the 
treatise was unknown to A. Didot. 

"Dc la prosodie, ou, accent, commo 

on doibt pronstccr. brk'l'ue admonition 

A aa (j voclles 

b be a. e. i. o. u. 

c ce Toultcs aultres letrers sont 

d d cosonates, deuisees en mu- 

e e tes et demy voelles. 
efi'c (j mutes 

g g b. c. d. f. g. k. p. q. t 

h hache ([ Demy voclles 

i ij f. 1. m. n. r. s. 

I elle Sur toultcs choscs doibuit no- 
m erne tcr gentz Englois, quil leur 

II enne fault acustumer do pronu- 

o oo cer la dernicrc lettrc du mot 
p pc fracois, quclq; mot quo cc soit 
q qu (lime exceptee) ce que la 
r erre languc euglcsche ne permet. 
s esso Car la ou Lenglois dit. 
t to goode breade, Le franeois 
v ou tliroit go o de .iii. sillebes 
x ex et breade .iii sillebes 
7. zedes ct &. q con 

Ces diptongues sone alsi prouucces. 
Ai aider, iii. 

au aucun. iii. 

ie faict meillieur, v. sillebes 
cu eureux iiii 

ou ouir iii B 1 

A. ought to be pronounced from the bottom of the stomak and 
all openly. E. a lytell hycr in the throte there proprely where the 
englysshe man soundeth his a 

i more hyer than the e within the mouthe 
o in the roundenesse of the lyppes 

v in puttynge a lytell of Avynde out of the mouthe thus, ou, and 
not you. And yc must also gyve hcd fro pronouncynge c for i, 
nor ay, for i, as do some that for miserere say maysiriii. 1 

A. also betokeneth, hawc or hat, wha it comcth of this verb in 
latin, habeo, as here after ye may se. 

Of two consonantes at the cnde of a word often the fyrst is left, 
and is not pronounced, as in this wordc, pcrds, the d, is not pro- 
nounced. Et ie faingz g is not pronouced. Je consentz, t is not 
prononced, but thus ben they wryte bycause if y e orthography, 
and to gyve knowledge, y* pcrds comcth of this tierbc in latin, 

1 This probably indicates an English Salesbury's (tei-bci) with the modern 
pronunciation (marsi'rirn). Compare (t(b'), for Lat. tibi. 


perdo, and not of pers that is a coulour. And thus may ye ymagyn 
of the others How-be it, I am of opynyon y* better sholde be to 
pronouce euery lettre and say. . . . [the examples arc taken from 
the French side]. le perds vostre accointace en pronuceant le d) 
que le pers. Pronoce vng chacun come il Iny plaira, car trop est 
difficille a corriger vielles crreurs. 

S. in the myddle of a worde lescth a lytcll his sowne, and is not 
so moche whysteled, as at y e ende of y e worde, as tousiours, 
desioyndre, despiyucr, estre, despryser l)eux, ss, togyder ben 
moche pronounced, as essay er, assembler, assurer, assiegcr. 

S. betwene two vowelles, pronounceth by .z. as aize. aise, 
mizericorde misericorde, vsage. and I beleue that by suche pro- 
nuntiacyon, is the latyn tongue corrupte for presently yet some 
ay mizerere for miserere. 

Sp, st, ct, ought not to be dcuyded asoiider, but we ought to say, 
c sperance, not es perauce, and e spaigne, not es paigne. And 
e sperit not es pent, e striuer, not cs triuer, e stoint, not es toint. 
Satisfa ction, noil satisfac tion. Corrc ction. &c. 

C. the moost often is pronounced by s, as. franco pieca, ca. And 
yf a consouante, or other letters is ioyned with the vocale that is 
after the c, y e shall be pronounced by q, as Cardynal, concordance, 
casser Combyen, couraige, cuider. 

(jr. somtyme is pronounced by i, as, bourgois bourgoisse, gregois, 
what so euer it be, I couceille, y 1 they folowe some good autour, 
w'out to gyue or to make so many rules, that lie do but trouble and 
marre the vnderstandynge of people 



In addition to the many quotations from Palsgrave's First Book, 
scattered through the above pages, the following extracts from the 
"Brefe Introduction of the authour for the more parfyte under- 
standyng of his fyrst and secondc bokes," ought to find a place here : 

"The frenche men in theyr pronunciation do chefly regarde and 
couet thre thynges. To be armonious in theyr spelcing. To be brefe 
and sodayne in soundyng of theyi 1 woixles, auoydyng all maner of 
harshenesse in theyr pronunciation, and thirdly to gyue euery 
worde that they abyde and reste vpon, theyr most audible sounde. 
To be armonyous in theyr spekyng, they vsc one thyng which none 
other nation dothe, 1 but onely they, that is to say, they make a 
maner of modulation inwardly, for they forme certayne of theyr 
vowelles in theyr brcst, and suiirc nat the soudc of them to passe 
out by the mouthe, but to assende fro? the brest straight up to the 
palate of the mouth, and so by reflection yssueth the sounde of 
them by the nose. To be brefe and sodayne, and to auoyde all 
maner harshenesse, whiche myght happen whan many consonantes 

1 Did Palsgrave know anything of an argument for the recent introduction 
Portuguese !- If he did, tkis might be of nasality into Portugal. 


come betwcne the vowelles, If they all sliuldc hauo theyr distyncto 
soimdc. Most commonly they neuer vse to soundc past one onely 
consonant betweno two vowclles, though for kepyng of ire we 
orthographic, they vse to write as many consonawtcs, as the latino 
wordcs hauc, whiehe theyr frcnclie wordes come out of, and for 
the same cause, they gyve somtyme unto theyr coHsonantes hut a 
sleight and remissho sounde, and farre more * dyuersly pronounce 
them, than the latinos do. To gyuc eueiy worcle that they ahyde 
vpon his most audible sound, .... the f rent-he men iudgyng 
a wordo to be most parfuytly herde, whan his last end is sounded 
hyghest, vse generally to gyuo theyr accent vpon the last syllabic 
onely, except whan they make modulation inwardly, for than 
gyueng theyr accent vpon the last syllable saue one, and at the 
last syllabic of suche wordes, they sodaynly dcpresse theyr voyce 
agayne, forming the vowell in the brcst .... 

"Where as I haue sayd that to be the more armcnius they 
make a mancr of modulation inwardly, that thyng happcneth iu 
the souwdyng of thre of theyr vowclles onely A, E, and 0, and 
that nat vniuersally, but onely so often as they come before M, or 
~N, in one syllable, or whan E, is in the last syllable, the worde nat 
hauyng his accent vpon hym ... so that these thrc letters M. N, or 
E, fynall, nat hauyng the accent vpon hym, be the very and onely 
causes why these thre vowclles A, E, 0, be formed in the brest 
and sounded by the nose. And for so moche as of necessyte, to 
forme the different sounde of those thrc vowclles they must nedes 
at theyr first formyng open theyr mowth more or lessc, yet whan 
the vowell ones formed in the brest, ascendeth vpwardes and must 
haue M, or X, sounded with hym, they bryng theyr chawes to gether- 
wardes agayne, and in so doyng they seme to sound an v, and 
make in mancr of A, and 0, diphthonges, which happeneth by rayson 
of closyng of theyr mowth agayne, to come to the places where M, 
and ~N, be formed, but chefely bycause no parte of the vowell 
at his expressyng shulde pas$c forth by the mowth, where as els 
the frewchemen souwde the same thre vowelles, in all thynges lyke 
as the Italiens do, or we of our nation, whiche sounde our vowelles 
aryght, and, as for in theyr vowell I, is no diffyculty nor difference 
from the Italicn sounde, 1 sauyng that so often as these thre letters 

1 This passage, which had not been from Palsgrave's, but that he disap- 
notcd whe'n the observations supra p. proved of that general usage, which 
110 were written, seems to confirm the we know must have been (ci), and prac- 
conclusions there drawu respecting tically identified the "right" sound, 
Palsgrave's pronunciation of English that is, his own sound of long i, with, 
long ', which he here identifies, when (ii). Yet that it was not quite the 
sounded " aryght " with the French same is shewn by the passage on p. 109. 
and Italian i. Concerning the Italian Hence the conclusion, that it was (if) 
sound there was never any doubt. Con- appears inevitable. And as this con- 
cerning the French there is also perfect elusion is drawn from premises alto- 
unanimity, except in the one passage gcther different from those which led 
from Palsgrave himself, cited supra to the same result for Chaucer's pro- 
p. 109. The limitation " aryght, " ap- nunciation (p. 282), it is a singular 
plied to English sounds, implies that corroboration of the hypothesis there 
the general pronunciation was different started for the first lime. 


I, L, L, or I, Gf, N, come before any of the fyrst tlire vowels A, E, or 
O, they sound an I, bret'ely and confusely bctwene the lust consonant 
and the vowell folowyng, where as in dedc none is written .... 
wliiche soundynge of I, where he is nat written, they recompcnce 
in theyr v, for thonghe they wiyte hym after these three conso- 
nautcs F, G and Q,, yet do they onely sounde the vowell next Mow- 
ing v. ... So that, for the most generalte, the frenche men 
sounde all theyr fyue vowelles lyke as the Italiens do, except onely 
thcyr v, whichc euer so often as they vse for a vowel alone, hath 
Avith them suche a sounde as we gyue this diphthong etc, in our 
tong in these wordes, rewe an herbe, a mewe for a hawke, a clewe 
of thrcde. 

"And as totichynge theyr diphthonges, besydes the sixc, whiche 
be formed by addyng of the two last vowelles vnto the; thre fyrst, 
as ai, ci, oi, an, cv, ov, they make also a seuynth by addyng of the 
two last vowelles together vi, vnto whichc they gyue suche a 
sounde as we do vnto wy in these wordcs, a swyne, I twyne, I 
dwync, souwdyng v, and y, together, and nat distynctly, and as for 
the other sixe huue suche sounde with them as they haue in latin, 
except thre, for in stedc of ai, they sounde most commenly ci, and 
fo oi, they sounde oe, and for av, they sounde most commenly ow, as 
we do in these wordcs, a bo we, a crowe, a snowe, 1 .... 

" What consonantes so cucr they write in any worde for kepyng 
of trewe orthographie, yet so moche couyt they in redyng or 
spekyng to haue all theyr vowell^* and diphthongs clerly herde, 
that betwene two vowell^?, whether they chaunce in one worde 
alone, or as one worde fortuneth to folowe after an other, they 
ncuer sounde but one consonant atones, in so moche that if two 
different consonantes, that is to say, nat beyng both of one sorte 
come together betwcnc two vowelles, they leue the fyrst of them 
vnsounded, and if thre consonantes come together, they euer leue 
two of the fyrst vnsounded, puttyng here in as I haue sayd, no 
difference whether the consonantes thus come together in one 
worde alone, or as the wordes do folowe one another, for many 
tymcs theyr wordes ende in two consonantes, bycause they take 
awaye the last vowell of the latin worde, as Corps co;nmeth of Corpus, 
Temps, of Tempus, and suche lyke, whiche two consonantes shalbe 
lefte vnsounded, if the next worde folowyng begyn with a conso- 
nant, as well as if thre consonantes shuld fortune to come together 
in a worde by hym selfe. But yet in this thyng to shewe also 
that they forget nat theyr ternarius numerus of all theyr conso- 
nantes, they haue from this rule priuyleged onely thre, M, ~N, and 
R, whiche neuer lesc theyr sounde where so euer they be founde 
written, except onely 'N, whan he commeth in the thyrde parson 
plurcll of verbcs after E 

" The hole reason of theyr accent is grounded chefely vpon thre 
poyntes, fyrst there is no worde of one syllable whiche with them 

1 This gives the following usual, as correct pronunciations: ai (ti), ot = 
distinct from Palsgrave's theoretically (OE),T (OOU), meaning, perhaps, (00;. 


hath any accent, or that they vse to pause vpon, and that is one 
great cause why thcyr tong semcth to vs so bret'e and sodayn and 
so harde to be vnderstawded whan it is spoken, especially of theyr 
paysantes or cowzmen people, for thoughc there come neuer so 
many wordcs of one syllable together, they pronounce thorn nat 
distinctly a sender as the latines do, but sounde them all ruder one 
voyce and tenour, and ncucr rest nor pause upon any of them, 
except the commyng next vnto a poynt be the cause thereof. 
Seconde, cucry worde of many syllables hath his accent vpon the 
last syllable, but yet that nat withstandyngc they vsc vpon no 
suche worde to pause, except the co?myng next vnto a poynt be 
the causer therof, and this is one great thyng whiche inclineth the 
frenchemcn so moche to pronounce the latin tong amysse, whiche 
contrary neucr gyue theyr accent on the last syllabic. The thyrde 
poyntc is but an exception from the secoilde, for, whan the last 
syllable of a frenche worde cndeth in E, the syllable next afore 
him must haue the accent, and yet is nat this rule euer generall, 
for if a frenche worde ende in Te, or have z, after E, or be a 
preterit partyciplc of the fyrst coniugation, he shall haue Ms accent 
vpon the last syllabic, accordyng to the seconde rule. . . . 

"Whan they leue any consonant or consonantes vnsounded, whiche 
folowe a vowell that shulde haue the accent, if they pause vpou 
hym by reason of cowzmyng next vnto a poynt, he shalbe long in 
pronunciation, So that there is no vowell with them, whiche of 
hymselfe is long in thcyr tong .... As for Encletica I note no 
mo but onely the priniatiue pronownes of the fyrst and seconde par- 
sones syngular, whan they folowe the vcrbe that they do goucrne." 



The following are the principal authorities, many of which have 
already been quoted, so that it will only be necessary to refer to 
them, and to complete this sketch by a few additional citations. 
They will be referred to by the following abbreviations. 

Bar. Barcley, 1521, supra pp. 803-814. 

L. Lambeth fragment, 1528, supra pp. 815-6. 

P. Palsgrave, 1530, supra p. 31. 

S. Jacobi Sylvii Isagwge, 1531, supra p. 33. 

G. du Guez, 1532, supra p. 31. 

M. Meigret, 1545 and 1550, supra pp. 31 and 33. 

Pell. Pelleticr, 1555, supra p. 33. 

R. Ramus, 1562, supra p. 33. 

B. Beza, 1584, supra p. 33. 

E. Erondelle, 1605, supra p. 226, note, col. 1. 

H. Holyband, 1609, supra p. 227, note, col. 1. 

See especially Livet (supra p. 33), and Didot (supra 589, note 
1), for accounts of all these writers except Bar. L. E. H. Didot's 
Historiqw des reformea orthographiqiws proposees ou decompiles, 
forming appendix D to his work, pp. 175-394, carries the list of 
authors down to the present day, and is very valuable. 

In the following tabular view, simple numbers following any 


author's name refer to the page of this work in Avliich the required 
("notation will be found ; if p. is pretixed, the reference is to the 
page of the author's own work, of which the title is given in the 
passages just referred to. No pretension is made to completeness. 

In order not to use new types, the three varieties of c are repre- 
sented by E, e, c, in all the authorities (except Sylvius, where 
they could not be clearly distinguished, and where his own signs 
are e, e, c, therefore employed), and N, L, arc used for Meigret's 
forms for n, I, moutllcs. In Hamus certain combinations of letters, 
as au, eit, OK, c/i, are formed into new letters, and are here printed 
in small capitals thus AU, EU, ou, en. Sylvius employs ai, oi, 
&c., as diphthongs, where the circumflex properly extends over both 
letters, but the modern form has been used for convenience. 

Tli-6 ^'excels and 

A = (a) L. Slo, A = (a) P. o9, A = (a) 

"ore largiter didticto profertur" S. 2, 

A = !a") G. 61, uncertain (a, a) M., 

Pel., 11. A = (a) B. A = ("), E. 226, n. 

Afterwards English writers identify 

it with (AA). In this uncertainty it 

is best taken to be a full (a), but not 

(ah), as H. warns, saying " Jla?c vo- 

calis. souo in radice lingu* solis 

laucibus formate, ore hiantc dare, et 

sotiore a Francis effcrtur, quum 

illam Germani obtan'iH* ct soao 

quodam ad quartam vocalem o acce- 

dente pronuutent." L. p 12. In 

the termination -aye =(ai) P. 120. 

" You must note that a is not pro- 
nounced in these words, Avittt, sawl, 

aorner, aoriste, which wordcs must 

bee pronounced as if they were 

written thus, oot, soo, or/if>; oretsti;" 

,47 = (ai) Bar. 806, doubtful, L. 815, 

AI= (ai ci) P. 118. " Diphthongos a 

Gr;rcis potissimum mntuati vidcm'.ir, 

scilicet, ai, ei, oi, oy, au, eu, ou. Eas 

tamen quani cieteri Europw populi 

plenius et purius pronuniiatione, si 

quid judico, exprimimus. Si ij>s;e 

simul concretsc, dcbent in eadcm 

syllaba vim suam, hoc est, potesta- 

tem ct pronuntiationem retinerc, ut 

certc ex sua delinitione debent. 

Frustra cnim distinc'.ac siuit tarn 

litcne quiim diphthongi, si sono et 

potestate nihil differunt. Xamque 

ai Graccis propriam, Latinis quibns- 

dam poetis usurpatam, non jc seu ^ 

cum Gnccis : non ai divisrj vocalcs 

cum poetis Latinis, sed ai una syl- 
laba utriusque vocalis sonnm leniter 

expiimente, pronuntiamus : qualis 

vox aeprotis et derepeute la?sis est 

plurima/' S. p. 8. This should 

mean, "not (K), nor (a,i), but (ai)," 
especially as (ai) is a common foreign 
groan answering to the English 
(oou!). But the following passages 
render this conclusion doubtful : 
" ai diphthongum Greeeam ut sa^pe 
di\-idunt Latini, dicentcs pro ^ /xoua 
Mai-a, 6 Saj Ai-ax, & Aulai, aquai. 
pictai, terrai pro aulas, aquie, terra;. 
Sic uos eaudeai modo conjunctani 
serramus, modo dividimus ad signifi- 
candum diversa, ut G-e trai [g- is the 
consonant (zh), e is the nmto-guttti- 
rai] id est traho et sagittarn emitto, 
quani ob id traict a tractus vocamus. 
G-e trai, id est prodo et in fraudem 
traho, licet hoc a ti'ado vidcri queat. 
G'-hai, id est habes ct teneo : infir.i- 
tivo hauoir. G-e hai et g-c he, id 
est, habco odio et odi. infinitive hair, 
uti a trai traitre : a trai rrair infi- 
nitivos habcmus'' S. p. 14. '' Diaerc- 
nis, id est divisio unius svllaba) in 
duas, ut Albdi, longai, sylihe trissyl- 
laba ; pro Alba3, longae, syluce dis- 
syllabus. Eadem modo et Gaili 
{io<rKot> bois, id est lignum et sylva. 
bdis, id est buxus. Habco g'-hai, 
id est teneo, et g-fc hai, id est odi" 
S. p. 56. Hence perhaps Sylvius' s 
diphthong Aras really (E) although 
he disclaims it. A = (ai, ei, E) the 
last two more frequently, M. 118, 
Pell., R. 119, B. A=(c) in iai/, 
ieferay, =(a,i) in En-y-e, atiba-y-e, 
= (i) in ai>is, aitifou, ainsi, E. 
nearly the same II. 227 note. The 
usage of M., Pell, B,, B. seems to 
be as follows. 

(ai) aymant, aydant, hair, payant, 
gayant, ayant, ayans, aye, ayet, 
ayons,vniyo,nayf, M. pafs, payer, 
nai'ue, Pcli. paiant, gaiant, aidant, 


pai', aicvl, hnir, E. aimer, in 
Picardy, B. -583, noie 4. 
(ci, Ei) soudoin, vrey, vrisycs (fo. 
121) ccriucins, einsi, c,t:rtein, mar- 
rein, eyt, scy, seinte, retreintif, 
mein, Eyme, and throughout the 
verb fo."l09i-llli, jc repoudrey, 
je le 1'erey, syder, j'cy, j'aorey, 
q'il Eyt, &c M. einc,ozs, con- 
treint," CErteimmant, creinU', de- 
deigner, eyant, einsi, eid<>, eidant, 
cyons, vrei, vreye, llomcinf, mcin- 
tfiiant, procheinete, je crein con- 
uein, &c. Pell. fontEine, crEindre 
sertEin?, EimEr, Eimant, 
niEin, putEin, EU't = ayent, Einsi, 
procliEinc, krEint =craint, Eime, 
Kimee, dmiEin, &c. R. gueine = 
gauie, B. 

(E, c) grammErc, fEt, razons, trEfc- 
ter, mES, i'Ere, deriuEzon, mEzon, 
SES = ftais, IIVES = niais, niEze, 
Eze, n' Et = ait, IESSC, contrEre, 
HEZOII, maouEZ 1 , trsre, fEzant, 
trEze = 13, sEze 16, dizESEt = 17, 
deplKt, oculEre &c. M. SEZ, fzt, 
ai'EiYS, jainES, cleremaiii, mES, fare, 
malEset-s = mala wees, UEtre, neccs- 
sere, "les uns disci timer, les aufes 
enter" "les ims disft plesii; les 
antrcs pfasir par un e clos', TESOII, 
vulguere = vitlgaire, &c., Pell. 
vrecment, tErraiuEzon, kontiT.r^, 
palE, pE, HIES, parfEt, pari'Es, 
vulgEW, VESfAU, st-rc = serai, nure 
= anrai, we, paries, ff,*afait, 
R. After tho passage quoted supra 
p. 583, note 4, 15. says, "sicut 
autem postcriorcs J^atini Aulai et 
Pietai dissyllaba qute poetuo per 
Sid\vffiv tri.^syllaha i'eecriint, inuta- 
ruut iu AuliB et PictE, ita etiam 
Franci, licet servata vetcre scrip- 
tura, ccrpemnt hanc diphthongutn 
per ae pronuntiare ; sic tamen vt 
in eius prolatione, iiequc a neque 
e. audiatiu-, sed mixtus ex hac 
vtraque vocali tcrtins sonus, is 
videlicet quern e aperto attribui- 
inus. Quum enim vooalis e pro- 
prie pene conjunctis dentibus 
enuntictur, (qui sonus est c queni 
clansum vocavimus) iu hac dipb- 
thongo adjectum a prohibct dentes 
occludi, et vicissim e vetat no a 
claro illo et souoro sono proi'cra- 
lur," 15., p. 41. 

(au) M. 142, "Nous auons 
vne dipbtlxongue de a et ou que nous 
escripuons par aon, comme en ce mot 
Aoust, qui cst en Latin Mn<sis AH- 

fiiintHn. ^lais erst en ce seul mot, 
qui se prononcc toutciois auiourdhuy 
presques par la simple voyclle coia- 
ine oi'st : et nest ia bcsoing pour vng 
mot de liiiru vne regie : Oestc dipb- 
tlumgue est fort vsitec en Latin, 
comnic en ces mots, Author, Audio, 
Augeo ; ou la premiere syllabc doit 
estre prouoncee comme en Aoust." 
li. p. 36. 

-4f r =(au) ? Ear. 803. AV=(a\\, oou) 
P. 141,817, u. "Super luec,ou u,cum 
Graecis : au, eu, cum Latinis pro mm - 
tiamus, ut auroviovs autonu, evayyt- 
\iov euangiic (in quibus tamen v sen 
u consonantem sonat, uon vocalem 
Graecis, Latinis, Gallis) audire auir, 
neutrc neutre" S. p. 8., this is quite 
unintelligible. AL T =(&o) M. 141. 
A U= (0} ? Pell. A U-= (GO) ? " vne 
voyelle indiuisible ; . . . ceste voyelle 
nest ny Grecque ny Latine, elle' est 
totallement Francoysc," R.p. 6 mean- 
ing perhaps that au is not pronounced 
in this way in Latin or Greek, but 
only French, R. 143, note. AU= 
(o) " sic vt vel parum vel nihil ad- 
moduin difl'erat ab o vocali," B. p. 
43, see 143, note. "Pronounce 
an almost like 6 long, as a ultra 
(I'nutft/if, anmoxne, almost, but not 
altogeather, as if it were written otre, 
dotauiit, oMotte," E. That; is (00) 
instead of (oo) ? Was the change 
(au, ao, o) ? 

E=(E), L. 816, 226, note, G. 61 ; 77 
= (E, c?). and, when now mute and 
final = (o, ?) P. 77, 181 n. 5, and 8 1 8. 
" Literal omnes vt apud Grcccos & 
I,atinos, ita quoque apud Gallos 
sonum in pronnntiando tripliccin ex- 
priniunt, plenum, exilem, medium. 
Plenum quidem, exempli gratia, 
vopules, quando aut pura? sunt, nut 
syllabas iiniunt, vt ago, egi, ibo, 
oua, vims. 1'^xilem quando ips in 
vel n, in eadem syllaba antecedunt, 
vt am, em, im, vm, an, en, in, on. 
Medium, quaudo consonantos alias, 
vt, al, el, il, ol, ul. . . . E Galiis 
tarn i'vequens quuni a Italis et i\ar- 
bonensibus, sonnm plenum obtincns, 
(id est quoties ant pimim est, nut 
syllabam iinit) a Gallis trifarium 
])ronuntiatur, pleuc scilicet, quaiiter 
Latini pronuutiant in verbo iegere ; 
tuncque ipsnni velut acuti aecentus 
virgula sign;imus, ob id quod voce 
niagis exerta proferiur. vt amatus 
nine, bonitas bonte ; et ita in caeteris 
ferme nominibus in as, et iu partici- 


piis prreterili temporis primae. Sed 
exconimuniem, sacrificiein et siinilia, 
quando scilicet i pra^cedit, fere Galli 
pronuntiant. Dcindc exiliter, ct 
voce propeniodum ruutn ; quod turn, 
grauis acccntus virgula notamus, 
quoniam vox in co laagueseens 
velut interr.iorinir, vt aina aimes, 
Petrus Pierre. Mediu deniqne modo, 
quod lincola a siuistra in dextram 
partcm ajqualiter & rccte ducta 
ostendiimis vt amate aimes. Adde 
quod syllabam el, nonnunquam voce 
Latinonim proferimus, vt cmdelis 
cruel, quo modo Gabriel, aliquando 
autem ore magis hianti : vt ilia elle. 
E etiam ante r, s, t, x, & quasdam 
alias consonantes, in omnibus apud 
Latinos vocein non habet eandem. 
Natiuum enim sonum in pater, es a 
sum, et textus pronuntiatione quo- 
ruudam retinet. In erro autem, 
gentes, docet, ex, nimis exertum, et, 
vt sic dicam, dilutum. Sic apud 
Gallos sono genuino profertur in 
per, a par pans ; es a sum ; et, con- 
iunctione : in qua t omnino Eiippri- 
munt Galli contra rationem. Alieno 
autem et lingua in palatum magis re- 
ducta, diductisque dentibus in erra- 
cer pro eracer, id est, eradicare : es, 
id est assis ; escrire [* means * mute], 
id est scribere ettone, id est attonitus ; 
a pedo pet : eppellet, id est appel- 
lare, extraire : id est extrahere." 
S. p. 2. Tbc passage is very difficult 
to understand. His e seems to be 
(ce), his e (B), his e (e), and his ex- 
ceptional e to be (E). _'= (E, e ?) M. 
119,note, =(E, e, ?)Pell.R. 119,n. 
" Tertius huius vocalis sonus Graecis 
et Latinis ignotus, is ipse est qui ab 
Hebraeis puncto quod Seva raptum 
vocant, Galli vero e foemineum 
propter imbecillam et vix sonoram 
vocem, appellant." B. p. 13. "e 
Feminine hath no accent, and is 
sometimes in the beginning or midst 
of a word, as mesurer, metier, incite- 
ment, but moste commonly at the ende 
of wordes, as belle fillc, bonne Dame, 
hairing but halfe the sound of the e 
masculine, and is pronounced as the 
second syllable of these latine wordes 
facere, legere, or as the second sillable 
of namely, in English, and like these 
english wordes Madame, table, sauing 
that in the first, the english maketh 
but too sillables, and we make three, 
as if it were written Ma-da-me and 
in table the english pronounceth it 

as if the e were betweene the b and 
the I thus, tabfl, and the Erench doe 
sound it thus, ta-ble ; you must take 
heede not to lift vp your voice at 
the last e but rather depresse it. e 
Eeinininc in these wordes, le lisoye, 
2'escripuoyc, and such like, is not 
sounded, and serveth there for no 
other vse then to make the word 
long : doe not sound e in this word 
dea, as, OKI/ (lea Jlonsicur, say any 
da : sound this word lehan as if it 
were written Jaw," E. And, similarly : 
"We do not call, e, masculine for 
the respect of any gender, but be- 
cause that it is sounded liuely: as 
dote, lapide, me, te in Latine : . . . 
and by adding another, e, it shall be 
called e, feminine, because that it 
hath but halfe the sound of the other, 
e : as tanaee, fouettee, &c. where the 
first is sharpe, but the other goeth 
slowly, and as it were deadly .... 
VVheresoeuer you find this, e, at the 
words end, it is an, e, feminine .... 
pronounce it as the second syllable 
of bodely in English, or the second 
offacei-e in Latin," H. p. 156. The 
transition in case of the present e 
mutt seems to have been (c, B, i) in 
French, and in German to have 
stopped generally at (B), though (e) 
is still occasionally heard, 195, n. 2. 

EA U= (eao) M. 137. EA U= (BO?) Pel. 
who notes the Parisian error vn tio 
d'io for un seau d'ean, p. 17, shewing 
only a variety in the initial letter. 
EA U= (BO), as cuapeAr, manteAv,R. 
p. 37. " in hac triphthongo auditur 
e clausum cum diphthongo au, quasi 
scribas eo, vt eatt aqua (quam vocem 
maiores nostri scribebant et profere- 
bant addito e fceminino eaue}," B. p. 
52. " Pronounce these wordes benti, 
veau, almoste as if there were no e," E. 

_E/=(ei, eei) P. 118, "el quoque [sec 
Sylvius remarks on at], seu et, non t 
tantum cum Gnecis, neque nunc i, 
nunc e cum Latinis, hanc in hei in- 
teriectione servantibus, in voce autem 
Graeca in i, aliquaudo in e permutan- 
tibus et pronuntiantibus ; nee ei di- 
uisas vocales efferimus, sed ei mo- 
nosyllabum, voce scilicet ipsa ex 
vtraque in unam concreta, ut inge- 
nium engein, non engen, nee engin." 
S. p. 8. This ought to mean " not 
(i), nor (e), nor (e,i), but (ei)," yet 
the description cannot be trusted, 
see AI. We find : peine, peintres, 
c,einture, s', fcc M. 


Mcigrat, meilhcuiYs, peinr, parcilhe, 
Pel. psine, i'Eindre, pEindre, mine, 
SEIIV, ElEiiif = Helene, 11. " Iltuc 
diphthongus ['] non profcrtur nisi 
raox scquentc w, ct ita pronuntiatur 
ut paululum prorsus ab t simplici 
dift'erat, vt gueine vagina [=^iV-], 
ph'in plenus; cujus tanicn fccmini- 
num pletie, usus obtinuit ut absque 
* scribatur ct efferatur, Pieardis ex- 
ceptis, qui ut sunt vctustatis tenaces, 
scribunt et integro sono pronuntiant 
pli'itie," B. p. 4o. " Pronounce these 
wordes neige, seiyne, or any words 
where e hath t or y, after it like e 
masculine, as though there were no 
t at al." E. 

J?Z7=(eu, ey ?) Bare. 806, L 815, EU= 
(eu, y)P. 1 3 7. ' 'Eu sonum habet va ri- 
um, aliquando cundem cum Latinis, 
hoc est plenum, ut cos cotis c u eut, 
securus seur, maturus incur, qualis 
in euge, Tydeus [this should be (eu)]. 
aliquando exilem et proprius acce- 
dentem ad sonum diphthongi Gaaecic 
fv, ut ceur [in Sylvius the sign is eu 
with a circumflex over both letters, 
and a bar at the top of the circum- 
flex, thus indicated for convenience], 
soror seur, morior g-e meur : nisi 
quod u in his, non velut f sonat 
(quomodo in ou et u) sed magis in 
sonum u vocalis inclinat (can this 
mean (cy) ?] : id scribendo ad pie - 
num cxprimi non potest, pronunti- potest. Sed in his forte et in 
quibusdam a'iis, IISBC vocis eu varie- 
tas proptcr dictionum difFercntiam 
iiiuciita et reccpta est. lllam eu, 
bane eii lineola in longum supernc 
producta, sonum diphthongi minus 
coinpactum et magis dilutum signifi- 
cante notamus." S. p. 9. The dif- 
iiculty of distinguishing "round" 
vowels, that is those for which the 
lips arc rounded, from diphthongs, 
especially in the case of (y, a), see 
Hart, supra p. 167, p. 796', n. col. 1, 
and B.'s remark below, makes all 
buch descriptions extremely doubtful. 
S. may have meant (y, a) or (y, co) 
by these descriptions, and these arc 
the modern sounds. U=(ey) M. 
137, see note on that page for G. des 
autcls, Pel.B. "La sixiesme voyellc 
cest vng son que nous escripuons 
par deux voyclles e ct , comme en 
ces mots, Peur, Meur, Sour, qui 
semble aussi auoir este quelque diph- 
thongue, que nos aneestres ayent 
piMiioneee et eseripte, et pni* apres, 

comme nous auons diet de An 
que ceste diplithoague ayt este 
reduicte en vne simple voyellc : ou 
bien que Ion aye pris a pen pres co 
que Ion pouuoit." Li. p. 9. " In hac 
diphthongo neutra vocalis distincte 
sed souus quidem [quidam ?] ex e et 
u tempcratus auditur, quein ct Grascis 
et Latinis ignotum vix liceat u!la de- 
scriptio peregvinis exprimere." B. 
p. 40. "e lu these words, du feu 
which signilicth fire, rn piu a little, 
(Jnnenri'r to dwell or tavye, vn Im ti 
Playe or game, tu veulx thou wilt, 
are not pronounced like these : Ic 
fen I was, 1'ay pen I haue bcne able, 
I'eu I had, le Its ay tens I haue 
scene them : for these last and such 
like, ought to be pronounced in this 
wise le fit, I' ay pu, lit, vns, as 
though there were no e at all, but , 
and in the former wordes, e is pro- 
nounced and ioyncd with .'' E. As 
tu is frequently interchangeable with 
or derived from o, on, the probability 
is that the transition was (u, eu. ce, 
9} both the sounds (CD 3) being now 
prevalent, but not well distinguished, 
see 162, note 3, and 173, note 1. 
It will be seen by referring to this 
last place that 1 had great difficulty 
in determining what sounds M. 
Feline intended by " Ve sourd " and 
eit in modern French. I there de- 
cided that the former was (a) and 
the latter (ce). M. Feline has been 
dead several years, but Prince Louis 
Lucien Bonaparte, who conversed 
with him on the subject, says that I 
have just reversed the values of 
Feline's letters, and that Feline's 
t ? are my (oc. o) respectively. 
Hence wherever I have hitherto cited 
Feline's pronunciations this correc- 
tion must be made, and especially 
on 327, the signs (a, oe) must be in- 
terchanged throughout, as (koe loe 
siel kelkoc zhur) for (ke b siel kelkj 
y.hur). It will be seen in the same 
place, supra. 173, note 1, that M. 
Tarvcr made no distinction between 
the two sounds. M. 'Edouard Paris, 
in the introduction to his translation 
of St. Matthew into the Pieard 
dialect of Amiens, brought out by 
the Prince, makes e "sourd" in If, 
pen, dc, yu, meaning, as the Prince 
informed me (b, p.>, d.?, zlu), and 
eu "ouvcrt" in vd' p/wplc, mean- 
ing, on the same authority, (va>f, 
popplh). On turning to M. Feline's 


Dictionary I find, as interpreted by 
the Prince, (Ice, p, dee, zhf ; voef, 
pctpl\ so that in the two words lr, 
tie, Feline differs from 'E. Paris, 
and the latter agrees with me in the 
sound I have assigned to these 
words. .According to the Prince, half 
France says (b. d^), and the other 
half (Ice, dec). In Germany also the 
sounds (a, cc) are confused, and have 
no difference of meaning. In Ice- 
landic they are kept distinct by the 
different orthographies M = (?), o = 
(03), 546, 548. Compare also the 
mutation or iiinluuf, (o . . i=<h, 
e, i), 5.57. 

J=(i, ii) L. 815, P. G. 100, 110, occa- 
sionally (it ?) P. 109, 817, n. 7=(i) S. 
M. Pel. R. B. " Our * is sounded as / , 
in these english words, it, *, or as 
the english double, ee as at rotw auez 
tire, sound as if it were written tee 
voos atie terre." E. 

= (o) P. 93. "A, i, o, Latinorum 
pronuntiationem, quod sciam, apud 
Gallos non mutant." S. p. 2. The 
traditional pronunciation of Latin o 
in Italy is (o) ; and (o), as distin- 
guished from (o) which must be at- 
tributed to ati, seems to be the 
sound accepted for French o, by 
the other authorities. See also 
B. 131, note col. 2. " o Is sounded 
as in English, and in the same 
vse, as pot, sot, opprobre, sauing 
that in these wordes following, o is 
sounded like the english double oo, 
as moi, fol, sol, col, which must be 
pronounced, leaning I, thus : foo, 
woo, goo, coo, except this word Sol, 
as vti escu Sol, a Crowne of the Sun : 
where euery letter is pronounced." E. 

0U. " [scribimus] ocuvre, vocv, oeiif 
... in quibus tamen omnibus o peni- 
tus quiescit. PronuNtiamus enim 
eiture, euf, beuf." B. p. 54. 

01= (oi, ee?) Bare. 806, 0J=(oi, oe, 
oa ? P. 130. "oi, non i, cum 
Gravels, nee ce cum Latinis, sed vi 
vtriusque vocalis seruata, ut mona- 
chus mnine : datiuo poi, id est mihi 
moi. Eodem sono oy pronuwtianius 
ut genitivo fnov, id est mei moy." S. 
p. 8. This ought to mean o = (oi), 
and the last remark may refer only 
to the use of moi in French for both 
fioi, fnov in Greek. Again he says : 
" Quid quod hscc diphthowgus pro e 
supposita Parrhisiexsibus adeo pla- 
cuit, vt ipsarum quoque mutariw 
voces in e desinentes, per oi Parrhisi- 

ensca corrupte pronuntient, hot, c"oi, 
doi, g-oi, pot, toi, pro be, ce, de, ge, 
te ; Quo minus inirum est Gallos 
pronomina moi toi soi pronuntiare. 
Dcsinant igitur Picardis, puritatet 
lingua) ct antiquitatem intcgrius 
seraantibus illudcre Galli, qu6d di- 
t-ant mi, ti, si raro : et me, te, se a 
mihi vcl mi, tibi, sibi, vel ti, si, 
analogia primae personne, Quan- 
quam moi. toi, soi, tolerabiliora sint, 
et forte Gr?ecanica, vt in pronomi- 
ne ostendimus. Neque posthac in 
Normannos cnuillentur, omnia hocc 
prnedicta et consimilia nou per oi, 
sed per e pronnutiantes, tele, c*telle 
[* used for S.'s mark of mute a], see, 
ser, de, tect, vele, vere, re, le, amee, 
Src, aimeree, &c [modern, toile, 
etoile, soie, soir, dois, toit, voile, 
voire, roi, loi, amaye ? amabam, 
aimeraye ? amarem] Quam pronun- 
tiationem velut postliminio reuersam 
hodie audimus in sermone accolarum 
huius vrbis et iucolaniw, atque adeo 
Parrhisiensium. vt verum sit Hora- 
tianum illud, Multa renascentur, 
quit; iam cecidere. Esse quid hoc 
dicam? pro Stella estoille dicunt 
adhuc nonnulli. pro stellatus autem 
si qui c*toille, non e.vtclle, pro ad- 
ueratus (sic enim pro asserta re et 
affirmata loquutur) au-oire, non 
au-ere [u- =(v)]: endoibte ab in- 
debitatus, id est are alieno oppressus, 
non endebte : soiete non seete, dimi- 
nutiuuw a sericum pronuntiet, om- 
nes risu emori et barbarum explo- 
dere." S. p. 21. Viewed in relation 
to modern habits, some of these uses 
are very curious. W=(oi,oe,oE?)M. 
130. 0/=(oi,OE, E), Pell. As in the 
following words : sauroEs, FrancoEs, 
connoEssances, j'avoE, renoEt, auoEt 
= avaicnt, pronon90Et, CTOE, toE, 
aparoEtr^, moE, tErroEr, voyEle, foEs, 
"Et certein par les Ecriz des 
Vieus Rimeurs FraneoES, qu'iz disoEt 
iz aloyet iz fEsoyet de 
troEs silabrs" Pel. p. 127. "Au- 
jourdhui le* uns disft eimer, les 
autrcs e m e r, les uns j ' e m o E e 
les autres niEt< t i ou y an la penul- 
tim e disct j'cmoEye, j'oEye 
e les autrrs. Les uns disd; R c i n e 
les autrrs R o E n e . MEmfs a la 
plus part des Courtisans vous orrEZ 
dire iz allEt, iz venst: pour 
iz aloEt, iz vcnoEt." Pel. p. 
85. 01 = (oi) moindre, poindre, 
point, coin, soin, voyant, oyant, lar- 


moyant, fouldroyant, and = (OE), 
OEJES, voEla. &c R. 01= (oi, OE) 
and (oa) faultily, B. 130 note. 
" Whereas our Couwtrymcn were 
wont to pronounce these wordes, con- 
noistre to knowe, apparoistra it shall 
appeere, // parle bon Francois he 
speaketli good French, Elle eat An- 
yloise slie is an English-woman, as 
it is written by oi or oy : Now since 
fewe yeeres they pronounce it as if 
it were written thus, coonetre, ap- 
paretra, fraunses, Aungltizc.'" E. 
OZ7=(ouf) L. 815. OU = (\\] P. 149, 
" ov seu ou cum neutris [Grsecis et 
Latinis] pronutiamus : siquideut 
nee per u Grsecorum more, sed con- 
tra u in ov seu ou persepe mutamus : 
Hac autem diphthongo caret sermo 
Latinus." S. p. 8. 9. As there is 
no reasonable doubt that old french 
ou= (uu), this passage is quite unin- 
telligible, unless, by sayiug that the 
Greeks called it u, he meant to imply 
that they called it (yy). No other 
passage in S. elucidates this. OU 
is called " o clos," = (wh ?) M. 149, 

but see 131, note, col. 2 ; Pell. & R. 
evidently take 0ET=(u). "In hac 
diphthongo neque o sonorum, neque 
M exile, sed mixtus ex vtroque sonus 
auditur, quo Gracci quidem veteres 
suum v, Romani vero suum v vocale 
vt et nunc Gcrmani, efferebant." B. 
p. 49. E. writes the sound oo in 
English letters. 

U= (y) L. 815, P. 163, " ordine postre- 
niutn, ore in angustuw clauso, et 
labiis paululum exporrcctis" S.p. 2, 
probably M. 1C4 ; and similarly 
Pell., E. " Haec litera, quum est 
vocalis, est Grrccorum ypsilon, quod 
ipsa quoque figura testiUur, effert- 
urque veluti sibilo constrictis labris 
efflato," B. p. 17. E. 227, note 1 ; 
H. 228, note. 

UI, is not alluded to by any other 
authority except P., probably be- 
cause it occasioned no difficulty, each 
element having its regular sound (yi) 
as at present. But P. is peculiar, 
1 10, 818. E. writes the sound wee in 
English letters. 

The Nasal Consonants and their effect on the Vowels. 

M, "in the frenche tong hath thre 
dyuers soundes, the soundyng of 
m, that is most generall, is suche as 
he hath in the latyn tong or in our 
tong. If m folowe any of these thre 
vowelles a, e, or o, all in one syllable, 
he shalbe sounded somthyng in the 
nose, as 1 haue before declared, where 
I have shewed the soundyng of the 
sayd thre vowels [143, 150. and also : 
' if m or n folowe nexte after e, all in 
one syllable, than e shall be sounded 
lyke an Italian a, and some thynge 
in the noose."] If m, folowyng a 
vowell, come before b, p, or sp, he 
shalbe sounded in the nose and al- 
most lyke an n, as in these wordes 
plomb, colomb, champ, dompter, 
circumspection, and suchlike. " P. 
folio 3, see also supru 817. 
" M, est ferme au commencement de 
la syllabe: en tin cllc est liquide, 
comme Marie, Martyr, Nom, Ham, 
Arrierebam : qui a este cause a nos 
Grawmairiens denseigner que m de- 
uant p, estait presques supprimee, 
comme en Camp, Champ. N eat vo- 
loutiers ferme au commencement du 
mot, et en la fin : comme Nanin, 
won, mais au milieu elle est quelque- 
fois liquide, comme en Compaignon, 

Espaignol" R. p. 24. Here the 
"liquid" appears to be (nj), and 
final is " firm" as well as n initial, 
but a difference between m final and 
m initial is found, the latter only 
being "firm" and the former 
"liquid," and this liquidity, which 
is otherwise incomprehensible, would 
seem to imply the modern nasality 
of the previous vowel, were not final 
n, the modern pronunciation of which 
is identical, reckoned "firm." The 
two passages are therefore mutually 
destructive of each other's meaning. 
In his phonetic writing li. makes no 
distinction between firm and liquid 
m, but writes liquid n (nj) by an n 
with a tail below like that of 9. 
2V"=(n) only, Bar. 810. JV" in the frenche 
tong, hath two dyucrs soundes. The 
soundyng of n. thau is moost generall, 
is suche as is in latyne or in our 
tonge. If n folowe any of these thre 
vawelles a, e, or o, all in one syllable, 
he shalbe sounded somthyng in the 
nose, as I have before declared, where 
I have spoken of the sayd thre 
vowelles. That n lescth never his 
sounde, nother in the first nor meane 
syllables, nor in the last syllables, I 
have afore declared in the generall 



rules. But it is nat to be forgoten, 
that n, in the last syllable of the 
thirde parsons plurefles of verbcs 
rndyng in ent,is everlefte vnsouded." 
1*. fol. 13. In the phrase enallant, M. 
heard r.n nallnnt, with the same n 
at the end of the first word as at the 
beginning of the second, 189. 
" Francice sic reete scripseris Pierre 
sen est alle, quod tamen sic efFeren- 
dum est, Pierre en nest alle. Sic 
on tn'en a parle ac si scriptum csset, 
on m'en na parle, illo videlicet pri 
oris dictionis daghessato, et cum 
vocali sequcntem vocem incipiente 
coniuncta, pro eo quod Parisiewsinm 
vulgus pronnntiat : if ne nest alle, 
at me na park, per e fcemineum vt 
in pronominibus se et we. Scd hoc 
in primis curandum est pcregrinis 
omnibus quod antea in literam m 
jnonui [ita videlicet vt non modd 
labia non occludantur, sed ctiam 
linguae muero dentium radicem non 
fenat p. 30], nempe hanc literam 
quoties syllabani finit. quasi dimi- 
diato sono pronuntiandam csse, tnu- 
crone videlicet lingua; minime illiso 
superiorum dentium radici, alioqui 
futura molestissima pronuntiatione : 
quo vitio inter Francos laborant 
ctiamnnm hodie Nortmanni. Gnccos 
autem baud aliter hanc literam ante 
*> 7 Xi pronuntiare consueuisse an- 
notat ex Kigidio Fignlo Agellius." 
B. p. 32. This description seems to 
indicate the modern pronunciation 
nearly. E. and H. have no remarks 
on M, N. 

AM, AN=(mja, ann) P. 143, 190, 
but this nasalisation is rendered 
doubtful by his treatment of final e 
as (o ( ) 181, note 5, and 817. For 
S. see under E, supra p. 822, col. 1. 
" Vrsi Et qu'an Normandie, e ancons 

an Hretagne an Anj'.u c an 

Meine . . . iz prononcrt I'o dauant 
i> un peu bien grossemant, e quasi 
comms s'il i auoEt awn par diftongue 
[which according to his value of an 
should = (of>n), but he probably 
meant faun)] quand iz dist-t N or- 
maund, Jfauntts, Aungers, 
le II aims: graund chew, e les 
auttts. MES tele maniere de pro- 
noncer sant son tErroE d'uuc lieuc." 
Pell, p. 125. "Pronounce ahvaies 
an or arm, as if it were written nun, 
attas," E. that is, in 1609, (AAH, 
AAHS). "Also in these words fol- 
lowing, o is not sounded, r n paon, 

VH faon, vn tahvn ... all which 
must be pronounced leaning o thus : 
paun, faun, vn tann." E. 

AIX= (, see under AI, for numer- 
ous examples. A != (in), " Also in 
these wordes, ains, ai/iyois, ainsi, or 
any other word where a is ioyned 
with in, a loseth his sound and is 
pronounced as english men doe pro- 
nounce their I, as if it were t, 
insee, intois. Also pain, vilain, hau- 
tain, remain, are to bee pronounced 
as the english ." E. ^/ = (iu?) 
" ^Ye sound, ain, as, in : so in steed 
of tnain, a;ai>itfna>it, Remain, saint 
. . . say, lain, miatenant, demin, sint: 
but when ,e, folio weth ,H, the vowel 
,f, goeth more toward ,a ; as balaine 

a whale, sep'maine a weeke, 

and to make it more plaine, romain, 
certain, vilain, touverain, are pro- 
nounced as romin, cert in, vi/i>i : but 
adde ,<, to it, and the pronunciation 
is clean altered, so that, roiiuiine, is 
as you sound, vaine, in English and 
sucn like, but more shorter." H. p. 

Jf, EX= 'em, en ?) except in -ent of 
the 3rd person plural = (-et) ? Bar. 
810 ; EM, .ElVt^a.m, a,n) when not 
before a vowel, I'. 189, " Quid quod 
Parrhisiewses e pro a, et contra, prae- 
sertim m vel n sequente, etiam in 
Latinis dictionibus, Ceiisorini exem- 
plo, et scribunt et pronnxtiant, mag- 
na sri'pe infamia, dum ame//tes pro 
amautes, et contra amantes pro 
amentes, ali&que id genus ratione con- 
fund unt." S. p. 11. It is not quite 
certain whether S. is referring to the 
Parisian pronunciation of Latin or 
French, as the example is only Latin, 
but probably, both are meant. Ob- 
serve his remarks under E, supra p. 
821, col. 2. EM, i'.V=(Em, EH]. 
M. 189. EM, EN = (am, an). Pell, 
who objects to the pronunciation 
(rm, En) of M., and says: "mon 
auis Et df daioEr ecrir tcnte teles 
dice-ions plus tot par n que par e. 
Car d^ dire qu'l i Et diferancf en la 
prolacion des deus dErnierfs silabrs 
ae amant et Jirmamant, c'ft a fare a 
ecus qui rrgardct d trop prEs, ou 
qui veult parler trop mignonn-mant : 
Samblabkmant antre les penultimf 
de consciance e alliance. E 
\e peut on ancor' plus CErtcimmant 
conriOEtre, tjuand on prononcv? ces 
deus propositions qui sont de uiEm# 
HIES d<- diuErs sans, II ne 


m'an mant de mot: e, II n 
m'an mande mot. Combicn 
que propranant a la rigucur cc ne 
soEt ni ni e. E. confess*; que Ics 
silabis e*quelfs nous melons e auant 
/, me samblft auttiut malEsers a re- 
presanter par Ir.trvs Latines, que nults 
autr<'s qiu' nous cyons en notre Fran- 
<JOES. Brief, I'e qu'ou met vulguere- 
mant an science sonne autremant 
que I'e fie s c i e n t i a Latin : la ou 
propremant il se prononce comme an 
Fran90ES ctlui de ancien, nieti, bien." 
Pel. p. 25. "ToutefoEs pour con- 
fssser verite, an toutes tel^s diccions, 
\e son n'Et pleinnnant e ni a (antre 
lequez i a diuErs sons, comme diuEr- 
ses mistions de deus couleurs selon \e 
plus e \e moins Ac chacune) toutefoES 
le son participe plus d'a que d'e. E 
par ce que bonnemant il i faudroEt 
line nouuEle lEtre, ce que je n'intro- 
dui pas bien hardimant, comme j'e 
ja dit quElqucs FOES ; pour le moins 
an atandant, il me semble meilhenr 
d'i mEtrc un a. E sans doutc, il i a 
plus grande distinccion an 1* Italien, 
e mEnus an notre, an 
pronon^ant la voyEle e auant . Car 
nous, e cus la prononcjons clerfmant. 
Commc au lieu que vous dites santir 
e mantir dtusrs I' a, nous pro- 
non^ons ssntir e mEntir 
deUErs I' e: e si font quasi toutfs 
autrcs nncions fors les Frane,OEs." 
Pel. p. 125. 11. writes phonetically : 
En, difErEnses, Envoier, Enfaus, &c 
like M. "Coalesccns e in eandem 
syllabam cum >, vt temporal tc;;<po- 
ralis, vel , sine sola et sonora vt 
i' eaten ego intclligo : siue adiuncto 
d vt attend intelligit ; vel vt content 
contentus ; pronunciatur ut a. Itaque 
in liis vocibus constant constans : 
and content contentus, An annus, 
and en in, diuersa cst scriptura, pro- 
nunciatio vero recta, vel eadeni, vel 
teuuissimi discriniinis, et quod vix 
auribus percipi possit. Excipe 
qualuor has voculas, ancien trissylla- 
bum, antiquus ; lien vinculum, and 
moijcn medium, fiem fimus, dissyi- 
laba ; and quotidien quotidianus, 
quatuor syllabarum : deniquc omnia 
getilia nomina, vt Parftien, Parisi- 
esis, Sauoisieii Sabaudiensis ; in 
quibus e clausum scribitur et distincte 
auditur, f and e nequaquam iu diph- 
thongum conuenientibus. . . . Alter 
huius litene sonus adulterinus est idewi 
atque literoe t 'geminatac duplicis, in 

unawt tamen syllabam coalescentis, 
quanvis scribatur t>, litera n sequente 
atque dictionem finiente. Sic in his 
monosyllabis recte pronuntiatis ac- 
cidit, bien bonura, vel ben&, ehien 
canus: Chrestien Christianum dissyl- 
labum, mien meus, rien nihil: sitn 
suus ; tien tuus vel teue, cum com- 
positis ; vien venio, vel veni cum 
compositis : quse omnia vocabula sic 
a. pur6 pronuntiantibus efferuntur 
ac si scnptum esset f duplici biien 
chiien &c." L. p. lo. " When e 
feminine maketh one sillable with 
m or 11, it is sounded almost like a, 
as enfantemcnt, emmnilloter, pro- 
nounce it almost as nnfnuntemant, 
aiiHiiallwttr, except when i or y 
commcth before en as moyeti, doyen, 
ancien, or in wordes of one siillable, 
as mien, tien, cJiien, rim, sien, which 
be all pronounced by e and not by a. 
Also, all the verbes'of the third per- 
son plural that doe end in m(, as 
Hz ilinent, Hz rient, Hz faisoiott, 
Hz chaiitoyent, there e is sounded as 
hauiug no n at all, but rather as if 
it were written thus : ee di:ef, te 
rict, ee faizoyet, ee xhantoyet." E. 

EIX=(cm, ain), see under AI for 
numerous examples, and the quota- 
tion from 13. under El. It seems 
impossible to suppose that in the 
xvi Ih century it had already reached 
its modem form (OA\ into which 
modern I'M has also fallen. 

IN (in). I\o authority notices any 
difference in the vowel", as M., Pell. 
K. all write in in their phonetic 
spelling, and it is not one of the 
three vowels, a, e, o, stated by P., 
under M, X, to be affected by the 
following in or tt. See ihe quota- 
tions from E. and II. under AIN. 
E. gives the pronunciation of hoiio- 
nz Ics princes as onore Id preeuces, 
Avhich seems decHve. 

OX= (on ?) Bar. 810, (u.n) P. 149. M. 
Pel. K. write simply w< = (on). E. 
gives the pronunciation of nous en 
parlerons apres dies que dira on, as 
tioou-zan -parlcroon - zapre- ztlles, kt 
deera toon. 

L^V=(yn). "V vocalis apud Latinos 
non minus quam apud Gallos, sonuiu 
duplicem quibusdan exprimit so- 
quente n, in eadem syllaba. Vt euiui 
illorum quidam cunctus, percunctari, 
punctus, functus, hunc, ct alia qua>- 
da/w nn'iuo u vocalis sono maup[n]te 
pronuntiaut, ita iidem euru ahls, 


pungo, fungor, tanquam per o scripta, 
pongo, fongor, proferaytt, adulterata 
u vocalis voce genuina. Id quod se- 
quente m, in eadem syllaba omnes 
Latiui vbique faciunt, scammm, 
dominu;, musaru/w, et caetera pro- 
nuntiantes perinde ac si per o 
scribereutur : ita vt aliud no 
sonet o, in tondere, sontes, rhom- 
bus, quam u in tuudere, sunto, 
tumba. Atqui o diductiore rictu 
pronuntianduw est quam u." S. 
p. 3. This seems to refer to the 
French pronunciation of Latin, 
rather than of French, and it agrees 
with the modern practice. S. pro- 

ceeds thus : " Ita Galli THUS vn 
conimunis commun, defunctus de- 
funct, et alia qvuedam, sono vocalis 
seruato pronuntiant, [that is, as (yn) 1. 
Contra vndecim unc s e, uncia unce, 
truucus trunc, et pleraque alia, non 
aliter pronuwtiant quam si per o 
scriberewter." S. p. 4. No other 
authority mentions or gives the 
slightest reason for supposing that 
either or differ in this combina- 
tion from the usual value. P. writes 
vn for his ung, and M. has un, vne, 
Pell, has un, E. pronounces il est vn 
honnorable personnage as ee-le-tun- 
nonorable persoonndge. 

The conclusion 1 from these rather conflicting statements seems to 
be, that sometime before the xnth century ain, en, ein, ien, in, un 
were pronounced (ain EEU, En, ein, ien, in, yn) without a trace 
of nasality ; that during the xvi th century a certain nasality, not 
the same as at present, pervaded an, on, changing them to (a t n, o 4 n), 
and perhaps ( 4 n, o,n), so that, as explained by P. 817, foreigners 
heard a kind of (u) sound developed, and English people confused 
the sounds with (au<n, u 4 n). In the beginning of the xvnth 

1 This conclusion was the best I 
could draw from the authorities cited, 
but since the passage was written I 
have seen M. Paul Meyer's elaborate 
inquiry into the ancient sounds of an 
and en. (Phone'tique Franchise: An 
et En toniques. Mem. de la Societe 
de Lingnistique de Paris, vol. 1, pp. 
244-276). Having first drawn atten- 
tion to the occasional derivation of Fr. 
an, en from Latin in, he says : "Ifotons 
ici que le passage CM a en et celui 
d' en a an sont deux pbenomcnes pho- 
nctiqucs d'ordre fort diif6rents. Dans 
le premier cas 1' n est encore assez 
de'tachee de la voyelle et 1' s'eteint 
en e, ce dont on "a de nombreux ex- 
emples des le temps des Remains. Le 
passage de Ye a I' a ne pourrait se justi- 
ner de memo. Aussi est-il necessaire 
de supposer qu'au temps oil le son en 
s'est confondu avec le sou an, Y faisait 
deja corps avcc la voyelle. Ce n'est 
pas e pur qui est devenu a pur, mats e 
nasalise qui est devena a nasalise." p. 
246. But this is theoretical. "We 
have the fact that femme has become 
(fam) in speech, constantly so rhyming 
in French classics, and that solennfl is 
(solaneH and a large class of words 
like evidemment (evidamaA) change em 
into am without the least trace of a 
nasal vowel having interposed. II ence 
the proof that M. Meyer gives of the 

early date at which en an were con- 
founded in French, which is most com- 
plete, exhaustive and interesting, does 
not establish their pronunciation as 
the modern nasal vowels. M. Meyer 
gives as the result of his investi- 
gation : " En Normandie, et, selon 
toute probabilite, dans les pays romans 
situes sous la racme latitude, EN etait 
encore distinct de AN au moment de 
la conquete de 1'Angleterre (1066), 
mais 1" assimilation etait complete 
environ un siecle plus tard. p. 
252. He adds : " en anglo-normand 
en et ait sont toujours restes distincte, 
et ils le sont encore aujourd'hui dans 
les mots romans, qui ont passes dans 
1'anglais," and says we must acknow- 
ledge " qu'en ce point comme en pln- 
sieurs autres, le norm and transporte en 
Angleterre a suivi une direction a lui, 
une voic independantc dc celle ou 
s'cngagcait le normand indig&ne." 
After M. Meyer's acute and laborious 
proof of the confusion of en, an in 
France, and their distinction in Eng- 
land, we need not be astonished if at, 
ei in England also retained the sound 
(;d) long after it had generally sunk to 
(EE) in France. These are only addi- 
tional instances of the persistence of 
old pronunciations among an emigrat- 
ing or expatriated people. 


century these sounds, or else (AJI, u t n) were adopted by the French- 
man E., in explaining sounds to Englishmen. As to en, it became 
(an) or perhaps (a,n), even in xvi th century- probably not before, but 
it must have differed from an, because Englishmen did not confuse it 
with (aun), many Frenchmen wrote (EU), and P. 817, does not allow 
it to be nasal. The complete fusion of an, en, into one nasal probably 
took place in xvii th century, except in the connection ien, where 
en either remained (En) or was contused with in. The combina- 
tions ain, in, seem to have been quite confused, and we have no 
reason to suppose that they were pronounced differently from (in). 
Whether ein followed their example it is difficult to say. Probably 
it did, as it is now identical in sound. But un remained purely (yn). 
"We had then at the close of the xvith century an, on, in, un=(ap, 
o ( n, in, yn). Now in the xvuth or xvmth century a great change 
took place in French ; the final e became absolutely mute. Simul- 
taneously with this change must have occurred the disuse of the 
final consonants, so that words like regard regarde, which had been 
distinguished as (regard regards), were still distinguished as (rugar 
regard), now (r^gar, regard). It then became necessary to dis- 
tinguish un, une, which would have become confused. About this 
time, therefore, I am inclined to place the degradation of (in, yn) 
into (e,n, ? ( n). We should then have the four forms (dji, o,n, e t n, 
0,n), which by the rejection of n after a nasalized vowel, a pheno- 
menon with which we are familiar in Bavarian German, would 
become (a ( o t e, t }. The change thence to (a\, o\, eA, PA) or 
(aA, OA, CA, SA) the modern forms is very slight. The subject is a 
very difficult one, but there seems to be every reason to suppose 
that there was scarcely a shade of nasality in Chaucer's time, except 
perhaps in an, on, which generated his (aun, uun), and that tho 
complete change had not taken place till the end of the xvuth 
or beginning of the XVHI th century. One important philological 
conclusion would result from this, namely that the modern French 
nasalisation offers no ground for the hypothesis of a Latin nasalisa- 
tion. If this last existed, it must be otherwise traced. The history 
of Portuguese nasalisation now becomes interesting, but I am as 
yet unable to contribute anything towards it. The fact however 
that only two romance languages nasalise, while the Indian lan- 
guages have a distinct system of nasalisation, and nasality is ac- 
complished in Southern Germany, and is incipient, without loss of 
the n, in parts of the United States, is against the inference for 
Latin nasalisation from the existent nasalisation of French and 

Other Consonants. 

L moui/le. The nature of the sound hauyng an o, commynge next before 

cannot be inferred from Bar. 810, hyni, they vse to souude an i shortly 

though it seems to be acknowledged. and coni'usely, betwene the last 1 

"Whan socuer the.iiii. letters ilia, and the vowel folowyug : albe it that 

ille, or illo come to gither in a nowne in writtyng they expressc none suche, 

ubstantiue or in a verbe, the i nat as these wordes, ribaudaillc, faillt, 


V > 

gailldrt, tteillurt, lilldrt, 
ftieillf, fil'f, clitidlle, qnocqtiille, ar- 
dillon, basiiUoii, covillon, and suche 
like, in redynge or spckynge they 
sounde thus : ribattdailiie, faillie, 
/Hi if Her, gailliart, ndlliart, bill! art, 
fiieillie, JUlie, cheuillie, qii.ocqiiillie, 
ardillion bast ill io, cor i! lion : but, 
as I haue sayd, if the i have an o 
cowmyng next before hym, in all 
euche wordes they sounde hone i after 
the letter 1, so that these nownes 
substantyues mot/He, ttoille, toille, 
and suche lyke be except from this 
rule. . . Except also from this rule 
mile whiche soundeth none i after 
his latter 1." P. i, 7. " There is two 
manor of wordes harde 1'or to be 
pronounced in french. The fyrst is 
written with a double II whichc must 
be souned togider, as lla, flf, lly. Ho, 
llu, as in these wordes, la ilia gave, 
tail la cntte, ceulle gader, f tulle lefe, 
Itnlhj bayly, fally fayle, mantlet 
white, engenoulltt knele, wallot a 
tymcr hamcr, fi-itllu full of leaves, 
Jioxllu." G. M. and 11. have new 
characters for this sound ; Pell, 
adopts the Portuguese form Ch. E. 
talks of II which " must be sounded 
liquid" in some words and "with 
the ende of the tongue " in others. 
JJut II. explains well ; " when two, 
//, follow, ai, ei, oi, or /. they be 
pronounced with the flat of' the 
tongue, touching smoothly the roofe 
of the mouth : yong boyes here in 
England do expresse it vcrie well 
when they pronounce lucto arsa+tito : 
and Englishmen in sounding Collier, 
and ficollioN ; likewise the Italian 
pronouncing voglio, duoylio: for they 
do not sound them with the end, but 
with the flat of the tongue, as tailler 
to cut, trcillit a grate, qm-noitille a 
distafFe, louillir to seethe ; where 
you must note that, i, [which he 
prints with a cross under it to shew 
that it is mute,] senieth for nothing 
in words of aill and oiiill, but to 
cause the two, //, to be pronounced 
as liquids." H. p. 174. The 
transition from (li) through (lj) to 
(Ij) was therefore complete in II 's 
time. The sound has now fallen 
generally to (i, i, jh). 
2f Monille, or &2f. Bar. 809 and note, 
is indistinct. "Also whan so ever 
these .iii. letters gna,gnc,or gno comu 
to gyther, cythcr in a nowne sub- 
stantiue or in a verbo, the rcdcr shall 

sounde an i shortly and confusely, 
betwcnc the n and thu vowel folow- 
}Tige, as for : gaigmi, seigneur, 
tiny/ion, chaiiipiynnn, ntrgoigne, 
viaintieiigne, churoigne, he shall 
sounde, gaiynia, seiyiiieur, miynio-n, 
c?Mipiiiion, ueryoiffiiie, ctutroignie, 
maintiengnie, nat chaungynge there- 
fore the accent, no more than though 
the sayd i were vnsounded. Ifut 
from this rule be excepted these two 
substantyves sfgne and regnc, with 
their verbcs signer and regner, which 
with all that be formed of them 
the reader shall sounde as they be 
wrytten onely." P. ''The second 
nianer harde to pronounce ben 
written with gn, before a uowell, as 
giia, y>tf, gni, gno, gnu. As in these 
wordes gagna wan, suiyna dyd blede, 
ligne lyne, pigne combe, ttigne ^ne, 
tignc scabbe, compagne felowe, laigne 
swell, mignon wanton, mignarde 
wanton, ye shal except many wordes 
that be so written and nat so pro- 
nounced, endyng specially in e, as 
diffne worthy, cigne swanne, magna- 
tiime hyghe corage, etc. They tht 
can pronounce these wordes in latyu 
after the Italians maner, as (ayfitii, 
dignus, Magnus, magnanimits,} have 
bothe the understandyng and the 
pronouncyngc of the sayde rule and 
ofthe wordes." G. M.& Ji. havedis- 
tiuct signs for this sound; sec R. 826 
under *. Pell retains gn. "When 
you meete gn, melt the g with the n, 
as ognon mignon, pronounce it thus, 
onion, minion.'" E. " We pro- 
nounce gn, almost as Englishmen do 
sound, minion; so melting, g, and 
touching the roofc of the mouth with 
the flat of the tongue, we say mignon, 
compaynon : say then couipa gni; and 
not compag-ne. When ihc Italian 
saith guadagno, bisogno, he cxpi'ess- 
eth our gn, veric well." II. p. 198. 
It is not possible to say whether the 
original sound was (ni, nj) or (qi, 
qj), but from II. it is clear that at 
the beginning of the xvii th century 
it was (nj), as now. 

Final consonants were usually pro- 
nounced, L. 815, and all authorities 
write them, although we find in P. i, 
27, " Whan so cuer a frcnchc worde 
hath but one consonant onely after 
his last vowel, the consonant shalbe 
but remissely sounded, as tnte'c, sottf, 
fil, beavcoiip, mot, shalbe sounded in 
maner aue, soy, jf, btavcoti, mo. how 


be it the consonant shall haue some " Contra vcr6 in veruaculis Gallicis 
lyttell sounde : but if t or p folowe scribitur simul et pronunciatur aspi- 
a or e, they shall haue thcyr distinct ratio, nt in illis qua; a Latinis non 
sounde, as chat, dcbdt, ducat, combat, aspiratis doducuntur," and, as to the 
/idiidp, decret, regret, ent remit ; and quality of the sound, he says : " aspi- 
so of all suchc other." These ex- rationem Franci quantum fieri po- 
arnples cross the modern practice of test emolliunt, sic tainen vt omnino 
omission and sounding in several audiatur, at non aspere ex imo gut- 
places, ture efliata, quod est magnopere 
// is a very doubtful letter, B. 805 Germanis et Italis praesertim Tuscis 
and note 3. The question is not obseruandum." B. 25. This seems 
whether in certain French words II to point to the modern liiatus. 
was aspirated, but whether the mean- S was constantly used as an ortho- 
ing attached to " aspiration '' in old graphical sign to make e into e, to 
French was the same as that in lengthen a and so on. Hence many 
modern French or in English. P. rules and lists of words are given for 
gives a list of 100 "aspirated" words. its retention or omission, which may 
B. 67 says : " Aspirationis nota in be superseded by the knowledge of 
vocibus Grsecis et Latinis aspiratis, et the modern orthography, with the 
in Francicam linguam traductis, scri- usages of which they setm precisely 
bitur quidcm sed quicscit," except to agree. 
hache, hareng, Hector, Henri, linrpe, 

The other consonants present no difficulty. We may safely 
assume 2?=(b), C (k, s), Ch (all), D (d), /<'(f), G (g, zh), / (zh), 
8iipra p. 207, JT(k), L (1), P (p), Qu (k), R (r), S (s), 2'(t), 
F(v), X(s,z), *(). 

The niles for the omission of consonants when not final, seem to 
agree entirely with modern usage, and hence need not be collected. 

Sufficient examples of French phonetic spelling according to M., 
Pell., and R. have been given in the above extracts. But it is 
interesting to sec the perfectly different systems of accentuation 
pursued by P. and M., and for this purpose a few lines of each may 
be transcribed. 

From P. i, 63. " Example how the same boke [the Romant of 
the Rose] is nowe toumed into the newe Frcnche tong. 

Maintes gentes client <?ue en songes Maintoiandiet, kansovngos 

Ne sont que fables et mensonges Nesovnkottiblcs c mansougos ^ 

Mais on pmlt telz songcs songier Jfaysovnpevttezs5vngosoyngier 

Que ne sont mye mensongier Kenesovnmyomansovngicr 

Ayns sont apres bien apparant, c. Aynsovntaprebienapparavnt, &c. 

In M. the accent is illustrated by musical notes ; each accented 
syllable corresponds to F of the bass, and each unaccented syllable 
to the G below, so that accentuation is held to be equivalent to 
ascending a whole tone. So far P. agrees with M., for he says 
(book 1, ch. 56) " Accent in the frenche tonge is a lyftinge vp of 
the voycc, vpon some wordes or syllables in a sentence, aboue the 
resydue of the other wordes or syllables in the same sentence, so 
that what socuer worde or syllable as they come toguyder in any 
sentence, be sowned higher than the other wordes or syllables in the 
same sentence vpon them, is the accent." The following are some of 


TOES a toE, E toE a moE, fl. n'zt pas fort bon, 9'tt vn bit-n bon baton, 
mon compaxon, a vizion, mon confrere, vit sajemEnt." 

P. constantly admits the accent on the last syllable, M. says it is 
a Norman peculiarity, which is very disagreeable, and proceeds 
thus : " il faot premieremEnt EntEndre qe jamEs l'ac9Ent eleue, ne 
se rmcontr' En la dErniere syllabe dEs dissyllabiqes, ne polisylla- 
biqes. E qe le ton declinant ou 9irconflExe, ne se treuue point q'En 
la penultime syllabe, si E!!' Et long' E la dErniere brieue, pouruu q' 
Elle ne soEt point tErmine' En e brief: car allors il y peut auenir 
diuErsite de ton, selon la diuEr*' assiete du vocable. . . . car il faot 
EntEndre qe IE' monosyllabes En notre lange, font varier IE' tons d* 
aocuns vocables dissyllabiqes, ny n'ont eu* mEmes aocun ton stable." 
fo. 133 a. 

Palsgrave says: "Generally all the wordcs of many sillables in 
the frenche tong, haue theyr accent eyther on thcyr last sillable, 
that is to say, sounde the laste vowell or diphthong that they be 
written with, hygher than the other vowels or diphthongues com- 
myng before them in the same worde. Orels they haue theyr accent 
on the last sillable save one, that is to say, sounde that vowel or 
diphthong, that is the last saue one hygher than any other in the 
same worde cozmyng before hym : and whan the redar hath 
lyftvp his voyce at the souwdyng of the said vowel or diphthong, 
he shal whan he cowmeth to the last sillable, depresse his voyce 
agayne [compare supra p. 181, note, col. 2], so that there is no 
worde through out all the frenche tonge, that hath his accent eyther, 
on the thyrde sillable, or on the forth syllable from the last, like as 
diuerse wordes haue in other tonges : but as I haue sayd, eyther on 
the very last sillable, orels on the next sillable onely. And note 
that there is no worde in the frewche tong, but he hath his place 
of accent certaine, and hath it nat nowe vpon one sillable, nowe vpon 
another. Except diucrsite in signification causeth it, where the 
worde in writtyng is alone." Book I. chap. Iviii. 

B. is very peculiar ; he begins by saying : " Sunt qui contendant 
in Francica lingua nullum esse accentibus locum," which shews, in 
connection with the diversity of opinion between P. and M., that 
the modern practice must have begun to prevail. Then he proceeds 
thus: "Sunt contra qui in Francica lingua tonos perinde vt in 
Graeca lingua constituant. Magnus est vtrorumque error : quod 
mihi facile concessuros arbitror quicunque aures suas attente con- 
suluerint. Dico igitur Francicaj linguae, vt & Graecae & Latinae, 
duo esse tempera, longum vnum, alterum breue: itidemqw*? tres 
tonos, nempe, acutum, grauem, circumflexum, non ita tamen vt in 
illis linguis obseruatos. Acuunt cnim Graeci syllabas turn longas 
turn breues, & Latinos idem faccre magno consonsu volunt Gram- 
matici, quibus plane non assenlior. Scd hac dc re alias. Illud 
autem certo dixerim, sic occurrere in Francica lingua tonum acutum 
cum tempcre longo, vt nulla syllaba producatur quao itidem non 
attollatur : nee attollatur vlla quoo non itidem acuatur, ac proinde sit 
cadem syllaba acuta quao product a &, eadem grauis quae con-epta. Sed 
tonus vocis intentioncm, tempu? productionem vocalis indicat .... 


Ilia verb productio in Francica lingua etiam in monosyllabis ani- 
maduertitur, qure cst propria vis accentus circumflexis." B. there- 
fore seems to confuse accent and quantity, as is the case -with so 
many -writers, although he once apparently distinguishes an accented 
from an unaccented long syllable, thus in entendement, he says that 
although the two first are naturally long, the acute accent is on the 
second; whereas it would be on the last in entendement Ion, on 
account of the added enclitic. He lays down important rules for 
quantity, and without repeating them here, it will be interesting to 
gives his examples, marking those which he objects to 1 . Wrong 
mestresse' messe feste propheste mlsericorde parole. Right nials- 
tresse messe faicte prophete miserf corde parole ; ic veu, tu veux, 
il veut ; veu votum, veux vota ; bcuf beufs, neuf ncufs, eulx, ceulx ; 
f\t fecit, fist faceret, rut fuit, fust esset, eut habuit eust haberet, est, 
rost, tost, plaist placet, pliist plueret, et et, plaid contentio iudicalis, 
pleut placuit, plut pluit ; ie meur morior, tu meurs morerls, raeur 
maturus, meurs maturt, meure matura, si ie dl, qui est ce. Itule 1, 
misertcorde, entendement, envTe = en vie, envieux. Rule 2, en- 
dormir, feindre, telndre, bonte, temporel, bon pats, sommS comme 
donne bonne sonne tonne, consomme ordonne resonne' estonne, 
songer besongne ; ennemi. Rule 3, almee fonduS velue ; mue nuS, 
duS fie lie amiS joue louS moue noue alje, plalje ioije voije, 
^nvoije ; muer nuer f ter Her iouer louer nouer, envoijer. Rule 4, 
aultre, autant, haultain, haultement, haultalne, hault ^t drolct. 
Rule 5, *=(z), iaser braise saison plaisir cause bise mise prisS oser 
chose poser choisir loisir noise toise user ruse muse frise causera 
osSra embrasera reposera choisira prisera, cuisine, usera, accusera, 
excusera, usage, visage, camuse ; prisee accusee excusee [the last 
e should evidently be ] ; peser gesir gesme ; trSze quatorze, 
molsl, cramoisi, voistn cousin, voisine coustne. Rule 5 bis, alllS 
bailie callle faille maillee paille sallle taille vaille. Rule 6, 
passe, aimasse, oulsse. Rule 7, (* mute) haste Isle, biasing, 
aimasme, esmeiite', esmouvoir, blesme mesm^, caresmg baptesme, 
Sscrivlsme, seusmes, receumes, vismes, fismes, entendlsmes, Cosme ; 
asne alesnS [erroneous in original], RosnS ; espSron esperonn^, 
[erroneous in original], espier; est rost tost fust fist eust, hastS 
taste testS beste estre malstre nalstre feste glste vlste crouste 
vouste ; dosnotjer; Sste "pro verbo esse et pro estate," rostir rostS ; 
nostre malson, vostrS ralson, ie suis vostre, patenostrd. Rule 8, 
catalrre, catalrreux ; ferrer guerrS ferre pourrir, enterrer. Finally 
U. notices the absence of accent in enclitics, and the final rising 
inflection in questions, observing, in accord with Meigret, " cuius 
pronuntiationis vsque adeb sunt obseruantes Normanni, vt etiam si 
nihil interrogent, sed duntaxat negent aut afiirment aliquid, ser- 
monis finem acute, non sine aurium oflfensione pronuntient." 

P.'s rules amount to placing the accent on the penultim when the 

1 Beza's treatise is now very acces- fortunately the editor sometimes cor- 
sible in the Berlin and Paris reprint, reds the o'riginal in the text itself. 
1868, with preface by A. Tobler. Un- 


last contains what is now mute e, and on the last in all other 
cases. Both M. and P., make accent to be a rising inflexion of the 
voice. The French still generally use such an intonation, but it 
does not seem to be fixed in position, or constant in occurrence 
upon the same word, bnt rather to depend upon the position of the 
word in a sentence, and the meaning of the speaker. In modern 
French, and apparently in older French (supra p. 331) there is 
nothing approaching to the regular fixed stress upon one syllable of 
every word, which is so marked in English, the Teutonic lan- 
guages, and Sclavonic languages, in Italian, Spanish and Modern 
Greek. The nature of the stress and the effect on unaccented 
syllables differ also materially in different languages. In English 
the syllables following the principal stress are always much more 
obscure than those preceding it. This is not the case at all in 
Italian. In Modern Greek, the stress, though marked, is nothing 
like so strong as in English. Mr. Payne considers that the ancient 
Xormans had a very strong stress, and that the syllables without 
the stress, and which generally preceded it, became in all cases 
obscure. "With the extremely lax notions which AVC find in all 
ancient and most modem especially English writers, on the ques- 
tions of accent, vocal inflexion, and stress, with its effect on quan- 
tity, it is very difficult to draw any conclusions respecting ancient 
practice. A thorough study of modern practice in the principal 
literary languages of the world, and their dialects, seems to be an 
essential preliminary to an investigation of ancient usage. 

E. gives 12 dialogues in French and English with the pronuncia- 
tion of such French words as he considers would occasion difficulty, 
indicated in the margin. The following list contains all the most 
important words thus phoneticised. The orthography both ordinary 
and phonetic is that used by E. 

jichepte ashcte, accoustrements ncoo- 
tremans, aduancerez auaunsere, aiguillon 
egeelleeoon, ainsi insce, m'ameine ma- 
mene, d'A>iglois daunglez, ait 6, aucun 
okun, aucttiie 6kune, au-ioitr-d' ha>/ 
oioordwee, Faulne lone, aultre otre, 
aultrement dtreman, cCaultruy dotrwee, 
I'ausmoniet lomouier, aiissi 6ssce, 
autant otaun. 

JBaillez bailie ballicz, baptize bateeze', 
betognes bezoonics, blanct blauns, boeuf 
beuf, boigte boite, bordeiire, bordurc, 
boucfic booshe, botiilli boollce, bouillie 
boollie, bracelets braselo, brillands 
brilliauns, bnwlcr briiler. 

Caillftte kalliette, eeinture sinturc, 
cette ste, chair shcr, chauld shd, chesnaye 
shen^yc, chettaulx shenos, cheuthure 
sheuelurc, chenille sheueellie, chrtsticnt 
kretiens, cignet secnct, cieux seeus cieus, 
eotur keur, eoifcure coifure, col coo, 
commands coommaunde, compaigiiic 
oompanic, concfjiuoir coooscuuir, ccn- 

noigsancc koonessance, corps cdr, cost'e 
kdW, cousteau kooteo, comtera cootera, 
crespe cr^pe, crespchts krdpelu, cure- 
orcille curorcllic. 

Dfbuoiw dcuoons, demanderons de- 
maunderoons, denietler deraeler, de- 
siettHcr deiuner, desnon'ent d^nooct, 
dfspouillez depoolliez, diet dect, disner 
decncr, doigts doi, doulte doote, doux 

Enfants anfauns, enscignant anse- 
nccaunt, enseignent ans<?uiet, Tenttnds 
iantan, m'entortiller mantorteellier, 
ttclwrcliee ekorshe'e. esconduire ^coon- 
dweere, d'escarlate dekarlate, fescripray 
lecreer^, csciiier equier, d'etgard dgar, 
degart (before a vowel), esgare egartf 
m' esgratignez mdgrateeniez, esguiere 
eguiere, I'esgttiser legu-yzer, exyuilles 
egullies, Vesguillette fegeelliiJte, esleux 
elux, estoigaez ^, I'esmerattde leme- 
rode, d'csparyncr de'parnier, etpaufleg 
cpolle, espii'fflc c'peenglc, Ft 


Icpeenglere', esprit csprcct, cst e, qn'es- 
taiit ketaun, estcs etc, etties <5tiez, 
festomaeh lestomak, estriller e*treelier, 
Vesturgeon l(?turgeon, I'esluy letwee, 
esveillee enellic'e, esuentail cvantail, 
mcxcusercs mcscuzcrd. 

Fagots fagos, faillcnt fallict, fait 
f?t, faite fe't, fattldra fodra, faut-il 
fo-tee, fenettre-s fenctres, ferets feres, 
fffle fecllie, Jilleul feellicul, Jillcule 
fcellicule, Jik fccz, fondementt foon- 
demans, Francois Frauncez, fniiet 
fr \veet, ftislaine futine. 

Gaillardgalliard gauds gmaa,ffanehe 
goshe, ge>ttilhomme ianteellioomme 
yenoitlx, gcnoos, goust goot. 

Hnbille abeelie, m'/iabiller mabecllier, 
hastes hate, hatilte hot, heure cur, 
hiersoir crsoir, homme oomme, Jtoitiu-ur 
oonneur, hottppe hoope, huict weet, 
I'huis luce, hitinains vmins, humbles 
vmblc, Auutilitv vmecleeti. 

D'icelui/ dcecelwee, qu'ils kce. 

Jesus Christ Jcsu-krcct, ioya t<x ioyds. 

Iiict lect, longs loon. 

Madamoiselle madmoyzelle, main min, 
maixlresse, metresse, maluaise nidudze, 
mancheon maimshoon, marastrem'Matre, 
meilleiir mellicur, meittes mcetc, melan- 
cholic mclankolic, merveille mcrneilic, 
mesme mdmc, mctsm, monstres moontre', 
morfonds morfoons,inoucheoi>- mooshoir, 
mouillcr moolier, moult, moo. 

Neantinoings ncaunmoins, nepveu 
neueu, n'est ne, niepce niese, noeud neu, 

nom noon, nostre ndtrc, nouwaute noo- 
vcot6, nuict nweet, n'ottt ndunt. 

Obmetotis omctoons, oeilltidees eul- 
liade, (Kin-res enure, ostez otc. 

Purapetz parap^z, parcure parurc, 
paste p4te,iMifMM puitfe,jwtfjMpuiiM, 
peigneoir pinioir, peiynez peiiiez, pieds, 
pie, />/?< pl^t, />/cu phi, plitstost plut6, 
poietrine poitrecnc, poiynards poniars, 
poignct poniet, pouldrenx poodrcns, 
pour poor, prestts pretcs, prentz prcs, 
prochains proshins, propitiation pro- 
peesccassccon, pseaulau-s seoincs, puis- 
sant pueessaunt. 

Qtiatraitts kadrins. 

Jiaccvtistrez racootrcz, reccit rcsn, 
rww/a ran, rescowfurt recomfor, responce 
reponse, respond re re'poondrc, rhe-ume 
rume, rideaulx rccdco, royncz roonie, 
ronds roons, rosin arin roomarin, royaulx 
roy6s, rnbends ruban. 

Sans sauns, sainct sint, sainte sintc, 
saints sinz, sasle s&.le, sauutyarde souc- 
gardc, syais se, seconds segoon, seiche 
sdshe, <?p< set, soeur seur, #ofc soo, 
spiritnelx spcercctue. 

Tailleur tallieur, tant taun, tantost 
tauntot temps, tan tans, teste tcte, ^o#< 
tot, touche tooshc, tousiours tooioor, 
tout too, toutes toote. 

J'ynse oonze. 

Vcoir voir, reoy voy, twrfa vers, vestir 
veteer, rw^w vetu, rt-w vu, veulx veuz, 
vtv/ vee, vice, r <'te vette [veete P], 
vistement vcetcmant, ro/w voo. 

At the close of the xvin th century Sir William Jones (Works 
1799, 4to, i, 176) supposes an Englishman of the time to represent 
"his pronunciation, good or bad," of French, in the following 
manner, which he says is " more resembling the dialect of savages 
than that of a polished nation." It is from an imitation of Horace 
by Malhcrbe. 

Law more aw day rcegycwrs aw nool otruh parcllyuh, 

Onne aw bo law preeay : 
Law crooellyuh kellay suli boushuh lays orellyuh, 

Ay noo laysuh crecay. 
Lull povre ong saw cawbawn oo luh chomuh lull couvruh 

Ay soozyet aw say Iwaw, 

Ay law gawrdub. kee velly 6 bawryayrub dyoo Loovrub 
Nong dayfong paw no rwaw ! 

The interpretation may be left to the ingenuity of the reader, and 
the orthography may be compared to the following English-French 
and French English, in Punch's Alphabet of 25 Sept., 1869. 

M ay oon Mossoo kee ponx Iweeraaym tray 

Bowkoo ploo boug-regardong ker vraymong ilay ! 

N iz e Ninglicheman ! Rosbif ! ! Olrai! 

Alilor ! Dani ! Comme il tourne up son Nose ! maie ai'e ! I 


Since the above pages "were in type, I have been favoured by Mr. 
Payne with a full transcript of that part of the Mag. Coll. Oxford 
MS. Xo. 188, (supra p. 309, n. 1), which contains the 98 rules for 
French spoiling, partially cited by M. F. Genin in his Preface to the 
French Government reprint of Palsgrave. This MS. is of the XT th 
century, but the rules appear to have been much older. They in- 
cidentally touch upon pronunciation, and it is only those portions of 
them which need here be cited. The numbers refer to the rules. 


"1. Diccio gallica dictata habens 
primam sillabam vel mediam in E. 
stricto ore pronunciatam, requirit hanc 
literam 1. ante E. verbi gratia bien. 
chicn. rien. piere. miere. et sirailia." 
Here is a distinct recognition of a 
"close e," and the examples identify 
the sounds inpere, mere, now open, but 
close according to the orthoepists of 
the xvi th century, with the vowel in 
bien, chiett, rien, which therefore tends 
to confirm the opinion expressed above 
p. 829, that en was not then nasalized 
in the modern sense. " 2. Quando- 
cumque hec uocalis. E. pronunciatur 
acute per se stare debet sine huius .1. 
processione verbi gratia .beuez. tenez. 
lessez." As each example has two 
syllables in f, it is difficult to say 
whether the rule applies to one or both 
and hence to understand the meaning 
of " acute e." The last e in each is 
generally regarded as ''masculine," 
but the hrst in " beuez, tenez," was the 
the "feminine" and in "lessez" the 
"open" according to other writers. 
Nor is this obscurity much lightened 
by the following rules : " 3. Quamvis E. 
in principio alicuius sillabe acute pro- 
nunciatur in fine anterioris sillabe I. 
bene potest preponi vt bies. priez. lez. 
affiez &c." Here if bics = biais, we 
have the same mixture of masculine 
and open e as before. The two next 
rules seem to call the " feminine e," 
that is, the modern e mute, a " full e." 
"4. Quandocumque adiectiuum feme- 
nini generis terminat in .E. plene pro- 
nunciata gcminabit ee. vt tres honouree 
dame. 5. Quamvis adiectiuum mas- 
culini generis terminet [in ?] E plene 
pronunciatum non geminabit .E. vt 
treshonoure sire nisi ad differenciam 
vne Comitee anglicfe a shire. Vu 

comite anglice a counte 6. 

Quamvis adiectiuum masculini generis 
non terminet in E. Vt vn homme 
vient. homme adiectiuum tamen femi- 
nini generis terminabit in simplici cum 

se implere [?] pronunciatur vt meinte 
feinme vne femme." There can be no 
doubt that e feminine was fully pro- 
nounced, but how far it differed from 
the e "stricto ore," and e "acute pro- 
nunciatum," it is not possible to elicit 
from these curt remarks. It is observ- 
able that eo and e are noted as indifferent 
spellings in certain words now having 
the " muto-guttural e." " 8. Item ille 
sillabe. ie, ce. ieo. ceo. indifferenter 
possunt scribi cum ceo vel ce sine o." 


"12. Omnia substantiua terminancia 
per sonum .S. debent scribi cum .S. vt 
signurs lordes. dames ladyes." This 
plural s was therefore audible, but the 
writer immediately proceeds to point 
out numerous exceptions where z;was 
written for *, as 13. in gent, plural 
yettts or yentz, 14. in Jilz, 15. or x for s 
in deux loiafo, 16. or the common con- 
traction 9 for us in 09=ow, 17. in 
nos vos from noster vc&ter, either s or z 
may be used. In all these cases it 
would however appear that (s) was 
actually heard, and if any meaning is 
to be attached to "aspiration" we 
must suppose that nn (s) was sounded 
in the following case: "18. "Item 
quandocumque aliqua sillaba pronun- 
ciatur cum aspiracione ilia sillaba debet 
scribi cum s. et t. loco aspiracione verbi 
gratia est fest pleist." The next is 
obscure. " 19. Item si .d. scribitur 
post .E. et .M. immediate sequitur d. 
potest mutari in s." In 21. 93. and 
94. we tind s mute in Jisines, dwesma, 
mandasmes, and probably by 96. in feist 
(oust, and possibly also in : " 73. Item 
in verbis presentis et preteriti temporum 
scribetur. st. a pres I e. o. v. com bap- 
tiste fist est test lust &c.," though this 
partially clashes with 18. 

U after L, M, N. 

" 23. Item quandocumque hec litera 

1. ponitur post A. E. et 0. si aliquod 

consonans post 1. \sequitur 1. quasi v. 

debet pronundari verbi gratia, malnie 


nri soule. loialmeut bel compaigneoun." 
This does not mean that al, was pro- 
nounced (ay), but that it was pro- 
nounced as au was pronounced, and this 
may have been (ao) as in Meigret or 
(00) as in other orthoepists of the six- 
teenth century. With this rule, and 
not with S, we must connect : " 67. 
Item aliquando s. scribitur et vsonabitur 
cum ascun sonabitur acun," aucun ? as 
M. Genin transcribes. "36. Item iste 
sillabe seu dicciones quant grant De- 
mandant sachant et huiusmodi debent 
scribi cum simplici .n. sine .v. sed in 
pronunciatione debet .v. proferri &c." 
This can scarcely mean that an was 
pronounced as if written aun with au 
in the same sense as in the last rule 
cited. It must allude to that pro- 
nunciation of an as (aun) to which 
Palsgrave refers and which introduced 
an English (aun). supra p. 826, col. 1, 
and therefore confirms the older Eng- 
lish accounts. 

Oy and E. 

"26. Item moy. toy. soy. possunt 
scribi cum e. vel o. per y. vel I in- 
differenter. 58. Item in accusatiuo 
singular! scribetur me in reliquis casibus 
moy." This, together with Barcley's 
names of the letters, p. 805, is well 
illustrated by the curious passage from 
Sylvius, p. 824. 

Final Consonants. 
" 27 Item quandocumque aliqua 
dictio incipiens a consonant* sequitur 
aliquam diccionem terminantem iu con- 
sonant* in racionibns pendentibus [in 
connected phrases] consonans interioris 
diccionis potest scribi. Sed in pro- 
nunciacione non proferri vt a pres 
manger debet sonari a pre manger. 
29. Item 1. M. N. R. T. C. K. quam- 
vis consonans subsequitur bene possunt 
sonari per se vel per mutacionem litere." 
Does this mutation refer to the follow- 
ing ? "51. Item scias quod hec 
litere C. D. E. F. G. N. P. S. et 
T. Debent mutari in sono in strictura 
c. ante uocalem vt clerici. clers et debet 
in gallico clers rudi homines ruds 
homines et debet sonari ruz homines. 
bones dames debent bon dames et 
tune .u. sonari solempne vyfs hounte 
[homme P] loget vis homme et sic De 
alijs. 52. Item quando ista diccio 
graunt sight magnitudinem adjungitur 
cum feminino genere ita vt e sit sequens 

t. mutatur in D. vt grandc dame grandc 
charge." Observe this xvth century 
use of English sight for great, as an 
adjective. "53. Item quando grant 
adiungitur masculine generi vt grant 
seignour vt quando signat confessionem 
non mutabitur t. in D. quamuis E. 
sequitur vt iay grante." 


" 39. Item quandocumque hec liters 
.n. scribitur immediate post g. quamuis 
sonet ante . non deoet immediate 
prescribi vt signifiant &c. 40. Item si 
.n. sonat g. et non subsequitur bene 
potest A immediate prescribi. 41. 
Item seignour ton seignour son seignour. 
-92. Item quandocumque .n. sequitur 
I in media diccione in diuersis sillabis 
g debet interponi vt certaignement be- 
nignement &c. sed g non debet sonari." 
All these seem to refer awkwardly and 
obscurely to (nj). 


" 46. Item qi qe quant consueuerunt 
scribi per k sed apud modernos mutatur 
k. in q. concoraent cum latino I k. 
non reperitur in qu qd' quis sed I. 
54. Item posr G. vel E. quamuis v 
scribatur non debet sonari vt quatre 
guorre. Debent sonari qatre gerre." 

Words Like and Unlike. 
" 50. Item diuersitas stricture facit 
Differentiam aliquam quamuis in voce 
sint consimiles verbi gratia ciel seel 
seal celee ceele coy quoy moal moel 
cerf serf teindre. tenir attendre [Genin 
has: teindre tendre tenir attendre] 
esteant esteyant aymer amer foail lei 
stal [Genin : feal] vcele viel veile veile 
ville vill' [Genin : veele viel veile ville 
vill] brahel breele erde herde euerde 
essil huissel asscl nief neif suef noef[Ge- 
nin : soef ] boaile. baile bale balee litter 
htere fornier forer forier rastel rastuer 
mesure rnescire piel peel berziz berzi 
grisil greele grele tonne towne neym 
neyn." The transcript was made by 
Mr. Parker of Oxford, but the proof 
has not been read by the original; 
Genin certainly often corrected as he 
edited ; here the transcript is strictly 
followed. " 86. Item habetur diuersitaa 
inter apprendre prendre et reprendre 
oez ocps vys et buys kunyl et kenil. 
90. Item habetur diuersitas inter 
estreym strawe et estreyn hansel. 91. 
Item inter daym et dayn." 

These seem to be all the passages bearing upon the present dis- 


cushion. They arc not numerous, nor very important, nor always 
very intelligible, but they seem all to point to such a previous state 
of pronunciation of French, as our English experience would lead us 
to suppose might have preceded that of the xvi th centuiy as so 
imperfectly colligible from the writings of contemporary orthoepists. 
It should also he mentioned that the Claudius llolyland whose 
French Littelton is described on p. 227, note, under date 1609, is 
called Ifollilandm a previous edition of the same book, dated 1566, 
in the British Museum. This is 3 years before Hart's book, and as 
this older edition also contains the passage cited supra p. 228, note, 
saying that the English seem to Frenchmen to call their u like you, 
and to name q Iciou, whereas the Frenchmen pronounce like the 
Scotch u in gud, while Hart gives iu as the English sound, and 
identifies it with the Scotch and French vowels (see especially p. 796, 
note, col. 1, [~88]) we are again led into uncertainty as to the 
sound that Hart really meant, and to consider that the (iu) sound, 
though acknowledged by no orthoepist before Wilkins, may have 
penetrated into good society at a much earlier period. Again, the 
confusion of spelling in JZo/V/band and JTolliband., reminds us of 
Salesbury's identification of holy and holly (supra p. 779, 1. 2 from 
bottom). And lastly it should be mentioned that this name is but 
a translation, and that the author's real name, as he writes it else- 
where, is Desainliens (under which his works are entered in the 
British Museum Catalogue) being the same as Livet's de Saint-Lien, 
or a Santo Vinculo (supra p. 33, 1. 8 from bottom). The Latin 
work there cited is not in the British Museum, but as its date is 
1580, and the 1566 edition of the French Littelton there preserved 
does not differ sensibly from that of 1609 here quoted, this occa- 
sions no incompleteness in the present collections from French 
Orthoepists of the xvi th century. 

4. William Bullokar' s Phonetic Writing, 1580, and the 
Pronunciation of Latin in the xvith Century. 

Bullokar concludes his Book at Large with a prose chapter be- 
tween two poetical ones. The poetry is so bad that the reader will 
be glad to pass it over. The prose contains a little information 
amidst an overpowering cloud of words ; and as a lengthened speci- 
men of this important contribution to the phonetic writing of the 
xvi th century is indispensable, I shall transliterate his Chapter 12. 
There is some difficulty in doing so. Long a, e, y, o are lengthened 
by accents thus a, e, y, 6 when they apparently mean (aa, ee, Y, 
oo), and i is said to be lengthened by doubling as iy, yi, when it 
would also be () according to the only legitimate conclusion at 
which I could arrive in treating of Bullokar's pronunciation of this 
sound, pp. 114, 817, note. The mention of this combination iy, yi, 
which amounts to a reduplication of i, although I have not found any 
instance in which it had been used by Bullokar, and the constant 
omission of any distinction between long and short f, confirm the 


former theory that ho called long * ('). In the present transcript 
only such vowels are marked long as Bullokar has actually so 
marked, or indicated by rule, as (uu, yy). Bullokar' s doubled 
consonants, though certainly pronounced single, have also been 
retained. Bullokar has also a sign like Greek f which he uses for 
both and 2, but which he identifies with . It will be trans- 
literated (s) or (z) according to circumstances. Bullokar's gram- 
matical "pricks and strikes" are entirely omitted. They have no 
relation to the sound, and are quite valueless in themselves, 
although he laid great store by them. On the other hand I have 
introduced the accent mark, for which he has no sign. The title 
of the chapter is left in ordinary spelling. 

[ The 12. Chapter. 

Sheweth the vse of this amendment, by matter in prose 
with the same ortography, conteining arguments for 
the premisses. 

Hiir-ra iz sheu'ed an ek'serswz of dhe amend'ed ortog'raft biifoor 
sheu'ed, and dhe yys of dhe priks, stm'ks, and noots, for devmH'q 
of sil'lab'lz akord't'q tuu dhe ryylz biifoor sheu'ed. "VVheer-m iz 
tuu bii noot'ed, dhat no art, ck'serszYz, miks-tyyr, srens, or okkyy- 
pas'ion, what-socver, iz mklyyd'ed in oon thq oon'lt : but Hath 
*n tt severa'l d/sttqk'st'onz el'cments, pr/n's'p'lz, or devtz'tbnz, \>i 
dhe whi'tsh dhe saam kunreth tuu m'z perfet yys. And bikauz' 
dhe sz'q'g'l devi'z'/onz for iiq'lish spiitsh, aar at dhis dai so unper- 
fetlt pzk'tyyred, hi dhe el'emcnts (whttsh wii ka'l let'terz) pro- 
viVd'ed for dlie saam (az mai appiir 1 plain'l* in dlu's foor-mer 
treet't's) It iiav set furth dh/s wurk for dhe amend'iuent of dhe 
saam : wlu'tsh It noop w/1 bii taa'k'n in gud part akkord'i'q tuu 
m* mcen'/q : for dhat, dhat it sha'l sav tshardzlrez in dhe elder 
sort, and sav greet tmn in dhe juth, tuu dhe greet komod'*t 
of a'l estaats*, un'tuu whuum it iz nes'csari', dliat dhecr bii a 
knoou'ledzh of dheir dyyt?", un'tuu God tshiif-1/, and dhen dheir 
dyyt* oon tuu an udh'er : tn knoou'tq of whi'tsh dyyt* konstst'etli 
dhe nap't cstaat' of manz ItVf : for /g'norans kauz'eth man'*' tuu 
goo nut of dhe wai, and dhat of a'l estaats', m whuum tg'norans 
duuth rest: wheer-b* God iz greet'lt dz's'pleez'ed, dhe konron 
kwt'etnes of men nmd-ered: greet komon welths devml'ed, 
madzh'/straats dis-obei'ed, and mfcr'ibrz despz'ed: pr/vat gain 
and ecz sowht and dhcer-bi a kom-on wo wrowht. 

And az dhe dzhudzlrrncnt of dhe konron welth and wo, duuth 
not li in prt'vat personz, (and spcs'm'llt of dhe inferior sort,) Jet 
owht dheer tuu bii m evert oon a kaar of m'z dyyt?', dhat niz 
prt'vat ItVf bii not kon'tran tuu dhe kom'on kwretncs, and welth 
of a'l men dzhcn'cra'llt, (and spcs'/a'llt of dhe wel mmd'ed sort, 
whuu aar tuu bii boor'n w/dha'l- m sum respckts* for dheir t'g-no- 
rans, when it reetslreth not tuu dhe giiv/q okkaz'ion of l?Yk offens' 
in udh'er : for whuu kan wash H/Z nandz kleen of a'l fa'lts ? 

And syyerlt (m m* opj'n'bn) az fa'lts nav dheir biigm'iq of dhe 


f^'rst fa'l of Ad am, so iz dhe saara enkrees'ed bt ig-norans : dhowh 
sum wuuld ter'm it tun bii dhe mudh-er of god'lmes : for if men 
weer not ig'norant, but did knoou wheer-m tryy feli's'ttt did 
konsj'st, dliei wuuld not fa'l m'tuu soo man'* erorz, tuu di's-knt'et 
dheir nu'radz, and enda'n'dzher dheir bod'tYz for tran'si'tori tht'qz, 
and suartiYmz for ver't triflz. But sum wii sai, a'l tht'qz in dhis 
world aar tran-sitori, whi'tsh It wi'l konfes-, az tuutsh't'q a'l 
kree'tyyrz and ek'sersiYzez in dhe saain. 

Jet dhe gift of spiitsh and wriYt't'q iz liYk'liest tuu kontiiryy 
with dhe last, az loq az dheer iz an'i bii'i'q of man : and for dhat, 
it iz dhe spes'ia'l gift of God, wheer-bt wii bii tnstrukt'ed of uur 
dyy'ti'z from turn tuu tiYm, booth nuu, nav biin, and sha'l bii az 
loq az dheer iz an't bii'i'q of man, let us yyz dhe saam th dhe 
per'fetest yys, for eez, prof'it, and kontm'yyans, whitsh dhi's 
amend'ment wil perfoo'r'm m iiq'l/sh spiitsh, and Htn'dereth not 
dhe reed'tq and wrtVt'tq of udh'er laq'gadzhez : for li nav left uut 
no let'tcr biifoor in yys. And dhowh wii duu sum- what var*' from 
udb/er nas'ionz in dhe naam'iq of sum let'terz, (spes-j'a'lle wheer 
wii nav dtf'fertq suundz in vois,) jet dheer iz no fa' It in. it, as loq 
az wii yyz naamz agrii't'q tuu uur ooun laq'gadzh : and in udh'er 
laq'gadzhez, let us yyz naamz akkord't'q tuu dhe suund of dhe saam 
laq'gadzh, dhat wii wuuld leer'n, if dhei bii provud'ed of sufts'ient 
let'terz : and if dhe ortog'raf/ for dheir laq'gadzh bii unperfet, whuu 
niid tuu bii offend'ed, t'f wii (for spiid'i lee'r'ntq) yyz ft'g-yyrz and 
naamz of let'terz, akkord'i'q tuu dhe suundz of dheir spiitsh. 

Dhe Lat'm mai remain* az it duuth, bikauz* it iz yyz'ed in so 
man't kun'trtVz, and dhat buuks print'ed in liq'land mai bii yyz'ed 
in udh'er kun'tri'z, and ItVk-wit'z dhe prmt'iq in udh'er kun'tni'z, 
mai bii yyz'ed niir : but if a teetsh'or (for dhe eez of a juq iiq'li'sh 
lee'r'nor of dhe Lat'i'n) duu ad dhe strii'k tuu <?. g. i. v. 1 bikauz' of 
dheir dtverz severa'l suundz, and naam th az it weer but oon 
let'er, az th : and sai dhat : u : after q iz syyperflyyus : 2 and 
tsha'ndzh :z: for :: so suund 'ed biitwiin' twuu vuu'elz, whuu 
kuuld dzhust'lt f/i'nd fa'lt with-a'l? when dhe Eat-in t'z so suund'ed 
bt us iiq'h'sh : whitsh unperfetnes must bii maad plain bt oon wai 
or udh'er tuu a lee'r'nor and must bii duunn eidh'er bt per'fet 
ft'g - yyr of per'fet naam agrii'iq tu HIZ suund in a word, or bt dub''l 
naam'iq of let'terz dub''l suund'ed : udh'erwttz, dhe lee'r'nor 
must of neses'sitt leer'n bt root, ges, and loq yys : az uur nas'ion 
waz driven tu duu in lee'r'm'q of iiq'h'sh spiitsh whi'tsh waz 
nard'er tuu bii lee-r'ned (dhowh nii Had dhe suund and yys 
dheer-of from m'z tirfanst) dhan dhe Lat'rn, wheer-of nii un'derstuud 
never a word, nor skant nii-ardd an'i word dheer-of, suund'ed in 
a'l HIZ ItVf biifoor- ; dhe rez''n neer-of waz, bikauz' dhe let'terz 
in yys for Lat - in, did a'l'moost fur'nish even* severa'l dmz'ibn in 
dhe saam spiitsh : eksep'tiq dhe dub''l suund'ed lett'erz afoor'-said : 

1 Bullokar uses c', g\ v' for (s, dzh, 2 Bullokar writes q alone for qu in 
T), and j, for (dzh). Italics here in- the sense of (kw) or rather (ku>). 
dicate ordinary spelling. 


whitsh dub-'l and treb-'l smmd'iq (no duut) gryy 1 bi korrup'tiq 
dhe saam from tiim tuu turn, bi xidher nas'ionz, or bi dhe Lat'inz 
dhemselvz' nu'q'g'led with uth'er nas-ionz : for (li suppooz') dhe 
/tal'-ian duuth not at dhis dai maak :i: a kon'sonant biifoor' an 1 * 
vmrel, and giiv un'tuu it dhe suund of : dzh : az wii iiq'lish duu 
aTwaiz in dhat plas ; but maak'eth it a siHab'l of it-self, az in 
dhis word :iacob: of thrii siHab'lz iu Lat'in: iacolus of foou'r 
sil laVlz ; and wii iiq'lish sai, dzhak'ob : of twuu sd'lab'lz, 
dzhakob'us of thrii sil'lab'lz ; and in miir iiq'lish : Dzhaaraz : of 
oon siHab'l ; dhe /tal'ian a'l'so for dhe suund of uur : dzh: wriit'eth 
gi : whitsh iz not yyz'ed in dhe Lat'in bwt \g: oon'li for dhooz 
twuu suundz of ,g, and, dzh : or, i, biifoor a, o, u, and sunvtiim 
biifoor' ,e, in Lat'in : bt whitsh wiimai aTso ges, dhut ,c, in Lat'm 
at dhe biigin'iq Had dhe suund of ,k, oon-li, for dhat, dhat dhe 
Lat'in Hath dhe suund of : k : and noo udh/er let'ter riild'cd dhat 
suund, but ,c, oon'li in dhe Lat'in : ekssept' :qu: suplred dhe ruum 
sum ti/m : for dhe Lat'in reseiv* not ,k, in'tuu dhe num'ber of dheir 
let'terz. And for dhe nis'iq suund of ,<?, (thownt radh'er tuu bii 
krept in bi lit*'l and lit-'l) dhe Lat in was sufis'i'entli proviid-ed bi 
dheir let'er ,*, whuuz suund wii iiq-lish duu moost tiimz m dhe 
Lat'tii, and in uur o'ld ortog'rafi, yyz in dhe suund of ,z, when ,*, 
kum'eth biitwiin* twuu vmrelz : whitsh ,s, iz thowht tu bii no 
Lat'in let'ter : and dheer-foor it mai bii thowht dhat dhe Lat'in 
rint'li suund'ed d/d not jiild so groon iq a suund in dheir his'iq 
suund of : s. 

And for uur thrii suundz yyz-ed in ,v, dhe Frentsh duu at dhis 
dai yyz oon'li twuu un'tuu it : dhat iz, dhe suund agiii'iq tuu mz 
o'ld and kontin-yyed naam, and dhe suund of dhe kon'sonant ,-, 
wheer-bi wii mai a'l'so ges, dhat dhe Lat'in at dhe biigin'iq yyzed 
,v, for dhe suund of dhe kon-sonant: and yyz-ed :: for dhe sound 
of dhe vuu'el. 

But Huu-socvcr dub*'l or trcb''l suund'iq of let'erz kaam in : 
whi iz it not lau'ful tuu cnkrees- let'terz and fig-yyrz, when suundz 
in spiitsh aar enkrees-ed ? for spiitsh waz kauz of let'terz : dhe 
whitsh whuu-soever f/rst inveut'ed, Hii Had a regard tuu dhe 
diviz'ionz dhat mint bii maad in dhe vois, and waz wTiq tuu 
proviid' for even of dhem, az wel az for oon, or sum of dhem : 
and if (sins dhat tiim) dhe suundz in vois Hav biin fuund tuu bii 
man'i moo and diverz, amoq' sum udh'er pii'p'l, whi shuuld not 
let'terz bii aksept'ed, tuu furm'sh dhat laq'ga:1zh whitsh iz prop-'r 
tuu a god'li and sivil nas'ion of kontin-yya'l guver'nment, az 
dhj^s uur nas'/on iz? and dhe bet'er iz, and ev'cr sha'l bii if leer'niq 
(with Godz gras) flurish in dhe saam : dhe gruund of wli^li 
lee'r'niq, and dhe yys and kontm yyans dheer-of iz let'terz, dhe 

1 Bullokar writes (i gre'w, Ihre'w." llth Chap, he marks as synonymous 

lie represents (ii) by e', and (u) by the sig7is : eV, e', v, u. e'w. Hence 

v or u with a small semicircle below his gre'w, thrc'w = {gr^' 

which may be indicated by Italics. have been so transciioed. 
Then after distinctly referring his 

simple v or u to French (yy), in his l Misprinted (reseui). 



un-perfetnes wheer-of over-thryy man'i gud wits at dheir biigin'iq 
and waz kanz of loq Him lost in dhem dhat spiidd best. 

Dlie Lat'in waz moost-eez'i tuu us iiq'h'sh tun bii lee'r'ned first, 
biikauz 1 of xxj. let'terz, xiij. or xiiij. weer perfetli perfet, agrii'iq 
in naam and suund, and no let'ter mispkvsed, syyperflyyus, or 
suund-ed, and not wriit'n, eksept- in abrevias'ionz, and eksept' bi 
mis-yys (az li taak it) wii iiq'lish suund-ed ignarus az iqnarus : 
magnm az maq'nus. A'l'so lignum az lig'num, and so of udlrer 
wordz, wheer a vuu'el kaam nekst biifoor* : g : in oon sil'lab'l, and 
:n: biigan- an udlrer siHab'l fol'oouz'q : a'l'so dhe un-per'fet 
let'terz of dub*'l or treb''l suund in Lat'm, Had oon of dhooz 
suundz, agrii'iq tuu dhe naam ov dhem, so dheer want'ed but fiv 
or sz'ks fig*yyrz or let'terz tuu furnish everi severa'l dwz'ion of 
dhe vois in dhe Lat'm, az wii iiq'l'sh suund dhe saam : wh/tsh bii 
dheez, c 1 g' \ v ' x (tuu bii suppooz'ed radlrer ab-yyz'ed b 
tsha'ndzh of tmn, dhan so un-ser'tein at dhe biigm'zq,) biisiidz- 
dhz's, dhe Lat'in nath dhe aspiiras't'on or let'ter (A) veri siil'dum 
aft'cr an-i kon'sonant in oon sj'l'lab'l, and dhat aft'er :t: in dhe 
suund of :th: oon'h' and after :<?: in dhe suund of :k: oon'li, and 
aft'er :r: in dhe suund of :r: oon'K, in a feu wordz dem'ved from 
dhe griik : neidh-er nath dhe Lat'in dhe suund of, tsh. ii. uu. sh. 
dh. w. wh. j, (nor dhe suund of the thrii ha'lf vrurelz, '1. 'm. 'n. 
in dhe pcr-fet suund of iiq'l/sh spiitsh) neidh'er in s/q.g'l let ter, 
s?'l*lab'l, nor suund in word : a'l whitsh aar verikonvon in iiq'lish 

AVheer-for dhe Lat'm tectsh'orz, with Lat'in ortog'rafi, did not 
(nor kuuld) suffis'ientli fur-n/sh iiq-h'sh spiitsh with let'terz, bwt 
patsh'ed it up az wel az dhei kuuld (or at dhe leest, az wel az dhei 
wuuld) but nothiq per'fet for iiq'lish spiitsh, az appiireth bi dhe 
foor - mer trce'tis, so dhat of, xxxvij. severa'l diviz'ionz in vois 
for iiq'lish spiitsh, 2 oon'li dhecz siks, a. b. d. f. k. x. weer per'fetli 
per-fet, and dheer-bi xxxi diviz'ionz in vois nnperfetli fur'nished : 
wheer-of sum aar ut'erli want'iq, sum dub''l or treb''l suund'ed, 
and sum mis-naanred, biisii'd* sum mis-platis'ed, sum wrii't'n, and 
not suund'ed, and sum suund'ed dhat aar not wrii't'n. Whitsh 
un-per'fetnes maad dhe nat'iv iiq'lish tuu spend loq tiim in lee'r'niq 
tuu reed and wriit dhe saam (and dhat tshiif'li bi root) nol'p'n bi 
kontin-yya'l ek'serstiz biifoor- Had in niz cerz, bi nii'ariq 
udh'er, and bi niz ooun yys of speek'iq whitsh nii waz fain 
tuu leen moor untuu', dhan tu dhe giid'iq of dhe o'ld ortog'rafi, 
so far un-per'fet for iiq'lish spiitsh : whitsh Help of ek'sersiiz 
biifoor- shcu'ed in dhe nat'iv iiq'lish, dhe stra'n'dzher was 
ut'terli void of, biisiid' sum stra'ndzh diviz'ionz of suundz in 
vois in iiq'lish spiitsh, amoq' stra'n'dzherz, ut'terli' un-yyz'cd: 

1 Bullokar's 37 letters as given in his a second enumeration he adds , ph, r' 

eleventh chapter will he found supra p. = (k, f, 'r). 
37, 1. 19 from bottom. Several of his 

letters are in duplicate, for the purpose 3 Bullokar's signs for (s, d/h, dzh, 

of keeping his spelling like the old, and 11, v) respectively, the second and third 

making changes chiefly by points. In being the sanif. 


wlutsh kauz'ed dhem at dlie first srat, not oon'h' tuu kast (The 
buuk awai', but a'l'so tuu tlu'qk and sai, dliat uur spiitsh waz 
so ryyd and barbarus, dliat it waz not tuu bii lee'rncd, bt wrtYt't'q 
or prmt'/q : wlutsh. d&pair man'? of uur ooun nas'tbn (wtTt'q tuu 
Icer'n) d'd fa'l tirtuu : for dlic moor wtTt'q nii was tuu fol'oou dho 
naam of dlic let'ter, dhe fard-er-of nil waz, from dhe tryy suund of 
dhe word : and ad't'q niir-untuu' an un-pas'tent and un-dz'skreet' 
teetsh'or, man-i gud w/ts weer ovcr-throou'n tn dlic biigm't'q, 
whuu (udh'crwt/z mint nav gon foo'rward, not oon'liYn reed't'q 
and wrat'/q dlieir nat't'v laq-gadzh, but a'l'so (b* dhe abtTttt of 
dheir friindz) prosiid'ed in greet'er duu'tqz, tuu dheir ooun profit 
and stei in dhe konron welth a'l'so : of wh/tsh sort, weer dhe juth 
of noo'b'l blud, and sutsh az Had parents of greet tibil'iti : whuuz 
par'ents (throwh tend'er luv 1 ) kuuld not hard'lt enfors' dhem tuu 
treed dhat pain-ful maaz : and dhe .ruth fzYnd't'q ft nard, and dhcer- 
bt Had noo delmt' dheer-m, took an'i dhe leest okkaz-j'on tuu bii 
ok'kyyp/ed udh'erwtYz wheer-bt knoou'ledzh waz lak'i'q in sutsh, 
m whuum dhe kom'on welth (for dheir abtTitt' and krcd'/t) re- 
kw/rred moost, and sutsh az b&' a'l reez''n m^nt bii 1/nts tuu gtVd 
udh'er, and steiz tu up-no'ld udh'er, nav biin drt'v'n man'i tmz 
tuu bii geVd'ed bt udh'er dheir far-mfertbrz : whuu (for neses-siti 
or udher okkaz^bn) man'i t/Vmz ab-yyz- duu'i'qz pr/vat, and sum-- 
tttm pertain'j'q tuu dhe kom'on welth, whttsh iz tshiif-b' maintein'od 
b lee'r'nzq (Godz gras biifoor- a'l th<qz prefer-ed) : whitsh 
lee'r'mq tn dhe 'nfer-brz, kauz'eth dyy obei'd/ens towai-d* dhe 
syyper'tbrz, and biHq tn dhe syyper'ibrz teecheth dyy guver'nment, 
and f/tna'll teetsh'jeth a'l estaats' tu Itv tn oon yyniti of dhe estaat* 
of dhe kom'on welth, even' estaat' tn dheir degrii' and ka'l'tq, 
not withuut* dhe partzk'yylar prof'tt, kwretnes, and saaf-gard of 
evert estaat' : wheer-untuu' if /t nave ad'ed an't th/q be dhts mt 
amend-ment of ortog'rafr, for dhe yys and prof'tt of lee-r'norz and 
dhe saam akscpt'ed akkord'tqlt, H wtl not oon -It spiid't'l* tmprmt. 
dhe Gram-ar, but a'l'so put nu nelp'/q Hand untuu. a nes'essari 
Dik's/onari agrii'/q tuu dhe saam, tf God lend me ItYf, and dhat 
li mai bii eez-cd tn dhe bur'd'n, dhat dyytt* bt nat'yyr kompel'eth 
mii spesz'a'll/ tuu taak kaar of. 


Information respecting this subject is given incidentally by Pals- 
grave, Salesbury, Smith, Bullokar and Gill. Palsgrave generally 
illustrates the French sounds by the Latin, "when pronounced 
aright" (supra p. 59), implying that there was a wrong, and there- 
fore perhaps a usual pronunciation, which is the one we most desire 
to learn. By combining these authorities the result seems to be as 

A aa, a, M ee, B b, C k, s, CH k, D d, dh, th, E ee, e, F, f, 
G g, dzh, GN qn, H n, I ei, i, J dzh, K k, L 1, M m, N n, NG qg, 
oo o, u, (E ee, P p, QU kw, E r, S s, z, T t, th, TH th, U, yy, u, 
V v, X ks, Y=I, Z z. 

1 By omission of the diacritics, this word is misprinted (lou). 


A may have been (a, a, oo), but probably (a) only. 

JE, (E Palsgrave says (i, 10) "be written in latine and nat 
sounded," i.e. I suppose, not sounded as diphthongs. It seems 
clear from Smith (supra p. 121) that the real sound of JE, and 
therefore probably of (E, was (ee). 

C was (k) before a, 0, u and (s) before e, i according to 
present custom, and probably (s) before a?, oe. 

CH=(k) according to Bullokar, supra p. 842, 1. 19. 

D. The only proper sound was (d), but we find Palsgrave saying 
of French D (i, 30) : "D in all maner thynges confcrmeth hym to 
the general rules aboue rehersed, so that I se no particular thyng 
wherof to warne the lernar, save that they sounde nat d of ad in 
these wordes, adullere, adoptidn, adoulcer, like th, as we of our 
tonge do in these wordes of latine ath atljuuandum for ad adjuuan- 
dum corruptly." I have assumed this th to mean (dh) as being 
derived from d. But Salesbury writes (kwith) for quid. 

E. Besides the regular sound of (ce, e), Salesbury shews that 
(ii) had crept in occasionally, compare (liidzlr it}=legit, p. 767. I 
do not find this mentioned by any other authority. 

G=(g) before a, o, n and (dzh) before e, i, as at present. Both 
Salesbury and Bullokar note and stigmatise the use of (qn) for GN, 
which seems to have been in general use. 

I short = () throughout. I long = (ei) in Salesbury, (oi) in Gill 
most probably. Whether Bullokar said (n) or (ci) depends on his 
English pronunciation of long I. It is to be observed that he as 
well as Smith (p. 112), does not admit the sound of (ii) in Latin. 
Hence Bullokar' s sound of long /must have been quite distinct from 
(ii), as (ii, ii} are at this day kept quite distinct in Iceland and 
Teviotdale, in both cases perhaps by inclining () towards (<?<?), 
p. 544. 

T, usually (t), but when final often (th) as (anrath) amat, ac- 
cording to Salcsbury, see D. Palsgrave also finds it necessary to 
say, in reference to the French word est : "if the next worde 
folowyng begyn with a vowell, it shall be sounded et : but neuer est 
sounding s, nor eth, soundynge t like th, for t hath neuer no suche 
sounde in the frenche tonge," (i, 44), which seems to be directed 
against this Latin usage. 

TH=(th) see supra p. 842, 1. 19. 

II vowel, when long seems to have been generally (yy) supra 
p. 841. But Palsgrave seems to consider this wrong, and to prefer 
(uu), supra p. 149. The short vowel could have been nothing 
but (u, u). 

EXAMPLES. Latin spelling in Italics, pronunciation in Roman 

Salesbury gives : agnus aq*nus, amat anrath, dederit ded'errth, 
dei dee'ei, dico dei'ku, ego eg - u, ignis iq'nt's, Jesu Dzhee - zyy, 
legit lirdzhrth, magnus maq'nus, qui k^ei, quid kwdth, sal saul, 
sancius san'tus, sol sooul, tibi tei'bei, tollis toou'L's, tu tyy, vidi 
veidei, but objects to every one of these pronunciations. 

Bullokar writes, translating his symbols literatim : Cicero rheto- 


rica singulos vicit, S/s'ero rethorika sjq-gyylooz vra/t, corcw non race 
cucullum korvus non vo-se kyykuHum, p. 4. Georgius Gigas et 
Gilbcrtus gerunt gladium ad extinguendum giblum germinantem in 
gula Dzheordzhnis Dzhrgas ct G/lbertus dzherunt glad-Turn ad 
eksti'qguen-dum gib-bum dzhermman-tcm m gyyla, p. 5. Injustus 
jejunat jactuose non juxta juramentum Johannis mdzhus'tus dzhe- 
idzhyynat dzhaktyyo-ze non dzhuks'ta dzhyyramen'tuni Dzhonan-- 
n/s p. 5. Invisus miser non delectatur placidis musis mvrzus mrzer 
non delekta'tur plas'jcU's myyz/s, p. 6. Vitiosi judiciumfugiunt ob 
punitionem stultitice suatvisio'zi dzhyyd/s'mm fyydzhzunt ob pyyn*- 
sib'nem stultjs'tee syyec. Unus vestrum cumulavit huno acervum 
yynus ves'trum kyymyyla-v/t nuqk aservum, p. 7. Thraso, 
Thales, Thessalia, Thra'so, Tha-les, Thessa-b'a. Jgnarus, maynus, 
lignum, f'qna-rus, maq'nus, b'q-nura. Bullokar in these examples 
has neglected to use his accents which mark length. 

Gill writes a few Latin names thus, the numbers refer to the 
pages of his Logonomia : Julius Ccesar Dzhyylms Se'zar 43. Cicero 
Ss'z'eroo 43, 85. Terentia Teren'tia 84. Crassus Kras'us 85. 
Hippia H/p*/a 85. Sylla Sil'a 85. Qumtius Kmirsms 86. Venus 
Ven-us 100. Cynthia Sin'th/a 101. Phoebe Eee'be 101. Charissa 
Karis'a 101. Corydon Kor'/don 103. Pyrocles Piroo'kles 108. 

The use of (ei) for long I, seems to guarantee the old use of (*V), 
which may have been Bullokar's pronunciation. And the use of 
(yy) for long U, seems to confirm the conjecture of its old use in 
the same sound, supra p. 246, rather than (uu), because as (t) 
changed into (ei), so would (uu) have changed into (ou), whereas 
(yy) is naturally preserved. This confirms to some extent the 
remark on p. 583, note 8. The only other important point is the 
non-development of si-, U- before a vowel, into (shi-), hereby con- 
firming the absence of this development in English, supra p. 214, 

5. Alexander Gill's Phonetic Writing, 1621, with an 
examination of Spenser's and Sidney's Rhymes. 

Dr. Gill, born in the same year as Shakspcre, and occupying the 
high literary position of head master of St. Paul's School, London, 
at the time of Shakspere's death, must obviously be considered as 
the best single authority for the pronunciation of the more educated 
classes in Shakspere's lifetime. Hence it is necessary in these 
examples to give prominence to what has fallen from his pen. "We 
have had frequent occasion to lament that Dr. Gill has not ex- 
plained the value of all his signs with sufficient clearness. The 
reasons why I suppose his j to have been (oi), and his d and au to 
have been (AA) will be found on pp. 115, 145. 

The greatest difficulty in transcribing Dr. Gill's phonetic passages 
arises from the carelessness of the printing. Dr. Gill has furnished 
a list of Errata, which he requests may be corrected before reading, 
but in some instances these contain no corrections at all, and they 


are exceedingly deficient. The commencing and concluding obser- 
vations create difficulties : 

" Syllable qua? natura sua communes sunt, possunt etiam indif- 
ferentcr per vocales longas aut breves describi, vt (shal) aut (shAAl), 
(dans) aut (dAAns), (bi bii, ded deed, whoom whuum, modher, 
mudher, sai saai, mai maai, &c.) Quredam accentu variant, vt ibi 
dictum est : itaque in his nil titubabis. Errata leuiora pneteribis : 

cognita et agnita sic restitues Quinetiam characterum 

penuriam in I, pro J, quoties opus refarcies. Denique capite 25 et 
deinceps, accentuum notatio, longarum vocalium quantitati veniam 

It is evident that owing to these errors much doubt must be felt 
by a reader of the xixth century on many of the very points 
respecting which precise information is desirable. I had en- 
deavoured to correct errors by a reference to other occurrences of 
the same word. But after much consideration I determined to 
give a literal transcript of the text as it stands, as I have done 
for Hart and Bullokar, correcting only the errors marked in the 
errata and supplying the accent mark (), so that the reader will 
be able to form his own opinion. I have used (') for the short i, 
believing it to have been the sound intended by Dr. Gill. See also 
7 of this Chapter. But I have let (i) stand for short * when it 
appeared to be a misprint for ?=(ii). 

Almost the only examples of phonetic writing as such, given by 
Dr. Gill, are Psalms 62, 67, 96, 97, 104 according to the Authorized 
Version, and as that version had only been published ten years 
when his book appeared, these transcripts possess a peculiar interest 
and are given at length. 

The poetical examples are chiefly adduced to give instances of 
rhetorical figures, and are principally taken from Spenser and 
Sidney, not one line from Shakspere being quoted throughout the 
book, which need not excite surprise, as the first folio edition of 
Shakspere' s plays did not appear till two years after the publication 
of Gill's second edition. There are a few epigrams from Harring- 
ton, a poem of "Withers, a song of Ben Jonson, and one or two 
other songs cited. I have thought it best to give all the longer 
quotations from Spenser's Faerie Queen in the order in which they 
occur in the poem, and to collect the other quotations according to 
the authors. "We have thus a very tolerable collection of literary 
examples differing materially from the diy sticks furnished by 
Hart and Bullokar. Their main interest, however, consists in their 
being written phonetically by a man who was contemporary with 
nearly all the writers, and who therefore was able to furnish us 
with the pronunciation of English current in their time. "We shall 
not go far wrong if we read like Dr. Gill. At the same time he 
clung to the older form of pronunciation, not admitting Harts (ee) 
for ai, although he does allow (deseev, konseev) which were the 
current pronunciations of the xvrr th century, and apparently ad- 
mitted (ei, AA) which properly also belong to that period. It will 


be found that his quotations from Spenser often differ from Mr. 
Morris's (Globe) edition, sometimes designedly, sometimes perhaps 
from carelessness. 

How far Dr. Gill's pronunciation represented that of Spenser, 
Sidney, and the other authors themselves, is an interesting question ; 
but there is no direct means of answering it. The only path open is 
an examination of their rhymes. Accordingly Spenser's and Sidney's 
rhymes will be considered immediately after the specimens which 
Gill has given. And in the last section of this chapter not only 
Shakspere's rhymes, but also his puns will be examined for the 
purpose of determining his individual pronunciation. 

Extracts from Spenser's Faerie Queen. 

The references are to the book, canto, and stanza of the F. Q., and to the page 
of Gill's Logommia. 

Mutsh gan dhei praaiz dhe triiz so straikht and nai 

Dhe saiHq poin, dhe see'dar proud and t.iAl, 

Dhe vainprop elm, dhe pop'lar never droi, 

Dhe biild-er ook, sool kiq of forests AA!, 

Dhe as 'pin gud for staavz, dhe soi'pres fyyneral. 

1, l, 8, p. 105. 

Dhe laa'di sad tu sii niz soor konstraint', 
Kroid out, Nou nou, sir knaikht, sheu what juu bii. 

1, 1, 19, p. 108. 

Nou, when dhe rooz'i-f/q'gred monriq faicr 
Wee'ri of aadzhed Tarthoonz saf'ern bed, 
Had spred Her purpl roob thrukh deu*i aicr, 
And dhe noikh nilz Trtan diskuvered. 

1, 2, 7, p. 106. 

Az when tuu ramz, stird with ambis'ius proid, 
Foikht for dhe ryyl of dhe fair fliis-ed flok ; 
Dheir noni'ed fronts so feers on cidh-er soid 
Du miit, dhat with dhe teror of dhe shok 
Aston'z'ed booth stand sens-les as a blok, 
Forget'ful of dhe naq-e'q vektorai : 
So stuud dheez twain unniuuved az a rok. 

l, 2, 16, p. 99. 

. . . Mer'se, mers/ (Sir) voutsaaf' tu sheu 
On si'H daam subdzhekt' tu hard mzstshans'. 

1, 2, 21. p. 116. 
H'z dii'erest Laa'di deed with feer Hii found, 

1, 2, 44. p. ill. 
Her siinva'q deed Hii found, with faured feer. 

l, 2, 45. p. ill. 

gi moi frail eiz dheez binz with teerz du stiip, 
Tu thiqk HOU shii, thrukh gaiTful, han'dliq 
Dhokh tryy az tutsh, dliokh daukh'ter of a kiq, 
Dhokh faair az ever liviq waikht waz fair, 
Dhokh not in word nor diid il mcritiq, 
/z from Her knoikht divors'ed in dispair. 

1, 3, 2. p. 114. 


Of graiz'U Plu'to shii dhe dAAkht'er waz, 

And sad Proserpina dhe kwiin of hel : 

Jet shii did thiqk Her pirerles wurth tu pas 

Dhat parentadzh, with praid shii so did swel : 

And thun'driq Dzhoov dhat naikh in nevn duth dwel 

And wiild dhe world, shii klainved for her sair ; 

Or if dhat an** els did Dzhoov eksel' ; 

For tu dhee narest shii dzd stil aspair- 

Or if ooukht nai-er weer dhen dhat, did t deezair. 

1, 4, 11. p. 110. 

Ful man** mis'tshiifs fol'ou kryyel wrath ; 
Abhored blud-shed, and tyymuHyyus straif, 
Unman'li murdher, and unthri'fti skath, 
Bit'er dispait, with raqk'erus rust'i knaif, 
Dhe swel'iq spliin, and fren'/t radzh'z'q raif. 

1, 4, 35. p. 106. 

Dhe WAA!Z weer nai, but noth'iq stroq, nor thik ; 
And goold'n fuuil AA! over dhem displaaid* : 
Dhat pyyrest skai w/th braikht'nes dhcei dismaaid-. 

1, 4, 4. p. 98. 

"With, md'eus noror booth togeedh'er smait, 
And sous so soor, dhat dheei dlie nevn afrai*. 

1, 5, 8. p. 98. 

Hii dzhent'loi askt, wheer AA! dhe piip'l bii, 
^Miitsh in dhat staat'li biild'iq wunt tu dwel ? 
Whuu an-swereed Him ful soft, nii kuuld not tel. 
Hii askt again*, wheer dhat saam. knoikht was laid, 
Whoom greet Orgo'lio with pyyis'ans fel 
Had maad mz kai'tiv thral ? again* nii said, 
Hii kuuld not tcl. Hii asked dhen, whitsh wai 
Hii in maikht pas ? /gnaa'ro kuuld not tel. 

1, 8, 32. p. 111. 

But, neidh'er dark'nes foul, nor fiHhi bandz 
Nor noi'us smel, Htz pur'pooz kuuld withnoold'. 

1, 8, 40. p. 104. 

But noi-us smel m'z pur'pooz kuuld not noould 
But dhat w/'th kon-stant zeel and kouradzh boould, 
Aft'er loq painz and laa'bors man-ifoould ; 
Hii found dhe meenz dhat priz'ner up tu reer. 

1, 8, 40. p. 105. 

Dhen shal ai juu rekount' a ryyful kaas 
(Said uii) dhe wh/tsh with dhis uuluk'i ei 
j[i laat biineld* ; and Had not greet' er graas 
Mii reft from it, had biin partaak'er of dhe plaas. 

1, 9, 26. p. 100. 

"Wii met dhat v*l'an, dhat vail im's'kreant, 
Dhat kurs-ed waikht, from whooni oi skaapt whaileer 1 , 
A man of Hel, dhat kAAlz Himself- Despair-. 

1, 9, 28. p. 105. 

For what Hath laif, dhat mai it luved maak ? 
And givz not raadlrer kAAz it dui'lai tu forsaak ? 


Feer, saknes, aadzh, los, laa'bor, soroou, straif, 

Pain, Huq'ger, koold, dhat maaks dhe sari tu kwaak ; 

And ever IVk'l fortyyn radzh-z'q roif ; 

:AAl whf/tsh, and thouz'andz moo, duu mak a loth -sum loif. 

1, 9, 44. p. 103. 

Hii dhat dhe blud-red bToouz, laik a WAA! 
On eidh'er said dtspart'ed with H/Z rod ; 
Til AA! HJ'Z arnrai drai-fuut thrukh dhem jod. 

1, 10, 63. p. 106. 

Dbj's said, adoun* nii luuk'ed tu dhe ground 
Tu naav returnd- ; but daazed weer mz ein 
Thrukh pas'/q braikht'nes wha'tsh d/d kwoit konfound' 
Hi'z fiib'l sens, and tuu eksiid'zq shain. 

So dark aar tbj'qz on eerth kompaard tu th*qz dtvoin'. 

1. 10, 67. p- 116. 

So doun nii fel, and fuurth mz loif d/d breeth 
Dhat van-tsht m'tu smook, and kloud-ez swift : 
So doun nii fel, dhat dh-erth nmi undcrneeth* 
Did groon, az fiib'l so greet lood tu lift : 

So doun nii fel, az a nyydzh rok'*' kh'ft 
Whuuz fAAls foundaa's?on waavz hav washt awai', 
And rooul'ing doun greet Nep-tyyn duth dismal', 
So doun nii fel, and loik a heep'ed moun'tain lai. 

1. 11, 54. p. 121. 
. . . moost wretsh'ed man 

Dhat tu afek'swnz duz dhe braid'l lend : 

In dheir begm'mq dhei ar week and wan, 

But suun throukh suf'ferans, groou tu feer'ful end : 

Whailz dhei are week, bitaimz 1 with dhem kontend', 

For when dhei oons tu perfekt streqth du groou, 

Stroq warz dhei maak, and kryyel bat'r* bend 

Gainst fort of Reez-n, t tu overthroou. 

Wrath dzhel'ost, griif, luv, dhVs skwair nav laid thus loou. 

Wrath dzhel'os/, griif, luv, du dhus ekspel' 
"Wrath is a fair, and dzhel'osa a wiid ; 
Griif iz a flud, and luv a mon'ster fel : 
Dhe fair of sparks, dhe wiid of h't'l siid ; 
Dhe flud of drops, dhe mon-ster filth d/d briid : 
But sparks, siid, drops, and ft 1th du thus delai- : 
Dhe sparks suun kwentsh, dhe spnq'/q siid outwiid', 
Dhe drops drei up, and Mth waip kleen awai', 
So shal wrath, dzhel'ost, griif, luv, dai and dekai\ 

2, 4, 34. 35. p. 123. 

No trii, whuuz bran'tshez did not braavl* spn'q ; 
No brantsh, wheron- a fain burd dt'd not sit ; 

No burd, but did H'S shn'l noot swiit'lai szq ; 

No soq, but dzd kontain* a luvlat d?t, 

Triiz, bran'tshez, burdz, and soqz, weer fraanved fit 

For to alyyr frail maindz tu kaar-les eez : 

Kaarles dhe man suun woks, and H/Z week wit 


Waz overkum of thnj dhat dd mm pleez. 

So pleez'ed, d?'d m'z wrath'ful kuuradzh fair apeez'. 

2, 6, 13. p. 123. 

And iz dher kaar in neevn ? and ^z dher luv 
/n neevnlai spirits tu dheez kree'tyyrz baas, 
Dhat mai 'kompas'j'on of dheir iivlz muuv ? 

2, 8, 1. p. 118. 

. . . AA! dhat plees'tq iz tu liViq eer, 
Waz dheer konsort'ed in oon Harmonii. 
Burdz, vois'ez, m'stryyments, waa'terz, waindz, AA! agrii. 

Dhe dzhoi'us burdz shroud-ed in tsheerful shaad 

Dheir noots un'tu dhe vois attenvpred swiit : 

Dh- andzheel'ikal soft trem'blt'q vois'ez maad 

Tu dh- in-stryyments divain* respon'dens miit : 

Dhe sjl'ver sound'e'q irrstryyments did miit 

Wn'th dhe baaz murmur of dhe waa-terz 

Dhe waa-terz fAAl with d/f-erens dt'skriit* 

Nou soft, nou loud, un'tu dhe waind dd 

Dhe dzhent'l war'bltq waind loou answered un'tu AA!. 

2, 12, 70. 71. p. 118. 
Ne let Htz faair'est Sm'thm refyyz* 

In mtr-orz moor dhen oon Herself' tu sii, 

But eidh-er Gloor'aa'na let Hir tshyyz 

Or in Belfee'be fash* toned tu bii : 

7n dh- oon Her ryyl, fn dh- odh'er Her raar tshas'tttii. 

Pref. to 3, st. 5. p. 101. 

Hyydzh see of sor-oou, and tempest'eus griif, 
"WTieertn- mai fiib'l bark iz tos'ed loq, 
Far from dhe noop'ed aaavn of reliif' : 
"Whai du dhai kryyel btl'ooz beet so stroq, 
And dhai moist moun'tainz eetsh on odher throq, 
Threet't'q tu swal'oou up mai' feer'ful laif ? 
du dhai kryyel wrath and spait'ful wroq 
At leqth alai', and stmt dhai storm'! straif, 
"Whttsh in dheez trub'led bou-elz rainz and raadzh'eth raif. 
For els mai fiibi ves'el, kraazd and kraakt, 
Kan-ot endyyr. 

3,4,8, p. 99. 

Fordhai' shii gaav H*'m warn'iq ever/ daai 
Dhe luv of wtm'en not tu entertam' ; 
A les-n tuu tu Hard for Itvt'q klaai. 

3, 4, 26. p. 100. 

So ttk'l bii dhe termz of mortAil staat, 
And ful of sut'l sof'tzms whitsh du plai 
Wth dub'l sens'ez, and with fAAls debaat.' 

3,4,28. p. 97. 

TJnthaqk'ful wretsh (said nii), t'z din's dhe miid 
"With whttsh Her sovcrain mer-si dhou dust kwait ? 
Dhoi laif shii saaved bai ner graa'sms diid : 
But dhou dust meen with vtl-cnus dfspait' 


Tu blot Her on'or and ner neevnli laikht. 
Dai, radh'er del, dhen so disloraloi 
Diim of Her naikh dezert', or siim so laikht, 
Faair deeth it iz tu shun moor shaam, dhen doi ; 
Dai, radh'er dai, dhen ever luv d/sloralai. 

But if tu luv dzsloi'altai it bii, 
Shal ai dhen Haat Her [dhat] from deeth'ez door 
Mii broukht ? an, far bii sutsh reprootsh' from mii. 
What kan ai les du dhen Her luv dherfoor, 
Sith ai Her dyy reward' kannot* restoor ? 
Dai, raadh'er dai, and dari'q duu Her serv, 
Dai'i'q Her serv, and liWq Her adoor. 
Dhai laif shii gaav, dhai laif shii duth dezcrv. 
Doi, raadh'er dai, dhen ever from Her servts swcrv. 
3, 5, 45. 46. p, 121. 

Diskurteus, d/sloi'AAl Bn't'omart ; 

What ven'dzhans dyy kan ek'wal dhei dezart ; 

Dhat Hast with shaanvful spot of sm'ful lust, 
Defaild* dhe pledzh komzVed tu dhai trust ? 
Let ug'lai shaam and endles in'famai 
Kul'er dhoi naam with foul reproo'tshez rust. 
4, l, 53. p. 118. 

Amoq* dheez knaikhts dheer weer thrii bredh'em boould, 

Thrii booulder bredh'em never wer ibonr, 

Born of oon mudh'er m oon nap-* moould, 

Born at oon burdh'en in oon nap-i morn, 

Thraiz nap*i mudh'er, and thrais hap'i morn, 

Dhat boor thrii sutsh, thrii sutch not tu bii fond. 

Her naam waz Ag'ape, whuuz tshil'dren -wcern 

:AAl thrii az oon; dhe first naikht Prai'amond, 

Dhe sek'ond Dai-amond, dhe juq-gest Traramond. 

Stout Prai'amond, but not so stroq tu straik ; 
Stroq Dai'amond, but not so stout a knaikht ; 
But Trai-amond, waz stout and stroq alaik'. 
On Hors'bak yyzed Trai'amond tu faikht, 
And Prai'amond on fuut Had moor debit* ; 
But Hors and fuut knyy Dai'amond tu wiild, 
With kurt - aks yyzed Dai'amond tu smait ; 
And Traramond tu nand'l speer and shiild, 
But speer and kurt'aks both, yyzd Prai'amond in f iild. 
4, 2, 41, 42. p. 124. 

. . . Doun on dhe blud'i plain 
Herself- shii thryy, and teerz gan shed amain', 
Amoqst' Her teerz immiks'iq prarerz miik, 
And with Her prarerz, reez-nz tu restrain- 
From blud'i straif. 

4,3,47. p. 110. 


Shii Held nir wrath-ful Hand from veirdzhans soor. 
But drAA'iq neer, eer nil HIT wel biheld : 
Iz dhis dhe faith (shii said ?) and said no moor, 
But turnd Hir fast, and fled awai' for evermoor. 

4, 7, 36. p. 103. 

Fresh shad-oouz, fit tu shroud from sun'* rai ; 
Fair landz, tu taak dhe sun in seez'n dyy ; 
Swiit spriqz, in. whitsh a thouz'and nimfs did plai ; 
Soft nmrbliq bruuks, dhat dzhent'l slumVer dryy ; 
Heikh reered mounts, dhe landz about tu vyy ; 
Loou luuk'iq daalz, disloind* from konvon gaaz ; 
Delait-ful bourz, tu sol as luverz tryy ; 
Fair lab'erinths, fond run'erz eiz tu daaz : 
:AAl whitsh bai naa'tyyr maad, did naa'tyyr self aniaaz-. 

4, 10, 24. p. 114. 

But nii Her sup'liant nandz, dhooz Handz of goold ; 
And iik Her f iit, dhooz f iit of stiver trai' 

Whe'tsh sooukht unraiklrteusnes and dzhust-s soold, 

Tshopt of, and naild on noikh, dhat AA! maikht dhem binoold'. 

5, 2, 26. p. ill. 

Extracts from Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia. 

. . . Reez-n tu nu pas'j'on iild-ed 
Pas- ion un'tu mi raadzh, raadzh tu a nast'* revendzh*. 

3, 1. p. 110. 

And naaviq plaast mai thoukhts, maithoukhts dhus plaa'sed mii, 
Mil thoukht ; nai, syyr ai waz, ai waz tn faair'est Wud 
Of Samothe'a land, a land dhat whail'um stuud 
An on-or tu dhe world, whail on - or Avaz dheir end. 

4, 9. p. 113. 

Dhe feir tu sii mii wroqd for aq-ger burn-eth, 
Dhe aai'er in teerz for main afhk'st'on wiip'eth, 
Dhe sec for griif tu eb H/Z floou'iq tunx'eth, 

Dhe eerth with pit'i dul Her sen'ter kiip'eth, 

Faam iz with wund'er blaaz-ed, 

Taim fliiz awai- for soroou, 

Plaas stand'eth stil amaaz-ed, 

Tu sii mai naikht of iivlz whitsh nath no moroou. 

Alas, AA! oon-lai shii no pit'i taak'eth 

Tu knoou mai miz'eraiz, but tshaast and kryyel 

Mai fAAl nir gloo'ri maak'eth. 

Jit stil niz eiz giv tu mai flaamz dheir fyyel. 
Fair, burn mii kwait til sens of burn'iq leev niii : 
Ai'er, let me drAA dhis breth no moor in aq-guish : 
See, dround in dhii of vi'tal breth bireev mii : 
Erth, taak dhis eerth wheerin* mai spirits laq'guish : 

Faam, sai ai waz not born, 

Taim, Hast mai dai'iq ou'er : 

Plaas, sii raai graav uptorn- 

Fair, ai'cr, see. eerth, faam, toim, plaas, sheu /uur pour. 


Alas-, from AA! dheir helps ana ai eksaild-, 
For nerz ain ai, and deeth feerz HIT displeez-yyr ; 
Foi deeth, dhou art bigail'ed, 
Dhokh ai bii nerz, shii sets bai mil no treez-yyr. 

3, 15. p. 125. 

Extracts from Sir John Harrington's Epigrams (A.D. 1561-1612. 
Fai but a mans desgraast-, noo-ted a nova's. 
Yee but a mans moor graast, noo-ted of no vois. 
Dhe miid of dhcm dhat luv, and du not lv amt's*. 

2, 17. p. 113. 

gi kAAld dhii oons mai direerest Mai m vers. 
Wlu'tsh dhus ai kan interpret if ai wzl, 
Mai dii-erest Mai, dhat iz, moi kost'lz'est il. 

2, 81. p. 112. 

Tu praaiz mai waif, juur dAAkht'er, (so ai gadlrer) 
Juur men sai shii resem-bleth moost mr fadh-er. 
And ai no les tu praiz juur sun, mr brudh'er, 
Affmn' dhat mi iz tuu mutsh laik HH'Z mudh'er. 
Ei knoou not f wii dzhudzh araikht', or er, 
But let H*m bii laik juu, so ai laik Her. 

2, 96. p. 112. 

Markus neer seest tu ven'ter AA! on praim, 
Til of mz adzh kwait waas'ted waz dhe praim. 

2, 99. p. 112. 

Wheer dwelz Mister Kaar-les i* 

Dzhest'erz nav no dwel't'q. 
"Wheer laiz ni ? 

/n H/Z tuq bai moost menz tel'z'q. 
Wheer boordz ni ? 

Dheer wheer feests aar found bai smel'tq. 
"VVheer baits m ? 

:AAl behaind', gainst AA! men jeHq. 

3, 20. p. 118. 

Konsenrt'q waivz noould dh/s a ser'tain ryyl, 
Dhat tf at first juu let dhem naav dhe ryyl, 
Juurself' at last wi'th dhem shal naav no ryyl, 
Eksept' Juu let dhem ever-moor tu ryyl. 

3, 33. p. 109. 

Songs and Miscellaneous Extracts. 
What tf a dai, or a munth, or a jeer, 

Kroun dhai dezairz' wtth a thousand wt'sht konten'ttqz ? 
Kannot dhe tehauns of a naikt or an ouer 

Kros dhai delaits 1 wrth a thousand sad tonnen'tt'qz ? 
For'tyyn, on'or, beu'tt, Jyyth, 
Aar but blos'umz draiq [dai't'q] : 

Wan-ton pleez-yyr, doot'iq luv, 

Aar but shad-doouz flai-t'q. 

: AA! our dzhoiz, aar but toiz 

gid'l thoukhts deeseevtq. 


Noon nath poirer of an ou'er 
/n dheir laivz bireeviq. 

Thomas Campian. p. 144, with the music. 
Faaier bai na'tyyr biriq born, 
Bor-ooud beu'tV snii duth skorn. 
Hii dhat kf's-eth Her, niid feer 
Noo unnool'sum vernt'sh dheer ; 
For from dhens, nil oon'lei sips 
Dhe pyyr nek 'tar of Her Itps : 
And with dhez at oons nil klooz'ez, 
Melt'tq ryyb/z, tsherfz, rooz-ez. 
George Withers, p. 98. 

Nou dhat dhe Berth tz kround with smaiHq faier 
And sum du dn'qk, and sum du dAAns, 
Sum rt'q 
Sum st'q, 

And AA! du straiv t- advAAns' 
Dhe myyz-tk narer : 

Wheerfoor shuuld ai 
Stand srlent bai ? 
"Whuu not dhe leest 
Booth luv dhe kAAz and AA'torz of dhe feest. 

Sen Jonson, ode 14. p. 143. 
Main ciz, no eiz, but foun-tainz of mai teerz : 
Mai teerz, no teerz, but fludz tu moist mai Hart : 
Moi nart, no Hart, but Har'bour of mai feerz : 
Moi feerz, no feerz, but f iiHq of mai smart. 

Mai smart, mai feerz, mai Hart, mai teerz, main eiz, 
AT blaind, draid, spent, past, waast'ed wtth mai kroiz. 
And Jet main eiz dhokh blaind, sii kAAz of griif : 
And Jt mai teerz, dhokh draid, run doun amaain' : 
And Jt mai Hart, dhokh spent, atendz 1 reliif- : 
And jt mai feerz, dhokh past, mkrees' mai paain : 
And Jtt ai Itv, and l*viq fii moor smart : 
And smart'tq, krai n vain, Breek hevt Hart. 

SONG, " Break Heavy Heart" p. 119. 
Swiit thooukhts, dhe fuud on wlu'tsh ai fiid'tq starv ; 
Swiit teerz, dhe drt'qk dhat moor AAgment* mai thirst ; 
Swiit eiz, dhe starz bai wht'tsh mai kours duth swarv ; 
Swiit Hoop, mai deeth whitsh wast mai laif at first ; 
Swiit thooukhts, swiit teerz, swiit Hoop, swiit eiz, 
Hou tshAAnst dhat deeth in swiit'nes laiz ? 

SONG, " Deadly Sweetness." p. 119. 

Maa-tshtl tz naq-ed, Dhe diil naz -i'm faq-ed 

And bren-ed tz Htz byyks. In mz kryyk'ed klyyks. 

Dhokh Maa-tshil iz naq-ed Maa'tshtl tz naq-ed 

Jit nii iz not wraq'ed. Anb [and] bren-ed iz HIZ byyks. 

Setts Jlfacchiavellus, Northern Dialect, p. 122. 
Raaz-iq moi noops, on mlz of naikh dezair 1 , 
Thiqk'iq tu skaal dhe neevn of HIT Hart, 
Mai slend'er meenz prezumd' [prezyymd'j tuu nai a part. 


Her thund'er of disdain- forst mii retoir, 
And thryy mii doun &c. 

Daniel, DELIA, Sonnet 31. p. 99. 
Kontent' whuu \ivz with troid ostaat, 
Niid feer no tshandzh of froun'jq faat : 
But nii dhat siiks, for un'knooun* gain, 
Oft l*vz bai los, and leevz with pain. 

Specimen of Phonetic Spelling, p. 20. 
Dhe loq ar laa'zi, dhe lit'l ar loud : 
Dhe fair ar sluWsh, dhe foul ar proud. 

p. 76. 

Praiz of an naikh rek'n/q*, an a tn'k tu bii greet'lii renounced 
Juu with juur prtk-et purtshast. Lo dhe vik'tort faa'mus 
"With tuu godz pak-iq" oon wunvan s*Tl tu kuz-n. 

Accentual Hexameters. Stnnihurt's Translation of 
Virg. ^En. 4, 93-95. p. 100. 

Psalm 62. p. 20. 

1 Tryylai mai sooul wait'eth upon* God : from mm kunreth moi 
salu[v]aa'sm. 2 Hii oon-lai iz moi rok and moi salvaa-s/on : Hii iz 
mai defens', ai shal not bi greetiai muuved. 3 Hou loq wil jii 
imadzh-in mi's'tshiif against 1 a man ? jii shal bi slain AA! of Juu : 
az a bou'iq WAA! shall ri bii : and az a tot'en'q fens. 4 Dheei 
oon'lai konsult* tu kast nnn doun from HIS ek'selensai, dheei delai-t 
m laiz : dheei bles with dheeir mouth, but dheei kurs tn'wardlai' 
Sel'an. 5 Mai sooul wait dhou oon-lai upon* God : for moi ekpek- 
ta's/on iz from ro'm. 6 Hii oon'lai iz mai rok and moi salvaa*s?bn ; 
Hii iz mai defens* ; ai shal not bi muuved. 7 /n God iz mai sal- 
vaa-s/on and mai gloo'n; dhe rok of mei streqth and mai ref-yydxh 
iz in God. 8 Trust in n/m at AA! taimz ji piip'l ; pour out juur nart 
bifoor H/m : God iz a refyydzh for us. Sel'an. 9 Syyrlai men 
of loou degrii* ar van'rtoi, and men of uai degrii' ar a lei : tu bi 
laid in dhe bal'ans, dheei ar AAltogedh'er loilduVer dhcn van'z'tai. 
10 Trust not in opres*eon, bikum* not vain in rob-eroi ; t'f n'tsh'ez 
'nkrees*, set not juur nart upon- dhem. 11 God Hath spook'n 
oons ; twais naav oi naard dhz's, dhat pour biloq'eth un'to God. 12 
rAAl'so un'to dhii, oo Lord, biloq-cth mer'si : for dhou ren'derest 
tu everoi man akkord'/q tu n/z wurk. 

Psalm 67. p. 21. 

1 God bi mers/ful yy[u]rrtu us and blcs us : and kA/vz m'z faas tu 
shain upon- us. Sel'an:. 2 Dhat dhai waai maai bi knooun upon 
certh, dhai saavt'q neelth amoq- AA! naa'sionz. 3 Let dhe piip'l 
praiz dhi, oo God; let AA! dhe piip'l prais dhii. 4 let dhe 
naa - szbnz bi glad, and s/q for dzhoi : for dhou shalt dzhudzh dhe 
piip'l roikht'euslai, and govern dhe naa'szbnz upon' eerth. Sel'an. 

5 Let dhe piip'l praiz dliii oo God ; let A A! dhe piip'l praaiz dhii. 

6 Dhen shal dhe. eerth jiild Hr jirkrees ; and God, iivn our ooun 
God, shal bles us. 7 God shal bles us, and AA! dhe endz of dhe 
eerth shal feer nan. 


Psalm 96. p. 22. 

1 s?q un'tu dhe Lord a nyy soq ; siq un'tu dhe Lord AA! dhe 
eerth. 2 S/q un'tu dhe Lord, bles Hiz naam ; sheu fuurth Hiz 
salvaa-sion from dai tu dai. 3 Deeklaar Hiz gloo'rt amoq- dhe 
needh'en : Hiz wun'derz amoq* AA! piip'l. 4 For dhe Lord iz 
greet, and grect'loi tu bi praiz'ed: Hii iz tu bi feered abuv- AA! 
Godz. 5 For AA! dhe godz of dhe naa'sionz ar ai'dolz : but dhe 
Lord maad dhe neevnz. 6 On'or and Maa'dzhestei ar bifoor 
Htm : streqth and beu'ti ar in H?'Z sank'tuarai. 7 Giv un'tu dhe 
Lord (oo jii kin'drez of dhe piip'l) gi'v un'tu dhe Lord gloo-ri and 
streqth. 8 Giv un-tu dhe Lord dhe gloo'ri dyy un-tu Hiz naam : 
brt'q an of'rz'q and kum in'tu m'z kuurts. 9 wurship dhe Lord 
in dhe beu'ti of HOO 'lines : feer bifoor* mm. AA! dhe eerth. 10 
Saai amoq' dhe needh en dhat dhe Lord reei'neth : dhe world 
AAl'so shall bi established dhat it shal not bi muuved : Hii shal 
dzhudzh dhe piip'l raikh'teuslai. 11 Let dhe neevnz redzhois*, 
and let dhe eerth bi glad : let dhe see roor and dhe ful'nes dheerof'. 
12 Let dhe fiild bi dzhoi'ful, and AA! dhat iz dherur : dhen shal 
AA! dhe triiz of dhe wud redzhois' 13 Bifoor' dhe Lord; for Hii 
kunreth, for Hii kunveth tu dzhudzh dhe eerth : Hii shal dzhudzh 
dhe world with reikh'teusnes, and dhe piip'l with niz tryyth. 

Psalm 97. /?. 22. 

1 Dhe Lord reein'eth ; let dhe eerth redzhois : let dhe mul'ti- 
tyyd of dhe ailz bi glad dherof. 2 Kloudz and dark'nes ar round 
about Him : raikh'teusnes and dzhudzh'ment ar dhe nabitaa'sion of 
Ht'z throon. 3 A foi'er go'eth bifoor- Him : and bunreth up niz 
en'emaiz round about- 4 Hiz laikht-niqz inlaikht'ned dhe world : 
dhe eerth sau, and trenvbled. 5 Dhe nilz melt ed laik waks at 
at dhe prez-ens of dhe Lord ; at dhe prez-ens of dhe Lord of dhe 
whool eerth. 6 Dhe nevenz deklaar Hiz raikh'teusnes : and AA! 
dhe piip-1 sii niz gloo'ri. 7 Konfound'ed bi AA! dheei dhat serv 
graavn ai'madzhez, and boost dhemselvz of ai'dolz : wurship Him 
AA! ji godz. 8 Si'on Haard, and waz glad, and dhe dAAkh'terz 
of 7u - da redzhois-ed : bikauz- of dhai dzhudzh'mcnts, oo Lord. 
9 For dhou Lord art hoikh abuv AA! dhe eerth : dhou art eksal'ted 
far abuv AA! godz. 10 Jii dhat luv dhe Lord, naatiivl; Hii 
prezerveth dhe sooulz of niz saints : Hii delivereth dhem out of 
dhe Hand of dhe wik-ed. 1 1 Laikht iz sooun for dhe raikh'teus, 
and glad-nes for dhe up'raikht in Hart : 12 Redzhois- in dhe Lord, 
rii raikh'teus : and giiv thaqks at dhe remenrbrans of niz Hoc-lines. 

" Psalm 104. p. 23. 

1 Bles dhe Lord, oo mai sooul : oo Lord mai God dhou art veri 
greet : dhou art kloodh-ed with On'or and Madzh-estai. 2 Whuu 
kuverest dhai self with laikht, az with a garment : whuu stretsb/est 
out dhe nevnz laik a kur tain ; 3 Whuu lareth dhe beemz of Ht'z 
tehanrberz in dhe waa'terz ; whuu maak'eth dhe kloudz Hiz 
tsharet: whuu walk'eth upon 1 dhe wiqx of dhe waind. 4 "WTiim 


maak-eth HJZ an-gelz spii"its : H/Z mm-j'sterz a flaanriq foi-er. 
5 Whuu laid dhe foundaa-s/onz of dhe eerth : dhat it shuuld not 
bi remuuvcd for ever. 6 Dhou kuverest 't with, dhe diip az with 
a garment : dhe waa'tcrz stuud abuv dhe moun-tainz. 7 At dhoi 
rebyyk' dheei fled: at dhe vois of dhoi thund-er dheei naast-ed 
awai. 8 Dheei go up boi dhe mount'ainz, dheei go doun boi dlie 
vaHeiz un-tu dhe plaas wht'tsh dhou nast found- ed for dhem. 9 
Dhou nast set a bound dhat dheei mai not pas over : dhat dheei 
turn not again tu kuvcr dhe ccrth. 10 Hii sendeth dhe spr/qz 
t'n'tu dhe val'leiz ; wlu'tsh run aruoq- dhe ntlz. 1 1 Dheei g/v drt'qk 
tu cvroi bccst of dlie f iild ; dhe woild as'es kwentsh dhccir thirst. 
12 Boi dhem shal dlie foulz of dhe nevn naav dheeir nab/taa-sj'on, 
whi'tsh s<q amoq- dhe bran-shez. 13 Hii waat-ereth. dhe Eu'lz from 
HZ tshanrbcrz : dhe eerth iz saHsfoied with dhe fryyt of dhoi 
wurkz. 14 Hii k.\Az eth dlie gras tu groou for dhe kat'cl, and 
nerb for dhe servz's of man : dhat mi mai br/q fuurth fuud out of 
dhe eerth. 15 And woin dhat maak-eth glad dhe Hart of man, and 
oil tu maak H/Z faas tu shoin, and breed wlutsh strcqtlrneth mans 
Hart. 1 6 Dhe triiz of dlie Lord ar ful of sap : dhe sce'darz of 
Leb'anon whi'tsh. Hii nath plant'ed. 17 "Wlieer dhe b/rdz maak 
dheeir nests : az for dhe stork dhe fir triiz are nir nous. 18 Dhe 
noikh n?'lz ar a ref'yydzh for dhe woild goots : and dhe roks for 
dhe kun'iz. 19 Hii apuuint'cd dhe muun for scez-nz ; dhe sun 
knoou'eth H'Z goo'i'q doun. 20 Dhou maak'est dark'nes, and it iz 
noikht : wheernr AA.! dhe beests of dhe for'est du kriip fuurth. 
21 Dhe Juq loi'onz roor aft'er dhccir prai, and siik dheeir meet 
from God. 22 Dhe sun aroiz'eth, dheei gadh'cr dhemselvz- tu- 
gedlrer, and lai dhem doun in dheeir dcnz. 23 Man go'eth 
fuurth un-tu m'z wurk ; and tu m'z laa bor, until- dlie iivn/q. 24 
O Lord nou man-i'tbould ar dhoi wurks ? in w/z-dum nast 
dhou maad dhem AA! : dhe eerth iz ful of dhoi ra'tslrez. 25 
So 'z dh/s greet and woid sec, wheerm* ar the'qz kriip -z'q 
mnuni'ei'abl, booth SOIAA! and greet beests. 26 Dheer go dhe 
ships; dhecr iz dhat Lcvfathan [ Levarathan ? ] whuum dhou 
nast maad tu plai dhecrin-. 27 Dheez wait AA! upon dhii dliat 
dhou maist g*V dhem dheeir meet in dyy seez-n. 28 Dhat dhou 
gt'vest dhem dheei gadh-er: dhou oop-nest dhei Hand, dheei ar 
ffl-ed w^th gild. 29 Dhou noid'est dhoi faas, dhci ar trub'led : 
dhou taak-est awai- dheeir breth dheei doi, and return- tu dheeir dust. 
30 Dhou send-cst forth [fuurth] dhoi spiWt, dhei ar kreaat-ed : 
and dliour enyy-cst dhe faas of dhe eerth. 31 Dhe gloo-r of dho 
Lord shal indyyr for ever : dhe Lord shal redzhois- *'n n*z wurks. 
32 Hii luuk-eth on dhe eerth, and ft trem-bleth: nii toutsh'eth 
[tutsh-eth ?] dhe Hlz and dhei smook. 33 p[i w/1 s/q un'tu dlio 
Lord az loq as oi li'v : ai w/1 praiz moi God whoil oi naav moi 
bii'/q. 34 Moi mcdztaa-s/on of mm shal bi swiit : oi wtl be glad 
in dhe Lord. 35 Let dhe snrerz bi konsunrcd [konsyym-ed?] out 
of dhe eerth, let dlie wflred bii no moor : blcs dhou dlie Lord, oo 
moi sooul. Praiz jii dhe Lcvd. Amen. 




An inspection of the examples of Spenser's pronunciation as given 
by Dr. Gill. pp. 847-852, shews that as Dr. Gill read them the rhymes 
were not iinfrequently faulty. 1 If then this authority is to be 
trusted we have entirely left the region of perfect rhymes, and have 
entered one where occasional rhymes are no guide at all to the pro- 
nunciation, and very frequent rhymes are but of slight value. Still 
it seemed worth while to extend the comparison further, and see 
how far Spenser in his rhymes conformed to the rules of pronun- 
ciation which we gathered from contemporary authorities in Chap. 
III. Before, however, giving the results of an examination of all 
the rhymes in the Faerie Queen, I shall examine the bad rhymes in 
contemporary poems of considerable reputation, in order that we 
may see and understand what limits of approximation in the sound 
of rhyming vowels and even consonants, some of our best versifiers 
deem to be occasionally or even generally sufficient, thnt is, how 
closely they approach to final or consonantal rhyme (p. 245) on the 
one side, and assonance on the other. For this purpose I have se- 
lected Thomas Moore and Alfred Tennyson. Every one admits that 
Moore was at least a master of the mechanical part of his art. His 
lines are generally rhythmical, and his rhymes good, as might be 
expected from a song writer with a delicate perception of music. 
Of his waitings I choose the most elaborate, the Loves of the Angefs, 
and Lalla fiookh, and note all the rhymes which are false according 
to my own pronunciation. Of Tennyson, who is also a master of 
his art, I select the In Memoriam, as his most careful production 
in regular rhymed verse, and do the like with it. The following 
are the results. 

Mode of Reference. 

FW 1, 2 Fircworshippers, part 1, paragraph 2. 

LA prol., Loves of the Angels, prologue. LA 2, 8. Do., story 2, paragraph 8. 

LH 6, Light of the Uarem, paragraph 6. 

PP 24, Paradise and the Pen, paragraph 24. 

VP 3, 17, Veiled Prophet, part 3, paragraph 17. 

T 28, Tennyson's In Memoriam, section 28. Tep. Do. epilogue. 

The examples are arranged according to the sounds, which, according to my 
pronunciation, are different, but must have been identical, according to the pro- 
nunciation of the poets, if the rhymes are perfect. 

Faulty Rhymes observed in Moore and Tennyson. 

I. Both rhyming syllables accented. 
(aa)=(ro) last hast VP 2, 24 

command brand VP 1 2 [in all these cases the first word is 

command hand VP 3 5 T ep. occasionally pronounced with (a?), 

glance expanse LA 1, 20. PP 5. more frequently with (ah).] 

1 In the few extracts that are given (Britomart- dezart 1 4, 1, 53. Har-monii 

we find: (AA! fyyneral 1, 1, 8. waz agrii 2, 12, 70. tshaslitii bii 3, intr., 5. 

pas 1, 4, 11. whoiieer despair 1, 9, 28. disloi-alai dai 3, 5, 45.) The spelling 

luv rauuv 2, 8, 1. morn weern 4, 2, 41. here used is the preceding translitera- 

foikht smait 4, 2, 42.) And the fol- tion of Dr. Gill's, the references are to 

lowing seem to be forced, a double book, canto, stanza, of the Faerie Qutenc. 
raiue to -<T, and -y being assumed, 



(aa)=(A, AA, o, oo) 
har wnr VP 3, 14 
guard lord T 124 
haunts wants T 96 [the first word has 

sometimes (AA), and the second either 

W or (a).] 

(aai) = (ej, i) 
hearth earth T 30. 76 

(aa, AA) = (^) 

vase grace VP 2, o. [the first word is 
very rarely called (vws), or (v;z) 
generally (VAA.Z, vaaz).] 

(A)=(aa), see (aa)=A) 
(AA) = (aa), see (aa) = (AA) 
(AA)=(ee), see (ee)(\) 
(se)=(aa), see (aa)=(8e) 

() = () 

amber chamber FW 4, 37 [the second 
word in these cases is usually 
(tshmn-ba), occasionally (tshaanrba); 
I do not know (tshsenvbi).] 
clamber chamber FW 1, 8 
have grave T 54 


death faith T 80. 106. 112. 

said maid VP 1, 28 [the word said is 

perhaps occasionally called (sml).] 
unsaid maid T 72 

heaven driven FW 1, 1. 1, 15. 2, 11. 

4, 8. LA 2, 42. VP 1, 33. 2, 33. 
heaven forgiven LA 1, 14. 2, 13. 2, 65. 

FW 4, 1. PP 32. 
heaven given FW 1, 2. 4, 4. 4, 7. 4, 

24. LA 1, 9. 2, 8. 2, 37. 2, 46. 3, 1. 

3, 5. LH 23. VP 1, 3. 1, 19. 1, 25. 

2, 8. 2, 24. 2, 27. T 16. 39 
heaven o'erdriven T 61 
heaven riven FW 3, 1. LH 6 
heaven unriven VP 3, 1 1 

[any attempt to say (m'vn) would 

no doubt have been scouted by any 

poet, but all poets allow the 


inherit spint PP 14 [(spert't) is now 

thought vulgar] 

yes this FW 3, 2 [compare Sir T. 
Smith, supra p. 80]. 

breath beneath LA 1, 15. 2, 2. VP 2, 


breath underneath T 98 
breath wreath LH 18. 22. VP 1, 9 
death beneath FW 1, 17. 1, 18. 3, 6. 

3, 14. T 40 

death sheath FW 4, 28. VP 1, 2. 

death wreath FW 2, 13. T 71 

death underneath VP 3, 17 

deaths wreaths LA 2, 63 

heaven even FW 1, 17. LA 1, 6. 2, 

38. PP26. VP 1, 34 
treads leads ?. FW 4, 25 

(eJ, i) = (ooj, ooj) 
earth forth LA 3, 13. LH 30 

(&i,a)=(aai) see (aa.i)=(ci, i) 


done upon FW 2, 11 
done gone LA 1, 12 
dusk kiosk VP 1, 24 
one gone LH 5 
one on T 42. 80. 82. op. 
one upon LA 2, 71. PP 32 
rough off LH 5 
run upon VP 1, 34 
shun upon LA 2, 43. 2, 62 
sun upon LA 2, 17. VP 1, 1 

above grove LH 2 

above love wove LA 3, 8 

beloved roved LH 3 

come home LA 2, 74. 3, 8. LH 18 

twice. 22. VP. 2, 33. 3, 17. T 6. 

8. 14. 39. 

discover over LH 4 
love grove LH 20 
love rove VP. 1, 18. 2, 35 
lover over LH 1. 6. 
loves groves FW 1, 9. LH 6. VP 1, 13. 
one alone LH 24. T 93 
one shone VP 1, 1.5. LA prol. 5 
one tone FW 4. 25 

blood good T 3. 33. 53. 82. 104 

blood stood FW 2, 12. 2, 13. 4, 9 

blood understood VP 1, 27. 3, 21 

bud good T ep. 

flood good T 126 

flood stood FW 1, 13. 1, 18. 2, 8. 3, 

11. 4, 29. PP9 
flood wood LH 25 T 84 
floods woods PP 12. T 83 
shut put T 35 
thrush push T 89 

(o) = (uu) 
beloved moved T 51 
blood brood FW 1, 2, 3, 1. 4, 4. 
blood food FW 3, 14. 
come dome FW 1, 1. 
come tomb FW 2, 9. T 83 
flood food VP 2, 5, 

love move FW 4, 7. LH 5. T 17. 
25. 39. 100 



love prove T prol 26. 47. 83. 

loved proved PP 15. VP 1, 20. T 103. 

129. ep. 

loved removed LA 3, 10. T prol. 13. 
loved unmoved FW 1, 3. 2, 12. LA 1, 

16. VP 2, 27 
loves moves T ep. 
some &oras:= judgment VP 1, 16 

(ai, j)=(oi, ooj) 

curse horse T 6 

words chords LA 2, 36. 2, 67. LH 33. 

VP 2, 17.-T 47 
word lord LA prol. 2. 

(ai, i) = (00i, ooj) 
return'd mourn'd FW 2, 13 
urn mourn T 9 

[some persons say (muu.m] 
word adored VP 1, 29 
word sword FW. 1, 13. 2, 3 
words swords VP 1, 2. 1, 8 

bear fear T prol. 
bears years T 51 
wears tears *. LA 1, 15 

(<?0)=(aa), see (a 

(<tf=c, see e = *< 

to day quay T 14 


Christ mist T 28 

Christ evangelist T 31 

behind wind *. VP 1, 8 

blind wind . VP 3, 5 

find wind *. T 8 

kind wind s. VP 3, 2. T 106 

mankind wind *. T 28 

[many readers always read (waind) 
in poetry instead of wind ; Gill 
has generally (woind) even in 

<ai) = (oi) 

I joy T ep. [the pronunciation (ai 
dzhoi) would be out of the question] 

(on) = (00, oou) 
brow below LIT 5 
brow know T 89 
down grown VP 2, 10 
down own LA 2, 39. PP 24 
now low T 4 
powers doors T 36 

shower pour LH 2. [the pronunciation 
(pom) is now vulgar.] 

(i)=(c), see (e)=() 
(*) = (oi), w(oi) = () 


did seed T ep. 

(ii)=(e), see (e) = (ii> 
(ii)=(ee), see (ec)=(ii) 

(ii)=(<0> 8ee ( <?e ) = ( ii ) 

anew through LA 3, 10 
anew two VP 3, 27 
dew through VP 2, 4 
ensue through T 1 15 
few true FW 1, 17 
hue drew LA 1, 20 
hue knew through LA 1, 15 
hue threw LH 25 
hue too VP 1, 36 
hue true FW 3, 10 
hue who VP 3, 3 

[if hue is pronounced (jhuu) and not 

(iiiu) the six last cases may be 

esteemed rhymes.] 
knew too FW 1, 13 
new too T 13 
perfume bloom LA prol. 2 
perfume gloom T 93 
lure sure VP 1, 29 
lute shoot VP 1, 29. [some say (luuj, 


mute flute VP 3, 2. [some say (fliut).] 
view true VP 1, 23. [some say (triu).] 
use chose T 34 
yew through T 74 

(o)=(aa), see (aa) = (o) 
(o)=(a), see (o) = (o) 

font wont T 29. [some say (want) and 

others (want).] 
God rode FW 3, 5. 4. 15 
gone alone LA 1, 20. 2, 71. LA prol. 

5. VP 2, 10 T 103 
gone shone FW 2, 9. PP 18. VP 1, 

29. LA 1, 3. [some say (shon).] 
loss gross T 40 
lost boast T 1 
lost ghost T 91 

lost most LA 3, 7. 3, 9 T. 27. 83 
tost host VP 3, 6 
on shone LA 1, 2. 2, 20. VP 1, 7. 

[some say (shan).] 
wan shone FW 4, 15 

(oi) = (oi), see (oi) = (oi) 
(OJ)=(GJ, i), see (or, a) = (oj) 

(or, oo.i)=(<w.i, ooi) 
lord adored FW 4, 12 



storm form T 16. [some say (foaim) 
always, others distinguish (fooom) 
sliupe, (foojm) seat.] 

(0o) = (o), see (o)=(oo) 
(00= (au), see (9u)=(o0) 


mode good T 46 

(00= (uu) 

door moor T 28. [some say (raooa).] 
hope group FW 4, 16 
more moor T 40. [probably a rhyme 

riche p. 246, as : here hear T 35.] 
more poor T 77 

(ooi)=(ej, i), see (GJ, J) = (GOJ) 

(ow) = (o.i), see (oi)=(oo.i) 

(oai)=(oj, j), see (oj, J)=(ODI) 

(0ou)=(ou), s<?e(ou)=(00u) 

() = (a), (o)=(tt) 
(0=(00), see (00)= (w). 

foot brute T prol. 
good food VP 2, 33 
woods moods T 27. 35. 87 

(uu)=(o), see (o) = (im) 
(uu)=(iu), see (iu) = (tra) 
(uu)=(0o), see (00)=(uu) 

(UU)=(M), see (M)==(UU) 

(dh) = (th) 
breathe wreath #. VP 2, 7 

(dhz) = (ths) 
breathes sheaths FW 1, 2 
breathes wreathes LII 2 

(j)=(oi, ooi), see (oj, ooa) = (j) 
(a)=(00j, ooa), see (ooj, ooi)=(j) 


bliss his VP 1, 2 

else tells T 75 

face gaze T 32 

grace vase VP 2, 5 [adopting the pro- 
nunciation (vaaz, VAAZ) or (vtez), 
this is faulty ; only the unusual (veea) 
saves the rhyme.] 

house . bouhs T 29 

(th) = 

(z) = (s), 866 (s)=(z) 

house s. bows T 35 

house s. vows T 20 

ice flics T 105 

paradise eyes LA 2, 11. VP 1, 3. 

24. ep. 

peace disease T 104 
peace these T 88 
race phase T ep. 
this is PP 10. T 20. 34. S3. 

II. An Unaccented Rhyming with an Accented Syllable 

(uj, j) unaccented=(e3.,z) accented 
islander myrrh VP 3, 4 

(ei, J unacc. = (iii) ace. 
universe fierce VP 1, 25 

(el, sel) flw.=(AAl) ace. 
festival all VP 3, 19 
musical fall VP 2, 17 

(BH, sen) w<wc.=(aan, ahn) ace. 

circumstance chance T 62. [some say 
(si-kBmstoens-) with a distinct secon- 
dary accent on the last syllable.] 

countenance chance T 112 

deliverance trance VP 3, 18 

inhabitants plants LH 10 

utterance trance LH 33 

visitant haunt VP 1, 12 

(tmi, om) unacc. = (oom) ace. 
masterdom home T 1 00 

(tm, on) unacc. = (on) ace. 
Lebanon sun FW 2, 11. PP 22 
orison one VP 1, 22 

(t) unacc. =(91) ace. 
agony I, LA 2, 42 
energies cries T 111 
harmony die LA 2, 42 
insufficiencies eyes T 110 
miseries eyes FW 4, 7 
mysteries replies T 37 
obscurity lie LA 2, 60 
prophecies rise T 90 
sympathy die T 30 
sympathy I T 61 
tastefully hie VP 2, 2 

(/) unacc. = (ii) acc. 
agonies sees FW 1,13 
armory see VP 3, 1 
canopies breeze VP, 3, 2. 
constancy be T 21 
desperately sea FW 1, 17 
destinies please LA 3, 15 
energies case VP 2, 7 
eternities seas VP 2, 7 
exquisite sweet FW 3, 13 
harmonies breeze VP 2, 10. LII 11 
history be T 101 


immensity see LA 1, 20 partially tbee VP 1, 21 

immortality thee VP 2, 9 philosophy be T 52 

impatiently me LH 10 poesy thee T 8 

instantly sea LH 19 purity bee LA 2, 16 

mockeries breeze VP 1, 9 purity be LA 1, 7. 1,16 

mystery thee T 95 solemnly she LA 2, 44 

mystery sea LA 2, 38 witchery free LH 24 

mysteries these LA, 2, 41 yieldingly three LA prol. 4 

Some of these rhymes, as may be seen, are justifiable by diver- 
sities of pronunciation. Others are really rhymes of long and short 
vowels. But others cannot be made into rhymes with the help of 
any known received pronunciations. Thus : 1) bar war, guard 
lord, clamber chamber, amber chamber, have grave, heaven given 
[vciy common], heaven even [also common], death beneath, death 
sheath, &c. [common], earth forth, one gone, rough off, above grove, 
come home [veiy common], love grove &c., one alone Sec., blood, 
good &c., flood stood &c., thrush push, blood food, come tomb, love 
move &c., curse horse, word lord [so that as we have : guard lord, 
we might have : word guard !] word sword, Christ mist, I joy, brow 
below, down grown &c., now low, loss gross, lost boast &c., mode 
good, hope group : 2) breathe wreath, breathes sheaths, bliss his, 
else tells, house *. boughs &c., ice flies &c. are about as bad rhymes 
as can be, the first division being purely consonantal rhymes, and the 
second mere assonances. The rhymes of an unaccented and accented 
syllable are all bad, but the double use of unaccented final -y, -ies, 
to rhyme either with (-ii, -iiz) or (-oi, -aiz) at the convenience of the 
poet is really distressing ; compare : agony I, agonies sees ; energies 
cries, energies ease ; harmony die, harmonies breeze ; mysteries re- 
plies, mysteries these &c. It is at once evident that any attempt to 
derive the pronunciation of the xix th century from an examination 
of modern rhymes must utterly fail. 

Now the extended examination of Spenser's rhymes above named, 
leads to a similar result. It would not only be impossible from 
them to determine his pronunciation, but his usages cross the 
known rules of the time, even if we include Hart's varieties, so 
multifariously, that the poet was evidently hampered with the 
multiplicity of rhyming words which his stanza necessitated, 1 and 
became careless, or satisfied with rough approximations. 

The language in which he wrote was artificial in itself. It was 
not the language of the xvi th century, but aped, without reflecting, 
that of the xv th. The contrast between the genuine old tongue of 
Chaucer, or modern tongue of Shakspere, and the trumped up tongue 
of Spenser, which could never have been spoken at any time, is 
painful. Coming to the examination of Spenser's rhymes fresh from 
those of Chaucer, the effect on my ears was similar to that pro- 
duced by reading one of Sheridan Knowles's mock Elizabethan Eng- 
lish dramas, after studying Shsikoperc. It is sad that so great a poet 
should have put on such motley. 

1 The scheme of his rhymes i&ababbcbcc, necessitating 2, 3, and 4 
rhyming words. 



Sometimes, either the author or the printer, it is impossible to 
say which, but in all subsequent citations I follow Mr. Morris, 1 
seems to think he can make a rhyme by adopting an unusual spell- 
A.t other times unusual forms of words, long obsolete or else 


provincial, arc adopted, and different forms of the same word chosen 
to meet the exigencies of the rhyme. 

Unusual Spellings and Forms for appearance of Rhymes. 

infusd clmsd=eAos 1 j used 2, 2, 5 

lire yre sth'e=sitV 2, 5, 2. 

draws jawes wawcs = twm 2, 12, 4. 
[see Sialesbury, supra p. 785.] 

strond bond fond stond= strand hand 
found strand, 2, 6, 19. londfond = 
land found 3, 2, 8. hand understand 
f<m&=fou>td 3, 1, 60. [here the two 
first words have been left unchanged.] 

aboord affoord foovd^aboard afford 
ford 2, 6, 19. 

entertayne demayne= demean 2, 9, 40 

paramo are succoure iloure=./fo0r poure 
2, 10, 19. 

fayre hayrc = AetV s\ia.y re = share 2, 10, 

weet = tcit v. feet 2, 10, 71. [wed is con- 
stantly used.] 

gate hate a.\\ T ntc = aicaii 2, 11, 6. 

assault exault withhault = withheld 
fault 2, 11, 9. fault hault assault 6, 

2, 23. 

tooke strooke =sn^ 2, 12, 33. strooke 
looke 2, 12, 38. broken stroken 
wroken, 6, 2, 7. tooke strooke 
awooke looke 6, 7, 48. 

vele veil unhele concele 2, 12, 64. 
vele appt'le revele 3, 3, 19. vele con- 
cele 4, 10, 41. Fioriinele vele 5, 3, 

paynt faynt taynt daynt=rft;ity 3, 
mtr. 2. 

way convay=cotvy assay way 3, 1, 2. 

surcease encrease preassc =prcss peace 

3, 1, 23. preace =press surcease 
peace 4, 9, 32. 

fayre debonayre compayre = compare, 
repayre 3, 1, 20. fayre prcpayrc = 
prepare 3, 4, 14. chayre = c/tire, dan; 
ayrc, fayre 3. 5, 51. 

sex wex = tcax v vex flex =Jlax 3, 1, 47. 

beare appeare thcare 3, 2, 11. 

accomplished = -ed hid 3, 3, 48. 

1 The Globe edition Complete "Works 
of Edmund Spenser, edited from the 
original editions and manuscripts by 
R. Morris, with a memoir by J. "V> . 
Hales, London, 1809. In this edition 
the stanzas of the Faerie Queen are 

dim = climb swim him 3, 4, 42. 

alive deprive atchive=eAav; 3, 5, 26. 

strownc sowne overflowne=ow;r^o>crf 

3, 9, 35. 

towne crowne downe coaipassiowne 3, 

9, 39. 

bloud stoud remoud=5/o9rf stood re- 
moved 3, 9, 43. 

furst nurst first nursed 3, 11, 1. 

rowme renowme =room renown 3,1 1,47. 

food feood =feud blood brood 4, 1, 20. 

craft draft = draught beraft = bereft 
engraft 4, 2, 10. 

burds =><& words lords 4, 2, 35. 

appeard reard affeard s\veard=swd 

4, 3, 31. 33. 

s^f.a,c\i= speech empeach reach 4, 10, 36. 

yeares peares =*peers 4, 10, 49. 

powre rccoure= rawer boure stoure 4, 

10, 58. lowre conjure recure= recover 
6, 10, 26. 

"Waterford boord = 3oarrf 4, 11, 43. 
cliene grieffe = cliff grief 4, 12, 5. 
grieve misbelieve shrieve mieve=move 

4, 12, 26. 

layd sayd mayd dena,jd=dented 4, 12, 

course sourse wourse = satires worse, 5, 

intr. 1. 

hard outward shard = sheared 5, 1, 10. 
achieved believed prieved =proved 5, 4, 

33. grieved relieved reprieved, 6, 

6, 24. 
enter, bent her, a&\enter= adventure, 

center 5, 5, 5. 

knew rew=wt; vew dew 5, 5, 22. 
threw a\cvf = htilloo few 5, 6, 13. 
hight keight = c7yA^ dight plight 3, 

2. 30. light dight keijjht 5, 6, 29. 
wond fond koud = woned found conned 

5, 6, 35. 

bridge ridge, lidgc = ledge 5, 6, 36. 
smot= smote forgot not spot 5, 7, 29. 

numbered, and hence my references to 
book, canto, and stanza can be easily 
verified. It has not been considered 
necessary to t-xtend this examination 
beyond the Faerie Qiteenc. 



brast=Jws< fast past 5, 8, 8. just lust 

thrust \misi = burst 5, 8, 22. 
strooke shooke quooke = quaked 5, 8, 9. 

betooke shooke quooke 6, 7, 24. 
had bad sprad 5, 9, 25. 
price devise flourdelicc 5, 9, 27. 
Eirene [in two syllables] clene strene = 

strain, race 5, 9, 22. 
treat extreat ^extract great seat 5, 10, 1 . 
happinessc Aecesse= decease wretched - 

nesse 5, 10, 11. 

left theft reft gieft = (/(/<! 5, 10, 14. 
straight bright quight despight=?MiVe 

despits 5, 11, 5. quight sight des- 

pight sight 6, 11, 25. 

strooke smookc=*/rt'& smoke looke 

shooke 5, 11, 22. 
doole=rfo& schoole foole 5, 11, 25. 
askew hew arew=ow a row b!ew = We 

5, 12, 29. 
espyde crydc scryde cydc=<wpwd cried 

(descried eyed 5, 12. 38. 
erst, ftmt**pfimi 6, 1, 45. earst 

pearst = erst pierced G, 3, 39. 
reliv'd=rf/jVrrrf rcviv'd riv'd depriv'd 

3, 8, 3. 

abroad ti -oad = tread s. 6, 10, 5. 
flud =jlood mud 6, 10, 7. 
brest drest chest kest = im? dressed 

chest castG, 12, 15. 
grcn=grin t>. men when G, 12, 27. 

Occasionally, but not very often, Spenser indulges in unmistakable 
assonances, or mere consonantal rhymes, or anomalies, which it is 
very difficult to classify at all, as in the following list. 

Anomalies, Eye Rhymes, Assonances. 

mount front 1, 10, 53. 

fyre shyre conspyre yre 1, 11,14 [here 

shyre was a mere rhyme to the eye.] 
away decay day Spau 1, 11, 30. 
bath wrath \atii\L =hateth hath 2, 2, 4. 
bough enough 2, 6, 25 [where enough 

is quantitative and not numerative.] 
mouth drouth couth could '2, 7, 58. 


towre endure sure 2, 9, 21. [conso- 
nantal rhyme.] 
deckt SK\*,= decked set 2, 12, 49. [an 

Chrysogonec degree 3, 6, 4, [but] Chry- 

sogone alone gone throne 3, 6, 5. 

[the very next stanza, whereas the 

former spelling is reverted to in 3, 

6, 51.1 

nest overkost ^ over cant, opprest 3, 6, 10. 
more store yore horrore = horror 3. 6, 36. 
stayd strayd sayd dcuayd = denied 3, 

7, 57. day tway denay =deiiy dismay 

3, 11, 11. 

gotten soften often 4, intr. 5. [an 

health wealth <\ea\'i}i=dealetk stealth 

4, 1, 6. [this may only be a long and 
short vowel rhyming.*] 

maligne bcnigne indignc bring 4, 1. 30. 

[even if -igne is pronounced (-ign), 

as occasionally in Gill this \vill only 

be an assonance.] 
follie jollie dallie 4, 1, 36. 
evill (irjvill devill 4, 2, 3. [even when 

the two last words rhymed, as they 

were usually spelled, as drivel divel, 

they only formed consonantal rhymes 

with the first, and the spelling seems 

to have been changed to make an 
ybom morne morne werne Keren 4, 

2, 41. [see above p. 8.3S, note.] 
mid hid t\mA=t/trcad undid 4, "2, 48 
emperisht cherisht guarisht norisht 4 , 

3, 29 [consonantal rhymes.] 
discover mother other brother 4, 3, 40 


aimed ordained 4, 4, 24 [assonance] 

\ent~cc<\ = ventured entred =tcntt-rfd 4, 
7. 31 [this would have been a rhyme 
in the xvn th century.] 

dum ^= dumb overcum mum becum 
become 4, 7, 44, [here the spelling 
seems unnecessarily changed, tl:o 
rhyme being, probably, good. ] 

foure paramoiire 4, 9, 6 [consonantal 
and eye rhyme] 

woont="iro;^'hunt 5, 4, 29. [change of 
spelling probably used to indicate 
correct pronunciation, compare] 
wount hunt 6, 11, 9. 

ncare few 5, 4, 37 [this may be con- 
sidered as an assonance, (neer feeii), 
which takes off much of the harsh- 
ness apparent in the modern (niu 

grovell levell 5, 4, 40 

warrc marre tlarrc farre = tear mar 
dare far 5, 4, 44, [the spelling np- 
parcntly altered to accommodate 
dare, which had a long vowel, the 
others having short vowels ] 

thondrcd sondred encombred nombred 

5, 5, 19, encombcr thoudcr asonder 

6, 5, 19, [assonance] 

eudevour labour favour behaviour 5, o, 



3.5 [part assonance, part consonantal 

attend liemd = liemmed kcmd = kempt 
combed portend 5, 7, 4, [assonance, 
it is curious that kemd was unne- 
cessarily forced in spelling.] 

discover lover endever ever 5, 7, 22 
[consonantal rhyme]. 

stronger longer wronger = wrong doer, 
5, 8, 7. [Did Spenser say (stroq-cr 
nroq-er), or (strocrger, ncoq'ger), 
or did he content himself with au 
assonance ? I lately heard (st'q-g.i) 
from a person of education.] 

dcsyncs betymescrymes clymes = designs 
betimes crimes climbs a, 9, 42. [as- 

tempLed consented invented 5, 11, 50. 

washt scrnchti = tcashcd scratched a, 12, 
30. [assonance.] 

roade glade = did ride, glade 6, 2, 16. 
[consonantal rhyme.] 

most ghost host cnforsi= enforced, 6, 
3, 39. [not only are the consonants 
different in the last word, but the 
vowel is probably short and not long 
as in the others.] 

qurason reason season seisin 6, 4, 3". 
[With the last rhyme compare Sales- 
oury's seesijn (seez'i'u) for SEASON", 
p. 783.] 

maner dishonor 6, 6, 25. 

hideous monstruous hous battailous 0, 
7, 41. [consonantal or eye rhyme, 
unless Spenser called hous (uus).] 

live f. give drive thrive 6, 8, 35. [con- 
sonantal or eye rhyme], forgive drive 
live v. grieve 6. 9^ 22. 

alone home 6, 9, 1C. [assonance.] 

wood stood bud aloud flud=//worf 6, 10, 
6. [Did Spenser, like Bullokar, say 
(aluud-) ?] 

turne raournc learne 6, 10, 18. [con- 
sonantal rhyme.] 

The above examples, which it docs not require any historical 
knowledge to appreciate, are amply sufficient to prove that Spenser 
allowed himself great latitude in rhyming, so that if we find him 
continually transgressing the rules of contemporary orthoepists, we 
cannot assume that he necessarily pronounced differently from all of 
them, or that he agreed with one set rather than another. When 
however we come to examine other words which he has rhymed 
together, where his rhymes, if they could he relied on would he 
valuable orthoepical documents, we find not only apparent anticipa- 
tions of usages which were not fixed for at least a century later, 
but such a confusion of usages that we cannot be sure that he was 
even aware of these later pronunciations. Hence his rhymes not 
only do not shew his own custom, but they do not justify us in 
supposing that the more modern practice had even cropped up in 
stray cases. The principal conclusion then to be drawn from such 
an examination is that we have left the time of perfect rhymes, ex- 
emplified in Chaucer and Gowcr, far behind us, and that beginning 
at least with the xvi th centuiy we cannot trust rhymes to give us 
information on pronunciation. The previous examination of the 
rhymes of Moore and Tennyson shew that the same latitude yet 
remains. The esthetic question as to the advantage of introducing 
such deviations from custom does not here enter into consideration. 
Hut it would seem sufficiently evident that they arose at first from 
the difficulty of rhyming, 1 and there is no doubt that they remain in 
the majority of cases for the same reason. Their infrequency, and 
the mode in which they are generally disguised by othography, or 
apparently justified from old usage, would seem to imply that the 
poet did not in general consciously adopt them, as musicians have 
adopted and developed the use of discords, in order to produce a 

1 Sec what Chaucer says, supra p. 254, note 2. 


determinate effect. Hutlibras is of course an exception, and all 
burlesque poems, where the effect intended is evident and always 
appreciated, but is not exactly such as is sought for in serious 
poems. 1 The following examples from Spenser may seem over 
abundant, but the opinion is so prevalent that old rhymes determine 
sounds, and Spenser's authority might be so easily cited to upset the 
conclusions maintained in the preceding pages on some points of im- 
portance, that it became necessary to show his inconsistency, and 
the consequent valuelessness of his testimony, by extensive citations. 
The arrangement as in the case of the modem poets is by the sounds 
made equivalent by the rhymes, but Dr. Gill's pronunciation, as de- 
termined by his general practice is substituted for niy own. At the 
conclusion a few special terminations and words are considered, 
which I could not conveniently classify under any of the preceding 

Anomalous and Miscellaneous Rhymes in Spenser. 

awakt lakt awaked lacked 2, 8, 51. 

blacke lake make partake 5, 11, 32. 
lambe came 1, 1, 5. lam sam dam = 

lamb same dam 1, 10, 57. ame=/n 

dame same 1, 12, 30. 

stair farr a.i = arc 1, 1, 7. 

gard hard ward prepaid ^prepared 1, 

3, 9. 

was cliacc 6, 3, 50. 
waste *. faste waste v. 1, 2, 42. past 

last hast=Art<c 1, 4, 49. 

1 Those who wish to see the ludicrous 
and consequently undesirable effect 
which is often produced by such false 
rhymes, should consult a very amusing 
book called : Rhymes of the Poets by 
Felix Ago. (Prof. S. S. Haldeman), 
Philadelphia, 1868. 8vo. pp. 56. 
These rhymes are selected from 114 
writers, chiefly of the xvnth and 
xvi n th centuries, and were often cor- 
rect according to pronunciations then 
current. The following extract is from 
the preface : "It is letter to spoil a 
rhyme than a word. lu modern nor- 
mal English therefore, every word 
which has a definite sound and accent 
in conversation, should retain it in 
verse ; great should never be perverted 
into greet to the ear, sinned into signed, 
grinned into grind, or wind into wind " 
(wmd, waind). "A few words have 
two forms in English speech, as said, 
which Pope and Th. Moore rhyme with 
laid and head; and again, which 
Shakespeare, Drydcn, and Th. Moore 
rhyme with plain and then, and Suck- 
ling with inn." " The learned Sir 
"William Jones is the purest rhymer 
known to the author, questionable 
rhymes being so rare in his verse as not 
to attract attention. His AIICADIA of 
368 lines has but forlorn and horn ; 
god, rode; wind, behind; mead, reed 

(mead of meadow being mcd and not 
meed}." In a foot note he cites the 
rhymes : mead head, meads reeds 
liryden, tread head Herrick, mead 
reed Johnson. "C.usSA of 334 lines, 
SOLIMA of 104, and LAURA of 150, 
are perfect. THE SEVEN FOUNTAINS, 
of 542 lines, has only shone sun, and 
574 lines, has wound ground twice, 
which some assimilate. The few ques- 
tionable rhymes might have been 
avoided; and these poems are suf- 
ficiently extended to show what can be 
done iii the way of legitimate rhyme. 
Versifiers excuse bad rhymes in several 
ways, as Dr. Garth [A.D. 1672-1719] 

111 lines, but like ill paintings, arc allow'd 
To set off and to recommend the good : 

but it is doubtful whether the Doctor 
would thus have associated allvic'd and 
good, if he could have readily procured 
less dissonant equivalents. Contrari- 
wise, some authors make efficient use 
of what to them are allowable rhymes, 
and much of the spirit of Hudibras 
would be lost without them. 

Cardan believ'd prreat states depend 
Upon the tip o' lh" Bear'n tail's end ; 
That, as she whisk'd it t'wards the Sun, 
Strew'd mighty empires up and down; 
Which others say must needs be falre 
Because your true bearj have no tail* ! 





[in most of the following as in some 
of the preceding one of the words has 
now (ee).~\ 

ame=a came shame 1, 5, 26. 
prepar'd hard far'd 2, 11, 3. reward 

hard prepar'd 3, 5, H. [compare 3, 

8, 14. 4, 2, 27. 5, 4, 22.] 
hast=haste fast 1, 6, 40. haste past 

fast hast v. 1, 9, 39. tast = taste cast 

2, 12, 57. [compare 3, 2, 17. 3, 7, 38. 

G, 10, 35. 6, 12. 16.] 
gave have crave brave 1, 1, 3. wave 

save have 2, 6, 5. hrave have selave 

2, 7, 33. [compare 2, 8, 24. 2, 10, 6.] 

to initial does not affect the 
subsequent a ? 

ran wan 1, 8, 42. man wan a, began 
overran 2, 2, 17. ran wan v. wan a. 
can 2, 6, 41. began wan a. 3, 3, 16. 

farre starre arre =><; warre 1, 2, 36. 

ward saufgard far'd 2, 5, 8. reward 
far'd shard 2, 6, 38. 2, 7, 47. 
hard regard reward 3, 1, 27. 3, 5, 
14. 4, 2, 27. w,-rd unbard = un- 
barred far'd 4, 9, 5. 

dwarfe scarfe 5, 2, 3. 

was gras has 1, 1, 20, was pas 1, 1, 30. 

1, 8, 19. was grass pas alas ! 1, 9, 36. 

2, 1, 41. 2, 6, 37. was masse 2, 9, 
45. has was mas 2, 12, 34. 3, 4, 23. 

6, 7, 17. was chace 6, 3, 50. 

aZ=(al, aal, AA!)? 
fall funerall 1, 2, 20. fall martiall call 

1, 2, 36. shall call fall 3, I, 54. vale 
dale hospitale avale = hospital avail 

2, 9, 10. 


[The following rhymes in one stanza 
shew that ea could 'not have had the 
same sound as long a : speake awake 
weake shake sake be strake knee bee = 
be, 1, 5, 12, but the spelling and 
rhyme would lead to the conclusion 
that ea and long a were identical in :] 

weake quake bespake 3, 2, 42. 

dare spear 3, 10, 28, fare share com- 
pare appeare 5, 2, 48. fare whyleare 
prepare bare 6, 5, 8. 

regard rcar'd 3, 8, 19. 

grace embrace once = case encrease 2, 

7, 16. 

late gate retrate = retreat 1, 1, 13. 
estate late gate retrate 1, 8, 12. 4, 
10, 67. 5, 4, 45, 5, 7, 35. intreat 
late 4, 2, 51. treat late ingratc hate 
6, 7, 2. entreat obstinate 6, 7, 40 

nature creature feature stature 4, 2, 44. 

rcccave = rece ive gave have 2, 10, 69. 

cndevour, save her, favour, gave her 5, 
4, 12. have save gave leave 6, 11, 
46, leave have 6, 1, 9. save reave 
forgave gave 6, 7, 1 2. 

(ai) = (aa) 

[The word proclaim has a double 
form with or without t, as we have 
seen supra p. 253, and eimilarly for 
claim ; the latter word has both forms 
in French, hence such rhymes as the 
following are intelligible.] 
proclame overcame dame same 1,12, 20, 
frame same nmne proclame 2, 5, 1. 
came game fame proclame 5, 3, 7. 
clanie shame 4, 4, 9. came name clame 
same 4, 10, 11. came clame tauic 
4, 11, 12. 

[The following rhymes, however, 
seem to lead to the pronunciation of ai 
as long a, and if we took these in the 
conjunction with the preceding, where 
ea is equal long a, we should have ai = 
ea as in Hart, and both = long a, con- 
trary to the express declarations of 
contemporary orthoepists, and to the 
rhymes of long a with short a already 
given. As Spenser's contemporary, 
Sir Philip Sidney apparently read ai 
as (ee) in Hart's fashion, see below n. 
872, Spenser may have adopted this 
pronunciation also, and then his rhymes 
of ai, a, were faulty. Lut it is im- 
possible to draw any conclusion from 
Spenser's own usage.] 
Ilania day 2, 10, 24. sway Menevia 3, 
3, 55. pray day JEmylia 4, 7, 18. 
say Adicia 5, 8, 20. 

Btaide= stayed made shade displaidc 1, 
1, 14. 5, 4, 38. made trade waidc 
= tfeiyhed I, 4, 27. made dismaide 
blade'l, 7, 47. 6, 10, 28. layd sayde 
made 1, 8, 32. said made laid 2, 7, 
32. displayd bewrayd made 2, 12, 
66. mayd bl&ed = blade dismayd 3, 
1, 63, playd made shade 3, 4, 29. 3, 
10, 10. decayd disswade 4, 9 34. 
taile entraile mayle bale 1, 1, 16. 
whales scales tayles 2, 12, 23. faile 
prevaile bale 3, 7, 21. assay le flayle 
avayle dale 5, 11, 59. 
slaine paine bane 2, 11, 29. retaine 

Glonanc 5, 8, 3. 

aire rare spare 1, 2, 32. fayrc dispayre 
shnyre=*/rc 1, 3, 2. chaire fare 
Bware bare 1, 3, 16. faire bare 1, 4, 
25. ware=<mvo'e faire 1, 7, 1- declare 
fayrc 1, 7, 26. fare whyleba re dispayre 
rare 1, 9, 28 [sec p. S5S, note.] fayre 



hayre shayre =*/ 2, 10, 28. 6, 2, 
17. repaire care misfarc share 4, 8, 
5. care aire i'aire 4, 8, 8. haire = Aff> 
[certainly (neer)] bare are [certainly 
(aar)] faire 4, 11, 48. faire care 5, 9, 
40. I'aire despaire cmpairc misfare, 
5, 11, 48. 

faire compare, 1, 2, 37 [see : compare 
appcare under (ee) = (aa).] payre 
prepare 1, 3, 34. fayre prepaire stayre 
declare 1, 4, 13. fayre hayre = hair 
(certainly (neer) even in Chaucer,] 
ayre prcpayre 1.5, 2. rare faire com- 
paire 1, 6, 15 faire repaire r. restore 
rare 1, 8, 50. 3, 2, 22. fayre dis- 
payre ayre prepayre 2, 3, 7 com- 
payre fayre 2, 5, 29, faire debonaire 
prepaire aire 2, 6, 28, ayre prcpayre 
2, 11, 36. 3, 4, 14. fair threesquare 
spare prepare 3, 1, 4. fayre debon- 
ayre compayre repayre 3, 1, 26. 3, 5, 
8. faire compare share 4, 3, 39. rare 
fare prepare faire 4, 10, 6. repayre 
fayre prepayre ayre 4, 10, 47- 

grate v. bayte 2, 7, 34. state late debate 
baite, 4, intr. 1. late gate awaite 
prate 4, 10, 14. gate vraite 5, 5, 4. 

dazed raizd dazed raised, 1, 1, 18. 
amaze jpze praize 6, 11, 13. 


streight might fight 5, 10, 31. streight 
bright quight despight 5, 11. 5. 
streight right fight 5, 12, 8 ; [if we 
adopt the theory that Spenser's ei 
was generally (ec), these examples 
shew a retention of the old sound as 
in the modern height, sleight, al- 
though (heet, sleet) may be occa- 
sionally heard.] 

aught = ought. 

raught ought fraught saught = sought 2, 
8, 40. raught wrought taught wrought 
2, 9, 19. 

leach =physician teach 1,5,44. spcach = 

speech teach 6, 4, 37. 
proceede = (proseed*) brcede 1, 5, 22. 

doth lead, aread, bred, scad = seed 1, 

10, 51. did lead, aread tread 2, 1,7. 

Teed. = read weed steed agreed 4, 4, 

39. tread procead aread dread 4, 


wreake weeke, seeke 6. 7, 1 3. 
congealed heald=fo/rf conccal'd 1, 5, 

29. beheld yeeld 4, 3, 14. beheld 

weld=M-<?W 4, 3, 21. 
beame tcme = fcw 1, 4, 36. esteeme 

streeme extreme misseemc 3, 8, 26. 

deemed seemed esteemed stremed 4, 
3, 28. deeme extreme 4, 9, 1. 
seeue beene clcane keene = (ee, ii, ce, ii) 
1, 7, 33. beene scene clene weene 1, 

10, 58. queene unseene cleene 2, 1, 1. 
meane leen at weene \>cnc becn 2, 1, 
58. keene seene cleane 3, 8, 37. 3, 
12, 20. 5, 9, 49. greene clene beseene 
beene = (ii, ee, ii, ii) 6, 5, 38. 

feend =Jiend attend defend spend 3, 
1, 32. freend = friend weend end 
amend 4, 4, 45. defend feend keud = 
kcinud send 5, 11, 20. 

kccpe sheepe deepe chef o= cheap 6, 

11, 40. 

heare v. [ = (iriir) see 7] neare inquere 
wcare 1, 1, 31. tcare v. fcare heare 

1, 2, 31. feare there requere 1, 3, 12. 
heare teare *. =(tiir) feare inquere 1, 

3, 25. heare = hair beare appeare 
deare 1, 4, 24. deare appeare were 
heare v. 1, 9, 14. fare whyleare dis- 
payre rare, 1, 9, 28. [see under (ai) 
= (aa).] were appeare fcare scare 1, 
11, 13. ycare forbcare neare weare = 
were 2, 1, 53. reare cleare appeare 

2, 2, 40. yeares pcaTca peers teares 
s. 2, 10, 62. were dreare teare v. 
beare v. 2, 11, 8. deare, meare = * 
2, 11, 34. cleare appcare dispeire 
whyleare 5, 3, 1. beare appeare here 
fere = companion 5, 3, 22. beare 
cleare cheare=c/*e^r despeyre 6, 5, 
38. neare care feare reare 5, 12, 6. 
f 'ere = companion pcrc=peer, dere = 
dear, c\crc= clear 6, 7, 29. steare = 
steer beare teare v. neare 6, 18, 12. 

were here 1, 8, 49. there neare feare 1, 
9, 34. there heare appeare 2, 12, 14. 
teare v. there heare 5, 8, 41. 

weary cherry merry 6, 10, 22. 

perce ferce reherce = pierce fierce re- 
hearse \ , 4, 50. erst pearst ^pierced 
6, 1, 45. 

peace preace press release cease 1, 12, 
19. surcease encrcase preasse =pres 
peace 3, 1, 23. release possesse wil- 
lingnesse 4, 5, 25. cease, supprcsse 

4, 9, 2. 

beast brest= breast supprest 1, 3, 19. 

1, 8, 15. boasts behests 1, 4, 18. 

feast beast deteast= detest 1, 4, 21. 

1, 11, 49. beast, creast = m* feast 

addrest 1, 8, 6. east creast 1, 12, 2. 

beasts crests guests 2, 12, 39. east 

increast gest 3, 2, 24. 
heat sweet eat threat = (ee, ii, ee ?, e) 

1, 3, 33. heate sweat eat 1, 4, 22. 

great heat threat beat 1, 5, 7. seat 

great excheat 1,5, 25. 2, 2, 20. 2, 11, 

32. great treat intrete [see uudcr 


(cc) = (aa)] discrete 1, 7, 40. heat 
forget sweat 2, 5, 30. threat entreat 
3, 4, 15. greater better 4, 1, 7. en- 
treat threat retreat 4, 7, 37. 

death breath uneath 1, 9, 38. 2, 1, 27. 
together ether = either thether = 
thither 6, 12, 10. 

conceiv'd pereciv'd berev'd griev'd 3, 
6, 27. 

left bereft gift lift 6, 8, 1. 

spirit merit 4, 2, 34. 

addrest brest wrest = addressed breast 

wrist 2,3,1. 
sitt bitt forgett fitt 1, 3, 14. 

clieffe grieffe = cli/ grief ^ 12, 5. 
field build kild skild = At7/erf skilled 2, 

10, 73. wield shield field skild 4, 4, 


(*) unaccented =(ii) accented. 

tragedie degree hee 2, 4, 27. see jco- 
pardee thee 3, 4, 10. 

diverslyfree he 1, 2, 11. 

foresee memoree 2, 9, 49. 

bee thee perplexitie 1, 1, 19, knee see 
maiestee = majesty 1,4, 13. batterce 
bee chastitce see 1, 6, 6. see libertee 
jollitee free 1, 9, 12. courtesee 
modestee degree nicetee 1, 10, 7. bee 
modestee see 2, 9, 18. 

alive revive give rive 2, 6, 45. liv'd 
depriv'd surviv'd deriv'd 2, 9, 57. 

(i) unacccntcd=(ai) accented. 

prerogative rcjnive=repricve alive 4, 
12, 31. 

avyse lyes v. melodies 2, 12, 17. jeo- 
pardy ly spy descry 2, 12, 18. jeopardy 
cry enimy 3, 1, 22. supply jeopardy 
aby lie 3, 7, 3. abie remedie 3, 10, 3. 

fly fantasy privily sly 1, 1, 46. greedily 
ny 1, 3, 5. diversly jollity hye = ^A 
daintily 1, 7, 32. envy by continually 

1, 7, 43. thereby die eternally 1, 9, 
54. incessantly eye industry 2, 7, 61. 
suddenly hastily cry 2, 8, 3. furiously 
aby hy fly 2, 8, 33. hy victory readily 
armory 3, 3, 59. cry forcibly dy 3, 
10, 13. fly eye furiously diversely 3, 
10, 14. 

flyes applycs enimics lyes 1, 1, 38. flye 
dye enimy 2, 6, 39. enimy dy destiny 

2, 12, 36. 

harmony sky \iy=high dry 1, 1, 8. 
company flv venery eye 1, G, 22. hye 
ly tyranny by and bye 1, 8, 2. cry fly 

espy agony 2, 12, 27. jealousy fly 
villany thereby 3, 1, 18. eye destiny 
3, 3, 24. lyes supplyes progenyes 3, 
6, 36. eye villany family spie 5, 6, 35. 
victorie lye armory enimic 1, 1, 27. 
eyes miscryes plyes idolatryes 1, 6, 
19. thereby memory dy 1, 11, 47. 
perjury fly injury 1, 12, 27. despise 
miseries 2, 1, 36. eye skye chivalrye 
hye 2, 3, 10. I enimy victory 2, 6, 
34. arise flies skies injuries 2, 9, 16. 
fealty agony dy 1, 3, 1. dcitye flye 
nye=nigh 1, 3, 21. cry dishonesty 
misery chastity 1, 3, 23. eye skyc 
chastitye 1, 6, 4. eye hye majestye 
tye, 1, 7, 16. enimy tragedy cry 
libertie 1, 9, 10. mortality by fly 
victory 1, 10, 1. apply melancholy 
jollity 1, 12, 38. flye hye=Aie per- 
plexitye 2,4, 13. sicye envye princi- 
pality incessantly 2, 7, 8. thereby sty 
dignity 2, 7, 46. envy soverainty 
enmity fly 2, 10, 33. majestic victorie 
faery dy 2, 10, 75. apply captivity 
infirmity tyranny 2, 11, 1. eye tran- 
quillity boystrously 3, 10, 68. 
[Numerous poeticus proparoxytonis 
in [i] sfcpe vltimam productam acuit, 
vt, (mizerai-, konstansar, destinai-) : 
vnde etiam in pros3 fer& obtinuit, vt 
vltima vel longd, vel breui soqualiter 
scribatur, et pronuncietur, non acu- 
anturtamen. Gill Logonamia, p. 130.] 

wilde defilde vilde yild.c=icild defiled 
vile yield I, 6, 3. 

chyld spoild beguyld boyld 5, 5, 63. 
exylcd defyld despoyled boyled 6, 

beguild recoyld 1, 11, 23. 

while foylc guyle style 4, 2, 29. dcspoile 
guile foilc 6, 6, 34. 

awhile toyle turmoyle 2, 12, 32. spoile 
tunnoile while toile 6, 8, 23. 

stryde ryde aunoyd guide 4, 8, 37. re- 
plidc annoyd destroyd 6, 1, 7. side 
annoyde destroyde prydc 6, 5, 20. 

vile spoile erewhile stile 2, 8, 12. pyle 
guyle spoile toyle 2, 1 1, 7. wyld des- 
poyld toyld 3, 10, 39. awhile vile 
exile spoile 3, 11, 39. while toyle 
spoyle 4, 9, 12. 5, 2, 11. guile des- 
poile o, 4, 31. awhile mile toile spoile 
6, 4, 25. 

spyde destroyd applyde 3, 8, 2. 

awhile soyle 3, 3, 33. toyle awhile 
soylc 4, 3, 29. 4, 4, 48. 




rose expose lose 3, 1, 46. disposed 
loosd 4, 5, 5. loos'd enclos'd discios'd 
4, 5, 16. whom become 4, 7, 11. 
wombe come roam home 4, 12, 4. 
groome come somme =/> 5, 6, 8. 

(OO) = (O)=(M). 

rocke broke 2, 12, 7. wroth loth 
goth=goeth 2, 12, 57. wroth loth 
blo'th = bloiceth 3, 7, 8. alone anone 
bemone swone = bemoan swoon 6, 
6, 30. 

lord ador'd scor'd word 1, 1, 2. sworne 
retourne mourne 1,12,41. sword word 
abhord 2, 1, 11. abord ford word 
lord 2, 6, 4. foure paramoure 2, 9, 
34. paramoure succoure floure poure 
=fioor pour 2, 10, 19. attoue done 
on 5, 6, 17. retourue forlorne 5, 

(o) = (u). 

long wrong tong 1, int. 2. along tong 
strong hong 1, 5, 34. tong hung 
stong 2, 1, 3. wrong tong strong 2, 
4, 12. prolong wrong dong long 2, 
8, 28, strong along sprong emong 
2, 12, 10. sprong emong flong 3, 4, 
41. hong strong 3, 11, 52. 

ou, ow=(ou) ? or =(uu) ? 
downe sovfne= sound 8wowne=*M>oo 
towne 1,1,41. bowrehowrestowre= 
bower hour stour 1, 2, 7. 2, 3, 34. 
towre powre scowre conqueroure 1, 
2, 20. howre lowre powre emperour 

1, 2, 22. wound stound found 1, 7, 
25. wound sownd 1, 8, 11. found 
hound wound 2, 1, 12. bower haviour 

2, 2, 15. towre endure sure 2, 9, 21. 
wonderous hideous thus piteous 2, 
11, 38. hous valorous adventurous 
victorious 3, 3, 54. Hesperus joyeous 
hous 3, 4, 51. hous ungratious hideous 

3, 4, 55. hous glorious 3, 6, 12. thus 
hous 3. 11. 49. thus outrageous 4, 


none owne unknowne 1, 4, 28. foe flow 
show grow 1, 5, 9. so foe overthroe 
woe 2, 4, 10. overthrowne knowne 
owne none 6, 1, 14. 

foorth worth birth 2, 3, 21. 

er= (ar) 

harts = foarts smarts parts desarts = 
deserts 2, 2, 29. desart part 2, 4, 26. 
serve starve 2, 6, 34. serve deserve 

swerve 3, 7, 53 [(er) or (ar) ?] dart 
smart pervart = pervert hart=/*cr< 

3, 11, 30. Britomart part heart de- 
sart 4, 1, 33. depart hart art revert 

4, 6, 43. hart smart dart convert 5, 
6, 28. parts smarts arts desarts 6, 5, 
33. regard mard prefard = marredpre- 
ferred 6, 9, 40. [In reference to 
this confusion of (er, ar) it may be 
noticed that Prof. Blackie of Edin- 
burgh, in his public lectures, pro- 
nounces accented er in many words, 
in such a manner that it is difficult 
to decide whether the sound ho 
means to utter is (Er, scr, ar), the r 
being slightly, but certainly, trilled. 
A similar indistinctness may have 
long prevailed in earlier times, and 
would account for these confusions.] 

marinere tears 1, 3, 31. [does thii 
rhyme (er, eer) ?] 

brood mood good withstood 1, 10, 32. 
blood good brood 1, 10, 64. groome 
comesomme = sum 5, 6, 8. mood stood 
woo'd 5, 6, 15. approve move love 2, 

Lud good 2, 10, 46. flood mud blood 

good 5, 2, 27. woont hunt 5, 4, 29, 
push rush gush 1, 3, 35. rush bush 2, 

3, 21. rush push 3, 1, 17. 
but put 1, 6. 24. 
truth ensu'th youth ruth 1, 6, 12. 2, 3,2. 


use accuse abuse spues 1, 4, 32. vewd 
rude, 3, 10, 48. ncwes use 5, 5, 61. 


blis enemis=W* enemies 4, 9, 16. prise 
prize thrise=<Ar<w cowardise em- 
prise o, 3, 15. 

-e, -ed syllabic. 
to the long raynes at her commande- 

ment 3, 4, 33. 
salvagesse sans finesse, shewing secret 

wit 3, 4, 39 [salvagesse has its final 

e elided, finesse preserved, shewing 

wondered answered conjectured 2, 4, 39. 

accomplishid hid 3, 3, 48. led ap- 

pareled garnished 3, 3, 59. fed for- 

wearied oed dread 5, 5, 50. [but -ed 

is constantly =(-d, -t).j 
formerly grounded and fast setteled 2, 

12, 1. [this is remarkable for both 

the last syllables]. 




gJi mute. 

spright sight quight^Mi'te sight 1, 1, 
45. diversely jollity hye = /iy/t dain- 
tily 1, 7, 32. 1, 8, 2. 2, 8, 33. unites 
ftte&=.diyht smites \\te& = Ughts 1, 
8, 18. exercise emprize lies thies = 
thighs 2, 3, 35. bite night 3, 5, 22. 
write, light, knight 3, 9, 1. bite 
knight might 6, 6, 27. delight [gene- 
rally without gK\ sight knight sight 
G, 8, 20. 

made trade waide = weighed 1, 4, 27. 
[see also (aa) =(ai).] 

bayt wayt strayt= straight sleight 2, 7, 
64. [see also (ai) = (oi).] 

heard= (nard) = (nerd) ? 

heard embard=e;wiarra/ 1, 2, 31. re- 
gard heard 1, 12, 16. heard far'dpre- 
par'd 2, 2, 19. heard unbard prepard 
= unbarred prepared 5, 4, 37. heard 
reward 5, 7, 24. heard hard debard 
5, 9, 36. 

heard beard afeard seared 1, 11, 26. 
heard affeared reard 2, 3, 45. 2, 12, 2. 
heard beard heard steared = steered 3, 
8, 30. heard feard reard beard 5, 11, 

7ieir= (Hair) = (naar) = (n ccr). 
fayr hayre 1, 12, 21 
affayres shayres hayres cares 2, 10, 37. 
deare heyre 2, 10, 61. 

inquire = (uikweer-) = (tnktreir). 
inquere epcrc spear 2, 3, 12. nere = 

near were inquere 3, 10, 19. inquire 

were ncre 5, 11, 48. 
retire inquire desire 5, 2, 52. 

-i-on in two syllables. 

submission compassion affliction 1, 3, 6. 
devotion contemplation meditation 1, 
10, 46. Philemon anon potion 2, 4, 
30. upon anon confusion 2, 4, 42. con- 
ditions abusions illusions 2, 11, 11. 
fashion don complexion occasion 3, 6, 
38. fashion anon %on=ffone 3, 7, 10. 
[these examples offash-i-on, are valu- 
able, because the *A spelling seemed 
to imply fash-ion in two syllables], 
compassion upon affliction stone 3, 8, 
1. foundation reparation nation fash- 
ion 5, 2, 28. discretion oppression 
subjection direction 5, 4, 26. Gergon 
oppression subjection region 5, 10, 9. 
Coridon contention 6, 10, 33. 

inclina-tion fa-sbion 6, 9, 42. 

[Whether the two last syllables are 

to be divided or no, it is difficult to say ; 

if they are, the lines have two super- 

fluous syllables, 

The stanza begins 

Hut Calidorp, of courteous inclination 
Tooke Coridon and set him iu his place, 
That be should lead the dance as was his 

On account of the laxity of Spenser's 
rhymes it is impossible to sny whether 
this was a rhyme or an assonance, that 
is, whether the -tion was pronounced as 
-shion. I am inclined to think not. 
See the remarks on Shakspere's rhyme: 
passion fashion, below 8.] 

witch pitch unlich = unlike twitch 1 , 5, 

28. bewitch sich=?A lich =/*'&? 3. 


love hove move 1, 2, 31. approve move 

love 2, 4, 2 i. love behove above re- 

prove 6, 2, 1. 


one shone gone 1, 1, 16. throne one 
fone =fot's 3, 3, 33. gone alone one 3, 
8, 46. 

shew = (shoo, shoo ; sheu) ? 

show low 1, 2, 21. slow show 1, 3, 26. 
foe flow show grow 1, 5, 9. slow low 
show 1, 10, 5. shewn known, own 
thrown 5, 4, 18. show flow know 5, 9, 
13. forgoe, showe 6, 1, 27. shewed be- 
strewed unsowed sowed 6, 4, 14. moe 
= more showe knowe agoe 6, 11, 11. 

view vew shew 1, 2, 26. 2, 3, 32. 3, 1, 

41. 5, 3, 23. vew knew shew crew 1, 
4, 7. newes shewes 1, 7, 21. subdewd 
shewd 2, 8, 55. shew vew knew hew 

2, 9, 3. 2, 11, 13. grew hew shew 3, 

3, 50. dew shew 3, 6, 3. hew new trew 
shew 4, 1 , 18. drew threw shew hew 

4, 8, 6. trew embrew shew rew. 6, 1 , 
16. vew pursew shew 6, 5, 22. vew 
shew askew hew 6, 10, 4. 

would, could, should. 
mould could would 1, 7, 33. tould would 
1, 7, 41. mould should defould 1, 10, 

42. gold bold would mould 2, 7, 40. 
behould should hould 3, 11, 34, be- 
hold hold would 4, 10, 16. would hould 
6, 5, 55. mould could should 5, 6, 2. 
could behould 5, 7, 6. gould could 
would hould 6, 1, 29. bold would 
hould 6, 5, 16. 

wotind, swound. 

wound round sound 1, 1, 9. stownd 
ground wound 2, 8, 32. found swouad 
ground 4, 7, 9. 



Sir Philip Sidney's llhymes. 

Gill cites several passages from Sir Philip Sidney (A D. 1554-86) 
who was the contemporary of Spenser (A.D. 1552-99). Mr. N. 
AV. "Wyer has kindly furnished me with a collection of rhymes 
from Sir Ph. Sidney's version of the Psalms, which I have arranged 
as follows. It will he seen that Sidney was a more careful rhymer 
than Spenser. But he seems to have accepted the mute gh, Hart's 
pronunciation of ai as (ce), the inexpediency of distinguishing (oou) 
and (oo), and the liberty of making final -y=(i} rhyme with either 
(ii) or (ei). His other liberties are comparatively small, and 
his imperfect rhymes veiy few. In the following list the numbers 
refer to the numbers of the psalms in which the rhymes occur. 
The arrangement is not the same as for Spenser's rhymes, but 
rather alphabetical. 

Apparently imperfect Rhymes. 

Cradle able 71, is a mere assonance. 

Hewne one 80, is difficult to under- 
stand, unless heicn like shewn, had oc- 
casionally an (oo) sound. 

Abandon randon = random 89, the im- 
perfection is here rather apparent than 
real, as rattdon is the correct old form. 

Proceeding reading 19, it is very 
possible that in precede, succeed, proceed, 
the c was more correctly pronounced 
(ee), or at least that a double pronuncia- 
tion prevailed. See Spenser's rhymes, 
p. 868, col. 1, under (ee) = (ii). 

Share bare ware = icear 35, this must 
be considered a real bad rhyme. 


Lvng and short : am game 22, am 
came 37, forsake wrack 37, inviolate 
forgate estate 78, tary vary 71, grasse 
place 37, hast last 9, barre are 82, fan- 
are 88, 103, past haste 88, \tsat = waste 
plast 31. plac'd hast 5. 8, plast fast 31. 
cast defast 74, tast caste 18, orecast 
tast 1 6, hath wrath 2. 

Hare rhymes with : grave 5.16, crave 
16, save 28. 33, wave 72. 

W does not affect the following o, in : 
wast last 9, was passe 1 8, flashed washed 
66, quarrell apparrell 89, wander mean- 
der 143. 


Uncertain, (ai) or (ee) : praies =preys 
stales tay say ay 28, afraid laide 3. 

Probably imperfect, ai = (aa) : praise 
phrase 34, repaire are 91. 

Nearly certain ai = (ee), since even 
Gill writes conceit with (ee), though he 
admits (ei, eei) in they obey : they save 
3, conceite waite 20. waite deceite 38, 
conccite scate 40, obey daie 45. 

Quite certain ai = (ec), seas laics 33, 
sea survey 72, sea way 136, praise ease 
10, daies ease 37, pleased praised 22, 
praise please waies raise 69, staine cleane 
32, meane vainc 2, chainc meane 28, 
streames claims 32, waite greate 26, 
waiteth seateth 1, disdayning meaning 
37, bereaves glaives leaves 78, heyre 
were 90, and hence : aire heire 8, while 
the rhyme ai = (e) in plaint lent 22 
strongly confirms the belief that the 
above were natural rhymes to Sidney's 
ear, and consequently the co-existence 
of (ai, ee) for the sound of ai in the 
xvi th century among polite speakers, 
notwithstanding Gill's denunciation. 

AU, AW. 

The following few rhymes do not es- 
tablish anything, but they serve to con- 
firm the orthocpist's dictum of the 
development of (u) after (a) when (1) or 
(n) follows : crawl'd appal' d 74, shall 
appall 6, all shall 2, vaunting wanting 
52, chaunces glances 52. 


Probably Sidney said (frcnd) and not 
(friind) supra p. 779, as in : frend 
wend 38, frend defend 47. 


The confusion of ea and e short in 
spelling, and the rhymes of similar 
orthographies, confirm the general pro- 
nunciation of ea as (ee) : greater better 
71, greate sett 21, greate seate 48, dis- 
tresse release 74, encreast opprest 25, 
rest brcst neast 4, head spred 3, treads 
leads 1, leade tread 25, treadeth leadeth 
84, seate freat 100. 102, encrease prease 
144, pearccd rehearsed 22, break weak, 




The influence of? is felt in the follow- 
ing words, where ea or e would he 
naturally pronounced (ee), but was un- 
doubtedly at times (ii), p. 81, and poets 
may have taken t>e liberty of using 
either pronunciation as best suited their 
convenience : hee? - e teare, 55, here nere 
91, deere beare appeare 20, beare ap- 
peare 6. 57, earc feare appeare where 
55, appeares yeares endearcs spbeares 
89, nee:e c.'eere 34, there heare 102, 
beare the-e 55, feare bear 34, beare 
were 22, deerc were beare cleare 55, 
beare weare = < 48, earc outbeare 
appeare weare ci'cere feare weare 49, 
sphere end care 77, heire forbeare mere 
speare 55. 


The rhymes : berrd barr'd 34, guard 
heard 116, wb'ch certainly corresponded 
to a prevalent, though not generally 
acknowledged pronunciation, properly 
belong to the same category as : parts 
harts = hearts 12, avert heart 51, desert 
part hart 6, avert hart 119, preserved 
swarved 37, art subvert 100. 102. See 
supra p. 871, c. 1, under heard. 

EU, EW, IEW, U. 

These all belong together. The or- 
thoepical distinctions (yy, eu) seem to 
have been disregarded. Whether they 
were sunk into (iu, ju) cannot be deter- 
mined, and is perhaps not very likely at 
so early a period. See however the 
remarks on Holyband's observation in 
1 566, supra p. 838 : true adieu 119, view 
pursue 46, ensue grew new view 60, 
pursue dew new 105, you pursue 115, 
you true renewe 31, renew ensue you 78, 
knew true me 18, new you 96, grew 
imbrue 78, subdue brew 18, chuse re- 
fuse 89. 


We know that the guttural was only 
faintly pronounced (supra p. 779) al- 
though even Hart found it necessary to 
indicate its presence by writing (H). 
The poets of the xvith century how- 
ever generally neglected it in rhyming 
as: prayeng weighing 130, waigh 
alway alley stay 55, pay weigh 116, 
surveying waighing 143, day decay 
stray waigh 107, laide weighd 103, de- 
lighted cited 1, sprite wight 9, sight 
quight 25, quite sight spight light 69, 
wight quite 39, bite spight 3, sprite 
might 13, high thy 43, high awry 119, 
eye high 131, I high 46, high ily cry 
9, though goe 43, wrought thought 
caught 9, aloft wrought 77. 


After a vowel the g appears to have 
been regularly mute as : Assigned kind 
find minde 44, assigned cnclined 11, 
remaineth raigneth 3. 


There was probably some little un- 
certainty iu the pronunciation of * in 
the following words, as we know that 
Gill had great doubts concerning build: 
build shield 3o, shield fil'd yeeld 28, 
field reconcil'd 60, thecvery delivery 
75, give releeve greevc 82. 

The uncertainty of the final -y, 
which Gill gives both as (oi) and (ii), 
is shewn by the following examples 
which arc quite comparable with 
Spenser's, p. 869, col. 1. 

High apply perpetually 9, unccas- 
saiitly cry 77, eye effectually 115. 

Sacrifle ly 4, iragnify hie 9, fly 
slippery 35, misery supply 79, memorio 
flie I orderlie 50, injuries suffice applies 
lies 58, memory relye 105 ; but : be 
chivalry 20. 

Jollity eye 31, jolitics tiranize 94, 
veritie he 31, verity hie 57, ly iniquity 
10, high vanity lie 4, high try equity 
6; but: infirmity me 41, see vanity 
39, equity me thee 4, be vanity 39, thee 
eternity 21, be iniquity he 36, bee thee 
see degree me treachery free enemy 54, 
be constancy 34. 


It would seem that the practice of 
omitting / in folk, was at least known, 
if not admitted, by Sidney, as he 
rhymes : folk cloak 28, folkes in- 
vokes 32, 


The following rhymes all point to 
the pronunciation of long and short 
as (oo, o) and not as (oo, o) : crossed 
engrossed 69, coast boast 33, ones bones 
42, one alone moane 4, moues ones 74, 
none bone 109, therefore adore 66. 
borne scorn 2, floore rore 96, abrocd 
God 10, God load 67, upon stone 40, 
folly holy 43, sory glory 42. 

The following imply that o was also 
occasionally pronounced as (uu) or (u), 
though the three last rhymes were more 
probably imperfect : approve love 1, 
love move 12, moved behoved 20, love 
above grove remove 45, doe unto 119, 
bcgunn undunn doun 11, become dumb 
28, sunn done 79, slumbered encom- 
bered 7*>, punished astonished 76, dost 




unjust 77, sprong tongue 8. wrong flong 
45, flong song 60, strong dunge 83. 


The rhymes here are insufficient to 
convey much information, yet perhaps 
they rather imply (oi) than (ui) : an- 
noid enjoy'd 81, destroi'd anoi'd 10. 


This is used rather uncertainly, as 
(uu. u) and even as rhyming to (oo) : 
good blood 9, brood bloud 57, poore 
more 69, wordes boordes affordes 78, 
lord worde 50. The rhyme : budds 
goodes, is strongly indicative of the old 
pronunciation of u as () without any 
taint of the xviith century (a). 

or, ow. 

The following are quite regular as 
(ou) : wound undrowned 68, wound 
bound found 105, power howcr = Aowr 
22, thou bowe 99, thou now 100. 

In: thou two 129, yours towres 69, 
the older sound of (uu) seems to have 
prevailed, and in : mourn turn 69, us 
glorious 115, such touch much 35, we 
have the regular short (u), belonging to 
the same class. 

In: could gold 21, would hold 27, 

we have the same curious emancipation 
of ou from this category that was ob- 
served in Spenser, p. 872, col. 2. and is 
still occasionally met with, as I have 
heard it in use myself. 

In : soule rowle=>-o# 26, soule extoll 
103, we have apparently the regular ac- 
tion of /onolong to produce (oou),butthe 
following rhymes shew that even if the 
(u) had not been developed the rhyme 
would have been permissible : know so 
72, unknown one 10, knowcrs after- 
goers 85, alone unknown none forgone 
44, flowes inclose 105, blows foes 3, 
showes goes 10, bestoe goe 100, throw 
show goe 18, woe goe show ; woe row 
show 107, repose growes 62, woe growe 
41, own one 16 and the rhyme: owner 
honor 8. 37, in connection with these, 
shews how indifferent the long and short 
sounds of o were to the ear of a rhymer. 


In: this is 10, is his misse 11, is 
missc 115, blisse is 4, rased defaced 79, 
we have a confusion of (s) and (z), but 
in : presence essence 68, sacrifice cries 50, 
sacrifices si/es 66, the rhymes may 
have been pure. In : sent pacieut 6, we 
have an indication of si- untransformed 
into (sh). 

6. Charles Sutler's Phonetic Writing, and list of Words Like 
and Unlike, 1633-4. 

The indistinctness with which Butler has explained, and the 
laxity with which he apparently denotes his vowels, have occasioned 
me considerable difficulty in attempting a transcription of his pho- 
netic writing. But inasmuch as he has printed two books of fair 
dimensions, his Grammar and his Feminine Monarchy, in his own 
character, so that he is the most voluminous phonetic writer with 
whom we have to deal, it was impossible to pass him over, and I 
have therefore endeavoured to transliterate a short passage from his 
Feminine Monarchy or History of Uees, 1G34, which was printed in 
the ordinary as well as well the phonetic orthography. The vowel 
system is, so far as I can understand it, more truly of the xvith 
century than even Dr. Gill's, and therefore this is the proper place 
for it, although it was published after the first third of the xvn th 
century. At the conclusion arc annexed some extracts from his 
List of Words Like and Unlike, in his own orthography, using italics 
to represent his variants of old forms. In the following . extract 
probably (') should be read for (i), biit the whole vowel system is 
too uncertain to insist upon such minute distinctions. 


Extract from Butler's FEMINIZE MONAKCHY, p. 2-4. 
And aul dhis un-der dhe guvernment of oon Mon-ark ... of 
whuum, abuv aul tliingz, dliei naav a principal kaar and respekt' 
luuving rev erensing and obei-ing Her in aul thingz. If shii goo 
fourth tu soo'laas nir self, (as suum'teim shii wil) mani of dhem 
attend- Her, gard'ing nir person bifoor- and bineind- : dhei whitsh 
kuum fourth bifoor ner, ever nou and dhen retunring, and luuk'ing 
bak, and maak-ing withaul- an ekstra,ord inari nois, as if dhei spaak 
dhe lang-gwaadzh of dhe Knikht Marshalz men; and soo awai- dhei 
fici tugedh'er and anon- in leik man-er dhei attend- Her bak again- 
. . . If beinir vois shii bid dhem goo, dhei swaarm; if hiring abrood* 
shii disleik- dhe wedlrer, or leiklrting plaas, dhei kwik'li- ritunv 
Hoom again- ; wheil shii tshiir-eth dhem tu bat'el, dliei feikht ; wheil 
shii is wel, dhei ar tshiirful about" dheir wuurk; if shii druup 
and dei, dhei \vil never af 'ter endzhoi* dheir Hoom, but eidher 
lang-gwish dheer til dhei bii ded tuu, or jiild'ing tu dhe Rob'berz, flei 
awai- with dhem. . . . But if dhciHaavman-iPrin > ses(as when twuu 
flei awai- with oon swaarm, or when twuu swaarmz ar Heived 
tugedh'er) dhei wil not bii kwei'et til oon of dhem bii cassiired ; 
whitsh suunvteim dhei bring doun dhat iivning tu dhe man'tl, wheer 
ju mai feind Her kuverd with a lit'l necp of Biiz, udh-erweiz dhe 
nekst dai dhei karri Her fourth ei'dhcr dcd or ded'li wound-ed. 
Konsem'ing w^hitsh mat'ter, ei w r il niir rilaat* oon mem'orabl 
eksper-iment. " Twuu swaarmz bii'ing put tugedh'er, dhe Biiz on 
booth seidz as dheir mau-er is, maad a mui-muring noiz, as bii'ing 
dis'konten'ted with dhe sud'dain kon-gres of strain'dzherz : but 
knoou'ing wel dhat dhe moor dhe merrier, dhe saa-fcr, dhe wamver, 
jee, and dhe bet'er proveided, dhei kwik-li maad friindz. And 
Haaving agrii'ed whitsh Kwiin shuuld rein, and whitsh shuuld dci, 
thrii or foour Biiz brooukht oon of dhem doun bitwiur dliem, pul'ling 
and Haal'ing Her as if dhei weer leed'ing nor tu eksekyysiuu 
whitsh ei bei tshaans perseeiving, got noould of Her bei dhe wingz, 
and with mutsh aduu* tuuk Her from dhem. After a wheil (tu sii 
what wuuld kuum of it) ei put Her in'tu dhe Heiv again : noo suun'er 
was shii amung- dhem, but dhe tyymult bigan - afresh- grcet-er dhan 
bifoor- ; and pres'entli dhei fel tugedh'er bei dhe eerz, feers-li 
feikht'ing and kil'ling oon an udh'er, for dhe spaas of moor dhan an 
our tugedh'er : and bei noo miinz wuuld sees, until' dhe puur 
kondenvned Kwiin was broukht fourth slain and laid bifoor dhe 
duur. "Whitsh duun dhe streif pres-entli end'cd, and dhe Biiz agrircd 
wel tugedh-er." 


" Soom woords of lik' sound hav' different waiting : as SOON filius, 
STJN sol: soom of lik' writing hav* different sound : as a MOUS tints, 
MOUS strues pi. of MOU : soom of like sound and writing differ in fife 
accent: as pRECeDEXT pracedem, pneCEDEKT exemplum quia prceccdit : 
and soom of lik' sound, writing, and accent, differ yet in signification : 
w\c den must bee discerned by the sens of <e woords precedent and 



subsequent : as EAR auris, EAR spica, to EAR aro : wenc' EARABLE 
arabilis. Of wic sorts you hav' hereafter ocfer examples." 

The object of the list which is thus introduced by the author 
seems to be to discriminate words of like sound as much as possible 
by various spellings, which in Butler's system would represent 
different but nearly identical sounds. The list therefore is not of 
much value or assistance, especially as the like and unlike words 
are not inserted separately. He seems to have trusted to an ortho- 
graphy which is extremely difficult to understand from his descrip- 
tion. Hence instead of giving the whole list, 28 pages long, it will 
be sufficient to extract those parts in which some mention of 
pronunciation is made, and for these to adopt the author's own 
orthography, as in the above citation, because of the difficulty of 
interpreting it. The italic letters rep r esent generally simple varieties 
of ordinary types, thus, oo, aie joined together, forming one type, and 
so for ee, and c t d, &c., have bars through them, t is ^, a turned t, 
and so on. .These will occasion no difficulty. The final (') answers 
to mute e. It is the value of the simple vowels and digraphs and 
the effect of this mute (') as a lengthener, which it is so difficult to 
determine satisfactorily from Butler's indications. The small capitals 
indicate the usual orthography and generally replace Butler's black 

a GOFER, D. KOFFER, F. coffre, (yet 
wee writ' and Round it wi* a singl' f, 
to distinguish it from COW<?ER wic is 
sounded COFFER). 

DEVIL, or rarfer DC e\iL not divel : (as 
soom, far feteing it from diabolus woold' 
hav' it). 

ENOU^ satis, but importing number 
it is boi' Avritten and pronounced wifrmt 
<?easpirat': as Ecclus. 35. 1. SACRI- 
FICES ENOU. ENOU for even nou, tnodo: 
In de pronouncing of vAc 2 woords, dc 
on'ly difference is de accent: wic de first 
ha in de last, and de last in de first. 
For ENOU^ "wee commonly say ENTJF: 
as for LATJ^ DAi^ter, soom say LAF, 
DAFTER : for cow^ all say COF : and for 
de Duitc AArxER, wee altogerfer bo' say 
and writ' AFTER. 

to ENTER intrare, to ENTEU in- 

EAR auris, to EAR aro, ERE before 
priun, ERST fastprimo. (not YER YERST) 
as in Bute ERE, EKST. Hence ERENOON', 
EREWIL', AND EUELY i. former : as OF 
EUELY toes I WIL feE TEL : for uic is 
nou written (I know not tcj) FERLY. 

Certain woords beginning wii ES ar 
soomtim' spoken and written witout E : 
as ESCAP', ESPECIAL, Espi ; scape, spe- 
cial, spi: to ESPOUS, and to ESTRANGE, 
[verbs ;] RPODS, and STRANGE [nouns :] 



EXCTJS' ; wit'ouT EC, SAMPL' ecus' : and 


Ew not YEW ovis fcemetta ; as rw 
not YIW, (vid. Iw taxus) dovrg de Y 
bee vulgarly sounded in dera. \>ot l . 

ENGLAND ... is vulgarly written 
England ; but always sounded JEhigland ; 
as vree now \>ot l sound and writ* many 
oder woords vtit Ee, me anciently were 
written wi E : as SWM', SDE', 8eK', 

In steed of our F de Ne<ferlanders bav' 
v ... icic dialect is yet found in de 
Western partes. 

HAY fcenum, of de Sax. HAWEN 
secure, becaus it is cut grass, a HEY or 
cunni-net, of de Fr. hay (uic dey sound 
hey ; . . . and vfce ar as reddy, bo< in 
sound and writing, to follow rfeir sound, 
as </eir writing: wer* dey writ' mouton 
and say mootton, \rec writ' and say 
MOOTTON ; rfey writ' quatre and say catrc, 
vree writ' and say CATER : rfey writ' Ion 
and sav boone, v>ee writ' and say BOON' ; 
dcj writ' plaid and say plead, wee writ' 
and say PLEAD) [a hedg]. 

Iw fTRee] not YIW, </ou<7 it bc-e so 
sounded : de Frenc b-ing If, and de 
Duitc IIF, IBEN OR EIBEN : as ~wee say 
YEW, and yet writ' EW ovis fametta. 

NIC' or coy cwiosvs, a NIAS hauk, 


[not an eyas] F. niait, It. nidaso, taken 
out of the neast : as a hauk flown is 
called a braneer. 

WIN' vinum, to WIND', torqueo, a 
WIND' or WIND ventus : henc' a WIND- 
OCR, i. e. a door' for de wind' to enter : 
(as in Greek' flupls of Qvpa.} dowg now ds 
glas, in most* places, dco'tf sut it out. 

WOUND, of to wind', tortus, a WOCND', 

You vos, sounded according to rfe 
original, YU. [Here Butler refers to 
a former note on his p. 40 : " YOU, D. 
u : so YOUR, D. UWE, G. UWER. So 
rfat, as wel by original as sound, dcs' 
woords, shoold' rarfer bee written YU, 
and YUR' : for ou is a diphtong, which 

ha< an od&c sound: as in don and 

TROvff by, or by means of, JOROW, 
from on' sid' or end' to rfc orfer: as 


/SEEK' pur' or unmixt simplex, as 
*EER' corn, SEER' boom', cleer* water : 
[here B. adds in a marginal note : of 
which a toun in Dorcet. and a village 
in Hampt. is called Shecrboorn;] to 
EAR, or rarfer SEER', as it is pro- 
nounced, D. SWREN tondeo: anciently 
it was Aviltten ER', E for ee, as de maner 
<fen was: henc' AR', a part' or portion ; 
and SIR', a counti or part* of a dominion: 
tcic, in de Sout part's, is sounded SEEK', 

7. Pronouncing Vocabulary of the Sixteenth Century, collected 
from Palsgrave 1530, Salesbury 1547, Cheke 1*550, Smith 
1568, Hart 1569, Buttokar 1580, Gill, 1621, and Butler 

For ascertaining and comparing the different accounts of the pro- 
nunciation of the xvi th century which have come down to us, it is 
necessary to have an alphabetic list of all or most of the words 
which have been spelled phonetically by various writers, with a 
uniform transcription of their various notations. This is attempted 
in the present section. The following vocabulary contains : 

1) all the English words cited by PALSGRAVE, p. 31, with the pro- 
nunciations as inferred from his descriptions. 

2) all the English words cited by SALESBTJRY, pp. 32, 34, in his 
accounts of Welsh and English Pronunciation, with the pronunciation 
he has actually or inferentially assigned to them, as explained in the 
passages cited pp. 789-794. 

3) numerous words from Sir JOHJT CHEKE'S Translation of Matthew, 1 

4) all the words pronounced in Sir THOMAS SMITH'S Treatise p. 34. 

5) all the examples of diphthongs, and a few other words only 
from HART, pp. 35, 794, whose pronunciation, as has been already 
frequently mentioned, was in several respects exceptional. 

6) All the exemplificative words in BULLOKAR'S lists, with many 
others collected from various parts of his Book at Large, pp. 36, 838. 

1 The Gospel according to Saint 
Matthew and part of the nrst chapter 
of the Gospel according to Saint Mark 
translated from the Greek, with original 
notes, by Sir John Cheke, knight &c. 
Prefixed is an introductory account of 
the nature and object of the transla- 
tion, by James Goodwin, 15.D., London, 
Pickering, 1813, 8vo. rr- l2 ^- 

was born 16th Juno, 1514, and died 
" of shame and regret in consequence 
of his recantation" of Protestantism^ 
13th Sept., 1557. This translation, of 
which the autographic MS. is preserved 
(not quite perfect) at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, is supposed by 
Mr. Goodmn to have been made about 


7) all, or almost all words in GILL'S Logonomia, pp. 38, 845; the 
provincialisms are not quite fully given, but GILL'S whole account 
of them will be found below, Chap. XI, 4, and they are best 
consulted in that connection. 

8) A few characteristic words from BUTLER, pp. 39, 874. 

The modern orthography has been followed in the arrangement 
of the vocabulary. Palsgrave and Salesbury occasionally give an old 
orthography different from that now in use, but the variation is 
not material. The others only give the phonetic spelling. Oc- 
casionally short observations from Smith and Gill have been added 
in the original Latin, and in some cases the Latin translation given 
by these authors is inserted. Some doubts may arise as to the pro- 
priety of retaining so many words about the pronunciation of which 
little hesitation can be felt by those who have mastered the main 
principles, such as, abandon, abhor, abound, absence, absent, Sfc. 
biH, bit, bless, boast, boat, 'c., but after much consideration, it has 
been resolved to retain them, as no rule of exclusion could be 
framed, which did not seem to assume the very knowledge and 
familiarity which the vocabulary was meant to supply, and it 
is only by such accumulated proof's that the certainty of the results 
can impress itself on the reader's mind. These results are however 
extremely important in the history of our language, as they present 
the first sure ground after the time of Orrmin, and the only means 
by which we are able to rise to the pronunciation of Chaucer. 
Thus the certainty of the pronunciation of on, ow as (uu) by Pals- 
grave and Bullokar, and the probability of their pronunciation of 
long i as (ii}, are great helps towards conceiving the general use 
of these sounds in the xrv th century. 

The various phonetic orthographies of the above writers (except 
Cheke's) have been translated into palaeotype to the best of my abilit y , 
although a few, unimportant, cases of doubt remain, generally pointed 
out by (?). The position of the accent is always hypothetical, except 
for the words cited from G. 128-138, in which Gill has generally 
marked or indicated the accent. It was at first intended to refer 
to Levins (p 36,) for the position of the accent in each case, but his 
usage was found too uncertain to be made available. The use of 
(w, j) at the beginning of combinations where some waiters employ 
(u, i), and conversely the use of (u, i) at the end of combinations 
where some writers employ (w, j), has been consistently maintained. 
The difference between these writers and myself is purely theoreti- 
cal : we mean to express the same sounds in each case. Qu has 
been interpreted as (ktc) throughout, because this is believed to 
have been the sound intended. Bullokar uses the single letter q. 
The initial wr has been left, but (rze) has been subjoined with a 
(?) as this is believed to have been the sound. Except in the words 
spangle, entangle, where the sound (qg) is especially indicated, G 10, 
the introduction of (qg) for ng in the following vocabulary is quite 
hypothetical, for none of the writers cited seem to have thought 
the distinction between (q) and (qg) worth marking at all times. 

There was a great difficulty in determining the length of the 


vowels. Palsgrave does not note the length and Salisbury is not 
consistent in his notation. Smith, Hart, and Gill generally use 
diacritical signs, and Bullokar does so in many cases. Now when 
this is the case the diacritical sign is often omitted by either the 
writer or printer, and it is difficult to know in any given case 
whether it ought to be added or not (p. 816, 1. 3). The difficulty is 
increased when the diacritic implies a difference in quality as well as 
quantity, thus 'i, i arc (ei, *) in Smith but (ii, i)m Gill, and i i are 
probably (ii, i} in Bullokar (p. 113). In these cases I have gene- 
rally searched for other instances of the word, or been guided by 
the use of other writers, or by analogy. In Bullokar y is not un- 
frequent, but iy, yi may be said never to occur, although he gives 
both as marks of the long sound, and i is most frequently used for 
both (ii} and (i) although z ought to have been used in the former 
case. By reference to pp. 110, 114, the reader will sec the great 
difficulty which attaches to the value of long i in Palsgrave and 
Bullokar, and the reasons which have induced me, after repeated 
consideration for several years, to consider that it must have been 
(ii) or some closely cognate sound, acknowledging at the same time 
that this pronunciation was quite archaic at the time, just as obleege, 
olleest (obliidzh-, obliist') in Scotland and olleccht (obliitsht-) in 
English are still existent archaic forms, for which the greater 
number of English speakers say (obloidzlr, obloidzhd-). For the 
reason why Gill's,/ has been rendered (oi) rather than (ei) see p. 115, 
and the reason why his a, an, are each rendered by (AA) is given on 
p. 145, where we may add that Gill in adducing "HALL Hcnriculus, 
HALE trahere, et HALL aula," says : " exilior est a in duabus vocibus 
prioribus, in tertia. fere est diphthongus," (G. 3,) so that he possibly 
hesitated between (au) and (AA). Hart's (yy) has been considered 
on p. 167, p. 796 note, col. 1, and p. 838. 

Another source of error is the use of an old letter in a new sense. 
Thus Smith employs c for (tsh) and he consequently continually 
leaves c for (k, s) where his old habits misled him. Gill employed 
j for (oi), and the confusion between i, j in his book is very per- 
plexing. Extremely slight distinctions in the forms of the letters 
are also confusing. Thus Smith distinguishes (i, c) as e, e, which 
have a diaeresis mark superposed to imply length. The conseqiience 
is that it is sometimes extremely difficult to determine whether he 
means (ii) or (ee), and, considering that in his time the distinction 
of the sounds had not yet been thoroughly established by the 
orthographies ee, ea, this confusion is perplexing and annoying. 

For any errors and shortcomings of this kind, the indulgence of 
the reader is requested, and also for another inevitable source of 
error. The nature of the compilation, rendered it impossible to 
verify every word afterwards by referring to the passage from which 
it was quoted. I have therefore had to rely on the accuracy of my 
original transcript, and it is impossible that that should have been 
always correct. 

Sir John Cheke's orthography is rather an attempt to improve 
the current spelling than strictly phonetic. Hence it has not been 


transliterated, but left as he wrote it, and is therefore printed in 
Italics. The following appear to have been the values of his sym- 
bols, which were not always unambiguous: <w=(aa), ff?=(ai, ee?), 
z=(ee?) unfrequent, ee=(ec] and = (ii), '=(ai, ec?) y=(ci, ii, 
ii?), o=(o) and (u), oa=(oo?), oo=(oo?) and (uu), oow=(oon), ou 
=(uu) only ? oto=(o\i], Mtf=(yy). The i most commonly did ser- 
vice for (i) and (j), but y was sometimes used as (j), although it 
most frequently stands for (th) and (dh), for which also th occa- 
sionally occurs. The use of i is doubtful, somcames it seems meant 
for y = (ei), sometimes as in dai it would seem only to indicate the 
diphthong, but it is used so irregularly that no weight can be at- 
tached to its appearance. The terminations -ty, -lie, occasionally 
appear in the forms -tee, -lil. Final e, being useless when there is 
a destinct means of repiesenting long vowels, is generally, but not 
always omitted. The comparison of Cheke's orthography with the 
phonetic transcriptions of others seems to bring oat these points. 

The authority for each pronunciation is subjoined in chronological 
order, but not the reference to the passage, except in the case of 
Gill and Cheke. The figures refer to the page of the second edition 
of Gill's Logonomia (supia p. 38) and the chapters of Sir John 
Cheke's translation of Matthew. The references to Salesbury will 
be found in the index, siipra pp. 789-724. Smith and Uullokar'a 
words can generally be easily found in their books, from their 
systematic lists. The example from Bullokar p. 839, and Hart, 
p. 798, are also sufficient guarantees of the conectness of the 
transcription. The authors' names are contracted, and a few 
abreviations are used as follows. All words not in palaeotype, 
with exception of the authors' names, are in Italics. 








Australes ; Southern Eng- 
lish Pronvnciation. 

Bcreales; Northern Eng- 
lish Pronunciation. 

Butler, 1633. 

Bullokar, 1580. 

Cheke, 1550. 

corntpte ; a prominciation 
considered as corrupt by 
the author cited. 

Gill, 1621. 

Hart, 1569. 

Lincolnienses, Lincolnshire 

Gill's Mopsae, and Smith's 
mulierculae, supra pp. 90, 
91; indicating an effemi- 
nate or thinner pronun- 


Occident ales ; Western 
English Pronunciation. 

Ori Orientates; Eastern Eng- 
lish Pronunciation. 

P Palsgrave, 1530. 

poet poetice. 

pr pnefatio, the preface to 
Gill, which is not paged. 

prov provincialiter ; any pro- 
vincial pronunciation. 

S Smith, 1568. 

Sa Salesbury, 1547 & 1567. 

Sc Scoti; Scotch Pronuncia- 

Transtr Tramtrentani ; English 
Pronunciation North of 
the river Trent. 

? interpretation doubtful, or 
apparent error, or mis- 
print, in the original. 




a pr 

abandon aban'don G 133 

abbreviation abrevt'as'ion Bull 

abhor abhor- Bull, abhorred abhored 

G 106 

able aa-bl Sa, S, Bull, G 65, ab'l G 32 
abide = abijd C 2 
Abington Ab 'q-tun see Trumpington 

G 134 

abound abound 1 G 89 
about abuut- Bull, about- G 23 
above abuv Bull, abuv G 22 
abroad abrood- G 60, abroo-ad ? G 133, 

abroad C 6 
absence absens G 66 
absent ab'sent G 84 
absolve abzolv G 85 
abstain abstain* G 89 
abundance aburrdauns P, abuirdaus G 


abundant abuirdant G 84 
abuse abyys 1 Bull 
ace as Bull 

acceptable aksept'abl G 84 
acceptance aksep-tans G pr 
according akord-i'q G 21 
account akount- G 89 
accuse akyyz 1 S, akyyz* G 45 
accustomed akus-tomed G 84 
ache aatsh Bull, Hart, see headache, 

aches =axess axes C 8 
acknowledge akknoou-ledzh G 32 
acquaint akwaint 1 S, acquainted 

akwain-ted G 129 
acquaintance akwain'tans S 
acquit aktctt' out akiooit G 15, akzvii' 


acre aa-ker G 70 
add ad G 85 

addressed adres'ed G 133 
adjudge addzhudzlr G 32 
admonish admonish. G 85 
adore adoor G 122 
adorn adorn' G 141 
adultery adult'erai G 85 
advance advAAns' G 143 
adventure adven'tyyr G 30 
adverb ad'verb Bull 
advise advaiz- G 87, 131 
adz addice ADDES adh-es prov. Sa 
affairs afairz 1 G 37, afaairs- G 122 
affections afek'si'ons G 123 
affect afekt- G 103, affects afekts'G 141 
affirm afzrnv G 112 
affliction afltk'sibn G 125 
afford afuurd- B 
affray afrai' G 98 

afore afoor. G 80 

afraid efraid 1 per protJ^esin pro fraid 


after after G 79 
again again 1 G 24 
against agenst 1 frequent-in*, against 1 

doeti interdum G pr, agaiust 1 G 20, 


age aadzli S, G 70 
agree agrii- Bull, G 118 
ague aa'gyy G 92 
airfaidG 14, 113 

air ai-er G 106, aai'er G ? air aier C 8 
airy aerai aereus G 14. s.-urifere tris- 

syllabum G 16 
ale aal Sa, G 37 
algaie al-gat? G 109 
all aul S, a'l Bull, aal G 23, al G 39, 

AA! G 25 
allay alai 1 G 99 

allhail AAl'Haail' omnis talus G 64 
allure alyjr- G 123 
alone aloon* G 45, 145 
aloud aluud 1 Bull, aloud- G 109 
also a'l'so Bull, AAS Eor pro AA!*SO G 1 7 
altar = aulter C 5 
although AAldhokh 1 G 65 
altogether AAHogedlrer G 21 
alum al'um S 
am am G 52 

amain amaain 1 G 119, amain* G 110 
amate amaat 1 terreo G 32 
amaze amaaz 1 G 88 
ambitious ambt's'tus G 99 
amiss amz's 1 G 1 1 3 
among amoq 1 G 21 amooq- ? G 70, 

amuq 1 B 
an an G 10 

andiron a'ndt't r'n Bull 
angels aq-gclz ? see next word, G 24 
angelical andzheeHkal G 119 
anger aq'ger G 91 
angry aq'grt G 84 
anguish aq'gwi'sh Bull 
anothers anodlrerz G 95 
answer an'swer non aiursuer G pr, 

answered an-swered G 119, answeerd 


answerable arvswcrable G 84 
any an't Bull, G 45, prima naitird sud 

brevis G 133 
ape aap, Sa S 
apparel aparel G 38 
appear apiir Bull B, appeer C 6, ap- 
peared apiird G 94, appered appeared 

C 1, 2, appear eth apii'retb. Bull B, 

apiereth G 87, appearing apiu"'q 

G 133 


appease apeez- G 123 

appertain apertaiir G 87 

apply aploi- G 86 

appointed apuuint-ed G 24 

apprentice apren'tzs G 98 

are aar Bull, G 56, ar G 21 

AKEADS areeds- G 98 

aright araikht' G 135 

ariseth araiz-eth G '25 

armed arnred G 82 

arms armz G 37 

army arnvai G 106 

array arai' S, araar G 128 

arse-smart ars-smart kffropiptr G 38 

Arthur Artur G 107 

as az Bull G 13, 95 

ash aish Sa, ash S, ashes ash/ez G 

37, 128 
ask aks ct ask S, ask G 88, asked askt 

G 111 

aspen as-pm G 106 
aspiration aspiras'ton Bull 
aspire aspcir Gill. 
ass as Bull, a-sses as'es G 24 
assay asai', assay thereof zadrAAklr 

Occ, G 18 
assist asi'st- G 141 
assoil asoil- G 85, 89 
assurance asyyrans G 83, 117 
assure asyyr- G 128, assyyr G 32 
astonied aston'tcd G 99, astoonicd C 19 
at at G 79 

attempered atenvpred G 119 
attend atend- G 133, attends atcndz* 


attire dhe dierz ati'er ? cervi eormta G43 
attribute v. atnVyyt G 85 
auditor AA'dttor G 129 
auger AAU-ger G 14 
augment AAgment- G 119, 142 
aunt AAnt? G 10 
authors AA'torz G 143 
avail avail' G 87, availeth avail'eth 

G 117 

avengement avendzh/mcnt G 149 
avetu aveuz caryophyllatum G 37 
aver aver G 32 
avoid avoid' G 131 
awe au aa Sa, au S, AAU G 1 4 
atcful AA-ful G 150 
awry awrir =arwii? P 
axe agz Sa, aks S, G 13 
aye ci S, eei G pr, 15, eei G 15, ai G 

113, aaiG 116, ai C 6 


Baal Baal Bull 

babble s. baab'l<e G 26, v. bab'l t'n- 

fantvm more balbutire G 26 
babbler bab'lcr ttrftmturtptu G 26 
babbling bab'l/q gp.rnilittts G 26 

b(tb. baab Sa, G 26, babes = buabs C 11 

bibij baa-boi G 26 

bad: bak S 

backward bak'ward G 28 

bacon baa'k'n Bull, baak-n G 38 

bad bad mains S 

badge badzb. G 12 

bag bag S, G 89 

bail bail Bull 

baily bee'lt cor B 

bait bait G 14 

bake baak Sa, S 

balance bal-ans Bull, bal-ans G 21 

bald bauld Sa S, ba'ld Bull 

bale baal Bull 

ball baul Sa, S, ba'l Bull, bAAl G 14 

balm baul'm =baTm Bull, bA Aim poiius 

quam bAAm G pr, bAAlm G 38 
bands bands? G 116 
bar bar S, Bull 
barbarous barbarus Bull 
Barbary Bar-bar* G 147 
barbs barbs ? G 37 
bare baar S, Bull 
bargain bargain G 93 
barley bar 'lei G 37 
barn baar'n Bull 
baron bar on Bull 
barren bar en Bull 
base baas G 98 
basket bas'ket Bull 
Aflr**b.iiiz? G 119 
bat bat S 
bate baat S 
bath bath, S 
bathe baadb badh S 
battery bat'n G 123 
lattU-s bat-ails G 104 (in Spenser) 
bawl bAAl, eodein sonoproferimus, b\\l 

BALI, pila, et tu bAAl BATVLE vocife- 

rari G 14 

buy bai badius Bull 
bay-tree bai-trii Bull, bays baiz lauri 

G 141 
be bi G 23 
beak beck B 
beams bcemz G 23 
bean HEANB been P, Bull 
bean been G 37 
bear beer P, beer Sa, baar ursus Bull, 

bear bare bore born, beer baar boor 

born (wit/tout distinguishing 'borne') 

G 50, borne boor'n Bull 
beast beest P, Bull, G 12 
beat beet vcrberat, bet vcrberavit S, beet, 

bet verberabam dialectic est, G 48 
beauty beirti G 22, 98, beau-tt B 
because bikAAZ- G 91 
ZrccA- bek B 
become bikunr G 21, 07, became bikaanv 



bed bed S, G 47 

bedridden = beurecd C 9 

bee bii P, Sa 

i/biif O39 

torw biin G 56 100 

beer bier G 37 

&'< biit S 

bfttx biits W/,'.' G 37 

betvex biivz G 39 

bij'alleth biiiAAl-eth G 87 

before bifoor S biifoor Bull, bifoor G 

21, 23, 80 
begging beg'i'q Sa 
foywi begin' G 133, beginning bcgm'iq 

G. 123 

begone biigooir ? G 81 
behave biuaav G 51 
behind beiioiud- G 79 
behold biihoo'ld Hull, beheld bincld 1 

G 100 

behoveth bmuuveth G 95 
being bii't'q G 25 

believe, beliiv, Sa, G 87, biliiv G 100, 
128, beleev C 24, believing biliiv /q 
G 133, 

bell bel vola S 
bellows bel'oouz G 37 
belongeth biloq'cth G 21, 80 
beloved biluvcd G 129 
Belphoebe Belfee-be G 101 
bend bend G 48 

beneath biineedh* Bull, bineth' G 79 
benefit ben-eftt G 1 33 
benign being n bemq/n G 30 
bent bent S 

bereave bireev G 125, bereev G 48 
beseem bisiim- G 67 
beside bisaid' G 79 
besought bisooukht' G 127 
best best G 12, 34 
bestow bistoou* G 86 
bet bet pro bet er G 135 
betake bitaak- G 32 
bethink bitluqk- 32 
betid past tense bitaid' G 108 
beti/ncs bitaimz' G 123 
betrayed bitraid- G 1 45 
better bet'er G 34 

between biitwiiir Bull, bitwiin* G 79 
beyond bijond' G 79 
bid bid S, bi'd G 88, bidden btd-n G 20 
bide beid S 

bier biir P, biir Sa, beer spelled BEARE 
rhyming with NEARE in the passage 
of Spenser (6, 2, 48) cited in G 103 
bill bl S 

billows btl'oouz G 99 
WHrfboind G 116, bijnd C 18 
bird bird S, G 24, burd G 88, birds 

bm-dz G 118 
bit bt S, bits b;'Ls G 37 

bitch bitsh, Sc et Transfr. bik S 
i/fcbcit S, bait niordco, lit bit iiinrtli-lunn, 
have bitten naav bit n inomordi G 48 
bitter bit-er G 40 
bladder blad er Sa. 

blame blaam G 86, bl<tmed'\i\i\.mdi '> G 90 
blazed blaaz-ed G 125 
bless bles G 21 
MwrfblaindG 119 
blithe blaidh G 107 
block blok G 99 
blood bluud S, blud Bull, G 4, 38, 

bloud C 27 
bloody blud -e G 100 
blossoms blos'umz 144 
blow bloou Bull, blown bloouu G 2 
blush blush S, blushed blusat G 117 
Me blyy S 
board buurd Sa, B, boord G 47, boards 

boordz G 1 18 
boast boost G 23, 89 
boat boot S, Bull, boot C 4 
forfj/ bod't G 72, 133 
boil beil uleus S, buuil coyw; G 15 
bold boud ^p;w Sa, bould S, boould G 


bombast bunvbast G 38 
bondmen bondmen G 41 
bone boon, Sc baan bean S 
book buuk Sa, Sm, Sc byyk S, buuk-s 

G 3, 41, byyks Bor G 122 
boot buut S, Hull 
booth buudk Bull 
bore boor P, G 50 

born boor'n natus, bor'n allatus the 
present use reversed Bull, born G 50, 
98 boorn = nati4s C 2 
borrow boroou G 88, borrowed borooued 

G. 98 

bot bot litmbricus equorum S, Bull 
botch botsh S 
both both G 39, 98, beadh Bor G 16, 

booth C 6 

bough bowh buuu Bull, bou G 15 
bought bouHt S, boount Bull, bokht 

G 12, booukht G 109 
bound bound G 15, 24- 
bounty boun-tt G 29, 82 
bourn bur'n Bull, buurn B 
bow boo areas Sa 34, 58, boon arcus bou 
Jltctere S, boou arcus, buu flectere 
Bull, boou areas G 15, bowing 
bou-t'q G 20, bowed =bottd C 18 
boivels buu-elz Bull, bou-elz G 37, 94 
bower* bours G 114 
bowl booul siiium Sa, S, Bull, G 15, B, 
boul sphaera S, G 1 5, B, buul globus 

box boks S, G 107 

boy bui P, \>o\, fortasse bui. alii boe S, 
bwce H, boi Bull, buoi, non buc G 


pr, buoi piter G 92, 136, boi Bor 
G 15, b\voe B 

brad brod clavus sine capite S 
bmg brag tt 89 
brake brak rupiura, braak balista, filix 

&c., Bull, braak =rupit C 15 
bramble brambl G 41 
imn bran G 38 
brandiron brond'i'rr'n Bull 
branches branslrez G 24, brantslrez G 


brass bras G 37 
bravado, bravaa'da G 28 
bravely braavl* G 123 
breach bretsli ? Sc et Transtr. brek S 
bread bred ? Sa, breed S, G 24, 37, 

breed C 4 
break breek Sa, breek, */wj braak brook 

olim brast, occidentaliter briik G 51 
breath breth Bull 

breathe breedh Bull, breetb. ? G 121 
bred bred S 

iratfA briitsb. Sc Tramtr. et Bor briik 
S, iracAfsbritsh-es, briiks .Bor G 17 
irrnfbriid S, G 124 
brenned breired Bor G 122 
brethren bredlrrea ant bredlvern G 41, 


brno bryy S, brewed bruu'id ? S 
bride braid G 112 
bridegroom =brijdgroom C 25 
irufye bredzb., Bor bn'g S, bri'dzb. G 12 
bridle brzd-1? S brai'dl G 20, 123 
brightness broikht'nes G 
Britain Bnt'ain (in Spenser) G 104 
broad brood S, G 70 
broil broil fortasse bruil S, broil bruuil, 

indifferenter G 15 
broken brook-n G 51 
brood bruud S, G 101 
brooks bruuks G 114 
broom bruum Bull 
brother brudb/er G 27, 41, 112, B, 

broyer C 4 

brotherhood bmdh'erHUud G 27 
brought broukht G 10 
brown bruun Bull 
bruised = broosed C 21 
bubble bub-1 B 
buck buk dama mas Sa, S, G 3, fago- 

triticum G 37 
buckler bulrler Bull 
bud bud G 133 

budge budzb peregrinae ovis pellis S 
buildeth b)7ld-etb beild-eth biild-eth 
bjld'eth, pro suopte cujusque ingenio 
G4, built =bijlt C 7 
builder biild'er G 105 
building biild'*q G 111, 

bijldings C 21 
bull bul, S, Bull, buu prov Sa 

bulwark bul-wark G pr 

bung buq B 

buoy bwei H, buui Bull, G 15 

burden burd'n Bull 

burn bur'n Bull, burn G 109, burnsth 

burn-eth G 23 
burr bur lappa S 
bury\)iri Sa, buri C 8 
bush busb. G 73 
busied bi'z-i'ed G 91 
business btz-nes G 81 
busy bt'z't Sa 

but but S, Bull, G 20, 133 
batcher butsh-er, Mops bitslrer G 18 
butt but Bull 
butter but-er G 38 
button but-'n Bull 
buy bei S, G 89 
buyer bei er H 
by b S, bei H, G 20, 79, 136, by our 

lady bei-r laa-d Sa, by and bye, BY 

AND BY, bit and bu P 


cage kaadzh S 

caitiff kai-ttf miser S, kai'ttv G 111, 


calends kal'endz G 37 
crz^ka'lf Bull, calves ka'lvz Bull 
call kaul Sa, S, ka'l Bull, kau-^rcv Sa 
collet kal-et meretHcula Bull 
calm kaulm Sa 4, ka'l'm Bull 
cambric kaanvbn'k, Mops keem'brk 


Cambridge Kaam'brtdzb G 77 
cannot kanot Gr pr, kairuot G 45 
canoe kanoa ? G 28 
candle kan'dl G 98 
canvas kairvns G 38 
cap kap Sa, S, G 12 
cape kaap hispanica ehlamys S 
capers kap g erz G 37 
capon kaa'p'n Bull, kaa*pn, Mops keep'n 

et fere kiip'n G 18 
captive kap-U'v G 116 
can kau S 
care kaar Bull 
careful kaarful G 84 
careless kaurles G 123 
carpenter kar-penter G 129 
Cartilage Karthadzh G 66 
case kaas G 35, 100 
casement kaaz'ment, G 27 
casket kasket G 35 

cast kast G pr, 48, kest kus'n Bor G 16 
cat kat S, G 35 
cates kaats G 37 
catch katsh S, G 149, see ' ketch', caught 

kount, S 

cattle kafcl Bull, G 24 
caul kaul = ka'l Bull 


cauldron katrdor'n, Bull 

cause kauz Bull, kAAZ G 21, 103, 143 

causeway kairsi Bull 

cave kaav G 77 

cavil kavil Bull 

ceased seest G 112, ceasest&ces-est G 102 

cedars see'fkrz G 24, 105 

censor seirsor G 66 

centre sent'er G 125 

certain sertain G 67 

cAo/tshaf G 37 

chalk tshAAk G 38 

challenge tshaa'lendzb G 109 

chambers tshanrberz G 23 

chance tshans S, tsbauns B, chanceth 

tsbaans-etb G 66, tsbans-eth G 86, 

chanced tshAAnst G 111, 119 
chancellor tshairsler G pr 
change tshandzh S. G 12, 20, tsbandzb 

Bull, tsbaindzh B 
changeable tsha'ndzb'ab'IBall 
chanter tsbant'er cantor S 
chap tsbap Jlndi per se out vento S 
chape tsbaap ferrum quod ambit unam 

vaginam S 
chapel tshap-el S 
char tshaar P 
charge tshardzb Bull 
charity tsbar'tte S 
charm tsbar'm Bull 
charriot tsharet G 23 
chaste tshaast G 77, 100 
chasten tsbas't'n Bull 
chastity tshast'tii G 101 
chaw tsbAA G 14 
cheap tshiip ? licitari S, Cheapside 

Tsheep-seid Sa 
cheek tsbiik P 
cheer tshir ? vultus S 
cheerful tsbeerful G 118 
cheese tsbiiz Sa, S 
cherish tsberz'sh Bull, tsbeen'sh et 

tshertsb. G 127 

cherry tsbert S, cherries tshert'z G 99 
Chesterton Tsbes-tertun G 134 
chidden tsbird'n ? Bull 
chief 'tsbiif Sa, Bull, G 77, cheef C 6 
child tshtld? S, tshaild G 42, child 

C 1, 2, children tsbil-dren G 42 
childishness tsbuld'ishnes Bull 
chin tsbm P, G 80 
chisel tshii-z'l Bull 
choler kol-er G 38 
cholic kol-tk G 38 
choose tshyyz G 101, chuse C 13 chose 

tsbooz G 118, chosen tshoo'z'n Bull, 

G 66, 152 
chop tsbop scinderc S, chopped tshopt 


Christian KnVtt'an G 150 
church tsbf'rtsh Sa, tsbtrtsb tsburtsh 

vel tsbyyrtsh, Sc et Transtr. kyyrk, 

kurk S, tsburtsb G 92 
cJmrchyard tshurtsb'jard G 128 
churl tshurl P, tshur'l BuU 
cider sj'd-er ? G 33 
Cimmerian Sz'mer-ian G 136 
citizen sit-tzen G 85 
city sit-i Bull 
civet sfvet G 39 
cfarfkladG 123 

claim klaim S, claimed klaim-ed G 110 
claw klau S 

clay klai G 38, klaai G 101 
clear klier G 147, kliir B 
cleave kliiv ? S, kleev G 50 
cleft kleft G 50 
cleio klyy P 

climb klaim, climbed klaimd, apud rus- 

ticos autemproimperfectohabcs kloom 

klaam klum G 49 
climes klaimz G 141 
dive kleiv haercre S 
cloak klook G 46 
clod klod glcba S 
clocks klyyks Bor G 122 
close kloos G 141, closes klooz'ez G 98 
cloth klotb G 62, klooth Bor G 16, 

clooth C 6 

clothed kloodh-ed G 23 
clothier kloodb-ter G 62 
clouds kloudz G 23, kloud'ez in Spenser 

G 121, 137 
cloven kloovn G 50 
cloy klwei, [klui ?] dare ad faslidium, 

aut equi ungulam clavo vulnerare S 
coal kool G 12, 62 
coast koost B, coostes C 2 
coat koot S Bull 
cobble kobl ruditcr facer e S 
coif koif Bull 

coil koil, fortasse kuil, verberare S 
cold kould Sa, kould koould S, koo'ld 

Ball, koould G 103 et err. 
collier koHer G 62 
colour kulor Bull, G pr kul'er G 84, 

118, 129 

coll kol collum amplccti G 12 
colwort kool-wurt B 
comb koom et kem, combed kemt come- 

bam G 48 
come kum Bull, G 48, B, cometh kum-eth 

G 20, came kam G 48 
comely knurl*' G 123 
comfort kum-fort Bull, G 105, 145 
comfortless kuorfurtles G 77 
command komAAud 1 G 87, komaund 
commanders koniAAii'derz G 74 
commendation koraendaa-stbn G 30 
committed koim't'ed G 118 
commodious komod'z'us G 30 



commodities komod-t'toiz G 39 
commodity komod ttt G pr, 29 
common konron G pr. 
commonwealth konron welth G 43 
company kunrpanai G 1 10 
comparable konrparabl G 30 
compare kompaar G 86 
compared kompaard' G 1 1 6 
compassion kompas'sj'on G pr, kompas 1 - 

*bn G 118 

competitor kompet'tor G 129 
composition kompostz'ton Bull 
concern konsenr G 87 
condemn kondemir ? G 85 
condign kondtg'n kondq - n G 30 
cotulition CONDICYON konds-'un Sa 
coneys kont'z Bull, kua-tz G 24 
confess konfes- G 112 
confidence kon-ftdens G 30 
confound konfound- G 116 
confounded konfound'ed G 23 
confused konfyyz-ed G 107 
conjurer kuirdzhurer, non kun'dzherer 

ut indocttis suas aures sequent, G pr 
consort konsort* G 48, consorted kon- 

sort-ed G 118 
constancy koirstansj G 30 129, kon- 

stansai- poet G 130, tuprd p. 869, 

col. 2. 

constant kon-stant G 105 
Constantinople Koirstantmopl G 129 
constrain konstraiir G 129 
constraint konstraint' G 107 
consul kou-sul G 30 
consult konsult- G 21 
consumed konsunred ? G 25, consuming 

konsyynrtq G 1 27 
contain kontein Bull, kontain- G 45 
content kontent- G 20 
continue kontt'iryy Bull 
cook kuuk S, G 17, Sc kyyk S, kyyk 

Sor G 17 
cool kuul S 
coot kuut genus anatis albam maculam 

in fronte gerens S, Bull, B 
copper kop-er G 39 
core koor P 
cork kork S 

corn koor'n Bull, korn G 39 
corse koors G 1 28 
cosen kuz-n G 100 
cost kost G, 89 B 

costermonger kos-terdmuqger G 129 
costliest kost'liest G 112 
cot kot involucrum, koot casa S 
cotton kot-'n Bull 
Cotswold Koots-woould G 70, Kot 'sal 

vulyo G pr 

could kould S, kuuld Bull, G 56, B 
cough koouH 8 
counsel kouirsel G 30 

counterchange kountei-tshandzh- G 33 

counterfeit kun terf'et Bull 

countess koun-tes G 42 

country kuirtrt G 43, contree C 14, 

countries kuirtrt'i'z tull 
couple koTipljwigere S, eoopled C 1 
courage kour-adzh G 105, kmrradzh G 

123, kuradzh B 
course kours [kuurs ?] G 119 
court kuurt G 103, courts kuurts G 22 
courteous kurteus G 68 
courtesy kur'tezt' G 82 
cover kiiver, ki'vcr Or G 17, covcrest 

kuv crest G 23 
covet kuvet G 90 
covetous kuvetus G 90 
cow kuu, P, kou Sa, G 41 
coward kou'Herd? G 107 
cowl koul S, B 
coy kui (?) P, koi, fortasse kui, alii koe, 

ineptum, et a familiaritate alienuinS 
crab krab S 
cracked kraakt ? G 99 
cradle kraa-dl G 101 
craggy krag't G 146 
crazed kraazd G 99 
creanse kreenz aut kreanz, asturis aut 

fringillaris retinacula G 37 
created kreaat'ed G 25 
creatures kree-tyyrz G 118 
credit kred'tt G 43 
creep kriip G 24 
cresses kres'ez G 37 
cribble krib'l cribulatus panis S 
cried kraid G 78 
crooked kryyk-ed Bor G 122 
crow kroo Sa 
crown kroun G 70, crowned kround G 


cruel kryyel G 99 
cub kub, vulpecula parva S 
cuit kyyt kuit, defrutum vel rintim 

coctuin S, cuited cjyted, a Ga-llico 

vocabulo cunuE coquere G 4 
cull kui S 

cumin kunrt'n G 37-38 
cunning kuirt'q G 83 
cup kup S 

Cupid Kyyp-td G 136 
cur kur cants rusticus S 
curse kurs G 21, cursed kurs-cd G 105 
curtain kurtain G 23 
curtaxe kurt-aks G 124 
cut kut S, G 48 
cypress sai pres G 106. 


daffadowndillies daf'adoundiKz G 104 
daily darlai G 35 

dainty dain-t, dein'tt delicatus S, 
dain-ti G 128, dainties dain-ti'z G 37 


dally dal't ludere S 

dam dam bestice. cujusvis mater G 3 

damage dunraid/h ? Sa 

(tome daam G 3, 116, 123 

dance dAAns G 143, dans, deans Or G 17, 

danced = da wised C 14 
danger da'ndzlrer Bull, daurdzhcr B 
D'Anvers DAACI-S vulgo G ^M- 
dare dair S, ?* durst G 69 
dark=dtrk C 27 
darkness dark-nes G 23 
dart dart Sa 

I? Aubigney DAAb-nei t'M/yo G pr 
D' Aubridgi-Court Dab'skot vulgo Gpr 
daughter dAAkht-er G 110, daughters 

dAAkht-erz G 23, some say daf 'ter B 
daiv dau P, S 
day dai, rustici daai, Mops dee, Sc et 

Transtr daa S, dai G 22, 70 
daze daaz G 11* 

dead died ? mortuus S, deed G, deed C 9 
rfw/deef S, <fee/C 11 
<fcw diir S, dier G 84 109, diier G 15, 

deer G 101, deer rightly, not diir, B 
dearling deer-ling, not darling B 
death deeth G 12, 109, 119, death's 

deetb-ez in Spenser G 118 
debate debaat- G 97 
debt det S, debts = dettsG 6 - 
decars dtk-ars decades G 72 
decay dekai- G 124 
deceive deseev G 97, deceived decseeved 

G 112, deceiving deeseevz'q G 144 
declare deeklaar G 22, 23, 86 
dee dii nomen literae S 
deem diim G 32 
deep diip S, G 24, 70 
deer diier G 15, 41 
defence defens 1 G 20 
defend defend 1 G 31 
defer defer- G 133 
dejtbd ietiaML- G 118 
defraud defrAAd- G 31 
degree degrii Bull, G 21 
delight delmt- Bull, debit- G 2 1, delights 

debits- G 141 
delightful delait-ful G 114 
delivereth delfvereth G 23 
demand deniAAnd- G 88,116, demaund- 


demurely dcmyyr-li G 150 
den den S, dens denz G 25 
denial* denai-AAlz G 150 
denying denarz'q G 132 
depart depart- G 90 
deprive depraiv G 85 
deputy = deb i tee C 14 
derive deraiv G 48 
descended desend-ed G 83 
desert dczart- G 118, 141, dezcrt- G 116, 

121, dcx-ort sotitudo, dezert- merititm 

Gpr, dezert- ineritum, dez-crt deser- 

twn aut solitudo G 130 
deserve deserv G 89, deserves dezcrvz- 


dtsire dezair- G 90 133, deezgir ? G 1 1 1 
desirous dezoi-rus G 83 
despair despair- G 105 
destiny dcs-tem G l'J9, dcs-tnioi G 97, 

destmai- poet G 130, sitpru p. 869, 

col. 2. 

determined deter-mmcd G 76 
Dtvereux Deu-reuks ? G 42 
J)m7 Dii-vil S, diil lior G 122, devel 


devilishly = deviUi.tchli C 6 
devoid devoid G 83 
dew deu P, S, B 
dewy deu-i G 106 
diamond dramond G 79, 91 
dice deis aleae S 
Dick D(k S 

dictionary d/k'sibnart Bull 
did see do 
dies deiz moritur S, died deid mortuus 

S, G116 
differ d*f-er G 90 
difference dtf-ercns G 1 1 9 
dilapidation dilapz'daa-sion G 30 
diligently dz'l-z'dzhentloi G 90 
dim dim S, dimmed dmid G 98 
din dm S 
dine dein S 
dip dtp G 48 
dirge dt'rdzh G 117 
dirt durt G 38 
disallow di'salou- G 33 
disburden dz'sbuvdh-en G 85 
discourteous da'skur-teus G 118 
discovered dtskuvercd G 1 06 
discrete di'skiiit- Bull, G 77 
disdain disdain- P, S, G 4, 98 
disease di'seez- Bull 

disfigure dj'sf/g-yyr, prov d/svtg-yyr Sa 
disgraced d/sgraast- G 1 13 
dish dish S 

dishonest di'son-est Bull 
dishonesty dison-estai G 89 
dishonour d/son-or G 89 
dishigned d/sloind- G 114 
disloyal dzsloi-AAl ? G 118 
disloyalty d<slo-altai G 1 1 8 
dismay dz'smai* G 121 
dismayed di'smaaid- 
disparted dt'spart'ed G 106 
dispiteous d*spt-eus G 32 
displaced dz'splaast- G 102 
displayed desplaaid- G 98, 132 
displeasure d/splce-zyyr G 125 
distil d'sttl- G 133 
KIT dtt G 123 
ditches deitsh-i'z, Sa 


divers divers- ? Bull, diverz ? G 93 

divide devu'd' Bull, divided devai-ded 

divine di'vain* potius quam devain ? G 
pr, dtYain- G 116 

divinely dtvain-lai G 133 

division, dmz-ion, devt'z-ton Bull 

divorced divors-ed G 114 

do duu Sa, S, du G 24, 50, 134, B, doo 
G 6, doest duust G 55, B, doost C 7, 
doth dutb. G 40, 55, DON duun plural 
G 102, did did. G 50, 134, didst didst 
G 55, doing du-'q prima naturu sud 
brevis G 133, do it dut pro du t't G 
136, done dun G 50, duun or G 17, 
iduu- Occ G 18, tfoon C 6 

doctor dok-tor G 30 

document dok-yyment G 30 

doc doo, Sa, 8 

fofe/U dool-ful G 77 

dominion domtirtbn G 30 

doom duum G 32, 116 

door duur ostium S, door Bull, G 118, 
doors duurz G 95 

dorr dor opw genus S 

doting doot't'q G 144 

double dub'l doubi Sa, dub-1 Bull, G 
97, 112, B 

doubt duut Bull, dout G 109, B 

doubtful dout-ful G 83 

dough doou eonspersio S 

dove dou columba S, ?OM> <foo C 3, 10 

dowcets dou'sets testiculi et tenera 
eornua G 37 

down doun G 21 

downward doun"ward G 103 

dozen duz-n G 72 

drachms dramz G 93 

rfra/draf G 38 

drank draqk G 50 

draws drAAZ G 66, drawing drAA't'q G 
104, drawn drAAn G 146 

dread dreed S 

dream =dreem C 2 

dregs dregz G 37 

dress dres S 

drink driqk G pr drinking drt'qk't'q Sa 

drive dreiv S, draiv G 49, driven dn'vn 

dross dros G 38 

drowned dround G 74 

drunk-en druqk-n G 50 

dry drai G 105, dri C 12 

duck duk anas S 

due dyy S G 22, 103 

dug dug mamilla S 

** dyyk Sa, S 

rfirf/diilS, G 125 

dumbdomb C 9 

dung duq G 12 

cfarrf, Me dare 

dust dust G 25, 38 
Dutch dutsh d*tsh B 
duty dyy-tt Dull, G 110 
<fyr dei-er H 
dying dai''q G 134 


each eetsh G 99 

eagle eeg'l G 15 

ear eer, cor iir B, ear* eerz G 103 

earl earl tla ut a aligiiantulum audiatttr 

hie eerl, 7/ic erl G 15 
earnestness eer-nestnes G 91 
earth erth Bull, eerth G 21 
ease jeez (?) Sa supra p. 80, eez S, Bull, 

G 15, 85, 123 
easement eez-ment G 27 
eatt est eest C 2 
easy eez'i Bull 

eat eet G 15, eaten eet-n G 66 
e0t>* eevz G 37 
echo ek-o G 142 
egg eg Sa, S 
Egypt E-dzhtpt ? G 66 
eight aikht G 71 
eighteen aikbt-iin G 71 
eighteenth ein-tiinth Bull 
eighth aikht G 71 
eighty aikh'tt G 71 
either eidh-er out S, eeidh-er G 45, 

eidh-er G 101 

eleven elevn G 71 

eleventh elevnth G 71 

ell el G 70 

elm el'm Bull, elm G 105 

eloquence el'oktrens G 43 

embellish embel'tsh G 29 

embowed emboud 1 G 107 

emmove emuuv G 135 

emperor enrperur Sa, em-perour. G 1 1 7 

empire em-pair G 73 

empty emp-tt G 83 

endeavour tndee-vor G 82 

endite endait- G 110 

endless end-les G 118 

endure t'ndyyr- G 25, endyyr G 99 

enemy eiremai G 82, enemies en-cmaiz 


enforce enfors' G 128 
Englands Jq-glandz G 150 
Engilsh iiq'lt'sh iiq-gh'sh t'q-glt'sb. ? Bull, 

Jq-glt'sh G 141 
enjoy endzhoi- G 87 
enlightened t'nlaikht'ned G 23 
enough inukh- G 9, audiei> inuf- et inukb- 

satis G 19 
entangle entaq*gl,g abnratione seguenti* 

liquidce quodammodo distrahiiur G 10 
enter en-ter G 33 
entertain entertain- G 100 


entrails eirtralz G 37 

entreat intreet' G 87 

envy en-vt G pr, 38 

equal ee'ktcal G 84 

ere eer G 104 

err er G 112 

errand erand pro eerand G 135 

error eror G 117 

essay esai* tentare S 

established estab-U'shed G 22 

estate estaat- Bull, U 20 

esteem estiinr G 89 

eunuch =eunouch C 19 

even iivii G 22, 93 

evening iivm'q G 25 

ever ever G 40 

evermore evermoor' Sa?, G 104 

every everai G 21, even G 30, evrai 

pro everai usitatissimus G 136 
evil evil ? S, iivi G 23, ii-vtl B, evils 

iivlz G 118, 

ewe jeu H, yy Bull, ecu G 15, eu B 
ewer eau-er H, eeu-er aqualls G 10 
exalted eksalt-ed G 23 
examples eksamfplz G 68 
exceeding eksiid't'q G 84, 116 
excel eksel- G 111 
excellency ek'selensai G 21 
except eksept' G 65 
excess ekses- G 123 
exchange ekstshandzlr G 93 
excite eksait- G 110 
excuse ekskyyz- Bull 
exempt eksempt* G 89 
exercise ek-sersnz Bull 
exhibition ekstbt's'iun Sa 
exile ek-sail G 30, exiled eksaild- G 125 
expectation ekspekta'sion G 21 
expert ekspert- G 83, 116 
explicate eks-pltkaat G 31 
expone ekspoon- G 3 1 
extreme =extreem Oil 
extremity =extremitee G I 
eye ei S, Gpr, 15, eyes eiz S, eyne ein, 

pro eiz Spenser, G 1 37 
eyebright ei-braikht G 38 


fable faa-bl S 

face faas Sa, G, faces, faa-sez Sa 

Faery Faa-eri G 97 

fail fail S, G 9, fails fails G 93 

fain fain P, faain S, fain Bull 

faint faint feint languidus S, faint G 149 

fair faai-eF G 27, 98, faair farer G 74, 

fair G W, fairest faarrest G 101 
fairly faai'erlai G 27 
faith faith G 39, 104 
faithless faith'les G 145 
fall faul S, fa'l Bull, AA! G 40, fal ? 


false fa'ls Bull, faals G 97, falsest 

fAAls-est G 118 
falsely fAAls-ki G 139 
fame i'aam G 125, 135 
famous faa-mus G 30, 36, 100 
fan fan S 
fang faq arripe, 00evaq; hefangedto 

me at the font, Occ irii vaqd tu mi at 

dhevant, in baptisterio pro me suscepit 

G lS,fanged faqd Bor G 122 
far far S, far G 23 34,/<w=/r C 8 
farther farder Bull, far'dher G 34, 

farthest fardhest G 34 
firthing=ferying C 5 
farewcl faarwel' S 
fashioned fashioned G 101 
fat fat S, G 38, 74 
fate faat G 20 
father fedlrer prov Sa ? fadher G pr, 

112, fai/er faather G 3, 4, fathers 

faa-dherz G 75 
fault fa' It Bull, fAAt freqnentius, faalt 

docti inter dum Gpr, f\Alt fAAult G 

86, faults =fauts G 6 
favour favur Bull, favor G pr, 82 
faze faaz infila deducere S 
few feer G 20, 22, 98 

feast feest G 143, feasts feests G 118 
fed fed S 
fee fii P 
feeble fiiVl G 99 
feed f iid Bull 

feel fiil S, feeling fiiWq G 119 
feet f lit S, G40,/tfC7 
feign fain fein S, fein Bull, feigned 

fain-ed G 111 
fell MS, G47, 124 
fellow fel'oou, vel-oou Or G 17 
fen fen S 
fence fens S, G 20 
fents fents scissurae S 
FERE feer soctus G 101 
fern fer'n Bull, fern G 37, feern G 73 
fetch fetsh S, G, Ami vetsh G 17 
fett fet adporta S 
few feu P, S, G 100, fceu G 15 
fiants fai-ants rclicta vulpis Q 37 
fickle fki G 103 
JU fi P fm' S 
/; fiild Bull, G 22, 124 
Jierce feers G 99,/ers C 8 
fifteen fif-tiin G 71 
^AA fift G 71 
//i!y ftftt G 71 
/</ f g S 

fight feit S, faikht G 80, 99 
figure f*'g'yyr Bull 
file feil S 
.// f*l S, M, Aust vzl G l7,JlOtd1A'A 




filthy filth- j G 104 

Jin fin S 

final foi-nal G 30 

Finch Flush G 42 

find fimd, Bull 

./fow fcin S, fain G 12, 123 

finger fiq-ger ? G 70 

jtfr fir S 

fire feir S, fei-er, H, fai-er G 15, 23, fir 

Or G17, fai-er2?or G 16 
//* first, S, G 71, 34 
fish fish, prov vish Sa, fish S, G 26, 47, 

fishing fish'tq, he is gone a-fishing 

Hai (?) iz goon avtsht 1 Occ G 18 
fishmonger fislrmuq'ger G 32 
fit fit S, G 84, fittest fit-est G 118 
five feiv Sa, S, prov veiv Sa, faiv G 

70, fijv C 25 
/a; fiks G 48 
fizz fiz, stridor igneus S 
>zer flat-er G 26 
flaming flaanrt'q G 24 
fiax flaks Sa, G 38 
fied fled G 50 

fledge fl?'dzh apta volare, Sor fleg S 
fieeced flii-sed G 99 
fiesh flesh S, G 38 
fiew flyy G 50 
jKtttfifead G 146 
^oa< 17. floot fliit, dialectic variat, Gpr 
fiock flok G 99, /ocis floks G 37 
flood fluud, Sc flyyd S, flud BuU, G 124, 

floods fludz G 119 
flourish flur-i'sh G 47, B 
flower flouur H, flowers flou'erz flares^ 

flou'ers (?) menses G 39 
flown flooun G 50 
flute fljyt S 
fly s. ==/fy*flei ? =flie&ii ? P,/y v. flai 

flii dialeetus variat G ^>r, flai G 50, 

116,./Zett>flyy G 50 
/oefcfcr fod-er G 38 
foe foo G 82, foen foon ^>ro fooz Spenser 

G 137 

/oi7 foil, fortasse full, Iractea S 
foined fuuind punctim feriebat G 78 
/oW foould G errata 
folk foolk potius qiiam fook G pr 
/o^w fol-oou G 90, 129, ful'a ^or 

G 16 

folly fol-f G 38 
/owrf fond Ato^tWtM S, G 114 
food fuud G 24, 38 

fool fuul Sa, S, G 27, fools fxralz G 89 
foolish fuuHsh G 27, 103 
foot fuut Bull 
footsteps fuut'steps G 147 
for for S, G 21, B 
forbear forbeer G 111 
forced forst G 99,/omn^ foors-tq S 139 
forces foor-sez G 100 

forego forgoo* amitto, foor'goo' prcecedo 
G 65, foregoing foorgo-i'q G 129, 133 

forest forest G 24, 62, 134 

forester, fos'ter nemoris custos, S 

forts taller foor-stAAl'er G 129 

fore foor B 

foretell foortel- G 80 

forge fovdzh G 118 

forget forget- G 55, forgat forgat' G 55, 
forgotten forgot-n G 133 

forgive =forg y'v C 9, forgiving for- 
gj'vt'q G 133 

forgoing forgo'tq G 33 

forlorn forlorn 1 G 33 

forsake forsaak- G 103, 139 

forspeaking foorspeek'j'q G 133 

forswear forsweer- G 33 

forth fourth G 22, 24 

forthy fordhai- G 100 

forty fort*' G 71 

forward foo'rward Bull 

fought, faunt, foughten fauut-n S 

foul foul turpis S, G 74, 104 

found found G 136, fond in Spenser G 

foundations foundaa-szonz G 24 

founded found-ed G 24 

fountains foun-tainz G 119 

four four, prov your Sa, foou'r Bull, 
foour G 37, 70 

fourteen foour p tiin G 71 feortcen fur- 
teen xiiij C 1 

fourth fouurth, H, foour th G 71 

fowl foul S, fowls foulz G 24 

fox foks Sa, S, prov voks Sa 

//aiVfraUG 114, 123 

framed fraa-med G 123 

France, FrAANS G 70, Frauns B 
franion fran'ton G 129 

frankincense fraqk'insens G 38 
fray free cor B 
free frii G 83, 89 
freeze friiz G 47 

French Frensh G 70 
frensy fren-zt G 106 
friend frmd G 117, Mind B, freend C 
11, friends fiiindz Sa, Bull, frmdz 
G 81 

friendless, friind'les B 
friendly frmd'lai G 84 
friendship frind'ship G 82 
froise fruiz ? P 
from from S, G 20, 79 
fronts fronts G 99 
frost frost G 47 
frosty fros'tt G 146 
froth froth G 38 
frowardness fro'wardnes G 82 
frowning froun-'q G 20 
frozen frooz-n, Occ ifroor moor G 18. 
frugality fryygal'itoi G 39 


fruit fryyt G 24,//-w< C 7 

fruition inns-toon ? Q 30 


fugitive fyydzhttoiv G 35 

full ful S, Bull G 32 

fulness fill-lies G 22 

fulsome fill-sum G 28 

funeral fyyneral G 84, 106 

furlong furloq G 70 

furmety frunrentt G 37 

furnace =furneis C 6 

furnish furm'sh Bull 

furniture fur m'tyyr G 43 

further fardher hirdher furder, dia- 

lectus variat, G pr, fui"dher G 34, 

furthest furdhest G 34 
furyfyyri G 141 


gain gain G 20, 79 

'gainst gainst G 124 

gall gaul S 

gallant gal-aunt Sa 

gangrel gaq-rel or gaq'grel Bor, homo 

iffitavus, G 17 
gape gaap S, G 88 
garden gaard'n Bull 
garland gar-land G 103 
garlic gar-ltk G 38 
garment garment G 23 
gate gaat Bull 
gather gadh-er G 25, 112 
gay gai, gaei ? S 
gazegaaz S, G 88, 114 
g elding geld- ing S 
general dzhen'eral G 133 
generous dzhen-erus G 30 
genitive dzhen'tttv Bull 
gentle dzhen-ttl P S 
gentlewomen dzhen'tl,winven, Mops 

dzhen-tl,t'm'm G 18 
gently dzhent-lai Gill 
geometry dzheonretrai G 38 
George Dzhordzh Sa, S 
gests dzhests G 107 
get get S, gat gat genuit S 
ghost =ghoost C 1 
giblets dzhtVlets G 27 
gift g*ft S 

Gil DzM fcemina levis S, G 36 
Gilbert Gilbert Sa 
Giles Dzhailz G 42 
Gilian DzhiKan G 36 
Gill Gzl G 42, gil branchia piscis S 
Gillsland Gzlz land G 136 
ginger dzhm-dzhtr Sa 
girdle gmK G 46 
give gtv S, G 18, giiv Bull, G 23, gii 

Mops G 18, gijv C 18, gave gav aaav 

jaaf S, gaav G 49, given gii'v'n Bull, 

gtvn G 67 

glad glad G 21 

glas glas G 42 

gloomy gluu-mt G 147 

glorious glor-ius ? G 30, gloo-rms ? B 

glory gloo-ri G 21, gloori C 15 

glove gluv G 70 

glue glyy P, G 38 

glut glut G 89 

go go G 17, 24, goeth go-eth G 25, 
going go-ing prima syllaba natunl 
suu brevis G 133, gang gaq Bor G 
17, gone goon S, G 65, goon C 2, pro 
imperfecto pat res nostri subslituerunt 
9i jeed aut ai jood G 64, 65, pro 
went, jed aut jood iba-m, Lincolni- 
enses ab antiquis etiamnum retinent 
G17, S 

goad good S 

goats goots G 24 

God God Sa, S, G 20, God be with you, 
God bii-wwo, Sa 3 

gold gould Sa, goould G 37 et errata 

golden goould-n G 98, et errata 

goldsmith goould-sim'th G 32, et errata 

good guud gud ? Sa, gud, guud S, gud 
G 12, gyyd Bor G 17 

goodlihead gud-lmcd G 98 

goodly gud'loi G 27 

goodness guud'nes Sa 10 

goose guus G 38, geese giis G 40 

gorgeous gordzheus G 107 

gosling gox-b'q G 35 

gout gout G 38 

govern govern G 21, 66 

government guver'nment Bull 

gown goun, gAAn geAAn Bor G 16 

grace graas Bull, G pr, 29, 83 

gracing graas't'q G 150 

gracious graa's',us Sa B 

graft graf Bull 

Grahams Gre-namz G 73 

grammar graurar G 38 

grange gra'ndzh Bull 

grant grAAnt G 86, 116 

grass gras Bull G 24, 37 

grave graav Bull G 125 

graven graavn G 23 

graze graz ? Bull 

grease grees G 38 

great greet magnus, grecet inyens G 35, 
greet C 7 

greatly greet-lai G 20 

Grecian Gree-sian G 73 

greedy griid-z G 83 

green griin G 3 

greenish grnr'sh ? G 35 

grew gryy G 110 

grey greei P 

grief griif G 

grieve griiv B 

grieved = greeved C 18 


yrisvotts griiv us G 84 
grin grin laqueus G 3 
grind =grij i>d C 24 
grisly graiz-h' G 110 
groan groon Bull 
groats =groote- C 18 
ground ground G 103 
^rot0 groou G 24, 123 
gudgeon gudrireon ? G 77 
^* ges Bull 
guests =geestes C 14 
wtVfe gz'td Bull 
guild gtld G 47 
guildhall geildnall ? G 4 
guile geil S 

guilty gut't G 4, 45 
^ttise giiz Bull 
gulf gulf Bull 
^ gum S 
gut gut Sa, Bull 


habit ab-it Sa 

habitation abitaa-sion P, Sa, nabftaa'S- 

ton G 23, 136 
had Had S 

hair neer Bull, heer C 5 
AfltV naail safoe G 64 
halberd HAAl'berd nal'berd nool'berd 

G 19 

hale naal G 3 
Aa^Ha'lf Bull, HAAlf^wfr'tw quam HAAf 

Gpr, HAAlf G 149 
halfpenny HAA-peni G 32 
hall Haul S, G 3, Hall nal Henriculus 


ham naa'm or fod-er Bull 
ham Ham Bull, B 
home naam, dhe wud klip-ing abuut- a 

Hors'kol'er Bull 
hand Hand Sa, G 9, nond in Spenser 

G 137, hands handz Sa, hand'es in 

Spenser G 137 
handful Hand-fill G 70 
handling nand'ltq G 114 in Spenser 

where the metre requires three syl- 

labks, as Han*dl,t'q 
hanged naqd G 122 
/tanging naq-t'q G 99 
happeneth nap-neth G 66 
happy hap't G 124 
harbour Harbour ? G 119 
hard Hard Sa 
harden nard-n G 47 
hardy nar-dt G 27 
hnrJcen Hark'n G 86 
/'ftrmontf Har-monii G 118 
Harry Hart G 149 
harshness Harsh'ucs, G 82 
hart uart P, Sa 

harvest Harvest G 134 

hatted naast-ed G 24 

hastened naast'ned G 107 

hasty nas'tt G 147 

hat Hat S 

hatches Hatsh'ez G 37 

hate naat S, G 23 

hatred naa-tred P 

hateful naat-ful G 84 

hath nath G 54, nez Bar G 17 

have naav P, Sa, S, G 21, nav Bull 

haven naavn G 99 

haw nau P, unguis in oculo Bull 

hawthorn hau'thoor'n Bull 

hay hei fcenum Bull, hai/asnwm G 37, 

nai plaga Bull 

he Hii P, G 10, HUU Ami G 17 
head bed S, Bull, need G 102 
headache hed-aatsh G 38, see AcJie 
heal Heel Sa, S, Bull 
health neelth G 21 
heap Heep Bull, heaps neeps G 107 
hear neer, cor mir B, heareth=heereth 

heard naard G 21, 23, neerd, cor Hard 

B, hard C 6 

hearken neerk'U, cor nark-n B 
heart uart Sa, G 21, 23, 79, B 
heart-eating Hart'eet'tq G 131 
hearth nerth G 142 
7ieat=heetC 20 
heathen needb'en G 22 
heaven nevn Bull, heeven C 6, heavens 

Heey-nz G 22, 23 
heavy neevt G 119, B 
hedge nedzh S 

heed mid G 112, heed hed C 16, 21 
heel Hiil Sa, S, BuU 
Jieight neikht G 64. 124, 141, haight 


heir = heier C 21 
held Held G 49 
hell nel S, Bull, G 38 
he'll mil, niist Bor pro nii wil, G 17 
helm nel'm Bull 
hem Hem Sa, G 141 
hemp Hemp Bull, G 38 
hen nen S, hem henz P, S 
hence Hens S 
henceforth nensforth' G 1 1 2, hensfuurtb. 

G 117 

lier Her G 44, 76, Htr G 22, 76 
herb Herb G 24 
here niir sometimes neer Bull, nii'er G 

75, niir B, heer C 15 
hereafter neeraft'er G 57, beraft'er G 58 
heritage ner'itaidzb Sa 
Herod=Heerood C 2 
heron neer'n Bull 
hew neu Bull, B 
hey ! Heei G 


hide neid S, hidest Haid-est G 25, hid 

Hid S, G 130 
hideous md-eus G 78 
high haikh G 23, 99 
high nel G 21, 74, 98, 105, higher 

nei-er H, narer G 34, highest noi-est 

G 34 

hill HI! S, hills Htlz G 23 
Am Htm G 44, tm .Bw G 122 
himself Himself- G 128 
hindereth Htndretli G 136, hindered 

Hzn'dered Bull 
hire nair G 15, 114 
his Hiz G 21 
hit nit G 48 

A&Ar Htdh'er G 66, nedh-er B 
hoar Hoor S 
hoards = hoards C 6 
hoarse noors S 
AoWy Hob-t P 

Hodge nodzh Rogerculus rusticorum S 
hold HO' Id Bull,Hoould G errata, holden 

Hoould-n G 49, et errata 
hole wool foramen S 
holiness Hoo'ltnes G 22 
hollow Hol-oou G 103 
holly HoH aquifolium Sa, Bull 
holm Hool'm ilex Bull 
holy HOoH sanctus Sa ?, G 12 
Aanirf on-est P, Sa, Bull, oncst on 

Honest G pr, B 
honesty on-estt G 
honey min- G 38 
honour oirur P, on'or Sa 44, on'or wow 

Honor me oner G^r, 22, 87, on ur B 
honourable on-orabl G 129, 139 
hood nud Huud, So Hyyd S 
hoop Huup Bull 

Aop Hop S, Bull, AOJ Hops G 37 
hope hoop Sa, S, Bull 
hopeful Hoop-ful G 32 
hopeless Hooples G 32 
horehovnd Hoor-nound G 38 
horizon Horai-zon G 29 
horror noror G 98 
horse nors S, Bull, G 10 
horseman nors-man G 32, 128 
hose HOOZ G 41, nooaz Dor, Hooz-n 

Occ G 16 
hound Hound H 
hour ou'er, e interposito scribatur ou'er 

hora, id enim etprolatio ferre potest, 

et sensus hane differentiam (our 

noster, ou'er hora) requirit, G pr, 70 
horned norn-ed G 99 
house s. HOUS G 24, v. HOUZ G 47 
household Hous-hoould G 81 et errata 
howled Hould G 109 
hoy's Hueiz ( = nweiz=-wheiz ?) H 
Huberden Et'b'erden Sa 

huge nyydzh S, G 99, 121 
humanity Hyyman-ttt G 29 
Humber Hum-ber G 40 
humble um'bl Sa, humbleness Hum 'blues 

G 135, humblesse Humbles' G 135 
hundred nun-dred G 71 
hundredth Hun-dreth G 71 
hunger uuq'ger ? G 103 
hunt Hunt G 90 
hurt Hurt P, Sa, G 48, 87 
husband = housbond C 1 
hutch Hutsb. S 
hy ! neei G 15 
hypocrites = hypocrijts C 6 
hyssop ai-zop G 38 

I ei Sa, S, si non ei G jor, Aust ch ut 
cham, chil, chi voor ji pro ai am, ai 
vril, ai war-ant Jou G 17 

ice eis S 

ides aidz G 37 

idle = idilG 20 

idols ai-dolz G 22 

if if S 

ill i\ G 114 

Pll ail aist, ail aist Borpro ai wtl G 17 

illustrious tlus'trtus G 30 

images ai-madzhes? G 23, tm'aadzh 
G 30 

imagine imadzh'tn G 20 

immixing Vm,mzks-tq G 110 

impair impair empair G 33 

impart impart* G 31, 85 

implacable /nvplaakab'l G 109 

impossible tmpos'tbl G 30 

importune nnportyyn G 31 

impotency t'nvpotensi* G 30 

impotent im'potent G 135 

impoverish impoverish G 29 

impregnable iinprcg-nabl G 29 

impute impyyt- G 85 

t?2 in Sa 

incense v. mscns 1 G 31, s. urscns ? G 38 

inch tnsh G 70 

incivility insml't'tt G 112 

included inklud-ed ? Bull 

increase enkrees- Bull, inkrees- G 21, 22 

incredible inkred'tbl G 30 

indeed indiid- G 62 

indenture inden'tyjT G 30 

India Jnd't'a, sive /nd G 70 

Indian Jnd-i'an G 70 

indure indyyr G 

infamy tn'famai G 118 

inferior infer- tor Bull 

ingenious indzhcn'z'us G 148 

ingratitude ingrat-t'tyyd G 30 

inlet in-let G 33 

iaiiocency in-osensai G 73 

innumerable i'ninim-erabl ? G 25 


instead tnsteed' G 103 

instrument m-stryyment G 129, instm- 

ments m-stryyments G 118 
insult v. msult 1 G 86 
intangle see entangle 
interchange mtcrtshandzh' G 33 
interfere eirterfccr G 33 
intermeddle mtcrmed'l G 33 
interpret inter-pret G 112 
Intimate tnttmaat G 31 
into tn-tu G 79 
invade mvaad' G 117 
inwardly m'wardlai G 21 
iron oi'ern G 94 

ironmonger arernmuq-ger G 129 
is t'z Sa, G 20, is it istpro t'z tt G 136 
isles ailz G 22, 148 
it it G 44 
itch itsh S 

ivory ivorai ? G 117 
iwis eiwis 1 certe S 

Jack Dzhak iaccus vel ioannidior S, 


jade dzhaad equus nihili S 
James Dzhaamz Bull 
jape dzliaap ludere antiquis nune ob- 

scaenius significant S 
jar dzhar G 133 
jaundice dzhAAirdz's G 38 
jawe dzhAA G 14 
jay dzhai graculus S 
jealousy dzhel'ost G 124 
jerk ixhiikjlafettare S 
jerkin dzherkin sagulum S 
jesse dzhes pedica accipitrum S 
Jesses dzes'ez G 37 
jesters dzhest'erz G 118 
Jesu Dzhee'zyy Sa 
Jesus Dzhee'zus Sa 
jet dzhet gagates S 
Jews Dzhyyes P S 
Joan Dzhoon S 
John Dzhon false Shon, Sa, G, DJOH 

Wade apud G pr t Dzhon G 35, Joan 


join dzhuuin G 86 
joint dzhoint Sa, Bull, dzhuuint G 15, 


joist dzhuist B 

Joseph Dzhoo-zef Bull, Dzhosef G pr 
journey dzhur-nei G 92 
Jove Dzhoov G 110 
joy dzhoi G 10, 15, 21, 89 
joyful dzhoi-ful G 22 
joyous dzhoi -us G 118 
judge dzhudzh S, G 11, 112, judges 

dzhudzh-ez G 152 

judgement dzhudzh'ment Bull, G 11 
judicious dzhyydt's'tus G 81 

jug dzhug S 

jugglers clzhug'l.urz Bull 
juice dzhyys S, dzhuis ? Bull 
just dzhust S, Bull 

justice dzhus-tz's G pr, dzjtist'is Wade, 
apud G pr 


keen kiin G 12 

keep kiip S 

ken ken S 

Kent Kent Sa, S 

ketch ketsh rapere S 

kicked ktkt G 78 

kill k*l S 

kin km S, G 12 

kindness kaind-nes G 82 

kindred km-dred G 98, kindreds knr- 

dredz G 22 
kirn kain G 12, 41 
king kt'q Sa, S, kings ki'qz Sa 
kingdom = kingdoom C 2 
kinsman kmz-man G 40 
Ms kts Sa, G 42, kisseth kjs-eth G 98 
kitchen kttsh'en Bull 
kitling ktt'lt'q catuhis G 35 
kix ktks myrrhis S 
knee knii Bull 
A/wwknyy G 116, 124. B 
knife knttf Bull, knaif G 100 
knight knjkht Sa, knmt Bull, knoikht 

G 111 

knit knit Bull, G 48, 146 
knobs knops bullis S 
knock knok Bull, knocks knoks S 
knot knot Sa, Bull 
knoweth knoou'eth G 24 knoicn knooun 

non knoon G pr, 21 
knowledge knooirledzh Bull, G 77 
knuckle knuki Bull 

labour laa'bur Bull, laa'bor G 86, 100, 

141, laa-bur B 
labyrinths lab'erinths G 114 
lack lak Bull, S 
lad lad Sa, S 
ladder lad-'r Sa 

lade laad, onerare S, laden laad'n S 
ladies' mantle laa'dz'z man-tl G 38 
lady laa-di Sa, G 107, lady-lades laad't- 

ladii' choriambusG 133 
laid lni& ponebat S, G 21, 111 
lake, laak, S 
lamb lam G 35 
lambkin lam-kin G 35 
lament lament, Bull, lamentedlameni'cd. 


lamps = laampcs C 25 
lance launs B 
land loud j^ro land in Spenser G 137 


language laq-gvraidzh, Sa, laq'gadzh, 

Bull, laq-guadzh G 146 
languish laq'guish G 125 
lap lap sinus S, laps laps S 
largesse lardzhis G 29 
lash laish Sa, lash perire S, fas/wrf 

lasht G 77 

totf last G 40, lasting lasHq G 74 
lastly \osi-liG 110 
fa lat locavit S 
fofc laat G 100, S 
lath lath Bull 
/Ae laath horreum Bull 
/az^-A lauH, laf, S, lAAkh, dialectis 

placet laf, jpro ai lAAkhed audics ai 

luukh ?< ai lyykh G 49, laughed 

laukht G 109, 
laughter lauirter S 
Laura LAA'ra G 150 
law laau S, IAAU G 10 
lawful, lau-ful Bull, lAA-ful G 67 
lawn IAAN G 14 Mops leen G 17 
lawnds lAAndz in Spenser (4, 10, 24,) 


lawyer lAA'jer G 81 
lax, laks proluvium ventris S 
lay lai ponere, rustici laai, Jfojjs lee, 

xSc. rf Transtr laa S, foyes^ laist S, 

layeth lai-eth G 23 
lays lais (laiz ?) terns inculta et resti- 

biles, S 

lazy laa-zi G 12, 74 
&a< leed ducere aut plumbum S, leed 

plumbum G 39, <ft<2 leed=ducebat C 2 
fca/S, Bull, G 73, leaves leevz Bull 
fea& leek Bull, S 
lean leen Bull, G 74 
leap leep S 
learn lern G 27, leern G 141, learning 

leenrt'q G 82, learned lenred G 

68, leern-ed G 69 
learner leernor Bull, lenrer G 27 
leas leez lez pascua S 
lease lees locatio aut locationis instru- 

mentum S 

leash lesh leesh, ternio eanum S 
least leest S, Bull, G 34, leest C 5 
leather ledh-er G 38 
leave Ijeev ? swjard p. 80, Sa, leev G 38, 

48, Mops liiv G 18 
led led S 
lede Hid genus S 

leech leach liitsh leetsh, mcdicus S 
fce liik porrum S, Bull 
&ytf liit, dies juridiem S 
fo//f v. left G 48 
leg leg Bull 
fcwrf lend G 48, 88 
lesest Hist liis't'st perdis S 
/cs* les S, G 32, lesser Ics-er G 34 
lesscs les'ez relieta pore;, G 37 

/tssow les'n G 101 

lei let **' etiam impedire, S 

fe- let-erz G 43 

leviathan leviathan ? G 25 

lewed leud G 89 

lib lib castrare S 

Libyan Lib't'an G 148 

lice leis S, lais G 41, bis or liis BEX 

lick Itk S, Bull 
We loi jaeio mentior, lay lai jacebam, 

lied laid mentiebar, ai naav lainyacto, 

laid mentitus sum G 61 
ta/ liif carum S 
ftes Iciz mendacia S, laiz G 21 
lieutenant liifteirant G 66 
life laif G G8 
light Imt leit, ^MJ; a^ levis S, Im't 

BuU, laikht G 23, lighter laikht-er 


lightnings laikht'nt'qz G 23 
lightsome laikht'sum G 148 
like Izk S, laik G 23, 32 
liken laik-n G 85 

likewise loik'waiz G 32, lijkwijse C 21 
lily liK Sa 
limb lira. S 

lime leim S, laim G 38 
linch h'ntsh or stiip seid of a nil, Bull 
lines lainz G 37 
link U'qk Bull 
linked liqk'ed G 101 
lions bi'onz G 24 
lips b'ps S 

list lest S, list G 110 
&'< lt ting ere S 

literature h't-eratyyr G 30, 129 
little ltt-1 parvus BuU, G 34, 74, liiti' 

valde parvus, G 35 

live v. liv G 20, 25, living Itviq G 101 
liverwort liverwui't G 38 
/oarf lood G 89 
loaf loof ^awis vulgato more rotundus 

foetus S, loaves = looves C 16 
fo<7i loth Bull 
loathe loodh Bull 
loathsome loth-sum G 103 
lob lob stultus S 

&><:& lok S, Bull, look inelusum Bull 
foffye lodzh S 
lofty loft-z G 141 
log log S 

%'& lodzh-ik G 38 
loiter loi'ter Bull 
London Lon'dn S, Lun-don G 70, Lon-- 

don? G 134, Lun-un Wade et tabel- 

larii apud G pr, Luwun lintrarii 


long loq G 20 
lonf \\\ttf procul S 


look luuk S, Bull, looketh luuk-eth 

loose luus S, loom lous loos C 18, 19 

lord loord S. Bull, lord G 21 

lordship lord ship G 27 

loseth = looseth C 10 

loss los S, G 20, 90 

lot lot sors S 

loud loud G 74, B 

louse \on& pediculus S, G 41, lonzpedi- 
eulos legere 8 

lousy louz-i S 

love luuv S, luv G 59 et passim, loov 
C 23, loved luved G 35, 54, luvd 
usitatissimus est hie metaplasmtis in 
verbalibus paxsivis in ed G 136, 
loved" st luvedst non luvedest G 53 

lovely luvlei G 101 

lovers luversp G 114 

loving luvt'q G 35 

low Ion mugire Sa, loon humilis G 21, 
40, 114, 119 

luck luk Sa, S, Bull, G 38 

lug lug auriculas vellere S 

Luke Lyyk ? Bull 

lukewarm leyyk-war'm P Bull 

lull lul G 101 

lump lump Bull 

lurden lur'den ignavus S 

hut lust Sa, G 118 

lu&tihead lus'tmed G 27 

lusty lus'tt G 27 

tnace maas ctet-fl vel sceptrum S, Bull, 


made maad G 22 
tiiagnify mag'mfoi G 31, 134 
maid maid, Mops meed G 18 
mainprise maurpra Bull 
Maintain mainteur Bull 
maintenance mahrtenans G 28 
maize maiz G 28 
majesty madzlrestj Sa, maa'dzhestai 

G 22, madzh-estoi G 23 
make maak Bull, maak C 3, maketh 

maak-eth G 23 
malady mal-adai G 133 
Maiden MAAl'den G 91 
male maal G 12 
malice maHs G pr 
mall mAAl marcus G 12 
mallow mal-oou G 41 
malt malt G 37 
man man Sa, S, G 24 
manage mairadzli G 1 22 
mand ma'nd sporia Bull 
mane maan S 
manicle man'tkl G 30 
manifold man-tfoould G 25, 105 

manners man -era G 43, 94 
manqmller man'kwel'er homicida S 
manure manyyr G 1 32 
many murt G 39. 101 
maple maa-p'l Bull 
mar mar corrtimpere, S 
mare maar equa S 
margent mar'dzlient G 30 
marriageable mar-zdzhabl G 129 
marry mar'i G 74, married mar'ted G 


mark mark G 110 
marl marl G 38 
marvel marvail G 88, marvelled =mar- 

veild C 9 
mash mash aquam hordeo tcmperare, et 

macula reiium S 

ma-ss mas mes missa S, mas Bull 
master mas'tcr G 75, 95 
mat mat S 
match matsh S 
matchable matsh-abl G 100 
material mater-ial G 30 
maw man P, S 
may mai possum, rustici maai, Se Trc.nstr 

maa S, mai non me G pr, 24, maai 

G 21, mee cor B, mayest maist non 

marest G 54 
maze maaz Sa, S, Bull 
me mii P, S, G 10, 44 
meal meet Sa 
mean miin intelligere S (=mien=vul- 

tus ? seep. 112 ) meen mediocre S, 

Bull, meen G 77, meaneth meen-eth 

meat meet, miit Mops G 18, meat Bor 


meditation meditaa-ston G 25 
meek miik G 110 
meel miil se immiscere, Sa 
meet miit S, G 67 
melancholy melankoloi place of accent 

not marked and uncertain G 38 
melted melted G 23, melting melt'j'q 


men men Sa, S, G 21, 39 
merchandise mertsha'ndt'z Bull 
merchantable mar'tshantabl G 129 
merchants mar-tshants G 93 
merciful mersi'ful G 21 
Mercury Merkurai ? G 84 
mercy mersi G pr 21, 116, 121, 

mersai G 149 
mere miir Bull 
meridional mertVHonal G 30 
meriting mert'tt'q G 1 1 4 
mess mesferculum, S 
message mes-adzh G 118, 146 
mettle met'l d metallum G 30 
mew (for a liawk], myy P, S, meu vox 

catorum S, micu H 


mice meis S, mais G 41, niais or mils 

Michael Mei-kel ? Sa 
Michaelmass Merkelmas ? Sa 
middes mtds P medium S 
m>A< nukht S/, mint Bull, mtkht 

G 52, maikh/G 38, 56 
wiife mail G 1 f J 
milk milk ?, G 38 
wit'tf nul & 86 
million '.mi-ton G 71 
mind, mi md BuU, maind G 33, 52, 90 
wt'r* main G pr, 1 
ixiniott mnrton G 129 
ministers min'i'sterz G 24 
mint mmt G 41 
minute mm-yyt G 70 
mirrors mt'rors G 101 
mirth merth G 38, mtrth G 145 
mischance nmtshans" G 1 16 
mischief mis-tshiif G 20, 106, 149 
misconceived nuskonseeved G 112 
miscreant nn's-kreant G 105 
mise meiz sumptusveloffce cervisiu madi- 

factee, S 

miser mai'zer G 134 
miserable miz-erabl G 129, 184 
misery miz-ert G 129, 134, mizerai- 
poet G 130, miseries miz-eraiz G 125 
misgive msgV G 33 
misplace musplaas- G 33 
miss ms careo S 
mistake mz'staak' G 32 
mixture nu'ks-tyyr Bull 

moan moon G 145 

moderator moderaa'tor G 30 

moist moist G 99, 119 

moisten moist-n G 133 

molest molest' G 117 

Moll Mai Mariola G 12 

Monday Mun-dai B 

monster moirster G 124 

strus valde prodiaiosum, moooon'strus 
prodigiosum adeo ut hominem stupidet 

money -s mun-i-z G 41 

month munth G 144, B 

monument mon-yyment G 

mood muud S, Bull 

moon rauun G 12, 24 

more moor S, G 25, moor C 5 

morning monri'q G 106 

morrow moroou G 125 

mortal mortAAl ? G 97, 116 

mortar morter cementum G 38 

Moses =Moosees C 19 

moss mos S 

most moost G 34 

mothe r mudh-er Bull, G 112, 
moyer C 2, mooyer C 12 

G 124 

mound mound B 

mountains moun-tainz G 24 

mourn muur'n Bull 

mouse mous mt4s, mouz devorare S, mous 

mus G 41 

mouth mouth G 21, B 
move muuv G 118 B, moved muuved 

mow muu P, mou meta foeni, moou 

metere out irridere os distorquendo, S 
much mutsh S, much good do it you, 

mrtsh-good-j'tjo, Sa, niuteh G 34, 89 
muck muk S, G 38 
mud mud S, G 38 
mule myyl mtila S 
mulet myylet mulus, S 
multipliable mul'ttjplaiabl G 129 
multiply muHi'plei G 31 
multitude mul-tityyd G 22, 30, 129 
mum mum face, S 
mumble monvbl senum edentulorum 

more mandere, aut inter denies mussi- 

tare S, mumbled mum-bled G 101 
murder murder, murdher dialectut 

variat G pr, murdher G 106 
murmur murmur G 119 
murr mur rancedo S 
murrain murain B 
muse myyz Sa, S 

music myyzi'k G 38, muu'ztk P G 150 
must must G 64 
mustard mus'terd G 38 
mutton mut-n G 39 
my mai G pr N 

nag nag Sa, S 

nail nail, nails naAz Sa 

nailed naild G 111 

name naam Bull, G 22, naam C 1 

narr nar ringere more canum S 

narrow nar-u Sa, narrower naroouer, 

Occ narg-er G 18 

nations nas-ionz Bull, naa-sions G 21 
nativity nati'vt'ti* G pr 
nature naa'tyvr Bull, na tyyr ? G 98 
naught iiAAkht vitiosinn aut malum G 


na ughty = noughti C 21 
nay nai S, nee cor B 
near niir S, neer H, neer G 34, 104, nier 

G 84, niir B, nearer nerer ? G 34 
neat neet G 7 
neb neb rostrum S 
necessary nes-esari Bull 
necessity neses-ttt Bull, G 139 
neck nek S 
nectar nek'tar G 98 
need niid G 20, 87, 98 
needle -ncdelC 19 


ne'er neer G 112 

neese niiz sternulamentum S 

wither neidh-er G 75, neeidlrer G 45, 

nother C 6 

Neptune Nep tyyn G 121 
nesh nesh tener S 
nest nest S, nests nests G 24 
net net Sa, G 7, 77 
ew ny nyy S, Bull, nj7 G 22, <ws 

nyyz G 27 
next nekst G 34 
nibble ntb'l Sn 
niffies m'f -Is m'A7 S 
^A m'kh Sa, noikh G 79 
night nikht S, naikht G 92 
nill nil nolo G 32, 65 
nim nim nem cape, Occ G 18 
nimble ninrbl G 149 
nine nain G 71 
nineteen nahrtiin G 71 
ninety naurt*' G 71 
ninth nainth G 71 
no no S, G 20 

noble noo-bl Bull, G 148, no-bl ? G 83 
none noon G 9, 75 
nones noonz G 37 
noon nuun G 12 
north north Bull 
nose nooz, 8 
not not S, G 20 
note noot S, G 123, 134, noted noo'ted 


nothing noth-j'q Bull, G 32, 38 
nought nount nauut S, noukht G 32 
n'ould nould ? nolebam G 65 
nourish nuri'sh B, nourisheth nur t'sheth 


novice novt's G 113 
noyous norus G 104 
now nou Sa, G 100 
number nunrber Bull, ttm&r*nunrberz 


numerous nunrerus ? G 141 
nymphs nmifs G 114 

oak ook Bull 
oaken oo'k'n Bull 
oath ooth Bull, ooth C 26 
oatew ot-n ? G 146 
obey obeei- P, obei- Bull, obar G 87 
occasion oka-z/on Bull, okaa-zion tris- 
syllabus, usitatissimus G 131, 136 

G 129 
o'clock a klok G 93 
odds odz G 41 
of of S, Bull, ov frequentiui, of docti 

interdum G jr, 20 
of of Bull, G79, 103 
ofal of -al G 39 

o/w ofens- G 82 

offer of -er Bull, G 88 

offering of Ttq G 22 

offspring of -spring G 76 

oft oft G 20 

oftentimes of'tenteimz G 142 

oil oil G 24 

ointment oint'ment Bull 

old o'ld Bull, oould G 70, et errata 

omnipotent omnip-otent G 135 

on on G 79 

ocoons G 21, 93, 116 

one oon Bull, G 70, oon C 5 

only oonit G 20, oon-lai G 21, ootili 

C 19 

ooze uuz G 7, ooz ? G 37 
open oop-n G 20, openest oop'nest G 25, 

opened oop-ned G 47 
opinion opm'ion G 30, 129 
opposed opooz-ed G 133 
oppressed, opres'ed G 43 
oppression opres'j'on G 21 
oranges ofemdzhtz Sa 
order order G 30 
ornament ornament G 107 
orthography ortog'rafi Bull 
other odh-er out udh'er alii S, udh'er 

Bull, udh'er frequentius, odh'er docti 

interdum G pr, 45, udh'er B 
ought owht Bull, ooukht G 68, 80, 

ooukht Sor JB 

our uur Bull, our G pr, 22, ou-er B 
Ouse Ouz Isis G 40 
out uut Bull, out G 23, 66 
outlet out-let G 33 
outpeaking out'peek'i'q G 136 
outrage out-raadzh G 128 
outrun out'run G 128 
over over Bull, G 24 
overcome overkum' G 117, overcame 

overkaanr G 107 
overteer oversi'er G 36 
overtake overtaak- G 33 
overthrow overthroou Bull 
overthwart overthwart Bull 
overture overtyyr G 30 
owest=ouest C 18 
own ooun G 22 
ox oks Sa 60, oxen oks-n G, oks-n non 

oks-en G 20, 42, 146 
Oxford ^Oks-ford G 70 
oyez, jii etiam d pr&conibus pltiralius 

effertur, oo riiz, 6 vos omnes et singuli 


pace paas passiu S, paas G 70 
packing pak't'q G 100 
page padzh vernula S 
pain pain P, S, G 20, 119, pained 
paind G 97 


paint paint pcint S, paint G 52 

pair pai-er Bull 

pale paal Sa, G 91 

pap pap Sa, S 

paper paa-ptr Sa 

paradise paradais G 38 

pardon pardon G 88 

parentage parentadzh G 110 

parents paa-rents G 68, 102 

partaker partaa'ker G 100 

pass -pas S, G 24, 110 

passion pas-ton G 110, in the following 
quotation from Sydney's Arcadia, 
3, 1, being the conclusion of an ac- 
centual hexameter, and the whole of 
an accentual pentameter, in each of 
which it forms a dactyl, reez-n tu 
m pas-ton iild-ed Pas-ton un-tu mi 
raadzh, raadzh tu a nast-j revendzlr. 

pat pat ictus S 

patient pas-tent Bull 

patience paa'stens G 109 

patronise pat-ronaiz G 141 

Paul's Pooulz in the French manner B 

pawn pAAn G 14, 93 

pay pai, rttstici paai, Mops pec, Se et 
Transtr paa S, pai G 88, Lin paa 
abjecto i ; Attst post diphthongum 
dialysin a odiose producunt, paai G 
17, paai G 86, pee cor B, pays paaiz 
G 117 

paynim pai-ntm Gill 

peace pees G 73, peas C 20 

pear peer P Sa 

pease peez pisa S, peez G 41, Occ peez-n 
G 19 

peck pek S 

peel piil S, ptl of an ap-'l, Bull 

peer piir P, Sa 

peerless pii-erles G 110 

pen pen Sa, S 

pence pens G 42 

penny pen-j G 42 

pennyroyal pen-trai'al G 38 

pent pent S 

Pentecost Pen-tekost G 134 

people piip-1 Bull, G 4, 41, B, pcopil C 9 

pepper pep-er G 38 

perceive persev ? G 29 

perch peertsh G 70 

perfect perfet Bull, perfekt G 123, 
pfight C 5 

perform perfoo-r'm Bull 

personal personal G pr 

personality personal't G pr 

persons pers-onz non pers-nz G pr, 72 

perspicuity perspikyyttt G 29 

perspicuous persptk-yyus G 30 

pertain pertain- Bull 

perversely pervers-h' G 141 

pettitoes petrttooz G 37 

pewter peu'ter G 69, B 

Pharisees = Pharisais C 23 

pheasant fez -aunt ? Sa 

Philip FtHp Bull 

philosophers filos-oferz G 74 

phlegm fleem G 38 

p/toanix fee-ntks B 

physician phisition C 9 

pick pik S 

pickrel pj'k-rel lupulus G 35 

picture ptk-tyyr Bull 

piece pus Bull 

pies peiz S 

pig p/g S 

pike peik lucius S, paik G 35 

Pilate = PilaatC 27 

pile peil Bull, poil G 28 

pill pzl Bull 

pillory ptTori Bull 

pin pn Bull 

pine pain emaciare S, Bull, pain G 105 

piss pis S Bull, 

pit ptt S 

pitch pj'tsh G 38 

pith pith S 

pity ptt G pr, 83, 87, 129 

place plaas Bull, G 24, 98, 100, 125 

plague plaag Sa 

plaice plais passer piscis Bull 

plain plain G 85 

plaint plaint G 130 

planted plant-ed G 24 

plate plaat vasa argentea G 38 

Plato Plat-o G 74 

play plai S, G 18, Mops plee G 18, 

plee cor B, plays plaiz Bull 
pleasant pleez-ant G 142 
please pleez S, pkaseth pleez-eth G, 

pleasing plees-'q ? G 118 
pleasure plee'zyyr G 144 
pledge pledzh G 88, 101 
plentiful plen-ttful G 84 
pock pok scabies grandis S 
poesy po-esi G 141 
point point, fortasse puint, muero, indict 

monstrare, et ligula S, puuint G 88 
poke pook S 
pole pool pertica G 7 
poll pol capitulum lepidissimwn G 7 
pool puul S 

pooripnur Sa, S, G 141 
pop pop, bulla, aut popismus, et irri- 

dendi nota, S 
pope poop papa, S 
poplar pop-lar G 105 
porch poortsh G 123 
pore poor proprius intueri ut lusciosi 

faciunt S 

Portugal Poor'tiqgal cor Sa 
pot pot S 
potager pot-andzhcr Sa 


potent poo-tent G 134 

pottage pot-adzh G 37 

poundage pound adzh G 27 

pour puur pour/wwafe ; pour out effunde 

S, pouur H, pour G 21, pou er B 
power pou-er S, H, pour G 21, 79, 125, 


praise praiz G 21 
praiseworthy praiz-wurdlrei G 32 
pray prai non pre G pr, prai, Mops prec 

G 18 

prayers prai-erz G 110 
preach preetsh G 13 
precious pres'zus Bull 
prepare =prepaar C 2 
presence prez'ens G 23 
present preez-ent G 69, 84 
preserveth prezerveth G 23 
president prez-zdent G 110 
press = prease pres&e C 21 
presumed prezyymd- G 99 
prevent preeyent- ? G 87, prevented pre- 

vent-ed G 133 
prey prai G 24 
price v. priVs Bull, prais G 89 
pricJs pr'k S, Bull 
pricket prik-et G 100 
pride preid G 43, 99 
priest priist Bull 
prime preim G 112 
prince pirns G 107, princes prms es G 


prism prt'z-m S 
prisoner prtz'ner G 105 
private prt'vat ? Bull 
privily privflt G 79 
privities privitois G 39 
proceeded prosiid-ed Bull 
prodigal proo-dgAAl F G 148 
profane profaan- G 134 
profanely profaan-lai G 134 
profit prof-it G pr 31, profited profited 

G 43 

profitable profttabl G 31, 84 
prohibition, prooibiWun Sa 
prolong proloq 1 G 133 
promise promt's G 83 
proper prop-er G 84 
prophets =.ppheets C 11 
propone propoon- G 31 
propose propooz* G 86 
prosperous pros-perus B 
prostrate pros-traat G 1 49 
proud proud B, G 74, 105 
prove pruuv B 

provide provtYd- Bull, provaid' G 86 
prowess prou-es G 116 
prudent prud-ent ? G 30 
puissance pyyis'ans Gill 
putt pul S 
pulley puK Bull 

punish punish G 89 punished =po- 

nisched C 10 
pure pyyr S, pyyer H 
purcness pyyr-nes Sa 
purge purdzh B 
purity pyyritoi G 39 
purple pur-pl G 106 
purpose purpooz G 104 ' 
purslain purslain portulaca G 38 
pursue pursyy- G 90 
push push G 88 
put-putpono G 48 


quail kwail G pr 

quaJce kwaak Gjsr, 103 

qualities ktcal'ttiz G 136 

quarrel k;arel S 

quassy (?) kwas'i insalubris S 

quarter kwarter Sa, S, H 

quash ktcash G pr 

quean ki^een, scortum S, Bull 

queen kwiin Sa, S, G pr, 110, kw;in ? 


quench kirentsh Bull, G 24, 124 
quern, kwaar'n mola trusatilis Bull 
quest, kwest consilium S 
question kwest'ton G 88 
quick ki0zk S 
quickly kwik-lt G 34 
quicken ktcj'k'U Bull 
quiet kw^it quietus S, kwa'et ? G 38 
quill k;l S, quills kwilz G pr 
quilt ktoilt tapetis suffulti lana genus 


quince ktp/ns S, G 12 
quit, kwt, quictum out liberatttm, S, 

kwit G pr 
quite v. kt^eit liberare out aceeptum 

ferre S, ktpaif G 121, adv. kteait G 


quoit koit, fortasse kuit, j'acere diseum, S 
qvoth koth vel k;oth G 64 


race raas soboles G 39 

ray rag S 

rageth raa'dzeth G 99 

rail ral Sa, rails, rat'lz Sa 

rain rain P, G 66, rain C 5 

raising raa-ziq ? G 99 

Ralph Eaaf Bull 

ram ram S, rams ramz G 99 

rancorous raq-kerus G 106 

range raindzh B 

rank a. raqk, Aust roqk G 17 

rare raar Bull, G 101 

rat rat S 

rate v. raat G 89 

ratlines rat-ltqz G 37 

rather raadh'er G 103 


raving raavt'q G 148 

raw rau S 

reach reetsh Bull 

read reed lego Bull, G 48, red lectum S, 
G 48, 134, reading reed'tq wow 
riid't'q, Gjor, 95 

ready red-* G 84 

realm reelm G 122 

rj reep S 

rear reer S, G 105, reared ree-red G 114 

reason reez'n Bull, reasons reez-nz G 

rebuke rebyyk' G 24, rebuuk Oil 

receive reseiv Bull, reseev G 89 

reck riik ? <rr S 

reckoning rek'm'q G 100 

rm>M< rekount' G 86 

red red S 

XedclifR&t-lif G pr 

redeem rediinr G 102 

redoubt redyyit f munimentum pro tern- 
pore aut occasione factum G 29 

redound redound' G 86 

redress redres- G 149 

reduce redyys' G 31 

reeds riidz G 146 

reek riik B 

reft reft G 100 

refuge ref -yydzh G 21 

refuse v. retyyz' G 101, 132 

register redzh'i'ster G 129 

regrater regraa-ter G 129 

reign rein Bull, reiffnethreew'etti G 22, 
reigns rainz G 99 

rejoice redzhois- G 22 

release relees- G 89 

refo/reliif- G 38, 99 

religious reh'dzh'ius G 81 

remaineth remain'etb. G 87 

remember remenvber G 40 

remembrance remenrbrans G 23 

removed remuuved G 24 

rend rend G 48 

render rend'er G 21 

renewest renyy'est G 25 

renowned reiioun'ed G 100 

rent rent Sa 

repine repiin' ? invideo G 88 

reported reported G 67 

reproach reprootsh' G 118 

requite rekwait' G 87 

resist resist' G 87 

resort rezort' G 142 

resound rezound' G 142 

respondence respon'dena G 119 

restore restoor G 122 

restrain restrain- G 89 

retain retain* G 103 

retire retair G 99 

retrieve retriiv reindagari S 

return return' G 33 

revenge revendzh- G 110 

revive revaiv G 141 

rew reu B 

reward reward' G 89, 122 

rhyme raim G 141 

rib rib S 

rich rttsh, Bor reitsh G 17 

riches rttsh ez G 21 

rick rik B 

rid rd G 89 

ride reid H, Bull, ridden rtd-n S 

ridge redzh S 

rife raif G 99 

right ri&ht Sa 

righteous raikb'teus G 27 

righteously raikht'euslai G 21 

righteousness raikb/teusnes G 27, righ- 
tuousnes C 5 

ring rt'q G 93, ringing n'q't'q Sa 

rip rp dissuere S 

ripe reip S 

rice rais G 37 

rise v. = rijs C 12 

river river Bull 

roach rootsh S 

roam rooum Bull 

roar roor G 22 

rob rob S, G 85 

robe roob S, G 106 

robbery rob-erai G 21 

rock rok colua vel rupea S, rok rupes 
G 20, 99 

rod rod S 

roe roo Sa 

rolling roouKq G 121 

Rome Ruu'm Bull 

rook ruuk S 

room ruum Bull 

root ruut B 

rope roop S 

ropp rop intestinum S 

rose rooz ? Sa, roose C 2, roses roo'zez 

rosecheeked rooz'tshiikt G 150 

rosy-differed roo'zif*'q-gred G 106 

rote root Bull 

roused rouzd G 107 

rove roov S 

row roou remigare Bull 

royal roi-al G 104 

rub rub S 

rubies rvy'biz G 99 

ruck ruk acervus, rucks ruks S 

rue ryy P, ryy ruta S, ryy se pcenitere 
G 145 

rueful ryy-ful G 100 

rw/ruf piscis perca similis S 

ruin ryyain 1 ? in an accentual penta- 
meter from Sydney's Arcadia 3, 1 , 
ju, alas ! so ai faund, kAAZ of htr 
on'li ryyoin- G 146 


rule ryyl Bull, G 68 

rump rump, Lin strunt runt cauda G 17 

rumbling runvbltq G 114 

run run, ran ran G 1 3, 49 

runners rmrerz G 114 

rural ryyral G 146 

rusk rush juncus S 

rust rust G 118 

rutty rust-t G 106 

rw*/t rjyth G 39 

rye rai G 87 

sable saaVl Sa 

sackcloth sak'kloth G 128 

sacred saa-kred G 98 

*fl<fcfle Sa, sad-'l Bull, sad-1 G 133 

safeguard saaf 'gard G 73 

safely =saafli C 27 

sc/row saf-ern G 106 

said zed rustice, said won sed, 67, 

sed .Bor pro said G 17 
sflj'krfsaild G 146, sailing saiHq G 105 
saints saints G 23 
sake = soak G 5 
saZaife suaiabl G 32 
safo saal Sa 
Satfu** Sal-ust G 84 
salmon sanvon G 77 
salt salt S, sAAlt G 27, 81 
saltish SAAHi'sh G 
salutation salutaa'stbn ? G 30 
salvation salvaa-sion G 20 
same saam Bull, G 45, saam C 5 
sanctuary saqk'tuarai G 22 
sanders san-derz tantalum G 37 
sanicle san-tkl G 30 
sap sap G 24 
sat sat 8 
satisfaction sattsfak'st'on d Latino in io, 

proprium tamen accentual retinet in 

antepenultitna G 129, shelving that 

-sion was regarded as two syllables, 
satisfy sat'tsfai G 87, satisfied sat'isfaied 


Saturn Saa-tura G 100 
Saul Saul S 

save saav S, saving saaviq G 21 
saw sau S, SAA G 14 
sax saks aratrum Occ, G 
say sai non se G pr, saai G 22, saa Bor 

abjeclo i G 17, zai Or G 17, see cor 

B, sal G 5 
scale skaal G 99 
'scaped skaapt G 105 
scathe skath G 106 
sceptre sep't'r Bull 
science srens Bull 
scissors stz-erz G 37 
scholar skolar potius quam skoler G pr, 

scholars skol'ars Mops skal'ers G 18 

school skuul Sa 

schoolmaster skuul'mas-ter G 86 

scolding skoould'tq G 95 

score skoor G 71 

scorn skorn G98, 141, scorned =scoorned 


scour skour B 
scourge skurdzh B 
scowl skoul B 

screech owl skreik-uul Bull 
scribble skrib'l scribillare 
scripture scrip-tur ? see literature G 30 
scull skul S 

scur nitty skurtKt* G 112 
sea see Sa, G 22, see C 4, seas seez G 13 
seal seel S 

seam seem adeps G 38 
search sertsh G 90 

season seez'tn Sa, season* seez'nz G 24 
seats =seet C 23 
second sek'ond G 35, 71 
secure sekyyr G 147 
sedge sedzh, S 

see, sii Sa, S, G 23, seen siin G 7 
seeds siids Bull 
seek S, siik G 20 
seldom siil'dum Bull 
self self Bull, self sel-n Sor G 17, selves 

selvz Bull 
sell sel S, G 89 
semblance senrblans G 107 
Sempringham Senvpriq-am media syttaba 

producitur [see Trumpington] G 1 34 
send send G 48, sendeth send'eth G 24, 

sent sent G 43 
tenseless sens'les G 99 
set set G 48 

sergeant serdzhant G 82 
servant servant G 46 
serve serv G 23 
service serv*'s G 24 
set set plantavit S 
seven sevn G 71, seaven C 16 
seventeen sevntiin G 71 
seventh sevnth G 71 
seventy sevnt* G 71 
Severn Severn G 40 
sew sen B 
sewed sooud G 

sewer seu'er Bull, seeu'er dapifer G 15 
*/*<& shaad G 118 
shadows shad-oouz G 114, 144 
shale shaal S 
shake sbaak S 
shall sbal shaul S, sha'l Bull, shal G 

20, 22, shalt sha'lt Bull, Lin -st tit 

oi-st ant ai-st dbou-st nii-st jou-st 

dhei-st aut dhei sal, G 17 
shambles sbam-blz G 37 
shame sbaam G 13, 38 
shape sbap Sa 


share shaar ? P 

sharp sharp Bull 

shave shaav G 

Shaw ShAA G 14 

she shii P, S, G 44 

shears sherz G 37 

shed shed S, G 106 

sheep shiip Sa, S, Bull, G 41 

shell shel S 

shepherd =scheepherd C 9, shepherd's 

purse shep'herdz-purs G 38 
shew sheu S, G 22, 98, B, scheto C 12, 

shews shoouz G 130, shewed sheu-ed 

Bull, sheud G 107 
shield shiild G 103, 124 
shillings shtHqz G 89 
shin shm P, S 
shine shein S, shain G 21, 24, 116, 

schijn C 5 

ship ship Bull, ships sht'ps G 25 
shiphook shi'p'HUuk G 128 
shire, see Worcestershire 
shirt slu'rt P, slmi camitcia, Lin sark 


shittel slut-el &t>w S 
*Ao/ shool 3 
shock shok G 99 
shoe, spelled SHOO, shuu P 
shook shuuk G 93 
shop shop 8 
short short G 47 
shorten shorten G 47 
should shuuld G 24, Lin sud G 17 
shovel shuul Bull 
shout shout G 109 
a/imo shreu P 
shrewd shreud G 75 
shrieked shriikt G 109 
shrill shrtl S, Bull, G 123 
shroud shroud G 1 14, shrouds shroudz 

shuffle shuPl or sleid oon tht'q upon- 


shun shun S, G 147 
shut=schitC 23 
side seid S, said G 99 
siege siidzh obsidio et sedes, S 
sift st'ft S 
sigh siH sciiE 8 
sight stkht Sa, sm't Bull 
sign sein S, saiu G 4, 7, signs seinz Sa, 

sainz G 107 
silence sil-ens ? G 48, '& saHent G 

150, sel-ent? G 143 
silk stlk Sa 
silly sil-i G 100 
silver szl'ver G 37, 91 
simony sim om G 133 
simple st'nrpl G 98 
sin stn Sa, S, G 7, 82 
sinners snrerz G 25 

sinful siirfnl G 118 

M$r s'q, ^M* z'q G 17, singing siq't'q 


si/>s sz'ps G 98 
sir sir Sa 
sister sz'st'er Bull 
*rt szt S, Oca ztt am sc<? G 18 
six sz'ks S, G 71 
^A st'kst G 71 
sixteen stks'tiin G 71 
sixty sj'ks-tt G 71 
sire sair G 110 
skips skz'ps S 
slacked slakt G 120 
slay=slee C 5, slain slain G 20, & 


sleeve sliiv S 
tat> slaav G 141 
slender slend'er G 99 
slew slyy S 

sley sleei P, a weaver's reed WRIGHT 
slime slaim G 39 
slipper sh'p-er G 116 
sluice slyys Bull 

sfamber slum'ber G 101, slomber C 25 
sluttish slut-t'sh G 74 
small smaul S, smal Bull, smAAl G 25 
smart smart G 119 
smelt smelt G 77 
smiling smail't'q G 143 
smite smait G 124 
smock smok S 
smoke smook/wmw* S, G 25, it smokes 

it smuuks 8 
smother smudh-er B 
smug smug levis politus S 
snaffle snaf-'l Bull 
snag snag G 89 
snatch snatsh G 107 
snew snyy ningebat S 
SMM^" snuf irasci aul cegre ferre prce- 

sertim dum iram exsufflando naribus 

ostendit quis S 
so soo Sa 
soap soop S 

sober so-ber ? G 91, soo'her G 149 
sock sok, oc* soks S 
soft soft S, G 34, 111 
soil soil fortaste suil S, soil suuil I'M- 

differenter G 15, suuil G 39, so7 *. 

soil G 146 
solace sol-as G 114 
sold soould Bull 
solder sod'er G 146 
soldierlike sool'dierlaik G 35 
soldiers sool'diers G 74, souldiars C 27 
*otesoolG77, 117 
soles soolz G 102 
some sum G 45, B 
somewhat sunrwhat G 45 
son sun S, G 13, 112, B, son Bull 


song soq G 10 

sonnet son'et G 1 46 

soonswm S, B, G 31, 123 

toot suut G 39 

soothe suudh Bull 

sop sop offa S 

svphisins sof'/zmz G 97 

sore soor P, G 98, 103 

sorrow soroou G 74, soro G 148, sorrows 

soroouz G 149 
sorrowful soroouful, Occ zorg-er pro 

moor soroouful G 18 
sought soun't S, sowkt Bull 
sowJsooulG 20, 136, B 
sound suund Bull, sound G 15 
sour suur Bull, sower C 25 
souse sous G 98 
south suuth Bull 
sovereign soverain G 110 
sow suu sus P, sou sus B, soou sero suo, 

sowed sooud serebam suebam, ai naav 

sooun sevi, sooud ui G 51, sown sooun 

sat urn G 23, soowed= serebam C 25 
*OMW soou'or seminator Bull 
Spain Spain G 70 
pae spaak G 49 
span span G 70 
spangle spaq'gl, g ab n ratione sequentis 

liquidce quodammodo distrahitur G 10 
Spanish Span-ish G 70 
spared spaared G 75, sparing spaartq 


sparks sparks G 124 
sparrow sparu Sa 
speak speek G 49, speek G 26, spoken 

spoo-kn G 21, 49, spok-n Lin G 6 
spear speer G 124 
special spes-t'a'l Bull 
speech spiitsh Bull 
spend spend G 48 
spice speis S, spits Bull 
pies speiz S, sptiz Bull 
spirit spirit G 24, 133, sprite C 3, 

sprites spraits G 141 
pit spit, spat spuebam dialectus est 


spleen spliin G 106 
spoil spoil Bull, spuuil G 85 
spoon spuun G 13 
sport sport G 109 

spraints spraints relieta lulrce G 37 
spread sprcd G 106, spreed G 9 
spun spun G 13 
spy sp' ? P 
?ttiVe skwair G 124 
stable staab-1 S, staa-b'l Bull 
stack stak congeries S 

*// staak S 
stalk stAAk G 73 

*terf stand S, G 49, 89, standing 
stand- 'q G 93 

**? star G 119, sterr C 2 

*? stAAr ? G 88 

starve starv G 119 

state staat G 97 

stately staat'lt Gill 

staves staavz G 106 

stay stee cor, B, stayed staid G 118 

steaA steek q^a earnis S 

steal = steel C 6, rfofcn stool'n G 82 

to? stiid B 

steek steke steik (?) stiik difflcilem pro- 

dere S 

steep stiip S, G 114 
steeple stiip'l G 134 
stern stern S, G 141 ster'n Bull, 
stick stik, sticks stiks S, sttk G 139 
stiff slit S 

>* st/rz G 82, stirred stird G 99 
sfocA stok truncus aut sors 8 
<0& stool S 
<o stoon, Sc staan stean S, stoon Bull, 

stoon G 38, stones = stoons C 3 
stony stoon-t G 35 
sfoorf stuud G 24, 49 
stool stuul S 
stork stork G 24 
stormy storm 1 *' G 99 
stout stout G 124 
stound stound G 120 
straight straikht G 1 05, streight C 7 
Strange Strandzh G 42 
stranger straindzlrer B 
straw strau S, strAAU G 10 
stray straai G 102 
strength streqth G 21 
strengtheneth streqth'neth G 24 
stretchest stretsh'est G 23 
strew, streu S, B, strAA. G 104 
strife streif S, straif G 39 
strike v. straik G, imperf. straak strik 

strook struk G 51, v. pres. straik, 

pret. strik G 134 
strive streiv S 
stroke strook G 120 
stubborn stubborn G 120 
study stud'f G pr 
stu/siv S 
stumble stum'bl S 
subject sub'dzhekt subditus, subdzhekt* 

subjicio G pr, 116 
subscribe subskraib' G 48 
substitute sub'stityyt G 30 
subtle sut-1 G 30, 97 
succour suk'ur B 
such sutsh G 118 
sucklings =souklinges C 21 
sudden sud-ain G 111 
suer syyor Bull 
suet syyet Bull 
suffer suf-er Sa, G 87 
sufferance, suferans G 123 


suffice suf/z- ? G 87 

sufficient, suf/'s't'ent Bull 

sugar syygar Bull 

suit syyt G 4 

sulking sulk'j'q G 146 

sum sum Bull 

sun sun S, G 13, B 

Sunday Siurdai G 92 

sundry suu'drt G 39 

sunning sun''q G 91 

sunny sun-z G 114, 141 

sunset surrset G 92 

superfaious syyper flyyus Bull 

superior superior ? G 30 

supper sup-er G 93 

suppliant sup'h'ant G 111 

supplicate sup'ltkaat G 31 

suppose supooz- Bull, G 31 

surceaseth sursccs'cth G 131 

sure syyr Sa, syyer H, Bull, syyr G 

13, 73 

surely syyrlai G 21, suerli C 3 
surety syyrtt G 8G 
sustenance sus-tcnans G 28 
swaddle swad'el S 
swain swaain G 98 
swallow swal-oou G 99 
swam swam G 50 
swart swart lividus S 
swear swccr S, Bull, G 50, 101, sware 

swaar, swore swoor, sworn swoorn 


sioeul sweel ad were crines Bull 
sweat sweet S, swet Bull, sweat sudo, 

swet sudabam G 48, 134 
sweep swiip Bull 
sweet swiit S, Bull, G 25, 105 
swell swel Bull, swelling sweHq G 106 
swerve swarv G 119, swerv G 122 
swim swim. G 50 
swine swn'n P P, swoin G 41 
stvink swiqk G 116 
swinker swt'qk'er G 146 
sword swuurd swurd B 
swum swum G 50 
synagogues =synagoogs C 10 


tackling tak'ling G 43 

tail tail S 

Taillebois TaHois G 42 

take taak S, Bull, G 51 

taken taa'k'n Bull, taak-n G 51 

Talbot Tal-bot G 73 

tale taal G 7 

talk ta'lk Bull, tAAlk potius quain tAAk 

G pr, 103 

tall tAAl S, G 7, 105 
tallow tal-oou G 7 
tar tar S, G 39 
tare taar S 

taught taunt S, tAAkht G 49, 59 
teach teetsh G 27 
teal teel anatis genus S 
tear teer rumpere aut lacryma S, tecr 
lacerare, tiir lacryma B, v. teer G 7, 
tears s. teerz G 100, 142 
teeth tiitu G 41 
tell tel S 

temperance tenrperans G 30, 129 
temperate tcnrperat G 30 
tempestuous tempest'eus G 99 
ten ten S, G 71 
tenderly terrderlai G 120 
tenor ten-or G 120 
Tenterden Ten-terden G 133 
tenth tenth G 71 
tents tents Sa 
terms terms G 97, 103 
terror teror G 99 
1e*" teu emollire fricando S 
tewly tyylt valet udinarius S 
Thame Taam Tama G 40 
Thames Temz G 74 
than dlien G 79 
<AA thaqk Sa, G 9 
<7?if dhat Sa, Bull, G 45 
Thames' Inn Davtz In. Sa 
thaw thoou S 

the dhe Sa, the evil dhi evil, ? S 
Mce dhii ^ P, S, Bull, thii va/re Bull 
their dheeir G 21, theer yccr C 1, theirs 

dheeirz G 45 
them dliem G 44 themselves dhemselvz' 


then dhen S 
thence dhens G 98 
there dhaar, dheer S, dheer, dhoor Bor, 

G 17, theer C I 

therefore dheer'for, Bull therfoor C 1 
!?/*#)/ dheerof- Bull, G 22 
these dhcez G 13, 45, B 
they dhei non dhe G pr, 10, dhei dhai 

G 19, dheci G 20, 23, dhcci aut 

dhaai G 44, dhei, Aust in dhaai 

post diphthongi dialysin a odiose 

producunt G 17, tlwj C 1 
thick thtk Sa, Bull, densum, niesosax- 

oniee, dh?lk Transit; S, thzk G 70, 

thief thiif G 92, thieves thiivz G, 

theeves C 6 
thigh thz'n, Bull 
thimble thmrb'l Bull 
thin tht'n Sa, S, Bull, quibusdam dhm, 


thine dhein Sa, S, dhain G pr, 10 
thing tht'q G pr, 9 
think thtqk G 9 
third third G 35, 71 
thirst thirst G 24, 119 
thirsty thjrs-ti G 83, ttitirsti C 5 



thirteen tlu'rtin, thirtihr, Occ throHin 

G 18, 70 
thirteenth tliirtentb. (?) Bull, thtrtiinth 


thirtieth thfrtth Bull 
thirty tiiir-tiG 71 
this dh?s Sa, Bull, G 9, 45 
thistle tlnst-1 Sa, thi'st-'l Bull, th/sH G 


thither dhzdh-er B 
Thomas Tonras Sa, G 73 
Thor ? Thoor nomcn propritim, S 
thorns = thoorns C 1 
thorough thorou (?) Sa, thuroou, 

tliruuH, Bull, thuro aut throukh 


those dhooz Bull G 45 
thou dhou Sa, S, G 23, dhuu Bull 

thow G 1 
tfottyh dhoo, dhoou qtuimvis et quib;^- 

dam tune S, dhooun dhowh Bull, 

dhokh G 12, 65, 114 
thought thowht Bull, thooukht G 49, 

54, 144 
thou'll dhoul, dhoust JBor pro dhou 

wilt, dliou shalt G 17 
thousand thuu'zand Bull, thousand 

thousandth thuu'zandth, Bull, thou'- 

zantli G 71 
thrall thral f G 111 
thread threed, S 
threaten thret''n Bull, threatniny 

threet'ning, G 
threating threet't'q G 99 
three thrii Sa, G 28, 70 
thresher thresh 'or Bull 
threw thryv G 99, 110 
thrice thrai's G 93, thriet C 26 
thrift thrift G 39 
thrive threiv S 

throne truun Sa, throon G 23, 104 
throng throq G 99 
through thrnukh Sa, thruwh thrmiH 

Bull, thrukh G 91, 102, throukli ? 


throughout thruun-uut' Bull 
throw throou Bull, G 40, thrown 

throoun Bull, G 15, throown C 5 
thrust thrust G 88 
thy dhai G pr 

thunder thun-d'r Sa 40, thund-er G 24 
tick tk ricinus, S 
tickle ttk-1 G 97 
tile teil S 
till tl donee S 
tillage td'adzh G 27 
timber ti'nrbcr G 39 
time Him Bull, teim, Lin tuum G 17, 

times taimz G 21 
tin tin S, G 37 

tinder tin-der G 39 

titw tein perdere S 

tiny form G 35 

Tit/ton's Tai-thoonz G 106 

title tei-tl G 20 

to tu Sa, S, Bull, tu G 21, 79, 44, to 

G 45, to we tu mii S 
toe too Sa, S, Bull, toes tooz S, G 16, 

Lin toaz, G 16 
together tugcdh'cr G 25, togeedlver 

G 98, together C 1, toy it her C 2 
toil toil, fortasse tuil S, tuuil Bull, 

toil tuuil indi/tr enter, G 15, tuuil 

G 106, B 

toihonw tvil'sum ? G 28 
token =tookcn C 16 
toll tooul Sa, S, tooul illicere, too'l 

vectiffal. Bull 
ton tun dolium S 
tongs toqz G 37 
tongtte tuq G 14, 103 
too tuu S, too too tu tu nimitim S 
took tuuk S, took ? Bull, tuuk G 51, 

took C 1 
tool tuul Bull 

tooth tuuth Bull, G 41, toth C 5 
%> top Sa, tops tops S 
torn = toorn C 27 
ose tooz mollire lanas S 
fo* tos S, tossed tos-ed G 99 
<o to to to *oz cornnum S 
tottering tot'ert'q G 20 
touch tutsh G 114, toucheth toutsh-eth ? 


<oi^7( tou touH lentum durum S 
^ow touz G 58 
tow toou S, Bull, G 39 
toward toward- G 28, tuward' ? B 
toward-s toward-z 1 G 79 
toicel tuu'cl Bull 
tower tour Sa, touur H 
town toun S 
toy toi, fortasse tni, alii toe, ludicrum 

S, #oi' toiz G 15, 144 
^arfe traad G 147 
tragedies tradzh'cdaiz G 141 
traitor trartor G 149 
transpose transpooz* G 120 
travail travccl cor B 
tread treed S, B_ull, treed C 7, fW<fc 

= trooden C 5 
treason trccz'ii G 83 
treasure trec'zvyr S, trcz'yyr G 77, 

treasttr C 6 
treatise tree'tis Bull 
trees trii'tz Sa, triiz G 22 
trembled trenrhled G 23, trembling 

trem-blt'qG 119 
t rentals tren'talz G 117 
trick trik G 100 
trim trim clegans S, G 68 


trinkets tr/qk'ets instrumenta doliario- 
rum quibus vinuin ab UHO rase ex- 
hauritur in aliud G 37 

triumph troi'umf G 66 

Trojan Trodxh-an G 74 

trouble trub'l B, troub-1 G 69, 153, 
B, troubled trub'lcd G 25, trolled 

trout trout B 

trow troo Sa, troou G 27 

truce tryys G 39 

true tryy P, Sa, S. Bull, G 27, B ? 

trueseeming tryysiim-q G 32 

true-turn trutorn [i.e., true rendering 
or translation] C 10 

truly tryy-li G 20 

Trumpington Trum'p/q'tun adeo clarus 
est accentus in primo trissyllnbo, licet 
positione non elcuetur. Hie tauten 
cautelA opus, nam si ad positionem 
1. n. vel q. concurrat, media syllaba 

. produeitur G 134. [compare Abington 
Sempringham, irymondham, wilful- 

trust tr/st Sa, tnist G 21, 27, 39 

trusty trust 1 G 27 

truth truth ? G 39, tryyth G 22 

try trei purgare Bull, troi Gill 

tuft tuf Bull 

tumultuous tyymuHyyus G 106 

tun tun G 14 

tune tyyn S 

ttinicle tyymkl G 30 

turf tar t''S 

Turkey Turk/ G 147 

turmoil tor -moil, forlasse tor -muil labo- 
rare S 

turn turn G 24, 93, 1C4 

tush tush dens exertus tt interject io con- 
temptus S 

twain twain G 99 

twelfth tuelfth G 71 

twelve tuelv G 71 

twentieth twen-ttth Bull, tuen'tith G 71 

twenty tueirti G 70, 71 

twice twois G 21, 89 

twine twt'i'n ? P, twein S 

twinkle twmk'l Sa 

twist twist S 

ticizzle twez-'l or fork in a buuir of a 
trii, Bull 

two tuu Sa, S, G 13, 70, twuu Bull, 
twoo C 4, two men tuu men S 

tympany tj'nrpanoi G 38 


udder ud'er S 

ugly ug'lai G 118 

umbles uni'blz intcstina cervi G 37 

unable unaa-bl G 105 

unbidunbid-G 32 

tmblamed = vnblaamd C 12 

uncle nuqk-1 Sa, uqkl G 10 

uncleanness = vnckenes C 23 

under un'der Bull, G 34, 79 

underneath undernceth' G 121 

understand understand 4 G 28, understood 
understuud- Bull 

uneasy uneez't Bull, G 77 

unhonest unon-est Bull 

universities yyntver-sttaiz G 77 

unknown unknooun- G 20 

unlucky unluk't G 100 

unmoved unmuuved G 99 

until until- G 25, 107 

unto un-to G 21, 24 

unwitting unwirt*'q G 102, [in a quota- 
tion from Spenser, answering to the 
orthography ' unweeting'] 

unworthy unwurdhu G 83 

up up G 79 

upon upon- G 20 

upright upraikht- G 23 

us us G 7, 21, 44 

use yyz titi, yys usus S, Bull, yyz non 
iuz G pr, 7, 87, used yyz-ed G 124 

utterly ut-erlt Bull 


vain vain Sa, Bull 

valleys val'eiz G 24 

valour val-or G 43 

value val-yy G 89, valew C 6 

vane faan, amussium venti index S 

vanity vairttt G 21 

vanquished vau-kji'/sht G 105 

varlet ver'lat Bull 

varnish vernt'sh G 98 

vault vault insilire cquo, va.\itfornieare t 

Bull, voout camera S, vaut B. 
vaunt VAAnt G 89 
veal veel G 39 
veil vail G 9 
vein vain Sa, vein Bull 
velvet vcl-vct Sa, G 28 
vengeance ven-dzhans G 103 
venger vendzh'er G 1 35 
vent vent S 
verily ver'flt S 
verses vers'ez G 112 
very ver-t S, G 23 
vetch fttsh G 37 

viea-r vtk-aa- S, G 17, Aust fjk-ar G 17 
viVevais G 113, vices voises ? G pi- 
victory vtk-torai G 99, vtk-tort G 100 
view vyy G 114, viewed vjj-ed S 
viewer vyyer II 
vigilant vzg'tlant ? G 30 
vigilancy vj'dzh'/lans G 129 
vile veil S, voil G 105 
villain vil-an G 105 
vilhinous vil-enus G 121 


vine vein Sa 

vinegar vm-t'ger S, vtireger, Ami fiir- 

eger G 17 

vine-prop vein-prop G 105 
vineyard=vijneyard vijniard C 20 
virago viraa-go G 30 
virgin vtrdzhtn G 30 
virtue vertyy f>a, vj'rtyy, G pr, 73 
virtuous vtr-tuus ? G 77 
f t*coM< v-kuunt Bull 
vital vrtal ? G 125 
vitrifiable mirum dixeris si tonum in 

quinta repereris, tamen sic lege, 

vtt-rifeiabl G 129 
voice vois Bull, G 24 
void void S 
vottchsnfe voutshsaaf G 110, voutsaaf' 


vowed vou'ed S 
vowel vo'jel H, vrurel Bull 


waded waadxjd G 80 

waggons wag-onz G 146 

wail wail S, G pr 

wait wait S, G, 20, 25 

wake waak G pr 

Walden "Wald n Waldinam S 

walk wAAlk potius quam, WAxk G pr, 

walketh walk-eth G 23, walked 

WAAlkt G 70 
wall waul Sa, waal ? S, wal G pr, WAA! 

G 20, walls WAAlz G 98 
wallow wallou ? G pr 
wan w&npattidus 8, G 123 
wand wand S 
wander wand er S, Bull, wandered v?&n-- 

dred G 102 

wane waan imminvtio luminis lunte S 
want want Bull, G 87, wanting waut'iq 

war war S, Bull, G 100, wai-r war 


warbling warbli'q G 119 
wards wardz G 117 
ware waar S. Bull, G 50 
warlike warioik G 32 
warm war'm Bull 
warn waar'n Bull, warns warnz G 147, 

warning wanri'q G 100 
wary waa-rt G 149 
wan-en warcn Bull 
was was S, II, was wast were waz 

wast wcer, G 56, were wcer G 56, 

wcer, Bull, B, weer C 
wash waish ? Sa, wash G pr, 58, washed 

washt G 113 
wasp wasp G pr 
waste waast S, G 10, waast C 26, 

wasted waast -ed G 06, 112 

Wat Wat, lepus S, H, (for Walter, 

name of the hare, as chanticleer, 

Reynard are names of the cock and 


watch waitsh Sa, watched watsht G 113 
water waa'ter, H, Bull, wat-er G 10, 

38, WAA-ter G 81, watercth waa-ter- 

eth G 24, waters waa-terz G 23, 24 


Waterdown "Waa-terdoun G 124 
waves waavz G 117 
ic aw wau unde, Sa 
wax waaks S, waks G 23 
way wai, rustici waai, Mops wee, Se et 

Transtr waa, S, wai non ue G pr 

15, waai G 21 
we wii P, Sa, we ourselves wii uurselvz' 

Bull, wii non uii G pr, 44 
weak week S, G 
wealth^fdfh Bull, G 39 
wean ween ablactare S 
wear weer G 50, 98, ware waar C 3, 

worn worn G 50 

wearling weerling not warding B 
weary weeri G 84, 100, B, wiir' cor B 
weasel, wiis'l B 
weather =weyer C 16 
wed wed S 
weed wiid S, Bull 
week wiik S 
weel wiil nassa G 11 
ween wiin opinari S, G pr 
weetpot wiit-pot/am'wwTtt Oec, G 18 
weesway wiiz-wai/rawwwj Oce, G 18 
weighs waiz G 93 
weight waikht G 9, 131, weights = 

waites [the sign Libra] G 20 
weir weer Sa 
welcome wel'kum G 33 
well wel bene S, H, G pr, 10 
fpe'W wiil Bor pro wii w*l G 17 
wen S 
wend wend G 65 
wench wentsh Bull 
went went G 65, jed, jood Lin, G 16 
were [see 'was '] 
weren=were weern G 124 
wet wet S, G 13 
wevil wii'vi'l B 

whale nuaal unaal (=whaal ?) S 
wlMt Huat unat S, what G pr t 1 1, 44 
wheal Hueel uueel ( =wheel ?)pnstula S 
tpfoatf wheet triticicm S, nueet ( = 

wheet) H, wheet G 37 
wheaten whee't'n Bull 
wheel Huiil, uniil (=whiil) S, whiil 

G 11 
where nueer ( = wheer) H, B, wheer 

G 24, B, tcha- C 2 
wherry wher' B 
whet whet G 13, S 


whether whedlrer G 11, 45 
which whitsh Bull G 14, 44 
while imeil uneil ( = wheil) S, whail 

G 112, whiles nuils (aueilz ?) or 

wheils S, Hueibs H 
whilere whailcer G 105 
whilom whoil'um G 113 
whirl wher'l, Bull 
whirlpool wher'1-puul, Bull 
whirlwind whirl-wind G 149 
whistled whist'ld G 146 
white whiit Bull, whoit G 74 
whither whedh'er, Bull, B 
whittle whit-'l With a kniif Bull 
who whuu Bull, G 44, whom nuom 

(nuoom f), UHom (= whoom ?) S, 

whoom G 105, whuum G 44, whoom 

C 3, whose whuuz G 44, wuuz ? G 


whoever whuuever G 135 
whole whool Bull, G 23, hoole C 4 
wholesome Hool'sum G 
whoop whuup Bull 
whore HUUT, Sc nyyr S 
whoredom =whooredoome C 19 
whosoever whuu'soever G 33 
why Hui (nuei ?), UH (=whei ?) S 

whai G 99 whi C 26 
wick = week C 12 
wicked wick-ed G 23 
wide weid Sa, waid G 70 
wield wiildG 110 
widow widoou ? G pr 
wife wiif, wives wiivz, Bull 
wight waikht G 105 
wild waild G 24 
wile well G 
wilfulness wil'ful'ness, see Trumpington 

G 134 
will wil S, H, wil G pr, Lin -1 ut 

ei-1, dhou-1, mi-], wii-1, jou-l' dhei-1, 

G 17, wilt wilt G 54 
William WiKam G 77 
Wimbledon Winrbldun G 134 
win wm Sa, S, Bull, G 7 
winch wintsh Bull 
wind wnd ventus Bull, waind ve<M 

G 10, 23, winds =wijnds C 7 
winder wtmd'er Bull 
windlas wnnd'las Bull 
window wzmd'oor Bull, wmd'oou G 81 
windy wiind't Bull 

wine wein Sa, S, Bull, wain G pr, 7, 38 
winge weindzh, see supra p. 763, . 2, Sa 
>t^ wt'qz G 23 
winking wz'qk'z'q Sa 
wipe wwp Bull, waip G 124 
wise wcis S, wciz H, wit'z Bull, waiz 

G 105, wij* C 6 
wisdom wtVz'dum Bull, wj'a'dum G 25 

wisdoom C 11 

wish w/sh Sa 10, S, wish Sa, G 48 

wished wiisht ? G 48 
wist w/st seiebam G 64 
totV wit S, Bull, wit Gpr, 91 110>j v. 

wit co G 64 
witch witsh Bull, G 14 
wife v. wait vitupero, fcr& evanuit G 64 

[<7w^rotcw<j'oM assigned was there- 
fore probably conjectural] 
with with Sa, Bull, wdh frequentius, 

with docti interdum, G j^r, with G 

20 et passim 
withdraw withdrAA' G 128, withdrew 

withdryy- G 91 
Witham Widh-am G 70 
withhold withnoould- G 33, 104 
within within' G 79, B 
witJwut without- G 33, 79. 
withstand withstand' G 128 
withy widh'i salix Bull 
witness wit'nes G 42 
wizard =wisard wiseards C 2, 3 
woad wod ? glastum S 
woe woo S, G 81, 142 
woeful woo-ful G 102 
wolf wulf S, B 
womb womb S, wuum B 
woman wunran G 41, wuu-man- B, 

women winren G 41, wiinren G 77 
won wun S 
wonder un-der (=wun-der) Sa, wun'dcr 

G 88, B, wonders, wun-derz G 22 
wondrous wun'drus G 122 
wow^wuntG 111, 142, B 
woo uu (=wuu?) Sa, wooed uoed ( = 

woo'ed P) d prods ambita S 
wood wud S, G 10, 22, woods wudz G 


woof wuuf B 
wool u-ul (=wul?) lana S, wul G 


Worcestershire "Wus'tershiir G 70, 8 
word wurd Bull, G 10, word G 114, 

wuurd wurd B 
wore v. woor G 50 
work wurk Bull, G 21, works wurks 

workman wurk-man G 28, workmen = 

woorkmen C 20 
world worl'd Bull, world G 10, 23, 110 


worm wuur'm Bull, wurm G pr, B 
worse wurs G 34 
worship wur-ship Sa, G 22 
worst wurst G 34 
worth wurth Bull, G 110 
worthy wurdh'i G 83 
wost wust sets B 
wot v. wot Sa, G 64 
would wuuld S, Bull, B 
would' st wuuldst G 54 



wound wound vulnus S, wuund, Bar 
WAAnd [perhaps here to be read 
(waund)J G 16, wounds wuund'cs in 
Spenser G 137 

vox woks G 123 

woxen woks-en erevisse S 

wrangler wraq-'lor (nraq-lor) Bull 

wrath wrath (nraih) G 99 

WToM/M/wrath-ftl (r ( rath-ful) G 103 

wreak wreck (rifeek) Sa 

wrest wrest (west) Sa 

wrestle wrest-'l (r?est''l) Bull 

wretch wretsh (rtretsh) Bull, G 146, 
wretched wretsh'ed (rwctslred) G 117 

wrinkle wr/qk - 'l (rinqk-'l) Sa 

write wrait (rtcait), writ (nr/t) scribc~ 
bam, wroot (rtcoot) imperfect urn com- 
mune, wraat (nraat) Sor, ai Haav 
writ-n (rttNt'n) scripsi G 49, written 
wm't-'n (rwt/t-'n) Bull supra p. 114, 
writ in C 2 

iw# wroq (nroq) G 95, wronf*iimq& 
(nraqd) .Zfor G 122 

wroth wroth (moth) Bull, wrooth 
(rujooth) G 123 

wrought wroount, (ncoun't ?) wrowht 
(rtrowht) Bull, wroount wrowht 
(rtt-oouHt nrowht) Bull, wroouklit 
(rtcooukht) G 48 

Wymondham "Wim und'am media syl- 
laba producitur [see Trunipingto)>] 
G 134 


yard jard Sa, jard virga aut area, S, 

jeerd G 70 
yark beh ind jark benind' posterioribns 

pedibus in rut ere, ttproprie equorum S 
yarn jaar'n Bull, jarn G 10 
yarrow jarou millifoUum S 
yatc jaat quod nunc 'gate' gaat dicimus 

et scribimus S 

yawn jaun P Sa 

Ylucley Jaks-lei nomen proprhun S 

ye 3\\ Uull, G 20, 44, ji G 141 

yea jee Sa 35 

year jiir Sa, Bull, B, jeer G 70 

yeast jiist (meant for jcest ?) ccrvisicc 

spiuna quod alii barm vacant 8 
yeld jeld '{ Sa 
yell jel Sa 
yellow jel'ou Sa, S 
yeoman jenran ? S, Jirman Bull 
yes its alii sonant jes S, Jis G 10 
yesterday jes'terdai S, J/sterdai G 77 
yet jit, fl/ii sonant jet S G 102 
yew yy <ff^?/ w/'ior S 
yield jiild ? Sa, jiild S, Bull, G 22, 8fi, 
jeld concessit S, yielded iild-ed G 110, 
jiild-edG U7,ieldrdC 13 
yode jod G 106, see Went 
'yoke jook G 10, 43, took Gil 
yolk looikjiiffum S, jelk viteUum G 10 
yonder joirder jen'der S, joirder H 
York Jork Sa 

you Jou vos S, juu H, Bull, JQU juu 
observa Jou sic scribi solere, et ab 
aliqiiibus pronunciari at a plerisquc 
JUU, tamen quia hoc nondum ubique 
obtinuitpaulisperin media reliiiqitrtttr 
G 46, juu non iu G, p>; juu G 4-5, 
Jou G 44, jou Jtfops Ja G 18, yow G 
6, ion you C 10 

yow;^ juq, Sa, S, Bull, B, G 24, 112 
your jxiur, Bull, JUUT G 21, 95, yuurs 

JUUTZ G 45, yow;-* C 6 
ytuiker juqk'er adokscens generosior S 
youth juuth ? Sa, juth Bull, jjTth G 
13, 46, Juuth B, youths jyythVG 40 
zeal zeel G 13, 105 
zed zed litera z, S 
zodiak zo-dak ? G 29 
Zouch Zoutsh G 42 


Gill says in the preface to his Logonomia, " Occurrere quidem 
huic yitio [cacographiae] viri boni et literati, sed inito conatu ; 
ex equestri ordine Thomas Smithius ; cui volumen bene magnum op- 
posuit Rich. Mulcasterm : qni post magnam temporis et bonae chart so 
perditionem, omnia Consuetudini tanquam tyranno peimittenda 
ccnsct." Mnlcaster's object in short was to teach, not the spelling 
of sounds, but what he considered the neatest style of spelling as 
derived from custom, in order to avoid the great confusion -which 
then prevailed. He succeeded to the extent of largely influencing 
subsequent authorities. In Ben Jonson's Grammar, the Chapters 
on orthography are little more than abridgements of Mulcaster's. 
Sometimes the same examples are used, and the very faults of 
description are followed. It would have been difficult to make 



anything out of Mulcaster without the help of contemporary ortho- 
epists, and it appeared useless to quote him as an authority in Chap. 
III. But an account of the xvi th century pronunciation would be 
incomplete without some notice of his book, and the value of his 
remarks has been insisted on by Messrs. Noycs and Pcirce (infra 
p. 917, note). A few extracts arc therefore given, with brackcttcd 
remarks. Chronologically, Mulcaster's book should have been 
noticed before Gill's, p. 845. But as he was a pure orthographcr 
who only incidentally and obscurely noticed orthoepy, these 
extracts rightly form a postscript to the preceding vocabulary. 
The title of the book, which will be found in the Grenville collec- 
tion at the British Museum, is : 

The first part of the eleraentarie which entreateth 
chefelie of the right writing of our English, tung, set 
furth by RICHARD MVLCASTER. Imprinted at London 
by Thomas Vautroullier dwelling in the blak-friers 
by Lud-gate, 1582. 

In Herbert's Ames, 2, 1073, it is said that no other part was ever 
published. In the following account, all is Mulcaster's except the 
passages inclosed in brackets, and the headings. The numbers at 
the end of each quotation refer to the page of Mulcaster's book. 

The Vowels Generally. 

The vowells gencrallie sound either 
long as, comparing, reiisnged, end/tiny, 
enclosure, presuming: or short as, ran- 
saking, reutlling, penitent, omniputent, 
fortanat : [here the example revenged, 
which had certainly a short vowel, 
shews that by length and brevity, 
Mulcastcr meant presence and absence 
of stress, which applies to every case ;] 
either sharp, as mate, mete, ripe, hope, 
duke, or flat as : mat, met, rip, hop, 
duk. [Here he only means long or 
short, and does not necessarily, or in- 
deed always, imply a difference of 
quality, as will appear under E. Oc- 
casionally, however, he certainly docs 
denote a difference of quality by these 
accents, as will be seen under 0. In 
his "general table" of spelling, these 
accents seem frequently used to differ- 
entiate words, which only differed in 
their consonants, and it is impossible 
from his use of them to determine the 
sounds he perhaps meant to express. 
Thus in his chapter on Distinction, he 
says : " That the sharp and flat accents 
ar onelie to be set vpon the last syllab, 
where the sharp hath manic causes to 
presewt it self: the flat onlic vpon som 
rare difference, as refuse, refuse, present, 
present, record, record, differ, differ, 

teuer, seiie're." 151. Where the grave- 
accent seems to mark absence of stress, 
the quality of the vowel changing or not.] 
Which diuersitie in sound, where occa- 
sion doth require it, is noted with the 
distinctions of time [meaning stress in 
reality, which he indicates by " u , be- 
cause in English versification imitating 
the classical, quantity was replaced by 
stress], and time [meaning length, which- 
he indicates by accent marks, and hence 
confuses with tune], tho generallie it 
nede not, considering our daielie cus- 
tom, which is both our best, and our 
commonest gide in such cases, is our 
ordinaiie leader [and hence unfortu- 
nately he says as little as possible 
about it]. 110. 


I call that proportion, when a num- 
ber of words of like sound ar writen 
with like letters, or if the like sound 
hanc not the like letters, the cause why 
is shewed, as in hear, fear, dear, yea,-, 
u-ear [where the last word, which was 
certainly (weer), should determine ths 
value of ea in tho others to have been 
(ee) in Mulcaster's pronunciation, 
though, as others said (niir, fiir, diir) 
even in his day, this may be too hasty 
a conclusion]. 124. 




A Besides this genern.ll note for the 
time and tune, hath no particular thing 
worth the obseruation in this place, as 
a letter, but it hath afterward in pro- 
portion, as a syllah. All the other 
vowells haue manic prctic notes. [This 
might mean that a always preserved its 
sound, and the other vowels did not. 
It is possible that the " pretie notes " 
only refer to his observations on them, 
and not to diversity of sound.] 1 1 1 . 

Ache, brachf-, with the qualifying e, 
for without the e, t, gocth before ch. 
as patch, snatch, catch, smatch, watch. 
The strong ch. is mere foren, and 
therefor endeth no word with vs, hut 
is turned into k, as stomak, monark. 
[This context makes a long and ch = 
(tsh) in flcA=(aatsh). Yet in his 
general table p. 170, he spoils both 
ache and ake. See the illustrations of 
aclte in Shakspere, infra 8.] 127. 

AI, El. 

Ai, is the mans dipthong, and 
souiulelli full : ei, the womans, and 
soundeth finish [ = rather fine] in the 
same both sense, and vse ; a woman is 
deintie, and feinteth sooti, the wan 
faintcth not byeavse lie is nothing 
daintie. [Whether any really phonetic 
difference was meant, and if so of what 
kind, is problematical. Smith had 
said the same thing. supra p. 120, but 
with Smith the word diphthong had a 
phonetic meaning, with Mulcaster it 
was simpiy a digraph, and he may 
have at most alluded to such differ- 
ences as (tea?, ee) or (ee, ee}. Compare 
the following paragraph.] 119. 

No English word e;<deth in a, but 
in aie, as dccaie, assaie, which writing 
and sound our vse hath won. [Does 
this confuse or distinguish the sounds 
of a, ai? It might do both. It ought 
to distinguish, because the writing of 
ai being different from the writing of 
, the mention of its sound should 
imply that that sound was also dif- 
ferent. But we cannot tell. See what 
follows.] 125. 

Gaie, araie, traie. And maid, said, 
guaif, English for coif, quail, sail, rail, 
tnail, Onelcsse it were better to write 
these with the qualifying, e, gztalc, fate, 
rale, male. [If any phonetic consistency 
were predicable of an orthographical 
reformer, which, however, we are not 
justified in assuming, this ought to in- 

dicate a similarity of pronounciation 
between ai and a. To the same con- 
clusion tend :] Howbcit both the ter- 
minations be in vse to diucrse ends. 
Gain, pain, if not, Pane, yane, reinane, 
and such as these terminations, be also 
vsed to diuerse ends, [these " diverse 
ends " being of course not to indicate 
diversity of sound, but diversity of 
sense ; it would be quite enough for 
Mulcaster to feel that the vowel was 
long, and that a final e, and not an in- 
serted ', was the "proper" way of 
marking length.] . . . Fair, pair, air, if 
not fare, pare, are, both terminations 
also be vsed to diuerse ends. If'ait, 
strait, if not Wate, struts. Straight or 
str eight, bycause ai and ei, do enter- 
change vses. Aim, or ante, maim. 
Paint, restraint, faint, or /'/<, quaint, 
or qut-iiit . . . Ete, eight, sleight, height, 
weiyht, fcild, yeild, sheild, the kinrcd 
between ei, and ai, maketh ei, not 
anie where so ordinarie, as in these 
terminations. [If we were incon- 
siderate enough to suppose that ilul- 
caster had any thought of representing 
the different sounds, as distinguished 
from the length, of vowels, all these 
cases, would be explicable by assuming 
ai ei = (ee), and a long = (asac). 
But this would be somewhat opposed 
to other parts of Mulcasler, and to 
the writings of contemporaries, and is 
founded upon the groundless assumption 
just mentioned. As to the similarity 
of ai, a, see supra p. 867, col. 2, and 
Mr. White's account of Elizabethan 
pronunciation, infra.] 136-7. 


Whensoeuer E, is the last letter, and 
soundeth, it soundeth sharp, as me, se, 
we. agre. sauing in tie. the article, ye 
the pronown, and in Lai in words, or of 
a Latin form, when theie be vsed Eng- 
lish like, as certiorare, quandare. where 
e, soundeth full and brode after the 
originall Latin. [Here, as we know 
that the sounds were (mii, sii, wii, 
agrii', dhe), though (je) is not so cer- 
tain from other sources, we might sup- 
pose e = (ii), e = (e). l!en Jonson, 
however, in abstracting and adapting 
this passage, distinctly makes the sound 
(ii), saying (Gram. chap, iii.), ""When 
it is the last letter, and soundeth, the 
sound is sharp, as in the French i. Ex- 
ample in me. se. ogre. ye. she. in all, 
saving the article the." Observe that 
yc is now (.'ii) and not (je). Observe 



also that quandary is referred to a 
Latin origin, quatn dare, as if they 
were the first words of a writ.] When- 
Boeuer e, is the last, and soundeth not, 
it either qualifieth som letter going 
before, or it is mere silent, and yet in 
neither kinde encreaseth it the number 
of syllabs. I call that E, qualifying, 
whose absence or presence, somtime 
altcreth the vowell, somtime the con- 
sonant going next before it. It altereth 
the sound [length] of all the vowells, 
cuen quite thorough one or mo conso- 
nants, as made, stC'tue, eche, kinde, 
stripe, 6re, cure, toste sound sharp 
with the qualifying E in their end : 
wheras, mad, stem, ech, frind, strip, or 
cur, tost, contract of tossed, sound flat 
without the same E. [Now as we 
know that steam, each, were (steem, 
eech), it follows that e' represented 
either (ii) or (ee), that is, that the 
acute accent only represented length, 
independently of alteration in quality of 
tone ; there was such an alteration in, 
cure, cur, certainly, and in stripe, strip, 
according to the current pronunciation; 
but there was or was not in se, ste'nie, 
compared with stem, and hence we 
have no reason to infer that there was 
any in made, mad, ore, or. Ben Jonson 
alters the passage thus : "Where it [E] 
endeth, and soundeth obscure, and 
faintly, it serves as an accent, to pro- 
duce the Vowell preceding: as in made, 
stiimc. stripe, ore. cure, which else 
would sound, mad. stem, strip, or. cur." 
It is tolerably clear that by using 
"produce" in place of Mulcaster's 
"alter the sound," he intended to 
avoid the difficulty of considering steme 
= steam as (stiim), unless, indeed, he 
meant it to be a contraction for esteem. 
He omits the example each for a simi- 
lar reason.] 111. 

Pert, desert, the most of these sorts 
be bissyllabs or aboue : besides that, 
a, dealeth verie much before the r, 
[meaning probably that er was often 
sounded (ar)]. Viy descrue, prescruc, 
conserve, it should appear that either 
we strain the Latin s to our sound, or 
that theie had som sound of the z, ex- 
pressed by s, as well as we, [did he say 
(konzerv) ?] 132. 


I, in the same proportion [supra p. 
911] soundeth now sharp, as gine, 
thriue, aliue, vviue, title, bible, now 
quik, as glue, Hue, slue, title, bible, 

which sounds ar to be distinguished by 
accent, if acquaintance will not seme 
in much reading. [As Ben Jonson 
uses the same words and notation, and 
we know that he must have distin- 
guished his /, i, as (at, t) there is no 
reason for supposing that Mulcaster's i 
was anything but (ei) or (ai). But at 
the same time there is nothing to mili- 
tate against the contemporary Bullo- 
kar's (ii). And Mulcaster's pronunci- 
ation of ou as (uu), infra, p. 914, which 
is about the only certain result that 
can be elicited from his book, renders 
the () probable.] 115. 

I, besides the time and tune thereof 
noted before, hath a form somtime 
vowellish, somtime consonantish. In 
the vowellish sound either it endeth a 
former syllab or the verie last. When 
it endeth the last, and is it self the last 
letter, if it sound gentlie, it is qualified 
by the e, as manie, merie, tarie, carte, 
where the verie pen, will rather end in 
e, than in the naked i. If it sound 
sharp and loud, it is to be written y, 
having no, e, after it, as neding no quali- 
fication, deny, cry, defy, [This at any 
rate goes against Gill's use of final (oi), 
supra p. 281, which, however, he only 
attributes to "numerus poeticus," Log. 
p. 130, in his Chap. 25, quoted at 
length, infra 8.] 113. 

If it [I] end the last syllab, with 
one or mo consonants after it, it is 
shrill [long] when the qualifying e, 
followeth, and if it be shrill [long] the 
qualifying e, must follow, as, repine, 
vmcise, mitide, kinde, fiste [foist ?J. If 
it be flat and quik, the qualifying c, 
must not follow, as, examin, behind, 
mist, Jist. [Observe (bemnd-) with a 
short vowel, and hence certainly not 
(beHeind-).] 114. 

The quik i, and the gentle passant e, 
ar so near of kin, as theie enterchange 
places with pardon, as in deacryed, or 
descry id, Jindeth, orjindith, hir, or her, 
the error is no heresie. 115. 

If it [I] light somwhat quiklie vpon 
the s, then the s is single, as praniis 
tretis, amis, aduertis, enfranchis, etc. 
[This seems to establish (advert/s, en- 
tran'ch/s) as the common pronunci- 
ation.] 133. 


is a letter of as great vncertaintie 
in our tung, as e, is of direction both 
alone in vowell, and combined in diph- 
thong. The cause is, for that in vowell 



it soundeth as much vpon the u, which 
is his cosin, as upon the 6, which is his 
naturall, as in coaen, dosen, mother, 
which o, is still naturallie short, and, 
hosen, frose/i, mother, which o, is na- 
turallie lowg. In the diphthowg it 
soundeth more vpon the, u, then vpon 
the, o, as in found, wound, coic, sow, 
bow, how, now, and bow, sow, wrought, 
ought, mow, trough. Notwithstanding 
this varietie, yet our custom is so ac- 
quainted with the vsc thereof, as it wil- 
be more diffieultie to alter a known 
confusion, then profitable to bring in 
an vnknown reformation, in such an 
argument, whore acquaintance makes 
iustice, and vse doth no man wrong. 
And yet where difference by note sball 
seem to be necessarie the titles of pro- 
portion and disthtction. will not omit 
the help. In the mean time thus much 
is to be noted of o : besides his time 
long and short, besides his tune with or 
without the qualifying e, sharp or flat, 
that when it is the last letter in the word, 
it soundeth sharp and loud, as ago, to, 
so, no. saue in to the preposition, two 
the numerall, do the verb : his com- 
pounds as. vndb,\ns deriuatiues as doing. 
In the midle syllabs, for tune, it is 
sharp, as here, or flat if a consonant 
end the syllab after o. For time the 
polysyllab will bewraie it self in our 
dail'ie pronouncing : considering tho 
children and learners be ignorant, yet 
he is a verie simple teacher, that know- 
eth not the tuning of our ordinarie 
words, yea tho theie be enfranchised, as 
ignorant, impudent, impotent. va- 
rieth the sound in the same proportion, 
naie oftimes in the same letters, as loue, 
ffloue, done, shoue, rembue, and loue, 
groue, shroue, none. This duble sound 
of o, in the vowell is Latinish, where 
o, and u, be great cosens, as in volttis, 
voltis, colo. And vultus, vultis, oeculo : 
in the diphthong it is Grekish, for theie 
sound their ou, still vpon the u, tho it 
be contract of oo, or o R [there is some 
misprint in these oo, o e which is imi- 
tated here], wherein as their president 
[precedent] is our warrant against ob- 
icction in these, so must acquaintance 
be the mean to discern the duble force 
of this letter, where we finde it, and he 
that will learn our tung, must learn 
the writing of it to, being no more 
strange then other tungs be euen in the 
writing. [It would seem by the general 
tenor of these remarks, that the two 
sounds of o were (oo, u), and even that 

the diphthong ou, in those words where 
it is said to " sound more upon, the, u 
then vpon the, o," had, as with Bullo- 
kar and Palsgrave, the sound of (uu). 
It is in fact difficult to conceive that 
Mulcaster pronounced otherwise. And 
this sounding of ou as (uu), leads, as 
before mentioned, p. 913, to the sus- 
picion of sounding t long as (it).] 115. 

0, iu the end is said to sound lowd, 
as go, shro [shrew ?],./>, sauing Co, do, 
two, etc. ... before, 1, sounding like 
a dipthong causeth the 11, be dubbled, 
as troll. And if a consonant follow, 1, 
o, commoulie bath the same force, tho 
the 1, be but single, told, cold, bold, 
colt, dolt, coif, rolf, }iolt, holm, scold, 
digsolue. [The last example is pecu- 
liar.] 0, before m, in the beginning, 
or midle of a word, leading the syl- 
labs soundeth flat vpon the o, as om- 
nipotent, commend, but in the end it 
soundeth still vpon, the u, as som, cotn, 
dotn, [hence the first is (o), the second 
(u)l and therfor in their deriuatiues, 
and compounds as welcom, trublesom, 
newcoM, cumbersom, kingdom. With e, 
after the m, as home, mome, rome- 
[roam ?J, and yet whom, from, haue 
no, e, by prerogatiut of vse, tho theie 
haue it in sound and seming [that is 
are called (Hoom froom), which is 
strange, especially as regards from."] . . . 
Or is a termination of som truble, when 
a consonant followeth, bycause it sound- 
etb so much vpon theu, as icorm,form, 
[(furm) ?] sword, word, and yet the 
qualifying e, after wil bewraie an o, as 
the absence thereof will bewraie an u, 
stonne, o, worm, u, lorde o, Jiord, u. 

Good, stood, yood. Hoof, roof. Look, 
took, book, hook. School, tool. Groom, 
bloom. Hoop, coop. If custom had 
not won this, why not ou ? Bycause of 
the sound which these diphthongs haue 
somtimes vpon the o, sometimes vpon 
the, u. I will note the o, sounding vpon 
himself, with the streight accent, by- 
cause that o, leadeth the lesse number. 
Jiii i", know, sow, and Bow, sow, cow, 
mow. [That is (buu, suu, kuu, muu), 
but there seem to be some misprints in 
what follows, compare the wrought, 
ought, mow, trough, given above.] 
Dutch, croutch, slowtch. Lowde, lowdle. 
Hoitf, alouf. Gouge, bouge. Cough, 
ought, owght, of 6u>, with, w, from the 
primitiue. Fought, nought, cought, 
wrought, nought. again, Bought, 
t, dought. Tlouglt, rough, slough, 



enough. Jfoul, coul, skoul. "Why not 
as well as with oo ? Houm, brown, 
louin. Noun, eroioi, eloun, du. Own, 
grown, vpon the deriuatiue. Stottp, 
hup, droup, coup. Sound, ground, found. 
Our cowmonlic abrcuationlike as otir, 
the termination for eniranchismewts, 
as autour, procitratour, as, er is for our 
our, as sitter, writer : Hour, lour,Jlnur, 
four, alone vpon the, o. Mown, ad- 
iotini. Howse, lowse, mowse, the vcrbcs 
and deriuatiues vpon the, z, as House, 
louse, mouse, the nouns vpon the, s, 
Ous, our English cadence for Latin 
words in. osus, as notorious, famous, 
populous, riotous, gorgeous, being as it 
were the vniting of the chefe letters in 
the two syllabs, o, and u, osus. Clout, 
lout, dout. [These instances are strong- 
ly confirraatiue of the close on having 
been (uu) to Mulcaster, and his only 
knowing the open ou or (oou).] 136. 


Thirdlie, oi, the diphthong sounding 
vpon the o, for difference sake, from 
the other, which souudeth vpon the u, 
Avoid be written with a y, as iwj, anoy, 
toy, boy, whereas anoint, appoint, foil, 
and such seme to have an u. And yet 
when, i, goeth before the diphthong, 
tho it sound \ipon the u, it were better 
oy then oi, as ioyitt, ioyn, which theie 
shall soon perceiue, when thcie mark 
the spede of their pen : likewise if oi 
with i, sound upon the o, it niaie be 
noted for difference from the other 
sound, with the streight accent, as boie, 
enioie. 117-8. 


V besides the notes of his form, be- 
sides his time and tune, is to be noted 
also not to end anie English word, 
which if it did it should sound sharp, 
as nil, trii, vertu. But to auoid the 

nakcdnesse of the small u, in the end 
we vse to write those terminations with 
ew the diphthong, as new, trcic, vcrleu-. 
[Whether this implies that was 
culled (iu), or that tic was called (yy) 
occasionally, as in Smith and Pal's- 
grave, it is' hard to say.J 116. 


I call that a bissyllab, wherein there 
be two scnerall sounding vowclls, as 
Axur, rasur, -masur, and why not lasitr 'i 
[Are these words azure, raxure, mea- 
sure, leisure ? If so the orthography, 
or the confusion of a. ea, ci, into one 
sound, is very remarkable. Further on 
he writes :] Nattir, statur, Measttr, 
treasur. [Probably this settles the 
question of measure \ but the spelling 
would indicate that the final -ture, 
sure, were (-tur, -sur,) which would 
have immediately generated the xvn th 
century (-tar, -sar), and not Gill's 
(-tyyr, -syyr). Probably both were in 
use at that' time.] -137. This shortnesse 
or length of time in the deriuatiues is 
a great leader, where to write or not 
to write the qualifying, e, in the end of 
simple words. For who will write, 
natur, perfit, measur, treasur, with an, 
e, in the end knowing their deriuatiues 
to be short, naturall, perfitlie, mea- 
sured, treasurer ? . . . . And again, 
fortun profit, comfort, must haue no, e, 
\)yca.\ise for lunate, profiting, comforter, 
haue the last saue one short. [It will 
be seen in Chapter IX. 2, in Hodges' s 
list of like and unlike words, after the 
vocabulary, that the pronunciation (-ter) 
or (-tar) prevailed at least as early as 
1643. See also the remarks in Mr. 
White's Elizabethan Pronunciation, 
infra. The examples fortun, fortu- 
nate, point to the early origin of the 
modern vulgarism (fAAt-n, 


As these pages were passing through the press, I met with 
an 8vo. black-letter book, \vithout date or place, the date of 
which is supposed to be 1602 in the British Museum Catalogue, 
press-mark 828, f. 7, entitled : 

" Certaine grammar questions for the exercise of young 

Scliollers in the learning of the Accidence." 
In the enumeration of the diphthongs, occur the following remarks 
which clearly point out ea as (ee), and distinguish e short and i long 
as having characteristically different sounds, probably (i ci) or (oi) : 


" ea, for efull great 

ee or ie for i smal grecfe 
ui for i broade guyclc." 

The following curious passage shews that si- was by error occa- 
sionally pronounced (sh) in reading Latin words, and hence had most 
probably the same unrecognized English sound at the close of the 
xvi th century. It is unfortunate that the book is of unknown date, 
and that there is nothing which suggests the date with certainty. 
The type and spelling have the appearance of the xvi th century, 
and there is a written note "happening byforhond," appended to 
-Accidents on the last page of sig. B, which is apparently of that 
date, but there are other words on the next page in a much later 
hand. The information then must be taken for what it is worth, 
but it seems to be of Shakspere's time, and is important as the 
oldest notice of such a usage. 

" Q. No we what thinges doe yee obserue in reading f 

-n mi ,, . 1. ( Cleane sounding. 

K. These two thinges. 2 | j) ewe paming y 

Q. Wherein standeth cleane sounding i 

H. In giuing to euery letter his iust and full sounde. In break- 
ing or diuiding euery worde duely into his seuerall syllables, so 
that eueiy syllable may bee hearde by himselfe and none drownd, 
nor slubbered by ill fauouredly. In the right pronouncing of ti, 
whiche of vs is commonly sounded ci when any vowel doeth follow 
next after him or els not. And finally in avoyding all such vices 
as are of many foolishly vsed by euill custome. 

Q. What vices be those i 

R. lotacwmtu. sounding too broade. 

2. Labdnciamus. sounding I too full. 

3. Ischnotes. mincing of a letter as feather for father. 

4. Traulismus. stammering or stutting. 

5. Plateasmus. too much mouthing of letters. 

6. Cheilostomia. maffling or fumbling wordes in the mouth. 

7. Abusing of letters, as v for /. vat for fat. z for * as muza 
for rmtsa. sh for ci. as fasho forfacw dosham for doceam fcelishutn 
foifelidum and such like. 

Q. Wherein standeth due pawsing ? 

K. In right obseruation of the markes and prickes before 

Here the lotacismm may be considered to reprobate the pronunci- 
ation of Latin i as (ei). The La/wbdacismus alludes to the intro- 
duction of (u) before (1). For both errors, see supra p. 744, note 1. 
The ischnotes (supra p. 90, n. 1) of feather for father, either means 
the actual use of the sound (feedh-er) for (faadlrer), in which case 
this would be the earliest notice of the pronunciation of a long as 
(ee), but still as a reprobated vulgarism, antedating its recognition 
by nearly a century, or else it means merely thinning a from (aa) 
to (aea?), which was no doubt sporadically existent at this early 
period. The enigmatical fedder of Salesbury may, as we have seen, 
also refer to father (supra p. 750, n. 8), and both may indicate an 



anomalous pronunciation confined to that single word. The abusing 
of letters reminds one of Hart, supra p. 794, note 1. It is observable 
that the use of (z) for (s), in musa, is reprobated, although pro- 
bably universal, as at present, and is placed in the same category 
with (v) for (f ), a mere provincialism, and (sh) for ci-, which we 
here meet with for the first time, and notably in terms of reproba- 
tion, and after the distinct mention of the " right pronouncing of ti " 
as "of vs commonly sounded ci" meaning (si] "when any vowel 
doth follow next after him or els not." As late as 1673, E. Coote 
writes in his English Sctoolmaster, p. 31 : " Hob. How many ways 
can you express this sound si ? Joh. Only three ; si t ci, and sci 
or xij which is esi. Rob. Now have you erred as well as I ; for ti 
before a vowel doth commonly sound ti." So that (sh) was not 
even then acknowledged. It is curious that there is no reference to 
the use of (th) for t and d final, see supra, p. 844, under D and T. 

8. On the Pronunciation of Shakspere. 

Our sources of information respecting the pronunciation of Shak- 
spere are twofold, external and internal. The external comprises 
those writers which have been examined in Chap. III., and illus- 
trated in the preceding sections of the present chapter. 1 Of these, 

1 The first published attempt to 
gather the pronunciation of Shakspere 
from the writings of preceding orthoe- 
pists is, so far as I know, an article in 
the "North American Review" for 
April, 1864, pp. 342-369, jointly writ- 
ten by Messrs. John B. Noyes and 
Charles S. Peirce. Unfortunately these 
gentlemen were not acquainted with 
Salesbury, whose works are the key to 
all the others. Had they known this or- 
thoepist, the researches in my third and 
eighth chapters might have been unne- 
cessary. Salesbury's "Welsh Dictionary 
first fell under my notice on 14 Feb. 
1859; his account of Welsh pronunci- 
ation was apparently not then in the 
British Museum, and seems not to have 
been acquired till some years afterwards, 
during which time I vainly sought a 
copy, as it was necessary to establish 
the value of his Welsh transcriptions. 
I had finished my first examination of 
Salesbury, Smith, Hart, Bullokar, Gill, 
Butler, Wallis, Wilkins, Price, Micge, 
Jones, Buchanan, and Franklin, and 
sent the results for publication in the 
Appendix to the 3rd edition of my Plea 
(supra p. 631, note) in 1860, but the 
printing of that work having been in- 
terrupted by the outbreak of the Civil 
War in America, they have not yet 
appeared. My attention was directed 

to Messrs. Noyes and Peirce's article 
in March, 1865, and I noted all the 
works they quoted, some of which I 
have unfortunately not been able to 
see ; and others, especially R. Mulcas- 
ter's Elementarie, 1582 (supra p. 910), 
and Edward Coote' s Schoole- Master, 
1624 (supra p. 47, 1. 19), which Mr. 
Noyes considers as only inferior to Gill 
and Wallis, I have scarcely found of 
any value. When I re-commenced my 
investigations at the close of 1866, 
since which time I have been engaged 
upon them with scarcely any inter- 
mission, I determined to conduct them 
independently of Messrs. Noyes and 
Peirce's labours, with the intention to 
compare our results. It will be found 
that we do not much differ, and the 
points of difference seem to be chiefly 
due to the larger field here covered 
(those gentlemen almost confined them- 
selves to Elizabethan times), and per- 
haps to my long previous phonetic 
training. The following are the old 
writers cited by Messrs. Noyes and 
Peirce : Palsgrave, Giles du Guez, Sir 
T. Smith, Bullokar, " jEsops Fables in 
true Ortography, with Grammar Notz, 
8vo., 1585 " (which I have not seen), 
P. Bales, 1590 (not seen). Gill, Butler, 
B. Jonson, Wallis, Baret, Gataker, 
Coote, Percival's Spanish Grammar, 


however, Palsgrave, Salcsbury, Smith, and Hart, wrote before 
Shakspere's birth or when he was a baby (sec table p. 50), and 
although Bullokar published his book when Shakspere was sixteen, 
it represents a much more archaic form of language than Hart's, 
of which the first draft (supra p. 794, note) was written six years 
before Shakspere's birth. Gill, who was bom the same year as 
Shakspere, should naturally be the best authority for the pronun- 
ciation of the time. He was head master of St. Paul's School 
during the last eight years of Shakspere's life, and he published the 
first edition of his book only three years after Shakspere's death. 
But Gill was a favourer of old habits. We have on record his 
contempt of the modern tliinncss of utterance then affected by the 
ladies (pp. 90, 91) and his objections to Hart's propensities in that 
direction (p. 122). Gill was a Lincolnshire man, of East Midland 
habits. Shakspere was a Staffordshire man, more inclined to West 
Midland. Hence, although Gill no doubt represented a recognized 
pronunciation, which would have been allowed on the stage, it is 
possible that Shakspere's individual habits may have tended in the 
direction which Gill reprobated. The pronunciation of the stage 
itself in the time of the Kembles used to be archaic, and our tra- 
gedians (or such of them as remain) still seem to affect similar 
habits. But it is possible that in Shakspere's time a different cus- 
tom prevailed, and that dramatic authors and actors rather affected 
the newest habits of the court. Hence the necessity for proving 
the indications of Gill and other writers by an examination of Shak- 
spere's own usage, so far as it can be determined from the very 
unsatisfactory condition in which his text has come down to us. 

The internal sources of information are three in number, puns, 
metre, and rhyme. 1 The first is peculiar and seems to offer many 
advantages in determining identity of sound, accompanied by diver- 
sity of spelling, but is not really of so much use as might have been 
expected. The metre, properly examined, determines the number 
of syllables in a word and the place of the accent, and, so far as it 
goes, is the most trustworthy source of information which we pos- 
sess. The rhyme, after our experience of Spenser's habits, must 
be of very doubtful assistance. At most we can compare general 
habits of rhyming with the general rules laid down by contemporary 
orthoepists. A few inferences may be drawn from peculiarities of 

1623 (not seen), Cotgrave, Nat Strong men at the end of this chapter, 
(not seen), "Wilkins, Mulcaster, Festeau, l An elaborate attempt to determine 

1673 (not seen), Berault, 1698 (not the pronunciation of some vowels and 

seen), De la Touche, 1710 (not seen), consonants by means of rhymes, puns, 

Taudon, 1745 (not seen), Sharp on and misspellings, was made by Mr. 

English Pronunciation, 1767, ana the Richard Grant White in his edition of 

following, which I have not examined, Shakspere, vol. 12, ed. 1861. This 

If ares, 1784, Hexham 1660, Pomey, did not come under my notice till these 

1690, Saxon 1737. Messrs. Noyes pages were passing through the press, 

and Peirce's conclusions will be inserted An abstract of his researches, with 

as footnotes to the subsection headed remarks, will be found below, immedi- 

" Conjectured Pronunciation of Shak- ately after the present examination of 

spere, immediately before the speci- Shakspere's rhymes. 



spelling, but when -we recollect that Shakspcre did not revise the 
text, and, if he had done so, might not have been very careful in 
correcting literals, or have had any peculiar notions of orthography 
to enforce, we cannot lay much store by this. Nevertheless I have 
thought it right to read through the whole of Shakspere with a 
view to his puns and rhymes, aud, during the latter part of this 
task, I also noted many metrical and accentual peculiarities. The 
results obtained will have more or less interest to Shaksperean 
students, independently of their phonetic bearing. 

The following system of reference has been adopted in which I 
have had in view the owners of any modern edition, and have more 
especially consulted the convenience of those who posses