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F.R.S., F.S.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.P., 


CAMBRIDGE, B.A. 1837. 


pp. 997-1432. 













)Y> Z 




CONTENTS, pp. iii-v. 


NOTICE, pp. xv-xx. 


1. John Wilkins's Phonetic Writing, pp. 997-999. 

2. Noteworthy Pronunciations of the Seventeenth Century. 

1. Pronouncing Vocabulary of the Seventeenth Century, collected 
from Wallis 1653, Wilkins 1668, Price 1668, Cooper 1685, 
English Scholar 1687, Miege 1688, Jones 1701, pp. 999-1018. 

2. Words Like and Unlike, pp. 1018-1033. 

i. Richard Hodges's List 1643, pp. 1019-1023; andCoote's 

English Schoolmaster 1673, p. 1024. ^ 
ii. Owen Price's List 1668, pp. 1024-1028. 
in. Cooper's List 1685, pp. 1028-1033. 

3. Conjectured Pronunciation of Dryden, with an Examination of his 
Rhymes, pp. 1033-1039. 


$ 1. Some English Orthoepists of the Eighteenth Century, pp. 1040-1058. 
T. Lediard's Account of English Pronunciation, 1725, pp. 1040- 


N. Bailey on EA, 1726, p. 1049. 
An Irish Gentleman of 1752 on EA, p. 1050. 
Kenrick's Vowel System, 1773, pp. 1050-1053. 
Buchanan and Kenrick's Pronunciation Compared, pp. 1053-1055. 
Joshua Steele's Vowel System, 1775, pp. 1055-1058. 
2. Two American Orthoepists of the Eighteenth Century, pp. 1058-1070. 
i. Benjamin Franklin's Phonetic Writing, 1768, pp. 1058-1063. 
ii. Noah Webster's Remarks on American English, 1789, pp. 1063- 


3. Noteworthy Pronunciations and Rhymes of the Eighteenth Century, 
collected from the Expert Orthographist 1704, Dyche 1710, 
Buchanan 1760, Franklin 1768, and Sheridan 1780, and various 
poets, pp. 1071-1084. 

Noteworthy Pronunciations, pp. 1071-1083. 
Select Rhymes, pp. 1083-1084. 


THE NINETEENTH CENTURY (commencing on p. 1085, to be finished in 
Part V.)- 
1. Educated English Pronunciation, pp. 1085-1243. 

An Examination of Mr. Melville Bell's Twenty-six Key-words to 
English Speech-sounds, and of the Relations of those Sounds 
(preceded by Summary of Contents), pp. 1090-1157 (including 
an examination of native Indian pronunciation of Sanscrit, 
pp. 1136-1140). 

Unaccented Syllables, pp. 1158-1171. 

Comparison of Melville Bell's and Alex. J. Ellis's Pronunciations 
of the Parable of the Prodigal Son, pp. 1171-1173. 

English Spelling, Past and Possible, with a comparison of the 
Spelling in Barker's Bible 1611, in Glossic, in the Orthographies 
proposed by Danby P. Fry and E. Jones, and also in the Phono- 
typic Characters and Phonetic Spelling of A. J. Ellis in 1849, 
and of Isaac Pitman in 1873, all for the Parable of the Prodigal 
Son, pp. 1173-1186. 

Careful Transcripts of Actual Pronunciation by Prof. S. S. Hal de- 
man, A. J. Ellis, Mr. H. Sweet, and Mr. B. H. Smart, with an 
account of the phonetic systems of the first and last writers, pp. 

Observations on Unstudied Pronunciations, pp. 1208-1214. 

Whence do Diiferences of Pronunciation Arise ? pp. 1214-1217. 

American Pronunciation, including notes by Dr. Trumbull and Mr. 
Bristed, pp. 1217-1224. 

American Pronunciation according to American Humourists, 
pp. 1224-1230. 

Irish Pronunciation of English, after Mr. D. Patterson, with the 
assistance of Mr. "W. H. Patterson, Rev. Mr. Graves, Mr. 
Healy, and Dr. Murray, pp. 1230-1243. 

Vulgar and Illiterate English, p. 1243. 

2. Natural English Pronunciation (commencing on p. 1243, to be 

finished in Part V.). 

No. 1. Natural Pronunciation, pp. 1243-1244. 
No. 2. Phonetic Dialects, pp. 1245-1248. 
No. 3. Arrangement of this Section, pp. 1248-1249. 
No. 4. Dr. Alexander Gill's Account of English Dialects, 1621, 

pp. 1249-1252. 

No. 5. Dialectal Alphabet, pp. 1252-1265. 
No. 6. Dialectal Vowel Relations, pp. 1265-1323. 

i. J. Grimm's Views of the Vowel Relations in the Teutonic 

Languages, pp. 1265-1270. 

ii. On Vowel Quantity in Living Speech, pp. 1270-1275. 
iii. On Vowel Quality and its Gradations, pp. 1275-1307. 
Prof. Helmholtz's Vowel Theory, p. 1277. 
Vowel Gradations, p. 1281. 


Vowel Series and Triangles, by A. J. Ellis, Lepsius, 

Briicke, Prof. Haldeman, and Prince L. L. Bonaparte, 

with Note by Mr. H. Sweet on Dutch Vowels, pp. 1285- 

Distribution of Vowels in European Languages, pp. 1293- 

1298, collected from 
Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte's Extended Vowel Triangle. 

List of Vowels, and Vowel Identifications in 45 European 

Languages, pp. 1298-1307. 

iv. On Vowel Fractures and Junctures, pp. 1307-1317. 
v. Bearings of Modern Dialectal Vowel Eelations on the 

Investigation of Older Pronunciation, pp. 1317-1323. 
No. 7. Dialectal Consonant Eelations, pp. 1324-1357. 

A. J. Ellis's Analysis of Speech Sounds, pp. 1333-1335. 
Sanscrit arrangement of the Alphabet, as deduced from the 

Eules of Indian Phonologists, with the Eules in the 

Original and Prof. Whitney's Translation, pp. 1336-1338. 
Prof. Whitney's Unitary Alphabet, p. 1339. 
Consonants of Lepsius's General Alphabet, p. 1339. 
Briicke's Consonantal Scheme, p. 1340. 
Mr. Melville Bell's Classification of Consonants, pp. 1341- 


Prof. Haldeman's Classification of Consonants, pp. 1345- 

Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte's Classification of Conso- 
nants, pp. 1350-1357. 
No. 8. German Dialectal Changes, pp. 1357-1431. 

i. Schmeller on Bavarian Dialectal Changes, 1821 (abstract), 

pp. 1357-1368. 
ii. Winkler on Low German and Friesian Dialects, pp. 1369- 


Introduction, pp. 1369-1378. 
Abstract of Winkler' s Universal Low German and Friesian 

Dialecticon, 1873, pp. 1378-1428. 
Alphabetical List of the Places from which Specimens are 

given in the preceding Abstract, pp. 1428-1431. 
Transition to English Dialects, p. 1432. 


In addition to those already given on the backs of notices to Parts I. and II. and 
back of title to Part III., containing all the errors hitherto observed that could 
cause the slightest difficulty to the reader. 

* This star is prefixed to the Addenda. The additions promised for Part IV. 
at the back of the title to Part III., in the belief that Part IV. would conclude 
the work, are necessarily postponed to Part VI. The additions here given are 
all of small extent. 

In PART I. pp. 1416. 

pp. 3-10, the symbols of palaeotype have been much extended, and occasionally 
corrected. See the subsequent list of Additional Palaeotypic Symbols, p. xii. 

p. 11, lines 19, 22, in the Caffir words, for (u i) read (u $). 
*p. 29, table, col. xvii,/or nin't read mn't ; and add to table : " (u) is put for () 
in the old pronunciations, owing to uncertainty." 

p. 32, against 1547, read 38 Henry VIII. 

p. 33, 1. 13 from bottom, read Jean Pillot. 

p. 41, 1. 14 from bottom, for Ripon, read Chester. 

p. 50, col. of Sovereigns, between Edw. VI. and Elizabeth, insert 1553 Mary. 

p. 57, lines 15, 6, and 3 from bottom, read get, mare, (' j). 

p. 67, 1. 11 from bottom of text, for Mr. M. Bell's French nasals, read (EA, 
oh A, ohA, a A). 

p. 80, 1. 7, and p. Ill, 1. 16, read deei (dee-ei). 

p. 93, col. 4, line 5, read endevu. 

p. 95, 1. 2, read stoo'rri. 

p. 99, 1. 5, read HOPE hope (noop). 
*p. 111,1. 6, at end of sentence, add: " (see p. 817, note)." 

p. 116, 1. 1, omit and as it probably was in the xivth century. 

p. 131, 

p. 134, 

*p. 145, 

p. 158, 
p. 159, 

. 8 from bottom of text, read dzhomt. 
. 9 from bottom of text, read vgi'zdzh. 
11 from bottom of text, add : " See p. 976, 1. 6." 

p. 153, ines 9, 10, 11 from bottom, omit which. 

. 9, read molten. 

. 9, read at, nut, brut, bat. 

*p. 173, 1. 9 from bottom of second col. of note, for (a, (E), read (9, 0h). At end 
of that note add: "Prince L. L. Bonaparte heard M. Feline use (ce) for e 
muet ; all references to his pronunciation must be corrected accordingly." 
*p. 189, 1. 7, read (bun, bun^) ; and at end of paragraph add : " M. Paul Meyer 
told me (30 April, 1871) that he suspected Palsgrave to allude to the Provencal 
method of using -o, for what in northern French is -e mute, and to have pro- 
nounced this o either as (-0) or (-oh)." 
p. 190, last line of text, read (oreindzluz). 
p. 192, last line, read 3 . 

p. 196, 1. 12 from bottom of text, read differing nearly as (e, E). 
p. 198, lines 10 and 11, for TJJ, JUJ, read whi, jwhi. 
*p. 201, 1. 6 from bottom, add as a footnote: " Mr. F. G. Fleay says he knows 

two certain instances of Londoners saying (drAAr)." 

*p. 204, note 1, add: "The passages adduced by F. L. K. Weigand ( Woerterbuch 
der Leutschen Synonymen, No. 1068) seem to leave no doubt as to the historic 
origin of church from the Greek, through the canons of the Greek churches." 
p. 215, 1. 2, read (kondisiun). 


*p. 218, add at end of first column of footnote : " See also p. 922, col. 2, under 

suitor, and p. 968, col. 2, under S." 
p. 220, 1. 11, italicise humble. 
p. 223, note 1,1. 1, read Lehrgebaude. 

p. 226, note 1,1. 1, aft er treatise, add: "(reprinted below, p. 815)." 
p. 236, 1. 4, read myyv. 
p. 240, 1. 2, read but. 
*p. 247, 1. 18, add a* footnote : " See the investigation below, pp. 453-462, and 

pp. 820, 822, under at, ei." 
p. 264, 1. 7, read saunz. 

*p. 265, note 1, add: " See p. 473, n. 1, and p. 1315." 
p. 268, 1. 3, read 5322 1 . 
p. 269, note, col. 1,1. 6, read mouiller. 
p. 271, 1. 13, read confuses. 

*p. 281, 1. 31, for: " The words do not occur in Gill, but lady does occur," read 
and add: " The words lady, worthy, occur in Gill, who writes (laa-dt, ladii-), 
see p. 935, 1. 13, below, and (wurdh-*), see p. 909, col. 2, below; and lady 

also occurs " 

*p. 282, 1. 5 from bottom, add: " See p. 817, note." 
p. 283, 1. 8, read melodye. 
p. 284, 1. 29, read J3fc = (dai-e, dtre). 
p. 286, lines 6 and 11, read (tare, pu'-ne). 
p. 287, 1. 13, omit it. 
p. 288, note 1, line 4, read effect is. 
p. 294, line last of text, read but (ee, oo). 
p. 295, line last but one of text, read were, 
p. 301, 1. 10, read words in ew. 
p. 307, 1. 22, for (EU), read (au). 
*p. 316, note 1, line 5, read an and en ; and at the end of note 1 add: " see below, 

pp. 509, 825-828, and p. 828, note 1." 
p. 319, last line of text, read world. 
p. 321, 1. 2, omit one Heerdtf. 
1. 7, read nerts-ogh. 
1. last of text, read fEE'tarli&htf. 
p. 323, 1/25, readgraas. 

1. 36, read nE&lrtm. 
p. 325, 1. last but one of text, read lorsque. 

*p. 327, throughout the French transcription of M. Feline's pronunciation in- 
terchange (0) and (OB), according to the correction of the meaning of M. 
Feline's symbols given me by Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, who 
heard him speak ; thus v. 1, read (koe los siel kelkoe zhur), and v. 8 read 
(mis koa), etc. See p. 173 in this list. 
p. 327, note, last line, omit which. 
p. 328, 1. 7 from bottom of text, read saute. 
p. 330, 1. 13 from bottom of text, for be aware, read beware, 
p. 331, 1. 17 from bottom of text, read desirs. 
p. 336, commence note with *. 
p. 337, 1. 9 from bottom, read kouth'. 
p. 342, 1. 10, read hadd\ 
p. 343, note 3, line 2, read e an e. 
p. 34o, 1. 9 from bottom of text, read restored. 
p. 346, art. 14, ex., col. 2, 1. 11, read set ham. 
p. 351, line 5, read faeder. 

art. 35, 1. 4, read Past. 
art. 38, line 4, read more, bettre. 
p. 354, art. 51 , ex., col. 2, line 7, read he let. 
p. 357, 1. 10 from bottom, read Tale, 
p. 358, art. 65, under SCHAL, line 2, read (dialectic). 

*p. 363, art. 82, ex., insert after v. 388: " [See note on v. 386, p. 700, below.] " 
p. 366, 1. 5, fr new fr., read old fr. 
p. 367, art. 92, 1. 13, read then, and 1. 14, read tyme. 


p. 370, note 1, citation iii. 357, react, This touche}>. 
p. 374, art. 108, ex., col. 2, line 1, read aet-sefter. 
p. 385, col. 2, under, hevenriche, read heofonrice. 
p. 386, col. 1, under ill, read ylle. 
p. 388, col. 1, under lore, read lore. 

,, under -LY, line 6, read sodeinliche. 
p. 392, col. 2, under ** Sleeve, read 16 sleeve 13152', slef'\\ 213'. 
pp. 398-402, tables of probable sounds, etc., for (i, u), read (, w) in several 

places ; and also often to end of p. 415. 
p. 400, under TH, read in two sounds. 
p. 413, col. 2, 1. 1, readPaa-ter. 

,, in Kree'doo, 1. 1, read m'e. 
p. 415, v. 489, read Dii sen-tees Ee. vel A a. 

In PART II. pp. 417-632. 

*p. 439, note 5, add: " The text of the Bestiary has been again printed from the 
Arundel MS. 292, in Dr. Morris's Old English Miscellany, published by 
the Early English Text Society in 1872, vol. 49, pp. 1-25. The references 
to the numbers of the verses (not to those of the pages) given in the present 
book, pp. 439-441, hold good for this edition." 

p. 441, 1. 13, and p. 445, 1. 10 from bottom of text, for n. 4, readn. 1. 
*pp. 442-3, add as footnote: "For corrections of some quantities, see p. 1270, 

note 1." 

p. 462, quotation, v. 2, read Richard. 

*p. 465, 1. 35, add as footnote: "On the confusion of long f and 3, see note in 
Madden's Lajamon, vol. 3, p. 437, which will be further treated in Part VI." 
p. 468, translation, col. 2, v. 4, read hill. 

p. 473, note 1, col. 1, 1. 8 from bottom, for 3, read 1, p. 1171 ; col. 2, 1. 1, 
for p. 446, read p. 447 ; 1. 14, for 4, read 2 (the reference is to the 
notice which will appear in Part V.) ; 1. 18, read May (the month) ; and 
for the pronunciations in lines 17, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, read: (mee,dee, uwee', 
pee, sh/ip, slap, m/i, shE'ip, slE'ip, mE'i, E'i, dzhE'ist, dzhE'int, bE'id, 
pE'int, E'int-nrent). 

*p. 474, 1. 22, to the words " dede never appears as deide," add the footnote ( 2 ) : 
" In the Cotton text of the Cursor Mundi, v. 1619, p. 100 of Dr. Morris's 
edition published by the Early English Text Society, we find deid rhyming 
to red; but the word is here the substantive deed, not the verb did, which 
is written did on v. 1608 above, rhyming to kydd. This deid is a mere 
clerical error for ded; the Fairfax, Gottingen, and Trinity MSS. have all 
dede, and the Cotton has ded, v. 1952." 

*p. 475, note 1, add to this note: " In Cursor Mundi, Cotton text, v. 1629, we have 
pe first was Sem, cham was the to]?eir, 
And laphet hight ]>at yonges broker, 

where Dr. Morris writes ' yonges[t],' but this is unnecessary, see p. 1400, 
Halifax version, v. 12. Here we have a spelling to]>eir, which would have 
apparently rhymed to eir in Havelok. But it is a mere clerical error, not 
found in the other MSS., any more than the singular errors in v. 1973-4, 
I fel agh naman do til o)>er 
For ilk an agh be ojner broiler, 

where o)?er, ojner, occur in consecutive lines, and broiler is a similar error ; 
o>er is the usual spelling in the Cotton MS., as in v. 1979, but we have 
broiler, toiler, v. 2031, with broker v. 2043, etc. Nothing phonetic can be 
distinctly concluded from such vagaries." 

p. 475, lines 3 and 4 from bottom of text, see note 4 on p. 1404, col. 2, v. 26. 
p. 476, 1. 1-19, see the remarks on p. 1310. 
*p. 477, note 2, 1. 3, omit more. Add to note: " On this dental t, better written 

(,t), see p. 1096, col. 1, and p. 1137, col. 2, 1. 16 from bottom." 
p. 478, note 2, 1. 5, read from giving. 

*p. 484, note 1, add: "Another copy of the Moral Ode will be found in Dr. 
Morris's Old English Miscellany (E. E. T. S. 1872), p. 58, and again 
another in the Old English Homilies, second series (E. E. T. S. 1873), 


p. 220. On p. 255 of this last is given a hymn to the Virgin, of which the 
first verse with the musical notes, and the second verse without them, are 
photolithographed opposite p. 261, with a translation of the music first 
by Dr. Rimbault, p. 260, and secondly by myself, p. 261, of which the latter 
will appear in Part VI. of this book. To my translation I have added 
annotations, pp. 262-271, explaining the reasons which influenced me, and 
the bearings of this music (which is comparable to that of the Cuckoo Song, 
and Prisoner's Prayer, supra pp. 426, 432) on the pronunciation of final 
E, etc., the pith of which will also appear in Part VI." 

*p. 487, 1. 9, for attributes read seems to attribute. Add to note 1 : "Was yate 
in line 1 6 of this note a misprint for yete ? Did Thorpe mean that jet in 
Orrmin would have been (seet) ? or (jiit) ? If (jiit), then Thorpe con- 
sistently attributes modern habits to Orrmin; if (seei), he makes one 
remarkable exception. There is nothing in his remarks which will decide 
this point, and hence I alter my expression in the text." 
p. 490, 1. 24, read further; note 1, last line, read Orrmin's. 
p. 495, col. 3, Jrashe, remove f, for this word is not oblique in v. 3475. 

*p. 515, note, add at the end: "p. 541, and see especially note 2 to that page." 

*p. 516, add to note 3 : " More particulars respecting this MS., which has been 
re-examined for me by Mr. Sweet, will be given in Part VI. There is 
little doubt that it is wrongly taken to be Anglosaxon on pp. 518-522, 
but is rather Celtic. However, it certainly shews the correspondence of the 
sounds of Latin and Greek letters in this country at that time, and hence 
indirectly bears on Anglosaxon usage. The MS. has a Paschal table 
from A.D. 817 to 832, which places it in the ixth century." 

*518, note, col. 2, 1. 8, after "teeth," insert: " see p. 1103, col. 1, and p. 1337, 
col. 2, on i. 25." Both refer to the Sanscrit v. 

* p. 531. The following explanation of the words here quoted from Wace will 
appear as a note in Part VI. ; it is taken from a letter of Mr. Skeat, date 
1 Jan. 1872 : " The cup was passed round. If a man drank too much, he 
was cautioned, Drink half (only) ; if he kept the cup too long, the men 
two or three places off him sang out ' Let it come, where is the cup ? ' 
1 Drink hindweard ' is drink backwards, i.e. pass the cup the wrong way ; 
though it would commonly take the form : l Ne drinke ge hindweard,' i.e. 
' don't drink backward, none of your passing the cup the wrong way 
round.' I have heard ' Let it come ' in a college hall ; it is a most natural 
exclamation. I have said it myself ! So instead of meaning ' may you 
have what you want ' [as suggested supra p. 532, line 1], it is : may / 
have what /want,' which is human nature all over." 

p. 534, conjectured pronunciation, v. 12, 1. 3, and v. 13, 1. 5, 
*p. 541, note 2, 1. 4, add : " printed in an enlarged form in Appendix I. to Mr. 
Sweet's edition of King Alfred's West-Saxon Version of Gregory's Pastoral 
Care, printed for the E. E. T. S., Part II., 1872, pp. 496-504 ; in the Pre- 
face to this Part, pp. xxi-xxxiii, Mr. Sweet enters on the Phonology of 

p. 643, 1. 8, read (gwh, wh, w). 
p. 547, 1. 13, for " (s) final," read " s final." 
p. 592, note, col. 2, line 2, read minimum. 
*p. 600, col. 1, line 12, after hue, insert hew. 
p. 601, col. 2, (0 o), line 3, read heard in the. 
p. 628, 1. 3, read exist ?) 

In PART III. pp. 633-996. 

*p. 637, 1. 16, after "usual," add as a footnote-. "Frequent instances of the 
interchange of (ii, ee, ai) will be found in the specimens from "Winkler's 
Dialecticon, see below p. 1375, 1. 21." 

*p. 638, note, at end of note continued from p. 637, add: " Prince L. L. Bona- 
parte informs me that the real Portuguese sound of a is (IE), which is also 
nasalised (SBA), see p. 1303, No. 23, vowels 8 and 9. Final and unaccented, 
this a is nearly (u)." 


*p 639, note 1, col. 2, 1. 11, add: " Mr. (now Dr.) Murray collated this MS. in 
Edinburgh in 1871, and informs me that the MS. has deye, and not dethe, 
or de]>e, which is a gross blunder of D. Laing's, as the y of the MS. is 
always dotted, and the > never is. He says that D. Laing's Ahhotsford text 
has above 50 misreadings per page." 

as a footnote : " except the Cambridge, which reads 

"With a threadbare kope as is a scholer, 

where the is, which appears also in the Ellesmere and Hengwrt 
but not in the others, is an evident error." 

p. 663, note 38, 1. 13, read oi (ee) for (ai). 

pp. 680-725, in Chaucer's Prologue, make the following corrections, in addi- 
tion to those pointed out in the footnote p. 724, they are mostly quite 
unimportant. In the TEXT, v. 2, perced.' ; v. 3, lycour ; v. 8, yronne ; v. 
13, palmeer'a; v. 20, Tabbard; w. 21,78, pilgrimage; y. 24,weel; v. 25, 
yfalle; v. 29, weel; v. 49, Christendoom ; v. 57, Palmirye; vv. 64, 85, 
been; v. 72 gentel; v. 73, array; v. 85, chyvachye ; v. 99, servysabel ; 
v. 104, pocok; v. 107, feth'res; v. 123, nose; v. 138, amiabV ; v. 141, 
dygn' ; v. 157, clook', as ; v. 169, brydel ; v. 170, clere ; v. 186, labours ; 
v. 189, prykasour; v. 202, stemed' ; v. 209, lymytow, v. 224, pytawnce; 
v. 226, sygne; v. 241, ev'rych ; v. 245 syke ; v. 248, vytayle ; v. 255, eer ; 
v. 282, chevysawnce ; v. 308, lern', and ; v. 326, wryting'. In the 
PRONUNCIATION, v. 41, add comma ; v. 76, add period ; v. 144, saukwh 
(wrongly corrected sakwh in footnote to p. 724) ; v. 152 add semicolon 
after strait; glas ; in the Note on v. 260, p. 693, for " So all MSS. 
except Ca." read " All MSS. insert pore except Ca." 

p. 756, note, col. 2, lines 25 and 26, read " (Ihh, Ihh, Ijhh, Jjhh) occur in the 
Sardinian dialect of Sassari, and (^hh) in the dialect of the Isle of Man." 
Observe that (Ihh) does not occur in the dialect of the Isle of Man, as it is 
incorrectly stated to do in the note as printed. 

*p. 763, note 2, add: " Winge is given for whine from Eothbury, see the com- 
parative specimen in Chap. XI. 2. No. 12. below. This was more prob- 
ably the word alluded to." 

*p. 768, add note to title of 2 : " This work was first seen by me in the British 
Museum on 14 Feb. 1859, from which day, therefore, the present researches 
should be dated." 
p. 789, col. 1, art. bold, read (booud). 

*p. 799, note 1, col. 1, lines 17 to 20. This is not a perfectly correct represen- 
tation of the Prince's opinion, see reference on p. 1299, under (uh] No. 54 ; 
see also the additional note, given in this table of Errata, to p. 1296, line 1. 
p. 800, note, col. 1, the Prince wishes to omit 2) and 3), lines 4 to 8 ; col. 2, the 
notations fshf", ^sh), etc., are now ( v sh), etc., and fas), etc., is now (,s), etc. 

*p. 802, note, col. 1, line last, for Madrid, read Spain, although heard in Spanish 
America. Add at end of note : " Prince L. L. Bonaparte considers that no 
buzzed consonant is found in Spanish, and hence that it is an error to 
suppose that (dh) or ( x z) occur in it. He thinks b or v Spanish is (b) after 
a consonant, or when standing for Latin bb, and (bh), which he does not 
reckon as a buzz, after a vowel or when initial. The Spanish strong r, 
initial and after n, and rr between vowels, he regards as a Basque sound 
( t r), p. 1354, col. 2, No. 203. In Basque the only ordinary r (r) is a 
euphonic insertion, as our cockney law(r) of the land, draw(r)ing room. 
The Castilian s he considers to be the, Basque s, and it sounded to me as a 
forward dental * with a half lisp, possibly (,th) of p. 1353, No. 143, or 

" ese fin 

of p. 1105, col. 1, 1. 24 from bottom. These fine varieties are very 
difficult to appreciate by persons who cannot hear them constantly in the 
spoken language, from many different speakers." 

*p. 803, last words of Hart, add as note: " This was LordEldon's favourite motto." 

*p. 834, 1. 25, add footnote: "The subject of modern, as distinct from ancient, 

French accent, has been considered in my paper on Accent and Emphasis, 


Trans, of Philological Society for 1873-4, pp. 138-139, and by Prof. Charles 
Cassal, a Frenchman, ibid, pp. 260-276 ; but the views we have taken are 
disputed and stated to be entirely incorrect by most French authorities, 
and even by Prince L. L. Bonaparte, whose Italian education makes him 
familiar with the meaning of accent. The part played by Latin accent in 
French is the subject of an E'tude sur k Role de V Accent Latin dans la 
langue Franc,aise by M. Gaston Paris (1862), who also holds that M. 
Cassal and I are wrong in our views, but whose pronunciation, when tested 
by myself and Mr. Nicol, bore out what M. Cassal and myself meant to 
imply, so that there must be a radical difference of the feeling, rather than 
of the conception, conveyed by the word 'accent.' Hence the need of 
scientific researches, suggested in other parts of my paper on Accent and 
Emphasis. An advance towards a mechanical registration of the force of 
uttered breath in speech has been made by Mr. "W. H. Barlow, .F.E.S., in 
his Logograph, described in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. 22, 
pp. 277-286, and less fully in a note to my Third Annual Address to the 
Philological Society (Trans. Ph. S. 1873-4, p. 389). The nature of Latin 
accent itself, whence, as seen through a Celto-Frankish medium, French 
accent arose, has been carefully considered and practically illustrated in my 
Practical Hints on the Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin (Macmillan 
& Co., 1874). The strange difference in the whole character of French, 
Italian, and Spanish pronunciation, and especially in the nature of accent 
and quantity in these languages, although all derived very directly from 
Latin, and although Spain and Gaul were celebrated for the purity of their 
Latin, next of course to Eome, shews that the whole question requires re- 
p. 866, note, col. 2, 1. 4, read mead. In lines 7, 8, 9, a line has been dropped. 

The complete passage is printed on p. 1061, note, col. 1, line 10. 
p. 918, line 15, read Shakspere was a South Warwickshire man. 
p. 921, example of puns, " dam damn," 1. 2, read (191', 33). 

*923, col. 2, add to the example "foot, gown: " "We have an echo of none as 
gown, that is (nun) as (guun, gun) in TS 4, 3, 31 (247, 85), where Katerine 
says : ' I like the cap, And it I will have, or I will have none,' which 
Petruchio chooses to hear as gown, for he says : ' Thy gowne, why I ; come, 
Tailor, let vs see't.' " 

*p. 923, to the examples of puns under A, add: " cate Kate TS 2, 1, 50 (238, 
189-90). Observe that th in Katharina, as the name is spelled in the Globe 
edition, was simple (t). The folio has Eaterina, and that Katerine was 
either (Kat-rin), or more probably (Kaa-triin), whence (Kaat) was the 
natural diminutive." 

*pp. 925-6, add to example of puns under OA, 0, 00: "on one TG, 2, 1, 2 
(24', 2) ; ' Speed. Sir, your Gloue. Valen. Not mine; my Gloues are on. 
Sp. Why then this may be yours : for this is but one.' This is conclusive 
for the absence of an initial (w) in the sound of one." 

*p. 938, note 1, add at end: " See also Chap. XI. 2. No. 11. for Derbyshire 

*p. 942, col. 1, before the last entry under Fourth Measure Trissyllabic, insert : 
To be suspected : framed to make women false. Oth. 1, 3, 86 (885', 404). 

*p. 946, col. 2, add to the examples of well-marked Alexandrines in Othello : 
That came a-wooing with you, and so many a time. Oth. 3, 3, 31 (893, 71). 
Not that I love you not. But that you do not love me. Oth. 3, 3, 90 

(899, 196). 
Since guiltiness I know not; but yet I feel I fear. Oth. 5, 2, 16 (907, 39). 

*p. 953, just before the heading Shakspere' s Rhymes, insert as a new paragraph : 
" Since the above examples were collected and printed, the subject of 
Shakspere' s metrical usages has received great attention. See the Trans- 
actions of the New Shakspere Society, 1874-5. See also Mr. FurnivalTs 
essay on The Succession of Shakspere's Works and the use of Metrical 
Tests in Settling it, being the introduction to Miss Bunnett's translation of 
Gervinus's Commentaries on Shakspere (1874)." 
p. 963, col. 2, under " caught her," 1. 8, omit first ). 


p. 980, note, col. 1, line 18. The Devonshire oo will be fully considered in 

Chap. XL 2. No. 11. 
p. 986, 1. 10 of Portia's speech, read " mers'." 

In PAET IV. pp. 997-1432. 

p. 1085, note, col. 2, 1. 4 from bottom, after " below," add', p. 1310. 

p. 1086, 1. 16, read my (a) in the xvn th may have been (a, ao). 

p. 1114, col. 1, line 5 from bottom, read being, dr, rv. 

p. 1167, col. 2, under sir, read (JC-S-B). 

p. 1180, col. 2, v. 29, read aansering. 

p. 1221, col. 2, 1. 19 from bottom, read (mien) or (mren). 
*p. 1251, a<^to note continued from p. 1250 : " Mr. Elworthy, of Wellington, 
Somerset, says he has never heard Ise as a pure nominative, but only is 
standing apparently for us and used as I. More upon this in 2. No. 11." 
*p. 1296, 1. 1, after " in such case," add as a footnote : " The following remark 
of the Prince on this passage in the text was not received till this page had 
been printed off: 'When the vowels (25^, 46oj) lose their tonic accent 
in Italian, they do not become quite (29<?) and (510), but the original 
sounds still influence the vowels in their unaccented state, producing the 
intermediate sounds (28e) and (49o). This explanation seems to me quite 
logical, and it is in accordance with the sensations of every fine Tuscan 
and Roman ear. On the contrary, if the original vowel is (29e) and (510), 
it remains unaltered when it loses the accent. Compare the e and o of 
bellina, collina (derived from bello, cblle, which have open vowels), with 
the e and o of stelliiccia and pollanca (derived from stella, polio, which have 
close vowels). I had never the least doubt upon this point, but in my 
previous statements I did not take the present minute gradations of sound 
into consideration. It would certainly be better to pronounce bellina, 
collina with (29e, 510) than with (25^), and (460,). L.L.B.' " 
*p. 1323, note, col. 2, 1. 7, add: (abstracted below, pp. 1378-1428). 

p. 1376, 1. 24, read (jmrtar Jot). 

p. 1381, col. 1, 1. 5, read saa-na. 

p. 1393, col. 2, line 8, read porsii, and see p. 1428, col. 2, Note. 


The original list of Palaeotypic symbols, pp. 3-12, drawn up at the commence- 
ment of this work, has had to be supplemented and improved in many points 
during its course, and especially during the delicate phonetic investigations of 
Part IV. Each new point is fully explained in the text as it arises, and although 
reference is generally made to the place subsequently, it will probably be found 
convenient in using the book to have all these references collected together, as it 
is hoped they are |in the following list, which follows the order of the pages in 
the book. The index in Part VI. is intended to refer to each letter and symbol 
in alphabetical or systematic order. 

p. 419, note, col. 1, line 2, symbol of diphthongal stress : an acute accent used 
to mark the vowel which has the stress in diphthongs, when the position of 
stress is abnormal, as (ea). This use has been subsequently extended to 
all cases of diphthongs, and uniformly used to mark diphthongs from 
p. 1091 onwards, see p. 1100, col. 2. 

p. 419, note, col. 1, 1. 16, symbol of evanescence : the mark [, a cut [, shews 
that the following vowel is scarcely heard ; |_ ^ shew that all included 
letters are scarcely heard; excessively slight \_ [ see p. 1328 in this list. 

p. 800, note, col. 2, symbols for advanced *, sh = (^s, ^sh) and retracted , ah 
= fas, 3[sh), subsequently replaced by (,s, v sh) and ( ( s, ,sh). 

p. 998, 1. 11, symbol of discontinuity : the mark ;, a cut ), used to shew absence 
of glide ; this is rendered nearly unnecessary by an extension of the use of 
the symbol of diphthongal stress, p. 419 in this list. 


p. 1090, at the end of text, the mode of reference to pages and quarter pages is 
explained ; the two symbols introduced in the summary of contents are 
referred to seriatim below. 

p. 1094, col. 1, 1. 33, symbols of Goodwin's theoretical English ch, j = (kj, gj) 
where (j) is turned (f), see also p. 1119 in this list. 

p. 1095, col. 2, 1. 30, symbol of advanced contact, changed from (J-) or () to ( k ), 
as ( x t, ,d) (for tf-, dh) or (.t, .d) for the dental t, d. 

p. 1096, col. 1, 1. 20, and col. 2, 1. 28, the use of (t^, dj.) for t, d, with inverted 
tongue, supposed to be incorrect for Sanscrit, and use of (T, D) for Indian 
murddhanya t, d, and (t, d) for English coronal t, d. In the Dravidian 
languages the inversion of the tongue, so that the under part of the tongue 
strikes the palate, seems to be more distinct, and (T, t), which seem to be 
the same to a Bengalee, are apparently distinct as (t.J., t) to a Madrasee. 

p. 1097, col. 1, under (uu) ; symbol of ('u) whispered, and ("u) hissed vowels, 
see p. 1128 below in this list. 

p. 1097, col. 2, symbols for explosions (tpm, tnpiu, tjHjuu) and implosions ("t), 
see p. 1128 below in this list. 

p. 1098, col. 1, under (r) ; symbol for Bell's untrilled r = (r c ), the ( ) being a 
turned mark of degrees (). This may be extended to (1 ), which indi- 
cates the same position. See p. 1341 below in this list. 

p. 1098, col. 2, symbols for advanced or dental r ( k r) and retracted r (,r). 

p. 1099, col. 1, under (ooi), symbol of indistinct vowel accompanied by 
permissive trill (i), so that (i = a) or (i=ar) at pleasure. Bell's point glide 
is (6r ), my (o'), where (') is a " helpless indication of obscure vocality," see 
p. 1128 in this list. 

p. 1099, col. 2, Bonders on glottal r (i), where (i) is turned (L). 

p. 1100, col. 2, 1. 8 from bottom, symbol of widening the pharynx, as (e 2 ) for 
(e) with pharynx widened ; supposed to be Irish. 

p. 1102, col 2, Land's explodent (B), see p. 1292, col. 2. 

p. 1104, col. 2, 1. 3 from bottom ; symbol of advanced s, sh = (js, x sh), replacing 

p. 1105, col. 1, 1. 24 from bottom, divided s = (s), probably Spanish. 

p. 1105, col. 1, 1. 15 from bottom, retracted s = (,s). 

p. 1107, col. 1, 1. 5, symbols of higher and lower positions of the tongue in 

uttering vowels = (e 1 , e 11 ; e 1? e n ), and of close and open consonants as 

(ph 1 , phi) ; line 28, symbol of more hollowness at back of tongue = (e 2 ), as 

distinguished from (e 2 ), see pp. 1100 and 1279 in this list ; line 14 from 

bottom, symbol of intermediary of two vowels, or doubtfulness, with 

inclination to first = (ft). 

p. 1107, col. 2, Scotch close and open (e 1 , e 1 ; e lt e : ; o 1 , o 1 ; 1} Oj). 
p. 1107, col. 2, last line ; symbol of () with lips as for (o) = ( ). 
p. 1111, col. 2, symbols for glides, open to close (>), close to open (<), and 

absence of glide ( ; ), see p. 998 in this list. 
p. 1112, col. 1, glottids; clear in (,e), gradual in (je). 
p. 1114, col. 2, last line ; symbol for rounding by the arches of the palate as in 

the parrot's (p 4 w 4 s). 
p. 1116, col. 1, symbol of medial length of vowels as in (a a ), the superior and 

inferior vowels being the same, and hence distinct from the symbol of 

intermediaries as in (e?), p. 1107 in this list; scale of quantitative symbols 

( a , a, a a , aa, aa a , aaa). 
p. 1116, col. 2, symbol for variety of lip rounding, as in (A O ) = tongue for (A), 

lips for (o), see p. 1107 in this list. 
p. 1119, col. 1, 1. 2, symbols for palatal explodents = (kj, gj), see p. 1094 in 

this list. 

p. 1120, col. 2, distinctions of (K, k, kj, tj, ,t T t, ,t, u t, tf, p, p). 
p. 1120, col. 1. Mr. Graham Bell's alteration of Mr. Melville Bell's symbols 

for (s, sh) ; col. 2, re-arrangement of palaeotypic symbols of cols. 2 and 3 

in Bell's table, p. 14. See p. 1341. 

p. 1124, col. 1, Goodwin's ng = (qj), possible as original Sanscrit palatal nasal. 
p. 1125, col. 2, to p. 1128, col. 1, Bell's rudimental symbols reconsidered and 



p. 1128, col. 1, symbols of inspiration (';), implosion ("h), click ({h), flatus 
('h), whisper ("h), voice ('h). 

p. 1129, col. 1, abbreviations of these by the omission of the 'support (h), etc. 

p. 1129, col. 2 to p. 1130, col. 1, symbols of glottids, clear (,), check (;), wheezing 
(A), trilled wheeze (gh), bleat (g). 

p. 1130, col. 1 and col. 2, symbols of degrees of force, evanescent (L), weak (), 
s^-o^ (.), rwpi! (.,), /* ( H )> and its varieties (n'h, nh, jh, iqh). 

p. 1130, col. 1, to 1131, col. 2, symbols of glides, slurs, and breaks, glide 
(> <), break (j), slur (^), relative force and pitch by inferior figures 
and superior accented figures. 

p. 1133, col. 1, 1. 1, symbol of short I + trilled r = (ir), Japanese intermediary. 

p. 1146, col. 1, relative time by superior unaccented figures. 

p. 1147, col. 2, symbol of advanced (a) =( x a). 

p. 1150, col. 2, 1. 10, symbol of Helmholtz's u = (A U ) = tongue for (A), lips 
for (u). 

p. 1156, col. 2, table of the relative heights of the tongue for vowels. 

p. 1174, bottom, table of practical glossic. 

p. 1183, table of Pitman and Ellis's phonotypy, 1846 and 1873. 

pp. 1189-96. Prof. Haldeman's analysis of English sounds with palaeotype 

pp. 1197-1205. Mr. B. H. Smart's analysis of English sounds with palaeotype 
equivalents serving to identify the palaeotype signs. 

p. 1232, Irish rolling r = ( A r), and bi-dental t, d = ( u t, u d). 

p. 1255, table of English dialectal vowels and diphthongs. 

pp. 1258-1262, Glossic compared with palaeotypic writing of dialectal sounds. 

p. 1264, suggestions for marking quantity, force, and pitch, in practical writing. 

pp. 1279-80, combination of the signs for primary (e), tongue higher (V ), tongue 
lower (tfj), tongue advanced (^), tongue retracted (/); whole back passage 
widened (e), part in front of palatal arches, only widened (e 2 ), pharynx only 
widened (<? 2 ) ; all widened, but more above than below (e-), or more below 
than above (e 2 ) ; height of tongue remaining, aperture of lips contracted 
to that for (A) in (^ A ), to that for (o) in (e ), and to that for (u) in (<? u ) ; 
rounding by palatal arches in (e 4 ), giving 2916 forms of unnasalised vowels. 

pp. 1298-1307, Seventy-five palaeotypic vowel symbols grouped in families, and 
supplied with key-words. 

p. 1328, line 12 from bottom of text, the slightest quiver = ([_L r )- 

p. 1333, col. 1, 1. 11, symbol of cheek pu/s = ( g ). ' 

p. 1333, col. 2, symbol of inspired breath, oral (';), nasal (';<), orinasal ('JA) 
fluttering (';<:) and snoring ('IA,;). 

p. 1334, col. 2, 1. 9, symbol of bleated consonants ( s b, d, e g). 

p. 1334, note on symbolisation, shewing the intention of palaeotypic as distinct 
from systematic symbolisation. 

pp. 1341-4, new table of palaeotypic equivalents for Mr. Melville Bell's Visible 
Speech symbols, with subsequent explanations. 

pp. 1346-9, new table of palaeotypic equivalents to Prof. Haldeman's con- 
sonants with subsequent explanations. 

pp. 1353-7, table of Prince L. L. Bonaparte's consonants with palaeotypic 
equivalents, of which 154 marked * are new combinations of symbols 
already explained, and in some few cases entirely new symbols. 


When Part III. was published, I hoped to complete this pro- 
tracted work in Part IY. But as I proceeded, I found it necessary 
to examine existing English pronunciation, received and dialectal, 
in so much greater detail than I had contemplated, and to enter 
upon so much collateral matter of philological interest, that I was 
soon compelled to divide that Part into two. Even the first of these 
parts, owing to other literary engagements into which I had entered 
when much briefer work was anticipated, could not be completed 
by the close of 1874, as required for the Early English Text Society, 
and hence a further division has become necessary. 

Part IY. now contains the Illustrations of the xvn th and xvin th 
centuries, an account of Received English Pronunciation, and the 
introductory matter to the new collections of English Dialects which 
have been made for this work, in order to register dialectal pronuncia- 
tion with a completeness hitherto unattained and even unattempted, 
as a necessary basis for understanding the pronunciation underlying 
our Early English orthography, which was wholly dialectal. These 
collections themselves, which have been already made to a sufficient 
and by no means scanty extent, will form Part Y., to be published 
in 1875. That Part will therefore be devoted to English Dialects. 
After it is completed, I contemplate allowing at least two years to 
elapse before commencing Part the Sixth and (let us hope) the Last. 
If I have life and strength (which is always problematical for a man 
who has turned sixty, and has already many times suffered from 
overwork), I propose in this last Part to supplement the original 
investigations, made so many years ago, when the scope of the sub- 
ject was not sufficiently grasped, the materials were not so ready to 
hand, and the scientific method and apparatus were not so well 
understood. The supplementary investigations which have been 
made by others, especially Mr. Sweet in his History of English Sounds, 
Prof. Payne and Mr. Furnivall on the use of Einal E, the late Prof. 
Hadley on the quantity of English vowels, and Prof. Whitney in the 
second part of his Linguistic and Oriental Studies, and others, with 
the criticisms friendly (as they mostly are) or hostile (as Dr. 
"Weymouth's) which my book has called forth, will be examined 
and utilised as far as possible, and by their means I hope to arrive 
at occasionally more precise and more definite conclusions than 
before, or at any rate to assign the nature and limits of the uncer- 
tainty still left. I have no theory to defend. Many hypotheses 
have necessarily been started in the course of this work, to re- 
present the facts collected ; but my chief endeavour has been, first 
to put those facts as accurately as possible before the reader in the 


words of the original reporters, and secondly to draw the conclu- 
sions which they seemed to warrant in connection with the other 
ascertained laws of phonology. But as, first, the facts are often 
conveyed in language difficult to understand, and as, secondly, 
the whole science of phonology is very recent, and the observations 
and experiments on which it has to be based are still accumulating, 
so that for example my own views have had to undergo many 
changes during the compilation of this work as the materials for 
forming them increased, my conclusions may be frequently called 
in question. Nothing is so satisfactory to myself as to see them 
overhauled by competent hands and heads, and no one can be more 
happy than myself to find a guide who can put me right on doubt- 
ful points. Non ego, sed res meet ! 

In the present Part I have endeavoured to make some additions 
to our phonological knowledge, and I believe that my examinations 
of aspiration (pp. 1125-1146), and my theory of fractures and 
junctures (pp. 1307-1317), already briefly communicated to the 
Philological Society, are real additions, which will be found to affect 
a very wide philological area. The examinations of living Indian 
pronunciation (pp. 1136-1140), though merely elementary, together 
with the account of ancient Indian alphabetics as collected, through 
Prof. Whitney's translation, from the Atharva Veda, Prdtigdkhya 
(pp. 1336-1338), may also prove of use in Aryan philology. But 
one of the most important additions that I have been able to make 
to our philological knowledge and apparatus consists of those 
extraordinary identifications of Yowel Sounds in forty-five European 
languages, each guaranteed by an example (pp. 1298-1307), which, 
together with an almost exhaustive list of the consonants found in 
actual use (pp. 1352-1357), I owe to the linguistic knowledge and 
kindness of Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, who has worked for 
me as hard and ungrudgingly as any of my other kind contributors, 
whose names (quae nunc praescrlbere longum est) are each given as 
their contributions occur, and if ever I reach that ultima Thule of 
authorship, my much-needed, and still more dreaded indices will 
be duly chronicled alphabetically and referred each to his own 
work. The number of helpers ladies I am glad to think, as 
well as gentlemen, aye, and men and women labouring with hands 
as well as with head who have so kindly and unstintingly helped 
me in this work, and especially in the collections which will form 
the staple of Part V., serve to shew not only the unexpected 
interest which so many feel in the subject, but the vast amount of 
good fellowship and co-operative feeling by which alone we can 
hope to build up the gigantic edifice of philology. 

As my Table of Contents will shew, the present Part consists of 
a series of essays bearing upon the history and present state and 
linguistic relations of our language, which either appear for the 
first time, or are put into a convenient form for reference from 
sources not readily accessible to ordinary readers. Tor the English 
of the Eighteenth century Lediard's little known book, for a know- 
ledge of which I am indebted to Prof. Payne, gives much interesting 


matter (pp. 1040-1049) ; and Noah Webster's account of American 
pronunciations nearly a century ago, derived from forgotten essays 
of that lexicographer (whose dictionary has been so recently im- 
ported in revised editions that few think him to be so ancient), make 
a new link in the chain binding the Seventeenth to the Eighteenth 
centuries (pp. 1064-1070). The examination of Received Pro- 
nunciation, as represented by Mr. B. H. Smart, Mr. Melville Bell, 
Prof. Haldeman, and Mr. Henry Sweet (pp. 1090-1207), and the 
actual observations on unstudied pronunciations as noted by myself 
at the moment of hearing, and contrasted with my own usages 
(pp. 1208-1214), form a new datum in phonology, because they 
enable us to estimate the real amount of floating diversity of pro- 
nunciation at any time, out of which, though unrecorded by ortho- 
graphy, the pronunciation of a future generation crystallises, only 
to be again dissolved by a fresh menstruum, and appear in still 
newer forms. We are thus put into a position to understand those 
changes which go on among even the educated, and "hear the 
(linguistic) grass grow." The accounts of existing differences in 
American and Irish pronunciation (pp. 1217-1243), which are 
mainly Seventeenth century survivals as modified by environment, 
though necessarily very imperfect, bring still more strongly to light 
existing diversities where there is appreciable sameness, that is, 
diversities which interfere so little with intelligibility of speech, 
that they have been hitherto disregarded, or ridiculed, or scouted 
by grammarians and linguists, instead of being acknowledged as 
the real "missing links," which connect the widely separated strata 
of our exceedingly imperfect philological record. Beyond such 
initiatory forms of transition, are the past records of dialectal 
variety verging into species. For English with the exception of 
Dr. Gill's most interesting little report on the dialects as known to 
him in 1621 (pp. 1249-1252) these are reserved for Part Y., but I 
have in the present Part IV. collected some of the results, and 
shewn their general philological bearing, as well as their special 
connection with the Early English Pronunciation, which is the 
main source and aim of my investigations ; and I have also given 
the phonetic theories necessary to appreciate them more thoroughly 
(pp. 1252-1357). Thanks to the labours of the great Teutonic 
linguist Schmeller, I have also been able to shew the variations 
which interpenetrate one great branch of the High German dialects, 
the Bavarian (pp. 1357-1368) ; and, thanks to the extraordinary 
collection made by Winkler, just published in Dutch, I have been 
fortunate enough to give English readers a general view of the 
present state of those Low German and Friesian dialects to which 
our own Anglosaxon language belongs, as they have developed 
under merely native influences, without the introduction of any 
strange element, like Celtic, Norman French, and Old Danish (pp. 
1378-1428). These modern dialectal forms are invaluable for a 
study of our Early English dialectal forms, for, although chrono- 
logically contemporaneous with the English of the Nineteenth 
century, they are linguistically several hundred years older. And 

xvili NOTICE. 

they enable us to appreciate the state of our own English dialects, 
which are in fact merely a branch of the same, left untouched by 
Winkler, because, like our own, these Low German dialects (with 
the exception of modern Dutch, which is a literary form of pro- 
vincial Hollandish), have developed entirely without the control of 
the grammarian, the schoolmaster, and the author. To philologists 
generally, this wild, unkempt development of language is very 
precious indeed. The theory of vegetable transformation was 
developed by Goethe from a monstrosity. The theory of linguistic 
transformation can only be properly studied from monstrosities 
naturally evolved, not artificially superinduced. And for pro- 
nunciation this is still more emphatically true than for construction 
and vocabulary, for pronunciation is far more sensitive to trans- 
forming influences. Hence I consider that my work is under the 
greatest obligation to "Winkler's, and that in devoting so much 
space to an abstract of his specimens, reduced to the same palaeo- 
typic expression of sound which I have employed throughout, I 
have been acting most strictly in the interests of Early English 
Pronunciation itself. 

Let me, indeed, particularly emphasise the fact that not even 
the slightest deviation has been made from the course of my 
investigation into English pronunciation by taking these dialects 
into consideration. As Mr. Green well says at the opening of his 
excellent Short History of the English People (which appeared as 
these pages were passing through the press) : 

" For the fatherland of the English race we must look far away from Eng- 
land itself. In the fifth century after the birth of Christ, the one country which 

bore the name of England was what we now call Sleswick The dwellers 

in this district were one out of three tribes, all belonging to the same Low 
German branch of the Teutonic family, who at the moment when history dis- 
covers them were bound together into a confederacy by the ties of a common 
blood and a common speech. To the north of the English lay the tribe of the 
Jutes, whose name is still preserved in their district of Jutland. To the south 
of them the tribe of Saxons wandered over the sand-flats of Holstein, and along 
the marshes of Friesland and the Elbe. How close was the union of these 
tribes was shewn by their use of a common name, while the choice of this name 
points out the tribe which at the moment when we first meet them must have 
been the strongest and most powerful in the confederacy. Although they were 
all known as Saxons by the Eoman people who touched them only on their 
southern border where the Saxons dwelt, and who remained ignorant of the very 
existence of the English or the Jutes, the three tribes bore among themselves 
the name of the central tribe of their league, the name of Englishmen." 

It is mainly owing to the dialectal differences of these tribes 
and places of their settlements in Britain (the history of which is 
given in an excellent epitome by Mr., Green) that the character of 
our dialects, old and new, was determined. But they did not all 
come over to Britain. Over the same Sleswick and Holstein, Jut- 
land and Friesland, dwelt and still dwell descendants of the same 
people. Philologically we all know the great importance of the 
few ancient monuments which have remained of their speech pre- 
served in monastic or legal literature. But these, as well as the 
oldest records of English in our own England (which I have 
hitherto called, and to prevent confusion shall continue to call 


Anglosaxon), fail to give us enough foothold for understanding their 
living sounds. These we can only gradually and laboriously elicit 
from any and every source that offers us the slightest hope of gain. 
None appears so likely as a comparison of the sounds now used in 
speech over the whole region where the English tribes grew up, 
and where they settled down, that is, the districts so admirably 
explored by Winkler and those which we shall have before us in 
Part Y. During the whole of this investigation my thoughts have 
been turned to eastern English for light. The opportune appear- 
ance of Winkler just before my own investigations could be pub- 
lished, was a source of intense delight to me, and though I was at 
the time overloaded with other work, I did not in the slightest 
degree grudge the great labour of abstracting, transliterating, 
writing out, and correcting those 50 pages at the end of Part IY., 
which indicate the nature of this treasure-trove, and I feel sure 
that all who pursue the subject of this work as a matter of scien- 
tific philology, and linguistic history, will be as much delighted as 
myself at the possession of a store-house of facts, invaluable for 
the investigation before them, and feel the same gratitude as I do 
to Winkler for his three years' devotion in collecting, arranging, 
and publishing his great Dialecticon. 

Such are the principal divisions of the present Part and their 
bearing on each other. Por some subsidiary investigations I must 
refer to other books which I have had to pass through the press 
this year, and which are published almost at the same time as the 
present pages. Helmholtz's great treatise, On Sensations of Tone 
as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music (shortly to be 
published by Longman and Co., from my English version, with 
notes and additions), contains the acoustical foundations of all 
phonology, and without studying the first two parts of this book, it 
is impossible to arrive at a due estimate of the nature of vowel 
sounds and their gradations (see below, pp. 1275-1281), and hence 
of the physiological cause of their extraordinary transformations. 
Although the preparation of my version and edition of Helmholtz's 
work has robbed me of very many hours which would in natural 
course have been devoted to the present, every one of those hours 
has been to me a step forward in the knowledge of sound, as pro- 
duced by human organs and appreciated by human nerves, and 
hence in the knowledge of speech sounds and their appreciation by 
hearers. As such I recommend the work the outcome of many 
years' labour by one of the first physiologists, physicists, and 
mathematicians of the present day to the most attentive con- 
sideration of all scientific phonologists. 

The other work is one of much smaller size and very little 
pretension. It is called Practical Hints on the Quantitative Pronun- 
ciation of Latin (published by Macmillan & Co.), and is the recast 
of a lecture which I delivered to classical teachers last June. It 
does not compete with Corssen's work in investigating the actual 
force of the Latin letters (except final M), but it takes up the two 
important questions of quantity, and musical accent in speech, and 


endeavours to give practical exercises for becoming familiar with 
them, so as to appreciate a rhythm dependent on " length" of 
syllable and embellished by "pitch-accent," as distinguished from 
rhythm due to " force-accent " and embellished by " pitch- 
emphasis." It also contains a delicate investigation of the nature 
of the final M and the meaning of its disappearance, which may be 
of assistance in appreciating the disappearance of final N in English, 
and the disappearance of other letters in English and other languages 
so far as their natural sounds are concerned, and their simultaneous 
survival as affecting adjacent sounds. As such I must consider it to 
be an excursus of the present work, necessarily separated from it 
by the different linguistic domain to which it belongs. 

The materials for Part Y. are, as I have mentioned, all collected, 
some of them are even in type, and others made ready for press, 
but it was physically impossible to prepare them in time for Part IV., 
and the nature of the typography, requiring great care in revision, 
does not allow of the least hurry without endangering the value of 
all the work, which is nothing if not trustworthy. The extreme 
pressure of literary work which has lain on me since I began pre- 
paring this Part in March, 1873, and which has not allowed me 
even a week's respite from daily deskwork, must be my excuse if 
marks of haste occasionally appear in the present pages. It will be 
evident to any one who turns them over, that the time required for 
their careful presentment in type was far out of proportion to their 
superficial area. And a very large part of the time which I have 
devoted to this work has been bestowed upon the collection of 
materials, involving long correspondence and many personal inter- 
views and examinations of speakers which occupy no space in 
print, while their result, originally intended to appear in the present 
Part, has been relegated to the next. Hence, with a cry of mea 
culpa, aliena culpa, I crave indulgence for inevitable shortcomings. 

A. J. E. 

Christmas, 1874. 




1. John WilkMs Phonetic Writing. 

DR. WILXINS, while Dean of Ripon (he was subsequently Bishop 
of Chester), 1 after inventing a phonetic alphabet for the purpose of 
giving a series of sounds corresponding to his Real Character, gives 
as a specimen of its use the Lord's Prayer and Creed, "written 
according to our present pronunciation." This is on p. 373 of his 
work, but on the occasion of his comparing the Lord's Prayer in 
49 languages (which he unfortunately does not represent phoneti- 
cally) with his own Philosophical Language (erroneously numbered 
51 instead of 50 on his p. 435), he adds the phonetic representation 
of the English version, which differs in a few words from the 
former copy, no doubt through insufficient revision of the press, 
and omits the final doxology. 

In the present transcription into palaeotype, I assume his vowels 
on his p. 363 to be (A AA, se aeae, e ee, i ii, 00, u uu, a aa), although 
I believe that he pronounced (o, , u) in closed accented syllables 
rather than (A, i, u). 2 His diphthongs will be represented as he has 
done on his p. 363 ; his so-called diphthongs u t , on his p. 364, 
meaning (yi, wu), will be written (i-i, u-u), to distinguish them 
from the long vowels (ii, uu). He has no systematic method of 
representing the long vowels. In the Creed and first version of 
the Lord's Prayer, he uses a grave accent to express length ; in the 
second version of the Lord's Prayer, he uses an acute accent. 
Again, the acute accent in the first version and the grave in the 
second represent the accent on a short vowel in a closed syllable. 
The o seems to have been considered always long, as no example 
of short o is given on his p. 363, although it is once marked long 
in rof in the Creed. It will be always transliterated by (00). 
The consonants were doubled without any special intention. The 
word body towards the end of the Creed he has written lady, 
evidently a mistake for b a d 4, as he does not use y in any sense, 
but employs a variation of it for (a). Virgin is evidently an error 
for Virdzhin. All the errors, however, will be given in the follow- 
ing transcript, and the various readings of the second copy of the 
Lord's Prayer will be added in brackets. Afterwards will be given 

1 See an account of his book supra, French, sister of Oliver Cromwell, 

p. 41, where he is erroneously called 2 For the considerations which have 

Bishop of Ripon, of which he was only influenced me, see supra pp. 68, 100, 

Dean. He married the widow Robina 177. 




in palaeotype the pronunciation which Wilkins probably intended 
to symbolize. As this short specimen is the only instance that I 
have discovered of continuous phonetic writing in the xvnth 
century, it has been thought best to give a minutely accurate copy 
in the first instance. One point only has not been attended to. 
Wilkins intended to represent (i) by the Greek i, and has generally 
done so in the second version of the Lord's Prayer, but in the first 
version and Creed i i are commonly used in place of i. As this is 
a mere accident of printing, I have replaced t, i, i by the single 
letter (i)o 1 His diaeresis when written over a vowel will be replaced 
by ;, made from ), before the vowel. 

Transcript of Wiltons' s Phonetic 

The Lord's Prayer. 
g;ur faeaedher nuitsh aert in 
ne'ven, Haelloo;ed [HAllooed] bi 
dhaingeaem [nAAm], dhai krqdam 
[kiqdam] kam, dhai uill [uil] bi 
dan, in erth aez it iz in ne'ven, 
giv as dhis daei aur daeili bred, 
send flrgi'v [fArgiv] as aur 
trespaessez aez ui fArgrv dhem 
dhaet trespaes [trespaess] aegaeinst 
as, send leed as nAt intu temptae- 
siAn, bat delrver as frAm ivil 
[ii'vil], fArdhain iz dhe kiqdim, 
dhe pau;er aend dhe glAri, fAr 
ever send ever, 

The Creed. 

gi biliiv in GAd dhe fseaedher 
Almaiti maeaeker Af ne-ven aend 
erth, aend in Dzhesas Kraist mz 
oonli san aur LArd, HU-U uaez 
kAnseeved bai dhe nooli Goost, 
bArn Af dhe Virgin Maeaeri, 
saffered ander PAnsias Pailaet, 
uaez kriusifiyed ded aend barijed. 
Hi dessended intu nel, dhe thard 
daei m roos aegaein frAm dhe ded. 
Hi aessended intu ne'ven, nueer 
ni sitteth aet dhe rait naend Af 
GAd dhe faeaedher, frAm nueens 
HI shAl kam tu dzhadzh dhe 

1 This mark will in future be em- 
ployed in place of (,), to denote dis- 
continuity or absence of audible glide. 
The different kinds of continuity and 
discontinuity will be discussed and 
more completely symbolised in Chap. 

Conjectured Meaning of WilTcins's 
Phonetic Orthography. 

The Lord's Prayer. 
g;ur faaae'dher whs'tsh sert th 
neven, nael-ooed bii dhai naeaem, 
dhai Hq'dam kam, dhai w*l bi 
dan, in. erth aez ii iz in neven, 
giv as dlws daei aur dasi'li bred, 
send forgiv as aur tres'paesez 932 
wii forgiv dhem dhaet tres-paes 
segseinst* as, aend leed as not nrtu 
temtaeae'sion, bat deliver as from 
ii'vil, for dhain iz dhe kiq'dam, 
dha pau-er aend dhe gloo'ri, for 
ever send ever. JEae'men. 

The Creed. 

g[i biliiv in God dhe faeae'dher 
AAlmai'ti, maeae'ker of neven 
send erth, aend in Dzhee'zas 
Kraist niz oon'li san aur Lord, 
whuu waez konseeved bai dhe 
Hooli Goost, born of dhe Verdzhin 
Maeae'ri, saf'ered an'der Pon-sias 
Pailaet, weez krrirs/faeied ded 
sendbar'ied. Hii desend'ed in'tu 
nel, dhe thard daei m rooz aegaein- 
from dhe ded. Hii aesend'ed in-tu 
neven, wheer nii sit*eth aet dhe 
rait naend of God dhe feeae'dher, 
from whens mi shAAl kam tu 

XII. 1, when considering Mr. Melville 
Bell's Key Words of modern English 
pronunciation, under WH. The old 
(,) will then receive the distinctive 
sense of the ' clear glottid.' 


kuik aend dhe ded. gi biliiv dzhadzh dhe kwik send dhe ded. 

in dhe Hooli Goost, dhe nooli gi biliiv m dhe noo'lt Goost, 

kaethoolik tshartsh, dhe kAm- dhe nooii kaetlroKk tshartsh, 

miuniin Af Saeints, dhe fArgiv- dhe komiu-mon of Saeints, dha 

ness Af sinz, dhe resarreksioon forgavnes of smz, dhe rezarek*- 

Af dhe bsedi, send laif everlaBstiq. s/on of dhe bod*, aend loif 

JEmen. evarlaest'eq. M& -men. 

2. Noteivorthy Pronunciations of the Seventeenth Century. 

The transition period of the xvnth century, reaching from the 
death of Shakspere to the death of Dryden, presents considerable 
interest. It is remarkable for the number of " slovenly" pro- 
nunciations as they would now be called, which were recognized 
as in use either by orthoepists or orthographers, the former to 
correct them, the latter to determine the " proper" spelling from 
the " abusive" sound. Spelling was in a state of transition also, 
and many orthographies recommended by the would-be authorities 
of this period are now discarded. Our sources take therefore two 
different forms, one determining the sound from the letters, and 
the other the letters from the sound. To the latter belong espe- 
cially those lists of Words Like and Unlike, which Butler appears 
to have commenced (supra p. 876), and which have ever since 
occupied a prominent place in our spelling-books. Great import- 
ance was always attached to the difference of spelling when the 
sound remained, or was thought to remain, the same, as this differ- 
ence was nay, is thought by many to present perfect means of 
determining meaning and derivations. It would have been de- 
sirable to fuse the two methods into one, but the indications, lax 
enough in vocabularies, were far too vague in the other lists, and 
hence they have had to be separated. 

SCHOLAR 1687, MIEGE 1688, JONES 1701. 

A pronouncing vocabulary of the xvn th century, though as much 
needed as one of the xvi th, is much more difficult to compile. For 
the xvi th century we possess a large collection of phonetically 
written words, which had only to be extracted and arranged, after 
their notation had been reduced to a single system. For the xvn th 
centuiy I have not been able to discover any systematic phonetic 
method of writing, except in Wilkins's Meal Character, where it 
is applied to a very small collection of English words. The other 
writers have more or less precise or lax methods of representing 
individual sounds, but very rarely indeed combine their symbols 
so as to spell out complete words. Their observations generally 
tend to shew the pronunciation of some particular groups of letters, 
principally vowels, in the words cited as examples, and the pro- 
nunciation of the rest of the word has to be collected, as well as 
possible, which is often very ill, from similar observations re- 
specting the other groups of letters in the word. This arose from 


the authors writing for those who, being well acquainted with the 
various pronunciations of the words, only required to have one 
fixed upon for approval, or who knew how to spell the word except 
in the individual point under consideration. To a learner in the 
xix th century such a course, however, presents great difficulties, 
and in many cases I have felt in doubt as to the correctness of the 
pronunciation of the whole word, although that of a portion of the 
word was almost certain. In other cases, especially in the im- 
portant works of Price and Jones, much difficulty arose from the 
ambiguity of their symbols. Thus if one were to say that ie was 
sounded as i in lie and sieve, it would be difficult to guess that the 
first was (lai) and the sound (sv), although (oi, i] are two common 
sounds of i. Still the results are very interesting, because in this 
xvn th century the pronunciation of English altered rapidly, and 
many words were sounded in a style, which, owing to the influence 
of our orthoepists of the xvmth and xixth centuries, is now 
generally condemned, although well known among the less educated 
classes. It may be doubted whether our language has gained in 
strength, as it has certainly gained in harshness and in difficulty, 
by the orthographical system of orthoepy which it has lately been 
the fashion to insist upon, but as such a system is thoroughly 
artificial, and results frequently in the production of sounds which 
never formed an organically developed part of our language, it is 
rather to be regretted than admired. 

The following is not a complete vocabulary, as that would be far 
too extensive, but it embraces all those words in Wallis, Wilkins, 
Price, Cooper, English Scholar, Miege and Jones, which struck me 
as being in some respect noteworthy, because they illustrate some 
Elizabethan usage or shew a transition from the xvith century, 
or a peculiar but lost sound, or an early instance of some well- 
known sound now heard, or give the authority for some pronuncia- 
tions now well known but considered vulgar or inelegant, or exhibit 
what were even in the XVEI th century reprobated as barbarisms or 

1) WALLIS does not furnish a long list, but the vowels in the 
accented syllables which he gives may be depended upon ; in some 
cases of consonants and unaccented vowels I do not feel so secure. 

2) "WILKINS'S list is very short, and has been already given in the 
example of his writing. In this vocabulary the words are re- 
spelled to signify the sounds he probably meant to convey. 

3) PRICE is uncertain, sometimes even in the accented syllables, 
owing to the defects of his notation. His short o has been as- 
sumed as (o), but throughout this century (A, o) are difficult to 
distinguish, and perhaps (A) prevailed more widely than at present. 
Even now watch, want, are perhaps more often called (wotsh, wont) 
than (wAtsh, wAnt), the latter sounds being rather American than 
English, which, again, is to some extent evidence of their use in 
the xvii th centuiy. 

4) COOPER is very strict but veiy peculiar in his vowel system, 
which has been sufficiently considered, supra p. 84. 


5) "The complete English Scholar, by a young Schoolmaster," 
8th ed. 1687, contains some words re-spelled to shew what the 
author considers their correct pronunciation, for a list of which 
I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Payne. These re-spellings 
I have generally annexed. 

6) MIEGE being a Frenchman, and evidently but imperfectly 
seizing the English sounds, has to be interpreted by endeavouring 
to discover (not what were the sounds he meant to convey by his 
notation, but) the sounds which were likely to have excited in him 
the sensations betrayed by his letters. This is of course a difficult 
and a delicate operation, and I may have often blundered over it, 
so that I have frequently felt it best to annex either his own 
notation or the gist of his remark. 

7) JONES furnishes the most extensive list, and in every respect 
the most remarkable part of the vocabulary, because his object was 
to lead any person who could speak, to spell, and therefore he has 
chronicled numerous unrecognized or "abusive" pronunciations 
besides those which were " customary and fashionable." By add- 
ing such observations as "abusively, sometimes, often, commonly, 
sounded by some, better," I have tried to convey a correct im- 
pression as to the generality of the pronunciation, so far as Jones's 
own statements go. I have not always felt perfectly confident of 
the correctness of my interpretation, owing to his ambiguous 
notation, and I am not quite clear as to the distinction which he 
draws between it, lit, which should be (it, b't) a distinction of 
which no other author takes any notice; the first he considers as 
the short of ee (ii), and treats of under ee, the second he treats of 
in conjunction with I (ai). 

The following abbreviations are employed : 

C Cooper, 1685. P Price, 1668. 

E English Scholar, 1687. "W Wallis, 1653. 

J Jones, 1701. Wk Wilkins, 1668. 

M Miege, 1688. 

A hyphen after a combination shews that it is initial ; before it, 
that it is final, as emp-, -our. Small capitals imply the older 
spelling used by the next following authority. The alphabetical 
arrangement follows the present orthography. Words not wholly 
in Italics are to be read as in palaBotypic spelling. The position of 
the stress is almost always marked from conjecture. 

A about sebaut- C, baut J 

above sebav P, C, M, bav J 

A, s'appelle et se prononce ai aeae, ae M abroad aebrAAd' J 

a A ind. art, se prononce en a court M abrupt aebrap- often J 

Aaron JEae-ron J abundance ban'daens J 

ab- b- often as baeset for sebseset' J abutt bat J 

abbey seb'e P, aeb'i C ace- k- frequently J 

abet bet J accompt sekaunt- J 

abide aebaid* C, baid J accoutred aekuirtard C 

abigail seb'tgael eeb'/geel J account akauut* J 

able aeae-bal etc. P, EEb'l C accountant kauirtaent often J 

aboard aebuurd- C, J accumulate kiirmiulaet often J 


ach s. aetsh P 

ache v. aeaek P 

ached AK'D sesekt 

ff#>m aeae-karn C 

acq- k- 0/fow J 

oegtift kwzt J 

acre EE-kar C 

action =aicchon aek-shan M 

flrd^m! aedneer J 

adieu sediir P, aedm C 

adjourn aedzharn- C 

adventure aedvEirtar C 

affairs sefEErz' C 

afford aefuurd- C, J 

afraid AFFRAID aefeerd', freed J 

again eegeir segeen' J 

against aegaeinst- Wk, aegeenst P, 

gseinst J 
age EEdzh C 
agnail een'eel J 
ai y=aei, generally P 
air EEF C 
air-y EEr-0 C 
aid aeaed eed J 

al- 1- o/itew as loon for sefooir J 
ffftw-m laeram usual J 
Albans rAA'baenz J 
alembic lenrbik usual J 
^fytVr JEldzheer JEldzhiir J 
atf AA! W, J 
Alexander Alessen^dor J 
all AA! comme un a Francois un peu 

long M 

alley l-e P, sel-* 1 C 
almanack AA-mseneek J 

, J,8e8e'man a-mun E, 

almoner senrnar, AAm'nar J 
almost Ain'MSt barbare C, AA'moost J 
0/ws AAmz J 
w- m- o/^w J 

ambiguous sembs'g'eas sometimes J 
ambs AAmz J 
amendment semen -ment J 
anatomy naDt-anu o/^w J 
anchor =ennker seq'kar M 
ancient ANTIENT soirshEnt C, AUNCIENT 

andiron sendai-arn J 

Anglesey -ZEq-g'lse P 

anguish seq'gwtsh J 

ann- n- often as neel anneal 

annoyance ANOIANCE noi*aens often, 

nius-aens sometimes J 
annual eerrsel occasionally J 
anoint amwint 1 senaint* C 
anon senon- senaen J 
another aenadh -ar, often nadh-ar J 
answer aen sor C, M, J 
anthem aentheem' J 
ancient ANTIENT aeirshent C 

antique seirta'k C 

ap- p- often, as pok'n'fse apocrypha J 

aposteme nnpasHum J 

apophthegm APOTHEGM sep'othem, may 

be sep-otheg'm J 

apothecary apotlrikan,poHkari usually^ 
appear aepiir- P, J 
appetite ap-etzi abusively J 
apprehend seprend 1 J 
apprentice pren-tzs usually J 
approve seprav P 
apricot sep-rikok J 
apron aese-parn C, E, M, J 
ar- r- often, as ritirmettk arithmetic J 
-ar -ar C, -er -ar J 
Archibald JErtslu'bAAl J 
-arc? -erd -ard J 
are EEr C, ear, not eer J 
Armagh JErmse J 
Arnold jErnol J 
arrand AAraend J 
arrant AA'raant J 
arrear aeriir' G 
arrears reerz J 
arrest rest J 
arrow aeru P 

artichoak HSBrtz'tshoak J 

artificial BBrttft'sh'Bal, and in similar 

words <:i- =sh<J 
-ry -ere J 

a*- s- sometimes as stoirtsli astonish J 
as AZ 0w a c<?wr M 
asparagus spaer'aegas J 
aspen aes'pan J 
assume aeshuum' J 
asthma aes-mse J 
assure aeshuur J 
atheism aeaa'theezm, saee 'thaizin J 
atheist aaae'theest, aeaa'thaist J 
att- t- as people are apt to sound teent 

for attaint J 

attorney setanre P, ATTOURNEY aetarn?'C 
athwart aethart* J 
auburn oo'barn, may be AA'barn J 
auction ook'sban, may be AAk'shan J 
audible Au*d<?bl, AA'd^bl negligenter C 
audience oo'diens may be AA'diens, some- 

times AA'dens J 
audit oo'&it, may be AA'da't J ' 
audit-or-y Airdet-ar-tf, A A'dit-ar-^ negli- 

genter C 
augment Augment', AAgniEnt* negligenter 

C, oogment, may be AAgment 1 J 
augury Airgan', AA'gart negligenter C 
aunt=aint aent M, aent A Ant J 
auricular Aim'kiular, AArtk'tular negli- 

genter C 

austere AAsteer J 

authentic AUTHENTICK AuthEn'ttk, 
negligenter C 


author A A "tar J 

authority AutliAr'tfte, AAthArtte negli- 

genter C, AAtorite J 
av- v- often as vAAnt avaunt J 

avarice Sevan's J 

aver aever seveer SDvaeaer <? *0 prononce 


aviary aeae'vart sometimes J 
award sewArd- comme enfran^ais M 
aw/ AA! W 

axletree Eks'trt facilitatis causa C 
flysei C 
azwre aesh-ar J 


0"a070 bAA'b'l en a long M 

backward baek-ard J 

bacon bseaek-n J 

bailiff 'bee-lii J 

Jam bEEn balneum C 

da# baeit C 

baker bEEk'ar C 

balderdash bAA'dardsesh J 

baldric bAAl'n'k J 

balk bAAk P, J 

balm bAAm J 

balsam bAAl'ssem a long M 

Banbury Bsenrban J 

da** bseaen "W, bEEan C 

banish bsenvsb C 

bankrupt bseqk-rap often J 

banquet baaq-kwet J 

baptism baeb'tt'zm sometimes J 

bar baer W, C 

Barbara Berberae = Bar'barse J 

bare bseser "W, bEEar C 

bargain baergeen P, baer'gEn C 

barge bseserdzh C 

barley baar'h' C 

baron bserAn C 

barroiv baar'u P 

basin baes'n P, BASON bEES'n C 

bastile baestiil 1 J 

bate baeaet W 

be bii P, BEE C, M, J 

be- bii J 

beacon b^k'n C 

beadle biid'l J 

bear v.s. bEEr C, P 

bear s. =bair bseser un ours M 

beard bEErd C, J, berd P, M, J 

beast beest W 

beastly bees'h' J 

beaten beet-n M 

beau BEAW biu J 

Beauclare Biirklseaer J 

Beaufort Biu-fort J 

Beawnaris Biumcef/s J 

Beaumont Biirmont J 

beautify biu'ttfai J 

beauty beirtt' rectius, quidam biu'tt W, 

biu'te M 

because bikaaaaz' bikAAz- J 
been bin J 
begin, biigjm' W 
behaviour binaaaevar J 
behold biHwuld C 
behove binav P, binuuv C, M 
bellows bel'ooz C 

bellows bel'ooz, facilitatis causa bel'es C 
Belus Bee-las J 
bench bentsh P 
beneath bineedtr P 
benign bintg-an J 
Berks Beerks J 
besmear bismiir C, M 
besom biis-am M 
besought bisect' J 
betoken bitook'n C 
betroth bitroth/ P 
beyond bijand' C, bijon 1 J 
bezoar bez-ar J 
bible baib-1 C 
bier beer biir J 
Bilbao Btl-boo, Btl-bua J 
bird bard P, C 
bittern BITTOUR b^t'ar C 
birth barth G 
biscuit bes-ket J 
bishop bash'ap bnrbare C, = boshop 

bash-ap pas du bel usage M, bush'ap 

sometimes J 
blain BLEIN bleen J 
blaspheme blaesfeem' J 
blast blseaest C 
blazon blEEZ'n C 
blea blee J 

blear-eyed bliir-aid P, C, M 
blind blaind G 
blithe BLITH blaitb. C 
blomary blam - ar/ J 

blood BLOUD blad P, ou=o court M, J 
blood-i-ly bld---l C 
bear buur C 

board BOORD buurd tabula C, J 
boil bail, bwoil (bwoil ?) nonnunquam 

"W, bwil bail C, buuil, sometimes 

bold boold nonnunquam bould W, buld 

C, boould J 
bole boul P 
bolster boul-star P, bwul-star C, booul'- 

star J 

bolt boult booult J 
bomb buutn J 
bombast bambasst- J 
bone boon C 
book buuk C 
boor BOAR buur J 
boose BOWZE bauz C 


boot buut C 

Bordeaux BOURDEAUX Buurdoo' J 

borne buurn bajulatus C, = borne boorn 

porte M 
born bArn parturitus C, barn bAArn 


borough boro bara M 
borrage barsedzh J 

borrow boru P, bAATAA borAA com J 
0osom baz'am J 
bough bau, boo J 
bourn buurn rivulus C 
iow boo arcus, bwu torqueo C 
iow^ BOUL baul globus W, C, J, BOWL 

boul poculum W, BOLE buul patera C, 


oz/ boi, bwoi (bwoi ?) nonnunquam "W", 

bwAi dissyllabum C 
bought bAAt C, bootf bAAt sometimes 


onzw brsein C 
r#z^r BRASIER brseslrar, sometimes 

brsesez-ar J 

am** breek P, brak C 
breakfast brek-wsest w sowe countries J 
breastplate bres-plseset J 
breviary brevari sometimes J 
irew bryy "W 
breivess breu'es P 
bridge bredzh J 
5rw^ Brts-too P, J 
iroa^ brAAd C, oa = d M, J 
iroi7 brwil brail C, brail sometimes J 
brotherhood brodb'arhod C 
brought broot P, J 
irwue brmz C, briuz J 
bruit briut J 
Buckingham Bak'i'qsem J 
$7d btld C, biuld J 
butt bul M, J 
bullion bol'jan C 
bumble bee am-bl bii J 
buoy BWOY bwi C, boi, buui J 
bur bar C 
burden bardan J 
burlesque barlezg' barlesk* J 
burt BIRT bn't J 
burthen bardben P 
bury ber-t C, bera' M 
Jwsy BUSIE b'z* C, M 
business btz'nes C 
but bat o ccw* M 

cabin kseb'en J 

Caiaphas Kee'fas J 

caitiff \&\'tif C 

caldron kAA'dran kAA'darn J 

m//kAAf C, J 

call kAAl W 

calm kaelm P 

can kjan W, keen C 
candle ksenl J 

cannot kaent J 

canoe CANOO ksenuu* J 

canonier ksenoneer ksenoniir* J 

cap, keep, en ai bref ou en e ouvert M 

capable kEE-psebl C, kgese'bebl occ. J 

capacity ksepses'^te C 

cape kEEap G 

caper kEE-par C 

capon kEEp-n C,kse8ep-n o se mange M 

car kser C 

card keeeerd C 

care kEEar C, =caire kseaer M 

cared kseserd card C 

career CARREIR kaereer' P 

car king ksoserk'iq G 

carp kseserp C 

carriage ksersedzh C, kser-edzb occ. J 

carrion kseron P, kseren occasionally J 

case kEEas C 

cashier CASHIRE ksesbiir- J 

cast ksesest C 

caterer kEE'tarar C 

Catharine Ksetb-ern E, Kset-arn J 

catholic keeth-oKk Wk 

caul kAAl W 

cause kAAZ comme afran$ais M 

causeway kAA'ze P 

ctfw^'owskAu-sbas, kAA'sbas negligenter C 

cavilling ksevKq J 

ce- see- J 

celestial sElEst-Jsel, and in similar words 

~sti = -stj G 

censure SEns-ar C, seirshar J 
centaury sen'tari seirtAAra' J 
century SEU-tan' C, sen'tan J 
certain ser'tsen ? ai comme en certain M 


chaldron tshAA'dran C, J, tsbAA'darn J 
chair tsbser tsheer J 
chalk tsbAAk C 
chamois SHAMOIS shsem'ii J 
chamberlain tshsem-berleen P 
Chandois Shsen'dais abusively J 
chandler tsbsen-ler J 
chaplain tsbsep-leen P 
chaps tsbops abusively J 
Charles TshAArlz barbare C 
charriot CHARIOT tsbseret occasionally J 
chasten tshees-n J 
cheer CHEAR tshiir P, J 
Chelmsford Tshemz'ford J 
cherub tsberab W, tsbeer-ob J 
-Chester -tsbesbar J 
cheveron tslievarn J 
chew tsh'Ai C, tsboo tshoou, may be tsbiu, 

sometimes tshAA. J 


chicken tshik-an J 

children tshtl-ren J 

chimney tshinvne P 

chirp tsherp J 

chirurgeon = sordgin sar'dzhm M 

chisel CHE8EL tshii-zel J 

Chloe CLOE Kloo-i C 

chocolate tshak'olseaet J 

choir CHORE kwair J 

Cholmly Tshanrlt J 

chorister kwerister J 

Christ kraist W, Wk 

christen krzs-n J 

Christian kn'st'jsen "W, kn'st'en 

fo'mtf* J 
Christmas krts'mses J 
c^wrc/i tshartsh Wk 
chuse tshuuz M 
-cialy -shael J 
"date -shseaet J 
cinque se'qk J 
-o -shas J 

circuit Barktt C, sarkiut sarket J 
Cirencester SeVetar J 
citron szt'arn C, sit'arn M 
civil si'val J 
clarion kleer'en occ. J 
clear kliir .P, M, J 
c&r klserk J 
clew klm J 
eJi/f kh'f J 
climb klaim P 
<tfoa CLOKE klook C 
clyster ghVtar J 
coach kootsh C 
coarse kuurs = course C 
cobiron kotrararn kob'arn J 
cochinel kusli'ineel J 
cockney kok-ne P 
codicil kAcH'sz'l C 
coffee = caphe kofe M 
cognisance korrt'saens, kan-z'ssens J 
cohere koneer J 
cohort kuurt J 
coif kAif C, auoiF koif J 
coil kuuil, kail sometimes J, QUOIL koil J 
coin kain J 
colander kal'fendar J 
cold koold nonnunquam kould "W", kould 

P, kemld C 
collier kAl'jar and in similar words, 

-ier = Jdr C 

Cologne Kul-en Cul-len E 
colonel kal-nal J 
coltsfoot koolz-fut J 
comb kuum J 
combat kanvbaet C 
come kam W, COM kam C 
comely COMLY kam-h' C 
comfort kam'fart J 
comfrey kam-fre P 

commandment komaeirment J 

committee = committe komz'f e M 

companion kampsen-jan C 

company kam'psen* J 

complete = complete kompleet' M, J 

comptroll kontroul' J 

comrad CAMERADE kam'raeaed J 

concede konseed* J 

conceit konseet' P, J 

conceive konseev P, CONCEIT 

C, konseev* e masculin M , J 
concourse kAn'kuurs C 
condign kondzg'an J 
condition kandis'eon negligentius "W 
conduit kan'dz't P, E, kan-dd; C, kan'diut 

kan-det J 
coney kan*t P, J 
conge kon-dzhe J 
conjure kairdzhar J 
conquer koq'ker ? J 
conscience kon'shens J 
conspicuous konspik'eas J 
constable kairsU'bl abusively J 
construe kon'star J 
consume konshuunv J 
contagion kontsese'dzhen occ. J 
contradict kAntrsedtkt' G 
controul kontroul' P 
contrary kontree're C 
convey konvaei P, kAnvee' C 
copy kwp'e C 
coppice kops J 
coral kar-ael C, J 
corrupt korap- often J 
coroner kraun'ar J 
costly kos'K J 
couch kuutsh P, J 
cough kof W, P, =*4/kAAf M 
could kould P, kuuld C, kuud J 
couldest kuust J 
coulter kwil-tar C 
countrey kan'tre P, kan'tri C, J 
counterfeit kaun*tarfeet J 
couple kap'l C 

courage, karsedzh C, J, kuraedzh J 
courier kariir' J 
course kuurs W, P, C, koors ou = o wipeu 

long M, kuurs J 
court kuurt P, C, J 
courtesan CURTEZAN kartezaen C, kar*- 

tisaen J 

courteous kart-jas C, J, kuurt-jus J 
courtesy kar'tesz P, J 
courtier kuurtiar P, kuurt'jar C 
courtship kuurt-shtp C 
cousin kaz-n P, COUSEN COOSEN kaz'n 

C, kaz-an J 

covent(garden] koven J 
cow kau J 

cowherd kau'Hserd occasionally J 
cot/ kAi C 


cozen kaz-n C, kaz'an J 

cradle krEE(H C 

crazy krEEZ'e C 

credit kree'cU't J 

Crete criit J 

crevis kree'v/s J 

crimson kn'nrsm E 

crony CRONE kroo'm C 

crosier crojir kroo'zhar M, krooz'ar 

sometimes J 
crouch kruutsh J 
crucified kriu'S*ft;ed Wk 
cruise kriuz J 
cube keub C 
cucJcow kukuir P 
cupboard kab'ard J 
(7pM? kiirbe'd sometimes J 
cwrtf kyyr "W, ktirar C 
curious ktirms C 
curtain karteen P 
cushion kusb'en, kaslren ? cush-en E 


rfatfy d8erlt"Wk 

rf*Vy dEE-n C 

dame deeaem "W 

damosel dsenrsel C, dsenrzel J 

damson DAMASIN dsenrzwi J 

ctoft0 dAAns J 

dandle dseirl J 

dandriff DANDRUFF dsen-dar facilitatis 

causa C 

Daniel Dsen-el occasionally J 
Daphne Dsef-ne J 
d#r dsesert C 
(fa*A dsesb C 
date dEEat C 

daughter dAAf'tar occasionally J 
daunt dAANT, daent melius fortasse C, 

= daint dsent M, dsent dAAnt J 
Daventry Dsesen'tri Deeirtn J 
day dei W, Wk, dEE C 
de- dee- J 

dear diir W, P, C, M, J, der J 
dearth forth C 
debonair debAnEEr C 
deceit deseet' nonnulli desasit W, deseet' 

deceive deseev "W, P, DECEIV disEEv C, 

deseev ^ masculin M, J 
decoy dikor abusively J 
deign dsein P, deen J 
Deitrel Dai-trel J 
deity dee-tt dai-tt J 
demesne demeen- dimiin J 
deputy debiutt occasionally J 
despair despEEr C 
desume doshuura J 
deter deter* deteer detseaer 1 ? ^ seprononce 

devil dEvl C, divl del sometimes del s 

in "del take you" J 
diadem dai'sedsm C 
diamond dai'mand di-mund E 
diaphragm dai'sefraem J 
diary deer'i occ. J 
dictionary dzks-nsen E, d^ks-narz CMS- 

tomary and fashionable J, Amce ^A^ 

oW joke of a servant being sent to 

borrow a Dz'k Snser' asking for 

Mts-ter Ettsh-aerd Snser-t 
rftrf dad 3rire C 
didst dz'st/or speed's sake J 
diphthong DIPTHONG dz'p'tboq J 
^'r^ dar-dzbe C 
distrain DISTREIN dtstreen' J 
discrete dz'skreet 4 J 
do dim rectius doo W, duu P, &oo=doe C, 

dim M, J 
dole dool P 
<fo^ doult P, dwult C 
done dan "W 
door duirer sometimes J 
dost duust J 
<M duuth J 
double dab-1 C 
doublet dab-let C, J 
e?oz^A DOWE doo C 
doughty Aoo-ii J 
dove dav W, daf M, dav J 
dozen DOSEN DOUZEN daz-n C, daz-an J 
drachm drsem C, drsek-am, drsem J 
draught drAAt C, J 
droll droul C, drol afran<;ais M 
drought =draout draut M, draut drAAt 

droot J 
dumb dam P 
Dunelm Dan*em J 
dunghill daq'zl P 
Dunstable Dan-sttbl abusively J 
<??* dyyr W 
Durham Darsem J 
dwindle dwm'l J 


e- ee- J 

can een C 

ear iir C, J 

earl EErl C 

early EErH G 

0am EErn C 

earnest EErnEst C 

earth Erth, jartb. barbare C, yerth 

jertb pas du bel usage M 
earwig iirws'g C 
Eastcheap Ees'tsbeep J 
eastward eest-ard J 
ebullition bab'sh-an often J 
Ecclesfield Eg-lzfiild J 
eclogue eg'log J 
eg-stses*' J 


Edward Ed-ard J 

e'er eer J 

effectual efekieel occ. J 

ei never = '\\ J 

eight aeit P, geit vulgariter C, ait (?) J 

eilet arlet J 

either eedh-er P, EEdlrar C, adlrar e 

feminin M, aidlrar eedlrar J 
eke eek J 
el- 1- often J 

Eleanor ELLENOR El-nar J 
eleven eleven ilsevan J 
em- m- often after * the ' or a vowel, as 

mal'shan emulsion J 
'em am them J 

emb- b- often as bod'i embody J 
embalm embselur P 
embolden erabould'n P 
emp- p- often as peetsh empeach J 
en- n- often as naf enough J 
-en -an m eaten, &c., J 
enamel senrel J 
enamoured senvard J 
ewe?- d- as dsenvaedzh endamage J 
end iind barbare C 
endeavour endee-var P 
England liq-laend P, J, /q'laend J 
English liq-h'sh P, J 
engorge gordzb J 
engrave grsesev J 
enhance enHAANS J 
enough inaf * multum W, P, enau* 

< ww^a W. Enaf* quantitalem deno- 

tansj enau- numerum denotans C 
environ envararn C 
mro^ enrwul C 
ensue enshuir J 
ensure enshuur- J 
entrails eirtrselz P 
enthusiasm Enthiirshsezm C, tbiu w - 

sisesam J 

Epiphany Pif'sen* sometimes J 
epistle ptsi sometimes J 
epitome eprt'ome M 
-er -ar C 
erg EEr C 
err ar C 
es- s- o/^w J 
*tfap scsDsep J 
escA<?^ estsliiu' P, estshoo- estshoou' may 

be estshiu 1 J 
esquire skwair J 
-^55, -is, often in words of two syllables 

as gud'm's goodness J 
essay see J 
estates streets J 
eternal iternAAl P 
Eton EATON Eet-n J 
etymology timol'odzlu J 
ev- v- o/^ as vaeirdzheh'st evangelist J 
livsDii Evan J 

every evar* J 

.W liv J 

w iiv M 

Eveling livlz'q J 

even ii-ven P, J 

evening iivm'q P, J 

evil iivl C, M, J 

ewe eu P 

example enssenrpl ssem-pl J 

exasperate aes'perseaet J 

Exchequer ESCHEQUER tskek-ar J 

experience ekspeer'ens sometimes J 

extol ekstool- P 

extraordinary eks'tra,ordm8ert P 

extreme = extreme ekstreenv M. 

-ey -e J 

eyelet OILET aiiet sometimes J 

fable fEE-bl C, =faible fjese-b'l M 
fair fEEr C, =faire fEEr feer see 'fare ' 

M by his rule, fsear feear feer J 
falchion fAA'shan J 
falcon fAAk-n J 
falconer fAAk'nar C 
fall fAAl C 

fallow fael'u P, fsel'AA commonly J 
Falmouth FAA'math J 
falter fAA'tar J 
fare =faire fseser M 
farrier fserar occasionally J 
farthing fserdz'q C 
fashion faesh'n o comme muet M, fgesli'- 

en J 

fasten faes'n J 

/fl^Aer faese-dher Wk, fAA'dhar J 
favour faese'vuur fsese'var J 

fear f iir C 

February Feb'rart sometimes J 

feign fsein P, feen J 

felt felt e en ai M 

/<?fo fee*lo J 

female fee'maeael J 

feodary fEd'arz G 

feoff M C, fef J 

feoffee fefii P, J 

ferule fee riul J 

feud feud P 

few feu recthls, quidam fiu W, feu P, 

fAA barbare C 
/eW fiild C 

fieldfare f B ld-fBEr C, fiil-fjeser J 
fiend f iind W, find J 
fight iei =fit C 
figure ftg'ar C 
/w^r fi'q-gar J 

fir far C, fEr dpeu pres comme e ouvert M 
first farst P, C 
fire fai'ar C, faier re comme er M, fai'ar J 


fissure fYsh-ar J 

fivepence fs'p'ens J 

flake flEEak C 

flash flash C 

flasket flseaesk-et C 

flaunt flAAnt P, C, flsent flAAnt J 

flaw =/ flAA M 

flea flii W 

/OO^FLOUD flad P, flwd flad C, flad J 

^oor fluu'ar sometimes J 

flourish flar-zsh C 

/00 FOALE fool C 

/o# fail sometimes J 
foist faist sometimes J 
fold fould P, fmild C 
folk fook J 

/O^OW fol'UU P, J, fAA'lAA fol'AA COM. J 

folly fAK C 

fondle fon-1 J 

fondling foirh'q J 

fool fuul C 

/oo fuut P, fat as distinct from fot, fat 

barbare C, fat, fo<?r fut J 
/cm fuurs C 
ford FOOHD fuurd P, J 
foreign FORRAIN fAren C, foran efem- 

inin M 
forfeit=fA.rfvt C, for 'fat efeminin M, 

forfeet J 
form fuurm classis C,fdrtn fAArmforme, 

=form foorm bane M 
forsooth farsattr, better farsuuth* J 
forswear fArswm" C, forseer J 
forswore forsuur J 
forth FOORTH fuurth C 
forward forward J 
four fmir C 
fought foot J 

fourth faurth P, fuurth = forth C, J 
fracture =fracter frsek'tar avec e fem- 

inin, familier M 
frail fraeil C 

frankincense frseqk'ansens barbare C 
fraud frood may be frAAd J 
fraudulent frAU'dmlfint, frAA'd^ulent 

negligenter C 
frequent free'kwent J 
friend friind W, P, frEnd C, friind 

frind frend J 
friendly frenit J 
friendship fren'she'p J 
froise fraiz sometimes J 
frontiers frontiirz 1 P 
frost frAAst, fere semper producitur o 

ante st C 

froward frau-serd P, froo-ard J 
fruit friut P, frtut C 
frumenty farnu'U' barbare G,=formitd 

farmt'tt' M, far-meti J 
Fulks Foouks J 
full M C, fill M, J 

funeral feun-erael C 


furniture far'n^tar C, J 

furrier FURIER far-ar sometimes J 

further farder G 

fusilier fiust'leer fiusz'liir- J 

fustian fast^'aen P, fest'en sometimes J 

future fiu'tar J 


gain gsein P 

Gabriel Gseb'rel sometimes f 

gallery geel-rt T 

gallimalfry gseh'mAA'fri J 

gallon gsesen in Berks J 

gallows gsel-as E 

gaol dzhsesel dzheel J 

gash gsesh G 

gasp gsesesp C 

gastly gses-K J 

gate gEEat C 

gave gav gau barbare G 

gazette GAZET gsezEt- C 

gear giir C, M, J 

general, dzheireral approche du son de 

noire a M 
gentle djen-t'l "W 
geography dzheg'rsefr sometimes J 
geometry dzhem etre J 
Georgius Dzhordzhuus J 

get gjet "W, gitfacilitatis causa C 
ffh=n i in bought ; etc. P, desuevit 

pronunciation retinetur tamen in scrip- 

turd, C 
ghost goost G 
ghostly goos'U' J 
girl gErl a peu pres comme e ouvert M, 

gerl J 

glance glAAns P 
glanders glAAn'darz J 
glebe gleeb J 
glisten gKs'n J 
glori glAA'M "Wk 
Gloucester Glast'ar J 
glove glaf M 
gn- n- J 

go guu rectius goo "W", guu P, goo C 
gold goold nonnunquam gould W, gould 

P, gMuld C, guuld J 
Goldsmith Guul'simth J 
^ood gad, P, gwd G, gad, better gud J 
good-ly-ness gwd-h'-nES C 
gouge guudzh J 
gourd goord P, guurd J 
gournet garnet C 
grace grees C, =graice grseaes M 
gracious GRATIOUS grEE-shas C 
grammar, grsenrar approche du son de 

notre a M 
grandchild grsen-tshaild J 



granddame grseireem J 

grandfather graen-faedlrer J 

grandmother graen-madb/er J 

grange grEEndzh C 

grant graeaent C 

grasshopper graes'opar J 

grating grEEt-e'q C 

gravy greev* C 

gravity graevtt* C 

great greet C 

Greenwich Griir/dzh J 

grenadier GRANADIER graeneedeer graen- 
aediir J 

grey gree P 

gridiron gn'd'ararn C, grtd-ararn grtd'- 
orn J 

grindstone graurstan J 

griest GRIEST grist J 

groat groot P, grAAt C, M, J 

groin grain sometimes J 

gross groos J 

guaiacum gwee'kam J 

guardian gaerd'en occasionally J 

gudgeon GOUGEON gadzlran C 

guess GHESS ges J 

guild gild C 

guildhall gzld'HAAl C, gail'HAAl J 

guilt gwilt J 

gurgeom GURGIANS gredzh-znz facili- 
tate causa C 


ha ! neeae C 

haaJc haeaek J 

Hackney Hsek-ne P 

hadst Haest/or speed's sake J 

hair HEEr C 

half HAAf C, J 

halfpenny haese'pem J 

hallow Hsel'u P 

Aa&w HAAM C, J 

hamper HANAPER naenvper J 

handkerchief HANKERCHIEP nseq'- 

kEtshar facilitatis causa C, = hen- 

ketcher neq-ketshar M, Heend'kar- 

tshar J 

handle Heenl J 
handmaid naen'meed J 
handsel Haeirsel J 
handsome Hsen'sam J 
hardly H83r-k' J 
harquebus naerkibas J 
harsh H83sh J 
Harwich Hsert'dzh J 
hasten Hses'n J 

Aa^, H83t ew ai brefou en e ouvert M 
haunt HA Ant, naent melius fortasse C 

narnt HAAnt J 
hautboys HOO boiz J 
haut-gout HAUT GOUST HOO goo J 

haven HEEVH C 

hay HEE C 

hazelnut HASLENUT HEE'zlnat C 

hazy HEEZ'z C 

he Hii P, C, M, J 

head HEd C 

hear mir W, P, C, M , J 

heard naerd P, 0, J, nerd J 

hearken nerk-n a est conte pour rien M 

heart nsert C, J 

hearten naert'n C 

hearth naerth C 

Hebrew Hee-briu J 

hecatomb nek'setam J 

Hector Ek-tar J 

hedge edzh J 

heifer neefer P, HEfar C, Haf-ar efem- 

inin M, neef-ar nefar J 
heigh nai J 
height HEit, HEE! negligenter C, =hdit. 

hait M, halt neet, HEIGHTH neetth J 
heinous HAINOUS HEinas, HEE-nas 

negligenter C, nee'nas J 
A'r aeir P, EET C 
held mid barbare C 
^T^mEl-en J 
hemorrhoids enrerodz J 
hence = hinnce nms M 
her nar P, C, nar e feminin M, =ar 

/i?^r consonants J 
herald HERAULD ner'AAl J 
herb jarb barbare C, =-yerb jerb j* <7 

ie^ s^0 M, erb, jerb a* sounded by 

some J 

Herbert Haerbart J 
here mir P, Hirer re comme er M, mir J 
Amo eriat J 
hermit erim't J 
A^row narn J 
hiccough nik-ap J 
hideous H/d'ias nzd-eas J 
him im., often, as take 'im J 
hire narer J 

his iz, of ten j as stop 'is horse J 
hither heder nadh'er e feminin M 
hoarse noors C 
hogshead nog'shed J 
hoise Haiz sometimes J 
Holborn Hoo-born P, Hoo-barn J 
hold Hould P, Hwuld C 
holdfast HooHaest J 
holiday = haliday HoHdee M 
hollow HAA-IAA Hol'AA commonly J 
holm Hoom J 
holp Hoop J 

holster HOLDSTER nool-ster often ool'star J 
Holy holy noo'li M 
homage ora'aedzh often J 
hood Had P, nod-, nad, better nud J 
hord Huurd P 


horn HAArn, fere semper producitur o 

ante rn C 

hosannah oozaen-ae often J 
hosier = h6jer Hoo'zbar M, noo'shar J 
host cost P, oost often J 
hostage ost'sedzb J 
hotter wbat'ar barbare C 
hour, hourly aur, eurli, the only words 

with h mute M 

household HOTJSHOLD nans-could J 
housewife = hozz-if naz-ef M, HOZ'ii 

HaZ'Z HaS'i J. 

hover Harar C 

how HEU molliores concinnittatem nimis 

affectantes C 

howsoever nauzevar faciUtatis causa C 
Aw^tf ne'udzb C, Hooudzb abusively J 
hundred nan-dard faciUtatis causa C, 

M, J 

hurricane HERATJCANE berAAksen ? P 
hyacinth dzbses-mtb J 

J=aV ai M 

idle ai-d'l W 

immersion mer'sban J 

imp- p- 0/iteM, as paund impound J 

impede nnpeecV J 

impost im-poost C 

imposthume imposHum P 

impugn erapag'an J 

incision e'nsz'zlren C 

inchipin znsh-pm J 

Indian Jn'dzliaan, sometimes Th'den J 

indict mdait' en sonnant Vi a'i M, J 

inhabit mseb'ft usually J 

inhibit inib'it usually J 

inherit mer'it tisually J 

inhesion mmrzhan C 

inhospitable inos'p^tsebl usually J 

injoin mdzhain- C 

injury tn'dzhert J 

instead mstiid' J 

interfere ENTERFEIR eirterfeer P 

interrupt mterap 1 often J 

inv- v- often as vest invest J 

inveigh invaai* P 

inveigle mvEEg'l C, e'nvee g'l emasculin 

M, J 

inward m-ard J 
iron ai'arn C, M, J, arn J 
Isabel 7z-bel J 
isle ail J 

*s wo^ ? ent ? faciUtatis causa C 
tsswe ish'uu J 
isthmus t'st'mas J 
Italian /taal'en occasionally J 
tY A<?s tsez J 
# * ttz J 
-i^y -ett J 

Jacquet dzhaek^et 

jambs dzhAAmz J 

James Dzheemz C 

JaneDffe'ne Dzheen M 

January Dzhssn-ari sometimes J 

jar djar W 

jasmine 'men J 

jaundice JAUNDIES dzbAAn'des C, 
dzhAAn'dz's J 

jaunt dzbAAnt, dzbsant melius fortasse 
C, dzbaent dzbAAnt J 

jealous jii'las jee'las ?je-lus E 

jealousie dzbee'last P 

Jenkin Dzbzq'kin J 

Jeo/rey Dzbefre J 

jeopardy dzbep'aarde P, C 

jerk jerk as sounded by some J 

Jesus Dzbee'sas J 

Jew Dbiu J 

jewel dzbiirel P 

join dzbwin dzbain C, dzbuuin, some- 
times dzhain J 

joint dzbaint C 

jointure dzbmn'tar dzhain'tar C 

jolt dzhwult C 

journal dzharnsel C 

journey dzbarne P, dzbar'nt C 

joy djoi W, dzbAi C 

joy dzbAi C 

judge dzbadzb Wk 

juice dzhms C, dzhius J 

Julian Dzbzl'ian, a woman s name J 

Jupiter Dzbiu'bitar sometimes J 

Kelmsey Kem'z* J 
Kenelm Ken'em J 

key kee P, J 

kidney kidne P 

kiln ktl J 

kindle km-1 J 

kindly kain'K J 

kingdom k/q'dam "Wk 

kn- = hn, nb (?) C, n-, but may 

sounded kn J 
knave nbsesev C 
knead nbml C 
knee nbii C 
knew knyy "W, nbni C 
knoll nbwil C 

know knAu, alii knoo "W", nboo C 
known nooun J 

ladle lEE-dl C 
lady lEE'd^ C 
lamprey Isem-pre P 
lame Isesem W 


lance IAAHS P, J 

lanch laesensh C 

landlord laeirlord J 

landscape LANDSKIP Isen-skz'p J 

lane IEEBN C 

language Iseq'gaedzb occasionally J 

lass laes C 

last Iseaest C 

lastly Isesit 

laudablelAwdseibl, lAA'dsebl negligenter C 

foe^A leef W, P, M, Isef IAA J 

laughter lAAt ar J 

laundress LULHTM J 

fatt?W lAu-rel, lAA-rel negligenter C 

Laurence Laersens Lar-rance E 

fow = IAA M 

lep a est conte pour rien M 
leaper lep -ar = fcper C 
learn IEEITI C 
fcrtse lees C 
feetare lEk-tar C, J 
Ledbury Led-bert J 
Leicester Les'ter J 
Leigh Lai J 
leisure lee'ziur, P = lejeur e masculin 

lee-zbar M, lee-shar J 
Leominster Lenrster J 
Leonard Leirerd J 
leopard lep'aerd P, lep'ard C J 
Leopold Lii'opol Lep-oold J 
let l8Bt barbart C 
lever LEAVER lEvar C, LEAVER lever 

a est conte pour rien M 
leveret LEAVERET lEvret C 
lewd leud P 
liberty lib-arts P 
lice liis barbare C 
licorice LIQUIRICE h'k'm's J 
lieu lyy W, liu P, 1m C 
lieutenant =lif tenant liften'aent M, J 
Lincoln Lin-kon J 
linen =linnin lin'in. M 
linger h'q'gar J 
liquid llK**'d J 
liquor h'k'ar J 
listen li&'n J 
listless h's'les J 
Liverpool Ler-puul E, LEVERPOOL 

Leer-puul Leir-puul J 
loin lain = line C, lain sometimes J 
lodging lodj'tq W 
loll lol a franqais M 
London Lan'dan negligentius W, J 
longer loq-ger rectius loq'er "W 
look lak, better luk J 
lose luuz M 
foss IAS C 
fo** lAAst C 

loth -LOA.Tll=lath lAAlh M 

/OM^/I laf ? J 

fow lav W, laf M, lav J 
loyal lai'ael abusively J 
luncheon LUNCHION lan'tshen J 
^wre h'u'ar C 
lute lyyt W, Hut P 

maggot =maiguet maeg'at M 

Maidenhead Meed'ned Meed'ned J 

main mEEn C 

maintain mEntEEn- C 

major mEEdzb-ar C 

malign msehg'an J 

malJcin mAA'km peniculus C, Malkin, as 

a name, MAA'kin P, J 
mall mAAl C, =mellme\,jeu de paume M 
Malmsey MAAnvz*' J 
maltsterer mAAl'sterer J 
mane mEEan C 
manger mEEn'dzbar C 
mangy mEEn-dzbz C 
mann mAn German C 
Mantua Maen-tiu J 
manuscript m8en'sknpt, maen'iuskrz'p 

often J 

many mEn'z C, msen-e sometimes J 
margin mser-dzbent J 
marriage msersedzb C, ma&r-edzb J 
marsh msesb J 
mask msDsesk C 
mason niEES'n C 
masquerade mses-ke'rsesed J 
mastiff msest'ii J 

maugre moo-gar, may be mAA'gar J 
maund niAAnd J 
maunder maen'dar mAAn-dar J 
may-not meent J 
Mayor MAIOR niEEr C, J 
-mb -m in monosyllables J 
me mil P, MEE C, M, J 
mean nmn C 
meat meet W 

measure mez'iur P, mesb-ar J 
Medea Meedz J 

medicine med-sm P, M, mEd-s^n C 
meet mit C 

merchant niEertshaent E, J 
mercy msersz' J 
mere MEAR miir J 
mesne MESN meen J 
metal met'l C 
mete meet = meat C, J 
metre mii'tar J 

Michaelmas Miil-mses ? Miel-mas E 
mice miis barbare C 
minnow MENOW mee-no J 
-minster -im'ster J 
mire mai'er J 

misapprehend tm'saeprend 1 J 
miscellane MISCELAN mses-h'n maes-laen J 


miracle msersekl facilitatis causa C 

might mAAt med barbare C 

mn- n- J 

-mn -m J 

moiety morte' J 

moil mml mail C, mail sometimes J 

moisten mois'n J 

molten moolt'n P 

Monday Muuirdee J 

money man'e P, man - J 

mongcorn man-korn J 

monkey maq-ki P 

monsieur monsiur monsiir J 

More Muur J 

morrow moru P 

mosquito maskii'to J 

most moost C, mast o court M 

mostly moos-K J 

mother madtrar J 

mouch muutsh J 

mould mwuld C 

moulter mtml'tar C 

mourn muurn W, C, J, marn J 

-mouth -math. J 

move muuv rectius moov "W, mav P, J, 

muuv C, M, J 
-mps -ms J 
-Wj -mt J 

Mulgrave Muu'grgesev J 
murrion mar- en sometimes J 
muscle maz-1 J 
muse myyz "W", miuz P 
musquet mas-ket J 
mustard, mast'ard approche du son de 

notre a M 
mute myyt "W" 
myrrh MIKRH mar C 

naked nEEk-ed C 

name nEEam C 

napkin nseb'k/n sometimes J 

nation nseee-s/on P 

nature nEE-tar C, = naiter nsese-tar 

familier avec efeminin M, nsese'tar J 
naught nAAft occasionally J 
nauseate NATJSEAT nAA'sliset C 
wavy NEEV* C 
-nch -nsh J 
-w<f- -n- when a consonant is added to 

such as end in 'nd J 
neap NEPE neep J 
near niir W, P, C, M, J 
need niid C 
negro nee-gro J 
neigh nsei P 

neighbour nserbor nee'bor P 
neither nEEdlrar nadir er barbare C, 

nadh-ar e feminin M, nardher 

needh-ar J 

nephew nee-fiu, neviu J 

nether needh-er J 

ftttfer neirter rectius, quidam niu-ter W, 

neu'ter P 
new nyy, neu rectius, quidam niu W, 

niu P, m'u J 
wone noon W 
nor nAr C 
JVorif h Noor J 
Norwich Nor'i'dzb. J 
nostril nos-trel J 
notable nAt'sebl C 
notary noo-tart C 
nought noot P, noft sometimes J 
nourish nar/sn C 
now nau J 
-nts -ns J 
nunchion nan'snen J 

oa/ ATTF AWF oof may be AAF J 
oatmeal at'miil ou court M 
oats oots, wats barbare C 
o% obeei P, oobEE- C 
obeysance obeei-saens P 
oblige obliidzlr J 
obscene obseen* J 
ocean oo-shaen C, J 

ogre AUGRE oo-gar may be AA'gar J 

ointment aint-ment C 

Olave Ql'e'v J 

oM oold, nonnunquam ould W, ould P, 

could J 
-om -am C 
-on -an C 
owctf weens, wsenst as in Shropshire and 

some parts of Wales J 
one oon "W, C, wsen J 
onion an'jan, and in similar words, 

-ion = jan C, an- jan, sometimes an'an J 
onlyonnly oon'li M, J 
opinion opm-an, pm- jan by the vulgar J 
-or -ar C 

ordinance ornsens J 
ordinary or'nart J 
ordure AArdar = order C 
osier = 6jer oo-zhar M 
ostrich ESTRICH es-tn'dzh J 
ostler HOSTLER os-lar often J 
ought oot P, AAt C, =at AAt M 
-owr=-uur, -er, -ar J 
-ous -ims -us -es -as J 
out aut C 
ov^r oor J 
owe (oo) C 
owl aul W 


pageant paedzb-m J 

pain pEEn C 

pale paeael W 

pall-mall pel-mel J 

palm pAAm J 

Palmer PAA-mar J 

panch pAAntsh J 

papal paese-pael C 

paper pEEp-ar C 

parade pereed- J 

parliament paerlaement C, E, sometimes 

paer-lement J 
parsley paers-h' P 
pasquil paes-kzl J 
pass paes C 
past paeaest C 
pasture pses-tQT=pastor C 
pate pEEat C 
path paeaetb C 
Paul's church = Pols Poolz M, Poolz- 

tshartsb Poles-church E, Pooulz, Poolz, 

may be PAA!Z J 
paunch PAWNCH pAAntsh C 
pea pii W 

pear=pair paeaer une poire M 
pearl pEErl C 
pedant pee-daent J 
penal pee-nael J 
penny peny pen-e M 
pennyworth pen-Qrih. pen-urth E, pan-- 

warth, pen-orth J 
pension =pcnnchonn pen-Shan M 
people piip-1 P, C, pep-1 piip-1 J 
perceive perseev 6 masculin M 
perfect paerfet sometimes pserfekt J 
periwig paerwtg J e en ai M, perwig 

periig- J 

perjury pardzhan' J 
perpetual parpet-ael sometimes J 
Peter Pii'tar J 

Pharaoh Faese-raeoo P, Feeroo J 
phlegm =Jfeme flem M, C, flem, may be 

fleg-am J 
phcenix fee-ntks J 
phrenetic PHRENTIC fraan'ttk J 
phthisick tis-ik J 
piazzas piaeaa-tshez J 
picture ps'k'tar = pickt her C,=picter 

avec efeminin familier M 
Piedmont Pii-mont J 
pillow p^'l-u P 

pipkin pib-ktn occasionally J 
piquant pj'k-aent J 
pique piik J 
piquet pt'ket 1 J 
piteous pzt-ias M 
poem POEME poeem' J 
point p*/int paint C 
poise paiz sometimes J 
poison pwiz-n paiz-n C,paiz-n sometimes J 

poll pool nonnunquam poul W, pwul C 

poltroon paltruun- poltruun- J 

poniard pan- jard J 

Pontius PAn-sias Wk, Pon-shuus J 

pontoon pontuun- J 

pour paur =power C 

poulterer pwuHarar C 

poultice PULTESS poouHts J 

poultry pwul-tri C 

pleasure plee-zyyr "W, plez-iur P, 
plezh-ar C, plesh-ar J 

poor puu-er sometimes J 

porcellane par-selaen J 

portreve poort'ree poort'rii. J 

possible pAS-aebl facilitatis causa C 

postscript poo-skn'p often J 

pot pwot nonnunquam W 

pother padh-ar J 

pottage poraedzh, some write porridge J 

potsherd POTSHEABD pAt-shEErd C 

plain plEEn C 

plaited plEEt-ed P 

plane plEEau C 

plausible pUuzvbl, plAAZ'tbl negli- 
gent er C 

pleurisy pleu'n'se P 

plevin pleevm J 

plough PLOW plau C, ploo J 

praise prseiz W, preiz preez negligenter C 

prance prAAns J 

prayer preer C 

pre- pree- J 

prebendary preVend J 

precise prisaiz' C 

prefer prifar C 

pressure presb-ar J 

prey praei P 

priest prz'st (?) J 

Priscian Pr/sb-aen J 

prophesy provesai J 

prove prav P, pruuv C, M 

provision proovzzh'an C 

prowl PKOLL prooul J 

ps- s- J 

psalm SAAm C, J 

psalm SAAm J 

pt- t- J 

Pugh Piu J 

pull pwl C, pul M, J 

pulley pul-e P 

punctual paqk-tael sometimes J 

pursue parshuu- J 

pursuit parsbuut- J 

puss pus M 


quality kwaeKtz' C 

qualm kwAAm C, kwAAm en a long M, J 

quart kwAArt en a long M 

question k west- ion P 

quodlibet kod'h'bet J 

quoif koif J 



quoit koit J 
quota koo-tse J 
quote koot C, J 
quoth kooth J 
quotidian kotuKsen J 


raddish ink ish facilitatis causa C 
raisins reez-ns P, m?z - ns = reasons C, = 

re'zwzs reez-inz M, reez-ans J 
JforfpA Bsetef .Bff/fc E, EAA J 
rarity T&eeriii C 
r0- ree- J 
-r<? = -er ar 
r0d riid P 

rarrf reed fo^o W, riid lego C 
Reading Beed's'q J 
reason reez - n o se mange M, J, E, A0 

writes 'reas'n' 
receive reseev W, P, TESEEV C, reseev 

e masculin M, reeseev J 
r#t>rt reseet P, reeseet J ^ 
reckless REACHLES rEk'lES ? C 
recipe res'z'pe J 
recruit rikn'ut C 
red red e feminin M 
refuse rifiuz' ver^ P 
regard = regaird re^serd* M 
rehearse rinEErs- C 
reign reen J 

reingage reemga3cedzli' M 
^>;s reenz J 
relinquish rilzq-ktsh. J 
remove rimav P 
rencounter rsonkaun-tar J 
rendezvous rfeirdi'vuuz ran-dy-vooz E, 

reen-devuu J 
m^w riinm J 
reprint reeprmt M 
rer^ reer J 

rereward riir-wserd P 
resurrection resarek'siAn Wk 
rcsta^^ration restsraeae-shan J 
retch REACH retsh J 
reward rewArd* a comme en franqais M 
rheum n'um C 
riband rz'b'asn J 
Richmond Bitslrman J 
right rait Wk 
righteous rartias rarteas J 
rwc? rain J 
risque rizg J 
roast ROST roost C 
roastmeat roos'meet J 
roll rool nonnunquam roul W, rwul C 
JJome Ruum P, R,vmm = room, different 

from roam C, M, J 
rough raf, W, C, M 
royflJ rai-scl abusively J 
rupture rap -tar C 


sabbath sob'oth abusively J 
saffron ssefarn C, E, M 
said SEd facilitatis causa C, sed seed J 
saints sseints "Wk 
salad ssel-et J 

Salisbury SARISBTJRY SAAlz'ben' J 
salt sAAlt P, C 

saltcellar SALTSELLER, SAAl-seler J 
saltpetre SAAl-pii'ter J 
salmon sAAni'an C, ssenran J 

Salve S8389V P, SAAV C, J 

same sseeem W 

sanders SAAirdarz J 

Saviour ssese'viaur P 

saw SAA C 

says SAIES sez facilitatis causa C 

scaffold sksef-ol J 

sceptic SCEPTICK skep'tfk J 

scene = scene seen M, J 

schedule sked'iul P, J, sed-al sed-dul E, 

sed'iul J 
scheme skeem J 
schism sz'z'm C, J 
scholar skol'ard abusively J 
scold skoold, nonnunquam skould W, 

skould P, sktnild C 
scoundrel skan-drel C 
scourge skardzh P, C, skwardzh facil. 

causa C, skardzh ou = o court M, J 
scourse skuurs permuto C 
scream skreem C 

scrivener skrivnar P 

scroll skrwuld C 

scrupulous skrm'pelas facilitatis causa C 

scummer skzra'ar barbare C, =skimer, 
skim-ar M 

se- see- J 

sea sii W, see C 

seal seel W 

search seertsh C 

sear siir C 

searce SEErs C 

season seez-n C, seez'n J 

seat sect W 

seen sin J 

seise SEEZ C, J 

seive seev J 

seize seez, nonnulli sseiz "W, seez P, M 

seraglio sersesel'ioo J 

serene serene screen* M 

serge SEARGE saerdzh P 

sergeant sserdzhejsent P 

Sergius Serdzhuus J 

serous see-ras J 

servant sservsent e en ai M 

service saarvt's barbare C 

sevennight=senit sen't't M, sen-ait J 

shadow shsed-u P 

shall shAl Wk, SDAA!, signum modi C, 


shalm shAAm C, J 

shambles shAAnrblz J 

she sliii P, C, M, J 

shear shEEr C 

shears shiirz C, M 

shepherd shEp*ard J 

shew shuu, sheu C, shoou shoo, may be 

shiu J 

shire shiir C, J 
shirt shavt C, short P, approche du son 

de notre a M 

shoe shuu P, SHOO shuu C chou shuu M 
should should P, shuuld C, shuud J 
shoulder shwuld'ar C 
shouldest shuust J 
shovel shaul J 
shove shav J 
shrew shrm C, shroo shroou, may be 

shriu J 

shrewd shrood shrooud may be shriud J 
Shrewsbury shrooz'ben', Shroouz'ben', 

may be Shriuz'here J 
sigh saith, un son qui approche fort du 

th en anglais M, sai saith J 
simile simple J 
sincere smseer P, J 
sion -shan J 
sir sar P, C, ser d peu pres comme e 

ouvert M 
sirrah sseree C, sara approche du son 

de notre a M 
sirrup sarap C 
skeleton SCELETON skel'etau J 
sMnk SCINK sks'qk J 
slant si A Ant J 
slouch sluutsh J 
-sm -sam J 

snow snou, alii snoo "W 
snew sneu rectius, quidam sniu, W 
so soo C 

SOft SAAft J 

0Ao So0;oo' o/fctt J 

sot7 sail sometimes J 

sojourn sadzhanr J 

so/rf sould, JY soold W, sould 6 

solder soo'dar J 

soldier soul d jar P, soo'dzher I muet M, 

SOULDIEK soo-dzher J 
Solms Soomz J 
Solomon SAAiAAraon J 
some sam W 
Somerset Sam-arset J 
somewhat sanvjet J 
son san W, Wk 

oo^ suut P, swt C, sat, better sut J 
sorrow soru P 
soul soul, alii sool "W, sool P, swul C, 

sooul J 

source suurs "W", C, M 
souse suus J 
Southwark Sath-wark J 

sovereign SOVERAIGN savreen J 

Spaniard Spaeirerd sometimes J 

spaniel spam-el C, J 

spear spiir C, M 

sphere = sphere sfeer M, J 

spindle spm'l J 

spoil spail sometimes J 

stalk stAAk C 

stamp stAtnp barbare C, stomp abusively 


stanch stAAntsh J 

stead sted a est contepour rien M, stiid J 
steal steel W 
steam stiim J 
Stephen SteeVn J 
stir star C, ster d peu pres comme e ouvert 

-stle -s'l J 

Stockholm Stok'Hoom J 

stomach stam-aek J 

stood stad P, st<d C, stad better stud J 

stoop STOUP stuup C 

strange streendzh C 

stranger strseirdjar a non tarn requiritur 

quam cegre evitatur W, streeirdzhar G 
strut stroout abusively J 
subtil'sdt-il Y,=sottle sat-'l M, sat-al J 
subtility safiltt P 
succour sak-oor P 
sue shuu J 

suet SEWET sm'et C, shuu-et J 
suer sheur=sure, or perhaps smr, as 

sheur is only "facilitatis causa" C 
sugar shag-ar (?) facilitatis causa, C, 

shuug-ar J 

suit siut P, SUTJE smt C, shuut J 
suitable smt'aebl C 
suitor SITTER smt-er C 
supreme siupreem- J 
sure shmr facilitatis causa C,=chure 

shiur M, shuur J 

surfeit sarfet C, sar fat efeminin M 
survey sarvsei- P 
suture smt-ar C 
swallow swsel-u P 
swear sweer, see forswear fArsw^OT 1 C 

seer J 

sweat sw^t C, set J 
Sivedes Sweedz J 
swollen sooln J 
sword sward P, suurd C 
sworn suurn C, soorn J 
syncope szq'kope J 
syntagm sen'tsem J 
system SYSTEME ststeem- J 

table tEEb-1 C 
tail tBBl C 
Talbot TAA-bat J 
tale tEEal C 


talk tAAk rectius tselk W 

Tangier Tandzheer Tandzhiir J 

taper tEE-par C 

tar tser C 

tare=taire tseser M 

tares tEEarz C 

tart tsesert C 

taunt tAAnt P, C, J, taent J 

tassels tAA-selz m long M 

ta? THEA tee J 

teal teel W 

tear tEEr lacero, tiir lacryma C 

team tiim J 

tez'rw teers J 

temptation temptees-iAn Wk 

tew = tinn tm M 

tew0 tee-net J 

tenure is^-Qi = tenor C 

terrene tereen- J 

terrible ksi'&iblfaciltiatia causa C 

Thames Temz J 

<A dhAt <? a cowr M 

third thard Wk 

thither =deder dhadlrar e feminin M 

the dhee C, dhe J 

Thebes Theebz J 

their dlieer J 

Theobald Thee-obseld P 

tfAtfre dheer J 

these dheez W, J 

*Ay dhsei P 

Thomasin Tonrzm J 

thought thoot P 

thousand thwiz-n C 

threepence thri-pinnsfhripinsfamilier 
M, tnrep-ens J 

thresh thrush barbare C 

through throo J 

thwart thart J 

<7^m^=taim M, J 

#i- flw^e vocalem sh C 

tierse tErs C 

tinder tan'dar barbare C 

-fo'ow -shan J 

tft*w0 ti'sh'uu J 

<o tuu M 

tobacco TABACO abusively sounded some- 
times with an 'o,' tobsek'o tabsek-a 

toil tail W, toil toil C 
told tould P, toould J 
toll tool, nonnunquam toul W 
#owi tuum C, M, J 
took tak, better tuk J 
torture tor-tar tor-ter C 
fowcA tuutsh tatsh. J 
tough taf W, too J 
toward tairserd P 
towel taul J 
toys toiz "W 
trajflque trsef'ig J 

e^m^ trsevlzq J 
lure tresh'ar J 

transient = traingient trsen-zbient M, 

trsen-zhent C, trasn'slient J 
travail traveel P 
treble treebi J 
trifle trai-f 1 W 

triphthong TBIPTHONG tnp-thoq J 
troll TBOWL trooul J 
trouble trabl C, J 
trough trof W, troo ou = o un peu long 


trowel tr/irel barbare C 
true trm C 

truncheon trairshim J 
trundle tranl J 
turquoise tark^z- ? J 
twang tseq J 
Tweed TWEDE Twiid J 
two tuu C 
twopence = topins tap - ms familier M, 

tap-ens J 
tune tyyn W 
Tyre tai-ar C 


w, la prononciation commune de I'u 
voyelle en Anglois est la meme qu'en 
franqais (supra p. 182) iu M 

ugly OUGLY ag-K P 

-um -um, may be -am J 

uncouth ankuuth- C, ankatlr J 

up ap C 

uphold apoould- J 

upholster pooul-ster pooul'sterer J 

up to Ap tu barbare C 

-ure -ar C, -er ar, may be sounded -iur J 

us = eus as M 

use y 'use jiuz pas du bel usage M 

useless jmz'les barbare C 

usual m-zhmsel C, =ujual iuzh'iueel M 

usury sewdi'e barbare C 

valley vsel-i P 

vanquish va3q-k/sh J 

vapour vEEp-ar C 

vary vEEr-i C 

vault VALT vAAt a leap J 

vaunt vAAnt C, J 

veil veel J 

vein vaain P, vEEn eicomme en franca is 

M, veen J 

vengeance ven-dzb.e;8ens P 
venison ven-zon P, yen-zn M, ven-zan J 
venue VENEW vee-niu J 
verdict vser-dekt ver-dait J 
verjuice v^rdzb^s P, var-dzh/s C, 

vaer-dzhes E, J 
vial vai-AAl P 
victuals Vit'lz facilitatis causa C, = 

vittles va't'lz M, vit'alz vit-alz J 


view vyy "W, vm C 

villain, vil'aen ai comme en villain M, 

an exception to his rule 
villany vil'ni J 
virgin vardzhm J 
virtue vartyy, 9 non tarn requiritur 

quam cegre evitatur, W 
viscount vai-kaunt J 
vision viz' ion P 
voyage varaedzh vye-age E 
volatile val'sete'l J 
vouch vuutsh J 
vouchsafe vuutsaesef J 
voyage varsedzh abusively J 
vulgar vul'gar J 

wafer WEEf-ar C 

waif WEIF weef J 

wainscot ween-zkot P 

waistband WASTBAND waes-bsend J 

waistcoat WASTCOAT WEEst'koot C 

walk WAAk, rectius ws&lk W, WAAk C, J 

wallow wael'oo P 

Walter WAA-tar J 

wane WEEU C 

war WAAr C 

warden wAArd'n C 

warm wAArm C 

warren wAArn C 

was WAZ C, WAZ en a court M 

wash WAsh en a court M 

Wasteful WASTFUL WEESt'fttl C 

watch wAAtsh WAtsh C, WAtsh en a 

court M 
water WAA-tar C,=oudter WAA-tar M, 

WAA-tar J 
wattle WATLE wAAt'l C, wAt*'l en a 

court M 

we wii P, M, C, J 
weal ~weel C 
wean ween. C 
wear vfeer C 

weary wert P, wii-re, ware barbare C 
Wednesday "Wenz'dsoi P, wenz'dee M, J 
weight waeit P, wEEt ei comme en 

fran^ais M 

were weer=wear C, weer J 
Westminster Wes'mastar J 
wh = hou wh M 
what whAt en a court M, wsot, better 

whaet J 

when = hoinn wlu'n M,wen,if tier when J 
whence = hoinnce whms M 
where wheer J 
wherry WHIRRY where C 
whether whadh-ar barbare C, wheedh'ar 

whey whaei P 
whit Hwtt = F. 
widow wid-u P 

will w*l, wal barbare C 

ivho whu Wk, whuu P, HUU C, J 

whole H001 W, J 

whom wham P, nuum C, J 

whoop Huup uup J 

whore nuur P, C, J 

whortle HurH J 

whose HUUZ J 

Winchcomb Wmsh'kam J 

wind waind ventus C 

wield WEILD waild J 

willow wz'l'u P 

Wiltshire Wil-shir J 

windmill wm-mil J 

wine wain C 

Windsor Wn*zar J 

winnow wm'U P 

with w0th cum, wath barbare C 

woodood J 

woe vnm=woo C 

wolf wwlf waif C, ulf J 

woman wam-aen P, E, unvsen J 

womb wuum C, M, uura J 

women wirmen P, wraren C, =ouimenn 

wtm*en M, winven J 
wonder wwnd'ar wan*dar C 
wo- o- uu- u- J 
woo WOE uu J 

wood wad P, wd C, wad, better ud J 
woof waf, better uuf J 
wool wal P, wttl C, wal, better ul J 
Woolstead UVted 

Worcester "Wuust'ar, Wost'ar, Z7st - ar, J 
word ward J 
world warld P 
worldling warh'q J 
worldly warle' J 
worn wuurn C 

worsted warsted genus panni, wast'Ed 
facilitatis causa C, = ousted wust'ed M 
would would P, wuuld C, wuud J 
wouldst widst waudst barbare C, wuust J 
wr- r- may be wr- (?) J 
wrestle WRASTLE res'l J 
wrath rAAth C, rAAth en a long M 
wristband r/irbsend rt'z'bsen J 
wrought root P, J 


Xantippe Saentip'i J 

ye Jii P, J 

yea jii W, C, JAA rustic, jee jii ii J 

year jiir P, J, iir J 

yeast jiist iist J 

yellow jsel'o J 

yeoman yenrsen yem-man E, jee'maen 

jii-ma?n ii-maen by many J 
yes jiis M, *'s J 


yesterday ts-terdee J young J9q C . 

yet jat efeminin M, it J your sew G 

yield YEILD iild J youth jiuth P, jwth C, JQth J 

y oik = yelk jelk M, jook J 

yonder jairdar J ^ 

#o ju, JAU barbare C zedoary zed'seii 


Lists of t-his kind ought to supply the place of an investigation 
into the puns of the xviith century, comparable with that already 
given for Shakspere (supra p. 920). But their compilers had so 
much at heart the exigencies of the speller, that they often threw 
together words which could never have been pronounced alike, but 
were often ignorantly confused, and they sometimes degenerated 
into mere distinguish ers of words deemed synonymous which had 
no relation in sound. This is particularly observable in Price's 
lists, in which like and unlike words are all heaped together in 
admirable confusion. Cooper is the most careful in separating 
words which were really sounded exactly alike from those nearly 
alike, and those absolutely unlike. But the earliest collection, and 
in many respects therefore the most important, is that by Richard 
Hodges. The full title is : 

A special help to Orthographic : or, the True-writing of 
English. Consisting of such Words as are alike in 
sound, and unlike both in their signification and 
Writing : As also of such Words which are so neer 
alike in sound, that they are sometimes taken one for 
another. Whereunto are added diverse Orthographical 
observations, very needfull to be known. Publisht by 
Richard Hodges, a School-Master, dwelling in South- 
wark, at the Midle-gate within Mountague-close, for 
the benefit of all such as do affect True- Writing. 
London, printed for Richard Cotes. 1643. 4to. pp. 
iv. 27. 

In this the exact and approximate resemblances are distinguished, 
and at the conclusion the author has given a few instances, un- 
fortunately only a few, of various spellings of the same sound, 
when not forming complete words. These are reproduced, together 
with some extracts from his orthographical remarks, which relate 
more strictly to orthoepy. He had, like most such writers, in- 
dividual crotchets both as to spelling and sound, and had an in- 
tention, probably never carried into effect, of treating orthoepy, as 
shown by a short table of sounds with which he closes his brief 
work. Many of his instances are entirely worthless, but it was 
thought better to reproduce them all, marking with an asterisk 
those to which more attention should be paid, and to gain space by 
simply omitting his verbal explanations, where they were not 
absolutely necessary, or did not present an interest of some kind. 
Nothing has been added, except a few words in square brackets [], 
and the original orthography is reproduced. 

CHAP. IX. 2. 



Owen Price's list has also been given complete, but the explana- 
tions have been similarly reduced. On the other hand, the whole 
of Cooper's chapter on the subject has been reprinted, restoring 
only the position of some words which had been accidentally mis- 
placed. His orthography, which was also designed as a model, has 
been carefully followed. 

I. Richard Hodges' s List of Like and Unlike Words. 

1. Such words as are alike in sound and unlike both in their 
signification and writing, are exprest by different Letters, in these 
examples following: 

assent, ascent, a sent or savour, a 
peece to shoot withall, a piece, apiece, 
a loud, allow' d, aloud, aught, ought, 
air, heir, an arrow, a narrow, an eye, 
a nigh, an I. a note an octf-cake. *a 
notion, an ocean. * annise, Agnes a 
woman's Christen name, an idle person, 
Anne. Alas, a laf (lasse) or a Maid. 
altar, alter, a ledge, alledge. a lie, 
allie. a light, alight, a lot, allot, a 
loan, alone, a lure, allure, adieu, a 
due debt, he adjoyn'd me to do it, 
ff/0yW-stool. a judge, adjudge. *assoon 
as she came in, she fell into a swoun. 
awl, al (all), assault, a salt-ee\. as- 
signe, a signe. attainted, a tainted 
piece of flesh, attired, a tired jade. 
a mate, to amate or daunt, a maze, 
amaze, a rest, arrest, a pease blossom, 
appease, a peal, appeal, a tract, attract, 
abbetter, a better colour than the other. 

* appear, a peer. *a wait-player, await, 
a weight, awry, a wry-mouthed Plaise. 
a queint discourse, acquaint. 


to bow the knee, bough. *if you be 
comne so soone, become. *boughs, bowcth, 
bowze. brows, broivze. Barbaric a 
countrey, Barbara, barberie fruit. 
* Brute a man's name, brute, bruit, to 
baul in speaking, Baal, a bal to play 
with. Bal a man's name (Ball, ball}. 
*bad, bade. *bead, Bede. beaker, Becher, 
the hawk did beak herself, beer, Mere. 
*a straw -berie, Sud-bury, Canter -bury, 
etc. by, buy. Aboard, bor'd. *bill'd, 
build, bolt, to boult meal, bred, bread. 
*beholding, beholden. *a coney -burrow, 
borough . coney - burrows, boroughs. 
*blue, blew. 


* Cox, cocks, cocketh up the hay. 

* coat, slieeip-cotc, quote. * Cotes, 
coats, quoteth. *clause, claweth, claws. 

cal (call), caul. * course, corpse, 
^courses, courseth, corpses. *cool'd t 
could, collar, choler. a culler of apples, 
a colour, cousin, cozen, council, counsel. 
* common, commune, cockle and darnel, 
cochle-shel. champion, the champain 
field. *choose, cheweth. a crue or 
company, the cock crew, did chase, 
the chace. *you come, he is comne. 
crues or companies, a cruse or pot. a 
cruel master, wrought with crewel, 
consent, concent of music. 


*dam, to damne. * fallow -deer, dear 
friend, deep, Diep a town so call'd. 
* diverse men, skilful divers. *a doe, 
his cake is dough, descension, dissension, 
dollar, dolour, dolphin, the daulphine 
of France, the deviser of this, multiply 
the quotient by the divisour. 


* Easter, queen Hester. * John Eaton 
hath eaten, a scholar of Aeton. eight, 
ait (islet). * earn, yern. emerods, 
emeralds, exercise, exorcise. *I cat 
my meat to-day, better than I ate it 


did feed, was fee'd. *your fees, she 
feeth. I would fain, she did feign. 
did flnde, were firfd. felloes, fellows. 
Philip, fillip, the fold, hath foaVd. 
fore - tel, four - fold, forth, fourth. 
*furze, furreth, furs, foul, fowl. 
Francis, Frances. *freeze, friese-]Qrk\n, 
sheefreeth him. *to kil a. flea, to flay 
of (off) the skin, fleas, fleaeth,flayeth. 
to fleer, a flee'r away, flour, flower. 
* flours, floureth. 


I guest, a very welcome ghcst. a 
ghost, thou go'st. * jests, gents, jesteth. 
*v\-gals, the gauls, he gauleth. *a 


gage or pledge, to gawge a vessel, a 
gilt-cup, guilt, groan, \vel-growen. to 
glister, a clyster, a guise, Mr. Guy's 


*a hard heart,, I heard 
his voyce. *hare, hair, hie, high, 
heigh-ho. thou kiest, the highest fourm. 
hide, she hied. *make haste, why Aas 
thou done it? hole, whole. *holy, 
wholly. the hollow, to whoop and 
hollaw. *home, whom, a Aow0 tree. 
homes, Holmes. *I hope to see, I holp 
him to do his work. *hoops, hoopeth, 
whoopeth. him, hymne. *the bread 
doth hoar, whore. * whores, hoareth. 
his hue, Hughe, hues, Hughes. *herald, 
Harold. * happily, haply. 

I, eye. incite, in sight, 
ure, in your account. 

jest, gest. gests, jests. tojet,ajeat- 
stone. * the Juice or sap, ajoice to bear 
up the boards, a jokes, Mr. Jaques. 
gentle, a gentil or magot. a jointer, a 
tool to work withal, a -woman's jointure. 
*ajurdon, the river Jordon. 


Mr. Enox, hee knocketh many knocks. 
*kennel, the chanel. to 7, the brick - 


the Latine- tongue, a latten- ladle. 
*the cow fottrcrf very loud. *take the 
fcas, lest hee bee angry, lemans, lemons, 
lesson, lessen. * litter, the hors-ftc&r. 
*the /> of wine, to leese or loose ones 
labour, leapers that can leap, lepers 
full of leprosie. fo, low. lore, lower. 
a teter after evil things, a bright lustre, 
out-lawed, laud, 


manour-house, in a good maner. he 
hanged his mantle upon the mantel-tree. 
Medes, meads. meat, to mete. *a 
message, the messuage. *a meater that 
giveth meat to the cattel, a corn-meter, 
a meteor in the air. Martin, marten. 
Mr. Marshal, martial. *mone and be- 
wail, his corne was mowen. moe or 
more, to mowe. the cat did mouse well, 
amongst the corn-moughs. *hawks- 
mues, he wme^A his hawk, to muse, mite, 
might, a good minde, under-mined. 

Maurice did dance the morice. * murrain 
murion a head piece. * millions, musk- 


*Nash, to gnash, for nought, the 
figs were naught, nay, neigh. 

0, oA / owe. gold-or0, oar, the ower 
of a debt, oszrs, owers. *ordure, order, 
our, hour, ours, hours. 

to pare the cheese, a pair, pause, 
paws, paweth. the palat of his mouth, 
he lay upon his pallet. Paul, pal 
(pall), parson, person. *pastor, pasture, 
^praise, preys, preyeth, prayeth. the 
common pleas, please. *Mr. Pierce did 
pearce it with a sword, the scholar did 
parse and construe his lesson. *she 
weareth her patens, letters patents, 
pillars, cater-pillers. pride, hee pried. 
*projit, prophet., the propper of it up, 
a proper man. *he hath no power to 
powre it out. 


rain, rein, reign. * reins, reigns, 
reigneth, raineth. a noble race, did 
rase the wals. the rates of the sun, to 
raise, ranker, rancour, red, hast thou 
read? *a reddish coloui', a radish root. 
*reason, raisin. ^reasons, reasoneth, 
raisins. *ream, realm. *reams, realms, 
Rhemes the name of a place. *Mr. 
Rice took a n's0, the rw#. rite, right, 
write, a wheel-wn^, Wright. *rites, 
rights, vrheel-wrights, righteth, writeth. 
*the rine wherein the brain lieth, the 
rinde of a pomegranate, the river Rhine. 
Roe, a roe-buck, a row of trees, roes, 
rowes, he roweth, a red-ros0, .#0*0. 
*when there was a rot amongst the 
sheep, I wrote him a letter, hee caught 
[misprint for raught= reached] it from 
of (off) the shelf, when hee wrought 
with me. *a riding rod, when I rode. 
*1 rode along the road, hard-ro^, my 
daughter Rhode, rowed apace, roads, 
Rhodes. *the highest room, the city 
of Rome (roume). * round, she rowned 
him in his ear. *a tiffany-rw/ (ruffe), 
a rough garment. *ring, wring, rung, 
wrung, hee rued, so rude, the cheese- 
rack, ship-wrack. 


slight, sleight, he was no saver in 
buying, a sweet-savour, savers, savours, 
savour eth. *the seas, to 5e'z<9. * ceasing 

CHAP. IX. 2. 



from strife, cessing him to pay. * cease, 
cef (cesse) him so much, seller, wine- 
cellar, *the one sutler, was subtiller 
than the other, signe, either a sine or 
tangent. *censor, censer, censure, the 
third eenturie, an herb centory. *he 
did sheer the sheep, in Buckingham - 
shire. cite, sight, site, cited, quick- 
sighted, wel sited. *a syren or mer- 
maid, Simon of Gyrene. *a lute and 
a cittern, a lemon or a citron. Mount- 
Sion, a scion or graf (graffe). *a sink 
to convey the water, the Cinque-ports. 
*so, to sowe the seed, to sewe a garment. 
*the sole of a shoo, the soule and body. 
*tbe soles of his shoos, he soleth his 
shoos, soules and bodies bought and sold, 
the shoos were so^V. *very sound, he 
fel into a swoun [compare assoon, a 
swoun above], strait, sir eight, sloe, 
slow. *a sore, hee swore or sware. 
s^/, %A. a hedge and a sfoYe, a style 
or form of writing, did soar, the sower. 
*to sAoo an arrow, a *te of apparel, a 
suit in law, Shute a man's sirnarne. 
*shoots, sutes of apparel, swte in law, 
shooteth, suteth, non-suiteth. succour, 
blond- sucker, some, sum (summe). 
sun, son (sunne, sonne). 

tame, Thame. tamer, Thamar. *tax, 
tacketh, tacks. *the treble and the 
tenor, a tenour or form of words, the 

tenure whereby a man holdeth his land. 
there, their. * turkeys, a turquois. 
time, thyme, the tide, tied together. 
toe, towe. toes, you tose the wool. 
toad, fingred and toed, he towed his 
barge, tole the bel, pay tol (toll). I 
told him. I toled the bel. too, two, to. 
tract, I trackt him. a treatise, diverse 
treaties. *I had then more work than 
I could do. thrown, throne. *it was 
through your help that I came thorow. 
throat, if he throw 1 1 away. 


vfle'tt, 00m. *a venter or utterer of 
commodities, to venture. * venter 8, 
ventures, ventureth. vial, viol. 

a wy, to walk in, a weigh of cheese. 
t#a/s, weighs, weigheth. * water, 
Walter. *waters, watereth, Walters, 
wait, weight. *waits, weights, waiteth. 
*if you were, you would wear, a wich- 
tree, a witch. *wood, would. *he 
woo^ her, he was woode. *a w>fl^ of 
straw, woad to die withall. 


yew, yew and I, Fand I are vowels. 
*yews, vse. your, put this in ure, a 
bason and ewre. yours, basons and 
ewres, he in-ureth himself, yee that 
are wise, yea. 

Such words which are so neer alike in sound, as that they are 
sometimes taken one for another; are also exprest by different 
Letters, in these examples following : 


ask, ax, acts. Abel, able, amase, 
amace. al- one, alone, actions, axiomes. 
arrows, arras, advice, advise. Achor, 
acre, ant, aunt, accidence, accidents, 
as, as (asse). 


(to play at) bowls, (to drink in) boles, 
baron, barren, barrow, borrow, borough. 
Boyse, boys. bath, bathe, bands, 
bonds, bare, bear, begin, biggin, 
breath, breathe, bauble, Bable, bable 
(babble), bile, boyl. Bruce, bruise, 
brewis (brews), brevvhouse. (the little 
childe began to) batle (when his father 
went to the) battel. bore, boar, ar- 
rant, errand. bowes (and arrows), 
boughs. bittern, bitter. boasters, 
bolsters, both, boothe. best, beast, 
(your book is not so wel) bost, boast, 
boots, boats. 

copies, copise. coughing, coffin, (when 
hee) cough't, caught, coat, cummin, 
coming, ches (chesse), chests, chaps, 
chops, chare, chair, cheer, capital, 
capitol. currents, currants, conse- 
quence, consequents. cost, coast, 
causes, causeys. 


dun, done, (he was but a) dunse, duns, 
decent, descent, dissent, descension, 
dissension. discomfite, discomfort, 
(backs and) does, (one) dose, device, 
devise, decease, disease, dust, (why) 
dost (thou). dearth, death, deaf, 
desert, desart. 


east, yeest. earn, yarn, (you must) 
either (take out of the hedge the) ether 
(or the stake), ears, yeers. els, else. 



eminent, imminent, even now, inow, 
inough. Eli, Ely. 

false, fals. froise, phrase, fares, fairs, 
fens, fence, fought, fault, follow, 
fallow, fur, fir. farm, form, fourm 
(to sit upon). Pharez, fairies, farmer, 
former, (a smal) flie (may) flee, fins, 


gallants, gallons, garden, guardian, 
glaf (glasse), glof (glosse). gesture, 
jester, (a) jerkin, (never left) jerking 
(his horse). 


Howel, howl, hole. whose, hose, 
homely, homilie. hallow, hollow, 
guef (guesse), ghests. whores, hoarse, 
horse, his, hif (hisse). hens, hence, 
holly, holy. Hepher, heifer. 

James, jambs, ingenious, ingenuous, 
impassable, impossible, imply, imploy. 
it, yet. idol, idle, inough, inow. 
eyes, ice. Joice, joys. 


know, gnaw, known, gnawn. knats, 


lines, loyns. lowe, low. lower, (why 
do you) lowre. (the) lead (was) layd, 
(he) led. (the) leas (were added to 
his) lease, lies, lice, loth, loathe. 


Marie, marry, marrow, morrow, mines, 
mindes. mince, mints, mif (misse), 
mists, (to) mo we, (a) mough (of corn), 
maids, meads, mower, more, moles, 
moulds, myrrhe, mirth, (a) mouse, 
'barley) moughs. morning, mourning. 

hawks-) mues, (a) muse, mistref 

mistresse), mysteries. 


neither, nether, nones, nonce, needles, 
needlef (needlesse). (his) neece (did) 
neese. never, neer. 

once, ones, owner, honour, ought, 
oft. owne, one, on. 

pare,peare. patens, paterns. patients, 
patience, pullen, pulling, passable, 
possible, pens, pence, pease, peace, 
plot, plat, principal, principle, (to) 
powre (out), (the) poore. prince, 
prints. Princes, princef (princesse). 
place, plaise. past, paste, presence, 
presents, price, prise, puls, pulse, 
prose, prowef (prowesse). pearce, peers. 
Pilate, pilot, plot, plat (of ground), 
parasite, paricide. poplar, popular, 
promises, premises. please, plays, 
poles, Pauls (steeple), playd, plead. 


reed, reade. wrought, wrote, rote, 
rase, raise, rasour, raiser, rat, rot. 
real, ryal, royal, reverent, reverend, 
wroth, wrath, rathe. 


(when they had filled their) sives 
(with onions and) cives. sithes, sighes. 
science, scions, signet, cygnet, cypref- 
(trees), cipers (hatbands), ciphers, "sirra, 
surrey, so we (seed), sow (and her 
pigs), sower, sowre (grapes). Sows, 
sowse. sores, sourse. sleaves, sleeves, 
seeth, seethe, say, sea. sex, sects. 
steed, stead. slowe, slough, spies, 
spice, saws, sause. sense, sents. seas, 
cease, seizing, ceasing, (why do you 
wear out your) shoos (to see the) 
shewes ? society, satietie. sloes, 
sloughs. Sir John (sent for the) sur- 
geon (chirurgion). Cicelie, Sicilie. 
Cilicia, Silesia. sheep, ship, sins, 


tens, tense, tents, tenths. tongs, 
tongues. trough, trophie. tome, 
tombe. tost, toast, thy, thigh., trope, 
troop (troup). thou, though. 

volley, valley, value, vale, vail, va- 
cation, vocation. verges, verjuice, 
vitals, victuals. 


wilde, wield, weary, wory (the sheep), 
whether, whither, wiles, wildes. (they 
took away the fishermens) weels (against 
their) wils. wines, windes. wick, 
week, (thou) wast, waste, wicked, 
wicket, wrest, wrist, (the man that 
was in the) wood (was almost) woode. 
wist, wisht. 



Examples of some words, wherein one sound is exprest diverse 

ways in writing. 
Sea-ted, con-m'-ted, 0^-sing, m'-zing, s^-rious, /SV^-va, 00-dar, 

Manas- seh, Phari-s<?0, Wool-set/, s^0-dule. 
See-ded, suc-cee-ded, Mi-lings, over-$0-ers, pur-s<?y or fat men, mer- 

cie (or mercy). 
*SY-nister, sy-nagogue, /Sa-pio, &?y-thian, Cfy-prian, 0-vil, Ce-ci\, 

$/-lence, a'-ted, quick-s^-ted, y-ning, s^-ence, sy-ren, Cty-rene, 


These syllables aforegoing, may suffice, to give a taste, of al 
the others in this kinde. 

touch is to bee pronounc't short like 

Ea-chel, in tbe Old Testament, where 
the last syllable thereof is pronounc't 
like the last syllable in sa-chel. 

ch in architect must not bee pro- 
nounc't like Jc : nor iu any word be- 
ginning with arch .... arch-angel . . . 
is onely excepted. 

win-der and wil-der where the first 
syllable in either of them must bee 
pronounc't long as in wine and wile 
.... some men cal the winde, the 
wind .... in the word wil-der-nes, 
it must be pronounc't like wiL 

\ea\ short, as in these words head, 
read, stead, hea-dy, rea-dy, stea-dy .... 

it is therefore very meet to put 

an e in the end of some such words, as 
in reade, the present tense, to distinguish 
it from the short sound of read, the 
preter imperfect tense. 

al words of more than one syllable 
ending in this sound us . . . are written 
with ous, but pronounc't like us, as in 
glo-ri-ous, etc. 

it is our custom to pronounce al, like 
an, and to write it in stead thereof, as 
in balk, walk, talk, stalk, chalk, malkin, 
calkin, calkers, falcons; as also, in 
almond, alms, halm, balm, palm, calm, 

shalm, psalm, malmsey ; and in like 
maner in these words, namely, in calf, 
half, salve, salves, calve, calves, halve, 
halves : as also in scalp, scalps. 

the sound of ee before some letters is 
exprest by ie as in field, shield, fiel'd, 
Priest, piece, grief, grieve, thief, thieve, 
chief, atchieve, brief, relieve, relief, siege, 
liege, Pierce, fierce, Here, lieutenant, 
which is to be pronounc't like lief- 

howsoever wee use to write thus, 
leadeth it, maketh it, note-th it, rakelh 
it, yerfumeth it, etc. Yet in our or- 
dinary speech ... wee say leads it, 
notes it, rakes it, perfumes it. 

But I leave this, as also, many other 
things to the consideration of such as 
are judicious : hoping that they wil 
take in good part, whatsoever hath bin 
done, in the work aforegoing : that so, 
I may bee incouraged yer long, to 
publish a far greater, wherein such 
things as have bin beer omitted, shal 
bee spoken of at large. In the mean 
time (for a conclusion) I have thought 
it good, to give a taste thereof, in the 
syllables and words following ; wherein 
are exprest the true sounds of al the 
vowels and dipthongs, which are proper 
to the English-tongue. 

The true sounds of al the short 
and long vowels, are exprest in 
these examples. 

ad lad, ade lade 

ead lead 

eed reed, 

aud laud, 



ood good ood food 

ide ride 
oad load 
ude gude 

The true sounds of al the 
diphthong's, are exprest 
in these examples. 

ai day 
eu dew* 
oi coy 





To the above miscellaneous remarks of Hodges, may be added the 
following quotation from Edward Coote's English Schoolmaster, 4to. 
1673, the exact meaning of which it is difficult to discover, but which 
seems to imply some old scholastic tradition in the spelling out of 
words, recalling the village children's celebrated method of spelling 
Hdbakkuk as : (an iitsh a*na AA, a*na bii a*na AA, a no kii a'na kii, 
a*na uu a*na kii.) Probably many similar traditions were still in 
existence in the " dames' schools " of a few years ago. 

Rob. "What if you cannot tell what 
vowel to spell your syllable with, how 
will you do to find it ? as if you would 
write from, and know not whether you 
should write it with a or o. 

Joh. I would try it with all the 
vowels thus, fram, frem, frim, from ; 
now I have it. 

Hob. But Good-man Tayfor our Clerk 
when I went to school with him, taught 
me to sound these vowels otherwise 
than (methinks) you do. 

Joh. How as that ? 

Hob. I remember he taught me these 
syllables thus : for bad, bed, bid, bod, 
bud, I learned to say, bade, bid, bide, 
bode, bude, sounding a bed to ly upon, 
as to bid or command, and bid, as bide 

long, as in abide; bud of a Tree, as 
bude long, like rude : for these three 
vowels, a, i, u, are very corruptly and 
ignorantly taught by many unskilful 
Teachers, which- is the cause of so great 
ignorance of the true writing in those 
that want the Latin tongue. 

Joh. You say true; for so did my 
Dame teach me to pronounce ; for sa, 
se, si, so, su, to say, sa, see, si, soo, sow, 
as if she had sent me to see her sow : 
when as se should be sounded like the 
sea ; and su as to sue one at Law. 

[In a marginal note it is added :] Let 
the unskilful teachers take great heed 
of this fault, and let some good scholars 
hear their children pronounce these 

II. Owen Price's Table of the Difference between Words of Like Sound. 
A B 

Abel, able, abet, abbot, accidence, 
accident, incident, account, accompt. 
acre, dchor the first valley, the Israel- 
ites entred, in the land of Canaan, 
acorn, affection, affectation, all, awl. 
Ale, ail. alley, ally, aim to level, 
alms, aids ough, wo is me, a Lass, 
alias, aloes. Alexander, alexanders, or 
alixander a plant. aloud, allowed, 
dltar, alter. Ammon, Amnon. ample, 
amble, angel, angle to fish with hook, 
and line, ancle, annual, annals, ar- 
rowse to stir up, drrowes darts, ascent, 
assent, consent, dss, ashes any fuel 
burnt to dust, ash a tree, ask to en- 
quire, acts, ax. asp a serpent that 
kills with its looks, hasp of door. 
assemble, resemble, dissemble. ant, 
aunt. austere, oyster. awry, airy 
windy empty. arrant meer, very, 
right, Errand business that one goes 
about, assdy to try, prove, essay a 
trial, attempt, assistants, assistance, 
ascertain to make sure, a certain sure. 
attach to apprehend, arrest, attdque to 
face about, to charge with a ship. 
attaint, attain. 

Babble, bdble a toy fit for children. 
Bachelaur of Arts, bachelor one un- 
married, bacon, beacon, badge, batch, 
bag. bail, bald, bawl, ball. bay a 
colour, bay an harbour for ships, baiz 
thin cloth, bates a garland, or leaves of 
bay tree, bait meant to allure or entice 
with, make bate that sets folks by the 
ears, beat to strike, band an armie, a 
tie, bond obligation, bill, imprisonment. 
bane poison, miserie, banes report made 
of matrimonie. banner, pannier. Bdr- 
bara a woman's name, Bdrbarie a part 
of Africa, bdrberrie a tree, bark, 
barque a little ship, battel a fight, 
battles diet in a College, battlement, 
battledore, bee, be is, are. beaver 
castor, bever food eaten between dinner 
and supper, been wast, were, binn -a 
hutch to keep bread in. beer, bier, 
bellowes, bellies, benefice, bdnejit. berdy 
defile, bewrdy discover, betray, beseech, 
besiege, body, baudy. boll to wash in, 
bouls to play with, bowls to drink in. 
boar, bore to pierce, bore the long hole 
in the gun. book that we read in, buck 
a deer, buck of clothes to be washed. 

CHAP. IX. 2. 



boult to range meal with, bolt a great 
arrow, door bar. bow to shoot with, 
bough, bow to bend, boys little lads, 
buoys great logs of wood floating in 
the bay to guide in the ships, burnt, 
brunt an assault, encounter, bury, 
berry, buy, by and by. biggin a little 
coife, begin, boaster, bolster a great 
pillow, breach, breeches, breed, bred 
that is reared, bread, brain, brawn 
boar's flesh, bran. 


Cabinet, cabin, qualm suddain fit, 
calm still, quiet. Gales or Cadiz a city 
in Spain, Callis a town in France, 
chalice, caul a dress for a womans 
head, caul of a beast, call to name, 
eale so the Scots call cabbage, canons 
rules for men to walk by, cannon a 
great gun, canon a Cathedral man. 
capacious, capable. capital, cdpitol. 
carriage, carrets or carots, chariot, 
carrier one that carries, careir a gallop 
with full speed, cavalier a horseman, 
caviller a wrangling, captious fellow. 
centorie a plant, centurie any 100 years 
of the ages of the churches, sentinel 
one that watcheth in a garrison, ken- 
nel, cdnnel, channel, chattel a mans 
personal estate, cattel tame beasts. 
case, cause, censor a reformer of man- 
ners, censer a perfuming pan. chafe, 
chaff, chance, change, chapters as 
those in the Bible, chapiters the heads 
of the pillars of the vail Exod : 36, 38. 
chare or chore, a small houshold busi- 
ness, chear to make merry, cheer coun- 
tenance, or good victuals, chair a seat 
to sit on. chap a narrow chink, cheap, 
champion, campaign large, even fields. 
check, chick, cheek one side of the face. 
chest, chess, cheese, child, chill, cidar 
drink made of apples, cedar, clamour, 
clamber, cittern instrument of musick, 
citron a fruit, cloy, claw, claws, close, 
clasp, claps he clappeth. coat, quote, 
cote a little plat of inclosed ground, 
cottage, choler, collar, scholar, collier, 
colour. could, cold, cooVd. gallop, 
collop a rasher of bacon, comb to kemb 
ones head with, honey-comb, come, 
comment, comet a blazing star, comma, 
common publick, commune to talk, con- 
verse together, common a ground not 
enclosed, commons a scholars allowance 
in meat, cumin an herb, cuminseed the 
seed thereof, complice a partaker, 
accomplish, con Jits or confects dried 
sweet meats, comfort, considerate, con- 
siderable, carol a song, coral a red 

shrub that children rub their gums 
with, crowner or coroner that makes 
inquest after a murther, corner a by 
private place, colonel a commander of 
a thousand, colonie a plantation, con- 
sumption, consummation, counsel ad- 
vice, s-e-1, council the Kings council, 
or a synod of learned men, c-i-1. 
course rough, corse dead body, course to 
go a hunting, curse to wish evil to one. 
cousin, cozen, cur-rant that will pass, 
as good money, current a stream, corants 
small raisins, crasie infirm, sickly, 
erased crackt, distracted. crocodile 
monster in the river Nilus, cockatrice 
serpent that kills with its very smell. 
cox a mans name, cocks do crow. 


Defection, defect, defer, differ, dia- 
mond, diadem, diary, dairy, damn to 
condemn, dam up to stop, keep out the 
light, dam a stopping of the water 
before a mill, damp a noysom vapour 
out of the earth, dame a mistress, or 
any beast that brings forth young. 
damsin a little black plum, ddmosel a 
brave young virgin, deceased, disease, 
decess departure, deer, dear, de'itie, 
ditty, delicate, delegate, demean to 
behave, demdin the means of a Lord, 
or a Cathedral, demand, demure, de- 
mur, desart wilderness, desert to for- 
sake, desert merit. descent, dissent, 
decent, desirous, desirable, discomfort, 
discomfit, disgest to concoct victuals, 
digest to set in order, dew small drops 
from the skie, due a debt, adieu, dint 
or dent, din, dine to eat about noon. 
dissolute, desolate, doe, do, dough, daw. 
doth as he doth give, doeth he maketh. 
drain, drawn. dray a sled, draw. 
Don Sir, master in Spanish, done, dun. 
doest thou dost make, dost a sign of 
the second person, as thou sayest or 
dost say, dust powder. 


Ear, wherewith one hears, ear to till 
ground, or to plough, ears of corn, ere 
before, year 12 months, early, yearly, 
earn, yern to be moved to compassion, 
yarn, earth, hearth, east where the 
sun riseth, yest barm, ease, egg to pro- 
voke, to set on, egg which the hen 
layeth, edge, hedge, eldern a tree, elder 
more old. Elie'zer, Eledzar. Ambas- 
sador, embassage. emerauld, emeroids, 
piles, eminent, imminent, encdgement, 
engagement, epha, ephod. epoch, epod 
a sort of verses. Esther, Hester a 



Saxon Idol, Easter, yesterday, experi- 
ment, experience.- eyes the windows ot 
the head, ice. 


Fair, fare, far, fear. fdshion 
mode, manner of apparel, fashions or 
farsy, running botches upon horses. 
fain, feign. favourer, favourite, 
felon a thief, fellon a swelling sore on 
the finger, fiends, fins, findes he find- 
eth, fine, fillip, Philip, fiee to shun, 
avoid, flea to pull off the skin, file a 
small creature that doth fly,/m a small 
skipping creature, fleece the wooll of 
one sheep, fleet navy, fleet swift, flit 
to waver, flitch, fiix or flux bloody 
issue, floor, flowr fine meal, flower 
of a plant, foal, fool, foil, foiVd, fold, 
foul, fowl, foord a shallow passage in 
a river, afford, fore, four, forth, 
fourth, friese shag'd cloth, freese to 
congeal. Friery where Friers live, 
fiery, ferry, f raise a small pan-cake, 
phrase, furse fine, hairy skins, furz 
prickly shrubs, fundament, foundation. 


Gantlet a souldier's buf, or iron glove, 
Gantlop two ranks of souldiers that 
scourge a malefactor that is condemned 
to run between, with his back stript. 
gard or great hem of a garment, guard 
a company of men that defend or secure 
ones person, guardian a tutor, or one 
intrusted with a fatherless child, garden 
an inclosed piece of ground, gentiles 
heathens, gentil a magot, gentle mild, 
generous, tractable, genteel curious in 
apparel or carriage, gesture, jester, 
gist where the King lodges in his 
journey, or progress, jest, glutinous, 
gluttonous, glister, glyster or clyster, 
cluster. God, goad, grass, grase to eat 
grass, grace, gray a colour, grey a 
badger, an earth hog. Greece a coun- 
trey, greese a small ascent, steps on the 
floor, ambergreise a perfume, grist corn 
brought to be grinded, grin to wry 
the mouth, grind to bruise small, as we 
do corn, groan, grown, guess, guest, 
gun, gone. 


Hail God save you, hail stones, hale 
to lug, to draw, hair, heir, hare, air, 
are they be. by to make hast, hay, 
high, highth loftiness, highness, heart, 
hart, hartsthorn a long leaved plant. 
hartshorn which the hart bears, here. 

hear, heard I did hear, hard solid, 
stiff, herd a drove of small cattel. 
hearing giving ear to, herring a seafish. 
heron a man's name, hern a crane. 
heathens, heavens, herse, hoarse, horse, 
hallow, hollow, hollo to bawl, holly, 
holy, hole, whole, home, whom, hore 
a frizzling frost, whore, hew to cut, 
to fell trees, hue visage, physionomie. 
hu and cry, hugh a mans name. 

Jambs, James, idol, idle, jewes, 
Jewish, juice. imply, employ, im- 
postor a great cheater, impositor one 
that takes the names of such as are 
absent, or tardy, incite, insight, in- 
considerate, inconsiderable. inn, in. 
Joab, Job. Joice a womans name, re- 
joice, joist a little beam in building. 
itch, hitch, its his, it's it is, 'tis it is. 
judge, jugs, judicious, judicial. 

Keen, ken, kin, kindred, kill, chyle 
heel, kiln, knead, need. 

Ladder, leather, lamb, lame, launce, 
to cut off dead, rotten flesh, lanch to 
put out a ship from harbour, last that 
they make shoes upon, last after all the 
rest, farthest, last to endure, hold out. 
latton tin, Latine Roman language. 
leaden, Ley den. league, leg, liegeman, 
leaper, leper, leopard, lease (with a soft, 
s) to pick up shottered corn, lease (with 
a hard, s) an indenture, writings, least 
smallest, less smaller, lest a note of for- 
bidding, as lest I chastise you. leaman 
concubine, whore, lemon a kind of 
an apple, legion, legends. liturgie, 
lethargie. lessen, listen, lies false tales, 
lice small, biting worms, limber weak, 
limner one that draws pictures, limn, 
limb, line whereby we work, or write 
straight, loin flank, hanch. Lions a 
town in France, lion a fierce beast, 
Horn a great cross beam, letter, litter, 
licter a sedan carried between two 
horses, lose to let go, to let slip un- 
known, loose (with a soft, s) to undo, to 
slack, loose (with a hard, s) debaucht, 
lewd, lost, loss. 


Main might, chiefest, main- prize, 
suretiship, bail, mane of a horse, mare 
that breedes colts, maior the chief ruler 



of a citie, major a commander by one 
degree higher then a Captain, more, 
moor a marsh, moor a man's name. 
mansion a chief house of abode, manchet 
a little white loaf, manner fashion, 
manners good carriage, mannour a great 
farm by heritage, manure to dung the 
ground, map, mop. march the first 
moneth, march to go as souldiers go 
together, Mars, marsh a moor, marred, 
married, martin, martyr, mercer, mer- 
chant, mace, mass, mast the biggest 
pole in the ship, waste acorn, meat 
food, mete to measure, meet fit, con- 
venient, message, messuage, meteor, 
metre. might, mite. mind, mine, 
mince, mint, minister, minster, min- 
strel, moat a deep pond about a house, 
mote the least dust, morter made of 
lime and sands, mortar that we pound 
any spice in. mo more, mow rick of 
corn, tnowe to cut down hay, or corn. 
mountibank, Mountague. 


Naught bad, naughty, nought no- 
thing. Nazarene, Nazarite. neather 
lower, neathermost lowest, neither none 
of them. nesh tender, effeminate, 
neece ones sister's, or brother's daughter, 
nice curious, delicate, nay, neigh, nigh, 
nonce of purpose, nones the first part of 
the moneth in the Roman accompt. 
news, nose, noise, notorious, notable. 

Oar to row with, ore metal not 
refined, o're for over, odour sweet 
smell, udder the pap of a cow. off 
with a double, f, after a word of action, 
as to cut off, to draw off, of before the 
word it belongs to, with one, f, as the 
fear of God. one the first in number, 
own. once, one's, our, Hour. Ho, o 
or ough a note of exclaiming or be- 
moaning, owe. 


Palate, palliate, pallet a little low bed 
to be roled up. paws, pause, pails, 
pales kind of stakes, pale a compass, 
appale to discourage, panes, pains, 
pattern coppie, patent, pattens wooden 
soals. patient, patience, pease a grain 
of corn, poises weights, to a clock, or 
jack, peace, peach, piece part, peer, 
pear, pare, pair, repair, person the 
word man used with some reverence, 
parson a kind of minister, pebble, 
people, pens, pence. Pilate, pilot, 
pirate, pistol, pcstil wherewith we 

pound in a mortar, epistle, pittious 
an object of pittie, pittiful one given to 
pittie. place, plaice a little broad fish. 
plad a course cloak, such as the Hi- 
landers wear, plat a small parcel of 
ground, plait to set the hair in order, 
plot a cunning design, play a game, a 
comedie, plea a defence, excuse. Com- 
mon pleas, please, plush, over-plus, non- 
plus, pottle, bottle, precedent a pattern 
to authorize any action, precedent fore- 
going, President a head of a College, or 
chief Euler. price, Pryce. prize, praise, 
principal, principle, plrivate, privets 
small trees, prime to, privies, portend, 
pretend, poor one in want, pore to fix 
ones eyes, and mind upon any thing. 
powr to shed, to throw down, power 
might, pray, prey, pry. puppies, 


Quarrel strife bickering, qudrel of 
glass, quarrie, querie. quench, quince, 
qtieen, quean. 


Rack, wrack ruine. rays, raise, rise 
(with a soft, s) when one lifts up ones 
self, rise (with a hard, s) the original, 
rise a sort of corn, rase, race, reach, 
to fetch a thing to one, retch to stretch, 
rich, wretch, refuge, refuse off-scour- 
ing, relict, reliques. reveal, revel, 
revile, rival, rivel. rain, reign, reins 
of the back, reins of a bridle, raiser, 
one that stirreth, rasour that we shave 
with, read I have read, red. real, 
royal, reverent, reverend, right, rite, 
write, roe, row as slaves do in a boat, 
row or rew of trees, raw. Jftomans, 
romance. Some the chiefest City ill 
Italy, rome to rage, and tear all before 
one, room a space, a chamber, rough 
ruggid, course, boisterous, ruff plaited 
together, as a ruff baud, rough-cast, 
rule, rowel. 


Sale, sayl. salve, save, same, Psalm. 
Saviour, savour. Satan, satlen smooth, 
silken stuff, scarce, scars, scent, sent, 
school, scull, scholars, scullers little 
boats, see, sea an ocean, sea the Pope's 
jurisdiction, as the sea of Rome, seal 
as to seal a letter, or writing, tiel to 
plaister the roof of a room, seasin 
possession, season opporttinitie. sect, 
set. sects, sex. seargeant one that 
arresteth men, surgeon chirurgeon, that 
heales wounds, Sir John a Knight's 
name. share, shear, sheer, shire, 
shave, sheave as of corn, sheathe, shive 



a slice of bread, ciev e that we winnow 
corn with, sheep, ship, shell, shield, 
shew a hrave sight, shew to manifest, 
shoe. Shiloh, Siloe, Siloah. shoot, 
shout, shovel, shole as a shole of fishes. 
shut, soot, sink, cinque five, cinque- 
ports haven towns, sin, sing, sign, 
sited, sighted, cited quoted, sith seeing 
that, sithe that we mow hay with, 
seethe to boyle. sledge the smith's great 
iron hammer, slead a dray that drag 
things in. sloe, slow, smutch to be- 
smear, as with soot, much a great deal, 
mich to play .the trewant. so, sew. 
soar to flie high like a kite, sore a young 
deer, sore painful, tender, galled flesh. 
some, summ as summ total, s-o-n the 
father's son, s-u-n the shining sun. 
Spaniard, spaniel a shag'd dog. sphear 
spear, spies, spice, spit, spittle that 
we spit out, or an Almes house, stable, 
staple as staple commoditie, staple of 
the door, staple the length of the wool. 
stars, stares black birds that do mischief 
the pigeons, stairs, stature, statute, 
statue, stead, bedstead, steed a stately 
horse, steel that men edge tools with, 
stile a form, or facultie in writing. 
steer a bullock, steer to guide a ship. 
stood did stand, stud a small post in a 
tear wall, storie, historie. straight 
even, quickly, streight a distress, per- 
plexitie. succour, sucker, suit to agree 
with, suit in law, or of clothes, sewet 
the fat of beef, or mutton, swound to 
faint, sound entire, without flaws. 

Tales, tails, talons, tallies, talent, 
taber a small drum, or timbrel, taper a 
stately wax candle, tar, tares, tears 
drops from the eyes, tear as to tear 
cloth, break, cut. teach, learn, theams 
subjects that we descant upon, teams of 
horses, thither, there, their, thorow as 
to break thorow all, through by means 
of, throw to cast, thrush, thrust, thyme 
or tyme, a sweet plant, time, tattle, 
title, tittle a point, to a sign of a verb, 
t-o-e the foot's toe, too, as too much, 
too also, two, tow. tomb, tome, tongues 
languages, tongs a pair of tongs, torn 

that torners do make, torn rent, turn 
to move round, track the picture of 
ones footsteps, track to follow one, step, 
by step, tract a handling of this, or 
that point, treaty a parley concerning 
peace, treatment, treatise, treatie con- 
ference concerning peace, truce, truths. 
truss, trust, turbant the Turk's great 
linnen Cap, turbot a byrt, a great sea 


Vacation, vocation, v-a-i-n empty 
foolish, v-e-i-n in the body, vail or 
covering, vale to put off, to submit, as 
to vale bonet, vale or valley, vetch a 
sort of corn, fetch to bring, volley. 
vial a great cup, viol an instrument of 
musick. visage feature in a face, vizard 
a false kind of face, to cover ones face. 
vital, victuals, umbles the inwards of 
a Deer, humble, umpire, empire, us, 
T7z Job's countrey. 

Wait, weight, waits, the citie mu- 
sicians, wattes waiteth. Vales the true 
Brittain's countrey, wales great thrids 
in hair stuffs, walls, bewail, walk, 
aivake, wakes a parish festival time, 
walks, wand, wan, wain, wardship, 
worship, way, weigh. wear, were, 
wears, dams where they catch fish. 
wicked, wicket. wilie cunning, un- 
weldie awkward, wild untame, weild to 
turn a sword about, win, wind that 
blowes, wine, wipe to rub off dirt, 
weep to shed tears, witch one that by 
a compact with the Devil doth bewitch, 
witch a trap to catch vermin, which 
that, who. wo alas, woe to be a suitor 
to a mistress, woad dying stuff, wood 
fewel, timber. wrap, rap. writ, 
write, wheelwright. wrote, wrought, 
rote, wrench, rinse to wash slightly. 

yea, I. yet, It, wit, yest a tree in the 
church yard, ewe, you. yolk of eggs, 
yoke that oxen draw under, oak. yore 
in old time, ewr a small neck'd pewter 

III. Cooper's Lists of Words Like and Unlike and Introductory Remarks. 

De Variis Scripturis. 

1. Qusedam scribuntur vel cum c vel 

s ; ut dace apua, ice glacies, farce farcio, 

race stadium, rice oryza, sauce condi- 

mentum, cesser censor, scarse vix, scissors 

cisers forfex, cellar cella, sinders scoria 
ferri, sives porrum sectile, civet zibethnm, 
sluse emissarium, sourse fons, syder me- 
lites, nourse nutrio, pencil penicillus, 
chace lucus, fugo, etc. 



2. Cum unica liter a finali, vel ista 
duplicata, ut fir, firr, firre, abies ; Sic 
er erro, son filius, sum summa, star 
Stella, trespass transgressio, war bellum. 

3. Cum dg vel ege aut age ; ut allege 
allege, college collegium, privilege privi- 
legium ; vel alledg etc. cabbidg brasca, 
saucidg tomaculum; vel cabbage, sausage. 

4. Cum im in vel em en ; ut em- 
poverish depaupero, endure sustento ; 
vel impoverish, indure, etc. 

5. Cum ea vel ee, ea vel e ut in capite 
8, reg. 1 [quoted supra p. 82], cum ai 
vel ei cap. 7, reg. 1 [quoted supra p. 
126], cum au vel a ; ut chance casus, 
gard stipo, matt malleus ; prance su- 
perb& salio ; vel chaunce, etc. 

6. Cum unic& litera vel ipsa dupli- 
cat, ; ut herring halec; at later tardifrs, 
latter posterior distingui debent. Latini 
derivativa ut plurimum primitivorum 
in scriptione sequuntur formam, quam- 
vis simplex latme -auditur sonus con- 
sonse, et anglice duplicatur ; ut abolish 
aboleo, canel canalis, amity amicitia, 
minister minister, mariner a mare navi- 
gator, et liturgy liturgia. 

Si varia hominum scripta praesertim 
privata consulamus, tantam libertatem, 
tantam varietatem, tantam incongruen- 
tiam et imperitiam yideamus ; quod satis 
hujusmodi suscepti turn necessitatem 
turn utilitatem demonstrare possit : In 
quo analogia et optime scribendi regulse 
exhibeantur. Legitur 
apricock abricot malum armenium 
balet balad canticum 
bankrupt bankrout decoctor 
butcher boucher lanio 
butler boiteler promus 
budget bouget bulga 
charet chariot currus 
clot clod gleba 
cumber comber impedio 
curd crud coagulum 
faign feign fingo 
fraightfrait velatura 
hartechoak artichoak cynara 
imposthume apostem apostema 
licorice liquorish glycyrrbiza 
plaight pleit plico 
slabber slaver conspergo 
squinsy squinancy angina 
vat fat labrum 
yelk yolk vitellus 

Cum plurimis aliis ; in quibus omni- 
bus relegare literas supervacaneas, atque 
eas, quse veram pronunciationem prox- 
ime attingunt, seligere debemus ; nisi 
quaedam alia privata ratio aliter suadet; 
ut in sequentibus observationibus. 


Voces quae eandem habent 
pronunciationem , sed diversam 
significationem et scribendi mo- 


All omnes, awl subula. 
altar altare, alter muto 
are sunt, air aer, heir, haeres, ere long 


ant formica, aunt amita 
ascent ascensus, assent assensus 
assault invado, a salt bit bolus salitus 


bates lauri, bait pannus villosus 

ball pila, baul vocifero 

bare nudus, bear fero. 

be sum, bee apes 

berry bacca, bury sepelio 

bil'd rostratus, build sedifico 

bitter amarus, bittour butio 

bows torquet, boughs rami, bowse 


bread panis, bred nutritus 
browz frondo, brows palpebrse 
borne portatus, bourn rivulus 
buy emo, by per 


calender laevitas praesertim panni, 
Calendar calendarium 

call voco, caul omentum 

censer thuribulum, censor censor, cen- 
sure judico 

centory herba centaria, century cen- 
turia sive spatium centum annorum 

chair cathedra, chare negotiolum 

chas'd fugatus, chast castus 

chews masticat, chuse eligo 

clause clausula, claws unguis 

coat tunica, quote cito 

cozen illudo, cousin germanus 

chord chorda subtensa, cord funis 

collar capistrum, choller bilis 

camming veniens, cummin cuminum 

cooVd refrigeratus, could possem 

coughing tussiens, coffin sandapila 

coarse levidensis, course cursus 

counsel consilium, council curia 

colors colores, cullers ovis rejicula 

car'd curabam, card pectino. 


dam mater, damn condemno 
dear carus, deer fera 
dissension dissensio [no second word 




doe dama, do ago, dow massa farinaria 
don factus, dun fuscus 
dew ros, due debetus 


mm&fsmaragdus, emrods haemorrhoides 


flea puleXj^y vel flea excorio 

fleam phlebotomum, phlegm vel fleam 


forth ex., fourth quartus 
fair pulcher, fare ligurio 
fir abies, fur pellis, far longS, furx 

genista spinosa 
fit a,ptus,Jight pugnabat 


gest gesta,jest jocus, 
jester jocator, gesture gestus 
ffo'st vadis, ghost spiritus 
grone gemo, grown accritus 

hair crinis, hare lepus 

hake screo, haivJs accipiter 

hart cervus, heart cor 

hard durus, heard auditus, herd grex 

hear audio, here hie 

holy sanctus, wholy totaliter 

hew scindo, hiie color 

hy festino, high altus 

higher altior, hire stipendiura 

hollo vocifero, hollow concavus 

ire ira, eyer observator 
insight prospectus, incite incite 
i'le volo, Isle insula, oil oleum 
in in, inn diversorium 
jerkin tunica, jirking flagellans 

lamb agnus, lamm verbero 
lead plumbum, led ductus 
lease charta redemptions, leash ternio 


leaper saltator, leper leprosus 
lessen diminuo, lesson lectio 
least minimus, lest that ne ; (sed potius 

vice versa least ne) 

leman pellex, lemon malum hesperium 
limb membrum, limn miniculor 
lo en, low humilis 
line linea, loin lumbus 
lustre splendor, luster lustrum 


manner mos, manour praedium 
male mas, mail lorica 

meat cibus, mete metior 
message nuncium, messuage villa 
mouse (mouze) mures capto, mows 


muse meditor, mues accipitrem in er- 
gastulum compingit, sea mews fuliese, 
mufe cum /foramen per sepimentum 

nether inferior, neither nee 
naught malus, nought nihil 
a notion notio, an ocean oceanus 

doloria vel 

interjectio vocandi, c 
Fehementiae, ow debeo 
oar remus, oar ore balluca, o're super 
our noster, hour hora 
own agnosco, one unus 
order ordo, ordure stercus 

pair par, pare rescindo, pear pyrus 

pause pauso, paws ungues 

pastor, pasture pascuum 

pleas causa, please placeo 

pickt her earn elegit, picture pictura 

prophet propheta, profit commodum 

pray precor, prey prseda 

plum prunum, plumb perpendicularis 

pour fundo, power potestas 


rain pluvia, reign regno, reins renes 

raise suscito, raies radii 

ranker olidior, rancour odium 

race stadium, rase expungo 

rare rarus, rear attollo 

read lectus, red ruber 

read lego, reed arundo 

raisin uva passa, reason ratio 

right rectus, rite ceremonia, write scribo, 

cart-wright carpentarius 
ry secale, wry obliquus 
roe capreolus, row series 
rote memoriter, wrote scripsi 
ruff sinus, rough asper 


say loquor, sey pannua rasus 
taver parsimonious, savor sapor 
seas maria, seize apprehendo 
sell vendo, cell cellula 
teller venditor, cellar cella 
tight visus, site situs, cite cito 
sise senio, size glutino 
season tempestas, seisin possessio 
seat sedes, deceit fraus 
share pars, shear tondeo 
shoo calceus, shew demonstro 



slo prunum sylvestre, slow tardus 

stairs gradus, stares aspectat 

so sic, sow suo 

soar subvolo, sore ulcus 

sought quaesitus, saw't id vidi 

spider aranea, spi'd her observabam 


sucker antha, succour suppetior 
some body aliquis, sum summa 
sun sol, son filius 
sure certus, suer candidatus, tewer prae- 

sweep verro, swipe tolonus 


taeTcs clavi, affigit, tach uncina, tax 


tenor, tenure tenura 
their suns, there ibi 
time tempus, thyme thymus 
tide fluxus et refluxus maris, ti'dligaius 
to ad, tow stupa 

toes digitus pedis, toze gradatim solvo 
tower turris, towre subvolo 
tract tractatus, track' t per vestigia 


throne solium, thrown jactus 
tire lasso, ty her ligato illara 


vein vena, vain inanis 
vial phiala, viol pandura 


ware merces, wear tero, were essent 

weigh libro, way via 

weight pondus, wait expecto, waits 


woo proco, woe calamitas 
whoop ehodum, hoop vieo 
vse usus, use utor, ews oves foemineee 
ewer aqualis, ure assuetudo 
yea ita, ye vos 

Sequentes item distinguan- 
tur, quas autem omnes non dis- 

bruit fama, brute brutum 
desert meritum, desart eremus 
doun lanugo, down deorsum 
foul sordidus,/0w>Z volucris 
friese pannus villosus, freez congelo, 

semper frees liberat 
moat fossa, mote atomos 
savoury satureia, savoury sapidue vel 



Voces quse diversum habent 
sonum et semum sed eandem 
plerumque scripturam ; quse ta- 
men melius hoc modo semper dis- 

acorn glans, a corn granum 

attack obsideo, attach prehendo 

bore ferebara, boar aper 

born parturitus, borne latus 

bow torqueo, bowe arcus 

boul globus, bowl patera 

convert converto, convert proselytes 

form forma, foorm classis 

guest hospes, gest gesta,/ jocus 

get adipiscor, jet gagates 

gives dat, gives compedes 

lead plumbum, leade duco 

light residi, light lux 

live vivo, alive vivus ; lived vixi, long- 

lived longsevus ; lives vivit, lives vitae 
mow acervus, motve meto 
past prseteritus, paste pastilbas 
rebel rebello, rebbel rebellator 
Rome Roma, roam vago 
sow sus, sowe suo 
sing cano, singe amburo 
tear lacryma, teare lacero 
tost agitatus, toste panis tostus 
wast eras, waste consumo 
wild efferatus, wil'd volui 
jill triental, gils branchiae 

Exemplorum sequentium pri- 
ora sonum habent f, posteriora, 
quse scribuntur cum s finali, 
sonum . 
Vfe usus, use utor : abufe abusus, abut* 


clofe clausus, close claudo 
erufe pocillum, cruse praedor 
diverfe diversi, divers urinatores 
dofe dosis, dose dormito 
elfe prseterea, ells ulnae 
excufe apologia, excuse excuso 
falfe falsus, falls cadit 
hifs sibilp, his suus 
loofe remissus, loose solvo 
premifes praemissse, prcemise praemitto 
refufe quisquilise, refuse abnuo 
houfe domus, house stabulo 
moufe mus, mouse mures capto 
loufe pediculus, louse pediculos capto 
brafs aes, braze subaero 
glafs vitrcum, glaze invitreo 
grafs gramen, graze pasco 


Propria nomina cum commun- 

ilus, quae eundem yel ajfinem 

habent sonum. 

Achor, amrjuger 

Bede, bead corona, bede tree azedarach 

Barbara barberry oxyacantha 

Brux, brooks rivuli 

Cain, cane canna 



Diep, deep profundus 

Francis mas, Frances foemina 

Tot*, /otogaudia 

Eaton, eaten pastus 

James, Jambs parastades 

Marshal, Martial Martialis 

Martin, Marten cypselus 

Mede, mead hydromelum 

More, moor maurus, palus, more plus 

Maurice vel Morrice, morris dance 

chironomica saltatio 
Nash, gnash strido 
Noahs, nose nasus 
Ny, nigh prope 

Paul, pall palla, palid mucidus 
Pilate, pilot nauclerus 
Rhode, road via publica, rode equitavi 
Rome Roma, room spatium 
Styx fluraen infernale, sticks bacilli 

Thamar, tamer mansuetior 

Walter, water aqua 


Yoces quae affinem habent 
sonum sed diversum sensum et 


alone solus, a loan vel lone mutuatum 
advice consilium, advise consulo 
device inventum, devise comminiscor 
adieu vale, adoo conatus 
alley ambulacrum, ally affinis 
arose resurrexit, arrows sagittae 


baren sterilis, baron baro 
begin incipio, biggin capital 
batle pinguesco, battel prselium 
beholding aspiciens, beholden obligatus 
bor'd terebratus, boord tabula 
bos't gibbus, boast glorior 
bile ulcus, boil coquo 
bawble nugse, bable garrio 

candid candidus, candyed conditus sac- 


causeys viae stratae, causes causse 
carrion cadaver, carrying portans 
champion pugil, champain campus 
cittern cithara, citron citreum 
collegue socius, colledg collegium 
colors, colures coluri 
copies exemplar, coppis nemus 
curantsuvse corinthiacae, currents amnes 
crown corona, coroner, crowner quaestor 
craven pusillanimus, craving rogatus 


primogenitus regis Galliae, 
dolphin delphinus 
decent decens, descent descensus 
doer actor, door ostium 


exercise exerceo, exorcise conjuro 

fellows socii, fellies apsides 

file limo, foil sterno 

fence sepimentum, fenns paludes 

find invenio, fiend daemon 

fiax linum, flakes flocculi 

fioor pavimentum, flower flos, flour 


fold plico, foaVd peperit equa 
froiz vel phrase fricta, phrase phrasis 


glister mico, glyster vel clyster 
garner granarium, gardian gardianus, 

hence hinc, hens gallinae 
home domus, whom quern 
hollow cavus, hallow sanctifico 
hose caliga, whose cujus 

idol idolum, idle ignavus 
employ impendo, imply intimo 
ingenious ingeniosus, ingenuous in- 


inure assuesco, in your in vestra 
juice succus,./0iVtf transtrum 

lain positus, lane viculus 
latin latinitas, lattin orichalcum 
lettice lactuca, lattice transenna 
leasour locator, lesser minor 
laud laudo, out-law' d proscriptus 
leaf folium, feotwlibexiaa 

may'st possis,- mast malus 

medal sigillum fusile, medle tracto 

mines fodinae, minds mentes 

mole talpa, mold humus 

moan gemo, mown messus 

mower messor, more plus 

melon melo, million 1000000 sive 

centum myriades 
mote atomos, moth tinea 
mile miliaria, moil laboro 

CHAP. IX. 3. 



neigh hinnio, nay non 

pattat pallatum, pallet grabatus 
parasite parasitus, parricide homicidium 
parson pastor, person persona 
patent literae patentes, patine patina, 

pattens subcalceus 
peece frustum, peace pax, peas pisa 
place locus, plaice passer marinus 
poplar populus, popular popularis 
potion potio, portion dos 
president exemplum, precedent precedens 
princes principes, princess princeps 
principal principalis, principle princi- 


price pretiura, prize praeda 
prowess virtus, prose prosa 
pulls vellit, pulse pulsus 

quean scrapta, queen regina 


race progenies, raze oblitero 
rice oryza, rise orior, rife origo 
wrote scripsi, wrought operatus 
raifer suscitator, rafor novacula 
royal regalis, rial nobilis rosatus 
rough asper, roo/palatum tectum 


saphire saphirus, safer tutior 
seam sutura, scheme schema 
cease cesso, cess taxo 
ceased cessatus, seized apprehensus 
serious serius, serous serosus 
shire comitatus, shear tondeo, share 


sighs suspiria, sithes falces messoriae 
tows sues, souse omasum 
sex sexus, sects divisiones 
sore I trimus, sorrel acetosa 

spies emissarii, spice aromata 

saws serrae, sauce condimentum 

soled solea affixa, sold venditus 

sound sanus, swoon lypothimia 

sore ulcus, sower sator, sour acidus, 

swore juravi 

seal sigillum, seel camero 
steak offula, stake depignero 
symbol -um, cymbal -um 
stricter severior, stricture ligamentum 

tongs forceps, tongues linguae 
treatise tractatus, treaties pacta 
throw 't projice istud, throat jugulum 

vale rallis, vail velum 

value valor, volley bombardarum simul 


vane triton, vain vanus 
vitals vitalia, victuals victus 

wer't esses, wart verruca 

wile stratagema, wild indomitus 

whey serum, way via 

your vester, euer aqualis 

yield praebeo, guild gild societas inauro. 

Quaedam ex his aliter scribuntur, nee 
in omnibus semper observatur eadem 
distinctio ; scribitur enim gesses pitacia 
pro jesses ; et gesses cum g dura vel 
guesses conjecturam facit ; get jet jeat 
gagates, et get cum g dura acquire ; 
gelosy jealousie jelosy zelotypia, girk 
jirk flagello, gelly jelly coagulum, etc. 
Corants corinths currants uvae corinthi- 
acae. Tanta itaque ruderis mole semota ; 
istam scripturam quae nativam scribendi 
rationem, et linguae analogiam maxime 
adstruit; elegi. 

3. Conjectured Pronunciation of DRYDEN, with an Examination 
of his Rhymes. 

Dryden was born in 1631 and died in 1700. The date of his 
pronunciation, acquired when he was a young man, therefore coin- 
cided with the publication of Wallis's grammar, 1653. But as his 
chief poetical works did not appear till much later, it is possible 
that he took advantage of the change of pronunciation going on 
to give greater freedom to his rhymes. Still his own pronunciation 
must certainly be looked upon as that of Wallis or Wilkins. As 



CHAP. IX. 3. 

Wallis is the last of those who advocate the use of (yy) in English 
to the exclusion of (iu), it will be perhaps safest to assume that 
Dryden agreed with "Wilkins and subsequent orthoepists, in saying 
(iu) and not (yy). He lived at a time during which long a passed 
from (a3ge) to (ee), but he most probably retained his youthful 
habit (a3se) to the last. His use of e, ea could not have inclined 
more to (ii) than Jones's, perhaps not so much. But we may per- 
haps assume that all the words with ea collected above, p. 86, 
were generally pronounced with (ii), though in any case of neces- 
sity they retained their older sound of (ee). He probably read ai, 
ei always as (ee) or (EE). 

"With regard to Dryden's rhymes, the notices on p. 87 shew that, 
although he allowed himself much liberty, they were not so im- 
perfect as our present pronunciation would lead us to conclude. 
But as those notes referred to a particular case of ea, it will be con- 
venient here to review the rhymes in one of Dryden's most finished 
poems. For this purpose I select the first part of Absalom and 
Achitophel, containing about 1000 lines, written in 1681, just about 
the time (1685) that Cooper published his grammar. 

1. W did not act on the following a 
to labialise it, so that wand land, wars 
gears, are perfect rhymes (wsend laend, 
wserz skaerz), and in care war, declared 
barr'd (kasser wa?r, dekleeaerd beerd) we 
have only a long and short vowel 
rhyming, as is constantly the case. 
Embracd taste rhymed perfectly as 
(embraea3st' tsesest), not according to 
our- present pronunciation. 

2. With proclaim rhyme name fame 
tame, that is, according to Cooper, 
(-EEm) rhymes to (-EEam), or, if we 
give the older pronunciation, (-EEm) 
rhymes to (-a38em), which was certainly 
sufficiently close for Dryden, who may 
even have called the first (-a3im). 
There are only three such lines in the 
whole piece. 

3. The rhymes theme dream, please 
these, break weak, great repeat, bear 
heir, are perfect (ee, ee). Again, fears 
ears, fear hear are perfect (ii, ii). 
But fear bear (ii, ee) is imperfect, 
unless he here took the liberty of 
giving /ear its older sound (feer). In 
the rhyme spares tears (sese, ii), he 
may have also taken the liberty to say 
(teerz). The rhymes care bear, wear 
care, (seas, ee), were sufficiently close for 
Dryden. Appear where (ii, ee) pre- 
sent a decidedly bad rhyme, unless he 
chose to say (whiir), which is possible, 
as the pronunciation still exists dia- 

4. The group years petitioners, fears 
pensioner s t please images, please griev- 

ances, great yet, supreme them, declaim 
Jerusalem them, must all be considered 
forms of (ee, e), or long and short 
vowels rhyming, although at that time 
years fears were (jiirz, fiirz). In re- 
ceive prerogative (ee, i), sweet Jit (ii, '), 
the intention was the same, the wide 
(*) being made to do duty as either 
e or (i). 

5. Civil devil was a perfect rhyme 
i, t) ; but sense prince, pretence prince, 
e, i}, seem to point to a well-known 

Irishism, and the close connection of 
Irish pronunciation with the xviith 
century leads us to suppose that such 
words would be generally accepted as 

6. The Y final seems to have been 
doubtful in value. From Spenser's 
time to our own we have found poets 
taking the liberty to rhyme it as (ai) 
or (ii), and as the Irish of the present 
day are said to pronounce final y as 
(ii), we may, as usual, presume that 
this pronunciation was rife in the 
xvn th century. In the present poem 
we have y final taken as (ii) in free 
liberty, be democracy, decree royalty, 
me liberty, degree university, be lunacy; 
and as (ai) in tie posterity, sky nativity, 
why property, wise enemies, by hus- 
bandry, cry theocracy, eye royalty, 
high extremity, despise indignities, cry 
tyranny, die posterity, high destiny, I 
liberty, cry liberty, try anarchy, by 

7. The following rhymes were per- 



feet (ai, ai) according to a prevalent 
use in the xvn th century, smiles toils, 
design join, join coin. Gill gives (waind) 
for wind, ventus, and poets have always 
taken the liberty to rhyme it, as Dry- 
den does, with bind, behind. The rhyme 
flight height was perfect (ai, ai) accord- 
ing to Miege, but Cooper has (HEEt), 
Jones (neet, neetth). Clearly there 
was a diversity of pronunciation of 
which the poet availed himself. 

8. The (oou) of the xvith century, 
when generated by a following I or w, 
was so often considered as (00) by the 
orthoepists of the xviith century, al- 
though the usage varies, that we need 
feel no surprise at the rhymes soul pole, 
grown throne, own throne, mould bold, 
overthrow foe, soul control, blow forego. 
But gold sold, gold old, were at that time 
(guuld, could ould cold), and the rhymes 
belong to the same category as choose 
depose, poor more (\m,oo}, (though, as 
the Expert Orthographist, 1704, says 
that poor is pronounced as o long, the 
two last words may have been perfect 
rhymes to Dryden), or good load, shook 
broke yoke, look spoke = (u, 00} , of which 
took flock = (VL, A), would scarcely be 
deemed a variant. Cooper heard blood, 
flood as (blwd, flwd), so that that pro- 
nunciation must have been sufficiently 
prevalent to pass the rhyming of blood 
with flood, wood, good. And as a wound 
is still often called a (waund), we need 
not wonder at finding bound wound. 

9. No distinction was made in rhyme 
between (eu, iu), if indeed the dis- 
tinction had not become altogether ob- 
solete. Poets allow (iu, uu) to rhyme, 
considering the first as (iuu) or (juu), 
but the fact that they are now felt not 
to be genuine rhymes at once discredits 
the common theory that long u is now 
(juu). The first element receives so 
much stress that it cannot degenerate 
into (j). Accordingly we find the 
rhymes anew pursue, Jews accuse, few 
true, muse choose, rul'd cool'd. 

10. The rhyme remove love was at 
that time perfect in some mouths as 
(a, a), but thong tongue, song strung, 
were probably quite imperfect as (A, a), 
although (thoq, toq) may still be oc- 
casionally heard, and in some dialects 
all these words end in (-aq). But son 
crown (san kraun) was altogether un- 
justifiable at that period. 

11. The r seems to have excused 
many indifferent rhymes. Afford sword, 
which now rhyme as (aefooad sooid), 
then rhymed as (sefuurd suurd), but 
affords words, mourn' d returned, were 
(uu, a), sword lord, court sort, were 
(uu, A), scorn return, born turn, were 
(A, 9), board abhor r'd, restor'd lord, 
were (oo A). First curs'd was probably 
perfect as (a a). Art desert was per- 
haps considered a perfect rhyme. In 
none Absalom the vowels perhaps agreed 
as (00} , but as the consonants were dif- 
ferent, the result is only an assonance. 

The following rhymes of Dryden, and other authors, who, having 
acquired their pronunciation in the xviith century, must be 
reckoned in that period for the present purpose, have been taken 
from the appendix to Walker's Khyming Dictionary, where they 
are given as "allowable rhymes," or Prof. Haldeman's Felix Ago 
(supra p. 866 note), where they are cited as anomalies. The authors 
with their dates are as follows : 

Addison, 16721719. 
Blackmore, 16501729. 

Herrick, 15911674. 

Milton, 16081674. 

Butler, 16121680. Oldham, 16531683. 

Cowley, 16181667. Philips, 16761708. 

Crashaw, d. 1650. Parnell, 16791717. 

Creech, 16591700. Prior, 16641721. 

Davenant, 1605 1668. Roscommon,1633 1684. 

Dryden, 16311700. Rowe, 16731718. 

Garth, 16721719. Waller, 16051687. 

Granville, 16671735. Wycherley, 1640 1715. 

The rhymes are arranged, very nearly, in the same categories as 
those just considered, and the numbers prefixed to the groups will 
therefore generally be sufficient to point out their nature. This 


review will shew, that it would not be possible to infer identity of 
vowel sound in apparently rhyming words in the xvii th century. 

1. Wan man, Dry den. care war, 
Garth, hard reward, Parnett. pre- 
pares Mars, Granville. marr'd spar'd, 
Waller, plac'd last, Dryden. haste 
last, Waller, made bad, Dryden. This 
is the common rhyme of a long and 
short vowel (sese, se). 

2. Complaint elephant, Prior, faint 
pant, Addison. These differ only from 
proclaim name in having the second 
vowel (&) short, instead of (sBse) long. 

3. They sea, Dryden. defeat great, 
Garth, great heat, Parnett. neat 
great, Parnell. please ease images, 
Wycherley. praise ease, Parnett. train 
scene, Parnell. steal fail, Parnett. 
bears shears, Garth are all practically 
perfect (ee, ee) or (ee, EE). State treat, 
Dryden. errs cares, Prior, retreat 
gate, Parnell. place peace, Parnett. 
theme 'fame, Parnell. are wear, Wy- 
cherley are only (ee, seee). -here share, 
Garth, years shares, Garth, hear air, 
Hilton may have been taken as (ee, 
soae) and (ee, ee), instead of (ii, sese) 
and (ii, ee). 

4. Ear, murderer, Dryden. great 
debt, Dryden. express cease, Dryden. 
rest feast, Dryden. contemns streams, 
Dryden. dress'd feast, Dryden. express 
cease, Dryden. eat regret, Prior, digest 
feast, Prior, reveal tell, Prior, east, 
west, Addison. threats beats, Creech 
are all eases of (ee, e) or long and short 
vowels rhyming, chin unclean, Dryden, 
uses (?) for (e). distress place, Garth, 
uses (seee) for (ee). compelled field, 
Dryden. held field, Garth, well steel, 
Dryden. freed head, Dryden have 
(ii, e) for (ee, e). 

5. Dress'd fist, Dryden. flesh dish, 
Dryden. heaven given, Prior are the 
usual (e, *). 

6. See energy, Eoscommon. 

7. Defile spoil, Dryden. deelin'd 
join'd, Dryden. decline disjoin, Garth. 
join design, Butler, vine join, Cowley 
were perfect rhymes; and weight 
flight, Dryden. may be compared with 
height flight. 

The character of the good parson has been selected as a specimen 
of the conjectured pronunciation of Dryden, because it can be 
compared directly with the original of Chaucer, Chapter VII, 
p. 704, both as to matter and sound, and Dry den's version scarcely 
differs from Chaucer's more in the first than in the second, if the 
results of the preceding investigation be adopted. 

8. Doom Rome, Sutler, throne gone, 
Dryden. load abroad, Dryden. food 
good, Parnell were probably perfect 
rhymes, and : stood blood, Sutler, Dry- 
den, may have been so, but: floods gods, 
Dryden. along hung, Dryden were 
anomalous, yet evidently not felt as very 
bad ; to these belong : strow'd blood, 
Dryden. rode blood, Dryden. and: sow 
plough, Dryden. shew bough, Dryden. 
inclose brows, Dryden. flow'd vow'd, 
Dryden. plow low, Philips, stone 
down, Waller, were perhaps felt as 
(oo oou) rather than (oo au), and were 
therefore not far from (uu, au) in: soon 
town, Dryden. you allow, Blackmore. 
now you, Crashaw. pow'r secure, 
Garth, so that they connect the former 
with: grout shut, Dryden. proud blood, 
Garth, or (au, a). The rhyme (oo, uu) 
or (oo, u) is found in: home Rome, 
Sutler, looks provokes, Dryden. gone 
soon, Dryden. store poor, Dryden. 
throne moon, Dryden. look yoke, 
Dryden. spoke took, Prior. Rome 
home, Eowe. door poor, Parnell. 
shoals, fools, Garth. 

9. No example. 

10. In : rock smoke, Dryden, which 
was really (A, oo), the intention was 
(o, oo), and this led readily to tolerating 
(a, oo) or (a, uu) in : home plum, Dry- 
den. home comb gum, Dryden. come 
home, Herriek. struck oak, Dryden. 
grove love, Garth, moves loves Waller. 
come Rome, Dryden. come Rome, 
Butler, come Rome, Garth, shut foot, 

11. Heard bard, Garth, was perfect ; 
but curd hoard, Philips, forth worth, 
Dryden. where clear, Prior, cord bird, 
Dryden show the influence of r. 

12. The following seem rather to be 
oversights than intentional anomalies : 
ground swoon, Dryden. unbought 
draught, Dryden. form man, Dryden. 
wish bliss, Dryden. views boughs, 
Addison. tree by, Oldham. I she, 


JE Gwd Pier-sn, 
e'm^'taeaeted frAm TshAA'sar aend enlaer'dzhd. 

JE peer'fl'sh priist waez Af dhe pil'gnm trEEn ; 

JEn AA'fwl, revrend," send relidzlras maen. 

~Liz aiz defiuzd' 83 vEn'araebl grasses, 

^Ind tshaerzt* fctsElf' waez m H*Z faeaes. 4 

]Msh waez mz sool, dhoo H^Z aetair waez puur ; 

(Mz GAd seed kloodhd mz oon aembaes-aedar,) 

FAT satsh An Erth mz blEst Redirmar boor. 

:Af siks'tt jiirz nil siimd; aend WE! mait laest 8 

Tu sfcks't* moor, bat dliaet nil Itvd tuu faest ; 

B-efaind* ntmsElf' tu sool, tu karb dhe sens, 

-35nd maeaed AAlmoost- ae sen Af aeb'stmens. 

jEt saed mz aes'pEkt nath*q A SCVEET, 12 

Bat satsh ae faeaes aez prAm'ist Hm smsEET. 

Nath'/q rezErvd* AT sal'en waez tu sii, 

Bat swiit regaeaerdz- and pleez-iq saeqk-ttii : 

Maild waez mz aek-sent, aend mz aek shan frii. 16 

"W^'tli El'o^ens mnaeaet mz taq waez aeaermd, 

Dhoo Haersh dhe pree'sept, jet dhe pree'tshar tshaeaermd. 

FAr, lEt'q daun dhe guuld'n tshEEn frAm nai, 

Hii driu mz AU'diens ap'ward tuu dhe skai : 20 

^End Affc wdh nooi* nmiz sdi tshaeeermd dheer iirz, 

(JE miu-zk moor meloo'deas dhaen dhe sfeerz). 

FAr Daeae'v/d lEft mm, when mi wEnt tu rEst, 

H^'z laiar ; aend aeft'ar mm, nil saq dhe bEst. 24 

Hii boor mz greet koimslran m mz Iwk, 

Bat swiit'K tEm-pard AA, aend sAft'nd AA! nii spook. 

Hii preetsht dhe dzhAiz Af HEvn aend pEEnz Af HE!, 

JEnd waernd dhe sm'ar w*th bekam'eq zeel; 28 

Bat An etErnael mErsa' lavd tu dwsl. 

Hii tAAt dhe gAs'pel raedh'ar dhaen dhe IAA, 

^Ind foorst H^msElf- tu draiv, bat lavd tu drAA. 

FAr fiir bat friiz*ez maindz ; bat lav laik seet, 32 

:Egzaeaelz- dhe sool sablaim tu siik nar naeae'tiv seet. 

Tu thrEts dhe stab'arn snrar Aft iz naeaerd : 

Raept tin mz kraimz, aegEEnst dhe stArm prepaeaerd- ; 

Bat when dhe maild*ar beemz Af mers/ plEE, 36 

Hii mElts, aend throouz mz kam'bras klook aewEE*. 

Lait'mq aend than-dar (hEvnz aerU'l'arai). 

-ZEz naer'bmdzharz bifoor' dh- :AAlmarte' flai : 

Dhooz bat proklEEnr mz stail, and disaepiir-, 40 

Dhe stoTar saund saksiidz-, aend GAd iz dheer. 

Dhe taidhz mz paer'e'sh frii'l* pEEd, mi twk, 

Bat never siud, Ar karst weth bEl aend bwk ; 

"Weth paeae-shens beer-/q rAq, bat Af-r?'q noon, 44 

Sms evn maen iz frii tu luuz Hiz ooun. 


Dhe kan-tra tsharlz, aekArd^q tuu dlieer kaind, 

(Huu gradzh dheer diuz, aend lav tu bii binaind ;) 

Dhe IBS nil sAAt mz Af-riqz, pmsht dhe moor, 48 

And prEEzd ae priist kAntEn'ted tu bi puur. 

Jet Af mz ItH nil naed sam tu spaeaer, 

Tu f iid dhe fsenre'sht, send tu kloodh dhe baeser ; 

FAr mAT'ttfaid mi waez tu dhaet digrir, 52 

JE puurar dhsen HtmsElf' mi wud nAt sii. 

Triu priists (nil sEEd), send preetslrarz Af dhe ward, 

Wer oon'b' stiu'ardz if dheer savren lArd ; 

Nath^'q waez dheerz, bat AA! dhe pab'U'k stoor, 56 

/ntras'ted r/tsh'ez tu reliiv dhe puur ; 

Huu, shwd dhee steel, fAr wsent Af nz reliif 1 , 

Hii dzhadzhd HemsElf* aekAm'pU's w^'th dhe thiif. 

Waid wsez H/Z pser'/sh, nAt kAntraek'ted kloos 60 

Jn striits, bat niir send dheer 88 strseglsq saus ; 

Jet st'l nil wasz set naend, withaut* rek^Est', 

To sErv dhe s^'k, tu sak'ar dhe dtstrEst', 

TEmp-t/q, AH fut, seloon, wthaut % sefrait', 64 

Dhe dsesen-dzharz Af se dserk tempES'tiuas nait. 

:AAl dh/s dhe gwd oold msen perfoormd 1 seloon-, 
" spaaaerd H'S pEEnz ; fir kiu'rseaet naed mi noon ; 

darst mi trast aenadh'ar w^'th H^'Z kaeser ; 68 

rood nVmsElf* tu Poolz, dhe pab'b'k fEEr, 
Tu tshaef'ar fAr prefEr-ment w'th mz guuld, 
Wheer bsh'apr?'ks and sarnikiurz aer soold ; 
Bat diu*U' waetsht mz nAk bai nait aend dEE, 72 

JEnd frAm dhe prau'b'q wwlf rediimd' dhe prEE, 
^End aaq-gre ssnt dhe waii* fAks SBWEE. 
Dhe praud mi taeaemd, dhe pEn*'tent nii tshiird, 
^Ar tu rebiuk- dhe re'tsh Afsn-dar fiird. 76 

ITiz preetsh^'q matsh, bat moor mz prsek't/s rAAt, 
(^ h'v'q sEr'man Af dhe triuths mi tAAt :) 
FAT dh's bai riulz seveer mz laif mi skwseaerd, 
Dhaet AA! mait sii dhe dAk'trm whetsh dhee naeserd. 80 

FAr priists, nii sEEd, aer pset'arnz fAr dhe rsst, 
(Dhe guuld Af hEvn, HUU beer dhe GAd ^'mprEst' ) 
Bat when dhe praslras kain iz kEpt ankleen*, 
Dhe savreenz m-aedzh iz noo lAq-gar siin. 84 

If dhee bii faul, An nuum dhe piipl trast, 

mEE dhe baeses'ar braes kAntraekt- se rast. 

Dhe prEl-aeaet fAr mz noo'K laif mi praizd ; 
Dhe war-h'pamp AV prEl'ses* despaizd*. 

H^z Saese-v^ar kseaem nAt weth ae gAA'd* shoo, 88 

waez mz k'q-dam Af dhe warld biloo'. 

CHAP. IX. 3. 


Paeae'shens in waent, send pAvart* Af maind, 

Dheez maerks Af tshartsh aend tshartslnnen nil desaind', 

JEnd bv'q tAAt, aend darq lEft bimaind'. 92 

Dhe kraun mi woor waez Af dhe point *ed thArn ; 

In parpl nii waez kriu'sifaid, nAt bArn. 

Dhee HUU kAntEnd' AT plaeaes send nai digrir, 

JEaer nAt mz sanz, bat dhoos Af Zeb'edii. 96 

NAt bat mi niu dhe sainz Af Ertlrl* paur 

Mait WE! biikam* sEEnt Pii'tarz sak'SEsar : 

Dhe Hoo'H faeae'dhar nooldz 83 dab'l rEEn : 

Dhe prais mEE kiip niz pamp dhe frslrar mast bii plEEn. 100 

Satsh waez dhe SEEnt, HUU shoon with evr* grseaes, 

RenEkt'q, Moo'zez-laik, mz Moeaa-karz faaaes. 

GAd SAA mz fm'eedzh. laivi* wsez eksprsst-, 

JEnd HIS ooun wark^ sez in kreaese'shan blsst. 104 

It has not been considered necessary to add the original, as the 
orthography of the first edition was not readily accessible, and other 
editions are easily consulted. 

As contrasted with the Shaksperian examples pp. 986-996, 
observe, the change of (a, aa) into (SB, aeae), the separation of (o, oo) 
into (A, oo), the entire absence of (yy) and of the guttural (kh), 
the complete change of (ei) into (ai), and (ou) into (au), with the 
absence of (ai, au), or rather their absorption into (EE, AA). 

As contrasted with our modern pronunciation, observe the exist- 
ence of (aeae), still heard in Bath and Ireland, in place of (ee, ee'j), 
the existence of words like (neet seet) v. 32, still heard in Ireland 
and the provinces, in place of (mit siit), and similarly (SCVEET 
smsEE-r) v. 12, these (dheez), the broad (EE) which has quite given 
way to (**, ee'j) except before (JL), where it does not usually exceed 
(ee), the pure (iir, oor, uur) in place of our modern ('u, ooi, wwi). 
The use of (A) in place of (o) is probably more theoretical than 
real ; indeed many orthoepists still regard (o, A) as identical. The 
clear (ae) after (w), as in (waer), not (WAT), is noticeable, together 
with a few special words, as : of (Af ) still used by elderly speakers, 
last fast (laest faBst) still often used by refined speakers in the north, 
golden (guuld'n) still heard from elderly speakers, artillery (serttT- 
arai) now hardly ever used in educated speech, true (triu), truth 
(triuth), rule (riul) not unfrequent, at least in intention, provincially, 
sovereign (savren) an obsolescent but not quite obsolete pronuncia- 
tion. Paul's (Poolz) is quite lost, and so is worldly (warl*'), at least 
in intention. Of course many peculiarities, as pointed out in the 
vocabulary, do not occur in this example, such as -ture (-tar). The 
transitional character of the pronunciation is very transparent. 




1. Some English Orthoepists of the Eighteenth Century. 

The pronunciation of the xvm th century is peculiarly interesting 
as forming the transition to that no win use, and as being the "old- 
fashioned " habit of speech which we may still hear occasionally 
from octogenarians. Those who, like the author, can recollect how 
very old people spoke forty or fifty years ago, will still better un- 
derstand the indications, unhappily rather indistinct, which are 
furnished by the numerous orthoepists of the latter half of the 
xvm th century. In the present section some of those which had 
not been consulted in Chap. III. will be noticed, and a specimen of 
Buchanan's pronunciation will be given. In the next, two American 
orthoepists will be considered. These are especially interesting, 
because the pronunciation preserved in New England is older than 
that of the mother-country. 

To Mr. Payne I am indebted for an acquaintance with Lediard's 
Grammar, which devotes 270 pages to a consideration of English 
pronunciation and orthography in 1725. As the author had studied 
"Wallis's treatise, and explains the pronunciation by German letters, 
it seems advisable to give rather a full account of his conclusions. 


From: Grammatica Anglicana Cri- feign height, few new, fewel brewer, 

tica, oder Versuch zu einer vollkom- winter pint, mother modest, Rome come, 

menen Grammatic der Englischen good root, foot tooth, round mourn, 

Sprache, in welcher .... eine neue could mould, youth young, fume tune, 

Methode, die so schwer gehaltene Pro- burn pull, pulse bull, due spue. 

nunciation in kurtzer Zeit zu erlangen, Lediard remarks that " the English 

angezeigt wird durch pronounce more in the front of the 

Thomas Lediard, N.C.P. &Philol. Cult. mouth and softer, than the Germans, 
Hamhurg, 1725, 8vo. pp. 976, and 82 who rather use the back part of the 
unnumbered introductory pages of dedi- mouth, while the French are inter- 
cation, preface, contents and laudatory mediate. In rapidity the French are 
German verses ! fastest, Germans slowest, and English 

In the preface he complains of intermediate." The following citations 
Theod. Arnold, who, in his Neue Engl. are abridgments, except when the words 
Grammatica, Hanover, 1718, endea- are between inverted commas, in which 
yours to distinguish the (to Lediard) case they are full translations ; the pa- 
identical vowel sounds in : fear dear, laeotype and passages in [ ] are inter- 
heap cheap, meal deal, food root, mould pretations or interpolations. 
shoulder ; while he confuses as identi- 
ties the (to Lediard) distinct vowels in : A 
year pear, door blood, porter border, I. 1. Long a like German ah or 
rash watch, dead heart, seize their, French ai in mats ; [that is, (BE), in- 


tended for (eese), because he uses a 
without the prolonging h, for a short 
in glad, had, yet this (8B8e)is suspicious 
because of Wallis,] as name nahm, 
shade schahd, face fahs, etc. When 
unaccented, as short a or e, [that is, 
(se, e)], as private preivat, courage 
rradsch (ka-rffi 

kurradsch (ka-rffidzh), desolate dessolat. 
2. many mahni, to quadrate quah- 
drahte [the e is not meant to be sound- 
ed], Mary Mahri, except water wahter, 
[ah should be (aa), but is meant for 
(AA). Observe many (ma3a3'm). Only 
the principal examples are given.] 3. 
huzza, hossah (na-sgeas). 4. plague 
plahgh. 5. In -ange, as change 
tschahndsch, range rahndsch, angel 
andschel. In angelical, orange only as 
short a (a3). 6. In -aste=ohst (a3a3st), 
as chaste paste, haste, waste. 

II. Like German a, or rather more 
lengthened almost like German ah, 
[meant for (AA)], 1. in -W = -ahl (-AA!), 
as all, call, wall, small. But Mall in the 
mail game, and shall have short a (se). 
2. in derivatives as already, walnut 
wahlnot; but challenge, tschallendsch, 
tallow, tallo, gallows gallus [possibly 
(ga3-las) and not (garlws), but observe 
not (gse-looz), and see OW below], cal- 
lous kallus. 3. in bald bahld, scalded 
skahlded. 4. in walk wahlk, talk tahlk, 
chalk tschahlk, but in these and similar 
words I is not heard in "rapid" pro- 
nunciation. 5. in false, balsom, palsy. 
6. in malt, salt, halt, exalt, but shalt 
schalt. 7. in -war- in one syllable, as 
war, warm, tawwn?tuwahrd(twwAA'rd), 
reward, warn, dwarf ; but in warren, 
warrant with a (A) short. 8. in quart, 

III. These two principal sounds of 
A are long, and each has its short 
sound, as short ah and short a in Ger- 
man, thus : as short a (se) in can, man, 
rash, but as long a (AA) in watch, was, 
wash [meant for short (A), see V. below]. 
"The short a () really approaches 
short a, and has as it were a middle 
sound between a and a, [that is, (03), 
lies between (E) and (a),] and the dif- 
ference is therefore best heard ex usu 
or from a native Englishman." 

IV. Short a as a short a (03). 1. In 
monosyllables, as glad, had, man, rash, 
hard hard, march martsh, branch 
brantsch, dance dans [i.e. these words 
have short (), and this generally be- 
fore r, n\. 2. in derivatives German 
Dscherman, gentleman dschentelman ; 
barley barli, partridge partridsch, 

chamber tschamber, [compare Moore's 
rhyme : amber chamber, supra p. 859], 
3. in -arge, -chance. 4, in -al, as, general 
dscheneral, altar altar. 5. ina-.asogwtn 
agan(a3gse % n) abroad abrahd (a3brAA'd). 
V. Short a is sometimes pronounced 
as German a, [properly (a), meant for 
(A) or (o)]. 1. After qu, as qualify 
qualifei, quality qualiti, [here (kwsei) 
was certainly also in use, see vocabu- 
lary] qualm qualm, quantity, quarrel, 
squabble, squander. 2. after w, as wad, 
wallow, wan, wand, wander, want, was, 
wash, watch, swab, swaddle, swallow, 
swan. Except, quack, quadrate, quag, 
quandary*, quash*, squash*, waft*, 
wag, waggon, wax, which belong to IV., 
[that is have (as) ; observe * words.] 


I. Alphabetic name ih (ii) has the 
sound of long German i, and is then 
called e masculine. 1. in -e, as be, he, 
me, she, we, ye jih, except only the, 
which has short e (e), not to distinguish 
it from thee, but because it is always 
atonic. 2. in e- as Eve, even, evil ihvil, 
Eden, Egypt, equal ihqual. 3. before 
a following vowel, as idea eidiha, Chal- 
deans, Deity, Mausoleum mosolihum 
[probably (moosoliram)]. 4. ending a 
syllable, as in Peter Pihter, etc. 5. in 
the following monosyllables here hier, 
Mede Mihd, Crete Kriht [compare Jones, 
1701, supra p. 85], a mere, to mete, rere- 
admiral, scene sihn, scheme skihrn, 
sphere, these dhihs [pronoun]. "To 
these should be added there, were, 
where, which by bad habit are called 
dhahr, wahr, hwahr." [Lediard was 
therefore of the school of the Expert 
Orthographist, supra p. 88.] 6. in 
adhere, austere astihr, blaspheme, co- 
here, complete, concede, concrete, convene, 
extreme, impede, intercede, interfere, 
Nicene, obscene absihu, precede, recede, 
replete, revere, severe, sincere, supersede, 
supreme. Except extremity, severity, 
supremacy, spherical, discretion, etc., 
which have German e (e). 

II. E masculine is pronounced short 
as German i [probably (i}, in Hamburg 
and North Germany (') for (i) is com- 
mon in closed syllables]. 1. in em- 
en-, as embark imbarck, encourage 
inkurredsch, English Inglisch, enjoy 
indschai, ensue insu. Except embers, 
emblem, embryo, emperour, emphasis, 
empire, empireal, encomiast, enmity, 
ennoble, enter, enthusiasm, entity, en- 
trails, envoy, envy and derivatives. 2. 


Ending a first syllable, as elect ilect. 
Also in yes, yesterday, devil, Sevil 
[observe this (s, drval, Srrfl), but 
(jes) occurs below]. 3. in -e when 
heard. 4. in the middle of poly- 
syllables, "where it is read quite short, 
or is almost quite bitten off," as atheist 
ahthiist, courteous kortius, every eviri, 
piety peiiti, righteous reitius, soverain 

III. E feminine, like the French, 
only before r, where it has " an obscure 
sound almost like German 6 (03), or a 
very short obscure e as in her, vertue," 

IV. E neuter as German e [I in- 
terpret by (e), but really (E) is common 
in Germany, as however Lediard uses a 
confessedly (E) for (SB), I think it best 
to sink (E) altogether and use (se, e) 
in the interpretations], as in end, etc. 
1. in -en very short, bitten off, and 
little heard, as open op'n, often aft'n 
[observe the t]. 2. Short or elided in 

V. [About e mute, ~le, -re, genitive 
-es, etc.] 

I. Long * as German ei [ (ai), as 
many in England still pronounce, but 
we are not to suppose that Lediard 
would have distinguished (ai, ai, ahi, 
ai). The examples agree with present 
usage, except that live-long has i short 
in Lediard, and sometimes i long now]. 
"Five-pence is commonly but wrongly 
called fippens " (ftp-ns?). In child, 
mild, wild, find, bind, behind, kind, 
grind> blind bleind. But build bild, 
guild gild, windlass windlass, Windsor, 
rescind. Use i when Id, nd belong to 
two syllables. Some call the wind 
wind, others weind. 4. before gh 
which is then mute. " The Scots, and 
some Northerners retain the guttural 
sound of gh, but this is considered a 
fault and should not be imitated. In 
sigh, gh is by some pronounced in the 
throat, but with a sound not unlike 
English th" [supra p. 213, note]. 
Diamond deymond [in two syllables]. 

9. Fire feier, etc., but shire schihr, 
cashire kaschihr, frontire frantihr [that 
is cashier (kA.shii'r'), frontier (frAntirr)]. 

10. Christ Kreist, climb kleim, indict- 
ment indeitment, pint peint, tith teith, 
writh reith [now (taidh, raidh)]. 

II. [Short i generally possesses no 
interest. Notice] long ih (ii) in Price 
[explained as German boy, a kind of 
baize], gentile or genteel, oblige some 

say obleidsch according to rule, pique, 
shire, fatigue fatiegg, intrigue intriegg. 
III. A middle sound between French 
e feminine and German o, before r only, 
as in bird, etc. In sirrah, i is almost 
pronounced as short a (sser se), in hither, 
thither, arithmetic, mithridate, the i 
before th is almost short e. The i is 
quite " swallowed" in business bissness, 
chariot tscherrot (tsherat), carriage 
karredsch, marriage, medicine medsin, 
parliament, ordinary ahrdinarri, spaniel 
spannel, venison vensen. 

I. As a " long German o or oh, a 
Greek a>, or the French au" [probably 
(oo), possibly (oo), certainly not (oou)]. 
1. [The usual rule], as alone alohn, etc. 
Exc. above, dove, glove, love, shove, with 
"a short u, but somewhat obscure, 
almost as a middle sound between short 
o and short u" [that is, (a, a) as be- 
tween (o, u}.] Also except in atome, 
come, custome, done, none, [not (noon) 
but (nan)], shone (shan), some. Except 
when o sounds as long German u or uh 
(uu) in behove, move, remove, prove, 
approve, disprove, improve, reprove, lose, 
done, Some, whose; and as a in gone 

fan (gAn). 5. In -dome, -some as (a). 
. Use o in o, bo, fro. go, ago, ho, lo, 
mo, no, pro, so, to, unto, tho' altho ' ; 
" the words to, unto seem to belong to 
the other rule [II. ?] ; but as the ma- 
jority bring them under this rule, I 
content myself with noting the dif- 
ference " [this sound of to as (too) or 
(to) should be noted, it is not uncommon 
still in America], Except, to do, two, 
who with long u (uu) ; twopence is 
tuppens (ta-pns). Use o long [and not 
the diphthong (ou, au)] in old,^ bold, 
etc., and o long, not short, [that is (oo) 
not (A, o) or (AA)] in ford, hord, sword, 
divorce, force, porch, forge, pork, form 
a bench, forlorn, shorn, stvorn, torn, 
worn, forth, fort, port, deport, effort*, 
export, import*, purport*, support*, 
transport*, sport, except when the 
* words are accented, as by some, on 
the first syllable. 

II. Short o like short German o 
[properly (o), or (o), not (A) or (o), 
and Lediard clearly means to dis- 
tinguish the sounds]. 1. at the end of 
an unaccented syllable, as absolute 
absoluht, 2. in o-, as obey obah, etc. 3. 
" In the beginning and middle of the 
following words, although they have 
the short accent, and must hence be 


excepted from rule III. ; obit, ocean, 
omen, once, onion, oral, other, toward, 
towardly, associate." [That is, these 
words have (o) or (o) short, not long, 
(00), nor (a), as some have now, and not 

(A, o), as in the next rule.] 

Short o is pronounced as " a 
short quick German a, not as M. 
Ludwig thinks from the palate, but 
from the throat, like German a, but 
short and quick " [properly (a), meant 
for (A) or (o)]. 1. on an, ox achs, etc., 
except amber, ombrage and only. 2. in 
com-, con-, contra-, cor-, non-, except 
when com- is followed by b or /, as in 
combat*, combine*, comfit, comfort, 
etc., and also in compact*, company, 
compass, compassion*, compatible* Com- 
pendious*, compile*, complexion*, com- 
ply*, compleat*, compliance*, etc., in 
which o is an obscure u (a) [the * 
words have now (o)]. In other words 
short a is used, as competent kampetent, 
complement, comprehend, etc. Conduit 
kundit (ka-ndz't). 2. [Rules for o be- 
fore two consonants as (A, o)] except 
the following when o is a short u (a), 
borough, brother, chronicle*, colony*, 
colour, columbine*, cony, coral*, cove- 
nant, covet, dozen, Jlorin*, govern, 
hony, mony, mother, plover, sloven, 
smother, [the * words have now (o)] 
woman " in which o is not so obscurely 
uttered as in the others," except women 
wimmen. 5. [Much is passed over as 
of no interest, hence the numbers of the 
rules, which are those of the original 
for convenience of reference, are not 
always consecutive.] The short u (a) 
is also heard in affront, among, amongst, 
attorny, Monday, monger, mongrel, 
monkey, pommel [as now]. 

IV. English o is pronounced as a 
short obscure u (a). 1. in -dom, -som, 

2. see exceptions to I. 1. 3. after w, 
as wolf [this and woman seem to belong 
to the same category, but wood is fur- 
ther on said to have short u, so that 
short u (u) and short obscure u (a) are 
sometimes confused by Lediard], won, 
wonder, ivord, etc., except wove wohv, 
won't wohnt, worn wohrn, wont want 
[often (want)], loot wat, womb wuhm. 
6. Rather short and obscure in the 
last syllables of almond, bishop, buttock, 
etc. 7. In front [some say (front) 
even now], monk, month, son, sponge, 
gongue [?], yolk [(jalk) ?]. 

V. English o is a long w or uh (uu), 

3, in tomb, womb, whom, and words 
otherwise excepted. 

VI. "Finally English o is pro- 
nounced like German e, but very short, 
obscure and almost bitten off." 1. in 
-on, including -ion, -or, -of, as bacon 
biihken or bahk'n, button butt'n, lesson 
less'n, anchor ank'r, senator senat'r, 
faggot fagg't. 2. in the terminations 
-dron, -fron, -pron, -iron, in which ro 
is pronounced as er, but rather quick 
and obscure, as chaldron tshadern 
[(tshse-darn) ?],saffron saffern [ (so -farn) ?] 
apron apern, citron* sittern, patron* 
pattern [no longer usual in the * words]. 
The is almost mute in damosel damsel, 
faulconer fahkner, ordonnance ordnans, 
poysonous, prisoner, reasoning, reckon- 
ing, rhetorick, seasonable ; and one, once, 
are wun, wuns (wan, wans). 


Rule (a.) Long U is pronounced iu 
(iu) after b, c, f, g, h, j, m, p, s, but su 
may sometimes be suh. 

Rule (b.) Long U is a long German u 
or uh (uu) after d, I, n, r, t. In. gradual, 
vahiable, annual, mutual, u may be 
either iu or uh. 

I. Long English u is pronounced as 
iu, u, or uh, more or less rapidly ac- 
cording to accent. 1. according to rule 
(a.) as iu in abuse abjuhs, huge hiuhdsch, 
June Dschiuhn, as uh in seduce seduhs, 
exclude, minute minuht, rude, Brute, 
conclude, obtrude. 2. as iu or rather 
juh (juu) in the beginning of words, as 
wwbwjuhnion. 3. except ducat, punish, 
pumice, study, tuly [?J, short and like 
obscure (a), in busy bissi, bury berri. 

II. English short u has an obscure 
sound between German u short, and o 
short (a) [in the usual places, I only 
mark a few]. 2. in bulk, bumbast ; 
except where it is a German short u 
(u), as in bull, bullace, bullet, bullion, 
bullock, bully, bulrush, bulwark, bush, 
bushel, butcher, cushion, full, fullage, 
fuller, fully, pudding, pull, pullet, pully 
[all as now]. 3. in -um, -us. 

III. English short u is very short, 
obscure, and almost like an obscure e, 
in -ule, -ure, as glandule, globule, ma- 
vule*, pustule, schedule, spatule, verule ; 
adventure, benefacture, censure, con- 
jecture, conjure* magically, disposure, 
failure, future, grandure, inclosure, 
manufacture, nature, perjure*, posture, 
rapture, scripture, sculpture, tincture, 
torture, venture, verdure, vesture, etc. 
[all now with (iu) except the * words 
occasionally]. Except rule* and the 
following m -ure, which follow rule 


(a.}, abjure, adjure, allure, assure, azure, 
conjure entreat, cure, demure, dure, en- 
dure, epicure, impure, insure, inure, lure, 
mature, obscure, procure, pure, secure, 
sure* [all now with (iu) except the * 
words (ruul, shuui)]. 

[After thus going through the vowels 
by the spelling, he proceeds to describe 
their formation ; but as he has scarcely 
done more than translate Wallis, ap- 
parently ignorant that "Wallis's pro- 
nunciation was a century older, I feel 
it useless to cite more than the fol- 
lowing remark in an abbreviated 
form.] " According to Mr. Brightland 
and others, the English express the 
sound of French u by their long u, and 
sometimes by eu and ew. I cannot 
agree with this opinion, for although 
the English perhaps do not give the 
full sound of German u to their long u 
after d, I, n, r, t, yet their sound cer- 
tainly approaches to this more closely 
than to the French u, which has induced 
me to give the German u as its sound, 
contrary to the opinion of some writers. 
After other consonants English long u is 
iu, and has nothing in common with 
French u." 


2E, as ih or ie (ii) in : cera ihra, 
Cceres, Ccesar ssihsar, perinceum, etc. ; 
as e (e) in aquinox, equinox, festival, 
ccecity, ccelibate, quaestor, prcemunire, 
etc. ; as i short, when unaccented, 
in (equator, cequilibrious, csquinoxial, 

AI, " as ah or English long a, with 
a little aftersound of a short i" [is this 
from "VVallis, supra p. 124 ? it is very 
suspicious]. 1. in aid ahd, ail, aim, air, 
etc. 2. in affair affahr, bail, complain, 
etc. Except as e (e) in again, against, 
wainscot wennskat ; as short d (se) in 
railly ralli, raillery ralleri ; as long e 
(ee) in raisins rehsins, and as ie (ii) in 
chair tshier (tshiir). As a short e or 
t or a sound between them in the mid- 
dle or end of words, especially in -ain, 
as complaisance kamplisans (komph'- 
sffi-ns), curtail kortil (ka-rtil), captain 
kaptin, chamberlain tshamberlin 
(tshse-mberlm), fountain, mountain, 
plantain, purslain, villain, etc. Afraid 
is erroneously called afierd (sefirrd). 

AU. I. hke ah (AA) in audience, 
vault, etc. ; like ah [(seze), marked long] 
in aunt ahnt, daughter^], daunt dahnt, 
draught drahft, flaunt, haunt, jaunt, 
\ santer, taunt, vaunt; like short 

a (A, o) in faucet fasset, sausage sas- 
sidsch (so-sidzh). Some call St. Paul's 
Church Pohls Tschortsch, but it is 
a pure corruption of pronunciation 
among the vulgar [but see supra p. 
266]. II. unaccented, like short Ger- 
man a, as causality kasalliti. 

AW as AU, but Lawrence is Larrens. 

AY as AI, in Sunday, Monday, etc., 
the ay is very short, almost like a short 
e or *', as also in holy-day hallide 

EA. I. The commonest pronuncia- 
tion of ea is that of German ih or ie 
(ii), when long and accented, als appeal, 
appease, bead, bequeath, cheap, conceal, 
dear, decease, eat, entreat, feast, feaver, 
grease, hear, heave, impeach, leaf, league, 
mead, measels, near, pea, peace, queazi- 
ness, reap, reason, sea, season, teach, 
treason, veal, vear, weak, weapon*, 
yea*, year, zeal, etc. [see supra p. 88, 
observe the * words.] " Most gram- 
mars err greatly in the pronunciation 
of this diphthong, but rather where 
this first rule applies, than where, in the 
opinion of some, ea should be pro- 
nounced eh (ee). Perhaps, as Mr. 
Brightland observes, this, with an after- 
sound of English a, was the old natural 
pronunciation. I know also that at 
the present day ea is so pronounced in 
the north of England. For the usual 
pure pronunciation of English, how- 
ever, it is a vitium. . . . How Herr 
Kb'nig, . . . who had been established 
for many years as a teacher of languages 
in London, could have missed it, I 
cannot understand." Except in bear, 
beard*, break, earl*, early*, great, 
pear, steaks, swear, wear, which are 
pronounced with longe (ee). [Observe 
the * words.] II. Short, or unaccented, 
like short German e (e), as, already, 
bread, cleanse, dead, endeavour, feather, 
head, lead, leather, lineage [?], meadow, 
pleasure, potsheard, realm, sergeant, 
steady, tread, treasure, wealth, weather. 
III. But if short ea is followed by r, it 
is called a (as), as earn* arn, wrongly 
pronounced jern (jam) by some, earnest*, 
earth*, hearken, heart, hearth, learn*, 
pearl*, etc. [Observe the * words.] 

EAIJ, i&juh (juu) in beauty biuhti, 
etc., but beau is boh (boo). 

EE, generally long, as ih, ie (ii), as 
in bleed blihd, etc. ; short or unaccented 
as short i (') in been* bin, creek* krick, 
breech, screech* owl skritsch-aul, sleek*, 
three-pence, coffee, committee*, congee*, 
eleemosinary, floree, levee*, pedigree*, 


Pharisee*, raree-show, Saducee* ; [Ob- 
serve the * words, here and in future.] 

El, 1. as i h or ie (ii) in conceit, con- 
ceive, deceit, deceive, inveigle* invihgel, 
leisure*, perceive, receit, receive, seize 
[observe * words] ; 2. as eh (ee), or 
as some say ah (aeae) in deign, eight, 
feign, freight, heinous, heir, inveigh, 
neigh, neighbour, reign, rein, str eight 
straight strait, their, vein, weigh, weight. 
3. as ei (ai) in eilet-hole, height, sleight 
slight. 4. as short e (e) in either, 
edher, neither nedher, foreign farren, 
heifer. 5. as short i (i} in counterfeit, 
forfeit, surfeit, seignior. 

EO (e) in Geoffrey Dscheffri, jeopardy, 
leopard, (ii) in people, (AA) in George 
Dschahrdsch ; yeoman jemman or jie- 
man (je-man, jirman). 

EU, EW, as long U, namely (iu) or 
(uu) according to preceding consonant, 
but in chew*, sew, shew, sewer, by some 
as oh (00} . 

EY, accented as (ee) in convey, grey, 
obey, prey, purvey, survey, they, whey ; 
as (ai) in eylet-hole, hey-day*; and as 
(ii) in key ; unaccented as (') in abbey 
abbi, etc. 

EYE, as (ai) in eye. 

IE. I. as (ai) in crie, die, drie, fie, 
file, lie, pie, tie, trie, vie, etc.; cries, etc.; 
to allie, certifie, defie, denie, etc.; II. as 
(ii) in aggrieve, atchieve, belief, believe, 
chief, deling, field, grief, grieve, liege, 
mischievous (mistshirvas), piece, relieve, 
shriek, thief, thieve, wieldy, yield, 
longer in the verbs in -ieve, than in 
the substantives in -ief. As short (t) 
in mischief, orgies, friend*. Handker- 
chief hankertcher. III. as short (t) in 
armie, bodie,ete., better written with -y. 

IETJ, only in foreign words, as (iu) 
in lieu, adieu, as (ii) in monsieur*, and 
as (if) in lieutenant*. 

TEW also as (iu), as in view viuh. 

OA as (00) in abroach, etc. ; as AA in ' 
broad, abroad, groat graht ; as (a38e) in 
goal,goaler, which [according to Lediard, 
p. 94, n. 55] is the right spelling, not 
gaol; as (A) short, in oatmeal* attmihl, 
and as e (a) in cupboard cobbert. 

OE, initial as (ii), as oeconomy ; final 
as (00), as croe [a crow-bar], doe, foe, roe, 
sloe, toe, woe; as (uu) in canoe, to coe [to 
coo], shoe, to tvoe [to woo], 

OI, OY, "are pronounced as aey 
[possibly (tf+ai), meaning (Ai)] in one 
sound," as avoid, boisterous, choice, 
cloister, exploit, moist, noise, oister, poise, 
rejoice, soil; boy baey, coy, destroy, 
employ, hoboy [hautboisj^oy, toy, Troy, 

etc. Except as ei (ai) in anoint an- 
neint, appoint appoint, boil beil, broil 
breil, coil keil, coin by some kuein 
(kwain), embroil, foil, hoist, join, joint, 
joiner, jointure, joist, loin, loiter, point, 
poison, rejoinder, spoil, toilet by some 
tueilet (twai-let). 

00 never at end of a word except 
00; long as (uu) in aloof, galoon, pata- 
coon, etc. ; as (00) in door, floor, moor 
mohr ; short as (u) in book, brook, foot, 
forsooth, good, etc. [as now] ; as short 
(a) in blood, flood sometimes written 
bloud,floud. Swoon ssaun [(saun), or 
(swaun) ? which is common now] and 
its derivatives. 

OU. I. long and accented as German 
au (au), in about, doughty, draught*, 
plough, a wound*, etc. Except as or 
oh (00) in although, boulster, boult, con- 
troul, course, court, courtier, discourse, 
dough, four, fourth, joul*, joult, mould, 
mouldy, mourn, moult, moulter, poulterer, 
poultice, poultry, to pour, recourse, 
shoulder, slough* a bog, for slow, not 
quick, has a w, soul, souldier, though ; 
and as long a or ah (AA) in fourty, 
fourtieth, cough,trough,bouf/ht, brought, 
nought, ought, sought, thought, wrought; 
and as long u or uh (uu) in to accoutre, 
bouge*, cart ouch, could, gouge, groupe, 
rendevous, should, surtout, through, 
would, you, your, youth. It is now- 
customary to write coud, should, ivotCd 
and pronounce as cood, shood, and wood 
with the short accent. Coup, scoup, 
soup, troup are now written with 00. 
II. as an obscure u or middletone be- 
tween o and w (a), 1. in adjourn, bloud 
blood, country, couple, courage, double, 
enough, floud flood, flourish, journy, 
nourish, rough, scourge, touch, tough, 
trouble, young. 2. In -our, -ous as 
armour, behaviour behahviur, courteous 
kurtius, dubious duhbius, etc. ; except 
devour divaur, hour aur, flour flaur, our 
aur, and diflour diflohr, four fohr, pour 
pohr. 3. In -mouth as in Dartmouth, 
etc. In borough, concourse as short 0. 

OW. I. as au (au) in advow, bow 
bend, rowel, etc. [as now], except as 
(00) in bow arcus, bowl a cup, jowl, 
shower [one who shews ?, meaning not 
given, and others as now]. II. as short 
(0) in arrow, gallows [written (gtB'las), 
under A. II. 2, the rest as now]. 
Knowledge hnalledsch, acknowledge ack- 

OWE, now generally ow. 

UE at end of words, as long U. 

UI as (iu) in cuirass kiuhrass, juice, 


pursuit, suit siuht, suitor siutor, etc., 
* although these last three may be just 
as correctly pronounced pursuht, suht, 
suhtor" [that is (suu) as well as (siu)]; 
as (uu) in bruise, bruit bruht, cruise, 
fruit, recruit rekruht ; as short () in 
build bild, circuit sorkit, conduit kundit, 
verjuice verdschis. 

UOY is pronounced by some aey 
(Ai) and by others incorrectly ey (ai), 
only found in buoy. 

UY as (ai) in buy, etc. 

YE, used to be written for ie in dye, 
lye, etc. 


[Of the consonants it is not necessary 
to give so full an account, but a few 
words may be noted.] 

C. Verdict verdit, indict indeit, 
victuals vittels. Ancient anschi-ent, 
species spieschi-es, ocean osche-an. 
Vicious visschi-us, physician phisisschi- 
en, sufficient suffisschi-ent, precious 
presschi-us, but society sosseietie. 
Scene ssien, scepter ssepter, but sceleton 
sskeleton, sceptick sskeptick. Drachm 
dram, yacht jat (3 set). Schism ssissm. 

D. Almond amon, handsome hansum, 
friendship frennschip, ribband ribban, 
wordly [worldly ?] worlli, hand-maid 
hanmahd, Wednesday Wensdah. Come 
and see kum an sih, go and fetch goh an 
fetsch, stay and try stab an trey, etc. 

F. In houswife, sherrif,fis soft like 
v, and in of the / is omitted, and o is 
pronounced as a very rapid a (A). 
Gemini dschemini. 

G = (g) in gibbous, heterogeneous, 
homogeneous. GH initial (g), final, or 
followed by t is not pronounced, ex- 
cept in cough, chough, enough, rough, 
tough, trough, draught, where it is ff (f ), 
and sigh* , drought*, height*, where it 
is th. Apothegm appothem, phlegm* 
flihm (fliitn). Initial g before n sounds 
as an aspiration or h, not like a hard 
g, as gnash* hnasch not gnasch, gnat* 
hnat not gnat, gnaw* hnah not gnah, 
gnomon, gnostick. See under K. G is 
hard (g) in impugn, oppugn, repugn. 
In bagnio, seignior, gn retains the sound 
of Spanish n, Italian gn (nj). 

H is not pronounced in heir, honest, 
honour, hospital, hostler, hostile, hour, 
humble, humour, Humphrey and de- 
rivatives, but is pronounced by some in 
hereditary ; herb is called erb by some, 
and hyerb in one sound, (yharb ?) by 
others. H is also not pronounced in 
John, Ah, Shiloh, Sirrah, etc. 

K before n at the beginning of a 

word is only aspirated, and spoken as 
an h; as knack hnack, knave hnave, 
knife hneif, knee hnie, knot, know, 
knuckle, etc. " M. Ludwick says that 
k before n is called t ; Arnold and 
others declare that it is pronounced d. 
But any one experienced in English 
pronunciation must own, that only a 
pure gentle aspiration is observable, 
and by no means so hard and unplea- 
sant a sound as must arise from pre- 
fixing d or t to n." Did he mean 
(nhnii) for knee ? Compare Cooper, 
supra p. 208 and p. 544, n. 2. 

L is not pronounced in calf, half, 
balk, talk, walk, folk, balm, calm, calve, 
to halve, etc., almond, chaldron, falcon, 
falconer, falchion*, malJein*, salmon, 
salvage*, solder, half penny -worth hah- 
poth (HBDse-path). In could, should, 
would, I is heard only in sustained pro- 

N is not pronounced in -mn, in kil(n), 
in tene(n)t, gover(ri)ment. 

PH is p in phlebotomy*, diphthong, 
triphthong, and v in nephew, phial vial, 
Stephen. Phantasm, phantastick, phan- 
tasy, are now written with /. 

QU is k in banquet*, conquer, con- 
queror, liquor, equipage*, exchequer, 
masquerade, musquet musket, paraqueto, 
piquet, piquant, and a few others. C 
is now written in quoil, quines coines, 
quoit, quintal, but que remains in cinque, 
opaque, oblique. 

K agrees entirely with German r, 
except that it is not heard in marsh, 
marshy, harslets haslets; nor in the 
first syllable of parlour, partridge. RH 
in rhapsody, rhetorick, rhime, rhomb, 
rhume, etc., is pronounced as r. 

S is hard = (s) in design, resign, cisar, 
desolate, lysard [lizard], rosin, pleasant, 
visit [this is according to a rule, cer- 
tainly not now observed, that s after a 
short accented vowel or diphthong is 
doubled in pronunciation]. S is hard = 
(s) in dis-arm, trans-act, wis-dom. In 
island, viscount, s is mute and * = (ai). 
S is hissed, almost like German sch (si) 
in sue, suet, suit, sugar, sure, and com- 
pounds, but some say ssiu (siu) and 
others ssuh (suu) ; and in nauseate, 
nauseous, Asia, Silesian, enthusiasm*, 
enthusiast*, effusion, occasion, hosier, 
rosier, and their derivatives *Asiatick, 
etc. ; also in Persia, transient, mansion, 
Russia, passion. " After a shortly ac- 
cented vowel or diphthong the redupli- 
cation of sch must be observed, especially 
in the termination sion, as in decision, 


provision." [Did he say (disi'shon) 
and not (disi'zhon) ?] 

T is sounded (sh) in patience, portion, 
etc., but (t) in fustion, mixtion, etc., 
and as (tsh) in righteous reitscliius, 
courteous, bounteous, covetous kovat- 
schius, virtuous vb'rtschius, etc., and is 
not pronounced in facts faks, neglects 
and similar -cts, nor in -ften, -sten, 
-stle, as often ahf n, soften sahf n, hasten 
hahss'n, listen, castle kass'l, pestle, 
whistle, bustle, etc., and also in malster, 
mortgage. [There is no mention of 
-ture, -dure = (tsher, dzher), but the 
inference from the u rules is that they 
were called (-tar, -dar), and this is 
confirmed by gesture dschester, ordure 
ahrdur, pasture pastur, century ssenturi, 
given below, p. 1049, in the words of 
the same sound, etc.] 

TH in "rapid speech" is pronounced 
as d or dd in apothecary*, \t not d 
below] burthen, fathom 1 *, father, mur- 
ther, pother*. Th is "for euphony" 
pronounced t in fifth*, sixth*, twelfth*. 
Th is (th) in with. Th is (dh) in 
than, that, tho' though, etc. [that 
is, (thoo), as in Scotch, was un- 
known to him.] Th is (t) in Thames, 
Thanet*, Theobald*, Thomas, Thom- 
son, etc., in thill, thiller, [till, tiller?], 
thyme, and, "according to some," in 
anthem*, apothecary*, [see th as (d) 
above], authority*, authorize* [not 

" V, in English called ju consonant, 
is not merely much softer than /, but 
also than the German v, but not so soft 
as the English or German iv, and is 
therefore better to be explained as 
French v. German beginners in French 
find some difficulty with this French v. 
All German grammars which I have 
seen express English w by German w, 
without indicating any distinction. But 
I find a sensible difference, namely, 
that the English w is not so bard, so 
that I am able to regard German w as 
a middle sound between English v and 
w, and hence, in order to indicate the 
sound of German w to an Englishman, 
I would express it in English by vw, 
and I am certain that he would hit it 
off better than if I were to write a 
simple w. Pronounce p and allow the 
breath to escape from the mouth, and 
you have/, ph or Greek (p. Pronounce 
b, and allow the breath to escape through 
a horizontal slit or split, and you form 
v. The difference between German 
and English v consists in the greater 

compression of the breath, and its 
passage through a narrower opening for 
the German sound, which makes it 
harder, so that it approaches / more 
nearly." [He really heard the same 
sound for German v as for/.] " On the 
contrary, the English in pronouncing 
their v give the breath greater freedom 
and compress it less, on allowing it to 
escape. The Spaniards make such a 
little difference between their b and v 
in speaking, that they often use them 
promiscuously in writing. This sound 
was unknown in Greek, where <f> most 
nearly approaches it. The English w 
is made by allowing the breath to escape 
by a round hole. The German w seems 
to be a medium between English v and 
w, the air escaping through a rounder 
hole than for English v, and a flatter 
hole than for English w." [See the 
descriptions of (w, bh, v) supra p. 513, 
note 2. I have quoted this passage at 
length from pp. 149 and 156 of Lediard, 
because his observations were made at 
Hamburg, and Lepsius and Briicke 
ascribe the sound of (v) instead of (bh) 
to North German w. This careful dis- 
tinction shews that (bh) was certainly 
heard in Hamburg in 17 '2 5.] 

W is not pronounced in answer 
anser, aukward* ahkerd, huswife house- 
wife hossiv, sweltry ssultri, swoon* 
ssaun, sword ssohrd, " but in swear, 
swore, sworn, some consider it to be 
distinctly spoken." 

In WE, the w is " little or scarcely 
heard, as in wrack, wrench, wrist, 
wrong, wrung, in which I can only 
find a soft aspiration (eine sehr gelinde 
aspiration] before r, so that w must 
not be pronounced, as Herr Ludwick 
thinks, like wr in the Germ. Wrangel" 

" "WH is pronounced as hw, or rather 
as German hu, but so that the u rapidly 
yields to the sound of the following 
vowel, as what huat, when huen, which 
huidsch[?], who huuh[?], why huey." 
Except whole, wholesome, whore, in 
which w is not pronounced. 

X is ksch (ksh) in complexion kum- 
plekschion, anxious ankschius[? a], etc. 

" Y as a consonant at the beginning 
of a word, or syllable, sounds as German 
jota. but somewhat softer, and not so 
guttural as it is heard from some Ger- 
mans especially in Saxony, but almost 
like a short German when it is rapidly 
pronounced as a separate syllable, as 
yard, yes, you, jard, jes, yuh, or better 




i-ard, i-es, i-uh, with a very rapid and 
scarcely perceptible " [that is (j) and 

n Z is lsoft(ffelindes) sch [that is (zh)] 
in brazier, glazier, grazier, ozier. 


[As some 50 pages are devoted to 
accent, I shall note all those words in 
which any peculiarity -is observable. 
He distinguishes a long accent which 
he marks a with the grave, but as in a 
note he says that others use the circum- 
flex a, employing the grave for his a 
acute or short accent, I shall for con. 
venience use a for his long, and a for 
his short accent. I do not consider it 
necessary to give his rules. I merely 
ite the words.] 

Hard [observe that he has always 
made the vowel in ar short], land, 
sh6rt. Acerb, aerial, again [where he 
made the vowel short], after, anchove, 
anemone. Balc6ny, boisterous, border. 
Carat, cockall, coloss, corollary. 
Docible. Eager, earnest, easter[?], 
eilet, either, empirick, empiricism, 
enigm, essay, eternize, eucharist, 
euphony [?]. Fountain. Gorgeous. 
Heteroclite, humane. Leviathan, 
lodemanage. Macerate[?], manducable, 
mausoleum [modern American mauso- 
leum, museum], me theglin. Orangery, 
orchestre. Phantastry, philauty, 
placaet[?], plebejan, presbytery [the 
accent is not written when it falls on a y] 
pulmonary, py'romancy. Quadrangle, 
quadripartite [?]. Rapier, rambooze, 
rhetorick, ritual. Sepulchral, simili- 
tude, solemnize, statuary, stomachick, 
strangullion, syllogism. Tabernacle, 
tabellion, tantivy, tarpawlin, theater. 
Valedictory, valetudinary, venenous, 
vernacular. Voluptuary [u ?], vul- 

Agitate, avery, abdicate, abject, abla- 
tive, &c., accessory, adjuvate, adversary, 
aggrandise, ingravate, alc6ve, alcali, 
anarchy, andiron, appanage, archangel, 
archduke, coercion, coercive, [?-d], 
colleague, commissary, c6mplaisance, 
complaisant, cdngy, consistory, c6n- 
stellate, c6ntrarily, contrariwise, con- 
trary, controversy, contumacy, con- 
tumely, conversant, convoyed, corrigible, 
corrosive, corrosiveness. Despicable, 
destined, desuetude, diligence, diligent, 
dimissory, diocess, directory, divident 
disciplinable, discretive, dissoluble, dis- 
tribute, distributive. E'dict, Edifice, 

egress, eligible, emissary, epicene, 
epicure, Epilepsy, 6 vent, evidence, 
evident, effort, empirick, essoin, ex- 
cellency, execrable, exorcism. Forfeit, 
forecast, forecastle, foredoor, f6refathers, 
forefinger, etc., forthcoming, forthwith. 
Ignominy, illapse, illustrate, immanent, 
incensory, industry, infinite, intricacy, 
inventory. Mischief, miscreancy. Ne- 
fandous, nonentity, nonage. Object v., 
dbdurate, obligatory, occult, offertory, 
dutlandish. Perfect, perspirable, p6s- 
thume, preamble, prebend, precedent, 
precept, precinct, predicament, prefa- 
tory, premunire, prepuce, presage, pre- 
science, prescript, previous, process, 
procuracy, prodigally, product, profile, 
profligate, progress, project, prologue, 
pr6tocol, pursuivant, purvieu. Recent, 
recitative, recommence, recreant, re- 
create, refectory, regency, regicide, 
regiment, region, register, relegate, 
reliquary, repertory, retribute. Secret, 
secretary, sublunary, siibterranny, sur- 
cease, surname v., surcingle, siircoat, 
surname n., suspicable. Traditive, 
traverted, transport v. transport n. 
Viceadmiral, vicechancellour, viceroy, 
viscount for vicecount, viscountess. 

Specifick, heroick, saturnal. Calam- 
ity, sanguinity, majority. 

Extravasate, extraneous, extrava- 
gance. Retrograde. Benefactor, aca- 
demick, legislatour. 

Debonair, romance, levant, bombard, 
usquebaugh, octave, cocheneal, humect, 
apogie, raperies, intire, turmoil, me- 
moirs, chamois, rag6o, scrutore, tam- 
b6ur, capuch, caduke, ridicule, im- 
portune, nocturn. Avowee, grantee, 
legatee, etc. 

Stupefactive, benefactor, pomander, 
legislatour, nomenclature, utensil, 
chimera, domesticy, clandestine, mus- 
cheto, doctrinal, agriculture, bitumen. 
Philactery, amphitheater, celebrious, 
celebrity, comedian, academian, solem- 
Bial, stupendious, homogeneal, homo- 
genuous, hymenial, dysentery, maje- 
stative, longevity, libidinous, fastidious, 
concupfscible, chirurgeon, chirurgery, 

Vesicatory, modificable. Propitia- 
tory, supererogatory, monosyllable, 
referendary, spiritualize. Conscion- 
ableness, parliamentary. 

Conjure conjure, august n. august a., 
abject n. abject, cement n., conserve n., 
consult n., convoy n. conv6y v., essay n. 
essay v., frequent a. frequent v., manure 
n. manure v., 6vermatch n. overmatch. 

CHAP. X. 1. 



v., outlaw n. outlaw v., rebel n. rebel 
v., triumph n. triumph v. 

Words of same (or different] sound 
and different (or same) spelling. [I cite 
only some of those that Lediard has 
written in German letters.] 

August ahgost, august agost. Sable 
bawble bahbel, bable babbl. B&th bahdh, 
bath bath. Eorn (natus) bahrn, born 
(latus) bohrn. Bow (flectere) bau, bow 
(arcus) boh. Breath breth, breath 
briedh. Denier (denarius) denihr, denier 
(negator) deneyer. Gentile (paganus) 
dschentil, gentile genteel dscheutiel. Jo b 
dschab, Job dschohb. Lead (plumbum) 
led, lead lied. Liver (jecur) livver, 
livre (French coin) leiver*. Lives leivs, 
lives livs. Loose (laxus) luhss, loose 
(perdere) luhs. Loth lohdh (to have 
a disgust at), loth lath (unwilling). 
Mouse (mus) maus, mouse v. mauhs, 
mouth n. mauth, mouth v. maudh, mow 
(meto) mob, mow (to make a face) mau. 
Read ried, read red. Sewer (a carver) 
ssuer, (a drain) schohr. Singer (who 
sings) singer, (who singes) sindscher. 
Sow (sus) ssau, sow (sero) ssoh. Tear 
(lacryma) tier, (lacerare) tehr. Tost 
(of bread) tohst, tost (tossed) tasst. 
Week (seven days) wiek, week (wick of 
a candle) wick. * 

Alley (street) alii, (friend) alley ; ant 
ant, aunt ahnt; arrant arrent, errand 
errand; barley barli, barely bahrli. 
Centaury ssentori, century ssenturi* 
centry sentry ssentri. Chair tschahr and 
tschier (tshaeaer, tshiir), chare tschahr 
(tshaeaer). Chear cheer tschier, jeer 

dschier. Chains tschahns, chance 
tschanss, change tschahndsch, chin 
tschinn, gin dschinn. Decent dess-ssent, 
also diessent, descent des-ssent. Duke 
duhk, duck dock. Each ihdsh [?], edge 
edsch. Fair fahr, fare fahr, fear fihr. 
Fir for, fur for. Grace grabs, grass 
grass, grease grihs. Grote (grotto) gratt, 
groat graht [? graht] . Gesture dschestur, 
jester dschester. Haven hahvn, heaven 
hewn . Heard hiehrd (mird) , herd herd. 
Hoar ho-hr (noor), whore huohr (whoor) ; 
hole hohl y whole huohl (whool) ; holy 
hohli, wholly huolli (who-h"), holly halli 
(HA'li). Knave hnahv, nave nahv; 
knead hnied, need nied ; knight hneit, 
night neit; knot hnat, not natt. Manner 
manner, mannour (manor) mannor, 
manure mannur, [theoretic distinctions, 
all (mse'nur)]. Message, messuage, both 
messedsch. Morning mahrning, mourn- 
ing mohrning. Muscle mosskel, muzzle 
mossel. Order ahrd'r, ordure ahrdur*. 
" Pastor pastor, pasture pastur*. Peace, 
piece, piehss, peas piehs. Precedent (ex- 
emplum) pressiedent, president pressi- 
dent. QMtfrryquarrijg'Mm/quieri. Quean 
quienn, queen quiehn. Retch wretch, 
both retsch. Home, room. Seizin 
ssiesin, season r ssies ? n. Sewer (drain) 
schoer [schohr, in last list], shore schohr. 
So sso, sow (sero) ssoh. Vial veyal, 
viol veyol, vile veyl. Wales walils, 
whales huahls (whseaelz). Which 
huitsch, witch witsch. Wrap hrap, 
rap rap ; w rest hrest, rest rest ; wry 
hrey, rye rey. You ju, ew iuh, yew 
iuh ; your jur, ewer iubr. Ye, yea. 

As Lediard agrees so much with the Expert Orthographist in 
respect to EA, it is interesting to compare the two following extracts, 
one only 1 year later, and the other about 30 years later. These 
diversities of opinion and experience are most instructive in shew- 
ing, first the overlapping of pronunciations, and secondly the 
ignorance of orthoepists as to varieties of pronunciation, or their 
hahit of simply discrediting as " vulgar " or " faulty " all pronuncia- 
tions with which they are themselves not familiar. 

I. From " An introduction to the 3d. Ea has the sound of e long in 
English Tongue. By N. Bailey appear, dream, read, sea, seam, speak, 
<(>i\6\oyos." 8vo. 1726. pp. 96, 60. 
Part 2, p. 15. 

T. What is the proper sound of the 
diphthong ea ? 

L. Ea has the sound of a long, in 
bear, pear, near, swear, wear, etc. [that 
is, as a in mate, pate, etc.] 

2d. A short in earl, heart, learn, 
pearl, search [that is, as a in mat, mart, 

veal, [Bailey has not mentioned what 
the sound of e Ions* is, but as he suys e 


is sounded like ee in certain words, he, 
me, we, here, these, even, besom, Ely, 
Eve, fealty, Peter, we must presume he 
means (ee), and not (ii)] ; but someof this 
last kind have the a changed with the 
e final, as compleat [complete], supream 
[supreme ; this confirms the view just 
taken, compare also 5th.] 


4th. Ea has the sound of e short in 
breast, etc. 

5th. Ea has sometimes the sound of 
ee in beam, dear, hear, stead, year. [This 
is therefore the exceptional, not the 
general pronunciation, compare 3rd.] 

II. From a "Narrative of the Journey 
of an Irish Gentleman through England 
in the year 1752, p. 156. Privately 
printed for Mr. Hy. Huth, 1869/' 
Mr. Furnivall, who kindly furnished 
me with this extract, remarks that the 
Additional MS. 27951 in the British 
Museum is probably by the same writer, 
and gives an account of his visits to 
England in 1758, 1761, and 1772. 
" By listening to her conversation [that 
of a lady passenger, in whom " the court 
lady reigned in every action"], I gained a 
better taste for the polite world, except- 

ing one point in pronunciation, to wit, 
that of calling A E, and saying EE for 
E; but this was a thing I could not 
readily reconcile myself to, for I re- 
member when I first went to school my 
mistress made me begin with my great 
A. Whether it was that the letter was 
bigger in dimensions than its brother 
vowel E that follows it, I cannot tell ; 
but I am very certain she never made 
me say E. I was so very defective, or 
[failed] by too blunt a clipping, that 
my fair tutoress said she was afraid I 
would never make any hand on't. She 
assured me she was not above eight or 
ten months arriving at that perfection, 
which I am sure would cost me my 
whole life without making half the 

Buchanan has already been frequently referred to. He was 
much ridiculed by Kenrick, 1 who is particularly severe on his Scotti- 
cisms, and very unnecessarily abuses his method of indicating 
sounds. Kenrick himself is not too distinct ; but as he does not 
trust entirely to key-words, and endeavours to indicate sounds by a 
reference to other languages, the sounds of which he probably 
appreciated very indifferently, it will be best to give extracts 
from his explanations of the vowels. The conjectured values are 
inserted in palaeotype, and some passing observations are bracketed. 
Among these remarks are introduced a few quotations from Gran- 
ville Sharp. 2 


1. cur sir her monk blood earth = (a) 

2. town noun how bough ... =(AU) 

3. bull wool wolf push = (u) 

4. pool groupe troop = ( uu ) 

5. call hawl caul soft oft George 

cloth = (AA) 

6. new cube duty beauty =(eu, yy 

7. not what gone swan war was = (A 

8. no beau foe moan blown roan = (oo 

9. boy joy toil =(Ai 

10. hard part carve laugh heart =(aa 

11. and hat crag bar =(a 

1 2 . bay they weigh fail tale ... = (ee) 

13. met sweat head bread ... =(e) 

1 William Kenrick, LL.D. A New 
Dictionary of the English Language ; 
containing not only the Explanation of 
Words, with their Orthography, Ety- 
mology, and Idioma Heal Use in WRITING; 
but likewise their Orthoepia or Pronun- 
ciation in SPEECH, according to the 
present Practice of polished Speakers 
in the Metropolis, which is rendered 

14. meet meat deceit = (") 

15. fit yes busy women English 

guilt =(i) 

16. why nigh I buy join lyre hire = (ai) 

Add to the above the indistinct sound, 
marked with a cypher thus [o], as 
practised in the colloquial utterance of 
the particles a and the, the last syllables 
of the words ending in en, le and re; as 
a garden, the castle, etc., also in the 
syllable frequently sunk in the middle 
of words of three syllables, as every, 
memory, favourite, etc., which are in 

obvious at sight in a manner perfectly 
simple and principally new. Lond. 
1773. 4to. 

2 An English Alphabet for the use 
of Foreigners, wherein the pronuncia- 
tion of the Vowels or Voice-letters is 
explained in Twelve Short general 
Rules with their several Exceptions. 
1786. 8vo. pp. 76. 


versification sometimes formally omitted 
in writing, by the mark of elision. 

Under one or other of the numbers 
composing the above table, are com- 
prehended all the species of distinct 
articulate sounds contained in the 
English language. Not that they differ 
altogether equally in quality; several 
differing only in time. There are no 
more than eleven distinct vowel sounds 
of different qualities in English ; ten 
of the numbers specified in the table 
being expressed by the long and short 
modes of uttering our five vowels ; as 
exemplified in the following words : % 








The other six sounds are either always 
short as u in cur, or always long as o in 
note, or double as * or y in hire lyre; 
u in lure ; ow in town and oi in joy : 
most of which long sounds seem to 
partake of two qualities, not so equally 
blended in them all, as to pass without 
our perceiving the ingredients of the 
compound. Thus / or Y appear to be 
a commixture of the long e [previously 
defined as a in mate] and short i [in hit] ; 
U of the long e [a in mate] and short 
u [in pull] ; OW of the short o [in not] 
and long u [GO in pool] ; and 01 most 
palpably of the short o [in not] and i 
[in hit}. 

[Dr. Kenrick' s appreciation of diph- 
thongs was evidently very inexact. See 
numbers 2, 6, 9, 16, in the following 
explanatory remarks on the vowels in 
preceding table.] 

1. [U in cr.] It is always short, 
and bears a near, if not exact, re- 
semblance to the sound of the French 
lew, cceur, if it were contracted in point 
of time. [It is not to be supposed that 
the sound was exactly the French (03) 
or (9) . It is more probable that Kenrick 
pronounced the French sounds as (a) or 
(a). G. Sharp says : " has the sound 
of a short u in af-front, etc. (In the 
dialects of Lancashire and some other 
places the o is pronounced according to 
rule in many of these words) .... 
cov-er .... etc., and their compounds, 
etc., except dis-cov-er, re-cov-er, which 

are pronounced according to rule 

One is pronounced as if spelt won." 

2. [OW in toivn.] The long and 
broad ow, on, and u } as in town, noun, 

cucumber [the old sound of this word 
remaining, notwithstanding the change 
of spelling. Sharp also says : " U is 
like the English ou in the first syllable 
of cu-cumber," p. 13.] This sound 
greatly resembles the barking of a full- 
mouthed mastiff, and is perhaps so 
clearly and distinctly pronounced by no 
nation as by the English and the Low 
Dutch. The nicer distinguishes in the 
qualities of vocal sounds consider it as 
a compound; but it has sufficient unity, 
when properly pronounced, to be uttered 
with a single impulse of the voice, and 
to pass for a distinct sound or syllable, 
I consider it only as such. 

3. [U in bwll] The French have 
this sound in fol, sol, trou, clou; the 
Italians I think everywhere in their . 

4. [00 in pool.] Nearly as the 
sound of douze, epouse, pouce, roux, 
doux, and the plurals, sols, fols, do 
from sol, fol, trou, etc. [The difference 
between 3 and 4 is only meant to be 
one of length. The French generally 
recognize the lengthening of the vowel 
as the mark of the plural. G. Sharp 
says : " 00 is not pronounced so full, 
but partakes a little of the sound of a 
short u in blood, flood, foot, good, hood, 
stood, soot, wood and wool. 00 has the 
sound of o long in door and floor. 
Door and floor are pronounced by the 
vulgar in the Northern parts of 
England as they are spelt, for they 
give the oor, in these words, the same 
sound that it has in boor, moor, poor," 
and " is sounded like oo in tomb and 
womb, (wherein b is silent,) lo-ser, gold, 
whom, and whose. In the northern 
parts of England the words gold, who, 
whom, and whose, are pronounced pro- 
perly as they are spelt."] 

5 and 7. [A in call and in not.] 
This sound is common in many lan- 
guages, akhough the distinction of 
long and short is preserved in few or 
none but the English. The French 
have it exactly in the words ame, pas, 
las, etc. [This is a distinct recognition 
of the English habit of pronouncing 
French. See Sir William Jones's 
phonetic French, supra p. 835. But it 
does not follow that the French said 
anything broader than (a). Mr. 
Murray, a native of Hawick, informed 
me that when he and a friend first 
studied my Essentials of Phonetics, 
they were exceedingly puzzled with the 
distinction I drew between (aa) and 
(AA). They could find no distinction 


at all, and thought it must be fancy 
on my part. Mr. Murray now re- 
cognizes that he then pronounced (aa) 
in place of hoth sounds. Compare 
Prof. Blackie's confusion of (aa, AA), 
supra p. 69, n. 3. G. Sharp calls the 
French a the " English diphthong aw," 
and says that a " has a medium sound 
between aw and the English a, in 
fa-ther, and the last syllable of pa-pa, 
mam-ma, and also in han't (for have 
nof), mds-ter and plds-ter ; and is like 
aw in hal-ser (wherein I is mute), false 
and pal-sy. A has the sound of aw 
likewise before Id and It, as in bald, 
cal-dron, al-tar, etc., in all primitive 
monosyllables ending in II (except shall 
and mall, which are pronounced ac- 
cording to rule), as in all, gall, fall, 
etc., and before Ik (wherein I is mute), 
as balk, stalk, walk, talk, etc., but be- 
fore If, Im, Ive, and before nd in words 
derived from the Latin word mando, it 
is sounded like the Italian #, only 
somewhat shorter, as in half, calm, 
salve, command, demand, etc." Here 
" English a " seems to mean (ee) and 
(aa) to be considered intermediate be- 
tween (ee) and (A A).] 

6. [EW in new.] This sound, var- 
iously denoted in letters, by , eu, ue, 
ew, and even eau, as in duty, feud, true, 
new, beauty, when slowly uttered, is 
evidently a compound of the long i \ea 
in heat] and short u [u in pull] ; but 
when pronounced sharp and quick with 
a single effort of the voice, is no longer 
a diphthong, but a sufficiently single 
and uniform syllable ; whose quality is 
distinctly heard in the words above 
mentioned; as also in the French 
words du, une, unir, prune, eu (yy). 
[Now here we observe first that the 
analysis of the diphthongal sound is 
(iu), instead of (eu), as before, supra 
p. 1051 c. 1, and secondly that the 
recognition of French u does not 
perhaps imply more than that the 
diphthong became extremely close (that 
is, both the elements and the connecting 
glide very short), and that Dr. Kenrick 
did not know any better way of pro- 
nouncing French u. That Dr. Kenrick 
generally recognized a close and open 
pronunciation of the diphthongs is 
evident from his remarks on 2 and 16. 
Still the cropping up of the French u 
a century after Wallis had apparently 
noted it for the last time, is curious and 
interesting. I have myself heard it spo- 
radically, not reckoning provincialisms.] 

8. [0 in no.] The French have it in 
Dome, os, repos, faune, maux, faulx. 
[This indicates a long (00).] 

9. [OY in joy.] This sound ap- 
proaches the nearest to a practical 
diphthong of any in our language. . . . 
A vicious custom prevails, in common 
conversation, of sinking the first broad 
sound entirely, or rather of converting 
both into the sound of t or y, No. 16 ; 
thus oil, toil, are frequently pronounced 
exactly like isle, tile. This is a fault 
which the Poets are inexcusable for 
promoting, by making such words 
rhime to each other. And yet there 
are some words so written, which, by 
long use, have almost lost their true 
sound. Such are boil, join, and many 
others; which it would now appear 
affectation to pronounce otherwise than 
bile, jine. [This is important in refer- 
ence to rhymes.] 

10. 11. [A in hard and and.] The 
French have it short in alia, race,fasse; 
long in abattre, grace, age, etc. The 
Italians have it long in padre, madre, 
and short in ma, la, allegro, etc. It is 
somewhat surprising that men of letters, 
and some of them even residing in the 
Metropolis, should mistake the simple 
and genuine application of this sound. 
" The native sound of A," says Dr. 
Bayly, " is broad, deep and long, as in 
all, aw, war, daub ; but it hath gener- 
ally a mixed sound, as in man, Bath, 
Mary, fair, which are sounded as if 
written maen, baeth, etc." But who, 
except flirting females and affected fops, 
pronounce man and Bath as if they 
were written maen, baeth, or like Mary, 
fair, etc. [Dr. Kenrick would seem 
therefore to have really pronounced (a) 
and not (se), considering the latter sound 
as effeminate. It is curious to see 
Gill's Mopseys and Smith's malierculee 
and urbanius loquentes (supra p. 90) 
cropping up as Kenrick' $ flirting females 
and affected fops. In all ages refine- 
ment has apparently led to the same 
mincing, that is, closer form of vowel 
sounds, with the tongue more raised, 
or brought more forward. G. Sharp 
ought to agree with Kenrick, when he 
says : " A has a short articulation of 
the English aw, or rather of the Italian 
a, as in add, bad, lad, wad," for this 
seems to preclude (ae). He also says 
that e is like short a in yellow, known 
yet, but only as vulgarism.] 

12, 13. [AY in bay and E in met.] 
The short sound is nearly or quite the 



same as the French give to their e in 
the words elle, net, poet, etc. At the 
same time it is observable they give it 
to the combinations ei and ai and oi, as 
in pleine, plaine, disoit. The French 
extend it also nearly as much as the 
English long sound in the words ties, 
dez, clefs, purler, fonde's, amai, dirai, 

etc The protracted or long 

sound of the short e as in met, let, etc., is 
in fact the slender sound of the a. [This 
confuses the close and open sounds, and 
renders it probable that Kenrick pro- 
nounced (ee, e), and not (ee, e).] Break 
is generally sounded like brake, make, 
take, but few, except the natives of 
Ireland or the provinces, say ate, spake; 
but eat, speak, agreeably to No. 14. 
[Here we have a recognition of the 
(ee) sound of ea still remaining, and 
of the occasional (ii) sound of ea in 
break, supra p. 89. G. Sharp says 
that " a is like the French ai in dn-gel, 
bass, cam-brick, Cam-bridge, ddn-ger, 
and mdn-ger : " that are is spoken " as 
if spelt air, 1 ' and that in a-ny, ma-ny, 
a "sounds like a short e or foreign e."] 

14. TEE in meet. This was clearly 


15. [I in fit.] A contraction of the 
long sound of e or ee in me or meet. 
This is plain by repeating the words 
fit andfeet, pit and. peat, mit and meat; 
in which the similarity of sound is very 
perceptible. [This ought to give (i) 
and not (i), yet there is very little 
doubt that (i) was said, and the dis- 
tinction not recognized. G. Sharp 
says that e is like short in England, 
pretty, yes and yet.] 

16. [Y in why.] As at present 

uttered by the best speakers in the 
metropolis, it is the sharpest, shrillest, 
and clearest vowel in our language ; 
altho it has the appearance, when slowly 
pronounced, of being a compound of 
the a or e and i. I do not know that 
any other language has it equally clear, 
single and distinct. I have elsewhere 
observed that our Scotish linguists say 
it has the sound usually denoted by 
awee, but the errour of this is obvious 
to every Englishman. The French 
however come near it in the interjection 
ahi ! which they pronounce quickly as 
one syllable, without the nasal twang 
that attends the words fin, vin, and some 
others, bearing a near resemblance. 
[Kenrick is very peculiar about his 
diphthongs. Many Englishmen, how- 
ever, as we have seen in the case of 
Smith (p. 112) and Gill (p. 114), con- 
sidered long i as a single sound. 
Kenrick's admissions point to (ai), 
rather than (aei) as his diphthong. G. 
Sharp is very peculiar, and would seem 
to have two pronunciations, possibly 
(ei, ai), or thereabouts, as in the present 
Scotch-English ; he says : " There are 
two ways of sounding the long i and 
y (though both long), the one a little 
different from the other, and requiring 
a little extension of the mouth, as may 
be seen by comparing the following 
words, viz. I and aye, high and high-ho, 
by't (for by it] and bite, sigh'd and side, 
strive and strife, etc., but this difference, 
being so nice, is not to be attained but 
by much practice, neither is it very 
material. . .Ii English, or long, like the 
Greek 6t, or something like the French 
* before n in prince."] 

It did not enter into the scheme of either Buchanan or Kenrick 
to give specimens of pronunciation in a connected form, but an 
example of their two systems of pronunciation is furnished by the 
following transcription of the passage from As you Like it, which was 
given in Shakspere's conjectured pronunciation on p. 986, and is 
here rendered according to the best interpretations I can effect of 
the symbolized pronunciation of each separate word in Buchanan's 
Vocabulary and Kenrick's Dictionary. 

BUCHANAN, 1766. 

:AAl dhii warld -z 83 steedzh 
JEnd AA! dhii men send wmrm 

miiri* plee^rz. 
Dhee naev dheer ek'sfts send 

dheer en'trmsez, 

KENEICK, 1773. 

:AAl dhii warld-z ee steedzh 
And AA! dhii men and winren 

miirli plee*arz : 
Dhee nav dheer eg-zits send 

dheer en'transez, 



JEnd wasn maen in mz taim pleez 

ri paeaerts, 

aekts bii'iq sevn eedzh'ez. 
St farst dhii in-fint 

send piuk'iq in mz 

nars-ez aeaermz, 
JEnd dhen dhii whain-iq skuul'boi 

widh Hiz saetsh'il 
JEnd shain-iq niAnriq fees, 

kriip'iq laik sneel 
g;nwil*iqli tu skuul. JEnd dhen 

dhii lavir 
Saith'iq 1 laik farm's widh ae 

woo -fill baeHd 
Meed tu mz mis'tris ai'brau. 

Dhen, ae sauld'jir 
Ful ov streendzh oodhz, aend 

beerded laik 83 paerd, 
Dzhel-as ov on-ir sad-n eend 

kwik in kwaer-il 
Siik'iq dhii bab 1 repiutee-shan 
livn in dhii kaen-anz mauth. 

JEnd dhen dhii dzhast-is 
Jn feer raund bel'i widh guud 

keep-n laind, 
Widh aiz siviir send beerd ov 

foor'md kat, 
Ful of waiz SAAZ aend mod-irn 

JEnd soo nii pleez niz paeaert. 

Dhii s/kst eedzh shifts 
/n-tu dhii liin aend slip-ird paen- 

Widh spek'tiklz on nooz, send 

pautsh on said, 
Hiz juuth-ful HOOZ wel seevd, ae 

warld tuu waid 
For Hiz shraqk shaeqk, send Hiz 

big msenli vois, 
Tanriq aegen' tu tshaild'ish 

treb'l, paips 
^End whis-lz in niz saund. Laest 

siin ov AA!, 
Dhaet endz dhis streendzh ivent'- 

ful nis'tari 
Iz sek-and tshaild'ishnes aend 

miir oblivjan, 
Sanz tilth, sanz aiz, sanz teest, 

sanz evri thiq. 

And wan man in niz taim pleez 

man*i paarts 
Hiz akts biiiq sev'n eedzlrez. 

At-farst dhii in'fant 
Myyling and pyyk'iq in dhii 

nars ez aarmz. 
And dhen dhii wain'iq skuul'bAi 

with 2 niz satsh'el 
And shainiq niAAr-niq fees, 

kriip-iq leik sneel 
g;nwiHqli too 3 skuul. And dhen 

dhii lavar 
Sai'iq laik far'nas, with a 

woo'fal bal ad 
Meed too niz mis'tris ai'brau. 

Dhen ee sool'jar 
Puul AV streendzh oodhz 4 and 

biird'ed 5 laik dhii paard, 
Dzhel'as in HAn'ur, 6 sad'en aend 

kwik in kwAA'rel, 
Siik-iq dhii bab''l repvytee'shan 
li'v'n in dhii kan*anz mAuth. 

And dhen dhii dzhas'tis, 
In feer rAund beli with guud 

keep*'n laind, 
"With aiz seviir and biird AV 

fAAr-mal kat, 
Fuul AV waiz SAAZ and niAd'arn 

in-stansez ; 
And soo nii 7 pleez niz paart. 

Dhii siksth 8 eedzh shifts 
IntA dhii liin and slip-ard pan'- 

With spek'tak'lz An nooz and 

pAutsh An said, 
Hiz jyyth'fal 9 HOOZ, wel seevd, ee 

warld tuu waid 
FAr niz shraqk shaqk ; and Hiz 

big manii vAis, 
Tarn-iq aegen- toord 10 tshaild'ish 

treb''l, paips 
And wis-t'lz 11 in Hiz sAund. Last 

siin AV AA!, 
Dhat endz dhis streendzh event'- 

fal nis-tAri 
Iz sek'and tsheild'ishnes, and 

miir Ablivian, 12 
Sanz tiith, sanz aiz, sanz teest, 

sanz ev'rithiq. 

CHAP. X. 1, 



Notes on the Preceding Specimens. 

1 This is the first sound Buchanaa 
gives, but he adds that (saHq) is a 
better pronunciation. 

2 Kenrick says (with) or (widh), 
hence the first must be regarded as the 
pronunciation he prefers. 

3 Kenrick says (too) or (tA), by the 
latter possibly meaning (to). 

4 Kenrick gives (ooth)as the singular, 
but says nothing of the change of the 
sound of th in the plural. He notes 
the change in the plural of youth , but 
not in those of half, wolf. 

* 6 " (Biird), and sometimes, but I 
think wrongly (bard)." Kenrick. 

6 Kenrick marks h mute in honest, 
but not in honour. This is probably 
the misprint of a Roman H for an 
italic H. 

Kenrick has neglected to mark the 
pronunciation of this word. 

8 Kenrick merely says : " from the 
adjective," and hence leaves it in doubt 
whether he said (sikst) or (siksth). 

9 The initial (j) is retained, as 
Kenrick has not marked it mute. 

10 Kenrick writes : " TO V WARD, To x - 
WARDS," and adds : " This word is not 
usually pronounced as one syllable." 
But then immediately writes "TO- 
WARDS," which should imply one sylla- 
ble having the vowel in no. 

11 Kenrick writes "WH, but as he has 
nowhere explained what he means by 
this combination, and as almost all the 
words beginning with wh are spelled 
Wjff, where the H indicates that it is 
silent, if has been so assumed here. 

12 "Or (Ablivjan)." Kenrick. 


Joshua Steele was an ingenious orthoepist, who, with much 
success, endeavoured to write down speech in respect to accent, 
quantity, emphasis, pause and force. It did not enter into his 
scheme to represent quality, but in the preface to his work he 
makes the following remarks, already partially quoted (supra 
p. 980, note 1, col. 1), for the recognition of the French u in 
English, and worth preserving in their connection. 

The complete title of the work is: of terms and characters, sufficient to 
Prosodia Rationalis ; or, an Essay distinguish clearly the several pro- 
towards Establishing the Melody and perties or accidents belonging to Ian- 
Measure of Speech, to be expressed 
and perpetuated by Peculiar Symbols. 
The second edition amended and en- 
larged. 4to. pp. xviii. 243. London, 
1779. With dedication to Sir John 
Pringle, Bart., President of the Royal 
Society, from Joshua Steele, the author, 
dated Margaret Street, Cavendish 
Square, Sept. 25, 1775. It is in the 
form of remarks on " the musical part 
of a very curious and ingenious work 
lately published at Edinburgh, on The 
Origin and Progress of Language" and 
correspondence with the author of the 
same, who is not named, but only called 
' his 1 p." A transcription of some 
of his examples of writing the melody 
of speech is given in rny paper on Ac- 
cent and Emphasis, art. 20, n. 1, Philol. 
Trans. 1873-4, p. 129. The following 
extract is from the preface of Steele' s 
work, pp. viii-xiii. 

The puzzling obscurity relative to 
the melody and measure of speech, 
which has hitherto existed between 
modern critics and ancient grammar- 
ians, has been chiefly owing to a want 

guage; such as, accent, emphasis, 
quantity, pause, and force ; instead of 
which five terms, they have generally 
made use of two only, accent and quan- 
tity, with some loose hints concerning 
pauses, but without any clear and suffi- 
cient rules for their use and admeasure- 
ment; so that the definitions required 
for distinguishing between the expres- 
sions of force (or loudness) and emphasis, 
with their several degrees, were worse 
than lost ; their difference being tacitly 
felt, though not explained or reduced 
to rule, was the cause of confounding 
all the rest. 

In like manner, there still exists 
another defect in literal language of a 
similar kind ; that is, there are in 
nature, neither more, nor less, than 
seven vowel sounds, besides diphthongs ; 
for which seven sounds, the principal 
nations in Europe use only five cha- 
racters (for the y has, with us, no 
sound distinct from the '), and this 
defect throws the orthography and pro- 
nunciation of the whole into uncertainty 
and confusion. 



CHAP. X. 1. 

In order to distinguish what are 
VOWELS and what are not, let this be 
the definition of a vowel sound ; vide- 
licet, a simple sound capable of being 
continued invariably the same for a 
long time (for example, as long as the 
breath lasts), without any change of 
the organs ; that is, without any move- 
ment of the throat, tongue, lips, or 
jaws. [Mr. Melville Bell, to whose 
kindness I am indebted for the know- 
ledge and use of this curious book, 
apparently had this passage in view 
when he wrote ( Visible Speech, p. 71) : 
" A 'Vowel ' is a syllabic sound moulded 
by a definite and momentarily^^, or 
tense, configuration of the free channel 
of the mouth, and creating no oral 
sibilation or friction in its emission. 
A vowel without a ' fixed ' configuration 
loses its syllabic effect, and becomes a 
4 glide ' ; and a * glide ' with sibilation 
or friction in the oral channel becomes 
a ' consonant.' Consonants, like glides, 
are merely transitional sounds; but 
their configurations may be ' held ' so 
as to receive syllabic impulse, in which 
case a consonant without a vowel has 
the effect of a syllable. All vowels 
make syllables." Both definitions miss 
the distinctive character of vowels, 
given supra p. 51, and now capable of 
further discrimination, by Donders's 
and Merkel's recognition of a constant 
pitch for each vowel which modifies 
the timbre of the vowel at other pitches.] 

But a diphthong sound is made by 
blending two vowel sounds, by a very 
quick pronunciation, into one. 

So that to try, according to the fore- 
goingdefinition, to continue a diphthong 
sound, the voice most commonly changes 
immediately from the first vowel sound 
of which the diphthong is composed, 
by a small movement in some of the 
organs, to the sound of the vowel 
which makes the latter part of the said 
diphthong, the sound of the first vowel 
being heard only for one instant. For 
example, to make this experiment on 
the English sound of u, as in the word 
USE, which is really a diphthong com- 
posed of these two English sounds EE 
and oo ; the voice begins on the sound 
EE, but instantly dwindles into, and 
ends in, oo. [Presumably (in).] 

The other English sound of u, as in 
the words UGLY, UNDONE, BUT and 
GUT, is composed of the English sounds 
AU and oo ; but they require to be 
pronounced so extremely short and 

close together that, in the endeavour 
to prolong the sound for this experi- 
ment, the voice will be in a continual 
confused struggle between the two 
component sounds, without making 
either of them, or any other sound, 
distinct ; so that the true English sound 
of this diphthong can never be ex- 
pressed but by the aid of a short 
energetic aspiration, something like a 
short cough, which makes it very diffi- 
cult to our Southern neighbours in 
Europe. [Here he seems to confuse a 
diphthong, in which there is a real 
succession of vowel sounds and a con- 
necting glide (supra p. 51), with the 
attempt to pronounce two vowels 
simultaneously. Hence this sound of 
u should rather be written (A*U) with 
the link (*) p. 11, than (AU), which is 
a diphthong into which we have seen 
that many orthoepists analyse ow, cer- 
tainly a very different sound from any 
value ever given to u. Now (A*U), if 
we omit the labial character of both 
vowels, as there is certainly nothing 
labial in u, gives nearly (cE*ce), which 
can scarcely differ from the sound (a), 
which lies between them, as may be 
seen best by the diagrams on p. 14. 
Hence we must take this sound to be 
(a), which still exists in very wide use.] 

To try the like experiment on the 
English sound of i or Y, as i in the 
first person, and in the words MY, BY, 
IDLE, and PINE (both of which letters 
are the marks of one and the same 
diphthong sound composed of the 
English sounds AU and EE), the voice 
begins on the sound AU, and imme- 
diately changes to EE, on which it con- 
tinues and ends. [Presumably (Ai), as 
defined also by Sheridan. It is curious 
that Steele has altogether omitted to 
notice oy, and hence escaped falling 
under the necessity of distinguishing 
by, boy, for example. Possibly he 
would have written (bAii, bAAi), supra 
p. 107, 1. 4 from bottom of text. He 
was presumably an Irishman.] 

The English sound of E, in the words 
met, let, men, get, is a diphthong com- 
posed of the vocal sounds A and E 
(being the second and third vowels in 
the following arrangement), and pro- 
nounced very short. [Here again his 
diphthong is used for a link, and the 
result seems meant for (a*<?), and 
although this should give (ah), it is 
possible he meant (E), see diagrams 
p. 14. He does not seem to have been 

CHAP. X. $ 1. 



aware of the sound of (ae), or at any 
rate to have confused the sounds 

In order the better to ascertain the 
tones of the seven vocal sounds, I have 
ventured to add a few French words in 
the exemplification ; in the pronuncia- 
tion of which, I hope, I am not mis- 
taken. If I had not thought it abso- 
lutely necessary, I would not have 

presumed to meddle with any living 
language but my own ; the candid 
reader will therefore forgive and cor- 
rect my errors, if I have made any in 
this place, by substituting such other 
French syllables as will answer the 
end proposed. [A palaeotypic interpre- 
tation is annexed. "We must suppose 
that his French pronunciation was im- 

The seven natural vowel sounds may be thus marked and explained to sound 

m French as the words. 


en, grande. 

Paris, Aabit, pardon. 

ses, et. 

Pan's, hab^, ris, dit, il. 

so/dat, cotes, offrir. 

ou, vous, jour, j&loux. 

du, plus, une. 

in English as the words. 

= all, small, or, for, knock, lock, 

occur = (A, o) 

a=man, can, cat, rat = (a) 
e=may, day, take, nation = (ee) 
i=ml, keen, it, be, iniquity = (ii) 
o=open, only, broke, hole = (oo) 
co=fool, two, rule, tool, do =(uu) 

( superfluous, \ very \ 
u= < tune, swpreme, > rare in > 

( credwlity ) English ) 

Diphthong sounds in English. 

01 = I, y?ne, here, b'fe, n'de, sp#, fly (a long sound) = (Aii) 
ae=met, let, get, men (a short sound) = (a*<?, E) 
iw=you, use, new, due, few (a long sound) =(iuu) 

( makes the English sound | unk ^ ^ b \ 

oft, of un or ug and is pro- j ' b t ^ * = | 

( nounced extremely short j J ' ; 

o=how, bough, sow, hour, gown, town (this diphthong is sounded 
long, dwelling chiefly on the latter vowel) = (AUU). 

The letters and sounds, which in 
modern languages pass under the names 
of diphthongs, are of such different 
kinds, that they cannot properly be 
known by any definition I have seen : 
for, according to my sense, the greatest 
part of them are not diphthongs. 
Therefore, that I may not be mis- 
understood, I will define a proper diph- 
thong to be made in speech, by the 
blending of two vowel sounds so in- 
timately into one, that the ear shall 
hardly be able to distinguish more than 
one uniform sound ; though, if pro- 
duced for a longer time than usual, it 
will be found to continue in a sound 
different from that on which it began, 
or from its diphthong sound. [This 
shews a perfect confusion between link- 
ing two sounds into one, and gliding 
on from one sound on to another.] 

And therefore the vowels, which are 
joined to make diphthongs in English, 
are pronounced much shorter, when so 
joined, than as single vowels ; for if 
the vowel sounds, of which they are 

composed, especially the initials, are 
pronounced so as to be easily and dis- 
tinctly heard separately, they cease to 
be diphthongs, and become distinct 

Though the grammarians have di- 
vided the vowels into three classes ; 
long, short, and doubtful; I am of 
opinion, that every one of the seven 
has both a longer and shorter sound : as 
a is long in all, and short in lock and 

oc (lock and oc) = (AA, A ?). 
A is long in arm, and short in cat = 

(aa, a?). 
E is long in may and make, and short 

in nation = (ee, e ?). 

i is long in be, and short in it = (\\, i ?). 

o is longer in hole than in open [often 

(op-n) dialectally] ; long in corrode, 

short in corrosive [which Lediard 

accents corrosive supra p. 1048, 

c. 1, 1. 5 from bottom.] = (oo, o ?). 

oo is long in fool, short (by comparison) 

in foolish = (uu, u?). 
u is long in tune and plus, and short in 
swper and du = (iu, y ?). 



CHAP. X. 6 2. 

But the shortest sounds of o, , and 
u are long in comparison with the short 
sounds of the four first vowels [that is, 
are medial ?]. 

The French, the Scotch, and the 
Welsh, use all these vowel sounds in 
their common pronunciation ; but the 
English seldom or never sound the TJ 
in the French tone (which I have set 
down as the last in the foregoing list, 
and which, I believe, was the sound of 
the Greek fonnA.&i'), except in the more 
refined tone of the court, where it begins 
to obtain in a few words. 

I have been told the most correct 
Italians use only five vowel sounds, 
omitting the first and seventh, or the 
a and the u. Perhaps the Romans did 
the same : for it appears by the words 
which they borrowed from the Greeks 
in latter times, that they were at a loss 

how to write the t\ and the v in Latin 

As the Greeks had all the seven 
marks, it is to be presumed that at 
some period they must have used them 
to express so many different sounds. 
But having had the opportunity of 
conversing with a learned modern 
Greek, I find, though they still use all 
the seven marks, they are very far from 
making the distinction among their 
sounds which nature admits of, and 
which a perfect language requires : but 
all nations are continually changing 
both their language and their pro- 
nunciation ; tho that people, who have 
marks for seven vowels, which are ac- 
cording to nature the competent number, 
are the least excusable in suffering any 
change, whereby the proper distinction 
is lost. 

2. Two American Orthoepists of the Eighteenth Century. 

Dr. Franklin's scheme of phonetic writing (supra p. 48), though 
hasty and unrevised, is too interesting to be omitted. His corre- 
spondence with Miss Stephenson contains a common sense, practical 
view of the necessity and usefulness of some phonetic scheme, and 
gives short convincing answers to the objections usually urged 
against it. The spelling would have required careful reconsidera- 
tion, which it evidently never received. But in the following 
transcript it is followed exactly. As a specimen of the English 
pronunciation of the earlier part, although written after the middle, 
of the xvin th century, it is of sufficient importance to justify the 
insertion of the paper at length in this place. The symbols are, 
as usual, replaced by their palaeotypic equivalents, and for con- 
venience of printing the following table given by Franklin is some- 
what differently arranged, although the matter is unaltered. 
Table of the Reformed Alphabet. 


Manner of Pronouncing the 


Manner of Pronouncing the 

(0) old. The first VOWEL naturally, 
and deepest sound ; requires only 
to open the mouth and breathe 
through it. 

(A) John, folly; awl, ball. The next 
requiring the mouth opened a 
little more, or hollo wer. 
man, can. The next, alittle more, 
men, lend, name, lane. The next 
requires the tongue to be a little 
more elevated. 

(1) did, sin, deed, seen. The next 
still more. 

(u) tool, fool, rule. The next re- 

quires the lips to be gathered 
up, leaving a small opening. 

(a) wm, wn ; as in wmbrage, wnto, 
etc., and as in er. The next a 
very short vowel, the sound of 
which we should express in our 
present letters, thus uh ; a short, 
and not very strong aspiration. 

(HS) hunter, Aappy, high. A stronger 
or more forcible aspiration. 

(gi) give, gather. The first CON- 
SONANT ; being formed by the 
root of the tongue; this is the 
present hard g. 



(ki) keep, Jack. A kindred sound; 

a little more acute ; to be used 

instead of hard c. 
(tsh) [sh] ship, wish. A new letter 

wanted in our language; our 

sh, separately taken, not being 

the proper elements of the sound, 
(iq) [ng] ing, repeatiw^, amow^. A 

new letter wanted for the same 

reason. These are formed back 

in the mouth. 
(en) end. Formed more forward in 

the mouth ; the tip of the tongue 

to the roof of the mouth, 
(r) art. The same ; the tip of the 

tongue a little loose or separate 

from the roof of the mouth, and 

(ti) tee\h. The tip of the tongue 

more forward; touching, and 

then leaving, the roof, 
(di) deed. The same; touching a 

little fuller, 
(el) ell, iell. The same; touching 

just about the gums of the upper 

(es) essence. This sound is formed 

by the breath passing between 

the moist end of the tongue and 

the upper teeth. 
(ez) [es] wages. The same ; a little 

denser and duller, 
(eth) [th] think. The tongue under, 

and a little behind, the upper 

teeth ; touching them, but so as 

to let the breath pass between, 
(edh) [dh] thj. The same; a little 

(ef) effect. Formed by the lower lip 

against the upper teeth, 
(ev) ever. The same; fuller and 

(b) bees. The lips full together, and 

opened as the air passes out. 
(pi) peep. The same ; but a thinner 

(em) ember. The closing of the lips, 

while the e is sounding. 

REMARKS [by Franklin, on the above table]. 

(0) to (na). It is endeavoured to give 
the alphabet a more natural order ; 
- ' - )le sounds 

formed by the breath, witl 
very little help of tongue, teeth, and 
lips, and produced chiefly in the 

(g, k). Then coming forward to those, 

formed by the roof of the tongue 

next to the windpipe. 

(r, n, t, d). Then to those, formed 

more forward, by the forepart of the 

tongue against the roof of the mouth. 

(1, s, z). Then those, formed still more 

forward in the mouth, by the tip of 

the tongue applied first to the roots 

of the upper teeth. 

(th, dh). Then to those, formed by the 
tip of the tongue applied to the ends 
or edges of the upper teeth, 
(f, v). Then to those, formed still 
more forward, by the under lip ap- 
plied to the upper teeth, 
(b, p). Then to those, formed yet more 
forward, by the upper and under lip 
opening to let out the sounding 

(m). And lastly, ending with the 
shutting up of the mouth, or closing 
the lips while any vowel is sounding. 
In this alphabet c is omitted as un- 
necessary ; k supplying its hard sound, 
and s the soft ; k also supplies well the 
place of z [evidently a misprint for #], 

and with an s added in the place of x : 
q and x are therefore omitted. The 
vowel u being sounded as oo (uu) makes 
the w unnecessary. The y, where used 
simply, is supplied by i, and where as 
a dipthong [so spelled in the original], 
by two vowels : that letter is therefore 
omitted as useless. The jod j is also 
omitted, its sound being supplied by 
the new letter (sh) ish, which serves 
other purposes, assisting in the forma- 
tion of other sounds; thus the (sh) 
with a (d) before it gives the sound of 
the jod j and soft g as in "James, 
January, giant, gentle" (dsheems, 
dshsenueri, dshaiffint, dshentel) ; with 
a (t) before it, it gives the sound of 
ch, as in "cherry, chip" (tsheri, tship) ; 
and with a (z) before it, the French 
sound of the jod/, as in "jamais" 
(zshaeme). [Dr. Franklin's knowledge 
of the French sound must have been 
very inexact.] Thus the g has no longer 
two different sounds, which occasioned 
confusion, but is, as every letter ought 
to be, confined to one, The same is to 
be observed in all the letters, vowels, 
and consonants, that wherever they are 
met with, or in whatever company, 
their sound is always the same. It is 
also intended, that there be no super- 
fluous letters used in spelling; i.e. no 
letter that is not sounded ; and this 
alphabet, by six new letters [meaning 


(A, 9, sb, q, th, dh) ], provides that 
there be no distinct sounds in the lan- 
guage, without letters to express them. 
As to the difference between short and 
long vowels, it is naturally expressed by 
a single vowel where short, a double 
one where long; as for "mend" write 
(mend), but for "remain'd" write 
(remeen'd) ; for "did" write (did), 
but for "deed" write (diid), etc. 

"What in our common alphabet is 
supposed the third vowel, *', as we sound 
it, is as a dipthong, consisting of two 
of our vowels joined; (a) as sounded 

in "unto" and (i) in its true sound. 
Any one will be sensible of this who 
sounds those two vowels (a i) quick 
after each other ; the sound begins (a) 
and ends (ii). The true sound of the 
(i) is that we now give to e in the 
words "deed, keep " [Here the editor 
observes : " The copy, from which this 
is printed, ends in the same abrupt way 
with the above, followed by a con- 
siderable blank space; so that more 
perhaps was intended to be added by 
our author. B. V."] 


So T Huen sam Endshel, bai divain kAmaend, 
Uidh raiziq tempests sheeks e gilti Lsend ; 
(Satsh sez AV leet or peel Britaeniae paest,) 
Kaelm and siriin Hi draivs dhi f iurias blaest ; 
And, pliiz'd dh' Almeitis Ardors tu parfArm, 
Raids in dhi Huarluind and dairekts dhi StArm. 

1 Dr. Franklin is not consistent in 
marking the long and short vowels. His 
peculiarities and errors are here all re- 
produced. Sir William Jones (Works, 
4to. ed. 1799, i. 205), after giving his 
analysis of sound for the purpose of 
transliterating the Indian languages, 
adds : " Agreeably to the preceding 
analysis of letters, if I were to adopt a 
new mode of English orthography, I 
should write Addlsons description of 
the angel in the following manner, dis- 
tinguishing the simple breathing or first 
element, which we cannot invariably 
omit, by a perpendicular line above our 
first or second vowel : 

So hwen sm enjel, bai divain 

"Widh raisin tempests shecs a 

gilti land, 
Sch az av let or pel Britanya 

Calm and sirin hi draivz dhi 

fyuryas blast, 
And pliz'd dh' almaitiz arderz 

tu perform, 
Raids in dhi hwerlwind and 

dairects dhi starm. 

This mode of writing poetry would 
be the touchstone of bad rhymes, which 
the eye as well as the ear would in- 
stantly detect; as in the first couplet 
of this description, and even in the 
last, according to the common pronun- 
ciation of perform" 

The following is probably the mean- 
ing to be attached to Jones's symbols, 
leaving his errors as they stand, but 
supplying the (a) occasionally omitted 
in accordance with Sanscrit custom, 
and not inserting accents. It is very 
possible that though he wrote signs 
equivalent to (a, i, ee, r), he actually 
said (ae, *, ee, j). 

(Soo Hwen sam eendzhel, bai 

divain kAmaand, 
"Widh raisiq tempests sheeks a 

gilti land, 
Satsh az AV leet oor peel Britan- 

ja paast, 
Kaalm and siriin Hi draivz dhi 

fruurjas blaast, 
And, pliizd dh- AAlmaitiz AArderz 

tu perfoorm, 
Eaids in the Hwerlwind and 

dairekts dhi stAArm.) 


So dhi piur limpid striim, nuen fiul with steens 
AV rashiq TArents aend disendiq Reens, 
Uarks itself kliir ; aend aez it rans rifeins, 
Til bai digriis, dhe f lotiq mirar shams, 
Riflekts iitsh nAur dhaet An its bArdar groz, 
And e nu nev'n in its feer Bazam shoz. 


Diir Sar, Kensiqtan, Septembar 26, 1768. 

ai naev traenskrab'd iur aelfaebet, &c., nuitsh ai think mait bi AV 
sarvis tu dhoz, HU uish tae aekuair aen aekiuret pronansieshan, if 
dhaet kuld bi fiks'd ; bat ai si meni inkAnviiniensis, aez uel oz difi- 
kaltis, dhat uuld l aetend dhi briqiq iur letars and ArthAgrsen intu 
kiman iaes. AA! AUP etim^lodshiz uuld be lAst, k^nsikuentli ui 
kuld nit asarteen dhi miiniq AV meni uards; dhi distinkshan tu, 
bituiin uards AV difarent miiniq aend similaer sAund uuld bi dis- 
trAaid, aend AA! dhi buks aelredi riten uuld bi 2 iusles, anles ui liviq 
raiters pablish nu iidishans. In shArt ai biliiv ui mast let piipil 
spel An in dheer old ue, aend (aez ui faind it iisiiest) du dhi seem 
Aurselves. With ease and with sincerity I can, in the old way, 
subscribe myself, Dear Sir, Your faithful and affectionate Servant, 

Dr. Franklin. M. S. 

ANSWER TO Miss S * * * * 
Diir Maedaem, 3 

dhi Abdshekshan iu meek to rektifaiiq Aur aelfaebet, d h ae t it 
uil bi aetended widh inkAnviniensiz aend difi- 
k 8 1 1 i z, iz e naeturael uan j fir it Aluaez Akarz suen eni ref AT- 

Probably the difference between for the long vowels, as in Franklin's 

Franklin and Jones was more apparent scheme, that ye, woo (jii, wuu) must be 

than real. In perform, however, written (ii, uu) or (iii, mm). The 

Franklin evidently adopted the pro- latter form I have never seen employed, 

nunciation which Jones disliked. On Hence there is always an ambiguity in 

Jones's sensitiveness to rhyme see such words. 

supra p. 866, note, where a line has 2 The words (distrAaid, aend AA! dhi 

been unfortunately omitted. For tbe buks selredi riten uuld bi) are omitted 

sentence beginning on 1. 7, col. 2, of that in the copy of this letter in Franklin's 

note, read: "THE SEVEN FOUNTAINS works, vol. 2, p. 361, and are here 

of 542 lines has only afford-Lord. THE restored from the quotations of Miss 

PALACE or FORTUNE of 506 lines has Stephenson's words in Dr. Franklin's 

only shone-sun, and stood-blood." reply, pp. 364-5, so that they contain 

The passage selected as an example his spelling rather than hers, 

by both Franklin and Jones is from 3 There are several letters preserved 

Addison's Campaign, lines 287-291 ; in Franklin's works addressed to Miss 

and is parodied thus in Pope's Dunciad, Stephenson or Stevenson. One dated 

3, 261-264: 17th May, 1760, begins: "I send my 

Immortal Rich ! how calm he sits at ease good girl the books I mentioned to her 

'Mid snows of paper, and flerce hail of pease ; last night," and gives advice in reading, 

And proud his Mistress' orders to perform shewing that she was then very young, 

Rides in tbe whirlwind and directs the storm. but that Franklin had been in the 

1 Probably meant for (wuld). It is habit of talking with her about litera- 

one of the inconveniences of the use of ture and language, 
(i, u) for (j, w), together with (ii, uu) 



meshan iz propozed ; nuedhar in rilidshan, gavernment, IAZ, and 
iven dAun aez lo sez rods send null kseridshiz. dhi tru kuestshan 
dhen, is nAt Huedhnar dhaeer ml bi no dif ikaltiz Ar inkAnviniensiz, 
bat Huedher dhi dif ikaltiz me nAt bi sarmAunted; and nuedhear 1 
dhi kAnviniensiz uil nAt, An dhi HUO!, bi gretar dhan dhi inkAn- 
viniensiz. In dhis kes, dhi dif ikaltiz er onli in dhi biginiq AV dhi 
prsektis : mien dhe er uans ovarkam, dhi advantedshez er laestiq. 
To aidhar iu Ar mi, HU spel uel in dhi prezent mod, ai imaedshin 
dhi dif ikalti AV tshendiq 2 dhat mod fAr dhi nu, iz nAt so gret, bat 
dhset ui mait parfektli git ovar it in a niiks raitiq. JEz to dhoz hu 
du nAt spel uel, if dhi tu dif ikaltiz er kamperd, viz., dhaet AV 
titshiq dhem tru speliq in dhi prezent mod, aend dhaet AV titshiq 
dhem dhi nu aelfaebet aend dhi nu speliq aekArdiq to it, ai asm kAn- 
fident dhaet dhi laetar uuld bi byi 8 faer dhi Hist, dhe naetaraeli fAl 
into dhi nu methad aelreadi, aez matsh aez dhi imperfekshan AV dher 
aelfaebet uil aedmit AV ; dher prezent baed speliq iz onli baed, bikAz 
kAntreri to dhi prezent baed ruls : andar dhi nu ruls it uuld bi gud. 
dhi dif ikalti AV larniq to spel uel in dhi old ue iz so gret, dhaet f iu 
seten it ; thAuzaends aend thAuzaends raitiq An to old edsh, uidhAut 
ever biiq ebil to aekuair it. 'Tiz, bisaidz, e difikalti kAntinuaeli 
inkriisiq, aez dhi SAund graeduaeli veriz mor aend mor frAm dhi speliq ; 
send to fArenarz 4 it meks dhi larniq to pronAns Aur laequedsh, aez 
riten in Aur buks, selmAst impAsibil. 

NAU aez to dhi inkAnviniensiz iu menshan. dhi farst 
iz, dhaet AA! Aur etiniAlodshiz uuld bi lAst, 
kAnsikuentli ui kuld nAt asarteen dhi miiniq 
AV meni uards. etiniAlodshiz er aet present veri ansarteen ; bat 
satsch aez dhe er, dhi old buks uuld stil prizarv dhem, aend etimolo- 
dshiz 5 uuld dher faind dhem. Uards in dhi kors AV tyim, 6 tshendsh 
dher miiniqs, aez uel aez dher speliq aend pronansieshan ; aend ui du 
nAt luk to etiniAlodshi fAr dher prezent miiniqs. If ai shuld kAl e 
maen e Neev send e Vilen, Hi uuld nserdli bi saetisfaid with 7 mai teliq 
mm, dhaet uan AV dhi uards oridshinaeli signifaid onli e Ised Ar 
sarvaent ; send dhi adhar, aen andar plAumaen, Ar dhi inhaebitaent AV 
e viledsh. It iz frAm prezent iusedsh onli, dhi miiniq AV uards iz 
to bi determined. 

1 This word seems to have exercised said, even as an American ; ' because, 
the Doctor very much, this is the third from the want of public examples of 
orthography in a few lines. He meant pronunciation in his own country, it 
(whedh-ar) of course. was often difficult to learn the proper 

2 Meaning (tsheendzh^'q) changing. sound of certain words, which occurred 

3 Franklin's character for (a) is y, very frequently in our English writings, 
and consequently his printer easily and which of course every American 
confuses it with y ; (hyi) is an error for very well understood as to their mean- 
(bgi). Several of the errors here copied ing. B. V." Note to Dr. F.'s Works, 
may be due to his printer, and cannot vol. 2, p. 363. 

be corrected by the original MS. & Meaning, probably etymologists 

^ 4 " Dr. Franklin used to lay some (etimAlodshists) in his spelling, 
little stress on this circumstance, when 6 Meaning (taim) time. See above, 

he occasionally spoke on the subject. note 3. 

' A dictionary, formed on this model, 7 The (w) and the (th) are both slips, 

would have been serviceable to him, he He meant (uidh) in his spelling. 


lur sekand inkAnviniens iz, dhaet dhi distinkshan bituiin 
uards AV difarent miiniq and similser sAund uuld 
bi distrAaid. dhaet distinkshan iz Alreadi distrAaid in pro- 
nAunsiq dhem ; aend ui rilai An dhi sens aelon AV dhi sentens to 
aesarteen, nuitsh AV dhi severael uards, similaer in SAund, ui intend. 
If dhis iz safishent in dhi raepiditi AV diskors, it uil bi mutsh mor 
so in riten sentenses, nuitsh me bi red lezshurli, send aetended to 
mor paertikulaerli in kes AV difikalti, dhaen ui keen aetend to e paest 
sentens, nuail e spikar iz aaryiiq l as aelAq uith nu uans. 

lur thard inkAnviniens iz, dhset A A! dhi buks aelredi 
riten uuld bi iusles. dhis inkAnviniens uuld onli kam An 
graeduaeli, in e kors AV edshes. lu send ai, send adhar UAU liviq 
ridars, uuld nserdli fArget dhi ius AV dhem. Piipil uuld long larn 
to riid dhi old raitiq, dho dhe praektist dhi nu. u33nd dhi inkAn- 
viniens is nAt greater, dhaen nuset nes aektuaeli nsepend in se similaer 
kes, in Iteli. FArmerli its inhsebitaents AA! spok and rot Laetin: 
83z dhi laequedsh tshendshd, dhi speliq fAlo'd it. It iz tru dhaet 
set prezent, e miir anlaern'd Italien knAt 2 riid dhi Laetin buks; 
dho dhe er stil red aend andarstud bai meni. Bat, if dhi 
speliq Hsed nevar bin tshendshed, m uuld nAu nev fAund it 
matsh mor difikalt to riid and ryit 3 niz on laqusedsh; fAr riten 
uards uuld sev need no rileshan to sAunds, dhe uuld onli sev stud 
fAr thiqs ; so dhaet if hi uuld ekspres in raitiq dhi aidia m nez, 
Huen m SAunds dhi uard Vescovo, HI mast iuz dhi leterz Episcopus. 
In ah Art, Huaetever dhi difikaltiz aend inkAnviniensiz UAU er, dhe 
uil bi mor iizili sarmAunted nAu, dhan niraeftar ; send sam taim Ar 
adhar, it mast bi dan ; Ar Aur raitiq uil bikam dhi seem uidh dhi 
Tshainiiz, aez to dhi difikalti AV larniq and iuziq it. JEnd it uuld 
aelredi nev bin satsh, if ui naed kAntinud dhi Saksan speliq and 
raitiq, iuzed bai our forfadhers. ai asm, mai diir frind, iurs aefek- 
shanetli, B. Pranklin. 

Landan, Kreven-striit, Sept. 28, 1768. 


Noah Webster's English Dictionary has so recently become popu- 
lar in England that we can scarcely look upon him as belonging to 
the xvin th century. But having been born in Connecticut in 1 758, 
his associations with English pronunciation in America are refer- 
able to a period of English pronunciation in England belonging 
quite to the beginning of the xvin th, if not even to the latter half 
of the xvn th century. The recent editions of the Dictionary all 
shew a " revised" pronunciation, so that the historical character of 
the work in this respect is destroyed. The following extracts from 
a special and little known work by the same author are valuable 
for our purpose, as they convey much information on the archaisms 
which were at least then prevalent in America, and distinguish in 
many cases between American and English pronunciation. 

1 Either (nardiiq) meaning (Her- 2 Probably (kaenAt) cannot. 

ai,tq) or (nariioj meaning (Hart';t'q). 8 Meaning(rait) write,seQ p. 1062,n.3. 



Title. Dissertations on the Euglish 
Language: with notes, historical and 
critical. To which is added, by way of 
Appendix, an Essay on a Reformed 
Mode of Spelling, with Dr. Franklin's 
Arguments on that Subject. By Noah 
Webster, Jun., Esquire. Printed at 
Boston for the Author, 1789. 8vo., 
pp. xvi., 410. Press-mark at British 
Museum, 825 g. 27. Dedicated "to 
his Excellency Benjamin Franklin, 
Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., late President of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," 

In Franklin's Works (London, 1806, 
vol. 2, p. 351), under date 26 Dec. 
1789, there is a letter from Franklin to 
Webster, acknowledging and praising 
this book, and drawing attention to the 
following Americanisms as having been 
adopted subsequently to 1723. Im- 
proved for employed or used, as "a 
country house many years improved as 
a tavern ; a country gentleman for more 
than thirty years improved as a justice 
of the peace." "A verb from the 
substantive notice. I should not have 
noticed this, were it not that the gentle- 
man, etc. Also another verb from the 
substantive advocate : The gentleman 

who advocates or who has advocated 
that motive, etc. Another from the 
substantive progress, the most awkward 
and abominable of the three : the com- 
mittee having progressed, resolved to 
adjourn. The word opposed, though 
not a new word, I find used in a new 
manner, as, the gentlemen who are 
opposed to this measure, to which I 
have also myself always been opposed. 
If," continues Franklin, addressing 
Webster, " you should happen to be of 
my opinion with respect to these in- 
novations, you will use your authority 
in reprobating them." The words are 
still all in use in America ; and to notice, 
to advocate, and opposed are common 
in England, where even to progress 
is heard. The point of interest is that 
in the use as well as in the pronuncia- 
tion of words, elderly people are being 
continually offended by innovations 
which they look upon as deteriorations, 
but which constantly prevail in spite of 
such denunciations. 

In the following paragraphs all is 
Webster's writing, except the passages 
between brackets and in paleeotype. 
The pages of the original are also in- 
serted in brackets as they arise. 

[Note at back of contents, p. xvi.] 

The sounds of the vowels, marked or referred to in the second and third dis- 
sertations, are according to the Key in the First Part of the Institute. Thus : 

First sound, late, feet, 

Second hat, let, 
Third law, 

Fourth ask, 

Fifth not, 

Sixth prove, 

[p. 83] Thus i in fit has the same 
quality of sound as ee in feet. . . . The 
other vowels have also their short or 
abrupt sounds ; a in late [p. 84] has 
its short sound in let ; a in cart has its 
short sound in carry ; a in fall has its 
short sound in folly ; oo in fool its short 
sound in full. is sometimes shortened 
in common parlance, as in colt; but 
the distinction between o in coal and 
colt seems to be accidental or caused 
by the final consonant, and not suffi- 
ciently settled or important to require 

a separate consideration [Here 

we have the usual difficulties (ii, i) or 
(ii, t) ? (aa, a) or (aa, ) ? (AA, A) or 
(AA, o) ; (uu, u) or (uu, u) ? Perhaps 
colt was (kolt), not (kolt), in the pro- 
nunciation referred to. This point will 

i o u y 

night, note, tune, sky 

tin, tun, glory 





be again alluded to when touching on 
present American English, Chap. XI. 

\ !] 

The letters, i, u and y are usually 
classed among the vowels ; but the first 
or long sound of each requires, in 
pronunciation, two positions of the 
organs of speech, or rather a transition 
from the position necessary to form one 
simple sound, to the position necessary 
to form another simple sound. We 
begin the sound of nearly with the 
same aperture of the glottis, [a mere 
error arising from necessary ignorance 
of the mechanism of speech, the glottis 
being closed for all vowels,] as we do 
the broad a or aw. The aperture how- 
ever is not quite so great. We rapidly 
close the mouth to the position where 



we pronounce ee, and there stop the 
sound (ai ?). This letter is therefore a 
dip thong. 

U also is not strictly a vowel ; nor 
is it, as it is commonly represented, 
composed [p. 85] of e and oo. We do 
not begin the sound in the position 
necessary to sound ee, as is obvious in 
the words salute, salubrious, revolution ; 
but with a greater aperture of the 
mouth and with a position perfectly 
easy and natural. From that position 
we pass to the position with which we 
pronounce oo, and there close the sound. 
It must however be observed that when 
these letters i, u, are followed by a con- 
sonant, the two sounds of the dipthong 
are not clearly distinguishable. We do 
not, in fight, hear the sound of ee ; 
nor the sound of oo in cube. The con- 
sonant compresses the organs and closes 
the sound of the word so suddenly, that 
the ear can distinguish but a simple 
vocal sound. And notwithstanding 
these letters are dipthongs, when con- 
sidered by themselves, yet in combina- 
tion with consonants, they are often 
marks of simple sounds or vowels. 
[This may only indicate an insufficient 
power of analysis. The diphthongs 
were perhaps only much shorter in 
these cases, that is, had the second 
element, and the connecting glide much 
shorter, giving a compressed efleck 
But cube, which is now really (kiuub), 
with a long second element, may have 
been squeezed into (kyb), by the " link- 
ing" of its elements as (i*u=y) very 
nearly. Similarly fighl may have reached 
(fEt), as (a*i) = (E) very nearly. See 
further remarks on long u near the end 
of these extracts, infra p. 1069.] 

The short sound of i and y is merely 
short ee. The sound of u in tune is a 
separate vowel, which has no affinity 
to any other sound in the language. 
[Can this be (yy) ? Compare Steele's 
tune, p. 1057, and Kenrick, p. 1052, 
No. 6.] 

The sound of oi or oy is dipthongal, 
composed of the third or broad a and 
ee. [We have then the old difficulty in 
separating long i from oy, both being 
made (AI) or (ai). p. 86] The sound 
of on or ow is also dipthongal, com- 
pounded of third a and oo. The sound 
however does not require quite so great 
an aperture of the mouth as broad a ; 
the position is more natural, and the 
articulation requires less exertion (au?). 

[p. 88] The vowels therefore in 

English are all heard in the following 
words, late, half, hall, feet, pool, note, 
tun, fight, truth. The five first have 
short sounds or duplicates, which may 
be heard in let, hat, hot, fit, pull ; and 
the letters and u are but accidentally 
vowels. The pure primitive vowels in 
English are therefore seven. 

The dipthongs may be heard in the 
following words : lie or defy, due, 
voice or joy, round or now. To these 
we may add ua in persuade ; and per- 
haps the combinations of w and the 
vowels, in well, will, etc. 

[p. 92 Webster remarks that has 
its first sound in bind, find, mind, kind, 
blind, grind. But wind has the second 
short sound of t. Then in a footnote, 
p. 93, he adds :] On the stage, it is 
sometimes pronounced with i long, either 
for the sake of rhime, or in order to be 
heard. Mr. Sheridan marks it both 
ways ; yet in common discourse he pro- 
nounces it with i short, as do the nation 
in general. 

[Cambridge, danger, and perhaps 
manger. Also angel, ancient have (ee).~\ 
In this all the standard authors [p. 94] 
agree, except Kenrick and Burn, who 
mark a in ancient both long and short. 
The English pronunciation is followed 
in the middle and southern states [of 
America] ; but the eastern universities 
have restored these words to the 
analogy of the language, and give a its 
second sound (ae). It is presumed that 
no reason can be given for making these 
words exceptions to the general rule, 
but practice ; and this is far from being 
universal, there being many of the best 
speakers in America, who give a in the 
words mentioned the same sound as in 
anguish, annals, angelic, antiquity. 

In the word chamber, a has its fourth 
sound (aa). It is necessary to remark 
this, as [p. 95] there are many people 
in America who give a its first sound 
(ee), which is contrary to analogy and 
to all the English authorities. [Mr. 
White, supra p. 968, c. 1, in a note on 
LL 5, 1, 5 (150, 22), says : " The isola- 
tion of the Englishmen of New England, 
and their consequent protection from 
exterior influences, caused changes in 
pronunciation, as well as in idiom, to 
take place more slowly among them 
than among their brethren who re- 
mained in the mother-country ; and 
the orthoepy for which the worthy 
pedant contends, is not very far re- 
moved from that of the grandfathers 



and great-grandfathers of the present 
generation in the more sequestered 
parts of the eastern states. The 
scholars among these, as well as those 
who had received only that common- 
school education which no Yankee is 
allowed to lack, did not, for instance, 
in Holofernian phrase, speak coud and 
woud fine, hut pronounced all the con- 
sonants, could and would; they said 
sword, not sored; they pronounced 
'have' to rhyme with 'rave,' not hav, 
'jest, 3 which used to be written 
jeast,jeest to rhyme with 'yeast,' 
'pert,' which of old was spelled peart, 
peert : and in compound words they 
said for instance 'clean-ly,' not den-ly, 
and, correctly, ' an-gel,' ' cham-ber,' 
' dan-ger,' not ane-gel, chame-ber, dane- 
ger. Their accents yet linger in the 
ears of some of us, and make the words 
of Shakespeare's pedagogue not al- 
together strange." As regards chamber 
see Moore's rhyme: amber chamber, 
supra p. 859, col. 1.] 

[p. 96] I consider these terminations 
tion, sion, don, dal, dan, as single 

[p. 103] In the eastern states there 
is a practice prevailing among the body 
of the people of prolonging the sound 
of i in the termination we. In such 
words as motive, relative, etc., the people, 
excepting the more polished part, give 
t its first sound (a\ ?) . This is a local 
practice, opposed to the general [p. 104] 
pronunciation of English on both sides 

of the Atlantic [In footnote to 

p. 104] The final e must be considered 
as the cause of this vulgar dialect. It 
is wished that some bold genius would 
dare to be right, and spell this class of 
words without e, motiv 

[p. 105] In the middle states . . . 
many people pronounce practise, preju- 
dice with i long. I know of no au- 
thority for this beyond the limits of 
two or three states. 

Another very common error, among 
the yeomanry of America, and particu- 
larly in New England, is the pro- 
nouncing of e before r, like a; as 
marcy for mercy. This mistake must 
have originated principally in the name 
of the letter r, which, in most of our 
school-books, is called ar. This single 
mistake has spread a false pronuncia- 
tion of several hundred words among 
millions of people. [In a footnote] 
To remedy the evil in some degree, 
this letter is named er, in the Institute. 

In a few instances this pronunciation is 
become general among polite speakers, 
as clerks, sergeant, etc. [In text] 
To avoid this disagreeable singularity, 
some fine speakers have run into 
another extreme, by pronouncing e 
before r, like u, murcy. This is an 
error. The true sound of the short e, 
as in let, is the correct and elegant pro- 
nunciation of this letter in all words of 
this class. [But (mErst) can now only 
be heard in Scotland.] 

[p. 106] There is a vulgar singu- 
larity in the pronunciation of the 
eastern people, which is very incorrect, 
and disagreeable to strangers, that of 
prefixing the sound of * short or e, be- 
fore the dipthong ow ; as kiow, piower 
or peower. This fault usually occurs 
after p, c hard, or those other con- 
sonants which are formed near the seat 
of ee in the mouth. . . . But the most 
awkward countryman pronounces round, 
ground, etc., with tolerably propriety. 

[Webster then remarks on the New 
England drawl, and attributes it to its 
" political institutions " !] 

[n. 108, note, he speaks of] the sur- 
prising similarity between the idioms of 
the New England people and those of 
Chaucer, Shakespear, Congreve, etc., 
who wrote in the true English style. 

[p. 109, he speaks of] the very 
modern pronunciation of kind, sky, 
guide, etc. , in which we hear the short e 
before , Jceind, or kyine, sTcey, etc. [he 
compares it to the eastern keow, veow, 
and adds :] Yet, strange as it may seem, 
it is the elegant pronunciation of the 
fashionable people both in England 
and America [but he strongly disap- 
proves of it]. 

[p. 110] Some of the southern 
people, particularly in Virginia, almost 
omit the sound of r, as in ware, there. 
In the best English pronunciation the 
sound of r is much softer than in some 
of the neighbouring languages, parti- 
cularly the Irish and Spanish, and 
probably much softer than in the 
ancient Greek. . . . [This omission of 
the r, or its degradation to (j, a, '), is 
still very prevalent in America as in 
England, if we may judge from Yankee 
books of drollery, but its prevalence in 
Webster's time indicates that it was at 
least well known in England in the 
xvn th century. See supra p. 974.] 

It is a custom very prevalent in the 
middle states, even among some well- 
bred people, to pronounce off, soft, drop, 

CHAP. X. $ 2. 



crop, with the sound of a, off, soft, 
drap, crap. [p. Ill] This seems to he 
a foreign and local dialect ; and cannot 
he advocated hy any person who under- 
stands correct English. [In a note on 
this passage, p. 383, he adds :] The dia- 
lect in America is peculiar to the de- 
scendants of the Scotch Irish. [In 
Sheridan's Trip to Scarborough, acted 
in 1 777, a refashionment of Vanhrugh's 
Relapse, 1697, we still meet with, rat, 
lard, stap, Gad in oaths, and Tarn in 
an address ; egad is in the School for 
Scandal, and may be heard still, and in 
Dorsetshire we shall find many such 

[p. Ill] In the middle states also, 
many people pronounce a t at the end 
of once and twice, oncet and twicet. 
This gross impropriety would not he 
mentioned, hut for its prevalence among 
a class of very well educated people ; 
particularly in Philadelphia and Balti- 

Fotch for fetch is very common, in 
several states, hut not among the better 
classes of people. Catched for caught 
is more frequent, and equally barbarous. 

Skroud and skrouge for croud, are 
sometimes heard among people that 
should be ashamed of the least vul- 

Mought for might is heard in most 
of the states, but not frequently, except 
in a few towns. 

Holpe for help I have rarely heard, 
except in Virginia, [where, in a note, 
p. 384, he says] it is pronounced hope. 
" Shall I hope you, sir ? " 

Tote is local in Virginia and its 
neighbourhood. In meaning it is 
nearly equivalent to carry. 

Chore, a corruption of char, is perhaps 
confined to New England. 

[In a note on this passage, p. 385, 
he remarks the use of dern pronounced 
darn for great, severe in New England ; 
also ax for ask there.] 

[p. 388] Shet for shut is now become 
vulgar. In New England we fre- 
quently hear becase to this day. It is 
pronounced becaze. The vulgar pro- 
nunciation of such is sich. 

[p. 112] The pronunciation of w for 
v is a prevailing practice in England 
and America ; it is particularly preva- 
lent in Boston and Philadelphia, [p. 
113] Many people say iveal, wessel, for 
veal, vessel. [In a footnote he says :] 
I am at a loss to determine why this 
practice should prevail in Boston and 

not in Connecticut. The first and 
principal settlers in Hartford came from 
the vicinity of Boston. Vast numbers 
of people in Boston and the neighbour- 
hood use w for v, yet I never once 
heard this pronunciation in Connecticut. 

[p. 114] The words shall, quality, 
quantity, qualify, quandary, quadrant, 
are differently pronounced by good 
speakers. Some give a a broad sound 
as shol, quolily, and others its second 
sound as in hat. With respect to the 
four first almost all the standard writers 
[who in a footnote are named as 
Kenrick, Sheridan, Burn, Perry and 
Scott] agree to pronounce a short as in 
hat, and this is [p. 115] the stage pro- 
nunciation. It is correct, for it is more 
agreeable to the analogy of the lan- 
guage ; that being the proper sound of 
the English a which is heard in hat or 
bar. [Hence Webster ought to have 
said (nat) and not (naet), like Kenrick.] 
With respect to the two last, authors 
differ ; some give the first (ee), some 
the second (se), and others the fifth 
sound (o). They all pretend to give 
us the court pronunciation, and as they 
differ so widely, we must suppose that 
eminent speakers differ in practice. 
In such a case, we can hardly hesitate 
a moment to call in analogy to decide 
the question, and give a in all these 
words, as also in quash, its second sound 
(se). [In a footnote he observes:] The 
distinction in the pronunciation of a in 
quality when it signifies the property 
of some body (o ?), and when it is used 
for high rank (se ?), appears to me 
without foundation in rule or practice. 

[p. 115 text] The words either 
neither, deceit, conceit, receipt, are 
generally pronounced by the eastern 
people ither, nither, desate, consate, re~ 
sate. These are errors ; all the standard 
authors agree to give ei in these words 
the sound of ee. This is the practice 
in England, in the middle and southern 

[p. 116] Importance is by a few 
people pronounced importance, with 
the first sound of o (00} . ... It seems 
however to be affectation, for the 
standard writers and general practice 
are opposed to it. 

Decis-ive for deci-sive is mere affecta- 

Reesin for raisin is very prevalent 
in two or three principal towns in 

Leisure is sometimes pronounced 



leesure and some^mes Zezhure ; the 
latter is the [p. 117] most general pro- 
nunciation in America. 

Dictionary has been usually pro- 
nounced dicsonary. 

One author of eminence pronounces 
defile in three syllables def-i-le. In 
this he is singular ; ... all the other 
authorities are against him. 

"With respect to oblige, authorities 
differ. The standard writers give us 
both oblige and obleege, and it is im- 
possible to determine on which side the 
weight of authority lies. 

[p. 118] Some people very er- 
roneously pronounce chaise, sha in the 
singular and shazein the plural. [The 
pronunciation (poo shee) for post chaise 
was familiar to me in London fifty 
years ago.] 

Our modern fashionable speakers 
accent European on the last syllable 
but one. This innovation has happened 
within a few years, [p. 119] Analogy 
requires Eurdpean and this is supported 
by as good authorities as the other. 
[Footnote p. 118] Hymenean and hy- 
meneal are, by some writers, accented 
on the last syllable but one, but 
erroneously ; other authorities preserve 
the analogy. 

[p. 119] Rome is very frequently 
pronounced Room, and that by people 
of every class. The authors I have 
consulted give no light upon this word 
except Perry, who directs to that pro- 
nunciation. The practice however is 
by no means general in America. There 
are many good speakers who give o its 
first sound (oo). It seems very absurd 
to give o its first sound (oo) in Romish, 
Romans, and pronounce it oo in Rome, 
the radical word. 

[p. 120] In the pronunciation of arch 
in many compound words, people are 
not uniform. The disputed words are 
archangel, archetype, architecture, ar- 
chitrave, archives. . . . The sound of 
ch in chart is likewise disputed. 

[p. 121] There are many people who 
omit the aspirate in most words which 
begin with wh, as while, whip, etc., 
which they pronounce wite, wip, etc. 
To such it is necessary to observe that 
in the pure English pronunciation both 
in Great Britain and New England, for 
it is exactly the same in both, h is not 
silent in a single word beginning with 
wh. In this point our standard authors 
differ; two of them aspirating the 
whole of these words, and three mark- 

ing h in most of them as mute. 
[Kenrick always marks h as mute, or 
wh = (w).'] But the omission of h 
seems to be a foreign corruption; for 
in America it is not known among the 
unmixed descendants of the English. . . 
In this class of words w is silent in 
four only, with their derivatives ; viz. 
who, whole, whoop, whore, 

[p. 122] One or two authors affect 
to pronounce human and about twenty 
other words beginning with h, as though 
they were spelt yuman. This is a gross 
error. The only word that begins with 
this sound is humor, with its derivatives. 
In the American pronunciation h is 
silent in the following, honest, honor, 
hour, humor, herb, heir, with their 
derivatives. To these the English add 
hospital, hostler, humble; but an imi- 
tation of these, which some indus- 
triously affect, cannot be recommended, 
as every omission of the aspirate serves 
to mutilate and weaken the language. 

[p. 123] The word yelk is sometimes 
written yolk and pronounced yoke. 
But yelk is the most correct orthogra- 
phy, from the Saxon gealkwe [spelled 
geoleca, geolca, from geolu yellow, in 
Ettmuller, p. 418] ; and in this country 
it is the general pronunciation. 

Ewe is, by the English, often pro- 
nounced yo ; which is sometimes heard 
in America. But analogy and the 
general corresponding practice in this 
country, . . . decide for yew. 

The English speakers of eminence 
have shortened the vowel in the first 
syllable of tyranny, zealous, sacrifice, 
etc. . . . [that is, made it (, e, se) re- 
spectively, as is now the general Eng- 
lish custom]. This pronunciation has 
not spread among the people of this 
country [that is, presumably, they 
make it (#i, ii, ee} respectively] .... 
Many people in America say pat-ron, 
mat-ron; whereas the English say 
either pa-tron or pat-ron, ma-tron [p. 
124] or mat-ron, but all agree in say- 
ing pat-ronage. In patriot, patriotism, 
the English give a, its long sound, but 
a great part of the Americans, its short 
sound. [This is similar to the use of 
pro-verbs for prov-erbs which Mr. 
White, Shakspere's Works 3, 226, says 
"still lingers in New England."] 

Wrath the English pronounce with 
the third sound of a, or aw (AA), but 
the Americans almost universally pre- 
serve the analogous sound, as in bat//, 
path [(aa) or (SB)!]. 



[p. 125] In the middle and southern 
states, fierce, pierce, tierce, are pro- 
nounced feerce, peerce, teerce. To con- 
vince the people of the impropriety of 
this pronunciation, it might be suffi- 
cient to inform them, that it is not 
fashionable on the English theater, 
[p. 126] The standard English pro- 
nunciation now is ferce, perce, terce 
[which is now, 1871, unknown in the 
South of England ; see supra p. 105, 
n. 1], and it is universal in New 

The English pronounce leap, lep; 
and that in the present tense as well 
as the past. Some of our American 
horsemen have learnt the practice; 
but among other people it is almost 

In the fashionable world, heard is 
pronounced herd or hurd. This was 
almost unknown in America till the 
commencement of the late war [that of 
Independence], and how long it has 
been [p. 127] the practice in England 
I cannot determine. . . . That herd 
was not formerly the pronunciation, is 
probable from this circumstance ; the 
Americans were strangers to it when 
they came from England, and the body 
of the people are so to this day. To 
most people in this country the English 
pronunciation appears like [p. 128] 
affectation, and is adopted only in the 
capital towns. [It is implied that the 
Americans say heerd, like Dr. Johnson, 
supra p. 624, note, c. 2.] 

Beard is sometimes, but erroneously, 
pronounced beerd. General practice, 
both in England and America, requires 
that e should be pronounced as in were, 
and I know of no rule opposed to the 

Deaf is generally pronounced deef. 
It is the universal practice in the 
eastern states, and it is general in the 
middle and southern; though some have 
adopted the English pronunciation def. 
The latter is evidently a corruption. 

[p. 131] Gold is differently pro- 
nounced by good speakers. [ tie decides 
for (goold) in preference to (guuld).] 

[p. 133] Similar reasons and equally 
forceable are opposed to the modern 

nunciation of wound [as (wuund) ; 
ecides for (wound), p. 134] There 
is but a small part even of the well- 
bred people in this country, who have 
yet adopted the English mode [(wuund)]. 
[p. 136] Skeptic for sceptic is mere 
pedantry. [He apparently refers only 

to the spelling, but as he instances the 
spelling scene, scepter, he perhaps said 

[p. 137] Sauce with the fourth sound 
of a (aa), is accounted vulgar ; yet this 
is the ancient, the correct and most 
general pronunciation. The aw of the 
North Britons is much affected of late ; 
sawce, hawnt, vawnt ; yet the true 
sound is that of aunt, jaunt, and a 
change can produce no sensible ad- 

[He decides in favour of accenting 
advertisement, chastisement on the last 
syllable but one, and acceptable, ad- 
mirable, disputable, comparable on the 
last but two, and says, p. 141 :] The 
people at large say admi'reable, dis- 
pu'teable, compa'reable, and it would be 
difficult to lead them from this easy 
and natural pronunciation, to embrace 
that forced one of ad'miraUe, etc. The 
people are right, and, in this particular, 
will ever have it to boast of, that among 
the unlearned is found the purity of 
English pronunciation. [He admits 
rep'utable as an exception. He decides 
for access 'ary, p. 142.] 

[p. 143] Immedyate is so difficult, 
that every person who attempts to pro- 
nounce it in that manner will fall into 
immejate. Thus commodious, comedian, 
tragedian, are very politely pronounced 
commojus, comejan, trajejan [which he 
denounces, and requires -di- to form a 
distinct syllable] . 

[On pp. 147-179, he has a disqui- 
sition on the pronunciation of d, t, and 
8 before u, as (dzh, tsh, sh), to which 
he is strongly opposed. The argument 
goes to shew that it was then common 
in England and not in America. But 
the only parts which it is necessary to 
quote are the following. After citing 
Wai Us' s account of long u (supra p. 
171), he says on his p. 151 :] 

This is precisely the idea I have 
ever had of the English u ; except that 
I cannot allow the sound to be per- 
fectly simple. If we attend to the 
manner in which we begin the sound 
of u in flute, abjure, truth, we shall 
observe that the tongue is not pressed 
to the mouth so closely as in pro- 
nouncing e ; the aperture of the organs 
is not so small ; and I presume that 
good speakers, and am confident that 
most people, do not pronounce these 
words fleute, abjeure, treuth. Neither 
do they pronounce them^oote, abjoore, 
trooth; but with a sound formed by 



an easy natural aperture of the mouth, 
between iu and oo ; which is the true 
English sound. This sound, however, 
obscured by affectation in the metro- 
polis of Great Britain and [p. 152] the 
capital towns in America, is still pre- 
served by the body of the people in 
both countries. There are a million 
descendants of the Saxons in this 
country who retain the sound of u in 
all cases, precisely according to Wallis's 
definition. Ask any plain countryman, 
whose pronunciation has not been ex- 
posed to corruption by mingling with 
foreigners, how he pronounces the 
letters t, r, u, th, and he will not 
sound u like eu, nor oo, but will express 
the real primitive English u. Nay, if 
people wish to make an accurate trial, 
let them direct any child of seven years 
old, who has had no previous instruc- 
tion respecting the matter, to pro- 
nounce the words suit, tumult, due, etc., 
and they will thus ascertain the true 
sound of the letter. Children pro- 
nounce u in the most natural manner ; 
whereas the sound of iu requires a con- 
siderable effort, and that of oo, a forced 
position of the lips. Illiterate persons 
therefore pronounce the genuine English 
u much better than those who have 
attempted to shape their pronunciation 
according to the modern polite practice, 
[p. 189] In modern times, we have, in 
many words, blended the sound of u 
with that of ew, or rather use them pro- 
miscuously. It is indifferent, as to the 
pronunciation, whether we write fuel 
or fewel. And yet in this word, as 
also in new, brew, etc., we do not hear 
the sound of e, except among the Vir- 
ginians, who affect to pronounce it 
distinctly, ne-ew, ne-oo, fe-oo. This 
affectation is not of modern date, for 
"Wallis mentions it in his time and 
reprobates it [supra p. 139]. 

[It would be difficult to imagine the 
sound from the above description. Years 
ago the sound was a source of great 
difficulty to me, because Americans re- 
fused to consider u as (iu) or (ju). I 
have not been able to study the sound 
sufficiently, but it sometimes seems to 
be (eu), at others (yu) or (m). See 
supra p. 980, n. 1. Webster says in a 

footnote, p. 127 :] The company that 
purchased New England was, indeed, 
called the Plymouth Company, being 
composed principally of persons be- 
longing to the County of Devon. But 
many of the principal settlers in these 
states came from London and its vi- 
cinity ; some from the middle counties, 
the ancient kingdom of Mercia ; and a 
few from the northern counties. [And he 
adds :] There is not the least affinity 
between the languages of New Eng- 
land and the specimens of the Devon- 
shire dialect given in the English 
Magazines. [But this sound of u seems 
to be in favour of a West of England 
origin ; as it is not pure xvn th century. 
The next point of importance is, p. 
156 :] 

But another inconsistency in the 
modern practice is the introducing an e 
before the second sound of u in tun ; 
or rather changing the preceding con- 
sonant; for in nature, rapture, and 
hundreds of other words, t is changed 
into tsh ; and yet no person pretends 
that u in these words has its dip- 
thongal sound. ... [p. 157] I be- 
lieve no person ever pretended that this 
sound of u contains the sound of e or 
y, . . . and T challenge the advocates 
of the practice to produce a reason for 
pronouncing natshur, raptshur, cap- 
tshur, which will not extend to authorize 
not only tshun, tshurn for tun, turn, 
but also fatshal for fatal and immortshal 
for immortal. Nay the latter pronun- 
ciation is actually heard among some 
very respectable imitators of fashion ; 
and is frequent [p. 158] among the 
illiterate, in those states where the 
tshu's are most fashionable. ... I am 
sensible that some writers of novels 
and plays have ridiculed the common 
pronunciation of creatur and natur by 
introducing these and similar words 
into low characters, and spelling them 
creuter, nater, [which he considers a 
mistake, because the sound is -ur and 
not -er final, even when written a, e, i, 
o ; adding, p. 159 :] Liar, elder, factor are 
pronounced liur, eldur, factur, and this 
is the true sound of u in creature, 
nature, rapture, legislature, etc. [See 
supra p. 973, under TJEE.j 


3. Noteworthy Pronunciations and Rhymes of the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, collected from the Expert Orthocjraphist 1704, Dyche 1710, 
Buchanan 1760, Franklin 1768, and Sheridan 1780, and various 


To form a better notion of the melting of the pronunciation cur- 
rent in the xvn th century into that of the xvm th, which is the 
direct source of the pronunciation now in use, I have collected 
many noteworthy pronunciations from the writers above named. 

1) The EXPEET O-RTHOGBAPHisT, 17 04, exhibits an early form 
of the genuine xvm th century pronunciation, which partly was an 
anticipation of what became current fifty years later, and partly 
retained the old forms. The marked peculiarity is in the words 
containing ea, which were forced into (ii) beyond what afterwards 
received the sanction of use. Not too much value is to be attributed 
to this writer as representing the general pronunciation of the 
period. At most he bears the same relation to Jones, that Hart 
did to Smith in the xvi th century. But there is this difference, 
that Hart was a travelled, educated man, and the Orthographist was 
evidently a third-rate English teacher, unused to educated society. 

2) DYCHE, 1710, is of but very limited use, as he merely de- 
scribes the sounds in the accented syllables of a few words, and 
does not symbolize them with sufficient accuracy. The sounds 
here given are therefore rather guesses than transcripts in several 

3) BUCHANAN, 1766, was not only a Scotchman, but had many 
Scotch proclivities, which render his vocabulary suspicious in parts. 
Thus, it cannot be supposed that the English language had short (i) 
and not ('), in competition and similar words, which is a thoroughly 
Scotch peculiarity, or that any but a Scotchman called drunken 
(drak*n). There seems reason to suppose that many, perhaps most, 
perhaps all, of Buchanan's short o's, here marked as (o), were pro- 
nounced by him as (o), thus post could hardly have been (post), 
although it could not be marked otherwise in accordance with his 
notation, as this pronunciation will not harmonize at all with 
(puust, poost) given by others, whereas (post) would only be a 
Scotch pronunciation of (poost). Nevertheless, the completeness 
and early date of this attempt to "establish a standard for an 
elegant and uniform pronunciation of the English language," has 
rendered it necessary to go through the whole, and select such 
words as on any account seemed worthy of preservation. 

4) FBANKLIN, 1768, has only left us the fragment printed in the 
preceding section. A few words have here been selected, and their 
orthography has been corrected so as to represent what Franklin 
apparently meant to convey. 

5) SHEKIDAN, 1780, commences a series of pronouncing diction- 
aries, which will here be carefully passed over, but his near ap- 
proach to Buchanan and Franklin, and his peculiarities, which must 
represent some pronunciations current during that period, dashed 


though they be with his own orthoepistic fancies, rendered him 
the proper termination of these researches. All the words taken 
from Buchanan have therefore been compared with Sheridan. Ken- 
rick's peculiarities can be sufficiently judged from his descriptions of 
the vowels, given above. Hence it has not been thought necessary 
to add his pronunciations to Sheridan's, with which they were so 
nearly contemporary. 

Lediard's were collected subsequently to the completion of this 
index, and have not been added, they are however so arranged on 
pp. 1040-9, that they can be easily referred to. 

The letters 0, D, B, F, S, placed after the pronunciations, refer 
to these authorities in order. The transcript has been made after 
much consideration, but there are some doubtful points. It is 
probable that the (o) assigned to the Orthographist and Dyche, did 
not differ from Sheridan's (A). It is only Buchanan who seems 
to make a difference between (o) and (A), and, as we have seen, 
this may have arisen from his saying (o) and (A). 

abeyance aebii-jaens S 

ablution s&blnrshan B, S 

abroad abrAAd* B, S, 

abstruse a&bstriuz- B, sebstruus* S 

absume aebsiunr B, S 

abundant sebancKnt B, aebeirdaent S 

aeademial aeksedenvjzl B, aeksediinrjael 

academician seksedemish'm B, aekaedee- 

imslreen S 

acclaim eekleem* B, S 
acclamation aekh'mee'shan B, aeklaemee'- 


acclivity kliv*tt B, aekh'viti S 
ache eek B, S 
acknowledge seknoHdsh B, seknAl'Edzh 


acres ee'karz 0, B, S 
actual aek-tim'l B, aek'tiuael S 
adagio aedee'dzlu'o B, aedsese'dzhoo S 
adhere aedbiir O, B, S 
adjudicate seddzhuirdikeet B, S 
adjure aeddzhuur B, S 
adulation 8edjulee-sban B, S 
adventure sedvent-yar B, sedvEirtshar S 
aerial eeiirjel B, aeirrjsel S 
aerie eeiri B, ee-ri S 
again aegetr 0, B, S 
agio eedzh-t'o B 
ah seae B. S 

alien aeHen 0, eel'jm B, ee-ljEii S 
all AA! B, S 
almond AA'mand 0, aesel-mand B, sese 1 - 

mand S 

almoner aeael'mum'r B, ael'moonEr S 
almost Atnoost- D, AAlmoost B, S 
alms seaelms B, seaemz S 
alternate AAlterm't B, aeltErneet S 
amatory ee'mseton B, aenraetari S 

amber aenrbr B, senrbar S 

amenable aamin-e'bl B, semirnaebl S 

amiable ee-mzjibl B, ee'nusebl S 

amnesty 83n-st B, senvnEsti S 

among a&maq- 0, S 

amour semoor B, aamuur- S 

anarch ee'nserk B, aan-serk S 

angel seirdzbel B, een-dzhel F, een-- 

dzhEl S 

anoint senaint' 0, aanoint- B, aanAAint* S 
answer seirsar B, aan'SEr S 
ant sent B, S 
antic aeirtz'k B, S 
antique seirta'k B, sentiik' S 
anxious seqk'shas B, aaqk'SJas S 
any seirt B, S 
aorist ee'wst B, ee'oonst S 
apostle aeposl B, sepAS'tl S 
appoint 83paint' 0, sepaint B, aspAAint S 
apparel aeperil B, 83p83r - El S 
approve eeprav 0, aepruuv B, S 
April ee-prail B, ee-pril S 
apron ee'parn 0, asp-arn B, ee'pran S 
aquatic aekwaat-t'k B, S 
arable eer'e'bl C, eeraebl S 
arch aaaartsb. B, S 

architect aerke'tekt D, B, seserk/tekt S 
are er B, eer F, ser S 
area eerise B, S 
arm aaaarm B, S 
armada sesennee-dse B, S 
arsenal eers-ml B, sesers-naal S 
Asia sesh'eae B 
ask sesk B, S 

askance aaskAns- B, aeskaens' S 
aslant aeslaeasnt' B, seslaent* S 
ass aes B, S 

asthma aest-mae D, B, aes-mae S 
asylum aas-t'lam B, aesAiiam S 
athletic asthlii'tzk B, aethlEH'k S 


atrocious aetroo-shas B, S 
augury AA-gan B, AA'giun' S 
aunt sent D, aeaent B, sent S 
austere AAstiir 0, B, S 
avenue sevniu B, seviiniu S 
avoirdupoise aeverdapoiz' B, 

pAAiz- S 
await eweet- B, aeweet* S 
awkivard AAk't'rd B, AA'kard S 
awl AA! B, S 

axiom aek-s/am B, aek'sham S 
azure eez-jar B, ee-zhar S 


bacchanals bsek'tm'lz B, baek'senaolz S 

bacon beek-n B, S 

bagnio beeirjo B, bsen'joo S 

balcony bAl-kom B, baelkoo'ni S 

bald bAAld D, B, S 

balderdash bAl-derdaesh B, bAAl'dErdsesh 


ball bAAl D, B, S 
balm baeaem B, S 
banquet baeqk-et D, baeqk-et, B, bseqk-- 

w*t S 

baptize baeptaiz' B, baeptAiz* S 
bard baeserd B, S 
barrier baeriir B, baer-JEr S 
base bees B, S 
basin bees-n B, S 
basis beez-z'z B, bee's/s S 
bass baeaes in music, bos a mat, S 
baste beest B, S 

bastion bsest-jan B, baes'tshan S 
bath baeth B, baeseth S 
bathe beedh D, B, S 
bear beer 0, B, D 
beard berd 0, beerd B, bErd S 
Bede Biid 
behove bmuuv 0, S 
benign binain- B, biinAur S 
bequeath bzkweedh- B, biikwiidh' S 
besom bii'zon D, biiz'am B, S 
bestiality bestJAA'h'h' B, bestshaeHti S 
beyond bijand- 0, biijond' B, biijAnd' S 
bind baind D, bAind S 
bird bard B, S 

blanch blasaensh B, blaantsh S 
blank blseseqk B, bleeqk S 
blast blaest B, S 
blaspheme biaesfiinr 0, B, 8 
iMbladO, B, S 
boatswain boo-sm B, boo'sn S 
boil bail 0, bail B, bAil S 
bold bould B, boold S 
boltsprit bocrspn't B, S 
bolster bol-stz'r B, bool-star S 
bolter BOULTER bouHar 0, bool'tar S 
bombard bombaerd' B, bombaeeerd* S 
bombasine bombaeziin 1 B, S 
book buuk B, S 

borage bar'e'dzli B, S 

border bArdt'r B, bAArdar S 

bore boor B, S 

born bArn B, bAArn S 

borne buurn 0, boorn S 

borough baro B, bar-oo S 

bosom boz-em B, baz-em F, buu'zam S 

bough boo B, bAU S 

bought boot ? , bAt B, bAAt S 

boult boult B, boolt S 

bourn barn B, buurn S 

bouze bauz B, buuz S 

bouze BOOSE buuz B, S 

bow boo bau B, boo bAU S 

bowl baul 0, (globe) baul. (vessel) bool 

D, baul B, bool S 
boy boi B, bAAi S 
branch brAAnsh 0, braeaensh B, brsensh 


brass braes B, S 

brasier breez-ja'r B, bree'zhar S 
bravo braeva B, bree'voo S 
break briik 0, B, S 
breakfast brek fcest 0, brek-fist B, 

brEk-faest S 

breeches BBEETCHES bretsh'tz B, S 
Bristol Bn's-to 0, D 
broad brood B, brAAd S 
brocade brakeed- B, brookeed- S 
broil brail 0, brail B, brAil S 
brooch bruutsh B, S 
broth broth B, brAAth S 
brought broot ?, brAt B, brAAt S 
bruise briuz 0, bruuz B, S 
brute bruut B, S 
brumal briu-tml B, bruu'msel S 
build beld 0, B, S 
buoy boi B, bwii S 
burgh baro B, bar-oo S 
burglary bargleen' B, barglaeri S 
burial btWael JD, berv'l B, bEi-Jael S 
bury bir-i D, bert' B, bEr-z S 
bush bush B, S 
iws^bas-lB, S 
busy bzz-t B, bz'z'i S 
butcher butsh'a'r B, butsh-ar S 

cabal kaebAAl- B, kaebael- S 
cadaverous kaedaevras B, kaedaaveeras S 
cadet kee-dzt B, kaedEt- S 
cadi kaedii- B, kee'di S 
Calais kael-z's D 

calculate kael'kjiuleet B, kael'kiuleet S 
caldron kael'dran B, kAAl-dran S 
calf kAAf 0, ksesef B, S 
caliber kael-z'bi'r B, kaelii'bar S 
calk kAAk B, S 
call kAAl D, B, S 

calm kAAm 0, kseaam B, kaelm F, 
kaeaem S 


calx kAAlks B, kselks S 

cambric ksenrbrtk B, keenrbrik S 

Canaan kee-nsen D 

canine keenain- B, kaenAin- S 

canoe kaenoo- B, ksenuir S 

cantata kaentee'tae B, S 

capacious ksepseslras B, ksepee'shes S 

capillary kseptl'eeri B, kseptl-seri S 

capouch ksepoutsh- B 

caprice keepriis- B, ksepriis' S 

capricious kaeprislras B, S 

capture ksep-tar B, kaep-tshar S 

capuchin ksep'mshiin JD, ksepasliiin* B, 

kaepiushiin* S 

Capricorn kee-pn'korn B, kaep-rikArn S 
carabine kiBraebain B, kaeserbAin S 
carabineer kgerz'bmiii" B, kaerbiniir S 
caract kserrt B, kseraet S 
caravan kseraevaen B, S 
caraway kaerwee B, ksereewee S 
card kseserd B, S 

carmine kserrm'n B, kaeaerniAin S 
carnelion ksernel'jan B, ksernirljan S 
carte-blanche ksert-blsensh B, kseaert 

blsentsh. S 

cartouch ksertoush 4 B, ksertuutsh' S 
carriage ksereedzh 0, ksertdzb. D, 

ksertdsh B, S 

carrion kserm B, kaer'jan S 
castle kaes-tl B, kses'l S 
casual ktez-iuil B, ksez'iuael S 
casually ksez'iuh' B, koez'iuseli S 
casualty ksez 'iultt B, kgez'iuaelti S 
casuist kaez iu'st B, S 
catarrh kset'ser B, ksetser* S 
causeway kAA-se B, kAAs-wee S 
cavil ksevl B, ksevtl S 
ceiling CIELING sii'h'n B, sii'h'q S 
cement n. sim'mt B, SEm-Ent S 
cement v. siment' B, siimEnt- S 
censure serrsar B, SEirshar S 
centenary serrtneeM B, SEn-tiinm S 
ceruse sii-ras B, SEr'ius S 
cAfl/tshaef B, S 
chagrin shsegriin- B, S 
chair tsheer B, S 
chaise sheez D, B, S 
chaldron tsAA'darn D, tshAA'drm B, 

tshAA'dran S 

chamber tshsesem-btr B, tshsesenrbar S 
champaign shaempeen- B, S 
chandelier CHANDELEB, sbAndeeliir- S 
chandler tshserrdhr B, tsbaend-lar S 
change tsheendzh D, tsheendsh B, 

tsheendzh S 

chant tshseaent B, tshsent S 
chaos kaeae-os B, kee-As S 
chaplain tshsep-lm D, B, S 
chaps tshseps B, tshAps S 
charriot tshaer-ft D, B, tshserjat S 
charrioteer tshserrtiir- B, tsheerjootiir S 

chart ksesert B, S 

charter tshseserte'r B, tshaeser'tar S 

chasm kaes-tn B, ksez-m S 

chasten tshsest'm B, tsbee&t'n S 

chastisement tshsestaiz-mmt B,tsh8es*ttz- 

mEnt S 

charlatan tshaerh'tm B, tsbaeger'lsetsen S 
charcoal tshserkol B, tshseaer-kool S 
Cherubim Tsberiubtm D, B, TshEriu- 

btm S 

chevalier sbevseliir' D, shEvs&liir S 
chew tshuu B, tshuu tshAA S 
chicane tshikeeir B, shikeen- S 
chicanery tshikeeirri B, shikee'nari S 
chicken tslu'k-n B, tshtk'tn S 
chimera kaimii-rse B, kAiraii'rae S 
china tshitH B, tshee'ni S 
Chinese Tshainiiz' F 
chirp tsherp B, telmrp S 
chives tshaivz B, shaivz S 
chocolate tshok-ltt B, tshAk-alut S 
choir kwair D, kozr B, kw;Air S 
choler koo-l/r B, kAl'ar S 
cholic koKk B 
chord kArd B, kAArd S 
chorister kwirister 0, D, kai'r&ttr 

kor-sttr B, kwEr-estar S 
chorus kor f 9s B, koo'ras S 
chough tshaf B, S 
Christ Kraist B 
christen krt's-m B, kn's'n S 

circuit ser-kit 0, s/r-kiut B, SErkiut S 

citron szt'arn O, stt-ran B, S 

civet sivii B, S 

civil stvl D, B, stvil S 

civilly sivli B, sivili S 

claret klwft B, klaer-it S 

Claude klood D 

cleanly kliin-lz B, kliiirli S 

cleanse kliinz B, klenz S 

clerk klerk B, klrk S 

climb klaim D, B, S 

close klooz B, S 

closely klos-h' B, kloos'li S 

cloth kloth B, klAAth S 

clothe kloodh B, S 

clothes klooz, B, S 

clyster glis-ttr B, gKs'tar S 

cockswain kok-sm B, kAk-san S 

cohere koomir 1 O, B, S 

coin kain O, koin B, kAAin S 

colander kal-sendar 0, kaln'ndar S 

cold kould B, koold S 

colon koHn B, koo-Un S 

colonel kar-onel D, kor-nt'l B, kar-nEl S 

colony kal'am 0, kol-ani B, kAl'anii S 

colour kal-ar 0, kaHr B, kal-ar S 



colt kolt B, koolt S 

colter kouB/r B, kool-tar S 

columbine kal-ambain 0, kol'ambain B, 

kAl'ambAin S 

comb kuum 0, koom D, B, S 
combat kanrbaet 0, konrbet B, kanrbaet S 
comfort kanrfart 0, B, S 
command koraAAnd 0, komseaend' B, 

kAmaend 1 F, karaseaend' S 
committee koim't'ii B, kamet-i S 
0w/?aw0wkotnpaen-janB, kampaetrjanS 
company kanrpmi B, kanrpaeni S 
compass konrpt's B, kanrpes S 
competition kamp/tislran B, kAmpeetz- 

slran S 
complacency komplaes-mst B, kAmplee-- 

SEnsi 8 
complaisance komplizaens* B, kAmplee- 

zaens' S 

complete kompliit* 0, B, kAmpliit- S 
completion komplisb/an B, kAmplii-shan 


compose kampooz B, kAmpooz S 
conceit konsiit- 0, B, kAnsiit' S 
conchoid koirko;z'd B, kAqk'AAid S 
concise konsaiz* B, kAnsAis' S 
conclude konkliud 1 B, kAnkliud 1 S 
condign kondain* B, kAndAiir S 
conduit kaird/t 0, D, B, kAirdw't S 
coney kaire B, CONY kairii S 
conge kairdzhz B, kooirdzhii S 
congeries kondzbirn'z B, kAndzhirrjiis S 
conic kon'i'k B, kAirtk S 
conjecture kondzhek'tar B, kAndzhEk'- 

tshar S 

conjure v.n. kan'dzhar D, B, S 
conquer koqk'ar D, koqk'wzr B, kAqk'ar 


conscience kon'shz'nz B, kAirsbEns S 
conscientious konsten'shas B, kAnshEir- 

shas 8 

constable kan-stibl B, kan-staabl S 
construe koirstru B, kAn-star S 
contrite kontrait' B, kAn'trAit S 
conversant konversnit B, kAn'VErsEnt 

kAnvEfSEnt S 

converse konvsers 1 konvers' B, kAnvErs* S 
coquette kok-et B, kookEt' S 
corn kArn B, kAArn S 
coroner krauirar D, kor-antr B, kAr- 

onar S 

corps korps B, koor S 
corse kors B, koors S 
cost kAst B, S 
cotton kot-n B, kAt-n S 
covenant kovment B, kaveenaent S 
covey COVY kov? B, kavi S 
coward kou-trd B, kAU'ard S 
cowardice kourd/s B, kAU'ardz's S 
Cowper Kuu par D 
coy koi B, kAAi S 

coyness koo-mts B, kAArm's S 

couch koutsh B, kAutsh S 

cough kof O, B, B, kAf S 

could kuud B, kud S 

coulter kaul-tar O, B, kAul'tar S 

country karrtn B, kan-tri S 

couple kap-1 B, S 

courier karz'er B, kuuTjeer S 

course koors B, F, S 

court kuurt 0, koort B, S 

courtezan kartizaeir 0, kort/zgen* B, 

kartizseir S 

cousin kaz-n 0, kaz'm B, kaz-n S 
creature krirtar 0, kriit'jar B, krii'tshar 


Crete Kriit 
crew kriu B, kruu S 
crony kron-e B, kroo-ni S 
croup krap B, kruup S 
croupade krapeed- B, kruupeed* S 
crude kriud B, kruud S 
cruise kriuz B, kruuz S 
cuckold kak-ald B, S 
cuckow kak-uu B, kukuir S 
cucumber kau'komber 0, kau-kambtr B, 

kAu-kamar S 

cuirass kiuraes' B, kiuT83s S 
cuirassier kiuraes'iir B, S 
culture kal'tiur B, kal'tshar S 
cupboard kap-boord B, kab'ard S 
czar zser B, zaeaer S 


damn daem B, S 

damosel dsenrsel D, daam'stl B, daem'zil 


dance dsens B, S 

danger daeirdzhs'r B, daeaen-dzbar S 
daughter dAA'tar D, dAA'tzr B, dAA'tar S 
^a/diifO, defB, dEfS 
deanery diin-re B, diin-Eri S 
debauch dibAAtsh- B, S 
debauchee deboshii' D, deboshii' B, 

debooshii' S 

debenture dibeirtar B, diibEU'tshar S 
debt det D, B, dst S 
decade dik-eed B, dek-aed S 
deceit disiit- 0, B, S 
decision disiz-jan B, diisezli'an S 
decisive disiz'/v B, diisAi-stv S 
deign deen D, B, S 
deluge del-adsh B, del'iudzh S 
dernier derniir- B, dErnjeer S 
desert DESART dez'zrt B, dez-Ert S 
deserve dizaerv dizerv B, dizErv S 
despotic da'spot't'k B, despAt'tk S 
destroyed distroid' B, di'strAaid' F, 

dtstrAAid- S 
devil devl D, B, S 
devious devzas B, dii-yjas S 
diamond dai'mond B, dAi-mand S 


different difrint B, dtf-eerant S 
diocesan daiosis-aen B, dAiAS-eessen S 
diphthong dt'f-thoq B, d*p-tb.Aq S 
dirge dardzhii 0, dtrdsh B, dErdzh S 
discern dz'ssern- dz'sern- B, cU'zEnr S 
discipline dts'tplain B, dzs-iplm S 
discomfit dtskonvfit B, dz'skanvfzt S 
discourse d?'skuurs- (), dz'skoors B. S 
dishabille disaebiil- B, da'sHAAbiil- S 
dishevelled d'sh<evh'd B, d^'sshEVl S 
diverse darvera B, dArvErs S 
divorce daivuurs- 0, dmrs- B, dwors S 
dole dul B, dool S 
doleful dul-fal B, dool-ful S 
dolt dolt B. dooli S 
door door 0, B, S 
drama drfrarse B, draese-mae S 
draught drAAt 0, draut B, drAut S 
droll drol B, drool S 
drollery drolTi B, drool- Eri S 
drought drout B, drAut S 
droughty draut- ' B, drAu-ti S 
drunken drak-n B, draqk-n S 
drunkenness drak-m's B, draqk-nn/s S 
dwarf dvfAAxf, B, S 

-ea- (e, ii) as in xixth century, except 

in the words cited 
ebon Eb-an S 
ebony irbom B 
Eden li-den 
Edinburgh Ed-mbaro D 
effigies eHdzluz B, Efii-dzhees S 
effort ef-art 0, ef-ort B, Efoort S 
effrontery efron-tn' B, Efroon-teeri S 
egotism ig'otj'zm B, ii'goottzm S 
ei = e in veil, either, key, convey (ii) ? D 
eighth eeth B, eettb S 
either ii-dhar 0, ai dher B, F, ii'dhar S 
eleven ilevn 
encore seqkoor B, Aqkoor* S 
endeavour t'ndirvar 0, endevar B, 

tndEvar S 

engross mgruus' 0, engros- B, mgroos 1 S 
enough enaf 0, D, B, eenaf S 
enow eniu B, eenAir S 
enpassant seq-paesseq- B 
enrol enroul 1 B, mrool' S 
environ invai'arn 0, mvArran S 
ere iir 0, S 

eremite ermait B, EreemAit S 
eschalot shaelot- B, shaelAt' S 
eschar skser- B, Eskser S 
eschew eshiu- B, Estshuir S 
espalier espsel-iir B, Espsel'JEr S 
even iivn 0, B, S 

executor eksek-at/r B, Egzek'iutar S 
executer eks-ikiuti'r B 
exert egzert- B, S 

exhaust eksAAst B, EksHAAst- S 

exhort egzArt- B, EgzHAArt' S 

exit egz-tt B, Eks-it S 

extreme ekstriinr 0, ekstrim' B, 

ekstriim- S 
eyre air B, eer S 

fabric fee-brtk B, fseb-rk S 
falchion fsel-slun B, fA-vl'tshan S 
falcon fAAl-km B, fAAk'n S 
farther fserdt'r B, fseser-dhEr S 
farthing fseserdm B, fseaer'dhi'q S 
fasten fsest-n B, fses-n S 
fatal feet-1 B, fee'tsel S 
father fEeardtur B, faese'dliEr S 
fathom feed-am B, faedh-am S 
fatigue feetig- B, fsetiig- S 

fault fAAlt B, fAAt S 

feodary fii-dari 0, fii'deen' B,fiird8eri S 

feofee fef-ii 0, f iif ii- B, fEfii S 

fetid fit-zd B, fet-td S 

few fiu B, F, S 

fewel fiu-tl B, S 

fierce fers B, fers S 

fire faiar 0, fair B, fAir S 

first farst B, S 

fiagon flaeg-m D, B, flseg-an S 

fiea flii (), B, S 

flood flad 0, B 

fiue fliu B, fluu S 

fiook fliuk B, fluuk S 

fiaunt flAAnt B, flsent S 

fold fould B, foold S 

foliage fol-j/dsh B, foo-ljsedzh S 

/o/o ibl-jc B, foo-ljoo S 

folk fok B, fook S 

foot fat D, B, fut S 

force fuurs 0, fors B, foors S 

ford ferd 0, ford B, foord S 

forge fuurdzh 0, fordsh B, foordzb. S 

fork fArk B, fAArk S 

form fuurm 0, f Arm B, fAArm S 

forth fuurth 0, foorth B, S 

fought foot 0, fAt B, fAAt S 

foul foul B, fAul F, S 

four foor B, S 

fourth fuurtb 0, foorth B, S 

fragile free-dzhil B, fraedzh-?! S 

fragrant fraese-grint B, free-graent S 

frequent adj frik-wmt B, frii'kwEnt S 

friend Mind 0, frend D, B, S 

front front B, frAnt S 

frost frAst B, S 

full ful B, S 

fulsome fal-sam B, S 

furniture, farm'tar 0, B, farmtshar $ 

further far-dzr B, far-dhor S 

fusil fiu-zt'l B, fiuzii* S 

future fiu- tar B, furtshar S 



gallant adj. gaeHnt B, gael-gent S 

gallant n. gaelaent 1 B, S 

gallows gael-as B, S 

gaol (GOAL in 0) dzheel 0, B, S 

gap gaep B, S 

gape gaeaep B, S 

garden gserdn D, gaeaerdm B, S 

gauge geedzh D, gAAdsh B, geedzh S 

gentian dzhen'shm B, dzen-tshaen S 

George dzhArdsh B, dzhAArdzh S 

Ghent Gaent D 

ghost guust 0, goost B, S 

gibbous dzluVes B. ge'b'as S 

gill dzhil B, S 

gills grtz B, S 

girl gerl B, gErl S 

glebe gliib 0, B, S 

glede gliid 0, S 

glue gliu B, S 

gnat naet D, B, S 

gnaw HAA D, B, S 

gold guuld B, S 

gone gon D, B, gAn S 

gossip gos-ap 0, gos-ip B, gAS'e'p S 

gouge gaudzh 0, guudzh S 

Gough Gof D 

gourd guurd 0, gourd B, guurd S 

govern govern B, gavarn S 

government govzrim'nt B, gararnmEnt S 

grand graeaend B, grsend S 

grandeur graesend-jar B, green'dzhar S 

grange greendzh D, S 

grant graeaent B, S 

grass grass B, S 

great griit 0, greet B, S 

groat graeaet B, grAAt S 

grocer gros-tr B, groo-sar S 

group gruup B, S 

groveling gravh'q 0, grovltq B, grAV- 

h'q S 

guerdon gwerden 0, gwErdan S 
guttural gat-iurzl B, gat'iurael S 
gymnastic gzinnaes -tik B, dzhmmaes'tikS 


h mute in honour, honourable, herb, 

heir, honest, humble, D 
habitual Heebtt'iu/1 B, Haebit iuael S 
haft Haeaeft B, Hseft S 

half HAAf 0, H3383f B, S 

halfpenny nee-pm? B, nee-pEni S 
hallelujah Haeliliu'dzhae B, Hteleeluu'J83 

handkerchief Haend'kzrtshzr B, Hseq 1 - 

kEi-tshif S 
handsel Haeirszl B, C 
harlequin Haerh'km B, HaeaeriEkiin S 
haste neest D, B, S 
hasten nees'tu D, B, S 

haunch (HANCH in 0), HAAnsh 0, B, 

Hamtsb S 

haunt HAAnt B, naent HAAnt S 
hautboy Hoo'boi B, Hoo'bAAi S 
hearken naerk-n 0, Haeserkn B, S 
heart naert 0, naeaert B, S 
heaven nevn 0, D 
height neet 0, B, HAit S 
heinous uee'nas B, mi-nas S 
heir eer 0, B, S 
hemorrhoids enroroidz B, HEnroorAAidz 


her nar B, S 
herb erb D, B, HErb S . 
herbage erbttbh B, HEr-bz'dzh S. 
herbal erbz'l B, HEr-basl S 
here mir 0, B, S 
heritable er*tttbl B, HErz'taebl S 
hero nir-o B, nii-roo S 
heroine nir'om B, HEroom S 
heroism Hir'oz'zm B, HEroWzm S 
heron nir on B, HErn S 
heterogeneal Het-arogeniael 0, Het'ro- 

dzhin-jzl B, HEt'Erodzhii-njael S 
high nai D, B, HA! S 
hoard (HORU in 0), Hard 0, noord B, S 
Holborn Hoo barn 0, D 
hold Hould B, Hoold S 
honest on-?'st B, An-j'st S 
honey Hon't B, nani S 
honour on-e'r B, An'ar S 
host Host B, Hoost B 
hostler ost'h'r B, AS'lar S 
hough Hof D, HAk S 
housewife naz-ef B, naz-wef S 
hovel na-vel 0, HOV! B, HAVI! S 
hover navar 0, Hovz'r B, HAvar S 
huge niudsh B, niudzb. S 
humble anvb'l D, nam-bl B, am bl S 
humor iu-mar B, S 
huzza Hazaese- B, S 
hyena Harenae B, HAi;ii-naB S 

idiot id'jot B, t'd'jat S 

impugn ampaq- B, t'mpiun- S 

incisive insiz-iv B, i'nsAi'Stv S 

indict t'ndaif B, mdAit- S 

indictment indait-ment D 

injure m-dzhar B, S 

inspires /nspai-arz 0, tnspairz' B, tn- 

spAirz 1 S 

instead z'nstiid- B, mstEd- S 
invalid adj. uivael'i'd B, S 
invalid n. mvaeliid- B, S 
inveigh tnvee- 0, rnvii- B, mvee % S 
inveigle mvii'gl B, mvee-gl S 
iron ai-arn 0, D, airn B, ai'arn S 
is iz B, S 
Isaac gi-za3k D 


isle ail B, Ail S 
issue is-iu B, z's-shu S 
isthmus ast-mas B, s's-mas S 

James Dzhiimz 

jaunt dzhsesent B, dzhaent S 

japan dzheepsen- B, dzhaapseir S 

jeopardy dzhep-ard* 0, dzhep-rdz B, 

dzhEp-ardi S 
jewel dzhmril B, S 

John Dzhon J 

join dzhain 0, dzhoin B, dzliAin S 
joint dzhaint 0, dzhoint B, dzhAint S 
jointure dzhoiirtar B, dzhAAiirtshar S 
jole, joll dzhoul B, dzhool S 
jolt dzhoult B, dzhoolt S 
jostle dzhAS'l B, S 
juice dzhuus B, S 
juncture dzhaqkiar B, dzhaqk'tshar S 

June Dzhuun B, S 
justle dzhasl B, dzhAsi S 

kali kee-lai B, kee-li S 
key kii 0, B, S 
Mln ktl 0, D, B, S 
knave neev B, F, S 
knoll nool naul 0, DA! S 

lanch lAAnsti 0, Isesensh B, leentsh S 
language Iseq-widsh B, Iseq'wedzh F, 

laeq'gwz'dzh S 
lath Isetli B, laeseth S 
laudanum lAA-d-mam B, lAd'senam S 
laugh Iffif 0, D, Isesef B, laef S 
laundry LANDRY laesen-dr* B, Isen-dn S 
laurel lAA*rtl B, lAr-l S 
learning leeperm'q B, lanre'q F, lEnre'q S 
levee levii B, IEVI S 
lecture lek tar 0, lekt'jar B, Ink'tshar S 
leeward lirwArd B, liirard S 
leisure lee-zhar 0, leez-jar B, lezh'ur F, 

lii-zhar S 

leopard lep-ard 0, lep-rd B, lEp-ard S 
lessee ^(LE ,\SSEE in 0) liisii- 0, lesii- B, S 
lessor (LEASSOR in 0) liisor- 0, IES-AI S 
listen IM-II B, S 
lieutenant liiuten'sent 0, liuten-mt B, 

liftEirsent S 
loath lAth B, looth S 
loathe loodh B, S 
loin lain (), loin B, lAAin S 
London Lon-an B 
lost lost B, Ust S 
lough lof 0, Uk S 
lustring liu-strz'q B, liut'str/q S 

machine mseshiin- D, B, S 

magazine msegseziiir 0, B, S 

malign maelain B, maelAiir S 

malkin mAAl'km B, niAA'km S 

mall mAAL B, msel S 

malmsey msese'mst B, msesenrzi S 

maniac meenai-sek B, mee-njsek S 

mare meear 0, meer B, S 

marine mseriin- B, S 

mareschal mser-shsel D, mser'sht'l B, 

mseser'shael S 
manger mAAirdzliar 0, meen'dzh/r B, 

meen-dzhar S 

mantua msen-to B, msen-tse S 
many maen^' B, mErri S 
marchioness maeser'tslij one's B, mseaBr- 

tshanz's S 

marriage m93r'dzli D, B, S 
mash (MEASH in 0) miish 0, msesli B, S 
mass meets B, S 
meacock mii kok 0, mii'kAk S 
medicine med'sm 0, B, S 
mediocrity midje'ok'riti B, meedzhAk*- 

riti S 
memoir raimoir* B, mee'mAAir mii'- 

mwAAr S 

mere miir 0, B, meer S 
miniature im'n-e'eetiur B, mm'itshar S 
minister miir/stor B, mm-z'star S 
minute adj. mainiut* B, mmiut* S 
minute n. miirat B, tm'irft S 
misery miz-ici B, im'z-ari S 
misprision m'spre'z-an B, nu'spmlran S 
mistress me's'tr/s B, S 
moil mail 0, moil B, mAAil S 
moiety moo-iti B, niAAi-eeti S 
Monday Man-de B, Man'dee S 
Monmouth Man-math D 
monsieur mon-siur B 
moor moor 0, B, S 
more mooar 0, moor, S 
most muust 0, most B, moost B 
mould mould B, moold S 
moult moult B, moolt B 
move mav muuv 0, muuv D, B, S 
mow n. mou B, mAu S 
mushroom maslrrmm B, mash-mum S 


natural nsetiun'l B, nset-ursel F, nsetslr- 


nature nee-tar 0, neet-jar B, nee'tshar S 
navy neve B, neevi S 
neigh nii B, nee S 
neighbour nee-bar 0, B, S 
neither neecllrer 0, nardhz'r B, nii-dher S 
new niu B, nuu F, niu S 
nuncio nen-sho B, nan-shoo S [S 

, nap'shs'l B, nap'shee 


oblige oblirdzh' D, oblaidsh' obliidslr B 

ooblAidzh- oobliidzh 1 S 
oblique obliik* B, ooblAik S 
obscene obsiiir 0, B, Absiin* S 
occasion okeez-jan B, Akee'zhan S 
o/ov D, B, AV S 

oil ail 0, oil B, AAil S 

ointment aint-ment 0, oint'im'nt B, 

AAint'niEnt S 
once waens B, WATIS S 
one on won D, ween B, wan F, wAn S 
one-eyed waen-ai-'d B, WAn'Aid S 
oneness waen-m's B, wAn/m's S 
onion an-jan B, S 
only on-h' B, oon'li S 
ordeal Ardv?l B, AArdjael S 
ousel au-zel 0, ou'sz'l B, uirzl S 
oyer o'Jn- B, AArar S 
oyes oo'jj's B, oosis' S 

palm pAAm 0, paeaelm B, paeaem S 

palsy pAAl'za B, pAAl-zi S 

parliament paeaerlzment D, paeserh'mmt 

B, paeaerliniEnt S 
passed paest B, F, S 
patent pee'tmt B, paet'Ent S 
patentee paetentir B, paetEntir S 
path paeaeth B, S 
perfect parfVt D, perfet B, parfekt F, 

pErfYkt S 

peremptory perenrton' B, pEr'Eratari S 
perfection parfek'shan D, B, pErfEk'- 

shan S 

perfectly per-fttlt B, pErfEktli S 
perform parfArm- B, F, pErfAArnv S 
periwig -periwig B, pEriwe'g S 
perjure perdzhar B, S 
perverse pervaors- pervers' B, pErvErs' S 
pervert pervaert pervert B, pEiTErt 1 S 
pestle pest-1 B, pEsH S 
petal pit-ael B, pst-ael S 
petard pit'aerd B, pee-taeaerd S 
phalanx fael-aeqks B, feeiaeqks S 
Pharaoh Feer-o D 
philosophy failos'ofe B, flAS'Afi S 
phlegm fliim D, flem B, S 
phlogiston floodzh/s-ton B, ftoogis'toon S 
phthisis iiz-iz B, fthArsz's S 
piazza paiaez-ae B, pijaez'ae S 
picture pk-tar 0, pz'kt jar B, pik'tshar S 
pier piir B, S 

pierce piirs 0, pers piirs B, pErs S 
pin pin B, pm S 

placard pleekaeaerd- B, plaekseaerd- S 
plait plcet B, S 
plea plii 0, B, S 
plouyh plou B, pUu S 

point paint 0, point B, pAAint S 
poison pai-zn 0, poiz'an B, pAAi'zn S 
police pol'iis B, pooliis 1 S 
poll pool paul 0, pool B, S 
pomegranate pamgraen'et 0, poomgraen'- 

eet B, pAmgraeu'Et S 
pommel panrel D, pam-tl B, S 
pomp pAmp B, S 
poniard poin-jtrd B, pAn'JErd S 
poor poor 0, puur B, S 
porch poortsh B, S 

porpoise porpoiz por-pas B, pAAr-pas S 
port puurt 0, port B, poorfc S 
post puust 0, post B, po'ost B 
posture post'iur B, p \As-tshar S 
pother padh-zr B, padh-ar B 
poultice pauHe's 0, poul-hs B, pooMts S 
poultry paul-tr* 0, poul-tr* B, pool'tri S 
pour paur 

precise prisaiz- B, priisAis- S 
premier prem iir B, prEnvjiir S 
prescience pris-aims B, prirsliEns S 
pretty pret* B, pn'ti S 
process pros-es B, prAS't's S 
profile proofail- B, proof iil- S 
prologue prol'og 0, B, prAl-ag S 
prove prav pruuv 0, pruuv D, B, S 
prowl proul B, prAul S 
prude priud B, pruud S 
psalm SAAm 0, saeaem B, S 
ptisan tai-saen B, tszaen- S 
pudding pud-m B, pud'z'q S 
puisne piu-izn B, piirni S 
pumice piu'mz's B, S 
pure piuar 0, piur B, S 
pursue parsiu- B, S 

pursuivant pars went B, par'swivEnt S 
push push B, S 
put pat B, put S 




quadrant kwee-draent B, kwee-drEnt S 

quadrille kwee-dn'l B, kaedrtl- S 

quadruped kwaed-riuped B, S 

quaff kwaef B, S 

quality kwael-i't* B, kwael-zti, kwAl'iti 

persons of high rank, S 
qualm kwAAm 0, kwAAlm B, kwaeaem S 
quandary kwaen'deer/ B, kwAndee-ri S 
quantity kwaon'trte B, kwaen'ttti S 
quantum kwam-tam B, S 
quarrell kwoer-il B, kwArvl S 
quarry kwaBr-e B, kwAri S 
quart kwAAii B, S 
quarter kwAArtz'r B, k\VAArtor S 
quash kwAA-sh B, kwAsh S 
quarto k \vaer to B, kwaeoar'too S 
quatrain kwAA'treen B, kwAAvtrm S 
quay kii 0, kwee B, kee S 


quean kwin B, kween S 

queen kwiiu B, S 

question kwest-jan B, kwes-tshan F, 

kwEs-tshan S 
quire kair B, kwAir S 
quoif koif B, kwAAlf S 
quoit koit B, kwAAit S 
quoth kwoth B, kooth S 


ragout reeguu 1 B, rseguir S 

raillery reeim B, rsel-Eri S 

raisin reez-n 0, ree-sm B, ree'zn S 

rant reesent B, rsent S 

rapier ree-piir B, ree-pjiir S 

rapine reeae-pm B, rsep-m S 

rapture raep'tiur B, reep-tshar S 

ratio rsesh-o B, ree-shoo S 

reason ree'zan B, rirzn S 

receipt reseet- resiit- 0, risiit' B, riisiit' 


recipe res'ipi B, rEsipee S 
reign reen 0, B, S 
rein reen 0, B, S 
renard renseaovd' B, rEn-Etd S 
rendevous ren-divuuz B, rAn-deevuu S 
rere riiar 0, reer B 

reserved risserv^'d riserrtd B, rizErvd' S 
resin rez-m B, S 
resource risours 1 B, riisuurs* S 
revert rivsert 1 rivert' B, rivErt 1 S 
ribband rtVm D, rtb'sen B, rib-in S 
rigging rtg-tn B, rtg-tq S 
roquelaure rok'eloo B, rAk'loo S 
roll rool raul 0, raul B, rool S 
romance roonisens- B, S 
Rome Ruum Earn 0, Euum B 
r onion roirjan B, rAn-jan S 
rost ruust 

rouge raudzh 0, raudsli B, ruuzh S 
rough raf 0, D, B, S 
rule riul B, ruul S 
ruse riuz B 
rustle ras-1 B, S 
ruth rath B, ruutli S 


saffron ssef-arn 0, D, B, ssef-ran S 
salmon SAA-man 0, ssem-an D, B, S 
salt sAAlt B, S 

salve SAAV 0, ssesev B, saelv S 
sausage ssese-szdsh B, sees idzh S 
*Cfl^skAAld D, B, S 
scarce skers 0, skeers B, skErs S 
scath skeeth, B, skeeth S 
scene siin 0, B, S 
sceptic skep-tik D, B, skEp-tik S 
schedule sed'iul B, sEdzh'uul S 
scheme skiim 0, B, S 
schism stzm D, B, S 

sco/'skof B, skAf S 
scold skould B, skoold S 
scotch skootsh skotsli B, skAtsh S 
scrivener skn'ynar 
scroll skrool skraul 0, skroul B, skrool S 
scourge skardzh (), skoordsh B, skardzh S 
scrutaire skriutoor B, skruutoor S 
sea sii 0, B, S 

seamstress siim'stris B, sems'tn's S 
scarce sers B 
seize siiz 0, B, S 
sensuous seirsiuas B, SEirsliuas S 
serene siriiir B, F 

sergeant sser-dzhmt B, sseeerdzhgent S 
servant sser'vmt servmt B, SEr'VEnt S 
severe siviir 0, B, S 
sew siu did sow 0, soo does sew B, S 
sewer shoor B, siirar waiter, shoor 
watercourse, soo'ar one who sews S 

shalt shAAlt B, sheelt S 

shawm (SHALM in 0), shAAM 0, B, S 

shepherd shep^'rd B, shEp-ard S 

sherd sneerd B, shErd S 

shew shiu did show 0, shoo does show B r S 

shire shiir 0, B, shAir S 

shirt shart B, S 

shoe shuu B, S 

shorn shuurn 0, shArn B, shAArn S 

short sliArt B, shAArt S 

should shuud B, shud S 

shoulder shaul'dar 0, shauld^'r B, 
sliool'dar S 

shrew shriu 0, shriu B, shruu S 

sigh saith, better sai B, SA!H S 

sick sik B, stk S 

sign sain D, B, SAIU B 

signior sii'nior 1) 

signiory sen'jore B, swrjoori S 

sin sin B, sm S 

since sms B, S 

sirocco sairok-o B, sirAk'oo S 

sirrah seer-se 0, sarse B, seer'se S 

sirup sz'rap B, sar - ap S 

sixth sikst B, stksth S 

skeleton (SCELETON in D), skel'etan D, 
skeHtan B, skEl-itan S 

slander slaeeen-dti B, slsen-dar S 

slant slseaent B, slsent S 

sleight slait B, sUit S 

slough slaf- B, S!AU S 

sloven slavm B, slavn S 

smouldering smoul'dm'qB, 

sojourn soo-dzliarn B, S 

sold sould B, soold S 

solder sAd-*V B, sAd-ar S 

soldier sould-jzr B, sool'dzhar S 

sonata sonee-tae B, soonee-tse S 

soot sat D, B, S 

sootiness sat'mz's B, satinzs S 
sooty sat-*' B, suu'ti S 

soul sool B, S 



southerly sadh'Me B, sadh'arli S 
sovereign sovareen D, savrm B, 

savErEii S 
sphere sfiir 0, B, S 
spinet spinet* B, S 
sport spuurt 0, spoort B, S 
squab skwaeb B, skwAb S 
squabble skwseb'l B, skwAb'l S 
squadron swsege'dran B, skwAA'dran S 
squalid skwseKd B, skwAHd S 
squalor skwee'lar B 
squander skwAAivdr B, skwAirdar & 
squash skwAAsh B, skwAsh S 
squirrel skwertl B, skwErtl S 
sta/staef B, S 
stalk stAAk B, S 

stanch stAAnsh 0, staesensb B, staentsb. S 
stiletto stai-leto B, stilEt'oo S 
stomach stonreek B, stanrak S 
stomacher stanrsetshar D, stonraetshir 

B, stanr/dzbar S 
stood stuud B, stud F, S 
stover stavar 
strange streendzh D, streendsh B> 

streendzh S 
stranger strAAirdzbar 0, streeirdzlur 

B, streendzb'ar S 
stroll stroul B, strool S 
subtile sat-1 D, B, sab'tel S 
subtle sat-1 S 
sudden sad-n B, sad'm S 
sudorific siudoorife'k B, shuudoon'Hk S 
sudorous siu'doras B, shuirdooras S 
sue sbuu B, suu S 
suet shuirt B, S 
suety shiiirttt B, sbuir/ti S 
sugar shuu'gtr B, shug'ar S 
suicide shuu-i'said B, sbuu isAid S 
suit shuut B, suut S 
suitable sbuut'ibl B, suut'Ebl S 
suite swiit S 

suitor sbuut'ar B, smrtar S 
suitress sbuirtrts B, suu'trz's S 
Sunday San'dt B 
super- siu'ptr- B, shuu-pEr- S 
superable nirptnbl B, sbuu'pErEbl S 
superb siuperb' B, shuupEi'b' S 
superior siupir'tar B, shuupii-rjar S 
supernal siuper ml B, sbuupErnEl S 
supine siupaiir B, sliuu'pAm n. 

shuupAin- adj. S 

supinity siupai'nttt B, shuuptirtti S 
support, sapuurt- 0, sapoort' B, S 
supra- surpn- B, sbuu-pree- S 
supremacy siuprirmzsz' B, sbuuprEm-sesi 


supreme siupriinr 0, B, shuupriira* S 
sural siu-n'l B, sbuu'reel S 
surance siu'r/ns B, shuuTEns S 
sure sbuur B, S 

surtout sartout* B, sartuut- S 

suture shuu'tar B, sbuu'tshar S 

swab swseb B, swAb S 

swaddle swaed'l B, swAd'l S 

swag swaeg B, S 

swallow swAA-loo B, SWA! -00 S 

swam swsem B, S 

swamp swAAmp B, swAmp S 

swan swAAn B, swAn S 

swap swAAp B, swAp S 

sward swAArd B, S 

swarm swAArm B, S 

swarth swAArth B, S 

swash swAAsh B, swAsh S 

swath swseth B 

swear sweer 0, B, S 

swoon suun D, B, S 

swarm swAArm B, S 

tabard tee'baerd B 

talk tAAk B, S 

task taesk B, S 

tea tii 0, B, S 

tear v. teer 0, S 

tenet tin-et B, tirnEt S 

tenable tirr/bl B, tii-nbl S 

tew tin B 

their dbeer 0, B, S 

there dheer 0, B, S 

these dhiiz 0, B, S 

thought thoot 0, thAt B, thAAt S 

thousand thau'zand 0, tbAU'zsend F 

threepence thrzp-ms B, thrz'p-Ens S 

threepenny tlmp'MU B, thn'p'Eni S 

-tial = -shsel 

-tiate = -sheet 

-tion = -sban 

tissue tz's'iu B, tisb - u S 

toil O 

toilet toi-Kt B, tAAi-ltt S 

told tould B, toold S 

toll tool taul 0, toul B, tool S 

tomb tuura B, S 

tonsure ton-siur B, tAtrshar S 

torn tuurn 0, tArn B, toorn S 

touch tautsh 0, tatsh B, S 

tough taf 0, D, B, S 

tour taur B, tuur S 

toupet tuupii- B, S 

tournament taJ-iremmt B, tuurnsemEnt 

tournay tar 'nee B, tuurnee S 

touse touz B, tAUz S 

transient trsenz'jmt B, traen'shEnt S 

trencher tren-sbz'r B, trEn-tshar S 

troll troul B, trool S 

trough traf 0, D, B, trAf S 

true triu B, trim F, S 

truth truutb B, S 

tuesday tiuz-d* B, tshuuz-dee S 


tulip tiu-lfp B, tsbuu-lep S 
tumid tiirimd B, tertrairmid S 
tumour tiu-mar B, tsbmrmar S 
tumult tin-malt B, tshuirmalt S 
tune tiun B, tshuun S 
tutor tiirtar B, tsbmrtar S 
tyrant tai-rmt B, tArraent S 
twelvemonth twel-mantb B, twEl'mantb 


twelvepence twel'pms B, twsl'pEns S 
twelvepenny twel'pem B, tWEl-pEni S 
twopence tap'pms B, tap-ans S 
typify tai'ptfai B, tip-ifi S 
tyrannize tarrsenaiz B, tErsenAiz S 
tyrannous tai/rsenas B, tErsenas S 
tyranny tj'raem B, tErseni S 


union iun jan B, S 

unlearned anlgesenrtd B, anlsernd' F, 

anlerm'd S 
untrue antruir B, S 
uphold apnauld* B, apnoold S 
usquebaugh askibAA' B, askweebeeae- S 
usual iuz-jl B, iu'zbuEl S 
usurer iu-zarir B, iirzharar S 
usurious iuziirrz'es B, iuzbuuTjas S 
usury iuz-an B, hrzbarii S 

vacuous vee-kiuas B, veckiuas S 

valet vseWt B, vsel'Et VA!'E S 

Vaughan VAAU D 

vein veen 0, B, S 

venison veirzan 0, D, VEiresan S 

verdict verdz'kt D, verdz't B, vErdzkt S 

verjuice vserdzhuus B, verdzbuus S 

vermicelli vermz'seH B, YEnm'tshEHi S 

vicious vii-shas B, S 

victualler vz't'lar D, vttii'r B, vrtiar S 

victuals v*t-lz D, B, S 

village ve'Kdsh B, vil-edzh F, vil'i&zh S 

villain \'il m B, vt'l-en F, vj'l'En S 

virile vai'rail B, vAi'rAil S 

virility vairil't'U' B 

virtue va'rtiu B, vEftshuu S 

viscount vai-kaunt B, vAi'kAunt S 

voyage voo'edsb. B, vAAi^dzb S 

wabble wtBb'l B, WAb-1 S 

wad W83d Ii, wAd S 

waft wa)ft B, S 

waftage WAAftidsb B, waaf'tEdzb S 

wainscot weirskot 0, ween'skot B, 

WEn-skat S 
walk WAAk B, S 
wallop wscl ap B, \vAlap S 

wallow -wsal-oo B, WA!'OO S 

walnut wAAl'nat B, S 

wan wsen B, S 

wand waend B, wAnd S 

wander wAAn-dzr B, wAn-dar S 

want WAAnt B, WAnt S 

wanton wAAntan B, wAn-tan S 

war WAAr 0, B, S 

ward wAArd 0, B, S 

warm WAArra 0, B, S 

warn wAArn 0, B, S 

warrant WAA'n'nt B, wAt'Ent S 

warren wAren 0, WAAr-m B, wAr/n S 

was WAAZ B, WAZ S 

wash wAAsb B, wAsb S 

wasp wAAsp B, wsesp S 

Wast WAASt B, WASt S 

waste weest D, B, S 

watch WAtsb 0, WAAtsb B, WAtsb S 

water wAA'tar 0, D, wAA'tzr B, wAA'tar 


wattle vft-l E, wAt-1 S 
weapon wiip-n 0, B, wEp-n S 
wear weer 0, B, S 
Wednesday Wenz'dee D, Wenz-d* B, 

Wenz-dee S 
weight weet 0, B, S 
were weer 0, wer B, wEr S 
where wbeer 0, B, S 
whistle whis-1 B, S 
who HUU B, S 
whole whool B, F, nool S 
whom Himm B, S 
whore noor 0, B, nuur S 
whose HUUZ B, S 
why whai B, HWAI S 
windpipe wnrpaip B, WAind-pAip S 
windlass wm'h's B, wm'lES S 
windmill wm'im'l B, wAmd-mzl S 
withhold Witbnauld' B, wztbHoold S 
wold woold B, S 
wolfwwtM 0, B, wulf S 
woman wanrsen 0, wam-m B, wum-an S 
womb woom D, wuum B, S 
women wz'irrm B, S 
won won B, wAn S 
wont wont B, wunt S 
woo wuu B, S 

word wuurd ward 0, ward B, S 
work wuurk wark 0, wark B, S 
world wuurld warld 0, warld B, S 
worm wuurm warm 0, warm B, S 
worry wur'z 0, war'e B, S 
worship wur-sbtp 0, warsb'p B, S 
worst wuurst warst (), woorst B, warst S 
worsted wuur'sted war-sled 0, warsU'd 

B, wus-tzd S 
wort wart 0, B, S 
worth wuurtb wartb 0, B, S 
would wuud B, uuld F, wud S 
wound wound 0, B, wuund S 



wrath rAAth 0, rseoeth B, rAAth S 
wrestle resi B, rEsi S 
wrought root 0, rAt B, rAAt S 


yacht JAAt B, jAt S 

yea jii 0, jee B, S 

yearn jiirn 0, Jern B, JErn S 

yeast jest B 

yelk jelk B, jook S 

yeoman janraen 0, jenrsen B, JEnran S 

yes jres B, jus S 

yield jiild B, S 

yolk jolk B, jook S 

yule juul B 


zealot zii-lot 0, zel-ot B, ZEl-at S 
zenith zurtth B, zirntth S 


d. 1752 
d. 1730 


The following rhymes from poets of the xvm th century have 
been collected from Walker and Prof. Haldeman (supra p. 1035). 
The names and dates of the writers are : 

Falconer 17301769 Lyttelton 17091773 

Fenton 16831730 E. Moore 17121757 

Gay 16881732 Pope 16881744 

Gifford 17571826 Smollett 17211771 

Goldsmith 17281774 Somerville 16921742 

Gray 17161771 Tickell 16861740 

Hoole 17271803 Warton 17281790 

Johnson 17091781 Watts 16741748 

It must not be forgotten that these writers were greatly in- 
fluenced by the pronunciation of the xvnth century, in which 
some of them were born, and to which their parents all probably 
belonged, and hence they might be apt to consider those rhymes 
which would have been correct in their parents' mouths even more 
correct than others which they now permitted themselves. It was 
a century of transition for ea in especial, and probably also for , 
the first travelling from (ee) to (ii), and the second from (aeae) to 
(ee). " Glorious John" Dryden, who died at the beginning of the 
century, was looked upon as a model of versification until Pope 
gained the ascendant, but Pope was certainly materially influenced 
by Dryden' s usages. Bearing this in mind, we must expect the 
rhymes to present nearly the same character as those in the pre- 
ceding century, and our examination of Tennyson and Moore (pp. 
858-862) shews how potent the influence of the XVHI th century 
writers still remains. 

The arrangement is therefore the same as for Dryden, p. 1034, 
and the xvuth century, supra p. 1036. The numbers point out 
the same groups as in those cases. 

1. Car war, Pope, regards rewards, 

Gay. far war, Darwin, afar war, 
Falconer, star war, Beattie. care war, 
Pope, square war, Darwin, are war, 
Cowper. safe laugh, Pope, glass place, 
Pope, mast plac'd, Pope, take track, 
Pope, past waste, Pope would prob- 
ably never have been used, had they 
not been an heritage from the preceding 
century. But Pope may have had an 
antique pronunciation. 

2. As ai and a long had both become 
(ee), these rhymes need not be noticed. 

3. Wear star, Pope, plain man, 

Pope, remain'd land, Pope, air star, 
Pope, far air, Johnson, appear regu- 
lar, Pope. err singular, Pope must 
also seek their justification in the usages 
of the xvn th century. The pronun- 
ciation of the preceding or succeeding 
century only renders the rhymes worse. 
4. Waves receives, Pope; take speak, 
Pope; shade mead, Pope ; race peace, 
E. Moore; were now perfect rhymes, 
and past feast, E. Moore, was apparent- 
ly justified on the authority of the pre- 
ceding, although it bad long ceased to 
have its old meaning (uese, ee), and had 



become (ee, ee) or (*, ii). Obey tea, 
Pope ; away tea, Pope; convey sea, 
Warton; fail'd reveal'd, Gay, display 
sea, Gay ; airs, ears, Gray ; sphere 
bear, Pope; sphere there, Pope; ear 
repair there, Pope; were all perfect, 
although the (ii) sound had begun 
to be acknowledged for (ea, e). But: 
there transfer, Fen ton ; here refer, 
Pope ; were fear, Eusden ; steer cha- 
racter, Pope; field held, Pope; were 
remnants of the xvn th century usage. 
Heath death, Pope; death heath, 
Beattie ; drest feast, Pope; breakneck, 
Pope; yet complete, Cotton; decay' d 
fled, Lijttelton; were all rhymes of a 
long and short vowel (ee, e) ; and : feel 
mill, Pope ; ship deep, Falconer ; 
rhymes of long and short (ii, i}, doing 
duty for (ii, i). Perhaps : receives 
gives, Pope; steals hills, Warton; were 
(ee, i) standing for (ee, e), and: stretch 
beech, Gray, was a confusion of the 
two last cases. 

5. No instances of (e, i} have been 
collected; but they were no doubt 
sufficiently common. 

6. "With: high pillory, Somerville; 
fry jealousy, Pope; buy dispensary, 
Pope; sky company, Pope; we may 
class : eyes rise precipice, Pope ; rise 
precipice, Pope; wise inconsistencies, 
Pope; delight wit, Pope; revive live, 
Pope. But : winds finds, Croxall, is 
justified by the still persistent "poetic " 
pronunciation of wind as (waind) . We 
of course find also : free liberty, Pope, 
and many such instances. 

7. Joined mankind, Pope, refin'd 
join'd, TickelL join divine, Pope, join 
line, Pope, Churchill, Falconer, shine 
join, Beattie. thine join, Lyttelton. 
join thine, Gifford. soil smile. Falconer. 
guile toil, Smollett, smile toil, Johnson. 
smiles toils, Hook. These were in ac- 
cordance with received pronunciation, 
but : vice destroys, Pope, seems to be a 
liberty. Weight height, Pope, Falconer, 
was regular as (weet, neet). 

8. Such rhymes as : none own, Pope, 
which was perfect, or else (oo, ecu), 
seem to have led poets to use : known 
town, Gay ; brow grow, Pope; brow 
woe, Croxall; vows woes, Pope ; power 
store, Beattie; own town, Pope; adores 
pow'rs, Pope, although they were (oo, 
ou) at best. We have also (oo, o) 
treated as if it were a rhyme of a long 
and short vowel, in : sun upon none, 
Pope; lost boast, Pope; show'd trod, 
Pope; gross moss, Pope; coast tossed, 

Falconer; thought wrote, Broome. 
Also the old rhymes of (oo, uu) de- 
pending upon the still older (oo, oo) in : 
took spoke, Pope; boor door, Gold- 
smith ; and even : assure door, Watts. 
The usual confusions, likewise an old 
tradition, occur in : blood wood, Pope ; 
blood good, Pope; stood blood, Falconer, 
Pope; mood flood, Warton; wood blood, 
Gay; wood blood, Darwin; brood flood, 
Cotton. And to the same tradition is 
perhaps due the rhymes of come with (oo) 
or (uu) : home come, Pope; doom come, 
Pope; dome come, Pope; come room, 
Pope; come tomb, Warton; bloom 
come, Gifford. The following rhymes 
were perfect : doom Rome, Pope; tomb 
Rome, Darwin ; gone stone, Croxall ; 
house j/ous, Pope. Perhaps : house sous, 
Churchill where sous is the French 
(su) was only meant to be absurd; 
still it may have been in use as a slang 
term at the time. 

9. No instances of (eu, iu) or (iu, 
uu) have been noted, but the latter were 
not all uncommon. 

10. Groves loves, Pope, grove love, 
Johnson, rove love, Smollett, grove 
above, Gay. throne begun, Pope. 
moves doves, Pope, prove love, Pope. 
fool dull, Pope. These seem to have 
held their ground from pure convenience, 
as did also : flung along, Pope ; long 
tongue, Pope; songs tongues, Watts. 
Full rule, Pope, is only a short and a 
long vowel rhyme (u, uu). 

11. The influence of (r) is apparent 
in : horse course, Pope ; sort court, 
Pope ; board lord, Pope; resort court, 
Pope ; borne return, Pope ; worn turn, 
Pope. But in : observe starve, Pope ; 
desert heart, Pope; ermine charming, 
Gay ; we have also a xvu th century 

12. Nature creature, Gay ; nature 
satire, Gay, Gray; fault thought, Pope; 
were perfect rhymes (nee-ter kree'ter 
see'ter, fAAt thAAt) ; and perhaps in : 
call equivocal, Pope, the last word was 
pronounced with ( AA) for the occasion, at 
any rate such rhymes were an ancient 
tradition, as they were common in 
Spenser. Even : still suitable, Pope, 
is half justifiable, as the -ble here is 
only a -bil obscured. But could : ca- 
price nice, Pope, have ever rhymed as 
(kseprais-, nais) or as (ksepriis', niis) ? 
Of course : eve grave, Warton, was a 
mere license, and: arms warns, Gold- 
smith, was perhaps meant for an asso- 




1. Educated English Pronunciation. 

ON referring to Chapter I., pp. 18 and 19, the reader will see that 
in thus endeavouring to give an account of the Pronunciation of 
English at different periods, I have been throughout thoroughly 
aware that there was at no time any approach to a uniform pronun- 
ciation. On referring again to p. 408, it will be seen that my 
attempts were really limited to discovering the value of the letters 
employed, which I believed to be pretty uniform within the bound- 
aries of England. This value of the letters seems to have been 
based on the ecclesiastical pronunciation of Latin, and considering 
th'it Latin letters were introduced by priests, and that priests were 
long the only scribes (shewn by our modern use of the word clerk), 
such a conclusion has some d priori probability. In Chap. VI. it 
will be seen that the actual diversity of pronunciation gradually 
overpowered orthography, which, after the successful phonetic effort 
of the xvi th century in introducing the distinctions ee, ea and 00, oa, 
subsided into tradition and printing-office habits. In Scotland 
indeed an approach to systematic orthography developed itself at 
the conclusion of the xv th century, and this thenceforth distinctly 
separates the Scotch from the English orthography. 1 

1 Supra p. 410, n. 3, and Mr. 
Murray's Dialect of the Southern 
Counties of Scotland (1873, 8vo., pp. 
251), p. 52, where he says that on 
" comparing the older extracts from the 
Brus, preserved by "Wyntown, with the 
later MS. of 1489," we find " ai ay, 
ei ey, yi, oi oy, ui, oui, for the old a, e, 
i, o, M, ou, Ags. d, ^, i, 6, u." And he 
attributes this to " a defective pronun- 
ciation of the diphthongs ai, ei, oi, etc., 
whereby the second vowel was practi- 
cally lost, and the combination treated 
as simple long a, e, o," referring to a 
similar custom in Gaelic, and "even 
where the second vowel is audible, it is 
not with a distinct i sound as in Eng. 

ay, oil, but rather an obscure 

vocal glide, like the e in the words 
drawer, layest, weighed, sayeth, seest, 
prayer, and so easily disappearing 
altogether. The same pronunciation 
appears to have been given in central 
and north-eastern Scotland to the Ags. 

and French diphthongs," thus awa-eh 
for away, ra-en for rain, choes for choice, 
etc., " imperfect diphthongs " which 
" still characterise the Scotch dialects." 
Then "ay, oi, ei, being looked upon 
merely as ways of expressing long a, o, 
i, they began to be extended to all words 
with long vowels, where there had been 
no original diphthong. . . . Hence the 
alternative forms mad made maid mayd 
mayde, tas tase tais tays, etc., found often 
in the same page of works belonging 
to the transition period." No reader 
of this work should fail to study Mr. 
Murray's, to which frequent reference 
must be made in the present chapter. 
The diphthongal theory here intimated 
will come again under consideration, 
when reviewing the dialectal relations 
of the vowels, in 2, No. 6, iv. below ; 
but as the other dialects were not liter- 
ary after the fifteenth century, they did 
not influence orthography. 


Orthoepists as a rule ignore all this. It would have been impos- 
sible to learn from Hart that ai had any other sound in his day 
than (ee), and yet we know from other sources that (ee) was not 
even the commonest pronunciation of ai at that time. The Expert 
Orthographist allowed only four words in ea to have the sound of 
(ee). No doubt he considered such a sound in other words to shew 
ignorance or vulgarity; for the " polite" sounds of a past generation 
are the betes noires of the present. Who at present, with any claims 
to " education," would "jme" in praising the " pints of a picter"? 
But certainly there was a time when "education, joyn, poynts, 
picker," would have sounded equally strange. 

Moreover in past times we are obliged to be content with a very 
rough approximation to the sounds uttered. "When in the xrv th 
century I write (e), it is possible that speakers may have rather, 
or may have occasionally, said (<9, E, -B). My (o) in the xvith century 
may have been (o, o), my (o) in the xvn th may have been (E, so), and 
so on. But at the present day, with the language in the air around 
us, surely it must be easy to determine what is said ? It is not at 
all easy. There is first required a power, not acquired with- 
out considerable training, of appreciating utterance different 
from one's own. It is indeed remarkable how unconscious the 
greater number of persons appear to be that any one in ordinary 
society pronounces differently from themselves. If there is some- 
thing very uncommon, it may strike them that the speaker spoke 
" strangely" or "curiously," that "there was something odd about 
his pronunciation," but to point to the singularity, to determine in 
what respects the new sound differs from their own, baffles most 
people, even literary men, even provincial glossarists, who apply 
themselves to write down these strange sounds for others to imitate. 
At any rate there has been hitherto evinced a general helplessness, 
both of conception and expression, that shews how much special 
education is necessary before we can hope for real success in appre- 
ciating diversities of utterance. 

But this overcome, the mere observation is beset with difficulties. 
The only safe method is to listen to the natural speaking of some 
one who does not know that he is observed. 1 If possible the pro- 
nunciation should be immediately recorded in some phonetical 
system intelligible to the listener, as in palaeotype, and the name of 
the speaker and date should be annexed. This is most conveniently 
done during the delivery of sermons or lectures. The only objection 

1 This rule is laid down by Klop- Leute fon laute nicht unter- 

stock, Ueber die deutsche Rechtschrei- schiden sei. "War tmr in disem Ptmkte, 

bung, Fragmenten iiber Sprache und oder in andern nachuntersMchen wil, 

Dichtkunst, 1779, reprinted in his mus nicht fragen : Wi man dis oder 

works, and the passage is so curious jenes ausspreche? Sondern ar mus 

that 1 here transcribe it in the author's zuhb'ren, wi man es ausspricht, wen 

own ortbography, employing italics for man nichz dafon weis, dasz darauf acht 

his underlined letters : " Ichhabe, natch gegaben wird." Klopstock's Sammt- 

langem Herumhoren, gefunden, dasz liche Werke, herausgegeben von A. L. 

eu fon au (oder, wi man schreiben Back und A. R. C. Spindler. Leipzig, 

solte eii, ail; hirfon hernach) 1830, vol. 14, p. 151. 



to this course is that a preacher or lecturer knows that his style of 
speech is liable to be criticized, and he may therefore indulge in 
rather a theoretical than a natural delivery. This is especially the 
case with professed orthoepists, whose pronunciation will necessarily 
labour under the suspicion of artificiality. And again this plan 
is of course only possible with educated speakers, who are mostly 
fanciful in their pronunciation. It is never safe to ask such people 
how they pronounce a given word. Not only are they immediately 
tempted to "correct" their usual pronunciation, to tell the 
questioner how they think the word ought to be pronounced, and 
perhaps to deny that they ever pronounced it otherwise ; 1 but the 
fact of the removal of the word from its context, from its notional 
and phonetic relation to preceding and following sounds, alters the 
feeling of the speaker, so that he has as much difficulty in uttering 
the word naturally, as a witness has in signing his name, when 
solemnly told to sign in his usual handwriting. Both forget what 
is their usual habit, because they have long ceased to be conscious 
of the required efforts in speaking and writing, as in any other 
ordinary exertion of the muscles. I have myself found it ex- 
tremely difficult to reproduce, for my own observation, the sounds I 
myself ordinarily utter ; and yet I have undergone some training 
in this respect for many years. Uneducated persons, from whom we 
thus endeavour to elicit dialectal sounds, are simply puzzled, and 
seldom give anything on which reliance can be placed. 

Observations on such sounds are extremely difficult to make. It 
is only persons of phonetic training who have lived long among the 
people, and spoken their language naturally, such as Mr. Murray 
for Scotch, that have had a chance of acquiring a correct conception 
of the sounds by hearing them unadulterated, and even then there 
is danger of their not having been able to throw off their former 
habits enough to thoroughly appreciate the received English sounds 
with which they would compare them. 2 When a stranger goes 
among the countiy people, they immediately begin to " speak fine," 

1 A dear old friend of mine called 
me to task many years ago for saying 
(lek'tshj), she had "never heard" 
(that's the uSual phrase, and this lady, 
who was far from being pedantic, 
spoke with perfect sincerity, though in 
obvious error) " any educated person 
use such a pronunciation; she always 
said (lek'tjuuir) herself." Of course, 
as we were talking of lectures, in the 
next sentence she forgot all about 
orthoepy, and went on calmly and 
unconsciously talking of (lek-tshaz) 
herself. This one out of many in- 
stances is recorded, because it made a 
great impression on me at the time. 

2 Hence one of the great difficulties 
of key-words. Each pronounces them 
according to his own habit, and thus 

frequently confounds sounds essentially 
distinct. This has been a source of 
great difficulty to myself when endea- 
vouring to collect information respect- 
ing English dialects, and is one of the 
impediments in the way of using a 
uniform spelling, as glossic, for dialectal 
purposes. Collecting country words is 
looked upon as an amusement, not as 
laying a brick in the temple of science ; 
and, curiously enough, an accurate ap- 
preciation of their sounds is one of the 
last things thought of, and one which 
few glossarists give themselves any 
trouble about. Yet it requires great 
care and much practice, and its neglect 
renders the glossaries themselves re- 
cords of unknown words, as for the ex- 
tinct Forth and Bargy dialect. 


or in some way accommodate their pronunciation to his, in order to 
be intelligible, or grow shy and monosyllabic. An attempt to note 
their utterances would drive many to silence. It is seldom an in- 
vestigator is so fortunate as Mr. Nicolas "Wyer, whose Dorset 
experiences I shall have to record. I endeavoured on one occasion 
to learn something by accompanying a gentleman, resident near 
Totness in Devonshire, while he was speaking to his own workmen, 
and listening with all my ears to their replies, noting them from 
memory immediately on my return to the house. But this is 
obviously a fragmentary, although a comparatively safe, method, and 
consumes much time. The usual and quickest, but not the safest 
plan, is to catch a person of education, as a clergyman or surgeon, 
who has had free intercourse with natives, or else a native born, 
and collect the sounds from his lips. In the first case, however, 
they are diluted by false impressions, as when one learns French 
pronunciation from a German. In the second they are apt to be 
faded memories, much spoiled by exposure to the light of received 
pronunciations. It is for these reasons perhaps that we seldom find 
every word in a dialectal specimen written phonetically. Many of 
the little words, which failed to attract attention, are passed over, 
and of those written phonetically only the most striking parts are 
indicated, and the writer seeks to deviate (like Mr. Barnes in his 
second series of Dorset poems) as little as possible from the usual 
orthography. This is all very well for one who knows the dialect 
already. For an outsider it is merely tantalising or misleading. 1 

But, even with phonetic training, and willing and competent 
teachers, it is difficult to hear the sounds really uttered, if only a 
short time is at command. We know, by the frequent mishearing 
of names, or of unexpected words, although every sound in them 
is perfectly familiar, how extremely troublesome it is to catch new 
combinations of old sounds. "When both sounds and combinations 
are strange, as in a dialect or foreign language, this difficulty is 
materially increased. The sounds of language are very fleeting. 
Each element occupies a very minute part of a second. Many 
elements are much hurried over, and all are altered by combination, 
expression, pitch, intonation, emotion, age, sex, national formation. 
We hear as much by general effect, rather than by the study of 
individual elements, as we often read a manuscript rather by the 
look of words than by the forms of their letters. Hence if the lan- 
guage is unknown, both spoken and written words become unin- 
telligible. The ear must have lived among the sounds, to know 
them instantaneously at the most hurried encounter, to be able to 

1 See Mr. Murray's remarks on mo- fact, "three-fourths to nine-tenths of 

dern Scotch orthography (ibid. pp. 75- the words are old friends " to the eye 

77), which, he says, " to the actual of an Englishman ; but if he gets a 

spoken language bears precisely the Scotchman to read, "not more than 

relation that is borne to Chaucer's three words in a hundred would be heard 

English by a modernized version of his as the same as the English words with 

writings, using the present English which they are identified in spelling." 

spelling, except for obsolete words, or Numerous corroborations will occur 

where prevented by the rhyme." In hereafter. 


eliminate individualities and know generalities. One of the great 
dangers that we run in attempting to give a strange pronunciation, 
is to confuse the particular habit of the individual with the general 
habit of the district which he represents. Every speaker has in- 
dividualities, and it is only by an intimate acquaintance with the 
habits of many speakers that we can discover what were indi- 
vidualities in our first instructor. Not only has age and sex much 
influence, but the very feeling of the moment sways the speaker. 
We want to find not so much what he does say, as what it is his 
intention to say, and that of course implies long familiarity, to be 
gained only by observation. (See especially the previous remarks 
on pp. 626-629.) 

The difficulties of determining the exact generic pronunciation of 
any language or dialect at any time, the knowledge indeed that 
from individual to individual there are great specific varieties, by 
comparing which alone can the generic character be properly 
evolved, must make us content with a rather indefinite degree of 
approximation. It is not too much to say that most phonetic 
writing is a rude symbolisation of sound. It answers its end if it 
suffices to distinguish dialects, and to enable the reader to pronounce 
in such a way that the instructed listener shall be able to determine 
the dialect which the speaker means to imitate. Hence, really, only 
broad generic differences can be symbolised by an outsider. But 
the speakers themselves feel, rather than accurately understand, the 
errors committed in this imitation, are aware of differences, although 
they can seldom name them, which distinguish sub-dialects, villages, 
cliques, individuals. And these differences are as philologically 
important, as, geographically, the streamlets which, trickling down 
the mountain-side, subsequently develope into rivers. It is only by 
a strict investigation of the nature of fine distinctions that we can 
account for the existence of broad distinctions. Hence phonologists 
occasionally endeavour to symbolise even the smallest. Their 
success hitherto has not been too great. But they have at any rate 
produced weapons which few can wield. Hereafter, perhaps, when 
phonetic training is part of school education, as it should be, and 
as it must be, if we wish to develope linguists or public speakers, or 
even decent private readers, ears will be sharpened, and distinc- 
tions about which we now hesitate will become clear. Then we 
may learn to separate the compound speech-sounds heard into their 
constituents, as surely as the conductor of a band can detect the 
work of each instrument in a crashing chord. In the mean time we 
must do something, however little, vague, and unsatisfactory it may 
appear, or the foundations of our science will never be laid. 

My object in the present section is to examine, so far as I can in 
a small compass, the pronunciation at present used by educated 
English speakers, without attempting to decide what is " correct." 
That I have not even a notion of how to determine a standard 
pronunciation, I have already shewn at length (pp. 624-630). But 
such a determination is really of no interest to the present inquiry. 
"We merely wish to know what are the sounds which educated 


English men and women really use when they speak their native 
language. Considering that Mr. Melville Bell has noted sounds 
with greater accuracy than any previous writer, I shall take first 
the 26 words in which he condenses " the English Alphabet of 
Visible Speech, expressed in the Names of Numbers and Objects," 
and carefully examine them, not for the purpose of determining the 
values of the letters (supra pp. 567-580), or the expression of the 
sounds (supra pp. 593-606), although the tables of these already 
given should be constantly consulted, but of determining, so far as 
possible, the actual sounds used in speaking English, and the method 
of putting those sounds together. Properly speaking these lists 
should also be supplemented by another, containing those words 
which are variously pronounced, but to give this at full would be 
almost to write a pronouncing dictionary. I shall, however, 
furnish a few lists of varieties which I have actually heard and 
noted, and some passages carefully palaeotyped after Mr. M. Bell, 
Prof. Haldeman, Mr. Sweet and myself. After this consideration of 
educated, or artificial, literary speech, I will in the next section 
take up that of uneducated or natural or organic local speech, known 
as English dialectal pronunciation. Although my notes on this part 
of my subject may appear almost too full, yet they are really both 
imperfect and brief, considering that dialectal speech is of the utmost 
importance to a proper conception of the historical development of 
English pronunciation, just as an examination of the existing remains 
of those zoologic genera which descend from one geological period to 
another, serves to shew the real development of life on our globe. 

The object of the following examination is to determine as pre- 
cisely as possible the phonetic elements of received English 
pronunciation (23, b], and I shall for brevity constantly refer to the 
preceding pages where they have been already incidentally noted 
and explained, and shall adopt the style of reference employed in 
the indices. A number followed by the letters , b, c, d, signifies 
the first, second, third, or fourth quarter of the corresponding page ; 
the addition of ab, ba ; be, cb ; cd, dc, indicating lines near the 
divisions of those quarters. If the letter is accented, the second 
column is referred to. Thus (23, ) means, page 23, second quarter, 
and (51, $} page 51, fourth quarter, second column. 



Summary of Contents. 

1. One. (w wa ua'), relations of (w oh), and untrilled r (r r r h j .r). (ii 
Prof. March's (w), Welsh w, Latin eV, ii, i'i i"i ij). Synthesis (thrii, 
v. (a a), Welsh y, Dutch w, French thrhrii, thdhrii). 

eu, German o. (n), English and 4. Four, (f th ph). Diphthongs with 

continental (t s t, d x d, x n), Sanscrit (j, Hi eea ooj KUJ, ii' ee' 60' uu' t 

cerebrals or coronals, and dentals. ii;j. eejea oo^r, uuj^r, AA' AAJ). 

(d d, n, nnh). Synthesis (wen). Rapid (fA). Synthesis (fooa), length 

2. Two. (t x t.). (uu, u'u u"u MUW). of first element of (ooj). 
Synthesis (tuu, tnruu, t;H|uu, tduu, 5. Five. Diphthongs of (ai) class, (a' 
"tduu). fi.h ^ di a't oh'i aa'aahi), English 

3. Three .(th v th tth v tth). Trilled Greek ei at, (*'y seh'i ffih'y se'i aa'). 



The (oi) series (ui, uY, ui, 6i 6i o't 
A'*), (v, f) relations to (bh, ph), 
German and Dutch w, v, /, (B), 
Hungarian v, f, Sanscrit v. Syn- 
thesis (fa't'v, fva'tvf), English final 
(-vf, -zs, -dhth, -zhsh), German 
initial (sz-). 

6. Six. (s sh, ^ jsh, v t x s t v s) Spanish 
*, z, Basque s. (* i) Dutch t. (k k). 
Synthesis (sks). 

7. Seven, (e E e 1 G! x e ,e e O e e* J. 
(n, nn 'n, '1 'm 'n f j). Synthesis 

8. Eight, (ee e'i e'i eei eei ee^ ee'j) 
Dutch ee ei ; when (ee) tends to (ee'\). 
Final mutes (t* tn t' t? t L *). Glides 
> <, initial (t<), medial (>t<), 
final ( > t < ' ). Synthesis (eei w'jt), 
initial glottids (,ee ;ee \ee). 

9. Book, (p b, t d, k g, p,ii b,ii, ppi 
'bii 'bmii, b.ii, 'b, "p, b' bp'). Dutch 
rule for p b. (u u). (k g,) labial ised 
(kw> g>, tw dw, kwh gwh), palatalised 
(kj gj, tj dj), and labio-palatalised 
(k0j gt#j, tw] dwj). Synthesis 

10. Watch. (A o, o u AO), Diphthong 
(A') and German Diphthongs, (sh 
x sh ,sh t x sh d x zh, ^sh^t^sh). Mr. 
Goodwin's (kj, gj), Sanscrit c ch, 
j jh, f sh, Italian ce, ge, Polish cz. 

Synthesis, (w-o > t < % sh). 

11. Saw. (A A, AA' AAJ_). Synthesis 

12. Feathers, (dh .th, ,ddh, dhd.) (BJ j, 
zs.) Synthesis (f < e > dh < B > z-s). 

13. Tongs, (q g, # 4 aA ag t aq, AAq ooq 
oq, oqg' oqk' -qg- -qth -qhth), French 
nasals. Synthesis (t < o > q-z-s). 

14. Whip, (wh), Mr. M. Bell's "rudi- 
mental symbols," supra p. 15, 9a, 
50, 9*, 9A, 9c, 9^ and 9m, 9c + 9m, 
10/ and 5/, 10*, 10^; material of 
speech ('j "h Jh 'h "h 'h), Vowels, 
Glottids, d , ; h jh gh g L . ., H 
H'h nh H^h), Glides slurs breaks 
( > < ; ' ). Sanscrit aspiration, 
Ashman, soshman, anushman, jih- 
vamuliya, upadmaniya, spiritus as- 

1. ONE, Bell's (wan), my 
(wan). Prof. Haldeman notes (won) 
as the pronunciation of Charles Kean, 
at the Princess's Theatre, London, 1859. 
Probably (won, won, won) are all in 
use. I seem to have heard them from 
elderly educated people. Charles Kean's 
pronunciation was possibly an inten- 
tional stage archaism. Provincially all 

per, spiritus lenis, visarjaniya. Japan- 
ese syllabary. English aspirate. San- 
scrit h. English hisses and buzzes. 
Generated (Ih rh mh nh), conversion 
of Sanscrit m, n into visarjaniya, 
(1-lh-t, 1-Ld-t', sinnhs sinzs), German 
initial * = (sz-). English final z 
(-zs). Anglo -saxon hw hr hi hm hn. 
English wh- = (wh, |hw, whw), 
opinions of Professors Haldeman, 
March, Whitney. No (fv- thdh- 
sz- shzh-) in English, so that (whw-) 
would be anomalous. " Parasitic 
utterances." Varieties of wheat 
(Huiit, nhuiit, iqhuiit, ^huiit, whiit, 
Hwhiit, whwiit, wiit, kwhiit, phiit, 
fiit). Usage variable, (p), length 
of final consonants, Mr. Sweet's rule. 
Synthesis (wh<e>p< < h). 
15. Lamp. (1 Ih Ihh ^hh). Confusion 
of (d, 1, r), Egyptian, Chinese, Jap- 
anese (l r ), Sanscrit Iri, Irt, and ri ri. 
(SB E, ah a), Dutch e, Hungarian e, 
Danish a ( N a). Variable English a 
in chaff pass ask bath chance (se a 
a3a3 ah), (m'mmhmhp). Synthesis 

16. Onions, (j jh, gjh kjh, gjh kjh), 
Briicke's,Merkel's,and Lepsius's theo- 
ries. Relation of (j w) to diphthongs. 
Synthesis (a > n-nj - j < B > n-s), (n, 
nj, nj). 

17. Boat. (OOOM oo'w oo'o u ). Synthesis. 

18. Cart, (k kj, aa aau). Synthesis 

19. Tent. (nt,nht). Synthesis (t < e > n-t') 

20. Houses. (H nh). (an Q'U ahw e'w 
a'u 6u 6u ao'w). Synthesis. 

21. Dog. (d, o, g). Synthesis. 

22. Monkey, (m, a e, q qh, k, f). Syn- 
thesis (m o > q-k < ') . 

23. Cage. (k). (ee e'i). (d, zh x zh, x zh,sh). 
Synthesis (kml x zh v sh). 

24. And. (ah 33) (n, d). Synthesis. 

25. Bird, (aoj, a), er, ur. Quadrilinear 
arrangement of the 36 Visible Speech 
vowels by tongue heights. Synthesis 
of bird bud (baad, bad). 

26. Canary ('r). Synthesis (kenee'Ti). 

and many others occur. Provincialities 
are, however, not considered here. 

(w). No English speakers, so 
far as I can recall, say (ua'n) with a 
diphthong, although Mr. Murray (no 
doubt correctly) suggests its derivation 
from such a prefix, " like the provincial 
wuts for oats." We shall have many 



1. (w) continued. 
examples of this introduced (u) here- 
after ; see the general remarks on dia- 
lectal vowel relations, 2, No. 6. Much 
interest attaches for many reasons to 
the sounds (w, bh) (513, d'} and diph- 
thongising (u) (185, a). Foreigners 
generally find considerable difficulty in 
pronouncing (w). Educated Germans 
domiciled in this country, even with 
English wives and families, are fre- 
quently unable to separate the sound 
of (w) from that of their own (bh), 
and Frenchmen, Italians, etc., substitute 
a diphthongising (u). That initial w 
is not (u) in English results almost with 
certainty from woo. wooed, = (wuu, 
wuud), the latter with a very long 
vowel. In ivood, would, woman, 
(wwl, wwrnen), it is conceivable that 
(uwd, UM'msn) might be said. Welsh- 
men, untrained, say (uu), see (785, c, 
101, -, d) (uud), and (ud, u-nren), com- 
pare Sir Hugh Evans' o'man, as the 
fo. 1623 writes it in the M erry "Wives, 
act 4. sc. 1, and some Scotchmen and 
Englishmen say (wad, Ava 'm^n) ( 1 76, a) , 
just as we all now say (wa-nd-i) and 
not (wu-nda), but the "Welshman Sales- 
bury said (wnder), see (777, c). An 
article which I wrote on the Latin V 
consonant in the Academy for 15th 
Jan. 1872, distinguishing a diphthong- 
ising or con-sonant (u) from the English 
consonant (w), induced Prof. March, 
of Easton, Pennsylvania, U.S., author 
of the well-known Anglo-Saxon Gram- 
mar, to write me a letter on 22nd 
March, 1872, of which the following 
are extracts. Not having been written 
for publication, they take the form of 
rough notes : 

""We have here students of many 
nationalities. That makes it easy to 
get a general conception of almost any 
sound. Perhaps the mixture makes 
the sounds unreliable for so minute 
distinctions as you take note of. A 
native Welshman from South Wales, 
not yet having command of English, 
pronounces w just as I do, has no diffi- 
culty with woman, never did have, 
pronounces Welsh words beginning 
with w in the same way, never heard 
any other sound for them ; so he says. 
Makes a good v for Welsh /, touches 
his teeth fairly ; never knew any other 
way. But English was spoken as well 
as Welsh in his native place, and he 
has always heard it [1. See remarks 
at end of quotation]. 

1. (w) continued. 

"Our German professor does not 
make w exactly as I do. He says he 
was directed by his English teacher to 
begin with oo (u), and he does, follow- 
ing with a weak v' (bh) [2]. Practi- 
cally it is a good w for us. I ought to 
say, however, that his German w is 
much nearer the English w than that 
of many Germans. The students who 
read German with him always catch 
from him w, and not v. It used to be 
the direction for German w at Harvard, 
to ' make English w without the initial 
oo sound ' [3], 

"All this about w I have mentioned 
as a kind of introduction to the state- 
ment that I always thought the Latin 
v was our w. Their having no separate 
letters for u and v seemed reason 
enough [4], before I thought of the 
German ; and the apparently close 
analogy between the German hearing 
of our w and the Greek representation 
of the Latin v, i.e. the careless in 
common nouns, the more careful ou, 
and the occasional refined ov& in proper 
names, as well as the facts of phonetic 
change, seemed to speak for English 
rather than German. 

"The distinction between English w 
and your diphthong con-sonant oo I 
had not made [5], and I am not abso- 
lutely certain that I do not myself 
make what you would call the diph- 
thongal oo where you make a different 
sound as English w. The difference 
between my making oui, tve and Ger- 
man wie, seems to me this. Set tongue 
and lips for oo (u) and issue breath 
(sonant), then without moving the lips 
change the tongue for i, and it gives 
oui [6]. Set as before and issue same 
sonant breath, but, with the change of 
tongue for i, move the lips, constrict- 
ing slightly, and then quickly letting 
them fall loose, and you have English 
we as I make it [7]. The difference 
between oui and we seems to be essen- 
tially in the lip movement. 

"For the German, omit the tongue- 
adjustment for oo, and make a lip-move- 
ment somewhat similar to the English ; 
but in the English w the mouth is, 
even when nearest to closure, still open, 
and in the oo form ; so that, if held 
steadily, a resonant oo might be made 
through the aperture [8]. In the Ger- 
man I draw my upper lip down to my 
lower lip till it just ticks and is kept 
from touching along a considerable line 


1. (w) continued. 

by the buzzing breath. The difference 
here seems to be in the form of the lips 
at their nearest approach, the English 
being nearly oo, and the German nearer 
b. To me the English w, as I make it, 
is one of the easiest of letters, and the 
German one of the hardest to make 
after oo, as in the German attempts at 
English w" [9]. 

On these careful observations I would 
remark, [1] that the fact of the Welsh- 
man having constantly heard English 
(w) rather disqualifies him for a test. 
See also [5] at end. 

[2] The direction given to a German 
to begin with (u) and go on to a gentle 
(bh), that is to call we (u L bhii) for L 
see (419, d] is merely a contrivance to 
make him raise the back of his tongue 
properly, (u*bh), or the simultaneous 
utterance of these two sounds being 
almost exactly (w), compare (762, d'). 
Compare also Lediard (1047, e). The 
old Greek oujS for Latin v consonant 
ought to point out the same thing. 
But here doubts arise into which I can- 
not now enter. That this German 
should be heard by American students 
to say (w) rather than (v) upsets the 
(v) theory of Briicke by a crucial test. 

[3] This direction is the reverse of 
the former, and makes (bh) = (w u), 
or (w) with the tongue depressed, a 
good shorthand rule, though I find 
" (v) without touching the teeth " 
easier, and it is also more correct. 

[4] Any one who reads Salesbury on 
I consonant (754, c], will see that such 
an opinion is untenable. 

[5] My theory was that Latin V, I, 
when before a vowel were (u, i), forming 
a diphthong with a following vowel on 
which lay the force, as (ui, ue, ua ; ie, 
ia), etc. for this notation see (419,c) 
or con-sonants as I called them, as long 
as W, II, did not occur in writing, but 
that the introduction of these in place 
of VO, and simple I, shewed the de- 
velopment of a consonant form (in the 
modern sense) , and I took those later 
consonants to be (bh, j), rather than (w, 
j), in consequence of the large field of 
(bh) in comparison to (w). Prof. 
March's doubt as to whether his own 
w is not my diphthongising oo, precisely 
the natural Welsh sound as I conceive, 
renders his identification of the Welsh- 
man's pronunciation with his own, no 
proof that the Welshman really said [w) . 

1. (w) continued. 

[6] This direction should give (uy*), 
or (uy). I hear the French sound as 
(ui), without any intermediate (y), and 
with the force on (u), shewn by the 
frequent form (ti'i) or (u"i) with a sharp 
whispered or voiceless (i). Henceforth 
I use ('u) for whispered (u), see (10, ), 
the vocal chords nearly touching each 
other, and ("u) for voiceless (u), the 
vocal chords as wide apart as for ordi- 
nary breathing, and so on for other 
vowels. All these distinctions will be 
fully considered below No. 14, (wh). 

[7] This should give (u-wj-i), where 
(wj) means (w), with the tongue as for 
(i), instead of as for (u). I believe, 
however, that it is meant for (i_uwi), 
where (w) is so gradually formed from 
(u) by constriction, that two syllables 
are not felt. There would be the 
slightest possible difference between 
duwi) and (ui), but I have not yet 
observed or noted either of these sounds 
among Englishmen or Americans, by 
no means a proof of their non-occur- 

[8] If a clear (u) could be heard 
through the (w) position, (w) would be 
(u) ; to me this is not possible ; (w) is 
a buzz, more like (z), which has a central 
passage, than (v), which has a divided 
passage, but still distinctly a buzz, from 
want of a proper resonance chamber, 
the aperture being constricted. In 
both (w, bh) I feel the lips vibrate 
much more strongly than for (u). 

[9] As a gradual constriction, (uw) 
is easy enough, but it has no syllabic 
effect, that is, no distinctly appreciable 
glide, like (ubh). The opening (\vu) is 
more syllabic, but (bhu) is still more so, 
owing to the greater change ; (yw, wy) 
are more difficult to me than (ybh, bhy). 
But (nv, ew, 83w) are syllabic, with 
'stopped' vowels, and hence quite dis- 
tinct from (z'u, eu, sea), and not very 
difficult to my organs. Still even here 
(ibh, ebh, sebh) are easier to me. Of 
course (i\, ev, aev), which are fright- 
fully difficult to a German, are perfectly 
easy, as in to live, heavy, have. 

In a review by Mr. I). R Goodwin 
on Dr. B,. G. Latham's English Lan- 
guage (North American Review, No. 
154, Jan. 1852), which I shall have 
again occasion to cite, I find the follow- 
ing (p. 8), which gives another Ameri- 
can observation on (j, w) comparable to 
Prof. March's, and which I cite as the 


1 . (\v) continued. 

only remark of a similar character which 
I have found: "The semi- vowels (lene) 
may he described as a sort of fulcrum 
or pivot of articulation, in passing from 
the English e (or i short) to any closely 
subjoined vowel-sound, in the case of 
y ; and from u or oo to any such vowel- 
sound in the case of w. Thus in yarn, 
wit, we may give first the full sounds 
ee-arn, oo-'it, where, between the 
initial vowel-sound ee, oo, and the follow- 
ing vowel-sounds, the organs pass 
through a certain momentary but defi- 
nite position, which gives the character 
of a consonant-sound, and which we 
have denominated a fulcrum or pivot. 
If now the vowel part, the ee- or oo- 
sound be reduced to a minimum, and be 
begun immediately, upon this pivot or 
fulcrum, and pronounced yard, wit, we 
shall have the y and w representing 

By the expression "semi- vowels (lene) " 
and by afterwards saying that they have 
only a "momentary" position, Mr. 
Goodwin excludes the continuant cha- 
racter of (a, w). and hence we must 
suppose certain mutes and sonants, that 
is, explodents of the same character as 
(g, b) in the position of (i, u), with the 
aperture quite closed up. Now the 
first of these explodents answer almost 
precisely to (kj, gj), introduced in No. 
10, (sh), and slightly different from 
(kj, gj), as will be there explained at 
length. These sounds, however, are 
difficult to keep from (t^sh, d x zh), as 
will there be shewn, and it is notorious 
that (j) after (t, d) or (k, g) generates 
such sounds. The lip-explodent, how- 
ever, cannot be clearly kept from (b) 
itself. Mr. Goodwin surely did not 
mean (gj,b) to behis" lene semi- vowels." 
A less degree of contact must be as- 
sumed, and writing (gj 1? bj) for these 
theoretical sounds, according to the 
principle explained in No. 7, (e, E), 
Mr. Goodwin's explanation seems to 
givey, w = ( L igj r Lub r ). 

English (w) is to me a buzz, with 
small central lip aperture, back of 
tongue raised, and with the muscles of 
the lips not held so tightly as for (bh), 
so that the expelled voice can easily in- 
flate both upper and lower lip beyond 
the teeth, which are kept well apart, 
and do not at all stop the passage of 
the breath. The well-known confusion 
of iv, v, perhaps arises from (bh), but 

1. (w) continued. 

is esteemed odiously vulgar (186, dc), 
and will be considered hereafter. 

(a, a). The habits of English 
speakers vary with respect to (a, 
a), and no one would be remarked 
for pronouncing either in a syllable 
under accent or force. But to my 
ear, (a) has often a thick, deep 
effect, naturally unpleasant to one 
accustomed to (a), which, probably, to 
the other speakers is fully as unpleas- 
antly thin and high. The position of 
the tongue for (a) is much higher, and 
its form flatter, than for (a), in which 
the tongue lies in precisely the same 
position as for (a, o, 0), as roughly 
shewn in the diagram (14, b}. The (a) 
position of the tongue is the most 
neutral and colourless of all, but, leav- 
ing a much narrower channel than for 
(a, a, A, 93), produces a finer and 
more delicate sound. I usually assume 
the sound heard to be (a), unless the 
effect of (a) is very marked. There 
seems to be no significance attached to 
the distinction (a, a) . These vowels in 
syllables under force are, among Euro- 
pean nations, said to be exclusively 
English, Scotch, and "Welsh. Accord- 
ing to Dutch writers (Bonders and 
Land, who are both acquainted with Eng- 
lish), the English is different from the 
Dutch short u, which is (oe) or (&}, as in 
French eu and German o, and not (a), 
as wrongly stated (236, d'). The Eng- 
lish sound is not labialised at all, 
although it has sprung from a labial 
(u, u} , and there is great confusion in 
the way in which (u, a) are used at the 
present day (175, b). The interme- 
diate sound between (u) and (a) or (a) 
seems to be (u ) or (u), pronounced with 
lips as open as for (o), a sound which 
to unaccustomed ears hovers between 
(u, o, a, a), but is said to be prevalent 
in the north of England. The Welsh 
(y) is sometimes (a) , but this sound is 
not universal in Wales, p. 763. The 
sound (an) is heard only in such phrases 
as "a good 'un, little 'un" ; of course 
it is not an abbreviation of (wan), but 
an independent and older formation, 
unaffected by a prefixed (u). Being 
unemphatic, Mr. Bell would also con- 
sider it as (an) or (^n), instead of his 
emphatic (an). The sound of such 
unemphatic syllables will be considered 



1. (n). 

(n). The tip of the tongue for 
received English (t, d, 1, n) is not so 
advanced towards the teeth or gums, 
as for the continental sound. In my 
own pronunciation (n) is not even 
gingival, that is, the tip of the tongue 
does not even reach the upper gums. 
Mr. J. G. Thompson, of the Madras 
Civil Service, in his lithographed 
pamphlet, "An unpointed Phonetic 
Alphabet based upon Lepsius' Standard 
Alphabet, but easier to read and write 
and less likely to be mistaken, cheaper 
to cast, compose, correct and distribute, 
and less liable to accident" (Manga- 
lore, 1859, pp. 64), distinguishes four 
classes of t, d, l,n. 1) Lingual, which, 
from his diagram, are apparently palaeo- 
type (tj, dj, Ij, nj), to which I shall 
have to recur in Nos. 10 and 16 below. 

2) Palatal, which by the diagram are 
are (T, D, L, N), and which I believe 
correspond more correctly to the English 
sounds as I pronounce them, the tip of 
the tongue being laid against "the 
very crown of the palatal arch," except 
that I touch the palate with the* upper 
and not the under part of the tip, so 
that the tongue is not at all inverted. 
The inversion of the tongue, as shewn 
in the diagram, seems to be due merely 
to roughness of drawing. " The pala- 
tal t" says Mr. Thompson, p. 31, "is 
pronounced by pressing the tip of the 
tongue vertically against the crown of 
the palatal arch so as to close every 
passage for the breath," which how- 
ever is not possible unless the sides of 
the tongue also press against the palate 
and side molars, " and then withdraw- 
ing it with considerable force, while the 
breath is forcibly expelled." These 
are the so-called " cerebrals," and the 

(T, D) are the four-dotted Indian <JL>3. 

3) Gingival, in which the tip of the 
tongue touches the gums, and which 
he recognizes as the English t, d. 4) 
Dental, where the tip of the tongue 
is put against the teeth, is the conti- 
nental t, and the Indian two-dotted t 
CU. "The gingival sounds of t and 
d," says Mr. Thompson on p. 23, " seem 
to be peculiar to English. Lepsius 
quotes the t in town as an example of 
the dental t : and this is a common 
mistake of foreigners, and one of the 
greatest obstacles in the way of their 
acquiring the pronunciation of English. 

K (n) continued. 

Singularly enough the same mistake 
has been made by Wilson in his 
Sanskrit Grammar. But Forbes has 
perceived the truth. On such a point, 
however, the evidence of the natives of 
India is worth more than that of any 
Englishman, and in almost every word 
they represent our t and d by the 
palatal [cerebral] letters of their alpha- 
bets. Thus in a Telugu advertisement 
in the Fort St. George Gazette, the 
words Devonshire Julia Edward A.ct 
commander appear as (civanshijar 
dzhuuliju eowarou aakxu kamaaNDaru) . 
... In advertisements from the same 
paper from another office, the words 
government and private secretary appear 
in Telugu as (gauranmeNDU, praiveeT 
sekriTeeri), and in Tamil as (gawarn- 
meNDU, piaaiveeTTU sekrixTeeri). That 
the English t is not a dental letter any- 
body may convince himself by pro- 
nouncing a continental or Indian word 
in which a dental t occurs, and im- 
mediately giving the same sound to the 
t in town letter boat'' But we have 
not to go abroad for this purpose. The 
dental t before r is very common in our 
own northern dialects. 

In my palaeotype I erroneously used 
(.t, .d, .1, .n) for dentals, as giving 
greater force, and thickness to .the 
vowels. I have however employed 
(tf-, df-, 1|", nf) occasionally. This 
inconvenient notation, involving the 
mutilation of a type, I propose to re- 
place by ( x t, N d, x l, x n), where the turned 
grave (*} preceding a letter shews it 
has to be taken more forward. We 
have then (tj, T, t, v t) for this series, 
and there is also the Arabic (t), which 
is difficult to define, but which Thompson 
classes as a lingual (tj), together with 
thick Gaelic t, of which I know nothing. 
This is from an English point of view. 
A foreigner would consider our (t, d) 
as retracted. The English (t, d, 1, n) 
are peculiarly light, and do not thicken 
the sound of the following or preceding 
vowel at all. I doubt whether this 
thickening effect (54, a) is really due 
to the peculiar position of the tongue 
and the glide thus formed. I am in- 
clined to think that it must be accom- 
panied by a peculiar action of the 
throat. Thus practically I find myself 
able to produce almost similar effects 
with the English retracted (t), by the 
muscular actions involuntarily resulting 


1^ {n) continued. 

from a proper mental intention when 
gliding on to the vowel. 

As this page was passing through the 
press (12th August, 1873), Mr. K. G. 
Gupta, a native of Bengal, well ac- 
quainted with Sanscrit after the Benares 
school, had the kindness to give me oral 
exemplification of the Indian sounds. 
Mr. Murray was also fortunately pre- 
sent. I shall have occasion to recur to 
the information I then received as to 
the modern Indian pronunciation of 
Sanscrit, which, though prohably con- 
siderably different from the ancient, is 
certainly its true descendant. Mr. 
Gupta, who has resided a considerable 
time in England and speaks English 
perfectly, had just returned from Paris. 
He distinctly recognized his own 
murddhanya or cerebral t, d, as the 
true English sounds, and his own 
dental, or as he considers them " soft," 
t, d, as the true French sounds. To 
some Indians, then, the distinction, 
Indian (T D) and English (t d), is 
inappreciable. If palaeotype were 
introduced in a foreign book, cer- 
tainly " T D " would be used for the 
English and Indian cerebrals, and "t 
d" for the dentals. But it is strictly 
necessary in a work intended for English 
people to make the distinction between 
the usual English (t d) and foreign 
dental ( N t % d) clear to the eye. Foreigners 
will observe that for (t d) the tip of 
the tongue touches the crown of the 
palate, and hence these letters will be 
called coronal, and for ( N t, v d) the 
tongue is brought absolutely against 
the teeth, and hence they are dental. 
In all the foreign words hitherto in- 
troduced, in which (t, d) have been 
written, (^t, x d) must be understood. 
The use of (t, d) was an anglicism 
which will be avoided hereafter, except 
as an abbreviation, after due explana- 
tion. The ordinary speaker of received 
English is altogether ignorant of the 
sounds ( % t, ,d), and when he hears them 
confuses them with his own (t, d). 
Many Englishmen who have resided 
for years in India never learn to ap- 
preciate the difference. Yet in a 
Calcutta newspaper, (The Englishman, 
10th May, 1873, p. 4, col. 2, in an 
article quoted from the Friend of India, 
of 8th May, ) we read : " If any one 
says the English cerebrals are like 
enough to the Indian dentals, to repre- 

L {n) continued. 

sent them, let him remember the words 
Magistrate and Superintendent written 
in Bengali. Moreover a man who con- 
fuses dentals and cerebrals in Bengali, 
says stick when he means kick, sixty 
when he means seven, and is unable to 
distinguish a lease from a leaf, a cannon 
from a hat, fear from market-price, and 
pease-porridge from the branch of a 
tree." And the only English dentals 
which Mr. Gupta admits are (th, dh), 
for which the tip of the tongue is in the 
same position as it is for his ( s t v d), the 
sole difference consisting in the tightness 
of closure, formed by the sides of the 
tongue. The description of (T D) on pp. 4 
and 9 as (tj. d4.) or "(t, d) with an inverted 
tongue," is incorrect for Sanscrit ^ 
and must be omitted. This definition 
arose from Bopp's stating that " they 
are pronounced by bending the tongue 
far back and bringing it against the 
palate" (indem man die Spitze der 
Zunge weit zuriickbiegt und an den 
Gaumen setzt, Gram, der Sans. Spr. in 
kiirz. Fass, 2nd ed. 1845, p. 15), and 
Mr. Gupta distinctly repudiated in- 
version. But (T D) may be retained as 
special signs for the Indian cerebrals, 
until their identification with the Eng- 
lish coronals has been generally acknow- 
ledged. Mr. M. 0. Mookerjey (1102, b) 
qualified his identification of (T D) with 
(t d) by a saving "almost." Possibly the 
Indian sounds may be retracted (,t,d). 
As to (n \\) Mr. Gupta said that no 
distinction is now made in pronuncia- 
tion except in connection with following 
consonants. In Panini's name, for 
example, both n's are alike ( ji) ; no 
distinction between (n ji) being heard 
in India. The nasal resonance would 
be the same, but it is possible to make 
the glides on to and from vowels 
sensibly different. We must conclude 
that the ancients felt a difference, or 
they would not have used two letters, 
although this and other distinctions 
have been lost in modern speech. 

In the (n) there is a complete closure 
by the tongue, so that the lips may be 
either open or shut, and there is com- 
plete resonance in the nose. Compare 
the effect of a person saying one with 
or without " a cold in the head," that 
is, with incomplete and complete nasal 
resonance, as : (wad 4 , wan). The nasal 
resonance is prolonged to the last, so 
that there is no approach to (wand, 


1. (n) continued. 

want, wanl). The voice is also pro- 
longed to the last, and does not 
dwindle off to (nh) as (wannh). The 
(n) is often very long, but there is not 
usually a decrease and increase of force, 
giving the effect of reduplication, as 
(wanjn), see (52, ). 

(wan). The method of synthesis 
must be observed. The labiality of the 
(w) should not affect the following 
vowel, changing (a) into (oh), or (a) 
into (o), even as a gliding intermediate 
sound, though carelessness in this re- 
spect may be one cause of the genera- 
tion of (won), through (wohn, won, 
won), if indeed (on) were not original. 
Hence the lips have to be sharply 
opened, and the buzz of the (w) scarcely- 
audible, except of course for certain 
rhetorical effects. The (9) is short, 
but may be of medial length ; if it 
were prolonged, it would give the effect 
of wurn (win), although there must be 
no trill; indeed (waan, waoaon) are 
not uncommon cockneyisms. The pro- 
longation is thrown on to the glide 
to (n), which is the same as that to (d), 
and on to the (n) itself. The uvula 
does not act to open the passage to the 
nose till (a) is quite finished. Any 
nasalising of the vowel, as (wa,n), is 
quite abnormal, although occasionally 
heard, but not among educated English 

2. TWO, (tun). 

(t). The tip of the tongue 
against the crown of the palate, see 
(1096, c). 

(uu). The throat not widened, 
a clear flute-like sound, with no ap- 
proach to (oo) in it. It may be short, 
however, as well as long, and should 
not end with a whisper (<u), or hiss ("u), 
or consonant (w, wh), as in Icelandic 
(548, d). But it may end with much 
diminishing force. With some perhaps 
it tends to (uu^). Mr. Sweet tells me 
that he has detected himself in saying 
(twuw). In Danish he says there is 
a slight final hiss after (ii, uu), thus 
(ijh, uwh), see his paper on Danish 
(Philol. Trans. 1873-4, p. 105). Per- 
haps the Danish sounds arc rather 
(ii|_jh, uu^wh). 

2. (tuu). 

(tun). For the synthesis, ob- 
serve that for (t) the glottis is quite 
closed, but not so tightly as to be forced 
open by an explosion, and that the 
vocal ligaments should begin to vibrate 
for (uu) simultaneously with the release 
of the closure (t). But in Germany 
and Denmark the glottis seems to be 
open when (t) is held, so that on its 
release some unvocalised breath escapes 
first, which may be expressed by (tpu), 
see (10, cd), when gentle, and (tHjuu) 
when jerked. Some public speakers in 
England cultivate this habit, thinking 
that (tuu, duu) are thus more distinctly 
separated. It is not, however, usual 
with English speakers, though Irish- 
men are given to it. If the glottis be 
tightly closed for (t), and then the 
breath is made to break through it 
with explosion, we hear (t;iquu), which, 
when (t) is taken dental as (J;;iquu), 
has a very singular effect, sometimes 
heard from Irishmen, but not at all 
received. The quiet way in which an 
Englishman says and distinguishes 
(tuu, duu), without any effort, is re- 
markable, when contrasted with an 
Upper German's struggles. The vowel- 
sound should commence at the instant 
that the (t) contact is released, so that 
the glide (52, be] from (t) on to (uu) is 
quite distinct. The voice should not 
commence before, or the effect (tduu) 
will be produced, as in the Yorkshire 
f door, giving a kind of pause before 
(duu) and a thickness to the (uu) which 
is not received English, or else giving 
a German implosion ("t-d-uu). This 
implosion consists of a dull thud pro- 
duced by compressing the air between 
the closed glottis and the closure pro- 
duced by the tongue tip for ("t), .lips 
for (''p) and back of tongue for ('<k). 
See Merkel, Physiologic der Menschli- 
chen Sprache, p. 149. What is here 
said of initial (t) applies to initial (p, 
k) with the variants (pj, pHf, p;H[, kj, 
kHf, k;nj). See an explanation of (j ;) 
in No. 8, (eei}. The whole subject will 
be more systematically discussed in 
No. 14, (wh). 

3. THREE, (thrii),but(thnY, 
thryy) are perhaps more commonly 

(th). The tongue is brought 
fully against the teeth, so that ( v th) 


3. (th) continued. 
would be the proper sign ; but this will 
be used for the variant produced by 
thrusting the tongue between the upper 
and lower teeth, instead of simply press- 
ing it against the upper teeth. We do 
not say (tth) initially, as some Germans 
think. "We use that combination finally 
in eighth (^tth), quite a modern word, 
the old form being eight (eet), and on 
sounding it the speaker will feel his 
tongue glide forward from palate to 
teeth. Compare also successive words, 
as "brea^ thai is cut thin" Initially 
( x tth) would be necessary and not dif- 
ficult. In Greek rO is common medially, 
.originally perhaps ( x t x tH') and after- 
wards ( x tth). The hiss is sharp, but 
weak compared to (s). It is easily 
confused with (f), and is actually so 
confused dialectally. 

(r). Mr. Bell distinguishes 
English (r) as untrilled, as, in fact, a 
buzz, which may be written (r ), "the 
point of the tongue contracting the 
oral passage between it and the upper 
gum" (Visible Speech, p. 52). But so 
far as I have noticed, r before a vowel 
is always trilled (196, *), unless there 
is an organic defect or bad habit in the 
speaker, not at all an unusual occur- 
rence, and then some other trill, of the 
lip, uvula, or cartilaginous glottis, is 
substituted. The effect of a trill is 
that of a beat in music, a continually 
repeated " make and break " of sound, 
the different effect of the different trills 
resulting from the glides thus produced. 
See the phonautographic curves of the 
different trills in F. C. Donders, 
De Physiologic der S.praakklanken 
(Utrecht, 1870, pp. 24), p. 19. It is of 
course possible to produce a central hiss 
or buzz in the (r) position without in- 
terrupting the sound by a trill, and the 
result is different from (s, z). There is, 
however, some difficulty to those accus- 
tomed to trill, in keeping the loose tip 
of the tongue stiff enough not to trill. 
When this is accomplished, there is 
another difficulty, in keeping the front 
of the tongue ' far enough from the 
palate not to produce (s, z), and yet not 
so far as to give simple (a). This un- 
billed (r), which will henceforth be 
marked (r c ) when buzzed, and (r c h) 
when hissed, has therefore a great ten- 
dency to fall into (9), or some such in- 
distinct sound. Mr. Bell always writes 

3. (r) continued. 

(T C ) in English, representing trilled (r) 
"7 ( r od)' Hence my transcription of 
his character in 3g, or that in col. 3, 
line g, p. 15, was erroneous. The 
English (r) is in the (t) position, but 
a dental (\r) also occurs. This ( x r) 
is recognized in the Peak of Derby- 
shire by Mr. Hallam, as will appear 
below. In Sanscrit Mr. Gupta (1096, ) 
found that no r occurred after coronals, 
( 1 096, c), and in pronouncing the dentals 
( x t v d) before the trill, he decided that 
the tongue remained forward, so that 
his Sanscrit trill was ( x r). The older 
grammarians differ, and only Panini 
classes r as a coronal (cerebral). ("Whit- 
ney, Athar. V. Prati^. p. 29.) There 
is, however, also a recognized retracted 
Indian ( 7 r), which Mr. Gupta pro- 
nounced to me, the root being drawn 
back and the whole front half of the 
tongue "flopping" rather than trilling. 
There are doubtless many other tongue 
trills. In Scotch, and also in Italian, 
the trill is strong (.r). 

(ii). This bright primary sound 
is, I find on careful observation, not so 
common in English as I had once 
thought it to be. Men with deep bass 
voices find it difficult to produce. The 
wide (ii} seems mucli more usual, and 
is especially frequent after (r). For 
(t, i) see (58, a. 83,dc. 105, be. 106, a, ^. 
544, c). I have found such combina- 
tions as the following, in which (f, ii) 
follow each other, useful in drawing 
attention to the difference ; the () 
should be much prolonged in practising 
them. " Let baby be, with ugly glee, 
the glassy sea, worthy thee, a wintry 
tree, thy enemy me, they chiefly flee, 
a bulky key," also "of a verity (ve*r*ti) 
'tis very tea (VT* tii) ; a trusty trustee 
(tra-sti trastii 1 )." There is sometimes 
a tendency to correct the error and say 
(ii}, which may be the first step from 
(ii) to (ai) (473, c'}, although a different 
origin for this change will hereafter be 
assigned (see 2, No. 6,iv). There seems 
to be no generally recognized tendency 
to hiss out such a final (ii), thus 
(thrh"ii), as a French final (ii) is occa- 
sionally hissed, or to close with such a 
hiss (ii"ii), or with a consonant (iij, 
iijh). But such sounds may occur as 

(thrii). In synthesis, the (th) is 


3. (thrii). 

very brief, but the change in sound as 
the tongue is retracted to (r) perceptible. 
The voice is laid on at the moment the 
(r) position has been assumed, and 
is heard throughout the rattle of (r). 
We never say (thrhrii), by running the 
hiss on to the trill, or (thdhrii), by 
putting on the voice before the tongue 
leaves the teeth. 

4. FOUR, Bell's (foj), or 
(for ), see below, my (fooa), but (fooi, 
fAAa) are also heard from educated 
people. I have even heard (fawj'ei) 
from an educated gentleman, whether 
archaic, provincial, or puristic, I do 
not know. 

(f). The lower lip is firmly 
pressed against the teeth, so that the 
hiss is strong and sharp, not unlike (th), 
indeed so like that when pronounced 
by themselves, as in spelling by sounds, 
it is difficult to distinguish (f) and (th) 
at a little distance. Hence (saif, saith) 
are both heard for sigh (213, d}, and 
(f, th) are confused in several words 
dialectally. Of course people with no 
upper teeth either use the hard gum or 
say (ph), the regular Hungarian sound 
of/. Compare remarks on Icelandic/ 
(542, c] and modern Greek $ (518, b). 

(ooi). This is the sound I use 
when the word is under force. It is a 
diphthong, the letter (j) representing as 
I now think (196, be] one of the indis- 
tinct sounds (B, a, as, a, ao), with a 
liberty, seldom exercised unless a vowel 
follows, to add the trilled (r) of No. 3. 
My own belief is that in these diph- 
thongal sounds I use (a), but I may 
say (B). I think that I never say (a, 
CE). For non-diphthongal (a), see Nos. 
12 and 25. For diphthongal (i), Mr. 
Melville Bell uses a new sign, called a 
" point-glide" (197, ), so that what I 
have transcribed (oa) might be more 
truly rendered (6r ), the accent on (6) 
pointing out the diphthongal nature of 
the combination, and thus reducing (r ) 
from a consonant to a pure glide ; but 
his son, Mr. Graham Bell, in teaching 
deaf-mutes, has more recently adopted 
a notation which is tantamount, in his 
orthography, to my (60'), using (') as 
really a helpless indication of obscure 

There are four of these (a) diph- 

4. (ooa) continued. 

thongs in English, in ear, air, oar, oor 
(57, d. 196, b to 199, a. 200, d to 
202, o), which are, I believe, in the pro- 
nunciation of strict speakers (ui, eej, 
ooi, MJ), that is, (ii > , ee', 60', uu') when 
not before a vowel, and (fl*r, e'e'r, 60' r, 
ww'r) always before, and admissibly not 
before, a vowel. The diphthong theo- 
retically indicated by the acute accent 
mark is quite perfect. There is no 
tendency to form two syllables, as a 
general rule. But I have heard (foojBJ, 
koojeit) from old people, see (Goo'ea) 
(726, c). Smart says (Diet. art. 54, 
note) that there is no difference in 
London between payer and pair. To 
me the sounds are (p^Bi, peea), and the 
use of the first for the second, which I 
sometimes hear, appears to me to be 
an archaism. Instead of (oojui) or 
(ooi), however, it is extremely com- 
mon to hear (AA) or (AA', AAI) if the 
speaker is very "correct" (95, a,d. 197, 
a. 245, ab. 575, eel. 603, a'). This (<XU) 
is the only recognized combination in 
which (oo) remains in modern English, 
but it is rapidly disappearing. A few 
use it in (doog, oo'frs), see (94, d. 
602, 04), but here it is more often 
(ooh, oa, AA), and is intended for (a). 

Bonders identifies (j) in this com- 
bination with the glottal r (i), see 
(8, e), saying (op. cit. p. 20) : " The 
sound of (i) is easy to produce. Sing 
as deep a note as possible, and then try 
to sing a deeper one. The voice will 
be replaced by a peculiar crackling 
noise (krakend geMd}." After noticing 
its relation to the Arabic ain (g), he 
says: "Thick voices are inclined to 
use it as a vowel. Others connect it 
or alternate it with the voice, giving a 
tone of lacrymose sentimentality, and, 
when the mouth is closed, it is heard 
as a mournful moan. It is also used 
as a trill. Briicke considers it to be 
the trill of the Low Saxons. I heard 
it thus used in the London dialect in a 
peculiar manner : horse was pronounced 
simply as ose but with the moaning 
voice (i), which gives a little trilling 
effect to the consonant." But Land 
(Over Uitspraak en Spelling, Amster- 
dam, 1870) says: "r is very soft both in 
Friesic and English ; at the beginning 
of a syllable it seems to consist of one 
single stroke of the tongue, and before 
an explosive consonant, after a long 
vowel (boord, peerd, compare English 
bird, park}, it sounds to my ear as if 


4. (ooi) continued. 
there were no stroke of the tongue at 
all, but in its place the indeterminate 
Towel o 13 (a), or, as others pronounce, 
a guttural explodent, spiritus lenis. 
For the last it may be pleaded that in 
singing the English use the full r, 
which is the only one used in Scotland, 
Ireland and Wales. Whether the 
moaning r is heard with the vowel, in 
place of an r after it, as Bonders re- 
marks of the low London horse, in 
the Friesian dialect, deserves investi- 
gation in loco." This glottal (i) occurs 
in Danish. See Mr. Sweet's valuable 
paper on Danish Pronunciation (Trans, 
of Philological Society for 1873-4, 
part 1, p. 109) where he also thinks 
that I have misunderstood the quota- 
tion from B. Jonson (200, c), in con- 
sidering that he alluded to (i) as the 
sound in the middle as well as at 
the end of words, and considers that 
Jonson may have alluded to the dif- 
ference between trilled (r) and untrilled 
(r c ). I had merely thought that 
Jonson's illustrations were imperfect, 
and that he had given no case of middle 
r, unless the middle r in rarer were 
doubled, as at present (reerri) or 
(ree'-ra). This, however, seerns im- 
possible to determine, as Jonson's voice 
is hushed. 

In rapid speaking four becomes quite 
(fA), and in "four or five," we have 
most frequently (fATAfa'rvf,) or even 

(fooj). The tongue being put 
ready for (oo) or (AA). while (f) is said 
with the lips, the glide to (oo) is very 
brief, but still the (foo) is quite dif- 
ferent from (fjoo). The glide (ooj) or 
(60') is very close and distinct, but the 
vowel is not shortened, when under 
force. Mr. Bell's (foa) arises from his 

of the first vowel of a diphthong. As 
a rule all our peculiar diphthongs (z'z'i, 
eei, 601, MWJ, eeij 6ou] have the fii-st 
vowel intentionally long, and our usual 
diphthongs (a', o7, Q r t(, iu) frequently 
lengthen the second vowel, as Hart 
marked them (152, a}. But English- 
men constantly pronounce a diphthong 
very briefly indeed, so that this length 
is relative to that of the whole diph- 
thong, considered independently, not to 
that of the syllable in which it occurs 
or of other syllables in the word. 

5. FIVE, Bell's (faiv), my 

(f). See No. 4. 

(e't). See(107,foto 109, a. and 
234, cb), for the various theories of the 
sound of this diphthong in English ; 
and (287, e to 291, e) for the Scotch 
sounds, and (295, c] for the Dutch ij, ei. 
After much attention to the habits of 
English speakers, I believe the last 
element to be really (i), not (i), al- 
though I have generally written (ai). 
This must be regarded as rather a 
rough symbolisation, the mark of stress 
not being inserted. In the present 
chapter, where very accurate analysis 
is aimed at, I shall almost invariably 
employ the manner of marking diph- 
thongs already explained (419, c), so 
that every diphthong or triphthong 
will have the acute accent on or 
after (according to typographical con- 
venience) the element which bears the 
stress, and the adjacent elements glide 
on to or from that element. Hence 
Mr. Melville Bell's "glides" p. 15, 
5c, 51, are represented by (i, u), simply 
with an acute on the adjoining letter, 
so that (ai, au) precisely transliterate 
his symbols. But Mr. Bell's "glides " 
leave it in doubt whether the second 
element is (i, u) or (?', u}, and these, 
with many more niceties, are perfectly 
indicated by the present notation. 

The first element of the long , as I 
speak, seems to be (a) ; but when I try 
to lengthen it for analysis, I seem to 
take (ah), which has the same position 
of the tongue, but a wider opening 
behind. I certainly do not say (&., di ). 
I occasionally and but rarely hear (a) 
from educated people, and have never 
noticed '(di} from them. As a grey- 
beard, I am constantly asked by children 
in Kensington Gardens, to tell them 
the "time." From them I frequently 
hear (a/, a'e), and I have heard the 
last from educated women. Irishmen 
may say (ai, oh'i), but I have not been 
able to analyze the sound. It seems 
to me that Irishmen have a peculiar 
method of " widening," or enlarging 
the pharynx, etc., which gives a re- 
markable effect to some vowels. In- 
dicating this by an inferior ( 2 ), the Irish 
sound appears to me (a 3 'e). This is, 
however, a matter of local or individual 
habit, requiring considerable study to 


5. (a't) continued. 

ascertain satisfactorily. English singers 
say (at), and in singing to a long note 
seem to sing (a-aah-t), the chief stress 
resting on (a) and chief length on (aah), 
with () and the glide up to it very short. 
The sound in English is hence in- 
determinate, hut those who have learned 
Greek generally distinguish two values, 
high and low. * The high is , one of 
the forms (a'*', aht, a'i) ; the low is ai, 
one of the forms (at, a't). The words 
eye, aye are now so distinguished (a't, 
at), but the pun on " the noes and the 
ayes, the nose and the eyes," suffi- 
ciently shews that the distinction need 
not be insisted on now, as Shakspere's 
pun on I, eye, aye (112, be), shews that 
he also heard them much alike. There 
are other diphthongs approaching this, 
with final (y) or (0), but I have not 
observed them as varieties of (ai) in 
English, (/y) occurs in Dutch heup, 
and (aeh'i) in Dutch lui, (aeh'y) in 
Dutch huis (Danders, Phys. d. Spr. 
pp. 15, 16; see also Land, op. cit.), 
correcting my appreciation as (a'y) on 
(235, d). Observe the Norfolk (*'y) in 
(138, c). Diphthongisation confounds 
originally perfectly distinct vowels. 
When (i) once admits an antecedent 
deeper sound, we get the series (/'i, d'\, 
ei, E'i, ae't, at, aat, aa', aa), till (i) has 
disappeared. And by varying (t) into 
(y) there is a tendency to pass to (u) 
and hence get into variants of (), 
while by broadening (a) to (a) we are 
at once brought into the (at', oh't, o't 
A'I) series, which also comes from (ui, 
ut, ui, 6i, 6t, o't). All tliese changes, 
actually observed in practice, are of 
great philological interest. Their 
proper bearing cannot be properly ap- 
preciated without studying our dialectal 
vowel relations. Mr. Bell has not 
introduced an example of the last or 
(6i) series among his key-words. It is 
by no means widely known in the (6i) 
form. In older English we had two 
forms (ui, 6i). The former regularly 
became (a't) in the xvnth century, and 
remains in one or other of the many 
forms of this diphthong vulgarly ana 
in several dialects. The second gene- 
rally appears dial ec tally as (6t, o't, A't), 
but is occasionally assimilated as (at). 
Now by a converse assimilation, edu- 
cated English, orthographically misled 
no doubt, has, within the last hundred 
years, reduced all the original (ui) set 
of (a't) sounds to (o't, A't), which is 

5. (a't) continued. 
far worse than the derided Irish, or 
provincial pronunciation of i as one of 
this series, because the educated pro- 
nunciation is simply an orthographically 
superinduced mis-pronunciation, and the 
other is an organic development : yet 
one is upheld and the other ridiculed. 
Educated ignorance is always absurd. 

(v). The buzz of (f ). It is 
remarkable that though this sound is so 
easy and common in English, French, 
and Italian, it should generally be 
found difficult. The observations of 
Merkel (Phys. d. mensch Spr. pp. 211- 
12) shew that although he knew (f), 
he had no proper conception of (v), 
which Briicke and Lepsius claim for 
German w. He says : " (f ) cannot as 
such be vocalised or combined with 
vibrations of the vocal chords; the 
organs are obliged, in the attempt, to 
assume an intermediate position be- 
tween that of (ph) and that of (f), and 
to separate so far that they can occa- 
sion no sensible noise (erhebliches 
Gerausch}. When then sonant breath 
is driven through them, we hear a 
sound, which is scarcely at all (fast 
gar nicht) distinct from (bh), but for 
which the lips are not exactly opposed, 
the under lip being somewhat retracted 
under the upper lip," and hence he 
does not distinguish (v) by a separate 
sign. But all Englishmen can press 
the lower lip firmly against the upper 
teeth and buzz, that is, produce the 
effect of a mixture of vocalised and 
un vocalised breath. The way in which 
(v) can shade into (bh) is remarkable 
(549, a, d. 518, b, d'}. With reference 
to the remark on Sanscrit v on p. 518, 
the following citation from Prof. Whit- 
ney (Atharva-Vcda Praticakhya, text, 
translation and notes, New Haven, U.S., 
1872, p. 26) is important: "The Vaj. 
Pr. . . . defines the same sounds, [the 
v- series, u, v,~] as produced upon the 
lip and by the lip, and then adds far- 
ther that in the utterance of v the tips 
of the teeth are employed : the same 
specification as to v is made by the 
Taitt. Pr. (its commentator explaining 
that in the utterance of that letter the 
points of the upper teeth are placed on 
the edge of the lower lips). . . The 
descriptions of v given by the two 
Prati^-akhyas of the Yajur Veda, as 
well as tht offered by the Paninean 
scheme (which declares its organs of 


6. (v) continued. 

utterance to be the teeth and lips), 
leave no room to doubt that at their 
period the v had already generally lost 
its original and proper value as Eng- 
lish w as which alone it has any light 
to be called a semivowel, and to rank 
with y and, doubtless passing through, 
the intermediate stage of the German 
w, had acquired the precise pronuncia- 
tion of English v." That is, Prof. 
"Whitney assumes, the series : 1. 
vowel (u), with, back of tongue 
raised and resonant lip opening; 2. 
(w), with back of tongue raised and 
non-resonant, restricted lip opening ; 

3. (bh), with back of tongue lowered, 
and similar (not identical) lip opening ; 

4. (v), with lower lip against upper 
teeth, increasing the buzz materially. 
On making the series (u-w-bh-v) in one 
breath, the motion of the organs will 
become apparent, and though the sounds 
are constantly confused, yet it will be 
felt in the vibratory motions of the lips 
themselves that there is a material dif- 
ference. On 9th July, 1873, having an 
opportunity of observing the pro- 
nunciation of Mr. M. 0. Mookerjey, 
a native Bengalee gentleman, and 
not detecting any of the characteristic 
buzz of a (v), arising from the division 
of the stream of air by the teeth, I 
asked him whether he actually touched 
his teeth, and he said : " very little." 
Now (v) with faint dental contact is 
scarcely separable from (bh) without 
any dental contact. Hence the misty 
borderland between these two sounds. 
" There is no certainty in the accounts 
we have of English v and German w 
occurring in exotic languages, for when 
either is mentioned we have no proof 
that the observer knew the difference." 
(Prof. S. S. Haldeman, Analytic Or- 
thography, art. 462.) It came like a 
revelation upon Mr. Kovacs, an Hun- 
garian, when he found he had to use 
his teeth for English (v). I had ob- 
served he had a difficulty with veal, 
which from his lips sounded to English 
ears as (wiil), being really (bhiil). 
"When he first attempted to say (viil), he 
produced (bh*dhiil), making the buzz 
by bringing his tongue, instead of his 
lower lip, against the upper teeth. I 
asked him to make inquiries among his 
fellow-countrymen, and he assured me 
that none of them used the teeth for 
/, 0, that is, all said (ph, bh). Yet 
Mr. Kovacs had been long enough 

5. (v) continued. 

in England to preach publicly in 
English. And Lepsius makes Magyar 
/, v = (f, v), and not (ph, bh) (Stand- 
ard Alphabet, p. 220). These facts 
support Prof. Haldeman's dictum. I 
have seldom heard a German able to 
distinguish (w, v). When Prof. Max 
Miiller (whose r is also uvular) is lectur- 
ing, I find much difficulty in distin- 
guishing words and verbs, although he 
has been many years in England, is 
perfectly conversant with the language, 
and has attended much to phonetics. 
Prof. Haldeman says he can ''distin- 
guish across a room, whether a speaker 
of German uses the German w or Eng- 
lish v, provided the voice is familiar" 
(Anal. Orth., p. 93, n.). See about the 
German professor (1093, be). In Dutch 
v, w both occur. Dr. Gehle seemed to 
pronounce u, v, w as (yy, vee, bhee). 
Land (ibid. p. 30) says Dutch "/ and 
v are not formed with both lips, but 
with the under lip and upper teeth, and 
have consequently a peculiar character 
for the ear, and for both reasons should 
be separated from the p- series. The 
explosive consonant" Slag consonant, 
implying a perfect closure of the oral 
passage, a species of b, palaeotype (B), 
" formed in the same place, is our 
usual w at the beginning of a syllable, 
also usual in High German (ook in 't 
Hoogduitsch gebniikeUjk), and is con- 
sequently distinguished from the next- 
mentioned labial w both by its place 
and mode of articulation. The Dutch 
language possesses, as well as the 
English, a murmuring or buzzing 
(ruischend) w, which is nothing but u 
with a stronger closure (sterkere ver- 
naauwing) than the vowel. The sound 
occurs exclusively after a u, huwen, that 
is, hiiu-tven, rouwen = ro l u-wen, eeuwen 
= (Hy'u-wen, ro'u'wra, 
) apparently, " and must be 
distinguished from our usual w in 
wat, wil. A low (platte) pronun- 
ciation only knows the labio-dental 
w." Now this explosive (B) is Brucke's 
theoretical b z , see (4, a), described 
as having the closure (Verschluss) 
effected, not as in the usual p with 
both lips, but with the under lip and 
upper teeth (Grundziige, p. 34), and 
Brlicke (ibid.) makes German w = (v). 
Hence, Land's definition having puzzled 
me, I applied to Prof. Donders, who in 
a private letter, dated llth Nov. 1872, 
says : " Dutch v and / agree perfectly 


5. (v) continued. 

with English v and/," which English- 
men are accustomed to consider identi- 
cal with French v and /, and hence 
what follows is puzzling : "In French 
v I think I perceive a little approxima- 
tion to German w ; the lips perhaps 
approach one another rather more, and 
the upper teeth do not so determinatelv 
rest on the lip (in de Fransehe v rneen ik 
eene kleine toenadering tot de Duitsche 
w te herkennen : de lippen naderen 
elkander misschien iets meer, en niet 
zoo bepaaldt rusten de tanden der 
opperkaak op de lippen). Our w 
agrees exactly with the German. At 
the end of words in mrw, leevw, the u 
makes it approach nearer to English w. 
.... I have been as much surprised 
as yourself at Land's opinion that w 
can be the labio-dental explodent. At 
the conclusion he seems to refer exclu- 
sively to the low (platte) pronunciation. 
But I have not met with it, even there. 
I doubt whether this labio-dental ex- 
plodent occurs at all. When inten- 
tionally (met opzef) used, it sounds to 
me like an impure (onzuiver) b or p." 
We have here a clear distinction between 
(f, v, bh, w, u), as all occurring in one 
and the same language, by an observer 
of European reputation. 

While this page was passing through 
the press, I had the interview already 
mentioned with Mr. Gupta (1096, a}. 
I was particularly anxious to ascertain 
his views respecting Sanscrit v. He 
made decidedly an English (v) with a 
faint pressure of the lower lip against 
the teeth, and did not seem to know 
that a v sound could be otherwise pro- 
duced. On my pronouncing to him 
first (vii, vee, vaa, voo, vuu), and next 
(bhii, bhee, bhaa, bhoo, bhuu), the first 
with faint and the second with strong 
buzz, so as to imitate the first, as a 
strong (bh) buzz is generally much 
weaker than any (v) buzz, he decidedly 
recognized the former and not the 
latter for the Sanscrit sound. But then 
came two curious pieces of information, 
first that Sanscrit v after a consonant 
is always called (w), and secondly, that 
in Bengalee (b) is said for both b and v 
Sanscrit. The manner, however, in 
which he pronounced v and y after con- 
sonants gave, to my ear, the effect of 
stressless (u, i) dipthongising with the 
following vowel, as (anusuaara), rather 
than (anuswaara). Instead then of an 
interchange of (v, w), there w. s, to me 

5. (v) continued. 

(and I am anxious to express this as an 
individual opinion, which it would re- 
quire very much longer and more varied 
experience to raise to the rank of a 
conviction), rather a reversion to the 
original vowel (u). We have already 
seen the great difficulties in separating 
(u, w), supra No. 1, and we shall have 
several occasions again to refer to the 
effects of (u), both on a preceding and 
following consonant, which appear to 
me identical in nature with those of 
(i) and (y), see No. 9, below, and 2, 
No. 6, iv. The controversy is not 
likely to be readily settled. England, 
possessing (w, j), will use them for 
both consonants and stressless diph- 
thongising vowels. Germany, possess- 
ing (bh, j) or (v, j), will only use the 
latter (j) in this way, leaving the vowel 
(u) for the former. France, Italy, and 
Spain, having only vowels, will naturally 
use them only. Spanish (bb) is always 
thought of as (b), and hence would not 
be used. We thus get English kwa kya, 
German kua- kja, French koua kia, 
Italian and Spanish kua, kia, for the 
same sounds (ku& kia), or many shades 
of sounds up to (kw?a kja).. Initially 
Spaniards use hua and Italians tta. 
But I hope that attention will be 
directed beyond national habits of 
writing or speaking, and real usages 
will be ultimately determined. It is 
to me probable that there will be thus 
discovered an unconsciously simul- 
taneous usage of (kua kwa kwa, kia 
kja kja), with perhaps intermediate 
forms, and a gradation of (wa bha va, 
ja gjha), passing imperceptibly into 
each other through different degrees of 
consonantal buzz. As a mere practical 
rule (ua ia) is convenient, till the forms 
(u-u, i-f), indistinguishable from (uu, 
ii), would have to be reached on the 
one hand, and (vu, gjhi) on the other. 
The Bengalee confusion of v, b, Sanscrit, 
seems almost to negative the ex- 
istence of the (v) pronunciation of 
Sanscrit v, before the Bengalee variety 
arose. Confusions of (b, v) seem to 
occur in English dialects, but are very 
rare ; (b, bh) are often confused, a*s 
in Spanish, German, Hebrew ; the con- 
fusion of (b, w) is quite possible, but 
not so easy. The Bengalee custom, 
therefore, to me seems to indicate an 
original (bh) rather than (w) consonant, 
at the time the Devanagari alphabet 
was invented. The use of pre- alpha- 


5. (v) continued. 

betic stressless diphthongising (u-) I 
consider highly probahle. The wide 
philological hearing of this distinction 
must excuse the length of these remarks. 

(faftv). FOT the synthesis, the 
initial (f) hiss is short, and the voice 
does not begin till it finishes, so that 
(fva'av) is not heard. This must be 
clearly understood, as we have (szii) in 
German for sie, usually received as (zii) ; 
and we shall find that in whip, some 
hear (whwa'p). It is not the English 
habit in any words beginning with 
(f, th, s, sh) to interpose (v, dh, z, zh) 
by prematurely laying on the voice, or 
before the latter to emit a whisper by 
beginning with an open glottis, and 
thus deferring the laying on of the voice. 
Although it is possible that initial (v, 
z) may have been generated from (f, s) 
in Somersetshire, and previously in 
Dan Michel's dialect, by some such 
anticipation of the voice, followed 
afterwards by omission of the hiss 
(which of course was never written 
when the buzz was apparent), yet, as a 
rule, Englishmen avoid all deferred or 
premature laying on of voice, resulting 
from the open or closed glottis, and in 
this respect differ from German. "We 
never intentionally say (rhrii, Ihlii, 
mhmii, nhnii), although we have seen 
that Cooper (544, d] and Lediard 
(1046, o') conceived that knee was 
called (nhnii), and shall find a trace of 
this remaining in the Cumberland dialect. 
This makes (whwii, jrluii) suspicious. 
On the whole of this subject see No. 
14 below. The case is, however, very 
different -m^a. final (v, z, dh, zh). The 
prolongation of the buzz is apparently 
disagreeable to our organs, and hence 
we drop the voice before separating 
them, thus merging the buzz into a 
hiss unless a vowel follows, on to 
which the voice can be continued, or a 
consonant, which naturally shortens the 
preceding one. Thus in (fa'e'v) the 
voice begins at the moment the hiss of 
(f) ceases, and before the position for 
(9) is fully assumed, it glides on te> (a), 
glides off (a) on to ('), glides from (i) 
on to (v), continues through (v), and 
then, if the word is final, ceases, by 
the opening of the glottis before the 
(v) position is changed, producing 
(f), thus (h'ivf ). A following vowel, 
as in Jive and six (fa'tV-im-Siks), pre- 

6. (fa'tv) continued. 

vents this, but does not shorten the 
length of (v), and the voice glides on to 
the (B). A following voiced consonant, 
as Jive loaves (fa'iv loovzs), shortens the 
buzz, and there is no glide of the voice, 
as that would give an additional sylla- 
ble, (faiVtoovzs). A voiceless conso- 
nant, as Jive shillings (fo'iv shrh'qzs), 
does not introduce an (f), or change (v) 
into (f). The voice ceases at the (y), 
spoken very shortly, and the hiss 
begins at (sh), so that there is a clear 
discontinuity, and no Englishman feels 
a difficulty in what is to a German or 
Dutchman nearly insuperable. The 
extremely different habits of different 
nations in the change of voiced to 
voiceless forms, and convei'sely, and the 
systematic way in which they have 
been hitherto ignored, although forced 
on the attention of comparative philo- 
logists by the Sanscrit distinctions of 
pada and sanhita texts, give much 
linguistic importance to such observa- 
tions, minute as they may appear. See 
the Dutch custom in No. 9, (b). 

6. SIX, (siks.) 

(s). The hisses with central 
passage are so various in character that 
it is extremely difficult to distinguish 
them. They seem to form two groups : 
(s) in which the tongue is more forward 
and the back of the tongue not hollowed, 
and (sh) in which the tongue is more 
retracted and the back is hollowed. 
This general difference is best felt on 
taking some common words containing 
(s) or (sh) or both, as swiss, swish, 
swishes, wishes, session, sash, slush, 
(swis, swish, swrshezs, wrshezs, se-shen, 
ssesh, slash), and interchanging (s, sh) 
as (shwe'sh, shwa's, shwfshesh, shwrsesh, 
vfi sesh, she 'sen, shoes, shlas). "We may 
also pronounce them in immediate 
succession, as (poze'sshtm) possession, 
properly (poze'shen). Try also to say 
(s-shii, s-shaa, s-shuu), which are easy, 
and (sh-sii, sh-saa, sh-suu), which are 
difficult, at least to my organs. .Now, 
so far as I can judge, any variety of 
the forward (s) and any variety of the 
backward (sh) would be intelligible in 
English, and I do not think that we 
naturally know much about the varieties. 
I think however that (s, sh) and ( v s, v sh), 
written fts, $sh) on (800, b'), are really 
kept apart. If we say gas, cats, con- 



6. (s) continued. 

tinuing the s sharply, and being very 
careful to keep its position in cats, 
I think we hear (gsesss, k8et x s x s v s), and 
after a little practice we may even say 
(ka3 t s), which will not rhyme to (gses). 
This will be more distinct when we say 
(k8e x t x s), the tip of the tongue then 
coming very close indeed to the back 
of the front teeth, while in (kget x s) 
it is behind the back of the upper 
gum (1096, c), and in (gaes) it may lie 
behind and between the teeth, or 
really press against the lower gums, 
the hiss being between the hard palate 
and the middle of the tongue. If we 
hiss a tune, without quite whistling, 
with the lips open, producing the differ- 
ence of pitch by the mere motion of the 
tongue, we shall find great varieties in 
the position of the tongue, and that the 
pitch is highest when the tip of the 
tongue is forward and near the gums. 
We shall find also that the tongue can 
be retracted considerably without de- 
stroying the (s) effect, provided the 
breath be not allowed to resound in the 
hollow behind the tongue, which imme- 
diately produces the effect of (sh) , and 
that the central aperture be not checked 
or divided, the former giving (t) and 
the latter a lisp, nearly (th). I think 
there has been some error about the 
Spanish z on (802, d. 4, ab\ and that it 
is not ( A s), as there stated, and as Mr. 
Melville Bell, who has been in Spain, 
makes it (Visible Speech, p. 93) ; but 
that it is (s), using () as on (11, dc), 
that is, a divided (s), with perhaps only 
a slight central check, produced by 
bringing the tip of the tongue very 
gently against the gum. In this case 
the buzz would be (z). Prince Louis 
Lucien Bonaparte says that the true 
Castillian s is the Basque * ; and as he 
pronounced this s to me, it sounded like a 
retracted (,s) with a rattle of moisture. 
The Andalusian s is, he says, perfect. 
The (s) sound of c, z is not acknowledged 
in Spain (802, d) at all, although heard 
in Spanish America. See further in 
No. 10, (sh). 

Note also the drunken tendency to 
confuse (s) with (sh) in England, clearly 
indicating the greater ease of (sh) to 
organs which can produce it at all. To 
an Icelander, Welshman, Dutchman, 
Spaniard, Greek, (sh) presents great 
difficulties. Note in upper German, 
the parent of the literary high Germun, 
not only the tendency to initial (shp, 

6. (s) continued. 

sht,) where (sp, st) only are written, as 
well as the spoken and written (shl, 
shr, shm, shn, shbh), but the final 
(-sht,) written -st, which constantly 
crops up in vulgar German, and is 
almost as great a social sin in Germany 
as a " dropped aitch " in England. 
Note also that in English (shl, shm, 
shn, shw) do not occur, although (si, 
sm, sn, sw) are common, and that (shr-) 
offers difficulties to many English 
speakers, notably at -SVewsbury in tfrop- 
shire. Note also that sp-, st-, are lazily 
pronounced (shp-, sht-) by Neapoli- 
tans. Note that (sh) seems to be a 
derived sound in the greater part of 
Europe, although existing in Sanscrit, 
but is frequent in Slavonic languages. 
In Hungarian (sh) is so much commoner 
than (s), that the simple * is used for 
(sh), and the combination ss for (s) ; 
while z, zs are (z, zh). The (zh) is a 
very rare form in Europe, and has been 
only recently developed in English. In 
Bengalee all three Sanscrit letters, c, 
sh, s, are confused in reading as (sh), 
while in vulgar speech simple (H) is 
used for (s), so that, strangely enough, 
this dialect has no (s) at all. 

0'). See No. 3 (ii). No Eng- 
lishman naturally says (siks) ; it would 
sound to him like (siiks) seeks ; and few 
are able to produce the sound without 
much practice. It is best reached by 
pronouncing seek, teat, peep with 
great rapidity. This (i} is the touch- 
stone of foreigners, especially of Ro- 
mance nations. It occurs in Icelandic 
(544, c}, and is often heard in the North 
of Germany. In Holland short i seems 
to have passed quite into (e), see Land 
(ibid. p. 17), as is generally the case in 

(k). The back of the tongue 
is very nearly in the (u) position, but 
rises so as to close the passage. It is 
not at all in the (i) or (y) position, but 
if an (aa) follows in English, many 
speakers habitually raise the tongue 
to the (i) instead of the (u) position, 
producing (k), almost (k*j), see (205, a). 
This sound is still much heard in cart, 
quart, sky, kind, etc., but is antiquated 
(600, d. 206, c}. There is not the same 
tendency when (i,i) follow or precede. 
This insertion of (i) before an (a) sound 
is very prevalent dialcctally. See the 
theory in 2, No. 6, iv. 


6. (stks). 

(s*ks). Keep the hiss (s) quite 
clear of the voice, begin the voice the 
instant that the (s) hiss ceases, glide on 
to (a), and dwelling very briefly on the 
vowel (its extreme shortness is charac- 
teristic), glide rapidly on to the (k), so 
as to shut off the voice with a kind of 
thump, opening the glottis at the same 
time, but allow no pause, and glide on 
to the hiss of (s) immediately. The 
glides from (i) to (k) and (k) to (s), 
make the kind of check audible, and 
distinguish (stks) clearly from (sits, 
sz'ps). It is quite possible, but not 
customary in English, to make (ks) 
initial, Xerxes being (Z.ikisiiz), not 
(Ks.i;ksiis). Similarly (ps, ts) never 
begin syllables in English, except by a 
glide, thus (praxis] gives (pra3'ks*'s), in 
which (k) has one glide from (ee) and 
another on to (s), the syllable dividing 
between them. 

7. SEYEN, Bell's (sE-vnn), 
my (seVn). 

(s). See No. 6, (s). 

(e, E). These vowels differ in 
the height of the tongue. Mr. M. 
Bell determined my pronunciation 
(106, ) to be (e), and considered it 
abnormally high, believing the usual 
sound to be (E). Mr. Murray has the 
same opinion. Both agree that my (e) 
is the sound in fair (feea), and that it 
differs from fail (feel), any presumed 
diphthongal character of the latter 
being disregarded, as (a) does from (i). 
Mr. Bell gives ell as (E!) English, (B'!) 
Scotch, and makes French #m = (vEA). 
The latter to my ear is nearer (VOBA), 
but the French have no (03), and hence 
(E) is their nearest non-nasal. It is 
possible or even probable that my ear 
is deceived by my own practice, but I 
certainly know, from long residence in 
the countries, the German a in sprache 
(shprEE'&lre), the Italian e aperto in 
bene (bE'n<?), the French e in bete (bEEt) 
and occasionally (bEt), and all these 
sounds appear to me much deeper than 
any usually uttered by educated Southern 
Englishmen. Since the difference was 
pointed out, I have paid much attention 
to such speakers, and my own im- 
pression is that (e) is much commoner 
than (E). I certainly occasionally 
recognize (E), but it always strikes me 
as unpleasant. The three sounds (e, e, 

7. (e, E) continued. 
E) form a series, and if the usual 
English e short is deeper tha-n my (e), 
it is not so deep as the foreign sounds 
just described. Mr. Murray (Dialects 
of S. Scotland, pp. 106, note 2, and 
239) has felt obliged to introduce new 
signs, for which he uses acute and grave 
accents (e e, e e), but as the acute ac- 
eent has been used in palaeotype to mark 
the element under force in diphthongs 
as (ui, ui), some other notation is re- 
quisite. Mr. M. Bell (Vis. Sp. p. 77), 
after describing his 36 vowels, says, 
" Other faintly different shades of vowel 
sound are possible; as for instance, 
from giving a greater or less than the 
ordinary or symmetrical degree of lip 
modification. Even these delicate 
varieties may be perfectly expressed by 
the modifiers [as a certain set of Mr. 
Bell's symbols are called, because they 
' modify' the meaning of the symbols to 
which they are subjoined, the four prin- 
cipal 'modifiers' being called] 'close,' 
' open,' ' inner,' ' outer,' or by the ' link ed ' 
symbols ; but such compound letters can 
never be required in the writing of lan- 
guages, except to show the curiously 
minute accuracy with which these plastic 
physiological symbols may be applied." 
Mr. Bell (ibid. p. 55) had defined his 
'close' and 'open' signs, which are 
those on p. 15 supra, col. 9, lines I, m, 
as follows : " The sign of ' closeness ' 
applied to any of the preceding con- 
sonants denotes a narrower aperture, 
with increased sharpness of sibilation 
and percussiveness on leaving the 
configuration; and the sign of 'open- 
ness' denotes a widened aperture with 
consequent dullness of sibilation and 
lessened percussion. Thus in form- 
ing (ph) with 'closeness' a mere 
thread of breath issues through the 
narrow crevice between the lips as in 
blowing to cool ; and in forming (ph) 
[with 'openness'] the breath flows 
through the wide orifice with the effect 
of a sigh on the lips. The latter effect 
is interjectionally expressive of faint- 
ness or want of air." Mr. Bell identi- 
fied my (.) and () with his signs of 
' closeness ' and 'openness' respectively ; 
but 1 meant and used them for signs of 
increased and diminished force, inde- 
pendently of aperture : and hence the 
transcription of his signs on p. 15, 
column 9, lines I and in, by my (.) and 
(,,), is incorrect. The ' inner ' and ' outer ' 
or the signs on supra p. 15, col. 9, lines 


7 . (e, E) continued. 

i, Ar, are those formerly expressed by 
(I (), and now by ( /v ). 

The lip modifications of the vowels will 

or lowering the tongue, seem to be 
most graphically expressed by superior 
and inferior figures, as (e l , e, ej. If 
more degrees are considered necessary, 
it will be better to write (e 1 , e 11 , e 111 ) 
rather than (e 1 , e 2 , e 3 ) as the superior 
(V) may be required for other pur- 
poses. The signs l l may also be con- 
veniently used for Mr. Bell's ' closeness ' 
and 'openness' generally, which may 
now be combined with the signs of 
force, thus his close (ph) will be (.ph 1 ), 
when the breath issues forcibly through 
a narrow crevice formed by raising the 
underlip, and (,,ph l ), when it issues 
feebly ; while (.phj ^b^) indicate great 
and small force of issue through a wide 
opening, formed by depressing the 

There are no doubt many other 
modifications, which would render in- 
telligible such signs, as : (,e) the tongue 
drawn more back for ' inner ' (e), and 
( v e) the tongue further advanced for 
'outer' (e), or (e 2 ) more hollowness at 
the back of the tongue for ' hollow ' 
(e), (e 2 ) greater widening of the throat 
for ' guttural ' (e), as was already sug- 
gested for the Irish modification of 
vowels (1100, d\ where the ( 2 2 ) in- 
dicate "secondary" kinds of "widen- 
ing," in addition to those of Mr. Bell, 
( 2 ) between the tongue and pharynx, 
( 2 ) in the pharynx only ; and in com- 
paring different dialects other signs 
may be necessary. It is also often 
difficult to say which of two vowels 
any new vowel sound which an ob- 
server may happen to note, and de- 
sires to symbolize, most resembles, and 
here we may resort to superior letters, 
as (^), meaning "the sound seems to 
me most like (e), but I sometimes hear 
it approach to (), and suppose it may 
be some ' intermediate ' sound, which I 
cannot as yet determine further than by 
considering it as an (e) verging towards 
('), and hence should prefer noting as 
(e)," whereas (i e ) would give the pre- 
ference to (t). It is obvious that these 
are merely temporary signs, but they are 
useful in interpreting vague, or written 
accounts of ' intermediate ' sounds, and, 
as such, will be hereafter employed in 
rendering Mr. Smart's symbols. 

7. (e, E) continued. 

Using a superior ( ! ) and inferior ( x ) 
for Mr. Murray's acute and grave, we 
may read his note thus (ibid. p. 106): 
" As pronounced in the South of Scot- 
land, it [the vowel in sail, say] is cer- 
tainly opener than the French or Eng- 
lish ai (e). But it is nearer to this (e) 
than to any other of the six front 
vowels (i i, e , re B). A long and 
careful observation of the sounds of 
English and Scottish dialects, and col- 
lation with those of the Standard Eng- 
lish, has convinced me that, in order 
to shew their precise values and rela- 
tions, it would be necessary to make 
a more minute division of the vowel 
scale " than in Visible Speech (supra 
p. 15). Then, accepting the above 
notation for higher and lower or closer 
and opener, he says : " The Eng. ai in 
watt being then (<;), the South Sc. would 
be (^ ; the close sound common in 
Edinburgh would be (e 1 ). The S. Sc. 
sound in \xeae would probably be 
rather (e' 1 ') than (?'), as we are obliged 
to make it when only using the three 
vowels. The Sc. y in hi/11, bz/t, would 
probably be (e 1 ) rather than (e), ex- 
plaining how the diphthong ey (ei) seems 
closer than aiy (ei), which it ought not to 
be if y in bijt (bet) were the exact 
'wide' of ai in bait. In the round 
[labialised] vowels also, the very close o 
used in Edinburgh, which, compared with 
my 0, seems almost (u), would probably 
be (o 1 ), and the South Sc. uo might 
be (o 1 ') rather than (w'). It need 
scarcely be said that no single language 
or dialect does ever in practical use 
distinguish such fine shades ; few 
idioms even find the three positions 
distinct enough ; none certainly dis- 
tinguish the six sounds formed by the 
' primaries ' and ' wides ' of any series 
(except as accidental varieties due to 
the character of the following conso- 
nant, or to the presence or absence of 
accent never to distinguish words). 
It is only in comparing different lan- 
guages or dialects that we find the 
exact quality given to particular vowels 
in one, intermediate between certain 
vowels in another, the one set of sounds 
grouping themselves, so to say, along- 
side of and around, but not quite coin- 
ciding with the other set." I quote 
these words to fully endorse them, and 
again shew the difficulty of phonetic 
writing. In particular the deeper (u), 
which may be (11) with an (o) position 
of the lips, or (u ) as we shall write, 


7. (e, E)~ continued. 
or an (0) with a higher tongue, that is 
(o 1 ), is a sound fully appreciated by 
northern dialectal speakers as distinct 
from (w), and sounds to my ears much 
more distinct from it, than (E, a) from 
(e, 9). 

To return to (<?, e, E). If any of those 
English speakers whom I hear say (e) 
do really take a ' lower ' sound, it is 
rather (e^ than (E) ; or if they are con- 
sidered to take (e^, then the foreign 
sound is (E : ) or even (E U ). Prince 
L. L. Bonaparte separates the very open 
e of some French grammarians in acces, 
from the Italian e aperto, and makes it 
the ' wide ' of the latter. He identifies 
(E) with the Italian sound, but not (SB) 
with the French sound, so that (E X ) 
would be the more correct represen- 
tative of the latter. The distinc- 
tion of three (e)- sounds, (0, e, E) I 
find convenient, and I generally use (e) 
when I cannot satisfactorily determine 
the sound to be (e) or (E), that is (e) 
may often be considered as (e e ) or (e E ) . 
I think the tendency of educated pro- 
nunciation, which affects thinness, is 
towards (e) rather than (E), and I 
should put down (e) as the regular 
Spanish and Welsh pronunciations of 
e, neither language having apparently 
(e, E). In Italian, (e) is replaced by (e, 
E) ; but I consider (e) to have been the 
old Latin e, though the Latin ^ may 
have been (EE). In French I think 
the open e is rather (e) than (E), except 
under force or emphasis, when, as just 
shewn, (E X ) may occur, but (E) is always 
the intention. The substitution of (e) 
for (E) is like that of (ah) for (a), which 
is also going on in the Paris of to-day. 
In the French conjunction et, now 
always (e), the vowel was once (E), a 
sound now reserved for est. 

(v). See No. 5, (v). 

('n) . For the simple (n) see No. 
1, (n). Initials is seldom lengthened, 
though some will say (nnnoo) for a 
dubious negative. When (n) forms a 
syllable by itself Mr. Bell considers it 
to be lengthened, and writes (nn). I 
prefer to write ('n), and similarly 
('1, 'm) ; but it is not necessary to write 
('j), as (.1) when not following a vowel 
necessarily forms a syllable. But seven 
can be pronounced in one syllable (sevn), 

7. ('n) continued. 

and is often so reckoned. It does not 
seem to be usual. Hence I write 
(se-v'n). Orthoepists are much divided 
as to how far the use of syllabic 
('1, 'm, 'n) is ' admissible.' In practice 
it is seldom that they are accurately 
distinguished from (el, em, en), as in 
principal, principle, both often called 
(prrnstp'l). The tendency is clear 
towards syllabic ('1, 'm, 'n), but there 
is much ' educated ' or rather ' ortho- 
graphic' resistance. Notwithstanding 
ags.y/7, clergymen insist on (ii-vi'l), and 
even say (de-vtl), see (81, d), which we 
find Bp. Wilkins using (998, c). We 
have, however, seen the effect of the 
efforts of Dr. Gill's "docti interdum." 
At present it is ' safest ' for those who 
have not an acknowledged literary or 
social position to use a vowel, as (el, 
em, 'en), but care must be taken not to 
have the clear vowels (a3l, sem, sen ; el, 
em, en), which have a pedantic, puristic 
effect, and can be at most endured in 
public speaking from desire to be dis- 
tinctly audible, never in ordinary con- 
versation. See the remarks of Prof. 
Haldeman, prefixed to the account of 
his pronunciation, below in this section, 

(seVn). The glides from (s) to 
(v) are as in (fa'z'v). But (v) glides on 
to vocal (n), so that in all cases there is 
a transitional vowel-sound heard between 
the buzz (v) and the nasal resonance 

8. EIGHT, Bell's (e'it), my 

(ee). We now come to a hotly- 
disputed point of English pronuncia- 
tion. I differ entirely from Mr. Bell as 
to the habit of educated southern Eng- 
lishmen. The diphthong (e'i), or rather 
(ei) and even (se'), I have heard, and 
especially from Essex people, but 
certainly the compression of the first 
element is unusual, and at most (eei) 
can be insisted on. 1 have had occa- 
sion to refer to this diphthongal pro- 
nunciation frequently. See (57, d. 
74, b. 106, a. 191, a. 234, a. 542, b. 
596 c'. 597, ). The sound is insisted 
on by Smart, who says, "The English 
alphabetic accented , in the mouth of 
a well-educated Londoner, is not exactly 
the sound which a French mouth utters 
either in fee or in fete, being not so 


8. (ee) continued. 

narrow as the former, nor so broad as 
the latter. Moreover, it is not quite 
simple, but finishes more slenderly than 
it begins, tapering, so to speak, towards 
the sound" of e in me (294, d}. The 
two French words being (fee, fEEt), this 
would make the English (eei) or (eei_i), 
and this I do not at all recognize. The 
first element at least sounds to me (ee}, 
and is generally distinctly recognizable 
by its length. There are, however, 
Londoners, or persons living in London, 
who dispute the possibility of prolong- 
ing (ee}, and who certainly immediately 
glide away towards (i}. Dr. Rush 
(Philosophy of the Human Voice, 
Philadelphia, 1827, p. 40), who was a 
careful observer, says : " "When the 
letter a, as heard in the word day, is 
pronounced simply as an alphabetic 
element, and with the duration which 
it has in that word, two sounds are 
heard continuously successive. The 
first has the well-known characteristic 
of this letter; and issues from the 
organs with a certain degree of fullness. 
The last is the element e heard in eve, 
and is a gradually diminishing sound." 
It is curious, however, that Prof. 
Haldeman (Analytic Orthography, Art. 
391) does not notice this diphthong, 
but makes "the English ay in pay, 
paid, day, weigh, ale, rage," to be 
" short in weight, hate, acre, Amos, 
Abram, ape, plague, spade," and iden- 
tifies it with German " weh, reh, je, 
planet, meer, mehr (more, but mahr 
tidings has e), edel. ehre, jgdoch," and 
with Italian "e chiuso." He writes 
eight as et, or (et). Still there is no 
doubt that French teachers have a great 
difficulty with most English pupils, in 
regard to this letter, and complain of 
their (boo v te) being called (boowtm), 
etc., but the audibility of this (-) 
differs with different speakers, and even 
with different words for the same 

Mr. Murray puts me quite out of court 
on this point, for in my palaeotypic 
rendering of the Hundredth Psalm he 
has changed my (ee, 00) into (eei, oou), 
saying (Dial, of S. Scot. p. 138, note): 
" I have veni ured to differ from Mr. 
Ellis's transcription only so far as to 
write the long a and 6 (eei, oou), as they 
are always pronounced in the south, 
and as 1 seem to hear them from Mr. 
Ellis himself, although he considers 
them theoretically as only (ee, oo}." 

8. (ee) continued. 

That is, according to his observations, 
whatever be my own subjective im- 
pression of my utterance, his subjective 
impression on hearing me say : name, 
aid, age, always, praise, gates, take, 
make ; oh ! so, know, approach, is the 
same as that which he derives from his 
own utterance of (ne'eim, e'eid, m'dzh, 
AAlwe'm, pre'm, ge'eits, te'eik, mc'eik ; 
oou ! soon, noou, ^proowtsh). Now I 
have resided three years in Dresden, 
where long e is uniformly (*), and not 
(EE), and none of my teachers found 
that I drifted into (eei}. I am also able 
to prolong an (ee} without change, as 
long as nay breath will last. I am not 
only familiar with hearing (eei} and 
even (ef), but I know precisely what 
movements are requisite t> produce 
them, and I have very carefully and 
frequently examined my pronunciation 
of this letter. I am inclined to ascribe 
Mr. Murray's impression that I always 
say (dei, oou) to his own South Scotch 
use of (ee lt oo^}, which are 'lower' 
sounds than mine, sounds indeed which 
I recognize to be strictly different from 
mine, and not to correspond to any 
vowels that I am acquainted with 
practically. Mr. Murray cites both 
syllables of French aide as having a 
' higher ' form than the South Scotch ; 
but Feline makes the first ai the "open 
e" (E), thus (Ed<?). He says als" that 
" the chief difference " of the Scutch 
from the Kngiish %< lies in the fact that 
it [the Sc.] is a uniform sound, not 
gliding or closing into ee, like the 
English at least the English of the 
south ; thus, English day > ee. Scotch 
day-ay. Tnis vowel is not recognized 
as stopped in English," but observe 
Haldeman's ft, "the vowel in wnit, 
main, being as long as in waif, may. 
In Scotch it occurs l<n^ and stopped, as 
in wayr, bay the, way, wait, tail (weer, 
b<?tfdh, w ee, wet, te\). the two last words 
being carefully distinguished from the 
English wnit. tail, (wet, t</d) or (w<-Vit, 
te't-il), and ivct, tell, but pronounc"d like 
the French '/" (Murray, p. 106.) 

Now before I compare my own obser- 
vations on my OA n and other educated 
southern pronunciation, with those of 
such an accomplished northern ph >ue- 
tician as Mi-. .Murray. 1 yroula d -aw 
attention to a similar difference of 
opinion among Dutchmen respecting 
their own pmm ici.ttimi. Prof, bonders 
(op. cit.} uses the vowel series i, e, e a , a, 



of which t, e a , a, appear to be (i, E, a), 
though the last may be (a), and e is 
either (e) or (e), probably the latter. 
His examples are Dutch bier for i, 
beer for e, wereld kerel bed for , 
and baar for a. When he comes to 
the diphthongs, he gives ei, which 
must be (ei) or (ei), and probably 
the latter, to the Dutch vowels in leep, 
leed, leek, leeg, etc., " with short imper- 
fect i, (not in leer, in which only e is 
heard), with less imperfect i in he, mee, 
and with perfect i in dee'i for deed hij," 
and makes Mei have the diphthong 
e a i = (v'i). Land (Over Uitspraak en 
Spelling), writing with especial reference 
to Donders, has three e's, e 1 =e, e*=e 
of Donders, and 3 , not in Donders. 
These three e's are clearly (E, e, e}, for 
although the two first are not well dis- 
tinguished by the French e 1 = pere, 
2 =frene, tete, the third e 3 is made = 
pre, ete. Now of these he says (p. 
17) : " e\ With us (bij ons) regularly 
long before r (beer, meer), where in the 
pronunciation of others there is an 
aftersound of i (waar bij andereri een i 
naklinkt) in order to attain the e 3 of 
the low speech (ten einde den plat 
uitgesproken e 3 te bereiken). In the 
dialect of Gelders, c 1 is a separate vowel, 
playing its own part ; with us [at 
Amsterdam] it is only found under the 
influence of r" This is precisely like 
English (ee) in fair. " Our short \ has 
also entirely passed over into a* . lid, 
mis, gebit ; wherein the Limburgers 
alone seem not to follow us," as in 
South Scotch. Then he proceeds to 
say: "e 3 , is with us always long : steen, 
been, leed, he, mee ; never before an r, 


then substituted. In 

English and low Dutch (platte Hol- 
landsch) e 3 is replaced by t 2 *, or even 
e*i, with the variants mentioned by 
Donders under ei; and is then even 
heard before r, where the sound is 
broadened into ai in the Leyden mehair 
for mynheer. I have heard the after- 
sound of corrupted into /o 12 , as 
ffe^jo^lin place vfyeel,' 1 that is (ghe'Jal) 
for (gheeY). Then going to the diph- 
thongs, he says (p. 22): "e l i=e a i in 
Donders, with short e: Jeei,be>den. In 
low speech (in platte spraak) corrupted 
to ai (in Amsterdam) or e z i. In the 
last case the i is sometimes very short 
in closed syllables, or entirely dis- 
appears, almost me z t for meid. e*i, 
with short e, written ij and y by 

8. (ee) continued. 

some for occult reasons : mij(my), Tcrijt. 
In the province of Holland e z i becomes 
regularly e } i, and is corrupted into ai. 
With long e in low Holland speech 
(platte Hollandsch) in place of e z , 
Donders' s diphthong ei." Hereupon 
Kern, reviewing the two works (in De 
Gids for April, 1871, p. 167), says of 
Donders : " The description and trans- 
literation of the diphthongs is accurate, 
except that the e, so called sharp ee, is 
not accurately rendered by ei. I how- 
ever agree with Donders against Land 
that sharp ee is really a diphthong. 
But I cannot allow that such a diph- 
thong occurs in leeg or mee. The ee in 
leeq and mee has the same sound as the 
e in zegen, leden. Whereas in pro- 
nouncing leeg, mee, zegen, neem, nemen, 
and such like, the relative position of the 
upper and lower jaws remains unaltered j 
in pronouncing ee in leed, leek, leen f 
steen, the under jaw advances a little 
(springt de onderkaak iets vooruit). 
The physiologist cannot possibly fail to 
perceive the cause of this phenomenon. 
The same alteration in the position 
of the jaws is perceived in the pronun- 
ciation of oo in brood, boonen, hooren. 
To what extent this pronunciation 
must be considered the most usual or 
the best, we leave undecided; it is 
enough to shew that it does occur in 
our country, and that it deserves descrip- 
tion." Of Land's e 2 he says : " He 
asserts that our vowel in meer is the 
French e in frene, tete. Now not to 
mention that, to my ear, meer (meest) 
[more, most] and meer (water) differ in 
sound, it is doubtful whether any 
Dutchman uses the French sound in 
either of the two meer's." The oc- 
currence of an (eei) or (eei) for a 
written ee, in a language so nearly re- 
lated to English as Dutch, and the 
difference of opinion as to its pure or 
diphthongal value, seemed to me too 
remarkable to be passed over. 

In my own pronunciation I think I 
never say (eei} or (ei), ending with a 
perfect (i), and that I seldom or never 
say (eei) or (e'i), ending with a perfect 
(t), and that when I approach to (ei) t 
however short the diphthong may be, 
the first element is longer than the 
last But I doubt whether 1 get as 
far as (eei), at the most I seem to reach 
( e ' e _|_ e i), shewing a glide, and that in 
the process of "vanishing" the force 
of the voice decreases so much that it 


8. (ee) continued. 

is very difficult to say what sound is 
produced; an effect shown by ('j). I 
admit, however, that in speaking Eng- 
lish, and especially in such words as 
pay, may, say, before a pause, my (ee) is 
not uniform, but alters in the direction 
of (i). It is, however, necessary to 
distinguish grades of this alteration, as 
Bonders has done. In the case of a 
following pause, it is the most marked ; 
but if a vowel or consonant follows 
rapidly, as play or pay, pay me now, I 
do not hear this " vanish " at all. I 
think also that I am inclined to this 
vanish before (t, d, n) in eight, weight, 
plate, paid, pain, but not so decidedly 
nor so regularly as in the former case. 
I am not conscious of the vanish before 
(p, b, m; k, g). I think that gene- 
rally the vanish vanishes when the 
utterance is rapid, as in aorta, aerial. 
So far as I have yet observed, my usage 
is much the same as that of other 
educated speakers, from whom I rarely 
hear anything like a real (eei). and 
this I attempted to note by (ee'j) or 
(<&'j), where (ee} glides into "palatalised 
voice" of some sort. Still there are 
speakers in whom it is marked, and es- 
pecially when an ay has to be emphatic 
ordwelled upon, which practically brings 
it before a pause. 1 think that the 
reason why French teachers find such 
difficulty with English pupils is that 
the pupils altogether lengthen the 
vowels too much. I deprecate much 
Mr. Melville Bell's insisting on (e'i) 
universally as a point of orthoepy, 
making the sound approach to one of 
the diphthongal i'B, for such a pronun- 
ciation is so rare as always to be 
remarkable and generally remarked. 
An Essex man told me (Dec. 1872) 
that he was known everywhere by 
what as I heard him were his eyes. 
It turned out to be his pronunciation 
of long a. " But," said he, " I can't 
hear it ; I can't make out the difference 
at all." Again, Mr. Brandreth, a 
county magistrate, informed me that 
on officially visiting the pauper 
schools at Anerley, near London, he 
found that fully half the boys made 
no difference between a and 7, and 
could not even hear the difference 
when such words as they, thy, were 
correctly pronounced to them. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Murray, mutato nomine 
de me fabula narratur ! 

8. (t). 

(t). See No. 1, (n), and No. 
2, (t). When (p, t, k) are final, and 
before a pause, so that they are not 
immediately followed, by a vowel on to 
which the voice can glide, or by a con- 
sonant, the (p, t, k) are made more 
audible by gliding them on to some 
unvocalised breath, written (p', t', k'), 
on (10, b. 56, b), and whether this is 
already in the mouth, or is driven 
through the larynx, is indifferent ; the 
latter is most audible, and will often 
assume the form of (pn*, tit', kn'). 
There may be a pause of silence be- 
tween the glide on to (t) and this 
windrush, and this pause apparently 
lengthens the mute. It is not usual 
to note this added (') or (n k ). It is 
not a French habit. French speakers 
either omit the final mute entirely, or 
add a mute e (\#). Using > to repre- 
sent the glide to, and < the glide from 
a mute, the following cases have to be 
noted in English, remembering that for 
English mutes the glottis is always 

Initial, pea, tea, key = (p < ii, t < ii, 

Medial after the force accent, peep- 
ing, eating, leaking (p < ii > p < 'q, 
ii > t < z'q, lii > k < q). 

Medial, preceding but not following 
a vowel under the force accent, repay, 
pretend, accuse = (rep < ee'j; prz't < e'nd', 

Medial, preceding a consonant on to 
which it does not glide, that is, with 
which it cannot form an initial com- 
bination, adapted, pitfall, active = 
(uda? 1 > pt < | ed,pr > tfAAl,ar > kt < t'v). 

Medial, doubled, a case of the last, 
distinguished however by a sensible 
pause marked (;), cap-pin, boot-tree, 
book-case (kae- > p;p < in., buir > t;- 
t < rtY, \)u" > k;k < ee'js). 

Final, before a pause, cap, boot, book 
= (kae>p<', buu>t<*, b*>k<*), 
otherwise it is treated as medial, but 
may be emphatically doubled^ as 
(kse > p ; p < ', buu > t;t < ,bw > kjk < ) . 

These differences are not usually 
distinguished in phonetic writing, and 
from their regularity seldom require to 
be noticed. Hut irregularities must be 
marked, as (kae>t) or (ks&tf) to shew 
the absence of the second glide 
(kae>t<'). Mr. Sweet's remarks on 
Danish syllabication (Philol. Trans. 
1873-4, pp. 94-112) must be carefully 


8. (t) continued. 

considered by all who would enter upon 
these phonetic mysteries, which are far 
from having been yet fully revealed. 

(eet, &'jt). The vowel begins 

at once, in properly spoken English, 

and is not preceded by any whisper. 

The whole organs are placed in the 

proper position for (00), and the glottis 

is closed ready for voice, firmly, but not 

so tightly that the chords must be 

forced asunder by explosion. The vowel 

thus commences with a clean edge, 

so to speak, noted thus (,00), and here 

called the "clear attack" or "glottid," 

but by teachers of singing the 

" shock of the glottis." But if there 

is an air-tight closure which has to be 

forced open, we have the " check at- 

tack" or "glottid," or "catch of the 

glottis," the Arabic hamza, noted thus 

(;00), which is considered as a defect 

in English speech, though common in 

German. It is, however, not unfre- 

quent to hear vowels commenced with 

a ''gradual attack" or "glottid," during 

which breath shades through whisper 

into voice, and the precise commence- 

ment of the vowel cannot be readily 

determined, and this may possibly have 

been the Greek " spiritus lenis," which 

will be noted thus (\ee ). In singing 

this produces " breathiness." It is not 

recognized in speech, but is possibly 

one of the causes of so-called aspira- 

tion and non-aspiration, and of the dif- 

ficulty felt by so many English speakers 

in determining whether a vowel is 

aspirated or not. It is mere careless- 

ness of utterance. But here it may 

be noted that these "glotdds" or "at- 

tacks" may also be "releases," that 

is, a vowel may end as well as begin 

"clearly," as (tun), which is the re- 

gular English form or with the check 

or "catch," as (tuu;). as frequently in 

Danish before a subsequent consonant, 

or gradmlly, as (t,uu|). Now this 

graduation consists, initially, in begin- 

ning the vowel with the glottis open, 

closing it rapidly, during which the 

edges of the vocal chords approach 

very closely before contact, producing 

first the effect of whisper, and then of 

Voice, so that we have ("00 + '0 + 0). 

In ending we should get in reverse 

order, (e + 'e t "ee}. This is what is 

meant by the notation (\ee\), or (tuuj). 

Now if there be a little longer repose 

8. (eet, ee'jt) continued. 

on the pure voiceless sounds, so that 
the ("00) or ("uu) becomes sensible, it 
is clear that (jiij, \ee\) will appear to 
begin or end with a sound like (jh), 
and (juuj, \oo\) with a sound like (wh). 
This seems to be the origin of the 
Danish terminational (ah, wh), while 
the initial forms generate the aspirates, 
or an approach to them, differing in 
the manner considered in No. 14, (wh). 
How far these terminations are usual 
in English, I am unable to say. There 
is often so much loss of force that it 
is difficult to observe. But certainly 
distinct (jh, wh) final are not frequent 
in received pronunciation ; and dis- 
tinct (jh, wh) initial would be scouted 
at once as a vulgarly intruded aspirate. 
In No. 14, (wh)," where the whole 
subject will be systematically considered, 
it will be seen that this final (j) repre- 
sents the Sanscrit visarga. 

After the vowel is commenced, it is 
continued a very short time, and glides 
either on to (t), as already explained, or 
on to (t). But if it glides on to (t), it 
does not do so till its energy is much 
diminished, so that, in received pro- 
nunciation, (e'0'j) never approaches the 
character of a close diphthong, as t in 
Jive, or (eY), in which the (0) is strong 
and short and the force is continued on 
to the ('), which may be lengthened 
and then die away. In (eVj) the force 
dies away first, and the glide on to ('j) 
is scarcely audible, being absorbed into 
the glide on to (t). Also, as a long 
vowel, the (00) or (e'0'j) must have a 
very short glide on to (t). Indeed 
Prof. Haldeman's short (et) bus the 
character of a long vowel, by the short- 
ness and weakness of its glide on to (t) ; 
whereas a really "stopped" (0) would 
come strongly and firmly on to (t), 
which would be " lengthened," as 
(0t;f). It is more by the mode in 
which vowels glide on to following 
consonants, than by the actual length 
of the vowels, considered independently 
of their glides, that the feeling of 
length of vowels in closed syllables 
arises in English pronunciation. See 
Mr. Sweet's rule in No. 14, (p). 

9. BOOK, (bilk). 

(b). The relations of mute 
or voiceless (b, d, g) to sonant or 
voiced (p, t, k) should be well under- 


9. (b) continued. 

stood. In English (p,ii, t,ii, k,ii) the 
voice begins with the clear attack 
(,) at the moment the closure is re- 
leased. In (b,ii, d,ii, g,ii) the voice 
begins in the same way, before the 
closure is released, but for so short 
a time that the voice may be said to 
begin as the contact is released. Now 
Germans, when they really distinguish 
(p, b), etc., begin the voice in (p[ii, t[ii, 
kjii) with a gradual attack, giving a 
hiss ; and they allow the voice to sound 
through the (b), etc., before the release 
of the closure, which may be written 
('bii, 'dii, 'gii). The breath not being 
able to escape blows out the neck like 
a turkey-cock's, and hence is called a 
blow-out-sound or Blahlaut by German 
phoneticians, which we may translate 
inflatus. It is not possible to continue 
this inflatus long without allowing 
breath to escape by the nose ; but to 
produce a real (m, n, q) after ('b, 'd, 'g), 
is not possible without producing a 
loud thud by the withdrawal of the 
uvula from the back of the pharynx, 
requiring a strong muscular effort, 
because the compressed air in the mouth 
forces the uvula into very close contact 
with the pharynx. It is probable then 
that ('brnii, 'dim, 'qgii), do not occur 
monosyllabically. But it is quite easy 
to begin with the nasal resonance, and 
then cut it off by the uvula, which has 
air on both sides, and hence can act 
freely. Hence (mbii, ndii, qgii) are 
easy, and have generated the sounds of 
(b, d, g) in modern Greek. Some 
phoneticians (I have forgotten to note 
the passages) even make (b, d, g) 
necessarily nasal. They are not so in 
English. But there is often a semi-nasal 
(b 4 , d <? g,) occasioned by insufficient 
nasal resonance, arising from catarrh, 
when the speaker intends (m, n, q), 
but cannot perfect them, see (1096, d'), 
and one of these, (b.), in perhaps a 
slightly different form, is an element of 
Westmoreland and Cumberland speech. 
It is possible entirely to cut off the 
voice before proceeding to the vowel, 
without creating the impression of a 
new syllable, hence (mpii, ntii, qkii) 
are possible, and seem actually to occur 
together with (mbii, ndii, qgii) in some 
South African languages. In English 
initial (b, d, g), however, nothing of 
this inflatus or nasality is customary. 
In middle Germany, where the distinc- 

9. (b) continued. 

tions (p b, v t x d) are practically unknown, 
comparatively few being able to say 
(pjii f bii, v tjii \dii), recourse is had to 
what Brucke and M. Bell consider as 
whispering instead of voicing, using 
('bii, \dii) only. Merkel, however, who 
is a native of Upper Saxony, where the 
sounds are indigenous, denies this, and 
asserts that he really says (''pii, " x tii) 
implosively. See (1097, c'.j Observe 
that ("kii) is not common in Saxony, 
because (knii, gjhii, ghaa) are heard. 
Perhaps also true (g) is heard initially; 
I do not feel sure. But certainly k, g 
are always distinguished initially, and 
p, b or t, d are always confused initially, 
in Saxony. 

When (b, d, g) are medial between 
two vowels, there is in English a com- 
plete passage of the voice through 
them, without any sensible sustention 
of the sounds, as baby, needy, plaguy 

and there seems to be no slackening of 
the closure, and consequently no buzz, 
the sound being produced entirely by 
internal condensation of the air. In 
German, however, such (b, g) readily 
pass into (bh, gh), as schreiben, tage = 
(shrarbhen, taa'ghe), of which the first 
is not, but the second is, received. But 
for (d), or rather ( v d), nothing of the 
kind occurs, neither ( x d % z) nor ( 4 dh) 
being developed. On the other hand, 
medial (d, dh), a coronal and a dental, 
but more often ( x d, dh), interchange dia- 
lectally in Engl ish . In Spanish ( b, bh) 
are not distinguished even initially. 
That similar habits prevailed in Semitic 
languages we know by their alphabets, 
n> T Ji being (b bh, d dh, g gh) accord- 
ing to circumstances. The English 
received pronunciation is therefore pe - 
culiarly neat, and more like French and 
Italian in this respect. 

Final (b, d, g), before a pause, are 
intentionally the same as when initial, 
the voice ending as the closure begins, 
or not being sensibly sustained during 
the closure; but the glide up to the 
consonant being continued into the 
closure, gives the vowel an appearance 
of greater length. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the voice is sensibly prolonged 
during closure, and as this is uncom- 
fortable, the closure is relaxed before 
the voice ceases, and we have effects 
like (beeb\ diid', gaeg')> or (b^bjb', 
diidjd', gaegjg'), which are often pain- 


9. (b) continued. 

fully evident in public speakers. I 
frequently noticed these sounds in the 
declamation of the late Mr. Macready. 
It is often greatly exaggerated in pro- 
vincial tragedianism. It is, however, 
so far as I have observed, not customary 
to drop the voice before releasing con- 
tact, and then to open upon a wind- 
rush, as (beebjpS diid;t', gseg;k'). 
This would, I think, produce to an 
English ear too much of the effect of 
simple (b^pS diit<, gsek'), which would 
be unintelligible. It seems however 
probable that this is the history of 
the German and Dutch habit of always 
taking these finals as mute. In Dutch 
indeed this is slightly controlled by 
the action of the following consonant. 
This action is quite unknown in English, 
except in such a word as cupboard = 
(ka-bid), but deserves to be noted as 
occurring in so closely related a lan- 
guage. The Dutch rule according to 
Donders (op. cit. p. 23), which is cor- 
roborated by Land (op. cit. p. 31), is as 
follows : 

" With the exception of the nasals, 
when two consonants come together, 
however different their character, both 
must be voiced, or both voiceless. 
"Whenever in two syllables or words 
spoken separately, one would be voiced 
and the other voiceless, one must be 
altered to agree with the other, accord- 
ing to the following rules. 

1). " Before voiced b and d, every con- 
sonant is voiced, as, zeejfbak, ojodoen, 
strij/cbout [this is the only way in 
which (g) can occur in Dutch], stie/- 
broeder, daarbij, sti&douker, misdaad, 
he^doorn, etc. [where p, k,f, r, s, g = 
(b, g, v, r, z, gh).] But t sometimes re- 
mains, as : 't ligt ?aar, pronounced 't 
lich taar [compare Orrmin's j>att tiss 
(491, *e) >att tess (491, )]. 

2) . " Voiced w, v, z, g, j\ I, and r lose 
their voice after every preceding con- 
sonant, except r. We pronounce: 
vroe/rouw, buurmmw, stie/soon, 
voom>on, a/?Arond, voor^rond, 
loojtybngen ( pj voiceless ), voor/aar (rj 
voiced), etc. [where tf, rv, fs, rz, 
fch, rg,pj,rj=(tf, rv, fs,rz, fkh, 
rgh, pjh, rj), the original Dutch letters 
being, to, rr,fz, rz,fg, rg,pj, rj, 
respectively. ] 

3). " Before the nasals all consonants 
except r are or become voiceless. [This 
rule is questioned by Land.] 

9. (b) continued. 

" After a nasal each consonant pre- 
serves its own character." 

Land remarks, that the first rule 
does not hold in English, where 
Bra^/brd and pla(/brm, bac&ione and 
bu<7#ear are differently treated; and 
that according to the same rule every 
final consonant in Dutch is pronounced 
voiceless, as bet, breet, ik hep, ik mach ; 
but that it is different in English, where 
back and bag, hat and had, vup and cub, 
are carefully distinguished ; and so, he 
adds, in Friesic we hear breed, and not 

In English the difference between 
such combinations as the following is 
felt to be so great that we instinctively 
wonder at any ears being dull enough 
to .confuse them, unaware how very 
dull our own ears are to distinctions 
which other nations feel with equal 
acuteness : pip bib ; pat pad, bat bad; 
puck pug, buck bug ; tip dip, tub dub ; 
tuck tug, duck dug ; give me the bag do, 
and him a bag too, and then give it me 
back do, and his back too. A German 
or a Dutchman would flounder helplessly 
and hopelessly in these quicksands. 

(u). This vowel differs from 
(u), as (i] from (i), and just as an 
Englishman finds (bit) very difficult 
and (b?t) easy, so (bwk) is to him 
easy, and the Scotchman's (buk) so 
difficult, that he puts it down as (buuk), 
heard in Yorkshire. Distinguish also 
English putt (pwl) and French poule 
(pul) from each other, and from pool 
(puul), heard for pull in Shropshire. 
The throat is widened for (u). The 
well-marked (o 1 ) or (w ). already men- 
tioned (1107, d 1 }, must be borne in mind. 
To a southern Englishman (bo l k, bw ? k) 
are riddles; at least, very thick, fat, 
clumsy pronunciations of his (bz^k), 
which, to a Scot, is itself a thick, fat, 
clumsy pronunciation of (buk). Refine- 
ment of pronunciation has entirely local 
value. It is easy to pronounce (u) 
without rounding the lips, and this 
must be the way that a cuckoo gets out 
his cry, or a parrot says (pus), as I 
distinctly heard one call out the other, 
day (4th May, 1873). It seems as if 
we produced the roundness by con- 
tracting the arches of the soft palate 
at the entrance to the mouth. This 
mode of "rounding" I propose to 
mark by ( 4 ), thus (p* 4 s), implying 


9. (u) continued. 

that (pu) are imitated in this manner, 
the lips remaining open. See (1116, b'}. 

(k). The back of the tongue 
is raised to contact with the soft palate 
so much in the position of (u) that the 
glide is short, sharp, and but little 
marked. The relation of the gutturals 
(k, g) to (uu, uu) renders the labial- 
isations (kw, gw) easy and common 
(208, c), and there is no difficulty in 
disposing the hack of the tongue for 
(u), while the tip is in the (t, d) posi- 
tion, hence (iw, dw) are also easy 
(209, a). Prof. Whitney, whose pho- 
netic appreciation is acute, and who 
has much studied pronunciation, re- 
gards these " labial modifications of 
vowels and consonants " to he "a 
special weakness " on my part and Mr. 
Bell's. " "With one who can hold the 
initial consonant sound of dwell, for 
example, to be not a w with a d pre- 
fixed, but a lahially modified d, we 
should not expect to agree in an analysis 
of the wh sound " (Oriental and Lin- 
guistic Studies, New York, 1873, p. 
271). I "was, however, never satisfied 
with the analysis (twz'st, dwel). The 
passage from (t) to (w) created a glide 
which I could not recognize as usual. 
I tried (tu/st, duel), which are easier, 
but then I missed the characteristic (w) 
eifect. It was not till on studying Mr. 
Bell's Visible Speech, and finding him 
classify (w) as a mixed gutturalised 
labial, and consequently (gwh) as a 
mixed labialised guttural, that the ex- 
planation occurred to me, which is 
simply that " wherever the position of a 
consonant can be practically assumed at 
the same time as the positions for (i, u), 
they are so assumed by speakers to 
whom these combinations are easy." 
This brought palatalisations and labial- 
isations under the same category. As 
we have (kj, gj, tj, dj, Ij, nj), and 
might have (pj, bj), which apparently 
occur in Russian, so we might have 
(kw, gw, tw, dw, \w, nw), and even 
(pw, bu>), which are related to (p, b) 
much as (kj, gj) are to (k, g). I found 
(kw, gw, tw, dw) the most satisfactory 
explanations to me of English sounds ; 
and I seemed to recognize them in 
French quoi, toi, dots (kwa., x twa, v dt#a), 
and similarly loi, noix, roi ( v h#a, x nwa, 
nra). It was satisfactory to me that 
Prince Louis Lucien Bonaparte, who 

9. (Jc)-c 

must certainly be allowed to understand 
French pronunciation, adopted these 
views, added to my list soi, choix, joie, 
(swa,, shtt>a, zhwa), and completed the 
conception by admitting palato-labial- 
isations, arising from attempting to 
combine (y), or (i, u) simultaneously, 
with consonants, as in lui, nuit, fui, 
chuintant, juin, which would have to be 

written (Jwji, Jiwji, fwji, 

zhwJEA.). As in French (Ij, nj) are said 

to be mouillee, so he terms (].w, v nw), 

etc., veloutde, and (lz#j, nwj), etc.,fuit&. 
Theoretically the existence of such com- 
binations as (Ij, v lw, luj), etc., is per- 
fectly conceivable and executable. The 
only question is, are they used in such 
words ? This is a matter of observa- 
tion. Prof. Whitney observes (twist, 
dwel) ; I observe in myself, at least, 
(twist, dwel). Mr. Bell writes (tw, 
dw), and also (kw), although he admits 
(k^h), the Scotch quh, which bears the 
same relation to (kw) as (kh) to (k). 
The simple character of (kw) may 
have prevented the qu from making 
"position" in Latin; but the initial 
character of (kw), like that of a mute 
and a liquid, may have had a similar 
effect. We have (gw) in guano 
(gwaa-no). Sometimes there is both 
palatalisation or labialisation of the con- 
sonant and an inserted vowel. Thus 
the old-fashioned cart, regard, sky, are 
seldom pure (kjaa't, ngjaa'-d, skja't), 
but often (kjiaa't, n'gjiaa'-d, skjia'e), 
and it is possible that quill, quell, 
quantity, may be occasionally (kwiul, 
kwrnel, kwuo'n-tzti), but I have not 
noted it. On the other hand, Italian 
quale, quanta, questo, sound to me rather 
(kua-l<9, kua-nt?A, kue'-stwh), than 
(kwa ) or (kwua ), etc. The same 
is probably the case in Spanish cuanto, 
etc. But I doubt a real (kwa ) any- 
where. One great source of difference 
between German and English quell 
seems to arise from the two German 
consonants, thus (kbhEl). 

(bwk). The voice begins in (b), 
and is carried through (u) to (k), where 
it is sharply and suddenly cut off. For 
the effect of (k) final see No. 8, (t). 

10. WATCH, BeU's (wAtsh), 
my (wot v sh). 

(w). See No. 1, (w). 


10. (A, a). 

(A, o). With Mr. Bell, I used 
to consider that wa represented (WA), 
rather than (wo), and I have previously 
given (wAtsh) as the pronunciation 
(56, a). But on further observation I 
think that (WA) is not so common as (wo), 
and that when (WA) is used, the (A) is 
apt to become of medial length, so that 
the unpleasant drawling effect (wA A t x sh) 
results, where I introduce a new method 
of marking the length of a vowel in 

Elaeotype. Hitherto I have only used 
, aa) for short and long, and (aaa) 
r protracted. As this is not enough 
for theoretical purposes, I propose to 
use ( a , a, a a , aa, aa a , aaa) as a scale of 
six, very short, short, medial, long, 
very long, protracted. This superior 
vowel must not be used after another 
vowel of a different form, as that would 
militate against the notation (e 1 ) on 
(1107, d), so that if we wished to write 
short (e) followed by very short (i), we 
must write (e[i), according to the usual 
notation. The short vowel-sound in 
watch is almost invariably (o) in 
England, but the medial sound is per- 
haps common in America. The dif- 
ference between (A) and (o) is very 
slight, and both are nearly peculiar to 
English, Practically (A) belongs to 
the (a) group, and (o) to the (o) group. 
Foreigners hear (A) as (a) or (), and 
(o) as (o) or (o). The differences are, 
however, important. The vowels (A, 
o) differ from (o, o) strictly by the de- 
pression of the back of the tongue, 
which, in the diagram (14, c, No. 7), is 
not given low enough for my pronun- 
ciation. But (A) differs from (a] by a 
slight " rounding," the corners of the 
lips being brought a little together for 
(A) (14, d, No. 12), whereas for (a) 
they are quite apart. Also according 
to Mr. Bell, (A) is a primary and (a) 
with (o) are " wide " vowels. I must 
own that (A) feels to me when speaking 
"wider" than (o), that is, to be pro- 
nounced with an opener pharynx. Still 
the concinnity of the vowel system 
points to the other arrangement, as 
shewn on p. 14, and I am probably 
wrong. The various degrees of open- 
ing of the lips in rounding should be 
observed, the three degrees, p. 14, 
diagram Nos. 10, 11, 12, being in 
English reserved for (u, o, A). But in 
Danish we have varieties. Thus Mr. 
Sweet observes (Philological Trans. 
1873-4, p. 102) -. " In Danish the two 

10. (A, p) continued. 

lower articulations (o, A), while pre- 
serving the same tongue position as 
English and most other languages," 
[that is, those of diagram Nos. 4, 7], 
" have undergone what may be called a 
' lippenverschiebung,' " [lip-prolation, 
may be an admissible translation, pro- 
lation being nearest to verschiebung}, 
" (o) being pronounced with the labial- 
isation or 'rounding' of (u), and (A) 
with that of (o), (u) itself remaining 
unchanged." [I propose to write this 
effect thus (o u , A O ), the principal form 
giving the position of the tongue, and 
the subscribed that of the lips. Note 
the different meaning ascribed to the 
superior (o u ) or a sound between (o) and 
(u), but apparently more like (o), given 
on (1107, d), and note also the fourth 
kind of rounding just symbolised by ( 4 ) 
on (11 14, d')]. "This abnormal rounding 
gives a peculiar cavernous effect to the 
vowels, and makes it difficult, especially 
for a foreigner, to distinguish them 
accurately." See (799, "rf). Prince 
Louis Lucien Bonaparte seemed to me 
to imitate the cavernosity by protruding 
the lips in a funnel shape, which we 
may write f, (11, cd), so that he made 
Swedish o and u to be (uf, yf). Mr. 
Sweet says the Swedes and Norwegians 
use (u) for (u), " which in Norwegian 
had the additional peculiarity of being 
unilaterally rounded, at least in some 
dialects," and would therefore be (u5) 
" In Swedish this (o u ) has been moved 
up nearly into the place of the (u), but 
in Norwegian it is formed as in Danish. 
The consequence is that the Norwegians 
are quite unable to pronounce the (u) 
in foreign languages." (ibid.) In some 
Yorkshire people I have observed a 
tendency to pronounce (AA) in the di- 
rection of (o), so that the effect hovered 
between (o) and (o), and for that reason 
might be written (o). Southerners 
accuse them of saying (oo\ kooz), for 
(AA! kAAz), all cause. It is possible 
that this sound is properly (A O ). It 
deserves investigation, if only from the 
Scandinavian relations of Yorkshire. 

"We may note generally that (AA) is an 
extremely difficult vowel for foreigners, 
and it is seldom reached. Even Scotch- 
men are apt to confuse it with (d). 
But conversely Englishmen confuse 
even foreign (a) with (A). The Ger- 
man (a) is so confidently considered 
as (AA), that (AA) is known among 
English orthoepists as the German A ! 


10. (A, o) continued. 

Again the broad (oo) of our dialects 
is by dialectal writers almost always 
written au, meaning (AA) ; and the 
Italian o aperto, in syllables where it is 
taken as long, is called (AA), as (nAA, 
bwAA-no) for (no, buo'nwh), no, buono. 
Italians themselves say (aa) rather than 
(oo) for English (AA). Both vowels 
(A A, o), with the true lip rounding, are, 
as already observed, almost peculiarly 
English. I have reason to doubt 
whether (AA) is really heard in India, 
or Persia, or Austria, which are the 
only places, beside England, where, so 
far as I know, it may be at home. 

Hence also the diphthong (A'&, o't) is 
rare out of England. For its English 
origin from (ui, 6i) see (131, a. 270, 
a. 1101, c). The Danish rog is 
written (TOJ) by Mr. Sweet (ibid. 
p. 107), but this means (io J). This, 
however, to my ears, is the nearest 
foreign diphthong to our (o'z). The 
German eu I am accustomed to call 
(o't) myself, and perhaps in the North 
of Germany it fully reaches that sound. 
I think, however, that (6i) would be 
a more correct representation of the 
North German sound. For the Middle 
German I hear (ai, ay). Rapp does 
not properly distinguish (o, o), and in 
Italian does not distinguish close and 
open o. Hence although he makes 
the English short o to be his 6, I shall 
transcribe it (o), as I believe he pro- 
nounces it. He says : (Phys. d. Spr. 
4, 19): "Theory has been greatly 
troubled with German eu. Feeling the 
inconvenience of confusing eu with ei 
(ai) in Middle Germany, theoreticians 
thought that with ai, au, they could 
associate an analogous au (ay), which 
however does not readily unite with 
them, even when really pronounced, as 
indeed is commonly the case, only as ae, 
ao, ao, (a<?, ao, aoa). On the other hand, 
the Northern, Dutch, and low German 
(91, 9e) presented itself, as at least 
intentionally diiferent from ai (ai), and 
as (a) was no German sound [Rapp 
identifies it with French de ra.e que], it 
was advanced to 6i 6e (6i 6^), so that 
there resulted a diphthongal triad ai 
au 6i (ai au 6i), which is completely 
identical with the English and also 
the old Latin ae, au, oe, and of which 
we can at least say that they are the 
three most convenient diphthongs for 
the organs of speech. Later on, the 
want of the intermediate sound in 6i 

10. (A, o) continued. 

(6i) was felt, and to avoid this objec- 
tion, a rather difficult but not ill- 
sounding diphthong oii (6y) was 
theoretically acknowledged, and al- 
though an extremely artificial product, 
pretty well satisfied all requirements. 
Those provinces that possess (Q'\ a'u) 
are the real causes of establishing (a'y) 
as 6u (6y), whereas those that acknow- 
ledge a-diphthongs only will always 
incline to the low Saxon 6i (6i). The 
diphthongs are always affected by a 
following nasal, so that when radical 
ein aun eun are not called (a 4 in a.un 
a,in), for which last (6 4 in) would be 
preferable, they come out as (am, aon, 
6m), and any theory will find it difficult 
to produce (n6yn froynd) with sensible 
(y) without an appearance of affecta- 
tion. . . . German theoreticians who 
are so learnedin scripture(Schriflgelehrt) 
that they insist on having a heard in 
au, and e in ei (not an e in eu also, or, 
for the sake of a, 0, o, an o perhaps ?), 
are, thank heaven! so rare, that we 
need not speak of them." Briicke 
(Ueber eine neue Methode der phonet- 
transcribes baume, neues, vertraumtem 
by characters equivalent to (bay me 9 
nay^s fer x traymtt- 8 n), where (^) in- 
dicates an " imperfectly formed e," that 
is, he, a low Saxon, adopts the theo- 
retical (ay). As Englishmen's views of 
the identity of German eu with their 
own oy are generally very ill based, I 
thought it better to give the views of 
German phoneticians on the subject. 
But the arguments of Rapp seem to 
leave out of consideration the organic 
development of language without any 
reference to writing, so that he lays 
himself open to the very " learning m 
scripture" which he ridicules. 

(t). This is a medial (>t<), 
see No. 8 (t). 

(sh, x sh). For the distinction 
of (s,sh) and (sh, x sh) see No. 6 (s). 
This advanced ( v sh) may be distinctly 
heard in saying watch with a very pro- 
tracted hiss (wot 4 sh v sh x sh); and after a 
little practice it is possible to say ( x sh) 
without the crutch of (t). Mr. Sweet 
says he is inclined to accept this analysis. 
Prof. Haldeman says that instead of 
advancing (sh) to (,sh), he retracts (t) 
to (,t ?), which comes to the same thing. 


10. (sh, x sh) continued. 

At any rate, the ordinary English (t, sh) 
are not both heard in watch. 

This ( A sh) is apparently the true 
Eoman c in died, cinque ( x diE\shi, 
j3h/q-kue), which Englishmen hear as 
(dt^'sht, slu'q-kw). This is, therefore, 
the Italian derivative from Latin (K). 
How far the (t) is developed, further ob- 
servations are required to shew, but the 
following (translated) notes in F. Valen- 
tini's Griindliche Lehre dr Italienischen 
Aussprache (Berlin, 1834), are worth 
quoting, as being written by a Roman 
who was thoroughly acquainted with 
German, in which sch, tsch, zsch, for 
(sh, tsh), are common. He says (ibid. 
p. 15, note) : " The correct pronuncia- 
tion of the Italian syllables ce, ci, cia, 
do, after a vowel, as heard from all 
educated Romans and Tuscans, cannot 
be completely represented by German 
signs; they should properly be heard 
from a teacher conversant with good 
pronunciation. The following examples 
will serve to shew that these syllables 
in this case are as distinct from their 
ordinary value as from see, sci, scia, scio. 
In facce, faces, the c sounds exactly like 
tsch; infasce, swaddlings, the vowel is 
stopped, and the final see thus becomes 
harder; in face, torches, and all similar 
cases, the vowel is lengthened, and ce con- 
sequently receives that peculiar softness 
already mentioned. All three sounds 
are heard in the following line of Tasso : 

Gli uccider6, faronne ocerbi scempj, 
Ger. Lib. 1, 87, 3," 
4th stanza from end. 

He proceeds to say that the best 
writers have constantly written see for 
ce, thus arbucello arbuscello, bracia 
brasda, bad basd, etc., and that "in 
the Lombard dialects ce, ci, after a 
vowel, fall into a very soft s or z, as 
vesin, disi, sazerdott, for vicino, did, 
sacerdote." The examples facce, fasce, 
face, are possibly meant to differ as 
rfa,t\t 4 sh) or (fa\ v sh*), (faa-.she, 

The combination ( x t x sh), or else ( v sh), 
is developed where (sh) does not occur, 
as in Spanish, just as (,d v zh) or ( x zh) is 
found in Italian, where (zh), the buzz 
of (sh), is unknown, and (d^zh) has been 
common for centuries in English, where 
(zh) in vision (vrzhen) is quite a recent 
development. In English (t v sh), which 
I have hitherto written and shall 
generally write (tsh), was developed 
1'rom ags. (k), see (204, d), where the 

10. (sh, x sh) continued. 
relation of (kj, tj) to (tsh) will require 
revision, if ( v sh) and not (t x sh) is the 
original derivative from (k). In quite 
recent English (t,sh) has been developed 
from (ti) before (u), as in the termina- 
tion -ture, in nature /na?*t x shi). 

To the absence or an independent 
( x sh) may perhaps be attributed the 
persistence with which (t x sh) initial, 
being only (t< x sh<), is considered a 
simple letter, and ch or tch final in 
such, much, crutch, which is ( > t < x sh), 
has been taken to be the result of pre- 
fixing (t) to the former simple sound. 
To the same cause I attribute the 
dispute as to the final sounds in inch, 
lunch, launch, drench, which some 
analyze as (sh), and others as (tsh). 
Now the position of the tongue for 
(n) being the same as that for (t), 
the full analysis may be (e-n-nh-^sh) 
or (e-n-nh-t- v sh), or simply (e-n-t- x sh) 
or (e-n-^sh). But in the plural inches, 
I myself use a distinct (t), thus, 
(rnjt x shezs), and to my ear (rn) N shez) 
is unusual. Mr. Bell uses (-nhtsh-). 

The sound (t x sh), as I hear it, is the 
Hungarian cs, the Polish cz, and 24th 
Russian letter. As I pronounce Polish 
szcz, the 26th Russian letter, I seem to 
prolong (sh) or( x sh), and for an instant 
touch the palate with the tip of the 
tongue in the middle of the hiss, 
checking it momentarily and producing 
two hiss-glides, thus (sh>t<sh), or 
(^sh^sh), for the t is probably ( x t). 
The Germans write the sound schtsch. 
That ch in English cheese has a pre- 
fixed (t), may be felt very distinctly by 
pronouncing (t v shi, t^she, t^sha, t^shA, 
t v sho, t^shu) with great rapidity, when 
the beat of the tongue against the 
palate will be felt as markedly as in 
rapid (ti, ie, ta, tA, to, tu). It is con- 
venient also to practise (shi, she, sha, 
shA, sho, shu), and ( x shi, ^sh<?, x sha, jshA, 
x sho, x shu). 

Notwithstanding the confidence I 
feel in the diphthongal nature of ch in 
cheese as = (t^sh), yet strong opinions 
of a different nature are entertained. 
Prince L. L. Bonaparte can hear no 
difference between English ch in cheese 
and Italian ci, and this he considers to 
be the simple ( v sh), a continuant, which 
he can prolong indefinitely, and which, 
when so prolonged, suggests a (t) 
throughout. On the other hand Mr. 
Goodwin (1093, <f), no mean observer, 
considers ch in chest and j in jest to be 


10. (sh, x sh) continued. 

explodents, which I will mark by the 
new characters (kj, gj), the latter 
written as an nndotted j crossed ; 
see (1094, c). These are the real 
explodents corresponding to (jh, j), 
or Mr. Bell's 2<?, 21, on p. 15, which 
he too hastily confused with my 
(tj, dj). Observe that in (t, d) the tip, 
and in (k, g) the back, of the tongue 
touches the palate; then for (tj, dj), 
without removing the tip, bring the 
middle of the tongue against the .palate, 
and for (kj, gj), without removing the 
back, also bring the middle of the 
tongue against the palate. Hence for 
(tj, dj) the front two-thirds, and for 
(kj, gj) the back two -thirds, of the 
tongue touch the palate. But for (kj, 
gj) only the middle third of the tongue 
touches the palate, thus producing a 
real explodent, which, as Mr. Nicol 
pointed out to me, is the sound indicated 
by Mr. Bell's Visible Speech symbol. 
To succeed in pronouncing them at 
first, keep the tip of the tongue down 
by burying it below the lower gums ; 
and to prevent the back of the tongue 
from rising to the (k) position, think of 
(t), which of course cannot be pro- 
nounced when the tip of the tongue is 
kept down. Make the effect of (kja) 
perfectly sharp, by beginning with a 
closed glottis ( 1 097, b) , and come quietly 
on to the vowel without any escape of 
unvocalised breath. A little practice is 
necessary to avoid (kj, gj,) on the one 
hand, and (t v sh, d x zh) on the other, but 
the sound has a philological value 
which makes it worth while under- 
standing. These (kj, gj) are Mr. Good- 
win's c, j, in the following remarks 
(ibid. p. 9) : 

" C (ch in chin) is manifestly a simple 
elementary consonant, and a lene. It 
is produced by placing a certain portion 
of the tongue near the tip, but not the 
tip itself, against a certain part of the 
palate, and, after pressure, suddenly 
withdrawing it with a violent emission 
of breath. It has no /-sound in its 
composition, for neither the tip of the 
tongue nor the teeth are used in its 
production. Neither does it end in an 
sA-sound, for, in that case, it could be 
prolonged ad libitum, which the true c 
(ch English) cannot be. Moreover, it 
does not begin with any one sound, and 
end with another, but is the same simple 
sound throughout its whole extent. 
It may be shewn by a similar experi- 

10. (sh, x sh) continued. 

ment, and proof, that j is a simple 
elementary sound. It bears the same 
relation to c (kj) that g does to k, or 
any other lene sonant to its correspond- 
ing lene surd." That the true ch 
cannot be prolonged ad libitum, no 
other writer, so far as I am aware, has 
asserted, except in the sense that its 
prolongation, like that of all diphthongs, 
differs from its commencement. In 
connection with these remarks of Mr. 
Goodwin, it seems best to cite what he 
says about (sh, zh), to which I must 
prefix his curious remark on aspirates, 
a subject which will have to be especially 
considered in No. 14, (wh). He says 
(ibid. p. 8) : 

" Each of the aspirates might have 
been represented by a single character ; 
but, as h represents a simple breathing 
or aspiration, and as all the aspirates 
are similarly combined with such a 
breathing, and those of them which 
are used in English are generally so 
represented, we have chosen to represent 
them all as combined with h. We do 
not mean by this to intimate that the 
sound of h is added to the respective 
lenesfor in that case the aspirates 
would not be simple sounds but that 
it is combined with them throughout 
their whole extent. They are simple, 
therefore, under our definition; and if 
in any sense compound, they are so by 
a sort of chemical composition, in dis- 
tinction from a mechanical aggregate 
or mixture. Kh, for example, is not 
equal to k+h, but to kxh. This we 
consider a true aspiration; while the 
sound of A, added after a consonant, 
no more renders that consonant a true 
aspirate, than it does the following 
consonant or vowel. "We do not doubt 
there are such aspirates ('so called') in 
other languages, as in the Sanscrit, for 
example ; but we here speak of the 
strict propriety of the term." 

[p. 9], " Sh is not the aspirate of s, 
that is, it is not related to s as th to #, ph 
to p, etc., as any one may ascertain by 
a simple experiment of pronunciation. 
S is more dental than palatal, sh is not 
dental at all. But sh is related to c 
(kj) precisely as any other aspirate to 
its lene ; that is, if you place the organs 
as if to produce c (kj), but instead of 
bringing them into perfect contact, 
retain a slight passage between for the 
constant egress of the breath, modifying 
it, as it goes out, by this specific ap- 


10. (sh, v sh) continued. 
proxiraation of the organs to a state of 
contact, you will have a perfect sh. 
Zh is plainly related to./, as sh to c (kj)." 
[This is incorrect, the result is (jh).] 
" The s and z, as sibilants, are peculiar, 
hut in respect of the organs employed 
in their articulation, they furnish a 
transition between the palatal c (kj), 
etc., and the dentals t, etc. ; and in 
respect to the mode of their articulation, 
they are to be reckoned among the 
aspirates rather than the lenes. Their 
lenes would be a certain unpronounceable 
medium between c (kj) and t and be- 
tween j (gi) and d respectively." 

The systematic terms, lenes et as- 
piratae, should be discarded, as they 
tend to produce great confusion, and 
the precise mode of generating each 
individual sound should be studied, as 
we study individuals in natural history, 
before we attempt to classify them, 
except provisionally. The grammarians' 
provisional and extremely imperfect 
classification of lenes et aspiratae has 
been long antiquated. 

When Mr. Gupta visited me (1096,a) 
I was astonished to find that his pro- 
nunciation of ^ 51 was not the (t x sh 
d v zh) usually laid down in books as the 
modern pronunciation, nor the (kj gj) 
usually theoretically supposed to be the 
ancient sounds, but exactly and unmis- 
takably (kj gj) as just described. This 
must be also the real ancient sound, 
and it solves every difficulty. In Mr. 
Gupta's pronunciation (kj) was as pure 
and unmixed with any hiss as an 
English (k). The post-aspirated forms 
will be considered in No. 14, (wh). 
Corresponding to these (kj gj) there 
must be of course a nasal (q_j), which 
however only occurs immediately before 
them, and is hence a generated sound, 
just as (q) itself in Sanscrit ; but it is 
certainly not (nj) as usually assumed, 
for the point of the tongue does not 
touch the palate ; nor (qj), correspond- 
ing to (kj, gj), for the back of the 
tongue never reaches the (k)-position. 
The Sanscrit explodents now become 
perfectly intelligible, cfi the usual (k) 
with the back of the tongue only, and 
neither the middle nor the tip, in con- 
tact with the palate. ^ the present 
(kj), with the middle of the tongue 
only, and neither the back nor the tip, 
in contact with the palate. "Z with the 
tip of the tongue only, and neither the 

10. (sh, ph.) continued. 

back nor middle, in contact with the 
palate, and not the teeth, written (T), 
for one of the forms ( y t, t), that is either 
retracted or coronal, not gingival nor 
dental, nor citra-dental (tf). 7f with 
the tip of the tongue only against the 
teeth only, not against the palate. The 
sides of the tongue in all cases have to 
complete the closure. The series may 
then be completed thus : 
(K) back of retracted tongue against 

extreme back of palate, 
(k) back of tongue against palate, 
(kj) back and middle of tongue against it. 
(kj) middle of tongue against it. 
(tj) middle and tip of tongue against it. 
(,t T t) tip of tongue against palate in 

various places from furthest back to 

crown or base of gums. 
( % t) tip of tongue against upper teeth. 
( %v t) tip of tongue against both upper and 

lower teeth, but not protruded, 
(tf) tip of tongue protruded between 

upper and lower teeth, 
p) lower Up against upper teeth. 
p) lower lip against upper lip. 

Now each of these can give rise to 
a hiss by a slight relaxation of the 
contact. Hence we get a theoretical 
(Kb) from (K) ; the well-known (kh) 
from (k), the German ch in ach ; the 
equally well-known (kjh) from (kj), 
the German ch in ich ; the English 
(jh)=(kjh) from (kj), of which pre- 
sently ; the English ( x sh) is the nearest 
if not the exact hiss of the English (t), 
as will be noticed presently, (th) the 
hiss of dental ( ^t). National habits will 
here interfere. The Sanscrit has only 
a generated (kh), as will be shewn in 
No. 14, (wh), and hence it does not 
appear in writing. The (kjh) or (jh) 
however existed distinctly and had a sign 
^J. Now if modern Germans, as we 
shall see in No. 16, (j), actually confuse 
(kjh, jh), we cannot suppose that their 
ancestors, the old emigrants from the 
Aryan land, did better, and from (kjh) 
the step to (k) on the one hand and 
(sh) on the other is easy. How easily 
(sh) comes from (jh) we know in 
English, and Mr. Goodwin has himself 
exemplified it by making (kjh) = (sh) 
instead of (jh), just as in India (jh) 
has sunk absolutely into (sh). Lepsius 
makes the sound of ^J theoretically = 
(shj), (Standard Alphabet, p. 71), which 
he identifies with Polish *', a sound I 
hear as (sj). But Mr. Gupta hears no 


10. (sh, x sh) continued. 
difference in present usage between ^J 
and ^ both are equally (sh). But both 
occur as ungenerated distinct forms in 
Sanscrit, where they are unmistakably 
referred to ^ ". There is probably 
no doubt therefore that IJ was, and still 
represents, (jh). Now we have already 
shewn on comparing (s, sh) in (1104, c) 
that the latter is retracted, as compared 
with the former. And in the same way 
(T) is retracted as regards ( v t). In 
languages having no (th), as in 
German for example, (s) or ( v s), for 
the two cases are not distinguished, is 
taken to be, and actually results as, the 
hiss of (^t). It is thus that high 
German z = ( % t x s) has probably actually 
resulted from ( v tj). In the same way 
^J was in Sanscrit referred to rf. As 
a matter of course therefore ^f (sh) or 
(jsh) was referred to Z (T). In modern 
Bengalee, as we have seen (1105, '), 
all three sounds 1J ^ ^f are confused 
as (sh). That If ^ = (jh, j) were not 
exhibited together as surd and sonant, 
may be due to the fact that there were 
no (zh, z) as sonants to *f ^J. The 
Sanscrit series of speech sounds, like 
those of all other nations, was but 

Considerable objection has been taken 
to Mr. Melville Bell's classification of 
(s, sh), by which, in the arrangement 
on p. 15, 2b and 35, the (s) is apparently 
allied to (j), and the (sh) to (t). So 
strongly have speakers felt the relation 
of (s) to (t), and of (sh) to (jh), tbat, 
as I have been informed (by Miss Hull, 
of 102. Warwick Gardens, Kensington, 
who successfully teaches deaf and dumb 
girls to speak and read from the lips, 
and, employing for that purpose Mr. 
Bell's Visible Speech symbols, went in 
1873 to Boston, in America, to study 
Mr. Graham Bell's method of using it 
in teaching at the deaf and dumb 
institutions there), Mr G. Bell has 
found it best to transpose these symbols, 
giving to the symbol 2b the meaning 
(sh), and to the symbol 3b the meaning 
(s). But Mr. Melville Bell's symbols 
are both 'mixed,' and imply merely 
that the (j) character in the position of 
the tongue predominates in (s) by the 
elevation of the middle of the tongue, 
and the (t) character of the same in 
(sh), by the depression of the middle of 
. the tongue. This is clearly shewn by 

10. (sh, x sh) continued. 

his diagrams (Visible Speech, p. 53) 
and his description (ibid, p 52), viz. : 
"6. (s) Front-Mixed. The Front 
[middle] and Point [tip] of the Tongue 
both raised, so as to bring the convex 
surface of the tongue close to the front 
[crown] of the palatal arch, and the 
point of the tongue, at the same time, 
close to the upper gum. 7. (sh) Point- 
Mixed. The Point [tip] and the Front 
[middle] of the Tongue both raised 
the latter in a less degree than for symbol 
6. (s) bringing the front [middle] 
surface of the tongue near to the rim. 
[?] of the palatal arch." The charac- 
ters both imply (jh*r h), but for (s) 
the greater proximity of the middle of 
the tongue to the (j) -position determined 
both its position and its sign. The 
recent variation, by Mr. Graham Bell, 
in the application of these symbols, 
shews how difficult it is to select any 
form of symbolism depending on classi- 
fication. Different points strike different 
minds as best adapted for character- 
istics. As in botany and zoology 
genera and families are constantly 
being remodelled, we cannot be sur- 
prised at the difficulties and disagree- 
ments which have notoriously arisen 
in a matter so little understood and 
requiring so much training (almost 
securing bias) to observe and appreciate, 
as speech-sounds. Still greater excep- 
tion would probably be taken to Mr. 
Bell's classing (th) under (jh), and (h), 
wbich he identifies with Welsh II (Ihb), 
under (r h), because we naturally 
identify (th) with the teeth, and over- 
look the position of the middle of the 
tongue. The columns 2 and 3, in Mr. 
Bell's table, p. 14, should, according to 
these recent changes in palaeotype, be 
symbolised as follows, in order, from 
line a to line m ; 

2. voiceless jh s Ijh th kj qjh 
voiced 3 z Ij dh gj qj 

3. voiceless r h sh lh *h t nh 
voiced r zh 1 ?h d n 

If (*h, rfh) really represent the Welsh 
II and its Manx voiced form, they are 
identical with the symbols (Ihh /hh), 
see (756, <?, ?), where the voiceless form 
(Ihh) is incorrectly stated to occur in 

(wot x sh). The voice, set on 
in (w), continues with a glide on to (o), 
and then with a sharp and very sensible 
glide on to (t), where it is cut off or 



10. (wot,sh) continued. 
stopped, and the glottis closed; the 
glottis is, however, immediately opened 
wide for unvocalised hreath, and a hiss- 
glide is formed on to (jsh), through 
which the hiss may be continued in- 
definitely, and as a rule the position for 
(^sh) is held as long as the breath is 
audible, so that it does not glide off 
into anything else. This may be 
written (w-o>t<^sh). But in cheese 
we have (t < jsh < ii > z-s), without the 
glide on to (t), and hence the (t) is less 
felt than in the other case. 

11. SAW, (SAA). 

(s). For (s) see No. 6, (s). 

(A). For(AA) see No. 10, (A,O). 
We have here only the continued 
sound. Dr. Rush says (op. cit. p. 61), 
" ^i-we has for its radical, the peculiar 
sound of ' a ' in we ; and for its vanish, 
a short and obscure sound of the 
monothong (sic) e-rr." That is, he 
would pronounce saw (SAA' L B, SAA'), 
which would give the effect of adding 
an r. It is quite true that Londoners 
have a difficulty in distinguishing saw 
sore, law lore, maw more, generally 
saying only (SAA', IAA', HIAA') for (SAA 
soo', IAA loo', HIAA moo'), and that the 
principal difference to them is that the 
first words may not, and the last words 
must, have an epenthetical (r) before a 
vowel. It is therefore best to avoid 
this "vanish," and say (SAA) without 
relaxing the position for (AA). But 
really, as will hereafter appear, (SAA', 
ee'], oo'w) are phenomena of precisely 
the same kind, ( 2, No. 6, iv.) We 
also find (nvemaa 1 ', prapaa'') in the 
same way. The only objection is to 
the interposition of a trilled r, as 
saw-r-ing (SAA'TZQ). But the Basques 
interpose a ''euphonic" r in the 
same way, and if we could only 
persuade grammarians to call the 
Cockney interposition of (r) "euphonic" 
also, the custom, which is a living 
reality, however unsavoury now, would 
be at once disinfected. 

(SAA). The glide from (s) to 
(AA) is of the same nature as in (s/ks), 
No. 6. 

12. FEATHERS, Bell's (fe - 
dhtuz), my (te-dhazs). 

(f). See No. 4, (f). 

(E, e). See No. 7, (e, E). 

(dh). This is the buzz of (th), 
see No. 3, (th). There is no initial (d), 
as Germans imagine, in English (dhen), 
which would require the un-English 
dental (.ddhen). The final (-ddh) does 
not occur, but we have (-dhd) in 
breathed, bathed, swathed, tithed = 
(briidhd, bmlhd, swmlhd, ta'zdhd), in 
pronouncing which the retraction of 
the tongue from (dh) to (d) may be 
distinctly felt. And (d dh) constantly 
concur in successive words, as and the, 
see (1098, a). 

(BI, i). On (r, j) see No. 3, 
(r), and No. 4, (i). Mr. M. Bell has 
peculiar theories about unaccented 
vowels, which will be better discussed 
in some special examples, given here- 
after. The (B) only occurs in English 
in unaccented syllables, and it may be 
questioned whether the real sound in 
these syllables is not (a). It is the 
same, or nearly so (for the exact shades 
of such obscurities are difficult to seize), 
as the obscure final -e in German and 
Dutch. When French e muet is pro- 
nounced, I seem to hear (9) rather thnn 
(a) or (oe), and there is a schism on this 
point among the French themselves. 
See also (548, b). 

(zs). See No. 5, (fae'v), on 
this after sound of (s), which is gene- 
rally very clearly developed, especially 
in singing psnlms, where it becomes 
disagreeably prominent. This final (s) 
should be very lightly touched, as a 
mere relief from the unpleasant buzz (z) . 

(fe-dkizs). The word begins 
with an unvocalised hiss which is con- 
tinued as long as the (f) position is 
held, so that the vocal chords must not 
be brought together till that position 
is released. The glide on to (e) may 
take place through the gradual closure 
of the glottis, and hence may be partly 
voiceless, but the voice is now con- 
tinued, without break, on to (z). There 
is an interruption to its smoothness by 
the buzzing of (dh), but, unless there is 
a trill superadded to (a), which is ad- 
missible, but u nusual, the voice is heard 
as an obscure vowel (B) or (a) through 
(a) . The result is (f < e > dh < B > z-s) . 


12. (fe'dh.izs) continued. 

The syllable divides somewhere during 
(dh). The vowel (e) being short, the 
whole glide from (e) to (dh), and the 
whole continuance of the buzz till the 
glide from (dh), would generally be 
reckoned to belong to the first syllable. 
This is merely fanciful. The interrup- 
tion to vocality by the buzz makes two 
groups (f < e > ) "and ( < i > z-s), be- 
tween which there is an extra- syllabic 
buzz of sensible duration, and if it 
were exaggerated in length, we should 
have the effect of three groups. Practi- 
cally, two groups only being felt, the 
length of (dh) is divided at pleasure 
between them, and is, I believe actually 
at times differently divided by means of 
a relaxation of force or slur *, to be 
described in No. 14, (wh), according to 
the momentary feeling of the speaker. 

13. TONGS, Bell's (toqz), 
my (toqzs). 

(t). See No. 2, (t). 

(o). See No. 10, (A, o). 

(q). This bears the same re- 
lation to (n), as (g) to (d). It 
is simply (g) with a complete nasal 
resonance, and thus differs from (g,), 
with incomplete resonance, although 
in both the uvula is free from the 
pharynx, but whether to an equal 
extent has not been determined. The 
(q) is common in German, Italian, and 
modern Greek, and was clearly present 
in Latin and ancient Greek, though it 
has never received a distinct symbol in 
these languages, as it has in Sanscrit. 
But in these languages it is merely a 
euphonic alteration of (n) generated 
by a following (k) or (g). It is quite 
unknown in French, where it seems to 
Englishmen to have been transformed 
into a French nasality of the vowel, 
(aA) bearing to (a.) about the same 
relation as (aq) to (ag.). But the real 
differences which distinguish French 
Portuguese, dialectal Gei man, American 
English Gaelic, Hindu, and perhaps 
other undescribed nasalities, have not 
yet been determined, so that all an dysis 
is provisional. Mr. Gupta (1096, a) 
pronounced the San-crit "necessary 
anusvara " as (q). and not as a mark of 
nasalisation (A). The nasal passages are 
so complicated and full of tremulous 

13. (q) continued. 

membranes, and of secretions, that the 
resonance is necessarily very compli- 
cated. It is safest for Englishmen who 
cannot pronounce the French nasals to 
use (q) for (A). On (67, c) I accident- 
ally misstated Mr. Bell's analysis, 
which is properly an, on, un, vin 
(ohA, ohA, 8A, y KA). Prince Louis Lucien 
Bonaparte's is (aA, o^, <?hA, ^A). M. 
E'douard Paris seems to analyze (aA, 
OA, 03A, EA) in the Introduction to his 
"St. Matthieu en Picard Amienois" 
(London, 1863, translated for Prince 
Louis Lucien Bonaparte). In fact it 
is not possible to analyse these sounds 
perfectly, because the mere detachment 
of the uvula from the back of the 
pharynx alters the shape of the reso- 
nance chamber for the oral vowel, and 
the addition of nasality effectually dis- 
guises its quality. By very carefully 
performed and recorded experiments 
with the phonautograph and Konig's 
manometric flames (see Poggendorffs 
Annalen, vol. 146) on vowels sung at 
the same pitch, with and without 
different nasalisations, it may be possible 
to discover the alteration of the quality 
produced by nasalisation, but even this 
is problematical, and, so far as 1 know, 
no experiments have hitherto been 
made in this direction. At present our 
connection of oral to nasal vowels is 
purely a matter of aural appreciation, and 
will probably differ for tlie same speaker 
from observer to observer. The form, 
(aA) would mean, that, with the excep- 
tion of the uvula, the organs are dis- 
posed as for (a), and that the uvula is 
so widely detached from the pharynx 
as to allow a perfectly free passage of 
vocalised breath through the nose as 
well as through the mouth. The form 
(a,) gives the same position, with the 
exception of the uvula, which is, I 
think, only slightly detached from the 
pharynx, so that the nasal passage is 
not so free as the oral, and hence the 
oral vowel is so distinctly recognized 
that probably Frenchmen would not 
recognize (a.) as intended .or (aA). 
Both (a t ) and (aA) are ori-iiiisal vowels, 
but the name is best applied to the 
second, while the first may be called a 
nasalised oral vowel. Between (a), 
with no nasality, and (aA), with perfect 
ori nasality, there are many degrees ; 
but, as before s;iid, we have not yet 
succeeded in analysing them, although 
the different degrees in which the nasal 


13. (q) continued. 

passage is opened by the uvula is of 
course one important element, produc- 
ing an effect comparable to that of the 
different ' roun dings ' of the vowels by 
the lips, see No. 10 (A, o). But in 
(aq) we have first a purely oral vowel, 
followed by a glide (a>q), which may 
pass through some form of nasality, but 
cannever reach either (a.) or (aA), because 
the oral passage is gradually obstructed 
more and more by the back of the 
tongue, till finally, all passage through 
the mouth being cut off by the (k) 
contact of the back of the tongue and 
soft palate, the voice issues in (q) 
entirely through the nose. These dis- 
tinctions, pure oral (a), nasalised oral 
(a,), ori-nasal (aA), pure oral (a) + a 
glide which is partly nasal, and im- 
perfectly oral + pure nasal (q), should be 
carefully borne in mind. It will then 
be seen that the English (oq, ooq, aq, 
vseq) and the German (<?q, oq, ceq, 
bhEq) are very imperfect approxima- 
tions to the French an, on, un, vin, but 
are intelligible simply because (q) not 
existing in French, there are no other 
sounds which they could represent. It 
is remarkable that in received English 
no vowel occurs long before (q) , so that 
even (ooq) is rather difficult to our 
organs. In America, however, (oq) is 
often (ooq) or (AAq), as (looq, sooq) or 
(lAAq, SAAq). And in Icelandic the 
vowel before (q) is always intentionally 
long (546, b, d'). 

1V1 r. Goodwin is peculiar in his analy- 
sis of (q), his ng. He says (ibid.^. 10), 
" Ng represents a simple, elementary, 
and a liquid sound, combining a nasal 
and a palatal character, or intermediate 
between the two, being produced in the 
endeavour to pronounce an n, by press- 
ing the middle of the tongue against 
the palate. Nhg (or ngh], the so-called 
French nasal, is related to ng as any 
other aspirate to its lene ; that is, it is 
accompanied with an emission of breath, 
while the organs are in near approxi- 
mation to the specific contact which 
characteiizes ng." The description of 
(A) is of course entirely incorrect. The 
description of (q), however, d<>es not 
answer to the English (q), but to the 
probable Sans, (qj), which Englishmen 
confuse with (nj). The French, having 
no (q), confuse it with their own (nj). 
I have al*o known Fr (nj) pronounced 
(qj) in Kngland. There is therefore 
no certainty respecting (q, qj, qj, nj) in 

13. (q) continued. 
accounts of foreign sounds. The con- 
fusion is quite similar to that of (w, 
bh, v). In English (q), which has 
generally been generated by the action 
of a letter of the ^-series on a pre- 
ceding n, never occurs initially, so that 
English people find it difficult to make 
it glide on to a following vowel, as 
(qaa, qii, quu), which are found in 
some African and other languages. 
Hence when final, it is simply pro- 
longed, as (loq), the strength of the 
voice dying off, and it seldom becomes 
voiceless (loqqh), because there is no 
inconvenience in prolonging the nasality. 
But sometimes the nasality is dropped, 
and then simple (g) results, as (loqg), 
which is treated as a usual final sonant, 
and may become (loqg '). This cannot 
be reckoned as a received form, although 
it may be historical. On the other 
hand, the voice is occasionally dropped 
with the nasality, and the result is 
(loqk'), which is reckoned vulgar, as in 
(ttu'qk'j for (tru'q), though common in 
German (192, d). We have, however, 
a final (-/q), in the participles, which 
certainly does not arise from a previous 
(k) form. The confusion of the (-q, 
-nd) participial forms is very old; it 
may possibly have arisen from confusing 
the participle and verbal noun or 
gerund, for many of our dialects ignore 
this (-q) altogether^ and use (-n) as a 
termination for both, " not pronouncing 
the g" as glossarists assume, although 
Southern Scotch dialects distinguish 
them by vowels (-an) participle, (-m) 
for gerund (Murray, ibid. p. 211). 
Similarly (na-thm, na'then, na-fm, 
n<rfim) are not uncommon vulgarisms 
for nothing (na'thz'q). Yankee and 
Irish English prefer the participle in 
-in. In the Forth and Bargy extinct 
English, ng and n seem to have been 
occasionally confused. 

When (q) is medial, the difficulty is 
overcome in two ways. First, the glide 
of (q) on to the vowel", is altogether 
omitted, by beginning the vowel with a 
glottid (, ;), or by slurring or relaxing 
the force of the voice on (q), so that 
the glide becomes inaudible. The clear 
(,) or catch (;) are, I think, uncommon 
either in English or German under 
such circumstances, but the relaxation 
or slur (-^} is, I think, the rule Thus 
singer, longing, are (srq -J. lo-q-^e'q), 
not (srq,j, lo q,'q), and still less(srq;j, 
lo*q;t'q). Secondly, the nasality is 


13. (q) continued. 

ultimately omitted, and the resulting 
(g) glides easily on to the vowel, as in 
finger, longer (frqgi, b'qga), where 
(q) passes into (g) with the same ease as 
(z) into (s) in (H/ZS). 

When (q) is medial, and a hiss, not a 
buzz, follows, if we attempt to make 
the glide on to the hiss, some speakers 
naturally drop the nasality and the 
voice,- developing (k), which glides on 
easily, as in strength, length (streqkth, 
leqkth). This is not necessary. Although 
(qth) could no more make an initial 
combination than (wth), there could be 
a non-nasal glide from (q) to (th), 
which resembles the glide from (g) or 
from (?<) to (th), thus (q'>th). Or ' 
else the (q) may end suddenly, and 
there may be a hiss-glide on to (th), 
thus (q* > th). I think that this last is 
more frequently said. But the transi- 
tion from the guttural (q) to the dental 
(th) being violent, many speakers, 
especially of the older class, and Irish- 
men, bridge over the difficulty by 
changing (q) into (n), thus (strenth, 
lenth). A third hypothesis is possible. 
The voiceless breath may be introduced 
during the (q), or in place of the (q), 
thus (streq-qh-th) or (streqhth). I 
have not myself observed either. Mr. 
Bell probably advocates the last, for he 
writes (ma-qhkz). This belongs to a 
theory considered in No. 15. I think 
(streqth, ae-qshas, maqk, wi'qkt) repre- 
sent my own pronunciation of strength, 
anxious, monk, winked. When a voiced 
consonant follows, there seems no 
tendency to introduce (g), thus tongs, 
winged are (toqzs, w/qd), not (toqgzs, 
wz'qgd), which would be difficult to 
English organs. An attempt to pro- 
nounce them would probably result in 

(zs). See No. 12, (fe-dhizs). 

(toqzs). The glide from (t) 
to (o) may be gathered from No. 2, 
(tuu). The voice is regularly continued 
through (q) to (z), when it falls off to 
(s), thus (t <o > q-z-s). 

14. WHIP, (whip), variants 
(whwz'p, wip). 

(wh). See Gill's recognition 
of (wh), on (185, i), the observations 
on ags. hi, hr, hn, hw, on (513, ab), and 

14. (wh) continued. 

Icelandic (543, d], and on h in general 
(221, d). So much controversy exists 
upon the points thus raised that it is 
worth while recurring to them. My 
(H) was identified with Mr. Bell's 
symbol, p. 15, col. 5, line f, with some 
hesitation, by Mr. Bell himself. But 
my own impression is that Mr. Bell has 
no sign precisely corresponding to what 
I mean by (H). In my original paper 
on Palaeotype (Philol. Trans. 1867, 
part 2, p. 16) I defined (H) as "the 
aspirate or jerk of the voice, not neces- 
sarily accompanied by a whisper, which 
could not be pronounced in certain 
post-aspirated consonants, as the Sanscrit 
^f ? ^ ^f (bn, dn, gn), and similar 
combinations in the Irish brogue. 
When the whisper is uttered, the effect 
should be represented strictly by (H')." 
Now most persons who have used my 
palaeotype confuse (H, H'), and I have 
certainly not been careful to distinguish 
them under ordinary circumstances. 
For the exact understanding, however, 
of such difficulties as have been raised 
respecting (wh), etc., it is necessary to 
enter into somewhat minute explana- 
tions. Referiing to Mr. Bell's symbols, 
supra p. 15, by simple number and 
letter as of, " the symbol in column 5, 
line /," the following are Mr. Bell's 
own explanations (' The Organic Rela- 
tions of the Rudimental Symbols,' 
Visible Speech, pp. 46-49). 

9. "When the glottis and the super- 
glottal passage are perfectly open, the 
breath creates no sound in its emission. 
A moderate degree of expulsiveness to 
render the 'aspiration' audible is im- 
plied in 9. The symbol is pictorial 
of the expanded breath -channel in the 
throat." This I have written (H') on 
p. 15, the exact meaning of which will 
be explained presently, and (u'h) is the 
full sign. 

5a. "When the glottis is contracted 
to a narrow chink, the breath in passing 
sets the edge of the orifice the ' vocal 
ligaments' in vibration, and creates 
sonorous ' voice.' This vocalising con- 
dition of the glottis is pictured in the 
symbol." This I mark (') on p. 15. 
The description, however, is inaccurate. 
If there is any ' chink,' there is no 
' voice,' but only ' whisper.' See No. 
8, (eei). Distinguish between 'open 
glottis,' through which passes flatus or 
voiceless breath ('h), which may or may 


14. (wh) continued. 

not be audible; 'cbink glottis* when 
the edges of the chords are brought 
almost but not quite in contact, pro- 
ducing whisper (''h) ; and ' closed 
glottis,' the edges of the chords being 
absolutely in contact to be forced 
asunder by the breath, closing by their 
own elasticity, and thus producing that 
series of 'puffs' which result in 'voice,' 
('h). Different from all these is the 
supra- glottal implosion ("h), No. 9, 

9b. " "When the glottis is open, and 
the super-glottal passage is contracted, 
the breath creates in the latter the non- 
sonorous rustling or friction which is 
called ' whisper.' The relative expan- 
sion of the throat-channel for 9a and 
9b is pictured in the symbols." I have 
marked this as (') on p. 15. Mysymbolfor 
'whisper' is ('') or voicelessness+voice. 
Hence ('v) is used for whispered (f), 
and ('i) is whispered (i). To indicate 
voicelessness, prefix (') to a whispered, 
or (") to a voiced letter. Thus ("v) = 
(f), and ("i) is the mere flatus through 
the (i) position, scarcely distinguishable 
from (jh), while ("u) will be the mere 
flatus through the (u) position, scarcely 
distinguishable from (wh), see No. 2 
(uu), and No. 3 (ii). Now Mr. Bell 
goes on to say : " The organic effect of 
9b will be understood by whispering a 
'voiced consonant' such as v. The 
result is clearly different from the sound 
of the non-vocal consonant of corre- 
sponding oral formation f. For the 
former ('v), the fricativeness of the 
breath is audible from the throat, 
through the oral configuration ; for the 
latter, (f), the breath-friction is audible 
only from the lip." I think that this 
account is imperfect, whisper being 
glottal and not pharyngal. There is a 
glottal wheeze (/i), which is produced 
by driving the voice sharply through 
the cartilaginous glottis, between the 
arytenoid cartilages, and not between 
the vocal chords, and Mr. Bell inclined 
to mark this as 9 b + 10, that is, as 
a prolongation of the present sound. 
At another time he wrote it 9b 
+ 9ff, or with the mark of trill added 
to this sign. Now there is such a 
trilling effect possible by means of 
moisture, and some observers do con- 
sider (h) as an arytenoid glottal trill 
rather than a wheeze. If voice accom- 
panies, the result is either the Danish 
glottal (i) or the Arabic ain (g), and 

14. (wh) continued. 

the latter is perhaps only (.1), that is a 
strong pronunciation of the former. I 
am confirmed in this view by the fact 
of Mr. Sweet finding (i) very much 
like (o), and by the usual derivation of 
o from the Semitic ain. 

9h. " The symbol 9h is a compound 
of 9b and 5<z, and denotes whisper and 
voice heard simultaneously; a vocal 
murmur modified by breath-friction in 
the super-glottal passage." I marked 
this as ('') on p. 15, but on my present 
definition of whisper this does not 
properly express the fact described. In 
whisper, however, there is so slight a 
vocalisation, arising from intermittent 
puffing, and so much apparent escape of 
unintermittent flatus, that the effect is 
felt as a mixture of voice and flatus, 
only the flatus has the upper hand, and 
the whole effect is generally weak. But 
in buzzing we have a powerful voice, 
with apparent intermingled flatus, 
which, however, is I think merely caused 
by inharmonic proper tones due to an 
obstructed resonant chamber, and is in 
ultimate analysis rather noise, that is, 
beating harmonies, than real flatus. 

9c. " The symbol 9c pictures the 
combined edges of the glottis, and de- 
notes the 'catch' of the breath which 
is heard (with violence of percussion) 
in a cough. The linguistic effect of 9c 
is softer, but distinctly percussive, when 
an aspiration or a vocal sound follows 
the ' catch.' " The form of the symbol 
9c gives a wrong impression of the 
position of the vocal chords, which are 
pressed tightly together, along the 
whole length of their opposed edges, 
(and not knicked in the middle only as 
the symbol seems to shew,) so that it 
requires considerable effort to separate 
them by an expiration. The closure is, 
for a time, air tight, as in ' holding the 
breath.' Hence the breath escapes 
explosively, either as flatus or voice. I 
write it (;). 

91 and 9m. "The symbols 91 and 
9m, by themselves, refer to the aperture 
of the mouth as affected by the close 
(90 or open (9m] position of the jaws. 
Following other symbols, 91 denotes 
configurative compression, with conse- 
quent percussion on leaving the con- 
figuration, and 9m denotes configurative 
openness or organic laxity. Thus 

" 9a + 91. An exhaustive aspiration 
from upward pressure of the diaphragm ; 
a wheeze. 


14. (wh) continued. 

" 90 + 9m. A gentle inaudible aspi- 

" 9c + 91. Glottal closure with dis- 
tention of the larynx from pressure on 
the confined hreath, and percussive 
emission on opening the passage; a 

As will be seen by referring to (1106, 
c), I formerly marked 91 on p. 15 as (.), 
considered merely as represent! ng force, 
which is supposed to be continuous, 
and 9m as (), considered as repre- 
senting weakness, also supposed con- 
tinuous. These do not quite represent 
Mr. Bell's symbols. His 9a + 91 is 
hardly (.H'h), but very nearly so. His 
9a+9m could not be (,,H'h), because 
there is no jerk at all here, and (,,'h) 
is the nearest symbol for almost in- 
audible flatus. Again his 9c + 91 
could not be (.;), because this alone, 
without sign of flatus, whisper or voice, 
has no meaning, but (.j'h) is not un- 
like it. Using the signs ( l j) as pro- 
posed on (1107, b), we may, however, 
write 9 + 9 = ('h'), though I think 
(,'h 1 ) better for the effect intended, 

h l ) or (,,'hA and 9c + 9l 
te(;h) or (j.'h 1 ). 

" 10/ and 5/. Whisper and voice 
may be produced by air going inwards 
(10/) or by breath coming out (5/)." 
Here I think Mr. Bell has made a slip. 
No ' voice ' certainly, and no ' whisper ' 
in the sense of (1128, b), can be pro- 
duced by inspiration. I have written (;) 
for 10/, and Mr. Bell first gave 9b and 
afterwards 5f for my (H), but he must 
have been wrong in both cases. He 
proceeds to say " All symbols except 
10/and 10 e imply emission." [Hence 
no special symbol for 5f was required.] 
" The symbol 5/ is used to denote a 
transitional emission from the symbol- 
ized configuration in passing from one 
position to another." [This seems to 
mean ' glide ' in my sense, denoted by 
> or < ] . " The effect is different 
from the throat aspiration 9a. Thus 
from the ' shut ' position of the glottis 
9c, we may either open sharply upon 
an utterance of voice 9a 4- 5a " [my 
(;'h)], " or we may ease of the pressure 
of the ' catch' by interpolating a ' breath 
glide' 9a + of + 5a." Now this 
could not be (;n'h), for this jerk would 
increase instead of "easing off" the 
pressure. In another place, quoted 
presently, he calls this 5f u an aspirated 
hiatus." It would be of course possible 

14. (wh) continued. 

to interpose flatus, between the catch (;) 
and the voice ('h), thus (;'h'h), and 
when a real vowel is used the series 
(;+"a+a), hereafter abridged to (;ha), 
may be easier than (;a) without any 
interposed flatus, for the explosion may 
force the vocal chords so far apart that 
flatus escapes before they can be reduced 
to the vocal position, and as they would 
recoil to it suddenly the effect (;-i-"a+a) 
would be different from (;+"a-f 'a-*- a) 
or (;ja), which seems hardly possible. 
Still I own not to have caught the 
meaning of this symbol 5f thoroughly, 
and I regret that I was led to identify it 
with my own (H). Mr. Graham Bell 
has used it at the end of words, when 
writing for deaf-mutes, to indicate what 
Mr. M. Bell calls the 'recoil' mentioned 
in the next citation, thus 8/+ 3e + 5f 
is used for my (set'), this would 
confirm my supposition that 5f is 
not really different from ( < 'h), since 
(set') is at full (ae > t < 'h). It remains 
therefore that Mr. M. Bell has no 
Visible Speech smybol for my (H), al- 
though I think his 91, my (.), comes 
nearest to it, the difference being that 
(H) resembles impact or is momentary, 
and (.) resembles pressure or is con- 

" 100. The symbol 100 signifies that 
the organic separation or recoil from 
any symbolized position which is 
always implied in final elements when 
the ' stop ' is not written does not 
take place. Thus 9c + 100 is an un- 
finished 'catch,' in forming which the 
impulse ceases with the closure of the 
glottis." But no effect would be heard 
if the glottis were kept closed. We 
must allow a single puff to escape at 
least to shew the ' catch,' and then we 
must shut up directly to shew the ' stop.' 
Thus in place of 9c 4- 100, or (;.') in my 
symbols, which would have absolutely 
no sound, I must have (;'hf) or (;'h'.), 
often he^rd in a short checked convul- 
sive cough. 

" The effect of organic ' stop ' is 
implied between elements in verbal 
combinations, such as tl in outlaw, td 
in outdo, etc. ; where, necessarily, the 
t is not finished by an organic recoil, 
as it would be at the end of a word. 
In these cases of course the ' stop ' does 
not require to be written." In practi- 
cal phonetic writing much is not 
marked which must make its appearance 
in delicate phonetic discussions, and 


14. (wh) continued. 
which is often of supreme philological 
importance. Thus (autlAA, autduu) 
are enough for many purposes ; but if 
we are writing strictly, they are 
not nearly enough. We require 
(aV > t;l < AA:, Q'U: > t;d < uir), where 
; is the break explained in the next 
paragraph. The diphthongal glide is 
indicated by the accent shewing the 
element with principal force. The 
glides generally need not be written if 
the rule is laid down that there is 
always a glide between combined 
symbols. But then we must write 
(o'wt IAA, a'wt duu), and we should thus 
lose the effect of combination into one 
word; so that (a'u'tjlAA:, a'u:tjduu-) 
become the full forms. Generally 
(awtlAA, ewtduu 1 ) are enough. The 
* recoil' should always be written when 
intended to be distinctly pronounced, as 
(-aVt';lAA, a'wt'jdmr). 

" lOc. In verbal combinations of 
elementary sound, each element is in- 
separably joined to the succeeding one." 
This refers to the inter-gliding, but is 
only true as a practical rule in writing. 
" When any element, except the last in 
a combination, is finished independently 
of what follows, the sign of 'hiatus' 
(100) is used. Thus in analysis, or 
phonetically ' spelling ' a syllable, we 
should say that 9a + 5a consists of the 
elements 9 + lOc + 5a interposing a 
break. The effect of lOc will be 
understood by pronouncing the word 
4 bedtime,' in which the d and t are not 
disjoined, in contrast with the separate 
pronunciation of the two words ' bed, 
time.' The symbol 5f is an aspirated 
hiatus; the symbol lOc is non-aspirated, 
a mere interval." I have hitherto 
marked this (,), but with the more 
accurate distinctions of glottids, some- 
thing more is required, and I find ( j ), 
half of the second half of a parenthesis, 
a sort of exaggerated comma, already 
introducedby anticipation (998, d} , the 
most convenient for this mere break, 
which may or may not be accompanied 
by a < clear ' glottid. In this case, ( ; ) 
is opposed to (-). 

After much thought and observation 
I have been led to the following views 
of these difficult, and yet, philologically, 
extremely important distinctions. I 
cannot consider my views complete, 
but I think that they will serve to 
form a basis for future work, and are 
more comprehensive than any yet sug- 

14. (wh) continued. 

gested in print. They involve not so 
much a reconstruction, as a more ac- 
curate specification of the notation on 
pp. 10 and 11. 

Material of Speech- Sounds. 

(';) Inspiration, audible inspired 
breath, the audibility arising from the 
friction in the air-passages, arising 
from their constriction and internal 
roughness, and velocity of the entering 

("h) Implosion; a dull thud-like 
sound arising from suddenly condensing, 
by the action of the muscles of the in- 
closing walls, breath confined in the 
passages, neither passing out of the 
mouth, nor through the larynx (1097, c. 
1113, a'). 

(Jh) Click or smack ; a smart sharp 
sound produced by suddenly separating 
moist parts of the organs, as tongue 
and palate, etc., independent of inspira- 
tion or expiration. It is quite easy to 
click in the mouth while inspiring and 
expiring through the nose. 

( l h) Flatus, audible but unvocalised 
expiration, the vocal chords well sepa- 
rated, and a full column of breath 
passing easily. The audibility may be 
conditioned by degrees of force or nar- 
rowing or interruption of the passages 
of exit. 

("h) Whisper; the edges of the 
vocal chords are almost but not quite 
in contact ; part of the passing breath 
is unaffected, part rustles, part is 
broken into pulses, resembling voice, 
just as on a flute we hear the musical 
tone accompanied by the rustle or 
rushing noise of the performer's breath 
against the side of the mouthpiece. 

('h) Voice; the edges of the vocal 
chords in actual Contact, and opening 
and shutting by the action of expira- 
tion and their own elasticity, so as to 
break all the air into pulses. But the 
break does not necessarily produce a 
musical tone. On the contrary, just as 
in any blown reed (in clarinet, hautboy, 
etc.), or interrupted air current (in 
whistles, flutes, etc), many different 
musical tones result in this case also, of 
which several are of nearly the same 
pitch or even of incommensurable 
periodic times, and these 'beat' with 
one another, thus producing a confused 
noise, or obscure murmur, which is 
really the 'natural' voice. It is by 
adapting various resonant chambers to 


14. (wh) continued. 

this last sound that \ve 'select' those 
musical tones which go to form the 
distinct 'qualities' of speech-sounds. 
When ('h) simply is written, it indicates 
some ohscure voice sound which we are 
unable distinctly to characterise. 

In the above notations (h), as usual, 
is 'diacritic,' and is in fact only used as 
a ' support ' for the other signs, so that 
when other letters are present (h) is 
omitted if its absence will occasion no 
ambiguity. It will be doubled to express 
prolongation. Most alphabetic letters 
inherently imply flatus ('h), or voice ('b), 
some imply clicking (Jh), but none im- 
ply inspiration (';), implosion ( u h), or 
whisper (''h). Thus (f) implies flatus 
or ('h), and (v) implies voice or ('h). 
Add voice to flatus or flatus to voice 
and the result is whisper ; thus ('f) = 
('v) is whispered (f) or (v). In speaking 
in a so-called whisper, (f) remains with 
flatus, and (v) becomes ('v). Similarly 
( v i, 'a, *u) are whispered vowels. 

AdJ flatus sign to whisper sign, and 
the result is made to symbolise flatus 
only. Thus (''f) =("v> = (f) simply. 
And ("i, "a, "u) are simple flatus 
through the vowel positions. The 
distinctions ("i, 'i, i), flatus, whisper, 
voice, in connection with the (i)-positiou 
are important. I do not symbolise 
position only, except in the mutes (p, 
t, k), as I find it more distinct to write 
the word "position" at length, after 
the symbol of the sound uttered in that 
position, thus : the (f) -position. 

At the end of a group of letters (') 
and (') are written for ('h) and ('h), 
thus (ii\ ee', oo', ?<'), which stand for 
(iih, ee'h, oo'h, ww'h), are the diph- 
thongs (u'j, eei, ooi, tun], already con- 
sidered (1099, '), when deprived of the 
permission to superadd a trilled (r), so 
that (MJ) = either (i?) or (t'r). Again 
(net', ed') are the same as (set'h, aod'h), 
and figure the ' recoil.' When this re- 
coil is a pure click, it should always be 
written as (ffitj, aekj), for it is ouite 
exceptional, although we sometimes 
hear the click first, and then flatus, 
especially after (k), as (sek+'h). The 
click sign added to the organ deter- 
mines the click. Thus (g) = (t J) or 
=t& or kSJ 

For the mutes (p, t, k), and sonants 
(b, d, g), ('pi = ('b) = whisper, instead 
of voice, forced into the (p)-position. And 
('p)= imploded (p), which is readily 

14. (wh) continued. 

confused with ('b) on the one hand and 
(p) on the other (1113, a'). 

The term ' mute ' is used for (p, t, k), 
as they have actually no sound of their 
own, but only modify other sounds by 
position, giving rise to glides. 


These are ' voice ' modified by reso- 
nance chamber. Each has its own 
definite 'pitch,' and when sung at 
other pitches is modified by the action 
of that pitch, in a manner only recently 
understood, by the researches of Helm- 
holtz, Bonders and Koenig, and not 
yet by any means fully observed or 
explained Every variety of pitch and 
force really alters- the character of any 
particular vowel, which is hence only 
to be recognized as a ' genus ' having 
several ' species.' In all cases a vowel 
is a 'quality' of tone, the appreciation 
of which differs- greatly individually 
and nationally. Further details are 
given in my paper on Accent and 
Emphasis (Philol. Trans. 1873-4, pp. 
113-164). I here, for brevity, take 
the vowels for granted. 


The modes of beginning, ending, 
and conjoining vowels, being princi- 
pally due to actions of the glottis, will 
be termed 'glottids.' They comprise 
many effects not yet classed, and others 
known indefinitely as ' breathings, spi- 
ritus asper et lems, aspiration,' etc. 

(j) gradual glottid, (1112, i), so 
that (\SL\) = ("a-'a^a-'a- "a), flatus gradu- 
ally falling into whisper, then this into 
voice, which returns back to whisper 
and flatus. With mutes, as (pja), it 
shews that when the (p)-position is 
assumed and released, the glottis is 
open, as for ('h) r see (1097, a'). Much 
of what is called post- aspiration is 
really due to the gradual glottid. I 
think that what Mr. Sweet (Philol. 
Trans. 1873, p. 106) calls "the aspira- 
tion of the voiceless stops" in Danish, 
and writes (lcnat, tm'l, pneqa, pnipa), 
would be more truly represented by 
(kjat) or by (kjkat), where (jh) is the 
flatus glottid, or the gradual glottid 
with greater prominence given to the 
flatus preceding or following the vowel, 
so that (iha) is rather (."aa-'a-a) than 

(,) Clear glottid, (1112, b), the 
choids are in the position for voice, 


14. (wh) continued. 

which begins without any introductory 
flatus. This is the position for English 
mutes, thus (p,a) as distinct from (pja) 
or (p^ha). 

(;) Check glottid, (1112, b) ; there is 
an air-tight closure, which is forced 
asunder, and there may easily arise a 
puff of flatus before the chords vibrate 
pro'perly, as (;'h) abridged to (;h). 
Briicke attributes this position to tbe 
English mutes, thus (p;a), but I think 
he is in eiTor, as the use of (;) is not an 
English trick. 

(h} Wheezing glottid. Here there 
is an escape of flatus, but it does not 
pass the open glottis, nor between the 
vocal chords, which are apparently 
tightly closed, but through the cartila- 
ginous glottis beyond it. Czermak 
(Sitzungsberichte der k. Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, math, naturw. cl. vol. 
29, No. 12, for 29 April, 1858, Wien, 
pp. 576-580) gives the result of actual 
observations with the laryngoscope on 
an Arab, corresponding with this de- 
scription. Prof. F. W. Newman says 
(on p. 8 of Handbook of Modern Arabic, 
London, 1866, pp. 190): "Strong h 
is often heard from Irishmen. It is 
wheezing and guttural, with something 
of a w in it at the beginning of a word. 
The force of air in the throat is con- 
siderable, and is strangely prolonged 
when it ends a word, as (meliiA, raaA) 
'good, he went.' " 

(gh) Trilled wheeze. This differs 
from (li) solely in the production of 
interruptions or trills, by interposing 
some rattling mucous. 

(g) Bleat or ain. The Arabic 9 is 
the same as (gh) with the accompani- 
ment of the voice, so that (gh) = ("g). 
If this is taken very gently, the result 
seems to be (i) =(,,g), the Low Saxon 
glottal trill or quack, which can also be 
pronounced during a vowel. 

Any of these glottids can be uttered 
with various degrees of force, thus noted. 

Medium force requires no note. 

([_) evanescent, is scarcely perceptible. 

() wealt, is decidedly below the 

(.) strong, is decidedly above the 

(.,) abrupt, properly strong and clear, 
is almost explosive. 

These force-signs denote continued 
pressure, as in the motion of an ordinary 
bellows. If, when blowing, the end of 
the nozzle is stopped, the air becomes 

14. (wh) continued. 

condensed, and, on removing or detach- 
ing the stop, issues with explosion, of 
which (;) maybe considered the general 
sign, (p, t, k) being much more mode- 
rate explodents. No such signs how- 
ever are sufficient for all purposes. 
For anything like a discriminating view 
of force I recommend a series of 
numbers written in a line below, and 
forming a scale, 5 being medial force, 
1 just audible, and 9 greatest. By 
this means sudden changes of force 
during a syllable can be distinctly 
registered. For most purposes, how- 
ever, the much less distinct musical 
signs pp, p, inf, f, ff, with crescendo 
and diminuendo, staccato and other 
signs, might be written in the line 

(H) Jerk. This, like explosion, can 
be imitated with the bellows by sudden 
increase of pressure, followed by a de- 
crease. It is not at all necessary that 
the increase of pressure should be great ; 
it is only necessary that it should be 
sudden and not continued. This is my 
meaning of (H), and it is evidently not 
Mr. M. Bell's 5/, (1127, *') When 
this jerk is accompanied by flatus, we 
have '(H'h), which may be more con- 
veniently abridged to (nh) than to (H') 
as heretofore, because (n'a) ought to 
mean the whispered vowel ('a) com- 
menced with a jerk (H), but (nha) will 
mean a jerked flatus (H'h) gliding on 
to a vowel (a). Observe however that 
(Ha) simply, without any interposed 
flatus, is not only possible, but, 1 think 
(I do not feel sure), the more common 
English and, as will appear hereafter, 
modern Indian sound. (H) may also 
be combined with (jh), as (Hjha), which 
would shew distinct flatus jerked out 
before the vowel. I would distinguish 
between (nha)=(H'ha) and (Hjha) by 
using the latter only when the flatus 
is sharp and distinct. The former 
merely shews jerked flatus without dis- 
tinguishing its prominence. 

Glides, Slurs, Breaks. 

>- < Glide. When voice is con- 
tinued through change of position, we 
have a voice glide. When flatus 
changes to voice, possibly through 
whisper, or conversely, we have a 
mixed glide. When flatus continues, 
we have &Jlalus glide. By placing the 
symbols of the two extreme sounds in 
juxtaposition, the glide is always im- 


14. (wh) continued. 

plied. But it is sometimes convenient 
to mark it by > when the position 
changes to one closer, and by < when 
it changes to one opener (1111, '), but 
by (-) when the positions are equally 
open or close, as in maze (m < ee > z-s), 
or (meezs). The contracted form re- 
quires the introduction of such a sign as 

) Break, for which, up to p. 998, I 
have generally used the clear glottid (,), 
see (1128, a, cd). Any glottid will 
form a break, as (ana, anha, a;a, a,a 
aja), but (aja) simply breaks without 
indicating the precise mode in which 
the disconnection is effected. 

^ Slur. "We may also produce the 
semblance of a break by diminishing 
force, without taking off the action of 
the voice at all. We might write (a,,i) 
to shew this effect, or interpose ^ a 
slur, which differs from > and from 
(,,) by implying a very brief diminu- 
tion of force, and is therefore opposed 
to (H) the jerk. In music (H) corre- 
sponds to staccato, and ^-" to legato. 
Two vowels connected by a > or < 
glide form a diphthong, the glide being 
held longer than one of the extreme 
vowels, and the force increasing or 
diminishing throughout. This is shewn 
by an acute accent placed over the vowel 
which has greatest force, as (ai, iu, 
ifi) or (a>i, i-u, i-u). See (419, c). 
Two vowels slurred form an Italian 
diphthong, and the force is nearly 
even, as (i 'O, mi^E^i), but they 
reckon as one syllable. In this case 
we may unite them and omit the 
acute, thus (io, miEi). Employing the 
mode of representing force by a scale of 
numbers,. we might write (a>i, i-u, 

5 43 2 5 43 2 

i - u, i-^o, mi^E*-^i), but this notation 

2345 51245 54 2454245 

is incomplete without proper indications 
of length and pitch, which may be 
effected by a second line of figures, 
from 1 to 9, placed above, 5 indicating 
medium length, accompanied either by 
such marks as (- ' N ) or ( .. . .), as 
given on p. 12, shewing continued, 
rising or falling pitch, or by notes 
of the musical scale, indicating the 
commencing pitch of each vowel- 

sound, as (a>i), which shews: by 
a 43 2 

the middle line, that the vowel (a) 
glides on to (i) from an opener to a 

14. (wh) continued. 

closer position, and has the stress ; by 
the under line, that the force with 
which (a) is pronounced is to that with 
which (i) is pronounced as 5 to 2, but 
that the force of the voice gradually 
diminishes from the 5 to 2 through the 
glide, in which only the forces 4 and 3 
are noted ; by the upper line, that the 
lengths of the (a) glide and (i) are 
respectively 1, 2, 3, and that the voice 
continuously descends in pitch, by an 
unstated amount. 

In violin music slurred notes are 
played to the same stroke of the bow ; 
glissees notes have the finger slid down 
from one position to the other ; detached 
notes have each a distinct bowing; 
staccato notes have the bow suddenly 
touched and raised. These will serve 
to distinguish (^ > ) H) respectively. 

We are now in a position to repre- 
sent and appreciate the different theo- 
ries of aspiration. 

In Sanscrit there are five letters in a 
series, as (p, pn, b, bit, m), as I have 
hitherto written them. The Prati- 
9akhyas speak of these as first, second, 
third, fourth, and fifth or last. Now 
the Ath. Veda Pr. (Whitney's edition, 
p. 16) says: "The second and fourth 
of each series are aspirates," on which 
Prof. Whitney observes, "The term 
ashman, literally 'heat, hot vapour, 
steam,' is in the grammatical language 
applied to designate all those sounds 
which are produced by a rush of un- 
intonated breath [flatus] through an 
open position of the mouth organs, or 
whose utterance has a certain similarity 
to the escape of steam through a pipe ; 
they are the sibilants and aspirations 
or breathings. In the term soshman, 
'aspirated mute,' and its correlative 
anushman, ' unaspirated mute,' ushman 
is to be understood not in this specific 
sense, but in that of ' rush of air, ex- 
pulsion of unintonated breath.' " This, 
however, is merely his own conjecture. 
There seems nothing in the explana- 
tion given of ushman to require flatm 
rather than voice. It is the explosive 
rush alone which comes into considera- 
tion. The native commentator on the 
passage quotes the words sasthun&ir 
ushmabhih referring to the " aspirates," 
which Prof. Whitney says, would be 
most naturally translated 'with their 
corresponding ushtnans or spirants,' 
"but," says he, "this is hardly to 
be tolerated, siuce it would give us 


14. (wh) continued. 

ts and ds instead of th and dh 
as the dental aspirates." The com- 
mentator, however (ibid.}, cites another 
authority, who says: "Another has said 
the fourths are formed with A," [con- 
sidered afterwards], "some knowing 
ones have said that there are five ' first' 
mutes" [viz. (k, kj, T, x t, p)]. " Of these, 
by the successive accretion of second- 
ary qualities, guna, there takes place 
a conversion into others. They are 
known as ' seconds,' when combined 
with the qualities of jihvamuliya " 
[identified with (kh), ibid. p. 22], " f, 
sh, s and upadhmuniya" [identified 
with (ph), ibid. pp. 26 and 30]. 
"The same, uttered with intonation, 
are known as 'thirds,' and these, 
with the second spirant, are known 
as 'fourths.'" This 'second spirant' 
seems to mean Sanscrit A, as we 
shall see hereafter. The ' seconds ' 
are not, I think, intended to be fully 
(k-kh, kj-jh, T-sh, v t- x s, p-ph), al- 
though these are sounds into which 
they might develope. At any rate we 
have ( v t-^s, p-ph) in high German z,pf, 
and English picture gives almost pre- 
cisely (T-sh). But I take them to be 
merely (kjh, kj|h, T[b, ^h, pth), arising 
from commencing these letters with 
the open glottis, as (kj),etc., and making 
the resulting flatus audible. If the 
mute-position were only slightly re- 
laxed, (k-kh), etc., would result. But 
if it opened fairly on to the vowel, we 
should have the mixed glide (Iqh < a), 
etc. This would be tantamount to the 
Danish consonants, and might, if jerked, 
be written (knjha), etc. The reference 
to the spirants would then merely in- 
dicate the nature of the effect, not the 
exact effect, which is certainly totally 
different from the classical examples 
inkhorn, haphazard, nuthook, for these 
when written fully are (r > q-k; - 
HhAAa>n, Hha3-p;Hha3->z<a-d', 
no- >t;Hhtt>k'), where there is no 
(k<nhAA, p<Hha3z, t<Hlwk), the 
mutes and jerk being totally uncon- 
nected. The trouble arises with the 
sonants gh, jh, etc., for which there 
could not possibly issue a flatus with- 
out interrupting the voice, and saying 
(g'h-iqh<a) or ( 7 hgH|ha), neither of 
which appear probable. 

The initial (n'h, nh, jh), or (iqh) 
seems to be what is commonly under- 
stood by the spiritus asper, while simple 
(l) is possibly the spiritus lenis. Prof. 

14. (wh) continued. 

Whitney says (ibid. p. 66) : " The pure 
aspiration A is a corresponding surd to 
all the sonant vowels, semivowels and 
nasals of the alphabet; that is to say, 
it is produced by an expulsion of breath 
through the mouth organs in any of 
the positions in which those letters are 
uttered ; it has no distinctive position 
of its own, but is determined in its 
mode of pronunciation by the letter 
with which it is most nearly connected." 
This makes his aspiration (which must 
not be confounded with Sanscrit h, or 
with any other person's h for the mo- 
ment) to be my (jh), whether before or 
after a vowel, and does not involve the 
jerk (H) at all. The Titt. Pr. says of 
the visarjaniya, "some regard it as 
having the same position with the pre- 
ceding vowel." "This latter," ob- 
serves Prof. Whitney thereupon (ibid. 
p. 21), "is the most significant hint 
which any of the Prati^akhyas afford 
us respecting the phonetic value of the 
rather problematical visarjaniya, indi- 
cating it as a mere uncharacterised 
breathing, a final A." It is, however, 
strictly characterised by being a distinct 
flatus through the position of the pre- 
ceding voiced letter. From the usual 
Sanscrit sanhifd action this flatus is 
affected by the succeeding consonant, 
producing many curious effects, to be 
considered presently. 

The Japanese arrange their syllabary 
in groups of five according to their five 
vowels, which sounded to me, from the 
mouth of a native, as (a, ', , e, o). 
These consonants seem to affect aspi- 
rates and post-aspirates very differently. 
Thus I seemed to hear the whole 
syllabary thus, as it was most patiently 
explained to me by a Japanese gentle- 
man, but great allowances must be 
made for a single hearing on my part : 























t ie 































! ro 
































p t a 






14. (wh) continued. 

The symbol (*r) in line 9 means very 
short (1)", on the principle of (1116, ba) 
followed by trilled (r). My teacher 
seemed unable to pronounce (r) with an 
entirely free tongue. He involuntarily 
struck the palate first, and although he 
seemed to remove the tongue imme- 
diately, he produced so much of an (1) 
effect, that the real (r), also very briefly 
trilled, became obscured. This pause 
before trilling resembled the catch in 
harmonium reeds by which they refuse 
to speak when very suddenly called on, 
unless there is a percussive action. The 
sound (h-) is very remarkable for its nu- 
merous Oriental relations. The symbols 
(SB, tse) in lines 3 and 4 are given 
with great hesitation, the (s) seemed to 
be prolonged and the vowel very short 
and indistinct, with a kind of hiss 
running through it ; when the speaker 
prolonged the syllable, his lips came to- 
gether, and he made a complete (suu) to 
finish with. Perhaps (ssew) might repre- 
sent the sound, but I was unable at one 
sitting to understand it, notwithstand- 
ing the great patience of my instructor. 
But this is not the chief point of 
interest, for it only shews the action of 
the hiss (s) on a following (u). Of 
course all my coronal or gingival (t, d) 
may be erroneous. I was not on the 
look out for dental ( x t ,d), and I can 
only say that if the letters were dental, 
the dentality was not strongly marked. 
The change of the aspirate in (nha kjhe 
phw nhe nho) is sufficiently remarkable. 
I will not guarantee (uha nhe nho) as 
against (na He HO), but there was no 
greater change. In (kjht, ph?<) a con- 
sonant had taken the place of the 
simple aspirate, and in each case it was 
not the next related consonant, not 
(jhi whe<?), but one step further ad- 
vanced. The (ph?<) was very distinctly 
ascertained not to be (fw), as it is quietly 
written by Lepsius. My Japanese 
teacher had had so much difficulty in 
learning to say our (f) that he utterly 
disclaimed it. Now, why this change 
here only ? On uttering the English 
words he. who, I experience no tendency 
to fall even into (jhi, whu). I do not 
seem to say (n"ii-ii, H"U-U) or (Hihii, 
H[huu), and certainly not with such 
force as to approach (jhii, whuu). If 
I try for (nhi, nhu), there seems to 
come a gentle puff of flatus before the 
vowel, which has no tendency to become 
a hiss. And I have not remarked this 

14. (wh) continued. 

hissing tendency even in German hier, 
husten. So far as I am concerned, so 
far as I seem to hear others speak (I 
speak with great diffidence, knowing 
the great liability tq err owing to my 
' personal equation'), I da not hear in 
the English aspirate a strong flatus, or 
any flatus through the vowel position, 
before the vowel. I am acutely sensi- 
tive to any ' dropping of an A.' But 
I do not hear (H"ii-ii, H"UU-UU) for he, 
who. I believe I say purely (mi, HUU), 
at any rate I find even an intentional 
(nhii, Hhuu) to be somewhat of an 
effort, and (H^hii, H[huu) to be a great 
effort. Still I know that at least (nh) 
exists, and very possibly (H[h), and I 
shall therefore generally assume that 
writers on sound mean (nh). But Mr. M. 
Bell's 9, which I have hitherto trans- 
literated by (H'), meaning (n'h), and 
henceforth written (nh), is certainly 
sometimes simple ( l h) or (\). Thus 
(Visible Speech, p. 50) he writes "silent 
respiration" by 9 + 9m -f 10/+ 9a + 
9m + 105, which must be, *I think, 
(,,'hj ,,'hh) = gentle, flatus, drawn in- 
wards, gentle, flatus prolonged (out- 
wards). The 'outwards' is not written 
either by him or by me, the prolonga- 
tion is shewn by doubling the h, and 
the sign gentleness is placed in a 
different order in my notation. "Pain- 
ful respiration " is written 90 + IQb + 
10/+9s + 5/+9i + 10, or ('hh;;M), 
that is flatus, prolonged, inwards, catch, 
(outwards), wheeze prolonged, but per- 
haps the 9b should be (''h) and not (A), 
or simply (,'h), see (1126, a). Thus 
his " naso-guttural respiration," or 95 
+ 9d + \Qb 4- 10/ 4- 9* + 9d + 10*, 
seems to be (.'hhj .'hh ( ) strong flatus, 
prolonged, nasal, inwards, strong flatus, 
prolonged, nasal, (outwards). 

To return to the Japanese, it would 
seem that the positions of (e, o, a) do 
not squeeze the uttered flatus sufficiently 
to produce a sensible frication or hiss, 
but the (t, u] positions do so. Hence 
(ufht, n]hu) are ready to develope into 
(jlu, whw) or (kjlu, phw). Now in 
combining Sanscrit words in sanhitA, 
we have necessarily as strong an action 
of any consonant position on a preceding 
flatus as in the Japanese vowels (&, u) ; 
that is, each consonant converts the 
flatus into its own continuant or 
spirant. Hence the final visarjanlya^ 
which was probably merely (ih), or a 
final flatus through the vowel position, 


14. (wh) continued. 

developed before (k, kj, T, % t, p) re- 
spectively, the continuants (kh, jh, sh, 
x s, ph), see Whitney (ibid. p. 96). 
The first and last of these, (kh) or 
jihvumuliyn, and (ph) or upadhmamya, 
are never heard in Sanscrit except when 
thus 'generated,' and hence, although 
recognized under these names by the 
native grammarians, are not accommo- 
dated with separate signs. They are by 
no means peculiar in this respect, either 
in Sanscrit or other systems of writing. 
This seems conclusive as regards the 
value of Ttf, for which (jh) answers in 
every respect, as a palatal hiss, as de- 

fenerating into (sh) (Whitney, ibid. p. 
3), and as corresponding to (k, s, kh, 
sh) in cognate languages. See (1120,i) 
to (1121, cb). The flatus of the final 
visarjantya, therefore, corresponds close- 
ly with flatus after mutes. 

Now as to Sanscrit ^ } usually written 
h. The following are the native descrip- 
tions (Whitney, ibid. p. 21). "Of the 
throat sounds, the lower part of the 
throat is the producing organ. That 
is to say, as the commentator goes on 
to explain, the upper part of the throat, 
as place of production, is approached 
by the lower part of the throat, as in- 
strument of production. As the sounds 
constituting the class, he mentions a, 
in its short, long, and protracted values, 
h, and the visarjanlya." The Eik Pr. 
classes h and the visarjaniya as chest- 
sounds; the Taitt. Pr. reckons only 
these two as throat-sounds, and adds, 
" some regard h as having the same 
position with the following vowel, and 
visarjaniya with the preceding vowel." 
From the latter we previously deduced 
the value of visarjaniya as simply (jh). 
But h is not flatus ; it is voice, being 
classed by the native commentator (ib. 
p. 18) with the vowels, sonant mutes, 
and semivowels. This Prof. Whitney, 
taking h to be (jh) in Sanscrit as well 
as in his own English (1132, a'),calls-a 
"striking anomaly." It is certainly 
impossib.e that h should mean (ih) and 
be a voiced sound. Prof. Whitney 
says that in the fullest account (that in 
the Taitt. Pr.^ we read " that, while 
sound [voice] is produced in a closed 
throat, and simple breath [flatus] in an 
open one, the A-tone is uttered in an 
intermediate condition ; and that this 
/i-tone is the emitted material in the 
consonant h, and in ' fourth ' mutes or 

14. (wh) continued. 

sonant aspirates." And then Prof. W. 
adds: " I confess myself unable to derive 
any distinct idea from this description, 
knowing no intermediate utterance 
between breath and sound, excepting 
the stridulous tone of the loud whisper, 
which I cannot bring into any connec- 
tion with an h. The Eik Pr. declares 
both breath and sound [flatus and voice] 
to be present in the sonant aspirates 
and in h, which could not possibly be 
true of the latter, unless it were com- 
posed, like the former, of two separate 
parts, a sonant and a surd ; and this is 
impossible." Now it is evident that 
the writers are attempting to describe 
something which they can only vaguely 
hint at, for the whole glottal action was 
evidently unknown to them, that is, 
they had only vague subjective feeling 
in place of actual observation to deal 
with, and they were obliged to invent 
their language as they proceeded. The 
wonder is, not that they should be in- 
distinct, but that they should have been 
generally so much more distinct than 
the host of European grammarians and 
orthoepists who succeeded them. Now 
the last indication, which is so impos- 
sible to Prof. Whitney, corresponds 
closely enough to the sensations pro- 
duced by a buzz, in which there is much 
obstruction, so that the tone is broken, 
and the effect is felt as that of a mixture 
of breath and voice (1101, <?'). The 
sound of a whisper ("h), which really 
partakes of both characters (1128, c'}, 
would be too weak. The buzz results 
from much interruption to the tone, 
producing many strong beats, as heard 
in bass chords on an harmonium, and 
the 'natural' voice (1128, d'). It 
appears to me then that the whole de- 
scription of the Taitt. Pr. can be read 
thus; "A is a glottal buzz." There is, 
however, only one such sound, the bleat 
(9), see (1130, c}. This is fully glottal, 
and can be uttered in the same position 
as the following vowel. In fact it is 
often uttered simultaneously with the 
vowel, which we may indicate by writing 
the vowel with a small g below, thus 
( c a). Then by (ga) we properly mean 
( e a + a), which is the exact counterpart 
of ([ha) = ("aa -f a). It may also in 
this case be nasalised, explaining the 
rule, "After h is inserted a nusikya 
before a nasal mute" (Whitney, ibid. 
p. 66), so that brahma would be perhaps 


14. (wh) continued. 

(bra a ( ma). Any one who has listened 
to numerous sheep hleating and noted 
their various tones (as I have done to- 
day, 21 July, 1873, in Kensington 
Gardens), will have observed how ex- 
tremely nasal they are, as are also the 
snarling beats of the canine r, which 
we have all learned " sonat de nare." 
It may also be uttered with a jerk, so 
that (gHga) is quite conceivable. The 
forms (kHjha, gHga) are then exactly 
correlative. I give the above as theo- 
retical restitutions of the Sanscrit 
' seconds and fourths.' founded upon an 
interpretation of ancient native expla- 
nations, as translated by Prof. Whitney. 
But it does not follow that they are 
correct. I may have misunderstood 
the translator, the translator may have 
misunderstood the native author, and, 
very probably, the native author himself 
may not have been himself clearly con- 
scious of his own feelings, may have 
failed to express himself properly, and 
may have been hampered with con- 
ventional terms. It becomes impor- 
tant, therefore, to examine the existing 
native use of these 'seconds' and 
'fourths,' and the aspirate, all of which 
are living and significant in modern 

If the observations of Brucke upon 
a moonshee, as detailed by Rumpelt 
(on pp. 138-140 of Das natiirliche 
System der Sprachlaute, Halle, 1869, 
8vo. pp. 227), are correct, the first 
(kiqha) remains, and the second (gHga) 
is changed. He says: "The mutes 
explode with open glottis (bei nicht 
tcinender Stimritze); when not aspirated, 
the glottis is immediately contracted 
for voice, so that the vowel may sound 
directly after the closure is relaxed ; 
when aspirated, the contraction of the 
glottis is delayed, the flatus is allowed 
to escape for an instant through the 
open glottis, and h results, gliding on 
to the following vowel as the glottis 
again contracts for voice." This cor- 
responds really to (k,a, k^ha). The 
Indian himself said, according to Arendt 
(Rumpelt, ib. p. 139), that the German 
jt>, t, &, were neither aspirated nor not- 
aspirates, but nearer to the former than 
the latter. That is, probably, lie heard 
(pj, tj, k[). The ' fourths' were never 
pronounced (g'nlaa), as is customary 
with German Sanscritists, but " gener- 
ally the glottis was opened before the 
relaxation of the closure of the mouth, 

14. (wh) continued. 

so that the sonant, begun with voice, 
exploded as voiceless, which might be 
written gkha " = (g-k^ha) or nearly 
('gkjha). "When this was not the 
case, the h was fully separated from the 
mute, as in syllabic division, e.g. pig- 
hdlna, ad-ha, ab-hi, and even finally as 
bag-h" These cases are both easy, as 
(adjiqha, bag^H'h). But Rumpelt 
adds : "Be this as it may, I doubt 
whether the pronunciation of this 
Indian scholar gives the universal 
rule, but think it may result from a 
deterioration which is not universal in 
the east," and he prefers ('gjH(ha), 
which is of course possible, but totally 
opposed to the native commentators 
just cited, who make the aspiration 

The above identification of the an- 
cient Sanscrit h with the Semitic (g) is 
quite new. Prof. Whitney (op. cit. p. 
18) suggests the Arabic (grh), but this 
is formed with the uvula, tongue and 
palate, and the, Sanscrit h must be 
glottal. The same objection applies 
to (gh). which Bopp adopted, and to 
which I leaned before reading the native 
explanations just cited. That (g) should 
be confused with (grh) is natural. Even 
in Denmark the (i) is imitated by (r), 
and (i, r)=(,,g, ,,grh). In theSeptua- 
gint we constantly find 7 for y, and 7 
was then probably (gh) as now. Some- 
times the Greeks omit it, and it is 
generally supposed that the letter ]} 
represented both sounds (g, grh), but 
this is not at all phonetically necessary. 
Consequently that an historical ^T gh = 
(gg), which is the etymological descent 
of Sanscrit h in almost all cases (Whit- 
ney, ib. p. 18), should degenerate into 
(g) by the omission of the (g), is 
what this hypothesis would lead us to 
anticipate. Sanscrit h corresponds with 
Latin A, g, c, Greek XiV> K Lithuanian 
2', sz, g = (zh, sh, g), Gothic A, g, old 
high German k, and Persian ( ah, s, krh), 
which are also explicable by (g) through 
the (grh) relation. Although this (g) 
value of Sn. h is thus seen to answer 
every required condition, yet the extreme 
difficulty which English people feel in 
appreciating (g) leads me to recom- 
mend them the use of the easy (H) in 
its place, where no flatus at all is ut- 
tered, thus distinguishing T^ ^f as (kjha, 
gna), surd and sonant. 

Since writing the above I had the 


14. (wh) continued. 

opportunity, already mentioned (1102, 
b), of examining the pronunciation of 
Mr. M. 0. Mookerjey. So far as I 
could observe, his h ^ was a pure jerk 
(H), not very strong and unaccompanied 
by any hiss. The "first" efi (k) was 
thoroughly English (k,a), without any 
tendency to (kja) that I could detect. 
In the " second " ^ I heard generally 
(k{a), sometimes (k jha), but scarcely ever 
(ItHjha), unless perhaps he was par- 
ticularly anxious to make me hear the 
sound. The "third" f{ was indis- 
tinguishable from English (ga), there 
was none of the German inflatus ('ga), 
or implosion (''ka). The "fourth" ^| 
seemed simply (gna), that is in pro- 
nouncing (ga) the vowel was brought 
out with a little more force. Most 
Englishmen would have considered his 
(Iqa, gna),as mere foreign 'corruptions' 
of (ka, ga). There was nothing in 
them that they had not heard from 
foreigners, and from Irishmen con- 
stantly. The sound was not (gga), but 
of course (gna) might very easily be- 
come a refinement of such a sound. The 
point however which struck me was, 
that the old Indian if, which the native 
commentators classed with the sonants, 
was still a sonant, to the extent of not 
being a surd, with not even a buzz 
or trill about it, but merely a method 
of jerking out the following vowel. 
My instructor volunteered that when 
he said ^Ef he only pronounced the fol- 
lowing vowel "a little more strongly," 
and he mentioned, in order to repudi- 
ate it, the late Prof. Goldstiicker's pro- 
nunciation (g'nha), of his own accord, 
that is, without anything said by me 
to lead up to his observation. It 
appears then that the recommenda- 
tion I have given to call ?jj 'Gf (kiha 
gna) accords so closely with one native 
gentleman's pronunciation that when I 
thus pronounced to him he acknow- 
ledged the sounds. I did not take the 
case of a finul A, as in (bragma), and 
hence this information was incomplete. 
It was in order to complete the in- 
formation I had received from Mr. 
Mookerjey, and to contrast it with the 
usages of others, that I obtained the 
assistance of Mr. Gupta (1096, ), who 
was pointed out to me byProf.Childers, 
of the India Office Library,, as the 
person from whom I could obtain the 

14. (wh) continued. 

most trustworthy native assistance in 
London, and I am greatly indebted to 
Mr. Gupta for the patience and care 
with which he sought to meet my 
wishes. Of course it would be advisable 
to hear very much more than it was 
possible to condense into an hour's 
observation, and also to hear different 
readers of equal information read the 
same words. But as phonetic obser- 
vations upon cultivated native Sanscrit 
pronunciation at the present day, made 
by persons who have studied the theory 
of speech-sounds, are certainly rare,. I 
think it will be advisable in this place 
to reproduce the notes I made at the 
moment, as a basis for future observa- 
tions. I have already had to refer 
three times to the information then 
obtained (1096, a. 1103, c. 1120, <?), 
but it will be convenient to repeat the 
notes in their proper place. The method 
adopted was to present certain com- 
binations in Sanscrit characters, pre- 
pared beforehand, and, by hearing them 
repeatedly pronounced, to note the 
sounds in palaeotype, making a few 
hasty observations,, which were ex- 
panded immediately after Mr. Gupta's 
departure, while my recollection of the 
conversation that had passed was quite 
fresh. I shall now print the Sanscrit 
and palaeotype, with nearly a verbatim 
reproduction of those notes, which I 
regard as documents, and hence bracket 
all subsequent additions. 

Jfodeni Indian Pronunciation of 

^ () ^TT (aa) ^ (,-) t (ii) ^ (u) 
W (uu). Observe the pairs (a aa, i ii, 
u uu). [The short vowels were dis- 
tinctly of a different quality from the 
long. The two first were not (a, AA), 
as usually laid down. The Scotch (a) 
and English (i, u) were very marked.] 

^J occasionally ('r) when pronounced 
separately, but otherwise (n), not (rt). 
[Also not (are).. Dentality not noticed.] 

^ ('rii, rii), under the same circum- 

<5 (Irz) when pronounced separately, 

but ^Jj^was (klip) [exactly like the 

English word clip\ not (klre'p). [In this 
(In) the (1) seemed to me more evident 
and the (r) less evident than in the 
Japanese ( ! i ), so that the result might 


14, (wh) continued. 

be rather written (l r ). But as the 
sound never occurs except as the name 
of a letter, very little weight is attach- 
able to this observation.] 

^ (Irii) so called, but it does not 
occur separately. 

IT (ee) or even (EE), distinctly very 
open [and this was still clearer in 

T(a), occasionally (a'), and when 
pronounced separately, fully (a~&) 
[with the Italian looseness and slur]. 

^t (oo) quite open, nearly (AA) in 
connected words [no approach to (oo, 

^ (au) or (aw, a u) as for (ai). 
[In neither (ai) nor (au) was there a 
further prolongation of the first element 
than is natural to a slurred combina- 
tion, in comparison to the English type 
( L au).] 

cRT (k,aa) quite English [that is, 
with closed glottis; not as in Germany]. 

*STT (Iqaa), it seemed to be merely 
the open glottis (lq), but occasionally 
(Iqh) might be heard. [It was distinctly 
not (knaa) or (kiqhaa), and totally 
different from kh in the celebrated 

^ (guu) English [no German in- 
flatus (1113, *)]. 

^(gnuu), with stronger vowel, dis- 
tinctly not (g'miu, g'nhuu), which was 
derided. [The sound may be heard 
from many an Irishman saying goose. 
The vowel seemed to be jerked out 
quietly with the (H) which is natural 
to me. The form (g.uu) would seem to 
imply a greater continuity of pressure, 
and (g., uu ) too much abruptness. 
Neither does (g j uu) with the sign of 
closeness (1127, 0) appear correct. The 
result was identical with Mr. Mooker- 
jey's. It appears, then, that the con- 
jecture respecting the pronunciation of 
Tf{ \J TJ as (bn dn git), where I 
ought of course to have written ( N dn), 
which first led me theoretically to the 
assumption of a pure jerk (H) as the 
basis of post-aspiration (1125, 0'), is 
entirely confirmed by the actually ob- 
served practice of two native Bengalese 

f^F. Not used initially, this ^ 
is merely (q), and is used final for 

14. (wh) continued. 

necessary (an us waar a). [Mr. Gupta did 
not seem able to say (q), and hence the 
combination was not pronounced.] 

^t (kjoo), Bell's 2e (15, 4), distinctly 
an explodent, no hiss at all, not (tj). 
[See (1120,c).] 

sT but in this letter a hiss occurred 
(kjjhoo), and hence the resemblance to 
English (t^sh) was very close, in fact 
(\sh) was near enough. [The close 
squeezing of (kj) when opened on an 
open glottis, as (kjjj, necessarily en- 
genders (jh), and the resulting (kjjh) 
comes so close in effect to English (t x sh), 
that the two sounds are readily con- 
fused, and I have no doubt that I 
confused them at the time, as (kj) was 
not a familiar sound to me.] 

5fT (gjaa) decidedly an explodent, 
and not (d v zh), nor ( v zh) simply. 

^RJ (gj'naa) for (gjnaa); the inten- 
tion was always (gjnaa), but (gj'naa) 
was occasionally said; some speakers, 
according to Mr. Gupta, make the 
sound closer than others. [This was 
his expression when I pointed out to 
him the insertion of ('), but observe 
that even then no (nh) that is, no 
flatus was introduced. The combina- 
tion is rare, but (gjnaa) is quite as easy 
as (gnaa), after a 'very little practice.] 

"^1 (nj ), very close as in closest French, 
but not (nj) at all, only used before 
(kj, gj). [I heard (nj), but this may 
have been an error of ear for (qj).] 

"UTT (t,aa), simple English (t), no in- 
version of tongue at all, see (1096, I). 

cfT (,t,aa), pure dental ( x t), tongue 
against teeth, French t; the only 
English dentals, according to Mr. 
Gupta, are (th, dh). [These (t, ,t) 
were pronounced with vowels, thus 
(taa x taa, tii v tii, tuu x tuu), in rapid 
alternation, till the distinction became as 
clear as between (sh, th).] 

T^T ( s tjaa) or ( x ihaa), "T (tjaa) or 
(t[haa). [These were written in a dif- 
ferent order to the last pair, and rapidly 
alternated, to shew the distinction.] 

VT (,dHaa), "Sr (dnaa). 

IT ( x naa), before a dental ff ^ ( x n) 
is heard, and the sound is perhaps 
always (ji). 

TUT (naa), before a cerebral Z ^ 
(n) is heard, before a vowel f TO" are 
both ( v n), not distinguished (1096, o'). 


14. (wh) continued. 
(p,ii), quite English, Tjft' (ppi, 

^ (buu), ^ (bmm) distinct, no 
approach to (b'Hhuu). 
*ft (mil), English. 
^ (jee), English (j). 

"^ ( v ree) or (ree). After a dental r is 
dental, the tongue not being drawn back, 
as ( x tjr). Mr. Gupta could not recall 
a word where r stands after a cerebral. 
[Initially Mr. Gupta had always an 
apparent tendency to insert (a) or ('h) 
before (/), thus (a x rii) ; this arose perhaps 
from some voice escaping before the beat 
of the trill became evident. The Prati^a- 
khyas require a ('h) to be inserted dis- 
tinctly between ( v r) and a following 
'spirant' (jh, sh, s, H), and more briefly 
between ( x r)and any other following con- 
sonant. I did not observe this, which 
is, however, common in European speech 
when there is a trill. I have frequently 
not noticed the dentality of ( v r), probably 
from not knowing it well.] 

% (lee), English [that is, I did not 
detect any special dentality, as ( v l)]. 

^ (vee), but often (i_vee) [that is, with 
very moderate dentality], and apparently 
very like (bh, b) occasionally, in Ben- 
galee always (b). See (1103, c). After 
a consonant "^ is quite (w) or rather 
(u-) diphthongising with the following 
vowel, and I find ^T becomes a similar 
diphthongising (i-) under the same cir- 

"5JT "tfr both (shii), no distinction 
whatever made between "5J" TJ^ they are 
different letters having the same sound ; 
occasionally ^J seems more retracted, 
but the distinction is now quite lost. 
See (1120, c). 

^JT (sii), English. In conversational 
Bengalee often (H), not (Hh). [The last 
fact was ascertained by special question- 
ing, as I anticipated hearing (Hh), on 
account of the hiss, and the old e sex 

^T (naa). When Mr. Gupta was 
emphatic, (n'h) crept out ; but it was 
always a very mild sound, and the in- 
tention was evidently to emit no flatus. 
It was in no respect an (Hh) which 
could have grown from a (kh). In 

14. (wh) continued. 

conversation uneducated Bengalees 
leave it out altogether. [A remarkable 
fact in connection with our own frequent 
omission of h, and its powerlessness to 
save a vowel from elision in older 
English as well as Greek and Latin, 
and its disappearance in modern Greek 
and Romance.] 

This pronunciation is after Benares 
and not Bengalee custom. [In addition 
to the above pronunciations of simple 
syllables, I tried a few actual words, 
which will illustrate the Sanscrit 
phonetic synthesis ; but this is so peculiar 
and important, and was so totally un- 
anticipated by me, that instead of a few 
examples at the end of an hour's instruc- 
tion, a long study should be devoted to 
it. Some of the following observations, 
however, appear to be new.] 

occasioned an anticipation of (i) in the 
preceding syllable, and the 1^1 became 
= (kria), that is, nearly = (-kjha). [We 
have here an instance of the anticipa- 
tion of a following vowel by absolutely 
inserting it audibly in the preceding 
syllable, just as a note of a following 
chord is often anticipated to form a 
dissonance in the preceding chord, 
whereas in the German umlaut the 
following vowel merely gradates the 
preceding in a peculiar manner. Next 
we see the change of (j) to (i) after a 
consonant, this vowel however diph- 
thongising with the following. The 
action of (lq) on this vowel necessarily 
produces ( u i), which is scarcely separable 
from (rh). In fact a written (aakjja) 
becomes a spoken (auikjhia), the hiss 
after the (k), which arises from com- 
mencing with an open glottis, being 
converted by the following (i), used for 
(j), into the true palatal (jh), by the 
same action, which determined the 
native rule : " visarjaniyO) before a surd 
consonant, becomes of like position 
with the following sound" (Whitney, 
ibid. p. 96). As I was totally unpre- 
pared for this complicated action, I was 
much impressed by it, and ascertained 
the correctness of my analysis by several 
repetitions. On inquiring respecting 
the position of the accent, the answer 
was :] No accent beyond the quantity, 
no other accent known. Mr. Gupta 
knew that accents were written in the 
Vedas, but he knew nothing of the 
Vedas, or of the meaning of their 


14. (wh) continued. 

accents. He read by quantity strictly 
[making a very marked distinction 
Between short and long vowels. In 
speaking English Mr. Gupta seemed 
never to place the accent wrongly, as I 
have heard Indians not unfrequently 
do, who spoke English otherwise very 
well. He must have therefore fully 
understood my question. The next 
words are from Bopp's Nalus, lib. i. 
sloka 3. and the Latin translation added 
is Bopp's]. 

sHin^T religiosm (brafmuai v nnjioo), 
(bi) followed by a silence, not (H), not 
(HU), not (j). [The ('.} is a sudden check 
to the sound, a dead pull up; but it did 
not seem to be done with a jerk, al- 
though it imitated the jerk and replaced 
it. It was not (g), there was hence no 
such effect as (bivaj, already described 
(1135, ), indeed the ^ A, although 
written as interlaced with the ff m, 
instead of allowing the nasality of (m) to 
be anticipated on the vowel, completely 
separated the vowel from the (m). If any 
nasality was anticipated, I failed to notice 
it. But there were so many other curi- 
osities in the word, that I might have 
readily overlooked so slight a difference 
as that between (a a ( }. The silence 
after (!) produced the effect of lengthen- 
ing the first syllable, although in itself 
this syllable was extremely short. I 
regret that I had marked no case like 
upadhmaniya, where a post-aspirated 
media comes before a sonant consonant. 
I can only conjecture by analogy that the 
effect of the post-aspirate would be merely 
to check or shorten the preceding con- 
sonant, introducing a pause, and that 
this word might consequently be called 
(z<pfl x dim/<aa* x iiqjiija). It is well known 
that dh before a pause becomes ( x t). 
The latter part of the word is given 
on the analogy of what follows. The 
next sounds shew remarkable effects, 
and I had the word repeated many 
times to note them. The Sanscrit let- 
ters indicate only (majuoo), all else is 
generated. The labiality of (m) gener- 
ated either an (u) or (o) sound upon 
the coming (a) ; (o) being as we know 
the labialisation of (), it would be 
most natural, but as Indian organs are 
not accustomed to any short (o, o)- 
sound, but are used to short (), it is 
probable that () was really uttered, 
although I received it as (u). It 
was very transient, but unmistakably 

14. (wh) continued. 

touched. Then came (a) short with 
the force, and followed, as in the last 
case, by an (i) anticipated from the 
^T (j) in the next syllable. Result so 
far, (mudi), which is probably more 
correct than (muai). Representing a 
short vowel, the whole triphthong was 
short and glided on to the (ji), on 
which weight was laid. Now however 
ensued an action of the ^Ef (j), con- 
verted into (i) after a consonant as 
usual, and this displayed itself by con- 
verting ( v n) into- (nj), as it sounded to 
me, but (qj) may have been the sound 
of course, as a palatal generated by the 
palatal. By this introduction sufficient 
time was gained for lengthening the 
syllable, and then the voice fell rapidly 
and briefly on the (i), and passed on to 
a long broad sustained (oo), producing 
the singular result (brai;mw/V x nqji6o), 
as it may perhaps be written.] 


heros, (vee x davet kr[tiu x roo). I think 
(tkjj) was (tjkjj) meant for (kikji), 
after the Italian model. Mr. Gupta 
complained of the separation of the 

words, the ^ t|> for Tg> causing him 


to hesitate. There was no real doubling 
of (kj), but the first seemed to be a 
coronal (t), and not the dental ( x t), 
which would have been impossible as 
the substitute for a palatal. The 
lengthening of the syllable (vet) by 
the doubled consonant was very clear.] 
The quantities were brought out beau- 

inNischadhis ( v nzshrt 
sh?<). [The long vowel quite distinctly 
marked, no glide of (slv/) on to (dn), 
the (dnee) given very quietly, but quite 
distinct from (dee), and with no approach 
to (shrtd;nhee).] 

pa x tq). Observe the visarga at the 
end distinct. [The effect of ( x tq) was 
clearly (\ti'' l i) or nearly (\U'jh), but very 
short and quick, just touched, and hence 
not so strong as would be implied by 
writing ( v tqh). The medial (H) was 
quite different from (Hh). The first 
six words that follow are from the 5th 
sloka of Nalus.] 

j ita quo. 
que fuit in Vidarbhis (^ta^ai vaa sii v d 


14. (\vh) continued. 

ve\dtfrbHeeshw). [The dentality of (r) 
not observed.] 

Bhimus ti- 

[The dentality of (r) not observed ; the 
(a\) distinct.] 

^fcJifT^fT officiorum-gnarm (^dnrm- 
v*\t). [Sloka 7.] 

^J^rWTT pulchro - medio corpore 
praedita (swm# x dH2a'maa). [There being 
no hiss, there is no generation of (jb) 
in ( x dma). It is seen that the difficulty 
of ( N dHj) was got over by taking (j) as 
(). From sloka 10.] 

f ?HTf5f ^T centum amicaeque 
(shataq salqii v naanj kja). [Perhaps (qj) 
would have been more correct than (nj). 
Sloka 11. This concludes the observa- 
tions on Mr. Gupta's pronunciation.] 

Eeturning to English sounds I may 
notice the following information received 
from Prof. Haldeman : " About the 
year 1850, the lower classes of New 
York developed the form Vhoy from 
boy. It came to Philadelphia, and I 
heard it as far south as Washington, 
but there it acquired a vowel, say bdhoy. 
This sound is rather an enforced than 
an * aspirate ' b, and is due to energetic 
speech, like German pf for p. In 

Questions between Greek and Sanscrit, 
believe that p is older than p'h, pf, 
and/, and /often newer than/?' h ; and 
fc, k'h, kh, Xi nave the same relations. 
It is a curious fact, that in India itself 
p'hal, fruit, has fallen into fal dialec- 
ticly if the sound is not really the 
labial ph." Query, was this lower- 
class New York sound (bno'/), and was 
it adopted from the Irish (bno'e'z) who 
abound there ? 

The English language has the fol- 
lowing pairs of mutes and sonants 
(p b, t d, k g), occasionally but not 
intentionally passing into (p[h bn, t|h 
dn, kjh gn). It has also the pairs of 
hisses and buzzes (f v, th dh, s z, sh zh) 
and, as I think, (wh w, jh j). But the 
murmurs (r, 1, m, n, q) have at least no 
acknowledged hiss. Now in Dutch 
these are acknowledged, though not 
written, as (Ih, rh) developed by a 
sanhita action of a following voiceless 
letter (1114, A), to which I draw par- 
ticular attention, as it is the most 

14. (wh) continued. 
marked European correlative of this 
combined Sanscrit action, to which 
we have very little corresponding in 
English. In all languages there are 
many synthetically generated sounds 
which are not marked in the alphabet. 
Thus I noticed a generated (z) in Mr. 
Magniisson's Icelandic (547, ), and a 
generated (Ih, mh, nh) after or before 
mutes (545, d. 546, a}. In Sanscrit 
we have already noticed (1132, a) a 
generated (kh, ph) from Prof. Whitney, 
and other generated sounds from Mr. 
Gupta's pronunciation. The rules for the 
conversion of Sanscrit m, n, before surd 
mutes, into msarjaniya (Whitney, ibid. 
pp. 84, 85), seem to me to speak of this 
insertion of a generated (mh, nh) as 
(m-mh-p, n-nh-t) for (m[h, njh) = 
(m-mh, n-nh). "It is sufficiently 
evident," says Prof. Whitney (ibid. p. 
86), " that this insertion of a sibilant 
after a final n, before a surd mute, is 
no proper phonetics! process : the com- 
bination of the nasal and following 
non-nasal is perfectly natural and easy, 
without the aid of a transition sound, 
nor can any physical explanation be 
given of the thrusting in between them 
of a sibilant which only encumbers the 
conjunction," and consequently he re- 
sorts to an historical development, 
which of course may have been the 
real process adopted. But it does not 
follow that the insertion may not be 
perfectly natural. The difficulty arises, 
not from the passage of a nasal into a 
non-nasal, but from voice to voiceless- 
ness. Now to us such a passage as 
(tiit) is easy enough, and most of us 
say simply (t < ii > t'). But it is easily 
imaginable that the glides must be 
mixed in some persons' mouths as 

where the change from voicelessness to 
voice takes place in the position of the 
voiced letter. In this case such a com- 
bination as (felt, lasmp, tent, thz'qk) 
would be impossible, or at least dis- 
agreeable to his organs, which demand 
(fel-lh-t, laem-mh-p, ten-nh-t, thiq- 
qh-k), or, using the visarjaniya (]h), as 
would be natural in languages which 
had a sign for that, and not for (mh, 
nh), we should write (fel[ht, lseni[hp, 
tenjht, thiqjhk). Is such a state of 
things actual or only theoretical? I hear 
the four English words as (felt', Isemp', 
tent', th'qk<), Mr. Melville Bell gives 
them as (fElht, Ia3mhp', tEnht', tlu'qjik'), 


1 4. (wh) continued. 

and says expressly (English Visible 
Speech for the Million, p. 15) : " The 
abrupt non-vocal articulation of the 
' liquids ' I, m, n, ng, when before non- 
vocal consonants, is exhibited in the 
printing of such words as felt, lamp, 
tent, think, etc. In deliberate pronun- 
ciation, the voiceless I, m, etc., receive 
an initial trace of vocality from the 
preceding vowels ;" that 'is, he admits 
(fE|l-lht k ), etc., "but if an attempt be 
made to prolong the 'liquid,' without 
altering its vernacular effect, the 
characteristic voicelessness of the latter 
will be demonstrated to the ear. The 
peculiarity of ' foreign ' pronunciation 
of these English syllables arises simply 
from the undue vocality which is given 
to the I, m, etc." I do not know to 
what particular 'foreign' pronunciation 
he was alluding, but I do not recognize 
a predominance of (Ih) as English. It 
is possible that (fel-|lh-t*), etc., may be 
said, but I have no more difficulty in 
saying (felt') than in saying (fa3f), that 
is, I can run the vocality on to the 
voiceless mute, and then cut it suddenly 
off, without any interposition of the 
hiss (Ih). A distinct and much more 
a predominant pronunciation of (Ih), 
etc., is something new to me. But in 
listening in 1870 to the English public 
speaking of Keshub Chunder Sen, a 
Bengalese gentleman, of considerable 
education, founder of the Brahmo 
Somaj or Indian theistic church, I was 
struck by the way in which he conveyed 
the vocality of his (1, m, n) into the 
following consonant, when it should 
have been quite voiceless, and then 
having given a faint indication of the 
voiced effect, passed on to voicelessness, 
during/ that consonant. This was more 
apparent when the following consonant 
was a hiss. His since was (sm-|_z-s), 
his felt was (fEl- L d-t'), the effect of 
which to an English ear was to create 
a confusion between since and sins, felt 
and felled. Now this was the more 
remarkable, because of our own habit 
of calling sin* (smzs), see (547. b) and 
(1104, c), so that it would certainly be 
more English to call since (smnhs) than 
(sm^zs). But the point to be noticed 
here is the visarjamya or (^h) effect 
produced, the real change from voice- 
lessness to voice and conversely, in the 
same position. We might write (smfhs, 
senzih) for (stn nh-s, smz-s). The 
introduction of whisper before or after 

14. (wh) continued. 

voice is not confined to vowels, but may 
occur with any voiced consonants, and 
different ears will recognise the effect 
of the same pronunciations differently, 
according to the attention which educa- 
tion or habit has led them to give to 
the voiced or voiceless parts respectively. 
A German says (szizee-Bn) for sie sehen, 
and (szii ! szii ! ) for sieh ! sieh /, but he 
only knows and teaches that he says 
(zizee-en., zii ! zii!). An Englishman 
says (briidhzs), but believes he says 
(briidhz), and if a voiced letter follows 
he does so. But he never says (thdh^i) 
as a German would, if he could. 
German is very deficient in correspon- 
dences of voiced and voiceless letters. 
Even if we admit initial and medial 
(p|h b, x t[h ,d, kjh g), we find only 
final (p, ^t, k) or at most (-bp, - x d x t, -gk). 
Then to German (f) there is no (v), 
except in the north of Germany, and 
even there the (v) for (bh) arises so 
differently that there is no feeling of 
pairing, and hence (fvii) for (bhii) 
would be strange. And in those parts 
of Germany where (bh) is certainly 
pronounced, (ph) is only generated, and 
not even acknowledged, except by 
phonologists, in #/a = (p-phau), so 
that (phbhii) could not occur. The 
Germans have (sh) but no (zh), and 
(ih) but no (Azh). They have (kh, 
kjh), but only medial and final, except 
in the syllable -chen, and some generated 
ge-s. Their (gh, gjh) are only medial. 
They know nothing of (Ih, rh, mh, nh, 
qh), and hence there is no tendency to 
any visarjaniya consonant effect, except 
in initial (sz-). In English we have 
certainly, before a pause, (-zs, -dhth) 
frequently, and (-vf) occasionally, but 
as (zh) is never final, we have no (zh, sh). 
The consonantal diphthong in judge, 
however, often yields (d v zli8d v zh k sh), 
which Germans, at best, pronounce 
(t x shadt x sh), and a very curious effect 
they produce, making the (ad) extremely 
short. In the case of (I, m, n, q) we 
prolong them indefinitely as vocal, and 
so, I think, do Germans, with the ex- 
ception of (q), which becomes (qk<) 
very often in Germany. 

We are now prepared to consider the 
very difficult Ags. hiv, hr, hi, hm, hn, 
with the Old Norse h)\ hv, see (513, a), 
(544, a). Prof. Whitney, after defining 
h as ([h), see (1132, a'), continues (Ath. 
V. Pr. p. 66) : " Thus the A's of ha, 
of hi, of AM, and those heard before the 


14. (wh) continued. 

semi- vow els w and y in the English 
words when and hue, for instance, are all 
different in position, corresponding in 
each case with the following vowel or 
semi-vowel. H is usually initial in a 
word or syllable, and is governed hy 
the letter which succeeds, and not by 
that which precedes it." He therefore 
says, and hears from such American 
English speakers as do not omit the 
voiceless part altogether, (jhaa, ]\m, 
jhuu, jhwen, jhiu), and he is apparently 
so convinced that all English speakers 
agree with himself and those whom he 
has both heard and noted, that he says 
elsewhere (Oriental and Linguistic Stu- 
dies, p. 251) that Prof. Max Miiller's 
"definition of the wh in when, etc., as 
a simple whispered counterpart of w in 
wen, instead of a w with a prefixed 
aspiration, is, we think, clearly false." 
When Prof. Max Miiller, as a German, 
appealed to the opinions of Mr. M. Bell 
and myself as English phonologists who 
agreed with him, Prof. Whitney replied 
(ibid. p. 271) : " The true phonetic value 
of the wh, as is well known to all who 
have studied English phonology, is 
greatly controverted ; we happen to 
have a strong conviction on one side, 
which we take every convenient oppor- 
tunity of expressing, without intending 
disrespect to those who differ from us." 
And then, alluding to me, he says, "We 
feel less scruple about disagreeing with 
him as to this particular point, inas- 
much as he (and Bell as well) has what 
we cannot but regard as a special weak- 
ness in respect to labial modifications of 
vowels and consonants. With one who 
can hold the initial consonant sound of 
dwell, for example, to be not a w with d 
prefixed, but a labially modified d, we 
should not expect to agree in an analysis 
of the wh sound." On (dw) see (1115,4), 
where the last sentence was quoted 
without its context. The cases of (wh, 
dw) are not quite parallel, but this is of 
small importance. Prof. Whitney's wh 
= my (jhw) = my (wh-w). Now, of 
course, Prof. Whitney is an incontro- 
vertible authority as to the way in 
which he pronounces, and wishes others 
to pronounce, the initial sounds of his 
own name, but that he should find it 
necessary to "take every convenient 
opportunity of expressing " his own 
"strong conviction" respecting the cor- 
rectness of his analysis, shews me that 
he must have met with many who dis- 

14. (wh) continued. 

puted it. Possibly he is often called 
(Wrtm), as he certainly would be 
generally in London, and that must be 
as annoying as for Smith to be called 
(Zmis), as he would certainly be in 
France. That, however, (jhwiil) = 
(whwiil) is an acknowledged theoreti- 
cal American pronunciation, the un- 
corroborated assertion of Prof. Whit- 
ney would be sufficient to establish. 
And it is not uncorroborated. 

Prof. S. S. Haldeman, of Chickies, 
Columbia, Pennsylvania, U.S., says 
(Analytic Orthography, p. 101) : " Latin 
V has a surd aspirate in English wh, 
which is always followed by V way, 
as in w>Am = (whwen), which is not 
(when), as some suppose, nor is it hwen, 
as hden is not then. "Unfortunately, 
this sound is departing. We heard wig 
for whig, the first time in July, 1848, 
and not unfrequently since. When this 
confusion is established between when 
wen ; where were ; which witch ; whet 
wet; whey way; wheel weal; the lan- 
guage will have ceased to be a refined 
one. The sound probably belongs to 
Welsh, provincial Danish, and ancient 
Greek." And in a note received while 
this was being prepared for press he 
observes: "If when is not my wh-w-e-n 
but wh-e-n, it approach es/m, as wh-i-ch 
approaches jitch" [precisely, and so we 
get Aberdeen (f) for initial (wh), and 
have got our received final (f ) in laugh 
dwarf. 1 " I think those who say w-e-n 
drop wh and do not drop the aspirate 
merely. Similarly if hue is not (jh-j-u) 
but (jh-u), then it approaches (sh-u)." 
Query, are not Lancashire hoo and 
Leeds shoo, both meaning she, both 
derived from heo ags., the one through 
(nhe6o, nhdo, nhu', nhuu) regular 
dialectal changes, and the other through 
(nhe6o nhi6o jhoo shoo) ? The pecu- 
liar dialectal pronunciations will be 
discussed hereafter. The usual theory 
gives hoo to heo, and she, shoo to seo. 
But she could also come from heo 
through (nheoo nheoo jhe' she). The 
vowel changes will be justified here- 
after. The form -&ho occurs in Orrmin 
(488. d), and ghe, ge in Genesis and 
Exodus (467, cd). 

Prof. H aldeman adds : " I have known 
an intelligent lecturer on grammar to 
assert that in when, etc., the h pre- 
cedes the w meaning a true h. I 
then proposed that he should set his 
mouth for the initial of hen. 


14. (wh) continued. 

say when' Of course he failed, and 
admitted the labial nature of the initial. 
I have a cognate experiment upon about 
the only point where we do not agree. 
I say, ' Set the mouth for the initial of 
ooze, let it stand while you are imagining 
the syllab now, but relax at its final 
element and let the lips drop into w. 
The result is a closer sound than that 
of ooze or full.' ' Set the mouth for the 
vowel of eel or ill, then imagine the 
organs relaxed upon the last element of 
eye or boy, when a closure of the organs 
will be felt.' I admit your glide, but a 
glide that proceeds to a consonant, and 
might proceed from oo to b. The glide 
is present in boa and chaos, but it cannot 
turn them into monosyllabs." These 
last remarks relate to my theory of 
diphthongs, and the experiment is to 
shew that the last element is conso- 
nantal. So it is, in the pronunciation of 
several English persons, but that is not 
sufficient for a general theory of diph- 
thongs. The last examples, boa and 
chaos, are met by my slur ^- theory. 

Prof. F. A. March, of Easton, Penn- 
sylvania, U.S., in his private letter of 
22 March, 1872, already cited (1092, 
c], has most obligingly entered into 
so much detail that 1 think it will be 
interesting and useful to quote his re- 
marks at length. He says: " You call 
my wh (wh + w). I suppose you call 
my h (wh) because I have set my or- 
gans for (w) when I issue it. I suspect 
something wrong here, and fear that 
I have misled you as to the sound. 
When I say he, I set the organs for 
e (ii) and issue surd breath ; to say 
ha, 1 set for a (aa) and issue surd 
breath, and so for other combina- 
tions " [That is, he says ("ii, "aa) 
initially, or (itiii, jhaa) conjointly.] 
"No separate characters are used to 
indicate these ' settings.' " [Hinc 
ittae lacrymae !] "I do not then 
see why htv is not the proper nota- 
tion for my wh." [If h always in- 
dicated (jh), then hw would indicate 
(ihw) = (whw), which is Prof. March's 
wh, but not mine.] " When 1 com- 
pare hoo and Aw;m = when, it seems to 
me that the initial surd sound before 
the lip movement in hw is identical." 
[If (w) differ from (u), as I believe, 
then Qliw) Differs from (ihu), the first 
giving (wh-w), the second ("u-u).] 
" I have this moment stopped writing, 
and tried the experiment ot saying who 
eat, pronouncing it as one word with 

14. (wh) continued. 

the accent on eat, and the o oo with 
slight sonancy. I find a person of good 
ear and some skilled attention takes it 
for wheat, and thinks it correctly ut- 
tered, though often repeated." [This 
depends upon habit. Now there are 
very various ways of uttering these 
words, and I feel sure that my who eat 
(Hujii't), even when allowed to dege- 
nerate into mere (nuiit) is not at all 
like Prof. March's wheat (whwiit), 
but of course his (^huiit) would differ 
from (whwiit) only as (uii) from (wii), 
and the existence of this difference for 
at least 300 years, since the time of Sir 
Thos. Smith (185, a}, has been a matter 
of dispute in England.] "This seems to 
me to indicate that in our pronunciation 
the initial sound is h as in hoo, and 
that the following sound is very like 
your diphthongal ob " [that is, (u) 
forming a diphthong with a following 
vowel which has the chief stress. 
Here I omit a passage on etymology, 
subsequently referred to.] " I cannot 
but think that phonetically, as cer- 
tainly etymologically, Aug. -Sax. and 
New England hw's are labialised A's, 
standing parallel with Lat. qu." [Here 
Prof. March actually adopts as an argu- 
ment an idea of my own, that qu = 
(kw} and not (kw), which Prof. Whit- 
ney adduced as a reason for disagreeing 
with me !] "I think it likely that these 
remarks are wholly needless ; but I find 
that I can issue breath through organs 
set for w, in such a way that it will 
have from the first a plain labial modi- 
fication, so that I should call it wh. 
The sound I do make for hw is not 
that, I think ; but, as I have tried to 
expound it, like h. Perhaps, I do not 
really set my organs for your w." 

Another American phonetic authority 
propounds a slight difference. Mr. 
(joodwin (op. cit. p. 10) says : ' As to 
wh, it has generally been maintained 
by modern English grammarians that 
it is pronounced hw (i.e. hoo), as it was 
written by the Anglo-Saxons. But we 
doubt not that it' a man will observe 
carefully for himself how, and with 
wha difference, he pronounces wit and 
whit, he will be satisfied that the h is 
really pronounced neither before nor 
after the w, but in the same sort of 
constant combination with it, which 
characterizes any other aspirate as con- 
nected with its lene. Whether the h, 
therefore, should be printed before or 
after the w, is a matter of indifference, 


14. (wh) continued. 

except so far as consistency in the 
notation of a given alphabet is con- 
cerned. Wh is certainly the most 
consistent with the rest of the English 
alphabet." This seems to favour (whz't) 
rather than (jhwit). 

It seems to me that the difficulty has 
arisen from want of discriminating 
symbols. Now that it is quite possible 
to distinguish (nuiit, nhuiit, Hjhuiit, 
jhuiit, whiit, H whiit = Hjhwiit, whwiit 
=jhwiit, wiit), we may inquire in any 
particular case what is said. It is very 
probable, most probable, that in a case 
where accurate attention has been little 
paid, and where even symbolisation 
failed, great diversities exist, both 
traditionally and educationally, and 
that theorists should differ. Now it is 
certainly curious that three such com- 
petent American observers as Professors 
Whitney, Haldeman, and March, should 
practically agree in (wh-wiit) = dhwiit); 
and that two practised English obser- 
vers like Mr. Melville Bell and myself 
should agree in (whiit). I have myself 
heard (wh-w) from Americans, and 
know that it differs from my own 
(wh-). Our Scotch friends called quhat 
(kwhat), not (khwat), and in Aberdeen 
we have (fat), or perhaps (phat), see 
(188, b. 580, e). Now this last (fat) is 
as easy to say as (fset), which no one 
would think of calling (fvset), except 
perhaps in the Somersetshire district, 
where this may be the real sound that 
generated (vaet), see (1104,^). But such 
combinations as (fv-, thdh-, sz-, shzh-) 
are as un-English as (Ihl-, mhm-), etc., 
and hence I think that the analogy of 
our language is in favour of (whiit, 
jhu) = wheat, hew. It is true, I call the 
last word (jhiuu), which certainly 
approaches (ohjuu), but may be an 
individuality, but the word is not com- 
mon; and when it is used, the sound 
flutters between (juu) and (muu). And 
similarly for human, humour, etc. 

What ought we to say is another 
question. Should the Anglo-Saxon hw 
lead us to (wh-w-) in all cases ? Prof. 
March, who is a potent authority in 
Anglo-Saxon, says, in passage omitted 
on (1143, 6'), from the letter there cited : 
" Is it not true that this initial A is a 
weakening of a guttural aspirate ch, 
which again is a shifting from a mute 
k, and that the labial v, w, u is a para- 
sitic utterance, which has here and 
there attached itself to the true root 
letter? Sansk. ka- t Lith. ka-, Slav. 

14. (wh) continued. 

ko-, Lat. quo-, Goth, hva, A. Sax. hwa, 
Engl. who." We enter now on a great 
question, the discussion of which would 
lead us very far, namely on " parasitic 
utterances," where a new sound in- 
trudes itself. This new sound in the 
case of vowels is generally (i, u), 
which shews itself often by a mere 
palatalisation or labialisation of the 
preceding consonant, and sometimes 
ousts the consonant altogether, compare 
Lat. homo, Ital. old huomo, new uomo. 
Sometimes the intruder is (a) before (i, 
u), which through (ai, au) sometimes 

?ass to distinctly different vowels, as 
B, o), and sometimes dropping the old 
original vowels altogether, yield up 
their lives to the intruder, as in York- 
shire (aa) for /, and (aas) for house t 
ags. hus. All of this will naturally 
present itself later on, 2, No. 6, iv. It 
would be too far to go to Sanscrit Jca- 
or Latin quo- as an authority for the 
pronunciation of English who. It is 
enough to go to ags. hvd, and observe 
that what on this theory we must regard 
as an intrusive parasitic v has in this 
case quite absorbed the d. If ags. was 
(whwaa), English is (HUU) or (ihuu), 
or rather both. 

Let us rather observe what has 
happened in old spellings, and we find 
hw of the xn th and xm th centuries 
becoming wh in the xiv th, which may 
be due to a change from (whw-) to (wh-), 
or may simply be due to a revision of 
orthography, the sound remaining un- 
changed. In the latter case the h was 
placed after to shew that the sound was 
one, not two, precisely as in the case of 
th, sch. But we also find at a very 
early date simple w, continually in 
Robert of Gloucester, sometimes in 
Layamon. The old hi, hr, hn, sank to 
I, r, n very rapidly. I see no means of 
determining whether the sounds were 
originally (khw, khj, khl, khr, khm, khn) 
or (jhw, jhj, thl, jhr, |hm, jhn) =(whw, 
jhj, Ihl, rhr, mhm, nhn) or (wh, jh Ih, 
rh, mh, nh). Plausible arguments and 
analogies will apply to all of them. 
The modern (w, j, 1, r, m, n) could 
descend from any one of them. But 
on the whole I am most tempted to 
believe that (wh, jh, Ih, rh, mh, nh) ex- 
isted at so very early a time, that I feel 
unable to go higher. As a matter of, 
say, habit, I use (wh, jh, 1, r, m, n) at 
present. If asked what is the sound 
of wh in wheat, I reply, that J say 
(wh), others say (whw), and by far the 


14. (wh) continued. 

greater number of educated people in 
London say (w). These speakers are 
mutually intelligible to each other. 
Perhaps the (wh) and (whw) people 
may mark the (w), and think that 
" h is dropped." Perhaps the (w) may 
think the (wh) and (whw) folk have an 
odd northern pronunciation, but gener- 
ally they will not notice the matter. 
The (wh) and (whw) people might 
converse together for hours without 
finding out that there was any difference 
between their habits. How many 
Englishmen, or even Germans, know 
that Germans habitually call sieh (szii) 
and not (zii) ? How many English- 
men know that they habitually call 
emphatic is (izs) and not (z) before a 
pause? Who is to blame whom? 
In such a matter, at least, we must 
own that ' "Whatever is, is right" 
(whote:varrzs, tzra'rt), as I repeat the 

In these very excursive remarks the 
subject of aspiration is far from being 
exhausted, but as respects wh itself, it 
has been considered initially only. It 
constantly occurs finally in older 
English, as a form of j, perhaps at one 
time for (kh), or (kwh), of which it is 
an easier form, the back of the tongue 
being not quite so high, and hence the 
fri cation much less harsh, in (wh). 
Now this (wh) falls into (u), or drops 
away entirely, or becomes (f). Does 
not this look like (-kwh, -wh, -ph, -f) 
on the one hand, and (-kt#h, -wh, -w, 
-u) on the other ? I do not see a place 
for (-wwh) =(-w{h), or w with visar- 
janiya. This observation points to the 
pure hiss (wh) in all cases, rather than 
the mixed (whw-) in one case, and the 
pure (-wh) in the other. But these 
are points for the older pronunciations. 
To gather present usage, we shall have 
to watch speakers very carefully. 

('). See No. 3, (ii), and No. 6, 

(p). The lips shut firmly, 
and the glottis closed airtight. If the 
glottis is in the voice position, the voice 
will sound producing (b),see (1103, a). 
In this case, where (p) is final, the effect 
is described (1111, d'}. 

(whip). The glide (wh<t) is 
similar in its nature to the glide (s< t), 
see (1 106, a) . The glide (i < p) is similar 

14. (wht'p) continued. 

to the glide (>k), ibid. And the (p) 
glides off into pure flatus ('h) before a 
pause. Thus (whip) = (wh < i > p < *h) 
before a pause. 

"With regard to the length of the 
glide (i > p) and such like, the following 
remarks of Mr. Sweet are very im- 
portant (Philolog. Trans. 1873-4, p. 
110) : "In Danish all final consonants 
are short without exception. In English 
their quantity varies, the general rule 
being that they are long after a short, 
short after a long vowel; tell (tEll), 
bin (bmn), tale (teel), been (biin). Cora- 

C English farewell (feeahwE'll) with 
ish farvel (faivE-'l). Liquids and 
nasals coming before another consonant 
follow the same laws in both languages: 
they Bx&long before voice, short before 
breath consonants: (this was first noticed 
in Danish by E. Jessen ; see his Dansk 
Sproglaere, p. 21. He has also noticed 
(in the T. f. Ph. ii.) the length of the E. 
final voice stops, treated of below, which 
I first discovered from comparing the 
E. and Norse sounds :) ham (jham), 
hammre (jhamnna), vel (VE!), vceldig 
(vElldigh), valte (vElto) ; bill (bill), 
build (bflld), built (belt)." [It is possi- 
ble that the different lengths of (11, 1) 
in such words as (bi'lld, bt'lt) led Mr. 
Bell to his distinction (btld, btlht), see 
(1141, a).] "The short final stops in 
Danish and Norwegian are important 
as bringing out very clearly a peculiar 
feature of English pronunciation, which 
has not hitherto been noticed. This is 
our tendency to lengthen the final stops. 
It is seen most clearly in the vocal stops. 
Compare E. egg (Egg) with Norw. (egg 
(Eg). That the voiceless final stops are 
also long in E. is apparent from a com- 
parison of Danish kat, hat, with E. 
cat, hat (kaett, nsett). In short we 
may say that short accented mono- 
syllables do not exist in English. Either 
the vowel or the consonant must be long 
(tEll, teil). In the ordinary London 
pronunciation, the quantity of origin- 
ally short vowels seems to be perfectly 
indifferent, the only limitation being 
that a short vowel and a short con- 
sonant must not come together. No 
Englishman ever says (tEl). He must 
either lengthen the consonant (tEll), or 
else the vowel, in which case the con- 
sonant becomes short (tEEl). I have 
often heard the latter from people of 
every rank, but chiefly among the 


14. (wht'p) continued. 

I wish to direct close attention to 
this original and acute observation. 
But the subject is, I think, far from 
exhausted. Mr. Sweet has not spoken 
of the glide between the vowel and the 
consonant. The very short (tEl) of 
which he speaks would, to an English- 
man, sound like an ' unfinished ' (tEll), 
and be most safely written (tEli), and 
so pronounced would, if (EE) occurred 
in our language, give the effect of a 
long vowel, as in (tEEl), which we 
should have to write (tEEli). If we are 
speaking of the relative lengths of the 
parts of syllables, we can only properly 
indicate them by superimposed num- 
bers, as already suggested (1131, d). In 

1215 1211 1512 

(t < E > 1, t < E > 1, t < E > 1) we have 
perhaps the relations roughly indicated 
by (tEll) or (tE'l), (tEl!) and (tEEl). 
Mr. Bell marks Scotch ^=(E'!), did 

3115 3122 

he mean (E'h > 1) or (E'!I > 1) ? For 
practical purposes I should prefer writ- 
ing (tE'l, tEl, tEEl), and (tEll, tElf, 
tEEll) for theoretical investigation, when 
the exactness of numbers is not neces- 

15. LAMP, Bell's (leemhp), 
my (Isemp). 

(1). One of the divided con- 
sonants. The tip of the tongue in the 
(d)-position, but the sides free; whereas 
in (r) the sides are fixed in the (d) -posi- 
tion, but the tip is free to trill. Hence 
(d) is, so to speak, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (1) and (r) together, resulting 
in a complete stop, as (1) stops the 
central and (r) the side passages. If 
(Ih), or flatus through the (1) -position, 
occurred either consciously or uncon- 
sciously in hi in ags. (1141, d'}, it is 
quite lost now. Even if Mr. Bell is 
right in supposing (Ih) to be generated 
now (1141, 0), it must be touched very 
lightly indeed. The Welsh II (Ihh) 
differs from (Ih), see (756, be}. In 
(756, d'} it is wrongly said that (Ihh) 
occurs in Manx, whereas it is only the 
buzz of (Ihh) or (flih) which there 
occurs. Frenchmen do not admit that 
(Ih) occurs in table, as stated in (756, c), 
but (Ih) occurs both directly as hi, and 
indirectly before (t) in Icelandic (544, a. 
545, d). 
To the curious relation (deposition 

15. (1) continued. 

= (1) -position + (r). position, is to be 
attributed the frequent -confusions 
among (d, 1, r). My own name, Ellis, 
has been frequently confused both with 
Harris and Herries. The Chinese, 
Japanese, as well as the Ancient Egyp- 
tians, and probably many other nations, 
confuse (1) and (r) systematically. In 
fact they seem not to know either (1) or 
(r), but to produce some intermediate 
sound, written (*r) and explained on 
(1133, a). The effect was that of a 
very short (1) or 'blurred' (r), followed 
by a distinct (r). "When the (1) is dis- 
tinct and (r) blurred, (l r ) will be the 
proper form. Generally the combina- 
tion (lr) or ([lr) is sufficient. The 
sounds could not be simultaneous, and 
the order appears to be (lr) not (rl). 
Both however are possible, and the 
symbols (lr, IF, l r , rl, r l, r 1 ) must be 
selected accordingly. The combination 
(lr) necessarily recalls the transcription 
Iri, Iri, for Sanscrit <JJ <5^ which in 
form are the letter I ^ with the com- 
bining form of the vowels ^ "^^ 
usually written ri, ri. Now these last 
may have been (\r, \r v r) a short and long 
trilled voice, which is quite vocal. 
That Panini should place them among 
the dentals, and the commentator on 
the Ath. V. Pr. (Whitney's edition, p. 
22) among the gutturals orjihvdm&liya, 
"formed at the base of the tongue," 
Prof. Whitney attributes to a diversity 
of pronunciation, as a dental ( N r) and 
uvular (r), while he considers the classi- 
fication of Iri, Iri, in the same category 
as due to its occurring solely in the 
root klrip, which begins with a guttural. 
The Rik Pr. makes the same classifica- 
tion ; the Vaj. Pr. omits Iri, lr", from 
the list. Now I think that the sign 
shews merely that < Iri bears the same 
relation to <f I as ^U ri does to ^ r. 
All will in that case depend on the ri 
vowel. This the Ath. V. Pr. commen- 
tator (Whitney, p. 32) describes as 
"an r combined with a half-measure or 
wiiitra in the middle of the vowel- 
measure in the rt-vowel, just as a nail 
is with the finger; like a pearl on a 
string, some say ; like a worm in grass, 
say others." Now reflecting on the 
Polish szcz, in which a continued (sh) 
is interrupted for a moment by throw- 
ing the tip of the tongue on to the hard 
palate and instantly withdrawing it, I 


15. (1) continued. 

interpret this as a continued (a) or (a), 
interrupted for a moment by two or 
three beats of a trill, produced by 
trilling the point of the tongue, which 
is tolerably free for (a), so that we have 
nearly (are), but by no means quite so, 
for first we have no proper glides 
(a>r<a), the true r-position not 
having been assumed, and secondly 
there is a feeling of a continued vowel- 
sound made tremolo in the middle, as 
has become the fashion in singing, and, 
consequently, thirdly the trill would 
differ from, at least, the theoretical (j), 
as the sound produced by a free-reed, 
or anche libre, as in an harmonium, 
from the sound produced by a striking- 
reed, as in the clarinet. It is remark- 
able that it acts to change (ji) into (N), 
" within the limits of the same word " 
(Whitney, ibid. p. 174), which would 
confirm this view, making (ara) in fact 
retracted in comparison with (j). 
There seems to have been a difficulty 
with the Indians as well as the English 
in pronouncing ( x r) trilled before any 
other consonant. I have heard German 
kirche given as kiriche. This is the 
case of (jr) before a spirant, where the 
Indians seem to have required a more 
sensible insertion of a svarabhakti, 
' fraction or fragment of a vowel ' 
(Whitney, ibid. p. 67), in short of Mr. 
Bell's voice glide (*h), than before other 
consonants. The Irish (wa-rak) is well 
known. Probably the process of speech 
changed Sanscrit (aj) into (ara) and 
then into ( v ra) only. The 'guttural' 
classification of the (ara) may merely 
indicate the retraction of the root of 
the tongue consequent on its vowel 
instead of its dental character. The 
Iri may have been merely (ala), a con- 
tinued (a) interrupted in the middle by 
a non-dental (1) or approximation to it, 
and probably with no sound of (r) in 
it at all. These sounds are perhaps 
best written (r a , 1 8 ), as the consonant 
part became predominant. 

Mr. M. 0. Mookerjey (see 1102, *,) 
called ri, ri (uri, urii), with a very dis- 
tinct (it), but he said that Iri, Irii were 
simple (li, lii). Both of these are 
apparently modernisms. But the (uri) 
at least shews that the sound consisted 
of some vowel, interrupted in what was 
perceptibly the middle of its duration 
by the beats of a trill. Mr. Gupta 
differed in this respect, (1136, d'. 
1138, b'). 

15. (). 

(se). This vowel, as I pro- 
nounce it, is very thin, and foreigners 
have told me that I make no distinction 
between man and men (nia3n, men), or 
(maen, niEn) according to Mr. Bell. 
The position of the tongue appears to 
be identical for (se) and (E), so that all 
Germans, French, and Italians hear (se) 
as their open a, $, e. But the back 
parts of the mouth and pharynx appear 
to be widened, and the quality thus 
approaches to (a), which it has replaced. 
Many persons, however, seem to me to 
use (ah), even now, for (a). The true 
thin English sound occurs in Hungarian, 
written e in accented syllables, but I 
observed that on removing the stress, it 
seemed to fall into (E). Land (op. cit. 
p. 16) says that the openest Dutch e 
sometimes approaches (a) in sound, and 
in the mouths of some speakers becomes 
quite the English (set) in man, bad. 
He also says that Bonders' a (op. cit. 
p. 11), heard in Dutch vet, gebed=\dw, 
prayer, which is quite different from 
his e a heard in bed, is this fee). In the 
Dutch of the Cape of Good Hope, (ae) 
appears to be the general pronunciation 
of open e. For the Somersetshire use, 
see (67, ), and for Welsh (67, e. 61, d). 
Mr. Nicol tells me that some English 
friends in Monmouthshire call fach 
(vekh, vEkh) rather than (vaekh), but 
call the first letter of the Welsh alpha- 
bet (aa), not (eei). With regard to the 
presumed use of (aeae) in Copenhagen, 
Mr. Sweet (Philol. Trans. 1873-4, p. 
105) makes it (,a) or "mid back wide 
forward,'' or "outer," as I have called 
it on (1 107,c), for he says: "This vowel 
has a very thin sound, almost as in 
E. hat, the tongue being considerably 
advanced in the mouth, but without the 
front being raised, so that it is distinct 
from the raid-mixed (ah) : mane 
(m^aana); mand (m,a;'n); kat (kih % at)," 
where I have duly marked the ( x a, n) 
and changed his (kn) into (Iqh). Really 
to distinguish ( % a, ah, a?) becomes very 
difficult, and few ears are to be trusted. 
Signor Pagliardini makes the French 
a rather ( v a) or (ah) than (a), the order 
of his vowels being, pea, paid, pair, 
pat, patte Fr., part, fpurr?j, paw, 
polygon, pole, pool, punir Fr. These 
slight differentiations of sound, however, 
are important in the history of the 
transition from (a) to (se), in England 
for the short vowel, and in Ireland for 
the long. I heard (pseae-par) only the 


1 5. (se) continued. 
other day from an Irish labourer. In 
England, however, the long vowel has 
gone much further, even to (ee 1 ]} or 
(#). In a certain class of words there 
is even now great diversity of use 
(68d). Fulton and Knight (Diction- 
ary, London, 1843) say: "A sounds 
(aa) hefore rm, Im, If, and he, as in 
bar car, barb garb, bard pard, lark 
park, harl (?) snarl, arm farm, barn 
darn, carp harp, art dart, barge large, 
carve starve, farce parse, march parch ; 
baftn caftn paftn psaftn, calf hatf, ca/ve 
ha^ve. This sound is contracted into 
(a) before /, ft, ss, sic, sp, st, (th) and 
nee, as in : chaff staff, graft shaft, lass 
pass, ask bask, asp clasp, cast fast, bath 
lath path wrath, chance dance." Now 
in London I constantly hear (aa) in all 
these words from educated speakers, 
the r in ar being entirely dropped. On 
the other hand, I have heard (ee) in 
every one of the words also, and then, 
in the case of ar, either (ee") or (eer ) was 
said, the vowel being short. I bave 
also heard (a) short in every one, (a', 
ar p ) being used. Again, in those words 
which have no r, I frequently bear (SBSB), 
and more frequently (ah), both short 
and long, especially from ladies, and 
those who do not like broad sounds. 
Apparently this dread arises from the 
fear that if they said (aask, laaf), they 
would be accused of tbe vulgarity of 
inserting an r, and when arsk, larf, are 
written, they "look so very vulgar." Yet 
these speakers frequently drop the (k) 
and say (ahst)for (aaskf). The tendency 
seems to be towards (baa, paak, baahm, 
saahm, naahf, tshsef, stsef, bahth lahth, 
raath, tsba3ns da3ns), but the words 
vary so much from mouth to mouth, 
that any pronunciation would do, and 
short (a) would probably hit a mean to 
which no one would object. In a per- 
formance of King John, I heard Mrs. 
Charles Kean speak of " (ksesef) skin," 
with great emphasis, and Mr. Alfred 
"Wigan immediately repeated it as 
*' (kaaf) skin," with equal distinctness. 
Both were (I am sorry to use the past 
tense, though both are living off the 
stage) distinguished actors. Mr. Bell 
hears (0.1) in p#rt, but I do not know (a) 
as a southern English sound. 

(m). The lips are closed as for 
(b), but the uvula is detached from the 

15. (m) continued. 

pharynx and there is perfect nasal reso- 
nance (1096, d'. 1 123, d] . As there is a 
perfectly open passage for the voice, 
there is no condensed air in the mouth. 
The hum of ('m) is well known, and 
it is instructive to sing upon (m, n, q), 
with the mouth first closed throughout, 
and then open for (n, q). It will be 
found that the opening of the mouth 
makes no difference, and that the three 
sounds scarcely differ when the glides 
from and to vowels are omitted. "When 
I had a phonetic printing office, the 
letters (m, n, q) had to be frequently 
asked for, and such difficulty was found 
in distinguishing them when the same 
vowel was used for each, as (em, en, eq), 
that it became necessary to alter the 
vowels and call the letters (sem, en, q), 
after which no trouble was experienced. 
Compare the modern Indian confusion 
of (n, x n), mentioned in (1096, c'}. 

As to the use of (m) or (mh) or 
(m-mh) before (p) see (1141, a). The 
case is different when the following 
mute belongs to another organ. -mJc 
does not occur, but -mt is frequent, as 
in attempt, and the tendency is to cut 
off the voice and close the nasal passage, 
before the lips are opened, so that (mp) 
or (mph) is generated. As to the length 
of the (m) in this case, see (1145, be") 
It is I think usually short. When mb 
is written, as in lamb, the (b) is not 
heard, but (m) is long, as (Isemm, 
Ige'm). Possibly at one time the 
nasality may have ceased before the 
voice, and thus real (lamb) may have 
been said, but I have not noticed such 
as a present usage. Compare (Inqg) on 
(1124, b"). There is no tendency to 
develope an epenthetic (b) medially, 
compare limner, limber, longer = (Irrru, 
Irmbi, b'qgj). But between (m) and 
(r) both French and Spanish introduce 
(b), compare Latin nnmerus, French 
and Spanish nombre. But in English 
dialects there is much tendency to omit 
any such (b), as Scotch nummer, and 
dialectal timmer, chammer, for timber, 

Initial (m) is always short, except 
rhetorically, expressing doubt, but final 
(m), after even a buzz, becomes syllabic, 
as schism, rhythm = (srz'm, rrth'm). 
After I it is not syllabic, as I is either 
very short as in elm = (elm'), often 
vulgarly (e-l'm, e-Lem), or I quite dis- 
appears, as in alms = (aamzs) . After r, 



15. (m) continued. 

when untrilled, and therefore purely 
voiced, m is not syllabic, and may be 
quite short, as in warm = (WAATO) or 
(wA'hm, wAr c m) . But when r is trilled, 
we frequently hear the syllabic m, as 
(wa-r'm). This, however, is not a 
received sound. 

(p). See No. 14, (p). 

(laernp). The voice is set on 
with (1), which should be (,1), not ([!) 
or (ihl). The murmur of (1) is very 
brief. The glide (1 < ae) is almost quite 
the same as (d<ee), and the glide 
(se>m) almost the same as (ae>b), 
but must be slightly changed by the 
dropping forward of the uvula at its 
termination. The lips should close at 
the same instant as the uvula falls, so 
that no (ae,) or (a3A) should be heard. 
Then, as I think, the murmur (m) is 
continued for a short time, till both 
voice and nasality are cut off and (p) 
results, which, before a pause, is as 
usual made audible by flatus, thus 
(,!<83>m-p'). Mr. Bell, however, 
cuts off the voice with the closing of 
the lips and dropping of the uvula, 
allowing occasionally a trace of voice 
after closing the lips, and hence has 
generally (,1 < se > mh-p 1 ) and occasion- 
ally (,1 < 33 > mi-mh-p'). See (1 140,^'). 
In all cases (p), having the position of 
(m), would be inaudible after (m), 
without some following flatus or voice. 

16. ONIONS, Bell's (aimmz), 

(a, o). See No. 1, (u, 9). 
(n). See No. 1, (n). 

(j). This bears the same rela- 
tion to (i) as (w) does to (u). The 
position for (i) is so much contracted 
that clear resonance becomes no longer 
possible, and the buzz is produced. 
German writers pair (kjh, j), that is, 
they confuse (gjh, j) together. But 
the buzz of (gjh) is, to an English- 
man's ears, much harsher than for his 
(j). Lepsius (Standard Alphabet, 2nd 
ed. 1863, p. 73) says: "It is to be 
observed that (gjh)," which he defines 
as the voiced form of ch in milch = 
(milkjh), "and the semivowel (j) are 
so near each other that (kjh) will 
hardly appear in any language as a 

16. (3) continued. 

distinct sound by the side of (j)." But 
both of them really seem to me to exist 
in German. At least in Saxony, gene- 
ral, konige, berge, sounded to my ear as 
(gjhEnenm'l, karnigjhe, bE-rgjhB); and 
I often heard ( JEnenra-1, k^-ni JB, bE-rju), 
especially the last, ridiculed by Dres- 
deners. The sounds were therefore 
distinguished. Briicke (Grundziige, 
p. 44) distinguishes palatal k = (kj) 
and velar k = (k), and Arabic kaf v 

= (K.), with their sonants (gj, g, o). 
Then, proceeding to the corresponding 
hisses, he has (kjh), "as in liecht and 
Licht" (ibid. p. 48), (kh), "as Wache, 
Woche, Wacht," where I may notice 
that the (kh) frequently becomes (kwh) 
after (u) in German, and (Kh), which 
he believes is the x f the modern 
Greeks, before o, o, ov, u. From what 
he says (ibid. p. 49), I am inclined to 
think that he confuses (Kh) with (krh). 
Then he adds : " Allowing the voice to 
sound, we come to Jot, the / consona of 
the Germans," so that he makes Ger- 
man j = (gjh). Similarly he finds the 
voiced (kh), or (gh), in Platt-Deutsch 
liige= (laeh-ghe) ; it is quite common in 
Saxon, as in lage = (laa-g\ne). Finally, 
he makes (oh), the modern Greek 7, 
before a, o, . Then (ibid. p. 70) he 
says, referring to the English sounds: 
" Produce (i) and narrow still further 
the space between the tongue and 
palate where it is already narrowest, 
you will obtain a Jot, because you will 
have reached the position of (gjh). 
The vowel (i) does not become lost by 
so doing ; we really hear both the 
vowel (i) and the consonant Jot at the 
same time." This seems to me an im- 
possibility. " The most suitable ex- 
ample is the English y, when conso- 
nantal. When an (i) follows, as in 
year, it is exactly the same as the 
German / consona ; but when another 
vowel follows, a light sound of (i) is 
heard before it, in educated pronuncia- 
tion, which arises from raising the 
larynx, and consequently introducing 
the condition for (i)." Now I know 
that Englishmen in Saxony had the 
greatest difficulty in learning to say 
(kjh, gjh), which could hardly have 
been the case if they were their own 
(jh, j). The antecedent (i) in you, 
yeast, yacht, which he would of course 
call ([igjhuu, |igjhEst, L ijA v t'), remind 
me of Prof. March's ([_uw), see (1092 5 


16. (j) continued. 

c'). Briicke's identification of English 
y- with (i.igjh-) is on a par with his 
identification of English w- with 
(Liibh-), where, however, he says : 
" the vowel (u) and the consonant (bh.) 
are really sounded at the same time, 
which is incorrect. But an attempt to 
pronounce (u*bh) will generate (w), 
and so an attempt to pronounce (i*gjh) 
might generate (j), but I think this 
attempt would not be quite so successful. 
I attribute this error to Briicke's Low 
Saxon habits of speech, to which real 
(gjh) is unknown, so that he imagines 
(j) to be the buzz of (kjh), with which 
he is acquainted practically. Merkel, 
however, a Middle Saxon, had no busi- 
ness to be astonished (Phys. d. mensch. 
Spr. p. 178) that Lepsius could find no 
hiss to (j), and had distinguished (j, 
gjh). In Saxony I have not unfre- 
quently heard ja called (jha), where 
the speaker would have been posed had 
he been told to begin the word with ch 
in ich, because he would not have 
known how to arrange his organs, and 
would probably at least have said 
(kjh|_icrB), thinking of chia. Again 
(jaa) is the received and more usual 
pronunciation of ja, though great 
varieties are heard in a word which 
often sinks into an interjection. But 
to be told to begin with a "soft g" 
would sorely try a Saxon's phonetic 
intelligence. I found in Saxony very 
distinct differences (kh gh, kjh gjh, jh 
j). Merkel calls (kjh) g molle, and 
(gjh) = (j) voiced^ molle (ibid. p. 183). 
Werkel allows of a modification of g 
molle when it comes from (y) instead of 
(i). In fact, we may have (sw) =(wj), 
the consonant formed from (y), similar 
to (j) from (i) and (w) from (u). And 
we have similarly (kw?h, kwjh, gwh, 
gwjh). The hiss of the English (j) is 
heard only in a few words, as Hugh, 
hew, human (see 1144, c). 

All these German confusions of (kjh, 
gjh) with (jh, j) depend upon the prior 
confusion of (kj, gj) with (kj, gj), and 
receive their proper explanation so 
Boon as these consonants are admitted ; 
for which we are indebted in English 
books to the acuteness of the American 
Mr. Goodwin and the Englishman Mr. 
Melville Bell, although they have been 
long known in India (1120, c}. The 
series (kj jh ''i- ; gj j i-), where the 
hyphens point out the diphthongising 
character of the vowels, shew the exact 

16. (j) continued. 

relation of (jh, j) to vowel and conso- 
nant. The labial series are much 
more complex, on account of the back 
of the tongue being raised for (u), 
giving it a labio-guttural character. 
They are, therefore, (kw kwh wh "u- ; 
gw gwh w u-). Helmholtz (Tonemp- 
findungen, 3rd ed. p. 166) recognizes 
an (u), for which the tongue is quite 
depressed ; this would be (A U ), a much 
duller sound than (u). For this then 
we have the labial series (p ph "A U -; 
b bh AU-). The (f, v) hisses do not 
enter into either of the latter series, as 
they have no corresponding vowels. 
The usual (b v u) and (b w u) series 
are quite erroneous. 

The whole history of (jh, j) is analo- 
gous to that of (wh, w), and we have 
the same varieties. On (186, c] I have 
elected to write (ja, ai), whatever the 
orthoepists wrote. But it must be 
observed that real differences exist, that 
(ia |_ija ja J|_ia) are &U possible, and 
different, and that (ai. a[ij aj) are 
possible and different. Mr. Sweet 
says of Danish (Philol. Trans. 1873-4, 
p. 107) : "The voice-stop (g) becomes 
(gh), and often undergoes further 
weakening, passing through (gwh) into 
(w), which is frequently the case after 
back vowels, especially when labial, or 
(after palatal vowels) into (j). Thus 
are formed quasi-diphthongs, the only 
ones which the language possesses." 
This is extremely interesting in reference 
to the generation of (ai, au) in English 
from ags. ag, aw. The only diph- 
thongs the English possessed indepen- 
dently of the Normans came in the 
same way, and the rhyming of these 
(ai) diphthongs with Norman ai proves 
that the English pronounced the Nor- 
man in the English way, whatever was 
the Norman sound. The Danish ex- 
amples which Mr. Sweet gives are 
instructive. Thus, en sag, also written 
saug and sav (saw), 'saw,' en vogn 
(vow;'n);/#vr ffaw;'i) = Icelandic fagr, 
en sJcov (skow) = Icelandic sJcogr ; et 
navn (naw;'n) = Icelandic nafn, en ovn 
(ow;'n) ; jeg (jaj), en Ibgn (bj;'n), et bje 
(oja), en hbjde (Hhojjda). One sees 
here an exact modern presentment of 
the way in which Orrmin perceived the 
formation of English diphthongs 700 
years ago (489, e). The very change 
of the common -lij into (laz) is paral- 
leled by the colloquial Danish mig, dig, 
&ig, steg, megen, rbg t boger = ( } daj, 


16. (j) continued. 

saj, staj, majan, IDJ, bojai). Mr. 
Sweet adds : " In identifying the second 
elements of the Danish diphthongs 
with (j) and (w) I have been partly 
influenced by the views of Danish 
phoneticians themselves ; as far as my 
own impressions are concerned I must 
sljll consider the matter as somewhat 
doubtful : these combinations may after 
all be true diphthongs with the second 
element rather closer than in other 
languages." If the glide is short, and 
the second element always short, instead 
of being long at pleasure, as in English, 
it becomes extremely difficult to deter- 
mine whether it is (i, u) or (j, w). 
The closeness of diphthongs consists, I 
think, 1) in the shortness of the first 
element, 2) in the shortness of the glide 
and its continuously decreasing or in- 
creasing force, 3) in the shortness of 
the second element, but this last has 
least share in producing the effect. 
The 'looseness' or 'openness' of diph- 
thongs consists, 1) in the lengthening 
of the first element, especially when in 
connection with the lengthening of the 
second element, 2) in the first decreas- 
ing and secondly increasing force of 
the glide, which may amount to a slur 
(1131, ), and is, I think, then charac- 
teristic of the Italian diphthongs, 
whose existence is even denied by some 
writers. The actual forms of diph- 
thongs, and the ' vanishes ' of vowels, 
or sounds into which they merge on 
prolongation in various languages, have 
to be studied almost ab initio. The 
two usual statements, that they consist 
of prefixed and affixed (i, u) or (j, w), 
are the roughest possible approxima- 
tions. The 'glides' of Mr. Melville 
Bell were mere evasions of the difficulty, 
and have been given up by his son, Mr. 
Graham Bell, and by the two persons 
in England who have most used his 
Visible Speech, Messrs. Sweet and 
Nicol. The investigation has consider- 
able philological interest, from the 
Sanscrit treatment and resolution of 
diphthongs, down to the introduction 
of diphthongs into English. But we 
are only just beginning to appreciate 
the determinants of the phenomena 

(B). See No. 12, (BJ, i). The 
peculiarities of unaccented syllables will 
be considered afterwards. 

16. (u). 

(n). See No. 1, (n). 
(zs). See No. 12, (zs). 

(an-jmizs). The only difficul- 
ties in the glides occur in the passage 
from (n) to (j). The first, and, I think, 
the usual English method, is to pass by 
a slur (1131, b], so that, although the 
voice never really ceases, it is so much 
reduced in force that the nature of the 
gliding sound necessarily produced 
while rapidly shifting from the (n) to 
the (j) position, is inappreciable. The 
(n) may be lengthened as much as we 
please ; but if very long, the force of 
sound decreases rapidly. It is of course 
un-English to make it very short. 
The second plan is to pass from the (n) 
to the (j) position gradually, so that, 
before the (n) position is released, the 
middle, or, as Mr. Bell calls it, the front 
of the tongue rises into the (j) position, 
the nasalised voice continuing all the 
time, and then the tip of the tongue is 
removed from the (n) position, the 
nasality ceases, and a pure (j) glides 
on to the (). We have thus 
(a > n-nj-j < TB > n-s), and this action is 
most conveniently introduced for teach- 
ing Englishmen the real value of 
French and Italian (nj), which they 
are apt, like Briicke (Grundztige, p. 
71) and Goodwin (op. cit. p. 11), to 
confuse with (nj). The French oignon 
(onjoA), in which neither (n) nor (j) 
are heard, but only (nj), should be 
carefully compared. An (Ij) may be 
similarly generated from million via" 
(m < > 1-lj-j < B > n), the intermediate 
(Ij) not occurring in English Of course 
these (nj, Ij) have been generated by 
the action of (i), and we find in modern 
French a tendency to omit (1) in such 
words as chevalier, which is quite similar 
to the reduction of (Ij) to (i.) in that 
language. In Italian gl the (Ij) re- 
mains pure. The (nj) is also pure in 
French. Englishmen should carefully 
study a Frenchman's pronunciation of 
this final (nj) in signe peigne Espagne 
Cologne Boulogne. The last two words 
in especial are usually execrably pro- 
nounced in England, where they are 
very commonly attempted. (Bwlo-q 
BwWnBwb'n Bwlo'rn) may all be heard 
in place of (Bulonj). See also (1124, d). 

17* BOAT, Bell's (bout), my 



17. (b). 
(b). See No. 9, (b). 

(00) . The controversy respect- 
ing (on, 00) is precisely similar to that 
about (ei, ee], see (1108, c), and the 
same peculiarities are observable in 
Dutch (1109, d'). Thus Bonders gives 
" ou in ho with short u" (op. cit. p. 15), 
and Land says, that Dutch 00 in boon, 
dook, loop, is (00), noticing that it be- 
comes (oo) before r, but adds that " in 
English and low (plalte) Hollandisb 
it is replaced by o 2 " or even 2 w (oou), 
and is even used before r" (op. cit. 
p. 18). The usage of (oou) before r is 
not now known in England. 

As regards my own pronunciation, 
I feel that in know, sow v., etc., regu- 
larly, and in no, so, etc., often, I make 
this labial change, indicated by (oo'w). 
"Wherein does this consist ? In really 
raising the back of the tongue to the 
(u) position, and producing (oou) or 
(oou) ? or in merely further closing or 
'rounding' the mouth to the (u) degree, 
thus (d0-o u ) ? or in disregarding the 
position of the tongue, and merely 
letting labialised voice, of some kind, 
come out through a lip aperture be- 
longing to (u), that is strictly (do-'w) ? 
There is no intentional diphthong, but 
a diphthong results so markedly, es- 
pecially when the sound is forcibly 
uttered, that I have often been puzzled, 
and could not tell whether know, sow 
serere ; no, so ; or now, sow BUS, were 
intended ; I heard (now, sou}. But 
these are exaggerations, and I believe 
by no means common among educated 
speakers. "Whether they will prevail 
or not in a hundred years, those persons 
who then hunt out these pages as an 
antiquarian curiosity will be best able to 
determine. But that (i, u) should have 
developed into, say, (ai, au), by initial 
modification, and that (e, o), which are 
constantly generated from these diph- 
tbongs, should shew a tendency, which 
is sporadically and vulgarly consum- 
mated, to return to the same class of 
diphthongs by final amplification, is in 
itself a remarkable phonological fact 
which all philologists who would trace 
the history of words must bear in mind. 
As to the English tendency, I think 
that (00) developes into (oo' w) most 
readily before the pause, the (k) and 
(p) series ; the first and last owing to 
closing the mouth, the second owing to 

17. (00) continued. 

raising the back of the tongue. I find 
the tendency least before the (t) series. 
This, however, is crossed by the vocal 
action of (1, n, r), which develope a pre- 
cedent ('h), easily rounded into ('hw), 
and hence generating (00' w}. So strong 
was this tendency of old that (6ul, 6un) 
were constant in the xvith century, 
and (dul) remains in Ireland, and many 
of the English counties also, even where 
no u appears in writing. Before (t, d) 
I do not perceive the tendency. In 
fact, the motion of the tongue is against 
it. The sound (bout) is not only strange 
to me, but disagreeable to my ear and 
troublesome to my tongue. Even (b00'wt) 
sounds strange. Mr. M. Bell's consis- 
tent use of (ei, du) as the only received 
pronunciation thoroughly disagrees with 
my own observations, but if orthoepists- 
of repute inculcate such sounds, for 
which a tendency already exists, their 
future prevalence is tolerably secured. 
As to the 'correctness' or ' impropriety' 
of such sounds I do not see on what 
grounds I can offer an opinion. I can 
only say what I observe, and what best 
pleases my own ear, probably from long 
practice. Neither history nor pedantry 
can set the norm. 

(t). See No. 2, (t). 

(boot). The synthesis occasions 
no difficulty. The glide from (00) to (t) 
is short. The voice ends as the closure 
is complete (1112, c'). 

18. CART, BelTs (towt), my 


(k). See No. 6, (k). 

(aa). See (1148, 5) as to 
(aa, aa.?). The sound of (a) is, so far 
as I know, quite strange to educated 
organs, though common in Scotland 
(69 c, d}. "In reality," says Mr. 
Murray (Dialect of S. Scotland, p. 110), 
''the Scotch a, when most broadly 
pronounced, is only equal to the com- 
mon Cockney pass, ask, demand (paahs, 
hsk, denMhnd), and I have heard 
a London broker pronounce demand 
drafts with an a which, for broadness, 
I have never heard bettered in the 
North." It is the repulsion of such 
sounds which drives the educated, and 
especially ladies, into the thinness of 
(ah, 03). 



18. (a). 

(i). I use (j) in Mr. Bell's 
(k<ut) for his 'point-glide' or 'semi- 
vowelized sound of (r c ),' (Vis. Speech, 
p. 70) and (1099, rf). I believe I almost 
always say and hear (kaat) ; but as I 
occasionally say (kaa^t), I write (kaait). 
I am not sure that I ever hear or say 
fkaa't). I have heard (pa'k). No 
doubt many other varieties abound un- 
observed. But (park, kart), with a 
genuine short (a) and trilled (r), sound 
to me thoroughly un-English, and 
(park, kart) are either foreignisms or 
Northumb rianisms. 

(t). See No. 2, (t). 

(kait). The voice begins at 
the moment that the (k) -position is 
relaxed, and not before, the glottis 
being placed ready for voice from the 
first. The glide on to (t) is short, (aa) 
being treated as a long vowel. Bead 

19. TENT, Bell's (tmht), 
my (tent). 

(t). See No. 2, (t). 

(E, e). See No. 7, (E, e). 

(nh, n). 
(1148, M). 

See (1140, #) and 

(tent). Glides (t<e>n-f). 
The nasalised voice is heard up to (t), 
when both voice and nasality are cut 
off. But (t) would be quite inaudible 
unless some flatus or voice followed. 
In (tents) the (s) gives sufficient flatus 
to make (t) quite distinct. In 
scentless there is apt to be a glide on to 
the (1), which is etymologically wrong, 
but easy, (tl-) being often preferred in 
English speech to (kl-). But in scent- 
bottle (se-nt'hbo:t'l), a complete ('h) is 
heard. Observe that in this word 
(t'hb) and not (t'b) is written, because 
to write (t'b) would be ambiguous, as it 
might = (t+'b), instead of = (t'-l-b). 
A Frenchman would use (t'hb). 

20. HOUSES, Bell's 

(nhauzyz), my (naVzezs). 

(H, Hh). See (1130, 5. 1132, 
d. 1133, d. to 1135, c), and (598, V). 

20. (aw, Q'n). 

(aw, a'w). As to the first ele- 
ment, it is subject to at least all the 
varieties of those of long i (1100, a'}. 
But owing to the labial final, the ten- 
dency to labialise the first element is 
more marked (597, d'). Our (aw, ahw, 
QU) must be considered as delabialisa- 
tions of (ow, ou). The second element 
is rather (u) tban (u), and may be even 
(o u ). Mr. Sweet analyses his own 
diphthong as (aoao'o) or (aoao"hw). The 
great variety of forms which tbis diph- 
thong consequently assumes, renders 
it difficult to fix upon any one form as 
the most usual. But as a general rule, 
the 'rounded' or labialised first element 
is thought provincial, and the broader 
(aw, du) seem eschewed, the narrower 
(ahw, Q'U) or (ao'w) finding most favour. 
The first element is, I think, generally 
very short, the diphthong very close 
(1151, i), and the second element 
lengthened at pleasure. Mr. Sweet, 
however, lengthens the first element. 

(z, zs). See No. 12, (zs). 

(y, e). The unaccented vowels 
will be considered hereafter. 

(naVzezs). The initial (H) 
has been already considered (1030, '). 
I pronounce it generally by commencing 
the following vowel with a jerk, not 
intentionally accompanied by flatus. 
There is therefore no glide from (H) to 
(a'w). The glide from (a) to (u) is 
very short and rapidly diminished in 
force. The glide thence on to (z) is 
short and weak. The (z) is not pro- 
longed, but treated almost as an initial 
in zeal, and hence has a very short buzz. 
The first syllable practically ends at 
the end of the glide from (u) and does 
not encroach on the buzz of (z) at all. 
It is possible, and perhaps usual, to 
distinguish in pronunciation the verb 
and substantive in : 'he houses them in 
houses. 9 In the first the glide on (z) is 
distinct, and all the buzz of (z) seems 
to belong to the first syllable, the 
glide on to the following vowel being 
reserved for the second. The difference 
may be indicated thus, the slur dividing 
the syllables, which have no pause 
between them : 


21. DOG, (dog). 

(d, g). For the distinction 
between these sounds and (t, k) see 
No. 9, (b). For the position of the 
tongue in (t, k) see (1095, d'. 1105, d'}. 

(o). See No. 10, (o, A). To 
lengthen (o) in this particular word 
is American, Cockney, or drawling 
(doog, dAAg). 

(dog). It is instructive to 
compare dock, dog (dok 1 , dog'), pro- 
nounced with very short and very 
long glides, and consonants, as 
(d<o>kjk<'h, d<o>gg<'h) and 
(d<o>k", do<o>gi'), where (t) is 
used to indicate extreme brevity. The 
'foreign ' effect of the latter will become 
evident. See (1145. c"). 





(m). See No. 15, (m). 
(a, a). See No. 1, (a, a). 

(q, qh). See No. 13,(q), and 
also generally (1140, d'}. 

(t). See No. 6, (t). As to 
the influence of the removal of accent, 
see hereafter. 

The voice begins 
nasal, and continues very briefly through 
(m), but the nasality is not dropped as 
long as the (m) -position is held, else 
we should get (mbaq) which is a South 
African initial, and almost inconceivable 
to an Englishman. The vowel (a) 
must not be nasalised at all, though 
lying between two nasals (m) and (q). 
The nasalisation and the voice are 
dropped at the same moment in pass- 
ing from (q) to (k), without altering 
the position of the tongue, but the 
retraction of the uvula causes a glide 
which will be heard distinctly on 
saying (maqq, maqki) sharply. The 
latter ends almost metallically. The 
syllable divides at the end of this glide, 
which, in ordinary speech, is followed 
by the glide of (k) on to (i) without 
sensible interval. We have then 

23. CAGE, Bell's (ke'idzh), 
my (km! N zh x sh). 

(k). See No. 6, (k), There 
is no tendency to (kj-) before the sound 

(ee, ei). See No. 8, (ee). 
(d). See No. 21, (d). 
. (zh, ,zh). See No. 10, (sh, 

% 8h). 

(^zh^sh). Used only before 
a pause, see (1104, c). 

(dzh). See (1118, d} to (1119, 
c'}. The change from (k) to (t x sh), 
through a palatal vowel, is distinctly 
developed in English (203, d) to (209, *), 
but the change of (g) to (d v zh) is not so 
common, and hardly occurs initially. The 
French eh,j, became (t jsh, d v zh) in Eng- 
lish words, but reason has been assigned 
for supposing the French sounds to have 
been originally (t x sh, d x zh) on (314, c), 
meaning of course ( x t v sh, x d N zh). The 
subsequent recognition of an Italian 
( N sh, x zh), independent of ( x t, v d), on 
(1118, a. 800, b'), and Mr. Goodwin's 
re-discovery (1119, c) of the Indian (kj, 
gj), see (1120, c), renders it of course 
doubtful whether the passage of (k, g) 
Latin, into (sh, zh) French, as in chant, 
gens {(shaA., zhaA), was really through 
(,t x sh, s d x zh) at all. The transition 
may have been simply (k kj kj jh sh ; 
g gj gj j zh), just as (j) or diphthong- 
ising (i-) certainly became (zh) in 
French. It is, then, satisfactory to be 
able to shew a transition from (k, g), 
before palatal vowels, into (t x sh, d v zh) 
at so recent a period and in so short a 
space of time that there is hardly room 
for the interposition of transitional 
forms. Martinique, in the "West Indies, 
was colonized by the French in 1635, 
hence any French upon it cannot be 
older than the xvith or xvnth century. 
To a large emigration from Martinique 
to Trinidad, which was only for a short 
time in possession of the French after 
1696, Mr. J. J. Thomas (a negro of 
pure blood, who speaks English with 
a very pure pronunciation, and is the 
author of The Theory and Practice of 
Creole Grammar, Port of Spain, 1869, 
on sale at Triibner's, London, a most 


23. (d x zh) continued. 

remarkable book, indispensable to all 
students of romance languages) attri- 
butes the introduction of French into 
the (formerly Spanish, and since 1797 
British) Island of Trinidad. Mr. 
Thomas was kind enough to give me 
an oral explanation of the principal 
peculiarities of the sounds in this Creole 
French (25 September, 1873), which is 
by no means merely mispronounced 
French, but rather a romance language 
in the second generation. The ch, j of 
the French remain as (sh, zh), but k, 
g, before palatal vowels, become (t x sh, 
d v zh). I ascertained, not merely by 
listening, but by inquiry, that Mr. 
Thomas really commenced the sound by 
striking his palate with the tip of the 
tongue behind the gums. The follow- 
ing are examples : French cuite, culotte, 
re-culer, quinze, marquer, em-barquer; 
Creole, in Mr. Thomas's orthography, 
cv.uite, cuilotte, cnouler, CKinze,, 
bdcner =(t v shiit,t v slu'lot, t^shub, t v sh<? <4 z, 
maat % sh<?, baat v sb0), where (e f( ) indi- 
cates Mr. Thomas's Creole nasality, 
which sounded to me less than the 
French (^A), and more than the South 
German (e t ). French figure, guepe, 
gueule; Creole^ozV, Gepe, Gole = (frd^zhii, 
d x zhEEp, d,zhool). Observe the short 
(a). For sound of vowels Creole tini 
(tarn) would rhyme with Jinny (frm), 
but the accent is of the French nature. 
Now French c, qu, gu in this position 
were considered by Volney (L' Alfabet 
Europeen applique aux langues Asia- 
tiques, Paris, 1 8 1 9) to be quite palatal, 
apparently (kj, gj), and are distin- 
guished as his 23rd and 24th conso- 
nants from (k, g) his 26th and 27th. 
Whether in his time, and in the older 
xvn th century, the (kj, gj) were dis- 
tinctly pronounced, there is no proof ; 
but this Creole change leads to this 

As I have had occasion to refer to 
this pronunciation, I may remark that 
the old pronunciations of oi occur, (ue) 
in boete doegt toele and (ue) in cloeson 
poe'son poesson ; also that eu (0, 03) falls 
into (*), and u (y) into (i) or (u), as so 
frequently in Germany, and that e muet, 
when not final, is often replaced by 4, i 
as lever, ritou, Fr. lever, retour, indicat- 
ing its probable audibility in the xvnth 
century, because these changes were 
entirely illiterate ; and moreover that 
when the h is pronounced, it is, with 
Mr. Thomas, a distinct (Hh), as hdler = 

23. (d % zh) continued. 

). The letter r seems to have 
suffered most. When not preceding a 
vowel, it is entirely mute. Elsewhere 
Mr. Thomas seemed to make it the 
glottal (i), as in Danish; and just as 
this is sometimes replaced by uvular (r) 
in cases of difficulty, so r seemed to 
become (r) in Creole, especially after a 
and g, when an attempt was made to 
bring it out clearly. Also just as (i, g) 
suggest (0, u) sounds, the r after p, b,f, v, 
seems to Mr. Thomas to be the tense 
labial r (m) of those Englishmen who 
are accused of pronouncing their r as w, 
as distinct from the lax labial r (brh). 
He therefore writes bouave, bouide, 
pouatique, pouix, voue, for Fr. brave, 
bride, pratique, prix, vrai. But it 
seemed to me, when listening to his 
pronunciation, that even here the sound 
was (i), thus (biaev, biid, pnaettk, pii, 
\ie). At any rate this glottality 
would account for all the phenomena. 
Observe (ae), which, as well as (t), 
seemed to be used by Mr. Thomas. It 
is a pity that Mr. Thomas, in reducing 
the Trinidad Creole French patois to 
writing, did not venture to disregard 
etymology, at least to the extent of 
omitting all letters which were not pro- 
nounced. His final mute e has no 
syllabic force even in his verse. The 
final e then had disappeared from pro- 
nunciation before the internal. Of 
course Creole French differs in different 
West Indian Islands. See Contribu- 
tions to Creole Grammar, by Addison 
van Name, Librarian of Yale College, 
Newhaven, U.S., in the Trans, of the 
Amer. Philol. Assn. for 1869-70, where 
an account is given of the varieties in 
Hayti, Martinique, St. Thomas, and 
Louisiana. It appears that in Louisiana 
(t x sh) is also developed as in English 
from a palatal t, as tchire, tchue = Fr. 
tirer, tuer, and that (djzh) is found in 
all the varieties in djole = Fr. gueule. 
There are also Dutch, Spanish, and 
English Creole dialects. 

x sh). The voice is 
put on as the (k) -position is released, 
the glottis being from the first dis- 
posed for voice. The (ee) is, I think, 
seldom run on to (ee'}} in this word. 
The glide on to (d) is short, the buzz 
of (d) is very brief, so that (d v zh) acts 
as an initial, and the voice, as a general 
rule, runs off into ( x sh) almost imme- 


23. (kml v zh x sh) continued. 

diately. Observe the effect of pro- 
longing the voice in caged (k^d^zhd), 
which some seem to call kml^zhjsht'. 

24. AND, Bell's (ahnd), my 

(ah,se). See No. 15,(se). Mr. 
Bell is treating and as an ' unaccented ' 
word, accented he would have written 
(send). The unaccented form will be 
considered presently. 

(n, d). See No. 1, (n). 

(, send). The voice begins with 
a clear glottid (1129, d'}, and is con- 
tinued through (33) with a glide to (n), 
care being taken that nasality does not 
begin too soon, as (,8e-ae,>n-d), or too 
late, as (,se > d-n-d). The passage from 
(n) to (d) simply consists in dropping 
nasality. When the word is emphatic, 
the (n) is specially lengthened, and the 
glide from (ae) to (n) becomes clearer. 

25. BIRD, Bell's (band), 
my (bad). 

(b). See No. 9, (b). 

(aoj, i). For (i) preceded by 
other vowels, see No. 4, (ooa). "What 
is the vowel-sound heard when (a) is 
not preceded by other vowels ? See 
(8, *, e. 197, ). Mr. Bell seems to me 
very theoretical in his distinctions (197, 
c to 198, ). No doubt that in Scot- 
land, the west of England, and probably 
many outlying districts, the sounds in 
word, jowrney, fwrnish, are distinguished 
from those in prefer, earnest, firm. 
Smart says (Principles, art. 35) that 
these distinctions are " delicacies of 
pronunciation which prevail only in the 
more refined classes of society," but 
adds that "in all very common words 
it would be somewhat affected to insist 
on the delicacy referred to." This is 
quite Gill's docli interdum, and indi- 
cates orthoepical fancy. It is easy 
enough to train the organs to make 
a distinction, but it is very difficult to 
determine the resulting vowels. In 
Mr. Bell's table of the relative heights 
of the tongue for the different vowels 
(Visible Speech, p. 74) they appear as 
follows, the left hand having the lowest 

aha Y 

E e \ 

so ah y 

se e i 

ah oh u 

ah 9 i 

oh oh wh 

a3h 03 y 

2o. (90.1, a) continued. 

and the right hand the highest position 
of the tongue, and that position re- 
maining the same for the vowels in 
each column, as the differences of effect 
are produced by other means : 
Primary . I <E a ce 

Wide la a B 

Round. ... | A o u 
Wide round o o u 

Hence in assigning (so) to the ir y er set, 
and (a) to the ur set, he does raise his 
tongue higher for the first. As I say 
(9) for his (u) always, it is natural that 
I should say (a) for his (so) as well, 
that is, in both the er and the ur set of 
sounds. To say (a), or even (OE), as I 
seemed to hear in the west of England, 
is disagreeably deep to my ears. I 
recollect as a child being offended with 
(gaal) or (gaarj), but I have never 
been able satisfactorily to determine 
how this extremely common word girl 
is actually pronounced. Smart writes 
"gw'erl," where "gw" merely means 
(g) and ' indicates that speakers ''suffer 
a slight sound of (i) to intervene, to 
render the junction smooth" (Principles, 
art. 77). As far as I can discover, I say 
(gjaal). I do not feel any motion or 
sound corresponding to (r c ). The 
vulgar (gsel), and affected country 
actor's (gji'hl), seem to confirm this 
absence of (r). But I should write 
(gjal), the (i) shewing an (a) sound 
interrupted, if descried, with a gentle 
trill. I trill a final r so easily and 
readily myself with the tip of the 
tongue, that perhaps in avoiding this 
distinct trill I may run into the con- 
trary extreme in my own speech. Yet 
whenever I hear any approach to a 
trill in others, it sounds strange. 

(d). See No. 21, (d). 

(kid). The voice begins as 
soon as the lips are closed, continues 
through their closure, and glides on to the 
(a) -position, and this vowel ends with 
a short glide on to a short (d). Were 
the glide distinct or the (<1) lengthened, 
we should have (badd). Whether, as I 
speak, the words bird, bud are distin- 
guished otherwise than by the length 
of the glide, or of the (d), I am not 
sure ; but as the short glide and (d) 
indicate a long vowel (1146, b}, the 
effect is that of (baad, bad). The 
distinction is very marked, and no 


25. (bad) continued. 

doubt that it is partly the absence of 
means to indicate long (aa), partly the 
distinction felt between the little marked 
glide on to (d) in bird, and the strongly 
marked glide in bud, and partly the 
permissibility of trilling, that has made 
the use of er, ur so common for (aa), or 
whatever the sound may be in different 
months. Any one of the sounds (be^d, 
baad, baced, baahd, baad) would be 
recognized as an English, though often 
a broad and unpleasant, sound of 
bird. The recognition would not be 
destroyed by inserting a faint trill (j_r). 
But (berd), with short (e) and clear 
trill (r), would be provincial or foreign, 
and (bard) provincial . Such sounds as 
(bee'd, he'd, b<?'d, bi'd) would hardly 
be understood. 

26. CANABY, Bell's (kah- 
nee'T ), my (kunee'-n). 

(k). See No. 6, (k). 
(ah). See No. 24, (ah, a), 
(n). See No. 1, (n). 

(ee). This is the long sound 
of (e), see (1106, <?). It is remarkable 
that though Mr. Bell does not admit 
(e) as the short vowel in accented 
syllables, but always employs (E), yet 
he admits only (ee) as long, and not 
(EE), although we have the vulgar 
American confusion with (aeae). The 
long (ee) never occurs in received Eng- 
lish except before (j) or ('r), but it then 
always replaces (ee). 

('r). On referring to p. 19?", 
it will be seen that where Mr. Bell 
wrote ('r), or, as it would be more 
accurate to transcribe him ('r c ), I had 
written (ar), as in (keneern). But as 
this (a) only indicates the vowel sound, 
an ('), followed optionally by (r), see 
(1099, c), it is clear that (') is quite 
enough when (r) must follow, so that 
(kunee'T/) has the same meaning as 
(keneern) . Observe that whenever in 
course of inflection or apposition a 
vowel follows (j), this last sound be- 
comes ('r), that is, the trill becomes 
necessary instead of optional. Now Mr. 


26. ('r) continued. 
always writes his ' point-glide ' 

(5d on p. 15) when in ordinary spelling 
r does not precede a vowel, but ('r ) 
when a vowel follows. I conclude 
therefore that his 'point glide' is al- 
ways meant for (') or ('h), forming a 
diphthong with the preceding vowel. 
If so, and there was no option of trill- 
ing, I was not quite right in tran- 
scribing it by (j). Mr. Sweet at first 
analyzed this vocal r into (ah), forming 
a diphthong with the preceding element, 
but at present he feels inclined to sub- 
stitute the simple voice glide unrounded, 
this is ('h), as I have done, and also 
Mr. Graham Bell himself (1099, d). 
Cases of this change of (i) into ('r), 
are: fear fearing (fiii fn'-n'q), hair 
hairy (neej Hee'-n), pour pouring (pooi 
poo'-n'q), poor poorer (puuj. pew'-ra). 
In case of (aa), the (') is not inserted ; 
star is (staa), not generally (staa'), but 
sometimes (staar), and starry is (staa-n), 
not (staa'-n), which Avould have a 
drawly effect. Those who cannot say 
(ooi, oo'r-), generally give (AA, AAr-), 
and rarely (AA', AA'r-) ; thus, (pAA, 
pAAT/q). They do not usually dis- 
tinguish draws drawers, but call both 
(drAAzs). For glory we often hear 
(dlAA'ri), even from educated speakers, 
which is certainly much less peculiar 
than (gl00-;n), which, when I heard it 
from the pulpit, completely distracted my 
attention from the matter to the manner. 
The words four, fore, for, would be 
constantly confused by London speakers, 
were not the last usually without force. 
"We often hear before me, for me, for 
instance, pronounced (bifAA'mi, fAmir, 

(*). See No. 6, (i). Here it 
occurs in an open syllable, see (1098, c'}, 
and ' unaccented.' 

(ksnee'r*). The syllables are 
all distinctly separated in speech, but 
by slurs only, thus (k<i3'>n<ee-'h^-n'), 
that is, although the voice is not cut off 
after (t?, 'h), the force diminishes so 
much that there is no appreciable glide 
from (B) to (n) or (*h) to (r). Here 
then we have the rather unusual case 
of syllabication, assumed to be general 
by Bell (Vis. Sp. p. 118), where the 
consonant begins and the vowel ends 
the syllable. 



By accent I mean a prominence invariably given to one or more 
syllables in a word, on all occasions when it is used, unless special 
reasons require attention to be drawn to one of the other syllables. 
By emphasis I mean a prominence given to one or more words in a 
clause, varying with the mood and intention of the speaker. Accent 
is therefore "fixed," and emphasis is "free." The mode in which 
prominence is given may be the same in each, but as accented 
syllables may occur in emphatic words, the effects of emphasis 
must be considered independently of the effects of accent. Modern 
versification is guided by prominence, whether due to accent or 
emphasis. Prominence in English accent is due principally to force, 
occasioning greater loudness of the most vocal parts of a syllable, 
and greater clearness. The non-prominent syllables, commonly 
called unaccented, are usually deficient in force, and in English 
decidedly obscure. Obscurity is, however, no necessary accompani- 
ment of want of force, and not associated with it in all languages. 
The same is true for unemphatic syllables. There are many mono- 
syllables which in English speech are habitually united with one 
another, and with the adjacent words, so as to form temporary new 
words, so far as pronunciation is concerned. It is only our habits 
of writing which lead us to consider them as distinct. In this 
combination they suffer alterations in various ways, but these are 
habitually disregarded in orthography ; and the question of how far 
they should be recognized in any reformation of spelling is at 
present quite unsettled. Most English phonologists have written 
a pada or analysed, and not the real sanhitd or combined, words 
of speech. Mr. Melville Bell forms an exception, but only to a 
moderate extent. Emphasis in English does not consist merely of 
loudness, or of additional loudness. Length, quality, distinctness, 
rapidity, slowness, alterations of pitch, all those varieties of utter- 
ance which habitually indicate feeling in any language, come into 
play. "With these I shall not interfere. The various physical 
constituents of accent and emphasis have been considered by me 
elsewhere. 1 Here we have only to consider, to some extent, the 
difference of pronunciation actually due to differences of pro- 
minence, so far as I have been able to note them. 

Mr Melville Bell (Vis. Sp. p. 116) lays down as one of the charac- 
teristics of English "the comparatively indefinite sounds of unaccented 
vowels," and explains this (ib. p. 117) as follows : " The difference 
between unaccented and accented vowels in colloquial pronunciation 
is one not merely of stress [force, loudness], but, in general, of 
quality also." This should mean that there are different series 
of vowel-sounds in accented and unaccented syllables. "The fol- 
lowing are the tendencies of unaccented vowels," meaning, I 
believe, the tendencies of the speaker to alter the quality of a vowel 
as he removes force from it. The speaker thinks that he leaves the 
vowel unaltered, and the remission of force induces him involun- 

1 Transactions of the Philological Society for 1873-4, pp. 113-164. 


tarily to replace it by another vowel. In our usual orthography, 
the letter generally remains, and hence we are led to say confusedly 
that the vowel itself alters. We are in the habit of considering two 
different sounds to be the same vowel when they are commonly 
represented by the same sign. Possibly at one time there was a 
clear pronunciation given to these vowels, similar to that given to 
vowels having the same written form in accented syllables. "We 
have no proof of this, for writers may from the first have contented 
themselves with approximative signs in the unaccented syllables. 
This is in fact most probable in English, to which language alone 
the present remarks refer, every language having its own peculiar 
mode of treating such syllables. Mr. Bell proceeds to describe these 
'tendencies' as follows : for the technical language, see (13, 5). 

"I. From Long to Short. II. From Primary to Wide. III. 
From Low and Mid to Mid and High. IT. From Back and Front 
to Mixed. Y. From ' Bound ' (Labio-Lingual) to Simple Lingual.. 
VI. From Diphthongs to single intermediate sounds. The 2nd, 
3rd, and 4th tendencies combined, affect all vowels in unaccented 
syllables, and give a general sameness to thin sounds. The ' High- 
Mixed Wide ' vowel (y) is the one to which these tendencies point 
as the prevailing unaccentual sound. 1 

"The next in frequency are: the 'high-back-wide' (B), which 
takes the place of the ' mid-back ' vowels (a, a) ; the ' high-front- 
wide ' ('), which takes the place of the ' front ' (i, e'i) ; the * mid- 
front-wide' (e), which takes the place of (E); and the 'mid-mixed- 
wide ' (ah), which takes the place of (SB). Greater precision is 
rarely heard, even from careful speakers; but among the vulgar 
the sound (y) almost represents the vowel-gamut in unaccented 

" The 5th tendency is illustrated in the vulgar pronunciation of 
unaccented o (in borough, pronounce, geology, philosophy, etc.) as 
(a) instead of (o) ; and the (a) constantly tends forwards and up- 
wards to (9, ah, 13) and (y). 

" The 6th tendency is illustrated in the vulgar pronunciation of 
the pronouns I and our (a, aj) ; in the change of my (mai) into (my) 
or (mt), when unemphatic ; in the regular pronunciation of the 
terminations -our, -ous (si, as); in the change of the diphthong day 
(de'i) into (de, cU', dy) in Monday, etc. 

"The possibility of alphabetically expressing such fluctuations of 
sound is a new fact in the history of writing. In ordinary ' Visible 
Speech ' printing a standard of pronunciation must, of course, be 
adopted. Custom is the lawgiver, but the habits of the vulgar are 
not to be reflected in such a standard. The principle may be safely 
laid down that the less difference a speaker makes between accented 
and unaccented syllables save in quantity the better is his 

From this last principle I dissent altogether. Any attempt to 
pronounce in accordance with it would be against English usage, 
and would be considered pedantic, affected, or ' strange,' in even 

1 See Buchanan's use of (t) in many unaccented syllables, supra pp. 1053-4, 


the best educated society. Mr. Bell ends by referring to a table, 
which, he says, "exhibits the extent to which distinctive sounds 
for unaccented vowels may be written in accordance with educated 
usage." This table (Yis. Sp. p. 110) says that the following sounds 
" occur only in unaccented syllables, and in colloquial speech." 

(B) in -tion, -tious, -er 
(y) in the, -es 
(wh) in -ure, -ful 

(oh) in -or, -ward 
(''hw} in now, out 
(1*0) in our 

(oh) in -ory 

Mr. Bell accordingly consistently carries out these ' tendencies ' 
in his Yisible Speech examples. I regret to say that I consider 
them principally theoretical, and that they differ both from my own 
use and my own observations. Historically of course his 6th 
tendency, as illustrated, is founded on a mistake, quite parallel to 
that which declares a to become an before a vowel, instead of an to 
have become a before a consonant. It is not the diphthong which 
has in these cases degenerated into a vowel, but the vowel which in 
accented syllables has developed into a diphthong. But so unfixed 
are the habits of our pronunciation, that almost any utterance of 
unaccented syllables would be intelligible ; and so dreadfully afraid 
are many speakers of being classed among the 'vulgar' (whom Mr. 
Bell and most orthoepists condemn, but who, as the Latin vulgus 
implies, form the staple of speakers), that they become so * careful ' 
as almost to create a spoken as well as a written 'literary language,' 
which is altogether artificial. 

To analyse our unaccented sounds is extremely difficult. They 
are so fleeting and obscure, and so apt, when we attempt to hold 
them, to alter in character, by involuntary muscular action of the 
speaker, that even when the observer is the speaker himself, no im- 
plicit reliance can be placed on his results. A word dislocated from 
its context is like a fish out of water, or a flower in an herbarium. 
In the introduction to the third part of this book (subsequently 
enlarged and distributed), I proposed certain lists of words con- 
taining unaccented syllables, in some faint hope of getting a few 
answers respecting them. I have received none. I shall therefore 
endeavour to answer them myself, so far, and so far only, as I 
believe I do actually pronounce in unaccented speech. Before 
doing so, I beg to call attention to my radical difference from Mr. 
Bell in using (e, a) for his (E, a) ; to my omission of the permissive 
trill in (i) and consequent substitution of (a, 13, 'h,'), together 
with my use of a trilled (r) before vowels in place of his un- 
trilled (r ), see (1098, be)-, to my use of the simple jerk (H) in 
place of (nh, H|h, jh) ; and to my utter disregard for all con- 
ventionalities in this attempted photograph. As to the symbol 
(^) I do not feel quite sure whether it exactly represents my 
sound, which however I think is not quite (a). As a general 
rule, when (a) is written, it is supposed to glide on distinctly to the 
following consonant. "When (B) is used, this is not the case. 
Hence, in closed syllables, (ra) has the effect of a long unaccented 
vowel (aa), and (a) of a short unaccented vowel. Consequently (B) 

CHAP. XL 6 1. 



answers to the sound which English and American humorists write 
either a or er unaccented, in an open syllable ; and (a) to what they 
write u in a closed syllable. The exact analysis of the sounds is 
extremely difficult. The English sound meant is not French e mute, 
nor is it Icelandic u final, both of which appear to me as (0). But 
I seem to hear it in the German e final as usually pronounced, when 
it is not pedantically or locally replaced by (e). And it is probably 
the same sound as was represented by final e in Old English, (119, 
c'. 318, a. 678, #). To those who, like Mr. Murray, use (a) in ac- 
cented syllables, the unaccented sound becomes (a). When, however, 
as in my own case, the accented sound is already (9), the unac- 
cented decidedly differs from it, and this difference I represent, 
with considerable hesitation, by (ra). This hesitation arises from my 
not being satisfactorily conscious of the rising of the back of the 
tongue in passing from (a) to (B), as in (ba'te) better, and hence the 
uneasy sense that after all the difference may be merely one of mode 
of synthesis, dependent on the nature and length of glides. See 
(1145, <?') 

I. Terminations involving K, Z/, M, N. 

-and, husband brigand headland 
midland (na'zbend brrgend He'dlend 
mrdlend). I doubt as to (en), or ('n), 
but feel that there is some gliding and 
very obscure vocality before (n). Some 
'careful speakers' might venture on 
(send) in the last three words, none 
would do so in the first, ags. husbonda ; 
and yet I think the second vowel differs 
from the first, and that we do not 
say (na-zband). The final (d) of this 
word is constantly omitted before a 
following consonant, as (mai Ha'zben 

-end, dividend legend (drvuh/nd 
le'dzhend). Both foreign words. The 
first from speakers not much used to it, 
like the second, ends in (-end), those 
much used to it say (-tnd), some may 
say (-end), but I think the intermediate 
(-ynd) more usual. The second, being 
a ' book word,' has quite an artificial 

-ond, diamond almond (daY-mmid 
aa'mend). Possibly some say (da're- 
inend), many say (da'rnrend), or even 

-und, rubicund jocund (ruu'bikand 
dzho-kand). Here (an) is distinct, 
simply because the words are unusual. 

-ard, haggard niggard sluggard 
renard leopard (nas-ged nrged sla'ged 
re'ned le-ped). Possibly (-aod, eoood) 
may be the real sound. Of course 
(-er d) might be used, but would prob- 
ably not be recognized, and also (-'rd). 
But (Ha3'gae'd, Hargaerd) would be 

ridiculous. The glide on to the (d) is 
short, and hence the preceding vowel 
has a long effect. Thus (nrged) is 
more like (nrgaad) than (nrgadd). 
This supplies the lost r. 

-erd, halberd shepherd (nse'lbed, 
-bet, she'ped). The aspiration entirely 
falls away in the second word: 

-ance, guidance dependance abund- 
ance clearance temperance ignorance 
resistance (ga'rdens de'pe-ndens eba-nd- 
ns klzV'rens te mperens rgnerens 
mrstens). The termination is some- 
times affectedly called (-sens), but this 
sound is more often used for clearness 
in public speaking, and it appeals to 
the hearer's knowledge of spelling. 
The first word has very frequently (gj), 
even from young speakers. The (d/-, 
n-, -) belong to III. Some 'careful 
speakers ' will say (r gnorsens) ! Observe 
that (a>ns), considered as the historical 
English representative of Latin -antia, 
would be erroneous in the second and 
last words, and have no meaning in the 
first and fourth. ' Etymological ' pro- 
nunciation is all pedantry in English, 
quite a figment of orthoepists. 

-ence, licence confidence dependence 
patience (la'rsens ko-nfzdens dpe-n- 
dens parinvns). This termination is 
absolutely undistinguishable from the 
last, except in the brains of orthoepists. 
Some ' careful speakers,' however, will 
give (-ens), some ' vulgar ' speakers go 
in for (-ms), and some nondescripts 
hover into (-,j/ns). 

-some, meddlesome irksome quarrel- 



CHAP. XI. 5 1. 

some {tne'd'lsBin ee-ksmn 
The hiss of the (s) takes UD so much of 
the syllable that the (-Bin) is more than 
usually indistinct and difficult to deter- 
mine, hut I do not hear quite (sam). 
Some will say (kwo-relsam), when they 
think of it. 

-sure, pleasure measure leisure 
closure fissure (ple'zhra me-zhu le'zhe 
klco'zhe frsht?). Some say (lirzh&). 
Before a following vowel (r) is retained, 
as (din ple-zlrerev me'zhur/q frshezs). 
The spelling (-ure) has produced (-u 1 ., 
-iihx, -iw'). They are all pseud- ortho- 

-ture, creature furniture vulture 
venture. My own (-tin, krii't/w' 
fee'm'tm' va'ltzw 1 ve-ntm') with (r) 
retained when a vowel follows, is, I 
fear, pedantically abnormal, although 
I habitually say so, and (krirt v she, 
fee-m']t v shi3 va'l;t N slre ve-ujt^slvB) are 
the usual sounds. Verdure verger are 
usually both called (vaa'd^zhB). 

-al, cymbal radical logical cynical 
metrical poetical local medial lineal 
victuals (srmbt?! ree'dikel 
srmkel me'tn'kel pojetek^l 
mii dejel Irmjel vrtelz). The words 
cymbal symbol are identical in sound. 
Are the pairs of terminations -cal -de, 
and -pal -pie, distinguished, compare 
radical radicle, and principal principle ? 
If not, is -al really (-B!) or merely ('I) ? 
I think that the distinction is sometimes 
made. I think that I make it. But 
this may be pedantic habit. No one 
can think much of how he speaks with- 
out becoming more or less pedantic, I 
fear. I think that generally -cal, -pal, 
are simply (-k'l, -p'l). 

-el, camel pannel apparel (ksD'nvel 
pae'nel 'epffi-rel) . Some may say (sepae 1 - 

-ol, carol wittol (ka&rel wrtel). 
Some say (kse'rol) . The last word being 
obsolete is also often read (wrtol). 

-am, madam quondam Clapham (mar- 
dmn kwo-ndmn Klae-prai). Of late, 
however, shopwomen say (mae-doem) 
very distinctly. I do not recall having 
ever heard (Kl8e*pH8em) either with 
(H, nh) or (33). 

-om, freedom seldom fathom venom 
(frirdem se'ldem fae'dtrem ve'nem). 
Perhaps emphatically (frirdam) may 
be heard, btit I think that the (m) is 
more usually prolonged. 

-an, suburban logician historian 
Christian metropolitan, and the com- 
pounds of man, as woman watchman 

countryman (sijbaa'ben lojdzhr siren 
Bistoo'-rtj'en Krrs;t x slren me:tropa-h'- 
ten, wwnren wo-t x shmtin ka-ntr/niBn). 
No one says (w*msen), but(wo-t,shmaen 
ka-ntrzmaen) may be heard, as the com- 
position is still felt. 

-en, garden children linen woollen 
(gaa-dn tshrldryn h'n'n wwlm). Here 
great arbitrariness prevails. See 
Smart's Principles, art. 114, who 
begins by quoting "Walkers dictum : 
" nothing is so vulgar and childish as 
to hear swivel and heaven with the e 
distinct, and novel and chicken with 
the e suppressed," and then observes, 
" either the remark is a little extrava- 
gant, or our prejudices are grown a 
little more reasonable since it was 
written," and then adding, "still it is 
true that we cannot oppose the polite 
and well-bred in these small matters 
without some detraction from their 
favourable opinion ; and the inquiry 
when we are to suppress the vowel in 
these situations, and when we are not, 
will deserve the best answer it is capa- 
ble of," and he proceeds to examine 
them all. In the mouth of speakers 
who are not readers, the vowel is sup- 
pressed in all words they are in the 
constant habit of using, in the words 
learned out of books the vowel is pre- 
served because written. In "polite " and 
"well-bred" families, the fear of being 
thought vulgar leads some, (especially 
the ladies who have been at school,) to 
speak differently from non-readers, and 
shew by their pronunciation that shib- 
boleth of education, a knowledge of the 
current orthography of their language 
the rest is all " leather and prunello," 
for who knows it but word-grubbers ? 
and who are they ? are they "polite" 
and " well-bred " ? are they " in so- 
ciety " ? Poor Mopsae ! they are misled 
to be as bad as the Docti inter dum ! 
Affectation and pedantry are on a par 
in language. 

-on, deacon pardon fashion legion 
minion occasion passion vocation men- 
tion question felon (dii-kn paa-dn 
fae'shen lii'jd^zhmi mrnjen ok^'zhen 
pae -siren vojk<?rshtm me-nstren kwe'stjan 
fe-lan). Mr. Bell draws attention to 
the difference between men shun him 
and mention him, in the quality of the 
vowels (mEn shan, niE-nshra), in Eng. 
Vis. Sp. p. 15. Some, not many, say 
(kwe'shsn), and fewer still say perhaps 
(kwes-shan). In felon I hear clear (an). 

-ern, eastern cavern (ii'stun kae vtm). 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



But if so, what becomes of the dis- 
tinction between eastern Easton ? It 
seems quite lost, unless a speaker exag- 
gerates the words into (ii'staan Irstann). 
Having lived for some years in a set of 
houses called '"Western Villas,' I re- 
member the great difficulty I always 
had in preventing people from writing 
' "Weston Villas,' shewing that western 
Weston were to them the same sounds. 
-ar, vicar cedar vinegar scholar secu- 
lar (vrkfc sii-de vrm'gB skole se-kzu;le). 
To say (-aa) in these words would be 
as disagreeable as in together, which I 
heard Toole the actor in a burlesque 

exaggerate into (tv)g'E-dhaa), the upper 
figures indicating length, see (1131, d). 

-er, robber chamber member render 
(ro'be t v sh<?0'mbe me'mbe re-nde), unless 
a vowel follows, when (r) is added. 

-or, splendor superior tenor error actor 
victor (sple-ndu sa'ujpzV'nj'e te'ne e-re 
fe-kte vrktB). To use (-0, -A) with or 
without (r) is to me quite strange. 

-our, labour neighbour colour favour 
(\ee-~bi3 nee-\3Ts kale ferve). Considering 
that the distinction of spelling in -or, 
-our is quite arbitrary, any correspond- 
ing distinction of sound is out of the 

-ant, pendant sergeant infant quad- 
rant assistant truant (pe'ndent saa'j- 
d v zh^nt rnfent kwa'drent esrstent truu-- 
tmt). Truant is dialectally monosyl- 
labic, as (trAAnt). 

-ent, innocent quiescent president 
(t'nusBnt kwa's'je'SBnt pre-zzdent). I 
can find no difference between this and 
the last. 

-ancy, infancy tenancy constancy (e % n- 
'nmist ko-nstens*'). 

-cncy, decency tendency currency (dii 1 - 
stmsi te'ndmist ka-rensz). The slightly 
rarer occurrence of tendency would lead 
to occasional (te-ndens/). 

-ary, beggary summary granary no- 
tary literary (be'gBrz sa-men grarnm 
noo'tert Irterm'). The last word varies, 
as (Irterert, Irttjreeiri), with a double 

-ery, robbery bribery gunneiy (ro-- 
bert bra'iben' ga'ntjn'), absolutely the 
same as the last. 

-ory, priory cursory victory history 
oratory (pra'ren kaa'sen vrkteri nrs- 
tm o-reten). Some endeavour to say 
(vrktoni Hrstori), and probably succeed 
while they are thinking of it. In the 
last word there is often a slight second- 
ary accent, so that (o-reto:n) or perhaps 

Mr. Bell might say (o*n&fc>h:rj may 
be heard; and similarly (prt)p8e-reto:n), 

-ury, usury luxury (jjiarzlreM la'k- 
shBr^). Such forms as (juu-ztwrt, 
la'ksturt), or even (juu-zhem la-kshwr/), 
are pseud- or thoepic. 

II. Other Terminations. 

-a, sofa idea sirrah (soo'fe 8'ijdii^B 
arre). There is often a difficulty in 
separating idea from /, dear ! (a' du"), 
but in dear (dzT) there should be a 
complete monosyllabic diphthong, in 
idea at most a slur (a't'jdii'^e). The 
last word is often called (sa're). In all 
these terminations the (-e) recalling a 
written -er, and hence the supposed 
vulgarity of adding on an (r), which 
in the -er case really occurs euphonically 
before a following vowel, ' careful 
speakers,' and others when they want 
particularly to call attention to the ab- 
sence of r, will often use (-ah) or (-aa), 
as (soo-fah a'^dii^ah). This is oratori- 
cally permissible (by which I mean, 
that it is not offensive, unintelligible, 
or pedantic), and very convenient 
for giving distinctness. In ordinary 
speech, however, (-B) is universal. 

-o, -ow, -ough : hero stucco potato 
tobacco widow yellow fellow sorrow 
sparrow borough (HU' TO sta'ko Tpotee'j -to 
toboe'ko wrdo je-lo fe'lo so*ro spse-ro 
ba-ro). Here great varieties occur, but 
the usual 'educated' pronunciation is 
(-0) ; in the last word, however, (-B) 
is very common, as (ba*re). I think 
(o) in (HM'TO) is universal; the (B) in 
(sta'kB), the next word, seems to belong 
to journeyman plasterers. In the three 
next the well-known (tee'tu ba3-ke wrde), 
in Ireland (ta3ae'te wrdt), make (-0) 
obligatory among the " polite " and 
" well-bred." But (je-le fel t?) are very 
common in educated speech, and even 
(jffi'le) is heard from older speakers. 
I don't recollect hearing (SOTB), but 
certainly (spa3 - re) may be heard in 

-ue, -ow : value nephew (varliu ne f - 
veu). No educated person says (vae-lt 

-iff, -ock : sheriff bannock haddock 
paddock (she*n'f ba3-nak Ha3-dak pse'- 
dak), with distinct ending in England, 
but all end in simple (-a) in Scotland. 

-ible, -ibility : possible possibility. 
I am used to say (po's/bl po-stbrlzttj, 
but the common custom, I think, is 



CHAP. XI. 6 1. 

-etch, stomach lilach (sta'mak 
laVlak), with distinct (a), hut maniac 

preserves (a 

-acy, -icy : prelacy policy 
po'l/si) are my pronunciation, but 
(po-lm) is, I think, more common. In 
obstinacy (o'bstinest) a slight tendency 
to secondary accentual force and a 
reminiscence of obstinate (o'bstinet) 
often preserves (-ess). 

-ate, [in nouns] laureate frigate fig- 
urate (lAA'rtjetfrt'gitfrgtujret). Usage 
varies. In frigate the commonness of 
the word produces (frrg/t) ; mjigurate, 
its rarity gives (frgm;m?t), but(frgm-et) 
would be its natural sound. In verbs, 
as demonstrate, I usually say (-eel, de 1 - 
nrenstrart). Many persons, perhaps 
most, accentuate (drnio-nstret). I am 
accustomed to talk of the (/-lastm;:ted 
N^uuzs), the newsboys generally shout 
out (Jla-strBt/d Nuuzs), with a tendency 
to drop into (Lrstr't'd). 

-age, village image manage cabbage 
marriage (vrled x zh rmed v zh marned^zh 
kse-bed^hmasT/d^zh). Of course (d v zh v sh) 
is said before the pause. The vowel is 
commonly (i) in all, but I feel a differ- 
ence in marriage carriage. The (i) is 
very common in village cabbage. 

ege, privilege college (prrviltd^zh, 
ko'Kd^zh). Some say (~ed v zh) ; (-iid x zh) 
is never heard. Some say (prrvelzcl^zh), 
apparently to prevent the concurrence 
of (0. 

-ain, -in : certain Latin (saa-tyn 
L&'tm) are, I think, my sounds, but 
(saa'tn Lse'tn) are not uncommon, 
(saa-tm saa'tmi) may occasionally be 
heard. Captain is generally (kse-ptm), 
'carefully' (kse-pten), 'vulgarly' (kse-pn). 
-ing, a singing, a being (is srqz'q, B 
bii-j/q). In educated English pronun- 
ciation the -ing, either of noun or 
participle, is distinct (-zq). Any use of 
(in) or distinction of (-m, -iq) is pro- 
vincial or uneducated. 

-ful, mouthful sorrowful (maVthM 
so'rofwl). Educated speakers rarely 
seem to fall into (so'rBfel). In mouth- 
ful the composition is too evident to 
allow of this, and indeed the word is 
often made (maVthfkl). 

-fy, ~ize : terrify signify civilize 
baptize (ternfaV srgm'faV srve'laVz 
baepta'r z) . The final diphthong is quite 

-it, -id, -ive, -ish : pulpit rabbit rabid 
restive parish (pwlpzt raB'bet rae'bzd 
re-stzv pas-rish). The (t) is quite un- 

-il, evil devil (ii-vl de-vl). ' Careful 
speakers,' especially clergymen, insist 
on (ii-vzl de-v'l), pseud-orthoepically. 

-y^ -ty, -tyi etc. : mercy truly pity 
(maa-si truu-h' prte), with unobscured 
(i). To pronounce (truuiaV) is not 
now customary, even in biblical read- 
ing ; and (truu'la'r shuu'la'r) are mere 
' vulgarities.' 

-mony, harmony matrimony testi- 
mony (Haa-mem m^trimvni te-stt- 
mTsni). The first word bas, perhaps 
invariably, (-nrem). In the other two 
a secondary accent sometimes super- 
venes, and (-nv0:m, -mo:m, -rnohrm, 
-moh:m) may be heard, which occa- 
sionally even amounts to (-moo:nz). 

-most, hindmost utmost bettermost 
foremost (Ha'rndmast a-tmast be ttmiast 
foo'-mast). This is, I think, the regular 
unconscious utterance, but (-moost) is 
occasionally said. The (-mast) is in 
fact a regular degradation of (-most). 

ness, sweetness, etc., (swivtnes). 
The (s) generally saves a vowel from 
degradation, at least with me. Which 
of the three (-nes, -m's, -nys) is most 
common, I do not know. 

-eous, righteous piteous plenteous 
(ra'rtjjas prtyjas ple*nt;jas) are, I 
think, my own 'careful,' i.e. rather 
pedantic, pronunciations. I believe 
that (ra'r;t v shas, prt v shas pt't^sh^es 
prtz'jas, ple'ntzjas ple'njt x shf)as) are 
more common. These are all ortho- 
graphical changelings of uncommon 
words. The first is merely religious 
now-a-days, with a bastard, or rather a 
mistaken, French termination. 

-ious, precious prodigious (pre'shas 
prodr d v zhas) . Never divided into ( - z';as) . 

-ial, -ialty, -iality : oflBcial, partial 
partiality, special specialty speciality 
(ofrshel, paa-sh^l paaish^'h'tt, spe'- 
sh^l spe-shBlt/ spe:shj8e-h'te). All the 
(-ijsel-) are orthographical products. 

-ward, forward backward awkward 
upward downward froward toward 
towards (fAA'wed bsekwed AA'kwed 
a-pwed da'wnw^d froo;-Bd tooj'^d 
too'dzs). An older pronunciation of 
(fo'rd bse-k^d AA-k^d) may be occasion- 
ally heard from educated speakers ; it 
is common among the ' vulgar.' I 
have not noticed the omission of (w) in 
upward downward, or its insertion in 
the rather unusual words froward to- 
ward. The word towards is variously 
called (too'dzs, twwAA'dzs), and even 
(ta'w)"Bdzs), of which the first is most 
usual, the second not uncommon, and 

CHAP. XL $ 1. 



the last very rare from educated 

-wise, likewise sidewise (la'rkwa'j'zs 
sa'rdwa'i'zs), with distinct diphthong. 

-wife, midwife housewife goodwife. 
Here orthographical readers say (mrd- 
wa'zf HaVswa'tf gwidwa'H). Bat 
(mrdi'f ) is more common, and no actor 
would speak otherwise in describing 
Queen Mab, EJ 1, 4, 23 (717, 54). 
The thread-and-needle-case is always 
called a (Haz-ef ), and the word (Ha*zi), 
now spelled hussy, shews the old disuse 
of (w), and similarly (gwdz), now written 

-wick, Greenwich Woolwich Norwich 
Ipswich (Grrmd N zh'WM-ld v zhjN'oTd x zh. 
/ps/d^zh). The last is the local pro- 
nunciation, ( Fpsw^sh) is merely ortho- 
graphical, and similarly I have heard 
the Astronomer Royal say (Grirnwe't^h). 
Living in the place, no doubt (Grrn- 
ed^zh) is an abomination in his ears. 
Railway porters also are apt to 'corrupt' 
names of places orthographically, as 
when they call ITttoxeter (Juuto'ksat'e), 
in place of (a'ksete). 

-eth, speaketh (spii'keth). The ter- 
mination having gone out of use, the 
pronunciation is purely orthographical. 

-?, pitted pitied, added (prtedprtid, 
a3 g ded). The -ed is lost in (d, t), except 
after (t, d). "What the vowel is, seems 
to have been a matter of doubt from 
very early times, -id, -ed constantly 
interchanging in MSS. At present 
(-ed, -id, -yd) are heard. Few make 
the distinction, here given, between 
pitted and pitied. 

-es, -s, -s : princes prince's, churches 
church's, paths path's, cloth's cloths 
clothes, wolves (prt-nsezs, tshaa'tshezs, 
paadhzs paaths, kloths kloths kloodhzs, 
wwlvzs). The vowel in -es is subject to 
the same doubt as that in -ed. In the 
genitive path's, I am accustomed to 
give (-ths), in the plural paths, to give 
(-dhzs). The plural cloths is unfamiliar 
to me, and my pronunciation is ortho- 
graphical. In clothes the th is usually 
omitted, as (kloo'wzs, tloo'wzs). The 
cry (01 tloo) ! for old clothes ! used to be 
very well known in London fifty years 
ago, and is not yet quite extinct ; although 
the familiar long-bearded Jew, with a 
black bag over his shoulder and a Dutch 
clock (really a Schwarzwalder Uhr) 
under his arm, the pendulum separate 
and held in his hand, while one finger 
moved the hammer which struck the 
hour, beating a ringing time to his (01 

tloo ! tloo ! tloo !), has given place to a 
"card" left in an envelope addressed 
" to the mistress of the house," and 
offering to buy "wardrobes" to any 
extent, "for shipment to the colonies" ! 

III. Various Initial Syllables, 
a-, with various following conso- 
nants : among astride alas abuse avert 
advance adapt admire accept affix v. 
announce append alert alcove abyss. 
The utmost variety prevails. "When 
two pronounced consonants follow, as 
in accept advance admire alcove (aekse'pt 
sedvaa-ns sedmaT- aelkoo'v), there is 
generally an unobscured (ae). Other- 
wise the ordinary custom is to pro- 
nounce (a, B), or even ('h) with exces- 
sive brevity and indistinctness, on 
account of the following accent. On 
the other hand, some speakers insist on 
(ah), or even (ae), although for (ae) they 
feel obliged to glide on to the following 
consonant. This is usually done when 
the following consonant is doubled in 
writing, and the pronunciation is then 
orthographical, as in (8enaVns,8epe*nd), 
and in unusual words as (eebrs). But 
(rama-q, [/hma-q, ah;ma - q, aema-q) may 
all be heard. If any one say (e}, as 
(mia'q), it is a pure mistake. 

e-, with various preceding conso- 
nants: elope event emit, beset begin, 
depend debate, despite destroy, precede 
repose. None of these words are of 
Saxon origin, hence varieties of fanciful 
and orthographical pronunciations, as 
(e, ii), and the more usual, but unac- 
knowledged (') . In some cases, as decent 
descent dissent, fear of ambiguity will 
lead to (dii-sent diise-nt dtsse-nt), but 
the two last words are usually (dzse-nt). 
In emerge immerge, we have occasionally 
(ii-maa:dzh rmmaa:dzh), but usually 
O'maa -dzh) for both. ^ After (r^the (i) 
is predominant. Simple (e) is often 
(ii) or (i), as (iiloo'p, iive-nt), but (*') 
seems easier for English organs at 
present. Many insist on (bese't, begi-n, 
depe-nd), etc., but this seems to me 
theoretical, though I hear occasionally 
bB-, de-), etc. In despite destroy, the 
s) preserves the (e) in my mouth, and 
'' say (despa'rt destro'r). In eclipse I 
think I usually keep (e) and say 
(ekh'-ps), but cannot be sure of not 
often saying (ejklrps). 

bi-, binocular biennial bilingual. 
Here usage varies. Some insist on 
distinct (ba'O, but others use (bi') when 
the word has become familiar. Thus 



CHAP. XI. 1. 

(baVno'ki'wle) used always to be said, 
but since the binocular microscopes and 
opera glasses have become common, 
(brno-kiwle) is often heard. In bisect 
we hear both (baVse-kt bz'se-kt) often 
from the same mathematical speaker, 
at short intervals. When the accent 
falls on the bi-, we usually have (br), as 
bicycle biparous (brsz'kl bi'peras), but 
occasionally (ba't) remains, as binary 
(ba'rneri) ; compare combine combina- 
tion (komba'rn ko:mbm^-shen). 

di-, direct divide (dire'kt ch'va'rd). 
The last word has always (cU), the first 
has constantly (da'a). The same diver- 
sity exists in this word with divest 
diversion, etc. All these (da's) are 
clearly orthographical. 

o-, pro-, etc. : oblige occasion oppose 
promote produce v. propose (obla'rd v zh 
ok^-zhen opoo-z promoo-t prod/uu-s 
propoo-z) seem to be my pronunciations, 
but (o) is sometimes heard in all, and 
(e) occasionally, as I should be much 
obliged to you if you would occasionally 
promote this proposal, (a'r shedbi 
ma-tshi3bla7:d x zh\shteje i:' - 
zheneli premoo't dh^sprepoo-zel). 

to-, to-morrow together (tunwro 
tuge-dhe). I have been accustomed to 
consider these my pronunciations, but 
suspect that I often fall into (tu-, te-). 

for-, fore- : forbid forgive forego 
foretell (fAbrd fAgrv foo'goo'wr foo'- 
te-11). But the two last have frequently 
simple (fA-). 

IV. TTnemphatic Words. 

These words may become emphatic 
or receive more or less degrees of force, 
causing their sound to vary. They 
have therefore clear forms and obscure 
forms, and these forms are assumed 
pretty much at the pleasure of the 
speaker. The obscurity often amounts 
to absolute suppression of vocality. 
They are here given, in the order of 
frequency of occurrence, according to 
Mr. D. Nasmyth (Practical Linguist, 
English, 1871), who determined this 
order by actual numeration in books of 
exceedingly different character. The 
clear sound is given first, separated by 
a ( ) from the rest. 

and (oend end, en, n, nh), the (d) 
is most frequently omitted before a con- 
sonant, as bread and milk ( bre : denim ik). 
The sound is often so extremely brief 
that it is recognized by instinct rather 
than by hearing. 

the (dhiidh* dhy dhj dh dhe dhe 

dha). Some speakers always say (dht) 
or (dh*/), for it is difficult to determine 
the precise sound. Others use (dlu), 
and even try to keep (dhi, dhii), before 
vowels only. In poetry this (dhi) 
becomes (dhj) or even (dh). Before 
consonants some endeavour to use 
(dhe), but this generally results in 
(dhe) or (dha), and singers are usually 
taught to sing (dhaa), precisely as if 
the word were written ther. 

I (a'). In received speech this word 
does not change in losing force. "Which- 
ever of its various sounds a speaker 
chooses (1100, a'} for his normal pro- 
nunciation is preserved throughout. 

you (juu ju, su t je). The (je) is 
not recognized. After (t, d) the (j) 
often passes into ( x sh, x zh), but this is 
also not recognized. Both are frequently 
heard nevertheless. 

he (nii m H* i t). The (H), which 
includes (HQ, [h), according to the 
speaker's habits, is constantly lost when 
he is enclitic. 

she (shii shi shi sh"i). The last is 
frequent in rapid conversation. 

it (it}. This does not seem to vary, 
except of course as (-t) when convenient, 
but even this is rather ' poetical.' 

we (wii wi wz). The (w) is never 

they (dh&g'j dhe dhe), but not de- 
generating to (dhe). 

have (HS3V nev ev v). The (H, nh, 
|h) is constantly omitted when the 
word is enclitic, and simple (v) occurs 
after a vowel. 

will (wtl wel wl 1). The (1) is 
frequent after a vowel. 

shall (shasl shi shlh). The last 
form is frequent. 

one (wan wen). The degradation 
into (en) is not received. 

to (tun tu tu te). Often extremely 
short. The pronunciation (too) may be 
heard from old people and Americans 
occasionally. The difference between 
to too two is well shewn in such a 
sentence as : I gave two things to two 
men, and he gave two, too, to two, too 
(a'r geev tuu'thirqz tetuu 1 men, enrni'- 
geev tuu-tuu: tetuu'tuu:). 

be (bii bi bi be). The last form is 

there (dhee' dhe), before vowels 
(dhee'r dher dher). 

a (ee'j e ah e) . ' Careful speakers ' 
use (e) or (ah), but these souads are 
quite theoretical; and (e) or (a) is the 
only usual sound. Before a vowel (yen 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



Bn). Before (H), beginning an unac- 
cented syllable, it is now the fashion to 
write a, and I suppose to say (ee) or 
(ee'j), but I always use an, and say (ae:n) 
with a secondary accent, not omitting 
the following (H), but rather gaining 
a fulcrum for its introduction, as an 
historical account, an harangue (ae:n- 
Hi'sto'rikBl BkaVnt, 8e:nirerse-q). 

my (ma'i rm), in myself, my lord, 
always (nu), but otherwise (ma'e) is 
constantly preserved pure, (mi) is Irish. 

his (m'zs, H/Z iz), the (H) commonly 
lost when enclitic. 

our (aV, aVr), preserved pure. 

your (JUH\ JUU'T JB, JBr). Although 
(JB) is not unfrequent, it is not recog- 

her (naa near B Br). The (H) is 
dropped constantly in he his him her. 

their, treated as there. 

of (ov av BV B), the (B) is very 
common before consonants. Several 
old speakers still say (of). 

would (wud w'd d), the last after 

should (shwd sh'd sh'd), the last not 
very unfrequent. 

or (A A. AAr or A Ar B Br), the (r) 
only before a vowel ; the (A) most 
common, but (B) not unfrequent before 
a consonant. Similarly for nor. 

for (fAA fAAr for fA fAr fe fr) 
treated like or, but (fe fur) are very 

that (dhset dhet dh't). The demon- 
strative pronoun is always distinct, the 
subordinating conjunction and relative 
are almost always obscure, as I know 
that that that that man says is not that 
that that one told me (amoo-dh't dhset 
dh'tdhae't maen sez iz-not-dhse-t dh't- 
dha3-twan too'wldmi). 

on (on), preserved clear. 

do (duu-du &u de), the last not so 

Some speakers always preserve (whz'tsh) , 
others always preserve (wt'tsh). 

who (HUU HU HW ), but (u) is 

by (ba't), preserved pure, (bi) is 
hardly in use. 

them (dhem dhym dhBm), the last 
not thought 'elegant.' The (em m) 
forms are due to the old hem, and are 
common enough even from educated 
speakers, but usually disowned. 

me (mii mi mi me), the last is, 
perhaps, Irish, common in (tuu'mB 
from- me wtdlrniB) to me, from me, with 
me, etc. 

were (wee', wee'r, waa, waar we 

with (widh wzth wt), generally 
preserved pure, (with) is heard from 
older speakers. 

into (rntw a'ntuu* intu t'nte), un- 
emphatically neither syllable receives 

can (kaen k'n kn), the last forms 

cannot (kse-not, kaant), kept pure. 

from (from frem), often kept pure. 

as (sezs aez ez z), (BZ) common, (z) 

us (as -BS), both common. 

sir (saa, saar SB), and after yes 
simply (B), as yes sir (JB-SB). 

madam (mse'dem maem mem mini 
mam mem m'm m). After yes and no 
the syllable used by servant girls is (or 
was, for the use is declining) hard to 
seize. No ma'am is not at all (noo'wmi), 
but nearer (nom^m), the first (m) 
being short, and the second intro- 
duced by a kind of internal decrease 
of force, which is scarcely well repre- 
sented by a slur, but I have no sign for 
it, and so to indicate the dissyllabic 
character I write helplessly (nom'm, 
je'sm'm). I have not succeeded in 
uttering the sound except enclitically. 

which (whrtsh wftsh wh'tsh wrtsh). 

ftTumerous other peculiarities of modern pronunciation would 
require careful consideration in a full treatise, which must "be passed 
over at present. The following comparison of Mr. Melville Bell's 
f careful ' system of unaccented vowels and my own ' colloquial ' 
pronunciation will serve to show perhaps the extreme limits of 
1 educated ' pronunciation. Mr. Bell has divided his words in the 
usual way, forming an isolated or pada text. I have grouped mine 
as much as possible into those divisions which the native speaker 
naturally adopts, and which invariably so much puzzle the foreigner 
who has learned only from books. This grouping g^ves therefore 
a combined or sanhitd text. Mr. Bell's specimen is taken from 




pp. 13 and 14 of his 'English. Yisible Speech' (no date, but sub- 
sequent to his larger work, which was published in 1867), as con- 
taining his latest views. In transliterating his symbols I retain (i) 
for his 'point-glide,' or glide from the vowel to his untrilled (r ), 
see (1098, be}. In diphthongs Mr. Bell's 'glides' are represented 
by (i, u) connected with a vowel bearing an acute accent, as (ai, iu). 
Mr. Bell's aspirate is represented by (sh), see (1133, V}. It should 
be remembered that (), g;) are the capitals of (is, a), and (:A, :E) 
of (A, E) ; that () is the primary and (:) the secondary accent, both 
written immediately after the vowel in the accented syllable ; and 
that in connected writing, marks of accent are not distinguished 
from marks of emphasis. In unconnected writing, like Mr. Bell's, 
() prefixed marks emphasis. Mr. Bell does not write the accent 
when it falls on the first syllable of a word, and he writes it in other 
cases before the initial consonant of the accented syllable, according 
to his own s) T llabic theory ; but in this transliteration the usual palaeo- 
type customs are of course followed. Mr. Bell has not always been 
very careful, as it appears to me, in marking quantities, but his quan- 
tities are here carefully reproduced. I have not thought it necessary 
to give the usual spelling, as most of the sentences are very familiar. 



Pro'VBibz, etsE't'erah. 

Ah laidzh de'T -f<0jm. 
Ah fai' T t'-tBmhp'Bid fE'lo. 
Whot ah fiw'T < /es tE-mhpest. 
Ah wai'*r -Hhe'jd twi^vi. 
Ah r i'T *'q sts'bohm do-qhk*. 
Ah glo'Tj/Bs Hh&rvest-tairn. 
Na-mbEiz ahnd o-bdzhekts. 
Ah na'mbBJ ohv prktshwhiz. 

Ko'inz we'its ahnd mE'zhwhiz. 
Dim iz ahn ii'zi bwk tu r iid. 
Pliiz ddunht biit dhy dog. 
Ah pr yt Irtll gduid-fmhtsh. 
Dhy njuu shau'zyz ohv p#.rly- 


Ah psdk ohv pl<?<r'q kfl5jdz. 
Ah kae'ptahl kaind ohv wA'tsh- 

Ah VET V pektiuhr E'sk duld 

WhAt ah mahgnffYsenht piis ohv 

0"uld pr o-vBibz ahnd waiz 


:AA-lw^z thz'qhk bifoi* su spiik. 
Liist sEd suu'nest mE'nded. 

Pro-vibz, etse'tBr^. 

:mp'Bd feio. 
"Who IB fYww's te-mpest'. 

eV'ri'q sto'bim do*qk. 
s Haa'vystta^'i 
im O'bdzheks. 

(prkt/tt'z, prktjhw'zs). 
Ko'^'nz w^e'jts ^nme'zh'BZs. 
Dhrs/z 'enirzfl' bwk tmii'd. 
P-liii*zdo'^nt bii't dh/do-g. 
^ prrtil*:t'l gooV'ldf/:nt x sh. 

z "evpaa-bim/nt. 

ka'rnd^v wo't,shdo:g. 
'^ld na'ws. 




the'qk*, b/foo'vu spiik'. 
Lii'st' sed, suu-nyst' me'ndz/d. 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



Fit God, o-irai dhy Kiq, ahnd 

duu dhaet dhaht iz r ait. 
Maen pr opdu'zyz, bat God dz's- 


Faast baind, faast -faind. 
Weist noht, WAnht noht. 
Lz'v ahnd -Ist bv. 
Ah baed wa.rkmahn kwo*r elz 

wdh nh/z tuulz. 
Fr Endz m niid ai fr Endz mdii'd. 
A'i'dll juuth me'iks nird* e'idzh. 
Ah blaidh nhait me'iks ah bluir- 

im'q fe'is. 
BE-tei ah smAAl fish dhahn ahn 

E*mht dish. 
Baojdz ohv ah fE'dh^i flok iu- 

BE -tea: bi ahloirn dhahn m baed 

WhAt kaanht bi kiwid mast bi 

Bi sldu tu pr o-ims, bat kwk tu 

sEnhs gr duz n AA! 
ka'nhtr ?z. 

Tshij-fwhlnes ahnd gwdnei'tiwhi 
aj dhy oi-nahmenhts ohv 

Konsii-b'q fAAlhts iz bat ae'd^'q 

tu dhem. 
Kohmaa-nd jwisE'lf f jw wwd 

kohmaa-nd a-dh^iz. 
Paojs/vi'-r ahnhs koh'qhk^iz AA! 

Dai-yt kiwiz moj dhahn do'ktoh- 

Dizaoi'v s^ksE's ii JH wud. 

kohmaa'nd it. 

iz dhy waist kaind ohv 

Duu whAt jw AAt, kam whAt 


Waidz ui liivz, diidz aj fr uut. 
Duu dzha'st/s, lav 

Dogz dhaht bajk mdust bait liist. 
Ii'Vfc'1 kohmiunzkei'shBnz koh- 

r a pt gz^d mae'nmz. 
:E*mht< vE'selz me'ik dhy gre'itest 


Fn' God, o:m?dhBkrq, 

dhae'tdhBt/z -re'it. 
Maen prepoo'zyzs, b'tGo'd drs- 


Faast 'baYnd', faast ' 
W^^'stnot, wo'ntnot. 
Lrv, ^nle't' Kv. 


Fre:nz/nnii-d a'fre:nzindii*d. 
3 : d'Lrmrth meksnii: di, ee 


'terB smAA*lf/:sh 


:n dhimmbae'd 

"Whot kaa'ntb* ktWd 

'Bndiww' -d. 
'Bisloo'w tepro-m/s, b'tk^rk 

Ko:mBnse*ns groo'wzm AA 


Konsii'hq fAAlts rzb't 8B'dqte- 

'se'lf, fjuwwd 

koqk^z *AA! di'fi- 
k / elt'zs. 
'rBt kiuu'z moo'*dhBn do'k- 



Duu-whotju *AAt, (duu'wot.shu 

AAt) kam whotm<9'j *. 
Wao'dzst? liivzs, 'dirdzsra fruut. 
Duu d v zha*st/s, lav maa'si, prae'k- 

tia jhumrbt* (jumrht?). 
Dogz dh^tbaa'k -moost, ba'i't liist. 

'mt* ve's^lz 



CHAP. XI. 1, 

Egzaa'mhpll tii'tshyz nidi dhahn 

pr irsept. 
EndE'VRi fohi dhy bEst, ahnd 

pr ovai*d ahga'nhst dhy wajst. 
cE'v'iybohd/z brznes iz ndu'- 

bohd'z brznes. 
Dhy br ai'test lait kaasts dhy 

d&rkest shse'do. 
Dhy f ii ohv God iz dhy bigrn- 

'q ohv wrzdum. 
:AAl ooi'thb' tr E*zhwhjz ai vein 

ahnd flirt/q. 
Gwd waidz kost na'thz'q bat ai 

waith matsh. 
Hhii dhaht grveth tu dhy pwi 

lE'ndeth tu dhy Lojd. 
Hhii da'bllz nh^'z gift shw g^vz 

in taim. 
Hhii nhw sduz br 8e'mbllz mast 

not gdu -bej fwt. 
Hhdup loq difooi'd me'i'keth dhy 

nhait s/k. 
Hhii nhu wAnhts kohntE'nht 

kae-noht faind ahn irzi tshex. 
Hhii dhaht nduz nhmiself -bEst, 

e'stii'mz nhmise If "liist. 
: Hhdup iz gr iifs bEst miuu'Zik. 
If wfl' dw noht s'Bbdiuu* aui 

paa'shBnz dhei wil s^bdiuu* 'as. 
In juuth ahnd str Eqhth th^qhk 

ohv e'idzh ahnd wii knes. 
It iz nE'VBJ tuu le'it tu mEnd. 
If ju wish ah th'q dan, 'gdu ; 

if not, sEnd. 


pr uuv sT^Bs 
Kiip noht noi ka'vyt whAt iz noht 

Jwr dun. 

Lai*'q iz dhy vais ohv ah sle'iv. 
Laoan tu h'v asz ju wwd wish tu 

ME'dll noht w'dh dha3t whetsh 

kohnsaoj-nz ju not. 
Me'ik noht ah dzhEst aht ahn'- 

adh'erz mf ao j mitiz . 
Matsh iz ekspE'kted whei matsh 

iz grvnn. 
ME-m ah tr uu waid iz spdu'kyn 

in dzhEst. 


Egzaa-mp'l tii't,shez moo'-dh^n 

'VB fedh^be'st, ^n preva'rd 

Evr^b^d^z brznys iz noo badez 

Dh^bra'rtyst la'/t kaa'stsdh^ 

daa'kyst' shse-do. 

:AAl oa-thU' tre'zhBzs 

Gwd waodz kAAst na*th'q bate- 

Hii'dh^t grv/th tedh^pw^'* 

le'ndz'th tedhaLAA'd. 
Hii da'b'lzs mzgi'ft nugrvz 

Hii'Hu sooz bra3'mblzs ma-simt 

goo'w bee'*fwt'. 
Hoo'p-lo:qd/faa d m^'k/thdhB 

naat sik'. 
Hii-Hu wonts k-Bnte'nt, kaanet- 

fa'rnd 'enii'ze t^shee'. 
Hii'dh^t noowz .n/mse'lf 'best', 

estii'mzs Hmse-lf 'Hist'. 
Hoo-pz'z griifs best' mnm'zzk'. 
Jfw/duu-not sabdmu* a'w'paB'- 

sh^nzs 'dh^'j* w^lsobdmu "as. 
/njuu'th -enstre-qth thrqk^v 

00'jd^zh 'enwii'knys. 
Jt/zne-vB *tuu leijt tBme'nd. 
/fjuwrsh ^thrq dan, goo'w 

fno - t, 'send. 
D^zho-kmlB slaa'nd^zs oo-f'n 

pruuv su'-r^'as ^nd,zh'Br^z. 
Kii-pnot nAka'vet whot/zno't 

Laan telrv 'Bzjuwwdwrsh teda'V. 

Me'd'lnot wzdhdhaa't wh^ 
k'ensoa-nz ju -not. 

Ma't,sh'z ekspe'ktyd whe'- 

ma'tsh?z grv'n. 
Me-mi3 truu waa*d/z spoo'k'nm 

d zhe'st. 

CHAP. XI. 1. 




aj dhy di'siplm 


Misf A A -t ,shmizs (im'sf A A'tmunzs) 
a' : dhtdr saplin |_ovjhuma3 m niii 

du'VBikamz pa3*shcn 
moi dhahn sarlenhs. 

ti iz dhy 

ma'dhi3r ohv 

oo:vi3ka mzs pae'shim 
hBn sa'rtyns. 
Ntse'Sfti izdhmna 'direr i3vinve*n- 


The Parable of the Prodigal Son, which has been already given 
in Anglo-Saxon p. 534, Icelandic p. 550, Gothic p. 561, and 
Wycliffite English p. 740, is now annexed for comparison, as 
transcribed from Mr. M. Bell's English Visible Speech, p. 10, and 
as rendered by myself. Mr. Bell's is intended to represent a model 
pronunciation, and although the words are disjunct, they are meant 
to be read together, and the unemphatic monosyllables are treated by 
him accordingly, as (ah nhahd ahnd), which, under the emphasis, he 
would write (e'i nhasd a3nd). My pronunciation is such as I should 
employ naturally if I had to read the passage to a large audience. 
The words connected in speech are connected by hyphens, instead of 
being run together as before, and the force is pointed out in each 
group. Mr. Bell had used hyphens to separate the syllables, but 
these are omitted in order not to employ hyphens in different senses in 
the two versions. Accent and emphasis are written as before, see 

LI 168. Mr. Bell's glides are indicated by (ai au i) as before, and 
untrilled (r ) is thus marked. 



11. Ah saortyn ma3n nhahd 
tun sanz : 

12. ahnd dhy jaq'gBr ohv 
dhem ssd tu nhz'z f 
IW'dlmi, gev nw dhy 

ohv gwdz dhaht fAA'leth tu im. 
^End nhi d^'varded an-tw dhem 
Tihiz Ifveq. 

1 3 . ^End not niE-m de'iz aalrf- 
te-i, dhy ja-qgBi san gae'dlraid 
AA! twgE'dlmi, ahnd twk nhYz 
dzha.rm rnhtw ah f<u ka'nhtr , 
ahnd dhei weis-ted nh/z sa'b- 
stahnhs w/dh r ai'^ti?s Irvt'q. 

14. ^nd, when nhi nhahd 
spEnht 'AA!, dhBr ahrou'z ah 
mai-fo' fa3'mm m dhaet lasnd; 
ahnd nhi bisae'n tu bi in WAnht. 


11. ^-saa 'tyn maen 
sanz : 

12. ^n-dh^-ja'qgBr-^v dhym 
sed tM-^'z-faadh^, Faa-dh^, giv- 
im-dhe poo'-sh^n-^v-'gwdz dh^t- 
fAA-leth tw-mii 4 . JEnd ni- 
diva'rded 8'ntu-dhem siz-lrviq. 

13. ^nd-no'tme'md^z aa'fti?, 

ga9*dh^d AA! 

-iz dzhaa-ni 
intu-tj-faa* ka-ntri, ^n-dhee' 
w^'sted-ez sa*bsti3ns wdh- 
ra'rrctas Irvzq. 

14. ^n-whe-n ni-^d-spe'nt 
AA!, dhcr-^roo-z 'B-mai'ti fa3-mm 
in-dha3't laand, isn-m-bigaB-n 



CHAP.XI. 1. 


15. Ahnd nhi wEnht ahnd 
dzho'ind nlumse'lf tu ah si'tizen 
ohv dhaet kanlrtr^', ahnd nhi 
sEnht nh/m i'nhtu Hhz f iildz tu 
f iid swain. 

16. Ahnd 'nhii wwd fein 
nhahv f?'ld nh?z bE'h' w/dh dhy 
nhasks dhaht dhy swain dd iit : 
ahnd ndu msen ge'iv anlrtw 

17. JEnd, when nhi keim tu 
nh/mself, nhi sEd, Hhau mE'm 
nhaiid sao.rvahnh.ts ohv mi 
ftfdrdlraiz nha3v br Ed inaf' ahnd 
tu spei, ahnd ai pET/sh w/dh 

18. A'i w/1 ahr c ai'z ahnd gou 
tu m* fa^'dh^j, aend wfl'l sei 
a'nhtw Hh/m, Fa^'dh^r, ai nhahv 
s/nd ahgE-nhst H!IE vnn, a3nd 
bifoi' dhii, 

19. ahnd aem ndu moi wai dh* 
tu bi kAAld dhai san : me'ik mi 
ahz warn ohv dhai nhaijd 

20. .^End nhi ahr o'u'z, ahnd 
keim tu nh/z faa'dihvi. Eat, 
when nhi WAZ JEt ah gr e'it we'i 
of, H!KZ fea'dh^r SAA nh/m, ahnd 
nhaed kohmpas-sh^n, ahnd r aen, 
ahnd E! ohn nhiz nEk, ahnd 
ki'st nh/m. 

21. Ahnd dhy san SEd a - nhtw 
nh/m, ~Faa'dhvx, ai nhahv smd, 
ahgE-nhst nhE-vnn, aBnd m -dhai 
sait, ahnd 03 m ndu moi *waj'dh 
tu bi kAAld dhai san. 

22. Bat dhy fo^'dh^j SEd tu 
nh'z saoi-vahnhts, Brz'q foith dhy 
bEst rdub, ahnd pwt it on nh/m ; 
asnd put ah r *'q ohn nhe'z nha3nd, 
ahnd shuuz ohn nh/z fiit. 

23. Ahnd br/q Hhrdlrai dhy 
f ae -ted kaaf, ahnd.kel it, ahnd 
lEt as iit ahnd bi me'r*. 

24. FOJ dh/s mai san woz dsd, 
ahnd iz ahlai'v ahgE'n; nhi woz 
los, ahnd iz faund. Ahnd dhe 

n tu bi mET9. 


15. ^n-i-we'nt -en-dzho'rnd 
Hmse*lf tu-B-srtez^n 'Bv-dhae't 
ka*ntr, 'en-i-se'nt-zm t'ntu-tz- 
f iildz tw-fii'd swaYn. 

16. ^n-t-w*d-wn Bv-frldtz- 
be-b' wz'dh-dlrB-HO-sks dhi3t-dh^- 
swarn d?d-ii't:Bn-noo'-ma3n g^'v- 

1 7 . ^)n-when-/-k(9^m tu-srn self, 
nrsed, Heume'niHa'^'d saa'vents 
T3v-im'-faa - dlTBz 'Bv-bre'd-maf "Bn- 
tw-spee'*, 'en-a'r pe'r/sh w/dh- 

18. g;'r-wil uraVz -en-goo- tu- 
mi-faa'dh^r, -Bn-w^l-s^'j ontu- 
nrm, Eaa'dh^r, o''-'Bv-srnd 
-Gge'nst He 

19. 'Bn-t3m.-noo' moo' 
tu bi kAAld dha'^'-sa-n : 



c-gr^^'j't wee - oof, H^z-fa^dh'B 
sAA-Hwn, ^n-naB-d k^mpoesh'B n, 
^n-ra3 4 n, 'en-fel on-^'z-nek, im- 
krst H^'m. 

2 1 . ^n-dh^-sa-n sed antu-iirm, 
Paa-dh^r, a'i-i3v-srnd 'Bge'nst 
He'v'n, 'en-m-dha'r SB' it, im-'em- 
noo* moo' waa'dh* tw-bi-kAAid 

22. Bat-dh^-faa'dhe sed tu-z- 
saa'VBnts, Br?-q foo'th dh^-be'st 
roob, im-pwWt-o-n-Hmi, un-pwt 
-e-rrq on-i'z-Hae'nd, Bn-shuu'z on- 

23. ^n-brrq nrdhi? 
ed kaaf, Bn-krl-it, ^n- 


24. EA-dhrs ma'r-san WBZ- 
ded, -en-^'z-^la'f v Bge-n, nii- 
loo-st, 'Bn-^'z-f^ / wnd. 
bigas n tw-bi-me r*. 



25. Nau Hhflz E'ld^j san woz 
tin. dhy fiild, ahnd, aez nhi ke'im 
ahnd dr uu nai tu dhy nhaus, 
nhi nhaoid miuirztk ahnd 

26. JEnd nhi kAAld wan ohv 
dhy saoj'vahnhts, ahnd aaskt 
whot dhiiz thiqz mEnht. 

27. Ahnd nhi sEd a-nhtw 
Eht'm, Dhai br a'dher iz kam ; 
ahnd dhai ftftf'dlrai shahz k^ld 
dhy fae'ted kaaf, bikAA'z nhi 
aahth r isii'vd Hhm self ahnd 

28. Ahnd nhi woz se-qgr i, 
ahnd wwd noht gdu tin : dhaoi'- 
fohj ke'im nhtz frt*dhBr aut, 
ahnd entr irted Hh^'m. 

29. Ahnd nhii, aa nhsrar q, 
SEd tu Hh^z fa^'dh^i, Lou, dhiiz 
ms'm jiiiz dw ai saoxv dhi, 
nii-dh^j trahnhsgr E'st ai aht E*n 
taim dhai kohmaa'ndmenht : 
ahnd JEt dhdu nE'v^j gei'vest 
mii ah 'kzd, dhaht ai mait meik 
mET t ws'dh mt fr Endz : 

30. bat ahz suun ahz dh/s 
dhai san woz kam, whttsh 
nhahth divaui-d dhai It'vtq 
wtdh h^ii^ts, dhau nhahst ktld 
fohi Hhiim dhy fae'ted 'kaaf. 

31 . Ahnd nhi SEd a'nhtw Hhtim 
San, dhau ait E-VBJ widh mi, 
ahnd 'AA! dhaht ai nhaev iz 

32. 7twoz miit dhaht wi shwd 
meik mET t, ahnd be glaed: 
fohi dh/s dhai br a'dhe.i woz dsd, 
ahnd tiz ahlai-v ahgE-n, aend woz 
lost ahnd iz faund. 

25. ]NVw-z eid^ san wez-in 
dhc-firld, aend'm ^n 
druu naV tw-dhB-na'M's, EKEaa'd 


saa'v^nts, -en-aa'skt whAt dhiiz 
thqz ment. 

Dha'* bra'dher z-ka^m, 'Bn-dha'- 
faa'dh^r ^z-k/ld dhtj-fae % ted kaaf, 
bikAA-z-t Haeth nsii'vd Hwn s^f 

28. ^n-t-wBz ae'qgr/, 
-not goo -tn : dhee' '1 kfon Etz- 
a'wt, 'B 

29. ^n-'nii, aa'ns'Brtq, sed tw- 
t'z-faa'dhB, LooV, dhiiz-me-m 
JM'Z dw-aV-saa'v-dhi, na / t'*dh'B 
traensgre'st ai Bt-e*nt ta'tm dha't- 
k^maa-ndmynt ; -en-je-t dha'w 
ne'VB gwvyst 'mii ^-'ke'd, dh^t 
a^'-ma'et-m^k-me'r* we'dh-m*- 
fre-ndz : 

30. bat BZ-suun-Bz dhts dha't'- 
sa *n wBz-ka'm, whtsh-'eth- 
diva'w'-d dha^'-lrve'q wdh- 
naa'l^ts, dha'w-Bst ktld fA. 'H^'m 
dto-farted -kaaf. 

31. ^n-t-se*d-an tu-Et'm, San, 
dha'w-'t -e'v^-w/dh-me, 'Bn-'AAl 


32. /t-w^z-miit dhut-w^-sh^d- 
m0k-me'rt -en-b^'-glae-d, fA-dhrs 
dha'^' bra'dh^ wez-de'd, en-'z 
^larv Bge'n, ^n-wez-loo'st Bn-tz- 


It is impossible to pass over these specimens of pronunciation 
without comparing them with orthography, in the spirit of the 
remarks in Chap. VI., pp. 606-632. Hence I annex the same 
passage in four different practical orthographies of the xvii th and 
xix th centuries. 



First, after " Barker's Bible," 1611, the date of the Authorized 
Yersion, shewing the orthography in which it was presented to the 
English public. 

The full title of this edition is : moft Excellent | Maieftie. | ANNO DOM. 

nifl* | The I HOLY | BIBLE, [ Con- 1611. | Cum Priuileaio. 

teyning the Old Tefta- | ment, and the Large folio, for placing on reading 

New: | IT Newly tran/lated out of \ desks in churches. _Text in black 

the Originall Tongues : and with (the letter; Chapter headings in Roman 

former Tranflations diligently | com- type. Supplied words (now usually put 

pared and reuised, by his | Maiefties in Italics) not distinguished. Press- 

Speciall Com- | mandement. | IT Ap- mark at British Museum (on llth 

pointed to be read ^n Churches. \ October, 1873, the date is mentioned, 

IF IMPRINTED | at London by as alterations occasionally occur in these 

Robert \ Barker, Printer to the | Kings press-marks) 1276. l, ^ 

Secondly, in "Glossic," the improved form of Glossotype (given 
on pp. 15, 614), which I presented to the Philological Society on 
20 May, 1870, or about a year after Chap. YI. was in type. This 
paper on " Glossic" is printed in the Philological Transactions for 
1870, pp. 89-118, entirely in the Glossic orthography. It is further 
explained and extended on pp. xiii xx of the Notice prefixed to 
the Third Part of the present work, published 13 February, 1871. 
The principal object which I had in view, was the writing the 
pronunciation of all English dialects approximatively by one 
system of spelling founded upon ordinary usages, and for that 
purpose it will possibly be extensively employed by the English 
Dialect Society, which the Rev. "W. "W. Skeat started in May, 
1873. What is required for this purpose is more fully considered 
in 2, No. 5, and is exemplified in 2, No. 10. Glossic was 
further explained before the College of Preceptors (see Educational 
Times for May, 1870), and the Society of Arts (see their Journal 
for 22 April, 1870), as a system by which instruction might be 
advantageously given in teaching children to read, and as a means 
of avoiding the "spelling difficulty," because writing according to 
this system, whatever the pronunciation indicated, would be per- 
fectly legible, without previous instruction, to all who could read 
in our ordinary orthography. This, together with completeness 
and typographical facility, was the aim of the alterations intro- 
duced subsequently to the printing of Chap. YI. 

As at present presented, there are short oo in wood, ou in wowld, o in 

only three glossic groups of letters, uo, woman, and u in put, as suggesting all 

dh, zh, with which a reader is not the four forms, oo, ou, o, u, by a combina- 

familiar, and of these dh, zh, have long tion, uo, which had no other associations 

been used by writers on pronunciation. in English. The glossic combinations 

The first, uo, has been employed for are, then, the Italic letters in : 

Iteet \>ait \>aa caul coal cool 
km't net gnat not nut fuot (for foot} 
^ height foil foul feud /ea way whey hay 

joea bee, toe doe, chest Jest, keep yape, 
fie vie, thin dhen (for then), seal zeal, rush rouzhe (for rouge], 

ring fay, may nay sing 

'peer 'pair soar poor, peerring pairring soarring moorring 
deter deterring, star starry, abhor abhorring. 


The spelling is not perfect, and, for 
convenience, combinations rather than 
separate letters have definite sounds. 
Thus u in nut has one sound, but the 
combinations uo, ou, eu, have no trace 
of this sound. Similarly for h, th, dh, 
sh, zh, ch, the last combination being 
indispensable in English. Also r has 
two senses, according as it comes before 
a vowel or not, and when it follows ee, 
at, oa, oo, it forms the diphthongs in 
peer pair soar poor, and hence must be 
doubled in purring prring scarring 
moon-ing, the first r forming part of the 
combination, and the second the trill, = 
(piT T'q pee' -n'q soo' -rz'q p?w' Tiq) . The 
(j) sounds, as (aa, B) with permissible 
(r) following, are uniformly written er, 
when not before a vowel, the r being 
then untrilled ; but as er before a vowel 
would trill the r, it is necessary to write 
err in this case, thus mng = (e-rq), but 
deterring = (dztaa'rtq). In the case of ar, 
or, I used aar, aur, in the papers cited, 
but I believe it more consonant with 
usual habits to employ the same prin- 
ciple of combinational use, and to write 
star starri abhor abhorring = (staa 
staa-rt sebHAA* sebHAA'nq). This, 
however, has again the very serious 
disadvantage of employing two signs 
ar aa', or or aw, for the same sound 
(aa) or (A A). The whole use of 
r, in any practical system of spell- 
ing, must be a system of compro- 
mises. When the trilled r has to be 
especially noted in unusual places, as in 
Scotch or provincial pronunciation, r' 
must be employed, and this sign may 
be of course always used. The un- 
trilled r should never be used where it 
may not be followed by a trilled r. If 
we write soar, it is implied that 
either (soo') or (soo'r) may be said. 
Hence it may not be used for the pro- 
vincial sound of (soo') or (SOB) = so. 
The obscure unaccented or unemphatic 
syllables present another difficulty. As 
all the (B, 89) sounds, where (ur, aar) 
may be sounded, are sunk into er, I 
think it best to sink all the (B!, Bra, 
en) sounds into el, em, en. But those 
(B) sounds where (r) may not be 
sounded, I write a at present, though u 
would be perhaps better, if it did not 
unfortunately suggest (iu) . Hence the 
provincial (soo', sou) may be written 
soa-a, soa-u, or, without a hyphen, soaa, 
soau, on the principle that when several 
letters come together which might be 
read as different groups, the two first 

must be read together, and not the two- 
last; thus soaa=soa-a, and not so-aa.. 
Or, as is best, soah', the A' indicating 
this sound when forming a diphthong 
with the preceding letter. This h' 
replacing (') forms a very important 
sign in dialectal glossic, and it ought 
really to replace untrilled r in or- 
dinary glossic spelling. But at present 
habits are too fixed for such an in- 

It becomes, therefore, necessary to 
mark accent and emphasis in every 
word. Hence I use () for accent, 
whenever the force does not fall on the 
first syllable, so that the absence of 
such mark indicates the stress on the 
first syllable. This mark is put after a 
vowel when long, after a diphthong (and 
hence after the untrilled r in eer\ etc.), 
and after the first consonant following 
a short vowel. It thus becomes a mark 
of length, and may be inserted in all 
accented syllables when it is important 
to mark the length, as, in dialects, to 
distinguish the short sound of aa, in 
kaat' haad' =(kat Had) and not (kaat 
naad), which would be written kaa-t 
haa'd, and are really the sounds heard 
when kart hard are written with the 
untrilled r ; of course not the sounds 
of kar't, har'd, which = (kaert, nserd). 
In received English the marking of 
quantity is not of much consequence, 
accented ee> ai, aa, an, oa, oo, being 
received as long, and i, e, a, o, u, uo, as 
short; and hence the omission of the 
accent mark is possible. Similarly, 
when el, em, en, are not obscured, write 
el', em', en'. 

Emphatic monosyllables have () pre- 
ceding, as -dhat dhat -dhat man sed, 'too 
too wun, ei 'ei eu. The obscure unem- 
phatic form has not been given, except 
in a, dhi for the articles. How far the use 
of such changing forms is practicable 
in writing cannot be determined at 
present. Phonetic spellers generally 
preserve the clear forms, just as children 
are taught to read ai man and ai dog, 
dhee wuom-an sau dhee, = (ee msen send 
ee dog, dhii wwrnae-n SAA dhii), instead of 
(Bma3'n -ewsdvg, dhuwwrn-Bn sAA-dhi). 
All these points are niceties which the 
rough usage of every-day life would 
neglect, but which the proposer of a 
system of spelling, founded in any 
degree on pronunciation, has to bear in 
mind. As pointed out before (630, be}, 
even extremely different usages would 
not impair legibility. 


Thirdly, Mr. Danby P. Fry has, at my request, furnished me with 
a transcription of the same passage into that improved system of 
English spelling which forms the subject of his paper in the Philo- 
logical Transactions for 1870, pp. 17-88, to which I must refer for 
a detailed account of the principles upon which it is constructed. 
The following abstract has been furnished by Mr. Fry in his own 

Explanatory Notes. 
"Words derived directly from Latin, 
Greek, or Hebrew, rightly follow dhe 
etymological spelling. In such words, 
dhe question iz not az to dhe ortho- 
graphy, hut az to dhe pronunciation. 

Words borrowed from livving tungs 
cum into English in dheir nativ dress, 
and continue to wear it until dhey ar 

In menny English words, in which 
dhe spelling differs from dhe pronun- 
ciation, dhe preliminary question arizes, 
which shuld be altered, dhe spelling 
or dhe pronunciation ? In dhe follow- 
ing specimen dhis question iz raized 
raadher dhan determined. Dhe italics 
suggest it in certain words. Ought not 
dhe correct, which iz stil dhe provincial 
pronunciation to be restored to such 
words az one, two, answer, son? Az to 
dhe laast, compare dhe English widh 
dhe German : 

dhe son der sohn 

dhe sun die sonne. 

Widh respect to aa, menny persons say 
ans'er, dancing, last, insted ov aans'er, 
daancing, laast ; while dhe provincial 
pronunciation ovfaadher iz faidher. 

Dhe digraph dh iz uzed for dhe flat 
sound ov th, az in t hen ; for az th iz 
to t, so iz dh to d; e.g. tin, thin; den, 
dhen. A new letter iz needed for dhe 
sound ov ng in long ; and dhe want ov 
it necessitates dhe clumzy-looking com- 
bination ngg for dhe sound herd in 
longger. Dhe smaul capital u denotes 
dhe short sound ov oo, az in good (gud) ; 
dhe long sound, az in food, being ex- 
pressed by oo. 

Dhe general rule in English spelling, 
dhat a monosyllabel shal not end widh 
a double (or dubbel) consonant, iz made 

universal. Hence, fel, nek, insted ov 
fell, neck. Dhe letter v iz delt widh 
like enny udher consonant; so dhat it 
iz dubbeled where enny udher con- 
sonant wold be dubbeled, andiz allowed 
to end a word, widhout being followed 
by a servile or silent e; az hav, 
hawing; liv, livving. Dhe rules 
which ar followed in vowel-spelling 
wil be obvious on inspection: dhus, 
for exampel, it wil be seen dhat a long 
vowel iz denoted by a digraph, and a 
short vowel by a singul letter, in a 
monosyllabel ; and dhat in an accented 
syllabel, where dhe vowel iz short, dhe 
following consonant iz dubbeled, but 
not where it iz long. An aspirate 
digraph servs dhe same purpose az a 
dubbeled consonant in dhis respect. 
Where, howevver, in dhe present spell- 
ing, dhe servile e iz uzed to denote a 
long vowel, dhat practice iz not altered ; 
az, arize, aroze. 

Dhe flat consonants ar generally in- 
dicated, not only in dh for th (gadher 
for gather], but in v for/ (ov for of), 
and in z for s (az for as; iz for is) ; 
but no variation iz made in inflexions, 
so dhat s remains unaltered in words 
like has, his, years. 

Dhe digraph gh iz retained, when it 
iz not preceded by , az in might ; but 
when it iz preceded by u widh dhe 
sound ov /, ffh iz omitted, and dhe 
present pronunciation iz expressed, az 
in enuf. Generally, etymological silent 
consonants ar retained when dheir 
silence can be determined by "rules ov 

No attempt iz made to denote accent, 
except in dhe instance ov dubbling 
dhe consonant after an accented short 

Fourthly, Mr. E. Jones, whose efforts to improve our orthography 
are mentioned above (p. 590, note 1, and p. 591, note 2), and also 
in my paper on Glossic (Philol. Trans, p. 105, note 3, and text, p. 
106), has been good enough to transcribe the same passage in the 
orthography which he at present recommends. I gladly give in- 
sertion to the following condensed statement of " principles ' 
furnished by himself. 


Analogic Spelling by E. Jones. 

Object. To reduce the difficulties of 
spelling to a minimum, with the least 
possible deviation from the current 

Uses. 1. Immediate. To assist 
children, ignorant adults, and foreigners, 
in learning to read books in the present 
spelling ; and also for writing purposes 
by the same, concurrently with the 
present system. 

2. Ultimate. To supersede, gradu- 
ally, as the public may feel disposed, 
the present spelling. 

Means. Allow books in the Revised 
Spelling to be used in the National 
Schools, which would serve the double 
purpose of being the best means of 
teaching reading to children, and also 
of familiarising the rising generation 
with the appearance of the new spelling, 
in the same manner as the Metric 
System is now exhibited in the National 

General Notes. 

1. It is assumed that the object of 
spelling, or writing, is to express by 
letters, the sounds of words. 

2. In order to disarm prejudice, and 
to facilitate the transition from the new 
spelling to the old in reading, it is desir- 
able to make the difference between the 
one and the other as little as possible. 

3. To do this the following general 
principle will serve as a safe guide. 

Use every letter, and combination of 
letters, in their most common power in 
the present spelling. 

The adoption of this rule settles 
clearly the point as between the retention 
of *c' and 'k' for the hard guttural 
sound. ' C ' in its hard sound occurs about 
twelve times as often as 'k' for the same 
sound, and six times as often as 'k,' 'q,' 
and 'x' together. In the following 
alphabet, therefore, ' k,' ' q,' and ' x 
are rejected, and ' c ' is called cay. 

Again, in a still more decided pro- 
portion, the question as to the use of 
the digraph l 'th," for the hard or the 
flat sound in this and thin, is settled by 
the fact that "th" represents the flat 
sound about twenty times as often as 
the sharp sound. "Th" as in thin is 
indicated by Italics. 

The long ah as in " alms" and u in 
" put" are the only vowels for which no 
provision is made in the common mode 
of representing the vowel-sounds at 
present. These sounds however occur 
very rarely and in very few words, they 
are marked respectively thus: alms = 
&mz, put = put. 

The Alphabet. 

1234 567 
a, a 1 , ai, au, b, c, ch, 
mat, alms, maid, laud, bed, cat, chip, 

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 
d, e, ee, f, g, h, i, ie, 
dog, met, meet, fan, go, hay, pin, pies, 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
j, 1, m, n, ng, o, oe, oi, 
jet, lad, mat, nut, sing, not, foes, oil, 

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
oo, ou, p, r, s, sh, t, 
food, out, pen, run, sit, ship, ten, 

31 32 33 34 35 36 
th, th, u, ue, u, v, 
then, #Mn, tun, hues, bull, van, 

37 38 39 40 

w, y z, zh. 

ward, yard, zeal, vision. 

Note.Ai the end of words y un- 
accented = ', and accented y = ie. Also 
at the end of words ow=ou and aw =au. 
This simple rule obviates the changing 
of thousands of the most common 
words. The little words, ',be,' 'me'; 
' go,' ' no,' etc., are used for the theo- 
retical, bee,' ' mee ' ; * goe,' ' noe.' 

Pronunciation . 

As the pronunciation varies consider- 
ably even among educated people, the 
rule is followed here of inclining to the 
pronunciation indicated by the present 
spelling, and no attempt is made at 
extreme refinements of pronunciation. 
The proportion of words changed in 
spelling, in the example given below, is 
about 1 in 3, or say 30 per cent. 
Children might be taught on this plan 
to read in a few lessons, and the trans- 
ition to the present spelling would be 
very easy. 



BARKER' s BIBLE, 1611. 

11. A certaine man had two 
fonnes : 

12. And the yonger of them 
faid to his father, Father, giue 
me the portion of goods that 
falleth to me. And he diuided 
vnto them his liuing. 

13. And not many dayes after, 
the yonger fonne gathered all 
together, and took his iourney 
into a farre countrey, and there 
wafted his subftance with riot- 
ous liuing. 

14. And when he had fpent 
all, there arofe a mighty famine 
in that land, and he began to be 
in want. 

15. And he went and ioyned 
himfelfe to a citizen of that 
countrey, and he fent him into 
his fields to feed fwine. 

16. And he would faine haue 
filled his belly with the huf kes 
that the fwine did eate : and no 
man gaue vnto him. 

17. And when hee came to 
himfelfe, hee faid, How many 
hired feruants of my fathers 
haue bread ynough and to fpare, 
and I periih with hunger ? 

18. I will arife and goe to my 
father, and will fay vnto him, 
Father, I haue finned againft 
heauen and before thee. 

19. And am no more worthy 
to bee called thy fonne : make 
me as one of thy hired feruants. 

20. And he arofe and came 
to his father. But when hee 
was yet a great way off, his 
father faw him, and had corn- 
pa flion, and ranne, and fell on 
his necke, and killed him. 

21. And the fonne faid vnto 
him, Father, I haue finned 
againft heauen, and in thy light, 
and am no more worthy to be 
called thy fonne. 


11. A serten man had 'too 
sunz : 

12. And dhi yungger ov dhem 
sed too hiz faadher, Faadher, giv 
mee dhi poarshen ov guodz dhat 
fauleth too mee. And hee di- 
vei'ded untoo dhem hiz living. 

13. And not meni daiz aafter, 
dhi yungger sun gadherd aul 
toogedh-er, and tuok hiz jurni 
intoo a far kuntri, and dhair 
waisted hiz substans widh reiutus 

14. And when hee had spent 
aul, dhair aroa'z a meiti famin 
in *dhat land, and hee bigan* too 
bee in wont. 

15. And hee went and joind 
himseif too a sitizen ov 'dhat 
kuntri, and hee sent him intoo 
hiz feeldz too feed swein. 

16. And hee wuod fain hav 
fild hiz beli widh dhi husks dhat 
dhi swein did eet : and noa man 
gaiv untoo him. 

17. And when hee kaim too 
himself, hee sed, Hou meni heird 
servents ov mei faadherz hav 
bred emrf and too spair, and ei 
perish widh hungger ! 

18. Ei wil arei-z, and goa too 
mei faadher, and wil sai untoo 
him, Faadher, ei hav sind agen'st 
hevn and bifoa'r dhee, 

19. And am noa moar werdhi 
too bee kauld dhei sun : maik mee 
az wun ov dhei heird servents. 

20. And hee aroa-z and kaim 
too hiz faadher. But when hee 
woz yet a grait wai of, hiz 
faadher sau him, and had kom- 
pa-shun, and ran, and fel on hiz 
nek, and kist him. 

21. And dhi sun sed untoo 
him, Faadher, ei hav sind age'nst 
hevn, and in dhei seit, and am 
noa moar werdhi too bee kauld 
dhei sun. 



11. And he said, A certain 
man had two sons : 

12. And dhe yungger ov dhem 
said to his faadher, Faadher, giv 
me dhe portion ov guds dhat 
fauleth to me. And he divided 
unto dhem his livving. 

13. And not menny days after 
dhe yungger son gadhered aul 
togedher, and tuk his jurny into 
a far cuntry, and dhere waisted 
his substance widh riotous liv- 

14. And when he had spent 
aul, dhere aroze a mighty fam- 
min in dhat land ; and he began 
to be in want. 

15. And he went and joined 
himself to a cittizen ov dhat 
cuntry; and he sent him into his 
feelds to feed swine. 

16. And he wuld fain hav 
filled his belly widh dhe husks 
dhat dhe swine did eat : and no 
man gave unto him. 

17. And when he came to 
himself, he said, How menny 
hired servants ov my faadher' s 
hav bred enuf and to spare, and 
I perrish widh hungger ! 

18. I wil arize and go to my 
faadher, and wil say unto him, 
Faadher, I hav sinned against 
hevven, and before dhee, 

19. And am no more wordhy 
to be cauled dhy son : make me 
az one ov dhy hired servants. 

20. And he aroze, and came to 
his faadher. But when he waz 
yet a grait way off, his faadher 
saw him, and had compassion, 
and ran, and fel on his nek, 
and kissed him. 

2 1 . And dhe son said unto him, 
Faadher, I hav sinned against 
hevven and in dhy sight, and am 
no more wordhy to be cauled 
dhy son. 

11. And he said, A sertain 
man had too sunz : 

12. And the yunger ov them 
said to hiz father, Father, giv 
me the porshon ov goodz that 
fauletfA to me. And he divieded 
unto them hiz living. 

13. And not meny daiz after 
the yunger sun gatherd aul 
together, and tooc hiz jurny 
into a far cuntry, and thair 
waisted hiz substans with rieotus 

14. And when he had spent 
aul, thair aroez a miety famin in 
that land; and he began to be 
in wont. 

15. And he went and joind 
himself to a sitizen ov that 
cuntry; and he sent him into 
hiz feeldz to feed swien. 

16. And he wud fain hav fild 
hiz bely with the huscs that the 
swien did eet : and no man gaiv 
unto him. 

17. And when he cairn to him- 
self, he said, How meny hierd 
servants ov my father' z hav bred 
enuf and to spair, and I perish 
with hunger ! 

18. I wil a^iez and go to my 
father, and wil say unto him, 
Father, I hav sind against heven 
and befoer thee, 

19. And am no moer wurthy 
to be cauld thy sun : maic me az 
won ov thy hierd servants. 

20. And he aroez, and cairn 
to hiz father. But when he woz 
yet a grait way of, hiz father 
saw him, and had compashon, 
and ran, and fel on hiz nee, and 
cist him. 

21. And the sun said unto 
him, Father, I hav sind against 
heven, and in thy siet, and am 
no moer wurthy to be cauld thy 



22. But the father faid to his 
feruants, Bring foorth the heft 
robe, and put it on him, and put 
a ring on his hand, and ihooes on 
his feet. 

23. And bring hither the 
fatted calfe, and kill it, and let 
vs eate and be merry. 

24. For this my fonne was 
dead, and is aliue againe ; he 
was loft, & is found. And they 
began to be merry. 

25. Now his elder fonne was 
in the field, and as he came and 
drew nigh to the houfe, he heard 
mulicke & dauncing, 

26. And he called one of the 
feruants, and af ked what thefe 
things meant. 

27. And he faid vnto him 
Thy brother is come, and thy 
father hath kiUed the fatted 
calfe, becaufe he hath receiued 
him fafe and found. 

28. And he was angry, and 
would not goe in : therefore 
came his father out, and in- 
treated him. 

29. And he anfwering faid to 
his father, Loe, thefe many 
yeeres doe I ferue thee, neither 
tranfgreffed I at any time thy 
commandement, and yet thou 
neuer gaueft me a kidde, that 
I might make merry with my 
friends : 

30. But as foone as this thy 
fonne was come, which hath 
deuoured thy liuing with har- 
lots, thou haft killed for him the 
fatted calfe. 

31. And he faid vnto him, 
Sonne, thou art euer with mee, 
and all that I haue is thine. 

32. It was meete that wee 
Ihould make merry, and bee 
glad; for this thy brother was 
dead, and is aliue againe; and 
was loft, and is found. 


22. But dhi faadher sed too 
hiz servents, Bring foarth dhi 
best roab, and puot it on him, 
and puot a ring on hiz hand, and 
shooz on hiz feet. 

23. And bring hidher dhi fated 
kaaf, and kil it, and let us eet 
and bee meri. 

24. For dhis mei sun woz ded, 
and iz alerv agen*, hee woz lost, 
and iz found. And dhai bigan* 
too bee meri. 

25. Now hiz elder sun woz in 
dhi feeld, and az hee kaim and 
droo nei too dhi hous, hee herd 
meuzik and daansing. 

26. And hee kauld wun ov 
dhi servents and aaskt whot 
dheez thingz ment. 

27. And hee sed untoo him, 
Dhei brudher iz kum, and dhei 
faadher hath kild dhi fated kaaf, 
bikau'z hee hath risee'vd him 
saif and sound. 

28. And hee woz anggri, and 
wuod not goa in : dhairfoar kaim 
hiz faadher out, and entree 'ted 

29. And hee aanswering sed 
too hiz faadher, Loa dheez meni 
yeerz doo ei serv dhee, neidher 
transgre*st ei at eni teim dhei 
komaa'ndment ; and yet dhou 
never gaivest mee a kid, dhat 
ei meit maik meri widh mei 
frendz : 

30. But az soon az dhis dhei 
sun woz kum, which hath 
divourd dhei living widh haar- 
luts, dhou hast kild for him dhi 
fated kaaf. 

31. And hee sed untoo him, 
Sun, dhou art ever widh mee, 
and aul dhat ei hav iz dhein. 

32. It woz meet dhat wee shuod 
maik meri and bee glad, for dhis 
dhei brudher woz ded, and iz 
alerv agen', and woz lost, and 
iz found. 



22. But dhe faadher said to 
his servants, Bring forth dhe best 
robe, and put it on him ; and put 
a ring on his hand, and shoos on 
his feet : 

23. And bring hidher dhe fat- 
ted caalf, and kil it : and let us 
eat and be merry : 

24. For dhis my son waz ded, 
and iz alive again ; he waz lost, 
and iz found. And dhey began 
to be merry. 

25. Now his elder son waz in 
dhe feeld : and az he came and 
drew nigh to dhe hous, he herd 
music and daansing. 

26. And he cauled one ov dhe 
servants, and aasked what dheze 
things ment. 

27. And he said unto him, 
Dhy brudher iz cum; and dhy 
faadher hath killed dhe fatted 
caalf, because he hath receeved 
him safe and sound. 

28. And he waz anggry, and 
wuld not go in : dherefore came 
his faadher out, and entreated 

29. And he aanswering said to 
his faadher, Lo, dheze menny 
years doo I serv dhee, neidher 
transgressed I at enny time dhy 
commandment : and yet dhow 
newer gavest me a kid, dhat I 
might make merry widh iny 
frends : 

30. But az soon az dhis dhy 
son waz cum, which hath de- 
voured dhy livving widh harlots, 
dhow hast killed for him dhe 
fatted caalf. 

31. And he said unto him, 
Son, dhow art ewer widh me, 
and aul dhat I hav iz dhine. 

32. It waz meet dhat we shuld 
make merry, and be glad : for 
dhis dhy brudher waz ded, and 
iz alive again; and waz lost, and 
iz found. 


22. But the father said to hiz 
servants, Bring for^A the best 
roeb, and put it on him ; and put 
a ring on hiz hand, and shooz on 
hiz feet : 

23 . And bring hither the fated 
caf, and cil it; and let us eet and 
be mery : 

24. For this my sun woz ded, 
and iz aliev again ; he woz lost, 
and iz found. And thay began 
to be mery. 

25. Now hiz elder sun woz in 
the feeld ; and az he cairn and 
drue ny to the hous he herd 
muezic and dansing. 

26. And he cauld won ov the 
servants, and askt whot theez 
thingz ment. 

27. And he said unto him, 
Thy bruther iz cum; and thy 
father ha^A cild the fated caf, 
becauz he haA reseevd him saif 
and sound. 

28. And he woz angry, and 
wud not go in; thairfor cairn hiz 
father out and intreeted him. 

29. And he ansering said to 
hiz father, Lo theez meny yeerz 
doo I serv thee, neether trans- 
grest I at eny tiem thy comand- 
ment ; and yet thou never gaivest 
me a cid, that I miet maic mery 
with my frendz : 

30. But az soon az this thy 
sun woz cum, which haA de- 
vourd thy living with harlots, 
thou hast cild for him the fated 

31. And he said unto him, 
Sun, thou art ever with me, 
and aul that I hav iz thien. 

32. It waz meet that we shud 
maic mery, and be glad : for this 
thy bruther woz ded, and iz 
aliev again : and woz lost, and 
iz found. 


The reader will, I trust, excuse me for preserving in this book a 
record of those early phonetic attempts to which the book itself is 
due. Mr. Isaac Pitman of Bath, the inventor of Phonography, or 
a peculiar kind of English shorthand founded upon phonetic spell- 
ing, in his Phonotypic Journal, for January, 1843, started the notion 
of Phonotypy or Phonetic Printing for general English use. In the 
course of that year my attention was drawn to his attempt, and I 
entered into a correspondence with him, which resulted in the con- 
coction of various schemes of phonetic printing, for which types 
were cast, so that they could be actually used, and specimens were 
printed in the Phonotypic Journal, beginning with January, 1844, 
till by December, 1846, we considered that a practical alphabet 
had been reached. 1 It was in this Journal that I commenced my 
phonetic studies, 2 and for one year, 1848, I conducted it myself, 

1 See supra p. 607. 

2 The following list of the principal 
phonetic essays which I published in 
this Journal will shew the slow and 
painful process by which I acquired 
the knowledge of speech-sounds neces- 
sary for the compilation of the present 
work. They form but a small part of 
the whole work, or even of my whole 
writings on this subject, and the titles 
are merely preserved as indications of 


On the letter R, pp. 5-12. 

On Syllabication and the Indistinct 
Vowel, pp. 33-43. 

Ambiguities of Language, pp. 71-73. 

Unstable Combinations, pp. 74-76. 

"What an Alphabet should be (a trans- 
lated account of Volney's L'Alfabet 
Europeen applique aux Langues Asia- 
tigues, with explanations'), pp. 106-114. 

Phonetic Literature (an account of 
the principal grammars, dictionaries, 
and miscellaneous treatises containing 
more or less extensive essays on 
phonetics and English alphabets ; it is 
very incomplete), pp. 133-144, 322- 

Phonotypic Suggestions, pp. 201-204. 

A Key to Phonotypy or printing by 
sound, pp. 265-279. 

The Alphabet of Nature, part I. 
Analysis of Spoken Sounds, pp. 1-128, 
forming a supplement from June to 
December, 1844. 


The Alphabet of Nature, part II. 
Synthesis of Spoken Sounds, pp. 129- 
157 ; part III. Phonetical Alphabets, 
pp. 158-194, forming a supplement 
from March to June, 1845. 

On the Vowel Notation, pp. 10-19. 

On the Natural Vowel, a paper by 
Mr. Danby P. Fry, (whose present 
views on orthography have just been 
illustrated,) printed phonetically, pp. 
59-62, with remarks by A. J. Ellis, 
pp. 62-66. 

1846 (all printed phonotypically). 

Remarks on the New English Phono- 
typic Alphabet, pp. 4-12. 

On Phonetic Spelling, pp. 124-128. 

Practical Form of Phonotypy. pp. 

The Contrast, Phonotypy v. Hetero- 
typy, pp. 197-206. 

Far, For, Fur, pp. 305-308. 


In May, this year, a vote of those 
interested in phonotypy was taken on 
the Alphabet, and results are given in 
an appendix, between pp. 148 and 149. 

The Principles of English Phonetic 
Spelling considered, pp. 181-207, 277- 
280, including errata. 

1848 (Phonetic Journal). 

Origin and Use of the Phonetic 
Alphabet, pp. 4-31. 

Tarn o* Shanter, printed in phono- 
typy, from the writing of Mr. Laing, 
of Kilmarnock, with glossary, pp. 145- 
152, with remarks on Scotch Pronun- 
ciation by Prof. Gregory, Carstairs 
Douglas, Laing and myself, p. 198, 
227-229, 276-282, being the first 
attempt at a stricter phonetic repre- 
sentation of dialectal pronunciation. 

On Rhyme, pp. 340-345. 

On 1st September, 1848, I published 
my " Essentials of Phonetics. In lieu 
of a Second Edition of the Alphabet 
of Nature." It was printed entirely 
in the 1846 Alphabet. 


under the changed name of the Phonetic Journal. In 1 849 I aban- 
doned it for the weekly phonetic newspaper called the Phonetic 
News, and at the close of that year my health gave way altogether, 
so that for some years I was unable to prosecute any studies, and 
phonetic investigations were peculiarly trying to me. Mr. Pitman, 
however, revived the Journal, and, in various forms, has continued 
its publication to the present day. He became dissatisfied with the 
forms of type to which we had agreed in 1846, and, notwithstanding 
a large amount of literature printed in them, he continued to make 
alterations, with the view of amending. Even in 1873 theoretical 
considerations lead me to suppose that his alphabet may be further 
changed, although Mr. Pitman himself expresses much faith in 
the stability of his present results. 

The following is a comparative view of palaeotype, glossic, the 
1846 and 1873 alphabets, in the order used for 1846, with the 
Parable of the Prodigal Son, shewing in parallel columns the 1846 
and 1873 forms of phonotypy. Mr. Isaac Pitman has kindly lent 
me the types for this purpose. One letter only, that for (dh), which 
appears in the alphabetic key in its 1846 form, has been printed in 
the 1873 form in the specimen, on account of want of the old form 
in stock ; as will be seen by the key, however, the difference is 
very minute. The spelling in the 1846 alphabet precisely follows 
the phonetic orthography of the second edition of the Kew Testa- 
ment which I printed and published in 1849, and exhibits the 
phonetic compromises which I made at that date. The column 
dated 1873 follows Mr. I. Pitman's present system of spelling, and 
has been furnished by himself. 


Key Words 



Pitman and 
Ellis, 1846 


Key Words 



Pitman and 
Ellis, 1846 





8 8 

T, j 
























T t 





G> o 
























J j 

J j 














E e 





G g 









F f 













U u 

~8 TS 





E. d 




U u 





3. d 




t j 










Oi oi 





Z z 




~8 TS 

Ou ou 




Z / 

Z J" 




M n 

u \i 




S. 3 

X 3 























W w 






M m 









N n 











TJ 11 



ALEX. J. ELLIS, 1849. 

11 And he sed, H serten man 
had tta snnz : 

12 And de yugger ov dem sed 
tui hiz fqder, Fqder, giv me de 
perfun ov gudz dat felet tui me. 
And he divided untui dem hiz livig. 

13 And not meni daz qfter, de 
yugger sun gaderd el tuigeder, and 
tuc hiz jurni intui a fqr cuntri, and 
dar wasted hiz substans wid r^utus 
livig . 

14 And hwen he had spent el, 
dar aroz a mjti f amin in ddt land ; 
and he began tui be in wont. 

15 And he went and jemd him- 
self tui a sitiz'n ov ddt cuntri ; and 
he sent him intui hiz f eldz tui fed 

16 And he wud fan hav fild hiz 
beli wid de huscs dat de sw^n did 
et : and no man gav untui him. 

17 And hwen he cam tui himself, 
he sed : Hu meni h^rd servants ov 
mi fqderz hav bred eniif and tui 
spar, and i perij wid hunger ! 

18 tE wil arjz and go tui mi fq- 
der, and wil sa untui him, Fodder, 
i hav sind agenst hev'n and befor 

19 And am no mar wurdi tui be 
celd di sun : mac me az wun ov dj r 


20 And he aroz, and cam tui hiz 
fodder. But hwen he woz yet a 
grat wa of, hiz fqder se him, and 
had compajun, and ran, and fel on 
hiz nee, and cist him. 

21 And de sun sed untui him, 
Fqder, i hav sind agenst hev'n, and 
in di sjt, and am no mor wurdi tui 
be cold di sun. 

22 But de fqder sed tui hiz ser- 
vants, Brig fort de best rob, and 
put it on him ; and piat a rig on 
hiz hand, and Juiz on hiz fet : 

23 And brig hider de fated cqf, 
and cil it ; and let us et, and be 
meri : 

24 Fer dis mi sun woz ded, and 
iz alv agen ; he woz lest, and iz 
fund. And da began tui be meri. 

26 JNu hiz elder sun woz in de 
feld : and az he cam and drui nj, 


11 And hi sed, A serten man 
had tin sunz : 

12 And de yugger ov dem sed 
tu hiz ffider, Ffider, giv mi de 
porfon ov gudz dat folel tu mi. 
And hi divided untu dem hizlivig. 

13 And not meni dez after, de 
yugger sun gaderd ol tugeder, and 
tuk hiz jurni intu a far kuntri, and 
der wested hiz ssbstans wid 

14 And when hi had spent ol, 
der arerz a mjti famin in dat land ; 
and hi began tu bi in wont. 

15 And hi went and joind him- 
self tu a sitizen ov dat k^ntri ; and 
hi sent him intu hiz fildz tu fid 

16 And hi wud fen hav fild hiz 
beli wid de husks dat de sw^n did 
it : and nee man gev 3ntu him. 

17 And when hi kem tu himself, 
hi sed, Hou meni h^rd servants ov 
mj feder'z hav bred enuf and tu 
sper, and j perij wid hugger ! 

18 3) wil arz and gee tu mji fe- 
der, and wil se until him, Ffider, 
j hav sind agenst heven and befer 

19 And am no* merr wurdi tu bi 
kold d[ sun : mek mi az wun ov d 
h^rd servants. 

20 And hi arerz, and kem tu hiz 
feder. But when hi woz yet a 
gret we of, hiz ffider so him, and 
had kompajon, and ran, and fel on 
hiz nek, and kist him. 

21 And de sun sed untu him, 
Ffider, ihav sind agenst heven, and 
in dj sjt, and am nee mtrr wurdi tu 
bi kold di sun. 

22 But de ffider sed tu hiz ser- 
vants, Brig ferrf de best rerb, and 

Eut it on him ; and put a rig on 
iz hand, and Juiz on hiz fit : 

23 And brig hider de fated kfif, 
and kil it ; and let us it, and bi 
meri : 

24 For dis mi sun woz ded, and 
iz aliv agen ; hi woz lost, and iz 
found. And de began tu bi meri. 

25 Nou hiz elder sun woz in de 
fild : and az hi kem and drui n 


ALEX. J. ELLIS, 1849. 

tui de hss, lie herd mizzle and 

26 And he cold wun ov de ser- 
vants, and q,sct hwot dez tigz ment. 

27 And he sed untui him, 3j 
bruder iz cum ; and d[ f q,der hat 
cild de fated cqjE, becez he hat re- 
seVd him saf and s^nd. 

28 And he woz aggri, and wud 
not go in : darf or cam hiz fqder 
"st, and intreted him. 

29 And he q,nserii) sed tin hiz 
f cider, Lo, dez meni yerz dui j serv 
d6, neder transgrest \ at eni t^m dj 
comq,ndment : and yet d*r never 
gavest me a cid, dat j mjt mac meri 
wid mj frendz : 

30 But az sum az dis dj sun woz 
cum, hwiq hat dev^rd djlivii) wid 
hqrluts, ds hast cild fer him de 
fated cctf. 

31 And he sed untui him, Sun, 
ds qrt ever wid me, and el dat i 
hav iz djn. 

32 It woz met dat we Jud mac 
meri, and be glad : fer dis dj 
bruder woz ded, and iz aljv agen ; 
and woz lest, and iz f^nd. 


tu de hous, ha herd mijzik and 

26 And hi kold w^n ov de ser- 
vants, and askt whot diz tfinz ment. 

27 And hi sed -sntu him, elj 
bruder iz k^m, and d[ ffider hal 
kild de fated kuf, bekoz hi hal re- 
sivd him sef and sound. 

28 And hi woz angri, and wud 
not go- in: derfer kem hiz fsder 
out, and intrited him. 

29 And hj anserig sed tu hiz 
ffider, Lee, diz meni yirz dui j serv 
di, n^der transgrest i at eni tjm dj 
komandment : and yet dou never 
gevest mi a kid, dat i m^t mek meri 
wid m^ frendz : 

30 But az sum az dis d^ S3n woz 
k-sm, whiq ha^ devourd dj t livig wid 
harlots, dou hast kild for him de 
fated kfif. 

31 And hi sed -sntu him, S^n, 
dou art ever wid mi, and ol dat j 
hav iz djn. 

32 It woz mit dat wi Jud mek 
meri, and bi glad : for dis di 
brsder woz ded, and iz aljv agen ; 
and woz lost, and iz found. 

Other fancy orthographies, which have not been advocated before 
the Philological Society, or seriously advanced for use, or phonetic 
spellings requiring new letters, are not given. A revision of our 
orthography is probably imminent, but no principles for altering it 
are yet settled. I have already expressed my convictions (p. 631) ; 
but, as shewn by the above specimen of Glossic, I know that the 
phonetic feeling is at present far too small for us to look forward to 
anything like a perfect phonetic representation. We are indeed a 
long way off from being able to give one, as already seen by the 
contrast of the pronunciations given by Mr. Bell and myself, and as 
will appear still more clearly presently. But more than this, we 
are still a long way from having any clear notion of how much 
should or could be practically attempted, if we had a sufficient 
phonetic knowledge to start with. And my personal experience 
goes to shew that very few people of education in this country have 
as yet the remotest conception of what is meant by a style of 
spelling which shall consistently indicate pronunciation. I have 
found many such writers commit the most absurd blunders when 
they attempt an orthography of their own, and shew a wonderful 
incapacity in handling such a simple tool as Glossic. 

Dr. Bonders, writing in a language which has recently reformed 
its orthography, chiefly in a phonetic direction, whose reformed 
orthography, as we have seen (1114, 0), requires curious rules of 


combination thoroughly to understand, justly says: " The know- 
ledge of the mechanism, and nature of speech-sounds preserves them 
for posterity, and is the foundation of a phonetic system of writing, 
which is less adapted for ordinary use, but is of priceless value for 
writing down newly heard languages, and indispensable for compara- 
tive philology." (De kennis van 't mechanisme en den aard der 
spraakklanken bewaart ze voor het nageslacht, en is de grondslag 
eener phonetische schrijfwijs, die voor 't gewone gebruik minder 
doelmatig, maar bij het opschrijven van nieuw gehoorde talen van 
onschatbare waarde envoorvergelijkende taalstudie onontbeerlijk is. 
Concluding words of: De physiologic der Spraakklanken, p. 24). 


The above examples are, however, quite insufficient to shew 
actual differences of usage, as they are confined to two observers, 
the varieties of spelling used by Mr. Fry and Mr. Jones not being 
sufficient to mark varieties of pronunciation, and the phonotypy of 
1849 and 1873 purposely avoiding the points in question. It 
seemed, therefore, necessary to obtain careful transcripts of some 
individualities of pronunciation. General usage is after all only an 
abstraction from concrete usage, and although in phonetic writing, 
such as we have dealt with in preceding chapters, only rude 
approximations were attempted, it is certainly advisable to ascertain 
to some extent the degrees of difference which such approximations 
imply. There are, however, very few persons who are at all 
capable of undertaking such an analysis of their own or other 
person's habits. 

Prof. Haldeman. 

Mr. S. S. Haldeman, of Columbia, Professor of Comparative 
Philology in the University of Pennsylvania, to whom I have been 
so much indebted for Pennsylvania German (supra p. 656) and 
other notes, wrote an essay on phonetics, which obtained a prize 
offered by Sir Walter Trevelyan, 1 and is one of the most important 
works we possess upon the subject which it treats. On p. 127 
Prof. Haldeman gives a transcript of a passage first published by 
myself in a phonetic form, 2 in an extension of the Pitman and Ellis 

1 Analytic Orthography; an Investi- "Die schriftliche und druckliche 
gation of the Sounds of the Voice, and Lautbezeichnung einer Sprache mit, 
their Alphabetic Notation ; including nach Art und Zahl unzulanglichen 
the Mechanism of Speech and its Charakteren, die man daher combiniren 
bearing tipon Etymology, (4to. pp. oder modificiren muss, um nur mit 
148. Philadelphia, Lippincott & Co. ; einiger Genauigkeit und Bequemlich- 
London, Triibner & Co., 1860.) keit das Phonetische derselben graph- 

2 Essentials of Phonetics, p. 104. isch darzustellen, ist von jeher fiir 
It is a translation of a portion of the Vb'lker sowohl als Individuen, die 
preface to the first edition of Pott's Sprachforscher nicht ausgeschlossen, 
Etymologisclie Forschungen (p. viii). eine der nothwendigsten und schwier- 
The following is the original, with the igsten Aufgaben gewesen, die desshalb 
addition of two sentences, which are auch in den wenigsten Fallen glucklich 
not given in the examples : gelb'st ist. Mogen wir daraus lernen, 

CHAP. XL 5 1. 



alphabet just illustrated. But as he has not followed the pronuncia- 
tion there given, it must be considered an independent and extremely 
minute account of his own pronunciation. He has himself kindly 
revised the proof of its present transcription into palaeotype. He 
says, in several passages of his chap, xvi., here for convenience 
thrown together : " Orthoepists blind themselves to the genius and 
tendencies of the language, and represent a jargon which no one 
uses but the child learning to read from divided syllables, who 
turns * li-on ' into lie on ; or the German, who fancies that the first 
syllable of * phantom ' occurs in * elephant,' because they resemble in 
German and French (p. 122). . . Every English word of three or more 
syllables requires the vowel (a, y, a'), 1 or a syllable without a vowel, 
when the structure of the word does not interfere with it, as 
graduate, self -sameness, portmanteau, and the difficulty is to decide 
upon the proper vowel, as in candidate, agitate, elevate, expe- 
dite, avenue, maladiction, for vernacular practice cannot be 
controlled by the consideration that the original was an adverb 
rather than an adjective, unless it can be shown that the adverbial 
form has been preserved in speech, and we think it is not. With 
the spelling we have nothing to do (p. 123). . . . We do not recom- 
mend our own pronunciation, forms like tra-vlr, difrns, instnsz, 
genrl, temprns, dicshnry, 2 being too condensed too Attic, for 

dass die Erfindung der Schrift, die 
grbsste und wichtigste, welche je der 
menschliche Geist gemacht hat, und die, 
seine Krafte in der That fast iiberstei- 
gend, nicht mit Unrecht von ihm haufig 
den Gottern beigelegt wird, eben so gut 
als der complicirt-einfache Organismus 
eines S t a a t e s, nicht das Werk Ein- 
zelner, sondern von Jahrhunderten, 
vielleicht Jahrtausenden sei. Von der 
Abbildung als einem Ganzen, welches 
der Gegenstand fast noch selber 1st, von 
dem blossen Erinnerungszeichen, durch 
das Wort, die Sylbe bis zum Buch- 
staben, was fur eine immer mehr in's 
Feine gehende Analyse ! Der Thauth 
der neueren Zeit, der Tschirokese Sih- 
qua-ja oder mit englischem Naraen 
George Guess wird uus am besten 
sagen kb'nnen, was ein Alphabet 
ernnden und einer Sprache anpassen 

And, as some readers may be slightly 
puzzled with the following elaborate 
phonetic representations, it may be con- 
venient to annex the English translation 
followed in the examples, together with 
the two additional sentences : 

" The written and printed represen- 
tation of the sounds of language, by 
means of characters, which are insuffi- 
cient, both in kind and number, and 
which must, therefore, be combined, or 

modified, if we would give a graphical 
symbolisation of the phonetic elements 
with only some degree of exactness and 
convenience, has been, from all time, 
for nations as well as individuals, lin- 
guistical students not excepted, one of 
the most necessary, and one of the most 
difficult of problems, and has conse- 
quently scarcely ever been happily solved. 
Let this teach us that the invention of 
writing, the greatest and most impor- 
tant invention which the human mind 
has ever made, and which, as it indeed 
almost exceeds its strength, has been 
often and not unjustly attributed to the 
gods, like the organism of a state, at 
once simple and complex, is not the 
work of individuals, but of centuries, 
perhaps of thousands of years. From 
the pictorial representation, as ail 
entirety, which is almost the object 
itself, from the mere memorial sign, 
through the word and the syllable, up 
to the letter, what a continually finer 
analysis ! The Thoth of modern times, 
the Cherokee See-kwah-yah, or to give 
him his English name George Guess, 
can best tell us what it is to invent an 
alphabet and adapt it to a language." 

1 For many of his (a, y) I find I 
rather say (B). 

2 From a MS. insertion by the 


ordinary use, besides being more influenced by the spelling than 
the genius of the language allows. In looking through the Phonetic 
periodicals, whilst preparing this essay, we find that we have been 
ignorant of the name of many public characters. To us there was 
a fictitious Clanricard within two weeks, and whilst we know that 
our two friends ' Mackay ' are respectively (Mak^-) and (Mi3kor), 
we do not know the name of the poet Charles Mackay, though we 
have heard him named (MaB'kf). We mispronounced the proper 
names Tyrwhit, Napier, Hereford, Bowring (a gentleman we have 
more recently met), Keightley (which we had classed with 
Weightman), Ho wick, Moore, Mavor, Latham, Youatt, Lowth, 
Houghton (Hoton, which we classed with Hough or Huf), 'Aurora 
Leigh,' leg? lay? lee? lie ? Once when in Boston, Massachusetts, 
with a fellow-traveller, we wished to see a public building of which 
we had read, named Faneuil Hall, and after discussing what we 
should ask for, we wisely concluded that the natives would not under- 
stand us, or would laugh at our pronunciation so we neither saw 
the building nor learnt its name 1 (p. 123, note). . . Some prefer the 
pronunciation of men of letters, but in the present state of phonetic 
and prosodic knowledge, as exhibited in the great majority of the 
grammars, men of letters constitute the ignorant class, with the 
perversions of French analogies added to their ignorance; and if 
the vulgar corrupt (develop ?) words, they are at least true to the 
vernacular laws. But in comparing a lettered with an illiterate pro- 
nunciation, the two must be of the same locality and dialect, church 
cannot be judged from kirk; and the words must be vernacular, as 
one, two, three; body, head, arm, eye ; land, field, water, fire, house, 
rain, star, sun, moon (p. 124). . . The three different vowels of ooze, 
up, eel, were once given to us by three lettered Cherokees as occur- 
ring in the second syllable (of four) of their word for eight, We 
considered it likely that the wp was correct, although a ' syllabic ' 
writer might have considered it as certainly wrong ; but when we 
asked an unlettered native, he used no vowel whatever in this place, 
and we deemed him correct, and the others perverted by their 
syllabic alphabet, which forces them to write fictitiously, and then 
to speak as they write, instead of doing the reverse. The word was 
('galhh'gwoo'gr) in three syllables, and having Welch II. Similarly, 
if one orthoepist would model seven on the Gothic sibun, another on 
the Anglish 2 syfon, and a third on the old .English seven, or Belgian 
(see-yen) with (e) of end, we would still prefer saying sevn=(sevn) 
with the /nglish" (p. 124). 

1 I am told it is called (fan! HAA!). commonly mispronounced, (Herifid, 
With regard to the preceding names, BaV-raq, HaVtk, Mww', 

as Mackay is certainly pronounced L^th"Bm), so called by Dr. Latham, 

(Mekse'r, Mraka'f, Maka'r), as well as but his family call themselves (Lee'- 

in the three ways mentioned, I cannot dhem), (Ya'wet, La'wdh, HaVtn, 

assign the poet's name, but I have also ^TOO'TB Lii), are, so far as I know, the 

heard it called (Mae'k*). Clanricard, I sounds of these names. Lord Hough- 

generally hear called (Klaennrrrked), of ton's family name Milnes is called 

course, an Anglicism. (Tm't, NVep-jiu) (Mzlz). 

or (N^pi';Br),not(N^piu*),asitis very 2 Ags. seofan, seofen, siofun, syfon. 



The following are the elementary English sounds acknowledged 
by Prof. Haldeman as numbered and symbolised by him (see his 
tables, on his p. 125), with the palaeotypic equivalents here adopted. 
The length of the vowels is not here indicated, and will be described 
hereafter. The symbols being troublesome to reproduce they will 
be referred to by the numbers, with the addition of v, c, 1, for the 
classes of Vowels, Consonants, and Laryngals respectively. 



a orm 







B wp 







A add 



(9, pond, rod) 


e there 








e they 
a buffet 

( ( 






i pity 






i field 







1. v now 



2. v way 


10. 1 


16. r ( L r), 17. t M 

, 18 

. J* (j) 


3 ( J i) 


3. fwAey 



y* (j^h) 


f (jh' 

4. m 


11. n 




5. m" hm 


6. b 

7. fc vein 


12. d 
13. a 


19. a (z) 





8. p 


14. t 




9. f 


15. i 


20. s (s) 



LARYNGALS. 31. h hay (nh) ? 

It is always extremely difficult to identify phonetic symbols 
belonging to different systems, on account of individualities of 
pronunciation. Even when vivd wee comparison is possible, the 
identification is not always complete. Some of the above are 
queried, and to some no symbols are added. I shall therefore sub- 
join Prof. Haldeman' s descriptions of his symbols : 

lv. in arm. " The most character- 
istic of the vowels is that in arm, art, 
father, commonly called Italian A " 
(art. 370). This must be (a), and not 
(ah) or (o). 

2v. in up. " Many languages want 
this vowel, which is so common in 
English as to he regarded as the cha- 
racteristic of the vowels. It has not 
been assigned to Greek, Italian, Spanish, 
nor German, hut it occurs in dialectic 

German It is close (e) in up, 

worth, and open (12) in worm, word, 
urn. The effect of worth is that of a 
short syllable, each element being short, 
(the r close ;) whilst worm is long on 
account of the open and longer r. The 
vowel wp is nasal in the French un ; 
but M. Pantoleon (in Comstock's Phon. 
j.) makes this a nasal eu in jeu, 

and Lepsius refers it to German o. In 
the writer's French pronunciation, wp 
is placed in me, qu, quSrelle, etc., 
according to the view of most French 
grammarians." (Arts. 374-5.) It is 
impossible to say from this whether the 
2v. is (a, a, B, (E, GO, ah), and it may 
be one at one time and one at another. 
The open and close 2v. apparently point 
to (a, a), and the dialectic German is 
(a) or (B). Hence I have queried my 
palaeotypic transcription (a), although 
Prof. Haldeman, in returning the proof 
of the table, doubted the necessity of 
the query. 

3v. in add. "With very little affinity 
to A, this sound usurps its character in 
some alphabets. It is more nearly 
allied to ebb, but not enough to have a 
letter on the same basis, like that of 



Lepsius. The people of Bath, England, 
are said to pronounce the name of the 
town long, and it is strictly long and 
short in Welsh, as in bach a hook, bach 
little. It seems to be lengthened in the 
following words, hut as the author 
speaks this dialect heard in Philadel- 
phia, and used hy "Walker, who puts 
his a 4 of fat in grass, grasp, hranch, 
grant, pass, fast, the proper sound being 
probably French a, as in pass, etc. the 
observation must be accepted with 
caution: pan panic, band banish, fan 
fncy, man tan, can n. can v., bran ran, 
A"nn an A u nna, Sam sample, dam ham, 
dram ram, lamb lamp, bad pad, glad 
lad, bag tag beg, cag wag keg, drag 
dragon, madder adj. madder n., ma'am 
mammon, baa badger, gas gaz gash as, 
lass lash, bread bred, dead Dgdham, 
bed sped. It occurs in provincial 
German, as in bi'ri c (with the vowels 
of barrier) for berg hero, a hill. A 
native of Gerstungen = Gerstur8n, in 
Saxe Weimer, pronounced the first 
syllable of this name with i in arrow. 
Compare thatch deck, catch ketch, have 
hev, scalp scelp ; German and English 
fett fat, krebs crab, fest fast adj., Gr. 
Tpexw I run, track. It has a long and 
open German provincial (Suabian) form, 
being used for long open a (e), as in 
bi'r for bar a bear. This bears the 
same relation to add that French e in 
meme bears to e in memory. This 
vowel is nasalised and short in the 
French Jin end, pain bread. But some 
consider this a nasal of ebb, either 
because such a sound is used (the Polish 
e, ?), or because the French (being 
without the pure add) refer their nasal 
in to the nearest pure sound known to 
them." (Arts. 378-382.) This must 
be (&). The American lengthenings 
are interest ing. There is an American 
Hymn-book, put together by two 
compilers, each having the Christian 
name Samuel. It was familiarly known 
as "the book of Sams." The pun on 
psalms is not felt by an Englishman, 
the lengthening of Sam explains it 

4v. in there. "The vowel of ebb, 
with a more open aperture, is long and 
accented in the Italian medico tempesta 
cielo, and short in the verb 4 is, 
ah-hiSt-to. It is the French e in 
mgme, tete, fenetre, maitre, haie, Aix, 
air, vaisseau. The same sound seems 
to occur shorter in trompette, which is 
not the vowel of petty. ... It is the 

German a long in mahre mare, 
chen, fehlen, kehle, wahre, but wehre 
has E long. The theoretic short sound 
falls into 5v., as in stalle stalls, com- 
monly pronounced like stelle station" 
(Arts. 388-9.) There seems no doubt 
that this is (E), but it is singular that 
Prof. Haldeman has (E, e), and Mr. 
Bell (e, E) in there *ebb, and I pro- 
nounce (e) in both. It is evident 
therefore that the distinction is not 
recognized as part of the language. 

5v. in ebb. "The secondary vowels 
it ebb, were not allowed to Latin, be- 
cause there is no evidence that they 
were Latin sounds ; and although ebb 
occurs in Spanish, as in el the, este 
this one, it is not so frequent as an 
Englishman might suppose. Even this 
is not admitted in Cubi's 'Nuevo 
Sistema' (of English for Spaniards), 
published by I. Pitman, Bath, 1851, 
where the vowels ill, ell, am, up, olive, 
are not provided with Spanish key- 
words; but he assigns the whole of 
them to Catalonian." (Art. 385.) As I 
had an opportunity of conversing with 
Senor Cubi y Soler, who spoke English 
with a good accent, I know that he did 
not admit any short vowels in Castil- 
lian, and hence he excluded all these, 
and took the Spanish e, which is I 
believe always (e), to be (ee). The 
Castillians pronounce their vowels, I 
believe, of medial length, like the 
Scotch, and neither so short nor so 
long as the English. The Latin E I 
also believe to have been (e), and 
not (e). "The vowel 5v. occurs in 
Italian tempo terra MercuriS." (Art. 
386.) Valentini makes the e aperto 
= (E) in tempo terra, and, of course, 
it is chiuso (e) in the unaccented 
first syllable of Mercurio. "In the 
German rechnung a reckoning, ipelzpelt 
fur, schmeltzen to smelt, rector rector, 
(ibid.) Frenchmen state that 5v. occurs 
in elle, quel, regie." (Art. 387.) In 
none of these can (E, e) be safely sepa- 
rated. I believe Prof. Haldeman means 
4v. to be (EE), and 5v. to be (e), the 
former always long, the latter always 
short. I always used to confuse the 
open French and Italian (E) with my 
(e), and I may have consequently mis- 
led many others. But the only acknow- 
ledged distinctions in language seem to 
be close e, open e, the first (e, e 1 ), the 
second (e lt E), while (e) really hovers 
between the two, and hence where only 
one e is acknowledged, (e) is the safer 


sound to use, as (e, e 1 ) would then be 
heard as bad (i), and (ej, E) as bad (e). 

6v. in they. "The English ay 
in pay, paid, day, weigh, ale, rage, is 
short in weight, hate, acre, A"mos, 
A u bratn, ape, plague, spade. The Ger- 
man weh wo, reh roe, je, planet, meer, 
raehr (more, but miihr tidings has 4v.), 
edel, ehre, jedo'ch. The Italian 'e 
chiuso' has this quality, as in mal 
ottobrg (with *o chiuso' [Valentin! 
agrees in this]), but it is nearly always 
short. Most authors assign this sound 
to French e, called ' e ferae,' but Dr. 
Latham assigns this e a closer aperture, 
for he says, 'This is a sound allied to, 
but different from, the a in fate, and 
the ee in. feet. It is intermediate to the 
two.' Dankovsky says the Hungarian 
' e est medius sonus inter e et i,' but 
his 'e' is uncertain. Olivier (Les Sons 
de la Parole, 1844) makes e identic 
with I in the position of the mouth." 
(Art. 391.) This must be (e). The 
recognition of the short sound in Eng- 
lish is curious, as also the absence of 
the recognition of (ee'j). The middle 
Germans use (ee) long, and (e) or (E) 
short, regularly. The Italian e chiuso 
sounds to me (e), but maybe (e 1 ); it is 
generally the descendant of Latin I. 
The distinction between fate and 6 in 
Dr. Latham is possibly due to his 
saying (fo'jt), not (feet), and to the e 
being short. Mr. Kovacs pronounced 
Hungarian ^ as (ee), and e as (se) in 
accented syllables. Olivier probably 
confused ^ with (i), the short English 
sound which has replaced (e). 

7v. in buffet, and in -ment, -ence. 
"There is an obscure vowel in English, 
having more aperture than that of ill 
and less than that of aiL It is used to 
separate consonants by such an amount 
of vocality as may be secured without 
setting the organs for a particular 
vowel. It is most readily determined 
between surds, and it is often con- 
founded and perhaps interchanged with 
the vowel of up. It occurs in the 
natural pronunciation of the last sylla- 
ble of worded, blended, splendid, sordid, 
livid, ballad, salad, surfeit, buffet, op- 

Cs, doses, roses, losses, misses, poorer, 
or, Christian, onion, and the suf- 
fixes -ment, -ant, -ance, -ent, -ense. 
Perhaps this vowel should be indicated 
by the least mark for the phase of least 
distinctness a dot beneath the letter 
of some recognized vowel of about in 
the same aperture. It is so evanescent 

that it is constantly replaced by a con- 
sonant vocality without attracting at- 
tention, as in saying hors'z, horsz, 
horszs, or (using a faint smooth r) 
hors r z. . . With Eapp we assign this 
vowel to German, as in welches, ver- 
lleren, verlassm (or even frlasn)." (Arts. 
392 to 392c.) This mark therefore 
represents sounds here distinguished as 
(y, V, 'h), and on the whole (/), as used 
by Mr. Bell, seems to answer most 
nearly to it, see especially (1159, *) : 
I have, however, queried the sign, on 
which Prof. Haldeman observes, that 
the query "is hardly necessary. The 
doubts are due to the fact that while 
two varieties are admitted we might 
not always agree in locating them." 

8v. in pity. "It is the German 
vowel of kinn chin, hitzig, billig, will, 
bild; and the initial of the Belgian 
diphthong ieuw (and perhaps in some 

cases the Welsh uw) This vowel 

is commonly confounded with I, but it 
has a more open jaw aperture, white 
each may be lengthened or shortened." 
(Arts. 396, 398.) This is no doubt (i), 
which is heard in the north of Germany y 
but not throughout. Mr. Barnes, 
author of the Dorset Grammar, dis- 
tinguishes the two vowels in pity thus 
(prti), but others prefer (prty), hence 
the identification refers only to the first 

9v. in field. " The universal I is 
long in Italian iS (Lat. EGO, J), and 
short in felieitarS, with true e. In 
English it is long in machine, marine, 
fiend, fee, tea, bee, grieve, eel. It is 
short in Squal, Sduce, deceit, heat, beet, 
reef, grief, teeth. German examples 
are vleh, wleder against, wider again, 
wie vlel how much, vielleicht perhaps. 
It is medial in knie knee. French ex- 
amples are surprise, vlve, lie, style, 11, 
vif, physique, imlter, liquide, vtsite, 
politique, which must not be pro- 
nounced like the English physic, etc., 
with the vowel of pit. The following 
are perhaps medial : prodige, cidre, 
ligue, vite, empire." (Art. 399.) This 
is certainly (i). The short value in 
accented syllables is noteworthy. In 
" believe, rggret, descent, which cannot 
differ from dispose," (art. 395), Prof. 
Haldeman hears 8v. not 9v., that is 
({), and not (i). 

lOv. in aisle, Cairo. " French a in 
Eime, patte. The former is commonly 
received as the vowel of arm, the latter 
of pat. Duponceau (Am. Phil. Trans., 



CHAP. XI. 61. 

1818, vol. i. p. 258), in 1817, made 
the distinction. He says that French 
a occurs in the English diphthongs i 
and ou, and that the sound is between 
ah and awe, being ah pronounced as 
full and broadly as possible, without 
falling into awe. The initial of English 
i (or e in height] differs in being pro- 
nounced wp and at. This is probably 
the proper vowel for grass, pass, alas 
(Fr. helas)." (Arts. 400, 401.) The 
vowel is meant for (a) according to 
Duponceau's description, and that vowel 
is pronounced in French pate. But 
the vowel in Fr. patte is either (a) or 
(ah), and not (), at present at least. 
The pronunciations (graws, gras), etc., 
seem to be much broader than any 
used by educated Englishmen, but see 
(1152, d'). Prof. Haldeman uses (), 
and not (a) or (ee), as he suggests above, 
for the first element of long z, that is 
(a'i), not (a'i, ae'i), see (108, c). 

llv. in awe. " This sound lies 
between A and 0, and is common in 

several German dialects The 

Germans represent it commonly by a, 

adopting the Swedish mode, where 

however the sound seems to be a kind 

of o." (Art. 402.) The sound is, 

therefore (A). The Swedish is (A O ), 

having the tongue as for (A) and the 

lips as for (o), see (1116, a'). "This 

awe is not to be determined by its 

length, but by its quality. It is long 

in raw, flaw, law, caw, all, call, thawed, 

laud, hawk ; medial in loss, cross, 

tossed, frost, long, song, strong, or, for, 

lord, order, border, war, warrior, corn, 

adorn, born, warn, horn, morn, storm, 

form, warm, normal, cork, wan, swan, 

gaud God nod 

awe or orange 

fawned fond astonish 

thawed thought Thoth 

1. long awe pawned waw 

2. short awe author water 

3. medial awe pond war 

4. medial odd rod God 

5. short udd ponder body 
(Arts. 405-407.) It is evident that 
the vowel is either (o, x o), or (o 1 ). The 
indications of length do not seem to be 
strictly observed in England. 

13v. in owe, bone, boat. " This well- 
known sound is long in moan, loan, 
owe, go, low, foe, coal, cone, bore, roar, 
bowl, soul; and short in over, obey, 
tipen, opinion, 6"nyx, tinerous, oak, 
ochre, rftgue, Sate, opium ; and medial 

dawn, fond, bond, pond, exhaust, false, 
often, soften, gorge, George ; and short 
in squash, w&sh (cf. rush, push), author 
(cf. oath, pith), watch, water, slaughter, 
quart, quarter, wart, short, mortar, 
horse (cf. curse), remorse, former, often, 
north, mo'th, fault, fatter, paltry." (Art. 
403.) These quantities cross my own 
habits materially. Many of medial 
length are reckoned long in England, 
and still more of them short. See nota- 
tion for medial quantity (1116, ba). 
1 1'v. in pond, rod. 1 " This 12v. differs 
12v. in odd. j from the preced- 
ing llv. in being formed with less aper- 
ture." (Art. 405.) It is observable 
that according to Mr. Bell (o) is the 
' wide ' of (A), that is, the aperture at 
the back of the greatest compression is 
greater. But perhaps Prof. Haldeman 
spoke the vowel with the tongue further 
forward, as ( x o), or even with the tongue 
raised, (o 1 ). " It is short in not, 
nod, hod, what, squatter (cf. the open 
water), morrow, borrow, sorrow, horror, 
choice, ponder, throng, prong ; medial 
in on, yon, John, God, rod, gone, 
aught, thought, bought, caught, naught, 
fought, sauce, loiter, boy, and perhaps 
long in coy, oil. Some of these medials 
may belong to awe, and some of those 
to this head. The accuracy of these 
examples is not expected to be admitted 
in detail, because practice between the 
two vowels is not uniform ; yet it is 
probable that no one puts the vowel of 
potter, or the quantity of fall, in water, 
which is neither wawter nor wotter. 
In the following table, the medial 
examples have been chosen without 
regard to the vowel they contain : 
gnaw'r nor Nor'ich 

rawed rod Bodney 

awed aught odd 

laws loss lozenge. 

squaw yawn haw 

squash want horse 

swan wan horn 

thought gone John 

squat honest horror." 

in going, showy. It does not occur in 
Italian. is long in the German 
ton, dom, hof, h5ch, lob, tod, trog, 
mohn, lohn, moor, mond ; medial in 
oder, also, vor, von, wo, ob, oheim; and 
short in wohin, hofnung, ost, ofen, 
Sber, koch, loch, zo-o-16g." (Arts. 
416, 417.) This must be (oo, o). There 
is no mention of (oo'w). The short ac- 
cented (o) is not in received English use. 


13V. in whole. French 0. "This 
sound seems to the writer to be more 
open than owe, and closer than o aperto, 
and his impression is that the long and 
short sound have the same quality. . . . 
The New England or Yankee o in whole, 
cftat, is a short sound with a wider 
aperture of jaw than owe, but not 
(perhaps) of lip. It has been casually 
heard, but not studied, and we refer it 
to the French o in bonne." (Arts. 412, 
415.) Mr. Bell considers the French o 
in homme to be (oh), and the American 
o in stone to be (oh), the labialised 
forms of (a, ah) respectively. But 
Prof. Haldeman suggests another solu- 
tion, namely (o ) or (A O ), which is Mr. 
Sweet's analysis of Danish aa, and is, 
in fact, a passing anticipation of Mr. 
Sweet's discovery of the effect of different 
degrees of rounding upon one lingual 
position (1116 a'). The sound is 
altogether a provincialism, and I have 
been accustomed to consider the French 
sound as (o) and the Yankee as (o), 
which I have also heard in Norfolk 
(non) = none. 

14v. in pool. ) "These two vowels are 
lov. in pull, j distinct in quality, and 
have the same variations in quantity. 
They are to each other as awe is to odd, 
and they require distinct characters." 
(Art. 422.) Hence they are marked 
as (u, ), which are exactly as (A, o), 
the second being the wide of the first. 
" In passing through the series A, 0, 
U, it will be found that U in pool is 
labial in its character, and that this 
labiality is preserved in shortening fool 
to foolish, whilst full,fullish, have very 
little aid from the lips." (Art. 423.) 
That (u) can be imitated with widely 
open lips is readily perceived, but it 
can be most easily pronounced with the 
lips in the (u) -position ( 1 1 1 4, d') This 
lipless (), or (w 4 ), is very useful to the 
singer, as it can be touched at a high 
pitch, whereas true labial (w) cannot 
be sung distinctly at a high pitch. " If 
we compare fool with a word like fuel, 
rule (avoiding the Belgian diphthong 
iew), we detect in it (fyoo'l, rule), 
a closer sound, which when long is 
confused with U, as in fool, rule, 
meaning by the latter neither ryule 
nor riwl, but rool, with a narrow 
aperture. This closer u is often 
preceded by y and r, as in due, dew, 
stew, ruin, rude, where it is rather 
medial than long." (Art. 424.) Prob- 

ably we should write this (u 1 ), or ( x u), 
or even ( ji 1 ). It seems to be local and 
individual, not received. This sound, 
or what I suppose to be this sound, I 
seem to have heard from Americans, 
and in Lancashire, and it approached 
one of the palato-labial vowels, or (y)- 
series. In fact I felt it as a form of 
(r). "Leaving quantity out of the 
question, we pronounce brew, etc., with 
15v. [u in pwll], whilst "Worcester, 
probably the most judicious of the 
English orthoepists, refers them to the 
key-word move." (Art. 591.) This is, 
I think, the more usual pronunciation. 
The u orthography, however, suggests 
palatalisation to the speaker, and hence 
he makes an approach to (uj, wj =i, y). 
Ic. and 25e. in now, aisle, are " coal- 
escents," a term introduced, I believe, 
by myself, to classify (j, w), as the form 
under which the vowels (i, u) coalesced 
with another vowel. Prof. Haldeman 
uses Ic. and 25c. to form diphthongs, 
and distinguishes them from (3, w). 
In order to shew that they have this 
meaning, I employ the acute accent on 
the preceding vowel, thus (aw, a'j), 
which are really equivalent to my (a'u, 
a'i), but have the disadvantage of not 
so accurately distinguishing the second 
element, so that for (a'j) the reader has 
a choice among (a'i, di, de, a'y, a'j), etc. 
Prof. Haldeman says: "The separation 
of the coalescents from the vowels, 
being quite modern, their difference is 
seldom recognized in alphabets. This 
is a grave defect.'' (Art. 173.) As to 
the nature of the difference, he says : 
" The labial vowel ooze readily becomes 
the consonant way, and between them 
there is a shade of sound allied to 
both, but a variety of the latter, and a 
consonant, because it has the power of 
forming a single syllable with a vowel, 

which two vowels cannot do The 

guttural vowel pique may become the 
guttural liquid #ea, as in mim'on, and 
between the two lies the guttural 
coalescent in at'sle, eye, boy. The con- 
sonant relation of the coalescents is 
shown in the combinations how well, 
my years, in which it is difficult to tell 
where the coalescent ends. A compari- 
son of the former (or how-ell) with ha- 
well, and the latter (or my-ears) with 
ma-years, will show their affinity. A 
coalescent between vowels is apt to 
form a fulcrum, by becoming a more com- 
plete consonant. Compare (employer 


with lawyer." (Arts. 163-5.) I think 
I usually say (ELQ'U:^ -we'll, H8'w:^e'll, 
HaV L el) for how well, how ell, Howell, 
and (ma'f-^jn'zs, ma'i^n'zs) for my 
years, my ears. Similar difficulties 
occur in lying (la'n'^-'tq), and French 
pa'ien, fa'ience, loyal (pai-iEA fai-iaAS 
16i-ial), not (luaial), with a long (i), 
without force gliding and diphthong- 
ising each way, which the hyphen tends 
to make plainer. The English loyal 
is either (Ic/r^el) or (lo'v^te'l), not, 
I think, (lo'r;rel), and certainly not 
(lAA-jel). Similarly for employer, 
lawyer (emplo'*" 'B, IAA-J'B). 

2c. and 26c. in way, yea, are certainly 
(w, j), but whether or not in addition 
(LUW, i_ij) cannot he affirmed. 

3c. and 27c. are certainly (wh, jh). 
Unfortunately the sounds are depart- 
ing. See the citation (1112, b'}, where 
it appears that Professor Haldeman 
never hears (wh) in English without 
a following (w) ; and, as appears hy 
his example, he does not hear (jh) 
without a following (j). But, trans- 
lating his symbols, he says, " (wh) 
occurs in several Vesperian languages, 
and the whistle which Duponceau 
attributes to the (lena-pe), Dela- 
ware, language, is this sound (wh'd^) 
heart, (ndee] my heart, (wh'de'nhiim) 
strawberries, with flat (<d). In the "Wy- 
andot (wo-ndot), (salakwh"w) it bur- 
rows, it occurs before a whispered 
vowel. Compare Penobscot (nekwhda-s) 
six, (whta-w/ak) ear, (whta-wagollh) 
ears." (Art. 457.) "This (wad) shows 
that the (w) put in (whwen) is not by 
defect of ear, which might cause it to 
be inferred beside the vocal (d). The 
frequency of the whispered vowels is 
curious." Prof.H.'sMS. note to proof. 

5c. in hm seems to be (mh), hm 
(nmh), or perhaps (nmrnh). " One 
form of Eng. (mh) often accompanies a 
smile with closed lips : an incipient 
laugh reduced to a nasal pun ; to the 
other (mh-m) a true (m) is added, when 
it becomes an exclamation sometimes 
replaced with (nh-n)." MS. addition. 

16c., I7c., 18c. are varieties of (r), but 
it is difficult exactly to identify them. 
" The Greek and Latin R was trilled, 
as described by the ancients, and this 
accords with European practice. The 
letter 'r' therefore means this sound. 
"We have heard trilled r in Albanian, 
Armenian (in part), Arabic, Chaldee, 
Ellenic, Illyrian, "Wallachian, Hun- 
garian, Russian, Catalonian, Turkish 

(in part), Islandic, Hindustanee, Ben- 
galee, Tamil, and other languages in the 
pronunciation of natives." (Art. 500.) 
Probably (r, B, ,r, ,r, A r, rj) are here 
not distinguished, and the forcible form 
(.r) is not separated from that of mode- 
rate strength. " The trilled r is assigned 
to English as an initial, although many 
people with an English Ternacular 
cannot pronounce it. Dr. James Rush 
would have the trill reduced in English 
to a single tap of the tongue against 
the palate. This we indicate by i, with 
a dot above." (Art. 501.) This faint 
trill would be our (|_r) ; but the English, 
I believe, do not strike the palate at all 
when saying (r). Mr. Bell, as we have 
seen (1098,$), denies the trill in English 
altogether, and gives us (rj. "The 
Spanish (South American) r in perro 
dog, as distinguished from the common 
trilled r of pero but, seems to be un- 
trilled, and to have the tongue pressed 
flatly, somewhat as in English z, and 
doubled, as in more-rest. It may have 
arisen from an attempt to yotacise r. 
"We mark it V (or, if trilled, r) with a 
line below, in case it is distinct from 
the next." (Art. 5010.) Now the 
Spanish rr in perro is what the Spanish 
Academy (Ortografia de la lengua 
Castellana, 7th ed. Madrid, 1792, p. 
70) calls ~Sifuerte. Prince L. L. Bona- 
parte says that it is found in Basque, 
and calls it an " alveolar r," which seems 
to be my ( x r). The common (r) in Basque 
is generally used as a euphonic insertion 
to save hiatus, as in English law(r] of the 
land. Mr. Bristed (Transactions of the 
American Philological Association for 
1871, p. 122-3) talks of "the apparent 
negroism prevalent in Cuba of substi- 
tuting a vocalized r for the strongly 
trilled final r, e.g. amaw (or something 
very like it) for amar," compare Mr. 
Thomas's Creole French r (1155, a'}. 
On the authority of his son, just re- 
turned from Spain, Mr. Bristed 
adds that in Madrid there is "a 
slurring of medial r," and that "the 
Andalusian dialect tends to drop final 
letters, even r." Prof. Haldeman may 
mean (r ). " Many of my sounds were 
heard casually, and must be accepted as 
open to correction from further obser- 
vation." MS. addition. He proceeds : 
" Armenian and Turkish have a smooth 
(i.e. an untrilled) tactual r, much like the 
Spanish rr, if not the same, and, with 
that, requiring farther investigation and 
comparison. English smooth r in curry, 


acre (a-cr), begr, grey, curt, is formed 
by much less contact than the European 
and Asiatic r requires. It is the true 
liquid of the s contact, and allied to 
the vowel in up, a character x to be 
formed provisionally from italic x" 
(Arts. 502-3.) "A consonant subject to 
both a preceding and a succeeding in- 
fluence may vary with the speaker, 
putting the same or a different gr in 
ogre and grey. I was wrong in putting 
grey among my examples in 603. It 
should be excluded. I adopted the 
single- tap r on the authority of Dr. 
Rush, and because I have heard it ; but 
I use neither this nor any other trill in 
my English. This is the speech of my 
locality, when it is not influenced by 
contact with German and Irish modes 
of pronunciation, and it seems that Mr. 
Bell rejects the trill." MS. addition. 
This he then identifies with my (J). 
But ray (J) is only (a 1 ) at most, followed 
permissively by (r). Prof. Haldeman 
retains this (.) in the second syllable of 
([rep^ezent^'shyn) in the specimen, and 
says it is " due to the unaccented syl- 
lable as compared with (p|_rnityd), etc." 
In other cases he corrected it in the 
proof to (r), which I have given as 
(Lr) for uniformity. Perhaps my diffi- 
culties arise from the Professor's not 
trilling his (r) as I really do. "A 
more open smooth r is found in cur, 
fur, far, more. Mr. Ellis regards fur 
as / with this open r, without a vowel 
between. . . . "We regard fur as having 
the open vowel t? (with which the con- 
sonant is allied) short, the quantity 
being confined to the consonant (fur = 
fVJ"'), and the tongue moving from 
the vowel to the consonant position. 
The same open consonant occurs in 
arm, worm, turn, ore; and although, 
for a particular purpose, we have cited 
arm as long, it contains a short vowel 
(a^r'm) and long or medial consonant. 
If we write 'rn for urn and f'r or fa 
for fur, we certainly cannot represent 
far, four, in the same manner. More- 
over we may dissyllabise pr-ay on a 
trilled or a close r, and monosyllabise 
it p'ray with the most open. At one 
time the discussion of the English let- 
ters led to a curious result. When the 
difference betwei n the open r of tarry 
(from tar] and the close one of the verb 
tdrry was ascertained, an identity of 
vowel and of consonant was repre- 
sented, a greater error than to spell 
more and moor, fairy and ferry alike, 

or pres-d for prest." (Arts. 505-9.) I 
feel obliged, from the identifications 
made by Prof. Haldeman, to transcribe 
16c. by (|r), 17c. by (^), and 18c. by (i), 
but I am not at all satisfied with the 
transcription. I think the sound I7c. 
is sometimes (a 1 ), sometimes (i.^ 1 ), some- 
times (a 1 ^ 1 ) > and that 18c. may be 
(a, a, ah) or (Lr ol ), or one of the first 
followed by the second. These are 
points of extreme difficulty, partly 
arising from the involuntary interfe- 
rence of orthographical reminiscences 
with phonetic observations. 

Prof. Haldeman made the following 
observations on the proof, after reading 
the above remarks : " There is a negro 
perversion of more to (moa). I think 
you admit too little difference between 
awe and or, like Bloomfield 
In earliest hours of dark and hooded morn, 
Ere yet one rosy cloud bespeaks the dawn, 

Still foremost thou the dashing stream to 

And tempt along the animated horse ; . . . . 

"I do not consider any English r 
open enough to constitute a vowel, but 
I think I have heard a coalescent ('r)" 
[the acute belongs to the preceding 
element with which it forms a diph- 
thong], " forming a reversed diphthong, 
in a dialect of Irish, in ge, gedh, or 
geodh a goose. As I recal it, it is a 
monosyllab between the English syl- 
labs gay and gray, the r open and 
untactual and so near to (a) that the 
result would be g(o)ay were this not a 
dissyllab like claw-y besides cloy" As 
will be shewn hereafter, or is used in 
American comic books to represent aw 
(AA) just as much as in English, and 
likewise r omitted, and er is also used 
for the faintest sound of ('h). 

21c. and 22c. also present difficulties 
in transcription. " The liquids of the 
palatal contact are a kind of J (yea) 
made at the palatal point, and as Eug. 
w, v, and r, z are permutable, so } 
falls into j (zh), and its surd aspirate 
into (sh). Hence the word soldier 
(= soldjr or soldjar) is apt to fall into 
soldjT, and nature ( = net- </ )'C, nefjjr 
or net}r) into netrr or netrar." (Arts. 
518, 519.) From this I consider ) to 
represent a form of (j) which is still 
nearer to (i), with therefore the tongue 
slightly lower than for (j), so that (j t ) 
would be its best sign, and") will then 
be (Jxh). According to the same habit 
which obliges Prof. Haldeman to say 




whw-, jhj-) we necessarily have 
"ijj). Hence his examples must 
be transcribed (soldjMr JL "~ 

The remaining consonants present 
no difficulty. 

11. in hay. " Many deny that A is a 
consonant, because ' it is not made by 
contact or interruption.' But when 
the breath is impelled through an 
aperture which obstructs it, there is 
interruption, and if we vary the im- 
pulse we can make English oo and w 
with the same aperture. . . H, h, is the 
common English and German A, in the 
syllables held, hat, hast, hose, ^i is for 
the eighth Hebrew letter hheth . . . and 
is commonly called an emphatic A and is 
often represented by AA. As heard by 
us, it is an enforced, somewhat close A, 
with a tendency to scrape along the 
throat, and, consequently, it is not a 
pulmonic aspirate. . . . The Floren- 
tine aspirate casa, misericordia, oAi, we 
have casually heard, and believe it to 
be //i, and also the Spanish /, #, before 
, o, , as in jabon soap = /fia'bon, and 
the geographical name San Juan ( = 
san/fivan) in English siny'vtm." (Arts. 

553, 565, 567.) The identification of 
/jt with (A), see (1130, *), and the state- 
ment of its relation to h, seem to 
shew that this h is my (Hh). The ex- 
amples are then meant for (Aabho'n, 
sanAwhan, seenwhwon), but I think 
that Spanish .;' differs from (A). Prince 
L. L. Bonaparte considers it to be (kh), 
and identifies the Florentine sound with 
a 'vocal' aspirate (1136, c), my (H). 
Prof. Haldeman observes on the use 
of (H) for me, (H|h) for Smart, and 
(Hh) for himself and Sweet in the com- 
parative specimen given below: " You 
assign three kinds of initial h to four 
speakers, where I think the ear would 
give the same result, except where h is 
dropt. I pronounce English here and 
German hier exactly alike as far as the 
r, and I suppose you do the same, but 
the smooth English r gives a dissyllabic 
tendency, which is absent from the 
German form." I believe I call the 
English word (uii'} and the German 
(nhiir), but may occasionally say (mir, 
nii'r nhii'r), which are all anglicisras. 
I sometimes fall into (nh) in English. 
For Smart's (H^h), see No. 56 of his 
scheme below, (1204, b). 

Henry Sweet. 

Mr. Henry Sweet adopts Mr. Bell's Visible Speech Symbols and 
my palaeotype, and kindly himself wrote out his specimen in 
palaeotype, so that there are no difficulties of interpretation. It 
is necessary to observe his higher (e) or (e 1 ), and his (o) with a (u) 
rounding or (o u ), his consonantal termination of (uj, uuw\ his 
advanced (0, o) or (^0, x o), his forms of (ee'j, oo'w} as (ey, x <5o u ), his 
acceptance of (i) as (oh) in (A'ah, EE'ah, evoh), etc., his constant 
use of (', 'h), even rounded, as ('hw), his analysis of his diphthongs 
for (aY, a'w) as (v&'y, ^y] and (aoao'o), and his lengthened con- 
sonants, as (samm, lEtt). He uses (a, E) where I use (a, e), and 
altogether his pronunciation differs in many minute shades from 
mine, although in ordinary conversation the difference would probably 
be passed by unnoticed, so little accustomed are we to dwell on 
differences which vex the phonolo gist's spirit. This little passage 
presents one of the most remarkable analyses of spoken sounds 
which has yet been published. 

In returning me the proof corrected, he wrote : "I am inclined 
to accept your analysis of ch as (t % sh) for my own pronunciation 
also. I think the second element of the (au) diphthong may be 
the simple voice-glide rounded ("hw;) instead of the mid-back (o), 
(saoao'ondz) would therefore be written (sooao''h^ndz). In the same 
way I feel inclined to substitute the simple voice-glide unrounded 
("h) for the ('ah) wherever it forms the second element of a diph- 
thong. I leave it to you to make the alterations or not." As Mr. 


Sweet, on account of leaving England, was unable to correct a 
revise of the example, I preferred following the proof as it left his 
own hands, and content myself with noting these minute points. 
But it is worth while observing what extremely rough approximations 
to (i, u), such as ('hj, 'hw), when added to any one of the sounds 
(os 13, a a o o, 02 a A o, a ah oh oh, oh GO ah oh) and even (e e ce, E 
se aeh), serve to recall diphthongs of the (ai, an) classes to the mind 
with sufficient clearness to be readily intelligible. 

. H. Smart. 

Mr. B. H. Smart's ""Walker Remodelled .... exhibiting the 
pronunciation of words in unison with more accurate schemes of 
sounds than any yet furnished, according to principles carefully and 
laboriously investigated, 1836," contains the most minute account 
of English sounds that I can find in pronouncing dictionaries, 
though very far below what is presented in Yisible Speech or by 
Prof. Haldeman. It seemed therefore best to contrast his repre- 
sentation of the same passage, by turning out each word in his 
dictionary, and transliterating it into palaeotype. For this purpose it 
is necessary to identify his symbols as explained in his schemes and 
principles. The numbers of his symbols in the schemes, with the 
examples, are sufficient to identify them, so that their forms need 
not be given. The same numbers also refer to the paragraphs 
in his ' principles,' giving the detailed description, from which I 
am obliged to cite some passages, although the book is so well 
known and readily accessible. Mr. Smart is only responsible for 
what I put between inverted commas. 

" SCHEME or THE VOWELS." in the second. Generally it is as short 

as No. 15, with which it is identical, 
The AlphabeUe Vowels by nature t ^ NQ> lfi ig essentially short 

long though liable to be short or wM the unacce nted alphabetical No. 4 

shortened. ^ by nature cap able of quantity. The 

1. accented as in gate, gait, pay. wor( j indivisibility must in strict theory 

This sound is recognized as (ee'j}, hut be said to have one and the same vowel- 

made (ee|ji) by Smart, see (1108, d"), sound in each syllable ; but practical 
perhaps (ee'j). views rendering the distinction neces- 

2. unaccented as in aerial, retail, S ary, we consider the vowel in three 

gateway. " This tapering off into O f the syllables [1st, 3rd, 5th], to be 

No. 4 cannot be heard in the un- essentially short, and the vowel in the 

accented alphabetic a, owing to its remaining four to be naturally long, 

shorter quantity," it is therefore (e) although, from situation, quite as short 

short or (e e ) of medial length, probably as No. 15." Here then short (i, i) are 

the first in aerial, and the second in confused. The 'practical views' are 

the other words. But I hear (g^tw^'j), in fact that No. 15, the 'essentially 

which, however, I suppose he takes as short' (t), is found gliding on to a con- 

(gee[Hwe e ). But see No. 13. sonant, and No. 4, the 'essentially long' 

3. accented as in me, m<tft, ra<?at, is (i), is found at the end of a syllable, 
certainly (ii), but whether distinguislied The distinction is false; in this word 
always from () is uncertain. () occurs throughout, and (i) would 

4. unaccented as in dt'fy, pedz'gr^, give a strangely foreign effect, the 
galley. "The quantity is not always sound being f t:nd)vi:z*jb' tyti), al- 
equally short: in pedigree, for instance, though (e 1 ) or (a) might be used in the 
it is not so short in the third syllable as 2nd, 4th, 6th and 7th syllables rather 



CHAP. XI. 1. 

than (i) . But in consequence of Smart's 
distinction, I shall transcribe his No. 4 
by (i) as (indrozibfliti). 

5. accented as in wede, defred, defy. 
" This sound is diphthongal. In the 
mouth of a well-bred Londoner it be- 
gins with the sound heard in No. 39, 
but without sounding the r, and tapers 
off into No. 4." This gives (a'i) or 
(a'*) ; I take the former. Prince L. L. 
Bonaparte thinks that (eo'i) is meant. 
See below No. 19. "Some allege its 
composition to be No. 23 and No. 4," 
that is <ai, ae), " but this is northern ; 
while others make it to be No. 25 and 
No. 4," that is (A'i, A'), "which is 
still more rustic. The affirmation ay 
is, however, a union of the sounds 25 
and 4, at least as that word is com- 
monly pronounced ; though in the 
House of Commons, in the phrase, 
'the ayes have it,' it seems to be an 
ancient custom to pronounce the plural 
word as uniting the sounds Nos. 25, 4, 
60 [ = (AA-Z'Z)], or as it might be written 
oys, rhyming with boys" 

6. unaccented as in z'dea, forties, 
fortify. " This unaccented sound dif- 
fers from the foregoing by the remission 
of accent only." It is often, however, 
extremely short. It does not seem to 
occur to orthoepists generally that diph- 
thongs may be very short indeed, and 
yet possess all their properties, with 
the relative lengths of their parts. In 
likewise, the first diphthong, although 
accented, is generally much shorter 
than the second ; in idea, the diphthong 
is often scarcely touched, but is always 
quite sensible. 

7. accented as in no, boat, foe, soul, 
blow. " In a Londoner's mouth, it is 
not always quite simple, but is apt 
to contract towards the end, almost as 
oo in too." Now this seems to imply 
that the vanish to (u) is not received ; 
that (oo) is intended, and (<>OLU) un- 
intentional. Still as he admits (ee^), I 
shall take his No. 7 to be (6o[u). 

8. unaccented as in obey, follow. 
"In remitting the accent, and with 
accent its length, No. 8 preserves its 
specific quality, with no liability to the 
diphthongal character to which the 
accented sound is liable." Hence I 
transcribe (6). 

9. accented as in c?<be, dwe, suit. 
" Though for practical purposes reckon- 
ed among the vowels, No. 9 is, in truth, 
the syllable yoo, composed of the con- 
sonant element 56 and the vowel element 

27." This view gets over all phonetic 
difficulties, and is very rough. I tran- 
scribe (juu). 

10. unaccented as in wsurp, agtte. 
"Although a diphthong can scarcely 
lose in length, without losing its diph- 
thongal character, yet a syllable com- 
posed of a consonant and a vowel may 
in general be something shortened." 
I transcribe (ju). The passage shews 
the vague phonetic knowledge which 
generally prevails. 

" The Essentially Short Towels." 

11. accented as in man, chapman. 
This "differs in quality as well as in 
quantity from both No. 1 or No. 2, and 
No. 23, it is much nearer the latter 
than the former, indeed so near, that 
in theory they are considered identical ; 
but it is not, practically, so broad as 
No. 23." That is, his No. 11, which 
we must identify with (a3), lies between 
(eeLi) or (e) and (a), but is theoretic- 
ally identified with the latter. The 
way in which in dialectal writing (ae, a) 
are confused under one sign a, has 
caused me much trouble, and I have 
found many correspondents apparently 
unable to discover the difference in 

12. unaccented as in accept, chap- 
man. This "differs in quality from the 
preceding by verging towards the sound 
of No. 19, its distinct utterance being 
near to No. 1 1, its obscure or colloquial 
utterance carrying it entirely into No. 
19. In final syllables the more obscure 
sound prevails ; in initial syllables the 
more distinct." Hence in the former 
I transcribe (a 86 ), in the latter (a3 9 ). 
But these indicate helplessness on the 
part of the phonologist. Prince L. L. 
Bonaparte makes the former (a) and 
the latter (ao), see No. 19. 

13. accented as in lent. This "in 
theory is reckoned the same sound as 
N o. 2. That it does not differ from it in 
quality may be perceived by the effect of a 
cursory pronunciation of climate, ultim- 
ate, etc., which reduce to climet, ultimet, 
etc." That is, Smart confuses (e, e), 
just as he confused (i, i), see No. 4. 
But while the confusion of (e, e) is 
tolerably possible, that of (e, E) is 
barely so. Hence I transcribe No. 13 
as (e), and not as (E). 

14. unaccented as in silent. This "is 
liable to be sounded as No. 15." I 
transcribe (e), though perhaps (e 1 ) or 
even (y), to allow of confusion with (i), 

CHAP. XI. 5 1. 



might be more correct. But Smart 
may not have intended to recognize any 
intermediary between (e) and (t). 

15. accented as in pit. This "in 
theory is reckoned the same as No. 4, 
and that it does not much differ in 
quality may be perceived by the word 
counterfeit, in which No. 4 in the last 
syllable shortens itself into No. 15." 
This is (t) certainly. 

16. unaccented as in sawpft. This 
" differs from the foregoing by the re- 
mission of accent only,*' and will hence 
be also written (t). 

17. accented as in not, common. This 
"in theory is reckoned the same as 
No. 25, and that it does not differ in 
quality may be perceived by observing 
that salt, fault, etc., though pronounced 
with No. 25 in slow utterance, are 
liable to be shortened into No. 17." 
That is, Smart confuses (A, o) just as 
he confused (e, e) and (i, t). Yet he 
speaks of (AA) as a broad, not a 
lengthened, utterance of o in cost, broth, 
etc., and recommends a " medium be- 
tween the extremes." Hence I tran- 
scribe 17 as (A), 25 as (AA), and this 
* ( medium" as (A A ). 

18. unaccented as in pollute, com- 
mand, common. This " differs in 
quality from the preceding by verging 
towards the sound No. 19, more or 
less, according as the pronunciation 
is solemn or colloquial. In final syl- 
lables the sound No. 19 under the 
character o is, in general, so decided, 
that even in the most solemn speaking 
any other sound would be pedantic." 
These cases he marks especially, as in 
common, and I transcribe (a) simply. 
" In initial and other syllables, the 
sound preserves its character with some 
distinctness, as in pollute, pomposity, 
demonstration ; " here then I tran- 
scribe (o 8 ), "yet even in these we find 
a great tendency to the sound No. 19, 
and in the prefix com- the tendency is 
still stronger." Wherever he marks 
this stronger tendency to indistinct- 
ness, I transcribe (9) rather than (a). 
Prince L. L. Bonaparte thinks that (B) 
is meant by the o in pollute, and (eo) by 
the o in common, see No. 19. 

19. accented as in nut, custard. 
"No. 19, No. 39 (without sounding 
the r), and No. 24, are all, in theory, 
the same, the last however more or less 
approaching the sound No. 23, accord- 
ing as the speaker is more or less dis- 
tinct. They are all modifications of 

what may be called the natural vowel, 
that is to say, the vowel which is 
uttered in the easiest opening of the 
mouth." But whether these ' modifica- 
tions ' are (a, a, B, ah), etc., there is 
nothing to shew. Hence I transcribe 
No. 19 by (a), which, to me, approaches 
most to the natural vowel, and No. 24 
by (a a ). Prince L. L. Bonaparte, who 
has made a careful study of Smart, 
writes to me : " Although in your 
transcription of Smart (a) is the only 
one of the four signs (a, a, , ao) which 
occurs, it seems to me that Smart 
represents (a) by No. 24 a in manna, 
(a) by the first No. 12 or a in accept, 
(e) by the first No. 18 or o in pol- 
lute, and (ao) by No. 19 u in nwt, or 
by the second No. 12 a in chapman, 
and second No. 18 o in common. The 
three signs, No. 19, the second No. 12, 
and the first No. 18, see also No. 
20, are synonymous. They represent 
Smart's 'natural vowel,' which is, as 
he says in No. 19, merely ur without 
sounding the final r. In No. 36 he 
says that er, ir, or, ur, yr, are neces- 
sarily pronounced ur. Hence the words 
sir, bird, first, see No. 35, contain 
Smart's natural vowel, 'your (ao), and 
not your (a). In fact, Smart says that 
the first No. 12 is to No, 24 as No. 11 
is to No. 23, see Nos. 12 and 24, and 
that No. 24 is a mean between Nos. 
19 and 23, just as the first No. 12 is 
between Nos. 11 and 19. He also says 
in No. 18, that the first sound of 
No. 18 lies between No. 17 and No. 
19. Hence the first sound of No. 18 
is (B), in the same way as No. 24 is (a), 
and the first No. 12 is (a), and the 
second No. 12, second No. 18 and No. 19, 
are (33), which is his natural vowel." 
This is extremely ingenious, and logi- 
cally worked out, but it depends on 
the hypothesis that Smart pronounced 
No. 19 with the same vowel that Bell 
used in pronouncing err (ao), which is 
different from the vowel Bell used in 
pronouncing urn up (a). And Smart's 
No. 35 leads me to suppose that he 
did not understand the nature of Bell's 
distinction (aD, a), although he felt that 
there was some distinction. I doubt 
much indeed whether Smart had any 
clear conception of the four different 
sounds (a, a, B, eo), which seem to have 
been first discriminated by Mr. M. 
Bell, as the result of his theory of 
lingual distinctions. And hence I feel 
that to write Smart's key-words, No. 



12 accept chapman, No. 18 pollute 
common, No. 19 nwt, No. 24 papa, 
manna, Messiah, as (akse-pt tshse-p- 
maon; pBl[JUU't ko'mgon, naot, papaa* 
mffi-na Mesao'i'a), although possibly 
correct, is very prohahly incorrect. I 
do not think he said (nsot), though this 
is a cockneyism. I do not think he 
said (papaa* ma3*na), for unaccented 
(a) is very rare and very ugly. I do 
not think he said (akse'pt), though he 
may have said (p^lLJuu't). In this 
state of doubt, I have chosen symbols 
which seem to mark his own uncer- 
tainty, on the principle of (1107, 
d), namely, (a^kse-pt tshse'pma^n ; 
po 9 lLJuu-t ko'mon, nat, pa a paa- mse-na a 
Mesa'i'a a ), where the double sign in 
fact represents that the sound was felt 
to be intermediate in each case, but to 
have more of that represented by the 
large letter, though Smart would allow 
either sound to be used purely ; but if 
so, he thought that of the large letter 
preferable. Except as regards nut, 
which may have been Mr. Bell's (a) 
rather than my (a), and may really 
have been in Mr. Smart's mouth (33), 
though I can hardly think the last 
probable, I have no reasonable doubt 
as to the propriety of my symbols. I 
thought it right, however, to give the 
Prince's very ingenious hypothesis. He 
was at the pains to transcribe the whole 
example according to his theory; but 
the reader can so readily supply the 
necessary changes that I have not 
given it. 

20. unaccented as in walnwt, circws. 
This " differs from the preceding only 
by the remission of accent," and is 
hence transcribed (a). 

21. accented as in good, hood, " an 
incidental vowel." This, "essentially 
short, is, in other respects, identical 
with No. 27, the most contracted sound 
in the language." That is, Smart 
confuses (u, u] as he had previously 
confused (e, e; i, t; A, o). It is 
necessary to transcribe (u), though I 
much doubt his having ever used it 
for No. 21 in actual speech. 

22. unaccented as in childhood, " an 
incidental vowel." This " differs from 
the preceding only by the remission of 
accent," and is hence transcribed (u). 

" The Remaining Incidental Vowels, 
by nature long, though liable to be 

23. accented as in papa, the inter]. 

ah. " In almost all languages but the 
English, this is the alphabetic sound of 
letter a." It is transcribed (aa). 

24. unaccented as in papa, manna, 
MessiaA. This " differs from the pre- 
ceding [No. 23] not only in quantity 
but in quality, by verging to the 
natural vowel [No. 19], and in collo- 
quial utterance quite identifying with 
it. It fluctuates between No. 23 and 
this natural vowel No. 19, just as a [a 
in chapman, the second No. 12] fluc- 
tuates between No. 11 and No. 19." 
It is transcribed (a a ), see No. 19. 
Prince L. L. Bonaparte thinks that 
(a) is meant, see No. 19. Smart uses 
No. 24 for French e muet in such 
words as coup de grace, aide de camp, 
which seems due to orthographical 
prejudice, as du might have led the 
ordinary reader to say (dju). 

25. accented as in law, the noun 
sub. awe, etc. This is (AA) without 

26. unaccented as in jackdaw. This 
"differs from the preceding by re- 
mission of accent, and such shortening 
of its quantity as it will bear/' by 
which I understand that it is gene- 
rally medial (A A ). 

27. accented as in pool. "The 
sound of the letter u in Italian and 
many other languages," that is (uu). 

28. unaccented as in whirlpool, 
cuckoo. This "differs from the pre- 
ceding by the remission of the accent, 
and such reduction of quantity as_ it 
will bear so as not to identify with 
No. 22, for whirlpool must not be 
pronounced as if it were whirlpulL 
Where, however, it is not followed in 
the same syllable by a consonant, as in 
cuckoo, luxury, it may be as short as 
utterance can make it." Here the 
nemesis of confusing (u, ) appears. 
It will be necessary to transcribe (u u ) 
in the first case, as of medial length, 
and (u) in the second. He writes 
(lak-shLrua'n), which is extremely ar- 

29. accented as in toil, boy. This 
"is a diphthongal sound whose com- 
ponent parts are Nos. 25 and 4." 
That is, it is (AA'i). 

30. unaccented as in tnrmotl, foot- 
boy. This "differs from the preceding 
by the remission of accent, but its 
diphthongal nature prevents any per- 
ceptible difference in quantity," so 
that the transcription (AA'i) will be 

CHAP. XI. 5 I- 



31. accented as in nown, now, 
browm. This is " a diphthongal sound 
of whose component parts are Nos. 23 
and 27 ; at least, is the former of the 
two component sounds nearer to No. 
23 than No. 25, though Walker makes 
the combination to be Nos. 25 and 
27." That is, Smart analyses it as 
(aau), and not as (AA'U). He certainly 
could not have said (aau) with the first 
element long, but he had no means of 
writing (au). Walker says: "The first 
or proper sound of this diphthong is 
composed of the a in ball, and the 
oo in woo, rather than the u in bull" 
that is (AA' uu). It will be seen that 
Mr. I. Pitman (p. 1183, key) uses ou 
= (o') as his analysis of the diphthong 
down to this day. I have never heard 
it in received pronunciation. 

32. unaccented, as in pronown, nut- 
brown. This "differs from the pre- 
ceding only by the remission of accent," 
and hence (aau) is retained as the 

" The Vowels which terminate in Gut- 
tural Vibration, by nature long, 
though liable to be shortened" 

33. accented, equivalent to No. 23 
and r, as in ardent, that is, " No. 23, 
terminating in guttural vibration, . . . 

there is no trill, but the tongue 

being curled back during the progress 
of the vowel preceding it, the sound 
becomes guttural, while a slight vibra- 
tion of the back part of the tongue is 
perceptible in the sound." I don't 
pretend to understand any part of this 
observation. He also says: "the letter 

r is sometimes a consonant, and 

sometimes a guttural vowel -sound," 
and " that the trill of the tongue may 
be used wherever the following diction- 
ary indicates the guttural vibration, is 
not denied; but it cannot be used at 
such places without carrying to correct 
ears an impression of peculiar habits in 
the speaker, either that be is foreign 
or provincial, Irish or Scotch, a copier 
of bad declaim ers on the stage, or a 
speaker who in correcting one extreme 
has unwarily incurred another. The 
extreme among the vulgar in London 
doubtlessly is, to omit the r altogether 
to convert far into (faa), hard into 
(nhaad), cord into (kAAd), lord into 
(lAAd), etc. ; an extreme which must 
be avoided as carefully as the strong 
trill of r in an improper place." Under 
these circumstances I transcribe (') for 

the " guttural vibration," or " guttural 
vowel-sound," whatever that may be, 
and own myself, and almost every one 
I hear speak, to belong to the extreme 
of the vulgar in saying (aa) for (aa 1 ), 
although 1 often hear and say (aair)i 
Hence No. 33 will be (aa'). 

34. unaccented as in arcade, dollar. 
This " differs from the preceding, both 
in quantity (though this cannot be 
much) and in quality, by verging 
towards unaccented No. 39. Indeed 
when the letters ar occur in a final un- 
accented syllable, as in dollar, it would 
be a puerile nicety to attempt distinct- 
ness." I transcribe (aa a> ), when he 
writes "ar equivalent to" No. 23 
followed by the guttural vibration, that 
is, the sound (aa) merely verging to (a') ; 
and (a') otherwise. 

35. accented as in ermine, virtue. 
This " lies between Nos. 41 and 39, 
and in mere theory would not be dis- 
tinguished from the former." I shall 
transcribe it (e'), though I am sure 
that it is usually a perfectly simple 
vowel-sound, and Smart gives no means 
of exactly determining it. Of course 
he may have distinguished it as (a>'). 
See No. 19. 

36. unaccented as in commerce, 
letter, nadir. This "is scarcely ever 
heard without some corruption of its 
quality in a final syllable, where the 
letters er, ir, or, ur, yr, will almost 
necessarily be pronounced ur," No. 39. 
" This necessity is less in some words 
than in others, in commerce, for in- 
stance, than in letter." Hence I tran- 
scribe (e 9 ', a') in the two cases. 

37. accented as in order. This, 
"which is equivalent to No. 25 and r," 
that is to (AA'), "occurs frequently in 
the language, often requiring to be 
distinguished from No. 47. For in- 
stance form (fAA'm), meaning figure, 
must be distinguished in pronunciation 
from, form (foo-a'm), meaning a bench." 
I transcribe (AA'), though I generally 
hear (AA) or (AA[r). 

38. unaccented as in stupor or in 
sailor. This "is seldom distinct." I 
transcribe (AA') and (a') according to 
his marks, on the principle of No. 34. 

39. accented as in urgent. This " is 
the natural vowel terminating in the 
guttural vibration," and is transcribed 
(a'), though how this differs from (a) 
or ('h), or any one of the sounds dis- 
cussed in No. 1 9, it is difficult to say. 

40. unaccented as in sulphwr. This 



" differs from the preceding only by the 
remission of accent," and is, therefore, 
still transcribed (a*). 

41. accented as in mare, "equivalent 
to Nos. 1 and 39," that is (eeLva'), but 
surely the (|_i) must be omitted and at 
least (ee - a') said, and this is strange. I 
transcribe (ee'a'). 

42. unaccented as in welfare, "equi- 
valent to Nos. 2 and 39," that is (ea'). 

43. accented as in mere, " equivalent 
to Nos. 3 and 39," that is (iia'). 

44. unaccented as in atmosphere, 
" equivalent to Nos. 4 and 39," that is 

45. accented as in mtre, "equiva- 
lent to Nos. 5 and 39," that is (a'i'a 1 ). 

46. unaccented as in empire, "equiva- 
lent to Nos. 6 and 39," that is (a'ia'). 

47. accented as in more, "equivalent 
to Nos. 7 and 39," that is (co^u-a'), 
meaning, perhaps, (oo f a'), as the ([u) 
could not have been used, see No. 41. 

48. unaccented as in therefore, equi- 
valent to Nos. 8 and 39," that is, (oa'). 

49. accented as in mwre, " equivalent 
to Nos. 9 and 39," or (juira'). 

50. unaccented as in figure, " equiva- 
lent to Nos. 10 and 39," or (jua'). ^ 

51. accented as in poor, "equiva- 
lent to Nos. 27 and 39," or (mra'). 

52. unaccented as in black-a-moor, 
"equivalent to Nos. 28 and 39," or (ua'). 

53. accented as in power, " equiva- 
lent to Nos. 31 and 39," or (aau-a'). 

54. unaccented, as in cauli-flower, 
"equivalent to Nos. 32 and 39," or 
(aaua 1 ). 

In reference to Nos. 41 to 54 of 
which it is said, " it is only by being 
followed by guttural vibration that 
these sounds differ respectively from 
Nos. 1 to 10, 27, 28, 31, and 32" it 
should be remembered that Mr. Smart 
does not distinguish properly between 
(i t, e e, o o, u w), and hence the changes 
which Mr. Bell, myself, andothers notice 
(1099, a') in the action of the diph- 
thongising ('h) upon preceding (i, e, 0, 
), were necessarily passed over by Mr. 
Smart. He says indeed : " It has been 
said that there is a palpable difference 
between the vowel- sound in payer, 
player, slayer, and that in care, fair, 
hair, share. What difference may be 
made in New York I know not ; but I 
know that none is made in London, nor 
can be made without that peculiar effect 
which shows an effort to distinguish 
what in general is necessarily undis- 
tinguishable," .but that he did feel a 

difference is, I think, certain from the 
following remarks : " Identical, how- 
ever, as they are, except as regards the 
peculiarity noticed, the practical ne- 
cessity for considering them distinct 
elements will be perceived in the com- 
parison of the first syllables of va-rious, 
se-rious, fi-ring, to-ry, fu-ry, with the 
first syllables of va-cant, se-cant, fi-nal, 
to-tal, fu-gitive; an identity of these 
syllables in pronunciation is decidedly 
provincial ; the true utterance of the 
former is vare-ious, sere-ious," etc., 
with Nos. 41 and 43, etc. "The 
difference in view will be rendered 
intelligible to those familiar with 
French pronunciation, by comparing 
the sound of dear pronounced correctly 
as an English word, with that of dire 
pronounced correctly as a French word. 
In both the vowel commences after the 
d precisely in the same way, but in the 
French word it remains pure, unmixed 
with the r, which begins a new syllable 
formed with what is called the mute e, 
the word being pronounced (dirra a )," 
[vowels Nos. 3 and 24,] "or nearly so; 
while in the English word, the sound 
of the r (not the trilled r as in French) 
blends itself with the e during its pro- 
gress." [I hear French ( x diir), English 
(cUV), or (du'r) before a vowel.] " So 
also in dear-ly, care-ful, etc., the ad- 
dition of a syllable beginning with a 
consonant distinct from the r making 
no difference to the previous syllable, 
the r in that previous syllable' blends 
itself with the vowel exactly as in dear, 
care, etc. ; and the only difference 
between dear-ly, care-ful, etc., and 
va-rious, se-rious, fi-ry, to-ry, fu-ry, 
etc., is, that in the latter the r, besides 
blending itself with the previous vowel, 
is also heard in the articulation of the 
vowel which begins the following 
syllable." [Hence I feel bound to 
transcribe (vee'a'rias, sira'rias), etc., 
where I seem to say and hear (vee' - nas, 
sn'-n'as), etc.] " Of this blending of 
the r with the previous vowel, it is 
further to be observed that the union 
is so smooth in polite utterance as to 
make it imperceptible where one ends 
and the other begins ; " [meaning, I 
suppose, that the diphthong is perfect, 
no interruption occurring in the glide, 
not even a slur, thus (eea') not (ee^a'), 
although his careful interposition of the 
accent mark (ee-a'), instead of putting 
it at the close (eea''), gives a different 
impression, and always leads me to read 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



with a slur (ee^a') ;] "while in vulgar 
pronunciation the former vowel breaks 
abruptly into the guttural sound, or 
into the vowel No. 24 used for the 
guttural," [meaning, I suppose, (ee-;a', 
ee-,a'), or (ee-;8 a , ee-^.j^ "Among 
mere cocknies this substitution of No. 
24 for No. 34, or No. 40, is a prevailing 
characteristic, and should be corrected 
by all who wish to adapt their habits to 
those of well-bred life." [Here he 
again becomes mysterious, separating 
his guttural vibration from his guttural 
vowel, with which he identified it in 
No. 33. As far as I can observe, and I 
have been constantly observing the use 
of r by Englishmen for many years, 
this distinction is founded in error. I 
can understand, and hear, (9, ar , or, B, 
Br , Br, 'h, 'r c , 'r), but the difference 
(a a , &} escapes me.] "It is, moreover, 
remarkable of these elements that each 
will pass on the ear either as one or 
two syllables, and this is signified in 
the schemes by the equivalent indica- 
tion a'ur, I'ur," [ = No. 1, accent, No. 
39; and No. 5, accent, No. 39; or (ee'a', 
a'i'a')], "where the mark of accent 
placed over the former part gives it 
the appearance of the first of two 
syllables, while the omission of the 
hyphen shows that the whole is pro- 
nounced as one." He refers here to 
No. 134, where he says, that : " pay-er 
and may -or ; li-ar, buy-er, and high-er; 
slow-er and grow-er; su-er &nd. new-er ; 
tru-er, brew-er, and do-er ; bow-er and 
flow-er ; are perfect rhymes to mare, 
hire, lore, cure, poor, and hour." To 

sloo'jB, groo'jB, sauu'jB, m'uu'jB, 
truu-;B, bruu-jB, duu-;, baV;B, 
fla'wjB), where ^ might be used for 
;, are always dissyllabic ; but mayor 
mare precisely, = (mee'), and (loo', 
ktww', pww') are distinctly monosyllabic, 
though diphthongal, while hire, hour, 
involving triphthongs, are looser respec- 
ting the final, so that (naV, aV) or 
(Ha'i^'h, a'w 'h) may be heard, but 
not (na'rjB, aVjs) in two syllables, 
according to present usage. For past 
usage see examples from Shakspere, 
p. 951. I acknowledge having heard 
Mr. Smart's semi-dissyllabism in some 
elderly people, and was much struck 
by it in the late Sir John Bowring's 
evidently much studied pronunciation, 
but I cannot recognize it in my own 
generation, and I was born in 1814. 
55. " a slight semi-consonant sound 

between No. 4 and No. 58, heard in 
the transition from certain consonant 
to certain vowel sounds : as in 1'ute, 
j'ew, nat'ure, g'arment, k'ind." This 
"is a sound so short and slight as to be 
lost altogether in the mouth of an un- 
polished speaker, who says (luut, dzhuu, 
n6e[i - tshua'), or more commonly (neeLi 1 - 
tsha'), garment, kind, etc., for I'ute, 
few, etc. On the other hand, there 
are persons who, to distinguish them- 
selves from the vulgar, pronounce No. 
58 distinctly on the occasions which 
call for this slighter sound of No. 5$ 
or No. 4. This affected pronunciation," 
[which he writes 1- yoot, j^-yoo, 
na'-ch^-yoor, g^yar'ment, k yind,] 
" be it observed, is to be avoided with 
as much care as the slight sound, which 
in the mouth of an elegant speaker 
naturally slides in between the con- 
sonant and the vowel, is to be imitated." 
I believe the sounds he means are(L_tuut, 
dzh[mu, nee|_rtshLzi(', gjaa'me^nt, 


kja'md), but, in consequence of No. 58, 
I transcribe this "semi-consonant" by 
(LJ). As respects its use after (sh), 
Prof. Haldeman says : "If, by the 
conversion of i into English y or zh, 
o-be-di-ent becomes o-be-dyent (the 
writer's mode of speaking) or o-be- 
dzhent, no speaker of real English can 
preserve both dzh and i; yet "Walker 
has coined a jargon with such forms 
as o-be-je-ent, and cris-tshe-an-e-te. 
Similarly if ' omniscient ' has an s, it 
has four syllables; if sh, it has but 
three. Compare the dissyllables Russia, 
Asia, conscience, and the trissyllables 
militia, malicious" (Anal. Orth. art. 
311). Smart, using the transcriptions 
suggested, writes (o-bir-dient = 
o-biid'-jent, knst'-ja^n), colloquially 
(knst'-shLJa^n), where the separation 
of (t-sh) is inorganic, (kn's:-ti-aen--i-ti, 
Am-nt'shM-ent, Am-m's--si-ens, Ee'[ish-- 
-J9 ffi n Ee:-shi-get'-tk, B,8sh--[j8 8e n, 
kAU'-shijens, mi-b'sh-- L J8 a , ma3 9 -hsh'- 
L jas). I seem to say (obii'di -mit, 

88'm'tt, omm'sh-j> Bnt, 
-Z&'shB-E?:slu;8B'h'k, Ra'shBn, ko-nshBns, 
im'lrshe, mBlrshas). It seems that 
many of these changes of (s) into (sh) 
through (i) are in a state of transition, 
and that the stages are (-si-B, -S-JB, 
-shi-B, -shi-B, -shB), and that those 
speakers who have learned to speak in 
any prior state have a sort of repulsion 
against a following one, and will never 
submit to it, when they think of it, 



that is, in ' careful speaking,' leaving 
the change to be accomplished by the 
rising or some following generation. 
The admission of all pronunciations as 
now coexisting, instead of the stigma- 
tisation of some as vulgar or as wrong, 
marks the peculiarity of my standpoint, 
whence I try to see what is, rather than 
decide what should be. 


56. "h, as in Aand, perAaps, ve/*e- 
ment, is a propulsion of breath, which 
becomes vocal in the sound which fol- 
lows it, this following sound being 
hence called aspirated." As * propul- 
sion ' may be an ' elegant ' translation 
of 'jerk,' I transcribe (H{h). "And 
the sound which follows is in our lan- 
guage always a vowel, except w and y; 
for w is aspirated in wheat, whig, etc., 
which are pronounced hweat, hwig, 
etc., and y is aspirated in hew, huge, 
etc., which are pronounced hi/55, hyooge, 
etc." Hence I transcribe (Hjhwiit, 
Hjhjuudzh). " It is to be further 
noted that the aspirate is never heard 
in English except at the beginning of 
syllables ; " [that (ezs) is really (?'zjh), 
and might therefore be well called a 
final aspirate, naturally never occurred 
to him,] " and that in the following 
and all their derivatives h is silent: 
heir, honest, honour, hostler, hour, hum- 
ble, and humour." The two last words 
are now most frequently aspirated, just 
as Smart aspirates herb, hospital, which 
may still be heard unaspirated from 
well-educated people. I heard a phy- 
sician, speaking at a hospital public 
meeting lately, constantly say (o'spztel). 

57. "w, beginning a syllable without 
or with aspiration, as in we, bet^are, 
froward, wheat equivalent to hweat, is 
a consonant having for its basis the 
most contracted of the vowel-sounds, 
namely No. 27, which sound, being 
partially obstructed by an inward 
action of the lips, and then given off 
by an outward action, is changed from 
a vowel to a consonant. A comparison 
of the French word oui, as a French- 
man pronounces it (viz. No. 28, No. 3, 
accent), with the English word we as 
an Englishman pronounces it, will 
show the difference between the vowel 
and the consonant." This is (w). 

58. "y, beginning a syllable as in 
you, and this sound is always to be 
understood as present in Nos. 9, 10, 50, 
which are equivalent to y, with Nos. 

27, 28, and 52, is a consonant, having 
for its basis the slenderest of the 
vowel-sounds, namely, No. 3," [what 
is the precise difference between " the 
slenderest "and " the most contracted " 
of the vowel-sounds? Who would 
imagine them to be respectively (ii, uu) 
and not (uu, ii) ?] " which sound being 
partially obstructed by an inward action 
of the jaw carrying the back of the 
tongue against the soft palate, and then 
given off by an outward action, is 
changed by these actions from a vowel 
into a consonant. "When very slightly 
uttered, with little of the organic 
action, and therefore resuming much of 
the character of a vowel, it is No. 55." 
Hence, I transcribe No. 58 by (j), and 
No. 55 by ( L j). 

59. " s and ss ; also c or sc before e 
or i, as in sell, sit, mas*; cell, face, cit, 
scene, science," is (s). 

60. "z, zz, ze, as in zeal, buzz, 
maze," is (z). 

61. " sh as in misA'-un, so spelled to 
signify the pronunciation of mission," 
is (sh). 

62. " zh as in vizA'-un, so spelled to 
signify the pronunciation of vision," 
is (zh). 

63. "ch, tch, as in chair, each, 
match," is (tsh), see No. 64. 

64. " j ; and also g before e or i, as 
in /og; ^em, a^e, yin," is (dzh). Nos. 
63 and 64 " are not simple consonants, 
the former being t and sh, and the 
latter d and zh." Prince L. L. Bona- 
parte considers that Smart's observa- 
tions in No. 147 tend to shew that, 
notwithstanding this statement, Smart 
really analysed (tshj, dzhj). But to 
me Smart's observations only relate to 
the use of (tsh^, dzh[j), as he says in 
Nos. 61, 62, 63, and 64, that these 
consonants are "unable to take the 
consonant y [No. 58] into fluent union, 
and therefore either absorb the y en- 
tirely, or reduce it to the slighter 
element" No. 55, here transcribed 
(|_j). Of the possible reduction of 
(shi/) into (shj), he seems to have had 
no clear conception. Thus, he takes 
no notice of (Ij nj). His coup tfceil, 
bagnio are (kuode**!*, ba3n'jo). But 
his habit of speech may have been 
different from his analysis. This is 
often the case. Thus Mr. Murray and 
myself analyse my own pronunciation 
of "long a" differently (1109, d). 

65. "f, ff, fe, as in/og, cu/, li>," 
is (f). 



66. " v, ve, as in vain, low," is (v). 

67. " th, as in thin, ipith," is (th). 

68. "th, the, as in them, with, 
breathe," is (dh). 

69. " 1, 11, le, as in fet, mill, safe," 
is (1). The last syllable of able, idle, he 
says, is " a syllable indeed without a 
vowel, except to the eye," adding in 
a note, " A.-ble, e-vil, ma-son, broken, 
etc., although heard with only one 
vowel, are as manifestly two syllables 
to the ear (all our poetry proves it) as 
any dissyllable in the language." 

70. " m, mm, me, as in may, hammer, 


tune," s (n). 


'n, nn, ne, as in no, banner, 

'ng, as in riw^," is (q). 

; r, rr, as audibly beginning a 
syllable or being one of a combination 
of consonants that begin a syllable, as 
in ray, erect, florid (=florrid), torrid, 
pray, spread. Under other circum- 
stances, the letter is a sign of mere 
guttural vibration." This " is an 
utterance of voice acted upon by a trill 
or trolling of the tongue against the 
upper gum." Again, in No. 33, he 
speaks of r in ray, etc., as " formed by 
a strong trill of the tongue against the 
upper gum." ["This would be (r), but 
I shall transcribe (r), as I have tran- 
scribed (n), see No. 78. But that the 
trill is strong is ' strongly ' opposed to 
Mr. M. Bell's untrilled (r ).] "The 
trill in which the utterance of this 
consonant mainly consists, is often 
faultily produced by the back of the 
tongue against the soft palate " [mean- 
ing the uvula, which is the real vibrator, 
against the back of the tongue], " so 
formed, it makes the noise called the 
burr in the throat, a characteristic of 
Northumbrian pronunciation, and not 
unfrequent in particular places and 
many families elsewhere." The bun- 
is (r), the dental trill is ( v r). 

74. " p, pp, pe, as in pop, supper, 
hope," is (p). 

75. "b, bb, be, as in bob, rubber, 
robe," is (b). 

76. " k, ck, ke ; also c final, and c 

before a, o, or u, or a consonant, as in 
king, hack, hake; antic, cat, cot, cut, 
claim," is (k). 

77. "g, before a, o, or u, or a con- 
sonant, as in ^ap, ^ot, ^un, <7ess, pla^we, 
0rim," is (g). 

78. "t, tt, te, as in -*en, maer, 
mate, is an utterance of breath confined 
behind the tongue by a close junction 
of the tip of the tongue and the upper 
gum, the breath therefore being quite 
inaudible, till the organs separate to 
explode, either the breath simply as in 
at, or the breath vocalised as in too." 
If the contact with the gum is to be 
taken literally, I must transcribe (,t), 
and must then have (,r, x d, x n). I am 
inclined to believe, however, that in all 
cases Smart was contenting himself 
with old definitions, instead X)f making 
independent observations ; and hence I 
shall use (r, t, d, n). 

79. " d, dd, de, as in den, madder, 
made," in consequence of what is said 
in No. 78, 1 transcribe (d). See No. 78. 

As Smart makes no difference in 
meaning when a consonant is doubled, 
I shall not double consonants in tran- 
scribing, and in consequence I shall 
not divide syllabically, as this would be 
impossible on his plan without such 
reduplications. Smart distinguishes 
two accents, primary and secondary, 
which I transcribe as () and (:), and 
place after the vowel or after the con- 
sonant as he has done. "With regard 
to monosyllables, he says (art. 176) 
that they are all " exhibited as having 
accented vowel-sounds." But as he 
makes unemphatic =No. 24 or (a a ), 
rn=Nos. 70 and 4, or (mi), your=* 
(ja'), am, was had, shall, and,=(Q Sd m, 
waz, Hjha^d, she 88 !, a ffi nd), /or=(fa'), 
of= (av), from = (fram) ; my, by = (mi, 
hi), and thy "among people who 
familiarly use it"=(dhi), and the = 
(dhi) before a vowel and (dha a ) before 
a consonant, and you " in the accus- 
ative case and not emphatic " = (ji) or 
(ja), I shall so transcribe them in 
the connected passage, but I omit the 

Some of the words in the example are not in Smart's Dictionary, 
such as graphical, phonetic, linguistical, and inflexions and derivatives, 
such as its, printed, etc. His pronunciation of these has been in- 
ferred from graphic graphically, phonology mimetic, linguist sophistical, 
and the simple words. Altogether I believe that the transcription 
fairly represents the original. 





See pp. 1091-1173. 
Dhi3-rrt'n im-prrntyd 

i3-dhi3-sa'M f nz 
^'-mirnz BV- 
kae'rykfrezs, whrt^sh-Br 
tinsBfr shunt, both-m-ka'r nd 
Bn-na-mbB-r, Bn-whrt x sh 
mes-dhee' *f A bii:-ki3mba'fnd A- 
mo-dflfaVd, f-wfc-WBd-grv B- 
grae-fkBl B&mlraltzM'ah.'Bn B- 
dhB-fone'tflk e -laments wdh- 
oo'nli sa'm-dflgrii: BV- 
egzae'knys 'n-kBHvii'm";Bns, 
HBz-birn, frem-AA*! ta'im, fe- 

i : nd* v djt 


not ekse*ptyd, wa'n- 
B-dhB mos-ne'sesBr* 
< en-w8'ii-'B-dhi3 mos- 
drfek'lt Bv-pro-blBmzs, Bn- 
BZS-ko*nsk0Bnll*" skee^slt 
e've bin-HEe'p^'b' solvd. .Let- 
dhrs tii't^sh-Bs dliBt-ctlie- 
;*nsliBn Bv-ra'rttq, dhB- 
gr^'tyst ^n-moo'st 


aez-it-mdii'd AAimost 
eksii'dz tts-stre'qth, 
HBz-bin-oo'f n ^n- 
no't a'nd^zhais 
t'B-dh'B-gO'dz ; la'fk-dh* 


srmp'l-'n ko-mpleks, t'z-not- 


Prof. S. S. HALDEMAN. 

See pp. 1186-1196. 
Dha |_rj'tn ynd p[_rmtyd 
Lrep^^zent^-sliyn yvdha sawndz 
yv Iseqgwidzh. baj minz yv 
kae'|_rykUz, whw^tsli ai 
msafrshynt, both m kajnd 
yn na*mb^, ynd wlrwtsh. most 
dhiufo^ bi kambaynd A A I 
modyfajd f wi wwd g*v 8 
g|_r8B*fkl simbljizeshyn yv 
dlia fonet*k e'lymynts w"dh 
o'nli sain d^'g[_rii yv 
egzaektnes ynd kenvirnjyns, 
b*n, f^am A! tdjm fA A i 

az wel yz 
ndyv'd.raylz [mdyvidznylz] 
Kqgw*st*kl strwdnts 
not ekse'ptyd wan [won] 
yv dha most n^'sysy[_r 
ynd wan yv dhy most 
dtftk^lt yv p[_roblymz, ynd 
nhaez kons^kwyntb' skE'Jslt 
ev^ bm nheepyle sA A lvd. Let 
dlus tiitsh as dhat dha 
mvEnshyn yv (_rajt'q, dha 
gl_r(?tyst n most 
tmpA A utnt mve'nshyn 
whwtsh dha jhjMwmyn mdond 
nhsez e'v^ med, ynd whwetsh, 
8Dz it mdii'd AAlmost 
eksii'dz its streqth [strenth ?] 
nhsez bin A A fn [ofn] ynd 
not andzha-stb' set L rrbjytyd 
ta dha gA A dz ; lajk dha 
oigyn^zm yv a &tet t aet wans 
srmpl yn kompleks, iz not 
dha wa^k yv mdyvrdjwylz 
bat yv se-ntr^jja^/ 
yv thawzndz yv jiiiz. 



See p. 1196. 

rE:pr'z'nteysh'n-'v-dh' saoayo'ndz 
-'v-lae'qqgwe^zh 'b^'y-nmrnz-'v 
-k9e-re l ktahz w:tsh-'r- 
i: ns'f r sh'nt b ^(5o u : th-e'n-k^y *nd- 
'n-na-mmbah 'nd-wrtsh-m'st- 


e 1 gz8e'ktne 1 s-'n-k'nnY.rn,r'ns 
Hh'z-b&Yj:n-fr'm-AA'l-ti3T3y:ni f- 
n^ysh'nz 'z-wE:ll-'z- 
t : nnde 1 vr dzh jj Iz, 
Kqqgwrste^'l, -strwwwd'nts- 

' v-dh' -m N do u : st-nE s' sre 1 
'nd-wa:nn-'v-dh'-m s <5o u :st- 
drfe^'lt-'v-pr^obble'mz, 'nd, 

. Lstt 

-dhtrs-tiJ-tsli-'s dh't-dh'- 
-'v-rB'ytiq dh'- 
n-m^o u : st- 


y z-e l t-i'z 


t'-dh'-g^o-ddz, l^ik-dhe 1 - 
A'ah-g'mrzm-'v-'h-steyt, ' 
-srmpl-'n-k x o-mplE:ks, e^ 
dh' waah'k-'v-e:nnde l vrdzl 
b't-'v-SE-ntsh're's, prae'ps- 


See pp. 1197-1205. 
Dha a n't'n a ffi nd prmt'ed 
repirizenteeLi'shan av dha a saaundz 
av leq-gwe e dzh, bi miinz av 
kaer-aekta'z n^hw'tsh aa' 
in:saf*sh'( jent, brfoi uth in ka'ind 
a ffi nd nanvba' a ffi nd k{hw/tsh mast 
dhe'-foa' bi kamba'ind- A' 
mAd'ifa'id if wi wud giv a* 
graefika 86 ! smi:balizee(_rshan ay 
dha a fonet'ik el-iments widh 
d^Lun-li sam digrii* av 
egzaekt'nes a w nd kAnvii'niens, 
bin fram AA! ta'im fa' 
a ffl z wel a^z 

a 86 ! sfcruu'dents 
nAt eksept'ed, wan 
av dha a mdoLUst nes'esa w ri 
a^d wan av dha a md0|_ust 
difikalt av prAb-lemz a ffi nd 
H[ha ffi z kin'sikwentrli skee'a'sli 
eva' bm Hjhsep'ili sAlvd. Let 
dhis tiitsh as dha re t dha a 
mven'slian av ra'rfoq, dha a 
gree(_it*est a^nd md^LUst 
mipAA > a'ta 8e nt mven'shan 
H|hw*tsh dhi H^luuTi'ma^n ma'ind 
H^lia^z eva' mee[id, a^nd Hjhwi'tsli, 
a^z it mdiid- AAl-most 
eksiid-z its streqth 
H[ha ffl z bin: Af'n a^nd 
nAt andzhastii 8e 9 trb'JTited 
tu dha a gAdz, la'ik dhi 
AA^ga^n/zm av a a stee^t a"t wans 
smrpl a ffi nd kAm'pleks, iz nAt 
dha a wa'k av in: dived ' 
bat av sen'truriz, p 
av thaau-za^ndz av 



All the above specimens of pronunciation labour under the 
obvious disadvantage of being the result of deliberate thought. 
Mr. Bell's and Mr. Smart's, like those of all pronouncing dictionary 
writers and elocutionists, give rather what they think ought to be 
than what they have observed as most common. They take to 
heart a maxim which Dr. Gill borrowed from Quintilian and stated 
thus: " Quemadmoduw in moribus bonorum consensus, sic in 
sermone consuetude doctoruw primaria lex est. Scriptura igitur," 
by writing, he, as a phonetic writer, implied pronunciation, 
"omnis accommodanda erit, non ad ilium sonum quern bubulci, 
quern mulerculae et portiores [sic, portitores ?] ; sed quern docti, 
aut culte eruditi viri exprimunt inter loquendum et legendum." 
Eut my object in this book is to know what men did and do 
habitually say, or think they say, and not merely what they think 
they ought to say. I have therefore endeavoured to catch some 
words which were not given as specimens of pronunciation, but, being 
uttered on public occasions, were, I thought, fairly appropriable. Of 
course this attempted exhibition of some pronunciations labours 
under another immense disadvantage. "When Prof. Haldeman, Mr. 
Sweet, and myself wrote down each his own pronunciation, we 
were each able to repeat the sound, feel the motion of the organs, 
revise and re-revise our conceptions as to what it really was, and 
thus give the result of careful deliberation. But when I attempt 
to write down a passing word, and the very merit of my observa- 
tion consists in the absolute ignorance of the speaker that his sounds 
and not his sense are being noted, there is no possibility to recall 
the word, and unless it happens to recur soon, I am unable to cor- 
rect my first impressions. I have indeed often found that after 
hearing the word several times, I have been unable to analyse it 
satisfactorily. Still, knowing no better method of observing, I give 
a few results to shew what it leads to. I name the speakers when 
they are well-known public men, whose speech-sounds may probably 
be taken as a norm, as much as their thoughts. They will under- 
stand, that they are named, not for the purpose of " shewing up " 
peculiarities, but of enforcing the fact that men of undoubted 
education and intelligence, differ in pronunciation from one another, 
from pronouncing dictionaries, and from my own habits, so that the 
term "educated pronunciation" must be taken to have a very 
"broad" signification. It must be understood that all these pro- 
nunciations were noted on the spot, as soon as possible after each 
word was uttered, and that I have in no case allowed subsequent 
impressions to affect my original note, which I have regarded as a con- 
scientious, though of course possibly erroneous, observation. When 
(e, o) are written, I can never feel sure that (E, a) were not actually 
used. When, however, (E, a) are written, they were certainly 
observed. No attention having been paid at the time of noting to 
the difference between (H, sh), the use of H cannot be guaranteed, 
and (nh) is often more probable. In each case I have thought it 
best to add my own pronunciation, as well as I can figure it, for the 


purpose of comparison. This is always placed last, and is preceded 
by a dash. Thus, in the first word cited, " accomplished seka-mplasht 
Bko-mpl/sht," the italics indicate ordinary spelling, the first 
palaeotype the pronunciation observed, the second palaeotype, 
following the ( ), the pronunciation which I believe I am in the 
habit of using in connected speech. If nothing follows the dash, 
my pronunciation agrees with that observed, but both disagree from 
several (and possibly, but not necessarily, all) pronouncing diction- 
aries. When no dash is added, my pronunciation differed too slightly 
to be noted. In no case, however, must these notes of my own 
pronunciation be taken as a confirmation or correction of the former. 
They are added merely to mark differences of habit. Such men as I 
have cited by name have certainly a full right to say that their 
pronunciation is a received English pronunciation at least as much 
so, I think more than as much so, as any professed elocutionist. It 
may be observed that my list is not extensive enough, and that 
especially I have not given examples from the pronunciation of 
professed men of letters, from the bar, the stage, or the pulpit. 
This is true. All these classes labour under the disadvantage of 
making speech a profession. I have an idea that professed men of 
letters are the worst sources for noting peculiarities of pronuncia- 
tion ; they think so much about speech, that they nurse all manner 
of fancies, and their speech is apt to reflect individual theories. 
However, Prof. Bain may be taken as one of the best examples. 
The bar has rather hereditary pronunciations, where they are not 
individual and local. The stage for the higher class of dramas is 
archaic and artificial ; for the middle and lower it is merely imita- 
tive, and hence exposes an observer to all the chances of error in 
taking information second hand. The pulpit is full of local pro- 
nunciations, but Professor Jowett, distinguished and admired as a 
preacher as well as a scholar, may be considered a sufficient repre- 
sentative of this class. Men of science I have especially represented. 
They are forming a large and influential class at the present day. 
The general Londoners in public meeting assembled seemed to me 
a good source for general varieties. Parliament is far too local ; 
and so are country gentlemen, from whom its ranks are mainly 
recruited. Of course it must be understood that the peculiarities 
which I have chosen to note do not characterise the general run of 
the pronunciation of the speakers observed. It must not be assumed 
that every word is peculiar, or that the greater number of words 
present divergent characters. Thus the word& from Prof. Bain and 
Prof. Jowett are all that it occurred to me to note in two courses of 
lectures a very small number when thus considered. The general 
speech of educated London differs only in certain minute points, and 
in a few classes of words, so far as I have hitherto observed, from 
that which I have given as my own. Even in the cases cited, 
where I have put my own for contrast, the differences are seldom 
such as would strike an observer not specially on the look-out for 
individualities of pronunciation. 




Words observed in listening to a 
course of lectures on " Common Errors 
on the Mind," delivered by Prof. Bain 
at tbe Royal Institution in May, 1868. 
Prof. Bain had evidently considered 
well both his pronunciation and de- 
livery, so that all his deviations from 
custom must be regarded as the result 
of deliberate choice, although possibly 
modified by local habits, as in (boodh) 
for (booth). And as Prof. Bain has 
bestowed considerable attention on 
phonetic writing, no allowance need be 
made for possible Scotticisms. I do 
not feel at all certain that (a'i, a'u) are 
correctly analysed. 

accomplished aeka-mph'sht eko-mpU'sht 
advantages sedvaa-ntydzh^/z sedvaa'n- 


against you age-nstjuu Bge-nst* JU 
aghast se^aa'st Bgaa'st 
alternation AAlteanee-shen 


a solid ah so-led B so-Kd 
a strong V stroq 
away -ewee* vwee f 
beau ideal boo edejarl 
both boodh booth 
branch brahntsh brantsh braantsh 
cessation siis^'shen ses^'sh'Bn 
circumstances si'temstaenstz saarkem- 

circumlocution sakamlokuu'sh'en saa: - 


class klaas 
classes klae'sz'z 
compounds ka-mpaundz ko - m 
consummated konsa-meted 


contrast ko'iitraast 
crafty kraah fti kraa 'ft* 
dance dsens daans 
economised iiko-namaizd e 
educability ediukabrlttt 
effect ife-kt efe-kt 
engine e'ndzhain a'ndzhm 
epoch ii'pok e-pok 
example egzaanrpl 

ee sh^n 

extolled ekstoo'ld eksto'ld 
eye a/i a't 

faculties fae-kaltez fae- 
fatigue fnhtirg fetii'g 
force foors fuurs foo's 
forth foorth foo'th 
fraternity fiwtarmtt 
fraternize frset-Brnai'z 
functionary fa-qkshaiier? 
genus dzhen-asdzhirnas 


good guud gwd 

handicraft Hse-ndtkrseft Hse'nd&'kra:ft 

H8e - ndikraa:ft 
hardly naa-rdh' naa-dh' 
heroine HU - ro;ain ne-rojm 
heterogeneous Het'arodzhirnias ne:tB- 

hold noold ? Hoold 

human jhmrni'en 

ignorance t'gnarBns 

implanted tmplse-ntyd impla'ntyd im- 


important empoor't^nt 
inexorable me-gzarabl 
initiative tni'SttBttv m r sh \ve,ii\ 
intrinsically mtrrnztkBk' zntrrns- 


irrespective n % aspe*ktv i:respe'kttv 
isolation disolee sh^n 

' T tti 

last laast 

learners lerniz ha - ni3zs 

lesson les-en le'SBn 

maturity msetj uuj'rttz - 

mass maas 

master maa'sta maa'ste 

miracle me-r^kl mrrekl 

modern thought mo'dren thAAt mo'dun 


musician miuz rshan nuuz rsh^n 
mutual miu-tju^l mmu'tm;^! im'tiu'- 

titi'l mz'fiu'tshBl 
narrow naa-ro^ nae TO 
natural nse-tjurel nse'tiwrel naB'tshrel 
obedien ce obir d J ms obii' d ; yns 
path paath 

peculiar pikiu'lzjj pfk6u'ltjB 
person pavsn paa'sn 
plastic plse'stik 
plasticity plaastrsitt plsestrstt* 
practice prae'ktz'z iprse-ktz's 
prejudice pre'dzhudais pre'dzhwdt's 
pressure pres'iur pre'she 
processes pros'eszz proo'sysyz 
purport paa-po'rt >paa'pt 
relativity relBti'vett re:lBti'vVt 
says seez sez 

sensibilities se-nsabfl/tz'z sernsebrltt^z 
sentient se'nsh^nt se - nsh|_zj^nt 
soar SAAJ soo' 
speciality speshiaB'h'ti' 
spirits sprrets sprrits 
spurring spaTi'q spaa-rzq 
stoical sto f kBl stoo-^'k^l 
student stshuu-dent stzuu'dynt 
suited suu'ted stfiirtyd 
system srstam st'stym 
task taask task taask 
-testimony te stzmom te'stmiBni 
thorough thoro tha-ro tha're 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



thoroughly thoraK thoroU' tha-roh' 

transition trsenz/slr'en, traensj'zh'Bn 


tutors tjuu'taz tniirfrezs 
understood a-ndastuu'd 9:nde;stwd 
variety vBraHtt 
volcanoes volka? -nooz volkaa-nooz 
want WAnt wont 
was was woz waz 
whole Hool woo'wl 


the Master of Baliol College, Oxford, 
in February, 1871, gave three lectures 
on Socrates at the Royal Institution. 
The following are a few of his pronun- 
ciations there noted. 
aspirant ae'sp^rent sespaV'rent 
attaching himself to him setae'tshm- 

bone looo'wn boon ? 
but that the famous b'at-dh'at-dh L - 

fermas ba't-dhBt-dhe fee-mas 
certain sa'rtn saa'tyn 
character kalrrekte kse'rekte 
Chatham tshae'tem 
Cicero srsero 
describing? him dz'skrarbi'q-mi dts- 


difficulty drfekiltt drfrkulti 
discontented drskentemtyd 
discovery drska - vm 
discrepancy dfskripenst diskre'pvns* 
due djiuu diuu 
earliest aa-Kjest aa'K;yst 
ears jii-jvz ii'z 
education e'dzhiuk^rsh^n e:diuk^'- 


eviln-yy] ii-vl 
example egzaa'mpl 
exhausted egzAA-styd 
foreign foTBn fo-ryn 
gather up gaa-dhrar-ap 
haughtily HAA'teh' naa'tt 
he has had mi'-Bz-sed mi' 
height H[haitth na't't 
highest H^harest na'ryst 

must have ma'st-^v 

natural naB-tsh^rel nsD'tshBrel nae'ttu'- 

nature n^' 

humourist jhmu'nrenst 

image rrazdzh rmedzh 

Isthmian i'smt;n e' 

knowledge noo'ledzh no'lydzh 

lastly laa-sh' laa-stlt 

lecture le'ktshe le-ktiw' 

manhood maa-nwd mse'nHMid 

mask maask 

memorabilia, me:mon3brh';e me:mBn?- 


minutiae mami'uu'shtjii mmmu'shiji 
moulds moolz moo'wldz 

oracle OTBkl 

ordinarily AA-dmarzh' AA'dmert'h' 

origin o'radzhm OTzdzht'n 

ornaments AA-n^mynts 

parallel pae-relel pse'reM 

passed paast 

persons pa-rsnz paa-snzs 

politician po:lBtrshn po:lttrshBn 

politics po'letiks 

Potidaea po'tedu' po'ttdii' JB 

process proo'ses 

society SBsarBtt sosa'rit* 

Socrates so'kretiiz 

soon sun suun 

time tai'm ta't'm 

ventured ve'ntshBd ve'nttw'd ve*ntshBd 
virtue vaa'tshu vaa'tzu vaa'tshw 
whole HOO! HOO'W! 
Xenophon ze'msfen 
years jii'jvz Jn'z 


Astronomer Royal and President of the 
Royal Society, made use of the follow- 
ing pronunciations while speaking at 
the Royal Society, 30 Nov. 1872. 
components kompoo'nents kampoo'- 


geodesists gii:odirsz'sts dzht;o'diststs 
geodesy gii:odii'Si dzlu'p'disa' 
Greenwich grirnwrtsh grrmdzh 
meridional mirrdt;oo-nael mnri'd^Rlvl 
New Zealand m'uu ze'lend nz'uu 

Nova Zembla noo'\ee ze'mblo? noo-VB 


stereoscopic ste'i' 'n'ojsko'ptk ste'rw; - 
sko'pik [some say (sttV'rt'oskoo'pt'k)] 


when delivering his opening address as 

President of the British Association at 

the Norwich Meeting on the 19 Aug. 

1868. I believe Dr. Hooker is East 

Anglian by birth. 

accumulated akymyl^:ted Bkuhrmiti- 
l^:tyd. [N.B. The first, accented, 
(y) was rather indistinct and very 

alone alo-n Bloo'wn 

are ee' aa 

bones bonz boo'wnz 




CHAP. XI. 1. 

cantonment kantutrnment kae'nten- 

either ee-dlre [not (**)] ii-dliB a'rdhu 

/<?# fry [perhaps (fey), the word was 
difficult to catch, and I noticed it 
only once] fzuu. 

finite frmt [in the phrase (dhi rnfrm't 
en dhB frmt), this pronunciation was 
altogether new to me, though I have 
often heard (rnfa'ma'et) as opposed 
to] (fa'rna'it) 

Lawrence lAA'n/ns [not (!A) or (lo)] 

only o-nli [not at all uncommon] 

neither nee'dhe nii'dh'e na'rdhe 

plants plahnts plaants 

progress pnrgres proo gres [there is 
great diversity in the words pro- 
duct progress, many give (pro) and 
others (proo) to both; I say (pro-dakt 
proo-gres), but Col. Strange at the 
same meeting said (proo'dakt, pro-- 

quote kot [quite short (o}~\ kwoot 

series sir; n; iiz sn' - M jiiz 

stone ston stoo'wn 

undertaken a-ndst^'kan [distinct (kan)] 

wholly Tio'li Hoo'lk' 


Only a very few cases are here given, 
chiefly remarked at meetings of the 
British Association. Men of Science 
have usually many very curious local 
pronunciations, and others arising from 
using words for themselves from books 
long before they have heard others use 
them. There seems to be no tradition 
or norm for scientific terms, and if the 
pronunciation is such as to bring the 
printed form of the word to mind, men 
of science care very little for the pro- 
nunciation of scientific terms. Many 
of the following are certainly dialectal, 
but all the speakers were educated, 
often very highly educated men. 
absorbed aebsAA'pt sebsAA'bd 
albumen aeibjumen seibniu'men 
anesthetics senesthirte'ks senesthe'ttks 
antidotal 8e-ntdoo:tBl aentrdotel 
appearance apirjryns eptV TBHS 
aqueous arkwzas ee-kwias 
asteroids sestii'-rojiAz [Prof. Stokes] 

constitution konstitjVshen ko:nstt- 


contrive kantrarv krantra'rv 
doubt dout da'wt 
dry dra'i dra'i 
electrolysis ile-ktrola'i-szs iirlektro'- 

endowment endoo-im/nt [Prof. Huxley] 

enda'w my nt 
equidistant e'kwch':stent ii:kwudrs- 


estuaries ii'stju^rz'z e'stiu;en'z 
experiments ekspaa-rtm^nts ekspe*n- 


explicable eksplrkebl e'ks 
find faB'ind fa'ind 
gaseous gaa'zzas [Prof. Stokes], 

[the late Mr. Babbage] j 
haste Ha3st netst 
introducing introdjuu'sjt'q rntrodj'uu*- 


larger Ise rdzher laa'dzhe 
Lausanne losaa-n losan [equal stress] 
^oo^ laus loos 
lungs laqgz laqz 
moon mun [Sir "W. Thomson], mu'n 

[the late Prof. Rankine] muun 
paragraphs paa-ragraefs [the late Prof. 

Kankine] pa3 TBgraafs 
Paris paa-ris pa3'n's 
past pa3st - paast 
phi = (f>, fss'i I'a'i 
pulsates pwlsets - 
pulsative pu'\$etiv 
pidse pwls pals 
put v. pat pwt 
round rahund ra'wnd 
size saiz sa'iz 

before bifoo-r bifoo'* 

class klaes klaas 

commander komse'nd^ 

comparable kompee' TBbl ko'mperBbl 

compare komp^.r kempee'* 

strata strsese- 

substantial sabstaa-nshel sabstse'nshid 

systematising st:ste;matai'ztq srstB- 

transactions trsensaB -ksraz traansre -k- 

wind n. wa'md wmd 

The following were noted at public 
meetings. The speakers are separated, 
but the names not being generally well 
known, are withheld : 

A Peer, 
rise rahe'z ra'e'z 
adoption Bdo'pslren 
observing obzaa'viq 
last laast 

large laaLrdzh(P) laadzh 
framers free'nrez [not free] fr^' 
paragraph pse-r^graaf 
brighter brahrto bra'rts 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



darkness daa'irkn/s(?) daa'knys 

record re'kAAQ [in law courts (rekAA'd)] 

trained x t x r<?md(?) trand 

conversant ko'nvesBnt [(konvaa'SBnt) is 

director deYfe'ktB dj're'kte [and (da'zi-) 
occasionally, when used emphatically] 

agree a3grir [with distinct ()] Bgrii' 

only oo-nli [not (oo'w-), and (<rnh') is 
common] oo'wnli 

bazaar bBzaa'' b^zaa* 

forth foo'th [the ('h) was uncertain] 

two or three years tw-A-thri-jn'z 
A Noble M.P. 

samples sae*mplz [generally, once at 
least (saa'mplz)] saa'mplz 

decide dz'sard [long always (at) or 
(at)] ds'sa'rd [long i never (ai), 
which I reserve for aye, and thus 
distinguish eye, aye as (a't, at)] 

parcels pwslz paa - selz 

/ dare say ae daa see [not (see'j}] s'i 
daa see'j 

time tEqhaVm [brought out very em- 
phatically, not the ordinary pronun- 
ciation] taVm 

idea azdii'Br [distinct final trill] 

A General Officer, 
resolution re:z01uu'shim 


century se-njtshBn' se'ntt'tiri 
further faa'dhB faa dire 
/ have had it a'z'Bv Ha3-dj't 
serious sii' 'ri; as sii* -ri ) as 
always AA'lwez [short (e)] 
cholera ko'lwB 
pass paas [distinctly long] 
my lord nulAAd- [(r) distinctly absent] 

Clergyman (Irish ?) . 
chairman tshE'-nren tshee''mmi 
pray pree [distinctly (ee)] 
say see s^'j 
name neem neem 
gracious gree - shas 
staff staef [very thin(ae), almost (E)] 


class kla3s klas klaas 
thanks tha3qks 

command kora -maa-nd k^maa'nd 
ask aahsk [compare class and command'] 


kind kjahi'nd ka'z'nd 
guidance gjahrdens ga'rdens 
our bur [1 think trilled (r)] aV 
course kooes [the (s) inclined to (sh)] 

intercourse rntekAAS [possibly (-koos)] 


Physicians, various. 

rotation rotersh'en [not (Wj)] 

anxiety seqjsa'rt'tt' [not (seqks-), nor 
(aeqz-)] aeqza'rttt 

future fiuu-tshB fiuu-tiV 

vote voot [not voo'wt] 

hospital o-spitBl [this one speaker in- 
variably omitted the aspirate in this 
word only, even to the extent of 
saying (B no-spitBl) for an hospital ; 
an archaism] HO'spi'tel 

kindness kHarndn L es [probably due to 
emphasis] ka'rndnys 

write rhrat't [or nearly so] ra'tt 

across akroo's Bkro-s Bkrao's 

behalf bt?Ha3-f binaa-f 

appreciate Bprn'*sht j 

really rn'-K [rhyming to clearly 
fkro**lt), some say (rii'Bli), and 
jyriii*] is heard, but conveys the 
notion of reefy, i.e. inclined to reel] 

strengthened stre-qth'nd [not (stre-nth- 
'nd), as Prof. Tyndall and very many 
speakers say] 

known noown [the () distinct] noo'wn 

Professional and Commercial Men. 

support supporting SBpAA't SBpoo''tt'q 

st?poo't SBpoo'*tt'q 
empowered empn^hau'd [strong (n{h) 

due to emphasis, the same speaker 

said (ptqhow')] empaV'd . 
literature IrtBrBjtshB IrtBretAi' 
clearance k'hln'Tens klu' TBUS 
engage eng^'dzh [not (g<9<?'j)] 
closely klo-sk' [short (o)] kloo' 
surprised SBpnra'rzd sspra'rzd 
policy piqho-lBS/ po-h'sz 
correlation kHoo:relee'shBn koTt;l*'- 


only o-nli [short (o)] oo'urnli 
burden baa-dn 
progress pro'gres-proo'grLes 
halfpenny H?<rpm [not (ee 1 ])] 
importance {mpooB'ttms impAA'tBns 
management marmdzhniLnit meD'n- 


absolutely 83'bsoh'utlt 
four foo' 

fivepence fa'rvpras frpBns 
year 3ii 
pounds pa'wnds 
office ooh-fts (?) o-ft's [(AA-fis) is not 


hundred nhE-ndBd na-ndrj/d 
naturally na3'tshBrBh' nwti&rvli 
homoeopath Hoo'mijopa3t [(-paet) dis- 




financially fa'tnee'nslreK fmse'nslreK 
[the (fa's'-) arose perhaps from em- 
phasis, but I have heard (fa'mse-ns)] 

adherents aednn'-rynts 

premature pre-msetniw' prii:nretiww' 

expenditure ekspe'nd^tske ekspe-n- 

additional sedrshtjrrel 

sought for SAA'tfA 

regarding rigaa'dtq [not (gjaa) which 

is common] 
fund fund fand 

humanity Hiumse'mti jhwmiB'm'ti 
cards kaadz [tendency to (kj)] 
board boo'd [no tendency to (boo')] 
advantage eedvee -ntedzh sedvaa-ntedzh 

[(!-) P] 

make m^k' [no tendency to (<?<?'j)] 
abstain sebstern [no (ee'j)] 
homes Hoomz [no (oo'w?)] 
puncture pa-qktzV [clear (t)] pe-qktw' 
appreciation 8eprii:sij<?<rshuen 'eprii'- 

strongly v s v t x ro'qK [some speakers seem 
to have a great difficulty with (str-) 
initial, and hence are led to dentalise 
the combination; it is remarkable 
that ( v t v r)frequently occurs in dialects, 
although ( N t) and ( x r) are no longer 
recognized English sounds] stro-qh' 

returns rita'rnz [merely the effect of 
emphasis, the speaker has no dialectal 
peculiarities] n'taa -nz 

there should be daa:shedbii' 

remarks rmah'ks [I could detect no 
vowel after (r)] nmaa-ks 

parcels palrrsslz [trilled (r)] paa-sylz 

industry rndarstra rndestri 

plants plahnts plaants 

world wohrld [certainly provincial] 

immediately i'mii'dzhytl* [very common] 

*mii de'eth' 

samples sahmplz sse-mplz 
circumstances sa-kemjstahinsez saa-- 

importance e'mpAA'tns ampAA'tena 

Young Educated London. 
The following were furnished me by 
Mr. Sweet as " the transcript of rather 
a broad London pronunciation of a girl 
of about twenty, which has some in- 
teresting features." He particularly 
calls " attention to the substitutes for 
(ee, oo), which were evidently trans- 
itional stages to (alu, ahw), with which 
indeed they may be easily confounded 
on a superficial examination." Mr. 
Sweet's own pronunciation is added 
after (...) when it differs, and mine after 
( ) as before. Except in my own case 
the (H) represents (nh) most probably. 
See Mr. Sweet's own pronunciation, p. 

one waoam ... wann wan 
ask aask ... 
err aah ... aa 
eye aa'e ... "w&'y aV 
me nm'j ... mii 
hid mid., Hz'dd ... m'd 
may UIEE'?,' ... nWy mee'j 

.Egg eg 

air EE'ah ... ee' ee'r 
add sesed sedd sed 
how naeae'o ... Haoao'o na'w 
two tuuw ... tuu 
pull puul pwll ... pwll pwl 
owe oo'o ... 0o'o u oo'w 
awe AA ... 
or AA'ah ... AA A or 
odd ood od ... od 
joy dzhoo't ... dzhoo'y d v zho'i 

These examples are amply sufficient to shew that considerable diver- 
sities of pronunciation exist among educated speakers of all classes, 
even when speaking with the greater care usually taken in public 
delivery. That great differences of opinion exist among orthoepists 
is well shewn in "Worcester's and especially Soule and Wheeler's 
pronouncing dictionaries, 1 which, although not descending into the 

1 "A Manual of English Pronun- 
ciation and Spelling ; containing a full 
alphabetical vocabulary of the language, 
with a preliminary exposition of Eng- 
lish orthoepy and orthography; and 
designed as a work of reference for 
general use, and as a text-book in 
schools, by Richard Soule, jr., A.M., 
and W illiam A. Wheeler, A.M." Boston, 

U.S., 1861 ; London, Sampson Low, 
pp. xlii. 467. An extremely con- 
densed and useful little book, not lum- 
bered with meanings, and giving the 
opinions of Walker, Smart, Webster, 
Worcester, Goodwin, when they differ. 
Hence this vocabulary may be used as 
a compendium of these five writers' 


minutiae attempted in the preceding lists, save me from loading my 
pages with a complete vocabulary of xixth century varieties of 

Now whence do these differences arise ? 

The most obvious source of difference is that in fact there is no 
such thing as educated English pronunciation. There are pronun- 
ciations of English people more or less educated in a multitude of 
other things, but not in pronunciation. Children are* never trained 
in the proper exercise of their vocal organs, or have their ears 
sharpened to appreciate differences. It would not be at all difficult 
to train the young organs, if only the teachers knew anything about 
it. We devote years of upper school life to the study of classical 
languages, and enter deeply into their etymology, but we do not give 
the least practical instruction in the substantial form of language 
speech-sounds, or their relations to one another, on which depend 
the principal changes which claim our attention. 1 The consequence 
is that pronunciations grow up now much in the same way as they 
did six hundred years ago. There is only one important difference 
facility of communication. It required the War of the Roses to 
make an English of England, and the War of the Commonwealth 
to temper that down into the mother of modern speech. But now 
people are being thrown together witih the greatest ease and rapidity 
from all parts of the country. Still, it is the opening of life which 
principally determines pronunciation. Children hear few speakers, 
chiefly those of their own age and standing. They regard not the 
voices of adults beyond those of a few familiar friends. Their 
vocabulary is limited, extremely limited, and when they grow up 
they learn more words by eye than by ear ; hence they acquire 
habits of families, schools, coteries, professions, businesses, localities. 
Their organs become fixed ; they notice from others only what they 
themselves say. It is not polite to correct even a friend's pronun- 
ciation; a stranger resents the impertinence. But still " young 
men from the country," or with narrow habits of speech, often get 
laughed out of their peculiarities. More, still, of a lower class of 
life ape those of the upper when they get mixed up among them, 
and strive hard to change a pronunciation which might betray their 
origin. But all this has a small influence. In the main the most 
educated pronunciation in English is local, with its corners more 

1 One of my kind assistants, who is never written. The collections of 

collecting materials for a local glossary, letters must suggest the sounds or 

said that I had opened his eyes ; he had nothing at all. A glossary of collections 

hitherto thought of words, and not of of letters to which the right sound can- 

their sounds. To think of a word not he even approximatively given, is 

independently of its sound is the out- really no glossary at all. We might 

come of our school instruction. In just as well perhaps better give a 

schools a word is a sign on paper, to meaning to a current number, for that 

which different persons may give could be pronounced (in his own 

different sounds, and which some people manner) by every one. Yet this, I am 

a long way off and a long time ago, in sorry to think, is the state of most of 

Greece or Italy, pronounced we don't our provincial glossaries at the present 

know, and we don't care, how. But in day and I am afraid for most I ought 

writing a glossary we are writing words to have said all. 


rubbed off than it was fifty or a hundred years ago, but still essen- 
tially local, using that word as applicable to all limited environ- 
ment. The language, however, contains thousands of words which 
are not used in ordinary conversation, and concerning which ex- 
traordinary variety prevails, as we have seen. The pronouncing 
prophets themselves, the Buchanans, Sheridans, "Walkers, and their 
followers, have no principle to go on. They have had wider obser- 
vation, but most of them make up their minds a priori, upon 
limited inductions, and men of literature disown their authority. 
Is it possible to arrive at any principles amid this chaos ? 

Our language consists essentially of two elements, which, for 
brevity, we may call German (Anglo-Saxon with Scandinavian), 
and French, (Norman with French, Latin and Greek). Now the 
German element really presents little or no difficulty. Our German 
words are familiar, and their dialectal forms are generally widely 
different from the received pronunciation of educated people in 
London, at court, in the pulpit, at the bar, on the stage, at the 
universities and, in a minor degree, in parliament, and in the 
lecture-room, on the hustings, and in public meetings. The diffi- 
culty for most people lies with the French element, which is pre- 
ponderating in the vocabulary, but is comparatively rare in speech, 
and which our wonderful orthography is totally incapable of invest- 
ing with a vocal garb. Those who know Latin and Greek are 
therefore apt to imagine that they should shew the Latin and 
Greek origins by pronouncing the words much as they would if 
they were written with Latin and Greek letters. Hence such curi- 
osities as (doktraVnel, mfl'ma'rkel), I have not heard (soVva'al), 
although surely cwilis has as much a right to its (aYz) as doctrma 
and inimlcm. It was in the same spirit that Prof. Stokes spoke of 
(sestn'To^'dz) from ao-rrjp, (although this becomes a(TTpoei$ijs, 
which should have led him to (asteT0;aYdz), and I recollect that 
the late Prof. Traill of Edinburgh always insisted on the termina- 
tion ( ojaYd) in similar words,) and Sir G. B. Airy used (gii:odirsi) 
from 7*7, (although the Greek is yecoSaio-la), and (mirrd/;00'n9el) 
from meridional-is. But this is, I conceive, a mere mistake. Our 
language was formed at a time when the pronunciation of Greek 
and Latin even in England was totally different from that now in 
use. Almost all our old words which can be traced to Latin and 
Greek came to us in a French form, and received their pronuncia- 
tion and accent from our mode of dealing with French words. It 
would seem therefore most reasonable to suppose any Greek word 
to be first Latinised, then taken as French, and finally put into 
English. This will not exactly answer for those more recent words 
which have been taken from Latin and Greek by persons who did 
not know French, and which have hence preserved the Latin forms 
more closely, but even then it gives a principle. Thus, remember- 
ing o-rator, se'nator, the Scotch are more consistent than the Eng- 
lish in saying cu'rator; and remembering geo*metry,geo'graphy, it is 
more consistent to say geo'desy ; and similarly demonstrate is more 
in accordance with our plan of accenting French words than 


demonstrate. This principle will make us independent of Latin and 
Greek quantity, which had ceased to be felt in Italy and Greece 
long before words were introduced into English. We must say 
(ae-nuk^bl), not (^ma'rkt?bl), or (ttre'rkttibl), which would be real 
foreignisms; we must say (vrkteri), not (vtktoo'-ri), Latin victoria, 
although we say (Wktoo'-ngas), for which (v*ktoT;as) would be 
more analogical, and we do not make the last syllable (-00s), not- 
withstanding Latin -osus ; just as we make -al=(-vl\ notwithstand- 
ing Latin -alis. For a similar reason a final unaccented -ice, -ite, 
-ine, -ise, should have had ('), not the (a'a) now so general in recent 

A difficulty arises with respect to French words recently intro- 
duced which retain their French form. As long as the persons 
using a word are conscious of its nationality, they make more or 
less successful or feeble attempts to imitate the French pronunciation, 
so that we get ennui (onwir), aide-de-camp (00'd^koA), coup deceit 
(kuupdooaoV'l), envelope (o'nvaloop), environs (o'nvmm), chef d'ceuvre 
(sh0<?duu'vi3) coup d'etat (kuuditaa*), and similar hybrid monstrosities. 
When the words remain French, they must take their chance, but, 
when possible, they should be anglicised on the old French models. 
A list of the oldest French words used in English is given in the 
Appendix III. to Dr. Morris's Historical Outlines of English Acci- 
dence (2nd ed. 1872). But without this knowledge, we see that 
(e'nvBlap, envaV'renz) are good English. Perhaps (tshiif, mmmu've) 
would hardly preserve (tshiif-duuive) from being ridiculous, and 
hence the English ' masterpiece' is preferable. Bayonet is given as 
(loee'onet, b0<rjanet) by different orthoepists. I have never heard 
any one say so. (Bee' -net) is usual in civil life, but (bae-net) is 
heard among officers and (bes'gimet) among privates. All similar 
French technical words should have their English technical pro- 
nunciation assigned. As for the modern Indian words, they ought 
to receive the pronunciation current among English residents in 
India. The old Arabic words have already a character of their own, 
and cannot be touched. But it is really a pity that we dare not 
simply anglicise them, as the French unreservedly gallicise all 

The above remarks are meant simply to draw attention to the 
subject. I have so often and so explicitly renounced all claim to 
dictate on English pronunciation that my " ought, should," etc., 
cannot be taken to mean more than emphasised suggestions, con- 
sequent on the adoption of a proposed theory. 


Before closing this section, I feel that some notion of American 
pronunciation should be given. This stands in a totally different 
relation to received English from the provincial. It is rather 
traditional English, as was seen by Noah "Webster's remarks (pp. 
1063-70). Americans generally claim to speak English without 
provincialisms, and in the sense in which English provincialisms 
exist, namely as distinct dialectal forms, with historical pedigrees, 



CHAP. XI. 1. 

at least as respectable as the received form of speech, the claim is 
correct. But in the sense that local pronunciations do not clearly 
exist, I have good American authority for saying that the claim is 
unfounded. Owing perhaps to this absence of dialects, Americans 
consider that, on the whole, they speak " better" than the English. 
I do not pretend to decide as to " better" or " worse," but 
certainly they speak "differently" from the English; that is, 
despite of the many admissible varieties of received English, the 
American varieties are inadmissible from an Englishman. A few, 
a very few, Americans seem to have acquired English habits, but 
even then a chance word, such as (tr^'jt) for (tree* j) = trait, reveals 
the speaker's home. The intonation is rarely English, even when all 
nasality is absent ; but this is a point I purposely omit to notice, 
though it is often the most striking peculiarity the speakers exhibit. 

a personal friend of my own. He lived 
in Virginia for the first 21 years of his 
life, Avhich, he tells me, in "pronuncia- 
tion differs from the North as Naples 
from Florence, Baden from Berlin, or 
(almost) Yorkshire from London." 
After that he came to the North, and 
acquired new habits of speech, which 
again, in the last few years, have been 
crossed by London associations. Hence 
some of the points noted may belong to 
different localities in the United States. 
1 have not noted Londonisms of course. 
The pronunciations are noted from his 
public speaking. In private conversa- 
tion the differences were not so marked. 
Of course there is more than usual 
doubt as to the exact sounds in this and 
the following case, owing to the greater 
difference between the speaker's pro- 
nunciation and my own, which is added 
after a ( ) as usual. 
acorn ee'jkun. erkAAn 
already A A -lre:d/ Alre-dt 
apparent epee t r L ent upee'Tynt 
Aryan eer&nm aa'rtim 
atonement Btoo - nm/nt etoo'nmynt 
Boston BA A- stn Bo'sfren 
career keree' km'*' 

classes tlah'S|_* 

comeliness ko -mimes ka -mltnys 
commune komimrn ko'rm'riun 
construed konstrwwd ko'nstruud 
data daa'te dee-ta 
discretion d tskrrsh' n d/skre-sh^n 
divine dtvaa'rn dm'rn 
doth dooth-dath. 
dreary drn'-rt dm'-r* 
elements e-lenvents e-b'mynts 
fossil fo-sl firstl 

gelid ge'lz'd dzhe-lt'd 

grapple gratrpl grae-pl 

great grEEt gr^'jt 

guidance aa*-d|_8ns ga'rduns 

harassed nseraa-st Hse'rast 

home Hoo'm Hoo'wm 

importance e'mpAA'tLans smpAA'tens 

leniently len- * L entK lii-m; until 

mendicant mE-nd|/k[ant me-ndtkgnt 

mercantile ma-kimtil 

momentary moo-mentarz moo- mentor t' 

most moost moost 

motion moo'sh^n moo'sh^n 

mouth mohwth ma'wth 

museum imuuzzi3m mmzii'Bm. 

notion noo'shn noo'shen 

own 'oonh OO'WVL 

Palestine Pa3'l/stiin Pae-lesta'm 

perfect v. paafe'kt paa-fekt 

puerile pyer*'! pta'*rtl 

robes roo'bzs roobz 

room rum ruum 

Satan see'tnh 

secular sii'ke' 

sophistry soo'ftstrt flO' 

stone stoon stoo'wn ston stoo'wn 

substratum S8bstraa'tem 

sure syy' shuu' 

swamps SWA Amps swomps 

testimony tE-stzmoom 

throne throon throo'w;n 

used [= accustomed"] jyst 


highly educated, graduate of an Ame- 
rican university, with quiet manner, 
good delivery, and evidently carefully 
studied pronunciation. 
afford ffifoo'-d "efoo'-d 
always \-lwez AA'lweez 
apportionment apoo'-shnmynt epoo'-- 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



before bifoo';B bifoo'* 

both booth booth 

career k^jrn'r km'** [the final (-nr) 
was very marked, not even (-n'r)] 

character kalrrsekti? kse-rekte 

Chicago shikAA'goo 

chivalric shtvae'lrtk tshrvelnk [this 
is one of the new importations ; 
chivalry as an old word should be 
(tshrvtjlrt), see supra p. 682, v. 45).] 

class tlaas klaas, [but tl-, dl-) are very 
usual initials in place of (kl-, gl-) in 

closer klo'SB kloo'wsu 

combative kambee-ttv ka-mbete'v 

compared kGrnpnee'-d kmnpee'-d [pro- 
bably the (pn) was accidental] 

culture ka-l;tsh kd'lttV [but (-tshi?) 
is quite common in England] 

demand dtmaah'nd dtmaa-nd 

difficulties drfekaltiz di'fflreltfe 

dog doog dog 

economical erkono'im'kl ii:kono'mek^l 

educator e'dzhwk^tAA* e'diuk^'te [the 
(edzhw) is not uncommon in Eng- 

egotism ii'got/z'm e-gotz'z'm. 

embarrassment embah'rasmynt em- 

err 3388 

expenditure ekspe-nditshiw' eksp-ndz- 
tiw' [or (ekspe-ndijtshn), the latter is 
very common in England] 

first faahst fra'st faast 

forth foo' th foo' th 

funds famdz fandz 

girls ^aoaolz ^aalz [this is one of the 
most difficult words to note in Eng- 
lish ; it is perhaps the only word in 
which I persistently palatise (g\ as 
(gaalz) is very harsh to my ears ; of 
course (gaelz) is very common, and I 
have heard (^ffi'lz) as a studied pro- 
nunciation. See (1156, c').~\ 

home Hhoo'wmm noo'wm 
importance e'mpAA'tns mpAA'tsns 
introduce rntrodwws mtrodztius 
leisure lirzhe le'zhe [(lii'zhB) is not 

uncommon in England, but it is 

located lo'k 
long lAAq loq 
marsh mah'sh maash 
Michigan Mrshtgen 
mischief rm'sjtshirf mt'8;tshrf 
mutual nu'fortfthtfral mtdu-ttd;^! [but 

(mtuu'tshBl) is very common in Eng- 
naturally naB'tshturch* nsB'ttureli [but 

(tsh) is quite common in England] 
new m'y na'y (?) muu [the diphthong 

was very difficult to catch] 
no noo[u noo'w? 
none noon nan 
only o*nlt oo'wnli [but (o - nli) is not 

uncommon in England] 
open oo'p^n oo-pn 
parent pee'rynt pee' Tjmt 
prudent pra'ydynt pruu'dynt [see 


radius re'dt'as ree'&ids 
St. Louis Sent Luu'z's 
say seeeii see') [this was an accidental 

society sssahr iti 

store stoo' stoo' 

sure shiyy' (?) shww* 

surely shurijla't' shww' ! 

surveillance SBvrljens suvee'lyens [this 

is one of our unsettled importations] 
test tE E st test 
towns tna'wnz ta'wnz [the (tn) was no 

doubt accidental] 
traits treats tree'jz 
holy nho'lt noo'lli 
wrath raath rAAth 
wrong rooq roq 

year Jtt 

One of the most striking features of these pronunciations in con- 
nection with older English pronunciation is the continual cropping 
up of (oo) where we have now (oo, oo'w) and again the use of (oo', 
oo ;i3), for (oo') which has still more recently tended to (AA J , AA) for 
-ore. The diphthongal forms for ew, u, are transitional, from (eu, 
yy), and are difficult to catch, but seem to confirm these two as the 
generating forms. Some of the pronunciations are, however, pro- 
bably of American development, for our language has been culti- 
vated with great care in the TJnited States, not only in literature, 
but in orthoepy, and the pronouncing dictionaries there published 
are much esteemed in England. 

Although perhaps not quite in place, I here insert some American 
words and observations on diversities of American pronunciations 
furnished me by Dr. J. Hammond Trumbull, of Hartford, Connec- 



CHAP. XI. 1. 


ticut, U.S., and Mr. Charles Astor Bristed, of Yale Coll., Connecti- 
cut, U.S., and Trinity College, Cambridge, England, in 1871. Dr. 
Trumbull gave the pronunciation in Glossic, which I have transliter- 
ated. Mr. Bristed has not written pronunciations systematically ; I 
have inserted palaeotypic interpretations to the best of my judgment. 

F.L.S., Truro, 1871.] Almost all 
N.E. fishermen know how to (gsenz) 
or, as many pronounce it, to 
(gsenzh, geendzh) a hook though, 
the word is not in our dictionaries. 
Here, the ganzing by which the hook 
is secured to the line, and the line 
protected, is done by winding them 
with waxed linen thread or silk twist 
(Fr. ffanse), whence I suppose the 
name, and not from Fr. 'gauche,' 
Sp. 'ganacho,' a hook. 

Gumption, (ga-mshan) ; more common, 
colloquially, in N.E. forty years ago, 
than it now is. I never heard the p 
sounded. (Hii-z noo ga-mshan) or 
(Hii iieent got noo ga-mshan) . 

Lean-to (addition to a building), 
(Irnte). Conn, and Mass., the com- 
mon pronunciation, among farmers, 
etc. I never heard (lii-ntuu, lirnti). 

Mich, v. (miitsh), part, (mii'tshm). 
Connecticut, farmers, laborers, etc., 
as in speaking of a dog or cat 
(goo'm mii-tshm raund), or of a 
(pwi mii'tshm fe'le). 

Refuse, adj. and n., (re'fmdzh), and 
sometimes (raiaedzh). JN".E M lumber- 
men, joiners, provision dealers, etc. 
for the lowest merchantable quality 
of any description of goods. In a 
' Boston paper of Dec. 3, 1716, I 
find advertised, " Refuse alias Refuge 
Fish " for sale. Common twenty 
years ago, but much less common 

Whoppet, (who'pz't). A harmless cur, 
or mongrel dog. Connecticut, and 
elsewhere in ISew England. Com- 
mon, in the rural districts, though 
omitted by Bartlett and Webster. 
Wright, Proy. Gloss., has "Whap- 
pet ; the prick-eared cur." Here, 
the name has a larger denotation. 

South Carolina. 

The inhabitants of Charleston, and 
all the Southern and South-Eastern 
part of this State, pronounce initial w 
(whether at the beginning of a word or 
syllable) like v. Like v to me ; per- 
haps you would call it (bh) or German 

Cade, bred by hand ; cosset, 
This old English word is still in use 
by farmers, etc., near Newport, R.I., 
who talk of ' cade lambs,' ' cade colts.' 
I have not heard of it elsewhere in 
the U.S. 

Char, v. and n. (tshooj) always, I be- 
lieve, in the U.S., except the oc- 
casional (tshaaa) and pi. (tshaaaz) of 
laborers and farm servants. 

Bogie, Boguy, a bugbear, (bwgi3). 
Common, among boys and the un- 
educated, in Connecticut. (Dh' 
bwgi3z-'l ke-tsh-ji). 

Drool or dreul (druul, drrwl), for ' drivel,' 
used everywhere by mothers and 
nurses. The latter is the less polished 

Ewe. Commonly (jiuu), but twenty 
ago I very often heard (joo) from 
farmers, butchers, and others in 
eastern Connecticut and R. Island. 

Eft ( = Newt), (e-vtt, e-vet). Common 
in Conn. ' Newt ' is rarely used ; 
'eft' (monosyll.) never, I think. 
(A.S. efete.) 

Fice, Fise, (fat's). A worthless dog, 
a cur. Virginia and the southern 
States. Common, though I have not 
met with it in print, except in a 
Choctaw-English Vocabulary from a 
southern mission-press, 1852. Com- 
pare,_/o's^, '''foisting cur" (Nares), 
'fice] in Grose, 'fast, fice, Jist,' 
Wright's Prov. Gloss. 

Fillip, n. and v. (flz'p), always. I 
never heard it as a dissyllable in 
N. England. 

Gambrel, roof, (gse'mbl garmbel). N. 
England, common ; thirty years ago, 
nearly universal. 

" to Ganged In a list of "words com- 
mon at Polperro in Cornwall," in 
Notes and Queries, 1 S., x. 301, I 
find this word with the meaning : 
" to arm with wire the line attached 
to the fishing hook.'.' [" To gange 
a hook is to arm it and the snood 
round to prevent their being bitten off 
by the fish. ' ' Glossary to the History 
of Polperro, by Jonathan Couch, 

CHAP. XI. 1. 



w (which I own myself unable to dis- 
tinguish from v). This peculiarity is 
common to all classes, except those of the 
upper class who have lived in Europe 
or at the North. They are not aware of it. 
I cannot find any European origin for it. 
It is supposed to come from the negroes. 
Teachers from the middle of the State 
have told me that the boys from the 
central and northern districts pro- 
nounce w in the usual and correct way. 
[Prof. March, in his letter to me of 22 
March, 1872, from which I have 
already so largely quoted (1092, c. 1143, 
e), says: "A^large part of the people 
of this region (Easton, Pennsylvania, 
U.S.), which was settled by Germans, 
do not use their teeth for English v, or 
make with w the usual English sonancy, 
and they are said, therefore, to exchange 
w and v. I dare say the facts are the 
same at Charleston, South Carolina, of 
which Mr. Bristed speaks. I have heard 
it said that the South Carolina change 
was started by German market gardeners 
about Charleston, but one would think 
that there must have been some general 
tendency to this lautverschiebung, or it 
could have hardly gained currency, as 
it has, among that proudest and pre- 
cisest of colonial literary aristocracies. 
It looks like it too, that they sound r 
like w, or drop it. Mister is Mistoow 
(mi-stuuw?) they say, one of my slight 
diphthongal ws, I suppose, if really 
any." In another part of his letter he 
had said : "As to the naturalness of w, 
I notice that my children, just catching 
sounds, not only make w in its own 
place, but also for other letters, regularly 
for r," [in which case perhaps it is a 
substituted lip trill with tense lips, or 
(ra), see (9, cd),] "and for wh they 
make /. This last is an unknown 
change here in mature speech." As to 
the American interchange of v, w, see 
Webster's remark (1067, d) relating to 
Boston and Philadelphia, where he 
observes w used for v, which in the case 
of Philadelphia Prof. March, no doubt 
correctly, has just ascribed to the in- 
fluence of German w (bh). There is a 
well-known cockneyism by which (v, 
w) are said to interchange in England. 
"We all know that old Weller in Pick- 
wick spelled his name with "a we." 
Dr. Beke considers, from personal ex- 
perience, that the sound is really (bh), 
which is heard as (w) for (v) and as (v) 
for (w) ; and he believes that in Naples 
and Rome there is k the same tendency 

among the uneducated to substitute 
(bh) for (v). This opinion was con- 
tained in a private letter, in answer to 
another gentleman, who informed me 
that he had heard- Komans, especially 
Roman beggars, use (w) for (v). I had 
never noticed this habit myself when in 
Rome, and my son, who was in Rome 
at the time when I received this infor- 
mation, did not succeed in hearing 
more than an occasional German (bh), 
with which sound he was well ac- 
quainted. But more recently a Scotch 
lady informed me that she had certainly 
heard (w) and not (bh) for (v) in Rome. 
It is x a point requiring investigation, 
and as it has considerable philological 
interest, I think it right to draw atten- 
tion to it here. I have never been 
fortunate enough to hear (w, v) con- 
fused in London, naturally, off the 
stage and out of story-books. But I 
recollect when a boy hearing people 
at Canterbury regularly saying what 
sounded to me as (wsen) for van, and 
one respectable pianoforte tuner, after 
vainly trying to say view, bringing out 
something like (wuu). But this was in 
days when I had no notion of German 
(bh). The confusion of w and v is also 
reported from East Kent, and East 
Anglia generally. The Charleston con- 
fusion, however, is a remarkable pheno- 

[In a later communication Mr. 
Bnsted adds :] We (that is, all Ameri- 
cans except the Carolinians aforesaid, 
and possibly the Southern negroes 
generally ; I am not sure on this last 
point) say hwen, putting the aspirate 
before the digamma, so that, were the 
monosyllable prolonged to a dissyllable, 
it would be (mien) or (Inren). [See 
(pp. 1142-3).] The Carolinians who 
say v (or what I call v) for w, do not, I 
think, mix any aspirate with it ; they 
say ven, not hven. But I am not 
absolutely certain of this. [In his 
original notes respecting South Caro- 
lina, Mr. Bristed added :] Also common 
to all classes, and also unconscious, is 
the old re-actionary Anti-Irish pro- 
nunciation of (ii) for (ee), cheer for 
chair. But it seems confined to some 
words, e.g. they don't say fear (fiir) for 
fair (feer). [Writing subsequently, he 
says on this point :] I have discovered 
that the last century pronunciation 
(tshiir) [the trilled (r) in this and the 
following examples is possibly an over- 
sight] for chair is not so common in 



CHAP. XI. 1. 

South Carolina as I had supposed. 
On the other hand, I have found in 
some of the best educated Charleston- 
ians the still more archaic pronuncia- 
tion (eer) for ear, e.g. (feer) for fear, 
(reer) for rear, (beerd) for beard, etc., 
etc. Not having a nice musical ear, I 
will not be certain that the sound is 
quite as long as (ee), but for practical 
purposes it is the same; proof, I first 
observed it from supposing that a friend 
had said fare when he meant to say 
fear. (Beerd) for beard is heard in 
other parts of America (and of England 
I suppose), but the general substitution 
of (eer) for ear seems to be Carolinian. 
The pronunciation is involuntary, and 
acknowledged by the natives to be 
heretical ; it is not like their (kjard) 
and (gjard), of which they are proud as 
of shibboleths. It is never found with- 
out the r ; no Charlestonian would say 
(peez) for peas as an Irishman does. 
[Considering that some of the earliest 
cases of ea sounding as (ii) occur 
before (r), these archaisms are very 

Gulf States generally. 

All classes, from Virginia to Georgia 
inclusive, have a sort of shibboleth of 
which they are proud. It is the old 
Sheridan and Walker insertion of y 
before a after initial c and g ; gyarden 
for garden, kyard for card. I believe 
Sheridan and Walker only inserted the 
y when a is followed by r ; but our 
Southerners say kyamp for camp. [This 
means possibly only (^aa'dn, Aaad, 
ytaemp).] I do not know how far this 
pronunciation extends westward ; for 
instance, if it is found in Alabama, I 
am pretty sure it is not in Mississippi, 
and a fortiori in Louisiana and Texas. 
New England. 

All but the best educated New Eng- 
landers make an insertion before ow 
final in monosyllables. Probably most 
persons would explain this insertion as 
a nasalized. I don't think so, e.g. I 
don't think the New England cow is 
like the first syllable of the Spanish 
causa. Some make the insertion . 
I consider it y. Eyow for cow, nyow 
for now. [Probably (k&'u, njse'w), see 
the extract from Webster (1066, *'). 
If there is nasality, it will be (km' t u, 
nja3',tt).] Whatever nasalization there 
is, seems to me to lie in the diphthong 
itself, not in the preceding insertion. 
I think this is clear from polysyllables, 

e.g. around, where there is no insertion 
that I can detect, but there is a nasaliz- 
ation or twang. [Possibly (ura3>nd) see 
(136, d).] The New Englanders some- 
times lengthen o into au. Nauthing 
(or more commonly nauthin) for no- 
thing. [Possibly (nA A> thm) or merely 
(no-tlu'n), which would be more his- 
torical.] On the other hand, they fre- 
quently substitute u (a) for o (00), stun, 
hull, for stone, whole. The substituted 
vowel is the pure and simple English u. 
The New England pronunciations of 
stone, whole, are precisely the English 

words stun, hull. [They sound to me 
1) than (stan, Hal).] 
There is, however, one word, in which 

more like (ston, hoi) than (stan, Hal). 

the people of Massachusetts (not the 
other New Englanders, so far as I have 
observed) substitute o for o. That 
word is coat, for which they say cot (kot). 
It is just possible the sound may be a 
little longer than cot (kot), but it 
certainly is not so long as caught, or as 
Italian o aperto. [The Italian o aperto 
is by no means always or generally 
long, so that I attributed a medial 
length to this vowel ; but in a sub- 
sequent letter Mr. Bristed says:] Since 
I wrote to you, I have observed that 
the Massachusetts pronunciation caught 
for coat, about which I was doubt- 
ful, does exist; within a fortnight I 
have heard it, as broad as possible, 
from a lady. Some Massachusetts men 
maintain that the short sound usually 

ern Mass.) to the of coat is not o, but 
the short sound of o, a sound which, if 
it exists, has a constant tendency to 
run into u or u. [Short (0) certainly 
seems to exist in English dialects and 
in America, but it is frequently mis- 
heard as (a), and it is singular that in 
Mr. I. Pitman's phonography (00, a) 
are represented by marks which should 
systematically represent them to be the 
long and short of the same sound. All 
this again is attributable to the relation 
of (a, o) and (a, oh), where the vowels 
in each pair are due to the same position 
of the tongue, and differ only by the 
"rounding" or "lip-shading." This 
again leads to the common affected 
drawl (aa'oh) for (00). In the same 
letter Mr. Bristed notes having heard 
root made (rut), rhyming to foot ; and 
deaf called (diif), see (1069, c), by edu- 
cated speakers. He adds :] Nearly all 
the New Englanders say testimony and 

CHAP. XL 1. 



The pronunciation fort'n, nat'r, 
[possibly (fAA-tn, n^-te)] for fortune, 
nature (the very shortest possible in- 
distinct vowel substituted for u), was 
traditional in New England, and only 
went out in the present generation. 
[It is xvn th-century English.] When 
I was a boy at Yale College (Con- 
necticut) in 1839, some of the older 
professors &aidforfn, ncit'r, etc. 

The Bostonians and the people of 
Eastern Massachusetts generally are 
popularly accused of superfluous final 
g: capting, Basting, for captain, Boston. 
Or to be more accurate, they are 
charged with substituting ng (q) for 
various short terminations. I have not 
observed this particularly in them. It 
seems to me a vulgarism general in 
both England and America. Dickens's 
Mrs. Gamps and Hay's Western 
Colonels say parding for pardon. But 
I have observed that the 1 Bostonians 
lay unusual stress on these short final 
syllables. This winter [1870-1] a 
Boston young lady observed to me, 
"You New Yorkers say, 'the chick'n 
goes up the mount'n.' " I retorted, 
" What do you say ? The chicking 
goes up the mounting ? " She replied, 
" No, the chickenn goes up the moun- 
tenn." (That is the nearest I can 
come to literating her.) [Possibly 
(tshrkkEnn, mawnntEnn), exaggerating 
for the purpose of illustration. Smart 
marks (tshtk-en, maau'nt^n). I think 
(tshrktn, maVnten) or (-tm) are com- 
mon. But (tshrkn, mau-ntn) or 
(tshrken, maVnten) are disagreeable 
to my ears. Some persons likewise say 
(La3*tn, Ssein, pwdn), but these sounds 
are going out of use.] 

New York. 

I am a native New Yorker, though 
not now resident in the State. This 
fact disqualifies me in a measure from 
noticing our peculiarities. Indeed, I 
know of but one, which has come up 
in the better classes within the last 
twenty years, and is (I think) more 
common with young women than young 
men. It consists in dropping medial r, 
and thinning the indistinct vowel before 
it into a very short e, e.g.fest (fet) for 
fast. [I have myself noticed in many 
Americans a tendency of this kind in 
the pronunciation of the word America, 
from which the r seems to be lost, or 
not trilled at all, and the e curiously 
obscured, something like (ama-jike), 

with a tendency to (am9-)r c tka 
8ma-;rka), but the vowel used for <?, 
for which I have helplessly written (a), 
does not glide on to the following (r , r) 
in the slightest degree. But the same 
speakers pronounce a trilled .(r) before 
vowels habitually in other cases.] 

Western States. 

I have never been in them, and only 
know from common report that among 
the less educated classes, the pronun- 
ciation (a, aa) for (ee). is universal. 
Bar for bear, far for fair, straunger for 
stranger. [Possibly remnants of (b^aer, 
fa333r, straae-ndzher), misheard. Mr. 
Bristed finds a difficulty in understand- 
ing (ae> 8883) in palaeotype, which seems 
to him " to embrace all sorts of sounds, 
from the shortest continental sound of 
a to ordinary English a. This," says 
he, " causes confusion. I am not sure 
how you pronounce plaid; it seems to 
me that you call it plad." I call it 
(pleed), and it is curious that the Ameri- 
can Worcester gives no other pronun- 
ciation ; I have heard (pleed.) called a 
Scotticism, which Mr. Bristed thinks 
the only right sound, as he says of 
mine, it "is surely a mistake, according 
to Scott's rhymes plaid, laid, maid, etc. 
Perhaps your (aeae) is that fifth sound 
of a, ai in fair,' given in the old 
dictionaries, Walker, etc., which to me 
has always seemed a myth, I mean I 
can't make out any difference between 
fair and fare." Walker made none, 
but I have adduced these facts to shew 
what difficulties variety of pronuncia- 
tion throws in the way of indicating 
sounds by keywords. As to fair, etc., 
however, the sound may really be (aa), 
and not (). Such sounds occur 
dialectally in England.] 

General Americanisms. 
We all (except perhaps some of the 
negroes ?) sound distinctly the h of 
initial wh, just as Irishmen, Scotch- 
men, and North-Countrymen do. This 
I believe to be the only universal 
Americanism. There is a great differ- 
ence between the speech of (most) 
Englishmen and (most) Americans, but 
it is a musical difference rather than a 
letter-power difference. We pitch our 
conversation in a monotone ; English- 
women appear to a green American to 
be just going to sing when they talk. 
[The English return the compliment 
with interest, which reminds me that 


a Pole, whose language to an English. whom the fourth sound was unknown, 
ear is all hiss, told me, after hearing Goodrich gives all four sounds ; but just 
Hamlet, that the English words sounded as Cull only acknowledged (vees}, Smart 
to him as mere hisses !] Some Eng- only admits (\eez). As to the British 
lishmen think that we lengthen the i Museum pronunciation, I find on in- 
more than they. I doubt it. I don't quiry that the Antiquities Department 
think, for instance, that we say (taim) call it (vaaz), "to rhyme with papa's," 
for (ta't'm). [Many Americans do say but one of the assistants in thatdepart- 
(tat'm), and even (] All Ameri- ment says he would say (VAAZ) of a 
cans pronounce vase to rhyme with case. modern vessel to contain flowers (for 
I see you would rhyme vase with draws. instance), " in fact," says my authority, 
So does Sotheby in his Homeland I "he seemed inclined to distinguish 
am told this is the British Museum different kinds of vases by the pro- 
pronunciation. Most Englishmen of nunciation."] The vulgar pronun- 
my acquaintance sound it with German ciation of 1 for oi is very general 
a (to rhyme with grass?}. Your pro- among the less educated New-Eng- 
nunciation would be unintelligible to landers, but is chiefly confined to words 
most Americans. [ Vase has four pro- in oil, boil, spoil, etc. No native says 
nunciations in English : (VAAZ), which I by or (bai) for boy ; that is purely Irish, 
most commonly say, is going out of use, [These are all xvnth century.] I 
(vaaz) I hear most frequently, (veez) think I have found a New York 
very rarely, and (vees) I only know peculiarity, buddy, nobuddy, for body, 
from Cull's marking. On the analogy nobody, but am not quite certain if the 
of case (ktffls), however, it should be the vowel e's the indistinct u. [(Noo-bcdi) 
regular sound. I have known the is the most common English, but per- 
three first pronunciations habitual haps Mr. Bristed meant (noo ba'dt) ; 
among a party of four speakers, to was it (noo bo'di) ?] 


The pronunciation indicated by humourists in any language is of 
course not the pronunciation of the educated part of the people. 
But it must be the pronunciation of a section of the people, and 
also a widely known pronunciation, or the whole humour of its 
adoption would be lost. It therefore occurred to me that Dr. 
Trumbull's and Mr. Bristed' s remarks on existent and Noah 
"Webster's on older Americanisms would be best supplemented by 
a selection of phonetic orthographies from the works of known 

Major Downing's " Letters" appeared in the New York Daily 
Advertiser in 1833-4, and had a popularity never before equalled 
in the United States. This book was a political skit on General 
Jackson's government, and is described in the Quarterly Review, 
No. 106, as "by far the most amusing, as it must be allowed to be 
the most authentic, specimen that has as yet [1835] reached 
Europe of the actual colloquial dialect of the Northern States." 
They are by this reviewer attributed to " Mr. Davis, of the respect- 
able mercantile house of Brookes and Davis, New York." To these 
then I give the first place. The whole book is not spelled phoneti- 
cally, but about as much American orthography is introduced as 
Scott uses of Scotch spelling in his works, and this I have extracted. 
With the humourous mode of expression, the grammar, and so 
forth, I have of course had nothing to do. I quote from the second 
English edition, published by Murray in 1835, "from the latest 
New- York edition." 

Judge Haliburton's " Clockmaker ; or, the Sayings and Doings 


of Sam. Slick of Slickville" of which the introductory letter, 
attributed to Mr. Slick himself, is dated 25 Dec., 1836 is fully as 
authentic, hut the sprinkling of spellings is rather sparser, and I 
have not attempted to go through more than ahout one- sixth of the 

Charles F. Browne's "Artemus Ward his Book" is made up of 
contributions to the New York Vanity Fair about 1860. It is 
almost entirely in picturesque spelling, which is frequently merely 
grotesque, but generally exhibits specimens of Yankee pronun- 
ciation, or what must pass current as such among Americans. His 
efforts in that way met with general appreciation. From this book 
I have culled a large number of words without attempting to 
exhaust the list. 

Bret Harte's " Heathen Chinee and other Poems mostly 
humorous " have furnished me with several pronunciations supposed 
to be current in the Gold Mining Eegions of California, 

In quoting these words the letters D, S, W, H, refer to Downing, 
Slick, Ward, and Harte respectively. The addition "occ." shews 
that the spelling is only occasionally used by the writer to whose 
letter it is appended. 

One of the most striking points to an Englishman on reading 
them is that there are practically no American Americanisms among 
them. They are all old friends, known in English humourists, and 
known in older or dialectal or vulgar English pronunciation. The 
twang, the intonation, the application, all tend to give them a different 
effect, but these are absent in the bare phonetic representation. The 
orthography of the writers is left intact, and I have not ventured 
to suggest their meaning. There may be some recondite differences 
with which I am unacquainted ; but when the words are read as 
their spelling would suggest to one used to received pronunciation, 
the effect is quite familiar. 

1. Miscellaneous. 

The following is an alphabetical ar- 
rangement of some words and phrases 
which could not be easily classified. 

A. Account 'count D, acute cute D 
S H, afraid afeard D, against agin D, 
am not ain't H, are not ain't H,, Ameri- 
cans 'Merricans H, apoplexy appleplexy 
D, apothecaries pottecaries D, attention 
tenshon D. 

B. Believe bleeve W, bellows bellesses 
D, be not beant S, beyond beyend D, 
boisterous boysterious "W, by and by 
bime-by D W. 

C. Calculate kalklate D, chimney 
chirably D, Chinese n. Chinee H, classi- 
cally ? cussycally W, possibly a mere 
grotesque ; contrariness contrairiness 
H, cordial cordyal W, put apparently 
as an uncommon pronunciation, indica- 
ting "corjal" as the common? (1069, 
cb'} ; clipboards cubbords D, curiousest 
curiesest D. 

D. Damned damned S, this is given 
as an uncommon spelling, " darn'd " 
being most usual, but in consequence of 
Webster's remark (1067, cd] this will 
be given among the er- words ; diamonds 
diminds W, does not don't D, drowned 
drownded D, durst not dursent H. 

E. even almost eny most D, een 
amost, een almost S, evenly ? e'eny 
I>, ever a one ary one D. 

F. Funeral fun'l H. 

G. Gave gin D, evidently the par- 
ticiple used for the preterite, see given ; 
genuine giniwine, genwine D, give gin 
W, here we have the participle used 
for the present ; given gin D, grew 
grow'd S. 

H. Handkerchiefs handkerchers D, 
have not hain't D, hant S, have given a 
gin S, heard hearn D W, the form 
heerd also occurs, as will be seen after- 
wards ; hers hern S, his (pred.) hisn 
D, history histry W, holiday hollow- 


day D, probably a mere grotesque; 
howsoever homsumever howsever D. 

I. Idea ide idee D, idee H, idear W, 
ideas idees W, is he's H, is not ain't D 
W H, an't S, isn't H, it is not taint D, 
tante S, 'tain't H, it was not twarnt D, 

K. Knew know'd D, knoll nole D, 
this must be merely grotesque spelling, 
as tbe sound is received. 

L. Laudanum lodnum D. 

M. Mamma mam H, military mil- 
ingtary "W, Mississippi Massissippy D, 
Missouri Mizzoori H, monster monkster 
W, more than moren mourn "W". 

N. Necessity needcessity S, also in 
Irish and in Scotch, so that it is not a 
mere grotesque ; necromancy nickre- 
raancy D, never a nary a W H, here 
there is a mistaken tautology, as nary 
should mean never a, see ever a above. 

0. Of it on't D, only ony D, ordeals 
ordeels "W, evidently given as a mis- 
pronunciation in place of orjeels, see 
cordial above ; but historically or-deal 
= ags. > or-dal, would be pronounced as 
W writes ; OR-DE-AL is a mere piece 
of confusion; ordinary ornery "W H, 
or dinar ier ornrear W, ours ourn D S. 

P. Particular pertickler H, particu- 
larly particly "W, perhaps p'r'aps H, 
popular poplar W, previously previsly 
W, probably probly W. 

R. Regular regler W, rheumatism 
rumatiz D. 

S. Saw p.t. see D, seed S "W", secure 
skewer "W, seen p.p. sawn "W", series 
serious "W, shall not sha'nt D, shallow 
shaller S, singularest singleris H, 
soldiers sogers D, sovereignty suvrinty 
W, sphere spear W. 

T. That there that air W, theirs 
their'n D, them 'em D S, the other 
t'other D, there are S, tickled tikled D, 
told tell'd D, tour tower D, towards 
tords W, tremendous tremenius W. 

V. Violent vilent W. 

W. Was not warn't D, warnt 
worn'nt S, were not wa'n't D, will not 
won't D. 

Y. Tours yourn D W. 

2. Vowels. 

In the following some little attempt 
at classification will be made, but the 
instances are not numerous enough to 
arrive at any satisfactory result. 

A. The oldest (aa) sound remains in 
stare star H, square squar H, hair-pin 
har-pin H, and is broadened into (oo), 
where in England it has sunk to (ee), 

in chares chores D. On the other hand, 
it falls into (ee, e) or even (*) in are air 
"W, came kem H, again agen H, agin 
8, may be mebby W, and completely to 
(ii) in cars keers "W. 

Long a, ai = (ee, ee) has become (ii) 
in chair cheer "W H, cares keers W, 
-careless keerless H, scared skeery W, 
James Jeemes H, to which must be 
reckoned apparel appeerel W; bat gave 
giv W, is probably only the use of the 
present as past. 

The same tendency is shewn in the 
short vowel a (ae) in any eny D, enny 
W, can kin H, catch kitch ketch D, 
had hed H, havehevW, that conj. thet 

Broadening appears in canal kanawl 
W, sat v. sot D, far fur D, stamped 
stomped D, but uncertainly ia what 
whot wat W occ., wat wot H, where 
the absence of h is noticeable, as it is 
generally present, and was war H. Even 
au shews both tendencies in because 
caze D, audacity owdassity W, but 
caught ketched I) is merely a weak 
form of ketch, already cited. 

E short is thinned to (ii), which may 
be (i) in end eend D S, nests neests D, 
and, as is very common in England, to 
(i) in chest chist S, general gineral D, 
ginral W, generally ginerally W, get 
git D W, getting gitting gittin' fl, 
Jcettles kittles D W, passengers passin- 
jers "W", pretty adj. pretty pritty D. 
"But shews the Scotch broadening ten- 
dency in keg kag W, set p.p. sot S, p.t. 
sot w, where there may be a confusion 
with sat, well adv. wall W, wrestled 
rastled H. 

The long ee is shortened in been ben 
bin D, but as ea seems to remain (ii), 
even in New Orleans New Orleens S, 
heard heerd S W, with which we may 
class anywhere anywheer H, but the 
old (ee) crops up in real rale D, really 
raly D, ra'ly H, beard baird H, and 
some other cases, for which see er. 

The following are very common in 
England : neither nother nuther D, 
chewing chawin W, ewe yo S, news- 
paper noospaper W. 

I. In if ef "W H, sit set D, we have 
a tendency opposite to that of get git. 
Little leetle D W is common here, but 
squire square "W is very strange. 

There seems to be a tendency to sink 
all unaccented vowels into (*'), or per- 
haps Mr. Bell's (y), see (1159, *), and 
it is worth while noticing this, because 
a similar tendency shews itself in Irish, 



and (t) is constantly used in Buchanan, 
see the vocabulary, pp. 1072-1083. See 
the Irish examples below. Extra extry 
W, panorama paneramy "W, opera opery 
opry "W", actually actilly S, animal 
animil W, counterpane counterpin D, 
manage manige W, poem poim W, gar- 
ments garmints W, trousers trowsis W, 
nephew nevey H, region regine W, 
passion pashin D, waistcoat weskit "W, 
argument argyment "W. 

seems to assume all varieties of 
different local English forms, so that 
any classification is difficult. It be- 
comes (aa) in roar rar' H, (uu) in boast 
boost D, more moore W, falls to (a) in 
home hum D W, whole hull D W, stone 
stun D W, nobody nobuddy "W, and 
even to (t) in rose v. riz D W H, cover 
kiver D W, with which we may com- 
pare touching techin W, while it varies 
in the same writer in bosom boozum 
buzzum W. Then we find solder 
sawder S, boulders bowlders H, thought 
tho't D, bought bo't D. 

The (oo) sound varies, as (au) in 
route rowt "W, (16) in chooses chuses 
D, boots butes W, do dew W occ., 
through thru' D, threw D "W, zoological 
zewological "W, the last being derived 
from the "zoo"; and (9) in took tuk 
"W, roof ruff D, and you yu W, your 
yer H, the two latter used enclitically. 

The diphthong 01 is treated as long 
? in all those cases in which it was so 
sounded in the xvnth and xvmth 
centuries. Thus: appointed appinted 
D, boil bile D, boiling bilin W, bilin' 
H, broiling brilin D, hoisted histed \V, 
join jine D "W H, loins lions W, which 
of course is merely grotesque for lines, 
oil ile D W, point pint "W", pointing 
pintin "W, points p'ints H, poison pyson 
S, pizen W H, soil sile W, soiled siled 
D, spoils spiles D. 

U. The prefix un- is generally on-, 
as in uneasy oneasy S W, unparalleled 
onparaled W, unpleasant onpleasant S 
W, unsatisfactory on-satis-factory H. 
In a few words short u is e, i, as Just 
jest D, jist D S, common in London, 
judge n. jedge H, compare Scotch 
(dzb?dzh), such sich D W, shut shet 
H, very old. The form shut p.p. shot 
W, seems to be founded on some con- 

The long u when accented constant- 
ly becomes (uu), a well-known English 
vulgarism, but dating apparently from 
after the xvith century, and the pre- 
ceding *, t, do not then become (sh, 

tsh) ; but this is by no means always 
the case, as will be seen from the 
examples of consonants given below. 
Thus : actuate actooate W, adieunAoo W", 
amusing amoozin W, circuitous sircooi- 
tius W, confused konfoozed W, consti- 
tution constitooshun "W, dispute dispoot 
W, excuse excoos W, gratuitous gra- 
tooitus W, impudence impoodents W, 
including incloodin W, individual indi- 
vidooal "W, influence infloounce "W, 
lunatic loonytick W, nuisance noo- 
sanse W, obtuse obtoos W, peculiar 
pocooler W, punctually puncktooally 
W, pursue pursoo W, resumed re- 
soomed W, spiritual sperretooul W, 
subdued subdood W, sued sood "W, 
suit soot W, untutored untootered "W, 
virtuous virtoous W. It will be 
observed, however, that all these ex- 
amples are from W. After I and r 
this change is received, but "W" furnishes 
both bloo and blew for blue. 

Unaccented u in open syllables, 
which, though always very short (iu), 
is called long by our orthoepists, seems 
mostly to become (i, ). Thus : educa- 
tion idecation edication S, minute n. 
minet S, minit H, minutes minits W, 
valuation valeation S, value valy S, 
regulating regelatin D, ridiculous 
ridikilous H. 

Final and unaccented -ure is usually 
treated exactly as er, and generally 
does not influence the preceding con- 
sonants, as creature critter cretur D, 
creeter critter W, creatures critters S, 
features feature S, figures figers D, 
figgers W, future futer W^njure inger 
D, leffislaturelegislztui D, nature natur 
D S, nater W, natural nateral S, 
natral W, pasture pastur S, pictures 
picters "W, rapture' !rapter W, venture 
venter W, pressure presher "W. The last 
word is exceptional. It will be found 
that these foreign words are very 
irregularly treated in the English dia- 
lects, probably depending on the time 
of their having been first used. 

3. The Consonant . 
ER, EAR, UR. The treatment of 
vowels before R is very curious in 
America, dependent partly on the R 
having become thoroughly vocal, and 
partly on the retention of the old ar 
forms, with which ur forms have been 
confused. A few er- words retain their 
form as er, ear, or air, thus : dern 
dern H, earth airth S, yearth W, early 
airly S, pert peart H. But the rule is 


for all such words to become ar, as : 
learn larn D S, learned lamed D, 
larn'd S, search sarch S, astern astarn 
D S, bear bar W, certain certin sartin 
D, sartain S, certainly sartinly W, 
certify sartify D, concern concarn S, 
concerned consarned W, converse con- 
varse W, dern v. darn D W, derned 
darned S, dernation darnation D, tarn- 
ation S, deserved desarv'd D, determined 
detarmined D, early arly W, earth arth 
W, errand arrand S, eternal tarnal D, 
etarnal S, eternallest tarnulest W, 
eternity etarnity D S, infernal infarnal 
D W, Jersey Jarsey (?), merchant mar- 
chant D, Lord have mercy Lord a 
massy S, nervous narvous H, observed 
obsarved "W, observes obsarves W, 
preserved presarved D W, sermons 
sarmons S, serve sarve D S, un- 
certain onsartin S W, universe uni- 
vars S, verses varses D, to which may 
be added there thar W H, where whar 
W, blurt blart S, disturb distarb W. 

R. The late Prof. Hadley, in re- 
viewing the first part of this work, after 
quoting my remarks supra p. 197, 
says : " It is fortunate for this much- 
abused letter that so large a part of 
the English-speaking world is found in 
America, where the first settlers brought 
this r in a less attenuated state, and 
where their descendants have been 
largely reinforced by users of a yet 
stronger r from Ireland and Scotland 
and the Continent of Europe. Instead 
of losing the final r, like our brethren 
in Southern England, we are more 
likely to -restore it to its ancient 
equivalency with the initial letter." 
(Essays, 1873, p. 252.) See also Prof. 
Haldeman's remarks (1195, b'}. My own 
experience of polished American speech 
does not bear out this remark. No 
approach to an Irish or Scotch r final 
seems to be made. If a trill was ever 
used by the speakers I observed, it 
must have been very faint, for I am 
constantly awake to trills, and should 
have certainly remarked it. An un- 
trilled r, perhaps as much of a conso- 
nant as (r ), I seem to have heard ; I 
think I have heard at least one Ameri- 
can preacher say (Kh^ri) where I say 
(naat), a matter of choice, (Hart) 
presenting no difficulty to me. But 
that Dickens' smorl tork for small talk 
would have been as easily written by 
an American as by an English humour- 
ist will be quite apparent from the 
following instances, which shew that 

ar or. are recognized ways of writing 
(aa AA) without implying the least trill 
or vowel (a) in place of a trill. It 
follows therefore that such a pronun- 
ciation must be familiar to American 
ears from American mouths. No 
American humourist could otherwise 
have ventured to use it. 

After arter D S W, ah ! ar W, a la 
ar-lar W, amassed amarsed "W, basking 
barskin "W, calm carm W, danced 
darnced W, daughter darter D S H, 
earned ernt, rhyming to want D, half 
harf W, lago largo W, last larst W, 
lather larther W, laugh laff D, larf W, 
laughable larfable W, laughed laft D, 
larfed larved S, laughing laffin D, 
larfin S, Madam marm S W, pa par "W", 
pass pars W, passed parst W, pasture 
parster W, sauce sass D "W, sarse sarce 
S saucer sasser D, and similarly awful 
orful W, of orf W, offsprings orf- 
springs W, officer orficer W, thought 
thorfc thawt W, the last being an iden- 
tification of or aw by W. 

In the following we have not only 
the r omitted, but the vowel which was 
before it shortened, shewing its utter 
disappearance even from the thought 
of the speaker. Horse boss W t horses 
bosses W, burst bust D W, busted H, 
bursting bustin "W, curse cuss W H, 
cursing cussin D, coloured culled W, 
first fust W, lanterns lantuns W, 
nursing nussing W, persons pussons W, 
purse puss "W, worse wuss W, worser 
wusser W. And I would explain girl 
gal H, girls gals D, galls S, in the 
same way, gerls becoming first garls 
and then gals (g89lz gaBaelz gselz), and 
similarly pretty having the r " trans- 
posed " becomes perty, and then, putty 
D W, of which pooty D H is regarded 
only as another form. In scarcely 
scacely W we have a simple omission 
of r, with probably a corresponding 
omission of its modification of (ee) into 
(ee), which is also found dialectally in 

ER, UR, as an indistinct vowel where 
no trace of trill can be reasonably sup- 
posed, shews this vocality more com- 
pletely. Thus it stands for A unac- 
cented in afloat erflote W, drama 
dramer "W, orphan orfurn "W, spectacles 
specterkuls W, valise verlise W, um- 
brella umbreller "W, vista vister W, to 
which may be added the common al- 
ways allers W H, generally written 
allus in England: for E unaccented 
in elements ellermunts "W, elephants 



ellerfunts W, intellectual interlectooal 
"W, tragedy traggerdy W : for I un- 
accented in dignify dignerfy W, ex- 
hibited exhiberted W, pusillanimous 
pussylanermus W, signify siggerfy W, 
specimen spesserman W, veracity ver- 
rasserty W : for 0, OW, unaccented 
very frequently, as bellowed bellered W, 
billows billers W, calico caliker W, 
fellow feller D S W H, followed follered 
W, gallows gallers "W, hollowed hollerd 
"W", innocent innercent "W, negroes nig- 
gers D, patronised patrernized W, 
politest perlitest D, political perlitercal 
purlittercal W, potatoes pertaters W, 
shadow sbadder W, sorrows sorrers W, 
swallow swaUer W, tallow taUer W H, 
vociferously versifrussly "W, window 
winder S W, widow widder H, yellow 
yaller S H, yeller W; in following 
follerin W there is a suspicion of a 
trill, but it is not certain, and even if 
it existed, it would only be similar to 
the usual euphonic London r; in colonel 
kurnel S, identified in the passage cited 
with kernel kernel S, we have a re- 
ceived pronunciation ; considering of 
as 0', the following come under this 
category : kind of kinder D S W H, 
sort of sorter, ought to oughter H, onto 
enter W ; but in provisions pervishuns 
W it is doubtful whether there is not 
a confusion of pro- and per- as pre- 
fixes : for U unaccented in ague ager 
H, continues continners W, continuing 
continnering W, with possible trill, depu- 

W, sublime surblime W. In glorious 
gerlorious "W, slave ser-lave "W, prairie 
per-rairie per-ar-ie H, it takes the part 
of an exaggerated (*h), and the same 
is the case for the ludicrously prefixed 
her-, sometimes used in W, as slap 
kerslap W. 

These examples shew that in America, 
as it will be seen in 2, No 10, is the 
case also in England, r has become a 
mere means, first of writing (aa, AA), 
and secondly of indicating a long or a 
brief ('h, a, e), that is, one which has 
either only that short glide which 
follows a long vowel, or else no glide 
on to the succeeding consonant. In 
both cases r may consequently be con- 
sidered as the sign of lengthening. Its 
use in this respect is similar to that of 
* in older French (831, ai'), and of I 
in Scotch (Murray, p. 123), having like 
them no historical foundation, and, so 
far as the usual value of these letters 
r, s, I, is concerned, no phonetic signifi- 

cance. They merely arose from the 
fact that in many words the phonetic 
values of r, s, I, had been lost, where 
they once existed, and the preceding 
vowel lengthened. With regard to the 
short -er, representing (-8, -B), writers 
have felt the same difficulty as Mr. 
Murray in his historical orthography 
(ib. pp. 133, 134), and have generally 
adopted his contrivance of writing -a 
when final (though many fall into -er, 
which leads, however, to a suspicion of 
a trilled r, which is tainted with vul- 
garity), and -er- when before a con- 
sonant (when trilling would be out of 
the question). Of course in Scotland, 
where the sight of an r in any position 
is the signal for trilling, this use of er 
was impossible. Its use in the United 
States, even in humouristic writing, is 
consequently proof of the very general 
existence of non-trilled r among the 
English speakers of America. 

4. Other Consonants. 

D is changed to t in hold n. holt W, 
which is not uncommon in England. 
It is added after n in drowned drown- 
did "W, drownded H, gowns gownds W, 
as with us, but there is a more general 
tendency to omit it in this case, as 
friend fren W, vagabond vagabone W, 
especially when * follows, as friends 
frens W, husbands husbans "W", under- 
stands understans "W, reminds re mines 
W, handsome hansom S (although 
handsome hand*m S is also found, 
where the d is probably erroneous), 
and even before other letters, as hand- 
bills hanbills W. There is a great 
tendency to change d to j under the 
influence of a full \ unaccented but 
followed by a vowel, as Indian Ingen D, 
Injin D H, Injun W, and audience 
awjince W, grandeur granjur W, imme- 
diate immejit W, induce injuce injooce 
W, medium mejium W, produce projuce 
"W", soldiers sojers W, tremendous tre- 
menjious tremenjis W. 

H. This much-abused letter in 
England seems to escape in America. 
Of course ostensibly hosstensibly "W 
is a mere grotesque to recall hoss, the 
word not being popular. The enclitic 
here, in this here, been here, etc., suffers 
various changes, as : h'yur 'yar 'yer 
yere H, which however are attributed 
to the strong action of the (fa) or (ia') 
pronunciation of the -ere portion. 
Even Sir John Herschel (Sound,art. 361, 
in Encyc. Metr.] makes "young ; yearn ; 



hear, here" consist of the vowel in " 
leave, behave, stVben (Germ.), coqmlle 
(Fr.)," "succeeded more or less rapidly" 
by the vowel in "spurt, ass^t, dtrt, 
virtue, dove, dowble, blood," entirely 
omitting the h. This will be found 
frequent dialectally, and earth yearth 
H is quite similar. 

L for r in frustrated flustratid "W is 
grotesque, but the omission of I in only 
on'y H is quite common. 

M is omitted in rheumatism rheu- 
matiz H, which is quite familiar in 

N becomes exceptionally (q) in some 
words, as captains captings W, cushions 
cushings H, garden garding W, weapons 
weppings H, but more commonly -ng 
becomes -n ; in fact this is the rule for 
the participial and gerundial -ing and 
the word thing in composition, as 
amazing araasin S, capering caperen D, 
everlasting everlastin' S, everything 
evrythin D, meeting meetin S, nothing 
nothin D S W, pudding pudden D, 
seizing ceasin W, something suthin "W 
H, toiling toilin W, etc., etc. 

PH. The change to p in nymph 

QU becomes c, k, frequently in 
equalled ekalled W, and occasionally 
in quotation cotashun "W. 

SK is transposed, or rather the 
original cs is preserved in ask ax S. 

T is omitted when final after c, in 
acts ax W, conflicts conflicks "W", con- 
tact contack W, districts districks "W, 
facts fax W, intellect intelleck W, just 
so jes so W, just jess H, object objeck 
W, perfect perfeck W, sect seckW, and 
after p in attempt attemp W, crept 
crep' H, also in don't preceding n, as 
don't know dunno W, and probably 
also before other consonants. On the 
other hand, it is added in once onct W, 

sudden n. suddent H, and assimilated in 
let go leggo W, to which category prob- 
ably belongs partner pardner H. In 
surtout surtoot W the added t is ortho- 
graphical ; educated Americans also 
pronouncing the final t in trait. 

TH remains d in further furder "W, 
and is omitted in clothes close W, but 
that there that ar' H is the English 
that ere, and it is doubtful whether this 
should be reckoned as an omitted th. 

V is written w in the first syllable of 
conviviality conwiviality "W, shewing 
that some such change would be appre- 
ciated, (1067, d. 1220, d'}, but this is the 
only instance I have noted. 

W" is, as often, omitted in inwards 
inards W, 

X becomes z by the omission of pre- 
ceding syllable in exactly zactly W, 
where the t also ought to be omitted. 

The above examples, though very 
incomplete, will serve to give some 
notion of the prevailing illiterate or 
Yankee pronunciations in America. 
Those arising from negro influence 
have been kept out of view. But they 
form a remarkable instance of linguistic 
break down, and deserve careful study. 
For examples see Da Njoe Testament vo 
wi Masra en Helpiman Jesus Kristus, 
or New Testament in the Negro English 
of Surinam, to be had of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, price 2s. 6d. ; 
also Proeve eener Handleiding om het 
Neger-Engelsch, zoo als hetzelve over het 
algemeen binnen de Kolonie Suriname 
gesproken wordt, door A. Helmig van 
der Vegt, Amsterdam, 1844, p. 66, 
and Slave Songs of the United States, 
New York, 1871, introduction by "W. 
F. Allen, pp. xxiv-xxxvi. To which 
Addison Van Name (1155, c 1 } adds 
Wullschlagel's Neger-englisches, "Wor- 
terbuch, Lobau, 1850. 


Although vast numbers of the Irish who speak English are un- 
educated, yet the English language is not of native growth in 
Ireland. There are still several parts of Ireland where English is 
not spoken. Hence an account of the Irish pronunciation of Eng- 
lish can be better classed as educated than as natural. But there 
is a still stronger reason for placing it next to the American. They 
are both examples of an emigrated language of nearly the same 
date. If we disregard the English settlers in Forth and Bargy in 
the xii th century, to be considered hereafter, the English language 
in Ireland may be considered to date in the north from the settle- 
ment of Ulster by James I. in 1611, and generally from the events 


which followed Cromwell's incursion in 1649. The first English 
settlements on the Bay of Massachusetts date from 1628. The 
language in both cases therefore belongs to the xvn th century. An 
inspection of the preceding and following lists compared with the 
accounts of the pronunciation of that period already given, will 
shew the correctness of the estimate already formed for these cases 
(p. 20) as examples of persistent mother-tongue in emigrants. 

The general xyn th century character is most strongly marked 
in Ireland by the retention of the pronunciation of long e, in the 
state which had been reached in the xvn th century, those words 
that had then changed long e into (ii), mostly marked by the ortho- 
graphy ee, remaining as long (ii), and those that had not yet changed 
their (ee), mostly marked by the spelling ea, remaining as (ee) or 
(ee}. This character is so marked and prevalent among all but the 
higher educated classes in Ireland, among whom the present Eng- 
lish usage is not a century old, (1050, a'), that most persons seem to 
regard it as one of the marks of Irish " brogue," whereas it is pure 
xvii th century English fossilized by emigration, and, as we shall 
see, is more or less persistent among our own dialects. But there 
are two distinct styles of English spoken in Ireland, that in the 
^Northern part due to the mainly Scotch settlement of Ulster, and 
that elsewhere spoken. 

After Mr. Murray had published his book on the Dialects of the 
South of Scotland, so frequently referred to (1085, c}, Mr. W. H. 
Patterson, of Strandtown, Belfast, sent him a copy of a pamphlet 
called: " The Provincialisms of Belfast and the Surrounding Dis- 
tricts pointed out and corrected, by David Patterson, industrial 
teacher of the blind at the Ulster Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb and Blind, and a resident of Belfast for the last forty years, 
Belfast, 1860." Mr. Murray having shewn me this pamphlet, and 
pointed out the numerous Scotticisms which it contained, I re- 
quested him to mark all the words which bore a Scotch character. 
At the same time, to check the North by the South, I requested Mr. 
T. M. Healy, who had lived the first 18 out of the 20 years of his 
life in Cork, where he was born, to mark such words as were pro- 
nounced in the same way in Cork as at Belfast, and where there 
were differences to point them out. Both gentlemen having 
obligingly complied with my request, I have been enabled to com- 
pile the following lists, which, although leaving very much to be 
desired, give a fuller account of Irish peculiarities than any I can 
refer to elsewhere. 

To obtain further information, I addressed a series of questions to 
Mr. W. H. Patterson, who sent the pamphlet, and to its author, Mr. 
D. Patterson, who is himself blind, and is personally unknown to the 
other, and also to the Rev. Jas. Graves, of Inisnag Rectory, near 
Stoneyford, Kilkenny, honorary secretary of the Kilkenny Archaeo- 
logical Society, all of whom, as well as Mr. Murray and Mr. 
Healy, most kindly and readily assisted me, and from them I have 
gathered the following information. 

The pronunciation of Belfast decidedly differs from that of the 


greater part of Ireland, but extends pretty uniformly over the 
Northern and Eastern parts (about two-thirds) of Ulster. Though 
Scotch, it is not so much so as the Eastern parts of Down and Antrim. 
For instance (says Mr. W. H. P.), a farmer living in east of County 
Down will have many Scotch words in his speech and a very Scotch 
accent, but will be at once distinguishable from the Scottish land- 
stewards and gardeners who come over. He will say: "Hae ye got 
ony guid shearin hewks ?" and his children will play at : " Ngeery, 
ngaary, ngick, ngack, which han will ye tak, the right or the 
wrang, I'll beguile ye if I can." A child was heard to cry : " Qut 
cloddin stanes at them kye ! " Here Qut is quit, give over (kwat). A 
farmer's wife called some people to "see Billy biggin," i.e. building a 
corn stack; a wild bee's nest is a bee's like (Co. Down) ; missly is 
lonely, solitary (Belfast; Mr. Murray says Jamieson gives it for 
Eoxburghshire, but he never heard it, it is ags. misalice), Irulliment 
disturbance (Glenarn, Co. Antrim), glam grasp or sudden clutch 
(Belfast), holce to make a hole (Sc. howk), hence the hoques a game 
played with peeries pegtops, which are to hoque one another. 

All my authorities state that the English from different parts of 
Ireland is decidedly different, but they are not prepared to say how 
it is different. It is evident that there is a considerable field for 
investigation here. The R is strongly trilled. There is an Irish r 
which seems to occupy the whole tongue in its trill, and may hence 
be written ( /% r), but I have not investigated it. The H is always 
pronounced, except in French words, and the "WH is, says Mr. 
Murray, as in Scotland, varying between (wh, kwh). The peculiar 
dental T, D, before K, are considered under D, in the Alphabetical 
arrangement of the Consonants, No. 3, below. 

My inquiries as to the " brogue " have not resulted in any very 
satisfactory information. It seems to me that we must study the 
Irish habits of Celtic pronunciation, and the de-formation of English 
by persons naturally speaking Celtic, before we can form a proper 
judgment on the brogue. Thus Mr. Murray, from his own Irish 
experience, defines the brogue as speaking English with Celtic 
habits of utterance 1) in the pronunciation of consonants, as the 
rolling r ( /x r), the post-aspiration (psqh, bn), the dental or bi-dental 
(^t xs d) before this ( A r), and excessive palatalisation of (1, n, k, g) ; 
2) in the vowels (i) for ('), (o) for (9, a), (ee) for (ii), all three of 
which appear doubtful to me, as the last seems certainly xvn th 
century English ; and 3) most of all in the intonation, which 
appears full of violent ups and downs, or rather precipices and 
chasms of force and pitch, almost disguising the sound to English 
ears. In this work I have generally omitted to dwell on intonation, 
because, at all times extremely difficult to catch and describe in 
living speech, it was hopeless to recover it in the past. But in 
local speech intonation is very characteristic, and for Scotch and 
Irish it is generally unmistakable, although so difficult to describe. 
Mr. Graves says Cork and Killarney are marked by a peculiar accent 
on the ultimate syllable, a high key, and a brogue that is never lost. 
Even the gentry partake of this peculiarity. This brogue, when 


once heard, can forgotten. Kilkenny, says Mr. Graves, has 
a peculiar drawling brogue, which he endeavours to write thus : 
Calf caalf, Margaret Maargaret, clean claane, height hoith, potatoes 
pyaatees, wheat whate, father faather, door dure, where aa is Erench 
a, except when answering to ea. Mr. Graves also remarks that 
"in the ballads of the peasantry the consonants at the ends of lines 
are ignored, it is enough if the vowels jingle together," and adds 
that this is also the rule of Irish poetry. That is to say, the Irish 
are still content with assonances, which had disappeared from 
English poetry before the immigration. In some modern street 
ballads of Belfast, sent me by Mr. W. H. Patterson, I find : name 
vain, shame train; found known, surprise sight, found down, 
hands land ; eve grief, time line ; tin limb, mixed bricks, line 
pantomime; kneel field; alone home, eyes high, strong on; 
chalk walked, malt walked, shock walked, hot clock, stop walked, 
talk walked, knocked walked (here every stanza ended with 
'walked,' and the rhymester was evidently hard up); remember 
surrender, perished cherish ; march smash, toast force ; cared bed; 
sobbed Lord, joy smiles while; found town. But by far the 
greater number of rhymes are perfect, although sometimes the 
authors seem to have had no rhymes at all " convanient" as when 
they condescend to': comrade poor Pat, morning darling, explain 
line, spring strung, kneeled side. It is very seldom that an Irish 
pronunciation comes in as : door sure, scream same. 

Mr. Graves gives the following as "a fair specimen of the Kil- 
kenny English of the last generation, i.e. as spoken by the old 
people," and adds that national school education is fast destroying 
these peculiarities ; he says also that this dialect has evidently been 
influenced by an early English colonisation, and that the speakers 
use very good English, not clipping their words much. The bracketed 
explanations are his own. 

" Shure yer 'Oner never seen childhre down [sick] along with 
so clane [clear-complexioned] a her. Glory be to God ! an sorra 
boy, [unmarried man,] or likely an egg or a dhrop of milk meself 
[handsome] a colleen [girl] as has to give the crathers, becase 
them two that was marrid the the fox, the thief of the world, 
week afore last. Is it what the tuck the hins, an the cow's run 
dacent couple had to depind [the dhry with the red murrin, not a 
i sounded like Italian t] on for dhrop inthered thir lips since 
their livin, yer oner is axin? yistherday but could wather. 
Sorra a haporth but God's good- Yer Riverence is a dacent gintle- 
ness, and the quarter of pyates man, and won't see a poor craa- 
[pronounced as two syllables, thur in want uv a bit to aate. 
pya-tes, a quarter of an acre The baaste perished [died] on 
of potatoes] the boy sot last me last week, and sorra a sup of 
Easther. Is it after the woman milk I have for the childhre. 
[the speaker's wife] yer River- It's kind faather [proving your- 
ence is axin? Och she's bad self kin to your father] for 
intirely with the faver, and the yer oner to be good to the poor." 

Most words are here in received spelling, some occasionally in 



both, received and characteristic spelling; probably not one was 
altogether in received pronunciation. 

With regard to the letter a, I have been told that the first letters 
of the alphabet are called (aeae, bee, see, deee), and that barrel is 
(baa'ril), and so on. But nothing of this is shewn in the above 
or in the following orthography. 

In re-arranging Mr. D. Patterson's words, the ordinary spelling 
is put in italics, his phonetic spelling follows in roman letters, with 
B annexed, and C if this is used in Cork, S if in Scotch, WS in 
West and SS in South Scotch, and SE in Scotch English. Some- 
times the word is re-spelled or only a single letter is added to shew 
the differences. When C is put after the usual spelling, it shews 
that at Cork the received, or what is there considered as the received, 
pronunciation is used. Sometimes this plan is specially broken 
through for brevity, as explained on each occasion. 

Mr. D. Patterson seems to use ee, ai, ah, au, oa, oo, in closed 
syllables for (ii, ee, aa, AA, oo, au), and i, e, a, o, u, for (i, e, se, o, a), 
but (E, a) may be meant, and he seems to have no sign for (u}. 
In open syllables, or with a final e mute, (a, e, i, o, u) seem to be 
(ee, ii, ai ei, oo, iu), and ou is (aw). The two sounds (ai, ei) will 
be spoken of under i long. 

1. Miscellaneous. 

To begin with a few instances which 
cannot be easily classed under letters. 
We have not unknown deformations 
of words in column eolyum B C SE, and 
tremendous tthremen-dyay-iss B, tthre- 
mendus C, which appears rather as 
(trime'ndzhas) in English, but massacre 
massacree B, massacrai C, is very pecu- 
liar. The three following are usual 
enough in England: coroner crowner 

B, C or corner, courtesy curtchy B C, 
poem pome B C SE, (poi-em) S, but 
process C, pross B, seems to be simply 
(pro'ses) abridged, and portmanteau 
portmantyea B, where yea = (ie), or 
portmanchu C, is a mere local mis- 
pronunciation in B, where 'portmankai' 
has also been heard. Initial syllables 
are lost in apprentice C, prentice B S, 
enlist list B S C, and perhaps a final t 
in lancet lance B S C, which looks, 
however, more like a different usage. 

Accent is thrown back, as regards 
received pronunciation, in brigadier 
brig'adier B, cavalier cav'alier B, en- 
gineer en'gineer B, fusilier fu'silier B, 
mankind man'kine B C, and S for 
accent, parishioner par'ishioner B C ; 
and forward in contrary contra'ry B S C, 
in B and C we ought certainly to have 
tth, desultory desul'tory B, desul'tthory 

C, discipline discipline B S C, dis- 
ciplined discip'led B, disputable dis- 
pu 'table B C, disputant dispu'tant B, 

district C, district' B, exemplary exem'- 
plary B S C, industry indus'try B S, 
indus'tthry C, as it certainly should be 
in B, inventory inven'tory B S, inven'- 
tthory C, lamentable lament'able B 
S C, maintenance maintai'nance B C, 
(mEnti'nans) S, subaltern subal'tern B. 

2. Vowels. 

A is sometimes but rarely broadened 
into (A A, o),as cabal C, cabaul B, S (a), 
canal C,canaul B, S (a), tassel torsel B C, 
S (#). The general tendency is towards 
thinness, which takes several degrees. 
Thus, alderman C, alderman B, that 
is, with (ael) not (AA!), agrees with 
the retention of (se) after w, which 
goes through the Belfast pronunciation, 
answering to S or SE (a), but, except 
in the one word wasp wasp = (waesp) 
B C, seems to be unknown in C, where 
the received pronunciation prevails, the 
examples being : qualify, quality, quan- 
tify, quarrel, quarry, squabble, squad, 
squander, swab, swaddle, swallow, 
swamp, swan, swap, swarm, swarthy, 
wadding, waddle, wallet, wallow, want, 
war, ward, warn, wart, warble, warm, 
warp, warrior, wash, watch, wattle, 
and what. 

The short a seems to be lengthened 
to (ee) in ration rashin B C, nag C, 
naig B S, and falls quite into short 
(e, E) in apparel apperrel B C, bandy 
C, bendy B, branch C, brench B, 
(brensh) S, calico C, kelligo B, cartridge 



ketthridge B, or katthrij C, damsel C, 
demsel, S (e), examine C, exemine B, 
example C, exemple B, January C, 
Jenuary B, ma'am C, mem B, (maem. 
mEm) S, mangle C, mengle B, slant G, 
slent B, (skleent) S, reach (t) in hang C, 
hing B S (e 1 ), many C, minny B, has 
C, his B, have C, hiv B. 

A short often sounds as e short in 
almost any word, but in Belfast this 
pronunciation is confined to words in 
which a is preceded by (k, g), or fol- 
lowed by (k, g, q). What shade of 
short e this may be is not known; 
possibly (e), but Mr. Murray suggests 
that it may be only a too narrow pro- 
nunciation of (ae), as a rebound from 
Scotch (a, a), and doubts whether a 
Southern Englishman would feel it too 
narrow. In Cork nothing of the kind 
is known. The following are some of 
the examples : bag beg, cannel kennel, 
cant kent, carry kerry, cattle kettle, 
cavern kevern, drags dregs, fang feng, 
gabble gebble, galley gelley, gas guess, 
hack heck, hag heg, in fact in feet, 
knack neck, lag leg, pack peck, pang 
peng, plank plenk, rack reck, rank renk. 

CAR- GAR- are usually kyar- gyar- 
in Belfast, but sometimes kare- gare-. 
The first is just known in Cork. Neither 
are known in South Scotch. 

In was C, wuz B, S occ., we have 
probably an occasional B use, and vaca- 
tion C, vocation B, is no doubt mere 
confusion. Unaccented A is perhaps 
exceptionally treated in America Amer- 
icay B C, and 'Meriky C. 

A long seems to be in Ireland natur- 
ally (aese), but much further examina- 
tion is here necessary. D. Patterson 
notes that -ar is often called (-eer), 
possibly (-a3a3r), and that when follow- 
ing k a y is introduced, as kyar, skyar, 
for car, scar. This and the long -are 
must in general be passed over, to note 
char C, char B SE, farm C, form B, 
dare dar B S C, and acorn C, ahcorn B 
S, panorama panoramma B S C, rather 
C, rether B, S (tee). 

AE is noted as spae C, spae B, but 
the meaning of the pronunciation is not 

AI. Only again C, again B SE, 
against C, against B SE, said C, said B 
SE, are noticed. 

AU is exceptionally pronounced in 
assault C, assult B, auger C, ogre B, 
jaundice jendiez B, jaundis C. The 
regular sound is marked as a, but 
whether this means (03) or (3333) or (aa) 

is not noted. The C is as received, the 
S has (aa, aa) always, and the English 
has (A A), hence I only give B in brawl 
bral, claw cla, craw I cral, fawn fan, flaw 
fla, gnaw na, hawthorn hathorn, jaw ja, 
gnaw na, law la, paw pa, saw sa, sprawl 
spral, tawny tanny. 

E short is apparently lengthened in 

B, and not in C, in bet C, bait B, led C, 
laid B, precious C, prayshayis B, shed C, 
shade B. It is occasionally deepened 
to (ae) as in desk C, dask B, (daesk) S, 
grenadier grannidier B S C, wren ran 
B WS C, wretch C, ratch B, S (w'r), 
wrestle rassel B WS C ; but its general 
tendency is to sharped into (t), as in 
bench binch B C, besom bizzim B, 
(ba-zam) S, bless C, bliss B, S (e 1 ), 
brethren C, brithren B, S (e 1 ), cherry 

C, chirry B, S (e 1 ), chest C, chist B, 

occ. C, (ke^t) S, clever C, clivver B, S 
(e 1 ), crevice C, crivvis B, S (e 1 ), devil 
divvil B C, S (e 1 ), engine injine B C, S 
(e 1 ), ever C, ivver B, S (e 1 ), every C, 
ivvery B, S (e 1 ), jerk C, jirk B, jet C, 
jit B, S (e 1 ), kernel C, kirnel B, merry 
C, mirry B, S (e 1 ), never C, nivver B, 
S (e 1 ), next nixt B C, S (e 1 ), premises 
primmises B C, red C, rid B, S (e 1 ), 
shettie shittie B, S (e 1 ), speckled C, 
sprickled B S, together 0, togither B, 
S (e 1 ), twenty twinti B C, whether C, 
whither B, S (e 1 ), wrench wrinch B C, 
yes yis B, yis yes C, (je^) S, yesterday 
yisttherday B C, S (ye's), yet yit B C, S 
(e 1 ), and in senna C, seeni B, (se'nt) S, 
it seems to be even lengthened into 
(ii) . Although the tendency does not 
seem to have always reached C in 
these cases, it is widely diffused, and 
the above list is far from containing all 
the instances that might be given. 

E long is often (ee) or (ee), where it 
was so in the xviith century, as in 
decent daicent B C, equal aiquil B C, 
extreme extthraim B C, female faimil 
B, faimail C, fever favour B, fayvur C, 
frequent fraiquent B C, immediately 
immaidyently B, immaidjutly C, scheme 
skaim B C, secret saicret B C, tedious 
taidious B C. The B short pronunci- 
ation in hero herro B, hairo C, does not 
extend to C. In those words where it 
was spelled or might be spelled ee, the 
(ii) sound had already prevailed by the 
xvn th century, but beestings beestins 

B, baystins baystees C, queer quair B 

C, are partial exceptions. The pronun- 
ciations were wur B, wor C, threepence 
thruppence B SE, thrippence C, arise 
otherwise. But where 



EA was introduced in the xvith 
century, we know that the sound (ee, 
ee] remained in the xvn th, and hence 
we are not surprised at finding it 
almost uniformly so pronounced in 
Ireland. The remarkable point is that 
this pronunciation occurs ,in Belfast 
also, whereas it has nearly disappeared 
from the Scotch, whence it was de- 
rived. That it really existed there 
once, appears by some few remains. 
Thus reason is now in SS (n'-z'n), hut 
in the common phrase reason or none, 
used adverbially, they still say (rE-z'n- 
orm'n). Mr. Murray (in a private 
letter) says that there are many similar 
facts which lead him to suppose that 
the SS (i') in the xvith century was 
still (E) or (se), and that it travelled 
through (!, e 1 } to (e v , f). In ex- 
amining the words in EA, it is hence 
convenient to divide them into groups. 

1) Those words in ea now (ee) or (ee} 
both in B and C, but not in S, these 
are : bead baid, beagle baigle, beak 
bake, beam bame, bean bane, beast 
baste, beat bait, bleach blaich, breach 
braich, cease saice, cheap chaip, cheat 
chait, clean clain, creak craik, cream 
craim, crease craice, creature craitthir 

B, craitthur C, deacon daikin, deal dale, 
dean dane, each aitch, eager aiger, eagle 
aigle, ease aize, east aist, eat ate, 
feasible faizible, feast faist, feat fate, 
Jka flay, freak fraik, grease n. grace, v. 
graze, heal hale, heathen haithen, key 
kay, lead lade, leaf laif, league laig, 
leak lake, lean lane, lease lace, least 
laist, leave lave, meal male, mean mane, 
measles maizels, meat mate, pea pay, 
peace pace, peal pale, please plays, 
preach praich, reach raich, real rail, 
reap rape, rear rair, reason raisin, repeat 
repait, sea say, seal sale, seam sane, 
seat sait, sheaf shaif, sheath shaith, 
sneak snake, speak spake, steal stale, 
streak stthraik, stream stthraim, tea tay, 
teach taich, treacle tthraicle, treason 
tthraizin, treat tthrait, veal vale, wean 
wane, weave wave, wheat whait, wreak 

2) "Words in ea having the (ee, ee) 
sound in S, as well as B and C, breathe 
braithe, endeavour endaiver, neat nait, 
weak wake. 

3) Words in ear having (aa) or (sese) 
in B, and the regular (w) or (er) in 

C, dearth darth B, S (se), earth C, arth 
B, S (se), heard C, hard B, S (se), learn 
larn B C, S (ae), search C, sarch B, S 

4) "Words in ea having (e, E) in both 
B and C, leap lep, meadow medda. 

6) Other words in ea, mostly treated 
differently in B and C, beard baird B, 
deaf deef B S, deef daif def C, deafen 
deeve B S, diffen C, malleable mallible 
B S C, measure C, mizhir B, S (e 1 ), 
peasant C, payzant B, pheasant C, 
fayzant B, ready C, riddy B, S (e 1 ), 
squeamish squammish B, squaimish C, 
sweat C, swait B, threat C, thrait B, 
treacherous tthraicheriss B, tthrechertis 
C, weapon C, waypin B. 

El is not sufficiently exemplified, 
but the xvn th century pronunciation 
appears to be the rule, either aither B 
C, leisure laizhir B, laizhur C, inveigle 
invaigle B C, seize saize B C. Mr. 
Healy thinks that the ei is not so 
broadly pronounced as ea, but I have 
not been able to determine whether 
they differ as (ee, ee). 

EW. The few cases given are quite 
exceptional, chew chow B S, chau C, 
skewer skivver B C, Matthew Matha 

ER is almost universally written ar 
in Mr. D. Patterson's orthography. 
"Whether that means (aar, ar) or (a3r) I 
do not know. The Scotch has gener- 
ally (ser) in such words. B and C 
sometimes agree, and also often differ. 
The words given are as follows : certain 
sartin B C, S (se), clergy clargy B C, S 
(ee), commercial C, commarcial B, con- 
cern consarn B, S (set), convert convart 
B 0, S (se), desert desart B C, S (33), 
deserve C, desarve B, S (se), determine 
C, detarmine B, S (33), divert divart B 
C, S (99), errand arran B, errend C, 
eternal C, etarnal B, S (33), ferrule C, 
farrel B, S (se), Hercules Harklis B, 
infernal C, infarnal B, S (se), merchant 
C, marchant B, Mercury Markery B, 
mercy C, marcy B, S (se), nerve C, 
narve B, S (se), perch C, parch B, per- 
jury C, parjury B, S (se), perpendicular 
C, parpendicular B, person C, parson 
B, S (se), serge C, sarge B, S (), 
sermon C, sarmin B, S (se), serpent 
sarpint B C, S (aa), serve C, sarve B, 
S (SB), stern starn B, S (se), terrible C, 
tarrible B, S (se), terrier terrier B C, 
(tse'rier) S, vermin varmin B C, S (se), 
verse C, varse B. 

I short when written ee by Mr. D. 
Patterson represents the Scotch short 
(i), and does not reach to C : brick C, 
breek B, delicious C, dileeshayis B S, 

igle C, geegle B S (i). idiot eedyet 
S, aijut C, malicious C, mileeshayis 



B S, militia C, mileeshy B, snivel C, 
sneevel B, ridiculous rideekilis B S (i), 
ndikilis C, wick C, week B, (wik) S. 
Even the changes of i into (e, E) in 
miracle merricle B C, (meVtk'l) S, milt 
melt B C, (rae'lt) S, rid C, red B, 
(reM) S, which is only partially C, and 
into (a, a) in brittle C, bruckle B S, 
whip C, whup B S, are good Scotch. 
In ruffian ruffin B C the i seems merely 
a mark of the indistinct final syllable, 
as used so much by Buchanan, see 
example on p. 1053. 

I long is exceptionally pronounced 
(ee, ee} in diameter C, dayameter B, 
fatigue fitaig B, fataig C, intrigue 
intthraig B C, lilac C, laylock B S, 
occ. C, quiet quate B WS, quite C, of 
which fatigue, intrigue are remarkable, 
since oblig