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Full text of "On the Latin language"

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■iiiilllhlj 



STUDIA IN 



THE LIBRARY 

of 

VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 




THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED ay JAMES I.OEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
t T. E, PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, PH.D.. LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, Lrrr.D. 



VARRO 

ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE 



VAREO 

ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

ROLAND G. KENT, Ph.D. 

PROrESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY IJJ THE 
UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

IN TWO VOLUMES 

I 
BOOKS v.- VII. 



LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMXXXVIII 






Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 

Introduction page 

\'arro's Life and Works . . . . vii 

Varro's Grammatical Works . , . viii 

\'arro's De Lingua Latina . . . , ix 

The Manuscripts of the De Lingua Latina . xii 

The Laurentian Manuscript F . , xv 

The Orthography of the De Lingua Latina x\ii 

The Editions of the De Lingua Latina . xxvii 

Bibliography ..... .xxxiii 

Our Text of the De Lingua Latina . xliii 
The Critical Apparatus .... xliv 

The Translation of the De Lingua Latina xlv 

The Notes to the Translation . , xlvi 

S}Tnbols and Abbre\iations . . . xlix 

De Lingu.\ Latina, Te.\t and Translation 

BookV 2 

BookVL 172 

Book VII 266 



INTRODUCTION 

VARRO'S LIFE AND WORKS 

Marcxs Terentius ^'ARRO was born in 116 B.C., 
probably at Reate in the Sabine country, where his 
family, which was of equestrian rank, possessed large 
estates. He was a student under L. Aelius Stilo 
Praeconinus, a scholar of the equestrian order, widely 
versed in Greek and Latin literature and especially 
interested in the history and antiquities of the Roman 
people. He studied philosophy at Athens, with Anti- 
ochus of Ascalon. With his tastes thus formed for 
scholarship, he none the less took part in public life, 
and was in the campaign against the rebel Sertorius 
in Spain, in 76. He was an officer with Pompey in the 
war with the Cilician pirates in 67, and presumably 
also in Pompey 's campaign against Mithradates. In 
the Ci\il War he was on Pompey 's side, first in Spain 
and then in Epirus and Thessaly. 

He was pardoned by Caesar, and lived quietly at 
Rome, being appointed librarian of the great collec- 
tion of Greek and Latin books which Caesar planned 
to make. After Caesar's assassination, he was pro- 
scribed by Antony, and his ^illa at Casinum, with 
his personal library, was destroyed. But he himself 
escaped death by the devotion of friends, who con- 
cealed him, and he secured the protection of Octavian, 

vii 



INTRODUCTION 

He lived the remainder of his life in peace and quiet, 
devoted to his ^^Titings, and died in 27 B.C., in his 
eighty-ninth year. 

Throughout his life he wrote assiduously. His 
works number seventy-four, amounting to about six 
hundred and twenty books ; they cover virtually all 
fields of human thought : agriculture, grammar, the 
history and antiquities of Rome, geography, law, 
rhetoric, philosophy, mathematics and astronomy, 
education, the history of literature and the drama, 
satires, poems, orations, letters. 

Of all these only one, his De Re Rustica or Treatise 
on Agriculture, in three books, has reached us complete. 
His De Lingua Latino or On the Latin Language, in 
twenty-five books, has come down to us as a torso ; 
only Books V. to X. are extant, and there are serious 
gaps in these. The other works are represented by 
scattered fragments only. 



VARRO'S GRAMMATICAL WORKS 

The grammatical works of Varro, so far as we know 
them, were the following : 

De Lingua Latina, in twenty-five books, a fuller 
account of which is given below. 

De Antiquitate Li tier arum, in two books, addressed 
to the tragic poet L. Accius, who died about 86 b.c. ; 
it was therefore one of Varro 's earliest writings. 

De Origine Linguae Latinae, in three books, ad- 
dressed to Pompey. 

Uipl XapaKT'jpcov, in at least three books, on the 
formation of words. 

Quaestiones Plautinae, in five books, containing 



INTRODUCTION 

interpretations of rare words found in the comedies 
of Plautus. 

De Similitudine Verhorum, in three books, on re- 
gularity in forms and words. 

De Utilitate Sermonis, in at least four books, in 
which he dealt with the principle of anomaly or 
irregularity. 

De Sermone Latino, in five books or more, addressed 
to Marcellus, which treats of orthography and the 
metres of poetry. 

Disciplinae, an encyclopaedia on the Uberal arts, 
in nine books, of which the first dealt with Grammatica. 

The extant fragments of these works, apart from 
those of the De Lingua Latina, may be found in the 
Goetz and Schoell edition of the De Lingua Latina, 
pages 199-242 ; in the collection of Wilmanns, pages 
170-223 ; and in that of Funaioli, pages 179-371 (see 
the Bibliography). 



VARRO'S DE LINGUA LATINA 

\ arro's treatise On the Latin Language was a work 
in twenty-five books, composed in 47 to 45 B.C., and 
pubhshed before the death of Cicero in 43. 

The first book was an introduction, containing at 
the outset a dedication of the entire work to Cicero. 
The remainder seems to have been divided into four 
sections of six books each, each section being by its 
subject matter further divisible into two halves of 
three books each. 

Books Il.-Vn. dealt with the impositio vocabulorum, 
or how words were originated and applied to things 



INTRODUCTION 

and ideas. Of this portion, Books 1 1. -IV. were prob- 
ably an earlier smaller work entitled De Etymologia 
or the like ; it was separately dedicated to one 
Septumius or Septimius, who had at some time, 
which we cannot now identify, served V^arro as 
quaestor. Book II. presented the arguments which 
were advanced against Etymology as a branch of 
learning ; Book III. presented those in its favour as a 
branch of learning, and useful ; Book IV. discussed 
its nature. 

Books v.- VI I. start with a new dedication to Cicero. 
They treat of the origin of words, the sources from 
which they come, and the manner in which new words 
develop. Book V. is devoted to words which are the 
names of places, and to the objects which are in the 
places under discussion ; VI. treats words denoting 
time-ideas, and those which contain some time-idea, 
notably verbs ; VII. explains rare and difficult words 
which are met in the writings of the poets. 

Books VIII. -XIII. dealt with derivation of words 
from other words, including stem-derivation, de- 
clension of nouns, and conjugation of verbs. The first 
three treated especially the conflict between the 
principle of Anomaly, or Irregularity, based on con- 
suetudo ' popular usage,' and that of Analogy, or 
Regularity of a proportional character, based on ratio 
' relation ' of form to form. VIII. gives the arguments 
against the existence of Analogy, IX. those in favour 
of its existence, X. Varro's own solution of the con- 
flicting views, with his decision in favour of its exi- 
stence. XI. -XIII. discussed Analogy in derivation, in 
the wide sense given above : probably XI. dealt with 
nouns of place and associated terms, XII. with time- 
ideas, notably verbs, XIII. wdth poetic words. 



INTRODUCTION 

Books XIV.-XIX. treated of syntax. Books XX,- 
XXV. seem to have continued the same theme, 
but probably with special attention to stylistic and 
rhetorical embellishments. 

Of these twenty-five books, we have to-day, apart 
from a few brief fragments, only Books V. to X., and 
in these there are several extensive gaps where the 
manuscript tradition fails. 

The fragments of the De Lingua Latina, that is, 
those quotations or paraphrases in other authors which 
do not correspond to the extant text of Books \\-X., 
are not numerous nor long. The most considerable 
of them are passages in the Nodes Atticae of Aulus 
Gellius ii. 25 and x\i. 8. They may be found in the 
edition of Goetz and Schoell, pages 3, lid, 192-198, 
and in the collections of Wilmanns and FunaioU (see 
the Bibliography). 

It is hardly possible to discuss here even summarily 
\'arro's linguistic theories, the sources upon which he 
drew, and his degree of independence of thought and 
procedure. He owed much to his teacher Aelius 
Stilo, to whom he refers frequently, and he draws 
hea\'ily upon Greek predecessors, of course, but his 
practice has much to commend it : he followed neither 
the Anomalists nor the Analogists to the extreme of 
their theories, and he preferred to derive Latin words 
from Latin sources, rather than to refer practically 
all to Greek origins. On such topics reference may 
be made to the works of Barwick, Kowalski, Dam, 
Dahlmann, Kriegshammer, and Frederik Muller, and 
to the articles of Wolfflin in the eighth volume of the 
Archil' fiir lateinische Lexikographie, all listed in our 
Bibliography. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE 
DE LINGUA LATIN A 

The text of the extant books of the De Liiigua 
Latina is believed by most scholars to rest on the 
manuscript here first listed, from which (except for our 
No. 4) all other known manuscripts have been copied, 
directly or indirectly. 

1. Codex Laurentianus li. 10, folios 2 to SA>, parch- 
ment, written in Langobardic characters in the 
eleventh century, and now in the Laurentian Library 
at Florence. It is known as F. 

F was examined by Petrus Victorius and lacobus 
Diacetius in 1521 (see the next paragraph) ; by 
Hieronymus Lagomarsini in 1740 ; by Heinrich Keil 
in 1851 ; by Adolf Groth in 1877 ; by Georg Schoell 
in 19O6. Little doubt can remain as to its actual 
readings. 

2. In 1521, Petrus Victorius and lacobus Diacetius 
collated F with a copy of the editio princeps of the 
De Lingua Latina, in which they entered the difFerences 
which they observed. Their copy is preserved in 
Munich, and despite demonstrable errors in other 
portions, it has the value of a manuscript for v. 119 to 
vi. 61, where a quaternion has since their time been 
lost in F. For this portion, their recorded readings 
are known as Fv ; and the readings of the editio 
princeps, where they have recorded no variation, are 
known as (Fv). 

3. The Fragmentum Cassinense (called a\so Excerptum 
and Epitome), one folio of Codex Cassinensis 361, 
parchment, containing v. 41 Capitolium dictum to the 
end of V. 56 ; of the eleventh century. It was 



INTRODUCTION 

probably copied direct from F soon after F was 
written, but may possibly have been copied from the 
archetype of F. It is still at Monte Cassino, and was 
transcribed by Keil in 1848. It was pubhshed in 
facsimile as an appendix to Sexti lulii Frontini de 
aquaeductu Urbis Romae, a phototyped reproduction 
of the entire manuscript, Monte Cassino, 1930. 

4. The grammarian Priscian, who flourished about 
A.D. 500, transcribed into his De Figuris Numerorum 
Varro's passage on coined money, beginning \\ith 
tnulta, last word of v. 168, and ending with Nummi 
denarii decuma libella, at the beginning of v. IT^. 
The passage is given in H. Keil's Grammatici Latini 
iii. 410-411. There are many manuscripts, the oldest 
and most important being Codex Parisinus 7496, of 
the ninth century. 

5. Codex Laurentianus U. 5, written at Florence in 
1427, where it still remains ; it was examined by Keil. 
It is known && f. 

6. Codex Havniensis, of the fifteenth centur}' ; on 
paper, small quarto, 108 folia ; now at Copenhagen. 
It was examined by B. G. Niebuhr for Koeler, and his 
records came into the hands of L. Spengel. It is 
known as H. 

7. Codex Gothanus, parchment, of the sixteenth 
century, now at Gotha ; it was examined by Regel for 
K. O. Mueller, who published its important variants 
in his edition, pages 270-298. It is knoA\Ti as G. 

8. Codex Parisinus 7489, paper, of the fifteenth 
century, now at Paris ; this and the next two were 
examined by Donndorf for L. Spengel, who gives 
their different readings in his edition, pages 661-718. 
It is known as a. 

9. Codex Parisinus 6142, paper, of the fifteenth 



INTRODUCTION 

century ; it goes only to viii. 7 declinarentur. It is 
known as 6, 

10. Codex Parisinus 7535, paper, of the sixteenth 
century ; it contains only v. 1-122, ending with dictae. 
It is known as c. 

11. Codex Vindohonensis Ixiii., of the fifteenth 
century, at Vienna ; it was examined by L, Spengel 
in 1835, and its important variants are recorded in 
the apparatus of A. Spengel's edition. It is known 
as F. 

12. Codex Basiliensis F iv. 13, at Basel; examined 
by L. Spengel in 1838. It is known as p. 

13. Codex Guelferbytanus 896, of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, at Wolfenbiittel ; examined by Schneidewin for 
K. O. Mueller, and afterwards by L. Spengel. It is 
known as M. 

14. Codex B, probably of the fifteenth century, now 
not identifiable ; its variants were noted by Petrus 
Victorius in a copy of the Editio Gryphiana, and 
either it or a very similar manuscript was used 
by Antonius Augustinus in preparing the so-called 
Editio Vulgata. 

These are the manuscripts to which reference is 
made in our critical notes ; there are many others, 
some of greater authority than those placed at the 
end of our list, but their readings are mostly not 
available. In any case, as F alone has prime value, 
the variants of other than the first four in our list can 
be only the attempted improvements made by their 
copyists, and have accordingly the same value as 
that which attaches to the emendations of editors 
of printed editions. 

Fuller information with regard to the manuscripts 
may be found in the following : 



INTRODUCTION 

Leonhard Spengel, edition of the De Lingua Latino 

(1826), pages v-xviii. 
K. O, Mueller, edition (1833), pages xli-xxxi. 
Andreas Spengel, edition (1885), pages ii-xxviii. 
GiuHo Antonibon, Supplemento di Lezioni Varianti at 

libri de lingua Latina (1899)> pages 10-23. 
G. Goetz et F. Schoell, edition (19 10), pages xi-xxxv. 



THE LAURENTIAN MANUSCRIPT F 

Manuscript F contains all the extant continuous 
text of the De Lingua Latina, except v. 119 trua quod 
to \i. 61 dicendofinit ; this was contained in the second 
quaternion, now lost, but still in place when the other 
manuscripts were copied from it, and when Victorius 
and Diacetius collated it in 1521 . There are a number 
of important lacunae, apart from omitted lines or 
single words ; these are due to losses in its archetype. 

Leonhard Spengel," from the notations in the 
manuscript and the amount of text between the 
gaps, calculated that the archetype of F consisted 
of 16 quaternions, with these losses : 

Quaternion 4 lacked fohos 4 and 5, the gap after 

V. 162. 
Quaternion 7 lacked folio 2, the end of vi. and the 

beginning of \'ii., and foUo 7, the gap after vii. 23. 
Quaternion 1 1 was missing entire, the end of \-iii. and 

the beginning of ix. 
Quaternion 15 lacked folios 1 to 3, the gap after x. 23, 

and foHos 6 to 8, the gap after x. 34. 

The amount of text lost at each point can be cal- 

" tyber die Kritik der Varronischen Biicher de Lingua 
Latina, pp. 5-12. 

VOL. 1 6 XV 



INTRODUCTION 

culated from the fact that one folio of the archetype 
held about 50 lines of our text. 

There is a serious transposition in F, in the text of 
Book V. In § 23, near the end, after qui ad humum, 
there follows ut Sabini, now in § 32, and so on to Septi- 
montium, now in § 41 ; then comes demisstor, now in 
§ 23 after humum, and so on to ah hominibus, now in 
§ 32, after which comes nominatum of § 41. Mueller," 
who identified the transposition and restored the text 
to its true order in his edition, showed that the altera- 
tion was due to the wrong folding of folios 4 and 5 in 
the first quaternion of an archetype of F ; though 
this was not the immediate archetype of F, since the 
amount of text on each page was different. 

This transposition is now always rectified in our 
printed texts ; but there is probably another in the 
later part of Book V., which has not been remedied 
because the breaks do not fall inside the sentences, 
thus making the text unintelligible. The sequence 
of topics indicates that v. 115-128 should stand be- 
tween V. 140 and v. 141 ^" ; there is then the division 
by topics : 

General Heading v. 105 

De Fictu V. 105-112 

De Vestitu v. 113-114, 129-133 

De Instrumento v. 134-140, 115-128, 141-183 

" In the preface to his edition, pp. xvii-xviii. The dis- 
order in the text had previously been noticed by G. Buchanan, 
Turnebus, and Scaliger, and discussed by L. Spengel, Emen- 
dationum Varronianarum Specimen I, pp. 17-19. 

* L. Spengel, Emendationum Varronianarum Specimen I, 
pp. 13-19, identified this transposition, but considered the 
transpositions to be much more complicated, with the follow- 
ing order: §§105-114, §§ 129-140, § 128, §§166-168, §§118- 
127, §§ 115-117, §§ 141-165, § 169 on. 



INTRODUCTION 

Then also vi. 4-9 and vi. io may have changed 
places, but I have not introduced this into the 
present text ; I have however adopted the transfer 
of X. 18 from its manuscript position after x. 20, to 
the position before x. 19> which the continuity of the 
thought clearly demands. 

The text of F is unfortunately very corrupt, and 
while there are corrections both by the first hand and 
by a second hand, it is not always certain that the 
corrections are to be justified. 



THE ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE 
DE LINGUA LATIN A 

The orthography of F contains not merely many 
corrupted spelhngs which must be corrected, but 
also many variant spelhngs which are within the 
range of recognized Latin orthography, and these 
must mostly be retained in any edition. For there 
are many points on which we are uncertain of \'arro's 
own practice, and he even speaks of certain per- 
missible variations : if we were to standardize his 
orthography, we should do constant violence to the 
best manuscript tradition, %vithout any assurance 
that we were in all respects restoring Varro's own 
spelling. Moreover, as this work is on language, 
Varro has intentionally varied some spellings to suit 
his etymological argument ; any extensive normal- 
ization might, and probably would, do him injustice 
in some passages. Further, Varro quotes from earlier 
authors who used an older orthography ; we do not 
know whether Varro, in quoting from them, tried to 



INTRODUCTION 

use their original orthography, or merely used the 
orthography which was his own habitual practice. 

I have therefore retained for the most part the 
spellings of F, or of the best authorities when F fails, 
replacing only a few of the more misleading spellings 
by the familiar ones, and allowing other variations 
to remain. These variations mostly fall within the 
following categories : 

1 . EI : Varro wrote EI for the long vowel I in the 
nom. pi, of Decl. II (ix. 80) ; but he was probably not 
consistent in writing EI everywhere. The manuscript 
testifies to its use in the following : plebei (gen. ; cf. 
plebis vi. Ql, in a quotation) v. 40, 81, 158, vi. 87 ; 
eidem (nom. sing.) vii. 17 (eadem F), x. 10 ; scirpeis vii. 
44 ; Terentiei (nom.), vireis Terentieis (masc), Teren- 
tieis (fem.) viii. 36 ; infeineiteis viii. 50 (changed to 
injiniteis in our text, c/l {in)finitam viii. 52) ; i{e)is 
viii. 51 (his F), ix, 5 ; iei (nom.) ix. 2, 35 ; hei re(e}i 
Jer(re)ei de{e)i viii. 70 ; hinnulei ix. 28 ; utrei (nom. 
pi.) ix. Q5 (uire.I. F ; cf. utri ix, 65) ; (B)a(e}biei, 
B{a)ebieis x. 50 (alongside Caelii, Celiis). 

2. AE and E : Varro, as a countryman, may in 
some words have used E where residents of the city of 
Rome used AE {cf. v. 97) ; but the standard ortho- 
graphy has been introduced in our text, except that 
E has been retained in seculum and sepio (and its 
compounds : v. 141, 150, 157, 162, vii. 7, 13), which 
always appear in this form. 

3. OE and U : The writing OE is kept where it 
appears in the manuscript or is supported by the 
context : moerus and derivatives v. 50, 141 bis, 143, 
vi. 87 ; moenere, moenitius v. 141 ; Poenicum v. 113, 
viii. 65 bis ; poeniendo v. 177. OE in other words is 
the standard orthography. 



INTRODUCTION 

4. VO UO and VU UU : Varro certainly wTote 
only VO or UO, but the manuscript rarely shows 
\'0 or UO in inflectional syllables. The examples 
are novom ix. 20 (corrected from nouiim in F) ; nomina- 
tuom ix. 95, X. 30 (both -iiuom F) ; obliquom x. 50 ; 
loquontur vi. 1, ix. 85 ; sequontur x. 71 ; cUvos v. 158 ; 
perhaps amburvom v. 127 {impurro Fv). In initial 
syllables \0 is almost regular : volt \i. 47, etc. ; 
volpes V. 101 ; valgus v. 58, etc., but vulgo \-iii. 66 ; 
Volcanus v. 70y etc. ; vohillis ix. 33. Examples of the 
opposite practice are aequum vi, 71 ; duum x. 11 ; 
antiquus \\. 68 ; sequuntiir viii. 25 ; confluunt x. 50. 
Our text preserves the manuscript readings. 

5. UV before a vowel : Varro probablv \^Tote U and 
not \I\ before a vowel, except initially, where his 
practice may have been the other way. The examples 
are : Pacuhis v. 60, vi. 6 (catulus {Fv)), 94, vii. 18, 76, 
and Pacuvius v. 17, 24, vii. 59 ; gen. Pacui v. 7, vi. 6, 
vii. 22 ; Pacuuim vii. 87, 88, 91, 102 ; compltiium, 
impluium v. 161, and pluvia v. 161, compluvium v. 125 ; 
simpuium v. 124 bis {simpulum codd.) ; cf, panuvellium 
V. 114. Initially : uvidus v. 24 ; uvae, uvore v. 104 ; 
uvidum V. 109- 

6. U and I : \'arro shows in medial svllables a 
variation between U and I, before P or B or F or M 
plus a vowel. The orthography of the manuscript 
has been retained in our text, though it is likely 
that Varro regularly used U in these types : 

The superlative and similar words : albissumum 
viii. 75 ; frugalissumus viu. 77 ; c{a)esi{s)sumus \-iii. 
76 ; intumus v. 154 ; maritumae v. 113 ; melissumum 
viii. 76 ; optumum vii. 51 ; pauperrumus viii. 77 ; 
proxuma etc. v. 36, 93, ix. 115, x. 4, 26 ; septuma etc. 
ix. 30, x. 46 ter ; Septumio v. 1, vii. 109 ; superrumo 

xix 



INTRODUCTION 

vii. 51 ; decuma vi. 54. Cf. proximo optima maxima 
V. 102, minimum vii. 101, and many in viii. 75-78. 

Compounds of -fex and derivatives : pontufex v, 83, 
pontufices v. 83 (F^ for pontijices) ; artufices ix. 12 ; 
sacrujiciis v. 98, 124«. C/l pontijices v. 23, vi. 54, etc. ; 
artifex v. 93, ix. Ill, etc. ; sacrijicium vii. 88, etc. 

Miscellaneous words : monumentum v. 148, but 
monimentum etc, v. 41, vi. 49 bis ; mancupis v. 40, but 
mancipium etc. v, 163, vi. 74, 85 ; quadrupes v. 34, 
but quadripedem etc. vii. 39 bis, quadriplex etc. x. 46 
etc., quadripertita etc. v. 12 etc. 

7. LUBET and LIBET : Varro probably wrote 
lubet, lubido, etc., but the orthography varies, and the 
manuscript tradition is kept in our text : Inhere 
lubendo vi. 47, lubenter vii. 89, lubitum ix. 34, lubidine 
X. 56 ; and libido vi. 47, x. 60, libidinosus Libentina 
Libitina vi. 47, libidine x. 61. 

8. H : Whether ^"arro used the initial H according 
to the standard practice at Rome, is uncertain. In 
the country it was likely to be dropped in pronuncia- 
tion ; and the manuscript shows variation in its use. 
We have restored the H in our text according to the 
usual orthography, except that irpices, v. 136 bis, has 
been left because of the attendant text. Examples 
of its omission are Arpocrates v. 57 ; Ypsicrates v. 88 ; 
aedus ircus v. 97 ; olus olera v. 108, x. 50 ; olitorium 
V. 146 ; olitores vi. 20 ; ortis v. 103, ortorum v. 146 bis, 
orti vi. 20 ; aruspex vii. 88. These are normalized in 
our text, along with certain other related spellings : 
sepulchrum vii. 24 is made to conform to the usual 
sepulcrum, and the almost invariable nichil and 
nichili have been changed to nihil and nihili. 

9. X and CS : There are traces of a WTiting CS for 
X, which has in these instances been kept in the text : 

XX 



INTRODUCTION 

arcs vii. 44 (ares F) ; acsitiosae (ac sitiose F), acsitiosa 
(ac sitio a- F) vi. 66 ; dues (duces F) x. 57. 

10. Doubled Consonants : Varro's practice in this 
matter is uncertain, in some words. F regularly 
has littera (only Uteris v. 3 has one T), but obliterata 
(ix. 16, -atae ix. 21, -avii v. 52), and these spelUngs 
are kept in our text. Communis has been made 
regular, though F usually has one M ; casus is in- 
variable, except for de cassu in cassum viii. 39, which 
has been retained as probably coming from Varro 
himself. lupiter, \nih one P, is retained, because 
invariable in F ; the only exception is luppitri viii. 33 
(iuppiti F), which has also been kept. Numo xi. 61, 
for nummo, has been kept as perhaps an archaic 
spelUng. Decusis ix. 81 has for the same reason been 
kept in the citation from Lucilius. In a few words 
the normal orthography has been introduced in the 
text : grallator vii. 69 bis for gralator, grabaiis viii. 32 
for grabattis. For combinations resulting from pre- 
fixes see the next paragraph. 

11. Consonants of Prefixes : Varro's usage here 
is quite uncertain, whether he kept the unassimilated 
consonants in the compounds. Apparently in some 
groups he made the assimilations, in others he did not. 
The evidence is as follows, the variant orthography 
being retained in our text : 

Ad-c- : always ace-, except possibly adcensos vii. 
58 (F'^, for acensos F^). 

Ad-f- : always aff-, except adfuerit \\. 40. 

Ad-l- : always all-, except adlocutum vi. 57, adlucet 
vi. 79, adlatis (ablatis F) ix. 21. 

Ad-m- : always adm-, except ammonendum v. 6, 
amministrat vi. 78, amminicula \\\. 2, amminister \u. 34 
(F^, for adm- F^). 



INTRODUCTION 

Ads- : regularly ass-, but also adserere vi. 64, 
adsiet vi. 92, adsimus vii. 99» adsequi viii. 8, x. 9? <id- 
signijicare often (always except assignificant vii. 80), 
adsumi viii. 69, adsumat ix. 42, adsumere x. 58. 

Ad-sc-, ad-sp-, ad-st- : always with loss of the D, 
as in ascendere, ascribere, ascriptos (vii. 57), ascriptivi 
(vii. 56), aspicere, aspectus, astayis. 

Ad-t- : always att-, except adtrihuta v. 48, and 
possibly adtinuit (F^, but att- F^) ix. 59- 

Con-l-, con-b-, con-m-, con-r-: always coll-, comb-, 
comm-, corr-. 

Con-p- : always comp-, except conpernis ix. 10. 

Ex-f- : always eff-, except exfluit v. 29- 

Ex-s- : exsolveret v. 176, exsuperet vi. 50, but 
exuperantum vii. 18 (normalized in our text to 
exsuperantum). 

Ex-sc- : exculpserant v. 143. 

Ex-sp- : always expecto etc. vi, 82, x. 40, etc. 

Ex-sq- : regularly EsquiUis ; but Exquilias v. 25, 
Exquiliis v. 159 (^^)j normalized to Esq- in our text. 

Ex-st : extat v. 3, vi. 78 ; but exsiat v. 3, normalized 
to extat in our text. 

In-l- : usually ill-, but inlicium vi. 88 bis, QS (illici- 
tum F), 94, 95, inliceret vi. 90, inliciatur vi. 9* ; the 
variation is kept in our text: 

In-m- : always imm-, except in {in}mutatis vi. 38, 
where the restored addition is unassimilated to indi- 
cate the negative prefix and not the local in. 

In-p- : always imp-, except inpos v. 4 bis (once 
ineos F), inpotem v. 4 {inpotentem F), inplorat vi. 68. 

Ob-c-, ob-f-, ob-p- : always occ-, off-, opp-. 

Ob-t- : always opt-, as in optineo etc. vii. 17, 91» 
X. 19, optemperare ix. 6. 

Per-l- : pellexit vi. 94, hut perlucent v. 140. 



INTRODUCTION 

Sub-c-, suh-f-, sub-p- : always succ-, suff-, supp-, 
except subcidit v. 116. 

Subs- and subs- + consonant : regularly sus- + con- 
sonant, except subscribunt vii. 107. 

Sub-t- : only in suptilius x. 40. 

Trans-l- : in tralatum \\. 11, vii. 23, 103, x. 71 ; 
tralatido vi. oo (tranlatio Fv) and translaticio v. 32, 
vi. 64 (translatio F, tranlatio Fv), translatims vi. 78. 

Trans-v- : in travolat v. 118, and transversus vii. 81, 
X. 22, 23, 43. 

Trans-d- : in traducere. 

12. DE and DI : The manuscript has been followed 
in the orthography of the following : direcio vii. 15, 
dirigi viii. 26, derecti x. 22 bis, deriguntur derectorum 
X. 22, derecta directis x. 43, directas x. 44, derigitur 
X. 74 ; deiunctum x. 45, deiunctae x. 47. 

13. Second Declension : Nom. sing, and ace. sing, 
in -uom and -uum, see 5. 

Gen. sing, of nouns in -ius : Varro used the form 
ending in a single I (cf. viii. 36), and a few such forms 
stand in the manuscript : Mud v. 5 (inuti F) ; Poem 
v. 7, vi. 6, vii. 22 ; Mani vi. 90 ; Quinti vi. 92, Ephesi 
viii. 22 (ephesis F), Plauti et Mard \iii. 36, dispendi 
ix. 54 (quoted, metrical ; alongside dispendii ix. 54). 
The gen. in II is much commoner ; both forms are 
kept in our text. 

Nom. pi., \\Titten by Varro with EI {cf. ix. 80) ; 
examples are given in 1, above. 

Gen. pi. : The older forai in -um for certain words 
(denarium, centumvirum, etc.) is upheld viii. 71, 
ix. 82, 85, and occurs occasionally elsewhere : 
Velabrum v. 44, Querquetulanum v. 49, Sabinum v. 
74, etc. 

Dat.-abl. pi., written by Varro with EIS {cf. ix. 80) ; 



INTRODUCTION 

examples are given in 1, above, but the manuscript 
regularly has IS. 

Dat.-abl. pi. of nouns ending in -ius, -ia, -ium, are 
almost always written IIS ; there are a few for which 
the manuscript has IS, which we have normalized to 
IIS : Gabis v. 33, (Es)quilis v. 50, kostis v. 98, Publicis 
v. 158, Faleris v. 162, praeverbis vi. 82 (cf. praeverbiis 
vi. 38 bis), mysteris vii. 34 (cf. mysteriis vii. 19)? miliaris 
ix. 85 (militaris F). 

Deus shows the follo>vdng variations : Nom. pi. 
de(e)i viii. 70, dei v. 57, 58 bis, 66, 71, vii. 36, ix. 59, 
dii V. 58, 144, vii. 16 ; dat.-abl. pi. deis v. 122, vii. 45, 
diis v. 69, 71, 182, vi. 24, 34, vii. 34. 

14. Third Declension : The abl. sing, varies 
between E and I : supellectile viii. 30, 32, ix. 46, and 
supelleciili ix. 20 {-lis F) ; cf. also vesperi (uespert- F) 
and vespere ix. 73. 

Nom. pi., where ending in IS in the manuscript, is 
altered to ES ; the examples are mediocris v. 5 ; partis 
V. 21, 56; ambonis v. 115; urbis v. 143; aedis v. 160; 
compluris vi. 15 ; Novendialis vi. 26 ; auris vi. 83 ; dis- 
parilis viii. 67; lentisix. 34; 07nnis ix. 81; dissimilis 
ix. 92. 

Gen. pi. in UM and IUM, see viii. 67. In view 
of dentum viii. 67, expressly championed by Varro, 
Veientum v. 30 {uenientum F), caelestum vi. 53, Quiritum 
vi. 68 have been kept in our text. 

Ace. pi. in ES and IS, see viii. 67. Varro's dis- 
tribution of the two endings seems to have been 
purely empirical and arbitrary, and the manuscript 
readings have been retained in our text. 

15. Fourth Declension : Gen. sing. : Gellius, 
Nodes Atticae iv. 16. 1, tells us that Varro always used 
UIS in this form. Nonius Marcellus 483-494 M. cites 



INTRODUCTION 

eleven such forms from Varro, but also sumpti. The 
De Lingua Latina gives the following partial examples 
of this ending : usuis ix. -i {suis F), x. 73 {usui F), casuis 
X. 50 (casuum F), x. 62 (casus his F). Examples of 
this form ending in US are kept in our text : fructus 
V. 34, 134, senatus v. 87, exercitus v. 88, panus v. 105, 
domus V. 162, census v. 181, motus vi. 3, sonitus vi. 67 
bis, sensus vi. 80, usus viii. 28, 30 bis, casus ix. 76, 
manus ix. 80. 

Gen. pi. : For the variation between UUM and 
UOM see 4, above. The form with one U is found 
in tribum v. 5G, ortum v. 66, manum vi. 64 {nianu F), 
magistratum viii. 83 {-his F), declinatum x. 54 ; these 
have been normalized in our text to UUM (except 
manum, in an archaic formula). Note the following 
forms in the manuscript : cornuum v. 117, declinatuum 
vi. 36 {-tiuuvi Fv), x. 31, 32, 54, sensuum \\. 80 ; tribuum 
vi. 86 ; fructuum ix. 27 ; casuum ix. 77, x. 14,23, manuum 
ix. 80, nominatuom (-iiuom F) ix. 95, x. 30, nomina- 
tuum X. 19- 

16. Heteroclites : There are the following : gen. 
sing, plebei v. 40, 81, 158, vi. 87, and plebis vi. 91 ; nom. 
sing, elephans and ace. pi. elephantos vii. 39 ; abl. sing. 
Titano \ii. 16 ; abl. pi. vasis v. 121, poematis Wi. 2, 36, 
\1ii. 14, and poematibus vii. 34. 

17. Greek Forms : There are the following : ace. 
sing, analogian ix. 1, 26, 33, 34, 45, 49, 76, 79, 105, 
113, 114, but also analogiam ix. 90, 100, 110, x. 2, and 
analogia{m) ix. 95, 111. Ace. sing. Aethiopa viii. 38 
{etkiopam F). Nom. pi. Aeolis v. 25, 101, 102, 175, 
Athcficiis viii. 35. 

18. Forms of IS axd IDEM : The forms in the 
manuscript are kept in our text ; there are the follow- 
ing to be noted : 



INTRODUCTION 

Nona. sing. masc. : idem often ; also eidem vii. 17 

(eadem F), x. 10. 

Nom. pi. : a V. 26, ix. 2 ; iei ix. 2, 35 ; idem ix. 19- 
Dat.-abl. pi. : eis vi. 18, vii. 102, ix. 4, x. 8 ; ieis 

viii. 51 {his F, but assured by context), ix. 5 ; is vii. 5 

(rfw F) ; iisdem vi. 38 ; isdem vii. 8 (hisdem F), viii. 35 

few (hisdem F). 

19. QUOM and CUM etc. : Varro wrote quom, 
quor, quoius, quoi, and not cum, cur, cuius, cui, though 
the latter spellings are much commoner in the manu- 
scripts, the readings of which are kept in our text. 
Quo7}i is not infrequent, being found vi. 42, 56, vii. 4, 
105, viii. 1, X. 6, and in other passages where slight 
emendation is necessary. Quor is found only cor- 
rected to cur, viii. 68, 71, and hidden under quorum 
corrected to qtiod, viii. 78. Quoius is written viii. 44, 
ix. 43, X. 3, and in other passages where emendation 
is necessary. Quoi nowhere appears, unless it should 
be read for qui vi. 72, and quoique for quoque ix. 34, 
adopted in our text. 

Both qui and quo are used for the abl. sing, of the 
relative, and quis and quibus for the dat.-abl. pi., and 
similar forms for quidam. In quo is used with a plural 
antecedent of any gender : v. 108, vi. 2, 55, 82, vii. 26, 
viii. 83, ix. 1, x. 8, 41. 

20. ALTER and NEUTER : Gen. alii ix. 67 is 
found as well as aUerius ix. 91 ; neutri ix. 62, neutra{e) 
X. 73, as well as neutrius ix. 1 ; dat. fem. aliae x. 15. 

21. Contracted Perfects : Only the contracted 
perfects are found, such as appellarunt v. 22 etc., 
declinarit v. 7, aherraro v. 13, appellassent ix. 69, curasse 
vii. 38, consuerunt consuessent ix. 68, consuerit ix. 14 bis ; 
exceptions, novissent vi. 60, auspicaverit vi. 86 (quoted), 
nuncupavero vii. 8 (quoted), vitaverunt x. 9- 

xxvi 



INTRODUCTION 

Similarly, the Y is omitted after I, as in praeterii 
ix. 7, prodterunt v. 13, expediero vili. 24, etc. ; excep- 
tion, quivero v. 5 (F^, for quiero F^). 

22. PONO in Perfect : The text always has posui 
and its forms, except twice, which we have standard- 
ized : imposiverunt viii. 8, imposierint ix. 34. 

23. Gerundives : \'arro used the old form of the 
gerundive and gerund with UND in the third and 
fourth conjugations, but the forms have mostly been 
replaced by those with END. The remaining ex- 
amples of the older form are Jerundo v, 104^, Jerundum 
vi. 29,J^aciundo vii. 9« quaerundae vii. 35, reprehendundi 
ix. 12, reprehendu7idus ix. 93. 

24. \'ERSUS : The older forms vorto, vorti, vorsus 
are not found in the manuscript. The adverbial 
compounds of versus have (with one exception) been 
retained in our text as they appear in the manuscript : 
susus versus v. 158. susum versus ix. Q5; deorsum, s^usum 
V. 161 ; rursus vi. 46, 49, ix. 86 ; deosum versus ix. 86 ; 
prosus and rusus (rosus F) x. 52. 



THE EDITIONS OF THE 
DE LINGUA LA TINA 

There are the follo\Wng printed editions of the De 
Lingua Latina, some of which appeared in numerous 
reprintings : 

1. Editio princeps, edited by Pomponius Laetus ; 
without statement of place and date, but probably 
printed at Rome by Georgius Lauer, 1471. It rests 
upon a manuscript similar to M. 

A second printing, also without place and date, but 
probably printed at Venice by Franc. Renner de 



INTRODUCTION 

Hailbrun, liTi, was used by Victorius and Diacetius 
in recording the readings of F, and this copy was used 
by L. Spengel for his readings of F and of Laetus ; as 
compared with the l^Tl printing, it shows a number 
of misprints. 

2. Editio vetustissima, edited by Angelus Tifernas 
with but shght variation from the edition of Laetus ; 
probably printed at Rome by Georgius Sachsel de 
Reichenhal, 1474. 

3. Editio Rholandelli, edited by Franciscus Rholan- 
dellus Trivisanus ; printed at Venice, 1475. It shows 
improvement over the edition of Laetus, by the 
introduction of readings from relatively good manu- 
scripts. 

4. Editio Veneta, similar to the preceding, but in 
the same volume with Nonius Marcellus and Festus ; 
first printed in 1483, and reprinted in 1492 by Nicolaus 
de Ferraris de Pralormo (L. Spengel's Editio Veneta 
I), and in 1498 by Magister Antonius de Gusago 
(Spengel's Veneta II). 

A Venice edition of 1474, printed by loh, de Colonia 
and loh. Manthem de Gherretzen, was used by Goetz 
and Schoell and cited as Ed. Ven. in their edition. 

5. Editio Baptistae Pii, edited by Baptista Pius, an 
eclectic text based on previous editions, but with 
some independent emendations ; printed at Milan 
by Leonardus Pachel, 1510. 

6. Editio Aldina, edited by Aldus Manutius after 
the edition of Pius, but with some changes through 
his own emendations and in accordance with manu- 
script testimony, possibly including that of -F ; printed 
at Venice by Aldus, 1513. The volume includes the 
Cornucopia Perotti, the De Lingua Latina, Festus, and 
Nonius Marcellus ; it was reprinted at Venice by 



INTRODUCTION 

Aldus in 1517 and 1527, and at Basel and Paris several 
times, up to 1536. The 1527 printing shows some 
improvements (see 7). 

7. Editio Par'mensis, edited by Michael Bentinus, 
and essentially following the Aldine of 1527, for which 
Bentinus collated a number of manuscripts and used 
their readings ; it includes also the Castigationes or 
Corrections of Bentinus, a series of critical and ex- 
planatory comments. It was printed at Paris by 
Cohnaeus, 1529^ 

8. Editio Gryphiana, similar to the preceding, 
including the Castigationes of Bentinus, and the frag- 
ments of the Origines of M. Porcius Cato ; for its 
preparation, Petrus Victorius had transcribed the 
readings of B as far as ix. 74. It was published at 
Lyons by Sebastian Gryphius, 1535. 

9. Editio Vulgata, edited by Antonius Augustinus, 
with the readings of B (received from Petrus Vic- 
torius) and the help of Angelus Colotius, Octavius 
Pantagathus, and Gabriel Faernus ; it was printed at 
Rome by Vine. Luchinus in 1554 and again by Antonius 
Bladus in 1557. 

The text of the De Lingua Latina has been re- 
garded as greatly corrupted in this edition, since 
Augustinus based it on a poor manuscript, introduced 
a great number of his own emendations, and 
attempted a standardization of the orthography, 
notably in \\Titing quom and the like, and in using EI 
for long I in endings (e.g., dat.-abl. pi. heis lihreis, ace. 
pi. simileis, gen. sing, vocandei). Despite his errors, 
he has made a number of valuable emendations, as will 
be seen from the citations in our apparatus criticus. 

The text of this edition was rather closely followed 
by all editors except Vertranius and Scioppius, and 



INTRODUCTION 

Scaliger in his emendations, until the edition of Leon- 
hard Spengel in 1826, 

10. Editio Vertranii, edited by M. Vertranius 
Maurus, following the edition of Augustinus, but 
discarding the spellings of the type quom and the use 
of EI for long I, and making a large number of his 
own conjectural emendations ; printed at Lyons by 
Gryphii Heredes, 1563. 

1 1 . Coniectanea in M. Terentium Varronem de Lingua 
Latina, by Josephus Scaliger ; not an edition, but 
deserving a place here, as it contains numerous textual 
criticisms as well as other commentary ; written in 
1564, and published at Paris in 1565. Both these 
Coniectanea and an Appendix ad Coniectanea (the 
original date of which I cannot determine) are pi'inted 
with many later editions of the De Lingua Latina. 

12. Editio Turnebi, edited by Adrianus Turnebus, 
who used a manuscript very similar to p and made 
numerous emendations ; printed at Paris by A. 
Wechelus, 1566 (Turnebus died 1565). 

13. Opera quae supersunt, with Scaliger 's Coniectanea, 
printed at Paris by Henr. Stephanus, 156^. 

14. Edition of Dionysius Gothofredus, containing 
only an occasional independent alteration ; in Auc- 
tores Linguae Latinae in unum corpus redacti, printed at 
Geneva by Guilelmus Leimarius, 1585. 

15. Edition, with the notes of Ausonius Popma ; 
printed at Leiden ex officina Plantiniana, 1601. 

16. Editio Gaspari Scioppii, edited by Gaspar Sciop- 
pius, who relied on data of Gabriel Faernus and on 
collations of Vatican manuscripts by Fulvius Ursinus ; 
it contains many valuable textual suggestions, though 
perhaps most of them belong to Ursinus rather than 
to Scioppius (who expressly gives credit to Faernus, 



INTRODUCTION 

Turnebus, and Ursinus). It was printed at Ingolstad 
in 1602 ; reprinted in 1605. 

1 7. Editio Bipontina, in two volumes, the second con- 
taining a selection of the notes of Augustinus, Turne- 
bus, Scaliger, and Popma ; issued at Bipontium 
(Zweibriicken in Bavaria), 1788. 

18. M. Terenti Varronis de Lingua Latina libri qui 
supersunt, edited by Leonhard Spengel of Munich ; 
the first scientific edition, resting on readings of F 
(but only as represented by Fv), H, B, a, h, c, and a 
comparison of all, or almost all, the previous editions. 
It was printed in Berlin bv Duncker und Humbloth, 
1826. 

19- M. Terenti Varronis de Lingua Latina librorum 
quae supersunt, edited by Karl Ottfried Mueller, who 
added the readings of G to his critical apparatus. 
Mueller has the merit of setting the paragraphs of 
V. 23-41 in their proper order, and of placing brief but 
valuable explanatory material in his notes, in addition 
to textual criticism. This edition was printed at 
Leipzig by Weidmann, 1833. 

20. M. T. Varronis librorum de Lingua Latina quae 
supersunt, reprinted after Mueller's edition with a 
very few textual changes by A. Egger ; issued at 
Paris by Bourgeois-Maze, 1837. 

21. Varron de la Langue Latine, a translation into 
French by Huot, accompanied by Mueller's text ; in 
the Collection des Auteurs Latins avec la traduction en 

frangais, directed by Xisard, printed at Paris by 
Firmin Didot Freres and issued by Dubochet et 
Cie., 1845. 

22. Libri di M. Terenzio Varrone intomo alia lingua 
latina, edited and translated with notes by Pietro 
Canal ; in the Biblioteca degli Scrittori Latini with 



INTRODUCTION 

translation and notes ; printed at Venice by Gius. 
Antonelli, 18-t6-1854. It was reprinted in 1874, with 
addition of the fragments, to which notes were 
attached by Fed. Brunetti. 

This edition is httle known, and deserves more 
attention than it has received, although Canal was 
very free with his emendation of the text ; but he 
used a number of additional manuscripts which are in 
the libraries of Italy. 

23. M. Terenti Varronis de Lingua Latina libri, edited 
by Andreas Spengel after the death of his father 
Leonhard, who had been working on a second edition 
for nearly fifty years when he died ; printed at Berlin 
by Weidmann, 1885. 

This edition is notable because of the abundant 
critical apparatus. 

24. M. Terenti Varronis de Lingua Latina quae 
supersunt, edited by Georg Goetz and Friedrich 
Schoell ; printed at Leipzig by Teubner, IQIO. 

This edition is very conservative, many corrupt 
passages being marked with a dagger and left in the 
text, while excellent emendations for the same are 
relegated to the apparatus criticus or to the Annota- 
tiones at the end of the volume ; but it has great value 
for its citation of abundant testimonia and its elabor- 
ate indexes. 

Two errors of earlier editors may be mentioned at 
this point. Since \'arro in v. 1 speaks of having sent 
three previous books to Septumius, our Book V. was 
thought to be Book IV. ; and it was not until Spengel's 
edition of 1826 that the proper numbering came into 
use. Further, Varro's remark in viii. 1 on the subject 
matter caused the early editors to think that they had 
xxxii 



INTRODUCTION 

De Lingua Latina Libri Tres (our v.-vii.), and De 
Atialogia Libri Tres (our viii.-x.) ; Augustinus in the 
\'ulgate was the first to realize that the six books 
were parts of one and the same work, the De Lingua 
Latina. 

It is convenient to list here, together, the special 
treatments of the passage on the city of Rome, v. 
41-56, which is given by the Fragmentum Cassinense : 

H. Keil, Rkeinisches Museum \i. 142-li5 (1848). 

L. Spengel, Uber die Kritik der varronischen BUcker 
de Lingua Latina ; in Abhandl. d. k. buyer. Ak. d. Wiss. 
7, 4.7-54 (1854). 

B. ten Brink, M. Terentii Varronis Locus de Urbe 
Roma ; Traiecti ad Rhenum, apud C. Van der Post 
Juniorem, 1855. 

H. Jordan, Topograpkie der Stadt Rom im Altertkum 
u. 599-603 (Berlin, 1871). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

A bibliography of editions, books, and articles, for 
the period 1471-1897, is given by Antonibon, Supple- 
mento di Lezioni Varianti, pages 179-187 ; but there 
are many misprints, and many omissions of items. 
Bibliographical Usts ^^^ll be found in the foUoNnng : 

Bibliotheca Philologica Classica, supplement to Philo- 

logus. 
Dix annees de pkilologie classique 1914-1934, i. 428-429, 

edited by J. Marouzeau (1927). 
L' Annee philologique i. for 1924-1926 ; ii. for 1927, etc., 

edited by J. Marouzeau (1928 fF.). 

VOL. I c 2 xxxiii 



INTRODUCTION 

Critical summaries of the literature will be found 
as follows : 
1826-1858 : Philologus xiii. 684-751 (1858), by L. 

Mercklin. 
1858-1868 : Philologus xxvii. 286-331 (1868), by A. 

Riese. 
1867-1876 : Philologus xl. 649-651 (1881), merely 

listed. 
1877-1890 : Bursians Jahresberichte uber den Fortschritt 

der klassischen Philologie Ixviii. 121-122 (1892), 

by G. Goetz. 
I89I-I90I ; Bursians Jrb. cxiii. 116-128 (1901), by 

P. Wessner. 
1901-1907 : Bursians Jrb. cxxxix. 85-89 (1908), by 

R. Kriegshammer. 
1901-1920 : Bursians Jrb. clxxxviii. 52-69 (1921), by 

P. Wessner. 
I92I-I925 : Bursians Jrb. cexxxi. 35-38 (1931), by 

F. Lammert. 

For the period before the edition of L. Spengel 
in 1826, it is unnecessary to do other than refer to 
the list of editions ; for other writings on Varro were 
few, and they are mostly lacking in importance, 
apart from being inaccessible to-day. The following 
selected list includes most of the literature since 1826, 
which has importance for the De Lingua Latina, either 
for the text and its interpretation, or for Varro 's style, 
sources, and method ; but treatises dealing with his 
influence on later authors have mostly been omitted 
from the Hst : 

Antonibon, Giulio : Contributo agli studi sui libri de 
Lingua Latina ; Rivista di Filologia xvii. 177-221 
(1888). 



INTRODUCTION 

Antonibon, G. : De Codice Varroniano Mutinensi ; 

Philologus xlviii. 185 (1889). 
Antonibon, G. : Supplemento di Lezioni Varianti at 

lihri De Lingiia Latino de M. Ter. Varrone ; 

Bassano, 1899. 

Barw"ick, K. : Remmius Paldmon ufid die romische Ars 

grammatica ; Leipzig, 1922 {Philologus, Suppl. 

XV. 2). 
Bednara, Ernst : Archiv fur lateiniscke Lexikographie 

xiv. 593 (1906). 
Bergk, Th. : Quaestiones Lucretianae ; Index Lec- 

tionum in Acad. Marburg. 184'6-1847. 
Bergk, Th. : De Carminum Saliarium Reliquiis ; Index 

Lectionum in Acad. Marburg. 1847-184-8. 
Bergk, Th. : Quaestiones Ennianae ; Index Scholarum 

in Univ. Hal. 1860. 
Bergk, Th. : Varroniana ; Index Scholarum in Univ. 

Hal. 1863. 
Bergk, Th. : De Paelignorum Sermofie ; Index Scho- 
larum in Univ. Hal. 1864. 
Bergk, Th. : Zeitschrift fiir die Altertumsivissenschaft 

ix. 231 (1851), xiv. 138-14-0 (1856). 
Bergk, Th. : Philologus xiv. 186, 389-390 (1859), xxx. 

682 (1870), xxxii. 567 (1873), xxxiii. 281, 301-302, 

311 (1874). 
Bergk, Th. : Jahrhiicher fur classische Philologie 

Ixxxiii. 317, 320-321, 333-334, 633-637 (1861); 

ci. 829-832, 841 (1870). 
Bergk, Th. : Rheinisches Museum xx. 291 (1865). 
Bergk, Th. : Kleine Philologische Schriften (Halle, 

1884) ; passim, reprinting most of the articles 

Usted above. 
Birt, Th. : Rheinisches Museum Uv. 50 (1899). 



INTRODUCTION 

Birt, Th. : Philologus Ixxxiii. 40-41 (1928). 

Boissier, Gaston : Etude siir la vie et les ouvrages de 

M. T. Varron ; Paris, 1861, 2nd ed. 1875. 
Boot, J. C. G. : M?iemosyne xxii. 409-412 (1894). 
Brakmann, C. : Mnemosyne Ix. 1-19 (1932). 
ten Brink, B. : M. Terentii Varronis Locus de Urhe 

Roma ; Traiecti ad Rhenum, 1855. 
Brinkmann, A. : Simpuvium — simpulum ; Arckiv fur 

lateinische Lexikographie xv. 139-143 (1908). 
Buecheler, F. : Rhemisches Museum xxvii. 475 (1872). 
Buecheler, F. : Archiv fiir lateinische Lexikographie 

ii. 119,619-624(1885). 

Christ, Wilhelm : Philologus xvi. 450-464 (1860), 

xvii. 59-63 (1861). 
Christ, Wilhelm : Archiv fur lateinische Lexikographie 

ii. 619-624 (1885). 

Dahlmann, Hellfried : Varro und die hellenistische 
Sprachtheorie ; Berlin, 1932 {Forschungen zur 
Mass. Phil. v.). 

Dahlmann, Hellfried : M. Terentius Varro, article in 
Pauly-Wissowa's Real-Encyc. d. class. Altertums- 
wiss. Suppl. vol. vi. 1172-1277 (1935). 

Dam, R. J. : De Analogia, observationes in Varronem 
grammaticainque Romanorum ; Campis, 1930. 

Ellis, Robinson : Journal of Philology ^\yi. 38, 178-179 

(1891). 
ElHs, Robinson : Hermathena xi. 353-363 (1901). 

Fay, Edwin W. : Varroniana ; American Journal of 

Philology XXXV. 149-162, 245-267 (1914). 
Foat, W. G. : Classical Review xxix. 79 (1915). 
Fraccaro, Plinio : Studi Varroniani ; Padova, 1907. 



INTRODUCTION 

Funaioli, Hyginus : Grammaticae Romanae Fragmenta ; 
Leipzig, 1907. 

Galdi, M. : Rivista Indo-Greco-Italica xi. 3-4, 21-22 

(1927). 
Georges, K. E. : Philologus xxxiii. 226 (1874). 
Goetz, Georg : Berliner Pkilologiscke JVockenschrift, 

1886, 779-783. 
Goetz, Georg : Quaestiones Varronianae ; Index 

Scholarum, in Univ. lenensi, 1886-1887. 
Goetz, Georg : Aelius Stilo, article in Pauly-Wissowa's 

Real-Enc. d. cl. Altrv. i. 532-533 (1894), Suppl. 

vol. i. 15 (1903). 
Goetz, Georg : Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1908, 

815-827. 
Goetz, Georg : Ztir Wilrdigung der grammatischen 

Arbeiten Varros ; Ahhandl. der kon. sacks. Gesell- 

schaft d. Wiss. xxvii. 3, 67-89 (1909). 
Goetz, Georg : Berliner Pkilologiscke Wockensckrift, 

1910, 1367-1368. 
Groth, Adolfus : De M. Terenti Varronis de Lingua 

Latina lihrorum codice Florentino ; Argentorati, 

1880. 

Haupt, Moritz : Hermes i. 401-403 (1866), iii. 147- 

148 (1869), iv. 332-334 (1870). 
Haupt, Moritz : Opuscula (3 vols., 1875, 1876, 1876), 

ii. 192-195, iii. 355-357, 477. 
Heidrich, Georg : Der Gehrauck des Gerundiums und 

Gerundivums bei Varro ; Jahresbericht, Gvmn. 

Melk, 1890. 
Heidrich, Georg : Bemerkungen iiber den Stil des Varro ; 

Jahresbericht, Gymn. Melk, I891. 
Henry, Victor : De sermonis kumani origine et natura 

M. Terentius Varro quid senserit ; Insulis, 1883. 



INTRODUCTION 

Hertz, M. : Jahrhiicher fur classische Philologie cix. 

249-255 (1874). 
Hirschfeld, O. : Hermes viii. 469 (1874). 
Hultsch, Fr. : Pkilologus xxii. 346 (1865). 
Hultsch, Fr. : Metrologicorum Scriptorum reliquiae 

ii. 49-51 ; Leipzig, 1866. 

Jacobs ; Varietas lectionum in Varronis lihris de Lingua 

Latina ; Beitrdge zur dlteren Litteratur ii. 217-222 

(1836). 
Jahn, Otto : Hermes ii. 246-247 (1867). 
Jeep, J. W. L. : Zur Geschichte der Lekre von den 

Redeteilen bei den lateinischen Grammatikern ; 

Leipzig, 1893. 
Jonas, Richard : Zum Gehrauch der Verba frequenta- 

tiva und intensiva in der dlteren lateinischen Prosa ; 

Gymn. Posen, 1879- 
Jordan, Heinrich : Hermes ii. 83, 89 (1867), xv. 118- 

121 (1880). 
Jordan, Heinrich : Topographie der Stadt Rom im 

Alterthum, vol. i. 1, 1878 ; i. 2, 1885 ; i. 3, revised 

by Ch. Huelsen, 1907 ; vol. ii. 1871, especially 

pages 237-290, 599-603 ; Berhn. 
Jordan, Heinrich : Kritische Beitrdge zur Geschichte 

der lateinischen Sprache, Berlin, 1879 ; passim, 

esp. pages 90-91, 96-103, 131, 138, 224, 321. 

Keil, Heinrich : Das Fragmentum Casinense des Varro 

de Lingua Latina ; Rheinisches Museum vi. 142- 

145 (1847). 
Kent, R. G. : On the Text of Varro, de Lingua Latina ; 

Trans. Am. Philol. Assn. Ixvii. 64-82 (1936). 
Kowalski, G. : Studia Rhetorica ; Eos xxxi. 141-168 

(1928). 



INTRODUCTION 

Kriegshammer, Robert : De Varronis et Verrii Fonti- 
bus quaestiones selectae ; Leipzig, 1903. 

Krumbiegel, Richard : De Farroniano Scribendi 
Genere quaestiones ; Leipzig, 1892. 

Lachmann, Karl : Rheinisches Museum \i. 106-125 

(1839) ; new series, ii. 356-365 (1842), iii. 610-611 

(184-5) ; reprinted in Kleinere Schriften ii. 162- 

187 (1876). 
Lachmann, Karl : In T. Lucretii Cari de Rerum Natura 

libros Commentarius (1850), passim ; 4th ed., 

1882, with index. 
Lahmeyer, Gustav : Philologus xxii. 100-105 (1865). 
Lersch, Laurenz : Die Sprackpkilosophie der Alien i. 

117-127 (1838), ii. 14-3-153 (1840), iii. 169-172 

(1841) ; Bonn. 
Lobeck, Chr. Aug. : Aglaophamus ii. 1002-1004 ; 

Konigsberg, 1829. 
Luebbert, Ed. : Commentationes Pontijlcales ; BerUn, 

1859. 

Mad\ig, J. N. : Adversaria Critica i. 178, ii. 166-178 ; 

Copenhagen, 1871 and 1873. 
Mercklin, Lud^vig : De Junio Gracchano commen- 

tatio ; particulae duae, Dorpat, 1840, 1841. 
Mercklin, Lud\\ig : Quaestiones Varronianae ; Index 

Scholarum in Univ. Dorpat. 1852. 
Mercklin, Ludwig : De Varronis tralaticio scribendi 

genere qtiaestiones ; Index Scholarum in Univ. 

Dorjjat. 1858. 
Mette, H. J. : De Cratete Mallotn seu Pergameno ; 

Berlin, 1931. 
Mette, H. J. : Varroniana (supplement to preceding); 

Berlin, 1931. 



INTRODUCTION 

Mueller, August : De Priscis Verhorum Formis Var- 

ronianis ; Halle, 1877. 
Mueller, C. F. W. : Zeitschrift fur das Gymnasial- 

wesen xlx, 421-424, 792-800, 867-874 (1865). 
Mueller, K. O. : Zur Topographie Roms : Uber die 

Fragmente der Sacra Argeorum bei Varro, de Lingua 

Latina V {IV), 8 ; in Bottiger, Archdologie und 

Kunst i. 69-94 ; Breslau, 1828. 
Mueller, K. O. : Sextus Pompeius Festus, edition, page 

xliv ; Leipzig, 1839- 
Mueller, Lucian : Jakrhucher fiir classische Philologie 

xcvii. 427 (1868). 
Mueller, Lucian : Rheinisches Museum xxiv. 553-557 

(1869). 
Muller Jzn, Fridericus : De veterum imprimis Ro- 

manorum studiis etymologicis, pages 115-248 ; 

Utrecht, 1910. 

Nettleship, H. : Latin Grammar in the First Century ; 

Journal of Philology xv. 189-214 (1886). 
Neukirch, J. H. : De Fabula Togata Romanorum, 

pages 71, 83, 89, 96, 99, 122, 188, 278 ; Leipzig, 

1833. 
Norden, Eduard : Rheinisches Museum xlviii. 348-354 

(1893). 
Norden, Eduard : De Stilone Cosconio Varrone gram- 

maticis commentatio ; Index Scholarum in Univ. 

Greifswald. 1895. 
Norden, Eduard : Die antike Kunstprosa vom VI. 

Jahrhundert vor Christus bis in die Zeit der Renais- 
sance i. 194-200 ; Leipzig, 1898. 

Oxe, C. E. L. : De M. Ter. Varronis etymis quibusdam 
commentatio ; Gymn. Programm, Kreuznach, 
1859. 

xl 



INTRODUCTION 

Oxe, C, E. L. : M. Terenti Varronis lihrorum de lingua 
Latino argumentum ; Gymn. Programin, Kreuz- 
nach, 1871. 

Pape, Wilhelm : Lectiones Varronianae ; Berlin, 1829. 
Plasberg, O. : Rheinisches Museum liii. 70, 75-76 

(1898). 

Reiter, Hugo : Quaestiones Varronianae grammaiicae ; 

Konigsberg, 1882. 
Reiter, Hugo : Observationes criticae in M. Terenti 

Varronis de lingua Latina libros ; Jahresbericht, 

Gymn. Braunsberg, 1884. 
Reitzenstein, R. : M. Tereniius Varro und Johannes 

Mauropus von Euchaita ; Leipzig, 1901. 
Ribbeck, Otto : Die Composition der Varronischen 

Biicher V-VJI de lingua Latina ; Rheinisches 

Museum xli. 618-626 (1886). 
Riese, Alexander : Philologus xxvii. 305-306 (1868). 
Ritschl, Fr. W. : Jahrbiicher fur classische Philologie 

xcv-ii. 341-34.3 (1868). 
Roehrscheidt, K. : review of Reitzenstein ; Got- 

tingische Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1908, 791-814. 
Roessner, Otto : De praepositionum ab de ex usu Var- 

roniano ; Halle, 1888. 
Roth, K. L. : Uber das Leben des M. Terentius Varro ; 

Gymn. Programm, Basel, 1857 (also separately 

issued). 
Roth, K. L. : Philologus xvii. 175-176 (1861). 

Samter, Ernest : Quaestiones Varronianae ; Berlin, 

1891. 
Schwabe, L. : Jahrbiicher fur Philologie ci. 350-352 

(1870). 

xli 



INTRODUCTION 

Sitzler, Johann : Uber den Kasusgebrauch bei Varro ; 

Beilage zum Gymn. Programm, Tauberbischofs- 

heim, 1889. 
Skutsch, F. : Hermes xxxii. 96-97 (1897). 
Skutsch, F, : Rkeinisches Museum Ixi. 603-609 

(1906). 
Spengel, Andreas : Bemerkungen zu Varro de lingua 

Latina ; Sitzungsber. d. kon. bayer. Akad. d. Wiss., 

phil.-hisL CI. 1885, 24-3-272. 
Spengel, Leonhard : Emendationum Varronianarum 

Specimen I ', Munich, 1830. 
Spengel, L. : review of Mueller's edition ; Jahrbiicher 

fur Philologie xi. 1-20 (1834). 
Spengel, L. : Zeitschrift fiir die Altertumswissenschaft 

iv. 142-144 (1846). 
Spengel, L. : Uber die Kritik der Varronischen Biicher 

de Lingua Latina ; Abhandl. d. kon. bayer. Akad. 

d. Wiss. vii. 2. 1-54 (1854). 
Spengel, L. : Commentatio de emendanda ratione lib- 

rorum M. Terentii Varronis de lingua Latina ; 

Munich, 1858 (to F. Thiersch, on semicentennial 

of the doctorate). 
Spengel, L. : Philologus xvii. 288-306 (1861). 
Spengel, L. : Die sacra Argeorum bei Varro ; Philo- 
logus xxxii. 92-105 (1873). 
Stieber, G. M. : Varroniana : Die griechischen Fremd- 

ivorter bei Varro de Lingua Latina, Orthographic, 

Lautlehre, Index der bei Varro bejlndlichen Fremd- 

wiirter ; typed dissertation, Wiirzburg, 1921. 
Stowasser, J. M. : Wie?ier Studien, vii. 38-39 (1885). 
Stroux, Johannes : Antidoron, Festschrift Jacob Wacker- 

nagel 309-325 ; Gottingen, 1924. 
Stuenkel, Ludwig : De Varroniana verborum forma- 

tione ; Strassburg, 1875. 
xlii 



INTRODUCTION 

Usener, H. : Ein altes Lekrgebaude der Philologie ; 
Sitzungsher. d. kon. bayr. Akad. d. Wiss. zu Muncken, 
phil.-hist. CI 1892, 582-64.8. 

van der VTiet, J. : Mnemosyne xx. 416 (1892). 
Voigt, Moritz : Rkeinisches Museum xxiv. 332-335 
(1869), xxxiii. 150 (1878). 

W — , H. : Jahrbiicher fur classiscke Philologie Ixxxvii. 

740 (1863). 
Wackernagel, J. : Hermes Iviii. 460 (1923). 
Walter, Fritz : Philologus Ixxv. 484-485 (1919). 
Walter, F. : Pkilologische Wochenschrift 1. 827 (1930). 
Weber, Julius : Quaestionum Grammaticarum Speci- 
men ; Jena, 1914. 
Wilmanns, August : De M. Terenti Varronis libris 

grammaticis particiila ; Bonn, 1863. 
Wilmanns, August : De M. Terenti Varronis libris 

grammaticis ; Berlin, 1864 (the preceding, \n\h 

addition of the fragments). 
Wolfflin, Eduard : Archiv fur lateinische Lexiko- 

graphie ii. 5, 89, 324 (1885), viii. 411-440, 563-585 

(1898). 

Zander, K. M. : Versus italici antiqui, page 24 ; 

Lund, 1890. 
Zippmann, A. : De loco Varroniano qui est de Lingua 

Latina \\\\. 44 ; Gymn. Programm, Scheidemiihl, 

1869. 
Zumpt : review of L. Spengel's edition ; Jahrbiicher 
fiir rvissenschaftliche Kritik, 1827, 1513-1527. 

OUR TEXT OF THE DE LINGUA LATIXA 

WTien a text is to be confronted by a translation, 
that text must be presented in an intelligible wording, 

xliii 



INTRODUCTION 

with emendations of corrupt passages and the filling 
up of the gaps. It happens that while some of the 
corrupt passages in this work are quite desperate, 
many can be restored, and many gaps can be filled, 
with some degree of confidence, since Festus, Nonius 
Marcellus, and others have quoted practically ver- 
batim from Varro ; with the aid of their testimonia, 
many obscure passages can be restored to clarity. 
This has been the procedure in the present volumes ; 
if any departures from the manuscript authority 
seem violent, they are required as a basis for a transla- 
tion. Yet the present text is throughout as conserva- 
tive as is consistent with the situation. 

The text has in fact been so arranged as to show, 
with least machinery, its relation to the best tradition. 
With the use of italics and of pointed brackets, and the 
aid of the critical apparatus, any reader may see for 
himself exactly what stands in the manuscript. The 
use of symbols and the like is explained on pages 
xlix-1. 

THE CRITICAL APPARATUS 

The critical apparatus is intended to show how the 
text is derived from the best manuscript tradition, 
namely F, or where F fails, then Ft; or other good 
codices. 

In each item, there is given first the name of the 
scholar making the emendation which is in the text, 
after which the reading of F is given. It is therefore 
not necessary to name F except in a few places where 
there might be confusion ; if the reading is not that 
of F, then the manuscript is specified. Where the 
emendation of a scholar has been anticipated by a 
xliv 



INTRODUCTION 

copyist of some manuscript, the reference to this 
manuscript is commonly given. If several successive 
emendations have been necessary to reach the best 
reading, the intermediate stages are given in reverse 
order, working back to the manuscript. For ease of 
typography, manuscript abbre\iations are mostly 
presented in expanded form. 

The reader may therefore evaluate the text which 
is here presented ; but the present editor has made no 
attempt to present the almost countless emendations 
which have been made by scholars and which have 
not been adopted here. 



THE TRANSLATION OF THE DE LINGUA 
LATIN A 

The translation of the De Lingua Latina presents 
problems which are hardly to be found in any other 
of the works translated for the Loeb Classical Librarv. 
For the constant (and ine\-itable) interpretations of 
one Latin word by another, which Varro had to 
present in order to expound its origin, requires 
the translator to keep the Latin words in the 
translation, glossed ^\^th an English equivalent. In 
this way only can the translation be made intellig- 
ible. 

Because of the technical nature of the subject it 
has been necessan,- to follow the Latin with some 
degree of closeness, or the points made by Varro will 
be lost. If the translation is at times difficult to 
understand, it is because most of us are not accus- 
tomed to dealing with matters of technical linguistics; 
and even though \'arro lacks the method of modern 

xlv 



INTRODUCTION 

scholars in the subject, he has his own technique and 
must be followed in his own way. 

The numerous metrical citations which Varro gives 
from Latin authors are translated in the same metre, 
though sometimes the translation is slightly shorter 
or longer than the Latin. 

There are only two translations of the De Lingua 
Latino into a modern language : that of Huot into 
French, a mere paraphrase which often omits whole 
sentences, and that of Canal into Italian (Nos. 20 and 
21 in our list of Editions). There is no translation 
into German, nor any into English before the present 
volumes. 



THE NOTES TO THE TRANSLATION 

The notes are planned to give all needed help to 
the understanding of a difficult subject matter ; they 
cover matters of technical linguistics, historical and 
geographical references, points of pubUc and private 
life. They explain briefly any unusual word-forms 
and syntactical uses, and label as incorrect all false 
etymologies (of which there are many), either ex- 
plicitly or by indicating the correct etymology. They 
state the sources of quotations from other authors 
and works, giving references to a standard collection 
of fragments if the entire work is not extant. They 
name the metres of metrical quotations, if the metre 
is other than dactylic, or iambic, or trochaic. 

The fragments of Greek and Latin authors are 
cited in the notes according to the following scheme : 

Festus (and the excerpts of Paulus Diaconus), by 
xlvi 



INTRODUCTION 

page and line, edition of K. O. Mueller, Leipzig, 

1839. 
Grammatici Latini, by volume, page, and line, edition 

of H. Keil, Leipzig, 1855-1880. 
Nonius Marcellus, by page and Une, edition of 

J. Mercier, 1589 ; 2nd ed., 1614 ; reprinted 

1825. 

For the following authors : 
Accius : see Ribbeck and Warmington, below. 
Ennius : see Vahlen and Warmington, below. 
LuciUus : C. Lucilii Carmhnim Reliquiae, ed. F. Marx, 

2 vols., Leipzig, 190Jr-1905. * 
Naevius : see Ribbeck, Warmington, Baehrens, Morel, 

below. 
Pacu\ius : see Ribbeck and Warmington, below. 
Plautus, fragments : edition of F. Ritschl, Leipzig, 

1894 ; the same numbering in G. Goetz and 

F. Schoell, Leipzig, 1901. 

vonAmim, J. : Stoicorum Veterum Reliquiae ; Leipzig, 

1903. 
Baehrens, Emil : Fragmenta Poetarum Romanorum ; 

Leipzig, 1886. 
Bremer, F. P. : lurisprudentiae Antehadrianae quae 

supersunt ; Leipzig, 189&-1901. 
Bruns, Georg : Pontes luris Romani Antiqui ; re\-ised 

by Th. Mommsen ; 7th ed., re\ised by O. 

Gradenwitz, Tubingen, 1909- 
Buettner, Richard : Porcius Licinus und der litterarische 

Kreis des Q. Lutatius Catulus ; Leipzig, 1893. 
Funaioli, Hyginus : Grammaticae Romanae Frag- 
menta ; Leipzig, 1907. 
Hultsch, Friedrich : Polyhii Historiae ', Berlin, 1867- 

1872. 

xlvii 



INTRODUCTION 

Huschke, P. E. : lurisprudentiae Anteiustinianae Reli- 
quiae ; 6th ed.j revised by E. Seckel and B. 
Kuebler, Leipzig, 1908. 

Jordan, Heinrich : M. Catonis praeter librum de re 
rustica quae extant ; Leipzig, 1860. 

Kaibel, G. : Comicorurn Graecorum Fragmenta, vol. i. 
Part I ; Berlin, 1899- 

Maurenbrecher, Bertold : Carminum Saliarium reli- 
quiae ; Jahrbiicher fiir classische Philologie, Suppl., 
vol. xxi. 313-352 (1894). 

Morel, Willy : Fragmenta Poetarum Latinorum ; Leip- 
zig, 1927. 

Mueller, Karl, and Theodor Mueller : Fragmenta 
Historicorum Graecorum ; Paris, 1841-1870. 

Nauck, August : Aristophanis Bysantii Grammatici 
Alexandrini Fragmenta ; Halle, 1848. 

Peter, Hermann : Historicorum Romanorum Frag- 
menta ; Leipzig, 1883. 

Preibisch, Paul : Fragmenta Librorum Pontijiciorum ; 
Tilsit, 1878. 

Regell, Paul : Fragmenta Auguralia ; Gymn. Hirsch- 
berg, 1882. 

Ribbeck, Otto : Scaenicae Romanorum Poesis Frag- 
menta : vol. i., Tragicoruvi Romanorum Fragmenta, 
3rd ed., Leipzig, 1897 ; vol. ii., Comicorurn 
Romanorum Fragmenta, 3rd ed., Leipzig, 1898 
(occasional references to the 2nd ed.). 

Rose, Valentin : Aristotelis qui ferehantur librorum 
fragmenta ; Leipzig, 1886. 

Rowoldt, Walther : Librorum Pontijiciorum Romanorum 
de Caerimoniis Sacrijiciorum Reliquiae ', Halle, 1906. 

Schneider, Otto : Callimachea ; Leipzig, 1870. 

Schoell, Rudolph : Legis Duodecim Tabularum Re- 
liquiae ; Leipzig, 1866. 

xlviii 



INTRODUCTION 

Usener, Hermann : Epicurea ; Leipzig, 1887. 

Vahlen, J. : Ennianae Poesis Reliquiae,2nd ed., Leipzig, 
1903 (the 3rd ed., 1928, is an unchanged reprint). 

Warmington, E. H. : Remains of Old Latin, in the 
Loeb Classical Library ; vol. i. (Ennius,Caecilius), 
1935; vol. ii. (Li\^us Andronicus, Naevius, 
Pacuvius, Accius), 1936 ; Cambridge (Mass.) and 
London. 



SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS 

Letters and words not in the manuscript, but added 
in the text, are set in < >, except as noted below. 

Letters changed from the manuscript reading are 
printed in italics. 

Some obvious additions, and the follo^\•ing changes, 
are sometimes not further explained by critical notes : 

ae with italic a, for manuscript e. 
oe, Mith italic o, for manuscript ae or e. 
itaUc b and v, for manuscript u and b. 
italicy and pk, for manuscript ph and_/. 
italic i and y, for manuscript y and i. 
itaUc h, for an h omitted in the manuscript. 

The manuscripts are referred to as follows ; read- 
ings without specification of the manuscript are 
from F : 

F=Laurentianus li. 10 ; No. 1 in our Ust. 

F^ or nji, the original writer of F, or the first 

hand. 
jp2 or m^, the corrector of F, or the second hand. 
Ft- = readings from the lost quaternion of F, as 
recorded by Victorius ; our No. 2. 

xlix 



INTRODUCTION 

Frag. Cass. = Cassinensis 361 ; our No. 3. 
f= Laurentianus li. 5 ; our No. 5. 
H=Havniensis ; our No. 6. 
G = Gothanus ; our No. 7. 

a = Parisinus 7489 ; our No. 8. 

6 = Parisinus 6142 ; our No. 9- 

c = Parisinus 7535 ; our No. 10. 
F= Vindobonensis Ixiii. ; our No. 11. 

jD = Basiliensis F iv. 13 ; our No. 12. 
3I=Guelferbytanus 896 ; our No. 13. 
fi = that used by Augustinus ; our No. 14. 

The following abbreviations are used for editors 
and editions (others are referred to by their full 
names) : 

Lae^M* = editio princeps of Pomponius Laetus. 
Rhol. = Rholandellus, whose first edition was in 

1475. 
P«a = Baptista Pius, edition of 1510. 
.t^MOf. = Antonius Augustinus, editor of the Vul- 
gate edition 1554, reprinted 1557. 
&JO/J. = Gaspar Scioppius, edition of 1602, re- 
printed 1605. 
L. .S/). = Leonhard Spengel, edition of 1826 (and 
articles). 
Mue. = Karl Ottfried Mueller, edition of 1833. 
.:/. 5/). = Andreas Spengel, edition of 1885 (and 
articles). 
GS. = G. Goetz and F. Schoell, edition of 1910. 



VARRO 



M. TERENTI VARRONIS 
DE LINGUA LATINA 

De Disciplina Originum Verborum ad 

CiCERONEM 
LIBER nil EXPLICIT ; INCIPIT 

LIBER V 

I. 1. QuEMADMODUM vocabula essent imposita rebus 
in lingua Latina, sex libris exponere institui. De 
his tris ante hunc feci quos Septumio misi : in quibus 
est de disciplina, quam vocant JriyxoAoyiKryv^ : quae 
contra ea<m>2 dicerentur, volumine primo, quae pro 
ea, secundo, quae de ea, tertio. In his ad te scribam, 
a quibus rebus vocabula imposita sint in lingua 
Latina, et ea quae sunt in consuetudine apud <popu- 
lum et ea quae inveniuntur apud)' poetas. 

2. CuTwi unius cuiusque verbi naturae sint duae, 
a qua re et in qua re vocabulum sit impositum (itaque 

§ 1. 1 For ethimologicen. " Rhol., for ea. ' Added 
by A. Sp. 

§2. ^ Rhol., for cm. 

§1. "Books II. -VII.; Book I. was introductory. 
" Books II. -IV. " Quaestor to Varro, c/. vii. 109 ; but 
when or where is not known. Possibly he was the writer 
on architecture mentioned by Vitruvius, de Arch. vii. praef. 
1 4, and even the composer of the Libri Observationum men- 

2 



MARCUS TERENTIUS VARRO'S 
ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE 

On the Science of the Origin of Words, 
addressed to cicero 

book iv ends here, and here begins 
BOOK V 

L 1. In what way names were applied to things 
in Latin, I have undertaken to expound, in six books." 
Of these, I have already composed three * before this 
one, and have addressed them to Septumius " ; in 
them I treat of the branch of learning which is called 
Etymology-. The considerations which might be raised 
against it, I have put in the first book ; those adduced 
in its favour, in the second ; those merely describing 
it, in the third. In the following books, addressed 
to you,** I shall discuss the problem from what things 
names were applied in Latin, both those which are 
habitual \vith the ordinary folk, and those which are 
found in the poets. 

2. Inasmuch as each and every word has two 
innate features, from what thing and to what thing 

tioned by Quintilian, Inst. Orat. iv. 1. 19. '' Cicero, to 
whom \'arro addresses the balance of the work. Books 
V.-XXV., written apparently in 47—46 b.c. 

3 



VARRO 

a qua re sit pertinacia cum requi(ri>tur,2 ostenditur* 
esse a perten<den>do* ; in qua re sit impositum 
dicitur cum demonstratur, in quo non debet pertendi 
et pertendit, pertinaciam esse, quod in quo oporteat 
manere, si in eo perstet, perseverantia sit), priorem 
illam partem, ubi cur et unde sint verba scrutantur, 
Groeci vocant eTv/zoAoyiav,* illam alteram vrep^i) ar]- 
//atvo/xevwi'. De quibus duabus rebus in his libris 
promiscue dicam, sed exilius de posteriore. 

3. Quae ideo sunt obscuriora, quod neque omnis 
impositio verborum extat,^ quod vetustas quasdam 
delevit, nee quae extat sine mendo omnis imposita, 
nee quae recte est imposita, cuncta manet (multa 
enim verba li<t>teris commutatis sunt interpolata), 
neque omnis origo est nostrae linguae e vei*naculis 
verbis, et multa verba aliud nunc ostendunt, aliud 
ante significabant, ut hostis : nam turn eo verbo 
dicebant peregrinum qui suis legibus uteretur, nunc 
dicunt eum quem tum dicebant perduellem. 

4. In quo genere verborum aut casu erit illustrius 
unde videri possit origo, inde repetam. Ita fieri 
oportere apparet, quod recto casu quom^ dicimus 
inpos,* obscurius est esse a potentia qua(m>* cum 

* OS., for sequitur. ' For hostenditur. * Rhol., for 
pertendo. * For ethimologiam. 

§ 3. ^ For exstat. 

§ 4. ^ Aug., with B, for quem. ^ p, Laetns, for ineos. 
' For qua. 

§ 2. " Properly an abstract formed from pertinax, itself a 
compound ottenax ' tenacious,' derived from tenere ' to hold.' 
§ 3. « Cf vii. 49. 
§ 4. " Not from potentia ; but both from radical pot-. 

4 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 2-4. 

the name is applied (therefore, when the question is 
raised from what thing pertinacia ' obstinacy ' is," it 
is shown to be from pertendere ' to persist ' : to what 
thing it is applied, is told when it is explained that it 
is pertinacia ' obstinacy ' in a matter in which there 
ought not to be persistence but there is, because it 
is perseverantia ' steadfastness ' if a person persists in 
that in which he ought to hold firm), that former 
part, where they examine why and whence words are, 
the Greeks call Etymology, that other part they call 
Semantics. Of these two matters I shall speak in the 
following books, not keeping them apart, but gi\ing 
less attention to the second. 

3. These relations are often rather obscure for the 
following reasons : Not every word that has been 
applied, still exists, because lapse of time has blotted 
out some. Not every word that is in use, has been 
applied without inaccuracy of some kind, nor does 
every word which has been applied correctly remain 
as it originally was ; for many words are disguised by 
change of the letters. There are some whose origin 
is not from native words of our own language. Many 
words indicate one thing now, but formerly meant 
something else, as is the case with hostis ' enemy ' : 
for in olden times by this word they meant a foreigner 
from a country independent of Roman laws, but now 
they give the name to him whom they then called 
perduellis ' enemy.' "■ 

4. I shall take as starting-point of my discussion 
that derivative or case-form of the words in which the 
origin can be more clearly seen. It is evident that we 
ought to operate in this way, because when we say 
inpos ' lacking power ' in the nominative, it is less 
clear that it is from potentia <* ' power ' than when we 

5 



VARRO 

dicimus inpotem* ; et eo obscurius fit, si dicas pos 
quam* inpos : videtur enim pos significare potius 
pontem quam potentem. 

5. Vetustas pauca non depravat, multa tollit. 
Quem puerum vidisti formosum, hunc vides defor- 
mem in senecta. Tertium seculum non videt eum 
hominem quem vidit primum. Quare ilia quae iam 
maioribus nostris ademit oblivio, fugitiva secuta 
sedulitas Muci^ et Bruti retrahere nequit. Non, si 
non potuero indagare, eo ero tardior, sed velocior 
ideo, si quivero. Non mediocres* enim tenebrae in 
silva ubi haec captanda neque eo quo pervenire 
volumus semitae tritae, neque non in tramitibus 
quaedam obiecta^ quae euntem retinere possent. 

6. Quorum verborum novorum ac veterum dis- 
cordia omnis in consuetudine com(m>uni, quot modis^ 
commutatio sit facta qui animadverterit, facilius 
scrutari origines patietur verborum : reperiet enim 
esse commutata, ut in superioribus libris ostendi, 
maxime propter bis quaternas causas. Litterarum 
enim fit demptione aut additione et propter earum 
tra(ie)ctionem2 aut commutationem, item syllabarum 
produetione (aut correptione, denique adiectione aut 

* Aug., for inpotentem. * Aug., with B, for postquam. 

§ 5. ^ For muti. " For mediocris. ^ For oblecta. 
§ 6. ^ After modis, Fr. Fritzsche deleted litterarum. 
^ Scaliger and Popma,for tractationem. 

* Avoided in practice, in favour of dissyllabic potis. " Be- 
cause the nasal was almost or quite lost before s ; cf. the 
regular inscriptional spelling cosol= consul. 

§ 5. «P. Mucius Scaevola and M. Junius Brutus, distin- 
guished jurists and writers on law in the period 150-130 b.c. 
Mucius, as pontifex maximus, seems to have collected and 
6 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 4^6 

say inpotem in the accusative ; and it becomes the 
more obscure, if you say pos ^ ' ha\-lng power ' rather 
than inpos ; for pos " seems to mean rather pons 
' bridge ' \han potens ' powerful.' 

5. There are few things which lapse of time does 
not distort, there are many which it removes. Whom 
you saw beautiful as a boy, him you see unsightly in 
his old age. The third generation does not see a 
person such as the first generation saw him. TTiere- 
fore those that oblivion has taken away even from our 
ancestors, the painstaking of Mucius and Brutus," 
though it has pursued the runaways, cannot bring 
back. As for me, even if I cannot track them down, 
I shall not be the slower for this, but even for this I 
shall be the s\^-ifter in the chase, if I can. For there 
is no slight darkness in the wood where these things 
are to be caught, and there are no trodden paths to 
the place which we ^^•ish to attain, nor do there fail 
to be obstacles in the paths, which could hold back 
the hunter on his way. 

6. Now he who has observed in how many ways 
the changing has taken place in those words, new and 
old, in which there is any and every manner of varia- 
tion in popular usage, will find the examination of the 
origin of the words an easier task ; for he \^'ill find 
that words have been changed, as I have shown in the 
preceding books, essentially on account of two sets of 
four causes. For the alterations come about by the 
loss or the addition of single letters and on account of 
the transposition or the change of them, and likcAvise 
by the lengthening or the shortening of syllables, and 
their addition or loss : since I have adequately shown 

published the Annales Pontificum, and to have put an end to 
the further writing of them by the pontifex maximus. 

7 



VARRO 

detrectione)' ; quae quoniam in superioribus libris* 
cuiusmodi essent exemplis satis demonstravi, hie 
ammonendum esse modo putavi. 

7. Nunc singulorum verborum origines expediam, 
quorum quattuor explanandi gradus. Infimus^ quo 
populus etiam venit : quis enim non videt unde 
ar(g>e<n>b'fodinae=' et viocurus ? Secundus quo 
grammatica escendit' antiqua, quae ostendit, quem- 
admodum quodque poeta finxerit verbum, quod 
confinxerit, quod declinarit ; hie Pacui : 

Rudentum sibilus, 

hie : 

IncMrvicervicum* pecus, 
hie : 

Clamide clupeat b<r)acchium.* 

8. Tertius gradus, quo philosophia ascendens per- 
venit atque ea quae in consuetudine communi essent 
aperire coepit,i ut a quo dictum esset oppidum, vicus, 
via. Quartus, ubi est adj/tum^ et initia regis : quo 
si non perveniam (ad>* scientiam, at* opinionem 
aucupabor, quod etiam in salute nostra nonnunquam 
fflcit^ cum aegrotamus medicus. 

' Added by Kent, after Scaliger, Mve., OS. ; cf. Quintilian, 
Inst. Orat. i. 6. 32. * After libris, Aug. deleted qui. 

§ 7. ^ After infimus, Sciop. deleted in. " Canal, for 
aretofodine. ^ Sciop., for descendit. * G, Aldtis, for 
inceruice ruicum. * For bacchium. 

§8. ^ For caepit. ^ Sciop., for aiAiiam.. ^ Added by 
L. Sp. * Sciop., for ad. * Aldus, with p, for fecit. 

§ 7. " Cf. viii. 62. " Teucer, Trag. Rom. Frag. 336 
Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. ii. 296-297 Warmington. " Ex inc. fab. 

xliv, verse 408, Trag. Rom. Frag. Ribbeck^, R.O.L. ii. 292-293 
Warmington, referring to the dolphins of Nereus ; the entire 

8 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 6-8 

by examples, in the preceding books, of what sort 
these phenomena are, I have thought that here 1 
need only set a reminder of that previous discussion. 

7. Now I shall set forth the origins of the indivi- 
dual words, of which there are four levels of explana- 
tion. The lowest is that to which even the common 
folk has come ; who does not see the sources of 
argentifodinae " ' silver-mines ' and of viocurus ' road- 
overseer ' ? The second is that to which old-time 
grammar has mounted, which shows how the poet has 
made each word which he has fashioned and derived. 
Here belongs Pacuvius's * 

The whistling of the ropes, 
here his " 

Incurvate-necked flock, 
here his ** 

With his mantle he beshields his arm. 

8. The third level is that to which philosophy 
ascended, and on arrival began to reveal the nature of 
those words which are in common use, as, for example, 
from what oppidum ' tovvn ' was named, and vicus ' row 
of houses,' " and via ' street.' The fourth is that 
where the sanctuary is, and the mysteries of the high- 
priest : if I shall not arrive at full knowledge there, at 
any rate I shall cast about for a conjecture, which 
even in matters of our health the physician sometimes 
does when we are ill. 

verse in Quintilian, Inst. Oral. i. 5. 67, Nerei repandirostrum 
incur vicerricum pecus. <* Hermiona, Trag. Rom. Frag. 186 
Ribbeck», R.O.L. ii. 232-233 Warmington ; the entire verse in 
Nonius Marcellus, 87. 23 M. : currum liquit, clamide contorta 
astu clipeat braccium. 

§ 8. " From this meaning, either an entire small ' village ' 
or a ' street ' in a large city. 



VARRO 

9. Quodsi summum gradum non attigero, tamen 
secundum praeteribo, quod non solum ad Aris- 
tophanis lucernam, sed etiam ad CleantAis lucubravi. 
Volui praeterire eos, qui poetarum modo verba ut 
sint fieta expediunt. Non enim videbatur consen- 
taneum qua(e>re(re>i me in eo verbo quod finxisset 
Ennius causam, neglegere quod ante rex Latinus 
finxisset, cum poeticis multis verbis magis delecter 
quam utar, antiquis magis utar quam delecter. An 
non potius mea verba ilia quae hereditate a Romulo 
rege venerunt quam quae a poeta Livio relicta ? 

10. Igitur quoniam in haec sunt tripertita verba, 
quae sunt aut nostra aut aliena aut oblivia, de nostris 
dicam cur sint, de alienis unde sint, de obliviis re- 
linquam : quorum partim quid ta(men) invenerim 
aut opiner^ scribam. In hoc libro dicam de vocabulis 
locorum et quae in his sunt, in secundo de temporum 
et quae in his fiunt, in tertio de utraque re a poetis 
comprehensa. 

11. Pythagoras Samius ait omnium rerum initia 
esse bina ut finitum et infinitum, bonum et malum, 

§ 9. ^ Aug., for quare. 

§ 10. ^ After A. Sp., with tamen frotn Fay's quo loco 
tamen ; for quo ita inuenerim ita opiner. 

§ 9. " Aristophanes of Byzantium, 262-185 b.c, pupil of 
Zenodotus and Callimachus at Alexandria, and himself one 
of the greatest of the Alexandrian grammarians, who busied 
himself especially with the textual correction and editing of 
the Greek authors, notably Homer, Hesiod, and the lyric 
poets. * Fra(7. 485 von Arnim ; Cleanthes of Assos, 331- 

232 B.C., pupil and successor of Zeno, founder of the Stoic 
school of philosophy (died 264), as head of the school, at 
Athens, and author of many works on all phases of the Stoic 
teaching. '^ L. Livius Andronicus, c. 284^202 b.c, born at 
Tarentum ; first epic and dramatic poet of the Romans. 

§11. " Pythagoras, born probably in Samos about 567 b.c, 

10 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. ^11 

9. But if I have not reached the highest level, I 
shall none the less go farther up than the second, 
because I have studied not only by the lamp of Aris- 
tophanes," but also by that of Cleanthes.* I have 
desired to go farther than those who expound only 
how the words of the poets are made up. For it did 
not seem meet that I seek the source in the case of 
the word which Ennius had made, and neglect that 
which long before King Latinus had made, in \-iew of 
the fact that I get pleasure rather than utility from 
many words of the poets, and more utility than 
pleasure from the ancient words. And in fact are 
not those words mine which have come to me by 
inheritance from King Romulus, rather than those 
which were left behind by the poet Livius ? '^ 

10. Therefore since words are divided into these 
three groups, those which are our own, those which 
are of foreign origin, and those which are obsolete and 
of forgotten sources, I shall set forth about our own 
why they are, about those of foreign origin whence 
they are, and as to the obsolete I shall let them alone : 
except that concerning some of them I shall none the 
less write what I have found or myself conjecture. In 
this book I shall tell about the words denoting places 
and those things which are in them ; in the follow- 
ing book I shall tell of the words denoting times and 
those things which take place in them ; in the third 
I shall tell of both these as expressed by the poets. 

1 1 . Pythagoras the Samian " says that the primal 
elements of all things are in pairs, as finite and infinite, 

removed to Croton in South Italy about 529 and was there the 
founder of the philosophic-political school of belief which 
attaches to his name. His teachings were oral only, and 
were reduced to writing by his followers. 

11 



VARRO 

vitam et mortem, diem et noctem. Quare item duo 
status et motus, (utrumque quadripertitum)^ : quod 
stat aut agitatur, corpus, ubi agitatur, locus, dum 
agitatur, tempus, quod est in agitatu, actio. Quadri- 
pertitio magis sic apparebit : corpus est ut cursor, 
locus stadium qua currit, tempus hora qua currit, 
actio cursio. 

12. Quare fit, ut ideo fere omnia sint quadri- 
pertita et ea aeterna, quod neque unquam tempus, 
quin fuerit^ motus : eius enim* intervallum tempus ; 
neque motus, ubi non locus et corpus, quod alteram 
est quod movetur, alterum ubi ; neque ubi is agitatus, 
non actio ibi. Igitur initiorum quadrigae locus et 
corpus, tempus et actio. 

13. Quare quod quattuor genera prima rerum, 
totidem verborum : e quis <de) locis et iis^ rebus quae 
in his videntur in hoc libro summatim ponam. Sed 
qua cognatio eius erit verbi quae radices egerit extra 
fines suas, persequemur. Saepe enim ad limitem 
arboris radices sub vicini prodierunt segetem. Quare 
non, cum de locis dicam, si ab agro ad agrarium^ 
hominem, ad agricolam pervenero, aberraro. Multa 

§11. ^ Added by L. Sp. 

§ 12. ^ For fuerint. * Aug., for animi. 

§ 13. ^ L. Sp.y for uerborum enim horum dequis locis et 

his. ^ L. Sp., for agrosium. 

§ 13. " Celebrated on April 23 and August 19, when an 
offering of new wine was made to Jupiter ; c/. vi. 16 and 
vi. 20. 
12 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 11-13 

good and bad, life and death, day and night. There- 
fore likewise there are the two fundamentals, station 
and motion, each divided into four kinds : what is 
stationary or is in motion, is body ; where it is in 
motion, is place ; while it is in motion, is time ; what 
is inherent in the motion, is action. The fourfold 
division will be clearer in this way : body is, so to 
speak, the runner, place is the race-course where he 
runs, time is the period during which he runs, action is 
the running. 

12. Therefore it comes about that for this reason 
all things, in general, are divided into four phases, 
and these universal ; because there is never time 
without there being motion — for even an intermission 
of motion is time — ; nor is there motion where 
there is not place and body, because the latter is 
that which is moved, and the former is where ; nor 
where this motion is, does there fail to be action. 
Therefore place and body, time and action are the 
four-horse team of the elements. 

13. Therefore because the primal classes of things 
are four in number, so many are the primal classes of 
words. From among these, concerning places and 
those things which are seen in them, I shall put a 
summarv' account in this book ; but we shall follow 
them up wherever the kin of the word under discus- 
sion is, even if it has driven its roots beyond its own 
territory. For often the roots of a tree which is close 
to the line of the property have gone out under the 
neighbour's cornfield. Wherefore, when I speak of 
places, I shall not have gone astray, if from ager 
' field ' I pass to an agrarius ' agrarian ' man, and to 
an agricola ' farmer.' The partnership of words is one 
of many members : the Wine Festival ° cannot be set 

13 



VARRO 

societas verborum, nee Vinalia sine vino expediri nee 
Curia Calabra sine ealatione potest aperiri. 

II. 14. Incipiam de locis ah^ ipsius loci origine. 
Locus est, ubi locatum quid esse potest, ut nunc 
dicunt, collocatum. Veteres id dicere solitos apparet 
apud Plautum : 

Filiam habeo grandem dote cassa(m> atque 

inlocabil«(m>* 
Neque earn queo locare cuiquam. 

Apud Ennium : 

O Terra Thraeca,, ubi Liberi fanum inciu^um' 
Maro* locavi<t>.^ 

15. Ubi quidque consistit, locus. Ab eo praeco 
dicitur locare, quod usque idem it,^ quoad in aliquo 
constitit pretium. In(de)2 locarium quod datur in 
stabulo et taberna, ubi consistant. Sic loci muliebres, 
ubi nascendi initia consistunt. 

III. 16. Loca natura(e>i secundum antiquam 
divisionem prima duo, terra et caelum, deinde par- 
ticulatim utriusque multa. Caeli dicuntur loca su- 

§ 14. ^ Sciop., for sub. * So Plautus, for cassa dote 
atque inlocabili F ; Plautus also has virginem for filiam. 
' Wilhelm, for inciuium. * For miro F^, maro F^. 
* Ribbeck, for locaui. 

§ 15. ^ Turnebus, for id emit. ^ Laetus, for in. 

§ 16. ^ Aug., for natura. 



* A place on the Capitoline Hill, near the cottage of 
Romulus, and also the meeting held there on the Kalends, 
when the priests announced the number of days until the 
Nones ; c/. vi. 27, and Macrobius, Saturnalia, i. 15. 7. 

§ 14. " Theuncompounded word ; which, like its compound, 
meant both ' established in a fixed position ' and ' established 
in a marriage.' ^ Aulularia, 191-192. "That is, in 

marriage. <* Trag. Rom. Frag. 347-348 Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. 

14 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 13-16 

on its way without wine, nor can the Curia Calahra 
' Announcement Hall ' ^ be opened without the 
calatio ' proclamation.' 

H. 14. Among places, I shall begin "«-ith the 
origin of the word locus ' place ' itself. Locus is where 
something can be locatum " ' placed,' or as they say 
nowadays, collocatum ' established.' That the ancients 
were wont to use the word in this meaning, is clear in 
Plautus ^ : 

I have a grown-up daughter, lacking dower, 

unplaceable/ 
Nor can I place her now with anyone. 

In Ennius we find ** : 

O Thracian Land, where Bacchus' fane renowned 
Did Maro place. 

15. Where anything comes to a standstill, is a locus 
* place.' From this the auctioneer is said locate ' to 
place ' because he is all the time like^v^se going on 
until the price comes to a standstill on someone. 
Thence also is locamim ' place-rent,' which is given 
for a lodging or a shop, where the payers take their 
stand. So also loci muliehres ' woman's places,' where 
the beginnings of birth are situated. 

III. 16. The primal places of the universe, accord- 
ing to the ancient division, are two, terra ' earth ' and 
caelum ' sky,' and then, according to the division into 
items, there are many places in each. The places of 
the sky are called loca super a ' upper places,' and 

i. 376-377 Warmington. Maro, son of Euanthes and priest 
of Apollo in the Thracian Ismaros, in thanks for protection 
for himself and his followers, gave Ulysses a present of 
excellent wine {Odyssey, Lx. 197 ff.). Because of this, later 
legend drew him into the Dionysiac circle, as son or grandson 
of Bacchus, or otherwise. There were even cults of Maro 
himself in Maroneia, Samothrace, and elsewhere. 

15 



VARRO 

pera et ea deorum, terrae loca infera et ea hominum. 
Ut Asia sic caelum dicitur modis duobus. Nam et 
Asia, quae non Europa, in quo etiam Syria, et Asia 
dicitur prioris pars Asiae, in qua est Ionia ac provincia 
nostra. 

17. Sic caelum et pars eius, summum ubi stellae, 
et id quod Pacuvius cum demonstrat dicit : 

Hoc vide circum supraque quod complexu continet 
Terram. 

Cui subiungit : 

Id quod nostri caelum memorant. 

A qua bipertita divisione Luc«7iusi suorum un<i)u5' 
et viginti librorum initium fecit hoc : 

Aetheris et terrae genitabile quaerere tempus. 

18. Caelum dictum scribit Aelius, quod est 
caelatum, aut contrario nomine, celatum quod aper- 
tum est ; non male, quod <im)positori multo potius 
<caelare>* a caelo quam caelum a caelando. Sed non 

§ 17. ^ Scaliffer, for lucretius. * Laetus, for unum. 
§ 18. ^ GS.,for posterior. * Added by Scaliger. 

% 16. " Asia originally designated probably only a town or 
small district in Lydia, and then came to be what we now call 
Asia Minor, and finally the entire continent. * Ionia was 
a coastal region of Asia Minor, including Smyrna, Ephesus, 
Miletus, etc., and was included within provincia nostra. But 
' our province ' ran much farther inland, comprising Phrygia, 
M ysia, Lydia, Caria (Cicero, Pro Flacco, 27.65), which explains 
the ' and.' 

§ 17. " Chryses, Trag. Rom. Frag. 87-88 and 90 Ribbeck» ; 
R.O.L. 2. 202-203, lines 107-108, 1 1 1 Warmington. > Satirae, 
verse 1 Marx. As there were thirty books of Lucilius's 
Satires, the limitation to twenty-one by Varro must be based 
on another division (for which there is evidence), thus : Books 
XXVI.-XXX. were written first, in various metres; I.-XXI., 

16 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 16-18 

these belong to the gods ; the places of the earth are 
loca infer a ' lower places,' and these belong to man- 
kind. Caelum ' sky ' is used in two ways, just as is 
Asia. For Asia means the Asia, which is not Europe, 
wherein is even Syria ; and Asia means also that 
part " of the aforementioned Asia, in which is Ionia ^ 
and our province. 

17. So caelum ' sky ' is both a part of itself, the top 
where the stars are, and that which Pacuvlus means 
when he points it out " : 

See this around and above, which holds in its embrace 
The earth. 

To which he adds : 

. That which the men of our days call the sky. 

From this division into two, Lucilius set this as the 
start of his twenty-one books ^ : 

Seeking the time when the ether above and the 
earth were created. 

18. Caelum, AeUus wTites," was so called because 
it is caelatum ' raised above the surface,' or from the 
opposite of its idea,* celatum ' hidden ' because it is 
exposed ; not ill the remark, that the one who applied 
the term took caelare ' to raise ' much rather from 
caelum than caelum from caelare. But that second 

to which Varro here alludes, were a second volume, in dactj'lic 
hexameters, which Lucilius had found to be the best vehicle 
for his work ; XXII. -XXV. were a third part, in elegiacs, 
probably not published until after their author's death. 

§ 18. ° Page 59 Funaioli. Caelum is probably connected 
with a root seen in German heiter ' bright,' and not with the 
words mentioned by \'arro. * Derivation by the contrary 
of the meaning, as in Indus, in quo minime luditur ' school, in 
which there is very little playing ' (Festus, 1:22. 16 M.). 

VOL. I c 17 



VARRO 

minus illud alterum de celando ab eo potuit dici, quod 
interdiu celatur, quam quod noctu non celatur. 

19. Omnino e(g}o^ magis puto a chao cho<um 
ca)vum^ et hinc caelum, quoniam, ut dixi, " hoc circum 
supraque quod complexu continet terrain," cavum 
caelum. Itaque dicit Androm(ed>a' Nocti : 

Quae* cava caeli 
Signitenentibus conficis bigis ; 

et Agamemno : 

In altisono caeli clipeo : 
cavum enim clipeum ; et Ennius item ad cavationem : 

Caeli ingentes fornices. 

20. Quare ut a cavo cavea et cauZlae^ et convallis, 
cavata vallis, et cave<m>ae* <a)* cavatione* ut cavum,* 
sic ortum, unde omnia apud i/esiodum, a chao cavo 
caelum. 

IV, 21. Terra dicta ab eo, ut Aelius scribit, quod 

§ 19. ^ Aldus, for eo. ^ GS. ; choum hinc cavum 
Mue. ; for chouum. ^ Scaliger,for androma. * Aug., 
for noctique. 

§ 20. ^ Scaliger, for cauile. ^ GS., for cauea e. 
^ Added bj/ Mue. * iVwe., /or cauitione. ^ Vertranius, 
for cauium. 

§ 19. " Latin cavum is not related to Greek chaos, but it is 
the source of all the Latin words in § 19 and § 20, except 
caelum and convallis. * Ennius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 95-96 
Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. i. 256-257 Warmington; anapaestic. 
<= Ennius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 177-178 Ribbeck^ R.O.L. i. 
300-301 Warmington ; anapaestic. ■* Ennius, Trag. Rom. 
Frag. 374 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. i. 364-365 Warmington. 

§ 20. " Commonly meaning the spectators' part of the 
theatre; but also 'stall, bird-cage, bee-hive.' * Also 

18 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 18-21 

origin, from celare ' to hide,' could be said from this 
fact, that by day it celatur ' is hidden,' no less than 
that by night it is not hidden. 

19- On the whole I rather think that from chaos 
came ckoum and then cavum " ' hollow,' and from this 
caelum ' sky,' since, as I have said, " this around and 
above, which holds in its embrace the earth," is the 
cavum caelum ' hollow sky.' And so Andromeda says 
to Night,^ 

You who traverse the hollows of sky 
With your chariot marked by the stars. 

And Agamemnon says," 

In the shield of the sky, that soundeth on high, 

for a shield is a hollow thing. And Ennius likewise, 
x^-ith reference to a cavem,** 

Enormous arches of the sky. 

20. WTierefore as from cavum ' hollow ' come 
cavea'^ ' ca\'ity,' and caullae^ ' hole or passage,' and 
convallis " ' enclosed valley ' as being a cavata vallis 
' hollowed valley,' and cavemae ' caverns ' from the 
cavatio ' hollowing,' as a cavum ' hollow thing,' *^ so 
developed caelum ' sky ' from cavum, which itself was 
from chaos, from which, in Hesiod,* come all things. 

IV. 21. Terra" 'earth ' is — as Aelius * writes — 
named from this fact, that it teritur ' is trodden ' ; 

' sheepfold.' ' Apparently out of place ; but perhaps 
Varro had in mind a pronunciation with only a slight nasal 
sound, virtually covallis, c/. c&ntio from cocentio {coventionid 
occurs in an old inscription). ** This text is a desperate 
attempt to bring sense into the passage. • Theogony, 123 ff. 
§ 21. ° From tersa ' dry ' : tritura and tribulum are the only 
words in the section connected with tero. " Page 67 Fu- 
naioli. 

19 



VARRO 

teritur. Itaque tera in augurum libris scripta cum 
R uno. Ab eo colonis locus com<m>unis qui prope 
oppidum relinquitur tentorium, quod maxime teritur. 
Hinc linteum quod teritur corpore extermentarium. 
Hinc in messi tritura, quod tum frumentum teritur, 
et trife?<lum,i qui teritur. Hinc fines agrorum termini, 
quod eae partes ^ propter limitare iter maxime te- 
runtur ; itaque hoc cum P in Latio aliquot locis dici- 
tur, ut apud Accium, non terminus, sed ter(i>men* ; 
hoc Graeci quod re/a/xoca. Pote vel illinc ; Euander 
enim, qui venit in Palatium, e Graecia Areas. 

22. Via^ quidem iter, quod ea vehendo teritur, iter 
item'* actus, quod agendo teritur ; etiam ambitus 
<i>ter,^ quod circumeundo teritur : nam ambitus 
circuitus ; ab eoque Duodecim Tabularum interpretes 
' ambitus parietis ' circuitum esse describunt. Igitur 
tera terra et ab eo poetae appellarunt summa terrae 
quae sola teri possunt, ' sola terrae.' 

§21. ^ For triuolum. ** For partis. ^ L. Sp.ffor is. 
* L. Sp., for termen. 

§22. ^ Lachmann, for uias. ^ A. Sp., for iterum. 
' Groth, for ter. 



' No consonants were doubled in the writing of Latin until 
about 200 B.C., and then not regularly for some decades ; 
before 200 b.c, terra was necessarily written tera. ** Page 
16 Regell. * Derivative of terra. * From extergere ' to 
wipe off.' " From a different root ter- ' to cross over.' 
^Trag. Rom. Frag., p&ge 262 Ribbeck^; R.O.L. ii. 599 
Warmington. * See Livy, i. 5. 

§ 22. " Of uncertain etymology, but not from vehere. 
* Amb-itus - circu-itus in meaning ; -itus and iter both from 
the root in ire ' to go.' " The fundamental Roman laws, 
traditionally drawn up by the Decemvirs of 451-450 b.c. 
<* Page 136 Schoell ; page 113 Funaioli. ' Cf. Ennius, 
Ann. 455 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. ii. 208-209 Warmington; page 

20 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 21-22 

therefore it is written tera " in the Books of the 
Augurs,** with one R. From this, the place which is 
left near a town as common property for the farmers, 
is the territorium * ' territory,' because it teritur ' is 
trodden ' most. From this, the linen garment which 
teritur ' is rubbed ' bv the body, is an extermentarium/ 
From this, in the harvest, is the tritura ' threshing,' 
because then the grain teritur ' is rubbed out,' and the 
trihulum ' threshing-sledge,' with which it teritur ' is 
rubbed out.' From this the boundaries of the fields 
are called termini,^ because those parts teruntur ' are 
trodden ' most, on account of the boundary-lane. 
Therefore this word is pronounced with I in some 
places in Latium, not terminus, but terimen, and this 
form is found in Accius '' : it is the same word which 
the Greeks call repfioji'. Perhaps the Latin word 
comes from the Greek ; for Evander, who came to the 
Palatine, was an Arcadian from Greece.* 

22. A via " ' road ' is indeed an iter ' way,' because 
it teritur ' is worn do^^'n ' by vehendo ' carrying in 
wagons ' ; an actus ' driving-passage ' is likewise an 
iter, because it is worn doAvn by agendo ' driving of 
cattle.' Moreover an ambitus ^ ' edge-road ' is an iter 
' way,' because it teritur ' is worn ' by the going around : 
for an edge-road is a circuit ; from this the inter- 
preters of the Tnelve Tables " define the ambitus of 
the wall •* as its circuit. Therefore tera, terra ; and 
from this the poets ® have called the surface of the 
earth, which sola ' alone ' can be trod, the sola ^ ' soil ' 
of the earth. 

75 Funaioli ; Lucretius, ii. 592 ; Catullus, 63. 7. ^ Though 
solus ' lone ' has a long vowel, and solum ' soil ' has a short 
vowel ; but Varro normally disregards the differences of 
quantity. 

21 



VARRO 

23. Terra, ut putant, eadem et humus ; ideo 
Ennium in terram cadentis dicere : 

Cubitis pinsibant humum ; 

et quod terra sit humus, ideo is humatus mortuus, qui 
terra obrutus ; ab eo qui Romanus combustus est, 
(siy in sepulcrum^ eius abiecta gleba non est aut si 
OS exceptum est mortui ad familiam purgandam, 
donee in purgando hwmo' est opertum (ut pontifices 
dicunt, quod inhumatus sit), famiUa funesta manet. 
Et dicitur humilior, que* ad humum^ demissior, in- 
fimus humilHmus, quod in mundo infima humus. 

24. Humor hinc. Itaque ideo Lucihus : 

Terra abiit in nimbos ^Mmoremque.^ 

Pacuvius : 

Terra ex/jalat" auram atque auroram humidam ; 

<humidam>* humectam ; hinc ager uhginosus humi- 
dissimus ; hinc udus uvidus ; hinc sudor et udor. 

§ 23. ^ Added by Tumebiis. ^ For sepulchrum. 

^ Aldus, for homo. * 3/«^., /or quae. ^ After humum 
in F, is found the passage ut Sabini § 32 to Septimontium § 41 ; 
M^ie., following G. Buchanan and Tiirnebus, recognized the 
interchange of two leaves of the archetype of F and restored 
the text to its proper order. 

§ 24. ^ Kent, for imbremque, for without humor or a 
derivative the citation is irrelevant. * Laetus, for exalat. 
' Added by Fay. 

§ 23. « Trag. Rom. Frag. 396 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. i. 376-377 
Warmington. ^ Gleba in a collective sense. " Cf. frag. 
170 Rowoldt. ** Quod, contracted for quoad. 

§ 24. " Humor, properly umor, got its h by popular as- 
sociation with humus, with which it is not etymologically 
connected. ^ 1308 Marx ; five feet of a spondaic dactylic 

22 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 23-24 

23. Humus ' soil ' is, as they think, the same as 
terra ' earth ' ; therefore, they say, Ennius meant men 
falling to the earth when he said,* 

With their elbows the soil they were smiting. 

And because humus ' soil ' is terra ' earth,' therefore he 
who is dead and covered with terra is humatus ' in- 
humed.' From this fact, if on the burial-mound of a 
Roman who has been burned on the p}Te clods ^ are 
not thrown, or if a bone of the dead man has been kept 
out for the ceremony of purifying the household, the 
household remains in mourning ; in the latter case, 
until in the purification the bone is covered with humus 
— as the pontifices say,*' as long as <* he is in-humatus 
'not inhumed.' Also he is called humilior 'more 
humble,' who is more downcast toward the humus ; the 
lowest is said to be humillimus ' most humble,' because 
the humus is the lowest thing in the world. 

24. From this comes also humor ^ 'moisture.' So 
therefore LuciUus says * : 

Gone is the earth, disappeared into clouds and moisture. 

Pacuvius says * : 

The land exhales a breeze and dawning damp ; 

humida,'^ the same as humecta ' damp,' P'rom this, a 
marshy field is hufnidissimus ' most damp ' ; from this, 
iidus" and uvidus ' damp ' ; from this, sudor f ' sweat ' 
and udor ' dampness.' 

hexameter. ' Trag. Rom. Frag. 363 Ribbeck'; R.O.L. ii. 
322-323 Warmington. ■* From same base as humor ; so 
also humectus. » Sjncopated form of uvidus, which, with 
its abstract substantive udor, contains the base of humor in 
a simpler form (without the ;n). 'Akin to English sweat, 
and not connected with the other Latin words here discussed. 

23 



VARRO 

25. Is si quamvis deorsum in terra, unde sumi^ 
pote, puteus ; nisi potius quod ^eolis dicebant ut 
irvTajxov sic tti'tcov a potu,^ non ut nunc <^pk{ap).^ A 
puteis oppidum ut Puteoli, quod incircum eum locum 
aquae frigidae et caldae multae, nisi a putore potius, 
quod putidus odoribus saepe ex sulphure et alumine. 
Extra oppida a puteis puticuli, quod ibi in puteis 
obruebantur homines, nisi potius, ut Aelius scribit, 
puticuli* quod putescebant ibi cadavera proiecta, qui 
locus publicus ultra E^quilias.^ Itaque eum Afranius 
/mtiZucos* in Togata appellat, quod inde suspiciunt 
per pjfteos' lumen. 

26. Lacus lacuna magna, ubi aqua eontineri potest. 
Palus paululum aquae in altitudinem et palam latius 
difFusae. Stagnum a Graeco, quod ii^ o-reyi'ov quod 
non habet rimam.* Hinc ad villas rutunda* stagna, 
quod rutundum facillime continet, anguli maxima 
laborant. 

§ 25. ^ For summi. * Buttmann, for potamon sic po 
tura potu. * Victories, for <f>pe. * Mue.,for puticulae. 
* For exquilias. * Scaliger, for cuticulos. ' Canal, for 
perpetuos. 

§ 26. ^ For 11. * Scaliger, for nomen habet primam. 
' B, for rutundas. 

§ 25, "Or ' pit ' ; derivative of root in ptttare ' to cut, 
think,' c/. amputare ' to cut oif.' * AeoUs, nom. pi. = Greek 
AtoAet?. * This and Trureoj are unknown in the extant 

remains of Aeolic Greek, but a number of Aeolic words show 
the change : anv for a-rro, i5/xoia>? for ofxoiais. ** The modern 
Pozzuoli, on the Bay of Naples, in a locality characterized 
by volcanic springs and exhalations ; Varro's derivation is 
correct. * Page 65 Funaioli. ' The Roman ' potters' 
field,' for the poor and the slaves. " Com. Rom. Frag. 
430 Ribbeck^ ; with a jesting transposition of the consonants. 
Cf. for a similar effect ' pit-lets ' and ' pit-lights.' The 
description suggests that they were constructed like the 
Catacombs. 
24 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 25-26 

25. If this moisture is in the ground no matter 
how far down, in a place from which it pote ' can ' be 
taken, it is a puteus ' well ' " ; unless rather because 
the Aeolians ^ used to say, like — I'ra/zo? '^ for Trora/ios 
' river,' so also — rVcos ' well ' for iroreos ' drinkable,' 
from potus ' act of drinking,' and not (^pkap ' well ' as 
they do now. From putei ' wells ' comes the town- 
name, such as Puteoli,'^ because around this place there 
are many hot and cold spring-waters ; unless rather 
from putor ' stench,' because the place is often putidus 
' stinking ' \\ath smells of sulphur and alum. Outside 
the towns there are puticuli ' little pits,' named from 
putei ' pits,' because there the people used to be buried 
in putei ' pits ' ; unless rather, as Aelius * wTites, the 
puticuli are so called because the corpses which had 
been thrown out putescehant ' used to rot ' there, in 
the public burial-place ^ which is beyond the Esqui- 
line. This place Afranius ^ in a comedy of Roman Ufe 
calls the Putiluci ' pit-lights,' for the reason that from 
it they look up through putei ' pits ' to the lumen 
'light.' 

26. A laais ' lake ' is a large lacuna " ' hollow,' 
where water can be confined. A palus ^ ' swamp ' is 
a paululum ' small amount ' of water as to depth, 
but spread quite ^videly palam ' in plain sight.' A 
stagnum '^ ' pool ' is from Greek, because they gave the 
name orc-y vos ** ' waterproof to that which has no 
fissure. From this, at farmhouses the stagna ' pools * 
are round, because a round shape most easily holds 
water in, but corners are extremely troublesome. 

§ 26. " Lacuna is a derivative of lacits, "" Palus, paulu- 
lum, palam are all etymological ly distinct. ' Properly, a 
pool without an outlet ; perhaps akin to Greek araycov ' drop 
(of liquid).' ■* Original meaning, ' covered.' 

25 



VARRO 

27. Fluvius, quod fluit, item flumen : a quo lege 
praediorum urbanorum scribitur^ : 

Stillicidia fluminaque* ut<i nunc, ut> ita' cadant 
fluantque ; 

inter haec hoc inter (est), quod stillicidium eo quod 
stillatim cadj't,* flumen quod fluit continue. 

28. Amnis id flumen quod circuit aliquod : nam 
ab ambitu amnis. Ab hoc qui circum Aternum^ 
habitant, Amiternini appellati. Ab eo qui popu- 
lum candidatus circum i<,* ambit, et qui aliter facit, 
indagabili ex ambitu causam dicit. Itaque Tiberis 
amnis, quod ambit Martium Campum et urbem ; op- 
pidum Interamna dictum, quod inter amnis est 
constitutum ; item Antemnae, quod ante amnis, 
qu<a> Amo^ influit in Tiberim, quod bello male ac- 
ceptum consenuit. 

29. Tiberis quod caput extra Latium, si inde 
nomen quoque exfluit in linguam nostram, nihil (ad>^ 
hvjioXoyoi' Latinum, ut, quod oritur ex Samnio, 

§ 27, ^ For scribitur scribitur. ^ For flumina quae. 
^ L. Sp., after Gothofredus, for ut ita. * a, Pape, for 

cadet. 

§28. ^ Aug., with B, for alterunum. ^ For id, 
3 Canal, for quanto, 

§ 29, ^ Added by Thiersch. 



§ 27, " Cf. Digest, viii. 2. 17. * That is, rain-waters 
dripping from roofs and streams resulting from rain shall in 
city properties not be diverted from their present courses. 
Such supplies of water were in early days a real asset. 

§ 28. " Probably to be associated with English Avon (from^ 
Celtic word for ' river '), and not with ambire ' to go around.' 
^ Good etymology ; Amiternum was an old city in the Sabine 
country, on the Aternus River ; with ambi- ' around ' in the 
form am-, as in amicire ' to place (a garment) around.' 

26 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 27-29 

27. Fluvius ' river ' is so named because it Jiuit 
' flows,' and likewise jiumen ' river ' : from which is 
written, according to the law of city estates," 

Stillicidia ' rain-waters ' and flumina ' rivers ' shall 
be allowed to fall and to flow without interference.* 

Between these there is this difference, that stilUcidium 
' rain-water ' is so named because it cadit ' falls ' 
stillatim ' drop by drop,' andjiumen ' river ' because it 
Jiuit ' flows ' uninterruptedly. 

28. An amnis ° is that river which goes around 
something ; for amnis is named from ambitus ' circuit.' 
From this, those who dwell around the Aternus are 
called Amiternini ' men of Amiternum.' * From this, 
he who circum it ' goes around ' the people as a candi- 
date, ambit ' canvasses,' and he who does otherwise 
than he should, pleads his case in court as a result 
of his investigable ambitus ' canvassing.'" Therefore 
the Tiber is called an amnis, because it ambit ' goes 
around ' the Campus Martius and the City '^ ; the 
tovm Interamna * gets its name from its position 
inter amnis ' between rivers ' ; likewise Antemnae, 
because it lies ante amnis ' in front of the rivers,' where 
the Anio flows into the Tiber — a towTi which suffered 
in war and wasted away until it perished. 

29. The Tiber, because its source is outside 
Latium, if the name as well flows forth from there 
into our language, does not concern the Latin ety- 
mologist ; just as the Volturnus," because it starts from 

* That is, for corrupt electioneering methods. ■* The Tiber 
swings to the west at Rome, forming a virtual semicircle. 

* A city in Umbria, almost encircled by the river Nar. 

§ 29. " Adjective from voltur ' vulture ' ; there was a Mt. 
Voltur farther south, on the boundary between Samnium and 
Apulia. 

27 



VARRO 

Volturnus nihil ad Latinam linguam : at" quod proxi- 
mum oppidum ab eo secundum mare Volturnum, ad 
nos, iam^ Latinum vocabulum, ut Tiberinus no<me>n.* 
Et colonia enim nostra Volturnu7«* et deus Tiberinus. 

30. Sed de Tiberis nomine anceps historia. Nam 
et suum Etruria et Latium suum esse credit, quod 
fuerunt qui ab Thebri vicino regulo Veientum^ dixe- 
rint appellat?<m,* primo Thebrim. Sunt qui Tiberim 
priscum nomen Latinum Albulam vocitatum lit- 
teris tradiderint, posterius propter Tiberinum regem 
Latinorum mutatum, quod ibi interierit : nam hoc 
eius ut tradunt sepulcrum.* 

V. 31. Ut omnis natura in caelum et terram divisa 
est, sic caeli regionibus terra in Asiam et Europam. 
Asia enim iacet ad meridiem et austrum, Europa ad 
septemtriones et aquilonem. Asia dicta ab nympha, 
a qua et lapeto traditur Prometheus. Europa ab 
Europa Agenoris, quam ex PA(o)enice^ Manlius 

* For ad. * After iam, A. Sp. deleted ad. * A. Sp., 
for non. ® Atig., with B, for uolturnus. 

§30. ^ Aug., for uem&nium. ^* For appellatam. ^ For 
sepulchrum. 

§31. 1 For fenice. 

* The god of the river Tiber. 

§ 30. " No probable etymology has been proposed. 
^ Veil was one of the twelve cities of Etruria, about twelve 
miles north of Rome ; it was taken and destroyed by the 
Romans under Camillas in 396 b.c. " Page 117 Funaioli. 
^ ' Whitish,' from albus ' white ' ; or perhaps more probably 
' the mountain stream,' containing a pre-Italic word seen in 
Alpes ' Alps.' « King of Alba Longa, ninth in descent 
from Aeneas, and great-grandfather of Numitor and Amulius ; 
he lost his life in crossing the river (Livy, i. 3). 
28 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 29-31 

Samnium, has nothing to do with the Latin language ; 
but because the nearest to^\•n to it along the sea is 
^'olturnuIn, it has come to us and is now a Latin 
name, as also the name Tiberinus. For we have 
both a colony named \ olturnum and a god named 
Tiberinus.^ 

30. But about the name of the Tiber * there are 
two accounts. For Etruria believes it is hers, and so 
does Latium, because there have been those who said 
that at first, from Thebris, the near-by chieftain of the 
\'eians,* it was called the Thebris. There are also 
those who in their writings " have handed down the 
story that the Tiber was called Albula ^ as its early 
Latin name, and that later it was changed on account 
of Tiberinus * king of the Latins, because he died 
there ; for, as they relate, it was his burial-place. 

V, 31. As all natura is divided into sky and earth, 
so with reference to the regions of the sky the earth is 
di\ided into Asia and Europe. For Asia is that part 
which lies toward the noonday sun and the south 
wind, Europe that which lies toward the Wain " and 
the north wind.*' Asia was named from the nymph " 
who, according to tradition, bore Prometheus to 
lapetus. Europe was named from Europa** the 
daughter of Agenor, who, Manlius *" writes, was 
carried off from Phoenicia by the Bull ; a remarkable 

§31. "In America usually called the Dipper. * The 
points of the compass are here, as often with the ancients, 
somewhat distorted. ' Concerning Asia, see Hesiod, 
Theogony, 359 ; and cf. Herodotus, iv. 45. •* Concern- 
ing Europa, see Herodotus, iv. 45 ; Horace, Odes, iii. 27. 
25-76 ; Ovid, Metamorphoses, ii. 833-875. ' Or Mallius, 
or Manilius ; the names are often confused in the manuscripts. 
He cannot be identified. See Frag. Poet. Rom., page 284 
Baehrens, and Gram. Rom. Frag. 85 Funaioh. 

29 



\ARRO 

scribit taurum exportasse, quorum egregiam ima- 
ginem ex aere PytAagoras Tarenti. 

32. Europae loca multae incolunt nationes. Ea 
fere nominata aut translaticio nomine ab hominibus^ 
ut Sabini et Lucani, aut declinato ab hominibus, ut 
Apulia et Latium, <aut>^ utrumque, ut Etruria et 
Tusci.' Qua regnum fuit Latini, universus ager 
dictus Latius, particulatim oppidis cognominatus, ut 
a Praeneste Praenestinus, ab Aricia Aricinus. 

33. Ut nostri augures publiei disserunt, agrorum 
sunt genera quinque : Romanus, Gabinus, pere- 
grinus, hosticus, ineertus. Romanus dictus unde 
Roma ab Rom(ul>o^ ; Gabinus ab oppido Gabi(i>s ; 
peregrinus ager pacatus, qui extra Romanum et 
Gabinum, quod uno modo in his serv(a>ntur* auspicia ; 
dictus peregrinus a pergendo, id est a progredien- 
do : eo enim' ex agro Romano primum progredieban- 
tur : quocirca Gabinus quo^ue* peregrinus, sed quorf* 
auspicia habet* singularia, ab reliquo discretus ; 

§ 32. 1 C/. § 23, crit. note 5. ^ Added by Aug. 

' Scaliger, for Tuscia. 

§ 33. 1 Rhol., for Romo ; cf. viii. 80. ^ Laetus, for 
seruntur. * For eo quod enim. * Scaliger, for quo 
siue. * Turnebus, for quos. * Turnebus, for habent. 



f Pythagoras of Rhegium, distinguished for his statues of 
athletes, flourished in the middle of the fifth century b.c. 

§ 32. " vSuch names as Sabini, Lucani, Tusci meant 
originally the people and not the countries. 

§ 33. " Page 1 9 Regell. " Or possibly Romus (Romo F); 
for Festus, 266 b 23-27 M., states that according to Antigonus, 
an Alexandrian writer, Rome received its name from Rhomus, 
a son of Jupiter, who founded a city on the Palatine. 

30 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 31-33 

bronze group of the two was made by Pythagoras ' at 
Tarentum. 

32. The various locaUties of Europe are inhabited 
by many different nations. They are in general 
denominated by names transferred from the men, Hke 
Sahini ' the Sabine countrj',' and Lucani ' the country 
of the Lucanians,' or derived from the names of the 
men, hke ApuUa and Latium, or both, hke Etruria and 
Tusci.'* Where Latinus once had his kingdom, the 
field-lands as a whole are called Latian ; but when 
taken piecemeal, they are named after the towns, as 
Praenestine from Praeneste, and Arician from Aricia. 

33. As our State Augurs set forth," there are five 
kinds of fields : Roman, Gabine, peregrine, hostic, 
uncertain. ' Roman ' field-land is so called from 
Romulus,^ from whom Rome got its name. ' Gabine ' 
is named from the town Gabii.*' The ' peregrine ' is 
field-land won in war and reduced to peace, which is 
apart from the Roman and the Gabine, because in 
these latter the auspices are observed in one uniform 
manner : ' peregrine ' ** is named from pergere ' to go 
ahead,' that is, from progredi ' to advance ' ; for into 
it their first advance was made out of the Roman 
field-land. By the same reasoning, the Gabine also 
is peregrine, but because it has auspices of its 
own special sort it is held separate from the rest. 

* An ancient Latin city midway between Rome and Praeneste, 
where Sextus Tarquinius took refuge after his expulsion 
from Rome. It fought against Rome at Lake Regillus, and 
thereafter declined into poverty and was almost deserted, 
though it was revived by the emperors of the first two 
Christian centuries. '* Derivative of peregri ' abroad, 

away from home : to, from, or in a foreign land,' which 
is either prep, per ' through ' - loc. agri, or a loc. of a com- 
pound pero-agro- ' distant field-land.' 

31 



VARRO 

hosticus dictus ab hostibus ; incertus is, qui de his 
quattuor qui sit ignoratur. 

VI. 34. Ager dictus in quam terram quid agebant, 
et unde quid agebant fructus causa ; ali<i>, quod^ id 
Graeci dicunt dyp6(i'). Ut ager quo- agi poterat, 
sic qua agi actus. Eius finis minimus constitutus in 
latitudinem pedes quattuor (fortasse an ab eo quat- 
tuor, quod ea quadrupes agitur) ; in longitudinem 
pedes centum viginti ; in quadratum actum et latum 
et longum esset centum viginti. Multa antiqui duo- 
denario numero finierunt ut duodecim decuriis actum. 

35. lugerum dictum iunctis duobus actibus quad- 
ratis. Centuria prim(um> a^ centum iugeribus dicta, 
post duplicata retinuit nomen, ut tribus a/)(ar>tibus2 
(populi tripartite divisi dictae nunc)^ multiplicatae 
idem tenent nomen. Ut qua* agebant actus, sic qua 
vehebant, viae^ dictae ; quo^ fructus convehebant, 
villae. Qua ibant, ab itu' iter appellarunt ; qua id 
anguste, semita, ut semiter dictum. 

§ 34. ^ L. Sp.,for aliquod. " Turnebus, for quod. 

§ 35. ^ L. Sp.,for prima. * GS.,for actibus. ' Added 
by GS., c/. C'ohimella, v. 1. 7. * Aug., for quo. * Laetus, 
for actus viae. * Aldus, for quod. ' Laetus, for habitu. 

§ 34. " Connexion of ager with agere doubtful, for the 
original meaning was wild land, not subjected to human use ; 
but this had been replaced even in early Latin by the meaning 
of tilled land or land used for grazing animals. The equation 
with the Greek word is correct. * Page 114 Funaioli. 

§ 35. " About two-thirds of an acre. " Abstract noun 

from centum ' hundred ' ; applied chiefly to a company of 
soldiers. ' From tri-bhu-s ' being three ' ; the final num- 

ber of tribes was thirty-five. ** Not from vehere. ' From 

32 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 33-35 

' Hostic ' is named from the hostes ' enemies.' ' Un- 
certain ' field-land is that of which it is not known to 
which of these four classes it belonsrs. 

V I. 34. Ager ' field ' is the name given to land 
into which they used agere ' to drive ' something, or 
from which they used to drive something," for the 
sake of the produce ; but others say ^ that it is be- 
cause the Greeks call it aypos. As an ager ' field ' is 
that to which driving can be done, so that whereby 
dri\ing can be done is an actus ' driveway.' Its least 
limit is set at four feet in width — four perhaps from 
the fact that by it a four-footed animal is driven — -and 
one hundred and twenty feet in length. For a square 
actus, both in breadth and in length, the limit would 
be one hundred and twenty feet. There are manv 
things which the ancients deUmited ^nth a multiple of 
twelve, like the actus of twelve ten-foot measures. 

35. A iugerum " is the name given to two square 
actus, iuncti ' joined ' together. A centuria * ' cen- 
tury- ' was named originally from centum ' one hun- 
dred ' iugera, and later, when doubled, kept its name, 
just as the tribus <^ ' tribes,' which got their name from 
the three parts into which the people were di\ided, 
still keep the same name though their number has 
been multiplied. As where they agebant ' drove ' 
were actus ' driveways,' so where they tehebant ' trans- 
jKjrted ' were viae ** ' highways ' ; whither they con- 
vehebant ' transported ' their produce were villae ' 
' farmhouses.' \^'hereby they went, they called an 
iter ' road ' from itus ' going ' ; where the going was 
narrow, was a semita f ' by-path,' as though it were 
called a semiter ' half-road.' 

vicus ' dwelling-place.' ' From sed ' apart ' ~ mita, from 
meare ' to go.' 

VOL. I D 33 



VARRO 

36. Ager cultus ab eo quod ibi cum terra semina 
coalescebant, et «bi n(on) consitus^ incultus. Quod 
primum ex agro piano fructus capiebant, campus 
dietus ; posteaquam proxuma superiora loca colere 
c<o>eperunt, a colendo colles appellarunt ; quos 
agros non colebant propter silvas aut id genus, ubi 
pecus possit pasci, et possidebant, ab usu s<al)vo'' 
saltus nominarunt. Haec etiam Graeci ve/xi],^ nostri 
nemora. 

37. Ager quod videbatur pecj^dum^ ac pecuniae 
esse fundamentum, fundus dietus, aut quod fundit 
quotquot annis multa. Vineta ac vineae a vite multa. 
Vitis a vino, id a vi ; hinc vindemia, quod est vini- 
demia aut vitidemia. Seges ab satu, id est semine. 
Semen, quod non plane id quod inde ; hinc seminaria, 
semente*,^ item alia. Quod segetes ferunt, fruges, 

§ 36. ^ Wissowa, for ab inconsitus. * Lachmann, for 
suo, ^ Lachmann, for NhMh. 

§37. ^ jPor pecodum. ^ Laetus, for sementem. 

§ 36. " Participle o{ colere ' to till, cultivate.' ^ Not from 
capere. ' Not from colere. ^ A ' leap,' from salire ' to 
leap ' ; then a ' narrow passage (which can be leapt across),' 
' defile ' ; then a ' valley of mixed woods and pasture-land.' 
* Like saltus, a mixture of woods and pasture-land, but not 
necessarily in a valley between hills or mountains. 

§ 37. " Derivative of fundus ; fundere is unrelated. 
'' Vinum, vinetum, vinea, vin-demia (demere ' to take off ') go 
together ; vitis and vis are unrelated. ' Satus, semen, 
34 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 36-37 

36. Ager ctiltus " ' cultivated field-land ' is so 
named from the fact that there the seeds coalescehant 
' united ' with the land, and where it is not consitus 
' sown ' it is called incultus ' uncultivated.' Because 
they first used capere ' to take ' the products from the 
level field-land, it was called campus * ' plain ' ; after 
they began to till the adjacent higher places, they 
called them colles '^ ' hills ' from colere ' to till.' The 
fields which they did not till on account of woods or 
that kind where flocks can be grazed, but still they 
took them for private use, they called saltus ** ' wood- 
land-pastures ' from the fact that their use was 
salvus 'saved.' These moreover the Greeks call rt/x»; 
■ glades ' and we call nemora * ' groves.' 

37. Field-land, because it seemed to be \he.funda- 
mentum <• ' foundation ' of animal flocks and of money, 
was caWed fundus ' estate,' or else because it fundit 
' pours out ' many things every year. J'ineta and 
vineae ' \inevards,' from the many vites ' grape-vines.' 
J'itis * ' grapexine ' from vinum ' wine,' this from vis 
' strength ' ; from this, vindemia ' vintage,' because it 
is vinidemia ' wine-removal ' or vitideniia ' vine-re- 
moval.' Seges '^ ' standing grain ' from satus ' sow- 
ing,' that is, semen ' seed.' Semen ^ ' seed,' because it 
is not completely that which comes from it ; from 
this, seminaria ' nursery-gardens,' sementes ' sowings,' 
and likewise other words. \Miat the segetes ' fields of 
grain ' feruni ' bear,* are fruges * ' field-produce ' ; 

seminaria, tementes go together, but seges probably is not 
related to them. '* \'arro takes semen as from semis ' half,' 
because the semen is less in quantity than that which grows 
from it ; an incorrect etymology. ' Fruges, friii, fructus 
belong together, but /erre is unrelated ; \'arro takes fruges 
froxn /erre, /rui from fruges, fructus from frui. 

35 



VARRO 

a fruendo fructus, a spe spicae, ubi et culmi, quod in 
summo campo nascuntur et sum(m>um culmen. 

38. Ubi frumenta secta, ut terantur, arescwnt,^ 
area. Propter horum similitudinem in urbe loca pura 
areae ; a quo potest etiam ara deum, quod pura, nisi 
potius ab ardore, ad quern ut sit fit ara ; a quo ipsa 
area non abest, quod qui arefacit ardor est solis. 

39. Ager restibilis, qui restituitur ac reseritur 
quotquot annis ; contra qui intermittitur, a novando 
novalis ager. Arvus et arationes ab arando ; ab eo 
quod aratri vomer sustulit, suIcms^ ; quo ea terra iacta, 
id est proiecta, porca. 

40. Prata dicta ab eo, quod sine opere parata. 
Quod in agris quotquot annis rursum^ facienda eadem, 
ut rursum capias fructus, appellata rura. Dividi 
t(am>en e*se ius^ scribit Sulpicius plebei rura largiter 
ad (ad)oream.' Praedia dicta, item ut praedes, a 

§ 38. ^ L. Sp.,/or et arescant. 
§ 39. ^ Laetus, for sulcos. 

§ 40. ^ For rursum rursum. ^ Lachmann, for dividit 
in eos eius. * Fay, for ad aream. 

* Spes and spica are unrelated ; Varro was misled by the 
rustic pronunciation speca, mentioned by him in De Re 
Rustica, i. 48. 2. " Culmus and culmen are unrelated. 

§ 38. " Arescunt, area, ara, ardor, arefacit belong to- 
gether. ' Unoccupied by buildings or the like ; in the 
country, free also of bushes and trees. " Applied in the 

city to building lots, courtyards, and free spaces before a 
temple or other building, and around an altar. 

§ 39. " That is, re + stabilis ' again standing firm ' ; while 
restituere is re + statuere, ultimately to same root as stabilis. 

* Properly from a root meaning ' draw, pull.' " Not con- 
nected with proiecta, but with English furrow. 

§ 40. " Incorrect etymologies. '' i. 241 Bremer ; per- 

haps Servius Sulpicius Rufus, a legal authority, contempor- 
ary with Cicero. " Praedium is a derivative of praes (pi. 

36 



I 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 37-40 

from frui ' to enjoy ' comes fructus ' fruits ' ; from 
spes f ' hope ' comes spicae ' ears of grain,' where are 
also the culmi ^ ' grain-stalks,' because they grow on 
the top of the plain, and a top is a admen. 

38. Where the cut grain-sheaves arescunt " ' dry 
out ' for threshing, is an area ' threshing-floor.' On 
account of the likeness to these, clean places ^ in the 
city are called areae ; from which may be also the 
Gods' ara ' altar,' because it is clean '^ — unless rather 
from ardor ' fire ' ; for the intention of using it for an 
ardor makes it an ara ; and from this the area itself is 
not far away, because it is the ardor of the sun which 
arefacit ' does the drying.' 

39. Ager restihilis " ' land that withstands use ' is 
that which restituitur ' is restored ' and replanted 
yearly ; on the other hand, that which receives an 
intermission is called novalis ager ' renewable field- 
land,' from novare 'to renew.' Arvus ' ploughable ' 
and arationes ' ploughings,' from arare ' to plough ' ; 
from this, what the ploughshare sustiilit ' has re- 
moved ' is a sulcus * ' furrow ' ; whither that earth is 
thrown, that is, proiecta ' thrown forth,' is the porca " 
' ridge.' 

•to. Prata " ' meadows ' are named from this, that 
they are parata ' prepared ' without labour. Rura <» 
' country -lands ' are so called because in the fields the 
same operations must be done every year rursum 
' again,' that you may again get their fruits. Sul- 
picius ^ writes, however, that it is a just right for the 
country- lands of the populace to be divided for lavish 
distribution as bonus to discharged soldiers. Praedia " 
' estates ' are named, as also praedes ' bondsmen,' 

praedes), a compound of prae + vas ' guarantor ' ; praestare 
has the same prefix, but a different root. 

37 



VARRO 

praestando, quod ea pignore data publice mancup«s* 
fidem praestent. 

VII. 41. Ubi nunc est Roma, Septi'montium' 
nominatum ab tot montibus quos postea urbs muris 
comprehendit ; e (juis Capitolinum dictum, quod hie, 
cum fundamenta foderentur aedis lovis, caput huma- 
num dicitur inventum. Hie* mons ante Tarpeius 
dictus a virgine Vestale Tarpeia, quae ibi ab SaWnis 
necata armis et sepulta : cuius nominis monimentum 
relictum, quod etiam nunc eius rupes Tarpeium 
appellatur saxum. 

42. Hunc antea montem Saturnium appellatum 
prodiderunt et ab eo Late(um>i Saturniam terram, ut 
etiam Ennius appellat. Antiquum oppidum in hoc 
fuisse Saturnia<m>'' scribitur. Eius vestigia etiam 
nunc manent tria, quod Saturni fanum in faucibus, 
quod Saturnia Porta quam lunius scribit ibi, quam 
nunc vocant Pandanam, quod post aedem Saturni in 
aedificiorum legibus privatis parietes postici " niuri 
(Saturnii) "' sunt scripti. 

43. Aventinum aliquot de causis dicunt. Naevius 

* Gesner^for mancupes. 

§ 41. ^ Turnebus, for septem niontiuni ; c/. also § 23, 
crit. note 5. * For hinc. 

§ 42. ^ Ten Brink, for late. ^ Aug., with B, for hac 
fuisse saturnia. ' Added by ten Brink ; Frag. Cass, has 
murisssunt. 

§ 41. " Somehow a derivative of capvt ; but the story of 
finding a head was invented to explain the name. 

§42. "Ennius, Jnn. 25 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 12-13 
Warniington ; the metre demands the nominative case. 
GS. think that Ennius may have written Saturnia tellus, 
as Vergil does in Aen. viii. 329 ; but Ovid, Fasti, v. 625, 

38 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 40-43 

from pruestare ' to offer as security/ because these, 
when given as pledge to the official authorities, prae- 
stent ' guarantee ' the good faith of the party in the 
case. 

Vn. 41, Where Rome now is, was called the 
Septimontium from the same number of hills which 
the Citv afterwards embraced within its walls ; of 
which the Capitoline '^ got its name because here, it 
is said, when the foundations of the temple of Jupiter 
were being dug, a human caput ' head ' was found. 
This hill was previously called the Tarpeian, from the 
Vestal Mrgin Tarpeia, who was there killed by the 
Sabines ^^ith their shields and buried ; of her name a 
reminder is left, that even now its cliff is called the 
Tarpeian Rock. 

42. This hill was previously called the Saturnian 
Hill, we are informed bv the writers, and from this 
Latium has been called the Saturnian Land, as in fact 
Ennius " calls it. It is recorded that on this hill was 
an old town, named Saturnia. Even now there re- 
main three evidences of it : that there is a temple of 
Saturn by the passage leading to the hill ; that there 
is a Saturnian gate which Junius writes ^ of as there, 
which they now call Pandana " ; that behind the 
temple of Saturn, in the laws for the buildings of 
private persons, the back walls of the houses are 
mentioned as " Saturnian walls." ^ 

43. The name of the Aventine is referred to 

has Saturnia terra. * i. 38 Bremer. ' So called quod 
semper pateret (Festus, 220. 17 M.), 'because it was always 
open ' (c/. pandere ' to throw open '). ■* The third point 
becomes clear only by ten Brink's insertion of Satiirnii ; 
the use of miiri ' city-walls ' for parietes ' building-walls ' 
shows that the walls at this place had once formed part of a 
set of city-walls. 

39 



VARRO 

ab avibus, quod eo se ab Tiberi ferrent aves, alii ab 
rege Aventino Albano, quod (ibi)^ sit sepultus, 
alii A<d>ventinum' ab adventu hominum, quod 
co<m>mune Latinorum ibi Dianae templum sit con- 
stitutum. Ego maxime puto, quod ab advectu : 
nam olim paludibus mons erat ab reliquis disclusus. 
Itaque eo ex urbe advehebantur ratibus, cuius ves- 
tigia, quod ea qua turn <advectum>' dicitur Vela- 
brum, et unde escendebant ad <in>fimam* Novam 
Viam locus sacellum <Ve>labrum.* 

44. Velabrum a vehendo. Velaturam facere 
etiam nunc dicuntur qui id mercede faciunt. Merces 
(dicitur a merendo et acre) huic vecturae qui ratibus 
transibant quadrans. Ab eo Lucilius scripsit : 

Quadrantis ratiti. 
VIII. 45. Reliqua urbis loca olim discreta, cum 
Argeorum sacraria septem et viginti in (quattuor) 

§ 43. ^ Added by Laetus. ^ Mue., with M, for auen- 
tinum. * Added by L. Sp. * Turnebus, for fimam. 
* Mue., for labrum. 

§ 43. " Page 115 Funaioli. Etymologies of place-names 
are particularly treacherous ; none of those given here ex- 
plains Aventimis. Varro elsewhere (de gente populi Romani, 
quoted by Servius in Aen. vii. 651) says that some Sabines 
established here by Romulus called it Aventinus from the 
Avens, a river of the district from which they had come. 
'' Frag. Poet. Rom. 27 Baehrens; R.O.L. ii. 56-57 Warming- 
ton. " The spelling with d is required by the sense. 
<* Varro says that a ferry-raft was called a velabritm, and 
that this name was transferred to the passage on which the 
rafts had plied, when it was filled in and had become a street ; 
but that there survived a chapel in honour of the ferry-rafts. 

§ 44. " Correct etymology. ' Incorrect etymology. 

40 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 43-45 

several origins.* Naevius ^ says that it is from the 
aves ' birds,' because the birds went thither from 
the Tiber ; others, that it is from King Aventinus 
the Alban, because he is buried there ; others that it 
is the Adventine <^ Hill, from the adventus ' coming ' of 
people, because there a temple of Diana was estab- 
lished in which all the Latins had rights in common. 
I am decidedly of the opinion, that it is from advectus 
' transport by water ' ; for of old the hill was cut off 
from everj-thing else by swampy pools and streams. 
Therefore they advehebantiir ' were conveyed ' thither 
by rafts ; and traces of this sur\ive, in that the way 
by which they were then transported is now called 
Velahrum ' ferr\*,' and the place from which they 
landed at the bottom of New Street is a chapel of the 
\'elabra.'' 

44. Velabrum " is from vehere ' to convey.' Even 
now, those persons are said to do velatura ' ferrj-ing,' 
who do this for pay. The nierces * ' pay ' (so called 
from merere ' to earn ' and aes ' copper money ') for 
this ferrjing of those who crossed by rafts was a 
farthing. From this LuciUus -WTote " : 

Of a raft-marked farthing."* 

^ HL 45. The remaining localities of the City 
were long' ago di\ided off, when the twenty-seven" 

* 1272 Marx. ■* The quadrans or fourth of an as was 
marked with the figure of a raft. 

§ 45. " It would seem simpler if the shrines numbered 
twenty-four, six in each of the four sections of Rome. But 
both here and in vii. 44 the number is given as twenty-seven. 
It is hardly likely that in both places XXUII (= XXVII) has 
been miswritten for XXIIII ; yet this supposition must be 
made by those who think that the correct number is twenty- 
four. 

41 



VARRO 

partis^ urbi(s>'' sunt disposita. Argeos dictos putant 
a principibus, qui cum i/ercule Argivo venerunt 
Romam et in Saturnia subsederunt. E quis prima 
scripta est regio Suburana,* secunda Esquilina, tertia 
Collina, quarta Palatina. 

46. In Suburanae^ regionis parte princeps est 
Caelius mons a Caele Vibenna,^ Tusco duce nobili, qui 
cum sua manu dicitur Romulo venisse auxilio contra 
Tatium' regem. Hinc post Caeli** obitum, quod 
nimis munita loca tenerent neque sine suspicione 
essent, deducti dicuntur in planum. Ab eis dictus 
Vicus Tuscus, et ideo ibi Vortumnum stare, quod is 
deus Etruriae princeps ; de Caelianis qui a suspicione 
liberi essent, traductos in eum locum qui vocatur 
Caeliolum. 

47. Cum Caelio^ coniunctum Carinae et inter eas 
quem locum Caer(i)o/ensem* appellatum apparet, 

§ 45. ^ L. Sp., for sacraria in septem et uiginti partis. 

* Laetus, for urbi. * Aug., for suburbana F^, subura F^. 

§ 46. ^ A uff., with B, for suburbanae. ^ Frag. Cass., 
for uibenno ,• cf. Tacitus, Ann. iv. 65. * Puce ins, with 
Servius in Aen. v. 5Q0, for latinum. * Coelis Aug., for 
celii. 

§ 47. ^ Laetus, for celion. ^ Kent ; Caeliolensem ten 
Brink {and similarly through the section) ; for ceroniensem. 

* Puppets or dolls made of rushes, thrown into the Tiber 
from the Pons Sublicius every year on May 14, as a sacrifice 
of purification ; the distribution of the shrines from which 
they were brought was to enable them to take up the pollu- 
tion of the entire city. Possibly the dolls were a substitute 
for human victims. The name Argei clearly indicates that 
the ceremony was brought from Greece. 

§ 46. " Comparison with § 47, § 50, § 53, § 54, shows that 

42 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, \. 45-47 

shrines of the Argei * were distributed among the four 
sections of the City. The Argei, they think, were 
named from the chieftains who came to Rome with 
Hercules the Argive, and settled do-v^Ti in Saturnia. 
Of these sections, the first is recorded as the Suburan 
region, the second the Esquiline, the third the Colline, 
the fourth the Palatine. 

46. In the section of the Suburan region, the first 
shrine " is located on the Caelian Hill, named from 
Caeles \'ibenna, a Tuscan leader of distinction, who is 
said to have come ^\■ith his followers to help Romulus 
against King Tatius. From this hill the followers of 
Caeles are said, after his death, to have been brought 
down into the level ground, because they were in 
possession of a location which was too strongly forti- 
fied and their loyalty was somewhat under suspicion. 
From them was named the f'icus Tuscus ' Tuscan 
Row,' and therefore, they say, the statue of 
Vertumnus stands there, because he is the chief god 
of Etruria ; but those of the Caelians who were free 
from suspicion were removed to that place which is 
called Caeliolum ' the little Caelian.' * 

47. Joined to the Caelian is Carinae ' the Keels ' ; 
and between them is the place which is called Caerio- 

the sacra Argeorum (§ 50) used princeps, terticeps, etc., to 
designate numerically the shrines in each pars ; and that the 
place-name was set in the nominative alongside the neuter 
numeral : therefore " the first is the Caelian Hill " means that 
the first shrine is located on that hill. Cf. K. O. Mueller, Zur 
Topographie Roms : iiber die Fragmenta der Sacra Argeorum 
bei Varro, de Lingua Latino, v. 8 (pp. 69-94 in C. A. Bottiger, 
Archaologie und Kunst, vol. i., Breslau, 1828). * The 
Caeliolum, spoken of also as the Caeliculus (or -um) by 
Cicero, De Har. Resp. 15. 32, and as the Caelius Minor by 
Martial, xii. 18. 6, seems to have been a smaller and less im- 
portant section of the Caelian Hill. 

43 



VARRO 

quod primae regionis quartum sacrarium scriptum sic 

est : 

Caer<i)olen.sjs' : quarticeps* circa Minerviuin qua in 
Coeli«<m> monte<ni)^ itur : in tabernola est. 

Caer<i>olensis* a Carinarum' iunctu dictus ; Carinae 
pote a' caeri<m)onia,* quod hinc oritur caput Sacrae 
Viae ab Streniae sacello quae pertinet in arce<m>,^*' 
qua sacra quotquot mensibus feruntur in arcem et 
per quam augures ex arce profecti solent inaugurare. 
Huius Sacrae Viae pars haec sola volgo nota, quae 
est a Fore eunti primore^^ clivo. 

48. Eidem regioni adtributa Subura, quod sub 
muro terreo Carinarum ; in eo est Argeorum sacel- 
lum sextum. Subura(m)^ Junius scribit ab eo, quod 
fuerit sub antiqua urbe ; cui testimonium potest esse, 
quod subest ei^ loco qui terreus murus vocatur. Sed 
<ego a)' pago potius Succusano dictam puto Suc- 
cusam : (quod in nota etiam>* nunc scribitur (S^^C>^ 

^ Kent, for cerolienses. * ^iug., for quae triceps. 

* Aug., for celio monte. * Kent, for cerulensis. ' For 
carinaerum. * Jordan, for postea. ' cerimonia Bek- 
ker, for cerionia. ^"Aug., and Frag. Cass., for arce. 
^^ Aldus, for primoro. 

§ 48. * ]Vissowa, for subura. * Victorius, for et. 

* Added by Laetus (a Frag. Cass.). * Added by Mue., 
after Qvintilian, hist. Orat. i. 7. 29. * Added by Merck- 
lin, to fill a gap capable of holding three letters, in F ; cf. 
Qiiintilian, loc. cit. 



§ 47. " That is, Caeliolensis ' pertaining to the CaeliohisJ' 
Through separation in meaning from the primitive, the r has 
been subject to regular dissimilation as in caerulus for *caelu- 

44 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 47-48 

lensis,'^ obviously because the fourth shrine of the first 
region is thus ^^Titten in the records : 

Caeriolensis : fourth * shrine, near the temple of Miner\a, 
in the street by which you go up the Caelian Hill ; it is in a 
booth.* 

Caeriolensis is so called from the joining of the Carinae 
with the Caelian. Carinae is perhaps from caerimonia 
' ceremony,' because from here starts the beginmng 
of the Sacred Way, which extends from the Chapel 
of Strenia ^ to the citadel, by which the offerings are 
brought ever}' year to the citadel, and by which the 
augurs regularly set out from the citadel for the 
observation of the birds. Of this Sacred Way, this 
is the only part commonly known, namely the part 
which is at the beginning of the Ascent as you go 
from the Forum. 

48. To the same region is assigned the Subura," 
which is beneath the earth-wall of the Carinae ; in it 
is the sixth chapel of the Argei. Junius * wTites that 
Subura is so named because it was at the foot of the 
old city {suh urhe) ; proof of which may be in the fact 
that it is under that place which is called the earth- 
wall. But I rather think that from the Succusan dis- 
trict it was called Succusa ; for even now when abbre- 
viated it is written S\'C, with C and not B as third 

lus, Pariiia for Palilia ; possibly association with Carinae 
furthered the change. * C/. % 46, note a. * The words 
sinistra via or dexteriore via may have been lost before in 
tabemola ; cf. ten Brink's note. ** A goddess of health 
and physical well-being. 

§ 48. " Etymology entirely uncertain. The neuters quod 
and in eo, referring to Subura, mutually support each other. 
* M. Junius Gracchanus, contemporary and partisan of the 
Gracchi ; page 1 1 Huschke. He wrote an antiquarian work 
De Potestatibus. 

45 



VARRO 

tertia littera C, non B. Pagus Succusanus, quod 
succurrit Carinis. 

49. Secundae regionis Esquiliae.^ Alii has scrip- 
serunt ab excubiis regis dictas, alii ab eo quod (aes- 
culis)" excultae a rege Tullio essent. Huic origini 
itiagis concinunt loca vicina,* quod ibi lucus dicitur 
Facutalis et Larum Querquetulanum sacellum et 
Imcus* Mefitis et lunonis Lucinae, quorum angusti 
fines. Non mirum : iam diu enim late avaritia una 
(domina)^ est. 

50. Esquiliae duo montes habiti, quod pars <0p- 
pius pars>i Cespms^ mons suo antiquo nomine etiam 
nunc in sacris appellatur. In Saeris Argeorum 
scriptum sic est : 

Oppius Mons : princeps <Es>quili<i>s' uls* Iwcum Facu- 
talem* ; sinistra via,^ secundum ni{o>erum est. 

Oppius Mons : terticeps cis' lucum* Esquilinum ; dex- 
terior(e)* via in tabernola est. 

Oppius Mons : quarticeps c<i>s^'' Iwcum*' Esquilinum ; via 
dexteriore^'' in figlinis est. 

§ 49. ^ Turnebus, for esquilinae. ^ Added by ten 
Brink. ^ GS.,for uicini. * Laetus, for lacus. * GS., 
for unae. 

§ 50. ^ Added by Mue. ^ For cespeus. ' Kent ; 
Exquilis Mue., for quills. * Lindsay ; ouls Mue. ; for 
ouis. ^ Laetus, for lacum facultalem. ® ScaUger, for 
quae. ' Mue., for terticepsois. * Aldus, for lacum. 
' Kent, for dexterior. ^" Mue., for quatricepsos. 

^^ Laetus, for lacum. ^^ Kent, for uiam dexteriorem. 

« As stated by Quintilian, Inst. Orat. i. 7. 29. " This 
association was made easy by the fact that r was normally 
lost in Latin before ss : cf. rursutn and rusiim, dorsum and 
Dossennus. Hence one might take Succusa to be suc- 
cur{s)sd; but such an s, representing ss, could not become 
r as in Subura. 

46 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 48-50 

letter.*^ The Succusan district is so named because it 
succurrit '* ' runs up to ' the Carinae. 

49. To the second region belongs the Esquiline." 
Some * say that this was named from the king's 
excuhiae ' watch-posts,' others that it was from the 
fact that it was planted with aesculi ' oaks ' by King 
Tullius. With this second origin the near-by places 
agree better, because in that locality there is the so- 
called Beech Grove,'' and the chapel of the Oak- 
Grove Lares,** and the Grove of Mefitis * and of Juno 
Lucina f — whose territories are narrow. And it is not 
astonishing ; for now this long while, far and wide, 
Greed has been the one and only mistress. 

50. The Esquiline includes two hills, inasmuch as 
the Oppian part and the Cespian " part of the hill are 
called by their own old names even now, in the sacri- 
fices. In the Sacrifices of the Argei there is the follow- 
ing record * : 

Oppian Hill : first shrine, on the Esquiline, beyond the 
Beech Grove ; it is on the left side of the street along the 
wall. 

Oppian Hill : third shrine, this side of the Esquiline Grove ; 
it is in a booth on the right-hand side of the street. 

Oppian Hill : fourth shrine, this side of the Esquiline 
Grove ; it is on the right-hand side of the street among the 
potteries. 

§ 49. " By origin, ex-queliai ' dwelling-places outside,' in 
contrast to the inquilini ' dwellers inside ' the walls of the 
city. * Page 115 Funaioli. ' Facutalis has the C in 
its old use with the value of ff. ** Not other\sise known, 
but the emendations proposed seem violent; Querquetulanutn 
Ls gen. pi. « Goddess of malodorous exhalations, with the 
function of averting their pestilential effect. ' Juno as 
goddess of child-birth. 

§ 50. " Usually spelled Cispius, but Varro has Cesp-. 
* Page 6 Preibisch. 

47 



VARRO 

Cespius^' Mons : quinticeps cis^* iMCum*^ Poetelium ; 
Esquiliis^* est. 

Cespius Mons : sexticeps apud aedeni lunonis Lucinae, 
ubi aeditumus habere solet. 

51. Tertiae regionis colles quinque ab deorum 
fanis appellati, e quis nobiles duo. Collis^ Viminalis* 
a love Vimin<i>o,^ quod ibi ara e<ius>.* Sunt qui, 
quod ibi vimineta^ fuerint. ColU's* Quirinalis, (quod 
ibi)' Quirini fanum. Sunt qui a Quiritibus, qui cum 
Tatio Curibus venerunt ad Roma<m),* quod ibi 
habuerint castra. 

52. Quod vocabulum coniunctarum regionum 
nomina obliteravit. Dictos enim collis pluris apparet 
ex Argeorum Sacrificiis, in quibus scriptum sic est : 

Collis Quirinalis : terticeps cis^ aedem Quirini. 
Collis Salutaris : quarticeps adversum est <A>pol<]>inar 
cis* aedem Salutis. 

1^ Mue., for sceptius. ** Mue., for quinticepsois. 
^* Laetus, for lacum. ^* Scaliger, for esquilinis. 

§ 51. ^ L. Sp., for colles. ^ Laetus, for uiminales. 
3 Auff., with B, for uimino ; cf Festus, 376 a 10 M. * L. 
Sp., after ten Brink (arae eius), for arae. * G, Aug., for 
uiminata. * Laetus, for colles. ' Added by L. Sp. 
* Ten Brink ; Romam Laetus ; for ab Roma. 

§ 52. ^ Mue., for terticepsois. ^ Apollinar cis 3Iue., 
for pilonarois. 

' Apparently to be associated with putidus ' stinking,' 
because of the mention of Mefitis a few lines before ; but if 
so, the oe is a false archaic spelling, out of place in putidus 
and its kin. Another possibility is that it is to be connected 
with the plebeian gens Poetelia ; one of this name was a 
member of the Second Decemvirate, 450 b.c. •* That is, 
adjacent to the sacristan's dwelling. 
48 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 50-52 

Cespian Hill : fifth shrine, this side of the Poetelian • 
Grove ; it is on the Esquiline. 

Cespian Hill : sixth shrine, at the temple of Juno Lucina, 
where the sacristan customarily dwells. "* 

51. To the third region belong five hills, named 
from sanctuaries of gods ; among these hills are two 
that are well-known. The \'iminal Hill got its name 
from Jupiter Vtminius ' of the Osiers,' because there 
was his altar ; but there are some ° who assign its 
name to the fact that there were vimineta ' willow- 
copses ' there. The Quirinal Hill was so named 
because there was the sanctuarj- of Quirinus *• ; 
others '^ say that it is derived from the Quirites, who 
came with Tatius from Cures ** to the vicinity of 
Rome, because there they established their camp. 

52. This name has caused the names of the 
adjacent localities to be forgotten. For that there 
were other hills with their own names, is clear from 
the Sacrifices of the Argei, in which there is a record 
to this effect " : 

Quirinal Hill : third shrine, this side of the temple of 
Quirinus. 

Salutary Hill * : fourth shrine, opposite the temple of 
Apollo, this side of the temple of Salus. 

§51. "Page 118 Funaioli. '' Quirinalis, Quirinus, 

Quirites belong together ; but Cures Ls probably to be kept 
apart. ' Page 116 Funaioli. '' An ancient city of the 
Sabines, about twenty-four miles from Rome, the city of 
Tatius and the birthplace of Numa Pompilius, successor of 
Romulus ; cf. Livy, i. 13, 18. 

§ 52. " Page 6 Preibisch. * Salutaris, from salus 

' preservation ' ; the temple perhaps marked the place of a 
victory in a critical battle, or commemorated the end of a 
pestilence. We do not know whether this Salus was the 
same a.s luppiter Salutaris. mentioned by Cicero, De Finibus, 
iii. 20. 66 ; cf. the Greek Zeus aorrqp ' Zeus the Saviour.' 

VOL. I F. 49 



VARRO 

Collis Mucialis : quinticeps apud oedem Dei Fidi' ; in 
delubro, ubi aeditumus habere solet. 

Coll/s'* Latiaris^ : sexticeps in Vico Inste/ano* summo, 
apud au(gu>raculum' ; aedificium solum est. 

Horum deorum arae, a quibus cognomina habent, in 
eius regionis partibus sunt. 

53. Quartae regionis Palatium, quod Pallantes 
cum Euandro venerunt, qui et Palatini ; (alii quod 
Palatini), 1 aborigines ex agro Reatino, qui appeliatur 
Palatium, ibi conse(de)runt^ ; sed hoc alii a Palanto* 
uxore Latini putarunt. Eundem hunc locum a pecore 
dictum putant quidam ; itaque Naevius Balatium 
appellat. 

5 1. Huic Cermalum et Velias^ coniunxerunt, quod 
in hac regione* scriptum est : 

Germalense : quinticeps apud aedem Romuli. 
Et 
Veliense' : sexticeps in Velia apud aedem deum Penatium. 

' For de i de fidi. * For colles. * M, Laetus, for 
latioris. * Jordan, for instelano ; c/. Livy, xxiv. 10. 8, 
in vico Insteio. ' Tu7-tiebus, for auraculum. 

§ 53. ^ Added by A. Sp. ^ Fray. Cass., M, Ijaetus, 
for conserunt. ^ Mue., (Palantho L. Sp.), for palantio ; 
cf. Fest. 220. 6 M. 

§ 54. ^ For uellias. ^ M, Laetus, for religione. 
' Bentinus, for uelienses. 

" Mucialis, apparently from the gens Mucia ; the first known 
Mucins was the one who on failing to assassinate Porsenna, 
the Etruscan king who was besieging Rome, burned his right 
hand over the altar-fire and thus gained the cognomen Scae- 
vola ' Lefty.' Several Mucii with the cognomen Scaevola 
were prominent in the political and legal life of Rome from 
215 to 82 B.C. ** Deus Fidius was an aspect of Jupiter ; 
cf. Greek Zei)? marios. " Latiarls 'pertaining to Latium'; 
tuppiter Latiaris was the guardian deity of the Latin Con- 
federation, cf. Cicero, Pro Milone, .SI. 85. 

50 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 52-54 

-Mucial Hill ' : fifth shrine, at the temple of the God of 
Faith, "^ in the chapel where the sacristan customarily dwells. 

Latiary Flill ' : sixth shrine, at the top of Insteian Row, at 
the augurs' place of observation ; it is the only building. 

The altars of these gods, from which they have their 
surnames, are in the various parts of this region. 

53. To the fourth region belongs the Palatine," so 
called because the Pallantes came there with Evan- 
der, and they were called also Palatines ; others think 
that it was because Palatines, aboriginal inhabitants 
of a Reatine district called Palatium,^ settled there ; 
but others '^ thought that it was from Palanto,** ^\ife 
of Latinus. This same place certain authorities 
think was named from the pecus ' flocks ' ; therefore 
Naevius " calls it the Balatiiun f ' Bleat-ine.' 

54-. To this they joined the Cermalus " and the 
Veliae,* because in the account of this region it is thus 
recorded "^ : 

Germalian : fifth shrine, at the temple of Romulus, 

and 

Velian : sixth shrine, on the Velia, at the temple of the 
deified Penates. 

§ 53. " For Palatlum, there is no convincing etymology. 
* An ancient city of the Sabines, on the Via Salaria, forty- 
eight miles from Rome, on the banks of the river \'elinus. 
•Page 116 Funaioli. ■* According to Festus, 220. 5 M., 
Palanto was the mother of Latinus ; she is called Pallantia 
by Servius in Aen. viii. 51. ' Frag. Poet. Rom. 28 Raeh- 
rens; R.O.L. ii. 56-57 Warmington. 'As though from 
balare ' to bleat.' 

§ 54. " There is no etymology for Cermalus ; the word 
began with C, but for etymological purposes \'arro begins it 
with G, relying on the fact that in older Latin C represented 
two sounds, c and g. * Apparently used both in the 
singular, Velia, and in the plural, Veliae ; there is no ety- 
mology. ' Page 7 Preibisch. 

51 



VARRO 

Germalum a germanis Romulo et Remo, quod ad 
ficum ruminalem, et ii ibi inventi, quo aqua hiberna 
Tiberis eos detulerat in alveolo expositos. Veliae 
unde essent plures accepi causas, in quis quod ibi 
pastores Palatini ex ovibus* ante tonsuram inventam 
vellere lanam sint soliti, a quo vellera» dicuntur, 

IX. 55. Ager Romanus primum divisus in partis 
tris, a quo tribus appellata T«tiensium,^ Ramnium, 
Lucerum. Nominatae, ut ait Ennius, Titienses ab 
Tatio, Ramnenses ab Romulo, Luceres, ut Junius, 
ab Lucumone ; sed omnia haec vocabula Tusca, ut 
Volnius, qui tragoedias^ Tuscas scripsit, dicebat. 

56. Ab hoc partes^ quoque quattuor urbis tribus 
dictae, ab locis Suburana, Palatina, Esquilina, Collina ; 
quinta, quod sub Roma, Romilia ; sic reliquae' 
tri<gin>ta' ab his rebus quibus in Tribu(u>m Libro* 
scripsi. 

X. 57. Quod ad loca quaeque his coniuncta fuerunt, 

* Victoriiis, for quihus. ^ Laetvs, for ueWtiner a. (uellaera 
Frag. Cass.). 

§ 55. ^ Groth, for tatiensium. ^ For tragaedias. 

§ 56. ^ For partis. * For reliqiia, altered from re- 
liquae. * Turnehus, for trita. * Frag. Cass., L. Sp., 
for libros. 



'' Page 118 Funaioli. 

§ 55. " Roman possessions in land, both state property 
and private estates ; as opposed to ager peregrinus ' foreign 
land.' *" None of the etymologies is probable, which is 
not surprising, as they were of non-Latin origin, whether or 
not they were Etruscan. " ylnn. i. frag. lix. Vahlen^ ; 

R.O.L. i. 38-39 Warmington. " Page 131 Funaioli ; 

page 11 Huschke. * Page 126 Funaioli; Volnius is not 
mentioned elsewhere. 

§ 6G. " The four urbanae tribus ' city tribes.' * The 

52 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 54^57 

Germalus, they say, is from the germani ' brothers ' 
Romulus and Remus, because it is beside the Fig-tree 
of the Suckhng, and they were found there, where the 
Tiber's winter flood had brought them when they had 
been put out in a basket. For the source of the name 
\'eUae I have found several reasons,*^ among them, 
that there the shepherds of the Palatine, before the 
invention of shearing, used to vellere ' pluck ' the wool 
from the sheep, from which the vellera ' fleeces ' were 
named. 

IX. 55. The Roman field-land " was at first 
divided into iris ' three ' parts, from which they called 
the Titienses, the Ramnes, and the Luceres each a 
tribus ' tribe.' These tribes were named, ** as Ennius 
says,*^ the Titienses from Tatius, the Ramnenses from 
Romulus, the Luceres, according to Junius,** from 
Lucumo ; but all these words are Etruscan, as Vol- 
nius,* who wrote tragedies in Etruscan, stated. 

56. From this, four parts of the City also were 
used as names of tribes, the Suburan, the Palatine, 
the Esquiline, the Colline," from the places ; a fifth, 
because it was sub Roma ' beneath the walls of Rome,' 
was called Romilian *• ; so also the remaining thirty " 
from those causes which ** I wrote in the Book of the 
Tribes. 

X. 57. I have told what pertains to places and 
those things which are connected with them ; now of 

first of the rusticae tribus ' country tribes,' called also Ro- 
tnulia ; Festus, 271. 1 M., attributes the name to their being 
inhabitants of a district which Romulus had taken from Veii. 
" Thirty-five tribes in all, some named from their places of 
origin, others from Roman gentes. The three original names, 
given in § 55, went out of use as tribe names long before the 
time of Varro. ** Quibus for qutis, attracted to the case of 
its antecedent. 

53 



VARRO 

dixi ; nunc de his quae in locis esse solent immortalia 
et mortalia expediam, ita ut prius quod ad deos per- 
tinet dicam. Principes dei Caelum et Terra. Hi dei 
idem qui Aegi/pti^ Serapis et Isis, etsi //arpocrates 
digito significat, ut taceam.* Idem principes in Latio 
Saturnus et Ops,' 

58. Terra enim et Caelum, ut <Sa>mothracum' 
initia decent, sunt dei magni, et hi quos dixi multis 
nominibus, non quas <S>amo<th>racia^ ante portas 
statuit duas virilis species aeneas dei magni,* neque 
xit volgus putat, hi Samot^races dii, qui Castor et 
Pollux, sed hi mas et femina et hi quos Augurum 
Libri scriptos habent sic " divi potes,"* pro illo quod 
Samot/^races deal SwaroL^ 

59. Haec duo Caelum et Terra, quod anima et 
corpus. Humidum et frigidum terra, sive 

Ova par/re^ solet genus pennis condecoratu m, 
Non animam, 

§ 57. ^ For quia egipti. ^ Turnebus, for tata seam. 
' For obs. 

§ 58. ^ Laetus, for mothracum. * Laetus, for am- 
bracia. ' Laetus, for imagini. * Laetus, for diui qui 
potes. « Aug., for THeOeSYNATOe. 

§ 59. ^ Laetus, for parere. 



§ 57. " The chief gods of the Egyptians ; their last child 
was Harpocrates, the youthful aspect of the Sun-God Horus. 
Harpocrates was commonly represented with his finger on his 
lips, imposing silence (c/, Catullus, 74. 4) ; the passage seems 

54 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 57-59 

these things which are wont to be in places, I shall 
explain those which deal with immortals and with 
mortals, in such a way that first I shall tell what per- 
tains to the gods. The first gods were Caelum ' Sky ' 
and Terra ' Earth.' These gods are the same as 
those who in Egypt are called Serapis and Isis," 
though Harpocrates with his finger make a sign to 
me to be silent. The same first gods were in Latium 
called Saturn and Ops. 

58. For Earth and Sky, as the mysteries of the 
Samothracians ° teach, are Great Gods, and these 
whom I have mentioned under many names, are not 
those Great Gods whom Samothrace * represents by 
two male statues of bronze which she has set up before 
the city-gates, nor are they, as the populace thinks, 
the Samothracian gods," who are really Castor and 
Pollux ; but these are a male and a female, these are 
those whom the Books of the Augurs '^ mention in wtH- 
ing as " potent deities," for what the Samothracians 
call " powerful gods." 

59. These two. Sky and Earth, are a pair like life " 
and body. Earth is a damp cold thing, whether 

Eggs the flock that is feather-adorned is wont to give 

birth to. 
Not to a life, 

to Indicate that some orthodox Romans scorned the Egyptian 
deities and objected to their identification with the Roman 
gods, a prejudice which the scholar \'arro did not share. 

§ 08. " Mystic rites in honour of the Cabiri. * An 

island in the' northern Aegean, off the coast of Thrace. 
' The Cabiri, popularly identified with Castor and Pollux, 
since they were all youthful male deities to whom protective 
powers were attributed. "* Page 16 Regell. 

§ 59. " Not quite ' soul,' though it is that which distin- 
guishes the living body from the dead body. 

55 



VARRO 

ut ait Ennius, et 

Post inde venit divinitus pullis 
Ipsa anima, 

sive, ut Zenon Cit<ie)us,* 

Animalium semen ignis is qui anima' ac mens. 

Qui caldor e caelo, quod h?/?c* innumerabiles et im- 
mortales ignes. Itaque Epicharmus (cum>* dicit de 
mente humana ait 

Istic est de sole sumptus ignis ; 
idem (de) sole* : 

Isque totus mentis est, 
ut humores frigidae sunt humi, ut supra ostendi. 

60. Quibus iuncti Caelum et Terra omnia ex (se> 
genuerunt,^ quod per hos natura 

Frigori niiscet calorem atque hwmori* aritudinem. 

Recte igitur Pacuius quod ait 

Animam aether adiugat, 

et Ennius 

terram corpus quae demerit,* ipsam 
capere, neque dispendi facere hilum. 

' Aug., /or citus. ^ Laetus, for animam. * Lachmmm, 
for hinc. * Added by L. Sp. ® L. Sp., for idem solem. 
§ 60. ^ Laefus, for exgenuerunt. ^ For homori. 
' Scaliger, for deperit. 

* Ann. 10-12 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 6-7 Warmington. 

' Frag. 126 von Arnim. Zeno, of Citium in Cyprus, re- 
moved to Athens, where he became the founder of the 
Stoic school of philosophy ; he lived about 331-264 b.c. 

5Q 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 59-60 

as Ennius says,* and 

Thereafter by providence comes to the fledglings 
Life itself, 

or, as Zeno of Citium says," 

The seed of animals is that fire which is life and mind. 

This warmth is from the Sky, because it has count- 
less undying fires. Therefore Epicharmus, when he 
is speakiiig of the human mind, says <* 

That Ls fire taken from the Sun, 

and likewise of the sun. 

And it is all composed of mind, 

just as moistures are composed of cold earth, as I have 
sho\sTi above.* 

60. United A\ith these," Sky and Earth produced 
ever}-thing from themselves, because by means of 
them nature 

Mixes heat with cold, and dryness with the wet.* 

Pacu\aus is right then in saying * 

And heaven adds the life, 

and Ennius in saying that ** 

The body she's given 
Earth does herself take back, and of loss not a whit 
does she suffer. 

' Ennius, Varia, 52-53 Vahlen* ; R.O.L. i. 112-413 Warming- 
ton. • C/. V. 24. 

§ 60. " That is, heat and moisture. ' Ennius. Varia, 
46 Vahlen-: R.O.L. i. 410-411 Warmington. ' Trag. 
Rom. Frag. 94 Ribbeck* ; R.O.L. ii. 204-205 Warmington. 
' Ann. 13-14 \'ahlen* ; R.O.L. i. 6-7 Warmington ; indirectly 
quoted, and therefore not metrical ; cf. ix. 54. 

57 



VARRO 

Animae et corporis discessus quod natis is exi<t>us/ 
inde exitium, ut cum in unum ineunt, initia. 

61. Inde omne corpus, ubi nimius ardor aut 
humor, aut interit aut, si manet, sterile. Cui testis 
aestas et hiems, quod in altera^ aer ardet et spica aret, 
in altera natura ad nascenda cum imbre et frigore 
luctare non volt et potius ver* expectat. Igitur causa 
nascendi duplex : ignis et aqua. Ideo ea nuptiis in 
limine adhibentur, quod coniungit<ur)' hie, et mas* 
ignis, quod ibi semen, aqua femina, quod fetus* ab 
eius humore, et horum vinctionis vis* Venus. 

62. Hinc comicMS^ : 

Huic victrix Venus, videsne haec ? 

Non quod vincere velit Venus, sed vincire. Ipsa Vic- 
toria ab eo quod superati vinciuntur. Utrique test«s* 
poesis, quod et Victoria et Venus dicitur caeligena : 
Tellus enim quod prima vincta Caelo, Victoria ex eo. 
Ideo haec cum corona et palma, quod corona vinclum 

* Sciap.yfor nati sis exius. 

§ 61. ^ Mue., for altero, ^ Aldus, for totius uere. 

* A. Sp., for coniungit. * G, H, a for mars. * For 
faetus. * Pape ; iunctionis vis Turnebus ; for uinctione 
suis. 

§ 62. ^ Laetus, for comicos. * For testes. 

§ 61. " On arrival at her husband's house, the Roman 
bride was required to touch fire and water (or perhaps was 
sprinkled with water), as initiation into the family worship. 

* Apparently Venus is said to be the basis of the word vinctio ; 
wrong. 

§ 62. " Com. Rom. Frag., page 133 Ribbeck^. » It is 
morphologically possible, but not likely, that victrix stands 
for the agent noun to vincire ; vincere ' to conquer ' and 
vincire ' to bind ' seem to be distinct etymologically. 

58 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 60-62 

Inasmuch as the separation of Ufe and body is the 
exitus ' way out ' for all creatures born, from that 
comes exitium ' destruction,' just as when they inetmt 
' go into ' unity, it is their iniiia ' beginnings.' 

61. From this fact, every body, when there is 
excessive heat or excessive moisture, perishes, or if it 
sur\ives, is barren. Summer and winter are witnesses 
to this : in the one the air is blazing hot and the 
wheat-ears dry up ; in the other, nature has no wish 
to struggle with rain and cold for purposes of birth, 
and rather waits for spring. Therefore the condi- 
tions of procreation are two : fire and water. Thus 
these are used at the threshold in weddings," because 
there is union here, and fire is male, which the semen 
is in the other case, and the water is the female, 
because the embryo develops from her moisture, and 
the force that brings their vinctio ' binding ' is Venus * 
' Love.' 

62. Hence the comic poet says," 

Venus is his victress, do you see it ? 

not because \'enus -vs-ishes vincere ' to conquer,' but 
vincire ' to bind.' * Victory herself is named from the 
fact that the overpowered vinciuntur ' are bound.' '^ 
Poetry bears testimony to both, because both Victorv^ 
and Venus are called heaven-born ; for Tellus ' Earth,' 
because she was the first one bound to the Sky, is 
from that called Victory. ** Therefore she is connected 
with the corona ' garland ' and the palma ' palm,' * 
because the garland is a binder of the head and is 

' Victoria belongs to vincere ' to conquer.' ^ Earth as a 
productive, nourishing divinity ; identification with Victoria 
is not found elsewhere. • The customary symbols of 
victory. 

59 



VARRO 

capitis et ipsa a vinctura dicitur viere, (id) est vincin' ; 
a quo est in Sota Enni : 

Ibant malaci viere Veneriam corollam. 
Palma,* quod ex utraque parte natura vincta habet 
paria folia. 

63. Poetae de Caelo quod semen igneum cecidisse 
dicunt in mare ac natam " e spumis " Venerem, 
coniunctione ignis et humoris, quam habent vim 
significant esse Ve(ne>ris.^ A qua vi natis dicta vita 
et illud a Lucilio : 

Vis est vita, vides, vis nos facere omnia cogit. 

6t. Quare quod caelum principium, ab satu est 

dictus Saturnus, et quod ignis, Saturnalibus cerei 

superioribus mittuntur. Terra Ops, quod hie omne 

opus et hac opus ad vivendum, et ideo dicitur Ops 

mater, quod terra mater. Haec enim 

Terris gentis omnis peperit et resiimit denuo, 

quae 

Dat cibaria, 

* Sciop., for uiere est uincere. * Scaliger, for palmam. 

§ 63. ^ L. Sp. ; significantes Veneris Laetus ; for signi- 
ficantes se ueris. 

^ Vincire is in fact derived from an extension of the root 
seen in riere. " 25 Vahlen*; R.O.L. i. 404-405 Warming- 
ton. '' Palma and paria are etymologically separate. 

§ 63. " A Greek legend, invented to connect the name of 
yiphrodite with d<f>p6s ' foam ' ; c/. Hesiod, Theogony, 188- 
198. The name Aphrodite is probably of Semitic origin. 
60 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 62-64 

itself, from vinchtra ' binding,' said vieri ' to be plaited,' 
that is, vinciri ' to be bound ' ^ ; whence there is the 
line in Ennius's Sola ^ : 

The lustful pair were going, to plait the Love-god's 
garland. 

Palma ' palm ' is so named because, being naturally 
bound on both sides, it has paria ' equal ' leaves.'» 

63. The poets, in that they say that the fiery seed 
fell from the Sky into the sea and \'enus was born 
"from the foam-masses,"" through the conjunction 
of fire and moisture, are indicating that the vis ' force' 
which they have is that of \'enus. Those born of this 
t"i* have what is called vita ^ ' life,' and that was meant 
by Lucilius '^ : 

Life is force, j'ou see ; to do everything force doth 
compel us. 

64. Wherefore because the Sky is the beginning, 
Saturn was named from satus " ' sowing ' ; and 
because fire is a beginning, waxlights are presented to 
patrons at the Saturnalia.* Ops '^ is the Earth, be- 
cause in it is every opus ' work ' and there is opus 
' need ' of it for living, and therefore Ops is called 
mother, because the Earth is the mother. For she ** 

AH men hath produced in all the lands, and takes 
them back again, 

she who 

Gives the rations, 

* Vis and vita are not connected etymologically. * 13-k) 
Marx. 

§ 64. « This etymology is unlikely. * Confirmed by 
Festus, 54. 16 M. ' Ops and opiis are connected ety- 
mologically. ^ Ennius, Varia, 48 Vahlen*; R.O.L. i. 412- 
413 Warmington. 

61 



VARRO 

ut ait Ennius, quae 

Quod gerit fruges, Ceres ; 

antiquis enim quod nunc G C.^ 

65. Idem hi dei Caelum et Terra lupiter et luno, 
quod ut ait Ennius : 

Istic est is lupiter quern dico, quern Graeci vocant 
Aereni, qui ventus est et nubes, iniber postea, 
Atque ex inibre frigus, vent?rs^ post fit, aer denuo. 
Haec<e>^ propter lupiter sunt ista quae dico tibi, 
Qui^ mortalis, (arva)* atque urbes beluasque omnis 
iuvat. 

Quod hi(n)c'^ omnes et sub hoc, eundem appellans 
dicit : 

Divumque honiinunique pater rex. 

Pater, quod patefacit semen : nam tum esse^ con 
ceptum (pat)et,' inde cum exit quod oritur. 

66. Hoc idem magis ostendit antiquius lovis 
nomen : nam olim Diovis et Di<e>spiter^ dictus, id 
est dies pater ; a quo dei dicti qui inde, et diws* et 

§ 64. ^ Lachnmnn ; C quod nunc G Mue. ; for quod 
nunc et. 

§ 65. ^ Laetus, for uentis. ^ Mor. JIaupt ; haecce 

Mue.; for haec. ^ Aug., icith li, for qua. * Added 

by Schoell. ^ L. Sp., for hie. * Mue., for est. 
' Mue., for et. 

§ 66. ^ Laetus, for dispiter. ^ Bentinus, for dies. 

'Varia, 49-50 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 412-413 Warmington; 
gerit and Ceres are not connected. f There was a time 
when C had its original value g (as in Greek, where the 
third letter is gamma) and had taken over also the value of 
K. The use of the symbol G for the sound g was later. C 
in the value g survived in C. = Gaius, Cn. = Gnaeus. 

§ 65. » Varia, 54-58 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 414-415 Warm- 
ington. * lupiter and iuvare are not related. " An- 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 64-66 

as Ennius says,* who 

Is Ceres, since she brings {gerit) the fruits. 
For with the ancients, what is now G, was written C/ 

65. These same gods Sky and Earth are Jupiter 
and Juno, because, as Ennius says,** 

That one is the Jupiter of whom I speak, whom 
Grecians call 

Air ; who is the windy blast and cloud, and after- 
wards the rain ; 

After rain, the cold ; he then becomes again the 
wind and air. 

This is whj' those things of which I speak to you 
are Jupiter : 

Help he gives * to men, to fields and cities, and 
to beasties all. 

Because all come from him and are under him, he 
addresses him with the words '^ : 

O father and king of the gods and the mortals. 

Pater ' father ' because he patefacit ** ' makes evident ' 
the seed ; for then it patet ' is evident ' that concep- 
tion has taken place, when that which is born comes 
out from it. 

66. This same thing the more ancient name of 
Jupiter " shows even better : for of old he was called 
Diovis and Diespiter, that is, dies pater ' Father Day ' *> ; 
from which they who come from him are called dei 
' deities,' and dius ' god ' and divum ' sky,' whence 
fuh divo ' under the sky,' and Dius Fidius ' god of 

tiales, 580 Vahlen" ; R.O.L. i. 168-169 Warmington. 
* Pater and patere are not related. 

§ 66. " III- in lupiter, Diovis, Dies, dens, Dius, divum 
belong together by etymology. ^ K. O. Mueller thought 
that \'arro meant dies as the old genitive, ' father of the day,' 
instead of as a nominative in apposition ; but this is hardly 
likely. 

QS 



VARRO 

divum, imde sub divo, Dius Fidius. Itaque inde eius 
perforatum tectum, ut ea videatur divum, id est 
caelum. Quidam negant sub tecto per hunc deierare 
oportere. Aelius Dium Fid(i)um dicebat Diovis 
filium, ut Graeci Aido-Kopoj/ Castorem, et putabat* 
hunc esse Sancum* ab Safcina lingua et Herculem a 
Graeca. Idem hie Dis* pater dicitur infimus, qui est 
coniunctus terrae, ubi omnia (ut)" oriuntur ita' abori- 
untur ; quorum quod finis ortu(u>m, Orcus* dictus. 

67. Quod lovis luno coniunx et is Caelum, haec 
Terra, quae eadem Tellus, et ea dicta, quod una iuvat 
cum love, luno, et Regina, quod huius omnia ter- 
restria. 

68. SoP vel quod ita Sa6ini, vel (quod)^ solu*^ ita 
lucet, ut ex eo deo dies sit. Luna, vel quod sola lucet 
noctu. Itaque ea dicta Noctiluca in Palatio : nam 
ibi noctu lucet templum. Hanc ut Solem Apollinem 
quidam Dianam vocant (Apollinis vocabulum Grae- 
cum alterum, alterum Latinum), et hinc quod luna in 
altitudinem et latitudinem simul it,* Diviana appel- 
lata. Hinc Epicharmus Ennii Proserpinam quoque 

* Puccius, for putabant. * Sealiger, for sanctum. 
^ Mue., for dies. * Added by Mne. '' Mue., for ui. 

* Turnebiis, for ortus. 

§ (>8. ^ Laetus, with M, for sola. ^ Added by Aug., 
wiih B. ' Sc'iop., for solum. * L. Sp., for et. 

' Page 60 Funaioli. '' Sabine Sancus and the Umbrian 
divine epithet Sangio- are connected with Latin sancire ' to 
make sacred,' sacer 'sacred.' * l)is is the short form of 
dives ' rich,' cf. the genitive divitls or ditis, and is not con- 
nected with dies ; it is a translation of the Greek UXovtojv 
' Pluto,' as 'the rich one,' from ttXoOtos 'wealth.' ^ The 
Italic god of death, not connected with ortus, but perhaps 
with arcere ' to hem in,' as ' the one who restrains the dead.' 
§ 67. " Not connected either with Iiipiter or with iuvare. 

64 



ox THE LATIX LANGUAGE, V. 66-68 

faith.' Thus from this reason the roof of his temple 
is pierced with holes, that in this way the divum, 
which is the caelum ' sky,' may be seen. Some say 
that it is improper to take an oath by his name, when 
you are under a roof. AeUus " said that Dius Fidius 
was a son of Diovis, just as the Greeks call Castor the 
son of Zeus, and he thought that he was Sancus in the 
Sabine tongue,** and Hercules in Greek. He is Uke- 
wise called Dispater ' in his lowest capacity, when he 
i": joined to the earth, where all things vanish awav 
ven as they originate ; and because he is the end of 
ihese ortus ' creations,' he is called OrcusJ 

67. Because Juno is Jupiter's wife, and he is Sky, 
she Terra ' Earth,' the same as Tellus ' Earth,' she 
also, because she iuvat ' helps ' una ' along ' with 
Jupiter, is called Juno," and Regina ' Queen,' because 
all earthly things are hers. 

68. Sol " ' Sun ' is so named either because the 
Sabines called him thus, or because he solus ' alone ' 
shines in such a way that from this god there is the 
dayhght. Luna ' Moon ' is so named certainly be- 
cause she alone ' lucet ' shines at night. Therefore 
she is called Xoctiluca ' Night-Shiner ' on the Pala- 
tine ; for there her temple noctu lucet ' shines by 
night.' * Certain persons call her Diana, just as they 
call the Sun Apollo (the one name, that of Apollo, is 
Greek, the other Latin) ; and from the fact that the 
Moon goes both high and A^idely , she is called Diiiana.'^ 
From the fact that the Moon is wont to be under the 

§ 68. « Not connected with solus. * Either because 
the white marble gleams in the moonlight, or because a light 
was kept burning there all night. * An artificially pro- 
longed form of Diana ; Varro seems to have had in mind 
(hciare ' to go aside ' as its basis. 

VOL. IF 65 



\'ARRO 

appellat, quod solet esse sub terris. Dicta Proserpina, 
quod haec ut serpens modo in dexteram modo in 
sinisteram partem late movetur. Serpere et proser- 
pere idem dicebant, ut Plautus quod scribit : 

Quasi proserpens bestia, 

69. Quae ideo quoque videtur ab Latinis luno 
Lucina dicta vel quod est e<t>^ Terra, ut physici 
dicunt, et lucet ; vel quod^ ab luce eius qua quis 
conceptus est usque ad eam, qua partus quis in lucem, 
<l)una* iuvat, donee mensibus actis produxit in lucem, 
ficta ab iuvando et luce luno Lucina. A quo parientes 
eam invocant : luna enim nascentium dux quod 
menses huius. Hoc vidisse antiquas apparet, quod 
mulieres potissimum supercilia sua attribuerunt ei 
deae. Hie enim debuit maxime collocari luno Lucina, 
ubi ab diis lux datur oculis. 

70. Ignis a <g>nascendo,^ quod hinc nascitur et 
omne quod nascitur ignis s(uc>cendit2 ; ideo calet, ut 
qui denascitur eum amittit ac frigescit. Ab ignis iam 
maiore vi ac violentia Volcanus dictus. Ab eo quod 

§ 69. 1 L. Sp., for e . ^ For quod uel. * Sciop., 
for una. 

§ 70. ^ 3Iue.,for nascendo. ^ OS., for scindit. 

•* Ennius, Varia, 59 Vahlen^. Proserpina is really borrowed 
from Greek IIepo€(f>6vT], but transformed in popular speech 
into a word seemingly of Latin antecedents. ' Poenulus 
1034, Stichus 724 ; in both passages meaning a snake. 

§ 69. " Liicina, from lux ' light,' indicates Juno as goddess 
of child-birth. >> Equal to ' full moon,' or ' month.' 

66 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 68-70 

lands as well as over them, Ennius's Epicharmus calls 
her Proserpiiia.^ Proserpina received her name 
because she, like a serpens ' creeper,' moves widely 
now to the right, now to the left. Serpere ' to creep ' 
and proserpere * to creep forward ' meant the same 
thing, as Plautus means in what he writes * : 

Like a forward-creeping beast. 

69. She appears therefore to be called by the 
Latins also Juno Lucina," either because she is also 
the Earth, as the natural scientists say, and lucet 
' shines ' ; or because from that light of hers ^ in 
which a conception takes place until that one in which 
there is a birth into the light, the Moon continues to 
help, until she has brought it forth into the light when 
the months are past, the name Juno Lucina was made 
from iuvare ' to help ' and lux ' light.' From this fact 
women in child-birth invoke her ; for the Moon is the 
guide of those that are born, since the months belong 
to her. It is clear that the women of olden times 
observed this, because women have given this goddess 
credit notably for their eyebrows. '^ For Juno Lucina 
ought especially to be established in places where the 
gods give light to our eyes. 

70. IgTiis ' fire ' is named from gnasci " ' to be 
born,' because from it there is birth, and everything 
which is born the fire enkindles ; therefore it is hot, 
just as he who dies loses the fire and becomes cold. 
From the fire's vis ac violentia ' force and violence,' 
now in greater measure, \ulcan was named." From 
the fact that fire on account of its brightness Julget 

• Because the eyebrows protect the eyes by which we enjoy 
the light (Festus, 305 b 10 M.). 
§ 70. " False etymologies. 

67 



VARRO 

ignis propter splendoreni fulget, fulgwr^ et fulmen, et 
fulgur(itum>* quod fulmine ictum. 

71. <In)^ contrariis diis, ab aquae lapsu lubrico 
Ij/mpha. Lj/mpha luturna quae iuvaret : itaque 
multi aegroti propter id nomen hinc aquam petere 
Solent. A fontibus et fluminibus ac ceter2S aqut's^ dei, 
ut Tiberinus ab Tiberi, et ab lacu Velini Velinia, et 
Lj/mphae Com(m)otiZ<e)s' ad lacum Cutiliensem a 
eommotu, quod ibi insula in aqua commovetur. 

72. Neptunus, quod mare terras obnubit ut nubes 
caelum, ab nuptu, id est opertione, ut antiqui, a quo 
nuptiae, nuptus dictus. Salacia Neptuni ab salo. 
Venelia^ a veniendo ac vento illo, quern Plautus dicit : 

Quod ille^ dixit qui secundo vento vectus est 
Tranquillo mari,' ventum gaudeo. 

73. Bellona ab bello nunc, quae Duellona a duello. 

* Canal, for fulgor. * Ttirnebus, for fulgur. 

§ 71. ^ Added by Madvig, who began the sentence here 
instead of after diis. ^ V, p,for ceteras aquas. * GS., 
for comitiis. 

§ 72. ^ Aug., for uenelia. ^ mss. of Plautus, for 

ibi F. ' itss. of Plautus have mare. 

* The three words are from fulgere ' to flash ' ; but the -itum 
of fulguritum is suffixal only, and is not connected with 
ictum. 

§ 71. " Properly from the Greek vu/x^rj, with dissimilative 
change of the first consonant. * The first part may be the 
same element seen in lupiter, but is certainly not connected 
with iuvare. " A lake in the Sabine country, formed by 

the spreading out of the Avens River a few miles southeast of 
Interamna. ■* A lake in the Sabine country, a few miles 
east of Reate, in which there was a floating island which 
drifted with the wind. 

§ 72. " Neptunus is not connected with the other words, 
though nubes may perhaps be related to nubere and its 

68 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 70-73 

' flashes,' come fulgur ' lightning-flash ' and fulmen 
' thunderbolt,' and what has heen fulmine ictum ' hit 
by a thunderbolt ' is caWed J'ulguritu)?!.^ 

71. Among deities of an opposite kind, Lympha " 
' water-nymph ' is derived from the water's lapsus 
luhrieus ' slippery gliding.' Juturna * was a nymph 
whose function was iiivare ' to give help ' ; therefore 
many sick persons, on account of this name, are wont 
to seek water from her spring. From springs and 
rivers and the other waters gods are named, as 
Tiberinus from the river Tiber, and ^'elinia from the 
lake of the \'elinus,'^ and the Commotiles ' Restless ' 
Nymphs at the Cutilian Lake,** from the commotus 
' motion,' because there an island commoveiur ' moves 
about ' in the water. 

72. Neptune," because the sea veils the lands as 
the clouds veil the sky, gets his name from nuptus 
' veiling,' that is, opertio ' covering,' as the ancients 
said ; from which nuptiae ' wedding,' nuptus ' wed- 
lock ' are derived. Salacia,* wife of Neptune, got 
her name from solum ' the surging sea.' \'enilia '^ was 
named from venire ' to come ' and that ventus ' wind ' 
which Plautus mentions ** : 

As that one said who with a favouring wind was borne 
Over a placid sea : I'm glad I went.* 

73. Bellona ' Goddess of War * is said now, from 
lellum " ' war,' which formerly was Duellona, from 

derivatives. * Almost certainly an abstract substantive to 
salax ' fond of leaping, lustful, provoking lust ' ; though 
popularly associated with salmn. ' There is a Venilia in 

the Aeneid, x. 76, a sea-nymph who is the mother of Turnus. 
** Cistellaria, 14-15. « Punning on ventum : the last 
phrase may mean also " I'm glad there was a wind." 



§ 73. » Correct. 



69 



VARRO 

Mars ab eo quod maribus in bello praeest, aut quod 
Sabinis acceptus ibi est Mamers. Quirinus a Quiri- 
tibus. \'irtus ut viri^us^ a virilitate. Honos ab* 
onere : itaque honestum dicitur quod oneratum, et 
dictum : 

Onus est honos qui sustinet rem publicam. 

Castoris nomen Graecum, Pollucis a Graecis ; in 
Latinis litteris veteribus nomen quod est, inscribitur 
ut IIoAuSerKj^s' Polluces, non ut nunc* Pollux. Con- 
cordia a corde congruente. 

74. P'eronia, Minerva, Novensides a Sa6inis. Paulo 
aliter ab eisdem dicimus haec : Palem,^ Vestam, 
Salutem, Fortunam, Fontem, Fidem. E(t> arae* 
Sabinum linguam olent, quae Tati regis voto sunt 
Romae dedicatae : nam, ut annales dicunt, vovit Opi, 
Florae, Vediovi* Saturnoque, Soli, Lunae, Volcano 
et Summano, itemque Larundae, Termino, Quirino, 
Vortumno, Laribus, Dianae Lucinaeque ; e quis non- 
nulla nomina in utraque lingua habent radices, ut 
arbores quae in confinio natae in utroque agro ser- 

§ 73. ^ Scaliger, for uiri ius. ^ After ab, Woelfflin 
deleted honesto. ' For pollideuces. * For nuns. 

§ 74. 1 Scaliger, for hecralem. ^ Mue., for ea re. 
' Mue., for floreue dioioui. 



* Mars and Mamers go together, but mares ' males ' is 
quite distinct. " Virtus is in fact from vir. "* Honos 
and omis are quite distinct. ' Com. Bom. Frag., page 147 
Ribbeck^. ' As in inscriptions, where such spelHngs are 
found. " Essentially correct. 

§ 74. " An old Italian goddess, later identified with Juno. 

* Apparently ' new settlers,' from novus and insidere, used of 
the gods brought from elsewhere as distinct from the indigetes 
or native gods. ' It is unlikely that all the deities of the 

70 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 73-74 

duellum. Mars is named from the fact that he com- 
mands the mares ' males ' in war, or that he is called 
Mamers ^ among the Sabines, ^^ith whom he is a 
favourite. Quirimis is from Quirites. Virtus ' valour,' 
as viritus, is from virilitas ' manhood.' " Honos ' honour, 
office ' is said from onus ^ ' burden ' ; therefore hones- 
turn ' honourable ' is said of that which is oneratum 
' loaded with burdens,' and it has been said : 

Full onerous is the honour which maintains the state.* 

The name of Castor is Greek, that of Pollux like^^ise 
from the Greeks ; the form of the name which is 
found in old Latin literature ^ is Polluces, like Greek 
IIoAi'Sei'KT/^, not Pollux as it is now. Concordia ' Con- 
cord ' is from the cor congruens ' harmonious heart.' ' 
74. Feronia,^ Minerva, the Xovensides ^ are from 
the Sabines. With slight changes, we say the follow- 
ing, also from the same people "^ : Pales,^ Vesta, Salus, 
Fortune, Fons,^ Fides ' Faith.' There is scent of the 
speech of the Sabines about the altars also, which by 
the vow of King Tatius were dedicated at Rome : 
for, as the Annals tell, he vowed altars to Ops, Flora, 
Vediovis and Saturn, Sun, Moon, Vulcan and Summa- 
mis, ^and likewise to Lariinda,^ Terminus, Quirinus, Ver- 
tumnus, the Lares, Diana and Lucina : some of these 
names have roots in both languages,'' like trees which 
have sprung up on the boundary- Une and creep about 

next two lists were brought in from elsewhere ; many of the 
names are perfectly Roman. •* Goddess of the shepherds, 
who protected them and their flocks. * God of Springs ; 
c/. vi. 22. ' A mysterious deity who was considered 
responsible for lightning at night. » Called also Lara, a 
tale-bearing nymph whom Jupiter deprived of the power of 
speech. * Quite possible, but very unlikely in the cases 
of Saturn and Diana. 

71 



VARRO 

pwnt* : potest enim Saturnus hie de alia causa esse 
dictus atque in Sabinis, et sic Diana,^ de quibus supra 
dictum est. 

XL 75. Quod ad immortalis attinet, haec ; de- 
inceps quod ad mortalis attinet videamus. De his 
animaUa in tribus locis quod sunt, in acre, in aqua, 
in terra, a summa parte (ad)^ infimam descendam. 
Primum nomm(a) ommMm^ : alites <ab> ah*,' volucres 
a volatu. Deinde generatim : de his pleraeque ab 
suis vocibus ut haec : upupa, cuculus, corvus, ^irundo, 
ulula,bubo ; item haec: pavo, anser,galHna,columba. 

76. Sunt quae ahis de causis appellatae, ut noctua, 
quod noctu canit et vigilat, lusci(ni>ola,*quod luctuose 
canere existimatur atque esse ex Attica Progne in 
luctu facta avis. Sic galeri^us^ et motacilla, altera 
quod in capite habet plumam elatam, altera quod 
semper movet caudam. Merula, quod mera, id est 
sola, volitat ; contra ab eo graguli, quod gregatim, 

* For serpent. ^ A Idus, for dianae. 

§75. ^ Added by G, H. ^ Fay ; nomen omnium 
Mv£. ; for nomen nominem. ' Aug., for alii. 

§ 76. ^ Victorius, for lusciola. ^ Aug., with B, for 
galericus. 

♦ Saturn in § 64., Diana in § 68. 

§75. "The first six, except hirundo (of unknown ety- 
mology), are onomatopoeic. Of the last four, pavo is 
borrowed from an Oriental language ; anser is an old Indo- 
European word ; galllna is ' the Gallic bird ' ; cohimba is 
named from its colour. 

§ 76. " Perhaps correct, if from luges-cania ' sorrow- 
singer.' '' Procne, daughter of Pandion king of Athens 
and wife of Tereus king of Thrace, killed her son Itys and 
served him to his father for food, in revenge for his ill-treat- 
ment and infidelity ; see Ovid, Metamorphoses, vi. 424-674. 
" Literally ' hooded,' wearing a galerum or hood-like helmet. 
** If not correct, then a very reasonable popular etymology. 
72 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 71^76 

in both fields : for Saturn might be used as the god's 
name from one source here, and from another among 
the Sabines, and so also Diana : these names I have 
discussed above.* 

XL 75. This is what has to do with the immortals ; 
next let us look at that which has to do with mortal 
creatures. Amongst these are the animals, and 
because they abide in three places — in the air, in the 
water, and on the land — I shall start from the highest 
place and come down to the lowest. First the names 
of them all, collectively : alites ' \nnged birds ' from 
their alae ' wings,' volucres ' fliers ' from volatus ' flight.' 
Next by kinds : of these, very many are named from 
their cries, as are these : upupa ' hoopoe,' cuculus 
' cuckoo,' conns ' raven,' hirundo ' swallow,' ulula 
' screech-owl,' biiho ' horned owl ' ; likewise these : 
pavo ' peacock,' anser ' goose,' gallina ' hen,' columba 
' dove.' " 

76. Some got their names from other reasons, 
such as the noctua ' night-owl,' because it stays awake 
and hoots noctu ' by night,' and the lusciniola ' night- 
ingale,' because it is thought to canere ' sing ' luctuose 
' sorrowfully ' '' and to have been transformed from 
the Athenian Procne * in her luctus ' sorrow,' into a 
bird. LikcAnse the galeritus '^ ' crested lark ' and the 
motacilla ' wagtail,' the one because it has a feather 
standing up on its head, the other because it is always 
moving its tail.** The merula ' blackbird ' is so named 
because it flies mera ' unmixed,' that is, alone ' ; on 
the other hand, the gragidi f 'jackdaws ' got their 
names because they fly gregaiim ' in flocks,' as certain 

' That is, without other birds, like wine without water : an 
absurd etymology, f Properly graciiU ; not connected with 
greges. 

73 



VARRO 

ut quidam Graeci greges yipyepa. Ficedula(e>' et 
miliariae a cibo, quod alterae fico, alterae milio fiunt 
pingues. 

XII. 77. Aquatilium vocabula animalium partim 
sunt vernacula, partim peregrina. Foris muraena, 
quod ^ivpaiva Graece, cybium^ et thj/nnus, cuius item 
partes Graecis vocabulis omnes, ut melander atque 
uraeon. \^ocabula piscium pleraque translata a ter- 
restribus ex aliqua parte similibus rebus, ut anguilla, 
lingulaca, sudis^ ; alia a coloribus, ut haec : asellus, 
umbra, turdus ; alia a vi quadam, ut haec : lupus, 
canicula, torpedo. Item in conch_?/liis aliqua ex 
Graecis, ut peloris, ostrea, echinus. Vernacula ad 
similitudinem, ut surenae,' pectunculi, ungues. 

XIII. 78. Sunt etiam animalia in aqua, quae in 
terram interdum exeant : alia Graecis vocabulis, ut 
polypus, h^ppo<s> potamios,^ crocodilos,^ alia Latinis, 

' Ed. Veneta, for ficedula. 

§77. ^ Aldus, for cytybium, ^ Aldus, for lingula 
casudis. ^ For syrenae. 

§ 78. ^ L. Sp., for yppo potamios. ^ For crocodillos. 

" Correct ; Varro, De Re Rustica, iii. 5. 2, speaks of miliariae 
as prized delicacies, raised and fattened for the table. 

§ 77. " The identification of many animals and fishes is 
quite uncertain, and the translation is therefore tentative. But 
the etymological views in §77 and §78 are approximately 
correct. '' More precisely, the flesh of the young tunny 
salted in cubes. " Seemingly a variant form for melan- 

dryon, Greek yieXavhpvov ' slice of the large tunny called 
/leAcEvS/su? or black-oak.' ''From Greek ovpalos 'pertain- 
ing to the tail (oupa).' «Diminutive of anguis 'snake.' 
f Because flat like a lingua ' tongue ' ; lingulaca means also 

74 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 76-78 

Greeks call greges ' flocks ' yepyepa. Ficedulae ' fig- 
peckers ' and miliariae ' ortolans ' are named from 
their food,^ because the ones become fat on the^^CM* 
' fig,' the others on milium ' millet.' 

XIL 77. The names of water animals are some 
native, some foreign." From abroad come muraena 

* moray,' because it is pvpaiva in Greek, cyhium ' young 
tunny '^ and thunnus ' tunny,' all whose parts likewise 
go by Greek names, as melunder" ' black-oak-piece ' and 
uraeon ^ ' tail-piece.' \ ery many names of fishes are 
transferred from land objects which are like them in 
some respect, as anguilla * ' eel,' lingulaca f ' sole,' 
sudis ^ ' pike.' Others come from their colours, like 
these : asellus ' cod,' umbra ' grayling,' turdus ' sea- 
carp.' ^ Others come from some physical power, Uke 
these : lupus ' wolf-fish,' canicula ' dogfish,' torpedo 
' electric ray.' * Likewise among the shellfish there 
are some from Greek, as peloris ' mussel,' ostrea 
' oyster,' echinus ' sea-urchin ' ; and also native words 
that point out a likeness, as surenae,' pectuncuU^ 
' scallops,' ungues '■ ' razor-clams.' 

XIII. 78. There are also animals in the water, 
which at times come out on the land : some with 
Greek names, like the octopus, the hippopotamus, the 
crocodile ; others with Latin names, like rana ' frog,' 

' chatter-box, talkative woman.' ' On land, a ' stake.' 

* On land, respectively ' little ass,' ' shadow,' ' thrush.' 

* On land, respectively ' wolf,' ' little dog,' ' numbness.' 

* Of unknown meaning, and perhaps a corrupt reading ; 
Groth, De Codice Florentino, 27 (105), suggests perna« from 
Pliny, Sat. Hist, xxxii. 11. 54. 154, who mentions the 
perna as a sea-mussel standing on a high foot or stalk, like a 
haunch of ham with the leg. * On land, ' little combs,' 
diminutive of pecten. ' ' Finger-nails ' ; perhaps not the 
razor-clam, but a small clam shaped like the finger-nail. 

75 



VARRO 

ut rana, <anas),' mergus ; a quo Graeci ea quae in 
aqua et terra possunt vivere vocant dfj,cf)ifSta. E quis 
rana ab sua dicta voce, anas a nando, mergus quod 
mergendo in aquam captat escam. 

79. Item alia^ in hoc genere a Graecis, ut quer- 
quedula, (quod) ^ KepKvyS}/?,' alcedo,* quod ea akKmov ; 
Latina, ut testudo, quod testa tectum hoc animal, 
lolUgo, quod subvolat, httera commutata, primo vol- 
Hgo. Ut ^egypti in flumine quadrupes sic in Latio, 
nominati lM(t>ra5 et fiber. LM(t)ra,* quod succidere 
dicitur arborum radices in ripa atque eas dissolvere : 
ab (lucre) Iwtra.^ Fiber, ab extrema ora fluminis 
dextra et sinistra maxime quod solet videri, et antiqui 
februm dicebant extremum, a quo in sagis fimbr(i)ae 
et in iecore extremum fibra, fiber dictus. 

XIV. 80. De animalibus in locis terrestribus quae 
sunt hominum propria primum, deinde de pecore, 
tertio de feris scribam. Incipiam ab honore publico. 

^ Added by Aug. 

§ 79. 1 L. Sp., with B, for aliae. ^ yidded by Kent. 
' GS., for cerceris. * Groth ; halcedo Laetus ; for 

algedo. ^ GS. ; lytra Txirnehus ; for lira. * Stroux ; 
ab lucre Scaliger ; for ab litra. 

§ 78. " Cf. § 77, note a. 

§ 79. " Conjectural purely. *" An absurd etymology. 

' Originally udra ' water-animal,' with I from association with 
Ititum ' mud ' or lutor ' washer.' Varro attributes to the 
otter the tree-felling habit of the beaver. "* Properly ' the 
brown animal.' * Fiber, fimbriae, fibra have no etymologi- 
cal connexion. 

76 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 78-80 

anas ' duck,' mergiis ' diver.' Whence the Greeks 
give the name amphibia to those which can live both 
in the water and on the land. Of these, the rana is 
named from its voice, the anas from nare ' to SAvim,' 
the mergus because it catches its food bv mergendo 
' di\-ing ' into the water." 

79- Likewise there are other names in this class, 
that are from the Greeks, as querquedula ' teal,' because 
it is KepKi'jSii^;," and alcedo ' kingfisher,' because this is 
aAKi'oji' ; and Latin names, such as testudo ' tortoise,' 
because this animal is covered with a testa ' shell,' and 
lolligo ' cuttle-fish,' because it volat ' flies ' up from 
under,^ originally volligo, but now A^ith one letter 
changed. Just as in Egypt there is a quadruped 
li\ing in the river, so there are river quadrupeds in 
Latium, named Intra ' otter ' and Jiber ' beaver.' The 
lutra '^ is so named because it is said to cut off the roots 
of trees on the bank and set the trees loose : from 
luere ' to loose,' httra. The beaver'' was called ^6er 
because it is usually seen very far off on the bank of 
the river to right or to left, and the ancients called a 
thing that was very far off a Jebrum ; from which in 
blankets the last part is caWed Jimbriae ' fringe ' and 
the last part in the liver is the Jibra ' fibre.' * 

XIV. 80. Among the living beings on the land, I 
shall speak first of terms which apply to human beings, 
then of domestic animals, third of wiid beasts. I shall 
start from the offices of the state. The Consul ° was 

§ 80. " Properly, consulere is derived from consul. Of 
consul, at least four reasonable etymologies are proposed, the 
simplest being that it is from com +sed ' those who sit to- 
gether,' as there were two consuls from the beginning ; the 
/ for d being a peculiarity taken from the dialect of the Sabines 
{c/. lingua for older dingua). 

77 



VARRO 

Consu Jnominatus qui consuleret populum et senatum, 
nisi illinc potius unde Accius^ ait in Bruto : 

Qui recte consulat, consul fiatJ 
Praetor dictus qui praeiret iure et exercitu ; a quo id 
Lucilius : 

Ergo praetorum est ante et praeire. 

81. Censor ad cuius censionem, id est arbitrium, 
censeretur populus. Aedilis qui aedis sacras et 
privatas procuraret. Quaestores a quaerendo, qui 
conquirerent publicas peeunias et maleficia, quae 
triumviri capitales nunc conquirunt ; ab his postea 
qui quaestionum iudicia exercent quaes(i>tores^ 
dicti. Tribuni militum, quod terni tribus tribubus 
Ramnium, Lucerum, Titium olim ad exercitum mitte- 
bantur. Tribuni plebei, quod ex tribunis militum 
primum tribuni plebei facti, qui plebem defenderent, 
in secessione Crustumerina. 

82. Dictator, quod a consule dicebatur, cui dicto 
audientes omnes essent. Magister equitum, quod 

§ 80. ^ Later codices, for tatius F^, H, p^, taccius F^, V, a. 
^ Laetus, for consulciat. 

§ 81. ^ Mommsen, for quaestores. 

* Trag. Rom. Frag. 39 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. ii. 564-565 War- 
mington. ' lure is dative. ''1160 Marx. 

§ 81. " The tribunus was by etymology merely the ' man 
of the tribus or tribe,' and therefore did not derive his name 
from the word for ' three,' except indirectly ; c/. § 55. 

* That is, elected by the plebeians from among their military 
tribunes whom they had chosen to lead them in their Seces- 
sion to the Sacred Mount (which may have lain in the terri- 
tory of Crustumerium), in 494 b.c. Their persons were 

78 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 80-82 

so named as the one who should consulere ' ask the 
advice of ' people and senate, unless rather from this 
fact whence Accius takes it when he says in the 
Brutus ^ : 

Let him who counsels right, become the Consul. 

The Praetor was so named as the one who should 
praeire ' go before ' the law " and the army ; whence 
Lucilius said this "^ : 

Then to go out in front and before is tin; duty of 
praetors. 

81. The Censor was so named as the one at whose 
censio ' rating,' that is, arhitrium ' judgement,' the 
people should be rated. The Aedile, as the one who 
was to look after aedes ' buildings ' sacred and private. 
The Quaestors, from quaerere' to seek,' who conquirerent 
' should seek into ' the public moneys and illegal 
doings, which the triumviri capitales ' the prison board ' 
now investigate ; from these, afterwards, those who 
pronounce judgement on the matters of investigation 
were named quaesitores ' inquisitors.' The Tribuni" 
Militum ' tribunes of the soldiers,' because of old there 
were sent to the army three each on behalf of the three 
tribes of Ramnes, Luceres, and Tities. The Tribuni 
Plebei ' tribunes of the plebs,' because from among the 
tribunes of the soldiers tribunes of the plebs were first 
created,^ in the Secession to Crustumerium, for the 
purpose of defending the plebs ' populace.' 

82. The Dictator, because he was named by the 
consul as the one to whose dictum ' order ' all should 
be obedient." The Magister Equitum ' master of the 

sacrosanct, enabling them to carry out their dutj- of protect- 
ing the plebeians against the injustice of the patrician officials. 
§ 82. » Rather, because he dktat ' gives orders.' 

79 



VARRO 

summa potestas huius in equites et accensos, ut est 
summa populi dictator, a quo is quoque magister 
populi appellatus. Reliqui, quod minores quam hi 
magistri, dicti magistratus, ut ab albo albatus. 

XV. 83. Sacerdotes universi a sacris dicti. Pontu- 
fices, ut^ Scaevola Quintus pontufex maximus dicebat, 
a posse et facere, ut po<te>ntifices.^ Ego a ponte 
arbitror : nam ab his SubUcius est factus primum ut 
restitutus saepe, cum ideo sacra et uZs' et cis Tiberim 
non mediocri ritu fiant. Curiones dicti a curiis, qui 
fiunt ut in his sacra faciant. 

84. Flamines, quod in Latio capite velato erant 
semper ac caput cinctum habebant filo, f(i>lamines^ 
dicti. Horum singuli cognomina habent ab eo deo 
cui sacra faciunt ; sed partim sunt aperta, partim 
obscura : aperta ut Martiahs, Volcanahs ; obscura 
Dialis et Furinahs, cum DiaUs ab love sit (Diovis 
enim), Furi(n>aUs a Furriwa,* cuius etiam in fastis 

§ 83. ^ After ut, Ed. Veneta deleted a. ^ OS., for 

pontifices, c/. v. 4. * For uis. 

§ 84, 1 Canal, for flamines, cf. Festus, 87. 15 M. ^ /^^ 

Sp. ; Furina Aldus ; for furrida. 

' Not quite ; for magistratus is a fourth declension sub- 
stantive, ' office of magister,' then ' holder of such an office,' 
while albatus is a second declension adjective. 

§ 83. " Q. Mucins Scaevola, consul 95 b.c, and subse- 
quently Pontifex Maximus ; proscribed and killed by the 
Marian party in 82. He was a man of the highest character 
and abilities, and made the first systematic compilation of the 
ius civile ; see i. 19 Huschke. " Varro may be right, though 

perhaps it was the ' bridges ' between this world and the next 
which originally the pontifices were to keep in repair ; cf. 
Class. Philol. viii. 317-326 (1913). "The wooden bridge 
on piles, traditionally built by Ancus Marcius. ^ The curia 

80 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 82-84 

cavalry,' because he has supreme power over the 
cavalry and the replacement troops, just as the dictator 
is the highest authority over the people, from which 
he also is called magister, but of the people and not of 
the cavalry. The remaining officials, because they 
are inferior to these niagistri ' masters,' are called 
magistratus ' magistrates,' derived just as albatus 
' whitened, white-clad ' is derived from albus ' white.' ^ 

XV. 83. The sacerdotes ' priests ' collectively were 
named from the sacra ' sacred rites.' The pontifices 
' high -priests,' Quintus Scaevola " the Pontifex Maxi- 
mus said, were named from posse ' to be able ' and 
facere ' to do,' as though potentifices. For my part I 
think that the name comes from pons ' bridge ' ^ ; for 
by them the Bridge-on-Piles '^ was made in the first 
place, and it was likewise repeatedly repaired by them, 
since in that connexion rites are performed on both 
sides of the Tiber with no small ceremony. The 
curiones were named from the curiae ; they are created 
for conducting sacred rites in the curiae.'^ 

84. The jiamines^ ' flamens,' because in Latium 
they always kept their heads covered and had their 
hair girt ^\ith a woollen^/M?« ' band,' were originally 
caWeidJilamines. Individually they have distinguish- 
ing epithets from that god whose rites they perform ; 
but some are obvious, others obscure : obvious, like 
Martialis and VolcanaUs ; obscure are Dialis and 
Furinalis, since Dialis is from Jove, for he is called also 
Diovis, and Furinalis from Furrina,'' who even has a 

was the fundamental political unit in the early Roman state ; 
it was an organization of gentes, originally ten to the curia, 
and ten curiae to each of the three tribes. 

§ 84. " Of uncertain etymology, but not from filamen. 
* A goddess, practically unknown ; cf. vi. 19. 

VOL. I G 81 



VARRO 

feriae Furinales sunt. Sic flamen Falacer a divo 
patre Falacre. 

85. Salii ab salitando, quod facere in comitiis in 
sacris quotannis et solent et debent. Luperci, quod 
Lupercalibus in Lupercali sacra faciunt. Fratres 
Arvales dicti qui sacra publica faciunt propterea ut 
fruges ferant arva : a ferendo et arvis Fratres Arvales 
dicti. Sunt qui a fratria dixerunt : fratria est Grae- 
cum vocabulum partis^ hominum, ut <Ne)apoli^ etiam 
nunc. Sodales Titii <ab avibus titiantibus)* dicti, 
quas in auguriis certis observare solent. 

86. Fetiales, quod fidei publicae inter populos 
praeerant : nam per hos fiebat ut iustum concipere- 
tur bellum, et inde desitum, ut f<o>edere fides pacis 
constitueretur. Ex his mittebantur, ante quam 
conciperetur, qui res repeterent, et per hos etiam 
nunc fit foedus,^ quod fidus Ennius scribit dictum. 

§ 85. ^ Aug., for patris. ^ Turnebvs, for apoli. 

' Added by A. Sp., after Laehis (a titiis avibus). 
§ 86. 1 For faedus. 

"^ An old Italic mythical hero ; quite obscure. 

§ 85. " From salire ' to leap,' of which salitare is a deriva- 
tive. *" Priests of the God Lupercus, who arret ' keeps 
away ' the hipi ' wolves ' from the flocks. " Arvales from 

arva ; but fratres has nothing to do with ferre. ^ Page 
116 Funaioli. * ' Political brotherhood,' from ^pdrqp ' clan 
brother ' ; any reference to it is here out of place. ' Ac- 
cording to Tacitus, Ann. i. 54, they were established by Titus 
Tatius for the preservation of certain Sabine religious 
practices. 

§ 86. " Perhaps from an old word meaning ' law,' from 
the root seen in feci ' I made, established ' ; but without 
connexion with the words in the text. Foedus, fides, fidtts 
are closely connected with one another. * In the early 

82 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 84^86 

Furinal Festival in the calendar. So also the Flamen 
Falacer from the divine father Falacer/ 

85. The Salii were named " from salitare ' to 
dance,' because they had the custom and the duty of 
dancing yearly in the assembly-places, in their cere- 
monies. The Luperci ^ M-ere so named because they 
make offerings in the Lupercal at the festival of the 
Lupercalia. Fratres Arvules ' Arval Brothers ' was 
the name given to those who perform public rites to 
the end that the ploughlands mav bear fruits : from 
J'erre ' to bear ' and ana ' ploughlands ' they are called 
Fratres Arvales.'^ But some have said <* that they 
were named from fratria ' brotherhood ' : fratria is 
the Greek name of a part of the people,* as at Naples 
even now. The Sodales Titii ' Titian Comrades ' are 
so named from the titiantes ' twittering ' birds which 
they are accustomed to watch in some of their augural 
observations.^ 

86. The Fetiales " ' herald-priests,' because they 
were in charge of the state's word of honour in 
matters between peoples ; for bv them it was brought 
about that a war that was declared should be a just 
war, and by them the war was stopped, that by a 
foedus ' treaty ' thajides ' honesty ' of the peace might 
be established. Some of them were sent before war 
should be declared, to demand restitution of the 
stolen property,* and by them even now is made the 
foedus ' treaty,' which Ennius writes "^ was pronounced 

Jidus. 

days wars started chiefly as the result of raids in which 
property, cattle, and persons had been carried off. ' Page 

238 Vahlen- ; R.O.L. i. 564 Warmington ; Ennius probably 
wished by a pun to indicate a relation between foedus and the 
adjective fidus which, in his opinion, did not really exist 
(though it did). 

8.3 



VARRO 

XVI. 87. In re militari praetor dictus qui praeiret 
exercitui. Imperator, ab imperio populi qui eos, qui 
id attemptasse(n>t, oppres.si<t>i hostis. Legati qui 
lecti publice, quorum opera consilioque uteretur 
peregre magistratus, quive nuntii senatus aut populi 
assent. Exercitus, quod exercitando fit melior. 
Legio, quod leguntur milites in delectu. 

88. Cohors, quod ut in villa ex pluribus tectis 
coniungitur ac quiddam fit unum, sic hic^ ex manipulis 
pluribus copulatur* : cohors quae in villa, quod circa 
eum locum pecus cooreretur, tametsi cohortem in 
villa //ypsicrates' dicit esse Graece xo/>toi/* apud 
poetas dictam. Manipulws* exercitus minima" manus 
quae unum sequitur signum. Centuria qui'' sub uno 
centurione sunt, quorum centenarius iustus numerus. 

89. Milites, quod trium milium primo legio fiebat 
ac singulae tribus Titiensium, Ramnium, Lucerum 
milia militum mittebant. Hastati dicti qui primi 

§ 87. ^ Aug., vnth B, for oppress!. 

§ 88. ^ Mue., for his. ^ G, If, Laetus, for populatur. 

* ylldvs, for ipsicrates. * Turnehus, for cohorton. 

* L. Sp., for nianipulos. * L. Sp.,for minimas, ' Mue., 
for quae. 

§ 87. " So named because he imperat ' gives orders ' ; in 
practice, it was a title conferred upon a general after a victory, 
by spontaneous acclamation of his soldiers. * Meaning 

' delegated,' participle of legare (akin to legere). 

§ 88. " Prefix co-+hort-s, the second part being the same 
as hortus ' enclosed place as garden,' and Greek x^P^^^- 
•" A grammarian, mentioned also by Gellius, xvi. 12. 6 : see 
Funaioli, page 107. " A ' handful,' from manus + a 

derivative of the root in plere ' to fill.' ^ This and the 
following words are from centum ' hundred.' 

84 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 87-89 

X\T. 87. In military aiFairs, the praetor was so 
called as the one who should praeire ' go at the head ' 
of the army. The imperator " ' commander,' from the 
imperium ' dominion ' of the people, as the one who 
crushed those enemies who had attacked it. The 
legati * ' attaches,' those who were lecti ' chosen ' 
officially, whose aid or counsel the magistrates should 
use when away from Rome, or who should be mes- 
sengers of the senate or of the people. The exercitus 
' army,' because by exercitando ' training ' it is im- 
proved. The legio ' legion,' because the soldiers 
leguntur ' are gathered ' in the levy. 

88. The cohors " ' cohort,' because, just as on the 
farm the cohors ' yard ' coniungitur ' is joined together ' 
of several buildings and becomes a certain kind of 
unity, so in the army it copulatiir ' is coupled together ' 
of several maniples : the cohors which is on the farm, 
is so called because around that place the flock 
cooritur ' assembles,' although Hypsicrates *• says 
that the cohors on the farm, as said by the poets, is 
the word which in Greek is x'^/'tos ' farmyard.' The 
maniptilus '^ ' maniple ' is the smallest manus ' troop ' 
which has a standard of its own to follow. The cen- 
turia ^ ' century ' consists of those who are under one 
centurio ' centurion,' whose proper number is cen- 
tenarius ' one hundred each.' 

89. Milites " ' soldiers,' because at first the legion 
was made of three milia ' thousands,' and the individ- 
ual tribes of Titienses, Ramnes, and Luceres sent 
their milia ' thousands ' of milites ' soldiers.' The 
ka^tati ' spearmen ' were so called as those who in the 
first line fought vt-iih hastae ' spears,' the pilani ' jave- 

§ 89. " Milites and milia are not connected etymologi- 
cally. 

85 



VARRO 

hastis pugnabant, pilani qui pilis, principes qui a 
principio gladiis ; ea post commutata re militari 
minus illustria sunt. Pilani trianii quoque dicti, quod 
in acie tertio ordine extremi^ subsidio deponebantur ; 
quod hi subsidebant ab eo subsidium dictum, a quo 
Plautus : 

Agite nunc, subsich'te' omnes quasi solent triarii. 

90. Auxilium appellatum ab auctu, cum acces- 
serant ei qui adiumento assent alienigenae. Prae- 
sidium dictum qui extra castra praesidebant in loco 
aliquo, quo tutior regio esset. Obsidium dictum 
ab obsidendo, quo minus hostis egredi posset. In- 
(si)diae^ item ab iwsidendo,* cum id ideo facerent quo 
facilius deminuerent hostis. Duplicarii dicti quibus 
ob virtutem duplicia cibaria ut darentur institutum. 

91. Turma terima (E in U abiit), quod ter deni 
equites ex tribus tribubus Titiensium, Ramnium, 
Lucerum fiebant. Itaque primi singularum de- 
curiarum decuriones dicti, qui ab eo in singulis turmis 
sunt etiam nunc terni. Quos hi primo administros 

§ 89. ^ For triani. * Aug. {quoting a friend), for 

extremis, ^ Laetus, for subsidete. 

§ 90. ^ L. Sp., for indie. * Studemund {quoted by 

Groth), for ab absidendo. 



' By origin, the ' foremost ' in the fight, the men of the first 
line, later shifted in position. " By origin, ' that which 
sits or remains close by, under the outer edge of some- 
thing ' ; Varro's etymology is correct, except for his inter- 
pretation of the verb. ■* Frivolaria, frag. V Ritschl. 
§91. "Etymology uncertain, but not as in the text 

86 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 89-91 

lin-men ' as being those who fought with pila ' jave- 
lins,' the principes ^ ' first-men ' as those who from the 
principium ' beginning ' fought >vith swords ; these 
words were less perspicuous later, when tactics had 
been changed. The pilani are called also iriarii 
' third-line-men,' because in the battle arrangement 
they were set in the rear, in the third Une, as reserves ; 
because these men habitually suhsidebant ' sat ' while 
waiting, from this fact the submlium "^ ' reserve force ' 
got its name, whence Plautus says ** : 

Come now, all of you sit by as troopers in reserve 
are wont. 

90. Aujcilium ' auxiliaries ' was so called from 
auctus ' increase,' when those foreigners who were 
intended to give help had added themselves to the 
fighters. Praesidium ' garrison ' was said of those 
who praesidebant ' sat in front ' outside the main camp 
somewhere, that the district might be safer. Obsi- 
dium ' siege ' was said from obsidere ' to sit in the 
way,' that the enemy might not be able to sally forth. 
Insidiae ' ambush ' likewise from insidere ' to sit in a 
place,' since they did this that they might more easily 
diminish the enemy's forces. Duplicarii ' doublers ' 
were those to whom by order dupUcia ' double ' rations 
were given on account of their notable valour. 

91. Turma " ' squadron ' is from terima (the E has 
changed to U), because they were composed of ter 
' three times ' ten horsemen, from the three tribes 
of Titienses, Ramnes, and Luceres. Therefore the 
leaders of the individual decuriae ' groups of ten * 
were called decurions, who from this fact are even 
now three in each squadron. Those whom at first the 
decurions themselves adoptabant ' chose ' as their 

87 



VARRO 

ipsi sibi adoptabant, optiones vocari coepti,^ quos 
nunc propter ambitionem tribuni faciunt. Tubicines 
a tuba et canendo, similiter liticines.* Classic?<s* a 
classe, qui item cornu <aut lit>uo* canit, ut turn cum 
classes comitiis ad comit<i>atum* vocant. 

XVII. 92. Quae a fortuna vocabula, in his quae- 
dam minus aperta ut pauper, dives, miser, beatus, sic 
alia. Pauper a paulo lare. Mendicus a minus, cui 
cum opus est minus nullo est. Dives a divo qui ut 
deus nihil^ indigere videtur. Opulentus ab ope, cui 
eae opimae ; ab eadem inops qui eius indiget, et ab 
eodem fonte copis* ac copiosus. Pecuniosus a pecunia 
magna, pecunia a pecu : a pastoribus enim horum 
vocabulorum origo. 

XVIII. 93. Artificibus maxima causa ai's, id est, 
ab arte medicina ut sit medicus dictus, a sutrina sutor, 
non a medendo ac suendo, quae omnino ultima huic 
rei : (hae enim)^ earum rerum radices, ut in proxumo 

§91. ^ For caepti. ^ lihol., for litigines. ^ A. 

Sp., for classicos. * A, Sp., for cornu uo. * Ver- 

tranius, for comitatum. 

§ 92. ^ For nichil. ^ Turnebits, for copiis. 

§ 93. ^ Added by Reitzenstein. 

* That is, from lUnvs ' cornet ' and canere. 

§ 92. " Pau-per has the same first element as pau-lus. 

* Derivative of mendum ' error, defect.' "^ Quite possibly, 
since the gods were thought of as conferring wealth ; dives is 
derived from divus as caeles is from caelum. ^ From co- 
opis. ' The earliest unit of value was a domestic animal ; 
cf. English fee and German Vieh ' cattle,' both cognate to 
Latin pecu. 

§ 93. " Properly medicina from medicus, which is from 
mederi, etc. 
88 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 91-93 

assistants, were at the start called optiones ' choices ' ; 
but now the tribunes, to increase their influence, do 
the appointing of them. Tubicines ' trumpeters,' from 
tuba ' trumpet ' and canere ' to sing or play ' ; in like 
fashion liticines^ ' cornetists.' The classicus ' class- 
musician ' is named from the classis ' class of citi- 
zens ' ; he likewise plays on the horn or the cornet, 
for example when they call the classes to gather for 
an assembly. 

X\TI. 92. Among the words which have to do 
^vith personal fortune, some are not verj- clear, such as 
pauper ' poor,' dives ' rich,' miser ' wretched,' beatus 
' blest,' and others as well. Pauper " is from paulus 
lar ' scantily equipped home.' Mendicus ^ ' beggar ' 
is from niinus ' less,' said of one who, when there is a 
need, has minus ' less ' than nothing. Dives ' rich ' is 
from divus '^ ' godlike person,' who, as being a deus 
' god,' seems to lack nothing. Opulentus ' wealthy ' 
is from ops ' property,' said of one who has it in abun- 
dance ; from the same, inops ' destitute ' is said of 
him who lacks ops, and from the same source copis ^* 
' well supphed ' and copiosus ' abundantly furnished.' 
Pecuniosus ' moneyed ' is from a large amount of 
pecunia ' money ' ; pecunia is from pecu ' flock ' : for 
it was among keepers of flocks that these words 
originated.* 

XVIIL 93. For artisans the chief cause of the 
names is the art itself, that is, that from the ars medi- 
cina ' medical art ' the medicus ' physician ' should be 
named, and from the ars sutrina ' shoemaker's art ' 
the sutor ' shoemaker,' and not directly from mederi 
' to cure ' and suere ' to sew,' though these are the 
absolutely final sources for such names." For these 
are the roots of these things, as will be shown in the 

89 



VARRO 

libro aperietur. Quare quod ab arte artifex dicitur 
nee multa in eo obscura, relinquam. 

Q*. Similis causa quae ab scientia voca<n)tur^ 
aliqua ut praestigiator, monitor, nomenclator ; sic 
etiam quae a studio" quodam dicuntur, cursor, natator, 
pugil. Etiam in hoc genere quae sunt vocabula 
pleraque aperta, ut legulus, alter ab oleis, alter ab 
uvis. Haec si minus aperta vindemiator, vestigator 
et venator, tamen idem, quod vindemiator vel quod 
vinum \egit^ dicitur vel quod de viti id demunt ; 
vestigator a vestigiis ferarum quas indagatur ; vena- 
tor a vento,* quod sequitur cert'um^ ad ventum et in 
ventum.* 

XIX. 95. Haec de hominibus : hie quod sequitur 
de pecore, haec. Pecus ab eo quod perpascebant, a 
quo pecora universa. Quod in pecore pecunia tum 
pastoribus consistebat et standi fundamentum pes 
(a quo dicitur in aedificiis area pes magnus et qui 
negotium instituit pedem posuisse), a pede pecudem 
appellarunt, ut ab eodem pedicam et pedisequum et 
pecul(i>flriae* oves aliudve quid : id enim peculium 
primum. Hinc peculatum publicum primo (di- 

§94. ^ B, M, Aug., for uocatur. "Sciop.,for spatio. 
* L. Sp., for legere. * Aug. {quoting a friend), for 
uentu. ^ Scaliger, for uerbum. ^ Aug, {quoting a 
friend), for aduentum et inuentum. 

§ 95. ^ Lachmann, for peculatoriae. 

^ This promise seems not to be kept. 

§ 94. " For this meaning, c/. Festus, 138 b 29 and 139. 
8 M. *" Cf. V. 37, where vindemia is discussed. 

§ 95. " Pecus is an inherited word which cannot be 
further analysed ; to it belong all the words here given, which 
begin with pec-. It has no connexion with pes ' foot.' '' To 
pes ' foot ' belong all the words here given which begin with ped-. 

90 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 93-95 

next book.^ Therefore, because an artisan is called 
from his art and not many names in this class are 
obscure, I shall leave them and go on. 

9i- There is a like origin for those names which 
are given from some special skill, such as praestigiator 
' juggler,' monitor ' prompter,'" nomenclator ' namer ' ; 
so also those which are derived from a special interest, 
such as cursor ' runner,' natator ' swimmer,' ptigil 
' boxer.' The words which are in this class too, are 
generally ob\ious, like leguliis ' picker,' one of olives 
and the other of grapes. If these are less obvious in 
the cases of vindemiator, vestigatar, and venator, still the 
same principle holds, that vindemiator ' vintager ' is 
said either because he gathers the vinum ' wine ' or 
because they demunt ' take ' this from the vitis ' grape- 
\'ine ' * ; vestigator ' tracker,' from the vestigia ' tracks ' 
of the beasts which he trails ; venator ' hunter ' from 
venttis ' wind,' because he follows the stag towards the 
wind and into the wind. 

XIX. 95. So much about men : what comes next 
here is about cattle, as follows. Pecus " ' cattle,' from 
the fact that they perpascebant ' grazed,' whence as a 
whole they were called pecora ' flocks and herds.' 
Because the herdsmen's pecunia ' wealth ' then lay in 
their pecus ' flocks ' and the base for standing is a pes 
' foot ' (from which in buildings the ground is called a 
great pe* * ' foot ' and a man who has founded a business 
is said to have established his pes ' footing '), from pes 
' foot ' they gave the name pecus, pecudis ' one head of 
cattle,' just as from the same they said pedica ' fetter ' 
and pedisequus ' footman ' and peculiariae ' privately 
owned ' sheep or anything else : for this was the first 
private property. Hence they called it a peculaius 
' peculation ' from the state in the beginning, when 

91 



VARRO 

xer>u<(n>t2 cum pecore diceretur multa et id esse<t>' 
coactum in publicum, si erat aversum. 

96. Ex quo^ fructus maior, hic^ est qui Graecis 
usus : <sus), quod h, bos, quod /iJovs, taurus, quod 
(ravpos), item ovis, quod ois : ita enim antiqui 
dicebant, non ut nunc TrpofSarov. Possunt in Latio 
quoque ut in Graeeia ab suis vocibus haec eadem ficta. 
Armenta, quod boves ideo maxime parabant, ut inde 
eligerent ad arandum ; inde arimenta dicta, postea 
I tertia littera extrita. Vitulus, quod Graece anti- 
quitus tVaAos', aut quod plerique vegeti, vegitulus.^ 
luvencus, iuvare qui iam ad agrum colendum posset. 

97. Capra carpa, a quo scriptum 

Omnicarpae caprae. 

//ircus,^ quod Safeini fircus ; quod illic fedus,^ in Latio 
rure hedus, qui in urbe ut in multis A addito ^aedus.^ 
Porcus, quod Sa6ini dicunt* aprunM(m> porc?/<m>^ ; 
proi(n>de* porcus, nisi si a Graecis, quod Athenis in 
libris sacrorum scripta est TvopKi] e<t) 7rd/3K-o(s).' 

^ Fay, /or ut. * Aug., for esse. 

§ 96. ^ Mue., for qua. ^ Mue., for hinc. ' Laetus, 
for uigitulus. 

§ 97. ^ Aug., for ircus. ^ For faedus. ^ Aug., for 

aedus. * Laetus, for dicto. ^ Kent ; aprinum porcum 

L. Sp. ; aprum porcum Scaliger ; for apruno porco. 
* Turnebus, for poride. ' Kent, for porcae porco. 

§ 96. " Correct equations ; but the Latin words are not 
derived from the Greek : the four pairs are from the ancestral 
language, and only sus is likely to be onomatopoeic. 
*" The Greek word is not the source of the Latin word, but 
is borrowed from it ; there is no satisfactory etymology of 
vitulus. ' Really ' youthful,' a derivative of iuvenis 
' young man,' and not from iuvare. 

§97. "Wrong. ''An old inherited word. ' Iden- 

92 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 95-97 

a fine was imposed in pecns ' cattle ' and there was a 
collection into the state treasury, of what had been 
diverted. 

96. Regarding cattle from which there is larger 
profit, there is the same use of names here as among 
the Greeks : sus ' swine,' the same as vs ; bos ' cow,' 
the same as ftov^ ; taurus ' bull,' the same as ravpo^ ; 
likewise avis ' sheep,' the same as ots " : for thus the 
ancients used to say, not irpo/Sarov as they do now. 
This identity of the names in Latium and in Greece 
may be the result of invention after the natural utter- 
ances of the animals. Armenia ' plough-oxen,' because 
they raised oxen especially that they might select 
some of them for arandum ' ploughing ' ; thence they 
were called arimenta, from which the third letter I was 
afterwards squeezed out. Vitulus ' calf,' because in 
Greek it was anciently IraXos ^ ; or from vegitulus, a 
name given because most calves are vegeti ' frisky.' A 
iuvencus '^ ' bullock ' was one which could now iuvare 
' help ' in tilUng the fields. 

97. Capra ' she-goat ' was originally carpa ' crop- 
per,' " from which is written 

All-cropping she-goats. 

Ilircus ' buck,' which the Sabines caWJircus ; and what 
there is fedtis, in Latium is kedus ' kid ' in the country, 
and in the City it is haedus, with an added A, as is the 
case with many words. Porous ^ ' pig,' because the 
Sabines say aprunus "^ porcus ' boar pig ' ; therefore 
porous ' pig,' unless it comes from the Greeks, because 
at Athens in the Books of the Sacrifices TropKq ' female 
pig ' is written, and Trop/cos ' male pig.' 

tical with the Plautine aprugnus, from *apro-gnos ' born of 
the boar.' 

93 



VARRO 

98. Aries, (uty quic?am* dicebant, <ab>' an's* ; 
veteres nostri ariuga, hinc ariugMS.* Haec sunt 
quorum* in sacruficiis exta in olla,' non in veru co- 
quuntur, quas et Accius scribit et in pontificiis libris 
videmus. In hosti(i>s earn dicunt ariugam* quae 
cornua habeat ; quoniam si* cui ovi mari testiculi 
dempti et ideo vi*" natura versa, verbex declinatum. 

99- Pecori ovillo quod agnatus, agnus. Catulus a 
sagaei sensu et acuto, (ut Cato)^ Catulus ; hinc canis : 
nisi quod ut tuba ac eornu, a<li)quod^ signum cum 
dent,' canere dicuntur, quod hie item et noctulucus in 
custodia et in venando signum voce dat, canis dictus. 

XX. 100. Ferarum vocabula item partim pere- 
grina, ut panthera, leo : utraque Graeca, a quo etiam 
et rete quoddam panther et leaena et muliercula 
Pantheris et Leaena. Tigris qui est ut leo varius, qui 

§98. ^ Added by Kent. 'GS., for qui earn. 

^ Added by Kent. * Kent ; areis Fay; for ares. 

* Kent, for ariugas. * Aug., for quorum. ' For olio. 

* Kent ; arvigam Mue. ; for ariugem. ' Lindemann, 
for is. ^" Sciop., for ut. 

§99. ^ Added by G'S. ^ 3hie., for cornua quod. 

* Victories, for dente. 

§98. "An old word. ""An obscure word, found in 

various forms : harviga (Festus), hariga (Donatus in Phorm.), 
apixoi (Hesychius). Varro takes ariuga as a derivative of 
ara+iug- ; but it may perhaps better be taken as hariuga, 
from hara ' sty ' (formation like agri-cola and nocti-luca), 
losing tiie h by association with aries. Others suggest con- 
nexion with haru- as in harnspex, which would give a form 
harviga. At any rate, ariuga is feminine because of an 
implied hostia, and the agreements are feminine in the next 
two sentences ; ariugus is merely a masculine form invented 
fo correspond to the masculine aries. ' Rom. Trag. 
Frag., page 227 Ribbeck.^ <' Frag. 82 Rowoldt. « Also 
spelled vervex and berbex ; not connected with versa. 

94 . 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 98-100 

98. Aries ° ' ram,' as some used to say, from arae 
altars ' ; our ancients said ariuga ^ ' altar-mate,' and 
from this formed a masculine ariugus. These are 
those whose vital organs are in the sacrifices boiled in 
a pot and not roasted on a spit, of which Accius writes " 
and which we see in the Pontifical Books.^ Among 
sacrificial \ictims, that victim which by the specifica- 
tions is to have horns, they call an ariuga ; but if the 
testicles are removed from a male sheep and its nature 
is thereby forcibly versa ' altered,' the name verhex^ 
' wether ' is derived as its designation. 

99- An agnus ' lamb ' is so named because it is 
agnatus ' born as an addition ' " to the flock of sheep. 
A catuliis ' puppy ' is named from its quick and keen 
scent, like the names Cato and Catulus ^ ; and from 
this, canis '^ ' dog ' : unless, just as the trumpet and 
the horn are said to canere ' sing ' when they give 
some signal, so the canis is named because it likewise, 
both when guarding the house day or night, and when 
engaged in hunting, gives the signal with its voice. 

XX. 100. The names of wild beasts are likewise 
some of them foreign, such as panthera " ' panther,' leo ** 
' lion ' : both Greek, whence also certain nets called 
panther and lioness, and there are courtesans named 
Pantheris and Leaena. The tigris ' tiger,' which is as 
it were a striped lion, which as yet they have not been 

§ 99. " Wrong. * It is very doubtful if catulus ' puppy ' 
is a diminutive of catus ' sharp, shrewd,' as is implied by 
Varro ; but Cato and Catulus as proper names go with catus. 
' Wrong. 

§ 100. " Ultimately of Indian origin, transformed into a 
seemingly Greek word (the ' all-beast ') by the Greeks, and 
thence given to the Romans. ''Leo and leaena, from 

Greek, but borrowed by the Greeks from some unknown 
source. 

95 



VARRO 

vivus capi adhuc non potuit, vocabulum e lingua 
Armenia : nam ibi et sagitta et quod vehementis- 
simum flumen dicitur Tigris. Ursi Lucana origo vel, 
unde illi, nostri ab ipsius voce. Camelus suo nomine 
Syriaco in Latium venit, ut Alexandrea camelo- 
pardalis nuper adducta, quod erat figura ut camelus, 
maculis ut panthera. 

101 . Apri ab eo quod in locis asperis, nisi a Graecis 
quod hi <K)a7r/Doi.^ Caprea a similitudine quadam 
caprae. Cervi, quod magna cornua gerunt, gerxi,^ 
G in C mutavit ut in multis. Lepus, quod Sicu<li, ut 
Aeo>lis' quidam Graeci, dicunt XeTropw : a Roma 
quod orti Siculi, ut annales veteres nostri dicunt, 
fortasse hinc illuc tulerunt et hie reliquerunt id 
nomen. Volpes, ut Aelius dicebat, quod volat 
pedibus. 

XXI. 102. Proxima animalia sunt ea quae vivere 
dicuntur neque habere animam, ut virgulta. Vir- 
gultum dicitur a viridi, id a vi quadam humoris ; quae 
si exaruit, moritur. Vitis, quod ea vini origo. Malum, 
quod Graeci ^eolis dicunt jxakov. Pinus, . . . 
luglans, quod cum haec nux antequam purgatur 

§ 101. ^ Bentinus, for aproe. ^ M, Laetus, for corui. 
* GS.,for siculis, c/. Varro, De Re Rust. iii. 12. 6. 

" Not from Armenian, but from Persian, through Greek. 
Varro forgot that a tiger was presented to the city of Athens 
by Seleucus Nicator (c. 358-280 b.c); see Athenaeus, xiii. 
6. 57 =590 a, ■* An old inherited word. * Correct; of 
Semitic origin. f Through the Greek ; the second part 
is pardalis, from an Indian word which also denoted the 
panther. 

§ 101. " Wrong : the Greek word corresponds to Latin 
caper. ^ Wrong. " Page 69 Funaioli. '' Wrong. 

§ 102. " All etymologies in this paragraph are wrong, 
except those of malum and iuglans. 

96 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 100-102 

able to take alive, has its name from the Armenian 
language,*^ for in Armenia both an arrow and a very 
s^vift river are named Tigris. The name of the ursiis'^ 
' bear ' is of Lucanian origin, or our ancestors called it 
from its voice, and so did the Lucanians. The camelus 
' camel ' has come to Latium bringing its own Syrian 
name with it,* and so has the camelopardalis ^ ' giraffe ' 
which was recently brought from Alexandria, so called 
because it was in form like a camel and in spots like a 
panther. 

101. Apri'^ 'boars,' from the fact that they 
frequent asperd ' rough ' places, unless from the 
Greeks, because in Greek these are {K)dTrpoi. Caprea 
' roe-deer,' from a certain likeness to the capra ' she- 
goat.' Cervi ' stags,' because they gerunt ' carry ' big 
horns, and so they are gervi ^ ; the Mord has changed 
G to C, as has happened in many words. Lepus 
' hare,' because the Sicilians, like certain Aeolian 
Greeks, say AcTro/Dts. Inasmuch as the Sicihans 
originated from Rome, as our old Annals say, perhaps 
they carried the word from here to Sicily, but also 
left it here behind them. Volpes ' fox,' as Aelius " 
used to sav, because it volat ' flies ' mth its pedes 
' feet.' «^ 

XXI. 102." The next living beings to be discussed 
are those which are said to live, and yet do not breathe, 
such as bushes. Virgultum ' bush ' is said from viridis 
' green,' and viridis from a certain vis ' power ' of 
moisture : if this moisture has thoroughly dried out, 
the bush dies. Fitis ' grape-vine,' because it is the 
source of vinum ' wine.' Malum ' apple,' because the 
Aeolian Greeks call it /ittAov. The pinus ' pine,' . . . 
The iuglans ' walnut,' because while this nut is hke an 
acorn before it is cleansed of its hull, the inner nut, 

VOL. I H 97 



VARRO 

similis glandis, haec glans optima et maxima a love 
et glande iuglans est appellata. Eadem nux, quod 
ut nox aerem huius sucus corpus facit atrum. 

103. Quae in Aortis nascuntur, alia peregrinis 
vocabulis, ut Graecis ocimum, menta, ruta quam nunc 
TTz/yaiov appellant ; item caulis, lapat/aum, radix : 
sic enim antiqui Graeci, quam nunc pa<pavov^ ; item 
haec Graecis vocabulis : serpyllum, rosa, una littera 
commutata ; item ex his Groecis Latina KoKiavSpov, 
/xaXaxT],^ KVfxivov ; item lilium ab Xeipii^^ et malua ab 
fjiaka)(rj* et sis_ymbrium a aio-vfj-jipic^^ 

104. Vernacula : lact<u>c<a)i a lacte, quod Aolus 

id habet lact ; brassica^ ut p(r>aesica,' quod ex eius 

scapo minutatim praesicatur ; asparagi, quod ex 

asperis virgultis leguntur et ipsi scapi asperi sunt, non 

leves ; nisi Graecum : illic quoque enim dicitur 

acTTra/sayos.* Cucumeres dicuntur a curvore, ut curvi- 

meres dicti. Fructus a ferundo, res eae quas* fundus 

et eae <quas> quae* in fundo ferunt ut fruamur. 

§ 103. ^ For raphanum. ^ For malachen, * For 
lirio. * For malache. * A. Sp., for sysimbrio. 

§ 104. ^ M, Laettts, for lacte. " Laetus, for blassica. 

* Tumebus ; praeseca A Idas ; for passica. * For aspara- 
gus. * A. Sp., for ea equas. * Mve., for ea eque. 

* Optima et maxima suggests Jupiter Opthnus Maximns. 
' The juice of the walnut-hull does make a very dark stain. 

§ 103. "All the examples in this section have come into 
Latin from Greek, except radix, rosa, malva. Radix is 
native Latin, and its Greek equivalent had a different mean- 
ing. Rosa and malva, and their Greek equivalents, were 
separately derived from an earlier language native in the 

98 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 102-104 

being best and biggest,* is called iu-glans from /«-piter 
and glans ' acorn.' The same word ?iux ' nut ' is so 
called because its juice makes a person's skin black," 
just as nox ' night ' makes the air black. 

103." Of those which are grown in gardens, some 
are called by foreign names, as, by Greek names, 
ocimum ' basil,' menta ' mint,' ruta ' rue,' which they 
now call 77/)yai'oi' ; hkewise caulis ' cabbage,' lapathium 
' sorrel,' radix ' radish ' : for thus the ancient Greeks 
called what they now call f)d<fiavo<5 ; like^\ise these 
from Greek names : serpyllum ^ ' thyme,' rosa ' rose,' 
each with one letter changed ; hkewise Latin names 
from these Greek names : KoXiarBpov " ' coriander,' 
fjLaXdxrj, KVfJiivoi' ' cummin ' ; likewise lilium ' lily ' from 
Xeipioi' and malva ' mallow ' from /xaAa;^»; and sisym- 
brium ' thvme ' from a-LO-vii/Spiov. 

104." Native words : lactiica ' lettuce ' from lact 
' milk,' because this herb contains milk ; hrassica 
' cabbage ' as though praesica, because from its stalk 
praesicatur ' leaves are cut off ' one by one ; asparagi 
' asparagus shoots,' because they are gathered from 
aspera ' rough ' bushes and the stems themselves are 
rough, not smooth : unless it is a Greek name, for in 
Greece also they say ao-Trapayos. Cucumeres ' cucum- 
bers ' are named from their curvor ' curvature,' as 
though curvimeres. Fructus ' fruits ' are named from 
ferre ^ ' to bear,' namely those things which the farm 
and those things which are on the farm bear, that 

Mediterranean region. * With initial s rather than h, 

by assimilation to Latin serpere, ' Usually KoplavSpov, 
but here with dissimilative change of the prior r to I. 

§ 104. " Correct on lactuca, fructus, mola ; wrong on 
brassica, cucumeres, uva ; asparagus Is from Greek. * C/. 

V. 37, and note e. 

99 



VARRO 

Hinc declinatae fruges et frumentuni, sed ea e terra ; 
etiam frumentum, quod <ad>^ exta ollicoqua* solet 
addi ex mola, id est ex sale et farre molito. Uvae 
ab uvore. 

XXII. 105. Quae manu facta sunt dicam, de 
victu, de vestitu, de instrumento, et si quid aliud 
videbitur his aptum. De victu antiquissima puis ; 
haec appellata vel quod ita Graeci vel ab eo unde 
scribit ApoUodorus, quod ita sonet cum aqua<e>^ 
ferventi insipitur. Panis, quod primo figura facie- 
bant, ut mulieres in lanificio, panus ; posteaquam ei 
figuras facere instituerunt alias, a pane et faciendo 
panificium c(o>eptum dici. Hinc panarium, ubi id 
servabant, sicut granarium, ubi granum frumenti 
condebant, unde id dictum : nisi ab eo quod Graeci 
id Kpdi'oi','^ a quo a Graecis quoque gran<ari>um^ 
dictum in quo ea quae conduntur. 

106. Horc^eum^ ab Aorrido. Triticum, quod tri- 
tum e spicis. Far a faciendo, quod in pistrino fit. 

' Added by Turnebus. * Turnebux, for ollico quo, 

§ 105. ^ Turnebus, for aqua. ^ Kent, for KpoKev. 

^ Kent, for granum. 
§ 106. '■ For horreum. 

' The relation of this to frumentum is not clear. 

§ 105. " An old Latin word, which probably did not come 
from Greek ttoXtos. ** Frag. Hist. Graec. i. 462 Mueller. 
" Panis may be of Messapian origin ; Varro's etymology is 
certainly wrong. "* The thin, flat wafer-like Oriental bread, 
made in great sheets. * Panus, gen. of the 4th decl. 

f The word meant originally ' bread-making,' but came to 
mean bread or cake of any kind ; note that in formation 
panificium is modelled on lanificium. ' Normally ' bread- 
basket ' ; but the context indicates the meaning ' bread- 
closet.' * Meaning ' cornel cherry ' ; it may have denoted 
a cereal seed as well as the cherry stone. 
100 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 104^106 

we may enjoy them. From this are derived fruges 
' field products ' and frumentum ' com/ but these 
come out of the earth : even frumentum, because " 
to the pot-boiled vitals it is customary to add some 
of the jnola ' grits,' that is, salt and spelt molitum 
' ground up ' together. Uvae ' grapes,' from uvor 
' moisture.' 

XXIL 105. I shall now speak of things which are 
made by human hands : food, clothing, tools, and any- 
thing else which seems to be associated with them. Of 
foods the most ancient is puis " ' porridge ' ; this got 
its name either because the Greeks called it thus, or 
from the fact which Apollodorus ^ mentions, that it 
makes a sound like puis when it is throwTi into boiling 
water. Pants '^ ' bread,' because at first they made it** 
in the shape of a panus * ' cloth ' such as women make 
in weaving ; after they began to make it in other 
shapes, they started saying panijicium ^ ' pastry,' 
from panis ' bread ' and facere ' to make.' From this, 
panarium ^ ' bread-closet,' where they kept it, like 
granarium ' granary,' where they stored the granum 
' grain ' of the corn, from which granarium was derived 
— unless it came from the fact that the Greeks called 
the grain Kpavoi' ^ ; and in this case it was from the 
Greeks also that the place in which are kept the 
grains that are stored, was called a granarium. 

106." Hordeum ' barley,' from horridus ' bristling.'* 
Triticum' wheat,' because it was ^nVw/w ' threshed out ' 
from the ears. Far ' spelt,' from facere ' to make,' 
because it is made into flour in the mill. Milium 

§ 106. " Wrong on hordeum, far ; libare is derived from 
libum, instead of the reverse ; the other etymologies in this 
section are correct. * That is, with the awns that form the 

beard of the ear. 

101 



VARRO 

Milium a Graeco : nam id neXcvr], Libum, quod ut 
libaretur, priusquam essetur,* erat coctum. Testua- 
cium, quod in testu caldo coquebatur, ut etiam nunc 
Matralibus id faciunt matronae. Circuli, quod mixta 
farina et caseo et aqua circuitum aequabiliter funde- 
bant. 

107. Ho*^ quidam qui magis incondite faciebant 
vocabant lixulas et similixulas vocabulo Safeino : quae* 
frequentia Sabinis. A globo farinae dilatato, item in 
oleo cocti, dicti a globo globi. Crustulum a crusta 
pultis, cuius ea, quod ut corium et uritur, crusta dicta. 
Cetera fere flper<t)a' a vocabulis Graecis sumpta, ut 
thrion et placenta. 

108. Quod edebant cum pulte, ab eo pulmentum, 
ut Plautus ; hinc pulmentarium dictum : hoc primum 
de/uit^ pastoribus. Caseus a coacto lacte ut co(a>- 
xeus* dictus. Dein posteaquam desierunt esse con- 
tenti his quae suapte natura ferebat sine igne, in quo 
erant poma, quae minus cruda esse poterant decoque- 

* Tnrnebus, for esset ut. 

§ 107. 1 L. Sp. and Mommsen, for hoc. * Kent, for 
itaque. ' Groth, for opera. 

§ 108. ^ A. Sp.,for debuit. * Aug., with B,for coxeus. 



•^ A festival to the Mater Matuta, celebrated on June 1 1 ; 
not to be confused with the Matronalia, celebrated by the 
matrons on March 1, in honour of Mars. 

§ 107. ° Diminutive to fem. lixa ' boiled,' cf. e-lixus. 
* For simila-lixulae with haplology (so Pay, Am. Journ. 
Phil. XXXV. 157); simila is a fine wheat flour. "^The crust 
which forms on the inside of the pot in which porridge 
is regularly cooked, unless the pot is carefully scraped. 
"* An absurd etymology. * Cireek 0piov ' fig-leaf ' ; also 

a mixture of eggs, milk, lard, flour, honey, and cheese, so 
called because it was wrapped in fig-leaves. ' Greek 
irXaKovs, a flat cake. 

102 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 106-108 

' millet,' from the Greek : for it is aeklvrj. Libum 
' cake,' because, after it was baked, libabatur ' there was 
an offering of some ' of it to the gods before it was 
eaten. Testuacium ' pot-cake,' because it was baked 
in a heated earthen testu ' pot,' as even now the 
matrons do this at the Matralia.*^ Circuit ' rings,' 
because they poured into the pan a regular circuitus 
' circuit ' of a batter made of flour, cheese, and water. 

107. Certain persons who used to make these 
rather carelessly called them lixulae " ' softies ' and 
similixulae * ' wheat-softies,' by the Sabine name, such 
was their general use among the Sabines. Those that 
consist of a leavened globus ' ball ' of dough and are 
cooked in oil, are from globus called globi ' globes.' 
Crustulum ' cookie,' from the crusta ' crust ' of the 
porridge," whose crusta is so named because it is, as it 
were, a corium ' hide ' and it uriiur ' is burnt.' ** The 
other confections are in general of obvious origin, 
being taken from Greek words, Uke thrion * ' omelette ' 
and placenta ' sand-tart.' ^ 

108. That which they ate with their puis 
' porridge,' was from that fact called pulmentum " 
' side-dish,' as Plautus says * ; from this was said 
pulmentarium ' relish ' : this the shepherds lacked in 
the early times. Caseus '^ ' cheese ' was named from 
coactum ' coagulated ' milk, as though coaxeus. Then 
after they ceased to be satisfied with those foods 
which nature supplied of her own accord \\ithout 
the use of fire, among which were apples and like 
fruits, they boiled down in a pot those which could 

§ 108. " Rather from pulpa ' flesh, meat.' * Aulularia, 
316; J/<7f «'.//., 349; Pseudolus,220; etc. ' A country 

word with no close etymological connexions. 

103 



VARRO 

bant in olla. Ab olla Solera dicta, quo<d ea>rum 
<m)acerare* cruda Solera. E quis ad coquendum 
quod e terra eru<itu>r,* ruapa, unde rapa. Olea ab 
kkaia^ ; olea grandis orchitis, quod earn Attici' opxi-v 
[xop{i)a{v).'' 

109. Hinc ad pecudis carnem perventum est. 
<Ut ab sue>i suilla, sic ab {a.)lt\?,^ generibus cog- 
nominata. Hanc^ primo assam, secundo elixam, 
tertio e iure uti c(o>episse natura docet. Dictum 
assum, quod id ab igni assud<escit, id est uv>escit* : 
uvidum enim quod humidum, et idee ubi id non est, 
sucus abest ; et ideo sudandum assum destillat 
calore,* et ut crudum nimium habet humoris, sic 
excoctum parum habet suci. Ehxum e liquore aquae 
dictum ; et ex iure,* quod iucundum magis con- 
ditione. 

110. Succidia ab suibus caedendis : nam id pecus 
primum occidere coeperunt^ domini et ut servarent 
sallere.* Tegus suis ab eo quod eo tegitur. Perna 

8 A. Sp., for quorum agerere. * GS. ; e terra erueretur 
Turnebus ; for eterrae rure. ^ Kent, for elea. ^ L. Sp., 
for attico. ' Canal, for orchen mora. 

§ 109. ^ Added by A. Sp. ; ut added by Mne., with B. 
2 Mue., for ilis. ^ Aug., with B, for hinc. * GS., for 
assudescit. * Aug., with B, for calorem. * G, Laetus, 
for iuro. 

§110. ^ For caeperunt. ^ c, Mue., for sallire ; cf. 
Diomedes, i. 375. 21 Keil. 

•* Wrong on holera and rapa, but right about olives. 

§ 109. " For arsum, participle of ardere ' to be on fire.' 
"" Participle of a compound of the root seen in liquor ; but ius 
' juice ' has nothing to do with iucundum. 

§ 1 10. " Correct. * Properly tergus, and without con- 

nexion with tegere ; but in the form tergoribus it seems to 
have lost the first r by dissimilation : tegoribus is metrically 

101 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 108-110 

be made less raw. From olla ' pot ' the holera ** 
' vegetables ' were named, because it is the task 
of oUae ' pots ' to soften the raw holera ' vege- 
tables.' One of these, because it entitur ' is dug out ' 
of the earth for cooking, was called niapa, from which 
comes rapa ' turnip.' Olea ' olive berry,' from eXaia ; 
the orchitis is a large kind of ohve, so called because 
the Athenians call it o^x*^ /xopia ' the sacred olive- 
berry.' 

109. From here we go on to domestic animals as 
meat for the table. As suilla ' pork ' is said from *m* 
' swine,' so other meats are named from the other 
kinds of animals. The nature of things shows us 
that men began to use this first roasted, second boiled, 
third cooked in its own juice. Assvm " ' roasted ' is said 
because as a result of the fire it assudesdt ' begins to 
sweat,' that is uvescit ' becomes moist ' : for uvidum is 
the same as humidum ' moist,' and therefore where this 
moisture is not present, there is a lack of juice ; and 
therefore the roast that is to sweat drips on account of 
the heat, and just as the raw meat has an excess of 
moisture, so the thoroughly cooked meat has very 
little juice. Elixum ^ ' boiled ' is said from the liquor 
' fluid ' of the water ; and ex iure ' cooked in its omti 
juice ' is said because this is more iucundum ' tasty ' 
than seasoning. 

110. Succidia'^ 'leg of pork' is said from sues 
caedendae ' the cutting up of the s\nne ' ; for this was 
the first domestic animal that the owners began to 
slaughter and to salt in order to keep the meat un- 
spoiled. Tegus * ' piece of the back ' of s>\ine, from 
this, that by this piece the animal tegitur ' is covered.' 

assured in Plautus, Captiri, 902, and is found also in Captivi 
'Mo, Pseudolus 198. 

105 



VARRO 

a pede. Sueris a nomine eius. OfFula ab ofFa, 
minima suere. Insicia ab eo quod insecta caro, ut in 
Carmine Saliorum (prosicium)' est, quod in extis 
dicitur nunc prosectum. Murtatum a murta, quod 
ea* ad(ditur>* large fartis. 

111. Quod fartum intestinum <e>^ crassundiis, 
Lucan<ic>am2 dicunt, quod milites a Lucanis didi- 
cerint, ut quod Faleriis Faliscum ventrem ; fundolum 
a fundo, quod <non>' ut reliquae /actes,* sed ex una 
parte sola apertum ; ab hoc Graecos puto tv4>^ov 
evrepov appellasse. Ab eadem fartura farcimina 
(in)* extis appellata, a quo <farticulum>* : in eo quod 
tenuissimum intestinum fartum, hila ab hilo dicta 
i(l>lo' quod ait Ennius : 

Neque dispendi^ facit hilum. 

Quod in hoc farcimine summo quiddam eminet, ab eo 
quod ut in capite apex, apexabo dicta. Tertium 
fartum est longavo, quod longius quam duo ilia. 

3 Added by GS. ; cf. Festus, 225. 15 3/. * Laetus, for eo. 

* A. Sp.y/or ad. 

§111. ^ Added by Mue. ^Laetus, far lucanam. 
3 Added by Aldus. * Fay, for partes. ^ Added by 
Aug., with B. « Added by GS. '' Lachmann, for hilo. 

* For dispendii. 

" Perna has no connexion with pes ; but the remaining 
etymologies of this section seem to be correct. ■* The 
precise meaning of this word is unknown ; perhaps ' pork- 
chop,' cf. W. Heraeiis, Archiv f. Lat. Lex. 14. 124-125. 
« Meaning assured by offulam cum duobns costis, Varro, 
De Re Rnstica, ii. 4." 11. ' Page .345 Maurenbrecher ; 
page 3 Morel. 

§111. «The preceding etymologies in this section are 
correct, but hila is properly hilla, diminutive of hira ' empty 

106 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 110-111 

Perna " ' ham,' from pes ' foot.' Sueris,^ from the 
animal's name. Offula ' rib-roast,' ' from offa, a very 
small sueris. Insicia ' minced meat ' from this, that 
the meat is insecta ' cut up,' just as in the Song of the 
Salii ^ the word prosiciuvi ' slice ' is used, for which, 
in the offering of the vitals, the word prosectum is 
now used. Murtatum ' myrtle-pudding,' from murta 
' myrtle-beny,' because this berry is added plentifully 
to its stuffings. 

111. An intestine of the thick sort that was stuffed, 
they call a Lucanica ' Lucanian,' because the soldiers 
got acquainted with it from the Lucanians, just as 
what they found at Falerii they call a Faliscan haggis ; 
and they say fundolus ' bag-sausage ' from fundus 
bottom,' because this is not like the other intestines, 
but is open at only one end : from this, I think, the 
Greeks called it the blind intestine. From the same 
fartura ' stuffing ' were called the farcimina ' stuffies ' 
in the case of the vital organs for the sacrifice, whence 
also farticultim ' stufflet ' ; in this case, because it is 
the most slender intestine that is stuffed, it is called 
hila " from that hilum ' whit ' which Ennius ^ uses : 

And of loss not a whit does she suffer. 

Because at the top of this stuffy there is a little projec- 
tion, it is called an apexaho,'^ because the projection is 
like the apex ' pointed cap ' on a human head. The 
third kind of sausage is the longavo,'^ because it is 
longer than those two others. 

intestine ' ; cf. Festus, 101. 6 M. * Annales, 14 \'ahlen^ ; 

R.O.L. 1. 6-7 Warmington ; quoted also v. 60 and ix. 54. 
' Apexaho and longavo doubtless have the same suffix, differ- 
ing only through the late Latin confusion of 6 and r; unless 
indeed both words are further corrupt. 

107 



VARRO 

112. Augmentum, quod ex immolata hostia de- 
sectum in iecore <imponitur)i in por<ric>iendo2 
a(u>gendi' causa. MagTwentum* a magis, quod ad 
religionem magis pertinet : itaque propter hoc 
<mag>mentar«a* fana constituta locis certis quo id 
imponeretur. Mattea* ab eo quod ea Graece yuarrw/. 
Item (a)' Graecis . . . singillatim haec* : . . .* 
ovum, bulbum. 

XXIII. 113. Lana Graecum, ut Polt/bius et Calli- 
machus scribunt. Purpura a purpurae maritumae 
colore, wti P(o)enicum, quod a Poenis primum dicitur 
allata. Stamen a stando, quod eo stat omne in tela 
velamentum. Subtemen, quod subit stamini. Trama, 
quod tram(e)at2 frigus id genus vestimenti. Densum 
a dentibus pectinis quibus feritur. Filum, quod 
minimum est hilum : id enim minimum est in vesti- 
mento. 

§ 112. ^ Added by A. Sp. ^ L. Sp., for im poriendo. 

* Turnebtis, for agendi. * B, M, Aug., for magnentum. 

* Turnebus, for mentarea. * Popma, for mattae. 
"> Added by L. Sp. * For heae. * The lacuna was noted 
by Scaliger ; the exact arrangement is by Kent, after Mue.'s 
indication of the probable contents. 

§ 1 13. ^ Lachmann ; colore G, Laetus ; for colerent. 
" Aug. {quoting a friend), for tramat. 

§ 112. " Correct, unless the purpose was to increase, that 
is, glorify the god. " Properly connected with mactare 

' to sacrifice,' though popular association with magis affected 
its meaning. " A highly seasoned dish of hashed meat, 
poultry, and herbs, served cold as a dessert. 
108 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 112-113 

112. The augmentum " ' increase-cake ' is so called 
because a piece of it is cut out and put on the Uver of 
the sacrificed victim at the presentation to the deity, 
for the sake of augendi ' increasing ' it. Magmenium ^ 
' added offering,' from magis ' more,' because it 
attaches magis ' more ' closely to the worshipper's 
piety : for this reason magmentaria fana ' sanctuaries 
for the offering of magmenta ' have been estabUshed 
in certain places, that the added offering may there 
be laid on the original and offered ^^ith it. Mattea " 
' cold meat-pie ' is so named because in Greek it is 
fia-Tvi], Like\\ise from the Greeks is another meat- 
dish called . . . , which contains item by item the 
following : .... an egg, a truffle. 

XXIlL 113. Lana '^ 'wool' is a Greek word, 
as Polybius * and CalUmachus " write. Purpura <* 
' purple,' from the colour of the purpura ' purple-fish ' 
of the sea : a Punic word, because it is said to have 
been first brought to Italy by the Phoenicians. 
Stamen ' warp,' from stare ' to stand,' because by this 
the whole fabric on the loom stat ' stands ' up. .S«6- 
temen * ' woof,' because it subit ' goes under ' the 
stamen ' warp.' Trama f * wide-meshed cloth,' be- 
cause the cold trameat ' goes through ' this kind of 
garment. Densum ^ ' close-woven cloth,' from the 
dentes ' dents ' of the sley with which it is beaten, 
Filum 3 ' thread,' because it is the smallest hilum 
' shred ' ; for this is the smallest thing in a garment. 

§ 113. " An old Italic word cognate to English wool ; cf. 
V, 130. » Frag. inc. 99 (104) Hultsch. ' Frag. 408 

Schneider. '' Quite possibly a Phoenician word, but 
transmitted to Italj- by the Greeks {nofxf>vpa). ' From 
subtexere ' to weave underneath.' ' From trahere ' to 
pull.' » Wrong. 

109 



VARRO 

114. Pannus Graecu/?// ubi E A'' fecit. Panu- 
vellium dictum a pano et volvendo filo. Tunica ab 
tuendo corpore, tunica ut <tu)endica.^ Toga a 
tegendo. Cinctus et cingillum a cingendo, alterum 
viris, alterum mulieribus attributum. 

XXIV. 115. Arma ab arcendo, quod his arcemus 
hostem. Parma, quod e medio in omnis partis par. 
Conum, quod cogitur in cacumen versus. Hasta, 
quod astans solet^ ferri. laculum, quod ut iaciatur 
fit. Tragula a traiciendo. Scutum <a)^ sectura ut 
secutum, quod a minute consectt*' fit tabellis. Um- 
bones* a Graeco, quod a/x/Swves.* 

116. Gladiu7«i C in G* commutato a clade, quod 
fit ad hostium cladem gladium ; similiter ab omine* 
pilum, qui hosti* periret,* ut perilum. Lorica, quod 
e loris de corio crudo pectoralia faciebant ; postea 
subcidit galli(ca>^ e ferro sub id vocabulum, ex anulis 

§114. ^ Aug., with B, for grecus. ^ Fay, for ea. 
' OS., for indica. 

§115. ^ For sollet. ^ Added by Laetus. ^ Aug., 
for consectum. * For umbonis. * Turnebus, for 

ambonis. 

§ 116. ^ L. Sp., for gladius. " For G in C. * Aug., 
for homine. * Aug. (hostis B), for hostem feriret. 
' Mve.,for galli. 

§114. "Not pannus 'cloth,' but pannus 'bobbin,' in 
view of what follows ; there is a Greek tt^vos ' web,' and its 
diminutive irqvlov ' bobbin,' which in the Doric form would 
have A and not E. '' Possibly right, if, as A. Spengel 
thinks, the word is really panuvolliuvi. ' From Semitic, 
either directly or through Etruscan. 

§115. '^ Arma, parma, conum, hasta, tragula, scutum, 
umbones : all wrong etymologies. * Not from traicere, 

but from trahere ' to pull, drag ' ; perhaps because the thong 
wound round it for throwing (like the string used in starting 
a peg-top) ' pulls ' the javelin. 
110 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 114-116 

114. Pannus ^ ' bobbin,' is a Greek word, where 
E has become A. Panuvellium * ' bobbin with thread ' 
was said from panus ' bobbin ' and volvere ' to wind ' 
the thread. Tunica " ' shirt,' from tuendo ' protect- 
ing ' the body *• tunica as though it were tuendica. 
Toga ' toga ' from tegere ' to cover.' Cinctus ' belt ' 
and cingiltum ' girdle,' from cingere ' to gird,' the one 
assigned to men and the other to women. 

XXIV. 115. Arma " ' arms,' from arcere ' to ward 
off,' because with them we arcemus ' ward off ' the 
enemy. Parma ' cavalry shield,' because from the 
centre it is par ' even ' in ever)' direction. Conum 
' pointed helmet,' because it cogitur ' is narrowed ' 
toward the top. Hasta ' spear,' because it is usually 
carried a^/aw*' standing up.' /acM/Mw/' javelin,' because 
it is made that it may iaci ' be thrown.' Tragula ^ 
' thong-javelin,' from traicere ' to pierce.' Scutum 
' shield,' from sectura ' cutting,' as though secutum, 
because it is made of wood cut into small pieces. 
Umbones ' bosses ' from a Greek word, namely 

IIG." Gladium ' sword,' from clades ' slaughter,' 
with change of C to G, because the gladium * is made 
for a slaughter of the enemy ; likewise from its omen 
was said pilum, by which the enemy periret ' might 
perish,' as though perilum. Lorica ' corselet,' because 
they made chest-protectors from lora ' thongs ' of 
rawhide ; afterwards the Gallic corselet of iron was 

§ 116. " All etymologies wrong except those of lorica and 
(with reser\'es) of galea. " Varro prefers (c/. viii. 45, ix. 81, 
De Re Rust. i. 48. 3) the unfamiliar neuter form, which may 
be due to the influence of the associated words scutum, pilum, 
tehim. The word is of Celtic origin, but may have an ulti- 
mate connexion with the root of clade». 

Ill 



VARRO 

ferrea tunica.® Balteum, quod cingulum e corio 
habebant bullatum, balteum dictum. Ocrea, quod 
opponebatur ob crus. Galea ab galero, quod multi 
usi antiqui. 

1 17. Tubae ab tubis, quos etiam nunc ita appellant 
tubicines sacrorum. Cornua, quod ea quae nunc sunt 
ex acre, tunc fiebant bubulo e cornu. Vallum vel 
quod ea varicare nemo posset vel quod singula ibi 
extrema 6acilla furcillata habent figuram litterae V. 
Cervi ab similitudine cornuum cervi ; item reliqua 
fere ab similitudine ut vineae, testudo, aries. 

XXV. 118. Mensam escariam cillibam appella- 
bant ; ea erat^ quadrata ut etiam nunc in castris est ; 
a cibo cilliba dicta ; postea rutunda facta, et quod a 
nobis media et a Graecis fxecra, mensa dic<<a)2 potest ; 
nisi etiam quod ponebant pleraque in cibo mensa. 
Trulla a similitudine truae, quae quod magna et haec 

* Turtiebus, for ferream tunicam. 

§ 118. ^ For erant. * Mve.,/or dici. 

* Rather galerum from galea, which looks hke a borrowing 
from CJreek yaAe'r; ' weasel ' ; the objection is that caps of 
weasel-skin are nowhere attested. 

§ 1 17. " Wrong etymology. * Thrust into the embank- 
ment, to increase its defensive strength ; can they be the 
stakes, pali or valli, forming a fence along its top ? But 
these are not elsewhere spoken of as forked. "^ Used by 
Caesar, who inserted such forked branches into the face of 
his wall at Alesia, Bell. Gall. vii. 72. 4, 73. 2. <« Otherwise 
' grape-arbours ' ; in military use, sheds under the protection 
of which soldiers could advance up to the enemy's fortifica- 
tions. • A close formation of overlapping shields. 

§118. "Borrowed from Greek KcXXi^as 'three-legged 
table,' a derivative of ki'AAo? ' ass.' * Or perhaps mesa, 
since n was weak before s ; Priscian, i. 58. 17 Keil, states 
that Varro used both spellings, Mensa seems to be the 

112 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 116-118 

included under this name, an iron shirt made of links. 
Balteum ' sword-belt,' because they used to wear a 
leather belt bullatum ' with an amulet attached,' was 
called balteum. Ocrea ' shin-guard' was so called 
because it was set in the way ob cms ' before 
the shin.' Galea '^ ' leather helmet,' from galerum 
' leather bonnet,' because many of the ancients used 
them. 

117. Tubae ' trumpets,' from tubi ' tubes,' a name 
by which even now the trumpeters of the sacrifices call 
them. Cornua ' horns,' because these, which are now 
of bronze, were then made from the cornu ' horn ' of 
an ox. Vallum " ' camp wall,' either because no one 
could varicare ' straddle ' over it, or because the ends 
of the forked sticks * used there had individually the 
shape of the letter \ . Cervi " ' chevaux-de-frise,' 
from the likeness to the horns of a cervus ' stag ' ; so 
the rest of the terms in general, from a likeness, as 
vineae ' mantlets,' ** tesludo ' tortoise,' * aries ' ram.' 

XXV. 118. The eating -table they used to call a 
cilliba " ; it was square, as even now it is in the camp ; 
the name cilliba came from cibus ' victuals.' After- 
wards it was made round, and the fact that it was 
media ' central ' with us and /xeo-a ' central ' with the 
Greeks, is the probable reason for its being called a 
mensa ^ ' table ' ; unless indeed they used to put on, 
amongst the victuals, many that were mensa ' measured 
out.' Trulla "^ ' ladle,' from its likeness to a trua 
' gutter,' but because this is big and the other is small, 
they named it as if it were truella ' small triia ' ; this 

feminine of mensus ' measured ' ; perhaps from tabula 
mensa ' measured board.' ' Trulla is of uncertain origin, 

and yielded trua by back-formation ; Greek TpvTJXrj seems 
to have been borrowetl from Latin, as \'arro states. 

VOL. I I 113 



VARRO 

pusilla, ut trwe<l)la^ ; banc* Graeci Tpvi'ikiji'.^ Trua 
qu(a) e^ culina in lavatrinam aquam fundunt' ; trua, 
quod travolat ea aqua. Ab eodem est appellatum 
truleum : simile enim figura, nisi quod latius est, 
quod concipiat aquam, et quod manubrium cavum 
non est nisi in vinario truleo.* 

119- Accessit mate/lio^ a matula dictus et Rictus, * 
qui, posteaquam longius a figura matulae discessit, et 
ab aqua aqualis dictus. V^as aquarium vocant futim, 
quod in triclinio allatam aquam infundebant ; quo 
postea accessit nanus^ cum Graeco nomine et cum 
Latino nomine Graeca figura barbatus. Pelvis pede- 
<l)uis* a pedum lavatione. Candelabrum a candela : 
ex his enim funiculi ardentes figebantur. Lucerna 
post inventa, quae dicta a luce aut quod id vocant 
Xv)(vov^ Graeci. 

120. Vasa in mensa escaria : ubi pulte7?ji aut 
iurulenti quid ponebant, a capiendo catinum nomi- 
narunt, nisi quod Siculi dicunt K-axtiov ubi assa pone- 

^ Klotz, for troula. * //. Sp., for hinc. * L. Sp., for 
trullan. ' Mue., for truae que. ' Here begins the lost 
quaternion in F, running to vi. 61 finit/ but before its loss 
Victorius collated it, and his readings are cited as Fv. 
There is also a careful copy of F extant in Laurent. 51. 5, 
cited as f. * Christ, for uinaria trulla Fv. 

§ 119. ^ Aldus, for matiolio Fv. ^ A. Sp., for dictus 
et dictus. ' Turnebus, for magnus. * Scaliger ; pede- 
lauis Aldus ; for pedeuis. * For licnon. 

§ 120. 1 For pultes Fv. 



** The next statements seem to eliminate from this passage the 
usual meaning of trua : ' ladle, stirring-spoon.' * Vari- 

ously spelled, but clearly a derivative of trulla. * Ap- 
parently the wine truletim had a channelled handle which 
could be used as a spout in pouring. 
114 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 118-120 

the Greeks call a rpnyA?/. A trua ' gutter ' "* is that 
by which they pour the water from the kitchen into 
the privy : trua, because by it the water iravolat ' flies 
across.' From the same is named the truleum * 
' basin ' ; for it is like in shape, except that it is 
broader because it is to hold water, and that the handle 
is not channelled except in the case of a win^-triileumJ 

119- There was also the matelUo ' pot,' named as 
well as modelled after the matula ' chamber-pot,' 
which, after it had got quite far away from the shape 
of a matula, was called also an aqualis ' wash-basin,' 
from aqua ' water.' A jar for water they called a 
futis,'^ because with it in the dining-room they infunde- 
hant ' poured on ' the guests' hands the water that 
had been brought ; for the performance of this same 
service there was afterward added a vessel ^ with the 
Greek name of names ' dwarf ' and the Latin name 
harbatus ' bearded man,' because of the Greek figure. 
Pelvis "^ ' basin ' was earlier pedeluis, from the lavatio 
' washing ' of the pedes ' feet.' Candelabrum ' candle- 
stick,' from candela ' taper ' ; for from these blazing 
cords were hung. The lucerna ^ ' lamp ' was invented 
later ; it was named from lux ' light ' or because the 
Greeks call it Ai'^vos. 

120. Vessels on the eating-table : The vessel in 
which they set on the table porridge or anything with 
a great deal of juice, they called a catinus ' pot,' from 
capere " ' to contain,' unless it is because the Sicilians 
call that in which they put their roasts a KctTtj'os. 

§ 119. " Wrong etymology. * A jar in the form of a 
bearded dwarf. ' Wrong etj'mology. '' A native word, 
from the root of lux. 

§ 120. " Wrong ; and the Sicilian word was borrowed 
from Latin. 

115 



VARRO 

bant ; magidam aut langulam alterum a magnitudine 
alterum a latitudine finxerunt. Patenas a patulo 
dixerunt, ut pusillas,quod his libarentcenam,patellas. 
Tn/Wia^ et canistra quod putant esse Latina, sunt 
Graeca : rpuySAioi'* enim et Kavovv* d(i)c(untur)° 
Graece.* Reliqua quod aperta sunt unde sint 
relinquo. 

XXVI. 121. Mensa vinaria rotunda nominabatur 
ci(l>liba <a>nte,i ut etiam nunc in castris. Id videtur 
declinatum a Graeco kvXik€uo,^ (id)' a poculo cylice 
qui (in)' ilia. Capi(/(es)* et minores capulae a 
capiendo, quod ansatae ut prehendi possent, id est 
capi. Harum figuras in vasis sacris ligneas ac fictiles 
antiquas etiam nunc videmus. 

122. Praeterea in poculis erant paterae, ab eo 
quod late (pate)n<i ita^ dictae. Hisce etiam nunc in 
publico convivio antiquitatis retinendae causa, cum 
magistri fiunt, potio circumfertur, et in sacrificando 
deis hoc poculo magistratus dat deo vinum. Pocula a 
potione, unde potatio et etiam posca.' Haec possunt 
a TTOTO),* quod ttotos potio Graece. 
^ Aug., with B, for triplia. ' Aug., with B, for triplion. 

* L. Sp., for c&nunun Fv. ^ GS., for de. ^ Canal, for 
greca. 

§ 121. ^ GS., for cilibantum. ^ Turnebiis, for culiceo. 
' Added by Mue. * L. Sp. ; capis Turnebits ; for capit. 

§ 122. ^ GS. ; patent L. Sp. ; pateant latine Aldus ; for 
latini. ^ After ita, A Idus deleted dicunt. ' Turnebus, 
for postea. * Mue., for poto. 

* From Greek jitayis ' a round pan.' " Better lancula, 
diminutive of lanx ' platter.' "^ Correct, except that canis- 
truin is from Greek Kaviarpov ' bread-basket,' made of Kawai 
'reeds ' ; page 117 Funaioli. 

§ 121. " Cf. § 118, where a different etymology is given. 

§ 122. " Not from Greek, but from an Indo-European 
root inherited by Latin as well as by Greek. *" The Greek 
word means properly not a ' draught,' but a ' drinking-bout.' 
116 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 120-122 

The magida ^ and the langula," both meaning ' platter/ 
they named from the magnitudo ' size ' of the one and 
the latitudo ' width ' of the other. Patenae ' plates ' 
they called from patulum ' spreading,' and the Uttle 
plates, with which they offered the gods a preliminary 
sample of the dinner, they called patellae ' saucers.' 
Tryblia ' bowls ' and canistra ' bread-baskets,' though 
people think that they are Latin, are really Greek <* : 
for TpvBXiov' and navovv are said in Greek. The 
remaining terms I pass by, since their sources are 
obvious. 

XXVL 121. A round table for wine was formerly 
called a cilliba," as even now it is in the camp. This 
seems to be derived from the Greek KvXtKeiov 
' buffet,' from the cup cylij: which stands on it. The 
capides ' bowls ' and smaller capulae ' cups ' were 
named from capere ' to seize,' because they have 
handles to make it possible for them prekendi ' to be 
grasped,' that is, capi ' to be seized.' Their shapes we 
even now see among the sacred vessels, old-fashioned 
shapes in wood and earthenware. 

122. In addition there were among the drinking- 
cups the paterae ' libation-saucers,' named from this, 
that they patent ' are open ' wide. For the sake of 
preserving the ancient practice, they use cups of this 
kind even now for passing around the potio ' draught ' 
at the public banquet, when the magistrates enter 
into their office ; and it is this kind of cup that the 
magistrate uses in sacrificing to the gods, when he 
gives the wine to the god. Pocula ' drinking-cups,' 
from potio ' draught,' whence potatio ' drinking bout ' 
and also posca ' sour wine.' ° These may however 
come from ttotos, because ttotos is the Greek for 
potio. ^ 

117 



VARRO 

123. Origo potionis aqua, quod oequa summa. 
Fons unde funditur e terra aqua viva, ut fistula a qua 
fusus aquae. Vas vinarium grandius sinum ab sinu, 
quod sinum maiorem cav(a>tionem^ quam pocula 
habebant. Item dictae lepestae,^ quae etiam nunc 
in diebus sacris Sabinis vasa vinaria in mensa deorum 
sunt posita ; apud antiquos scriptores Graecos inveni 
appellari poeuli genus St-ea-rav^ : quare vel inde 
radices in agrum Sabinum et Romanum sunt pro- 
fectae. 

124. Qui vinum dabant ut minutatim funderent, 
a guttis guttum appellarunt ; qui sumebant minu- 
tatim, a sumendo simpmum^ nominarunt. In huiusce 
locum in conviviis e Graecia successit ep«ch^sis et 
cyathus ; in sacruficiis remansit guttus et sim- 
puium.^ 

125. Altera vasaria^ mensa erat^ lapidea quadrata 
oblonga una columella ; vocabatur cartibulum. Haec 
in aedibus ad compluvium apud multos me puero 
ponebatur et in ea et <cir)cum ea<m)' aenea vasa : a 
gerendo cartibulum* potest dictum. 

§123. ^ Aldus, for cautionem. ^ Mue. ; dicta lepeste 
Sciop. ; for dicta flepeste /. ' For depestam Fv. 

§ 124. ^ Brinkmann, for simpulum. 

§ 125. ^ For uasaria, ic'dh uin icritten above, both in 
Fv and in f. ^ For erant /. * Christ, for cum ea. 
* cartibum /, //, V, a, p (cartibum unde cartibulum Laetus ; 
gertibulum unde cartibulum B, Aug.), 

§ 123. " Wrong on aqua, fons, fistula, sinum (note the 
quantities in sinum and sinus). * From Greek AeTraoriy, a 
drinking-cup shaped like a Acttcij ' limpet.' ' Not else- 

where attested with d. 

§ 124. " From a Greek word, but popularly remodelled to 
resemble gutta ' drop.' 
118 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 123-125 

123." The source of a drink is aqua ' water,' so 
called because its surface is aequa ' level.' A Jons 
' spring ' is that from which running water Junditur 
' is poured ' out of the earth, just as & fistula ' pipe ' is 
that from which there is afiusus ' outpour ' of water. 
The sinum is a \Wne-jar of a larger sort, called from 
sinus ' belly,' because the sinum had a greater cavity 
than cups. Likewise there are those called lepestae,^ 
the kind of wine-jars that are even now, on the days of 
the Sabine festivals, placed on the table of the gods ; 
I have found in ancient Greek writers a kind of cup 
called 6€7recrTa,'^ for which reason the source of the 
name quite certainly set out from there into the 
Sabine and Roman territory. 

121. Those who were giving wine in such a way as 
to pour it little by little, called the vessel a guttus " 
' cruet,' from the guttae ' drops ' ; those who were 
taking it little by little from a larger container, called 
the instrument a simpuvium ' dipping ladle,' from 
sumere ' to take out.' Into its place, in banquets, 
there came from Greece the epichysis ' pouring ladle ' 
and the cyathus ' dipping ladle ' ; but in the sacrifices 
the guttus and the simpuvium remained in use. 

125. A second kind of table for vessels was of 
stone, an oblong rectangle with one pedestal ; it was 
called a cartihulum. When I was a boy this used to be 
placed in many persons' houses near the opening in 
the roof of the court, and on and around it were set 
bronze vessels ; perhaps cartibulum " was said from 
gerere ' to carry.' ^ 

§ 1-25. " Of unknown etymology ; commonly spelled 
gartibulum (for early C in value of g, cf. v. 6-t, note/), but 
not connected with gerere. * That is, from carrying the 
vessels. 

119 



VARRO 

XXVII. 126. Praeterea erat tertium genus mensae 
it{emy quadratae vasorum ; voca<ba>tur2 urnarium, 
quod urnas cum aqua positas ibi potissimum habebant 
in culina. Ab eo etiam nunc ante balineum locus ubi 
poni solebat urnarium vocatur. Urnae dictae, quod 
urinant in aqua Aaurienda ut wrinator. C7rinare' est 
mergi in aquam. 

127. Ainburvo(my fictum ab urt^o,^ quod ita 
flexum ut redeat sursum versus ut^ in aratro quod est 
wrvum.* Calix a caldo, quod in eo calda puls^ appone- 
batur et caldum eo bibebant. Vas ubi coquebant 
cibum, ab eo caccabum appellarunt. Very* a ver- 
sando. 

XXVIII. 128. Ab sedendo appellatae sedes, 
sedile, so/mm/ sellae, siliquastrum ; deinde ab his 
subsellium : ut subsipere quod non plane sapit, sic 
quod non plane erat sella, subsellium. Ubi in eius- 
modi duo, bisellium dictum. Area, quod arcebantur 

§ 126. ^ GS., for et. " uocabatur, icUh ba expunged, 
V ; uocatur other MSS. ^ Bentinus, for orinator orinare. 

§127. ^ Kent ; imburvom Mue. ; imburum Aldus, with 
B ; for impurro. ^ Mue., for urbo. ^ Aldus, for est. 
* B, for aruum. * Laetus, for plus. * Aldus, for uera. 

§ 128. ^ Aug., for souum. 

§ 126. " Wrong etymology. * Derivative of urina at 
an early date when urina still meant merely ' water,' and not 
specifically ' urine.' 

§ 127. " ' Bent about,' a vessel shaped like a gravy-boat ; 
if my conjecture as to the spelling of the word is right, there 
is basis for Varro's etymology. * Of uncertain etymology, 

but popularly derived by the Romans from Greek /cu'Ai^ 
' cup,' the normal meaning also of Latin calix, but not the 
meaning in this passage. " P'rom Greek KaKKa^os, a pot 

M'ith three legs, to stand over the fire. ** Wrong. 

120 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 126-128 

XXVIL 126. Besides there was a third kind of 
table for vessels, rectangular like the second kind ; it 
was called an urnarium, because it was the piece of 
furniture in the kitchen on which by preference they 
set and kept the iirnae ' urns ' filled with water. From 
this even now the place in front of the bath where 
the urn-table is wont to be placed, is called an 
urnarium. Umae ' urns ' got their name " from the 
fact that they urinant * ' dive ' in the drawing of 
water, like an urinator ' diver.' Urinare means to be 
plunged into water. 

127. Amburvum,'^ a pot whose name is made from 
urvum ' curved,' because it is so bent that it turns up 
again like the part of the plough which is named the 
urvum 'beam.' Calix^ 'cooking-pot,' from caldum 
' hot,' because hot porridge was served up in it, and 
they drank hot liquid from it. The vessel in which 
they coquebajit ' cooked ' their food, from that they 
called a caccabus.'^ Veru ' spit,' from versare ' to 
turn.' ** 

XXVIIL 128. From sedere ' to sit ' were named 
sedes ' seat,' sedile ' chair,' solium ' throne,' seltae " 
' stools,' siliquastrum * ' wicker chair ' ; then from 
these stibsellium ' bench ' : as subsipere is said a thing 
does not sapit ' taste ' clearly, so subsellium because 
it was not clearly <^ a sella ' stool.' Where two had 
room on a seat of this sort, it was called a bisellium 
' double seat.' An area ' strong-chest,' because 
thieves areebantur ' were kept away ' from it when it 

§ 128. " With II from dl. * Probably seliquastrum (or 
selli-), as in Festus, 340 b 10, 341. 5 ; Fay suggests ' seat- 
basket ' {sella + qualum + suffix), citing certain tj-pes of Mexi- 
can chairs. ' Rather ' under-seat,' that is, a seat under 
the sitter. 

121 



VARRO 

fures ab ea clausa. Armarium et armamentarium ab 
eadem origine, sed declinata aliter. 

XXIX. 129. Mundus <ornatus>i muliebris dictus 
a munditia. Ornatus quasi ab ore natus : hinc enim 
maxime sumitur quod eam deceat, itaque id paratur 
speculo." Calamistrum, quod his calfactis in cinere 
capftllus ornatur. Qui ea ministrabat, a cinere cinera- 
rius est appellatus. Discerniculum, quo discernitur 
capillus. Pecten, quod per eum explicatur capillus. 
Speculum a speciendo,^ quod ibi <s>e spectant.* 

130. Vestis a vellis vel^ ab eo quod vellus lana 
tonsa universa ovis : id dictum, quod vellebant.2 
Lan<e)a,' ex lana facta. Quod capillum contineret, 
dictum a rete reticulum ; rete ab raritudine ; item 
texta fasciola,qua capillum in eapite alligarent, dictum 
capital a eapite, quod sacerdotulae in eapite etiam 
nunc Solent habere. Sic rica ab ritu, quod Romano 
ritu sacrificium feminae cum faciunt, capita velant. 

§ 129. 1 Added by GS. ; cf. Festus, 143. 1 J/. ^ A. 
Sp., for speculum. ' Laetus, for spiciendo. * a, b, 
Turnebus, for espectant. 

§ 130. ^ Laetus, for uela. ^ B, Laetus, for uellabant. 
' Turnebus, for lana. 

■^ Both area and arcere are derived from arx ' stronghold.' 
« Not connected with area ; but belonging together. 

§ 129. " Munditia is derived from mundus. * Wrong 
etymologies. 

§ 130. " Both etymological suggestions for vestis are 
wrong ; for the meaning, see A. Spengel, Bemerkungen, 264. 

122 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 128-130 

was locked.'' Armarium ' closet ' and armamentarium 
' warehouse,' from the same somxie,* but with different 
suffixes. 

XXIX. 129. yiundus is a woman's toilet set, 
named" from munditia 'neatness.' Ornatus 'toilet 
set,' as if naius * born ' from the os ' face ' *" ; for 
from this especially is taken that which is to 
beautify a woman, and therefore this is handled 
with the help of a mirror. Calamistrum ' curling- 
iron,' because the hair is arranged with irons when 
they have been calfacta ' heated ' in the embers.* 
The one who attended to them was called a cinerarius 
' ember-man,' from cinis ' embers.' Discerniculum 
' bodkin,' \\ith which the hair discernitur ' is parted.' 
Pecten ' comb,' because by it the hair expUcatur ' is 
spread out.' * Speculum ' mirror,' from specere ' to 
look at,' because in it they spectant ' look at ' them- 
selves. 

130. Vestis ' garment ' " from velU * ' shaggy hair,' 
or from the fact that the shorn wool of a sheep, taken 
as a whole, is a vellus ' fleece ' : this was said because 
they formerly vellebant ' plucked ' it. Lanea ' woollen 
headband,' "^ because made from lana ' wool.' That 
which was to hold the hair, was called a reticulum ' net- 
cap,' from rete ' net ' ; rete, from rariiudo ' looseness 
of mesh.' ** Likewise the woven band vrith which 
they were to fasten the hair on the head, was called 
a capital ' headband,' from caput ' head ' ; and this 
the sub-priestesses are accustomed to wear on their 
heads even now. So rica ' veil,' from ritus ' fashion,' ^ 
because according to the Roman ritus, when women 
make a sacrifice, they veil their heads. The mitra 

" Vellig, dialectal for villis. * For meaning, see A. Spen- 
gel, Bemerkungen, 264. '* Wrong etymologies. 

123 



VARRO 

Mitra et reliqua fere in capite postea addita cum 
vocabulis Graecis. 

XXX. 131. Prius deinde (ind)utui,i turn amictui 
quae sunt tangam. Capitium ab eo quod capit pec- 
tus, id est, ut antiqui dicebant, comprehendit. In- 
dutui alterum quod subtus, a quo subucula ; alterum 
quod supra, a quo supparus, nisi id quod item dicunt 
Osce. Alterius generis item duo, unum quod foris 
ac palam, palla ; alterum quod intus, a quo (indusium, 
ut)^ intusium, id quod Plautus dicit : 

Indusiatam' patagiatam caltulam* ac crocotulam. 

Multa post luxuria attulit, quorum vocabula apparet 
esse Graeca, ut asbest(in>on.* 

132. Amictui dictum quod a(m>biectum^ est, id 
est circumiectum,2 a quo etiam quo^ vestitas se invol- 
vunt, circumiectui appellant, et quod amictui habet 
pui'puram circum, vocant circumtextum. Antiquis- 
simi amictui ricinium ; id quod eo utebantur duplici, 

§ 131. ^ B, Turnebus, for deinde utui Fv, /. " Added 
by GS. ^ GS., for intusiatam ; after the text of Plautus. 
* Laetus, for caltuluni ,• after the text of Plautus. * GS., 
for asbeston ; cf. Pliny, Nat. Hist. xix. 4. 20. 

§132. ^ il/«e.,/orabiectum. ^ ^'/(;/)'., /or circumlectum. 
^ G, Aug., for quod. 

§ 131 . " The datives indutui, amictui, and circumiectui, are 
used in § 131 and § 132 as indeclinables, XWaefrugi ' thrifty,' 
cordi ' pleasant,' original datives of purpose that have become 
stereotyped. * from caput ' head,' because it was put on 

over the head like a sweater. * From sub and the verb in 
ind-uere, ' to put on,' ex-uere ' to take off.' "* Probably 
Oscan. «Of unknown etymology. ^From induere 

'to put on.' ' Epidicus, 231. * The Latin words are 
adjectives modifying tunicam in the preceding line. • Made 
of a mineral substance called aa^earos. 
124 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 130-132 

' turban ' and in general the other things that go on 
the head, were later importations, along with their 
Greek names. 

XXX. 131. Next I shall first touch upon those 
things which are for putting on," then those which are 
for wrapping about the person. Capitium * ' vest,' 
from the fact that it capit ' holds ' the chest, that is, as 
the ancients said, it comprehendit ' includes ' it. One 
kind of put-on goes subtus ' below,' from which it is 
called subucula *= ' underskirt ' ; a second kind goes 
supra ' above,' from which it is called supparus ^ 
' dress,' unless, this is so called because they say it in 
the same way in Oscan. Of the second sort there are 
like^\ise two varieties, one called /)a//a ^ ' outer dress,' 
because it is outside and palam ' openly ' visible ; the 
other is intus ' inside,' from which it is called indusium ^ 
' under-dress,' as though intusium, of which Plautus 
speaks ^ : 

Under-dress, a bordered dress, of marigold and saffron 
hue.* 
There are many garments which extravagance 
brought at later times, whose names are clearly 
Greek, such as asbestinon ' ' fire-proof.' 

132. Amictid ' wrap ' is thus named because it is 
ambiectum ' thrown about,' that is,circu)fiiectum ' thrown 
around,' from which moreover they gave the name of 
circnmiectid ' throw-around ' to that with which women 
envelop themselves after they are dressed ; and any 
wrap that has a purple edge around it, they call 
circumtextum ' edge-weave.' Those of very long ago 
called a wrap a ricinium ' mantilla ' ; it was called 
ricinium from reicere ' to throw back,' " because they 

§ 132. " Properly from rlca (§ 130) ; it was a square piece 
of cloth worn folded over the head in sign of mourning. 

125 



VARRO 

ab eo quod dimidiam partem retrorsum «aciebant,* ab 
reiciendo ricinium dictum. 

133. (Pallia)! hinc, quod facta duo simplicia paria, 
parilia primo dicta, R exclusum" propter levitatem. 
Parapechia,* chlami/des,* sic multa, Graeca. Laena/ 
quod de lana multa, duarum etiam togarum instar ; 
ut antiquissimum mulierum ricinium, sic hoc duplex 
virorum. 

XXXI. 134. Instrumenta rustica quae serendi aut 
colendi fructus causa facta. Sarculum ab serendo ac 
san'endo.! Ligo, quod eo propter latitudinem quod 
sub terra facilius legitur. Pala a pangendo, (Ly 
GL quod fuit. Rutrum ruitrum a ruendo. 

135. Aratrum, quod a(r>ruit! terram. Eius fer- 
rum vomer, quod vomit eo plus terram. Dens, quod 
eo mordetur terra ; super id regula quae stat, stiva 
ab stando, et in ea transversa regula manicula, quod 
manu bubulci tenetur. Qui quasi temo est inter 

* Laetus, for faciebant. 

§ 138. ! Added by Canal. ' Mue. ; R esclusum 
Turnebus ; for resclusum /, resculum Fv. ' For para- 
pecchia Ft'. ^ Ed. Fe«e<a, /or clamides. ^ Aldus, for 
lena. 

§ 134. 1 Aldus, for sarcendo. " Added by Ellis. 

§ 135. 1 Turnebus, for aruit ; cf. Varro, De Re Rustica, i. 
35, terra adruenda. 

§ 133. " Probably of Greek origin. ^ Greek napaTnjxvs 

' beside the elbow,' also ' woman's garment with purple 
border on each side.' The Latin word seems to come from 
the diminutive irapaTrrjxtov ' radius, small bone below the 
elbow,' which however may also have denoted the woman's 
garment, though this is not attested. " Probably from 
Greek x^aTva, perhaps with an Etruscan intermediary. 

126 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 132-135 

«ore it doubled, throwing back one half of it over 
the other. 

133. Pallia " ' cloaks ' from this, that they con- 
sisted of two single paria ' equal ' pieces of cloth, 
called ^anVm at first, from which R was ehminated for 
smoothness of sound. Parapechia ^ ' elbow-stripes,' 
chlamydes ' mantles,' and many others, are Greek. 
Laena " ' overcoat,' because they contained much lana 
wool,' even like two togas : as the ridnium was the 
most ancient garment of the women, so this double 
i^arment is the most ancient garment of the men. 

XXXL 131. Farming tools which were made for 
planting or cultivating the crops. Sarculum " ' hoe,' 
from severe ' to plant ' and sarire ' to weed.' Ligo ^ 
' mattock,' because with this, on account of its width, 
what is under the ground legitur ' is gathered ' more 
easily. Pala '^ ' spade ' from pangere ' to fix in the 
earth ' ; the L was originally GL. Rutrum ' shovel,' 
previously ruitrum, from mere ' to fall in a heap.' 

135." Aratrum ' plough,' because it arruit * ' piles 
up ' the earth. Its iron part is called vomer ' plough- 
share,' because with its help it the more vomit ' spews 
up ' the earth. The dens ' colter,' because by this the 
earth is bit ; the straight piece of wood which stands 
above this is called the stiva ' handle,' from stare ' to 
stand,' and the wooden cross-piece on it is the mani- 
cula ' hand-grip,' because it is held by the manus 
' hand ' of the ploughman. That which is so to speak 
a wagon-tongue between the oxen, is called a bura 

§134. " Yrom sarire. * Of uncertain origin. «'Cor- 
rect ; but from pag + sld, with loss of the extra consonants in 
the group. 

§ 135. " Wrong on aratrum, vomer, stiva, bura, urvum. 
'' Really from arat ' it ploughs.' 

127 



\ ARRO 

boves, bura a bubus ; alii hoc a curvo urvum^ appel- 
lant. Sub iugo medio caviim, quod bura extrema 
addita oppilatur, vocatur couw' a eavo.* lugum et 
iumentum ab iunctu. 

136. Irpices regula compluribus dentibus, quam 
item ut plaustrum boves trahunt, ut eruant quae in 
terra ser<p>unti ; sirpices, postea (irpices)^ S detrito. 
a quibusdam dicti. Rastelli ut irpices serrae leves ; 
itaque^ homo in pratis per feniseci'a* eo festucas 
corradit, quo ab rasu rastelli dicti. Rastri, quibus 
denta<is* penitus eradunt terram atque eruunt, a quo 
rutu n/a(s>tri^ dicti. 

137. Falces a farre littera^ commutata ; hae in 
Campania seculae a secando ; a quadam similitudine 
harum aliae, ut quod apertum unde, falces fenariae 
et arbor(ar)iae2 et, quod non apertum unde, falces 
lumaria(e>' et sirpiculae. Lumariae sunt quibus 
secant lumecta, id est cum in agris serpunt spinae ; 
quas quod ab terra agricolae solvunt, id est luunt, 
lumecta. Falces sirpiculae vocatae ab sirpando, id 

* Turnebus, for curuum. ^ Aug., with B, for cous Fi\ 

* Rhol., for couo. 

§ 136. ^ Turnebus, for serunt. ^ Added by Mue. 
^ Aug., with B, for ita qua. * Aug., for fenisecta. 

^ Turnebus, for dentalis. ^ Kent ; rutu rastri Scaliger : 
erutu rastri Turnebus ; for ruturbatri Fo. 

§ 137. ^ For litera in Fv, as often. ^ Georges, for 
arboriae ,• cf. Varro, De Re Bust. i. 22. 5, and Cato, De Agric. 
10. 3. * For lumaria. 

" The earlier form of cavus ' hollow ' was in fact covos. 

§ 13(). " Properly hirpices, from hirpus, the Samnite word 
for ' wolf.' *" Roots of weeds and grasses. " Diminu- 

tive of rastrum ; therefore ultimately from radere. ^ Mas- 

culine plural of neuter singular rastrum, from radere ' to 
scrape.' 
128 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 135-137 

' beam,' from botes ' oxen ' ; others call this an urvum, 
from the curvuin ' curve.' The hole under the middle 
of the yoke, which is stopped up by inserting the 
end of the beam, is called count, from cavum ' hole.' " 
lugum ' yoke ' and iumentum ' yoke-animal,' from 
iunctus ' joining or yoking.' 

136. Irpices " ' harrows ' are a straight piece of 
wood with many teeth, which oxen draw just like 
a wagon, that they may pull up the things * that 
serpunt ' creep ' in the earth ; they were called sir- 
pices and afterwards, by some persons, irpices, with 
the S worn off. Rastelli '^ ' hay -rakes,' Uke harrows, 
are saw-toothed instruments, but light in weight ; 
therefore a man in the meadows at haying time 
corradit ' scrapes together ' with this the stalks, 
from which rasus ' scraping ' they are called rastelli. 
Rastri^ ' rakes ' are sharp-toothed instruments by 
which they scratch the earth deep, and eruunt ' dig 
it up,' from which rutus ' digging ' they are called 
ruastri. 

137. Falces ' sickles,' itom. far ' spelt,' ** with the 
change of a letter ; in Campania, these are called 
seculae, from secare ' to cut ' ; from a certain Ukeness 
to these are named others, the falces fenariae ' hay 
scythes ' and arborariae ' tree pruning-hooks,' of 
obvious origin, and falces lumariae and sirpiculae, 
whose source is obscure. Lumariae * are those with 
which lumecta are cut, that is when thorns grow up in 
the fields ; because the farmers solvunt ' loosen,' that 
is, luunt ' loose,' them from the earth, they are called 
lumecta ' thorn-thickets.' Falces sirpiculae ^ are named 

§ 137. " Wrong. ^ Possibly for dumariae and dumeeta, 
with Sabine I for d ; c/. Festus, 67. 10 M. 'Apparently 
from sirpus ' rush,' collateral form of scirpus. 

VOL. I K 129 



VARRO 

est ab alligando ; sic sirpota* dolia quassa, cum 
alligata his, dicta. Utuntur in vinea alligando fasces, 
incisos fustes, faculas. Has iiranclas* Cher5o<ne>sice.* 

138. Pilum, quod eo far pisunt, a quo ubi id fit 
dictum pistrinum (L^ et S inter se saepe locum com- 
mutant), inde post in Urbe Lucili pistrina et pistrix. 
Trapetes^ molae oleariae ; vocant trapetes a terendo, 
nisi Graecum est ; ac molae a mol<l>iendo^ : harum 
enim motu eo coniecta mol(l>iuntur.* Vallum a 
volatu, quod cum id iactant volant inde levia. Ven- 
tilabrum, quod ventilatur in acre frumentum. 

139- Quibus conportatur fructus ac necessariae 
res : de his fiscina a ferendo dicta. Corbes ab eo 
quod eo spicas aliudve quid corruebant ; hinc minores 
corbulae dictae. De his quae iumenta ducunt, 
tragula, quod ab eo trahitur per terram ; sirpea, quae 
virgis sirpatur, id est colligando implicatur, in qua 
stercus aliudve quid vehitur. 

* Auff., with B, for sirpita. ^ Mue., for phanclas /, 

G, fanclas H, V, p. * Aug., with B, for chermosie /, 
chermosioe G, a. 

§ 138. 1 Aug., for R. " For trapetas Fv. ' Scaliger, 
for moliendo. * Scaliger, for moliuntiir. 

•* Cf. the fiaschi vestiti or ' clothed wine-flasks ' of modern 
Italy. * Messana in Sicily was before the Greek coloniza- 
tion named Zancle ' sickle,' from the shape of the cape on 
which it stood. There is no other evidence that this cape was 
called a Chersonesus, but as over twenty peninsulas are 
referred to by this name, it is possible that the name was 
applied here also. 

§ 138. " Varro's basis for this statement is not apparent. 
* Cf. 521 and 1250 Marx ; one must assume that one of the 
Satires of Lucilius was entitled Urbs. " From Greek. 

"* From molere ' to grind.' * Diminutive of vannu.i ' fan.' 

§ 139. "Wrong on fiscina and corbes. " Cf. § 137, 
note c. 
130 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 137-139 

from sirpare ' to plait of rushes,' that is, alUgare ' to 
fasten ' ; thus broken jars are said to have been 
sirpata ' rush-covered,' when they are fastened to- 
gether with rushes.** They use rushes in the vine- 
yard for tying up bundles of fuel, cut stakes, and 
kindling. These sickles they call zanclae in the 
peninsular dialect.* 

138. The pilum ' pestle ' is so named because with 
it they pisunt ' pound ' the spelt, from which the place 
where this is done is called a pistrinum ' mill '- — L 
and S often change places with each other" — and from 
that afterwards pistrina ' bakery ' and pistrix ' woman 
baker,' words used in LuciUus's City.^ Trapetes " are 
the mill-stones of the olive-mill : they call them 
trapetes from terere ' to rub to pieces,' unless the word 
is Greek ; and molae ^ from mollire ' to soften,' for 
what is thrown in there is softened by their motion. 
Vallum " ' small winnowing-fan,' from volatus ' flight,' 
because when they swing this to and fro the Ught 
particles volant ' fly ' away from there. Ventilahrum 
' winnowing-fork,' because with this the grain venti- 
latur ' is tossed ' in the air. 

139. Those means with which field produce and 
necessary things are transported. Of these, ^*c/na " 

rush-basket ' was named from Jerre ' to carry ' ; corbes 
' baskets,' from the fact that into them they corrue- 
hant ' piled up ' corn-ears or something else ; from 
this the smaller ones were called corbtdae. Of 
those which animals draw, the tragula ' sledge,' 
because it trahitur ' is dragged ' along the ground bv 
the animal ; sirpea ^ ' wicker wagon,' which sirpatur 
' is plaited ' of osiers, that is, is woven by binding 
them together, in which dung or something else is 
conveyed. 

131 



VARRO 

140. Vehiculum, in quo faba aliudve quid vehitur, 
quod e^ viminibus veetur^ aut eo vehitur. BreviMs^ 
vehiculum dictum est aliis ut* arcera, quae etiam 
in Duodecim Tabulis appellatur ; quod ex tabuhs 
vehiculum erat factum ut area,* arcera dictum. Plaus- 
trum ab eo quod non ut in his quae supra dixi (ex 
quadam parte),* sed ex omni parte palam est, quae 
in eo vehuntur quod perluce(n>t,^ ut lapides, asseres, 
tignum. 

XXXII. 141, Aedificia nominata a parte ut 
multa : ab aedibus et faciendo maxime aedificium. 
Et oppidum ab opi dictum, quod munitur opis causa 
ubi sint et quod opus est ad vitam gerendam ubi 
habeant tuto. Oppida quod opere^ muniebant, 
moenia ; quo moenitius esset quod exaggerabant, 
aggeres dicti, et qui aggerem contineret, moeru^.^ 
Quod muniendi causa portabatur, mwnus^ ; quod 
sepiebant oppidum eo moenere,* moerus.^ 

142. Eius summa pinnae ab his quas insigniti 

§140. ^GS.; ex Laetus ; for est. ^ Turnebus, for 
utetur. ' A. Sp., for breui est. * A. Sp., for uel. 

* Laetus, for arcar Fv. * Added by L. Sp. ' Aug., for 
perlucet. 

§141. ^ Aug., for operi. ^ Sciop., for moerum Fv. 
' Laetus, for manus. * Turnebus, for eae omoenere Fv. 

* Sciop., for murus. 

§ 140. " From vehere ' to carry.' * Page 116 Schoell. 

* From plaudere ' to creak.' 

§ 141, " Whence ' temple ' in the singular, ' house ' in the 
plural. Trom prefix ob + pedom 'place'; cf. neSov, San- 

skrit padam. " Munire, moenia, murus, munus all belong 

together ; oe is the older spelling, preserved in moenia in 
classical Latin. It is a question how far we ought to 
restore 7noe- for mu- in this passage ; possibly in all the 
132 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 140-142 

140. Vehiculum " ' wagon,' in which beans or some- 
thing else is conveyed, because it vietur ' is plaited ' or 
because vehitur ' camming is done ' by it. A shorter 
kind of wagon is called by others, as it were, an arcera 
covered wagon,' which is named even in the Twelve 
Tables ^ ; because the wagon was made of boards like 
an area ' strong box,' it was called an arcera. Plaus- 
irum " ' cart,' from the fact that unlike those which I 
have mentioned above it is palam ' open ' not to a 
certain degree but ever\- where, for the objects which 
are conveyed in it perlucent ' shine forth to \iew,' such 
as stone slabs, wooden beams, and building material. 

XXXIL 141. Jerfi^a'a ' buildings ' are, like many 
things, named from a part : from aedes " ' hearths ' 
&n6.facere ' to make ' comes certainly aedtficium. Op- 
pidum ^ ' town ' also is named from ops ' strength,' 
because it is fortified for ops ' strength,' as a place 
where the people may be, and because for spending 
their lives there is opus ' need ' of place where they 
may be in safety. Moenia <= ' walls ' were so named 
because they muniehant ' fortified ' the towns with 
opus ' work.' What thev exaggerabant ' heaped up ' 
that it might be moenitius ' better fortified,' was called 
aggeres '^ ' dikes,' and that which was to support the 
dike was called a moerus ' wall.' Because carrying 
was done for the sake of muniendi ' fortifying,' the 
work was a munus ' duty ' ; because they enclosed 
the town by this moenus, it was a moerus ' wall.' 

142. Its top was called pinnae'^ ' pinnacles,' from 
those feathers which distinguished soldiers are accus- 

words, since Varro had a fondness for archaic spellings. 
•* Exaggerare is from agger, which is from ad ' to ' and 
gerere ' to carry.' 

§ 142. " Literally, ' feathers.' 

133 



VARRO 

milites in galeis habere solent et in gladiatoribus 
Samnites. Turres a torvis, quod eae proiciunt ante 
alios. Qua viam relinquebant in muro, qua in op- 
pidum portarent, portas. 

143. Oppida condebant in Latio Etrusco ritu 
multi, id est iunctis bobus, tauro et vacca interiore, 
aratro circumagebant sulcum (hoc faciebant religionis 
causa die auspicato), ut fossa et muro essent muniti. 
Terram unde exculpserant, fossam vocabant et intror- 
sum «actami murum. Post ea'' qui fiebat orbis, urbis 
principium ; qui quod erat post murum, postmoerium 
dictum, eo usque* auspicia urbana finiuntur. Cippi 
pomeri stant et circum Anc«am et* circum^ Romam. 
Quare et oppida quae prius erant circumducta aratro 
ab orbe« et urvo urb<e>s ; et' ideo coloniae nostrae 
omnes in litteris antiquis scribuntur urbes,* quod item 
conditae ut Roma ; et ideo coloniae et urbes con- 
duntur, quod intra pomerium ponuntur. 

144. Oppidum quod primum conditum in Latio 
stirpis Romanae, Lavinium : nam ibi dii Penates 

§ 143. ^ Mue., for factam Fv. ^ Mue., for postea. 
* Mommsen, for eiusque. * Sciop.,for ars clamet. ^ B, 
Laetus, for circoum Fv. * Laetus, for urbe. ' Aldus, 
for urbs est. * For urbis. 

'' Heavy-armed fighters who were matched against Hght- 
armed plnnirapi ' feather-snatchers.' ' An Asiatic word 

brought by the Etruscans. "* Portare is from porta. 

§ 143. " That is, with the cow between the bull and the 
wall; but GS. take interiore with aratro, interpreting, 
" with the plough throwing up the earth on the inside." 
*■ The old form o{ pomerium. " An ancient L.atin town on 

the Appian Way between the Alban Lake and the Lake of 
Nemi. "* An attempt to explain the phrase urbes con- 
duntur ; in reality, condere means merely to set down in a 

134 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 142-144 

tomed to wear on their helmets, and among the 
gladiators the Samnites * wear. Turres "^ ' towers,' 
from torxi ' fiercely staring eyes,' because they stand 
out in front of the rest. Where they left a way in the 
wall, by which they might portare ' carry ' goods 
into the town, these they called portae •* ' gates.' 

143. Many founded towns in Latium by the 
Etruscan ritual ; that is, ^Wth a team of cattle, a bull 
and a cow on the inside," they ran a furrow around 
with a plough (for reasons of religion they did this on 
an auspicious day), that they might be fortified by a 
ditch and a wall. The place whence they had ploughed 
up the earth, they called ajbssa ' ditch,' and the earth 
thrown inside it they called the murus ' wall.' The 
orbis ' circle ' which was made back of this, was the 
beginning of the urbs ' city ' ; because the circle was 
post murum ' back of the wall,' it was called a post- 
moerium * ; it sets the limits for the taking of the 
auspices for the city. Stone markers of the pomerium 
stand both around Aricia '^ and around Rome. There- 
fore towns also which had earlier had the plough drawn 
around them, were termed urbes ' cities,' from orbis 
' circle ' and vrvum ' curved ' ; therefore also all our 
colonies are mentioned as urbes in the old wTitings, 
because they had been founded in just the same way 
as Rome ; therefore also colonies and cities conduntur 
' are founded,' because they are placed inside the 
pomerium.'* 

144." The first town of the Roman line which was 
founded in Latium, was Lavinium ; for there are our 

secure place where there is no danger of displacement or of 
theft. 

§ 144. " This section embodies the old Roman tradition ; 
the etymologies in it are purely aetiological. 

135 



VARRO 

nostri. Hoc a Latini filia, quae coniuncta Aeneae, 
Lavinia, appellatM(m>.i Hinc post triginta annos 
oppidum alterum conditur, Alba ; id ab sue alba 
nominatum. Haec e navi Aeneae cum fu(g>isset* 
Lavinium, triginta parit porcos ; ex hoc prodigio post 
Lavinium conditum annis triginta haec urbs facta, 
propter colorem suis et loci naturam Alba Longa dicta. 
Hinc mater Romuli Rhea, ex hac Romulus, hinc 
Roma. 

145. In oppido vici a via, quod ex <u>traque^ parte 
viae sunt aedificia. Fundulae^ a fundo, quod exitum 
non habe(n>t^ ac pervium non est. Angiportum, 
si(ve quod) id* angustum, (sive)* ab agendo et portu. 
Quo conferrent suas controversias et quae vende- 
rentur vellent quo ferrent, forum appellarunt. 

146. Ubi quid genera tim, additum ab eo cog- 
nomen, ut Forum Bovarium, Forum //olitorium : hoc 
erat antiquum Macellum, ubi Aolerum copia ; ea loca 
etiam nunc Lacedaemonii vocant /za/<eAAov, sed lones 
ostia^ Aortorum /«a/<eAAwTas Aortorum, et castelli 

§ 144. ^ Stanley, for appellata. ^ Aug., with B, for 
fuisset. 

§ 145. ^ Auff., with B, for dextra qui. ^ L. Sp., for 
fundullae. ^ B, for habet. * Mue., for si id. 

^ Added by Mue. 

§ 146. 1 For hostia. 

* It lay on the edge of the old volcanic crater containing the 
Alban Lake. 

§ 145. " A vicus is apparently a street on the ridge of a 
hill, with houses on each side ; this forms virtually the entire 
village. The word is not connected with via. * From the 
first part of angustum, +portus in its old meaning of ' pas- 

136 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 144r-146 

Penates. This was named from the daughter of 
Latinus who was wedded to Aeneas, Lavinia. Thirty 
years after this, a second town was founded, named 
Alba ; it was named from the alba ' white ' sow. 
This sow, when she had escaped from Aeneas 's ship 
to La\inium, gave birth to a Utter of thirty young : 
from this prodigy, thirty years after the founding of 
Lavinium, this second city was established, called Alba 
Longa ^ ' the Long White City,' on account of the 
colour of the sow and the nature of the place. From 
here came Rhea, mother of Romulus ; from her, 
Romulus ; from him, Rome. 

lio. In a town there are rid ' rows,' from via 
' street,' because there are buildings on each side of the 
I'm." Fundulae ' blind streets,' ^rova fundus ' bottom,' 
because they have no way out and there is no passage 
through. Angiportum * ' alley,' either because it is 
angustum ' narrow,' or from agere ' to drive ' and 
partus ' entrance.' The place to which they might 
conferre ' bring ' their contentions and might Jerre 
' carry ' articles which they wished to' sell, they called 
a. forum.'' 

Ii6. WTiere things of one class were brought, a 
denomination was added from that class, as the Forum 
Boarium ' Cattle Market,' the Forum HoUtoriuvi ' ^'ege- 
table Market ' : this was the old Macellum,'^ where 
holera ' vegetables ' in quantity were brought ; such 
places even now the Spartans call a macellum, but the 
lonians call the entrances to gardens " the macellotae 
of gardens," and speak of the macella ' entrances ' to 

sage-way.' But c/. P. W. Harsh, " Angiportum, Platea, and 
Vicus," in Class. Philol. xxxii. 44-58. ' Wrong. 

§ 146. « An old borrowing from Greek, where /xajceAAov 
meant ' latticed screen.' 

137 



VARRO 

fiaKeXXa." Secundum Tiberim ad (Por>^unium' Forum 
Piscarium vocant : ideo ait Plautus : 

Apud (Forum)* Piscarium. 

Ubi variae res ad Corneta Forum Cuppedinis a (cup- 
pedio, id est a)^ fastidio, quoc?^ multi Forum Cup?dinis' 
a cupiditate. 

147. Haec omnia posteaquam contracta in unum 
locum quae ad victum pertinebant et aedificatus 
locus, appellatum Macellum, ut quidam scribunt, 
quod ibi fuerit Aortus, alii quod ibi domus furi*,^ cui 
cognomen fuit Macellus, quae ibi publice sit diruta, 
e qua aedificatum hoc quod vocetur ab eo Macellum. 

148. In Foro Lacum Curtium a Curtio dictum 
constat, et de eo triceps historia : nam et Procilius 
non idem prodidit quod Piso, nee quod is Cornelius^ 
secutus. A Procilio relatum in eo loco dehisse terram 
et id ex S. C. ad Aaruspices relatum esse ; responsum 
deum ManiM<m)2 postilionem postulare, id est civem 
fortissimum eo demitti.* Tum quendam Curtium 
virum fortem armatum ascendisse in equum et a Con- 
cordia versum cum equo eo* praecipitatum ; eo facto 

^ macella Scaliger, for macelli. ^ Jordan, for iunium. 
* Added by GS., from Plautus, Cure. 474. * Added by 
GS. * Laetus, for quern. ' For cuppedinis. 

§ 147. ^ Stowasser, for fuerit ; cf. Festus, 125. 7 M. 

§ 148. ^ After Cornelius, Mue. deleted Stilo. * Laetus, 

for manio. * Turnebus, for eodem mitti. * A. Sp., 
with H, for eum. 

"> Cnrculio, 474. " Page 115 Funaioli. 

§147. "Page 116 Funaioli. * Seemingly only an 

aetiological story ; the cognomen is not otherwise known. 
Could it here be a corruption of Marcellus ? 

§ 148. " A writer on historical topics, possibly the Pro- 
cilius who was tribune of the plebs in 56 b.c. ^ L. Cal- 
purnius Pise Frugi, consul 133 b.c, adversary of the Gracchi ; 

138 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 146-148 

small fortified villages. Along the Tiber, at the 
sanctuary of Portunus, they call it the Forum Pis- 
carium ' Fish Market ' ; therefore Plautus says ^ : 

Down at the Market that sells the fish. 

Where things of various kinds are sold, at the Cornel- 
Cherry . Groves, is the Forum Cuppedinis ' Luxury 
Market,' from cuppedium ' delicacy,' that is, from 
fastidium ' fastidiousness ' ; many '^ call it the Forum 
Cupidinis ' Greed Market,' from cupiditas ' greed.' 

147. After all these things which pertain to human 
sustenance had been brought into one place, and the 
place had been built upon, it was called a Macellum, 
as certain writers say," because there was a garden 
there ; others say that it was because there had been 
there a house of a thief with the cognomen Macellus,* 
which had been demolished by the state, and from 
which this building has been constructed which is 
called from him a Macellum. 

148. In the Forum is the Locus Curtius ' Pool of 
Curtius ' ; it is quite certain that it is named from 
Curtius, but the story about it has three versions : for 
Procilius " does not tell the same story as Piso,'' nor 
did Cornelius ' follow the story given by ProciUus. 
Procilius states '^ that in this place the earth yawned 
open, and the matter was by decree of the senate 
referred to the haruspices ; they gave the answer that 
the God of the Dead demanded the fulfilment of a 
forgotten vow, namely that the bravest citizen be sent 
down to him. Then a certain Curtius, a brave man, 
put on his war-gear, mounted his horse, and turning 
away from the Temple of Concord, plunged into the 

author of a work on Roman history. ' Identity quite 
uncertain. <* Hist. Bom. Frag., page 198 Peter. 

139 



VARRO 

locum coisse atque eius corpus divinitus humasse ac 
reliquisse genti suae monumentum. 

149. Piso in Annalibus scribit Sabino bello, quod 
fuit Romulo et Tatio, virum fortissimum Met(t>ium 
Currium^ Sabinum, cum Romulus cum suis ex su- 
periore parte impressionem fecisset,^ in locum^ palus- 
trem, qui tum fuit in Foro antequam cloacae sunt 
factae, secessisse atque ad suos in Capitolium re- 
cepisse ; ab eo lacum (Curtium)* invenisse nomen. 

150. Cornelius et Lutatius^ scribunt eum locum 
esse fulguritum et ex S. C. septum esse : id quod 
factum es<se>t'' a Curtio consule, cui M. Genucius' 
fuit collega, Curtium appellatum. 

151. Arx ab arcendo, quod is locus munitissimus 
Urbis, a quo facillime possit hostis prohiberi. Career 
a coercendo, quod exire prohibentur. In hoc pars 
quae sub terra Tullianum, ideo quod additum a 
Tullio rege. Quod Syracusis, ubi de<licti>i causa 
custodiuntur, vocantur latomiae, <in)de* lautumia 

§ 149. 1 For curcium Fv. ^ After fecisset, Popma de- 
leted curtium. ' Laetus, for lacum. * Added by GS. 

§ 150. ^ Aug., with B, for luctatius. " 3fue., for est. 
' For genutius. 

§151. ^ Bergmann, for dc. ^ Mue. ; exmde Turnebus ; 
for et de. 



§ 149. " Hist. Bom. Frag., page 79 Peter. * Tradition- 
ally built by the first Tarquin ; ef. Livv, i. 38. 6, " Cf. 
Livy, i. 10-13, especially i. 12. 9-10 andl 13. 5. 

§ 150. " Q. Lutatius Catulus, 152-87 b.c, consul 102 as 
colleague of Marius in the victory over the Cimbri at Ver- 
cellae ; a writer on etymology and antiquities. * Hist. 

Bom. Frag., page 126 Peter ; Gram. Bom. Frag., page 105 
Funaioli. ' C. Curtius Chilo and M. Genucius Augurinus 

were colleagues in the consulship in 445 b.c. 

140 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 148-151 

gap, horse and all ; upon which the place closed up 
and gave his body a burial divinely approved, and 
left to his clan a lasting memorial. 

149. Piso in his Annah " MTites that in the Sabine 
War between Romulus and Tatius, a Sabine hero 
named Mettius Curtius, when Romulus with his men 
had charged down from higher ground and driven in 
the Sabines, got away into a swampy spot which at 
that time was in the Forum, before the sewers * had 
been made, and escaped from there to his own men 
on the Capitoline '^ ; and from this the pool found its 
name. 

150. Cornelius and Lutatius " >\Tite * that this 
place was struck by lightning, and by decree of the 
senate was fenced in : because this was done by the 
consul Curtius, "^ who had \L Genucius as his colleague, 
it was called the Lacus Curiius. 

151. The arx " ' citadel,' from arcere ' to keep off,' 
because this is the most strongly fortified place in the 
City, from which the enemy can most easily be kept 
away. The career ^ ' prison,' from coercere ' to con- 
fine,' because those who are in it are prevented from 
going out. In this prison, the part which is under the 
ground is called the Tullianum, because it was added 
by King TulUus. Because at Syracuse the place 
where men are kept under guard on account of 
transgressions is called the Latomiae " ' quarries,' from 

§ 151. "The northern summit of the Capitoline, on which 
stood the temple of Juno Moneta. * Beneath the Arx, at 

the corner of the Forum ; etymology wrong. ' Greek 

Xarofuai, contracted from Aooro/iiat, which gave the Latin 
word ; there were old tufa-quarries on the slopes of the 
Capitoline, and the excavation which formed the dungeon was 
probably a part of the quarry. 

141 



VARRO 

translatum, quod hie quoque in eo loco lapidicinae 
fuerunt. 

152. In <Aventi)wo^ Lauretum ab eo quod ibi 
sepultus est Tatius rex, qui ab Laurentibus inter- 
fectus est, (aut>* ab silva laurea, quod ea ibi excisa et 
aedificatus vicus : ut inter Sacram Viam et Macellum 
editum Corneta <a cornis),^ quae abscisae loco re- 
liquerunt nomen, ut ^esculetum ab aesculo* dictum 
et Fagutal a fago, unde etiam lovis Fagutalis, quod 
ibi sacellum. 

153. Armilustr(i>umi q}) ambitu lustri : locus 
idem Circus Maximus^ dictus, quod circum spectaculis 
aedificatus wbi^ ludi fiunt, et quod ibi circum metas 
fertur pompa et equi currunt. Itaque dictum in 
Cornicula<ria>* militis^ adventu, quem circumeunt 
ludentes : 

Quid cessamus ludos facere ? Circus noster ecce 
adest. 

§152. ^ Groth, for in eo. ^ Added by Sciop. 

' Added by Aug., with B. * Laetits, for escula. 

§ 153. ^ For armilustrum. " Laetus, for mecinus. 
' Aug., with B, for ibi. * Vertranius, for cornicula. 
' Turnebits, for milites. 

§ 152. " There is here a lacuna, or else the in eo of the 
manuscripts stands for in Aventino ; for the Lauretum was 
on the Aventine. 

§ 153. " The word denotes both the ceremony, held on 
October 19, and the place where it Mas performed, which 
seems originally to have been on the Aventine ; according to 
Varro, it was later held in the Circus, in the valley between 
the Aventine and the Palatine. According to Servius, in 
Aen. i. 283, the name was ambilustrum, so called because the 
ceremony was not legal unless performed by both (ambo) 
censors jointly ; it is possible that the word should be so 
emended here and at vi. 22. " Circum is merely the ac- 

142 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 151-153 

that the word was taken over as lautumia, because 
here also in this place there were formerly stone- 
quarries. 

1 52. On the Aventine " is the Lauretiim ' Laurel- 
Grove,' called from the fact that King Tatius was 
buried there, who was killed by the Laurentes ' Lauren- 
tines,' or else from the laurea ' laurel ' wood, because 
there was one there which was cut down and a street 
run through with houses on both sides : just as 
between the Sacred Way and I he higher part of the 
Macellum are the Corneta ' Cornel-Cherry Groves,' 
from corni 'cornel-cherry trees,' which though cut 
away left their name to the place ; just as the Aescu- 
letum ' Oak-Grove ' is named from aesculus ' oak-tree,' 
and the Fagutal ' Beech-tree Shrine ' from fagus 
' beech-tree,' whence also Jupiter Fagutalis ' of the 
B&ech-tree,' because his shrine is there. 

153. Armilustrium " ' purification of the arms,' from 
the going around of the lustrum ' purificatory offering'; 
and the same place is called the Circus Maximus, 
because, being the place where the games are 
performed, it is built up circum ^ ' round about ' for 
the shows, and because there the procession goes 
and the horses race circum ' around ' the turning-posts. 
Thus in The Story of the Helmet-Horn «^ the following 
is said at the coming of the soldier, whom they en- 
circle and make fun of : 

Why do we refrain from making sport ? See, here's 
our circus-ring. 

cusative of circus. « Frag. I of Plautus's Cornicularia, 

which may be taken as the Story of the Corniculiim, a horn- 
shaped ornament on the helmet, bestowed for bravery ; here 
apparently assumed by a braggart soldier, the miles of the 
text. 

143 



VARRO 

In circo primum unde mittuntur equi, nunc dicuntur 
carceres, Naevius oppidum appellat. Carceres dicti, 
quod coercentur^ equi, ne inde exeant antequam 
magistratus signum misit. Quod a(d> muri spmem' 
pmnis* turribusque* carceres olim fuerunt, scripsit 
poeta : 

Dictator ubi currum insidit, pervehitur usque ad 
oppidum. 

154. Intumus circus ad Murciae^ vocatur,* ut 
Procilius aiebat, ab urceis, quod is locus esset inter 
figulos ; alii dicunt a murteto declinatum, quod ibi id 
fuerit ; cuius vestigium manet, quod ibi est sacellum 
etiam nunc Murteae Veneris. Item simiU de causa 
Circus Flaminius dicitur, qui circum aedificatus est 
Flaminium Campum, et quod ibi quoque Ludis 
Tauriis equi circum metas currunt. 

155. Comitium ab eo quod coibant eo comitiis 
curiatis et litium causa. ^ Curiae duorum generum : 
nam et ubi curarent sacerdotes res divinas, ut^ curiae 

* p, Ed. Veneta (cohercentur Laetus), for coercuntur. 
' Mue., for a muris partem. * Laetus, for pennis. 

* Aug., for turribus qui. 

§ 154. ^ L. Sp.,for murcim Fv. ^ Sciop.,for uocatum. 
§ 155. ^ Mue. ; caussa Aug., with B ; causae Fv. ^ For 
et. 

** Merely the plural of career ' prison ' ; not related to 
coercere. * Naevius, Comic. Rom. Frag., inc. fab. II Rib- 
beck» ; R.O.L. ii. 148-149 Warmington. 

§ 154. " Hist. Rom. Frag., page 3 Peter. * Page 116 
Funaioli. " In the level ground of the Campus Martius, 
through which C. Flaminius Nepos as censor in 220 b.c. 
built the Via Flaminia, the great highway from Rome to the 
north, and near it the Circus Flaminius ; he was consul in 
217 and was killed in the battle with Hannibal at Lake 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 15S-155 

In the Circus, the place from which the horses are let 

go at the start, is now called the Carceres ' Prison- 
stalls,' but Nae\ius called it the Town. Carceres ^ 
was said, because the horses coercentur ' are held in 
check,' that they may not go out from there before 
the official has given the sign. Because the Stalls 
were formerly adorned with pinnacles and towers 
like a wall, the poet -v^Tote ' : 

When the Dictator mounts liis car, he rides the whole 
way to the Town. 

154. The very centre of the Circus is called ad 
Murciae ' at Murcia's,' as Procilius ^* said, from the 
urcei ' pitchers,' because this spot was in the potters* 
quarter ; others * say that it is derived from murtetum 
' myrtle-grove,' because that was there : of which a 
trace remains in that the chapel of Venus Murtea ' of 
the Myrtle ' is there even to this day. Likewise for a 
similar reason the Circus Flaminius ' Flaminian Circus ' 
got its name, for it is built ' circum ' around ' the 
Flaminian Plain, and there also the horses race 
circum ' around ' the turning-posts at the Taurian 
Games.** 

155. The Comitium ' Assembly-Place ' was named 
from this, that to it they coibant ' came together ' for 
the comitia curiata " ' curiate meetings ' and for law- 
suits. The curiae * ' meeting-houses ' are of two 
kinds : for there are those where the priests were to 
attend to affairs of the gods, like the old meeting- 

Trasumennus. '' Games in honour of the deities of the 
netherworld. 

§ 155. " Long before Varro's time, practically replaced by 
the comitia centuriata. * Curia denoted first a group of 
gentes ; then a meeting-place for such groups ; then any 
meeting-place. 

VOL. I L 145 



VARRO 

veteres, et ubi senatus humanas, ut Curia Hostilia, 
quod primus aedificavit Hostilius rex. Ante banc 
Rostra ; cuius id vocabulum, ex hostibus capta fixa 
sunt rostra ; sub dextra huius a Comitio locus sub- 
structus, ubi nationum subsisterent legati qui ad 
senatum essent missi ; is Graecostasis appellatus a 
parte, ut multa. 

156. Senaculum supra Graecostasim, ubi Aedis 
Concordiae et Basilica Opimia ; Senaculum vocatum, 
ubi senatus aut ubi seniores consisterent, dictum ut 
yepova-M^ apud Graecos. Lautolae ab lavando, quod 
ibi ad lanum Geminum aquae caldae fuerunt. Ab 
his palus fuit in Minore Velabro, a quo, quod ibi 
vehebantur Imtribus,^ velabrum, ut illud de quo supra 
dictum est. 

157. Aequimaelium, quod a<e>quata^ Maeli domus 
publics,^ quod regnum occupare voluit is. Locus ad 
Busta Gallica, quod Roma recuperata Gallorum ossa 

§ 156. ^ RhoL, for ierusia (gerusia G). ^ Ijaetus, for 
luntribus Fv. 

§157. * iJAoL, /or aquata. * ^^/dw*, /or publico. 

" The third king of Rome ; for his building of the curia, 
see Livy, i. 30. 2. "* This was the old stand, erected at 
least one hundred years before it was decorated in 338 by 
C. Maenius with six beaks of war-vessels taken in a battle 
with Antium ; c/. Livy, viii. 14. 8. * Presumably because 
the Greeks were the first to send such embassies ; when 
other nations began to send them, the name of the place 
had been established. 

§ 1 56. " As the two stands were at the foot of the Capito- 
line and the end of the Forum, the senaculum must have lain 
just in front of them. " Those over forty-six years of age, 

in distinction from the iuniores. "^ This temple lay appar- 

ently a little to the east of the Comitium, at the side of the 
Forum or slightly away from it. ''The tense of fuerunt 
a.ndi fuit indicates that the hot springs and the pool were no 
longer there in Varro's time. • Cf. v. 43-44. 

146 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 155-157 

houses, and those where the senate should attend to 
affairs of men, like the Hostilian Meeting-House, so 
called because King Hostilius '^ was the first to build 
it. In front of this is the Rostra ' Speaker's Stand ' <* : 
of which this is the name — the rostra ' beaks ' taken 
from the enemy's ships have been fastened to it. 
A little to the right of it, in the direction of the 
Comitium, is a lower platform, where the envoys of 
the nations who had been sent to the senate were 
to wait ; this, like many things, was called from a 
part of it, being named the Graecostasis ' Stand of 
the Greeks.' * 

156. Above the Graecostasis was the Senaculum " 
' Senate-Stand,' where the Temple of Concord and 
the Basilica Opimia are ; it was called Senaculum as 
a place where the senate or the seniores ** ' elders ' 
were to take their places, named like yepoiKria 
' assembly of elders ' among the Greeks. Lautolae 
' baths,' from lavare ' to wash,' because there near 
the Double Janus '^ there once were "^ hot springs. 
From these there was ^ a pool in the Lesser Velabrum, 
from which fact it was called velabrum because there 
they vehebantur ' were conveyed ' by skiffs, like that 
greater Velabrum of which mention has been made 
above.' 

157. The Aequimaelium ' Maelius-Flat,' because the 
house of Maelius was aequata ' laid flat ' by the state 
since he wished to seize the power and be king." The 
place Ad Busta Gallica ' At the Gauls' Tombs,' because 
on the recovery of Rome the bones of the Gauls who 

§ 157. ° Spurius Maelius, suspected of aiming at royal 
power, was slain by C. Servilius Ahala, magister equitum, in 
439 B.C., by direction of the dictator L. Quinctius Cincin- 
natus ; c/. Livy, iv. 13-14. 

147 



VARRO 

qui possederunt urbem ibi coacei'vata ac consepta. 
Locus qui vocatur Doliola ad Cluacam Maxumam, ubi 
non licet despuere, a doliolis sub terra. Eorum duae 
traditae historiae, quod alii inesse aiunt ossa cada- 
verum, alii Numae Pompilii religiosa quaedam post 
mortem eius infossa. Argzletum^ sunt qui scrip- 
serunt ab Argo La<ri>saeo,* quod is hue venerit 
ibique sit sepultus, alii ab argilla, quod ibi id genus 
terrae sit. 

158. Clivos Public<i>usi ab aedilibus plebei Pu- 
blici<i>s qui eum publice aedificarunt. Simili de causa 
Pullius et Cosconius, quod ab his viocuris dicuntur 
aedificati. Clivus Proximus a Flora susus'' versus 
Capitolium vetus, quod ibi sacellum lovis lunonis 
Minervae, et id antiquius quam aedis quae in Capi- 
tolio facta. 

159. Esquiliis^ Vicus Africus, quod ibi obsides ex 
Africa bello Punico dicuntur custoditi. Vicus Ct/prius 
a cj/pro, quod ibi Sabini cives additi consederunt, qui 

* Laetus, for argeletum. * Kent, for argola seu. 

§158. ^ ^w(/., /or publicum. ^ Victorius andTurnehus, 
for a floras usus. 

§ 159. ^ For exquiliis. 

* In 390 (or 388 ?) b.c. ; cf. Livy, v. 37 flF. ' Livy, v. 40. 8, 
and Festus, 69. 8 M., say that the burial of the sacred objects 
was at the time of the Gallic invasion. "^ A street along- 
side the Comitium ; clearly ' Clay-pit,' from argiUa, but 
commonly understood as Argi letum 'death of Argus.' 
According to Servius in Jen. viii. 345, Argus was murdered 
while he was a guest of Evander ; Evander gave him honour- 
able burial. « Page 115 P'unaioli. f My suggestion for 
the impossible argola seu of the text is based on the fact 
that both Argus the guardian of lo and Argus the son of 
Niobe were connected with the city Argos, whose citadel 

148 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 157-159 

had held Rome * were heaped up there and fenced in. 
The place near the Cloaca Maxima which is called 
Doliola ' The Jars,' where spitting is prohibited, from 
some doliola ' jars ' that were buried under the earth. 
Two stories about these are handed down : some say 
that bones of dead men were in them, others that 
certain sacred objects belonging to Numa Pompilius 
were buried in them after his death. "^ The Argile- 
tum,** according to some writers,* was named from 
Argus of Larisa,^ because he came to this place and 
was buried there ; according to others, from the 
argilla ' clav,' because this kind of earth is found at 
this place. 

158. The Cliviis'^ Publictus ' Pubhcian Incline,' 
from the members of the PubUcian gens ^ who as 
plebeian aediles constructed it by state authority. 
For like reasons the Cltvus Pullius and the Clivus Cos- 
conius, because they are said to have been constructed 
by men of these names as Street-Overseers. The 
Incline Xext-To-Flora is up towards the old Capitol, 
because there is in that place a chapel of Jupiter, 
Juno, and Minerva, and this is older than the temple 
which has been built on the Capitol. 

159. On the Esquiline there is a Vicus Africus 
* African Row,' because there, it is said, the hostages 
from Africa in the Punic War were kept under guard. 
The Vicus Cyprius ' Good Row,' from cuprum, because 
there the Sabines who were taken in as citizens 
settled, and they named it from the good omen : 

was named Larisa or Larissa ; and Evander's guest may 
well have been represented as coming thence. 

§ 158. " A street running steeply up a hill. * Two 
brothers Lucius and Marcus Publicius Malleolus, according 
to Festus, 238 b 28 M. 

149 



VARRO 

a bono omine id appellarunt : nam cj/prum Sabine 
bonum. Prope hunc Vicus Sceleratus, dictus a Tullia 
Tarquini Superbi uxore, quod ibi cum iaceret pater 
occisus, supra eum carpentum mulio ut inigeret^ 
iussit. 

XXXIII. 160. Quoniam vicus constat ex domibus, 
nunc earum^ vocabula vide(a>mus.^ Domus Graecum 
at ideo in aedibus saci-is ante cellam, ubi sedes dei 
sunt, Graeci dicunt tt/joSo/xov,^ quod po<s>t est,* 
o7rio-^o8o/Li<ov>.* Aedes^ ab aditu, quod piano pede 
adibant. Itaque ex aedibus efFerri indjctivo' funere 
praeco etiam eos dicit qui ex tabernis efferuntur, et 
omnes in censu villas inde <de)dicamus* aedes. 

161. Cavum aedium dictum qui locus tectus intra 
parietes relinquebatur patulus^ qui esset ad com- 
<m)unem omnium usum. In hoc locus si nullus 
relictus erat, sub divo qui esset, dicebatur testudo ab 
testudinis similitudine, ut est in praetorio et castris. 
Si relictum erat in medio ut lucem caperet,i deorsum 
quo impluebat, dictum impluium, susum qua com- 
pluebat, compluium : utrumque a pluvia. Tuscani- 
cum dictum a Tuscis, posteaquam illorum cavum 

* Ursinus, for iniceret. 

§ 160. ^ p, Aug., for eorum. ^ For uidemus Fv. 
' For prodomum Fv. * GS. ; post Vicforius ; for potest. 
' Victorius, for opisthodum Fv. * For aedis. ' Aug., 
with B, for inductiuo. * Mue., for inde dicamus. 

§ 161. ^ Aug., with B, for carperet Fv. 

§ 159. " The Sabine word for ' good ' was cupro- ; and 
Vicus Cyprius, if correctly written, must mean ' Cyprian 
Row ' or ' Copper Row.' * C/. Livy, i. 48. 7. 

§ 160. " Latin domus is akin to, not derived from, Greek 
So/xos. '■ Wrong ; an aedes is a building with a fireplace, 

150 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 159-161 

for cyprum means * good ' in Sabine." Near this is 
the Vicus Sceleraius ' Accursed Row,' named from 
Tullia wife of Tarquin the Proud, because when her 
father was lying dead in it she ordered her muleteer 
to drive her carriage on over his body.^ 

XXXIIL 160. Since a Row consists of houses, let 
us now look at the names of these. Domus ' house ' 
is a Greek word," and therefore in the temples the 
room in front of the hall where the abode of the god 
is the Greeks call 77po8o/xos ' front room,' and that 
which is behind they call oTrio-yoSo/xo? ' back room.' 
Aedes ' house,' from adittis ' approach,' because they 
adihant ' approached ' it on level footing.* Therefore 
the herald at an announced funeral says that those 
who are carried out of any building made of boards, 
are carried ex aedibus ' from the house ' ; and all the 
country-houses in the census-list we from that fact '^ 
call aedes. 

161. The cavum aedium ' inner court ' is said of the 
roofed part which is left open ^\'ithin the house-walls, 
for common use by all. If in this no place was left 
which is open to the sky, it was called a testudo 
' tortoise ' from the likeness to the testudo, as it is at 
the general's headquarters and in the camps. If 
some space was left in the centre to get the light, 
the place into which the rain fell down was called 
the impluvium, and the place where it ran together 
up above was called the compluvium ; both from 
pluiia ' rain.' The Tuscanicum ' Tuscan-style ' was 
named from the Tusci ' Etruscans,' after the Romans 

c/. Greek 'a'deiv ' to blaze.' " Because such villae were 
wooden buildings, and normally owned by Romans whose 
prominence would authorize them to have publicly announced 
funerals. 

151 



VARRO 

aedium simulare coeperunt. Atrium appellatum ab 
Atriatibus Tuscis : illinc enim exemplum sumptum. 
162. Circum cavum aedium erat unius cuiusque 
rei utilitatis causa parietibus dissepta : ubi quid con- 
ditum esse volebant, a celando cellam appellarunt ; 
penariam ubi penus ; ubi cubabant cubieulum ; ubi 
cenabant cenaculum voeitabant, ut etiam nunc 
Lanuvi apud aedem lunonis et in cetero Latio ac 
Faleri<i>s et Cordubae dicuntur. Posteaquam in 
superiore parte cenitare coeperunt, superioris domus 
universa cenacula dicta ; posteaquam ubi cenabant 
plura facere coeperunt, ut in castris ab hieme hiberna, 
hibernum domus vocarunt ; contraria . . . 

HIC DEFECIT EXEMPLAR FOLIIS DUOBUSl 

XXXIV. 163. . . . <quam re)ligionem^ Porcius 
designat cum de Ennio scribens dicit eum coluisse 
Tutilinae loca. Sequitur Porta Naevia, quod in 
nemoribus Naevi«s^ : etenim loca, ubi ea, sic dicta. 

§ 162. 1 Thus Ft: 

§163. ^ All ff., for ligionem. ^ Laehis, for naevms. 



§161. " AtriutH either from Atria, as Varro states, or 
from ater ' black,' because the roof was blackened by the 
smoke from the hearth-fire, which originally had to escape 
by the opening in the roof. 

§ 162. " In Spain, the modern Cordova. * Varro 
doubtless stated that a dining-room for summer use was 
called an aestiviim. 

§ 163. " The lost passage concluded with an account of 
the gates of the wall of Servius Tullius ; the extant text 
resumes just at the end of this description, giving the gates 
on the Aventine. * Page 44 Huschke. Porcius Licinus 
was a poet who flourished about 100 b.c. or slightly earlier. 
* Ennius lived on the Aventine ; according to Varro, near 

152 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 161-163 

began to imitate their style of inner court. The 
atrium ' reception hall ' was named " from the Etrus- 
cans of Atria ; for from them the model was taken. 

162. Around the inner court the house was divided 
by walls, making rooms useful for different purposes : 
where they \*ished something to be stored away, they 
called it a cella ' store-room,' from celare ' to conceal ' ; 
a penaria ' food-pantry,' where penus ' food ' was 
kept ; a atbiailum ' sleeping-chamber,' where they 
cuhabant ' lay down ' for rest ; where they cenabant 
' dined,' they called it a cenaciilum ' dining-room,' as 
even now such rooms are named at Lanu\ium in the 
Temple of Juno, in the rest of Latium, at Falerii, and 
at Corduba." After they began to take dinner up- 
stairs, all the rooms of the upper story were called 
cenacula ; still later, when they began to have several 
rooms for dining, they called one the hibernuni ' \\in- 
ter-room ' of the house, as in camps they speak of the 
hibema ' ^Wnter camp,' from hiems ' winter ' ; and on 
the other hand . . . ^ 

HERE THE MODEL COPY LACKED TWO LEAVES 

XXXIV. 163." . . . which worship Porcius " 
means when, speaking of Ennius, he says that he 
dwelt in the locality of Tutihna.'^ Next comes the 
Nae\'ian Gate,** so called because it is in the Nae\ian 
Woods : for the locality where it is, is called by this 
name. Then the Porta Rauduscula * ' Copper Gate,' 

the sanctuary of Tutilina, a goddess of protection. This 
must be near the Porta Capena or somewhat to the west of 
it, in the circuit of the Servian walls, before reaching the 
Porta yaevia. * On the south-east slope of the Aventine. 
' Or Raudusculana, whereby the road led over the central 
depression of the Aventine to the Ostian road. 

153 



VARRO 

Deinde Rauduscula, quod aerata fuit. Aes raudus 
dictum ; ex eo' veteribus in mancipiis scriptum : 

Raudusculo libram ferito. 

Hinc Lavernalis ab ara Lavernae, quod ibi ara eius. 

164. Praeterea intra mures video portas dici in 
Palatio Mucionis a mugitu, quod ea pecus in buceta 
turn (ante) antiquum^ oppidum exigebant ; alteram 
Romanulam, ab Roma dietam, quae habet gradus in 
Nova Fia* ad Volupiae sacellum. 

165. Tertia est lanualis, dicta ab lano, et ideo ibi 
positum lani signum et ius institutum a Pompilio, ut 
scribit in Annalibus Piso, ut sit aperta semper, nisi 
cum bellum sit nusquam. Traditum est memoriae 
Pompilio rege fuisse opertami et post Tito Manlio" 
consule bello CartAaginiensi primo confecto, et eodem 
anno apertam. 

XXXV. 166. Super lectulis origines quas adverti, 
hae : lectica, quod legebant unde eam^ facerent 

' After eo, L. Sp. deleted in. 

§ 164. ^ L. Sp., for bucitatuni antiquum (bucita turn 
Scaliger). ^ ScaUffer, for noualia. 

§ 165. ^ Scaliger, for apertam. ^ Aug, (manlio B), 
for titio manilio. 

§ 166. ^ Victorius, for iam. 

f The oldest " money " consisted of slabs or bars of aes rude 
' rough copper,' to which reference is here made. " A 
goddess of the netherworld, patroness of thieves ; the 
location of the gate with her altar is not known. 

§ 164. " The three gates in the old walls of the Palatine. 
* Or Porta Mugonia ; in the divine name Mucio the C has 
the early value of g. This gate was at the top of the Nova 
Via. " Leading up from the foot of the Nova Via. '' A 
goddess of pleasure. 

154 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 163-166 

because it was at one time covered with copper. 
Copper is called raudus ; from this the ancients had 
it ^mtten in their formula for symbolic sales : 

Let him strike the balance-pan with a piece of 
raudusJ 

From here, the Lavemal Gate, from the altar of 
Laverna,^ because her altar is there. 

164. Besides, inside the walls, I see, there are 
gates " on the Palatine : the Gate of Mucio,** from 
miigitus ' lowing,' because by it they drove the herds 
out into the cow-pastures which were then in front 
of the ancient town ; a second called the Romanula 
' Little Roman,' named from Rome, which has steps '^ 
in New Street at the Chapel of ^'olupia.'* 

165. The third gate is the Janual Gate, named 
from Janus, and therefore a statue of Janus " was set 
up there, and the binding practice was instituted by 
Pompilius, as Piso ^ writes in his Annals, that the gate 
should always be open except when there was no war 
anywhere. The story that has come down to us is 
that it was closed when Pompilius was king, and after- 
wards when Titus Manlius was consul, at the end of 
the first war ^\-ith Carthage, and then opened again in 
the same year." 

XXXV. 166. On the subject of beds," the origins 
of the names, so far as I have observed them, are 
the following : Lectica ' couch,' because they legebant 

§ 1 65. " The archway of Janus, placed at the end of the 
Argiletum where it debouched into the Forum ; cf. Livy, i. 
19.3. * /fi«<. iJoOT. Fra^., page 79 Peter. "'In^SoB.c; 

but it was closed three times in the reign of Augustus. 

§ 166. " Lectus, lectuius, lectica, all from a root meaning 
' to lie,' not otherwise found in Latin, but seen in English lie 
and lay, and in Greek. 

155 



VARRO 

stramenta atque herbam, ut etiam nunc fit in castris ; 
lecticas, ne essent in terra,* sublimis in his ponebant ; 
nisi ab eo quod Graeci antiqui dicebant AeKxpov 
lectum potius. Qui* lecticam involvebant, quod fere 
stramenta erant e segete, segestria appellarunt, ut 
etiam nunc in castris, nisi si a Graecis : nam crreya- 
arpov ihi.* Lectus mortui (quod)^ fertur, dicebant 
feretrum nostri, Graeci (fyeperpov. 

167. Posteaquam transierunt ad culcitas, quod in 
eas acus^ aut tomentum aliudve quid calcabant, ab 
inculcando culcita dicta. Hoc quicquid insternebant 
ab sternendo stragulum appellabant. Pulvinar vel a 
pluffjis vel a pdlulis* declinarunt. Quibus operiban- 
tur, operimenta, et pallia opercula dixerunt. In his 
multa peregrina, ut sagum, reno Gallica, uP gaunaca^ 
et amphimallum Graeca ; contra Latinum toral,^ 
ante torum, et torus a torto,* quod is in promptu. 

* Aug., for terras. * Ed. Veneta, for quam. * L. Sp., 
for ubi. * Added by L. Sp. 

§ 167. ^ Ttirnebus, for ea sagus. * Aldus, for a 
pluribus uel a pollulis. * GS. ; gallica Turnebus ; for 
galli quid. * GS. ; gaunacum Scaliger, for gaunacuma. 
^ A. Sp. ; toral quod Aug.; torale quod Aldus ; for tore 
uel. ^ Meursius, for toruo. 

* That is, on additional straw and grass (if the text be 
correct). '^ From the Greek, with dissimilative loss of the 
prior t. <* The standing grain ; then, the stems of the 
grain-plants, not merely of wheat. * From the Greek 
word, which is from <f>epco ' I bear.' 

§167. "Wrong. " Hoc -hue 'into this.' «^ From 
156 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 16&-167 

' gathered ' the straw-coverings and the grass vrith 
which to make them, as even now is done in camp ; 
these couches, that they might not be on the earth, 
they raised up on these materials * ; — unless rather 
from the fact that the ancient Greeks called a bed a 
AeK-Tpov. Those who covered up a couch, called the 
coverings segestria,'^ because the coverings in general 
were made from the seges ^ ' wheat-stalks,' as even 
now is done in the camp ; unless the word is from the 
Greeks, for there it is a-Tkyacrrpov. Because the bed 
of a dead raanfertur ' is carried,' our ancestors called 
it a feretrum ' ' bier,' and the Greeks called it a 
<f>ep€Tpoi'. 

167. After they had passed to the use of culcitae 
' mattresses and pillows,' because into them they 
calcabant ' pressed ' chaff or stuffing or something else, 
the article was called a culcita from inculcare ' to press 
in.' " Whatever they spread upon this,* they called 
a stragulum ' cover ' from sternere ' to spread.' The 
pulvinar '^ ' cushioned seat of honour ' they derived 
either from plumae ' feathers ' or from pellulae ' furs.' 
That '\\'ith which they operibantur ' were covered,' 
they called (yperimenta ' covers,' and pallia ' covers of a 
Greek sort ' they called apercula. Among these there 
are many foreign words, such as saguin ' soldier's 
blanket ' and reno ' cloak of reindfeer skin,' which are 
Gallic, and gaunaca ^ ' heavy Oriental cloak ' and 
amphimallum ' cloak shaggy on both sides,' which are 
Greek ; and on the other hand toral ' valance,' in front 
of the torus ' bolster,' is Latin, and so in torus ' bol- 
ster,' from iortum ' twisted,' because it is ready for 

pulvinut ' pillow,' a word of undetermined origin. 
'' Correct sources ; but gaunaca came into Greek from 
Persian. 

157 



VARRO 

Ab hac similitudine toruZus' in mulieris capita 
ornatus. 

168. Qua simplici scansione scandebant in lectum 
non al<um,i scabellum ; in altiorem, scamnum. Dupli- 
cata scansio gradus dicitur, quod gerit in inferiore^ 
superiorem. Graeca sunt peristromata et peripetas- 
mata, sic ali(a) quae^ item convivii causa ibi multa. 

XXXVI. 169.^ Pecuniae signatae vocabula sunt 
aeris et argenti haec : as ab aere ; dupondius ab^ 
duobus ponderibus, quod unum pondus assipondium 
dicebatur ; id ideo quod as erat libra pondo.^ Deinde 
ab numero reliquum dictum usque ad centussis,* ut 
as* singulari numero, ab tribus assibus tressis, et sic 
proportione usque ad nonussis. 

170. In denario numero hoc mutat, quod primum 
est ab decem assibus decussis, secundum ab duobus 
decussibus vicessis,! quod dici sol(it>um* a duobus 

' Aug., for toruius. 

§168. ^ M, LaeUis, for aAmrn. '^ Laetus, for inferiora.. 
' L. Sp., for aliquid. 

§ 169. ^ Priscian, iii. 410. 10 Keil, quotes from this point, 
beginning with multa at the end of § 168, placed with § 169 
hy wrong division ; he continues through decuma libella in 
the first line of § 174. As the best manuscript of Priscian is 
at least three centuries older than F of Varro, his text is 
useful here, though it omits some icords and phrases, and has 
one considerable insertion. * Priscian, for a. ' Gronov., 
for pondus. * Priscian has centussem. * After as, 
Laetus deleted a. 

§170. ^ Turnebus, for hicessis. ^ Turnebus, for solum. 

' Wrong ; he apparently means that the torus, a bolster 
originally of twisted rushes, was ready when it was properly 
158 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 167-170 

use.' From likeness ^ to this is named the iorulus 
' knob,' ^ an ornament on a woman's head. 

168. That by which they scandehant ' mounted ' 
by a single scansio ' step ' into a bed that was not high, 
they called a scabelluf/i ' bed step ' ; that by which 
they mounted into a higher bed, a scamnum ' bed 
steps.' " A double step is called a gradus ' pace,' 
because it gerit ' carries ' a higher step on the lower.* 
Peristromata ' bedspreads ' and peripetasmata ' bed- 
curtains ' are Greek words, so are other things which 
are used for banquets as well — and of them there are 
quite a number. 

XXX\T. 169. The names of stamped money of 
bronze and silver are the follo\nng : as " from aes 
' copper ' ; dupondius ' two-a* piece ' from duo pondera 
' two weights,' because one weight was called an 
assipondium ' as piece ' ; this for the reason that an as 
was a libra ' unit ' pondo ' by weight.' From this the 
rest were named from the number up to centussis ' one 
hundred asses,' as as when the number is one, tressis 
from three asses, and so by regular analogy up to 
nonussis ' nine asses.' 

170. At the number ten this changes, because first 
there is the decussis from decern asses ' ten asses,' second 
the vicessis ** ' twenty asses ' from two decusses, which 

twisted, like a torment um or piece of artillery which was 
ready to fire when the ropes, its source of propulsion, had 
been twisted. ' That is, similarity in shape. ' The 
shape in which the hair was arranged. 

§ 168. » Wrong etymologj- ; but scabellum is a diminu- 
tive of »ca>n num. ''Wrong. 

§ 169. " Not from aes, but a word borrowed from some 
unknown source. The etymologies from here on through 
§ 174 are correct except as noted. 

§ 170. " Pro{>erly from viginti ' twenty,' vicies ' twenty 
times.' 

159 



VARRO 

bicessis ; reliqua conveniunt, quod est ut trice*sis^ 
proportione usque ad centussis, quo maius aeris 
proprium vocabulum non est : nam ducenti<s> et sic* 
proportione quae dicuntur non magis asses quam 
denarii aliaeve quae^ res significantur. 

171. Aeris minima pars sextula, quod sexta pars 
unciae. Semuncia, quod dimidia pars unciae : se^ 
valet dimidium, ut in selibra et semodio. Uncia ab 
uno. Sextans ab eo quod sexta pars assis, ut qua- 
drans quod quarta, et triens quod tertia pars. Semis, 
quod semi<a>s,2 id est^ dimidium assis, ut supra 
dictum est. Septunx a septem et uncia conclusum. 

172. Reliqua obscuriora, quod ab deminutione, et 
ea quae deminuuntur ita sunt, ut extremas syllabas 
habeant : ut <un)de una^ dempta uncia deunx, 

^ Priscian, for tricensis. * L. Sp. ; ducenti et sic Priscian ; 
for ducenti in. * alieuae quae Fk ; aliaeque Priscian. 
§171. ^ Bentinus, for sic. ^ Turnebus, for semis. 

* lifter est, Laetus deleted ut, which Priscian also omits. 

§ 172. 1 ut unde una Kent ; unde una Mue. ; for ut de 
una {Priscian omits ut de). 

* It is hardly likely that vicessis became bicessis (influenced 
by ' two ' in the form bi- as prefix) until the confusion of B 
and V in pronunciation ; this began about a century after 
Varro wrote this work. The clause therefore seems to be 
an interpolation. « After centussis, Priscian inserts : quod 
et Persius ostendit " et centum Graecos uno centusse licetur" 
' and on one hundred Greeks he sets the value of just one 
hundred asses." The quotation is Persius, 5. 191, where 
the text has curto ' clipped ' instead of uno. 

§171. "Apparently named as the smallest coin, one 
seventy-second of the as ; but no such coin is actually at- 
tested. ^ Really semi-, with the vowel elided : sem-uncia. 
160 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 170-172 

is customarily pronounced hicessis, from duo ' two ' ' ; 
the rest harmonize, in that the formation is Uke tri- 
cessis regularly up to centuss^is,'^ after which there is no 
special word for larger sums of copper money : for 
ducenti ' two hundred ' and higher numbers which are 
made analogically do not indicate asses any more than 
they do denarii or any other things. 

171. The smallest piece of copper is a sextula,'* so 
named because it is the sexta ' sixth ' part of an ounce. 
The semuncia ' half-ounce,' because it is the half of an 
ounce : se equals dimidium ' half,' * as in selihra *= ' half- 
pound ' and semodius ' half-peck.' Uncia ' ounce,' 
from unum ' one.' ** Sextans ' sixth,' from the fact that 
it is the sixth part of an as, as the quadrans ' fourth ' 
is that which is a fourth, and the iriens ' third ' that 
which is a third.* Semis ' half-a*,' because it is a semi- 
as, that is, the half of an as, as has been said above. 
The septunx ' seven ounces,' contracted from septem 
and uncia. 

172. The remaining words are less clear, because 
they are expressed by subtraction, and those elements 
from which the subtraction is made are such that they 
keep their last syllables " : as that from which one 
dempta uncia ' ounce is taken,' is a deunx ' eleven 
twelfths ' ; if a sextans is taken away, it is a dextans 

' Se-libra after the model of se-modius, which is for semi- 
modius, with loss of one of the two similar syllables. '' For 
oinikia, as units is from oinos ; the ounce was one twelfth of 
the as ' pound.' * Quincunx, from quinque and uncia, is 
expected here, and may have fallen out of the text. 

§ 172. "The " keeping of the last syllables " is seen in 
de-{se)xtans, in de-{qua)drans becoming dodrans, in de- 
(tri)es becoming des. In reality, des or bes is for duo assis, 
short for duo partes assis ' two parts (that is, two thirds) of an 
as,' with various phonetic changes. 

VOL. I M 161 



VARRO 

dextans dempto sextante, dodrans dempto quadrante, 
bes, ut olim des, dempto triente. 

173. In argento nummi, id ab Sjculis : denarii, 
quod^ denos aeris valebant ; quinarii, quod quinos J 
sestertius, 2 quod semis tertius. Dupondius enim et 
semis antiquus sestertius* : est et veteris consuetu- 
dinis, ut retro aere dicerent, ita ut semis tertius, 
<semis)* quartus, semis (quintus)' pronuntiarent. 
Ab semis tertius (sestertius)* dictus. 

174. Nummi denarii decuma libella, quod libram 
pondo as valebat et erat ex argento parva. Simbella, 
quod libellae dimidium, quod semis assis. Terruncius 
a tribus unciis, quod libellae ut haec quarta pars, sic 
quadrans assis, 

175. Eadem pecunia voeabulum mutat : nam 
potest item dici dos, arrabo, merces, corollarium. 
Dos, si nuptiarum causa data ; haec Graece SwrtV»/ : 
ita enim hoc Siculi. Ab eodem donum : nam Graece 

§ 173. ^ After quod, Ed. Veneta deleted a repeated de- 
narii quod {omitted by Priscian). ^ For sextertius Fv. 
* Added by OS., following Priscian. * Added by L. Sp., 
following Priscian. 

§ 1 73. " Not connected with as or aes. * The custom- 
ary unit of Roman business ; in Varro's time, worth about 
3^d. sterling, or §0.07 (standard of 1936). «After a 
number of reductions, the copper as was in 217 b.c. reduced 
to one ounce of metal ; at the same time the silver denarius 
was fixed at ten asses, and the sestertius at four asses, 
** " The third half-as " implies that the first two asses were 
complete while the third was not, as though " two asses and 
the third half-a* " ; c/. German drittehalb ' 2J,' and similar 
formations. 

§ 174. " Diminutive of libra, because of small bulk as 

162 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 172-175 

' five sixths ' ; if a quadrans is taken away, it is a 
dodrans ; it is a hes ' two thirds,' or as it once was, a 
des, if a triens is demptus ' taken off.' 

173. In silver, there are coins called nummi, this 
word from the Sicilians : denarii,'^ because they were 
worth deni aeris ' ten asses of copper ' ; quinarii, 
because they were worth quini ' five asses each ' ; and 
the sestertius '' ' sesterce,' so called because it is semis 
tertius ' the third half-a*.' For the old-time sesterce " 
was a dupondius and a semis ; it is also a part of ancient 
practice, that they should speak of coin in reverse 
order, so that they named them the semis tertius ' two 
and a half asses,' ** semis quartus ' the fourth half, three 
and a half asses ' semis quintus ' the fifth half, four and 
a half asses. ' From semis tertius they said sestertius. 

m. The tenth part of a nummus denarius ' silver 
coin of ten asses ' is a libella,"' because the as was 
worth a pound by weight, and the as of silver was a 
small one. The simbella * is so called because it is the 
half of a libella, as the semis is half of an as. The 
ierruncius <^ ' three-ounce piece,' from tres unciae ' three 
ounces,' because as this is the fourth part of a libella, 
so the quadrans is the fourth of an as. 

175. This same money changes its name : for it 
can likewise be called dos ' dower,' arrabo ' earnest- 
money,' merces ' wages,' corollarium ' bonus.' Dos '^ 
' dower,' if it is given for the purpose of a marriage ; 
this in Greek is Scotivi], for thus the Sicilians call it. 
From the same comes donum ' gift ' ; for in Greek it 

compared with the libra of aes. * Or perhaps sembella ; 
for sem(i-li)bella. ' The first element is ter ' three times ' 
(earlier terr if before a vowel). 

§ 175. "A native Latin word, akin to donum and the 
Greek words. 

163 



VARRO 

ut <Aeol)is Soi'ftov^ et ut alii 5o/xa et ut Attici Soo-iv. 
Arrabo sic data, ut reliquum reddatur : hoc verbum 
item a Graeco dppafSwi'. Reliquum, quod ex eo quod 
debitum reliquum. 

176. Damnum a demptione, cum minus re factum 
quam quanti constat. Lucrum ab luendo, si amplius 
quam ut exsolveret, quanti esset, (re>ceptum.^ 
Detrimentum a detritu, quod ea quae trita minoris 
pretii. Ab eodem {tri)mento,2 intertrimentum ab 
eo, quod duo quae inter se trita, et deminuta ; a 
quo etiam in<ter>trigo' dicta. 

177. Multa (e>ai pecunia quae a magistratu dicta, 
ut exigi posset ob peccatum ; quod singulae dicuntur, 
appellatae eae multae,^ <et>' quod olim v(i>num* 
dicebant multaw* : itaque cum (in)" dolium aut 
culleum vinum addunt rustici, prima urna addita 
dicunt etiam nunc. Poena a poeniendo aut quod post 
peccatum sequitur. Pretium, quod emptionis aesti- 
mationisve causa constituitur, dictum a peritis, quod 
hi soli facere possunt recte id. 

§ 175. ^ Bergk, for issedonion. 

§ 176. ^ L. Sp., for ceptuin. ^ ^/. Sp.^ for ab eadem 

mente. ^ Bentinus, for intrigo (intrigo dicta et intertrigo 
B and Aug.). 

§177. ^ Groth, for a.. ^ Aug., for muMas. ^ Added 

by Mite. * B, Laetus, for ununi. ^ Goeschen, for 

multae. * Added by Aug., with B. 

§ 176. « Wrong. 

§ 177. " Multa 'fine,' possibly taken from Sabine, but 
probably from the root in mtilcare ' to beat.' Varro seems 
to identify it with multae ' many,' supply perhaps pecuniae : 
the magistrate imposed one multa after another, just as the 
countrymen poured one multa of wine after another into 

164. 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 175-177 

is Sdvciov "with the Aeolians, and Sofia as others say it, 
and 86<Tis of the Athenians. Arrabo ' earnest-money,' 
when money is given on this stipulation, that a 
balance is to be paid : this word likewise is from 
the Greek, where it is appafttav. Reliquum ' balance,' 
because it is the reliquum ' remainder ' of what is owed. 

176. Damnum ' loss,' from demptio ' taking away,' " 
when less is brought in by the sale of the object than 
it cost. Lucrum ' profit ' from luere ' to set free,' if 
more is taken in than will exsolvere ' release ' the price 
at which it was acquired. Detrimentum ' damage,' 
from detritus ' rubbing off,' because those things which 
are trita ' rubbed ' are of less value. From the same 
trimentum comes intertrimentum ' loss by attrition,' 
because two things which have been trita ' rubbed ' 
inter se ' against each other ' are also diminished ; 
from which moreover intertrigo ' chafing of the skin ' 
is said. 

177. A multa ' fine ' is that money named by a 
magistrate, that it might be exacted on account of 
a transgression ; because the fines are named one at 
a time, they are called multae as though ' many,' and 
because of old they called wine multa : thus when the 
countrymen put wine into a large jar or >vine-skin, 
they even now call it a multa after the first pitcherful 
has been put in." Poena ' penalty,' from poenire * ' to 
punish ' or because it follows post ' after ' a transgres- 
sion." Pretium ' price ' is that which is fixed for the 
purpose of purchase or of evaluation ; it is named 
from the periti ** ' experts,' because these alone can 
set a price correctly. 

the storage jars or skins. * Poena from Greek : poenire 
(classical punire) from poena. ' As though from pone 
' behind,' =post. ^ Wrong etymology. 

165 



VARRO 

178. Si quid datum pro opera aut opere, merces, 
a merendo. Quod manu factum erat et datum pro 
eo, manupretium, a manibus et pretio. Corollarium, 
si additum praeter quam quod debitum ; eius voca- 
bulum fictum a corollis, quod eae, cum placuerant 
actores, in scaena dari solitae. Praeda est ab hosti- 
bus capta, quod manu parta, ut parida praeda. Prae- 
mium a praeda, quod ob recte quid factum concessum. 

179. Si datum quod reddatur, mutuum, quod 
Siculi fjLOLToi' : itaque scribit Sophron 

MoiTOV dt>Ti,ixo<y'>.^ 
Et munus quod mutuo animo qui sunt dant officii 
causa ; alterum munus, quod muniendi causa impera- 
tum, a quo etiam municipes, qui una munus fungi 
debent, dicti. 

180. Si es(t>^ ea pecunia quae in i?^dicium^ venit 
in litibus, sacramentum a sacro ; qui^ petebat et qui 
infiiiabatur,* de aliis rebus ut<e>rque^ quingenos aeris 
ad pont<ific)em^ deponebant, de aliis rebus item certo 

§179. ^ Fay, with haplology, for Scaliger's avriTiixov , 
for moeton antimo ; c/. Hesychius, s.v. iioItoi. 

% 180. ^ A. Sp.,/or is. * For indicium. ^ For quis, 

* GS., for inficiabatur. * Aug., with B, for utrique. 

* Aug., for pontem. 

§ 178. " Dubious etymology. * From the elements in 
pre-hendere 'to grasp.' "^ From prae + emere 'to take 
before (some one else).' 

§ 1 79. " The two words are connected, but the Latin is 
not from the Sicilian. *" Fragment 168 Kaibel ; the text 
is uncertain. " Munus, mutuus, munire, municeps all have 

the same root. ** Including (kind) services and favours. 

* Apparently obligatory citizen service on streets and walls. 
' Citizens of a munlcipium. 

§ 180. " Probably because each party took a sacramentum 
' oath ' to the justice of his case when he made the deposit. 

* This depositing with the pontifex is not known from other 

166 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 178-180 

178. If any payment is made for services or for 
labour, it is merces ' wages,' from merere ' to earn.* <» 
What was done by hand and what was paid for the 
work, were both called jnanupretium ' workmanship ' 
and ' workman's pay,' from mantis ' hands ' and 
prettum ' price.' CoroUarium ' bonus,' if anything is 
added beyond what is due ; this word was made from 
coroUae ' garlands,' because the spectators were in the 
habit of thro^nng flowers on the stage when they 
Uked the actors' performance. Praeda * ' booty ' is 
that which has been taken from the enemy, because 
it is porta ' won ' by the work of the hands : praeda as 
though parida. Praemium « ' reward,' from praeda 
' booty,' because it is granted for something well done. 

179. If money is given which is to be paid back, it 
is a muiuum ' loan,' so called because the SiciUans call 
it a /xoiTos " ; thus Sophron writes ^ 

Loan to be repaid. 

Also munus <^ ' present,' because those who are on 
terms of mutuus ' mutual ' affection give presents <* out 
of kindness ; a second munus ' duty,' « because it is 
ordered for the muniendum ' fortification ' of the town, 
from which moreover the munidpes ' to^^Tispeople ' ^ 
are named, who must jointly perform the munut, 

180. If it is that money which comes into court in 
lawsuits, it is called sacramentum ' sacred deposit,' « 
from sacrum ' sacred ' : the plaintiff and the defendant 
each deposited -vnth the pontifex ^ five hundred 
copper asses for some kinds of cases, and for other 
kinds the trial was conducted like^Wse under a deposit 

sources, and here rests upon an emendation, but may have 
been regular in early times ; in Varro's time, the deposit was 
made with the praetor who acted as judge. 

167 



VARRO 

alio legitime numero adum' ; qui iudicio vicerat, 
suum sacramentum e sacro auferebat, victi ad aera- 
rium redibat. 

181. Tributum dictum atribubus,quod ea pecunia, 
quae populo imperata erat, tributim a singulis pro 
portione census exigebatur.^ Ab hoc ea quae assig- 
nata erat attributum dictum ; ab eo quoque quibus 
attributa erat pecunia, ut militi reddant, tribuni 
aerarii dicti ; id quod attributum erat, aes militare ; 
hoc est quod ait Plautus : 

Cedit miles, aes petit. 
Et hinc dicuntur milites aerarii ab aere, quod stipendia 
facerent. 

182. Hoc ipsum stipendium a stipe dictum, quod 
aes quoque stipem dicebant : nam quod asses librae' 
pondo erant, qui acceperant maiorem numerum non 
in area ponebant, sed in aliqua cella stipabant, id est 
componebant, quo minus loci occuparet ; ab stipando 
stipem dicere coeperunt. Stip*^ ab a-Toifirf fortasse, 
Graeco verbo. Id apparet, quod ut turn institutum 
etiam nunc diis cum thesauris asses dant stipem 

' C. F. W. Mueller, for assum. 
§ 181. ^ Aldus, for exigebantur. 
§ 182. ^ Laetus, for libras. * L. Sp., with b, for stipa. 

' 500 if the case involved an amount of 1000 asses or more ; 
50 if the case involved a smaller amount or the personal 
freedom of an individual. "* The phrase e sacro confirms 
the statement that deposit was made with the pontLfex. 

§ 181. " Derivation probable, but not certain. * Aulu- 

laria, 526 ; but Plautus means a bailiff collecting a bad debt ! 
* The phrase means also ' to serve years in the army,' since 
each stipendium is one year's pay. 

§ 182. " Stips (not from Greek) is the basis of the other 

168 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 180-182 

of some other fixed amount specified by law <= ; he 
who won the decision got baclc his deposit from the 
temple,** but the loser's deposit passed into the state 
treasury-. 

181. ' Trihutum ' tribute ' was said from the tribus 
' tribes,' " because that money which was le\ied on 
the people, was exacted trihuiim ' tribe by tribe ' indi- 
vidually, in proportion to their financial rating in the 
census. From this, that money which was allotted 
was attributum ' assigned ' ; from this also, those to 
whom the money was assigned, that they may pay it 
to the soldierA", were called tribuni aerarii ' treasury 
tribunes ' ; that which was assigned, was the aes 
militare ' soldier's pay-fund ' ; this is what Plautus 
means ** : 

Comes the soldier, asks for cash. 

And from this comes the term miliies aerarii ' paid 
soldiers,' from the aes ' cash-pay,' because they earned 
stipends." 

182. This very word stipendium ' stipend ' is said 
from stips ' coin,' because they also called an aes 
' copper coin ' a stips ° ; for because the asses were a 
pound each in weight, those who had received an 
unusual number of them did not put them in a strong- 
box, but stipabant ' packed,' that is, componebant 
' stored,' them away in some chamber, that they might 
take up less space ^ ; they started the use of the 
word stips from stipare ' to pack. ' Stips is perhaps from 
the Greek word crroifSi] ' heap.' This is clear, be- 
cause, as was then started, so even now they speak of 
a stips when they give money to the temple treasuries 
for the gods, and those who make a contract about 

words in this section. * Stips ' stamped coin ' and stipare 
' to press, stamp ' may belong together etymologically. 

169 



VARRO 

dicunt, et qui pecuniam alligat, stipulari et resti- 
pulari. Militz's stipendia* ideo, quod earn stipem 
pendebant ; ab eo etiam Ennius scribit : 
Poeni stipendia pendunt. 

183. Ab eodem acre pendendo dispensator, et in 
tabulis scribimus expensum et in<de>i prima pensio 
et sic secunda aut quae alia, et dispendium, ideo quod 
in dispendendo solet minus fieri ; compendium quod 
cum compendttur" una fit ; a quo usura, quod in sorte 
accedebat, impendium appellatum ; quae cum (non)* 
accederet ad sortem usu,* usura dicta, ut sors quod 
suum fit sorte. Per trutinam solvi solitum : vesti- 
gium etiam nunc manet in aede Saturni, quod ea 
etiam nunc* propter pensuram trutinam habet posi- 
tam. Ab acre Aerarium appellatum. 

XXXVII. 184. Ad vocabula quae pertinere sumus 
rati ea quae loca et ea quae in locis sunt satis ut 
arbitror dicta, quod neque parum multa sunt aperta 
neque, si amplius velimus, volumen patietur. Quare 
in proximo, ut in primo libro dixi, quod sequitur de 
temporibus dicam. 

' Sciop., for milites stipendii. 

§ 183. ^ Avg., icith B,for in. ^ Laetus, for compende- 
tur. * Added by Mue. * Aldus, for usum. * Aug., 
for ea iam nunc et. 

' Stipendium from stipl-pendium, with haplology ; the ear- 
liest payments must have been made by weighing, the word 
then coming to mean ' pay.' "^ Ann. 265 Vahlen^; R.O.L. 
i. 116-117 Warmington. 

§183. "That is, "and kept in one's possession." 
* The fundamental meaning of sors, according to Varro ; 
cf. vi. 65 and notes. " In the Temple of Saturn. 

§ 184. " Its length limits the liber ' book,' * y- 11-12, 

170 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, V. 182-184 

money are said to stipulari ' stipulate ' and restipulart 
' make counter-stipulations.' Therefore the soldier's 
stipendia'^ ' stipends,' because they pendebant ' weighed ' 
the stips ; from this moreover Ennius ■writes •* : 
The Phoenicians pay out the stipends. 

183. From the same pendere ' to weigh or pay, 
comes dtspensator ' distributing cashier,' and in our 
accounts we write expensum ' expense ' and therefrom 
the first pensio ' payment ' and Ukewise the second 
and any others, and dispendium ' loss by distribution,' 
for this reason, that money is wont to become less 
in the dispendendo ' distributing of the payments ' ; 
compendium ' sa\"ing,' which is made when it compendi- 
tur ' is weighed all together ' " ; from which the tisura 
' interest,' because it was added in ' on ' the principal, 
was called impendium ' outlay ' ; when it was not 
added to the principal, it was called usura ' interest ' 
because of the usus ' use ' of the money, just as sors 
' principal ' is said because it becomes one's own by 
sors ' union.' ^ It was once the custom to pay by the 
use of a pair of scales ; a trace of this remains even 
now in the Temple of Saturn, because it even now has 
a pair of scales set up ready for weighing purposes. 
From aes ' copper money ' the Aerarium " ' Treasury ' 
was named. 

XXXMI. 184". What we have thought to pertain 
to names which are places and those which express 
things in places, has been, as I think, adequately set 
forth, because a great many are perspicuous and if we 
should wish to %ATite further the roll " \\ill not permit 
it. Therefore in the next book, as I said at the 
beginning of this book,* I shall speak of the next topic, 
namely about times, 

171 



M. TERENTI VARRONIS 
DE LINGUA LATINA 

LIBER V EXPLICIT ; INCIPIT 

LIBER VI 

I. 1 . Okigines verborum qua(e>^ sunt' locorum et ea 
quae in his in priore libro scripsi. In hoc dicam de 
vocabuUs temporum et earum rerum quae in agendo 
fiunt aut dicuntur cum tempore aliquo ut sedetur, 
ambulatur, loquontur ; atque si qua erunt ex diverso 
genere adiuncta, potius cognationi verborum quam 
auditori calumnianti geremus' morem. 

2. Huius rei auctor satis mihi Chrysippus et 
Antipater et illi in quibus, si non tantum acuminis, at 
plus litterai'um, in quo est Aristophanes et Apollo- 
dorus, qui omnes verba ex verbis itadeclinari scribunt, 
ut verba litteras aha assumant, aha mittant, aha 

§ 1. ^ For qua. ^ ^^ RhoL,for sint. ^ G, V, Aldus, 
for oremus. 

§2. «Of Soli in Cilicia (280-207 b.c), who followed 
Cleanthes as leader of the Stoic school of philosophy in 
Athens ; page loi von Arnim. '' Of Tarsus, who succeeded 

Diogenes of Seleucia as head of the Stoic school in the first 
part of the second century b.c. ; page 17 von Arnim. ' Of 

Byzantium (262-185 b.c), eminent grammarian at Alex- 

172 



MARCUS TERENTIUS VARRO'S 
ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE 

BOOK V ENDS, AND HERE BEGINS 

BOOK VI 

I. 1. The sources of the words which are names 
of places and are names of those things which are in 
these places, I have \\Titten in the preceding book. 
In the present book I shall speak about the names 
of times and of those things which in the perform- 
ance take place or are said with some time-factor, 
such as sitting, walking, talking : and if there are any 
words of a different sort attached to these, I shall give 
heed rather to the kinship of the words than to the 
rebukes of my listener. 

2. In this subject I rely on Chrysippus ° as an 
adequate authority, and on Antipater,** and on those 
in whom there was more learning even if not so much 
insight, among them Aristophanes <^ and Apollo- 
dorus ^ : all these write that words are so derived 
from words, that the words in some instances take 
on letters, in others lose them, in still others change 
them, as in the case of turdus ' thrush ' takes place 

andria ; page 269 Nauck. ■* Of Athens, pupil of Aris- 
tarchus the grammarian and of Diogenes of Seleucia ; Frag. 
Hist. Graec. i. 462 Mueller. 

173 



VARRO 

commutent, ut fit in turdo, in turdario et turdelice. 
Sic declinantes Graeci nostra nomina dicunt Lucie- 
num^ AevKu^vov'^ et Quinctium KotvTtoi', et (nostri 
illorum)' ' Xpicnapyov Aristarchiim et Atwirt Dionem ; 
sic, inquam, consuetude nostra multa declinavit* a 
vetere, ut ab solu solum, ab Loebe^o* Liberum, ab 
Lasibus Lares : quae obruta vetustate ut potero 
eruere conabor. 

II. 3. Dicemus primo de temporibus, <um* quae 
per ea fiunt, sed ita ut ante de natura eorum : ea enim 
dux fuit ad vocabula imponenda homini. Tempus 
esse dicunt in<ter)vallum^ mundi' motus. Id divisum 
in partes aliquot maxime ab solis et lunae cursu. 
Itaque ab eorum tenore temperato tempus dictum, 
unde tempestiva ; et a motw* eorum qui toto caelo 
coniunctus mundus. 

4. Duo motus (solis : alter cum caelo, quod 
movetur ab love rectore, qui Graece Ata appellatur, 
cum ab oriente ad oc)casu(m> venit,^ quo tempus id 

§ 2. ^ B, Laetus, for leucieniim. ^ Mue. ; Aeu/^ievoV 
Sciop. ; for leucienon. ' Added by GS. ; nos illorum 
L, Sp. ; after Laetus, v)ho set nos iili after 'Apiarapxov. 

* After declinavit, Popma deleted ut. ^ i)hie., for libero. 

§ 3. ^ A. Sp., for quam. * Laetus, for inuallum. 

* After mundi, Turnebus deleted et. * //, Aldus, for 
motor Fv. 

§ 4, ^ solis ; alter cum caelo, quo ab oriente ad occasum 
venit Mue. ; the balance with Kriegshammer, based on Festus, 
74. 7 M. 

' I take this with Fay, A. J. P. xxxv. 245, as turdus + eXi^ 
' spiral ' ; cf. Varro, I)e Be Rustica, iii. 5. 3, who says that 
the entrance to a bird-cote is called a coclia ' snail-shell,' 
being intended to admit air and some light, but not to permit 
direct vision from the interior to the outside. ' Varro had 
a friend Q. Lucienus, a Roman senator, well versed in Greek; 
he appears as a speaker in Varro's L>e lie Rvstica, ii. (5. 1, 

174 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 2-4 

in turdarium ' thrush-cote ' and turdelix ' ' spiral en- 
trance for thrushes.' Thus the Greeks, in adapting 
our names, make XevKirfVo^ oi Lucienus ^ and Kou'tios 
of QM/nrf;«*,and we make Aristarchus of their 'A/3i'crTap- 
Xos and Dio of their Atwv. In just this way, I sav, our 
practice has altered many from the old form, as solum " 
' soil ' from solu. Liber urn ^* ' God of Wine ' from Loe- 
besom, Lares * ' Hearth-Gods ' from Loses : these 
words, covered up as they are by lapse of time, I 
shall try to dig out as best I can. 

II. 3. First we shall speak of the time-names, then 
of those things which take place through them, but in 
such a way that first we shall speak of their essential 
nature : for nature was man's guide to the imposition 
of names. Time, they say, is an interval in the 
motion of the world. This is di\ided into a number 
of parts, especially from the course of the sun and the 
moon. Therefore from their temperatus ' moderated ' 
career, tempus ' time ' is named," and from this comes 
tempesiiva ' timely things ' ; and from their motus 
' motion,' the mundus * ' world,' which is joined with 
the sky as a whole. 

4. There are two motions of the sun : one \nth the 
sky, in that the mo\-ing is impelled by Jupiter as ruler, 
who in Greek is called Aia, when it comes from east to 
west <» ; wherefore this time is from this god called a 

etc). ' With change from the fourth declension to the 
second (if the text is correct). * With change of the vowel 
as well as rhotacism ; the accusative form must be kept in 
the translation, to show this clearly. * With rhotacism 
(change of intervocalic s to r). 

§ 3. " The converse is true : temperare is from tempus. 
* Wrong. 

§ 4. " This insertion in the text gives the needed sense . 
the second motus is in § 8. 

175 



VARRO 

ab hoc deo dies appellatur. Meridies ab eo quod 
medius dies. D antiqiii, non R in hoc dicebant, ut 
Praeneste incisum in solario vidi. Solarium dictum 
id, in quo horae in sole inspiciebantur, (vel horologium 
ex aqua),* quod Cornelius in Basilica Aemilia et 
Fulvia inumbravit. Diei principium mane, quod 
turn'' manat dies ab oriente, nisi potius quod bonum 
antiqui dicebant manum, ad cuiusmodi religionem 
Graeci quoque cum lumen afFertur, solent dicere (^w* 
dyadov. 

5. Suprema summum diei, id ab superrimo. Hoc 
tempus XII Tabulae dicunt occasum esse solis ; sed 
postea lex P/aetoria^ id quoque tempus esse iubet 
supremum quo praetor in Comitio supremam pronun- 
tiavit populo. Secundum hoc dicitur crepusculum a 
crepero : id vocabulum sumpserunt a Saiinis, unde 
veniunt Crepusci nominati Amiterno, qui eo tempore 
erant nati, ut Luci^i)^ prima luce in Reatino ' ; cre- 
pusculum significat dubium ; ab eo res dictae dubiae 
creperae, quod crepusculum dies etiam nunc sit an 
iam nox multis dubium. 

* Added by GS. ^ For cum. 

§5, ^ ^w^., /or praetoria. ^ Laehis,for\uc\. ^ Mue., 
for reatione or creatione. 

* Dies is cognate with Greek Ai'a, but not derived from it. 
' P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum, when censor in 
159 B.C. with M. Popilius Laenas, set up the first water-clock 
in Rome in this Basilica, which was erected in 179 on the 
north side of the Forum by the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus 
and M. Fulvius NobiUor, from whom it was named. 
«^ Both etymologies wrong. 

§5. "Approximately correct. "" Page 119 Schoell. 

176 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 4-5 

(Ues ' day.' ^ Meridies ' noon,' from the fact that it is 
the mediiis ' middle ' of the dies ' day.' The ancients 
said D in this word, and not R, as I have seen at Prae- 
neste, cut on a sun-dial. Solarium ' sun-dial ' was the 
name used for that on which the hours were seen in 
the sol ' sunlight ' ; or also there is the water-clock, 
which Cornelius'^ set up in the shade in the Basilica of 
Aemilius and Fulvius. The beginning of the day is 
mane ' early morning,' because then the day manat 
' trickles ' from the east, unless rather because the 
ancients called the good manum ^ : from a supersti- 
tious beUef of the same kind as influences the Greeks, 
who, when a light is brought, make a practice of 
saying, " Goodly light ! " 

5. Suprema means the last part of the day ; it is 
from superrimum.'^ This time, the Tivelve Tables say,** 
is sunset ; but afterwards the Plaetorian Law '^ de- 
clares that this time also should be ' last ' at which the 
praetor in the Comitium has announced to the people 
the suprema ' end of the session.' In line with this, 
crepusculum ' dusk ' is said from creperum ' obscure ' ; 
this word they took from the Sabines, from whom 
come those who were named Crepusci, from Amiter- 
num, who had been born at that time of day, just like 
the Lucii, who were those born at da\\'n (jtrima luce) in 
the Reatine country. Crepusculum means doubtful : 
from this doubtful matters are called creperae ' ob- 
scure,' '^ because dusk is a time when to many it is 
doubtful whether it is even yet day or is already 
night. 

* A law for the protection of minors, named from Plaetorius, 
a tribune of the people. ** All etymologically sound, but 
a meaning ' doubtful ' must have proceeded from a word 
crepus ' dusk.' 

VOL. I N 177 



VARRO 

6. Nox, quod, ut Pacuius^ ait, 

Omnia nisi interveniat sol pruina obriguerint, 

quod nocet, nox, nisi quod Graece vv^ nox. Cum 
Stella prima exorta (eum Graeci vocant €(nrepov, 
nostri Vesperuginem ut Plautus : 

Neque Vesperugo neque Vergiliae occidunt), 

id tempus dictum a Graecis kairkpcL, Latine vesper ; 
ut ante solem ortum quod eadem stella vocatur iubar, 
quod iubata, Pacui dicit pastor : 

Exorto iubare, noctis decurso itinere ; 
Enni" Aiax : 

Lumen — iubarne ? — in caelo cerno. 

7. Inter vesperuginem et iubar dicta nox intem- 
pesta, ut in Bruto Cassii quod dicit Lucretia : 

Nocte intempesta nostram devenit domuni. 

Intempestam Aelius dicebat cum tempus agendi est 
nullum, quod alii concubium^ appellarunt, quod 
omnes fere tunc cubarent ; alii ab eo quod sileretur 

§ 6. ^ Ribbeck ; Pacuvius Scaliger ; for catulus. * GS. ; 
Ennii Laetus ; for ennius. 

§ 7. ^ Laetus, for inconcubium. 

§ 6. '^ Antiopa, Trag. Rom. Frag. 14 Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. 
ii. 170-171 Warmington; cf. Funaioli, page 123. Ribbeck's 
nocti ni for nisi is probalJly Pacuvius's wording; \'arro, as 
often, paraphrases the quotation. * Nox and vv^ come 
from the same source ; connexion with nocere is dubious. 
* Ampliitruo, 275. "* Correct etymologies. ' Iubar and 

iuba ' mane ' are not related, despite vii. 76. ^ Trag. Rom. 
Frag. 347 Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. ii. 320-321 Warmington. 
» Trag. Rom. Frag. 336 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. i. 226-227 
Warrnington; cf. vi. 81 and vii. 76. 

§ 7 "A writer of praetextae, otherwise unknown : the 
name recurs at vii. 72 ; possibly Victorius's emendation to 

178 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 6-7 

6. A oj- ' night ' is called nox, because, as Pacuvius 

says," 

All will be stiff with frost unless the sun break in, 

because it Tiocet ' harms ' ; unless it is because in 
Greek night is iv^.* When the first star has come 
out (the Greeks call it Hesperus, and our people call 
it J'esperugo, as Plautus does * : 

The evening star sets not, nor vet the Pleiades), 

this time is by the Greeks called kcnrkpa, and vesper 
' evening ' in Latin "* ; just as, because the same star 
before sunrise is called iubar ' dawTi-star,' because it 
is iuhata ' maned,' * Pacu\ius's herdsman savs ■^ : 

When morning-star appears and night has run her course. 

And Ennius's Ajax says ^ : 

I see light in the sky — can it be dawn ? 

7. The time between dusk and dawn is called the 
nox intempesta ' dead of night,' as in the Brutus of 
Cassius," in the speech of Lucretia : 

By dead of night he came imto our home. 

Aehus * used to say that intempesta means the period 
when it is not a time for acti\ity, which others have 
called the concubium '■ ' general rest,' because practi- 
cally all persons then cubabani ' were lying dowTi ' ; 
others, from the fact that silebatur ' silence was ob- 
served,' have called it the silentium ' still ' of the night, 

Accii is correct. The passage is listed among the fragments 
of the Brutus of Accius by Ribbeck', Troff. Rom. Frag., 
page 331, and by Warmington, R.O.L. ii. 562-563. * Page 
60 Funaioli. « The early part of the night ; c/. vii. 78, 
which quotes Plautus, Trinummus, 886. C/. also Funaioli, 
page 115. 

179 



VARRO 

silentium noctis, quod idem Plautus tempus con- 
ticinium^ : scribit enim : 

Videbinius' : factum volo. Redito'* conticinio,* 

8. Alter motus solis est, al(i>ter <ac> caeli,^ quod 
movetur a bruma ad solstitium. Dicta bruma, quod 
brevissimus tunc dies est ; solstitium, quod sol eo die 
sistere videbatur, quo* ad nos versum proximu* est. 
Sol* cum venit in medium spatium inter brumam et 
solstitium, quod dies aequus fit ac nox, aequinoctium 
dictum. Tempus a bruma ad brumam dum sol redit, 
vocatur annus, quod ut parvi circuli anuli, sic magni 
dicebantur circites ani, unde annus. 

9. Huius temporis pars prima hiems, quod turn 
multi imbres ; hinc hibernacula, hibernum ; vel, quod 
turn anima quae flatur omnium apparet, ab hiatu 
hiems. Tempus secundum ver, quod tum virere^ 
incipiunt virgulta ac vertere se tempus anni ; nisi 
quod lones dicunt r/p* ver. Tertium ab aestu aestas ; 
hinc aestivum ; nisi forte a Graeco aWiadai. Quar- 
tum autumnus, <ab augendis hominum opibus dictus 
frugibusque coactis, quasi auctumnus).* 

* For conticinnium /. ' uidebitur Plautus. * redito 
hue Plautus. ® For conticinnio /. 

§ 8, ^ Mu€.,for alter caeli. '^ quo A. Sp. ; quod Mue. ; 
for aut quod. ' A. Sp. ; proximus est sol, solstitium 
L. Sp. ; for proximum est solstitium. 

§ 9. ^ Aldus, for uiuere. * L. Sp. ; eap Victorius ; for 
et. * Added by GS., after Krieg shammer, and Fest. 
23. 11 M. 

** Asinaria, 685. 

§ 8. " For the first motion, see § 4. * The winter and 
the summer solstices. * Annus is not connected with anus 
or anulus ' ring.' 

§ 9. " \\'rong. '■ Cognate with the Greek, not derived 
from it. 

180 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 7-9 

the time which Plautus like>\ise calls the conticinium 
' general silence ' : for he ^\Tites ** : 

We'll see, I want it done. At general-silence time 
come back. 

8. There is a second motion of the suii," differing 
from that of the sky, in that the motion is from bruma 
' winter's day ' to solstitium ' solstice.' * Bruma is so 
named, because then the dav is hrevissimus ' shortest ' : 
the solstitium, because on that day the sol ' sun ' seems 
sistere ' to halt,' on which it is nearest to us. When 
the sun has arrived midway between the bruma and 
the solstitium, it is called the aequinoctium ' equinox,' 
because the day becomes aequus ' equal ' to the nox 
' night.' The time from the bruma until the sun re- 
turns to the bruma, is called an annus ' year,' because 
just as little circles are anuli ' rings,' so big circuits 
were called ani, whence comes annus ' year.' " 

9. The first part of this time is the hiems ' winter,' 
so called because then there are many imbres 
' showers ' * ; hence hibernacula ' winter encamp- 
ment,' hibernum ' winter time ' ; or because then 
everybody's breath which is breathed out is visible, 
hiems is from hiatus ' open mouth.' " The second 
season is the ver * ' spring,' so called because then the 
virgulta ' bushes ' begin virere ' to become green ' and 
the time of year begins vertere ' to turn or change ' 
itself" ; unless it is because the lonians say i)p for 
spring. The third season is the aestas ' summer,' 
from aestus ' heat ' ; from this, aestivum ' summer pas- 
ture ' ; unless perhaps it is from the Greek aWeirdai 
' to blaze.' * The fourth is the autumnus ' autumn,' 
named from augere ' to increase ' the possessions of 
men and the gathered fruits, as if auctumnus.'^ 

181 



VARRO 

10. <Ut annus)* ab sole, sic^ mensis a lunae motu 
dictus, dum ab sole profecta rursus redit ad eum, 
Luna quod Graece olim dicta /jlj^vj], unde illorum /xtJi/cs, 
ab eo nostri. A mensibus intermestris dictum, quod 
putabant inter prioris mensis senescentis extremum 
diem et novam lunam esse diem, quem diligentius 
Attici eVr/v Kai veav^ appellarunt, ab eo quod eo die 
potest videri extrema et prima luna. 

11. Lustrum nominatum tempus quinquennale a 
luendo, id est solvendo, quod quinto quoque anno 
vectigalia et ultro tributa per censores persolve- 
bantur. Seclum spatium annorum centum vocarunt, 
dictum a sene, quod longissimum spatium senescen- 
dorum hominum id putarunt. Aevum ab aetate 
omnium annorum (hinc aeviternum, quod factum est 
aeternum) : quod Graeci aiMva, id ait Chrysippus 
esse (a>€<i> oi'.i Ab eo Plautus : 

Non omnis aetas ad perdiscendum est satis,* 
hinc poetae : 

Aeterna templa caeli.' 

§ 10. * See § 9, critical note 3. ^ B, Laetits, for sicut. 
' Aldus, for menencenean. 

§11. ^ Turnebus, for eon. ^ sat est Plautus. 

' Laetus, for caeli cell. 

§ 10. " Cognate with the Greek. * The end of the 

astronomical day would normally not coincide with the end 
of the 24-hour day, and the last day of the month was there- 
fore regarded by the Greeks as including parts of two days, 
the old day closing the old month, and the new day beginning 
the new month. 

§11. "Most probably from lavare 'to wash.' 
' Properly saeculum ; ultimately from the root ' to sow,' seen 

182 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 10-11 

10. As the year is named from the motion of the 

sun, so the month is named from the motion of the 
moon, until after departing from the sun she returns 
again to him. Because the moon was in Greek 
formerly called p/r?;, whence their firjvfs ' months ' 
— from this word we named the menses ' months.' " 
From menses is named the intermestris ' day between 
the months,' because they thought that between the 
last day of the preceding expiring month and the 
new moon there was a day, which ^\"ith more care 
the Athenians called the ' old and new,' ^ because on 
that day the xerx last of the old moon and the first 
beginnings of the new moon can both be seen. 

11. A five-year period was called a lustrum,'^ frx)m 
luere ' to set free,' that is, solvere ' to release,' because 
in ever}- fifth year the taxes and the voluntary tribute 
pa}Tnents were completely discharged, through the 
acti\ity of the censors. A seclum ^ ' century ' was 
what they called the space of one hundred years, 
named from senex ' old man,' because they thought 
this the longest stretch of life for senescendi ' aging ' 
men. Aevum ^ ' eternity,' from an aetas ' period ' of 
all the years (from this comes aeiiternum, which has 
become aeternum ' eternal ') : which the Greeks call 
an aiwv — Chrysippus says that this is <a)€<t) 6v 
' always existing.' "* From this Plautus says * : 

AH time is not enough for thorough learning, 

and from this the poets say : 

The everlasting temples of the sky. 

in semen ' seed.' ' Aevum is the basis for the other Latin 
words, and is cognate with the Greek word, not derived from 
it. <* Chrysippus (163 von Arnim) was wrong. * Tru- 
culent us, 22. 

183 



VARRO 

III. 12. A(d> naturak discrimeni civilia vocabula 
die(ru>m'' accesserunt. Dicam prius qui deorum 
causa, turn qui hominum sunt instituti. Dies Ago- 
nales per quos rex in Regia arietem immolat, dicti ab 
" agon," eo quod interrogat (minister sacrificii 
" agone ? " : nisi si a Graeca lingua, ubi aywi' princeps, 
ab eo quod immolat>ur' a principe civitatis et prin- 
ceps gregis immolatur. Carmentalia nominantur 
quod sacra turn et feriae Carmentis. 

13. Lupercalia dicta, quod in Lupercali Luperci 
sacra faciunt. Rex cum ferias menstruas Nonis 
Februariis edicit, hunc diem februatum appellat ; 
februm Sabini purgamentum, et id in sacris nostris 
verbum non (ignotum : nam pellem capri, cuius de 
loro caeduntur puellae Lupercalibus, veteres februm 
vocabant),^ et Lupercalia Pebruatio, ut in Antiqui- 
tatum libris demonstravi. Quirinalia a Quirino, quod 

§ 12. ^ GS., for a natural! discrimine (ad with Sciop.). 
* Sciop., for diem. ' A elded by Krvmbiegel, who recognized 
that alternative etymologies stood here. 

§ 13. ^ Added by GS., after Serv. Dan. in Aen. viii. 
343/: 

§ 12. " There were four Agonia in the year, celebrated on 
January 9, March 17, May 21, December 11, respectively to 
Janus, Mars, Vediovis, and an imknown god. The name 
Agonium came from agere ' to do one's work,' through a 
noun ago ' performer,' formed like praeco ' herald.' " The 
traditional palace of Numa, at the end of the Forum ; used 
as the residence of the pontifex maximus, and for certain 
important religious ceremonies. ' That is, slay the sacri- 
ficial victim ; the formulaic answer was, " Hoc age ! " 
"* Celebrated on January 1 1 and 15 in honour of Carmentis or 
Carmenta, an old Italic goddess of childbirth, with prophetic 
powers ; one later legend made her the mother of Evander, 
whom she accompanied from Arcadia to Rome. 

§ 13. " Celebrated on March 15 by the priests of Mars 
184 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 12-13 

in. 12. To the division made by nature there 
have been added the civic names for the days. First 
I shall give those which have been instituted for the 
sake of the gods, then those instituted for the sake of 
men. The dies Agonales ' days of the Agonia,' " on 
which the high-priest sacrifices a ram in the Regia,* 
were named from agon for this reason, because the 
helper at the sacrifice asks " agone ? " ' Shall I do 
my work .' ' ^ : unless it is from the Greek, where 
aywi- means princeps ' leader,' from the fact that the 
sacrificing is done by a leader of the state and the 
leader of the flock is sacrificed. The Carmentalia ** 
are so named because at that time there are sacrifices 
and a festival of Carmentis. 

13. The Lupercalia " was so named because the 
Luperci make sacrifice in the Lupercal. When the 
High-priest announces the monthly festivals on the 
Nones of February, he calls the day of the Lupercalia 
fehruatus : ior fehrum is the name which the Sabines 
give to a purification, and this word is not unknown in 
our sacrifices ; for a goat hide, ^\\th a thong of which 
the young women are flogged at the LupercaUa, the 
ancients called afebrus, and the Lupercalia was called 
also Februatio ' Festival of Purification,' as I have 
sho>\-n in the Books of the Antiquities. Quirinalia ** 
' Festival of Quirinus,' from Quirinus,*^ because it is a 

called Luperci, beginning with the sacrifice of a buck in the 
Lupercal, the cave on the Palatine where traditionally the she- 
wolf suckled Romulus and Remus ; after which the Luperci, 
naked except for breech-clouts made of the buck's hide, ran 
around the Palatine, where the people had massed themselves, 
striking the women with thongs which also were cut from the 
hide of the slaughtered animal, a process supposed to ensure 
the fertility of those struck. * On February 17. ' The 
deified Romulus. 

185 



VARRO 

(e>i deo^ feriae et eorum hominum, qui Furnacalibus 
suis non fuerunt feriati. Feralia* ab inferis et ferendo, 
quod ferunt turn epulas ad sepulcrum quibus ius ibi* 
parentare. Terminalia, quod is dies anni extremus 
constitutus : duodecimus enim niensis fuit Februarius 
et cum interoalatur inferiores quinque dies duodecimo 
demuntur mense. Ecurria ab ecjuorum cursu : eo 
die enim ludis currunt in Martio Campo. 

14. Liberalia dicta, quod per totumoppidum eo die 
sedent <ut)^ sacerdotes Liberi anus hedera coronatae 
cum libis et foculo pro emptore sacrificantes. In 
libris Saliorum quorum cognomen Agonensium, for- 
sitan hie dies ideo appelletur potius Agonia. Quin- 
quatrus : hie dies unus ab nominis errore observatur 
proinde ut sint quinque^ ; dictus, ut ab Tusculanis 
post diem sextum Idus similiter vocatur Sexatrus 
et post diem septimum Septimatrus, sic^ hie, quod 

^ Aug., with B,for ideo. ^ Aldus, for ferialia. * Avg., 
with B, for sibi. 

§ 14. ^ Added by GS. * Punctuation of 3Iue. ' Lae- 
tus, for septematnius sit. 

'' Or Fornacalia, in honour of an alleged goddess Fornax 
' Spirit of the Bake-oven ' ; celebrated early in P>bruary, on 
various dates in different curiae. * On February 21, the 
official part of the Parentalia (February 18-21, otherwise for 
private ceremonies) ; etymology obscure. ' God of End- 
ings. " On February 23 : Varro is speaking of the old 
Roman year of 355 days (before the reform of Julius Caesar 
in 45 B.C.), in which an extra month of 22 or 23 days was 
inserted in alternate years after February 23 ; which thereby 
became the last date in the year which was common to all 
years, the remaining five days of February being placed at 
the end of the extra month. '' Or Equirria ; on February 
27 and March 14, in honour of Mars. 

§ 14. " On March 17, the day when the boys assumed the 
toga of manhood. " Frag. inc. 2, page 351 Mauren- 
brecher ; page 3 Morel. " This sentence seems to belong 

186 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 13-U 

festival to that god and also of those men who did not 
get a holiday on their own Fumacalia ^ ' Bakers' 
Festival.' The Feralia * ' Festival of the Dead,' from 
inferi ' the dead below ' and y^rre ' to bear,' because 
at that time Xhey ferunt ' bear ' viands to the tomb of 
those to whom it is a duty to offer ancestor-worship 
there. The Termmalia ' Festival of Terminus,' ^ 
because this day » is set as the last day of the year ; 
for the twelfth month was February, and when the 
extra month is inserted the last five days are taken 
off the twelfth month. The Ecurria ' Horse-Race,'* 
from the equorum ciirsus ' running of horses ' ; for 
on that day they currunt ' run ' races in the sports 
on the Campus Martius. 

14. The Liberalia ' Festival of Liber,' " because on 
that day old women wearing ivy-wTcaths on their 
heads sit in all parts of the town, as priestesses of 
Liber, ^\•ith cakes and a brazier, on which they offer 
up the cakes on behalf of any purchaser. In the books 
of the SaUi * who have the added name Agonenses, this 
day is for this reason, perhaps, called rather the 
Agonia.'^ The Quinquatrus : this day, though one only, 
is from a misunderstanding of the name observed as 
if there were five days in it.** Just as the sixth day 
after the Ides is in similar fashion called the Sexatrus 
by the people of Tusculum, and the seventh day after 
is the Septimatrus, so this day was named here, in that 

in § 12. Tfie proper name of the festival was Ag(mmm, 
plural Agonia ; popularly corrupted to Agonalia, in imita- 
tion of other festival names. "* On March 19-23, five days 
instead of merely the fifth day after the Ides (March 15 ; 
fifth by Roman counting of both ends) ; etymology, the 
' fifth black {ater) day,' perhaps Quinquatrus for Quinfatrus, 
with dissimilative change of one t, and concurrent influence 
of the cardinal quinque. 

1«7 



VARRO 

erat post diem quintum Idus, Quinquatrus. Dies 
Tubulustrium appellatur, quod eo die in Atrio 
Sutorio sacrorum tubae lustrantur. 

15. Megalesia dicta a Graecis, quod ex Libris 
Sibyllinis arcessita ab Attalo rege Pergama ; ibi 
prope murum Megalesion, id est^ templum eius deae, 
unde advecta Romam. Fordicidia a fordis bubus ; 
bos forda quae fert in ventre ; quod eo die publice 
immolantur boves praegnantes in curiis complures,* 
a fordis caedendis Fordicidia dicta. Palilia dicta a 
Pale, quod ei^ feriae, ut Cerialia a Cerere. 

16. Vinalia a vino ; hie dies lovis, non Veneris. 
Huius rei cura non levis in Latio : nam aliquot locis 
vindemiae primum ab sacerdotibus publice fiebant, 
ut Romae etiam nunc : nam flamen Dialis auspicatur 
vindemiam et ut iussit vinum legere, agna lovi facit, 
inter cuius exta caesa et porrecta^ flamen pr(im)us^ 
vinum legit. In Tusculanis jaortis* est scriptum : 

Vinum novum ne vehatur in urbem ante quam 
Vinalia ialentur.* 

§ 15. ^ G8., for in. ^ For compluris. ' Victorias, 
or et. 

§ 16. ^ Aug., with B, for proiecta. ^ Mue., for porus. 
' Bergk, for sortis. * Aug., for calentur. 

' March 23 ; also May 23. 

§ 15. ° Celebrated on April 4 in honour of Cj^bele, the 
Magna Mater (fieydXTj ' magna,' whence the name of the 
festival), whose worship was brought to Rome from Per- 
gamum (here Pergama, fem.) in Mysia, in 204 b.c. * On 
April 15. '^ Often written Parilia ; on April 21. 

'^ Often written Cerealia ; on April 19. 

§ 16. "On April 23, and again on August 19. * That 

is, not before the priests fix the date and the ceremony has 
been performed. 

188 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 14-16 

the fifth day after the Ides was the Quinquatrus. The 
Tiihulustrium ' Purification of the Trumpets ' is named 
from the fact that on this day * the tubae ' trumpets ' 
used in the ceremonies lustrantur ' are purified ' in 
Shoemakers' Hall. 

1 5 . The Megalesia " ' Festival of the Great Mother ' 
is so called from the Greeks, because by direction of 
the SibylUne Books the Great Mother was brought 
from King Attalus, from Pergama ; there near the 
city-wall was the Megalesion, that is, the temple of 
this goddess, whence she was brought to Rome. The 
Fordicidia ^ was named from Jbrdae cows : aforda cow 
is one that is carrying an unborn calf ; because on this 
day several pregnant cows are officially and pubUcly 
sacrificed in the curiae, the festival was called the 
Fordicidia from Jbrdae caedendae ' the pregnant (cows) 
which were to be slaughtered.' The Palilia '' 'Fes- 
tival of Pales ' was named from Pales, because it is a 
hohday in her honour, like the Cerialia,'^ named from 
Ceres. 

16. The Vinalia'^ 'Festival of the Wine,' from 
vinum ' vnne ' ; this is a day sacred to Jupiter, not to 
Venus. This feast receives no slight attention in 
Latium : for in some places the \4ntages were started 
by the priests, on behalf of the state, as at Rome they 
are even now : for the special priest of Jupiter makes 
an official commencement of the \'intage, and when he 
has given orders to gather the grapes, he sacrifices a 
lamb to Jupiter, and between the cutting out of the 
victim's vitals and the offering of them to the god he 
himself first plucks a bunch of grapes. On the gates 
of Tusculum there is the inscription : 

The new wine shall not be carried into the city until 
the Vinalia has been proclaimed." 

189 



VARRO 

Robigalia* dicta ab Robigo ; secundum segetes huic 
deo sacrificatur, ne robigo occupet segetes. 

17. Dies Vestalia ut virgines Vestales a^ Vesta. 
Quinquatrus minusculae dictae luniae Idus ab simili- 
tudine maiorum, quod tibicines tum^ feriati vagantur 
per urbem et conveniunt ad Aedem Minervae. Dies 
Fortis Fortunae appellatus ab Servio Tullio rege, quod 
is fanum Fortis Fortunae secundum Tiberim extra 
urbem Romam dedicavit lunio mense. 

18. Dies Poplifugia videtur nominatus, quod eo 
die tumultu repente fugerit populus : non multo enim 
post hie dies quam decessus Gallorum ex Urbe, et qui 
turn sub Urbe populi, ut Ficuleates ac Fidenates et 
finitimi alii, contra nos coniurarunt. Aliquot huius 
d<i)ei vestigia fugae in sacris apparent, de quibus 
rebus Antiquitatum Libri plura referunt. Nonae 
Caprotinae, quod eo die in Latio lunoni Caprotinae 
mulieres sacrificant et sub caprifico faciunt ; e capri- 

* Rubigalia B, Laetits, for robicalia. 

§ 17. ^ A. Sp. ; ab L. Sp. ; for aut. ^ Laetus, for 
cum. 

* On April 25. '' The passage containing the festivals 
of May has here been lost. 

§17. -On June 9. "On June 13. 'See § 14. 
<* On June 24. 

§ 18. <• On July J, according to the Fasti of y^miternum. 

* Ficulea, a town near Fidenae ; Fidenae, on the Tiber about 
five miles above Rome. " July 7 ; it is not necessary to 
conclude that the Poplifugia and the ceremony of the Nonae 
Caprotinae were on the same day : the Flight may well have 
preceded the Fig-Tree Signal "(see note d) by two days. 

190 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 16-18 

The Robigalia '^ ' Festival of Robigus ' was named from 
Robigus ' God of Rust ' ; to this god sacrifice is made 
along the cornfields, that rust may not seize upon the 
standing corn.** 

17. The Vestalia " ' Festival of \'esta,' like the 
Vestal Mrgins, from \'esta. The Ides of June are 
called the Lesser Qidnquatrus,^ from the Ukeness to 
the Greater Quinquatrus,'^ because the pipes-players 
take a holiday, and after roaming through the City, 
assemble at the Temple of Minerva. The day of Fors 
Fortuna ^ ' Chance Luck ' was named by King SerWus 
TulUus, because he dedicated a sanctuary to Fors For- 
tuna beside the Tiber, outside the city Rome, in the 
month of June. 

18. The PopUfugia " ' People's P'light ' seems to 
have been named from the fact that on this day the 
people suddenly fled in noisy confusion : for this day 
is not much after the departure of the Gauls from the 
City, and the peoples who were then near the City, 
such as the Ficuleans and Fidenians * and other 
neighbours, united against us. Several traces of this 
day's flight appear in the sacrifices, of which the 
Books of the Antiquities give more information. The 
Nones of July '^ are called the Caprotine Nones, be- 
cause on this day, in Latium, the women offer sacrifice 
to Juno Caprotina, which they do under a caprijicus 
' wild fig-tree ' ; they use a branch from the fig-tree.** 

'' The invaders demanded from the Romans, who were help- 
less after the ravages of the Gauls, that they surrender their 
wives and daughters. The maid-servants volunteered to go 
disguised as their mistresses, and plied their captors with 
wine. When they were asleep, the women signalled to the 
Romans from the branches of a caprijicus, and a sudden 
attack routed the invaders. See Macrobius, Sat. i. 11, 36-40 
and iii. 2. 14, 

191 



VARRO 

fico adhibent virgam. Cur hoc, toga^ praetexta data 
eis Apollinavibus Ludis docuit populum. 

19. Neptunalia a Neptuno : eius enim dei^ feriae. 
Furrinalia (a) Furrina,^ quod ei deae feriae publicae* 
dies is ; cuius deae honos apud antiques : nam ei 
sacra instituta annua et flamen attributus ; nunc vix 
nomen notum paucis. Portunalia dicta a Portuno, 
cui eo die aedes in portu Tiberino facta et feriae 
institutae. 

20. Vinalia rustica dicuntur ante diem XII(II>i 
Kalendas Septembres, quod tum Veneri dedicata 
aedes et Aorti ei deae dicontur^ ac tum sunt feriati 
Aolitores. Consualia dicta a Conso, quod tum feriae 
publicae ei deo et in Circo ad aram eius ab sacerdoti- 
bus ludi illi, quibus virgines Sabinae raptae. \'olca- 
nalia a Volcano, quod ei tum feriae et quod eo die 
populus pro se in ignem animalia mittit. 

21. Opeconsiva dies ab dea Ope Consiva, cuius in 
Regia sacrarium quod odeo^ artum,^ ut eo praeter 

§ 18. ^ J/, Laetus, for togata. 

§ 19. * Laetus, for die. * a Furrina Aug., for furrinae. 
' Aldus, for publice. 

§ 20. ^ quartum deciinum Aug., after inscc, for XII. 
* Mue., for dicuntur. 

§ 21. ^ GS.,for ideo. ^ Canal, for actum. 

' The ancillae had been richly dressed when they were sent 
off representing the wives and daughters of the aristocratic 
Romans ; and after they had thus saved the state, the Senate 
rewarded them with freedom and other gifts, including the 
rich garments which they had worn. The presentation of a 
toga praetexta at the Games of Apollo seems to have sym- 
bolized this gift. ' Celebrated on July 12 (at the time 
when Varro wrote). 

192 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 18-21 

Why this was done, the bordered toga * presented to 
them at the Games of Apollo ^enUghtened the people. 

19. The Xeptunalia " ' Festival of Neptune,' from 
Neptime ; for it is the holiday of this god. The Furri- 
nalia * ' Festival of Furrina,' from Furrina, for this day 
is a state holiday for this goddess ; honour was paid to 
her among the ancients, who instituted an annual 
sacrifice for her, and assigned to her a special priest, 
but now her name is barely kno^^•n, and even that to 
only a few. The Portunalia <^ ' Festival of Portunus ' 

.was named from Portunus, to whom, on this day, a 
temple was built at the partus ' port ' on the Tiber, 
and a holiday instituted. 

20. The nineteenth of August was called the 
Country Vinalia " ' Wine-Festival,' because at that 
time a temple was dedicated to Venus and gardens 
were set apart for her, and then the kitchen-gardeners 
went on holiday. The Consualia ^ ' Festival of Cen- 
sus ' was called from Census, because then there was 
the state festival to that god, and in the Circus at his 
altar those games were enacted by the priests in which 
the Sabine maidens were carried off. The Volcanalia" 
' Festival of \'ulcan,' from Vulcan, because then was 
his festival and because on that day the people, acting 
for themselves, drive their animals over a fire. 

21. The day named Opeconsiva " is called from Ops 
Consiva * ' Lady Bountiful the Planter,' whose shrine 
is in the Regia ; it is so restricted in size that no one 

§ 19. « On July 23. * On July 25 ; Furrina, an 
ancient Italic goddess. • On August 1 7. 

§ 20. " Vinalia from vinum, not from Venus ; on August 
19. * On August 21 ; <•/. Livy, i. 9. 6. ' On August 23. 

§21. " August 25. * Goddess of Abundance, the wife 
of Saturn, as planter or sower ; another aspect of Terra. 

VOL. I O 193 



VARRO 

virgines Vestales et sacerdotem publicum introeat 
nemo. " Is cum eat, suffibulum ut' habeat," scrip- 
tum : id dicitur ut* ab suffi<g>endo* sub/igafculum.* 
VoZturnalia' a deo Vo/turno,® cuius feriae turn. Octo- 
bri mense Meditrinalia dies dictus a medendo, quod 
Flaccus flamen Martialis dicebat hoc die solitum 
vinum (novum)» et vetus libari et degustari medica- 
menti causa ; quod facere solent etiam nunc multi 
cum dicMnt " : 

Novum vetus vinum bibo : novo veteri ^^ morbo medeor. 

22. Fontanalia a Fonte, quod is dies feriae eius ; 
ab eo tum et in fontes coronas iaciunt et puteos 
coronant. Armilustrium ab eo quod in Armilustrio 
armati sacra faciunt, nisi locus potius dictus ab his ; 
sed quod de his prius, id ab lu(d>endoi aut lustro, 
id est quod circumibant ludentes ancilibus armati. 

*Z(. Sp., for aut. * Aldus , for diciturne. ^ Skutsch, 
for suffiendo. • Kent, for subligaculum. ' For uor- 
turnalia ,• c/. volturn. in the Fasti. * For uorturno ; <■/. 
preceding note. » Added by Laetus. ^' L. Sp., for 
dicant. ^^ After veteri, G, V,f, Aldus deleted uino; cf. 
Festus, 123. 16 M. 

§ 22. ^ Vertranius, for luendo. 

' An oblong piece of white cloth with a coloured border, 
which the Vestal \'irgins fastened over their heads with a 
fibula ' clasp ' when they offered sacrifice ; cf. Festus, 348 a 25 
and 3*9. 8 M. "On August 27; the god Volturnus 
cannot be identified unless he is identical with Vortumnus 
(Vertumnus), since he can hardly be the deity of the river 
Volturnus in Campania or of the mountain Voltur, in Apulia, 
near Horace's birthplace. ' On October 3 ; Meditrina, 

194 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 21-22 

may enter it except the Vestal Virgins and the state 
priest. " WTien he goes there, let him wear a white 
veil," is the direction ; this suffibulum '^ ' white veil ' 
is named as if sub-Jigabuhun from suffigere ' to fasten 
down.' The Volturnalia ' Festival of \'olturnus,' 
from the god Volturnus,'* whose feast takes place then. 
In the month of October, the Meditrinalia ^ ' Festival 
of Meditrina ' was named from mederi ' to be healed,' 
because Flaccus the special priest of Mars used to say 
that on this day it was the practice to pour an offering 
of new and old wine to the god, and to taste of the 
same,^ for the purpose of being healed ; which many 
are accustomed to do even now, when they say ; 

Wine new and old I drink, of illness new and old 
I'm cured.' 

22. The Fontanalia ' Festival of the Springs,' from 
Fons ' God of Springs,' because that day ° is his holi- 
day ; on his account they then throw garlands into 
the springs and place them on the well- tops. The 
Armilustrium ^ ' Purification of the Arms,' from the 
fact that armed men perform the ceremony in the 
Armilustrium, unless the place <^ is rather named from 
the men ; but as I said of them previously, this word 
comes from ludere ' to play ' or from lustrum ' puri- 
fication,' that is, because armed men went around 
ludentes ' making sport ' with the sacred shields. "* 

Goddess of Healing. ' The ceremonial first drinking of 
the new wine. » Frag. Poet. Lat., page 31 Morel. 

§ 22. " October 13. " October 13. ' The place was 
named from the ceremony ; c/. v. 153. "^ The first ancile 
is said to have fallen from heaven in the reign of Numa, who 
had eleven others made exactly like it, to prevent its loss 
or to prevent knowledge of its loss ; for the safety of the 
City depended on the preservation of that shield which fell 
from heaven. 



VARRO 

Saturnalia dicta ab Saturno, quod eo die feriae eius, 
ut post diem tertium Opalia Opis. 

23. Angeronalia ab Angerona, cui sacrificium fit 
in Curia Acculeia et cuius feriae publicae is dies. 
Larentinae, quern diem quidam in scribendo Laren- 
talia appellant, ab Acca Larentia nominatus, cui 
sacerdotes nostri publice parentant e sexto die/ qui 
ab ea^ dicitur die*^ Parent(ali>um* Accas Larentinas.' 

24. Hoc sacrificium fit in Velabro, qua^ in Novam 
Viam exitur, ut aiunt quidam ad sepulcrum Accae, ut 
quod ibi prope faciunt diis Manibus servilibus sacer- 
dotes ; qui uterque locus extra urbem antiquam fuit 
non longe a Porta Romanula, de qua in priore libro 
dixi. Dies Septimontium nominatus ab his septem 
montibus, in quis sita Urbs est ; feriae non populi, sed 
montanorum modo, ut Paganalibus, qui sunt alicuius 
pagi. 

25. De statutis diebus dixi ; de annalibus nee 

§ 23. ^ parentant Aug., e sexto die Fay, for parent ante 
sexto die. ^ Miie., for atra. ^ L. Sp., for diem. 

* Mommsen, for tarentum. * L. Sp., for tarentinas. 

§ 24. ^ Laetus, for quia. 

• December 17, and the following days. ' December 19. 

§ 23. " On December 21. ^ Goddess of Suffering and 
Silence. ' On December 23 ; supply feriae with Laren- 
tinae. ^ Wife of Faustulus ; she nursed and brought up 
the twins Romulus and Remus. * " Sixth " is wrong if 
the Saturnalia began on December 17, unless in this instance 
both ends are counted, or the allusion is to an earlier practice 
by which the Saturnalia began one day later. On the phrase 
e sexto die, cf. Fay, Amer. Jovrn. Phil. xxxv. 246. 
' Archaic genitive singular ending in -as. 

196 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 22-25 

The Saturnalia ' Festival of Saturn ' was named from 
Saturn, because on this day * was his festival, as on the 
second day thereafter the Opalia/ the festival of 
Ops. 

23. The Angeronalia," from Angerona,* to whom a 
sacrifice is made in the Acculeian Curia and of whom 
this day is a state festival. The Larentine Festival, *= 
which certain writers call the Larentalia, was named 
from Acca Larentia,** to whom our priests officially 
perform ancestor-worship on the sixth day after the 
Saturnalia,* which day is from her called the Day of 
the Parentalia of Larentine Acca.^ 

24. This sacrifice is made in the Velabrum, where 
it ends in New Street, as certain authorities say, at the 
tomb of Acca, because near there the priests make 
offering to the departed spirits of the slaves " : both 
these places * were outside the ancient city, not far 
from the Little Roman Gate, of which I spoke in the 
preceding book." Septimontium Day •* was named 
from these septem monies ' seven hills,' * on which the 
City is set ; it is a holiday not of the people generally, 
but only of those who live on the hills, as only those 
who are of some pagus ' country- district ' have a hoU- 
day ' at the Paganalia » ' Festival of the Country 
Districts.' 

25. The fixed days are those of which I have 
spjoken ; now I shall speak of the annual festivals 

§ 24. " Faustulus and Acca were, of course, slaves of 
the king. * The tomb of Acca and the place of sacrifice 
to the Manes serviles. 'v. 164. ■'On December 11. 
* Not the usual later seven; Festus, 348 M., lists Capitoline 
with Velia and Cermalus, three spurs of the Esquiline— 
Oppius, Fa^tal, Cispius — and the Subura valley between. 
' Supply feriantur. ' Early in January, but not on a 
fixed date. 

197 



VARRO 

d<i>e^ statutis dicam. Compitalia dies attributus 
Laribus vialihus^ : ideo ubi viae competunt turn in 
competis sacrificatur. Quotannis is dies concipitur. 
Similiter Latinae Feriae dies conceptivus' dictus a 
Latinis populis, quibus ex Albano Monte ex sacris 
carnem* petere fuit ius cum Romanis, a quibus Latinis 
Latinae dictae. 

26. Sementivae^ Feriae dies is, qui a pontificibus 
dictus, appellatus a semente, quod sationis causa sus- 
cepta(e).^ Paganicae eiusdem agriculturae causa 
susceptae, ut haberent in agris omm's' pagus, unde 
Paganicae dictae. Sunt praeterea feriae conceptivae 
quae non sunt annales, ut hae quae dicuntur sine 
proprio vocabulo aut cum perspicwo,* ut Novendiales* 
sunt. 

IV. 27. De his diebus (satis)^ ; nunc iam, qui 
hominum causa constituti, videamus. Primi dies 
mensium nominati jfiCalendae,* quod his diebus calan- 

§ 25. ^ Mommsen, for de. * Bongars, for ut alibi. 
^ Laetus, for conseptivus. * Victorius, for carmen. 

§26. ^f, Vertranius, for sementinae. ^ Aldus, for 
suscepta. ^ Aldus, for omnes. * Aug., for perspicio. 
* For novendialis. 

§ 27. ^ Added by Sciop. * Aug., with B, for cal-. 

§ 25. " That is, set by special proclamation, and not 
always falling on the same date. '' By the praetor, not far 
from January 1 . ' Written competa in the text, to make 
the association with competunt. ^ The festival of the 
league of the Latin cities ; its date was set by the Roman 
consuls (or by a consul) as soon as convenient after entry 
into office. 

§ 26. " In January, on two days separated by a space 
of seven days ; as they were days of sowing, the choice 
depended upon the weather. * Collective singular with 

198 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 25-27 

which are not fixed on a special day." The Compitalia 
is a day assigned * to the Lares of the highways ; 
therefore where the highways competunt ' meet,* 
sacrifice is then made at the compita " ' crossroads.' 
This day is appointed every year. Likewise the 
Latinae Feriae * Latin Holiday ' <* is an appointed day, 
named from the peoples of Latium, who had equal 
right with the Romans to get a share of the meat at 
the sacrifices on the Alban Mount : from these Latin 
peoples it was called the Latin Holiday. 

26. The Sementivae Feriae ' Seed-time Holiday ' " 
is that day which is set by the pontiffs ; it was named 
from the sementis ' seeding,' because it is entered 
upon for the sake of the sowing. The Paganicae 
' Country-District Holiday ' was entered upon for the 
sake of this same agriculture, that the whole pagus ^ 
' country-district ' might hold it in the fields, whence 
it was called Paganicae. There are also appointive 
hoUdays which are not annual, such as those which are 
set without a special name of their own," or with an 
obvious one, such as is the Novendialis ' Ceremony of 
the Ninth Day.' ^* 

IV. 27. About these days this is enough " ; now 
let us see to the days which are instituted for the 
interests of men. The first days of the months 
are named the Kalendae,^ because on these days the 

plural verb. * Such as the supplicationes voted for Caesar's 
victories in Gaul ; c/. Bell. Gall. ii. 35. 4, iv. 38. 5, vii. 90. 8. 
"* The offerings and feasts for the dead on the ninth day after 
the funeral ; also, a festival of nine days proclaimed for the 
purpose of averting misfortunes whose approach was indicated 
by omens and prodigies. 

§ 27. " The insertion o( satis makes the chapter beginning 
conform to those at v. 57, 75, 95, 184, vi. 35, etc. " The K 
in Kalendae and )ta/o, before A, is well attested. 

199 



VARRO 

tur eius mensis' Nonae a pontificibus, quintanae an 
septimanae sint futurae, in Capitolio in Curia Calabra 
sic : " Die te quin^i* ^alo^ luno Covella " (aut>* " Sep- 
t^m(i> die te' ^alo^ luno Covella." 

28. Nonae appellatae aut quod ante diem nonum 
Idus semper, aut quod, ut novus annus Kalendae^ 
lanuariae ab novo sole appellatae, novus mensis (ab)^ 
nova luna Nonae^ ; eodem die* in Urbe(m>^ (qui)* in 
agris ad regem conveniebat populus. Harum rerum 
vestigia apparent in sacris Nonalibus in Arce, quod 
tunc ferias primas menstruas, quae futurae sint eo 
mense, rex edicit populo. Idus ab eo quod Tusci 
Itus, vel potius quod Sabini Idus dicunt. 

29. Dies postridie Kalendas, Nonas, Idus appellati 
atri, quod per eos dies <nihil>i novi inciperent. Dies 
fasti, per quos praetoribus omnia verba sine piaculo 
licet fari ; comitiales dicti, quod turn ut <in Comitio)^ 

^ Aug., with B, for menses. * Mommsen ; die te V 

CAHs<; /or dictaequinque. ^ See note ^,^^!. ^ Added 
by Zander. ' Mommsen ; VII die te Christ ; for septem 
dictae. 

§ 28. ^ Aug., with B,for calendae. ^ a added by Sciop. 
' Sciop., for nonis. * After die, Mue. deleted enim. 
* Laetus, for urbe. * Added by L. Sp. 

§ 29. ^ Added by Turnebus. ^ Added by Bergk. 

' See V. 13. <* The statement of Macrobius, Sat. i. 15. 10, 
that kalo luno Covella was repeated five or seven times re- 
spectively, may rest merely on a corrupted form of this passage 
which was in the copy used by Macrobius. ' ' Juno of the 
New Moon ' ; Covella, diminutive from covus ' hollow,' 
earlier form of cavus {cf. v. 19) — unless it be corrupt for 
Novella, as Scaliger thought. For the New Moon has a 
concave shape. 

§28. "The north-eastern summit of the Capitoline. 
"" Origin uncertain ; perhaps from Etruscan, as Varro says. 

200 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 27-29 

Nones of this month calantur ' are announced ' by the 
pontiffs on the Capitoline in Announcement Hall," 
whether they "will be on the fifth or on the seventh, in 
this way ^ : " Juno Covella,* I announce thee on the 
fifth day " or " Juno Covella, I announce thee on the 
sev'enth day." 

28. The Nones are so called either because they 
are always the nonus ' ninth ' day before the Ides, or 
because the Nones are called the novus ' new ' month 
from the new moon, just as the Kalends of January 
are called the new year from the new sun ; on the 
same day the people Mho were in the fields used to 
flock into the City to the King. Traces of this status 
are seen in the ceremonies held on the Nones, on 
the Citadel," because at that time the high-priest 
announces to the people the first monthly holidays 
which are to take place in that month. The Idus ^ 
' Ides,' from the fact that the Etruscans called them 
the Itus, or rather because the Sabines call them the 
Idus. 

29. The days next after the Kalends, the Nones, 
and the Ides, were called atri ' black,' " because on 
these days they might not start anything new. Dies 
fasti ^ ' righteous days, court days,' on which the 

praetors '' are permitted fari ' to say ' any and all 
words without sin. Comiiiales ' assembly days ' are so 
called because then it is the established law that the 

§ 29. " C/. Macrobius, Sat. i. 15. 22 ; the use of ater was 
appropriate after the Ides, when the moon was not visible in 
the day nor in the early evening, nor was it visible immedi- 
ately after the Kalends. * That is, when it was /a« to hold 
court and make legal decisions ; Varro connects with fori 
' to say,' with which the Romans associated fas etymologi- 
cally, but the connexion has recently been questioned. 
' Who functioned as judges. 

201 



VARRO 

esset populus constitutum est ad suffragium ferun- 
dum, nisi si quae feriae conceptae essent, propter quas 
non liceret, (ut)' Compitalia et Latinae. 

30. Contrarii horum vocantur dies nefasti, per 
quos dies nefas fari praetorem " do," " dico," " ad- 
dico " ; itaque non potest agi : necesse est aliquo 
<eorum>^ uti verbo, cum lege qui<d)2 peragitur. Quod 
si turn imprudens id verbum emisit ac quern manu- 
misit, ille nihilo minus est liber, sed vitio, ut magi- 
stratus vitio creatus nihilo sedus' magistratus. Praetor 
qui turn fatus* est, si imprudens fecit, piaculari hostia 
facta piatur ; si prudens dixit, Quintus Mucins aiebat^ 
cum expiari ut impium non posse. 

31. Intercesi^ dies sunt per quos mane et vesperi 
est nefas, medio tempore inter hostiam caesam et exta 
porrecta^ fas ; a quo quod fas tum intercedit aut eo' 
intercisum nefas, intercisi.* Dies qui vocatur sic 
" Quando* rex comitiavit fas," is* dictus ab eo quod 

^ Added by Laetus. 

§ 30. ^ Added by Laetus, with B. ^ Laetus, for qui. 
^ A. Sp. ; secius Victorius ; for sed ius, *Turnebus,for 
factus. * L. Sp., for abigebat. 

§ 31. ^ Laetus, for intercensi. " Aug., with B, for 
proiecta. ^ L, Sp. ; eo est Mue. ; for eos. * A. Sp., 
for intercisum. * Before quando, B inserts Q R C F, the 
abbreviation found tn the Fasti. * fas is Victorius, for 
fassis. 



§ 30. " For the meaning of vitio, see Dorothy M. 
Paschall, " The Origin and Semantic Development of Latin 
Vitium," Trans. Amer. Philol. Assn. Ixvii. 219-231. 
* i. 19 Huschke. 

§ 31. » March 24 and May 24. " The caedere ' to cut ' 
in intercidere and the cedere ' to go on ' in intercedere are not 
etymologically connected. 
202 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 29-31 

people should be in the Comitium to cast their votes — 
unless some holidays should have been proclaimed on 
account of which this is not permissible, such as the 
Compitalia and the Latin Holiday. 

30. The opposite of these are called dies nefasti 
' unrighteous days,' on which it is nefas ' unrighteous- 
ness ' for the praetor to say do ' I give,' dico ' I pro- 
nounce,' addico ' I assign ' ; therefore no action 
can be taken, for it is necessary to use some one 
of these words, when anything is settled in due 
legal form. But if at that time he has inadvert- 
ently uttered such a word and set somebody free, 
the person is none the less free, but with a bad 
omen" in the proceeding, just as a magistrate 
elected in spite of an unfavourable omen is a 
magistrate just the same. The praetor who has 
made a legal decision at such a time, is freed of 
his sin by the sacrifice of an atonement victim, if 
he did it unintentionally ; but if he made the pro- 
nouncement with a realization of what he was doing, 
Quintus Mucius * said that he could not in any way 
atone for his sin, as one who had failed in his duty 
to God and country. 

31. The intercisi dies ' divided days ' are those ° on 
which legal business is wTong in the morning and in 
the evening, but right in the time between the slajing 
of the sacrificial victim and the offering of the vital 
organs ; whence they are intercisi because the Jos 
' right ' intercedit * ' comes in between ' at that time, 
or because the nefas ' WTong ' is intercisum ' cut into ' 
by ihefos. The day which is called thus : " When 
the high-priest has officiated in the Comitium, Right," 
is named from the fact that on this day the high-priest 
pronounces the proper formulas for the sacrifice in the 

203 



VARRO 

eo die rex sacrificio ius'' dicat ad Comitium, ad quod 
tempus est nefas, ab eo fas : itaque post id tempus 
lege actum saepe. 

32. Dies qui vocatur " Quando stercum delatum 
fas,"^ ab eo appellatus, quod eo die ex Aede Vestae 
stercus everritur et per Capitolinum Clivum in locum 
defertur certum. Dies Alliensis ab Allia^ fluvio 
dictus : nam ibi exercitu nostro fugato Galli obse- 
derunt Romam. 

33. Quod ad singulorum dierum vocabula pertinet 
dixi. Mensium nomina fere sunt aperta, si a Martio, 
ut antiqui constituerunt, numeres : nam primus a 
Marte. Secundus, ut Fulvius scribit et Junius, a 
Venere, quod ea sit AjaArodite^ ; cuius nomen ego 
antiquis litteris quod nusquam inveni, magis puto 
dictum, quod ver omnia aperit, Aprilem. Tertius a 
maioribus Maius, quartus a iunioribus dictus Junius. 

31-. Dehinc quintus Quintilis et sic deinceps usque 
ad Decembrem a numero. Ad hos qui additi, prior a 
principe deo lanuarius appellatus ; posterior, ut idem 
dicunt scriptores, ab diis inferis Februarius appellatus, 

^ Other codices, for sacrificiolus Fv. 

§ 32. ^ Before quando, B inserts Q S D F, the abbrevia- 
tion found in the Fasti. ^ B, Laetus, for allio (auio/). 

§ 33. ^ For afrodite. 

§ 32. " June 15. * July 18 ; anniversary of the battle 

of 390 B.C., at the place where the Allia flows into the Tiber, 
eleven miles above Rome. 

§ 33. " Probably from an adjective apero- ' second,' not 
otherwise found in Latin. " Servius Fulvius Flaccus, 
consul 1.S5 B.C., skilled in law, literature, and ancient history. 
«Page 121 Funaioli; page 11 Huschke. <* From Maia, 
mother of Mercury. * From the goddess Juno : page 121 
Fimaioli. 

§ 34. " Varro wrote before Quintilis was renamed lulius 

204 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 31-34 

presence of the assembly, up to which time legal 
business is WTong, and from that time on it is right : 
therefore after this time of day actions are often taken 
under the law. 

32. The day " which is called " When the dung has 
been carried out, Right," is named from this, that on 
this day the dung is swept out of the Temple of \'esta 
and is carried away along the Capitoline Incline to a 
certain spot. The Dies AlUensis ^ ' Day of the Allia ' 
is called from the Allia River ; for there our army was 
put to flight by the Gauls just before they besieged 
Rome. 

33. With this I have finished my account of what 
pertains to the names of indi\idual days. The names 
of the months are in general ob\ious, if you count 
from March, as the ancients arranged them ; for the 
first month, Martins, is from Mars. The second, 
Aprilis," as Fuhius ^ ^\Tites and Junius also,'' is from 
\'enus, because she is Aphrodite : but I have nowhere 
found her name in the old ^^Titings about the month, 
and so think that it was called April rather because 
spring aperit ' opens ' everything. The third was 
called Maius ** ' May ' from the maiores ' elders,' the 
fourth lunius * ' June ' from the iuniores ' younger 
men.' 

34. Thence the fifth is Quintilis " ' July ' and so in 
succession to December, named from the numeral. 
Of those which were added to these, the prior was 
called lanuarius ' January ' from the god * who is first 
in order ; the latter, as the same \\Titers say," was 
called Fehruarius^ ' February ' from the di inferi ' gods 

and Sfxtilis was renamed Augustus. * Janus. ' Page 
16 Funaioli ; page 11 Huschke. •* From a lost word/«6#r 
' sorrow.' 

205 



VARRO 

quod turn his paren<te>tur^ ; ego magis arbitror 
P'ebruarium a die februato, quod turn februatur 
populus, id est Lupercis nudis lustratur antiquum 
oppidum Palatinum gregibus humanis cinctum. 

V. 35. Quod ad temporum vocabula Latina 
attinet, hactenus sit satis dictum ; nunc quod ad eas 
res attinet quae in tempore aliquo fieri animadver- 
terentur, dicam, ut haec sunt : legisti, cur*us,^ ludens ; 
de quis duo praedicere volo, quanta sit multitudo 
eorum et quae sint obscuriora quam alia. 

36. Cum verborum declinatuum^ genera sint quat- 
tuor, unum quod tempora adsignificat neque habet 
casus, ut ab lego leges, lege^ ; alterum quod casus 
habet neque tempora adsignificat, ut ab lego lectio 
et lector ; tertium quod habet utrunque et tempora 
et casus, ut ab lego legens, lecturus ; quartum quod 
neutrum habet, ut ab lego lecte ac lectissime : horum 
verborum si primigenia sunt ad mille,^ ut Cosconius 
scribit, ex eorum declinationibus verborum discrimina 
quingenta milia esse possunt ideo, quod a* singulis 
verbis primigenii(s>5 circiter quingentae species de- 
clinationibus fiunt. 

§ 34. ^ Aug. ; parentent Laetus ; for parent. 
§ 35. ^ Mue., with G, 11, for currus. 

§ 36. 1 B, Laetus, for declinatiuum. ^ V, b, for lego 
Fv. ' Victorius, for admitte. * L. Sp., for quia. 

* Aug., for primigenii. 

* Three different ceremonies are confounded here : one of 
purification, one of expiation to the gods of the Lower World, 
one of fertility ; cf. vi. 13, note a. 

§ 35. " That is, all verbal forms, and the derivatives from 
the verbal roots. 

§36. " The verb has both meanings ; some of the deriva- 
tives have only one or the other, * Q. Cosconius, orator 

206 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 34^36 

of the Lower World,' because at that time expiatory 
sacrifices are made to them ; but I think that it was 
called February rather from the dies fehruatus ' Puri- 
fication Day,' because then the people fehruatur ' is 
purified,' that is, the old Palatine town girt -vWth flocks 
of people is passed around by the naked Luperci.* 

V. 35. As to what pertains to Latin names of time 
ideas, let that which has been said up to this point be 
enough. Now I shall speak of what concerns those 
things which might be observed as taking place at 
some special time " — such as the following : legisti 
' thou didst read,' cursus ' act of running,' ludens 
' playing.' With regard to these there are two things 
which I "sWsh to say in advance : how great their 
number is, and what features are less perspicuous 
than others. 

36. The inflections of words are of four kinds : one 
which indicates the time and does not have case, as 
leges ' thou wilt gather or read,' " lege ' read thou,' 
from lego ' I gather or read ' ; a second, which has 
case and does not indicate time, as from lego lectio 
' collection, act of reading,' lector ' reader ' ; the third, 
which has both, time and case, as from lego legens 
' reading,' lecturus ' being about to read ' ; the third, 
which has neither, as from lego lecte ' choicely,' lectis- 
sime ' most choicely.' Therefore if the primitives of 
these words amount to one thousand, as Cosconius ^ 
writes, then from the inflections of these words the 
different forms can be five hundred thousand in 
number for the reason that from each and every 
primitive word about five hundred forms are made 
by derivation and inflection. 

and authority on grammar and literature, who flourished 
about 100 B.C. ; page 109 Funaioli. 

207 



VARRO 

37. Primigenia dicuntur verba ut lego, scribo, sto, 
sedeo et cetera, quae non sunt ab ali(o> quo^ verbo, 
sed suas habent radices. Contra verba declinata sunt, 
quae ab ali<o> quo^ oriuntur, ut ab lego legis, legit, 
legam et sic^ indidem hinc permulta. Quare si quis 
primigeniorum verborum origines ostenderit, si ea 
mille sunt, quingentum milium simplicium verborum 
causas aperuerit una ; sin* nullius, tamen qui ab his 
reliqua orta ostenderit, satis dixerit de originibus 
verborum, cum unde nata sint, principia erunt pauca, 
quae inde nata sint, innumerabilia. 

38. A quibus iisdem principiis antepositis prae- 
verbiis paucis immanis verborum accedit numerus, 
quod praeverbiis {in>mutatis^ additis atque commu- 
tatis aliud atque aliud fit : ut enim <pro>cessit'' et 
recessit, sic accessit et abscessit ; item incessit et ex- 
cessit, sic successit et decessit, (discessit)' et concessit. 
Quod si haec decem sola praeverbia essent, quoniam 
ab uno verbo declinationum quingenta discrimina 
fierent, his decemplicatis coniuncto praeverbio ex 
uno quinque milia numero efficerent(ur),* ex mille ad 
quinquagies centum milia discrimina fieri possunt. 

§ 37. ^ Mue. ; alio Aug., G ; for aliquo. * Mue., for 
aliquo. ' After sic, Laetus deleted in. * Turnebns, for 
Unas in. 

§ 38. ^ GS., for mutatis. ^ Fritzscke, for cessit. 

* Added by GS (et discessit added by Vertranius). * Aldus, 
for efficerent. 

§ 37. " That is, cannot be referred to a simpler radical 
element. 
208 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 37-38 

37. Primitive is the name applied to words like 
lego ' I gather,' scribo ' I ^^Tite,' sto ' I stand,' sedeo ' I 
sit,' and the rest which are not from some other word,** 
but have their own roots. On the other hand deriva- 
tive words are those which do develop from some other 
word, as from lego come legis ' thou gatherest,' legit 
' he gathers,' legam ' I shall gather,' and in this fashion 
from this same word come a great number of words. 
Therefore, if one has shown the origins of the primi- 
tive words, and if these are one thousand in number, 
he will have revealed at the same time the sources of 
five hundred thousand separate words : but if without 
showing the origin of a single primitive word he has 
shown how the rest have developed from the primi- 
tives, he \nU. have said quite enough about the origins 
of words, since the original elements from which the 
words are sprung are few and the words which have 
sprung from them are countless. 

38. There are besides an enormous number of 
words derived from these same original elements by 
the addition of a few prefixes, because by the addition 
of prefixes with or without change a word is repeatedly 
transformed ; for as there is processit ' he marched 
forward ' and recessit ' drew back,' so there is accessit 
' approached ' and abscessit ' went off,' Ukewise incessit 
' advanced ' and excessit ' withdrew,' so also siiccessit 
' went up ' and decessit ' went away,' discessit ' de- 
parted ' and concessit ' gave way.' But if there were 
only these ten prefixes, from the thousand primitives 
five million different forms can be made inasmuch as 
from one word there are five hundred derivational 
forms and when these are multiplied by ten through 
union with a prefix five thousand different forms are 
produced out of one primitive. 

VOL. I p 209 



VARRO 

39. Democritus, E(pi>curus,^ item alii qui infinita 
principia dixerunt, quae unde sint non dicunt, sed 
cuiusmodi sint, tamen faciunt magnum : quae ex his 
constant in mundo, ostendunt. Quare si et^mologws* 
principia verborum postulet mille, de quibus ratio ab 
se non poscatur, et reliqua ostendat, quod non pos- 
tulat, tamen immanem verborum expediat numerum. 

40. De multitudine quoniam quod satis esset 
admonui,^ de obscuritate pauca dicam. Verborum 
quae tempora adsignificant ideo locus* difficillimus 
fTV[j.a,^ quod neque his fere societas cum Graeca 
lingua, neque vernacula ea quorum in partum memoria 
adfuerit nostra ; e* quibus, ut dixi,^ quae poterimus. 

VI. 41. Incipiam hinc primurw^ quod dicitur ago. 
Actio ab agitatu facta. Hinc dicimus " agit gestum 
tragoedus,"* et " agitantur quadrigae " ; hinc " agi- 
tur pecus pastum." Qua' vix agi potest, hinc angi- 
portum ; qua nil potest agi, hinc angulus, <vel>* quod 
in eo locus angustissimus, cuius loci is angulus. 

42. Actionum trium primus agitatus mentis, quod 

§ 39. ^ Tumehus, for secutus Fv, securus G, II. " ety- 
mologos B, Rhol., for ethimologos Fv, ethimologus G. 

§ 40. ^ Laetus, for admonuit. */, Aldus, for locutus. 
' est hvfia Sciop. {L. Sp. deleted est), for est TTMa Fv. 
* A. Sp., for nostrae. * 31, Laetus, for dixit. 

§ 41. ^ Laetus, for primus. " For tragaedus. ^Al- 
dus, for quia. * Added by Mue., whose punctuation is 
here followed. 

§ 39. " Of Abdera (about 460-373 b.c), originator of the 
atomic theory. * Of Athens (341-270 b.c), founder of the 
Epicurean school of philosophy ; Epic. 201. 33 Usener. 
' That is, that he should be excused from interpreting them 
{quod for quot). 

% 40. " For adfuerit with the goal construction, cf. Vergil, 
Eel. 2. 45 hue ades, etc. " v. 10. 
210 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 39-42 

39. Democritus,'» Epicurus,'' and likewise others 
who have pronounced the original elements to be 
unhmited in number, though they do not tell us 
whence the elements are, but only of what sort they 
are, still perform a great ser\-ice : they show us the 
things which in the world consist of these elements. 
Therefore if the etymologist should postulate one 
thousand original elements of words, about which an 
interpretation is not to be asked of him, and show the 
nature of the rest, about which he does not make the 
postulation,*' the number of words which he would 
explain would still be enormous. 

40. Since I have given a sufficient reminder of the 
number of existing words, I shall speak briefly about 
their obscurity. Of the words which also indicate 
time the most difficult feature is their radicals, for the 
reason that these have in general no communion with 
the Greek language, and those to whose birth " our 
memory reaches are not native Latin ; yet of these, 
as I have said,* we shall say what we can. 

\'I. 41. I shall start first from the word ago ' I 
drive, effect, do.' Actio ' action ' is made from agitatus 
' motion.' " From this we say " The tragic actor agit 
' makes ' a gesture," and " The chariot-team agitantur 
' is driven ' " ; from this, " The flock agitur ' is driven ' 
to pasture." Where it is hardly possible for anything 
agi ' to be driven,' from this it is called an angiportum * 
' alley ' ; where nothing can agi ' be driven,' from this 
it is an angulus ' corner,' or else because in it is a verj^ 
narrow (angustus) place to which this corner belongs. 

42. There are three actiones ' actions,' and of these 

§41. "All these words are derivatives of agere, except 
angiportum and angulus ; but aetio does not develop by loss 
of the * in agitatus. " C/. v. 14.5. 

211 



VARRO 

primum ea quae sumus acturi cogitate debemus, 
deinde turn dicere et facere. De his tribus minime 
putat volgus esse actionem cogitationem ; tertium, in 
quo quid facimus, id maximum. Sed et cum cogi- 
tamus^ quid et eam rem agitamus^ in mente, agimus, 
et cum pi-onuntiamus, agimus. Itaque ab eo orator 
agere dicitur causam et augures augurium agere 
dicuntur, quom in eo plura dicant quam faciant. 

43. Cogitare a cogendo dictum : mens plura in 
unum cogit, unde eligere^ possit. Sic e lacte coacto 
caseus nominatus ; sic ex hominibus contio dicta, sic 
coemptio, sic compitum nominatum, A cogitatione 
concilium, inde consilium ; quod ut vestimentum 
apud fullonem cum cogitur, conciliari^ dictum. 

44. Sic reminisci, cum ea quae tenuit mens ac 
memoi'ia, cogitando repetuntur. Hinc etiam com- 
minisci dictum, a con et mente, cum finguntur in 
mente quae non sunt ; et ab hoc illud quod dicitur 
eminisci,! cum commentum pronuntiatur. Ab eadem 

§ 42. ^ Sciop., for hos agitamus Fv. * L. 8p., for 
cogitamus. 

§ 43. ^ a, p, RhoL, for elicere. " Aug., for consiliari. 
§ 44. ^ Heusinger,for reminisci. 



§ 42. " Page 16 Regell. 

§ 43. " Here Varro gives a parenthetic list of words with 
the prefix co- or com- ; though he is wrong in including 
caseus. ^ Cogitatio, concilium, consilium have nothing in 
common except the prefix. 
212 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 42-44, 

the first is the agitatus ' motion ' of the mind, because 
we must first cogitate ' consider ' those things which 
we are acturi ' going to do,' and then thereafter say 
them and do them. Of these three, the common folk 
practically never thinlcs that cogitatio ' consideration ' 
is an action : but it thinks that the third, in which we 
do something, is the most important. But also when 
we cogitamus ' consider ' something and agitamus 
' turn it over ' in mind, we agimus ' are acting,' and 
when we make an utterance, we agimus ' are acting.' 
Therefore from this the orator is said agere ' to plead ' 
the case, and the augurs are said " agere ' to practice ' 
augury, although in it there is more saying than 
doing. 

43. Cogitare ' to consider ' is said from cogere ' to 
bring together ' : the mind cogit ' brings together ' 
several things into one place, from which it can 
choose. Thus " from milk that is coactum ' pressed,' 
caseus ' cheese ' was named ; thus from men brought 
together was the contio ' mass meeting ' called, thus 
coemptio ' marriage by mutual sale,' thus compitum 
* cross-roads.' From cogitatio ' consideration ' came 
concilium ' council,' and from that came consilium 
' counsel ' ; ^ and the concilium is said conciliari ' to be 
brought into unity ' like a garment when it cogitur ' is 
pressed ' at the cleaner's. 

44. Thus reminisci ' to recall,' when those things 
which have been held by mind and memory are fetched 
back again by considering (cogitando). From this also 
comminisci ' to fabricate a story ' is said, from con ' to- 
gether ' and mens ' mind,' when things which are not, 
are devised in the mind ; and from that comes the 
word eminisci ' to use the imagination,' when the 
commentum ' fabrication ' is uttered. From the same 

213 



VARRO 

mente meminisse dictum et amens, qui a mente sua 
dtscedit.^ 

45. Hinc etiam metu*^ <a) mente quodam modo 
mota,^ ut^ metuisti <te>* amovisti ; sic, quod frigidus 
timior, tremuisti timuisti. Tremo dictum a simili- 
tudine vocis, quae tunc cum valde tremunt apparet, 
cum etiam in corpore pili, ut arista in spica ^ordei, 
horrent. 

46. Curare a cura dictum. Cura, quod cor urat ; 
curiosus, quod hac praeter modum utitur. Recor- 
danV rursus in cor revocare. Curiae, ubi senatus 
rempublicam curat, et ilia ubi cura sacrorum publica ; 
ab his curiones. 

47. Volo a voluntate dictum et a volatu, quod 
animus ita est, ut puncto temporis pervolet quo volt. 
Lwbere^ ab labendo dictum, quod lubrica mens ac 
prolabitur, ut dicebant olim. Ab lubendo libido, 
libidinosus ac Venus Libentina et Libitina, sic alia. 

* Aug., for descendit. 

§ 45. ^ GS., for metuo. ^ Canal, for mentem quodam 
modo motam. * L. Sp., for uel. * Added by Kent, 
after Fay. 

§ 46. ^ Aug., with B, for recordare. 

§ 47. 1 L. Sp., for libere. 



§ 45. " According to Mueller, the sequence of the topics 
indicates that this section and § 49 have been interchanged in 
the manuscripts. All etymologies in this section are wrong. 

§ 46. " Three etymologically distinct sets of words are 
here united : cura, curare, curiosus ; cor, recordari ; curia, 
curio. 

§ 47. " Volo ' I wish ' is distinct from volo ' I fly.' 
'' lAibet, later libet, is distinct from labi and from lubricus. 
" Either as a euphemism, or from the fact that the funeral 
apparatus was kept in the storerooms of the Temple of Venus, 
which caused the epithet to acquire a new meaning. 

214 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 44^7 

word mens ' mind ' come menunisse ' to remember ' 
and amens ' mad,' said of one who has departed a 
mente ' from his mind.' 

45." From this moreover metus ' fear,' from the 
mens ' mind ' somehow mota ' moved,' as meiuisti ' you 
feared,' equal to te amovisti ' you removed yourself.' 
So, because timor ' fear ' is cold, tremuisti ' you 
shivered ' is equal to timuisti ' you feared.' Tremo ' I 
shiver ' is said from the similarity to the behaviour of 
the voice, which is e\'ident then when people shiver 
very much, when even the hairs on the body bristle 
up Uke the beard on an ear of barley. 

46." Curare ' to care for, look after ' is said from 
cura ' care, attention. ' Cura, because it cor iirat ' burns 
the heart ' ; curiosus ' inquisitive,' because such a 
person indulges in cura beyond the proper measure. 
Recordari ' to recall to mind,' is revocare ' to call 
back ' again into the cor ' heart.' The curiae ' halls,' 
where the senate curat ' looks after ' the interests of 
the state, and also there where there is the cura ' care ' 
of the state sacrifices ; from these, the curiones ' priests 
of the curiae.' 

47. Folo ' I wish ' is said from voluntas ' free-will ' 
and from volatus ' flight,' because the spirit is such 
that in an instant it pervolat ' flies through ' to any 
place whither it volt ' wishes.' " Lubere * 'to be 
pleasing ' is said from labi ' to slip,' because the mind 
is luhrica ' sUppery ' and prolabitur ' sUps for^-ard,' as of 
old they used to say. From lubere ' to be pleasing ' 
come libido ' lust,' libidinosus ' lustful,' and ^'enus 
Libentina ' goddess of sensual pleasure ' and Libitina " 
' goddess of the funeral equipment,' so also other 
words. 



215 



VARRO 

48. Metuere a quodam motu animi, cum id quod 
malum casurum putat refugit mens. Cum vehe- 
mentius in movendo ut ab se abeat foras fertur, 
formido ; cum (parum movetur)i pavet, et ab eo 
pavor. 

49. Meminisse a memoria, cum <in) id quod 
remansit in mente^ rursus movetur ; quae a manendo^ 
ut manimoria' potest esse dicta. Itaque Salii quod 
cantant : 

Momuri Vetwr/,* 
significant memoriam veterem.* Ab eodem monere,' 
quod is qui monet, proinde sit ac memoria ; sic 
monimenta quae in sepulcris, et ideo secundum viam, 
quo praetereuntis admoweant ' et se fuisse et illos 
esse mortalis. Ab eo cetera quae scripta ac facta 
memoriae causa monimenta dicta. 

50. Maerere a marcere, quod etiam corpus mar- 
cescere(t> ^ ; hinc etiam macri dicti. Laetari ab eo 

§ 48. 1 Added by L. Sp. 

§ 49. ^ A. Sp., for id quod remansit in mente in id 
quod / the omission, icith Sciop. * Rhol., for manando. 
^ Other codices, for maniomoria Fv. * Turnebus, for 
memurii ueterum or ueteri. ^ Maurenbrecher ; veterem 
memoriam Aug., with B ; where, according to Victorius, F 
had memoriam followed by an illegible word. ^ For mo- 
nerem. ' For admoueant Fv, admoneat B. 

§ 50. ^ L. Sp., for marcescere. 

§ 48. " All etymologies in the section are wrong. 

§ 49. " See note on § 45. Meminisse, mens, monere, 
monimentum (or monumentum) are from the same root ; 
memoria is perhaps remotely connected with them ; but 
manere is to be kept apart. * Frag. 8, page 339 Mauren- 
brecher ; page 4 Morel. " The traditional smith who made 
the best of the duplicate ancilia (see vi. 22, note d), and at his 
request was rewarded by the insertion of his name in the 
Hymns of the Salii (Festus, 131. 11 M.). But Varro seems 
216 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 48-50 

48.*' Metuere ' to fear,' from a certain Jtiotus 
' emotion ' of the spirit, when the mind shrinks back 
from that misfortune which it thinks \\'ill fall upon it. 
When from excessive violence of the emotion it is 
borne foras ' forth ' so as to go out of itself, there is 
Jbrmido ' terror ' ; when parti m movetur ' the emotion 
is not very strong,' it pavet ' dreads,' and from this 
comes pavor ' dread.' 

49." Meminisse ' to remember,' from memoria 
' memory,' when there is again a motion toward that 
which remansit ' has remained ' in the mens ' mind ' : 
and this may have been said from manere ' to remain,' 
as though manimoria. Therefore the Salii,^ when 
they sing 

O Mamurius Veturius,'^ 

indicate a mem&ria vetus ' memory of olden times.' 
From the same is monere ' to remind,' because he who 
monet ' reminds,' is just like a memory. So also the 
monimenta ' memorials ' which are on tombs, and in 
fact alongside the highway, that they may ad monere 
' admonish ' the passers-by that they themselves were 
mortal and that the readers are too. From this, the 
other things that are wTitten and done to preserve 
their memoria ' memory ' are called monimenta ' monu- 
ments.' 

50." Maerere ' to grieve,' was named from marcere 
' to \\-ither away,' because the body too would marces- 
cere ' waste away ' ; from this moreo\"er the macri 
' lean ' were named. Laetari ' to be happy,' from this, 

to feel an etymological connexion between Mamuri Veturi 
and memoriam veterem. 

§ 50. " All etymologies wrong, except the association of 
laetari^ laetitia, lafta. 

217 



VARRO 

quod latius gaudium propter magni boni opinionem 
difFusum. Itaque luventius ait : 

Gaudia 
Sua si omnes homines conferant unum in locum, 
Tamen mea exsuperet laetitia. 

Sic cum se habent, laeta. 

VII. 51. Narro, cum alterum facio narum,^ a 
quo narratio, per quam cognoscimus rem gesta(m>.2 
Quae pars agendi est ab dicendo' ac sunt aut con- 
iuncta cum temporibus aut ab his : eorum* hoc genus 
videntur Irvfia. 

52. Fatur is qui primum homo significabilem ore 
mittit vocem. Ab eo, ante quam ita faciant, pueri 
dicuntur infantes ; cum id faciunt, iam fari ; cum hoc 
vocabulum,^ (tum) a similitudine vocis pueri (fario- 
lus> ac fatuus dictum.* Ab hoc tempore' quod tum 
pueris constituant Parcae fando, dictum fatum et res 
fatales. Ah hac eadem voce* qui facile fantur facundi 
dicti, et qui futura praedivinando soleant fari fatidici ; 
dicti idem vaticinari, quod vesana mente faciunt : 

§51. ^ FictoriMS, /ornarrum. ^ For gesta, Fv. ^ L. 
Sp. ; a dicendo Ursimis ; for ab adiacendo Fv. * Avg., 
for earum. 

§ 52. ^ Aug., for uocabulorum. * GS., for a simili- 
tudine uocis pueri ac fatuus fari id dictum. ' Popma, for 
tempore. * Canal, for ad haec eandem uocem. 

* Com. Rom. Frag., verses 2-4 Ribbeck'. Juventius was a 
writer of comedies from the Greek, in the second century b.c. 

§51. " Varro wrote naro, with one R, according to Cas- 
siodorus, vii. 159. 8 Keil ; the etymology is correct. * Cf. 
vi. 42. 

§ 52. " The etymologies in this section are correct, except 
those of fariolus and vaticinari. * Dialectal form, prob- 

218 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 50-52 

that joy is spread latius ' more widely ' because of the 
idea that it is a great blessing. Therefore Juventius 
says ^ : 

Should all men bring their joys into a single spot. 
My happiness would yet surpass the total lot. 

When things are of this nature, they are said to be 
laeta ' happy.' 

\TI. 51. Narro'^ 'I narrate,' when I make a 
second person narus ' acquainted vnth ' something ; 
from which comes narratio ' narration,' by which we 
make acquaintance with an occurrence. This part of 
acting is in the section of saying,* and the words are 
united with time-ideas or are from them : those of 
this sort seem to be radicals. 

52." That manfatur ' speaks ' who first emits from 
his mouth an utterance which may convey a meaning. 
From this, before they can do so, children are called 
infantes ' non-speakers, infants ' ; when they do this, 
they are said nov,' Jari ' to speak ' ; not only this word, 
but also, from likeness to the utterance of a child, 
fariolus ^ ' soothsayer ' a.nd.fatuus ' prophetic speaker ' 
are said. From the fact that the Birth-Goddesses by 
fando ' speaking ' then set the life-periods for the 
children, ya^MW ' fate ' is named, and the things that 
arefatales ' fateful.' From this same word, those who 
fantur ' speak ' easily are called facundi ' eloquent,' 
and those who are accustomed fori ' to speak ' the 
future through presentiment, are called fatidici 
' sayers of the fates ' ; they Ukewise are said vaticinari" 
' to prophesy,' because they do this with frenzied 

ably Faliscan, for hariolus, which is connected with harwtpex. 
* As though fati- ; but properly from the stems of rate» 
' bard ' and canere ' to sing.' 

219 



VARRO 

sed de hoc post erit usurpandum, cum de poetis 
dicemus. 

53. Hinc fasti dies, quibus verba certa legitima 
sine piaculo praetoribus licet fari ; ab hoc nefasti, 
quibus diebus ea fari ius non est et, si fati sunt, pia- 
culum faciunt. Hinc effata dicuntur, qui augures 
finem auspiciorum caelestum extra urbem agri(s)i 
sunt effati ut esset ; hinc efFari templa dicuntur : ab 
auguribus efFantur qui in his fines sunt. 

5 1. Hinc fana nominata, quod^ pontifices in sac- 
rando fati sint finem ; hinc profanum, quod est ante 
fanum coniunctum fano ; hinc profanatum quid in 
sacrificio aique^ Herculi decuma appellata ab eo est 
quod sacrificio quodam fanatur, id est ut fani lege^it.^ 
Id dicitur pollu<c>tum,* quod a porriciendo est fictum: 
cum enim ex mercibus hbamenta porrecta^ sunt 
Hercuh in aram, turn pollu(c>tum* est, ut cum pro- 
fan (at>um* dicitur, id est proinde ut sit fani factum : 
itaque ihV ohm <in)^ fano consumebatur omne quod 

§ 53. ^ Laetus, for agri. 

§ 54. ^ Laetus, for quae. ^ il/, V, Laetus, for ad quae 
Fv. ^ Canal, for sit. * Aug. {quoting a friend), for 
pollutum. ® Aug., with B, for proiecta. ® Turnebus, 
for profanum. ' Vertranius, for ubi. * Added by 
Vertranius. 

" Cf. vii. 36. 

§ 53. " Fastus and nefastus, from fas and nefas ; but 
whether /a* and nefas are from the root of fari, is question- 
able. * Cf. vi. 29-30. <= Page 19 Regell. ^ Effari is 
used both with active and with passive meaning. 

§ 54. " Fanum (whence adj. profanus), from fas, not from 
fari. * Profanus was used also of persons who remained 
' before the sanctuary ' because they were not entitled to go 
inside, or because admission was refused ; therefore ' un- 
initiated ' or ' unholy,' respectively. " Wrong etymology. 
■^ Any edibles or drinkables were appropriate offerings to 
220 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 52-54 

mind : but this will have to be taken up later, when 
we speak about the poets. ** 

53. From this the dies fasti " ' righteous days, 
court days,' on which the praetors are permitted yhW 
' to speak ' without sin certain words of legal force ; 
from this the nefasti ' unrighteous days,' on which it is 
not right for them to speak them, and if they have 
spoken these words, they must make atonement.'' 
From this those words are called effata ' pronounced,' 
by which the augurs '^ have effati ' pronounced ' the 
limit that the fields outside the city are to have, for 
the observance of signs in the sky ; from this, the 
areas of observation are said effari ** ' to be pro- 
nounced ' ; by the augurs," the boundaries effantur 
' are pronounced ' which are attached to them. 

54. From this the f ana " ' sanctuaries ' are named, 
because the pontiffs in consecrating them have fati 
' spoken ' their boundary ; from this, profanum ' being 
before the sanctuary,' ^ which applies to something 
that is in front of the sanctuary and joined to it ; from 
this, anything in the sacrifice, and especially Hercules 's 
tithe, is called profanatum ' brought before the sane-» 
tuary, dedicated,' from this fact that it faiiatur ' is 
consecrated ' by some sacrifice, that is, that it becomes 
by law the property of the sanctuary. This is called 
polluctum ' offered up,' a term which is shaped '^ from 
porricere ' to lay before ' : for when from articles of 
commerce first fruits ** are laid before Hercules, on his 
altar, then there is a polluctum ' offering-up,' just as, 
when profanatum is said, it is as if the thing had be- 
come the sanctuary's property. So formerly all that 
was profanatum * ' dedicated ' used to be consumed in 

Hercules ; c/. Festus, 253 a 17-21 M. ' That is, so far as 
it was not burned on the altar, in the god's honour. 

221 



VARRO 

profan(at>uin* erat, ut etiam (nunc)*" fit quod praetor 
urb(an>ws** quotannis facit, cum Herculi immolat 
publice iuvencam. 

55. Ab eodem verbo fari fabulae, ut tragoediae et 
comoediae,* dictae. Hinc fassi ac confessi, qui fati id 
quod ab is" quaesitum. Hinc professi ; hinc fama et 
famosi. Ab eodem falli, sed et falsum et fallacia, 
quae propterea, quod fando quem decipit ac contra 
quam dixit facit. Itaque si quis re fallit, in hoc non 
proprio nomine fallacia, sed tralati<ci>o,* ut a pede 
nostro pes lecti ac betae. Hinc etiam famigerabile* 
et sic compositicia* alia item ut declinata multa, in 
quo et Fatuus et Fatuae.* 

56. Loqui ab loco dictum. * Quod qui primo 
dicitur iam fari" vocabula et reliqua verba dicit ante 
quam suo quique' loco ea dicere potest,* hunc CAr^s- 
ippus negat loqui, sed ut loqui : quare ut imago 
hominis non sit homo, sic in corvis, cornicibus, pueris 
primitus incipientibus fari verba non esse verba, quod 

* L. Sp., for profanum. *" Added by L. Sp. ** Aug., 
with B, for P. R. iirbis Fv. 

§ 55. * For tragaediae et comaediae. " For his. 

' A. Sp. ; tralatitio Sciop. ; for tranlatio. * M, V, p, 
Aldus, for famiger fabile Fv. ^ A. Sp., for composititia 
Fv. « B, G, f, for fatue Fv. 

§ 56. * Punctuation by Stroux. * For farit Fv. * L. 
Sp. ; quidque Aug. ; for quisque. 

§ 55. " The preceding words all belong with fari ; but 
falli, falsum, fallacia form a distinct group. * Instead of 
by speaking. * That is, beet-root. "* Faunus and the 
Nymphs. 

§56. "Wrong. "Page 143 von Arnini. «Ravens 

222 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 54^56 

the sanctuary, as even now is done with that which 
the City Praetor offers every year, when on behalf 
of the state he sacrifices a heifer to Hercules. 

55. From the same word fan ' to speak,' the 
fahulae ' plays,' such as tragedies and comedies, were 
named. From this word, those persons have fassi 
' admitted ' and confessi ' confessed,' who have fati 
' spoken ' that which was asked of them. From this, 
professi ' openly declared ' : from this, fama ' talk, 
rumour,' and famosi ' much talked of, notorious.' " 
From the same, falli ' to be deceived,' but also falsum 
' false ' and fallacia ' deceit,' which are so named on 
this account, that hy fando ' speaking ' one misleads 
someone and then does the opposite of what he has 
said. Therefore if one Jallit ' deceives ' by an act,** in 
this there is not fallada ' deceit ' in its own proper 
meaning, but in a transferred sense, as from our pes 
' foot ' the pes ' foot ' of a bed and of a beet " are 
spoken of. From this, moreox ex , famigerabile ' worth 
being talked about,' and in this fashion other com- 
pounded words, just as there are many derived words, 
among which are Fatuus ' god of prophetic speaking ' 
and the Fatuae ' women of prophecy.' '^ 

56. Loqui 'to talk,' is said from locus 'place.'" 
Because he who is said to speak now for the first time, 
utters the names and other words before he can say 
them each in its own locus ' place,' such a person 
Chrysippus says ^ does not loqui * talk,' but quasi- 
talks ; and that therefore, as a man's sculptured bust 
is not the real man, so in the case of ravens, crows,*' 
and boys making their first attempts to speak, their 
words are not real words, because they are not talk- 

and crows were the chief speaking birds of the Romans ; c/. 
Macrobius, Sat. ii. 4. 29-30. 

223 



VARRO 

non loquantur.* Igitur is loquitur, qui suo loco quod- 
que verbum sciens ponit, et is tum^ prolocutu*,* quom 
in animo quod habuit extulit loquendo. 

57. Hinc dicuntur eloqui ac reloqui^ in fanis 
Sabinis, e cella dei qui loquuntur.^ Hinc dictus 
loquax, qui nimium loqueretur ; hinc eloquens, qui 
copiose loquitur ; hinc colloquium, cum veniunt in 
unum locum loquendi causa ; hinc adlocutum mulieres 
ire aiunt, cum eunt ad aliquam locutum consolandi' 
causa ; hinc quidam loquelam dixerunt verbum quod 
in loquendo efferimus. Concinne loqui dictum a 
concinere,* ubi inter se conveniunt partes ita <ut>^ 
inter se concinant^ aliud alii. 

58. Pronuntiare dictum <a proy et nuntiare ; pro 
idem valet quod ante, ut in hoc : proludit. Ideo 
actores pronuntiare dicuntur, quod in prosccenio 
enuntiant poeta<e> cogitata,^ quod maxime tum^ 
dicitur proprie, novam fabulam cum agunt. Nuntius 
enim est a <n>ovis* rebus nominatus, quod a verbo 

* Aug., for loquebantur. ^ Canal, for istum. ^ Fay, 
for prolocutum. 

§ 57. ^ Aug., with B, for eloquium ac reliqui. * Lach- 
mann, for eloqiiuntur. ' G, Aug., for consulendi. 

* Scaliger, for concinne. ^ Added by Mue. ; added after 
inter se by L. Sp. * Mue., for condeant. 

§ 58. ^ Added by Oroth. ^ Sciop., for poeta cogitante. 
^ After turn, Laetus deleted id. * Turnebus, for quis. 

•^ That is, do not convey ideas to others. 

§ 57. ° Concinne, adverb to concinnus ' neatly fitted,' has 
nothing in common with concinere ' to sing in harmony,' 
except the prefix. 

§ 58. " Nuntiare and its compounds are derived from 

224 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 56-58 

ing.'' Therefore he loquitur ' talks,' who ^\ith under- 
standing puts each word in its o^\'n place, and he has 
then prolocutus ' spoken forth,' when he has by lo- 
quendo ' talking ' expressed what he had in his spirit. 

57. From this, they are said eloqui ' to speak 
forth ' and reloqui ' to speak in reply ' in the Sabine 
sanctuaries, who loquuntur ' speak ' from the chamber 
of the God. From this he was called loquax ' talka- 
tive,' who talked too much : from this, eloquens ' elo- 
quent,' who talks profusely ; from this, colloquium 
' conference,' when persons come into one place for 
the purpose of talking ; from this, they say that 
women go adlocutum ' to talk to her,' when they go to 
someone, to talk for purposes of consolation ; from 
this, a word which we utter in talking has been by 
some called a loquela ' talk-unit.' To talk concinne'^ 
' neatly ' is said from concinere ' to harmonize,' where 
the parts agree ^^ith each other in such a way that 
they mutually concinunt ' harmonize ' one mth an- 
other. 

58. Pronuntiare " ' to make known publicly ' is said 
from pro and nuntiare ' to announce ' ; pro means the 
same as ante ' before,' as in proludit ' he plays before- 
hand.' Therefore actors are said pronuntiare ' to de- 
claim,' because they enuntiant ' make known ' on the 
proscaenium ' stage ' the poet's thoughts * ; and the 
word is used with the most literal meaning, when they 
act a new play.*^ For a nuniius ' messenger ' was 
named from novae res ^ ' new things,' which is perhaps 

nuntius. ' As though pronuntiare united the pro of 
proscenium and the nuntiare of enuntiare. ' A play not 

previously acted. ^ A nunftus is a novo-vent-ios, but is 
not from Greek : Latin novus and Greek veos are from a 
common original. 

VOL. I Q 225 



VARRO 

Graeco potest declinatum ; ab eb itaque Neapolis 
illorum Novapolis ab antiquis vocitata nostris. 

59- A quo etiam extremum novissimum quoque 
dici* coeptum volgo, quod mea memoria ut Aelius sic 
senes aliquot, nimium novum verbum quod esset, 
vitabant ; cuius origo, ut a vetere vetust(i)us ac 
veterrimu?«,* sic ab novo declinatum (novius et>' 
novissimum, quod extremum. Sic ab eadem origine 
no vitas et novicius et novalis in agro et " sub No vis " 
dicta pars in Foro aedificiorum, quod vocabulum ei 
pervetustww,* ut Novae \"iae, quae via iam diu vetus. 

60. Ab eo quoque potest dictum nominare, quod 
res novae in usum quom^ additae erant, quibus ea(s>^ 
novissent, nomina ponebant. Ab eo nuncupare, quod 
tunc (pro)* civitate vota nova suscipiuntur. Nuncu- 
pare nominare valere apparet in legibus, ubi " nun- 
cupatae pecuniae " sunt scriptae ; item in Choro in 
quo est : 

Aenea ! — Quis <is>* est qui meum nomen nuncupat ? 

§ 59. ^ Auff., from Gellius, x. 21. 2, for dico. ^ Ben- 
tinus, from Gellius, I.e., for uetustus ac ueterrimus. 
^ Added by Aug., from Gellius, I.e. * B, Laetus, for 
peruetustas. 

§ 60. ^ Aug. {quoting a friend), for quomodo. * Ver- 
tranius,for ea. * Added by L. Sp. * Added by Grotius. 

* Naples ; Nova-poUs is a half-way translation into Latin. 

§ 59. " Page 57 Funaioli. " The Tabernae Novae were 

the shops on the north side of the Forum which replaced 
those burned in the fire of 210 b.c. ; those on the south side, 
which escaped the fire, were called the Tabernae Veteres. 

§ 60. " Nomen and nominare are distinct from novus, and 

226 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 58-60 

derived from a Greek word ; from this, accordingly, 
their Xeapolis * ' New Citv ' was called Nova-polis 
' New-polis ' by the old-time Romans. 

59- From this, moreover, novissimum ' newest ' also 
began to be used popularly for extremum ' last,' a use 
which within my memory both Aelius " and some 
elderly men avoided, on the ground that the proper 
form of the superlative of this word was nimium novum ; 
its origin is just like vetustius ' older ' and veterrimum 
' oldest ' from vetus ' old,' thus from novum were derived 
novius ' newer ' and novissimum, which means ' last.' 
So, from the same origin, novitas ' newness ' and noci- 
cius ' no\ice ' and novalis ' ploughed anew ' in the case 
of a field, and a part of the buildings in the Forum was 
called sub Xovis ^ ' by the New Shops ' ; though it has 
had the name for a very long time, as has the Nova Via 
New Street,' which has been an old street this long 
while, 

60. From this can be said also nominare " ' to call 
by name,' because when novae ' new ' things were 
brought into use, they set nomina ' names ' on them, 
by which they novissent ' might know ' them. From 
this, nuncupare^ ' to pronounce vows publicly,' because 
then nova ' new ' vows are undertaken for the state. 
That nuncupare is the same as nominare, is evident in 
the laws, where sums of money are written down as 
nuncupatae ' bequeathed by name ' ; likewise in the 
Chorus, in which there is "^ : 

Aeneas ! — Who is this who calls me by my name ? 

also from novisse ' to know.' * Containing the elements of 
nomen and capere ' to take.' " Trag. Rom. Frag., page 

2-2 Ribbeck» ; R O.L. ii. 608-609 Warmington ; possibly 
belonging to a play entitled Proserpina, cf. vi. 9-t. But 
the title is perhaps hopelessly corrupt. 

227 



VARRO 

Item in Medo * : 

Quis tu es, mulier, quae me insueto nuncupasti nomine ? 

61. Dico originem habet Graecam, quod Graeci 
SeiKvi'w.^ Hinc (etiam dicare, ut ait>* Ennius : 

Dico VI hunc dicare (circum metulas).* 

Hinc iudicare, quod tunc ius dicatur ; hinc iudex, 
quod iu(s> dicat* accepta potestate ; (hinc dedicat),* 
id est quibusdam verbis dicendo finit : sic^ enim aedis 
sacra a magistratu pontifice prae(e>un<e' dicendo 
dedicatur. Hinc, ab dicendo,* indicium ; hinc ilia : 
indicit <b>ellum,* indixit funus, prodixit diem, addixit 
iudicium ; hinc appellatum dictum in mimo,^" ac 
dictiosus ; hinc in manipulis castrensibus (dicta^^ 
ab>^* ducibus ; hinc dictata in ludo ; hinc dictator 
magister populi, quod is a consule debet dici ; hinc 
antiqua ilia <ad>dicii' numo et dicis causa et addictus. 

' Aldus, for medio. 

§61. ^ L. Sp. ; SeiKTwat Mue. ; SeiVto Scaliger ; for 
NISIhce Fv. " Added by Kent. ' Fay, for qui hunc 

dicare; c/. Festus, 153 a 15-21 M., and Livy, xli. 27. 6. 

* Aiig., with B, for iudicat. ^ Added by Stroux. ^ With 
sic enim, F resumes ; cf. v. 118, crit. note 7. ' Bentinus 
{or earlier) ; praeunte /, Laetus ; for prae unce F. * L. 
Sp.,for dicando. * Turnebus, for ilium. ^^ B, Aldus, 
for minimo. ^^ Added by Aug., with B. ^* Added by 
Kent ; a added by Fay. ^^ Budaeus, for dici. 

" Pacuvius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 239 Ribbeck^; R.O.L. ii. 260- 
261 Warmington ; the play was named from one of Medea's 
sons. 

§ 61. " All the words explained in this section belong 
together ; but dicere is cognate with the Greek word, not 
derived from it. ^ Inc. frag. 39 Vahlen^ ; see critical note. 

* Rather, because he dictat ' gives orders ' to the people. 
^ Numo in the text is the older spelling, in which consonants 
were never doubled. * Applied to the fictitious sale of an 

228 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 60-^1 

And likewise in the Medus <* : 

Who are j'ou, woman, who have called me by an 
unaccustomed name ? 

61. Dico " ' I say ' has a Greek origin, that which 
the Greeks call deiKvru) ' I show.' From this more- 
over comes dicare ' to show, dedicate,' as Ennius 
says ^ : 

I say this circus shows six little turning-posts. 
From this, iudicare ' to judge,' because then ius ' right ' 
diciiur ' is spoken ' ; from this, index ' judge,' because 
he ius dicat ' speaks the decision ' after receiving the 
power to do so ; from this, dedicat ' he dedicates,' that 
is, he finishes the matter by dicendo ' sapng ' certain 
fixed words : for thus a temple of a god dedicatur ' is 
dedicated ' by the magistrate, by dicendo ' saying ' the 
formulas after the pontiff. From this, that is from 
dicere, comes iridiciuvi ' information ' ; from this, the 
following : indicit ' he declares ' war, indixit ' he has 
in\ited to ' a funeral, prodixit ' he has postponed ' the 
day, addixit ' he has awarded ' the decision ; from this 
was named a dictum ' bon mot ' in a farce, and dic- 
tiosus ' witty person ' ; from this, in the companies of 
soldiers in camp, the dicta ' orders ' of the leaders ; 
from this, the dictata ' dictation exercises ' in the 
school ; from this, the dictator'^ ' dictator,' as master 
of the people, because he must did ' be appointed ' by 
the consul ; from this, those old phrases addici nummo^ 
' to be made over to somebody for a shilUng,' ' and 
dicis causa ' for the sake of judicial form,' and addictus 
' bound over ^ ' to somebody. 

inheritance to the heir. ' Said of a defendant who was 
unable to pay the amount of debt or damages, and was de- 
livered to the custody of the plaintiff as a virtual slave until 
he could arrange payment. 

229 



VARRO 

62. Si dico quid (sciens^ ne)scienti,* quod e«^ 
quod ignoravit trado, hinc doceo declinatum vel quod 
cum docemus* dicimus vel quod qui docentur induc?m- 
tur^ in id quod docentur. Ab eo quod scit ducere^ qui 
est dux aut ductor ; <hinc' doctor)* qui ita inducit, ut 
doceat. Ab dwcendo* docere disciplina discere litteris 
commutatis paucis. Ab eodem principio documenta, 
quae exempla docendi causa dicuntur, 

63. Disputatio et computatio e^ propositione 
putandi, quod valet purum facere ; ideo antiqui 
purum putum appellarunt ; ideo putator, quod 
arbores puras facit ; ideo ratio putari dicitur, in qua 
summa fit pura : sic is sermo in quo pure disponuntur 
verba, ne sit confusus atque ut diluceat, dicitur dis- 
putare. 

64. Quod dicimus disserit item translati(ci)oi 
aeque^ ex agris verbo : nam ut Aolitor disserit in areas 
sui cuiusque generis res, sic in oratione qui facit, 
disertus. Sermo, opinor, est a serie, unde serta ; 
etiami in vestimento sartum, quod comprehensum : 

§ 62. ^ Added by L. Sp. ^ Scaliger, for scienti. 

' Sciop., for det. * After docemus, Laetus deleted ut. 
* Reiter, for inducantur. ® M, Laetus, for ducare. 

'' Added by GS. * Added by L. Sp. ^ Fay, for docendo. 

g 63. 1 L. Sp., for et. 

§ 64. ^ A. Sp. ; translatitio Aug. ; for translatio. 
^ Aug., for atque. 

§ 62. " Docere is quite independent of dicere, and also 
of dncere. * Disciplina was popularly associated with 
discere, but was really a derivative of discipulus, which came 
from dis + capere ' to take apart (for examination).' 

§ 64. " There are in Latin two verbs sero serere, distinct in 
etymology : serere sevi satus ' to sow, plant,' and serere serui 
serf us ' to join together, intertwine.' The derivatives in this 
section are all from the second verb, except sartum, the 
participle of sarcio, which is distinct from both. 
230 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 62-61 

62. If I dico ' say ' something that I know to one 
who does not know it, because I trado ' hand over ' to 
him what he was ignorant of, from this is derived 
doceo " ' I teach,' or else because when we docemus 
' teach ' we dicimus ' say,' or eke because those who 
docentiir ' are taught ' indiicuntur ' are led on ' to that 
which they docentur ' are taught.' From this fact, 
that he knows how ducere ' to lead,' is named the one 
who is dux ' guide ' or ductor ' leader ' ; from this, 
doctor ' teacher,' who so inducit ' leads on ' that he 
docet ' teaches.' From ducere ' to lead,' come docere 
' to teach,' disciplina ^ ' instruction,' discere ' to learn,' 
by the change of a few letters. From the same 
original element comes documenta ' instructive ex- 
amples,' which are said as models for the purpose of 
teaching. 

63. Disputatio ' discussion ' and computatio ' reckon- 
ing,' from the general idea oi put are, which means to 
make purum ' clean ' ; for the ancients used putum to 
mean purum. Therefore putator ' trimmer', because 
he makes trees clean ; therefore a business account is 
said putari ' to be adjusted,' in which the sum is pura 
' net.' So also that discourse in which the words are 
arranged pure ' neatly,' that it may not be confused 
and that it may be transparent of meaning, is said 
disputare ' to discuss ' a problem or question. 

h^. Our word disserif^ is used in a figurative mean- 
ing as well as in relation to the fields : for as the 
kitchen-gardener disserit ' distributes ' the things of 
each kind upon his garden plots, so he who does the 
hke in speaking is disertus ' skilful.' Sermo ' conversa- 
tion,' I think, is from series ' succession,' whence serta 
' garlands ' ; and moreover in the case of a garment 
sartum ' patched,' because it is held together : for 

231 



VARRO 

sermo enim non potest in uno homine esse solo, sed 
ubi <o>ratio' cum altero coniuncta. Sic conserere 
manu(m>* dicimur cum hoste ; sic ex iure manu(m>^ 
consertum vocare ; hinc adserere manu* in libertatem 
cum prendimus. Sic augures dicunt : 

Si niihi auctor es' verb^nam' manu* asserere, 
dicit<o>^'' consortes. 

65. Hinc etiam, a quo^ ipsi consortes, sors ; hinc 
etiam sortes, quod in his iuncta tempora cum homini- 
bus ac rebus ; ab his sortilegi ; ab hoc pecunia quae 
in faenore sors est, impendium quod inter se iungit.^ 

66. Legere dictunx, quod leguntur ab oculis 
litterae ; ideo etiam legati, quod {uty publice mit- 
tantur leguntur. Item ab legendo leguli, qui oleam 
aut qui uvas legunt ; hinc legumina in frugibus variis ; 
etiam leges, quae lectae et ad populum latae quas 
observet. Hinc legitima et collegae, qui una lecti, et 
qui in eorum locum suppositi, sublecti ; additi allecti 
et collecta, quae ex pluribus locis in unum lecta. Ab 

^ Aug., for ra,tio. * Other codd., for manu F. ^ Sciop., 
for manu ; cf. Gellius, xx. 10. * p, Aug., for manum. 
^ Avg., for est. * Bergk, for verb! nam. • Aug., for 
manum. ^^ A. Sp., for Aicit. 

§ 65. ^ L. Sp.,for ad qui. * G roth, for iungat. 

§ 66. 1 Added by B, Aldus. 

* Genitive plural. ' Page 18 Regell. 

§ 65. " These words belong to serere, but Varro's reason 
for the meaning of sors may not be correct. * To Varro, 

the fundamental meaning in sors is one of ' joining ' : cf. 
V. 183. 

§ 66. " All words discussed in this section are from various 
forms of the root seen in legere, which means ' to gather, pick, 
select, choose, read ' ; except legumen. * Properly parti- 
ciple of legare ' to appoint,' a derivative of legere. "^ More 
exactly, legumina are, according to Varro, fruits of various 
kinds that have to be picked (rather than cut, like cabbage, 

232 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 64^66 

sermo ' conversation ' cannot be where one man is 
alone, but where his speech is joined ^^^th another's. 
So we are said conserere rnanum ' to join hand-to-hand 
fight N\-ith an enemy : so to call for vianum ^ consertum 
' a laying on of hands' according to law ; from this, 
adserere manu in libertatem ' to claim that so-and-so is 
free,' when we lay hold of him. So the augurs say <= : 

If you authorize me to take in my hand the sacred 
bough, then name my colleagues {consortes). 

Q5. From this, moreover, sors " ' lot,' from which 
the consortes ' colleagues ' themselves are named ; 
from this, further, sortes ' lots,' because in them time- 
ideas are joined with men and things ; from these, 
the sortilegi ' lot-pickers, fortune-tellers ' ; from this, 
the money which is at interest is the sors ' principal,' 
because it joins ^ one expense to another. 

66.^ Legere ' to pick or read,' because the letters 
leguntur ' are picked ' with the eyes ; therefore also 
legati ^ ' envoys,' because they leguntur ' are chosen ' 
to be sent on behalf of the state. Likewise, from 
legere ' to pick,' the leguli ' pickers,' who legufit ' gather ' 
the olives or the grapes ; from this, the legumina " 
' beans ' of various kinds ; moreover, the leges ' laws,' 
which are lectae ' chosen ' and brought before the 
people for them to observe. From this, legitima ' law- 
ful things ' ; and collegae ' colleagues,' who have been 
lecti ' chosen ' together, and those who have been put 
into their places, are sublecti ' substitutes ' ; those 
added are allecti ' chosen in addition,' and things which 
have been lecta ' gathered ' from several places into 
one, are collecta ' collected.' From legere ' to gather ' 

or mowed, hke wheat) ; but the resemblance to legere seems 
to be only accidental. 

233 



VARRO 

legendo ligna quoque, quod ea caduca legebantur in 
agro quibus in focum uterentur. Indidem ab legendo 
legio et diligens et dilectus. 

67. Murmuran'i a similitudine sonitus dictus, qui 
ita leviter loquitur, ut magis e sono id facere quam ut 
intellegatur videatur. Hinc etiam poetae 

Murmurantia litora. 

Similiter fremere, gemere, clamare, crepare ab 
similitudine vocis sonitus dicta. Hinc ilia 
Arma sonant, fremor oritur ; 

hinc 

Nihil^ me increpitando commoves. 

68. Vicina horum quiritare, iubilare. Quiritare 
dicitur is qui Quiritum fidem damans inplorat. Qui- 
rites a Curensibus ; ab his cum Tatio rege in socie- 
tatem venerunt civitat^s.^ Ut quiritare urbanorum, 
sic iubilare rusticorum : itaque hos imitans Aprissius 
ait : 

lo bucco ! — Quis me iubilat ? — 
Vicinus tuus antiquus. 

Sic triumphare appellatum, quod cum imperatore 

§ 67. 1 L. Sp.,for murmuratur dictum. ^ For nichil. 
§ 68. ^ Sciop., for civitates. 

"^ Better spelling, delectus. 

§ 67. " Some, but not all, of the words discussed in this 
section are onomatopoeic. '' IJviter' lightly.' " Trag. 
Rom. Frag., page 314 Ribbeck' ; but the words look like 
part of a dactylic hexameter, in which case it should read 
Arma sonant, oritur fremor. <* Trag. Rom. Frag., page 
314. Ribbeck». 

§ 68. " Frequentative of queri ' to complain,' and not 
connected with Quirites. " Ciires, ancient capital city 
of the Sabines. " The name is corrupt, but no probable 

234 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 66-68 

comes also ligna ' firewood,' because the wood that 
had fallen was gathered in the field, to be used on the 
fireplace. From the same source, legere ' to gather,' 
came legio ' legion,' and diligens ' careful,' and dilecttis^ 
' military levy.' 

67.** From likeness to the sound, he is said mur- 
miirari ' to murmur,' who speaks so softly ^ that he 
seems more as the result of the sound to be doing 
it, than to be doing it for the purpose of being 
understood. From this, moreover, the poets say 

Murmuring sea-shore. 
Likewise, fremere ' to roar,' gemere ' to groan,' 
clamare ' to shout,' crepare ' to rattle ' are said from 
the likeness of the sound of the word to that which it 
denotes. From this, that passage " : 

Arms are resounding, a roar doth arise. 
From this, also,** 

By your rebuking you alarm me not. 

68. Close to these are quiritare " ' to shriek,' 
iubilare ' to call joyfully,' He is said quiritare, who 
shouts and implores the protection of the Quirites. 
The Quirites were named from the Curenses ' men of 
Cures ' * ; from that place they came with King 
Tatius to receive a share in the Roman state. As 
quiritare is a word of city people, so iubilare is a word 
of the countrymen ; thus in imitation of them Apris- 
sius " says : 

Oho, Fat-Face ! — Who is calling me ? — 
Your neighbour of long standing. 

So triumpkare ' to triumph ' was said, because the 

emendation has been suggested ; Com. Rom. Frag., page 
332 Ribbeck'. 

235 



VARRO 

milites redeuntes clamitant per Urbem in Capitolium 
eunti " <I>o^ triumphe " ; id a dptdfxfSo)^ ac Graeco 
Liberi cognomento potest dictum. 

69. Spondere est dicere spondeo, a sponte : nam id 
(idem)* valet et a voluntate. Itaque Lucilius scribit 
de Cretaea,^ cum ad se cubitum venerit sua voluntate, 
sponte ipsam suapte adductam, ut tunicam et cetera^ 
reiceret. Eandem voluntatem Terentius significat, 
cum ait satius esse 

Sua sponte recte facere quam alieno metu. 

Ab eadem sponte, a qua dictum spondere, declinatum 
<de>spondet* et respondet et desponsor et sponsa, 
item sic alia. Spondet enim qui dicit a sua sponte 
" spondeo " ; (qui) spo(po)ndit,^ est sponsor ; qui 
(i>dem* (ut)' faciat obligatur sponsu,* consponsus. 

70. Hoc Naevius significat cum ait " consponsi." 
(Siy spondebatur pecunia aut filia nuptiarum causa, 

^ Laetus, for o. ' Aldus, for triambo. 

§ 69. * Added by Fay. ^ i^or Gretea. ' For ceterae. 

* GS, after Lachmann, for spondit. * L. Sp., for spondit. 

* B, Ed. Veneta, for quidem. ' Added by Avy., with B. 

* L. Sp., for sponsus. 

§ 70. 1 Added by Fay. 

"* From the Greek, through the Etruscan. * Ac, intro- 
ducing an appositive. 

§ 69. " Verses 925-927 Marx. Cretaea was a meretrix, 
named from the country of her origin. Varro has para- 
phrased the quotation, which was thus restored to metrical 
form by Lachmann, the first two words being added by Marx : 

Cretaea nuper, cum ad me cubitum venerat, 
Sponte ipsa suapte adducta ut tunicam et cetera 
Reiceret. 

236 



ON THE LATIN. LANGUAGE, \T. 68-70 

soldiers shout " Oho, triumph ! " as they come back 
with the general through the City and he is going up 
to the Capitol ; this is perhaps derived'' from 6pLajj.f3os, 
as * a Greek surname of Liber. 

69. Spondere is to say spondeo ' I solemnly promise,' 
from sponte ' of one's own inclination ' : for this has 
the same meaning as from voluntas ' personal desire.' 
Therefore Lucihus writes of the Cretan woman," that 
when she had come of her own desire to his house to 
lie with him, she was of her own sponte ' inclination ' 
led to throw back her tunic and other garments. The 
same voluntas ' personal desire ' is what Terence 
means ^ when he says that it is better 

Of one's own inclination right to do. 
Than merely by the fear of other folk. 

From the same sponte from which spondere is said, are 
derived despondet ' he pledges ' and respondet ' he 
promises in return, answers,' and desponsor ' promiser ' 
and sponsa ' promised bride^' and likewise others in 
the same fashion. For he spondet ' solemnly promises ' 
who says of his own sponte ' inclination ' spondeo ' I 
promise ' ; he who spopondit ' has promised ' is a 
sponsor ' surety ' ; he who is by sponsus ' formal 
promise ' bound to do the same thing as the other 
party, is a consponsus ' co-surety.' 

70. This is what Naevius means " when he says 
consponsi. If money * or a daughter spondebatur ' was 
promised ' in connexion with a marriage, both the 

While this might accord with the Liicilian prototype of 
Horace, Sat. i. 5. 82-85, the meter forbids, and because of the 
subject matter A. Spengel proposed Licinius, writer of 
comedies, for Lucilius. * Adelphoe, 75. 

§70. "Com. Rom. Frag., page 34 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. 
ii. 598 Warmington. * As dower. 

237 



VARRO 

appellabatur etpecunia et quae desponsa erat sponsa ; 
quae pecunia inter se contra sponsu^ rogata erat, dicta 
sponsio ; cui desponsa quae* erat, sponsus ; quo die 
sponsum erat, sponsalis. 

71. Qu/i spoponderat filiam, despondisse^ dice- 
bant, quod de sponte eius, id est de voluntate, 
exierat : non enim si volebat, dabat, quod sponsu erat 
alligatus : nam ut in com<o>ediis vides dici : 

Sponde<n>' tuam gnatam* filio uxorem meo ? 
Quod turn et praetorium ius ad legem et censorium 
iudicium ad aequum existimabatur. Sic despondisse 
animum quoque dicitur, ut despondisse filiam, quod 
suae spontis statuerat finem. 

72. A ^ua sponte dicere cum spondere, (respon- 
dere)^ quoque dixerunt, cum a(d) sponte<m>2 re- 
sponderent, id est ad voluntatem rogatoris.^ Itaque 
qui ad id quod rogatur non dicit, non respondet, ut 
non spondet ille statim qui dixit spondeo, si iocandi 

^ L. Sp., for sponsum. ' Mue., for quo. 

§ 71. ^ G, B, Laetus, for quo. ^ B, Aldus, for dispon- 
disse. * Aug. ; spondem Rhol. ; for sponde. * Rhol., 
for agnatam. 

§ 72. ^ Lachmann, for a qua sponte dicere cumspondere. 
* Tumebvs, for a sponte. * L, Sp., for rogationis. 



" To be forfeited to the other party as damages by tliat party 
which might break the agreement. 

§ 71. " Com. Rom. Frag., page 134 Ribbeck*. 

238 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 70-72 

money and the girl who had been desponsa ' pledged ' 
were called sponsa ' promised, pledged ' ; the money 
which had been asked under the sponstis ' engagement' 
for their mutual protection against the breaking of 
the agreement,'^ was called a sponsio ' guarantee de- 
posit ' ; the man to whom the money or the girl was 
desponsa ' pledged,' was called sponsus ' betrothed ' ; 
the day on which the engagement was made, was 
called sponsalis ' betrothal day.' 

71. He who spoponderat ' had promised ' his 
daughter, they said, despondisse ' had promised her 
away,' because she had gone out of the power of his 
sponte ' inclination,' that is, from the control of his 
voluntas ' desire ' : for even if he \Wshed not to give 
her, still he gave her, because he was bound bv his 
sponsus ' formal promise ' : for you see it said, as in 
comedies ° : 

Do you now promise your daughter to my son as wife ? 

This was at that time considered a principle estab- 
lished by the praetors to supplement the statutes, and 
a decision of the censors for the sake of fairness. So a 
person is said despondisse animum ' to have promised 
his spirit away, to have become despondent,' just as 
he is said despondisse Jiliam ' to have promised his 
daughter away,' because he had fixed an end of the 
power of his sponte ' inclination.' 

72. Since spondere was said from sua sponte dicere 
' to say of one's o\\'n incUnation,' they said also re- 
spondere ' to answer,' when they responderunt ' promised 
in return ' to the other party's spontem ' inclination,' 
that is, to the desire of the asker. Therefore he who 
says " no "to that which is asked, does not respondere, 
just as he does not spondere who has immediately said 

239 



VARRO 

causa dixit, neque agi potest cum eo ex sponsu. 
Itaqu(e) is* qu<o)i dicit(ur)^ in co/woedia * : 

Meministin^ te spondere* mihi gnatam' tuam ? 

quod sine sponte sua dixit, cum eo non potest agi ex 
sponsu. 

73. Etiam spes a sponte potest esse declinata, 
quod tum sperat cum quod^ volt fieri putat : nam 
quod non volt si putat, metuit, non sperat. Itaque 
hi^ quoque qui dicunt in Astraba Plauti : 

Nmwc^ sequere adseque, Polybadisce, meam spem 

cupio consequi. — 
Sequor hercle <e>quidem,* nam libenter mea(m> 

sperata<m)^ consequor : 

quod sine sponte dicunt, vere neque ille sperat qui 
dicit adolescens neque ilia (quae)* sperata est. 

74. Sponsor et praes et vas neque idem,^ neque 
res a quibus hi, sed e re simili.^ Itaque praes qui 
a magistratu interrogatus, in publicum ut praestet ; 
a quo et cum respondet, dicit "praes." Vas appel- 

* L. Sp., for itaquis. * Kent, for qui dicit F (d'r a = dici- 
tur). * Z/. iSp., /or tragoedia. ' ^4;*^., /or meministine. 

* Lachmann, tnetri gratia, for despondere. * Rhol., for 
agnatam. 

§ 73. ^ Aug., for quod cum. * L. Sp., for hie. * L. 
Sp., for ne. * L. Sp., for quidem. ^ Ritschl, for mea 
sperata. * Added by Kent. 

§ 74. ^ Laetus, for ideo. * Sciop., for simile. 

§ 12. " Hanging nominative, resumed by cum eo after the 
quotation. * Trag. Bom. Frag., page 305 Ribbeck^ ; but 

as the content indicates that it came from a comedy rather 
than from a tragedy, I have accepted L. Spengel's emenda- 
tion comoedia for the manuscript tragoedia. 

§ 73. " Wrong. * Frag. I Ritschl. " Adseque, active 
imperative form ; cf. Neue-Wagener, Formenlehre der lat. 

240 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 72-74 

spondeo, if he said it for a joke, nor can legal action 
be taken against him as a result of such a sponsus 
'promise.' Thus he" to whom someone says in a 
comedy,* 

Do you recall you pledged your daughter unto me ? 

which he had said without his sponte ' inclination,' 
cannot be proceeded against under his sponsus. 

73. Spes ' hope ' is perhaps also derived <* from 
sponte ' inclination,' because a person then sperat 
' hopes,' when he thinks that what he wishes is coming 
true ; for if he thinks that what he does not wish is 
coming true, he fears, not hopes. Therefore these 
also who speak in the Astraha of Plautus ^ : 

Follow now closely,"^ Polybadiscus, I wish to overtake 

my hope. — 
Heavens I surely do : I'm glad to overtake her whom 

I hope : 

because they speak without sponte ' feeling of success,' 
the youth who speaks does not truly ' hope,' nor does 
the girl who is ' hoped for.' <* 

7-t. Sponsor and praes and vas are not the same 
thing, nor are the matters identical from which these 
terms come ; but they develop out of similar situa- 
tions." Thus a praes is one who is asked by the 
magistrate that he praestat • make a guarantee ' to 
the state ; from which, also when he answers, he 
says, " I am your praes." He was called a vas 

Spr.' iii. 89. ** Sperata, a regular term for the object of 
a young man's love. 

§ 74. " \'arro apparently says that a sponsor is one who 
undertakes an engagement toward an individual or indivi- 
duals ; a praes is one who undertakes an engagement on his 
own behalf, toward the state ; a vas is one who guarantees 
another person's engagement toward the state. 

VOL. I R 241 



VARRO 

latus, qui pro altero vadimonium promittebat. Con- 
suetude erat, cum re?<s* parum esset idoneus inceptis 
rebus, ut pro se alium daret ; a quo caveri* postea lege 
coeptum^ est ab his, qui praedia venderent, vadem ne 
darent ; ab eo ascribi coeptum^ in lege mancipiorum : 

Vadem ne poscerent nee dabitur. 

75. Canere,^ accanit et succanit ut canto et can- 
tatio ex Camena permutato pro M N." Ab eo quod 
semel, canit, si saepius, cantat. Hinc cantitat, item 
alia ; nee sine canendo (tubicines, liticines, corni- 
cines),* tibicines dicti : omnium enim horum quo- 
da<m>* canere ; etiam bucinator a vocis similitudine 
et cantu dictus. 

76. Oro ab ore et perorat et exorat et oratio et 
orator et osculum dictum. Indidem omen, orna- 
mentum ; alterum quod ex ore primum elatum est, 
osmen dictum ; alterum nunc cum propositione dici- 
tur vulgo ornamentum, quod sicut olim ornamental 

^ For reos. * For cavarl. * For caeptum. 

§ 75. 1 For canerae. ^ Mue., for N.M. ^ Added 
by L. Sp., after Mue. recognized the lacuna and its contents, 
but set it after tibicines; cf. v. 91. *^ Kent ; quoddam 
Canal ; for quod a. 

§76. ^ (t6'., /or ornamentum. 

§ 75. " The words explained in this section belong to- 
gether, except Camena, which stands apart. * Either 
' sing ' or ' play on an instrument.' ' Usually in the 
plural ; Italian goddesses of springs and waters, regularly 
identified with the Greek Muses. ^ The insertion in the 
text is rendered necessary by omnium horum ; cf. also critical 
note. ' Quodam, ablative with canere. 

§ 76. " These words are from os, except omen, ornamen- 
tum, oscines. 

242 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 74r-76 

* bondsman ' who promised bond for another. It 
was the custom, that when a party in a suit was not 
considered capable of fulfilling his engagements, he 
should give another as bondsman for him : from which 
they later began to provide by law against those who 
should sell their real estate, that they should not 
offer themselves as bondsmen. From this, they began 
to add the provision in the law about the transfer of 
properties, that 

" they should not demand a bondsman, nor will a 
bondsman be given." 

75." Canere ^ ' to sing,' accanit ' he sings to ' some- 
thing, and succanit ' he sings a second part,' like canto 
' I sing ' and cantatio ' song,' from Camena '^ ' Muse,' 
with N substituted for M. From the fact that a 
person sings once, he canit : if he sings more often, he 
cantat. From this, cantitat ' he sings repeatedly,' and 
Ukewise other words ; nor \\ithout canere ' singing, 
plapng ' are the tubicines ' trumpeters,' named, and 
the liticines ' cometists,' cornicines ' horn-blowers,' ** 
tibicines ' pipes-players ' : for canere ' playing ' on 
some special instrument * belongs to all these. The 
biicinator ' trumpeter ' also was named from the like- 
ness of the sound and the cantus ' plaving.' 

76.° Oro ' I beseech ' was so called from os 
' mouth,' and so were peroral ' he ends his speech ' and 
exorat ' he gains by pleading,' and oratio ' speech ' and 
orator ' speaker ' and osculum ' kiss.' From the same, 
omen ' presage ' and ornamentum ' ornament ' : because 
the former was first uttered from the os ' mouth,' it 
was called osvien ; the latter is now commonlv used 
in the singular with the general idea of ornament, 
but as formerly most of the play-actors use it in 

243 



VARRO 

scaenici plerique dicunt. Hinc oscines dicuntur apud 
augures, quae ore faciunt auspieium. 

^"III. 77. Tertium gradum agendi esse dicunt, ubi 
quid faciant ; in eo propter similitudinem agendi et 
faciendi et gerendi quidam error his qui putant esse 
unum. Potest enim aliquid facere et non agere, ut 
poeta facit fabulam et non agit, contra actor agit et 
<non>i facit, et sic a poeta fabula fit, non agitur, ab 
actore agitur, non fit. Contra imperator quod dicitur 
res gerere, in eo neque facit neque agit, sed gerit, id 
est sustinet, tralatum ab his qui onera^ gerunt, quod 
hi sustinent. 

78. Proprio nomine dicitur facere a facie, qui rei 
quam facit imponit faciem. Ut fictor cum dicit fingo, 
figuram imponit, quom dicit formo,^ formam, sic cum 
dicit facio, faciem imponit ; a qua facie discernitur, ut 
dici possit aliud esse vestimentum, aliud vas, sic item 
quae fiunt apud fabros, fictores, item alios alia. Qui 
quid^ amministrat, cuius opus non extat quod sub 

§ 77. 1 Omitted in F. ^ G, H, for honera F. 
§78. * 7>. »9/)., /or informo. * ^1m^., /or qulcquid. 



* Found only in the plural in the scenic poets, who used 
it of ornaments for the head and face (o.«) ; it is a derivative 
of ornare ' to adorn,' which comes from ordo ordinis. 
" From prefix ops + can- ' sing ' : cf. o{p)s-tendere ' to show.' 

§ 77. " Cf. vi. 41-4.2. * The distinction is almost 

impossible to imitate in translation, but the argument is good 
so far as the examples in the text are concerned. 

§ 78. *• Fades is from facere. 
244 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, \T. 76-78 

the plural.* From this, oscines "^ ' singing birds ' are 
spoken of among the augurs, which indicate their pre- 
monitions by the os ' mouth.' 

VTIL 77. The third stage of action " is, they say, 
that in which t\ie\ faciunt ' make ' something : in this, 
on account of the likeness among agere ' to act ' and 

facere ' to make ' and gerere ' to carry or carry on,' 
a certain error is committed by those who think 
that it is only one thing.* I*'or a person can facere 
something and not agere it, as a poetybc/7 ' makes ' a 
play and does not act it, and on the other hand the 
actor agit ' acts ' it and does not make it, and so a play 

Jit ' is made ' by the poet, not acted, and agitur ' is 
acted ' by the actor, not made. On the other hand, 
the general, in that he is said to gerere ' carry on ' 
affairs, in this neither yac/7 ' makes ' nor agit ' acts,' 
but gerit ' carries on,' that is, supports, a meaning 
transferred from those who gerunt ' carry ' burdens, 
because they support them. 

78. In its literal sense facere ' to make ' is from 

Jades " ' external appearance ' : he is said facere ' to 
make ' a thing, who puts a fades ' external appear- 
ance ' on the thing which he facit ' makes.' As the 

fictor ' image-maker,' when he says " Fingo ' I shape,' " 
puts afgura ' shape ' on the object, and when he says 
" Formo ' I form,' " puts a forma ' form ' on it, so when 
he says " Facio ' I make,' " he puts a fades ' external 
appearance ' on it ; by this external appearance there 
comes a distinction, so that one thing can be said to be 
a garment, another a dish, and likewise the various 
things that are made by the carpenters, the image- 
makers, and other workers. He who furnishes a 
service, whose work does not stand out in concrete 
form so as to come under the observation of our 

245 



VARRO 

sensu<m>' veniat, ab agitatu, ut dixi, magis agere 
quam facere putatur ; sed quod his magis promiscue 
quam diligenter consuetude est usa, translaticiis 
utimur verbis : nam et qui dicit, facere verba dicimus, 
et qui aliquid agit, non esse inficientem. 

79- (Kt facere lumen, ^ faculam)^ qui adlucet, 
dicitur. Lucere ab lucre, (quod) et^ luce dissolvun- 
tur tenebrae ; ab luce Noctiluca,^ quod propter lucem 
amissam is cultus institutus. Acquirere est ad et 
quaerere ; ipsum quaerere ab eo quod quae res ut 
reciperetur datur opera ; a quaerendo quaestio, ab 
his turn quaestor.^ 

80. Video a visu, (id a vi>i : qui(n>que2 enim 
sensuum maximus in oculis : nam cum sensus nullus 
quod abest mille passus sentire possit, oculorum 
sensus vis usque pervenit ad stellas. Hinc : 

Visenda vigilant, vigilium invident. 
Et Acci' : 

^ //, Aldus, for sensu. 

§ 79. 1 Added by GS. ^ Added by Fay, from Plautus, 
Persa, 515. 'quod et Kent; quod A. Sp. ; for et. 

* After Noctiluca, L. Sp. deleted lucere item ab luce, a mar- 
ginal gloss that had crept into the text. * Kent, for con- 
questor. 

§ 80. ^ Added by L. Sp. ^ For qui que. ' Kent, for 
atti. 

* vi. 41-42. 

§79. " Wrong etymology. * This sentence, if properly 
reconstructed, goes with the preceding section. "^ Wrong. 
^ As dis-so-luuntur, which is in fact its origin. * This 

sentence is out of place, but its proper place cannot be deter- 
mined ; c/. v. 81. 'Correct etymologies, except that of 
quaerere itself. 

§ 80. " Video is to be kept distinct from vis and from 
vigilium. * Part of a verse from an unknown play, in 

24,6 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 78-80 

physical senses, is, from his agitatus ' action, motion,' 
as I have said,* thought rather agere ' to act ' than 
Jacere ' to make ' something ; but because general 
practice has used these Avords indiscriminately rather 
than with care, we use them in transferred meanings ; 
for he who dicit ' says ' something, we say facere 
' makes ' words, and he who agit ' acts ' something, we 
say is not inficiens ' failing to do ' something. 

79- And he who lights a. faculam <* ' torch,' is said 
to facere ' make ' a light.* Lucere ' to shine,' from 
luere '^ ' to loose,' because it is also by the light that the 
shades of night dissohuntur ^ ' are loosed apart ' ; from 
lux ' light ' comes Xoctiluca ' Shiner of the Night,' 
because this worship was instituted on account of the 
loss of the daylight. Acquirere * ' to acquire ' is ad' in 
addition ' and quaerere ' to seek ' ; quaerere itself is 
from this, that attention is given to quae res ' what 
thing ' is to be got back ; from quaerere comes 
quaestio ' question ' ; then from these, quaestor ' in- 
vestigator, treasurer.'^ 

80. Video ° ' I see,' from visus ' sight,' this from vis 
' strength ' ; for the greatest of the five senses is in 
the eyes. For while no one of the senses can feel that 
which is a mile away, the strength of the sense of the 
eyes reaches even to the stars. From this * : 

They watch for what is to be seen, but hate to 
stay awake." 

Also the verse of Accius "* : 

which the persons are watching the night sky for omens. 
* Invidere ' to look at with dislike ' originally took a direct 
object, as here ; cf. Cicero, Tusc. iii. 9. 20. "* If properly 
reconstituted, an iambic tetrameter catalectic, referring to 
Actaeon, who inadvertently beheld Artemis bathing with 
the nymphs. 

247 



VARRO 

Cum illud o(c)Mli(s> violavit* <is>,* qui invidit* 
invidendum. 

A quo etiam violavit virginem pro vit<i>avit dicebant ; 
aeque eadem modestia potius cum muliere fuisse 
quam concubuisse dicebant. 

81. Cerno idem valet : itaque pro video ait En- 
nius : 

Lumen — iubarne ? — in caelo cerno. 
Cawius^ : 

Sensumque inesse et motum in membris cerno. 

Dictum cerno a cereo, id est a creando ; dictum ab eo 
quod cum quid creatum est, tunc denique videtur. 
Hinc fines capilli d2scripti,^ quod finis videtur, dis- 
crimen ; et quod^ in testamento (cernito),* id est 
facito videant te esse heredem : itaque in cretione 
adhibere iubent testes. Ab eodem est quod ait 
Medea : 

Ter sub armis malim v«tam* cernere, 
Quam semel modo parere ; 

quod, ut decernunt de vita eo tempore, multorum 
\idetur vitae finis, 

* Mue., for obliuio lavet (obviolavit Aug., with B). 

* Added by Kent, metri gratia. * Kent ; vidit Mue. ; 
for incidit. 

§ 81. ^ Schoell, marginal note in his copy of A. Sp.'s 
edition,for c&nms. ^ A. Sp., for descrlpti. ^ Turnebus, 
for qui id. '^ Added by Turnebus. ^ Bentinus, from 
Nonius Marc. 261. 23 M.,for multa. 

' See note c. ' Invidendum with negative prefix in-, 

unlike the preceding word ; cf. infectum meaning both 
' stained ' and ' not done.' 

§ 81. " Literally ' separate ' ; hence ' distinguish, see,' 
and also ' discriminate, decide.' Cerno has no connexion 
248 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 80-81 

\NTien that he violated with his eyes, 

\Mio looked upon • what ought not to be seen/ 

From which moreover they used to say violavit ' he did 
\iolence to ' a girl instead of vitiavit ' ruined ' her ; 
and similarly, with the same modesty, they used to 
say rather that a man Juit ' was ' yrith a woman, than 
that he concubuit ' lav ' with her. 

81. Cemo'^ has the same meaning; therefore 
Ennius ** uses it for video : 

I see light in the sky — can it be dawn ? 

Cassius " says : 

I see that in her limbs there's feeling still and motion. 

Cerno ' I see ' is said from cereo, that is, creo ' I create ' ; 
it is said from this fact, that when something has been 
created, then finally it is seen. From this, the bound- 
ar)--lines of the parted hair,** because a boundarv- 
line is seen, got the name discrimen ' separation ' ; and 
the cemito ' let him decide,' * which is in a ^\^ll, that is, 
make them see that you are heir : therefore in the 
cretio ' decision ' they direct that the heir bring wit- 
nesses. From the same is that which Medea says ^ : 

I'd rather thrice decide, in battle wild. 

My life or death, than bear but once a child. 

Because, when they decemunt ' decide ' about life at 
that time, the end of many persons' lives is seen. 

with creo. " Trag. Rom. Frag., verse 338 Ribbeck* ; 
R.O.L. i. 226-227 Warmington ; from the Ajax ; cf. vi. 6 
and vii, 76. * Fitting Cassius's play Lucretia ; cf. vi. 7 
and vii. 72. <* CapiUus in the singular was use^ as a 
collective by \'arro, according to Charisius, i. lOl. 20 Keil. 
* Cf. Gains, Institut. ii. 174. 'Ennius, Medea, •222'22S 
Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. i. 316-317 Warmington; translated from 
Euripides, Medea, 250-251. 

249 



VARRO 

82. Spectare dictum ab (specio>i antiquo, quo 
etiam Ennius usus : 

<Q>uos^ Epulo postquam spexit, 

et quod in auspiciis distributum est qui habent spec- 
tionem, qui non habeant, et quod in auguriis etiam 
nunc augures dicunt avem specere, Consuetudo 
com<m>unis quae cum praeverbi(i).s coniun(c>ta 
fuerunt etiam nunc servat, ut aspicio, conspicio, 
respicio, suspicio, despicio,* sic alia ; in quo etiam 
expecto quod spectare volo. Hinc speculo(r>,* hinc 
speculum, quod in eo specimus imaginem. Specula, 
de quo prospicimus. Speculator, quem mittimus 
ante, ut respiciat quae volumus. Hinc qui oculos 
inunguimus quibus specimus, specillum. 

83. Ab auribus verba videntur dicta audio et 
ausculto ; aures^ ab aveo,^ quod his avemus di<s)cere* 
semper, quod Ennius videtur eViyv.or ostendere velle 
in Alexandro cum ait : 

lam dudum ab ludis animus atque aures avent, 
Avide expectantes nuntium. 

Propter banc aurium aviditatem theatra replentur. 
Ab audiendo etiam auscultare declinatum, quod hi 

§ 82. 1 Added by Aug. ^ A. Sp., from Festus, 330 b 
32 3/., /or uos. ' 3f, ikie^MS, /or didestspicio. * Canal, 
for specula. 

§ 83. ^ Mue., for audio. * Laetus, for abaucto. 
" Aug., for dicere. 

§ 82. " Annales, 421 Vahlen^; R.O.L. 1. 148-149 Warm- 
ington; given in better form by Festus, 330 b 32 M. : Quos 
ubi rex {Ep)ulo spexit de cotibus {=cautibus) celsis. Epulo 
was a king of the Istrians, who fought against the Romans 
in 178-177 b.c, ; c/. Livy, xli. 1, 4, 11. » Page 20 Regell. 
" Page 17 Regell. 

§ 83. " Auris, audio, ausculto belong ultimately together, 

250 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 82-83 

82. Spectare ' to see ' is said from the old word 
specere, which in fact Ennius used " : 

After Epulo saw them, 
and because in the taking of the auspices * there is a 
division into those who have the spectio ' watch-duty ' 
and those who have not ; and because in the taking 
of the auguries even now the augurs say '^ specere ' to 
watch ' a bird. Common practice even now keeps 
the compounds made with prefixes, as aspicio ' I look 
at,' conspicio ' I observe,' respicio ' I look back at,' 
suspicio ' I look up at,' despicio ' I look down upon,' 
and similarly others ; in which group is also expecto ' I 
look for, expect ' that which I \^-ish spectare ' to see.' 
From this, specular ' I watch ' ; from this, speculum 
' mirror,' because in it we specimus ' see ' our image. 
Specula ' look-out,' that from which we prospicimiis 
' look forth.' Speculator ' scout,' whom we send 
ahead, that he respiciat ' may look attentively ' at 
what we wish. From this, the instrument with 
which we anoint our eyes by which we specimus ' see,' 
is called a specillum ' eye-spatula.' 

83. From the aures ' ears ' seem to have been said 
the words audio ' I hear ' and ausculto ' I Usten, heed ' ; 
aures ' ears ' from area " ' I am eager,' because with 
these we are ever eager to learn, which Ennius seems 
to wish to show as the radical in his Alexander,^ when 
he says : 

A long time eager have been my spirit and my ears. 
Awaiting eagerly some message from the games. 

It is on account of this eagerness of the ears that the 
theatres are filled. From audire ' to hear ' is derived 
also auscultare ' to listen, heed,' because they are said 

but are not to be connected with aveo. " Trag, Rom. Frag. 
34-35 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. i. 236-237 Warmington. 

251 



VARRO 

auscultare dicuntur qui auditis parent, a quo dictum 
poetae : 

Audio, <h>aut* awsculto.* 

Littera commutata dicitur odor olor, hinc olet et 
odorari et odoratu*^ et odora res, sic a/(ia>.' 

84. Ore edo, sorbeo, bibo, poto. Edo a Graeco 
eSw,! hinc esculentum et esca <et> edulia'' ; et quod 
Graece yei'trat,' Latine gustat. Sorbere, item bi- 
bere a vocis sono, ut fervere aquam ab eius rei simili 
sonitu. Ab eadem lingua, quod ttotov, potio, unde 
poculum, potatio, repotia.* Indidem puteus, quod 
sic Graecum antiquum, non ut nunc (fipeap dictum. 

85. A manu manupretium^ ; mancipium, quod 
manu capitur ; (quod)^ coniungit plures manus, 
manipulus ; manipularis, manica. Manubrium, quod 
manu tenetur. Mantelium, ubi manus terguntur. . . .' 

* Aug. {quoting a friend), for aut. ^ B, Laetus, for ob- 
sculto. * L. Sp.,for odoratur. ' sic alia ab ore A. Sp., 
for sic ab ore (Mue. deleted sic, and set ab ore at the begin- 
ning of the next section). 

§ 84. ^ A Idus, for edon. ^ Canal ; escae edulia A Id us ; 
/or escaedulia. ^ Victorias, for geuete. * Aug. {quot- 
ing a friend), for repotatio. 

§ 85. ^ Victorius, for mantur praetium. * Added by 
G, H. ' Lacuna recognized by A ug. 



' That is, with au changed to o, as if audor were the origin 
of odor ; olor, with the well-known change of d to /, is not 
attested elsewhere in Latin literature, but is found in the 
glosses and survives in the Romance languages. These 
words belong together, but are not to be grouped with audio. 
§ 84. " The etymological connexions are correct (except 
for puteus ; c/. v. 25 note o), but the Latin words are cognate 

252 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 83-85 

auscultare who obey what they have heard ; from 
which comes the poet's saying : 

I hear, but do not heed. 

With the change of a letter are formed odor <^ or ohr 
' smell ' ; from this, olet ' it emits an odour,' and odorari 
' to detect by the odour,' and odoratus ' perfumed,' and 
an odora ' fragrant ' thing, and similarly other words. 

84." With the mouth edo ' I eat,' sorbeo ' I suck in,' 
6160 ' I drink,' poto ' I drink.' Edo from Greek e8w ' I 
eat ' ; from this, esculentum ' edible ' and esca ' food ' 
and edulia ' eatables ' ; and because in Greek it is 
yeverai ' he tastes,' in Latin it is gustat. Sorbere ' to 
suck in,' and like^^ise Inhere ' to drink,' from the sound * 
of the word, as for water yerrere ' to boil ' is from the 
sound like the action. From the same language, 
because there it is totov ' drink,' is potto ' drink,' 
whence poculum ' cup,' potatio ' drinking-bout,' repotia 
' next day's drinking.' From the same comes puteus 
' well,' because the old Greek word was like this, and 
not <pp(ap as it is now. 

85. From manus ' hand ' comes manupretium 
' workman's wages ' ; mandpium ' possession of pro- 
perty,' because it capitur ' is taken ' jnanu ' in hand ' ; 
manipuliis ' maniple,' because it unites several manus 
' hands ' ; manipularis ' soldier of a maniple,' manica 
' sleeve.' Manubrium ' handle,' because it is grasped 
by the manus ' hand.' Mantelium ' towel,' on which 
the manus ' hands ' terguntur ' are wiped.' . . ." 

with the Greek, not derived from it. * These words are 
not onomatopoeic 

§ 85. " The gap is serious : the subject matter shifts 
abruptly, and many appropriate topics are missed, such as 
the actions of the feet, and some further discussion of the 
distinctions among agere, facere, gerere, cf. § 77. 

253 



VARRO 

IX. 86. Nunc primum ponam (de>i Censoriis 
Tabulis : 

Ubi noctu in templum censor* auspicaverit atque de 
caelo nuntium erit, praeconi' sic imperato* ut viros vocet : 
" Quod bonum fortunatum felix salutareque siet" populo Ro- 
mano Quiritiiws^ reique publicae populi Romani Quiritium 
mihique collegaeque meo, fidei magistratuique nostro : 
omnes Quirites pedites armatos, privatosque, curatores 
omnium tribuum, si quis pro se sive pro' altero rationem dari 
volet, voca* inlicium hue ad me." 

87. Praeco in templo primum vocat, postea de moeris^ 
item vocat. Ubi l?/cet,^ censor(es)^ scribae magistratus 
murra unguentisque unguentur. Ubi praetores tribunique 
plebei quique inHcium* vocati sunt venerunt, censores inter 
se sortiuntur, uter lustrum faciat. Ubi templum factum est, 
post tum conventionem habet qui lustrum conditurus est. 

88. In Commentariis Consularibus scriptum sic 
inveni : 

Qui exercitum imperaturus erit, accenso dicito : " C.^ 
Calpurni, voca inlicium omnes Quirites hue ad me." Accensus 
dicit sic : " Omnes Quirites, inlicium vos ite" hue ad indices." 
" C. Calpurni," cos.' dicit, " voca ad conventionem omnes 
Quirites hue ad me." Accensus dicit sic : " Omnes Quirites, 

§86. ^ Added by Laetus. ^ Aldus, for censora F^ 
(censura F^). * Aldus, for praeconis. * Possibly the 
verbs coordinate to imperato in this section and in § 87 
should all be imperatives ; but the manuscript reading sup- 
ports this only for imperato and partially for dicito, § 88. 
^ Laetus, for salutare quesierit. * Brissonius, with b, for 
quiritium. ' Sciop., for si uerbo. * Aug., with B, for 
uoeat. 

§ 87. ^ Aug., xcith B,for post eadem aeris. * Aug., for 
licet. * L. Sp., for censor. * Sciop., for in consilium. 

§88. ^ Bmns-Mommsen, for dicit hoc. ^ A. Sp. ; ite 
Sciop. ; for visite. ' Sciop., for ealpurnicos {punctuation 
by Mue., after Gronov.). 

§ 86. " The preparation for the lustratio, at the com- 
pletion of the census. '' Page 21 Regell. " Technical 

254. 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 86-88 

IX. 86. Now first I shall put down some extracts 
from the Censors' Records ° : 

When by night the censor has gone into the sacred pre- 
cinct to take the auspices,* and a message has come from the 
sky, he shall thus command the herald to call the men : " May 
this be good, fortunate, happy, and salutary to the Roman 
people — the Quirites — and to the government of the Roman 
people — the Quirites — and to me and my colleague, to 
our honesty and our office : All the citizen soldiers under 
arms and private citizens as spokesmen of all the tribes, call 
hither to me with an inlicium ' ' invitation,' in case any one 
for himself or for another wishes a reckoning ^ to be given." 

87. The herald calls them first in the sacred precinct, 
afterwards he calls them likewise from the walls. \\Tien it is 
dawn, the censors, the clerks, and the magistrates are anointed 
with myrrh and ointments. When the praetors and the tri- 
bunes of the people and those who have been called to the 
invitation meeting have come, the censors cast lots with each 
other, as to which one of them shall conduct the ceremony of 
purification. ^Mien the sacred precinct" has been deter- 
mined, then after that he who is to perform the purification 
conducts the assembly. 

88. In the Consular Commentaries I have found 
the follo^\-ing account : 

He who is about to summon the citizen-army, shall say to 
his assistant, " Gaius Calpurnius," call all the citizens hither 
to me, with an inlicium ' invitation.' " The assistant sj)eaks 
thus : " All citizens, come ye hither to the judges,* to an invita- 
tion meeting." " Gaius Calpurnius," says the consul, " call 
all the citizens hither to me, to a gathering." The assistant 
speaks thus : " All citizens, come hither to the judges, to a 

name for an invitation to a specially called assembly ; cf. 
§ 93-§ 94. With rocare, inlicium is an inner object. ** That 
is, makes a protest against the censor's rating. 

§ 87. " This is another templum, in the Campus Martius. 

§ 88. " Used as a type name, or taken from the records of 
some sp>ecific instance. * An old name for the consuls ; c/. 
Livy, iii. 55. 11. 

255 



VARRO 

ite ad conventionem hue ad iudices." Dein consul eloquitur 
ad exercitum: " Impero qua convenit ad comitia centuriata." 

89. Quare hic^ accenso, illic praeconi dicit, haec 
est causa : in aliquot rebus i^em^ ut praeco accensus 
acciebat,' a quo accensus quoque dictus. Accensum* 
solitum ciere Boeotia ostendit, quam comoediam* alii 
(Plauti, alii Aquili)* esse dicunt, hoc versu : 

Ubi primum accensus clamarat meridiem. 

Hoc idem Cosconius in Actionibus scribit praetorem 
accensum solitum turn esse iubere, ubi ei videbatur 
horam esse tertiam, inclamare horam tertiam esse, 
itemque meridiem et horam nonam. 

90, Circum wuros^ mitti solitu?/*^ quo modo in- 
liceret populum in eum (locum),' unde vocare posset 
ad contionem, non solum ad consules et censores, sed 
etiam quaestores, Commentarium indicat vetus An- 
quisitionis* M'.^ Sergii, Mani filii, quaestor«s,* qui 
capitis accusavit (T)rogum' ; in qua* sic est : 

§89. ^ Aldus, for hinc. ^ Bentinus, for idem. 

' Ladus , for accipiebat. * Laetus, for ad censum. * For 
commaediam. * Added by Riese. 

§ 90. ^ moeros Ursinus, for auras. ^ Aug., for solitus. 
^ Added by Aug., cf. § 94.. * Aug., for inquisitionis ; cf. 
§92. ^ L. Sp., for M. 6 For questores. "^ B, Ver- 
tranius, for rogum ; cf. § 9:2. * Aug., for in aqua. 

"From early times, the chief deliberative and legislative 
assembly of the Roman people. 

§ 89. " Properly, passive participle of ac-censere ' to 
reckon thereto,' hence one assigned to help another ; it has 
no connexion with acciere. *" Gellius, iii. 3. 4, says that 

Varro, on the basis of style, attributed the Boeotia to Plautus, 
though it was reputed to be a work of Aquilius. ' Corn. 

Rom. Frag. II, page 39 Ribbeck' ; Plautus, Frag, verse 30 

256 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 88-90 

gathering." Then the consul makes declaration to the army : 
" I order you to go by the proper way to the centuriate 
assembly.' " 

89. WTiy the latter speaks to the accensus ' assist- 
ant ' and the former to the herald — this is the reason : 
in some affairs the accensus "^ ' assistant ' acciebat ' gave 
the call ' just like a herald, from which the accensus 
also got his name. That the accensus was accustomed 
ciere ' to give the call,' is shown by the Boeotia,^ a 
comedy which some say is a work of Plautus, and 
others say is a work of Aquilius, in this verse "^ : 

Soon as the aide had called that 'twas the hour of noon. 

Cosconius ** records the same in his work on Civil 
Cases, that the praetor had the habit of ordering his 
accensus, at the tintie when he thought that it is the 
third hour, to call out that it is the third hour, and 
Ukewise midday and the ninth hour.* 

90. That someone was regularly sent around the 
walls, inlicere ' to entice ' " the people to that place 
from which he might call them to the gathering, not 
only before the consuls and the censors, but also before 
the quaestors, is shown by an old Commentary on the 
Indictment which the quaestor Manius Sergius * son of 
Manius brought against Trogus, accusing him of a 
capital offence ; in which there is the following : 

Ritschl. <* Page 109 Funaioli ; page 10 Huschke. « If 
he wished to divide the day evenly, this means the end (not 
the beginning) of the third and the ninth hours. 

§ 90. " The origin of inlicium seems to be, as Varro says, 
from the fact that the announcer inliciebat ' enticed ' the 
people to the meeting. * Sergius and his commentary, 
and the case against Trogus, are entirely unknown except 
from this passage and § 92 ; but the mention of praetors sets 
the incident after 2^2 b.c, when the number of praetors was 
increased from one to two. 

VOL. I S 257 



VARRO 

91. Auspicio o(pe)ram des et^ in templo auspices,* 
turn^ aut ad praetorem aut ad consulem mittas auspiciuni 
petitum ; comi<ti>atum* praetor {r}eum^ vocet ad te, et euni 
de muris vocet praeco ; id imperare <o)portet.* Corni- 
c(in)em' ad privati ianuain et in Arcem mittas, ubi canat.* 
Colkgam* rog^s^" ut comitia edicat^^ de rostris et argentarii 
tabe(r)nas occludant. Patres censeant exquaeras et adesse 
iubeas ; magistratus censea(n>t^^ ex(qua)era<s>,^' consoles 
praetores tribunosque plebis collegasque <t)uos,^* et in 
templo adesse iubeas omnes^* ; ac cum mittas, contionem 
a{d>voces.^* 

92. In eodem Commentario Anquisitionis^ ad ex- 
tremum scriptum caput edicti hoc est : 

Item quod attingat qui de censoribus^ classicum ad 
comitia centuriata redemptum habent, uti curent eo die quo 
die comitia erunt, in Arce classicus canat^ circumque muros 
et ante privati huiusce T. Quinti Trogi scelerosi ostium* canat, 
et ut in Campo cum primo luci adsiet.^ 

93. Inter id cum circum muros mittitur et cum 
contio advocatur, interesse tempus apparet ex his 
quae interea fieri i^ilicium^ scriptum est ; sed ad 
comitiatum^ vocatur populus ideo, quod aha de causa 
hie magistratus non potest exercitum urbanum con- 

§91. ^ Bergk, for orande sed. " Mommsen, for au- 

spiciis. ' L. Sp., for dum. * Sciop., for commeatum. 

* Kent ; praeco reum Aug. ; for praetores. * Laetus, for 
portet. '' Aug., with B, for cornicem. ^ Aldus, for 
cannat. * Rhol., for colligam. ^** Mue., for rogis. 
^^ Victorias, for comitiae dicat. ^^ Mue., for censeat. 
^^ Bergk ; exquiras Mue.; for extra. ^* Sciop., for uos. 
^^ Sciop., for homines. ^* B, G, Aug., for auoces. 

§ 92. ^ Aug., with B, for acquisitionis. ^ Aug., with 
B, for decessoribus. * Victorius, for cannatum. 

* Sciop., for hostium. * Sciop., for adsit et. 

§93. ^ Aldus, for iWicitum F^'iillicium F^). ^ Sciop., 
for comitia turn. 

§ 91. " The document is addressed to Sergius as quaestor. 
^ Page 21 Regell. ' The northern summit of the Capito- 

258 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 91-93 

91. You" shall give your attention to the auspices,'' and 
take the auspices in the sacred precinct ; then you shall send 
to the praetor or to the consul the favourable presage which 
has been sought. The praetor shall call the accused to 
appear in the assembly before you, and the herald shall call 
him from the walls : it is proper to give this command. A 
horn-blower you shall send to the doorway of the private 
individual and to the Citadel,"^ where the signal is to sound. 
Your colleague you shall request that from the speaker's 
stand he proclaim an assembly, and that the bankers shut up 
their shops."* You shall seek that the senators express their 
opinion, and bid them be present ; you shall seek that the 
magistrates express their opinion, the consuls, the praetors, 
the tribunes of the people, and your colleagues, and you shall 
bid them all be present in the temple ; and when you send the 
request, you shall summon the gathering. 

92. In the same Commentary on the Indictment, at 
the end, this summing up of the edict is written : 

Likewise in what pertains to those who have received 
from the censors the contract for the trumpeter who gives the 
summons to the centuriate assembly, they shall see to it that 
on that day, on which the assembly shall take place, the 
trumpeter shall sound the trumpet on the Citadel and around 
the walls, and shall sound it before the house-entrance of this 
accursed Titus Quintius Trogus, and that he be present in the 
Campus Martius at daybreak." 

93. That between the sending around the walls 
and the calling of the gathering some time elapses, is 
clear from those things the doing of which in the 
meantime is written down as the inlicium ' in\-itation ' ; 
but the people is called to appear in the assembly 
because for any other reason this magistrate ° cannot 
call together the citizen-army of the City. The 

line. "* These shops (c/. § 59 and note), on both sides of 
the Forum, were to be closed during the trial of Trogus. 

§ 92. " In early Latin, lux was normally masculine, as in 
Plautus, Aul. 748,Cis<. 625, Capt. 1008 ; Terence, Adel. 841. 

§ 93. " The praetor, 

259 



VARRO 

vocare ; censor, consul, dictator, interrex potest, quod 
censor' exercitum centuriato constituit quinquen- 
nalem, cum lustrare* et in urbem ad vexillum ducere 
debet ; dictator et consul in singulos annos, quod hie 
exercitui imperare potest quo eat, id quod propter 
centuriata comitia imperare solent. 

94. Quare non est dubium, quin^ hoc inlicium sit, 
cum circum muros itur, ut populus inliciatur ad magis- 
tratus conspectum, qui <vi>ros^ vocare' potest, in eum 
locum unde vox ad contionem vocantis exaudiri possit. 
Quare una origine illici et inlicis quod in Choro Pro- 
serpinae est, et pellexit, quod in T/ermiona est, cum 
ait Pacuius : 

Regni alieni cupiditas 
Pellexit. 

Sic Elicii lovis ara* in Aventino, ab eliciendo. 

95. Hoc nunc aliter fit atque olim, quod augur 
consuli adest tum cum exercitus imperatur ac praeit 
quid eum dicere oporteat. Consul augur(i>i imperare 
solet, ut iwlicium* vocet, non accenso aut praeconi. 
Id inceptum credo, cum non adesset accensus ; et 
nihil intererat cui imperaret, et dicis causa fieba(n)t' 

' Laetus, for censorem. * Scaliger, for lustraret. 

§ 94. ^ Vertranhis, for cum. ^ L. 8p., for qui ros. 

' Aldus, for uocari. * Victorius, for iohis uisa. ara. 

§95. ^ Victoriiis, for augur. ^ B, Laetus, for is llcium. 
' Aug., with B, for fiebat. 

* This statement refers to the consul only ; the part de- 
fining the dictator's powers seems to have fallen out of the 
text. 

§ 94, " Trag. Rom. Frag., page 272 Ribbeck', of an un- 
known poet ; unless Chorus Proserpinae is a substitute name 
for Eumenides, a tragedy of Ennius. " Trag. Rom. Frag., 

verses 170-171 Ribbeck' ; R.O.L. ii. 226-227 Warmington. 
' A popular etymology only, since Jupiter could hardly be 

260 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 93-95 

censor, the consul, the dictator, the interrex can, 
because the censor arranges in centuries the citizen- 
army for a period of five years, when he must cere- 
monially purify it and lead it to the city under its 
standards ; the dictator and the consul do so every 
year,* because the latter can order the citizen-army 
where it is to go, a thing which they are accustomed 
to order on account of the centuriate assembly. 

9i. Therefore there is no doubt that this is the 
inlicium, when they go around the walls that the 
people may inlici ' be enticed ' before the eyes of 
the magistrate who has the authority to call the men 
into that place from which the voice of the one who is 
calling them to the gathering can be heard. There- 
fore there come from the same source also illici ' to be 
enticed ' and inlicis ' thou enticest,' which are in the 
Chorus of Proserpina,'^ and pellexit ' lured,' which is in 
the Hermiona, when Pacu\-ius says * : 

Desire for another's kingdom lured him on. 

So also the altar of Jupiter Elicius ' the EUcited ' on 
the Aventine, from elicere ' to lure forth.' " 

95. This is now done otherwise than it was of old, 
because the augur is present with the consul when the 
citizen-army is summoned, and says in advance the 
formulas which he is to say. The consul regularly 
gives order to the augur, not to the assistant nor to 
the herald, that he shall call the inlicium ' invitation.' 
I believe that this was begun on an occasion when the 
assistant was not present ; it really made no difference 
to whom he gave the order, and it was for form's sake 

' tricked ' ; according to G. S. Hopkins, Indo-European 
deiwos and Belated Wards, 27-S-2, Elicius is a derivative of 
liquere ' to be liquid,' and Jupiter Elicius is a rain-god. 

261 



VARRO 

quaedam neque item facta neque item dicta semper. 
Hoc ipsum inlicium scriptum inveni in M. lunii Com- 
mentariis ; quod tamen (inlex apud Plautum in Persa 
est qui legi non paret),* ibidem est quod illicit illex, 
<f>it quod^ (ly cum E et C cum G magnam habet 
co(m)munitatem. 

X. 96. Sed quoniam in hoc de paucis rebus verba 
feci plura, de pluribus rebus verba faciam pauca, et 
potissimum quae in Graeca lingua putant Latina, ut 
scalpere a o-KaXevew,^ sternere a (rTpwvvveLv,^ lingere 
a Atx/Mctfj^at,' i ab t^(t>,* ite ab he,^ gignitur (a)** 
yiyverai,'' ferte a ^epert,* providere' <a>" irpoi^dv,^^ 
errare ab eppeii-,^^ ab eo quod dicunt (rrpayyaXav'^^ 
strangulare, tingue(re)" a Tiyyeiv.^^ Praeterea <de- 
psere) a Sexpyja-^aiy^ ; ab eo quod illi fiaXda-a-eii'" nos 
malaxare, ut gargarissare ab dvayapyapi^eadai,^^ 
Tputere a Trvdicrdai,^^ domare a SapLa^eiv,^" mulgere ab 
dfieXyeiv,'^ pectere a ttckciv," stringere a o-rAcyyi^civ** : 

* Added by GS. * GS., for illicite illexit quae F (quod 
Mue.,for quae). * Added by Ciacconius apud Aug. 

§96. ^RhoL, for SCOLPSa.&. * L. Sp., for 

STPONYIN. 3 j^ Sp., for Ahy/toxTTc. « A. Sp., for 
he. * L. Sp., for hre. • Added by L. Sp. ' L. Sp., 
for YhYNOITe. « L. Sp., for ferete. » p, Laetus,for 
prouidete. ^" Added by GS. ^^ Rhol.,for UFwhSeh^. 
" Scaliger, for eRRehN. ^^ L. Sp. (after Buttmann), for 
strangala. '^ B, RhoL, for tingue. ^* Buttmann, for 

THNKeAe. « Ellis {after L. Sp.), for ades.i^eC. " L. 
Sp., for MAAASeN. " X. Sp., for aNaPraPHCTe. 
" Canal, for potare a IIoIGeCTae. *<• L. Sp.,for Afiaiahv. 
^^Rhol., for AMeAPHN. " L. Sp., for HeSePe. 
23 G8.,for CRHNPHAe. 

§ 95. " lurisprvd. Antehadr. Ret., i. 39 Bremer, 
262 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VL 95-96 

only that certain things were done, but they were not 
always said or done in just the same way. This very 
word inlicium I have found written in the Commen- 
taries of Marcus Junius <» ; that however inlex in 
Plautus's Persa * is a person who does not obey the 
lex ' law,' and in the same work illex is also that which 
illicit ' entices,' " is the result of the fact that I has 
much in common ^vith E and C \vith G. 

X. 96. But since in this connexion I have spoken 
at length on a few matters, I shall speak briefly on a 
number of topics, and especially on the Latin words 
whose origin they think " to be in the Greek tongue * : 
as scalpere ' to engrave ' from o-KaAci'eiv ' to scratch, 
stemere ' to spread out ' from a-Tpaivvveiv, lingere ' to 
lick up ' from XixfJ-acrdai, i ' go thou ' from Wi, ite ' go 
ye ' from Tre, gignitur ' he is born ' from yiyverai, 
ferte ' bear ye ' from (f)€f>€T(, providere ' to act with 
foresight ' from — potSeiv ' to see ahead, foresee,' 
errare ' to stray ' from eppeiv ' to go away ' ; sirangu- 
lare ' to strangle ' from the word orpayyaAar, tinguere 
' to dip, dye ' from rkyyeiv. Besides, there is depsere 
' to knead ' from 8e\fi](raL ; from the word which they 
call fiaXdcra-eiv, we say malaxare ' to soften,' as gar- 
garissare ' to gargle ' from dvayapyapt^ecrdai, putere 
' to stink ' from TrvOea-Oai. ' to decay,' domare ' to sub- 
due ' from Safid^eiy, mulgere ' to milk ' from dfieXyeiv, 
pectere ' to comb ' from :reK€iv, stringere ' to scrape ' 

* Persa, 408 and 597. ' The insertion by GS. must be 
approximately correct, in view of Festus, 113. 6, Nonius, 446. 
34, Corp. Gloss. Lat. vi-vii. s.v. illex. 

§96. "Page 116 Funaioli. * These Latin words are 
mostly cognate with the Greek words, not derived from them ; 
but strangulare, depsere, malaxare, gargarissare, and runcina 
are derived from the Greek words, and errare and stringere 
are not related at all to the alleged Greek sources. 

263 



VARRO 

id enim a o-xAeyyt's,^* ut runcinare a runcina, cuius 
pvKavyf^ origo Graeca. 

XI. 97. Quod ad origines verborum huius libri 
pertinet, satis multas arbitror positas huius generis^ ; 
desistam, et quoniam de hisce rebus tri(s)^ libros ad 
te mittere institui, de oratione soluta duo, poetica 
unum, et ex soluta oratione ad te misi duo, priorem 
de locis et quae in locis sunt, hunc de temporibus et 
quae cum his sunt coniuncta, deinceps in proximo de 
poeticis verborum originibus scribere in(cipiam>.' 

^ GS., for CHNrHMHC. ^» Scaliger, for PHXaNe. 

§97. ^ Forgaeneris. ^ Laetus, for tri. ^ Groth,with 

a, b,for in F, after which the space of twenty lines is left 
vacant ; for incipiam, of. viii. 1 and viji. 25. 



264 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VI. 96-97 

from o-rAeyyi^cti' : for this is from a-rkeyyis ' scraper/ 
as runcinare ' to plane ' from runcina ' plane,' of which 
pvKavn] is the Greek source. 

XI. 9~- As to what concerns the sources of the 
words which belong to this book, sufficiently numerous 
examples of this kind have, I think, been set down ; 
I shall stop, and since I have undertaken to send you 
three books on these topics, two about prose composi- 
tion and one about poetical, and I have sent vou the 
two about prose, the former about places and the 
things that are in them, the latter about time-ideas 
and those things which are associated -s^ith them, I 
shall at last, in the next book, begin to write of the 
sources of words used in poetry. 



^265 



<M. TERENTI VARRONIS 
DE LINGUA LATINA 

LIBER VI EXPLICIT ; INCIPIT 

LIBER vny 

HIC DEEST IN EXEMPLARI FOLIUM I IN QUO EST 
PRINCIPIUM LIBRI VII* 

I. 1. (DiFFiciLiA sunt explicatu poetarum vocabula. 
Saepe enim significationem aliquam prioribus tem- 
poribus impositam)! repens ruina operuit,* (a>ut' 
verbum quod conditum est e quibus litteris oportet 
inde post aliqua dempta, sic* obscurior^ fit voluntas 
i7wpos<i>toris.* Non reprehendendum igitur in illis 
qui in scrutando verbo litteram adiciunt aut demunt, 
quo' facilius quid sub ea voce subsit vider?» possit : 
Mt« enim facilius obscuram operam <M>yrmecid«>" ex 

^ The lost heading is restored after that of Book VI. * F 
contains this statement of loss ; B and the Leipzig codex 
contain an interpolated beginning : Temporum vocabula et 
eorum quae coniuncta sunt, aut in agendo fiunt, aut cum 
tempore aliquo enuntiantur, priore libro dixi. In hoc dicam 
de poeticis vocabulis et eorum originibus, in quis multa 
difficilia : nam, after which comes repens ruina aperuit. 

266 



MARCUS TERENTIUS VARRO'S 
ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE 

BOOK VI ENDS, AND HERE BEGINS 

BOOK VII 

AT THIS POINT, IN THE MODEL COPY, ONE LEAF IS 
LACKING, ON WHICH IS THE BEGINNING OF BOOK VII 

I. 1. The words of the poets are hard to expound. 
P'or often some meaning that was fixed in olden times 
has been buried by a sudden catastrophe, or in a word 
whose proper make-up of letters is hidden after some 
elements have been taken away from it, the intent of 
him who applied the word becomes in this fashion 
quite obscure. There should be no rebuking then of 
those who in examining a word add a letter or take 
one away, that what underlies this expression may be 
more easily perceived : just as, for instance, that the 
eyes may more easily see Myrmecides' indistinct 



§ 1. ^ Proposed by A. Sp., as the most probable indication 
of what immediately preceded. * Tumebiis, for aperuit. 
' A. Sp., for ut. * Tumebus, for sit. * Aldus, H, for 
obscurius. • Victorius, for in posterioris. ' Tumebus, 
for quid. * L. Sp., for uidere. • Victorius, for et. 
^* L, Sp. ; Myrmetidis Aldus ; for yrmeci dum. 

267 



VARRO 

ebore oculi videant, extrinsecus admovent nigras 
setas. 

2. Cum haec amminicula addas ad eruendum 
voluntatem impositoris, tamen latent multa. Quod 
si poetice (quae)^ in carminibus servarit" multa prisca 
quae essent,sic etiam cur essent posuisset,'yecundius^ 
poemata ferrent fructum ; sed ut in soluta oratione 
sic in poematis verba (non)^ omnia quae habent* 
€Ti'/xa possunt dici, neque multa ab eo, quern non 
erunt in lucubratione litterae prosecutae, multum 
licet legeret. ^elii' hominis in primo in litteris 
Latinis exercitati interpretationem Carminum Salio- 
rum videbis et exili littera expedita(m>* et praeterita 
obscura* multa. 

3. Nee mirum, cum non modo Ep^'menides^ 
<s>opor(e>'' post annos L experrectus a multis non 
cognoscatur, sed etiam Teucer Livii post XV annos 
ab suis qui sit ignoretur. At^ hoc quid ad verborum 
poeticorum aetatem ? Quorum si Pompili regnum 
fons in Carminibus Saliorum neque ea ab superioribus 

§ 2. ^ Added by L. Sp. ^ Victor ius, for servabit. 
^ Victorius, for posuissent. * Laetus, for secundius. 
* Added by Mne. * For haberent. ' H, B, Ed. Veneta, 
for belli. * Laetus, for expedlta. * For praeteritam 
obscuram. 

§ 3. ^ Aug., with B, for Epamenldls. ^ GS., for opos. 
' Victorius, for ad. 



§ 1. " Cf. ix. 108 ; his carvings were so tiny that the 
detail in the white Ivory could be seen only against a black 
background. 

§ 3. "A Cretan poet and prophet, reputed to have cleansed 
Athens of a plague in 596 b.c. According to one story, in his 
boyhood he went into a cave to escape the noonday sun, and 
fell into a sleep that lasted fifty-seven years. When he awoke, 

268 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIE 1-3 

handiwork " in ivory, men put black hairs behind the 
objects. 

2. Even though you employ these tools to unearth 
the intent of him who apphed the word, much remains 
hidden. But if the art of poesy, which has in the 
verses preserved many words that are early, had in 
the same fashion also set do\\'n why and how they 
came to be, the poems would bear fruit in more pro- 
lific measure ; unfortunately, in poems as in prose, 
not all the words can be assigned to their primitive 
radicals, and there are many which cannot be so 
assigned by him whom learning does not attend >\-ith 
favour in his nocturnal studies, though he read pro- 
digiously. In the interpretation of the Hymns of the 
Saltans, which was made by Aelius, an outstanding 
scholar in Latin hterature, you will see that the inter- 
pretation is greatly furthered by attention to a single 
poor letter, and that much is obscured if such a letter 
is passed by. 

3. Nor is this astonishing : for not only were there 
many who failed to recognize Epimenides " when he 
awoke from sleep after fifty years, but even Teucer's 
own family, in the play of Li\-ius Andronicus,'' do not 
know who he is after his absence of fifteen years. 
But what has this to do with the age of poetic words ? 
If the reign of Numa Pompilius '^ is the source of those 
in the Hymns of the Saltans and those words were not 
received from earUer hymn-makers, they are none the 

everything was changed ; his younger brother had become an 
old man. * Livius Andronicus, Trag. Rom. Frag., page 7 
Ribbeck* ; R.O.L. ii. 14-15 Warmington. Teucer, son of 
Telamon king of Salamis, was absent from home during 
the Trojan War, and again during his exile after his return 
from that war. * Second king of Rome, founder of the 
Salian priesthood. 

269 



VARRO 

accepta, tamen habent DCC annos. Quare cur 
scriptoris industriam reprehendas qui herois tritavum, 
atavum non potuerit reperire, cum ipse tui tritavi 
matrem dicere non possis ? Quod intervallum multo 
tanto propius nos, quam hinc ad initium Saliorum, 
quo Romanorum prima verba poetica dicunt Latina. 

4. Igitur de originibus verborum qui multa dix- 
erit commode, potius boni consulendum, quam qui 
aliquid nequierit reprehendendum, praesertim quom 
dicat et^mologice^ non omnium verborum posse dici 
causa<m>,^ ut qui a<c> qua re res u<tilis^ sit>* ad 
medendum medicina ; neque si non norim radices 
arboris, non posse me dicere pirum esse ex ramo, 
ramum ex arbore, earn ex radicibus quas non video. 
Quare qui ostendit equitatum esse ab equitibus, 
equites ab equite, equitem ab equo neque equus unde 
sit dicit, tamen hie docet plura et satisfacit grato, 
quern imitari possimusne ipse liber erit indicio. 

II. 5. Dicam in hoc libro de verbis quae a poetis 
sunt posita, primum de locis, dein quae in locis sunt, 
tertio de temporibus, tum quae cum temporibus sunt 
coniuncta, (se)d is^ ut quae cum his sint coniuncta, 

§ 4. ^ For ethymologice. ^ L. Sp., for causa. 

' Ellis, for quia quare res ii and a blank space capable of 
holding about seven letters. * Added by Kent. 

§ 5. ^ A. Sp. ; sed ita Mue. ; for dis. 

270 



I 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL S-o 

less seven hundred years old. Therefore why should 
you find fault with the diligence of a writer who has 
not been able to find the name of the great-grand- 
father or the grandfather of a demigod's great-grand- 
father, when you yourself cannot name the mother 
of your own great-grandfather's great-grandfather ? 
This interval is much closer to us, than the stretch 
from the present time to the beginning of the Salians, 
when, they say, the first poetic words of the Romans 
were composed, in Latin. 

4. Therefore the man who has made many apt 
pronouncements on the origins of words, one should 
regard with favour, rather than find fault with him 
who has been unable to make any contribution ; 
especially since the etymologic art says that it is not 
of all words that the basis can be stated — just as it 
cannot be stated how and why a medicine is effective 
for curing ; and that if I have no knowledge of the 
roots of a tree, still I am not prevented from saying 
that a pear is from a branch, the branch is from a tree, 
and the tree from roots which I do not see. For this 
reason, he who shows that equitatus ' cavalry ' is from 
equites ' cavalrj^men,' equites from eques ' cavalry- 
man,' eques from equus ' horse,' even though he does 
not give the source of the word equus, still gives 
several lessons and satisfies an appreciative person ; 
whether or not we can do as much, the present book 
itself shall serve as testifying witness. 

IL 5. In this book I shall speak of the words 
which have been put down by the poets, first those 
about places, then those which are in places, third 
those about times, then those which are associated 
with time-ideas ; but in such a way that to them I 
shall add those which are associated with these, and 

271 



VARRO 

adiungam, et si quid excedit* ex hac quadripertitione, 
tamen in ea ut comprehendam. 

6. Incipiam hinc : 

Unus erit quern tu tolles in caerula caeli 
Templa. 

Templum tribus modis dicitur : ab natura, ab au- 
spicando/ a similitudine ; <ab>* natura in caelo, ab 
auspiciis in terra, a similitudine sub terra. In caelo 
te<m>plum dicitur, ut in Hecuba : 

O magna templa caelitum, commixta stellis splendidis. 

In terra, ut in Periboea : 

Scrupea saxea Ba<c)chi 
Templa prope aggreditur. 

Sub terra, ut in Andromacha : 

Acherusia templa alta Orel, salvete, infera. 

7. Quaqua^ in<tu>iti era<n>t2 oculi, a tuendo 
primo templum dictum : quocirca caelum qua attui- 
mur dictum templum ; sic : 

Contremuit templum magnum lovis altitonantis, 

* Sciop., for excidit. 

§ 6. ^ Groth, with V, p, for auspicendo. " Added by 
L. Sp. 

§ 7. ^ Auff., for quaquia. * Sciop., for initium erat. 



§ 6. " Said of Romulus, by Ennius, Ann. 65-66 Vahlen^ ; 
R.O.L. i. 22-23 Warmington ; quoted without templa by 
Ovid, Met. xiv. 814 and Fast. ii. 487. * Properly a 
' limited space,' for divination or otherwise ; from the root 
tem-'cuV " Page 18 Regell. <* That is, likeness to a 
templum in the sky or on the earth. ' Ennius, Trag. 
Rom. Frag. 163 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 292-293 Warmington. 

272 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 5-7 

that if any word lies outside this fourfold division, I 
shall still include it in the account. 

6. I shall begin from this : 

One there shall be, whom thou shalt raise up to sky's 
azure temples." 

Templum * ' temple ' is used in three ways, of nature, 
of taking the auspices,'^ from likeness ^ : of nature, in 
the sky ; of taking the auspices, on the earth ; from 
hkeness, under the earth. In the sky, templum is 
used as in the Hecuba ' : 

O great temples of the gods, united with the shining 

stars. 

On the earth, as in the Periboea ^ : 

To Bacchus' temples aloft 

On sharp jagged rocks it draws near. 

Under the earth, as in the Andromacha ^ : 

Be greeted, great temples of Orcus, 
By Acheron's waters, in Hades. 

7. Whatever place the eyes had intuiti ' gazed 
on,' was originally called a templum ' temple,' from 
tueri ' to gaze ' ; therefore the sky, where we 
attuimur ' gaze at ' it, got the name templum, as in 
this" : 

Trembled the mighty temple of Jove who thunders 
in heaven, 

f Pacuvius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 310 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. ii. 278- 
279 Warmington; anapaestic; said of a Bacchic rouL 
» Ennius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 70-71 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 254- 
255 Warmington ; anapaestic ; quoted more fully by Cicero, 
Tusc. Disp. i. 21. 48. 

§7. «Ennius, Ann. 541 Vahlen*; R.O.L. i. 450-451 
Warmington. 

VOL. I T 273 



VARRO 

id est, ut ait Naevius, 

Hemisp/iaerium' ubi conca(vo)* 
Caerulo* septum stat. 

Eius templi partes quattuor dicuntur, sinistra ab 
oriente, dextra ab occasu, antica ad meridiem, postica 
ad septemtrionem. 

8. In terris dictum templum locus augurii aut 
auspicii causa quibusdam conceptis verbis finitus. 
Concipitur verbis non isdem^ usque quaque ; in 
Arce sic : 

Tem<pla> tescaque* me ita sunto, quoad ego- ea rite* 
lingua* nuncupavero. 

011a ver(a>* arbos quirquir est, quam me sentio 
dixisse, templum tescumque me esto* in sinistrum. 

Olla ver(a.y arbos quirquir est, quam* me sentio 
dixisse, te<m>plum tescumque me esto* <in>* dextrum. 

Inter ea conregione conspicione cortumione, utique 
ea <rit>e dixisse me^" sensi. 

9. In hoc templo faciundo arbores constitui fines 
apparet et intra eas regiones qua oculi conspiciant, id 

' Turnebus, B, for hiemisferium. * Mue., for conca. 
* For cherulo. 

§8. ^ 3/T<e., /or hisdem. ^ rMrneiMS./or item testaque. 
' ea rite L. Sp., for eas te. * Victorius, p, for linquam. 
^ Kent, for ullaber. * tescum Turnebus, -que me Fay, esto 
Scaliger and Turnebus, for tectum quem festo. ' Kent, 
for ollaner. * Mue., for quod. * Added by B, Laetus. 
^° L. Sp., ; ea dixisse me Sciop. ; for ea erectissime. 

'' An uncertain fragment, not listed in the collections of the 
fragments of Naevius. "^ Cf. p. 18 Regell. 

§8. "Page 18 Regell. * Text and translation both 
very problematic. I take me as dative {cf. Fest. 160. 2) ; 
regard quirquir as equal to quisquis, either by manuscript 
corruption or with rhotacism in the phrase quisquis est, 

274 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 7-9 

that is, as Naevius says,* 

Where land's semicircle lies. 
Fenced by the azure vault. 

Of this temple " the four quarters are named thus : 
the left quarter, to the east ; the right quarter, to 
the west ; the front quarter, to the south ; the back 
quarter, to the north. 

8. On the earth, iemplum is the name given to a 
place set aside and limited by certain formulaic 
words for the purpose of augury " or the taking of the 
auspices. The words of the ceremony are not the 
same everywhere ; on the Citadel, they are as 
follows ^ : 

Temples and wild lands be mine in this manner, up to 
where I have named them with my tongue in proper 
fashion. 

Of whatever kind that truthful" tree is, which I con- 
sider that I have mentioned, temple and wild land be 
mine to that point on the left. 

Of whatever kind that truthful tree is, which I consider 
that I have mentioned, temple and wild land be mine to 
that point on the right. 

Between these points, temples and wild lands be mine 
for direction, for viewing, and for interpreting, and just 
as I have felt assured that I have mentioned them in 
proper fashion. 

9. In making this temple, it is evident that the 
trees are set as boundaries, and that \\-ithin them the 
regions are set where the eyes are to view, that is we 

becoming quisquir est (so Fay, Amer. Journ. Phil. xxxv. 
253) ; take as datives the three words in -one in the last 
sentence (meanings, vii. 9), supplying after them templa 
tescaque me sunto. For meaning of tescum, cf. vii. 10-11. 
' That is, lending itself to true predictions through the 
auspices. 

275 



VARRO 

est tueamur, a quo templum dictum, et contemplare, 
ut apud Ennium in Medea : 

Contempla et templum Cereris ad laevam aspice. 
Contempla et conspicare id(em>i esse apparet, ideo 
dicere ^um, cum te(m>plum2 facit, augurem con- 
spicione, qua oculorum conspectum finiat. Quod 
cum dicunt conspicionem, addunt cortumionem, 
dicitur a cordis visu : cor enim cortumionis origo. 

10. Quod addit templa ut si<n>t^ ^e^ca,^ aiunt 
sancta esse qui glossas scripserunt. Id est falsum : 
nam Curia Hostilia templum est et sanctum non est ; 
sed hoc ut putarent aedem sacram esse templum. 
<eo videtur)^ esse factum quod in urbe Roma plerae- 
que aedes sacrae sunt templa, eadem sancta, et quod 
loca quaedam agrestia, quae* alicuius dei sunt, di- 
cwntur^ tesca. 

§9. ^ Bentinus,forid. ^ Tttrnebus, for cumcontejilum, 

§ 10. ^ Laetns, for sit. * Turnebus, for dextra. 

^ Added by OS. * L. Sp., for quod. * Bentinus, for 

dicentur. 



§ 9. "As Varro derives templum from tueri, he must 
insist on the meaning ' to gaze,' because in his time its usual 
meaning was ' to protect.' * Trag. Rom. Frag. 244 Rib- 
beck*; R.O.L. I. 324-325 Warmington. The preceding 
verse ended with Athenas anticum opulentum oppidum, 
which is the object of contempla, but Varro obviously under- 
stood his shortened citation as it is here translated. " He 
means, from cor and tueri ; but the second part is rather 
from the root tern- ' to cut,' as in aestimare ' to cut bronze, 

276 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 9-10 

tueamur ' are to gaze,' <* from which was said templum 
and contemplare ' to contemplate,' as in Ermius, in the 
Medea ^ : 

Contemplate and view Ceres' temple on the left. 

Contenipla ' do thou contemplate ' and conspicare ' do 
thou view ' are the same, it is ob\ious, and therefore 
the augur, when he makes a temple, says conspicione 
' for ^•ie^\•ing,' with regard to where he is to dehmit 
the conspectus ' \-iew ' of the eyes. As to their adding 
cortumio when they say conspicio, this term is derived 
from the \"ision of the cor ' heart ' ; for cor is the basis 
of cortumio.'^ 

10. As to his adding that the temples shall be tesca 
' wild lands,' those who have written glossaries " say 
that this means that the temples are in\iolable.'' This 
is quite wrong : for the Hostilian Meeting-House ^ is 
a temple and is not in\iolable.'' But that people 
should have the idea that a temple is a consecrated 
building, seems to have come about from the fact that 
in the city Rome most consecrated buildings are 
temples, and they are hke^^•ise in\"iolable, and that 
certain places in the country, which are the property 
of some god, are called tesca. 

evaluate, think,' and the whole word means perhaps 
* interpreting.' 

§10. "Page 113 Funaioli. "That is, where any 

violence, at whatever directed, is sacrilege toward the gods. 
' Temple ' is in this statement used in the wide meaning of a 
' limited space,' not in the derived sense of a building for the 
worship of the gods or of a god, which is an aedfs sacra. 
' In the Comitium ; traditionally built by Tullus Hostilius, 
third king of Rome, as a meeting place for the Senate. '' A 
locus sacer (' consecrated to a deity ') was always sanctus, but 
a loeiu tanctxia was not always sacer. 

277 



VARRO 

11. Nam apud Accium in^ Philocteta* Lemnio 

Quis tu es mortalis, qui in deserta et tesca te 
appor^es' loca ? 

<Ea)* enim loca quae sint designat, cum dicit : 

Lemnia praesto 
Litora rara,* et celsa Cabirum 
Delubra tenes,* mysteria quae 
Pristina castis' concepta sacris. 



Dei 



Et: 



Volcania* <iam>' templa sub ipsis 
Collibus, in quos delatus locos 
Dicitur alto ab limine^" caeli. 



Nemus expirante vapore vides, 

Unde ignis^^ cluet^* mortalibus <clam>*' 

i)ivis<us).^* 

Quare haec quo<d) tesca dixit, non erravit, neque 
ideo quod sancta, sed quod ubi mysteria fiunt at- 
tuentur/^ tuesca dicta. 

12. Tueri duo significat, unum ab aspectu ut dixi, 
unde est JLnnii^ illud : 

Tueor te, senex ? Pro Jupiter ! 

§ 11. ^ Laetus, for ut. ^ Aldus, for philocto etatem. 

* Aldus, for appones (r/. adportas Festus, 356 a 26 M.). 

* Added by Mue. * Aug., with B, for prest olitor a rarat. 

* For teues. ' Aldus, for castris. * For uolgania. 
' Added by Ribbeck. ^" Aug., with B, for lumine. 
^^ Vertranius {from Cicero, Tusc. ii. 10. 23), for ignes. 
^^ Aldus, for cl&uet. ^^ Added by Victor ius {from Cicero, 
I.e.). ^* Turnebus{ from Cicero, I.e.), for diuis. ^^ Mue.. 
for aut tuentur. 

§ 12. ^ Sciop.ffor enim. 

§ 11. - Trag. Bom. Frag. 554 Ribbeck*; R.O.L. ii. 514- 
515 Warmington. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 525-534 Ribbeck' : 

278 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 11-12 

11. For there is the following in Accius, in the 
Philoctetes of Lemnos "■ : 

What man are thou, who dost advance 
To places desert, places waste ? 

What sort of places these are, he indicates when he 
says * : 

Around you you have the Lemnian shores. 
Apart from the world, and the high-seated shrines 
Of Cabirian Gods, and the mysteries which 
Of old were expressed with sacrifice pure. 

Then : 

You see now the temples of Vulcan, close by 
Those very same hills, upon which he is said 
To have fallen when thrown from the sky's lofty sill." 

And: 

The wood here you see with the smoke gushing forth. 
Whence the fire — so they say — was secretly brought 
To mankind.** 

Therefore he made no mistake in calling these lands 
tesca, and yet he did not do so because they were con- 
secrated ; but because men attuentur ' gaze at ' places 
where mysteries take place, they were called tuesca.^ 
12. Tueri has two meanings, one of ' seeing ' as I 
have said, whence that verse of Ennius " : 

I really see thee, sire? Oh Jupiter ! 

R.O.L. ii. 506-507 Warmington ; anapaestic. " He fell on 
Lemnos, as related in Iliad, i. 590-594. ^ This last portion 
is quoted by Cicero, Ttisc. Disp. ii. 10. 23, who continues 
with a summary of the story of Prometheus. * \'arro 
means that tesca is for tuesca, waste or wild land where men 
may look at (attueri) celebrations of religious mysteries : an 
incorrect etymology. 

§ 12. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 335 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 290- 
291 Warmington. 

279 



VARRO 

Et: 

Quis pater aut cognatus volet ros* contra tueri ? 

Alterum a curando ac tutela, ut cum dicimus " vellet' 
tueri villain," a quo etiam quidam dicunt ilium qui 
curat aedes sacras aedituum, non aeditMmum4 ; sed 
tamen hoc ipsum ab eadem est profectum origine, 
quod quem volumus domum curare dicimus " tu domi 
videbis," ut Plautus cum ait : 

Intus para, cura, vide. Quod opus<t>^ fiat. 

Sic dicta vestis(pi>ca,* quae vestem spiceret, id est 
videret vestem ac tueretur. Quare a tuendo et 
templa et tesca dicta cum discrimine eo quod dixi. 
13. Etiam indidem illud EnmV^ : 

Extemplo acceptam'' me necato' et filiam.* 
Extemplo enim est continuo, quod omne te(m>plum 
esse debet conti<nu)o septum nee plus unum in- 
troitum habere. 

* Aug., with B, for nos. ' Ellis, for bell . . et {vacant 
space for two letters). * For aeditomum. * From 
Plautus, Men. ^52, for quid opus. * Aldus, for vestisca. 

§ 13. ^ Scaliger, for enim. ^ Voss, for acceptum. 
^ Scaliger, for negate. * Bothe, for filium ,■ cf. Euripides, 
Hecuba, 391. 

* Ann. 463 Vahlen^; R.O.L. i. 172-173 Warmington. 

* Aeditumus is original, with the second part of uncertain 
origin. ^ Varro compares the two meanings of tueri 
with the two meanings of videre, * to see ' and ' to see after, 
care for.' « Men. 352. 

280 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 12-13 

And ^ : 

Who will now wish, though father or kinsman, to look 
on your faces ? 

The other meaning is of ' caring for ' and tutela 
' guardianship,' as when we say " I >nsh he were will- 
ing tueri ' to care for ' the farmhouse," from which 
some indeed say that the man who attends to con- 
secrated buildings is an aedituus and not an aedi- 
tumus '^ ; but still this other form itself proceeded from 
the same source, because when we want some one to 
take care of the house we say " You will see to ^ 
matters at home," as Plautus does when he says * : 

Inside prepare, take pains, see to 't ; 
Let that be done, that's needed. 

In this way the vestispica ' wardrobe maid ' was named, 
who was spicere ' to see ' the vestis ' clothing,' that is, 
was to see to the clothing and tueri ' guard ' it. There- 
fore, both temples and tesca ' wastes ' were named 
from tueri, with that difference of meaning which I 
have mentioned. 

13. Moreover, from the same source comes the 
word in Ennius " : 

Extemplo take me, kill me, kill my daughter too. 

For extemplo ^ ' on the spot ' is contimio ' without in- 
terval,' because every templum ought to be fenced 
in uninterruptedly and have not more than one 
entrance. 

§ 13. « Trag. Rom. Frag. 355 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. i. 380- 
381 Warmington ; perhaps spoken by the captive Hecuba, 
who gave her name to a tragedy by Ennius. * Templum 
denotes a limited portion of time as well as of space ; in 
extemplo the application is to time. 

281 



VARRO 

14. Quod est apud Accium : 

Pervade polum, splendida mundi 
Sidera, bigis, <bis>i continui<s> 
Se<x ex)pirt« signis,^ 

polus Graecum, id significat circum caeli : quare quod 
est pervade polum valet^ vade wepl irokov. Signa 
dicuntur eadem et sidera. Signa quod aliquid 
significent, ut libra aequinoctium ; sidera, quae 
(qua>si* insidunt atque ita significant aliquid in terris 
perurendo aliave^ qua re : ut signum candens in 
pecore. 

15. Quod est : 

Terrarum anfracta revisam/ 

anfractum est flexum, ab origine duplici dictum, ab 
ambitu et frangendo : ab eo leges iubent in directo 
pedum VIII esse (viam),* in anfracto XVI, id est in 
flexu. 

16. Ennius : 

Ut tibi 
Titanis Trivia dederit stirpem liberum. 

Titanis Trivia Diana est, ab eo dicta Trivia, quod in 

§ 14. ^ Added by Kent ; cf. GS., note. * Continui se 
cepit spoliis F ; continuis sex apti signis Scaliger ; picti 
Ribbeck, exceptis Fay, expicti Kent. ' Victorms, for 
valde. * quae quasi GS. ; quod quasi L. Sp. ; for quae 
si. ^ A. Sp,,for aliudue. 

§ 15. ^ Aug., with B, for anfractare visum. ^ Added 
by GS ; following Sciop., who added viam after iubent. 

§ 14. » Trag. Rom. Frag. 678-680 Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. 
ii. 572-573 Warmington ; anapaestic. Thie passage is appar- 
ently addressed to Phaethon, but possibly to the Sun-God or 
to the Moon-God. The twelve signs of the zodiac are con- 
ceived as taken by the Universe and worn by it as a girdle. 
'' Properly ' white-hot ' ; the Roman poets often speak of 

a82 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 14.-16 

14. As for what is in Accius," 

With thy team do thou go through the sky, through 

the bright 
Constellations aloft, which the universe holds. 
Adorned with its twice sLx continuous signs, 

the word polus ' sky ' is Greek, it means the circle 
of the sky : therefore the expression pervade polum 
' traverse the sky ' means ' go around the -oAos.' 
Signa ' signs of the zodiac ' means the same as sidera 
' constellations.' Signa are so called because they 
significant ' indicate ' something, as the Balance marks 
the equinox ; those are sidera which so to speak in- 
sidunt ' settle down ' and thus indicate something on 
earth by burning or otherwise : as for example a 
signum candens ' scorching sign,' * in the matter of 
the flocks. 

15. In the phrase 

Again of the land I shall see the an/racta," 

anfractum means ' bent or curved,' being formed from 
a double source, from ambitus ' circuit ' and frangere 
' to break.' Concerning this the laws *" bid that a road 
shall be eight feet \nde where it is straight, and six- 
teen at an anfractum, that is, at a curve. 

16. Ennius says " : 

As surely as to thee 
Titan's daughter Trivia shall grant a line of sons. 

The Trivian Titaness is Diana, called Trivia from the 

the flocks as being burned by the heat of Canicttla ' the 
Dog-star,' which is visible while the sun is in the sign of Leo. 

§ 15. » Accius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 336 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. 
ii. 440-441 Warmington. " Cf. XII Tabulae, page 138 
Schoell. 

§ 16. - Trag. Rom. Frag. 362 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 260- 
261 Warmington. 

283 



VARRO 

trivio ponitur fere in oppidis Graecis, vel quod luna 
dicitur esse, quae in caelo tribus viis movetur, in 
altitudinem et latitudinem et longitudinem. Titanis 
dicta, quod earn genuit, ut ai(t>^ Plautus, Lato ; ea, 
ut scribit Manilius, 

Est Coe<o> creata^ Titano. 

Ut idem scribit : 

Latona pari<e>t^ casta complexu lovis 
Deliadas* geminos, 

id est Apollinem et Dianam. Dii, quod Titanis 
(Deli eos peperit),* Deliadae. 
17. E2demi : 

O sancte Apollo, qui umbilicum certum terrarum 
optines. 

Umbilicum dictum aiunt ab umbilico nostro, quod is 
medius locus sit terrarum, ut umbilicus in nobis ; 
quod utrumque est falsum : neque hie locus est 
terrarum medius neque noster umbilicus est hominis 
medius. Itaque pingitur quae^ vocatur (dvr)L\doii'^ 
Hvdayopa, ut media caeli ac terrae linea ducatur infra 

§ 16. ^ Kent, after L. Sp., for ni. ^ Mue., for coe- 
creata. * Neue, for parit. * Lachmann, for delia dos. 
^ Added by L. Sp. 

§ 17. ^ A. Sp. (nom. sing, masc), for eadem. * 3hie., 
for qui. ^ G. Hermann, for IXToN. 

^ This first etymology is better ; it should be referred to 
images set up in Italian towns, not in Greek towns. 
" Lato, from which the Romans made Latona (cf. Plautus, 
Bac. 893), is the Greek form in Doric and in all other 
dialects except Attic-Ionic. '' Frag. Poet. Lot., page 52 
Morel. ' Deliadae is a word not found elsewhere ; but 
it seems difficult not to admit it in this passage. 

§ 17. <• Trag. Rom. Frag. inc. inc. 19-20 Ribbeck» ; 
284 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 16-17 

fact that her image is set up quite generally in Greek 
towns where three roads meet,** or else because she is 
said to be the Moon, which moves in the sky by tres 
viae ' three ways,' upwards, sidewise, and onwards. 
She is called Titanis ' daughter of Titan,' because her 
mother was, as Plautus says, Lato '^ ; and she, as 
ManiUus WTites,** 

Was begot by the Titan Coeus. 

As the same author \*Tites,'* 

The chaste Latona shall give birth, by Jove's embrace. 
To Deliad twins, 

that is, to Apollo and Diana. These gods were called 
Deliads * because the Titaness gave birth to them on 
the island of Delos. 

17. The same has this " : 

O holy Apollo, who dost hold 
The true established umbilicus of the lands. 

The umbilicus, they say,** was so called from our um- 
bilicus ' navel,' because this is the middle place of the 
lands, as the navel in us. But both these are false 
statements : this place is not the middle of the lands, 
nor is the navel the middle point of a man. But in 
this fashion is indicated the so-called ' counter-earth 
of Pythagoras,' '^ so that the line which is midway 
in sky and earth should be drawn below the navel 

R.O.L. ii, 602-603 Warmington, who doubtfully attributes it 
to Ennius, since Cicero, de Divin. ii. 56. 115, citing this 
passage more fully, had last quoted from Ennius; pre- 
ceded by eidem (nom. sing, masc.), it belongs to Manilius. 
'Page 117 Funaioli. ' Pj^thagoras taught that around 
the fire in the centre of the universe there swung the earth 
and a counter-earth, each forming part of a sphere, and 
balancing each other. 

285 



VARRO 

umbilicum per id quo discernitur homo mas an femina 
sit, ubi ortus humanus similis ut in mundo* : ?bi* 
enim omnia nascuntur in medio, quod terra mundi 
media. Praeterea si quod medium id est umbilicus 
pila(e>* terrae, non Delphi medium ; et terrae 
medium — non' hoc, sed quod vocant — Delphis' in 
aede ad latus est quiddam ut thesauri specie, quod 
Graeci vocant o/x<^aAoi',* quem Pythonos aiunt esse 
tumulMwi* ; ab eo nostri interpretes o/x^aAdv um- 
bilicum dixerunt. 

18. Pacuius : 

Caledonia altrix terra ex(s>uperantum virum. 

Ut ager Tusculanus, sic Cal^donius ager est, non 
terra ; sed lege poetica, quod terra Jetolia in qua 
Calydon, a parte^ totam accipi ^etoliam voluit. 

19. Acci : 

Mystica ad dextram vada 
Praetervecti. 

M_^stica a mysteriis, quae ibi in propinquis locis 
nobilia fiunt. 

* A dittography in F, written ubi ortus humanus situlis ut in 
mundo, is here excised. * Aug., for ubi. * ut pilae 
Mve., for ut pila F {but ut was deleted by F^). ' The 
dashes were inserted by Stroux. * Aldus, for OMOaAVN. 

* Loheck, for tumulos. 

§ 18. 1 For aperte. 



<* Nonius, 333. 35 M., quotes Varro as using the expression 
terra pila (or terrae). ' The " treasure-houses " at Delphi 
were small buildings in which the valuable dedicatory gifts 
were kept ; a number of cities had special treasure-houses 
of their own. ' Slain here by Apollo after the flood of 
Deucalion and Pyrrha. 

286 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 17-19 

through that by which the distinction is made whether 
a human being is male or female, where human life 
starts — and the like is true in the case of the universe : 
for there all things originate in the centre, because the 
earth is the centre of the universe. Besides, if the 
ball of the earth ^ has any centre, or umbilicus, it is not 
Delphi that is the centre ; and the centre of the earth 
at Delphi — not really the centre, but so called — is 
something in a temple building at one side, something 
that looks like a treasure-house,* which the Greeks 
call the 6fi<fia\6<;, which they say is the tomb of the 
Python/ From this our interpreters turned the 
word into umbilicus ' navel.' 

18. Pacuvius has this verse * : 

Calydonian terra, nurse of mighty men. 
But just as Tusculum has an ager ' field-land,' so 
Calydon has an ager and not a terra ' land ' * ; but by 
the pri\-ilege of the poets, because Aetolia in which 
Calydon is located is a terra, he wished all Aetolia to 
be understood from the name of the part. 

19. In this of Accius," 

Sailing past the mystic waters * on the right, 

mystica ' mystic ' is from the famous mysteria ' mys- 
teries,' M'hich are performed there in places close at 
hand. 

§ 18. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 404 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. ii. 274- 
275 Warmington. * Varro objects to the use of terra 

with a city-name attached, since terra means the whole state, 
and cannot belong to a city : a city owns onlv an ager. 

§19. "Trag. Rom. Frag. 687-688 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. 
ii. 568-569 Warmington. ' Probably those at Eleusis, 

where mysteries of Demeter were celebrated; or possibly 
those near Samothrace, where the Cabiri were worshipped, 
cf. vii. 34. 

287 



VARRO 

Ennii : 

Areopagitae quia^ dedere <ae>quam pi7am.* 
Areopagitae ab Areopago ; is Iocms^ Athenis. 

20. Musae quae pedibus magnum pulsatis Olympum. 
Caelum dicunt Graeci Ol^ympum, montem in Mace- 
donia omnes ; a quo potius puto Musas dictas 
Ol^mpiadas : ita enim ab terrestribus locis aliis 
cognominatae Libethrides, Pipleides, Thespiades,^ 
i/eliconides. 

21. Ca<s>sii : 

/fellespontum et claustra. 

(Claustra),'' quod Xerxes' quondam eum locum 
clausit : nam, ut Ennius ait, 

Isque Hellesponto pontem contendit in alto. 
Nisi potius ab eo quod Asia et Europa ibi co«<c)ludi- 
t(ur>* mare ; inter angustias facit Propontidis fauces. 

§19. ^ Ribbeck, for quid. ^ Ribbeck ; aequam Tpugnam 
Mue. ; aequom palam Bothe ; for quam pudam. * Laehis, 
for his locis. 

§ 20. ^ For pipl^ ide ( == id est) espiades, with h above the 
e of esp-. 

§ 21. ^ Mue. ; Cassius Sclop. ; for quasi. " Added by 
Scaliger. ^ Bentinus, for exerses. * A. Sp. ; con- 
cludit iMetus ; for colludit. 

•^Trag. Rom. Frag. 349 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 272-273 
Warmington. ■* At the trial of Orestes for the murder 
of his mother. 

§ 20. « Ennius, Ann. 1 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 2-3 War- 
mington ; opening the poem. * As home of the gods. 
« That is, not merely the Greeks. ^ Pipleides or Pim- 

288 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 19-21 

In the verse of Ennius,* 

Since the Areopagites have cast an equal vote,"* 

Areopagitae ' Areopagites ' is from Areopagus ; this is 
a place at Athens. 

20. Muses, ye who with dancing feet beat mighty 
Olympus." 

Olympus is the name which the Greeks give to the 
sky,^ and all peoples •= give to a mountain in Mace- 
donia ; it is from the latter, I am inclined to think, 
that the Muses are spoken of as the Olympiads : for 
they are called in the same way from other places on 
earth the Libethrids, the Pipleids,** the Thespiads, 
the Heliconids.* 

21. In this phrase of Cassius," 

The Hellespont and its barriers, 

claustra ' barriers ' is used because once on a time 
Xerxes clausit ' closed ' the place by barriers * : for, 
as Ennius says," 

He, and none other, on Hellespont deep did fasten 
a bridgeway. 

Unless it is said rather from the fact that at this place 
the sea concluditur ' is hemmed in ' by Asia and Europe ; 
in the narrows it forms the entrance to the Propontis. 

phides. ' Respectively from Libethra, a fountain sacred 
to the Muses, near Libethnmi and Magnesia, in Mace- 
donia ; Pimpla, a place and fountain in Pieria, in Mace- 
donia ; Thespiae, a town of Boeotia at the foot of Helicon ; 
and Helicon, a mountain-range in Boeotia. 

§21. ' Trag. Rom. Frag. inc. inc. 106 Ribbeck' ; with 
the text as here emended, it l)elongs to Cassius. ' C/. 
Herodotus, vii. 33-36. 'Ann. 378 Vahlen*; R.O.L. i. 
136-137 Warmington. 

VOL. I U 289 



VARRO 

22. Pacui : 

Li<n)qui^ in ^egeo fretu.' 

Dictum fretum ab similitudine ferventis aquae, quod 
in fretum saepe eoncurrat aestus atque effervescat. 
^egeum dictum ab insulis, quod in eo mari scopuli in 
pelago vocantur ab sim^ilitudine caprarum ceges. 

23. Ferme aderant aequore in alto ratibus repentibus. 

Mare appellatum (aequor),^ quod a(e>quatum2 cum 
commotum vento non est. Ratis navis longa<s)* 
dixit, ut Naevius cum ait : 

<Ut)* conferre queant* ratem aeratam qui 

Per h'quidum* mare sudantes eunt atque sedentes.' 

Ratis dicta navis longa propter remos, quod hi, cum 
per aquam sublati sunt dextra et sinistra, duas rates* 
efficere videntur : ratis enim, unde hoc tralatum, illi 
ubi plures mali aut asseres (iuncti aqua ducuntur. 
Hinc naviculae cum remis ratariae dicuntur).^ 

§ 22. ^ Kent, for liqui. ^ A. Sp., for fretum. 
§ 23. ^ Added here by A. Sp. ; added before mare by 
Laetus. ^ Laetus, for aquatum. ' Miie., for longa. 

* Added by Kent. * Turnebus, for conferreque aut. 

* Scaliger, for perit quidum. ' Scaliger, for sedantes. 

* M lie., for partes. * Added by Mue., after Serv. Dan. in 
Aen. i. 43 and Gellius, x. 25. 5. 



§ 22. ° Traff. Rom. Fray. 420 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. ii. 306- 
.307 Warmington; perhaps spoken by Ariadne, deserted 
by Theseus on the island of Naxos. " Incorrect ety- 
mology. "^ Like goats on a plain : a very dubious ety- 
mology, or worse. ** That is, Greek alyes ' goats.' 

§ 23. " Given as Tray. Rom. Fray. inc. inc. 225 Ribbeck* ; 

290 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 22-23 

22. In the verse of Pacu\ius,'' 

To be forsaken in the Aegean strait, 
f return ' strait ' is named from the likeness to fervens 
' boiUng ' water,^ because the tide often dashes into a 
strait and boils up. The Aegean is named from the 
islands, because in this sea the craggy islands in the 
open water are called aeges ' goats,' "^ from their 
likeness to she-goats."* 

23. They had almost arrived ; on the aequor deep 

the rates were gUding." 

Aequor ' level water ' is a name given to the sea, 
because it is aequatum ' levelled ' when it is not stirred 
up by the wind.** By ratis ' raft ' he meant a war-ship, 
as does Nae\ius when he says " : 

That they may clash 'gainst the foe 

Their bronze-shod raft, in which 

They go o'er the liquid sea. 
Sweating as they sit."* 

A war-ship is called a ratis from the oars, because 
these, when they are raised through the water on the 
right and on the left, seem to form two rafts * ; for it 
is a ratis — from which this word is transferred — there 
where several poles or beams are joined together and 
floated on the water. From this, the adjective ratarius 
is applied to small boats with oars. 

but more probably a dactylic hexameter of Ennius, R.O.L. 
i. 458-459 Warmington : 

Fenne aderant ratibtu repetUibus aequore in alto, 
quoted by Varro with wTong order of the words, as is shown 
by his explanation of aequor before he takes up ratis 
(cf, Vahlen, Ennius-, p. xxxvii.). * Correct etymology. 
« Frag. Poet. Rom., p. 48 Baehrens ; R.O.L. ii. 68-69 
Warmington ; Saturnian, but text very dubious. '' The 
seated rowers. • The same word ratis means ' ship ' and 
' raft,' whether or not this explanation is correct. 

291 



VARRO 

HIC DEEST IN EXEMPLARI FOLIUM I^° 

III. 24. . . . (hostias)^ agrestis ab agro dictas 
apparet ; inful<at>as hostk/s,* quod velamenta his e 
lana quae adduntur, infulae : itaque turn, quod ad 
sepulcrum^ ferunt frondem ac flores, addidit : 

Non lana* sed velatas frondenti coma.* 

25. Cornu<t>a taurum umbra <in piigna)m ?aci<t>.i 

Dicere apparet cornutam a cornibus ; cornua a cur- 
vore dicta, quod pleraque curva. 

26. Musa«^ quas memorant nosce(s>^ nos esse 

(Camenas).* 

Ca(s>menarum^ priscum vocabulum ita natum ac 
scriptum est alibi ; Carmenae ad eadem origine sunt 
declinatae. In multis verbis in quo* antiqui dicebant 
S, postea dicunt R, ut in Carmine Saliorum sunt haec : 

^" This statement is in the margin of F, opposite a blank space 
which amounts to one and one half pages. 

§ 24. ^ Added by L. Sp. and by Bergk. * Mue., for 
infulas hostiis. * For sepulchrum. * L. Sp. and Rib- 
beck, for lanas. ^ L. Sp. and Ribbeck, for frondentis 
comas. 

§ 25. ^ GS, (cornutam umbram L. Sp. ; cornutarum 
umbram Victorins ; iacit Scaliger), for cornua taurum 
umbram iaci. 

§ 26. ^ Scaliger, for curuamus ac {which includes the last 
word of § 25). * Additions by Jordan. ^ Laetus, for 
camenarum. * Later codd., for quod F. 

§ 24. « Trag. Rom. Frag. inc. inc. 220-221 Ribbeck'. 

§ 25. " Trag. Rom. Frag. inc. inc. 222 Ribbeck'. 
* Comu and curvus are not connected etymologically. 

§ 26. " Ennius, Ann. 2 Vahlen^. * Perhaps of Etruscan 

origin ; at any rate, not connected with canere ' to sing.' 
' A spelling caused by association with carmen and Car- 

292 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 23-26 

HERE ONE LEAF IS LACKING IN THE MODEL COPY 

in. 24.. ... it is clear that agresies ' rural ' 
sacrificial victims were so called from ager ' field- 
land ' ; that infulatae ' filleted ' \-ictims were so called, 
because the head-adornments of wool which are put 
on them, are infulae ' fillets ' : therefore then, with 
reference to the carrying of leafy branches and flowers 
to the burial-place, he added " : 

Decked not with wool, but with a hair-like shock 
of leaves. 

25. The horned shadow lures the bull to fight." 

It is clear that comttta ' horned ' is said from comua 
' horns ' ; cornua is said from curvor ' curvature,' 
because most horns are curva ' curved.' ^ 

26. Learn that we, the Camenae, are those whom 

they tell of as Muses." 

Casmenae * is the early form of the name, when it 
originated, and it is so A^-ritten in other places ; the 
name Carmenae '^ is derived from the same origin. In 
many words, at the point where the ancients said S, 
the later pronunciation is R,** as the follo\\ing in the 
Hymn of the Saltans * : 

menta ; though no etymological connexion with them exists. 
■* The well-known phenomenon of rhotacism, the change of 
intervocalic S to R. ' Fragg. 2-3, pp. 332-335 Mauren- 
brecher ; page 1 Morel. It is hazardous in the extreme to 
attempt to restore and interpret the text of the Hymn. These 
sentences seem to invoke Mars not as God of War, but in his 
old Italic capacity of God of Agriculture, spoken of in several 
functions. It was the view of L. Spengel, approved by A. 
Spengel, that this verbatim text of the Hymn was an inter- 
polation, and that foedesum foederum of § 27 immediately 
followed in Carmine Saliorum sunt haec. 

293 



VARRO 

Cozevi oftorieso. Omnia vero ad Patulc(ium) 

commisse<i>. 
laneus mm es, duonus Cerus es, du(o>nus lanus. 
Vew(i>es po<tissimu>m melios eum recum . . .* 

HIC SPATIUM X LINEARUM RELICTUM ERAT IN 
EXEMPLARI* 

27. . . . f(o>edesum foederum,^ plusima plu- 
rima, meliosem meliorem, asenam arenam, ianitos 
ianitor, Quare e^ Casmena Carmena, (e>^ Carmena* 
R extrito Camena factum. Ab eadem voce canite, 
pro quo in Saliari versu scriptum est cante, hoc 
versu : 

Divum em pa' cante, divum deo supplicate.* 

28. In Carmine Priami^ quod est : 
Veteres Casmenas cascam rem volo profarier,^ 

* F has : Cozeulodori eso. Omnia uero adpatula coemisse. 
ian cusianes duonus ceruses, dunus ianusue uet pom melios 
eum recum. This is here emended as follows : Cozev'i Havet ; 
oborieso Kent; Patulcium Kent, after Bergk ; commissei 
Kent; laneus G8., cf. Festus, 103. II 3/./ iam es Kent; 
duonus Cerus es, duonus lanus Bergk ; ueniet F, venies 
Kent ; potissimum, cf. Festus, 205 all M. ^ At this point, 
the remainder of the line and the next four lines are vacant in 
F, with traces of writing in the last empty line, which must 
have given the data for this statement, found in II and a. 

§27. ^ For faederum. ^ A. Sp. ; ex Ursinus ; for e 
(=est). ^ Added by A. Sp. * A. Sp., for carmina 
carmen. * Bergk, for empta. * Grotefend, for sup- 
plicante. 

§ 28. ^ At this point, the rest of the page (three and one- 
third lines) remains vacant in F, but there is no gap in the 
text. ^ Scaliger, for profari et. 

f Cozevi, voc. of Consivius (epithet of Janus, in Macrobius, 
Sat. i. 9. 15), with NS developing to NTS as in Umbrian, 
the N not written before the consonants (cf. Latin cosol for 
consul), and z having the value of ts, as in the Umbrian 

294 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 26-28 

O Planter God/ arise. Everj-thing indeed have I 
committed unto (thee as) the Opener." Now art 
thou the Doorkeeper, thou art the Good Creator, 
the Good God of Beginnings. Thou'It come especi- 
ally, thou the superior of these kings * . . . 

HERE A SPACE OF TEX LINES WAS LEFT VACANT IN 
THE MODEL COPY * 

27. . . . (In the Hymn of the Saltans are found 
such old forms as) Jbedesum ior foederum ' of treaties,' 
phisima for plurima ' most,' vieliosem for meliorem 
' better,' asenam for arenam ' sand,' ianitos for ianitor " 
' doorkeeper.' Therefore from Casmena came Car- 
mena, and from Carmena, with loss of the R, came 
Camena.^ From the same radical came canite ' sing 
ye,' for which in a Salian verse "^ is ^\Titten cante, and 
this is the verse : 

Sing ye to the Father "^ of the Gods, entreat the God 
of Gods.' 

28. In The Song oj" Priam there is the following " : 
I wish the ancient Muses to tell a story old. 

alphabet. " Epithet of Janus, in Macrobius, Sat. i. 9. 15. 
* The god is addressed as more powerful than all earthly 
lords, whether kings or (perhaps) priests. The gen. plural 
eum, equal to eorum. is elsewhere attested. ' The vacant 
lines in the model copy may have represented more of the 
text of the Hvmn, too illegible to copy. 

§ 27. " Fragg. 4, 7, 20, 26, 27, pages 335, 339, 347, 349 
Maurenbrecher. Ianitos is an incorrect form, since the word 
had an original R ; but all the other words have R from 
earlier S. " Cf. § 26, note 6. « Frag. 1, page 331 
Maurenbrecher ; page 1 Morel. ■* Here em pa stands for 
in patrem ; so Th. Bergk, Zts. f. Altertujnswiss. xiv. 138 = 
Kleine Philol. Schriften, i. 505, relying on Festus, 205 all M., 
pa pro parte (read patre) et po pro potissimum positum est in 
Saliari Carmine. ' Equal to ' father of the gods.' 

§ 28. " Frag. Poet. Lat., page 29 Morel. 

295 



VARRO 

primum cascum significat vetus ; secundo eius origo 
SaMna, quae usque radices in Oscam linguam egit. 
Cascum vetus esse significat Ennius quod ait : 

Quam Prisci casci populi ^enuere' Latini. 
Eo magis Manilius quod ait : 

Cascum duxisse cascam non mirabile est, 
Quoniam cariosas* conficiebat nuptias. 

Item ostendit Papini epigrammation, quod in adole- 
scentem fecerat Cascam : 

Ridiculum est, cum te Cascam tiia dicit arnica,* 
Fili<a>* Potoni, sesquisenex' puerum. 

Die tu illam* pusam : sic fiet " mutua* muli " : 
Nam vere pusus tu, tua amica senex. 

29. Idem ostendit quod oppidum vocatur Casinum 
(hoc enim ab Sabinis orti Samnites tenuerunt) et* 
nostri etiam nunc Forum Vetus appellant. Item 
significat^ in Atellanis aliquot Pappum, senem quod 
Osci* casnar appellant. 

' Columna, for genuere. * L. Sp. and Lachmann, for 
carioras. * Laetus, B, for amici. * Popma, for fili. 
' Turnebus, for potonis es qui senex. * Turnebus, for dicit 
pusum puellam. * Pantagathxis, for mutuam. 

§ 29. ^ L. Sp. deleted nunc after et. * For significant. 
^ For ostii. 

* The native Latin word was cdnus ' grey-haired,' from 
casnos, with the same root as in cascus, but a different suffix. 
'^ Sabine was not a dialect of Oscan, but stood on an equal 
footing with it. "^ Ann. 24 Vahlen^; R.O.L. i. 12-13 
VVarmington. * Frag. Poet. Lat., page 52 Morel. 

f Frag. Poet. Lat., page 42 Morel ; the poet's name is 
doubtful : Priscian, ii. 90. 2 K., calls him Pomponius, and 
Bergk, Opusc. i. 88, proposes Pompilius. " Casca was 
a male cognomen in the Servilian gens only ; for this reason 
Potonius is rather to be taken as a jesting family name of 
the amica. " Pitstim ptieUam (see crit. note) was origin- 

296 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 28-29 

First, cascum means ' old ' ; secondly, it has its origin 
from the Sabine language,* which ran its roots back 
into Oscan.'' That cascum is ' old,' is indicated by the 
phrase of Ennius ** : 

Land that the Early Latins then held, the long-ago 
peoples. 

It is even better shown in Manilius's utterance * : 

That Whitehead married Oldie is surely no surprise : 
The marriage, when he made it, was aged and decayed. 

It is sho^vn likewise in the epigram of Papinius,^ which 
he made with reference to the youth Casca : 

Funny it is, when your mistress tenderly calls you her 
" Casca " ' : 
Daughter of Rummy she, old and a half — you a boy. 
Call her your " laddie " * ; for thus there will be the 
mule's trade of favours • : 
You're but a lad, to be sure ; Oldie's the name for 
your girl. 

29. The same is shown by the fact that there is a 
town named Casinum," which was inhabited by the 
Samnites, who originated from the Sabines,* and we 
Romans even now call it Old Market. Likewise in 
several Atellan farces " the word denotes Pappus, an 
old man's character, because the Oscans call an old 
man casnar. 

ally a marginal gloss to piisam, since pusus had no normal 
feminine form ; c/. French la gar^onne. But the gloss 
crept into the text. ' Proverbial phrase, equal to ' tit for 
tat,' or ' an eye for an eye.' 

§ 29. " A town of southeastern Latium, on the borders of 
Samnium. * The Samnites and the Sabines were separate 
peoples, but their names are etymologically related, and so 
presumably were the two peoples. ' Com. Rom. Frag, 
inc. nom. vii. p. 334 Ribbeck' ; these farces were named 
from Atella, an Oscan town in Campania a few miles north 
of Naples. 

297 



VARRO 

30. Apud Lucilium : 

Quid tibi ego ambages Ambiv<i>^ scribere coner ? 

Profectum a verbo ambe, quod inest in ambitu et 
ambitioso. 

31. Apud Valerium Soranum : 

Vetus adagio est, O Publi^ Scipio, 
quod verbum usque eo evanuit, ut Graecum pro eo 
positum magis sit apertum : nam id(em> est" quod 
irapoLfiiav voeant Graeci, ut est : 

Auribus lupiim teneo ; 
Canis caninam non est. 

Adagio est littera commutata a<m>bagio,' dicta ab 
eo quod ambit orationem, neque in aliqua una re 
consistit sola. <Amb)agio* dicta ut a<m>6ustum,* 
quo(d)* circum ustum est, ut ambegna' bos apud 
augures, quam circum aliae hostiae constituuntur. 

32. Cum tria sint coniuncta in origine verborum 
quae sint animadvertenda, a quo sit impositum et in 
quo et quid, saepe non minus de tertio quam de 
primo dubitatur, ut in hoc, utrum primum una canis 

§ 30. ^ Laetus, for ambiu. 

§ 31. ^ Abbreviated to P in F. ^ idem est Mue. ; idem 
early edd., with later codd. ; for id est F. ' Turnebus, 
/orabagio. * L. Sp. ; adagio Laetus ; for agio. ^ Avg., 
for adustum. * Laetus, M, for quo. ' Turnebus, with 
Festus, 4. 16 J/., /or ambiegna. 

§ 30. » 1281 Marx. * If the text is correctly restored, 
this is L. Ambivius Turpio, famous stage director and actor 
of Caecilius Statius and of Terence ; Lucilius puns on his 
name. ' Equal to Greek oni<j)i, and found in Latin only 

as a prefix. 

§ 31. "A little-known writer of the second century b.c. ; 
Frag. Poet. Lat., page 40 Morel. * Adagio, gen. -onis ; not 

298 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 30-32 

30. In Lucilius ° : 

VChj should I try to tell to you Roundway's * round- 
about speeches ? 

The word ambages ' circumlocutions ' comes from the 
word ambe '^ ' round about,' which is present in ambitus 
' circuit ' and in ambitiosus ' going around (for votes), 
ambitious.' 

31. In ^'ale^ius of Sora " is the following : 

It is an old adagio,^ Publius Scipio. 

This word has gone out of use to such a point that the 
Greek word put for it is more easily understood : for 
it is the same as that which the Greeks call rrapoifiia 
' proverb,' as for example : 

I'm holding a wolf by the ears," 
Dog doesn't eat dog-flesh. 

Now adagio ^ is only ambagio >vith a letter changed, 
which is said because it ambit ' goes around ' the dis- 
course and does not stop at some one thing only.* 
Ambagio resembles ambustum, which is ' burnt around,' 
and an ambegna cow f in the augural speech,^ which is 
a cow around which other victims are arranged. 

32. Whereas there are three things combined 
which must be observed in the origin of words, namelv 
from what the word is applied, and to what, and what 
it is, often there is doubt about the third no less than 
about the first, as in this case, whether the word 
for dog in the singular was at first canis or canes : 

the more usual adagium. ' Terence, Phor. 506, etc. 
"* Really from ad ' thereto ' and the root of aio ' I say.' 
' That Is, it applies also to other things than that which it 
specifically mentions. ' ' Having a lamb {agna) on each 
side.' " Page 17 Regell. 

299 



VARRO 

aut canes sit^ appellata : dicta enim apud veteres una 
canes. Itaque Ennius scribit : 

Tantidem quasi feta* canes sine dentibus latrat. 

Lucilius : 

Nequam et magnus homo, laniorum immanis' canes ut. 

Impositio unius debuit esse canis, plurium canes ; sed 
neque Ennius consuetudinem illam sequens repre- 
hendendus, nee is qui nunc dicit : 

Canis canina<ni>* non est. 

Sed canes quod latratu'^ signum dant, ut signa canunt, 
canes appellatae, et quod ea voce indicant noctu quae 
latent, latratus appellatus. 

33. Sic dictum a quibusdam ut una canes, una 
trabes : 

<Trabes)^ remis rostrata per altum. 
Ennius : 

Utinam ne in nemore P«lio* securibus 
Caesa accidisset abiegna ad terram trabes, 

cuius verbi singularis casus rectM** correptus* ac facta 
trabs. 

§ 32. ^ For sic. ^ For facta. ' Auff., with B, for 
immanes. * Laet us, for ca,n\na.. ^ M, V, p, Laetus, for 
latratus. 

§ 33. ^ Added by Colnmna. ^ For polio. ' Sciop., 
for recte. * Laetus, for correctus. 



§32. "Ann. 528 Vahlen^; R.O.L. i. 432-433 Warming- 
ton. ^ Her bark is worse than her bite, as a pregnant 
bitch was proverbially harmless ; cf. Plautus, Most. 852, 
Tarn placidast {ilia canis) quam feta quaevis. ' 1221 

300 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 32-33 

for in the older writers the expression is one canes. 
Therefore Ennius writes the following, using canes " : 

Barks just as loud as a pregnant bitch : but she's 
toothless.* 

Lucilius also uses canes '^ : 

Worthless man and huge, like the monstrous dog 
of the butchers. 

When applied to one, the word should have been 
cams, and when applied to several it should have been 
canes ; but Ennius ought not to be blamed for follow- 
ing the earlier custom, nor should he who now says : 

Canis ' dog ' doesn't eat dog-flesh. 

But because dogs by their barking give the signal, as 
it were, canunt ' sound ' the signals, they are called 
canes ; and because by this noise they make known 
the things which latent ' are hidden ' in the night, their 
barking is called latratus.^ 

33. As some have said canes in the singular, so 
others have said trabes ' beam, ship ' in the singular : 

The beaked trabes is driven by oars through the waters." 

Ennius used trabes in the following * : 

I would the trabes of the fir-tree ne'er had fall'n 
To earth, in Pelion's forest, by the axes cut ! 

But now the nominative singular of this word has lost 
a vowel and become trabs. 

Marx. ** Cams is not etymologically connected with 
canere, nor latratus with latere. 

§33. «Ennius, Ann. 616 Vahlen"; R.O.L. i. 458-459 
Warmington. * Medea Exul, Trag. Rom. Frag. 205- 

206 Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. i. 312-313 Warmington: that is, 
" would that the ship Argo had never been built." 

301 



VARRO 

34. In Medo : 

Caelitum Camilla, expectata advenis : salve, Aospita. 
Camilla(m>i qui glos<s>emata interpretati dixerunt 
administram ; addi oportet, in his quae occultiora : 
itaque dicitur nuptiis camillus^ qui cumerum* fert, in 
quo quid sit, in ministerio plerique extrinsecus 
ne(s>cmn<.* Hinc Casmilus^ nominatur Samo- 
threce<s) m2/steri(i>s dius quidam amminister diis 
magnis. Verbum esse Graecum arbitror, quod apud 
Callimachum in poematibus eius inveni. 

35. Apud En<n>i<u>mi : 

Subulo quondam marinas propter astabat plagas.^ 
Subulo dictus, quod ita dicunt tibieines Tusei : quo- 
circa radices eius in Etr<ur)ia, non Latio quaerundae.^ 

36. Versibus quo(s>^ olim Fauni^ vatesque canebant. 

Fauni dei Latinorum, ita ut et Faunus et Fauna sit ; 
hos versibus quos vocant Saturnios in silvestribus 
locis traditum est solitos fari (futura,^ a>* quo fando 

§ 34. ^ Mue., for Camilla. * Turnebus, for scamillus. 

* Turnebus, for quicum merum. * Turnebus, for nectunc. 
^" For casmillus. 

§ 35. ^ Laetus, for enim. ^ Mue., from Fest. 309 a 5 
M.,for aquas. ' Victor ius, for querunda e. 

§36. ^ Aldus, for quo. ^ Laetus deleted et after Fauni, 
following Cicero, Div. i. 50. 114, Brut. 18. 71, Orator, 51. 171. 

* Added by Mue., from Serv. Dan. in Georg. i. 1 1. * Added 
by Aug. 

§ 34. " Pacuvius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 2S2 Ribbeck^ ; 
B.O.L. ii. 256-257 Warmington. "Page 112 Funaioli. 

" Probably certain belongings of the bride. "* Identified 
with Hermes, the messenger of the gods, according to Ma- 
crobius. Sat. iii. 8. 6. ' More probably Etruscan than 

Greek : there were Etruscans on Lemnos, not far from 
Samothrace, which may explain the use of the similar word 

302 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 34^36 

34. In the Medus <» : 

Long awaited, Camilla of the gods, thou comest ; 
guest, all hail ! 

A Camilla, according to those who have interpreted ^ 
difficult words, is a handmaid assistant ; one ought to 
add, in matters of a more secret nature : therefore at 
a marriage he is called a camillus who carries the box 
the contents of which '' are unknown to most of the 
uninitiated persons who perform the service. From 
this, the name Casmilus is given, in the Samothracian 
mysteries, to a certain divine personage who attends 
upon the Great Gods.** The word, I think, is Greek,* 
because I have found it in the poems of Callimachus.^ 

35. In Ennius there is the verse " : 

Once a subulo was standing by the stretches of the sea. 

Suhulo is said, because that is the name which the 
Etruscans give to pipers ; therefore the roots of the 
word are to be sought in Etruria, not in Latium. 

36. With those verses which once the Fauns used to 

sing, and the poets." 

Fauni ' Fauns ' are divinities of the Latins, of both 
sexes, so that there are both Faunus and Fauna ; the 
story has come down that they, in the so-called 
Saturnian verses, were accustomed in well-wooded 
spots _/fln ' to speak ' those events that were to come, 
from which speaking they were called Fauni, ^ As for 

in the mysteries celebrated there. ' Frag. 409 Schneider ; 
Callimachus had occasion to mention the Samothracian rites. 

§ 35. " Sat. Qo Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 388-389 Warmington; 
perhaps referring to the story in Herodotus, i. 141. 

§36. "Ennius, Ann. 314 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 82-83 
Warmington; ' sing ' in the sense of ' prophesy.' ^ Wrong 

etymologies, both for Faunus and for rates. 

303 



VARRO 

Faunos dictos. Antiqu?^ poetas vates appellabant a 
versibus viendis, ut <de>^ poematis cum scribam 
ostendam. 

37. Corpore Tartarino prognata Paluda virago. 
Tartarino dict?<(m>i a Tartaro. Plato in IIII de 
fluminibus apud inferos quae sint in his unum Tar- 
tarum appellat : quare Tartari origo Graeca. Paluda 
a paludamentis. Haec insignia atque ornamenta 
militaria : ideo ad bellum cum exit imperatoi* ac 
lictores mutarunt vestem et signa incinuerunt, palu- 
datus dicitur proficisci ; quae propter quod con- 
spiciuntur qui ea habent ac fiunt palam, paludamenta 
dicta. 

38. Plautus : 

Epeum fumificum, qui legioni nostrae habet 
Coctum cibum. 

Epeum fumificum cocum, ab Epeo illo qui dicitur ad 
Troiam fecisse Equum Troianum et Argivis cibum 
curasse. 

39. Apud Naevium : 

Atque^ prius pariet hicusta^ Lucam bovem. 

Luca bos elepAans ; cur ita sit dicta, duobus modis 

* Canal and L. Sp., for antiques. * Added by L. Sp., cf. 
vi. 52. 

§ 37. ^ Laetus, for dicta. 

§ 39. ^ For at quae. ^ For lucustam. 

" This applies both to words and to music. ■* Page 213 
Funaioli. 

§37. "Ennius, Ann. 521 Vahlen"; R.O.L. i. 96-97 
Warmington ; referring to Discordia, an incarnation of chaos. 
^ Phaedo, 112-113; in Thrasyllus' numbering of Plato's 
dialogues, the Phaedo was the fourth in the first tetralogy. 
But in Plato's account, Tartarus is not a river of Hades, but 
the abyss beneath, into which all the rivers of Hades empty. 
" Of unknown etymology : not from palam. 

304 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, ML 3fr-39 

vales * poets,' the old writers used to give this name to 
poets from viere ' to plait * " verses, as I shall show 
when I write about poems. ** 

37. Born of a Tartarine body, the warrior maiden 

Paluda." 

Tartarinum ' Tartarine ' is derived from Tartarus. 
Plato in his Fourth Dialogue,^ speaking of the rivers 
which are in the world of the dead, gives Tartarus as 
the name of one of them ; therefore the origin of 
Tartarus is Greek. Paluda '^ is from paludamenta, 
which are distinguishing garments and adornments 
in the army ; therefore when the general goes forth 
to war and the lictors have changed their garb and 
have sounded the signals, he is said to set forth palu- 
datus ' wearing the paliidamentum.' The reason why 
these garments are called paludamenta is that those 
who wear them are on account of them conspicuous 
and are made palam ' plainly ' visible. 

38. Plautus has this <» : 

Epeus the maker of smoke, who for our army gets 
The well-cooked food. 

Epeus fumificus ' the smoke-maker ' was a cook, 
named from that Epeus who is said to have made the 
Trojan Horse at Troy and to have looked after the 
food of the Greeks.'' 

39. In Naevius is the verse " : 

And sooner will a lobster give birth to a Luca bos. 
Luca bos is an elephant ; why it is thus called, I have 

§ 38. " Fab. inc. frag. 1 Ritschl. * Epeus is not else- 
where said to have been a cook, though he is said to have 
furnished the Atridae with their water supply. 

§ 39. " Frag. Poet. Txit., page 38 Morel ; R.O.L. li. 72-73 
Warmington. 

VOL. I X 305 



VARRO 

inveni scriptum. Nam et in Cornelii Commentario 
erat ab Lib^cis Lucas, et in Vergilij' ab Lucanis 
Lucas ; ab eo quod nostri, cum maximam quadri- 
pedem quam ipsi haberent vocarent bovem et in 
Lucanis Pyrr^i bello primum vidissent apud hostis 
elephantos, id est* item quadripedes cornutas (nam 
quos dentes multi dicunt sunt cornua), Lucanam 
bovem quod putabant, Lucam bovem appellasse<nt>.* 

40. Si ab Libya dictae essent Lucae, fortasse an 
pantherae quoque et leones non Africae bestiae 
dicerentur, sed Lucae ; neque ursi potius Lucani 
quam Luci. Quare ego^ arbitror potius Lucas ab 
luce, quod longe relucebant propter inauratos regios 
clupeos, quibus eorum tum ornatae erant turres. 

41. Apud Ennium : 

Orator sine pace redit regique refert rem. 
Orator dictus ab oratione : qui enim verba^ haberet 
publice adversus eum quo legabatur,* ab oratione 
orator dictus ; cum res maior erat (act>ion^,^ lege- 

^ For uirgilius. * Auff. deleted non after est. ^ G, H, 
Mue., for appellasse. 

§ 40. 1 G, U, M, for ergo. 

§41. ^ Sciop. deleted orationum after verba. ^ Scali- 
ger, for legebatur. * GS. (maior erat Turn.), for maiore 
ratione. 

'' Cf. v. 150. " An otherwise unknown author; page 106 

FunaioH. ■* Varro is wrong ; elephants' tusks are teeth. 
' Apparently correct ; Jjucanus was in Oscan Lucans, pro- 
nounced Lucas by the Romans, to which a feminine form 
Luca was made. 

306 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 39-41 

found set forth by the authors in two ways. For in 
the Commentary of Cornelius * was the statement that 
Lucas is from Lihyci ' the Libyans,' and in that of \'er- 
gilius,*^ that Lucas was from Lucani ' the Lucanians ' : 
from the fact that our compatriots used to call the 
largest quadruped that they themselves had, a bos 
' cow ' ; and so, when among the Lucanians, in the 
war with Pyrrhus, they first saw elephants in the 
ranks of the enemy — that is, horned quadrupeds like- 
wise (for what many call teeth are really horns **), 
they called the animal a Luca bos, because they 
thought it a Lucana bos ' Lucanian cow.' * 

40. If the Lucae botes were really named from 
Libya, quite probably panthers also and lions would 
be called not African beasts, but Lucae ' Lucan ' ; and 
bears are no more Lucanian than Lucan, though they 
are called Lucanian. Therefore I rather think that 
Lucas is from lux ' light, ' " because the elephants 
glistened afar on account of the gilded royal shields, 
with which their towers ** at that time were adorned. 

41. In Ennius there is this " : 

Back without peace comes th' orator, hands back to 

his ruler the business. 

Orator ' spokesman ' is said from oratio ' speech ' ; for 
he who was to present a verbal plea before the one to 
whom * he was sent as envoy, was called an orator, 
from oratio. WTien the business was of greater im- 

§ 40. » See § 39, note e. ' War-towers on the backs of 
the elephants, too high to be called merely howdahs. 

§ 41. " Ann. 207 Vahlen* ; li.O.L. i. 72-73 Warmington ; 
referring to an embassy to another ruler, making demands 
the refusal of which will result in a declaration of war, 
c/. Livy, i. 22. * Quo ' whither ' is here used with a 
masculine antecedent. 

307 



VARRO 

bantur potissimum qui causam commodiss(im)e orare 
poterant. Itaque Ennius ait : 

Oratores doctiloqui. 

42. Apud Ennium : 

0111 respondit suavis sonus Eg(e>riai.^ 
OUi valet dictum illi ab olla et olio, quod alterum 
comitiis cum recitatur a praecone dicitur olla centuria, 
non ilia ; alterum apparet in funeribus indictivis, quo 
dicitur 

Ollus leto^ datus est, 
quod Graecus dicit ^I'lOr], id est oblivioni. 

43. Apud Ennium : 

Mensas constituit idemque ancilia (primus.^ 
Ancilia)^ dicta ab ambecisu, quod ea arma ab utraque 
parte ut TAracum incisa. 

44. Libaque/ fictores, Argeos et tutulatos. 
Liba, quod libandi causa fiunt. Fictores dicti a fin- 
gendis libis. Argei ab Argis ; Argei fiunt e scir- 
peis, simulacra hominum XX^^II ; ea quotannis de 

§ 42. ^ Victorius, for egria i. ^ For laeto. 
§ 43. ^ Added by Scaliger. ^ Added by B, Laetus. 
§ 44. ^ Victorius, for incisa saliba quae {which includes 
the end of § 43). 

' Ann. 582 Vahlen^; R.O.L. i. 438-439 Warmington. 

§ 42. » Ann. 1 19 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 42-43 Warmington ; 
a conversation between Numa Pompilius and his adviser, 
the nymph Egeria. * Fest. 254 a 34 M. inserts Quiris 
in this formula after ollus. "Oi uncertain etymology, 
but not from the Greek. 

§ 43. " Ann. 120 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 42-43 Warmington ; 
enumerating the institutions of Numa Pompilius. * Of 
the priests ; cf. Livy, i. 20. " Cf. vi. 22. 

§44. «Ennius, Ann. 121 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 42-43 

308 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VH. U-U 

port, those were selected for the pleading who could 
plead the case most skilfully. Therefore Ennius 
says " : 

Spokesmen, learnedly speaking. 

42. In Ennius is this " : 

Olli answered Egeria's voice, speaking softly and sweetly. 

Olli ' to him ' is the same as illi, dative to feminine olla 
and to masculine ollus. The one of these is said by 
the herald when he announces at the elections " Olla 
' that ' century," and not ilia. The other is heard in 
the case of funerals of which announcement is made, 
wherein is said 

Ollus ^ ' that man ' has been given to letum ' ' death,' 
which the Greek calls Xrjdi], that is, oblivion. 

43. In Ennius this verse is found " : 

Banquets ^ he first did establish, and likewise the 
shields " that are holy 

The ancilia ' shields ' were named from their ambe- 
cisus ' incision on both sides,' because these arms 
were incised at right and left like those of the 
Thracians. 

44. Cakes and their bakers, Argei and priests with 

conical topknots." 

Liba ' cakes,' so named because they are made 
libare ' to offer ' to the gods.^ Ficiores ' bakers ' were 
so called irom fingere ' to shape ' the liba. Argei from 
the city Argos '^ : the Argei are made of rushes, human 
figures twenty-seven "* in number ; these are each 

Warmington; continuing the list of Numa's institutions. 

*" Libare is derived from liba ! ' Etymology of Argei and 

of tutulus quite uncertain. "* On the number, see v. 45, 
note a. 

309 



VARRO 

Ponte Sublicio a sacerdotibus publice deici^ solent in 
Tiberim. Tutulati dicti hi, qui in sacris in capitibus 
habere solent ut metam ; id tutulus appellatus ab eo 
quod matres familias crines convolutos ad vertieem 
capitis quos habent v/t<ta>^ velatos* dicebantur tutuli, 
sive ab eo quod id tuendi causa capilli fiebat, sive ab 
eo quod altissimum in urbe quod est, Arcs,* tutis- 
simum vocatur. 

45. Eundem Pompilium ait fecisse flamines, qui 
cum omnes sunt a singulis deis cognominati, in qui- 
busdam apparent €ti'/x«, ut cur sit Martialis et Quiri- 
nalis ; sunt in quibus flaminum cognominibus latent 
origines, ut in his qui sunt versibus plerique : 

Volturnalem, Palatualem, Furinalem, 
FloraIemqu«^ Falacrem et Pomonalem fecit 
Hie idem, 

quae o<b>scura sunt ; eorum origo Volturnus, diva 
Palatua, Furrina, Flora, Falacer pater, Pomona." 

46. Apud Ennium : 

lam cata signa ferae^ sonitum dare voce parabant. 
Cata acuta : hoc enim verbo dicunt SaMni : quare 
Catus ^lelius Sextus 

* RkoL, for duci. * Mue. ; vittis Popma ; for iiti. 

* Laetus, for velatas. * For ares. 

§ 45. ^ Mue., for floralem qui. " Turnebus, for porno- 
rum nam. 

§ 46. ^ So F ; but fera {agreeing with voce) Miie. 

* See § 44 note c. 

§45. "Ennius, Ann. 122-124 Vahlen"; R.O.L. i. 44-45 
Warmington. * The protecting spirit of the Palatine. 

§46. "Ann. 459 Vahlen"; R.O.L. 1. 182-183 Warming- 
ton. "Ennius, Ann. 331 Vahlen" ; R.O.L. i. 120-121 

310 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 44-46 

year thro"wTi into the Tiber from the Bridge-on-Piles, 
by the priests, acting on behalf of the state. These 
are called tuhdati ' provided ^vith tutuli,' since they at 
the sacrifices are accustomed to have on their heads 
something like a conical marker ; this is called a 
tutulus from the fact " that the t^\•isted locks of hair 
which the matrons wear on the tops of their heads 
MTapped Anth a woollen band, used to be called tutuli. 
whether named from the fact that this was done for 
the purpose of tueri ' protecting ' the hair, or because 
that which is highest in the city, namelv the Citadel, 
was called tutissimum ' safest.' 

45. He says " that this same Pompilius created 
the flamens or special priests, every one of whom gets 
a distinguishing name from one special god : in cer- 
tain cases the sources are clear, for example, why one 
is called Martial and another Quirinal ; but there are 
others who have titles of quite hidden origin, as most 
of those in these verses : 

The Volturnal, Palatual, the Furinal, and Floral, 
Falacrine and Pomonal this ruler likewise created ; 

and these are obscure. Their origins are \'olturnus, 
the di\ine Palatua,* Furrina, Flora, Father Falacer, 
Pomona. 

46. In Ennius is this verse " : 

Now the beasts were about to give cry, their shrill-toned 
signals. 

In this, cata ' shrill-toned ' is acuta ' sharp or pointed,' 
for the Sabines use the word in this meaning ; there- 
fore 

Keen Aelius Sextus ' 

Warmington ; Sextus Aelius Paetus, consul 198, censor 
194, a distinguished writer on Roman law. 

311 



VARRO 

non, ut aiunt, sapiens, sed acutus, et quod est : 

Tunc c<o>epit memorare simul cata^ dicta, 
accipienda acuta dicta. 

47. Apud Lucilium : 

Quid est ?^ Thynno capto co6ium^ excludunt foras, 

et 

Occidunt, Lupe, saperdoe te^ et iura siluri 
et 

Sumere te atque amian. 

Piscium nomina sunt eorumque in Graecia origo. 

48. Apud Ennium : 

Quae cava corpore caeruleo <c>ortina receptat.^ 
Cava cortina dicta, quod est inter terram et caelum 
ad similitudinem cortinae Apollinis ; ea a corde, quod 
inde sortes primae existimatae. 

49. Apud Ennium : 

Quin inde invitis sumpserwnt^ perduellibus. 

" Bergk filled out the verse by reading simul stulta et cata , 
Vahlen, by proposing simul lacrimans cata. 

§ 47. ^ L. Sp., for quidem. ^ Mue., for corium. 

' Turnebus, for lupes aper de te. 

§ 48. ^ Mue. {following Turnebus in cava and cortina 
receptat, and Scaliger in deleting in and caelo; he himself 
deleted que a7id transposed corpore cava), for quaeque in 
corpore causa ceruleo caelo orta nare ceptat. 

§ 49. ^ M, Laettis, for sumpserint. 

«Page 115 Funaioli. <* Ennius, Ann. 529 Vahlen"; 
R.O.L. i. 458-459 Warmington. 

§ 47. » Respectively 938, 54, 1304 Marx. " Lucilius 
puns on iura, ' sauces ' and ' rights, justice,' and on Lupe, a 
man's name and also a kind of fish. " Respectively Ovwos 
' tunny,' called horse-mackerel and tuna in America ; kwBios 
' sand-goby,' a worthless fish ; aa-rreph-qs, perhaps ' salted 
perch,' the word coming from the region of Pontus ; aiXovpos 

312 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL +6-49 

does not mean ' sage,' as they say,'' but ' sharp ' ; and 
in the verse •* 

Then he began to say at the same time words that 
were cata, 

the cata words must be understood as sharp or 
pointed. 

4-7. In LuciHus are the following ° : 

What then ? A tunny caught, they throw the 
gobv out. 
And 

Sauces of salted perch and of catfish are killing 
you. Lupus.' 
And 

That you take a . . . and a scomber. 

These words are names of fishes ; they originated in 
Greece. "^ 

48. In Ennius we find " : 

What the hollow caldron takes back in its sky- 
bluish belly. 

Cava cortina ' hollow caldron ' is thus said because 
that which is between earth and sky is somewhat in 
the shape of Apollo's tripod-caldron * ; cortina is de- 
rived from cor ' heart,' because it is from this caldron 
that the first fortune-telling lots are believed to have 
been taken. 

49- In Ennius we find " : 

Nay even, they carried them off from there despite 
the foes. 

' sheatfish,' a large river-fish of the catfish type ; afua, a 
variety of the tunny which ascends rivers. 

§48. "Ann. 9 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. i. 432-433 Warming- 
ton ; meaning the inverted kettle-shaped space between the 
earth and the skv. * At Delphi. 

§49. " Trag.' Rom. Frag. 385 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 366- 
367 Warmington, 

313 



VARRO 

Perduelles dicuntur hostes ; ut perfecit, sic per- 
duelk'*,2 (a per)' et duellum : id postea bellum. Ab 
eadem causa facta Duellona* Bellona. 

50. Apud Plautum : 

Neque lugula,^ neque Vesperugo, neque Vergiliae 
occidunt. 

lugula signum, quod Accius appellat Oriona, cum ait : 

Citius Orion patefit. 

Huius signi caput dicitur ex tribus stellis, quas infra 
duae clarae, quas appellant Umeros ; inter quas quod 
videtur iugulum, lugula dicta. Vesperugo stella 
quae vespere oritur, a quo earn Opillus scribit Ves- 
perum : itaque dicitur alterum : 

Vesper adest, 

quem Graeci dicunt di(vum>'' kcnrepiov. 

51. Naevius : 

Patrem suum supremum optumum appellat. 

^ L. Sp,, for perduellum. ^ Added by A. Sp. * For 
duelliona. 

§ 50. ^ This is certainly Varro's text {so F ; cf. lugula in 
the next line also) ; but Plautus has Nee lugulae, which is 
assured by the trochaic rhythm. * Fay, for di. 

§ 50. ° Amph. 275. Varro quotes from memory, and 
incorrectly ; cf. critical note. * Trag. Rom. Frag. 693 
Ribbeck' ; R.O.L. ii. 576-577 Warmington. ' Usually 

called Orion's Belt. ^ Properly not ' rising ' in the 
evening, but visible at that time. * Page 93 Fimaioli. 
Aurelius Opillus, a freedman of Oscan origin, and teacher 
at Rome, voluntarily accompanied Piutilius liufus into 
exile at Smyrna about 92 b.c. ; the extant fragments of 
his works bear on the interpretation of difficult words. 
^ Some think that Opillus is mentioned as using the word 
314 



ox THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VH. 49-51 

The enemy are called perduelles ' foes ' ; as perfecit 
' accomplished ' is formed from per ' through, 
thoroughly ' and fecit ' did,' so perduellis is formed 
from per and duellum ' war ' : this word afterward 
became belbim. From the same reason, Duellona 
' Goddess of War ' became Bellona. 

50. In Plautus is this " : 

Not the Collar-Bone nor Evening-Star nor Pleiads 
now do set. 

lugula ' Collar-Bone ' is a constellation, which Accius 
calls Orion when he says * : 

More quicklj' now Orion comes to sight. 

The head of this constellation is said to consist of 
three stars, below which are two bright stars which 
they call the Shoulders '= ; the space between them 
is the neck, as it were, and is called the lugula ' Collar- 
Bone.' Fesperugo ' Evening-Star ' is the star which 
rises vespere ' in the evening,' '^ from which Opillus * 
writes its name as \>sper ^ : therefore the word is 
said in a second meaning ^ : 

Vesper is here,* 

he whom the Greeks call the Evening-time Deity.* 

51. Naevius has the folloA\ing " : 

She addresses her own father, the best and the supreme. 

as a neuter. Vesper um, but this is not a necessary inference. 
" For the meaning of alterum, cf. v. 179. * A phrase 
familiar in marriage hymns, as in Catullus, 62. 1: Veaper is 
not a mere star, but is personified as a deity. » An explana- 
tion of Vergil iae is expected here, but is not in the extant 
text. 

§ 51. " Frag. Poet. Lat., page 20 Morel ; R.O.L. ii. 52-53 
Warmington ; Saturnian verse. 

315 



VARRO 

Supremum ab superrumo dictum : itaque Duodecim 
Tabulae^ dicunt : 

Solis occasu diei suprema tempestas esto. 

Libri Augurum pro tempestate tempestutem dicunt 
supremum augurii tempus. 

52. In Cornicula<ria>^ : 

Qui regi latrocinatus decern annos Demetrio. 

Latrones dicti ab latere, qui circum latera erant regi 
atque ad latera habebant ferrum, quos postea a 
stipatione stipatores^ appellarunt, et qui conduce- 
bantur : ea enim merces Graece dicitur Aarpoi'.' Ab 
eo veteres poetae nonnunquam milites appellant 
latrones. (At nunc viarum obsessores dicuntur 
latrones,)* quod item ut milites (sunt)* cum ferro, 
aut quod latent ad insidias faciendas. 

53. Apud Naevium : 

Risi egomet mecum cassabundum ire ebrium. 
Cassabundum a cadendo. Idem : 

Diabathra in pedibus^ habebat, erat ainictus epicroco. 
Utrumque vocabulum Graecum. 

§ 51. ^ Sciop., for tabulis. 

§ 52. ^ Vertranms, for cornicula ; rf. v. 153. ^ For 
stipateres. * Victorias, for CATPON. * Added by 
Kent, from Festus, 118. 16 J/. / the lacuna was first noted by 
L. Sp. * Added by GS., from Serv. Dan. in Aen. xii. 7. 

§53. ^ iJAoL, /or pecudibus. 

* Page 119 Schoell ; cf. vi. 5. By Roman law, legal proceed- 
ings could not continue after sunset. ' Page 16 Regell. 

§52. " Plautus, Corn. frag. II Ritschl. ''Derivation 
from the Greek, and not from Latin latus, seems to be right. 
' As in Plautus, Mil. 76, Poen. 663, etc. 

§53. " Com. Rom. Frag. 120 Ribbeck^; R.O.L. ii. 144- 

316 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 51-53 

Supretnum is derived from superrimum, superlative of 
superum ' higher ' : therefore the Ttvelve Tables say ** : 

Let the last {suprema) time of day be at sunset. 
The Books of the Augurs " call the last time for augury 
a iempestus and not a tempestas. 

52. In The Story of the Helmet-Horn is the verse " : 

Who for ten years fought for wages {latrocinatus) 
for the King Demetrius. 

Those were called latrones ' mercenaries ' from latus 
' side,' who were at the King's side and had a sword at 
their own side (afterwards they called tliem stipatores 
'body-guards ' from stipatio ' close attendance ') and 
were hired for pay : for this pay is in Greek called 
karpov.^ From this, the old poets sometimes call 
regular soldiers latrones.'^ But now the name latrones 
is given to the highwaymen who block the roads, 
because like regular soldiers they have swords, or 
else because they latent ' lie in hiding ' to ambush 
their victims. 

53. In Naevius " : 

I laughed inside to see a drunk go tottering. 
Cassabundum ' tottering,' from cadere ' to fall.' The 
same author has this : 

Slippers on his feet he wore, he was wrapped about 
with a saffron robe.* 

Both words (diabathra ' slippers,' and epicrocum ' saf- 
fron robe ') are Greek. 

145 Warmington. * Trag. Rom. Frag. 5-t Ribbeck'; 
R.O.L. ii. 130-131 Warmington. This and the preceding 
quotation were formerly attributed to the Lycurgus, a tragedy 
of Naevius ; while Bergk, Philol. xxxiii. 281-282, joined 
them (reading moechum for mecum and omitting habebat) 
as consecutive lines in an unidentified comedy. 

317 



VARRO 

54-. In Menaechmis : 

Inter ancillas sedere iubeas, lanam carere. 

Idem hoc est verbum in Cemetria Naevii. Carere 
a carendo, quod earn turn purgant ac deducunt, ut 
careat spurcitia ; ex quo carminari dicitur turn lana, 
cum ex ea carwnt^ quod in ea haeret neque est lana, 
quae in Romulo Naevius appellat asta ab Oscis. 

55. In Persa : 

lam pol ille hie aderit, credo, congerro meus. 

Congerro a gerra ; hoc^ Graecum est et in Latina 
cratis.2 

56. In Menaechmis : 

Idem istuc aliis ascriptivis fieri ad leglonem solet. 

Ascriptivi dicti, quod olim ascribebantur inermes 
armatis militibus qui succederent, si quis eorum 
deperisset. 

57. In Trinummo : 

Nam ilium ^ibi^ 
<Ferentarium esse amicum inventum intellego).* 

Ferentarium a ferendo id (quod non)^ est inane ac 

§ 54. ^ Neukirch, for carent. 

§ 55. ^ L. Sp. and Groth, for hie. ^ For gratis. 

§57. ^ Victor ius, for \ih\. ^ Added by L. Sp. 

§ 54. " Plautus, Men. 797. * Doubtless a corrupted 
name ; for which Commotria was proposed by Turnebus, 
Cosmetria by Mue., Demetria by GS. ; R.O.L. ii. 597 
Warmington. ' Properly carrere ; not connected with 
carere ' to lack.' ■* Trag. Rom. Frag., Praet. I Rib- 
beck*. * Of uncertain meaning ; possibly ' nap, pile,' 
from ad-sta- ' stand on.' 

§ 55. " Plautus, Persa, 89. ' Properly, one who con- 

tributes his share to a common feast, from congerere. 

318 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, ML 54^57 

51. In The Menaechmi " : 

Why, you'd bid me sit among the maids at work and 
card the wool. 

This same word carere ' to card ' is in the Cemetria * of 
Nae\ius. Cdr^re '^ is from carere ' to lack,' because 
then they cleanse the wool and spin it into thread, 
that it may carere ' be free ' from dirt : from which the 
wool is said carminari ' to be carded ' then when they 
carunt ' card ' out of it that which sticks in it and is 
not wool, those things which in the Romulus Naevius ** 
calls asta,^ from the Oscans. 

55. In The Persian " : 

Now sure he'll be here at once, I think, my jolly chum. 
Congerro * ' chum,' from gerra " ' wickerwork ' ; this 
is a Greek word,** the Latin equivalent of which is 
cratis. 

56. In The Menaechmi " : 

The others enrolled as extras in the army are treated 
just that way. 

Ascriptivi ' enrolled as extras ' were so called because 
in the past men who did not receive arms ascrihebantur 
' used to be enrolled as extras,' to take the place of the 
regularly armed soldiers if anv of them should be 
killed. 

57. In The Three Shillings " : 

For I clearly see 
In him a. /erentarius friend has been found for you. 

Ferentarius, from ferre ' to bring ' that which is not 

' Usually plural, gerrae ; with derived meaning of ' trifles, 
nonsense.' "^ ytppov ' wickerwork ' or anything made of 
it, especially shields. 

§ 56. » Plautus, Men. 183. 

§ 57. " Plautus, Trin. 455-456. 

31Q 



\^ARRO 

sine fructu ; aut quod ferentarii equites hi dicti qui 
ea modo habebant arma quae ferrentur, ut iaculum. 
Huiuscemodi equites pictos vidi in Jesculapii aede 
vetere et ferentarios ascriptos. 
58. In Frivolaria : 

Ubi rorar/i^ estis ? En^ sunt. Ubi sunt accensi ? 
Ecce (sunt).* 

Rorani^ dicti ab rore qui bellum committebant, ideo 
quod ante rorat quam pluit.* Accensos* ministra- 
tores Cato esse scribit ; potest id (ab censione, id 
est)* ab arbitrio : nam ide<m)^ ad arbitrium eius 
cuius minister. 

59- Pacuvius : 

Cum deum triportenta . . .^ 
60. In Mercatore : 
Non tibi^ istuc magis dividiaest^ quam milii hodie fuit. 

(Eadem (vi>* hoc est in Corollaria Naevius (usus).*) 
Dividia ab dividendo dicta, quod divisio distractio est 
doloris : itaque idem in Curculione ait : 

Sed quid tibi est ? — Lien enecat,* renes dolent, 
Pulmones distrahuntur. 

§ 58. 1 RhoL, for rorani. ^ ^2^ y^^ ^n F^. ^ Added 
by Kent, to camplete verse metrically. * H^ and p, for 
plusti. ^ For acensos F^, adcensos F'^. * Added by GS. 
' Brakmann, for inde. 

§ 59. ^ Lacuna marked by Scaliger. 

§ 60, 1 L. Sp. deleted in mercatore non tibi, here repeated 
in F. ^ Aug., for diuidia est, from the text of Plautus. 
* Added by GS. * Added by L. Sp. * b,for liene negat. 

" That is, not to be retained in the hand during use. 

§ 58, " Plautus, Friv.frag. IV Ritschl. " Page 81, 14 
Jordan, " For correct etymology, see vi. 89, note a. 

§ 59. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 381 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. ii. 804- 

320 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, \U. 57-60 

empty and profitless ; or because those were called 
ferentarii cavalrymen who had only weapons which 
ferrentur ' were to be thrown,' * such as a javelin. 
Cavalrymen of this kind I have seen in a painting in 
the old temple of Aesculapius, with the label " feren- 
tarii ." 

58. In The Story of the Trifles " : 

Where are you, rorarii ? Behold, they're here. 
Where are the accensi ? See, they're here, 

Rorarii ' skirmishers ' were those who started the 
battle, named from the ros ' dew-drop*!,' because it 
rorat ' sprinkles ' before it really rains. The accensi, 
Cato writes,* were attendants ; the word may be 
from censio ' opinion,' that is, from arhitrium ' de- 
cision,' for the accensvs " is present to do the arhitrium 
of him whose attendant he is. 

59. Pacu\-ius says " : 

When the gods' portents triply strong . . . 

60. In The Trader " : 

That's no more a dividia to you than 'twas to me to-day. 
(This word was used by Naevius in The Story of the 
Garland,^ in the same meaning.) Dividia ' vexation ' 
is said from diiidere ' to di\'ide,' because the distractio 
' pulling asunder ' caused by pain is a division ; 
therefore the same author says in the Curculio " : 

But what's the matter ? — Stitch in the side, an aching 

back, 
And my lungs are torn asunder. 

305 Warmington ; perhaps referring to portents of the in- 
fernal deities. 

§ 60. « Plautus, Merc. 619. * Com. Rom. Frag. IX 
Ribbeck». ' Plautus, Cure. 236-237 ; literally, ' my 
spleen kills me, my kidneys hurt me.' 

VOL. I V 321 



VARRO 

61. In Pagone : 

Honos syncerasto peri<i>t,* pernis, gla<n)dio.* 

S^ncerastum est omne edulium' antique vocabulo 
Graeco. 

62. In Parasite Pigro : 

Domum ire c<o>epi tramite <in>i dextra via. 

Tramps* a transverse dictus. 

63. In Fugitivis : 

Age <e>rgo^ specta, vide viiices^ quantas. — lam 
inspexi. Quid est ?^ 

Viftices^ alte* excitatum verberibus corpus. 

64. In Cistellaria : 

Non quasi nunc haec sunt hie limaces, lividae. 
Limax ab limo, quod ibi vivit. 

Dioiolares, scA<o>enicolae,^ miraculae. 

Dioftolares a binis obolis.^ Sch<o)enicolae* ab 
sch(o>eno, nugatorio ung<u>ento.* Miraculae a 
miris, id est monstris ; a quo Accius ait : 

§ 61, ^ L. Sp.,for perit. * Pius, for gladios. ' Atig., 
for medullium. 

§ 62. ^ Added by Kent. ^ Laetus,for tramis. 

§ 68. 1 L. Sp., for agerge. ^ Aug., with B,for vivices. 
^ quid B, Laetus, est Scaliger, for quidem esset. * L, Sp., 
for alii. 

§ 64. ^ Turnebus, for scenicolae. * B, Victorius, for 
sabini sobolis. ^ Turnebus, for scenicolas F^, -is F^. 
* Aldus, for nungento. 

§61. " Plautus, Frag. 101 Ritschl ; the play's name is 
otherwise unknown : Pius proposed in Phagone, Ladewig 
proposed in Phaone {cf. Ritschl, Parerga, 151, 205 ; Rhein. 
Mus. X. 447 = Opusc. ii. 731). *■ That is, the speaker has 

lost his appetite. 

322 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 61-64 

61. In the Pagon <* : 

Respect for hash is gone,* for haunch of ham, for 

chops. 

Syncerastum ' hash ' is all kinds of food mixed to- 
gether, under an old Greek name. 

62. In The Lazy Hanger-on " : 

I started to go home by a side-way to the right. 
Trames * * side-way ' is said from iransversum ' turned 
across.' 

QS. In The Runaways " : 

Then come and look, and see what welts. — I've looked 
now ; well, what next ? 

Vibices ' welts,' the flesh of the body raised high by 
lashes. 

64. In The Story of the Trinket-Box <* : 
As if they aren't here now, the dark and dirty slugs. 
Limax ^ ' slug ' from li7nus ' slimy mud,' because it 
lives there. 

Diobolous women, rush-perfumed, quite wonder-foul.' 
Diobolares ' diobolous,' from two obols '* apiece. 
Schoenicolae ' rush-perfumed,' from ^c^oewM*' aromatic 
rush,' an unpleasant perfumed ointment. Miraculae * 
' wonder-foul,' from mira ' wonderful things,' that is, 
monstrosities ; from which Accius says ^ : 

§ 6-2. ' Plautus, Froff. 108 Ritschl. " Probably from 
trans and meare ' to go.' 

§ 63. « Plautus, Frag. 90 Ritschl. 

§ 64. » Plautus, Cist. 405. " Probably from Greek 
Xeifui^ ' slug,' though akin to limus. ' Plautus, Cist. 407. 

** One third of a drachma, or franc of the pre-war standard ; 
now somewhat over five pence British, or ten cents U.S.A. 
* Used of ugly things by the early Romans, according to 
Festus, 123. 5 M. f Frag. Poet. Rom., page 271 Baehrens; 
R.O.L. ii. 582-583 Warmington. 

323 



VARRO 

Personas distortis* oribus deformis miriones. 

65. Ibidem : 

Scratiae, s<c>rup(i>pedae, s<t>rittabillae,^ tantulae.* 

Ab excreando scratiae' sic<c>as significat.* Scrup(i)- 
pedam* Aurelius scribit ab scauripeda* ; luventius 
comicus dieebat a vermieulo piloso, qui solet esse in 
fronde cum multis pedibus ; \'alerius a pede ac 
scrupea. Ex eo Acci positum curiose' : itaque est 
in Melanippo* : 

Reicis abs te religionem ? Scrupeam^ imponas (tibi).'" 

Strittabillas a strettillando ; strittare ab eo qui sistit 
oegre. 

66. In Astrabai : 

Acsitiosae* annonam caram e vili concinnant viris. 

Ideo in Sitellitergo idem ait : 

Mulier es<t>' uxorcula : 
Ut* ego novi, scio acsitio<s>a quam* si<e)<.* 

* Madvig, for distortas. 

§ 65. ^ Mve. (stritabillae Bentinus), for scraties ruppae 
ides rittabillae. ^ So F ; hit Gellius, iii. 3. 6, and Nonius, 
169. 9 M., have sordidae. ^ A. Sp., with B, for scraties. 

* L. Sp. ; siccam significat Turnehus : for sic assignificat. 

* A. Sp. ; scrupipedas Mue. ; for scruppidam. ^ Bothe ; 
a scauro pede Turnehus ; for auscauripeda. ' Ribbeck, 
for curiosa, * Warmington, for melanippa. * For 
scruppeam. ^" Added by Mue., metri gratia. 

§66. ^ Aldus, for astriba. ^ GS. ; axitiosae Aldus ; 
for ac sitiose. ^ Seyffert ; mulier es Turnehus ; for 
mulieres. * A. Sp., for uxorculauit. * axitiosa quam 
GS. ; axitiosam Aldus ; for ac sitio aquam. * Kent, 
metri gratia ; sit GS. ; for sic. 

§ 65. " Plautus, Nervolaria, Frag. 100 Ritschl ; describ- 
ing harlots. The first three words are of very uncertain 
meaning. '' Possibly ' lean with tuberculosis,' or ' worthy 

824 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 64^6 

Misshapen masks with twisted features, ugly wonders 
(in ir tones). 

65. In the same writer " : 

Just withered women, limping, tottering, worthless 
quite. 

Scratiae ^ ' withered women,' from excreare ' to cough 
and spit,' indicates those that are siccae ' dried up.' 
Scrupipeda <^ ' Umping,' Aurehus ** ^vTites, is from 
scauripeda ' ha\"ing swollen ankles ' ; Juventius * 
the writer of comedies said that it was from a hairy 
caterpillar which is found on foliage and has many 
pedes ' feet ' ; \'alerius ^ derived it from pes ' foot ' 
and scrupea ' difficulty.' From this Accius has set it 
down in an interesting way : thus there is in the 
Melanippus " the verse : 

You throw your scruples off ? A difficulty you'd take 
upon your back. 

Strittahillae is fromi strettillare, itself from strittare, said 
of a person who with difficulty keeps on his feet. 

66. In The Riding-Saddle » : 

Wives united make their husbands' harvest dear 
instead of cheap. 

So in The Bucket-Cleaner ^ the same writer says : 

My darling wife a woman is : 
As I have learned, I know how unionist she is. 

of being spat upon.' ' Most probably ' walking on sharp 
stones,' and therefore ' limping ' ; from scrupus ' sharp 
stone ' and pes ' foot.' ■* Page 91 Funaioli. • Com. 
Rom. Frag. V Ribbeck*. ' Frag. Poet. Lot., page 40 
Morel. Trag. Rom. Frag. 430-431 Ribbeck' ; R.O.L. 
ii. 468-469 Warmington ; ' your freedom from a light burden 
entails the carrying of a heavier one.' 

§66. " Plautus, Astraba, Frag. II, verse 11 Ritschl. 
» Plautus, Frag. 116-117 Ritschl, 

325 



VARRO 

Claudius scribit axitiosas demonstrari consupplica- 
trices. Ab agendo axitiosas : ut ab una faciendo 
factiosae, sic ab una agendo (axitiosae, ut>' actiosae, 
dictae. 

67. In Cesistione : 

Di<s> stribula^ <a)ut* de lumbo obscena viscera.' 
Stribula, ut Opil/us* scribit, circum coxendices* sunt 
bovis^ ; id Graecum est ab eius loci versura. 

68. In <N>ervolariai : 

Scobina^ ego illun{c>' actutum adrasi <s)en^m.* 
Scobinam a scobe : lima enim materia<e)^ fabrilis est. 

69. In P<o>enulo : 

Vinceretis c^rrum cursw^ vel gral<l>atorem^ gradu.' 
Gral<l)ator^ a gradu' magno dictus. 

70. In Truculento : 

Sine virtute argutum civem mihi habeam pro praefica. 
<Praefica)^ dicta, ut Aurelius scribit, naulier ab luco 
quae conduceretur quae ante domum mortui laudis 

' Added by Mue., whose et was changed to ut by GS. 

§ 67. ^ Buecheler, for distribula. ^ Sciop., for ut. 
' Mue., for obscenabis cera, with o above first e and v above 
second b, F^. * GS. (cf. vii. 50), for opilius. * Aldus, 
for coxa indices. * Sciop., for uobis. 

§ 68. ^ Aldus, for eruolaria. * Sciop., for scobinam. 
' A. Sp., metri gratia, for ilium. * Lachmann, for enim. 
* Canal, for materia. 

§69. ^ Aldus, from Plautus, for circumcurso. * -1I-, 
from Festns, 97. 12 M. * Aldus, from Plautus, for gradum. 

§ 70. 1 Added by B, Aldus. 

" Page 97 Funaioli. 

§ 67. " Plautus, Frag. 52 Ritschl. " Page 92 Funaioli. 
' Of uncertain etymology ; Festus, 313 a 34 M., has strebula, 
and calls it an Umbrian word. •* Varro periiaps derived 
it from Greek arpe^Xos ' twisted.' 
326 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 66-70 

Claudius <^ -WTites that women who make joint en- 
treaties are clearly shown to be axitiosae ' united, 
unionist.' Axitiosae is from agere ' to act ' : as Jac- 
tiosae ' partisan women ' are named from Jacere 
' doing ' something in unison, so axitiosae are named 
from agere ' acting ' together, as though actiosae. 

67. In the Cesistio " : 

For the gods the thigh-meats or the lewd parts from 
the loins. 

Stribula ' thigh-meats,' as Opillus * writes, are the 
fleshy parts of cattle around the hips ; the word * is 
Greek, derived from the fact that in this place there 
is a socket-joint.** 

68. In The Stort/ of the Prisori Ropes " : 

At once I with my rasp did scrape the old fellow clean. 

Scobina ' rasp,' from scobis ' sawdust ' ; for a file belongs 
to a carpenter's equipment. 

69. In The Little Man from Carthage * : 

You'd outdo the stag in running or the stilt-walker 
in stride. 

Grallator ' stilt-walker ' is said from his great gradus 
' stride.' 

70. In The Rough Customer <* : 

Although without a deed of bravery I may have 
A clear-toned citizen as leader of my praise. 

Praejica ' praise-leader,' as Aurelius * ^\Tites, is a name 
applied to a woman from the grove of Libitina,"^ who • 
was to be hired to sing the praises of a dead man in 

§ 68. " Plautus, Froff. 94 Ritschl. 

§ 69. " Plautus, Poen. 530. 

§ 70. " Plautus. True. 4.95. * Page 90 Funaioli. 

' Where the wailing-women had their stand ; c/. Dionysius 
Halic. iv. 15. 

327 



VARRO 

eius caneret. Hoc factitatum Aristoteles scribit in 
libro qui (in>scribitur2 No/xt/ia ftapfSapiKo.,'^ quibus 
testimonium est, quod (in) Freto est* Naevii : 

Haec quidem hercle, opinor, praefica est : nam 
mortuum collaudat. 

Claudius scribit : 

Quae praeficeretur ancillis, quemadmodum 
lamentarentur, praefica est dicta. 

Utrumque ostendit a praefectione praeficam dictam. 
71. Apud Ennium : 

Decern Coclites quas montibus summis 
Ripaeis fodere.^ 

Ab oculo codes, ut ocles, dictus, qui unum haberet 
oculum : quocirca in Curculione est : 

De Coclitum prosapia <te>^ esse arbitror : 
Najn hi sunt unoculi. 

IV. 72. Nunc de temporibus dicam. Quod est 
apud Cassium : 

Nocte intempesta nostram devenit domum, 

intempesta nox dicta ab tempestate, tempestas ab 

* Aug., with B, for scribitur. ' Turnebus, for nomina 
barbarica. * GS. ; Freto inest Canal ; for fretum est. 

§71. ^ a, Turnebus, for federe. ^ Added by Aug., from 
Plautus. 

<* Frag. 604, page 367 Rose. ' Com. Rom. Frag. 129 
Ribbeck*; R.O.L. ii. 142-143 Warmington. 'Page 98 
Funaioli. 

§ 71. " Sat. 67-68 Vahlen^; R.O.L. i. 392-393 Warming- 
ton. The one-eyed Arimaspi of northern Scythia (where the 
Rhipaean or Rhiphaean mountains were located) were said 
to have taken much gold from their neighbours the Grypes 
(or Griffins); c/. Herodotus, iii. 116, iv. 13, iv. 27, who 
328 



i 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 70-72 

front of his house. That this was regularly done, is 
stated by Aristotle in his book entitled Ctistoms of 
Foreign Nations ^ ; whereto there is the testimony 
which is in The Strait of Naevius * : 

Dear me, I think, the woman's a praefica : it's a dead 
man she is praising. 

Claudius writes f : 

A Moman v,\\o praeficeretur ' was to be put in charge' 
of the maids as to how they should perform their 
lamentations, was called a praefica. 

Both passages show that the praefica was named from 
praejectio ' appointment as leader.' 
71. In Ennius we find " : 

Treasures which ten of the CocUtes buried. 
High on the tops of Rhiphaean mountains. 

Codes ' one-eyed ' Avas derived from oculus ' eye,' as 
though ocles,^ and denoted a person who had only 
one eye ; therefore in the Curculio "^ there is this : 

I think that you are from the race of Coclites ; 
For they are one-eyed. 

IV. 72. Now I shall speak of terms denoting time. 
In the phrase of Cassius," 

By dead of night he came unto our home, 

intempesta nox ' dead of night ' is derived from tem- 
pestas, and tempestas from tempus ' time ' : a nox 

quotes (with incredulity) from a poem by Aristeas of Procon- 
nesus. Fodere = infoder€. * Varro means, from co-ocles 
' with an eye ' ; but the word is derived from Greek KVK\coi/t, 
through the Etruscan. ' Plautus, Cure. 393-394. 

§ 72. " Accius, Com. Rom. Frag. Praet. V, verse 41 Rib- 
beck' ; R.O.L. ii. 562-563 Warniington ; repeated from 
vi. 7, where see note a on authorship. 

329 



VARRO 

tempore ; nox intempesta, quo tempore nihili 
agitur. 

73. Quid noctis videtur ? — In altisono 
Caeli clipeo temo superat 
Stellas sublime<n)i agens etlam 
Atque etlam noctis iter. 

Hie multam noctem ostendere volt a temonis motu ; 
sed temo unde et cur dieatur latet. Arbitror antiquos 
rusticos primum notasse quaedam in caelo signa, quae 
praeter alia erant insignia atque ad aliquem usum, 
(ut>^ culturae tempus, designandum convenire 
animadvertebantur. 

74. Eius signa sunt, quod has septem stellas 
Graeci ut J/omerus voca(n)t a.fui^av'^ et propinquum 
eius signum (Soionp', nostri eas septem stellas 
<t>r<i>o«es^ et temonem et prope eas axem : triones 
enim et boves appellantur a bubulcis etiam nunc, 
maxime cum arant terra???* ; e quis ut dicti 

Valentes glebarji, 
qui facile proscindunt glebas, sic omnes qui terram 
arabant a terra terriones, unde triones ut dicerentur 
<E> detrito.* 

75. Temo dictus a tenendo : is enim continet 

§ 72. 1 For nichil. 

§73. ^ Skutsch, after Buecheler, for sublime. 'Added 
by Mue. 

§ 74. 1 For AMASAN. " L. Sp.,for boues. * For 

terras. * Aug., for de tritu. 

§73. «Ennius, Trag. Rom. Frag. 177-180 Ribbeck' ; 
R.O.L. i. ,S00-301 Warmington; freely adapted from Euri- 
pides, Iphig. in Aiil. 6-8; anapaestic. Cf. v. 19, above. 
* Signa in this and the following seems to vary in meaning 
between ' signs = marks ' and ' signs = constellations.' 

§ 74. « E.g., Od. v. 272-273. " Charles' Wain, or the 
Great Dipper ; and other parts of the constellation Ursa 
330 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 72-75 

intempesta ' un-timely night ' is a time at which no 
activity goes on. 

73. What time of the night doth it seem ? — -In the shield 
Of the sky, that soundeth aloft, lo the Pole 

Of the Wain outstrippeth the stars as on high 
More and more it driveth its journey of night." 

Here the author wishes to indicate that the night is 
advanced, from tlie motion of the Teiiio ' Wagon- 
Pole ' ; but the origin of Temo and the reason for its 
use, are hidden. My opinion is that in old times the 
farmers first noticed certain signs ** in the sky which 
were more conspicuous than the rest, and which were 
observed as suitable to indicate some profitable use, 
such as the time for tilling the fields. 

74. The marks of this one are, that the Greeks, for 
example Homer," call these seven stars the Wagon ^ 
and the sign that is next to it the Ploughman, while 
our countrymen call these seven stars the Triones 
' Plough-Oxen ' and the Temo ' Wagon-Pole ' and near 
them the Axis ' axle of the earth, north pole ' " : for 
indeed oxen are called triones by the ploughmen even 
now, especially when they are ploughing the land ; 
just as those of them which easily cleave the glebae 
' clods of earth ' are called 

Mighty glebarii ' clod-breakers,' 

so all that ploughed the land were from terra ' land ' 
called terriones, so that from this they were called 
triones,'^ with loss of the E. 

75. Temo is derived from tenere ' to hold ' " : for it 

Major. ' Or perhaps even the Pole-Star itself. ^ Trio 
is a derivative of terere ' to tread,' cf. perf. trivi and ptc. 
tritus. 

§ 75. " Wrong etymology. 

331 



VARRO 

iugum et plaustrum, appellatum a parte^ totum, ut 
multa. Possunt triones dicti, VII quod ita sitae 
stellae, ut ternae trigona faciant. 

76. Aliquod lumen — iubarne ? — in caelo cerno. 

lubar dicitur stella Lucifer, quae in summo quod 
habet lumen difFusum, ut leo in capite iubam. Huius 
ortus significat circiter esse extremam noctem. 
Itaque ait Pacuius : 

Exorto iubare, noctis decurso itinere. 

77. Apud Plautum in Parasite Pigro : 

Inde hie 6ene potus^ prim<ul>o* crepusculo. 

Crepusculum ab Saftinis, et id dubium tempus noctis 
an diei sit. Itaque in Condalio est : 

Tam crepusculo, ferae' ut amant, lampades accendite. 

Ideo <d>ubiae res* creperae dictae. 

78. In Trinummo : 

Concubium sit noctis priusquam <ad)^ postremum 
perveneris. 

Concubium a concubitu dormiendi causa dictum. 

§ 75. ^ B, Laetus, for aperte. 

§ 77. ^ Pius, for de nepotus. * Scaliger, for primo. 
» Buecheler, for fere. * Laetus, for ubi heres. 
§ 78. ^ Added by Aug., from Plautus. 



" Wrong etymology. 

§ 76. " Ennius, 'Tra^-. Rom. Frag. 336 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. 
i. 226-227 Warmington; cf. vi. 6 and vi. 81. * lubar and 

iuba are not etymologically connected. ' That is, shortly 
before sunrise, when it is visible in the eastern sky. 
<* Trag. Bom. Frag. 347 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. 11. 320-321 
Warmington ; cf. vi. 6. 
332 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 75-78 

continet ' holds together ' the yoke and the cart, the 
whole being named from a part, as is true of many 
things. The name triones may perhaps have been 
given because the seven stars are so placed that the 
sets of three stars make triangles.'' 

76. I see some light in the sky — can it be dawn ? " 

The morning-star is called iubar, because it has at the 
top a diffused light, just as a lion has on his head a 
iuba ' mane.' ^ Its rising '^ indicates that it is about 
the end of the night. Therefore Pacu\ius says ** : 

When morning-star appears and night has run her 
course. 

77. Plautus has this in The Lazy Hanger-on " : 

From there to here, right drunk, he came, at early 

dusk. 

Crepusculum ' dusk ' is a word taken from the Sabines, 
and it is the time when there is doubt whether it 
belongs to the night or to the day.* Therefore in 
The Finger-Ring there is this " : 

So at dusk, the time when wild beasts make their 
love, light up your lamps. 

Therefore doubtful matters were called creperae.^ 

78. In The Three Shillings " : 

General resting time of night 'twould be, before you 
reached its end. 

Concuhium ' general rest ' is said fix)m concuhiitts 
' general lying-down ' for the purpose of sleeping.* 

§ 77. <• Frag. I, verse 107 Ritschl. * Cf. vi. 5 and notes. 
« Plautus, Frag. 60 Ritschl. 

§ 78. « Plautus, Trin. 886 ; that is, " if I should try to 
tell you my name." * Cf. vi. 7 and note c. 

333 



VARRO 

79- In Asinaria : 

Videbitur, factum volo : redito^ conticinio.'* 

Putem a conticiscendo conticineMm^ sive, ut Opil/us* 
scribit, ab eo cum conticuerunt homines. 

V. 80. Nunc de his rebus quae assignificant ali- 
quod tempus, cum dicuntur aut fiunt, dicam. 

Apud Accium : 

Reciproca tendens nervo equino concita 
Tela. 

Reciproca est cum unde quid profectum redit eo ; ab 
recipere reciprocare fictum, aut quod poscere procare^ 
dictum, 

81. Apud Plautum : 

Ut^ transversu*,^ non proversus cedit quasi cancer 
solet. 

<Proversus>^ dicitur ab eo qui in id quod est (ante, 
est)* versus, et ideo qui exit in vestibulum, quod est 
ante domum, prodire et procedere ; quod cum leno^ 
non faceret, sed secundum parietem transversus iret, 

§ 79. ^ A. Sp. ; redito hue Vertranius, from Plautus ; at 
redito Rhol. ; for ad reditum. * Laetus, for conticinno. 
' Laetus, for conticinnam. * GS,, for o pilius ; cf. vii. 50, 
vii. 67. 

§ 80. ^ B, Aldus, for prorogare. 

§81. ^ H,Bentinus, for aut. ^ Auff., for transuersum ; 
the MSS. of Plautus have non prorsus uerum ex transuerso 
cedit ... ^ Added by L. Sp. * Added by Christ. 
* Aldus, for lemo. 

§ 79. " Plautus, Asin. 685 ; where the text is redito hue. 
Cf. vi. 7. * Page 88 Funaioli. 

§ 80. " That is, words of actions, whether or not they are 
verbs. ^ Philoctetes, Trag. Rom. Frag. 545-546 Ribbeck^ ; 
R.O.L. ii. 512-513 Warmington. Reciproca tela is properly 

334 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 79-81 

79. In The Story of the Ass there is this verse '^ : 

I'll see to it, I wish it done ; come back at conticinium. 

I rather think that conticinium ' general silence ' is 
from conticiscere ' to become silent,' or else, as Opillus ^ 
writes, from that time when men conticuerunt ' have 
become silent.' 

V. 80. Now I shall speak of those things which 
have an added meaning of occurrence at some special 
time, when they are said or done." 

In Accius * : 

The elastic weapon bring into action, bending it 
With horse-hair string. 

Reciproca ' elastic ' is a condition which is present 
when a thing returns to the position from which it has 
started. Reciprocare ' to move to and fro ' is made " 
from recipere ' to take back,' or else because procare 
was said for poscere ' to demand.' ** 
81. In Plautus <» : 

How sidewise, as a crab is wont, he moves, 
Not straight ahead. 

Proversus ' straight ahead ' is said of a man who is 
turned toward that which is in front of him ; and 
therefore he who is going out into the vestibule, 
which is at the front of the house, is said prodire ' to 
go forth ' or procedere ' to proceed.' But since the 
brothel-keeper was not doing this, but was going 
sidewise along the wall, Plautus said " How sidewise 

only the Homeric {Iliad, viii. 26Q, x. 459) -naXivrova ro^a 
' backward-stretched bow,' and not as Varro interprets it. 
' Probably from reque proque ' backward and forward ' ; 
not as Varro interprets it. •* That is, ' demand return.' 

§81. "^ Pseud. 955; said of the brothel-keeper as he 
enters. 

335 



VARRO 

dixit " ut transversus cedit quasi cancer, non pro- 
versus ut homo." 

82. Apud Ennium : 

Andromachae nomen qui indidit, recte^ indidit. 
Item : 

Quapropter Parim pastores nunc Alexandrum vocant. 

Imitari dum volui't^ Euripz'den^ et ponere ^rvfiov, est 
lapsus ; nam Euripides quod Graeca posuit, eTv/m 
sunt aperta. Ille ait ideo nomen additum Andro- 
machae, quod di'Sfji fxdxiTai* : hoc Enni?/(m)^ quis 
potest intellegere in versu* significare 

Andromachae nomen qui indidit, recte indidit, 
aut Alexandrum ab eo appellatum in Graecia qui 
Paris fuisset, a quo Herculem quoque cognominatum 
dXe^LKaKov, ab eo quod defensor esset hominum ? 

83. Apud Accium : 

lamque Auroram rutilare procul 
Cerno. 

Aurora dicitur ante solis ortum, ab eo quod ab igni 
solis turn aureo aer aurescit. Quod addit rutilare, est 
ab eodem colore : aurei enim rutili, et inde et\{3i)va} 
mulieres valde rufae rutilae dictae. 

§ 82. ^ Victorius deleted ei after recte. ^ Aldus, for 
uolunt. ^ i^or euripeden. * ^-lidMs, /ar andromacliete. 
* L. Sp., for ennii. * Turnebus,for inuersum. 

§ 83. ^ Laetus, for enim. 

§ 82. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 6o Ribbeck^ ; R.O.L. i. 252- 
253 Warmington ; presumably from ttie Andromocha. 
» Trag. Rom. Frag. 38 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 240-24.1 War- 
mington. ' But not obvious in the Latin version. 
<* Greek aXd^eiv and Latin defendere both mean ' to defend ' 
a person from a danger and ' to ward off ' a danger from a 
person. 
336 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 81-83 

he moves like a crab, not proversus ' turned straight 
ahead ' like a man." 

82. In Ennius ^ : 

Who gave Andromache her name, he gave aright. 

Likewise ** : 

Therefore Paris now the shepherds as Alexander do 
address. 

In \\-ishing to imitate Euripides and set down the 
radical, he fell into an error ; for because Euripides 
wrote in Greek the radicals are obWous.*^ Euripides 
says that Andromache received her name because she 
dvSpl fxd\eTai ' fights her husband ' : who can under- 
stand that this is what Ennius means in the verse 

Who gave Andromache her name, he gave aright ? 

Or that he who had been Paris was in Greece called 
Alexander from the same source from which Hercules 
also was termed Alexicacos ' Averter of e\-ils ' — 
namely from the fact that he was a defender of men .'' ^* 

83. In Accius " : 

And now afar off I see that the dawn 
Is red. 

Aurora ' da>\-n ' is said of the phenomenon before sun- 
rise, from the fact that the air aurescit ' grows golden ' 
from the sun's fire, which at that time is golden. As 
for his addition of rutilare ' to be red,' ^ that is from the 
same colour ; for rutuli '^ is an expression for golden 
hair, and from that also women with extremely red 
hair are called rutilae ' Goldilocks.' •* 

§ 83. » Trag. Rom. Frag. 675 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. ii. 566- 
567 Warmington ; anapaestic. * More precisely, ' golden- 
red.' ' With rutin understand eapilli. ■* A politer term ! 

VOL. I z 337 



VARRO 

84. Apud Terentium : 

Scortatur/ potat, olet unguenta de meo. 

Scortari est saepius meretriculam ducere, quae dicta 
a pelle : id enim non solum antiqui dieebant scortum, 
sed etiam nunc dicimus scortea ea quae e corio ac 
pellibus sunt facta ; in aliquot sacris ac sacellis scrip- 
turn habemus : 

Ne quod scorteum adhibeatur, 
ideo ne morticinum quid adsit. In Atellanis licet 
animadvertere rusticos dicere se adduxisse pro scorto 
pelliculam. 

85. Apud Accium : 

Multis nomen 
Vestrum numenque'^ ciendo. 

Numen dicunt esse imperium, dictum ab nutu, (quod 
cuius nutu)^ omnia sunt, eius imperium maximum 
esse videatur : itaque in love hoc et Homerus et 
A<c>cius^ aliquotiens. 

86. Apud Plautum : 

<Ni)si^ unum : epityrMW* estur' insane bene. 
Epit«/rum vocabulum est cibi, quo frequentius Sicilia - 

§ 84. 1 So F ; hut the codd. of Terence have obsonat. 
See A. Spengel, Bemerkungen 268-270. 

§ 85. ^ For numerique. " Added by Lachmann. 

^ Vahlen, for alius. 

§86. ^ From Plautus, for si. ^ Aldus, for epytira. 
* B, Laetus, for estuer. 

§84. " Adelphi 117; see critical note. * With meo 
supply sumptu. " Quia ut pelliculae suhiguntur, Festus, 
331. 1 M. ; the pelles were kneaded in the process of making 
them into soft leather. "* Page 7 Preibisch. ' To pre- 
vent pollution of the sacred fire. ' Com. Rom. Frag., 
Atell. inc. nom. ix., page 335 Ribbeck^. " Euphemism. 

338 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 84-86 

84. In Terence " : 

He whores, he drinks, he's scented up at my expense.* 

Scortari ' to whore ' is to consort quite frequently with 
a harlot, who gets her name scortum from pellis 
' skin ' '^ : for not only did the ancients call a skin 
scortum, but even now we say scortea for things which 
are made of leather and skins. In some sacrifices 
and chapels we find the prescription ** : 

Let nothing scorteum ' made of hide ' be brought in, 

with this intent, that nothing dead should be there.* 
In the Atellan farces ^ you may notice that the 
countrymen say that they have brought home a pelli- 
cula ^ rather than a scortum. 

85. In Accius '^ : 

By invoking your name 
And your numen with many a prayer. 

Numen ' divine will or sway,' they say, is imperium 
' power,' and is derived from nutus ' nod,' because he 
at whose nutus ' nod ' everything is, seems to have the 
greatest imperium ' power ' ; therefore Homer ^ uses 
this word in application to Jupiter, and so does Accius 
a number of times. 

86. In Plautus « : 

There's one thing I except : 
The olive-salad * there is eaten just like mad. 

Epityrum ' olive-salad ' is the name of a food which was 

§ 85. <• Trag. Rom. Frag. 691-692 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. 
ii. 576-577 Warmington ; anapaestic. * Iliad, i. 528, etc. 

§ 86. " Miles Glor. 24, where the text is insanum bene, as 
also Most. 761 (cod. A, in both passages). * A prepara- 

tion of olives garnished with cheese. 

339 



VARRO 

quam Italia usa. Id vehementer cum vellet dicere 
<edi>,* dixit insane, quod insani omnia faciunt vehe- 
menter. 

87. Apud Pacuium : 

Flexanima ta<m>quam^ lymphata <aut Bacchi sacris 
Commota. 

Lymphata)^ dicta a l_ympha ; <lympha>* a N^mpha, 
ut quod apud Graecos Berts, apud Ennium : 

The/is* illi mater. 

In Graecia commota mente quos vvfjicfjoXyTrrovi^ ap- 
pellant, ab eo li/mphatos dixerunt nostri. Bac<c)bi, 
(qui)" et Liber, cuius comites a (Baccho) Ba(c>chae,' 
et vinum in //ispania bacca. 

88. Origo in his omnibus Graeca, ut quod apud 
Pacuium : 

Alct/onis ritu litus pervolgans f^ror.^ 

Haec enim avis nunc Graece dicitur AXki'mv.^ nostri 

* Added here by GS. ; after id by Mue. 

§ 87. ^ Aug., for flex animat aquam. * Added by 
Turnebus, cf. Cicero, Die. i. 80. ' Added by L. Sp. 

* Turnebus, for thetis ; cf. T arr. jR.i?. iii. 9. 19. ^ Aldus, 
for lympholemptus. * Added by GS., cf. v. 53. ' a 
Baccho Bacchae L. Sp.,for abache F (a bacchae H). 

§88. ^ Victorias, for furor. ^ Aldus, for ahcyon. 

§ 87. « Trag. Rom. Frag. 422 Ribbeck^; R.O.L. ii. 300- 
301 Warmington. ''Trag. Rom. Frag. 392 Ribbeck': 
R.O.L. i. 306-307 Warmington. ' Thelis for Thetis is 

cited by Varro, De Re Rust. iii. 9. 19. "* There is still a 
belief among the Greeks that the Njmphs, now called 
Nereids, can render men insane. ' Such a meaning for 

bacca is nowhere else attested, and is very doubtful ; bacca 
normally meant ' olive,' but occasionally denoted other small 

S-tO 



I 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VH. 86-88 

commoner in Sicily than in Italy. When he wanted 
to say that this was eaten impetuously, he said insane 
* crazily,' because the crazy do everything impetu- 
ously. 

87. In PacuWus " : 

Deeply affected, as though frenzied by the Nymphs 
Or stirred by Bacchus' ceremonies. 

Lymphata ' frenzied by the Nymphs ' is said from 
lympha ' water, water-goddess,' and lympha is from 
Nympha ' water-nymph,' as for example Thetis among 
the Greeks, mentioned by Ennius ^ : 

Thelis * was his mother. 

Persons of disturbed (commota) mind, whom in Greece 
they call I'v/xc^dArprot ' seized by the Nymphs,' '^ our 
fellow-countrymen from this called lymphati. Bacchi 
' of Bacchus,' who is called also Liber ; his followers 
were called Bacchae ' Bacchantes,' from Bacchus ; 
and ^\ine was in Spain called bacca.^ 

88. All these are of Greek origin, as is also that 
which is in the verse of Pacu\'ius " : 

I roam, in halcyon fashion * frequenting the shore. 

For this bird is now called in Greek the halcyon, and by 
our fellow-countrymen the alcedo ' kingfisher ' ; be- 

fruits ; and was therefore applicable to the grape and to its 
product wine. 

§ 88. « Trag. Rom. Frag. 393 Ribbeck'; R.O.L. ii. 314- 
315 Warmington. * Like Halcyone, watching for the ship 
that might bring back her husband Ceyx. When his dead 
body drifted ashore at her feet, the gods in pity changed 
them into kingfishers, and imposed calm on the sea for two 
weeks before the winter solstice, that they might hatch 
their brood unharmed in a floating nest. This period of 
calm weather in December is a reality in Greece. 

341 



VARRO 

alcedo ; haec hieme quod pullos dicitur tranquillo 
mari facere, eos dies alc^on(i)a^ appellant. Quod est 
in versu " alcyonis ritu," id est eius instituto, ut cum 
^aruspex praecipit, ut suo quique* ritu sacrificium 
faciat, et nos dicimus XVviros Graeco ritu sacra, non 
Romano facere. Quod enim fit rite, id ratum ac 
rectum est ; ab eo Accius 

r?'te perfectis sacris 
(recte)^ volt accipi. 

89. Apud Ennium : 

Si voles advortere animum, comiter monstrabitur. 

Comiter hilare ac lubenter, cuius origo Graeca kw/xos, 
inde comis(s>atio Latine dicta et in Graecia, ut 
quidam scribunt, KMjuuUa.^ 

90. Apud Atilium : 

Cape, caede, Lyde,i come, condi.* 

Cape, unde accipe ; sed hoc in proximo libro re- 
tractandum. 

^ GS., for alciona ; c/. Serv. in Georg. i. 399. * Fay, for 
quisque / but tmderstand as abl. * rite perfectis sacris 
recte Tnrnebus, for recte perfectis sacris. 

§ 89. ^ L. Sp. ; comoedia Auff. ; for comodiam. 

§ 90. ^ Aug., for lide. ^ Kent, for conde. 

" Cf. Plautus, Poen. 355-356. ^ In charge of the Sibyl- 
line Books. ' No etymological connexion. ^ Trag. Rom. 
Fraq. 690 Ribbeck»; ^R.O.L. ii. 574-575 Warmington. 

§89. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 365 Ribbeck^; R.O.L. i. 374- 
375 Warmington. '' Not of Greek origin, but adverb 
to the native adjective comis ' affable.' *■ Correct etymo- 
logies ; but apparently not all ancient authorities agreed 
that Ku>(j.w8ia came from kco^ios. It is not a question of 
(Latin) comodia or comoedia. 

342 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VH. 88-90 

cause it is said to hatch its young in winter, at a time 
when the sea is calm," they call these days the Hal- 
cyonia ' Halcyon Days. As for the expression alcy- 
onis ritu ' in halcyon fashion ' in the verse, this means 
" according to the habit of that bird," as when the 
seer directs the making of each sacrifice in its own 
rittis ' fashion,' and we say that the Board of Fifteen ^ 
conduct the ceremonies in the Greek ritus ' fashion,' 
not in the Roman fashion. For what is done rite 
' duly,' that is ratum ' valid ' and rectum ' right ' * ; from 
this, Accius ^^ishes { 

^^'hen the ceremonies have been rite ' duly ' performed 

to be understood as recte ' rightly ' performed. 

89. In Ennius " : 

If you'll give me your attention, 'twill be courteously 
explained. 

Comiter * 'courteously ' means cheerfully and will- 
ingly ; it is derived from the Greek word km^io'; 
' merrv-making,' from which come the Latin comis- 
saiio ^ ' revel ' and in Greek, as certain authorities 
write, KWjjMSia '^ ' comedy.' 

90. In AtiUus " : 

Take it, Lydus, cut it, fix it, season it. 

Cape * ' take,' the same word from which comes the 
compound accipe ' receive ' ; but this must be taken 
up again in the next book."^ 

§ 90. " Cam. Rom. Frag., page 38 Ribbeck*. A direction 
to the cook, to prepare some dish : come ' bring together ' 
the main ingredients ; condi ' put in the seasoning,' more 
probably than the manuscript concle ' store away ' in the 
pantry or storeroom. * This seems to indicate that the 
imperative cape was not in common use unless compounded 
with a prefix. * This promise is not fulfilled. 

34-3 



VARRO 

91. Apud Pacuium : 

Nulla res 
Neque cicurare neque mederi potis est neque (rem>^ 
reficere. 

Cicj/rare^ mansuefacere : quod enim a fero discretum . 
id dicitur cicur, et ideo dictum 

cicur ingenium optineo 

mansuetum ; a quo Veturii quoque nobiles cogno- 
minati Cicuriw?'. Natum' a cicco cicur videtur ; 
ciccum dicebant membranam tenuem, quae est ut in 
rnalo Punico discrimen ; a quo etiam Plautus dicit : 

Quod volt de<me>nsum,* ciccum non interduo. 

92. Apud Naevium : 

Circumveniri video<r>^ ferme iniuria. 

Ferme dicitur quod nunc fere ; utrumque dictum a 
ferendo, quod id quod fertur est in motu atque ad- 
ventat. 

93. Apud Plautum : 

Euax, iurgio uxorem tandem abegi a^ ianua. 

§91. ^ Added by A. Sp. ^ For cicorare. ^ Groth 
(Cicurini Aufl.),for clcuri innatum. * Canal, /or densum. 
§ 92. ^ Ribbeck, for ciccum venire uideo. 
§ 93. ^ After abegi ab of Plautus, for ab regia. 



§91. "Com. Rom. Frag. 388-389 Ribbeck* ; R.O.L. ii. 
312-313 Warmington; the double negative is here intensify- 
ing, as in Greek (^r/. also Plautus, Mil. Glor. 1141 and Persa 
535), instead of cancelling as is regular in Latin. * For 

this name, c/. C.I.L. 1^. page 630. ■= Very improbable ety- 

mology. "^ Frag. inc. fab. 2 Ritschl: literally, ' as for the 
fact that he wants his rations, I do not set even a ciccus as 
the value of the difference to me whether he gets them or 

344 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 91-93 

91. In Pacuvius " : 

There's no device 
Which can tame or cure the business or remake it new, 

Cicurare ' to tame ' is the same as mansuefacere ' to 
make tame ' ; for what is distinct from the ferum 
' wild ' is called cicur ' tame,' and therefore the saying 

A cicur nature I possess 

means a tame or ci\ilized nature ; from which the 
nobles of the Veturian clan had the added name 
Cicurinus.^ Cicur seems to be derived from cicais ; 
ciccus is the name which they gave to the thin mem- 
brane which is the division between the sections in, 
for example, a pomegranate <^ ; from which moreover 
Plautus says ^ : 

But that he wants his rations,» I don't care a whit. 

92. In Naevius " : 

I see I'm nigh encircled by unrighteousness. 

Ferme ' nigh ' is said for that w^hich is now Jere ^ 
' approximately ' : both are derived from Jerre ' to 
bear,' because that which Jertur ' is borne ' is in motion 
and approaches some goal. 

93. In Plautus " : 

'Ray ! by my wordy strife my wife at last I've driven 
from the door, 

not.' Cf. Plautus, Rudens, 580. * The slave's food, which 
was measured out to him. 

§92. " Trag. Rom. Frag. 56 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. ii. 150- 
151 Warmington. " Fere was not derived irom f err e ; its 
superlative ferine was little used in \'arro's time, but became 
common again in Livy and Tacitus. 

§ 93. " Men. 127, which has : Euax, iurgio herele tandem 
uxorem, etc. 

345 



VARRO 

Euax verbum nihiP significat,sed effutitum naturaliter 
est, ut apud Ennium : 

Hahae,' 
Ipse clipeus cecidit ; 

apud Ennium : 

Eu,* mea puella, <e>^ spe quidem id successit* tibi ; 

apud Pompilium : 

Heii, qua me causa, Fortuna, infeste premis' ? 

Quod ait iurgio, id est litibus : itaque quibus res erat 
in eontroversia, ea vocabatur lis : ideo in actionibus 
videmus dici 

quam rem sive litem® dicere oportet. 

Ex quo licet videre iurgare esse ab iure dictum, cum 
quis iure litigaret ; ab quo obiurgat is qui id facit 
iuste. 

94. Apud Luc«7ium^ : 

Atque aliquo<t> sibi^ <si>' ab rebus clepsere foro qui. 

Clepsere dixit, unde etiam alii clepere, id est corri- 
pere, quorum origo a clam, ut sit dictum clapere, unde 
clepere E ex A* commutato,^ ut multa. Potest vel a 
Graeco dictum KAeTrretv clepere. 

^ For nichil. ^ A. Sp., for hehae. * Ribbeck, for 
heu. * Added by Ribbeck. ® Mue., for succenset. 

' For promis. ' Aldus, for militem. 

§ 94. ^ Vertraniiis, for Lucretium. * Kent ; aliquo 
sibi GS. ; for aliquos ibi. ' Added by Marx. * L. Sp. ; 
ex E A Attff. ; for et ex ea. * Aug., for commutatio. 

^Trag. Rom. Frag. 333-334 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. .368-369 
Wamiington. ' Trag. Rom. Frag. 402 Ribbeck' ; R.O.L. 
i. 380-381 Warmington; heu of the manuscript is an 
error for eu, since Varro would hardly devote two of his 
four examples to the same interjection. ** Trag. Rom. 

346 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 93-94 

Euax ' hurray ! ' is a word that in itself means nothing, 
but is a natural ejaculation, like that in Ennius ^ : 

Aha, his very shield did fall ! 
Also in Ennius " : 

Bravo, ray chUd ! That's happened better than you 
hoped. 

In PompiUus '^ : 

Alas ! O Fortune, why do you crush me hostilely ? 

As for iurgio ' by wordy strife,' that is liiihus ' by con- 
tentions ' : therefore men between whom a matter 
was in dispute, called this a lis ' suit ' ; therefore in 
legal actions we see it said : 

Matter or suit to which one must make a plea. 

From this, you may see that iurgare ^ ' to contend in 
words ' is said from ius ' right,' when a person litigaret 
' went to law ' iure ' with right ' ; from which he 
obiurgat ' rebukes,' who does this iuste ' with justice,' 
94. In Lucilius " : 

And if some of the things any stole for themselves 
from the forum. 

He said clepsere ' stole,' from the same source whence 
others say clepere, that is ' to snatch away ' ; they come 
from clam'' 'secretly,' giving clapere and then clepere, 
with change of A to E, as in many words. But clepere 
can quite well be said from Greek KA.€7rT€iv ' to steal.' 

Frag., page 263 Ribbeck*. « From the radicals in ins 
and agere, as litigare from those in lis and agere. 

§ 94.. "1118 Marx; ab rebus, partitive with aliquot, 
though ab is rarely so used. For postponed indefinite qui, 
cf, LuciUus, 263 and 266 Marx. * Clepsere and clam are 
both from the root in celare ' to conceal,' and akin to (not 
derived from) Greek /cAeWetv. 

347 



VARRO 

95. Apud Matium : 

Corpora Graiorum maerebai^ mandier igni. 
Dictum mandier a mandendo, unde manducari, a quo 
et" in Atellanis Do^senum^ vocant Manducum. 

96. Apud Matium : 

Obscaeni^ interpres funestique om<i>nis^ auctor. 

Obscaenum dictum ab scaena' ; earn, ut Graeci, et* 
Accius scribit scena(m).' In pluribus verbis A ante 
E alii ponunt, alii non, ut quod partim dicunt (scaep- 
trum, partim)* sceptrum, alii Plauti Faeneratricem, 
alii Feneratricem' ; sic faenisicia ac fenisicia,' ac 
rustic! pappum Mesium,* non Maesium,* a quo 
Lucilius scribit : 

Cecilius (pretor)^" ne rusticus fiat. 

§ 95. ^ Mue., for merebar. * a quo et L. Sp., for et a 
quo. ' For ad obsenum. 

§ 96. ^ Vertranivs, for obsceni. * ^4uff., for omnis. 
' Vertranius, H, for scena. * Norisius, for aut. ^ Lach- 
mann, for scena. * Added by B. ' fen- Txietus, for 
foen-. ^ Laetus, for maesium. ^ L. Sp.,for moesium. 
^" praetor added by Scaliger {whence pretor Mue)., from 
Diomedes, i. 452. 18 Keil. 



§ 95. " Frag. Poet. Lat., page 48 Morel. Cn. Matius, fl. 
95-80, translated the Iliad into Latin, and wrote also mi- 
miambi. ' Translating Iliad, i. 56. " Derivative of 

dorsum ' back.' "* Why the Humpback should be called 
Chewer, is not clear. Both were stock characters in the 
Atellan Farces ; Horace, Epist. ii. 1. 173, has quantus sit 
Dossennus edacibus in parasitis ' how great a Dossennus he 
is among the greedy hangers-on,' which suggest that Dos- 
sennus also was a large eater. 
348 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 95-96 

95. In Matius <» : 

Grief he felt that the bodies of Greeks were chewed 
by the fire." 

Mandier ' to be chewed ' is said from mandere ' to 
chew,' whence manducari ' to chew,' from which also 
in the Atellan Farces they call Dossennus " ' Hump- 
back ' by the name Manducus ' Chewer.' <* 

96. In Matius " : 

He the interpreter, sponsor of foul and funereal omen. 

Obscaenum ' foul ' is said from scaena ' stage ' ^ ; this 
word Accius writes scena, like the Greeks.*' In a con- 
siderable number of words some set A before the E, 
and others do not ** ; so what some spell scaepirum * 
' sceptre,' others spell sceptrum, and some spell the 
name of Plautus's play Faeneratrix ' The Woman 
Money-lender,' others FeneratrixJ Similarly fae- 
nisicia f ' mown hay ' and Jenis^i eta ; and the country- 
men call the old man's character Mesius,^ not Mae- 
sius, from which peculiarity Lucihus is able to 
write '' : 

Cecilhts let's not elect to be countrified pretor. 

§ 96. " Frag. Poet. LaL, page 48 Morel : apparently 
translating Iliad, i. 6-2. * Probably a correct etymology, 
and the variation in the orthography of scena is the basis for 
that in the adjective. « Greek oktjvt^. ^ The country- 

folk pronounced as E what the city Romans sounded as 
AE ; Greek t) in oktjvtj and aK^urpov was perhaps repre- 
sented by A£ in the speech of citj' Romans trying to 
avoid a country accent. ' From Greek atcfpnpov. 

' Originally with E, not AE. ' A stock character 

in the farces; cf. vii. 29. * 1130 Marx; ridiculing the 
country pronunciation of the candidate, who sounded the 
AE like E. Rustkus instead of urbamis. 

349 



VARRO 

Quare turpe ideo ohscaenum,^^ quod nisi in scaena'^ 
palam dici non defect. ^' 

97. Potest vel ab eo quod pueris^ turpicula res in 
coUo quaedam suspenditur, ne quid obsit, bonae^ 
scaevae causa scaevola appcllata, Ea dicta ab 
scaeva, id est sinistra, quod quae sinistra sunt bona 
auspicia existimantur ; a quo dicitur comitia aliudve 
quid, si(cu>t* dixi, (scaeva fieri)* avj,* sinistra quae 
nunc est. Id a Graeco est, quod hi sinistram vocant 
o-Kaiav* ; quare, quod dixi, <ob>scaewum' omen est 
omen turpe ; quod unde id dicitur <os>,* osmen, e 
quo S' extritum. 

98. Apud Plautum : 

Quia ego antehac te amavi <et niihi aniicam esse 
crevi.^ 

Crevi>2 valet constitui : itaque heres cum constituit 

se heredem esse, dicitur cernere,* et cum id fecit, 

crevisse. 

11 Vertranius, B, for obserroum. ^* Vertranius, for 

scaenam. ** For dedet. 

§97. ^ Aug. , with B, for Y>^m\'\s,with\ erased. ^ Aug., 
with B, for ubonae. " ^ G'.S., for sit. * Added by OS. 
* Txirnebus, for aut. * Aldus, for scean. '' Aug., for 
sceuuni. ^ Added by L. Sp. * 3/««., /or quod. 

§ 98. 1 Added by Aug., from Plautus. * Added by L. 
Sp. ' Victorius, for canere. 

§ 97. " An amulet in the shape of a membrum virile, as a 
charm against the evil eye. * In taking the auspices by 
the flight of birds, the Roman faced south and the Greek 
faced north ; therefore, as the east (where the sun rose) was 
always the favourable part of the templum {cf. vii. 7), the 
Roman considered the left side favourable and the Greek 

350 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 96-98 

Wherefore anything shameful is called obscaeiium, 
because it ought not to be said openly except on the 
scaena ' stage.' 

97. Perhaps it is from this that a certain indecent 
object " that is hung on the necks of boys, to prevent 
harm from coming to them, is called a scaevola, on 
account of the fact that scaeva is ' good.' * It is named 
from scaeva, that is sinistra ' left,' because those 
things which are sinistra ' on the left side ' are con- 
sidered to be good auspices ; from which it is said 
that an assembly or anything else takes place, as I 
have said, with scaeva avi ' a bird on the left side,' 
which is now called sinistra. The word is from the 
Greek,*^ because they call the left side a-Kaid ; where- 
fore, as I have said,** an obscaenum omen is a foul omen : 
omen itself, because that by which it is spoken is the 
OS ' mouth,' is by origin osmen/ from which S has been 
worn away by use. 

98. In Plautus « : 

Since long ago I loved you and decided you're my 
friend. 

Crevi * ' I decided ' is the same as constitui ' I estab- 
lished ' : therefore when an heir has established that 
he is the heir, he is said cernere ' to decide,' and when 
he has done this, he is said crevisse ' to have decided.' 

considered the left unfavourable. Confusion with the Greek 
method resulted in a double meaning of sinistra in Latin. 
* Scaeva is cognate to the Greek word, not derived from it. 
** vii. 96 ; apparently as though ob-scaevum, opposite of 
scaevum, though in this Varro contradicts his view expressed 
in vii. 96. ' An older form osmen is correct, but not the 
connexion with os. 

§ 98. " Cist. 1, where the codd. have cum ego ; metre, 
bacchiac. * Not perfect of crescere ' to grow,' but of 
cernere, whose literal meaning was ' to separate.' 

351 



VARRO 

99. Apud eundem quod es^ : 

MP frequentem operam dedistis, 
valet assiduam : itaque qui adest assiduus fere (e>t 
quom* oportet, is* frequens, <cui infrequens)* opponi 
solet. Itaque illud quod eaedem mulierculae dicunt : 

<Pol ist>o* quidem nos pretio <facile* 

0>ptanti est^ frequentare : 

Ita in prandio nos lepide ac nitide 

Accepisti, 

apparet dicere : facile est curare ut (adsidue)* adsi- 
mus, cum fam' bene nos accipias. 

100. Apud Ennium : 

Decretum est stare <atque fodari)^ corpora telis. 

Hoc verbum Ennii dictum a fodiendo, a quo fossa. 

101. Apud Ennium : 

Vocibus concide, fac <s>i mus<s)et^ obrutum. 

§ 99. 1 Aug., for quo desimi. * Ellis ; fere quom 
Canal; for ferret quern. ^ Aug., with B, for his. 
* Added by L. Sp. * GS. (pol istoc Aug., from Plautus), 
/or dicunto. ^ Added by Aug., from Plautus. '' Schoell 
{after A. Sp., who proposed and rejected optanti), /or ptanti 
Jf^, with p deleted by cross-lines. * Added by GS. * Aug., 
for iam. 

§ 100. 1 GS., after Fest. 84. 7 M. ; est stare et fossari 
Bergk ; est fossare B, Vertranius ; for est stare. 

§ 101. ^ L. Sp. ; fac is musset Mue. ; face musset Turne- 
biis ; for facimus et. 

§ 99 " Plautus, Cist. 6. * Frequens usually means 
' in numbers ' (that is, many at one place at the same time) 

352 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 99-101 

99- In the same author," the word frequentem * 
frequent ' in 

Frequent aid you gave me 

means assiduam ' busily present ' : therefore he who is 
at hand as»iduus ' constantly present ' Jere et quom 
' generally and when ' he ought to be, he is frequens, 
as the opposite of which infrequens " is wont to be used. 
Therefore that which these same girls say •* : 

Dear me, at that price that you say it is easy 
For one who desires it to be frequently with us ; 
So nicely and elegantly you received us 
At luncheon, 

clearly means : it is easy to get us to be constantly 
present at your house, since you entertain us so well. 

100. In Ennius « : 

Resolved are they to stand and be dug through their 
bodies with javelins. 

This verhjbdare ' to dig ' which Ennius used, was made 
from Jbdere ' to dig,' from which comes Jhssa ' ditch.' 

101. In Ennius " : 

With words destroy him, crush him if he make a sound. 

and not ' frequent ' (that is, one in the same place at many 
diflFerent times), which is why the word here needs explana- 
tion. Varro takes it as a shortening of the phrase /ere et 
quom — rr^e^quom+s, which needs no refutation. ' Used 
especially of a soldier qui abest afuitve a signis ' who is or has 
been absent from his place in the ranks ' (Festus, 112. 7 M.). 
** Cist. 8-11, with omissions ; anapaestic and bacchiac verses 
alternately. 

§100. » Ann. 571 Vahlen*; R.O.L. i. 190-191 Warm- 
ington. 

§ 101. • Trag. Rom. Frag. 393 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. i. 378- 
379 Warniington. 

VOL. I 2 A 353 



VARRO 

Mussare dictum, quod muti non amplius quam fxv 
dicunt ; a quo idem dicit id quod minimum est : 

Neque, ut aiunt, fiC facere audent. 

102. Apud Pacuium : 

Di^ monerint meliora atque amentiam averruncassint 
<tuam.'^ 

Ab>* avertendo averruncare, ut deus qui in eis rebus 
praeest Averruncus. Itaque ab eo precari solent, ut 
pericula avertat. 

103. In Aulularia : 

Pipulo te^ difFeram ante aedis, 
id est convicio, declinatum a pi(p>atu* pullorum. 
Multa ab animalium vocibus tralata in homines, 
partim quae sunt aperta, partim obscura ; perspicua, 
ut Ennii : 

Animus cum pectore latrat. 

Plauti : 

Gannit odiosus omni totae familiae. 

<Cae>cilii=' : 

Tantum rem dibalare ut pro nilo habuerit. 

§ 102. 1 For dim. « jidded from Festus, 373. 4 M. 
^ Added by Turnebus. 

§ 103. ^ So F ; but pipulo te hie Nonius^ 152. 5 M., pipulo 
hie Plautus. * Aldus, for piatu. ' Laetus, for cilii. 

'' Onomatopoeic, as Varro indicates. " Ennius, In,c. 10 
Vahlen^; R.O.L. i. 438-439 Warmington. 

§102. "Trag. Rom. Frag. 112 Ribbeck» ; R.O.L. ii. 
206-207 Warmington; quoted by Festus, 373. 4 M., with 
ttiam, and by Nonius, 74. 22 M. (who assigns it to Lucilius, 
Bk. XXVI.) with meam. * Monerint is perf. subj. of 
monere, a form known from other sources also. ' The 
word combines averrere ' to sweep away ' with runcare 
* to remove weeds.' ^ Mentioned elsewhere only by 
354 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 101-103 

Mussare * ' to make a sound ' is said because the miiti 
' mute ' say nothing more than mu ; from which the 
same poet uses this for that which is least "^ : 
And, as they say, not even a mu dare they utter. 

102. In Pacu\-ius " : 

May the gods advise * thee of better things to 
do, and thy madness sweep away ! 

Averruncare *' ' to sweep away ' is from avertere ' to 
avert,' just as the god who presides over such matters 
is called Averruncus.** Therefore men are wont to 
pray of him that he avert dangers. 

103. In The Story of the Money- Jar « : 

By my cheeping I'll bring you into disrepute before 
the house. 

This pipulus ' cheeping ' is convicium ' reviUng,' derived 
from the pipatus ' cheeping ' of chicks. Many terms 
are transferred from the cries of animals to men,* of 
which some are obvious and others are obscure. 
Among the clear terms are the follo^ving : Ennius's " 

For it his mind and his heart both are barking. 
Plautus's ** 

The odious fellow yelps at all his household, every one. 
Caecilius's * 
To bleat the thing abroad, so that he thought it nought. 

Gellius, V. 12. 14, as a god who may avert ills from men if 
his favour be won. 

§ 103. " Plautus, Aul. 446. * The special words in this 
and the next section are properly used of animal cries and 
noises, but in these citations are applied to sounds made by 
human beings. 'Ann. 584 Vahlen* ; R.O.L. i. 174-175 
Warmington ; cf. Odys. xx. 13, ''Fab. inc., frag. Ill 
Ritschl. 'Com. Rom. Frag. 249 Ribbeck'; R.O.L. i. 
554-555 Warmington. 

355 



VARRO 

Lucilii : 

Haec, inquam, rudet ex rostris atque hei<u>htabit.* 
Eiusdem : 

Quantum hinnitum atque equitatum. 

104. Minus aper^a, wt^ Porcii ab lupo : 
Volitare ululantis. 
En(n>ii* a vitulo : 

Tibicina maximo labore mugit. 
Eiusdem a bove : 

Clamore' bovantes. 
. Eiusdem a leone : 

Pausam fecere* fremendi. 
Eiusdem ab haedo^ : 

Clamor ad caelum volvendus per aethera vagit. 
Suei a* (merula)' : 

Frendi^ e fronde et fritinni<t>® suaviter. 

* From Nonius, 21. 20, for heilitabit. 

§ 104. ^ L. Sp. ; aperta Aug. ; for aperiant. ^ For 
enii. ' Aldus, for clamorem. * Rhol., for facere. 
' Aug., for edo. * Luc. Mueller, for sueta. ' Added by 
OS., after Heraeus. * Stowasser, for frendice frunde et 
fritinni F ; fronde Kent. 

'261 Marx ; said of a man seeking the support of the 
voters, according to Nonius, 21. 18 M. " 1275 Marx. 

§ 104. " Cf. page 46 Morel. » Inc. 7 Vahlen*: R.O.L. 
\. 438-439 Warmington. " Ann. 585 Vahlen^ ; R.O.L. 

i. 174-175 Warmington; hoare from Greek jSodi' ' to shout,' 
with assimilation to bov-em 'ox.' ''Ann. 586 Vahlen^: 
R.O.L. i. 174-175 Warmington. 'Ann. 531 Vahien^ ; 

356 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 103-104 

Lucilius's ^ 

This, I say, he'll bray from the stand and lament 
to the public. 

The same poet's ^ 

How much neighing and prancing like horses. 

104. Less clear are the follo^\"ing, such as that of 
Porcius, an expression derived from wolves ° : 

To flutter while howling. 

That of Ennius, from calves ^ : 

The piper-girl doth bleat with great to-do. 

That of the same poet, from oxen «^ : 

Bellowing with uproar. 

That of the same poet, from lions ** : 

A stop they made of the roaring. 

That of the same poet, from young goats * : 

Shouting rolls to the sky and wails through the 
ether. 

That of Sueius, from blackbirds ^ : 

From 'midst the leaves he ' snaps his bill * and 
sweetly chirps.' 

R.O.L. i. 156-157 Warmington ; perhaps clamos or clamorque 
should be read, or the word order changed, to give a long 
syllable in the second place. ' Sueius, page 54 Morel ; 
writer of idylls and on the habits and breeding of birds ; 
perhaps identical with the eques M. Sueius, aedile in 74, 
friend of \'arro and Cicero and owner of a profitable bird- 
breeding establishment. " Denoting a man, not a bird. 
" Frendere, often meaning ' to gnash the teeth,' here means 
' to make a harsh note,' as certain birds do. * Cf. 
Corpus Gloss. Ixit. vi.-vii., on fritamentum {vox merulae) 
and fritinniunt. 

Sol 



VARRO 

Macci' in Casina, a fringuilla : 

Quid fringuttis ? Quid istuc tarn cupide cupis ? 

Suet^' a volucribus^^ : 

Ita traded aeque in re<m> neque^* in 
Judicium ^esopi nee theatri trittiles. 

105. In Colace : 

Nexum . . . 

<Nexum>^ Mawilius* scribit omne quod per libram et 
aes geritur, in quo sint mancipia ; Mucius, quae per 
aes et libram fiant ut obligentur, praeter quom* 
mancipio detur. Hoc verius esse ipsum verbum 
ostendit, de quo quaerit<ur>* : nam id aes* quod 
obligatur per libram neque suum fit, inde nexum 
dictum. Liber qui suas operas in servitutem pro 
pecunia quam debebat (nectebat),* dum solveret, 
nexus vocatur, ut ab aere obaeratus. Hoc C. Poetelio 

* GS., after Mati Mue., for Maccius. ^" Baehrens, for 
sues. ^^ Mue. ; a volucri L. Sp. ; for auoluerat. 
^^ Kent, for tradedeque inreneque. 

§ 105. ^ Added by L. Sp., who recognized the lacuna. 
^ Laettis, for mamilius. ' Huschke, for quam. * Aug., 
for querit. * Mommsen, for est. * debebat nectebat 
Kent ; debeat dat Aug. ; for debebat. 

' Plautus, Cas. 267 ; the more common orthography is 
fringilla and friguttis. * Frag. Poet. Lat., page 54 
Morel ; wrongly listed by Ribbeck' as Juventius, Com. 
Rom. Frag. IV. ' Trit, the sound made by the crushing 
or breaking of a hard grain or seed, as by the strong-beaked 
birds. If the text is correctly restored, the passage refers 
to a complaint against trittiles, that is, persons who made 
similar noises and thereby disturbed a theatrical perform- 
ance ; the poet says that he will refer the complaint to a 
regular law-court, and not to the prejudiced decision of the 

358 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 104^105 

That of Maccius in the Casina, from finches ' : 

What do you twitter for ? What's that you wish so 
eagerly ? 

That of Sueius, from birds * : 

So he'll bring the snappers ' fairly into court and not 
To the judgement of Aesopus "• and the audience. 

105. In The Flatterer " : 

A bound obligation . . . 

Xexum ' bound obligation,' Manilius ^ writes, is every- 
thing which is transacted by cash and balance-scale,*' 
including rights of ownership ; but Mucins ** defines 
it as those things which are done by copper ingot and 
balance-scale in such a way that they rest under 
formal obligation, except when deUvery of property is 
made under formal taking of possession. That the 
latter is the truer interpretation, is shown by the very 
word about which the inquiry is made : for that copper 
which is placed under obligation according to the 
balance-scale and does not again become independent 
(nee suum) of this obligation, is from that fact said to 
be nexum ' bound.' A free man who, for money which 
he owed, nectebat ' bound ' his labour in slaver}" until 
he should pay, is called a nexus ' bondslave,' just as a 
man is called obaeratus ' indebted,' from aes ' money- 
debt.' When Gains Poetelius Libo Visulus * was 

offended actor and of the annoyed fellow - spectators. 
"* Famous tragic actor of Cicero's time. 

§ 105. "• Plautus, Frag. IV Ritschl ; but possibly from 
the Colax of Naevius. ^ Page 6 Huschke. ' That is, 
by agreement to pav a sum of money, measured by weight. 
<* Page 18 Huschke." ' Consul in 346, 333 (?), 326 (Liyy, 
viii. 23. 17), and dictator in 313 (Livy, ix. 28. 2), in which 
Varro sets the alx)lition of slavery for debt, though Livy, 
viii. 28, sets it in his third consulship. 

359 



VARRO 

(Liybone Visolo'' dictatore sublatum ne fieret, et 
omnes qui Bonam Copiam iurarunt, ne essent nexi 
dissoluti. 

106. In Ca<sina> : 

Sine ame^^ sine quod lubet id facial,* 
Quando tibi domi nihiP delicuum est. 

Dictum ab eo, quod <ad) deliquandum non sunt, ut 
turbida quae sunt deliquantur, ut liquida fiant. 
Aurelius seribit delicuum es*e* ab liquido ; Cla(u>dius 
ab eliquato. Si quis alterutrum sequi malet,* habebit 
auctorem. 

Apud Atilium : 

Per laetitiam liquitur 
Animus. 
Ab liquando liquitur fictum. 

VI. 107. Multa apud poetas reliqua esse verba 
quorum origines possint dici, non dubito, ut apud 
Naevium in y^esiona mucro^ gladii " lingula " a 
lingua ; in Clastidio " vitulantes " a Vitula ; in Dolo 

' Poetelio Libone Visolo Lachmann ; Poetelio Visolo Aug. ; 
for popillio vocare sillo. 

§ 106. ^ In Casina Laetus, sine amet Aldus {from Plaittus), 
for in casineam esses. ^ Aug. {from Plautus), for facias. 
' Plautus has nihil domi. * For est. * Laetus, for 
mallet. 

§ 107. ^ Aesiona Buecheler, mucro Groth, for esionam 
uero. 

f That is, swore that they were not regular slaves, but were 
held in slavery for debt only, " Mentioned also by Ovid, 
Met. ix. 88. 

§ 106. " Plautus, Cas. 206-207 ; anapaestic. * Appar- 
ently meant by Plautus as ' lacking,' from delinquere ' to 
lack,' and so understood by Festus, 73. 10 M., who glosses it 
with minus. Varro has taken it as ' strainable, subject to 
straining (for purification),' and has connected it with liquare 
and liquere ' to strain, purify,' also ' to melt.' ' Page 

360 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VII. 105-107 

dictator, this method of dealing ^vith debtors was 
done away with, and all who took oath ^ by the Good 
Goddess of Plenty ^ were freed from being bond- 
slaves. 

106. In the Casina " : 

Let him go and make love, let him do what he will. 
As long as at home you have nothing amiss. 

Nihil delicuum * ' nothing amiss ' is said from this, that 
things are not ad deliquandum ' in need of straining 
out ' the admixtures, as those which are turbid are 
strained, that they may become liqvida ' clear.' 
Aurelius " writes that delicuum is from liquidum ' clear ' ; 
Claudius,** that it is from eliquatum ' strained.' Any- 
one who prefers to follow either of them \n\\ have an 
authority to back him up. 

In AtiUus * : 

With joy his mind is melted. 
Uquitur ' is melted ' is formed from liquare ' to melt.' 

VI. 107. I am quite aware " that there are many 
words still remaining in the poets, whose origins 
could be set forth ; as in Naevius,^ in the Hesione," 
the tip of a sword is called lingula, from lingua 
' tongue ' ; in the Clastidium,^ vitulantes ' singing songs 

89 Funaioli. ^ Page 97 Funaioli. * Com. Rom. Frag., 
inc. fab. frag. II, page 37 Ribbeck*. 

§ 107. » Cf. the beginning of § 109. * All the citations 
in § 107 and § 108 are from Naevius; R.O.L. ii. 88-89, 92-93, 
96-97, 104-105, 136-137, 597-598 Warmington. ' Trag. 
Rom. Frag. 1 Ribbeck' ; for the spelling of the title, cf. 
Buecheler, Rh. Mus. xxvii. 475. ** Trag. Rom. Frag., 
Praet. I Ribbeck' ; vitulari was glossed by Varro with Traiavi- 
Cfiv, according to Macrobius, Sat. iii, 2. 11. It is difficult 
to connect the two words with Latin rictus and victoria, so 
that the resemblance may be fortuitous — unless Vitula be a 
dialectal word, with CT reduced to T. 

361 



VARRO 

" caperrata fronte " a caprae fronte ; in Demetrio 
" persibus " a perite : itaque sub hoc glossema 
' callide ' subscribunt ; in Lampadione " protinam " 
a protinus, continuitatem significans ; in Nagidone 
" c/u(ci>da<us "* suavis, tametsi a magistris accepi- 
mus mansuetum ; in Romulo " <con)sponsus "^contra 
sponsum rogatus ; in Stigmatia " praebia " a prae- 
bendo, ut sit tutus, quod si(n>t* remedia in collo 
pueris ; in Technico^ " conficiant"* a conficto con- 
venire dictum ; 

108. In Tarentilla " p<r)ae<(l>u(c>idum "^ a luce, 
illustre ; in Tunicularia : 

ecbol<ic>as* aulas quassant 

quae eiciuntur, a Graeco verbo €Kf3o\Ti'f dictum ; in 
Bello Punico : 

nee satis sardare* 

* Scaliger, for caudacus. * Neukirch, with Popma, for 
sponsus. * Laetus, for sit. * For thechnico. * Turne- 
bus, for conficiant. 

§ 108. ^ Mue., for pacui dum. * Kent, for exbolas, 
metri gratia. ' Aldus, for exbole. * A. Sp. (from 
Festus, 323. 6 M.), for sarrare. 

* Com. Mom. Frag, after 49 Ribbeck'; caperrata may be 
related to capra only by popular etymology. ^ Com. Rom. 
Frag, after 49 Ribbeck* ; persibus is seemingly an Oscan 
perfect participle active, cf. Oscan sipus, from which perhaps 
it is to be corrected to persipus, "Page 113 Funaioli. 
'' Com. Rom. Frag, after 60 Ribbeck*. * Com. Rom. 
Frag, after 60 Ribbeck' ; clucidatus is a participle to a Latin 
verb borrowed from Greek yXvKii,€iv ' to sweeten.' ^ Trag. 
Rom. Frag., Praet. IT Ribbeck' ; for consponsus, cf. vi. 70. 

* Com. Rom. Frag. 71 Ribbeck^. ' Com. Rom. Frag, after 
93 Ribbeck^ ; confictant, derived from confingere. 

362 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 107-108 

of victory,' from Vitula 'Goddess of Joy and Victory ' ; 

in The Artifice,' caperrata fronte ' with wrinkled fore- 
head,' from the forehead of a capra ' she-goat ' ; in 
the Demetrius,^ persibus ' very kno\ving,' from perite 
* learnedly ' : therefore under this rare word they 
write ^collide' shrewdly ' ; in the Lampadio,'^ protinam 
' forthwith ' from protinus (of the same meaning), 
indicating lack of interruption in time or place ; in 
the Nagido,* clucidatus ' sweetened,' although we have 
been told by the teachers that it means ' tame ' ; in 
the Romulus,^ consponsus, meaning a person who has 
been asked to make a counter-promise ; in The 
Branded Slave, ^ praehia ' amulets,' from praebere ' pro- 
viding ' that he may be safe, because they are prophy- 
lactics to be hung on boys' necks ; in The Craftsman,^ 
corifictant ' they unite on a tale,' said from agreeing on 
a confictum ' fabrication.' 

108. Also, in The Girl of Tarenium,'^ praelucidum 
' ver}' brilliant,' from lux ' light,' meaning ' shining ' ; 
in The Story of the Shirt, ^ 

They shake the jars that make the lots jump out, 

ecbolicas' causing to jump out,' because of the lots 
which are cast out, is said from the Greek word 
eKJSoXy'j ; and in The Punic War <= 

Not even quite sardare ' to understand like a Sardinian,' 

§ 108. « Cam. Rom. Frag, after 93 Ribbeck'. * C<m. 
Rom. Frag. 103 Ribbeck»; R.O.L. ii. 106-107 Warming- 
ton (with different interpretation). ' Frag. Poet. Rom. 
53-54 Baehrens; R.O.L. ii. 72-73 Warmington. According 
to Festus, 322 a 24 and 323. 6 M., sardare means intel- 
legere, perhaps ' to understand like a Sardinian,' that is, 
very poorly, for the Sardinians had in antiquity a bad re- 
putation in various lines. The verse of Naevius runs : 
Quod tyruti nee satis sardare queunt. 



VARRO 

ab serare dictum, id est aperire ; hinc etiam sera,* 
qua remota fores panduntur. 

VII. 109. Sed quod vereor ne plures sint futuri 
qui de hoc genere me quod nimium multa scripseriwi^ 
reprehendant quam quod^ reliqueriw^ quaedam 
accusent, ideo potius iam reprimendum quam pro- 
cudendum puto esse volumen : nemo reprensus qui e 
segete ad spicilegium reliquit stipulam. Quare in- 
stitutis sex libris, quemadmodum rebus Latina 
nomina essent imposita ad usum nostrum : e quis trt's* 
scripsi Po.* Septumio qui mihifuit quaestor, tris tibi, 
quorum hie est tertius, priores de disciplina verborum 
originis, posteriores de verborum originibus. In illis, 
qui ante sunt, in primo volumine est quae dicantur, 
cur iTv/xoXoytKif neque ar(s) sit' neque ea utiUs sit, 
in secundo quae sint, cur et ars ea sit et (ut>ilis* sit, 
in tertio quae forma et^mologiae.* 

110. In secundis tribus quos ad te misi item 
generatim discretis, primum in quo sunt origines 
verborum^ locorum et earum rerum quae in locis 
esse Solent, secundum quibus vocabulis te(m)pora 
sint notata et eae res quae in temporibus fiunt, tertius 

® Ed. Veneta, for serae. 

§ 109. ^ Laetus,for rescripserint. ^ quam quod Aldus, 
for quamquam. ' For reliquerint. * Laetus, for tres. 

* po stands here in F, but \cith lines drawn through the letters. 

* L. Sp.,for ethimologice. ' ars sit V, p, L. Sp.,for ansit. 

* et utilis Turnebus; et illis utilis V; for et illis F. * For 
ethirnologiae. 

§ 110. ^ Crossed out by F^, but required by the meaning. 

■* In such an etymology, Varro is operating on the basis that 
things may be named from their opposites; cf. Festus, 122. 
16 M., hidum dicimus, in qtio minime luditur. 
§ 109. " A liber or ' book ' was calculated to fill a volumen 

36^ 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 108-110 

where sardare is said from serare ' to bolt,' ^ that is, 
sardare means ' to open ' ; from this also sera ' bolt,' 
on the removal of which the doors are opened. 

Vn. 109. But because I fear that there wiW be 
more who will blame me for ^^"Titing too much of this 
sort than will accuse me of omitting certain items, I 
think that this roll must now rather be compressed 
than hammered out to greater length " : no one is 
blamed who in the cornfield has left the stems for the 
gleaning. ** Therefore as I had arranged six books '^ on 
how Latin names were set upon things for our use ^ : 
of these I dedicated three to Pubhus Septumius who 
was my quaestor,* and three to you, of which this is 
the third — the first three on the doctrine of the 
origin of words, the second three ^ on the origins of 
words. Of those which precede, the first roll con- 
tains the arguments which are offered as to why 
Etymology is not a branch of learning and is not 
useful ; the second contains the arguments why it is 
a branch of learning and is useful ; the third states 
what the nature of etymology is. 

110. In the second three which I sent to you, the 
subjects are likewise di\ided off : first, that in which 
the origins of words for places are set forth, and for 
those things which are wont to be in places ; second, 
with what words times are designated and those 
things which are done in times ; third, the present 

or ' roll ' of convenient size for handling. " That is, who 
has cut oflF the ears of standing grain and left the stalks. 
• Books II.-VII. ; cf. V. 1. ^ This sentence is resumed at 
Quocirca, in the middle of § 110. ' Varro held office in the 
war against the pirates and Mithridates in 67-66, under 
Pompey, and again in Pompey's forces in Spain in 49 and 
at Pharsalus in 48 ; but it is unknown in which of these he 
had Septumius as quaestor. ^ Books V.-VII. 

365 



VARRO 

hie, in quo a poetis item sumpta ut ilZa^ quae dixi in 
duobus libris solwta' oratione. Quocirca quoniam 
omnis operis de Lingua Latina tris feci partis, primo 
quemadmodum vocabula imposita essent rebus, 
secundo quemadmodum ea in casus declinarentur, 
tertio quemadmodum coniungerentur, prima parte 
perpetrata, ut secundam ordiri possim, huic libro 
faciam finem. 

* Victorius, for utilia. * Sciop., for solita. 



I 



366 



ON THE LATIN LANGUAGE, VIL 110 

book, in which words are taken from the poets in 
the same way as those which I have mentioned in 
the other two books were taken from prose writings. 
Therefore,** since I have made three parts of the 
whole work On the Latin Language, first how names 
were set upon things, second how the words are 
declined in cases, third how they are combined into 
sentences — as the first part is now finished, I shall 
make an end to this book, that I may be able to 
commence the second part. 

§110. "This resumes the sentence interrupted at the 
middle of § 109. 



367 



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tth Imp., Vol. III. 3rd Imp.) Verse trans. 
EUSEBIUS: ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. Kirsopp 

Lake and J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
GALEN: ON THE NATURAL FACULTIES. A. J. 

Brock. {2nd Imp.) 
THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 

(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. II. and HI. 2nd Imp.) 
GREEK ELEGY AND IAMBUS with the ANACRE- 

ONTEA. J. M. Edmonds. 2 Vols. 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

THE GREEK BUCOLIC POETS (THEOCRITUS, 

BION, iMOSCHUS). J. M. Edmonds. {6th Imp. revised.) 
GREEK MATHEMATICAL WORKS. Ivor Thomas. 

2 Vols. Vol. I. 
HERODES. C/. THEOPHRASTUS : CHARACTERS. 
HERODOTUS. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. Srd 

Imp., Vols. II.-IV. 2nd Imp.) 
HESIOD AND THE HOMERIC HYMNS. H. G. Evelyn 

White. {5th Imp. revised and enlarged.) 
HIPPOCRATES AND THE FRAGMENTS OF HERA- 

CLEITUS. W. H. S. Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
HOMER : ILIAD. A. T. Murray. 2 \'ols. (Vol. I. 4^A 

Imp., Vol. II. 3rd Imp.) 
HOMER : ODYSSEY. A.T.Murray. 2 Vols. {Uh Imp.) 
ISAEUS. E. S. Forster. 

ISOCRATES. George Norlin. 3 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 
ST. JOHN DAMASCENE: BARLAAM AND lOASAPH. 

Rev. G. R. Woodward and Harold Mattingly. {2nd Imp. 

JOSEPHUS. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 

9 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. (Vol. V. 2nd Imp,) 
JULIAN. Wilmer Cave Wright. 8 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 

2nd Imp.) 
LUCIAN. A.M.Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.- V. (Vols. 

I. and II. 3rd Imp.) 
LYCOPHRON. Cf. CALLIMACHUS. 
LYRA GRAECA. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. 1. 

3rd Imp,, Vol. II. 2nd Ed. revised and enlarged.) 
LYSIAS. W. R. M. Lamb. 

MARCUS AURELIUS. C. R. Haines. {3rd Imp, revised.) 
MENANDER. F. G. Allinson. i2nd Imp. revised.) 
MINOR ATTIC ORATORS (ANTIPHON, ANDOCIDES, 

DEMADES. DEINARCHUS, HYPEREIDES). K. J. 

Maidment. 2 Vols. Vol. I. 
OPPIAN, COLLUTHUS, TRYPHIODORUS. A. W. Mair. 
PAPYRI (SELECTIONS). A. S. Hunt and C. C. Edgar. 

4 Vols. Vols. I. and II. 
PARTHENIUS. Cf. DAPHNIS and CHLOE. 
PAUSANIAS: DESCRIPTION OF GREECE. W. H. S. 

Jones. 5 Vols, and Companion Vol. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
PHILO. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. 

H. Whitaker; \'ols. VI. and VII. F. H. Colson. 
PHILOSTRATUS : THE LIFE OF APOLLONIUS OF 

TYANA. F. C. Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., 

Vol. II. 2nd Imp.) 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

PHILOSTRATUS : IMAGINES ; CALLISTRATUS : 

DESCRIPTIONS. A. Fairbanks. 
PHILOSTRATUS axd EUNAPIUS : LIVES OF THE 

SOPHISTS. Wilmer Cave Wright. 
PINDAR. Sir J. E. Sandys. (6th Imp. revised.) 
PLATO : CHARMIDES, ALCIBIADES, HIPPARCHUS, 

THE LOVERS, THEAGES, iMINOS and EPINOMIS. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO: CRATYLUS. PARMENIDES, GREATER 

HIPPIAS, LESSER HIPPIAS. H. N. Fowler. 
PLATO: EUTHYPHRO, APOLOGY. CRITO. PHAE- 

DO, PHAEDRUS. H. N. Fowler. {Tlth Imp.) 
PLATO : LACHES, PROTAGORAS MENO, EUTHY- 

DEMUS. W. R. M. Lamb. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
PLATO : LAWS. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
PLATO : LYSIS, SYMPOSIUM, GORGIAS. W. R. M. 

Lamb. {2nd Imp. revised.) 
PLATO: REPUBLIC. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol.1. 

2nd Imp. revised.) 
PLATO: STATESMAN, PHILEBUS. H. N Fowler; 

ION. W. R. M. Lamb. 
PLATO: THEAETETUS AND SOPHIST. H. N. Fowler. 

{2nd Imp.) 
PLATO : TIM AEUS, CRITIAS, CLITOPHO, MENEXE- 

NUS, EPISTULAE. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
PLUTARCH : MORALIA. 14 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. 

Babbitt ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. 
PLUTARCH: THE PARALLEL LIVES. B. Perrin. 

11 Vols. (Vols. I., II., III. and VII. 2nd Imp.) 
POLYBIUS. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 
PROCOPIUS: HISTORY OF THE WARS. H. B. 

Dewing. 7 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 
QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 
SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. Rev. R. G. Bury. 3 Vols. 
SOPHOCLES. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 6th Imp., Vol. 

II. 4th Imp.) Verse trans. 
STRABO: GEOGRAPHY. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

(Vols. I and VIII. 2nd Imp.) 
THEOPHRASTUS : CHARACTERS. J. M. Edmonds ; 

HERODES. etc. A. D. Knox. 
THEOPHRASTUS: ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS. Sir 

Arthur Hort, Bart 2 Vols. 
THUCYDIDES. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., 

Vols. II., III. and IV. 2nd Imp. revised.) 
TRYPHIODORUS. C/. OPPIAN. 
7 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

XENOPHON : CYROPAEDIA. Walter MUler. 2 Vols. 

{2nd Imp.) 
XENOPHON: HELLENICA, ANABASIS, APOLOGY, 

AND SYMPOSIUM. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 

3 Vols. {2nd Imp.) 
XENOPHON : MEMORABILIA and OECONOMICUS. 

E. C. Marchant. {2nd Imp.) 
XENOPHON : SCRIPTA MINORA. E. C. Marchant. 



VOLUMES IN PREPARATION 



GREEK AUTHORS 



ARISTOTLE : DE CAELO. W. K. C. Guthrie. 

ARISTOTLE: HISTORY AND GENERATION OF 
ANIMALS. A. L. Peck. 

ARISTOTLE: METEOROLOGICA. H.P.Lee. 

MANETHO. W. G. Waddell. 

NONNUS. W. H. D. Rouse. 

PAPYRI: LITERARY PAPYRI. Selected and trans- 
lated by C. H. Roberts. 

PTOLEMY: TETRABIBLUS. F. C. Robbins. 

LATIN AUTHORS 



S. AUGUSTINE : CITY OF GOD. J. H. Baxter. 

CICERO : AD HERENNIUM. H. Caplan. 

CICERO : DE ORATORE. Charles Stuttaford and W. E. 

Sutton. 
CICERO : BRUTUS, ORATOR. G. L. Hendrickson and 

H. M. Hubbell. 
CICERO: PRO SESTIO, IN VATINIUM, PRO 

CAELIO. DE PROVINCIIS CONSULARIBUS, PRO 

BALBO. J. H. Freese. 
COLUMELLA : DE RE RUSTICA. H. B. Ash. 
PRUDENTIUS. J. H. Baxter. 
QUINTUS CURTIUS : HISTORY OF ALEXANDER. 

J. C. Rolfe. 

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