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Full text of "Onondaga's centennial. Gleanings of a century"

y 

Onondaga's Centennial 



GLEANINGS OF A CENTURY. 



EDITED BY 

f 

DWIGHT H. BRUCE. 



Volume II, 



THE BOSTON HISTORY COMPANY. PUBLISHERS. 
1896. 



f 



CONTENTS-VOL. II. 

CHAPTER XLIII. 
THE TOWN OF SALINA 933-961 

CHAPTER XLIV. 
THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE _'_ 961-977 

CHAPTER XLV. 
THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES ...9:7-1015 

CHAPTER XLVI. 
THE TOWN OF DEWITT 1015-1037 

CHAPTER XLVK. 
THE TOWN OF GEDDES 1037-1048 

CHAPTER XLViri. 
THE ONONDAGA INDIANS AND THEIR RESERVATION ..1049-1069 

CHAPTER XLIX. 
GENERAL SUMMARY 1070-1 1 1 3 

PART II-BIOGRAPHICAL. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES ..1-223 



1384670 



iv CONTENTS. 

PART III-FAMILY SKETCHES. 

FAMILY SKETCHES- 1-493 



INDEXES. 

PART I - - 495-530 

PART II 530-531 

PART II I - - 531-544 

PO RT RAITS 545-546 

ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS 546 



PORTRAITS-VOL. II. 



Abell, Flavel L facing 111, Part II 

Allen, Alexander H... facing 164, Part II 

Andrews, Charles 179, Part II 

Andrews, John Y facing 69, Part II 

Baldwin, C. B 203, Part II 

Barnes, George 84, Part II 

Beauchamp, Howard C 202, Part II 

Bibbens, Clarence H ...207, Part II 

Bingham, Augustus W. .facing 61, Part II 

Brand, William F 211, Part II 

Burdick, Edward H. ..facing 154, Part II 
Burdick, Hamilton... facing 138, Part II 

Burhans, Henry N facing 30, Part II 

Burns, Peter 132, Part II 

Campbell, Alexander J., Dr . 

facing 158, Part II 

Clark Elizur 90, Part II 

Clark, S. E facing 971, Parti 

Collin, David 329, Part III 

Comstock, George F 176, Part II 

Cook, Ele facing 144, Part II 

Cotton, George G facing 56, Part II 

Davis, Richard R 210, Part II 

Denton, L 358, Part HI 

Donohue, Florince O 55, Part II 

Duncan, William A. ..facing 213, Part II 
Edwards, Hiram K 338, Part III 



Gay nor, John F 466, Part III 

Gere, Robert 169, Part II 

Gifford, Henry.. 74, Part II 

Goodelle, William P. facing 134, Part II 

Graves, Maurice A facing 32, Part II 

Graves, Nathan F 60, Part II 

Hall, Nathan K. 1005, Parti 

Hall, Will T ...205, Part II 

Hanchett, Reuben C, Dr 

facing 26, Part II 

Hiscock, Frank 141, Part II 

Hiscock, Frank H 188, Part II 

House, Rufus ...368, Part HI 

Howlett, Alfred A 63, Part II 

Hoyt, Ezekiel B facing 1012, Part I 

Jenkins, Arthur 196, Part II 

Jewett, Freeborn G 173, Part II 

Judson, E. B 53, Part II 

Kennedy, George N. . .facing 183, Part II 

Kirkpatrick, William, Dr 143, Part II 

Knapp, H. J 469, Part HI 

Kyne, John L 204, Part II 

Leavenworth, Elias W .112, Part II 

Legg, John facing 991, Parti 

Leslie, E. Norman facing 979, Part I 

Longstreet, Cornelius T 109, Part II 

Loomis, Henry H facing 130, Part II 



CONTENTS. 



Mabee, Anbrose S 332, Part II 

McClary, C. E., Dr. .. .facing 24, Part I 
McEvers, William F. ..facing 160, Part I 

McLennan, Peter B 186, Parti 

Mclntyre, Calvin . facing 94, Part 1 

Mclntyre, Edward M. ..facing 96, Parti 
Magee, Charles M., Dr. . facing 73, Part I 

Maine. F. L 206, Part I 

Markell, Peter V facing 153, Part I 

Marlovv, Frank W., Dr. .facing 29, Part I 

Marsellus, John facing 64, Part I 

Marvin, William facing 987, Part 

May, Samuel J., Rev 7, Parti 

Moore, John J., Dr facing 33, Part I 

Morgan, Le Roy. .177, Part I 

Moseley, Daniel 172. Parti 

Munro, David Allen, jr. .facing36. Part I 

Nash, John F. 199, Part I 

Nichols, Charles facing 1016, Part 

Nims, Horace, Dr. .481, Part II 

Northrup, Milton H 194, Part I 

Noxon, James 181, Parti 

Peck, John J. , Gen. 107, Part I 

Peck, M. L 346, Part II 

Pierce, William K facing 17, Part I 

Potter, J. Densmore, Dr 

facing 167, Part I 

Pratt, Daniel 175. Part I 

Raynor, George facing 216, Parti 



Redfield, Lewis II 189, Part 

Roe, C. A ....209, Part 

Ruger. William C 182. Part 

Sampson, Ernest S facing 62, Part 

Sawmiller, Ignatius facing 34, Part 

Saxer, Leonard A., D. _ .facing 27, Part 
Sherman, Isaac N. ..facing 163, Part 

Slocum, Henry W. , Gen. 99, Part 

Smith, Carroll E 192, Part 

Sniper, Gustavus 47, Part 

Stacey, Alfred E facing 67, Part 

Stephenson. J. S. .. 201, Part 

Sullivan, Napoleon B. , Dr 

facing 51 , Part 

Sumner, Edwnn V.. Gen,.facingl, Part 

Sweet, John E _ .facing 85, Part 

Thayer, Joel facing 1005, Part 

Thorne, Chauncey B. . . facing 42, Part 
Totman, David M., Dr. .facing 54, Part 

Vann, Irvmg G .185, Part 

Wallace, WiUiam J 180, Part 

Weeks, Forest G facing 128. Part 

Wells, Samuel J 350, Parti 

White, Hamilton 125, Part 

White, Horace... 121, Part 

White, Howard G 197, Part 

Wilcox. Asel F 335. Part I 

Wood, Daniel P 119, Part 



ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS-VOL II. 



Alvord Building, the old, in Syracuse_939 

Aunt Dinah, portrait of 1068 

Captain George, portrait of.. 1065 

La Forte, Daniel.. 1058 



Map of Onondaga Reservation 

facing 1049 

Sacrifice of the White Dog 1062 

Webster, Thomas, portrait of 1060 



Onondaga's Centennial. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 
THE TOWN OF SALINA. 

This town, organized March 27, 1809, in its relation to the Military 
Tract, contained only nine and one -half lots of the tract, taken from 
the northwest corner of Manlius. They were nnmbers 1, drawn by 
Col. Goose Van Schaick; 2, by Joseph Travis; 3, by James Williamson; 
4, by Simon Peterson ; 8, by Israel Harriott ; 17, by Christopher Yonngs; 
18, reserved for gospel and schools; 19, by Col. John Lamb; 27 (in 
part), by Capt. Benjamin Pelton; 28, by Nicholas Van de Bogart. 

In the year 1797, when the vState took formal control of the salt 
springs, the surveyor-general was authorized by a law to lay out a por- 
tion of the vSalt Reservation, to provide for the manufacture of salt. 
Accordingly a part of the marsh lands and the uplands were laid out and 
mapped and given the name, Salina. In 1798 a village was laid out 
and called also Salina; and upon the organization of the town, that, 
too, took the same name. When the county was organized in 1794, 
the territory which went to form the original vSalina t(nvn was compre- 
hended in the original townships of Manlius and Marcellus, and after, 
the town of Onondaga was set off in 1798, and the military township 
of Marcellus was organized as a civil town (co incident with the county 
organization), that part of the Salt Reservation not taken into Onon- 
daga and lying on the west side of the lake and creek, was attached to 
Camillus. For the formation of Salina town, the nine and one-half 
lots in the northeast corner of Manlius were taken and with the JSalt 
Reservation, formed this town. With the incorporation of the city of 
Syracuse in 1848, Salina was reduced to its present area by setting off 
what had been the villages of Geddes and Syracuse. 



934 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

The act under which the village of Salina was laid out contains the 
following: 

Be it enacted, that the superintendent shall, on the grounds adjoining to the south- 
east side of Free street, so named on the map of the Salt Springs, made by the Sur- 
veyor-General, lay out a square for the village, consisting of sixteen blocks, each six 
chains sijuare, with intermediate streets, conforming to the streets laid down on the 
said map, made by the Surveyor-General, and divide each lot into four house lots, 
and deliver a map and descrii)tion thereof to the Surveyor-General. 

The act further provided that no lot should be sold for a less sum 
than $40, and that no lot on which there was a building worth $50 
should be liable to be sold, if the owner or occupant should agree to 
obtain a deed for it, at the average price of other lots sold. Thus was 
laid the foundation of what is now the city of Syracuse. 

Almost simultaneously with the settlement of Major Danforth and 
Comfort Tyler in the Hollow, the first settlers established their rude 
houses near the salt springs. The first houses were not only primitive ; 
they were peculiar. The sills were laid on four posts which were set 
up with plates on the top. The posts were grooved on the sides 
facing" each other and into these grooves were dropped the ends of 
sticks laid horizontally one upon the other, forming the rough sides of 
the building. The outside was then plastered with clay or mud inter- 
mixed with straw, making a comfortable, if a queer looking dwelling. 

During the year 1789, and possibly in one or two instances in 1788, 
Nathaniel Loomis, Hezekiah Olcott, Asa Danforth, jr., John Danforth 
(brother of the major), Thomas Gaston, and a Deacon Loomis settled at 
Salina, made their homes, and most of them became prominently iden- 
tified with the salt industry. Mr. Olcott became a member of the Fed- 
eral Company, organized only a few years later for the manufacture of 
salt on a large scale. In 1700 Col. Jeremiah Gould, with his three 
sons, Jeremiah, James, and Phares, and one daughter, removed from 
Westmoreland to Salina. This family became prominent in the com- 
munity, and the pioneer has the credit of building the first frame house 
at Salina in 1792, which was also the first one built in the county. 

In 1791 Samuel Jerome left his home in Saratoga county, visited the 
salt springs, and on his return took a little salt with him through the 
towns of Pompey, Fabius, Homer, and Manlius, reporting to eager list- 
eners that he had found the " promised land." This was the means of 
inducing other families to settle at Salina. Among these were a family 
named Woodworth, and another named Sturges, the first names of 
whom were lo.st in the scattered records of the village in early times. 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 935 

On the 2d of March, 1792, Isaac Van Vleck removed to Sahna from 
Kinderhook, N.Y., with his wife and four children His was the sixth 
family to become permanent residents of the place. Mr. Van Vleck 
is credited with building the first arch for a kettle for salt lioiling. 
He was prominent in the little settlement until his death which took 
place about 1800. His son, Abraham, was born at Salina October 16, 
1792,1 and is believed to have been the first white child born within 
the present limits of Syracuse, and the first white male child born in 
Onondaga county. He was born in what was afterwards known as the 
Schouten house, which was used later for a blacksmith shop, corner of 
Exchange and Free streets. Isaac Van Vleck's family consisted of 
three sons, named Matthew, Abraham, and Henry, and three daugh- 
ters. Henry Van Vleck removed to Illinois and died there; Matthew 
became a prominent citizen and a large land owner; he held the ofhce 
of supervisor many years and was a member of assembly in 1833. He 
was killed while on a hand car in a collision on the Oswego and vSyra- 
cuse Railroad. After Isaac Van Vleck's death his wife removed to 
Pittstown, Rensselaer county, where Abraham learned his trade of tan- 
ner and currier. After following it some years he returned to Salina 
in 1834 with his family and lived there until his death in 18(J7. James 
Van Vleck, of Salina, and Isaac, of Clay, were sons of Abraham. The 
late Mrs. O'Blennis, of Salina, was a daughter of the pioneer Isaac \"an 
Vleck. She lived to a great age and was authority for many valuable 
historical facts. She stated that in 1792 there were in Salina, besides 
those above mentioned, Josiah Olcott and James Peat. 

Sometime in the year 1702 Phares Gould built what was known as a 
mud house. It was constructed by laying up one upon another narrow 
strips of boards flatwise on the four sides, lapping the ends at the cor- 
ners, and filling between the boards with clay. The roof was made of 
rough planks split from logs. By the close of the year 1792 there had 
been built eight or nine dwellings, two of which were of mud (so- 
called), one frame (Jeremiah Gould's) and the others of logs. Three 
of these houses stood on what is now Salina street (called in early times 
Canal street) and as many more on Free street near Carbon, as those 
streets now appear. No sales of land had yet been made and settlers 
erected their houses wherever their fancy dictated. 

1 About the time of Mr. Van Vleck's birth an Indian was accidentally drowned at Oswego 
Falls, and the grief of the dead native's friends bore so heavily upon them that they named 
Abraham " Ne-un-hoo-tah," meaning sorrow for the departed. He was always called thus by the 
Indians, whose friendship for him was lasting and unwavering. 



936 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

If we leave out of consideration the marsh lots near the lake, the 
surroundings of wliich were unwholesome, no fairer spot could be 
found on which to found a village than the rising uplands of Salina. 
This rounded, rising lake shore was covered with original forest or 
with a heavy second growth, from among the shore line shadows of 
which could be seen the placid lake and the distant wood crowned hill- 
sides, now covered with the dwellings and shops of Geddes. The lake 
and nearby streams were filled with fish for the table, first among which 
was the noble salmon, and the forests abounded with game of various 
kinds. It was fortunate for the pioneers that such was the fact, for 
provisions in the early years were scarce and difificult to obtain. Such 
as could be procured came from Tioga, or Herkimer, or Whitestown, 
and were brought only in small quantities and at irregular intervals. 
Suffering for necessary articles of diet was not unknown. On several 
occasions in 1792-3, when there was a scarcity of provisions, boats were 
sent from Salt Point to Kingston, Canada, by way of Oswego, and re- 
turned with welcome stores. According to Clark, an old resident 
stated that " they at different times procured bread, biscuits, salted 
meat, and fish that were made and cured in England, which, though of 
inferior quality, were nevertheless accepted with a relish which hunger 
never fails to give." There was no grist mill nearer than Asa Dan- 
forth's small affair, on Butternut Creek, and the first corn raised or 
brought to Salina was pounded into meal in the hollowed top of a 
stump. But the scarcity of provisions continued only a few years. 
Deer were then so numerous that they often herded with cows and 
came home with them at night. Bears, wolves, foxes, coons, and other 
small animals were also very plentiful. The Indians caught many 
young bears and traded them to the settlers, who in turn exchanged 
them with the boatman for provisions. Prominent among the very 
early boatmen was a man known as Captain Canute, who ran a boat 
hither from Albany, bringing in provisions, etc., in exchange for salt, 
furs, young bears and other animals, for which he found a ready market 
to the eastward. 

During the year 17;)3 a number of families joined their fortunes with 
the little community at Salt Point. Thomas Orman came and brought 
the first caldron kettle in which to boil salt, and Aaron Bellows, a 
good cooper, was a welcome accession, as he was able to supply the 
needed barrels for packing the staple product, Simon Phares (followed 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 937. 

in 1796 by Andrew Phares) and William Gilchrist also settled there in 
that year. The latter has been given credit for having kept the first 
public liouse; but it is certain that Elam Schouton kept a tavern earlier 
(1791-2) and was succeeded by Isaac Van Vleck in 1793. Andrew 
Phares was justice of the peace from 1808 to 1821, and held ofifice in 
the militia. He, with his wife and daughter Lois, then one year old, 
made a journey to New Brunswick, N. J., on horseback in the year 
1812, when there was no wagon road over much of the distance. 

Sometime in the year 1793, Isaac Van Vleck rendered the little set- 
tlement a great service by journeying to Albany and returning with a 
large grinding mill, which he set up in Mr. Bellows's cooper shop, and 
thither the settlers brought their corn to be ground. In the same year 
John Danforth, a brother of Asa, built the second frame house in the 
the place, and at about the same time Isaac Van Vleck and Asa Dan- 
forth, jr., built better dwellings for themselves. The lumber for these 
structures was brought, in part at least, from Little Falls in bateaux, 
and the nails came from Albany. At the close of 1793 there were only 
sixty-three persons in the community and of these more than twenty 
were ill. The first settlers discovered at once that they had located 
amid unwholesome surroundings. The decaying vegetation of the 
marshes which were alternately overflowed and then left to give out 
their deadly vapors, and perhaps other conditions not so well under- 
stood, caused an alarming prevalence of fevers of the various types, 
and the resultant sickness and mortality was frightful. At times there 
were not enough well persons in the community to properly care for the 
sick. Under these circumstances the Indians were exceedingly kind 
and lightened the burdens of many families. Dr. David Holbrook, 
who had settled at Jamesville, probably as the first resident physician 
in the county, came over daily and was faithful in attendance upon the 
afflicted. In 1797 Dr. Burnett settled at Salina and thereafter shared 
in caring for the sick. The question has been seriously asked whether 
Salina would not have been depopulated from this cause before the be- 
ginning of the century, had it not been for the stimulating incentive of 
the probable future iinportance of the place as a wealth-creating center 
through the salt industry. By about the year 1800 the prevailing 
fevers were much reduced by drainage of the low lands, but they were 
not wholly dispelled until the later lowering of the outlet of the lake. 
Hon. Thomas G. Alvord states that as late as 1880 he has s^en the 
118 



938 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

canal bridge covered with persons just well enough to get out of doors, 
leaning on the railings to get the benefit of the sunshine. 

One of the first settlers at Green Point was Mr. Lamb, who carried 
on farming. Mrs. O'Blennis related the following interesting incident 
in connection with this famil}' : 

In 1793, when Mr. Lamb's daughter was about fourteen years old, she was left 
alone in the rude house while he attended to his farm work. Hearing a noise in the 
house, Mr. Lamb approached and saw an Indian kissing his daughter and taking 
liberties with her. Mr. Lamb killed the Indian on the spot and fled to Salina. The 
Indians declared they must have his life, according to their custom. The chiefs 
were called together, with Ephraim Webster as interpreter, and the facts were nar- 
rated. A council was held (the last one at Salina) and Kiacdote stepped forward, 
threw off his blanket and commanded attention. He then related the circumstances 
to the tribe and said it was the first time an Indian had ever been known to insult a 
white squaw. He declared that the killing was justifiable and that Mr. Lamb must 
not be punished. This decision was adopted, provided Mr. Lamb would pay to the 
relatives of the dead Indian, a three-year-old heifer, which was to cement peace and 
good will between the posterity of both parties forever. 

Meanwhile settleinent began to reach out to other points in the town. 
John Danforth began making salt in 1794 at Liverpool, and was soon 
followed by Patrick Riley, Joseph Gordon, James Armstrong, and 
Charles Morgan. John O'Blennis located at Green Point and was 
making salt there in 1794. In the same year Elisha Alvord, father of 
Thomas G. Alvord, ^ settled at Salina, whither he was followed four 
years later by his brother. Dioclesian. Both of these men became 
prominent citizens and foremost in developing the infant salt industry. 
Immediately upon the arrival of Elisha Alvord at vSalina he began to 
make his presence felt. He engaged in salt manufacturing and had 
the honor of erecting the first permanent structure under which salt 
was made. In 1808 he was appointed to lay out what was known as 
the " Salt Road," extending from Salina north through Cicero and on 
to vSackett's Harbor. In 1808 he and his brother built the first brick 
building within the present limits of Syracuse, which is still standing 
on the southeasterly corner of Salina and Exchange streets. The 
brick for this building were made by David Marshall on the banks of 
the Yellow Brook near where it crossed South Salina street between 
Jefferson and Onondaga streets. The stone in the cellar wall were 
quarried in the line of what is now Center street, in the First ward. 
The Alvord brothers kept a hotel a few years in this building. 

1 An extended sketch of Hon. Thoma.s G. Alvord appears on a .subsequent page of this work. 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 



939 




The Old Alvord Building. 



Upon the organization of the town in 1809, Elisha Alvord was chosen 
supervisor; he was also prominent in the early militia and rose to the 
position of first major. He was conspicuous in the organization of the 
Federal Company in Salina for the more extensive and systematic 
manufacture of salt. This company was composed of himself, Jede- 
diah vSanger of Oneida, Thomas Hart, Ebenezer Butler of Pompey, 
Hezekiah O 1 c o 1 1 , 

Daniel Keeler, and , 

Asa Danforth. Ow- 
ing to disagreements 
this company was 
bought out by the 
two Alvords about 
two years later and 
their interests were 
thus combined. Mr. 
Alvord removed from 
the county in 1813, 
and died in July, 
1846, at Lansingburg. 

Dioclesian Alvord died in Salina March 10, 1868, aged ninety -two years. 
In 1793 the settlers at Salina became fearful of attack by the Indians. 
War was still going on between the western tribes and settlers, and 
the belligerent feeling extended among the Six Nations to some ex- 
tent. Moreover, the condition of things on the northern frontier, 
where the British still held control, was such as to render an attack 
from that quarter imminent. The capture of a boat load of stores at 
Three River Point, which belonged to Sir John Johnson, by a party 
of thirty or forty men, aroused the ire of the British officers, who de- 
termined that a body of soldiers and Indians under Johnson and 
Brant, should make a sudden descent upon the Onondaga settlements, 
where it was assumed most of the party who had captured the boat re- 
sided. The collection of duties on American boats by the British gar- 
rison at Oswego was the prime cause of the attack on Johnson's boat. 
The British had employed spies to give notice of any boat designing 
to "run" the fort, and through this agency several had been con- 
fiscated. Two of the spies had been captured by the Americans and 
publicly whipped at Salina. While no real collision occurred, there 
was anxiety and foreboding at Salina which extended in lesser degree 



940 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

to other points. Many families made serious preparaticns to leave 
their homes until the danger was passed. For consultation upon the 
subject a meeting- was held at Onondaga Valley and Johnson Russell 
was sent to Albany to explain the situation to Governor Clinton. These 
measures resulted in the erection of the old block-house, a description 
and the location of which have been given in an earlier chapter. A 
committee of public safety was appointed consisting of Moses De Witt, 
Isaac Van Vleck, Thomas Orman, Simon Phares, and John Danforth. 
The block house was built by Cornelius Higgins and was finished be- 
fore the beginning of 1795, It was made of square oak timbers and 
was surrounded by a high palisade of cedar posts. The building was 
about twenty feet high and pierced with port holes. The garrison con- 
sisted of a company of grenadiers, whose headquarters had been at 
Onondaga Hill. The old block-house was not long used as a military 
post and subsequently served a more peaceful purpose as a State store- 
house for salt. 

David Brace settled at Salina in 1794 and became prominent in the 
community, as also did his descendants. His brother, Horace, was an 
early settler and both were merchants during many years. While still 
young, David carried the mail on horseback to Oswego, when he had to 
find his way by the aid of marked trees. 

Benajah Byington was prominent among the early salt workers, and 
spent a great deal of time and money in boring wells on the high 
ground away from the lake shore. He died February 8, 1854. 

Oris Curtis was a pioneer as early, probably, as 1795. He was 
father of Fisher Curtis, who became quite prominent as a merchant and 
manufacturer, and was at one period in company with Elisha Alvord 
in mercantile business; he also had a store on the corner of Free and 
Spring streets. He was elected first president of Salina village in 
1824 and was town clerk in 1810. The family was from Farmington, 
Conn., the former home of the Alvords. Oris Curtis died at the early 
age of thirty-eight years on January 23, 1804, and Fisher Curtis died at 
fifty-one years of age on the 27th of April, 1831. 

To supply the household needs of the settlers Benjamin Carpenter 
opened a store in 1795, in which he traded in furs, trinkets, ammuni- 
tion, etc., with the Indians, and in general goods with the white fam- 
ilies. Mr. Carpenter died in vSalina and his famil}^ removed west. 
Judge William Stevens, the first salt superintendent, lived at Elbridge 
prior to 1797, when he removed to Salina, and in association with Mr, 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 94^ 

Gilchrist and Isaac Van Vleck, took the preHminary steps in tlic year 
just named for placing a State duty on salt. Mr. Stevens died in 1801. 
Rial Bingham was the first justice of the peace at Salina, removing 
there from Three River Point about 1796. 

William Kellogg, from Vermont, settled at Salina probably before 
1800 and died on the 21st of March, 1819, at the age of sixty years. 
He was father of Ashbel Kellogg, one of the prominent citizens of the 
town and an early surveyor, who lived and died on the corner of Bear 
and Lodi streets. His daughter became the wife of Thomas G. Alvord. 

Thaddeus Ball, who died January 15, 1815, must have settled prior 
to 1800. His sons were James and "Jack," the latter of whom held 
the office of salt inspector. He finally removed to New Orleans and 
established coarse salt fields there. The widow of Thaddeus Ball mar- 
ried James Matthews, brother of vSamuel R. Matthews. 

Thomas Wheeler was a prominent Salina pioneer at about the becrin- 
ning of the century, and died March 30, 1863, at the age of eighty-one 
years. He was a practical surveyor and also carried on a store on the 
north side of the canal, in which locality most of the early business 
was transacted. His wife was a daughter of John J. Mang, one of the 
first German settlers there. Mr. Wheeler was interested in salt-making. 
His sister married Dioclesian Alvord. 

Ichabod Brackett located at Salina about 1800 and became a leading 
merchant and shipper and accumulated wealth through his business 
ability and shrewdness. He was also interested in the salt business, and 
built a dwelling and store combined on the corner of Exchange and Park 
streets. He died in October, 1832. 

The foregoing names include nearly all who settled at Salina previous 
to the beginning of the century and who became at all prominent 
in the history of the place. Quite a large part of the settlers during 
this period, and for many years afterwards, were laboring men, pos- 
sessing little else than sturdy muscles to give them a livelihood. The 
record of such lives has passed away, except as their labors made an 
imperishable impress upon the early growth of the community and 
its great industry. During the first decade of the present century the 
village increased considerably, keeping pace with the increasing mag- 
nitude of the salt industry; but its most rapid growth was during the 
succeeding ten years. In the entire absence of the records of this 
period only brief annals have been collected from the few old residents 
of the village who are still living. Among the men who settled at 



942 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Salina and conducted some kind of business during- the period just pre- 
ceding the organization of the town, or soon afterward, may be men- 
tioned the following: 

Richard Goslin had a store on the north side of Free street, and was 
for a time a partner with Elisha Alvord. Richard C. Johnson kept a 
store also in that vicinity and near the pump house. Isham West 
located early as a hatter, on Salina street; his sister married Fisher 
Curtis. Davenport Morey was an early merchant and also started 
a distillery near the site of the Excelsior Mills; he also had a brew- 
ery in association with Ashbel Kellogg, at the foot of Bear street. 
Still later he established a distillery on the site of the Greenway brew- 
ery. Samuel P. Smith was a cabinetmaker, the first in Salina of any 
prominence. Thomas McCarthy settled in Salina in 1808 and won the 
foremost position as merchant and salt manufacturer. His early store 
was situated on Free street. He became prominent in public affairs, 
was member of assembly one term, trustee of the village many years, 
and one of the directors of the first bank in the village. He was father 
of the late Dennis McCarthy, the leading merchant and active politician 
of Syracuse. 

David W. Hollister settled in Salina in 1808, and for a time carried 
on a bakery. Later he attained a conspicuous position. He built the 
first saw mill in Geddes where he lived in later years. He held the 
office of poormaster and was in military service in the war of 1812, at 
Oswego. He married Ruth Phares in 1815. His son, the late James 
W. Hollister, who was deputy sheriff from 18(35 to 1877, was born in 
Geddes in 1822. 

Dean Richmond's father and his uncles, John and Anson Richmond, 
removed to Salina from Vermont before 1810 and were interested in 
the salt industry. Anson died of cholera in 1832. Dean Richmond 
remained some years at Salina and took an interest in boating opera- 
tions; at a later date he was a merchant on Exchange street. He was 
a man of great capacity and, as is well known, eventually became one 
of the leading railroad presidents and Democratic politicians of the 
country, with his residence in Batavia, later in Buffalo. 

William D. Stewart, son of David vStewart, was one of the noted men 
of Syracuse. He was born at Salt Point in 1805 and after limited 
schooling was employed two years in the old Eagle tavern. He then was 
employed by Philo D. Mickles, who was running a boat between wSalina 
and Oswego. Later he was connected with some of the stage lines. About 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 



!J43 



1829 he beg-an manufacturing- salt, but he soon saw his opportunitx- in 
the demand for passenger transportation on the Erie Canal and (itted up 
a packet boat which he commanded with great success for seventeen 
years. He then conducted the Welland House in Oswego two }'ears. 
after which he was pro])rietor of the old Syracuse House which attained 
great popularity under his management. In 1865 Caj^tain Stewart was 
elected mayor of the city by the Democrats and was twice re-elected. 
He died on August 9, 1874. 

Russell Buckley was another early boatman and is said to have taken 
the first load of salt through the Erie Canal from Salina to Utica. His 
son, Christopher Buckley, was one of the unfortunate victims of the 
so-called patriot war in Canada and was executed. 

The community settled around the salt springs and the farmers who 
had made considerable improvements throughout the town, now felt 
the need of a town organization with which they would feel a closer 
identification than they did with Onondaga. The feeling of rivalry 
between Salina village and the villages in the Valley and on the Hill was 
rapidly augmenting and exerted an influence towards the formation of 
the new town. The act organizing the town was passed on the 28th of 
March, 1809, and at the first town meeting the following officers were 
chosen: Elisha Alvord, supervisor; Fisher Curtis, town clerk; Rufus 
Danforth, Martin Wandle, Richard C. Johnson, Henry Bogardus, as- 
sessors; Michael Mead, William Buckley, jr., and Jonathan Fay, com. 
missioners of highways. The early elections were held one day in 
Geddes (which town was then a part of vSalina), one-half day in Liver- 
pool, closing with a day at Salina; later and down to 1846 they were 
held one-half day at Geddes, one-half day at Liverpool, one day in 
Syracuse and one day in Salina. The polls in Salina were long located 
in the old Eagle tavern. 

The tax list of the old town of Sahna is in existence for the, year 
1809, and bears considerable interest and value, as indicating who were 
the more prominent residents of the town at that early date, and the 
rate of taxation. It is as follows : 



Haley Adams, and Ashbel 
Kellogg 

E. and D. Alvord 

Abijah Adams 

Moses Averill ... 

Asahel Alvord 



Valuation. Tax. Valualion. Tax. 

Lsaiah Bunce 1.597 9.1)8 

$300 1.88 Benajah Byington, and 

8,500 58.13 Thad. M. Wood 1,630 lO.I'J 

200 1.25 Heirs of Bray ton 200 1.25 

430 2.69 Robert Brown and Noah 

75 .47 Tnbbs 300 1.88 



944 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



Valuation. 

Wm. Beach 700 

Heirs of Bellows 599 

Wm. J. Bulkley 1,355 

Christopher Bulkley 275 

Henry Bulkley 200 

Henry Burgess 200 

David Blye 400 

Ichabod Brackett 1 , 330 

Henry Bogardus. 725 

Lewis Brown. 50 

J. and T. Gilbert 700 

E. R. Gilchrist 200 

Timothy Gilchrist 200 

Wm. Gilchrist G50 

Leonard Grove 225 

James Gallagher 300 

Francis Hale 200 

Henry Hughes 125 

Abel Hawley 275 

David Horner 200 

David Haynes 275 

Joseph Haskin 400 

Richard C. Johnson 875 

John Lane 142 

Peter Lane 470 

John Lord 500 

George Loomis 100 

Jacob Lamberson 100 

Samuel Lowell 275 

Martin Lamb 50 

Samuel G. Bishop 200 

Wm. Brown 175 

Alanson Bacon 100 

John C. Brace 100 

Enoch Chambers 450 

LutherCoe 120 

Fisher Curtis 675 

Wm. Culver 100 

Samuel Dolson 30 

John Dexter, jr 100 

David Dear . _ 470 

Asa Danforth, jr. 600 

John Danforth 150 

Samuel Danforth 225 

Rufus Danforth 1,125 

Isaac Douglass 75 



Tax. 
4.38 
3.74 
8.47 
1.72 
1.25 
1.25 
2.50 
8.31 
4.53 

.31 
4. 38 
1.25 
1.25 
4.06 
1.41 
1.87 
1.25 

.73 
1.72 
1.25 
1.72 
2.50 
5.47 



3.13 
.63 
.63 

1.72 
.31 

1.25 

1.09 
.63 
.63 

2.81 
.75 

4.20 
.63 
.19 
.63 

2.93 

3.75 
.93 

2.03 

7.03 
.46 



Vahtation. Tax. 

Wm. Dyckman 75 .46 

Samuel Eaton 450 2. 81 

Ralph Eaton 166 1.03 

Jonathan Fay 200 1. 25 

AsaFoot ... 200 1.25 

James Lamb 275 1.72 

Caleb Lyon 350 1.56 

James McKillop 255 1.59 

John Jacob Mang 200 1.25 

Davenport Morey 600 3. 75 

Dennis Mayo .. 100 .68 

Jo.seph Mann 275 1.72 

Michael Mead. 200 1.25 

Nicholas Mickles & Co. . 675 4.22 
Barney and Patrick 

McCabe 175 1.09 

Gordon Needham 320 2.00 

Thomas Ormon 375 2. 34 

Ebby Polly 75 .47 

Lemuel Pease 50 .31 

Amnie C. Pond 275 1.72 

Alanson Person 200 1.25 

Andrew Pharis 350 2.17 

Simon Pharis 100 .63 

EHsha Phillips, jr 230 1.44 

Jonathan Russell 830 5.19 

Samuel Rogers 166 1.03 

CornehusScouton . 627 3.92 

John Sebring 100 .63 

Moses S. Sheldon 105 .65 

Nathan Smith 50 .31 

Israel S. Sampson .. 175 1.09 

John N. Smith 220 1.38 

Moses Sutherland 100 .63 

Rufus Stan ton 100 .63 

Wm. Sutherland 100 .63 

Adam Trask 1,000 6.25 

Sheldon Thrall 100 .63 

Henry Taggart 200 1 . 25 

ElijahF.Toles 175 1.09 

John W. Tyler... 100 .36 

Christian Usenbentz 250 1.56 

J acob Van Tassell 200 1.25 

Thaddeus M. Wood 750 4.68 

Abraham and Charles 

Walton 3,000 18.75 



Valuation. 


Tax. 


150 


.94 


50 


.31 


50 


.31 


200 


1.25 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 945 

Valuation. Tax. 

Martin Wandell 642 4. 01 Peter Wales 

thos. Wheeler 525 3.28 Joel Wilmer 

Chauncey and Nathan James Wilson 

Woodruff 100 .63 Peter Young 

Wm. Woodruff 175 1.09 

Wm. Wentworth 175 1.09 Total $53,042 §533.68 

Oliver Woodruff 200 1.25 

These were livinjj in not only the present town of Salina but also in 
the village of that name and in the town of Geddes. The figures in- 
clude all of the State, county, and town tax for that year. Twenty- 
four persons were taxed for personal property on valuations from $25 
to $1,500, the total being $5,056. E. and D. Alvord had the highest 
valuation of personal property, $1,500, and Ichabod Brackett had 
$1,000. Ten persons were taxed on personal property alone, the total 
being $1,050. Fifty-nine were taxed on salt property, indicating the 
very earl)^ importance of that industry. Thirty-four of these had no 
other taxable property. The lowest valuation of salt property was 
Samuel Dolson, which was $30. 

The salt industry, the key to the prosperity of the town, began to as- 
sume large proportions early in the century. That necessary commodity 
brought a high price during the next four years and the market was 
practically unlimited. While there was no manufacturing of much ac- 
count in the town outside of salt, that in itself was sufficient to engross 
the attention of a large part of the inhabitants. Mercantile operations 
multiplied and a general air of thrift and growth characterized the 
community. The opening of the middle section of th~e canal in 1820, 
and the cutting of a lateral canal to the salt works in the same year 
gave still further stimulus to the town. • 

The war of 1812 had little appreciable effect on the villages of Salina 
and Liverpool in a business sense, but it excited the apprehensions of 
the inhabitants to a considerable extent, who anticipated an invasion 
by the British by way of Oswego. Communication by water to Lake 
Ontario was comparatively easy and it was considered extremelj' prob- 
able that the post at Oswego would be captured. Many American 
soldiers passed through Salina on their way to the frontier, which 
tended to further stimulate apprehension. These fears were finally 
dispelled and progress was more rapid than before. 

About the year 1820 or a little earlier Henry Seymour, father of 
Horatio Seymour, and Sylvester Peck built a saw mill in the vicinity of 
the site of the present chemical works building. The mill was operated 
1X9 



946 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

by water brought in a ditch from Onondaga Creek near the Chlorine 
Springs, where a low dam deflected a part of that stream. The mill 
had two upright saws and a general lumber business was carried on. 
This mill was burned in 1840 and a new one erected, which was taken 
down in 1853 and a steam mill with a gang of upright saws built in its 
place, with also a circular saw, a planer and other machinery. Elizur 
Clark, who settled in Salina in 1823, began lumber business under lease 
from Mr. Seymour in 1834, and for a time was in partnership with 
Horatio Seymour. In 1846 he purchased the mill and all the accessories 
and later sold one-half interest to Thomas G. Alvord, and the firm of 
Clark & Alvord carried on the business vmtil 1863, when it was closed 
up. The mill property was leased to the Salt Company of Onondaga 
and was burned about 1876. Mr. Clark became a leading citizen, was 
identified with the banking interests of Syracuse and was one of the 
first aldermen of the First ward of the city; in 1863 he represented his 
district in the Legislature. 

In 1823 there were about twenty stores in Salina village many of 
which have been mentioned. One of the leading establishments was 
that of William Clark, which was on the westerly side of the Oswego 
Canal, on Free street, where most of the business houses were then 
congregated. Mr. Clark bought the old brick hotel, described as hav- 
ing been built by the Alvords in 1808. Thomas McCarthy's store was 
near Mr. Clark's. Ezra M. Knapp located there about 1822 and built 
a distillery and a flouring mill, which was burned. At a later date he 
had a store on Salina street. 

The old Eagle tavern was a famous hostelry and was conducted by 
Jonathan R. Beach as early as 1810. He was an excellent violin player, 
and during many years taught dancing and deportment to the early 
Salt Pointers. He was afterwards a member of the mercantile firm of 
Beach & Foot. The Eagle tavern was afterwards owned by a Mrs. 
Field and managed by her son, Albert Field. It stood about opposite 
the site of the street car barns on Salina street. Richard Sanger, 
father of Augustus H. Sanger, kept the house a long time and was a 
prominent citizen. Another hotel stood on the opposite side of Salina 
street near the car barn site, which was kept for a period by Augustus 
H. Scoville. These buildings and others in the vicinity were burned 
in the destructive fire of 1856. 

Alonzo Crippen was a well known citizen, conducted a grocery on 
Free street, engaged in salt making, and later built a brick building on 
the site of the Moyer wagon works. 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 947 

The firm of Williams & Co., composed of Coddington, Gordon, and 
Frank Williams, had a store near the canal which they subsequently 
removed and then built a brick structure on Exchange street which is 
still standing. Ira H. Williams, a brother of Frank, subsec^uently 
bought out the others. Hezekiah Barnes, Noah Wood, Jeremiah 
wStevens, Richmond, Marsh & Clark, Barnes & Fifield, Hunter Crane, 
Felt & Barlow, Crane & Risley, Williams & Allen, James Lynch, and 
others had stores at various periods on Exchange street after it was 
opened in 1827-8. Most of these men were among the more prominent 
of the place. 

Asa Foot and Roger Bates were a firm of early blacksmiths, and later 
Mr. Foot had a shop alone on the site of the Kearney brewery. Chris- 
topher Nott was an early wagonmaker on Carbon street, and Albert B. 
Congdon was a carpenter and builder who lived in later years in the 
central part of the city. He was killed by a runaway horse in Septem- 
ber, 1880. Seth Castle was another carpenter, who died in January, 
1872. 

Burr Burton was for many years one of the prominent salt manu- 
facturers and business men of Salina, where he settled about 1820. A 
son of Stephen and Olive Burton, natives of Vermont, he was born at 
Onondaga Hill in April, 1804, and died here at the hands of an assassin, 
who shot him while he was standing in the front door of his house. May 
4, 1865. He also erected a foundry and was interested in various busi- 
ness enterprises. 

Deacon Stanton P. Babcock removed from Connecticut at an early 
day and settled at Salina. He possessed wealth and his son, who pre- 
ceded him to their new home, was at one time a partner in mercantile 
business with Ira H. Williams. Deacon Babcock died April 1, 1857, 
aged seventy-eight years. 

Charles O. Holbrook, who was many years a clerk in the stores of 
Dioclesian Alvord and Thomas McCarthy, settled early in Salina. He 
was a son of Dr. David Holbrook, who has been mentioned herein, and 
lived on the corner of First North and Bear streets in a house that is 
still standing. 

John G. Forbes was the first lawyer of any note to settle in Salina 
and he became a prominent citizen of Onondaga county. He was act- 
ive in politics and was member of assembly in 1825. He entered the 
militia as a lieutenant in Col. Thaddeus M. Wood's regiment in May, 
1809, and rose by several promotions to the rank of colonel in 1817; he 
resigned in 1820. He subsequently removed to Syracuse. Enos D. 



948 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL 

Hopping practiced law in Salina.in the early times. He was a brother- 
in-law of Dean Richmond, was appointed brigadier-general of volun- 
teers by President Polk, and died in camp in the Mexican war. 

Before the close of the first quarter of the present century the vil- 
lages of Salina and Syracuse were engaged in a spirited rivahy. The 
opening of the canal through the latter village in 1825 gave it a good 
groundwork for boasting of its prospects, while the older village prided 
itself upon its men of wealth, its enormous and growing salt works, 
and the general colidity of its institutions. Liverpool, too, had become 
a large and active community, and considerable progress had been 
made in Geddes, then in this town. The interests of Salina village 
finally became so extensive and its public affairs of such importance 
that village incorporation was determined upon. The act of incorpo- 
ration was passed INIarch 12, 1824, and at the succeeding charter elec- 
tion Fisher Curtis, Henry C. Rossiter, James Shankland, and Jonathan 
R. Beach were chosed the first board of trustees. Fisher Curtis was 
selected as the first president, and Ashbel Kellogg, clerk ; S. R. Mat- 
thews, collector; Horace Brace, treasurer; John G. Forbes, attorney. 
The usual village ordinances were put in force, a fire engine was pur- 
chased with other apparatus, new streets were laid out and old ones 
improved. At a public meeting held April 7, 1826, a resolution was 
adopted asking the trustees to report the amount and purposes of the 
expenditures of money for the years 182-4-25. Following is the report: 

A. Whitman for repairing engine $45 00 

L. H. Redrield, printing ordinances, and book 8 75 

Samuel Herron, surveying streets 2 50 

James Shankland, cash paid J. P. Rossiter 1 50 

Ashbel Kellogg, copying assessment rolls . : 3 00 

L. Bacon, making and repairing hose 5 75 

Wm. Dowd, for drag rope 1 17 

A. Smith, for two ladders _.. 10 00 

A. Foot, iron work on engine and fire hooks. 12 SG 

Ephraini S. Durfee, cash paid on firemen's warrants 75 

Wright & Nott, for new wheels to engine G 50 

Ephraim S. Durfee, building engine house 45 61 

For two notices of incorporation of village 4 25 

Notice of amendment, 1825... 4 25 

Reuben St. John, notice of application of renewal, 1825 1 75 

Same notice in State paper 3 00 

Wm. Clark, for 31 lbs. iron for engine and hooks 1 44 

Total - $158 08 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 949 

The collector's warrant called for collection of $250 for the year 
while this report shows the expenditure of only about $158.08. 

At a meeting held in April, 1828, ste])s were taken for opening- Ex- 
change street, and William H. Beach, Matthew Van Vleck and John O. 
Forbes were appointed appraisers. 

A village pound was built in 1828, b}^ Ashbel Kellogg, at a cost of 
$59. 89 ; the license fee for grocers was fixed at $20 and about a dozen 
grocers paid it. In 1829 the old cemetery was given up and block 
number 43, where the cemetery is now situated, was appropriated for 
the purpose. It was appraised on June 11, by Ashbel Kellogg, S. R. 
Matthews, and Roger Bates, at $325. Block 59 (the old cemetery), was 
subdivided and sold at auction at prices for lots ranging from $210 to 
$380. The condition of block 43 at that time may be judged by the 
fact that Richard Molony was paid about $150 for clearing and grub- 
bing on the lot to fit it for interments. ♦ 

Under date of August 10, 1829, the following appears in the records: 
"Mr. Tucker: — Please let Mr. Nathaniel Woodruff have his two hogs 
you have in the village pound by his paying you your fees for impound- 
ing the same." This order was signed by Noah G. Wood, Lyman 
Brown, and I. West. 

The first paving of which the records speak was done in 1829 on 
Canal street. Syracuse street was opened at about the same time, ex- 
tending from "Canal street and running south to connect at Union 
Place with the road leading from vSyracuse to the Court House." A 
considerable fire in February of that year was probably the incentive 
for making additions to the equipment of the fire department. An 
engine house was erected on land belonging to Thaddeus M. Wood, 
under lease; it was situated on Salt street and the building was erected 
by Joel Crane at a cost of $38. A hearse house was also built by Mr. 
Crane at a cost of $44. 

For several years after 1830 the receipts by the village treasurer were 
between $500 and $600 annually. A report of the trustees made in 
1834 explains that they had not sold certain lots in the old cemetery, 
" as real estate is lower than we hoped it would ever be again." Tt 
was a time of doubt as to the future of the village, created largely by 
the then rapid growth of ^Syracuse. In 1837 the village purchased a 
town clock of Jehiel Clark, of Cazenovia, costing $300. The financial 
stringency of that period was then at its height, and for that reason, 
perhaps, the clock was paid for in installments. 



950 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

In 1839 the village appears to have felt an impulse of enterprise and 
various public improvements were begun. A subscription paper is in 
existence bearing the names of many prominent citizens, with the 
amounts they gave towards the public square. An agreement was en- 
tered into between the village and Owen Mackin and Charles Harvey, 
under w^hich the latter were to excavate and properly fill the " Public, 
or Center Square," at an expense of $230. Fifty thousand brick for 
flagging were contracted for and various public improvements were 
made. 

In the year 1841 the receipts of the village had increased to $750, 
while in 1843 the amount rose to nearly $2,000. Streets and sidewalks 
were greatly extended and improved, the fire department improved, 
and in their report for the year 1843 the trustees stated: "We believe 
the improvements of the past two years have had a good effect." 

But with all of its efforts, its salt works, its growing manufactures, 
its hitherto active mercantile business, its energetic men, Salina as the 
metropolis of Onondaga county was doomed. The older and more 
conservative part of the community clearly saw that union with Syra- 
cuse could not be far distant, and when the incorporation of Syracuse 
as a city was determined upon and consummated under act of Legisla- 
ture, dated December 14, 1847, Salina village was made the First ward, 
with the following defined limits: "All that part of the city lying east of 
Onondaga creek and north of Division and Pond streets." 

On the 18th of March, 1848, the town of Salina was reduced to its 
present area by the formation of the town of Geddes. Following is a 
list of the village officers of Salina, as far as they can be collated from 
the fragmentary records in existence : 

1827, trustees, Sylvester F. Peck, Ezra M. Knapp, Thomas McCarthy, Ashbel 
Kellogg, George Gage; treasurer, Hamilton D. Risley; collector, Jacob Burgess. 
1829, trustees, William H. Beach, B. Stocker, Anson Richmond, Voltaire Newton, 
Samuel P. Smith, jr. ; treasurer, Morris Homan ; insj^ector of wood, Noah Tubbs. 
1831, trustees, Noah G. Wood, Erasmus Stone, S. S. Peck, James Beardslee, Hunter 
Crane; treasurer, James Fifield; collector, Joel Wright. 1832, trustees, James Fifield, 
A. Richmond, Hunter Crane, Ashbel Kellogg, William Clark; treasurer, James 
Lynch; assessors, Thomas McCarthy, C. B. Williams, Norris Felt. 1833, trustees, 
Lyman Clary, James J. Rice, Norris Felt, C. B. Williams; treasurer, James Beards- 
lee ; collector, S. Harroun. 1834, trustees, James Beardslee, Giles Williams, Lyman 
Bowen, Lyman Clary, James J. Rice ; treasurer, James Lynch ; collector, S. Black- 
mar; assessors, Ebenezer Rice, Rhesa Griffin, Elijah Clark; 1835, trustees, B. F. 
Williams, Elijah Clark, Lyman Bowen, James Beardslee, Rhesa Griffin ; treasurer, 
Johnson Gordon; assessor, William Clark; collector, William B. Whitmore; 183G, 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 951 

trustees, Elijah Clark, Rhesa Griffin, John Barron, D. E. Bibbins, James Beardslee; 
collector, David G. Johnson; treasurer, Lyman Bacon. 1837, trustees, Ashbel 
Kellogg, William G. Clark, James Lynch, C. B. Williams, E. D. Hopping; treasurer, 
Lyman Bacon; collector, Hiram Harroun; assessors, James J. Rice, Thomas G. 
Alvord, Elijah Clark. 1838, trustees, Johnson Gordon, Burr Burton, James Beards- 
lee, C. B. Williams, E. D. Hopping; treasurer, Lyman Bacon; collector, Sylvester 
House; clerk, Thomas G. Alvord. 1839, trustees, E. D. Hopping, L.Y. Avery, Burr 
Burton, C. B. Williams, Thomas McCarthy; treasurer, Lyman Bacon; collector. 
Nelson Phillips: assessors, Thomas G. Alvord, Elijah Clark, William Clark; 1840, 
trustees, James Lynch, Ira H. Williams, Dennis McCarthy, M. W. Bennett, Elizur 
Clark; treasurer, Lyman Bacon; assessors, Thomas G. Alvord, Elijah Clark, William 
Clark. 1841, trustees, S. Swaney, Elizur Clark, Alonzo Crippen, Ashbel Kellogg, 
Patrick D. Lynch ; treasurer, Wm. Clark ; collector, Charles W. Ladd. 1842, trus- 
tees, Latham Y. Avery, Elizur Clark, Ira H. Williams, Patrick Cooney, Thomas 
Carraher; treasurer, William Clark. 1843, trustees, Elizur Clark, Ira H. Williams, 
L. Y. Avery, Thomas Carraher; treasurer, John Hutchinson; collector, Dennis 
Devoy; assessors, William Clark, Benjamin F. Green. 1844, trustees, Ashbel Kel- 
logg, John BaiTon, A. Crippen, J. H. Swaney, C. A. Nott; treasurer, John Hutchin- 
son; collector, Oliver T. Couch; assessors, Charles Scott, B. F. Green, William 
Clark. 1845, trustees, Thomas McCarthy, A. Crippen, N. B. Clark, Patrick Cooney, 
Benajah A. Avery ; treasurer, Patrick D. Lynch ; collector, Roswell Holmes ; asses- 
sors, B. F. Green, Charles B. Scott, Wm. Clark; fire wardens, David G. Johnson, 
Silas Titus, A. Crippen. 1846, trustees, Elizur Clark, Richard Sanger, Noadiah M. 
Childs, Voltaire Newton, Thomas Doyle; assessors, William Clark, B. F. Green; 
collector, A. A. Wheeler. 1847, trustees, Ehzur Clark, Thomas Doyle, N. M. Childs; 
treasurer, Thomas Eaiil ; assessors, I. R. Ouereau, C. B. Scott, William Popple; 
collector, Patrick Gaffney. 

During the greater portion of the period covering the history of Salina as a vil- 
lage, Thomas G. Alvord was the efficient clerk. 

In the foregoing pages attention has been chiefly directed to the vil- 
lage of Salina, for here the early settlers most congregated. In fact a 
considerable ■ part of the commercial and manufacturing interests of 
the entire county centered in this vicinity during the first quarter 
century of its history. In the chapter devoted to Cicero appears a list 
of the prominent residents in the towns of Salina, Cicero, and Clay 
between the years 1795 and 1825, as preserved by Lewis H. Red field 
about 1830, and to it the reader is referred for the names of those who 
by their industry and enterprise were foremost in developing the 
territory mentioned. 

In 1824 Salina village contained about 100 dwellings and sixty salt manufactories. 
The town, which then embraced the Geddes of that time and Syracuse, contained 
1,814 inhabitants. 111 farmers, 362 manufacturers, four slaves, 454 electors, 1,000 
acres of improved land, 435 cattle, 172 horses, 297 sheep, a grist mill, one saw mill, 
an oil mill, two asheries, four .school houses, and 484 school children. In that year 



952 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

1,414 yards of domestic cloth were made in families. A Gazetteer of 1836 gives 
Salina village one Presbyterian, one Roman Catholic, and one Methodist Episcopal 
church, three taverns, nine stores, a bank with a capital of $150,000, and seventy- 
seven salt manufactories, while Liverpool had two taverns, four stores, and about 
sixty houses, rtiostly of wood. The town at this period contained 883 militia, 1,540 
voters, 11,407 acres of improved land, 2,423 cattle, 1,239 horses, 2,935 sheep, 3,010 
swine, four grist mills, seven saw mills, three iron works, a distillery, two asheries, 
one tannery, a brewery, seventeen school districts, and 947 scholars. During the 
year 1835 6,255 yards of domestic cloth were maniifactured. 

In 1845 the town contained 15,804 inhabitants, 1,864 militia, 3,533 voters, 2,353 
school children, twenty-six common schools, 14,012 acres of improved land, four grist 
mills, four saw mills, four iron works, one trip-hammer, two asheries, two tanneries, 
churches — one Baptist, three Episcopalian, three Presbyterian, a Congregationalist, 
six Methodist, three Roman Catholic, one Universalist, one Unitarian, and one 
Jewish, four wholesale and 103 retail stores, seventy eight groceries, 297 farmers, 130 
merchants, 147 manufacturers, 1,003 mechanics, twenty-one clergymen, thirty-three 
physicians, and forty-one lawyers. These figures took in Syracuse and Geddes as 
well as the village and town of Salina. 

Statistics of 1860, after the town of Salina had been reduced to its present limits: 
Acres of improved land, 6,560; assessed value of real estate, $802,575, and personal 
property, $32,900; dwellings, 417; families, 497; freeholders, 274; horses, 333; cattle, 
394; cows, 427; sheep, 1,557; swine, 674; winter wheat produced in one year, 1,062 
bushels; spring wheat, 44,288 bushels; hay, 1,559 tons; potatoes, 15,550 bushels; 
apples, 4,021 bushels; butter, 44,732 pounds; cheese, 400 pounds; yards of domestic 
cloth, 94. 

The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 and the opening of the Os- 
wego Canal in 1828 contributed materially to the commercial prosperity 
of this town, and especially to the villages of Salina and Liverpool, 
which continued to advance until overshadowed by Syracuse in later 
years. The great salt industry brought into activity scores of other 
enterprises which gave employment to hundreds of skilled mechanics, 
but its inost extensive auxiliary was coopering, or the manufacture of 
barrels, which at one time nearly equaled in extent the business that 
gave it existence. This was largely carried on by Germans, who from 
their earliest settlement here were noted for their thrift and frugality. 
Cooper shops of various capacities flourished throughout the town as 
well as in adjacent territory, and cooperage constituted the chief reve- 
nue and occupation of the masses. The dense forests long furnished 
abundant material, and being contiguous to the constantly increasing 
salt operations were utilized for this purpose to a greater extent than 
elsewhere in the county. This fact explains the absence of asheries, of 
which only two are mentioned in the preceding statistics. 

The Oswego Canal gave a marked impulse to the advancement of 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 953 

Liverpool village, which in early days was called "Little Ireland." 
At an early period, previous to 1800, it was a sprightly hamlet, where 
considerable bartering was done. It was a convenient shipping point 
by water, being situated directly upon the shore of the lake, and but 
for the miasma which enveloped it in those early years, because of the 
territory about it being illy drained, it might have continued to con- 
test with vSalina its claim to greatest prominence. It was also ambitious 
to be the peer of Manlius, but it was never destined to become such. 

The site was laid out as a village by the surveyor-general and given the 
name of Liverpool by the commissioners of the land office. The earliest 
settlers have already been given. During the first twenty years of this 
century it was principally a salt manufacturing point, but as settlers 
took up their homes within its limits the place acquired considerable 
mercantile activit}^ The opening of the canal was the signal for a new 
era of prosperity, and on April 20, 1830, the village was incorporated 
by a special act of the State Legislature. The first charter election 
was held in the school house on the 7th of June of that year, Benjamin 
W. Adams,, presiding, and the following officers were elected: Joseph 
Jaqueth, president; Saul C. Upson, Harvey Kimball, William Wint- 
worth, Sherman Morehouse, and John Paddock trustees; AraGleason, 
Zenas Corbin, and Reuben Norton, assessors; Caleb Hubbard, clerk; 
Jonathan P. Hicks, treasurer; Aaron Van Ostrom, collector; Sher- 
man Morehouse and Samuel C. Godard, constables. The village pres- 
idents have been as follows: 

Joseph Jaqueth, 18B0 ; Samuel C. Upson, 1831 ; James Johnson, 1832 ; John Paddock, 
1833-34; Joseph Hasbrook, 1835; John Paddock, 1836; Jonathan P. Hicks, 1837; 
John Pinney, 1838; E. Ladanis, 1839; Jared Bassett, 1840; John Mathews, 1841-42; 
Jared Bassett, 1843; Dr. Charles S. Sterling, 1844; James Johnson, 1845-46; John 
Matthews, 1847-48; Jared Bassett, 1849; Isaac Sharp, 1850; Edward T. Chany, 1851; 
Henry Clark, 1852; Sampson Jaqueth, 1853; P. Barnes, 1854; Stephen Van Alstyne, 
1855; Charles W. Cornue, 1856; A. S. Tracy, 1857; C. W. Cornue, 1858; Dr. C. S. 
vSterling, 1859; T. B. Anderson, 1860; Jared Bassett, 1861-62; T. B. Anderson, 1863; 
Joseph Jaqueth, 1864; C. W. Cornue, 1865; J. T. Crawford, 1866; A. P. Burtch, 1867; 
David A. Brown, 1868-69; J. J. Moscrip, 1870; O. C. Gleason, 1871 ; Tenant Hinck- 
ley, 1872; Sampson Jaqueth, 1873; R. R. Claxton, 1874; D. F. Gillis, 1875-76; Will- 
iam Gleason. 1877; 1878-1884, records lost; William Gleason, 1885-86; Silas Duell, 
1887; Edward P. Black, 1888-89; Daniel Mathews, 1890; William J. Cake, 1891; 
Silas Duell, 1892; Jacob Smith, 1893; James G. Miller, 1894; Charles G. Alvord, 
1895. 

Liverpool in 1836 contained the stores of J. & J. G. Hasbrook, L. & 
J. Corbin, and Joseph Jaqueth ; Drs. Charles S. Sterling and Caleb 
120 



954 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Hubbard were physicians, Rev. Phineas Kamp was the local clergyman, 
and Joseph Malton presided over the school. A somewhat famous 
school had been established at a very eary day by one Conner, who 
taught the children and made salt at the same time. His was consid- 
ered the best educational institution in the county, was denominated 
"the high school," and was patronized by the residents of Salina and 
Onondaga Hollow. Schools seem to have kept pace with all other in- 
terests. In 1846 the present brick school house in the village was 
erected, to which an addition was made in the rear in 1863. In 1874 
the Liverpool Union Free school was organized and still continues. The 
town now contains eight school districts, in each of which is a com- 
modious school house. 

Joseph and Sampson Jaqueth were for many years leading merchants 
in Liverpool, and contributed by their enterprise and public spirit to 
the growth and development of the place. They were both prominent 
men and left large property interests. Among other merchants were 
John and Henry Paddock, George and Jared Bassett, John S. Forger, 
John Acker, Zenas and Justus Corbin, Peter Smith, Israel and Backus 
Hasbrook, William Manley, Thomas B. Anderson, Aiken & Sons, 
Lucius Gleason, George H. Russell and his father, George F. Sharrer, 
Charles Hasbrouck, Moses Folger, Stephen Van Alstyne, Thomas 
Hand (father of Charles), Miles and Richard Adams; the present ones 
being Charles Hand, Dinehart & Sharrer, George Shaver, Peter and 
Jacob B. Smith, William Gleason, and William F. Lee & Son, Among 
the blacksmiths may be mentioned John Passmore and son William, 
Peter Moschell, Peter Myers, A. B. Wells, Frank Beuscher, and Henry 
Beuscher; wagonmakers and undertakers, James Cronkhite, and John 
G. Boyden; tailors. Tenant Hinckley and Philander Hasbrook (died 
March 33, 1894, aged eighty-six); shoemakers, Mr. Stilson, George 
Cockings, and Morris Wintworth; harnessmakers, George Cockings, 
and Edward Kelly ; physicians, Drs. Charles S. Sterling (died Septem- 
ber 9, 1884, aged eighty), William Seward, J. R. Young, C. vS. Hunt- 
ington, A. B. Randall, and R. A. Whitney. Joseph Jaqueth was an 
early postmaster, and following him in the office were John S. For- 
ger, Jasper T. Crawford, Henry Lynn, George Richburg, and Mar- 
tin Dinehart, incumbent. C. A. Fargo and John S. Forger carried 
on sash, blind, and casket manufacturing for several years in a building 
owned by the Jaqueth estate. Hotels and taverns also formed an im- 
portant part of the village, and among the old-time landlords were 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 955 

Ambrose and George Ingersoll, brothers, who kept a hostelry about 
where the Globe Hotel now stands. The old tavern was burned about 
1870, and George Ingersoll erected the present house near the same 
site, of which vSilas Duell has been proprietor since 1S90. The stone 
hotel was built by Jonathan P. Hicks, and among its occupants were 
A. B. Wells, Harvey Batchelder, Oscar Bunzey, Harvey Crawford, 
and Alonzo Godard, who also kept the Globe for a time. 

During the prosperous period of the salt industry many ])rominent 
salt manufacturers lived in and around Liverpool. William Forger, 
father of John S., was one of the earliest, and commenced his opera- 
tions with a single kettle. Among others were Lucius Larkin, Jason 
Leonard, William Manley, Thomas B. Anderson, Joseph and Sampson 
Jaqueth, Tenant Hinckley, John Paddock, John S. Forger, Henry 
Wycker, George vShaver, Albert Pierce, Jesse McKinley, Peter and 
Jacob Smith, George and Jared Bassett, Thomas Gale, Daniel Mathews, 
Thomas Murray, Lewis T. Hawley, James Duell, Lucius Gleason, 
Duncan W. Peck, Stephen Van Alstyne, Anson S. Lacy (father of 
Henry), John W. Van Alstyne, Nicholas Timmons, Mr, Hutchinson. 
vSalt manufacturing reached the zenith of its prosperity in 1873, when 
the tariff on foreign salt was reduced; after that it steadily declined, 
until great blocks with long rows of kettles which were once valued at 
vast sums of money became practically worthless, while solar salt 
manufacturing also declined. Operations in the last block were discon- 
tinued about 1890. 

But as the salt business decreased, another industry sprung into ex- 
istence and spread over nearly every part of the town. This was the 
raising of willows for baskets. About forty years ago the willow in- 
dustry was inaugurated on a small scale, principally by Germans, who 
turned their earnest attention to the cultivation of this now important 
product and the making of baskets. After about two decades the 
business was quite generally and exclusively developed, and at the 
present time it leads in many sections of Salina all other business in- 
terests. Lucius Gleason was for many years one of the heaviest pro- 
ducers. Among the numerous manufacturers who were instrumental 
in developing the willow industry may be mentioned John Fisher, 
George Miller, Philip and Valentine Bond, Frederick Bauer, John 
Bond, Adam King, Anthony Shauer, and the Biddell brothers. In 
1870 there were produced 8,000 dozen of baskets, in 1892 33,000 dozen, 
the highest number in any one year, and in 1895 about 28,000 dozen 
were turned out. 



956 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Another important industry which created considerable activity in 
Liverpool was the building and repairing of canal boats, which sprung 
up very soon after the Oswego Canal was opened. R. B, Claxton and 
Francis Meloling had a dry dock in the village for many years, while 
Stephen Van Alstyne, John S. Forger, Charles A. Barnes, and others 
carried on boat building, etc. 

At this point it is pertinent to add the names of other settlers and 
citizens to whose energy is due the conversion of a forest-covered ter- 
ritory into a fruitful and attractive section. The following list is taken 
largely from the town records prior to 1840, and includes no doubt 
many who were living in Geddes and vSyracuse, which at that period 
were within the limits of Salina: 

Henry Lake (justice), Stephen W. Cadwell, Benjamin F. Williams (surveyor), 
George H. Patrick, Thomas Rose, Henry Case, Noah Wood, William and 
Elijah Clark, Thomas Bennett, Oliver Teall, Sheldon Pardee, Henry Newton, 
Simeon Spaulding, Samuel P. Smith, James H. Luther, Israel Hasbrook, James 
Lynch, Saul C. Upson, Alfred Northam, Clark Hebbard, Noah H. and John 
H. Smith, James Johnson, Alanson Edwards, jr., Charles L. Skinner, Caleb Hub- 
bard, Thomas McCarthy, Zenas Church, Henry Lamb, Ralph Bulkley, George 
Siperly, Ovias Abel, Levi Higby, William Schuyler, Jacob G. Willard, Gershom 
Brown, Asahel Reed, Charles Kilmer, Hugh Gregg, James B. Jerome, James Beards- 
lee, Thomas Rexford, James L Rice, Henry Devoe, Elijah W. Curtis, David G. 
Montgomery, Heman H. Phillips, John F. Wyman, Jerome L Briggs, Thomas Sam- 
mons, Harvey Kimball, Benjamin F. Green (surveyor), James Bates, John W.Wood- 
ward, George Stevens, John C. Dunham, Ira H. Williams, Darius A. Orcott, David 
S. Earll (died June 24, 1894, aged over 95), Samuel C. Goddard, Lucius Goddard 
(born here, and died June 16, 1894, aged 74), John Whitney (died in 1892), Isaac 
Secor (father of Hulstead), David D. Miller (father of Peter), Willard, Lucius, Will- 
iam, and Orson C. Gleason (sons of Ara), Julius N. Clark, Robert Furman, Jacob 
Brewster, Rufus Stanton, Freeman Hughes, Isaac Keeler, Jonathan Baldwin, Ira 
A. Gilchrist, Roswell Hinman, John Hartshorn, James Keith, Hosea Case, David 
Bonta, Richard Sanger, jr., Abram Harris, Isaac Lewis, Hugh T. Gibson, William 
W. Tripp, Horace Bailey, Mars Nearing. 

Among the names which appear on the town records between 1840 
and 1850 are: 

Arthur Ingersoll, Stoddard H. Hinman, Abner Vickery, jr., David Leslie, William 
Barker, Amos Stafford, Norman Morehouse, Wildman Williams, John H. Johnson, 
George H. Waggoner, William P. Harris, Joseph Wilson, Elisha Marsh, Tenant 
Hinckley, Henry Henderson. John Adams, William B. and James C. Garrett, Isaac 
Sharp, Edward Haynes, Isaiah Sparks, James Duell. 

James Duell moved from Dutchess county to the town of Clay in 
1842 and came thence in 1847 to Liverpool, where he died in August, 
1886. His son, Silas Duell, since May, 1890, proprietor of the Globe 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. 957 

Hotel, was born in Pine Plains, N. Y., October 25, 1840, and served as 
salt inspector twelve years. 

William F. Lee, previously mentioned, was born in 1835 in Liver- 
pool, where his father, George Lee, from the eastern part of this State 
settled in 1803. George was a caulker by trade, served as a soldier in 
the war of 1812, and died here in 1857, leaving- a widow, Kezia, daugh- 
ter of William Forger, and twelve children, of whom Harry W., Will- 
iam F., John F., and George W., still survive and reside in this town; 
of the eight deceased Dorrance B. served in the war of the Rebellion 
lost both feet, and died here about 1880. William F. Lee was salt in- 
spector under Vivus W. Smith and since 1865 has been engaged in the 
meat and grocery business. His mother was born in Pompey in June, 
1803, came to Liverpool with her parents in 1804, and has lived in the 
village ever since, a period of ninety-two years, being the oldest person 
in the town. She is a pensioner of the war of 1812. Her brother, 
John S. Forger, long a prominent business man, merchant, postmaster, 
farmer, brick and salt manufacturer, etc., died here August 27, 1888, 
aged seventy-seven. 

Lucius Gleason was born in Liverpool village December 8, 1819, and 
died there January 3, 1893, being the oldest child of Ara and Mary 
(Flint) Gleason, who became settlers in 1812. He was for many years 
extensively identified with salt manufacturing, merchandising, the wil- 
low industry, and various other enterprises, and owned a farm of 250 
acres in this town and another of 750 acres in Clay. He w^as president 
of the Third National Bank of wS3'racuse from January, 1871, until his 
death. 

John Paddock was born in Herkimer county in 1805, came to Liver- 
pool in 1826, and for many years held a prominent place in the com- 
mercial and moral life of village and town. 

Duncan Gillis, born in April, 1801, came to Liverpool with his fam- 
ily from Washington county in 1839 and engaged in the salt business. 
He subsequently became a farmer and died in November, 1889. Dar- 
win F. Gillis, his only child, was born in Sandy Hill, N. Y,, in 1838, 
and has practically spent his life in the village, where he was receiver 
of salt duties for three years, and where he is now village clerk and a 
produce dealer. His wife is a daughter of Benjamin Chauncey Brad- 
ley, whose father, Merrick Bradley, married in 1809 Mary, daughter of 
Benjamin and Mary (Sprague) Colvin, of Skaneateles, who were the 
grandparents of Mrs. Delia Colvin Hatch. The Bradley famil}- came 



958 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

to this town in 1835 and settled on a farm between Liverpool and Salina. 
B. C. Bradley married a daughter of Elijah Bowen, of Marcellus, and 
died in 1864, four years before his father, whose death occurred in 1868. 
Merrick Bradley, besides one son, had one daughter, Mrs. E. A. Will- 
iams of Syracuse. 

During the war of the Rebellion from 1861 to 1865 the town of Salina 
contributed generously of her brave and patriotic sons to fill the ranks 
of the Union armies, and the record which her loyal citizens made 
throughout that sanguinary conflict graces with imperishable brilliancy 
the pages of local history. Great credit is also due the women — wives 
and mothers, sisters, and friends of those heroic soldiers — who cour- 
ageously supported the cause and aided in ameliorating the hardships of 
those on the field and in hospital. 

The years immediately following the Civil war witnessed almost 
general prosperity. Except in the village attention had for some time 
been given mainly to agricultural pursuits, which proved both profit- 
able and congenial, owing to the easy cultivation of the soil. All kinds 
of grain, corn, vegetables, hay, potatoes, fruit, etc., were raised in 
abundance, and the proximity to Syracuse and the two great canals 
afforded excellent markets and cheap transportation. But another 
thoroughfare of travel was destined to exert a powerful influence upon 
both town and village. This was the Syracuse Northern Railroad, 
which was opened November 9, 1871. Soon afterward the Phoenix 
branch, striking the main line at Woodard, was completed. These 
roads gave existence to the little hamlet at the junction, which shortly 
after acquired the privileges of a post-office, where Allen B. Kinney 
has officiated as postmaster for several years. Liverpool thenceforward 
lost much of its former prestige and business activity by having its 
trade drawn to the city of Syracuse. 

While sturdy and enterprising settlers were pouring into the town 
and converting it from a wilderness into a prosperous community the 
elevating influences of education and religion were not neglected. The 
former has already been noticed, while the latter, in so far as the sub- 
ject relates to the old village of Salina, is sufficiently treated in the 
chapter devoted to Syracuse. The inhabitants of the east part of the 
town and along the northern border have always enjoyed religious 
services in what is now the city or in Clay, and the reader's attention 
in this respect is directed to Liverpool, where the chief interests of the 
present town center. Here the Methodists held meetings prior to 1820, 



THE TOWN OF SALINA. nSO 

in which year the first M. E. church of Liverpool was organized with 
such members as William B. Harris, Calvin Turner, Seth A. Gary, 
Peter M. Cameron, Jesse Pease, M. R. Judd, and Mrs. Bennett, Hinck- 
ley, Hogan, Bishop, and Keith. In 1826 an edifice was built at a cost 
of about i|l,500. This structure, since repaired and remodeled, is still 
standing. The Presbyterians held services at a very early day in the 
second story of the building now occupied by William F. Lee as a meat 
market, the public school being held during the week on the first floor. 
This building then stood near the center of Washington Park, and be- 
ginning in the winter of 1828-29 Rev. Phineas Camp preached two 
years. On November 9, 1829, a church was organized with nine mem- 
bers : John and Martha Dick.son, Martha O. Dickson, Nancy Paddock, 
Eaton E. Grifiin, Nancy Hicks, Rebecca Morehouse, Lucinda Sum- 
merton, and Martha Moschell. Mr. Dickson was deacon for thirty- 
five years. In 1841 a frame edifice was erected at an expense of $3,000, 
the builder being James Johnson and the principal financier Jonathan 
P. Hicks. The present brick structure was built during the ministry 
of Rev. Chester W. Hawley, cost $11,500, and was dedicated March 4, 
1863. Among the pastors have been Revs. Phineas Camp (first), 
Ezekiel J. Chapman, A. C. Tuttle, ElishaB. Sherwood, Royal A. Avery, 
R. T. Searle, and H. C. Hazen. 

Ascension (Episcopal) church was organized in 1840, and the next 
year an edifice was erected. The first rector was Rev. George D. Gil- 
lespie, and the communicants numbered three or four. This church 
soon disbanded. In 1852 St. Paul's German Lutheran church was or- 
ganized, and in the autumn of 1853 they purchased the Episcopal edi- 
fice, which they still occupy. The first pastor was Rev. T. W. Reich- 
enberg. Among the original nine members of this society were Peter 
Schmidt, John Bahn, and Martin Weimar. This church was preceded by 
the Salem church of the Evangelical Associatian of North America, 
which was organized in 1844 with twenty-four members, among whom 
were George Miller (in whose house services had previously been held), 
Charles Werner, Jacob Eberling, P. Wilbert, John Backer, L. Traes- 
ter, and others. An edifice was built in 1844 at a cost of about $1,000. 
It is now used as a tin shop, having been superseded by a new frame 
structure about 1886. In 1890 the Roman Catholics erected a neat, 
frame church, the parish having been organized as an out mission from 
Syracuse some years previously. 

The village of Liverpool has also maintained since August 26, 1862, 



960 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Liverpool lodge, No. 535, F. & A. M., which was instituted on that 
date with nine members: R. J. Chillingworth, W. M. ; W. W, Parker, 
S. W. ; C S. Wells, J. W. ; T. B. Anderson, secretary; A. B. Wells, 
James O'Neil, Thomas Drum, R. B. Claxton, and R. Piatt. About the 
same year the construction of sewers was commenced on a small scale, 
and this public improvement has been continued from time to time 
until now the village boasts a comparatively adequate sewerage system. 
Some ten years ago the old fire buckets were replaced by the services 
and equipment of Hook and Ladder Company No 1, a volunteer fire 
organization quartered in a building used also for a village hall. 

No less than three efforts have been made since 1875 to found a 
weekly newspaper in Liverpool. The first two of these attempts re- 
sulted in the very short life of the Lakeside Press, by Dr. H. E. Van 
Horn, a dentist, and the Liverpool Times, by John J. Hallock. The 
Liverpool Telegraph, the first successful journalistic enterprise in the 
village, was started May 21, 1893, by William F. Brand, who has ever 
since continued as its editor and publisher, making it a bright and 
newsy weekly. 

In recent years T^iverpool has acquired a reputation for its cigar man- 
ufacture. Chief among those who have developed and carried on the 
enterprise may be mentioned Thomas Hand and son Charles, Peter 
Therre, jr., and Alonzo Godard. 

In 1880 the village contained 1,350 inhabitants, while in 1890 its 
population numbered 1,384. 

The earliest record in the town clerk's office in Liverpool begins with 
the year 1831. All records prior to that date have been burned or lost, 
as diligent search has failed in discovering them. From the books in 
existence and from other sources the names of supervisors of vSalina 
have been obtained as follows: 

Fisher Curtis, 1825-27; E. M. Knapp, 1828; Davenport Morey, 1829; William Avery, 
1830; Ashbel Kellogg, 1831-32; Benjamin F. Williams, 1833-35; Joseph Jaqueth, 1836; 
Matthew Van Vleck, 1837-38; Elias W. Leavenworth, 1839-40; Rial Wright, 1841; 
Dennis McCarthy, 1842; Matthew Van Vleck, 1843-44; Thomas Bennett, 1845-46; 
Hiram Putnam, 1847; Miles Adams, 1848; Richard Adams, 1849-50; Joseph Jaqueth, 
1851-52; Isaac R. Patten, 1853-55; Samuel H. Hopkins, 1856; George Bassett, 1857; 
Francis Alvord, 1858-59; John Paddock, 1860; Sampson Jaqueth, 1861-64; Hiram L. 
Hawley, 1865; Charles W. Cornue, 1866-70; Francis Alvord, 1871-73; Sylvester D. 
Keller, 1874-76; George Bassett, 1877-78; Daniel Mathews, 1879 ; Francis Alvord, 
1880-83; William Gleason, 1884; Ignatius Sawmiller, 1885-89; George Baxter, 1890; 
Silas Duell, 1891 ; Charles A. Congdon, 1892; William Gleason, 1893; George Baxter, 
1894-90. 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 901 

The population of the town has been as follows : 

In 1810, 1,259; 1820, 1,814; 1830, 6,929; 1835, 7,793; 1840, 11,012; 1845, 15,804; 1850, 
2,142; 1855,2,580; 1860,2,409; 1865, 3,754; 1870, 3,688; 1875, 2,955; 1880, 2,888'; 
1890, 3,490; 1893, 3,493. 



CHAPTER XLTV. 
THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 

The town of La Fayette comprises thirty-two lots of the original 
military township of Pompey, known as No. 10 of the Military Tract, 
and also twenty-two lots subsequently purchased by the State from the 
Onondaga Indian Reservation. The first mentioned lots, containing 
about 600 acres each, were numbered and drawn as bounty lands by 
soldiers of the Revolutionary war as follows: 

No. 1, William Dunbar; 3, Cornelius Woodmower; 3, Brig.-Gen. James Clinton; 
13, John Snowden; 14, Lieut. Abraham Hyatt; 15, John List; 34, Elisha Harvey; 
25, reserved for Gospel, schools, etc.; 34, Philip Caldwell; 35, Capt. Nicholas Van 
Rensselaer ; 36, Conrad Hilty ; 45, Capt. William Stevens ; 46, Leonard Chapin ; 56, 
John Dobson; 57, Lieut.-Col. Frederick Weissenfels ; 58, David Morrison ; 59, Philip 
Burch; 60, Edward Wright ; 61, Jonathan Briggs; 62, reserved for Gospel, schools, 
etc.; 73, Samuel Townsend, paymaster; 73, reserved for Gospel, schools, etc.; 74, 
George Alkyser; 75, Martin Rees; 76, William Dougherty; 77, Col. John Lamb; 87, 
Henry Elliott; 88, Othaniel Prescott; 89, John Thayer; 90, Abijah Ward; 91, Capt. 
John F. Hamtramck ; 93, Thomas Willson. 

While a number of these surnames are familiar in local history, none 
of the veterans mentioned became an actual settler of the town. Their 
titles in most instances passed into hands of speculators, often for 
ridiculous sums, and not infrequently caused much litigation. The 
pioneers, who came from New England or from the eastern counties of 
this State, sviffered all the privations and hardships of frontier life, yet 
with true heroism, unfailing courage, and indomitable perseverance 
they gradually subdued this vast wilderness and converted it into a 
productive section. Upon every hand are to be seen the results of 
their arduous labor, and it is proper, therefore, that the present genera- 
tion should for a moment glance backward over a century's history 
and study the primitive conditions which long ago ceased to exist. 

The town of La Fayette was for many years a part of the famous 

121 



962 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Onondaga country, the seat of the central government of the Iroquois 
Confederacy, and the scene of notable Indian gatherings, ceremonies, 
and traditions, the history of which has been detailed in previous 
chapters of this work. Adjoining the present Onondaga Reservation 
on the south and east, to which portions of the town formerly belonged, 
the territory under consideration is rich in aboriginal lore as well as 
interesting in missionary and colonial achievements. Ample evidences 
of former occupancy were discovered by the early settlers, and even 
after their arrival the Indians often visited the section in quest of game 
and adventure. The dense forest abounded with bears, deer, panthers, 
wolves, foxes, and other wild animals, while the two principal streams, 
Onondaga and Butternut Creeks, flowing northerly through the valleys 
on the west and east sides of the ridge respectively, together with their 
small tributaries, supplied plenty of fish. One of the latter water- 
courses, Conklin's Brook, descends 500 feet within the space of a mile. 

The first settlement in what is now La Fayette, and likewise the first 
within the military township and the late civil town of Pompey, was 
made by a Revolutionary soldier, John Wilcox, on lot 13, in 1791, in 
which year his daughter Amy was born, which was the first white birth 
in the territory under consideration. He located on Haskins Hill, a 
little east of an abandoned Indian orchard, which he owned, and which 
covered about twenty acres of land. This old orchard was in full bear- 
ing at the time of his arrival, and was situated on a commanding 
eminence, on the place later owned by Cornelius Vandenburg, and on 
the highway leading from La Fayette to Jamesville, as subsequently 
laid out, and from it he supplied his neighbors with apples for several 
years. It produced large quantities of fruit until near the middle of 
this century, when it went to decay. On lots 76 and 91, in Sherman 
Hollow, was another old Indian orchard, when the Shermans, James 
Pierce, and Solomon Owen settled there, and one of the early enter- 
prises in that locality was raising nvirsery stock for the settlers, even 
for Otisco and other remote towns, from seeds of the Indian apple 
trees. 

The second settler was Comfort Rounds, who came in 1792 and took 
up his residence about two miles north of the center of the town. He 
was a plain and pious man and attained the great age of 105 years. 
The first marriage was that of Solomon Owen to Lois Rounds, Com- 
fort's daughter, in 1793, at which time Owen settled in Sherman 
Hollow. In 1793, also, William Haskins located on and gave his name 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 963 

to Haskins Hill. The same year Daniel Danforth arrived and cleared 
and improved the farm later occupied by his nephev^, Thomas Danforth. 
Another prominent settler of 1792 was Asa Drake, of the fourth gen- 
eration from Benjamin Drake, who migrated from England to America 
in 1()80. Asa Drake was born near Boston, Mass., December 13, 1765, 
and first visited this section in 1785, when he purchased of Capt. Elisha 
Harvey one-half of the latter's lot, No. 24, upon which he permanently 
located in 1794, bringing with him from the east a considerable store of 
household and other necessities. February 11, 1799, he married 
Experience Esty and they had six daughters and two sons. In 1806 
he built a large frame barn and in 1811 a commodious brick house, the 
brick for which were burned on his own land, and which is still stand- 
ing. Honest, hospitable, and enterprising, he was long an influential 
citizen, active in church and school affairs, and died here at the age of 
eighty-three. His grandchildren are Mrs. Martha Sherwood Edwards 
and Asa L. Sherwood, of Skaneateles, and the late wife of Gen. R. M. 
Richardson, of Syracuse, a daughter of the late Hon. Thomas Sher- 
wood, of Jamesville. Another grandson, Capt. John Drake, son of the 
late E. vStephen Drake, of Jordan, was killed at Gettysburg, while lead- 
ing his company in the 111th N. Y. Vols. 

In 1793 James Sherman located in and gave his name to Sherman 
Hollow, in the east part of the town; he kept a tavern in his house and 
soon afterward built the first saw mill in La Fayette on Butternut Creek. 
From the time of his arrival the itinerant M. E. preachers found a wel- 
come and a shelter at his home and a willing helper in the person of 
his wife, Lucina Sherman, They were the parents of Dr. J. De B. 
Sherman, a prominent physician of Pompey Hill, and of Joseph Sher- 
man, who served as justice of the peace from 1830 to 1840. 

Among the settlers of 1794 were Isaac and Elias Conklin, John 
Hotaling, Amaziah Branch, Benjamin June, James Pierce, Samuel 
Hyatt, Amasa Wright, and Reuben Bryan. The Conklins located on 
Conklin's Brook, which was named from them, and on which they soon 
erected a saw mill and in 1798 a grist mill, which is said to have been 
the first in the town (then Pompey). Amaziah Branch was a Con- 
gregationalist from Norwich, Conn., and had studied for the ministry, 
but was not licensed to preach. Nevertheless, being a man of piety, 
he held religious meetings in private houses and barns for several years, 
and was the first .school teacher in town. He located in Sherman Hol- 
low and died about 1818. Benjamin June, of French descent, was a 



964 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Revolutionary soldier, as was also Samuel Humphrey of later date, 
and both were pioneers. Mr. Bryan was the father of Hon. John A. 
Bryan, who served in the State Legislature, was assistant postmaster- 
general under President Tyler's administration, cliarge'-des-affaires to 
Peru, and auditor of the State of Ohio. The first death within the 
present town was that of Major Moses De Witt, whose remains are 
buried near the Jamesville reservoir, between the highway and the 
railroad track. His grave is marked by a time-wrecked tombstone, 
which bears the following inscription: 

Here lies the remains of Moses De Witt, Major of Miltia, and Judge of the County 
Courts, one of the first, most active and useful settlers of the county. He was born 
on the 15th day of October, 1766, and died on the 15th day of August, 1794, being 
nearly 28 years of age. 

The early settlers found the present town of La Fayette a somewhat 
attractive and picturesque section, covered with dense forests of hem- 
lock, maple, beech, birch, pine, basswood, ash, etc., which supplied 
abundant timber for building and other purposes and long afforded 
lucrative employment to numerous saw mills and lumbermen. Several 
water privileges were utilized, even before the opening of the present 
century, and proved valuable auxiliaries in developing the natural re- 
sources, not only of this town, but of adjacent territory. Wild game 
abounded and often harassed the settlements, but for many years 
bounties were offered for the destruction of certain animals, such as 
wild cats, wolves and bears. Stories of adventure are still extant, not- 
ably one in which Dr. Silas Park figured as a hero, when one of the 
party was so thoroughly frightened at sight of a huge bear that he 
actually tumbled down hill and fired his gun in the tree tops. Paul 
King and Erastus Baker killed a large wolf in Christian Hollow near 
the Tully line, while George King slew another in the vicinity of Suy- 
denham Baker's, near the present village of La Fayette. As the for- 
ests receded agriculture superseded nearly all other interests. The 
soil, composed of calcareous loam intermixed with vegetable mold, 
proved very productive and easy of cultivation, even on the highest 
hills. In various parts of the town iron ore, petrifactions, corals, shells, 
and other deposits were brought to light, while in several places sul- 
phur springs, some of them emitting sulphureted hydrogen gas, have 
been discovered and sometimes used mechanically. These springs 
were often favorite deer-licks in early days. 

Early in 1795 Michael Christian, a Revolutionary soldier who had 
drawn lot 18, Tully, arranged with Phineas Henderson, his neighbor 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 966 

in New Jersej^ agreeing to give him 100 acres of his grant if he would 
build on it and begin a clearing. Henderson came in the spring with 
his wife, one child, horse, cow, and some household goods, built a log 
house, and commenced making improvements. His location was about 
a mile south of the Tully and La Fayette town line. In a few years 
Christian came to settle on his claim, but first sold the land improved 
by Henderson and offered the latter another 100 acres on an undesir- 
able portion of the same lot. From Christian is derived the name of 
Christian Hollow, which extends northward into this town. 

In 1795 Ebenezer Hill became a settler in the north part of the town. 
He was a man of powerful physique, a noted hunter, and on one occa- 
sion killed a wolf in Christian Hollow for which he received a State 
bounty of $18. Among other settlers in or before 1800 were Col. Jere- 
miah Gould, Gen. Isaac Hall, Lemuel Smith, aud Erastus Baker. Col- 
onel Gould erected the first frame house in the town in 1800. General 
Hall arrived before that year from Great Barrington, Mass., and settled 
one inile south of La Fayette village, where he built the second frame 
dwelling in 1801. It is said that he brought hither a half bushel of sil- 
ver dollars, and for some time was the wealthiest man in all the region. 
He purchased about 1,200 acres of land, gave his attention to raising- 
stock, and at his death in 1830 left some $70, 000 worth of property. It 
was his custom to let cows, sheep, etc., to his neighbors to double. 
Lemuel Smith was the first blacksmith in the village of La Fayette 
in 1800 and died there in 1817. His shop occupied the site of the Pres- 
byterian church. He was the father of Rev. Marcus Smith. Deacon 
Erastus Baker was the father of Charles A. Baker, who was born in 
Lenox, Mass., in 1798, came here with his parents in 1800, and died in 
Syracuse in 1881. 

During the first decade of the town's history little effort was made 
towards the establishment of passable roads except what became abso- 
lutely necessary from time to time in connecting the several communi- 
ties. Improvised thoroughfares were opened to Danforth's at Onon- 
daga, to Pompey Hill, to Jamesville, and perhaps to a few other nearby 
points, but it was not until the first years of this century that regular 
highways were laid out. The settlers arrived mainly over the Indian 
trail from Utica, previous to the construction of the turnpike, and for 
some time found their way through the forests by means of blazed 
trees. Grain was carried long distances to mill on a man's shoulders 
or on horseback, and mail and household necessities were brought in 



966 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

and distributed in the same manner. The first routes of travel and 
many of the subsequent roads nearly or quite conformed to the original 
Indian trails, which traversed the town in all directions. In 1801 a 
State road from Cazenovia to Skaneateles, passing through La Fayette 
Square, as it was then called, and CarditT, was surveyed and opened, 
and Colonel Olcott, the surveyor, was suddenly taken sick and died at 
the house of Erastus Baker. About this same time an epidemic of 
small-pox ravaged the region, causing a number of deaths in the town. 
This road afforded the first important means of communication with 
distant centers of population, and was long the scene of considerable 
activity. 

The year 1802 brought to the town of La Fayette many valuable set- 
tlers, among whom were Clark Bailey and his wife vSarah, with several 
sons and one daughter, several of them married. They came from 
Rhode Island, and brought thither a fair property. Clark and his son 
Richard settled on lot 88 in this town, and the other sons on lot 8, now 
of Tully. The father laid out, donated, and dedicated the cemetery 
near by; his son Stephen opened a tavern, and soon built and managed 
the large hotel so long a place of exchange for stages between Syra- 
cuse and Cortland; John conducted a general store and an ashery, both 
much needed and prized by the inhabitants, and Richard built and 
placed in operation the saw and grist mills now known as the Tully 
Valley mills. 

The south slope of the hill known as Bear Mountain, on the west side 
of Christian Hollow, was infested with rattlesnakes, and for many years 
a party of a dozen or less, generally under direction of Richard Bailey, 
a skilled hunter, would go to the inountain on a warm summer day in 
May and carefully examine the flat slabs of stone for snakes, and when 
one was out in the sun often others were found under loose stones. On 
one hunt fifteen of the poisonous reptiles were slain. The last one cap- 
tured in that vicinity was by Solomon White in 1854. 

The opening of the Cazenovia and Skaneateles State road in 1801 
was the signal for the systematic laying out of the then hamlet of La 
Fayette Square, now La Fayette. Upon all sides and upon the site 
thriving settlers were rapidly subduing the wilderness, and the natural 
consequence was the founding of a centrally located trading point. In 
accordance with an old New England custom, Caleb Green and Erastus 
Baker donated a plot of ground for a public square, which Dr. Silas W. 
Park cleared of its virginal forest. Around this the village was built 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 967 

lip. Johnson Hall, son of Gen. Isaac Hall, and Harvey G. Andrews, 
his partner and brother-in-law, were among the earliest merchants, 
their store being a part of the present Presbyterian parsonage, and 
situated on that corner. Dr. Park, who practiced medicine here dur- 
ing his lifetime, lived on the southwest corner of the cross-roads, near 
where George L. Hoyt resides, while diagonally opposite stood the 
famous tavern of Orange King, in front of which was conspicuously 
displayed a sign board with " O King" painted upon it in large letters. 
This old hostelry was preceded by an inn kept by a Mr. Cheney, as was 
also the store of Hall & Andrews, by a small mercantile affair opened 
by Rice & Hill about 1802. 

In 1803 Thomas Baker settled in Sherman Hollow, and about the 
same time Amos Palmeter located a mile south of the village. In 1804 
came Joseph and Lemuel Baker, of whom the former very soon went 
on to Otisco and the latter to the far west. The Baker family has long 
been a prominent one in the town, and much of their landed property 
is still vested in the name. James, Joseph, and Asa McMillen, brothers, 
and carpenters, settled about a mile north of the Square at a very early 
day. Joseph and James built the first frame hotel in La Fayette, which 
was kept by Stoughton Morse, and which succeeded a log tavern kept 
by James Higgins. Morse also had a small store, while William Farren 
was an early blacksmith. Another pioneer carpenter and joiner was 
Nathaniel Sterling, who built the Baptist church at Pompey Hill, and 
the Presbyterian edifice in La Fayette village; took an active part in 
religious and educational matters, and died in Connecticut. 

Among the pioneers in the northeast part of the town were Isaac 
Keeler, Col. Jeremiah Gould, Elkanah Hine and Noah Hoyt (on the 
farm later occupied by George Bishop), Joel Canfield, Job Andrews, 
Ezekiel Hoyt, Minnah Hyatt, Ebenezer Carr, Joshua Slocum (where 
E. V. W. Dox subsequently lived), and Calojius Vinell. In the west 
part were such settlers as Samuel Coleman, Nathan Park, Ozias and 
Zenas Northway (tavernkeepers), John and Archibald Garfield, Grandus 
Cuddeback (whose wife was a niece of Maj. Moses De Witt), William 
Sniffen, Hendrick Upperhousen, and John Hill. The last two men- 
tioned were Hessian soldiers, who were captured from the British army 
in the war of the Revolution. In the south part of La Fayette were 
Gen. Isaac Hall and Amos Palmeter (previously mentioned), Jacob 
Johnson and son Jacob, William Alexander, Capt. Joseph C. Howe (on 
what was later the Cole farm), Abner and Riifus Kinney, Peter Abbott, 



968 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Elijah Hall, and Obadiah Johnson. In the vicinity of La Fayette vil- 
lag-e there were the Bakers — Erastus, Thomas, Seth, and Suydenham — 
all prominent men from Massachusetts, Joseph Smith, Jeremiah Fuller, 
Daniel Share, Mr. Paine, Dr. Silas W. Park, Joseph S. and Daniel Cole, 
John Carlisle, Caleb Green, Orange King, Joseph Rhoades, Gershom 
Richardson, and Paul King. 

These settlers, imbued as they were with sterling Christian princi- 
ples, early planted the standard of religious worship among the several 
commimities. The arrival of James and Lucina Sherman in 1793 and 
of Amaziah Branch, a zealous school teacher and gospel worker, in 1794, 
was the first impulse given to the inception and growth of local Chris- 
tianity, and from that time onward itinerant missionaries held occa- 
sional services in barns, private dwellings, and school houses. Between 
1798 and 1805 the central ridge, extending north and south near the 
center of the town, was settled by a cultured class of citizens largely 
from Massachusetts. On the 14th of October, 1805, the Columbian 
Congregational Society was organized. In October, 1809, the Con- 
gregational church (now Presbyterian) of La Fayette was formed by 
Rev. Benjamin Bell at the tavern of Stoughton Morse where the Tem- 
perance House afterward stood. The society consisted of Deacon Noah 
Hoyt, Deacon Nathan Abbott, Ezekiel and Philander Hoyt, Polly and 
Mary Hoyt, Anna and Sally Baker, Apollos Hewitt, Esther Maxwell, 
Corrinna Abbott, Achsah Johnson, Rebecca Bates, Anna Hewitt, and 
Sally Danforth. Other early members were the Halls, Porters, and 
Coles. In 1819-20 a church was erected, to which a session house was 
added in 1846. The latter was replaced in 1861 by a similar structure 
costing $1,000, which has also been used as a town hall. The site was 
donated by Capt. Joseph Rhoades and Erastus Baker. The property 
is still owned by the Columbian society ; the church has been under the 
"plan of union" since 1808, and the name Congregational was main- 
tained until August 24, 1884, when the First Presbyterian church of 
La Fayette succeeded. Early in this century a Methodist Episcopal 
church was organized and a house of worship erected about a mile east 
of Onativia Station. In 1853 the site was changed and the edifice 
moved to and rebuilt near that hamlet, where it remains fully equipped 
for church work. Among those early prominent in this society were 
Rev. H. A. Case, Enoch Everingham, Lyman Bush, Charles Johnson, 
Thomas Weller, Lucina Sherman, and Rev. E. M. Mills, D. D., who 
served as its pastor for three years. 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 9G9 

The war of 1812-15 spread no little excitement among the settlers of 
this town, yet they were sufficiently distant from the actual scenes of 
conflict as to escape the trials which disturbed the more contij^uous 
communities. Richard Bailey, who was captain of infantry for the 
then west half of Pompey, was twice called out with his command on 
alarms — once from Oswego, when the company proceeded as far as 
Oswego Falls, and once from Sackett's Harbor, when they reached 
Ellisburg, some fifteen miles beyond the Salmon River. The sword 
owned and carried by Captain Bailey is now the property of his grand- 
daughter, Mrs. Rose Rude, of Minnesota. Closely following this war- 
like struggle came the celebrated " cold season " of 1816, which proved 
so disastrous everywhere to all growing crops and caused wide-spread 
suffering to both man and beast. Succeeding years, however, revived 
general prosperity, which has continued almost uninterruptedly down 
to the present time. 

Among the first settlers in TuUy Valley, which extends northward 
into this town, were Clark Bailey and his family from Rhode Island. 
Regular religious meetings were soon instituted, being often held under 
the direction of "Aunt vSally, " a zealous Baptist, as Mrs. Bailey was then 
called. In 1818 this Baptist group united with others from Tully vil- 
lage and Vesper in constituting the Tully Baptist church and erecting 
a house of worship at Tully Center. In 1835 a church of thirty-seven 
members, nearly all from this society, was organized in Tully Valley as 
the First Baptist Church of La Fayette and held services in a school 
house near the Tully Valley mills. The pastors were Rev. Randolph 
Streeter seven years, Rev. Barton Capron two years, and Rev. A. R. 
Palmer, then a licentiate, about three years. The names prominent on 
the records of the church are Gaylord, Haynes, Irish, Palmer, and 
Shue. Both Streeter and Palmer were in great request as teachers of 
public schools. The church never owned any real estate, and although 
receiving double the number of new members that it had to begin with, 
yet in eleven years its membership was diminished owing to a decrease 
in the population and the settlement of the younger element in other 
places; so in 1846 the society disbanded, most of the members joining- 
churches either at Tully or Vesper. 

By ihe year 1835 the territory under consideration contained about 
2,400 inhabitants, and embraced not only the thirty-two lots of town- 
ship No. 10. Pompey, as previously noticed, but also twenty-two smaller 
lots which had been purchased by the State from the Onondaga Indian 
123 



970 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Reservation— lots 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 
27, about 4,000 acres, on the east side, on February 25, 1817, and lots 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, 800 acres, from the south end, February 11, 1822. 
All these lots were sold by the State to white settlers, and excepting 
the two tracts named the town never comprehended, for civil, judicial, 
and administrative purposes, any part of the Reservation as originally 
defined. On the 25th of April, 1825, the State Legislature created the 
present town of La Fayette by passing the subjoined act: 

That from and after the second Monday in March next, all that part of the town of 
Pompey lying west of a line running north and south, on the east line of lots num- 
ber 3, 15, 25, 36, 46, 63, 77, and 92, together with so much of Onondaga as lies south 
of a line running east and west on the north line of lots number 13, 14, and 15 of the 
State's purchase of the Onondaga Indians in 1817, and through a portion of land now 
owned by said Indians to a line running north and south on the west line of lots 
number 1 and 4 of the State's purchase of the aforesaid Indians in 1822, shall be and 
the same is hereby erected into a separate town, by the name of La Fayette. 

Why the south half of the Onondaga Reservation, embracing about 
6,400 acres of land, was included within the bounds of this town, as the 
above law clearly shows, has never been explained, but in following the 
lines as defined by that act it has always received such recognition by 
writers, historians, and mapmakers. It is known, however, that the 
portion of the Reservation alluded to has never been legally considered 
as a civil part of La Fayette, but has continually existed under the ju- 
risdiction of the State. The present civil town, therefore, contains 
about 22,200 acres of land, and is bounded on the east by Pompey, on 
the north by Dewitt, Onondaga, and the Reservation, on the west by 
Onondaga, the Reservation and Otisco, and on the south by Otisco, Tully, 
and Fabius. It was named in honor of the Marquis de Marie Jean Paul 
Roch Yves Gilbert Motier La Fayette, the distinguished general, and 
friend of Washington during the Revolutionary war, who visited the 
Onondaga coimtry in June, 1825. 

The first town meeting was held at the house of Johnson Hall in La 
Fa3^ette village, on March 14, 1826, thirteen months after the passage 
of the foregoing act, and Charles Jackson acted as chairman. 

The first officers elected were: 

Charles Jackson, supervi-sor; Johnson Hall, town clerk; Epenetvis Hoyt, George 
Northway, and Thomas Newell, assessors; David Campbell, Freeman Northway, 
and Nathaniel Sterling, commissioners of highways; Willard Farrington and Eben- 
ezer Coleman, overseers of the poor; Noah Hoyt, jr., Asa Farrington, and Freeman 
Northway, constables; Asa Farrington, collector; Ezra Dyer, Chauncey Williams, 
and John Spencer, commissioners of common schools; Pitt Dyer, Rial Wright, and 




S. H. CLARK. 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 971 

George Nol•th\va3^ inspectors of common schools; Cornelius Vandeuburg, John S. 
Fort, Edmund Morse, James Gould, Erastus Baker, Ebenezer Coleman, Joseph S. 
Cole, John P. King, Charles Jackson, 2d, Charles Johnson, Hiram Gilbert, George 
Northway, Harry Avery, Charles I. Davis, John Talbot, William Westcott, Anson 
W. Jackson, Ichabod Smith, Grandus Cuddeback, Harry Reed, Joseph Ackles, Sam- 
uel Hoyt, Ira Dodge, Simeon Larkin, William Dean, John Sniffen, John Whitney, 
Levi Mayhew, and Thomas C. SatYord, overseers of highways. 

These names sug^^est many prominent early spttlers, not hitherto 
mentioned, while the subseqtient list of supervisors contains others of 
ecpial worth and enterprise. At this meeting the town voted $300 for 
the support of the poor and $200 for the support of common schools, 
and designated Ebenezer Coleman as poundkeeper. At the next town 
meeting, and for several years thereafter but $150 were appropriated 
for school purposes. 

The supervisors of La Fayette have been as follows : 

Charles Jackson, 1826; Johnson Hall, 1827-31; Charles Jackson, January, 1832. to 
February, 1832, in place of Jackson, resigned; John B. Miller, 1832; John Spencer, 
1833-35; Johnson Hall, 1836; John Spencer, 1837-38; Conradt G. Houghtailing, 1839- 
40; Epenetus Hoyt, 1841; Hiram Gilbert, 1842, Jesse Fuller, 1843-46; Samuel A. 
Keen, 1847-48; Joel Fuller, 1849; Jesse Fuller, 1850; Valentine Baker, 1851-52; Na- 
than Park. 1853; Robert Park, 1854; Joel Fuller, 1855; Samuel A. Keen, 1856; Caleb 
R. Jackson, 1857-58; Calvin Cole, 1859-60; Elijah Park, 1861-63; Barzilla L. Cole- 
man, 1864; John M. Conkliu, 1865-66; Charles Hiscock, 1867-72; Avery R. Palmer, 
1873-74; George W. Mclntyre, 1875-78; Avery R. Palmer, 1879; George W. Mcln- 
tyre; 1880-81 ; George L. Hoyt, elected November, 1881, to fill vacancy, and re- 
elected in February, 1882; Homer Case, 1883; Willis Alexander, 1884; Homer Case, 
1885; Frank J. Farrington, 1886-89; Nicholas Aungier, 1890; Henry L. Cole, 1891; 
Seneca E. Clark, 1892-95. 

The year 1825 was otherwise eventful in the town's history from the 
fact that it witnessed the opening of the Erie Canal through vSyracuse. 
That great waterway, although passing some little distance to the north, 
imparted a new impulse to the growth and prosperity of this section, 
which had now been largely divested of its heavier forests and more 
uninviting" wilderness conditions. In the same year the Ebenezer 
Methodist Episcopal church of Cardiff was organized and a house of 
worship erected, which, in 1857, was burned. A new edifice was im- 
mediately built at a cost of $2,400, and dedicated in December under 
the pastorship of Rev. D. W. Bristol, D. D. The church is now in a 
prosperous condition. Another former pastor was Rev. J. P. Newman, 
D. D., while not a few persons prominent as missionaries, preachers, 
and teachers began their religious life here. Among the original or 
early promoters of the society were John Spencer, Usual Coleman, 



972 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Benjamin D. Sniffen, Grandus Cuddeback, Annanias Westcott, Reuben 
Wright, John Bottle, and the Park and Stearns families. About 1826 
the Reformed Methodist church of La Fayette was constituted at Webb 
Hollow, two miles northwesterly from the village. For many years it 
had no edifice, but held services in school houses and private dwellings 
and quarterly meetings in barns. Among its pastors were Revs. James 
Bailey, Foster Bailey, W. J. Bailey, and Albert Taylor. The society 
became extinct about 1885, and its house of worship, nearly new, and 
in good order, passed under control of the Wesleyan branch of the 
Methodist church. 

In 1836 the town contained two grist mills, sixteen saw mills, three tanneries, two 
fulling mills, three carding machines, three asheries, fifteen school districts, and 819 
school children, while ten years later there were four grist mills, eighteen saw mills, 
two fulling mills, two carding machines, two tanneries, one ashery, one clover mill, 
five taverns, four stores, seven manufactories, sixty-six mechanics, four physicians, 
392 farmers, five merchants, 204 militia, 606 voters, thirteen common schools, 737 
school children, and 16,857 acres of improved land. The census of 1860 gave 18,004 
acres of improved land, 481 dwellings, 473 families, 365 freeholders, twelve school 
districts, 783 school children, 811 horses, 2,082 cows and other cattle, 3,359 sheep, 
1,382 swine, 4,862 bushels of winter wheat, 133,968 bushels spring wheat, 2,528 tons 
hay, 15,291 bushels potatoes, 36,368 bushels apples, 114,382 pounds butter, 6,915 
pounds cheese, 606 yards domestic cloth, and real estate valued at $516,045, and 
personal property at §59,925. 

The town now has nine school districts and about 375 school chil- 
dren. On April 23, 1836, the La Fayette High School was incorpo- 
rated for the purpose of furnishing a higher education to the youth of 
the locality. A brick school house was built by Asahel Smith, but 
after a few years the institution declined and ceased to exist under its 
corporate privileges, and the building became a dwelling house. 

About 1838 the hamlet of Cardiff, nearly at the head of the Onondaga 
valley, began to assume some activity as a business center. The Syra- 
cuse and Tully turnpike, chartered April 16, 1827, and re-chartered in 
April, 1831, had given it existence, and in 1839 John F. Card erected a 
large grist mill, which was operated by water power. About 1862 it 
became the property of Edward Voigt, who added a saw mill and steam 
power, and in March, 1877, the establishment passed to George De'r- 
mon, under whom it was burned in April, 1878. vSince then another 
grist mill has been erected near the village. Mr. Card also had a store 
and distillery, and for many years was a leading man. When a name 
for the hamlet and post-office was sought some favored perpetuating 
his memory by such designations as Cardville, Cardbury, etc. John 



THE TOWN OF LA FAYETTE. 973 

Spencer, of great influence, and a former citizen of England, suggested 
Cardiff, from a thriving city in Wales, which was adopted. Here in 
early days were Isaac Garfield, sr., tavernkeeper; Arnold Woodard 
merchant; John Spencer, tanner and shoemaker; Volney Houghton 
wagonmaker; and now Henry W. Mclntyre and George Bennett, mer- 
chants, and Sabra Park, widow of Robert Park, a soldier in the Rebel- 
lion, postmaster. Onondaga Creek was long the scene of great activ- 
ity, as far as grist and saw mills, a tannery, and the distillery were con- 
cerned. It was on the farm of "Stubb" Newell, about one mile south- 
west of Cardiff, that the celebrated "Cardiff Giant" was unearthed in 
1869. For many weeks the whole country was agitated over that great 
uncouth statue, which was cut from gypsum in Fort Dodge, Iowa, 
shipped here and buried, "discovered" while digging a well that New- 
ell had ordered, and foisted upon the pubhc as a petrifaction centuries 
old. Thousands of dollars were paid by the people to see the mon- 
strous fraud. 

Many early settlers have been named in the preceding pages, but the 
names of other pioneers and residents of La Fayette may be brieflv 
noticed at this point : 

In the east part of the town there also lived before 1840 Frederick Gilbert and his 
father, Samuel Kean, John Davis, Enoch and Jeremiah Everingham, George and 
Clinton Whitman, Samuel Sherwood, Cornelius and Andrew Vandenburg (Andrew 
beingaUniversalist preacher), Edmund Morse, Leander Hine and others of thename, 
Charles and Stephen Drake, John Dox, Joel Canfield, Bethuel Shepard (son of 
Samuel), Joel Morton, James Clute, Amos and Nathaniel Gage, Albert Becker (father 
of James), Eldert Vandenburg, Lewis O. Hill, Charles Hoyt (son of Isaac), Valen- 
tine Baker (father of Daniel and George), Charles I. Davis, Daniel Share (father of Jere. 
miah, William, and Andrew), Calvin and Luther Cole (in Collingwood), Joseph and 
Henry R. Cole, and the families of Gould, Bush, Hotaling, Miller, Sherman, Rounds, 
Hoyt and others. 

In the west part there were AugustinusShue and his three sons, Peter, Matthew, 
and John, who came from Esopus, Ulster county, in 1808, and settled on lot 88. They 
brought two colored servants. Jack and Phoebe. On the marriage of the youngest 
daughter Phoebe was added to the wedding gifts, while Jack was given to the youngest 
son John, with whom the old people also lived. Phoebe died about 1850, but Jack lived 
until 1880, and on the fine granite family monument in the Cardiff cemetery is this 
inscription: "Jack, 27 years a slave in the State of New York." The Shues 
brought with them several implements of husbandry and books that were manufac- 
tured in Germany and Holland. The illustrated Bible of Mrs. Shue, with maps and 
notes, is now the property of a grandson, Avery P. Shue, of Garfield avenue, in Syra- 
cuse. There were also Dwelly Spaulding and Jacob S. Hollenbeck, William Savery and 
Henry Pierce, millers; Joseph Hill, L. L. Benjamin and Arby A. Payne, blacksmiths; 
and Ebenezer Coleman (father of Barzilla), Russell Green (father of Clark), Joel and 



074 ONONDAGA'S (JENTKNNIAL. 

Jesse Fuller, Asel King, Bennett Wooster, I'eter Abbott (father of James and John), 
Ezra Knapp, Charles Jackson (a justice of the j)(:ace and father of Caleb and 
Charles jr.), Turpin (ireen, and the Ackles, Garfield, .Stearns, Seeley, Woodmansee, 
Northway, Winchell, P.aker (Seth, ICrastiis, Suydenliatn, Tlionias, L(nvis, (Chester, 
(^uartus, Morris, Luther, Charles A., Rodney, i'orlcr, iJwi^lit, lyynian, and King), 
Samuel, Hall, and Danforth families. 

In the villaj^e of I^a I<\iyettc were such scltlcr.s as I)onis I\)rl(;r, 
(cabinetmaker), Mr. Smith (tailor), Nath;iiiiol Slcrlin;^ ( who Ijiiilt 1 lie 
Presbyterian ehureh), Asahel Kinj^' (tanner and slioemaker), and 
Reuben and Joiin Kin;4' (sons (jf 'Scjuire Kin;4). Johnson ilall was 
member of assembly in lK2!»and is;>(), slieriCf in \H'M, and assistant 
judj^'e of the county in 18)58. (ieorjj^e W. Mclntyrc; was for two tcirms 
county su])erintendent of the ])oor. 

Hiram Gilbert was the (ii'st or one; of Ihc first justices of liu; peace, 
and Al)iel iJavidson was elected to that office in 1H.'}1. IC])enetus Iloyt 
was the fatlier of Harrison Hoyt, tlie well-known criminal lawyer of 
Syracuse. ICbene/.er ('oieman was also justice of sessions. All)ert 
l>ecker, born in Half Moon, Saratoj^a county, in 1797, came here in 
IH'/iH. His son Oaniel l^eeame a ])rominent jeweler in Syracuse, and 
another sou, |ames, is one c)f the leadinj^- citizens of 1 his town. Jacob 
C. Wilcox was born here in 1814 and died in I8(K5. 

Otlier early settlers were John Shaw (grandfather of fieor^e), Mr. 
W<;bb (in Webb Hollow, j^i-,'uidr;ith(;r of ICinery Webb), John Mor.se, 
]Cli Cook (])ro])rietor of a saw mill about one mile east of La I'ayette), 
ffjseph Thomas (born in 1707, came here in 1817, and died in I8(;r), 
bi'other of Hai'rison and y\lbert), and Aver}' I'", I'.ilmcr, wluj was born 
in Stonin^ton, (>>nn., in r/ii/j, came t(; this section with liis father, 
Rowland, in 18ir>, married .Sarali, dau^^-hter of C^aj^t. Richard Bailey, 
iu ISI'.i, and died in 1 s7;;. His son, hr. Stewart I>. I'almer, is one f;f 
the oldest and leading dentists in Syracuse, while anc^ther son, Rev. 
Avery R. l^dmer, of Collin^wofjd, is the oldest liaptist f)astor in the 
county. The latter was at one time su])erintcndent of the penitentiary 
and has filled various offices of trust. 

In La I'^ayette villaj^-e there have been such physicians as Lrs. lilijah 
Park, Sfpiires, Rial Wri;^ht, Ward l-ias.sett, Elijah I'ark (son of Silas 
W. and nephew of I^>lijah), and Lyman Rose. Dr. vSilas W. Park 
])ractieed liis profession here till his death, as did also his son Elijah, 
who died about 1872. I>r. Rose died here in 18G7. Amon^ the 
merchants may be mentioned iJr. Williams and sfjn Chauncey, wh<jse 
residence and store were eomljined; Dunning & Velverton, just soutli 



THK TOWN OF l.A KAYKTTK, ^7^ 

of the present hotel; Andrews \ Hall ^(ieovoo W. 11. UH. oi whom 
Mr. Hall dieil in Miohioan in 1805; and Philander rrowhridj^c. Miltoii 
S. Priee, later the nierehant prinee of SyraeUvSe, bei^an his n\erean(ile 
career in this villajie, oeenpyinjj- the old store of Ai\dre\vs \ Hall, 
whioh forms part of the present hotel. He was fv>l lowed hy his hrvUher. 
Ivdwin Priee, Charles (5. Robinson, tieorj>e \V. Mehityre. and lan\es ). 
t\Mian. The first druji store was started bv Pr. Charles A. Ctillett> 
The thin! store was kept in what is now the ».)dd hVlhnvs Hall bv 
Asahel Pahner. Still another was opened by Willis 0. Newell, now 
kept 1m Janios and Michael Crow. The post-olliee was kept in the 
Andrew s»S: Hall store t'or many years. Later postmasters were I'hester 
Haker. CleorgeW. Mclntvre. JohnCary, Asahel Palmer, James ]. Conan. 
.uul James Crowe. vStephen Weller was long- a wagonmaker in [\\c 
Thomas district, so called from Joseph TluMn.is, who owned a larv^t^ 
farm there. After. llar\c\- Robiitson had .i wa_^vM) shop and also made 
i^rain cradU^s Amoiio the blacksmiths were Morris Clapp. Arthur 
Westcott. John Matthews, .uul Jaci>b l\ckert. The sclu>ol hou.sc hrre 
was burned October '.^0. ISHJ, 

In 1S,")| t lu" Svr.icusc and Piuj^hamtiMi K.iihvKul was o]HMtcd thriMii^h 
the town, with .t si.itiou known .is 1 ..i l<\iyette, afterward Ouatavia, 
.ibout om^ li.df nnlc cast iA l..i k\i\ (Mlo villaj^e, anil the stav;e busitiess 
oi foinuM- \ cars practically ceased. Tlu^ raiboavl. while briuj^iuv; a>.^ii- 
cultur.d iutcicsts into ehvser touch with distant nuii-kcls. drew much o( 
\\\c trade from the \ illaiics o\ l.a k'.iyctte and Cai'dilV, yet these centcis 
routinucd to ui.mil.iin ipiilc .i (Inift\- acli\i(\ c\cn il' Iho\ I'.ulcii to in 
crease in si/e. .ViimiiuI On.il.ui.t a sm.ill .uul scaltorcd stMlKMuout 
sprans.^ up. 

The Cniou .iimies duruio \\\c war ot tiic Rolielliou fiom l.'^ltll lo ISd.'t 
C(Mitaiucd uKun br.n i^ .md p.itriotic sokliers trom I.i f'.n (-1 to. whirli 
pr(>mptl\- icspoudod to the st^cr.il calls with both mouc\- .uul uu-u, 
Tlu- riH'oiil m.uK" b\- ihc town in ih.il uu-nuM.iblc stnij^idt* sliiiu's in his- 
toi\ with nnponsh.ible splt-iulor 

1>\ this period tho h.nulcM ol Collini;\vood had spruuv^ into active (Ex- 
istence. mainl\- ihroui^li tlu- operation of t he t'ollin^Mvood jM'ist . tlourinj; 
And saw mills, which W(M<> (^sl.iblisluMl Iw C.ibin I'olc .ibout IS;{S. 
They i^assed in IStiX' to .\ K P.iIi\um .uul in ISji to |. M. r.dmcr. the 
pri'sc-nl inopriclor, who is .ilso postmaster. (iilluuM N'.mdrnbuii^ also 
has .1 storo here anil A. W. C'ole a c.in'ia-^c fact«M\-. 

AnuMii; the various inditstries o\ the town is tin- old Wobb s.iw .uul 



976 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

grist mill in Webb Hollow, owned by Ira West; the saw mill of Ira 
French, south of Cardiff; the grist mill on Conklin's Brook, operated 
by Milton Conklin ; the saw mill of Daniel Woodford, in the same 
locality; and the Tully Valley mills, conducted successively by Roswell 
P. Loomis, Franklin Loomis, and Gideon Seeley. 

For several years the Roman Catholics of the town held services in a 
hall in La Fayette village, and in 1888 St. Joseph's church was erected 
there under the pastoral charge of Father Michael O'Reilley. It is 
now used by a large congregation under Father J. V. Simmons, of 
Pompey. 

About 1888 the Syracuse Water Company projected the construction 
of a reservoir for supplying the city with water by building a dam 120 
feet in height across the narrows at Indian Hill, north of Cardiff. The 
valley above was surveyed and extensive borings were made in the 
west hill with a view to ascertaining its formation and safety for the 
anchorage of a dam. This investigation showed the hill to be com- 
posed wholly of "drift" material, while the east side was solid shale. 
Eight feet beneath the surface of the earth, on a line across the nar- 
rows, a perfectly flat bed of rock in place was found. These discov- 
eries were of geological interest, since they contributed valuable in- 
formation respecting the theory that the Susquehanna River at one 
time flowed through the Onondaga Valley, before the Tully hills were 
formed. The project of a reservoir was, however, abandoned when 
municipal ownership of the Syracuse water works became an estab- 
lished fact. 

The population of La Fayette has been of follows: 

In 1825, about 3,400; in 1830, 2,560; 1835, 2,592; 1840, 2,600; 1845, 2,527; 1850, 
2,532; 1855.2,340; 1860, 2,537; 1865, 2,397; 1870, 2,233; 1875, 2,192; 1880, 2,160; 
1890, 1,874; 1892, 1.702. 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 977 



CHAPTER XLV. 
THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 

Around the northern end of the beautiful lake that makes conspicu- 
ous and adorns the southwestern part of Onondaga county, there clus- 
ters a mass of interesting history, its beginning antedating even the 
era of white settlement. During its aboriginal occupancy this region 
was a favorite resort of the Indians, a hunting and fishing place often 
sought by the Onondagas from the east and the Cayugas and Senecas 
from the west. Its picturesque scenery and geographical advantages, 
together with the convenience of its situation on the famous Indian 
trail over which the great Seneca turnpike was afterwards constructed, 
made it a much traversed locality by the nearby Iroquois. These 
same attractions also called hither a most desirable class of white pio- 
neers during the closing years of the eighteenth century. 

The territory of Skaneateles was embraced in military township No. 
9 (Marcellus), and in the civil town of the same name when Onondaga 
county was organized in 1794. It includes what were military lots Nos. 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 44, 45, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 84, 85, 86, 
and 87. These lots were drawn by the following persons for service 
in the war of the Revolution : 

1, Stephen Baker; 2, John Shepard; 3, Edward Bear; 4, John Moore; 5, WilHam 
Yarrington; 10, Benjamin Herring (ensign) ; 11, William Lodder; 12, John Gilbert; 
13, John Gross; 18, Jerome Hogelandt; 19, reserved for gospels, schools, etc.; 20, 
Volkert Dow; 21, Thomas Moore; 22, reserved for gospel, schools, etc.; 27, Henry 
Burrance; 28, Samuel Higby ; 29, Samuel Parsons; 30, Thomas Jones; 35, Kenneth 
Campbell; 36, John Simonds; 37, Capt. John Doughty; 38, Lieut. George Dennis- 
ton; 39, William Gillaspee; 44, John Shultz; 45, Ephraim Blowers; 50 and 51, re- 
served for gospel, schools, etc. ; 52, Lieut. Hiel Peck; 57, Benjamin Beebe (or Boan- 
erges); 58, Peter I. Vosburgh (captain); 59, Capt. Jacob Reed; 66, Henry Luke; 65, 
Joseph Halstead; 66, David Pembroke; 67, Jacob Weeks; 72, Peter Sherman; 73, 
John Brown; 84, John Martin; 85, Robert Casey; 86, Dennis McPeck; 87, Lieut. 
Henry Dessendorph. 

In common with those who drew lots in other towns of this county, 
123 



978 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

only one or two of the grantees became settlers on their lands; nearly 
all sold their claims for trifling returns. To the few grantees who ever 
saw the region in its wilderness condition it probably presented few 
attractions of a practical nature; while it might have been beautiful to 
the lover of nature, the soldier fresh from the wars or the home-seeker 
in quest of a place where he could quickly secure a living could not 
have been very favorably impressed with the prospect. The region 
was covered with a heavy growth of pine and hemlock forest, which in 
the lowlands was intermingled with thick underbrush, demanding long 
and arduous toil to clear and fit it for cultivation. The soil was g9od, 
consisting largely of rich sandy and clayey loam, but its character was 
not well understood by the early comers. They settled mostly on the 
hills, believing the lowlands would prove to be imhealthy, and that the 
making of roads there would be difficult. The surface of the town is 
moderately hilly, rising from the lake shore to a height of from 200 to 
500 feet. According to recent surveys the lake itself lies at an altitude 
of 860 feet above tide water, while Giles Hill rises 1,265 feet, Hoxie 
Hill 1,198 feet, .and Seeley Hill 1,109 feet above sea level. Geograph- 
ically Skaneateles is the southern town on the west line of the county. 
It takes its name from that of the lake, an Indian name, Skeh-ne-a-iles, 
which signifies " very long lake," but which by some authorities is said 
to mean " beautiful squaw," and is supposed to have been derived from 
the family of a powerful chief who, in legend, lived on the site of Man- 
dana village with his six wives, several sons, and an only daughter. 
On very old French maps this lake is recorded as " Lac Scaneateatdle. " 
The town was erected from Marcellus on the 26th of February, 1830, 
and on March 18, 1840, a small part of Spafford was annexed, making 
the present area 23,600 acres. The town records were burned in 1835, 
which fact precludes the possibility of c|uoting from them any items of 
interest respecting the earlier years of the town's history. 

John Thompson, a Scotchman, has always received the credit of 
making the first permanent white settlement within the present limits 
of this town, but painstaking research has developed the fact that that 
honor probably belongs to Abraham A. Cuddeback, who arrived here 
with his wife and eight children from Minisink, N. Y., on July 14, 1794, 
after a journey of forty-three days. Clark and others state that 
Thompson came in with his family in 1793 and located on lot 18, on the 
Colonel Lamb farm, near the Cayuga county line, receiving his land as 
compensation for his services while employed in establishing the 




(^^aa/uaa/vo^ ^ a (tw^/^^^^^^ O^JLy^^-^ 




THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 979 

boundaries between New York and Pennsylvania and three successive 
summers spent in surveying- on the Military Tract under Moses 
De Witt. He also paid five shillings sterling, and his deed is recorded 
in the county clerk's office in 1794, his tract comprising fifty acres. He 
was the owner of military lands in adjoining towns, as shown by the 
records, for several years following this date, and in all his deeds resi- 
dence is given as being in Stillwater, Saratoga county. On October 12, 
1801, he purchased a part of lot 88 in Camillus, which he sold on Octo- 
ber 2, 1806. In 1810 is recorded: "John Thompson and Charlora 
Adams of Marcellus, administrators of the goods and chatties, rights 
and credits, of David Groom of Marcellus." June 15, 1819, "John 
Thompson, of the township of Stillwater, " sold a tract of land to Nathan 
Thompson, of Galway. January 12, 1821, he entered his name for the 
first time as being "of the town of Marcellus," and sold to Joseph 
Foster, for $2,090, about 105 acres of lots 18 and 35, in what is now 
Skaneateles. This same tract was sold by Foster on March 2, 1825, to 
Joseph Porter and Samuel Jacacks for $2,300, and on April 7, 1836, ^Ir. 
Jacacks disposed of the land for $5,000 to David Hall, of Skaneateles. 
In all these deeds the wife of Thompson is not mentioned, a fact which 
indicates that he was then unmarried, and it is reasonably certain that 
he did not become an actual resident of this town until after 1800. 

E. N. Leslie, who has gathered a mass of valuable local history, states 
that Abraham A. Cuddeback first leased lands of Major De Witt on the 
west shore of the lake, finally purchased his original improvement, and 
to his grandchildren early said that his nearest neighbor lived at Onon- 
daga Hill. Settlements, however, were made this same year (1794) in 
Marcellus and also in this town. Mr. Cuddeback brought with him 
three yoke of oxen, a two-year old colt, and twelve cows, and settled 
on the premises now occupied by the summer residence of Dr. Hurd. 
At that time there were five wigwams occupied by Indians where the 
John M. Nye house subsequently stood. Mr. Cuddeback built the first 
frame building in town, and the first wheat he raised he carried to 
Albany, exchanging a part of it for nails, bushel for pound. He was 
of Huguenot descent, and died October 22, 1831, aged seventy-three 
years. 

The first settlers apparently preferred that portion of the town west 
of the lake and outlet. The pioneer east of this water division was 
Col. Elijah Bowen, who arrived with his family in 1794, settling in a 
log house which he had previously built on lot 39. He was born in 



980 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Cheshire, Mass., in 1756, and died here in 1807. His children were 
Valentine, Sophronia, Elijah, jr., Hannah, Delina (who married Dr. 
David Kingsbury, of Clintonville, in 1802), and Lucina, all born in 
Cheshire, the latter in 1791. Benajah Bowen, a brother of Elijah, set- 
tled on the farm next east in 1795, bringing with him his wife, five 
sons, and three daughters. In 1817 he removed to Lysander and died 
there. Elijah Bowen, 'jr., born in 1787, died in Wisconsin January 5, 
1861. Colonel Bowen was a prominent man in early years, and his 
house was for a time the first stopping place for incoming settlers, the 
highway passing it being called the " Bowen road." He was a soldier 
in the war of 1813. Another settler of 1794 was a Mr. Robinson, and 
still another was Bethuel Cole, who was both farmer and blacksmith. 
The latter lived on the road from Willow Glen to Auburn, about a mile 
west of the old " Red House." 

Gen, Robert Earll removed from Whitehall, Washington county, to 
Onondaga Hollow about 1793, and a year later came to this town, where 
he died in 1834. He had six sons: Isaac, Robert, jr., Nehemiah H., 
Hezekiah, Hiram, and Ira. Julius Earll, son of Hezekiah, was long an 
influential business man and manufacturer, and died July 26, 1876, 
aged fifty-eight. Hezekiah Earll died here October 29, 1863, aged 
seventy-four years. Nehemiah H. Earll was born October 5, 1787, 
studied law with Daniel Kellogg, Thaddeus M. Wood, and George B. 
Hall, was admitted to the Common Pleas in 1809 and to the Supreme 
Court in 1812, served in the war of 1812, and became a prominent citi- 
zen of Onondaga county, serving as judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas from 1823 to 1831, as superintendent of the Ondndaga Salt Springs 
in 1831-35, and as congressman in 1839-41. He died at Mottville 
August 30, 1872. The Earlls have been both prominent and numer- 
ous in this town and county, all coming from Washington county, N.Y., 
but originally from Massachusetts. Daniel and Nehemiah Earll, 
brothers, came to Onondaga Hollow about 1792. Daniel's sons were 
Jonas, Daniel, jr., Nathaniel, Nehemiah, Robert, Benjamin, Watson, 
and Abijah. Daniel, sr., died in Skaneateles in 1817, aged eighty- 
eight. Robert and Abijah finally settled in this town on lot 27, 
Benjamin and Robert on lot 11, and Jonas in 1802 on lot 19, where 
Mottville is situated. The latter's sons were Solomon, Jonas, jr., and 
David. Jonas Earll, sr. , died in October, 1847, aged ninety-six. Jonas, 
jr., was elected sheriff in 1815, served as assemblyman in 1820 and 
1821, and State senator from 1823 to 1826 inclusive, congressman in 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 981 

1827-31, appointed canal commissioner in 1832, 1842, and J 844 and 
was postmaster at Syracuse from 1837 to 1841. Gen. Robert Earll 
probably built the first dam across the outlet at what is now Willow 
Glen. He erected a saw mill and grist mill there and also established 
a tannery, all in about 1797. He was the first tanner, currier, and shoe- 
maker in town, and carried on quite a business for those days. About 
1800 Robert and Jonas Earll built and operated the first distillery in 
Skaneateles a little northeast of the old Watson house, on the road frf)m 
the " Red House " to the creek. 

William Clift arrived from Vermont wath his father in March, 1795, 
and settled at Cliffs Corners. He died in 1862. His house was kept 
as a tavern for nearly sixty )'ears and was burned in May, 1885. Jacob 
Annis, a relative by marriage of the De Witt family, also located in 
1795 on the Lapham place on the west side of the lake. Dr. Hall came 
to Skaneateles as early 1796; in the same year Lovell Gibbs settled 
here and erected the first frame house on the village site. Dr. Hall 
built the second frame dwelling. James Porter came here in 1797 and 
erected and opened the first tavern in town, the timbers of which 
probably constituted the first raft of the kind ever floated upon the lake. 
The same year Winston Day, the pioneer merchant, opened the first 
store where the village of Skaneateles now stands, and John Briggs 
emigrated hither from Owasco, where he had settled in 1794. David 
Welch from Fort Ann, Washington county, located on lot 73 in 1798. 
He was a soldier in the Revolution, was wounded at the battle of Ben- 
nington, and built the first frame barn in Skaneateles in 1800. Benja- 
min Nye, the father of John M., was also a prominent settler of 1798, 
coming here from Lee, Mass. Being a brickmaker he established a 
brick yard on the four acres of land he had purchased within the pres- 
ent village limits and continued the business until 1802 or 1803, when 
he sold his property for $100 per acre, and moved to a 100-acre farm on 
the east shore of the lake, where he died in an imfinished brick house 
in 1829. 

These early settlers came in by the Indian trail previously mentioned, 
or by the old Genesee road, which was opened soon after the first ar- 
rivals. Suffering from the hardships and privations incident to a new 
coimtry, and especially from the miasmic conditions of the low, un- 
broken lands, they bore the many trials of frontier life with fortitude. 
Wolves, bears, and other wild animals were extremely troublesome. 
Domestic conveniences, too, were crude, and if the fire was allowed to 



982 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

go out a journey to the nearest neighbor for a " spark" was necessary. 
As years passed and the country became more thickly populated, better 
conditions prevailed, and the pioneers saw their section of country 
transformed from a forbidding wilderness to fruitful and pleasant 
farms. 

The site of Skaneateles village, it will be noticed, was the earliest 
sought as a field for business enterprise. Its natural advantages and 
picturesque location, and the fact that it was situated on the great 
Indian trail, made it a desirable and convenient mercantile center, and 
around the primitive store of Winston Day and the tavern of Tames 
Porter there soon clustered a variety of shops and dwellings. Judge 
Jedediah Sanger, of Oneida county, very early recognized the future 
possibilities of the spot, and directed many of the first improvements. 
He purchased considerable land and a number of mill sites at the head 
of the outlet, across which he constructed a dam about 1797, a little 
above the present State dam. About the same time he erected a saw 
mill and a grist mill at this point. All these structures were built by 
Jesse Kellogg, into whose possession they subsequently passed. Judge 
Sanger also soon caused a tract to be laid out into lots, which were 
usually one hundred feet front by twenty rods deep. The Thayer lot, 
known as No. 6, was conveyed to Seth McKay, on January 16, 1801, 
for $5, and sold by him to Norman Leonard, an early merchant, on 
July 21, 1802, for $200. The latter finally sold it to John Legg. Judge 
Sanger sold lot 11 to Joseph Pearce for $20, and on October 12, 1801, 
conveyed a one-acre lot on the west side of. the outlet to Warren Hecox 
for $10. As laid out these lots were termed "village plots on the 
north end of Skaneateles Lake." 

Being one of the commissioners to lay out the Seneca Turnpike, 
Judge Sanger secured its passage through this village, and in 1800 the 
Seneca Road Company built the first bridge over the outlet. This 
structure was twenty-four rods long, twenty-four feet wide, and stood 
upon fourteen posts; when rebuilt in 1843 its length was reduced to 
twenty-four feet. The present iron bridge was erected in 1871 by the 
State, the outlet being a feeder to the Erie Canal. The Genesee Turn- 
pike originally ran east and west through this town, crossing the outlet 
a mile and a quarter north of the village. The Seneca route, however, 
became the most popular. In 1807 the Cherry Valley Turnpike was 
finished, and ran southwesterly from Skaneateles village, where it in- 
tersected the Seneca thoroughfare. 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 983 

As soon as a few families had taken up their homes in tlie wilderness 
efforts were made to establish educational facilities, and (jne of the 
foremost in this movement at that time was Gen. Robert Earll, who 
soon after his arrival was instrumental in erecting a school house on the 
west side of the creek Here Miss Edith Williams was the first teacher. 
Clark states that Ebenezer Castle had a school in a private house in the 
village prior to 1798, in which year the first frame school house in town 
was built in Skaneateles village and in it the first teacher was Nicholas 
Otis. Dr. Hunger, the first physician, was another early teacher; he 
subsequently moved to Wellington in Camillus, where he died. He 
was the father of Dr. Jesse Hunger. In educational matters Skane- 
ateles has always held a high rank; few towns in the State possess a 
better record in this respect. 

On the 29th of October, 1801, the Skaneateles Religious Society was 
organized with sixteen members by Rev. Aaron Bascom. It was in- 
corporated with Ebenezer R. Hawley, Joseph Clift, Judah Hopkins, 
Peter Putnam, and Daniel Cook as trustees, and was the first organiza- 
tion of the kind in Western Onondaga. Among the first members 
were Joshua and Aaron Cook, Simon Hosmer, Solomon Edwards, Asa 
Harwood, Elizabeth and Electa Edwards, Hary and Rebecca Cook, 
James Porter, Lucretia Hosmer, and Martha Seymour. The society 
adhered to the Congregational faith until January 1, 1818, when the 
Presbyterian form of government was adopted under the pastoral 
charge of Rev. Benjamin B. Stocton. The first stated preacher was 
Rev. Thomas Robbins; Rev. Nathaniel Swift was the first settled 
pastor from September 14, 1811, to October 27, 1812; prior to these 
such missionaries as Revs. Osgood, Seth Williston, Jedediah Bushnell, 
Amasa Jerome, and Hr. Crane labored here. The first church was 
built on the hill east of the village in 1807-08, and was dedicated Harch 
1, 1809. This was subsequently sold to the Baptists. A new brick 
edifice was erected in 1830, at a cost of $7,300. The same year Rev. 
Samuel W. Bush became pastor and remained till 1844. Rev. M. N. 
Preston was pastor from October, 1862, to November, 1884. Among 
the deacons of this church have been Eli Clark, Joshua Cook, Samuel 
Bellamy, James Porter, Ebenezer Warner, Chester Hoses, Philip Crosby, 
Foster and William Clark, Sereno Field, and Henry T. Hooker. On 
July 25, 1891, the corner stone of the present brick church was laid on 
the site of the old structure. 

By the year 1800 a large number of settlers, beside those named, had 



984 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

arrived in different parts of the town, among them being Warren 
Hecox, Jonathan Hall, Zalmon Terrell (on lot 5), John Shepard (on lot 
12), a Mr. Sabin (the first blacksmith, who finally sold out to John 
Legg), and one Lnsk, the pioneer carpenter. The latter framed and 
built the "Red House," in which many of the early religious services 
were held. Mr. Shepard had settled on his farm about 1797. One 
morning he heard his hog squeal in the woods, near the house, and 
running to the door discovered a huge bear making the disturbance. 
Catching up a pitchfork instead of his gun he hurled it at Bruin, who 
turned ferociously upon his assailant and chased him up a tree. Mr. 
Shepard's cries soon brought his neighbor Terrell to the scene, who 
afterward maliciously stated that he found his friend (who was his 
brother-in-law) hugging the tree and trembling like a leaf, with no 
bear in sight. Mr. Shepard's first child, familiarly known as Major 
Shepard, was born here July 4, 1798. Warren Hecox came about 1797, 
had a shoe shop and tannery in the village on the west side of the mill 
dam, and died March 29, 1850. His old tannery was burned in August, 
1870. 

Jesse Kellogg moved his family here from New Hartford in the 
winter of 1799-1800, and soon afterward purchased Judge Sanger's 
mill property. He was born in Hartford, Conn., in 1758. In ]807 he 
removed to the Obediah Thorn farm, and finall}^ to the hill, east of 
Marcellus village, where he died in 1811. Eli Clark came here on foot 
from Northampton, Mass., in October, 1800, and on January, 22, 1801, 
purchased fifty acres of lot 35, making a journey on foot to New York 
city for the purpose; he also bought fifty acres of John Thompson's 
land, paying $6 per acre for the whole. He was the father of Foster 
Clark, who was then six years of age. Asa Mason arrived from Berk- 
shire county, Mass., in February, 1800, with his brother, Avery, and 
purchased 400 acres of lot 68. About the same year Robert Aldridge, 
Jacob and Rufus Bacon, Benjamin Brooks, William Bales, Aaron 
Bailey, Levi Clark, Joseph Carr, Christopher Brackett, and Joseph 
Cooper became settlers. 

A man whose genius eventually influenced domestic affairs through- 
out the country made his appearance in this town about 1800 in the 
person of Amos Miner. He was a son of Dr. John Miner, was born in 
Norfolk, Conn., November 10, 1776, and learned the wheelwright's 
trade. In clearing land here he was accidentally injured, and while 
confined to his bed became imbued with the idea of improving the old- 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 985 

fashioned spinning--wheel, then in use in every family. The result was 
Miner's accelerating- wheel-head, which was patented in 1803. On 
March 8, 1804, he purchased from Silas Bascom twenty-seven acres of 
land on lot 44, which included a mill site, and here he built a factory, 
fitting- it with machinery of his own invention, and manufactured wheel 
heads, flails, fork handles, and other wooden utensils for the household 
and farm. The wheel head was a great invention in those days, a ben- 
efaction to all farmers' families, and was sold in every State in the 
Union. In 1805 Miner sold his real estate and mill to Daniel Waller. 
He afterwards established a wheel-head factory at Five Mile Point in 
company with Amasa Sessions and Davis Deming, but soon sold his in- 
terest there and erected a saw and grist mill about midway between 
Skaneateles and Otisco Lakes, a mill ever since known as the "pudding- 
mill." About 1816 he located at Mottville, and subsequently at Jor- 
dan, where he manufactured pails, churns, etc. He invented most of 
the machinery he used, including a machine for making window sash, 
the Miner pump, etc. He was poor, but he made many rich, and his 
inventions had a powerful influence upon nearly every local industry. 
He finally moved to Illinois, where he died June 2, 1842. His sister 
Anna was the mother of Charles, Aaron, and Allen Pardee, of this 
town. 

We now come to the financial founder of the village of Skaneateles, 
a man whose individuality and marked influence gave the place a de- 
cided impetus. This was Col. William J. Vredenburg, who w^as born 
in New York city, April 13, 1757. He was an officer in the Revolution 
and a merchant in the place of his birth, and as early as 1791 was a 
large dealer in soldiers' claims on the Military Tract, visiting this sec- 
tion first in 1799. He removed to vSkaneateles village in May, 1803, 
with his wife, four daughters, and two sons, stopping first under a large 
elm tree near the corner of Jordan and Academy streets. He pur- 
chased the house and lot subsequently occupied by Charles J. Burnett, 
from Levi wSartwell, a carpenter, who had bought the site of Judge 
Sanger in January, 1800, built the dwelling and kept it as a tavern. 
vSoon afterward Colonel Vredenburg- purchased of Judge Sanger the 
unsold portions of military lot 36, upon which the village stands, and 
selected a coinmanding eminence of twenty acres for a future resi- 
dence. This site was then the village cemetery, and contained about 
sixteen graves, all without headstones. The remains were transferred 
to the then private burying ground of John Briggs (whose wife was 

124 



986 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

buried there in 1802), which was purchased by the Skaneateles Relig- 
ious Society in 1812 for a public burial place. In 1804 the colonel 
began the erection of his mansion, which he finished about 180G. The 
floors were being laid on the memorable "dark day" (June 16) of that 
year. His dwelling was a veritable palace for those times, and the 
raising of the frame was the occasion of a vast demonstration. Invita- 
tions were sent to all the inhabitants for miles around. The colonel 
surrounded his house with one of the finest gardens west of the Hud- 
son River, procuring first a Mr. Dullard, and afterwards wSamuel Lith- 
erland, professional gardeners, for the purpose. He was a man of large 
means, a liberal, kind-hearted citizen, and an active promoter of the 
general welfare. At first he had to send to Marcellus twice a week for 
his mail, but, dissatisfied with this arrangement, he wrote to the post- 
master-general and procured a post-ofifice in Skaneateles in April, 1804, 
in which he was appointed the first postmaster. He was a member of 
assembly in 1804-06, and died here May 9, 1813, leaving a large landed 
estate of several thousand acres in Central New York. His homestead 
passed to Daniel Kellogg, after whose death it was occupied by his 
daughter, Mrs. G. F. Leitch, until her decease. The house finally 
burned down in 1873. Colonel Vredenburg was succeeded as post- 
master by John Ten Eyck, who was followed by Charles J. Burnett, 
who held the office from 1817 to 1843. 

About the beginning of the present century quite a settlement had 
sprung up in the vicinity of what is now Mandana. David and vSamuel 
Welch, the latter the father of Samuel, jr., and a soldier in the war of 
1812, very early located in the neighborhood. A log school house was 
erected on the subsequent tavern site, and in it Daniel G. Burroughs 
was the first teacher. Later teachers were Misses Hall and Gleason. 
John G. Garlock, who served in the war of 1812, built and opened a 
store, in which he was followed by John P. Miles, Jacob Van Houten, 
Seth Morgan and others. Other early settlers in the vicinity were 
Israel Sabins (a blacksmith), Tunis Van Houghton, James Gardner, 
Samuel Robertson, Edward Greenman, and William Watts. Josiah 
Garlock was a tavernkeeper here as early as 1835, and in his house 
and at the taverns of W. H. Mershon at Mottville and Isaac W. Perry 
in Skaneateles elections were held in 1836, one day in each, suc- 
cessively. 

On March 2, 1806, the Skaneateles Library Company was incorpo- 
rated with Elnathan Andrews, Thaddeus Edwards, Warren Hecox, 




WILLIAM MARVIN, 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. !)87 

Samuel Porter and Daniel Kelloj^g, trustees. Mr. Edwards was chair- 
man and Mr. Kellogg' was treasurer and librarian, the latter holding 
these offices till 181G, when he was succeeded by Alexander W. Beebe, 
who served until 1824. He was followed by Phares Gould from 1824 
to 1834, by James G. Porter in 1834-35, and by E. H. Porter in 1835- 
41, when the library collapsed. No less than 115 subscribers joined 
the (organization during its existence, and the first manuscript catalogue 
contained the titles of 308 volumes. On October 20, 1877, the Skane- 
ateles Library Association was incorporated by Joel Thayer, E. Nor- 
man Leslie, Henry T. Webb, John H. vSmith, Charles S. Hall, E. B. 
Coe, John C. Stephenson, George T. Campbell, S. D. Conover, P^dwin 
L. Parker, C. W. Allis, Prof, A. M. Wright, Joseph C. Willetts, John 
Humphryes, and William Marvin. Rooms were opened in the Legg 
Block, and in 1880 the present handsome and commodious stone libra- 
ry building was erected. It is one of the chief attractions of the vil- 
lage, and was dedicated February 27, 1890, Hon. William Marvin pre- 
siding. Mrs. Lydia A. Cobane has been librarian for several years. 
The officers are William Marvin, president; J. C. Willetts, vice-presi- 
dent, and E. Norman Leslie, treasurer. In December, 1834, the Skane- 
ateles Mechanics' Literary Association was formed, and continued in 
existence until 1842. On May 3, 1838, the Skaneateles Educational 
Society was organized by Phares Gould, president; Alfred Wilkinson 
and William Gibbs, vice presidents; Milton A. Kinney, secretary; Abner 
Bates, treasurer; Joseph Talcott, J. T. Clark, Stephen E. Maltby, Will- 
iam H. Greene, Dr. Evelyn H. Porter, Luther Pratt, and Archibald 
Douglass, managers. Committees were chosen to visit the twenty 
schools in town and report their condition, and by systematic work a 
new impetus was given to local education. Contemporary with this 
organization was the Skaneateles Anti-Slavery Society, whose officers 
were Alfred Wilkinson, president; Thaddeus Edwards and Daniel Tal- 
cott, vice-presidents; James C. Fuller, secretary; Stephen E. Maltby, 
treasurer; vSmith Litherland, James Rattle. John Snook, Chester Moses, 
Abner Bates, and George Pryor, executive committee. The organiza- 
tion was an able auxiliary to the county society. 

The west side of the lake was very early settled by members of the 
Society of Friends, who exerted a wholesome and permanent influence 
upon the subsequent development of the town. Bringing with them 
their quiet, ennobling characteristics, they impressed upon the com- 
munity a lasting regard for institutions of an elevating nature, and 



988 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

firmly implanted their doctrines among the settlements. About 1812 
a society was organized in the community; among its members were 
Joseph and Russell Frost, Abner Lawton (died January 20, 1855), 
Warren Giles, Silas Gaylord (died January 31, 1843), and William 
Willetts ; soon afterward an edifice was erected near the octagon school 
house. In 1828 a division occurred, the "Hicksites" retaining this 
meetinghouse, and the "Orthodox" branch moving their services to 
Skaneateles, where a meeting house was built on the farm of Richard 
Talcott, who, with his two sons, Richard and Daniel, were prominent 
members. This building was torn down in 1873, and another erected. 
Sarah Talcott was the first minister of this society. The first minis- 
ter of the Hicksites after the separation was Adin Cory. Other prom- 
inent Friends were Valentine Willetts, John Milton Arnold (who with 
Mr. Willetts engaged in the foundry business in Skaneateles in 1843), 
and Liva Peck. 

A few years ago E. M. Leslie obtained a ledger which was kept here 
by John Meeker, merchant in 1806, and from it he gleaned the fol- 
lowing names of residents (farmers, unless otherwise noted) of this 
section at that time: 

Aaron Austin (farmer and clothier), Robert Aldridge, Jacobus Annis (tavern 
keeper), Jether Bailey, Richard Berry, Elijah Bowen, John Benscoten (on lot 84), 
Eli Barnes (miller in Col. W. J. Vredenburg's mill), John Burns, Silas Bascom, 
Benajah Bowen, Aaron Bailey, John Bailey, James Burroughs, Dr. Samuel Benedict, 
Peter Benedict (brother of Dr. Samuel, killed at Black Rock in the war of 1812), John 
Bristol (potash boiler for Winston Day), John Brown (stage driver for Sherwood), 
Asa Bacon, jr. (shoemaker and tanner), Robert Baker (father of R. J., shoemaker), 
Daniel Briggs (father of W. S.), William Burroughs, jr. (stage driver for Sherwood), 
Samuel Briggs, vSylvester Cortrite and son Wilhalmus, Samuel Chapman, Joseph 
Cross, Abraham Conklin, Peter Cuddeback 2d, Roger Carpenter, Joshua Covel, 
Abraham A. Cuddeback, Owen Cotton (millwright), Amasa Chapman, Timothy 
Copp, Sheldon Cook, Wareham Cook (inventor of Cook's Salve), Eli Clark, Silas 
Crandall (innkeeper), William Dascomb (tavernkeeper), Rowland Day (merchant, 
associated with Norman Leonard), Moses B. Dunning (clerk in Dascomb's tavern, 
constable, later clerk for John Legg), Asa Dexter (combmaker or peddler with Mr. 
Glass), Ira De Long, Ebenezer Edwards, Samuel Egglestone, David Earll, jr., 
Thaddeus Edwards, Nathaniel Eells (farmer and cooper), John Fitzgerald, Benjamin 
Frisby (chairmaker and painter), Reuben Farnham (school teacher, and later a 
lawyer at Elbridge), Hezekiah Gunn, Thomas Greves (tailor), Isaac Granger, Michael 
Gillett (farmer and owner of a saw mill), Edward Greenman (father of Samuel H.), 
Amasa Gleason (painter), David Granger, Abijah Gilbert (farmer and carpenter), Dan- 
iel Gardner, James Gardner, Benjamin Gumaer (came from Orange county in 1799, 
father of Harvey), Seth Hall (carpenter and wagonmaker), Timothy Hatch (farmer and 
tavernkeeper). Dr. Jonathan Hall, Isaac Hodges and Israel Hodges (near Mandana), 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. DHD 

Simeon Hosmer, Asa Hatch, Cyrus Hecox (brother of Col. Warren Ilecox), Dr. 
Judah Hopkins, David Hall (arrived in March. 1806), Samuel Ingham (merchant and 
clerk for John Meeker), Henry Jones (constable), Elijah Jones (father of Henry), 
Amos Jones (at Mandana), Bela Kingsley, Amasa Kneeland (schoolmaster), Asa 
Kneeland (carpenter), Jesse Kellogg (agent for Judge Sanger, and father of Doras- 
tu.s), Phineas Keith (tailor), Ezra Lee (owned a sail boat on the lake in 1807), Ezra 
Lane (school teacher in 1807), Timothy Miller and Elias Merrill (laborers), Ismael 
Moffett. Daniel McKay (farmer and mason), Henry Milhollen (well digger), Benja- 
min Nye (father of John), Samuel Niles (teamster for Elnathan Andrews), Elijah 
Price (law student with Daniel Kellogg), Jared Patchen, Alexander Price, Levi 
Pratt, Elijah Parsons (father of Moses and John), James H. Rathbun (at Five Mile 
Point), Thomas Reed, William Rose (on lots 35 and 37), Joseph Rhoades, Amasa 
Sessions, Peter Secoy, Nathaniel Seymour, Briggs Shearman, Phineas Stanton, 
Samuel Shaw (at Mottville), William Thomas (father of David), John Thompson, 
Daniel Veal, jr., John Van Arsdale (distiller), Samuel Winchester. 

Seth Hall came here October 23, 1806, and died in 1833. Deacon 
Amasa vSessions died November 13, 1838. David Hall at one time 
owned a large tract of land at Glen Haven. His death occurred June 
4, L865. Thaddeus Edwards was born in Greenfield, N. Y., December 
10, 1795, came with his parents to Skaneateles in 1798, and at his death 
a few years ago was the oldest resident of the town. Aaron Austin 
came here from Vermont as earl}^ as 179G, and established on the out- 
let, near the site of the present State dam, the first cloth-dressing and 
fulling mill in the county, continuing it until his death in 183G. His 
old family residence, bviilt about 1810, is now the home of Franklin 
Austin. Several others were residents of Skaneateles about this 
period. Dr. Samuel Porter came in soon after Dr. Hunger, removed 
to Wellington, and died June 14, 1893. (See Chapter XXVH.) Do- 
rastus Lawrence (son of Col. Bigelow Lawrence, of Marcelh:s) was a 
settler in 1801, coming here from Vermont. During the war of 1812 
he marched to Oswego as captain of the militia company which com- 
prised the able-bodied male inhabitants of the territory of Skaneateles 
and Marcellus. He died February 11, 1862, aged seventy-five. He 
served in the Assembly in 1830, and was sheriff of Onondaga county in 
1834. Joseph Root came in with his son Henr)' in 1804. Elijah Par- 
sons arrived from Massachusetts in 1805, and died October 25, 1862, 
at the age of eighty-three. Nathaniel Miller, born in Cherry Valley, 
N. Y., March 29, 1796, came to Skaneateles in February, 1807, and 
died March 16, 1875. James Ennis and Timothy Coleman were early 
settlers on lots 35 and 37. 

The following were also living in the town in 1815: 



990 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Reuben Austin, Miles Allen (mill owner), Isaac Briggs and David Hall (merchants), 
Abijah Benson (tanner and shoemaker on Benson street), Silas Belding (gatekeeper), 
Nathan Blodgett (potash boiler for John Meekei-), Alexander M. Beebe (lawyer), 
Myrick Bradley, Amos Benedict, William Burroughs, Stephen Burnett, John 
Burroughs (father of Alvin), Almeron Bowen, Joseph Bentley, Amos Bacon (Warren 
Hecox's brother-in-law, shoemaker), Samuel Bellamy, Joshua Bates (farmer and 
blacksmith), Jonathan Booth (merchant, died in September, 1840, aged seventy- 
eight), Daniel Burroughs (farmer and carding machine maker), George H. Cotton 
(millwright and mill owner in village), John Coe (painter), Noble Coe (tavernkeeper), 
Coe & Marsh (keepers of the Sherwood tavern), Palmer Cady (tavernkeeper in the 
"gulf"), Joshua Chandler, Ashbel Chapman, George Coon, Asaph Cleveland, 
Stephen Chase (blacksmith and hoe manufacturer, moved to Lysander and died 
there), James Curtis (carpenter), Ezra S. Curtis (law student with Daniel Kellogg), 
Elijah Cole (owner of the "Community" farm), Pliilo Dibble (harnessmaker, came in 
1812), William B. Douglass, John Dorhance, Samuel Diffins, James Daggett (teamster 
between Skaneateles and Albany), Daniel Dennison, Solomon Davis, John and 
Moses Dayley (afterwards Mormons), Abraham Dodge (" had the best farm in Mar- 
cellus") Denie Cotton, Abner Edwards, Alanson Edwards, jr. (schoolteacher, count}' 
clerk in 1835-37, and county school commissioner of the southern district in 1843-47), 
Abijah Earll, William Earll, Earll, Cotton & Lewis (proprietors of the mill in Skan- 
eateles), Horace Ells (cooper, son of Nathaniel), Watson Earll, Joseph Enos, Timothy 
Foote (father of Perry), Ebenezer Foote (brother of Timothy), Joseph Frost, John 
Gibson (carpenter), Charles Glynn (well digger), vSamuel Green (tailor), Warren 
Hecox (tanner and shoemaker), Samuel Hecox (of Ludlow &• Hecox, merchants in 
1812. brother of Warren), Augustus Hecox (tinsmith), Barnabas Hall and son Eli, 
Gershom Hall and son Loami, Deacon John Hunt, Thaddeus L. Hurd, Nicholas 
Holt, Stephen Haynes, Henry Harwood (shoemaker for Warren Hecox), Warren 
Kneeland (almanac peddler), Horace Kneeland (son of Asa), Frederick Lesley (dis- 
tiller), John W. Livingston (U. S. marshal in 1822), Noah Levins (keeper of the old 
Dascomb tavern) Salmon Lake (bedquilt weaver),' Simon McKay (hatter and carpen- 
ter), Levi Mason (justice of the peace), Jeduthan Newton (distiller and proprietor of 
potasherv), Alfred Northam (lawyer with James Porter and Freeborn G. Jewett, and 
justice of the peace several years), Spencer Parsons (cabinetmaker), Lovisa Pomeroy 
(milliner), Liva Peck, Perley Putnam (harnessmaker), George Riker (stage driver 
for Sherwood) Jehiel Rust, Josiah Root, Samuel Rhoades, jr. (father of Lewis), 
Christian Rice, Sylvester Roberts and Harry Briggs (blacksmiths), Ezra Stevens 
(shoemaker), David Seymour (brick manufacturer), Eleazer Smith, jr., Ephraim 
Smith, jr., Adam H. Shaver, Simeon Skeels (carpenters), Isaac A. Selover (carpen- 
ter, built the old meetmg house for Elnathan Andrews, the contractor). Miles Sabin 
(at Mottville), Chester Tolles, Reuben Thomas, Andrew Thompson (son of John), 
John Ten Eyck (postmaster, merchant, and justice), Jacob W. Van Etten, Ebenezer 
Warner, Warren Wilder (carpenter at Mottville), Daniel Watson (tanner and shoe- 
maker), and brother Isaac, Jonathan Weston, William S. Wood (goldsmith and watch- 
maker), Daniel Waller, .Shubael Wilkinson (cousin of Alfred), Arunah Wightman. 

David Seymour and his wife Martha located on lot 37, about 1804, 
He was a shoemaker, and with him Warren Hecox learned the trade. 




# 




^^/)/l 




THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 991 

Barnabas Hall settled at Mile Point, which was lirst called, frcjni him, 
" Barney's Point." 

The first excitement among the early settlers occurred about the be- 
ginning of the present century, when, on a Saturday night, the mill 
dam partially gave way. It was repaired, however, before sunset on 
Sunday, under the direction of a missionary, presumably Rev. Isaac 
Rawson. 

During the progress of these various settlements there centered in 
Skaneateles village a business which eventually made it a celebrated 
stopping place. This comprised the great stage lines and mail routes, 
of which Isaac Sherwood was the principal proprietor. Mr. Sherwood 
was born in Williamstown, Mass., October 12, 1769, and died April 24, 
18-10. It is not definitely known when he came to Skaneateles. His 
first work in this line was carrying mail on foot from Onondaga Hill 
westward, and from this he became one of the foremost stage proprie- 
tors of his da}^ He was long the " Vanderbilt " of the business, in 
which he was extensively engaged as early as 1818, his headquarters 
thenceforward being in this village, where he had a popular tavern 
where the Packwood House now stands, of which his son, John Milton 
Sherwood, was the active landlord. Mr. Sherwood had mail contracts 
throughout the State, and owned many of the stages which ran over the 
routes. He married a sister of Winston Day, the first merchant, and 
finally moved to Auburn, where he built the Auburn House. A prac- 
tical outgrowth of the establishment of this immense stage business 
was a large carriage and wagon making industry, that for many years 
spread the name and fame of Skaneateles throughout the country. The 
place was also widely known for its blacksmith shops and mechanics. 
Among the carriage manufacturers were Hall & Miller (James Hall 
died October 24, 1857), James R. Gillman, George Yan D3'ke, Davey & 
Baldwin, Charles Hall, L. wS. Worden (son-in-law of Capt. Thomas), 
John Legg, and John Packwood. The latter was born in England, 
April 2, 1824, and came with his parents to Auburn in 1830. He pur- 
chased the Packwood House site about 1865, and in 1871 erected that 
popular hostelry, which he kept till 1874, when he sold to F. A. & E. A. 
Andrews. He died in Auburn, July 12, 1890. John Legg came from 
Northampton, Mass., to Skaneateles in 1804, and started a blacksmith 
shop on the site of the present Legg block. He attained success as a 
carriage manufacturer, and died here December 19, 1857, aged seventy- 
five. 



992 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Meantime, the almost unexcelled water power afforded by the outlet"" 
of Skaneateles Lake had been profitably utilized by a number of mills 
and factories which had sprung into operation. This stream has 
always exerted a marked influence upon the growth of the town. From 
an early day it has been a source of protracted litigation between the 
.mill owners and the State, and more recently between the former 
and the city of Syracuse. About 1840 the State appropriated the lake 
for a vast storage reservoir for the Erie Canal. The citizens were 
aroused over this action, and almost to a man determined to frustrate 
the plan. On August 10, 1841, one of the canal commissioners, two 
engineers, and several others came up to the village to force the gates 
of the new State dam and let the water off. They were confronted by 
an enraged populace with a cannon loaded to the muzzle ; they departed, 
their errand proving futile. Ever since then, however, the State has 
used the waters of the lake for supplying the Jordan level of the Erie 
Canal, the entrance being at Jordan. When the waters of the lake 
were secured for the canal the State expended large sums of money in 
"chinking" with small stone and grout the bed of the outlet at Lime- 
stone ledge, and in turning the channel of the stream. Previous to 
this the water at this point would m3'Steriously disappear. The bill 
authorizing the city of Syracuse to obtain its water supply from Skane- 
ateles Lake, was enacted June 4, 1889, and on June 29, 1894, the mem- 
orable project was realized, the waters being turned into the 30-inch 
iron conduit at 11.10 a. m. of that day. A long and bitter legal fight 
resulted over the damages to the numerous manufacturing interests 
along the outlet, involving several hundred thousand dollars, and is 
not yet ended. 

The mills and factories gave existence to various other industries and 
three or four busy hamlets. Mottville, originally called "Sodom," 
and early written " Mottsville," was named from Arthur Mott, son of 
Mrs. Lydia P. Mott. He located here about 1820, had a woolen fac- 
tory on the site of the old Coleman flouring mill, and was for some 
time a successful and prominent citizen. He finally succumbed to 
drink and died in Toledo, O., October 30, 1869, aged seventy-one. The 
pioneer on the site of Mottville was a "squatter" named Sabin Elliott. 
In 1836 the place contained about thirty dwellings, a post-office, one 
furnace, a grist and saw mill, and a tavern kept by W. H. Mershon. 

'This stream was called by the Indians " Han-ant-too," or "Hananto," signifying "swift 
running water through thick hemlocks," or Hemlock Creek. 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 993 

Ainono- the merchants here were Earll, Watson & Co., Alanson Wat- 
son, S. L. Benedict, and Benedict Brothers (burned out in October, 
18G5). Here Putnam, Porter & Leonard built a wheel-head factory- 
soon after 1816, and in 1831 were succeeded by S. C. Wheadon, Erastus 
Nye, and George P. Adams. George B. Harwood, formerly had a har- 
ness shop at this place. Skaneateles Falls also developed into quite a 
busy center and finally obtained a post-office. Other hamlets which 
sprung up were Kellogg's Mills, Willow Glen, and Glenside. 

The war of 1812-15 caused considerable excitement in this commu- 
nity. On one occasion a detachment of cavalry on its way to the front 
arrived at the village of Skaneateles and employed John Legg to make 
a supply of horseshoes and horseshoe nails, an order that required the 
utmost dispatch. Mr. l^egg had all the blacksmiths in the surrounding 
country working for him to complete the job. In Ai:gust, 1814, a party 
of 168 British prisoners, captured at Fort Erie, passed eastward over 
the Seneca turnpike and bivouacked for a night on the lake shore on 
the subsequent Roosevelt property. In October following all the able 
bodied men in this military district were ordered to Oswego. Consid- 
erable attention was given after the war of 1812 to the training of the 
local militia, every healthy male citizen between the ages of eighteen 
and forty-five being obliged to report for duty annually. "General 
training " daj's became memorable occasions, especially to the younger 
element, who devoured cider and gingerbread as greedily as they par- 
ticipated in the military maneuvers. This district eventually com- 
prised the 159th Regiment, of which Samuel C. Wheadon was the colo- 
nel. In 1839 he was made brigadier-general, and Augustus Fowler was 
appointed to the colonelcy. Peter Pell was long the prominent drum- 
mer; his drum was his solace, and he dignified his calling. About 
1844 Captain Fowler organized the Skaneateles Guards, which had an 
armory, and which was one cf the finest militia companies of its time. 
The militia system degenerated into a farce, and the trainings were 
discontinued about 1846. 

Returning to the subject of schools it is pertinent to notice an insti- 
tution which early gave character and influence to the subject of local 
education. This was the "Friends Female Boarding School, " known 
as the " Hive," which was established on the Cuddeback farm on the 
west shore of the lake by Mrs. Lydia P. Mott, soon after her arrival in 
about 1818. She was a daughter of Joseph Stansbury, was born on 
the Atlantic Ocean on February 23, 1775, and being eji route to Phila- 
125 



994 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

delphia was christened Lydia Philadelphia Stansbur3\ Reared in the 
Episcopal church, she subsequently became a prominent member and 
preacher in the vSociety of Friends, and was married to Robert Mott, of 
New York, in 1797. After his death in Whitestown, N. Y., she came 
to Skaneateles and purchased the Dowling farm, where she resided 
with her son Arthur, the founder of Mottville. wShe is described as a 
sweet, lovely woman, benevolent, sympathetic, and simple, of much 
refinement, and an admirable teacher. Upon beholding one of her 
scholars with her hair curled she exclaimed, ''Why, Debby, has thee 
got horns growing?" The "Hive" was the earliest institution of 
learning for the education of young ladies in Western New York, and 
during its existence exerted a powerful influence in disseminating 
knowledge. Its pupils were not confined to the daughters of Friends. 
As early as 1823 she sold the school to Caleb Mekeel, who gave it the 
name of the vSkaneateles Female Seminary. He was followed by 
George Pryor, and in the neighborhood of 1838 the institution ceased 
its usefulness Mrs. Mott died in the Mott cottage in the village April 
15, 1862. 

The families of Gen. Robert Earll, Jonathan Booth, William J. Vre- 
denburg, and Charles J. Burnett, all Episcopalians, early formed the 
nucleus of their faith in town, and it is believed that Rev. Davenport 
Phelps was the first missionary in vSkaneateles village. Services were 
held in the Burnett hoinestead and the " Red House " as early as 1803. 
On January 4, 1816, St. James's Parish was incorporated with Messrs. 
Booth and Burnett as wardens, and Edward G. Ludlow, John W. Liv- 
ingston, Zalmon Booth, vStephen Horton, John Pierson, John Howe, 
William Gibbs, and Samuel Francis, vestrymen. An attempt was made 
to build a church, but the enterprise was abandoned. On April 19, 
1829, the parish was reorganized by Rev. Augustus L. Converse. In 
1827 an edifice was erected, and from 1832 to 1844 Rev. Jo-seph T. 
Clarke was rector, his predecessors being Revs. Amos Pardee and Al- 
gernon S. Hollister. The building was enlarged in 1847, and in 1873 
was torn down. The corner stone of the present stone church was laid 
May 30, 1873, by Bishop Huntington, and on January 6, 1874, the 
.structure was consecrated. It cost complete over $28,000. Among the 
prominent members of this parish were: 

John Daniels, Charles Pardee, Elijah P. Rust, John S. Furmau, James M. Allen, 
Butler S. Wolcott, Timothy Baker, Augustus Kellogg, Samuel P. Rhodes, Spencer 
Hannum, John M. Aspinvvall, Dyer Brainard, J. G. Porter, Nathan Hawley, Dr. E. 
H. Porter. Nash De Cost, John Snook, jr., Thomas Yates, William M. Beauchamp, 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 995 

Ransom Crosby, N. J. Roosevelt, Justin Redfield, D. T. Moseley, Robert I. Baker, 
James Bench, Samuel Harris, George Francis, Peter Whittlesey, and others, all be- 
fore 1850. Charles J. Burnett was warden of this church for thirty-two years. E. 
N. Leslie served as vestryman and treasurer from 1850 to 1895, and resigned as 
treasurer. 

The vState Gazetteer of 1823 speaks of vSkaneateles as containing 100 
houses, stores, offices, etc., a library, several mills, and a good deal of 
business, and mentions the fact that the inhabitants of the town manu- 
facture much of their clothing in a household way. The outlet at this 
time drove fourteen grain mills, four saw mills, three fulling mills, 
three carding machines, an oil mill, and two trip hammers. Thirteen 
years later (183(J) the village had an academy, the previously described 
library, five grist mills, making 40,000 barrels of flour annually, four 
saw mills, as many carding and cloth dressing establishments, two 
woolen factories, two furnaces and foundries, two machine manufac- 
tories, four tanneries, two extensive carriage factories, a printing-office, 
two taverns, eight stores, four churches, and about 250 dwellings. The 
decade between 1825 and 1835 apparently marked the greatest growth 
of the village. At this time Mandanawas merely an agricultural com- 
mimity, having a post-office, while Rhoades was a postal hamlet in the 
northeast corner of the town. This latter office was subseqently dis- 
continued. 

In 1835 the town had 396 militia men, 18,326 acres of improved land, real estate 
assessed at $581,125, a town tax of $1,563, and a county tax of $1,762. It contained 
3,218 cattle, 1,196 horses, 8,870 sheep and 3,976 swine, and outside of the village 
several saw and grist mills, an oil mill, two distilleries, an ashery, woolen factories, 
etc. , and fourteen school districts with 843 scholars. 

April 24, 1828, the following business men agreed to pay Phares 
Gould, Samuel Porter, and John S. Furman the sums designated " to 
enable them to purchase a lot on the new [State] street laid out by 
Charles J. Burnett in Skaneateles, and to erect thereon a building with 
a view to keep a select school therein " : 

S. Horton, $50; Samuel Francis, $25; S. B. Hopkms, $25; Nehemiah Smith, $25; 
Daniel Watson, $25; A. Douglass, $25; S. Porter Rhodes, $25; B. S. Wolcott, $25; 
S. Parsons, $75; William Gibbs, $50; Samuel Rhoades, $25; J. M. Allen, $15; Will- 
iam Clift, $25; John S. Furman, $50; David Hall, $100; Phares Gould, $100; F. G. 
Jewett, $100; John Legg, $50; Nicholas Thorn, $50; Samuel Porter, $100; Philo 
Dibble, $100 ; Daniel Kellogg, $200 ; Hezekiah Earll, $50 ; C. J. Burnett, $100 ; S. and 
J. Hall, $100; Lewis Cotton, $100; Charles Pardee, $25. 

Several of these added from $10 to $50 to their subscriptions, pro- 
viding the building was constructed of brick, w^hich was done. This 



996 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

led to the incorporation of the Skaneateles Academy on the 14th of 
April, 1829. In September, 1831, classical and scientific deparments, 
a good library, chemical and philosophical apparatus, collections of 
plants and minerals, etc., are advertised. The officers were Daniel 
Kellogg, president; John S. Furman, secretary; Phares Gonld, Spen- 
cer Parsons, Samuel Porter, D.D., Stephen Horton, Charles J. Burnett, 
Philo Dibble, and Freeborn G. Jewett, trustees. Among the early 
principals were Robert Bradshaw, S. Rhoades, and Allen Fisk. The 
building was sold to the Union school district on June 3, 1854. In 1869 
it was torn down, and in 1855 a new school house was built. 

The first newspaper in this town, the Skaneateles Telegraph, i was 
started by William H. Child, with B. B. Drake as editor, on the 28th 
of July, 1829, and among the local advertisers during its brief exist- 
ence were: 

N. D. Caldwell and K. Wallis, proprietors of the Skaneatele.s House, formerly 
kept by S. & J. Hall; Porter & Pardee, general merchants; N. Smith & Co., tin and 
hardware; Dr. I. Parsell, physician; Wolcott & Porter, merchants and lumber yard; 
John Wetmore, barber; J. H. Benedict, jeweler in the shop lately occupied by A. W. 
McKenney; James Miller, barber; S. Francis, hatter, wholesale and retail; Daniel 
Talcott, proprietor of the Skaneateles furnace, recently enlarged ; Isaac W. Perry, 
salt, provisions, etc. ; Dibble & Miller, harnessmakers; A. Douglass & J. S. Furman, 
manufacturers of the Douglass threshing machine ; Stephen Horton (died in 1832), 
Richard Talcott, Burnett & Rhoades, and Phares Gould, general stores; R. A. Hicks, 
" late from England," tailor; and Spencer Parsons, cabinet and chairmaker. 

The Telegraph was absorbed by or became the predecessor of the 
wSkaneateles Columbian, which was started by John Greves in the 
spring of 1831. About 1833 Milton A. Kinney became proprietor, and 
on October 28, 1837, he sold to Luther A. Pratt and Elijah S. Keeney, 
but continued as editor. On July 1, 1838, the firm of Pratt & Keeney 
issued also the first number of the Juvenile Depository or Youth's 
Mental Casket, the editor being Luther Pratt, father of L. A. Pratt. 
October 26 of that year they dissolved and Luther A. Pratt continued 
as publisher with Mr. Kinney as editor, and a year later the latter again 
became sole owner. The Juvenile Depository passed to Luther Pratt 
and W. M. Beauchamp, who soon after discontinued the publication. 
January 1, 1851, Mr. Kinney sold the Columbian to George M. Kinney, 
but still retained the editorial chair, and March 24, 1853, the paper was 

' .Several numbers of this paper, a nearly a complete file of the Columbian, and many volumes 
of other newspapers have been collected, bound, and presented to the Skaneateles Library by E. 
Kornjan Leslie. 






THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 997 

discontinued, the subscription list, etc., passing to H. B. Dodge. 
Milton A. Kinney died March 16, 1801, aged fifty-eight. He came here 
in 1833, and was elected to the assembly in 1853. The Skaneateles 
Democrat was started by William M. Beauchamp on January 3, 1840. 
About 1844 E. Sherman Keeney became the editor and proprietor, and 
a few years later was succeeded by William H. Jewett. He soon sold 
out to Jonathan C. Keeney, who was followed on April 1, 1849, by 
Harrison B. Dodge, who has ever since been its owner. In March, 
1853, he purchased the business and good will of the Columbian and 
consolidated the two offices. E. S. Keeney died August 27, 1847, 
aged about thirty years, and Mr. Beauchamp's death occurred August 
28, 1867, at the age of sixty-nine. On January 1, 1890, Mr. Dodge re- 
tired from the editorial chair and leased the Democrat to Will T, Hall, 
who makes an excellent and very popular newspaper. Mr. Beauchamp, 
on May 24, 1844, issued the first number of the Minerva, a .small 
monthly, which he continued two years. Another paper, unique and 
short-lived, was the Communitist, which was issued fortnightly by the 
"Skaneateles Community, at Community Place, near Mottville, Onon- 
daga County, N. Y.," and which bore the motto: "Free inquiry^ — ■ 
general progression- — common possessions — ^oneness of interest- — uni- 
versal brotherhood." Its chief promoter was John A. Collins; it was 
devoid of advertisements, and was started early in 1844. The Skane- 
ateles Free Press was started by its present publisher, J. C. Stephen- 
son, on March 21, 1874, who has since owned and edited it. It is one 
of the ablest and brightest weekly newspapers in the county. Among 
other advertisers in the first numbers of the Telegraph and Columbian, 
between 1829 and 1834, were: 

Ansel Frost & Co., who dissolved December 19, 1829, Arthur Mott, the " Co.," re- 
tiring, Ansel Frost continuing the business of the furnace at " Mottsville," manufac- 
turing castings, stoves, potash kettles, the "Douglass patent threshing machines 
made to order by James McCray," and a number of "fine mill sites on the long 
credit" ; notice dated November 24, 1829, that application will be made to the next 
Legislature for the division of the town of Marcellus into three towns; Jacob W. 
Van Etten, on March 12, 1830, offering six cents reward, for the return of an " indented 
apprentice boy at the farming business named John Ward Burtees," aged about 
eighteen; D. Watson, tannery, near the Skaneateles woolen factory; John H. 
Bishop, " late from the city of New York," steam clothing and cloth dressing estab- 
lishment on the "west side of the old brick still"; John Harbottle and George 
Hutton, proprietor of the " Mottsville Woolen Factory," April, 1831, about to com- 
mence operations in their "elegant new building erected last fall in Mott.sville," 
manufacturing woolens, cassmieres, etc. ; Joseph Battin, announcing that he will 



998 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

sell out his general stock of merchandise, as he intends to " relinquish the country 
business" ; Misses Mead & Cobb, in May, 1831, new millinery shop, opposite the 
Skaneateles Hotel; Isaac W. Perry, innkeeper; James H. Leonard, general mer- 
chant; Daniel Talcott and Howard Delano, form a partnership and assume charge 
of the Skaneateles furnace in 1831 ; Augustus Fowler, clothier and tailor, started in 
1831; Richard Talcott and Henry W. Allen, form partnership in 1831, as general 
merchants, and removed to the new brick store, succeeded by Richard Talcott in 
December, 1832; Watson & Hitchcock, boot and shoe store; William M. Beau- 
champ ,i bookseller from 1834 to 1850; Porter & Pardee, merchants, dissolve October 
30, 1834, business continued by Charles Pardee for many years ; Nelson Hawley & 
Co. ; Gibbs & Burnett, Richard Talcott & Co. (C. W. Allis), and James G. Porter, 
general merchants; R. I. Baker, and J. R. Becker, tailors, dissolve, February 36, 
1835, business continued by Mr. Baker; Warren Hecox & Co. (Edwin Gould), dis- 
solve February 5, 1835, and Mr. Gould and WiUiam Lawtou continue the boot, shoe, 
and leather store; John Snook, jr., drugs, established in 1834; Truman Downer, 
Benjamin Nye, and John H. Earll, proprietors of the Mottville furnace in 1834, 
were building a brewery at this time ; Butler vS. Wolcott & Co. (Samuel H. Yates), 
general merchants, dissolve December 25, 1834, the business being continued 'by 
Mr. Wolcott; William H. Gaylord & Co., dry goods, in 1835; Alfred Hitchcock, boot 
and shoe manufactory. 

Several of these just noted are worthy of more mention. Charles 
Pardee was especially prominent. He built a three story brick build- 
ing in the village, west of the Phoenix block, in 1850, and during his 
life was actively identihed with nearly every interest of the town. He 
died in Skaneateles, April 9, 1878, aged eighty-two. Col. Warren 
Hecox was long engaged in tanning and became a leading citizen. His 
tannery was burned February 20, 1848. John Snook, jr., came here 
with his father from England. The latter was a physician and the in- 
ventor of Snook's pills, and died in this town December 1, 1857. The 
son's death occurred in Utica, October 30, 1884, at the age of thirty- 
one. To them is due the introduction of the teasel in this section 
about 1835, a business which proved exceedingly profitable. The town 
was famous for many years for its large production of teasels, by far 
exceeding that of any other locality in the world. They were neces- 
sary to the proper finishing of fine woolen goods and were in great de. 
mand at remunerative prices until at last human ingenuity substituted 
mechanical appliances for them. 

Charles J. Burnett, of Gibbs & Burnett, who was postmaster from 
1817 to 1843, was born in London, England, and died January 15, 
1855, aged eighty-three. Isaac W. Perry was for many years the pro- 
prietor of the " Indian Queen" Hotel. Anent the advertisement for a 

' Father of Rev. Dr. W. M. Beauchamp, of Baldwinsville. 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 999 

riintiway apprentice boy, the following is taken from the Telegraph, and 
ilhistrates certain conditions at that period: 

One Cent Reward. 

Ranaway from the subscriber on or about the 24th ult. an indented boy to the 
farming business, named Norman Hodges, aged 14 years. Whoever will return 
said boy to the subscriber shall receive the above reward. All persons are forbid 
harboring him or trusting him under penalty of the law. 

Marcellus, Jan. 11, 1830. John Carpenter. 

In 1831 a Universalist church was built at Mottville on ground 
donated for the purpose and for a school by Ansel Frost. The build- 
ing cost about $1,900, and the first regular pastor was Rev. Jacob 
Chase. 

On the 19th of April, 1833, the village of Skaneateles was incor- 
porated and the first election held May 14, of that year, at the tavern of 
Isaac W. Perr}'. The following were the first officers: Freeborn G. 
Jewett, president; Daniel Talcott, Phares Gould, William Gibbs, Lewis 
H. Sanford, trustees; Charles J. Burnett, treasurer; Henry W. Allen, 
collector; George Kenned)^ street commissioner; James H. Allen, 
clerk. This was the fourth village incorporated in Onondaga county. 
The presidents have been as follows: 

Freeborn G. Jewett. 1833; Daniel Kellogg, 1834; Freeborn G. Jewett, 1835; Phares 
Gould, 1836; George F. Leitch, 1837-38; James Hall, 1839; G. F. Leitch, 1840; Nel- 
son Hawley, 1841; James Hall, 1842; John C. Beach, 1843; Spencer Hannum, 1844; 
Nelson Hawley, 1845-46; Alexander Horton, 1847; William H. Willetts, 1848; Will- 
iam H. Jewett, 1849; John Davey, jr., 1850; Charles Pardee, 1851-53; William 
Fuller, 1854; John Legg, 1855; John Barrow, 1856; Freeborn G. Jewett, 1857; 
Thomas Snook, 1858; Spencer Hannum. 1859; C. W. AlHs, 1860; Harrison B. Dodge, 
1861-62; Charles Pardee, 1863; Joel Thayer, 1864-65; William R. Gorton, 1866; 
Newell Turner, 1867; Jacob C. De Witt, 1868; Charles Pardee, 1869; H. B. Dodge, 
1870; James A. Root, 1871; Charles Pardee, 1872; Thomas Kelley, 1873-75; William 
Marvin, 1876; Thomas Kelley, 1877-80; Joel Thayer, 1881; Joseph Allen, 1882-84; 
William G. Ellery ^ (first president elected independently), 1885-87; C. R. Milford, 
1888-89; Joseph C. Willetts, 1890; N. O. Shepard, 1891; Ezra B. Knapp, resigned 
May 30, and N. O. Shepard, appointed, 1892-93; Edson D. Gillett, 1894; E. Norman 
Leslie, 1895. 

The charter was amended in 1849; the corporate limits were en- 
larged in 1870 to embrace about one square mile; and in 1855 the vil- 
lage was reincorporated under the new State law. In 1870 the site was 
resurveyed by Rhesa Griffin, assisted by James H. Gifford, of Mandana, 
who had formerly surveyed the town and village. 

' William G. Ellery was. born in Skaneateles, July 26, 1832; was a merchant, school teacher; 
and lawyer; served as town clerk from 1874 to 1885, except one year, and died in November, 1887. 



1000 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

The subject of fire extinguishment was considered long before the 
incorporation of the village, and in that act provision was made for an 
organized department and very soon afterward Fire Engine Company 
No. 1 was formed. The first record of its actual existence, however, 
appears in the Columbian February 20, 1835, when James G. Porter 
as foreman and G. W. Waring as secretary called a meeting for March 
4 at the tavern of I. W. Perry. It is certain also that a second fire 
company flourished at this time, or shortly afterward. In 1858, when 
there was a fire company and a hose company, new life was infused 
into the department, and on March 14, 1866, the whole was reorganized, 
with forty-eight members, and with Jeremiah Shallish as chief en- 
gineer; Thomas Kelley was foreman of the fire company and Henry 
D. Huxford commanded the hose company. Probably the earliest fire 
engine used in the village was an old " gooseneck " machine, now in 
the possession of the department. About 1856 or 1857 a hand engine was 
purchased, and is still ready for emergencies ; since the introduction of 
the present water works hose alone has been employed. In 1861 a 
reservoir was constructed for fire purposes on the academy corner. 
The fire department now consists of about forty members, organized 
into two hose companies and a hook and ladder company, with George 
C. Bench, chief, and J. R. Stacey, secretary. 

The first fire of importance which the department was called upon to 
extinguish was the disastrous conflagration of September 38, 1835, 
when about thirteen stores, shops, etc., comprising the principal busi- 
ness part of the village, were burned, entailing a loss of over $50,000. 
In this fire the town records, which were in Spencer Parsons's office, 
were destroyed. Among the buildings burned were Parsons's cabinet 
.shop, Nathaniel C. Miller's saddlery shop, W. M. Beauchamp's book 
store and bindery, John Legg's carriage manufactory (on the site of 
Legg Hall), M. A. Kinney's Columbian printing ofhce, the dry goods 
stores of Charles Pardee, James G. Porter, Phares Gould, Gibbs & 
Burnett, Richard Talcott & Co., Nelson Hawley & Co., B. S. Wolcott 
& Co., and Dr. Samuel Porter's block, including Noadiah Kellogg's 
saddlery shop and a school house occupied by a Mr. Greene With charac- 
teristic energy the lot owners soon rebuilt nearly all the burned dis 
trict. The next serious fire occurred February 4, 1842, when Dorastus 
Kellogg's woolen mills, employing about sixty-five hands, Spencer 
Hannum's machine shop, and Earll, Kellogg & Co.'s flouring mill and 
storehouse were burned, causing a loss of about $43,000. Earll, Kel- 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 1001 

logg & Co. rebuilt the grist mill and placed it in operation early in 
1843. On the site of Kellogg's woolen factory Spencer Hannum 
erected a foundry, which was burned January 6, 1850. He probably 
rebuilt the Skaneateles foundry, and operated it under the name of 
Hannum & Arnold; in 1850 it passed into possession of Samuel M. 
Drake. Mr. Hannum was born in Williamsburg, Mass., in 1799, came 
here about 1828, removed to Auburn in 1862, and finally returned to 
Williamsburg, where he died December 25, 1878. Dorastus Kellogg 
was born on the Obediah Thorn farm January 10, 1808, was engaged 
in early life in woolen manufacturing in Baldwinsville, settled in Skane- 
ateles in 1834, and died in Oswego Falls, N.Y., February 1, 1885. 

Notwithstanding the number of distilleries in operation, practical 
results grew out of the active temperance work performed in the 
various communities. The Skaneateles Temperance Society flourished 
before and after 1835, under the secretaryship of Milton A. Kinney, 
In August, 1856, the Skaneateles Temperance Association was organ- 
ized, with Chester Moses, president; Richard Talcott and Thaddeus 
Edwards, vice-presidents; Horace Hazen, treasurer; and John Snook, 
jr., secretary. A fund of nearly $5,000 was subscribed, and vigorous 
measures were taken to enforce the law. These societies exerted a 
marked influence throughout the town. 

About 1836 the Skaneateles Agricultural Society was formed by a 
number of the leading farmers of the town, and on October 22, 1839, 
the first cattle show was held in the village. This society was suc- 
ceeded, on December G, 1845, by another of the same name, which was 
merged into the Farmers' - Club December 30, 1855. Among the 
leading members of this latter organization were William J. Townsend, 
William M. Beauchamp, Peter Whittlesey, Chester Moses, Lewis W. 
Cleveland, William P. Giles, S, Porter Rhoades, Frank E. Austin, E. 
H. Adams, Willis Clift, Martin C. De Witt, and J. Horatio Earll. The 
club has held many successful exhibits. In this connection the follow- 
ing statistics of 1844 may be added: 

Acres of improved land, 20,866; bushels of barley grown, 25,572; peas, 4,592; 
beans, 409; potatoes, 34,164; wheat, 47,944; corn, 27,615; oats, 38,735; pounds of 
butter, 113,909; cheese, 28,527; number of sheep, 13,640; number of farmers, 544. 

The Erie Canal, which had been opened in 1825, was now (1840-45) 
adding in a perceptible degree to the prosperity of every industry. But 
the completion of the Syracuse and Auburn Railroad inaugurated a 

new epoch and marked the beginning of another era of local enter- 
126 



1002 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

prise. Unfortunately it passed just north of the north line of the town, 
about five miles from Skaneateles village, and in a measure, in later 
years, this thrifty center of population suffered from the withdrawal of 
trade. A project, however, was immediately instituted to preserve the 
fame and business of the place, and on May 16, 1836, the first Skane- 
ateles Railroad Company was incorporated, wuth a capital of $25,000, 
the act naming- Freeborn G. Jewett, Daniel Earll, David Hall (chair- 
man), Richard Tallcott, Charles Pardee, and Lewis H. Sanford (secre- 
tary), commissioners. In 1838 the construction of a wooden railroad 
was commenced between Skaneateles and Skaneateles Junction, the 
nearest point on the Syracuse-Auburn route, and September 30, 1840, 
this line was opened for passengers, who were carried over it in a horse 
car. The first depot in the village stood opposite the Packwood House; 
this was subsequently abandoned, and a building erected on the site of 
the present station house. Storrs Barrow was superintendent for 
many years. This crude railroad was closed August 24, 1850, and gave 
place to a plank road, which was succeeded by the present steam rail- 
road operated by the Skaneateles Railroad Company, which was organ- 
ized in 1866 with Joel Thayer, president; Leonard H. Earll, vice-presi- 
dent; McKendree J. Dickerson, secretary; Eben Dean, treasurer. The 
road was completed and placed in operation in 1867. It is about five 
miles long and is probably the shortest railway line in the United States. 
Bonds were issued to the amount of $35,000 to aid in its construction. 

Meantime three religious societies had sprung into existence m 
Skaneateles village. The Baptists had for several years alternated 
with their brethren of Elbridge in holding services. About 1832 they 
formed a separate church and purchased the old Congregational meet- 
ing house, which was moved down from the hill and refitted. In 1842 
a new edifice was erected on the site of an old red blacksmith shop. 
Among the early pastors were Revs. Amasa Smith, Nathan Denison, 
Charles Elliott, and Henry Bowen. 

Prior to 1832 the Methodists held services in a school house on West 
Genesee street, their preachers being the circuit riders. In that year 
and the next "Father" Bibbins held a successful revival, a society 
was organized, and in 1834, under the pastorate of Rev. Lyman R. 
Redington, a church was erected at a cost, including lot and improve- 
ments, of about $3,900. This was enlarged in 1853, and in 1859 David 
Hall built at his own expense a brick edifice and presented it to the 
.society. The corner-stone was laid June 7, 1859, and the structure was 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 1003 

dedicated January 13, 18G0. It cost about $5,000. In 1809 it was en- 
larg-ed and remodeled at an expense of $9,500. 

In April, 1841, a Congregational church society was organized in 
pursuance of a call issued by Chester Moses and Thaddeus Edwards, 
and for several years occupied the Congregational (subsequently the 
Lyceum) hall. It finally became extinct. 

The years 1838 and 1840 were memorable in the history of the town. 
Both were characterized by great political excitement. As a result of 
the so-called "patriot war" on the border of Canada, some of the citi- 
zens, it is said, were sent to Van Dieman's land in 1838. In 1840 oc- 
curred the eventful Harrison-Tippecanoe campaign. The Whigs 
raised their log cabin one day, and on the next an effigy of their candi- 
date hung from a tall pole in a conspicuous part of the village, and it 
remained there several weeks. 

At this point a number of prominent settlers and residents of the 
town may be appropriately noticed : 

Among them were Moses Loss, who came before 1800 and died July 20, 1853; Lu- 
ther C. Lawrence, died November 9, 1851 ; D. Kellogg Leitch, John Barrow, who 
died in 1874, father of John D., the artist, and George, a lawyer, at one time mem- 
ber of assembly, and delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1894; Peter M. Pell, 
whose death occurred in 1874; Peter Thompson, who, with John Billings, walked 
from Windsor, Vt., to Skaneateles in 1812, and died here in 1874; Nicholas J. Roose- 
velt, who arrived in 1831, and died in 1854; Colonel Humphrey, who died in 1850; 
George F. Leitch, son-in-law of Daniel Kellogg, died in 1855; William Hall, died in 
1856; Capt. Nash De Cost, a sea captain, died in 1858; Nehemiah Smith, long a tin- 
smith in the village, died in 1859; Philander K. Williamson (harnessmaker), Peleg 
Slocum, and WilHam H. Jewett(the latter the only son of Hon. Freeborn G. Jewett), 
all of whom died in 1859 ; James Tyler, stage agent, died in 1864 ; William Fuller, 
assemblyman in 1841 and 1842, died in 1864; Chester Moses, whose death occurred 
July 11, 1862; Samuel Francis, sr., died in 1865, aged ninety-four; Alfred Hitchcock 
and Russell Frost, who died in October, 1865; Daniel Piatt, died in 1866; Ebenezer 
E. Austin, died in 1867; Alonzo Gillett, brick manufacturer; William Packwood, 
brother of John, died in 1883; Howard Delano, born in Rensselaer county in 1804, 
came here when young, was associated for several years with Spencer Hannum, re- 
moved to Syracuse and founded the Delano Iron Works, and died there March 3, 
1883; John B. Furman (" Captain Jack"), son of John S., born here in 1816 ^.nd died 
in 1884; Heman Northrop, from Vermont, who died in 1884; Thomas Morton, born 
in Scotland in 1830, came to Skaneateles in 1858, was railroad commissioner several 
terms, and died at Mottville in 1884; Charles J. Elliott, artist; Holcolm Peck, served 
under Gen. Levi Lusk in the war of 1812, settled here in 1820; Lewis W. Cleveland, 
born in Massachusetts in 1796, came to this town in 1816, whose mother died here in 
1861, aged 104; Ezra L. Stiles, born in Otis, Mass., March 11, 1796, came here in 1817, 
joined the Masons the same year, and became a woolen manufacturer ; John M. Pur- 



1004 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

cell, died in 1886; Andrew Blodgett, born in Cazenovia in 1808, died at Mottville in 
1888; Christopher C. Wyckoff, born and lived in this town, died August 31, 1889, 
aged sixty-six ; Edward S. Hoyt, died in April, 1891 ; Major Samuel Pierce, died in 
July, 1850; Alfred Wilkinson, died in July, 1852; George Francis, a long-time hatter, 
died in April, 1874; Stephen Horton, a leading merchant, died m New York while on 
business October 23, 1832 ; Dr. Hopkins, died October 7, 1837, being succeeded by 
Dr. Bartlett; Francis FHnt (colored), who died December 15, 1837, aged 104; James 
C. Fuller, a Quaker, died here in 1847 ; Henry and Moses Cuykendall, the latter an 
early blacksmith ; and Edward D. Murray, J. B. Stillson, Chester Clark, William L. 
G. Smith, James H. Fargo, Edward O. Gould, and Henry A. Adams, 

Capt. Benjamin Lee settled on the Shotwell farm near Skaneateles 
village in 1821. He was born in England in 1765, became a sea cap- 
tain, and died here in 1828. Between 1824 and 1827 he made a series 
of systematic soundings of Skaneateles Lake, computing its average 
depth at 120 feet. Among his computations were: Off One Mile Point, 
78 feet; oflf Five Mile Point, 218 feet; off Mandana, 265 feet; off Nine 
Mile Point 275 feet. He also drew a chart or map, from observation, 
on which he made the lake resemble in outline a female figure, and 
which is now preserved in the library. Bishop Burnett, a retired British 
officer, was a patriotic man and fond of pyrotechnic display. At an early 
day he procured some fireworks and " the forests were in a blaze of 
glory, and wheels whirred, and rockets soared, and Mr. Burnett's coat 
took fire, and there was a grand time generally." He had a small fish 
pond back of the subsequent residence of the late Benoni Lee. James 
Sackett was another character of the times. It is said he came to 
Skaneateles with about $40,000, and being a bachelor lived a life of 
leisure. His residence, which he purchased of John Briggs, still 
stands, in a remodeled form, near the lake shore west of the bridge in 
the village. Irritable and profane he was Isaac Sherwood's equal, and 
for several years occasionally tnoved his barn to and from the front of 
the latter's tavern. On one occasion it is said he tore a chimney down 
to get a cricket out. George H. Earll, son of Hezekiah, previously 
mentioned, was born in this town May 28, 1829, and died October 30, 
1873. Upon his father's death he succeeded to the old "Community" 
farm, and afterward bought the Carpenter farm of his brother Julius. 
He became one of the largest and best dairy farmers of the county, 
owning at one time over 800 acres and keeping upwards of seventy-five 
cows, and with his cousin, Andrew J. Earll, was also an extensive hop 
grower. He was president of the Hart Lot Paper Company, one of 
the first stockholders in the Skaneateles Iron Works, at one time owner 



i 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 



1005 



/y- 








of the Skaneateles Lime Works, and a director in the Skaneateles Sav- 
ings Bank. In 1871 he built on the outlet one of the largest distilleries 
in the country. 

Hon. Nathan Kelsey Hall was born in Skaneateles on the 28th of 
March, 1810, and became eminently distinguished in State and Nation. 
In 1836 he went to Aurora, N. Y., 
and commenced the study of law 
with Millard Fillmore, afterward 
president of the United States, with 
whom he moved to Buffalo in 1830, 
where he was admitted to the bar 
two years later. He was appoint- 
ed first judge of the Court of Co m 
mon Pleas of Erie county in Janu- 
ary, 1841, and was elected to the 
State Legislature in 1845 anda 
member of congress in 1846. On 
July 23, 1850, he was appointed 
postmaster-general by President 
William Henry Harrison. In 
August, 1852, he received the ap- 
pointment of judge of the U. S. 
District Court for the northern 
district of New York, a position 

he held for several years. Mr. Hall served in all these capacities with 
conspicuous ability, and attained high rank as a jurist. 

Other very prominent citizens of Skaneateles were Daniel Kellogg, 
and Hon. Freeborn G. Jewett, both of whom are noticed elsewhere in 
this work. Samuel C. Wheadon was born in Marcellus, October 19, 
1802, removed to Mottville in 1824, and died in Skaneateles June 8, 
1881. He engaged in the foundry and manufacturing business, kept 
hotel, served as deputy sheriff several years, and in 1848 became a 
merchant and continued until his death. His children were Orlando 
D., Edward D., James P., and Mrs. E. F. Barrow. Joel Thayer, born 
in Ontario county July 18, 1812, came to Skaneateles in May, 1835, and 
married Juliette, only daughter of his employer, John Legg. He was 
one of the organizers and for ten years president of the Skaneateles 
Railroad Company, built the present Legg block in 1866-68, was pres- 
ident of the Bank of Skaneateles and of the Trust and Deposit Com- 



Nathan K. Hall. 



1006 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

pany of Syracuse, vice-president of the Syracuse Chilled Plow and the 
Central City Railroad Companies, and was heavily interested in many 
other enterprises. His only child is the wife of Henry T. Webb. 
Harmon B. Benedict, when he completes his present term, will have 
served as justice of the peace forty consecutive years, and will then be 
eighty years old. Mrs. Elizabeth T. Porter-Beach, a native of Skan- 
eateles, attained considerable distinction in literature. She wrote 
" Pelayo; an epic of the olden Moorish time," in recognition of which 
the Queen of Spain and Empress Eugenie conferred upon her royal 
honors. 

Among the merchants and business men of the village may be added the names of 
B. C. M. Tucker, cabinet maker; C. W. AUis, groceries; J. Day and L. S. Smith & 
Co., tailors and clothiers; L. P. Carter, groceries; Brinkerhoff & Porter and Phares 
Gould, general store; E. A. Sessions (successor to Nathaniel Miller), harness; David 
Milliard, lumber; L. Little, successor to L. P. Carter; Dr. H. R. Lord, dentist; 
R. M. & S. H. Burnett, booksellers; Leyden Porter, Bench & Bean, hardware; Isom 
& Hall, general merchants; John Rossiter and Alonzo Gillett, brick and tile man- 
ufacturers; T. J. Gale, bookseller, successor to W. M. Beauchamp; James Bench, 
hardware; Edward Eckett, baker and cracker manufacturer; and R. M. Stacey, 
Foote & Nye, Charles N. Hatch, Lyman Hall, William Crozier, and others. Mr. 
Crosier came herein 1836, and for more than fifty years carried on a furniture and 
undertaking business. He died December 12. 1889. 

Between 1825 and about 1850 several select schools were maintained 
in Skaneateles, notably by Thomas W. Allis from 1818 to about 1832; 
Revs. Mr. Brovver and Mr. Lyman; Miss Pratt, who opened a "Young 
Ladies Seminary" in her father's residence in 1839; Miss Ann Eliza 
Humphre}' about 1843; and Mrs. E, M. Haven, who opened the " vSkan- 
eateles Female Seminary," a private enterprise, about 1850. St. James 
Institute was started in 1852, under the auspices of Rev. A. C. Patter- 
son, rector of St. James church, with E. N. Leslie, N. L Roosevelt, 
Dorastus Kellogg, S. M. Drake, and John Snook, jr., managers, and 
William G. Lloyd, M. A., and Miss Mary Jane Drake, principals. This 
continued succes.sfally for several years. 

Community Place had its inception in a meeting held in Congrega- 
tional Hall March 22, 1843, and continued in existence until about 1845. 
It consisted of thirty or forty men, women and children, all infidels, 
who lived in common on a farm of 300 acres, two miles north of vSkan- 
eateles. Collins was the principal man, and their dictator. 

About 1845 the town had attained, probably, the height of its pros- 
perity. It contained 867 voters, 386 militia men, six churches, eight- 
een common schools, which cost, with the real estate and improvements, 



I 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. IfWT 

$4,400, 903 school children, nine retail stores, four groceries, ten mer- 
chants, forty-four manufacturers, 308 mechanics, four saw mills, three 
woolen factories, two iron works, a trip hammer, two distilleries, an 
ashery, two tanneries, one brewery, five taverns, seven clergymen, six 
lawyers, and six physicians. Of Skaneateles the editor of the Colum- 
bian, on December 10, 1846, says: 

It is gratifying to perceive, amidst the disasters that have befallen our village for 
several years past, by fires, removals, and the misfortunes of our business men, that 
there still remains some portion of its former energetic and thrifty character, and 
the frequent prophecies of its decrease of population and business there is reason to 
hope, were at least premature. Situated as we are, at some little di-stance from the 
main thoroughfare of travel and business, it cannot be expected that the increase in 
business and population should keep pace with towns on the line of the canal and 
railroad. But it would be difficult to give a reason why this village, surrounded as 
it is by a country unsurpassed in fertility and cultivation, and possessing every 
requisite for a sound and substantial increase in growth and business, should not 
at the least retain all its present numbers and thrift. In proof that we are not de- 
creasing in numbers it appears that there is not a dwelling of any description at 
present unoccupied. 

Prior to 1843 two school districts comprised the village of Skane- 
ateles; in that year they were united under Union Free School District 
No. 10, and on November the first term of school opened in the old 
academy building with Elijah W. Hager as principal. 

For one full century Skaneateles Lake has exerted a direct, potent, 
and wholesome influence upon the growth and prosperity of the town, 
and especially upon the handsome village that bears its name. Its 
pure cold waters, gushing up from perpetual springs, originally af- 
forded food to the aborigine and subsequently furnished the tables of 
white settlers and visitors. Large quantities of lake trout and other 
fish have been taken from its depths, its glistening surface has borne 
every variety of craft, while its waters have turned the wheels of 
numerous industries. The beautiful scenery adorning its shores, the 
purity of its atmosphere, the aquatic pleasures upon its surface, have 
spread its name far and wide, and attracted hither scores of summer 
residents. Within the last twenty-five or thirty years, and particularly 
during the past decade, it has become a favorite resort. Its velvety 
banks, in the village and the immediate neighborhood, have been 
beautified by a number of pretty cottages, villas, and country seats, 
while its i;pper shores are adorned in places with many handsome 
homes. The majority of travel passes through the village, where a 
large portion of it ends. This has given existence to a considerable 



1008 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

summer business, which constitutes an important source of revenue, 
and which is destined to become greater as the region is more and 
more appreciated. 

As late as 1800 or '10 the land in the village now occupied by the 
Legg block, Dixon House, and adjacent buildings was without a 
structure of any kind. Had this condition remained unchanged the 
value of the lake front would have been greatly enhanced. At a very 
early day, before a dam had blocked the outlet, the surface of the lake 
was bewteen eight and ten feet lower than at present. Before the first 
dam was constructed the land owners along the lake shores signed off 
all claims for damages which might result from the water overflowing 
its original banks. This was an individual matter, and was done for 
the benefit of the water power along the outlet, but one proviso was 
made, namely, that a carding mill and grist mill should forever be kept 
in operation in Skaneateles. Both of these enterprises, however, have 
been discontinued. The lake, according to the State engineer's reports, 
contains 8,320 acres, and lies 860 feet above sea level and 463 feet 
above the Erie Canal at Syracuse. The first steamer borne upon its 
surface was the "Independence," which made her trial trip July 22, 
1831. This boat was not a success, and subsequently became the 
schooner "Constitution." wSoon afterward the steamer "Highland 
Chief" waslaunched, butthis, too, wasmadeoverinto a sailing vessel. In 
1848 the steamer "Skaneateles" was built and run by Hecox & Reed 
for a year or two. On May 24, 1849, the " Homer," Capt. Rishworth 
Mason, was floated. The steam propeller " Ben H. Porter," Capt. W. 
R. Bailey, was launched in 1866, and continued in use many years. 
The present steamer is the "Glen Haven." About 1840 annual re- 
gattas were inaugurated, and for many years furnished exciting amuse- 
ment. Sailboats of every variety made the lake a scene of animation, 
and gave existence to quite a navy, with which Dr. H. R. Lord was 
permanently identified as secretary. For a short time, in 1853, it also 
gave birth to the " Naval Bulletin," which was issued from the Demo- 
crat office. Rev. W. M. Beauchamp, of Baldwinsville, brought to- 
gether a series of artistic sketches, with descriptions, from his own 
pencil, showing the lake and village as they existed between 1840 and 
1850, and presented them to the library in 1882. Our allusion to 
Skaneateles Lake may fittingly close with the following stanza: 
" Happily named by our Indians bold, 

Brave Onondagas, red men of the west, 
Beautiful Squaw ! and by connoisseurs old, 

Fair Lake of Venus! haven of rest." 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 1009 

In 1850 and '51 a plank road was projected between Skaneateles and 
Mandana. Corinthian Lodge, F. & A. M., wSkaneateles, received a dis- 
pensation March 2G, 1852, but a few years later it was discontinued. 
Skaneateles Lodge, No. 522, F. & A. M., was chartered June 12, 1862, 
with John H. Gregory as W. M. On December 10, 18G0, Charles H. 
Piatt Chapter, No. 247, R. A. M., was organized with nine members 
imder Henry J. Hubbard as H. P. There is also an Odd Fellows 
lodge of about 100 members in Skaneateles village. 

About 1845 the Roman Catholics began to hold services in the village, 
and in May, 1853, a church edifice was commenced. It was dedicated 
September 7, 1856, and cost $2,500. Rev. William McCallion was 
pastor until his death in 1864. Rev. F. J. Purcell, the present pastor, 
assumed charge in June, 1865. Their church was burned May 23, 1866, 
and on June 30, 1867, another edifice, costing $11,000, was consecrated. 
This society is known as St. Mary's of the Lake, and connected with 
it is St. Bridget's chapel at Skaneateles Falls, which was organized and 
built by Father Purcell, cost $5,000, and was dedicated September 20, 
1874. St. Mary's Temperance Society, founded January 7, 1869, has 
continuously exerted a practical and useful influence along temperance 
lines, and is one of the few organizations of its kind which have main- 
tained an uninterrupted existence. 

During the sanguinary war of the Rebellion the town of Skaneateles 
made a record of which she may well feel proud. At the very open- 
ing of the struggle war meetings were held and prompt responses were 
made. About 375 volunteers went from this section, or were born here 
and enlisted elsewhere, or subsequently resided in the town, and among 
those who distinguished themselves in the service were Dr. Benedict, 
surgeon; Van R. Hilliard, captain; Mortimer Kellogg, chief engineer 
U. vS. Navy; Lewis H. Mower, captain; Edward E. Potter, brigadier- 
general ; and Charles Willetts, lieutenant-colonel. 

On June 25, 1862, the Ladies' Aid Society was organized with Mrs. 
•Anson Lapham, president; Mrs. William H. Jewett, vice-president; 
Mrs. H. Piatt, secretary: and Miss E. A. Lapham, treasurer, for 
the purpose of assisting soldiers at the front. They performed a 
noble work in forwarding clothing and supplies and ameliorating the 
hardships of army life. In July, 1838, a soldiers' monument associa- 
tion was organized under the auspices of Ben H. Porter Post, No. 
164, G. A. R., with Henry T. Webb, president; F. G. Weeks, vice- 
president; and George H. Wicks, secretary and treasurer, and May 30, 
127 



1010 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

1889, the corner stone of the present stone memorial in Lakeview 
Cemetery was laid with appropriate ceremonies. The monument was 
dedicated September 4, 1895, with appropriate ceremonies, in which 
G. A. R. posts of adjoining towns participated. 

The era of the Rebellion also marked the instit tion of banking in- 
terests in Skaneateles. In March, 1863, the Lake Bank was organized 
with Anson Lapham, president ; Charles Pardee, vice-president; H. J. 
Hubbard, cashier. It is claimed that this was the first bank in the 
State to organize under the United States National Banking Act. It 
was opened May 19, 1863, and in 1865 Mr. Pardee succeeded to the 
presidency. In 1866 it became the First National Bank, and finally it 
was merged into Charles Pardee's private banking business, which he 
continued until his death. The Skaneateles Savings Bank was incor- 
porated April 16, 1866, with the following trustees: John Barrow, 
president; Richard Talcott, vice-president; Henry T. Webb, secretary 
and treasurer; Anson Lapham, Charles Pardee, Joel Thayer, Henry 
L. Roosevelt, Caleb W. Allis, Josias Garlock, Henry J. Hubbard, 
Leonard H. Earll, Ezekiel B. Hoyt, George H. Earll, and Joab L. 
Clift. The presidents succeeding Mr. Barrow have been Joab L. Clift 
from November, 1866, to January 14, 1879; John M. Nye to January 

9, 1883; John E. Waller, incumbent. F. G. Jewett succeeded Mr. 
Webb as secretary and treasurer in April, 1867; in December of that 
year he was followed by Josias Garlock, and after him camiC John H. 
Gregory, vmder whom the office was separated, his son, Fred H., be- 
coming secretary. J. H. Gregory died in September, 1894, and J. 
Horatio Earll was elected secretary and treasurer; January 1, 1895, 
Emerson H. Adams became secretary ; the vice-presidents are Will- 
iam B. Lawton and Willis Piatt. The trustees are John E. Waller, 
William B. Lawton, Willis ^latt, Newell Turner, Lewis B. Fitch, 
Joseph Allen, Emerson H. Adams, J. Horatio Earll, John C. Stephen- 
son, Willis F. Cuddeback, John McNamara, Philo vS. Thornton, George 
I). Cuddeback. 

The Bank of Skaneateles was incorporated under the State law June 

10, 1869, with a capital of $100,000, since reduced to $60,000. The 
first officers were Joel Thayer, president; Anson Lapham, vice-presi- 
dent; and Benjamin F. Stiles, cashier; Elias Thorn, Benoni Lee, Will- 
iam Marvin, Benjamin F. Stiles, Hiram C. Sherman, Jacob H. Allen, 
D. C. Coon, Abram Lawton, Augustus P. Earll, James A. Root, and 
F. G. Weeks, directors, Mr, Stiles, as cashier, was followed succes- 



THE TOWN OF SKANEATELES. 1011 

sively by C. W. Allis, Henry T. Webb, and (in June, 1880) B. F. 
Petheram, who has been connected with the bank since January 1, 1871. 
In 1881 C. W. Allis succeeded Mr. Thayer as president. The vice- 
president is Joseph C. Willetts, and the directors are Caleb W. Allis, 
Joseph C. Willetts, Elias Thorne, Jacob H. Allen, Abram A. Lawton, 
B. F. Petheram, James A. Root, William Marvin, Joseph S. Shotwell, 
Philip Allen, William G. Thorne, William B. Lawton. 

Referring- again to the manufacturing interests we find that a stone 
mill was built in the village in 1845 by the Skaneateles Mill Company 
(John Legg and Nelson Hawley). Two years before this Ransom 
Crosby had started a steam saw mill, and a }^ear earlier still J. M. 
Arnold and W. H. Willetts purchased the Talcott foundry. The stone 
mill was operated by John Legg & Co., and Joel Thayer & Co., and 
Mollard & L4sh, under whom it was burned in 1882. It was rebuilt in 
1883 by William R. Willetts & Co., and is now used as a storehouse by 
Stephen Thornton. 

The Hart Lot Paper Company was organized in August, 1868, the 
plant being erected in the north edge of this town by J. and G. H. 
Earll on the site of a distillery, which was built in 1855. The capital 
was $100,000, and among the owners were Julius H. Earll and John 
M. Nye. 

The Glenside Woolen Mills, about four miles north of Skaneateles, 
were built by the vSkaneateles Iron Works Company about 18G9 at a 
cost of $108,000. In 1874 they were sold on foreclosure; in August, 
1881, J. McLaughlin's Sons purchased the property for $6,000 
and converted it into a woolen mill. They failed, and in December, 
1888, the Glenside Woolen Company was incorporated, with a capital of 
$150,000. 

The Skaneateles Lime Works were established in 1860 by P. C. Car- 
rigan, whose later associates were George H. Earll, Eben Bean, and 
E. B. Coe ; subsequent proprietors were E. B. Hoyt & Co. (under 
whom it received the name of Marysville Lime Works) and P. C. Car- 
rigan & Co. E. B. Hoyt and Thomas Morton erected a woolen mill 
at the Falls in 1867; in 1875 Mr. Morton became sole owner, and in 
1879 the plant passed to his son, Gavin. The Earll distillery, near 
Mottville, was purchased by F. G. Weeks in 1875 and converted into a 
paper mill. A little south of this is the site of the oldest paper mill in 
town, among the proprietors of which were Reed & Case, Ray & Ban- 
nister, Bannister & Hubbard, and in 1871 F. G. Weeks. It was burned 
on February 9, 1877, and rebuilt on a larger scale. 



1012 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

What is known as Long Bridge was called "No God" when the 
"Community" flourished near by, and at an early day George CuUen 
had a blacksmith shop here. Afterward the place had a woolen factory, 
which was burned about 1861, and on the site F, A. Sinclair and Joseph 
Hubbard built the Union Chair Factory in 1866. In 1867 Mr. Sinclair 
became, and is still, sole owner. The old Cataract flouring mill was 
erected by Barnes & Co. in 1869, and among its operators were H. B. 
Benedict & Son, Nelson Martin, and William Sinclair. 

At Mottville H. B. Benedict opened a general store in 1858, was 
joined by his brother in 1860, and was burned out in 1865. In 1866 
they built a brick store. Other merchants were David Hall, J. C. S. 
Spencer, S. L. Benedict, and John Gamble & Co. A brick school 
house was built here in 1871. Among the postmasters were Henry 
Hunsiker, S. L. Benedict, Alanson Watson, Mrs. Olive A. Eastwood. 
Edward Burgess was a shoemaker here in 1837. In 1862 Thomas 
Alexander, Gavin Morton, sr., and John Stephenson established the 
Mottville Woolen Mills, of which Thomas Morton finally became pro- 
prietor. In May, 1881, he leased them to his sons, John W. and 
Thomas, jr. About 1841 J. L. Case had a sash factory here, and here 
also existed a malt house and brewery, which was long run by Elias 
and Henry Hunsiker and later by Hunsiker & Halt. William Barber 
had a large rag warehouse at Mottville, which developed into an ex- 
tensive business. The Mottville flouring mill was formerly a cotton 
factory. In 1880 it passed to H. C. Sherman. This foundry and 
machine shop was early operated by Morehouse & Hannum, Howard 
Delano, and in 1849 by E. B. and E. S. Hoyt, who were also general 
merchants here. Other owners were E. H. Hoyt, Delano & Hoyt, and 
John M. Nye. The plant was burned September 5, 1867, rebuilt, and 
is now operated by F. D. Hoyt. Here are also the chair factory of W. 
J. Moreland and grist mill of N. L. Martin. The Mottville Paper 
Company was incorporated August 12, 1886, with a capital of $30,000, 
and with the following directors: Dr. J. W. Brown, president; William 
Barber, secretary and treasurer; Harvey Brown, Byron Chatfield, and 
Nelson L. Martin. 

Between Mottville and Willow Glen, at a place once called Earllville, 
a mill was built by Abijah Earll in 1818; it was burned in 1825, and 
rebuilt by Cotton, Lewis & Co. Near the site was successively a saw 
mill, a Unseed oil mill, a grist mill, and a distillery, in each of which Mr. 
Earll was interested. In 1857 the large distillery was established and 




e? /S U-iT^^ 




THE TOWN OP SKANEATELES. 1013 

operated for about twenty-five years principally by Daniel Earll and his 
sons, Augustus P. and Leonard H. About 1882 the property was pur- 
chased by F. G. Weeks, who organized the Lakeside Paper Company, 
with a capital of $20,000. 

The Skaneateles Paper Company was formed December 9, 1875, with 
a capital of $65,000. On this site a grist mill was built in 1830 by Sol- 
omon Earll. About 1840 it was converted into a distillery by Earll & 
Kellogg, and in 1864: Earlls, Thayer & Co. made it over into a paper 
mill, which was later conducted by Earlls, Palmer & Co. 

Willow Glen was at one time the busiest manufacturing place in 
town. A large woolen mill was built here by Dorastus Kellogg, was 
later owned by Alexander Horton, M. D. Dickerson, and Bradford 
Kennedy, now of Bradford Kennedy, Sons & McGuire, of Syracuse, 
and was burned in May, 1880. Michael Meagher opened a grocery in the 
place in 1860. 

On the east side of the lake Jesse Deland built a steam saw mill about 
1872, which passed to Absalom Chatham, the boiler of which exploded 
September 12, 1875, killing B. R. and A, R. Chatham and Darwin 
Price. Paul & Chorley now own a saw mill in Skaneateles village. 

During the last few years the boat building industry has given vSkan- 
eateles village quite a reputation, and the Bowdish Manufacturing Com- 
pany and the Skaneateles Boat and Canoe Company are entitled to much 
credit in this connection. Both have turned outanumber of handsome 
skiffs, canoes, and other small craft. 

Reference has been made to early burial places, the first of which 
was on the John Briggs farm, near the "Red House." The second 
was located in the village on the site of the old Kellogg mansion, 
and from this sixteen bodies were removed in 1803 to the Briggs farm 
on lot 36, a half acre of which was purchased by the Skaneateles Relig- 
ious Society, May 30, 1808, for $25. This society bought also an ad- 
joining half acre of David Seymour, on January 27, 1812, and these 
plats constituted the cemetery for the village and vicinity until 1846. 
The Mottville burying ground was opened about 1819, when some of 
the bodies were removed thither from the Samuel Briggs farm. On 
August 21, 1846, Charles Pardee and F. G. Jewett purchased about one 
acre, adjoining the old burial place, of J. C. Fuller for $392, and laid it 
out into 224 lots, and on September 14, of the same year, bought of 
Samuel Fuller an undivided half acre for $360. In May, 1860, the 
Hall Grove Cemetery Association (named in honor of David Hall, who 



1014 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

donated eight and a quarter acres of land on the creek road) was or- 
ganized, with Richard Talcott, David Hall, Chester Moses, Eben Bean, 
John Gregor}^ and Thomas Snook, trustees; John Barrow, treasurer; 
and Thomas Isom, jr., secretary. On August 26, 1871, Lakeview 
Cemetery Association was incorporated, with William Marvin, chair- 
man; P. Oscar C. Benton, secretary; and twelve trustees. They pur- 
chased seven and a half acres adjoining the old cemetery of E. R. 
Smith, and in vSeptember, 1872, secured a deed from the trustees of the 
Skaneateles Religious Society for the original plat. 

About 1867 Methodist services were held at Skaneateles Falls, in the 
house of M. B. Bannister, class leader, and later in the school house 
and elsewhere. November 2, 1877, an M. E. church was organized and 
the same year an edifice was erected through the generosity of F. G. 
Weeks, at a cost of $1,500. It was dedicated February 6, 1878. Mott- 
ville had been a Methodist appointment for several years. In 1872 the 
old school house was purchased and fitted up for regular services and 
dedicated January 24, 1873. On September 10, 1885, a new edifice, 
which cost $1,800, was dedicated. 

On July 19, 1870, the old Lake House, formerly called the Houn 
dayaga House and originally known as the Indian Queen Hotel, was 
destroyed by fire. It was enlarged in 1858, and for many years con- 
tained the only public hall in the village. It occupied the site of the 
Shear block, on the corner of Genesee and Jordan streets, which was 
built in 1881-82. 

Skaneateles was made a money order office August 6, 1866. The 
postmasters following Charles J. Burnett (1817-1843) have been: Joel 
Thayer, appointed July 5, 1843; John Snook, jr. , appointed April, 1849; 
Josias Garlock, May, 1853; Capt. Horace Hazen, May, 1861; F. G. 
Weeks, May, 1869; John B. Marshall, 1873; Edson D. Gillett, Feb- 
ruary, 1885; J. Horatio Earll, January 24, 1894, incumbent. 

The Skaneateles Water Company was organized August 11, 1887, by 
George Barrow, president; J. K. Knox, secretary; B. F. Petheram, 
treasurer. The supply of water is taken from the lake by pumping. 
In November, 1889, franchises were granted to the Central New York 
Electric Light and Power Company by the town and village. The 
electricity is transmitted to Skaneateles village from the company's 
plant near Elbridge, which also supplies the villages of Elbridge and 
Jordan. George Barrow is president and secretary. On September 
27, 1890, the corner stone of the handsome brick and stone engine 
house and village hall was laid. 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1015 

Glen Haven, at the head of Skaneateles Lake, and in Cortland county, 
is a well-known summer resort. Dr, Jackson established a "water 
cure " there many years ago under humble conditions. There is now 
a spacious hotel and many handsome cottages nestled under the high, 
wood-covered hill, from which a mineral spring amply supplies all with 
water. Dr. Thomas, associated with Mr. Mourin in the proprietorship, 
still maintains a "cure;" but the picturesqueness and pure air of the 
place, situated almost 900 feet above tide-water, are its principal attrac- 
tions. Its patronage is almost wholly from Syracuse and Philadelphia. 

The supervisors of this town since its organization in 1830 have been 
as follows : 

Tunis Van Houghten, 1830-31; Dorastus Lawrence, 1832-33; Chester Clark, 1836 
-38; William Fuller, 1839-41; Samuel H. Greenman, 1843-43; James H. Gifford, 
1844; Spencer Hannum, 1845-46; William H. Jewett, 1847-48; Aaron Brinkerhoff, 
1849-52; Daniel T. Moseley, 1853-55; John Barrow, 1856; Dorastus Lawrence, 1857; 
John Barrow, 1858-60; Caleb W. Allis, 1861-64; John H. Smith, 1865-68; Edward 
B. Coe, 1869-70; George T. Campbell, 1871; George W. Earll, 1872; Thomas Mor- 
ton, 1873; H. B. Benedict, 1874; Andrew J. Earll, 1875-77; John H. Gregory, 1878- 
79; Dennis Bockes, 1880; J. Horatio Earll, 1881; Dennis Bockes, 1882-88; Stephen 
Thornton, 1889-96. 

The population of this town in the years named has been as follows; 
1830, 3,812; 1835, 3,575; 1840, 3,981; 1845, 3,827; 1850, 4,080; 1855, 8,976; I860, 
4,385; 1865. 4,128; 1870, 4,514; 1875, 5,035; 1880, 4.866; 1890, 4,662; 1892,4,994, 



CHAPTER XLVI. 
THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 

With the exception of Geddes, the town of Dewitt was the last town 
organized in Onondaga county. It embraces a little more than thirty- 
six lots of military township No. 7, Manlius, the numbers of which and 
the names of their grantees are as follows: 

No. 5, Lieut.-Col. Ebenezer Stephens; 9, John Williamson; 10, Capt. Leonard 
Bleecker; 11, Moses Darling; 12, Henry House; 20, reserved for gcspel and schools; 
21, James Cator; 22, Lieut. -Col. Jacobus S. Bruyn; 23, Lieut. Michael Connolly; 29, 
Christopher Decker; 30, Peter McClusky; 31, William Buckhoudt; 32, John Pierre- 
pont; 40, John Salsbury; 41, Ensign William Peters; 42, William Ivory; 43, James 
Adams; 49, Lieut. George Leaycraft ; 50, Amassey Allen; 51, Capt. Jacobus Wyn- 
koop; 52, John McLean; 60, William Knights; 61, Capt. Charles Graham; 62. 



1016 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Brampton Hitchcock; 63, John Way; 70, Capt. John Doughty; 71, Benjamin Run- 
nion; 72, Gershom Smith; 73, Capt. John Sanford; 80, Jacob Wilse; 81, Archibald 
Elliott; 82, reserved for gospel and schools; 83, Ensign John Marsh; 91, William 
Godwin; 92, Edmund Robinson; 93, Brig.-Gen. James Clinton; 94, William John- 
son. 

Besides these, parts of lots 74, 84, and 95 are in the southeast corner 
of the town, the grantees of which are named in the history of Manlius. 
It is not recorded that any of these grantees settled on their lands, 
although some of them were prominent men in this section of the 
State. 

On the organization of the cotmty in March, 1794, this territory was 
included in the civil town of Manlius, and so remained until April 12, 
1835, when it was erected into a separate town with its present limits, 
or 23,400 acres of land. So it is that its early history was made in the 
town of Manlius. It lies just east of the center of the county and is 
bounded on the north by Cicero, on the east by Manlius, on the south 
by Pompey and La Fayette, and on the west by Onondaga, Syracuse 
and Salina. 

The north half of Dewitt is nearly level, while the south part is 
broken and hilly, the declivities being steep in many places, their 
summits rising to 500 or more feet above the valleys. Along But- 
ternut Creek, which has its head in Pompe}^ and flows northerly and 
northeasterly through Jamesville to the Erie Canal, to which it is an 
important feeder, and which being rapid affords excellent water-power, 
were built some of the earliest mills in all this region. Besides this 
there are two somewhat famous lakes, one (Green Lake) a mile west of 
Jamesville and another (White Lake) some two miles northeast of that 
village. A little south of Jamesville is a picturesque reservoir con- 
structed by the State to sustain navigation on the western end of the 
" long level " of the Erie Canal, the dam being built of heavy masonry. 
Below it is one of the most romantic ravines in the county. The entire 
valley through which the creek passes is interesting and attractive and 
possessed of much history. The country about Jamesville is pictur- 
esque, "rough, ragged and righteous," as was once written of Gibral- 
tar, with quarries here and there, and lime kilns among them. There 
are also caves in the vicinity of some importance, notably one about a 
mile east of Jamesville, which was discovered in 1807 by Nathan Beck- 
with, while sinking a well. It is some twenty feet below the surface, 
and in size is about five by seven feet. A small stream of water runs 
along the bottom. When opened it emitted a strong current of air. 




u C:7 



^yc 



d> 



c^c 



Eagravpii by -IK. Camp' 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1017 

A story is told of a newly married couple, from Cazenovia, who en- 
tered the cave on a warm day in August to avoid the heat and remained 
there some three hours. When they emerged they found themselves 
to be thoroughly chilled, were taken ill, and both died within the fol- 
lowing week. Another and much larger cavern was discovered at a 
point two miles west of the village, and around it clusters a wealth of 
tradition. There is an old and improbable tradition that when it was 
first entered mining tools and a bar of silver, two inches square and 
eighteen inches long, with a steel point, were found in its mouth, while 
some twenty rods from the entrance a kettle of money, supposed to 
have been coined there, was dug up. This led to the belief that a 
silver mine existed in the neighborhood. Again, while excavating a 
water trench near the old Dr. Baldwin house the workmen were accosted 
by a stranger, who said that not many feet away lay the skeleton of a 
man, which was discovered, and also that the land contained valuable 
treasures, which were never found, although for several years the 
vicinity was more or less explored. Another legend runs that when 
Colonel Van Schaick invaded the region in 1779 a squaw took refuge in 
this cave until the Onondagas were free from danger. 

The town also contains other noteworthy features of more than local 
interest. The Messina Springs, situated north of where the New York 
Central Railroad freight tracks cross the extension of James street 
about three miles east of the city, were so named in 1835 from Messina 
in Sicily, near ancient Syracuse. The water is strongly impregnated 
with sulphur and has some claim for medicinal use. At one time they 
had some notoriety. They were discovered by Lewis Sweeting before 
the commencement of this century. On lot 81, north of Jamesville, 
gypsum was found in 1811 and later extensively manufactured into 
land plaster. Water limestone was also found in 1820 in large quanti- 
ties and has for many years been an important article of manufacture 
for market. So recent as 1895 discoveries of igneous rock, indicating 
volcanic eruptions at some remote period, were made by Prof. Philip 
F. Schneider and formed the subject of a special report by geologists 
of the United States survey under the title: "New Intrusive Dike at 
De Witt. " Various eruptive conditions constituting interesting geolog- 
ical studies combine to make this an interesting field for the scientist 
and lover of nature. 

This town was named in honor of Major Moses De Witt, whose re- 
mains are buried near Jamesville, and a sketch of whose life is given 
128 



1018 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

in Chapter XXIV. His residence was on lot 3, Pompey (now in the 
northeast corner of La Fayette), which was drawn by his uncle, Gen. 
James Clinton. Near his grave is that of his brother Egbert, and the 
now weather-beaten tombstonebears the following inscriptions: '-'Moses 
De Witt, Major of Militia and Judge of the County Courts; one of the 
first, most active and useful settlers of the county. He was born on 
the 15th of October, 176G, and died on the 15th day of August, 1794." 
"Also of his brother, Egbert De Witt, born 25th of April, 17G8, died 
30th of May, 1793." The latter's was the first white death in the town. 

Benjamin Morehouse was the first white settler within Dewitt terri- 
tory, where he arrived with his wife and three children on the 26th of 
April, 1789, a little less than one year after Asa Danforth and Comfort 
Tvler came to Onondaga Valley. Morehouse built a log cabin on the 
fiats about two miles east of Jamesville and there in 1790 opened the 
first tavern in the county. This was the house where so many meet- 
ings of various kinds were held in early years and which has neces- 
sarily been so often mentioned in these pages. It was rudely but com- 
modiously constructed to accommodate "man and beast," a sign 
read. He possessed all the elements of a popular landlord, and from 
his general intelligence and his dignified manner became well known 
as "The Governor." He was first quite alone in the wilderness of 
that locality. It was seven miles to Danforth 's, his nearest neighbor, 
and privations and difficulties were his dail}- experience. Clark is 
authority for this anecdote, which spreads some light on early experi- 
ences: " In 1781 he carried a plowshare on his back to Westmoreland 
(now in Oneida county), and leaving it there to be sharpened pro- 
ceeded to Herkimer, where he purchased thirty pounds of flour. He 
returned on foot with both articles. The flour lasted about a year and 
was the first introduced into his family after their arrival. Like other 
pioneers he resorted to the stump mortar or mill for his meal." More- 
house came from Fredericksburg, Dutchess county, and followed the 
Indian trail from Oneida to what was then called by the Indians 
Kasoongkta flats, where he settled. His daughter, Sarah, born Feb- 
ruary 16, 1790, was the first white child born in this town. 

Between 1790 and 1800 Morehouse was joined by Dr. David A. Hol- 
brook, Jeremiah Jackson, Roger Merrill, William Bends, Stephen 
Angel, James and Jeremiah Gould, Stephen Hungerford, Caleb North- 
rup, Oliver Owen, Benjamin Sanford, Daniel Keeler, Joseph Purdy, 
Matthew Dumfrie, and others, all of whom settled in or near James- 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1019 

ville. Dr. Holbrook, the pioneer physician, first located on the More- 
house flats in 17!)2, but about 1800 removed to the village of Jamesville 
where he continued in practice until his death in November, 1832. He 
presided at the first public meeting held in this part of the country, at 
Morehouse's tavern, for the purpose of taking measures for dividing 
the county of Herkimer. Jeremiah Jackson was a prominent pioneer. 
The first saw mill in the town as well as the first in this county was 
that of Asa Danforth, on Butternut Creek, in 1792, in which year he 
temporarily moved to his newly acquired land on lot 81, a little north- 
west of Jamesville. The mill was originally covered with bark and the 
saw was brought by Danforth from Fort Schuyler on his back. Near 
by in 1793 he built a grist mill, the master builder being Abel Myrick 
In order to raise the frame white men and Indians were gathered from 
Whitestown, Utica, and elsewhere to the number of sixty-four. The 
site of these primitive enterprises has long been known as Dunlop's 
Mills. In 1795 Oliver Owen erected a saw mill near where Josiah N. 
Holbrook's blacksmith shop now stands in Jamesville village, and in 
1798 Matthew Dumfrie built a distillery, malt-house, and brewery on 
the east side of the creek, where portions of the old walls are still 
standing. He manufactured the first beer and some of the first whisky 
made in the county. In 1797 Jeremiah Jackson erected the first frame 
dwelling in Jamesville and about the same time Joseph Purdy started 
the first blacksmith shop. 

On the 29th of December, 1795, several residents of the old towns of 
Manlius and Pompey met at the house of Daniel Keeler and organized 
the "First Presbyterian or Church of Bloomingdale," with Daniel 
Keeler, Comfort Tyler, Jeremiah Gould, Capt. Joseph Smith, William 
Haskin, and John Young, trustees. Jeremiah Jackson presided. It 
does not appear that this society ever erected a house of worship. 

By the year 1800 quite a settlement had sprung into existence in and 
around Jamesville, which for some inscrutable reason was called 
"Sinai." In 1802 John Post, from Utica, started a store on the More- 
house flats, but his efforts to establish a trading center there proved 
futile. Business operations naturally flowed towards the alread)' 
developed water-power, which promised brilliant achievements at this 
time, and there, on the site of the present village of Jamesville, a Mr. 
Trowbridge opened the first tavern in 1804. Two years later he was 
succeeded by David Olmsted and under him it was popularly considered 
the best hostelry w'est of Utica. About 1804 Benjamin Sanford erected a 



1020 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

a flouring mill, Stephen Himgerford started a clothing- works, and 
Robbins & Callighan opened a store. These various enterprises gave 
the place a decided impetus. Sanford's mill was subsequently run by- 
John B, Ives, George M. and William Richardson, Charles Butts, 
Conrad Hotaling, and Garrett H. Hotaling, who sold the establishment 
in 1868 to E. B. Alvord. The latter converted it into a lime, plaster, 
and cement mill, and was succeeded by E. B. Alvord & Co., who for 
many years carried on an extensive business. 

Meanwhile other portions of the town were settled or being settled 
by the same sturdy class of pioneers. About 1790 John Young, a 
Revolutionary soldier, came from Saratoga county and located on lot 
62, at Orville, his nearest neighbors being at Morehouse flats and Onon- 
daga Hollow. His family consisted of six sons and three daughters, 
who, attaining maturity, settled around him, and the place came to be 
known as " Youngsville." He opened and kept the first tavern in the 
vicinity, built the first frame house there, and was appointed the first 
justice of the peace of the town of Manlius, an office he held many 
years. He was largely instrumental in organizing a Methodist church 
there, in 1811, the result of meetings held in his house. He gave the 
land for a church lot and contributed generously to the erection of a 
chapel. His son, Rev. Seth Young, became one of the earlier preach- 
ers, died aged fifty years, and was buried in the family burial ground, 
where five generations of the pioneer's descendants sleep side by side. 
The old homestead built by Rev. Seth Young more than eighty years 
ago still stands and is owned by one of his relatives. John Young died 
in 1834, aged eighty-two, and was buried in the plat set aside by him. 
In 1814 a post-office was established under the name of Orville and the 
place dropped its old designations of Youngsville and Hull's Landing, 
the latter name arising from the fact that on the canal feeder half a 
mile south of the turnpike stood Daniel Hull's grist mill in connection 
with a landing and shipping place for goods carried by canal, and ac- 
cessible to canal boats. To this point products were brought for ship- 
ment to Albany from the eastern and central part of the county, and 
distribution of goods bought with such products was made from this 
point, even into what is now Cortland county. Vast quantities of pot- 
ash were shipped from this point, and not a few of the earlier settlers 
landed here. Several quarries were located in the vicinity, together 
with some water lime kilns, which gave employment to boatmen. 

When the town of Manlius was divided in 1835 Orville was in turn 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1021 

changed to Dewitt, which name it has since borne, yet the former 
name still clings to it to some extent, though the railroad station at East 
Syracuse bears this name. 

The church in Dewitt mentioned above was organized under the 
ministrations of Rev. Dan Barnes and took the name of " the Youngs 
Society," the first trustees being John Young, sr., John Young, jr., 
Benjamin Booth, Peter G. Van Slyke, and Zephaniah Lathrop, who 
with John and Freelove Russell, Seth and Elizabeth Young, John and 
Mary Scott, and Daniel Knapp constituted the first class. In May, 
1826, the church was reorganized and incorporated as the Methodist 
Episcopal Youngs Society of Orville. The original edifice, built in 
1819, was occupied until 1863, when it was conveyed to the school 
district. The Presbyterians, having disbanded, then turned over their 
building to the Methodists, who repaired it at an expense of some 
$1,200. 

John Young was soon followed by Benjamin Booth, Zephaniah 
Lathrop, Peter G. Van Slyke, John Russell, Jonas Scott, Daniel Knapp, 
and others. These settlers and the north branch of the Seneca, or the 
Genesee turnpike, which passed through Orville, as it was then called, 
contributed to make the hamlet a place of considerable activity for 
many years. By 1835 the hamlet contained several stores, a tavern, 
and about thirty dwellings, and George S. Lewis was postmaster. A 
special act of the Legislature passed April 17, 1815, gave Isaac Osgood 
and Benjamin Booth authority to build a dam across Butternut Creek 
at or near this point. 

Other residents of the territory now embraced in this town prior to 
1820 were William Edgar, who at an early period opened a law office 
at Morehouse flats, where he had Moses D. Rose and Luther Badger 
as students. In 1798 Capt. Samuel Wilcox, an officer and a prisoner 
in the Revolutionary war, came from Peru, Mass. (where he was born 
January 2, 1744), and located on 640 acres at what is now Lyndon, 
west of and near Fayetteville, where he died June 28, 1827. Of his six 
children, Asel, born in Peru, Mass., April 8, 1784, became one of the 
largest landowners in the county and was long a prominent business 
man. He volunteered in the war of 1812, and during that conflict had 
a contract to furnish parties in Albany with 2,000 tons of plaster in the 
rock, at the quarry, for |2 per ton. This plaster bed he opened on the 
Wilcox homestead about 1812; he was succeeded by his son, Asel F., 
who was born here in 1823 and became prominent in civil aftairs. The 



1022 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

bed, covering- about eighty acres, is now operated by H. H. Lansing. 
Asel Wilcox had flouring, plaster, cement, and saw mills at High 
Bridge, now Elkhorn, in Manlius, and was also extensively engaged 
in boating. 

But very few families in this country have a longer or more honor- 
able record than the Kinne family, the ancestry of which is traced back 
to Henry Kinne, who, it is believed, was born in 1624 at Norfolk, En- 
gland, where his father. Sir Thomas Kinne, lived, and settled at Salem, 
Mass., in IGoo. Cyrus, the progenitor of the family in this county, was 
born in Voluntown, Conn., August 11, 1746, being one of six children, 
and removed in 1779 to Rensselaer county, this State. In 1791, while 
at Troy, he heard of a sale of vState lands in Onondaga county, and 
after examining the map made a journey to examine them, and bought 
several lots situated in the town of Manlius. Returning home he 
quickly closed his business, and in the month of March, 1792, he started 
with his four sons, Ezra, Zachariah, Prentice, and Ethel, and one horse, 
a yoke of oxen, and a sled laden with some utensils and supplies to oc- 
cupy his purchase. West of Utica they had to cut much of their road 
and ford every stream, for there were no bridges. They reached what 
is now Fayetteville early in the following April. In June he returned 
and brought the remainder of his family to the log cabin which had 
been built. The nearest grist mill at that date was at Oneida, and 
Albany the nearest market, and salmon were caught with pitchforks. 
Pigs and sheep had to be housed at night to save them from the 
wolves. Cyrus Kinne was the first blacksmith in the town. He was 
a prominent man among the early settlers, was one of the first justices 
of the peace and supporters of religious worship, and died where he 
had lived since coming to the county, August 8, 1808. His chil- 
dren were Ezra, who married Mary Young and had twelve children; 
Zachariah, who married Diadama Barnes and had ten children; Pren- 
tice, who married Elizabeth Kinne and had eleven children; Ethel,, 
who married a Miss Eaton and had five children ; Zebulon, who married 
Lucy Markham and had eight children; Moses, who married Betsey 
Williams and reared eight children; Joshua, who married Melinda 
Leach and also had eight children; Cyrus, jr., who married Asenath 
Warner and had four children; Japhet, who married Temperance Palm- 
er and had four children; Palmer, who married Polly Carr and reared 
six children; Rachel, who married William Williams and had four chil- 
dren; and Comfort, who married Jerry Springsted and had six children. 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1023 

The ten sons each received 100-acre farms. Of these Zachariah, Ezra, 
and Prentice were settled by their father in what is now the town of 
Dewitt. Ethel, born April 3, 1775, moved to Cicero and died there 
January 30, 1857, leaving- sons, Parsons, Palmer, Jackson, and Harry, 
and one daughter, Abulah, wife of Jonathan Emmons. Zebulon and 
Moses, twins, were born January 12, 1780; the former located on a farm 
of 180 acres where the village of East Syracuse now stands, and died 
in August, 1865, being the father of James and Rufus R. (who died in 
1880). Moses settled in Cicero, and died in Euclid on September 20, 
1855; of his children Abigail married Ephraim Soule, of "Sovereign 
Palm Pill" fame; Moses, jr., born August 15, 1805, was a farmer in 
Clay, and died July 5, 1852; Albern, born October 17, 1807, married 
Phoebe Breed, settled in Clay, had children Allen B. and Julia, and 
died at Woodard, May 12, 1879; Harriet married Samuel Lounsbury; 
Almira (Mrs. Way) was born October 17, 1813, and died in 1868; Je- 
rome and Ora located in Oswego county ; and Julia and Frank moved to 
Michigan. Moses Kinne was a member of the Legislature in 1825, and 
also served his town as supervisor and justice of the peace. Joshua 
Kinne was born August 31, 1782, moved to Cicero, became a prominent 
minister of the gospel, and died in Le Roy, N. Y. , October 17, 1858, 
leaving among his children Iwo sons, Niles and Alfred B., who fol- 
lowed their father's profession. C)'rus, jr., remained upon the home- 
stead and died in 1824. Japhet settled in Cicero in 1810, subsequently 
lived in Cayuga and Oswego counties, and died in Michigan in 1873. 
Palmer Kinne also located in Cicero, but in 1835 removed to Illinois, 
where he died in 1869. William Williams, who wedded Rachel Kinne, 
settled just east of Manlius Center, where both died; their son, Kinne, 
moved to Cicero, where Comfort Kinne and her husband, Jacob Spring- 
sted, also located. 

Prentice Kinne and Elizabeth Kinne, whose grandfathers were 
brothers, were married in Plainfield, Conn., January 16, 1800, and very 
soon afterward commenced housekeeping on a farm in this town. He 
was born October 16, 1773. He held a major's commission in the war 
of 1812, and twice went with his regiment to the defense of the Can- 
adian frontier. He died July 19, 1830. His first wife died November 
5, 1820, and in 1821 he married Eunice Jones, who died July 19, 1830, 
and by whom he had one son, George N., born January 24, 1829; died 
November 8, 1856. His children by his first marriage were Julius C, 
born October 19, 1802; Emerson, born P'ebruary 16, 1804; Marvin, born 



1024 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

in 1806, died in 1813; Eunice, born October 22, 1807; Mason Prentice, 
born November 30, 1808; Elbridge, born May 26, 1810; N. Hildreth, 
born March 20, 1812; Emily (Mrs. Curran Elms), born December 4, 
1813; Salome (Mrs. De Witt C. Peck), born May 8, 1815; Atlas, born 
May 27, 1817; and Ansel, born May. 17, 1820. Julius C. Kinne married 
Mrs. Rachel Willard, served in the State Legislature in 1845 and 1846, 
and died August 5, 1857, leaving two sons, Howard A. and Edward 
D,, of whom the latter became a prominent lawyer and mayor of Ann 
Arbor, Mich. Emerson Kinne settled in Dewitt, became colonel of 
militia, and was for many years an active and influential citizen. He 
was married in 1833 to Janet Luddington. Eunice Kinne, the eldest 
daughter of Prentice, married, in 1833, Wesley Bailey. He was born 
in Vermont in 1808, and taught school at Dewitt just previous to his 
marriage. They had six children, the eldest of whom was E. Prentice 
Bailey, born August 15, 1834, in the town of Manlius. At the age of 
nineteen, in 1853, the latter entered the office of the Utica Daily Ob- 
server, with which journal he has since remained, in later years being 
its principal editor and owner. He is now (1896) serving his second 
term as postmaster at Utica. Mrs. Wesley Bailey died July 9, 1860. 
Mason P. Kinne, another and a gifted son of Prentice, married Mary 
Jane Spaulding, remained on a part of the homestead, and died Febru- 
ary 2, 1890. One son, Charles Mason Kinne, born in 1841, rose to the 
rank of captain and assistant adjutant-general in the Civil war, while 
another son. Dr. A. B. Kinne, is a prominent and highly successful 
physician in Syracuse. Dr. Porter S,, another son, is also a physician; 
he has an extensive practice at Paterson, New Jersey. Elbridge 
Kinne married Sophronia, youngest daughter of Rev. Seth Young 
in 1837, and died where he had always lived, December 12, 1895. 
He was officially connected with the Orville M. E. church for upwards 
of sixty years. Of his children Theodore Y. became assistant sur- 
geon in the Rebellion, and afterward a physician in Paterson, N. J. ; 
E. Olin adopted the same profession, and is now a prominent physician 
in Syracuse; Elizabeth M. married Rev. B. F. Barker, of East Onon- 
daga; S. Janet became the wife of W. H. Peck, of Dewitt. N. Hil- 
dreth Kinne removed to Oswego county and later to Michigan. Atlas 
married Renette Palmer, of Fayetteville, and died in 1845. Ansel E. 
spent most of his life as a teacher. He married Emma Merrick, of 
Syracuse, and was the father of Charles W., Lucius M., Mary A., Kittie 
E., and Chlobelle. 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1025 

Ezra Kinne died in 1829 ; the death of his wife, Mary Young, occurred 
in 1824. Of their children Hannah married James Van Slyke, and died 
in 1823; Aaron became first a jeweler, and later a Universalist clergy- 
man, and died in 1846, leaving a son, Thomas Jefferson, who held the 
commissions of captain and colonel in the Rebellion, and became a 
prominent oflficer in the revenue department ; Elizabeth married James 
Breed, and died in 1840. 

Zachariah Kinne died July 1, 1850. Of his children Diana married 
Cromwell Cook, settled in Salina, and died in 1840; Rite married Polly 
Strong, located in Dewitt, and died in 1865; Phineas also settled in De- 
witt, was a miller, and died in Manlius in 1865 ; Esop married Lydia 
Beebe, located on a farm in Salina, now a part of the First ward of 
Syracuse, and died in 1871. 

It is doubtful if another family which can be termed of Onondaga 
county growth has a more numerous and respected progeny than has 
that of Cyrus Kinne, the original founder. His descendahts are re- 
lated by blood or marriage to a very large number of the county's pres- 
ent inhabitants, and for more than one hundred years have been closely 
identified with every branch of local development. They have occu- 
pied responsible and influential positions in the social, civil, educa- 
tional, and religious life of many communities, especially in Manlius, 
Dewitt, and Cicero, where the first of that name acquired extensive 
landed properties, which, in some instances, have been handed down 
from father to son to the present generation. 

David S. Miller, born in Ulster county in 1796, located at an early 
day on a farm near Messina Springs, and for nine years was proprietor 
of a hotel in the vicinity of Merrill's mill. He was the father of John, 
Clark S., Henry J., Chandler S. and Edward F. Miller. 

The following list of settlers and pioneers of the old town of Man- 
lius, including Dewitt, between 1795 and 1825, was preserved by Lewis 
H. Redfield, editor of the old Onondaga Register, and is worthy of 
preservation here: 

Nicholas P. Randall, Samuel L. Edwards, Alvin Marsh, Dr. H. L. Granger, Dr. 
William Taylor, Nathan Williams, Azariah Smith, James O. Wattles, Elijah Rhoades, 
Abijah Yelverton, Henry C. Van Schaick, Sylvanus Tousley, Colonel Sanford, 
Luther Badger, Colonel Olmsted, Elijah Rust, Dr. Holbrook, William Eager, Will- 
iam Barker, Thurlow Weed, Moses De Witt, Jacob R. De Witt, Leonard Kellogg, 
Charles B. Bristol, Colonel Phillips, Harvey Edwards, Aaron Wood, Dr. Timothj^ 
Teall, the Kinne family, Aaron Burt, Oliver Teall, Elias Gumaer, Benjamin More- 
129 



1026 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

house, Daniel Keeler, Charles Moseley, Elijah Phillips, Samuel Ward, and Joshua 
V. H. Clark, the historian. 

Many of these resided in what is now the town of Manlius, but one. 
and all contributed materially by their sterling worth and enterprise to 
the growth and development of this section. 

The first town meeting for the town of Dewitt was held at the tavern 
of George F. Grinnell in Orville on April 7 and 8, 1835: Elijah C. 
Rust, justice of the peace for the old town of ManHus, presided and 
William Eager acted as clerk, and $250 were voted for the support of 
common schools. The following officers were elected : 

Zebulon Ostrom, supervisor ; William Eager, town clerk ; David G. Wilkins, and 
Adam Harroun, justices of the peace; Jacob I. Low, Joseph Yarrington, and Aaron 
Chapin, assessors ; William Wheeler and John Furbeck, commissioners of highways ; 
Vliet Carpenter, Edmund D. Cobb, and George Richardson, commissioners of com- 
mon schools; William Barker, Smith Ostrom, and Hiram Holbrook, inspectors of 
common schools; James Van Slyke, collector; James Sisson, overseer of the poor; 
Josiah Millard, Charles Lewis, and William Barker, trustees of town lot ; Calvin C. 
Palmer, sealer of weights and measures ; and twenty-.seven overseers of highways. 

Among these names will be recognized many prominent settlers not 
previously mentioned, but to them may appropriately be added the fol- 
lowing list : 

Colby Dibble, John and Michael Laden, Enos and Lyman Burk, David A. Sher- 
wood, Benjamin L. Gregory, Alva and Hiram Church, James Norris, David Merrill, 
Travis Swan, George S. Loomis, James H. King, Valentine Gifford, Ambrose Smith, 
Charles and Harvey Annable, Jesse Worden, Joseph Thompson (long the town clerk), 
Thomas Green, Henry P. Bogardus (justice of the peace for several years), Dennis 
Peck, Joseph W. Bostwick, Newton Otis, William Hare, vSilas Chesbro, Selah Strong, 
William Richardson, Thomas Blanchard, Thomas Sherwood, Egbert Judson, Joseph 
Breed, Franklin Hibbard, Jacob I. Marsh, Gordon Adams, William and Adam Ains- 
lie, Alva Trowbridge, Clinton Love, John Ostrander, John Reals, Jacob and William 
Hadley, Benjamin Scott, Lyman W. Higby, Wareham Campbell, Joseph Edwards, 
Archibald Britton, William and Thomas ShuU, Aaron Miller, Joseph and Philander 
Eaton, William Hotchkin, Larkin Bates, James A. Keeler, John S. Coonlej', William 
Clark, and Gideon Bogardus. 

Among other settlers prior to 1850 were: 

George H. Alexander, William B. Sims, Josiah Millard, Edmund H. Bunnell, Jared 
and Liberty Ludington, George L. Marshall, James Tallman, Hosea Ludington, 
Philo Eaton, John Putnam, Abram and Richard Sparling, Harvey Spencer, Jeremiah 
Barnum, De Witt Peck, Jacob Reals, David Potter, Nathan Bunnell, Anthony Ward, 
Ephraim Bailey, John Wright, Peter Rust, David H. Leonard, John Pinney, Horace 
B. and Jo.shua B. Gates, Daniel Hall, John L Devoe, Nelson and Joseph Yarrington, 
Oliver C. Gilson, Peter Mosher, Job Slocum, Samuel Wheeler, David Dodge, Addi- 
son Sherwood, Henry G. Hotaling, Levi J. Higley, the family of Holbrooks, Loomis 



i 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1027 

Marshall, William Burrell, Gershom and Jacob S. Hungerford, William Loucks, 
Moses Chapman, Ebenezer Perry, Peter and Jacob Hausenfrats, Solon Foster, Henry 
C. Goodelle (town clerk most of the time from 1847 to 1871), Elias B. Gumaer, Will- 
iam S. Smith, Emulus Green, Daniel Gifford, Peter D. Quintard, Stephen Wickham, 
John Rowley, George Terrill, Solomon Jones, Daniel Hull, Abram Lane, William 
Hodgkin, Alson Gates, James Hamilton, Martin Smith, Archibald Fuller, Thomas 
Wands, James Warner, Abram Fillmore, John F. Blodgett, Philip P. Midler, Milo 
K. Knapp, M. P. Worden, Peter W. Harroun, James M. Barton, Franklin Bronson, 
George Stevenson, Uriah Phelps, Henry Shattuck, Nelson Butts, Henry L. Pixley, 
William and Cadmus Clark, Lewis Moss, James Terwilliger, William L. Crossett, 
Lester Avery, Warren Gannett, Frederick Reals. 

Jacob L. Sherwood, Charles Annable, H. P Bogardus, and E. D. 
Cobb were prominent as early justices of the peace. In 1835 seven 
licenses were granted to sell spirituous liquors, viz. : to Washi-ngton 
Hamilton, Joseph Thompson, George F. Grinnell, George W. Hol- 
brook, John N. De Groff, James Norris, and Nathaniel vSnell. Of the 
fourteen licenses issued in 1840 eleven were for taverns and three for 
groceries, and besides the above, permits to sell liquor licenses were 
granted between 1835 and 1850 to the following tavernkeepers: David 
Merrill, David S. Miller, Ephraim Hull, I^iberty G. Ludington, Alex- 
ander Miller, Henry Shattuck, Bevil G. Wiborn, Amos Bronson, John 
I. Devo, Nelson Haight, Oliver O. Gilson, Robert Ward, Philip Morris, 
Solon Foster, Jacob Folk, Walker Knapp, and Thomas Burns. 

Prominent among other early residents of the town of Dewitt 
should also be recorded the names of 

James L. Willard, J. Henry Smith, Jonathan Hotaling, Lawrence Van Valken- 
burgh, Sheldon Sweeney, Josiah P. Wheeler, John B. and Lemuel Hawley, Abram 
M. Black, Samuel O. Walker, Henry Winne, Abram Hilton, James D. Kent, John 
W. Beebe, Benjamin P. Baker, Archibald M. Stephenson, Peter Combs, Gideon C. 
Ferris, Henry G. Dixon, George W. Murray, Sidney Lewis, Joseph Y. Miller, Isaac 
K. Reed, Joseph Livingston, Hubbard Hyraes, Francis F. Allen, Edwin A. Knapp, 
Edwin Schuyler, Harrison T. Abbott, Leonard P. Mosher,* Chapman W. Avery, and 
Matthew M. Conkhn. 

Returning to the village of Jamesville we find that it continued to 
grow rapidly during the first quarter of the century. A little east a 
school, the first in the town, had been established in a building erected 
for the purpose in 1796, by Polly Hibbard, who was succeeded by Susan 
Ward. In 1806 a school was opened in the village and three years later 
(1809) a post-office was established with Thomas Rose as postmaster. 
He was followed by Moses D. Rose. In 1809 the "Jamesville Iron 
and Woolen Factory" was incorporated, and from the legislative act 
creating this concern the place derived its name, which was first 



1028 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

published and proclaimed in a great Fourth of July celebration held there 
in 1810. Since then it has been known as Jamesville. Meantime relig- 
ion had received a marked impulse in the vicinity, the Union Congre- 
gational Society being organized in September, 1805. Soon afterward, 
between 1806 and 1809, a church was built on the Daniel B. Marsh 
farm, now owned by Daniel Marsh, about one mile east of Jamesville. 
After about 1829 the edifice was used as a barn and some fifteen years 
ago it was burned. Among the early members were Deacons Messen- 
ger, Barnum, Levett, and Hezekiah Weston. Daniel B. Marsh was 
one of the first preachers. In 1837 the society began holding meetings 
in Jamesville and in 1828, under the pastorate of Rev. Seth J. Porter, a 
church was built, which was burned about 1882. In 1892 a new edifice 
was erected at a cost of $2,000. At the time of the removal the society 
had 247 members, prominent among them being Isaac W. Brewster, 
David Smith, Horace B. Gates, Amos Sherwood, and Leonard Hawley. 
In December, 1843, the society adopted the Presbyterian form of gov- 
ernment and in March, 1870, the name was changed to the First Presby- 
terian church of Jamesville. In 1832 several members seceded from 
this society and organized a Dutch Reformed church, which survived 
only five or six years. 

In 1821 William M. King built a grist, plaster, and cement mill on 
the creek about one and one-half miles north of Jamesville, and carried 
on an extensive business for some time. In 1869 A. B. King became 
proprietor and rebuilt the establishment. 

The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 marked an important epoch 
in the history of Dewitt which had now become largely divested of its 
primitive conditions. During the first quarter of this century the 
Seneca (south) and Genesee (through Orville) turnpikes were busy 
thoroughfares of travel. Taverns, country stores, and other enter- 
prises flourished and increased in numbers. Mills and manufacturing 
interests contributed to the general prosperity, while agriculture ad- 
vanced in proportion as the forests receded. The canal, accessible to 
Orville by a "side-cut," afforded thenceforward a better route of trans- 
portation and had a wholesome influence upon the town at large. 

The north part of Dewitt seems to have remained open for later set- 
tlers, among whom were Isaac Carhart, James and Walter Wright, 
Abraham Delamater, the Britton family, Erastus B. Perkins, Nathan- 
iel Teall, and others. These located in the vicinity of Collamer, which 
was early known as Britton Settlement. In 1828 an M. E. church was 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1029 

org-anized there with Rev. Austin Briggs (first pastor), Adam nar- 
rower, Erastus B. Perkins, Walter and James Wright, John Rowe, 
Abraham Delamater, and Isaac Carhart, as trustees, all members of a 
class over which Rev. Seth Young- had previously ministered. In 1830 
a house of worship was built and about 1841 the society was reorgan- 
ized by Rev. A. E. Munson. In 1857 the church was repaired and re- 
dedicated as the First M. E. church of Collamer. A post-office was 
established there before 1835, in which year Nathaniel Teall was post- 
master; more recently James E. vStewart served in that capacity. Mean- 
while the Presbyterians of this part of the town had instituted services 
of their denomination, and in October, 1842, the First Presbj'terian 
church of Collamer was organized at the "Britton Settlement School 
House" with seventeen members, among them being John and Deb- 
orah Furbeck (parents of John I. Furbeck, prominent in his lifetime). 
Deacons Dwight Baker and Andrew Fuller, vSarah Baker, Prudence 
Smith, and Elders Porter Baker, Orlando Spencer, Samuel Baker, and 
John Powlesland. The first pastor was Rev. Amos W. Seeley, who 
was followed by Revs. A. C. Lathrop, B. Ladd, Marcus wSmith, J. M. 
Chrysler, John M. Perkins, and others. An edifice was erected in 1843 
at a cost of $600. Collamer grew into a hamlet of considerable impor- 
tance. 

Before 1840 two more churches had sprung into existence in James- 
ville. As early as June 6, 1835, Episcopal services were held at the 
house of Elijah C. Rust, and on July 13, 1831, St. Mark's Protestant 
Episcopal church was organized there with the following members: 

John Millen, Hiram P. and Mary Ann Holbrook, John Crankshaw, Mrs. John P. 
Ives, Mrs. Colby Dibble, Harriet Gillespie, Helen Post, Phebe Wales, Abigail Sal- 
mon, Catherine Littlefield, Mrs. Reed, and others. The first rector. Rev. Seth W. 
Beardsley, served from 1831 to 1836, and after him came, among others. Revs. Mar- 
shall Whiting, James Selkrig, Charles W. Hayes, Julius S. Townsend, H. H. Loring, 
M. L. Kern, J. L. Gay, J. E. Barr, J. H. Bowman, Dr. Babcock, and J. E. Pratt. 

In 1832 a church was erected just east of the Kortright House near 
the railroad. It was remodeled in 1874 at an expense of about $2,500, 
and burned in October, 1877. Another frame edifice costing $2,000 was 
built and consecrated about 1880. The Methodists had for several 
years maintained class meetings in Jamesville and vicinity. In 1832 
they organized a church, known as the "Fourth Society of the M. E. 
church in Manlius," with Egbert Coleman, Moses Chapman, Darius 
Sweet, Abraham Van Schaak, and Cornelius Cool as trustees. vSoon 



1030 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

afterward the present edifice was erected. Among the early prominent 
members were Harry Avery, Jonathan Hotaling, and Martin Connell. 

Turning again to the prominent settlers of the town it is pertinent to 
add the names of John B. Ives, Amos Sherwood, Nathaniel Gillett, Dr. 
Smith, Dr. E. E. Knapp, Smith Hibbard, George W. Holbrook, B. S. 
Greo-ory. Joel Kinne, Thomas and Jacob L. vSherwood, Robert Dnnlop, 
Enos K. Reed, John Jones, Gorton Nottingham (father of Jacob A. and 
Benjamin C, of Syracuse), Van Vleck Nottingham, Henry Notting- 
ham, Charles Hiscock, Joel Knapp (died May 15, 1864, aged seventy- 
one). Dr. D. A. Sherwood (died in 1864 at the age of sixty-four), and 
Vliet Carpenter, son of Nehemiah, of Manlius. Gorton Nottingham 
was born in Ulster county in 1809, settled on a farm in Dewitt in 1833, 
and died January 21, 1890. V'an Vleck Nottingham, son of Jacob and 
Eleanor Nottingham, was born in Dutchess county in 1814, came to 
this town in 1833, and died in Syracuse in January, 1896, universally 
respected and esteemed. He left six children: Henry D., of Pompey; 
Dr. John, Edwin, and William, of Syracuse; Frank, on the homestead; 
and Thomas W. , of Syracuse. He was the first president of the Dewitt 
Farmers' Club, which was organized January 12, 1861, served as presi- 
dent of the Onondaga County Farmers' Club, and had been a loan 
commissioner for man}^ years. Robert Dunlop, son of Robert, a native 
of Ayrshire, Scotland, was born in Albany in 1810, and came to James- 
ville in 1833. He founded the well known Dunlop mills, and was ex- 
tensively engaged during his active life in inilling and manufacturing 
cement, waterlime, plaster, etc., being succeeded by his son Robert 
Dunlop, jr., who owns five large lime kilns; the Lanark flouring mills, 
built by Robert Richardson in 1823, and now using four runs of stone 
and four sets of rolls for grinding; and the old cement and plaster mills 
Erected, one in 1836, the other in 1868. These are all situated on But- 
ternut Creek, north of the village of Jamesville, and on the same stream 
is also a barley mill erected in 1840. South of the village are the 
Feeder mills, which were built by Robert Dunlop, sr. , in 1847, at a 
cost of $10,000. Robert Dunlop, sr., was for many years one of the 
leading and most enterprising men in this section. He was one of the 
original directors of the Syraciise and Binghamton Railroad, was presi- 
dent of the old Syracuse and Jamesville Plank Road Company, super- 
visor of the town, and a trustee of St. John's School at Manlius. 

In 1845 the town contained 267 militia men, 645 voters, 705 school 
children, 13,076 acres of improved land, three grist mills, two saw 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1031 

mills, a fulling mill, three carding machines, a tannery, five churclies, 
fifteen common schools, six taverns, three stores, six groceries, 282 
farmers, 1 10 mechanics, seven physicians, and two lawyers. Of these 
and other enterprises Jamesville had three stores, two tailors, three 
blacksmiths, two wagonmakers, a harnessmaker, two hotels, three 
churches, two flouring mills, one lime and plaster works, a plaster 
mill, and one tannery. The latter, operated by Jacob I. Low, was 
formerly conducted by Elisha C. Rust. It was located east of the rail- 
road and on the south side of the Seneca Turnpike, southeast of the 
hotel, and was finally converted into a plaster mill, which was run by 
Harlow C. Bryant. Portions of the tannery are still standing. Mat- 
thew Caldwell at an early date started a blast furnace and blacksmith 
shop in a stone building, the walls and ruins of which are still visible. 
The power was utilized in 1892 by the pearl barley mill of Ryan 
Brothers. 

Hiram P. Holbrook and Robert Fleming, partners, were early mer- 
chants in Jamesville on the site of Daniel Quinlan & Son's present 
store and later where the Avery block now stands. Other merchants 
in that village were Alvin P. Gould, Samuel Hill, Reed & Conkling, 
Connell & Co., and Mr. Sanford. Among the present merchants are 
Daniel Quinlan & Son, Elbert G. Avery, and Abram A, Wright, who 
was preceded by Wright & Reed and they by Wright & Crofoot. The 
postmasters since about 1830 have been Isaac W. Brewster, George M. 
Richardson, Lemuel Hawley, Isaac K. Reed, Dennis Quinlan, Abram 
A. Wright, and Dennis Quinlan again, incumbent. Of blacksmiths 
there were Asa Cadogan, Charles Puffete, David Dodge, Mark Pixley, 
and John Perrett, and at the present time Josiah Holbrook, George 
W. White, Callaghan McCarthy, and Franklin J. Perrett. Josiah G. 
Holbrook was born in Pompey on June 24, 1827, and came here in 
December, 1845. He is a son of Adolphus W., who was born in that 
town in 1793 and died there in 1849, and a grandson of Josiah, jr., who 
came to Pompey with his father, Josiah Holbrook, sr., from Spring- 
field, Mass., in 1792. Josiah, sr. , and Josiah, jr., died on the home- 
stead, the former about 1799 and the latter in 1831 ; both were Revolu- 
tionary soldiers as were also Dr. David A. and Barach, two other sons 
of Josiah Holbrook, sr. Josiah G. Holbrook was elected collector of 
Dewitt in 1855 and justice of the peace in 1856, served as assistant 
assessor of internal revenue from 1862 to 1868, supervisor in 1871-76, 
and member of assembly in 1878. 



1032 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

The old Holbrook tavern in Janiesville was built by a Mr. Hunger- 
ford on the site of the present Kortright House, and was rebuilt and 
kept by George W. Holbrook, son of Dr. David A., until 1852, after 
which it passed at varicus times into the hands of Thomas Kimber, 
Amos wSherwood, Gilbert Trass, Charles A. Chapman, Chapman W. 
Avery, and Jacob L. Kortright, the latter having been a hotel propri- 
etor here since 1866, building the present structure in 1877-78. The 
old Hamilton House, just west of the creek, was erected and kept by 
Washington Hamilton, who died about 1869. Since then it has been 
leased, the present proprietor being George GoodfelloAv. The village 
has had as harnessmakers B. J. Lowry, Wason Wyborn, and R. W. 
Bristol; as shoemakers Lemuel Hawley, Jehiel Thorn, Jacob L. Sher- 
wood, and Thomas Moynahan; as wagonmakers Benjamin S. Gregory, 
Thomas D. Green, and the latter's sons, Emulus F. and Erasmus S. 
G. W. Burhans & Son also have a sash and blind factory in operation. 
Henry D. and Irving A. Weston started a machine shop a few years 
ago and later built up quite a business in manufacturing bicycle special- 
ties. Henry D. died January 1, 1893, and since then his widow and 
Irving A. Weston have carried on the establishment. The building 
was formerly occupied by Colby Dibble as a chair factory. • On October 
14, 1877, the business portion of the village was destroyed by fire, en- 
tailing a loss of $50,000. The conflagration consumed the Kortright 
and Clark Hotels, four stores, four or five dwellings, a church and five 
barns. The enterprising citizens soon recovered from this serious 
blow and rapidly restored nearly all the burned structures. 

Before or very soon after the middle of this century all of the old 
important stage routes were discontinued. The canal nearly or quite su- 
perseded these lines running east and west, and the opening of the Syra- 
cuse and Utica Railroad on July 4, 1839, completely wiped them out of 
existence. This railroad, passing through the town and the present village 
of East Syracuse, and forming the nucleus of what is now the great 
four-track route of the New York Central, gave a decided impetus to 
agricultural affairs, but injured permanently the then promising future 
of Jamesville and Orville (Dewitt), which had become centers of no 
little activity. The former, while it never regained its old-time prestige, 
was benefited in a measure by the completion of the Syracuse and 
Binghamton Railroad, which was opened through the village October 
23, 1854. But an unexpected reaction turned the volume of trade into 
Syracuse and at the same time wrought permanent injury to nearly all 
manufacturing and commercial interests. 



H 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1033 

During the war of the Rebellion, from 1861 to I860, the town made 
an honorable as well as a conspicuous record by contributing a large 
number of her patriotic sons to the Union cause. The various quotas 
were filled with promptness, and quite every citizen took a creditable 
part in that perilous hour. 

The village of East Syracuse is the growth of the last twenty-five 
years or less. In October, 1872, the New York Central and Hudson 
River Railroad Company purchased from Rufus R. Kinne, Elijah 
Clark, Eugene Bogardus, and the Carpenter estate 150 acres of land 
upon which to locate freight yards, round houses, and shops, and there 
established a division termini station between Albany and Rochester. 
Several miles of freight tracks were laid, and by the summer of 1873 
the place had assumed considerable activity. The inhabitants were 
largely railroad employees, many of whom erected comfortable and at- 
tractive homes for their families The settlement of the village was 
rapid. Indeed, it sprung up almost as if by magic. Hotels, boarding 
houses, stores, shops, etc., came into existence, and within a short time 
a Railroad Y.M.C.A., with a library and reading room, was instituted, 
and ever since maintained. 

The First Presbyterian Society of East Syracuse was organized in 
the district school house on March 8, 1875, under the direction of Ed- 
mund S. Walker, then a missionary of the Presbytery of Syracuse. 
Elijah Clark was chairman of the meeting, J. Q. Baker acted as clerk, 
and five trustees were appointed, viz. : John Jones, Eugene Bogardus, 
John A. Henry, E. J. Evans, and Vliet Carpenter. In choosing a name 
for this pioneer religious organization in the place Mr. Clark insisted 
upon East Syracuse, which was adopted, not only for this body, but for 
the village. During the following summer a church was built, the 
funds being raised through the efforts of E. S. Walker and John Jones. 
The contract was given to John A. Henry for $875, but when com- 
pleted and furnished the edifice cost about $2,000, the lot being donated 
by Ellis & Upton. At this time the settlement contained but one high- 
way, now Manlius street. On January 27, 1876, the church was or- 
ganized by a committee appointed by the Presbytery of Syracuse, con- 
sisting of Revs. E. G. Thurber, W. S. Franklin, and J. M. Chrysler, 
and Elders Schuyler Bradley, and E. S. Walker. Three ruling elders 
were elected, viz. : Edmund S. Walker, E. J. Evans, and John Jones, 
and on the same day the edifice was dedicated. The first pastor was 
Rev. J. M. Chrysler from April, 1876, to September, 1878, and since 

130 



1034 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

November of the latter year Rev. Isaac Swift has been in charge. A 
new church is now (1896) in process of erection. St. Matthew's Ro- 
man Catholic church was built in 1880, under the pastorate of Rev. 
Michael Clune. The Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 
1881, and among its promoters were H. L. Lawrence, J. E. Richard- 
son, William Powlesland, William Strong, and Alva Burnhara. Their 
church edifice was erected in 1882. Both of these bodies are flourish- 
ing. Emanuel Protestant Episcopal church was built in 1883, the ex- 
pense being borne b}^ the late William H. Vanderbilt, then president 
of the New York Central Railroad. It has always been a missionary 
parish. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was organized in May, 1881, 
through the efforts of Mr. Stowell, then secretary of the Syracuse rail- 
road branch. In August Charles E. Head was appointed the first 
regular secretary, the New York Central Railroad Company paying 
his salary of $000 a year. His successors have been W. T. King, H. 
S. Parmalee. B. F. Hodges, George J. Buck. S. Charles Greene, and 
Dana Conklin. The building was erected in 1888, and dedicated April 
2, 1889, the railroad company contributing $1,000, and Cornelius Van 
derbilt at different times $1,000 more. 

The first school house in what is now East Syracuse was built in the 
fall of 1832, the first teacher being John Carhart, and when the rail- 
road yard was established the school numbered forty pupils. In 1878 
the building was enlarged, and in 1884 four more rooms were added, 
making eight in all. In 1882 Prof. W. J. Jewell organized it into a 
graded school and continued in charge until June, 1886, when Prof. 
George E. Milliman was made principal. In March, 1887, the present 
Union Free School was organized, the board of education being E. S. 
Walker, president; Alva Burnham, George M. Weaver, E. M. Wheeler, 
and Charles Manahan. Prof. S. McK. Smith took charge of the new 
institution and continued to 1891, and was instrumental in organizing the 
academic department, which was placed under the Regents in Novem- 
ber, 1887. Mr. Walker was president of the board until September, 
1893, and I. W. Allen served as a member from August, 1887, to Aug- 
ust, 1894. The present handsome .school building, costing about $36,- 
000, was erected in 1891, first occupied January 1, 1892, and completed 
and dedicated November 28, 1893. The school now has an attendance 
of 600 scholars and eighteen teachers under Prof. E. H. Chase as. prin- 
cipal. A fine reference library for the .school and a circulating library 



i 



THE TOWN OF DEWITT. 1035 

for inhabitants of the district, comprising" more than 1,000 volumes, 
has been placed in the academic department at a cost of nearly |;2,000. 
East Syracuse was incorporated as a village on November 21, 1881, 
the first ofificers being- Charles C. Bagg, president; George M. Weaver, 
Edward Fitzgerald, and Isaac E. Peters, trustees; Samuel Wills, treas- 
urer; Edmund vS. Walker, collector; Leonard Curtiss, clerk. Among 
those who took an active part in the incorporation were Dr. .E. L. 
Thomas, O. C. Hinman, Alva Burnham, vSmith Rice, E. S. Walker, 
Edward Fitzgerald, Rev. Michael Chine, and A. R. Walker. These 
were prominent residents, and contributed by their energy and enter- 
prise to the material prosperity of the place. Among others who have 
likewise aided in local advancement are: 

Marlow B. Wells, Joseph Bloser, John L. Kyne, William Strong, H. G. Storer, Al- 
vah Burnham, Melville W. Russell, William Wilcox, Joseph H. Damon, Rufus R. 
Kinne, E. F. Bussey, Ambrose Ames, Howard Ames, Perry H. Bagg, Andrew F. 
Behr, John Binning, jr., Frank and Thomas Burke, William W. Bush, Jesse W. 
Clark, Clinton L. Dean, Norris Eaton, Alexander D. Ellis, John W. Evans, Louis H. 
Ford, William Fry, George W. and Henry Goodfellow, John G. and Martin Guth- 
man, Charles Hoard, Gerrit S. Horton, William B. Hudson, Henry Jones, Charles 
P. Manahan, Dr. Adelbert W. Marsh, Fred A. Marshall, Thomas McDermott, Victor 
Miller, Rev. Francis J. Quinn, Dr. Herbert E. Richardson, George Roberts, George 
Sink,'Frank N. Snyder, Leroy E. Taber, William H. Temple, Henry Tiffany, Leon- 
ard B. Webb, Lewis H. Woodworth, William Worden, and Elijah Clark. 

The East Syracuse News was established in December, 1884, b}' 
Edwin F. Bussey and John L. Kyne, under the firm name of Bussey & 
Kyne. In August, 1887, Mr. Kyne became the sole owner, and has 
ever since continued in editorial charge, making the paper one of the 
brightest weeklies in the county. He is a prominent citizen, active in 
all worthy enterprises, has diversified business interests, and has always 
taken keen interest in the advancement of the village. In February, 
1894, the East Syracuse News Company was incorporated with James 
E. Ratchford, president; A. E. Oberlander, vice-president; John L. 
Kyne, secretary, treasurer, editor, and manager, all of whom still re- 
tain their respective offices. On March 1, 1891, C. J. vSawdey began 
the publication of the Onondaga Gazette as editor for a stock company. 
Afterward it passed to Hon. John A. Nichols, as owner, and Melville 
W. Russell as editor, and on December 1, 1895, John A. Nichols, jr., 
son of the above, purchased and still continues the well-edited and 
popular paper. 

In 1886 the village contained one dry goods store, a furnishing store, 
two general stores, two drug stores, one hardware store, a news stand, 



1036 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

one jeweler, a confectionery and tobacco store, one shoe store, three 
groceries, a meat market, one bakery, two milliners, four dressmakers, 
an undertaker, four shoe shops, four physicians, two coal yards, five 
hotels, eight boarding houses, two carriage shops, two blacksmith 
shops, a sewing machine dealer, one steam grist mill, four churches 
(Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Emanuel Episcopal, and St. 
Matthew's Roman Catholic), and about 2,250 inhabitants. The popula- 
tion of the village in 1880 was 1,009, and in 1890, 2,331. The large 
sash, door, and blind factory, planing mill, and lumber yard of A. 
Ames's sons were started in 1886. This was the first important manu- 
facturing industry in the place. East Syracuse derives its water supply 
from a reservoir near Jamesville, the mains supplying also the latter 
village with water for fire purposes. The water system was constructed 
in 1893 at a cost of about $75,000. The village fire department consists 
of two hose companies, one engine company, and a hook and ladder 
company. 

On February 12, 1873, the present Chenango branch of the West 
Shore (then the Chenango Valley) railroad was formally opened, giv- 
ing a new impetus to the sparsely populated hamlet of Dewitt Center, 
through which it passes, as well as contributing to the resources of East 
Syracuse. For many years Dewitt Center had been quite an impor- 
tant shipping point on the Erie Canal, especially for grain. Stephen 
Headson, an enterprising citizen, engaged extensively in general mer- 
chandising and in buying grain and produce, and in 1870 built a sub- 
stantial brick business block and warehouse. In 1871 he became the 
first postmaster. 

The recent extension of the Syracuse electric street railway system 
from James street in that city to East Syracuse village by wa)' of 
Messina Springs has greatly enhanced the value of property along the 
route, and at the same time another road between the two places has 
given existence to the village of Eastwood, which was incorporated 
April 17, 1895, the first officers being J. L. Jones, president; John S. 
Gourley, James Simmons, and E. G. Whitney, trustees; Edward Smith, 
treasurer; and William Boysen, collector. 

Messina Springs has never attained proportions beyond those of a 
small rural hamlet, yet it has acquired considerable popularity as a 
place for training trotting horses and for out-door sports. 

Brief reference has been made in foregoing pages to the common 
schools of Dewitt, which in 1860 numbered fourteen, which were at- 



I 



THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 1037 

tended by 1,089 children. In Jamesville a brick school house was built 
in 1845 on the site previously occupied by James Young's dwelling. 
This building was replaced in 18i)o by a brick and stone structure, 
which cost about $8,000. At the same time a graded union school was 
organized. The East Syracuse schools have kept pace with the growth 
of the village and the inhabitants now enjoy the union free school 
system. The town contains thirteen school districts, the school build- 
ings and sites being valued at about $58,225. 
The supervisors of Dewitt have been as follows: 

Zebulon Ostrom, 1835; Thomas Blanchard 1836-37; Zebulon Ostrom, 1838; 
Thomas Sherwood, 1839-42; Robert Dunlop, jr., 1843; Egbert Judson, 1844; Robert 
Dunlop jr., 1845; Joseph Thompson, 1846; Robert Dunlop, 1847-49; Joseph Breed, 
1850; Emerson Kmne, 1851-53; Philip P. Midler, 1854-55; Liberty G. Ludington, 
1856; Jared Ludington, 1857-58; Asel F. Wilcox, 1859-61; Elbridge Kinne, 1862-63; 
Lawrence Van Valkenburgh, 1864-65; Jared Ludington, 1866; J. Henry Smith, 1867; 
Gideon C. Ferris, 1868-70; Josiah G. Holbrook, 1871-73; Chapman W.' Avery, 1874- 
76; Josiah G. Holbrook, 1877-78; Matthew M. Conklin, 1879-83; Charles C. Bagg, 
1884-86; Charles Hiscock, 1887-88; John A. Nichols, 1889-91; Smith Rice, 1892; 
Charles C. Bagg, 1893; Charles Hiscock, 189^96. 

The population of Dewitt has been as follows: 

In 1835, 2,716; 1840, 2,802; 1845, 2,876; 1850, 3,302; 1855, 2,985; 1860, 3,043; 1865, 
3,001; 1870, 3,105; 1875, 3,129; 1880, 3,975; 1890, 4,560; 1892, 5,182. 



CHAPTER XLVII. 

THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 

This is the youngest and the smallest town in Onondaga county. Its 
organization took place on March 18, 1848, and was made to embrace 
all that part of the town of Salina lying west of the lake and not in- 
cluded in the city of Syracuse. Under a law of May 17, 1886, nearly 
the whole of Geddes village was annexed to vSyracuse as the 9th and 
10th wards, and its history thenceforward is embodied with that of the 
city. The surface of the town is level in the north part, rolling in the 
south, and const^'tutes some of the best and most productive farm lands 
in the county. Nine Mile Creek flows eastwardly across the town and 
Seneca River forms the north boundary. The soil is generally a clayey 
and sandy loam. 



1038 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

The pioneer of this town and the man from whom it was named was 
James Geddes, who was born near Carlisle, Pa., July 22, 1763, of 
Scotch ancestry. He was well educated for the time, and taught school 
much of the time until he was nearly thirty years old. In 1793 the 
spreading- fame of the Onondaga salt springs drew him hither and 
the prospect was so gratifying to him that he returned home, organized 
a company for the manufacture of salt, and early in 1794 came on by 
way of Seneca Lake to the site of Geddes, bringing with him kettles, 
etc., and began the first operations of the salt industry in that locality. 
The other members of the company followed in June of the same year, 
and the little settlement thus formed was given the name of Geddes. 
The salt works were located near the lake shore, which then overflowed 
a large area of the present lowlands. In 1798 Mr. Geddes removed to 
Fairmount, in the present town of Camillus, where he settled upon 
land acquired by him from the State, which remained his home until 
his death. Yevy soon after his settlement, Mr. Geddes was called upon 
to fill a public station, and from that time forward his energies were 
almost wholly given to official work of various kinds. Being employed 
by the surveyor-general as an assistant, he took up that profession and 
made it his chief lifework, in which he rendered the State the most 
valuable services in surveying the canal, as elsewhere described. He 
was appointed a justice of the peace in 1800 and in 1804 was elected to 
the Legislature. In 1809 he was appointed associate justice and in 
1812 a judge of Onondaga County Common Pleas. In 1813 he was 
elected to Congress and in 1821 was again sent to the Legislature. 
After a life of great usefulness he died at his home August 19, 1838. 
He was the father of seven children. 

George Geddes was a son of James, and was born on the Fairmount 
homestead in 1809. He was educated in the Pompey and the Onon- 
daga Academies, and graduated from a military school in Middletown, 
Mass. He read law for a time in Skaneateles, but did not adopt that 
profession, preferring to follow his honored father as an engineer. He 
was directly connected with many important public works in this and 
other States. His natural qualifications led to his being called to fill 
many official stations of honor and responsibility. He was twice 
elected to the State Senate, was superintendent of the Salt Springs 
seven years, and held other places of trust. He never lost his interest 
in agriculture and made the home farm one of the most noted in this 
section. His first wife was a daughter of Dr. Porter, of Skaneateles. 



THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 1039 

Their children were the late James Geddes, and the wife of Davis Cus- 
sitt, of Onondaga. His second wife was Mary Chamberlain, of Red 
Hook, N. Y. Mr. Geddes died at his home in ISSo. 

James Geddes was born November 10, 1831. He enjoyed full oppor- 
tunity to obtain an excellent education in the Homer Academy and 
Cazenovia Seminary, and afterwards studied civil engineering in which 
profession he became proficient before he was eighteen years of age. 
He followed this vocation a few years, but his natural love of agricul- 
tural pursuits drew his attention to farming. Under his liberal and 
intelligent direction the home farm continued to be one of the most 
beautiful and productive in this county. Mr. Geddes took an active 
interest in the State Agricultural Society and was a member of the ex- 
ecutive committee. Elected to the Assembly in 1882 and 1883, he was 
instrumental in the creation and passage of the present game laws. 
When the State Experiment Station was organized at Geneva, Mr. 
Geddes was appointed its general manager by the governor Mr. 
Geddes was a whole-souled, warm-hearted and generous man, beloved 
by all who enjoyed his friendship. His death took place ^lay 16, 1887. 
He left two children, George Geddes and Mrs. W. Judson Smith. 

It will be noted that the settlement at the head of the lake was be- 
gun only a few 3'ears after that at Salina, and long before any one had 
thought of a village on the site of Syracuse. At the time of the settle- 
ment, Judge Geddes found a rude road extending from Salina to Onon- 
daga Hollow. This was the only means of communication with either 
that point or Salina and Judge Geddes and his associates saw the neces- 
sity of connecting with it by a new road. By the aid of a fund then in 
the hands of commissioners, and by large contributions, a good road 
was constructed from his settlement connecting with the Salina and 
Onondaga Hollow road. Mr. Clark in his Onondaga, p. 151, says of 
another early road attributed to Judge Geddes: 

One of the earliest, and greatest improvements about the village of Geddes, was 
the making of a road from that place to Salina. The ground over which the road 
was to pass was a perfect quagmire, filled with thick cedar timber and low brush- 
wood. It was so miry, so thick with underbrush, and so much covered with water 
that it was completely impassable and could not be sui'veyed by the ordinary methods. 
In this case the surveyor set his compass at the house of Samuel R. Mathews, at 
Salina, and took the bearing of Mr. Hughs's chimney, above the trees, and from this 
observation the route of the road was commenced by cutting brush and laying them 
crosswise on the line of the road and covering them with earth. The process was 
slow, but time and perseverance has accomplished the work, and an excellent road, 
perfectly straight between the two villages, is the result. 



1040 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

In these works, which were more or less for the general public good, 
the people who had located at Salina evinced no interest, and it was 
recorded that they were somewhat jealous of the incipient salt works of 
the Pennsylvania Company at Geddes. If this be true it could not have 
endured long, for the market for salt was soon found to be greater than 
could be supplied. But the Indians were certainly jealous. They 
claimed an exclusive privilege of the use of the salt springs at the head 
of the lake. Through the influence of Ephraim Webster a council 
was called and Judge Geddes was present. After due deliberation he 
was adopted into the tribe and given the name of " Don-da-dah-gwah," 
thus solving the problem in a peculiarly Indian fashion. 

The next settler at Geddes was Freeman Hughs, who came from 
Westfield, Mass., when eighteen years of age. There was then not a 
single house in the town of Geddes, except at the salt works, and they 
had been abandoned. Mr. Hughs became aprominent citizen, especially 
in the later operations in salt, and was a justice of the peace. He 
built the house where Col. W. R. Chamberlm now lives. He died in 
Geddes at the age of seventy-five years, on the 29th of August, 1856. 
His son James was the first child born at Geddes. 

In 1807 Judge Geddes made the first map of the village showing the 
pasture and marsh lots. This map was made for Dr. William Kirkpatrick, 
then salt superintendent, and is on file in the surveyor-general's ofifice. 
It also shows twenty lots on both sides of what is now Genesee street. 
The village was resurveyed and mapped by Judge Geddes in 1812, and 
in 1821 the map was enlarged. In 1822 John Randel, jr., laid out the 
village substantially as it appeared when annexed to the city in 1887. 
The streets were laid out one hundred feet wide. 

Isaac Pharis came to Geddes in 1811 while young and afterwards 
married Lavina Root. He subsequently bought a lot on Emerson 
avenue (formerly Orchard street), and spent his life there. He died 
July 14, 1845, aged forty-nine years. His sons were Charles E., Isaac 
R., Mills P., and Sheldon P. The first three of these have been 
prominent in the history of Geddes. Mills P. Pharis, who still lives 
there, was connected with the salt industry nearly forty years, during 
nineteen of which he was in State employ as inspector. He manufac- 
tured quite largely and built blocks. I. R. Pharis was also prominently 
identified with the industry and was a man of ability. He died in 
October, 1889. Charles E. was akso in the salt business and one of the 
leading men in the American Dairy Salt Company, He died Septem- 



I 



THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 1041 

ber 13, 1877, aged fift3'-eig"ht. Sheldon P. was engaged in boating a 
few years, when he went to California. 

Jacob Sammons, a veteran of the Revolutionary war, lived at Geddes 
in the early part of the century, and died there in 1815. His son, 
Thomas, served in the war of 1812, and was a boatman and saltmaker 
at Geddes. He died in 1876 at the age of eighty-two years. 

The Root family, into which Isaac Pharis married, had an eventful 
experience. The father with his family started for the Western 
Reserve from Connecticut in 1810 with an ox team. Reaching Buffalo, 
an acquaintance induced them to hire a farm and remain there. Two 
3'ears later, when the British came across and sacked Buffalo, thefamil}' 
fled to Batavia and Mr. Root soon returned to Connecticut. He after- 
wards went west to the Reserve, but his sons, Jesse, Erastus, and 
daughters, Nancy, Lavina (who married Isaac Pharis), Sall}^ arid Maria 
settled at Geddes. When the village was mapped the public square 
was laid out and a lot was reserved for school purposes east of the park. 
There, in a primitive school house, Nancy Root taught a ver}" early, if 
not the first school in the village, in 1803. The old school house was 
displaced ere many years by a brick one and there Simeon Spaulding 
taught in 1825, Mr. Spaulding was an early resident of the place, was 
justice of the peace and highly esteemed. 

James Lamb settled at Geddes in 1803 and built the first frame house 
in that year and kept a tavern until after the war of 1812. It stood on 
Genesee street. He caiue from near Seneca Lake and died in Geddes. 

vSimeon Phares was a soldier of the Revolution and located at Geddes 
in 1803. He was a brother of Andrew, who settled in Salina. Simeon 
built a log house on the site of the Lake Shore House, and lived there 
until his death about the year 1820. His wife was Anna, daughter of 
James Lamb, the pioneer tavernkeeper. Simeon Phares engaged in 
salt-making with Thomas Orman, another Salina pioneer. Orman 
used to go back and forth, as others doubtless did, between Geddes 
and Salina in a canoe, and the place where he habitually moored his 
craft near the site of the present pump house, was then called 
"Orman's Landing." John Y. Phares, who is still living at Geddes, 
son of Simeon, was born August 22, 1810, and was the second child 
born at Geddes, and has always lived there, doing business as a shoe- 
maker. He learned his trade with John Sanborn, who was the first 
resident shoemaker in the place. Andrew Phares, a brother of John 
Y., also learned the shoemaker's trade and died at South Onondaga. 

131 



1042 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

But long before he began shoemaking he taught either the first or the 
second school at Geddes, in a log house that stood near the site of the 
present school house. 

One of the earliest merchants in Geddes was John Dodge, who had 
a store where Dr. E. H. Flint's house now stands. Dodge afterwards, 
and before 1824, built a store on the line of the canal, where the Gere 
block now stands, and carried on business there. He subsequently 
removed from the place. Charles L. Skinner in company with Joseph 
Shepard kept a store in the Dodge building after Dodge left it, and in 
1831 Skinner built for himself on the site of the Geddes House. In 
1825 Sheldon Pardee kept a store at the end of Furnace street (now 
West Fayette), and in 1831 Charles Pardee, his brother, put up a 
building on the site of the street railroad building. He was a resi- 
dent of Skaneateles. Joel Dickinson, son in-law of James Mann, was 
an early merchant in the old "Green " store on the canal. He failed 
and James H. Mann, his son-in-law, joined him and continued the 
business for a time ; but both finally gave up. 

David Vrooman was a very early settler. He was a carpenter and 
hewed the timbers used in the construction of the old salt reservoir 
before 1812. He married Nancy Root. Noah Smith was another 
pioneer in the salt industry at Geddes, locating there before 1812. He 
removed to Phoenix in 1833 and died there in December, 1861. 

In 1819 a road was opened running from the site of the present 
Methodist church to Onondaga Hill. This highway was ultimately 
abandoned. 

Charles Carpenter came to Geddes first in 1812, but went away and 
afterwards returned and took up his permanent residence in 1816. He 
was prominently identified with the salt industry, was inspector for a 
period, and was a justice of the peace. He first lived in a log house 
that stood directly in what is now Willis avenue, very near the line of 
Genesee street. 

Capt. John G. Terry was an early settler. He had five sons: John, 
Erasmus, Ralph, Norman, and Griswold ; and four daughters named 
Sabrina, Louisa, Phoebe, and Chloe. Captain Terry died in 1838 at 
the age of sixty years. 

We have thus named most of the early settlers and business men of 
Geddes. The village amounted to almost nothing, except as a station 
for the manufacture of salt, until the opening of the canal in 1825. 
This gave it quite an impetus, the population increased, several new 



I 



THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 1043 

places of business were opened, and tlie limited agricultural area in 
the town was cleared and prepared for cultivation. 

William W. Tripp located at Geddes very soon after the opening of 
the canal and began boat-building. His yard was at the old canal 
basin. He died at Geddes August 2, 1884, aged eighty-eight years. 
Harvey Stewart came in at about the same time and opened a grocery 
in the old brick building near the bridge, where Nathaniel Kelsey, son- 
in-law of Mr. Stewart, recently carried on business. Mr. Stewart after- 
wards engaged in the salt industry. This building was erected by Mr. 
vStewart and Simeon Spaulding just before 1850. 

Joseph M. Willey founded about the first manufacturing industry 
here, aside from salt, by making the small, round wooden boxes in 
which fine salt was formerly packed, and he did quite an extensive 
business in that line. He died in 1857, aged sixty-three years. Joseph 
Shepard, who died in (ieddes in June, 1867, at the age of eighty-eight 
years, came there about the year 1831. His son Joseph bought the 
stoneware pottery not far from 1855. This pottery was started some 
years earlier by William H. Farrar, for the manufacture of " red ware " 
from the clay found at Geddes. This was afterwards given up and 
gray ware made from clay brought from New Jersey by boat. The 
pottery was burned in a recent year. Oliver Barker located in Geddes 
about 1825 and kept a grocery in a building erected by Mr. Pardee, 
before alluded to. He lived to be more than ninety years old and died 
in November, 1888. 

In the spring of 1824 Robert Gere settled on a farm about one and a 
half miles west of Geddes village. His two brothers, William S. and 
Charles, also located there on adjoining farms. At a later date Robert 
Gere became an extensive manufacturer of salt and engaged largely in 
the lumber business. In 1835-36 he was a large contractor and asso- 
ciated with Elizur Clark in supplying ties for the railroads of the State. 
In 1843 he removed to Syracuse and associated himself with William 
H. Alexander and C. C. Bradley in the foundry and machine shop busi- 
ness. He was superintendent of the salt springs from 1848 to 1851 
and also filled other stations of honor and trust. With the late Horace 
White he founded the Geddes Coarse Salt Company, situated west of 
the village, of which he was president, and for many years he was 
widely engaged in active and prosperous business pursuits, and was in 
every sense a representative citizen. He died in 1887 at the age of 
eighty-one years. His sons, the Hon. R. Nelson Gere (deceased), George 



1044 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

C. Gere, Hon. W. H. H. Gere, and the late N. vStanton Gere, have all 
been prominently identified with the manufacturing- interests of Geddes, 
Syracuse, and other places. Robert Gere's only daughter is the wife 
of the Hon. J. J. Belden. 

For many years the Gere farm, the Geddes farm at " Fairmount " and 
the celebrated Smiths & Powell Stock Farm, on the lake shore, have 
been among the best in Onondaga county. The latter farm is on the 
lake shore a little west of the city line, and was established by William 
Brown Smith (deceased), and Edward A. Powell. Wing R. Smith and 
AV. Judson Smith are members of the firm, which has a large nursery 
interest, besides their heavy importation and breeding of Holstein and 
other blooded cattle, Percheron and other select breeds of horses and 
other stock. A post-office named " Lakeland " is maintained near the 
head quarters on the farm. 

Among other farmers of this town who have been prominent in the 
development of the rural districts should be mentioned John Cowan, 
James Knapp (father of P. Schuyler and Dr. J. Willis Knapp), Henry 
Jerome and his son James, Abraham Ward (former owner of land on 
which has been built the mansion of F. R. Hazard), Silas Babcock and 
his father, Robert Andrews, William Tanner, Hamlet Worker, Silas 
Corey, Horace Draper, Myron C. Darrow and his father, M. M. Arm- 
strong, Thomas Dean and others. 

Capt. John G. Terry was a Geddes pioneer who died in 1838. His 
fifth son was Griswold Terry, whose widow died in April, 1895, at the 
age of ninety-four 3^ears. Among their children are Guy Terry, who has 
been a siiccessful farmer and is still living; Mrs. James Geddes, and 
another daughter living in Michigan. 

Ferris Hubbell came to Geddes about 1827 and became somewhat 
conspicuous in the community. He was connected with the salt in- 
dustry and at a later date with other manufacturing interests of the 
place. He was father of Charles E, Hubbell, president of the Onon- 
daga Pottery Company. He died in Geddes in January, 1885. Charles 
Woolson was a resident of Geddes and father of Albina Woolson and 
of Gardner Woolson, who was a contractor. 

Benjamin Avery took up his residence at Geddes before 1830, and 
was engaged with Parley Howlett, of Howlett Hill, in buying and 
slaughtering cattle. His slaughter house stood on the bank of the 
canal and a large business was carried on. After the canal was opened 
Mr. Howlett established a packing house opposite the present weigh 



THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 1045 

lock and did a large business there. There are men living who re- 
member his hanging fresh hides on the rude fence then surrounding 
Fayette Park, but this was soon stopped by the authorities. Cyrus 
Avery was a son of Benjamin, and his daughter married Col. W. R. 
Chamberlin. The cattle and packing business was afterward carried 
on b}^ Alfred A. Howlett, son of Parley, on the site of the Sanderson 
steel works. 

Stephen W. vSmith who came to Geddes about 1S29, kept a tavern 
soon afterwards, just west of the iVIethodist church site. He died there 
in 1864. 

In 1831 Messrs. Piatt & Durkee built the large brick structure near 
the canal bridge, with pillars fronting the first story. This w-as in- 
tended for stores, but very little was done thfere in that line. Cyrus 
Thompson the founder of the so-called " Thompsonian " system of 
medicine, came to Geddes sometime before 1830 and began his busi- 
ness of manufacturing remedies. He afterwards bought the large 
building and used it as a sanitarium on his plan, and accumulated 
wealth. He died in the west, though his residence continued in Ged- 
des until his death. At the same time that this building was erected 
(1831) Jonas Mann had a large grist mill built where Genesee street 
crosses the canal, but his death put an end to the enterprise and the 
was mill never operated. 

C. T. Longstreet carried on a tailoring business in Geddes for about 
three years, beginning with 1832. Edwin R. Smith, born in Geddes in 
1819, learned his trade with Mr. Longstreet and followed that business 
down to recent years. 

The history of the school taught by Miss Root is obscure down to 
about 1825, at which time vSimeon vSpaulding was teaching in a brick 
building which had been erected a few years earlier on the corner of 
vSchool street and Lowell avenue. In 1846 a two- story brick structure 
was erected, which became and now is a part of the Porter school. The 
school takes its name from Dr. W. W. Porter, who was in charge of it 
one year (1851-52) and was an enthusiastic friend of education. Dr. 
Porter practiced medicine in Geddes from 1853 until near his death in 
1885. At the date of the annexation of part of Geddes village to Syr- 
acuse (1887) the town of Geddes was divided into three school districts. 

In the early history of Geddes village, burials were made in a lot 
which is now the Sackett Tract. In 1854 a beautifully situated tract 
on the highlands overlooking the village and the lake was secured and 
the cemetery established thereon. 



1046 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

The village of Geddes was incorporated by act of Legislature passed 
April 20, 1832. The first election of village officers was authorized to 
be held on the first Tuesday in June, 1832. All of the village records 
down to 1850 were destroyed by fire on the night of the 8th of Febru- 
ary, 1850; consequently no proceedings of the village authorities, or 
list of officers, can be given for the interval of eighteen years. Follow- 
ing is a list of trustees down to the time of its admission to the city, in 
February, 1887: 

Trustees. — 1850, Simeon Spaulding, Stephen W. Smith, Isaac R. Pharis, Albina 
Woolson; 1851, Daniel D. Smith, R. Nelson Gere, Edgar Vrooman, Daniel W. 
Coykendall, Albina Woolson ; 1852, Thomas Sammons, Joel F. Paige, Hiram Slade, 
Sullivan H. Morse, John Whiting; 1853, Joel F. Paige, Albina Woolson, Joseph 
Shepard, jr., Thomas Robinson, William W. Tripp; 1854, Elijah W. Curtis, Daniel 
Coykendall, Edgar Vrooman, William J. Sammons, John Y. Phares; 1855, Elijah 
W. Curtis, Daniel W. Coykendall, William J. Sammons, Mills P. Pharis, Wilham 
Boulian; 1856, Thomas Sammons, R. N. Gere, Isaac R. Pharis, Henry Duncan, 
Elijah W. Curtis; 1857, James W. Patten, A. Cadweh Balden, Henry Case, John D. 
Stanard, Henry Duncan; 1858, B. F. AVilley, E. R. Smith, William J. Sammons, Nor- 
man Vrooman, William W. Tripp; 1859, William H. Farrar, Burlingame Harris, 
R. N. Gere, Francis H. Nye, Ferris Hubbell; 1860, Francis H. Nye, R. Nelson Gere, 
Gardner Woolson, Harvey Stewart, Joel F. Paige; 1861, Joel F. Paige, R. Nelson 
Gere, Francis H. Nye, Gardner Woolson, Harvey Stewart; 1862, Joel F. Paige, 
Harvey Stewart, Francis H. Nye, R. Nelson Gere, Isaac R. Pharis. 1863, Joel F. 
Paige, Harvev Stewart, Stephen W. Smith, Perry C. Rude, Hiram Slade; 1864, 
Thomas Robinson, Mills P. Pharis, Richard G. Joy, W. H. H. Gere, William D. 
Coykendall; 1865, Thomas Robinson, Mills P. Pharis, Richard G. Joy, W. H. H. 
Gere, W. D. Coykendall; 1866, Samuel E. Barker, Harvey Stewart, Charles F. Gere, 
Gilbert Sweet, John Y. Phares. 

Under New Charter.— R. Nelson Gere, 1867; Mead Belden, 1867 to 1874 inclusive; 
Samuel E. Barker, 1867-68-69; Charles E. Pharis, 1868 to 1873 inclusive; Reuben C. 
Holmes, 1870 to 1875 inclusive ; Terrence E. Hogan, 1874 to 1877 inclusive ; Richard 
Tremain, 1875 to 1878 inclusive; George C. Gere, 1876 to 1884 inclusive; George A. 
Cool, 1878 to 1881 inclusive; A. M. Smart, 1879; Austin G. Ward, 1880; Henry C. 
Day, 1881-83; Barnard Wente, 1883-84-85; Philip Gooley, 1884-85-86; James C. 
Rann, 1885-86; Martin Lawler, 1886. 

The first town election in Geddes was held on the fourth Tuesday in 
March, 1848, when the following principal officers were chosen: 
Supervisor, Elijah W. Curtis; town clerk, Edward Vrooman; justices 
of the peace, George E. Teft, Henry G. Stiles, James H. Luther. 

Until after the war of 1861-65 Geddes still remained a small village, 
having a population of less than one thousand in 1868; but the impetus 
given to all kinds of manufacturing and business operations by the 
close of the war and the general feeling of confidence incident thereto, 



THE TOWN OF GEDDES. 1047 

with shipping and other advantages of the place, contributed to give it 
a very rapid growth. Its population had reached nearly 7,000 at the 
date of its annexation to the city (1886-7). Several large manufac- 
tures were founded, among them being the Onondaga Iron Company, 
the Onondaga Pottery Company, Sanderson Brothers Steel Company, 
the Syracuse Iron Works, the Sterling Iron Ore Company, and several 
small companies. Nearly all of these passed into the city limits and 
are elsewhere described. 

The annexation of Geddes and territory adjacent thereto was author- 
ized by an act of Legislature passed on the 17th of May, 1886, and 
embraced all within the following described boundaries: 

All that district of country being the territory of the village of Geddes and all 
that part of the town of Geddes in the county of Onondaga which lies east of the 
line described as follows : 

Beginning at the intersection of the south line of the town of Geddes and the 
west line of the highway known as the Geddes and Onondaga road; running thence 
northerly along the west line of said road to the south line of the village of Geddes ; 
thence westerly along the south line of said village and the Geddes Cemetery to the 
southwest corner of the cemetery; thence northerly along the west line of said 
cemetery to the northwest corner thereof; thence east along the north line of said 
cemetery to the west line of said village; thence northerly along the west line of 
said village and the continuation thereof so far as to intersect the west line of farm 
lot number 143; thence northerly along said west line to a point intersecting the con- 
tinuation westerly of the north line of Sixth North street to the west line of Quince 
street ; thence northerly along the west line of Quince street and the continuation- 
thereof to the intersection of the northerly line of farm lot number 54, and thence 
easterly along the north line of farm lot number 54 and the north line of reclaimed 
lot number 39 to the low water line on the southerly shore of Onondaga Lake. 

The building of the great works of the Solvay Process Company a 
little west of Geddes village in 1881-2, and their immense extension 
since that time, attracted around them an army of employees, many of 
whom desired to live nearer their labor. Dwellings began to be built, 
groceries and shops were opened and the nucleus of a village soon 
arose, in all of which the company evinced a deep and liberal interest. 
So rapidly grew the settlement that in 1893 measures were adopted for 
incorporation, which plan \v'as carried out and the first village election 
held May 15, 1894. Frederick R. Hazard was chosen president and is 
still in the office. The other first officers were William B. Boyd, Will- 
iam. Cross, James Matthews, trustees; M. C. Darrow, collector; C. O. 
Richards, treasurer and secretary. 

Solvay Union School embraces Districts 2 and 3, and a small part of 
District No. 1 is in the village. There are three school buildings in the 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1049 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 
THE ONONDAGA INDIANS AND THEIR RESERVATION.! 

The original Reservation of the Onondagas, as defined by a treaty 
made at Fort Stanwix on September 12, 1788, embraced parts of the 
towns of La Fayette, CamiHus, Geddes, and the city of Syracuse, and 
all of Onondaga. A second treaty signed November 18, 1793, ceded 
to the State the most of the town of Onondaga and all north thereof, 
leaving to the Indians not only their present Reservation and tracts on 
the east and south, but a narrow strip of land on the west bank of On- 
ondaga Creek extending southward from or nearly from the city limits. 
This strip was divided near the center by Webster's mile square, lying 
immediately southwest of Onondaga Hollow, and was purchased by the 
State by treaty dated July 28, 1795. On February 25, 1817, the Reser- 
vation was again reduced, the State purchasing twenty-seven lots, or 
about 4,000 acres, on the east side thereof, now included in the towns 
of La Fayette and Onondaga. At the same time Webster's 300 acres, 
lying within and just west of the center of the north edge of the pres- 
ent Reservation, and now owned by white settlers, were confirmed to 
Ephraim Webster and his heirs. The fourth and last reduction was 
made February 11, 1822, when the Indians sold to the State 800 acres 
of their land from the south end of the Reservation and now in the town 
of La Fayette, leaving their once extensive possessions with an area of 
0,100 acres. These various treaties are fully mentioned on pages 172- 
179. 

On February 28, 1829, a treaty made at Albany provided for the 
payment of all annuities at Onondaga, part having hitherto been paid 
at Canandaigua. The Onondagas now receive from the State of New 
York money and goods to the value of $2,430 annually. Probably 

' Chapters III to XVI, inclusive, of the present work, embrace extended accounts of the pow- 
erful Iroquois Confederacy, and of the various nations and tribes which made up that organiza- 
tion. In this chapter it is designed merely to preserve in brief the traditions, customs, laws, sta- 
tistics, and notable events relating purely to the Onondagas and their Reservation from their 
settlement in the valley of Onondaga to the present time. 
132 



lOoO ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

more than this sum, or its equivalent, is every year distributed among 
the dusky inhabitants of the Reservation, where each of the Six Nations 
of the Iroquois League is represented. 

The origin of the Onondagas as well as that of the Iroquois is envel- 
oped in tradition. According to David Cusick i a legend which was cur- 
rent among all the tribes ran thus: 

The holder of the Heavens took the Indians out of a hill near Oswego Falls, and 
led them to and down the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers to the sea. There they be- 
came scattered ; but their great leader brought six families back to the junction of 
the Hudson and Mohawk, and then proceeding westerly He planted the Five Nations, 
the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas, by leaving a family at 
the location of each, giving them names, and slightly changing the language of 
each. With the sixth family He proceeded on between mid-day and sun-set, to the 
Mississippi River, which part of them crossed upon a grape vine, but the vine break- 
ing those on this side traveled easterly to the neighborhood of the ocean, and set- 
tled upon the Neuse River, in North Carolina. This last was the Tuscarora tribe. 

Continuing the same author says: 

About one hundred winters since the people left the mountains, — the five families 
were increased and made some villages in the country. The Holder of the Heavens 
was absent from the country, which was destitute of the visits of the Governor of the 
Universe. The reason produced the occasion that they were invaded by the mon. 
sters called Ko-nea-rau-neh-neh (Flying Heads), which devoured several people of 
the country. The Flying Heads made invasions in the night; but the people were 
attentive to escape by leaving their huts and concealing themselves in other huts 
prepared for the purpose. An instance: — There was an old woman who resided at 
Onondaga ; she was left alone in the hut at evening, while others deserted. She 
was setting near the fire parching some acorns when the monstrous Head made its 
appearance at the door ; while viewing the woman it was amazed that she eat the 
coals of fire, by which the monsters were put to flight, and ever since the Heads dis- 
appeared and were supposed concealed in the earth. After a short time the people 
were invaded by the monster of the deep ; the Lake Serpent traverses the country, 
which interrupted their intercourse. The five families were compelled to make forti- 
fications throughout their respective towns, in order to secure themselves from the 
devouring monsters. 

Cusick mythically narrates other interesting stories of the Stonish 
Giants, who invaded the Onondaga fort, devouring the people in every 
town; of Atotarho, the hostile chief, who resided there, his head and 
body ornamented with black snakes, his dishes and spoons made of 

' David Cusick, auUior of " Sketche.s of Ancient History of the Six Nation.s," wa.s the son of 
Nicholas Cusick, a Tuscarora, who died near Lewiston, N. Y., in 1840, at the age of about eighty- 
two. David's death occurred a few years later. He possessed a fair education and was esteemed 
a good doctor. His History passed through three editions, dated repectively 1826, 1828, and 1848. 
His brother James became a Baptist minister and a noted man, published a collection of Indian 
hymns, and died in Canada. Albert Cusick is a grandson of James. 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 10r,l 

enemies' skulls; of the tree of peace reaching to the clouds of Heaven, 
which was planted at Onondaga, and under which the council fire was 
kindled and the chiefs deliberated and smoked the pipe of peace, all of 
which gave the Onondagas supremacy as the center of government ; of 
the invasion of their fort by a great mosquito, which was pursued 
and killed by the Holder of the Heavens near the salt lake Onondaga,! 
the blood becoming small mosquitoes; of the founding of witchcraft by 
the Nanticokes and the burning of fifty witches near the Onondaga fort. 
At a period of perhaps 300 years before Columbus discovered America 
Cucick credits the Onondagas with 4,000 warriors. 

Another theory, one upon which more reliance can be placed, is that 
the Iroquois, as a family, developed in Canada, having with the Hurons 
their center of population at or near Niagara River, whence the various 
tribes migrated east and west, and settled. But this migration left the 
Onondagas in Jefferson county, N. Y., and early tradition points to the 
southwest corner of that territory as the probable place of their origin. 
They evidently came south, however, about the year 1600, for in 1615 
Champlain attacked their fort in Fenner, Madison county (see p. 42). 
During the remainder of the seventeenth century they had their vil- 
lages in the town of Pompey, or adjacent territory, and at a point 
about one m.ile south of Jamesville, on lot 3, La Fayette, they burned 
their fort when the French came against them in 1696. This is the 
town described by Wentworth Greenhalgh in 1677, as follows: 

The Onondagoes have but one town, but it is very large; consisting of about 140 
houses not fenced ; it is situate upon a hill that is very large, the bank on each side 
extending itself at least two miles, cleared land, whereon the corn is planted. They 
have likewise a small village about two miles beyond that, consisting of about 24 
houses. They lye to the southward of the west, about 36 miles from the Oneydas. 
They plant abundance of corn which they sell to the Oneydas. The Onondagoes 
are said to be about 350 fighting men. They lye about 15 miles from Teshiroque 
[Oneida Lake]. 

Soon after the destruction of their town, or about 1700, the Onon- 
dagas located in Onondaga Valley, just southwest of the present village 
of that name, and there on Webster's mile square, west of the creek, 
Sir William Johnson built a fort for them in 1756. It was this Indian 
village that John Bartram visited and described in 1743, as follows: 

The town in its present state, is about 2 or 3 miles long, yet the scattered cabins on 
both sides the water are not above 40 in number; many of them hold two families, 

' The Great Mosquito, Kah-ye-yah-ta-ne-go-na, was killed, it is claimed, at Centerville, which 
is still called Kah-yah-tak-ne-t'ke-tali-keh, "where the mosquito lies." 



1052 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

but all stand single, and rarely above 4 or 5 near one another; so that the whole 
town is a strange mixture of cabins, interspersed with great patches of grass, bushes, 
and shrubs, some of pease, corn, and squashes, limestone bottom composed of fossils 
and sea shells. 

Bartram continites with a description of their council house, which 
is reprinted on p. 103, and then gives his first night's experience therein, 
as follows: 

At night, soon after we were laid down to sleep, and our fire almost burnt out, we 
were entertained by a comical fellow, disguised in as odd a dress as Indian folly 
could invent; he had on a clumsy vizard of wood colour'd black, with a nose 4 or 5 
inches long, a grinning mouth set awry, furnished with long teeth, round the eyes 
circles of bright brass, surrounded by a larger circle of white paint, from his fore- 
head hung long tresses of buffaloes hair, and from the catch part of his head ropes 
made of the plated husks of Indian corn ; I cannot recollect the whole of his dress, 
but that it was equally uncouth: he carried in one hand a long staff, in the other a 
calabash with small stones in it, for a rattle, and this he rubbed up and down his 
staff"; he would sometimes hold up his head and make a hideous noise like the bray- 
ing of an ass ; he came in at the further end, and made this noise at first, whether it 
was because he would not surprise us too suddenly I can't say; I ask'd Conrad 
Weiser, who as well as myself lay next the alley, what noise that was? and Shicka- 
lamy, the Indian chief, our companion, who I supposed, thought me somewhat 
scared, called out lye still John. I never heard him speak so much English before. 
The jackpudding presently came up to us, and an Indian boy came with him and 
kindled our fire, that we might see his glittering eyes and an tick postures as he hob- 
bled round the fire, sometimes he would turn the Buffaloes hair on one side that we 
might take the better view of his ill-favored phyz, when he had tired himself, which 
was sometime after he had well tired us, the boy that attended him struck 2 or 3 
smart blows on the floor, at which the hobgoblin seemed surprised and on repeating 
them he jumped fairly out of doors and disappeared. I suppose this was to divert 
us and get some tobacco for himself, for as he danced about he would hold out his 
hand to any he came by to receive his gratification which as often as any one gave 
him he would return an awkward compliment. By this I found it no new diversion 
to any one but myself. In my whim I saw a vizard of this kmd hang bj^ the side of 
one of their cabins in another town. After this farce we endeavoured to compose 
ourselves to sleep but towards morning was again disturbed by a drunken Squaw 
coming into the cabin frequently complimenting us and singing. 

In April, 1779, Colonel Van Schaick, in command of 150 men, in- 
vaded the Onondaga country, burned this village and council house, 
and drove the Indians from the vicinity ; but only temporarily. Soon 
afterward they moved a little farther south and settled in the pictur- 
esque valley of their present Reservation, where they have lived in 
peace and security for upwards of one hundred years. Here they built 
a council house, the successor of which, rebuilt about 1875, is familiar 
to many visitors to that interesting settlement. Just west of it is a 



I 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1053 

small council house which formerly stood across the road, north of the 
long structure, on or near the spot where now rests the remains of 
Ka-ny-tie-you, one of the founders of the Pagan religion. 

This Reservation, topographically, is one of the most picturesque 
sections of the county. Broken into lofty hills and fertile valleys it 
abounds in varying and attractive scenery, and presents to the scientist 
and farmer a variety of interesting characteristics. More than 1,000 
acres are ston}' and mountainous, and afford little of value except a 
poor grade of pasturage, but nearly all the remainder is either well 
adapted to agricultural purposes or covered with good and sufficient 
timber for fencing, fuel, etc. Unfailing springs of pure water abound, 
especially on the hills. The bottom lands are very fertile, and are 
quite generally cut up into small farms, most of which are cultivated 
by the Indians. Corn, potatoes, vegetables, and small quanties of 
grain are raised, while both small and large fruit, particularly straw- 
berries, are produced with profit. The majority of the farms, however, 
produce but little more than is needed for home consumption. It is 
only within the last quarter-century that the Indians have noticeably 
thrown off the stoical habits and customs of their forefathers and 
adopted, though even in a n:de manner, the elevating methods of 
modern civilization. A number of their ancient traditions, observances, 
and tribal associations are still quite as strong and active as in the 
happy hunting days of old, but the examples and efforts of the whites, 
combined with the progressive influence of a few local enthusiasts, are 
slowly but surely introducing a new spirit of competition in agriculture. 

The Onondaga Creek flows northerly and northeasterly through the 
principal valley of the Reservation, and receives in its course four trib- 
utaries. These streams afford excellent drainage. The main road, 
running along the east side of the valley from Syracuse, enters the 
northeast corner of the Reservation at Onondaga Castle post-office, 
sometimes called the "entrance gate," and runs thence southwesterly 
through the tract to Cardiff, with a thoroughfare branching off above 
the council house to South Onondaga. Near this principal highway, 
on land of Solomon George, stands the somewhat celebrated six-bodied 
elm. The north entrance to the Reservation is about five miles south 
of the southern limits of Syracuse. 

The Onondagas have always held the proud distinction of the prin- 
cipal tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy. In 1810 they numbered on 
this territory about 200 souls. At that period every or nearly every 



1054 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

tribe of the League was represented among the inhabitants, and this 
condition exists at the present time. According to Spafford's Gazetteer 
of 182-t the present village, in which the council house is located, 
known as Onondaga Castle, contained "about fifty Indian houses on a 
street near a mile in length, and about 150 souls — fifty less than ten 
years ago. Their houses are built of hewn logs, the spaces filled with 
masoned mortar- work, and are comfortable enough — quite comfortable 
enough for Ijidians, though they would not do for our Christian mis- 
sionaries at the Sandwich Islands, in wSouth Africa, and the Lord knows 
where!" The total strength of the Onondagas at that time was about 
500, of which some 350 lived at Buffalo Creek, Allegan)^, and Upper 
Canada; in 1835 the tribe on this Reservation had dwindled to about 
100 souls. In 1860 there were on the Reservation fifteen frame houses, 
twelve frame barns, eighteen horse teams, and one yoke of oxen. Very 
few of the Indians talked in English, and many of them dressed after 
the fashion of their race — the women in short skirts, with beaded leg- 
gings, short over-dresses of various colors, silver earrings, and 
brooches and other ornaments around their neck. The population 
numbered about 350, of which thirty-eight were Christians. A school 
house in very poor condition and poorly kept stood just south of the 
present M. E, parsonage. The chiefs were strongly opposed to the 
children attending it, and were equally strong in their opposition to 
Christianity, which accounts for the large number of Pagans. At this 
time the influences of civilization were beginning to be felt. 

The Reservation now (1896) contains seventy frame houses, twent)^- 
six frame barns, twenty-six horse teams, eleven single horses, seven 
yoke of oxen, from thfee to five grocery stores, one blacksmith, two 
shoemakers, several carpenters, two ministers, and about 495 inhabitants, 
more than one-half of whom are Christians. Paganism is rapidly pass- 
ing away under the influences of the excellent State school and the 
three churches. The chiefs, although mostly Pagans themselves, take 
great interest in the education of the children and aid as far as 
consistent with their office in advancing thecaiise of Christianity. The 
English language is used almost entirely, the 5'ounger element using it 
exclusively. 

From the arrival of Father Le Moyne in 1654 to the present time 
(189C) the Onondagas have been visited by zealous and conscientious 
missionaries, whose early efforts to Christianize these dusky natives are 
fully detailed in preceding chapters. But the Indians held tenaciously 



I 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1055 

to their Pagan doctrines until the latter part of the eighteenth century. 
During the early years of this century Bishop Hobart exerted a power- 
ful influence among both the Oneidas and Onondagas, administering 
confirmation to more than 500, while over 1,000 were baptized by min- 
isters of the church. Rev. Eleazer Williams was one of the early mis- 
sionaries here, visiting the Reservation first in 1816, when he was 
hurried to the council house that the Indians might "hear the words of 
Him who dwells in the heavens." At this time they were mainly 
Pagans, earnest disciples of the Peace Prophet, but had learned a little 
about Christianity from Rev. Samuel Kirkland. "Father" Ezekiel G.^ 
Gear, of Onondaga Hill, was also an active and useful missionary, be- 
ginning about 1817, and once, on a raised platform at their village, he 
baptized several Indians and publicly received some others who had 
renounced Romanism. Among the converts from Paganism was Abram 
La Forte, who was long a faithful communicant, but ambition and 
isolation proved too much for his principles, and he relapsed. After 
many years of Pagan leadership he finally reverted to Christianity, and 
died at the Castle in October, 1848, aged fifty-four. He was well edu- 
cated, finishing at Geneva Academy, and first taught a school on the 
Reservation with considerable success for about three years. Later he 
became the acknowledged leader of the Pagan party, opposed the 
Christian religion and schools, and bore a conspicuous part in councils 
and as master at sacrificial rites. Known as De-hat-ka-tons, he was a 
son of Captain La Forte, or Ho-ha-'hoa qua, a noted Onondaga chief 
who fell at Chippewa in 1814, and was the father of Daniel La Forte, 
now principal chief, and of Thomas, a Wesleyan missionary. 

The Episcopal mission among the Onondagas was thus established 
by Bishop Hobart in 1816, and Revs. Clarke, Williams, and Gear offi- 
ciated for many years. In 1829 the Methodists appointed exhorters to 
visit the Reservation, and their missions have been continued ever since 
with varying success. In vSeptember, 1867, Rev. George Morgan Hills, ^ 
of Syracuse, came among the Indians, and with Bishop A. Cleveland 

1 A few days before Christmas, soon after beginning his visits, Rev. j\Ir. Hills received the 
following letter, which is self-explanatory': 
"Rev. George Morgan Hills 

"I want you come down Christmas Day I want you baptize to little children Philip 
Jones her son and her girls four he got baptize that day and Another Wilson Reuben her girl and 
My little girl that be six children he wants you baptize Christmas day 

"from Yours Truly 

•'Daniel La Forte 

"Onondaga Castle." 



1056 - ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Coxe re established the Episcopal mission and procured a chapel, which 
was consecrated September 37, 1870. A mission house w^as also built 
and a school instituted, and soon afterward Rev. J. P. Foster became 
the missionary in charge. Their present church, known as the Church 
of the Good Shepherd, was originally built by the Wesleyans, who re- 
organized their mission about 1893 and two years later erected an edi- 
fice. Their minister is Rev. Thomas La Forte, a brother of Daniel, 
the principal chief. The Episcopal minister is Albert Cusick, who was 
ordained as deacon by Bishop Huntington on October 1, 1891. He is 
know-n in his tribe as Sa-go-na-qua-ten, " he who makes everybody 
mad," and belongs to the Eel clan. He was born in Niagara county in 
1848, came to Onondaga county in 1860, and two years later became a 
warrior chief of the Six Nations. He was subsequently made principal 
chief, but very soon adopted the teachings of Christianity, and at his bap- 
tism and confirmation by Bishop Huntington renounced all his tribal 
honors. He is a fluent English scholar, the recognized historian of 
his tribe, and active in promoting education, religion, temperance, and 
morality among his people. 

Half a century ago the Methodists had the only church or chapel on the 
Reservation. This building was remodeled about 1885 and is still 
standing. The church is under the Central New York M. E. Confer- 
ence. The Indians, with few^ exceptions, have never had the same in- 
herent attachment for church membership which characterizes the 
whites, but often vacillate between the different societies as personal 
preferences dictate. On this account one body is first strong and then 
weak according to its popularity. 

The old school building previously mentioned was finally moved 
across the road and is now the house of Samuel G. Isaacs. The pres- 
ent structure, located also at the Castle, on the west side of the road, 
was erected by the State about 1887 at a cost of $500. During school 
months it has a daily attendance of twelve to thirty-five children, 
according to disposition and the weather. 

Drunkenness among Indians is too well known to require more 
than brief mention here. With the white man came liberal quan- 
tities of "fire water," which performed its work of demoralization 
and not infrequently destroyed the results of missionary effort. Both 
warriors and squaws, and even young children, developed an insatiable 
desire for rum and whisky, and unscrupulous whites generously ap- 
peased their thirst. And here allusion may be made to Handsome 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1057 

Lake, or Contatauyou, the Peace Prophet, a Seneca sachem of the 
Turtle tribe and half-brother of Cornplanter, who was born near Avon 
about 1735 and died at Onondaga in 1815. About the year 1800, after 
a dissipated life, he claimed to have had dreams or visions, through 
which he was commissioned by the Great Spirit to come to the rescue 
of his people. His first efforts were to eradicate intemperance. With 
his teachings, which were termed the " New Religion," he mingled the 
fancies of his dreams, claiming that he had seen the branching paths 
which departed spirits trod on leaving the earth. " To a drunkard was 
given a red-hot liquid to drink, as if he loved it, and as a stream of 
blaze poured from his mouth he was commanded to sing as when on 
earth after drinking fire-water," "A woman who sold fire-water was 
nothing but bones, for the flesh had been eaten from her hands and 
arms. " These and other principles upon which his teachings were 
founded wrought for Handsome Lake and his successor, Sasehaw'a, a 
deep place in the confidence of the old Pagan part3^ Soon after his 
death the Iroquois Temperance League was formed among the Six 
Nations, the organization taking place on the Tuscarora Reservation 
in Niagara county. Since then the League has held annual meetings, 
made up of representatives and others from various subordinate lodges 
on the different Reservations. The Onondagas, as a resident nation, 
were not represented until about 1891, when the Onondaga Temper- 
ance Society, which had been organized some two years before, was 
admitted. This local society meets every two weeks, has abovit seventy- 
five members, and under the Irocpiois League offers sick, accident, and 
death beneficiaries. Besides this the Onondagas take con.siderable in- 
terest in Ka-no-sue-nee (Long House) Lodge, No. 777, L O. G. T., 
which was organized November 2, 1877, and which has since main- 
tained a flourishing existence. Its oldest charter member in continuous 
good standing is Albert Cusick, the first marshal and the present lodge 
deputy. Among other prominent members, past and present, are Rev. 
Welcome Smith, Elizabeth and Jacob A. Scanandoah, Josiah Jacobs, 
Christ John Smith, and Elizabeth Thomas. These two organizations 
have performed noble work in eradicating intemperance and building 
up morals among the Indians. The combined membership is over 100, 
and the consumption of whisky, lager, hard cider, and other intoxi- 
cating liquors is less by nearly one-half than twenty years ago. 

Perhaps the best known organization among the Indians is the On- 
ondaga Indian Band, which was formed in 1862, and which has taken 

133 



1058 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



a prominent part in many gatherings throughout Central New York, 
and especially in Syracuse, including the memorable Centennial cele- 
bration in June, 1894. Albert Cusick, the present secretary, has been 
continuously a member of the band, being for a time its leader. The 
Onondagas also have a sportsmen's club, which has materially aided in 
preserving the game and fish on their Reservation. 

Among the leading 
Indian farmers are Dan- 
iel La Forte, Jacob A. 
and Simon Scanandoah, 
Jaris Pierce, Orris 
Farmer, Charles Green, 
Wilson Johnson, Isaac 
Powless, Wilson Reu- 
ben, Joshua Pierce, Mrs. 
Avis Hill, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Thomas, Josiah 
Jacobs, Elizabeth Scan- 
andoah, John Loft, Mrs. 
Holly Hill and son Hol- 
ly, jr., Thomas John, 
Baptiste and Eddy 
Thomas, John Green, 
Abram Printup, Hiram 
and Joshua Jones. David 
Jacobs, Sidney Isaacs, 
Lewis Thomas, Moses 
vSmith, Frank Logan, 
Augustus Brown, Geo. 
Venevera, Melissa Peck- 
man, Mrs. Emily Hill, 
Peter Elm, Lewis Cook, 
Albert Cusick. Of these 
Wilson Reuben, Daniel La Forte, and Orris Farmer are among the 
wealthiest and most prosperous men on the Reservation. The former 
''inherited " the farm of his "Aunt Cynthia," who was a shrewd political 
manager and financier, and who died at the age of ninety years. About 
2,525 acres of land on the Reservation are cultivated. 

Ownership of land, though not recorded after the manner of the 




Daniel La Forte. 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1059 

whites, is acquired by verbal barg'ains accompanied by payment, and 
such agreements are respected. No papers ever pass between the con- 
tracting parties. Many of the farms and other lands are leased to 
white people for a cash rental or upon shares. This is particularly 
true of the valuable limestone quarries lying on the east side of the 
Reservation, a little west of the road to La Fayette, where as 
many as six derricks have been worked, paying to the nation annually 
$100 each. Successful agricultural fairs have been held on the Reserva- 
tion for several years, particularly about 1871. 

The Onondagas, in proportion to their population, played a con- 
spicuous part in both the war of 1812 and the war of the Rebellion. 
In the former 300 of their warriors participated under Ephraim 
Webster, the pioneer, their interpreter, and Indian agent. The enumer- 
ation of 1890 shows that at least sixteen Onondaga Indians served in 
the Rebellion, viz. : Charles Lyon, Peter Elm, Josiah Jacobs, Jacob 
Scanandoah, Hewett Jacobs, Samuel G. Isaacs, Henry Powless, Wilson 
Jacobs, Joseph Green, Thomas John, Martin Powless, Peter Johnson, 
Alexander Sullivan, William Martin, Eli Farmer, and Moses Jordan. 
It is quite certain that more than this number entered the service. 
Some enlisted under assumed names, and hence it is impossible to pre- 
pare a complete list. 

Every person belonging to the nation has two names, one by which 
he or she is commonly known, the other representing their Indian 
nativity. Besides these the chiefs and officers of the tribe have a third, 
which designates their rank or official position. The names of the 
Onondaga principal chiefs are Tah-too-ta-hoo (entangled), Ho-ne-sa-ha 
(the best soil uppermost), De-hat-ka-tons (looking all over), O-ya-ta-je- 
wak (bitter in the throat), Ah-we-ke-yat (end of the water), Te-hah- 
yut-kwa-ye (red on the wing), Ho-no-we-eh-to (he has disappeared), 
Ga-wen-ne-sen-ton (her voice scattered), Ha-he-ho (spilling now and 
then), Ho-neo-nea-ne (something" was made for him and laid down before 
him), Sah-de-gwa-se (he is bruised), Sa ko-ke-he (he may see them), 
Hoo-sah-ha-ho (wearing a weapon in his belt), Ska-nah-wah-ti (over the 
water), and Te-ka-ha-hoonk (he looks both ways) — fifteen in all These 
principal chiefs have or may have each a warrior chief, whose duty it 
is to obey his superior in all matters of government. A principal chief 
ma}^ call a council, and can order his subordinate to notify all the other 
chiefs for this purpose. He accedes to his office by election, has a seat 
in the Grand Council of the Iroquois, and can not be removed. At his 



ioeo 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



death the council fire is extinguished, and business is suspended until 
after condolement. The ceremony of condolence consists of lamenta- 
tions, chanting, speech-making, and a feast. "Until the new chief is 
raised the horns of his predecessor are said to rest on his grave." The 
right of inheritance is through the mother; her children can claim 
only the privileges afforded by the nation to which she belonged. 

Marriages in the same 
clans were formerly but 
not now forbidden. Bur- 
ial customs have often 
changed. Until recent- 
ly the Onondagas main- 
tained clan burials in 
rows, and hence a hus- 
band and wife were not 
buried together. Usu- 
ally some ornaments or 
trinkets belonging to 
the deceased are in- 
terred with the body, but 
otherwise the funeral 
ceremony is much like 
that of a white person. 
Formerly a dead feast 
was given by the women 
ten days after the burial, 
a kernel of corn accom- 
pan34ng the invitations, 
and only one man being 
invited as speechmaker. 
Pails of provisions were 
passed around, one be- 
ing given to each per- 
son present, and a dish was set on the table for the deceased; out of 
the latter all partook in common. 

The Onondagas still pound much of their corn — a soft white variety 
which they esteem highly — in wooden mortars about two feet high, 
using a wooden pestle four feet long with a handle in the middle. For 
bread the meal thus produced is mixed with beans. They are quite 




Thomas Webster. 



THE ONONDAGA IXDIANS. J061 

ingenious in wood work, and make bows, arrows, snow-snakes, baskets, 
etc. Their wampum, it is said, was orig-inally made of pieces of wood 
stained black or white. The invention is ascribed to Hiawatha, who 
gathered white shells and called down a wampum bird for the purpose. 
Thomas Webster, the Onondaga keeper of the wampum, gives the tra- 
dition thus: "There is a tree set in the ground, and it touches the 
heavens. Under that tree sits this Wampum. It sits on a log. Coals 
of fire [council fire] is unquenchable, and the vSix Nations are at the 
council fire held by the tribe. Tah-too-ta-hoo, a member of the Bear 
clan, is the great chief here. He has a descendant in our tribe to-day. 
His name is Frank Logan. One of the uses of the wampum is for a 
symbol in the election of officers. The wampum bearer keeps the 
treaties of the nation." Frank Logan belongs to the Eel clan and is a 
Cherokee descendant. Thomas Webster is of the Snipe clan; he is a 
consistent, thorough Pagan, and interpreter to the Onondagas, who re- 
•tain the custody of the wampums of the Five Nations. There are 
eleven of these historic wampums, each fraught with traditional story 
of persons and events. 

Among the Onondagas feasts, sacrifices, and dreams formerly held 
an important place in their tribal ceremonies, and although a number 
of these ancient practices are still observed many have passed, wholly 
into oblivion. The Dream feast occurred in January or February and 
intensified all the follies of the ordinary dream. The False Faces, 
described by John Bartram, form a sort of secret society and are still a 
prominent body. Green Lake, west of Jamesville, was the reputed 
ancient resort for their greatest mysteries. Fairies seldom appeared, 
but a precipitous bank of bowlder clay in the ravine east of the Castle 
is regarded as their favorite sliding place. In some of the feasts there 
is a dance for the Thunders, to whom tobacco is offered in drv seasons 
to relieve drouth. He-no, the Thunder, figures in several Iroquois 
stories. The Maple dance, called Heh-teis-ha-stone-tas (putting in 
syrup), has ceased, owing to the absence of maple syrup. 

The sacrifice of the White Dog in point of time corresponds to and 
takes the place of the old Dream feast, and even retains some of its 
features. It is the most important of all the Pagan usages. The 
white dog is now seldom burned among the Onondagas. It is an an- 
cient custom whereby the sins of the people are supposed to be gath- 
ered by the chiefs, who by some vicarious mystery lay them upon the 
head of a perfectly white dog, without spot or blemish, and organically 



1062 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



sound. A single black hair would destroy the efficacy of the victim. 
The dog is strangled ; not a drop of blood is shed ; it is then fancifully 
painted and carried into the council house. In the afternoon the sacri- 
ficial ceremonies commence. The accompanying engraving represents 
the sacrifice which occurred at Onondaga Castle on January 18, 1872, 
when Captain George was the great chief, arrayed in all the splendor of 
his office, standing in the foreground. 



V..*^ !"■' 



: \2'' 



'*%^■ 



e r^- 






Sacrifice of the White Dog, Jan. 18, 1872, Cai'tain George, High Priest. 

The feast, when fully carried out, lasts fourteen days, the first three 
being devoted to religious services and the confession of sins. Then 
follow three days of gambling, on the last of which the False Faces 
visit houses and poke in the ashes ; on the seventh and eighth days the 
False Faces come to the council house in a body. These are known as 
medicine men, and their function at this time is to go through the 
ceremony of chasing out witches and devils. On the ninth day, called 
Koon-wah-yah-tun-was (they are burning dog), the white dog, now 
strangled and painted, is carried out and burned on a pile of fagots. 
This proceeding is best described by the following extract from a con- 
temporary periodical : 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1063 

Captain George, who, as head chief of the nation, acted as high priest, entered the 
council house and proceeded to array himself in a white tunic, the sleeves of which 
were bound up with white ribbons. He then girded himself with a belt of beads, 
and placed upon his head an adornment that might excite the admiration of the most 
fashionable of milliners — it was so light and feathery. Taking his seat in the center 
of the room, he waited in solemn silence for a long time. At length the solemn 
moment arrived, and so impressive were the proceedings that the only white men 
permitted to be present felt them.selves compelled to uncover their heads and cease 
their labors. Rising slowl}' and majestically, bearing a long white wand in his right 
hand. Captain George commenced a chant in the Onondaga language; passing 
slowly around the typical dog from his position at the east he proceeded to the south, 
west, and north, and then returned to his former position, where he consulted with 
one of the chiefs. This proceeding was repeated three times; and then, as if he had 
gathered all the sins of the people, he approached the dog and uttered a pathetic 
lament. After this the body of the victim, which was laid upon a rough bier, was 
gently lifted up and borne to the place of sacrifice by the hands of the chiefs of the 
nation. The high priest then, standing at the east side of the altar of sacrifice, 
solemnly committed the victim to the flames. The sacrifice was completed ; the 
atonement made. 

The sins of the people were expiated, and general joy was mani- 
fested by the firing of guns and mutual congratulations. Formerly 
two white dogs were burned, but now only one is sacrificed. When 
the full ceremony is carried out the tenth day is given up to dancing 
by the children, who with adopted persons are nained ; the eleventh is 
for the dance for the Four Persons, Ki-yae-ne-ung-qua-ta-ka; on the 
twelfth are held dances for the Holder of the Heavens, and on the 
thirteenth occurs the dance for the Thunders. The next morning the 
men and women take opposite sides in gambling, and if the men win 
it will be a good season. Between seven and ten days later the False 
Faces search houses, receive gifts, and dance at the council house. 

This feast was formerly attended with ceremonies of the most inde- 
cent character, but within recent years it has been shorn of its exces- 
sively objectionable features and materially shortened in the period of 
its observance. Even many of the rites previously mentioned have 
been dropped. Since the celebration of 1872 but few burnings of the 
white dog have occurred at the Reservation. The last one, and the 
only one of the kind in several years, took place on January 18, 1896. 
New Year's dances, however, are still continued annually. 

The Planting dance, Ne-ya-yent-wha-hunkt, occurs just before plant- 
ing time in April, and is thought to invoke the aid of the Great Spirit 
in conferring a favorable spring. Next comes the Strawberry feast or 
dance, Hoon-tah-yus (putting in strawberries), which procures more 



1064 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

berries. The Green Bean dance, Ta-yun-tah-ta-t'kwe-t'ka-hunkt 
(breaking the belhes), has as its idea the protruding of beans in the 
pod. Then comes the dance of the Green Corn, T'unt-kwa-hank cha 
ne-kah-neh host ha, with which many white people are familiar. This 
takes place in September of each year; it is attended by the usual fun 
and dancing, and more than any other Indian feast of to- day is wit- 
nessed by scores of visitors. The last is the dance for the Harvest, 
T'unt-kwa-hank cha ne-unt-hent-tees-ah-hunk (all is finished), which 
is celebrated after the crops have been harvested. 

The war dance, death dance, and other kindred ceremonies have 
largely or wholly disappeared, except as they are incorporated with or 
form a part of the feasts and observances previously mentioned. 
Witches, too, afe no longer known, although as late as 1803 four 
women were accused of witchcraft: one confessed and repented, and 
burned her "implements" of incantation; the other three were toma- 
hawked on a hill east of the Castle and buried among the rocks. 

Brief mention may be made at this point of the distinguished Onon- 
daga chiefs. Uekanissora, prince of Indian orators and diplomatists, 
flourished from about 1680 to 1730. He is supposed to have followed 
Garungula, the Nestor of the Five Nations. One of their contempor- 
aries was Kanahjeagah (Black Kettle). Canassetago figures promi- 
nently in the transactions of the League from 1734 to 1783. Oundiaga 
was the first war chief of the Onondagas during the Revolution, car- 
ried mail between Onondaga and Oswego about 1807, and died near 
Oneida in 1839, aged ninety-one. Kawhicdota was his contemporary, 
and the father of Ohhenu (Captain Honnos). Contatauyou (Hand- 
some Lake) has been noticed, as has also Ossahinta (Captain Frost), 
whose portrait appears on page 182. Among the latter's associates 
were Ohkaayungk (Onondaga Peter), Kahayent (Captain Joseph), Og- 
hatakak (Captain Joseph, 2d), Dehatkatons (Abram La Forte), and 
Uthawah (Captain Cold), the latter for many years keeper of the coun- 
cil fire of the Six Nations, at Tonawanda, where he died in the autumn 
of 1847, when this sacred symbol was restored to its ancient hearth at 
Onondaga, to the-keeping of Dehatkatons. 

Ossahinta belonged to the Turtle tribe, and at the time of his death, 
which occurred at Onondaga Castle on January 24, 1846, at the age of 
eighty-six, was supposed to be the only person among the Iroquois 
who perfectly understood their policy of government, the forms of or- 
ganizing their councils, and the usages of their Pagan rites. The nation 




Photo, by Ryder in 1865, 
134 



Captain George. 
Plate Loaned by the H. J. Ormsbee Engraving Company. 



1066 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

conferred upon him the honorary title of war captain. He wielded a 
powerful influence, was strictly temperate, and enjoyed universal re- 
spect and confidence. He was buried in the Indian cemetery at the 
Castle. 

The Onondagas have from time immemorial furnished the "king " 
(Tahtootahoo) of the Confederacy, who has usually resided on their 
Reservation. Ossahinta (Captain Frost) held this distinguished office 
for many years, and was succeeded by Abram La Forte, who was fol- 
lowed by Captain George, who married the latter's widow. 

Captain Samuel George was the last of an illustrious line of 
chiefs, and held tenaciously to the faith of his fathers, which was 
Paganism. He served with the Americans in the war of 1812, and 
on one .occasion, without rest or sleep, ran 150 miles to' bring an 
important message to the American army. He was emphatically 
the leader of his race, enjoying not only their confidence, but also the 
respect and esteem of the whites. His word was law ; his utterances 
were unquestioned. He was leading war chief (Zi-wynk-to-ko-noe) of 
the Onondagas from the death of Captain Cold in 1847 until his death ; 
and for more than twenty years he served also as head chief (Ha-no- 
we-ye-ach-te) of the Six Nations. Under him the tribe made good 
progress toward civilization. He died at his home about a quarter of a 
mile from the council house on the evening of September 24, 1873, aged 
seventy-eight, and was buried with Christian ceremonies on the 26th. 
After a brief service at the house, conducted by Rev. James M. Clarke, 
rector of St. James's church, Syracuse, the coffin was borne to the 
Church of the Good Shepherd, where it was received by Bi.shop Hunt- 
ington and placed upon a bier in the open air. The Bishop, standing 
on the steps of the little edifice, delivered a most beautiful and appro- 
priate address, Daniel La Forte acting as interpreter. The remains 
were then uncovered that the assembled people, both Indians and 
whites, might look for the last time upon the departed chieftain, who 
was clothed in full warrior costume: across his breast was his wampum 
belt, and upon his head were his cap and feathers. Thence the body 
was borne by four young braves to a spot near the council house, where 
it was lowered to its last resting place. 

The present head chief or " king " of the Six Nations is Frank Logan, 
of the Wolf clan, who was born in 1857. The Onondaga nation is 
governed by twenty-seven chiefs, all but two of whom belong to the 
Pagan party. The ruling or principal chiefs, fifteen in number, are 
chosen by the females of the families represented. 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1067 

The present chiefs of the Onondagas are Frank Logan, Thomas 
Webster, John Green, Asa Wheelbarrow, Charles Green, William Hill, 
John Hill, Peter George, John R. Farmer, James Thomas, George 
Venevera, William Lyon, Billings Webster, Daniel La Forte, George 
Crow, Baptist Thomas, Charles Lyon, Andrew Gibson, Wilson Reuben, 
Jacob Scanandoah, George Lyon, Levi Webster, Hewlett Jacobs, Jacob 
Bigbear, John Thomas, Enoch Scanandoah, and Abbott Jones. The 
last two are not Pagans. 

Dinah John, familiarly and widely known as "Annt Dinah," was long 
one of the most picturesque figures among the Onondagas. She was 
eccentric, kind hearted, simple, and frank, and after the age of ninety 
frequently walked from the Castle to Syracuse and back. When asked 
as to her church relations she placed her hand upon her head, saying, 
"I'm 'Piscopal here;" then placing her hand upon her heart, she 
added, " Fm Methodist here." She was born on the Reservation, 
where she lived all her life, and died there May 26, 1883. Her remains 
were buried with Christian ceremonies in the little cemetery at the 
Castle, where her grave is marked by a tombstone, five feet high, upon 
which is this inscription: "Aunt Dinah John, died May 26, 1883, aged 
109 years." This monument was erected by a number of Syracusans 
and was unveiled July 7 of that year. Many authorities have given 
her age as 107, and one antiquarian places her birth "early in 1774." 
The photograph from which the accompanying plate is made was taken 
by Philip S. Ryder, of Syracuse, when she was 100 years old. 

Hannah, an Indian squaw, who died on the Reservation in 1861 at 
the age of 120 years, was probably the oldest person whose death 
occurred in Onondaga count}^ vShe was born, it is believed, in 1741, 
or earlier, and was honored with a notice in Harper's Weekly for March 
23, 1861. 

For several years a number of the progressive Indians on the Reser- 
vation have strongly favored the idea of citizenship, and themselves 
have taken the initiative. On May 3, 1882, a constitution was reported, 
providing for a president or chairman, clerk, treasurer, marshal, three 
peacemakers or judges, a school trustee, one pathmaster, and two poor- 
masters. A provision respecting the disposition of lands in severalty 
was declared to be dependent upon a three-fourths vote of the males 
and a three-fourths vote of the mothers of the nation. This constitu- 
tion was adopted at a meeting held May 6, when officers were elected 
as follows: Daniel La Forte, chairman; ^Jaris Pierce, clerk; Orris 



1068 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



Farmer, treasurer; Cornelius Johnson, marshal; Jimerson L. Johnson, 
Wilson Johnson, and John White, peacemakers; Simon Scanandoah, 
pathmaster; Joseph Isaacs, school trustee; Baptist Thomas and Wilson 
Reuben, poormasters. Various other resolutions were adopted at sub 
sequent meetings, such as "putting a stop to Sabbath breaking," etc. 




Photo, by Ryder. 



Aunt Dinah. 
Plate Loaned by the H. J. Ormsbee Engraving Company. 



The chiefs apparently did not favor civil government, and from August 
3, 1883, to April 2G, 1887, no meetings of this description occurred. 
On the latter date the old rules were substantially revived, but pro- 



I, 



THE ONONDAGA INDIANS. 1069 

vided for a governing body of twelve councilors. The Christian ele- 
ment controlled this and other gatherings of that year. October 15, 
1889, the struggle was renewed, the constitution of 1882 being re- 
adopted. On the 21st a new constitution was reported and adopted, 
but this and subsequent acts looking to the enfranchisement of the On- 
ondagas, "The People of the Hills," promulgated by themselves after 
the manner of English governments, have fallen to pieces because of 
their inherent belief in Paganism and ancient tribal relations. 

Here amid the beautiful hills and valleys of their fathers we leave 
this small remnant of a once proud and powerful nation. Here around 
the council fire of the Confederacy, where their historic career is slowly 
but surely drawing to an inglorious end, this little band is being borne 
one by one to the Happy Hunting Grounds of the Great Spirit, where 
immortalized souls of distinguished ancestors await their coming. No 
more striking example of supremacy and decline can be found in the 
annals of the world. Hundreds of years ago, when days were suns 
and months were moons, the Onondagas, the illustrious People of the 
Mountain, roamed at will over their vast domain, and numbered their 
warriors by the thousands. The forests and the beasts thereof, the 
streams, fish, and game, both great and small, were theirs by right of 
original occupation. The white man came with his dazzling arts and 
promises, encroached upon their hospitality, and reduced their lands 
and privileges piecemeal to insignificant proportions. Wars, famine 
and other causes wrought devastation, discouragement, and slow but 
steady decline, while the onward march of civilization gradually tore 
down their barriers of superstition and tribal practice until to-day 
ancient usages and customs exist more in tradition than in fact. 
Though still the distinguished center of what remains of the Iroquois 
League the Onondagas retain only a shadow of their former greatness 
and magnificence. Christianity is overpowering Paganism, and civil- 
izing influences are wiping out those romantic but uncouth attributes 
which formed the foundation of true Indian life. 



1070 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



CHAPTER XLIX. 

The Conclusion — General Historical Review— The Transformations of a Century 
— The Old and the New — Centennial Celebration — Looking Forward — Was it a 
Benediction? 

In looking- backward a hundred years, to the time when on March 5, 
1794:, the count}' of Onondaga was erected, our thoughts and imagina- 
tion are prone to dwell upon that period, forgetful of the fact that the 
Republic itself had but just been born ; that a little less than seven years 
previous the Constitution under which we still live, with some amend- 
ments added, had been adopted; that only five years previous George 
Washington had been inaugurated president on the balcony of what is 
now the sub-treasury building in Wall street. New York ; that the great 
struggle begun in 1689 between the French and the English to deter- 
mine which people should be masters of North America came to an end 
at that time, April 30, 1789. The Early Period of American history ends 
with the beginning of that contest; the Middle Period, of one hundred 
years' duration, began then. Incidents of both periods in their relation 
to this locality have been very fully treated, many of them for the first 
time brought out in connected form, in these volumes. The history of 
the country from 1789 to 1815 has been called the "Period of Weak- 
ness," for there was much turmoil, and the war of 1812 added greatly 
to the troubles and apprehensions of the people. For fifty years or 
more, beginning with the Revolution, there were wars and rumors of 
wars — rumors of war even in the near present — all disturbing elements 
in the nation's history, the more important of which may here be re- 
corded : 

Wars, From To Soldiers. 

The Revolution April 19, 1775 April 11, 1783 309,781 

Northwestern Indian Sept. 19, 1790 Aug. 3, 1795 8,983 

War with France July 9, 1798 Sept. 30, 1800 4,593 

War with Tripoli _. June 10, 1801 June 4, 1805 3,330 

Creek Indian War July 27, 1813 Aug. 9, 1814 13,781 

War of 1812 June 18, 1812 Feb. 37, 1815 576,622 

Seminole Indian War Nov. 20, 1817 Oct. 21, 1818 7,911 

Black Hawk Indian War April 20, 1831 Sept. 30, 1832 6,465 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1071 

Wars. From To Soldiers. 

Florida Indian War Dec. 23, 1835 Aug. 14,1843 41,122 

Cherokee disturbance 1836 1837 9,494 

Creek Indian War May 5, 1836 Sept. 30, 1837 13,418 

Aroostook disturbance.. 1836 1839 1,500 

War with Mexico. April 24, 1846 July 4, 1848 112,230 

Apache War 1849 1855 2,561 

Seminole Indian War 1856 185S 3,687 

Civil War April, 1861 Aug. 1865 ^2,772,408 

When chaos was in a goodly degree finally superseded by a form and 
condition of government which seemed to promise stability with Wash- 
ington to administer it, the nation was feeble, only a third rate power. 
The total population of the Thirteen States numbered scarcely 4,000,- 
000 and was thinly scattered. The population of Philadelphia was only 
about 42,000; that of New York, 33,000; Boston, 18,000; Baltimore, 
13,000. Here and there about the sparsely settled country was an old 
manor, possessed of many comforts, not to say luxuries; while the or- 
dinary farmer was often glad to be possessed of an unpretentious home 
having a single floor and garret. In the center rose a great brick 
chimney with an oven attached for baking bread, or pies, or beans. If 
the home happened to be more than ordinarily spacious, then besides 
bed rooms there would be a "best room," but seldom known as parlor, 
opened only for weddings, funerals, Thanksgiving da}^ and on other 
very rare occasions. There were the polished candlesticks and tallow 
candles ; there the family portraits if any were possessed ; there the few 
cherished books. But the pleasantest part of the house was the 
kitchen, where the great fireplace and swinging crane were most con- 
spicuous; bunches of herbs and strings of vegetables in their season 
hung about the ceilings to dry; in the corner the spinning wheel. This 
was the family room where salted meats, potatoes and brown bread 
with the best of vegetables were served in common with the general 
comforts of rare home life. Does anybody doubt that there was hap- 
piness in those homes and times? 

It was from such that the first settlers of Onondaga largely came, for 
there was a goodly degree of thrift in New England if some of the ter- 
ritory at one time had been sadly ravaged. These pioneers sacrificed 
more than we shall ever know, when they came here to endure .the 
great hardships incident to the settlement of a new country, where no 
conveniences were at hand, where the first lodging place was neces- 

' Total Confederate armv about 000,000. 



1072 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

sarily a rude, quickly constructed hut, not even in a clearing, so prec- 
ious was the time in which to provide a temporary home. 

These sturdy settlers, possessed of indomitable will and persever- 
ance, were also men of keen instincts and saw from a distance the op- 
portunities which the new country offered for development and the 
material prosperity of those who would remove its dense forests and 
open its rich lands to the sun and to the energy and skill of the hus- 
bandman. There was a sort of mingling of the lives of white men 
with the lives and history of the Iroquois, for Indian life was far from 
being extinct; it was one of the dangers of the time. But the Indians 
were generally friendly even though they looked upon the encroach- 
ments of the white man with sadness, if not almost with despair; and 
it must be admitted that they bore great wrongs with much fortitude, 
as they saw their lands pass from them and they themselves gradually 
driven to accept the tender mercies of the State in exchange for what 
Nature had given them. Is it any wonder that their proud sensibili- 
ties have yielded to forces which they could not resist imtil those that 
are left are broken in spirit and ambition? 

Taking into account the unusual trials and privations which beset the 
earlier settlers, the early growth and development of the county was 
astonishing; not least among the characteristics of the people, too, 
was tlieir regard for church privileges and educational opportunities, 
though it will not be said that there was a oneness of purpose and 
desire in this regard, for there was now and then a settler whose only 
faith was in his strong arms, whose only desire for education was to 
know how to reap the largest benefits from his vocation. 

What volumes of history are hidden in the early cemeteries ! Could 
the wives and mothers resting in them but speak, what stories would 
they tell ! 

" But the glories so transcendent 

That around their memories cluster, 
And, on all their steps attendant, 
Make their darkened lives resplendent 
With such gleams of inward luster!" 

The population of the county in 1794 will never be definitely known 
(seepages 191-92). It may have been 1,000 or more; it may have 
been less. But whatever it was it was made up of both men and 
women of bravery, determination, and intelligence. 

But ninety-eight years later, when the last enumeration was made, 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



1073 



there was then at least 150 people as against each individual in 1794, 
the population of the county being 150,808, thus divided between the 
city and the towns: City, 92,283; towns, 58,525. But this enumera- 
tion was never accepted as being" correct; it was considered as being 
much too low, proven in the city by the count of the directory enu- 
merators who found 100,170. This city population has been increased 
(1895) to about 120,000. The total vote cast for president in 1892 
(33,908), also indicates errors in the enumeration. In 1895 the vote 
was: Republican, 17,308; Democratic. 12,999; Prohibition, 671; So- 
cialistic Labor, 610; Populist, 68. Total, 31,716. It was a vState 
election, calling out a lighter vote than is given for president. 

Spafford's Gazetteer, published in 1813, gives this distribution of 
population among the towns in 1810, also the total vote cast for sen- 
ator in that year, together with "Remarks" wdiich follow the state- 
ment and refer to the towns mentioned as being related to them : 

Towns. Population. Vote. Remarks. 

Camillus 2,378 194 Gypsumburg, 60 m. W, from Utica; 157 from Albany. 

Cicero 252 29 Chittenango Landing and Three River Pomt; 57 from 

Utica; 154 from Albany. 

Fabius 1,865 134 Ancient Works; 50m. S.W. from Utica; 147 from Albany. 

Hannibal. __ 692 27 Oswego Village (Fulton), 30 houses, P. O. ; 180 miles 

from Albany. 
Lysander .._ 624 86 20 m. N.W. from Onondaga, 17 from Oswego, 165 from 

Albany. 
Manlius 3,127 234 JamesviUe P.O. 35 houses and school; Manlius Village 

85 houses and school ; Eagle Village. 
MarceUus___ 4,725 387 Skaneateles Village, 60 houses, P.O.; 9 Mile Creek or 

Marcellus Village, 34 houses. 
Onondaga __ 3,745 291 Onondaga Hollow Village, 65 houses; West Hill, c. h. 

and 40 houses; 149 from Albany; Onondaga Castle. 

Otisco 759 92 7 m. S. from Onondaga; 50 m. W. from Utica. 

Pompej' 5,669 484 Pompey Hill, 40 houses and academy, 146 m. ; P. E. 

Hollow, 149 m. from Albany. 
Salina 1,259 78 Salina Village, 90 houses and 80 salt works; Liverpool 

Village, 80 houses. P. O. erected in 1811. 
Spafford .... 

Tully 1,092 77 Tully Flats, 14 m. S. from Onondaga; 50 m. S. of W. 

from Utica. Pop., etc., included with Tully; 13 m. S. 

25,987 2,113 from Onondaga. 

This Gazetteer also gives the following statistics of manufactures and 
industries in 1810: 

Number of looms, 1,016; number of yards of woolen cloth, average price 87.^ 
cents per yard, 107,470 ; number of yards of linen cloth, average price 37^ cents per 
135 



1074 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

3'ard, 196,106; nnmber of fulling mills and clothieries, 16; number of yards of cloth 
fulled and dressed, average price $1.25 per yard, 69,790; carding machines, 21; 
number of pounds of wool carded, average price of carding 50 cents per pound, 
96,700; number of yards of cotton cloth, average price per yard 32 cents, 3,909; 
tanneries, 31 ; number of hides tanned of sole, upper leather, and calf skins, aver- 
age prices, !54.25 and $1.75, 8,931; breweries, 2; number of gallons, average price 
17 cents per gallon, 7,732; distilleries, 26; number of gallons, average price per gallon 
80 cents, 79,632; paper mills, 1 ; number ream§ of paper, average price $3 per ream, 
1,600; hatteries, 10; number of hats, average price $2.50 each, 5,231; oil mills, 1_ 
number of gallons of oil, average price, $1,25 per gallon, 300; blast and air furnaces, 
1 ; number of tons of iron, average price $100 and §120 per ton, 138; bloomeries, 1 ; 
trip hammers, 2. 

In 1821, there appears to have been in the county: 

Fifty-nine slaves (23 of them in the town of Onondaga), 6,968 farmers, 1,640 manufac- 
turers; 120 merchants and dealers, 208 school districts, 12,866 school children between 5 
and 15 years of age, 145,747 acres of improved land, 35,359 cattle, 7,614 horses, 861.167 
sheep, 333,375 yards cloth manufactured, 59 grist mills, 99 saw mills, 7 oil mills, 37 
fulling mills, 48 carding machines, 4 cotton and woolen factories, 7 iron works. Strip 
hammers, 45 distilleries, 39 asheries, real estate taxed at $2,814,980, personal prop- 
erty at $137,420. 

"The first .settlement attempted within the present territoryof Onondaga county," 
the same publication states, "was in the spring of 1788, when most of the then settled 
territory that now constitutes the Western District was comprised within Montgomery 
county. Onondaga county was then a small part of Whitestown, nowredistricted, by the 
rapid progress of population, to a small area around Utica. In 1786 the population of 
Montgomery county was but 15,057, while the whole population of the State amounted to 
238,896. Onondaga county has now 48 or 50 school houses, several churches or houses 
for public worship, an academy, -34 grain mills, 54 saw mills, 2 or 3 breweries, and 
too many distilleries. Salt is made here annually to the amount of near a half 
million bushels, from the salt springs of this county, which afford water more strongly 
impregnated than that of the ocean, more than 200 miles distant." 

The States have grown in number from the "Original Thirteen" to 
forty-five. The population of the nation has increased from about 
4,000,000 to about 70,000,000 ; the nation has risen to a first-class power 
and now only needs the best navy and coast defenses in the world to 
be able to assert its supremacy over any other nation, and perhaps com- 
bination of nations, of the world. There has been a mighty develop- 
ment for a single century; what will the present century effect? 

Perhaps a few statistics, condensed from statements in foregoing 
pages, relative to the growth and resources of Syracuse, will best of all 
indicate the development which the century has wrought locally. 
Even the site of the city, it will be remembered, was quite unknown to 
any but Indians, a very few white men, and armies of adventurers, 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1075 

when the county was erected. Rising out of the mire and forest of 
scarcely a century ago, there is now a city five by four and one-half 
miles in dimensions, with 350 miles of streets, several hundred in num- 
ber. Many of them follow old Indian trails, but, curiously enough, 
but very few of them have Indian names. Of churches, of all de- 
nominations there are eighty-four, and twenty-nine missions, having a 
total seating capacity of about 50,000. The Syracuse University is at 
the head of educational advantages, with its 104 professors and tutors 
and registry of students of about 1,000; its library of 60,000 volumes; 
its observatory; its valuation of about $2,000,000. Of free schools there 
are thirty-one including the High School; all the handsome buildings 
being of brick. There is a total enrollment of about 17,000 children, 
with an average daily attendance of nearly 13,000. The City library 
contains almost 30,000 volumes. The assessors' valuation of the city is 
$61,334,450; the cost of maintenance of the municipal government, 
$1,000,000. There are nine commercial banks having an aggregate 
capital of $1,705,000 and surplus of $1,200,000, and two savings banks, 
with assets of $20,000,000 and surplus of more than $2,000,000; one 
trust and deposit company with a capital of $100,000 and surplus of 
about the same amount. Of the 250 incorporated companies, the Solvay 
Process Company, manufacturers of soda ash, with its 2,500 emplo}'ees 
leads them all. Among the manufacturing establishments almost 
every industry is represented, and their products are sold in almost 
every civilized country. There are 130 miles of water mains and 1,200 
fire hydrants. Thirty-four newspapers (six daily) and periodicals are 
published. Sixty-seven miles of track are included in the street rail- 
way system, and 150 railroad trains arrive in and depart from the city 
daily. Constituted a village in 1826, incorporated as a city in 1847, it 
is now the fifth city in the vState. The Onondaga County Orphan Asy- 
lum, St. Vincent de Paul Orphan Asylum, the House of Providence, 
House of the Good Shepherd (hospital), St. Joseph's Hospital, St. Ann's 
Maternity Hospital, Women's and Children's Hospital, Old Ladies' 
Home, the Employment Society, German Hospital, Needlework Guild, 
Women's Union, Shelter for Fallen Women, Bureau of Labor and 
Charity, Women's Aid Society, many circles of King's Daughters, Dea- 
coness' Home, Charity's Daughters, vSociety for the Prevention of Cru- 
elty to Animals, are principal among the many charities The Govern- 
ment Court House and Post-office, built of Onondaga limestone; the 
County Court House, also of limestone; the City Hall, of the same ma- 



1076 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

terial ; the county clerk's and si:rrogate's department; the First Pres- 
byterian, St. Paul's and vSt. Mary's churches, the Onondaga County and 
Syracuse Savings Bank buildings, the Kirk Building, the Granger 
block, Bastable block, Dey's and McCarthy's buildings and the Wiet- 
ing block are among the most imposing structures. The College of 
Liberal Arts (of limestone) and the college of Fine Arts (of brick) stand 
by themselves on an eminence in the southeastern part. There are 
also many expensive private residences, not a few of them presenting 
perfect architectural appearance. But this will suffice to, in a general 
way, indicate the character and resources of the city, to show what 
enterprising men have created out of the wilderness. This growth 
may not be typical of the growth of the county at large, for an increase 
in the population of many of the towns ceased years ago when the city 
began to assume importance. 

Harvey Baldwin, the first mayor of vSyracuse, in a speech he made in 
1846, forecast the future of the city in such an amazing manner that 
he was for the time ridiculed; but there came a change of sentiment, 
and his prophecy really made him mayor in 1848. He was not wide of 
the truth when he said: 

"Were we permitted to indulge in visions of the future, I would present a view of 
our village or city, as it is to appear hereafter, when all of us who are now on the 
busy stage of life shall be slumbering with our fathers. It is universally conceded 
that we are to become the great inland town of the State, and next in size and im- 
portance to New York and Buffalo — that we are to go on by rapid strides, increasing 
in population, until we shall number from 100,000 to 200,000. All bordering territory 
will have been brought into a high and perfect state of cultivation, and our beautiful 
lake, on all its beautiful shores and borders, will present a view of one continuous 
villa, ornamented with its shady groves and hanging gardens, and connected by a 
wide and splendid avenue that shall encircle its entire waters, and furnish a delight- 
ful drive to the gay and prosperous citizens of the town, who will, toward the close 
of each summer's day, throng it for pleasure, relaxation or the improvement of 
health." 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 



1077 



o 


Camillus 

Cicero 

Clav 

Dewitt 

Elbridge 

Fabius 

Geddes 

La Favette 

Lysan'der 

Manlius 

MarcelUis 

Onondaga 

Otsego 

Pompev 

Salina 

Skaneateles 

vSpafford 

Tully 

Van Buren 

Syracuse 


1 

o 


1 

o 


^^^^ .^i^ ic ^^ CO >— ' cc Oi iw CO ii ^w /i ic ic 
jSj-^ O' _x o; X jc _oi J-; _x = x jc _:,' _= ij. co j.r -^ -^ 


Acres of land. 




Assessed value of real estate, in- 
cluding village property and real 
estate of corporations. 


ffi 1 Sm »=.,'-' r" «j-'>*>*J-'>* l*?*..".,^!- Equalized value of real estate, in- 
5 3 " ix ? — rZ Ti '=? ? ^> E ;: -'■ l''^ ^i E £ ^j h eluding village property and real 
^ --r-i' •-■ ~C C '- - f.'C i' •" '"/-rc;r,-r;^~-r; estate of corporations. 


«» 

U 

jj 


OS 

^ ? ^ t) ?; r^ ti CO -J o X o JO X c; o (§ -1 X M 


Total assessed value of personal ; 
property. 


1 


CO 

.t-4.xCJl-10T^WCO'IOaOOCOXC50fO*lXCO 
COO&MCOXX^*i/COOppwII^^COJ-'JO_4-=-.Cn 


Assessed value of personal prop- 
erty siibject to local taxation for i 
all purposes. 






Equalized aggregate valuation, real 
and personal. 




7' 

OICO ^ (i — ii ^ XjipOT iiCOj-^COJjljijIij^ 

'siT-c'Ti-JCo'x'c'-^'ic''^ -' ^ o> li -' cr-.'x -.i^lc -> 


Amount of Town Taxes. 




2_i;j-.j_.j»__js_(4 j^J~',''->'i- .-'.— .— .■^."i**- 
S Z} 2l 2 SI ~ t S S S CO S T; r. = ^' - 4- cji 'co 


1 
Amount of County Taxes. 

1 

! 


X 
X 


4& 

g';]x-S''i1jfe'^SV^22:i?.'wfe'^i-3 Amount of State Ta.x for Schools. 

X CO C: O 4- «i -1 ^ C-. CO y 4- — CT CJl ii J ' ~ C-i 




_ti iO (« ^ ^ COJ-'^CO^^J-^^O CO ^i;-lJO 

o-rf.. o -1 -■! ill -? =-. CO lo'coV'ir SB pI^PP St' 


Amount of State Taxes for Canal 
and General Purposes, also 
Stenographers and Shore In- 
spectors Tax, if any. 


1^ 

1 




Amount of State Tax for State 
Care of Insane. 


% 


iiiiiiilliliiii 


Aggregate Taxation. 



c n -- 



2 2 
> 

o 

£ 2 



1078 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Following" is a statement of the purposes for which a tax was levied 
by the Board of vSnpervisors, December 14, 1895 (also showing the ex- 
isting county offices), together with the resources of that 3"ear: 

State tax as certified by comptroller $247, 687 01 

Stenographers, Supreme Court 3,936 08 

County bonds due in 1895 30,000 00 

Interest and coupons . 4, 975 00 

To pay court orders 30,000 00 

Estimated general orders.. 32,255 29 

Contingent fund 14,000 00 

Headstones and burial deceased soldiers. .. 1,000 00 

Printing journal proceedings 650 00 

Printing abstracts 920 00 

Printing county canvass . 450 00 

Fund for sub-committee poor 7,000 00 

For superintendent of county poor 6,228 51 

Committee on county bulding, $3,500, less $2, 600 elevator fund 900 00 

Heating and lighting State Armory 1,500 00 

S3'racuse Institution for Feeble Minded Children 480 00 

House of Providence 684 39 

German Evangelical Orphan Asylum. 249 22 

Shelter for Unprotected Girls 615 69 

St. Joseph's Maternit}' Hospital 532 50 

Onondaga County Orphan Asylum 1,451 36 

St. Vincent's Orphan Asylum 1,111 76 

Mattewan State Hospital ..j 1,231 61 

Society for Protection of Destitute Catholic Children of Buffalo 2,446 97 

Mt. Magdalen School of Industry, Troy. 2,666 86 

Northern New York Institute for Deaf Mutes 390 00 

New York Institute for Instruction of Deaf Mutes 60 00 

Brunswick Home 892 00 

New York Institution for the Blind 96 06 

Western New York Institute for Deaf Mutes 925 23 

Central New York Institute for Deaf Mutes, Rome, N. Y. . . . 2,099 17 

St. Joseph's Hospital and House of Good Shepherd (estimated) 2,500 00 

Women's and Children's Hospital 1,200 00 

Library appropriation 100 00 

Penitentiary loan and interest thereon 10,086 12 

SALARIES. 

County judge 4,000 00 

Surrogate 3,500 00 

Surrogate's clerk .^ 1 ,200 00 

Surrogate clerk's assistant 450 00 

Surrogate clerk's recorder 400 00 

District attorney 3,000 00 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1070 

District attorney's assistant 1,000 00 

District attorney's cierl: 800 00 

County treasurer _. 1,000 00 

County treasurer's clerk. 500 00 

County superintendent of poor 1,200 00 

County superintendent of poor's assistant. 750 00 

City overseer of poor 300 00 

Librarian Court of Appeals 1 ,200 00 

Assistant librarian 250 00 

Coroner 1 ,500 00 

Janitor Court House and Appeals Library 600 00 

Janitor county clerk's building 600 00 

Janitor State Armory 939 00 

Armorer State Armory 939 00 

Chaplains to County House ._ 400 00 

Physician to Indians . 300 00 

School commissioners. _ . 600 00 

Total.. §437,348 83 

RESOURCES. 

Balance in County Treasury, February 1, 1896, less receipts 

from county clerk's office S 15,000 00 

Transportation of paupers 124 57 

State appropriation for Onondaga Indians ... 300 00 

District attorney's receipts (estimated) . .. 1,000 00 

Due from school commissioners. 600 0(1 

Returned tax due from city and towns 951 75 

In hands of county treasurer from county clerk 6,830 41 

Estimated receipts from county clerk for ensuing year . 8,000 00 

§32,806 73 

Total disbursements §427,348 83 

Less resources 32,806 73 

The rise and fall of the salt industry, dwelt upon at length else- 
where, is a subject filled with interest of every kind. The salt springs 
served an excellent purpose from the time of their first production 
under State inspection of 25, -474 bushels, up to their largest annual 
yield of 9,053,874, and even further on ; but at last the competition 
became too strong and property once valued at $14,000,000 dwindled to 
a value of less than half a million dollars. The total aggregate pro- 
duction of the salt works, from 1797 to 1895 inclusive, was not quite 
362,000,000 bushels. 

Reference is made elsewhere to the fact that in the time of slavery 
an "underground railroad " passed through the county, the main sta- 



1080 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

tion being at Syracuse. This was a veritable center of real Abolition- 
ism, into which fugitive slaves could come and be passed on to the 
freedom of- Canada with the greatest saf^}^ There were a number of 
men who in a way were banded together to help escaped slaves, and 
curiously enough the names of many of them and their plans of opera- 
tions were known among many slaves in the Southern States. The 
line of escape from the South to Canada was so well established and 
yet so secretly guarded, that it took the name above given to it. Con- 
spicuous among the men acquainted with its operations were the Rev. 
Samuel J. May, Gerrit Smith, Wendel Phillips, Beriah Green, Bishop 
Loguen (colored), and many men of less prominence. The attempt 
which was made to return the slave " Jerry " to captivity illustrated 
the strength of the anti- Slavery sentiment which prevailed, for as if 
out of utter darkness and in a moment came an army of rescuers when 
the slave was seized by a United States marshal. The government 
never dared to try a number of men engaged in the rescue and whom 
it had caused to be indicted, because it feared defeat through the prej- 
udices of any jury which it might be possible to impanel. Many 
hundred slaves escaped through this county and city and found homes 
in Canada beyond the reach of the infamous " Fugitive Slave law, "under 
which it was legal to seize and return to bondage an escaped slave 
wherever in the United States he might be found. There were slaves 
in Onondaga county during the first quarter-century, but none of the 
evils and cruelties of barbarous slavery were practiced, such as are well 
described in that always interesting book, " Uncle Tom's Cabin," which 
set the South agog when it appeared, and which deserves to be read by 
each succeeding generation that the causes which led up to the Civil 
war may be well understood. 

A Cemetery Association has recently been formed, whose object is 
to gather data and make a record of the many cemeteries and burial 
places in the county, of which there are a large number. An effort 
was made to collect the facts relating to them for these volumes, but it 
was impossible to complete the work in the time allowed. There are 
several, to which allusion is made in the Town Histories, which are 
more than one hundred years old; their records, to be gleaned only by 
patient and persistent work here and there, would be very interesting. 
There are comparatively but few tomb stones to tell even their short 
stories, for in the early times such marks of respect to the memories of 
deceased friends were not to be had, and many of those set in later 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1081 

A'ears have crumbled and disappeared. The association can perform an 
act which the dead of all times deserve, by making as complete a 
record of the inhabitants of these silent cities as it may be possible to 
compile. 

It is noted in the history of the town of Camillus that a meeting was 
held there in 1852 which became heralded as the first Republican meet- 
ing preceding the organization of the Second Republican party in 1854. 
The character of the call for the meeting was spread broadcast, and as 
information of it traveled, its importance was magnified, and in after 
years it was referred to as being the real origin of the new party, which 
was led to defeat by John C. Fremont, "the Pathfinder," in 1856. 
However this may all be, it is certain that that call for and declarations 
of that meeting were in singular accord with the platform of principles 
of the new Republican party. 

The local events of the Civil war were so fully dwelt upon in "The 
Memorial History of the City of Syracuse" that it was not deemed impor- 
tant to repeat them in these volumes, though ample mention is made in 
their proper place of the more important incidents and occurrences. It 
would be impossible under any circumstances to make pen-pictures 
which would properly represent the stirring scenes of those times, to 
adequately portray them even to the recollection of those who wit- 
nessed them, and those who did would almost wish to shun the best 
sketches which could be made, so horrible are the dreams and remem- 
brances of those awful years — years which spilled the blood and took 
the lives of hundreds of Onondaga's noble men ! The count}^'s record 
is surpassed by none ; to but few others returned the remnants of a 
regiment bearing the proud honor of being classed among the "Fight- 
ing Three Hundred" regiments of all the great army, the very cream 
of the army, as were Napoleon's favorites. The 149th bore this envi- 
able distinction — a credit to itself, a credit to the comity. Its total 
losses were 602. Maj. George K, Collins published a very complete 
history of the regiment. Maj. -Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, nearly all his 
life a regular army officer, an able soldier and cultured gentleman of 
the old school; Maj. -Gen. Henry W. Slocum, of well-earned fame; 
Maj. Gen. John J. Peck, whose previous distinguished services on the 
fields of Mexico made his return to duty desirable; Maj. -Gen. Henry 
A. Barnum, of varied attainments, together with that superior soldier 
and excellent citizen. Brig. -Gen. Gustavus Sniper, made up the local 
roll of generals. After them came a long list of field and line officers 

136 



1082 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

each with his honors well and fully earned. But no more loyal were 
they, if in rank more exalted, than the men they led to battle. 

Almost from the beginning of the war Syracuse was an important 
recruiting station under the command of a provost marshal, who had 
military power over the district and to muster volunteers and assign 
them to camps for organization, the camp most in favor being at El 
mira. There was a camp for the temporary care of recruits at the corner 
of Cortland avenue and South Onondaga street in Syracuse, before their 
departure for Elmira, where sometimes men enough to constitute a 
regiment were gathered. There was a multitude of "recruiting agents" 
appointed by the Bounty Committee and who received commissions on 
enlistments, and many who acted independently, dealing so far as they 
might do safely with "bounty jumpers," that is, men who would enlist 
and desert and enlist again under another name as often as circum- 
stances might permit them to do so. Every effort was made to detect 
and punish such men, but not a few succeeded in thus defrauding the 
government and enriching themselves, some of them to the extent of 
comfortable fortunes. Capt. Alonzo Wood, of Elbridge, was the first 
provost marshal, but he was removed, and Capt. Anson Evans, of On- 
ondaga, was appointed to the position. Another vacancy was created 
by his death, and on the 1st of August, 1864, Col. Webster R. 
Chamberlin, then of Geddes, was appointed in command of the 
Twenty-third Congressional district and remained in office until March 
1, 1865, when he resigned, after a term of very faithful, efficient, and 
popular service. Colonel Chamberlin went to the front as captain of 
Co. B, 122d regiment, in 1862, but was stricken with typhoid fever and 
was in a hospital for several months; he was discharged from the ser- 
vice in February, 1863, for disability. While he was provost marshal 
and during the fall of 1864 the 185th was recruited, and by him mus- 
tered into service. Capt. A. A. Yates, of Schenectady, was detailed by 
Major Haddock, of Elmira, as acting provost marshal to succeed Col- 
onel Chamberlin, and while he was in command the safe was robbed. 
After his recall Capt. Park Wheeler succeeded him, but only for a 
short time, for the war was over. The rank of a provost marshal was 
that of a captain of cavalry. Colonel Chamberlin attained his higher 
rank through service in the National Guard after the war. 

From pages 249 to 254, both inclusive, some of the incidents or con- 
sequences of the war having special relation to this county are related ; 
but mention of the committees who had the disbursement of the large 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1083 

sums of bounty money in charge were inadvertently omitted. The first 
" Bounty Committee," as it was called, was appointed under a resolution 
of the Board of iSupervisors adopted December 12, 18G3, and consisted 
of Supervisors John Munro of Elbridge, Hamilton Burdick of the 
Seventh ward, Jacobus Bruyn of the Third ward, Daniel Becker of 
Cicero, and Luke Wells of Otisco. It was organized by the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Munro, chairman, and Milton H. Northrup, clerk of the 
board, secretary. This committee organized the work entrusted t(j it, 
not altogether satisfactorily, and was continued only until March 29th fol- 
lowing, the political complexion of the board having meantime changed 
from Democratic to Republican. At a special meeting of the board 
the committee was discharged and another and smaller one appointed, 
consisting of Supervisors John Munro of Elbridge, Norman Hine of 
the vSixth ward, and Jared C. Williams of Tully. Mr. Hine was ap- 
pointed chairman, and with no secretary to aid him took upon himself 
quite all the work, both general and detail. At the conclusion of 
the work of the committee he submitted a very voluminous report in 
much detail, and was not only complimented by the board but also by 
County Treasurer Dudley P. Phelps. The detail which attended the 
administration of the affairs of these committees cannot at this time 
be measured or appreciated. Their duties were of the most important 
character, neces.sitating much planning and travel to procure recruits 
in near and distant places, for the bounties did not stimulate volunteering 
to the extent of easily filling the several quotas levied from time to 
time. At the time when $1,000 in bounty was being paid, about one- 
sixth of the total population of the loyal vStates had already been en- 
listed, so that while there was no abatement of patriotism there was 
really getting to be a scarcity of available population to draw from. 
Then, too, it was a very dark period of the war; there were many who 
feared that the Union cause was almost hopeless. The government 
was beset with parasites more desirous of acquiring fortunes than saving 
the Union, so that fraud and corruption prevailed to an alarming ex- 
tent, and the resources of the government were severely taxed to meet 
its expenses of about $3,000,000 a day. Defeats and disasters in the 
field had done much toward discouraging the people, and it seemed to 
be quite impossible that order could ever be brought out of the almost 
appalling situation. But it was only the night before the day, for a 
little later Grant began to win victories everywhere, and with his tri- 
umphs, hope and confidence were restored and maintained until the 



1084 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

end, which at last came somewhat suddenly and while the second draft 
had been executed in some places and was pending in others. Nearlj' 
all of the men who were drafted under the first order paid the commu- 
tation fee of $300 or procured substitutes ; very few drafted men w^ent 
to the front, and those who did go were made very unhappy by the 
contempt in which they were held. Those who were chosen by the 
second draft were never called upon for service, for the war closed 
shortly after it was made. It was amazing to witness the transforma- 
tion wrought by the news of the surrender of Lee; the clouds of war 
had passed, the sun of peace shone once more; all that belonged to war 
was put away. The night following the receipt of the news of the sur- 
render will never be forgotten by the citizens of Syracuse, for there 
was scarcely one who was not celebrating the event. 

Soon after the close of the Revolutionary war a number of organiza- 
tions came into existence to perpetuate the comradeship of the battle- 
field and to preserve the memories of those who participated in the great 
conflict. Among such were the Society of the Cincinnati, Sons of the 
Revolution, Sons of the American Revolution, and much later the 
Daughters of the Revolution, After the Civil war, and for purposes 
similar to those for which their predecessors were formed, there came 
the Loyal Legion, the Comrades of the Battlefield, Union Veteran 
Legion, Grand Army of the Republic, the Woman's Relief Corps, Sons 
of Veterans, etc. The Grand Army and the Relief Corps organizations, 
however, reached the highest degree of prominence, the former hav- 
ing a total membership in 1895 of 357,639, and the latter of 140,305. 
There are in the county (1896) eighteen posts of the Grand Army, 
named for some soldier, with numbers, locations, and commanders, as 
follows: 

Allen, No. 54, at Fabius, commander, O. H. Sisson; Ben H. Porter, 164, Skane- 
ateles, Edson H. Gilbert; R. S. Parks, 172, Cardiff, H. Case; Moses Summers, 278, 
Baldwinsville, Sanford F. Weeks ; E. A. Knapp, 340, South Onondaga, Oliver Nich- 
ols; Joseph Jones, 358, Marcellus Falls, C. L. Rich; M. Seager, 405, Jordan, William 
M. Spinning; vSaunders, 457, Cicero, John H. Eggleston ; Goodelle, 593, Tully, W. L. 
Earle; William Pullen, 595, Brewerton, Frederick Platto, sr. ; George H. Balster, 608, 
Manlius, G. W. Armstrong ; Anthony Stacey, 647, Elbridge, George Stacey ; Colonel 
Randall, 648, Liverpool, John R. Young; R. D. Pettit, 663, Lysander, R. Terpening; 
R. B. Hayes, 667, Fayetteville, A. Goodfellow; Benjamin L. Higgins, 670, East 
Syracuse, David Stryker; Lilly, 66, Syracuse, Adam Smith; Root, 151, Syracuse, 
John G. Butler. 

The Woman's Relief Corps, and the Thomas Merriam and Gustavus 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1085 

Sniper Camps of Sons of Veterans are assoeiated org-anizations in this 
cit}'. 

It is not possible to ascertain the number of enlistments made in 
Syracuse; neither can the number of citizens of the county at large 
who joined home and other regiments be obtained; it As a matter of 
still deeper regret that it is impossible to ascertain the number of On- 
ondaga's sons who loyally laid down their lives that the Union of States 
might live 1 

A most influential ally to the Union army during most of the Civil 
war was the Union League of America. It existed throughout the 
loyal States, and its mer^ibership was numbered liy hundreds of thou- 
sands. Its object, as stated in its ritual, was "to preserve hberty; to 
perpetuate the union of the United States of America; to maintain the 
supremacy of the laws and the Constitution thereof against all enemies, 
foreign and domestic; to secure the ascendancy of American institu- 
tions on this continent; to protect, defend, and strengthen all loyal 
men and members of the Union League of America in all their rights 
of person and property; to demand the elevation, and aid in the educa- 
tion, of the labor and laboring men of the whole country; to make our 
coimcils [lodges] schools for the prompt and proper instruction of all 
men in the duties of American citizenship; and for the inculcation 
of sentiments of true charity and brotherly affection among the 
members of our order." It was a secret, oath-bound order, ad- 
mission to the councils being had by signs and pass-words. It was of 
a semi-military character, and there were many councils which had 
regular military organizations, fitting them for service to quell riots or 
political disturbances. There were councils in ever}" town in the 
county ; there was one in the city, with headquarters in Myers Hall, 
which had a membership of more than 3,000. It had a regimental or- 
ganization, with weekly drills, and at the court house several hundred 
rifles were stored for its use when necessary, warnings for a speedy as- 
sembling to be given by a certain number of strokes on the cit}' hall 
bell. There were at one time more than 6,000 members in the county. 
The usefulness of the League was ended with the war. It was one of the 
very strong forces which supported the army in the field, by the moral 
influences it exerted everywhere, and saved the State to Lincoln at the 
time of his second election. The Unicni League Club of New York 
was organized from members of the order and has flourished from that 
time until the present. 



1086 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

There have been recruiting stations for the regular army in Syracuse 
at various times, when peace prevailed; but it is related that at the 
time of the Mexican war unusual effort was made to procure recruits 
here; that the station was in West Water street, in what was later the 
Smith "dye house," and that Capt. John C. Robinson, of the 8th In- 
fantry, afterwards brigadier-g-eneral, and later lieutenant-governor, was 
in command. It is also related that Gen. Christopher C. Auger, Gen- 
eral Russell, Colonel Kirby Smith, while of subordinate rank were also 
recruiting officers at the same place. ^ 

In early times post offices, like grist mills, were few and much scat- 
tered, w^hile the means for transportation of mails were meager and 
uncertain. But people in those days were not given to much corre- 
spondence, and then, too, the postal rates were high and money was 
scarce. Up to 1816, from the time when Benjamin Franklin organized 
the post-office department, these were the rates: For a single sheet of 
paper (foolscap, in those days), under 40 miles, 8 cents; under 90, 10 
cents; under 150, Vi}4 cents; under 300, 17 cents; under 500, 20 cents; 
over 500, 25 cents. In 1816 these rates were somewhat modified: 
For 30 miles, 6% cents; under 80, 10 cents; under 150, 12^^ cents; 
under 400, 18^ cents; over 400, 25 cents, and additional rates for 
every additional piece of paper, and if weighing more than one ounce, 
four times these rates. In 1845 and 1840 further slight reductions 
were made, also in 1851 and 1855, and again in 1863 and 1868, and in 
1872-75 the present rates were established. Prepayment of postage 
was not required under the earlier laws, but it was subsequently. 
Stamps were introduced in 1847, the example having been set by Eng- 
land in 1840. In 1789 there were 75 post-offices in the United States, 
seven being in New York State, at Albany, Claverack, Fishkill, Kinder- 
hook, New York, Poughkeepsie, and Rhinebeck. In 1793 there were 
209 in the United States and 20 in this State. An effort was made to 
obtain some information in relation to the post-offices of the county, in 
the early period of the post-office department, to which request this 
unique answer was made, which deserves a place in history, for in 1794 
there was but one office, if there was any: 

Sir: — In rejily to your communication of the 23d instant, requesting to be in- 
formed as to the names of postmasters in Onondaga county, N. Y., in 1794, and 
names of offices at said date, you are informed that, in consequence of the insuffi- 

' S. Guerney Strong's "Early Landmarks of Syracuse." 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1087 

ciency of the present clerical force in this office, it will be impossible to comply with 
your request. Very respectfully, 

R. A. Maxwell, 
Fourth Assistant Postmaster General. 

Post-offices were established as rapidly as the pul)lic needs demanded 
them, so that in 1824, when the progress of the county was continiied 
under the better organized form of government established about that 
time, there were post-offices at these places: 

Amber, Baldwinsville, Borodino, Camillus, Cicero, Clintonville, Delphi, Eagle 
Village, Elbridge, Fabius, Fayetteville, Geddes, Ionia, Jamesville, Liverpool, Ly- 
sander, Manlius, Marcellus, Onondaga (Hill), Onondaga Hollow, Oran, Orville, 
Otisco, Pompey, Pompey West Hill, Salina, Skaneateles, Spafford, Syracuse, Tully. 

The list of post-offices and names of postmasters in 1835, sixty years 
ago, is as follows: 

Amber, Albert Niles; Apulia, F. J. Higbee; Baldwinsville, Otis Bigelow ; Belle 
Isle, George Kimberly; Borodino, John Ba.Kter; Brewerton, William Bailey; Camil- 
lus, Grove Lawrence; Canal (in Van Buren, later discontinued). Job Nichols; Car- 
diff, John Spencer; Cicero, Hezekiah Joslyn, jr.; Clay, Nathaniel Teall ; Delphi, 
Elisha Litchlield; De Witt, George S. Lewis; Elbridge, Elijah Kendrick; Euclid, 
Nathan Soule ; Fabius, George Pettit; Fayetteville, Henry Edwards; Geddes, Elijah 
W. Curtis; Hartsville (discontinued), Elisha Raymond ; Howlett Hill, B. H. Case; 
Jack's Reef, ZeraShepard; Jamesville, Isaac W. Brewster; Jordan, Frederick Ben- 
son; Kirkville, Clark Hebbard ; La Fayette, Johnson Hall; Liverpool, Joseph Ja- 
queth ; Lysander, C. C. Hubbard ; Mandana, Tunis Van Houghton ; Manlius, D. D. 
Beckford; Manlius Center, John Mabie ; Marcellus, Sanford C. Parker; Marietta, 
Thaddeus Thompson ; Mottville, Leonard Mason ; Navarino, Oren Hall ; Onondaga, 
Hezekiah Strong; Onondaga Hollow, Robert Hamilton; Oran, Daniel Denison ; 
Otisco, Henry K. Graves; Plainville, John Buck; Pompey, Victory Birdseye; Pom- 
pey Center, James Dunning; Rhodes (in Skaneateles, discontinued), John Adams; 
Salina, Erasmus Stone; Skaneateles, Charles J. Burnett; South Marcellus, Caleb N. 
Potter; South Onondaga, Samuel Kingsley ; Spafford, Zerah BeiTy; Syracuse, John 
Wilkinson ; Tully, Henry F. King; Tully Valley (established 1836), John Henderson ; 
Van Buren, Adonijah White; Vesper, Samuel Ashley; Watervale, Ira Curtiss; 
Wellington (in Camillus, discontinued), William M. Canfield. 

The list for 1850, eleven years before the beginning of the Civil war, 
is as follows: 

Amber, Alanson Adams; Apulia, Edwin Miles; Brewerton, Asa U. Emmons; 
Baldwinsville, Lucius B. Hale; Belle Isle, E. Shead ; Borodino, Eleazer Fulton; 
Camillus, G. N. Sherwood; Canal, Abel H. Toll; Cardiff, Isaac Garfield; Cicero, 
Judson Gage; Clay, Philander Childs; Delphi, W. A. Bates; Dewitt, Henry C. 
Goodell; Elbridge, John D. Rhoades; Elliston, F. B. North; Euclid, William Coon; 
Fabius, William P. Jones; Fairmount, Wheeler Truesdell ; Fayetteville, James Mead ; 
Geddes, Simeon Spalding; Hartsville, P# Thompson; Howlett Hill, Leonard Carter ; 
Jack's Reef, Harvey Hall; Jamesville, Samuel Hill; Jordan, Justus Hough; Kirk- 



1088 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

ville, Obadiah Hubbs; La Fayette, Chester Baker; Lamsons, John H. Lamson ; 
Little Utica, Loran Dunham; Liverpool, John S. Forger ; Lysander, Chauncey Betts; 
Mandana, John S. Fowler; Manlius, Horace Nims; Manlius Center, JohnMabee; Mar- 
cellus, Elijah Rowley; Marcellus Falls, George P. Herring; Marietta, Alanson Hicks; 
Mottville, Ezekiel B. Hoyt; Navarino, John T. Gillett; Onondaga, Charles D. Easton; 
Onondaga Center, Albion Jackson ; Onondaga Valley, A. Pattison ; Pompey, C. S. 
Ball; Pompey Center, Judson Candee; Plainville, B. B. Schenck; Plank Road, 
Joseph Palmer ; Salina, WilHam B. Whitmore; South Marcellus, Caleb N. Potter; 
South Onondaga, C. Amidon ; Spafford, William W. Legg; Spafford Hollow, Kelly 
Case; Skaneateles, John Snook, jr. ; Syracuse, William Jackson; Tully, George B. 
Hall; Tully Valley, William Salisbury ; Van Buren, Lyman Peck ; Van Buren Center, 
G. W. Marvin ; Vesper, Chester M. Clark ; Watervale, WilHam Ely ; Wellington, 
L. Tyler; Windfall, David Preston. 

The Western Union Telegraph Company, whose wires now thread 
the country to carry the element which Benjamin Franklin experi- 
mented with, with his kite and key, not long before the county was 
established, had its origin in companies formed as early as 1844, when 
the first telegraph line was put in operation between Baltimore and 
Washington. The first line through Central New York was built in 
1846, the first office in Syracuse being opened on May 1st of that year. 
Various other lines have from time to time been constructed by other 
companies, but the Western Union is now in general control of the 
telegraph business of the entire United States and Territories, and ex- 
tends into other countries. Its capital is $100,000,000; its revenues 
about $24,000,000 annually. 

The old and numeroits stage lines now constitute only an incident of 
the early history, yet they once possessed important interest, for pre- 
vious to the building of the Erie Canal and the Syracuse and Utica 
Railroad they were the only means of public conveyance. They lined 
the several turnpikes, particularly the Seneca and Genesee, and crossed 
the southern as well as the middle part of the county. The coaches 
were constructed with something of elegance as well as much strength, 
and were uniformly drawn by four horses, and sometimes, when the 
roads were heavy, by six. Their model was employed in the con- 
struction of the first railroad coaches. At convenient points there 
were relays of horses, and changes were made quickly, the driver not 
leaving his seat by reason of any connection with the change. The 
mails were for many years carried by these lines of coaches between 
Albany and Buff^alo, and next to the pride of the captains of the ocean 
steamers of to day was that of the captains of the canal packet boats 
of yore and of these stage drivers, and they were in fact men of conse- 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1089 

quence. In the years immediately before the beginning" of travel by 
railroad it was not unusual that thirty or forty, and sometimes more, 
stages passed along the Seneca turnpike in twenty-four hours. In 
those times, too, United States troops were moved on foot between 
their stations, and not infrequently was a company or regiment seen 
plodding along the pike. These stage lines met with much competi- 
tion from the canal packets, but those which traversed the Seneca and 
"Genesee turnpikes, lying parallel with the railroad, were maintained 
until after the railroad was opened to travel and then they soon disap- 
peared forever. They were supported on the Cherry Valley and other 
southern roads until a little later period when they were also discon- 
tinued. New York was reached in those days by stage to Albany, 
thence by steamboat; the trip from Syracuse either way would some- 
times require five or six days, when the roads were bad and the stages 
frequently stalled. It was at best a hardship to endure the best com- 
forts which these stage lines provided. They were, however, of the 
greatest importance to the early settlers everywhere. 

A large number of asheries once existed in various parts of the 
county in which potash was the product. It was generally merchants 
who entered into the manufacture of it or supplied the wood ashes 
from which the ash was made. They sent wagons having large boxes 
about the country to collect ashes, giving in exchange for them prac- 
tical household articles and calicoes which the drivers carried in boxes 
under their somewhat exalted seats. The ashes were placed in "leeches," 
large tubs made expressly for the purpose, with a drain at the bottom, 
and water being turned upon the ashes at the top the product at the 
bottom was lye, which being boiled for a sufficient length of time was 
resolved into potash. This was exchanged every spring and fall in 
New York for goods. Every family had a leech of its own for making 
soft soap, by adding the lye to old scraps of fat which had been saved 
for the purpose. The total product of ashes was of course large, for 
everybody burned wood and plenty of it. The merchants of those 
times also bought pork, hams, lard, butter, cheese, flax, etc., exchang- 
ing these products for goods, paying for them by "barter," for there 
was but ver}^ little money current in those days, and the little " store 
bills" were almost invariably paid with products of some kind. 

New England rum was a staple commodity in the early stores and 
taverns and its use was very generally indulged in under various 
physiological theories, not so much for sociability as in later times 
137 



1090 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

yet almost always offered to a social caller. It was one of the chief 
causes of occasional disturbances among the Indians, yet even this un- 
tutored people had sense enough to know the extremes of rioting to 
which it might take them; and so when a party became possessed of a 
jug of "firewater" it was their custom to cast lots and thus choose one 
of their number who should not participate in the carousal to follow, 
but should be the custodian of all weapons and the " peace captain " of 
the occasion, to prevent harm to the Indians or to others. Other 
spirituous beverages came in at a later day, when whisky and tansy 
were regarded as a universal specific for malarial ai^ictions, the malady 
seeming to increase, however, it has been said, after the advent of the 
remedy. The use of these beverages was not discouraged, neither 
were they often used to excess, and clergy and laymen gave them like 
recognition. But the "spirits" of those days w^ere pure. It was not 
until " high wines " were made nearer by, and spirituous beverages were 
adulterated, that a specially harmful use was made of them. 

The "cold season " has been alluded to in the foregoing pages, the 
summer of 1816. It was really a disastrous season to agricultural in- 
terests, for crops were almost wholly destroyed, causing much priva- 
tion and not a little real suffering. There was a heavy fall of snow in 
June, sufficient for temporary sleighing, and on the 4th of July ice was 
formed of considerable thickness. There was at least one frost in 
every month. The cold in July was so severe that many song birds 
were frozen to death, the ground in some places under evergreen trees 
being literally covered with them. Young domestic animals also suf- 
fered severely, many dying. The phenomenal climatic conditions also 
affected the health of the people, causing much illness. The inhab- 
itants did not recover from the disaster for some time. Seeds of all 
kinds were very scarce, for crops, and als© fruit, had been almost en- 
tirely cut off and seed supplies were mainly obtained at a considerable 
distance away, where the cold was not so great, and at such cost as was 
a very serious matter. 

The litigation in early years over land titles gave profitable emplo}'- 
ment to numerous lawyers, not a few of whom accumulated fortunes 
from their practice. It was the work of many years in many instances 
to establish titles, especially in cases where the same land had been 
deeded by the owner to several different purchasers. 

There are many people yet living who well remember the canvas- 
covered, rounded-topped wagons which were so freely used fifty years 



I 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1091 

ag-o by "western emigrants. " They were looked upon as a venture- 
some class of people who braved serious dangers and great privations 
that they might acquire western homes. They were pioneers, to be 
sure, but they pursued easy and comfortable paths when compared 
with those which the pioneers of Onondaga county trod! 

The place of women in the history of (])nondaga county is every- 
where conspicuous, and especially and commendably so in literature. 
Some have won world-wide distinction in this sphere, while others are 
widely known for their achievements in both prose and poetr}'. In re- 
sponse to the call of Mrs. Florence C. Ives, chief of the New York 
State Board of Woman Managers, at the Columbian Exposition at Chi- 
cago in 1893, Mrs. Frances W. Marlette, of Syracuse, prepared a list 
of the names of such Onondaga women who with the pen had won 
more or less fame, for filing in the Woman's Columbian Library. Some 
of these names were accompanied by an enumeration of works and 
short biographical sketches. This record, with some additions made 
by the editor of these volumes, is an honor to the count}^ and to the 
State. "Grace Greenwood," Mrs. Sarah Clark Lippincott, born in 
Pompey in 1823, is naturally first mentioned, with a list of her many 
works. Mrs. Matilda Joslyn Gage has probably delivered more ad- 
dresses on the subject of "Woman's Rights," besides doing a vast 
amount of writing on this and other subjects, than an}' other living 
woman. President Cleveland's sister. Rose Elizabeth, has earned some 
attention. Others are: Mrs. S. M. Henry-Davis, "The Life and Times 
of Sir Philip Sidney" (1859), "Norway Nights and Russian Days" 
(1887) ; Mrs. Anna Marie Treadwell-Redfield, "Zoological Science, or 
Nature in Living Forms" (1858)^ Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Wieting, 
"Prominent Incidents in the Life of Dr. John M. Wieting, Including 
His Travels Around the World" (1889); Miss Arria S. Huntington, 
"Under a Colonial Roof Tree" (1892), "Mazzini and His Message" 
(quite recently published) ; Mrs. Catherine Reynolds Pickard, "Peter 
Still," "The Kidnapped and the Redeemed" (1856); Mrs. Ellen M. 
Mitchell, "A Study of Greek Philosophy" (1891); Mrs. Josephine 
Kingsley Brown, "Outlines of Geography," "Keble Tablet"; Mrs. 
Amelia Royce Bradley, teacher at Manlius in 1831, missionary to Siam, 
prepared a dictionary of the Siamese language, a volume of hymns, a 
geography, grammar, and arithmetic and religious tracts in the Siam- 
ese language; Mrs. Izora C. S. Chandler, "Methodist Episcopalianism" 
(1889), "Anthe" (1886); Miss Jessie Kurd (aged ten years), "Hoi. 



1092 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Horton's Good Fortunes" (1886); Mrs. Anna C. Maltbie, "Gathered 
Records" (1874), "A Rescript of Treadwell and Piatt Genealogy"; Miss 
Caroline M. Congdon, "The Guardian Angel and other Poems" (185G); 
Miss Mary Elizabeth Beauchamp, "The Emigrant's Quest" (1867), 
"Handbook of Wells Cathedral" (1856); Mrs. Anna Manning Comfort, 
M. D., "Woman's Education and Woman's Health," chiefly in reply to 
"Sex in Education" (1874); Mrs. Ellen M. Lockwood, "Family 
Prayers" (1890); Mrs. Celeste Bostwick Fuller, "The Child of the Cov- 
enant," a memorial sketch of Caroline Mary Fuller (1880), "The Li- 
brarian," compiled by Celeste Parmalee Bostwick (1858); Mrs. Marcelia 
Ward Hall, "Orthoepy Made Easy" (1888); Miss Alice Edwards Durs- 
ton, under the nom de plume "Dame Durdin," "Mabel Howard"; Miss 
Clara French, "The Dramatic Action and Motive of King John," with 
a memorial sketch of the writer (1892); Mrs. Ellen E. Dickinson, "New 
Light on Mormonism," with an introduction by Thurlow Weed (1885), 
"King's Daughters"; Mrs. Helen Hiscock Backus with Miss Helen 
Dawes Brown, "Great English Writers" ; Miss Emily Chubbuck Jud- 
son ("Fanny Forrester"), twelve miscellaneous works; Miss Rosemary 
Baum, a play entitled "That Box of Cigarettes," and other plays, some 
in the hands of publishers; Miss Margaret Hicks Volkmann, "Text 
Book to the Illustrations of the History of Art," a translation from the 
German; Mrs. Elizabeth Carter McCarthy, "Translation of the Spirit 
of Education," by M. C, Abbe, Amable Beesau (1881); Miss Emma C. 
Welch, "Intermediate Problems in Arithmetic"; Miss Mary A. A. 
Dawson, "Puzzles and Oddities"; Mary E. Duncan (Mrs. J. C. Whit- 
ford), "The Chautauqua Booklet Calendar"; Mrs. John Lawrence, a 
dramatization of "The Scarlet Letter"; Mrs. Francesca Cleveland 
Fuller, "Major Hall's Wife"; Mrs. James M. Belden (Jennie Van Zile 
Belden), "Fate at the Door"; Caroline M. Congdon, who died in 
Otisco, aged eighteen, various writings of merit, particularly "Guard- 
ian Angels"; Mrs. Anna Bagg Halliday, many beautiful poems; Mrs. 
Irene Baumgras Hale, newspaper- articles on standard subjects ; Miss 
Martha C. Gifford, historical romances, and articles of fact for maga- 
zines; Mrs. Bessie J. Sherlock, who, under a nom de plume, wrote many 
stories; Mrs. Eureka Lawrence Hood, "Life at the Snowball House," 
and stories in standard publications ; Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, a highly 
cultured newspaper correspondent, known in Syracuse as "Chinqui- 
pin"; Mrs. L. C. Chandler, also a gifted correspondent to religious and 
secular newspapers; Mrs. Fannie Freeman, a popular contributor to cur- 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1093 

7'ent literature; Mrs. Mary R. Bagg, one of the most vigorous and 
original writers; Mrs. Phila Case Thomas, "Nobody's Child," of which 
more than a million copies have been sold, and many sketches and 
poems in magazines; Miss Jennie Chapin, historical, poetical, and 
journalistic; Miss Harriet May Mills, letters, history, and art, and 
gifted in oratory; others are Miss Jessie Mann, Miss Sarah Otis, Mrs. 
P. H. Agan, Mrs. Le Roy Vernon, Mrs. Ethel Curtis, Mrs. Eliza Law- 
rence Jones, Miss Frances Dillaye, Mrs. Phoebe Teall Gardner, Mrs. 
Ruth Huntington Sessions, Mrs. Harriet Jones, Mrs. Amelia F. Barney, 
Mrs. Mary C. Collin, Mrs. Elizal^eth E. Gillette, Mrs. Adelia H. W. 
Slingerland, Mrs. Harriet D. Wilkin, Mrs, Martha Bridgeman Wright, 
Mrs. Emma R. Merriam, Miss Sarah Wilkinson, Mrs. Charlotte Birds- 
eye Miller, Mrs. Isabella Carter Rhoades, A.M., Mrs. Grace Lanckton, 
Mrs. Henry Daboll, Mrs. Laura Carpenter, Mrs. William vS. Andrews, 
Miss Mary L. Spalding, Mrs. Joseph vSeymour, Mrs. Helen M. Curtis, 
Miss Sarah J. Underwood, Mrs. Eliza Ostrander Jewell, Mrs. Louise 
Benson, Mrs. Sarah Sumner Teall, Mrs. Helen Leslie Gage, Mrs. 
Erminie vSmith, Mrs. Amelia Chapman George, Miss Hattie Buell, Miss 
Noble, Miss Susan D. Nearing. Mrs. Elizabeth T. Porter-Beach, of 
Skaneateles, wrote an epic, which brought to her honors from the 
queen of Spain. At the Pompey reunion in 1871, Flora, aged thirteen, 
daughter of Mrs. C. C. Butterfield, a cousin of Grace Greenwood, read 
a short and meritorious poem "To the Guests from Abroad." Mrs. 
Emily Judd-Law gained considerable prominence at one time by her 
contributions in prose and poetry to leading magazines. Almira 
Campbell who died in Pompey in lS2'd, aged twenty-two, wrote a 
number of very bright poems. Mrs. Esther Parsons, who came 
from Massachusetts into Pompe}' not later than 180^2, left a number 
of poems in manuscript, which were published in a Boston news- 
paper. Mrs. Charlotte Aberdien, who settled in Marcellus or Skan- 
eateles, was a contributor to the Knickerbocker Magazine. There were 
writers of some renown connected with the Onondaga Academy in its 
earlier days, but their names and proof of their work are not now at 
hand. Not so many men as women have attained prominence in the 
field of literature, even if the professions are all very largely represented. 
From this list the clergy, as a class, are excluded, and also lawyers, 
and the educators, though all have more or less to do with literature. 
Only those who have published books or standard writings have a place 
here, and the names of all those cannot be recalled. The Right Rev- 



1094 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

erend Frederic D. Huntington, Bishop of the Diocese of Central New 
York, is doubtless the most prolific author; his books and writings are 
counted by scores. Of those of earlier times, Wyllys Gaylord, then of 
Otisco, perhaps leads all the rest. He was an invalid most of his life, 
and occupied much of his time in the writing of articles on medical 
and scientific subjects for the magazines and other publications which 
attracted very wide attention. He also wrote a history of the war of 
1812, but it was never published and is still in the possession of some 
of his descendants. Wyllys and Lewis Gaylord Clark, twins, and 
cousins of Mr. Gaylord, became conspicuous for their positions and 
productions. It was while Wyllys was editor of the Philadelphia Ga- 
zette that he wrote the "Ollapodiana Papers" and published them in 
the Knickerbocker Magazine of which his brother was editor. Both 
were also noted for their very remarkable memories, either of whom 
could reproduce a sermon or speech from memory with surprising ac- 
curacy. William Ray, for a time an editor at Onondaga Hill, was a 
poet of some renown, and William H. Catliff, of Elbridge, published a 
small volume of poetical descriptions of "Life in a New Settlement." 
Thurlow Weed added some literary work to his usual routine of labor, 
and J. V. H. Clark made for himself a lasting reputation by his " On- 
ondaga; or Reminiscences of Earlier and Later Times," in two vol- 
umes (1849). Mr. Clark was a devoted historian and not only a cor- 
respondent of the New York Historical Society but of several others. 
He was exceedingly painstaking in his work. The Rev. Anson G. Ches- 
ter, though not born in the county, was for some years a resident, 
published much prose and poetry in magazines and newspapers, and 
John F. Seymour, born in Pompey, but who spent his life in Utica, 
was the author of considerable choice and popular literature. Homer 
D. L. Sweet published a book of his own poetical writings, which is 
mentioned as a fact rather than for its finish. A Judd Northrup has 
written two popular books, "Camps and Tramps in the Adirondacks" 
and "'Sconset Cottage Life: a vSummer on Nantucket Island." He 
has also done much literary work, besides completing the genealogy 
of his famih^ embracing seven or eight thousand names. Vivus 
W. Smith, and his son, Carroll E., have both shown fine literary cul- 
ture in many happy ways. The Rev. Samuel J. May was one of the 
foremost writers as well as speakers on the subject of the abolishment 
of slavery, and his successor in the pulpit, the Rev. vSamuel R. Calthrop, 
has contributed a vast amount of matter to literary journals. Professor 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1095 

George F. Comfort, late Dean of the College of Fine Arts of vS3n"acuse, 
is an Onondagan by adoption; he has written numerous text books and 
educational publications of standard importance, besides being a free 
contributor to magazines and representative newspapers. Andrew D. 
White has written a small library, and almost constantly has new books 
in press. His historical work is standard throughout the world. He 
stands pre eminent as a litterateur. The Rev. Dr. W. M. Beauchamp 
of Baldwinsville is an authority on local Indian history and the author 
of much historical knowledge on this and kindred subjects to which, 
aside from the pastoral work he has performed, he has devoted much 
of his life. James Manning Bronson, a leading editorial writer of The 
Syracuse Herald since November, 1892, inherits and has acquired the 
best of literary talent ; he comes from a New England family which 
for a century has been prominent in letters, theology, law and states- 
manship. His mother, daughter of the Rev. Dr. Jeremiah Chaplin, 
the founder and first president of Colby University, was the author of 
the well-known " Rainy Day " stories for children. Mr. Bronson springs 
from the Bronsons and Jeremiah O'Brien of Revolutionary times. His 
ambition was to become proficient in law, but after brief practice he 
disliked and abandoned it for journalism in which he has been and still 
is successful. He was connected as an editorial writer with the New 
York press before he came to Syracuse. He had won for himself the 
very strong commendation of cultured people in the East by his poet- 
ical writings before he came to Syracuse to establish his home perma- 
nently, and since he became connected with the Herald he has occa- 
sionally delighted its intelligent readers with brilliant flashes of his 
poetic genius, and from time to time contributed valuable special ar- 
ticles on special subjects over the initials "J. M. B." He is shortly to 
publish a book of his poems. He is not yet forty years old; his future 
is indeed full of rare promise. John Albro was peculiarly gifted in 
versatile versification, being a free contributor to the newspapers. 
In his later years he published a volume of serious poems, which met 
with much favor. He was also a successful writer of humorous prose. 
No man in the county, and but few any where, has had as much 
experience in historical writing as H. Perry Smith, who has come to 
be an authority in several coi:nties. He has in this wa}- employed his 
time for many years, always faithfully and earnestly. Before this he 
wrote the " Babes in the Woods " (illustrated), an interesting story of 
the Adirondacks; "Syracuse and its Surroundings" (illustrated), and 



1096 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

an illustrated sketch of the founding- and first decade of Oakwood 
Cemeter}^ He has done much biographical work, and is a well-trained 
journalist of early experiences. He has also been a popular writer of 
poetry, and in 1879 a volume of his best productions was published 
under the title "A Summer Picture." A limited edition was issued for 
private circulation only. Edwin R. Wallace has the distinction of not 
only having made the first " Guide to the Adirondacks," but also the best 
one, for the public has long esteemed it as being a standard guide, com- 
pelling it to pass through many and frequent editions until it has become 
as attractive in its illustrations as it is reliable in its text. Mr. Wallace 
has been a dealer in books and a book-worm all his life. C. W. Bardeen, 
publisher of the School Bulletin, is a widely-known author, his books and 
writings being on educational affairs. The Rev. Mr. Cusick, an On- 
ondaga Indian, is the author and publisher of an interesting volume 
devoted to the Indians, containing much matter which is entirely 
original. vS. Gurney Strong, city editor of the ^Syracuse Sunday Times, 
is the author of " Early Landmarks of Syracuse," in which much his- 
toric matter of value is preserved in good form. George Barrow, of 
Skaneateles, was once an excellent contributor of fiction and facts to 
standard magazines, particularly the Atlantic, and would have made 
for himself an enviable reputation if he had pursued a literary life. 
M. F. Hand left "From a Wilderness to a City," a valuable contribu- 
tion to the preserved history of the city. Professor Willard Fiske, 
next to Bishop Huntington and Andrew D. White, has had the most 
brilliant literary career of any Onondagan, and in some respects he is 
at least the peer of either, particularly in his acquirement of Scan- 
dinavian languages, in which he is an acknowledged and oft-quoted 
authority. Forbes Heermans is the author of several popular books 
and numerous successful plays. He devotes all his time to literary 
work and enjoys a wide acquaintance among litterateurs. R. R. Ray- 
mond was also well known in literature. Another of the foremost 
poets and highly-cultured litterateurs not only of this county but the 
whole country, is Richard Edwin Day, who was born April 27, 1852, at 
West Granby, Oswego county, N. Y. He spent the years until his 
majority on his father's farm, and taught district schools for several 
terms. Preparing for college at Falley Seminary, Fulton, he entered 
Syracuse University in 1873, and graduated in 1877, taking the degree 
of A. B. After graduation he engaged for a time in post-graduate 
work, mostly in metaphysics, and for a year or two he was principal of 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1007 

Martin InsLitute, at Martinsburg, N. Y. In 1879 Mr. Day became 
assistant*editor of the Northern Christian Advocate, a position which 
he held nearly a year and a half; and in November, 1880, he became 
associate editor and literary editor of the Syracuse Standard. Literary 
work has occupied most of his leisure moments for many years; and 
he has published four books of verse: "Lines in the Sand" (1878), 
"Thor; A Lyrical Drama " (1880), "Lyrics and Satires" (1883), and 
"Poems" (1888). These works have all received very strong com- 
mendation from the best independent critics in magazines and else- 
where. He has twice been the convention poet of his college fraternity. 
Mr. Day was married April 22, 1880, to Frances E. Northrop, of Mar- 
tinsburg, N. Y. Prof. Frank Smalley, an ornament to Syracuse Uni- 
versity, is a devoted student of literature, his most conspicuous evi- 
dences of which are several scholarly editions of Roman authors. 
Alfred Wilkinson is the atithor of numerous articles on legal and 
scientific subjects, and the able editor of forty volumes of Reports of 
Decisions of the Court of Appeals, works necessary in every law 
library. William Cowie, though never having published a book of 
his poetical writings, has a sufficient number of them to make a choice 
volume, many of them being of rare "Scottish construction. Charles 
De B. Mills has contributed a large quantity of very scholarly writings 
on various subjects, chief among which, perhaps, are his books on 
Mythology and Oriental religions. May the name of the Editor of 
the "Memorial History of »Syracuse," and of these volumes, be mod- 
estly added to the list? If any omission in the foregoing shall be dis- 
covered, let the explanation be found in faulty recollection, or want 
of information, for every effort has been made, without much data to 
refer to — the publication being quite original — to make the list com- 
plete. 

The Grand Centennial Celebration which occurred in Syracuse dur- 
ing the week beginning June 6, 1894, is mentioned on page 260 and 
thereafter, but more extended notice of it was reserved for this chapter. 
Though the date for the event had been nan^d some time previously, 
the first action taken by the Historical Society looking to an organiza- 
tion was on May 16, when two committees, charged with the duty of 
making arrangements, were appointed as follows : 

Centennial Committee — William Kirkpatrick, chairman ; Samuel T. Betts, secre- 
tary; Theodore L. Poole, Carroll E. Smith, Edwin A. Powell, L. D. Sisco. 

Citizens' Committee — Riley V. Miller, chairman ; Charles W. Snow, Austin C. 
138 



1098 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Chase, J. W. Yale, Donald Dey, Salem Hyde, Daniel Rosenbloom, Louis Will, W. 
H. Warner, Edward Joy, David K. McCarthy, P. R. Ouinlan, J. W. Smitlf, De Forest 
Settle, Benjamin Stevenson. 

Sub-committees were appointed, nine in number, and assigned to 
special duties. 

It was decided that the celebration should occur on the 6, 7, 8, and 
9 days of June, that on the first day, in the forenoon, there should be 
a grand street parade, of a historic, industrial, and commemorative 
character. In the afternoon, a grand mass meeting at the armory, to 
be presided over by the president of the society, William Kirkpatrick. 
In the evening, an Old Settlers' camp-fire at the Armory, with short 
addresses. A Loan Exhibition to be opened in two connected stores of 
the Wieting block in the evening. 

June 6, 9 — Scenic representations of the more striking historical 
events, in a series of views and tableaux, at Wieting Opera House, 
three evenings and two afternoons, under the auspices of the ladies of 
the Historical Society. These were the general features of the celebra- 
tion, the detail of which was elaborate, satisfying, and appropriate. 

The time intervening between the appointment of the managing 
committees and the celebration was busil)^ occupied by a large number 
of people, under designated leaders, in completing arrangements, in- 
volving an amount of labor sufficient to appall a less enthusiastic and 
determined army of women and men. Meantime subscription books 
were generously filled to meet the expenses of the event, and through- 
out the city, and in the towns as well, the deepest interest was every- 
where exhibited. A vast amount of work devolved upon the commit- 
tees, and particularly upon Secretary Betts, who displayed his excellent 
executive abilities with the best results. 

Daily announcements appeared in the newspapers of the progress 
which was being made and from far and near came responses to the 
committee from invitations desiring the presence of all sons and daugh- 
ters of Onondaga county. 

On May 29, the marshal and his stafi:" to conduct the grand parade 
were announced as follows: 

Marshal-in-chief, Colonel Henry N. Burhans; assistant adjutant-general, Colonel 
John G. Butler; chief aide, J. Emmet Wells; marshals. Colonel M. B. Birdseye, 
chief of cavalry division ; Major Thomas Merriam, chief of veterans; Colonel A. C. 
Chase, chief of industrials; E. W. Haven, chief of uniformed knights; Lt. Col. M. B. 
Fairchild, chief of Odd Fellows; Philip E. Gooley, H. E. Maslin, W. L. Smith, D. B. 
Cooper, John L. Kenyon, W. H. Warner, W. J. Gillette, Richard Dunn, D. W. Peck, 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1099 

M. J. McCarthy. Aides, George L. White, Dr. A. S. Edwards, T. T. Clough, James 
M. Colwell, Louis Mason, Burt Smith, Frank P. Denison, Major Louis F. Powell, 
Thomas Saile, W. Tabor, J. W. Black, Henry Duguid, O. D. Burhans, Andrew S. 
White, Allan Fobes, Sedgwick Tracy, Charles Umbrecht, Anthony Baumer, Hugh 
T. Morgan, Miles O'Sullivan, Thomas R. Jordan, William Nye, Harvey D. Burrill, 
Guerney S. Strong, C. Fred Ackerman, B. W. Moyer, E. J. Eddy, B. Revoir, J. H. 
McDowell, Daniel O'Brien, John P. Schlosser, Jacob Schilly, Charles Schoeneck, 
Nicholas Pollman, Julius Gilcher, Edward A. Hunt, B. F. Bauder, Dr. J. F. Kauf- 
man, Colonel W. R. Chamberlin, Charles R. Hubbell, William L. Barnum, J. Frank 
Durston, Gustavus Van Schaick. 

The parade, as already stated elsewhere, was the largest and most 
interesting of any ever seen in the city. The day was opened by the 
firing of one hundred guns, and at sunset a Federal salute was fired. 
Never was a city more profusely or gaily decorated, and never was 
there a more general suspension of business and participation in a great 
event. There was bunting everywhere, and many brass l)ands and 
fifes and drums conspired with the general success of the day to carry 
the enthusiasm of the people to a high pitch. It was estimated that 
there were more than 50,000 people in the streets. An epitome of the 
scenes and events of the opening day was given editorially by the Jour- 
nal of the following day : 

Onondaga's centennial was inaugurated yesterday with an enthusiasm even be- 
yond the anticipations of the enthusiastic projectors of the event. Even the skies 
were propitious, and the cool weather was conducive to the success of the parade. 

The sun, which for twenty-four days had disdained to shine, brightened the occa- 
sion with its effulgent rays. The day was in every respect all that could have been 
asked for. The parade which inaugurated the festival of the week, was altogether 
the most imposing and interesting ever seen in our streets, and it earned the approval 
and admiration of one and all. The city poured its people out to see it, and all 
classes united in making a holiday of perhaps the most interesting occasion in our 
city's history. 

The character of the monster procession was symbolical of the growth and prog- 
ress of the city and county for an hundred years. Many events typified were his- 
torical. They were therefore in the highest degree valuable as an education to the 
youth of the day. For comparison was made in the passing show of the methods 
and customs of the farmer and the artisan of ye olden times with the skillful achieve- 
ments of modern science and invention, which combined to make the laborious ac- 
complishments of our forefathers a wonder almost passing belief. Indeed, the ob- 
ject-lessons presented in the parade yesterday were in the highest degree instructive 
as well as interesting. 

The literary exercises in the Armory in the afternoon and the camp-fire in the even- 
ing closed a day big with events in the history of Syracuse and Onondaga county. 
They were appropriate supplements to the outward demonstrations of the day. The 
speakers recounted eloquently in prose and poetry the notable events in our county's 



llOO ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

histor3^ and graphically portrayed the heroic and self-sacrificing deeds of our sturdy 
ancestors. 

The celebration was a glorious success in every particular, and it will still further 
enhance the fame of Syracuse, the city, and Onondaga, the county. 

The Historical Tableaux, exhibited at the Weiting Opera House, 
created the greatest enthusiasm and were seen each time by an audi- 
ence equal to the capacity of the auditorium. They were prepared 
under the general direction of Mrs. Charles E. Fitch, who was assisted 
by Henry J. Ormsbee as stage manager. But a large number of women 
entered into the active work of preparation. The tableaux were ar- 
ranged with exceeding nicety and precision, with conscientious endeavor 
to make them complete and perfect; indeed, so well were the arrange- 
ments made that the exhibition almost assumed a professional standard, 
A local writer aptly described the impressions which it made upon 
those in the audience : 

There is something higher and beyond mere stage effect in this entertainment. 
While we mark the excellent rendition of the Imes and the perfect posing in the tab- 
leaux, while we observe the studied effect of the calcium light and admire the scen- 
ery painted specially for this occasion, there are other considerations that engage 
our thoughts. One does not have to let his imagination play very far to transport 
himself back to days long gone by, and sitting there in a modern opera house see 
pass before him living pictures of the past. Old and young alike are deeply interested. 
You feel like Rip Van Winkle did when he went back to his old town. You have 
some familiarity with the scenes and faces about you, yet there is something 
strangely out of place. You better appreciate Indian nature, you understand the 
efforts of the Black Robes in teaching the converted Indians, you see a wonderfully 
realistic party in 1820, you become an abolitionist on the spot, you work at the 
handles of the old hand fire engine, you laugh at the old school, you cry when the 
soldiers leave for the front and you cheer when Johnny comes marching home again. 
Above all it should be remembered that the characters are delineated as far as possi- 
ble, by lineal descendants of those represented. This fact alone lends a wonderful 
interest to the performance. 

The first tableau represented the legend of Hiawatha. Part I 
showed Onondaga Lake near Green Point at the time of the formation 
of the Iroquois league. The chiefs and sachems were assmbled around 
the council fire, when Hiawatha arrived in his white canoe. He was 
greeted by the chief of the Onondagas. Part II depicted Hiawatha's 
farewell to the assembled chiefs. He entered the canoe amid the lam- 
entations of the warriors, and was translated to the skies, ascending in 
his white canoe before the eyes of the audience. Realizing it was his 
final departure he gave the death cry. Mrs. A. Judd Northrup and 
Miss Frances P. Gifford were the directors of this tableau, and the par- 
ticipants were : 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1101 

Thomas Vickers, Hiawatha; Daniel La Forte (chief of Six Nations), Chief of the 
Onondagas; Andrew H. Green, jr. (Ato-ta-rho), Head Sachem of the Onondagas; 
Harold Westcott, Chief of the Senecas; B. M. Sperry, Chief of the Cayugas; Wm. 
Sumner Teall, Chief of the Mohawks ; Andrew J. Pendergast, Chief of the Oneidas ; F. 
K. Smith, Fred W. Pierson, Horace Pierson, T. F. Schneider, Harold Stone, Harry 
Benedict, Herman Bartells, Henry Denison,, Will Esterbrook, Sands Kenyon, John 
Kenyon McDowell, Joseph Hubbard, Howard Clark, Charles Hyde, Robert J. Sloan, 
jr., Albert P. Fowler, W. G. Booth, Thomas Woods, Walter W. Magee, George H. May, 
John C. Hunt, Frank Hall, Allan C. Fobes, Thomas Carson, Mrs. Wm. Shankland 
Andrews, Mrs. George A. Roflf, Mrs. A. M. Smart. Mrs. Charles Preston, Miss Ethel 
Lockwood, Miss Florence D. Vaun, Miss Lucy Truesdell Ballard, Miss Charlotte 
Stone, Miss Cornelia Comstock Lake, Miss Alice M. Clark, Miss Catherine Moore, 
Miss Marie R. Saul. 

Then came the Jesuit mi.ssion scene. The date, 1653. The scene 
represented Father Le Moyne and inissionaries teaching the converted 
Indians. To them he explained the value and usefulness of salt water, 
and dispelled their belief in the poisoned spring. A feature was the 
chapel music, and the Ave Maria by Miss Maria S. Barry. Mrs. L. 
V. L. Lynch was director of this tableau, and the participants were: 

Father Le Moyne, John G. Lynch; Garacontre, Alexander H. Cowie ; Gahatio, 
Miss Spalding; Maria, the Saint of the Onondagas (with Ave Maria), Mrs. Maria S. 
Barrj-; Nokomis, Mrs. Roff; Outawa, Miss Leontme Molyneux ; Indian maidens, 
Miss Comstock, Mrs. Smart, Miss Palmer, Miss Stone, Miss Durston, Miss Lake, Miss 
Sedgwick, Miss Grant, Miss Babcock, Miss Stone, Miss Vann, Miss McGuffle, Miss 
Poole; Jesuits, Richard Calthrop, O. Wells Clary, Walter Wright, George Ticknor, 
sang the priests' part of the ' ' Dixit Dominus ; " the St. John's cathedral choir sang the 
response to the " Dixit Dominus" and the "Angelus" — Miss McQuade, soprano, Mrs. 
Barry, contralto, Mr. Foley, Mr. Renaud, Mr. Sullivan, tenors; Mr. La Friniere, 
Mr. Gilroy, bassos; other Jesuits, E. F. McNulty, John H. McCrahon, Sarsfield Slat- 
tery, Henry McCarthy, John B. Foley, Charles Mullen ; Indians, Frank Hall, Andrew 
J. Pendergast, W. S. Teall, Andrew Green, Harold Stone, Charles Hyde, Sands S. 
Kenyon, Kenyon McDowell, George H. Denison, Robert J. Sloan, jr., Frederick T. 
Pierson, jr. , Howard H. Pierson, Francis Preston. 

Next was the " Song to the Brave Old Oak" by the ^-Eolian Ouar- 
tette, under the direction of Prof. Ernst Held, and consisting of G. 
Albert Knapp, leader, Fred Wilcox, Franklyn Wallace and Charles E. 
Bailey. 

"Salt Boiling in Early Times " was the subject of the second tableau. 
The time was 1788, and the scene was to illustrate primitive experi- 
ments in the manufacture of salt. Comfort Tyler and Asa Uanforth 
were present with Indian friends, evidently elated over the success of 
making salt by boiling water in an old-fashioned kettle. The directors 
of this tableau were : 



1102 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Mrs. C. Tyler Longstreet and Miss Virginia L. Jones, and the participants were: 
Elizur Clark, John Sej'mour Clark, Miss Ormsbee, Mrs. Celia Tyler Chamberlain, 
Miss E. Tyler Chamberlain, Miss Charlotte Stone, Charles Longstreet Skinner, Mrs. 
Sarah Longstreet Tolman, Miss Hattie Poole, William S. Teall, Miss Florence D. 
Vann, Kenyon McDowell, Stanley G. Smith. 

In the intermission Mrs. John R. Clancy sang "The Star Spangled Banner" with 
chorus by Franklyn Wallace, Joseph Bayette, G. Albert Knapp, E. N. Westcott, 
Clarence Dillenbeck and X. W. Vandevoort. 

The next scene was a painting to represent Thomas McCarthy's store 
in 1805, and the new palatial store of 13. McCarthy & Co., in contrast. 
Following- this was an old-fashioned singing school conducted by Prof. 
F. A. Lyman. The costumes w^ere old-fashioned with a collection of 
giggling and gum-chewing girls and bashful young men. They sang 
"Polly Put the Kettle On," and took a pinch of snuff during recess. 
The school was made up of members of the Good Will chorus, as 
follows: 

Mrs. A. B. Merrihew Mrs. Fred A. Lyman, Miss Mayme Robbins, Miss Gertrude 
Herr, Neanda Springstine, Misses Martha E. Wheeler, Maud Gray Bogardus, Grace 
Grannis, Adella L. Baker, Edna Dodd, Elizabeth A. Gray, Mrs. Kinney, Mrs. 
Charles G. Hanchett, Misses Elizabeth C. Markell, Nina Burpee, Cora Burpee, Grace 
Burpee, Alberta E. Perry, Carrie M. Smith, May Chadwick, Jennie Dunham, Mrs. 
E. H. Tarnow, Jay C. Morrison, Joseph Cook, Frank A. Chadwick, HsLvry Slocum, 
A. B. Merrihew, W. Scott Merrihew, Archibald H. Thompson, Nelson J. Kemp, 
John L. Bauer, John K. Dean. 

Then came a quilting party. The guests w^ere supposed to be as- 
sembled at the residence of Lewis H. Redfield at Onondaga Hollow in 
the year 1820. The furniture was in keeping with the date, and so 
were the costumes. The quilt was to be sold for the benefit of the 
Presbyterian church. Mrs. J. L. Bagg and Mrs. Delia Colvin Hatch 
were the principals. Mrs Hatch related ih the manner of the time 
some of the reasons why her numerous brothers and sisters could not 
be present. Mrs. Bagg as Aunt Treadwell prophesied the future of 
the city. Others were silent but thoughtful. Hon. William Kirk- 
patrick appeared as Dr. Kirkpatrick. The post rider delivered the 
Weekly Register, the news of the day was read, and the scene closed 
with old-fashioned music and dancing. The saddle bags for traveling on 
horseback, used by the post rider in this scene, were used by Dr. Kirk- 
patrick before the days of stages, when he mounted his horse and rode 
to Washington to take his seat as a member of congress during the 
last years of President Jefferson's administration. The directors of 
this number were Mrs. James I>. Bagg and Miss Ina Bagg Merrill. 
The participants were : 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1103 

Mrs. James R. Lawrence by Miss Virginia Lawrence Jones, Miss Dorwin by Miss 
Mary Dorwin, Mrs. Cornelius T3'ler Longstreet by Mrs. Sarah Longstreet Tolman, 
Mrs. Comfort Tyler by Mrs. Celia Tyler Chamberlain, Mrs. Victory Birdseye by 
Mrs. Ellen Wheaton Morgan, Miss Rachel Combs by Mrs. Carrie Ormsbee Patterson, 
Mrs. Betsey Raynor by Mrs. Mary V. Raynor Garrett, Mrs. Jonas Earll, jr., by Mrs. 
Carrie Smith Meeker, Mrs. West by Mrs. John Guy Barker, Mrs. Sylvia Kingsleyby 
Miss Marian Kingsley Brown, Miss Sedgwick by Mi.ss Lizzie Sedgwick, ]\Iiss Noxon 
by Miss Cornelia Comstock Green, Mrs. Redfield by Mrs. Ina Bagg Merrill, 
" Lavoisy " by Miss Jessie Hood, Mrs. Benjamin Colvin by Mrs. Delia Colvin Hatch, 
Rev. Caleb Alexander by Morris A. Smart, Dr. Kirkpatrick by William Kirkpatrick, 
Joshua Forman by Dr. Samuel Boyce Craton, Post Rider by Grove Beebe, Miss Patty 
Danforth by Miss Cornelia A. Baker, Miss Amanda Phillips by Mrs. Lucia Outwater, 
Mrs. Isabelle Pickard by Mrs. Caroline Coombs Ormsbee, Mrs. Timothy Jerome by 
Mrs. Emma Jerome Jackson, Mrs. Anna Maria Midler by Mrs. Melissa Sutherland 
Denison, Mrs. B. Davis Noxon by Mrs. Anna Eliza Ives, Mrs. James Hutchinson by 
Miss Harriet S. Leach, Mrs. Joel Dickinson by Miss Rosa Dickmson, Mr.s. Jasper 
Hopper by Mrs. Charlotte Beebe Hahn, Miss Ruthy Morse by Mi.ss Sophia Clark, 
Mrs. John Ellis by Mrs. CaroHne Ellis Hargin, Aunt Treadwell by Mrs. Mary Red- 
field Bagg, Miss Truesdell by Miss Lucy Ballard, Mrs. Grove L. Lawrence by Miss 
Elizabeth Le Baron Fitch, Miss Wheaton by Miss Flora Marsh Dawson. Miss Eunice 
Strong by Miss Kate Pauline Knapp, Mrs. John Pattison by Miss Charlotte Pattison, 
Lewis H. Redfield by George H. Clark, Isaac Jerome (Pompey) by William G. Lap- 
ham, Mr. Seymour by Andrew H. Green, jr. 

A quartette consisting of Mrs. J. R. Clancy, Mrs. G. W. Loop, 
Franklyn Wallace and E. N. Westcott sang "Oft in the vStilly Night." 
The La Fayette scene followed. In the background was seen the old 
Mansion House. In front of the hotel were assembled a large number 
of people in costumes of the time. Soon La Fayette entered on horse- 
back, preceded by school girls dressed in white. He was greeted by 
Joshua Forman (Dr. S. Boyce Craton), who in a speech of welcome ex- 
pressed the appreciation of the people of Onondaga county for the 
noble efforts of the marquis in behalf of liberty. Ur, Craton is a 
grandnephew of Joshua Forman, who was president of the village at 
the time of La Fayette's visit. La Fayette (O. Ware Clary) responded. 
Mrs. C. Tyler Longstreet presented the great Frenchman with a 
flower just as she did in reality when a little girl. The directors of the 
La Fayette tableau were Mrs. George N. Crouse and Mrs. Adele H. 
Durston, and the participants were: 

O. Ware Clary (Dr. Lyman Clary), La Fayette; Miss Annie H. Agan (Stevens), 
Mrs. Mary G. Babcock (Mrs. A. Kasson), Robert McN. Barker (Barkers), Lucian 
Barnes (Barnes), Mead Van Z. Belden, (Beldens), James M. Beiden (Beldens), 
Miss Edith Belden (Woolsons), Lawrence Beebe (Jasper Hopper), Miss Beebe 
(Beebes), Mrs. Louise M. Benson, (Manns and Cookes), Christopher C. Bradley, jr. 
(Bradleys), Mrs. Adele H. Durston (Howlett.s), James W. Eager (Eager), William H. 



1104 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Eager (Wilson), Miss Earll, Skaneateles (Earll), Lawrence B. Fitch (Grove Law- 
rence). Mrs. Mary R. Garrett (Raynors), Robert Gere (Geres), Miss Frances P. 
Gifford (Mrs. H. Gifford), Mrs. Sarah Clary Gott (Gott), Mrs. Annah T. Halcomb 
(Tealls), Mrs. W. T. Hamilton (Lawrence), Dr. Juliet Hanchett (Hanchetts), Miss 
Grace G. Hawley (Geres), Mrs. Lizzie E. Hawley (Ellis and Peck), Lee C. Hayden 
(Haydens), Alfred A. Hewlett, Alfred Ames Howlett, A. Ames Howlett, (three gen- 
erations of Howletts), Mrs. Anne Cheney Hyde (Cheneys), Austin K Hoyt (Hoyts), 
Mrs. Fanny Noxon Hudson (Cadwells), Mrs. Emma J. Jackson, Mrs. S. G. Lapham, 
Mrs. Walter Snowden-Smith, Master Walter Snowden-Smith, jr. (four generations of 
Jeromes), Miss Virginia L. Jones (McLaren), Mrs. Emily Northrup Bruce (Judds), 
Mrs. L. D. Burton (B'radleys) Allen Pierce Butler (Butlers), Miss Lucie E. Butler 
(Marsh), Nehemiah M. Childs (Childs), Mrs. Louise M. Clary (Wells), Miss Alice 
Sabin Clark (Clark), Miss Mary Colvin (Colvm), Nathan R. Colton (Randall), Miss 
Elizabeth Comstock (Noxon), Mrs. Florence M. Crouse (Marlette), Mrs. Mary L. L. 
Crouse (Leach), Mrs. Elizabeth Jones (Bradleys of Camillus), William Kirkpatrick 
(Dr. Kirkpatrick), Miss Louise Kennedy (Kennedys), Mrs. Kate C. Knickerbocker 
(Lakin), Miss Florence Keene (Keenes), Mrs. Helen M. Keene (Stantons), Miss 
Kellogg, Skaneateles (Kelloggs), Samuel B. Earned (Johnsons and Larneds), Levi La- 
throp (Lathrops), Herbert W. Lamb (Spragues), Mrs. C. Tyler Longstreet (Redfields), 
John G. Lynch (James Lynch), Mrs. Flora Yates Mason (Wheelers), James Manning, 
(Mannings), Mrs. Frances W. Marlette (Wrights), Miss Helen Meldram (Willards), 
Myron W. Merriman, jr., (Merrimans), Mi.ss Sallie Van K. Noxon (Van Cleek and 
Noxon), Miss Ursula F. Northrup (Elliotts), Frank J. Ormsbee (Ormsbees), Mrs. 
Emma C. Pierce (Marshes), Mrs. Hattie W. Pierce (Woodard and Poole), George N. 
Crouse, jr., (Dr. Rial Wright), Florence B. Crouse (Quackenbush), Dr. vSamuel B. 
Craton (Judge Formau), Frederick Dice Davis (Davis), Mi.ss Flora Dawson (Wheatons), 
Franklin P. Denison (Dr. H. D. Denison), Mrs. Melissa Denison (Sutherland), George 
H. Denison (Hurst), Miss Ella H. Denison (Hursts), Miss Florence S. Denison 
(Delamater), Mrs. Mary S. Dey (Sweets), Marshall H. Durston (Durstons), Mrs. Cor- 
delia H. Raynor (Hall), Miss May Richmond (Richmond), Schuyler Richmond, 
(Richmond), Edward L Rice (Rices and Eatons), Mrs. Fanny James Saul (Mrs. 
Amos P. Granger), Mrs. M. Olivia M. Sage, of New York city (Slocum), Miss Sarah 
Root (Roots), Mrs. Anna M. Sherlock (Malcolms), Miss Sarah T. Schwarz (Tefft), Mrs. 
Charlotte L. B. Scott (Bacons), Charles H. Sedgwick (Sedgwicks), Mrs. E. M. Seymour, 
Miss Margaret Seymour (ancestors entertained La Fayette), Stanley G. Smith 
(Smiths), Mrs. Mary B. Smith (vSmith and Bigelows), Mrs. William A. Sweet (Sweet), 
Charles C. Truesdell (Truesdells), Mrs. Lucia Phillips Outwater, Miss Emily J. Out- 
water, Frederick D. White and Andrew Dixon White, 2d, four generations (Dan- 
forths), Arthur C. Wales (Wales), John Wilkinson (Wilkinson), Miss Jeanette M. 
Williams (Malcolms), Miss Anna Hudson (Hudson). 

Following the La Fayette scene Prof. Lyman held a singing school, 
primary class, in costume. They sang the "A-B-C" song with good 
effect. Then the curtain went up on the school scene in Fayetteville 
in the year 1845. The school was in charge of Miss Eliza Cole, the 
same teacher who was in charge that year, when Grover Cleveland was 
one of her scholars. The scholars taking part were so far as they 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1105 

could be found descendants of early settlers of Fayetteville and vicinity. 
First came roll call and then a class in geography. "Stephen Grover 
Cleveland, what is the largest island in the Pacific?" asked the teacher. 
" Hawaii," responded Grover promptly, and then he read the follow- 
ing composition on "Time." "Time is divided into seconds, minutes, 
hours, days, weeks, months, years, and .centuries. If we expect to 
become great and good men, and be respected and esteemed by our 
friends, we must improve our time when we are young. George Wash- 
ington improved his time when he was a boy, and he was not sorry 
when he was at the head of a large army fighting for his country. A 
great many of our great men were poor, and had but small means 
of obtaining an education, but by improving their time when they were 
yoimg and in school, they obtained their high standing. Jackson was 
a poor boy, but he w^as placed in school, and by improving his time, he 
found himself President of the United vStates, guiding and directing a 
powerful nation. If we wish to become great and useful in the world, 
we must improve our time in school." The composition was actually 
written b}' Grover Cleveland when a boy. Miss Cole preserved a num- 
ber of the youthful efforts of her scholars and recently found this one 
among them. Ann Augusta Kent gave a recitation, and school closed 
with the singing of "Come, Come Awa}'." This number was under 
the direction of Mrs. Frances W. Marlette, and the participants were: 

Miss Eliza Cole, in charge. Scholars — Stephen Grover Cleveland represented by 
Milton H. Northrup, jr., Sarah Amelia Watson by Flossie Ryan, Cornelia Louise 
Watson by Cora Williams, Margaret Louise Cleveland by Charlotte Smith, Ann 
Araminta Bishop by Maria Mulvihill, Rosamond Dudley Farnham by Florence 
Barnes, Maria Hamlin by Alice Ormsbee, Ann Augusta Kent by Mary Gallup, Sarah 
Maria Reiley by Grace Jones, Mary Louise Tremaine by Blossom Ormsbee, Jane 
Pratt by Flossie Coan, Mary Pratt by Florence Whedon, George Washington Loomis 
by Mortimer Williams Raynor, Thomas Jeflferson Bishop by G. Fred Hurd, Addison 
Cole, jr., by Frank Ormsbee, Henry H. Kent by David Candee Knickerbocker, Rich- 
ard Cecil Cleveland by Herbert Pierson, Charles H. Reiley by Rodman Smith Reed, 
George Franklin Tibbets by Harry Burhans. 

The Jerry Rescue scene came next. Time, 1853. Jerry, a slave 
from Mississippi, was captured in Syracuse by slave hunters, and 
brought into court, but was rescued by the underground railroad au- 
thorities. The scene was arranged by Osgood V. Tracy, and the par- 
ticipants were Jerry, Mr. James Gray; United States Commissioner, 
C. A. Weaver; United States District Attorney, Lawrence T. Jones; 
attorney for prisoner, C. Sedgwick Tracy ; spectators in court room, 
J39 



1106 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

William Kirkpatrick, S. N. Holmes, Charles Merrick — all of whom 
were present at the rescue ; rescuers and others. 

Before the Jerry Rescue scene was presented the ^'Eolean Quartette 
sang "Way Down upon the Suwanee River." 

The original Musical Institute, organized in 1849, was next seen, 
aided by Mrs. John R. Clancy, Richard Calthrop, and a few other 
younger voices. The others on the stage were Mrs. Van Cleek, Mrs. 
O. F. Bartlett, Mrs. A. T. Morgan, Mrs. Allen Butler, Miss Anastasia 
Robinson, Mrs. Stanley Bagg, Miss Clara Babcock, T. Marshall Fry, 
M. Waldo Hanchett, Henry Babcock, John Low, Seymour H. Stone, 
Nelson Gilbert, Professor Held, leader. 

" The Burning of the Wieting block " was a realistic scene. Hanover 
Square in the winter of 1856 was presented, showing the old wooden 
canal bridge, the Syracuse House, and the Water street front of the 
Wieting Hall, erected in 1850. The firemen, many of whom were at 
the real fire, rushed on with the old hand engine after a cry of " Fire " 
and showed primitive methods of fighting fire. The scene was under 
the direction of Mrs. John M. Wieting and Hamilton S. White, and 
the participants were : L. W. Marsh, Thomas Bopt, Andrew Richards, 
Henry Rice, Rhoda Hogan, John T. Lighten, Mahlon Munn, George 
F. Green, Henry Knobel, George McBride, Frank Nelty, E. A. Hud- 
son, Samuel J. Abbott, Anthony Kendall, Ben Hottinger, R. M. 
Beecher, Frederick Auer, Charles Colwell, Maxwell Parish, Albert 
Fisher, John R3^an. The man who discovered the fire was the same who 
discovered the original fire in 1856, Mahlon Munn. 

The war scenes came last. Part I showed the departure of the first 
company of volunteers. Captain Butler's Zouaves. There were farewell 
demonstrations by enthusiastic citizens, during which Carroll E. Smith 
presented the company with a flag in behalf of admiring friends of the 
soldiers. Captain Butler responded with feeling. The drums beat 
and the Zouaves and 41st Company marched away. Part II showed 
camp life at the seat of war. It was night and gathered around a 
camp fire were a number of 41st Company, National Guard, boys with 
Harry Schell as sentry. George A. Rofif, Clarence Dillenbeck, X. W. 
Vandervoort, and Joseph Bayette sang "Tenting on the Old Camp 
Ground." Part III showed the return of the victorious troops and the 
grand reception of the populace. The Zouaves going out were Capt. 
John G. Butler, Corporal W. G. Tracy, Sergeant F. W. Weaver, Fourth 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1107 

Serg-eant J. M. Snell, Privates Spaulding, William E. Bower, John T. 
Williams, J. W. Robert, Theodore Nye, Thomas Bartlett, C. A. 
Phillips, (^n the return Captain Butler is a colonel, W. G. Tracy has 
risen from corporal to brevet major of Slocum's staff, F. A. Weaver is 
adjutant general of the brigade, and J. M. Snell is acting orderly ser- 
geant. James C. Spaulding was the first man to enlist in the county. 
The 41st Company was composed as follows: 

Lieut. Fred Thurwachter, Sergeants Charles C. Clearwater, Philip Kappe-sser, 
Gustave Orth, Edmund Schwarz; Corporals Eugene Kerley, Fred Friend, Louis 
Hall, John Stobo, John C. Hunt; Privates Babcock, Balch, Bergman, Brown, Ben- 
son, Cannell, A. J. Clark, Church, Diel, George E. Friend, C. H. Fox, Freeman, 
Garry, Hess, Hamlin, Inkster, Leeret, Mangan, McCrahon, McMorrow, Miller, 
Morris, Park, PufF, Richardson, Ringrose, Schell, Salter, Spoor, Tallon, Torrey, 
Vuillemot, Yehle, Yeomans, Auer, Bradley, Buckingharh, Babcock, Brayton, 
Pfeifer, Berry. 

The old soldiers participating in the return were Major T. L. Poole, 
commanding; aides, Col. John G. Butler, Col. O. V. Tracy, Col. George 
L. Hoyt, Capt. D. E. Hayden, Surgeon C. E. Hill, Capt. A. S. Sheldon. 
12th Regiment, under command of Major Edward Drake; 101st Regi- 
ment, under command of Capt. W. H. Warner; 122d Regiment, under 
command of Col. Silas Titus; 149th Regiment, under command of 
Major Jacob Knapp; 185th Regiment, under command of Col. T. M. 
Barber; artillery brigade and naval veterans. 

The Loan Exhibition was opened in two connecting stores, consti- 
tuting one large one in the Wieting Block, on the morning of June 6. 
There were about 600 entries at this time ; the number was subsequently 
increased to 988 and catalogued. Each exhibit had historical interest 
of some kind, and the place of exhibition in some ways resembled a 
museum. The Loan Exhibition Committee was composed of J. M. 
Mertens, chairman, Mrs. L. V. L. Lynch, Mrs. H. C. Cowl, Benjamin 
Stevenson; secretaries, Rev. Jeremiah Zimmerman, Eugene McClell- 
and; superintendents, Samuel J. Abbott, A. D. Perry; clerk, C. E. Adsit. 
The exhibition was continued into the following week in response to 
the popular demand and was in every respect not only a great but also 
a surprising success, for the display was unexpectedly large and of in- 
estimable value, so that it was under the efficient guard of detectives 
and watchmen both day and night. Mrs. C. T. Longstreet made the 
largest exhibit, and at the close contributed ninety treasures to the 
Historical vSociety. Others followed her example in smaller ways, and 



1108 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

the aggregate of such gifts was large and has given the society a splen- 
did nucleus for collections. 

The celebration in the town of Onondaga occurred at Onondaga Val- 
ley, May 25. There was a large influx of people from Syracuse and the 
surrounding country, even if the weather of the day was not all that 
could have been desired. The Valley was in gala-day attire, however, 
and the old arsenal on the east side displayed the American and French 
flags. Quite every house in the place was decorated, and glad welcome 
was given to the people from abroad by the citizens of the town. There 
was a fine parade under the direction of B. F. Barker, in the forenoon, 
and an attractive "museum," in charge of L, C. Dorwin, was open all 
day. The organization for the exercises was made in the Presbyterian 
church, where, after calling the assemblage to order R. R. Slocum in- 
troduced John T. Roberts, who gave an address of welcome, after which 
Hamlet Worker, president of the day, was introduced. George B. 
Clark then announced the following officers of the day: 

Onondaga Valley — William A. Wilson, John Conklin, Nathaniel Bostwick, C. C. 
Marlette, Mrs. Cortlandt Hiscock, Mrs. William Sabin, John Stolp, Perry Morton, 
William P. Forman, Sidney Wood, Charles Pattison, Albert Fowler, John Wells 
David Chaffee, Josiah T. Northway, Mrs. M. D. Searle, Mrs. Fanny Strong, Stephen 
Dady, Mary Dorwin. South Onondaga — D. Leroy King, George C. Nichols, Amasa 
Chapman, M. T. Fowler, Oliver Nichols, Silas C. Fields, Henry C. Fellows, B. F. 
Hulbert. Geddes — P. J. Schuyler, Myron C. Darrow. Guy Terry, F. M. Power. 
Camillus — D. Allen Munro, E. D. Sherwood, Mrs. Anna Blake Amidon, Miss Eliza 
Gere, George Geddes. Onondaga Hill — Merwin Tripp, Oscar Britton, Nelson Co- 
ville, Mrs. Tamar Knapp, Gordon Hewitt, Hezekiah Ball, John Boyle, sr., Peter D. 
Lawrence, Rudolphus Look, Mrs. O. P. Fay, Major Davis Cossitt, Edward L. Nor- 
ton, Denison Robinson. Marcellus — William R. Cobb, Isaac Bradley, Thomas 
Rhoades, Amos Clark, T. J. Herring. These names were followed by the nomina- 
tion of the list of secretaries presented by T. W. Meacham : John A. Davis, Silas 
Wright, James Dunlap, Seth D. Gilbert, E. V. Baker, Wihiam H. Bishop, Charles 
F. Adams, Oscar F. Austin, Emmet Coville, Edwin L. Makyes, Luke Huntington, 
Henry Conklin, Lyman C. Dorwin, Mrs. Jesse Sabin, E. J. Clark, George H. Slocum, 
E. M. Chaffee, F. N. Dickinson, Walter W. Norris, Mrs. S. L. Tollman, James Hen- 
derson, Mrs. Hattie Hopper, Mrs. Kate Mickles Markham. 

Rev. William M. Beauchamp then gave a brief address, discussing 
the relation of the Indians to the pioneer whites. He was followed by 
Joel Northrup aged 88 (since deceased), who recounted many incidents 
of life in Onondaga a half century ago. Dr. Israel Parsons of Marcellus 
discoursed upon the heroism of the women pioneers and the dangers 
which beset the early settlers. The Centennial poem, prepared for the 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1109 

occasion and read by its author, Myles Tyler Frisbie, was the feature 
of the afternoon. Though rather brief, yet it was full of histcry. John 
T. Roberts spoke of historic sites ; Mrs. Caroline Bridgman Clark of 
the earliest schools: Col. John M. Strong of military history. Mrs. 
Fanny A. Parsons spoke particularly of the early history of Camillus, 
and Cyrus D. Avery's paper was made up of interesting reminiscences. 
R. R. Slocum, Wilson W Newman and Robert McCarthy made short 
and interesting addresses and were followed by Mrs. Elizabeth Snyder 
Roberts with the reading of " The Old Arsenal," an anonymous poem. 
Several short addresses upon local events and reminiscences were 
given, which were followed by duets by Bessie Chaffee Bassett and 
Mrs. Alexander Wilson Brown, accompanied by Mrs. William Redding; 
an Onondaga Indian quartette, Albert Cusick, Marvin Crouse, John 
vScanandoah and Phebe Jones gave several selections. At a supplement- 
ary, or overflow meeting Benjamin F. Barker presided. Here several 
short and pertinent addresses were made, which concluded the pro- 
gramme of exercises. 

A celebration occurred in Baldwinsville, the towns of Lysander and 
Van Buren joining, May 30. There was a parade in the forenoon 
under the command of E. P. Clark, marshal, which was quite imposing 
in spite of the rain. In the afternoon exercises took place at the 
opera house, which was crowded. The officers of the day were: Presi- 
dent, Dr. J. V. Kendall; vice-presidents, J. T. Skinner, J. L. Voor- 
hees, L. W. Connell, F. T. Baldwin, B. B. Odell, J. E. Davis, Nathan 
Somes, A. D. Waterman, B. D. Sprague, D. M. Warner; secretaries, 
G. B. Wormouth, A. W. Johnson, George Hawley, Asa Abbott, H. K. 
Porter, William Culver. The exercises were opened by the singing of 
"America," by L. W. Connell, F. F. Bentley, L. O. Stearns and J. 
E. Connell, accompanied by the Onondaga Indian band. Prayer was 
offered by the Rev. H. P. Klyver, after which the Rev. Dr. W. M. 
Beauchamp delivered an address on the " Early History of Lysander." 
R. L. Smith, esq., followed on the "Settlement and Growth of the 
Early Part of the Town of Lysander." Justus vStephens spoke similarly 
for Van Buren. Hon. Wallace Tappan presented a paper on the 
"Early History of Van Buren." A. W. Bingham spoke for the town 
of Van Buren. Charles B. Baldwin, editor of the Gazette, read a well- 
prepared and very appropriate poem. J M. Munn of Plain ville dis- 
cussed military history and Maynard Ingoldsby of Warners, Edwin F. 



1110 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Nichols, B. Abbott, F. W. Turner, Mrs. S. A. Harrington and D. D. 
N. Marvin interested the audience with reminiscences and observa- 
tions. The meeting was then brought to a close. 

Elaborate preparations had been made for a joint celebration of the 
towns of Dewitt, Manlius and Pompe}', at the village of Manlius, 
May 30, in connection with Decoration Day observances, but the 
weather was so unpropitious that the programme was not fully carried 
out. A, Cady Palmer was marshal of the day, and in the forenoon, 
after a visit had been made to the cemetery by a Grand Army Post, 
and the ritual read amid the falling rain, an address was delivered in 
the Presbyterian church by the pastor, the Rev. Matthew Gaffnay. 
The centennial exercises took place in the Methodist church instead of 
out of doors in front of the large stand which had been erected. E. 
A. Scoville was appointed to preside and these vice-presidents were 
chosen: Manlius, A. Cady Palmer, Alvah Woodworth, Dr. H. Nims, 
D. Collins, N. R. Chapman, Charles Peck, A. F. Plato, Clark Snook, 
George Brown ; Dewitt, Charles Hiscock, C. C. Bagg, P. P. Midler, 
Henry Dixon, Samuel Sherwood, Elbridge Kinne; Pompey, M. R. 
Dyer, Victor Birdseye, C. C. Midler, S, C. Lewis, R. Murray, Homer 
Billings, Mathias Ackerman, H. C. Beanchamp, F. L. Maine, J. L. 
Kyne and M. W. Russell were secretaries. Prayer was offered by the 
Rev. E. M. Barber. "America" was sung, and the Rev. Theodore 
Babcock then spoke on Manlius histor3^ The Rev. C. P. Osbourn of 
Fayetteville, spoke on the same subject, after which Hiram K. Ed- 
wards and W. H. Peck spoke for Dewitt, and W. W. Van Brocklin for 
Pompey. The exercises were then appropriately closed. 

Too few of the aboriginal names of streams, lakes and places have 
been preserved ; it is impossible now to supply the deficiency. Clark 
saved some from oblivion and his work is herein perpetuated. Onon- 
daga was written in two styles by the Jesuits — Onante and Onontaque; 
by the early English, Onantago, Onondago, Onondawgu, and Onon- 
dauqua. The Indian interpretation of Onondaga is given as "Under 
the hill at the foot of the swamp," and the " Swamp at the foot of the 
mountain"; but the best translation is considered to be " Residence of 
the People of the Hills." The ancient fathers styled the Indians, "People 
of the Hills," the " Iroquois Highlanders," " People of the Mountains," 
etc. Onondaga Lake received the pretty name " Genentaa" from the 
Jesuits. The natives originally called it Oh-nen-ta-ha; latterly Kotch- 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1111 

a-ka-too, a lake surrounded by salt sprinj^'s. Onondaga Creek was 
called Kah-yungk-wa-tah-toa. The outlet of the lake was known as 
So-hah-bee. Onondaga Hollow, now Valley, Teau-aheughwa. Onon- 
daga Hill, Kah-che qua ne-ung-ta. Otisco Lake, Kaioongk ; the outlet, 
Kia-heun-ta ha. Skaneateles Lake, Skehneahties, meaning very long 
lake. Oneida Lake, Se-ugh-ka, striped with blue and white lines, 
separating and coming together again, probabh^ named when seen from 
a distance, perhaps from Pompey, from whence at times the surface 
presents white and blue lines traceable from head to outlet. Fort Brew- 
erton, Osahaungtah-Seugkah, where the water runs oiit from Oneida 
Lake. Oneida River, Sah-eh. Three River Point, Te-u-ung hu-ka, where 
two rivers meet. Cross Lake, Te-ungt-too. Tully and Fabius, 
Te-kanea-ta-heung-ne-ugh, very high hills, with small lakes, from 
which w^ater flows in contrary directions. Pompey and La Fayette, 
Ote-ge ga-ja-ke, a place of much grass. Another name, Otequeh-sah- 
he-eh, the field of blood, a place where many have been slain. It is 
said that Indians abhor the locality. Limestone Creek, Te-a-une-nogh- 
he, an angry stream, or mad creek. Butternut Creek, Kasoongh-ta, 
literally, bark in the water, or a place where bark is placed after being 
peeled in the spring, that it may not curl in summer and become use- 
less for building huts or cabins in the fall. Green Lake (Dewitt), Kai- 
yah-koo, satisfied with tobacco. Deep Springs (Manlius), Te-ungh- 
sat-a yagh, by the fort at the spring, near which at one time was the 
most eastern settlement of the Onondagas. There, was always 
stationed a party of warriors, " to hold the eastern door of the nation." 
Cicero Swamp, Ka-nugh-wa-ka, where the rabbits run — great swamp, 
plenty of game. Cazenovia Lake, Ho-wah-ge-neh, the lake where the 
yellow fish swim — perch and bass. Seneca River, Miohero, river of 
rushes. The French and English also had their own names for many 
of these places, but most of the present names are derivatives from the 
Indian. 

What will be the record of Onondaga county a hundred years hence? 
Shall it be even more amazing than that which has already been made 
and recorded? Science is just beginning to release and develop those 
heretofore great hidden mysteries and forces which must become a 
power in the land, not only for the broadening of civilization in every 
way and carrying it onward and yet higher, but there must be a great 
transformation of the present machinery of the world, that which 



1112 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

propels its mighty chain of business and professional affairs. It must 
be supplemented by the grand products of new science, new develop- 
ment. The generation third from the present one will look back at us 
with much of the feeling of admiration mingled with pity^ that we 
feel in reviewing the experiences of the pioneers. The Central City may 
by that time have acquired the population of the New York of to-day ; 
none shall now dare to estimate the population of the country then, 
when every available acre shall have been brought under cultivation, 
when professional, business, and manufacturing industries shall have 
correspondingly increased. The agents of motion and power, steam 
and electricity, will have become almost as cheap as air, which itself 
may before that time become the principal factor in their stead. Great 
ships will be made to fly the oceans like swift-winged birds, while on 
land distance shall almost be obliterated if, indeed, aerial navigation 
shall not be a strong competitor with the fastest railroad train. Why 
not the telegraph in every business place and private house, with both 
long and short distance pneumatic tubes for the quick transmission of 
postal matter and packages? A new philosophy must enter into 
agriculture if it shall support the untold millions then dependent upon 
it; " the earth shall yield fruit for all who may dwell upon it." Will 
not science then read the heavens as an open book, and hold converse 
with Mars? What shall be its discoveries in outward fields? Shall all 
mystery, except One, be revealed? There is almost no limit to this 
subject in the speculative mind, and though it may be an idling of time 
for the thoughts to dwell upon the possibilities of the century, it is 
nevertheless fascinating to let the imagination loose. The general 
principle cannot be denied, however, that all old things will have 
passed away, that new things, a new life, will have been substituted 
for those of to-day. Whether we look " backward" or "forward" we 
see that the same great and unchangeable natural laws are in force to 
compel the accomplishment of certain results, and we also can judge 
with much accuracy the tendency of science and the physical forces of 
mankind generally. If a grander, a better people should come out of 
the great evolution of the period, a people whose patriotism and moral 
sense shall be in keeping with their physical and general intellectual 
advancement, then the century will not have been lived in vain. 

There is a legend that once there came from his celestial home a 
personage to dwell among the Onondagas and give them plenti- 



GENERAL SUMMARY. 1113 

fully of his superior wisdom; thai throuj4h his instrumentality a council 
was held upon the shores of Onondaga Lake at which the Iroquois 
League was formed. Shall we not also accept this as his benediction? 
when 

" From his place rose Hiawatha, 
Bade farewell to old Nokomis, 
Spake in whispers, spake in this wise, 
Did not wake the guests, that slumbered ; 

" I am going, O Nokomis, 
On a long and distant journey, 
To the portals of the Sunset, 
To the regions of the home-winds, 
Of the Northwest wind, Keewaydin. 
But these guests I leave behind me, 
In your watch and ward I leave them ; 
See that never harm comes near them, 
See that never fear molests them. 
Never danger nor suspicion, 
Never want of food or shelter, 
In the lodge of Hiawatha ! " 




140 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



i 




GEN. EDWIN V. SUMNER. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



EDWIN V. SUMNER. 

Gen. Edwin Vose Sumner, the fifth child of Elisha Sumner and Nancy, daughter 
of Col. Joseph Vose, his wife, was born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 30, 1797, and died in 
Syracuse, N. Y. , March 21, 1863. His paternal ancestors were William and Mary 
Sumner, who in 163G, emigrated from Dorchester, England, and settled in Dor- 
chester, Mass., where William became a prominent citizen, being a representative 
to the General Court for thirteen years. From them descended (1) Roger, (2) Will- 
iam. (3) Seth, (4) Seth (5) Elisha, (6) Gen. Edwin V. Job, a half-brother of Seth (4), 
was the father of Charles Pinckney Sumner, high sheriff of Suffolk county, and the 
grandfather of Hon. Charles Sumner, the statesman Col. Seth Sumner (4), with 
four brothers, served through the Revolutionary war with much credit. Col. Joseph 
Vose, the maternal grandfather of General Sumner, descended from Robert Vose, 
one of the leading citizens of Dorchester, and an early .settler of the town of Milton, 
Mass. He was chosen colonel of militia in November, 1774, was soon appointed 
lieutenant colonel of the 25th Massachusetts Regiment, and served with distinction 
through the war of the Revolution. He had three brothers in the service of whom 
Elijah became also a lieutenant colonel. Elisha Sumner was born in Milton, Mass., 
April 17, 1760. married Nancy Vose on August 3, 1784, and between 1789 and 1800 
was engaged in mercantile trade in Boston. His death occurred at Rutland, Vt., 
April 1, 1839; his wife died March 6, 1848. 

General Sumner spent his boyhood principally in Milton, Mass., his father having 
returned to that town from Boston, in 1800. He was educated under Rev. Dr. Rich- 
mond of Stoughton, and at the Billerica and Milton Academies, and for several 
j-ears pursued a mercantile career with Storrow & Brown, of Montreal, and with 
Stephen Higginson, jr., of Boston. But his tastes and talents, combined with the 
inherited military characteristics of a noted ancestry, inclined him naturally to the 
life of a soldier, and in March, 1819, he entered the regular army as second lieuten- 
ant in the 2d U. S. Infantry, which in May following was stationed at Sackett's Har- 
bor. There, on March 3, 1822, he married Miss Hannah W. , daughter of Hon. 
Thomas and Sarah Pettit (Montgomery) Forster, who was born in Erie, Pa., January 
31, 1805. General Sumner, while in the infantry, served at Sackett's Harbor, Fort 
Niagara, Mackinac, and Salt St. Marie, and at the commencement of the Black 
Hawk war in 1832 was appointed by General Scott chief commissary for the army 
in the field. In the following winter Congress authorized the organization of the First 
Regiment of Dragoons, and Sumner, then first lietenant, was selected by President 



2 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Jackson as second captain of the new regiment of horse, which at that time was an 
unusual promotion. In 1834 he accompanied General Dodge to the Pawnee villages 
at the headwaters of Red River, and in 1836 was sent in command of a squadron 
of cavalry to Milwaukee and Green Bay in anticipation of an Indian difificulty. 
From 1838 to 1842 he was in command of the Cavalry School of Practice at Carlisle 
Barracks, Pa., and during the next four years was stationed at Fort Atkinson, la., 
where he rendered valuable services in putting down Indian warfare. 

In June, 1846, being ordered to join General Kearney's expedition to New Mexico, 
he took command of the 1st Regt. of Dragoons, but a few days later was appointed 
major of the 2d Dragoons and ordered with that regiment to join General Taylor. 
The short but sanguinary Mexican war followed, and in it Sumner became a con- 
spicuous figure. By order of General Scott he was placed in command of the new 
regiment of Mounted Riflemen, which was then stationed in New Orleans, and 
which he took to the Rio Grande, where he instructed it until February, 1847, when 
it embarked for Vera Cruz. While en route he was engaged in two skirmishes, and 
by his " skill and coolness," General Twiggs said, "inspired those under his com- 
mand with the fullest confidence." He subsequently led his troops at the battles of 
Madeline Bridge and at Gerro Gordo, in the latter of which he was severely wounded 
by an escopette ball on the head. After a month in the hospital he resumed com- 
mand of the 2d Dragoons and participated in the battles of the Valley of Mexico and 
Molino del Rey. In the latter he was conspicuous for his bravery and cool judg- 
ment and won from General Worth a noble meed of prai.se. " I would commend to 
particular notice the conduct of Major Sumner, 2d Dragoons. He managed his com- 
mand with skill and courage; was always in the right place at the right time; 
menacing or repelling superior forces of his own arm. I can not give, nor does that 
officer need, higher praise." It is safe to say that he more than any other man was 
instrumental in saving that bloody battle to the Americans. For his services at 
Cerro Gordo and Molino del Rey he was successively brevetted lieutenant- colonel 
and colonel. He was also present at the siege of Vera Cruz and the storming of 
Chapultepec and rendered efficient aid, and later entered the City of Mexico with 
General Scott, by whom he was placed in command of the Brigade of Horse in occu- 
pation, which post he held until January 14, 1848. On July 18 of that year he was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Dragoons. 

After the Mexican war closed he was placed in command of the Department of 
New Mexico, where, on the withdrawal of Governor Calhoun, he was the only rep- 
resentative of the government. In 1854 he was ordered to Europe on official business 
and in 1855 was promoted colonel of the 1st Cavalry. In 1856, being in command 
of Fort Leavenworth, Kan., he incurred the displeasure of the secretary of war, 
Jefferson Davis, by his conduct in the troubles between the free-state and the pro- 
slavery men, and was removed, and in July, 1857, he led an expedition against the 
Cheyenne Indians, defeating them on Solomon's Fork of the Kansas River. In 1858 
he was made commander of the Department of the West. 

In February, 1862, Sumner was selected by General Scott to accompany President- 
elect Lincoln to Washington, and on the 16th of March the latter appointed him 
brigadier-general in place of General Twiggs. This was one of the very first of 
Lincoln's appointments, and in making it he remarked: " It's the best office in my 
gift " — not knowing then that he would soon elevate many others to the same rank. 



n 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 3 

General Bates, the president's attornej'-general, afterward stated: " Lincoln said, in 
the darkest days of the war, ' There's one man we can always trust, and that is 
Sumner.'" General Sumner was immediately ordered to the command of the De- 
partment of the Pacific, where he rendered important service in preventing the suc- 
cess of secession intrigues, and in which capacity he has often been credited with 
saving California to the Union. But being anxious for more active duty in the field 
he was recalled and in March, 1862, was appointed commander of the First Army 
Corps in the Army of the Potomac. He commanded the left wing at the siege of 
Yorktown and performed a conspicuous part in all the battles of the Chickahominy 
campaign, during which he was twice slightly wounded. In recognition of his 
services under McClellan he was appointed major-general of volunteers to rank 
from July 4 and brevet major-general in the regular arm)' to date from May 31, 1862. 
On the reorganization of the army after General Pope's Virginia campaign he was 
assigned to the command of the Second Army Corps, and with it he participated m 
the battle of Antietam, where he was again wounded. He commanded the Right 
Grand Division of the Army of the Potomac, which on December 13, 1862, bore the 
brunt of the battle of Fredericksburg, and on January 25, 1863, at his own request, 
he was relieved. On March 9 he was assigned to the command of the Department 
of the West, and while on his way to enter upon the discharge of his duties in that 
capacity he was taken sick m Syracuse and died on the 21st of the same month. 

General Sumner was in the military service of the United States for forty-four con- 
secutive years, and during that entire period his love for his profession never 
diminished, but grew stronger and more intense. He was a true soldier, imbued 
with the staunchest patriotism, and inspired others to the highest sense of ennoble- 
ment and courage. As a disciplinarian he was never excelled and seldom equaled. 
He rose by gradual promotion from the rank of second lieutenant to the command 
of one of the most important armies ever brought together m America, and by im- 
movable respect and obedience to superiors won the confidence and esteem of every 
comrade. His highest ambition was unswerving adherence to duty, no matter how 
disagreeable or in his opinion inadvisable. He never questioned the commands of 
his superior officers, but executed their orders with soldierly promptness and pre- 
ciseness. His great patriotism is exemplified in General Orders, No. 2, dated at San 
Francisco September 3, 1861: "No Federal troops in the Department of the Pacific 
will ever surrender to Rebels." Throughout the Mexican war, the Kansas troubles, 
and the various Indian uprisings he bore a conspicuous part and covered his name 
with glory. For bravery and heroism, for skill, coolness, and good judgment, he 
was never known to err, and while others hesitated he promptly and discreetly fol- 
lowed his duty as a true soldier and loyal citizen. At the breaking out of the war 
of the Rebellion he was the senior colonel of the U. S. Cavalry, ranking with the 
famous Albert Sidney Johnston, afterward of the Confederate army. Immediately 
after the firing on Fort Sumter he was rewarded with a brigadier-general's com- 
mission, and during the early years of that memorable conflict he rendered valuable 
service to the Union cause. His principal engagements as corps commander were 
Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Allen's Field, White Oak Swamp, Glendale, Mal- 
vern Hill, Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Fair Oaks. Of the latter Rev. Dr. J, J. 
Marks, in his "Peninsula Campaign in Virginia," says: "When the battle had 
vigorously begun General Sumner, with the true instinct of an old warrior, compre- 



4 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

bended the whole move [of General Johnston], and gave orders for the advance of 
his corps across the Chickahominy. By incredible efforts he succeeded in urging 
over before night all his men, and brmging with him several pieces of artillery. 
After General Sumner had crossed the river he had no other guide to the scene of 
battle than the cannonading; but hurrying up he succeeded in reaching the field in 
time to prevent Johnston surrounding our left wing, and thus saved our honor and 
the Army of the Potomac. For the four divisions composing this wing of the army 
would certainly have been overcome by vastly superior numbers, though they had 
fought with the bi'avery of Spartans." A. D. Richardson, in his " Field, Dungeon, 
and E.scape," thus speaks of the general: " Hundreds of soldiers were familiar 
with the erect form, the snowy, streaming hair, and the frank face of that wonder- 
ful old man, who, on the perilous edge of battle, while they were falling like grass 
before the mower, would da.sh through the fire and smoke, shouting: "Steady, men, 
steady ! Don't be excited. When you have been soldiers as long as I you will learn 
that this is nothing. Stand firm and do your duty.' " His last words on his death 
bed were: " God save my country, the United States of America." 

The funeral of General Sumner was one of the most imposing and impressive 
occasions ever seen in Syracuse. The city was shrouded in the deepest mourning 
and literally filled with the highest officers of the government, civil and judicial dig- 
nitaries, military organizations, and thousands of visitors from far and near. Rev. 
Samuel J. May conducted the services at the house — the Teall mansion in Fayette 
Park — while Rev. Dr. Canfield presided at the First Presbyterian church. He was 
buried in Oakwood Cemetery, where a handsome tomb adorns his final resting 
place. 

The following letter was received from General McClellan: 

" New York, March 23, 1863. 
'■'Hon. D. Bookstaver, Mayor of Syracuse: 

" Dear Sir: — I regret that my engagements are of such a nature as to render it 
out of my power to attend the funeral of my lamented comrade, Gen. Sumner. 

" It would afford me peculiar satisfaction to pay that just tribute of respect to his 
memory at this particular time, for in him the nation has sustained a loss it can ill 
afford at such a juncture as this. 

" All recognized the high honor, loyalty and courage of that distinguished veteran. 

"He presented to younger men the highest example of unswerving devotion to 
his country, and of a firm determination to sacrifice everything that might be neces- 
sary in subduing the rebellion, and restoring peace and the unity of the nation, by 
putting forth all the strength of the country to defeat its armed enemies in the field. 

" Although the nation has lost his services, we have at least his example left for 
our imitation. 

" Please present to the family of Gen. vSumner my sincere sympathy. And believe 
me to be truly yours, 

"Geo. B. McClkllan, Maj.Gen. U. S. A." 

Major-General Halleck formally announced the death of General Sumner in this 
glowing tribute: 

"War Department, Adj. -Gen's Office, 
"Washington, March 24, 1863. 
"General Orders No. 71.] 

"With profound regret the general-in-chief announces the decease of Maior- 
General Edwin V. Sumner, United .States Army, at Syracuse, N. Y., on the 21st 
instant. General Sumner entered the army in March, 1819, and it was his fortune 
to be connected with all the stirring military events which occurred throughout the 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 5 

long period of his service. His indomitable energy and high-toned military spirit 
impelled him always to seek assignment to duty in the Held. He was twice brevet- 
ted for gallant and meritorious conduct in the Mexican battles. Subsequently he 
commanded the Department of New Mexico, and directed important camjiaigns 
against the restless tribes within its limits. 

" At the commencement of the Rebellion, being then a colonel of cavalry, he was 
appointed brigadier-general in the army, and was then ordered to command on the 
Pacific Coast. His last urgent entreaty, before departing to that distant station, was 
that he might be promptly recalled to take part in any conflict which might occur 
with the rebels in the neighborhood of the Capital. His ardent patriotism and 
martial iire would not permit him to rest until he was recalled, and assigned to a 
high command in the Army of the Potomac. The name of vSumner is identified 
with nearly every fierce struggle in which that army has been engaged, and every 
page of its history will perpetuate the fame of this noble soldier. His gallantry 
was acknowledged first by the commission of major-general of volunteers, and then 
by the brevet of major-general on his army commission. 

" Having been relieved from duty with the Army of the Potomac, at his own re- 
truest, after the battle of Fredericksburg, he was assigned to command the Depart- 
ment of Missouri. While on the way to St. Louis to enter upon this important com- 
mand, he who had escaped the dangers of so many bullets, fell suddenly a victim of 
disease. The regrets of the whole army go with him. He will be lamented and re- 
membered, not for his soldierly traits alone, but for his generous and courteous 
bearing, the offspring of a true and noble nature. 

"As appropriate military honors to the memory of the deceased general, the 
several posts within the Department of Missoviri will fire thirteen minute guns, com- 
mencing at 12 o'clock M., and display the national flag at half staff from the same hour 
until sunset, the day next after the receipt of this order. 

" By command of Major-General Hai.leck. 

" L. Thomas, Adjutant-General." 

Appropriate resolutions were passed upon the death of General Sumner by the 
Legislatures of Massachusetts and New York. In Chapter 69, laws of 18()3, of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the following is recorded: 

''Resolved, That it is with the most profound regret and heartfelt sorrow that 
Massachusetts receives the tidings of the demi.se of another of her brave and illus- 
trious sons, Maj.-Gen. Edwin V. Sumner, while in the midst of those active and 
patriotic duties which it was his constant desire and highest aim promptly to per- 
form and faithfully to fulfill. 

''Resolved, That in the death of General Sumner we feel that the country has 
lost a noble and patriotic citizen; the government a firm and enthusiastic defender; 
the army a brave and accomplished officer, whose services and life were devotedly 
given to the Union, and whose character and deeds will be cherished in the hearts of 
his grateful countrymen so long as they have a country to love and the honor of its 
flag to cherish and defend. 

' Resolved, That we present to the family of the deceased our sympathetic con- 
dolence, remembering that he for whom they and the country mourn as dead will 
ever in memory live; and through the medium of noble example will speak in deeds 
of heroic valor to the sons of America to the latest generation ; which is a more 
eloquent eulogy than language can frame, and a more enduring monument than the 
hand of man can raise. 

"Resolved, That his Excellency the Governor be requested to transmit a copy of 
these resolutions to the family of the late Major-General Sumner. 

" House of Representatives, April 23, 18G3. 

"Passed. Alexander H. Bullock, Speaker. 

" In Senate, April 25, 1863. 

" Passed. J. E. Field, President. 

" April 27, 1863. 

"Approved. John A. Andrew, Governor." 



6 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

The following resolutions were unanimously passed by the Assembly of New York 
State in March, 1863: 

" Resolved, That this House has heard with deep regret of the death of Maj.-Gen. 
Edwin V. Sumner, and as a testimonial of respect for his eminent services in the 
United States Army, the purity of his patriotism, and the devotion of his life to the 
cause of his country, we desire in this manner to express the sentiments we feel at 
the great loss which the nation has sustained by this unexpected event. 

''Resolved, That copies of these resolutions, properly engrossed, be sent to the 
president and Congress of the United States, to the governor and Senate of this 
State, and that they be entered upon the journal of this House." 

After the adoption of the foregoing resolutions, Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, then 
assemblymen from Westchester, paid a glowing tribute to General Sumner's mem- 
ory, from which the following is taken : 

"Our best blood waters every battlefield of the country. Amid the smoke and din 
of the conflict, has gone out brilliant intellect, and great heart, vigor and youth — 
intellect which would have added to the greatness of the Commonwealth — vigor and 
youth, which would have increased its material wealth and its grandeur — noble 
souls, who would have contributed to its moral elevation. Butof them all, death has 
claimed for its victim, in this abundant harvest, no nobler soul or no mightier spirit 
than Gen. Sumner. A half century he has been in arms for his country, andthe story 
of his life is the story of his nation's glory and her deeds. He is connected with 
every battlefield which is looked upon as an exemplification of American valor, and 
with every act which adds a bright page to his country's annals. 

"Wherever the fight was thickest there was he to be found. Wherever the assault 
was to be carried, he led it; and where the retreating column was to be protected, 
he was in the rear — at once the avenging angel of the charge and the protecting 
panopoly of the retreat. Often and again during the dreadful scenes of the Penin- 
sula campaign, and the seven days' battle, when wearied with marching and over- 
powered by numbers, the shattered columns of the Union were flying in disorder 
from the field — the bold front of Sumner rushing hither and thither in the thickest 
of the fight, exposing himself where danger was the greatest and bullets rained 
fastest, gave heart to the fainting, courage to the weak, strength to the manly, and 
rolled back again the tide of success. 

"Sir, at the battle of Antietam it was his efforts which won for us, as much as any 
other the result there achieved ; and when he stood upon the heights of Fredericks- 
burg, beside the Commanding General, and saw his old column, which had never 
turned its back toward the enemy, scaling the impassable heights, beating itself 
vainly against impregnable fortifications, marching up but to be mowed down, with 
a devotion unequaled in history — the warrior- souled old chieftain longed to be with 
his comrades, and it required all the orders and the command of his superior officer 
to keep him from mingling in the hottest of that fray." 

General Sumner's widow continued to reside in Syracuse for eighteen years after 
his death, and died at Charlottesville, Va., December 9, 1880, being buried beside her 
distinguished husband in Oakwood. She was a woman of singular gentleness and 
great force of character, and of true patriotic impulses and heroism. Her home 
life was peculiarly sweet and harmonious. Their children were Nancy, widow of 
Lieut. Leonidas Jenkins, U. S. A., of Syracuse; Margaret Forster, wife of Col. 
Eugene E. McLean of New York city; Sarah Montgomery, wife of Col. William W. 
Teall, of Syracuse; Col. Edwin Vose, U. S. A., of Fort Grant, Arizona; Mary Heron, 
widow of Gen. Armistead L. Long, who has served as postmistress of Charlottesville, 
Va. , since Grant's first administration; Col. Samuel Storrow, U. S. A., now at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kan. ; and three, Elizabeth Heron, Edwin Vose, 1st, and George 
Wright, who died in infancy. 






BIOGRAPHICAL. 



REV. SAMUEL J. MAY. 




Rkv. Samuel Joseph May was born in Boston, Mass., September 12, 1797. His 
father. Colonel Joseph May, was the son of Samuel May, of Boston, by his second 
wife, Abigail Williams, of Roxbviry. Colonel May was born in Boston in 1760, and 
died there in 1841. He was a public benefactor, a man of sterling character and in 
tegrity, a devout Christian, and for many years a member and warden of King's 
Chapel, In 1785 he was one of the twenty who voted to make those alterations in 
the Liturgy which separated that society from the Trinitarian communion and from 
the Episcopal church. He married Dorothy Sewall, daughter of Samuel Sewall, of 
Boston, by his wife Elizabeth Quincy, niece of Josiah Quincyof Revolutionary fame, 
and sister of Dorothy, the 
wife of John Hancock. She 
was a lineal descendant of 
Chief Justice Samuel Sewall, 
who was born in England in 
1652, and died in Boston in 
1730, and who, because of 
his participation as junior 
judge "in the trial and con- 
demnation to death, at Sa- 
lem, of many persons accus- 
ed of witchcraft," afterward 
strove in various ways "to 
atone for that early wrong," 
notably by observing " annu- 
ally, in private, a day of hu- 
miliation and prayer during 
the remainder of his life, to 
keep fresh m his mind a sense 
of repentance and sorrow 
for the part he bore in those 
trials." 

Rev. Mr. May's earlier edu- 
cation was received principal- 
ly in private schools in his 
native city. In September, 
1813, he entered Harvard 
College and was graduated 

with a class of sixty-seven in 1817. There he distinguished himself by winning sev- 
eral prizes and achieving high rank as a scholar. In October of that year he went 
to Hingham and began the study of theology under the Rev. Henry Colman, assist- 
ing also in teaching a small classical school. Not liking this he returned in May, 
1818, to Cambridge, where he resumed his theological studies in the Divinity School, 
then hardly organized, but under the direction of Rev. Dr. Ware, whose counsel and 
advice had a marked effect upon the subsequent character of Mr. May's life. In 1819 
he made the acquaintance of Noah Worcester, D. D., and until the latter's death 




Rev. Samuel Joseph May. 



8 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

enjoyed his warm friendship. Dr. Worcester was the author of ' ' The Apostle of 
Peace," and in 1814 published his " Solemn Review of the Custom of War," both of 
which impressed Mr. May, who, in speaking of the venerable author, said, "He was 
the most holy man I ever knew. The first great Christian reform that I ever em- 
braced was the one inaugurated by him — the attempt to abolish the custom of war." 

In 1820 he began to preach, first at Nahant, and early in 1821 in Brooklyn, Conn. 
He had espoused the doctrine of Unitarianism, to which he adhered throughout life. 
March 13, 1822, he was ordained to the ministry in Chauncy Place church, Boston, 
and four days later commenced his labors as minister of the First Ecclesiastical 
Society of Brookh^n, Conn., where, in January, 1823, he began the publication of 
'• The Liberal Christian," a fortnightly paper in which he expounded the principles 
of his religion. He was installed pastor November 5, 1823, and officiated in that 
capacity until 1836. when he was transferred to the church in South Scituate, where 
he remained six years. June 1, 1825, he married Lucretia Flagge Coffin, second 
daughter of Peter and Anne (Martin) Coffin, of Boston, who was born in Portsmouth, 
where her father was a merchant. She was a woman of great force of character, a 
worthy helpmate and a devout Christian. May 12, 1842, he removed to Lexington 
as principal of the Normal School, which position he resigned in 1843. In the latter 
year, while on a journey to Niagara Falls, he occupied the pulpit of Rev. J. P. B. 
Storer in Syracuse for several Sundays, and upon the death of that divine Mr. May 
received a unanimous call to become the minister of that young L^nitarian church. 
He began his labors here in April, 1845, and continued almost without interruption 
until his death, July 1, 1871, a period of twenty-six years. 

Mr. May was a man universally beloved and revered, and wherever he lived left 
an indelible impress of his personality upon the entire community. His great, warm 
heart went out in wholesome, brotherly love to all humanity, and ever}' one, young 
and old, found in him a friend. His Christianity was manifest in his every action, 
e\ery word, and diffused itself like a pure, radiant light from the depths of his soul. 
He won the esteem, respect and confidence, and even the love, of all classes, and 
his memory still lingers in the hearts of thousands of those who knew him. As a 
minister of the gospel he was conscientious to a fault. He clearly and fearlessly 
expounded the doctrines of Unitarianism, and was largely instrumental in elevating 
that denomination above the prejudices of other sects, not only in Syracuse, but 
throughout the Eastern States. 

He was an unswerving advocate of temperance and of peace as opposed to war, 
and in August, 1826, organized the Windham County (Conn.) Peace Society, of which 
he was corresponding secretary. On these two subjects he delivered numerous lec- 
tures and wrote several tracts. He also edited the Christian Monitor and Common 
People's Adviser, and other papers for a time. But it was as a friend and fellow 
laborer of William Lloyd Garrison that he acquired an almost national reputation in 
the cause of anti-slavery, which he espoused under the teachings of that eminent 
liberator, and of Daniel Web.ster, as early as 1828. In 1835 he became the general 
agent and corresponding secretary of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society, and 
for many j^ears lectured enthusiastically', in the face of stubborn opposition and even 
mob violence, on the subject of abolitionism. He was probably the first L^nitarian 
minister to openly identify himself with the emancipation of the negro. During his 
long and efficient labors in this field he was the personal friend of Dr. Channing, 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 9 

John Greenleaf Whittier, Gerrit Smith, Theodore Parker and others. Between 1834 
and the war of the Rebellion he was one of the most active agents in the "under- 
ground railroad," his house being a conspicuous station where hundreds of slaves 
Heeing from bondage stopped on their way to Canada. He boldly defied the Fugi- 
tive Slave Law, not only in his pulpit, but wherever he might be, and fearlessly 
championed the cause of right and justice. He was foremost in the famous "Jerry 
Rescue" in October, 1851, and at once openly acknowledged the part he took on that 
historic occasion. During the Civil war he was especially active in helping soldiers' 
families, securing them pensions, and personally visiting the camps of the Potomac 
army. He was actively identified with the cause of education, and for a time served 
as president of the School Board. It was in his honor that May School in the Seven- 
teenth ward and May Memorial church (built in 1885) were named. Mr. May was 
succeeded by Rev. Samuel R. Calthrop, the present pastor, who was installed April 
29. 1868. 

Mr. May was endowed with a peculiarl}^ courteous demeanor and a disposition of 
rare sweetness. His admirable traits, his acknowledged abilities and his nobility of 
character gave him an unusual influence which extended throughout the whole com- 
munity. He died late Saturday night, and when the news was announced from city 
pulpits Sunday morning the services in many churches were interrupted by sob- 
bings. Colored people put on mourning badges, and everywhere signs of general 
bereavement prevailed. The funeral, which occurred at the church on July 6, was 
one of the largest ever held in Syracuse. Twenty-one clergymen, including a Jew- 
ish rabbi, w^ere present. In both pulpit and congregation were representatives of 
nearly every religious sect in Central New York— of every nationality, Indians, col- 
ored persons, rich and poor, high and low, Roman Catholics and Protestants, all 
honoring by their presence the beloved friend of all mankind. 

Mr. May's wife died in 1865. His home life was one long stream of happiness. 
His sister Abigail was the mother of Louisa May Alcott, author of "Little 
"Women," etc. 



HENRY DARWIN DIDAMA, M. D., LL.D. 

Henry Darwin Didama, M. D., LL.D., son of Dr. John and grandson of Dr. Simon 
Didama, both physicians, was born in Perryville, Madison countj^ N.Y., June 17, 1823. 
His father and grandfather came with the Holland Company from Delft in the latter 
part of the last century, when John was only thirteen years of age, and located in 
Trenton, N. Y. His mother, Lucinda, was of the New England Gaylord stock, 
hence the subject of this sketch is fortunate enough to have the best ancestral com- 
bination possible: Holland Dutch and Connecticut Yankee. He does not remember, 
as he himself has stated, any exhibitions of remarkable precocity, although he has 
been assured that he was an excellent silent listener in early life, speaking onlj^ two 
words till he had reached the mature age of four j^ears. He declares that, as there 
were then no State hospitals for feeble-minded children, he was tenderly but despair- 
ingly cared for under the parental roof. He was sent to the village district school, 
where the kind mental ministrations and physical administrations of patient teach- 

B 



10 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

ers enabled him to master the EngHsh alphabet at seven, and to make "straight 
marks " — most woeful and wabbling — in his writing book at nine. In the common 
and select schools, and at the excellent Cazenovia Seminary (which he attended for 
three years), he acquired in a measure the rudiments of an ordinary education. That 
these rudiments were fixed in a fairly retentive memory was due, he thinks, to his 
two winters' experience as a school teacher in 1840 and 1841. 

In 1842 he became a medical student in the office of his accomplished friend, the 
late Dr. David A. Moore, of Cazenovia, and later finished his studies under the late 
Dr. Nelson C. Powers, of this city, attending in the mean time one course of lectures 
at the Geneva Medical College and two courses at the medical college m Albany, 
from which latter institution he was graduated in 1846. Locating then in Romulus, 
Seneca county, he had abundant leisiu'e during his five years' residence there to con- 
tinue his medical studies, as the large majority of the good people in that quiet and 
healthful locality enjoyed almost uninterrupted immunity from illness, while the sick 
minority chose the attentions of a venerable and experienced professional neighbor, 
whose friends actually boasted that he had not looked into a medical book in thirty 
years! Before leaving Romulus Dr. Didama married Miss Sarah, daughter of Hon. 
Sherman Miller, of Tompkins county, N. Y., and to her good judgment and faithful 
devotion attributes in no small measure whatever of success in practice he may have 
achieved. She has been the mother of three children, all deceased: Amelia Louise 
(wife of the late William H. Niven), who after her marriage was graduated from the 
Medical College of Syracuse University and died May 8, 1893, while in Florida; Sher- 
man Miller, who died in March, 1878, while a student in the Syracuse Medical Col- 
lege; and Henry Darwin, who died in infancy. 

Dr. Didama came to Syracuse in 1851, and during his forty-five years' residence in 
this city has enjoyed an extensive medical practice, having long been recognized as 
one of the leading members of the profession. He has been or is at present a mem- 
ber of several medical societies and associations, among them the Syracuse Medical 
Association, Syracuse Academy of Medicine, Onondaga County Medical Society, 
Central New York Medical Association, New York State JNIedical Society, New York 
State Medical Association (in each of which he has served as president), American 
Medical Association, American Academy of Medicine, American Climatological As- 
sociation, and British Medical Association. He has been one of the physicians to 
St. Joseph's Hospital in Syracuse since its institution and has served for several 
years as chief of its staff. He has been professor of the science and art of medicine 
in the College of Medicine of Syracuse L^niversity since its organization in 1872 and 
is now dean. In 1888 the university conferred upon him the degree of doctor of 
laws. He is also an officer in the First Presbyterian church of Syracuse and has 
been a Republican ever since the formation of that party. 

Dr. Didama is the author of several essays on medicine which, in addition to pub- 
lic addresses, have been published in medical journals at home and reviewed abroad. 
Over the signature of "Amos Cottle" he has also for many years written for the 
daily press articles of current interest and letters of travel in foreign lands. His skill 
and research are dedicated to his fellowmen, and he still finds his highest pleasure 
in the profession to which his long and active life has been assiduously devoted. 
Dr. Didama has always been earnestly in favor of a high standard of medical educa- 
tion. In his address at Albany in 1880, while president of the State Medical Society, 



BfOGRAPHICAL. 11 

he urged that, without delay, an entrance examination should be required by each 
medical college in the State ; that this examination should be equal to that exacted 
by the best universities; and that after four years from the new departure each can- 
didate for admission should possess the degree of A. B. In the same address he ad- 
vocated the substitution of a sensible, prolonged three years' graded course of in- 
struction for the prevailing, unnatural, short two winters' course, the second winter 
being but a repetition of the first. In his address in New York city in 1884, as presi- 
dent of the New York State Medical Association, he reaffirmed his convictions and 
amplified his arguments regarding entrance examinations and a graded course. In 
1888 the State Legislature enacted a law compelling all candidates for admission to 
a medical college to be subjected to specified mild and elementary examination, and 
to a final examination for license to practice by an independent board to be appointed 
by the Regents of the State University. It is remembered with considerable pleas- 
ure that the medical department of Syracuse University had in full force for sixteen 
years prior to the compulsory legislative enactment, and still has, all and more than 
all the requirements of the new law. 



ALFRED MERCER, M. D. 

Alfred Mercer, M. D., son of William and Mary (Dobell) Mercer, was born in 
High Halden, Kent, England, November 18, 1820, and came to America with his 
parents in 1832. The latter were then nearly sixty years of age, imbued with Eng- 
lish social and business habits, and the change to America proved too great for their 
comfort or enjoyment. They therefore returned to England in the following spring, 
leaving their youngest son in America with an older brother, who had resided here 
several years, believing this country offered better advantages than England for an 
ambitious young man. 

The youth spent two years at the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, studied medicine 
in the office of Dr. John F. Whitbeck, in Lima, Livingston county, and was gradu- 
ated from the Geneva Medical College in 1845. In 1846 he visited his parents in 
England, and devoted a few months the study of medicine and surgery in the hos- 
pitals of London and Paris. Returing to America in 1847 he opened an office in Mil- 
waukee, Wis., but in 1848 returned to this State and practiced in Livingston and 
Monroe counties until 1853, when he settled permanently in Syracuse, where he has 
since become one of the best known and most skillful physicians and surgeons in the 
Empire State. While in Europe he wrote a number of interesting professional letters 
to the Buffalo Medical Journal ; in 1859 he contributed to the same periodical a paper 
on "Partial Dislocations; Consecutive and Muscular Affections of the Shoulder 
Joints," and in 1873 he wrote another article on "Relations of Scientific Medicine to 
Special and Specific Modes of Medication." An abstract of one of his addresses was 
published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal in March, 1879. Besides these 
he has contributed many other valuable papers on professional subjects to the litera- 
ture of his calling. 

Dr. Mercer was health officer of the city of Syracuse for many years, and upon the 
removal of the Geneva Medical College to this city he was made a member of the 



12 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

faculty, in which he long occupied the chair of minor clinical surgery. He has also 
been a member of the local Board of Health for several years ; was one of the State 
Commissioners of Health from April 7, 1884, to 1890 ; has been professor of State 
medicine in the medical department of Syracuse University since 1883 ; was acting 
surgeon for ten years, and has been since and is now consulting surgeon of the 
House of the Good Shepherd ; is a member and has been vice-president of the New 
York State Medical Society; is a member and was for some time president of the 
Onondaga County Medical Society, in which he has held all the offices except that 
of secretary, being treasurer for several years ; is now vice-president of the Syracuse 
Academy of Medicine, and also a member of the American and of the British Medi- 
cal Associations. In 1848 he married Miss Delia, eldest daughter of Aaron Lam- 
phier, esq., of Lima, N. Y. , who died in February, 1887, leaving one son, Dr. A. 
Clifford Mercer, now practicing medicine with his father, and one daughter, Ina, 
wife of Lepine H. Rice, of Brookline, Mass. In 1888 Dr. Mercer married Mrs. Esther 
A. Esty of Ithaca, N. Y. 



THEODORE E. HANCOCK. ' 

Hon. Theodore E. Hancock, attorney-general of the State of New York, is a 
son of Freeman and Mary (Williams) Hancock, and was born in the town of Granby, 
Oswego county, N. Y., May 30, 1847. His father, of English descent, was born at 
Martha's Vineyard and belonged to a family of sailors. His mother's ancestry were 
French, and she was born in Providence, R. I. Mr. Hancock, as a youth, attended 
the district schools of his native town, working upon the farm summers. He was 
graduated first in his class from Falley Seminary in Fulton, N. Y., in 1867, and then 
entered Wesleyan University at Middletown, Conn. , from which he was graduated 
with honors in 1871, being the head of his class and the recipient of prizes for pro- 
ficiency in Latin and Greek. At a comparatively early age he evinced a strong in- 
clination for the law as a profession, for which his native faculties and scholarly 
habits were peculiarly adapted. Upon leaving college he read law in the office of 
Hon. Edward T. Bartlett, now judge of the Court of Appeals, and also entered 
Columbia Law School, in New York city, and was graduated and admitted to the 
bar from that institution in 1873. Immediately afterward he took up his permanent 
residence in Syracuse, where he has ever since followed the practice of his profes- 
sion, being at different times a member of the firms of Gilbert & Hancock, Hancock 
&Munro;Hoyt, Beach & Hancock; Hancock, Beach & Devine; Hancock, Beach, 
Peck & Devine; and Hancock, Hogan, Beach & Devine, his present partners being 
Hon. William A. Beach, Hon. John W. Hogan and James Devine. 

As a lawyer Mr. Hancock has won a foremost place among the eminent members 
of the legal fraternity of the State. His more than twenty years of active and suc- 
cessful practice has gained for him a wide reputation as well as the respect and con- 
fidence of every person with whom he has come into contact. His business in the 
office and before the courts has been varied and extensive, and the many important 
cases which he has been called to conduct reflect the highest credit upon his ability 
as an advocate. He is a student by nature, profoundly versed in the science of law, 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 13 

and is thoroughly equipped for his profession and the important public offices to 
which he has been elected. In politics he has always been an active and ardent Re- 
publican, and to the welfare and progress of his party he has given valued services 
consistent with dignity and fairness. In this respect he has ever borne the esteem 
and confidence of both friends and opponents. In 1889 he was nominated by the 
Republicans for district attorney of Onondaga county, and at the ensuing election 
ran about 1,200 ahead of the regular ticket. Mr. Hancock's legal ability and pro- 
found knowledge of the law had now attracted the attention of the ablest jurists of 
the State, and in the Republican judicial convention of 1891 he came within three 
votes of being nominated for justice of the Supreme Court, the nomination, had he 
received it, being equivalent to an election. In 1893 he was nominated by the Re- 
publican State convention for the office of attorney-general of the State of New York, 
and at the general election in November was triumphantly elected to that exalted 
position for a term of two years, beginning January 1, 1894. His majority over his 
Democratic opponent, Simon W. Rosendale, was 21,290. In the fall of 1895 he was 
nominated and re-elected by the Republicans for the new term under the revised 
constitution of 1894 for three years from January 1, 1896. At that election he re- 
ceived the highest number of votes on the State ticket, being elected by a plurality 
of about 95,000. As attorney-general Mr. Hancock's official opinions have com- 
manded universal respect, not only for their sound judicial character, but also for 
their high literary quality, their clearness and precision. 

Mr. Hancock was married June 7, 1881, to Miss Martha B. Connelly, daughter of 
Dr. Joseph Connelly, and a native of Wheeling, W. Va. They have three children: 
Stewart, Clarence and Martha. 



WILLIAM B. COGvSWELL. 

William Brown Cogswell, son of David and Mary (Barnes) Cogswell, was born in 
Oswego, N. Y. , September 22, 1834. His ancestry emigrated from Wiltshire, Eng- 
land, and settled in Ipswich. Mass.. in 1635. His father died in 1877 and his mother 
in 1862. During the three years between the ages of seven and ten he attended 
Hamilton Academy in Oneida county, and later studied in the private schools of 
Joseph Allen, of Syracuse, and Prof. Orin Root, Seneca Falls, N. Y. In 1848 and 
1849 he worked with the engineering party on the survey of the Syracuse & Oswego 
and Syracuse & Utica railroads, and in this employment evinced a strong inclination 
for civil engineering as a profession. On May 1, 1850, he entered Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute at Troy, N. Y. , where he remained three years, and which in 1884 
conferred upon him the degree of C. E. Soon after leaving school Mr. Cogswell be- 
gan an apprenticeship in the Lawrence machine shops under the superintendence of 
John C. Hoadley, and came out three years later with a theoretical and practical 
knowledge of engineering, mechanics, physics, and allied branches. Coming to Syra- 
cuse in 1856 he was selected by George Barnes to accompany him to Ohio to take 
charge of the machinery of the Marietta and Cincinnati railroad at Chillicothe, of 
which Mr. Barnes was superintendent. He remained there three years, when he 
was made superintendent of the Broadway foundry in St. Louis, Mo. In 1860 he re- 



14 ONONDAG-A'S CENTENNIAL. 

turned to Syracuse, and with William A. and A. Avery Sweet started what became the 
works of the present Whitman & Barnes Manufacturing Company, with which he 
was identified when the Rebellion broke out. In 1861 he received a civilian appoint- 
ment as mechanical engineer in the U. S. navy, and in this position performed an 
enormous amount of labor fitting up separate repair shops for five stations on the 
Atlantic seaboard and lived at one of them erected on shipboard at Port Royal, S. C. 
In 1862 he was transferred to the Brooklyn navy yard and placed in charge of steam 
repairs, and remained there four years. The following two years he lived in New 
York city. In 1870 he was given charge of the completion of the Clifton suspension 
bridge at Niagara Falls, where he continued four years, and at the same time super- 
vised the construction of two blast furnaces at Franklin Iron Works in Oneida 
county. In all of these responsible undertakings he met with flattering success, 
which stamped him as one of the foremost civil engineers in the country. He also 
manifested a remarkable business talent and great executive ability, and won the 
confidence and esteem of all classes of citizens. He was successful in the broadest 
sense of the term. 

The year 1874 may be regarded as the turning point in Mr. Cogswell's career. He 
was soHcited at this time to go to Mine La Motte, Mo., and assume charge of the 
lead mines of the same name at that place. These mines were and still are owned 
by Rowland Hazard, of Peace Dale, R.I., who induced Mr. Cogswell to take this step, 
which he did. He remained there until the spring of 1879, when he returned to 
Syracuse, where he has ever since resided, retaining, however, to the present time — 
a period of twenty-one years — the management of the Mine La Motte lead mines. 
Soon after returning to Syracuse he determined to go to Europe to investigate the 
soda industry, and through a friend made the acquaintance of Messrs. Solvay & Co. , 
of Brussels, Belgium, the leading manufacturers m that line in the world. Mr. Cogs- 
well, as a result, was commissioned to inspect the various points in this country 
where a manufactory would be practicable, and report. After the receipt of the re- 
port steps were taken to form a company for the manufacture of the various soda 
products, and Syracuse was decided upon as the best place for the works, for Mr. 
Cogswell believed that rock salt might be discovered in the vicinity. The manufac- 
tory was located here, just west of the city limits, and around it the village of Solvay 
has sprung into existence. The Solvay Process Company was organized m 1881 with 
a capital of $300,000 and the following incorporators: Rowland Hazard, president; 
Earl B. Alvord, William A. Sweet, George Dana; and W. B. Cogswell, treasurer 
and general manager. The capital has been increased from time to time to keep 
pace with the growth of the business until now it is $4,000,000 with a total investment 
of §8,000,000. Around this immense establishment, the largest of the kind in Amer- 
ica, nearly 3,000 people have taken up their residence, and these were incorporated 
into a village in 1894. Mr. Cogswell held the positions of treasurer and general 
manager until June, 1887, when Frederick R. Hazard was made treasurer. In the 
spring of 1894 Mr. Cogswell became managing director and E. N. Trump was pro- 
moted general manager. 

Several experimental borings for rock salt were made in 1881 and 1883, but with- 
out success; information, however, was obtained which led to the experiments in 
Tully valley in 1888 and the discovery of two veins of rock salt, each about fifty feet 
thick, at a depth of 1,200 feet. The Solvay Process Company now receive their en- 



BIOGRArHICAL. 15 

tire supply, equal to 400 tons of salt per day, from the Tully wells, and have a plant 
of such capacity that a large quantity of saturated brine can be sold to the salt man- 
ufacturers of Syracuse. This enterprise led to the incorporation of the Tully Pipe 
Line Company, for conveying brine from the wells, to the works, with a capital of 
$300,000 and Mr. Cogswell as president; John L King, secretary; and Frederick R. 
Hazard, treasurer. The Solvay establishment also led to the formation of the Split 
Rock Cable Road Company with $100,000 capital and John L. King, president; 
W. B. Cogswell, general manager; O. V. Tracy, secretary; and F. R. Hazard, 
treasurer. 

Mr. Cogswell has received ample honors in his profession and evidence of that 
confidence from business men which is a tribute to his judgment and his business 
qualifications He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the 
American Society of Mining Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers, the Society of Chemical Industry of England, and the Society for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and a fellow of the Geographical Society. He is a Master 
Mason and a member of the Royal Arch Chapter. Mr. Cogswell was married on 
January 31, 1856, at Lawrence, Mass., to Miss Mary N. Johnson, a native of New 
Hampshire, who died July 20, 1877, leaving on daughter, Mabel. 



THOMAS G. ALVORD. 

Hon. Thomas G. Alvord was born on what is known as the John Hopper farm at 
Onondaga Hollow, this county, on the 20th of December, 1810. His paternal ances- 
tor, Alexander Alvord, came to this country from Somersetshire, England, in 1634, 
and first stopped at East Windsor, Conn., but soon removed to Northampton, Mass., 
of which he was the founder, and where he lived and died. His grandfather, Thomas 
G. Alvord, sr. , served in the Colonial army in the French and Indian wars, and was 
present on the frontier at Oswego in 1756, and together with his son, Thomas G. Al- 
vord, jr., was in the artillery .service during the war of the Revolution, for which 
both drew bounty lands on the Military Tract, their claims lying in what was for- 
merly Onondaga, but now Cortland county. They were both present at the sur- 
render of Cornwallis. Elisha Alvord, son of Thomas G., sr., and father of the sub. 
ject of this sketch, was born in Farmington, Conn., in September, 1773, and before 
1790 brought his father and the family to his father's military claim in the present 
town of Homer, Cortland county, where the two Revolutionary veterans above men- 
tioned both died. In 1793 Eli.sha Alvord came to Salina as superintendent for the 
Federal Salt Company, and in 1798, in partnership with his younger brother, Dio- 
clesian, purchased the business of that concern, which, together with merchandising, 
was carried on by the firm of E. & D. Alvord until May, 1813. Elisha Alvord then 
engaged in the general mercantile and produce business in company with his brother- 
in-law, Abraham C. Lansing, at Lansingburg, Rensselaer county, which they con- 
tinued until 1825. He died there in 1846. Mr. Alvord was the first supervisor of the 
town of Salina, and was for many years a commissioner appointed to lay out roads, 
notably the famous Salt road leading to Sackett's Harbor. 

He married (first) Polly Bush, by whom he had one daughter, Julia V. (Mrs. Elijah 



16 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

M. Bissell) who died at the age of eighty-five. His second wife was Helen Lansing, 
who bore him five children : Hon Thomas G.. Cornelius L., Charles B., Elizabeth 
(Mrs. C. A. Burgess), and Mary (Mrs. Alson D. Hull). Mrs. Helen (Lansing) Alvord 
was the great-granddaughter of Abraham Jacob Lansing, the original patroon of 
Lansingburg, Rensselaer county, who came from Holland to New Amsterdam in 
1620, and later moved to Fort Orange (now Albany), but subsequently settled upon 
his patrimony in Lansingburg. Her father. Cornelius Lansing, patroon of Lansing- 
burg, Schaghticoke, and part of Brunswick, was a captain in the Colonial militia, 
and also served in the Revolutionary war, being in General Schuyler s contingent at 
the surrender of Burgoyne and the night afterward in command of Fort Edward, 
where he was the host of Baroness Reidsel and Lady Harriet Auckland, the night 
after the battle. He was a member of the State Legislature in 1798-99 and a dele- 
gate to the State Constitutional Convention in 1801. Two of his sons, Abraham C. 
and Jacob C, and three sons-in-law, Gardner Tracy, David Allen and David Rus- 
sell, were members of the Legislature of this State in the early part of this century, 
while another son, Dirck C. Lansing, was a pioneer clergyman of the Presbyterian 
church in the town of Onondaga from 1807 to about 1812 and occasionally preached 
also at Salt Point. 

Thomas G. Alvord moved with his parents in 1813 to Lansingburg, where he at- 
tended the public schools and the local academy during his boyhood, In 1825 he 
entered the sophomore class of Yale College, from which he was graduated in June, 
1828. After a short time as clerk in the store of his brother-in-law, Mr. Bissell, at 
Pittsfield, Mass., he began the study of law with his old academic tutor, Hon. George 
A. Simmons, at Keeseville, Clinton county, and completed his legal studies with 
Kirkland & Bacon, of Utica, being admitted to the bar at Albany in October, 1832. 
January 1, 1833, he commenced the practice of his profession in the First ward of 
Syracu.se, then the village of Salina, and continued until 1846, when he turned his 
attention wholly to business pursuits. For about three years prior to 1842 he had as 
his legal partner Enos D. Hopping. In 1846 Mr. Alvord formed a partnership with 
Elizur Clark and his brother, Cornelius L. Alvord, under the firm name of Clark & 
Alvords, and began the manufacture of lumber and salt on an extensive scale, hav- 
ing a large saw mill on the site of the present chemical works in the First ward. 
They continued successfully until 1863, when the firm dissolved and went out of busi- 
ness. Meanwhile Mr. Alvord had organized the Salina Coarse Salt Company and 
the Salt Springs Salt Company, in each of which he has ever since been a director 
and the moving spirit. With Hon. E. B. Judson he established the Salt Springs 
Bank, and was elected its first president, and he was also for a short time a director 
in the old Bank of Salina, now the Third National Bank. He was the originator, 
with others, of the Salina and Central Square Plank Road Company, incorporated in 
1844, which constructed between those two points the first plank road in the United 
States. This road is .still maintained between Syracuse and Cicero. Mr. Alvord has 
continuously been a member of the board of directors, and for the last two years has 
served as president of the company. 

Mr. Alvord's long political record is one of exceptional brilliancy and purity. He 
was recognized as a man of great ability, of the strictest integrity and of unswerving 
fidelity to his constituents, and for many years held a foremost place in the councils 
of his parts. Engrossed as he was with the care of large and varied business inter- 




ocrtK.o^' 



CC4AJL 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 17 

ests, which constituted an important factor in the growth of the city and materially 
influenced the progress of a thriving community, he nevertheless took an active part 
in all matters of a public nature; and contributed both time and money in furthering 
every movement which met his approval. He affiliated with the Democrats until the 
firing on Fort Sumter in 1861, when his convictions impelled him towards a more 
patriotic policy than that represented by Democratic principles. At the Union State 
Convention, composed of delegates imbued with the same spirit of loyalty, held in 
1861, Mr. Alvord presided as both temporary and permanent chairman, and ever 
since then he has acted unflinchingly with the Republican party. He has ably and 
conscientiously filled many important offices of trust and responsibility, beginning 
with that of inspector of common schools in Clinton county, before he had reached 
his majority. He was clerk of the town and village of Salina several years, and in 
the fall of 1843 was elected to the assembly, in which he served in all fifteen terms, 
namely in 1844, 1858, 1862, 1864, 1876-72 inclusive, 1874-75, and 1877 to 1882 inclu- 
sive. He was speaker of the assembly in 1858 and 1864, and the first speaker in the 
new capitol in 1879, and when not in the chair he was chairman and a member 
almost continuously of the committees on canals and ways and means. His legisla- 
tive career was characterized by great personal effort in advancing not only the in- 
terests of his own asssembly district, but the welfare of the State at large, and 
numerous measures of more than local benefit were the result of his untiring labors 
and wholesome influence. In the fall of 1864 he was elected lieutenant-governor of 
the State of New York, and in that capacity served with distinction during the years 

1865 and 1866. As president of the Senate he presided with dignity, ability and fair- 
ness, and won the approval and respect of every member on the floor. In the fall of 

1866 and again in the autumn of 1893 he was elected a delegate to the State Consti- 
tutional Conventions which met in Albany in 1867-68 and 1-894, and in each of these 
bodies he was chosen vice-president. This last service closed the notably eminent 
political career of Mr. Alvord, and now at the age of eighty-five, living in retire- 
ment, he bears the respect and e.steem of all classes of citizens, whose public inter- 
ests were long intrusted to his faithful hands. Throughout an active and useful life 
he has won laurels which distinguish him among his fellow men and honors that rest 
with peculiar brilliancy upon declining age. 

Mr. Alvord was married first in February, 1838, to Miss Amelia Ann Kellogg, 
daughter of Ashbel Kellogg of Salina, who died leaving one son, Elisha Alvord, now 
county judge of Otero county, Colorado. His second wife, whom he married in 
February, 1851, was Mrs. Charlotte M. Earll, by whom he has two children living, 
viz. : Mrs. Helen Lansing Cheney, who resides in the Alvord homestead in Syra- 
cuse, and Thomas G. Alvord, jr., chief of the New York World newspaper bureau at 
Washington, D. C. 



WILLIAM K. PIERCE. 

William K. Pierce, president and general manager of the Pierce, Butler & Pierce 
Manufacturing Company of Syracuse, is a living representative of that class of 
young men of the present generation whose indomitable thrift, energy, excessive en- 
c 



18 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

terprise, and general information combined with an unusual degree of good solid 
judgment, has placed his company far in the lead of enterprises of a similar nature 
in this country. He is the youngest son of the late Sylvester P. Pierce and Cornelia 
Marsh, his wife, and was born in Syracuse on the 11th of May, 1851. His paternal 
great-grandfather and great-great-grandfather were natives of Plainfield, Conn., 
and his great-great-grandmother was the first white child born in that town. His 
grandfather. Dr. Spaulding Pierce, settled in Sauquoit. Oneida county, N. Y., in 
1796, and practiced medicine there until his death in 1824. His father, Sylvester P. 
Pierce, was born in Sauquoit on September 19, 1814, and at an early age became in- 
terested in an active commercial life. In 1839 he came to Syracuse, entering at once 
upon an extensive business career. In 1849 he laid the foundation for the present 
Pierce, Butler & Pierce Manufacturing Company, of which he was president until 
his death, November 5, 1893, a position he also held in the Catchpole Manufacturing 
Company of Geneva, N. Y. 

William K. Pierce attended the public schools and afterwards a private school, 
where he was prepared for college, entering Cornell in the class of 1873 and pur- 
suing his studies in the scientific course. In the completion of such studies his 
father suggested a European trip, which he quickly embraced, remaining there 
nearly two years, studying the French and German languages, and at intervals ac- 
cepting opportunities to travel and study the people and see the wonders of the old 
world, all of which tended to broaden and expand his ideas and prepare him more 
thoroughly for a perfect business education. On his return from Europe he under- 
took the law as a profession, registering and cominencing study in one of the law 
offices in Syracuse. He studied but a short time, however, before deciding to give up 
law and devote his exertions to business enterprises, and entered the crockery house 
of S. P. Pierce & Sons, where he remained two or three years, acquiring a general 
business knowledge. In 1876 he formed a partnership with his father and brother- 
in-law, under the name of Pierce, Butler & Pierce, doing a general wholesale busi- 
ness in gas, water and steam supplies, steam and sanitarj^ engineering. By faithful 
and unremitting attention to busine.ss, he was able, with the assistance of his 
partners, largely to increase the business, and in 1886, owing to the retirement of 
Mr. Butler, he organized the Pierce, Butler & Pierce Manufacturing Company with 
a capital stock of $200,000; and a year or two later, having purchased the large 
foundry and machine shop at Geneva, N. Y., there organized the Catchpole Manu- 
facturing Company, with a capital stock of $100,000. Owing to the great success of 
these companies through careful management and in order to simplify the business, 
he brought about a consolidation of the two companies in 1890, under the name of 
the Pierce, Butler & Pierce Manufacturing Company, with a capital stock of $600,000, 
the company then doing a business of over $1,000,000 annually, having built up this 
large and prosperous company since 1876, the first year having done but $50,000 
worth of business. 

In 1882 he was one of the first who organized an electric light company in Syra- 
cuse, this firm obtaining a franchise and introducing the first electric lights upon the 
streets and in commercial houses. Afterwards their franchise and electric light 
business was consolidated with the present Thomson-Houston Electric Light Com- 
pany of Syracuse, this company having now assumed very large proportions from 
the simple beginning introduced here through Mr. Pierce and his associates. 



BrOGRAPHICAL. 19 

In 1888, enthused with the idea of still further advancing the city's prosperity, he 
organized the Syracv:se Heat and Power Company, with a capital stock of $200,000, 
this being accomplished almost entirely through his personal efforts. Mr. Pierce is 
the president of the company. The company furnishes heat and power to residences 
and business establishments, having obtained a valuable franchise from the city to 
conduct heat through mains placed in the different streets. This has proven a great 
convenience and meets with increasing popularity. 

Reognizing the many advantages to be derived from the consolidation of a num- 
ber of large competitors in the same branch of business whereby a ver}' large ex- 
pense couldbe saved, Mr. Pierce in conjunction with other large competitive manufac- 
turers, formed the American Boiler Company, they commehcing business February 
1, 1893, Mr. Pierce selling out his entire interest in their particular branch of the 
" Florida" steam and hot water business to the American Boiler Company, which 
was organized with a capital of $1,500,000, with William K. Pierce as president, with 
the main ofhce at Chicago and branches in all of the largest cities of the United 
States. This company will do a business of nearly $1,000,000 annually, and its organ- 
zation is largely due to the enterprise and efforts of Mr. Pierce. 

Mr. Pierce has always been a conscientious worker and while greatly interested in 
politics has never found time to devote any personal attention to its intricacies. In 
1880 he was appointed captain on the staff of Brigadier-General Hawley, and in 1882 
was promoted to major on the staff of General Bruce. 

No young man has done more to develop Syracuse than William K. Pierce. He 
has always kept up with, and often been far in advance of the times, and with keen 
foresight has readily taken advantage of and embraced modern ideas for the ad- 
vancement of whatever he became deeply interested in. He was married on June 
16, 1880, to Miss Eleanor B. Rust daughter of Stiles M. Rust of Syracuse. They 
have three children, two boys and a girl. 



CHARLES H DUELL. 

Hon. Charles H. Dukll is the eldest son of Hon. R. Holland and Mary L. (Cuy- 
ler) Duell and was born in Cortland, N. Y., April 13, 1850. Hon. R. Holland Duell 
was born in Warren, Herkimer county, in December, 1824, read law in Pompey with 
Daniel Gott and in Syracuse with Charles B. Sedgwick, and in 1847 settled in Cort- 
land, where he served as district attorney from 1850 to 1856, county judge from 1855 
to 1859, member of congress from 1859 to 1863 and from 1871 to 1875, U. S. assessor 
of internal revenue from 1869 to 1871, and commissioner of patents in 1875 and 1876. 
He maintained a large general law practice, with patent law as a specialty, and 
about January, 1877, opened also an oflSce in New York city under the firm name of 
Duell, Wells & Duell, which he discontinued when his son, the junior member, re- 
moved to Syracuse. He died in Cortland in February, 1891, widely respected and 
esteemed. 

Charles H. Duell was gi'aduated from Cortlandville Academy in 1867 and from 
Hamilton College as A. M. in 1871, studied law in New York city with Hon. Elihu 
Root and at Hamilton College Law School, and received the degree of LL. B. from 



no ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

that institution in 1872. In June of the same year he was admitted to the bar at 
Utica and during the next six months practiced his profession in Cortland. In De- 
cember, 1872, he went to New York city and remained there until August, 1880, first 
in partnership with H. B. Tompkins, having a general practice, and later as the 
junior member of the patent law firm of Duell, Wells & Duell. While there he took 
an active part in politics, serving for several years as secretary of the Republican 
general committee. He was examiner in the U. S. Patent Office in 1875-76 and rep- 
resented the 13th district of New York city in the Assembly in 1878 and 1880. As 
assemblyman he was a member of various important committees and introduced a 
bill providing for the appointment of a commission to revise the banking laws of the 
State. Upon Mr. Duell's request Gov. Alonzo B. Cornell appointed Hon. Willis S. 
Paine, later superintendent of the State Banking Department, as chairman, and 
Hon. George B. Sloan, of Oswego, as a member of this committee. Mr. Duell intro- 
duced and carried through for the New York City Society for Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals, 'of which Henry Bergh was president, various acts relating to their 
humane work, and received from the New York society an engrossed resolution of 
thanks. He also introduced resolutions calling for facts respecting the appointment 
of referees and receivers in New York city which largely did away with the corrup- 
tion that had become so evident. 

In August, 1880, Mr. Duell came to Syracuse, where he has since resided, and 
where he has devoted his attention exclusively to the practice of patent law. He 
has had charge of some of the most extensive patent litigation in this State, notably 
the spring-tooth harrow cases, involving hundreds of thousands of dollars and cover- 
ing a period of over ten years. In these he was attorney for the National Harrow 
Company and other owners of spring-tooth harrows. He has also had charge of a 
large amount of electric heating patent- litigation, and is attorney for the Klauder- 
Weldon Company (which controls all the important patents on dying raw stock 
yarn and knit garments), the National Casket Company, American Ball Nozzle Com- 
pany, Porter Air Lighting Company, Consolidated Telegraph and News Company, 
and others. He is a trustee of the Onondaga County Savings Bank and is interested 
in and attorney for the Syracuse Specialty Manufacturing Company, the New Process 
Rawhide Company since its inception, and the American Electric Heating Corpora- 
tion, of Boston, Mass., which controls substantially all patents on electric heating. 
He is also interested, both as attorney and director in the Carter-Crume Company, 
one of the largest industrial concerns in this country, having factories at Niagara 
Falls, N. Y., Dayton, Ohio, Saginaw, Mich., and Toronto, Can. Since coming to 
Syracuse Mr. Duell has given his time almost wholly to his extensive legal business. 
He has, however, attended as delegate several district and State political conven- 
tions, and upon the inception of the new law school of Syracuse University in Sep- 
tember, 1895, he was chosen lecturer on patent law. 

On November 20, 1879, Mr. Duell was married in Syracuse to Miss Harriet S., 
daughter of Hon. William A. Sackett, of Saratoga Springs, N. Y., formerly an attor- 
ney and congressman from the Seneca County District and for ten years register in 
bankruptcy at Saratoga Springs. They have four children: Holland S., W. Sackett, 
Mary L., and Charles H., jr. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 21 

. JOHN NOTTINGHAM, M. D. 

John Nottingham is a son of the late Van Vleck Nottingham and Marie A. 
Williams, his wife, and was born on the homestead farm in the town of Dewitt, be- 
tween Jamesville and Sja-acuse, October 28, 1846. Van Vleck, son of Jacob and 
Eleanor Nottingham, was born in Red Hook, Dutchess county, N. Y., November 25, 
1814, removed with the family to Ulster county, and came thence in 1833 to the farm 
in Dewitt of which the L. D. V. Smith tract is a part. In 1845 he married Miss 
Williams, of Canajoharie, formerly of Connecticut, and removing a mile and a half 
to the east settled upon the land which adjoins the present farm of his nephew, 
Jacob A. Nottingham. Here were born his six children: Henry D., of Pompey, 
formerly school commissioner; Dr. John, Edwin, William, and Thomas W., of 
Syracuse ; and Frank, on the homestead. In 1887 Mr. Nottingham came to the 
city, where he died in January, 1896. He was a brother of Gorton and Abram 
Nottingham, Mrs. Elenora Van Wagenen, and Mrs. Calvin Colton, mother of 
Charles E. Colton, the architect. He was originally a Democrat, but staunchly ad- 
hered to the principles of Republicanism after 1856, when he voted for John C. 
Fremont for president. He took a deep interest in agriculture, was president of the 
Onondaga County Farmer's club, and became an original member of the First M. E. 
church of Syracuse. In 1888 he was elected loan commissioner of Onondaga 
county and held that office until his death. He was a man of rugged honesty, up- 
right in all his dealings, and his word was as good as his bond. 

Dr. Nottingham spent about two years in Falley and Cazenovia Seminaries, and 
then began the study of medicine in Paterson, N. J., with Dr. T. Y. Kinne, attend- 
ing a course of lectures meanwhile at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College. 
He was graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia on March 
4, 1870, and immediately commenced the practice of medicine in partnership with 
his preceptor. Dr. Kinne, with whom he Remained three years. He then went to 
Brooklyn and took charge of the Brooklyn Maternity, a position he held six months, 
and in the spring of 1877 settled permanently in Syracuse, where he has built up a 
large and successful practice. 

Dr. Nottingham is a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy and the 
Onondaga County Homoeopathic Medical Society, and was one of the original in- 
corporators of the new Syracuse Homoeopathic Hospital in December, 1895. He 
was made a Mason in Ivanhoe Lodge No. 88, F. & A. M., of Paterson, N. J., in 
1867, and is now a member of Central City Lodge No. 305, Central City Chapter No. 
70, and Central City Commandery No. 25, K. T. On the 1st of February, 1896, he 
was married to Mrs. E. A. Miller, of Syracuse. 



JOHN G. K. TRUAIR. 

John G. K. Truair, for thirty-five years a respected citizen and prominent busi- 
ness man of Syracuse, was born the son of a Presbyterian clergyman at Sherburne, 
Chenango county, N. Y., May 11, 1817, and as a youth was educated with a view to 
the ministry. He became a member of the first Freshman class of Oberlin College, 



22 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL, 

Ohio, which he entered in 1834, and was graduated from that institution with honors 
in 1838. Fifty years afterward he was one of the four surviving earliest graduates 
who participated in celebrating the semi-centennial anniversary of their alma mater, 
and one of these. President E. H. Fairchild of Berea College, died twenty-one days 
before the death of the subject of this sketch. After his graduation Mr. Truair en- 
gaged m academic teaching in New York State and won high rank in the profession. 
He was principal of Gilbertsville Academy and Collegiate Institute in Otsego county 
for six years, of the Norwich Academy in Chenango county for two years, and of the 
Brockport Collegiate Institute in Monroe county for five years, and was also con- 
nected with the Female College at Elmira for a time. 

In 1853-54 Mr. Truair made a tour of Europe and upon his return became a per- 
manent resident of Syracuse, where in 1855he purchased the Syracuse Journal estab- 
lishment, which had been conducted by his brother, Thomas S. In 1862 he asso- 
ciated Hon. Carroll E. Smith, LL.D., and Edwin Miles with him in conducting the 
paper and in 1870 Gen. Dwight H. Bruce was admitted to partnership under the firm 
name of Truair, Smith & Bruce. In 1885 the Journal passed into the ownership of 
a stock company and during the next three years Mr. Truair was its efficient busi- 
ness manager. In May, 1889, he retired to private life and on the 23d of the follow- 
ing November died suddenly at his home in Syracuse, leaving a widow, one daughter 
(Mrs. Charles G. Baldwin), and a brother (Thomas S. Truair), all of this city. His 
only son, George G. Truair, who for a quarter of a century was editorially connected 
with the Journal, died July 15, 1888. His father died while filling the Presbyterian 
pulpit in Fabius in 1843. 

Mr. Truair was a man of exceptional tastes and rare accomplishments, and 
throughout life bore an irreproachable reputation for honesty, integrity, and high 
moral character. As a student and teacher his work was crowned with rich success ; 
in business and social affairs he won universal confidence and esteem; and during a 
long and useful career his friendship, counsels, and assistance were widely sought 
and valued. Every one with whom he came into contact drew a wholesome influ- 
ence from his sterling individuality, and many young men of his time owe much of 
their success to his generosity and encouragement. He achieved a high position, 
not only among his associates, but in the community, and filled every station in 
life with honor, ability, and distinction. As a publisher he exerted an elevating in- 
fluence upon local journahsm and literature, and himself was the author of numerous 
letters of travel and observation of more than ordinary interest. Engaging with 
eagerness and courage in the new sphere of activity, that of establishing a profitable 
newspaper and publishing enterprise, his efforts were crowned with gratifying suc- 
cess, and he had the satisfaction of seeing the Journal steadily advance in favor with 
the public, increasing rapidly its circulation and patronage, and widely extexnding 
its prestige and usefulness. 

He was always deeply interested in public affairs and a liberal promoter of relig- 
ious, educational, and philanthropic movements. From 1855 until his death he was 
an active and a prominent member of the Park Presbyterian church and frequently 
its representative in general assembly. He was for many years secretary of the On- 
ondaga County Bible Society, and the Pioneer Society of Central New York, and 
was also a member, vice-president, and president of the Board of Councillors of the 
Home Association. He never sought political preferment, but in 1861-62 and again 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 23 

in 18()4-(55 he served as treasurer of the city, aud besides all these was interested in 
various business enterprises. 



ALFRED HIGGINS. 

Conspicuous among the untiring and thorough business men of Syracuse is Alfred 
Higgins, who was born of English ancestry in Brewster, Barnstable county, Mass., 
March 81, 1830, his father, Samuel Higgins, being a seafaring man in capacities 
from cabin boy to commander of merchant vessels. In May, 1837, the family came 
to Syracuse, where Samuel Higgins engaged in various pursuits and lived an honor- 
able life until his death in August, 1866. His wife, who also possessed high adorn- 
ments of character, died suddenly on June 11, 1866, while attending communion 
service in the Park Presbyterian church. 

Alfred Higgins embraced such opportunities for acquiring an education as the 
times and his circumstances permitted, and after the age of fifteen he engaged in 
those pursuits that were adapted to his years until the winter of 1848-49, when he 
became sales agent for a tobacco house. Upon the completion of the Syracuse and 
Binghamton Railroad in 1854 he was appointed baggage and express agent in this 
city, a position he held until 1857, when he was assigned to the agency of the express 
ofifice in Syracuse. At that time Wells, Butterfield & Co. were the proprietors of the 
business between New York and Buffalo, while Livingston & Fargo controlled the 
jines west of this .State. In 1860 these companies were consolidated and Henry 
Wells was elected president. He was an excellent business man and an ardent ad- 
mirer of Mr. Higgins's manner of conducting the office, and the people of Syracuse 
know how wisely he acted when he continued Mr. Higgins as local agent under the 
new company. The office was located in a building which stood on the site of the 
present White Memorial buildmg, whence it was subsequently removed to the place 
now occupied by Loos, Kaufman & Co., in Vanderbilt Square, and still later in the 
Kline building on the corner of West Washington and South Clinton streets. From 
there it was moved in 1895 to its present quarters in South Salina street, less than 
100 feet south of its original location. 

When Mr. Higgins was first appomted exjDress agent in Syracuse the city did not 
exceed 30,000 population, and the working force of the office consisted of four men 
and one horse. The contrast between this and the present equipment of thirty-four 
men and twenty horses is not only a striking one, but shows the wonderful develop- 
ment of the business as well as the growth of the city. Mr. Higgins has been in 
continuous service of the American Express Company and its predecessors for forty 
vears, and has constantly enjoyed the fullest confidence of his superiors, who have 
frequently manifested their appreciation of his valuable services by extending to him 
exceptional favors. His fidelity to his duties during all these years is a most worthy 
example for emulation, and it is not probable that an agent more popular with the 
public can be found on any express line. 

Mr. Higgins has never sought or desired political preferment, but in obedience to 
the expressed wishes of his constituency he represented the Sixth ward, in which he 
lived fifty-one years, eight times in the Common Council, viz., in 1864, 1866, and 



24 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

1869, and from 1875 to 1879 inclusive. He fully sustained his reputation as an honest 
and fearless citizen and one possessed of public spirit and devotion to the best in- 
terests of the community. He was appointed a member of the Board of Excise by 
Mayor Irving G. Vann and held that office three years. Public spirited and enter- 
prising, Mr. Higgins has contributed materially to the growth and prosperity of the 
city by the excellent management of his agency and his personal efforts in various 
undertakings, having for their purpose the full development of the community. It 
may be truly said of him that no man in Syracuse has had a more busy life and it 
may safely be stated that none outranks him in the line of good citizenship. 

Of the family of six sons and two daughters of Samuel Higgins, who came to 
S3'racuse in 1837, Alfred, the youngest son, alone survives. The late Col. Benjamin 
L. and Dr. S. M. were brothers of Alfred. 



CHARLES E. McCLARY, M. D. 

Charles E. McClary, M..D., was born in the town of Onondaga on April 29, 1862, 
and is a son of George H. and a grandson of John H. McClary, who was born in 
Dunbarton, N. H., in 1795, and married Mrs Mary (Riddell) Clark, who was born in 
Coleraine, Mass. , in 1800. John H. was one of the early settlers of Onondaga county, 
coming to the town of Onondaga with his brother David about 1820. He was a 
farmer, was well known throughout this section, was interested with E. D. Tefft in 
buying hops, and died aged seventy-nine. His wife's death occurred in 1875. Their 
sons were Charles W., on the homestead in Onondaga, and George H. of Cicero. 
The latter was born January 6, 1837, married, first, Lucy Ann Benton, of Oswego 
county, who died m 1869, leaving two children: Dr. Charles E., of Syracuse, and 
Jennie E. (wife of Dr. E. F. Elbridge), of Grand Junction, Col. He married, second, 
Lucy Hoyt, daughter of David Hoyt, of Cicero, b}' whom he has three children : 
Robert R., Josephine, and Gertrude. 

Dr. McClary was educated at Onondaga Academy, taught district school in his 
native town and in La Fayette one winter each, and read medicine in New London, 
Wis., with his brother-in-law, Dr. E. F. Eldridge. He attended lectures at Rush 
Medical College in Chicago and was graduated from that institution February 16, 
1886. He practiced his profession with Dr. Eldridge one and one-half years and in 
Bay City, Mich., one year, and in May, 1889, came to Syracuse, where he has since 
resided, having an office and residence at No. 110 South 'avenue. Dr. McClary en- 
joys an extensive general practice, which he has acquired by patient effort, careful 
attention, and that skill and knowledge commanding popular confidence. His edu- 
cation was obtained wholly through his own exertions, his expenses being defrayed 
with the money earned in teaching and manual labor. The results, accomplished 
without assistance, are the results of personal endeavor and individual enterprise, 
and stamp him a self-made man. 

Dr. McClary served three years (prior to January, 1896), as county coroner's physi- 
cian and in the fall of 1895 was elected school commissioner on the Republican ticket 
from the 13th Ward. He was a charter member of the Syracuse Academy of Medi- 
cine, and is also a member of the Onondaga County Medical Society, Syracuse Lodge, 
No. 501, F. & A. M., and Prospect Lodge, No. 172, K. P. , 




-^xC^ S'y^-ct/^ 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 25 

July 27, 1886, he was married to Miss Gertrude M., daughter of Zelotus Dick, of 
Bay City, Mich., formerly of Onondaga. She died February 10, 1890, leaving one 
son, Charles R., born October 28, 1888. April 19, 1893, Dr. McClary married, sec- 
ond, Miss Susie E., daughter of George M. Finn, of H. Finn's Sons of Syracuse. 



D. MUNRO. 

The township of Camillus, embracing the present towns of Elbridge and Van Bu- 
ren, was peopled mostly with settlers from New England. Among these, in the 
year 1799, only nine years later than the first white resident of the town, came David 
Munro, then a lad fourteen years old, born December 8, 1784, and fifth in the line of 
descent from John Munro, who emigrated from Scotland and settled in Massachu- 
setts at an early i^eriod. 

David accompanied his father, Squire Munro, who had been a soldier in the Revo- 
lutionary war, and who then in the prime of life, being forty-two years of age, came 
from New England, bringing with him his four sons, John, David, Nathan and 
Philip A., all of them since well known throughout the county, and settled near 
where the village of Elbridge now stands. 

As David grew up to manhood, he developed into a large and powerful man, fully 
marked with the characteristic family traits of enterprise, untiring industry, econ- 
omy and self-reliance. 

In 1807 he was married to Abigail Carpenter, of the same town, and in 1808 he 
purchased a farm, on lot number eighty, Camillus, and settled where Camillus village 
now stands, where only two frame houses were then erected. 

The country was then covered with forests, and Mr. Munro cleared up his farm, 
which was heavily timbered, doing much of the labor with his own hands. Here he 
resided for fifty-eight years, enlarging his farm by the purchase of adjacent lands 
from time to time. He died May 10, 1866, being over eighty years of age at the time 
of his decease. His wife was six years younger than himself, having been born De- 
cember B, 1790, and she survived him nearly two years. 

There were eight children born of the marriage, of whom six still survive, viz. 
John C. Munro, born October 17, 1809; James M. Munro, born November, 13, 1813 
David A. Munro, born August 18, 1818 ; Mary A., wife of Thomas W. Hill, of Elbridge 
Hannah, wife of Payne Bigelow, of Baldwinsville ; and Lydia H., wife of David 
Porter, of Lysander. 

Mr. Munro carried on a large and very successful business in farming all the ear- 
lier portion of his life, but the necessity of finding investments for the constantly in- 
creasing results of his foresight, energy and economy, occupied the most of his 
attention m later years. He was the first postmaster in Camillus village, holding 
the office from 1811 to 1824, when he was succeeded by James R. Lawrence. He 
held the office of justice of the peace for many years, and was also one of the associ- 
ate judges of the Court of Common Pleas for a long time, becoming familiarly known 
to the people of the county as Judge Munro, by which title lie was commonly called. 
He was a member of the State Legislature in 1818, 1819, 1832, 1836, 1841, and again 
in 1842. 



26 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

He was also a member of the convention which framed the third Constitution of 
the State in 1846. He was a leading director in, and for a long time president of the 
old Bank of Salina. He was also an influential director in the Salt Springs Bank 
from its incorporation to the time of his decease — an excellent portrait of him being 
engraved on the bills issued by that bank. There was no business enterprise with 
which he was connected which he did not inspire with the spirit of success. He was 
constantly in contact with the leading minds of the county, and although his early 
education was limited, his strong native sense, natural dignity of presence, and the 
innate force of his character, never failed to make due impression on every one he 
met. In person he was tall, of full habit, and corpulent in later life — hardy to the 
last degree, riding or driving barehanded in the coldest weather, and he never post- 
poned a business engagement on account of storms or railroads. 

]\Ir. Munro's manner of address was courteous but impressive, and his knowledge 
of the men and events of the day was unsurpassed. 



REUBEN C. HANCHETT, M.D. 

Reuben Caldwell Hanchett, M. D., son of George Mark and Eva A. (Caldwell) 
Hanchett, was born on a farm in the town of Palermo, Oswego county, N.Y., March 
8, 1862. His grandfather, Reuben Tuttle Hanchett, came from Connecticut to that 
locality among the earliest pioneers. Reuben T. married Maria Sheldon, and for 
about twenty years officiated as justice of the peace. His maternal grandfather. 
Captain Tuttle, was an officer in the Revolutionary war, in which struggle Mrs. 
George M. Hanchett's maternal grandfather, Mr. Baum, also participated; her father 
was a native of Scotland, but on account of religious persecution fled to Ireland, 
whence he Anally came to America. 

Dr. Hanchett was educated in the public schools of his native town and at Cen- 
tral Square, and finished with a commercial course at Meads's Business College in 
Syracuse. In 1881 he entered the medical department of Syracuse University and 
was graduated from that institution with the degree of M. D. June 12, 1884, receiv- 
ing first honors for scholarship. He then went to London, England, where he took 
special courses in general surgery and patholog}' in St. Thomas's Hospital, remain- 
ing there twelve months. There he acquired a practical as well as varied knowledge 
of surgical operations and perfected himself in this important profession. Return- 
ing to America he at once began the practice of medicine and surgery in Syracuse, 
and in October, 1885, was appointed lecturer in physiology in the Medical College of 
Syracuse University. Three years later he was made lecturer on materia medica, a 
position be has since held. Meanwhile he has continued in the general practice of 
his profession, and is one of the leading physicians and surgeons in the city. He is 
a member of the Onondaga County Medical Society and a charter member of the 
Syracuse Academy of Medicine, and is also a member of Syracuse Lodge No. 501, F. & 
A. M., and all the Masonic bodies to the 32" Scottish Rite. In November, 1895, he was 
elected school commissioner from the Eighteenth ward and is a member of the 
executive committee of the Board of Education. 

Dr. Hanchett has been twice married, and by his first wife has one daughter, 




''*^ 



^*^ 




9S-z:^^-yj2^^' 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 27 

Elizabeth. September 5, 1894, he married Mattie Viola, daughter of Alonzo Skinner 
and a native of Ithaca, N. Y. She has one daughter, Geraldine, by her first mar- 
riage. 



LEONARD A. SAXER, M. 1). 

Lf.onard a. Saxer, president of the Board of Education of Syracuse, is the only 
son of Dr. Leonard and Dr. Mary V. (Adams) Saxer, and was born in Lockport, Ni- 
agara county, N. Y., October 30, 1856. Dr. Leonard was born in Switzerland in 
1820, studied medicine in Zurich and was graduated from the University of Munich, 
and came to America in 1847. He settled in Syracuse, and excepting three years 
spent in Lockport remained here in the active practice of his profession until his 
death in March, 1876. He had a large and successful professional business, and 
served one term as school commissioner. His wife was a native of New York city, 
and after his death entered the Medical College of Syracuse L'^niversity, from which 
she was graduated as M. D. , in June. 1878. Since then she has practiced her profes- 
sion in this city. Their only daughter, Mrs. Arabella Listman, died in Decembber, 
1895. A few days after her graduation Mrs. Dr. Saxer married for her second hus- 
band Dr. Frederick Glauner, who was killed in a railroad accident at Romulus, N.Y., 
in 1879. 

Dr. Leonard A. Saxer, when one year old, removed with his parents to Syracuse, 
where he has ever since resided. He attended the public schools of this city, and 
was graduated from the Medical College of the Syracuse University with the degree 
of M. D. in 1882, since which time he has almost uninterruptedly followed his chosen 
profession. In 1883 he spent some time in the New York Polyclinic College and 
Hospital and in 1892 he took special courses in medicine in the hospitals of Vienna, 
Austria. He was a charter member of the Syracuse Academy of Medicine and an 
original fellow of the New York State Medical Association, and is a member of the 
Onondaga County INIedical Society. In 1888 he went as a delegate from the State 
Medical Association to the tenth Medical Congress in Berlin. He is also a promi- 
nent member of Syracuse Lodge, No. 501, F. & A, M., Central City Chapter, No. 70, 
R. A. M., Central City Commandery, No. 25. K. T., and Lincoln Lodge, No. 180, I. 
O. O. F. 

Dr. Saxer has for several years taken an active interest in politics. He is a staunch 
Republican, and in 1891 was elected to the Board of Education from the old Second 
(now Sixteenth) ward, and has been re-elected at the expiration of each term. In 
January, 1896, after a long and exciting contest under a Democratic administration, 
headed by Mayor James K. McGuire, he was chosen president of the board by a 
flattering vote. As school commissioner he has served with signal ability and won 
the coniidence and respect of all classes of citizens. His work on the board has been 
characterized as representing the best interests of not only his constituen-ts, but the 
city at large. 

On the 2d of April, 1884, Dr. Saxer married Miss Nettie B. Worth, of Canastota, 
and they have one daughter, Genevieve Henrietta. Theii; onlj- son, Leonard W., 
died March 16, 1892, aged six years and eleven months. Dr. Saxer lived and had his 



^8 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

office at No. 514 Prospect Avenue, 16th Ward, until the spring of 1896, when he 
moved to his present home at No. 305 James street. 



CHARLES NICHOLS. 

Charles Nichols was born in the town of Pompey, near Oran, Onondaga county, 
July 37, 1816, and was the youngest son by the second wife of Major Browning 
Nichols, who came to this section of the State from Rhcde Island at a very early day. 
Major Nichols was commissioned captain of militia in East Greenwich, Kent county, 
R. I., September 12, 1796, and later became major. He died in Pompey in 1836. 

Charles Nichols was reared on a farm and received his education in the district 
school at Oran. After his father's death he was employed for a short time in the 
tobacco works of D. O. Salmon, of Syracuse, and later found employment as fore- 
man on the Erie Canal enlargement along the Jordan level. Afterward he went to 
Massachusetts and built by contract the railroads between Salem and Gloucester and 
from Lawrence to Manchester. Completing these lines he built the old Ohio and 
Marietta Railroad in Ohio and subsequent!}^ had important contracts on the Erie and 
Black River Canals in this State. He also constructed the four-track line of the New 
York Central between Rome and Herkimer and in company with Dr. Henry D. 
Denison built the De Ruyter reservoir in Madison county, besides many other notable 
structures. In several of these various undertakings he was associated with Horace 
and Daniel Candee and also with his son John A. In 1867 Mr. Nichols assisted in 
organizing the Delano Iron Works Company, of which he was elected the first presi- 
dent and served in that capacity for five years. This corporation carried on an ex- 
tensive and successful business in the establishment now operated by the Sj^racuse 
Tube Company. He was also interested in the manufacture of salt, being connected 
with two large companies engaged m that enterprise, and during the latter years of 
his life devoted his time mainly to the management of his farm just east of the city 
in Dewitt and to his extensive and varied investments. He died at his home on 
James street in Syracuse on the 16th of October, 1887. 

Mr. Nichols was a man of retiring disposition, but keenly alive to the best interests 
of the entire community. He began life without a dollar and with no means save 
great energy, untiring activity, and indomitable perseverance, yet he succeeded in 
accumulating a fine competency as the result of personal application and self- 
reliance. He was emphatically a self-made man, and throughout a wide section was 
held in high esteem. His success was due in large measure to frugality and superior 
business qualifications as well as to great force of character and unswerving in- 
tegrity. In politics he was a Democrat of the Jeffersonian school, but never sought 
nor held public office. He was an almost unerring judge of real estate values. 
Every movement which promised general benefit found in him a firm friend and a 
cheerful supporter. 

November 14, 1847, Mr. Nichols was married at Gloucester, Mass., to Miss Lucy 
Ann Porter, who died May 28, 1876, aged forty-eight years. Their only son and 
child, Hon. John A. Nichols, was born vSeptember 13, 1848, occupies the homestead 
and served as State senator from the 25th district in 1892-93. 





CAA~yLruj- 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 29 

GEORGE T. CAMPBELL, M. D. 

George Truman Campbell, M.D., was born in Camillus, October 13, 1826. He 
studied medicine, graduating from the Buffalo University February 26, 1851, and for 
several years practiced his profession in South Butler, Wayne county. In April, 
1858, he removed to Skaneateles and for many years carried on a drug store in addi- 
tion to his practice. In 1885 he sold out his drug business and devoted himself en- 
tirely to the practice of medicine, until failing health compelled him to retire. Dr. 
Campbell was married twice, his first wife dying in 1865, and in 1868 he married 
again. Besides being a physician of note, Dr. Campbell was a representative 
citizen, having been president of the Onondaga County Medical Society for several 
terms, supervisor of the town, and for many yeai'S a member and president of 
the Board of Education in Skaneateles. He died in Skaneateles, February 11, 1882. 



DR. FRANK WILLIAM MARLOW. 

Dr. Fra.nk Willl\m Marlow, son of William Marlow, a banker, and Bertha Searle, 
his wife, was born in Abington, Berkshire, England, July 2, 1858, and received a 
private school education at Wantage in his native country. Evincing an inclination 
for professional life he entered St. Thomas's Hospital Medical School in London in 
1876. As a student he was clinical clerk to Dr. Charles Murchison until the latter's 
death and later under Mr. Nettleship in the eye department. In 1880 he became a 
member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and also a licentiate of the 
Society of Apothecaries of London. During the next four years he held various ap- 
pointments, notably clinical assistant in the Royal Bethlem Hospital, house surgeon 
and house physician in St. Thomas's Hospital, house surgeon in the Victoria Hospi- 
tal for children at Chelsea, temporary resident medical officer at the Queen Square 
Hospital for Paralyzed and Epileptic, and finally ophthalmic assistant at St. 
Thomas's Hospital and clinical assistant at the Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, 
Moorfields, to Mr. Nettleship for a period of eighteen months. 

After a short interval, which was partly filled by acting as house surgeon in the 
Moorfields Hospital, Dr. Marlow came in September, 1884, to America and settled in 
Syracuse, where he has since resided. For a time he followed his profession both as 
an oculist and aurist, but since 1891 has devoted his attention wholly to ophthalmic 
work. In June, 1885, he obtained, by examination, the degree of M. D., from the 
Medical College of Syracuse University, and in the following year was made instruc- 
tor in Ophthalmology and Otology in that institution. In 1888 he received the pro- 
fessorship in those branches, which he still holds. He has also served as librarian 
of the medical department for several years. He is ophthalmologist to the House of 
the Good Shepherd, Woman's and Children's Hospital, Syracuse Free Dispensary, 
State Institution for Feeble Minded, and Onondaga County Orphan Asylum, a mem- 
ber of the American Ophthalmological Society, the Ophthalmological Society of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the New York State and Onon- 
daga Count}' Medical Societies, and a charter member of the Syracuse Academy of 



30 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Medicine. Dr. Marlow has contributed occasional technical articles to medical jour- 
nals at home and abroad, on subjects relating to ophthalmology. 

September 24, 1889, Dr. Marlow was married to Miss Laura Bisset Mills, daughter 
of Frederick J. Mills, of San Francisco, formerly of Brandeston Hall, Suffolk, Eng- 
land. They have three children: Searle Bisset, John Mills, and Juliet. 



HENRY N. BURHANS. 

Col. Henry N. Burhans, son of Daniel and Nancy (Carpenter) Burhans, was born 
in the town of Dewitt, Onondaga county, N. Y., October 12, 1839, and received his 
education in the district schools, at the Fayetteville Union School, and at the Carey 
Collegiate Institute in Caryville, N. Y. His early life was not unlike that of other 
young men of his day, being spent mainly in acquiring substantial knowledge and a 
thorough business training. On the 18th of September, 1862, when less than twenty- 
three years of age, he was mustered into the service of the United States as first 
lieutenant of Co. F, 149th N. Y. Vol. Inf., his commission, dated Octobef 4, to rank 
from September 8 of that year. Novembr 24, 1862, he was promoted captain with 
rank from October 21, and on May 11, 1865, hs was commissioned major. On June 
7. 1865, he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel to rank from June 11, but was not 
mustered, being instead brevetted colonel and mustered out of service as major 
June 12, 1865. About August 22, 1864, he was detached as judge advocate on the 
staff of General Geary at Atlanta and assigned to duty as provost-marshal at Savan- 
nah. In the absence of Major Grumbach he commanded tjie regiment as captain 
from Savannah to Goldsboro. Colonel Burhans experienced nearly three years of 
active service, participated in all the battles and skirmishes in which his regiment 
was engaged, and was honorably discharged at the close of that sanguinary war. 

Returning to Onondaga county he was admitted as member of the firm of Bur- 
hans, Blanchard & Co., lumber manufacturers and dealers, of Fayetteville, and in 
1874 purchased their builders' supply house in Syracuse, which in 1876 was merged 
into Burhans & Black and later into Burhans & Black Company. This is one of the 
largest hardware establishments in the city, and for many j-ears has been widely 
and favorably known, its principal headquarters being in North Salina street. Its 
success is largely due to the personal efforts of Mr. Burhans, who is a representative 
business man of great energy, enterprise, and recognized ability. 

In social and fraternal as well as in commercial circles he enjoys a foremost posi- 
tion among the leading men of the community. He is a prominent member of the 
Masonic and Odd Fellows orders and past commander of Post Root G. A. R. June 
11, 1861, he was married to Miss Sarah J. Blanchard, daughter of Orlo D. and Mar- 
netta Blanchard, of Fayetteville, and they have three children : Jennie B. (Mrs. Ed- 
ward Hunt), Orlo D., and Harry N. 



1 



:^ 




^ k6uirl 



^2--ix--^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 31 

FRANK B. MILLS. 

Fr.'vnk B. Mills, was born in the town of Marcellus, Onondaga county, August 3, 
1866, and is a son of George C. (see sketch on subsequent pages) and Eliza Mills, 
who reside on a fine farm at Rose Hill, in the southern part of the town. His early 
life was passed on the homestead, where he developed a decided inclination for pro- 
ducing and classifyir\g' the seeds of various plants and vegetables, at which he be- 
came an expert while yet a mere lad. His spare time from work and school was 
spent in the garden, where he thoroughly familiarized himself with every plant that 
chanced to meet his notice. By the time he had finished his education he had ac- 
quired a wide and practical knowledge of almost every seed grown, not only in this 
country, but in the world, and he at once determined to apply that knowledge to 
production and distribution. This proved to be the beginning of a business scarcely 
equaled elsewhere m the State, a business, in fact, that ranks high among the largest 
concerns of the kind in the country. He had become the possessor of a small hand 
printing press capable of printing an ordinary page at each impression, and with 
this, at the age of less than twenty-one, he began, in 1887, toprint his first catalogue. 
He did all the work alone, from setting the type to mailing the modest book, of 
which about 3,000 copies were issued and sent out. During that year he secured 118 
customers. From this small commencement the business has steadily and rapidly 
increased in volume and extent until it now forms one of the largest and most com- 
plete establishments of its character in the United States. He has now over 400,- 
000 customers, whose orders come from every habitable part of the globe — from Can- 
ada, South America, and Europe, from Asia, Africa, New Zealand, and Australia, 
— requiring about half a million catalogues annually for distribution. Mr. Mills has 
a number of large and convenient buildings and several greenhouses devoted ex- 
clusively to the business, and all have been erected within the last four or five years. 
To these and especially to the greenhouses he is constantly adding; each year is in- 
creasing the extent and magnitude of an already mammoth concern. He has a 
large seed farm, of which several acres are devoted entirely to testing every variety 
of seed he sells, and nothing is shipped away until it is thoroughly tried and fully 
equals every requirement. In this way Mr. Mills has established a name and busi- 
ness which ranks him among the few great seedsmen of the United States. It is 
doubtful if a concern of equal magnitude has ever sprung into existence in the short 
time in which his has been prosecuted, and all this is due to the indomitable energy, 
the systematic methods, and the close personal supervision of the proprietor. He is 
the founder of a business of which not only Onondaga county but the State of New 
York may be well proud. As an auxiliary to his adopted calling, and as a means of 
disseminating valuable and practical knowledge among the thousands of gardeners 
and horticulturists throughout the country, Mr. Mills established in December, 1894, 
an illustrated monthly entitled "Success with the Garden," which has begun what 
promises to be an auspicious career. His is strictly a mail-order business, and its 
requirements were such that the government, on Novembers, 1895, established Rose 
Hill post-office with F. B. Mills as postmaster. He resigned this position in 1892, 
and was succeeded by his brother William E. Mills. His residence, the finest in the 
town and one of the handsomest in the county, was completed in 1893, and with all 
his other buildings is pleasantly located on Fairview Farm at Rose Hill in the south 



32 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

part of Marcellus. Mr. Mills was married, June IG, 1892, to Miss Grace Ackles, 
daughter of Samuel Ackles, of Spafford. 



MAURICE A. GRAVES. 

Maukick A. Gra\es is a son of Abial S. and Elizabeth (Brockett) Graves, a grand- 
son of Benjamin and Mary (Stark) Graves, and a great-grandson of Elijah Graves, 
who served six years in the Revolutionary war, enlisting from Connecticut. The 
familv came from England, where many of its members were connected with the 
royal army and navy. Benjamin Graves, whose wife was a cousin of Mary Stark of 
Bennington fame, came on foot from Connecticut to Westmoreland, Oneida county, 
N. Y., but soon returned east, brought back a yoke of oxen, and settled there at a 
very early day. He made frequent trips to Salt Point when the-siteof Syracuse 
was largely a swamp, and died March 23, 1868, aged eighty-four. Of his eight chil- 
dren Abial S., now of Camden, lived in Westmoreland during his active life. His 
wife's father, Eli Brockett, came from Connecticut to Herkimer county, served as 
captain at Sackett's Harbor in the war of 1812, and died in August, 1871, aged 
eighty-five. 

Maurice A. Graves was born in Westmoreland, N. Y., April 23, 1846, received a 
district school education in his native town, and came to Syracuse in September, 
1865. He was bookkeeper for the old Fourth National Bank and for the wholesale 
tea and coffee house of F. H. Loomis three years each, and afterward occupied 
various responsible positions. In 1875 he became a bookkeeper for John Crouse & 
Co., the largest wholesale grocery establishment in Central New York, and six 
months later was made financial manager, having entire charge of the collecting 
department, a position he held till the firm went out of business in February, 1887. 
He continued as confidential man to John and D. Edgar Crouse till the former's 
death June 25, 1889, and then remained in the same capacity with D. Edgar until 
his death November 10, 1892. Meanwhile Mr. Graves closed up the estate of John 
J. Crouse, the business of John Crouse & Co., and the estate of the late John Crouse, 
all involving extensive interests in Syracuse and elsewhere. D. Edgar Crouse, by 
his will, appointed him one of his executors, and early in 1893 Mr. Graves com- 
menced, with Jacob A. Nottingham, the settlement of that well known estate, to 
which he has since largely given his attention. He is also interested in various 
business enterprises. He was one of the originators in 1892 of the Cosmopolitan 
Building and Loan Association and has ever since been the treasurer and a director 
of that successful concern. He was also one of the projectors of the Manufacturers' 
Lloyds (fire insurance) of New York. In 1895 he purchased of the George F. Com- 
stock estate the Comstock farm of 105 acres, lying just east of the University, and 
laid out a large part of it into building lots, a number of which are already sold. 
This tract is known as University Heights, and is one of the largest pieces of city 
real estate which one man alone ever attempted to develop. Here, on the most ele- 
vated point, Mr. Graves erected in 1895 a handsome dwelling, in which will be 
stored his valuable library of about 2,000 volumes, many of them very rare and ob- 
tained at great exjiense. 




^'ed by.z/.K.Cair.f: 




C^^ 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 33 

Mr. Graves has never sought political office, but his public spirit and patriotism 
led him on September 8, 1862, to enlist in Co. I, 81st N. Y. Vols., in which he .served 
until December, 1864, when he was transferred to Co. I, 10th Vet. Reserve Corps, 
which was stationed in Washington during the last year of the Rebellion, guard- 
ing the White House, War Department, and other public buildings. He was 
present at Lincoln's second inauguration, took an active part in the exciting scenes 
attending the President's assassination, and has in his possession the drum that 
sounded the call for the first troops on that occasion. He also participated in the 
funeral obsequies and in other events, including the grand review, when he was sta- 
tioned with his drum corps opposite the grand stand to salute the regimental colors 
as they passed. He was honorably discharged July 26, 1865, and since September 
of that year has resided in Syracuse, where he has taken an active part in church 
and missionary work. He was for many years a deacon and trustee of the Dutch 
Reformed Church in James street, and for some time was engaged in Sunday school 
mission work in connection with the Young Men's Christian Association. About 
1882 he was elected superintendent of Rose Hill Mission (Sunday school) and con- 
tinued in that capacity for twelve years. In 1886 this mission was reorganized into 
the Westminster Presbyterian church, largely through the zealous labors of Mr. 
Graves, who was elected one of the first trustees, a position he held some time. He 
has also been an elder in that church during the past ten years. He was for several 
years a member of Syracuse Presbytery, and in 1894 was elected a delegate to the 
general assembly held at Saratoga. He is a member of the Citizens' Club, Post 
Root G. A. R., Syracuse Lodge No. 501, F. and A. M., and Central City Chapter, 
No. 70, R. A. M. 

January 17, 1872, Mr. Graves married Miss Christina, daughter of Philetus Reed, 
of Syracuse, and they have three children: Nathan R., Alice R., and Helen B. 



JOHN J. MOORE, M. D. 

John Jay Moore, M. D., son of Apolos and Frances (Reed) Moore, was born in 
Stittsville, Oneida county, N. Y., on the 21st of October, 1861. His mother died in 
1871, leaving two other children: Clarence H. and Jennie (since deceased). In 1872 
the father moved with the family to the town of Manlius, Onondaga county, where 
he spent the remainder of his life, dying in September, 1892, at the age of sixty- 
four years. 

Dr. John Jay Moore, the subject of this sketch, was reared upon the paternal 
farm and finished his literary education in the academy at West Winfield, N. Y., 
from which he was graduated in 1875. He inherited those sterling characteristics 
which distmguished both his father and mother, and early manifested a strong in- 
clination for a professional career. Deciding upon medicine as being peculiarly 
suited to his tastes he entered the medical department of the University of New 
York City, and was graduated from that institution with the degree of M.I>. in 1882. 
Immediately afterward he established himself in the practice of his profession in 
Syracuse, where he has since resided. 

Dr. Moore has met -yvith unvarying success in his chosen calling, and very soon 



34 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

after his graduation took a prominent position among his fellow practitioners 
in the city. Imbued with an innate love and zeal for his profession, and endowed 
with those traits of character that mark the successful man, he has built up a large 
and remunerative professional business and won a warm place in the affections of 
his patients. He has always taken a lively interest in public and municipal affairs. 
He served one term as school commissioner of the Sixth ward and is now completing 
his second term in that office from the Eighteenth ward. He was a charter member 
of the Syracuse Academy of Medicine and is also a prominent member of the Onon- 
daga County Medical Society and of Syracuse Lodge No. 501, F. & A. M. 

Dr. Moore was married in February, 1882, to Miss Emma I. Bethel, daughter of 
John Bethel, of Syracuse. They have one son, H. Reed Moore, born July 31, 1892. 



IGNATIUS SAWMILLER. 

Hon. Ignatius Sawmillek is a native of Germany. He was born at Donaurieden, 
a place situated near the Danube River, and about five miles distant from the city of 
Ulm, in the Kingdom of Wurtemburg, May 20, 1844. The first ten years of his life 
were spent by the blue waters of that river, famous in history and song. At ten 
years of age he came with his parents to this country, and with them cast his lot in 
Syracuse. What the possibilities of the new world were for achieving success he 
knew not, and although his parents were not so circumstanced as to afford large aid 
in the way of money, yet they had endowed him with something infinitely better, a 
sturdy character and a well balanced head. Both of these have been potent elements 
in working out a success against many obstacles. His life in this country began 
with the struggle for self-maintenance, so he set about doing whatever he could find 
to do in various kinds of labor. Therefore his opportunities for acquiring an educa- 
tion were necessarily limited ; but he made good use of the time he could spare in 
winter to attend school. At eighteen he took a course in the old Bryant & Stratton 
Business College, which was then the leading institution of its kind in the State. 
His evenings subsequently were spent in the office of Mr. A. L. Mason in Syracuse, 
where he received much valuable training to supplement and put into use the theories 
taught during his business education. He spent several years as a worker in the 
salt fields around Syracuse, until in 1868, he had by industry accumulated a suffi- 
cient amount of money to engage in the manufacture of that product for himself. 
In 1876 he entered into copartnership with A. L. Mason under the firm name of 
Mason & Sawmiller for the manufacture of salt, and two years later they added to 
this the ice business. In 1882 Mr. Sawmiller abandoned the salt industry and Mr. 
Mason in 1884 retired from the ice trade, thus terminating the partnership. Mr. 
Mason was at once succeeded by John Sawmiller, and the firm then became Sawmiller 
Brothers. In 1888 they engaged also in the coal business, establishing a plant and 
opening an office near their ice houses on the Liverpool road, adjacent to the city. 
Mr. John Sawmiller some time ago retired from the firm, Ignatius now carrying on 
the business alone, but that is still the headquarters and distributing point for both 
ice and coal. Mr. Sawmiller has a large trade in these lines, and the ice busmess, 
being, too, one of the most extensive in the city, w^as built up against an opposition 




IGNATIUS SAWMILLER. 



BrOGRAPHICAL. 35 

that would have disheartened any man not possessing the courage and business 
energy of Ignatius Sawmiller. Back in the sixties Mr. Sawmiller was active in the 
volunteer fire department of Syracuse serving in various capacities, having acted as 
treasurer of No. 4 in 1S66 and of the reorganized No. 2 m 1867-68. 

In the meanwhile he had taken a deep interest in political matters, and as a Re- 
publican had attained considerable influence in the party affairs in the town of 
Salina, where he resides. So favorably was he regarded by the citizens of that town 
that in 1885 they urged upon him the nomination for member of the Board of Super- 
visors of Onondaga county. He finally accepted the nomination and was elected 
by a surprising majority. The members upon assembling that year found in Ignatius 
Sawmiller a man of metal, of well developed ideas and the courage to stand by 
them. When the machine began its work in the board it found a Marius in its 
camp, for Mr. Sawmiller had notions of what was right and for the best interest of 
his town and county. The board then stood fourteen Republicans and thirteen 
Democrats, so Mr. Sawm.iller, bj' his independent position, held the controlling 
power. This was wielded to good effect that year in the appointment of a super- 
intendent of the penitentiary, for the candidate of his naming was finally chosen 
against an objectionable candidate of the machine. This action on his part, of course, 
incurred the ill nature of machine Republicans, but Mr. Sawmiller's constituents 
were pleased and the whole county came in consequence to regard him with much 
favor. The board honored him that year with the chairmanship of the committee 
on sheriff^' s accounts. 

The Republicans of Salina were so well satisfied with his course that they returned 
him for four more consecutive terms, during which years he held chairmanships 
of committees on erroneous assessments, on county buildings and member of the 
committee on ways and means. Had it not been for his desire to conserve the best 
interests of the party and to avoid engendering contention he could have been in 
1888 chairman of the Board of Supervisors. 

By his earnest conscientious work of years Mr. Sawmiller had succeeded in changing 
his town of Salina from a nominal majority of one hundred for the Democratic party 
to one hundred and fifty majority for the Republicans. 

During his course in the board a prominent German newspaper of Sj'racuse saw 
fit to speak of him in the following terms; 

" The German people of this county may congratulate themselves upon the posses- 
sion, in the person of Ignatius Sawmiller of Salina, of a representative in the Board 
of Supervisors who not only knows how to watch over the interests of his constitu- 
ents in the narrow sense of the term, but who also takes pride in doing his German 
fellow citizens a favor when occasion offers, and in standing up boldly for their 
rights." 

It said further, after his action in the board in reference to printing the supervisors' 
reports: " Representatives of Mr. Sawmiller's .stamp are only too seldom met with 
here. Men like him should be sitting not in the Board of Supervisors, but in the 
Legislature with ample opportunities for advancing German interests in general, 
and for breaking a lance in behalf of individual liberty and equality." 

As a result of his popularity growing out of a five years' service in the Board of 
Supervisors, he was in 1889 nominated and elected to the Assembly from his dristrict 
by over 2,400 majority, a result unparalleled in the district. The liberal element 



36 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

both in his party and the others aided largely in the splendid victory. The following 
year the machine Republicans set about to defeat his nomination, and failing in this, 
to prevent his re-election. But in spite of this the people returned him by about 
1,600 majority. 

The position Mr. Sawmiller took in the Assembly in reference to high license 
again brought him into prominence, for his liberal ideas on those matters met with 
much spirited opposition from many of his party leaders. He opposed high license, 
for, as he stated on the floor, there was a law already enacted fixing the license 
charge as high as $250. Since this law was inoperative why pass another one of the 
same kind? The wisdom of his action in this matter developed later for at the Repub- 
lican State convention in Rochester in 1893 a resolution was passed by the Republi- 
cans embodying the principle as that put forth by Mr. Sawmiller. 

Having returned from the Assembly with a creditable record and increased popu- 
larity, Mr. Sawmiller was urged in 1891 to become the candidate of his party for the 
office of sheriff. After due consideration and assurance of cordial support by the 
faction, of which he was one of the best workers, he consented to enter the field ; but 
his evident strength and popularity so aroused the old machine that every means 
was resorted to compass his defeat in the nominating convention. At the outset 
the convention stood in his favor, yet when the result was ascertained a combination 
of factions had nominated a machine man. A prominent leader who had given him 
promise of support could doubtless explain the reason of this. The treachery 
played at that time lost the Republicans of Onondaga county two members of 
assembly and a State senator, and was the means later of losing for this State a 
United States senator. In 1894 the people of the county still looked to Mr. Saw- 
miller to again become the candidate for the office of sheriff, but he was too 
shrewd to fall a victim to the old machine, for at once realizing that the desires of 
the people in the matter were of no avail he stepped aside and permitted the ring 
element to act its own sweet will. Mr. Sawmiller is now applying his energies to his 
business interests, endeavoring to recoup himself somewhat for the money and valu- 
able time spent in furthering the interests of the party, 

Mr. Sawmiller married, in 1868, Miss Josephine Sax, of Syracuse. They are mem- 
bers of the Church of the Assumption on North Salina street. 



DAVID. A. MUNRO, Jr. 

David Allen Munro, Jr., was born at Camillus, Onondaga county, November 15, 
1844. He was the first in a family of four sons, three of whom are now living in 
Camillus. His father, David A. Munro, is also a native of that town. David 
Munro, grandfather of the subject of this sketch and father of David A. Munro, 
came to Camillus in the early history of the town and county. He was one of the 
foremost men in that part of Onondaga county, occupying a prominent place in the 
progress and development of the community. He accumulated a large estate, a 
liberal amount of which was devoted to various worthy objects. David A. Munro 
has, too, been one of the most successful business men in Onondaga county. He 
has for many years been interested in important enterprises that have required 




DAVID ALLEN MUNRO, JR. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 37 

keen judgment and financial ability in their management. He is still actively in- 
terested in business matters besides keeping in touch with the affairs material to the 
advancement of his native town. 

David Munro married for his first wife Mary Jane Hill, daughter of Deacon Hill, by 
whom he had the four sons referred to. David Allen Munro, jr. , was raised in Camillus 
and received his education there and at the Munro Collegiate Institute at Elbridge. 
After graduating in 1862, being then only seventeen years of age, he enlisted in the 
122d N.Y.Vols. On account of his valiant acts and military proficiency he was soon 
promoted to first lieutenant and afterwards to aide-de-camp to Colonel Hyde, serving 
in that position to the close of the war. He participated in many of the important 
battles of the Rebellion, in one of which (the battle of the Wilderness) he received a 
gunshot wound. 

Mr. Munro was not endowed with a robust constitution, consequently he never en- 
joyed vigorous health to a degree that enabled him to engage in busine.ss pursuits 
unmindful of his health, yet he was actively interested in various industries, chief 
among them being that of agriculture. He owned and superintended several large 
farms in the vicinity of Camillus. Through inheritance and careful management he 
accumulated a large estate, consisting of realty and other holdings. Mr. Munro 
possessed those qualities of mind and heart that insured for him the highest respect 
and esteem of all who ever had the pleasure of his acquaintance. He was kind, 
thoughtful and generous in spirit, while his integrity remained unspotted throughout 
his life. His social and domestic relations were the embodiment of honor and Chris- 
tian uprightness. 

In 1866 Mr. Munro married Ida J. Stickle, who died in 1875. Two years later he 
married Emma E. Brown, a native of Geneseo, 111., born in 1852. She was a daugh- 
ter of Frederick P. and Harriet Bennett Brown of Elbridge. Frederick P. Brown 
was a son of Squire M. Brown, one of the earliest settlers of that town. Frederick 
P. Brown in 1852 went to Illinois and remained there till his death in 1889. His wife 
is now living in Iowa. 

In his political faith David Allen Munro, jr., was as sincere and honest as he was 
m the tenets of his church. He was a Republican because he believed in its prin- 
ciples, and lent his time, money and influence to advance its interests. In 1892, 
after being repeatedly urged so to do by the leaders in the party, he accepted the 
nomination for member of assembly in his district. Except for an error in the 
ballots, which was taken advantage of by the opposition party, he would have 
been elected by a splendid majority. As it was he was counted out and thus 
robbed of the honor which his many friends and constituents had desired to confer 
upon him. Increasing ill-health began to make inroads upon his constitution in 
1894, and on May 6, 1895, after a brave struggle against a fatal malady, he died. 
He is survived by his wife and two sons: Harry A., aged thirteen ; and David Allen, 
aged eleven. 



HENRY L. DUGUID. 

Henry Lyman Duguid was born in the town of Pompey, Onondaga county, De- 
cember 25, 1832. His paternal grandfather, John Duguid, came to America from 



38 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Aberdeen, Scotland, to engage in business, near the close of the last century, and 
later married Eunice Day. His father, William Duguid, was among the many early 
settlers of Pomjjey whose industry, thrift, and sterling worth have contributed to 
give to that town an enviable name. William married for his second wife Miss Eve- 
line Van Buren, a sister of Harmon W. Van Buren, of Syracuse, and daughter of Peter 
Van Buren, a sturdy Mohawk Dutchman from Kinderhook, and Elizabeth Upham, his 
wife, of good New England stock. 

Henry passed his boyhood in the wholesome atmosphere of a Christian home and 
there laid the foundation of a character that is worthy of emulation in every respect. 
He attended the district schools and Pompey Academy, and in 1856 was graduated 
with honor from Hamilton College, where, besides his regular collegiate course, he 
read law during his junior and senior years under Prof. Theodore W. Dwight. In 
1856 he entered the law office of Hon. Daniel Gott, at Syracuse, and later the office 
of Judge J. M. Woolworth of Omaha, Neb., and was admitted to the bar at Council 
Bluffs, Iowa, in 1857. In 1858 he returned to Onondaga county, and on January 5, 
1859, was married to Miss Harriet Eliza Wells, only daughter of John Sellew Wells 
and Mary Hinsdell, his wife, both of Pompey. Her ancestors were all residents of 
Onondaga. Her paternal grandfather, Elijah Wells, with his wife, Lucy Sellew, 
came to Pompey in 1799 from Glastonbury, Conn. Her maternal grandfather, 
Moses Hinsdell and wife, Rachel Hibbard, daughter of Leah Cronkite Hibbard, 
passed their lives at their home between Jamesville and Pompey. In 1859 Mr. Duguid 
settled in Syracuse, where he ever afterward resided. 

Mr. Duguid never began the practice of law, but found business opportunities 
opening to him which appeared more to his tastes and in which he achieved unusual 
success. In 1845 Pope & Dawson started the first saddlery hardware establishment 
in Syracuse, and under various firms it attained a high reputation in business circles. 
In 1858 Mr. Duguid became associated with Edward S. Dawson in this manufactory, 
and at a later date, after the retirement of Mr. Dawson, Jacob Brown was admitted to 
the firm. That concern, like all others that came under the influence of Mr. Duguid's 
tireless energy and activity, proved remarkably successful, and in 1868 he became 
the principal owner and senior member of the firm of Duguid, Wells & Co., his 
brother-in-law, J. E. Wells, having been admitted to a partnership interest. Subse- 
quently the name was changed to Duguid & Wells, and after the death of Mr. 
Duguid, the Duguid Saddlery Compan^^ was organized and incorporated with his son 
Henry W. as president. The business developed into large proportions, and has 
continuously exerted a marked influence upon the growth and prosperity of the city. 

Mr. Duguid's reliability and far-seeing judgment in financial affairs was so gener- 
ally recognized in Syracuse that he was elected in 1883 president of the Syracuse 
Savings Bank and held that position until his death. Taking a keen interest in pub- 
lic matters, he was brought into considerable prominence in politics as a member of 
the Republican party, and in recognition of his service and his fitness for the posi- 
tion he was appointed L^. S. internal revenue collector for the 23d district of this 
State and held the office from 1869 to 1873. Upon the organization of the paid fire 
department of Syracuse he was appointed one of the fire commissioners and served 
as president of the board in 1877 and 1878. In 1878 he was elected to the State Leg- 
islature and by re-elections served in the Assembly in the sessions of 1879, 1880, and 
1881. He rendered effective services as a legislator and took a prominent part in 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 39 

the labors of that body, being placed on some of the most important committees, in- 
cluding the special railway investigating committee. His liberal education, his 
great business experience, and his unimpeachable integrity peculiarly qualified him 
for the duties of the position. In 1880 and 1881 he served as chairman of the com- 
mittee on commerce and navigation and a member of the committee on cities, and 
in the latter year a member also of the committee on Indian affairs. His most valu- 
able legislative service, however, was rendered in the series of railway investiga- 
tions, which made him favorably known throughout the State. 

Mr. Duguid and his wife were active members of the First Presbyterian church 
until 1870, when they went out with others to build up the Fourth Presbyterian 
church, with which they were connected for seventeen years. At the organization of 
the Fourth church Mr. Duguid was elected president of its board of trustees, a posi- 
tion he held during his connection with the society. In 1887 he again went out with 
other workers to organize the Memorial Presbyterian church out of the Scattergood 
Mission School, in which his late uncle, H. W. Van Buren, had for manv years taken 
a deep interest. Of this church he was also made president of the board of trustees. 
He was a leading spirit in building up the Syracuse Y. M. C. A. and for two years 
filled the office of president. He was also president of the board of trustees of the 
Onondaga County Orphan Asylum for twelve years. He left his mark upon the re- 
ligious life of the city, and his citizenship was fruitful in benefits to the community. 
His wife died in April, 1888. He died in Tucson, Arizona, December 30, 1888, while 
on a slow journey to Southern California. 

Mr. and Mrs. Duguid had three children: Mary Evelyn, who in January, 1894, 
was married to Donald Dey, a native of Scotland, of Dey Brothers & Co., dry goods 
merchants in Syracuse, and has one daughter, Harriet Duguid Dey ; Harriet Eliza 
Duguid; and Henry Wells Duguid, president of the Duguid Saddlery Company, of 
Syracuse. 



LUKE RANNEY. 

Hon. Luke Ranxev was born in Ashfield, Mass., November 8, 1815. He with his 
parents moved in 1823 to Aurelius, Cayuga county, N. Y. His father, William Ran- 
ney, was born in Middletown, Conn., June 30, 1785. His wife, mother of Luke 
Ranney, was Betsey Alden, born in Ashfield, Mass., 1789. She was a direct descen- 
dant of John Alden, one of the Mayflower passengers to this country and the hero of 
Longfellow's famous poem, Miles Standish and Priscilla. The members of the fam- 
ilies from the original comer down through the whole line have been people of strong 
character and bright intellect. Mrs. Ranney died at Elbridge, N. Y., May 9, 1870. 

William Ranney, father of the subject of this sketch, came to this part of the State 
at a time when agriculture was undeveloped, and yet it was about the only industry 
that received any attention. So he followed that occupation, devoting his energy 
and much time to the settling and clearing up of his farm. Like the Aldens, Mr. 
Ranney came from a family noted for high character, marked astuteness and honor. 
The direct line is followed back to Thomas Ranney who came to this country in 1630 
from Scotland. 

After devoting twelve years to farm life in the town of Aurelius, Mr. William 



40 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Ranney sold out and removed to Elbridge, where he spent the rest of his life. He 
died September 2, 1857. 

Luke Rannej' spent his boyhood on his father's farm, attending the district school 
during the winter and helping in summer with all his young energy at the farm labor, 
for in those days idle hands found no place among the pioneers. But as Luke at- 
tained early boyhood his active mind was reaching out for knowledge beyond what 
could be acquired at the common school. Every shift was made to gratify his thirst 
for knowledge, and after the close of the long day of toil a great part of the night 
was given ov^er to reading and study. The scanty library which the family possessed 
was pored over, read and re-read and absorbed by the young boy. Finally in 1834 
he was sent by his father to Shelburne Falle, Mass., to school. The mode of reach- 
ing that place, like everything else, was crude, and attended with much delay. The 
canal boat was the conveyance as far as Albany, and from there the route to his school 
lay across country, a distance of sixty miles. The stage fare for the trip was $3, 
but this amount was more than a boy of Luke Ranney's stamp would consent to 
expend for the transportation, so he and his companion set out on foot, arriving at 
their destination footsore and very weary. With the money thus saved he purchased 
Rollin's Ancient History, which he devoured with gusto, and added one more valu- 
able book to his cherished library. The next fall in response to the wish of his father 
young Ranney went to Van Buren county, Mich., to aid his brother on afarm, which 
the elder Mr. Ranney had purchased. The trip was made by boat to Detroit, the 
the last boat bound west on the lake that fall. From Detroit the journey was made 
with a yoke of oxen, the distance being one hundred and fifty miles. He arrived at 
his brother's camp, for the farm house consisted merely of a rude logshanty in which 
his brother kept "bachelor's hall." Luke Ranney remained there several months, 
subsisting much of the time on potatoes and pork, and was a good part of the time 
in this dense solitude without any living companion whatever, as his brother's busi- 
ness took him away for long periods. 

He had with him, however, a volume of Shakespeare which served to brighten the 
hours and store his young mind with thoughts and aspirations for a broader life. 
Through all his life Mr. Ranney has been a diligent reader in the various fields of 
literature until he is one of the best posted men of the time. 

After returning from Michigan Mr. Ranney taught school in Troopsville in 1839 
and in Port Byron in 1840. Then for the next two succeeding years read law with 
Messrs. Robinson & Goodwin, but at the end of that time failing health compelled 
him to abandon his chosen profession and seek a climate more conducive to health. 
Therefore he went in the fall of 1842 to Kentucky where he again engaged at teach- 
ing school. That was many years before the civil war, but being a close observer of 
affairs, Mr. Ranney readily comprehended the evils of the slavery question, and pre- 
dicted in unqualified terms what the ultimate outcome of it would be. In reply to a 
friend in the north asking his opinion on the subject, he returned the following: 

"When I see the vast amount of evil that originates in this system of slavery, I 
shudder at future consequences. The day of final judgment may be far distant, but 
as sure to come as a rock loosened from the top of a mountain is to thunder down to 
the plain below, and woe, woe to all who are in its path. I may not live to see it, 
but the seed has been sown, the crop is more than half grown, and when the harvest 
comes it will be a harvest of death and destruction." The realization of this a little 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 41 

more than twenty years later showed that he foresaw with great accuracy the end of 
it all. At that time the temperance question was being agitated in Kentucky, and 
Mr. Ranney's firmly developed principles in that line naturally led him into active 
participation in its behalf. He was then and always has been an eloquent speaker 
which was turned to good account among the people there. Through his eiforts 
many converts to temperance were made, as many as one hundred and fifty signing 
the pledge as the result of one evening's work. In the fall of 1843 Mr. Ranney re- 
turned from the south and the following year married Miss Rebecca Lyon, daughter 
of Deacon Cyrus Lyon, of the town of Weedsport. For the next five years Mr. 
Ranney lived on the farm, gradually recovering his health, and adding at the same 
time a moderate accretion in wealth. In the spring of 1852 they moved to Elbridge 
where they have since resided. Mr. Ranney's interest and activity in public affairs 
coupled with his thorough understanding of them at once placed him at the front as 
a leader in politics. In the spring of 1857 he was chosen to represent the town of 
Elbridge in the Board of Supervisors. The record he made while a member of the 
board served to still increase the confidence of the citizens in his integrity and ability. 
The following year he was elected to represent the First District of Onondaga in the 
Legislature, and again in 18G5 and 1867 he was a member of that body. His superior 
judgment and ability were here again recognized by his associates placing him on 
the most important committees of the House. The bill creating the State Board of 
Assessors was originated and framed by Mr. Ranney, and it was through his influ- 
ence that it became a law. The intent and working of this law was so satisfactory 
that the State Board of Assessors is still in vogue. It was while Mr. Ranney was in 
the Legislature and also a member of the select committee on freight rates bill that 
his memorable fight for the people of the State as against corporations was begun. 
This bill was defeated and Mr. Ranney had reason to believe that it was brought 
about b}'^ the influence of money contributed by the N. Y. C. Railroad Company, and 
that at a cost it was alleged of |60,000. Mr. Ranney's speeches on personal liberty 
and other topics in the House gave him a 'wide reputation, while his rigid upright- 
ness and loyalty to the people made him feared by corruptionists and monopolies. 

Another move of the N. Y. C. railroad at that time was to have enacted a law 
permitting that company to increase its way passenger rates to two and a half cents 
per mile. This Mr. Ranney vigorously opposed, and proceeded to prove by state- 
ments of the company itself that millions of dollars had at the present rate of fare, 
been divided among the stockholders. The bill was finally defeated and as the re- 
sult of Mr. Ranney's sledgehammer opposition and merciless expose of the injustice 
and iniquity of the measure. Every person who has ridden on the N. Y. C. from 
that day to this owes this saviftg in rate to that able champion of the right, Luke 
Ranney. But Mr. Ranney was then, as he always has been, too fearlessly honest in 
his political acts to walk in the graces of political schemers and jobbers, so the m- 
fluence of that body was afterwards active to prevent his return to the Legislature. 
Mr. Ranney is now a staunch Republican and although past eighty years of age takes 
a lively interest in all public matters whether in politics or the moral and religious 
betterment of the community. 

When the Constitutional Convention met in 1867 to revise the State Constitution, 
they appointed a committee to examine and see if they could devise some means to 
prevent lobby corrujjtion. This committee was empowered to call witnesses frona 

F 



42 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

any part of the State. George Opdyke of New York city was chairman. He swore 
Worcester, treasurer of the N. Y. C, and asked him if he had ever paid any money 
for purposes of legislation, and he said that he paid $60, 000 to defeat the pro rata 
freight bill, and $205,000 for purposes of legislation the session that had up the in- 
crease fare bill; and this $205,000, it was alleged, was used to buy votes. To judge 
how those who .sold their votes to the railroad company must have felt, the following 
quotation from Mr. Ranuey's speech made at that time is inserted: 

And now, before 1 close, what shall I say to such, if any such there be, who have sold them- 
selves to this corporation ? Remember, Judas betrayed his Lord, for thirty pieces of silver, and 
for that act has been held up for execration, scorn and contempt to the outermost bounds of 
civilization. Gentlemen, turn your minds within and behold yourselves as in a glass, and what 
do vou see? a villain whose company you are compelled to keep and from whose vile companion- 
ship there is no escape, dishonored and scorned by yourself, seeking a hiding-place from the 
goadings of conscience, dying while you live, and living praying for the everlasting rocks and 
hills to fall on you and hide you from the righteous indignation of a constituency you have be- 
trayed, and a Legislature you have disgraced and a State you have dishonored. Go and return 
your ill-got gold to the soulless corporation who would accumulate wealth on the ruins of our 
country! Swear by the living God you will live and die an honest man, that your garments 
shall never be smeared with the slime and filth of a corrupt and venal lobby, that swarms around 
you like carrion crows around a rotten carcase. Then as the crowning star of life sets in the 
west you can say, I have done something to save and not to destroy my country, 

Few campaigns have passed during the last forty years that hiseloquent voice and 
energy have not been felt among the people. Mr. Ranney, while carrying on a 
farm, has also given much time to the settling of estates as executor, administrator, 
or assignee. In former years he was, too, a surveyor and engaged at that profes- 
sion for man}' years. 

Mr. Ranney has for many years been president of the Board of Trustees of the 
Munro Collegiate Institute, an educational institution of wide and favorable repu- 
tation. As assignee he settled the estate of James M. Munro, of Camillus, whose 
debts when proved amounted to $124,000. 

Mr. Ranney has now retired from active business. 



REV. CHAUNCEY BELL THORNE. 

Rev. Chauncey Beli, Tiiorne was born in the town of Broome, Schoharie Co., 
X. Y., April 20, 1833. His father, Thomas J. Thorne, was also a native of that 
county. When Chauncey B. was six years of age his parents moved from Schoharie 
Co., to Laurens, Otsego Co., where they bought and for eighteen years conducted a 
dairy farm. Thomas J. Thorne was a cooper by trade, and for several years prior 
to settling in Laurens had been employed at that labor. Jesse Thorne, father of 
Thomas Thorne and grandfather of the subject of portrait and sketch herewith pre- 
sented, was a native of Westchester Co., N. Y., but at an early day moved to Scho- 
harie Co., where he spent the balance of his life. Mr. Thome's genealogy is traced 
back to an early period in the settlement of this country. They were of English 
stock, thrifty, intelligent, and industrious. 

Thomas J. Thorne married while in Schoharie county, Nancy Bell, born in Albany 
county in 1803. She, like her husband, Mr. Thorne, was endowed with a sturdy 











CHAUNCEY B. THORNE. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 43 

character, the spirit of independence and a kindly Christian heart. All these ele- 
ments contributed to their successh:l and exemplary life. In 1857 they disposed of 
their farm property in Otsego county and removed to Skaneateles, purchasing a farm 
a little distance south of Skaneateles village. They devoted their lives to the occu- 
pation of farming. Mr. Thorne was born November ;>l), 1799, and died August 5, 
1873. His wife died July 17, 1865. Chauncey B. Thorne began his school days while 
in Broome, Schoharie county, and continued for several years in the schools of Otsego 
county. In the mean time he had become a proficient student of phonography, and 
had developed a noticeable ability m the art of drawing. Desiring to acquire the art 
of engraving, at twenty-two years of age he left home to try his fortunes in New 
York city. There he engaged with Andrew J. Graham, author and publisher of 
text books in shorthand or stenography. Mr. Thome's rapidly developed skill as an 
engraver, in connection with some new methods and means of his own devising for 
the securing of greater accuracy and beauty m the production of printed shorthand, 
insured to him a permanent place until he had completed the engravmg of Graham's 
Standard Phonographic series of text books. He remained with Mr. Graham, with 
some intermissions, till 1861, when the need of his aid called him home to the farm. 
For the next succeeding fourteen years he resided on the farm at Skaneateles, 
which lie purchased of his father. During this time he was a successful farmer, act- 
ively interested in general agricultural matters, occupying a leading position in the 
work of the several town agricultural organizations, and of the association of wool- 
growers of Onondaga county. He continued also to apply himself at spare times to 
his engraving art; doing much good work in that line for several authors and pub- 
lishers, James E. Munson, New York, David P. Lindley, Philadelphia, and others. 
In the line of his art, Mr. Thorne has been recently engaged mostly in the making 
of shorthand drawings for photo-engraving. 

Mr. Thorne has resided in Skaneateles village since 1875, quitting the farm at that 
time. In the mean while in 1859 Mr. Thorne married Amelia Anna Hibbs, a daugh- 
ter of William and Elizabeth Holcomb Hibbs of Upper Makefield, Bucks county. Pa. 
Following in the course of the religious denominational preferences of their parents 
and grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. Thorne in 1869 became members of the society of 
Friends, uniting with the meeting in Skaneateles, one of the oldest church organiza- 
tions in the town. In 1878 Mr. Thorne was recorded a minister in the Society of 
Friends, and has continued to occupy that position m the church at Skaneateles. 

They have had two daughters, one now^ being deceased. The younger daughter, 
Luella _H., is a teacher of ability and success. She graduated in 1890 at Bryn Mawr 
College in Pennsylvania. 



AMBROSE SADLER. 

Ambrose S.a.ulek is at present a citizen of the town of Clay, although the greater 
part of his life has been spent in Cicero. He is a native of the latter town, where he 
was born, February 20, 1823. His ancestry on his fathers side was of sturdy New 
England stock, and the genealogy of the family extends back to the early days of 
the foundation of the Massachusetts Commonwealth. Zelotes Sadler, father of the 



44 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

subject of the portrait herewith, was a native of that State, born in the last year of 
the last century. In 1816 his parents, with others of their State, became inspired 
with the hope of better things and broader opportunities of the westward country, 
so they emigrated, and after much difficulty and hardship landed in what is now 
Phelps, Ontario county, this State. After a residence of two years there they set 
their face towards the east again, reaching Cicero in 1818, where they bought a farm 
east of the present village of Cicero, and settled down to carve out a fortune at agri- 
culture. Zelotes Sadler was then a young man of nineteen years of age, but he con- 
tributed valuable aid towards the building of a home and the development of the 
farm. He remained with his parents, and devoted his life also to farming. He 
married Rachael Shepard, of Albany county, who died in 1871, she having survived 
her husband many years. He died in 1858. 

Ambrose Sadler received his education at the common schools of Cicero. His 
school days being over he applied himself to the vocation in which he had been 
trained, and that he has done so successfully the result clearly shows. He was for 
many years one of the most prominent farmers in the town of Cicero or, in fact, in 
the county. Before his father's death he had purchased the homestead. Subse- 
quently, in 1863, Mr. Sadler bought the Merriam farm on the Cicero plank road, 
which, under his hand, became one of the finest in the county. At present he is the 
owner of several valuable properties of this kind. Since attaining his majority Mr. 
Sadler has been an earnest, active Republican, and has been influential in the party's 
success in his native town. 

In 1876 he was selected as keeper of the county poor asylum, and continued in that 
position till 1882. Under his management many important changes were made, and 
improvements inaugurated which put the institution on a higher plane of service and 
satisfaction to the citizens of the county. After six years' service in the capacity of 
keeper of the poorhouse, Mr. Sadler retired, and for the next year was a citizen of 
Syracuse. He then returned to Cicero and assumed control of his many agricul- 
tural interests there. In 1882 Mr. Sadler was appointed as superintendent of the 
Onondaga Penitentiary. There were several candidates for the place at that time, 
but the generally acknowledged fitness of Mr. Sadler to successfully discharge the 
exacting and multifarious duties of the position rendered him the first choice of the 
Board of Supervisors as well as the people. 

The Penitentiary, during Mr. Sadler's sojourn there, housed many noted criminals 
and was the scene of many a clever scheme on the part of this cult to thwart the law 
and escape just punishment for crimes. The famous Poucher case was one of the 
many, whereby his mother came from New York, and through some attorney served 
a writ of habeas corpus upon the superintendent, and having by this means secured 
the convict's release, gave bail in $500 for his appearance for trial. The bail, as in- 
tended, was forfeited and Mr. Sadler's guest departed never to return. 

Mr. Sadler was instrumental during his term of having the system of heating 
changed to that of steam, enlarging the hospital and also the farm, besides many 
other notable improvements. Since retiring from the Penitentiary in 1886, Mr. 
Sadler has resided at North Syracuse, exercising simply a supervision of his various 
agricultural interests. 

Mr. Sadler married for his first wife Dorothea E. Williams, of Pompey. She died 
in 1874. His second wife was Mrs. Jennette Dunham, of Cicero. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 45 

Mr. Sadler has two children, one son and one daughter. The daughter, Georgenna 
was born April 27, 1849. She married E. Forest Rouse, a manufacturer of Bay City, 
Mich. 

The son, Russell Z., is engaged in business in Syracuse. He has represented his 
ward in the Board of Supervisors for three terms. 



WILLIAM C. RODGER. 

Willi .\M C. Rodger was born near Wolcott, Waj-ne county, X. Y., October 30, 
1832. He has, however, spent his life in Jordan, for his parents lived only about 
one year and a half in Wayne county when they moved to the town of Elbridge, set- 
tlmg in Jordan permanently. His father, James Rodger, was born in Albany, N. 
Y., in 1805, one week after his parents landed in that place from Scotland. They 
had come direct from Greennock, Scotland, with the intention of making America 
their permanent home. William Rodger, the father of James Rodger, was a black- 
smith, and carried on the business in Albany until 1818, when the family removed to 
Madison county, purchased a farm near Quality Hill, which he worked in connection 
with his trade until 1832, when they removed to the town of Elbridge, purchased a 
farm about one and a quarter miles north of the village of Elbridge, where they re- 
sided at the time of his death, December, 1822. It devolved on James, who had grown 
to be quite a boy, together with his mother, to carry on the farm. This they did suc- 
cessfully till James Rodger had grown to manhood, and, in fact, till some years after he 
was married. He married Olive M. Clark, a native of Vermont, who had become a 
resident of Elbridge. James Rodger, at the time mentioned, had closed out his in- 
terest in the Elbridge place and moved to Wolcott, where W'illiam C. Rodger, the 
subject of this portrait and sketch, was born. After James Rodger returned to Jor- 
dan he entered upon a commercial career, which continued the balance of his life, 
a career that was crowned with success in no small degree. As a boy William C. 
Rodger attended the Joi"dan public schools, and later graduated at the Jordan Acad- 
emy. At the age of nineteen he was through with school and ready to start an active 
life, for he possessed the same quality of metal that had come down from his Scotch 
ancestors and that comprised energy, pluck and ambition. 

His father had become a large dealer in all kinds of grain, and was also carrying 
on the grocery and milling business in Jordan. William C. was admitted to an in- 
terest in the business, and they together conducted it until James Rodgers death, 
which occurred in 1885. His wife survived till 1894. In addition to the branches of 
business mentioned, they had, in 1872, bought the Jordan Bank, which they con- 
tinued to run, and which is still conducted under the style of Rodger & Co. Mr. 
Rodger is now engaged extensively in buying and shipping all kinds of grain, 
and with these lines carries on the coal business in Joi'dan. He is, besides these, in- 
terested in other industries that require much of his time and capital. The success 
he has achieved places Mr. Rodger amongst the first business men of the county. 

While Mr. Rodger has been earnest and active in business he has also taken a 
lively interest in political matters of the town, county and State. As a Republican 
he has been for many years an influential worker, giving much valuable service to 



46 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

the party. In recognition of this he was appointed postmaster at that place in 1862, 
dui-ing President Lincoln's administration, and largely through his efforts the busi- 
ness of the office increased till it became a presidential office. He has been presi- 
dent of the village, and for many years a member of the Board of Education. The 
fact that Jordan has to-day one of the finest public school buildings in the county 
was due largely to his push and zeal in the matter. Since 1890, though, Mr. Rodger 
has been, politically, in the Prohibition ranks, being now as fervent in the interests 
of this party as he formerly was in the Republican. 

Mr. Rodger married for his first wife, in 1854, Amelia Buckhout, of Castile, N. Y., 
by whom he had three children, Ella, who married Charles W. Laird of Jordan ; 
Emma, who married Walter W. B. Rodger, of Greennock, Scotland, where they now 
reside. He owns a large estate, and is a man of prominence both socially and polit- 
ically. He is the provost of the city, and recently was presented by the corporation 
with an elaborate silver mounted cradle, with design of municipal building and coat 
of arms, as a memento of the occasion of the birth of a son, the first one born to a 
provost while holding the office. The third child and daughter died in infancy. 

Mrs. Rodger died in 1857. Mr. Rodger's second wife, whom he married in 1862, 
was JuHa Knowlton, of Jordan, who is still living. They have had four sons, three 
of whom are living, namely: William K., Charles H., and Winfred C. The two 
older sons are now associated in business with Mr. Rodger, the youngest, Winfred 
C., being j-et in school. 



GUSTAVUS SNIPER. 

General Gustavus Sniter was born in Baden, Germany, on the 11th of June, 
1836. His parents emigrated to America when he was but a lad, and soon after 
landing in this country came to Syracuse from New York and here passed the re- 
mainder of their lives. The father's name was Joseph Sniper and he died in 1862, 
having earned the respect of his fellowmen. The mother died m 1878. 

The subject of this sketch obtained his education in the common schools of Syra- 
cuse, improving it as much as he could by attendance at night schools. In the year 
1850 the boy began work at cigar making for George P. Hier, a trade at which he be- 
came proficient and at which he worked continually until the breaking out of the 
war of the Rebellion, nearly all of the time in Syracuse. In early life he developed 
an ardent love for military study and practice and joined the Syracuse Lightguard 
about 1854, and afterwards was a member or officer of the Syracuse Grays and of 
the Davis Light Guards. In 1859-60 he raised and organized a company known as 
the Munroe Cadets and was made captain of the company, which position he held 
at the breaking out of the war. Thus from a member or officer in the Fifty-first 
Regiment of militia, he passed through all the grades from corporal to colonel and 
brigadier-general of volunteers. 

With the outbreak of the war the young militia officer was imbued with the fires of 
patriotism, and through his intense love for military life he saw an opportunity to 
distinguish himself in that profession. No sooner was a hostile gun fired against the 
Union than General Sniper took steps to raise a company of volunteers, expecting to 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



47 



join the 12th Regiment. In this he was disappointed, for although his company was 
filled within a very short time, so rapidly were enlistments made in those early days 
of the great struggle that he found it impossible to connect himself with the first 
regiment to leave this county. Nothing daunted, however, by this result, he imme- 
diately formed a new company with the purpose of joining the 24th Regiment of 
Oswego. In this also he was disappointed for a similar reason. Disbanding his 
company, he enlisted in the 101st Regiment, determined to at least attach himself in 
person to a volunteer organization. He then raised about one-half of a company, 
and was made first lieutenant and soon afterwards captain. Now his perfect mili- 
tary schooling began to show itself, and before the regiment left the State he was 
promoted to major. After an 
honorable career in the ser- 
vice the 101st Regiment was 
mustered out in 1863, General 
Sniper having m the mean 
time been promoted to lieuten- 
ant-colonel. He came home 
with a reputation for military 
skill, bravery and executive 
ability that was most flatter- 
ing to himself and his friends. 
When the organization of the 
185th Regiment was resolved 
upon. General Sniper took a 
deep and active interest and 
was, perliap.s, more efficient 
in the final success of the un- 
dertaking than any other one 
person. When the ranks of 
the regiment were finally filled 
ne was commissioned lieuten- 
ant-colonel. He was promoted 
to colonel upon the resigna- 
tion of Colonel Jenne3% and 

when .that splendid organization entered upon the closing campaign of the war, in 
the spring of 1865, participating in several brilliant engagements, General Sniper 
won for himself a name and fame which were heralded across the country in the 
news columns and illustrations of all prominent newspapers and periodicals. On 
the field at Quaker Road, March 29, 1865, after three color bearers had been shot 
down, in the immediate face of the enemy General Sniper seized the flag, passed to 
the front, and raising and waving it above his head, led his regiment to victory. For 
his daring heroism on this field he was brevetted brigadier-general. At the head of 
his regiment he saw the final scenes of the war, and returned home to receive the 
plaudits and rewards of his deeds at the hands of his fellow citizens. 

General vSniper never lo.st his ardor in military matters, and kept it warm by mem- 
bership and official station in various organizations. He was long commander of the 
Central City Veterans, and was prominent in the Veterans' League, the Grand Army 




Gen. Gustavus Snipek. 



48 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

of the Republic, and also in the Masonic order, the Odd Fellows, the A. O. U. W., 
etc. He was a member of the Loyal League Military Order of the United States, 
and president of the German-American Republican Club. The General Sniper 
Camp Sons of Veterans, No. 166, was named for him. 

General Sniper's native ability, sound judgment, and good common sense con- 
spired to bring him into prominence in political councils, especially as a representa- 
tive of the leading German element of the city's population. In 1870 he was elected 
to the Legislature, where his three years' record for sensible legislation and incor- 
ruptibility added to his already high standing as a public servant. In 1876 he ac- 
cepted the position of deputj^ in the county clerk's office, and in 1882 was elected 
county clerk, holding the office three years, making a record of nine years in civil 
office. The responsible duties were discharged by him with fidelity and ability. In 
addition to the public duties just alluded to. General Sniper was connected in a busi- 
ness capacity with the Rock Sj^ring Brewery, and from 1873 to 1876 was deputy col- 
lector of Internal Review. In 1887-88 he was vice-president of the Hinckel Brewing 
Company of Albany, N. Y. 

In whatever station he occupied he was accorded the good will and friendship of 
all with whom he came in personal contact. With his own countrymen he was ex- 
tremely pojjular and in a broad sense enjoyed their confidence and esteem. 

General Sniper was married in 1863 to Miss Catharine Miller. The issue of this 
marriage was two children — a son and a daughter. 

On March 29, 1894, the anniversary of the bloody battle of Quaker Road where he 
distinguished himself by personal bravery, General Sniper died suddenly, after but 
a few hours' illness. His unexpected demise threw the whole community, especially 
those to whom he had become endeared in military and business relations, into a 
state of earnest sorrow. His funeral ob.sequies were impressive in the extreme, and 
were exceptional in the concourse in attendance. 



WILLIAM MARVIN. 

Juu(;e Willia.m Marvin was born in Fairfield, Herkimer county, April 14, 1808. 
He was a son of SeLden Marvin, son of Dan, son of Reinold, son of Reniold, Lyme's 
captain, of Lyme, Conn. Selden Marvin married Charlotte Pratt, of Saybrook, Conn. 
Judge William's parents moved to Dryden, Tompkins county, N. Y., during his in- 
fancy. There he grew up on a farm, went to school in the winter, and worked on 
the farm during the summer. He studied law and was admitted to practice in the 
courts of the State in 1833. Immediately after being admitted he opened an office 
in Phelps, Ontario county, and soon acquired a good standing among the distin- 
guished lawyers of that county, among others John C. Spencer, Mark H. Sibley, 
and Jared Wilson. 

In 1835 professional business called him to Florida, then a territory. Here he made 
the acquaintance of Joseph White, who was then the delegate in Congress, and 
Charles Downing, a leading lawyer of St. Augustine, and on their recommendation 
he was appointed by President Jackson to the office of United States district attorney 
for the southern district of Florida. There are probably not half a dozen other men 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 49 

living to-day who hold a commission signed by President Andrew Jackson. Judge 
Marvin accepted the appointment, and removed to the Island of Key West, Florida. 
In 1839 he was elected a delegate to represent the counties of Monroe and Dade in 
the first Constitutional Convention, held at St. Joseph, in Florida. It is believed 
that he is to-day the only surviving member of that convention, which was cbm- 
posed of about seventy delegates. In the same j^ear he was appointed by Presi- 
dent Van Buren to be judge of the Superior Court of the di.strict, Judge Webb, 
his predecessor in that office, having resigned to accept the office of secretary of 
state under President Lamar in the Lone Star State of Texas. In 1845, the terri- 
tory of Florida having become a State, the Legislature elected Mr. Marvin to the 
office of circuit court judge, which office he declined, but accepted the office of 
United States district judge in 1847. He held this office till 1863, when he resigned 
the judgeship on account of impaired health, induced by over work and long resi- 
dence in a hot climate. The business of the court over which he presided consisted 
largely in the determination of questions of salvage and other questions growing out 
of the numerous shipwrecks, which were constantly occurring among the islands and 
reefs around the southern point of Florida. In the discharge of his official duties he 
acquired an extensive knowledge of international and maritime law, and in 1858 he 
published a Treatise on the Law of Wreck and Salvage, which to-day is cited in the 
courts of the United States, England, and on the continent of Europe, as a work of 
high merit. In January, 1860, Judge Marvin, without resigning the office of judge, 
became a candidate for election as delegate to the State Convention, which had been 
called to be held at Tallahassee, to consider the question of the secession of the State 
from the Union. Although a Democrat in politics all his life he took decided ground 
against the secession movement, and did everything in his power to prevent Florida 
from seceding. He remained quietly at home, discharging his official duties as best 
he could. The marshal of the district, the district attorney, the clerk of his court, 
and many of his intimate friends joined the seceders. The last three months of 
President Buchanan's administration and the first month of President Lincoln's 
was a period of intense mental ag( ny and suffering on the part of the judge, for dur- 
ing all this time, lover of the Union as he was, it was impossible for him to form any 
opinion as to whether the government at Washington would recognize the secession 
movement and let the Southern States go their way or not. His suspense was re- 
lieved only when Sumter was fired upon and war actually commenced. A few daj'S 
after that event martial law was declared on the island by authority of the presi- 
dent. The rebel flags were pulled down from the houses, and many of the leading 
rebels made their escape to the mainland. The judge's person and court were now 
protected by the military and naval authorities. He immediately removed the 
clerk of his court and appointed a loyal man in his place. The government ap- 
pointed a new marshal and district attorney. His court was now again in a condi- 
tion to transact business, and it very soon became a very important and valuable 
agency in maintaining the blockade of the ports and coasts of the rebel States. The 
geographical position of Judge Marvin's court made it a convenient point for the 
navy men to send all vessels captured by them to his court for adjudication. He de- 
cided a great many prize cases, many of w^hich are leading decisions. The judge re- 
signed in the third year of the war on account of poor health, and removed to his 
native State. In 1865, th^ war being then over, he was appointed by President John- 



50 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

son provisional governor to assist the people of Florida to reconstruct their State 
government ; he went to Tallahassee and took upon himself the duties of the office. 
He called together a State Convention to make a new constitution, and found the 
members of the convention generally quite willing to adopt a provision in the con- 
stitution abolishing slavery, but they were quite as unwilling to give the negro the 
elective franchise, or the right to testify in courts of justice in every case where a white 
man was concerned. The farthest he could get the convention, to go in this direc- 
tion was to provide in the constitution that the Legislature should pass no law dis- 
criminating in any way between the two races. This gave to the negroes protection 
for their civil rights, and at the same time the constitution withheld from them the 
political right of voting. Florida was at this time in a condition of great poverty and 
distress. Martial law everywhere prevailed. Their leading men were imprisoned 
and threatened wnth prosecutions for treason, and a general feeling of hopelessness 
everywhere existed. Their slaves had been declared free by the military authorities, 
but what ideas they were likely to entertain concerning their freedom was quite 
problematical. Under these circumstances the governor felt it his duty to make sev- 
eral speeches to large numbers of the recently emancipated slaves. On one of 
these occasions when he was addressing 600 or 700 of them, assembled in Madison, 
an old man with hair as white as snow approached the place where the speaker 
stood and, interrupting him, said: "Massa, I wishes to ask you one question." 
"What is that, my good old man?" responded the governor. "Ask on." "I wi.sh to 
ask you who is to take care of me in my old age — you tell me that I am now free, and 
must take care of myself ?" It occurred at once to the mind of the governor that 
there was no system of poor laws in the State ; hitherto the white poor had been 
cared for by charity, and masters had provided for the wants of their sick and needy 
slaves. The governor replied: "Why, the good Lord has taken care of you thus far, 
all the days of your life, and He will not now forsake you in your old age." "Yes, 
yes," replied the old man; "I know de good Lord is very good; but, massa he take 
care of me-; he give me food and clothes, and when I am sick he gets the doctor, and 
now you tell me that he no more do that, and that I must take care of mvself," and 
the old man with a sad and sorrowful look, turned and walked away. The negro 
population in the South did not generally receive the news of their emancipation 
with any degree of joy or exultation ; to very many of them it brought sorrow and 
sadness, for they were distressed beyond measure. They knew not how they were 
to get a living or provide for themselves; they were generally as helpless as children. 

The Legislature elected the governor to the Senate of the United States, but his 
credentials were laid on the table and never acted upon by the Senate, that body, 
together with the House of Representatives, having, under the leadership of Charles 
Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens, adopted the policy of not allowing the seceded States 
to be represented in Congress until those States had given to the negro population in 
their constitutions the elective franchise. The Congress, in pursuance of such policy, 
passed laws providing for the reconstruction of governments in the seceded States, 
based on the negro as well as the white vote. 

Judge Marvin and his political friends did not believe in giving such franchise to 
the recently emancipated slave ; he therefore ceased to take any further active inter- 
est in the political affairs of Florida, and so withdrew from public life. 

Judge Marvin has been twice married ; his first wife, Harriet Newell Foote, whom he 




C^ 



'■^^ 








N. B. SULLIVAN, M. D. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 51 

married in 1846, was a daughter of Judge Elisha Foote, of Cooperstown, N.Y. By this 
marriage he had an only child, a daughter, who married Col. Marshall Ludington, 
U.S A. JudgeMarvinmarriedforhissecondwife, in 1867, Mrs. Elizabeth Riddle Jewett, 
daughter of John Riddle, of New Castle, Del., and widow of the late William Jew- 
ett, of Skaneateles, N. Y. This marriage led to his settling down in that village, 
where he resides in comfort, and in health and vigor at the pre.sent day, 1896. In 
his retirement from a more active public life he has by no means ceased to feel a 
deep interest in public affairs and to take an active interest in the local affairs of his 
village. He served as president of the village one j^ear, often presides at public 
meetings, and votes at every election. The Democrats of Onondaga county adopted 
him as their candidate for the senate in 18 — , and again for the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1894. 

In politics Judge Marvin is a Democrat, in religion a Catholic, and an Episcopalian 
in his church relations. He was, with others, very active in securing a public library 
for the village and town, and has been for fifteen years last past the president of the 
library association. He has always been a great reader, not only of works relating 
to his profession, but also ecclesiastical history and theology. In 1885 he published 
a volume entitled the "Authorship of the Four Gospels." In this work he treats of 
the external evidences of their genuineness more in the character of a jurist than of 
a theologian. 



NAPOLEON B. SULLIVAN, M. D. 

Dr. Napolkon Bonaparte Sullivan, of Memphis, was born in the town of Ly- 
sander, Onondaga county, N. Y., March 2, 1829. His professional life has been 
spent in Plainville in the town of Lysander and at Memphis, his present residence. 
Dr. Sullivan was one of a family of eleven children, he being the tenth in order of 
birth. The family comprised five sons and six daughters. Richard Sullivan, father 
of the subject of this sketch, was a native of Washington county, N. Y. , where he 
was born in 1791. He came to the town of Lysander about 1810, being one of the 
earliest settlers in that part of the county. He at once engaged in agriculture, doing 
much toward the development of that industry in the vicinity and also towards the 
building up and extending the various other interests of the town. 

Mr. Sullivan had barely become settled in his new home when the war of 1812 
broke out. He volunteered his services and was given a commission as captain. He 
served with distinction during the war and after that closed returned to his occupa- 
tion and business at home. 

During his whole life he took a lively interest in military affairs, and for years 
during the early times had charge of the military training which took place on the 
flats just east of where Memphis is now situated. He was a grandson of General 
Sullivan of Revolutionary war fame. For generations they had been a race of 
soldiers and so Richard Sullivan naturally inherited the instincts and qualities neces- 
sary to make a great soldier. 

In 1836 Mr. Sullivan sold his interests in Lysander and went to Illinois with the 
view of locating there permanently, but not finding the surroundings and opportuni- 



52 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

ties what he had looked for he soon returned to this State, settling in Seneca county. 
There he again became interested in agriculture, which he conducted successfully 
for many years. He was actively identified with the growth and development of 
that county. In his earlier life he was a member of the Free Soil party, but later be- 
came a Whig and finally a Republican, when that party was organized. While a 
resident of the town of Tyre, Seneca county, he served almost continuously as 
justice of the peace and for some time represented his town in the Board of Super- 
visors. 

While yet in Washington county Mr. Sullivan married Nancy Faulkner, who was 
also a native of that county. She possessed the same sterling qualities of mind and 
character as did her husband and these coupled with her energy and industry con- 
tributed greatlj' to the success which crowned their combined efforts. She died in 
Seneca county in 1849. 

At the age of eighteen Napoleon B. Sullivan decided to fit himself for the medical 
profession. So in view of this he took a course at the Clyde Academy and after- 
wards began the study of medicine in the office of Dr. B. B. Schenck of Plainville. 
After spending some time with Dr. vSchenck he entered the Geneva Medical College, 
from which he graduated two years later. Upon the completion of his course Dr. 
Sullivan returned to Plainville and entered upon the practice of medicine with his 
former preceptor. Dr. Schenck. After the lapse of three years Dr. Schenck retired, 
leaving the practice in Dr. Sullivan's hands. He continued the business till 1860, 
being the leading physician in that part of Onondaga county. He then decided to' 
remove to Memphis (then Canton), which he did that year, and from that time to the 
present he has continued in the practice of his profession at that place. 

Dr. Sullivan was educated as a "regular school" physician, but just prior to his 
removal to Memphis he had been drawn into close observation of the efficacy of the 
Homoeopathic system of treatment, and the many remarkable cures resulting from 
it induced him to give it a thorough and careful stud}', finally leading to his adoption 
of the principles in his practice. So that when he settled in Memphis it was as a 
physician of the new school. Each year of experience has added to and strength- 
ened his faith in the correctness and value of the system of homoeopathy. Dr. 
Sullivan has been a lifelong Republican in his political faith, and while he has 
been active and earnest he has never sought political office. However, in 1862 he 
was appointed by the governor of the State as commissioner to aid in perfecting the 
enrollment of all persons liable to military duty. He was also deputy postmaster 
under President Taylor, and at another time was appointed by the county surrogate 
as administrator to settle estates of intestate persons. Dr. Sullivan is a member of 
the County Medical Society and actively interested in its progress and growth. He 
is still a close student and wide reader of the best literature outside of that pub- 
lished in the interest of medicine. 

He married in 1855 Theresa M. Betts, daughter of Alanson and Susan Betts. She 
died on October 21, 1886. They had two children, one son and one daughter. 
Emma married Samuel A. Brown of Elbridge, and are now residents of Syracuse. 
Warren Faulkner, the son, married Myrtle E. Reynolds of Van Buren. They are 
also residents of Syracuse. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



53 



EDWARD B. JUDSON. 



Hon. Edward B. Judson, of old New England ancestiy and Connecticut parent- 
age, was born in Coxsackie, N. Y., January 11, 1813, and received the rudiments of 
a business training as clerk in the banking house of his mother's brother, Ralph 
Barker, in his native town. When twenty-two he engaged with his brother, W. A. 
Judson, in manufacturing lumber at Constantia, Oswego county, and subsequently 
the two carried on a lumber commission business in Albany for about twenty years. 
At Constantia he also engaged in the manufacture of iron, and when twenty-four he 
was elected to the Assembly, serving in the sessions of 1839 and 1841, and being 
chairman of the committees on cities and villages and the State Lunatic Asylum. In 
1849 he came to Syracuse, where 

he has ever since resided, and --..*»-p.v^ 

in 1850 became one of the or- 
ganizers and the first vice-pres- 
ident of the Merchants' Bank. 
Two years later he was elected 
an original director and the first 
cashier of the Salt Springs Bank. 
In 1857 he resigned to aid in 
organizing the Lake Ontario 
FSank of Oswego, of which he 
became cashier and chief exec- 
utive officer. This institution 
was remarkable for the char- 
acter and position of its stock- 
holders, among whom were John 
A. Stevens, president; C. H. 
Russell, vice-president ; Henry 
F. Vail, cashier of the Bank of 
Commerce, New York city ; 
Erastus Corning and H. H. 
Martin, president and cashier 
of the Albany City Bank ; Rufus 
H. King and J. H. Van Ant- 
werp, president and cashier of 

the State Bank, of Albany; J. B. Plumb, president of the Bank of Interior, Albany; 
Hamilton White, Horace White, John D. Norton, and Thomas B. Fitch, pre- 
sidents respectively of the Onondaga County Bank, the Bank of Syracuse, the Mer- 
chants' Bank, and the Mechanics' Bank, all of Syracuse; G. B. Rich, president of 
the Bank of Attica, Buffalo; Luther Wright, president of Luther Wright's Bank, 
Oswego; and Thurlow Weed, John L. Schoolcraft, David Hamilton, John Knower, 
Frederick T. Carrington, George Geddes, and William A. Judson. 

When the Federal government, in 1863, perfected and carried into operation the 
present national banking system Mr. Judson's experience and counsel were sought 
by Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, who invited him and a few other 
prominent bankers of the country to Washington for this purpose. At the request of 




Edward B. Judson. 



54 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

the secretary, Mr. Judson, immediately after his return, organized the First National 
Bank of Syracuse, \A'hich stands as No. 6 in the archives at the nation's capital, and 
which he has ever since served as president. He was for eleven years, after 1864, 
chairman of the executive committee of the National Banking Association, and for 
about eighteen years interested in the manufacture of glass, being for some time 
president of the Syracuse Glass Company. He was one of the first two vice-presi- 
dents of the Trust and Deposit Company of Onondaga, which was organized in 1869: 
has served as trustee of the Metropolitan Trust Company of New York city since its 
organization ; in 1870 was one of the incorporators and the first treasurer of the Syra- 
cuse Northern Railroad; was for several years a director in the Syracuse and Oswego 
Railroad; was formerly a director in the New York Central Railroad Company, Bank 
of Syracuse, and American Express Company; and is a trustee and vice-president of 
Wells College at Aurora, treasurer of St. Joseph's Hospital, trustee of the Old Ladies' 
Home, and president of board of trustees of May Memorial church. He is one of the 
olde.st bankers in the State, and still guides the affairs of the institution which he 
was mstrumental in founding. He is. or has been, interested in various business 
enterprises, including the Salt Springs Solar Salt Company, which he assisted in or- 
ganizing, and has served ever since as a director, and has always taken a keen inter- 
est in the growth and welfare of the city. 

Mr. Judson has had little time or inclination for political life since his early mem- 
bership of the Legislature, but m 1868 he allowed his name to be presented as a can- 
didate for presidential elector, and was defeated, that being the year Governor 
Hoffman was elected. 

October 15, 1846, Mr. Judson married Miss Sarah, daughter of Coddington B. Will- 
iams, of Syracuse, and they have one son, Edward B. Judson, jr., a man of enter- 
prise and thorough business qualifications. 



DAVID M. TOTMAN, M. D. 

David Mavdole Totman, M. D., is a son of Edsel S. and Anna M. (Maydole) Tot- 
man and was born in Freetown, Cortland county, N. Y., October 18, 1848. He was 
graduated from Norwich Academy in 1868, and in the following autumn entered 
Yale College, from which he received the degree of B.A. in 1872, being a member of 
Alpha Delta Phi during his collegiate course. Afterward he taught special branches 
in Norwich Academy at Norwich, N. Y., where he also studied medicine for two 
years in the office of Dr. H. K. Bellows. He was graduated from the Medical Col- 
lege of Syracuse University in 1876, and for five years thereafter served as house 
physician and surgeon to St. Joseph's Hospital, establishing at the same time a pri- 
vate practice, which he has developed in a substantial and permanent way. 

Dr. Totman has been prominentlj' connected with the Syracuse Medical College 
since 1876, when he was appointed instructor of physiology. He held that position 
until 1886, when he received the appointment of lecturer on clinical surgery. The 
next year he was made professor of clinical surgery and in 1893 was elected registrar 
of the college, and still holds both positions. He was health officer of the city of Syr- 
acuse from 1889 to 1891 and from 1892 to 1895, and has been surgeon of the fire de- 




o<^^f2^^cj^J ^ . t^^-^lo^.^^,.^^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



65 



partmcnt since 1894 and of St. Joseph's Hospital since 1882. Dr. 'i'otiiiuii has not 
only (lischarj^ed the duties of these various stations with faithfulness and al>ility, but 
has maintained a constantly increasing private practice, winning the respect and 
confidence of his associates, his patients, and the public. He has also contributed 
many valuable articles on medicine and surgery to the leading journals of the 
country. He is a member of the American Academy of Medicine, the Central New 
York Medical Association, the Syracuse Academy of Medicine, and the New York 
State and Onondaga County Medical Societies, and has served the latter as secre- 
tary four years and as president one year. 

May 18, 1881 Dr. Totman was married to Miss Mary Emily, daugliter of Oscar W. 
Johnson, of Fredonia, Chautaucjua county, N. Y. They iiave had four children: 
Emily M., Margaret L. , Katharine M. (deceased), and Clara J. 



FLORINCE O. DONOHUE, M. D. 



^v*-fe*ii^rJj^'^S^ 



Fi.oRiNCE O. DoNOHUE, M. D., ex-president of the State Board of Health, was 
born in Syracuse on October 8, 1850, and as a lad attended the puljlic schools of the 
city. When he had reached the age 
of nine years his parents removed to 
the town of Onondaga, where he 
went to school winters aud worked 
on the farm summers until 1869, 
after which he spent two years in 
Onondaga Academy and one year 
at Cazenovia Seminary, alternating 
with terms of teaching at Navarino 
and Onondaga Hill. Being endow- 
ed with mental qualifications of ex- 
ceptional strength and activity, and 
possessing scholarly attributes of a 
high order, he had by this tiilie 
thoroughly equipped himself for 
college and also earned sufficient 
monev to pay his own way, and hav- 
ing decided upon medicine as a pro- 
fession he entered the medical de 
partment of Syracuse University in 
1874 and remained two years, living 
in the mean time with Dr. W. W. 
Porter, under whose able tutelage 
he supplemented his studies with 
hard work. In 1876 he entered 

Long Island College Hospital and was graduated therefrom in 1877 with high honors. 
Since then he has been in constant practice in Syracu.se, where he has won unusual 
success and wide professional recognition both at home and abroad. 




Fl.(jRINCK O. DuNOllLK, M. D. 



56 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Dr. Donohue, being an enthusiast in every branch of his profession, has mastered 
its mysteries with commendable persistency, and as an obstetrician has, perhaps, 
gained his highest renown, though his knowledge of medicine and surgery is fully 
as extensive and practical. He became a member of the New York State Medical 
Association on November 20, 1884, and in October, 1885, was elected a delegate 
from that body to the British Medical Association, of which he is also a member, 
taking part in its deliberations in 1886 and again in 1889. He is a member of the 
Onondaga County Medical Society and American Health Association, and served as 
president of the Syraciise Medical Association two years. On October 31, 1889, he 
was appointed a member of the Syracuse Board of Health, and on November 26 of 
the same year was appointed one of the State Commissioners of Health by Gov. 
David B. Hill. His term on the State board expired in February, 1892, and in July 
following he was reappointed by Gov. Roswell P. Flower. At the first meeting 
thereafter he was elected president of the board and was re-elected to that position 
for three successive years, the last time just prior to the expiration of his term of 
membership in June, 1895. In May, 1894, he was appointed by Governor Flower a 
member of a special commission of five to investigate the prevalence and distribution 
of tuberculosis in the milk supply of the State and report thereon. This commission 
reported and went out of existence in January, 1895, at which time Dr. Donohue was 
its secretary and chief executive officer. The Legislature then passed a law which 
provided that two members of the State Board of Health should be appointed to 
continue the investigation, thus creating the New York State Commission of Tuber- 
culosis, of which he was made chairman, which position he still holds. 

Dr. Donohue occupies a foremost place among the leading physicians and surgeons 
in Central New York. He is a writer of force and ability on a wide range of medical 
subjects and has contributed numerous articles to the leading medical journals of the 
country. In all official capacities he has been fearless, eff^ective, and u.seful, and 
locally he is always alive to the needs of the city, not only from a sanitary stand- 
point, but in a general way. He is public spirited, progressive, and popular, 
respected and esteemed by friends and opponents alike, and enjoys to the fullest 
extent the confidence of both the profession and the public. 

September 27, 1877, Dr. Donohue was married to Miss Lucy A., eldest daughter of 
the late William T. Moseley, of Onondaga, and grandd-aughter of Judge Daniel 
Moseley, whose career in the jurisprudence of the State, and especially in this 
county, is detailed elsewhere in the i^resent work. 



GEORGE G. COTTON. 

Georgk Grisvvold Cotton was born on the 10th day of November, 1854, in Roscoe, 
Winnebago county. 111. During his seventh year his father died and his mother re- 
moved to Onondaga county where he has since resided. His parents were Sanford 
Dennis and Jane Ellen Terry Cotton. Sanford Dennis Cotton was born August 17, 
1815, in Skaneateles, Onondaga county, and was the eldest of eight children born to 
George Holbrook Cotton and Clarrissa Earll, daughter of Abijah Earll, of Skaneate- 
les, N.Y. George Holbrook Cotton was the sixth child (eleven in all) of Willard and 




GEORGE G. COTTON. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 67 

Mary Gallup Cotton, daughter of Uriah Gallup, of Hartland, Vt., born in Hartland, 
Vt., July 15, 1789, and came to Onondaga county in 1804 and settled in Skaneateles, 
N. Y. He married Clarrissa Earll in 1814. From that time he was associated with 
the firm of Earll, Lewis & Cotton, in the milling business until the year 18 — when 
he removed to Onondaga Valley and operated the grist mill at that place. 

Jane Ellen Terry, mother of the subject of this sketch was the eldest of six chil- 
dren born to Griswold and Laura Woodford Terry, daughter of James Woodford. 
George Holbrook Cotton came to Onondaga county in 1804. Abijah Earll came to 
Onondaga county in 1804. Griswold Terry came to Onondaga county in 1805. 
James Woodford came to Onondaga county in 1805, and while Mr. Cotton was born 
outside of Onondaga county, still having returned at the age of seven and continued 
here since, and the fact of his family in the four branches having come to the county 
at the early date of 1804, and continuously living here he may safely consider him- 
self as a production of the soil. Mr. Cotton's early life was spent in the village of 
Geddes now the Ninth and Tenth Wards of the city of Syracuse. He was gradu- 
ated atthe Porterschool, passed the regentsexaminationsandreceived their certificate 
dated May20, 1870. He entered the Syracuse High school, but at the end of the first 
year he retired and began an apprenticeship as machinist in the employ of the Brad- 
ley Manufacturing Co. of Syracuse, with which concern he remained five years, work- 
ing in the shop and then representing them on the road. He also represented them 
at the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876. He severed relationship 
with the Bradleys in 1877 and upon their recommendation entered the employ of the 
Porter Manufacturing Co. of the First Ward, who were domg an engine business. 
In the ensuing fall the Syracuse Iron Works desired a man to go to Penn Yan, Yates 
county, N. Y., to learn the business of manufacturing horseshoes by machinery, and 
upon the recommendation of George A. Porter, they employed Mr. Cotton, who 
went to Penn Yan , and not being satisfied with the conduct of the business, recom- 
mended bringing the shops to Syracuse, which removal was made. While erecting 
these shops in Syracuse and finishing the machinery, Mr. Cotton had the misfortune 
to lose his left hand, which barred him from the active prosecution of his adopted 
business. On January 1, 1880, through the influence of Messrs. Charles E. Hubbell 
and E. B. Van Dusen he was given an appointment in the County Clerk's office, as 
index clerk under William Cowie. He was again appointed under Mr. Gustavus 
Sniper, January 1, 1883. In 1884 Mr. Cotton represented the town of Geddes in the 
Board of Supervisors and served during that term on various committees. On Jan- 
uary 1, 1886, he was appointed Deputy County Clerk under County Clerk J. Emmett 
Wells, and in 1888 was elected County Clerk and January 1, 1889, assumed control 
of the office. December 4, 1891, Mr. Cotton was removed from office by David B. 
Hill, governor of the State. This bold and unprecedented act on the part of Gov- 
ernor Hill brought a whirlwind of wrath from the friends of Mr. Cotton. The storm 
which had been brewing in the political atmosphere since the election a month be- 
fore now broke out with renewed violence. The efforts of Governor Hill and his party 
managers to induce Mr. Cotton to swerve from what he regarded as his duty in the 
premises were unavailing from first to last. The sin of Mr. Cotton, as viewed by 
these politicians, consisted in his refusing to issue to the Democratic candidate a 
certificate of election as Member of Assembly for the First District of Onondaga 
when ordered to do so by the Democratic Board of County Canvassers, 

H 



58 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

On account of an error in arranging or delivering the ballots of the Republican 
candidates, they were transposed in soine of the districts, and of the failure on the 
part of the inspectors of election to correctly make out the returns, enough of such 
ballots for the Republican candidate for member of assembly, David Allen Munro, 
jr., were thrown out, by which the election was claimed for Mr. Ryan, the Dem- 
ocratic candidate. Mr. Cotton believing that, no matter what the mistakes of the 
officials might be, the intention of the voter should govern in the matter, and under 
direction of the Supreme Court, refused to sign the certificate. Charges of " mal- 
feasance in office" were immediately preferred against him. Upon the trial, 
"malfeasance" not being proven, "misconduct" was substituted, and, in the 
language of Governor Hill, "found substantially true," and an order removing Mr. 
Cotton from the office of county clerk was at once issued. At the same time a Dem- 
ocratic county clerk was appointed by Governor Hill, who signed the alleged cer- 
tificate of the Democratic member of assembly. From Governor Hill's decision 
there was no appeal m law, but the people of the State of New York have stamped 
their disapproval of the action of those who were instrumental in the stealing of the 
Legislature in the persons of those who were mostly instrumental in its accomplish- 
ment. 

Although Mr. Cotton has held no political office since his removal from the county 
clerkship, he has continued to take an active interest in the political affairs of the 
county and State. In fact, ever since he became a voter he has been prominently 
identified with the Republican party and its fortunes in Onondaga county. 

In the spring of 1893 Mr. Cotton was appointed general manager of Warners 
Portland Cement Company. After serving about two years in that capacity the com- 
pany became insolvent and he was named receiver to close up its affairs. 

Early in 1895 Mr. Cotton accepted a position in the mechanical department of the 
Solvay Process Company, which position he still holds (1896). 

Mr. Cotton married first in 1875 Anna R. Cain, daughter of Lyman and Jane Clark 
Cain of Elbridge. She died October 17, 1877. He married for his second wife, June 
2, 1880, Mary Emily, daughter of Jere S. and Eliza Chatterton Reed, of Penn Yan, 
N. Y. By his first wife he had one daughter, Frances, and by his second wife one 
daughter. Laura Emily, and one son, Donald Reed Cotton. 



CHARLEvS C. COLE. 

Charles C. Colk, of Jordan, was born in the village of Weedsport, Cayuga county, 
September 2, 1851. He was scarcely two years of age when his father, David Cole, 
died, and in consequence he was early thrown upon his own resources to make his 
way in life. For several years he made his home at Phineas F. Wilson's, his mater- 
nal grandfather, devoting himself to school and farm life. Mr. W'ilson was one of 
the leading farmers in those days, and also owned what was known as the "Com- 
munity" store in Weedsport, which was under the management of David Cole up to 
the time of his death. David Cole was born in Skaneateles, where he spent most of 
his life previous to his residence in Weedsport. He descended from an old Massa- 
chusetts family that was amongst the earliest settlers in the western part of the 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 59 

county of Onondaga. His wife, Catherine, was the daughter of Phineas F. Wilson, 
previously referred to. 

Charles C. Cole was one of a family of four children, one of whom. Mrs. George E. 
Townsend, besides himself, is now living in Jordan. After attending the district 
school Mr. Cole attended the academj' at Jordan, finishing his course there at six- 
teen years of age. For three years thereafter he was engaged as clerk in the store 
of N. Craner at Jordan. From that time Jordan became his permanent home. He 
subsequently married Ella D., daughter of Mr. Craner, by whom he has had one son, 
Wayne U. The habit of thrift acquired during his early struggles to get on unaided, 
together with his natural characteristic energy, had made it possible during his 
years of clerkship to accumulate sufficient capital to venture in business on his own 
account. So after terminating his service for Mr. Craner Mr. Cole embarked in the 
flour and feed business in Jordan, in which line he continued a considerable time. 
The success achieved in this business enabled him to branch out on a broader scale ; 
therefore on September 1, 1875, Mr. Cole formed a copartnership with Ezra B. 
Fancher, the former principal of the Jordan school, and at that time superintendent 
of the Seneca Falls public schools, the line of goods being hardware and all goods 
pertaining to that line of trade. The destruction of the store by fire one year later 
brought to a close Mr. Cole's first partnership, for Mr. Fancher then retired. The old 
building was replaced by Mr. Cole with a new and modern structure, adapted to the 
requirements of the prosperous business, which, by energy and enterprise he has 
built up. From 1876 to 1885 the business was conducted by Mr. Cole alone. In the 
mean time Mr. Cole had been appointed postmaster at Jordan by President Arthur, 
and this together wnth the increased cares of the business induced him to receive into 
partnership A. E. Brace of that place, and thus the firm became C. C. Cole & Co. 
The firm name since 1894 has been Cole & Brace. Mr. Cole is senior partner in an- 
other firm, C. C. Cole & Co., dealers in agricultural implements, doing a large job- 
bmg trade through the several counties. During all the years since attaining his 
majority Mr. Cole has been no less active and zealous in political affairs than he has 
been in his own business interests. No campaign, whether local or of wider interest, 
has passed without his having taken a more or less prominent and influential part 
therein. His town and the county as well as the State owe much to his unflinching 
integrity and keen judgment while in their service. That this has been appreciated 
is evidenced by the fact that his town and district have never wavered in giving him 
their most cordial support, several times electing him to the most important offices 
within their gift. In 1886 he was chosen to represent his town in the Board of 
Supervisors, and served as such representative for three successive terms. During 
his service as a member of the board he held many important chairmanships, the 
last year being chairman of the board. 

In 1894 he was nominated and elected by an unparalleled majoritj- to represent 
his, the second, district in the Assembly, and was re-elected in 1895. The first year 
in the Legislature he was appointed a member of the committee on cities, and also 
had charge of the various Syracuse charter bills which were before the House at the 
time. He enjoyed the distinction of having successfull}' got through every bill pre- 
sented to the Assembly during the session. 

At the convening of the Legislature in January, 1896, Mr. Cole was assigned to 
chairmanship of committee on trades and manufacture, and made a member of the 



60 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



ways and means committee. The recent reapportionment act having separated his 
district from the city of Syracuse, he was necessarily barred from his former position 
on the cities committee. Mr. Cole's Republicanism is always loyal, but not to the 
extent of being offensively partisan. 



NATHAN F. GRAVES. 



Hon. Nathan Fitch Graves was born in Westmoreland, Oneida county, N. Y., 
February 17, 1813. His ancestors came from England in 1736 and settled in Connec- 
ticut. Benjamin Graves, his "great-grandfather, was in the war of the Revolution, 

was wounded m the defense of 
Fort Griswold, New London, 
Conn., and soon after died of 
his wounds. His grandfath- 
er, Elijah, then sixteen years 
old, enlisted for the war and took 
his father's place. His father, 
Benjamin Graves, was in the 
war of 1812 and was on the march 
to defend Buffalo, but the place 
was burned before the company 
reached their destination. 

Nathan Graves was reared on 
a farm, where he labored in sum- 
mer and attended the public 
school winters ; afterward he at- 
tended a select school and acad- 
emy. When sixteen years of age 
he began teaching and taught 
four winters. Deciding to study 
law he spent one year with J. 
Whipple Jenkins, esq., of Ver- 
non, Oneida county, and was 
deputy postmaster of the village. 
His further clerkship was with 
He was admitted to practice in 1840 and became 
a partner of Timothy Beecher, esq., of Oneida Castle. 

Mr. Graves was married in 1842 to Miss Helen P. Breese, who died in 1844. He 
afterward married Miss Catharine H. Breese, a sister of his first wife. Some years 
later Mr. Graves opened a law office in New York and secured a profitable practice. 
In consequence of impaired health, by the advice of his physician, he left New York 
and settled in Syracuse. The Burnet Bank was organized in 1852 and Mr. Graves 
was elected president. The name of the bank was changed first to the Fourth 
National Bank and in 1872 to the New York State Banking Company, but Mr. 
Graves has continued to be president. 




Nathan F. Graves. 



Hon. Joshua A. Spencer, of Utica. 




A. W. BINGHAM. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 61 

In 1872 Mr. and Mrs. Graves made a trip around the world. Mr. Graves was 
elected mayor of the city in 1874, and has been president of the Board of Education. 
trustee of Oakwood Cemetery, and trustee and vice-president of the Syracuse Sav- 
ings Bank and the State Institution for Feeble-Minded Children. He has founded 
two lectureships on missions, one at the Theological Seminary at New Brunswick, 
N. J., and another at Syracuse University. He has built a fire-proof library build- 
ing for Hope College and aided in supplying books. He had the dtgree of LL. D. 
conferred upon him in 1895. He is, deeply interested in missions. He has one of 
the finest and largest private libraries in the State; it embraces upwards of 10,000 
volumes, including "Audubon's Birds" and many other rare and costly works. His 
integrity to every trust is most conspicuous, and his will be esteemed a successful 
life. 



AUGUSTUS W. BINGHAM. 

Augustus Whiting Bingh.-\m was born in Coventry, Conn., Jul}' 22, 1825. He was the 
eldest son of Horace Brewster and Emeline Jones Bingham. In 1836 he came with his 
parents to the town of Van Buren, Onondaga county, and the following year his 
father bought and settled upon the farm where he spent the rest of his life. He was 
one of the most progressive and prosperous farmers in the town. Mr. Horace B. 
Bingham was also a native of Coventry, Conn., where his ancestry had lived for 
many years. He was born April 10, 1799, and died in Van Buren November 19, 
1867. His wife was born July 18, 1803, and died July 18, 1892. 

Augustus W. Bingham never married but remained at the homestead, having 
charge of the farm and the various other interests, caring at the same time for his 
mother with filial tenderness during her life. Mr. Bingham was a man of the strict- 
est integrity and uprightness in life, respected and loved by all who knew him. He 
was, too, a man of exceptional business ability which he turned to good account, not 
only in his own interest, but for many others who sought his counsel and advice in 
matters of business importance. He received his education in the schools of Van 
Buren, and for many years thereafter pursued the occupation of teaching school in 
winter and working on the farm during the summer. The universal confidence in 
his honesty led many persons in that part of the county to appoint him executor and 
administrator in the settlement of large estates. In every instance these trusts were 
discharged with faithfulness and satisfaction to all intereisted. 

Mr. Bingham was active and prominent in public afliairs, always lending his influ- 
ence for the advancement of the best interests of the community. In 1877 and 1878 
he represented his town as a Republican on the Board of Supervisors, and for the 
next succeeding three years was inspector of the Onondaga Penitentiary. In 1860 
Mr. Bingham was elected justice of the peace of the town of Van Buren and with 
the exception of two years served in that capacity till his death. He was postmaster 
at Van Buren for twenty-four years, having received his appointment during Presi- 
dent Grant's administration. 

He was prominently identified with several societies. January 13, 1850, he became 
a member of the Mohegan Lodge No. 29, I. O. O. F. and took a deep interest in the 



62 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

building up of this order. In 1881 he was elected Grand Master of the State and in- 
stituted twenty-seven lodges during his term of office. He was also District Grand 
Master for several terms, and it was through this close association with him that all 
his brethren in the order learned to respect him more with each succeeding year. 
Mr. Bingham was also a member of Seneca River Lodge No. 160 F. and A. M. 

Mr. Bingham had three sisters: Lydia M., who married Mr. John J. Mack of 
Weedsport, who still resides at that place. Mrs. Mack died m 1888. The second 
was Ann Eliza, who died in 1851, and a brother, Kirk C, who also died in 1851; 
Frances Augusta, the third sister, married Joseph Howard Palmer, of Yonkers, N. 
Y. He died June 27, 1892. Mrs. Palmer has three children, two sons and a daugh- 
ter. 



ERNEST S. SAMPSON, M. D. 

Ernest S. Sampson, M. D., was born in Mexico, Oswego county, N. Y., March Bl, 
1856. His early life was spent on his father's farm, near Mexico, barring a goodly 
part of it that was devoted to obtaining the foundation of an education in the country 
school. When he outgrew the common school he went to Mexico and entered the 
Academy, finally graduating from that institution in 1877. Subsequently he engaged 
at teaching during the winter while in summer he was employed at various occupa- 
tions to accumulate a fund to aid him in the further prosecution of his studies. He 
had become inspired with the idea of a professional life, and it was with this end in 
view that he labored and studied. In the fall of 1877 he went to Aurora, 111., and 
entered the office of Dr. Abner Hard, a prominent physician and former army sur- 
geon of high standing. After one year of study in Dr. Hards office he spent nearly 
another year in Kankakee, Illinois, then returning to Mexico in 1879 he taught 
school for considerable time at Fair Haven and also resumed the study of medicine 
with Dr. George P. Johnson at Mexico. In the fall of 1880 he entered the Albany 
Medical College, obtaining the degree of M. D. two years later. Thus he prepared 
himself for a professional life in which he has achieved substantial success. 

Dr. Sampson came from a family that was among the oldest settlers in Oswego 
county. He is a son of Asa L. Sampson, one of the leading farmers of the count}', who 
has not only been prominent as an agriculturist but also in public affairs. In politics 
he has been an active worker a,nd has been honored by several important offices, among 
them serving as a member of the county Board of Supervisors. Mr. Sampson, sr. , 
was also a native of Oswego count}', born in 1825. His parents came from Massa- 
chusetts and settled near Mexico when but few families had half the courage to un- 
dertake the struggle of establishing a home there. They devoted their lives to clear- 
ing" and improving the land in and about Mexico. 

Asa L. Sampson, father of Dr. Sampson, married Elvira Holmes Porter, who is 
also now living. Dr. Sampson was the second of a family of eight children, there 
being seven brothers and one sister. Five of the sons are still living. 

Dr. Sampson is a member of the Onondaga County Medical Society and al.so a prom- 
inent member of the Masonic body. He has been health physician several terms, and 
has been active in Republican politics in the northern part of Onondaga county. 




ERNEST S. SAMPSON, M. D. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



f33 



I )r. Sampson has practiced his profession in North Syracuse since 1882, havinj;- l)uik up 
a prosperous business In August, 1895, Dr. Sampson married Miss Rutli Tomp- 
kins, daughter of Henry and ICmily Tompkins, of Cigarville, N. Y. 



ALFRED A. HOWLETT. 




i^-- 
%^'^ 
€«?'' 



Ai.KRED A. HowLETT, grandsou of Parley, sr., was born on Hewlett Hill in the 
town of Onondaga on February 17, 1821. Parley Hewlett, sr., was one of three 
brothers who came from England, but sailed from France, and settled in Shaftsbury, 
Vt He married Barsheba 
Parker and in 1797 came to 
Onondaga county, locating in 
Onondaga Hollow, whence 
he removed in the same year 
to Hewlett Hill, where he 
died in 1803. He had five sons 
and three daughters, of whom 
Parley, jr. , born in Shaftsbury 
June 1, 1784, became a large 
farmer and a salt manufac- 
turer atGeddes, being the first 
to ship salt west, via Oswego 
River and the lakes, exchaug- 
ging it for horses and cattle, 
which he brought east ; after 
the Erie Canal was complet- 
ed he packed his meat in 
Syracuse, having a packing 
house opposite the present 
weigh lock, and was the first 
in this county to ship beef 
and perk east by that water- 
way. He married, July 21, 
1805, Phebe Robins, a native 
of Connecticut, and died May 

18, 1861. Their children were Solomon R., Horatio G., Myron P., Latitia E., Jane 
M., Parley L., Alfred A., Celestia S., Daniel, Francis C, and Jerome. Alfred A. Hew- 
lett was reared on a farm, was early employed as collector by Horace and Hamilton 
White, bankers in Syracuse, and in 1842 purchased the eld packing establishment of 
his father in Geddes. In 1843 he established a packing house in Delphi, Ind., and later 
one in Oswego, N. Y., where he also engaged in the elevator, milling, and banking 
business, being connected with such firms as Spears, Case &Co., at Delphi, and Ames 
Hewlett & Co., in banking, and Hewlett, Gardner & Co., in milling, etc., at Oswego. 
In 1867 the packing business was discontinued. In 1852 he became a director in the 
Salt Springs Bank of vSyracuse, in January, 1859, he was elected vice-president and 




Alfred A. Howlett. 



64 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

and acted as cashier; in June following he was made president; in 1865 the institu- 
tion was reorganized into the Salt Springs National Bank, of which Mr. Howlett has 
continuously served as president. He was one of the incorporators and first directors 
and later president of the Syracuse and Chenango Valley Railroad. In 1880 he was 
elected a trustee at large of S^'racuse Universit}-. He has been president of the Syr- 
acuse Gas Light and New York Brick and Paving Companies ; a director in the old 
Syracuse Water Company (forty-two years), and Syracuse-Brewerton Plank Road 
Company; vice-president of the Charleston, Sumter, and Northern Railroad Com- 
pany; and a trustee of the Onondaga County Orphan Asylum. June 19, 1844, he 
married Minerva, daughter of Leonard Ames, of Mexico, N. Y., and thej' had two 
children: Alfred Ames Howlett, a director in the Salt Springs National Bank, presi- 
dent of the Carolina Land and Imj^rovement Company, of Sumter, S. C, and the 
prime mover in constructmg the C, S. & N. R. R., mentioned above; and Augusta 
Adell, who married J. F. Durston, of Syracuse, and died January 7, 1896. 



JOHN MARSELLUS. 

John Marsellus, one of the prominent manufacturers of Syracuse, is the only sur- 
viving son of Robert Osborne and Maria (Ouderkirk) Marsellus, both of Holland 
Dutch descent, and was born February 2, 1846, in Schenectady, N. Y., where his 
father, who was born there April 7, 1824, still lives. His mother was born December 
23, 1826, and died June 20, 1895; of her two children Edward, the youngest, died in 
infancy. His paternal ancestor was Janse von Bommel Marselis, who was born at 
Bommel in Guilderland, Holland, married Annatie Gerritse, came to America about 
1650, and settled at Beverwyck (now Albany), where he was for many years a farmer 
and innkeeper. There his children also settled, excepting Ahasuerus and Gerrit, 
who removed to Schenectady. The latter with his wife and child was killed in the 
massacre of February 9, 1690; one child, Myndert, was saved and was living in 
Schenectady in 1709. The line of descent to the subject of this sketch is 1, Janse 
von Bommel Marselis (the immigrant), of Beverwyck; 2, Ahasuerus, a cordwainer, 
who married Sara Heemstraat, and settled in Schenectady about 1698; 3, Johannes, 
merchant, born June 26, 1698, married Sara De Graaf ; 4, Ahasuerus, born June 26, 
1726, married Maria, daughter of Hendrick Vrooman in 1749, served as captain in 
the Revolutionary war, and was killed at Bemis Heights in Saratoga county; 5, 
Nicolaas, born August 8, 1766, married Machtelt, daughter of Isaac Rosa, in 1788, 
and died August 12, 1848, having had born to him eleven children ; 6. Ahasuerus, 
born December 28, 1788, married Cornelia, daughter of John C. and Maria (daughter 
of Cornelius Van Slyck) Barhydt, who was born October 3, 1790, and had nine chil- 
dren: John A., Matilda, Maria, Nicholas, Isaac, 7, Robert O., Henry, Cornelius, and 
James. Of these James, Nicholas, and Cornelius served honorably as volunteers in 
the war of the Rebellion, as did also Edward Forrest, son of Maria, who became first 
lieutenant under General Hooker and fell in battle near Chattanooga. 

On his mother's side Mr. Marsellus descends from: 

Jan Janse Ouderkirk, a cooper in Beverwyck, known as early as 1664, and prob- 



v^^ 



w 





UMj 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 65 

ably the earliest settler of this name in or abovit Albany or Schenectady. He was 
commonly called " Smalle Cuyper." His son, 

Pieter Ouderkirk, was married in 1704, in Niskayuna, to Alida, daughter of Johan- 
nes Clute, and their children were Johannes, born in February, 1705; Johannes, in 
January, 1707 ; Bata, in January, 1716, and Pieter in May, 1720. 'I'lie latter, 

Pieter Ouderkirk, born May 8, 1720, married Machtelt, daughter of Takel Heem- 
straat, June 18, 1755. Their children were Alida, baptized April 25, 1756; Takel, 
June 11, 1758; Maria, November 3, 1760; Petrus, April 20, 1763; Anna, September 
20, 1769; Johannes, May 13, 1773; and Isaac. Johannes 

(or John) Ouderkirk, born May 18, 1773, married Elizabeth Clute December 7, J 793, 
and had children, Machtelt, baptized November 84, 1794; Peter, born December 25, 
1795; and Maria, born May 28, 1801. John Ouderkirk died and his widow married a 
Van Loan, who was an officer in the war of 1812. 

Peter Ouderkirk, born at Guilderland, Albany county, December 25, 1795, married 
Susan Maria Winne February 21, 1817, at Schenectady. Their children were Eliza- 
beth O., born January 13, 1818; Follica W., February 9, 1819; Elizabeth, March 20, 
1831; John D., May 10. 1823; Maria, December 23, 1826; Follica Ann, July 8, 1828; 
Edward Walton, April 15, 1831; Daniel David Campbell, January 13, 1833; Mary 
Ann Winne, September 13, 1836; Isaac Yates, July 14, 1839; Jane Helen Winne, 
November 15, 1841 ; and Henrietta Yates, September 13, 1844. 

Peter Ouderkirk served in the war of the Rebellion in 1861 as a soldier in the 134th 
Regiment N. Y. Vols. His fifth child, Maria, married Robert O. Marsellus, as pre- 
viously mentioned. 

John Marsellus received his education in the public schools and Classical Institute 
of his native city and began business life as clerk for John Xavier, a dealer in fancy 
goods, with whom he remained about three years. He then spent a similar period 
as bookkeeper for Young & Graham, booksellers, and Andrew Mathews, dry goods 
merchant. In 1865 he went to New York city to seek his fortune, and entered the 
employ of Thorne, Carroll & Co., importers of hosiery and gloves, with whom he re- 
mained seven years, rising from an humble position to the responsible post of book- 
keeper and cashier. In 1872, having acquired a practical experience in commercial 
affairs, he engaged in business for himself as the junior member in the firm of H. E. 
Taylor <S: Co. , manufacturers of undertakers' sundries, an industry with which he 
has ever since been actively and prominently identified. Their operations had de- 
veloped and spread over a wide territory, but Central New York, after about five 
years, promised additional advantages as a field for manufacture. Accordingly in 
the spring of 1877 Mr. Marsellus came to Syracuse, then wholly unoccupied so far 
as their enterprise was concerned, and on May 1 started a branch of the New York 
house at old Nos. 79 and 81 South Clinton street. In the following year he purchased 
the business and became sole owner, and under his able management it proved suc- 
cessful from the start. It was the first and only industry of the kind ever success- 
fully inaugurated in Onondaga county. In 1883 the general manufacture of under- 
takers' specialties and supplies was commenced in the old Gere block in Geddes, the 
business headquarters continuing in South Clinton street. 

In 1887, the operations of the concern having outgrown its original and subse- 
quently added quarters, the construction of a commodious brick building was begun 
on the site bounded by Van Rensselaer, Richmopd, and Tracy streets, in the Third 
I 



66 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

ward. It was soon afterward enlarged and has since furnished accommodations for 
the entire business and manufacturing interests of the establishment. The main 
building is 60 by 220 feet in size, four stories high, and is connected with a power 
house, dry kiln, barn, lumber sheds, storehouse, etc. The plant is one of the model 
institutions of the United States ; there are others larger, but none better adapted to 
the purpose for which it was designed. Mr. Marsellus was chairman of the building 
committee, and himself was largely responsible for the plans and unexcelled conven- 
iences of this noteworthy plant. Here as many as 100 hands are employed in the 
manufacture of fine burial caskets, finished in wood and covered with cloth, and of a 
general line of undertakers' sundries, and in wholesaling cabinet hardware, upholst- 
ery goods, etc. In January, 1888, the John Marsellus Manufacturing Company was 
incorporated with a capital of $65,000, which was later increased to $80,000 and 
finalljr to $100,000. The officers were John Marsellus, president; F. S. Wicks, vice- 
president; Oscar D. Byers, secretary; Charles B. Kiggins, treasurer, all of whom 
still hold their respective positions. These are men of recognized business ability, 
and to them is due a large measure of credit for their individual eflForts. The com- 
pany is a member of the National Burial Case Manufacturers' Association, of which 
Mr. Marsellus is individually an officer, and enjoys a wide reputation for fair dealing, 
which has been built up on the basis of manufacturing and handling only the 
choicest, best, and most desirable goods. 

To Mr. Marsellus is largely due the successful institution and maintenance of this 
important enterprise, which ranks among the leading inanufacturing industries of 
Syracuse. Beginning with practically nothing save rare business ability and unusual 
energy he has by his own efforts founded a corporation which exceeds in extent and 
capacity many similar concerns in the United States and which as a factory equals 
or excels in completeness any plant of its kmd in this country. His good judgment 
and sound business methods have placed this great industry upon a prosperous basis, 
building it up step by step from a modest beginning to extensive proportions, with a 
trade covering many points in New York and adjoining States. 

Mr. Marsellus for many years took an active interest in politics. While engaged 
in business in New York he resided in Mount Vernon, a suburb of that city, where 
he was president of the Yeung Men's Republican Club during the Hayes campaign, 
and where he served for several years as secretary of the Citizens' Association, as an 
officer of the Reformed church and superintendent of its Sunday school, and as a 
member of the Volunteer Fire Department, in which he became an exempt fireman. 
There he was also prominently connected with various organizations of a literary, 
fraternal and musical character, being also for somp time a member of the well 
known Franklin Literary Society of Brooklyn. In Syracuse he has been identified 
with the Young Men's Christian Association during the most of his residence here, 
serving for two years as its president and continuously as one of its board of man- 
agers. He has also been a member of the State Executive Committee of that 
worthy body. He has served as elder in the Reformed church in James street since 
1878, being one of the youngest men ever elected to that office in that society, and 
has frequently been a lay delegate to the General Synod of the Reformed Church of 
America. In fact he has always taken an active and a prominent part in Y.M.C.A., 
church, and Sunday school work, a calling for which he has a natural taste and in- 
clination, and is vice-president of the City Sunday School Association. He is a 




ALFRED E. STAGEY. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 67 

member of the Business Men's Association and was vice-president of its predecessor, 
the old Board of Trade, is an honorary member of the old Sumner Corps, and was 
llie first president of the Commercial Travelers' Branch, a co-operative savings asso- 
ciation organized in 1891. He was also one of the incorporators and for a time a 
director of the old Empire Mutual Accident Association of Schenectady. He is past 
regent of Central City Council No. 388, R. A., member of the Onondaga County 
Anglers' Association, and senior member of Syracuse of the Holland Society of 
New York city, which he joined March 30, 1887. He has served as member of 
various campaign committees and as delegate to several political conventions. He 
is an enthusiastic outdoor sportsman, an appreciative lover of nature, and finds the 
keenest enjoyment in the wilds of the Adirondacks. 

As a speaker Mr. Marsellus has frequently taken an active part at meetings of 
undertakers' associations and other assemblages, and on the platform has won 
deserved applause and recognition. His abilities as a writer were manifest at the 
early age of thirteen, when at Schenectady he was on one occasion reprimanded 
with others for wearing badges symbolizing patriotism and loyalty. Full of fire and 
love of country he could not brook this repression, and wrote a.significant article on 
the subject which aroused general approval. He has often contributed valuable 
papers to the leading trade journals and is the author of numerous articles on Y. M. 
C. A., church, Sunday school, and other topics, many of which have been read be- 
fore conventions and other assemblages. He has never sought political preferment, 
but finds time during a busy business life to devote to the general interests of the 
community, and conscientiously aids and promotes all worthy enterprises of an 
elevating nature. He is a man of strict integrity, upright, honest, and industrious, 
regardful of the rights and privileges of others, persevering, energetic — traits of 
character to which he owes in large measure his success and prominence. 

Mr. Marsellus was married on October 13, 1875, to Miss Sarah A., youngest daugh- 
ter of Capt. Thomas Brewster Hawkins, of Port Jefferson, L. I. They bavefourchil- 
dren: Irene Hawkins and May Winne, students in the High School, and John Carroll 
and Sarah Cornelia, students in Prescott Grammar School. Captain Hawkins, father 
of Mrs. Marsellus, is the only yachtsman now living who was a member of the New 
York Yacht Club in 1852. In 1857 he designed and built the noted yacht Wanderer, 
which for a time was the fastest sailing craft afloat. He has long been one of the 
best known sailing masters in America. 



ALFRED E. STAGEY. 

Hon. Alfred Edwin Stacey is a native of Elbridge, where he now resides. He 
was born January 20, 1846, and through all his life has been a citizen of this town. 
Not only has he been a citizen in the ordinary sense of the word, he has been 
active, energetic, straightforward, and always identified with the town's best in- 
terests. He was one of a family of seven children, all of whom were reared in El- 
bridge, and all remained in the county except James, who went in 1867 to Missouri. 
As a school boy Alfred E. was educated in the Munro Collegiate Institute, under 
the instruction of Prof. T. K. Wright, one of the foremost educators of the country. 



68 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Upon quitting school at sixteen years of age he accepted a clerkship with A. Wood 
& Sons, general merchants in Elbridge. After a servnce of two years in that capacity 
he resigned and enlisted as a soldier in the 9th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, serving till 
the close of the war. He was the youngest member of his company, and in point of 
size probably the smallest, as he then weighed only 106 pounds. Three of his 
brothers were also his comrades in the Civil war, Anthony in the 19th N.Y. Infantry, 
afterwards changed to the 3d Light Artillery; after serving his term of enlistment 
and being honorably discharged, he re-enlisted in Battery L, 9th Heavy Artillery, 
with George, a member of Battery L, 9th N. Y. Heavy Art., and James in the 15th 
N. Y. Engineers. Alfred, Anthony, and George were with Sheridan at Cedar Creek 
and afterwards with General Grant at Petersburg and Appomatox. As a result of 
this service at Cedar Creek Mr. Stacey received two gunshot wounds. 

After his discharge from the army in 1865 he returned to Elbridge and again 
entered the Munro Collegiate Institute, and afterwards engaged as clerk till 1869. 
At that time he formed a copartnership with Mrs. B. A. Wood and they purchased 
the stock and interest of A. Wood & Sons and entered into business under the firm 
name of A. E. Stacey & Co., this firm conducting the business until 1872. Mr. Stacey 
then carried it on till 1884. In the meanwhile (in 1881) Mr. Stacey bought the Rowe 
chair factory at Elbridge and carried on the manufacture of that line of goods. In 
1884 he bought and consolidated with this the Sweet chair factory. So successful had 
he been in this industry that the old quarters became inadequate, therefore in 1888 
he built the large and commodious structure which he now occupies for his factory 
and woodworking business. Besides this he bought in 1886 the large flouring mill 
and water power of Mrs, James Munro, and has now one of the most modern and 
best equipped mills in this section of the State. Energy and good business ability 
have won for Mr. Stacey success in a large degree. 

He was a son of Richard and Agnes (Pierce) Stacey, who came from Somerset- 
shire, England, and settled in Elbridge in 1834. They were industrious and respected 
members of the community in which they lived many years, contributing to its thrift 
and progress, as well as to its social and religious advancement. Mr. Stacey died 
in 1863, his wife surviving till 1875. 

While Alfred E. Stacey has been active and successful in building up and conducting 
his business affairs he has also given much valuable time and service in the interest 
of public affairs. Every plan that has been on foot for the betterment of the town 
and county has found him in hearty sympathy with its advancement. As a result of 
his energy and regard for the best interests of Elbridge, Mr. Stacey has built up the 
industries of the village, not only by increasing those of his own, but by inducing 
other manufactories to locate at that place. 

In politics Mr. Stacey has always been an earnest, active Republican, always 
zealous in its interest and ever faithful to the trusts that the party has impo.sed in 
him. He has been honored at home by having been chosen as president of the vil- 
lage, as well as its clerk for several terms. He has also been its postmaster and was 
instrumental during his term of introducing the money order system, and increasing 
its mail service, thereby more than doubling the receipts of the office. Few State or 
county conventions have been held in recent years that he was not chosen to repre- 
sent his town as delegate therein. In 1886 he was elected to represent the Second 
Onondaga District in the Assembly, and was re-elected in 1887 by a majority of 




JOHN Y. ANDREWS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 69 

nearly 600 over Hon. W. B. Kirk, after one of the hardest contests on the part of his 
opponent that was ever waged in the district. 

During his service as member he was successful in securing the passage of the law 
which removed the necessity of indigent soldiers or sailors of the Civil war applying 
to the poormaster for aid or being confined in the poorhouses of the State. This 
equitable and just law is still in force in New York State. 

Mr. Stacey was in the Assembly at the time FrankHiscockwaselected United States 
senator, and, like Grant's famous "800," he was one of the eleven who stood firm and 
unwavering till it resulted in his candidate's election. He served on the Committee 
on Railroads, and was also chairman of the Committee on Charitable knd Religious 
Societies. 

The Anthony Stacey Post, G. A. R., named in honor of his brother, was organized 
through Mr. Stacey's efforts, and it was through his influence it was located in El- 
bridge. Mr. Stacey has taken a deep interest in this organization, arid has attended 
all its conventions. He is also a prominent member cf the Odd Fellows, in which 
lodge he has occupied all the chairs; has been its Noble Grand, and elected to repre- 
sent the lodge in the State conventions. 

Mr. Stacey's tir.st wife was Ellen, daughter of David Gorham, by whom he had 
three children, Mabel C, Maud E., and one son. who died in infancy. Mrs. vStacey 
died in 1881. 

In 1883 Mr. Stacey married for his second wife Jessie, daughter of S. B. Rowe, of 
Camillus. They have one son, Alfred Edwin. 



JOHN Y. ANDREWvS. 

John Y. Andrews was was born in Clyde, Wayne county, April 30, 1866, but has 
been a resident of Jordan since he was six years of age. He is a son of Gregory G. 
Andrews, who was born in Seneca Falls in 1836. Gregory G. Andrews spent his early 
life in his native town, but as he came to manhood and decided upon an occupation, 
his inclination led him to that of a locomotive engineer. So he began a service on 
the N. Y. C. R. R., and, after the usual preparatory experience, assumed the part 
of engineer on the main line of that road. He still continues in that capacity, being 
one of the oldest and most capable engineers in that large force of experienced men. 
They lived several years in Clyde previous to moving to Jordan, and it was during 
the residence there that the son, John Y., was born. 

Mr. Andrews married Ellen Cullen, of Montezuma, Cayuga county, N. Y. 

After moving to Jordan in 1873 John Y. attended the public school, and finally 
entered the Jordan Academy and completed a full course in that institution, gradu- 
iiting in 1884. For the next two succeeding years he taught school in Elbridge, after 
which he was employed two years as clerk in the N. Y. C. freight office. He then 
entered the law office of M. E. & G. W. Driscoll, Syracuse, where for one year and a 
half he read law. Jn the fall of 1888 he began a course at the Albany Law vSchool, 
and in 1889 obtained the degree of LL. B. 

The following six months were .spent in the law office of N. C. Watson in Jordan. 
That fall Mr. Andrews entered the law office of Stedman, Thompson l^- Andrews, in 



70 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Albany, and remained there as a student till 1890. While there he was admitted to 
the practice, and the next July Mr. Andrews opened an office for the practice of his 
profession in the village of Jordan. Except for a temporary absence he has devoted 
himself to the law ever since. Mr. Andrews is fast securing a prominent place in 
the profession in the county. He possesses native ability in no small degree, and 
that, together with a large amount of energy and marked integrity, is sure to win 
for him a position of distinction. 

While Mr. Andrews has been attentive to his practice he has at the same time been 
an active participant in the conduct of political alfairs in his town. A Republican in 
politics, and active in the party's interest, he has become one of the recognized lead- 
ers in the town. 

He was so favorably regarded by the town.speople that in 1891 they elected him to 
the office of town clerk, and that against a large nominal Democratic majority, and 
the significant feature of the result was that Mr. Andrews was the only Republican 
who succeeded at the polls that election. The same year he was elected police jus- 
tice for the village of Jordan, and in 1894 was appointed justice of the peace to fill a 
vacancy. In 1895 he was chosen as its party's regular nominee for that office, and 
received the almost unanimous support of the voters of the town Mr. Andrews is 
also a member of the Masonic body, being identified with Jordan Lodge 386, as its 

Master. 

April 20, 1892, Mr. Andrews was united in marriage to Mary A. Broughton, daugh- 
ter of Samuel R. and Mary Bi-oughton of Jordan. Mrs. Andrews received her edu- 
cation at the Jordan Academy. 

They have two children, Marian Belle, born March 28, 1893, and Milton F., born 
September 3, 1895. Mr. and Mrs. Andrews are attendants at the Presbyterian 
church. 



NICHOLAS PETERS, Sr. 

Nicholas Peters, Sk., for many years one of the leading German merchants in 
Syracuse, is a son of John and Margaretta (Schumer) Peters, and was born in Wad- 
rill, Rhine Province, Germany, August 24, 1824. He inherited those sturdy and 
thrifty qualities of manhood which distinguish his race, and which have marked his 
long and successful life. He remained on the parental farm until the age of eighteen, 
enjoying such meager educational advantages as the schools of his native village 
afforded, and afterward worked in grist mills in the vicinity of his birthplace. But 
his energies sought a wider sphere of activity, while his natural love of personal free- 
dom craved a land of liberty, and bidding adieu to friends and fatherland he sailed 
for America, landing in New York city unmarried and alone on August 9, 1847. At 
that period a move of this kind was a great undertaking, and especially so to Mr. 
Peters, who was among the first to leave his native village. He came alone and with 
no means, and found himself in this country among strangers. Going at once to 
near Boston, Mass., he was emploj'ed for one year in the Boston water works. In 
August, 1848, he settled permanently in Syracuse, where he first found employment 
with Bennett, Adams & Co. (David S. Bennett and Elisha Adams), storage mer- 
chants, grain dealers, and forwarders in East Water street, with whom he remained 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 71 

twenty-five months. He then purchased a horse and cart and for six 3'ears followed 
carting in this city. His habits of frugaUty enabled him to lay aside a respectable 
portion of his modest earnings, and in 1854 he bought of William and Donald Kirk- 
patrick the property on the northeast corner of Lodi and Pond streets. That part of 
the city was then almost entirely farm land, there being only two houses in the 
block. He very soon commenced the erection of a brick building, the first on the 
old Kirkpatrick tract, which comprised four blocks to the north and east. Here in 
1856 he opened a small grocery stoi'e, which formed the nucleus of the subsequent 
business of Nicholas Peters & Co., and which credited him, therefore, with being the 
pioneer merchant in that section of Syracuse. This enterprise proved successful from 
the start. Within a few years he rebuilt, and from time to time added to the struc- 
ture to meet the demands of his ever increasing trade, the last and heaviest altera- 
tions to the building being made about 1874. Dry goods, then wall paper, and 
finally clothing were successively added to the original grocery business until it be- 
came the largest establishment of its kind on the north side. 

In 1865 Mr. Peters's half-brother, Jacob Kuapp, was admitted to partnership under 
the firm name of Nicholas Peters & Brother, which continued until 1874, when his 
eldest son, Henrv C. Peters, was given an interest under the style of Nicholas Peters, 
Brother & Son. Their trade had now spread to all parts of the city and in volume 
aggregated nearly §500,000 annuallv, but the small-pox epidemic of 1875 proved dis- 
astrous, not onl}' to them, but to many of the best mercantile houses in Syracuse. 
The firm, however, weathered the general business depression until January 1, 1877, 
when it went into voluntary bankruptcy and compromised with its creditors for 
twenty cents on the dollar, receiving receipts in full on that basis. In 1883 Henry 
C. Peters withdrew from the concern and the old firm name of Nicholas Peters & 
Brother was restored, but in January, 1884, Mr. Knapp retired and Mr. Peter.s's son, 
Nicholas Peters, jr., came in under the style of Nicholas Peters & Co., which has 
ever since continued. January 1, 1889, another son, Jacob, and a nephew, Nicholas 
G. Peters, were admitted, and on January 1. 1894, Nicholas Peters, sr., permanently 
retired to private life, leaving the old established business in the hands of its present 
owners, Nicholas, jr., Jacob, and Nicholas G. Peters. 

Before retiring from the establishment he had founded and so successfully con- 
ducted Mr. Peters voluntarily discharged an obligation which few men in like cir- 
cumstances have ever undertaken, and which stamps him par-excellence an honest 
citizen. After the firm settled with its creditors in 1877 for twenty per cent, of their 
indebtedness he resolved that, should fortune favor him, he would reimburse them 
for his share (one-half) of the remainder. With this end in view he laid aside small 
sums of money from time to time until February, 1893, fifteen years after the failure, 
be paid in full his portion of the outstanding obligations. This was wholly a vol- 
untary act, and was accomplished at great expense and time in looking up old 
creditors, many of whom had died or gone out of business. It was the crowning 
achievement of his long and eventful mercantile career. 

Mr. Peters has traveled extensively, not only in America, but in many countries in 
Europe, and has acquired a large fund of general information. Born in Germany, 
and inheriting the sterling characteristics of his German ancestors, he naturally re- 
tains an imperishable love for fatherland, but being imbued from childhood with all 
those attributes of independence and self-reliance which make the successful citizen, 



72 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

he has ever been an enthusiastic admirer and supporter of the country of his adop- 
tion, where his most cherished ambitions have been fully realized. His career is the 
natural product of the sturdy German on Amerian soil, of one transplanted from 
amid the environments of royalty and favored rulers to the land of liberty and free- 
dom, surrounded by advantages and institutions which develop instead of impover- 
ish, and broaden instead of contract. Love of freedom and liberty is one of the 
strongest traits of his character, and in a large measure guided him in deciding to 
emigrate, a step he has never regretted. Thoroughly American in heart and mind, 
and imbued with unswerving patriotism and loyalty, his love for this country is per- 
haps stronger than that of the majority of native born citizens, for he can intelligently 
contrast the two governments with their respective perquisites and advantages. Mr. 
Peters is a man of the strictest integrity, upright, honest, and conscientious, enter- 
prising, energetic, and widely respected. He has always taken a keen interest in 
the general advancement of the city and especially of the German element, of which 
he is a leading representative. In politics he is a staunch Republican, but has never 
sought and only twice accepted public office. He was for one year supervisor from 
the Second ward, where he has resided since 1851, and during one term served as 
excise commissioner under Mayor Charles P. Clark. He was elected a trustee of the 
Syracuse Savings Bank about twenty-five years ago and still holds this position of 
trust, being one of the oldest directors of that institution in point of service now 
living. 

October 24, 1850, Mr. Peters was married in Syracuse to Miss Gertrude Falk, who 
was born m Haupschwenda, Hesse Castle, Germany, October 3, 1828, and came to 
America with her brother and sister July 1, 1849. They have had six children: 
Henry Conrad, born August 3, 1851; Nicholas, jr., born August 27, 1853; Jacob, 
born September 11, 1859; Frank George, born August 18, 1851, died May 13, 1893; 
John Matthew, born November 2, 1863; all in Syracuse; and Gertrude Martha, born 
September 24, 1869, in Dresden, Saxony, Germany. Mr. Peters was himself de- 
prived in early life of the advantages afforded by the schools and colleges of this 
countiy, and fully realizing by experience the necessity of a classical as well as an 
English training he has given to each of his children an excellent education, ably 
fitting them for the career for which they were best qualified by nature. All attended 
the public schools of Syracuse and became proficient in the ordinary branches of 
study. In February, 1869, the parents visited Germany, taking with them Nicholas, 
jr., Frank G., John M., and Jacob, of whom the latter was then in delicate health. 
They took up their their temporary residence in Dresden, where Nicholas, jr., re- 
mained two years attending the best schools of that city. Mr. Peters returned in 
August and his wife with three sons and babe in December. Frank G., after grad- 
uating from the Syracuse High school, entered Phillips Exeter Academy at Exeter, 
N. H., and was graduated therefrom in 1882. In September of that year he entered 
Yale College, passing his examinations with unusual merit, and was graduated from 
that institution with high honors as A.B. in 1886, receiving the Townsend prize for 
oratory and literature. There he was a prominent athlete, being a member of the 
best boat crew and foot-ball team, and serving for one year as captain of the latter 
organization. After graduating he went St. Paul, Minn., read law with Lusk & 
Bunn, and was admitted to the bar of that State in 1889. He opened a law office in 
St. Paul in partnership with Mr. Booth, also a Yale graduate, and practiced his pro- 




"C^ez^^^'/yiyy? 




'^^^. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 73 

fession there until 1891, when he took charge of the law departments of various busi- 
ness interests in West Superior, Wis., for Henry Minot, of Boston, and continued m 
that capacity till his death. John M. was also graduated with high honors from 
Phillips Exeter Academy in 1884, being historian of his class. He entered Harvard 
Medical College in Boston, received the degree of M. D., was immediately made 
house physician in Rhode Island Hospital at Providence, and eighteen months later 
was appointed by Governor Tafft superintendent of that excellent institution, which 
position he still holds. Gertrude M., the youngest child, is now a student at Barry, 
Mass. While Mr. Peters was educating these sons and starting them upon careers 
of usefulness he was also saving sufficient funds to voluntarily pay off his portion of 
the old indebtedness of the firm. This was accomplished only by continued self- 
denial and strict economy, but the end fully justified every effort and the fondest 
hopes. And now at the close of a long and active life, surrounded by a competency 
created by his own hands, and by children whose futures promise brilliant achieve- 
ments, he views with satisfaction and commendable pride the work of nearly half a 
century, the fruits of industry, ambition, and personal application, and the proud 
position of an honest man and respected citizen. 



CHARLES M. MAGEE, M. D. 

Charles Marquis Magee, M. D., is a son of Col. John and Marietta (Patchin) 
Magee, and was born in Groveland, Livingston count3^ N. Y. , on the 6th day of De- 
cember, 1856. The family is of Scotch-Irish descent. His grandfather, William 
Magee, came with two brothers from the North of Ireland, settled in Livingston 
county, N. Y., and died there; one of the brothers went South, while a son of the 
other located in Bath and afterward in Watkins and founded that branch of the 
family. Col. John Magee, son of WiUiam, was appointed by Gov. William H. 
Seward lieutenant- colonel of militia in 1836 and colonel in 1842, and died in Livings- 
ton county. He was also the father of Walter Warren Magee, now a prominent 
young lawyer in Syracuse. 

Dr. Charles M. Magee's early education was received in common schools and in 
the State Normal School at Geneseo, N. Y. At an early age he decided to become a 
physician, and with that end in view he entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College 
m New York city, from which he was graduated with distinction in the class of 1880. 
Since then he has resided in Syracuse, where by his energy and skill he has won a 
place in the front rank of his profession. For several years he steadily built up and 
maintained a large general practice, but bis natural ability and untiring persever- 
ance led him into intricate surgical operations, in which he met with uniform success. 
In 1893, having determined to make abdominal surgery and diseases of women a 
specialty, he went to New York city and took special instruction under Dr. Florin 
Krug, the celebrated specialist in gynecology, and returning to Syracuse opened a 
private sanitarium for women to meet the needs and demands in this line of work. 
Since then he has devoted his time almost exclusively to the practice of abdominal 
surgery and the treatment of diseases of women, and during his short career in this 
direction he has acquired a wide and favorable reputation. He was the first in Syra- 
j 



74 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



cuse to perform total hysterectomy, an operation at once difficult and rare, and was 
also the first surgeon m this city to perform intubation, which is now quite frequently 
practiced. Dr. Magee is a charter member of the Syracuse Academy of Medicine, 
and is also a member of the Onondaga County Medical Society, the New York Medi- 
cal Association, and Syracuse Lodge, No. 501, F. & A. M. 



HENRY GIFFORD. 




The ancestors of Henry Giftord were of English and more recently ot Norman ex- 
traction, his family records extending back to the time of the Conquest, when Sire 
Randolphe de Gifforde was rewarded for services rendered at the battle of Hastings 
with lands in Somersetshire and Cheshire, England. A son of Sir Ambrose Gifford 
emigrated to Massachusetts Bay in 1630 and founded the family from which the sub- 
ject of this memoir was directly descended. 

Henry Gifford was born in Harwich, Mass., September 4, 1801, passed his child- 
hood and early youth in his native town, and while still young moved to South Yar- 
mouth, where, in a leading 
Quaker family, he formed prin- 
^^.. ciples and friendships which 

^' were never relinquished, and 

where he also acquired a prac- 
tical knowledge of the manu- 
facture of salt. T.his latter bus- 
iness induced him in 1821 to re- 
move, in company with Stephen 
Smith, of New Bedford, to the 
then village or hamlet of Syra- 
cuse, more generally known at 
that time as Cossit's Corners. 
Here he actively entered into 
the development of the great 
salt industry, with which he 
was so loi:g identified. The 
Onondaga Salt Company was 
established through the enter- 
prise of Judge Joshua Forman, 
and Mr. Smith became its con- 
trolling agent, while Mr. Gif- 
ford superintended the con- 
struction. For more than fifty 
years after this Mr. Gifford 
was successfully engaged in salt 
manufacturing, and though extensively engaged in various other enterprises he 
never entirely withdrew from his original investment. 

In politics Mr. Gifford was first a Whig, and afterward a Republican of pronounced 



'*'*W' 



*<»-afti4M**»<«» 




Henry Gikford. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 75 

anti-slavery convictions, yet he never sought public office. He nevertheless wielded 
a powerful influence in the councils of his party and in all movements affecting the 
general welfare of the community, and this was always exercised on the part of 
moderation, humanity, and justice. He was extensively identified with the busi- 
ness interests and commercial prosperity of Syracuse, owning considerable real 
estate in various parts of the city, notably a large tract along Gifford street, which 
was named after him. He held several positions of trust and responsibility, being 
at the time of his death vice-president of the Syracu.se Savings Bank (of which he 
was one of the incorporators) trustee of the Syracuse Water Works Company, and 
director in the Syracuse Gas Light Company and Salt Springs National Bank. Both 
he and his estimable wife were very early members of the First Presbyterian church 
and remained consistent communicants until their deaths. He was one of the build- 
ing committee which erected the present stone edifice, being one of the foremost in 
that worthy achievement. Mr. Gifford was a true gentleman of the old school, kind, 
considerate, dignified, and enterprising. He won universal respect and esteem, and 
during an active career achieved success and lasting reputation. In 1834 he pur- 
chased of the Syracuse Land Company a building lot on the southwest corner of 
West Genesee and North West streets, the former then the Genesee turnpike, and 
in 1835 erected thereon the present Gifford homestead, in which most of his children 
were born and reared, and where three daughters still reside. It is believed that no 
other house in the city has been occupied during a longer period by the family for 
whom it was originally built. Mr. Gifford died June 20, 1872, at Avon Springs, N. 
Y., whither he had gone in search of health. 

Mr. Gifl^ord was married in 1826 to Miss Phebe, daughter of Obediah and Mary 
Thomas (Morse) Dickinson, who was born in Salisbury, Conn., November 20, 1801, 
became motherless at a tender age, and with an only sister was reared and educated 
by her maternal grandfather, a staunch and worthy representative of the old time 
school of gentlemen. They were married at the residence of her aunt, Mrs. Archi- 
bald Kasson, who lived where the old depot subsequently stood at the western ex- 
tremity of Vanderbilt Square. She was a lady of rare culture and refinement, a 
good French scholar, a correct artist in water colors, unostentatiously charitable, and 
a devoted Christian, wife and mother. She also possessed scientific attainments of 
a high order. She died April 13, 1871, after an illness covering a period of eight 
years. Their children were Phebe Kelly, Sylvanus Morse, Mary Eliza, Mary Eliza- 
beth (Mrs. J. N. Babcock), Henry Brooks, George Thomas, Francis P., Martha, 
Helen M., George Sylvanus, and Isabella Grahame, all of whom are deceased ex- 
cept Henry Brooks, of Grinnell, Iowa; and Mrs. Babcock, Frances P., and Helen M., 
of Syracuse. 



ANDREW DICKSON WHITE, M. A., LL.D., L. H. D. 

Almost in the exact geographical center of the State of New York there suns itself 
in the upper valley of a tributary of the Susquehanna a tidy village on which the 
impoverished fancy of an official map-maker has set the ancient name of Homer. 
Ancient, indeed, for its region is the village itself. The settlers from Massachusetts 



76 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

and from Connecticut who pushed westward along the valleys of the Mohawk and 
the Susquehanna, reaching these uplands in the last decade of the eighteenth cent- 
ury, settled here more thickly than elsewhere, and for half a century — till its neigh- 
bor settlement of Cortland, once its suburb but soon its rival, crowded it from the 
pre-eminence — it was, not only in the number of its citizens, but in their thrift, their 
piety, and their public spirit, the recognized metropolis of the district. 

It was here, in the midst of all that is conservative in American life, that on the 
7th of November, 1832, was born a man destined in much to be a leader of the 
fresher thought- -Andrew Dickson White. His grandfather, Asa White, a migrant 
from southern Massachusetts in 1798, was long the well-to-do miller of the little com- 
munity, but in 1815 a conflagration brought him in a day to poverty, and his eldest 
son, Horace, the father of Andrew, was forced, though but a lad of thirteen, to turn 
from the education of the schools to that of business. So well he learned its lessons 
that before the age of thirty he had not only won a reputation for unusual mercantile 
sagacity and enterprise, but had already amassed a moderate fortune when in 1831 
he married Clara Dickson, only daughter of a village magnate. Her father, the 
Hon. Andrew Dickson, like the Whites of Massachusetts birth, had come a young 
man to Homer and was, in the year of his grandson's advent, the representative of 
his county in the Legislature of the State. 

The fortunes of Horace White still prospered, and in 1839 he took advantage of 
the new banking law of the State to establish himself as one of the earliest bankers 
at Syracuse, the rising metropolis of Central New York, then a town of some 5,000 
people. There his energy found a worthier field; identified with all the interests of 
his city, he rapidly amassed wealth, and all the advantages his own youth had missed 
he could well afford his son. 

The earliest tastes of the boy were, however, not bookish ; all his love was for 
machinery and for the wonders of out of doors; and, though he early picked up the 
power to read, it was not until after the removal to Syracuse that he was first put 
into school. Of his education he has himself told the story: 

"After much time lost in various poor schools, I was sent to the preparatory de- 
partment of the Syracuse Academy, and there, by good luck, found Joseph A. Allen, 
the best teacher of English branches I have ever known. . . . He seemed to 
divine the character and enter into the purpose of every boy." There young White 
perfected himself in spelling, in arithmetic, in geometry, the only mathematical 
study he ever loved, in grammar, of which he thinks there was too much ; there 
he gained the rudiments of natural science and even of music, becoming "proficient 
enough to play the organ occasionally in church." There, too, literature was 
first opened to him. "Great attention was given to reading aloud from a book 
made up of selections from the best authors, and to recitals from these. Thus I 
stored up not only some of the best things in the older English writers, but in- 
spiring poems of Whittier, Longfellow, and other moderns," and the treasures 
thus gained were never lost. "As to the moral side, Mr. Allen influenced many of 
us strongly by liberalizing and broadening our horizon. He was a disciple at that 
time of Channing, and an abolitionist ; but he . . . never made the slightest 
attempt to proselyte any of his students. Yet the very atmosphere of the school 
made sectarian bigotry and narrowness impossible." 

But the boy was destined for college, and was now sent to a classical school, where 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 77 

Stoddard, the story writer, was among his fellow pupils, and where, though the 
methods in classical teaching were imperfect, "the want in grammatical drill was 
more than made up by the love of manliness and the dislike of meanness which was 
in those days our very atmosphere." 

Outside the school his imagination had been stimulated by desultory reading and 
by pictures of travel, and he had stumbled upon the novels of Scott, to which above 
all was due the birth of his interest in historical studies. The public meetings of 
the time, especially those of the anti-slavery party, took also a deep hold upon his 
mind. 

He had dreamed of entering one of the great New England universities, but the 
zealous young churchman into whose hands he was put for his final training per- 
suaded his father to send him instead to the young and struggling Episcopal college 
at the neighboring town of Geneva. There he matriculated in the fall of 1849. With 
all his loyalty to his father's church and to his father's wish, the college could not con- 
tent him. Dependent on the wealthy patrons whose sons it sought to educate, its 
discipline was lax and its means too feeble for the work it undertook. "Only about 
half a dozen of our number studied at all ; the rest, by translations, promptings, and 
evasions of various sorts, escaped without labor." 

A year of this was all that he could stand, and when, at the opening of another, 
his protest was still unheeded, he took French leave of his reluctant alma mater and 
went into hiding at the home of an old instructor until his father at last gave con- 
sent to his transfer to Yale College. There he was admitted in January, 1851, to what 
has since become "the famous class of '53." But, even among such classmates 
as Billings and Davies and Gibson and Lewis and MacVeagh and Robinson and 
Shiras and Smalley and Stedman, he soon won for himself a high place — not so 
much by his work in the class-room, though that was good, as by the breadth of his 
information and of his sympathies, and by his facility with pen and voice. He be- 
came an editor of the college magazine. The Lit., and before his graduation won the 
first Clark prize for the best discussion of a political subject in the senior class. The 
Yale literary prize, which he also won, was a gold medal for the best essaj% the con- 
test being open to all students in the university. The result of the contest caused 
some comment, for the victory was generally conceded to the senior class, and the 
speculation was as to who would take it, no one thinking it would go to the junior 
class, of which Mr. White was a member. The De Forest prize, which was awarded 
to him for an oration on "The Diplomatic History of Modern Times," open to all 
members of the senior class was a medal of the value of $100. Nor were physical and 
social claims neglected. He belonged to the earliest Yale crew, and he became a 
member of Psi Upsilon and of the mystic Skull and Bones, as well as of the more lit- 
erary Linonia. His room-mate and bosom friend was his classmate Davies, to-day 
Bishop of Michigan. Of his college work, perhaps that which left the deepest impres- 
sion upon him was his study of Guizot's Civilization in Europe, under Dr. Woolsey. 

In December, 1858, he went abroad for further study, having as fellow-traveler 
his college mate, Daniel C. Gilman (now the well-known president of Johns Hopkins, 
and at this moment his colleague on the Venezuelan Commission). After a few weeks 
in England and several months in France, spent in studying French, reading the 
French historians (Thierry, Mignet, Thiers, Chateaubriand), listening to lecturers 
like Laboulaye at the Sorbonne and the College of France, chatting with the old 



78 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

soldiers of the Revolution at the Invalides, making historical pilgrimages through- 
out the northern and central provinces, everywhere reveling in architecture and 
music and hauntmg the old book shops, he was invited by the American minister to 
Russia, ex-Governor Seymour, of Connecticut, to join that legation as an attache. 

Accordingly, in October of 1854 he made his way, via Brussels. Cologne, and Ber- 
lin, to St. Petersburg. It was the stirring time of the Crimean war, and the young 
diplomat found his attacheship no sinecure. His knowledge of French made him val- 
uable as an interpreter; he became the companion of the minister in his interviews at 
court and at the foreign office, and took a most interested part in the ceremonial at- 
tending the death of the Czar Nicholas and the accession of Alexander II. Yet he 
found much time for study. Huge scrap books were filled with clippings on the 
progress of the war; the book stalls afforded rich store for his rapidly growing col- 
lection on Russia and Poland; and the archives of the legation even gave him ma- 
terial for research in American history. He there, under the inspiration of Mr. Se}'- 
mour, became interested in the character and policy of JeiTerson, and drew up the 
nucleus of the study later published in the Atlantic Monthly on Jefferson and 
Slavery. 

But he tired of the restraints of official life, and in June, 1855, resumed the career 
of a student, first wandering in Germany and Switzerland, then matriculating at the 
University of Berlin. There he heard Boeckh, Lepsius, Friedrich von Raumer, Karl 
Ritter, and tried in vain to follow the lectures of Ranke. With the Easter vacation 
he was off for Austria and Italy, and lingered till late spring beyond the Alps, in 
the company of his fellow student and close friend, Frieze, the Latinist. Crossing 
then the Alps, and lingering but a little among the Roman ruins of Southern France, 
he turned his footsteps homeward, reaching America in time to share the commence- 
ment festivities of his alma mater and to receive at her hands his Mastership of 
Arts. 

It was then, with his future profession all undecided, that he chanced to stray 
within sound of the voice of President Francis Wayland, who was delivering at Yale 
one of the addresses of the commencement season ; and the orator's plea for the new 
and growing West as the field for the young scholar sank deep into his mind. The 
next year he spent in graduate study at Yale, and before its end, declining all other 
offers, he had accepted the chair of History and English Literature at the University 
of Michigan. 

He was but five-and-twenty, and looked a boy, but the vigor of his thought and 
the finish of his style soon dispelled all doubt as to his maturity. "He came to Ann 
Arbor," says one who then listened to him, "fresh from European studies, and he 
entered upon his labor with that peculiar enthusiasm which is instantly caught by 
students, and is perhaps the most successful element of all good teaching. His in- 
struction in history was a genuine revelation to those who had been accu.stomed to 
perfunctory text-book work and the hearing of dry and colorless lectures. The ex- 
ceptional excellence of his instruction consisted largely of the spirit which he infused 
into his students. He had in a remarkable degree the rare gift of seizing upon the 
most important principles and causes and presenting them in such a manner as to 
illuminate the whole course of events with which they were connected. He not only 
instructed, but, what was even more important, he inspired. While he remained in 
his chair perhaps no study in the university was pursued with so much enthusiasm 
by the mass of students as was that of history. ' 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 79 

In the general development of the university he was like his old friend Frieze, 
whom, to his joy, he found a fellow member of the Michigan faculty, a loyal sup- 
porter and adviser of President Tappan. And there was work to do outside the in- 
stitution. The university, in order to keep its hold on the State, from which it drew 
its support, loved to send out its faculty as lecturers into the towns and villages of 
Michigan, and into this task, too, the young professor of history went with zest and 
success. 

On the eve of his going to Michigan he had married, at Syracuse, Mary Outwater, 
a neighbor's daughter, whom he had kn-own and admired since her childhood. He 
was fond of entertaining his colleagues and students, and Mrs. White united in her 
character a sweetness and a dignity which made her the most charming of hostesses. 
Their home soon became at Ann Arbor, as afterward at Cornell, the very heart of 
the university's social life. There, in his growing library, amid the influences of art 
and music so dear to him, Professor White ministered a hospitality which could have 
meant hardly less to the culture of those who shared it than did the w<jrk of his class- 
room. 

The death of his father, in 1860, brought upon him the cares of fortune; his health, 
never strong, flagged under the accumulated burden. In 1862 he found it wise to 
ask a leave of absence, and sailed with his wife, for Europe. The civil war then rag- 
ing in America had stirred him deeply, and his had been no slight share in sending 
to the field the young manhood of the north. Now, arrived in Europe, a new task 
confronted him. In answer to the pro-Southern correspondents of the London press, 
who were misleading the English public as to the resources and the character of the 
north, and bade fair to win for the Confederacy the recognition, if not the interven- 
tion, of Great Britain, he dashed off his A Word from the Northwest, perhaps the 
most telling defense of the Unionist cause; and this he followed up with effective 
letters in the journals of England and the Continent. Returning in 1868 to the financial 
cares which demanded his presence in Syracuse, he found in domestic politics a fresh 
field for his powers as a writer and orator, and in the autumn of that year was sent 
by his native county and Onondaga county to the Senate of New York. 

Of this body, in which he sat till 1867, he was, though its young'est member, from 
the first a man of influence. Against the peace sympathies of Governor Seymour he 
was an eloquent and effective advocate of the aggressive prosecution of the war. 
Though a director of the New York Central Railroad and a resident of the city most 
dependent on the Erie Canal, he did loyal service as an opponent of the dictation 
both of railway and of canal ring. His intelligent interest in civic affairs earned him 
a place on the legislative Committee on Municipal Reform, where he was especially 
concerned in the organization on its present basis of the Health Department of New 
York city. But it was as chairman of the educational committee, cr Committee on 
Literature, as it was called, that there opened to him the largest opportunities. He 
was able to carry through a great extension of the normal school system for the 
training of teachers. What was more, the beneficence of the national government 
seemed to put within reach what had long been the dearest dream of his public life. 

Even while a boy at the Geneva College, as he paced rebelliously the shore of 
Seneca Lake, he had begun to frame in his thought the great university, worthy of the 
greatest State of the Union, by which New York should some day make needless all 
petty sectarian institutions. When Gerrit Smith had later talked of endowing a uni- 



80 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

versity in Central New York, he had offered the half of his own fortune for such an 
object. The dream ripened during his years at Michigan. " It is now just about ten 
years ago," said George William Curtis in 1868, "since I was in the city of Ann 
Arbor, the seat of the University of Michigan, . . . and I sat at night talking 
with my friend, a New York scholar, professor of history in that institution. 
There, in the warmth and confidence of his friendship, he unfolded to me his idea of 
the great work that should be done in the great State of New York. Surely, he said, 
in the greatest State there should be the greatest of universities; in Central New 
York there should arise a university which, by the amplitude of its endowment and 
by the whole scope of its intended sphere, by the character of the studies in the 
whole scope of the curriculum, should satisfy the wants of the hour. More than that, 
said he, it should begin at the beginning. It should take hold of the chief interest 
of this country, which is agriculture; then it should ri.se — step by step, grade by 
grade — until it fulfilled the highest ideal of what a university could be. 
Until the hour was late this young scholar dreamed aloud to me these dreams." 

Now, in the year 1862 an act had passed Congress for the endowment of the higher 
education throughout the country, from the great landed domain of the nation. 
Every State was to receive for each of its representatives in Congress thirty thou- 
sand acres of the public land with which each .should endow "at least one college," 
where, "without excluding other scientific and classical studies," such branches as 
are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts should forever be taught. To New 
York, as the most populous State, came thus nearly a million of acres. This superb 
fund, provisionally bestowed by the State on a small e.xisting institution, seemed 
likely in 1864 to fall back into its hands through a failure to comply with the condi- 
tions of the gift. Mr. White strenuously opposed all suggestions for the division of 
the fund, urging as the only worthy policy for the higher education the concentration 
of resources It was in the struggle over this question that he was brought into close 
relations with his colleague from Tompkins county, Ezra Cornell — a stern, shrewd 
old man, of Quaker birth and breeding, who had migrated in his youth, a roving 
mechanic, into Western New York, where, after making one fortune in milling and 
losing it in farming, he had built up a vaster one through his connection with the 
spread of the electric telegraph, and now, in his declining years, was casting about 
for a worthy public use for his wealth. The two men were strangely unlike, and as 
to the division of the land grant they had been sharply opposed; but each had 
learned to prize the other, and it was to his young fellow- senator that the old Quaker 
now turned for advice. The result was the offer, by Ezra Cornell to the State of 
New York, of five hundred thousand dollars for the further endowment of a great 
university, if the State would transfer to it the public lands and would locate it in his 
own town of Ithaca. 

It is needless here to recount further the tangled story of the establishment of Cor- 
nell University, or to describe the happy policy by which the nation's gift, frittered 
away for a song by most of the States, became in time for the New York university 
the source of millions. Large as was Mr. White's share in securing for it the charter 
and the land grant, what was peculiarly his own was the educational shaping of the 
new institution. He was its spiritual founder not less than Mr. Cornell its material — 
a fact too much obscured, perhaps, by the name which he, against Mr. Cornell's pro- 
test, gave to the university. It was he who wrote all but the financial clauses of its 



11 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 81 

charter; he who drew its plan of organization; he who took all steps looking to the 
selection of its equipment and the choice of its facult5^ It is not strange that when, 
in 1866, a head was to be found for it, Mr. Cornell insisted that Mr. White must 
accej^t its presidency. 

It was to turn his back on political ambitions to which he had earned a right. It 
was to sever his connections with Michigan, where, in the hope that he might yet re- 
turn, the chair of history was still his. Just now, too, there had come from Yale an 
invitation to take up his home in the " City of Elms" as director of its School of 
Fine Arts; and this, if he must leave his political career, was the life most tempting 
to a man of his tastes and means, and was especially attractive to his family. But 
his choice was soon made, and was made once for all. Entering at once upon his 
executive duties, he remained president of Cornell for nearly twenty years, until ill 
health compelled his retirement in 1885. 

The features in which the new university, as planned by him, differed most notably 
from others of its sort were: (1) Its democracy of organization, uniting the humani- 
ties, the sciences, and the technical arts in a single faculty and in common classrooms 
under precisely like conditions, and this so effectively that their parity at Cornell has 
never been questioned; (2) its freedom from all sectarian control — " at no time shall 
a majority of [its trustees] be of one religious sect, or of no religious sect," and " per- 
sons of every religious denomination, or of no religious denomination, shall be equally 
eligible to all offices and appointments" ; (3) its parellel courses and its large individual 
freedom of choice among studies — in this, too, it was a pioneer in American education ; 
(4) its vital connection with the public schools of its State through the establishment 
of free scholarships, to be awarded by competition in each Assembly district ; (5) its 
large recognition of the worth of the modern languages and literatures, both as practi- 
cal and as disciplinary studies ; (6) its system of nonresident professorships, by which it 
sought to bring both its students and its faculty in touch with eminent scholars whose 
permanent services it could not hope to win ; (7) its assumption that its students are 
not children, but grown and earnest men, and its attitude toward them as such. 

Muc'h that was planned at the outset could not, for lack of means, be then or for 
long afterward carried out. In fact, throughout nearly the whole administration of 
Mr. White the institution was "land poor" — its vast estates an expense instead of 
an income. 

Throughout his presidency Mr. White filled also the professorship of history, and 
with the same inspiring influence upon historical studies as at the University of 
Michigan. Though his other duties compelled his restriction to a single course 
throughout the year, no element of the university's work left a deeper mark upon the 
whole student body. 

And his benefactions took often a more tangible form. From his own means he 
built and furnished upon the university's grounds the home which he gave to be used, 
when he should be through with it, by his successors in the presidency. Of his 
lesser gifts it would be idle to attempt enumeration. No department but felt again 
and again the help of his ready pocket. The library especially was continually his 
debtor, and after his retirement he bestowed upon it in 1887 bis own noble historical 
collection, perhaps the richest private library in America. His gifts must aggregate 
a couple of hundred thousand dollars. In proportion to his income he has perhaps 
been the university's most liberal donor. 

K 



82 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

But during these years of his presidency he was not wholly divorced from outside 
activities. His fertile mind and restless temperament could not brook such slavery. 
He was always in touch with the republic of letters and with the larger interests of 
State and nation. His open letters and occasional addresses amount to volumes. In 
1870 he was appointed by President Grant a member of the commission created by 
Congress for the investigation of the condition and resources of Santo Domingo, and 
into his hands fell the scientific direction of the expedition. Though its youngest 
member, he proved the conservative element of the commission, and it was in 
deference to his protests that no recommendation as to annexation was made by it. 
In the fall of 1871 he presided at the State Convention of his party at Syracuse. The 
next year saw him a delegate-at-large to the National Convention at Philadelphia 
which nommated President Grant, and a little later the head of New York's delega- 
tion in the Electoral College. In 1876 he was again a delegate-at-large to the Repub- 
lican National Convention, but was hindered from attendance by other ofiticial duties 
in connection with the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, where he had been 
made chairman of the Jury of Public Instruction. Soon after this ill-health drove 
him abroad, and before his return in 1878 he served the United States as its hono- 
rary commissioner in the Paris Exposition, and was there given a place upon the 
Jury of Appeals. The French Republic, at the ceremonies which closed the Exposi- 
tion, set its seal of approval upon his work when the president of the Republic con- 
ferred upon him the officer's cross of the Legion of Honor, his two American asso- 
ciates in this recognition being Story the sculptor, and Dr. Barnard, president of 
Columbia College. In the spring of 1879, by appointment of President Hayes, he 
became American minister to the German empire, and in that post he remained 
till 1881. 

After his resignation, in 1885, of the presidency of Cornell, he again crossed the 
Atlantic, and tarried in Europe till the spring of 1887. Returning, with renewed 
vigor, he had not yet entered on any serious work when the heaviest blow of his life, 
the unforeseen and almost instantaneous death of Mrs. White, threw all his plans into 
confusion. His married life had been singularly happy, and Mrs White his almost 
constant companion. On the expedition to Santo Domingo he had been forced to 
leave her behind, and after the false rumor of the loss of the commissioners at sea, 
and the publication of their obituaries in the metropolitan journals, he had come 
back in safety to find her hair turned to snowy white. Now it was his turn to suffer, 
and the friends who saw him breaking beneath his grief isersuaded him again to go 
abroad. There he lingered till the late summer of 1889; then, returning, he again 
took up his home in Ithaca, where — though he had declined the honorary presidency 
and the deanship of the School of History, which had in turn been tendered him by 
the university — he was still bound to Cornell by his duties as a trustee. And now, 
in 1890, there came to preside in his home a second wife, Miss Helen Magill, a 
daughter of President Magill, of Swarthmore — herself well known as scholar and as 
educator. In 1892 he was made, by President Harrison, minister of the United 
States at St. Petersburg, and, retained in that post by Mr. Cleveland, spent at the 
Russian capital the next two years. It was a pleasing visit, after forty years, to the 
scene of his earliest diplomatic experiences. His return to this country in 1895, and 
his appointment in January, 1896, to a place upon the important Commission of 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 83 

Inquiry into the Venezuelan boundary are fresh in the memory of all American 
readers. 

In this busy life, so filled with the cares of the teacher, the politician, the man of 
affairs, there has been little leisure for the research that goes to the making of books ; 
and few of the literary plans with which he began his career have been realized. 
His biography of JelTerson was never written. Of his long-dreamed-of history of 
the French Revolution, for which he collected a material unequaled on this side of 
the Atlantic, only his admirable little monograph on Paper Money Inflation in 
France, and his stimulating Bibliography of the Revolution, in the book of Judge 
Morris, are the visible results Of his inspiring academic lectures on the general 
history of modern Europe, but two or three have seen the light as magazine articles ; 
though their topical outlines, printed for his students and by them scattered abroad, 
have suggested more than one book to younger scholars — as, for example, the excel- 
lent study of Mr. Lewis Rosenthal on America and France. The Manual of His- 
torical Literature which Mr. White had proposed as a joint task to his pupil and suc- 
cessor. Prof. Charles Kendall Adams, had finally to be worked out alone by the 
latter. It is, indeed, as an inspirer of books that his activity has been greatest. 
Yet he has remained himself a wide reader and a tireless student ; and not alone 
the addresses and magazine articles in which he has brought to bear so tellingly 
upon a host of present-day problems the fruits of a ripe historical scholarship, but 
at least one book of serious proportions will attest the quality of his work. 

This book, so many of whose chapters are familiar to the readers of the Popular 
Science Monthly, is his Warfare of Science, or, to give it its full title, his History of 
the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. It was in the troublous 
early days of Cornell, when the nonsectarian character of the university was bring- 
ing it from its rivals on every side the charge of godlessness, and when Mr. Cornell 
and Mr. White himself were rewarded for their labors by such epithets as infidel and 
atheist and by the suspicion of Christian people everywhere, that it first occurred to 
him to find comfort and assurance in the study of this stage in the history of all the 
great intellectual movements through which civilization has been won. From its 
earliest form, as a mere lecture in 1875, it has grown through twenty years to the 
two stately volumes now about to be published. In the gathering of materials, 
scattered over almost the whole territorj' of human knowledge, Mr. White has known 
how to use the aid from time to time of sundry helpers ; but even in this prelimi- 
nary labor his own immediate share has far outweighed all others, and in the diges- 
tion and interpretation of his materials no other hand was ever given a part. Clear 
as is his statement of its thesis, few books have suffered such misjudgment from 
careless or unkindly critics. The work was intended not at all as an attack on 
religion, but really as a defense of it. Its main purpose was to prevent the recur- 
rence of that interference with science, on the part of all well meaning men, which 
in our century has done great harm to science, but still greater harm to religion. 
What interested him was never the opinions, normal or abnormal, of forgotten 
theologians; but their interferences, in the mistaken interest of religion, with that 
freedom of thought and research out of which alone science can grow. Nor was he 
actuated by any hostility to religion. A man of profoundly religious nature, im- 
patient of irreverence of any kind, and deeply attached to the Christian communion 
in which he was reared, he seeks only to lift the timid faith which dares not trust the 



84 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



God of the universe to deal truly with the human mind he has made to the loftier 
conviction that — in his own noble words — "there is a God in this universe wise 
enough to make all truth-seeking safe, and good enough to make all truth-telling 
useful." — Prof. George L. Burr, in Popular Science Monthly for February, i8g6. 



GEORGE BARNES. 



George Barnes was born in the municipal borough of Tenterden, County Kent, 
England, October 1, 1827, and came to America in April, l844. In July following 
he began the study of law with Wilkinson & Bagg, then one of the leading law firms 
in Syracuse, but that profession was soon abandoned for other pursuits. Mr. Wilk- 
inson was president of the 
Syracuse and Utica Rail- 
road, and Mr. Barnes early 
became identified with the 
management of that line 
as junior bookkeeper, from 
which position he gradually 
rose to the post of superin- 
tendent. He subsequently 
joined in the preliminary 
surveys along what was 
known as the "canal route 
to Rochester," and was thus 
intimately connected with 
the enterprises which in 1853 
resulted in the consolidation 
of the seven roads between 
Albany and Buffalo into the 
New York Central and Hud- 
son River Railroad Com- 
pany. In that year, having 
invested his first accumula- 
tions in a building lot on 
James street hill, he erected 
thereon the first house on 
that now fashionable street, 
a structure which long stood 
alone and was illustrated in 
the first city Directory of 1853. 
About this time he visited his 
early home in England, and returning became the proprietor of the Syracuse Even- 
ing Chronicle, which had originally been published in 1852 as the Free Democrat. 
He adopted the principles of the new Republican party and made the Chronicle the first 
Republican daily newspaper in the State outside of New York city. In 1855 he sold 




George Barnes. 




:^j ^ ^E^i^ C-Vf^ar^s iS-J9r-^ .-■ 



J o hyyi C. uvu-cxyk. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 85 

the establishment to Samuel IT. Clark, and in 1850 removed to Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
became superintendent of the newly opened Marietta and Cincinnati Railroad, which 
shared the fate of so many other western enterprises of that day in the commercial 
collapse of 1857. 

In 1858 Mr. Barnes returned to Syracuse and entered upon his active career as a 
banker, which he pursued until his death, and in which he attained the highest and 
most honorable positions. He was one of the original incorporators of the Onondaga 
County Savings Bank in 1855, and served as a member of its board of trustees until 
1876. In 1869 he joined with others in organizing and incorporating the Trust and 
Deposit Company of Onondaga, with a paid-up capital of S100,0()0, and served as its 
vice-president several years, and as president from 1876 until his death. In 1873 he 
was one of the organizers of the State Bank of Syracuse, of which he became presi- 
dent in 1876, serving in that capacity till his decease. 

In manufacturing enterprises he was equally prominent. In 1860 he formed the 
acquaintance of William A. Sweet, who in 1858 had commenced the manufacture of 
mower and reaper knives on a small scale, having one of the only two establishments 
of the kind in the United States. In 1864 the firm of Sweet, Barnes & Co. was 
organized to carry on this business in connection with the manufacture of steel, and 
the enterprise proved successful from the start. In 1864 the steel works were sold 
to Mr. Sweet, who has since been at the head of Sweet's Manufacturing Company. 
The old firm name of Sweet, Barnes & Co. was continued until 1873, when it was 
changed to George Barnes & Co.. which in 1877, by a consolidation of the works at 
Syracuse with similar factories at other points, became the Whitman & Barnes Man- 
ufacturing Company, of which Mr. Barnes was president. The capital of this great 
corporation finally aggregated |2, 000,000, and under Mr. Barnes's able management 
its business developed into enormous proportions. Their works on Marcellus and 
Wyoming streets in the Fifth ward were among the largest and most important 
manufacturing establishments in Syracuse. 

Mr. Barnes was also one of the originators of the Syracuse Chilled Plow Company, 
but failing health compelled him to abandon that enterprise. He was for many 
years treasurer and financial manager of the Onondaga County Orphan Asylum, and 
annually gave the orphans from that institution a memorable afternoon and evening 
on the lawn in front of his house. He held various positions and trusts of responsi- 
bility, and always took a keen interest in the advancement of the city. He was in 
every sense a representative citizen, energetic, enterprising and public spirited, and 
occupied a conspicuous and honorable sphere in the commercial life of the entire 
community. He bore the esteem, confidence and respect of not only his associates, 
but of the public, and won a warm place in the hearts of Syracusans. He was for 
several years an invalid, and died in New York city October 17, 1892. His wife, 
whom he married in 1849, was Miss Rebecca S., daughter of Thomas B. Heermans, 
of Albany, and niece of John Wilkinson, the first lawyer of .Syracuse. 



JOHN EDSON SWEET. 

The ancestry of the family of which John Edson Sweet is a member is clearly 
traced back to John and Mary Sweet, who settled in Salem, Mass., in 1631. Horace 



86 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Sweet was the youngest son of Timothy and Eunice (Woodworth) Sweet, and was 
the father of the subject of this sketch. He was born April 1, 1796, and married, 
November 20, 1817, Candace, daughter of Punderson Avery; he died August 4, 
1858. i-n Pompey, Onondaga county, N. Y., where he was an early settler. He 
passed his life as a farmer, and, while neither more nor less successful than many 
others of his class, was a man of intelligence and respected in the community where 
he lived. His wife came from a family that is well known in many parts of the 
country, particularly in the field of mechanics, several of its members having been 
eminent in that line. The children of Horace and Candace (Avery) Sweet were 
Clarence H., a merchant in Rochester, who died January 10, 1883; Helen L. (Mrs. 
E. A. Fink), who died in Weedsport, N. Y., April 19, 1842; Anson Avery, a manu- 
facturer in Syracuse, who died June 6, 1894; Homer D. L., a prominent civil engi- 
neer and surveyor, who died in Syracuse on November 16, 1893; Wheaton B., a 
farmer on the homestead in Pompey; William A., the well known manufacturer of 
Syracuse; John Edson, the subject; and Ann E. (Mrs. Charles C. Bates), of Syra- 
cuse, who died in 1878. 

John Edson Sweet was born in Pompey October 21, 1832, and passed his early 
years on his father's farm. His opportunities for acquiring an education were lim- 
ited to the local schools, which he attended between the ages of seven and fifteen 
years, but without developing more than ordinary love for study or alj^titude for 
gaining the knowledge imparted in books. He, however, inherited mechanical 
genius of a high order, which began to manifest itself very early in his life. Possess- 
ing also a natural love for music, and finding no other way to gratify it at that time, 
he constructed a small violin when he was twelve years old, with which he was sent 
to a distant relative to learn to play. His term of instruction continued about two 
weeks and he came home able to play half a dozen of the olden tunes. The making 
of his violin simply because he wanted to learn to play it, was typical of one of the 
traits that has distinguished him in later years. Whatever he may have desired that 
he could not obtain elsewhere, he has never lacked self-reliance to undertake to pro- 
vide by his own unaided skill; and he has usually succeeded. 

It was clear enough in his early life that Mr. Sweet would be a mechanic, if he was 
anything, and he was accordingly apprenticed, in 1850, to the carpenter and joiner 
trade, fortunately with a man of ability and a noble heart— John Pinkerton, now of 
Saginaw, Mich.,— who faithfully fulfilled his obligation to teach the young man "the 
art and mystery of his craft." Among the tools bought with his first earnings was 
the second set of socket firmer chisels ever made, one of which he still retains as a 
memento. In the winter of 1850-51 he obtained, through the efforts of a former 
neighbor, a position in the first, and at that time the only, architect's office in Syra- 
cuse, that of Elijah T. Hayden, another man of noble nature. Here making fires 
and sweeping the office floor alternated with opportunity to see the making of draw- 
ings and to assist in such capacities as untrained fingers could be made useful. 
Here, in paying his board from his earnings, not for an education, but for an oppor- 
tunity, he has often said lay the best investment he ever made. For ten years his 
life was devoted to carpenter and joiner work, building, and what was then called 
architecture, but what was in fact the making of construction drawings for buildings. 
In this work his designs or plans all bear the stamp of original arrangement and 
correct construction, again exhibiting another of his later most marked character- 
istics. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 87 

A second winter as office boy with C. O. Holyoke, a natural artist and a believer 
in Ruskin, directed the young man's thoughts to the channel of sound construction, 
and the principle of adapting the construction to the use. He was convinced that, 
however much he might admire art and wish to be an artist, if nature had given him 
any faculty worth cultivating, it was not in that direction, but in mechanics. P>ui]d- 
ing at that time and within his field of operation was mechanical and not artistic. 
It was not long after the time under consideration that he built the most unique and 
best farm barn in the country, which still stands on the old farm in Pompey. The 
plans for this barn received the first premium in a national competition held by the 
then leading agricultural journal in the country, the Rural New Yorker. They were 
repeatedly published in that paper and were followed by a series of articles from his 
pen on architecture, extending through a dozen years. 

At the breaking out of the war he was in Selma, Ala., as architect and superin- 
tendent of what was intended should be the second best hotel in the South. Discre- 
tion prompted him to leave one rainy day, and work on the hotel soon ceased. His 
services as architect being in little demand during those troubled times, he spent 
some time as patternmaker and draughtsman in the railroad shops in Syracuse. In 
the summer of 1862 he went to the London Exhibition, spending some months on 
the Continent and the remainder of that year as a draughtsman in the international 
patent office of Hazeltine, Lake & Co. An account of his travels was published in a 
series of letters to the Syracuse Standard. Thirty years ago letters on foreign travel 
were less common than now and were read with much interest. Securing a patent 
on a nail machine in which the Patent Nut and Bolt Company, of Birmingham, Eng- 
land, took an interest, he went there and worked for them as draughtsman while 
superintending the construction of the machines. While there he furnished some 
short articles to Engineering, a technical journal published in London by Zerah Col- 
burn. 

Returning to Syracuse in 1854, he engaged with Sweet, Barnes & Co. as designer 
and draughtsman. Here he designed a large number of machines, tools and appli- 
ances, introducing some of the features that still mark his designs. During these 
years he invented one of the pioneer machines aiming to supei'sede the use of mova- 
ble type, from which the modern linotype machine of Merganthaler is a step in ad- 
vance. This was to become accomplished through the formation of a continuous 
matrix by means of steel type and dies. Paper pulp, still universally used as matrices, 
was adopted by him for that purpose. As a piece of ingenuity and perfection of de- 
vices to accomplish its end, the machine was a marvel of mechanical genius, though 
its principles have since been superseded. It was exhibited at the Paris Exposition 
in 1867 and later was presented to the Cornell University. 

Returning to Syracuse from the Exposition he again connected himself with Sweet, 
Barnes & Co., and for three years had charge of their works. In November, 1870, 
he was married to Caroline V. Hawthorne, who died on May 12, 1887. 

From 1871 to 1873 he was chiefly employed in bridge building for Howard Soule, 
of Syracuse, and during leisure in the fall and winter of 1872 he made the plans and 
patterns and did most of the work on the first straight-line steam engine. During 
the same time he contributed a series of articles to Engineering under the title, 
"Mechanical Refinements," and over the signature, "An English Engineer in 
America," both title and signature being selected by the editors. 



88 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

From 1873 to 1879 was the period of his connection with Cornell University. The 
mechanical work done in that institution was of a pioneer character. While the 
Whitworth surface plates and straight-edges were known to a few in this ccfuntry, 
their manufacture and introduction to the public date from the Cornell shop. The 
first standard measuring machine made in this country was made and is now stored 
there. This machine may almost be called a mechanical classic. It is, without a 
doubt, equal to any that have followed it, and no less an authority than John Rich- 
ards has testified that its method of correcting the error of the screw is the only one 
known that is commercially practicable. The equally important problem of neutral- 
izing the effect of wear was .solved in an equally successful way, though one that 
has not been adopted to the same extent. This measuring machine was to have 
been the foundation of a system of standard gages whose manufacture the Professor 
hoped to establish in connection with the college shop. This, again, was pioneer 
work, nothing of the kind being commenced elsewhere until some years later. Other 
principles which have since come into use — some universally and others partially — 
were embodied in some amateur lathes and a grinding machine. The first Gramme 
dynamo produced in this country was built there, and the second straight-line en- 
gine. These, with other products of the shop, were exhibited at the Centennial Ex- 
position. This straight-line engine, now so well known throughout the world, em- 
bodied what was then the novel combination^a balanced valve, a shifting eccentric, 
and a shaft governor. This has become the accepted type of high-speed engine, 
and the Centennial engine is fairly entitled to be considered the father of that nu- 
merous family. It should be added that all this work was produced by student labor, 
no other being employed in the shop. 

The Professor's chief work, however, at Cornell was not the fashioning of iron, 
but the molding of brains. The vSibley College of that day as a college department 
was felt to be an anomaly by the powers that were. The professors, bred in the 
scholastic atmosphere of languages, mathematics, or pure science, gave it little sym- 
pathy and less support. This feeling was, no doiibt, strengthened by the fact that 
the "theoretical" side of the department, with which they might have had some 
sympathy, was at a low ebb. In equipment, apparatus, etc., the department was, 
compared with itself of to-day, a kindergarten, and of its merits as a school the same 
comparison would hold. True education, however, consists of the training of the 
faculties and the formation of correct methods of thought and work rather than of 
the accumulation of information, and these it is the province of the true teacher to 
impart, largely independent of material aids and resources. Those who came as 
students under Professor Sweet's influence feel that in this respect they enjoyed a 
priceless privilege. As a teacher he was one of the few and rare, whose pupils be- 
come disciples. A compliment of the highest character, and one of which he feels 
justly proud is the following, by John Richards, editor of " Industry," in a lecture 
before the students of Leland Stanford University. Speaking of Professor Sweet, 
he styles him, " one of the most successful teachers of constructive engineering that 
this or any other country can boast." 

Seeing no prospect of co-operation or support in doing what he felt was possible at 
Cornell, and what has since been done, he resigned his position and returned to 
Syracuse. Experimenting with the original straight-line engine and obtaining what 
appeared to be the maximum of simplicity and perfection of action in the governor, 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 89 

he commenced building the engine in a very modest way. The Straight-Line En- 
gine Company was soon organized, with him as president and general manager, 
which position he still holds. This engine has gradually made its own market in 
all countries. While it has not been the policy of the manager to endeavor to build 
all the engines that could be sold, at a possible sacrifice of perfection, it is a fact that 
the business has greatly and steadily increased, rendering neces.sary the building of 
new works, which were completed in 1890 from Professor Sweet's own plans. 

Within the last few years he has found time to design a succession of improve- 
ments in the engine itself, many of which are extensively used by other builders, and 
an improved system of steam distribution universally acknowledged by the profes- 
sion. He has also designed various new machines, one of which, a traversing ma- 
chine, has become a standard tool, besides innumerable special devices for adding 
to the convenience of construction in the engine and to insure more perfect results. 
Besides this his opinion has been sought by about every inventor in, and many out 
of the city, and many patented inventions secured by others owe much to him, and 
many an industry has profited by his generous advice. 

Professor Sweet has never aspired to do a large business only. He has preferred 
to "live upon a small rocky island of his own, with a lake and a stream in it. pure 
and good," to uphold ideals of his own, far in advance of commercial appreciation. 
He has never undertaken any task solely for the money that might be made by it, 
but rather to accomplish the feat or solve the mechanical problem, and of the hun- 
dreds of patentable inventions he has made, he has asked protection for very few. 
In design he is unique — novelty is found everywhere in his work, though always 
much more than novelty. As a well known engineer once remarked on examining 
the straight-line engine for the first time, " I would not have believed it possible to 
introduce so many novelties and have them good." The influence of his early artistic 
studies is apparent in every line, not manifested in superfluous ornament, but in 
that higher, and in engineering structures, only true beauty — the beauty of perfect 
fitness. A very expressive remark was once passed on the lines of a machine made 
up partly from some older work of Professor Sweet's and partly from new designs 
by others, to the efi^ect that " it was easy to see where the master's hand left ofi^ and 
the cobbler's began in the machine." He has been a prolific writer for the press, 
usually along mechanical lines, and his peculiar terse, easily-comprehended, yet 
most expressive style, is readily discovered and warmly welcomed, whatever the 
appended signature. He exercises the broadest liberality toward the theories, be- 
liefs and works of others, believing that the field of invention and discovery is too 
broad and its possibilities too great to make it safe for any one person to belittle the 
efforts of another. Over the door of the straight-line engine works, cut in the stone 
arch, stands the legend, "Visitors Always Welcome:" there is a good deal of the 
superintendent's character hidden in the order that placed those words in that place. 

In 1889 Professor Sweet was married to Irene A. Clark, a woman peculiarly fitted 
to enjoy the honors that have fallen to her husband and to aid him in obtaining 
others. 

Professor Sweet has seen too much of the world and of the work of other peoples 
and has a too cosmopolitan judgment to feel any sympathy with that spread-eagleism 
which vaunts our own work in ignorance of others. More than this, he believes it 
h 



90 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



to be in as bad taste for a nation to boast as for an individual to do so. He consid- 
ers it a misfortune that our mechanics should slight instead of study the works of the 
Old World. 

With no desire for popularity, yet exceedingly popular; of unswerving faithfulness 
to the highest mechanical ideas, yet successful in the business built upon them ; with 
no gift of eloquence, yet never failing to capture and hold his audience; modest to a 
fault, yet with his merit universally recognized, Prof. Sweet is a reassurance to those 
who sometimes feel driven to the conclusion that after all brass is better than brains, 
and that in this world modest merit is the one thing that escapes its just reward. 



ELIZUR CLARK. 



Hon. Elizur Ci.akk, whose ancestors were noted for their longevity, was a de- 
scendant of John Clark, who came to America and first settled in Rhode Island about 
1644. His father, Beamont Clark, was born in Saybrook, Conn., July 25, 1767, and 
died at the age of ninety years, in Michigan, in 1857 ; he came to Cicero, Onondaga 

county, in the summer of 1823, 
and followed farming until 
1837, when he moved West. 
His mother, Nabbe Spencer, 
was born January 14, 1770, and 
died in Michigan, aged sev- 
enty-three. 

Elizur Clark was born in 
Saybrook, Middlesex county, 
Conn., October 5, 1807, being 
next to the youngest in a fam- 
ily of eight sons and three 
daughters, and came to Cicero, 
Onondaga county, with his 
father in 1823. His advantages 
for obtaining an education 
were limited, yet he applied 
himself so assiduously to busi- 
ness pursuits and whatever 
came m his way that he ac- 
quired a large fund of practi- 
cal knowledge. He followed 
various occupations until 1834, 
when he leased of Henry Sey- 
mour the Salina mill property 
and carried on the lumber 
business till Mr. .Seymour's death in 1837. He then purchased a half interest in the 
estate, the other half being owned by ex-Gov. Horatio Seymour, and continued until 
1846, when he became sole owner. Hon. Thomas G. Alvord then became his partner 




Elizur Clark. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 91 

and together they carried on a successful business till 1863, when Mr. Clark retired 
from the firm and (with the exception of an agency connected with a party to whom 
he leased the mill property, continuing until 1870) from active life. In 1846 he also 
interested himself in the salt industry, both fine and coarse, and subsequently became 
an extensive manufacturer. He was one of the origmators and long one of the heavi- 
est stockholders of the Salina Coarse Salt Company. From 1868 until his removal 
from Syracuse he was a director in the Salt Springs Bank, and also for some time 
a trustee of the Syracuse Savings Bank. 

In politics Mr. Clark was an unswerving Jacksonian Democrat, casting his first 
vote for General Jackson as president. In this respect he differed from his father 
and grandfather, who were closely allied to the Federal and later to the Whig par- 
ties. He was not an active politician, and regarded principles above party interests. 
He was one of the first aldermen after the incorporation of Syracuse, representing 
the First ward, which he also served as supervisor in 1856. In 1863 he represented 
his district in the State Legislature. In all these cajjacities as well as in business 
and social relations he enjoyed the full confidence and respect of citizens of all 
classes. He was for many years prominently identified with the history of Salina 
and Syracuse, and bore a conspicuous part in developing their commercial resources. 

November 13, 1825, Mr. Clark married Miss Jeru.sha N. Spencer, of Onondaga 
county, and of their ten children Harriet E. (Mrs. Augustus Avery) and John Sey- 
mour Clark, of Syracuse, and Mary D., widow of Edward Manning, of Lyme, Conn., 
are living. Mrs. Clark died in 1865, and in November, 1869, Mr. Clark married 
Miss Augusta M., daughter of Charles L. Peck, a native Lyme, Conn., and a de- 
scendant of Dea. William Peck, who was born in England in 1601, came to America 
in 1638, and settled in New Haven, Conn. She survives him. In 1878 Mr. Clark 
removed to Lyme, Conn., where he died December 27, 1895. 



THE McINTYRE FAMILY. 

The ancestry of this family was Scotch on the Mclntyre side and English through 
other lines. The family have documentary proof showing beyond reasonable doubt 
their line of descent from the historical clan of that name which for a thousand 
years occupied Gleno, Scotland, and was a power in that country. Their English 
ancestry in one line descends through Sir John Brockett (now usually called Brackett), 
who had a son John, born in 1610, who came to America and settled in New Haven, 
Conn. To him there was born Samuel Brockett on January 14, 1652. He had a son 
John, born in 1685, who married Huldah Ells. A son of this John was born in 1718 
and named Christopher, sr., whose son Christopher, jr., was father of Jemima 
Brackett, who married into the Mclntyre family, as noted further on. 

Taking up another line of the Mclntyre ancestry, it is found that William Tothill 
(as then spelled), of Devonshire, England, is recorded as bailiff in 1528 and again in 
1548; as high sheriff of Devon in 1549, and Lord Mayor of Exeter in 1552. His son 
Richard married Joan Grafton, daughter of Richard Grafton, author of the " Chron- 
icles of England," and a direct descendant from King Henry the I. This William 
was the great-great-grandfather of another William Tuttle (as the name is now spelled) 



92 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



who came over in the ship "Planter," Nicholas Travice, master, in April, 1635. 
The passenger list of that vessel contained twenty-five names, seventeen of whom 
were Tuttles (or Tuttels) and represented three distinct families. The one in which 
we are here interested is known as the Devon branch, and the researches of George 
F. Tuttle, published in the family genealogy (1888) show a direct line of ancestors 

back through Richard Tuttle 
and Joan Grafton to William 
the Conqueror, and in the fam- 
ily record are the names of 
many of England's nobility. 
William Tuttle, the great- 
grandson of Richard Tuttle 
and Joan Grafton, came over 
in the Planter, at which time 
he was twenty-six years old, 
was one of the founders of 
New Haven, Conn., in 1639. 
He is named on the passenger 
list a "husbandman," which 
indicated that he owned his 
land as well as tilled it. Other 
records show that he was also 
a merchant and that during 
the succeeding twenty-five 
years he purchased various 
properties, laid out roads, 
was prominent in founding 
churches and schools, and 
appears altogether to have 
been a leading spirit in the 
community. He was born in 
1609 and died in 1673. His 
wife's name was Elizabeth, 
born 1612, and died December 30, 1684, aged seventy-two years. 

The fourth child of William and Elizabeth Tuttle was Jonathan, whose baptism is 
recorded as taking place in Charlestown, Mass., July 8, 1637; he married Rebecca 
Bell, daughter of Lieut. Francis Bell, one of the prominent men of Stamford, Conn. 
Jonathan Tuttle settled at North Haven, and became a leading citizen. He built a 
bridge over the Quinnipiac River at that place, which was long known as "Tuttle's 
bridge," and by court decree was permitted to charge two pence in money or three 
pence in barter for every traveler (horse and man) passing over it. His death took 
place in 1705, leaving six children. 




Armorial Bearings of MacIntyre of Glencj.^ 



1 Quarterly 1st and 4th Or, an Eagle displayed Gules, Armed langued and Membred Sable; 
2d, Argent, a Ship with one Mast, the sails furled Sable, and flags displayed Gules. 3d, A sinister 
hand couched in Fesse Gules, holding a Cross Crosslet filched Azure. Crest, A dexter hand issu- 
ing from the wreath, holding a Dagger erect, both proper; the last hilted and pomelled Or, 
Motto, Per Ardua.— [Verbatim as extracted from the Lyon Office, Edinburgh. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. • 93 

Jonathan's son, Nathaniel, was born February 25, 167G, married Esther Blakeslee 
and had seven children. He died in 1728, aged fifty-two years. His seventh child 
was Capt. Ezra Tuttle, born in 1720, and married Hannah Todd, daughter of Gershom ; 
she died in October, 1760, and he married second, Susanna, daughter of George and 
Susanna (Abenethy) Merriman. Ezra Tuttle died June 11, 1793, aged seventy-three 
years, leaving his widow. He was the father of eleven children, three of whom died 
before their father. The third child was a daughter named Elizabeth, who mar- 
ried, in 1769, Christopher Brackett, jr., whose daughter Jemima married Abraham 
Mclntyre, as noted in the first paragraph. Elizabeth Tuttle's ancestry on the 
female side is traced back to Governor Newman, of Connecticut, through Sarah 
Newman and Samuel Tuttle. Christopher Brackett, jr., was one of the very early 
settlers in the town of Elbridge, where he located previous to 1807. He was the first 
merchant in the village, and his account books prior to 1810 are still in possession 
of the Mclntyre family, showing fine penmanship, the methodical work of a careful 
and intelligent man of business, as well as many very quaint entries. He was one 
of the foremost in founding the Baptist church in 1813, and was perhaps the most 
prominent citizen of early times. Ezra Brackett, brother of Jemima, was one of the 
early Elbridge merchants and a man of character and respectability. 

Of the Mclntyre family of which this is a brief chronicle, Joseph Mclntyre, great- 
great-grandfather of Edward M. Mclntyre, now of Syracuse, was an early settler in 
Western Vermont, where he was a land owner, and served in the old French and 
Indian war and in the war of the Revolution. Two of his nephews served in the 
war of 1812. He died at the age of eighty-seven years, closing a long life of pioneer 
toil and respected citizenship. 

Joseph JNIcIntyre's son, Abram (or Abraham), was born August 12, 1766, and earlj^ 
in his life removed from near Mt. Mclntyre, in Essex county, N. Y., whither the 
family had removed, to Onondaga county, setthng in the town of Elbridge, some- 
time before 1816. Previous to this time and in the year 1806, he had met and mar- 
ried Jemima Brackett, daughter of Christopher, jr., before mentioned. By a prior 
marriage he had three children, namely: Harriet, born January 8, 1797, died August 
18, 1825 ; Hiram, born April 5, 1800, died about 1848 ; Charles, born June 4, 1803, died in 
1893.. By the second marriage with Jemima Brackett the children were Calvin, sr. , 
born February 12, 1808, died Septembers, 1870; William, born July 20, 1810, died in 
1858. After a long life of usefulness Abram Mclntyre died at his home in Elbridge 
June 4, 1842. The homestead has always remained in possession of the family and is 
now occupied by John C. Mclntyre and his sister Harriet. 

Calvin Mclntyre, sr., was born in Essex county, N. Y., Februar}^ 12, 1808, and 
came into Onondaga county with his parent.s. He was among the leading business 
men of that period ; carried on an early mercantile business at Elbridge in associa- 
tion with Ezra Brackett, and after the opening of the Erie canal engaged extensively 
in boat building and transportation at Peru. His account books indicate a large 
business and an active career. He held the office of town assessor in 1851 and post- 
master at Peru, Onondaga county, in 1861, and was often solicited to accept public 
stations of responsibility. He died Sept. 5, 1870. He married Almeda Corey, born in 
the town of Elbridge September 16, 1809, died February 21, 1891. She was a daughter 
of John and Lusina i Rhodes) Corey, and a woman of marked ability, and a highly 
religious character. Their children were Harriet, born May 12, 1830, now living on 



94 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

the homestead, Calvin, jr., born August 18, 1835, died February 13, 1895, noticed 
further on; Elizabeth, born December 13, 1837, and John C, born December 13, 1849, 
living on the homestead. Of these children Harriet received a liberal education, 
graduating from Munro Collegiate Institute, after having taught several years. She 
then accepted the position of preceptress of the academy at Gilbertsville, N. Y., 
where she taught languages and higher mathematics. In the late years of her 
father's life she returned to the homestead to give him needed care. 

Elizabeth graduated from the Genesee Wesleyan Semmary, taught school sev- 
eral years, and then removed west to accept the position of preceptress of the high 
school in Charlotte, Mich. She subsequently married Hon. Norman H. Ryan, a 
prominent attorney, now of Wellsboro, Pa. ; their children w^ere Stella M., graduate 
of Mansfield Normal School; Frank and Fred (twins), the latter died in infancy. 

John C. was educated at the Munro Collegiate Institute and married Mary Sher- 
man. They have one child, Irving C, born in 1885, and occupy the homestead. 

Calvin Mclntj're, jr. (subject of engraving), occupied a conspicuous position in his 
native town many years. Reared on his father's farm and accustomed from his early 
life to energetic and industrious labor, he acquired habits which enabled him in later' 
years to achieve success in whatever he undertook. He was given opportunity to 
acquire a thorough education in the district schools and the Jordan Academy. His 
business career began two years before he reached his majority, and after a few years 
of service as clerk in a store in Jordan, he joined with his father in the agricultural 
business until the latter's death in 1870 and dealt in implements and other commod- 
ities pertaining to that branch of industry. This enterprise afforded him valuable 
business experience, and in 1878 Mr. Mclntyre removed to the village of Clyde and 
established the firm of Warner & Mclntyre, grain dealers and maltsters. This busi- 
ness in 1894 was formed into a stock company, Mr. Mclntyre retaining a large share 
of the stock. In 1884 for the further extension of his operations he formed a co- 
partnership with his son, Edward M., under the name of Calvin Mclntyre Sz Son, 
and established malt houses in Lyons. In 1885 they removed their malting interests 
to Phelps and in 1887 established a branch lu Seneca Falls. He was also a stock- 
holder in the Cayuga County National Bank, of Auburn, N. Y., all of which connec- 
tions he continued until his decease. In January, 1895, he returned with his family 
to their native county, locating in Syracuse. 

Mr. Mclntyre was a Democrat in politics and while lie always took an active part 
in promoting the interests of his party, he never sought political preferment. He 
was collector of taxes in the town of Elbridge in 1869-70, and held various offices in 
the village of Clyde. He was frequently sent as a delegate to county and State con- 
ventions, and in 1890, while acting as delegate to the State Convention at Saratoga, 
he was elected one of the vice-presidents of the convention and supported the nomi- 
nation of Governer Flower. He held a lieutenant's commission in the army of the 
late civil war, and was a member of the Homestead Club of New York city. 

Mr. Mclntyre was a man of strong and positive character, in which also were ele- 
ments of a broad and generous humanity. He was self-reliant in all things, never 
wanting faith in his own capacity to accomplish whatever engaged his attention. 
While ever ready to grant favors to others, he rarely asked or accepted them him- 
self; this was true not only in the ordinary affairs of life, but also in the broader field 
of politics, where he many times exerted his influence to place others in stations 






<^_ y^,^ 




BIOGRAPHICAL. 95 

which had ah'eady been tendered to himself. On many occasions he was earnestly 
urged to accept of public positions of honor and emolument, but he almost uniformly 
declined; it was not his nature to either crowd himself forward to stations of promi- 
nence, however well he was equipped for their duties, nor would he consent to be 
thus advanced through the effort or influence of others. His integrity was unim- 
peachable and he was ever true and generous to his friends. Among these were 
many of the prominent business men and politicians of Central New York. Mr. Mc- 
Intyre's death took place in Syracuse, February 3, 1895. The following quotation is 
from the Clyde Democrat Herald, published after hia death, and indicates the esteem 
in which he was held in that village: "During Mr. Mclntyre's residence in this vil- 
lage he had won a strong and wide circle of friends who share with the family the 
loss they have sustained. His kindly disposition, pleasing manners and loyal fellow- 
ship will be greatly missed, and his absence will be keenly felt by the great number 
whom he has befriended." 

On May 11, 1860, Mr. Mclntyre was married to Frances E. Shaw, born in tlie town 
of Elbridge, October 10, 1843, daughter of Nathan Shaw and Laura A. Evans of 
Elbridge. She was educated at Jordan Academy and Munro Collegiate Institute, 
is a member of the Presbyterian church, and a descendant of Sherebiah Evans, sr. , 
who was born in Wales and settled early in Massachusetts. He served long and 
honorably in the Revolutionary war ; participated in the expedition and battle of 
Rhode Island in July, August, and September, 1778, as matross, was on duty at 
Winter Hill, Mass., in Capt. Nathaniel Cowdry's company in the same year; was m 
Capt. Abram Forster"s company, Col. Samuel Bullard's regiment of General Gates's 
army in the summer and fall of 1777; was matross of Colonel Crane's regiment of 
artillery, of Vermont, in 1779. He married, January 29, 1795, Elizabeth Dudley, of 
Wayland, Mass., being at that time a widower. From Castleton, Vt., he removed 
to Camillus, N. Y , where he was one of the early settlers. He owned the first grist 
mill in Camillus village, and another between Ionia and Baldwinsville, in what is 
now Van Buren. He is remembered as a prosperous, upright and intelligent citizen. 

Elizabeth Dudley, mentioned above, was a direct descendant of Francis Dudley, 
who was a relative of Thomas Dudley, the first of the name to come to America, and 
who was three times elected governor of Massachusetts colony. He was born at 
Canon Ashby, England, about 1576, and came over with Governor Winthrop in the 
Arabella to escape persecution as a Puritan. Back of Thomas Dudley the family is 
traceable more than half a .score of generations without a break and to within five 
removes from Henry I, King of France. Thomas Dudley settled in Roxburj'. 
Francis Dudley, of Concord, Mass., was a soldierin King Philip'swarin 1675, andgreat- 
great-grandfather of Elizabeth Dudley, who married Sherebiah Evans, sr. , as above 
noted. Among the children of this Sherebiah, and the eldest, was Sherebiah, jr., 
born in Boston in 1795, and removed to Castleton, Vt., with his parents. In 1816 he 
married Charicy Scribner, of Poultney, Vt. , born April 2, 1795, died March 24, 1872, 
Mr. Evans removed from Vermont to Orleans county and from there to the town of 
Elbridge in 1835. He was a prominent business man and a highly respected citizen. 
He died October 10. 1856. Charicy Scribner, mentioned above, was daughter of 
Peter Scribner, of Poultney, Vt., who was a man of wealth and distinction and a 
noted philanthropist; he was a cousin to Col. Benjamin Scribner, of New Hampshire, 
and to Isaac Scribner, author of "Legends of Laconia," and to John Scribner, author 



96 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

of "Scribner's Ready Reckoner." Peter's father was Samuel Scribner, born in Salisbury, 
N. H., and his father was another Samuel, who married Hannah Webster, a cousin 
of Daniel Webster, and was descended from Benjamin Scrivener (later Scribner) and 
Hannah Crompton, who were married in Norfolk, Conn., in 1683. The latter 
Samuel was a captive of the Indians in the Revolutionary war and held in Canada 
two j'ears, and took part in the battles of Bennington and Bunker Hill. 

Nathan Shaw, esq., father of Frances E. Shaw (wife of Calvin Mclntyre, jr.), was 
born in Whitehall, N. Y., August 27, 1817, and was educated in Fort Edward. He 
was an influential business man of high character and more than ordinary intellect- 
ual powers. Removing to Elbridge he was elected justice, but declined to serve. 
He died November 5, 1875, aged fifty-seven years, having been long an invalid. His 
father, Benjamin Shaw, joined the army in the war of 1812, when seventeen years 
old. Laura A. Evans, wife of Nathan Shaw, granddaughter of Peter Scribner, and 
daughter of Sherebiah Evans, jr., was born at Poultney, Vt., May 5, 1822, and edu- 
cated at Poultney Seminary, Vt. She was an estimable woman in all the relations 
of life and a member of the Baptist church. They were parents of seven children. 

The children of Calvin Mclntyre, jr., and Frances E. Shaw are Emma Laura, 
born in the town of Elbridge June 6, 1862; she received an academical education in 
Jordan Academv and Clyde High School, and possesses artistic genius, which has 
been liberally cultivated. In oil painting she received thorough instruction by home 
artists and in New York city, and her work is commended by competent critics. 
June 29, 1892, she married David Miller Wright, of Rahway, N. J., now resident in 
Syracuse. Mr. Wright is a direct descendant of Capt. Richard Skinner of New Jer- 
sey who served in the war of Revolution. 

Stella Elizabeth, born in the town of Elbridge November 9, 1869, graduated from 
the Clyde High School and entered Syracuse University in 1888, taking the Latin 
scientific course and afterwards attended New England Conservatory of Music, Bos- 
ton, Mass. She is an accomplished musician of exceptional ability. She, as well as 
her sister, are members of the Presbyterian church and is prominent in church work 
and social circles. 

Hon. Edward M. Mclntyre was born in Elbridge April 16, 1861. Receivinghiseduca- 
tion in the Jordan Academy he removed with his parents to Clyde in 1878 and entered 
his father's office as bookkeeper and general assistant. In 1884 he became a member 
of the firm of Calvin Mclntyre & Son, with large malting interests in Phelps, Lyons, 
and Seneca Falls. During the ten years from that time until the death of his father 
he was constantly and actively engaged, and very much of the detail of their large 
business fell upon him. 

Mr. Mclntyre has a natural taste for politics and possesses many of the natural 
qualifications necessary for success in that broad field. Popularity with all who 
know him, whether of his own political creed or the opposite, and activity in local 
politics from his early years, drew the attention of party leaders long before he 
reached his majority. Where he was best known he wielded an influence that could 
not safely be ignored. This gave him an extended acquaintance with prominent 
men with whom his relations have always been intimate and cordial. Living in a 
Republican county (Wayne) it is a noteworthy fact that he was made candidate for 
sheriff by the Democratic party when he was twenty-one years old, and wholly with- 
out solicitation or effort on his part. What is perhaps still more remarkable, he was 





^'^^*^^^^^^^^^w^^< 



'.^r^ 



, BIOGRAPHICAL. 97 

defeated by only a small plurality, greatly reducing the usual Republican majority. 
Regarding this candidacy and previous to the election, the Wayne Democratic Press 
said: "Although young in years, Mr. Mclntyre has been engaged in extensive busi- 
ness long enough to establish a reputation for honesty and integrity. Of conceded 
ability, pluck, energy, and perseverance, he is the peer of any man in the county in 
the qualifications requisite to a prompt and faithful discharge of the duties of the 
chief executive office of the county. Mr. Mclntyre did not seek nor ask for the nom- 
ination. His worth and fitness attracted the attention of the county committee and 
subsequent facts have firmly established the wisdom of their choice. Where he is 
personally known he will receive a vote largely in excess of the numerical strength 
of his party." 

Mr. Mclntyre has been repeatedly sent as a delegate to State and county conven- 
tions. In the State Convention of 1887, at Saratoga, he served on the Committee on 
Credentials. In September of the following year he was delegate to the State Con- 
vention at Buffalo and was placed on the Committee on Permanent Organization, and 
supported the nomination of Governor Hill. During this canvass he declined the 
nomination for member of congress, which was tendered him by the party leaders 
of his district. In 1889 he was chairman of the Wayne County Democratic Commit- 
tee and delegate to the State Convention in Syracuse. In 1892 he was elected one of 
the presidental electors and cast his vote for Grover Cleveland for president in the 
Electoral College at Albany January 9, 1893. 

In all of these honorable positions — doubly[honorable when conferred upon so young 
a man — he has shown that general knowledge of the political situation and the trend 
of current events, a readiness of resource, a personal popularity and a judgment of 
both measures and men, which are the most powerful elements of political success. 
The large and exacting business duties devolving upon him in the settlement of his 
father's estate have demanded his unremitting attention, since his father's decease. 

Mr. Mclntyre is liberally educated and has thoroughh'- studied political economy 
and contemporary history. He inherits the self-reliance of his father, is quick in 
perception and judgment, and courteous and affable in his intercourse with others. 
In his present large business connections he has gained the respect and confidence 
of all with whom he has come in contact. 



NATHAN R. TEFFT, M.D. 

Dr. Nathan Remington TEFFTwas born in Greenwich, Washington county, N.Y. 
December 25, 1808, his ancestors coming from Rhode Island to this State in 1766. 
He was reared by his maternal grandfather, who gave him an excellent common 
school education, which enabled him to early engage in teaching and thus obtain 
the means to defray the expenses of a course of study at Lansingburg Academy, 
then in charge of the late Alexander McCall, of Troy, who ranked among the most 
popular educators of that period. In the fall of 1827 he came to Marcellus, Onon- 
daga county, and entered upon the study of medicine in the office of his brother, the 
late Dr. Lake I. Tefft, with whom he remained until the spring of 1831, except- 
ing two winters in teaching school in the town of Skaneateles and a few months as 

M 



98 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

a student under Drs. Hopkins and Porter, of that village. Removing to Onondaga 
Hill in 1831 he continued his medical studies with the late Dr. Samuel Healy, and in. 
the winter of 1822-33 attended a course of lectures at the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York city. In the spring of 1833 he obtained from the New York 
State Medical Societ}' a diploma to practice medicine and surgery, and returning to 
Onondaga Hill he formed a copartnership with his old preceptor. Dr. Healj% which 
continued for two years, when, owing to ill-health and advanced age, the latter re- 
tired, leavmg Dr. Teft't his extensive patronage. Dr. Tefft resided there and suc- 
cessfully prosecuted a wide professional business until shortly before his death, 
which occurred November 19, 1890. 

He was long one of the best known physicians in Onondaga county, and in hun- 
dreds of homes his cheerful presence, kindly manner, and words of encouragement 
were welcomed and revered. His practice covered a wide territory, extending even 
into the adjoining towns of Geddes, Camillus, Marcellus, Otisco, and La Fayette, 
and wherever he went his strong personality and personal influence were potential 
factors. Though unassuming and characteristically modest, he was endowed with 
rare tact and perseverance, and invariably succeeded in whatever he atteinpted. He 
was public spirited, enterprising, and progressive, and took a deep and often an 
active interest in all that concerned the general welfare. For fifty years he was the 
efficient physician and surgeon to the Onondaga County Poorhouse and Asylum for 
the Insane. In 1862 he was commissioned surgeon of the 122d Regt. , N. Y. Vols., 
and remained in active service in the war of the Rebellion for two years, when ill- 
health forced him to resign. He brought from the war physical ailments from which 
he never recovered, and which year by year exhausted his naturally strong constitu- 
tion and ultimately impaired his system. He continued, however, in the practice of 
his profession with the same success that marked his earlier years, and also identi- 
fied himself with the affairs of the community. In 1869 he was elected to the 
State Legislature from the Second Assembly district of Onondaga and at the ex- 
piration of his term declined a renomination, which was unanimously tendered 
to him. 

Dr. Tefft joined the Onondaga County Medical Society on June 11, 1833, and 
served as its secretary from June, 1838, to June, 1847. At the annual meeting in 
1882 the society unanimously adopted the following resolution: 

'■'■Resolved, In view of the estimable character of our worthy member. Dr. N. R. 
Tefft, and his having reached the fiftieth anniversary of his membership in this 
society, we hereby tender to him as a mark of our respect and high regard a public 
reception and dinner at such time and place as shall best suit his convenience." 

Dr. Tefft was never able, owing to impaired health, to make that appointment. 
He was held in high esteem, not only by his professional brethren, but by the public 
at large, and especially by those with whom he came in contact. He led a very 
useful life both as a physician and as a member of society, and was much sought 
after as an executor for the settlement of estates. He was a close student and an 
indefatigable practitioner, a man of good ability and of excellent judgment, a 
courteous gentleman, a skillful surgeon, a safe physician, and an honest citizen. 
His integrity was never questioned. He rode in the saddle as long as he practiced 
medicine, and that was as long as he was able to travel. He was also a member of 
the New York State Medical Society. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



99 



In 1834 Dr. Tefft was married to Miss Emily Strong, daughter of the late Hezekiah 
Strong, of Onondaga Hill, who died in March, 1890. Their life was a peculiarly 
happy one. She was long an earnest member of the Presbyterian church, with 
which he united a few years before his death, but which he always liberally sup- 
ported. Three children survive them: Ellen and Emma, of Fayetteville, N.Y., and 
Edward S., assistant cashier of the First National Bank of Syracuse. 



HENRY W. SLOCUM. 



..y-aw'T i"*/^^ 






Majok-Gen. Henry Warner Slocum was born in Delphi, Onondaga county, where 
his father was a merchant, September 24, 1827, and received his earlier education at 
Cazenovia Seminary. In 1848 he entered West Point Military Academy, and was 
graduated from that institution, the seventh in a class of forty-two, in 1852. He 
was made second lieutenant in the First U. S. Artillery and soon went with that 
organization to Florida to quell the Sem- 
inole Indian disturbances, but two years 
later was ordered with the command to 
garrison Fort Moultrie at Charleston. 
While there, and chafing under the inact- 
ivity of garrison life, he read law and took 
up other studies, and on October 31, 1856, 
he resigned, a first lieutenant, and began 
the practice of his profession in Syracuse. 
In 1859 he was elected to the Assembly 
from the second district of Onondaga, and 
from that year to 1861 he also served as in- 
structor of artillery to the State Militia, 
with the rank of colonel. He was also 
treasurer of Onondaga county in 1860. 
His five years of civil life at this period 
doubtless made him a better soldier, as it 
enabled him to better appreciate the na- 
ture of the volunteer force to which the 
defense of the Union was to be intrusted. 
When the war of the Rebellion broke out 
he promptly volunteered and on May 21, 
1861, was appointed colonel of the 27th 
Regt., N. Y. Vols. The regiment left 
Elmira for the front on July 10, and at the 
first battle of Bull Run he was one of two 

of its officers who were wounded. Before he was able for duty again he was made a 
brigadier-general, and after recovering was assigned to Gen. William B. Franklin's 
division of the Army of the Potomac. He participated in the siege of Yorktown, 
was in the action of West Point, Va. , in 1862, and succeeded to the command of the 
division on May 16, when Franklin was transferred to the Sixth Corps. He dis- 




Henrv W. Slocum. 



loo ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

tinguished himself at Gaines's Mills on June 27, by promptly reinforcing Gen. Fitz 
John Porter at a critical moment, and also rendered important service at Malvern 
Hill and Glendale. 

July 4, 1862, he was made major-general of volunteers and in October wa? trans- 
ferred to the command of the Twelfth Army Corps. He was present at Second Bull 
Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg, 
where he led the right wing of the army and contributed largely to national victory. 
In August, 1864, General Slocum succeeded Hooker in command of the Twentieth 
Corps, and during Sherman's march to the sea he was intrusted with the leadership 
of the west wing. He was in every engagement until the surrender of Johnson at 
Durham Station, N. C, and when the war closed he commanded the Army of 
Georgia. 

After the war General Slocum declined a colonelcy in the permanent establish- 
ment, and resigning in September. 1865, he resumed the practice of law in Brook- 
lyn, where he lived during the remainder of his life, and where he died April 14, 
1894. In 1865 he was defeated as the Democratic candidate for .secretary of the 
State of New York. In 1868 and again in 1870 he was elected to Congress from the 
Third Congressional district, and in 1884 he was once more elected to that office 
from the State at large. He was a Democratic presidential elector in 1868 and was 
president of the Electoral College of that year. In 1876 he was chosen president of 
the Board of City Works of Brooklyn. He was a commissioner of the Brooklyn 
bridge and in favor of making it free. His name was often mentioned in connection 
with the presidency, particularly at the National Democratic Conventions of 1888 
and 1892. In 1878 he was made a trustee of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at 
Bath, N. Y., and for many years he served as its president. In 1886 he was one of 
the commissioners appointed by the governor to determine the positions of the 
monuments of the battlefield of Gettysburg. 

General Slocum was a frequent visitor to Syracuse and manifested a keen interest 
in the progress of the city, after he took up his residence in Brooklyn. His native 
county and the scene of his first professional ambitions ever had for him an attrac- 
tion which grew stronger as the years rolled by, and Onondaga will forever honor 
bim as one of her most conspicuous, gallant, and distinguished citizens. 



DR. JOHN M. WIETING. 

The life and labors of Dr. John M. Wieting will ever adorn with brilliant splendor 
the annals of Syracuse and grace with imperishable radiance the history of Onon- 
daga. His achievements, preserved to future generations, and worthy of careful 
study, are notable examples of native energy, of indomitable perseverance and of 
thoughtful application. He was prominently and actively connected with Syracuse 
from 1837, while it was yet a village, until his death in 1888, a period of over fifty 
years. His grandfather was John C. Wieting, an accomplished linguist and teacher 
in early life, who was born in Stendal, Prussia, came to America in his youth, took 
an active part in the Revolutionary war, and subsequently became the pastor of the 
first Lutheran church established in the United States, a position he held for twenty- 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 101 

two consecutive years, dying in 1817. His father was Peter Wieting, a native of 
Montgomery county, N. Y., born October 30, 1790, and during the latter part of his 
life a resident of Syracuse, where he died in 1856. His mother, Mary Elizabeth 
Manchester, a descendant of the family of that name which came from Manchester. 
England, and settled in Rhode Lsland, was born in Washington county, N. Y., in 
April, 1792, and .died in May, 1872. 

Dr. Wieting was born in the town of Springfield, Otsego county, N. Y., February 
8, 1817. He inherited all the sterling characteristics of his ancestors and acquired in 
early life the commendable habits of his day and generation. Notwithstanding the 
meager advantages of the period he resolutely applied himself to study, both at 
home and in the district school, and readily secured a good knowlege of the ordinary 
English branches. At the age of fourteen he began his active career of self- support 
and for four years successfully followed the occupation of school teaching at Deer- 
field, Oneida county, attending in the mean time CHnton Liberal Institute during the 
summer, where he had a free scholarship. During that period he laid the founda- 
tions of his after life, which eventually developed into one of rare completeness. 
When eighteen he engaged as an assistant on the survey of the New York and Erie 
Railroad. Two years later he became a civil engineer on the construction of the 
Syracuse and L^^tica Railway, and continued in that position until about 1826. In 
addition to these duties he also surveyed and platted Rose Hill Cemetery, and estab- 
lished the grade of several streets in the then village of Syracuse. In these capaci- 
ties he was eminently successful and evinced an aptitude for civil engineering at once 
thorough and comprehensive. 

During all this time, however. Dr. Wieting was the mam support of his parents 
and their family. His father had been a wealth}^ hardware merchant, but financial 
disaster and ill health swept away his accumulations and compelled him to rely 
upon his son for the necessaries of life. Worthily and nobly did the latter respond, 
fulfilling his duties with filial devotion, and when success had crowned his elforts 
lavishing upon them all the comforts and luxuries that money could give. In this 
as in other similar respects Dr. Wieting manifested one of the strongest character- 
istics of his nature. He was pre-eminently a student and a scholar. Boundless 
indeed was his thirst for knowledge, and tireless to a degree was his search after 
truth. The sciences and mathamatics had for him a special charm. With extraor- 
dinary shrewdness he mastered their fundamental principles, and by patient toil and 
exemplary perseverance he acquired a thorough insight into the natural laws govern- 
ing the world and man. By the dim rays of a candle he poured over his books dur- 
ing the cheerless hours of night; unaided and alone he solved many a knotty prob- 
lem and familiarized himself with the difficult studies of development. His work 
was systematic, his energ}^ indomitable, and in time he became imbued with the idea 
of expounding the thoughts which filled his active brain. According he commenced 
the study of medicine in Syracuse with Dr. Hiram Hoyt, and while thus engaged 
attended here a course of lectures on physiology delivered by Dr. Austin Flint, of 
New York city, which the latter illustrated with a manikin. This was evidently the 
turning point in his life, as it resulted in Dr. Wieting himself becoming a lecturer. 
He was deeply interested in the subject, and at its conclusion made Dr. Flint an 
offer for his apparatus, which was accepted. He borrowed the money with which 
to purchase the outfit, and in the spring of 1843 began lecturing on physiology and 



102 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

the laws of life and health in the smaller towns and villages of the Empire State, 
a career he continued with unparalleled success for more than twenty years. He 
gradually enlarged his field of public service by pushing himself into the cities and 
larger centers of population, not only in New York but throughout the United States, . 
and everywhere met with a reception as grand as it was sublime. He also added by 
purchase to his lecturing apparatus until he possessed the largest and most complete 
outfit for illustrating these subjects ever owned in this country, it being valued at 
upwards of §18,000. As a popular, entertaining and scientific lecturer on the laws 
of physiology and hygiene he may properly be termed the pioneer in America, as he 
was the first to present the subject in a form attractive and agreeable to the masses. 
He acquired a national reputation and a foremost place among the eminent public 
lecturers of the world. Possessing great force of character, unbounded energy, in- 
dustry and perseverance, good common sense, and excejDtional brain power, he was 
a clear reader of human nature and an unflinching adherent to his settled beliefs. 
An instance which vividly illustrates these characteristics of the man is best told by 
the following published anecdote; 

"One evening in the Tremont Temple, Boston, the doctor noticed in one of the 
front seats a tall, lank, awkward-looking young man with a pair of earnest eyes, 
intently listening to the lecture. The doctor went thence to Philadelphia, and on the 
first night of his lecture in that city, in a front seat, sat the same awkward, earnest- 
looking youth ; and so, night after night, the doctor noticed him, and his interest was 
awakened. At last, one night after the lecture was over, the young man presented 
himself, saying, 'I'm a stranger to you, but I've listened to you many nights with 
much interest. Now, I have mustered up courage to ask a great favor of you. I 
want to go to California. I have no money. I've not a relative m the world who 
can help me, and I wish you would let me have one thousand dollars, and I solemnly 
promise not only to return it to you, but also to give you an equal share in whatever 
1 may have the fortue to make. I feel that I can accomplish something if I can only 
reach the country and make a beginning.' The gold fever was then at its height, 
which to some extent accounted for his unwonted enthusiasm and assurance. The 
doctor looked at him as he made this strange request, and finally said, ' I'm very 
tired to night and cannot talk on the subject, but you come around to my rooms to- 
morrow and we will talk it over.' When the young man appeared the next day, 
something seemed to tell the doctor to grant his request. The doctor was a practi- 
cal man, and that he himself should be so impressed to do so uncommon and appar- 
ently risky a thing seemed all the more strange; but he did. He drew his check for 
the amount, and handing it to the young man said: 'This money represents so 
much mental toil on my part. I began poor, but I have achieved success. I can 
spare this money now. You're a stranger to me, and I leave the matter between 
you and your Maker. I can lose it, but I shall regret to lose my faith in you.' The 
young man, with tears in his eyes, took the check and said, ' You shall never regret 
this act, if God t^pares my life.' The two parted. A few months later the doctor 
received a check for one thousand dollars. At various times after that he received 
other amounts until the sum grew to ten thousand dollars. He then wrote to the 
young man that he was unwilling to accept more, as the obligation had been trebly 
discharged. But he received in reply a letter stating that the writer considered it 
his duty to discharge this obligation according to the terms of the contract between 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 103 

them, and felt that the blessing of God would be withdrawn if he violated his word. 
He then wrote the doctor asking the further loan of twenty thousand dollars, as he 
wished to engage in a larger field of operation. Dr. Wieting's mother said to him, 
'That's a scheme to get back all he has given you,' and his brothers also tried to 
dissuade him from granting the request ; but there seemed a bond between the two 
men that could not be appreciated by others, and the doctor determined to advance 
the large sum, and did so. No tidings came for some months and he began to get 
anxious; but at last news came and money began to pour in on the doctor until he 
was the recipient of at least fifty thousand dollars. Later another letter came stat- 
ing that the doctor would hear from the writer again, but no tidings were ever after 
received of that faithful soul. It is doubtful if a parallel case, or one even approach- 
ing it in dramatic or human interest, ever occurred." 

Dr. Wieting was emphatically a benefactor to the city of Syracuse, where he 
came to reside in 1837, and became a large owner of real estate. On July 9, 1851, a 
fire destro^'ed a collection of buildings standing on the site of the present Wieting 
block between Salina and Clinton streets, and soon afterward the old Malcolm block 
was erected on the corner now occupied by the handsome brick structure. This 
building was purchased by Dr. Wieting, who greatly improved it, especially the 
public hall in the upper story. On January 5, 1856, while the thermometer regis- 
tered several degrees below zero, it was burned to the ground, and at the time the 
doctor was lecturing in Boston, the dispatch announcing the news being handed to 
him a few minutes before he went upon the platform. Walking calmly forward he 
delivered his discourse as usual, showing admirable self-control; afterwards he 
proudly and justly boasted that in his twenty years of public life he had never dis- 
appointed an audience nor kept one waiting. Within 100 days a loftier and a 
handsomer structure rose over the ruins, containing another public hall known as 
the Wieting Opera House. This became historic in the annals of the city. For 
many years it was the scene of State political conventions, and yielded up its 
popularity only when the great caravansaries at Saratoga bid for patronage. Within 
its walls resounded the eloquence of voices of national reputation — orators, states- 
men, politicians, lecturers, vocalists, actors, actresses. For twentj'-five years it was 
the chief place of entertainment and public gatherings in Central New York. In 
vvar times it was often filled with enthusiastic and patriotic supporters of the Union, 
and during its entire existence was one of the leading attractions of the city. But 
this, too, was destroj-ed by fire on the night of July 19, 1881, and on the site Dr. 
Wieting at once erected the present commodious block, while on an adjoining lot on 
West Water street he built one of the finest opera houses in the State, and both bear 
his honored name. The late M. C. Hand, in his interesting volume entitled "From 
a Forest to a City," 1889, said: 

" Dr. Wieting was a thoughtful and practical man, and in building his block did 
what apparently no other man had done in the construction of such buildings that 
was to study the wants of the people. Previous to the existence of this [the first 
Wieting] block there was not a public hall with a capacity sufficient for a town the 
size of Syracuse. He took this into consideration and fully supplied the demand. 
The amjDle capacity and elegant finish of the hall met the requirements so essential 
in places of amusement, for without these an entertainment of high order could not 
be fully enjoyed. By this course he made the upper part of his building pay him as 



104 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

well as the lower portion, and his block has always been a good paying investment. 
The first Wieting block was burned January 5, 1856. . . . Dr. Wieting's energy 
would not allow an hour's time to be lost in constructing a larger and more attrac- 
tive building, and in less than a year he dedicated his new hall, which was much 
more elegant than the first. This second block was burned in 1881. . . . It is to 
such men as Dr. Wieting that Syracuse is indebted for much of its thrift. He made 
his money to build his first block by lecturing in other cities. I think I heard the 
last lecture he ever delivered in his own hall, in which he gave a short history of the 
struggles and trials of his early life; how he overcame them all and continued to 
lecture until he had earned ^100,000; and as he was speaking he stepped forward 
upon the platform of Wieting Hall and raising his voice, with much feeling, said, 
' and I have spent the hundred thousand right here.' "' 

In 1875 Dr. Wieting and his estimable wife started on a tour around the world, 
sailing from San Francisco across the Pacific to Japan and thence to China, the islands 
of Singapore and Ceylon, India, Egypt, Europe and New York. He was noted as a 
close observer, and during this trip acquired a vast fund of information. During 
the remainder of his life he practically lived in retirement, attending to his large 
estate and enjoying the fruits of a successful career. In 1887, with a view of 
benefiting his health, he made another European tour accompanied by his wife, and 
from his return in November of that year until the day of his death he suffered 
severely from asthmatic and bronchial difficulties. A slight cold developed into 
pneumonia, and he died February 13, 1888, after one week's illness. His remains 
were consigned to the massive and handsome mausoleum which he had caused to be 
erected in Oakwood Cemetery. The press far and near pronounced touching and 
deserved tributes to his character and individuality, and gracefully acknowledged 
him one of the foremost men of his time. Two of the local papers contained respec- 
tively the following paragraphs : 

"Dr. Wieting certainly took a wholesome pride in the cit}- of Syracuse. 
It was at his hands that Syracuse had its first theater and later its first opera 
house." 

" Dr. Wieting's keen intellect, his unique individuality, his sturdy physique, 

made him a force in this community, a noted character wherever he traveled, and 

seemed to insure length of days and continued active participation in public affairs. 

All that he achieved he owed to his own tireless energy, wisely exerted to 

useful and successful ends." 

His philanthropy and his loyalty to Syracuse found expression in the munificent 
bequests made in his will to the various charitable institutions of the city. 

Dr. Wieting married Mary Elizabeth, youngest daughter of Hon. Samuel Plumb, 
of Homer, N. Y. , who survives him.. The mother of Mrs. Wieting was the daugh- 
ter of Col. William Coley, whose father came from England to America while 
William was still a child. He enlisted as a soldier in the Revolutionary war while 
a mere youth, serving several years and acquiring the rank of colonel in the Ver- 
mont militia. He was one of the company interested in the celebrated Vermont 
coinage following the close of the Revolutionary war and the records of the time 
indicate that he cut the dies from which the Vermont pennies were made. He was 
also one of the founders of the Grand Lodge of Vermont, and its first presiding 
officer. The closing years of his life were spent in Otselic, Chenango county, N.Y., 
where he died in November, 1843. 



1 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 105 

The father of Mrs. Wieting devoted himself for many 3'ears to the practice of law 
in Chenango county, where he resided previous to his removal to Homer, N. Y. 
He became one of the most influential rilen of the countj'. He was an active 
politician and devoted to the old Whig part5^ He held the office of postmaster 
at Pitcher, Chenango county, during a period of twent}' j-ears, his resignation 
being greatly regretted. He was repeatedly elected to the office of justice of the 
peace and to various other public offices. He was elected representative to the State 
Legislature in 1840, which was an important period in our political historj-. He was 
ever a zealous advocate of all measures promising advancement to public interests. 
He died in Homer, N. Y., December 10, 1878. 

Mrs. Wieting was born in Chenango county, whence her father removed to 
Homer, X. Y., principalh^ for the purpose of educating his children. There she 
entered Cortland Academy, at the time one of the leading institutions of learning in 
the countrj', the curriculum being most exhaustive and thorough. She was grad- 
uated with the highest honors in both the scientific and classical courses at the age 
of eighteen. She is an accomplished linguist, an accurate observer, and has 
traveled extensively in all parts of the world. She is a frequent contributor to the 
press of Sj^racuse and to other papers of the State, both in prose and poetry. After 
the death of her husband she wrote a sketch of his life, together with a history of 
their tour around the world, which was published in book form b}^ G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, of New York, solely for private distribution. It is a volume of 250 pages, 
handsomely illustrated, and received most flattering endorsement by the press. A 
copj- was sent to the Woman's Library of the World's Fair at Chicago, and after- 
ward removed to the State Librarj- at Albanj-. In the winter of 1893 Mrs. Wieting 
presented to the College of Medicine of Syracuse University the extensive and 
valuable lecturing apparatus used b^- her husband during his public career — the 
most complete outfit of the kind ever owned in this countr}-. Since his death she 
has carried on the large estate with marked ability and fidelitj' to her trust. 



THEODORE L. POOLE. 

Hon. Theodore L. Poole, Sj-racuse, member of Congress, was born in Jordan, 
Onondaga county, April 10, 1840, and when one j-ear old came with his parents to 
Syracuse, where he has since resided. He was educated in the public schools 
of Sj-racuse, and when the war of the Rebellion broke out was pursuing studies to 
fit himself for the profession of dentistry. In the summer of 1862 he enlisted in the 
122d Regt., N. Y. Vols., as a private in Co. I and when the regiment was mustered 
into the service of the L'nited States, August 28, 1862, he was appointed quartermas- 
ter-sergeant. In the following September the regiment was assigned to the famous 
fighting Sixth Army Corps and participated in all its battles from Antietam to the 
final surrender at Appomattox, ilr. Poole was earlj- promoted to a lieutenancy 
and at the beginning of the Wilderness campaign was acting-adjutant of his regi- 
ment. For "conspicuous bravery" at Spottsjdvania and other battles of the Wil- 
derness and at Cold Harbor he was commissioned as captain and subsequently 



106 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

was brevetted major both by the State of New York and the United States. At the 
battle of Cold Harbor he was severely wounded and after several months of suffer- 
ing in the hospital it became necessary to amputate his left arm to save his life, but 
he returned to duty as soon as he recovered his strength and mustered out with his 
regiment. 

Soon after his return from the army Major Poole was appomted as assistant 
assessor of U. S. Internal revenue and while holding that office was elected county 
clerk of Onondaga county, serving three years. At the expiration of his term of 
office he became engaged in mercantile pursuits, first as a member of the firm of 
Poole & Hawkins and later of the firm of Poole & North and was also for many 
years interested in the manufacture of coarse salt. 

He was active in the organization of the Consolidated Street Railroad Company, 
serving two years as its secretary and general manager ; has been a director of the 
Bank of Syracuse since its organization ; is a member of the firm of W. A. Abel & 
Co. ; is vice-president of the Engelberg Huller Company and president of the Em- 
pire Cotton Company. 

In May, 1879, Major Poole was appointed pension agent of the northern and 
western district of New York and held this important office until 1889. In Novem- 
ber, 1894, he was elected a member of the 54th Congress from the Onondaga- 
Madison district, as a Republican, receiving 24,467 votes, against 16,307 for his prin- 
cipal competitor. 

Major Poole was one of the first to become identified with the Grand Army of the 
Republic in the State of New York, has taken part in every department encamp- 
ment, served as a member of the Council of Administration ten years and in 1892 
was chosen commander of the Department of New York. He was one of the organ- 
izers of Post Dwight, the first post organized in Syracuse, and was also one of the 
charter members of Root Post, No. 151. 



JOHN J. PECK. 

Maj.-Gen. John J. Peck, son of John W. and Phebe Peck, was born in Manlius, 
Onondaga county, January 4, 1831, and died April 21, 1878, in Syracuse. His father 
served some time at the harbor in New York in the war of 1812. He prepared for 
college, and in July, 1839, through Hon. William Taylor, was admitted to West 
Point in a class of over one hundred, of which thirty-nine were graduated one of 
them being General Grant. In 1843 he served as instructor of infantry and was com- 
missioned a brevet second-lieutenant in the 2d U. S. Artillery. In 1843 and 1844 he 
was stationed at Fort Columbus, and in 1845 at Fort Hamilton, whence his com- 
pany was ordered to Texas, arriving at Corpus Christi in August, 1845. During 
the Mexican war which followed he served with bravery and distinction, and won 
high honors on the battle field. July 37, 1846, he was recommended by General 
Taylor for brevet promotion for gallantry in the battles of Fort Brown, Palo Alto, 
and Resaca de la Palma. Being the youngest in rank and years this was the highest 
honor that could be conferred. April 15, 1846, he was made second-lieutenant, and 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



107 



in March 3, 1847, first-lieutenant. For "gallantry and good conduct at Contreras 
and Cherubusco," he received from the president and Senate the brevet of captain, 
and for meritorious services at El Molino del Rey he was promoted to the rank of 
major. His company was among the first to enter Puebla and the city of Mexico. 
The esteem in which Major Peck was held by his illustrious commander is expressed 
in the following letter by General Worth : 

"City of Mexico, December 8, 1847. 
" My Dear Sirs: 

"I have desired my young and gallant friend. Lieutenant Peck, to hand you this, 
and I beg to commend him to your consideration and kind attention. You will find 
the name and services of this officer in an official account of every battle, save one, 
from the commencement of this war to the conquest of the basin, as the associate of 
Duncan or vSmith. He is of our State and worthy of it. 

"(Signed) Very truly yours, W. J. Worth. 

"To Hons. Erastus Corning, John Van Buren, E. Crosswell, and Mr. Jas. Stevenson." 

On his return to his native home he was tendered a public dinner and presented 
with a beautiful sword, on which was the following inscription : " Presented to Major 
J. J. Peck, by the citizens of 
Manlius, as a testimonial of 
respect for his gallant and 
meritorious conduct in the bat- 
tles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la 
Palma, Monterey, Vera Cruz, 
Cerro Cordo, Contreras, 
Cherubusco, Molino del Rey. 
Chapultepec, Causeway, and 
Gate of San Cosme, and City 
of Mexico." 

In 1849 the government, 
through Senator Dix, tendered 
Major Peck the position of as 
sistant quartermaster, which 
he declined. In 1848, 1849, 
and 1850 he served in the In- 
dian territories, m New Mex- 
ico, and August 30, 1849, was 
engaged with the Navajoes, 
in LTpper California, and in 
locating Fort Defiance, his 
spare time being occupied in 
preparing a work on artillery 
and infantry tactics. His sub- 
sequent resignation ended those labors. In the moves for the admission of New 
Mexico as a State, during the sessions of the convention. Major Peck was active 
with the committees, and strove to engraft free and liberal institutions adverse to 
slavery. 




John J. Peck. 



108 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

In 1850 he married Miss Rhobie, the accomplished daughter of Harvey Loomis, of 
Syracuse. In 1853 he visited his old commander, General Scott, on the matter of 
his resignation, as he had done in 1850. The General said, "That while he lived 
(on personal grounds) he regretted the resignation of any officer who had been bap- 
tized with him in fire Mexico." 

In politics Major Peck was of the school known as Hunker, prior to the union 
with the Softs in 1856 at the Cincinnati convention, and a strict constructionist of the 
constitution. He was a delegate to the National Democratic convention at Cincin- 
nati in 1856, and the same year was nominated for Congress and tendered a renom. 
ination in 1858. In 1857 he was also tendered a foreign mission by Buchanan, but 
declined. He was a member of the National Democratic convention of 1860, and in 
1861 was a member of the committee to escort President-elect Lincoln from Buffalo 
to Syracuse on his way to Washington. 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion Major Peck tendered his services, by letter, 
to the president, and was also active in calling a Union war meeting in Syracuse. 
August 9, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier-general, and repairing to Washington 
was assigned to a brigade in the army of the Potomac. He rendered -signal service 
at the siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, and Harrison's Landing, where 
he was made. full major-general, to date July 4, 1862. For his skillful defense of 
Suffolk in 1863, he received the highest encomiums from his superiors for his good 
judgment during the six months in strongly fortifying the place, and for his gallant 
defense of the same when attacked by a much larger force, led by some of the mo.st 
distinguished commanders in the Confederacy. 

In consequence of ill health he returned home, and July 5, 1864, was assigned to 
duty as second in command of the Department of the East, consisting of New York, 
New Jersey, and the New England States. In August, 1865, he was mustered out 
of the service. At the time of the assassination of President Lincoln General Peck 
issued approriate orders to the department for observing the funeral obsequies, ad- 
dressed the great meeting in Wall street, and paid every respect due to the memory 
of the late chief magistrate. From the time General Peck assumed command of 
troops he was the source of justice and of municipal regulations, the protector of 
private rights of person and property. In his orders he called on Christian men of 
the north for ministers to give instruction to the living and Christian burial to the 
dead heroes of the war. On April 12, 1865, the citizens of New York commemorated 
at the Academy of Music, by appropriate exercises, the raising of the flag of the 
Union over Fort Sumter by General Anderson. General Peck was the president of 
the day, and delivered the address. In 1867 he organized the New York State Life 
Insurance Company, and was made its president. His wife died March 20, 1874. He 
died April 21, 1878. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



109 



CORNELIUS T. LONGSTRin^>T. 



Cornelius Tylek Longstkeet was born m Onondaga Valley on the 19th of April, 
1814, and died in Syracuse on July 4, 1881. His ancestors were from Holland, the 
founders of the family in 
America being three brothers 
who came over in the seven- 
teenth century and settled 
in New Jersey. Among their 
descendants were Judge 
Longstreet, president of Col- 
umbia College in South Car- 
olina at the breaking out of 
the Civil war, and Gen. 
James Longstreet, a distin- 
guished Southern soldier. 
Cornelius Longstreet, father 
of Cornelius F., was a native 
of Onondaga Hill, where he 
engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness. In 1805 he married 
Deborah, daughter of Com- 
fort Tyler, the pioneer, and 
of their famil)^ of five chil- 
dren the subject of this sketch 
was the youngest. The lat- 
ter was scarcely a year old 
when his father died; his 
mother's death occurred in 
1826. 

Cornelius T. Longstreet 
inherited sterling traits of 
character. He attended 

school until 1827, when he was apprenticed to a tailor in the then small village of Syra- 
cuse, where he remained for three years. He then followed his trade in Geddes for 
a year, and at the age of seventeen opened a shop in that place for himself. Three 
years later he moved his busmess to Syracuse and formed a partnership with Henrj' 
Agnew, then the leading- tailor of the village. He soon became sole owner of a 
large and profitable establishment and was eminently successful from the start. For 
ten years his business was probably the largest and most prosperous of its kind in 
the State outside of New York city. But his ambition carried him beyond the confines 
of a village into the broader field of wholesale operations. In 1846 he went to 
New York and founded a wholesale clothing house, which he conducted for si.x 
years with characteristic energy and success. He was the first person to ship read}'- 
made clothing to California and other Western points. Having amassed a fortune 
he returned to Syracuse in 1852 and spent about three years in the erection of that 
landmark known as " Renwick Castle," but in 1855 he again went to New York to 




Cornelius T Loncstkeet. 



no ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

assist in establishing his eldest son, Charles A. Longstreet, in the wholesale clothing 
business, and for several years was associated with him as a silent partner. During 
this time, however, he maintained his home in Syracuse, whither he returned per- 
manently in 1862. 

In 1863 Mr. Longstreet became one of the first board of directors of the First 
National Bank, a position he held until his death. He was also one of the original 
incorporators and for nearly thirty years a director of the Mechanics' Bank of Syra- 
cuse, which was organized in August, 1851. In politics he was a steadfast Repub- 
lican from the formation of that party, though he never sought or desired public 
office. He was charitable and benevolent, and gave liberally of his means to the 
founding and support of St. Joseph's Hospital, the Old Ladies' Home, and other 
beneficent charities of the city. He took a keen interest in the advancement of the 
community, and upon all matters of public importance his influence was effective. 
He won and retained warm friendships, universal respect, and high esteem, and his 
life was exemplary in its every phase. He died in Syracuse on July 4, 1881. 

Mr. Longstreet married a daughter of Lewis H. Redfield, who with three children 
— Mrs. Cornelia T. Poor, Charles A., and Edward W. — survived him. Charles A. 
subsequently died in California and Edward W. in Syracuse. 



JAMES BYRON BROOKS. 

J.\MES Byron Brooks, son of Nathaniel and Emily (Cutler) Brooks, both of Massa- 
chusetts, was born in Rockingham, Windham county, Vt., June 27, 1839. His 
mother died in 1847 and in 1853 his father went to California, where he died. James 
B. was raised on a farm, attended the district schools and one term of the Spring- 
field (Vt.) Academy, and was a student at Newbury (Vt.) Seminary with some inter- 
ruptions, from the fall of 1858 until the breaking out of the Rebellion m 1861, when 
he enlisted, under the first call of the president for troops, in the Bradford Guards, 
1st Vt. Vols., his regiment being stationed at Fortress Monroe and Newport News 
during his term of enlistment. Returning home he re-enlisted in Co. H, 4th Vt. 
Regt. and on Sept 12, 1861, was commissioned second lieutenant, attached to the 
Vermont Brigade, 6th Corps, Army of the Potomac. December 28, 1861, he was de- 
tailed for service in the U. S. Signal Corps, and on January 29, 1862, was promoted 
first lieutenant of Co. I of his regiment. March 7 he was assigned to active field 
duty as a signal officer, and .served with the Army of the Potomac until August 31, 

1863, when by consent of the secretary of war he returned to his regiment. May 5, 

1864, he was commissioned captain and on the 6th received a gunshot wound at the 
battle of the Wilderness. After being confined for some time in the hospitals at George- 
town, D.C., and at Annapolis, Md., he was honorably discharged August 5, 1864, for 
wounds received in action. He resumed his studies in Newbury Seminary, and in 
June, 1869, was graduated from Dartmouth College. He read law" with Col. Ros- 
well Farnham, later governor of Vermont, at Bradford, Vt., was graduated from 
the Albany Law School in 1871 ; was immediately admitted to the bar in this State, 
and commenced practice in Syracuse on February 1, 1872. In 1873 he became a 
member of the firm of Fuller, Vann & Brooks, his partners being Truman K. Fuller 




F. L. ABHLL. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. Ill 

and Irving G. Vann. and in July, 1874, he entered the firm of Ruger, Jenney, 
Brooks & French, with whom and whose successors he remained until May 1, 1889. 
Later he formed the copartnership of Brooks & Walrath, his partner being John H. 
Walrath. He was alderman from the Eighth ward in 1884-85 and school commis- 
sioner in 1886-88, and on June 21, 1888, was appointed a member of the Board of 
Commissioners which carried to completion the present municipal water system. He 
has been a trustee of Syracuse University since 1885 and was president of the Young 
Men's Christian Association from 1886 to 1895. In June, 1895, the trustees of 
Syracuse University inaugurated a College of Law at that institution and elected 
Mr. Brooks dean of the new department. Mr. Brooks is one of the foremost lawyers 
in Syracuse and has always taken an active interest in the growth and welfare of the 
city. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. September 7, 1878, he 
married Miss Caroline L. Jewell, of East Orange, Vt. 



FLAVEL L. ABELL. 

Flavel L. Aukli, was born in the town of Geddes, Onondaga county, now Solvay 
village, March 21, 1852. He has resided continuously since his birth at the old 
homestead which his father established in 1830. Lavius H. Abell, his father, came 
to the town of Geddes in 1830 and bought the farm on the road (then known as the 
" shunpike") leading directly west from Syracuse. He was born in Connecticut in 
1805, and was still a young man when he settled in Onondaga county. The land 
was mostly unimproved at that time, so he set about the task of clearing and devel- 
oping his farm. He descended from sturdy English stock of strictly upright char- 
acter and withal possessed the ambition and industry which brought success as the 
years went on. Mr. Abell built the house which now stands upon the property. 
He married first, in 18B1, Elizabeth Ann Frink, who was also born in Connecticut. 
By this marriage Mr. Abell had two children: Lionel W., who died in Texas in 1895, 
and one daughter. Ruby, who married Mr. Eli F. Sim, and now resides m Ohio. 
Mrs. Abell died in 1840. March 14, 1841, Mr. Abell married Margaret Frink, sister 
of his first wife. They had seven children, three of whom are now living: Flavel 
L., William F. , and Lura A., who married I. U. Doust, the artist in Syracuse. Mr. 
Abell was a member of the Baptist church of Syracuse for nearly fifty years, and both 
of his wives were also members. He was so thoroughly christian that his life im- 
pressed itself upon all who knew him as that of a sincere Christian. 

Lavius L. Abell died in 1880; Mrs. Abell, his wife, resides at the homestead with 
her son, Flavel L. Flavel L. Abell received his education in the schools of Geddes 
and after his school days devoted his energies to farm life at home. Upon the death 
of his father the farm fell to Flavel L. and he continued to conduct it successfully- 
from that time. The village of Solvay had in the mean time sprung up and spread 
to considerable dimensions, so that in 1889 the Abell farm, one of the landmarks of 
the town, fell in the line of the village's onward march westward and a good part of 
it has been sold and built upon by residents of the village. But with all this influx 
and building Mr. Abell's moral sense of good citizenship has been impressed upon 
that section of the town by his rigidly prohibiting for all time the sale of intoxicating 



112 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



liquors on the land he sells. This principle so strictly adhered to has been the 
means of attracting only the best class of the citizens of the place. 

In 1883 Mr. Abell married Annie, daughter, of Carlos and Mary R. Palmer of 
Elmira, N. Y. Mr. Palmer was for many years a Christian minister. He died in 
1890. His ancestry came from England to this country in 1659. Mrs. Palmer is still 
living. 

Mr. and Mrs. Abell have had six children, four boys and two girls. Carlos 
Palmer, the first boy, died when three years of age. Those living are Earl L. , Mary 
M., Max P., Leslie H., and LuraA. The family are identified with the Congrega- 
tional church of Geddes. 



ELIAS W. LEAVENWORTH. 



Gen, Eli.^s Warren Leavenworth was born in Canaan, Columbia county, N. Y. , 
December 20, 1803. His American ancestor was Thomas Leavenworth, who came 

from England to this coun- 
try a little before 1670. 
David, the father of Elias 
W. and of the fifth genera- 
tion from Thomas, was born 
in Watertown, Conn., Sep- 
tember 12, 1796, married 
Lucinda Mather at Torring- 
ford. Conn., January 16, 
1794, and spent a few j'ears 
of his early life in the prac- 
tice of medicine. Later he 
was State printer at Albany, 
N. Y. , and a member of 
the firm of Leavenworth & 
Whiting, booksellers and 
stationers, and in 1806 
moved to Great Barrington, 
Mass., where he engaged in 
mercantile busmesswith his 
youngest brother Isaac, and 
where he died May 25, 1831. 
General Leavenworth's 
boyhood and youth were 
passed among the hills and 
valleys of Berkshire. In 
1819 he entered Hudson 
Academy, then under Rev. 
Daniel Parker, father of 
Judge Amasa Parker. He 
also prepared for college under Erastus C. Bennett, of Great Barrington, and in 1830 




Elias W. Leavenworth. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 113 

entered Williams College, where he remained one year. lie was graduated from 
Yale in 1824 and took a second degree from that institution in 1827, and while there, 
in 1823, was elected a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. September 20, 1824, 
he began the study of law with William Cullen Brj^ant, then practicing in Great Har- 
rington, and on May 16, 1825, he entered the law school at Litchfield, Conn., from 
which he was admitted to the bar of that State in January, 1827. On Monday, Novem- 
ber 12, 1827, he left Great Harrington for Syracuse, arriving here at sunset on the 
following Saturday. He was admitted on the motion of Gen. James R. Lawrence 
in the Common Pleas as an attorney in February term, 1828, in the Supreme Court 
at Albany as attorney in October term, 1829, and as counselor in 1833. On reaching 
Syracuse he studied and practiced law with Alfred Northam until February, 1829, 
when he formed a copartnership with the late B. Davis Noxon, which continued 
with various members of the family till 1850, when he retired from active practice on 
account of ill health. 

In January, 1832, General Leavenworth was appointed lieutenant of artillery in 
the 147th Regiment of Infantry, and in the same year was made captain of artillery 
in that regiment. In 1834 he was promoted lieutenant-colonel of the 29th Regiment 
of Artillery, of which he became colonel in 1835. In 1836 he was appointed brigadier- 
general of the 7th Brigade of Artillery. 

He was originally a Whig, and in 1835 accepted the nomination of assemblyman, 
but was defeated, the county being hopelessly Democratic. In 1835 he was elected 
a trustee of the village of Syracuse, and in 1838. 1839, and 1840 served as village 
president, to which position he was again chosen in 1846 and 1847. In 1839 and 1840 
he was elected supervisor of the old town of Salina, being the first of an opposing 
party to defeat the Democrats in more than ten years. During the period in which 
he was at the head of the village government he carried out many permanent im- 
provements, notably the measures which gave the city Vanderbilt square, Fayette 
Park, and other valuable features. In the spring of 1849 he was elected mayor of 
Syracuse, and in that year Armory Park was laid out and became city property. In 
the following fall he was elected a member of the Legislature, where he served on 
several very important committees. In 1851 he lacked but six or eight votes of the 
nomination for secretary of state at the Whig State convention, and in the fall of 
1853 he was nominated and elected to that office by a handsome majority. In this 
capacity he was instrumental in causing the removal of the State Asyhmi for Idiots 
from near Albany to Syracuse. He was again elected to the Legislature in the fall 
of 18o6, and was chairman of the committee on canals, of the committee on banks, 
and of the .select committee of one from each judicial district on the equalization of 
the State tax. As chairman of the latter committee he drew the bill which estab- 
lished the Board of State Assessors. In the spring of 1859 he was again elected 
mayor of the city, and in the fall of the same year was renominated for secretary of 
state, but was defeated for this office by a very small number of votes through the 
efforts of the " Know Nothing " party. In 1860 he was appointed by the Legislature 
a member of the board of quarantine commissioners and was elected president of 
that body. In the same year he w^as president of the Republican State Convention 
which assembled in Syracuse. February 5, 1861, he was chosen one of the Regents 
of the State University, and in 1872 was appointed by the governor and Senate one 
of the commissioners to amend the State Constitution. In the fall of 1874 he was 
o 



114 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

elected a member of the 44th Congress, where he attained high distinction. He de- 
clined a re-election. In all these positions he exhibited rare ability, sound judgment, 
and a broad and intelligent grasp of important subjects, and won the confidence and 
respect of not only his associates and constituents but of all classes of citizens. 

General Leavenworth always manifested great pride in the advancement of the 
citv of Syracuse, which he served so efficiently and faithfully in various capacities. 
In 1849-50 he was a member of the building committee of the First Presbyterian 
church, and it was largely due to his efforts that the site was covered with the beau- 
tiful brown stone gothic edifice instead of a plainer brick structure. One of the 
wisest and most beneficent services ever rendered to the city was his labor in con- 
nection with the organization of the Oakwood Cemetery Association in 1858-59, in 
which he was intimately associated with Hamilton White, and which he served many 
years as president. He was prominently and officially identified with numerous in- 
stitutions, companies, and societies. He was vice-president and later president of 
the Syracuse Savings Bank until he resigned in 1888, president of the Syracuse 
Water Company from 1864 till his death, president of the Syracuse Gas Light Com- 
pany, and president of the Historical Society of Central New York. In 1855 he was 
elected a member of the New England Historical and Genealogical Society of Bos- 
ton and a corresponding member of the American Historical and Geographical 
Society of New York city. He died November 25, 1887, greatly lamented and uni- 
versally respected. Among the bequests in his will was one giving to the city the 
handsome fountain at the junction of West Onondaga, Tallman, and Delaware 
streets and Onondaga ave. A short time before his death he wrote a series of papers 
on the early history of Syracuse, which have proven a valuable contribution to local 
annals. 

General Leavenworth's first wife was Mary EHzabeth, daughter of Judge Joshua 
Forman, the founder of Syracuse. She died April 18, 1880, and he married, second, 
Mrs. Harriet Townley Ball, of Elizabeth, N. J. 



DWIGHT H. BRUCE. 1 

Gen. DwiGHi Hall Bruce was born in Lenox, Madison county, N. Y., June 21, 
1834, and descends through both father and mother from a long line of respected 
and even noble ancestry. He is the eldest son of Benjamin Franklin Bruce, who 
was also born in Lenox on May 5, 1812, and who died December 21, 1888. Benja- 
min F. was the oldest son of Joseph Bruce, who was born in Roxbury, Mass., Janu- 
ary 6, 1789, and who was the second son of Thaddeus, born at Woburn, Mass., 
November 14, 1765, the third child of Joseph, also born at Woburn, June 20, 1735, 
the eighth child of John, born June 18, 1670, the sixth child of George, who came from 
Edinburg and settled at Woburn. The latter was of Norman ancestry and a lineal 
descendant of Robert Bruce, or Robert de Bruis, a Norman knight, who accom- 
panied William the Conqueror to England in 1066. The family, for several genera- 

' Contributed by W. Sttinley Child- 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 115 

tions, was illustrious in Scottish history, and the motto on their coat of arms is "Do 
well and doubt not." 

(leneral Bruce was reared on a farm in Madison county, where his earlier years 
were passed amid the disadvantages and hard labor of rural life. He inherited 
those sturdy traits of character which had so long distinguished his ancestors, and 
which have won for him a conspicuous position in commercial, literary, and military 
affairs. By assiduous study and continued eflfort he obtained not only a thorough 
cummou school education, but also a full academic course, which was both broad 
and comprehensive in its curriculum. He was fitted by special preparation for an 
advanced college entrance, but he was compelled by unfortunacy to indefinitely 
postpone a cherished application for admission and continue his studies under other 
auspices. After an experience in various pursuits he became connected in 1858 with 
the Oswego Commercial Times as associate editor, and in that capacity acquired a 
valuable knowledge of journalism during the following three years. While there he 
also attained considerable prominence in Freemasonry and was regarded as one of 
the brightest lights of that mystic order. In the mean time his father had been ap- 
pointed canal commissioner in charge of the middle division of the canals of the 
State, and in January, 1861, General Bruce resigned his editorial chair to accept the 
post of assistant in that office. Since then he has resided in Syracuse. 

Meanwhile he was actively identified with the militia of the State, in which he en- 
listed in 1850, when he was only sixteen years of age, and was continuously con- 
nected with that organization for thirty-five years. He rose gradually to the divis- 
ion and staff grades of major and paymaster, colonel and engineer, and in 1878, at 
the request of Colonel Yale, became inspector of rifle practice of the late 51st Regi- 
ment. From this position he was subsequently promoted by election to brigadier- 
general in command of the 10th Brigade, which was afterward changed by reduction 
of brigades to the 7th. In 1884, after a conspicuously lengthy service in the militia, 
he resigned and retired from the National Guard. His patriotism during the war of 
the Rebellion is well-known. From the beginning of hostilities to the close of that 
momentous struggle his enthusiasm for the Union cause knew no bounds, and dur- 
ing the entire period he rendered valuable aid to the government as well as to the 
Federal armies. He was the organizer and supervisor of the councils of the Union 
League of America, a secret and semi-military organization for the support of the 
Union army, from the time of its institution in this State in 1862 until the end of the 
war. The membership of the councils under his supervision numbered more than 
23,000. In politics he has been for many years an active and influential factor. 
Casting his first vote for John C. Fremont for president in 1856, he has ever since 
been a staunch adherent of Republican principles and a steadfast supporter of that 
party, which has honored him with several local offices. During the exciting Lin- 
coln campaign of 1864 he rendered efficient service as secretary of the Republican 
Central Committee, a position he held for ten consecutive years, or until he would 
no longer accept it. He was first and last for his country, and above party preju- 
dices and bigotry, and only adhered to partisanship for the country's good. Hav- 
ing the courage of his convictions he boldly and fearlessly stood for the right, and 
ably managed the local campaigns during and after the war. He declined a commis- 
sion at the front in order to fill responsible positions at home, where he was especially 



116 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

active as a member of war committees in aid of the Union armies, a field for which 
he was eminently fitted. 

In 1866 and again in 1867, General Bruce was elected supervisor from the Seventh 
ward of Syracuse, and it was on his motion that the board appointed a committee, 
of which he was a member, to draft a bill for the Legislature to facilitate the collec- 
tion of county taxes. The bill became a law, and so thoroughly met the approval of 
the people that it has ever since remained in effect, besides being adopted by many 
other counties of the State. At a later date the act was also adapted to the collection 
of city taxes. He also prepared an apportionment of assembly districts under the 
census of 1865, which was adopted and not changed until 1895. In October, 1869, he 
resigned his canal position to accept an appointment, by the secretary of the treas- 
ury, as assistant assessor of internal revenue, to make assessments throughout the 
23d congressional district, comprising the counties of Onondaga and Cortland, for all 
taxes imposed on the manufacture and sale of tobacco, cigars, and snuff. In Janu- 
ary, 1870, he resigned this office to become one of the editors and owners of the Syr- 
acuse Daily Journal under the firm name of Truair, Smith & Co., which in 1874, by 
a change of interests, became Truair, Smith & Bruce. January 1, 1884, Mr. Truair 
retired and the firm name was changed to Smith & Bruce, with equal interests. This 
partnership was continued until August 15, 1885, when General Bruce withdrew. 
While connected with the Journal he was appointed by President Grant on March 
25, 1871, postmaster at Syracuse, and ably filled that position until January 1, 1875, 
nine months more than the term of appointment. As postmaster he inaugurated 
the "night service," more than doubled the number of outgoing and incoming 
mails, and made various other important changes which increased the efficiency of 
the local postal service. Though the office handled millions of dollars of money dur- 
ing his incumbency, from the fact that it was a sub-treasury for deposit for several 
hundred other offices and a pay station for railway mail clerks, there was not the 
slightest difference between his accounts and those of the post-office authorities 
when he made his final settlement with the Department at Washington. 

In May, 1885, before he had severed his connection with the Journal, he was 
elected president and later general manager of the Syracuse Water Company and 
continued in those capacities until January, 1892, when the water works passed to 
the ownership of the city. He was continued as manager till August, 1894, when he 
resigned to give his entire attention to financial institutions with which he was iden- 
tified, and to other business interests with which he was then and still is connected. 
During his residence in Syracuse he has constantly been in close touch with the ma- 
terial interests and general prosperity of the city. He was appointed receiver for 
the settlement of the affairs of the old water company when its property was trans- 
ferred. In 1888 he was appointed by Mayor Burns and after much persuasion ac- 
cepted the office of police commissioner, and was elected president of the board ; but 
a few months later he resigned because of extensive business and other under- 
takings, which fully engrossed his time. 

In charitable and benevolent matters General Bruce has long been a foremost 
citizen, being president of several organizations and officially connected with various 
projects. He effected the first organization in Syracuse for the protection of ani- 
mals in 1872, with which he has been continuously identified either as president 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 117 

or vice-president. In 1893 he was president of the New York State Association 
for the Protection of Fish, Game and Forests, which he had been instrumental in 
reorganizing and making more effective. He has also served as president of the 
Anglers' Association of Onondaga for several years and still holds that position. 
This is one of the most active and influential organizations of the kind in the State 
and has upwards of 300 members. His fondness and enthusiasm for nature and for 
a-field and Adirondack life, are not among the least of his personal characteristics. 
In this respect his associations cover a third of a century. For many years he has 
been a liberal contributor to journals devoted to the protection of not only fish and 
game, but also the forests, on which subjects he is a recognized authority. He has 
published many able articles on the Adirondacks, eloquently portraying the beauties 
of nature in those fascinating regions, and arousing wide reverence for the primitive 
conditions found there, both in respect to health and recreation. 

In the field of journalism and general literature General Bruce has long been a 
conspicuous figure. Possessing talents of a high order, and being a critic as well as 
a fluent writer, he has won wide distinction and a favorable reputation. "The Easy 
Chair" for the Syracuse vSunday Herald has been edited by him for several years, 
and is an exceedingly attractive feature of that enterprising newspaper. He is also 
a generous contributor to the newspapers on various subjects, and magazines have 
often sought and published special articles prepared by him. He is an honorary 
member of two historical societies, a frequent contributor to historical journals, and 
has a not extensive but choice historical library. In 1891 he edited a "Memorial 
History of Syracuse," a volume of more than 800 pages, and he is also the editor of 
the present work, "Onondaga's Centennial," covering the entire county. He is a 
member of three city clubs and Syracuse Lodge No. 501, F. and A. M., is promi- 
nently identified with social affairs, and at one time gave considerable impetus to 
music, being president for years of the Mendelssohn Society and prominent in other 
musical organizations and undertakings. 

On October 13, 1859, General Bruce was married to Miss Emilie, daughter of 
Rensselaer and Clarissa (Judd) Northrup, of Canastota, Madison county, and sister 
of ex- Judge A. Judd and Postmaster Milton H. Northrup, of Syracuse. They have 
three daughters: Anne, Llola, and Jessica. The eldest was married January 8, 1885, 
to Frederick D. White, of Syracuse, and has one son, Andrew Dickson White, 2d. 



JOHN L. HEFFRON, M. D. 

John Lorenzo Heffron, M. D., was born in New Woodstock, Madison county, 
N. Y., November 29, 1851, and moved with his parents to the village of Fabius, On- 
ondaga county, in 1852. The family is of Scotch-Irish descent. Dr. John Heffron, 
his grandfather, was born in Swansea, N. H., in 1786, came to Erieville, N. Y., in 
1809, and died there May 29, 1861. He was a graduate of Dartmouth College, a 
man of recognized ability, a prominent and skillful physician, and a surgeon in the 
war of 1812. His mother was Lydia Lawrence, a cou.sin of Capt. James Lawrence 
of Revolutionary fame. Dr. Lorenzo Heffron, son of Dr. John and father of Dr. 



118 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

John L., was born in Erieville in 1810, was educated at Fairfield Medical College, 
practiced first in Titusville, Pa., and subsequently in several other places, settled in 
Fabius in 1852, and died there January 1, 1879. He married Mary Ann, daughter 
of Hon. George Pettit and Jane Upfold, his wife, of Fabius, and had four children. 
Mr. Pettit, a distinguished citizen of Fabius, served as a member of a.ssenibly in 
1820-21, 1824, 1835, and 1837, and held various other public offices. 

Dr. John L. Heffron prepared for college in the High School of Kenosha, Wis., 
where the family resided for three years, and at Cazenovia Seminary. He was grad- 
uated from Colgate (then Madison) University in 1873 with the degree of A.B., was 
elected to Phi Beta Kappa, and received the degree of A.M. from Colgate in 1876. 
He is also a member of Delta Kappa Epsilou. r)r. Heffron taught in'Peddie Insti- 
tute at Hightstown, N. J., until 1875, and in the department of sciences in the 
Newark (N. J.) High School from 1875 to the fall of 1878. He studied medicine in 
the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York city and for two yearS in the 
Medical College of Syracuse University, from which latter institution he was grad- 
uated as M.D. in 1881. After studying in the hospitals of Vienna, Austria, and at 
the University of Heidelberg in Germany for one year he returned to Syracuse and 
began active practice in partnership with Dr. R. W. Pease, with whom he was asso- 
ciated until September, 1883. 

Upon returning to this city Dr. Heffron became a member of the faculty of the 
Syracuse Medical College, first as instructor in histology, then as lecturer on and 
later as professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. In the fall of 1894 he re- 
signed this position and accepted the chair of Clinical Medicine, which he still holds. 
For several years he was visiting physician on the staff of St. Joseph's Ho.spital and 
physician to the Woman's and Children's Hospital, and is now consulting physician 
to the latter institution and physician to the House of the Good Shepherd. He is a 
member of the Syracuse Academy of Medicine and the Onondaga County Medical 
Society, which he has served as vice-president and president, and is now a member 
of the council of the first named organization. He is also a member of the New 
York State Medical Society, the American Academy of Medicine, the American 
Public Health Association, the Citizens' Club, and the Business Men's Association. 
In June, 1895, he was elected the alumni trustee of Syracuse University. 

Dr. Heffron has written several articles on medicine which have been published in 
the leading medical journals of the country. He represented the College of 
Medicine at the convention for the revision of the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States in 1890, and at the Pan American Medical Congress in Washington in 1893, 
and was delegate to the American Medical Association at Baltimore m 1895. 

On the 13th of August, 1881. Dr. Heffron was married to Miss Marie A. Marcher, 
eldest daughter of the late Robert Marcher, of New York city. They have three 
children: Marian, Emilie, and John Marcher. 



DANIEL P. WOOD. 

Hon. Daniel P. Wood, son of Daniel and Sophia (Sims) Wood, was born in the 
town of Pompey, Onondaga county, November 5, 1819. His father came from 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



119 



Berkshire, Mass., at the commencement of this century and was the pioneer lawyer 
at Pompey Hill, where he was appointed the first postmaster by President Madison 
in 1811. Daniel Wood was a man of influence, served as justice of the peace, and 
in 1807 formed a law partnership with Victory Birdseye. The firm of Wood &- 
Birdseye instructed many who were afterwards able lawyers of the county. 

Uaniel P. Wood was reared on the farm which his father purchased and con- 
ducted, after resigning the honors of his profession largely to his partner. He 
attended the district schools and later the old Pompey Academy, which was incor- 
porated in 1811, and of which Daniel Wood was a trustee and a member of the pru- 
dential committee. While here, pursuing a classical course, his father died in 1838, 
and the next year he entered Hamilton College", then under the presidency of Dr. 
Simeon North, from which he was graduated in 1843. During his collegiate studies 
his mother died, but al- 
though bereft of parental 
advice and influence he was 
at this age fixed in his life 
purposes and principles. 
He read law in the office of 
Hon. Victory Birdseye, his 
father's former partner, and 
later with George W. Noxon, 
of Syracuse, with whom he 
formed a copartnership on 
his admission to the bar in 
1846. Here he soon ac- 
quired high rank in the pro- 
fession, and when the city 
received its charter in 1847 
he was appointed the first 
city attorney, a position he 
filled with satisfaction for 
two or three years. In 1852 
he was elected to the Assem- 
bly on the Whig ticket, and 
during the session of 1853 
served as chairman on the 
Committee on Salt and as a 
member of the Committee 
on the Code. As a legis- 
lative debater he made his 
mark in the discussion of 
the improvement of the 

canals, and during the impeachment proceedings against John C. Mather, the canal 
commis.sioner, he was one of the Committee of Managers on the part of the House. 
He was re-elected to the Legislature, and in the next session, as chairman of the 
Committee on Educational Institutions, was the author of the act creating the De- 
partment of Public Instruction. He also performed effective work as a member of 
the Ways and Means Committee. 




Daniel P. Wood. 



120 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

In 1857 Mr. Wood, owing to ill-health, visited the Southern States and returned 
from South Carolina on horseback. He co-operated in organizing the Republican 
party, of which he was ever afterward an unswerving adherent, and the first acts of 
secession aroused his patriotism. He accompanied President-elect Lincoln to Wash- 
ington in 1861, and when the war of the Rebellion broke out he earnestly assisted m 
the rai.smg of troops, especially for the 12th N. Y. Vols. In 1865 he again served in 
the Assembly, and was chairman of the special committee appointed to conduct the 
remains of President Lincoln from New York city through the State. During this 
and the next session, in which he was also a representative, he was chairman of the 
Committee on Canals and a member of the Committee on Ways and Means. In 
1867 he was elected for the fifth time to the Assembly and served as chairman of the 
last named committee. In 1871 he was elected to the State Senate from the 22d dis- 
trict by a majority of nearly 4,000, and in that body was made chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Finance. In this capacity he was largely identified with the overthrow of 
Tweed in the politics of the State. At the expiration of his first term he was 
unanimously renominated by acclamation by the Republican Senatorial Convention 
and returned to the Senate without opposition, and during the next two years he 
held the chairmanship of the Finance Committee, and was also the author of the 
banking act of 1875. His career as a legislator was one of the most creditable in the 
history of the State. He was a bulwark of integrity, of unswerving honesty, and of 
loyalty to the entire commonwealth as well as to his constituents. He boldly stood 
up against the corruption which the notorious Tweed ring had so long practiced at 
Albany, and the measures with which he fought dishonest politicians and schemers 
were worthy a master's hand. In recognition of his services he was the recipient, 
from the New Yofk City Council of Political Reform, of a costly sword, with this in- 
scription on the blade: "May this sword be drawn only to enforce righteous laws," 
and with this engraved on the box: " Presented to Major-General Daniel P. Wood, 
by the New York City Council of Political Reform, in recognition of his eminent 
services in 1872, 1873, and 1874, as a member of the State Senate, in favor of reform 
legislation, especially for the city of New York." This appropriate gift came to Mr. 
Wood soon after his appointment in 1874, by Gov. John A. Dix, as major-general in 
command of the Sixth Division of the National Guard of the State, comprising the 
counties of Broome, Cayuga, Chemung, Chenango, Cortland, Jefferson, Lewis, 
Madison, Oneida, Onondaga, Ontario, Oswego, Otsego, Schuyler, Seneca, St. Law- 
rence, Tioga, Tompkins, Wayne, and Yates. 

Mr. Wood was one of the organizers of the Trust and Deposit Company of Onon- 
daga in 1869, was one of its first vice-presidents, and was connected with that insti- 
tution until his death. He was one of the incorporators of the Onondaga County 
Savings Bank in 1855, and served as its president from 1876 till his decease. He was 
also a director in the New York State Banking Company, one of the organizers and 
president of the Highland Solar Salt Manufacturing Company, one of the origina- 
tors and prominently interested in the Genesee and Water Street and the Syracuse 
and Geddes Street Railroads, and the principal owner, president, and manager of 
the Metallic Burial Casket Company, of New York city, which presented to the gov- 
ernment the casket for the remains of President Garfield and the cases sent out for 
the bodies of the De Long Arctic expedition. He was prominently identified with 
the growth of Syracuse during his ^.ctive career, and contributed in various ways 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



121 



to the advancement of the city and its institutions. He died at his residence in 
James street on May 1, 1891. 

August 24, 1848, Mr. Wood was married to Lora Celeste, daughter of Silas Smith, 
of Lanesboro, Mass., whose wife, Eunice Bagg, descended from Joseph Loomis, of 
Windsor, Conn., who arrived in Boston from England in 1638. Of their children 
three died in infancy; the others were Frank; Mary Clifton, wife of Prof. George 
Williams, of Johns Hopkins University; and Cornelia Longstreet, who married A. 
Ames Howlett, of Syi'acuse, and died May 4, 1890. Mrs. Wood was born in Lanes- 
boro, Mass., August 4, 1821, came to Syracuse in 1830, and died in Baltimore, Md., 
December 26, 1891. She was a sister of Vivus W., Silas P., Thomas A., and Asahel 
L. Smith. 



HORACE WHITE. 



HoRACK White, was born in Homer, Cortland county, N. Y., April 19, 1802, the 
eldest of five children, and spent his boyhood in that village, acquiring a common 
school education. His fath- 
er, Asa White, was born in 
the town of Monson, Mass., 
in 1774, settled in Homer 
in 1798, and there in 1800, 
married Clarissa, daughter 
of Caleb Keep. At the age 
of fourteen Horace White 
was placed in the store of 
Horace Hill in Auburn, and 
two years later became a 
clerk in a store in Albany 
in which his father was in- 
terested. He soon return- 
ed to Homer and entered 
the store of Jedediah Bar- 
ber, with whom he remain- 
ed ten years. During these 
clerkships he won a good 
reputation for integrity, 
energy, and excellent busi- 
ness ability, and laid the 
foundation for a successful 
and satisfactory career. His 
health, however, was not 
robust, and he spent two or 
three years on a farm, where 
he regained his physical 
strength which subsequent- 
ly enabled^him to carry on extensive business operations. In 1838 he removed to 
p 




Horace White. 



122 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Syracuse, where he joined St. Paul's Episcopal church and remained with it until 
his death, serving as vestryman from 1839 to 1848 and as warden from 1848 until 
his death. His life here was marked with great activity and unusual success. In 
1839, through the efforts of himself and John Wilkinson, the Bank of Syracuse was 
organized with a capital of $200,000, and for several years was the leading financial 
institution of the then thriving village. Mr. Wilkinson was president and Mr. White 
held the position of cashier, and both were also directors in the Onondaga County 
Bank, of which Hamilton White, together with Horace, was a director and the 
cashier. Later Hamilton White and still later Hon. Andrew D. White were presi- 
dents of the Bank of Syracuse, 

Mr. White was actively associated with Mr. Wilkinson in developing the railroads 
centering in Syracuse, taking a prominent part in the organization of several com- 
panies and a special interest in the construction of the various lines. He was one of 
the incorporators of the Syracuse and Binghamton Railroad in 1851, and as treasurer 
of the company his financial ability was conspicuously displayed in the building of 
that road, which was opened in 1854. He was also one of the first board of direc- 
tors of the New York Central Railroad Company, under the lead of Erastus Corning, 
and to the success and prosperity of that great consolidation he contributed not a 
little. He was one of the founders of the Geddes Coarse Salt Company, in which he 
was associated with his brother Hamilton and the late Robert Gere, and was also 
prominently interested in several other local manufacturing industries. As a finan- 
cier he was a man of influence, sagacity, and sound judgment; prudent, enterpris- 
ing and public spirited; and ever manifested a deep interest in the growth and pros- 
perity of both village and city. Broad and benevolent in principle his gifts for the 
support of missions and churches, his endowment of a professorship and of prizes 
at Hobart College, and his gifts to various institutions connected with his denomina- 
tion, were munificent, while his unseen and unknown charities were numberless. 
Owing to declining health he began to curtail his extensive business operations and 
withdrew from banking afiiairs in 1856, and in the same year aided in organizing 
the Onondaga County Agricultural Society, from which he was sent as a delegate to 
the New York State Agricultural Society at Albany. He died September [5, 1860, 
greatly lamented and respected by all who knew him. His memory will live both in 
the hearts of those whom he assisted and in the community which he aided in build- 
ing up and improving. His children and those of his brother Hamilton erected the 
imposing White Memorial building on the spot where their fathers did business so 
many years. 

Mr. White was married June 29, 1831, to Miss Clara Dickson, daughter of Andrew 
Dickson, of Massachusetts, and Ruth Hall, his wife, of Connecticut. Her death 
occurred August 23, 1882. They had two sons; Hon. Andrew Dickson White and 
Horace Keep White, both of Syracuse. 



JAY WINFIELD SHELDON, M. D. 

Henry Sheldon, father of the subject of this sketch, was of English descent. He 
was born in South Kingston, R. L, and in 1810 came to Otsego county, N. Y., then 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 123 

called the " Far West," and located upon land still in possession of members of the 
family. He was a man of sterling qualities, and was possessed of great energy and 
perseverance. In the pursuit of his occupation, that of an architect and builder, he 
erected many fine structures, among which were chui'ches, factories, and railroad 
bridges, several of them remaining as monuments of his skill and industry. He died 
at the age of forty-seven. His wife, whose maiden name was Mary Knowles, in- 
herited and exhibited throughout her life the sterling and estimable traits of charac- 
ter peculiar to New England. She died in her eightieth year. Of their nine chil- 
dren, one dying in infancy, five sons and three daughters lived to adult age, and, 
filling responsible positions in life, became a blessing and honor to their parents. 

Dr. Jay Winfield Sheldon, a son of Henry and Mary (Knowles) Sheldon, was born 
in Otego, Otsego county, N.Y., February 12, 1837, and received a thoroughly prac- 
tical English and preparatory education in the schools of his native town. At the 
age of twenty-one he began the study of medicine in the office of an old-school 
physician. Later, he became a convert to homoeopathy, and in 1864 was graduated 
from the Cleveland (Ohio) Homoeopathic Hospital College, now known as the "Cleve- 
land University of Medicine and Surgery." After a short experience in country prac- 
tice he located permanentli* in Syracuse on January 1, 1865, entering into partnership 
whtthe late Dr. Lyman Clary, one of the pioneers of homoeopathy in Central New York. 
Dr. Clary practiced medicine in the city for nearly fifty years, beginning when the 
place was still a small village. Through his ardent love of professional work, and 
an intense desire to master all its varied details, Dr. Sheldon soon acquired, and for 
man}^ years has steadily maintained, a large and lucrative practice. He stands pre- 
eminently at the head of the homoeopathic school of medicine in Onondaga county, 
being one of its oldest representatives and staunchest and most earnest advocates. 
For over thirty years he has labored assiduously and conscientiously, not for personal 
aggrandizement, but for the good of his profession, for its lasting honor, and for the 
permanancy of those principles with which he is so thoroughly imbued. 

Dr. Sheldon is known in the community where he has so long resided as possess- 
ing keen perception, well-balanced judgment, and rare executive ability, and as a 
wi.se and progressive leader. In all questions involving sound judgment and prudent 
management his colleagues have uniformly found his counsels eminently trustworthy 
and practical. Hence he has been frequently selected to fill honorable and responsi- 
ble positions. He was appointed assistant surgeon of the 75th Regiment of the 
National Guard of the State of New York on August 13, 1864, and served in that 
capacity until the regiment was abandoned. He has been a prominent member of 
the Onondaga County Homoeopathic Medical Society since 1864, and in 1892 was 
elected its president. He became an active member of the American Institute of 
Homoeopathy in 1870, and in 1895, at the expiration of a membership of twenty-five 
years, a senior member. In 1885 he was elected a member of the Homoeopathic 
Medical Society of the State of New York and in 1891 became its third vice-president. 
He was one of the original members of the Syracuse Homoeopathic Medical Asso- 
ciation in 1889, was its first president, and was unanimously re-elected to that office 
in 1890 and again in 1891. He is also a charter member, a trustee, and a member of 
the Executive Committee of the Syracuse Homoeopathic Free Dispensary Corpora- 
tion, and in 1890 was elected an honorary member of the Albany County Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society. 



124 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

After nomination by the New York State Homoeopathic Medical Society 
he was appointed by the Regents of the University, in May, 1891, a member 
of the State Board of Homoeopathic Medical Examiners, to serve two years from 
the 1st of September following. On the organization of the examining board he was 
assigned to the department of therapeutics, practice, and materia medica. He has 
been for a number of years a member of the committee on medical legislation of the 
State Homoeopathic Medical Society, and in that capacity rendered very essential 
service in connection with the various and important matters that came before that 
committee for decision and action. As a member of that committee his suggestions 
and active co-operation during the well known seven years' struggle, on the part of 
the homoeopathic medical profession in New York State, to prevent the representa- 
tives of the old school (allopathic) system of practice from securing a single State 
medical examining board, were always timely and effective; and his personal influ- 
ence in behalf of the maintenance of medical civil rights constituted, during that 
memorable period, a potential force of recognized power in all the central portions 
of the State. 

During hours of leisure Dr. Sheldon has identified himself with some form of be- 
nevolent or charitable work. One of these, and one in which he has taken a deep 
interest, is that of encouraging and financially aiding young men who were striving, 
under diflticulties, to obtain a professional education. He has been for many j-ears 
personally interested in the work of the Young Men's Christian Association, has served 
as its vice-president and several years as chairman of the finance committee. 
He is a member of the Citizens Club and of the Business Men's Association, and for 
many years a member of Central City Lodge, No. 305, F. & A. M. In politics he is 
a pronounced Republican, having been an active member of that party since its 
organization. He was for several years president of the Onondaga County Repub- 
lican League. 

By means of untiring energy, unusual sagacity, and enthusiastic devotion to the 
practice of his profession Dr. Sheldon has, for more than thirty years, been recog- 
nized in Syracuse, and in fact throughout the county, as one of the more popular, 
influential, and reliable of its noted physicians. His gentleness yet firmness of man- 
ner in the sick room, his tenderness of heart and sympathy for the suffering, com- 
bine to secure for him a high place in the affections of his patients, and have con- 
tributed largely to his reputation as a skillful and eminently successful practitioner. 
He has endeared himself not only to numerous personal friends but to the public at 
large as well. He is, in the best sense, a self-made man. True manliness of char- 
acter, integrity of purj^ose and action, cordial frankness, largeness of heart, and 
loyalty to principle are dominant traits of his generous nature. In the city and com- 
munity where he has so long resided he is held in high esteem as an honorable and 
upright man, enjoying the confidence and respect of the public; and he is uniformly 
recognized as one of its most distinguished citizens, 

Dr. Sheldon was married, September 12, 1860, to Miss Emily J. Betts, of Memphis, 
Onondaga county. They have one daughter, Susie M., who was born in Memphis 
on January 7, 1865, and who on October 4, 1887, was married to Albert H. Gleason, 
a member of the firm of Hastings & Gleason, attorneys, of New York city. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



125 



HAMILTON WHITE. 



Hamilton White, son of Asa and Clarissa (Keep) White, was born in Cortland 
county, N. Y., May 6, 1807, and received his education in the common scliools of his 
native village, where his parents settled in 1798. By improving every advantage 
and by diligent reading he was able, at the age of sixteen, to take charge of a school 
at nine dollars a week and board, which at that time was the usual remuneration. 
But he soon decided upon 
mercantile pursuits, and 
accordingly entered the 
employ of the Messrs. Ran- 
dall, merchants of Cort- 
landville, with whom he 
remained about ten years, 
rendering valuable service 
to his principals and lay- 
ing the foundations of a 
successful business life. 
Mastering the details of the 
establishment and having 
acquired a small capital he 
took up his residence at the 
ageof twenty-nine in Lock- 
port, Niagara county, 
where, during the next 
three years, he made wise 
and profitable investments. 
In 1839 he came to Syra- 
cuse, where his elder broth- 
er, Horace, had settled the 
year before, and was made 
cashier of the Onondga 
County Bank, of which 
Capt. Oliver Teall was 
president. The two were 
associated in the same 
office, and as stockholders 

and directors in this as well as other institutions, until the expiration of the bank's 
charter in 1854, when he was its natural successor as a private banker. During this 
period they were intimately identified, by reason of their financial interests, with the 
commercial growth and prosperity of both village and city, and contributed materi- 
ally to the success of numerous enterprises. Manufacturing industries, business proj- 
ects, and many other institutions felt their aid and influence. 

In 1849 Mr. White, Captain Teall, and three others incorporated the Syracuse 
Water Works Company, and enlarged the water system to meet the demands of the 
young and growing city. He was also instrumental in forming, with his brother and 




Hamilton White. 



126 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Robert Gere, the Geddes Coarse Salt Company and other industries. He took a 
large share in developing the railway interests centering in Syracuse and became a 
director in all the companies on the line between Albany and Chicago except the 
Cleveland and Toledo. Through the exertions and pecuniary aid of himself and his 
associates in donating the grounds for the New York State Asylum for Idiots that 
institution, founded at Albany in 1851, was removed to Syracuse in 1855, and he 
continued to take a deep interest in its success. He was for many years the treasurer 
of the Onondaga County Orphan Asylum and long aided in the maintenance of the 
Old Ladies Home, and both institutions were remembered in his will. He was one 
of the founders in 1856 of the Onondaga County Agricultural Society and in 1859 of 
the Oakwood Cemetery Association, and of the latter served as treasurer. He also 
contributed liberally to his own church and the churches of other denominations m 
this city and elsewhere, and in every movement affecting the general welfare he took 
a prominent part. His counsel was often sought as that of a man who deliberately 
formed his own opinions, though carefully weighing the opinions and interests of 
others. He was careful in his advice, sound in his judgment, and unobtrusive in 
his demeanor, and as a citizen he commanded the highest respect. He won universal 
conridence both as a financier and as a man of honor, and retained through life warm 
friendships and valued associations. During the war of the Rebellion he was active 
in measures for raising troops for the Union armies, and freely gave both time and 
money. In 1862 he was elected president of the Syracuse National Bank to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of John Wilkinson, but the next year was obliged to 
resign on account of impaired health. He sought recuperation in foreign travel, 
visiting the principal countries of Europe and the East, and in 1864 accompanied his 
wife and eldest son to the West Indies, where he remained until the following June. 
He died in Syracuse on September 22, 1865. 

Mr. White was emphatically a public benefactor. H-s long and successful business 
career is eminently worthy of emulation, while his private life and many deeds of 
philanthropy are examples of true manhood. Besides the beautiful monument which 
adorns his resting place in the cemetery he did so much to create, his children and 
those of his brother erected the handsome White Memorial building on the spot 
where their fathers did business for many years. But the most desirable monument 
is reared to the two brothers in the gratitude and esteem of those whose cares were 
alleviated or removed by the charity, the sympathy, and the business assistance of 
these Christian bankers and philanthropists. 

Mr. White was married in 1841 to Sarah Randolph Rich, daughter of Gains B. 
Rich, of Buffalo, N. Y., who died March 29, 1867. She was a woman of exemplary 
Christian principles, charitable, kind, and exceedingly hospitable, sympathetic, and 
benevolent, and was for many years prominently connected with the charitable in- 
stitutions of the city. Their children were Jane Antoinette (Mrs. Sherman), Clara 
Keep (Mrs. Robert L. S. Hall), Hamilton Salisbury, Howard Ganson, Barrett Rich, 
and Sarah Aphia. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. ] 27 

EZEKIEL B. HOYT. 

EzKKiKi. Bkkks HoYT was born at Ridgefield, Conn., March 24, 1823, the son of 
William and Esther Beers Hoyt, both natives of Ridgefield. In September, 1823, 
William Hoyt moved with his family to a farm that he had previously purchased, 
located on the State road in the town of Sennett, Cayuga county, N. Y., about three 
miles east of the city of Auburn. Here the subject of this sketch lived until his 
eighteenth year, doing such farm work as his age permitted during the summer 
months, and attending the district school in the winter. There were thirteen chil- 
dren in the family, nine boys and four girls. It was the policy of the parents to have 
each son learn a trade. One was a cabinetmaker and three others at work at the 
carpenter or millwright trades. Their mother remarked that "there are enough wood 
workers in the family and Ezekiel had better be a mason." So in 1841 he was ap- 
prenticed to the mason trade with Douglas & Billings, of Auburn. During the next 
three years Mr. Hoyt assisted in the erection of many of the buildings still standing 
in Auburn and vicinity, including Barber's factory. During the winters, when work 
was slack, he attended school at the Auburn Academy for about eight weeks each 
season. Some time after starting out as a journeyman, and while at work on the 
stone woolen factory in Seneca Falls, he received an injury in the left side by the 
slipping of a stone from the plank on which it was being moved to its place in the 
wall. From this hurt he never entirely recovered, at times feeling traces of it during 
the remainder of his life, and in a measure unfitting him for the active labor of his 
trade, and causing him to seek a less laborious means of livelihood. He had care- 
fully saved as much of his wages as possible, and in the fall of 1847 invested his 
small capital in company with Clark Howland in a little restaurant (or "recess" as 
they were called at that time) that stood on the corner where Gernand's Hotel now 
stands opposite the N.Y.C.R.R. depot in Auburn. They made money, but the busi- 
ness was distasteful to Mr. Hoyt, and on November 10, 1848, he sold out to his part- 
ner for what he considered a good price. The California gold excitement began 
about this time, and our subject seriously thought of joining one of the parties that 
were so frequently starting for the "Land of Gold," and probably would have done 
so had his health been what it once was. But instead he purchased, in May, 1849, 
the general store of Elias Skidmore, at Mottville. Six months later he sold a one- 
half interest to his brother Edward, and under the firm name of E. K. & E. S. Hoyt 
they carried on the business for about three years, when they sold to C. T. Potter. 
On October 14, 1852, Mr. Hoyt was married to Miss Mary E. Delano, of Mottville, 
and on December 21 of the same year purchased a one-third interest in and assumed 
the management of the foundry and machine shop established by his father-in-law, 
Howard Delano, in 1832. On November 3, 1874, he purchased the remaining two- 
thirds of the property. 

At the time of his marriage Mr. Hoyt took up his residence in the home where his 
wife was born, and continued to reside there until his removal to Skaneateles in 1882. 
Aside from the foundry and machine business at Mottville, Mr. Hoyt was at times 
interested in other enterprises. 

In July, 1860, in company with Howard Delano and four others, the Syracuse Iron 
Works were established for the manufacture of small sizes of bar iron. Receiving 
advantageous offers, Mr. Hoyt and Mr, Delano sold their stock, and with others, in 



128 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

1865, built the Delano Iron Works, also in Syracuse. These works were intended for 
re-rolling railroad rails. But the use of steel rails was becoming more and more 
general, and thinking that the days of iron rails were numbered, and being offered 
a fair price for his stock, Mr. Hoyt sold his interest. In 1866 in company with 
Thomas Morton, of Mottville, he built the Marysville Woolen Mills, about one and 
one-half miles north of Mottville, on the Skaneateles outlet. On April 7, 1875, he 
sold his interest to his partner. In March, 1874, in company with P. C. Carrigan 
and R. B. Wheeler, the Skaneateles Lime Works adjoining the woolen mill property 
were purchased and successfully operated for a number of years, when Mr. Carrigan 
bought out both his partners. He was also one of the first stockholders and directors 
of the Skaneateles Railroad. On January 11, 1867, Mr. Hoyt's first wife died. On 
July 1, 1872, he married Miss Mary J. Wheeler, daughter of the late Dr. Jared W. 
Wheeler, of Elbridge, N. Y., who survives him. Mr. Hoyt had one child, a son, 
Frank D. , who was born January 24, 1854, and who has always lived in the home- 
stead purchased by his grandfather in 1832, where he was born, and where his 
mother was born and died. Mr. Hoyt died at his home in Skaneateles, November 
17, 1895, in the seventy-third year of his age. He was a most methodical man of 
business — conservative, careful, and strictly honest, and whose family life was be- 
yond reproach. 



FOREST G. WEEKS. 

Forest G. Wekks, of Skaneateles, was born in Draycott, Somersetshire, England, 
August 2, 1832. His parents were Stephen and Ruth Weeks. Forest G. Weeks, the 
subject of this sketch, was one of a family of eight children, seven of whom came to 
this country. Forest G. was only seventeen years of age when he left his native 
country to seek his fortune in the new world. The success he has achieved is evi- 
dence that he possessed the metal and ability to make his way against the many 
obstacles that beset the road, even of the native born Americans. He came to Skan- 
eateles in 1849 and at once apprenticed himself to learn the blacksmith's trade. His 
time and talents were devoted to this occupation for the succeeding five years. 
Then not being satisfied with the education so far acquired he wisely concluded to 
attend school for a time. This was carried out by taking a course at the Falley 
Seminary in Fulton, Oswego county, N. Y. The winters in the mean time were 
spent in teaching school, and thus accumulating sufficient money to defray the ex- 
penses of his course in the seminary. 

After having completed his course of study at the seminary, Mr. Weeks returned 
in 1857 to Skaneateles and entered upon a business career that has now continued 
with remarkable success for nearly forty years. He did not return to the occupation of 
blacksmith, but at once engaged in the teasel business, which was then an important 
industry in Onondaga county. Mr. Weeks not only raised this product but carried 
on a large business as a dealer in teasels. The enterprise proved eminently success- 
ful and so Mr. Weeks remained in that line till 1867. In the mean while energy and 
good management had enabled him to accumulate money to extend his business in- 
terests in other directions. That year (1867) Mr. Weeks purchased a one-half inter- 




H 



;pSw 'f^^k 




FOREST G. Wl:tkS. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 129 

est in the paper manufactory which is now known as the lirick mill. This mill is 
situated on the Skaneateles outlet about three and one-half miles from the village 
The firm name then was Bannister & Weeks, and so continued four years, when Mr. 
Weeks by purchasing the interest of Mr. Bannister, become sole proprietor. He 
still conducts this mill, turning out a large product. It was destroyed by fire in 1872 
but was at once rebuilt and enlarged with more modern design and equipment. Its 
output is now from six to seven tons of paper per day. 

The Draycott Mill was established a little later, the daily product of which now 
averages five to six tons per day. The third mill, which is now owned by Mr. 
Weeks, was formerly owned and run by the Skaneateles Paper Co. Mr. Weeks first 
purchased a minority interest in this company but at the same time bought the en- 
tire product of the mill. This business continued several years when Mr. Weeks 
also purchased the total capital stock of the company, thus becoming sole owner of 
the property. This mill too has an output of eight tons of paper per day. In 1882 
another extension of the business was made by the purchase of the Earll, Tallman & 
Co. distillery, which was remodeled and converted into another paper mill. It is 
run as a stock company and known as the Lakeside Paper Co. In this mill are 
manufactured mill wrappers, building paper, carpet paper, felts, etc., turning out 
about six tons per day. These comprise four of the largest mills on the stream. 
Besides these Mr. Weeks in company with Mr. Edwin R. Redhead established what 
is now known as the Victoria Mills Paper Co. at Fulton, Oswego county, N. Y. The 
company a little later bought the upper power on the Fulton side of the falls and 
erected thereon a large wood pulp mill, now producing thirty-five tons of pulp per 
day. In 1890 Mr. Weeks and Mr. Redhead separated, Mr. Redhead taking the Vic- 
toria Mills and the former the Upper Falls Pulp Mill, which he still owns. Thus it 
will be seen that Mr. Weeks is one of the largest manufacturers of the paper product 
in the United States. 

Associated with Mr. Weeks in his many business enterprises are his three sons, 
Charles G., Forest G., jr., and Julius S. Besides these there is Mr. H. L. Paddock, 
formerly of Wolcott, Wayne county, N. Y. , who married Mary L., eldest daughter of 
Mr. and Mrs. Weeks, She is a graduate of Cazenovia Seminary. They also have 
another daughter, Sara L. , who graduated at the Syracuse University. Mr. Weeks 
married in September. 1859, Sarah A. Monell of Mexico, Oswego county, N. Y. 

Mr. Weeks is also a stockholder and director in the Thousand Island Park Asso- 
ciation at which place he together with his family spend the summer. He is a mem- 
ber of the Methodist Episcopal church and represented the same in the General Con- 
ference of 1880. He is, besides this, one of the trustees of Syracuse University and 
Cazenovia Seminary. The deep interest he has always taken in educational institu- 
tions, and especially those named, has been backed by his upbuilding influence and 
a generous contribution of money. Mr. Weeks has always been an active, earnest 
Republican in politics and had he been so inclined would have been honored by an 
election to almost any office within the gift of the citizens of Onondaga county. In 
this as in all other matters he has the confidence and esteem of all who know him. 



130 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

HENRY H. LOOMIS. 

The progenitor of the Loomis family in America was (1) Joseph Loomis, a woolen 
draper by trade, who was born in Braintree, Essex county, England, about 1590, and 
sailed with his wife, five sons, and three daughters from London, April 11, 1688, in 
the good ship Susan and Ellen, which arrived in Boston on July 17 of that year. 
They settled in the town of Windsor, Conn., and purchased land there in 1640. His 
descendants to the subject of this sketch are (2) Joseph, a native of England; (3) 
James, who was born in Windsor in 1669; (4) Nathaniel, born in Windsor in 1712; 
(5) Jabez, born in Coventry, Conn.; (6) Ebenezer, born in Westmoreland, N. Y., in 
1765; (7) Chester, born in Westmoreland in 1785; and (8) Henry H. The preserva- 
tion of the records of this family was due to the invaluable labors of Ellas Loomis, 
LL.D., professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in Yale College, whose ex- 
cellent book, " Genealogy of the Loomis Family," published at New Haven in 1870, 
contains the names and residences of 4,305 descendants of the original Anierican 
ancestor. 

Chester Loomis (7) married Abby Adams and moved from Westmoreland to Cen- 
tral Square, Oswego county, where he settled on a farm, and where seven children 
were born to them In 1823 they removed to the town of Cicero, Onondaga county, 
and purchased and located upon a farm of 150 acres, on which a Mr. Lynch had built 
a house in 1809. There his parents spent the remainder of their lives, and added 
five more children to their previous family of seven, all of whom they reared to ma- 
turity, giving them every advantage and many of the luxuries which the period 
afforded. That they succeeded beyond the average is manifest by the honorable 
careers that these children wrought for themselves, as all have filled a conspicu- 
ous sphere in life and taken an active part in the community in which they resided. 
Chester Loomis died on the homestead September 7, 1851 ; his death occurred Janu- 
ary 28, 1860. 

Henry H. Loomis, the youngest of this family of twelve children, was born in 
Cicero on the 20th of April, 1833, and spent the early years of his life amid the 
blessed surroundings of a good home, where his impulsive, buoyant boyhood ex- 
panded into youth and rounded into manhood. He attended the old-fashioned dis- 
trict school and finished with a few terms at the Homer Academy, and possessing a 
nnturally bright intellect he acquired, by diligent study and close observation, a 
large fund of varied knowledge, to which he has never ceased to add valuable infor- 
mation upon the current events of the day. In 1854 he married Miss Clara Merriam, 
of Cicero, and the same year, in company with his brother Addison J., purchased 
the interests of the heirs in the paternal homestead. Ten children were living, two 
daughters having died before their father, one of whom left a family. The two 
brothers ran in debt for nine-elevenths of the estate, but within five years they paid 
every dollar, a fact which they viewed with commendable pride. In 1859 Mr. Loomis 
sold his interest in the farm to his partner-brother, Addison J., and left the home- 
stead upon which the first twenty-six years of his life had been so happily spent. He 
then started for Pike's Peak, traveling with a party of seven by rail to Jefferson City, 
Mo., from there to Kansas City by a Missouri River steamboat, and thence by ox- 
teams to Denver, Col., then a .settlement of five sod houses. The latter portion of 



BTOGRAPHTCAL. 131 

the journey occupied seven weeks. Everywhere in that western wilderness he met 
swarms of adventurers eagerly seeking fortunes among the mountains of America's 
Eldorado. With pack horses and mules the party traveled one hundred miles farther 
to the mines, where they joined the ranks and dug for gold. They met with only 
modest success, and on the approach of cold weather in the fall Mr. Loomis returned 
home, bringing a little more money than he had when he started and much experi- 
ence of practical value. During the next fifteen years he followed farming in his 
native town. 

Meanwhile he had become prominently identified with politics, and in the fall of 
1875 was elected superintendent of the poor for Onondaga county on the Republican 
•ticket, which caused his removal to Syracuse, where he has ever since resided. In 
1878 he was re-elected to a second term, which expired December 31, 1881. His 
service in this capacity was characterized by rare faithfulness and great executive 
ability. In 1887, while still discharging his official duties, he interested himself in 
the canning industry, and forming a company, built a large canning factory at Cic- 
ero and afterward another in Syracuse, in both of which he is still interested. In 
1882 he formed a partnership with Hoyt H. Freeman, under the firm name of Free- 
man & Loomis, and engaged extensively in the manufacture and sale of willow 
baskets, an industry in which theirs soon outranked any similar enterprise in the 
State, and which they still conduct on a constantly increasing scale. Making a sec- 
ond trip to Colorado in 1889 Mr. Loomis became deeply interested in the rich mining 
lands there, and organized the Oro Mining and Milling Company at Breckenridg*, 
of which he has since been the president. He was also for some time president of 
the American Bleach and Chemical Company, the Onondaga Coal and Oil Company, 
the Eastern Building and Loan Association of Syracuse, and the Onondaga Count}- 
Loan and Trust Company, and for four years — from 1882 to 1885 inclusive — he served 
most efficiently as president of the Onondaga County Agricultural Society. 

Mr. Loomis has long taken an active interest in the progress and welfare of the 
cit3^ and especially in the material advancement of the First ward, where his home 
and business interests are mainly centered. In benevolent and charitable afi^airs, 
and in all matters affecting the general public, his means and personal influence are 
potential factors. He is liberal, public spirited, and enterprising, and is eminently 
endowed with all those sterling qualities which make the successful man. 

Mrs. Loomis's wife, a lady of rare attainments, died in 1888, leaving three chil- 
dren: Edwin L., a prominent bu.siness man of Syracu.se; Dora, the wife of Dr. 
Dwight H. Murray, of this city; and Anna Grace, at home. In July, 1892, Mr. Loomis 
was married, second, to Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Wheeler, widow of Dr. W. A. Wheeler 
and eldest daughter of the late Thomas Nicholson, of Syractise. 



PETER BURNS. 

Hon. Peter Burns only child of David and Mary (Dempsey) Burns, natives of 
Dublin, Ireland, was born in that city July 30, 1814, and in the spring of 1819 — his 
mother having died the year previous — came with his father in a merchant vessel to 
America. After a storni}' passage the vessel was wrecked off Sandy Hook, but 



132 



ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 



nearly all the passengers were saved. They located in Delaware county, N. Y. , on 
the east branch of the Delaware River, where the lad remained for several j'ears, 
most of the time in a French family, his father returning to New York city to follow 
his previous business of brewer and distiller. Five years later David Burns .settled 
in Ulster county, where he died in 1850, and where he was joined by his son when 
the latter had reached the age of twelve. 

Mr. Burns, during his boy- 
hood and youth, enjoyed 
only the very limited advant- 
ages for obtaining an educa- 
tion which the new and un-. 
settled country afforded. He 
early learned to speak the 
French language fluently, 
and later, upon going to Ul- 
ster county, spent five years 
in a family of Hollanders, 
working on a farm and ac- 
quiring such knowledge of 
books as fell in his way, but 
obtaining by experience well- 
formed habits of industry, 
economy, frugality, and per- 
severance, as well as careful 
discipline in the doctrines of 
the Reformed Dutch church. 
From this period of five 
years in that model family 
he dated the real beginning 
of his subsequent career. 
When seventeen he was ap- 
prenticed to the saddlery 
trade in Ulster county, and 
remained there and at Wood- 
stock, N. Y., until he attained 
his majority, when he went to New York to still further perfect his mechanical skill. 
In 1836 he came to Syracuse, where he spent the remainder of his life, and where he 
died June 20, 1895. 

After following his trade as a journeyman until 1840, and returning from a west- 
ern tour he spent tw-o years in Onondaga Academy and obtained a teacher's di- 
ploma, but instead of teaching he was induced to accept a position as bookkeeper in 
a saddlery hardware store in Syracuse, where he remained five years. He then 
started a small saddlery hardware store for himself in the old Granger block and 
successfully continued business until 1853, when he formed a copartnership with the 
late Kasson Frazer, and began the manufacture of saddlery hardware, which the 
firm conducted with steadily increasing success until the death of Mr. Frazer in 1876, 
when it had become one of the leading industries of the kind in the county. One 




Peter Burns. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 133 

3^ear later Mr. Burns retired, leaving his son, Hon. Willis K., in full possession of 
his interest. 

Mr. Burns was originally a Whig and afterward a staunch Republican, and after 
filling several positions of trust in the city he was elected to the Legislature, where 
he served on various important committees during the sessions of 1871 and 1872. As 
a member of the Committee on Railroads he was instrumental in effecting legisla- 
tion of much importance, notably the preparation and passage of the Open-Cut and 
Viaduct bill, which gave the New York Central Railroad Company its present en- 
trance to the Grand Union depot in New York city from Harlem. He was super- 
visor of the Sixth ward of Syracuse in 1859 and 1860, several years chairman of the 
board of inspectors of the Onondaga County Penitentiary, and one of the first police 
commissioners of the city, and as chairman of that board assisted in organizing the 
present police force. He was for more than thirty years a director in the Merchants' 
National Bank long a director and at one period vice-president of the Trust and 
Deposit Company of Onondaga, and for several years a trustee and member of the 
executive committee of Syracuse LTniversity. He united with the Reformed Dutch 
church at the age of twenty, but upon coming to this city joined the First Presbyte- 
rian church, and for a time served as its Sunday school superintendent. He was 
one of nine persons to organize the James street Reformed Dutch church, contrib- 
uted liberally to the erection of the present Plymouth church, and for more than 
thirt}- years was president of the board of trustees of the last named society. He 
was also president of the board of trustees of the Onondaga County Orphan Asy- 
lum", and gave to this and various other charitable institutions of the city continued 
watchful care and much pecuniary aid. He largely supervised the construction of 
the Orphan Asylum building. He was a consistent Christian gentleman, esteemed, 
and honored, and exerted in the community a wide and wholesome influence. He 
was charitable, energetic, and progressive, and took great pride in the city's material 
and moral advancement. 

May 9, 1850, Mr. Burns was married to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Joshua and 
Jane (Philips) Bates, both natives of Chesterfield, Mass. They were the parents of 
two children: Hon. Willis B. Burns, ex-mayor of Syracuse, and Flora E., wife of 
Lyman *C. Smith, of this city. 



WILLIAM PREVOST GOOUELLE. 

Hon. William Prevost Goodelle was born in the town of Tully, Onondaga county, 
N. Y., on the 25th day of May, 1838. His father was Aaron B. Goodelle, and his 
mother was Eleanor A. Prevost. His father was a successful farmer, and the son 
passed his boyhood and youth on the homestead, where arduous labor alternated 
with attendance at the district school. Evincing an unusual aptitude for the acquire- 
ment of knowledge from books, he supplemented his school duties with one year in 
the Homer Academy, at the close of which he entered Cazenovia Seminary as one of 
the only two to take a five years' course, the period being from 1854 to 1860. In the 
spring of 1861 he entei'ed Dartmouth College as a sophomore and graduated in the 
class of 1863 with highest honors. 



134 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Returning from college with a mind well stored and ambition boundless, Mr. 
Goodelle was urged to accept the principalship of an academy at Moravia, N. Y., 
which he did and filled the position one year. He then, as he believed, began his 
continuous life work with the study of law in the office of L. H. & F. Hiscock, in 
Syracuse ; but his reputation as a teacher and as the head executive in the academy 
mentioned above had followed him, and after a few months of law study he was 
earnestly solicited to go out to Onondaga Valley and take charge of the historic 
academy, which was then in sore need of reorganization and improvement. Mr. 
Goodelle somewhat reluctantly accepted the charge and remained there two years, 
continuing his law study in the mean time as far as practicable. When he retired 
from the old academy at the close of the year 1866, he took with him the highest re- 
spect and confidence of the authorities, and left the school on a vastly higher level of 
efficiency than he found it. 

Returning to his law studies he continued in the office where he began until Octo- 
ber, 1868, when he was admitted to the bar and immediately began practice, remain- 
ing with the Messrs. Hiscock one year thereafter. He then engaged in independent 
practice for three years, and in the fall of 1871 had attained a position at the bar and 
a degree of confidence among his fellow citizens which led to his nomination and 
election to the office of district attorney of Onondaga county. In that office of oner- 
ous labor and high responsibility Mr. Goodelle made a record which is still well re- 
membered. At the expiration of his term of three years, with reputation widely 
extended, with experience valuable and varied in character, thrice armed with con 
fidence devoid of conceit in his own powers, he now returned enthusiastically to the 
profession in which he has attained such an exalted position, particularly as acriminal 
lawyer. Immediately after the expiration of his term as district attorney the 
New York Central Railroad Company, attracted by his record made in that office, 
retained h:m as its general crimmal counsel and attorney (this field of labor extend- 
ing from Buffalo to Albany), which position he filled until his appointment on the 
State Board in 1894, as hereafter noted. Mr. Goodelle was, and is, peculiarly 
adapted by nature, and especially so by study and experience, to deal with the 
criminal class; this is clearly shown by his early notable career as district attorney — 
a fact that may be stated here without disparagement of any other incumbent of the 
office. At the present time it stands to Mr. Goodell's high credit that he has placed 
within prison walls about half a thousand criminals of various types. In that connec- 
tion Mr. Goodelle has come in contact with all shades of crime and all sorts of crimi- 
nal characters, as well as with many of the ablest lawyers in the State acting in 
their defense. There is scarcely a county in the State of New York, and certainly 
none along the line of the Centrail railroad, where he is not well known as a lawyer 
and where his eloquent voice has not been heard in behalf of peace and safet}' from 
crime. So effective have his efforts in this direction been that it is now a well known 
and acknowledged fact that crimes against the railroad company within Mr. Goodelle's 
jurisdiction have almost disappeared. 

While in the district attorney's office it was Mr. Goodelle's good fortune, if it can 
be called such, to conduct the prosecution of many famous cases, among which were 
several of a capital character; his term was conspicuous in this respect beyond that of 
any other in the history of the county. The most prominent of those cases was 
that of Owen Lindsay, who was charged with the murder of Francis Colvin, and 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 135 

whose trial began in Syracuse on the 35th of January, 1874. The proceedings in this 
remarkable trial are j^ublished in book form and the details cannot, of course, be 
given here; but it may be stated that it involved the most persistent work, untiring 
research, patient investigation, and general legal ability of the highest order to bring 
it to a successful issue. The perplexing question of distinguishing human from an- 
imal blood stains was prominent in the case and under peculiarly harassing condi- 
tions; it was, moreover, introduced into the criminal jurisprudence of this State for 
the first tim§ by Mr. Goodelle. It is an evidence of his thoroughness in his profes- 
sional work and the importance of this element in the case, that he spent two weeks 
in Philadelphia with eminent experts in making himself familiar with the subject. 
In the defense of Lindsay the prosecuting attorney was opposed by such eminent 
counsel as Charles B. Sedgwick, Frank Hiscock, and others. Lindsay was hung. 
Mr. Goodelle received the most enthusiastic congratulations from his brethren of the 
bar and from the public press for his masterly work in this case. In alludmg to the 
close of the trial a local paper said ; 

Mr. Goodelle's addres.s to the jury was a most titting close of his untiring labors as a public 
officer of Onondaga county. During the deliver^', not only the jury, but the entire audience gave 
that attention which demonstrated the power of the learned counsel's eloquence and the strength 
of his argument. Mr. Goodelle often rose to the height of impassioned eloquence. He forgot his 
associates; he forgot the audience hanging upon his words; he forgot all but his case and the jury. 
His presentation of the people's evidence was perfect. . . Taken altogether, the effort of Mr. 
Goodelle, in its plain statement of the work the people had to perform, in its minute tracing of the 
testimony, in its final welding of the circumstantial and direct evidence into an unbroken chain 
a'nd fastening the same about the prisoner, formed one of the most masterly forensic efforts ever 
made at the bar of this county. 

Another paper said, in alluding to the importance of the question of detecting 
blood stains in the case: "This blood test was the great battlefield of the trial, and 
when Messrs. Goodelle and Sedgwick crossed swords on this point, there was a dis- 
play of forensic eloquence and ability rarely seen." 

Another important case which may properly be alluded to was that of Mary J. 
Holmes, charged with poisoning her husband, in which Mr. Goodelle defended the 
prisoner. This trial continued six weeks and attracted wide-spread attention both 
from the public and from the attorneys of Onondaga and surrounding counties. Pre- 
vious to the trial the general belief in the public mind was that the woman was 
guilty. This was largely changed by the proceedings of the trial. Mr. Goodelle 
secured the acquittal of the prisoner. A local newspaper on the last day of the trial 
printed the following, which indicates the public interest in the case and at the same 
time pays Mr. Goodelle a deserved compliment: 

The last tick of the parting day was almost simultaneous with the final words of an argument 
for the prisoner which had consumed seven mortal hours. The Counselor's face bore the plain 
evidences of the mental and physical strain to which he had put himself. . . A masterly effort 
had been e.xpected from Mr. Goodelle, whose acumen and learning are a source of pri.de to the 
bar of this county. Never in the criminal history of Onondaga county was a more comprehen- 
sive defence made of a human life. Mr. Goodelle's impassioned style of oratory put into grace- 
ful language his logical deductions from an investigation of the case as viewed from the side of the 
defence. Every point was covered one by one, but at no time was there a break in the continuity 
of the argument. It was probably the longest argument ever offered in a court of justice in 
Syracuse. 

The celebrated Greenfield murder case, also, was another with almost a national 
reputation, particularly for the persistency with which the defence clung to every 



136 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

straw and adopted every device which would postpone the end or possibly acquit or 
modify the punishment of the prisoner. This case was before the courts six years 
and was tried three times. Mr. Goodelle was engaged in Greenfield's defence, with 
Judge S. C. Huntington, of Oswego county, and in a critical time in the case the 
latter broke down, leaving the whole burden of the latter and most important part 
of the trial upon Mr. Goodelle. His address occupied nearly four hours; it need not 
be added that he acquitted himself with great credit and distinction. 

It is unnecessary in this place to foliow further the details of the numerous im- 
portant cases success in which has given Mr. Goodelle his high standing both as a 
civil and criminal lawyer. He has had the conduct of some twenty capital cases and 
in them all has exhibited the same high qualities as a lawyer that marked his efforts 
in those described. In the examination of witnesses, and especially m his pleadings 
before court and jury, his peers in Central New York are few. His reputation has 
necessarily and without effort on his part, extended over a wide extent of territory. 
For years past he has been called in as counsel by the ablest attorneys in many of 
the counties of this State, in cases of great importance, both civil and criminal. So 
common are such occurrences that in some years more than half of Mr. Goodclle's 
practice is outside of his own county 

Mr. Goodelle is a Republican in politics though not an ardent partisan, and had 
he chosen to enter the political field in view of the alluring prospects often held up 
before him by party dictators, he might have filled several of the higher State offices; 
but such a course meant for him the division of his energies, the partial abandon- 
ment of his high professional aspirations, which he has always believed can bring 
to any man sufficient fame, as well as adequate material return. Ever ready with 
eloquent and forceful speech to aid the political party with which he affiliates, or to 
advance the interests of any worthy candidate, he has been called to give liberally 
of his powers in this direction on the public platform. Being so frequently called 
upon to address the public during the past twenty years, upon a variety of subjects 
as broad as the ordinary experience of mankind, Mr. Goodelle has perforce made 
himself familiar with them all. It is a conspicuous element of his popularity, a qual- 
ification that has called out both admiration and surprise on more than one occasion, 
that he has been able at short notice to discuss with intelligence, power, and mas- 
terly eloquence subjects generally little understood by the lawyer who is apparently 
absorbed in his profession. But Mr. Goodelle is a student as well as a lawyer ; and 
his retentive memory, quick grasp and accurate comprehension of any subject en- 
able him to become its successful exponent. 

These various qualifications have brought Mr. Goodelle high honors outside of the 
professional and the political fields. It is not too much to say, perhaps, that no 
higher State honor can fall to any man than his selection as a member of a conven- 
tion to revise the constitution. Upon the acts of such a convention rests the effi- 
ciency of the organic law; the records of their work become widespread and are ac- 
cepted or rejected as parts of the constitutions of other States. Many of the best 
men, men with the highest character and the strongest mental powers have been 
called to serve in the several constitutional conventions in this State. The last New 
York State Convention was held in 1894 and Mr. Goodelle was elected one of the five 
delegates-at-large from Western New York, was appointed by President Choate 
chairman of the Committee on Suffrage, numbering among its members men of na^ 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 137 

tional repute, such as John Bigelow, Gideon J. Tucker, Thos. G. Alvord, De Lancey 
Nicoll, Edward Lauterbach and others. Mr. Goodelle's position as chairman of 
this committee, was, next to the speakership, perhaps, the most conspicuous in 
the convention, and his appointment assumed the possession of the highest quaH- 
iications for the consideration of a subject of such vast importance. He was also 
second on the Committee on Powers and Duties of the Legislature, and was promi- 
nent in most of the important proposed amendments. The proceedings of that as- 
semblage of eminent men are still fresh in the public mind. No measure of greater 
importance, of more sweeping consequences, of more uncertain possibilities, was 
ever brought before a convention in any State, than the proposed amendment to the 
constitution giving woman equal suffrage with man, and none was ever more widely 
discussed. It attracted attention throughout the whole United States and the out- 
come of the discussion was watched with the deepest interest. It can properly be 
said right here that Mr. Goodelle has never shown himself in any degree whatever 
deficient in chivalrous sentiment towards woman ; the absolute contrary is true. But 
he has never believed that the right of suffrage could result in good of any kind; and 
lea.st of all to woman herself. This fact was not, however, permitted to become 
public until the committee had in large part concluded its deliberations. As chair- 
man of this most important committee he assumed responsibilities that can scarcely 
be appreciated except by those who closely watched the proceedings and read his 
final address on the subject. From the time of his appointment he was besieged 
with letters and appeals /rf and co7i, while his desire to do entire justice to the sub- 
ject and to win approbation that did finally almost overwhelm him, prompted him to 
the most strenuous efforts to master every detail of the question. If anything 
earthly could have influenced him to act against his convictions in the matter it 
would have been the appearance and arguments before the committee of a score of 
the women of America who have made their names as household words in the cru- 
-sade for what has been inaptly called "woman's rights." Mr. Goodelle closed the 
debate on the evening of August 15 in what was perhaps the greatest and most suc- 
cessful effort of his life, both as an exhibition of eloquent and powerful oratory and 
as an argumentative and logical display. Mr. Francis, editor of the Troy Times, 
and himself an able advocate and a member of the convention, pronounces the address 
" the most classical and finished that had been made before that body." The Times 
of August 17 printed the following: 

The argument of Mr. Goodelle is exhaustive. It covers the whole ground of objection. And 
it is so grounded in common sense and so grandly sustains the most chivalrous sentiment and 
conception of woman's true relation to society and the State, that it may be pronounced un- 
answerable. Sophistry may assail it and personal ambition decry it, but as a just and accurate 
presentation of woman's cause, a summary of her rights achieved through the steady advance of 
civilization, the high position that has been accorded her because of the recognized and steadily 
growing importance of her position in the State, it is complete. 

This is high praise indeed, and it was echoed throughout the State and country, 
from press and individuals that were not blindly bound to opposite views. Imme- 
diately after the address reached him Bishop Doane sent a congratulatory telegram 
to Mr. Goodelle, which was followed by scores of others by mail and in person from 
eminent men and women. 

So, also, of the work done by Mr. Goodelle in the other committee to which he was 
assigned ; it was of the highest value and the committee felt the influence of the 



138 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

master mind in all of its deliberations. Of his labors as a whole the following is 
quoted from a prominent journal; 

William P. Goodelle, delegate-at-large, took a prominent part in the convention, and he left 
an enviable record. Unlike most of the delegates, he did not press the amendments that he in- 
troduced personally, but rather, he confined himself early in the session to his arduous duties 
as chairman of the Committee on Suffrage. Here he handled with great tact the delicate subject 
of woman suffrage, and for his work he had the commendation of all the delegates, and of 
President Choate himself. So large a proportion of the amendments finally adopted came from 
his committee that Mr. Goodelle will see the fruits of his work in the organic law if the amend- 
ments are approved by the people. Later on, after his committee labors were over, Mr. Goodelle 
advocated all of the leading measures that were passed. His speeches were always to the point, 
carried great weight and were listened to with rapt attention. His judgment and advice were 
constantly sought, and he early became one of the leaders in the convention. 

In December, 1894, there was appointed by the Court of Appeals a State Board of 
Law Examiners, whose office is the examination of all applicants for admission to the 
bar of the State, with full and absolute authority to accept or reject them. Previous 
to that time there had been an examining committee in each judicial district, and Mr. 
Goodelle had served several years on the committee in this district. These com- 
mittees ceased to exist with the creation of the new board. Mr. Goodelle was further 
honored with an appointment on this board, which began its term of service in 
January, 1895, and is now its president. The other members are Hon. Austen G. 
Fox, of New York, and Hon. F. M. Danahar, of Albany. In commenting upon this 
appointment a prominent newspaper said: 

Mr. Goodelle has served for years on the committee of examination in this department, and 
has, therefore, besides his splendid legal equipment, a valuable experience for the work before 
him. To be selected as one of three from the whole bar of the State for this highly responsible 
and important duty is a rare tribute and compliment. 

Mr. Goodelle was several years ago chosen president of the Onondaga County Bar 
Association, an honorable position which he still holds. He has been four years 
president of the Beaver River Club, an organization having pleasure seeking pro- 
clivities in the Adirondacks. He is one of the incorporators of the Commercial Bank 
of Syracuse. Now, in the prime of life and the full plenitude of his versatile 
powers, he merits and receives the esteem and respect of all who know him, and 
modestly accepts from them the title of an eminent lawyer and a thorough 
gentleman. 

Mr. Goodelle was married September 8, 1869, to Miss Marion H. Averill, of Bald- 
winsville, N. Y., and they have one daughter, Una Mae, who was born October 28, 
1877. The family occupy a prominent place in the highest social circles of Syracuse, 
and the doors of their beautiful and hospitable home on James street are always 
open to their many friends. 



HAMILTON BURDICK. 

Hamilton Burdick, the oldest practicing member of the bar of Syracuse, was born 
in West Winfield, Herkimer county, N. Y., February 11, 1816, and is a son of Adam 
Burdick, whose birth occurred at Hopkinton, R. I., December 31, 1759, and who at 
the age of sixteen entered the army of the Revolution, serving three years in the 



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BIOGRAPHICAL. 139 

colonial ranks and being under the command of Benedict Arnold at the time of 
Arnold's treacherous desertion to the British. While in camp at West Point with 
General Washington, Adam Burdick was intimately associated with the aides-de- 
camp La Fayette and Alexander Hamilton, and after the latter the subject of this 
sketch was named. Lodema Lee, mother of Hamilton Burdick, was born near 
Albany, N. Y., February 27, 1770, and was a member of the family from which de- 
scended the distinguished confederate, Gen. Robert E. Lee. 

Hamilton Burdick attended the district schools of his native town, and at the age 
of sixteen determined to .secure a more liberal education, preparatory to the study 
and practice of the law, which even then he had decided to follow as a profession. 
The limited circumstances of his family threw him upon his own resources, and to 
obtain the means for prosecuting his studies he was compelled to exercise the most 
rigid economy. Thoroughly imbued with the spirit of progress, and inheriting those 
sterling traits of charaacter which make the successful man, he put forth every effort 
and spent two years at Bridgewater Academy and one year at Hamilton Academy 
(now Colgate Institute), graduating from the latter institution at the age of nineteen. 
He then began the study of law in the office of Andrew Thompson, of Bridgewater, 
Oneida county, and later continued his legal studies with Hon. Philo Gridley, of 
Hamilton, and with John Bradish, of Utica. He was admitted to practice as an 
attorney and solicitor in January, 1840, and three years afterward was admitted as a 
counselor in all the courts of the State. In vSeptember, 1840, he commenced the 
practice of his profession in West Winfield, N. Y., and remained there until May 1, 
1843, when he moved to Syracuse, and formed a partnership with Rowland H. Gard- 
ner, which continued unchanged for twenty-seven years, being at the time of its dis- 
solution in 1870 the oldest law firm in the city. Following this he practiced alone 
until 1875, when his son, Edward H. Burdick, who was admitted to the bar in that 
year, was taken into partnership, the new firm continuing till January 1, 1890, when 
it was dissolved. Mr. Burdick has since carried on his practice without a partner, 
although since June of 1893, his son has occupied offices with him, and has assumed 
the responsibility of all litigated business. 

Mr. Burdick was early impressed with the dignity of the law as a profession, and 
chose it at a time when most young men are contemplating their future careers with 
undetermined minds. Imbued with a laudable desire to follow a pursuit consonant 
with his tastes, and which would afford opportunities for the employment of his best 
faculties, he has attained an eminence which years of tireless effort and indomitable 
energy can bestow. Thorough in research, sound in counsel, and loyal to the inter- 
ests of his clients, he has achieved his ambition and merits the distinction of an able, 
conscientious, and reliable adviser. Without aspirations as an orator he has followed 
the even course of a counselor, and by diligent study and the exercise of a natural 
power of discrimination, has applied those fundamental principles of law that would 
be impossible to a less logical mind. The highest respect and reliance have been 
accorded to his legal opinions, while his sound judgment as an advocate has received 
universal recognition. His conservatism and love of truth have enabled him to 
grasp, with comparative ease, complex legal propositions, and his integrity of pur- 
pose and faithful adherence to high moral principles, have commanded the respect 
and confidence of clients and fellow lawyers alike. He has sought and acquired a 
reputation for sound legal judgment rather than for brilliancj^ as an advocate, and 



140 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

now at the ripe age of eighty continues in practice with the same zealous interest in 
his profession that he has evinced during the fifty-five years of his eventful profes- 
sional life. He is the Nestor of the bar of Syracuse, and one of the oldest members 
of the Onondaga County Bar Association, and in the latter capacity read a few years 
ago an interesting paper entitled, "Reminiscences of the Bar," which vividly reviewed 
the changes in practice, recounted anecdotes of the older attorneys, clearly illustrated 
his quiet humor and aptness for narrating local events of great historical interest, and 
called to mind many cases in his own experience. 

Mr. Burdick has been a lifelong Democrat, and for many years took a prominent 
part in the affairs of his party. In the face of an insurmountable Republican major- 
ity he has frequently been a candidate for various city and county offices, and was 
twice elected supervisor of the Seventh ward. He has always taken a keen interest 
in municipal matters, evincing the strongest desire that the city should develop along 
the lines of general improvement and progress. His belief in Christianity is sound 
and broad in comprehension, while his ideas on all subjects of personal interest are 
liberal and clear. He and his family are worshipers in the Episcopal faith, to the 
support of which he has long been a generous contributor. He served for many 
years as vestryman of St. James church, Syracuse, notably under the teachings and 
influence of the late Dr. Gregory and the Rev. J. M. Clarke. Quiet and somewhat 
reserved in demeanor he possesses a genial kindliness of nature and a keen sense of 
humor, which have made his intercourse with his fellow men most enjoyable with- 
out detracting from his dignity. 

October 6, 1841, Mr. Burdick married Elvira Woodworth, of Bridgdewater, N. Y., 
a descendant of the poet Woodworth, author of the "The Old Oaken Bucket." She 
died in Syracuse, on the 19th of April, 1895. They had two children: Frances E., 
now the wife of Charles Nukerck Clark, of San Diego, Cal., and Edward H., of 
Syracuse, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Hon. Benjamin F. Hall, of Auburn, 
N. Y. 



FRANK HISCOCK. 

Hon. Frank Hiscock, ex-United States senator, is of English and Scotch descent, 
and was born in Pompey, Onondaga county, September 6, 1834. His grandfather, 
Richard Hiscock, served during the entire period of the Revolutionary war, and 
soon after the close of that struggle moved from his native State, Massachusetts, to 
Pompey, then an almost unbroken wilderness. Here in 1798 was born his son, 
Richard Hi.scock, a man of vigorous physical and mental qualities, who in early 
manhood married Cynthia Harris, whose family had long been prominent in the 
State. They were the parents of the subject of this sketch. 

Mr. Hiscock spent his early life upon the parental farm, where he developed those 
scholarly habits which in after years proved so invaluable and necessary. He was 
graduated while still a youth from the old Pompey Academy, and then entered the 
office of his brother, L. Harris Hiscock, at Tully, for the study of law, with whom, 
after his admi.ssion to the bar in 1855, he formed a copartnership, which in 1858 was 
moved to and permanently located in Syracuse. Following the example of his 
brother and preceptor he first joined the Democratic party, and with him in 1856 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



141 



aided in organizing the Democratic " Free vSoil " element at Syracuse in support of 
General Fremont for president. Since then he has been an u-nswerving Republican. 

In 1860 Mr. Hiscock was elected di.strict attorney of Onondaga county and served 
in that capacity until the close of the year 1863. In 1867 he was elected a member of 
the State Constitutional Convention, and was very active in the work of that body. 
In 1872 he supported Horace Greeley for the presidency and in the same year was 
himself nominated for Congress by the Liberal Republicans and Democrats. He 
doubtless was largely influenced in this political move by his warm personal friend- 
ship and respect for Mr. Greeley, and without intending to become a member of the 
Democratic party he co-operated in his support. At the close of the campaign he 
resumed his place with the 
Republicans. In 1876 he 
was a delegate to the Na- 
tional Republican Conven- 
tion, and in the same year 
was nominated and elected 
representative m Congress 
by a majority of 4,590. 
There as a member of the 
Committee on Elections 
and of the " Potter Inves- 
tigating Committee " he 
gained much credit, and at- 
tracted b}- his speeches the 
attention of both parties. 
He was re elected to the 
XLVth,XLVlth,XLVIlth, 
XLVIllth, XLIXth, and 
Lth Congresses, and in 
each election received the 
cordial support of his party. 
In the XLVIth Congress 
he was chairman of the 
Committee on Appropria- 
tions, and in the XLVIllth 
and XLIXth Congresses 
he served as a member of 
the Committee on Ways 
and Means. Twice he was 
favorably considered for 

the speakership. He attained wide prominence as an able parliamentarian, and 
won a national reputation as an able, fearless debater and an influential legislator. 
At various periods he was the practical leader of the Republican side of the House. 

In January, 1887, while still a reisresentative in Congress, he was elected by the 
Legislature of New York to the office of United States senator, and ably filled that 
position for a term of six years from March 4, 1887. He was a member of the Com- 
mittees on Finance, Inter-State Commerce, Coast Defenses, and Patents, and of the 
special committee on the Reports of the Pacific Railroad Commissioners and the 




Fr.^nk Hiscock. 



142 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

president's message thereon. As a speaker in that body he rendered effectual ser- 
vice to the RepubUcan- party and to the county at large, and won the highest respect 
of all classes of citizens. He achieved wide prominence as a forcible, eloquent, and 
influential debater, and acquired pre-eminence as an able and powerful statesman. 
In 1888 his name was widely considered in connection with the presidential nomina- 
tion, but without favor or encouragement by him, and at the Republican National 
Convention of that year he was a delegate at large. In all official capacities he won 
lasting distinction and honor by his personal dignity, his rare ability, and his char- 
acteristic energy and faithfulness. 

After the close uf his senatorial term he resumed the practice of the law in Syra- 
cuse as a member of the firm of Hiscock, Doheny & Hiscock. He has always taken 
a lively interest in the welfare of the city and is prominently' connected with many 
nnportant enterprises and undertakings. 



NATHAN JACOBSON, M. D. 

Nathan Jacohsun, M.D., is the eldest son of Israel and Mary (Sulsbacker) Jacob- 
son, natives of Germany, and was born in Syracuse on June 26, 1857. His father 
in early life moved to England and about 1850 came to this country, settled in 
Syracuse, where he was married; he died in Watkins, N. Y., August 19, 1874, at the 
age of forty-seven, being survived by his wife, a resident of this city, and their five 
children, of whom Henry H., Samuel, and Emanuel are engaged in business in New 
York city as importers and cutters of diamonds under the firm name of Jacobson 
Brothers. Their only daughter, Harriet, resides in Syracuse. 

Dr. Jacobson received his preliminary education in the public schools of his native 
city and was graduated from the Syracuse High School in 1874. He then com- 
menced the study of medicine with the late Dr. Roger W. Pease, of Syracuse, and 
also entered the College of Medicine of Syracuse University, from which he was 
graduated with the degree of M. D. in June, 1877. The same year he went abroad 
and pursued a post-graduate course at the Allgemeines Krankenhaus in Vienna, 
Austria, giving special attention to surgery and the kindred branches. Returning 
to Syracuse in September, 1878, he began the active practice of his profession, in 
which he has met with unvarying success. For several years he has devoted his 
time largely to general surgery, and enjoys wide distinction in this as well as in the 
practice of medicine. 

In September, 1885, Dr. Jacobson was appointed instructor in surgery in the Col- 
lege of Medicine of Syracuse University, and on June 11, 1888, was made lecturer on 
clinical surgery and laryngology. In June, 1889, he was elected to the chair of 
laryngology and clinical surgery, but subsequently resigned from the first named 
position, and since then has held the professorship of clinical surgery alone. As a 
member of the faculty of the medical college, as well as in his previous capacities as 
instructor and lecturer, his efforts have been characterized as conscientious, able, 
and valuable. 

He is ex-president and a prominent member of the Onondaga County Medical 
Society and Central New York Medical Association, and a member of the Syracuse 
Academy of Medicine, the New York State Medical Society, the New York State 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



143 



Medical Association, the Academy of Medicine of New York city, and the American 
Medical Association, and was a delegate to the International Medical Congress at 
Washington in 1887. He has also been surgeon to St. Joseph's Hospital, Syracuse, 
since 1882. He has contributed numerous papers on surgery and kindred subjects 
to the leading medical and surgical journals at home and abroad, and as a technical 
writer has won considerable distinction. 

On the 3d of January, 1883, Dr. Jacobson was married to Miss Minnie Schwartz, 
daughter of Leopold Schwartz, a prominent merchant of Buffalo. They have two 
children, Emma May and Gerald Nathan. 



WILLIAM KIRKPATRICK, M. D. 



Dr. William Kirrpatrick, of Scotch descent, was born in Amwell, Hunterdon 
county, N. J., November 7, 1769. His father. Rev. William Kirkpatrick, a Presby- 
terian minister, was grad- 
uated from Princeton Col- 
lege in 1758, was pastor of the 
First Presbyterian church 
of Trenton, chaplain of the 
colonial forces of New Jersey 
during the French war, a 
trustee of Princeton, and 
moderator of the Synod of 
New York and Philadelphia. 
Dr. Kirkpatrick was gradu- 
ated from Princeton College 
in 1788, read medicine with 
Dr. Benjamin Bush, of Phil- 
adelphia, and at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, and 
began practice in Whites- 
town, Oneida county, N. Y., 
in 1795. In 1805 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of 
the salt springs at Salina, 
Onondaga county, and held 
that office for twenty-two 
years. Owing to a peculiarly 
sympathetic temperament 
which interfered with the 
successful practice of hispro- 
fession he largely abandoned 
medicine and devoted him- 
self to his official duties. He took an active interest in politics, and in 1807-09 rep- 
resented his district in Congress, where he rendered efficient service and made many 
valued acquaintances. 




William Kikktatkick, 



144 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Dr. Kirkpatrick took an active part in furthering the great project of constructing 
the Erie Canal, and contributed in various ways to numerous enterprises and under- 
takings of public importance. In 1811 he settled in Salina, where he died Septem- 
ber 2, 1832. He was a man of rare literary taste and culture, a great reader and 
brilliant conversationalist, and a keen observer of human nature. His attainments 
were of a high order, and his refined qualities and elevated characteristics left an 
indelible impress upon the community. His wife was Miss Nancy Dunscomb, of 
Salina, who bore him two sons: William, who died in Syracuse in 1895, and Donald, 
who died in this city September 19, 1889. 



THE COOK FAMILY. 

Among the earliest pioneers in the present town of Pompey was the Cook famil}', 
whose descendants have been prominently identified for nearly a century with the 
social and commercial life of not only that but other localities in Onondaga county. 
Their lineage is traced to Samuel Cook, of London, England, w^hose son, Russell, 
settled in New Canaan, Conn., about 1759. William Cook, son of Russell, was born 
there in 1761, and about 1780 married, first, Hannah Pond, by whom he had five 
children. With his family and Ozias Burr he moved from Lebanon, Columbia 
county, N. Y., and settled in Pompej' Hollow on November 10, 1792. He purchased 
of Mr. Burr 100 acres of land, upon which he built a house on the west side of the 
Hollow, and one-half mile south of the road leading from Pompey Hill to Cazenovia, 
and there he subsequently erected a brick dwelling, popularly known as the " Pride 
of the Valley." Broad minded, enterprising, and well educated, he was actively in- 
terested in founding Pompey Academy in 1811, for the building of which he furnished 
the brick and lumber. He was one of the original twenty-four trustees, the third 
man to contribute $100 for its endowment fund, Mr. Burr being the fourth, and one 
of the petitioners for incorporation under the Regents February 11, 1811. In April, 
1796, he was chosen town assessor and in 1813 elected supervisor of Pompey. 
William Cook became prominent in military affairs. At the age of sixteen he had 
enlisted as a corporal in the Revolutionary war and served on the staffs of Washing- 
ton and La Fayette. January 24, 1801, he was commissioned, " for patriotism, con- 
duct, loyalty, and valor," caj^tain in a regiment of Onondaga militia whereof 
Jeremiah Gould was lieutenant-colonel. This commission was signed by Daniel 
Hale, secretary; attested by Comfort Tyler, clerk; and dated Maj' 2, 1801; and was 
also signed by John Jay, governor of New York. March 9, 1803, Mr. Cook was com- 
missioned major of Lieut. -Col. David Williams's Onondaga County Militia Regi- 
ment, his commission being dated June 6, 1803, and signed by Thomas Tillotson, 
secretary; attested by Jasper Hopper, clerk; and signed by George Clinton, gov- 
ernor. The children of Major William and Hannah (Pond) Cook were Ele, born 
March 5, 1782; Asa, born March 14, 1785, married September 1, 1811, Eunice Gard- 
ner, and died August 7, 1856; Ransom, who married Dolly Delamarter; Ruth, who 
married William Perry; and Sarah, born April 6, 1796, married Thomas Cooper 
Sleeper, and died in Chicago, February 24, 1888. Major William Cook's first wife 
died and he married, second, Asenath Butler, by whom he had three children : Will- 




ELE COOK. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 115 

iam, who married Sally, sister of Luther R. Marsh; Albert, who married Mary 
Conkey; and Aseneth, wh(j married Isaac Getty, of Onondaga county, and died in 
1884. Of this family Asa had four children: William (Gardner, born OctoVjer 2'.i, 
181-?, married Susannah Adams on May 4, 18:57, and died February 7, 1884, in 
Manlius, where he was a successful farmer, and his wife died at her residence in 
Syracuse May 28, 1895, leaving one daughter, Ur.sula (Mrs. Edward E. Kent); Isaac 
A., born May 3, 1818, of Syracuse, who married, first, Mary Peck in 1843; Maryette 
A., born July 12, 1823, married Thaddeus Heath in 1846, and died in February, 1895; 
and Sarah A., born September 1, 1826, married William W. Heath in 1851, and died 
November 16, 1875. Ransom Cook's children were Russell, Ruth, vSarah, William 
and James, all deceased. Ruth (Cook) Perry's children were Alfred, Eunice, and 
William. Of these Eunice married a Mr. Major, who erected the first cotton mill on 
the Pacific slope. Sarah (Cook) Sleeper's children were Alonzo, Edgar, Oscar, and 
Sarah. 

Ele Cook, eldest son and child of Major William, was born in New Canaan, Conn., 
March 5, 1782, came with his father to Pompey Hollow in 1792, and assi.sted the 
latter on the farm, in the saw mill, and in the brickyard on the premises. At these 
last two named establishments were manufactured the lumber and brick which were 
used in the erection of the fix\st academy building at Pompey Hill, and a model of 
this structure is still preserved by the Onondaga Historical Society at Syracuse. 
Mr. Cook was educated in the schools of his adopted town. In 1807 he married 
Catharine Klha Carman, daughter of John J. Carman, of New Jersey, and of Revolu- 
tionary fame. Mr. Carman was a wealthy man when he enlisted in the Continental 
Army, but the depreciation of government money left him at the close of the war 
without a dollar. He was in the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778, and in many 
others, including Bunker Hill. He was a cousin of Gen. William Carman, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, was born in Woodbridge, Middlesex county, N. J., October 4, 1751, 
and died September 9, 1837, in Delphi, Onondaga county, near where his daughter 
was teaching school when she married Mr. Cook. His wife Deborah was born April 
4, 1756, and died May 24, 1830, in Cincinnatus, Cortland county. 

Ele Cook served for four weeks at Sackett's Harbor in the War of 1812, and in 
1813 moved with his wife and three children from Pompey Hollow to what is now 
La Fayette, then known as Pompey ell. He bouglit a farm one mile north of the 
village, built a saw mill, and established the first brick manufactory in that town. 
His brick and lumber were used in the construction of the schools and churches which 
the family attended. After residing there twenty years he sold his mill and twenty- 
five acres of land and moved to a farm of 125 acres near Onondaga Valley, which he 
purchased of Mr. Whitcomb for $40 per acre. This was in 1833. In 1867, after his 
children had left home, he sold this place to Justus Newell for .^100 per acre. He 
returned temporarily to La Fayette. He intended to set up housekeeping again, 
but a severe cold in 1868 brought on asthma, and he died at the residence of his 
daughter, Mrs. Nancy A. Morse, in La Fayette, January 7, 1869. His wife died at 
the home of her daughter, Mrs. Harriet M. Lyons, in Syracuse, October 28, 1879. 

Mr. Cook was a good farmer, an able business man, an earnest, upright citizen, 
and a kind husband and indulgent parent. He started in life comparatively poor, 
but by shrewd management and careful living succeeded in accumulating a compe- 
tency. He was uniformly .successful, and besides his farming and manufacturing 



146 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

operations also bought and sold large numbers of cattle, horses, and sheep. He was 
able to do business up to nearly the time of his death, his mind being almost as clear 
and active as during his earlier years. He was a lifelong abstainer from all intoxi- 
cating liquors, and was always regarded as a strictly temperate man. He was a 
good neighbor, a faithful friend, a wise counselor, and a public spirited, enterpris- 
ing citizens, and won the confidence and respect of all who knew him. At his fune- 
ral the Rev. Mr. Palmer, of CoUingwood, said "an honest and a just man is dead." 

Ele and Catharine E. (Carman) Cook had eight children, of whom five were born 
in La Fayette: Nancy Asenath, born October 13, 1808; William J., born April 24, 
1810; Addison Carman, born March 17, 1813; James Jerome, born September 28, 
1814; Emeline Pond, born October 29, 1817; Orator Fuller, born March 33, 1819; 
Harriet Maretta, born September 20, 1821 ; and George Washington, born May 23, 
1824. 

Nancy A., married John Morse, and in 1826 settled on her present farm in La 
Fayette, where Mrs. Morse died March 8, 1891, leaving no children. She has reared 
five children to maturity, and has been an active worker in the church and among 
the sick. 

William J. Cook was educated in the schools of La Fayette and at an early age 
displayed a remarkable inclination for study. In 1833 he married Sophia, daughter 
of Orange King, a Revolutionary soldier and long a tavern keeper in La Fayette 
Square. The next year he built a house and settled on his farm one mile south of 
Onondaga Valley, where he finally began the study of medicine. In 18'66 he sold out 
and purchased the Gridley store house and property on the east side of the valley. 
In the spring of 1843 he again sold out and moved to La Fayette, where he pur- 
chased the Samuel Baldwin place, and where he practiced botanic medicine with 
success, his ride extending into adjoining towns. Drs. Rose and Parks of La Fayette, 
and Dr. Stearns, of Pompey, although allopaths, were among his warmest friends. 
He died there June 3, 1863. His children were Charles Addison, born in April, 1833, 
who became a clerk in the store of Milton S. Price in La Fayette and went to Wis- 
consin and thence to Denver among the gold seekers ; Mary E. , born April 30, 1835, 
who was graduated from the State Normal school at Albany, became a school 
teacher, and now resides in Salt Lake City, Utah, where her mother, Sophia, died 
January 17, 1890; Anna, born July 33, 1837; Cornelia P., born June 5, 1843, who in 
consequence of a fall became a cripple, and died in Salt Lake City in 1885 ; and Ida 
lone born April 31, 1851, who was graduated from the Oswego State Normal School, 
and became a successful and noted teacher in Utah. Charles A. Cook, the eldest of 
this family, was mayor of Denver two terms, president of a local bank about ten 
years, and married Georgette Loyd, a wealthy lady, by whom he had two children : 
Elmo William, born March 30, 1872, of Logan county, Utah, and Edna, born June 
27, 1874, a graduate of and now a teacher in the Oswego Normal School. Charles C. 
Cook died at Hot Springs, Ark., March 17, 1878. 

Addison Carman Cook, third child of Ele, was married in 1832 to Sally S. Smith, 
of Tully, lived about three years near the "Indian saw mill," which he run, and 
moved all the way by boat from Syracuse to Jacksonville, 111., where he purchased a 
tract of land ujoon which that city was afterward built. He died September 5, 1838. 

James Jerome Cook, fourth child of Ele, resides on the old Gould farm in La Fay- 
ette, three miles south of Jarnesyille. See his sketch elsewhere in this volume. 



I 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 147 

Emeline Pond Cook is the widow of Joseph Le Roy Atwell and lives in Syracuse. 
Mr. Atwell was born in Cazenovia, Madison county, December 14, 1817, and died in 
Syracuse October 15, 1877. He was a grandson of Joseph Atwell, one of the first 
settlers in Pompey Hollow, who became a prominent and wealthy farmer, and who 
died there in 1833. Joseph Atwell, the only son of the pioneer, was born there and 
died in 1835, leaving three sons: William, Joseph Le Roy, and George H. Joseph 
Le Roy Atwell married Emeline P. Cook on September 20, 1837, came to Syracuse 
about 1870, and engaged in business as a produce dealer. His children were Joseph 
A., born October 25, 1838, died February 28, 188!) ; Josephine Alcestia, born July 30, 
1841, died January 3, 1878; and Jodelphia Amelia, born July 19, 184G, died February 
(J, 1876. Joseph A. married Louise M. Reymond, of Cazenovia, and had four children ; 
Emeline M., Joseph A., jr., John Le Roy, and Wellsley Louise. Josephine A. mar- 
ried James M. Andrews, of the firm of Andrews Brothers, of Syracuse, and had one 
child, Frank Le Roy. Jodelphia A. married RoUin P. Saxe, a nephew of John G. 
Saxe, the poet, and had one son, Howard Atwell Saxe. 

Orator Fuller Cook, sixth child of Ele, married Eliza Hookaway in 1853 and is a 
farmer in Clyde, N. Y. His children are Dr. Addison Carman, born in Syracuse in 
1853; Orator, born in Clyde in 1867; and Edith, born in Clyde in 1873, who was 
graduated from Syracuse LIniversity in 1893 and is a teacher. 

Harriet Maretta Cook was married December 29, 1842, to William, son of Reuben 
Lyons, a soldier of 1812, of Adams, N. Y., who was born June 19, 1812, and who 
died February 23, 1887. He was a mason and contractor, and in 1854 settled in 
Syracuse, purchasing of Jacob Sager lot 3, No. 11, in West Adams street, where in 
1858 he erected the present brick homestead. In 1873 he built a second dwelling in 
the same block. In 1885 he built the Lyons flats, moving from the site a frame house 
which was erected by Aaron Hoyt in 1838, and which was the first structure built m 
West Adams street. Mrs. Lyons survives him, and has been a consistent member 
of Plymouth church since April 10, 1870. Their children were Anna Eliza, born 
April 22, 1844; Ladelphia, born October 24, 1845; and Hattie A., born January 22, 
1861. Ladelphia was married May 3, 1865, to Daniel V. Ferris, of Syracuse, whose 
sketch appears in this volume. Hattie Asenath married, March 30, 1886, Ross L. 
King, of this city, and has two children : Bruce and Ross. Anna Eliza joined Plym- 
outh church April 3, 1864, the day Rev. M. E. Strieby, the first pastor, preached his 
farewell sermon. She has been very active in church, Sunday school, and temperance 
work ever since, having had a Sabbath school class continuously since June 9, 1872, 
when she commenced in Good Will chapel, which in September, 1886, was succeeded 
by Pilgrim chapel, where she still remains. 

George Washington Cook, youngest of the eight children of Ele Cook, was gradu- 
ated from Onondaga Academy, read medicine with Dr. Russell in Syracuse, and 
erected a brick house on the site of the present Kenyon flats. He married, first, 
Maryette, daughter of Johnson Lewis, of Pompey, and second, Laura, daughter of 
Ethan Allen, of Pompey Hollow. By his last marriage he had two children: Charles 
Sumner, deceased, and De Etta L., a school teacher. 



148 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

WILLIAM WILSON. 

The Wilson family is of Scotch descent. Rev. William and Mary Wilson, grand- 
parents of William, the subject of this sketch, came with their family and his aged 
mother from Vermont to Onondaga county about 1798, and for two years lived at 
Onondaga Hill, then the county seat. In 1800 they became the first settlers on 
the site of the present hamlet of Plainville in the town of Lysander, where they 
founded the family whose members have ever since been prominently and actively 
identified with the place. Rev. Mr. Wilson was a minister of the gospel, and after 
his settlement at what is now Plainville was more or less active in holding re- 
ligious services among the scattered inhabitants. He became the owner of a large 
tract of land surroiinding the present hamlet and lived where the hotel now stands, 
first in a log cabin and later in a more pretentious frame dwelling. He followed 
farming here, and ably and intelligently laid the foundation of a subsequent thriving 
community, which has ever since reflected his sterling character and noble principles. 
From him the place received the popular name of " Wilson's Corners," which it re- 
tained until the establishment of the post-office of Plainville in 1831. He died here 
and was buried in the village cemetery, where a marble slab containing this inscrip- 
tion marks his grave : 

"William Wilson. Died March 19th, 1827, aged 60 years. He was among the 
first who settled this country. He professed religion in early life and preached the 
gospel many years. He died in peace." 

His wife, Mary, died October 11, 1826, aged fifty-four years, and is buried by the 
side of her husband. Upon another tombstone is the inscription : 

"In memory of Mai-y Wilson, relict of David Wilson. Died Jul}' 12, 1806, aged 
72 years." 

She was the mother of Rev. William, and the great-grandmother of William Wil- 
son, the subject of this .sketch. Cyrus, a son of Rev. William and Mary Wilson, 
died here September 19, 1805, in the second year of his age. 

The children of Rev. William and Mary Wilson were Alfred, William (generally 
known as William, sr.), David, Cyrus, Polly (Mrs. Tinker), Electa (Mrs. Nichols), 
and Zada (Mrs. Youngs and afterward Mrs. Mosier). These three generations have 
passed awaj', leaving three more who are now represented in Plainville, several of 
whom bear the name of Wilson. The family was among the first in the neighbor- 
hood to encourage and support both religion and education, and donated the sites 
for the present school house. Christian church, and original burying ground, where 
representatives of six generations of the name are buried. 

William Wilson, sr., son of Rev. William, came to Onondaga count}' with his 
parents when he was ten years of age, and from his father acquired a portion of the 
original farm. This was situated in the southwest angle of the corners, and com- 
prised all or a little more than all of the present Wilson homestead. His youth was 
spent amid the privations, hardships, and disadvantages of pioneer life, which offered 
comparatively no opportunity for securing an education, but many inducements for 
an active, energetic nature. His early years were therefore devoted to hard labor 
on the farm, clearing it of the heavy forests, and converting it into a comfortable 
home. On April 14, 1816, he married Polly Shepherd, who died December 2, 1825, 
aged twenty-nine years, leaving three children, of whom Harriet is deceased; Hiram 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 149 

lives in the West; and Horace resides in Meridian, N. Y. Their dwelling stood very 
nearly or quite on the site of the present Wilson residence, just south of the village. 
July 4, 1826, he married for his second wife, Hannah Clyne, who died December 19, 
1864, aged nearly sixty-one years. They had eight children : Mary Jane (Mrs. Harrison 
M. Neal), who died in Flushing, Mich. ; William, the subject of this sketch ; Betsey Ann 
(Mrs. Charles Saxton), who died July 17, 1868, aged thirty-seven ; Sally Matilda (Mrs. 
John Bratt), who resides in Plainville on a part of Rev. William's original farm; 
David G., who died in Plainville in February, 1893; Obediah E., of Plainville; James 
H., who died August 6, 1852, aged thirteen; and Helen Lorissa, who died March 12, 
1857, aged nearly fifteen. Mr. Wilson died and was buried here, his grave being 
marked by a shaft upon which is the following inscription : 

" William Wilson. Died at Plainville, N. Y., May 10th, 1864, aged 74 years, 7 
mo., and 28 days. In A.D. 1800, he came with his father upon the premises, then 
a wilderness, a part of which he occupied at the time of his death." 

William Wilson, sr., was the first to introduce the cultivation of tobacco into the 
immediate vicinity of Plainville. He began as early as 1833, on a small scale, and 
cured the plants in straw, yet he continued the industry with varying success for 
many years, and finally turned it over to his eldest son by his second wife. 

William Wilson, son of William and Hannah (Clyne) Wilson, and grandson of the 
pioneer. Rev. William, was born on the family homestead (his present farm) on July 
3, 1828, and received a common school education in his native town. Reared on the 
place of his birth, amid those influences of the community which mirrored his grand- 
father's remarkable individuality, he acquired as well as inherited the traits of char- 
acter which distinguished his ancestors and are peculiar to New England. He as- 
sisted and finally succeeded his father on the homestead, jaaying off the other heirs, 
and has practically spent his entire life upon its fertile acres. He early became an 
accomplished penman, and for a time taught writing school with the same degree of 
success that characterized his after efforts. While engaged mainly in farming he 
has also interested himself in various other enterprises, such as canal boating, keep- 
ing for a short time a canal grocery at Jack's Reefs, etc. His natural business quali. 
fications, his energy, perseverance and good judgment, combined to make him uni- 
formly successful, and he soon won and has ever since enjoyed the confidence, 
esteem, and respect of every one with whom he has had commercial or other rela- 
tions. Mr. Wilson has always been one of the most kind hearted and benevolent 
of men, and with true nobility of character has aided many in the struggle for 
success and advancement. The poor and needy have ever found in him a firm 
friend, while the causes of education, religion, and morality have all received sub- 
stantial aid at his hands. Broad and liberal minded, charitable, jDrogressive, and 
enterprising, he has from a youth up taken a keen and often an active interest in 
public affairs and in the advancement and welfare of the community. His counsels 
and influence have been potent factors in guiding and elevating all local matters, 
and he occupies to day, both as a citizen and as a public benefactor, a foremost posi- 
tion in the locality which has from its first settlement enjoyed the presence and 
enterprise of his family. 

Mr. Wilson, however, has won lasting renown by his life-long connection with an 
industry which within recent years has become the most important branch of local 
agriculture, and which will perpetuate his name in the annals of important achieve- 



150 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

ments. This is the cultivation of tobacco, in which he early became associated with 
his father. After the latter's death, having already the knowledge gained by many 
years of experiment, he actively entered upon the propagation of a variety which 
should withstand climatic influences peculiar to the locality. The result was the 
perfection and introduction by him in 1876 of the famous Wilson Hybrid Havana 
Tobacco, a combination of several kinds, both foreign and domestic, the chief 
characteristics of which he carefully harmonized and hybridized into one concrete 
whole, admirably adapted to the soil and climate. »So thoroughly and scientifically 
did he perfect this that it has very largely taken the place of the old Sumatra brand, 
and is now the principal variety grown in the town. Mr. Wilson's shrewd foresight 
convinced him in the earlier years of his manhood that the culture of tobaqco, if 
properly developed and encouraged, was destined to supersede every or nearly every 
other agricultural interest in his community, and with characteristic energy he ap- 
plied himself to the work of building up and improving the industry long before 
the average farmer had thought of raising anything but grain, corn, etc. He planted 
constantly increasing areas of the crop, thus practically demon.strating that it should 
have a place in local husbandry, and prominently identified himself with its develop- 
ment. He was among the pioneer tobacco growers of Onondaga county, and to him 
is largely due the present high standard and importance of this extensive industry, 
to which he has devoted so much careful, intelligent and scientific study. He has 
probably done more than any other man in building up the business which now com- 
mands the local farmers' chief attention. He has not only been a large producer, but 
has bought and shipped immense quantities annually, and for some time also manufac- 
tured cigars on the premises, employing as many as thirtj' hands. His principal busi- 
ness is that of a dealer. In 1879 he took his only son, Elias C, into partnership under 
tlie firm name of William Wilson & Son, which continued until the death of the latter 
in 1895. 

Mr. Wilson was married March 22, 1854, to Miss Louisa Jane, daughter of Elias 
Cox, a blacksmith and farmer who settled at " Hortontown " in the town of Lysan- 
der about 1836, coming from Verona, Oneida county, where she was born January 
26, 1834. She was a granddaughter of William Cox, who, disguised as a Mohawk 
Indian chief, was a prominent member of the Boston tea party in 1773. Mrs. Wil- 
son died June 15, 1894, in her sixty-first year. They had three children: Mary Eliza- 
beth, born November 1, 1855, who married, November 12, 1884, Newton A. Clark of 
Plainville, and has one son, William Wilson Clark, born February 16, 1889; Elias Cox, 
born September 14, 1858 ; and Emogene Maria, born September 2, 1861, upon whom de- 
volves the care of her father's home and much of the management of his extensive 
business interests. Mrs. Wilson was a woman of sterling qualities of head and 
heart, kind, charitable, and sympathetic, benevolent to the poor, a conscientious 
Christian, and a tender, affectionate wife and mother. Elias Cox Wilson, their only 
son, was educated in the public schools and Baldwinsville Academy, became asso- 
ciated with his father in business m 1879, and successfully continued until his untimely 
death December 24, 1895. He was a man of recognized business ability, enterpris- 
ing, energetic, and thoroughly honorable, and won a warm place in the hearts and 
affections of every one who knew him. He was a staunch Prohibitionist, public 
spirited, benevolent, and kind hearted, and as an honest, upright and conscientious 
citizen acquired a high reputation. He took an active part in all matters affecting 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 151 

the general welfare, and aided in supporling and eneouraging worthy enterprises. 
He was kind to a fault, generous to the poor and needy, and affectionate in the home 
and among friends. December 19, 1883, he married Miss Metta L. Smith, of Plain- 
ville, who with three children survives him. Their children are Helen Metta, born 
February 26, 1885; William Elias, born March 5, 1891; and Louisa Emogcne, born 
September G, 1894. 



JAMES V. KENDALL, M. D. 

Jamks V. Kendall, A.M., M.D., was born and bred in the town of Volney, Oswego 
county, N. Y. Flis father, John Kendall, a native of Ludlow, Mass , and of English 
descent, located there m an almost unbroken forest in 1806, and remained upon the 
homestead farm until his death, which occurred in 1853, at the age of eighty years. 
John Kendall served in the war of 1813, and reared a family of eight .sons and four 
daughters; his first wife was Alice Barnes and his second Manda "Wilkinson. He 
was endowed with traitsof character and habits of frugality peculiar to New England, 
and planted in the community those standards of citizenship which marked his day 
and generation. 

Dr. James V. Kendall was born March 25, 1818, being the sixth son of John and 
Manda (Wilkinson) Kendall, and attended the common schools of his native town 
until he had reached the age of sixteen, when he was examined and received a cer- 
tificate to teach the district schools of the town. During the next few years he pur- 
sued his studies in the Rensselaer (Oswego) Academy and taught school as a means 
of defraying his expenses. Thus his educational opportunities were not unmixed 
with the stern realities which confronted the ambitious youth of that period. He 
early decided upon a professional career, for which he evinced a strong inclination 
and marked ability. In 1841 he entered Geneva Medical College, then one of the 
best institutions of the kind in the State, and was graduated therefrom in January, 
1844. Immediately after his graduation he began the active practice of medicine in 
Pulaski, Oswego county, where he remained one year, vsrhen he went to Clay, On- 
ondaga county. There he acquired an extended professional business and met with 
uniform success. After a period of sixteen years he removed in 1861 to Baldwins- 
ville, where he has since resided. 

Dr. Kendall has been a member of the Onondaga County Medical Society since 
1848, and has served it most efficiently as secretary, vice-president, and president. 
He is also a member and in 1880 was president of the Medical Association of Cen- 
tral New York and since 1856 a permanent member of the New York State Medical 
Society, of which he was vice-president in 1876, and which he has frequently repre- 
sented in several other State societies. He is an honorary member of the Oswego 
County Medical Society, a corresponding member of the Gynecological Society of 
Boston, Mass., and a member of the Pilgrim Society of Boston, which was instituted 
in 1820 by descendants of the Pilgrims who landed on Plymouth Rock on December 
21, 1620. In 1887 he received the honorary degree of A.M. from Hamilton College. 
He has been a frequent contributor to various periodicals on current topics and 
events, and especially on professional subjects, and many articles from his pen have 
been published in the Transactions of the New York State Medical Society, 



152 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

While devoting his time largely to his extensive professional business Dr. Kendall 
has nevertheless given considerable attention to educational and political affairs. 
He held the position of town superintendent of schools for three years, when that 
office (now abolished) required the services of an able and conscientious man. He 
was also an inspector of the Onondaga County Penitentiary during the first three 
years after that institution was established, was one of the coroners' physicians of 
the county for three years, and was supervisor of the town of Clay two years and of 
Lysander four years, being twice chairman of the board. In 1869 he represented his 
district in the State Legislature. He took a deep interest in military affairs at an 
early period, and when quite young in his profession was commissioned assistant 
surgeon in the State militia. Afterward he was made surgeon of the 228th Regi- 
ment by Gov. Silas Wright and served in that capacity until the State militia was 
disbanded, when he received the governor's certificate retaining his military rank. 
Soon after the beginning of the war of the Rebellion he offered his professional services 
whenever they should be needed. With him the incoming conflict was one of senti- 
ment, and as far as lay in his power he had, as a believer in the Union, the freedom of 
the whole country, and the exclusion of slavery from the new States as they were 
formed, aided in fostering that very sentiment which from his point of view underlaid 
the war. When the clash of arms came there was, therefore, but one thing for him 
to do, and he did it. Early in the war he offered his services and was commissioned 
by Governor Morgan a member of volunteer surgeons of the State of New York, to 
serve wherever needed. In this relation he stood to the army till the 21st day of 
August, 1862, when he was informed by the chairman of the County Committee that 
he had been selected for the post of surgeon of a new regiment about to be recruited in 
this county, and within half an hour thereafter he was on a train bound for Albany to 
be examined for the position. This step meant much to Dr. Kendall. As an evidence 
of unselfish patriotism and willingness to support and uphold the theories he had 
always advocated, his action was characteristic. He abandoned a practice never 
before approached in magnitude in his town, left a home of the pleasantest associa- 
tions, and within a week was notified that his examination was satisfactory and he was 
already actively examining recruits of the new regiment, the 149th N. Y. Vols. He 
was commissioned surgeon, and left with it for the front in September. He remained 
in the service and rendered valuable work on the field and in the ho-spitals until the 
close of the war, and rose to the position of chief surgeon of the Third Brigade, Sec- 
ond Division, of the Twelfth and Twentieth Army Corps. 

Dr. Kendall has always manifested a commendable public spirit in the village 
where he resides, and is universally respected and esteemed for the many kind and 
benevolent acts as well as for his elevating influence and marked individuality. He 
is a firm friend, especially to the veterans of the war, whom he has never failed to 
aid and assist. As a physician and surgeon he ranks high among the most talented 
and skillful practitioners, and as a citizen he is enterprising, influential and honor- 
able. He takes a keen interest in all that pertains to the advancement and pros- 
perity of the village in education, religion, temperance, and the moral welfare. 
Having great faith in the future of the place he has invested heavily in real estate 
and is one of the largest taxpayers. He built his elegant residence in 1866, the Ken- 
dall brick block in 1872, and several dwellings for tenants in the mean time. At the 
close of the war he was brevetted bv Gov. Reuben E. Fenton lieutenant-colonel 



I 




PETER V. MARKELL. 



BIOGRAPHICAL, 153 

"for faithful and meritorious services," and returning to Baldwinsville he entered 
vigorously upon the practice of his profession, which he successfully continued until 
ill health compelled him to retire to private life. Since then he has deservedly en- 
joyed the fruits of a profitable and useful career. 

In 1844 Dr. Kendall was married to Miss Phoebe Jane, daughter of Sylvanus 
Howe, of Clay, who died in 188(5. In 1S87 he married for his second wife Lucia M., 
daughter of the late Truman Skinner, of Van Buren. 



PETER V. MARKELL. 

Petkr V. Markell was born at Jack's Rifts in the town of Van Buren, Onondaga 
count)', January 11, 1857. His life, until the age of twenty-one was spent on his 
father's farm, except the time spent in acquiring his education. This was obtained 
at the common .school in his native school district supplemented and extended by a 
course at the Jordan Academy, from which institution he graduated with high honors 
in his class. 

After completing his education he concluded to learn the watchmaker's and jew- 
eler's trade and to that end devoted several years. He subsequently spent two years 
with Gourly & Brady, silversmiths in Syracuse and there acquired a thorough knowl- 
edge of the business in all its details. Having his own way to make in life he early 
embarked in business with little capital except prudent saving habits and a good 
stock of integrity. In 1883 Mr. Markell went to Jordan and there engaged in the 
jewelry trade, carrying with it some smaller lines to augment his income. By in- 
dustry and careful management his business was successful, so as time went on his 
business extended and therefore necessitated larger quarters. 

In 1892 he purchased the drug store and stock of Dr. C. F. Tucker, located on 
Main street, Jordan, and succeeded to the business. To this he added school books 
and school supplies, stationer}', etc. The jewelry and .silverware lines combined 
with the others and the pojDularity of Mr. Markell have made his store one of the 
centers of trade in the village. 

Peter V. Markell is a son of John and Priscilla Markell, who came from Herkimer 
county and settled in the town of Van Buren. Her maiden name was Priscilla Boyce 
of Tribes Hill, that county. The Markell family came from German stock, three 
brothers of that name having come to this country early in the century. They all 
located in Herkimer count}', but one of them finally went to Canada, where he re- 
mained during his life. P. V. Markell has ever since attaining his majority been an 
earnest active Republican. Though he has occupied no political office he has been in- 
terested in his friends who have sought such offices, and his effort and influence have 
many times contributed largely to their success. He now one of the trustees of the 
village. Mr. Markell married Miss Minnie A. Bark, born in Prussia, July 20, 1856. 
They have five children, Ella May, now teaching at Garham's Corners, James P., 
Frances A., Edith P. and Russell B. All except Ella May are students in the Jordan 
public schools. 
T 



154 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

EDWARD H. BURDICK. 

Edward Hamilton Burdick, A.M., only son of Hamilton and Elvira (Woodworth) 
Burdick, was born in Syracuse on the 14th of September, 1850, and received his pre- 
liminary education in the public schools of his native city. He spent two years at 
the Vermont Episcopal Institute, a military school in Burlington, and then entered 
Hobart College at Geneva, N. Y., from which he was graduated with the degree of 
B.S., in 1870. He read law until the spring of 1871, when he accepted a clerkship in 
the Trust and Depcsit Company of Onondaga, out of which was soon organized the 
State Bank of Syracuse, of which he was made paying teller. He resigned this 
position in April, 1873, and spent six months in Europe. Returning to Syracuse he 
resumed his law studies in his father's office. He was admitted to the bar at Buffalo 
in June, 1875, and immediately after formed a copartnership with his father and 
preceptor, which continued until January 1, 1890, when he became associated with 
ex-district attorney Lawrence T. Jones and George McGowan under the firm name 
of Burdick, Jones & McGowan. In June, 1893, Mr. Burdick withdrew from this firm 
and since then he has practiced alone, having offices with his father, and assuming 
the latter's litigation business. 

Mr. Burdick has not only won a foremost place among the younger members of 
the profession, but occupies a prominent position at the bar of Onondaga county, 
having been elected secretary of the Onondaga County Bar Association in 1892 and 
still retaining that office. Inheriting those distinguished qualities of mental superi- 
ority which have so long made his father conspicuous in the legal arena, he has 
attained high rank as an able lawyer, and enjoys the respect and confidence of both 
his numerous clients and the public. In politics he has always been an unswerving 
Democrat, and for several years has taken a keen interest in the welfare of his 
party. His only political office is that of school commissioner from the Fourth ward, 
to which he was elected by a flattering majority in November, 1895, running far 
ahead of the ticket. As a member of the Board of Education his work has been 
characterized by ability, justice, and fidelity not only to his local constituents, but to 
the city at large. In July, 1895, he was elected a member of the faculty of the new 
College of Law of Syracuse University and given the chair of Instructor in Con- 
tracts and Domestic Relations, which he still holds. He is a prominent member of 
Central City Lodge, No. 305, F. and A. M., and Central City Chapter, No. 70, R. 
A. M., and was one of the early members of the Citizens' Club. He takes a lively 
interest in all public matters, and is prominently identified with the social and civil 
life of the community. 

December 28, 1875, Mr. Burdick was married to Miss Elizabeth Hall, daughter of 
Hon. Benjamin F. Hall, of Auburn, N. Y. , and they have four children: Edward 
Woodworth, who was graduated from the Syracuse High School in 1894, sjjent one 
year in Columbia College Law School, and is now a student in the College of Law of 
Syracuse University; Henry Hagaman, a student in Syracuse University, class of 
1899; and Reginald Houghton and Rupert Lee. Judge Hall, the father of Mrs. E. 
H. Burdick, was member of assembly in 1844, mayor of Auburn in 1852, and judge 
of the Territory of Colorado from 1861 to 1865. 




E. H. BL'RUICK. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 155 

REV. WILLIAM M. BEAUCHAMP. 

William M. Beauchami', S.T. D., eldest son of William M. Beauchamp, sr., was born 
at Coldenham, Orange county, N. Y., March 25, 1830. The father came to America in 
1829 and visited Skaneateles in that year, but did not settle there until April, 1831. 
He founded the Skaneateles Democrat in 1840. The son was educated in the acad- 
emy of the village and graduated from the De Lancey Divinity School at Geneva. 
On September 21, 1862, he was made deacon by Bishop De Lancey and received the 
degree of S. T. D. from Hobart College in 1880. For many years he has been an ex- 
amining chaplain of the diocese of Central New York. 

He has given much attention to all branches of local natural history, havmg pre- 
I^ared full lists of the fishes, reptiles, quadrupeds and birds of Onondaga, besides 
jjublishing a descriptive list of its shells. He is also an active botanist, and cor- 
responding member of several botanical societies. He was married to Miss Sarah 
Carter, of Ravenna, O., November 2fi, 1857, and has four children: Yirginia, Ellen, 
Grace, and Howard C. Beauchamp, the latter having been editor of the Fayetteville 
Recorder since May, 1891. 

Dr. Beauchamp has six large manuscript volumes devoted to the antiquities of 
Onondaga, and profusely illustrated with original drawings. In his own denomina- 
tion he is well known as a writer on historical and other subjects, being an occasional 
contributor to religious periodicals. In Indian philology he has attained a prominent 
position. ' 



CHARLES P. CLARK. 

Hon. Charles Parsons Clark, president of the Syracuse Savings Bank, is a son 
of Luther and Sarah (Parsons) Clark, and was born in West Hampton, Hampshire 
county, Mass., November 26, 1822. His parents were natives of Massachusetts and 
descendants of sturdy New England stock, and followed farming as an occupation, 
n which the son acquired both a robust constitution and sterling habits of thrift and 
economy. He spent his summers upon the homestead and his winters in attendance 
at the district schools, where he obtained a limited knowledge of books, but valuable 
experience in discipline and study. At twelve years of age he was sent to live with 
his maternal uncle, Chester Parsons, in Skaneateles, Onondaga county, where he 
remained until he reached his majority, working on the farm in summer and attend- 
ing the common schools in winter. For these nine years of toil and educational ad- 
vantages he was to receive his board and clothes, and when twenty-one SlOO in 
money. He labored well and faithfully, studied persistently, and secured on6 year 
at the Skaneateles Academy, and when of age grasped the first opportunity that 
opened, hiring out to a neighboring farmer for eight months for §580. The next 
winter he chopped sixty cords of wood at three shillings per cord. 

When twenty-three years of age he came to Syracuse and entered the employ of 
Philo N. Rust, the noted landlord of village days, his chief duty being the care of 
Mr. Rust's garden near what is now the corner of South avenue and West Onondaga 
street. Here he remained for three years, receiving $15 a month and board. In 



156 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

1847 he accepted a position handling freight in the depot of the Auburn and Syra- 
cuse Railroad Company at a salary of $28 per month, and at the end of a year was 
given a clerkship in the office, which he filled for two years. In 1853, when the 
various lines were consolidated into the present New York Central system, he was 
made freight agent in charge of that department in Syracuse, and for forty years, or 
until 1889, he faithfully discharged the duties of that responsible position. He was 
thus immediately connected with the first forty-two years of the city's growth, and 
watched its prosperity and development with an interest which few men in similar 
circumstances could acknowledge. He not only witnessed but actively participated 
in the rapidly increasing freight business of the community, and saw it expand from 
an insignificent department to immense proportions, demanding the labor of up- 
wards of sixty men. 

Mr. Clark, although necessarily withdrawn from public view by reason of his un- 
remitting attention to his chosen calling, was early solicited by his fellow citizens to 
accept positions of trust and responsibility, for which he was eminently qualified by 
unusual executive ability. He was elected alderman of the Sixth ward by the Re- 
publicans under Maj'or E. W. Leavenworth in ISoO, re-elected under Mayor Amos 
Westcott in 1860, and again elected under Mayor Charles Andrews in 1862. In 1869 
he was elected mayor of the city by a handsome majority, and re-elected for a second 
term in 1870. In 1871 he was appointed police commissioner and served as president 
of the board from 1871 to 1874 inclusive. In these various capacities he made hon- 
orable records, and won the respect and confidence of all classes of citizens. His 
official acts were characterized by good judgment, economy, conservatism, and rare 
fidelity to his constituents and to the public at large. 

In 1872 Mr. Clark was elected a trustee of the Syracuse Savings Bank to fill the 
vacancy caused by the death of E. B. Wicks, and on January 14, 1889, became the 
president of that institution, a position he has since filled with great credit and abil- 
ity. He was one of the founders and has continuously been a director of the Bank 
of Syracuse, and since 1889 has been a director of the Syracuse Electric Light and 
Power Company, and a trustee of Oakwood Cemetery Association and the Onondaga 
County Orphan Asylum. He has been president of the latter institution .since 1892, 
president of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children since 1888, and 
president of the Bureau of Labor and Charities since 1888. He has also been a 
member of the First Presbyterian church since 1886 and one of its trustees since 1887, 
and is prominently identified with various other organizations. He is a public 
spirited citizen, charitable, energetic, and enterprising, a benefactor to the poor and 
worthy, and a liberal supporter of all movements promising good to the community. 
From the humblest position in life he has risen by his own unaided efforts to the 
loftiest place in financial and business affairs, and throughout an active career has 
won and retained the confidence, esteem, and respect of all who know him or with 
whom he has come into contact. He is pre-eminently a self-made man, whose hon- 
orable reputation crowns a life of usefulness with a brilliancy as merited as it is en- 
during. 

Mr. Clark was married in 1848 to Miss Aurelia L., daughter of Robert W. Nolton, 
then of Syracuse. They have one son. Dr. Gaylord P. Clark, of this city, who has 
attained a foremost position as physician and surgeon. 



BIOaRAPHICAL. 157 

JACOB AMOS. 

Hon. Jacoh Amos is the second son of Jacob and Mary Ann (Kippley) Amos and 
was born in Syracuse in December, 185;}. Jacob Amos, sr. , youngest of three sous 
of Charles and Barbara Amos, was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, April 23, 1818, 
received his education and learned the butcher's trade in his native country, and in 
1839 came to America. After spending a short time in New York and Rochester he 
came in 1840 to Syracuse with seventy-five cents in cash, and engaged in packing 
salt, chopping wood, and butchering. In 1847 he married Mary Ann, daughter of 
Sebastian Kippley, who was born in Alsace, Germany, in 1824, and emigrated with 
her parents to this country in 1834, settling in the town of Manlius. After his mar- 
riage Mr. Amos leased the Dunlop mills in Jamesville and began the manufacture of 
Hour and farina, being one of the pioneer producers of the latter in this country. 
About 18").") he removed farther down Butternut Creek in the town of Dewitt, and 
leasing a mill continued the manufacture of flour, split peas, and farina until 18<il, 
when he was burned out. He then settled in Syracuse, where he purchased four stores 
where the Amos block now stands and subsequently two more adjoining. Here he 
manufactured flour, feed, farina, etc.. until the fall of 1877. In 1867 he built a 
flouring mill in Baldwinsville, and the same year married Mrs, Arminda Ring, of 
Buffalo, his first wife having died iu 1864. Mr. Amos was a self-made man. About 
1850 he built and for several years kept the Amos Hotel in North vSalina street, which 
was long the popular headquarters for Germans, and which is now owned by his 
daughters. In politics he was first a Whig and later a Republican. He died iu 
Syracuse May 26, 1883. His children, all born by the first marriage, were Charles 
L., who died June 27, 1887; Matilda (Mrs. J. P. Miller); Katherine (Mrs. Henry C. 
Peters); and Amelia (Mrs. Otto F. Baumgras), all of Syracuse; Mary and John, who 
died in infancy ; Mary 2d, widow of Frederick Walthers, of Denver, Col. ; and 
Jacob, the subject of this sketch. 

Hon. Jacob Amos was educated in the public and high schools of Syracuse and 
early engaged in business with his father, taking charge of the Baldwinsville mill. 
In 1876 he formed a partnership with his father and brother Charles L,, under the 
firm name of Jacob Amos & Sons, which continued until the father's death in 1883, 
when the style of Amos Brothers was adopted. In 1878 the firm purchased and oc- 
cupied the old Barker & Munroe mill, and in 1881 remodeled this and the Baldwins- 
ville establishment, putting in the new roller process, new machinery, etc., at a cost 
of $7.5,000, and giving the whole the present name of Empire State Mills. They 
were the first to adopt the roller process in the State, and for many years this com- 
bined establishment has been celebrated as the largest of its kind in Onondaga 
county. Since 1887 the business has been conducted by Hon. Jacob Amos. 

Mr. Amos has always been a staunch and active Republican. He was a trustee of 
the village of Baldwinsville for a time, and in February, 1892, w^as elected mayor of 
Syracuse by a majority of 1,212, running against George Penn. He was re-elected 
to that office in February, 1894, in a spirited triangular contest over J. B. Kline (the 
present district attorney) and Duncan W. Peck, his pluralty being 275. During his 
two terms as mayor the city hall and the New York Central depot were built, both 
being accomplished largely through his personal influence and tireless energy. He 
was also instrumental in securing the pavement in Washington street along the 



158 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

Central railroad tracks, the completion of the present municipal or Skaneateles Lake 
water system, and the construction of eight public schools at a cost of $200,000. 
Under his administration there were laid in the city over ten miles of pavement, 
many miles of street grading, more than twenty-four miles of sewers, and a large 
amount of miscellaneous improvement, all of permanent value to the city and public. 

Mr. Amos is vice-president and director of the Third National Bank, was one of 
the founders and continuously a director of the Commercial Bank, has served as 
president of the Paragon Plaster Company since its organization, is president of the 
Peoples' Building and Loan Association, a director in the Empire and Onondaga 
Building and Loan Associations and Syracuse Rawhide Company, a trustee of the 
Svracuse Savings Bank and St. Joseph's Hospital, vice-president of the Empire 
Bicvcle Company, member of the New York City Produce and Buffalo Merchants 
(grain) Exchanges, a director m the Syracuse Storage Battery Company, and a 
member of the Century and Citizens' Clubs, Seneca River Lodge, F. & A. M., Bald- 
winsville, and Central City Commandery No. 25, K. T. 

In September, 1880, he was married to Miss Florence E., daughter of the late Dr. 
James Fitz James Wells, for many years a prominent physician of Baldwinsville. 
They have one daughter, Christine. 



ALEXANDER J. CAMPBELL, M. D. 

Alexander James Campbell, M. D., is the third child of Daniel and Isabella 
(Robinson) Campbell, and was born in the town of Niagara, province of Ontario, 
Canada, April 12, 1856. His paternal grandfather was Daniel Campbell, a resident 
of Scotland. His parents came from Glasgow, Scotland, to Niagara, Canada, in 
1846, and there he received his preliminary education in the Niagara High School, of 
which his father was principal. About 1870 the family moved to Trumansburg, 
N. Y., where Mr. Campbell was for three years principal of the academy, and where 
he still resides on a farm. Mrs. Campbell died in 1869, and he married for his 
second wife, in 1872, Miss Georgiana Robb, of Hamilton, Ontario. 

Dr. Campbell was graduated from the Niagara High School in 1875, and from 
that time until 1881 followed school teaching in order to secure a college or pro- 
fessional education. Having decided upon medicine he entered the medical depart- 
ment of Syracuse University in 1881 and was graduated from that institution with 
the degree of M. D. in 1883. In 1883-84 he was interne in the Rochester City Hos- 
pital and from 1885 to 1890 successfully practiced his profession in Warners, Onon- 
daga county. In the latter year he came to Syracuse, where he followed a general 
practice until 1892, when he started a private hospital for diseases of women and 
general surgery, which he still continues. In this specialty he has built up a large 
and successful business. He removed the largest fibroid tumor and the largest 
number of fibroid tumors (seventeen) from one person ever removed in Syracuse, 
and was one of the first in the city to perform hysterectomy. 

Dr. Campbell is a member of the Onondaga County Medical Society, the New 
York Medical Association, and the American Medical Association, and a charter 
member of the Syracuse Academy of Medicine. In 1894 he represented the Ameri- 




A. J. CAMPBELL. M. D. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 159 

can Medical Association as a delegate to the Eleventh International Medical Con- 
gress held in Rome, Italy, which was the largest gathering of physicians and sur- 
geons in the world's history, more than 7,000 practitioners being present. While 
abroad he improved the opportunity by pursuing special studies in surgery in the 
hosjMtals of Vienna, Paris, and London, and i^osscssing a keen observation and a 
retentive memory he accumulated a fund of valuable professional knowledge and 
much general information which stamps him as a man of varied attainments. 

]\Iay 29, 1888, Dr. Campbell was married to Mi.ss Carrie Millen, daughter of 
Thomas Millen, of Syracuse. Mr. Millen was the first to manufacture Portland 
cement in this city, and for many years has been prominently identified with that 
business, both here and at Warners. 



JAMES FRAZIili. 

James Frazke, a representative citizen of Baldwinsville, was born in Durhamville, 
Oneida county, N. Y., December 28, 1820. His school education was confined to his 
early years in the common school of his native place. At the age of fourteen years 
he left home to accept a position as clerk in a store at Rome, N. Y. , where he re- 
mained three years. On September 18, 1845, he located permanently in Baldwins- 
ville where he first became a clerk in the store of Glass & Williams, remaining with 
them until January, 1850. He then leased what was known as the Farmers' Mill of 
Van Buren, and began busine.ss for himself in a line with which he has ever .since 
been connected. He continued in that mill eight years. In 185i», in connection with 
Irvin Williams and William L. Fuller, he built the flouring mill known as the Union 
Mills of Baldwinsville. In 1.S60 he bought Mr. Williams's interest in the property, 
and in 18(53 he bought Mr. Fuller's interest. From that time to the present Mr. 
Frazee has continued in the milling business at that place through all its changes. 
In May, 1863, the business was incorporated under the name of the James Frazee 
Milling Company. 

Mr. Frazee's honorable and successful business career early gave him a recognized 
high position in the community and resulted in his bemg called to several stations of 
honor and responsibility. At first a Whig and later a Republican in politics, he was 
elected to represent the first district of Oonondaga county in the Legislature of 1858. 
He there learned, as he says, his lack of taste and qualifications for political office, 
and thereafter declined further distinction of that nature. He has, however, never 
wavered in his devotion to the Republican party, or in his efforts to secure the elec- 
tion to office of the best men. During the war of the Rebellion he was active and 
unselfish in support of the government He was a delegate to the National Republi- 
can Convention at Chicago in June, 1884, when James G. Blaine was nominated for 
the presidency. 

Among the local public and private enterprises with which Mr. Frazee has been 
intimately connected was the organization of the First National Bank of Baldwins- 
ville in 1864, of which he was the first president, continuing about ten years. In 
1864 he was instrumental in getting the lower end of the Baldwinsville Canal length- 
ened and a new lock built leading to deep water in the river below. In 186(i he built 



160 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIAL. 

the guard lock at the head of the Baldwinsville Canal and lowered the canal bottom 
two feet, thereby greatly improving navigation. In 1864 he was one of the building 
committee in charge of the erection of the Presbyterian church. In 1865 he was act- 
ive in promoting the union of the school districts on the north and the south sides of 
the river, forming the Baldwinsville Union Free School District, and in building the 
High School structure. In 1805 he bought and rebuilt the Farmers' Mills of Van 
Buren, and in the same year was interested in building the Baldwinsville woolen 
mills. In 1872 he was a member of the building committee in charge of erecting the 
Baptist church. 

This is a brief record of a busy and honorable life. In every capacity to which 
Mr. Frazee has been a.ssigned he has shown the sterling qualities of the best man- 
hood and citizenship. In 1870 he united with the Presbyterian church and the fol- 
lowing year was elected a ruling elder. He was a commissioner from the Syracuse 
Presbytery to the Presbyterian General Assembly, held in Detroit, Mich., in May, 
1892. 

On November 7, 1854, Mr. Frazee was married to Harriet A. Thompson, daughter 
of German and Amanda Thompson. For nearly forty years her love and devotion 
were an inspiration to him. Her clear perception and wise counsel was his constant 
support, and to her he credits much of whatever success and honor he has attained. 
Mrs. Frazee died August 7, 1893. On January 9, 1895, he was married to Miss Jane 
L. Wright, of Rome, N. Y. 



WILLIAM F. McEVERS. 

William F. McEvers (deceased), Fabius, was born Oct. 8, 1841, in the town of 
Fabius, a son of James and Fidelia (Clark) McEvers, of this county, where they 
lived and died. William F. was reared on the farm and educated in the common 
schools, was a farmer, and owned sixty-two acres in Fabius. He married Victoria, 
daughter of Russell C. and Fidelia (Mosher) French (see biography of D. W. French). 
Mr. McEvers died October 10, 1890, his widow residing in Summit Station, where 
she is a member of the M. E. church of that place. Her youngest brother, Clayton, 
was born Feb. 21, 1859, educated at the Onondaga Academy, and follows farming, 
owning eighty acres of fine land. Oct. 23, 1879, he married Mary Cole of La Fayette, 
and they have three children: Robert C, Russell H., and Ray V. 



ASAHEL K. CLARK. 

As.AHEL K. Clark was born in Durham, Greene county. N. Y., on September 30, 
1811. His ancestry came originally from Ireland at a very early date, and among 
their descendants was Aaron P. Clark, father of Asahel K., who was a native of 
Massachusetts. Aaron P. Clark married Lovisa, daughter of Alexander Kinney, 
and they had three children: Aaron, Asahel K., and Delia, who became the wife of 
Lorenzo Northrup, of Syracuse. They are all deceased. Asahel K. Clark received 




Wm. f. mcevers. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 161 

his education in the district schools, and in is;!! located in Onondaga county. Pre- 
vious to that time he had learned the shoemaker's trade as a bound apprentice, and 
settling in Lysander he entered the employ of Benjamin Smith. In 18:54 he located 
at Warners where he engagevd in the manufacture of boots and shoes and tanning. 
This business he followed until about 18-14 at that place and in the town of Van 
Buren. Meanwhile, in 1837 he purchased a farm in the last named town, and after 
retiring from the shoe business he followed farming the remainder of his life. Mr. 
Clark was a man of marked character, lofty principles, and his life as a whole was 
above reproach. He held the office of supervisor three years, justice of the peace 
eight years, and deputy sheriff; he was also vice-president of the First National 
Bank of Baldwinsville about twenty years. He died in the enjoyment of the respect 
of the entire community on January ;J, 18!)(). Mr. Clark's wife was Betsey Maria 
Peck, daughter of Peter Peck. They had seven children; Aaron P., Asahel K., jr., 
Mrs. Eunice U. Nichols, Mrs. Harriet A. Toll, B. Maria, William P., and Mrs Car- 
rie L. Kent. 



MICHAEL J. LAWLEvSS. 

Michael J. Lawless, son of David and Elizabeth Lawless, was born m County 
"vVexford, Ireland, September 29, 1837. He came to America with his parents in 
1852 and resided for some years in Baldwinsville, Onondaga county, where he 
attended school winters and worked summers. From there the family removed to 
Howlett Hill in the town of Camillus, where David died in July, 1882, aged seventy- 
five; his wife's death occurred at Marcellus Falls in June, 1891, at the age of 
eighty-seven. They had six children, of whom four are livmg, viz. : James, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Hayes, and Michael J., all of Marcellus Falls, and David T., of Rochester. 

Michael J. Lawless moved in the spring of 1866 to Marcellus Falls, where he has 
ever sincQ resided, and where for many years he has been a prominent and influen- 
tial citizen. In 1875 he formed a partnership with Dennis Tierney, under the firm 
name of M. J. Lawless & Co., and purchased the Eagle paper mill. Desiring to en- 
large his business he purchased in 1880 the Phoenix paper mill, then owned by the 
McIntyreCoal Company, and has since continued in the paper business, being now 
ably assisted by his sons. Through his untiring industry, perseverance, and native 
energy he has met with uniform success, and for several years has ranked among 
the leading paper manufacturers of Central New York. His success has been the 
result of his own efforts. He is a man of good business ability, thorough, energetic, 
and careful ; in the ordinary affairs of life he is kind, generous, and benevolent, and 
quite active in all matters affecting the general welfare. 

Mr. Lawless has always taken an active interest in agricultural pursuits, managing 
the splendid farm on which he resides and another known as the Echo Valley Farm 
near Marcellus Station, which he purchased about ten years ago. In addition to 
conducting two paper mills and two farms he is a prominent factor in politics and 
deeply interested in the success of the Republican party. He has for several years 
been a prominent member of the C. M. B. A., serving as president of Branch 97, 
Marcellus, and as grand deputy for the diocese of Syracuse and Ogdensburg. He is 
u 



162 ONONDAGA'S CENTENNIA