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Full text of "On the Stowage of Ships and Their Cargoes: With Information Regarding Freights, Charter-parties ..."

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^TFVENS ON STOW A'" 


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FIFTH EDITION 
WITH APPENDIX . 




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^L^ Pricc^V/- 






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H.M, BOYAL NAVY. 

A3IXIRALTT, 6tli February, 1867 
Mr, RoBKttT Weiti Stjivens, Author of Stowage, Plyiiiniuu 
mandod bj my Lords Cojoubsionkiis of the Adm'iiulty, to acquaint^ 
they have given orders for jour work entitled " InstructioQB on thai 
of Ships and their Cftfgoes/' to be fumisbed to the Libraries of eac 
Mjyeaty's Dock Yards. Yo. mo. ob. W. G, BOMAINE 

BOAED OF TBADE, 7tli Febmaryi 1867, 
Wr. R, W. Stbvens is requested to be bo good as to forward addresi 
Assistant Secretary, Mariae Department, Board of Trade, a copy of tl 
Edition of his *• Instructions on the Stowage of Ships/* Similar oi 
been received from Rear-Admiral Halstead, Secretary at Lloyd's, Loi 
Qeneral Shipowners* Society, Merchant Banking Co, Home and Col 
Buranoe Oo, the principal Dock Companies, and the Underwriters' 
at Liverpool, Glasgow, Cardiff, Topshartf, to. &o. 

Capt. HUGH ItAXnOLIAK ElUOT, Boyal ITaTy, 

Having seen the book and approved of it, courteously opened a 
deuce with the author, gave him the advantage of his esperiance, an 
(September 20, 186C|) any further assistanco. 

Yloe-Admiral WnXIAM OSIFFOT, 

Writes, January t3, 1867, ** Your valuable book does you inftnito 
wiU be a lasting monument of your indomitable spirit and deep r& 
all matters relating to the commerce of the world. This work will 
prized by the Mercantile Marine of all nations, and even by their 1^ 
Naval Officers are frequently called npon to a^iidicate in matters r^ 
ships of commerce, respecting Freight, Stowage, &c. That this worl 
may prove highly advantageous in i pecuniary point of view, ia the hi 
of one who subscribes himself your sincere and attached friend, &c/' 

^^o^-AdBiral Sir JOHH KOTOCOIIBE, E.C.B. 

Says, January 27, 1867, " Thanks for the perusal of yonr book, w 
doubt, is highly Tdluable and appreciated by the Mej^antile comm' 
trust you may be well rewarded for the labour and talent you have 
on it With best wishes, kc" 

From Coxamandar CHABLES PABEY, B.H, 
Deronport, July, 1668, Mr. Rt. Whitr Stevens, '* Dear Sir, Your ^ 
Stowage is a first-rate work, as useful to OlVicers of Ships of War hh tq 
Uj© Merchant Service, so much so, that I liave purchased a dupUcutft i 
sent it to Commodore Phiixtmohk, who takes a great intero^t in Rtlch \ 
I hope it may secure the circulation which it deserves." [Comniodon 
UMOHE was at this Lime in commind of the Squadron in iho West In 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

ICr.E.J.BEES, Chief Conitrnetor of tlia BOTAL NAVY, 
In the course of a Lecture on th? suhject of Arm our -Plated Sliipi^ delivered 
nt rivraouth in DeeemV>er, 1860, said *' It was supposed that by the applicfttioa 
of armour plates to ships their rolling at sea would be greatly increased, but 
the very reverse was the font. Tliis arose througb raising the centre of gravity 
by tlie introduction of tbe upper weights. Now, in all cases, the higher tbe 
centre of gravi!y in reason, tbe better i\ ship will behave at sea, whether for 
navai or mercantile purposes. On the latter subject I need not say much to the 
inhabitants of Plymouth, for one of their number, Mr Eobeet Wuite Steveks» 
had produced the best work extant on the Stowage of Ships and their Cargoes/* 



MERCHANT NAVY — SHIPOWNERS. 

ICr. wnXIAH B017AB, Sdoretary id the General Shipawners' Society, 
Of 12, St Micha?rs Alley, GoruhiU, writes, August 2. IHG5» ** We are well 
acquainted with your valuiible work and with many other good servicca yon 
have rendered to the Shipping Interest by your pen.'' 

Keurs. JAMES BAIKES ft Go. (Black Ball Line,) 
In a letter dated 1, Leadenhall Street, 26 March, WiUS, say ** Enclosed we re- 
turn the excellent a^ldiuons you propose to make in your already invaluable 
work on Stowage, which we always keep by us and often find useful." 

IffMin. OEOEOE THOMPSON & Co, of ABEEBEEIT, 

la addtessing the author, July 7» J 860, say ** We now return your article on tl 
Stowage of Tea, which we think is very much to the pt^iiit, and so far as v 
know, is correct as to the Queen of Nations, To show our appreciation of yc 
work on Stowage we may mention U^hat we give a copy to each of our capta' 
twenty of them — besides having recourse to it here and at our office in Lont' 

Metirs. HAIX ft Co. Bmlders, of ABEEBEEH, 
Bay* 8 October, 1860^ "Your description of the Murnttf is quite correc 
of the Sinr of Tasmania, both of which we built We consider yoiur wot 
be id great service to ship-owners and to ship-builders also/' 

Mesiis, JOKES, BE0THEE8, SMpownera, NEWPOBT, (Mon.) 
Write Kov. 29, 1860, " Please send us two copies your Stowage. W 
glad to be informed when another edition is published. It may 
you to know that we place your book on board all our vessels. '" D 
1800, *' Please send httlf a doaieu copies new Edition/' May 20. 
you propose a new Edition soon ? We will take six of them." Ii 
Co<le of Instructions to their Masters, this flim adds at foot, " A ' 
VENB OS Stowage is placed on board, and much us*.'ful inform' 
obtained hy a careful peruaal, to enable you to dischai'ge your 
owners, shippers, consignees, officers^ and crew," 



I 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

Kmiti. BAJfI£L LB YESCOHTE it Co» of JERSEY, 

State* Jnnuaiy 17, 1867, ** One of our masters had shewn us your third edition, 
and we must say tbat we have been well pleased by its pemsal. Knowiug 
t]iat auother edillou was iu comiae of preparation, we have wailed for the same 
and now order one for the use of our office. We presume that the 21s book 
incltjdea tbat contained in the Europe and Grain books* We are, Bir, Yours 
respectfully, .fee." 

Xatirs* WILLIAMSON, MUIIDAH, 4 Co* of LIVERPOOL, 

Write, 35, South John Street, 1 1 Fehnmry, 1867. ** Please send ub six copies 
of your work (full edition 2U.) and back the books with the namea of the 
followiug ships: — Wavehley» Bed Gauntlet, Guy Maknfjuno, Mahmion, 

c»ED OF THE IsL£s, Olid Knight OF Sf^owDouN. Pleaso Bcnd MAaaiioN at onoe, 

t ahe sails at the end of this week/' 

Mr* CHARLES CAPFEB, of 9, Minciag Lane, LOKBOir, 

SayR» February 12, 1R67. **1 am mucli pleased with Uie new edition of your 
work» whitih is invaluable to Shipowners, and I shall have pleasure in re* 
^commending it.*' 

Mesiri. SMITH ft FRT, of dS, Foaolioroh Street, LOHDOF, 

When writing Februaiy 12, 1807, say, ** We believe your book would be ex* 
ceedingly useful to ttU conaected vvjih Hliipping as a work of reference. We 
tiall have much pleabiure in recommending it to our fiienda whenever we have 
|au opportunity/' 

Metirs. GEORGE BESLAJTDEB A SON, of JERSEY, 

Write, February 20, lb67» *' Enclosed we send you our cheque on the London 
Joint Stock Bank, value ^1 1*, for your yalunble edition on Stowage, which 
ibe of great service to us for reference/* 

Mr. JOBS B. PALMER (PALMER'S Shipboildins Go.) NEWCASTLE, 

Says, June 19, 18(17, *' I bave looked over your book and beg to offer you my 
compliments on its uaefulueas/' 



Mr. THOS. B. WALKER, owner of tho liaraQO FUGITIVE, 

Writes^ July 30, 1867, ** I heartiJy wish fiuccesa to your eflbrt in bringiug out 

a work, which if attended to by Shipmasters and their Ofilccrs, must in my 

opinion, be productive of great good. Pray, Sir, receive the assurenc© tbat if 

here is any information I can procure for you from Masters in my service, or 

'' there is any 1 can give you myself, as a practical Shipowner, it will a0brd 

! pleasure to do so/' 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Mmrs. &EOEGE W. JOVES, * Co. Bhipowneri, TCWPOBT, (Moil) 

Order, August 6^ 1867, the Litest edition of Stowage. August S, 1867. ' 
hiive your fiivor of yesterday and book. We shall oot fail io recorameud 
jmblicfttion to our clients, as it contaiDa much inforamtian that is unkc 
to shipmasters generally/' November 10. 1B67, " Please send us five copi 
your last edition of Stbvkns ok Stowage, cost of same we enclose. We pu 
sending them out to friends in Kova Scotia and Now Brunswick, wh 
highly appreciate the uaeftilncss of the work. " September 12, 1B68, *^0| 
World 21*/' December 4, 18(^0, " Pkase send Stowage by retuni of pd| 
have parted witJi our copy to a Master of a Ship in Liverpool, who was j 
to procme it there." " 

IKeflsra. OELLATLY, HAHSET, 8EWBLL, 4 Co. of LeadenltaU St. LOHl 

Write, May 1, 190B, "We note your work on Stowage is now in its 
edition, and we sljall be glad if you will put ouriiames down for a copy, 
have no suggestion to otier with regard to its improvement As you havi 
so fully into details, you must be more ac^juainted with tlie subject thai 
selves." 

Meitrf . A. ft J. IHGUS, SMpbuilderi, GLAB&OW, f 

Bay, September 16, 1&C8, " ^our book on Stowage we got tlirough yo«; 
bere» and we shall try to recommend it wherever we can." ' 




MERCHANT NAVY— SHIPMASTEKS, 



Gapt BOBEBT BCYET, of the brig £17QEinE, 

Writes, 14 April, 1904, •* I have a copy of your work and iiave often fc 
valuable for reference.** 

Capt. 0ALE, of tbe thip ETELTN, 

From Adelaide, April 4, 1806, says, *' Allow me to tell you that your boo* 
Stevens on Stowage, is one of the finest publications that was ever in 
to the British Mercantile Marine, I have known many little knotty q 
decided by it, and Bfttisfactoiily proved." 

'l 
Capt. H. B. AH(}EL| of tlie tMp TEBirLEM, 

Of Wisbeoch, from King George's Sound, May 28, IB6(\, says " I have i 
for half a dozen copies of your work ; please send them to the London 



Capt. W. H, BISHOP, f London 4 Mod. Steam Floet.) 
Brixham, May 20, IseT, ** Stevbns on Stowaoi is the text book of tl 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Ctpt. W. B. BAEWOOB, of the barque FUaiTIVE, 

Writes, July 12, 1B67, *• Your truly valuable work, Stevens on Stowage, I 
have been in poeaeaaion of for several years, and really I consider it a moat i 
valuable book, and one tbat certainly no master should be witbout, I raust I 
troJy acknowledge having obtained mucb useful information from it, and have 
thus been enabled to give my friends a 'wrinkle' on several occasions. 
Hoping you may be enabled to compile a further edition , I am, with kind I 
respects, &o." 

Capt. THO«* TTmiKKLL, of the barque STORMY PETREL, 

After kindly pointing out an error in one of the early editions, says, GlasgowJ 
August S, 1867, ** As your work is taken by (at least all my friends) as an. 
authority, I trust you will excuse my thus troubling you ; at the same time I 
shall be glad to give you any information I possess in connection with matter* 
such as you require for your book." 

Capt. J. WTVILL, of the tarqae VELOCIBADE, 

W. L Bocks, August 31, 1867, *' Dear Sir, 1 am in possession of your work on 
Stowage, and find it very useful. I have met with it in Merchants' OlHces la 
OAifMi, and have no doubt it is well and deservedly appreciated. 1 am, kc,' 

Oapt. JOSEPH GIHBER, barbae EAGI.ET, 

Writes, November 22, 1B07, ** 1 have just gone through your book. It is 
most valuable work, not only on StowagOi but on so many poiuts which bav< 
been referred to in Oourta of Law, &o" 



Capt. ROBERT JOSS, of Regent Flaoe, Commeroial Road East, 

Says, January 28, 1868, " I have lately heard of your work on Stowage, an^ 
have aeon one of your examples — a Tea Ciu'go in tbe John Tnnpirleif ; I havd 
b«en a few voyages in the Tea Trade myself, and consider the drawing perfectll 
correct.*' 



Oapt. AIEXR. LOCKE, of the ship BELTED WILL, from Canton, 

Writes^ off Falmouth, September 3, 1868, '' 1 will tbiiuk you to seud me a co|ij 
of your book on the Stowage of Cargoes ; 1 have heard u spoken well of." 

Capt R. B. MerARLAlTE, of the ship WARRIOR^ 

From Melbourne, December H. says. Qravesend, March 4, 180U. ** I Liavo 
copy of your book called St£v£ms on Stowaok, and consider it Uie best worl 
of the kind 1 ba?e ever seen. My owners, Moeart* JAJtits Hsnty & Co, 
MilbouTM^ have several copies Id their othoe.*' 





STEVENS ON STOWAGE.* 



TESTIMONIALS — VARIODS. 

ICr. J, A. EABPEE, 8eCT«taT7 at LLOYD'S 
To tlie Association for the protection of Commercial Interest?, say^ 
lember, IH5fl, *• I shnll l»e much obliged if you would favor m© with th^ 
of tlie latent edition of your work on Stowogo for the use of this Co^ 
And, July 30, 16BC^ '* I have much pleasure iu acknowledging the > 
your letter of the 2fU.h, and in forwarding copies of Report on the Spool 
Combustion of Coal ktely issued by the OommiLtee, I beg to assure yi 
your work on Stowage is as great tin authority in this place as it flo dese 
is in Livorjmol, and I am very glad to hear tiiitt a new eiiition is in tb6 
On its issue 1 shall reqiure several copies for this office/* 

Ui, JOES V.O£E60BY, (with JOHN BOWES, £iq ) NEWCASTLE, 

Btys» January 26, 1867, ** I have received your work on Stowage. A pi 
nary glance through it is sufficient to show that ii is a very vahiable Im 
Shipowners.*' 

Mr.ABTHUE YOITKG, Aathor of the Naaticil Dictionary. 
Writes, January 21, 1807, *' Your most useful book on the Stowage of Ci 
came under my attention but recently, and I was not aware of its exj 
until 1 learned its value through Messrs. T^mp^blby, Cabtee, & Dabb 

Capt. Wm. WALKS Bp of the Patent Office, LIYEEFOOL. I 
Writes, September 3, 18G7, *' Has the Second ICdition of youi- book < 
^towage of Vessels been yet ptiblished ? If not, please inform me w 
will be so, aa 1 have found the work so exceedingly usefid, and have boi 
a copy of it from a friend so often, that I am aghamed to continue tt 
practice." 

Mr. BEEHAED E. MATHEWS, LLOYD'S Agent, MHLBOimNE, 
Writes, under date March 3, 1808, *' I have not had time to look throu 
work, but from a glance I think it will do you much credit, and will 1 
considered au authority, for we have had many disputes over dama( 
slowBge — the cargoes being so mixed." 

From Mr. CLIFTOirr a gentleman of muck experience in Shippings 
Royal Western Yacht Club, Plymouth, March 23, 1868, *'Dear Sir, At 
say i&. that bad your book appeared Forty years ago, many a young 
would have made his fortune, because he would not have returned afl 
first gale, through bad stowage, and so lost his voyage; in those days the 
no steam awd tie masters left their ports to meet trade winds. Under 
would have saved millions. I think you ought to push it with the Admiri 
there is a screw loose some where upon the Stowage of H. M. Ships, * 
ahoidd they labour so dreadfully. I really eompliment yott ujwii the p 
tiou of such a very able work, and I know a little about ship^." 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



les 



mt 



loe 



The SHIPPIKO GAZETTE (18tlL Uftroli, 1S670 

th^r " ^y tbia time the work of Mr. Robert White Stkvens, of Plymoi 
on'tlie Stowage of Ships and their Cargoes, must be toiertibly well known, 
it has passed tlirough three editions. A fresh issue for 1hG7, bringing 
fonuatiou of new Cargoes and Freightage generally, to the latest date, is i 
before us. This revised and much extended edition, embraces many poi 
that were not before touched upon* Mr Stevens, in a word, appears to hi 
devotod much time, care, and knowledge, in making tho new volume a gi 
for loading, stowing, ballasting, aud diiDUwgiDg Skips. It also conti 
DUtneroua tables useful to all who have to charter or load vessels." 

The 8HIPPIN0 GAZETTE, (August 6, 1868.) 

•* Many of our readers are aware that this work, Stevens on Stowage, is mi 
appreciated by all wlio ore interested in Shipping, and it is not surprisiu] 
learn that its merits are also esteemed !>y other classes. The Scieneo and 
Department of the Committee of Cotmcil of Education, South Konsingf 
have placed Mr. Stevens's book among tho Queen's Prizes offered to Sttid^ 
connected with that valuable Institution. This selection shows that the x 
possesses, in the estimation of tho Committee, information wliich may be 
viceable to the gt3neral scientific reader* The Lords of the Admiralty, s( 
time since, sent copies to all the Schools in the Public Arsenals.*' [Sim 
notices appeai'cd in the Wmsm Mercury ^ Morning Newt, and other pape] 

Tlie WESTEEN BAHiT STAHDAED, March 6, 1869. 

** The Author of this work, (Stevens on Stowage) who as most of our rfian 
are aware, is the Plymouth Conespondent of The Ttme$^ has just receive^ 
iiuexjiectcd compliraenL Capt. M'Faulane, of tho ship Warrior^ belougini 
Messre. Ja]ues Hekty & Co, extensive Shipowners in Melbourne, has recei 
brought home a cargo of colonial produce, and in sending an account of 
passage, he says, * I have seen a copy of your book called Stevens on Sh 
AOB, and I consider it the best work of its kind ever seen. My owners It 
several copies in their office.' Voluntary approbation like the above mui 
verj gi-atifying to the author* It appears that Captain MI^arlane's opti 
and that of bis owners, prevails in other ports besides Melbourne, for tho 
sent edition of the book is nearly disposed ot A Fifth and larger Edition 
we understand, soon appear/* ~ 



Prom the SUB-EDITOK ol a DAILY NEWSPAPER. 

February I, 1809, "Dear Sir, I return you your book on Stowage, fori 
opportunity of looking through which I have to thank you very sincerely, 
would properly regard as impertinent any attempt of mine to appraisel 
Talue; in truth I can only marreb witii an almost ignorant admiration 
the knowledge, industry, and care which have been employed to produ 
work whose worth I can recognize, though I caoDot render it the justice ol 
adequate criticism." 



I 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

THE WOBLD— FULL editiok, 720 pages, with 16 Illastrations 21/- cl 

EUROPE oiiLT, 368 pages, (6 niastratioiuO containing all^ 

that portion connected with Eubopb, with all the Coasts V 5/- ho 
iniide the Straits of Gibbaltab j 

GRAIN OKLT, 60 pages, One Illastration — ^Nbw Yobk Elevator !,'• st 

Bent post free on receipt of puhlished price in a cheque, p. o. order, or p.st 

Address— Ifr. R. White Stevens, Flymoath. 




ngines dO B 







L 



^ /^ lie 



i 



t 



ON 



THE STOWAGE OF SHIPS 



THEIR CARGOES 



SsformatioQ ngmitiog ^igjite, €^takt-l^it^i, 



&o, &c. 



ROBERT WHITE STEVENS. 

Associate Member of the ItuHtute of Naval Architects, 



FIFTH EDITION — WITH APPENDIX. 



LONDON: 
LONGMANS, GREEN. READER, & DYER. 

PLYMOUTH: B. WHITE STEVENS. 
1871* 



PREFACE. 



In tbo preface to the First Edition of this work, communications were 
solicited from shipowners, masters, merchants, and manufacturers. 
That request has been complied with most fully, and in gratefully 
acknowledging the favoi's of his correspondents, the author begs for 
a continuance, especially on the subject of those freights which may 
require fuilher explanation, on the new commodities which are acca- 
sionally coming into notice, and on the trade of those ports which have 
been but recently opened. Ho has also much pleasiue in acknow- 
ledging the assistance received from several scientific friends, from the 
Boaid of Trade, the Board of Admiralty, the Victualling and Transport 
Boards, the Commissioners of Emigration, and the Underwriters at 
Lloyd's in London Hudin Liverpool, and from various other public 
departments. 



In preparing this work the following authorities have been con 

M^'Culloch's Dictionary of Commerce. 

Harrison's Freighter's Guide. 

Gordon's Charterer's Companion. 

Baltic Shipmaster's Guide. 

Sedgwick's Golden Hints to Young Mariners. 

Lorimer's Letters to a Master Mai'iner. 

Murphy's Nautical Routine. 

Brady's Kedge Anchor, 

The Mate and his Duties. 

Lee's Laws of Shipping. 

Manley Hopkins on Average. 

Capt. Y. Feenstra's Hand Book of the Uivcr Pin 

Mercantile Magazine. 

The Times. 

Shipping and Mercantile Gazette. 



ted: 



SiiiSBXSMSasaBm 



PAGB 

INDEX, GENEBAL 11 to 17 

VESSELS NAMED IN THE CONTENTS 18 

POBT CHAEGES 20 

COAL OABGOES 21 

LAW CASES 22 

INDEX TO TABLES 23 



' Tbe flgitreB in ike Inde 


INBEX. 


re, pfl, orpU snnexed, ^^^B 




There ore aeparalG Indexes for Shipa, Law Cftses, Port Clmrgeft, &c. at the end of tbifi tAble. ^^^M 


1 Abbott 1169 


Anenie 23 213 


Biscnit bags p 32 ^^^H 


^m Accident 78G 


Ashes 24 473 


Bitnmen 57 ^^^H 


^m Accra 29 


Asphalte 25 57 


Black lead 58 ^M 


^ Acetic acid 212 


AssafteUda 26 1155 


Black sea 232 325 p41 ^M 


" Acids I 210,1 &c 


Australia 62,4 70 112,44 \ 


Black wood 59 ^M 


AdehydeplSl, 8 3B3 1223 


ail,30 684 


Bleaching powder 60 122 ^^^H 


Adminaiy shell p 78 


Anxcayes p602 
Average 27 478 1073 


Blowing up 545 _^^^^H 


Admiralty tablea of freight 


Blubber 538 ^^^M 


^^ p. 28, iron pigi 35, M*k» 
K p28, powder pudtagea 
H 4S7, iron balLytt pSO, 


Asof, sea of 325 880 991 


Boards p611 ^^^H 


[1208 
BaeoQ 28 


Boats 741 ^^^H 
Boilers 586 639 ^^^H 


^ timber p 616, tanlts p 81, 
Adult 741 


Baggage, narsl and mili- 


Boltfl 618,24 lOOO ^^^M 


tary officers p 652.3 


Bombay p 55 s 53 191 614 ^H 


AfricJi S18 434,96 613,80 


Babia p 62 e 144 978 976 


882 ■ 


692 1044 


1072,5 


Bones 62,3 107 465 ^M 


African duIa 2 680 


Bile 29 to 31, 45 46 61 


Bone Ash 24 106,7 472 ^M 


Africim timber 1044 


pl45 s300 642 
Bidklogs p610 


Bone d^st 305 ^^^1 


Akyab 419 820 


Bone black 106 ^^^H 


Alo and beer 3 to 7. 98 


BallAst 32 to 35, 75 157 


Bonny river 692 ^^^^H 


62H 632 794 


192 449 p30l 


Books 64 ^^^H 


Alexandi-ia 195 825 p236 


BsUast ports 1044,56 


Boots aod shoes 66 ^^^^| 


Algeria 254 


Bal&am capixi 36 


Borax 67 ^^^H 


AlKoa Bay 45 1208,81 


Baltic 56 232 324 371^ 


Bothnia 1038 ^H 


Alicante 155 286 


447 p244 530 iilOS9 ! 


Bottomry and respondent ^^| 


AUiaM 8 SB 239 


Baltimore p61 476 


tia 68 ,^^^1 


Almonda 261 p 184 


Bamboo reeds 37 


Bottles 318 ^^^M 


AloeiQ 


Bangor 229 
Bankrupt 49 110 


Boxwood 69 ^^^^H 


Allmpp'b ales 7 


BoTP, Cnpt. J. M. 1118 ^H 


Alnm 10 52 


Barilla 38 


Bordeaux 154 ^H 


Alston, Lieat. 95 


Bark 39 40 


Bone manure p 839 ^^^^H 


Ambrr fft^s^e 11 


Barley 362,81 


Boiler platei» 089 ^^^H 


Amidfihipfl p2H4 


Barrack stores p29 


Bradt 98 1187 ^^^M 


^^nmaoition 12 to 16 431 
Aiuoy 826 


BasseiH 820 


Bran TO ^^^H 


Battens p 611^2 
Bad oondttct 643 


Brandy 911 ^^^H 


Amitcrdnm 116 


Brazils 604 830 ^^^H 


Ancona 1043 


BdelHnm 41 


Brarii nnts 71 ^^^^| 


Animals 102 368 742 1137 


Beads 236 


Brazilwood 72 ^^^H 


Aniseed p498 1162 


Beam fillings 42 1031 


Bread 73 to 77 89 794 ^^M 


Annotto 17 


Beans 822 578 p 234 


1132 ^M 


Antimtiny 18 210 


Bm«' wax 48 


Breast books p284 ^^^H 


AnU 1164 


Beetles 1168 


Bricks 78 588 p49fl ^^H 


Anlircrp 479 


Beliie 1052 


Brimstone 79 ^^^^H 


Apotheeary wares 215 


Belginm 162 


Brtob<ane 866 ^^H 


Apples 19 757 


Bengal 882 821 


BriitiM eo ^M 


Aqoafortis 217 


Banxine 219 705 


Bristol Ohaitm»l 141 p 124 __^M 


Arangoes 20 


Berth 741 1126 


^^M 


Arbitrmtlan 225 


Betel nut 44 


Briton ferry pl24 ^^^H 


Archangel 324 


Bilges p284 s&07 


British Onyanm 1053 ^^^M 


Arekm nat 31 


Bilge water 386 507.8,14 


Broken backed p 284 ^M 


Army regulaiions 1136 


516 828 1005 


Broken siowsge 231 1041 ^M 


Armstrong i^ans p7d 


Bills of lading 7 45 to 56 
165 200,27.89 820,60,54 


Broker 108 ^M 


Arracan 823 


BroMhiug Uqtiids 646 ^M 


Arrow root 22 


862,68,70 613,88 p350 


Bmabwood 244 H 


Arroyo 972 


1992 


Buenos Ayres 475 p 288 ^H 



I 


I^JIH^I 


INDEX, 


1 


^m Boffiblo honu 91 


Ceylon stones lu4 


Colombo root 172 


■ Bugs 1166 
^B Bohr stone 35 


Cbafe 29 74 BOS 


Com1nng» 337 6.i5 


Ohftin 631 


Combustion Uponianooos) 
146,73 to i7y,f*.>,97 292 


■ Bulk MH 623 


' Chain bolU p285 


^__ BulkUeiid p 284 853^ 


\ Chain pUtes pS85 


716,33 885 1075 1237,8 


^^K Builion 815 


Chain u topper 626 


Comma, a 56 


^^H BunNsrrti fluid 1005 


Chaldron p 122 


CommerGial terms 842 


^^^ Buihol 


Chalk 105 


Commissionjs pl31 708 
Compaaftes 524 


V Batter 82 799 


Champagne 915 




Champhering p612 


Consols 158 


H Cadii 852 


CfaumeU 285 


Continental ports 158 


■ CAon 154 


ChartKHLl 106,7,43 


CooHes 180 


■ C«lEre com 905 


Charter party 103 to 114 


Copenhagen 109 ^ 


■ Cnjims 093 


191 227/28 351 3G2,66 


Cc^per 181,2 ^^M 


K CAkci liu^ 83 


p 340 to 243 »407,64 


Copper dross 85 650 ^^M 


^^B. Colcatta 193 244 47^ 


822 p 376 432*1027 


Copper ore 181 732 


^^m 8B1 lOd'i 


Ghaasam 115 


CnpptT Hidphttte 18;* 


^^V CalilDraia 471 


Cheese UG 304 1171 


CopptTO* l.Hl 


Cftllao 407 


Cherang 117 


Copra 185 OlJO 


CiiUiper 1009 


Cherboorg 103 


Coqnw de perk 186 


5 Chetwert p39 


Coquilhofl 187 


CiMFasLL, Lord i^l6 


Chicory 118 p496 
Chili 332 725,29 


Coral 188 


Csmbogeiu}] 86 


Cord of wood p611 




China p57 BlOO 230 826 


Coriander 189 p498 


CampELme 87 


998 


Coriander aeed p 498 


Cmnphor 88 


China root 119 


Cork 190,1 


Camwood 89 688 10 


47 Cbinchas 406 


Com 322 


CauadA 326,85 757 1 


1028 Chinese 120 


Cotton 192 to 201,25 419 


Canal tomuigQ scale 
Cftomiics 163 


p36 Ghiretta 121 


614,33,38 937,43,44,80 


Chloride of lime 60 122 


1074 




BdO 1129 


Cotton h&okfl 29 1U09 


Candle 90,1 


Chop, a 1013 


Cotton Heed 883 


Conhooks 287 


Chocolate 123 


Conutor p2e5 , 


Caimel ooal 40 


Cider 124 


Ctwrica 202 ^m 


Candla alba 92 


Cinder§ 1*25 


Craiikiiesa 1111 ^^H 


^ Caa«B 93 


Cinnabar 126 


Cmtc 311 ^^H 


^^K Cantliarid(?s 9i 


Cinnamon 88 127 094 


Cri'osote 87 W 


^^m Cauton 999 1430-2 


Civet 128 


Crews 203 1127 ■ 


^^^ CanraM 95 


ChimpB 2H5 


Crown tt'e4xstire 319 I 


■ Capo of Good Hope - 


y 68 Chiy 129 


Cnba 661 969 1018 ■ 


■ 828 1117 


CleJinlinesa p6»9 


Cubobft 204 ■ 


■ Carboys 1 


' Clenciil en-or 630 


Cubic ineasnre 205 ■ 


■ CardAtnoms 96 


aoth 130 


Culm 141 1 


■ Cardenas 661 


Clothing 130 


Cnmmin seed p498 1 


■ Cardiir 135 p 124 64 


8 Clover 305 p498 


Curranta p 184 stia7 1 


^__ Cargo book 45 613/j 


2 Cloves 131 


Custom 48 Ml 2 1 


^H Cargo shifted 502 


Coal 62 106,7,9,13, 132 


Casitoms 554 1068 


^^H Camelian 20 


to 16<l.0ii,90,92 225,27 


Cntch 101 


^^^ Carravay seed p498 


229,58,b2,8(> 390,91 416 


CuUery 206 


Ooaes 3 31 


460,82,03,99 500 614,55 


Cylinders 589 


CftAew nuts 97 


711,31 900,3,74,3 996 




Casks p32 8 50 9S4 

S70 761 909 p523 


) 164 pOlS 


277,88 456,77 701 9:U 


Coecnlus indicus 101 


Cassia 88 100 


CoL:hin 695 


Dangerons goods 61 203 


Castor oil 571 097 


CockToach<»r 1163 


to 220 436 531,2,3 606 


Catecbu 101 


CocMneal 162 to 165,68 


Dautdc 374 636 p 53li 


CaU iim 


Cocoa 166 Sm 


*i 1037 


Cattle 15 103 518 


cot Cocoa nats 170,85 


Dimtibe 361 109G 


741 1110 


Coeoa oa 693 


Dori p lft8 


Catty 753 1013 


Coffee m 118,67,8 305,6 


Datea 221 


Citveune i»epiJor 754 


688 975 1172,3 


Dend freight 111,33,82 2 


Cfiiling 7B 107 p285 


f Coir 169 aS7 


423 


C«iiiont lUH piaj 


Coke li:U2 peis 


Dtiiid wood p "285 


CenUt* of gravity IH 


19 Cole or col/ji seed p 498 


Dt-rda 103:J p 611.12 


Coylftn 58 127,G7,8,7 


2 693 Coloojuth 171 


Dt'ck 337 (lis 741 


1173 


Colombo bi 031 





^^H 


INDKX. 


^^^^^^^i^^B 


Deck load SOI 223 887 


Fenutintalicm 266 345 


Gloves 314 H 


_ liri^M 1 


Fi^^ "ISl pl&4 


Gold 815 to 820 563 ^^M 


■ Deficiency of cK^^o 7 23i 


Fir p616 


Gold Cua»t 6!6 ^^H 


■ 22f> 379 eUSl 7r»3 922 


Fir© 12 174,96 267,8,9 


Good con di lion 7 ^^^^| 


■ Delivery 226,7 311 686 


446,o'i,92 521,30 623,72 


Good Friday 321 ^^B 


■ 712 1U20 


806 913,44 1075435,41 


Good« proportioned in ^H 


■ Demanu-A 225 1053 


Fire Rmis 270 p 657 
Fire crackers 271 


stowages p 26,7 ^| 


Demamige 228 to 231 


Grain and corn 45 107 ^M 


Denia 285 


Fire wood p 6U 


277,82 322 to 394 405 ■ 


DeuKity of the sea 232,3 


Fiih 272 467 534,63 


757 ■ 


938 


Fish pUiei 605 


Granite 919 ■ 


Denmark p 633 


FixLjag ship p 347 
Flat floor 1101 


Grape§ pl84 H 


K Derelict tad deTiftlion 23i 
■ Derrick 285 
■^ DhoU 236 


Orasfi seed p 498 H 


Flax 45 273 305 


Grarity, specifie p 122^8 ^H 
fi395 p366 a668 ^^M 


Flax a«jd 887 


Diomotids 819 


Floor p285 


Grease 1214 ^^^|l 


Dieppe 614 


FliDor timbera p 285 


Greece p633 ^^^| 


^ Discliiirging 138 315 pa-IB 
^m DUtUliug apparatiLa 1125 
" U85 


rioar 274 to 277 305,43 


Greenheurt 1053 ^^^| 


7^4 810 910 




Foo ehoo-foo 1015 


Groats 396 ^M 




Foot waleing p 285 


Groundnuts B97 


DUtAnces hy sea 237 


Forage 1134 


Guage stowing 999 


BogH 1168 


Foreciwtlo p 285 


Guano 25 p 162 s 305,98 


Drji^ons' blood 238 


Forui?ii moni^Bi weights. 


to 423 605 910 


I Draught 109 222 p 224 &c 
m 1960 p640a a 1101 


and measures p 713 to 20 
Forci^ ships, draught of 


Guinea com (105 


Gum 41 424 to 426 


■ Dried beef 794 


p 640,1 


Gumlac 427 


^ Drag akip 100 

Drugs A&a chemicals 289 


Founder 278 


Gnojah 428 


Fmace 152,4 308,61,77 


Gunny bags 429 


Druxt-y p612 
Dry goods 305 


p633 6 915,22*63 


Gunpowder 12 to 17 148 
177 431 to 437 p651 


French clxarter party Hi 


Dub p612 


French goods 308 


fi 1129.44 


^ Dunnages 38 45,6 573 74 


Freight 49 200,61,79 p 


Gan& 488 


■ 93 101,92 240 Ui 246 


M9 8 331,66 918,47 1040 


Gim cotton 214 


■ 840 p 224 8 342 4^,50,6 


1130 1233 


Gurpattjth 9sl 


■ 640 810 931,9 


Frost G 211 693 


GuttH [vercha 439 ^H 


■ DaimAg!» b*t4oiu 246 


Ffiiit 280 to 29<J 


Guyana 1053 ^^H 


■ Dye woods 52 


Fuel, piiluiit 2W2.91 
Fnmigulion p 657 


Guy tackle 634 ^^H 


■ Kartlie&wAre 247 


Furniture 293 


Hair 106 140 ^^^| 


™ East Iiidiea 829 476 979 


Fiirn 21/4 


Hall-deck p 286 ^^M 
Hamburg 75 p 145 s37e ■ 


9^ 10«2 


FuHtic 295 


Ebony 348 


Futtocki p286 


p567 ■ 


Eggs 249 




Hammocks, see troops ^1 


Electric cable 250 


Oalangal 296 


Hams 441 ■ 


GalaU 369 


Hanover pri34 ^^^| 
Huigiiig beds 98 442 ^^M 
Hanlware 206 ^^H 


Elephants' t«elh 252 


Galhaniun 297 


Elevatore 8IK> 


QalUpoli 691 


ELiinore 375 


GaUn or gaU nuU 396 


Hare skins 443 ^^H 


Emery 955 


Qalranic action 528 


Hannattan 616 ^^H 


^m EmigTttnt Hhip 741 


dambieir 101 299 


Harlall 444 ^^B 


^M Emery stone 2r)3 9^5 


Gamboge 301 


HartKhom 213 ■ 


■ Endi p4^11 M1027 


Garlick 302 


Hatchwoys & hatches 147 ■ 


■ Exparto 251 to 261 


Qtjraneine 593 


445 792 fl 


H EMeqoibn 1057 


Gaacoal 139 


Dayannsh 061 969 ■ 


■ Kthor 218 


General cargo 62 112 3f^3 ! 


Havre 577 ^^M 


■ Entosioii 437 705,6,63 to 


to 308,41 635 941 1022 
General ship 309 


Hay 446 1134 ^^H 
Hayti 1043,9 ^^^1 


^B 


Genoa 790 p49 


Head pump 1006 ^^B 


■ Fa«^ta 38 214 


German sheet glosa 812 


Healed cargo 345 446 60S ■ 


■ Knlkland blutidb 1144 


Giu 914 


616 1117 • ■ 


H FolbC keel p 285 


Giug^Jlv seed p498 


Hemp 31 45 447 to 466 ■ 
llfl ■ 


■ Fattt-day 26i 


Ginger 310 


^L^enUicr^ 264 


aUsgow 135 p540 
fila»H an to 313 


Hr ! - 198 _^^M 


^^B«lt 265 


^H 


^^^^agarick Mcd p498 


Glue rclude 611 


• im ^^H 



u 



Hogged n28e 

Hold and huU 491 

HoJd book (>-2a 

Hold port* 1035 

Holland 5U3 lOi-2 

Haly dav« l>2i<,6>3 -458 

Hciney 4^2 

Horjfi -133 

Hoftdunw 1048,52 

Hoopfe 4S4 570 

Hop» 4»a 

Honj« 344 476 

Horses 45 487,8 742 1084 

1131 
Roiie hair 489 
HoapiUl p 420 

Ibrail 364 
Ite 490,1 
Ignition 147 492 
IncreiM aiil,67 
Indiim corn 361 
Indigo 494 

Insunmr'c 6 323 405 ,G 
Inanfliciency pi 62 
Int&ke meni>urLiii^;-Bi lftC7 
lodLui ihlt^s 2^^1 
Iqaiquo OTtS 8jj2 
Ireland 3A7 
Iron 3S 45 55 497 to 510 

63<»,49.81 726 
Iron c^Mes 839 
Iron f&gtenuigfi 1204 
Iron pyritce 146 
Iron rods 505 
Iron aliips plG2 sSio 

oil HU 
Iron ban p298 
Ifon pipes p299 
TmnglMM 5'J6 
lelny 859 1234 
Itftlv 157 
IT017 496 527 

Jabea pl83 
JftcamndA 1069 
Jftckwood 528 
Jaggery 980 
Ja?a 674 
Jersey 19 
Jettison 
jEte 529.S0 

Kaolin 531 
Kitnri gnm 425 
Knuri Hpitrs 104*4 
Keol p286 7:12,4 1078 
EediioQ p28l> 
Kid jzlnves 582 
King's Yellow 633 
KJiec? p286 
Konigsberg 6^5 
KoonAMooriu 419 
KndiAk 491 
Knstendje 263 



IMJRX. 



Liibftaniig 12 181 1115 
LAbowrsome 1115 
Lnbmdor and Newfotmd- 
lATid trade 584 to 546 
850 
Lac 548 lac dye 649 
htkc lake 549 
Laces 308 
Laden 550 
Logos 29 
Lom^ block 651 
Landing goods 552 to 654 
Lapis Usuli 555 
Lard 3(J4 556 
Lost 557 

Lathwood 227 p611 
Law duiea— «ee teporato 

index 
Lay-days 50 157 558 
LiLZAfctte p2Bft 
Lead 559 to 581 726 
Lead pipe 560 
Leada 562 

Leakage 662 702,3 920 
Leather 563 861 
L<>dg(!s p286 
Leghorn 285 p 48 573 

Bl(Ha/239 
Lemon juice p6GI 
LcinonA 52 290 

Lemon peel 564 

Lentiiti seed p498 »884 
Letter of indeDinity 46 
Leront Co's rates p47 
Liabmty 628 

Ligbt freight 31 
Ligbt goods 31 

Lighters 48 192 566 

Lighld 12 623 910 1128 

Lightning 19G 566,7 

LijnberB 31 p286 

Lime p 493 

Lime, bornle of 668 

Lime jnice 797 

Limestone 950 

LineijH 5t>9 

Linseed 375 p498 8 881 

Liquids 45 98 131 670 to 
572 

Liquorice 573 

Liquorice juice 573 

Lisbon 290 850 

Liverpool cargo 308 p 346 

Liverpool docks 574 

Llotd'h pB4S b793 

Loud 326 1107 

Loading 137 575 to 677 

Locust beans 578,9 

Log book p 327 

Lf>g^tood 580 1049 

Locidf>n docks 620 

Long tomiii.jrie 948 

Loogering '141 535 659 

Looking gloss 910 

Low of life 748 

Lnbeck p 033 



Lucifer matchet 79 19^ 

21H,20 462 581 to 683 
Lumber 684 
Lump ium 109 

Macao 826 
Mace 585 

Hocbinery 586 to 589 
Mmciniofb 717 
Madder p 225 s 691 to 698 
Madeira 384 
Madras p55 s822 
Madras rates p55 
MAgocine 14 p 287 
Magnesia 594 
Mftgnetistn of corgoet 696 

to 598 
Mahogany 1051 
Molae 333 366 
Mail4 699 

Malaga 155 281 284 
Malt 601 
Malta 233 
Malabar 600 

Manifest 602 t^} 604 p51d 
Mttnufactar'd goods 52 61 

304 
Mangold imrtxel p 498 
Manures 605 to 611 
Majrt»lep339 s954 
Mai«s* grease 991 
Marionople 370 
Morkii and Nob. 208 
MarseiBe«p51il54p672 

s711,90 
Master 108.36,90 225,77 

p339to350 sdft6 
M«rU p611 
Moatie 621 
Mote 135.44 225 p35l to 

962 sn77 
Mate's receipt 45 
Mais B^iO 646 
Mataro 155 
Mnuritiuft 977 1169 
Measnremenl goods 112 

106 430 
Measurement o£ sHpa) aeo 

tonn&ge 
Measurement 150 
Measures, foreign ; cool 

159, groin p229 to 233, 

oil p 392, rice p 462, 

spirits and wine p 524,5 
Mediterroiiean 359 p236 

to 244 8 6^i7,9() 1043 
Mdboume 316 1221 
Melons 28^1 
Memel 1037 
Metals 122 649 to 656 
Metftge 648 
Meiko p634 
Meiicon ports €04 
Mice 1162 
MiUet 333 p499 
Military baggage p652 





INDEX. 


■ 


V MillHtoneA pa65 id53 


Oils 58 79 87.9 192 405 


Pinngua 858 ,^^H 


Millboard p 527 


462 536,71 688 to 706 


Pilch 25 57 775,6 ^^^H 


Mir&bolineB 657 


757 1013,239 


Pitching 1118 ^^^H 


Mixed cargo 3i3 


ODcake 710 to:7H 1240 


Pith 107 ^^^M 


Mobile 1050;; 1 


OU doUmiff 715 to 717 


VhmU p611 ^^^M 


Mogndoro B91 


Oil Hkin 715 


Plunts 777 ^^^M 


Moist goodfl 106 


Oiling the eea 707 to 709 


Pliuiter of Paria 77B ^^1 


, MolaBBett 306 658 to 662 


01d«aburg p6B4 


Phite 317 ^M 


^m MoDsoona 329 663,4 


Olibanum 718 


Plate ;;liifia* 312 ^^^H 


^m Montevideo 107 p2d3 


OUvo oil 701 


Platform 720 ^^^^H 


H Montreal 385 p224 


Onion seed p 498 


PlumbiLfto 58 779 ^^^^M 


' Morocco 1235 


Onions 302 


Plums p 184 ^^^^M 


Morra 1053 


Opmtji 719 


Phmder 921 ^^^M 


Mortgage 68 


Oporto 156 


PI V mouth 273 ^^^M 


MosButY, Dr. 167 


Oranges 281 290 


P(n»onou8 fiubstancea 212 ^H 


1 Mother o'pewl 665 


Orcliill* 721 to 724 


780 ^M 


H MoiUmeiD 820,5 1026 


Ores 18 111,26,42,66,90 


Pomeran 731 ^H 


H 1003 


72.5 tn 735 811,58 


Poodtitbica p43 ^H 


^" Moyapore 434 


Orlop deck p2»7 


Poop 741 1152 ^^^M 


Monfio 666 


Orpiracnt 736 


Poppy flced p 498 ^^^H 


Monjeet 667 


Oxidation 619 654 895 


Porthcawl p294 ^^^H 


MniiaUc acid 212 




Port chaj-gea p 124 and ^^^H 


MUBPHY 808 


Paekagea pfi85 
Paddj 737 821 


aee separate index ^H 
Portlaod atone 781 p 546 ^H 


^_ MtMical inatnunenU 068 ' 


^m Musk 669 


Pagea 1066 
F^ta 738 


Portngai 156,90 578 p 635 H 


^m MusJe into U60 


■ 


^1 MostATd 670 


Palermo 691 


Poaado phites* 628 ^M 


H MoaUrd need p 498 


Pfdm oil 692 


Polaali b 24 782 856 ^H 


■ 


Palleting p 287 


PoUtoea 783 to 786 ^M 


1 Nigtubo 972 


Partners p287 


Poultry 1135 ^M 


Kankeen pbl 


P^nias, Capt 243.70 650 


Powder magaxine 14 ^H 


Kantes 3^1 1 


1186 


Preserrea p 57 ^H 


Naptlia 57 671 


PassAgea of transporta, &o 


Primage 787 ^| 


Naples 157 592 


p 405 to 418 


Privies 741 ^M 


Nalal 906 


Paaaengers 62 741 to 750 


Proportionate freight 479 ^H 


Naval frrovisionH p 28,9. 


n85 


Protest and aorvey p347 ^H 


' NaraaM 421 


Patent fuel, see foci 


788 to 793 ^1 


Natron 902 


Patraa 282 


Proviaiona 74,7 p439 to 

4M p 654 a 1116,7 ,35,38 ,, 




Pearl a»b 24 1129 


New Bnmffwick 826 1028 


Peaa 761 


p659 ^i 


1 NewcaaOfi 13S 903 p648 


Peat diareofll 106,42 


PnuioB n 18-1 ^H 
Puerto Kioo 604 973 ^H 


^— Newfomidland 534 


Pecnl 763 


^K New Orleans 195 303 703 


Pbubxbton, Mr ISi 


Paget Soond 1065 ^M 


^H Newport 185 pl24 h500 


Peiuing 764 


Fomna 38,4 106 p284 ^M 
a 336,9 461 647 624 661 ^M 


^m New York p CO a 3t^,t^,90 


Penxanee 771 


^m 3U1 p225 

^m New Zealand 45 116 330 


Pepper 63 167 754 


800 680 995 1167 H 


Peppermint 755 


Puree 801 ^^H 


^B 4^^5 730 866 1064 


Fomambuco 975 


Pttrflvet 4116 ^^^^1 


^H 1^4)tfmgiwi 1069 


Pern 722,95 860 1163 1234 


Punctnation 56 ^^^^H 


^m Niger toed p 498 

^m Ni&ate ol Boda 79 112 676 


Pertivian bark 756 


Piitehniik 802 ^^^H 


Petrolenm 19 57 286 437 


^^^^^1 


^V 856 


757 to 768 


Quarantine 803 1178 ^^^H 


n Nitre 177 215 676 


Phillipin*- isles 983 


Qnebee 241 p 531 610 ^H 


Kitro* iii'id 212 677 


Pbiliidt I|i1iia 758 BOS 


Qneenatand 666 ^H 


^_ Nilro glyccnno p 377 870O 


Pbospbonia 769 


Qnerdtnm BiH ^^^H 


^m Norway 603 p6a5 
^m Nova BcotU 1028 


Ptiotogrsphy 216 
Piano fortea 770 


QttiekailTer 805 ^^^H 


^H Kntniegi 678 


PUaaavA 976 


Baft porta 287 ^^^B 


^1 Nate 7 1 97 280 p 184 a 679 


Piga 1135 


Ra^ and ahoddy 806 ^M 
RaUway 214 808 1060 ^M 


H to682 


Pig iron 610 


^H KnsTomiea p£3 


Pilcharda 771 to 773 


RaiaiiiB 281 p 184 ^M 
Rangoon 824 1068 ^H 


^^B 


Pilfering 3 358 921 


^" Ofttmeft] 683 


PiUara p287 a 1031 


Rapeaeed p 498 « 885,6 .^^H 
Ration*, Nciile of p654 ^^^H 


r Ofti 664 Id 687 942 


Plroento 806,7 774 


^^ OdAfU 825,60,62,68 p236 


Pine 1082 


Rata 1157 ^^^1 


m 


PLne Bc<4» «ee teed 


RalU&a 244 807 ^^^M 



^^pH 


S^HIB 


^^6 


INDEX, 


J 


H EeeetpUlor(;oodal67 808 J 


Seanllmpf pGll 


BodA 902.3 ^^H 


■ Bed oortli fm ] 


Scarph 732 


Soldiers 1123 ^^H 


M Bi^diraod 241 810 


Scendinj? IIM 


BdMiem- wife* 1130 ^^H 


■ Beflecttiirs 623 


Screwing 624 


Sombrero 420 ^^H 


m V.r-<^m\n3 18 811 


Scuppertt p287 
Scurfy 876 


Sorgho 905 ^9^1 


■ J;. [ Tt 7n 


Sonth Amexiea 88i Iffi^l 


H K [ it of M(!dit«rnmeim 


Bcaltlflt p287 


422,58 fiS6 601 TSijIrH 


K Fmgbi Commee. p2d6 


Sealuiiii p648 


727 811,63,56 963,78 ^¥ 


■ io2U 


Scolingwnx 877 


Spain 155,90 256,60,81 852 


^^^^BespondcntiA BB 


Sea iibell» 891 > 


Spaoish files 94 ^^ 


^^■iU!«FoiifiibUity 223 612 to 
^^H 816 ^41 


Sea sicknenii 747 
Seaio&s of (tbipuiect see 


Sparks 196 ^^H 
Sp4>ci6o grarity 282 ll^^H 


^^Retortfl 817 


eaeb article, motiaootis, 


p6l6 ^^B 


^^^BXiea 818 


Ac 


Spocie, see gold, silrer, dPC ■ 


^^^raimie, the 1D12 


Sea water 720 


Speller 650 906 1245 ■ 


^^^Uhaliarli B19 


SanowtCK, Capt 268 587 


Snenn oil 698 ■ 


^^■mce 88 227 805 119 820 


Seedcake 714 


Spices 907 ■ 


^^^ to 8'28 


Seodlao 538 676 


Spikenard 908 ■ 


■ HiderA 829 


geedft 905 p t0,l 8 428 


BpuiUandwiAes38 42 52 ■ 


■ Biilu bullets 5B1 


p498to507 


98 225*82 306 629.aifl 


■ Bi^ 373 447 1037 


Senna learea 886 


1135,38,63 p513 to fSfB^M 


■ Binds 541 


Sesame seed p496 


Sptrittt of wise 493 ^^H 


■ Bio Grande do Sol p38S 


8eTi]le 155 


Sponge 923 ^ 


■ 8 830 p 63S 


Bhoddock seed p498 


Spokes 1216 


^__ Bio Jinc4ro 168 244 


Shaken pG12 


Spontaneons combitstlon, 


^^KBiver PUle 21 422,58J3 


Shakey p612 
Shanghai 1018 


tee combustion 


^^m 835,63 991 1145 p 282 


Sptmged 689 


^^H Bock oil 757 


Sharks' fina 689 


Snninanthem 924 


^^m BoUiog ^^ lei 1110 


BbawU p 57 
Bbcerfl 587 


Stahility 32 1112 


^^B^°^ 


Stanchions p 287 


^^ Eope 631 


Sheep 45 


Starch 925 


■ Bo^mary 9B6 


Sheet lead 561 


Stationery 926 


■ Bo»ewood 244 


Shelf pieces p287 
Shell and rockets 12 


BUves p 527 to 531 


■ BohId 841 


Steam engines 932 
Steam ships 25U 619 p639 
Stealing 984 
Straw i3alt 960 
Bt»el IBS 93S 


K Bom 306 034 912 1135 


Sheila 891 




Shellac 538 890 


^^■.Biwia p685 il23e 
^^TBta A65 p498 


Bherbro 682 


Shifting ItlG 




Bhiftiiig boards 341 


Steredoro 29 498 630 986 


H BAletybrnp 149 493 623 


Shingle 35 


to 945 


^^H^ 910 1136 


Sbipa, namea of, Be« ee* 


Stickhio 946 


^^K BitOmir 848 p498 


parate index 


Siiflhess 1109 


^^KBftflaron &44 


Shirtuiff 892 


Stone 35 192,3 p540 to 


^^V Sago 845 

^^B sSs p477 


Shoddy 666 806 
Shot 12 595 


549 


Stoppage in transitn 9573 


^^■BtPetemborg 52 1040 


Shnmac 282 893 


Stores 959 


^^^H Bal ammoniiic 840 


Sicily 38 ^91 


Stowage 511 713 


^^■Bole 815 


Sierra Leone 80 1026,44 


, Stowai^e, broken 1027 


^^■Mt 809 412,68 847 to 


Siik 894,5 1004,21,74 


Stow hole 316 


^^H 855 910 


Silver 896 


Stow wood 1026 


^^H Salting 855 




Straw 3 75 247,66 311 446 


^^Vfialto^e 79 96 177 530 


754 822 


Stringers p287 [956 


^^K 868 to 666 


Six 850W Harrta 667 


Substances eoluhlo in wa- 


^^Bfialnge 748 857 


Sister keelsons 734 


ter 961 


^^H Bampioiipogts p 287 1210 
^^B Band 29 83.4,5 19^J 869 


Skins 536 668 897 


Svccadees 962 


Slate 229 926^6 


Snot 794 


^^B Baadaland sapan woo4 688 


Slinging 312 
Bmaltz or 8Dialt 898 


Sugar 307 641 p553 to 


^^m 695 668 


567 


^^B Bin Wimdaeo 831 870 to 


Smila^t 899 


Sugar candy 984 
Sulphate of soda 9B5 


^^m 874 


Smoking 1128 


^^B BanU Aima 1051 


Smoking ships 1166 


Stilptur 79 986 


^^H Banapaiilla 875 


Smyrna 281,9 591 


Sulphuric acid 211 


^^^V Banencl p57 

^^KBaOnpSf 


SnoTler 766 


Sumatra 44 


Snow 900 


Sunday 319 553 


^^H BammAh 1050 


Soap 901 

So^nm-uualgam 904 


Supercargo 29 622 


^^^ 







INDEX. 


^^^^^^i^^^B 


Hfinrgeon pe59 


TrenRilfl p616 


WAgee p 676 to 680 ^^H 


■jl^&wn 974 


Trieste p50 b856 929 


Wainficot logs p 611 ^^^H 


^^^^Bpa cargo H80 


Trim 1100 


Walkib, Com 596 ^^^M 


^^^■e Beed p 4l»8 


Trimming Goal &48 


WahintJi 1180 ^^^M 


^namy246 p 346. 19 8 792 


Trimdiwi 25 


W<iliiut wood f>10 ^^^H 


» 988 


Troopa p 649 to 661 
Tropica 616 


VfWl »ided p 287 ^M 


^BwviAea p 124 a 7*27 
^Kwe&tiiig boSiM 989 


Wanghee or vrhaughee 1181 ^H 


Trtrnkfl 1189 


War 814 ^M 


^BweetmeAU p57 
■Sweden p 636 


Tnmk planks 1210 


War chaHer pArty 1182 ^M 


Trankway S9 


Wmtii^Q 1183 ^M 


■6jdn«xllil,44plBl a 316 


Turkey p 573 


Watch tm^klu 1184 ^M 


^ 670 ©98 730 1216 


Turmeric 1140 


Water p 650 s 11B5 (o 1189 ^M 
Water closet 741 ^M 


Bjn S9 fiOd 1 


Turn 137 




Turpentine 276 671 816 


Water (?ouraeH p 287 ^H 


T*bk Bay 4fi 


UU 


Waterproof elothimg 1190 ^H 


TftblM, liaioL see sep&rato 


Tntenag 1142 


Waterways 337 p 287 ^M 


index 


Tuticorin 194 


Wax 1119 ^M 


Tjj^^ae. 


Tmxt deck* 305 


Weight, Lucreaiie of 380 ^H 


Xyne, the 135 


Weights 133.50 p 234,5 H 
Well 1191 H 


Tallow 66 233 453 684 991 




TiunAriDdfi 993 


UHagG 572 


West Hartlepool p 6-18 ^M 


J Tanki p31 sll88 p684 


Ultmm urine 555 


Weat Indies 196 306 963 __^M 


B?<^pi»<:» 9^ 


Undfrwritera 1 


10*26,48 ^^^M 


^Kar 452 995«6 


United States 19 55 64 


Whalebone 1192 ^^^M 


HTftre4 p 145.85 498 


159,92,95 333 p 229 8 827 


Whale oU 699 ^^H 


^■'Taras mnd allowances 997 


1095 


Wharfage 1193 ^^H 


^tTMmaniA SSO 


UnlodflinK 1143 


WhampoA lUOl ^^^H 


Taati]iRp6t2 


Unrated wood 1197 


Wlieati see pwa ^^^H 
Whiskey 498 ^^H 


Tea 88 192 305 998 to 


UuBoaworthy 713 


^ 102*2 


Unaguay, the river 1145 
Utt^ 1146 


White Sea 232 ^^H 


H Teak 1063,202 


Whitewash 1129 ^^^M 


^M Teel liced p 498 




Whydah 616 ^^^H 


^B Terra japonic a 1029 


Ynlentk 285 


\Vind<iiiiU 657 ^^^^H 


■ Thainc«, the 138 


Vftlonia 1117 


Wine, «ec spirits ^^^^H 


^1 Theft 3 519 


Valued policy 496 
Valparaiso 275 393 604 


Wingers 1195 ^^^H 


^■Thick^ttLff p611 


Wing» p2d7 ^^^B 


^■Tier KJ^i 


728 


Wire 1196 ^^H 


^^■BUh 1025 


816 1148 


Wood, a cord p 612 ^^^M 


^H|lk«r 227^1 630 p592 


Wooden ahipii 119H to 1207 ^M 


HrSfii? 




Wool 56 p m} to 708 ^^M 


^K TlmY>er ships p 287 


Vegetable wax 1149 


Wrappers 1241 ^^^H 


^V Timothy seed p 498 


Vellum 1150 


Wreck 814 1242 ^^^M 


^KTincal 67 


Venice 157 


^^^^H 


^■Tiii 45 182 !070 


Tentiktiofl 830,1»5 1151 


Yam 454 ^H 


^■Tobncrn 1071 to 1075 


1152,3 


YeEow Sea 282 H 


^V Tobacco amoking 13 79 


Vemucelii 1154 


Yokohama 1070 ^M 


■ V}6 H28 


Vermilion 1155 


Yorkshire landings p 541 ^H 


^K Tnrnminf; tip or off 1079 


Vermin 1156 to 1173 


^^^^H 


^H Ton p Oi J to 625 


VeH&elH, njunes of, see ae* 


Zante 283 ^^^H 


^■ToonoKti p025 to B^U 


paratc index 


ZanzibAr 426 p 400 ^^H 


^■Topdidev 337 p287 


VeBuvian>i 220 583 


ZcA ^^^H 


^H*ortoUe ahclls 1097 


Victu&liing ator«« p28,9 


Zebu 983 ^^^H 


^Krade winds (V64 


8 1123 


Zedo»ry 1244 ^^H 


^■Traga<*aijLh 1098 


Vilhi Nora 579 


Zinc or ■pelt«r 1^45 ^M 

Zinc snlpaate or white vi- ^H 

triol 1245 ^^H 


^K Transhipment 1090 


Vinegar 1174 


^■Ttuiaporte 1123 


Vitriol, blue 183 


HTreafiiM 319 


Vitriol, oU of 210 1174 


Ziuo sheet 1246 ^^H 


HSgfoUie«dp498 









!i3iHHiH 






^^^H 


^ INDEX TO VESSELS ^^^| 


^^^V Bcltfnd to biddenUllj in Uiifi work. ^^^H 


^H Al»bott't B««diiig 869 


CUrcrndon 1020 


FiglU UagE^ore 710 ^^H 


^H Ac^lSmn 386 758 


CogoletU 991 


vimem i 


^m A^hiUes 49<J 


CoDunUsary 1051 


Florenee Nightingale 149 


^H AdA iS3 




459 ^ 


^H AdunAnt 1225 


Contest 389 


Frank Botdl 196 ^M 


^H Adek 461 8j^ 


Conway 717 


Friar Tmek 1007 ^^M 


^H Admind 694 


Com Linn 672 


Fngitive 40 ^^^^H 


^H AlUjQ 757 


Cormorant, H.M.S. 503 


FuKilier 748 867 ^^^M 


^H AgrippmA 219 


C<nmti>M of Elgin 216 


FyencMJid 917 ^^^H 


^H AJWrt H06 


Criterion 265 


^^^^^^H 


^H AOIeim) 955 


Cubsnn 729 


Oahboldi 259 ^^B 


^^^ AlliitiMS90 




George 713 ^^^H 


^^B AhnA 1068 


Dalhonaic 621 


Geziena 767 ^^^H 


^^V Al]rf&i>337 


Daniel Webaer 712 


Oliona 806 ^^^H 


^^V Ann AdtmAOO 1021 


Bijmff ^17 
DftuntkOT 1238 


Glangow 944 ^^^H 


^H Ann ttod Soflwn 1Q7 


Golden City 621 ^^^M 


^m Ann Wood 399 


D Bvl J O , Flemin g 622 G38 


Greenwood 416 ^^^H 


^B Axmie Comm 66$ 


DepcDdeiit 4t>'j 


Greflian 245 ^^^H 


^H Anrtu; 344 


Dtrwcnt 717 


Grey Eaglo 763 ^^^H 


^m Anol 1145 


De Vrifs 767 


^^^^^H 


^H Ark 190 


D«WA Gno^ndhur 525 


mvclock 836 ^^^1 


^H AnnHtroiig 1CK&1 


Diana 921 1143 


Ha2^d 919 ^^^H 


^H A>»liiu- 221 


Dr. F, A.S. Hauler Um 


Uthe ^^^H 


^H AtalatiU 277 


Duchc-^i ol Lemfi^'r 913 


Hnlona 1239 ^^^^H 




Diinc&n Donbar 1217 


H^'lrae 704 ^^^1 


^m An»tr»1i»riMti 485 




ll^nry Heed 681 ^^H 
Uorald 1072 ^^^H 




EajcJet 695 


^^H Bnlgownie III 
^^H Pelle C83 


East 430 


n«ra of the Nile 688 ^^H 


EdiBa 260 


Ili^y Dick &H9 fl^^H 


^^^ BtOlc of Devon 106 


Edith 425 


Himalaya, H.M S. 259 W^H 


^m BelpoT« 9^15 


Eilnnrdo 76(5 


Hiadon 761 ^1 


^H Bdgn&^ia 195 


Eiiler 717 


Hoo^kly 686 ^1 
Hviaifcldt S09 ^M 


^m BenlAb 626 


ElJorado 415 


^H Billow 28 


Eli'tm 3(i6 


^H 


^H BomttAimd 9<^ 


EUx* hTr^ 


In^p^rijil $il ^H 


^M Bcmn Fide 157 


Eliza WaUi. r 4r.3 


, I cm 630 ^M 


^m Botiil* 155 


EJumbcth Btuiiig 002 


Ion a 4K2 ^H 


^B Brevet 423 


El^iena 74i7 


lone 97^ ^H 


^H Brimnot 259 


EinUy 190 


IxiA 884 ^H 


^H ItnlUh Qaeen 282 CM 


EmpriJFM E ago III e 218 


^H 


^^H Britruiiiia 155 


Ki.fulJ 72:j 


James Baimn 530 ^H 


^H BaJTiJo 5!^3 


Era 223 


Jnmea Gibivoii 6^11 ^^M 




Enomiintfa IKMl 


Jamca Pattison 530 ^H 


^K Ctadew 1016 


Escort IDO 


Jural A 4X5 ^H 


^^^. Cjunbria 461 


E«t«Uo 97.^ 


Jtnifialeni 801 ^H 


^^^B Cupe City 699 


EuR^'Tiic 610 1043 


Jlhbo Miller 101)9 ^M 


^^^M Carabon 73S 


Eantpa 4 IS 


Jessie 1072 ^M 


^ Cambeftn 7(Ki 


Earopenn 7iJ6 


JnhannaOlaJ]4i nil ^M 


^H Cantijtie 4lU 


Eiimu 262 


John Tempcrley 1015 ^H 


^H Castor 975 


Eva 902 


Jordan Ul H 


^H CedAT 576 


E. W. Prntt 7f;3 


J. L, Gikhriiit 197 ^1 


^H Cheviot 9S0 


Kxcebior 1149 1231 


J. P. Wheeler 825 ^1 


^H Chmtiiuifi 453 




Jiilia 6.SG ^1 


^H Ciitij 1074 


Fiiiry 7U 775 1111 


J. W. Speocer 1054 H 


^^^ Viiy of Cntxtv 217 


F>dcon 1111 


^H 


^^^fe Citr of CftrliHle 194 1016 


Fame 1172 


KaUibrckka 3G0 H 


^^H Clan 1179 


Fiery Stw 1233 


KiUo 1007 ^1 



^^^^^^V INDEX TO VESSELS. '^_^] 


" EilAiurfi 1048 


Nile 920 


SeotnnaD 461 ^^H 


KonLagin der Nederlimdeii 


Nonpand 293 


8elne 717 U90 ^^H 


1168 


• 


Sepoy 168 ^^^H 




Oaldand 196 


Sir Jobn Mooro 387 ■ 


Lidy GeeiliA 643 


Ocean BHde 282 


8ir GcorKC Ort^'y 425 ■ 


Jmdy Kinnaird 029 
La Qiuitflhi 1141 


Odesaafie 


Sir B. Abercroinbie 1177 ■ 


Omar Pkaha 1221 


SirT. Oraham 710 ■ 


Lii Gloirc H.lMkr.3. 53S 


Onda2a9 


Sir W. F. ^ViUiams 983 fl 


Lfiiuler •1»8»9 501 


Only Son 63 


Blifco 951 ^^H 


Llj^nre 304 


Ontario 477 


Solent 7t7 ^^^1 


Lily 1144 


Oribe 634 


Soavenir 141 ^^^^M 


IdTerpool 274 


On«Dt 1237 


St JoHepb 1104 ^^^H 
Star of Ta:>m(inia 1239 ^^H 


LivmgstoQe 880 


Oridamjiic 446 


Lord of the mm 265 


OrioQ 765 


SUr of the West 139 276 ^^^B 


Lord Hovatou 11 11 


Oscar 581 


Stebonlimtb 600 937 ■ 


Lord Bi^Qrsdalo 155 


OHflO 1240 


Sterna 259 ^^M 


Lotty Sldfih ^137 




Storm 1018 ^^^1 


Lacy and Paol 768 


Palmyra 636 


Summer Cload 939 ^^^H 




Partisan 421 


Sunda 1207 ^^H 


M.A.Biion 394 


Pearl 502 


Snninm 754 ^^^H 


Madam 279 


P€piU220 


Sntlcj 530 ^^H 


Mafficiftw 6^ 


Pera 215 


Syrupbcenician 1055 ^^^H 


Mft^malia 870 


PerMTeranee 456 


^^^^H 


Mfkraibon 446 


Pcraian 250 


Talk H&triet 579 ^^H 


Hareareitia Koesntn Sai 
Harmiifl 391 903 


Peter Matwell 633 


Tauior 706 139 ^^^1 


Pbantom 9:t0 


TkaUtta 931 ^^^1 


Murtftban 1177 


PbiDoix 490 627 


Thnmti^ 260 ^^^H 


Marthji 786 


Pioneer 662 


Tbomos Bell 733 ^^^H 


MiLrthft Wendell 785 


Plantagpnet 165 


Thomas UoweU 157 ^^H 


Miiry Ann 972 


PoUox 806 


Token 680 ^^^M 


Mary Ammh 1067 


Premcbund Hoyclinnd 194 


Torfdda niO ^^^1 


Mary ErtEabcUi 731 


Preiident 867 


Torr«3 del Oro 582 ^^B 


Mary Gilleipie 260 
Matilda 419 


Prince of Walea 518 


Tmf aI^jjiit 509 ■ 


Prompt 868 , 


TmrntALliiniic 425 1218 ^^m 


MaUldA Watienbadi 588 




Trial 1075 ^^M 


Modway 639 


Qaoea 498,9 501 


Tnm 1075 ^^H 


MeliU 975 


Qaeen of Kationa lOlS 


T>-nemouth 260 ^^^H 


Kflnmre 460 


1219 


^^^^H 


Ueno 921 


Qaoen of Beanty 565 


Ulfrida 564 ^^H 






Unanimity 1B3 ^^^1 
Urania 461 ^^M 


Mes«lnA929 


Ralstono 642 


liet^r 768 


Rangoon 434 635 




MldloUiian SO 


BarcnAcraig 132 722 821 


Taldivia 646 ^^M 


Mignoiwtte 25 


862 B82 978 


Veloddado 1017 ^^^H 


Uindexi^m 


Bed Bovor 750 


Victor 413 ^^H 


Mumrm^SB 


Beform 687 


Victor Anf^«tc 996 ^^^H 


Monareb 358 


fieglDa 61 


Victoria 1173 ^^^H 






ViUage BeUc 916 ^^M 


Montis orency 419 


Bobertwm 941 


Volga 685 ^^H 


Moodki«84 


Bobert Bhgltt 628 


Voltujteer 681 ^^H 


MoDlJMhe 445 , 


Bocket 878 


^^^^H 


MonlUn 976 


Bosamond 9^14 996 


Warnor, ILM^S. 516 ^^H 


Motmtolnoer 931 


Bosliti 1016 


WbiMpur 282 ^^H 


MiJUTfty 1224 


BoiulaiDf] 478 


Wicdicrgina Mnrtcna 684 ^^H 




Boyal Arthur 644 


Wilbuliii 453 ^^H 


Niind, nM.B, 423 


Royal CharUe 259 


Willom .TATobttH 074 ^^^^1 


y_ Kft|kl«r 417 
■ Kilol StJir 749 


Boyal CharttT 716 


Witcb of Toca 864 1229 ^^H 


Bndolpb 796 




H Naval Brigade 194 724 




Zealand 684 ^^H 


H K«nil« 690 


Bt. JtHUi 259 


Zoroaator 685 ^^M 


^1 Now England 672 







1 


P 


COAL CARGOES. ^^^1 


1 


1 

1 

■ 

1 


?lg« 


Kamet of Tessels 


reg. 


Ton 


Description 


1 

1 
1 

1 


295 
272 
182 
134 
U4 
441 
S95 
327 
180 
114 

f905 

114 
619 
56() 
4H3S 
126 
222 
5(H 
505 
560 
659 
529 
1^ 

479 
169 
4^6 

267 
489 
988 

104 
604 
604 
563 
221 
6«3 
259 
701 
688 

a2d 

683 
628 
111 

700 
602 
460 
255 
619 
91 
601 


QxjEEi^, schooser *t.**it*t* 


96 
102 
122 

124 

ia3 

138 
141 
144 
144 

157 

159 

176 
1S3 
185 
187 
198 
205 
212 
222 
223 
325 
249 
261 

267 

266 
268 
268 
290 
SOO 
302 
B40 
860 
364 
364 
372 
872 
876 
462 
482 
612 
629 
551 
688 
682 
736 
B66 
980 


160 
160 
202 
200 
197 
226 
230 
220 
250 
297 
800 
285 
260 

2S0 
290 
276 
830 
810 
927 
580 
820 
285 
855 
408 
420 

886 

400 

406 

880 

474 

420 1 

660 

889 

493 

642 

602 

480 

570 

60O 

700 

710 

700 

600 

760 

860 

900 
1086 
1600 
1606 

430 

116 

700 


Landshipping coal 

Kewcafitle coal 

West Hartlepool 

Coal 

New Pfllton 

Coal 

Coal 

Shiclda* steam 

Swansea patent fuel 

Llanelly coliti 

lilaneUy coal 

Newcastle jarrow 

Netills's hand-picked 

LlancUy 
New Pelton 
Coal 

Bnnderland Btcam coal 
Scotch coal 
Coal 

Cardiff coal 
AlloAcoal 
Cardiff ooftl 
Cardiff coal 
Ncrwcaatle coal 
Cardiff cool 
Coa!, irith dO casks of 

Unfteod, &c. 
Cardiff coaX 
Cardiff steam coal 

Coal 

Newport coal 

NcwcttsUe,N.S. Wales 

Pictou coal 

Cardiff 

Newport stesjn coal 

LlaaieUy coal 

AborsTon coal 

Coal 

Coal 

Coal 

Coal 

Sunderland coal 

ShieldH* cool 

Coal 

Cardiff coal 

LiTerpoolf Hieam 

Keweasile coal 

Patent fuel 

Coal 

Caidlffeoftl 

Coal 

Coal 

Cardiff coal 


Msiioufiji, brig .••■•*•»••*• 


Acadian, brig •«........*« 


Tamas, schooner * . , 

BtmoLPH, brigantine .*..*. 
Faibt, HchooDer *»......•* 


TaIiK BjloribT} brigantiiie * 
Ocean BaiitB, scboonor .... 
8otrvsNiR, ftchooner. ...,,.. 

ItEAitBB, schooner ........ 

Star of ths Wbst, achooner 

BLsRAi^D, brig 

AViLLEir JacobctBi brig .... 
Mabt Elizahctb, brig .... 
Beiak of Dkvon, bng .... 
At.lianct?, brig ■ . « i ■ ■ r • 1 1 ■ > 


AnxLA, brig T. ........... . 

IriBi brig ■..■•*••..**••** 


Cabtos> brig ,«••«.«..*•..• 


Mary Anx, brig 

PUAKTOH, brig ••.«..«....• 


Eliza, barqno ..*.■••«..*. 


RzsToRTF KosssrnAOJiN, baiq 

ScKIUH. briff •>..*»•«*«••■* 


VKT.ori£DADKt btx^no 

PABTiZANt brig 

'WrrcH OF twt Tkis, barbae 

loNAf barqoe 

Awn and StrdAN, aohooner . . 
J. W, SpENCEKf brigantino .. 
BtbophceniciaNi barqne • • , , 

loKB, baraao 

ContbsTt Drig ,,..., 

MocTLTANt bitf qae 

Bib Obobge Oret, barque ,, 

ExcBLSioB, borqtio 

Caldew, barqne 

Maunus, barqno ........*• 

Mbshxva, b^rqa^ • « * . • « « . . • 


Ratxnsoeaio, Bbip 

Btab of Tasmania .,,...., 

CoxMiBSAjiT, ship. ■•• 

J. p. Wheelxb, s^p ...... 

OsEXNWooD, ship • 


jBiHXB, brigantino 

Dft. F. A. a. Hvims, ship . . 




1 


By reference to the pAgeSi do 


UOiof H 


licse Tess 


ds may be teon. 


i 



INDEX TO LAW CASES 

Bolented to incidentally in thii woric 



A bale, OomBmr t, PERor, . pQ^e 1B9 

Ale. SlARTIIfB r. CAMEMOJi 71 

AllegLMl liJibilitj, Hilmajc r . G ii.rkbt 354 

Average, RoiJX t?, 8altado& 231 

Bad stowage, Eswvxt r. Jambr . &20 

Bags of Coffee, Paucsb v. Lehok . 128 

Bones, Htmr v. QBBXVse .......* 91 

Bricktf QoaasTT «. Mklby^bh . . * . ftSQ 

Broken etowage* Cook v. Mxek . . 606 

Can hooks, Oelbicks v, Bobotion . 188 

CMorido of limes BBi.Bi»«.HjJTL^A2n> 90 

Cotton burnt, Mobwoo]> v. Pollook 139 

Cylinderii, Cawthobick v. Bust .... 830 

Damaged cargo, Bakcsb t, Wileis- 

Bosf 270 

Bamaged cotton, Fabewell f. 

Bbtakt * . , , 142 

Damaged cnrrantai FAOKXfiE tf. 

MlLXKB • 183 

Damaged cotton, Moore v. Owen . . 141 
Dftngeraaa gooda, PENOfsuLAA axd 

OMMvrjki. Stkam Co. v. Btbwabt 149 

Dead fmght, Eibx r. Gibbs ...... 2&8 

Dead fineigbt, Nichol v. Ellis .. : 610 

Deck cargo, Coebt v. Ho»maoN * . £71 

Deck load, Cobbt v, BoBUfgoN .... 153 

Deck load, Ceow v. Armstbono * . 6^7 

Deck load, Meixob p. C a apple . . . « 144 
Deck loBd, grain, Maowllock v, 

Gbibve ... 290 

Deficiency, Edii« r* "Refoioc'* .... 895 

DeUrery, CiMi. v. Holme d 590 

Demurrage, Bxith v, Bixvekiko . . 156 
Electtii; cable, Tki.bobaph Co. v. 

DicBfiOsr .....,.,.. 167 

Emery Btone, LBVJkirt Co. v. SiiBBBS 517 

Eapaiio, SuiXT P. NoBLB ,.. 171 

Fast day. S. F. Co. v. Tamozbb .... 171 

FeUt Agbaman v. Ekobbt 172 

ISigB, HONiaOHBB p. BoBtNftOK . . * . 184 

Freigbt— nuuze, Abaub v. Anbalzm 208 

Freight by weight, Tbistle «. Oslet 320 

Frtiifiht, DicntBitaoN p. Lako 178 

Gold dust, WlLLIAMB V. ArBXCAN 

Stbam Co. 194 

Good* loat, IiAKE V. Dixon ........ 322 

Grain heated, Gibiobt r. BTUBas . 210 

Gonjiy bags, Nicol p. Botd 2G0 

Heated barley, G bo vbtto r . G bbooby 207 

Hold accident, Pubceli?. Bebfobd . . 436 

Leakage^ Bsiscall v, '^Hblbxe" . . 890 

Leakage, Cbottb p. Mabbhall .... 890 
Leakage, ** Elizabeth Babiko" v. 

TwixELL 3€8 

Leokagt*^ SxMitoNS v. Gbebv ....*» 521 

Life saivagc, Salvobh t?, Ownebb . . 424 

Load'g, in torn, UcLjf KEX e. Souune 325 
Biarianopk whe^it, Gattobuso v. 

Adams. , , 221 

Mate, BovKY r. M GuEaoB 360 



Matted biirds, CoLoiao 9. Otto* . B7 

BIftte, CBorr v. Btampbb 358 

Mate, CuBTifl r. Btaflbton 3S7 

Mate, Gilbert r. Hillxax 854 

Mate, G&AT v. MAmaaAi.L 857 

Mate, JaxzbForbeb c. *'D. O. Flbm- 

Dfo** 859 

. Mate, Kbllakd t?, Ebwabdb 854 

Mate, Knro v. Smite 859 

Mate, M*GoWAN v. '* James Gibsor'' 361 

Mate, OwEV v. Beown 881 

Mate, Teb Mati v. "Ladt Ceouja" 861 

Mate, Tobbbll v. Cobneb 855 

Mate, WiLKT p. Csiapiir 857 

Mate, Bbowv P. OwBM 861 

Mate, O vim v. M' Abthvb .,...,.. 861 

Mate, HoBBOir v* Clexeitt • , . S63 

Mate, Staplbtoit r. Cubtis ...... 857 

Measoreinent of cotton, Soakd e. 

Gbant.. 14S 

Data, Glabb v. Haboood 882 

O&tH} WOEN r. NOBWOOD ., 881 

Oiia, KoEBEL V. SAtmDERfl 888 

Oil lejikage, Ohbloff u. Bbibcall , 705 

Oilcake, Siumonds p. Dkivbb , , , . 395 

Oilcake, Watlinq t\ Williams , , . . 896 

Oilc&kc, M' Andbkw v. Lidoett .... 894 

Opet) baLebway, Hibbs r. Eosa, * . . 265 

Opiom, Tbonbok v. Dent ..«*.«., 998 

C^ BioBABDSoir V. Sadleb 403 

Pasaenger, Aldvobth p. IIkd Eoveb 425 

PasftcDgen;, Frakptox v* Kennib . . 424 

Plunder, Beck v. Williams 521 

Porter, Hitbon p. Ttbbb SOO 

PreiKired ttm, M'Iveb e. M'Phbbbon 202 

KApCiiCed, DtTMAB 9. Mabbhali,* « * • 606 
ILc^eipt for goods, Oblbans Kaii^wat 

Co. V. Do€KB Napoleon Co 454 

Bapan wnod, Mitlleb v. Sibvek . .' 894 

Sb art d tliTrery , Thompbon v. Domtn t 381 

Short deli very, WooimARO v. Zebio a 2 01 

Suow, Sca,iwLz p. Fekwick 610 

Staves, M'Mutii^o p. Btetetvbon . . 5.90 

Stevedore, Spaxs; & M'Cabe r. Home 539 

SteTOdore, Gobmam v, TATLom 536 

Stowage, CoALLiKoB P. Williams . . 538 

Stowogti, Hobebts V, BuAW ...... 536 

8towafj;:i% Sack r. Ford .,..,..... 538 

Stone freight, Pou^XirES r. Fbazea 544 
Straw pl«it, Oeech p. Genebal 

Steam Navioatiosc Co. ........ 551 

SarpltiB cargo, Coos p. Hubback . . 218 

Sydney cjirgo , Pubt r. Do wie , . 106 696 

TeA or Silk, Ae^ambon v. Ddncan . . 591 

Tobacco, Chaveb v. Bbooeb 619 

Transhipment, Havdorn v. Bibbt . « 640 
Turpentine and Flour, Acbaman r. 

'' Star of the Wkbt" 177 

T nrpentine^ Ci ille stle p. TnoMPSON 456 



^m IblsbCo 663 

^m UsAge, CuTBHERt V. CunMJua .... 664 
■ Vftiaed polk;, T«Biif r. H4sroBi>. . 292 

^ Vermin, Kay v. Whkklkb 675 

Vermin, KrBxi.Ain> ©. ** Famu" . . . • 673 
VMQviuift, Btmwi u. Hutgbinbon. . 3*29 
Wftgen, Ai^DKiDOi c. Ca.riioll .... 680 

WagoB, Ballat v. BaoDiE 678 

^ War charter party* £bposit£> «. 


Weight or quantity, SttiTH r. BixoT^ 227 H 
Wlioiiage, SouTOAMFTON Dock Co. ^| 

V. Hn.r. 686 ■ 

Wine staved} Edwabds c. Kkllavo 3M ^| 
Wool freight, Ruaau^ Btkam Co. r. ,_^^^H 


Wool freight, Russiah Steam Co. v. "^^^H 

SiLVA .., 88 M 

Wool and Oilcake, ISRAEL r.WiLaoKT T07 ■ 
Wrong stowage, SAKOKMANV.SciAB 61ij ■ 




^^H INDEX TO TABLES. ^M 


^^^Wmiralty aheU, weigbt of . . .,pagc 73 

aioiwol .*., 263 

■ Algoa Bay, tonnaga icale cargo boata 702 
f Algoa Bay* average ratca of trelght . 702 

AlgoA Bay, <K>mituHaionB 703 

ADGhon, minim nm weigbU of . . . . 471 
Armstrong gana and abot ........ 73 


Grain meamrea of variou a nations . . ^M^^^^f 
Qrain, proportianate frei^^lit table* « ^^^^^^^1 
Grain, Wool, and Seed proportionate ^^^^^| 

freight of ^^^^H 

GravitLsa, specific of various articles 24$^^^^^ 
Oravitiea, specific, of various waters Idii^^^^H 


Guano, composition of good ..,.., 248^^^^^ 


AiuLcaycs, port flluurgea at «....,.. 603 

Ballast, cast iron, Admiralty piga . . 301 
Bueaoa Ayrea, port and harboor dnea 283 
Cardenaa, port cborgea at ........ 867 

Caika, Admiralty and ordinary .... 101 

Caika, splriii stzes of 623 

— i *Mkti. wini*, nt,Q<» of ....** ft28 


Havannali, port charges at BBT^^^^M 

Hemp cargoes diacharged at Plymo. 269 ^^^| 
Hemp and wire nggmg for sailing ^H 

veaaeU, sizea of 473 ^M 

Hemp and wire rope and chain com- ^H 

parisouB of equivalent strength of 474 ^H 
Hidea, cargo of, Florence NighUngal^ 272 ^| 
Hide cargoea diaoharged at Pljmth. 273 ■ 
Iqulque, port charges at 4'JI ^| 

lisfltn, n fahlft nf , , , B19 ^| 


^H Chain cables, hawsers, and warpa, 

■ n2ea, and lengtha of 472 

^m Chetwerta, Biuaian, into Imperial 


H Ghleory, weigbt of boahBl lOd 

■ Cual cargoes (NowcaaUe) 86 

^f Coal mcaanre converted into weight 122 
Co«l speoifie gravity of varioaa kinda 1 23 
CiManuroial terms and abbreviations 342 

^m Commiaaiong on abippini^ at Sydney 131 

^m CottoD balei, average weigbta» Sse,, 145 

Cotton, lares of, at Hamburgh .... 145 

Crcira, manning acale in the North 146 

Draft of foreign ships reduced to 

H Fnglinh ff^rt fi4i> nnd 611 


Limea and Cements, weight of .... 493 ^| 

Load draft, table of 326 ■ 

Loading, time allowed at UavTe for ^^^H 

soiling vessels and steamers .... 325 ^^^H 
Measures, foreign wine, pages 521 and 52{( ^^^H 
Metala, solid, specific gravity of . . . , 365 '^^H 
Millboard p weight of a square foot . 527 ^H 
Monte Video, port charges and har- ^^| 

bourdueaat 288^^^^l 

Netherlands table for taming laata ^H 

into tons 374 ^H 

Ditto for turning tons into lasU .. 874 H 
Oil measorea, foreign 89St ^H 




^1 Karths, ^e, the average quantity of 

■ enbie feet equal to a ton 193 

^B Fish mcasorea 175 

^m Frtfight, propori'nato rates, Elsinore 21(5 
^V Freight, rtlatire ratea of, per ton of 
H SO'ewt. and per quarter oi imlU. 39 
^B Fuel, patent, weight, space, &<!. of ld7 
^m Ordn aud Tallow, componitive raii'S 

■ of freight from the liluck 8ta, itc. 41 
^B Qraiti, equivalent rat4.ji of freight . 244 


PBokagcs, eaminerolal, weights of. , 685 ^^^^| 

b»..|^« JAR l« aiaH^^H 


Ditto average time from various porta ^^^^H 
to St. Helena in 1H67 417 ^1 

Ditto extracts fmm Capi. W. E. ■ 
BtiRUENii Oeenn UouU'S ......,« 417 ^| 

Ditto time allowed by IJ.M. Custom ^| 
to different portA and back 418 ^^ 



24 



INDEX TO TABLES. 



Pliilii(I<>lpbU^ port cbjirgMf Stc, at. . 423 
Poisiiitoos enibiitaace»i common uli- 

t'l* s of Ireigbt 435 

Proiri*.ioiLa for ships of war. .....,, 451 

ProTisiooi.BC&Ieof viclusdliiig44:2to 440 

ProTwicmftt tierces of, beef and pork iSI 

ProTisioiiia, Torioiu flcilet . . 4^ to 449 
JUo Grmcde do Sal, port cbugea uid 

harbour daet . ...•,.•• 283 

Rirer PUte, pilotafle 28i 

Hope, qii.intitie« which make 112tt>. 446 

liopi*, MiiniU And Enmi&n ., 467 

rio|ic\ 8}irou[l-l&id, coiltt lOO fathomi 46S 

K*^[M% hnw»er laid, coUb 90 lalbomji 468 

IU^\H , hemp, MfttiilAf mro, oomp*x«d 469 

Iliipc, 4-slraiid, Hhroad-Lud, 60fiBUl. 469 

Itnpo, hemp, cbttint and wir© .,»... 470 

Sack, Dutch Sc Eni^. banhel compared 2B5 

Sack. HotBbro' and Dutch compared 235 

Sand, weight of. .... ♦ 493 

San Franci^o, port charges 497 

Ditto, rat«s of wbarfnge 497 

Scale in hiatage DQt«h EXCo 875 

6««1« ol tonnage Dotcb E.LCo. ... 375 

flMda, weight por biuhel 600 

8«ed, wfftghta in the United SUtea 600 

B«i«di| buabcla compared with iona • 601 

81ate, weight and uize§ of Delabole . 549 

Slate, weight and fciaei of Bagnor. . 549 
Bhii(^«, aizei of, fnuned and txn- 

framed, pages 5'26 and 527 

Spontaneona combiution, Hat of 

atibfttancea litiMe to ,, ISO 

RtATes, Admiralty acaJe of 528 

Btaven, Quebec tonnage 531 

Standing rigging, eatunated weight 

of hemp and wire rigging for iaihng 

▼eneli 474 

SlATedorea* ratea at Ohiagow ...... 640 

Stone freightago *..••• 641 

Stone, fnoght ion.. 471 

Btonei, paving, aiz^fl, ^c. ........ 546 

Sngus, tniBfl of We»t India hhda, ^e. 658 

Sugar, ^Lacea of eiport 553 

Bngar nxe of paekages 653 

Sogar, moniha of ahipment • 553 

photphaie of lime, components 3S8 
Jlow ife Wheat, proportion, freight 

Bbuik Sea and Mediteminean 572 673 
Tnllow, qnartens, charges, tons^ and 

chtawerta , 671 

T«ia, meaanrementa of chests, &c.* , 684 

Timber, lorta, clec«, and freiglita . . 610 

Xifflber, itMifdard deals in Buasia, 6ic 613 



Timber, standard deals at Dram • * 
Timber, standard de^ds at Dantiie. . 
Timber, conversion of, into St. 

p4;t«r»bnrg standard . . . .614 and 618 

Timber, loads of fir and oak phmk . 616 

Timber, Quebec reUtiTe loads ol . . 610 

Timber, Admiralty weights of .... 616 

Timber, specific graTily of 616 

Timber, New Tork speciAc ^Tity . 617 
Timber, quantities proportmaod to 

a keel of 850 cnbie feet 609 

Timber, weight of a cub. ft. in ounces 617 

Timber, do in pounds 617 

Tin, siiM and weights of boxes of . 618 
Ton, by weight, measnremcni, and 

quantity 633 

Tonnage scale at Malaga 183 

Tonnage spaces of Calcutta eargoea 628 
Tonnage, foreign compared with 

Englifth ,.*....... 683 

Tonnage of nhipH in tbu Danube .. 699 
Tonnage, Netherlands new moaaure* 

ment ^ 634 

Towage, rates at Foo Choo ...... 587 

Treenails number and sizes to a load 616 
Trimming coal, coke, d;c. at New- 
castle, ^e 648 

Troop idiipa, freight of baggage of 

Goremment officers, dec. 652 and 653 

Troop ships, scale of rations 654 

Troop shipa, length of passages, ^c. 655 

Valonia, Smyrna, tons carried .... 664 

Wages, seamen's table of .... 676 to 679 

Water, subirtaiicea soluble in 552 

Water, Adiuiralty tanks 684 

Wafer, weight* of, United States . . 685 

Weight of wrought iron bars in lbs. Sec 388 

Weight of flat iron, ditto 898 

Weight of cast iron pipes, ditto . . . 399 
Weights of ordinary mercantile pao- 

ki^es 686 

Welsh railway iron, details of two 

eargoea of 294 

Wheat, barley, dfcc. weight per bushel 284 
Wheat, nroportionato weight of the 

bushel, qoarter, and stone 235 

Wheat, relatiTe weight ol the ton 

and quarter 235 

Wire riggLDg, Admiralty schedule, . 469 

Wool manures, component parts of 338 

Wool prCiMiug cbar^ at Algcm Bay 7<>5 
Wool, Bize« and weights of bales at 

Adelaide 698 

Zanaibar currency . . « , « • 400 




No, 

GOODS FROPORTIOI^ED IN STOWAGE t 

ADMIRALTY TABLE OF TONNAGE 2 

NAVAL PROVISIONS, vSTORES, AND BAGOAGB t 

PROPOSED CENTAL SCHEME 4 

NEWCASTLE STATUTE COAL MEASURE 5 

PROPORTIONATE RATES OF FREIGHT ON COAL .. 6 

CALEDONIAN CANAL ...,, 7 

FRENCH RATES OF FREIGHT 8 

BALTIC AND ARCHANGEL RATES OF FRiaoHT ..,, 9 

PROPORTIONATE FREIGHTS, yVoou, Tjuxw, Whkat, &o. 10 

RELATIVE RATES OF FREIGHT, *♦ To* V QtrAHTSs ,, U 

PROPORTIONATE GRAIN FREIGHTS 12 

COMP.UiATIVE RATES OF BLACK SEA FREIGHTS ., 13 

BLACK SEA RATES OF FREIGHT ,,.,, H 

RCSSUN POODS TO A TON 16 

amTERR.\NEAK PROPORTIONATE BATES OF i 

FREIGHT J ^^ 

SVANT COMPANYS RATES 17 

LEGHORN RATES OF FREIGHT 18 

GENOA RATES OF FREIGHT 19 

TRIESTE RATES OF FREIGHT 20 

MARSEILLES RATES OF FREIGHT 21 

TONNAGE SCHEDULE IN INDIA 22 

CALCUTTA CARGOES, ON AN AVERAGE SCALE .... 

EAST INDIA WEIGHTS AND MEASURES U 

CHINESE EXPORTS 2$ 

yUEREC PROPORTIONATE RATES OF FREIGHT .... S8 

NEW YGKK RATES OF FREIGHT 27 

BALTIMORE TONNAGE SCALE *Ad 

BAHIA TONNAGE SCALE 29 

CUSTOM OF THE PORT OF BIO GRANDE DO 8UL SO 

LASTAOE8 FOR FREIGHT ,.,. 61 

ALGOA BAY TONNAGE SCALE n 




» 



•10 liercofl 

2)0 bogsbttdi 
4^500 too 

8 33S „ 
9166 „ 
4*750 „ 
7<MX) „ 
f»-7fiO „ 
5-iKX> „ 

I7'00a o 

ir> crftte* . . 
22 „ .. 
28 ,, ., 

l-lObuTttla.. 

uO OTStCA «^ » 

60 „ .. 
iO ,. .. 
97 qiuuten 

m „ 

114 „ 

*26 dmldron 

10 ton 

9 107 ton 
7'7riO „ 



— Pot and Pearl . « , 

Bark, tree 

— eoppice *«.».. 

Beef, 3 cWt. cAch .....,* 

Boneft, culciiie^l, in bulk 

— manore, ^c. in Utilk 

— bciiit r|iujlily, in bidk 

Boia0i===G per Rftilon^mm. weight per 

dozen, in bulk, ^Iunm 

Half' bo ttJesi^ 1*2 por gallon ==lltb. weight 

per dozen, in bulk 

Bottles, gIttSSf 10| culfie fcMt each .... 

Bread, baga 1 ewt. each 

Brkiu, commosi, ditto Tiles, in bnlk . * 

— fire 

Butter, 70Ib. each 

Cinders, imperial chaldrona , * 

Cosl, 63 cwt* encb, in bulk 

— when compressrod in the hold .... 
Coffee, 7 cwt, avemg^ 

— 1 1 cwl. average .............. 

Cnppema . . . , ....*. 

Cork, Faro 

Cotton, New Orleans A Mobile, all comp, 

— be«l canyiDg ship ............ 

— Chiirlimton it Siirunnah, not eonip 

— Pernambnco and MArunbam 

— AJi^xandriii, all compressed .... 
not comprfzased 

CnrranU 

Earthenware, lar^e cmtei .....,..,,.. 

^ mixrd 

— »maD 

Flour, 220tb, each, 1961b. net 

— 2801b. each 

01asii» 12 tablei 

— 15 ,, ' 

— IB „ 

Grain.* Wheat 61 21b. bnabel 

Tares, beana, peas 63Ib. „ 

— By« 67m. „ 

— Bei*d 62tb. ., 

— Barley 52tb. „ 

— Oats 371b. t» 

Grindatonea, mixed lorta ..* 

Hemp and Fkx, dean ....* 

— ontshot • 

*- hall clean 

— codilk 



lO'OOO — 



KoTir.— For grahi. teed, oata, taOow, snd wool^ mc nltci the ftcpart on Freights at the olo«« 
of the artici«' grain. 




13-750 
20*000 

Btm 

5000 
1-500 
212tl0 
2i>'0(l0 
21(XK> 
20(MH) 
21000 

21*000 




17 

SO bogalieiidH 

300 pig! 

9-444 ton .. 

20 ton 

B 

lOObiUTfOs *, 

ntou 

15<1 bftrrels 

7-8?17ton ., 
21toa ...... 

16 

21 , 

r'i76mme,. 

I'3i10 
1*200 
0*840 
0-708 
1'054 
8'B85 



17 ton «.. 

100 „ 




TftUow, f!xom weight* 

TftT, A^rchiingd * * , . 

— Btorkiiolui 

Tut ail J KoKuif American , 

Timber, Baltic iqu»red Fir .......... 

— Nortb American ditto ........ 

— Bircli dittA « 

^ MoaU, round 

— Deiik, 120 p«. 12 ft. 11 in x 1\ in. 
~ Battens, 120 p». 1 2 f t , 7 in x H in. 

Tobiicco 

Vitriol, OUoi .* •... 

Wine, Brandy, or other Spirit s, reckoning 
fall gftugo of caaka^V^^l g&Uoni .. 

Wool* 

— oompressod 



Aeronllni; to the London Rntet of Freight bj Irfipection, when whest i* If. per qnnrtar, 

ftm f.. .. M.,/| Urtt, Nhuuld be U. l{tl, rye ll'V, ]m»txd lOjt/, baili^y U>i/f, fuid o«t* ^dJ 

i* < r loaul ; doulk 17*. 1 jJ. por t«t>indjird Itundreil ; cU'»ui liciiipj nrul flni ^a, 8Jrt» 

. f». Ill/, half dean hemp VI*, 14f/. coailk 11-.. ^d, aaul wool iy#, 4i</, pur ton. 

* St< note p«gt SO. 



28 



STEVEXS ON STOWAGE, 



TABLE No.n. 

NAVAL PROVISIONS, VICTUALLING STORES, &c. 

THE QUANTITY TO COMPOSE A TON, tSoT.% 



GASK8» Ko. ftwi 

Loager 40 

Butt ♦ .... 27 

PuilclieOD l^ 

(braid) 2ti 

RogHhead 1^ 

Bftrrel 10 

(•rmp) 7 

Hall hogsOifad 7 

(clioculato) 8 

(ROAp) * 

Eiltlerldn 5 

Eiuull ciuk fist «i;si*) ........ 4 

('2x1(1 KLet*) 2 

(«pccial »ixe) 1"* 'iO 

Mwfttttennls ..,»..... 50 iO 

Other coopernge utcnsib .... 20 40 

Foreign Cuk», 

TohtLtta Uo^h^ft't ,,.,,,,... 48 
i '■ '' " ■ 'ii' ir 

WiD*>.bnkn i-l 

dy A' rum '*t 

yltiU imp. ^^»* .. 40 

Salt Keftt Cailu. 

Tierce 10 

Bnrrcl • 7 

C»8k<i of unnB«nl »iiies» *ccart1- \ 

ing to tUetr capdcity for liq'd [^ Jn 

tiir^iisnrtt, lO tlie rate of ISO I 

itniierml gjiUons , J 

Conprmge A* other iinpleiiients 

occordiDg to tn^asaTQjaciit. 



BTAVEft-Baw. 
B&lilc or Quebec pipe ...«.,.. &0 

Old Tight StATei. 

r or butt 200 

'OD or hogshead ...... fiOO 

1) HIT A, lulf bogshend or iulaU ) ^^^ 

eadk / 

Old Diy 8t&yei. 

Punebeon or hopihead ...... 800 

BAirel, bftli bogihead or smiiU ] ,qqjj 
6i«k ,f 

Heftding. 

Imrgc^cunchcoD or UngRheadp 600 
BuiaU— b«m4. hull hogshead V ~jjj 
or tiELdl cii^k ..,..> 



40 



40 
40 

40 



40 
40 



40 
40 



Foreign itaTM. mo, fret 

TobAccoctiic .....^«..k.... 310 40 

Winepipu 8&0 40 

Brandy ditto 550 40 

Enm pUQchoon ..*••*... ^0 40 

SAlt Meat SUT«i. 

Tierce or biimjl lOrjO 

PACKS. 

Leager 6 40 

BtiU 8 40 

l»uucli«on 10 40 

(bread) 7 40 

HogBheAd 11 40 

Barrel..... • 14 40 

HoHbogKhead 18 40 

HOOFS. 

Iroa, 7 ft. loni; and upwards &wii. 80 40 

- under 7 ft - 60 40 

- flattened cmt, 16 40 

. round - 10 40 

Wood. bATTQl or kilderkin .... 480 

* firkin 600 

. lonRpink 1200 

- Bbortpink 2200 40 

FliigB luiU . . 20 40 

Twigs ,. wreatki 160 40 

PB0VIBI0H8, Iko. 

Bi»ctlit«i In wh ole briga contiiiii • } a An 

ing loom, ©iwb f ** ^ 

BUciiiU.m half bags 501b. each 16 40 
BinrTiltH, In cAskB, according to 

inoA**iirement of the cHsku. 

Biat'uit bhgt (pressed) UKllb. ca. 500 40 

(loosel - 400 

• i bagii fprested} 50Ib. ea. 800 

(loo«e) - 600 

M«alfiackji 200 

Lemon Juie-e {cw^) 10 

(bidfcftftofi) 20 

Mustnrd cA^e of atn>.) 13 40 

(c<iso of 42Ib,) 20 40 

Wine Icofco of 1 dozen) 18 40 

Pepper (c-ft»e of 10(»Ib.) 9 40 

(casu of 50m,) 18 40 

Chocolate, half coses of 12orb. 14 40 

of lOOtb. 16 40 

of eoih, fti 40 

of 401b. 86 40 

Condlet (boxes) 50fb 1 



STEVENS OX STOWAGE. 



m 



TABLE No. U, CoxTcnmu. 

NAVAL PRO VISIONS, VICTUALLING STORES, &c. 

) THE QUANTITY TO COMPOSE A TON. 



VVl|i*H 

■mi 



FS0TX8IOH8, Ac, continued. 

No. ft. 

TcA ic«tiiiiler*) itOth. 32 dO 

lOlb m 40 

6tt». 140 40 

- (ehMM) ,.. 9 40 

. (biOf ck«HU) lb 40 

W]ji*al (itarkjs) 8 4I» 

Bran ...» buthds 4B 40 

inl 48 40 

II .- Th. 2240 40 

Hmj fpfl?»i?d) ............ - 600 40 

JACKETS. 

IBIq« eJoUi. No. 1 1 bihlc 50 Ko, 4 

. do. 25 2 

Nd.3...... d». 60 6 

. do. 25 8 

LJbMLifig ............ do, 25 8 



I hide SOjirs, 4 

do. 25 2 

do. 7ly4/«. 4 

d«. 87 2 

do. 74 6 

do. S7 8 

do. mxi 4 

do, IfiO 2 

do. 240 4 

do. 210 4 

do. 105 S 

do, l<Vl> 4 

do. HCt 2 

do. 040 40 

do. 144 2 

do. m 5 

do. 80 5 

do. 86 5 



do. ]5| 1 

do. IfiOjjr*. 4 

do. lOO a 

do. m 2 

do. 100 2 

do. 50 1 

do. imXo. 8 

do. 100 7 

da. 25 

do. 5 

do. 1 

do. 100 

do. 60 

do. 100 

do. 100 

do. 50 




Mtttefials for Blue Qlotti or Flaihiiig. 

ft. 
JockeU .... 1 bale 25 wtt 2 

TrouRCTb do, 50 1 

21»ttl<J 26 1 

Bi*d cases 1 Uo, HKI 6 

Jutrtpers (duck) ^o, 50 3 

Frocks do. 50 3 

Clothing and Naceiaaries in MatoriaU 

Coftle IbnleSO^W. 8 

- do. 25 4 

DnUjack^ta do. 60 6 

do. 26 a 

Shell jocketa do. 50 5 

do. 25 3 

Troaaen do. 50pr«. 5 

do. 25 8 

/pnpy cloth}., do, 12 1 

(duck) do. 100 4 

Frocks do. 100 JVo. 4 

dothisg and Keeet>ariei mada up. 

Buck tunieii!! for Royal \ 

Mftrijie Lipht InfjLti- t do, (J30 40 

try and Artillery ., J 

Gnrttt eofttfe do. 25 B 

Scrjii^ tanlrji do. 500 40 

Grenii cout& .,.,...... do. 10 3 

Ttjnicfr do. 50 8 

Brill jnckcte do. 50 5 

SbtfU ditto do, 50 7 

Trmmerii do. 50 pn. II 

Shirt! do. UiO^Yo. 4 

Bltto (flanntdl do, l(ii» 8 

StofkiMgR . , do. 150 /jr». 4 

GlovM ..,, do, 200 1 

Towi'U ihand) do. 2fJ0.^^. 1 

hag* (iait'0) do. 100 « 

WiuittbKiidft do. 200 5 

Ditto . do. 100 B 

Barrack St^ret. 

PttUianeeawB do. 50 4 

Bobter ditto do. ](M> 1 

Sheeti do. 50 B 

I'oweU Ground) ........ do. 25 1 

B<!id ru^i* do, 25 ft 

Hiieking bottom* ...... do. 25 S 

Co^ ba«kAt do. 1 R 

Mop hfindleii iiM» 7 

Bmoni ditto im 5 

llliit)ki*tii do. 25 h 

UaurhvdB fi « 

(loop«-t 1 I 



30 


1 


B 






1 


1 


1 


1 














^^^^^^^^^^B 


STEVFNS 


ON STOWAGE. 










TABLE Ko, in. 








■ 


NAVAL 


PROVISIONS 


, VICTUALLING STORES, ftc 




Meat, Soap, Whkat 


\ &c. 


is timid for 




pay ealtfdir by .H 






th« 


metric eystem. 








■ 




I of the 




iodweis^y.) 




-1 


^^^ FBOTISIOHS, 


fte. 




FBOTIilOirS, 


Ike. 




""■ 


^^^^H 




Gro»i tai^ 


oat 






Gro%* 


tare 


net 


^^^^^^P 




lb. lb. 


lb. 






XK 


tt>. 


IK 


^^^ Bisctat.. Bafli..2& 


100 


112 2 


lOD 


Roi^ina . . Bairols Ih 


wm 


406 


70 


336 


■ k^^ 


50 


61 1 


50 


(tight) Half hhd 


■>'ii 


283 


59 


294 


^H Tigh 1 Bread pun 


336 


472 im 


336 


Kilderkin ft ,. 


168 


216 


48 


168^ 




71 


797 140 


657 


Small caskA. . 


112 


142 


ao 


llt^ 


^^^^ H«>gi^e«d .. 


M 


619 119 


500 


Oatmeal . 4 hhd gal 


44 


292 


89 


253 


^^^1 Barrel 


36 


421 88 


833 


(dry) Kilderkin 


m 


204 


83 


172 


^^^^H Half hogshead 


25 


20« 65 


281 


* Small caak .. 


20 


187 


22 


115 


^^^^H KUderkin 


IB 


215 49 


166 


MoBtard . Cme.,1b 


64 


88 


24 


64 


^^^^V SmaU cask 


12 


143 82 


111 




42 


61 


19 


^M 


^^^H Sognr tight Barrel Ih 
^^^^K HiUf hothead 
^^^1 Kilderkui 


893 

Ilia 


462 70 
339 59 
216 4B 


392 
280 
16S 


Popper (dry) Jhhd*. 
Small ea^k . « 


150 
60 
28 


185 
89 
43 


85 
29 
15 


4 


^^^F SmaUcask .. 


11*2 


142 80 


112 


* 


^F CbcMolate Caao . . * * 


120 


141 21 


120 


** 


22 


32 


10 


%% 




80 


96 16 


eo 


• 


14 


23 


9 


14 


^H 


40 


fil 11 


40 


* 


8 


13 


6 


8 


H Teft .... Cheat .. 


m 


111 26 


85 


Tlnegar.t Vrme.gol 


71 


864 


140 


724 


■ Half chest .. 


m 


55 IC 


39 


(Ught) Hhd. .. 


64 


663 


119 


548 


H Pork, Rali Tierce .. 


820 


filS 198 


320 


Biirrd 


86 


450 


68 


862 


^m (tight) Barrel .. 


206 


341 1S3 


208 


Half hhd. .. 


25 


317 


65 


252 


^^L Peas,*>plit BjutpIjtoI 


40 


STB 54 


319 


Kilderkin . . 


18 


280 


49 


181 


^^^H (dry) Half hhd. 


SB 


279 m 


240 


Small eaak .. 


12 


152 


n 


120 


^^^1 Kil.ic^rkiti .... 


90 


169 92 


161 


Lemon jiiiee Caee Ih 


72 


179 


107 


7S 


^^^^ Beef, wilt Tierce .. 


804 


502 196 


804 


Halfoaao «. 


86 


93 


67 


n 


■^ {light) Barrel .. 


206 


S5S 147 


206 


TonfTnea Smcak iTo 


18 


146 


79 


67 


^m Floor (dry) Bfm-i>I .. 


886 


888 52 


336 


(tipht) . . . 


12 


92 


47 


45 


^H Half hogiiheAtI 


2m 


283 88 


250 


Candloa., Cttf»e ,. }h 


56 


69 


13 


56 


■ Kilderkin.,.. 


168 


201 33 


168 


Tobacco Borrela.. 


160 


229 


69 


160 


^H Small caifk ., 


112 


134 22 


112 


(Ughl) jhhdit.. 


110 


165 


55 


110 


^B Soet (light) ihhcl,. 


168 


333 165 


168 


Kilderkin^) .. 


80 


122 


42 


80 


^H Kilderkinii . . 


112 


257 145 


112 


Soap ( dry j Barrel .. 


274 


320 


46 


274 


^^^^ BhulU ca^ka . . 


M 


185 101 


m 


Half hhd. .. 


130 


156 


26 


130 


^H 


56 


140 04 


56 


Small caak .. 


61 


78 


17 


61 


^^H ntoir 


TAKES. 




EELIOIOTTS BOOKS. 






^^^^ 


cwL 


(jr. rD« 


ft 












^F Brewd a . . 


3 


I 17 1700 


Bibles 












^B Ditto » ,. 


2 


8 13 1700 


Prayer hooka 


Accor.] 








^B iHtto c ., 


1 


1 12 


5-30 


P»aiter« 


" Btiremeiit uf tJjc 1* 


jck 


^m Ditto D .. 


1 


5 


3-20 


Testament* ..... 


ages when Hbippec 


. 


H oa &4 


2 


1 27 13-00 






frrou tare net I 


^B Ditto 50 


1 


8 


9-00 






tb. \\ 


. Ilk. 


IL 


^B Ditto 20 


. 


8 21 


3^60 


Library hk*. 1st class e«ae 


E53 60 199 


IS 


^H^ T^ttMrt miide le m^ttld ftcHaht 


to bt fl\^m when 


2iid ditto 




148 ai 


ua 


S 


^^^^ iffw^*! ; 






3rd ditto 




126 80 

i 


96 


4 





STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 


■ 


81 ^ 




TABLE No. HI, CowrnruiD. 






^1 


^ MARIKE NECESSARIES, TANKS, 


Ac. 




^1 






irvSgUt»0 




■ 




bsameh^s 


CLOTHOrO. 




SE&ICEN'S GIOTHHrO. 


^ 




trros'- uire net eiib 






Kriii«{i tfire ttirt cub. H 




No. Ih, lb. 


Ml. ft. 




No. 


m. th. tb. tL A 


JtackeU, him cloth 


60 163 3 


IftO 4 


HoldBdls ...... 


200 


38 


2 36 2 ■ 


bale Ko.l 


25 61 2 


•79 2 


Ditto 


100 


19 * 


1 18 1 ■ 


■■ IHito **.... '2 


50 139 3 


136 G 


Flttunol waifitbiui'i 


200 


53 


2 51 6 ■ 


H Ditto ...... 2 


25 71 2 


f>9 3 


Ditto 


100 
100 


2G| 
60 


1 251 8 ■ 

2 48 3 ■ 


■ Ditto lliitthi'g 1 


25 12i} 3 
50 108 2 


126 8 


^B TroQHers blue cloth 


106 4 


Coojf ortem .... 


100 


46 


2 44 7 ■ 


■ Ditto ..,......, 


25 58 U 


[ 5li 2 


Shell JAdwU .. . 


60 


122 


A US 5 ■ 


H Blue doth Ko.l 
■ Ditto ..... I 


jmr4» 

72 108 8 
86 52 2 


100 4 

50 2 


Ditto ,- 

Bknketn 


25 
25 


61 * 
123 


1 59 3 ■ 
3 120 8 ■ 


■ Ditto .*.... 2 


72 116 3 


118 5 


HrtlH>ea« 


6 


48 * 


Z 46 5 ■ 


■miiio 2 


Se 661 2 


56| 3 
106 4 


IHtto .......... 


I 


91 - 
1Q8 * 


4 ^^M 




296 189 8 


auirts .... 


100 




148 S8 2 


91 2 


Ditto 


50 


66 * 


2 ^^H 


H^nmer*! 


235 75 8 


72 4 


BltickaikhclucfB, 


100 


341 


U 33 1 ■ 






117 J 37 2 


86 2 


Ditto ^bal(sfach 


60 


34i J 


Li 38 1 ■ 






■Slueaergc 
■l>itto 


.,.,.. 


160 91 8 

80 46 14 

144 68 2 


88 4 
44 2 

64 2 


Cftps, boats' crews 
Ditto r/ryW/ AW. 


100 
60 


117 54 68 10 ■ 
76 43 82 7 ■ 


■ l?liil« <K)itoo drill . 








Cups, worste<l btde 


100 


53 2 61 2 1 


■ Blae ittku 8 boItM 


*Si 86 8 


33 1 


Ditto 


60 


21 1 


t 26 1 ■ 


^■yinahtng .. W« 


m lOB 8 
fmim 


105 5 


Hateriala for blae elotli or flaihing. | 


^p Ft<H-1;iii^'S ...♦,» 


150 81 2 


79 4 




St Is 




■ 


H^ 1 


IIJO 55 2 


53 8 


Jacket* 


■25 


38 ] 


I 37 2 ■ 




50 22 2 


20 2 


Trousers .... 


50 


20 ] 


ID 1 ■ 


^Lhntti* 


1(M> 42 2 


40 2 


Do, 2fHtlesench 


25 


20 ] 


19 1 ^^1 






60 21 1 


20 I 


Braces dry tm.cak. 


100 


31 18 13 2 ^^H 






■ Sh<H?« tiffht hnrrti 


1(K) mi IH 


126 10 




No. 




^^^H 


■ Ditto tlnfhal/hhJ, 


60 102 13 


59 7 


BedcAMB.. hale 


100 


204 4 200 6 ■ 


■ Half lionU Wry ^r. 


50 ICH 54 


114 10 


Dock jtnopers . . 


60 


84 2 82 3 1 




Or«7rloihtroiu.£ie 


12 2d 1 


27 1 


Ditto frocks «... 


60 


84 3 82 8 


I 






ABKIEALTY TAITEB. 








4 




Detcriit 
yon 


Capucltir 
in 


Weight 
when 
Empty 


Cubic 
feet 


'^'- 


Capacity 
GaUona 


Empty 


Coble 
feet 


1 


1 


SSi 


e. or. lb. 
10 2 12 


fiset 

101 


No. 
7 


fSi 


e. 


or* lb. 
1 7 


68 




Li 


BOO 


7 26 


51 


74 


200 




6 


86 






S 


675 


iO S2 


96 1 


8 


876 




8 26 


64 


^^^K 


^' 


Sa 


287 


6 8 15 


49 


8a 


187 




3 


82 


^^^^M 


■1 > 


610 


9 18 


87 


9 


810 




1 6 1 


64 


^^^H 


H ** 


256 


6 2 


44 


9a 


155 




1 7 


27 


^M 


H 4 


600 


9 2 


85 


10 


200 




2 17 


85 


^^^H 


H ^ 


250 


15 


42 


10a 


1*10 




1 6 


18 


^^^H 


■ t 


i7JS 


8 2 6 


80 


li 


110 




1 7 


20 


^^^^1 


H ** 


287 


6 3 17 


41 


12 


800 




9 


51 


^^^B 


H < 


410 


8 


68 


18 


200 




3 23 


84 


^M 


■ 6* 


SOfi 


5 1 24 


86 


14 


100 




1 


17 


I 


L i 




STEVKAii 



TABLE Kt>. m, CowTiKmo, 

EMPTY CASKS, kc. 



«•!. lb. 

Tight Wfttw CoflJtj*, Leag«r 164 *i52 

Butt 110 174 

PaucheoiJ 71 140 

Hci^jshead .... o5 110 

BoiTol ....*... 84$ tWi 

Half U<>Ksbe«d.. 25 ^Oi 

KiiairrldtL .... 18 49 

8n)^U<UiHk li 3"! 

nit . 8 2-1 

Tubi . V, , i, Deck ... 80 im 

n . GO 811 

1 40 6i 

f m 52 

i - 20 41 

i.i s' 60 d3 

ivir 50 73 

iJtLto 40 6*i 

Ditto ,,..,.. 30 51 

l»iM . 20 40 

T» ,. ,_ 10 22 

« ^ 40 67 

f 30 40 

25 il 

' 20 87 

..... 12 25 

60 107 

i^.TU* ,. 40 HI 

Ditto 36 70 

lioiid m(Qim^»m rrgardiog Cului^ mode c 








P^* 


Hi. 


Tubt .. 


8teep 


S2 


G3 




Ditlu 


26 


f*7 




Brciid ,,., (h. 


120 


71 


' 


Ditto 


90 


66 




Ditto 


60 


35 




Ditto 


.HO 


24 






18 


U 




Ditto 


11 


» 




Ditto 


IJ 


S3 




Mrttch ...... 


^ 


9 




HuhbiHli, lau^ , 





K^ 




Ditto smftU . . 





(K} 


H«niesB 

6Mk> 


PuitolieoDt 





lOd 


Hu^bviidtt 





89 




H>iif hagKhciid-H 


— 


54 


Utet)«iift[ 


Kitii, liirge 







Ditto, imull .. 


^^ 






KeKii, liirge . . 


. 






Ditto, mimU . . 









CariM, Inrgo 


_ 






Ditto, Aiii all .. 









Burriroes . . ♦ . 


4 


16 


Bi\rrief>e« f nr ImuU ♦,,,.» 


10 


27 


Bpittoons 
Louiuii ja 







20 


et* Cft»e*i, whole . 





U 




Ditto luOf 





19 


BUcait bug* Lai^o 


— 


2 




Ditiv Small . . 


— 


1 


meitsuiifntctit. See. vrUI Vie fuucid Qit'ler thtt «iticf«. 



4 

n 



FOEiiaB. 



HAY, in btmdW . * . . 4|tb. i^ cubic foot 

f Suppostjil to W(&igh 

. . \ otJlb but vaf3>' from 

I 52 to 5»lb. 

OATS 8'64cub.ft*l^cwt. 



TBDSSES 



BAJILEY , 2'».<* cubic ft. i^e 

WHEAT 2 3G ditto 

f SiViIb, f> cubic ttl 

8TB AW, in bmidksi mry from dO k»1 

I 401b. 



VAYAL OFFI0EE8. 



Commaiwlpr in-Chi<?f • 

Adinind. Vice- AdroinU, Reur- AdraimJ 

Cnptftiii of ihf Fle(?t, Commodore, Inapector-OencrRl of Hon- 
piltil4 ftiid Fleets ......»...* ♦. ..•-.♦ 

CapttLin. CHapliiin - 

Bluff Uttpliiiii. D<!?puty Insp^pctor-Gencnd of Hotrpitftls and 
Fleet«, HicrrUr) to Comnuiiider -iiiChicf or Fuig OfBo«ir, 
i^,.r, I .. .# viiuMiincry A float » Comniivndfir, Staff Com- 
ID J siirs^t-on. Lieatemmti Ikliuiierf Surgeon, Pny- 
mi ' K n^tiietT , * . . 

S, . . Kiivnl Ir-1 " 'i»<tant Surgeon 

S, 'wvrrtint Ot! I M&itter, ^^ui- 

L-:„ i. - . , I iij^int^or, A^ :.4ueer, Wimrant 

OdiceT, and all ffuboniinate oUict^rs 



80 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

(PROPOSED) 

SHIP -OWNERS' CENTAL SCALE OF PROPORTIONATE 
RATES OF FREIGHT. 



\f URK vesseU are freigHted hj the tan, mid 
no »peeiiii agreetaeai is mad<* r(*Hpccting 
the tn'oportioti of tonnage which coth 
pMriiirular article shjill be cuui[>uU^l at, 
tlif« foUjiiwiug Kb&li be the HtntuLLrd, the 
cvjital rc'prettcntiug lOOIb. aroinJupolB. 

IK AT. 100 qUATt^rs in hnllc of 5 ^en- 
^ Jm to \he qoarttT art* tquiil Rpjiroii- 
^ttJitely to l^W.Hi euhic feet» iind to '-i^ ton 
w«igliU Mid to 45 cubic fcc't pt:r ton 
nai^Akdrrmitnt. TUii prActical rvsult U 
gin ' / ' tieat in bulk stowing 

^1- ' where no meoAtire- 

1' litowrd, owing also 
iu Uit i^ikiwil pUrt,sur»? on lite lowt-r parts 
fvf the cargo. This applies reLitivcly to 
aU grMu airgo&B iu buUk. 

BKANS, Po*H» nnd T<*re*, To p»y pro- 
pi irtiouaLe frf.'i^ht to whe-jfct curgotiK, ac* 
cording to weigiit &nd mcaanremeiit of 
tbr port of «i[u:»rt. 

BARLEY, IH qtuirtm-s of i ccntnU to 
tlie qu&rtor — equal to 21 too weiijht and 
moiuturemeat. 

OktB, liSimpcriAl qiuurien of 3 eoitiJi 
|o the ^QKrli'T— <tqitiU to 10^ tcm ol 
WM^t HOd mciutiremettU 

tLOUJt 8 biu^reli of 19€lb, oqiul to ft 
tun of fiO <robic fe^st. 

TA/> ■ ■ hulk of it4tkk tthaU 

COFFEE, l^f^tb. in ca«k«, 1,6»<I in bugs; 
Coeoa, ia2Uth. ii\ c^tk^t 1,3<J7 in ba^. 

PIMKKTO, dfim.CMki, lJ10]b.b«gfl, 

FLniTR ,.f I9fl|b. each. PIG 

mid hu' llpi.'trp, fitignrt log* 

i»i-'« I . .^mguii wood, and oil 

l> >d« copper otttAjadftUaUur 

b Uii <iwt. 

COXl i»l<j « CoMfSXiMio. 60 enbio feet to 
tiM tou. 

TilillKU. 50 cable foot to tlie load. 

ABUES. Pot A?rt> Pkarl. ft ciufla pqttftl 
lo 1 tun weight, or U\ cubic fc«t. 

pgoT*A»i-T..v '^» Ratr of frtright for gnus, 
» tm'ct, beans, nad p«)jis, 

h* a«r af fiOOoentAlj. 



SEEDS, barl(?y, and outs, in proportion 
to weight and bulk for 5<Xi centuXa 

SUGAR AXD Saltpbtrb in bagi^ cooli 
auUf copper ore, and all dead weight, to 
be compntcxl at tlie rate of 22 ceo tula to 
tli« hall ton ; all lighl goods to be com* 
putcd at the rate of 50 €ubic feet to the 
ton< 

Oommandera of ahlpR in all foreign porta 
ahould pcTOimallj' ascertain the relative 
weight per ton, compared with the 
Meosnrviuent for Stowage, before digu- 
ing s.n open Ohttrter or engaging any 
]» I ,; !iot bpecitied in Hab- 

i (imde, tiH the Ltailic 

ai. - : . f proportionate rates 

Bre notorioutdy ciileulattAl tu deceive tUo 
ship-owner oo open charier«. 

AD ahips Hhonld by §tatute law be fur- 
nitihed by the owner with eeul*d weights 
and i^caleM and callipt'r measure, uhto 
with an obbmg scoop ineuttaro ahapcd 
to upproiinatc) the ftecti*'*- -»' ■' -^ip'* 
fonn, which will give 11. n nt 

of a bushel of wheat ^v J tb, 

making the quarter of wii - > .'» 

oentalii, leAvmg it option J i i j- jh 
centalti to tlie ton* or riLiiu JJ^ , » dilIii 
to the old ton, which i« thu** iiio reaped 
by lUlb. to facilitate computaliona. 

Tithca and corn rente oan easily adjait 
thfiuaelveii to the new commercial &taa« 
dord, without any f iolatioii of rights or 

dOM. 



The introduction of tbo 
apphed to every article ' 
it la evidvut would be ; 
the pabUc. 



hit 
ion 

u to 



Tim Cental wrf-^* 
naeintlit Lj 
the lit of I* 
A Beeimol eoiust^u 



- i"««tb, will bo ia 
1 ti luarkot tfoin 

* inq>o*ed to follow 



GOLD. 1 Sovereign fttxi CcnU, i Sor* 
ereign 1150, t^Sovcndgu 12a« 

8ILVEK. Crow«,4»,ataniptidlOOCiinta: 
l-Crown, 2#, 50; |-CrowD. Ut 25; (I 
Cent pieces. 

COPPER. One Hallpeiitiy 1 Cent, Fir> 
thiug I ditto. 









I 


■ 












■ 


^L^ 


■ -■ 














STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 


m 




TABLE No, V. 


V 


^^ NEWCASTLE STATUTE COAL MEASURE CONVERTED | 




INTO WEIGHT, 


■ 


^^T AlTD COMPARED WTTH THB BJKOlBTEB ToNKAGE, N.M. OF ShIPS, HROWTNa TH» TTTllBSa 


^H or CHALOBONa, Tons^ or KucLfi or Coju. a tebsel wn^L caiirt* at tiie eate or li 






Keoistsb To^b pkk Kskl. 






1 


dron 


Ton Cwt 


Keel 


Beg. ton 
Kill, 


Ghfll- 
dtoa 


Ton Cwt 


Keel 


"8f£" 


1 


1 


12 13 


! 


u 


208 


551 4 


20 


304 




a 


5 


3^ 


216 


672 8 


27 


878 


H 




a 


7 19 


i 


51 


224 


503 12 


28 


392 


^^ 




4 


10 12 


+ , 


7 


232 


014 10 


29 


400 


^^ 




5 


13 5 


« 


BJ 


240 


urn 


30 


420 


1 ^M 




6 


15 18 


} 


lOJ 


248 


657 4 


31 


434 


^^ 




7 


18 11 


i 


12J 


250 


678 8 


32 


448 


^1 




6 


21 4 


1 1 


14 


204 


699 12 


83 


402 


^1 




16 


42 8 


2 


28 


272 


720 16 


S4 


470 


H 




^4 


63 13 


3 


42 


2m 


742 


35 


490 


^1 




S2 


84 16 


4 


50 


288 


763 4 


36 


504 


^1 


^^^B 


40 


106 


5 


70 


300 


784 8 


37 


518 


^M 


^^^m 


48 


127 4 


6 


84 


^104 


805 12 


38 


532 


^1 




5n 


118 8 


7 


08 


312 


820 16 


30 


546 


^1 




114 


109 12 


8 , 


112 


l\2Q 


H18 


40 


660 


^1 




72 


190 16 


ft i 


126 


3i28 


8*59 4 


41 


574 


H 




80 


212 


10 


140 1 


336 


890 8 


42 


588 


^1 




88 


2^3 4 


11 


154 : 


344 


911 12 


43 


602 


^1 




m 


254 8 


12 


168 


352 


932 10 


44 


016 


H 


^H 


104 


27!^ 12 


la 


182 


300 


954 


45 


630 


^1 


^H 


lliJ 


290 IG 


14 


11»C 


30H 


975 4 


46 


044 


^1 


^H 


120 


318 


15 


210 


376 


996 8 


47 


658 


H 




I2fi 


339 4 


16 1 


224 


384 


1U17 12 


48 


072 


^1 




im 


M\0 8 


17 


238 


392 


1038 10 


49 


680 


H 




144 ' 


381 12 


18 


252 


400 


ini;o 


60 


700 


^1 




lft2 


402 Itt 


10 


260 


408 


lOHl 4 


51 


714 


^1 




160 


424 


20 


280 


410 


1 irJ2 8 


52 


728 


H 




ins 


445 4 


21 


294 


424 


1123 12 


53 


742 


^1 




l7Ci 


46Ci 8 


22 


308 


432 


1144 16 


54 


756 


^1 




1H4 


487 12 


23 


322 


440 


1160 


55 


770 


^M 




IU2 


508 10 


24 


330 


448 


11*^7 4 


56 


784 


^M 




200 


530 


1 25 


350 


456 


1208 8 


57 


798 


M 






For reseelf from 




1 




56 to 100 ton Add half n keel to the KboTi3 CftlcialnticitiB. 


^H 




100 to 300 • Adopt tho fl^reit in the tJiblc, 


^H 




3(K) lo 400 . 8tibiract } keeL 


^H 




400 lo 800 - Snl)tTurt one to three keels, According^ to tonnftge 


^1 


^V Ib eii6 of 


iihipt regnlnt^d by the new register, 1855, a reduction of from 10 tc 
must be made froDn the abore caktilationi. 


llrC«Dt ■ 




I 


MAftWOOD, ^M 



^ STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 


I 


1 


^^^P TABLE No. VI, 




^1 


■^ THE PROPORTIONATE RATES OF FREIGHT 


ON 


COAT.i 1 


H 1* ttou I0#. TO i\09. ^ Ton or 20 cwr. asd wnom XIO Vis. to M3 12«. ¥ Kekl f 




oiir 21i ToK. 










PtrWa 


P«r keel 


Per ton 


Per keel 




£ *. rf. 


£ #. ct 


\ £ 9. d. 


£ 


s* 


rf. 




lu 


in 13 00 


I 11 6 


m 


7 


90 






10 t» 


11 3 73 


1 12 Q 


a:i 


18 


4-8 






11 D 


11 VI 2-4 


1 12 6 


y4 


» 


on 






U II 


12 y 9(1 


1 13 


34 


19 


7 2 






la 


12 14 48 


1 13 6 


d5 


10 


24 






U 12 (i 


la 6 on 


1 U 


30 





go 






l:i Q 


13 15 7U 


1 14 


3« 


11 


4*8 






lil 


14 2'4 


1 15 


37 


2 


00 






U 


14 la 0« 


1 15 a 


87 


12 


7-2 






14 (J 


1ft 7 4-tf 


1 U 


36 


8 


2<4 






1ft 


15 18 0*0 


1 16 


38 


13 


9*6 






15 


1« 8 72 


1 17 


3!) 


4 


4 '8 






J(J 


10 19 2-4 


1 17 « 


39 


15 


00 






IfJ U 


17 » t>(J 


1 18 


40 


5 


7-2 






17 U 


18 n 4*H 


1 18 C» 


40 


10 


2'4 






17 «$ 


18 11 O'Q 


1. 11* 


41 


6 


90 






IH 


10 1 7-2 


1 19 


41 


17 


4*9 






IH 


IV) 12 24 


2 


42 


8 


0-0 






10 


JiO 2 U 6 


2 6 


42 


18 


T*2 






n 111 6 


20 i:j .t"8 


2 10 


43 


il 


3 4 






inn 


21 4 n-0 


2 1 fJ 


43 


19 


90 






10 


21 14 7-i 


2 2 


44 


10 


4-8 






1 1 


22 5 2'4 


2 2 


45 


1 


0*0 






1 1 t^ 


22 Id »<> 


2 3 


45 


11 


7*2 






i S 


23 G 4-K 


2 a 6 


46 


2 


24 






I 3 (1 


23 17 


2 4 


40 


12 


9*0 






1 3 


24 7 7'2 


2 4 ft 


47 


3 


48 






13V 


21 IS «'4 


2 ft 


47 


14 


00 1 






14 


2d 8 oe 


2 d n 


48 


4 


7-2 






1 4 n 


2ft IM 48 


2 


48 


15 


2-4 


^^^H 




1 G 


20 m 0<» 


2 n 


49 


5 


00 


^^^H 




I & «i 


27 U 7-2 


2 7 (» 


49 


l(J 


4H 


^^H 




fan 


27 n 2*4 


2 7 fl 


ftO 


* 


00 






1 (1 


2)^ 1 96 


2 8 11 


ftO 


V 


72 






1 7 n 


28 12 4-8 


2 8 


61 


8 


24 






1 7 


20 3 00 


2 9 


51 


18 


90 






1 8 


29 1?J 7-2 


2 6 


ft9 


9 


48 






I 8 n 


an 4 24 


2 10 


53 





00 






1 t» n 


m 14 Oft 


2 12 6 


ftft 


13 


on 






19 6 


31 6 4'8 


2 1ft 


58 


6 


00 






1 10 


31 16 00 


2 17 6 


30 


19 


n-o 






I 10 « 


m »j 7-2 


3 


03 


12 


00 






I 11 n 


32 17 24 














h- 






jj 



X 



STEVEKS ON STOWAGE- 



TABLE So.m, 

CANAL TONNAGE-CALEDONIAN CANAL. 



BjtBSSL SULK, of all tutuiles not otherwis« rated^ U mted At 5 cable fe«t, ese 
irhcB the Bftid meftsnrc aliidl exceed 24 ewt^ In which ca«e Sj ewi. Ib to be rated a htu^rtd in 

EiofiT ]iAmiiEt.B hulk or 40 cubic feet I ton. 

Smai^ paceaog not maiuiiniig li cable foot, or not weighing 28 th, is reel 
m qwutrr of » barrel bulk. 

ExFTT CAtEM OT hox«t Kte Tcckoiied lit one-eighth of their eapocit j for gftnge i 
hnt when retnmod fnllf if belonging to the eome owners, are entitled to a drawback of I 
daitm paid on ahipment. 

Timbkr: load of oak, aah, elm, h«ech, birch, or other hardl wood, 10 cable fett; ] 
liil«lu or fir timber, SO cable feet. 

Blauobtered kmMALB: the toll In a qnari^r IeȤ th&n timt for live stock. 

It ha» been held that when a ship with cargo from the North Sea to the Irish Sea, ( 
vi^ vtrsa, haft passed throngh Hue canal, the dut^B on the rnrgo fid] on the conaignee i 
lefts there ia any expreas atipalaLion to the iiontrury. See tht' &rticlti Caledonian Canal. 

CBHTAH CAKAL. 



Barley . . * * 6| ^oBrten 

Beiir nr bigg 6 

Fip. foreign and home \ ^ ^ , 
m loga or rafti . * . , f 

Floar :GboUa 

Freestones, grindstones I t g -„t, ** 

Granite and whin mUi- 1 ^ ^ 

fitoaw *./ ^* * 

Hardwood 40 - 

HcrringB ** ,,,. 8 barrelB 



Lime 10 bolls 

slacked .,,....« 15 - 

Malt ISbushola 

Marble 12 cab. ft. 

Meal ISboUs 

Oatfi 7 qtmrtera 

Sktea , SOOKixiable 

Tar , . 8 barrel* 



GLOirCESTEE AND BEEKELE7 CAHAL. 
i 14 eabie feet - Oybtebs 10 busheU ; Iixhhe, «amo an Caledonian ConaL 

rOBTH AHB CL7BE CAITAL. 

A ton of Stokk Id cubic feet. 



TABLE No. Vm. 

FRENCH RATES OF FREIGHT. 

The atjuidard for dead- weight in France ia the ton of 1,000 kilogrammes. The En 
ton of 20 cwt, 2,240th, weighs exactly 1,015 IdlograinmeB. 

XaNHAOE SCALE. 



Co«l i» taken at , 1,000 kilo 

Sugar in hag9 .,.,,.,,., 1,000 - 

• refibQed, in loaves . * 900 - 

Tobacco, hhds. (Kentucky) 700 - 

(Virginia) 800 - 

Saltpetre 1,000 ^ 



Hicc, in baga 1,000 Idlo 

- in caska 900 -^ 

Indigo, in ca«e« 700 - 

Homp 400 - 

Manihihemp 600 • 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



37 



TABLE No. IX. 

BALTIC AND ARCHANGEL BATES OF FREIGHT, 



ISINGLASS (cAska) l-4lh int^ro thati 
freight cleaii heiop, per ton 11 poods, ^, 

LINENS, Hii pieccfl Flems, 90 nivcjiduckg, 
120 ditto driULnpTi, 80 ditto narrow, 1 ell, 
44) do. broad, *1 c]h>, sheoting ; 60 do. tittil- 
cloth ; 6i,l)0() ArclHumf* broiid diaper Uneiitt 
or crash ; 8,iX>0 ditto Archeuiis narrow 
linen dinp^r or huckubuckd (.*qaul to 2-3rdii 
of A ton at duaoji Lcmp. 

MATS (from Archangel) 5 per cent. lc«ii 
tlion the frciglit of ht^mp, for tmy quantity 
not eiciiedin^ l-tith of the bhip'ti t^^i'gt^i 
reckoning MM) piece<» duublc & ^Oi) pioccii 
Blngle to A ton. 

PITCH AX1> TAR ; lOO hamrU equal to 
li7 qimrtern of wht^at, iuiperiul meoMnre. 

TALLOW* ; 2-3rdb freight of clean hcnip» 
on the gross weiglit. 

WOOD not to bfci conidderi'd ah coming un 
der the denomination of ^iown^Jtc goods. 

DLmlK4 ; 1*21) piece* Petershm^ utojidiird 
equal to H loudK of tijnht?r, 

WrtCnttcol Logs, 1 3rd more tluin freight of 
firtimb<'r, ^ lortd of !Ui cub feet, CuBtom' 
himm.' eiilliper iiict^nro. 

Xliilf I^gs lor broken stowage, 2-BdA treigbt 
of whole logs* 

Round MiuitM,* 33 feet, girt mcjifiurct eqicuU 
to 1 lt)ud &r liuiber oif 60 feet, Cnstom' 
hou»e callip-er me&iiiure. 

Btflvei* ijut cargo.) 1 mille of ruiming pipa 
equal to t20 loadg of tir timber. 

Deal Ends {for broken stowage,) 2'3rds tbo 
freight of deals. 

Lathwood (for broken (stowage,) 1 fatliom 
of -i feet, eciiual to 1 lond of tirabeJ'. 

WOOL, donble freight of eleim lieinp per 
lou of tl3 poodK^ proesR. 
* IJIJ per cent. liun, 

4 D«n!i* 10^ >. i UiRii 3 loodt tliu- 

lier, bi'.'-iilr -. v\ti.i :iiiui)ii r u«' mrce*. 

Uk.M Ml,, 

YlJC, IJi , lUld 

thiiii pruiluci l»\ 1> ~ i tor 

ouhir (!otit«nt , C u - 1 i it'ti'r 

ID Uioties, tn be triL Livti,) 

I^BDENBA ' fVom tb« Black S«« to pay 7| jMsr cent, more^ than thi» mU] in the U^Im. 

I S^KK L» J' k Soa to p«y A jmit cwit, mor^ Uuut iho mUr in Un* tuldes . 

OUAIS m matM to p«y 7^ per cent, inriic Uiim hi ImlK, 
8BAXN III Imtn lMtff» lo p*y » \wr rftit. mr>pr thnit in hulk, 

dtnic Ihp prujiyriiun v( '► < i ,'jOO dhxgffi mut* to t'*ery llMI luii rr|tikt«r, to 

|f#r wrnl. mom' ihaii ijir ii (he eiteiti of mie-fouftii of tb« cxrgo. Any 

Fj^'ln.rTMri tn f.r .uTrjf'ct tj. m • .1. 

M^ I Ar|K>i, iij i^ujr 30 pw c«ait. mon fHrif^bi Uian Ar (iniber, |>er toad <tf 
calbprr meiwurs. 
- iikiia of 4 fwl lidiwixyd lo |wt fh*ij(bl equal to im%) luail tir llnilHir ; d»al 
cocia t« v«UittiU . F i tfiyb I uf d4>tl» , »lar<f , tod otlser broken ■t<»waBe »ul^«et U» ii uprchd afrfKrmni t. 



fo My 8-8rdji the freight of clenn 
GB W gVOW weight. 
ISTLES ft tiim*d HIDES 2.Sda fardght 
of cleftn hemp |^ ton of 44 pooda, groBa. 
BEES' WAX (in mats), 2'Brda freight ol i 

che^a hexnpt 4^ ton of 63 poodit gr. 
|££S' WAX (in eoaka), mmt freight m 
t h«iiip, i^ton of 63 poodfi gr. 
; inidl eftsea same freight n» heuip. 
ITHEBS, aame fnnglit tM CodiU* bcmp 
4> ton of 44 pooda gr. 
^EAIN— Wheat, 97 imp. qiurt«r9 equal to 
10 km of clean hemp. 
09, BcftfiB*, and TareSf 10 |pr cent more 
than freight of wheat. 
Sjre 7i ^ eent* Linseed 10, Barley 15, Data 
7^1 Uft« than freight of whe^t* 

J U]»e«df 12 barrel<4 in rmika, 24 in 
VttJk, 49qiud to 1 ton of Rhine hemp. 
r^ARE SKINS, some freight aa dean hemp 
l^toD of 3,.5<)0 Rkina. 
SMP^ (from Petersburg) ontuhot l-Sth, 
half dean 1-lth, Codilk o&e-hftlf more 
thjin trright of clean hemp. 
IHEMP* (Uitrti) onUhot l-8th, pass L4th, 
Codilht one-half more tlian freight of 
Bliine hemp— Foliah and Khiuc heiup on 
amue footing. 
I niDF.H, dried, 3-Biha more thim trtdght of 
cli'nn hemp, per ton, gr. 
Lies, wet or &&lted, ^'Srda freight of 
Lll«anp, perton^ gr. 
SOftSfi HAIR, manQfaetnred, double 
Crt!fght clean hemp, per ton 44 poods, gr. 
IHOUSE MANES, l-4th more tlnin freight 

of eleiui bt'inp, per ton of 44 poi^da. gr. 
IBOHSE TAILB, Mme freight aa clesn 

hmop, per ton of 44 poods, gr. 
(ISINOLABS (bale^) same freight M elettl 
bcntp, prr ton of 11 pontTs, jfr. 

-■ ' Ilk*, 

DJ luol* 

ajiCoiit^vAMHi VJli per 

Hte uf dean basap, all 








[■ 


^^^^■^ 




^H 




^^H 




I^LJI 






STEVEX.S OX STUWAGK, ^H 




TABLE l9o. 3t. ^H 




f NEW SCALE OF PROPORTIONATE FREIGHTS, ^l 


H 






All per lOxV of 20 cwr. Gaosa. I 


1 




Merino k Span, 

Woal 


Other Wool 


TaU0W 


Wheat 


LiiiflatdUkd 
Bapeseed 


Bulejr 




9. d. 


M, d. 


*. J. 


t. d. 


f. d. 


s. </. 




n mm 


57 360 


20 10-20 


15 


16 000 


17 6«( 




T 


75 auo 


m 2-52 


21 0-34 


15 ft 


10 702 


18 1*0! 






77 l»'l^ 


01 144 


22 2'88 


10 


17 144 


18 8*C« 






80 2*iS 


63 030 


22 ir22 


10 


17 7-86 


19 ^m 






63 7 41 


(U 11 28 


23 7\j0 


17 


18 2*28 


19 lOlM 






B5 000 


«<5 10 20 


24 ;i90 


17 6 


18 8-70 


20 5-7( 






H7 o70 


08 912 1 


25 0-24 


18 


19 312 


21 07i 




m lir,*:i 


70 S'04 


25 858 


18 B 


19 9 54 


21 77^ 




U'-' J-UH 


72 mm 


20 4-92 


19 0| 
19 0~ 


20 3'90 


22 m 




94 9 21 


74 5-88 


27 1 20 


20 10-38 


22 9-7« 




07 240 


7fJ 4-HO 


27 omi 


20 Ogs 
20 tt! 


21 480 


23 4'8a 




ttU 7 Tin 


78 n-72 


28 594 


21 11-22 


23 ir8J 




102 0-72 


HO 2'«U 


29 2-28 


21 oi 

21 O-S 


22 5-64 


24 684 




104 ryHH 


82 vm 


29 10 02 


23 006 


25 1*$( 




urn 11 01 


84 0'48 


30 ftOli 


22 0? 
22 oa. 


23 048 


25 B-m 




lOlJ .1-20 


H5 1140 


31 3 30 


24 0-90 


26 890 




111 i^m 


87 10:i2 


31 ll-M 


23 2 


24 732 


20 10 91 




111 2-52 ! 


89 9-24 


32 798 


23 6 J 


25 1-74 


27 5-94 




Utt 7-08 


91 610 


33 4-32 


24 Oa 


25 816 


28 om 




119 0H4 


m 7*08 


34 000 


24 Gl: 


26 258 


m 7*9« 




121 00 


95 O'OO 


34 900 1 


25 01 
25 of 


26 9*00 


29 3'Oflf 




121 11 10 


97 492 , 


85 5-34 


27 3-42 


21) 100*2 




120 4. 12 


99 y K4 


30 1*68 


20 ii^ 


27 9-84 


SO 5n>4 




12« 9 iS 


101 270 


30 10 02 


26 0- 


28 4-20 


31 0-0< 




l;U 2 04 


loa r 08 


37 0-30 


27 oS 


28 10'68 


31 7-06 




133 7 HO 


105 (SO 


38 2' 70 


27 6f 

28 0? 


29 510 


32 Zl{ 




l:Ul 090 


100 n 52 


38 11 04 


29 11 52 


32 911 




UH « 12 


108 1044 


39 7*38 


US 3 


30 5-94 


33 4U 




140 I12H 


no ^m 


40 3 72 


29 0? 


31 0'36 


33 1116 




I4:i 444 


112 8-28 


41 900 


29 6, 

30 o9 


31 e-78 


34 6'lg 




MV 000 


114 7-20 


41 8'40 


32 1-20 


85 i-2a 




i.^7 1140 


1*4 1*80 


45 210 


32 6 


34 930 


38 om 




2»)n tiOO 


102 4*20 


59 090 


42 6 


45 570 


49 8-70 




2:>.5 l-HO 


200 060 


72 n 70 


52 


50 210 


61 51(1 




,HOH 9 (10 


mn 900 


80 10-50 


02 6 


00 10 50 


73 i-5a 




yi5 lOHO , 


248 «ttO 


90 4*20 


05 


69 600 


70 0*00 




:i40 24(» 


2«7 480 


97 300 


70 


74 lOHO 


81 10'80 




,'ifi2 4 20 


270 11-40 


100 930 


72 6 


77 6 90 


84 9-90 




mi 00 


280 600 


104 300 


75 


80 300 


87 9*00 




The equival* 


•nt etpre^siot] of tbefie propoftioiui by wxi<»bt would he, to say the «al 


^^^H nkia of freight k 


■ 


^^^1 in 




1,635 lb. Oais, ■ 


^^H 2.im\\h 


Dftri Of rye» 


l,6111Ib. TitUaw, I 


^^^^^ 1,83G lb 


LiiiAtfi^d or rapeieed, 

Bfvrloj, 

Cuttoii 6«ed^ 


461 !b. Wool, raerinofi or Spanishf | 
6^ilb. Wool, olher aorte. J 





STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 


:u> J 




TABLE Ko. XL 


fl 




RELATIVE RATES OF FREIGHT. 


I 








r«rqii«rt#r 


P«rioii 


Tex qumrint 


Per ton 


P*r qiuutor 




1 
1 




initt. 


aocwt. 


20eirL 


ittttb. 


1 




9. 




*. if. 


«, 


S. d. 


9, 


a, d. 




ft 




1 Of 


21 


6 If 


43 


U 2| 


^^M 




U 




1 ai 


25 


ft 4| 


44 


1» 5f 


^^H 




7 




1 d 


2« 


5 (tf 


45 


11 7» 


^^H 




H 




1 H» 


27 


5 li| 


40 


U lOf 


^^H 




9 




1 llf 


28 


« 


47 


10 Of 


^^^^1 




la 




2 It 


30 


2| 


4« 


10 af 


^^H 




11 




2 4f 


JiO 


5^ 


4U 


10 6 


^^H 




n 




2 fl| 


ai 


7| 


50 


10 H| 


^^H 




13 




2 fl| 


Sr4 


109 


51 


10 llf 


^^H 




14 




a 


sa 


7 Of 


52 


11 If 


^^H 




15 




8 2t 


:u 


7 S| 


63 


11 41 


^^H 




16 




a f4 


35 


7 6 


54 


11 Of 


^^H 




17 




3 7t 


a<i 


7 H| 


55 


11 1JI 


^^H 




18 




3 lOf 


H7 


7 llf 


50 


12 


^^H 




19 




4 Of 


as 


8 If 


57 


12 2f 


^^H 




SO 




4 8| 


m 


8 4f 


68 


12 5( 


^^H 




n 




4 


40 


H 0| 


5U 


12 7» 


^^H 




atj 




4 Rf 


41 


R |i| 


m 


12 10| 


^^H 




2d 




4 in 


42 


t» 






^1 


1 


^ 


RU8SUN CHFiTWERTS. 


1 






RUSSIAN CH£TWERTS 


IMPERIAL QUARTERS 






•JIDVclS irj 


li«Dltrt:o TO 


^^1 






IMPERIAL QUARTERS* 


RUSSIAN CHETWERTS. 


1 


Chtf, 


On. ai«i. 


On. 


On.. 


Chet, 


On. 


Cb«U 




0-73 


Hi) 


57-72 


1 


ISO 


m 


110'g5 






144 


00 


04114 


2 


2-77 


m 


124*70 








«-16 


im» 


7215 


9 


410 


100 


law 50 








HhO 


2<I0 


U4%"n 


4 


5-54 


200 


27712 








HOI 


HIX» 


210 40 


5 


6'Oa 


a(K) 


4LV0H 








4a:i 


4(»(> 


2HH02 


6 


m\ 


4(X» 


554 24 








5*05 


600 


HOO-77 


7 


0'7« 


5(J0 


002->HI 






H 


&'71 


»>00 


402W2 


a 


11-08 


(KKI 


M,S1-3II 






!) 


0'40 


700 


54»5'08 





1247 


700 


{mmi2 






10 


7"i2 


WM) 


577 t^a 


10 


lUHO 


MK) 


nOH-4H 






do 


14 4H 


M0<> 


»i4nao 


20 


27-71 


IN Ml 


l247*tU 






30 


ai Oi'V 


l(t(Ht 


TV' I'M 


ao 


41-57 


lOTNl 


iaH:>'00 






40 


sirHHrt 


•^<KH> 


l4i:joK 


1 ^* 


5542 


2*H»0 


'2771-20 






50 


mS'OH 


;in*H) 


VH14 <l*i 


5<l 


n!l-2H 


ao(M* 


4150 HO 






m 


4.tiaj» , 


|4MX) 


*^H80 10 


m 


Ha- 11 


40(N) 


5542-40 






70 


{VIKjI 


5tKJt) 


aou7 70 


70 


uoua 


50i)l) 


692H-00 




1 


L 









m 


1 




■ _ 


1 




■ 


^n 


3l 




STEVEN^S ON STOWAGE* 


1 






TABLE No. Xn. 




■ 


111 




PROPORTIONATE GRAIN FREIGHT TABLE. 1 




Wkbat. 


Pi AS, BsjLXf, 
anil TA»r«, 








OAtf, 


2 
3 


d. 



a 
(I 




2 2 1 

9 

3 U^ 


<. d. 

1 10 1 
8 OH 
a 3{ 

2 61J 


1 Of 
3 0,V 
3 3 

2 Va 


ff. <!. 

1 8| 

1 1041 
3 14 

2 4,V 


i. d^ 

1 6| 
1 H 
1 Hi 
9 1| 


^^^^^^B 


3 

y 

3 
3 



3 

« 




3 3| 

3 «,*„ 

3 lOl 

4 14 


8 9fy 
3 OA 

3 ajj 

3 5| 


2 8} 

3 1* 
3 4i 


3 6f 

8 lU 
8 3i 


3 8^ 
3 0^ 
3 6| 
3 10 




4 
4 

4 

4 



3 




4 4t 

4 HI 

5 2/, 


3 8| 

3 llA 

4 US 
4 *» 


3 7i 

4 Of 
* 3A 


3 41 

3 OA 

4 Qfy 


8 Ij 
8 S| 
8 ft^ 

a 82 




5 

5 
6 




a 
ft 
(1 


1) 0) 
3^ 


4 7J 
8 3!« 


4 t5 

4 m 

5 3A 


4 3 

^ Hi 
4 1041 


3 10 

4 Of, 
4 3J 
4 5| 






6 
(1 




:j 

6 
9 


7i 
H 10 J 
7 It 
7 3^ 


a 0] 

6 Of 

m 


5 4| 
5 74 

5 10 1 

6 OA 


5 14 
5 Sf 


4 T 

4 10 

5 4 




7 

7 
7 
7 





7 8| 

7 ll/,r 

8 3 

8 6tV 


6 5Vi 
8 HH 
lli 

7 a^ 


6 3| 
lU 


5 111 
n 111 
44 


5 6^ 

6 Orf 




8 
8 
8 

8 



3 




ft flf 

ov„ 
Jl 4| 
P 74 


7 4t 

7 711! 

7 10,'„ 

8 li 


7 at 

7 5,1, 
7 7| 

7 104 


01 

7 OA 
7 5i 


3| 
fl 4f 

7J 

0I 




9 



3 
G 


D lot 
10 S,% 
10 5| 

10 a,^^ 


8 -v. 
8 6U 
8 OA 

oa 


8 11 

8 8W 
8 Of 
8 0A 


7 7t 

7 10,t„ 

8 OA 
B SA 


6 lU 

7 2^ 
7 4^ 
7 01 




10 
10 
10 
10 




a 

6 


11 
11 3VV 
11 0| 
11 0,^1 


9 3 

9 1U8 




d| 

&tV 


8 6 
8 8H 
^ IItV 
» IH 


7 

7 m 

8 Ij 

a $1 




u 
11 
11 
11 

12 



3 

n 




13 U 1 

13 44 
13 7 J 
13 llA 
13 3} 


10 aA 

10 4i 

10 711 

10 loj; 

11 li 


t) lot 
10 14 

10 4i 
10 6^ 

10 Oi 


9 41 

Of 

ftA 

111! 

10 3 1 


8 ^ 

8 r 

8 IDt 

9 li 

3| 




^ 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

TABLE No, Xtn. 

[comparative rates of freight, 

BULCK SEA, ito. 



41 



lou 



OLH KLLM, LONDOU a4LriC lUTRS. 



Tallow 
rum 



Wheat 



Barky 



Beans 



d 


# 4 


0*5d 


95 Q , 


7'IU 


SO 


a* 10 


di» 


0*70 


87 e 


10*46 


40 


re-ofl 


4S 6 


O-WI 


46 


3*aa 


47 


0'd8 


50 


lo-dd 


09 6 


6*sa 


5fi 


a-93 


57 


B6B 


00 


vu 


m 6 


|0^9 


a;» 


1^64 


e? 6 


1 e-80 


70 a 


a ad 


73 


lie 


7ft 



f 4 

3 10 sa 

4 7-67 
G 4-95 

5 0-58 

2-2a 

e 0*H7 

6 IJ*riO 

7 414 

7 8-7 H 
H 1-42 

8 60U 
H 10 70 
;i-34 

10 om 

10 &-30 

10 i>-fio 

11 2-54 
11 7-17 



3 6-J)l 

4 d-4» 

5 0-07 
5 4-80 

5 8-66 

6 0*95 

6 5-24 

(J iiria 

7 ina 
7 «-ll 

7 10*40 

8 3(10 

8 11'2B 

9 a-sa 
n 7'8tj 

10 0-16 

10 444 

10 »-7a 



« d 

3 5-75 

4 210 

4 10-45 

5 2-62 

6 a'80 

5 10'07 

6 8^16 

6 7-Jia 
« 11*50 

7 3*«8 

7 7*85 
H 003 
n 4*20 

8 8*n8 
0-55 
4-7a 

9 8'&0 
10 108 
10 5-25 



» d 
3 3*43 

3 11-33 

4 7-20 

4 11 14 

5 3'UO 

6 7<i:] 
5 10*5)7 
2-1)2 
6*H« 
CJ 10-80 

7 2*74 
7 fJ«D 

7 l()-a3 

8 2*58 
8 0-52 

8 lr)'47 

9 2-41 
9 0,15 
9 10'20 



« d 

4 8*03 

5 1*23 
5 11 44 
e 4*54 
« 964 
7 2'75 

7 7*85 

8 0*95 
8 6*06 

8 11*10 

9 4*20 
9 9*37 

10 2*47 

10 7*57 

11 0'58 

11 5*78 
U 10*88 

12 309 
12 909 



• tndiAD corn, beaa* (exeept Sicilian), tftrea, 
lentili, p«as» uui millet aoed ; ijuau froiglit 

ftfl wlie«t ; iflj, per ion 

Bje luad fUrif io pay ... * 2i^ o&ai* more, or 

LiiuMd mad rapeAecd > . . . 7 ,, 

Barley 17 

Cotkokweed 22 ,, 

0»U •. 87 

Tillow 89 

Wool, meruio uid Spankli 886 „ 

Wool, other aorU 282 „ 



^pa^ 88 mrm gsTsn gTBdnmtdd rates per ton for the leading articles according to the 

r ||i)«zpre«aed rates mjiy easily be luuiertainod by oombimug two of tlioae indicated, 
MU«. Bd. tor $U, ^ ; donblo 20«, for 40« ; ^c. 

PHbo CmmmaT of com !■ equal to 5*77 imperiAl basheb, English : beaee 100 
^ ~ 72' 12 impcsriid qwiien. A Food weighfi M lb. uvoirdnpoie. In ftjdng freight 
IJUnd* a ion b 63 poods of hemp, Ihix, taUow, iron, copper, and aihoi ; 44 pooda of 
leftther, and wax ; 5 down deal»» 8,600 hare aldni, 8 chelwertt of wheat 
t aOpieeet of sail cloth: 



r 


1 


^Sii^^^H 


12 STEVENS UN S 


ri>W.\GR, ^^H 


TABhE No. XIY ^^ 


BLACK SEA RATES 


OF FREIGHT. ^^ 


Hatei nf Freight ad t pled to the Black 


Sea Tratle, calculated aeeord^M 




Uf the Londm Baltw Printed Bam. 1 




Tallow 

IT ton 


Wheat 


Linseed 

tti«iiwb«llt 


Peii£, Beans 
and Tares. 


Rye 

74rci.le« 


Barley 


Oats 

'i:>||p-rtleft» 


«3j 




« d 


« d 


« d 


J d 


a 


d 


# d 


t d 


^ 




30 


4 7 <170 


4 2103 


5 1-237 


4 


3-494 


3 n-319 


3 7-144 


91 




:i2 (i 


5 0aO9 


4 6-27« 


5 6340 


4 


7-786 


4 3-262 


3 10-739 


9 


' 


.15 


5 4948 


4 10 153 


5 11-413 


5 


0*077 


4 7 206 


4 2:J35 


1(1 


^HlH 


y? « 


5 9-587 


5 2-628 


6 4 546 


5 


4*368 


4 n-M9 


4 5-930 


11' 


^^^^M 


40 


6 2-226 


5 (rH04 


6 9 649 


5 


8659 


5 3092 


4 9525 


13 


^^^^M 


43 fS 


6 0*HG.'5 


5 10-079 


7 2752 


6 


951 


5 7-030 


5 1121 


12 


^^^^H 


4 a 


11-505 


6 3 154 


7 7 8.'i5 


6 


5242 


5 10-079 


6 4716 


13 


^^^^H 


47 i\ 


7 4114 


6 7 329 


8 0-9^8 


6 


9-533 


6 2-922 


5 8311 


14 


^^H 


dO 


7 8'783 


6 11505 


8 6*061 


7 


1-824 


6 6'8ti5 


5 n*0U7 


14 


^^H 


n e' 


8 1*422 


7 3-680 


8 11 164 


7 


6-115 


6 10-809 


6 3-502 


19 


^^^^H 


55 


8 6 CIO I 


7 7-855 


9 4-268' 


7 


10*407 


7 2753 


6 7097 


14 


^^^^H 


57 fl 


8 10*701 


8 030 9 9 371 ' 


8 


2*698 


7 61195 


6 10-693 


17 


^^^^B 


DO 


9 a-aio 


8 4-206 10 2474 


8 


6089 


7 J0-63V) 


7 2 288 


18 


^^^^B 


63 n 


9 7 97(1 


fi N3H1 


10 7 577 


8 


U-280 


8 2-581 


7 5-884 


18! 


^^^^K 


05 


10 0018 


9 0-556 


1 1 680 


9 


3'.'\72 8 6'525 


7 9-479 


10 


^^^^H 


67 fl 


10 5-257 


9 4-731 


1 J 5-7^<3 


9 


7-803 


8 10*469 


8 1-074 


dll 


^^H 


70 n 


10 e*39« 


9 8*907 


11 tO-886 


10 


0-154 


9 2-412 


8 4*670 


211 


^^H 


72 


11 2-5rir» 


10 1 Ofl2 


12 3-0B!> 


10 


4-445 


9 6355 


8 8*263 


21 


^^^^B 


75 


11 7 175 


10 :>2/:i7 


12 0-*>!>2 


10 


8-737 


9 10-298 


8 11-860 


23 


^^^^H 


77 i\ 


11 11'814 


10 0-432 


13 2 195 


11 


1-02B 10 2-242 


9 3456 


23 


^^^^B 


BO 


12 4'45:i' 


11 1-608 


13 7 2*18 


n 


5-3 1 9 


10 6 185 


9 7051 


24 


^^^^1 


82 « 


12 9-092 


11 5-583 


14 0-401 


11 


0610 


10 10 198 


9 10-646 


2i 


^^^^1 


85 


13 \rn \\ 9t>58 


14 5-504 


12 


iOOl 


11 2 071 


10 2-211 


25 


^^^^H 


67 6 


, l:i O'HTO T2 2 233 


11 1(»647 


12 


6-192 


11 6014 


10 5-836 


2< 


^^H' 


00 


13 11-000 


12 6-309 


15 3710 


12 


10-4N3 


1 1 9057 


10 8-43^ 


1 


^^H 


m 


14 3-048 


12 10-284 


15 8 813 


13 


2774 


12 1-901 


11 1-099 


■ 


^^^^H 


9»'> 


14 82H7 


13 2'4.'V0 


16 l'917 


13 


7-066 


12 5844 


11 4*6i| 




^^^^B 


07 


15 0927 


13 f)H34 


16 7-<i2t> 


13 


11-357 


12 9-787 


II 8*2li 


^H 


^^^^B 


lOO 


15 5-5«(> 


K5 noio 


17 0-123 


11 


3-6 IH 


13 1-731 


11 11*813^ 


IS 


^^^^H 


102 6 


l?y 10205 


14 3-IH5 


17 5 226 


14 


7-0351 


13 5 674 


12 4-409 


m 


^^^^H 


10ft 


16 2844 


14 7-360 


17 10-320 


15 


0"2;ll 


13 9'617 


12 7 004 


at 


^^^^B 


107 6 


16 7-48M 


14 ii-:ia5 


118 3 432 


\^ 


4532 


14 1561 


12 10 599 


33 


^^^^H 


110 


17 0-122 


15 3 511 


18 8 5.15 


15 


8 813 


14 5.'i04 


13 2 195 


33 


^^^^H 


119 ^ 


17 4 762 


15 7-886 


19 l'63H 


16 


1 104 


14 0-417 


13 5-793 


39 


^^^^H 


115 D 


17 9401 


16 0-061 


19 6741 


16 


5-3011 


15 1-39^1 


13 9-3R5 


34 


^^^^H 


117 6 


18 2 '040 


16 4 236 


10 11-814 


J« 


9'6S7 


15 5 334 


14 0-981 


3d 


^H 


120 


18 6-670 


16 8-412 


211 4-945 


17 


2 378 


15 9277 


14 4-576 


30 


^^1 


A Bnstdan rhetwcti of corn la equftl to S-77 imperial buihelij, Englif^h ; hence lOOfl 


^^^^^B irert*— 72*12 tnaperial qnartcrs. A pood weighs 


8Btb.aroirdtipoiB. In filing frei£M 


^^^^H E&gknd, a ton is 63 poods of hrmp, fliuc, tnllo 


w, irnu, coppcjr, nnd ftf^lteft ; 44 poOT 


^^^H bnitlM« Uifi^rljisB, It-aliier^ and wax ^ 5 dosen deaU, 3|MX] tt&tie skint, 8 cbi*twertB of l| 


^^^^H or liitiMQd, and 6() pieces of smil clutli^ 


- A 



I 


■ STEVENS ON STOWAGi:. 


4Z 


r 


TilBLE No. XV, 




BL£ showing the number of Enssian Foods contained 


in any 


number of Tons from One to One hundred and Ninety. 






' 


6a FOODS TO A TON. 






u 


1 


s 


a 


4 


6 


6 


1 T 


8 


9 




G3 


126 


189 


252 


^15 


878 


441 


604 


667 


630 


69B 


7*6 


819 


882 


945 


1008 


1071 


1134 


1197 




' 121^1 


132» 


1386 


1449 


1512 


1573 


1638 


1701 


1764 


1827 




JS.v.t 


)'k':i 


2ill6 


2079 


2142 


2205 


2268 


23H1 


2H94 


2457 




•^■ 




2646 


2709 


2772 


2835 


28^8 


2961 


3024 


3087 




:'.! 




9276 


aami 


M02 


3465 


3528 


3591 


3654 


3717 




37HU 


1 ^ Minxi 


3969 


4t»32 


4095 


4158 


4221 


428^1 


4347 




4410 


t.:.;; ?.v3rt 


4699 


4li62 


4725 


4788 


4851 


4914 


4977 




► 50iii 


:,hK: , ;"iHJt5 


fi221i 


5292 


5a55 


5418 


5181 


65-M 


6607 




mio 


67iW 


5796 


5869 


5922 


5985 


6018 


6111 


6174 


6287 




1 634)0 


0a63 


6426 


6489 


6552 


6615 


6678 


6741 


6804 


68(>7 




CddO 


fiyiKi 


7066 


7119 


7183 


7245 


7308 


7371 


7134 


7497 




7r.ro 


7r,2H 


71»86 


7749 


7813 


7875 


7038 


8001 


8«->64 


8127 




hi ' 


■; 


8aia 


8379 


SH2 


8505 


8568 


8631 


8694 


8757 




h- 




81>46 


9tJ09 


9072 


9135 


9198 


9261 


9324 


9387 




ifi,... 


,'..1,; 


y576 


9U39 


9702 


9765 


9tf28 


9691 


9954 


10t»17 




iWlt^t.) 


KiUa 


I02IH1 


lfJ269 


ltiaH2 


101195 


10458 


10521 


10584 


10647 




10710 


107T3 


10836 


10899 


HJ902 1 


11025 


11088 


11151 


11214 


11277 




liiMO 


11403 


11466 


1IG2** 


11^92 


11655 


11718 


11781 


118-M 1 


imrj 




imo 


viim 


1301J6 


12ir*9 


12222 


12285 


12348 


12411 


12474 


12537 






44 POODS TO A TOH. 






44 


m 


1»2 


176 220 


S64 


808 


852 


396 


' 440 


4H4 


528 


573 


61C 060 


704 


748 


792 


836 




880 
1990 


»24 


96ft 


Itl[2 


1056 1100 


1144 


1188 


1232 


1276 




1?M>4 


vma 


1452 


IJWi iMO 


1584 


1628 


1672 


1716 




irm 


l8iH 


1648 


1K1H2 


19:W I9rt0 


2024 


2ori8 


2112 


2166 




2300 


2244 


22«« 


23H2 


2i»76 


2420 


2464 


2506 


2552 


2596 




9^0 


2H^ 


272B 


2772 


2816 


2860 


21MV1 


2948 


2992 


»0B6 




ao^ 


^m 


8i6H 


H212 


S256 


uaoo 


3S44 


3388 


8432 


3476 1 




8520 


»5«V1 S0<>8 


JMJ52 


8696 


8740 


3784 


3828 


8875 


8916 




1800 


ilXJl 4018 


4CJ9'i 


4136 


41H4J 


4224 


4268 


4312 


4356 


4400 


44^14 


4488 


453'i 


4676 


4620 


4664 


4708 


4752 


4790 




4J^iO 


4H84 


4928 


4972 


6016 


5<J60 


5iai 


5148 


5192 


6236 




fi3><0 


5»2i 


536H 


5412 


5466 


5500 


5544 


5588 


5('»32 


5676 




6720 


6764 


6806 


5852 


5896 


5940 


51»84 


6028 


6072 


6116 




ftlAO 


6304 


6^4^ 


6293 


Baso 


6?W0 


(V»2t 


64t»8 


6512 


6556 




MUil 


66-14 


66B8 


67a2 


6776 


6H20 


6864 


0908 


6952 


6996 




70iO 


7<>H4 


712« 


7172 


7216 


72<U* 


7:104 


7348 


7392 


7436 




74HO 


7ii-2i 


7508 


7612 


7656 


77<lO 


7744 


7788 


7832 


7876 




7»1U> 


7y(V4 


mos 


8052 


8096 


8H0 


8184 


8228 


8272 


8316 




e3«M) 


fcHOl 


B448 


8492 


8536 


8580 


8624 


86im 


8712 


8756 




[flnif, ^ 


Jt, UDow, Iron, copper, Hitd waken, m frtngUted 68 p<kh1« to « toi 


L. 




Ht^' 


•inKUn, luxtbur^ auii wmz, uro fruigUkiU 44 piKxlii Id ii ton. 






L 


iMtftll 

i 





^1 


r 












■ 


^M 


I 








^m 


STEVENS ON STOWAGE, ^M 


^H TABLE No. XYL ^H 


^M LONDON AND MEDITERRANEAN PROPORTIONATE RATi^ 




OF FREIGHT IN PRACTICE. 






Tanow^f*^^ 




LinseeUp 


Bye 


Barley 


Oats 


wum 


OUor 

Wine 










(oifcflka) Muz« 


TXTM. 


Bli{w«e«4j 








BttfrrU 


Bttc* 


{ett*ki) 




gj™j^ Pb» Ijmhssial QCjLBTEK 


Per 1 Ton 
bMTeljaicwi 


T»in 


« 4 


$ 4 


« d 


f 4 


• d 


ff fl 


t 4 


ff 4 


• d 


• d 




6 8 


1 


1 14 


101 


Jl,'^ 


101 


9A 


6 


b 


7 6 






B 4 


1 3 


1 M 


I M 


1 U 


1 Of 1 


III 


7i 


6 8 


9 4 






10 


1 U 


1 7t 


1 41 


1 ^! 


I 3/, 


1 2 


9 


7 6 


11 3 






11 8 


1 9 


1 11t\, 


I Ot*'. 


1 71 


1 OJ 


I 41 


10| 


8 9 


13 2 






13 4 


2 


2 2 1 


I 9! 


} 101 


1 81 


1 6f 


I 


10 U 


15 






15 


2 3 


2 ^i'l, 


2 OA 


2 0,*« 


1 11 


1 9 


1 H 


U 3 


16 10 






10 B 


2 6 


2 


2 3 


2 3f 


2 U 


1 111 


I 3 


12 6 


18 9 






18 4 


2 9 


3 0^ 


a 5/, 


2 6/b 


2 4 


2 U 


I 44 


VA 9 


20 7 






20 a 


3 


3 3| 


2 8} 


3 9A 


2 6| 


2 3t^ 


1 


15 


22 6 






31 8 


S 3 


a WW 


2 11^: 


3 


2 9tS 


2 6i 


1 74 


10 3 


23 4 






2n 4 


a fl 


3 10 I 


3 11 


3 2} 


2 IIA 


2 84 


1 9 


17 6 


20 3 






2A 


3 9 


4 M 


3 4i 


3 5| 


3 21 


2 11 


1 IfU 


IN 9 


28 I 






26 b' 


4 


4 41 


3 7J 


3 8} 


3 4t 


3 li 


2 


20 


30 






28 4 


4 3 


4 8V, 


3 9a 


3 lly't, 


3 7 4 


3 3i 


2 If 


21 3 


31 10 






SO 


4 6 


4 111 


4 0| 


4 2 


3 10 


3 6 


2 3 


22 


33 9 






31 8 


4 9 


5 '^^ 


4 3V\j 


4 4J 


4 OA 


3 H^ 


2 44 


23 9 


35 7 






33 4 


5 


5 6 


4 6 


4 7| 


4 3 


3 lOi 


2 6 


25 


37 6 






35 


R 3 


& 9,^, 


4 8x^0 


4 lOi 


4 5i 


4 1 


2 74 


26 3 


39 4 






30 8 


5 e 


6 0| 


4 m 


& 1 


4 8V, 


4 SVta 


8 9 


27 6 


41 a 






38 4 


fi 9 


6 3A| 


5 2V, 


5 3f 


4 101 


4 5i 


2 104 


28 9 


43 2 






40 





fi 7i 


5 4* 


5 0| 


3 U 


4 71 


3 


30 


45 






41 8 


G 3 


10 i 


5 7\ 


5 9| 


5 3| 


4 Wi 


3 14 


31 3 


46 10 




^ 


4.'i 4 


5 G 


7 II 


5 10 i 


6 


5 6i 


5 0! 


3 3* 


32 


48 9 






45 


6 


7 »tV 


t> 0^^^ 


3 


5 9 


5 3 


3 44 


33 9 


50 T 






46 8 


7 


7 Si 


n 3| 


6 &/. 


5 111 


5 5j\, 


3 


35 


52 6 






18 4 


7 3 


7 HA 


6 ovv 


H^ 


6 2 


5 71 


3 74 


3(1 3 


54 4 






:>(> 


7 6 


8 3 


« 9 


3 Ilk 


6 4i 


6 9i 


3 9 


37 6 


56 3 






51 B 


7 


S 6/^ 


6 n,t„ 


7 2 


6 7A 


(i 


3 104 


38 9 


58 a 






53 4 


8 


8 0| 


7 21 


7 4| 


6 9if 


5 2} 


4 


40 


60 






Ad 


B 3 


9 0^5 


7 5^ 


7 7i 


7 OA 


(i 4| 


4 14 


41 3 


61 10 






50 B 


8 a 


4i 


7 7i 


7 10^ 


7 2^^ 


6 7 


4 3 


4*J 6 


ti3 9 






&8 4 


B 9 


7 4 


7 mi 


8 U 


7 M 


91 


4 44 


43 9 


65 7 






m 


9 t) 


9 10 1 


8 u 


8 8/, 


7 ^t 


6 M/o 


4 ft 


45 


07 






HI 8 


9 3 


10 a.'n 


8 3^ 


8 fij 


7 lOv^ 


7 2 


4 74 


46 3 


69 4 






m 4 


9 a 


10 5| 


8 6| 


8 9,% 


8 Ot^F 


7 4,^ 


4 9 


47 6 


71 9 






J»5 


9 


10 H/^ 


8 9V^ 


0^ 


8 as 


7 6| 


4 104 


43 9 


73 a 






60 8 


10 


II 





9 3 


8 6 


7 9 


5 50 


75 






6H 4 ' 10 ti 


U 3^ 


» 2^^ 


9 51 


8 B) 


7 lU 


5 14,51 3 


76 10 






70 10 6 


11 6f 


5i 


9 8yb 


8 1V« 


a If 


5 3 


52 6 


78 9 






71 N 10 


n 9^-^ 


9 S-^ 


11^ 


1 9 li 


8 4 


5 44 


53 9 


80 7 






7;? 4 110 


12 t i 


9 lot 


10 2,V 


9 4t 


H 6A 


5 


55 


H2 6 






75 (Jjll 3 


12 4} 


10 1| 


10 5 1 6| 


8 Ht 


5 74 


56 n 


84 4 






76 H n 6 


12 7 J 


10 4i 


10 7| ! 9 ill 


8 11 


5 9 


57 6 


86 8 






71^ 4 ' n 9 


I'-i Ui'a 


10 «A 


10 10 i no 


f> li 


5 104 


5K 9 


88 S 






BO 1 12 


13 21 


10 9f 


11 1^19 2 } ' 9 3 9 





fiO 


00 






80 R 


13 U 


14 4 


U 8 


11 10 til Ot 10 1 


6 6 


65 


97 n 






m 4 


14 


15 6 


12 7 


12 9 11 ]0| ' 10 104 


7 


70 


la-s (1 






100 


15 


16 8 


r3 6 


14 !i2 9 no 


7 6 


75 01112 6 








1 



STEVENS ON stowage: 



45 



TAJ3LE No, XVI, CowmruKO. 

LONDON AND MEDITERRANEAN PKOPOKTIONATE RATES 
OF FREIGHT IN PRACTICE, 



I 
I 



I 



7J2f:r 


WheAt 

or 
Maize 


Xtddftf 
erouud 
{cask.) 


Ctkes 
(bulk) 


8linmflc 


Talonla Bark of Cork 
(btiik) Oak Wood 


Bones 

(bulk) 


Snlplrar 


Tod 


Per 
qowter 


P&li ToK OF 3H> Cwr* 


t 4 


■ 


d 


• 


d 


# 


d 


t 


d 


• d 


M 


d 


« d 


• d 


« 4 


e 8 


I 





7 


10 


4 


10 


5 


6 


6 3 


9 


9 


80 


8 


4 8 


S 4 


1 


3 


9 


!l 


6 


2 


6 


9 


7 JO 


11 


6 


36 


It) 


6 9 


10 


1 


6 


n 


8 


7 


8 


6 


3 


y 4 


14 


9 


40 


12 


6 9 


11 8 


1 


f» 


IS 


7 


8 


7 


9 


6 


10 10 


16 


3 


45 


14 


1 10 


13 1 


2 





J6 


fl 





8 


II 





12 (\ 


1ft 





60 


10 


8 11 


16 


2 


3 


17 


5 


n 





12 


4 


14 n 


21 


3 


63 


18 


10 


16 6 


2 





m 


4 


12 


1 


13 


9 


16 7 


23 





60 


2a 


11 1 


IB 4 


d 





21 


n 


13 


5 


15 





17 2 


26 


3 


66 


22 


12 2 


20 


3 





23 


2 


14 


6 


Ifi 





18 9 


28 


6 


70 


24 


13 3 


HI 8 


a 


3 


26 


1 


15 


U 


n 


10 


20 4 


31 


3 


75 


26 


14 4 


3a 4 


a 


6 


27 





Ifi 


til 


19 


3 


22 


33 


6 


BO 


28 


16 6 


Sd 


a 





2.H 


II 


1« 


3 


20 


8 


23 6 


30 


3 


86 


80 


16 6 


26 8 


4 





80 10 


19 


4 


22 





25 


38 


6 


90 


32 


17 7 


S8 4 


4 


3 


32 


9 


SO 


8 


23 


6 


20 7 


41 


3 


95 


34 


i8 8 


30 


4 


6 


84 


8 


21 


(» 


24 


10 


28 2 


42 


9 


too 


30 


13 9 


ai 8 


4 


g 


36 


7 


22 


10 


20 


2 


29 fl 


40 





105 


38 


20 10 


33 4 


6 





3R 


6 


24 





27 





31 3 


48 


3 


no Q 


40 


21 U 


96 


6 


3 


40 


6 


26 


3 


28 


10 


32 10 


61 





115 


42 


23 0, 


36 8 


6 


fi 


42 


4 


26 





30 


2 


34 4 


53 





120 


44 


5U 1 


38 4 


6 


9 


44 


3 


27 





31 


7 


36 10 


55 


10 


12.5 


46 


25 2 


40 


6 





46 


2 


2!> 





33 





37 n 


5H 


6 


i:io 


48 


26 3 


41 8 


6 


3 


4H 


1 


30 


2 


34 


2 


39 


01 





135 


60 


27 4 


4d 4 





6 


50 





31 


3 


35 


3 


4U 7 


63 





140 


52 


2H 3 


46 


a 





61 


11 


32 





30 


4 


42 2 


or> 


lu 


145 


54 


29 


46 a 


7 





63 


10 


a3 


R 


37 


3 


43 


08 


6 


150 


50 


30 7 


48 4 


7 


a 


65 





36 





30 


4 


45 3 


7** 10 


155 


5H 


31 8 


60 


7 





57 


8 


30 


3 


41 


3 


4(1 10 


73 


a 


loo U 


00 


32 f) 


61 8 


7 





69 


7 


37 


6 


43 


2 


48 


76 


9 


it\5 i) 


02 


33 to 


OS 4 


8 





fli 


6 


38 


9 


45 





50 


7H 


n 


170 


64 


36 


66 


8 


3 


(\1\ 


5 


30 


to 


40 


« 


51 7 


ftO 10 


175 


60 


3<i 1 


64) 8 


8 


rt 


t\t, 


4 


41 





48 


u 


33 2 


83 


3 


tm 


08 


37 2 


6«4 4 


8 


9 


07 


3 


42 


3 


4U 





54 9 


m 


3 


185 


70 


38 3 


(io (1 


11 





m 


2 


43 





61 





56 3 


H8 


6 


190 


72 


39 4 


(11 8 


» 


3 


71 


1 


44 


» 


62 


u 


67 m 


01 


3 


105 


74 


40 


83 4 





6 


73 


' 


4A m 


f>4 


(» 


59 4 


m 





2(X) 


70 


41 6 


86 


!» 





74 


11 


47 


3 


56 





60 ID 


m 


3 


205 


78 


42 7 


m 8 


la 





76 


10 


48 


4 


57 





02 6 


98 





210 


80 [J 


43 H 


rt8 4 


10 


3 


78 





49 





6H 


4 


04 


un 


3 


215 


82 


44 9 


70 


10 


« 


8(1 


8 


50 


8 


f»9 


9 


05 8 


llU 


6 


220 


84 i) 


45 10 


71 8 


10 


U 


8^ 


7 


52 





0] 


1 


67 2 


tuo 


3 


22fi y 


m 


40 11 


73 4 


n 





84 


6 


53 


3 


02 


6 


GS ij 


108 


5 


230 


88 


48 


7ft 


11 


a 


86 


6 


64 


6 


63 10 


70 3 


no 





236 


IKI li 


41) 1 


7fi 8 


11 


8 


88 


4 


66 





im 


3 


71 It) 


113 


5 


240 


92 


5(1 2 


78 i 


n 





90 


8 


67 





66 


7 


73 5 


116 





245 U 


94 


61 3 


80 


la 





93 


3 


58 


6 


(18 





75 


118 


9 


250 


m 


52 4 


86 8 


IS 





ItKI 


8 


115 


U 


74 





81 3 


128 





,170 i> 


104 C» 


67 


n 4 


14 





108 


6 


74 


9 


m 





67 


13M 


!l 


2IK» LI 


112 


81 8 


100 


16 





110 


i 


80 





h6 





mi 9 


UK 


(» 


;Ut» 


120 


00 6 



46 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



TABI*K No. XVI, OoMTnruiD. 

LONDON AND MEDITERRANEAN PROPORTIONATE RATES 
OF FREIOHT IN PRACTICE. 



(Wki) 


Wheat 

UT 

MaUe 


Hfimp' 
or Flax 

(clean) 


Woal 

(bale.) 


Goitoil 


»tkn 


PKV 


Proit oiLKEir 


Leid 


loo9m Egy, 


lUUms^Gurmntii 


Onu4gv>«, Iciuunt 


Tcm 


Per 
qi&utar 


Per toll of SO e.w%. 


Perm. 


Pertom 


Per MM 


P«>r 

tan 


aoewt. 


§ d 


t d 


• d 


t d 


« 


d 


/ 


t d 


M 


d 


« d 


M 


• 4 


6 8 


1 


10 G 


18 9 


20 





Of 


6 8 


6 


3 


8 


12 


4 9 


8 4 


1 3 


12 9 


23 


25 





OH 


7 


6 10| 


101 


15 


10 


to 


1 


15 


28 6 


30 





OtV 


8 6 


8 


3 


1 


18 


6 11 


11 8 


1 9 


17 6 


33 6 


3S 





Oil 


10 9 


10 


6 


1 If 


21 


8 


13 1 


2 


20 3 


38 4 


40 





Of 


12 6 


12 


4 


1 H 


24 


9 8 


I& 


2 3 


23 7 


43 6 


4ft 





0|j 


14 


laiol 


1 5^ 


27 


10 3 


16 8 


2 6 


24 


48 6 


50 





ItV 


15 9 


15 


7 


1 7 


30 


11 4 


18 4 


2 9 


27 7 


53 6 


55 





1/. 


17 9 


17 


6 


1 8| 


33 


12 6 


20 


3 a 


29 9 


56 6 


60 





11 


19 6 


19 





1 lot 


36 


13 7 


21 8 


3 3 


32 6 


63 6 


65 


fl 


Hi 


21 


20 


8 


2 0* 


30 


14 8 


2a 4 


3 6 


34 9 


68 6 


70 





W* 


22 9 


22 


4 


2 2 


42 


15 9 


25 


3 


37 6 


73 6 


75 





lU 


24 


23 10 


2 31 


45 


16 10 1 


26 8 


4 


39 9 


78 


80 





If 


26 3 


25 


4 


2 H 


48 


18 


28 4 


4 3 


42 n 


83 6 


85 





^11 


28 


27 





a 7t 


51 


19 1 


30 


4 « 


44 


88 6 


90 





1^1 


29 9 


28 


6, 


a 


54 


20 9 


31 8 


4 9 


47 4 


93 6 


95 





2>S 


3110 


30 


3 


2 10{ 


57 


91 8| 


nil 4 


fl 


49 7 


98 6 


loo 





2} 


33 


31 10 


3 01 


CO 


22 4 


35 


5 3 


52 2 


103 6 


105 





2fl'. 


34 10 


33 


6 


3 2i 


63 


23 


af) 8 


5 fl 


54 9 


108 


lio- 





2tV 


36 


35 





3 4 


66 


24 7 


38 4 


5 9 


57 2 


113 6 


ns 





m 


88 6 


36 


Oi 


3 51 


{S9 


%% 8 


40 


6 


6U 9 


Us 3 


120 





21 


40 3 


38 





3 7i 


72 


26 


41 B 


5 3 


62 3 


123 6 


125 





2H 


42 6 


39 


6 


3 9| 


75 


27 10 


43 4 





ni 9 


12S 6 


130 





nh 


44 3 


41 


3 


a ui 


78 


28 11 


45 


6 9 


67 a 


133 6 


135 





^n 


40 


4^ 





4 01 


Hi 


30 


4a W 


7 


69 9 


138 6 


140 





3 


47 9 


44 


9 


4 24 


84 


31 2 


48 4 


7 3 


72 2 


143 6 


145 





3A 


49 6 


46 


6 


4 41 


87 


32 3 


50 


7 6 


74 


14i* 6 


150 





S^ 51 3 


48 


3 


4 6 


90 


33 4 


ftl R 


7 9 


77 1 


153 6 


155 





3/«' 53 


50 





4 81 


93 


34 5 


63 4 


8 


79 9 


158 6 


160 





3| 54 9 


51 


9 


4 n 


90 


35 6 


55 


8 3 


82 2 


103 


165 





m 56 5 


53 


6 


4 11 


99 


30 8 


5& S 


8 


84 7 


108 6 


170 





3t\ 58 2 


55 


3 


5 0| 


102 


37 


58 4 


8 9 


87 6 


173 


175 





3ii 59 11 


57 





j ^ 2| 


105 


38 10 


m 


9 


89 9 


178 


180 





m 


61 8 


58 


9 


5 4 


im 


40 


61 B 


3 


92 € 


183 6 


185 


1 ^ 


m 


63 5 


60 


6 


5 5f 


111 


41 1 


63 4 


9 6 


94 9 


188 6 


190 




OtV 


65 2 


62 


3 


5 li 


114 


42 2 


05 


9 9 


97 G 


193 6 


195 




0/m 


06 11 


64 


9 


5 9 


117 


43 3 


06 8 


10 


99 9 


19H 6 


200 




0| 


68 9 


66 


6 


5 tOf 


120 


44 4' 


6B 4 


10 3 


102 6 


203 6 


205 




OH 


70 6 


68 


3 


0^ 


123 


45 6 


TO 


10 n 


1 IO:i 9 


208 6 


210 




04 1 


72 3 


70 





6 21 


126 


46 7 


71 8 


10 9 


1 107 fl 


213 6 


215 




OiK 


74 


71 


9 


6 3J 


120 


47 8 


73 4 


11 


109 8 


2l« 6 


220 




o» 


75 9 


73 


7 


5i 


132 


48 9 


75 


11 3 


1 12 3 


2-23 6 


225 




Oil 


77 6 


75 


3 


71 


135 


49 10 


76 8 


11 


in H 


228 ft 


230 




Oft 


79 3 


77 


9 


6 U 


138 


51 


78 4 


11 J} 


117 4 


233 r» 


235 




l,Vi 81 


79 


6 


6 10} 


141 


52 1 


80 IJ 


12 


12t> 


23H 6 


210 




u 


82 9 


81 


3 


7 01 


141 


53 3 


en 8 


13 


130 {} 


•J 1^8 6 


200 




1» 


90 


89 





7 7 


156 


58 


MS 4 


U 


140 


278 *i 


2H0 




2 


97 6 


96 


fi 


8 2 


168 


02 


100 


iTk 


150 


a9H (i 


300 




2 1 


105 


104 


9 


8 9 


180 


67 6 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE- 



47 



TABLE No. XVU. 

LEVANT COMPANY'S RATES. 



£ $ d 

Agaric l^'toD 20 

Almonds 6 

Aloes 7 

Alum 4 

Aniseed , 6 

Bfiliisdnes 20 

Burley ^qr, 13 

Deftiis 12 

Boxwood „..., 1? ton 2 

Brimstone 3 

Comers HniT 13 

Cftmpbor 7 

Carpets .. ^ 100 pks. 10 

Cass. Fistula ... ^ton 14 

Caviar 4 

Cocciilus Indicus .«,... 7 

Coffeo 

Colq'iintida „, 20 

Copper 2 

Cotton Wool 13 

Cotton yam JO 

Ciirranta 4 

Drttgon's Blood 9 

Emery Stone ........... 100 

TigHt m drums ......... 5 

Vigs, casks and cases 4 

Flax or Hemp 19 

GalU 

Ooftt Hair or Wool ... 12 

Gitms 7 

Gimi Arabic 6 

HareSkine |> 100 2 

Hides, raw ...... V'ton ft 

Honey „ 5 

Linseed «^qr. 14 

Madder Boots... |>ton 8 

MohfurYafD 12 

Natron 4 

Nuts, small... |i^ bush. 1 B 

Nux des Bin ... ^ton 12 

Nux Vomica 12 

01i?e Oa... |>252gal. 5 



£ M d 

Olibttnura !► ton 8 

Opium 10 

Orpimetit 7 

Otto of Hoses ... 41^ tb, 4 

Pease *^qr. 12 

Pellitory Hoot.., ^ ton 10 

Pjstucia Nuts 13 

Eaisins, in casks *...«. 4 

Raisins, in di'u ma 6 

RbubaTb 1& 

Rice 4 

Saffron J2 

Sal Ammoniac 

Sulip 

Scammony „..,. 12 

Seeds, not enumerated 6 

Senna.. .• 17 

Sbagreco Skins 10 

Sheep's Wool 

Silk 14 

Skins, sb'p k goat ^ doz 2 

SoRp...,..., ^ ton 4 

Sponge 14 

Tallow 4 

Ten a Umbra 2 

Tobacco 13 

Tuibitb 7 

Turmeric ,.,., 12 

Turpentine 7 

Valonia, in bngs & 

Valonia, in bulk ...... 4 

Wax & 

Whmt «^qr. 14 

Whetstonea, cskp. ^ ton 4 

WbetBtoncs, loose ...... 2 

Wbisk BroomSt H^args 2 

Wine. 2r>2 galls. ^ tun ft 

Wood Ashes 4 

Wormwood 6 

Yellow Berries 5 

Zedoary 7 





^^H 


r. 


1 


^^^^1^^ 




^^H 


^^^H 




HI^JB 






4H 


1 

STEVENS ON STOWAUE. ^M 




TABLE No. XVm. ^H 




PKOPOBTIONATE RATES OF FREIGHT ^M 




FOR LEGHORN, ^^ 




In Florcnline SoUlia (witli 5 per cent) i»er sac, ftud sbillinga and p^||| 






per tou taUow edJ per quarter. ^^H 






with 


F^rton 

lallow* 


Per quiuier, 
iafolL 


Per Bao, 

with 


Per to& 
U110W, 


Ferqtuiiteri 
in fall. 






5 per cent 


infoa 


5per cseai 


infuU. 




/«.w. 


*. d. 


M. rf. 


ji.«. 


«. cf. 


f . d. 






20 ' 


18 1 


2 900 


50 


45 8 


7 0*00 






2L 


10 


2 11-28 


61 


48 2 


7 168 






22 


IIJ 11 


3 n 90 


52 


47 1 


7 5»86 






23 


2n lf> 


3 2-64 


53 


48 


7 SU 






M 


21 8} 


3 4'32 


54 


48 11 


7 6*72 






20 


22 7i 


' 3 6-00 


65 


49 ^ 


7 8'40 






26 


23 01 


3 7*08 


50 


50 8 


7 10-08 






27 


24 5| 


3 930 


57 


51 r 


7 11 76 






2B 


25 4 


8 11'04 


58 


52 


8 X'f^ 

8 s-|H 






2U 


20 3 


4 072 


59 


53 5 






80 


27 2 


4 2-40 


80 


54 4 


8 480 






31 


2H 1 


4 4*08 


01 


65 3 


8 648 






92 


29 


4 6*70 


62 


50 H 


8 816 






as 


29 10^ 


4 7-44 


68 


57 


8 9*84 






34 


30 ^ 


4 9-12 


04 


57 11 


8 11*52 






Sd 


81 8 


4 10 HO 


05 


58 10 


1*20 






de 


82 7 


6 048 


60 


59 9 


9 2-88 






87 


98 a 


5 210 


07 


00 8 


4*56 






88 


34 6 


5 8-B4 


68 


61 7 


9 6 24 






m 


35 8i 


5 5-52 


69 


02 6 


9 7-92 






40 


30 2 


5 rso 


70 


63 44 


9 9*00 






41 


37 1 


6 8*88 


71 


04 8 1 


9 11*28 






42 


88 


5 lO'dO 


72 


65 2 


10 0*00 


^^^^^m 


48 


88 11 


6 0*24 


73 


66 1 


10 2-04 I 






44 


S9 10 


fl 192 


74 


07 


10 4-32 






45 


40 


6 300 


76 


67 11 


10 000 






40 


41 8 


6 629 


70 


68 10 


10 7'08 






47 


42 6} 


6 6 90 


77 


69 8i 


ID 0-86 






48 


43 5i 


8 804 


78 


70 74 


10 11*04 






49 


44 44 


6 10-82 


79 


71 


11 0-78 




The aboTe calculations are made at the following rates of exchange bM 


Wmm/^M proportioDs of measure : ^J 


HhH ^^ ^^^ floreutini of 20 sol 


diB j£l fitei 


rling. ^H 

LTters. ^^M 
tallow. ^^H 


72 niifl 


1|BI^H 07 aiiArtarH . 


— — , ,_..,.,,_,,,_ . - ^^ 

,^,, i. ».,.••.»... .•••». #■*..«. lo ton 




^ 




m 


^^ 









^^HmEVEN^m^TOWAG^^^^^^4^^| 




1 TABLE No. XIX ^H 




PEOPOBTIONATE BATES OF FEEIGUT ^M 




1 FOR GENOA, ^M 


1 Uxe Ktiovi (with 5 per cent,^ per JiectolUtf). and shOlings and pence | 




per Ion t^low as d per quarter. 




Fer 




1 Per 








pctoUtn 


Per too bdlow. 


Pt;r qtwirter, bectoiitre 


Per ton tallow, 


Per qaarber^ 




Willi 


in full. 


infulL 


witli 


in fnll. 


in full. 




percent. 






5 per <?eat* 








Ln. 


«. d. 


». <?. 


;.«. 


>. d. 


«. d. 


1 


16 6*47 


2 464 


4t 


71 fi-78 


11 0*40 




If 


17 405 


2 8-22 


4} 


78 4*97 


11 4-04 




H 


ll> 8»48 


2 1180 


4 


76 410 


11 702 




i 


21 3*fll 


8 8*38 










U 


28 2l\i 


a 606 


5 


77 885 


11 11-20 




11 


25 I.H8 


a 10-64 


a 


79 2*53 


12 2*78 




11 


27 Qtiii 


4 2 12 


81 171 


12 032 




n 


m U 75 


4 5*70 


Si 


88 089 


12 9-90 










85 007 


18 152 




fl 


90 10 04 


4 M2B 


&i 


80 11*25 


13 510 




Bk 


aa 10 12 


6 0-80 


5i 


m 10-44 


13 8*68 




4 


a4 «'30 


5 444 


H 


90 9'63 


14 0'20 




2 


8« 6 48 


6 B*02 










3 


as 7 60 


6 11 GO 


6 


92 8-82 


14 3'84 




2f 


40 6-84 


3 1ft 


0* 


94 800 


14 7*42 




H 


42 6«>M 


n 0*70 


110 7-18 


14 UOO 




H 


44 6'2X' 


10*84 


64 


98 OHO 
100 6-54 


la 258 
15 0-10 




9 


4A 4'41 


7 102 


od 


102 4-72 


16 9'74 




H 


48 MMI 


7 5-50 


oi 


in.4 8 91 


10 182 




m 


ftO 2TT 


7 9"n8 


oi 


lOU 8 10 


10 4-90 




■■ 


62 196 


a 000 










1 


W 1 IS 


8 4*24 


1 ^ 


108 2-29 


10 8-48 




^ 


50 031 


8 7-82 


U 


no 147 


10 ll-yo 




m 


&7 11*50 


8 1 1*40 


7j 


112 0*06 


17 8*04 




H 


ft» 10-69 


9 2-«8 


7f 
74 


IKJ ii*Ha 

11a 11*01 


17 7*22 
17 1080 




4 


01 088 


9 OftO 


n 


117 tO'llj 


IR 2*38 




^ 


08 0-00 


9 1U14 


7} 


119 9-88 


18 5*90 




M 


06 8'^ 


10 172 


^i 


121 8*57 


18 9'54 




4I 


«7 7-42 


10 oao 










5 


60 060 


10 88ti 


9 


123 7 70 


19 M2 


t 


iii#a 


boTe cdculations we mjule at the foUowiug rates of ejLchange and 


n 


Ipdrtiouft of moosure : ^^ 




2b lire mon of too cetitimea jDl sterling. ^H 


^^K 


20fi hi^clolitre^ ^ ....... 72 ouaruirs. ^^^H 


^^K^ 


(1? l|lUMtVT-. 


Ifi Ion t 


allow. ^^1 


1 




u 


J 





^H 


^ 


^1 


^^^ 


^H 


^^H 




■ 




JEJHIHJI^^^H 


I m 


STEVENS ON STOWAGET, ^H 


^^H TABLE ^^H 


^^^H PEOFOETIONATE RATES OF FREIGHT ^H 


^^^H FOR TRTESTEp ^M 


^m In KreutzerB (with 5 per cent.) per stajo, and sbilljcigs &ud pence per t^^^| 




taUow and per ijiiarter, m 


1 




Per nljijo, 1 Pi^r ton 
with tjillow, 


Per quarter, 
in Ml. 


Per atftjo, 
with 


Per ton 
tallow. 


Per q^iiMFtcr, 
mioU. 


1 




5 per cent. in ML 


5 per cent. 


in full. 


1 


hrfutz. 


«. d. 


«, dr. 


hreut*. 


#, d. 


8. d. 




m 


23 7i 


3 7^85 


60 


47 3 


7 370 ^^J 




81 


24 5 


8 03L 


01 


48 Oi 


7 5' 16 ^^^ 




32 


25 2i , 


3 10-77 


02 


48 10 


7 6-63 ^H 




3d 


20 


4 0*23 


63 


49 74 


7 8*08 ' 






U 


20 9i 


4 1-69 


04 


50 6 


7 9*54 






d& 


27 QJ ' 


4 3-lft 


05 


51 24 


7 11*00 






8tJ 


26 4| 


4 4-62 


66 


52 


8 0*47 






87 


20 If 


4 608 


07 


62 9 


8 1'9S 






SB 


ai) ll 


4 7-54 


08 


53 0} 


8 3*39 






89 


30 8| 


4 900 


69 1 


54 4 


8 4*85 






40 


81 e 


4 10-46 


70 


65 11 


8 6*31 






41 


82 ^ 


4 1103 


71 


55 n 


8 7-77 






4^1 


83 J 


5 1-39 


72 


56 6| 


8 9 28 






43 


33 lOJ 


5 2-tt5 


73 


57 6 


8 10*70 






44 


U 7J 


a 4*81 


74 


58 84 


9 0-16 






45 


35 5i 


5 577 


75 


50 1 


9 1*62 






46 


36 2\ 


6 7-23 


76 


59 104 


9 308 






47 


87 a 


6 8-09 


77 


60 41 


9 4\U 






m ! 


37 9} 


5 lO'lfi 


78 


61 54 


9 600 






4» , 


38 7 


5 11*62 


79 


62 2J 


9 7*47 






50 


39 4i 


108 


80 


63 


9 8-93 






51 


40 2 


6 2'54 1 


Bl 


63 94 


9 16'39 






52 


40 114 


6 400 


82 


64 7 


« 11 65 






53 


41 


6 540 


68 


65 44 


10 l'8d 






54 


42 6i 


6 e-93 


84 


66 2 


10 2*77 






65 


48 8| 


6 8-39 


85 


m 114 


10 4-24 






56 


44 H 


9*86 


86 


67 


10 5*70 






57 


44 lOf 


6 11-31 


87 


68 64 


10 7*16 






58 


45 R 


7 0'7T 


88 


69 34 


10 8-62 






5U 


46 5) 


7 3-23 


89 


70 


; 10 10 08 






The shore calculatioDB are made at tke foJlowing rates of exchange a 




^^^ proportions of measuTfl: B 


^K 10 florin 9 of 60 krf^utzt^rs 


j£l fite 


rling. ■ 
artcrs. H 
) talloWv H 


^^^^h 250 Blajos ...r 


72 oil 


^^^^^B U7 nii«.rlflrfi 


, , ,», 15 loi 




^ 


^_ 








J 



STEVEiNS OiN STUWACiK. 



TABLE No, XXn, 

TONKAGB SCHEDULE IN IITBIA. 

oMlumii i}i« iitiiab£r of Cubic FevL 



Benflttl 
Aloes, bugs, cwt. 2u • 

boxes ........ 30 

kc^ 

AlQm aO 



ao 

90 

20 



Anueed ...... 6 

AppArel , - 60 > 60 

Arrowroot, eaoei - 60 - 60 

A^iHaraliOji, tagi 20 . 20 • 

boxes 20 > so- 



le - 

20 * 
- 60 



50 
60 



60 



BnrillA 20 - 20 - aO 

Bnrk* in hugs . . 8 - 8 - 

Bees' Wfti .... - . aO - - 

in (uum .... - - 

BeUilnat 16 > 18 

in lia^s - <■ " * 16 

Blnck woolly Mqii'ri!) 

itrmglit log . . 

oUu rwbo .... • . - - 20 

Books .60 - 60 

Bornx or tmc«l . . 20 - 20 - 20 

eas<:« ' • ' SQ 

Brimfitoae ..*..* 20 - 20 - 

BuUiciii, per cent - - - . 

Cake-Lic, iu Ujii»» . 16 - 16 - 

Camphor, PiUieH. . • fiO - 60 

Citrtijmioms, roK, , 8 - 8 - 

bo\cd ........ -50 - 50 

bitRs , , . . - - 10 - 

Cft0^, nU liorttt.. • 50 .50 

Cnstor Bced .... * -^ 15 - 

Clinfnnm ,,..., - - - - 

Cbina root, bnga . 11 - 11 - 

boKjfl - 50 * 50 

€lujM5l.U ........ - 51) - 50 

Cigars * 60 - 50 

Ci 



50 



50 



50 

f - 
50 



bogn or fnudLi . 

Coal 

Co<ihm4ial 

Coroit, biigH .... 
Coccnltttt Inrliinu 

In bags ...... 

Cofr4*f!t in riifl<«fl.. 

Coii ro 

^T^^y .. . .: .. 
CcturyoUi. cimeif . 
CoIotiitH> root, bg. 



- 60 

8 - 
20 - 
. fiO 



50 



a 

2f> 



. 60 
' 60 

' 60 

10 ' 

- 50 

. 60 
» - 

- 50 

- 50 
10 - 



50 



18 - 
16 - 



17 - 

18 - 
16 . 

- 50 
10 - 



12 
16 



60 



* 60 
6 . 
8 - 
- 50 
14 - 



60 



Senfmi Madrat 

Copm., in robbim. - - - - 
Coiul, rough (uot 

epecUoesifi) bog. 20 • - • 

CoriAxider 

Cotton^ in boles.. 

piieee goodi . . 
CofmeBfinbagt.* 



Ciibobft 

Cummin seed, c&. 
Cutch, m&sc. bags 
Dateti, wet ...... 



13 

* 50 
- - - 60 
20 - 20 - 



12 
20 

2(> 
12 



^ 



dry 

DhoU 

DriigoiiB' blood ea. 
Ebony sq. & tftmlt 

otherwW .... 
Elph'nte teeth, bk. 

oosea ........ 

bmidled ...... 

loos* * * 

Fennigarrick seed 

Funtitfire 

QuilttgaLi ...... 

GallBt in bags . . 

CAses 

Garlie ftnd onions 
Ginger, in bags . . 

di7f eases .... 
OingGlly seed .... 

Gram 

Qronnd nnts shld. 
GiuDi^. in cw^es . 

not t*ntimerated 

Ollbannm, bsgl 
Gxmnv bags .... 

dotb .*. 

GtinjiLh 

Hartall, in cases . . 
Herapt »€*d. hoJes 

lijiise or liim(lles 
Hides £c Bkio»t »<&* 

baloii, culled . . 

loose ic sm. bun. 

HidcH , 

Hoot'i, horn slm- 

irinjjtH. tip8» (<dl 

kiiirlR) 

HomH, Coworbuf- 

f J Jo, loose .... 

I>(^er, iooae .... 
Indigo, in 
Jarkwood ,., 
Jute, in balin . 



17 
20 
16 
20 



17 
20 
16 

20 



16 
20 

Ifl 



$0 





- 


20 


16 - Irt - 


. 


. 50 . GO 


, 


. . . . 


18 


* . . - 


2U 


. . 16 ' 


. 


-50-50 


- 


. 


12 


. . . . 


16 



US 
60 I 

50 



12 - 
12 - 



20 



12 
12 

17 
20 



IS - 



60 



60 - 60 

- 18 - 

50 - 60 

50 . 60 

50 - 50 



20 
16 

- 611 
16 - 



50 



50 



6» 

60 



50 



14 



90 - 20 < 
20 - 16 . 
* 60 - 60 



7 

. 60 
U - 

16 . 

16 * 
B . 



60 



60 



60 



M 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



TABLE No. yXTTT. 

CALCUTTA CAKGOES ON AN AVEEAGE SCALE. 

(Frum Ctki^t. Seoowick'b Golden Hinit.) 



cub. ft. 

A ion of odtpctre meiuiiires «... 36 
Sagor 89 

Bicfi 45 

14 cirt. hides, wMcli go the ton if 

well screwed, urerage 45 

li bftdly screwed I oametimefi near GO 
Fite halm jttt«,* whioli go the ton 
ftnd weigh 16 cwt. avemge .... 46 
8<>meti]neKt vrLcti budly screwod 60 

A ton ahcU lac, 10 to 11 cwt 60 

Riip«i»eed or iineeed 62 



cull, ft 

A ton poppyieed nil .. 78 

Indigo i .' <,'.' ^v V wt, 60 

Bilk, jute, or chafistun .. 10 „ 50 

Hemp weighs « 16 ,, 48 

Lac dye (fttwnt) 18 ,, 50 

Silk, inhaloB ....,.*.. 10 „ H 

Silk piece goods, cases * . 9 „ 60 

GABSiii,t in esses 5 „ 60 

Bum, in casks * M 

MolasfiCB, in casks^ weighs aboai 

SO per cent, more than ram . . 60 



* Sometimes fttiipyifd bj mf^aauTeiiieDt; 90 eiiiiia feeW coropretfed Is }nlmt ftvqooEitlj w<d^ 17 o 
f When OsMia it takeu at 10 cirt, the rate of fhetgfat Ahotil4 be fnereased hi proportion. 

Asstuning the rate ol freight on Saltfetke to he £4 per ton, the following tahle is eidlj^ 
made by the nrerage Hcalo : — 



Saltpetre £4 

Hides 5 

Rapeseed .... 6 17 9 

Chnsstun ,... a II 1 

Bilk, cases . . 5 11 1 



Laedja £5 11 1 

Sugar ...... 4 6 8 

Jate 5 a 3 

Indigo ...... fi 11 1 

Hemp 5 6 8 



Casdtt £5 11 1 

Bico 5 

Shell hic .... 5 11 1 

Poppyseod ..828 
Bum 6 13 4 



Thi« Scale referti to tho space taken by each article more than to its actual weight ; but 1 
will assist a master in chacning hi^) cmr^^o, so as to get the beat freight ruling. 8i 
Mm ahout to engage the dead-weigbt (lialtpetre, lugar, or ric«), it follows^ tlint if ealtpel 
be £1 per ton and rice £4 10«. Eollpotre ia better than rice. Alter engaging all the di 
weight, wliich Kbould be not mtich over two -thirds or three^fourths of her uew regisl 
ionnuget then c^hooge jute or hides, which ever bears the highest rate. Hides are gen< 
preferable ; but the master should be preTiously satiafled that they are well screwed. 



A MArnsB who has bad great cxporicnce says, *' In stowing a Colenttit cargo the t 
t>ceiipied by various goods is very dilTerent, for instance, a ton of Holtpeire ocenpies 8( < 
feet, a ton of ginger 80 feet. Suppose £3 per ton for saltpetre, which occupies 36 fe«t ; J 
order to obtain the same freight for ginger you ought to get £6 17t. 2d. pur tou. lli 
following are tho revpectiTe weigbta and meaBuremeuts of some of the Calcutta produee : 



20 cwt. Sugar mi 
20 «wt. liice 
20 cwt. Linseed 
SO cwt. Wheat 



iftbout 



otih.fL 

W cwt. Flour meaaares abont 48 

20 cwt. ColTee „ 61 

20 cwt. Tmnnerio „ 66 

6 bales Jute ,, 04 



Mr. Bbidonsll in i^ work on Indian Commerce, makes the following ettimilttH 

75 ton Zinc (12 cwt.) weighs. . 45-00 ton I 76 ton Borax (16 ewt.) weighs. . 60*00* 
75 ton Hides (14 owt.) „ .. 62*&0 „ I 75 ton Cutch (IH cwt.) „ .. 67*50 ^| 
75 ton Jute (1 ,500 H*0 weighs . . 60-2232 ton. * 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE- 



diS 



4 



impMm td eurnrng 1,100 ton uTolrdttpoi*, luiving a lyace in her bold of 

SI 



n>,6l0 feet i . . », »^ * 



llMillfkl IM«^t Mi «C» feel p*r ton tfeid Ilk* aiAd-MeiKUl ml mfi-bi. 



Umiatpttn 



I3ie fMi^l of ciJlp«trc to be £4 b*, per ton uid mgnr 1^4 I60, and thai .1 Um 



56 f ««t ujA of i 



' 8i&leel» it ii of coar»«.' mare itdvfuitfigoaaei to 




[of vnsmt i 

to b« £4 uid Jut« £3 l&i. por tun of l.d<H» Ut ; nnltpelrM 
nil * ' - . 

uio tlae utkle ton. 



Wiat ^ httA WM Joia S&l foei, ■altectre U this'more ndvantAgeoaa. Sappoaiug Mngar Ut 
W A J4ki. atf« aiul tioo £4 12«, 6/- itagu- being B9 feet and nee 42 feet, sugar li the 



MADRAS TONNAGE. 

ak, Hemp, Jnte« Munjeet, Senna Leaf, Wool, sad SarsApariUar • 
ahjpmeni^ and the measoreioent to Xw entered on the face of the 
T!m eallip«Ti are to tak« in the rope on one »ide of a bfile« and if^ve it ont 
Qaif Inehea aiv to b« glreo and taken alternately. Ttti baleti pt^r cent, as * 1 
I, iM« to b« mevMired, moidYto be chown by ^hipper'nnd moiety by the ahip ; if 
Uui tialca are to bo meiinurvd bra Surveyor perm em ttilly appoijiUd by the Chunibert 
Uilic IL&al ; hli fee to be fiye rupees, IimII to bo bomi^ by e»ch purty, AU 
to Hfi m«aiiiired al port of diacbargo. (Chamher 0/ Commmte^ June 1| 1&&4.) 

BOMBAY TONNAGE. 



fW 



mi ton for meMHremoDi gooda ia 50 cubic feet. Frci^t on Oil to he paid on tha 
ADMaigQ of lli«i»dk, aaeertatneil at th« port of diBcburBe. When frcricht h pAyable on 
,Wti0^ ii ki ta b« on the net weighl deUvorod. (CHamhcr Commerce^ Ik^nba^ , Ju hc 6, 1 B&6.) 






TABLE No. XXrV. 

INDIAN WEIGHTS. 



Qha B^sigil PteddencT the ie^ wei}rht is the Indian Mrrx of 40 B«en ol 
ch. Tbn 8ntt of 60 toliJ}« i» qm;^ in BauJfah, Com mere oily, Tatita^ Rungpore, 
t mild SooiiiiQokey ; 88, in Agr«» CoBKimba^aiLr, Fumicluibad. Hooghley, Maldftr 
m^ ..i-m: HO, la fimigyMre ; 04. in Agra and Furruckabad; 96, in Allahabna/Bcnarew, 
latk^srWt liilda, aad Saauporo ; 1D3, in iUnmraa ; 105, in Beaarea ; and 110, in Furruckabad. 

AOOlMiir* <ff ifLM*'!*, aaeh b«s 90 teen ~ Ct^3393$ ton 
600 ditio Sftwirr* *llHl(t«iSt(m 

AOO diuo SO tcera - 19-5 ton 



L eoDTcrted into ludUui Muzkb and Baiaar &nd Factozy M&imdfi, 
in dranti t <ift* 

„ =; 15„=: llh.=^7lXnd.eh{ttaekM=7f4ba2iarchit=:i8ffiic.chit. 
,^ s= 44M ., == 26 „= 1 quarter. [inauDdft::^!) factoiy matiodt 

,^ = 1,71)2 »♦ = lL2„z= 4 « = lcwt=:li| Jnd. tnuD8=l7^ba«aar 
p s^dOi/MO „ =2,240 „=&0 „ =ao „ =ltour:L27j Indian muuB:=; 

37t»j bazaar it)anDd«=;u;) far tor)' uiaundn 
Q ton=^5 Indian mum IJ con=300 bai»Ar tn«undi 



fteliBT Miariidi ccmvtrttd iato BaniLr Maunds, Indian Uirns, Eind AvolrdnpoU. 

M^»rtfr*rl6a I wtt , MI^* 

s40 ,, = ltmc.mamL=: 1 S baa. naatin.^ || Ind.niun=^|c«t=74|m. 
H « =10 

M , =49 

HO ^ =lum* 

i ti te.*.«r« i^terr tato ha#aar naioidSf divide ibt tamm by U, and di»duet the quotitumi ttom it. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

TABLK No. XXIV» CoimivuBD 

Bazaar Maonds conyerted into Factoty MaundBj Indfftn Miuu, and AvoirdupoiB. 

U» L'hitlacka 1 aeer * . * , , , 1,\, facl^r; 8ecr== 'if^thil 

iUO „ =rlO „= I bftz, mtund 1^^ Cbc. niaoiid ||^ luiiiMi nnm=S2t^tt>. 

30 „ ,,..... , 29ewL| 

To ooDveit baztt&r ioU> factory maujid*, divide the formei by 10, And Add the quokiebt Ut ii. 

Indian Mans converted into Bazaar and Factor; Hacmds and AToirdnpols. 

10 chittackar= I suer ,. .,,.,,» ,..........,,, ''JiVttiit 

040 », ^=iO ,p ^ llnd. mutt=- l,|^bai.m&iitid=; l,f^fau«xn«uiid^83|ib. 
63i) „ =^540 „ 

4i» » 54 

S14ft „ _ , Otori. 

Troy weight converted Into Tolas and Indian Mtms* 
24 grains 1 f^stiuyweighl 
480 „ ==20 „ = loz, 

6,760 „ =^40 „ ^12 „ = 1 tb.= 33 U)las=dJ} Indian chitfeaeks 

100 „ =-3.300 „ =Ilndiiui mu 

Tolas converted Into Troy weight, 

4 jl grains troy 1 pie ,., I ruttee^^ 4 dhaa 

1 1 i „ ^ 12 „ ^ 1 anna ^ I mash&=: 8 „ = 32 ,» 

180 „ =102 ,, =10 „ =1 tolii=12 „ =m „ =384 „ 

AvolrdDpoia weight converted into Madras and Bombay Commercial weights. 

1 dmiii • 4 Mftdms n^ 

10 „ — loz. 

ITtt] ,, — 10 „= im. 

1.7if!i „= 113,,= 7„ lOBombnyj 

0,400 „= 400 „= 25„ ..._ IMftdnisii 

7,lflS „ — ; 448 ,, = 98 ,t —1 quarter 1 Bombay ' 

aB,<J72 », = Ijm „ = 112 „ — 4 „ = 1 cwt. 
ft73,U0 „ =36,M40 „ =2,240 „ =80 „ =20 „ = 1 ton= 4 Bombay eaii _ 

25 ft :^112 Madras caodji 

Madraa Commercial weights converted into Indian Muns and AvoirdoiKiiSt 

1 pAgoda v.. ..., 2i 

10 ,T =3 1 poUurn 

80 „ = e ,^ = I aoer , ...».., 10 o«. 

400 „ = 40 „ = 5 ,, 
0.200 „ = 'tail „ = 40 ,, = 8,,= Imaond = 25m.= 12|4Li 

Ii4,00<l ., =fl,4(K> ,, =800 ,, =100 ,, =20 ,, =1 candy=500 „ = ^Ml 

144 „ 87fl , 

Bombay Commercial weights converted Into Indian Mmis and Avoirdupois* 

30pice 1 seer . * . . ^'^ lb. nvoirdup 

1/^W „= -to ., =: 1 Bombay inaimd 1 quarter [mfliinds.=74 faptory mnua 

2.ir>0 pj^'^rw* „ =20 „ =1 Bombay can.=5cwt=6|| In. inun-s=0,«,b 

4 Bombay oaDdy=:l ton=i SMJ factory man 
3fl „ =0 ,, ^245 Indian mtuai 




> CoMe MoisQti&Ait in feet ind deeimalSf allowmg for the pockjiges hcina 
4, mitk Uie oumber of pMskBgee in a ton ol each deacripUQn of gooda, at 60 cubio 
feet per ton, u rated in Englbh Hhipi . 



CUBICAL CONTENTS 



Jtaardlk «••.« each liox 

Dltid ••»•»«•..... hole 

K«nk<^<*n bine ,»„, box 

T)o. CdtupajQ j'fi long • 1 1 • 
Do. Cooipaii^'i fthctft . * . , 



IHltP 

OiMiahaila . 
BInibarb .,..• 
TortruisC'ahall 

SiifauiMMd t 
Vermiikni •«« 



and Komboge « , 
litji^ A jant , • 
box 4 jars . . 
caadjf tttbft 



9 

1 

60 

100 

100 



pieotiii 



90 



peoul 



papers 
pecol 



CUu root tad tonnttk .« bagi 



fi. dec, 
tJ-471 

sa88 

2-200 
10142 
6 950 
G60<i 
33H3 
OIKX) 
4(XH) 
1000 
8000 
46i0 

n 

2 
3 



No, of Piu?lcAgea 



boxes 

7-216 

7 «otl billet &i<703 It 
15 
15 
25 

4 and 9-4321061 

7 mid 1-36 feet 

7 and 4^ feet 
15 or 8 parcel boxes 

B aveniLgt) 
12 1 or bpecol 
60 

6^ STer^ge 
12andr282feet 
22 
26 
16« 

12 
134 



VEA8UBS]f£HT OF BOXES 07 8ILS PIECE 0OOB8. 




ds 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



TABLE No. XXVI. 

THE PROFOETIONATE RATES OF FREIGHT ON THE 



Timbor 


ILaimd 


PfUrsltiiTlf 

•lAUdMtJ 


fitmidird 1 


Wutlodin 1 


IfttllW^Wll 


S)pc-ii(^ 1 


^l»a«l 


of 




Mh^u 


Staves 




StawA 






^ 




OM 


rlrtftji 


AOfMt 


l^lond 


^ millD 


^miila 




rkLLum 


^pir» 


£ 8. 


rf. 




f. 


d. 


£ «. (1. 


£ «. 


d. 


£ 9, 


</* 


£ 


«. 


d. 


£ 


J. <i.l 


1 







2 


1) 


9 C 


in 2 


2 


5 5 





3 











1 ai 


I 1 







8 


11 


3 4 


1« 18 


4 


5 10 


3 


3 


3 








I 4 


I 2 







6 





S 12 7 


17 U 


5 


5 15 


6 


3 











I 5 


1 8 







6 


2 


3 15 11 


18 10 


(1 


6 


9 


3 


9 








1 6 


1 4 







7 


4 


:i lU 2 


ll> 


7 








3 


12 








1 e 


1 5 







R 


G 


4 2 U 


20 2 


9 


G 11 


3 


3 


15 








I 7 


I 6 







U 


7 


4 5 » 


20 18 


JO 


() 10 


6 


3 


18 








1 8 


1 7 


i\ 




LO 


8 


4 ^ I 


21 14 


u 


7 1 


9 


4 


1 








1 8 


1 6 







11 


Ul 


4 12 5 


22 11 





7 7 





4 


4 





n 


1 9 


I & 







12 


11 


4 1ft B 


23 7 


2 


T 12 


3 


4 


7 








1 iU 


1 10 







11 


1 


4 19 a 


24 3 


3 


7 17 





4 


10 








1 10 


I 11 


(1 




15 


a 


5 2 4 


24 19 


5 


8 2 


9 


I ^ 


18 


n 





1 u 


1 12 


a 




IH 


5 


5 5 7 


25 15 


« 


8 t| 





4 


10 








2 U 


1 13 







17 


iS 


5 8 11 


2IJ 11 


7 


8 13 


3 


4 


19 








2 I 


I U 







IH 


8 


5 12 2 


27 7 


9 


8 18 


6 


5 


2 








2 2 


1 16 







It) 


in 


a Ifi 6 


28 3 


10 


9 3 





6 


5 








2 2 


1 16 







1 





r> 18 10 


29 





9 y 





5 


8 


u 





2 3 


I 17 


(i 




2 


1 


» 2 1 


24* 10 


1 


9 14 


3 


5 


U 








2 4 


1 IH 


(1 


2 


a 


ti 


« 6 5 


m 12 


3 


9 III 





5 


14 








2 5 


1 19 





2 


4 


6 


« 8 e 


31 8 


4 


10 4 


9 


5 


17 








2 5 


2 


u 


2 


5 





12 


32 4 


5 


10 10 





9 











2 fl 


2 1 


II 


2 





8 


U> 4 


33 


7 


10 15 


3 





3 








2 7 


sr 2 





2 


7 


i} 


i\ IH 7 


33 J« 


8 


11 





tt 











2 8 


2 a 





2 


H 


10 


7 1 11 


34 12 


9 


11 5 


9 


() 


9 








2 d! 


2 4 


n 


2 


10 


a 


7 5 2 


l\'i 8 


11 


11 11 





B 


12 








2 9 ! 


2 5 


i> 


2 


11 


2 


7 8 


30 6 





11 in 


3 


» 


16 








2 19 


a 


u 


2 


J2 


4 


7 11 10 


37 1 


2 


12 1 


6 


fi 


18 





9 


2 11 


2 7 





•i 


I'i 


n 


7 15 1 


37 U 


5 


12 B 


9 


7 


1 








2 U 


2 8 





2 


14 


7 


7 18 5 


m 12 


6 


12 12 





7 


4 








3 



TtKlTATtlfB. 

DcAtfl .*.. 1 St. Petersburg Hl&udarri hunilrc(]= 3|^ loiula timljet'; 

Stavkb .,.♦ 1 rniile slunilard lt200 pioue8=Ut| 

Dirro ..•- 1 millc* WtHi Itulitt 1,21K) puces = C^i 

L.vTHVrooD«. 1 fttihom of 4 feet IniJg V U :^ 3 

Tbrto aitick'A •tiuutd p»j |rd4, or rut€» in lable« when nUii'iK-^l u» tin^Jtt^n «ir>ifra^«»; bui iht* ecum 



1> n. \ LA 
Stavks 

BtTfO 



, ■ A hundred retejsbtirg stamlaid twite iLt rale] . . 

, ,' A iiiillr fetEiudftrd, at eix times the rule I - * 

. . A til LHe Went litilia. At twice Ihe rnt« 



for limber 



A fathom of lutliwood, ai the same rate 



per load. 



U))j 



i stdLvus, omDK fo tlic voHaliof] in sijt«» mid xl 
.•> mim till ^iviittr thickuen^it of tli** deal* ai 

> .t th^fic. ojiiclta atv more di<iiuiviii)tap?uu» to LUt oiaiiL*.^r, « 
iifliber il il» rule. The iirtu^Ut^ in lh«r«fon;, in r twofold < 





STEVENS Or^ 5iT0WAGE. 5S> H 




1 ABLE Kit. XKVI, Cotn-izrLKD. ^^M 


■ PRINCIfAT. 


ARTICLES OP EXPORT FROM QUEBEC. 


m 


BrtbHtf 


l*ar« DT 


Ber/ 


Wll#4t 


Pen* 


Ottta 


BurJey 


Aflhes 


^ 


ir ^, 


b«^ 


¥ 


*► 


!♦ 


^ 


<P 


^ ton of 




1 l>«fnl 


|pb«ma 


tkrot 


itunrirr 


qi^utrtir 


quarter 


quarter 


40 fcet 




ftiu A 


f , 4t 


«. d. 


6. d. 


«. d. 


f, <?, 


f. d. 


£ *. d. 




a 11 


4 1 


3 


4 


3 


s d 


16 






a 1 


4 3 


4 n 


4 3 


3 2 


3 5 


la 10 




IB 1 9 Y 


a 2 


4 @ 


4 2 1 


4 5 


d 3 


3 7 


17 7 






8 i 


4 8 


4 4 


4 7 


8 5 


8 9 


18 4 






a 5 


4 11 


4 


4 10 


3 7 


3 11 


i> 19 a 




Bft 11 


8 7 


6 1 


4 8 


5 


3 9 


4 1 


1 






a f) 


5 4 


4 IX 


& S 


3 10 


4 3 


1 






J) 10 


5 6 


& 1 


6 6 


4 


4 5 


1 1 7 






4 


5 9 


s 


6 7 


4 '2 


4 7 


1 2 4 






4 2 


6 


& 6 


5 10 


4 4 


4 


1 8 2 






4 4 


a 2 


5 7 





4 ri 


4 a 


1 4 






4 a 


5 


5 10 


R 3 


4 7 


6 


1 4 9 






4 B. 


ft H 





6 5 , 


4 


5 2 


1 6 7 




Ha 10 


4 


6 10 


a 2 


6 7 


4 11 


5 4 


1 a f) 




7 « 11 


4 11 


7 1 


a ^ 


fi 10 


5 


f» 


1 7 2 




|l 4 1 


a 1 


7 3 


a 7 


7 1 


5 2 


5 8 


1 8 






a a 


7 « 


6 JO 


7 3 


fj 4 


10 


18 






& 5 


7 H 


7 n 


7 « 





a 


1 9 7 






A 6 


7 IL 


7 2 


7 8 


5 7 


a 2 


1 10 5 






A B 


B I 


7 4 


7 10 


5 9 


a 4 


1 11 2 




HI A 


A ]i) 


R 4 


7 7 


8 


5 11 


« r» 


I 12 






(1 


e^ « 


7 U 


8 3 


1 


a 8 


1 12 » 




■4 11 


a % 


§ 


B 


8 fj 


3 


(i 10 


1 13 7 






6 a 


8 n 


8 S 


8 8 


4 


7 


1 14 5 




^^Htt^^ 


a 6 


W 2 


H 4 


H 10 


« 


7 2 


1 15 2 






a 7 


U 4 


8 


n 1 


« 


7 4 


1 la 






e H 


« 7 


8 U 


9 n 


10 


7 [ 


1 la 






n t» 


1> t» 


ft 11 





11 


7 8 ' 


1 17 7 








10 


S 


U I 


7 I 


7 10 


1 18 6 






t 


KKMATlKfl. 




^ftjtl#,^W^»^i Wfflst, 


Ui^ually pay 5*. to I'M. p^r Imniffrfd fr?*: iTmn thrtr pr^i portion <it4S H 


^B f«t. k in 


ihi* ft]n'|;iiin(j( tflblr, ID cont^t'f^' i« U H 


^H fL'i' ''m. 


tn ft *liip M rorgf), snd to cover i '*/ 1 


^^U^^vuini i <i' tkr 


^urt, Uic Mhiptier i>> Hubject. ill nr i, . in ii;j; iut-!ii<»ti \«inn\ -a ii»" "uit); H 


^^^^^^^^AfiRc U. vf t our»«, nut made as rff^iu eu Uoatcd drols^ shipped in rouiiUuclicv. ■ 


Hvit*^ 


; 'U of ^ftin jiwjrt lti^li»*i raUs c f fiHgUi tlmo other gond«, ia H 


^■_j?L 


> ^peitfe to whicli the eh(|t i« put for hiiiu|E?» &c. to irrt itv it* ^M 


^^B^Htt^B '' 


1 L'risUttble a tu»^o. All r«inp)M nll.^wimrr in thrr*'ror*» H 




^> Imt ibo mithnr is fnr fnin t»^^». ♦ in«.' li> tlu^ jti^lui* i^f ^^ 


^BV^^^ 


1.. ill thiffl n^ptcl, wiicro wh'ni p«jh nlrno^t il.nild<- ihe ^^^H 


^M c»i !</rtloi». (^Itui guebeo rule* for Bkiwinggnun wiii brfoand wiib the ^^H 


^M mtu ■ 


^^H 


^Lr»^f9 iNirrvU. 


Hkn bright dc&l*) i« ^'cnffaUy tAkcn nomewliiit under ii^ proper- ^M 


^^^fpe*" <i«riuj 


\ to the «nial1 fikpen^i' uttiMi'^inp <t" i<j>i<iti^f ttt« (t Mlii|/i9 vntga. ^^^H 



eo 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



TABLE No. XXVn. 
NEW YORK BATES OP FREIGHT, 

OP THE QUANTITY OF GOODS TO COMPOSE A TON. 



lb. of Coffee in cjwks, 1,8S0 ditto in Yat^ 1,1201b. of Coooa in CMkK, 

1,307 ditto in bags, 
lb. of Pimento in canks, 1,110 ditto in bsigi. 
Barrels of Flour of l&fitti. mch. 

Barrels of Beef, Ptork^ Tallow, Piekl*^ Fiab, Pitch, Tiir, and Tnrpeiitino. 
Cirt. of pig iiad bar Iron, PotAishes, 1Suib^, Logwood, Fitfiti«, NicangiMi 

Wood, and cdl heavy Dye- woodit, KieL% Honoy, Copper Ore, and all 

other hm\j goods, 
Cwi. of CofTee, Cocoa, and dried God fish in bulk, and 13 cwt. diied Cod* 

fi-^h in casks of any size. 
Cwt. Ship Bread in casks, 7 cwt. in ba^, and 6 ewt, in bulk. 
Gallons (wine measure) reckoning tlie foil <^ontenti of the eaaki, of Oil, 

Wine, Brandy, or other kind of liquors . 
Bnshels of Crrain*, Peas, or Beans in ca^ka* 
Bnahels of ditto in hnlk. 

Bushels of EtLTopeon 8alt| 31 buaheli of Salt from the West Indies. 
Bashek of Bern Goal. 
Feet (cnbte mearare) of Ifalioeany, square Timber, Oak Plonk, Pine, 

and other boards, Beaver, Fj^, Peltry, Beei' Wax, Cotton, Wotd^ 

and Bole Qoods of all kirnds. 
Hogshead of Tobacoo, and ID cwt. dry hides. 
Cwt. China nw Silk, 10 cwt. net Bohea, and 8 <3wt. green Tea. 



* The New Turk rules for stowing graui will be Jlnind with the article graiu. 
HEW TOBE XEABimES AWD WEIQWJtS OF DUTEBEKT StrB8TAirGE8b 



tb. OS. 

Ton water (net) 2&0 goUona . — 

Cubic foot ditto, spec, grav, 6!! 9 

Bca water 64 S 

New York harbour water . . 63 14 

Cork ...,.*, 15 

TaUow 69 

Pljitina 1,218*75 

Copper 486 75 

Lead .... 70&06 



lb, 

Bteel 4^m 

Cast Iron 450*45 

tful». in. 
Bushel of beans ...... 100 63 

Cordof wood, stowage.. 128 1,700 
A man and his offecia ., 2 to 2| ewt. 
Avemgfi weight of a horse . . 1,(>00 
Average weight of a matt . . 150 



WEIOHT OF A BUSHUi ITIVifED BTAT^S. 



Dry apples S2tb. 

Barley 48Ih, 

Beans 60 @ &3tb. 

Bine grass seed ........ litb. 

Bran SOtt. 

Coal BCSh. 

Com fi6Ib, Com shell . . Sfilb. 

Com, nnsheUed ........ 701b. 

Comintheetr ....^t.. 70It. 

Coraoreob 70fb« 

Clover seed GOflb. 



Hemp seod iBVt}. Vtitx seed 45 (^ 4inb, 

Oats ...,.....__..,.. 32@86!b. 

Onions 43 @ 57Ib. 

Peaches, dry « 32Tb. 

Potatoes 56(ieOfb. 

Sweet potatoes ..**«... 50Ib. 

Rye 661b. 

Bait, fine 56tb, coarse . . 50tb, 

Timothy seed .. ....... 45Ib. 

Wheat 601b. 




TAJ3LE No. XXVm. 

BALTIMORE— FREIGHT AND FREIGHTING. 

froiglttfld bj the toQ, and no vpeoial AgreemeDt Is ttude rotipectmg tlie 
t wliieh eftch article «kalk he oomputed^ the following shall be the standiud 



of computation^ and either parcel deemed eqxul to a ton^ vise : — 


^240 


tb. 


Fig and bar Iron, Lead, Copper, Logwood, 
Fustic, and other heavy Dye-woods 


2,000 


— 


Nicaragua and Brazilletto Wood 


3,2-10 


tb. net 


Sugar and Bice.., casks 


1,630 


— , 


Coffee bags 


1,600 


— 


„ .,• CftfikB 


l,soa 


— 


Cocoa bags or bulk 


, 1,180 


— 


„ ..« casks 


1,110 


— 


Pimento.,.. „. bags 


m-i 


— 


„ ...,,.,.„ casks 


^00 




Sbin Sread ....».■.■■■■■.««>■«> bai^s 


700 


— 


,f *,«,,«i, ,„■■»■•■,••• casks 


Dried Hides. 


900 


— 


Weight green Teas and China raw Silk 
„ Bohea, and other black Tea 


l,l*i*> 1 


_ 


1,500 


— 


„ Virginia Tobacco hogsheads 


1,800 


— 


„ Kentucky „ ,» 


l.OOO 


— 


Maryland „ ....„ „ 


8 


burrels 


Flour, of li>Olt>. net 





—, 


Beef, Pork, and Tallow 


^m ' 





Naval Stores and Pickled Fisb 


^Ksoo 


(jfallona 


Oil, Wine, Brandy, &o. esiimating the full 


^^r^ 


(wine meiuiire) 


contents of the cask 


1 22 


bushels 


Grain, Peas, Beans, ke. casks 


1 40 


,^_ 


^ , hulk 




Salt. Liverpool brown „ 


L 94 





t — ground , 


^^■. 81 





„ St. Ubes, Cape Verde, &c, ,.• „ 


^^^V JIA 


eubio feet 


,, West India ,*.„ ..•..,.•,. „ 


^^A Hfk 


„ Sea Coal , „ 


^■40 


Plank, Boards, Timber, Bale Goods, Packages, 


f 




and Boxes. 



; thfl eoate&ta la onbie feet of ▼arion* puskafM ind goods, the following 
■ludl be tbo staadard : — 



fe«t 

Flour, a barreU.,* & 

Kicis, a tierce »..«••. 15 

Fl(kX s<v«d. a hogshead... 12 

Tobiic«?o, ITirgiDla, hogshead 4A 



Tobacco, Kentucky, Georgin, 

and Carolina, a hogshfail . 

Tobacco, Maryland and Ohio 

Grain, hv^ bushels, in bulk , 



fetst 

40 

35 

5 



btOVfRttlae boiea of eandlef and loap, keg« of butter and lard, and hamg and bacon, 
I §mmtmnj aU aimUar artid««, fiOOIb, net weight, ibaU b« eooiidon^ equal to a barrBl 
mUe foal. 



62 



STEVKNS ON STOWAGK. 

TABLE No, XXIX. 

BAEIA TONNAGE SCALE, 



By order of the Directors of the Bahia OoMafSRctJLL AsgocuxioK (1651) tlia 
ton of diflereDt Artidea of Produce is to be calculated as follow^s : 



NXT Wbigbt t» 



EiroLAtrD 



Fb^kcie 



Sii{?ar in cases, boxes or barrels 

— bnj^s , 

Coffee io horrela 

' — bnpfs ., 

Tobacco leaf in bales „ 

— serons 

— rolls 

— mangotes 

Hides, di'j ., 

— salted 

— green 

Cotton, Maeeia, or S. Francisco 

— Cachoira »».. 

Cocoa in li«^& 

'I'Hpiocfi in harrels 

— baffs 

Jncaraoda I^^b 

Rnm in pipes ...,., *.. 

Molnssea ,. 



Kilus, 
1000 

lloO 

900 
1050 

mo 

800 

moo 

045 
HOO 

looo 

AU 

680 
800 
700 
800 
1150 



Rice, in btt^a .„,....<............ 2.'1 ewt. 

H ice, in barrels ..., IB cwt. 

Bones » *,..,. 13 cwt. 

Hoofs 10 cwt 

Coquilbos .....*.•..,, 8 mib 

CigKrs • 40 ctibic feet, 

Hums, Rio Grande or Buenos Ayres ...... 2 mil. 

Horns, Babia ...,^. 8 mil 

Mnlft^Bos, id pipes 181 old gaUons. 

[pou. UDo£tt, Oct. 17,l8&fl.] 



BAHIA CHARTER PARTIES. 

It is staled that some forms of charter party used in the Brazil 
read ** freight to be paid (nay ri5^,) fnr the IFiiited Kiwgdoni for sugar in hag^,^ 
or other lawful n«erchniidi/.e in proportion, iiceordiug to the custom of the port j 
of loading." and that cantion sbonki he observed in acce[«iiijg sueh forms. In , 
the Hahia district a tritnile is adopted in which sugar in eases or boxes is mado j 
the standard article. This scale appears to be about aay 15 |i0r oeut. iii error] 
if the ship loads three parts of hor cargo — cotton. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



63 



CUSTOM OF THE 



TABI^ No. XXX. 

POET OF RIO 



GEANDE DO SUL. 



Ric proT«irtioniil dilToff^iicc on Freiy;ht botwee-n WET SALTED HIDLS wid other 
|<fu4iiec BJtijt|)cd. in ma IoUow» : 

TALLOW, in nimBH i>r cmIpi \ Tlie aame w.t« ns lor wet mlUjd 
JERKED BEEF [ Itiiltni, oo grotiH weight dei'vd. 

TALLOW OR ORfv^KE in pijwA, |-pipe* or ^ ni|M?», lOj^eenL 
mom tliMi (of NN et Suited Illdc&t oo gro*4 WM^lit if " 



BOKE ASH 1 12 

STONES, kioao ur in lMkmd« 



1 12 » cei 
f Wet 1 



i delivert'd. 



cent. lc«M thuo for 



BikiUid HideH. 



For WOOL m BALES, <ir HAIE IN BAGS. 

1l%«l lilt icttid i* etitir^lj loaded mth tltc^o itrtidcH, 1^0 (,^ c^ent. more thAU for 

Wet SiUled HidiJs. 

If ^ *f Jt^r cju-go with tiiejf« lu-ticJcB. » . . 7r> ^ ccot. dilta 

HI ., 51) ^ CLOt. dittr) 

If I "*^^ *J5 ^ ceut, ditto 

U 1 " li* ..,.,......» 15 ^ cent, ditto 

U 1' ."t • veu'dgfat^ Siitn«» m for 8idt««l Huli». 

for BBT HIDES, HAIB Of BAIBS, OB HIDE CirmHGB« 

I with thew* tu^rlm 5«l l^ cent, mot* Uiaii for W. 8. H]d«« 

If lOia^ci «Hl^ tl.r, ,-.f.,nrll.„ ..f theCATgO .. 4tM»'^''"* '►^Ho 

UlflMdt^l 21) <* 

II kwli>d 40 ....... . Bill. I Bitted Hideii. 

Iti iMM <ii ti^viLi I «'4tijg r«>qair«d tlie v».\ss*"i htin tu liiii] the kjuuo. 

1^ ia]Fi do not count on ch;MiriDg At tJbe Cu!»tom houi«o^ or in chaii^iiig AQcbomge. 



r Am 



Jinfigki oi ami ajUt tkc raU ij/' ajjulluuj : 




USUAL FOBX OF OHABTEB FABTT. 

/ ftrtttfrn q/* tkt good fklp or r^sd t'otleii the 



if tht^rrahouii^ u^ertoj it ut pfx^tnt Mtf4tef, 

and that the mid »hiptititijif tight ^ 

1/ tmtf fitted /trr tht ts>yntjt\ ahtU trith all ctmi'mient 

' -' rtMnuddttniir ^ - ' htrtiirkh, 

: I to loathd ■- > rt(d to 

n4 there lO , fmiig paid 



LASTAGES FOR FREIGHT. 



100t<niEiigU«h. 



Um rcg. 

■ Im, Im : .• In-kvt. 
J. AJl li.UiXJlh. 



5pTf 



hi 

ut 



Mgber Uuui barley, which getJt 20 ||^ 
cent, over oftts. 

AjiBT*»DAai. 4 ♦OuO lb, of iron or voppw* 
2,0iJ(t|b. huR&»U ^i buuhd« oftt«. 

L[rtBo>i. i pipes oU or wine, 4 <^eits 
btigitr, 4,UU0tb. tobtu.*co, 8,6001b. of 
•hnmuc. 

MAiJkOA, 4 boat* or r> pipe& wine or uU^ 
4 biilf HorHrii".' peel, ft pijirt P.Ximrnet«' 
wii ■ 10 cuolip ii1nif>ri4U (i^iivh 

111 20 ehi«irt K'nioiitt and 

(M I > iinkt iiliuoiidit, H riuskN 

riUMUib {'k Ain*hiii» v^m'Uf, 87 hidf oMlut 
nd^JUft, &0 buktth fir i^i jmrii ruifaUiB. 



'64 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 

TAJBLE No* XXXn, 

ALGOA BAY TONNAGE SCALE 
im GAEOO BOATS, 



AnLQiicaii ploaghs . . ploughs 6 

Acids feet 20 

BBrkrproflsod GOOIttf impreBBed 300 

Barley. .<.. tb 1,800 

Beef, B ciuika, 1 half ditto, or lb l,aOO 

Beer, 3 hlid, or * . kildt^rkiaa 8 

BoDCB, Vugs lOOOH^, loose H) 700 

Bran Hi 1,200 

BiickK ,.. ., 4O0 

Bkeiiit, SbonrclH, or ..,, lb 1,200 

Batter, m 1,200 

Casks (ctmptj) 1« ea to lUids or 
hflif pipes ; liirger extm. 

Coffse th 2,«00 

Fi*h ...••.* lb 1,200 

Flour, 13 4 -bur or .. bwrels 8 

Ginger 1,0001b, Gunpowder lb 1.000 

Hrty, oflt or other, pressed lb <KH> 

Ditto uikprc&§ed lb dOU 

Hides, dry 5(1 ; wtit lb 2,0(90 

Horns, ox or cow 500 

Ivory ft 1,000 

Iran pots * «... 40 

Irou potft Boap and other largo, 
^ me^iirement 

Lard lb 2,000 

Leather « j^^sides @0 

liiiuo Muids 10 

Liqoid, in wioker botUoB, jiu-g, 

ortina •«.•■■•* gauona 40 



MaoMnitry ** ^edalclujge 

BfatchesondFiiMaa .... leet 90 

Nata lb 600 

OatB lb I.I1OO 

Pepper lb 1,000 

Fork, 4oaka, dics]ca,or fb 1,200 

Potatoes lb 1,500 

BagB Xb 800 

Rice lb 2«O0O 

Bope, coir lb 1,200 

Salt ...,,,.. lb 8,000 

Seeds lb 1,&00 

BbeUfi, la gmmy bags, or lb 1,000 

Shooks la 

Sbilea «. 600 

Skin B, wildebeeste or other largo 50 

Do wildcfbteHte pressed .. 75 

Do back, fibeep, goat, &c 300 

3o&p, boxes not exaeediAg561b 90 

Tobiieco, m boles tb l.dOO 

TaHow , lb 1,200 

Tor, 8 I'bar. or . . , , iMurelB & 

Wines and Spiriti : — ^Ankers .. H 

Do 4-aama oir oetavos, snkra 8 

Do Quarter eaaks •• |-c&ks £ 

Do HogMheadfl .... hhd. 3 

Wool, washed and preg^ed lb 600 

Bo washed and trnpretsed . 400 

Do imwaahed and presBed , 800 

Do onwaahed Ss nnpresaed . S35 



All wool to bo deemed wmihed mil ess nottee b« giren previoH* to «IdpnR*oL Exccptioiiftl ««•«« hj 
•jiHN^Uil ftmuigement. Other articles per t*m 4Ufeet metMurcment, or 2^000 Jb. wciKhL AU Wiuglitit 
tuuierstood to bn gTx>Bfl EugLuh. Tlje Company rvaerve to IbejiiseUes the right to chargv vithtr jtcr 
roeuureitKtot 0r weight. In cose of JamJiug uid Abipj^iag hoThotk or cattJe, extra charge will be mttAi 
tor small nuiDberi^ while on allowance will be made on J&rge ahipments. The Company do not hold 
themkelv«» retpousihle fur brx>akago and oiher loss on Blatei, or in,iury to live Htock. 

AlOOA BAY AVZBAaE EATES OF FEEIOHT TO LOMDOH. 



Por waahed wool, in bales, pre»H*d, irom 

345 (9 260 tb English 

Unwashed wool, dodo 480 <S 6201b 
Gctat & SheepHkinit, bimdlea of 100 ea. 
Alo«a, oaaea weighing 350 {§ »75 lb at 
WetBldofl, ox St eoW| bundlei} of 20 cwt 

Horns, (ox and eow) 

Ivory 

Moasorenient gooda 



I® i^^ft ^. at Quoen'ii beam, with 
6 Ip- et piim'go k aTer^gc entitom'ry 
i @ fid ditto ditto 
£7 to £S> the 1000 
1£> @ 2D« ^ ion of 20 Owt 
SO @ B^ 1^ ton of 20 ewt 
25 @ 30« ^i' 1000 homa 
50 (^ 60« ^ ton of 20 ewt 
46 @ 50« «»- 42 cnbia feet 



STOWAGE. 



liftfe (Biilm. 



JCDS are chemical preparations of a sharp and sour taste, of which 

er is very hirge. The terminEiLioii of tlie prefix denotes the 

-tV being applied to the stronger, and ous to the weaker acids, 

Tulcrts packt-d in sand in the hold, nil dangerous acids in carboys ou^hl 

be stowed on deckj which should be shown on the bill of lading " with 

tjf to throw overboard for the safety of Uie ship, if deemed necessary.'* 

rwrUers object to the stowage of dangerous acids in the hold, and 

Imricnrcd master says that whether in carboys or in strong bottles 

in cases, ihey should never be atovved in the hold or 'tween decks, 

wlte^tyson deck, with "liberty," &c ; see the article dangerous goods. 

lie upecific ^avily of acetic acids is I 062, of muriatic 1*200, and of 

I-27L 

AFRICAN NUTS* Ships will not stow more than a half to 
twrMliir^U of iheir register tonnage; see nuts, 

H LH AND BERR for exportation is what is termed by brewerB 

V' d," and undergoes a dijlerent kind of fermentation than that 

Kj umption. Ale has been known to keep good for two years 

I^Hi IniltB. For southern voyages casks are occasionally spiled with rattan 
^HM cut close, or with porous spiles of red oak, &c. In bottles it should 
j^^^pilewrit in the fure part of the ship, if passing into or tluough the 
^ If0f}i e tiie temperature is always cooler ihere than in the main 

Kf m\\ i. Casks and cases containing bottled a!e are often very 

vgib^ And will not bear the pressure of heavy goods, shippers therefore 
Uh u% have them fitowtd separately; when packed with straw, it is 
tttftsary to ajeertain lliat it is jierfectly dry, or breakage will ensue, 
«Jr and berr ought not to b^ placed near goods of a heating characterj 



68 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Buch as coal, flour, sugar, &c, as tbey create additional fermea- [ALE 
tatiuii, besides which the dust from coal chokes the spilesi of casks, atni 
prevenls the ale from relieving itself on the voyage, Considt^rubb 
pillage is sonieUmes carried on on board ship, and ihe irigilance of the 
ofiicers ia constantly required when loading and unloading; for stowajjc 
see also the articles casks, general cargo, liquids, provisions, «nd - 
Messrs, Bass and Co. consider that the proper season for shippiii 
is from the middle of October to the end of June, The busiest montlii 
of that firm are November, December, and March, but their shipiuenli 
arc prctly evenly distributed through November, &c. to May, Messrs. 
Allsupp consider the best season for export lo be from November ta 
April inclusive. 

4 Export stout. lu Febmary, 18flt, an action was bronght in Edin- 
burgh, by Sir 11. Meitx and Co, brewers, against Johm Re id, for £^\9 16i. 
vftlue oflO hogsheuds export Blout Defendant " refused to pay on the gromid 
that tUo stout t'uruiabed was not export stout, which he ordered, but was too 
brisk, and burst his bottloEi, and was in great part lost, and quite unfit for 
exportation to a warm t^limale/* Sheriff Substitute SxHATnERN siHtadtied lb© 
defence, but Sir A. Alison altered, holding that the stout became too brisk 
after it had left the pursuer's premises, ex cUimno fatnle, or from its being 
bottled at an unseasonable time, and at any rate, that the defender did no* 
return or reject it soon enough. After hearing counsel the court recalled the 
she riff *8 interlQcutor, and returned to that of the sheriff substitute, holding 
that the stout was not export stout, and therefore not the article ordered by 
the defender; adding, however, that the stout seems to hiive lieen too brisk 
from somethiog of the nature of an accident^ and that the pursuers were not 
aware of there being any quality in it of the kind objected to. 

B To Bombay, Queen's Bencb, December 18th, 1862. This was , 
action by Messrs, Ebcomhe, Brothers, shipping brokers and carrying a||*91 
against JARna, an ayent for the sale of Bass s beer, for breach of contract 1 
B&le and Blupment of a consignment to Bombay. 

On April 5, IROO, plaintiffs bought of defendant a quantity of Basq's 
to be stopped by him to Bombny. Part of the ale was laltelled as Bass's, i 
part as that of Jxavis's (who himself brewed); the whole wus invoit^ed 
Bass's. The invoice was sent to Arbuthnot, Ewaiit, and Co. of Liver 
con-espondents of the house of Ewart and Co. of Bouihay, witti instnictic 
to forward it to that house ; lu»t do instructions were sent by plaintiffs to 1 
latter bouse of the intended consignment to thtni. The account was gtl 
and paid, and the ale wa.-* slupped by defendant in April tor Bombay, wber 
arrived in July* 1800; but. according to |>laintiff'a ease, 2B0doz- were**ulli 
fi,e, ihe beer bad partly oomd out), empty, or broken. The ale was consii 
to Ewart nud Co. of Bombay, and, according to the case for defendant, 
not for six weeks hmded at id wandiousod, but left on board. About Augustl 
tliey sold and sent an account sale of 1,356 dozen, showing sales to the 
amount of 3,0«6 nipeea, at 2$. or MSOn 6*. sterling, and the net pi 



STEVEI 



iictiiig oil charges, were ^197 17*. Messrs. Ewabt and Co, in [ALE 
miag this aocaunt* termed it aa *' unsatisfactory out-tura " of the consi^m* 
t, hut liseribed it to Uie beer being out of conditioa. and owing to its 
iug too much ** up" there was an uiiuiinal amount of breakage from bursting. 
oj 6tAted« however, that the market was " dull.** The result, of course, was 
.tisfiir to ry " to plaintiffs, and in July, 1861, they brought their action, 
ning that only a portion of the beer waa Bass's, that tlie rest waa 
Iferior. and that the wholo was bodly bottled and corked, and not properly 
It op for shipment, nor in a fit and proper atate for shipment. Flaintifi^ 
dmed either damages for the bad ©ale or a return of the purchase money — 
i7l I6s. and the freight and charges, ^140 10*. making together £612 <i#. 
B the -£197 17 1. received aB net proceeds of the sales, leaving a balance 
Irgwl to be due to plaintiffs of ^414 U*. They put their cluim for damage 
\UB, — they alleged that the beer ought to have sold for double tlie price it 
tched, and that the whole ought to have arrived in a saleahle state, which 
iiihi come to rcry much the same result. Defendant denied that he had 
[token hi«s contract* 
Kvr^l'^'ure had he^n taken at Bombay under a commission, as to the con- 
i. beer when it was landed and warehoused. It did not ajjpear to 
J that it was then In a bad or *' over- ripe " conditioii ; but on that 
It ttje case for the defence was, that It had been leflt too long on board 
fore it waa lauded and warehoused. 

r, BovjLt. for defendant, ridiculed the idea of his client being jmswerahle 

If he had warranted the aie) for its condition after a voyage to India* 

uiivt its being allowed to remain six weeks on board ship in the oliinate 

bay. Even in this countiy in hot weather, beer was a delicate artiole, 

hu turned or Bpoikd by a tbimderstorm; and in India, at the best* 

not last longLT than from two to ff:>ur months. To expect thot it 

J kept in good condition in Bombay without being properly warehoused 

dto. In point of fact, however, ho denied any warranty that the ale wna 

'i» or fit ft»r shipment to India, Part cf the ale was labelled m 'sIarvis'b" 

BBorr's;" *nd though it was true the drst parcel was invoiced '* Bass s'* 

d the two oilier parcelB, by an accident, were written '* do. do/' it wa» 

that this was an error in the hurry of business. If all the ale was to be 

«, all would havo had Basss brand. Plaintiffs had seen, tasted, and 

'Q thw ttle when it wa% ordered, and there was no warranty at all. Still, 

clit^iit » repulatiou was at stake, he would undertake to show that the 

rnm fit for shipment. It wuft old beer, elciven mouths old. the brewing 

ttt* i|T, and perfectly sound and fit for the voyage, 

J' se told oue of the plaintiffs, who gave tlici order for 300 

A*:, that he had not so much of it ; on which plaintiff said '* I 

i'i I — ■n-hrthrr it is or not, so that you put Bass's labels on."* lie, 

said 11 not do so, but labelled the other beer '* Jauvis's" or 

W* U i th&t it was good old beer, in ** splendid condition," 

to be ahipped anywhere." He had shipped some beer of the same 

tn Hongkong and had heard oo complaint. Beer was a very precarious 

hro slapped io hot climitM, nod if not landed and warehoused toon 



70 



STEVENS US HiuWAUtl. 



after arvivalt ihe bottles would be likely to burst. In fact, under [ALE 
suoh treatment as this beer had received, he wondered that a botUu hu/i, 
renininsd soimd. He bad not had any complaint about it widilu a year tCked 
shipment. 

In cross-examination by Mr. Macaulat, defendant was aBked for the di|! 
book in which he bad entered the order, and ho said he had noted it in i 
memoraiifiiim-book which he had not preserved. One of the jary : where i 
your order book? Defendant: I think it ran^t havo been destroyed. Thf 
juror : what, did you destroy your order book ? Defeodant said he thong 
this must have been destroyed, as he could not find it, though be bad lookei 
for it; but be h,id not destroyed it with a view to the trial of this case. Oa 
the contrary, he had looked lor it In order to put it in evidence, and ho 1 
his invoieo-book, which was taken from bis order-book. The whole 
entered in the invoico-book as ** Bass's ale/' in the same way as in the inro 
fifom which it was, in fact, copied. 

Defendant's man was called to confirm bia evidence, and ^fr. Macaulai^ 
in crogB-examiuatiou, aaktid him, *' what*3 benouio of tho order-book?" Witn© 
(hesitating): am 1 compelled to answer, my Lord? Loud CKiKf JtisricKJ 
certainly. Witness: I keep a fishmonger's shop, and 1 took the book, with I 
lot of others, to my shop and u^ed them up for waste paper. (Laugbtor.) I| 
appeared from further qufibtions that this was in November, ISOl, just afl 
issue was joined in thi^ aL-tion. Several witnesses were called to show tha 
the beer ought to have been lauded in a cool place. 

In the course of tlie <^ase for the defouce, tho Lord Chief Justiob potll^ 
out that it did not appear tliere had been any letter from platntids (a the conJ 
signees announcing the despatch of the consignment, so that they were no 
prepared for it, and tiie beer was left to chance. 

Mr. Hannkn summed up the ease for the defence, and was strongly urging 
that point aud pressing that six weeks after the beer arrived were unaccoaot 
for. when the Jury iutttmipted him, declaring that they were satisfied and we 
in his favour. Mr. Macau lav thereupon elected to be nonsuited. 

[On tiiis ease an experienced master remarks — the ale shipped in boti 
ought to have been warranted, and tlie fact of the plaintiff's tasting or ev 
chosing it would hardly be a defence, aa the defendant's judgment as to iti 
age and fitness for exj>ort would have been considered more reliahlo than the 
partial observation. The fact of the consignees not reoeiviug advice of th 
shipment was damniitory, but it is nothing unusual for large ships in Bomhajj 
during the mouths of July and August to be unable to discharge cargo for i 
week or ten days at a time, through the severity of the weather, and therefon 
three or four weeks might easily have dapsed before the beer was ready to 1 
discharged. The ship in the open harbour of Bombay with strong gale 
blowing and much rain, was likely to be aud was as cool as any warehouse ofl 
shore, Tljere can be no question that tho beer jjot spoilt d tiring the voya 
and was unfit at llie time to have boon sent out. I have bad tlio experieoc 
that out of 8tH) do/on in eases, apparently vv^^ll chosen as to quality, not 15 I 
cent turned out entire, and httlc even of that fit for uee. The judgment wa 
J think against evidence. J 



STEVENS 



STOWAGE. 



tl 



^ Fro*t. 'Hif! Shipping Oaxette, when ssked whether under- [ALE 

hr lofes aiisiDg from the hrcakage of bottles by fi-ost, ausn'era 

' insured " against the advfjntiircs and perils of the seus and 

,hoT i>«rils, togscs, or iiiisJ'onunos, ibat have or shall como lo the hurt, 

IncQt, or d&iniigc of the said goods, or any part thereoiV the uudevwrilers 

iiitM be supposed to have been aware of the nature of the risks which thej 

mrrtl, tnd the effects of those risks upon the cargo inaiired; they would 

hprvrcrtpu he liable to make good the loss — provided it were proved that the 

had btven properly packed and stowed. 

T Deficiency* Glasgow Small Debt Coiirt, January^ 1859, MAnrrsE, a 

rewf^r of Hnddiugton, traiistnitted 47 hogsheads of 51 gallons each, Indian 

iki^ by rail^ lo Glasgow. As the ship was not at her berth, the ale was stored 

Umporf^ with Cameron- and Co. Cominerce-Htreetj who signed a receipt 

ID good condition." When delivered at the ship's side, one hogshead was 

Ted and leaking, and another spiled and deficient. Defenders udniitttd the 

- -^ *n the former, which had been stoved by their earter, but denied their 

: "f ilie s^uled cfiuk, and callod on the pursner to prove thut they hod 

I? ' i lonkoy.'* 'J'he pursuer argued tlial having received the bogelirad 

irt t ' the Utibility attactied to them until they devolved it on others. 

Id accordingly, and laid the onus prohandi on the defenders, 

1 <ntended that the acknowledged ** good order'* referred to out- 

wiLTii f?ondjtion, and denied responsibi/it}' for the contents, which tliey had no 

ppportunity lo examine. The sheriff did not consider it was for him to provide 

inxiy, If a fttore-kecpcr received a hogshead of ale, he must produce it, 

il not half a hogshead. He therefore decerned against defenders for value 

f both hog^lieads and ale, and expenses. 

Tomiagep freight^ &C, 2*l do/en honied ale or porter, whether 21 cases 
1 Afyfi^n f'fkch, H of 3 dozen, or 1 of dozen, or 40 cubic feet, go to a ton. 
" are packed in capes and casks containing 3, 4, and dozen 
ri are said to go to a ton. Bass's ales ore always ebipjied by the 
oil 4 hogsheads. harrela, or 12 kilderkins; the weight of these siiies mny 
1»# Ulen in round nmnbere at 0, 4, aud 2pwt — the hogshead being rather 
under e«rt, and the barrels and kilderkins rather over 4 and 2 cwt. Iiisb 
^^npcaakian] not of the fult contents, and contain 52, .12, and IC gallons 
^^^^^Hpctivply ; tJie tonnage is computed at 12 kilderkins, 6 harrels^ or 4 bogs- 
^^^^BM0A Iou^ they are frequently freighted by the cask, 
^^^^^P^ViiSttre* 4 gUle make i pint ; 2 pinti^ 1 quart; 4 quarts 1 gallon : 
■^^'•fil- Iflrkin ; 2 fiikins or 1^ gal. 1 UihUrkin ; 2 kilderkins or M gol. 1 barrel ; 
^t H ^tnvif t) kilderkins, or 54 gal 1 hogshead ; 2 hogsheads or lOH gal. 1 butt. 

^^m ^ ALKALI or Kili, or ^oda Ash, ib a kind of salt found in the 
tahe^ of burnt vegetables. Of these, potash and soda are chiefly used 
tli^ iDariufajciuro of glass and soap* It is injured by water, and if 
miiintA out» will seriously damage every kind of manufactured goods; 
Id be plttci?d well otT from the bilges. At Newcastle it is usually 
td on the vviUtig or in the ends, according to the nature of the cargo. 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE- 



Newcaslle ulkali is paclced in cuslts of 10 cwt. each ; 18 ton [ALKALI 
are taken as being e^iial to a lie«l of coal or 850 cubic feeL At CulcuitA 
and Bombay 20 cvvu fossil alkali go lu a toUt When wheat is Is, p^qr, 
fretgbt, soda and oUicr alkalis are rated, casks Bs.Oid, and bulk 4s,7i^, 
^ ton ; Mediten^anean 4^. 9f/» ^ ton of 20 cwt ; see potadb^ soda, &c. 

9 ALOES* Four of the principa! sorts an?, the Soeotrine* from 
tbe island of Socotra; the Hepatic, from Arabia; the Caburme, froi 
Baibailoea; and the Cape aloes^ from the Cape of Good Hope and 
Metiritla* Socotrine are packed in cases, goat skins, and bladders 
Cape in cases 1 to 5cwi; Barhadoes in gourds; and Hepatic in small 
kegs i to Hcwt, They should be kept clear of all edibles, &c. Tbe 
cases ought to be water tight; although they appear perfect when received 
at Nalal, yet when passing the line the beat may cause the contents to 
leak ; aloes are usually stowed as dead -weight under wool. Bengal and 
Madras ton 20cwL net, hags or boxes ; Bombay 16cwt« kegs. 

10 ALUM J a valuable salt obtained from ores, or from clay or 
earths comaining sulphur, dug out for this purpose; epec. grav, 1'714*. 
It is usually packed in casks containing about 6i cwt. each. Alum is 
injured by water, and if washed out, having an acid action^ will seriously 
damage all kiods of manufaclured goods and metallic wares; it may be 
stowed with soda. From Cliina to India it is sliipped in small matted 
bags slightly tapered at one end, and weighing about 20 catties (301t)). 
It should if possible be stowed in the ends of the ship, and worked up 
fn>m keelson to deck ; mattin^; and bamboo dunnage should be carefully 
placed between the alum and other cargo buHing on to it ; otherwise 
damage may ensue, as the alum bags are geneially quite rotten when i 
discharged. Bengal, Madras^ and Bombay ton 20 cwt. 

11 AMBERGRIS is aupposed to be a concretion formed in the 
stomach of the Spermaceti whale, and is usually found on the sea coast 
of hidia, Africa, Brazil, Nassau, New Providence, and tbe Bahamas^ 
its speeliic gravity varies from 780 to 'D26. It is packed in small b(^%e3 
and in tins containing from 3oz. to lOlti. Some shippers consider that 
it should be slowed in tbe cuddy or cabin. 20 cwt. go to a ton at Bombay. 

12 AJVIMUNITION. All lights and fires are extinguished when 
receiving or discharging gunpowder* In loading ammunition, use shot 
and empty shell for ballast, and keep them as much as possible in the 
body of the ship. A government officer recomniends shot lockers lobe 
carried up amidship; powder, live shell, and rockets iii magazines properly 
constructed* Judgment is required as to quantity, for being generally in 
tbe bottom it tends to make a ship labour and strain. The Admiralty 
l-cstfict tbe freight to two*thirds of the register tonnage. 



I I! 

i 

[idV 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



?» 



13 Wlicii ships i>f war receive or discharge [AMMUNITION 
iwdcr, (ires and Jigbu arc ordered to be extiugtiished and tobacco 
. I :.. ^ ta prohibited. When from necessity, powder or live shells are 

l! - charged (roro, or received on board a Bteamer with her fires 

^I in ilic eogiiie rouin, the vessel couveyitig or receiving the saine 

be placed lo windward t>f the funnel; and iti case of the steamer 

ringing, ihi! hatches of the vessel are to be put on and covered with 

loiiUns, uniiJ s»be can be removed to a safe and proper posiliuii. 

14 Ii> a incnchant blnp's magazine there have been found cases of 
IjI» and scales, inniks, iron hoops, &c. all together, to the 

2sr nf every one. It is usual lo build the tnagaiiiue abaft the 
LfrClr, altiioHgh the great danger from fire is here ; how often i» it that 
5^ of evcrj description are stored there, with a puncbeou of spirit 
hi, notwithstanding tbat ihc duily eonsumpliun is drawn oft* by 
[hi ? Magazines should be placed so that in the event ot fire 
lur can be got on deck ready for tlirowing overboard; the crew 
rill *Iw«y« liavc more con/jdence when they know it is not under them. 

WEIGBT OF ABMIBALtT SHELL, ke» IN FOUNDS, as issned for Bervioe. 



Ai>ituui.Tir SifKix 


I04ti. 


^itu 


32-pr. 


M.pr. 




84 
U 


46 

n 

6»| 


24 

H 

254 

c 
814 


154 

1 

164 

5 


Whvn pAfkod for ImiM . • 



4jiHiier4iilliMnt7 mji lO-tn. fboll Irartefiiro 1% 8-iii* tLrti 10, und G-ln. are B in. aqaore, 
; iulk of m ktmdjvd lO-in, »1icU lou^n U sbaut 87| 8 ui. 1^1, aad G-rn. 3d cablo feet. 



ABKSTEOITG GITKS AND SHOT. 
Leiu^ ni 110 It), shot l'>3, i«li<iU lt^-75, mud itegiutiit slicll ll^Sincbes. 



I ^ 



ft in. 
10 



10 



70 



MS 



] 3i^| 



10 oat. 



113 



73 



9 UnvLch luiKkr 



74 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



1 5 To ascertain in tlie Royal Navy if there is any [ AMMUNITION 

dampness in ibe powder magazine the gunnt-r is ins true Jed to placv iu , 
it a piece of sponge wbicli has been dipped in a soluliati of salt atul viiilcr, j 
and afterwards dried ; should it become heavier the magazine is danip. 
Wet or damp cartridges are nevL'r retiirnetl to the same packages whence! 
they were taken, nor repacked xvith <lry packages; but stowed by ihcm- [ 
selves. After exercising, die sliot of any loaded gun is to be Urawn and 1 
the powder fired or started overboard. Cartridges wbicii have been ID'] 
the guns are never returned to the magazine, as they have been fmind tai 
contain detonating powder ironi broken tubes left in ibc guns at previouftl 
exercises. Gun metal adzes when f^lruclc against tlsc copper hoops cifi 
powder barrels are always to be used with a wooden setter, as otherwise [ 
i^lrong sparks of Ore may be produced* Powder cases or barrel » are never 
to be repaired with iron or copper nails. 

16 The Horse Guards, December 14th, 1855, strictly enjoin the] 
avoidance of iron hoops or iron nail;^ in the beading up of cartridge I 
barrels, or the presence of iron or grit .iniong the percussion capSf j 
cartridges, or loose powder, if any should uecumnhiie from bioken] 
cartridges taken ont of the men's pouches; also the use of iron naib in] 
fastening on cards of address* 



1 7 ANNATTOj or arnolto, a species of red dye, formed of the polpl 
enveloping tlie seeds of the Bixa OrellunEi, a South American and East f 
and West Indian ]dant. Commercial annatto is in two forms, flag and 
roll; the Hag is pa<ked in casks in pickle; the roll is in small baskets. 
It \h made up at Cayenne in square cakes, 2 to 3tb. each, wrapped in 
banana kaves ; Brazilian is in rolls of 2 or 3 ounces each. Bombay too 1 
60 cubic feet. A case nearly 2Jcwt. Hamburg tare 18 p- cent. 

18 ANTIMONV^, a metal sbippeJ principally at Singapore; it i«r^ 
imported in tlie shape of ore, aud commonly as biillast. By some it is 
termt;d the ore of crude regulus, which is conveyed in bnlk and in en^^k* 
Specific gravity regulus 6*720, sulphuret 4'51>0. 

19 APPLES. In the United States^ barrels of, are first perforatctl | 
with boles for the admission of air, and also for the purpose of letting out 
water, iu the event of the barrels getting wet; they are then stowed be* 
iween decks, as near the hatches as possible, for the benefit of veniilatioiip 
bilge and ctitline^ vvllh chocks between, to prevent them from working at j 
tea. For conveyance to Liverpool they are frequeuily stowed on deck. 
Apples are greatly injured by the fumes from petroleum; see that article. 
In the United Stales a bushel of dried apples is considered to weigh 22 ib» j 
In Jersey a cabot i^ 3Htb; 13tt), local 14 tb. English* 



>N stowaI 



75 



A RANG OES» pierced beads ofrough eamelian, of various shapes 
ri|«Alitic8, formerly imported in considerable qimutities from Borabajj 
for rcHOcpurtaiioD to Africa; the host are barrel-shaped and from two i 
three inches hmg. A ton for freight 20 cwt. 

i "21 AREKA NUT. The areka palm is the Jrela Catechu of* 

lliotanists; ii is a palm of elegant groirtli, rising with a very erect and 

^miill intern la the height of 40 or even 60 feet, the sunfimit terminating in 

a lufi of dark green foliage ; the circumference of the trunk is seldom more 

iban I) to 2 feet, when of early growth it is dark green, and when old of 

ndjirk grey color; tJic cin-les formed by the clasping peltoles of the fronds 

'being rery visible upon it: the tree bears fruit only once during the year, 

at which period the tree, with its long branches of orange oval-shaped 

fniily peudenl from the upper part of the trunk, contrasted by the dark- 

tgrorn foliage, has a beautiful appearance. The fruit grows in long pen- 

us cluster** each about the size of a hniall hen's egg; tlie external 

ring is thick fibrmis, covered by an orange-colored epidermis; and 

Tjick (ibrous husk being cleared away, the nut is discovered tsur- 

Ihy its own immediate epidermis, which often proves diilicult of 

r^!tniaTftL Tlie nui is conical, but varies in some, having an elevated apex 

rand 90)61) base, and others a large base and very sh*ghtly elevated apex. 

itl Utile principal export from Pedir, and when new will lose eight to ten 

er cent, duiing a passage to China, where it is used in large quantities 

I s tnaslicatory, especially in Canton, Quangsi, and Che Keang. May, 

rJene^ and July nrc the months fur collecting the nuts, A cargo generates 

mach heat as to raise the tlierrnometcr iu t!ie hold 40'' above that on 

e deck ; and from this clrcunislaucc, and the quantity of heat generated, 

[the crew are prevented from sleeping between decks. The heat is said 

la lie io ejteeesive that the caq>euter of a ship, when desirous of bending 

some wood, placed it nnder the main hatch, among the nuts; in a few 

it was jjuflicieuily strained for its intended purpose. After a 

I or three weeks the heat is materially moderated. The areka 

JKini a^ produced in the island of Sumatra. In commerce this fruit is 

jinconrectly called betel nut. Many writers consider it the fruit of the 

[pipirr betel orbeitl vine, ihe leaves of which ore u&ed with the areka nut 

[it* ^ ■ "O' 5 ^**>^ *^* *'*^ whole are mixed together, and eaten by the 

fnmr. . lilutcs what h called *' chewing the betel*' by Ewropeaus^ — 

ticnce the commercial application. 

22 ARROW ROOT h a native of South America, but has long 

.been introduced to the East and West Indies. At Bermuda the harvest 

\ m KaTrmber and December ; the ports arc St» George's and Unmilton, 

i die chief f^eason of hhij)ment is iu January, February, and March* 

\ mixes of the packages are variable and arbitrary j boxes 1 foot long 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



by 6 inches broad and 6 iiiclies deep, contain 6lb; [ARROW ROOTi 
and IGincbcB by H inches and 8 inches, UHh; a box made to hold 4ib.! 
measures inmle 10 inches by 6 inches and 3 inches; easks vary rToml 
20n>. to 100 tb; liulf-harrels ctmhnnin^ about H01b.net are much medu 
the average weight of boxes is 8 tb. and of casks 30 \h. The tare on 6tt*J 
boxes is 1 tb. 5J ounces. The weight relatively is n'^arly the same ail 
wheaten flour* Jamaica arrow root is considered inferior to that fromf 
Bermuda. It mast he Iccpt perfectly dry ; the least damp will run through j 
and spoil the wliole contents of a box. Exporters prefer the *raidsbi{li 1 
for stowage. Bermuda arrow root is freighted at per Hj ; a ton in cases] 
at Bengal^ Madras, and Bombay i» 60 cubic feet. It is more properlyl 
called aiTce root. 

23 ARSENIC is imported principally from Saxony and Bohemia; 
specific gravity sulphuric h84t>, white 3*700. British casks weigh 3i (J;| 
3i cwt, gross ; tare 23 @ 28 lb. Bombay ton 2Dcwt* 

24 ASHES. Bone Ashes from the River Plate and the Brazils! 
are dunnaged with bones, covered with hides; they should be sbippeql 
perfectly dry, to prevent spontaneous comlmstion. Pearl and pot uuhcS 
arc also injaied by wateij and when wet will damage manufactured goads;! 
dunnage 9 inches in the bottom and bilge, 2| inches against the Bides T 
see thi! articles charcoal and hides. 

Tonnage. <^fJ cmh^ of penrl and pot ashes, weifjhing Ifi ton, will occup 
850 feel or 1 keel. 20 cwt. potasbes go to a ton at New York. When whe 
is 1*. ^ quarter freight, ashea are rated nt l*/il(/. ^j* cask. Baltic ashes recetrtl 
two-thirfls tbe freight of clean berap, on the gross weight. A cask of Americaa 
weigba from SJ @ 5 cwt ; St, Petersburg cask 10 cwt ; a barrel of potasUaa^ 
200 tb; 12 barrels make a last 

25 ASPIIALTE at Trinitlad, runs from an inland lake to the 8«a 
and at low water is dug up from the beach with pickaxee. Pilch is 
extracted from it. The cargo oi the first vessel amalgamated when 
crossing the line ; she was long on one tack, and the asphalte settle 
imperceptibly. The brig MignotieUe^ of 1 8*2 ton register, loaded 250 ton 
Trinidad asplmlte, when she was nearly two-thirds full* In her ease span 
were laid alhwartyhips, planks laid against them, and a quantity 
branch-wood^ 5 or 6 feet long, was fixed to the planks, and well whileJ 
washed to jjrevent slieking. She had also fore and aft sihlfting hoards,1 
rising 4 feet from the aorface, to keep the cargo from shifting. The brig 
arrived safely at Havre ; the aspbalte was dng out of the hold with diffi^ 
ctilty* With 250 Ion Patagonian guano she was two-thirds full, 

26 ASSAFGCTIDA is the concrete juice of the Ferula AuafcrtU 
» U-ee which grows in Persia, It is packed in boxes 36 X 20 X 20 incheSj 



Stevens oJ^ stowage. 



77 



L»tiUttiing aboui 4cvsi, and in baskets 28lb, and is [ASSAF<ETIDA 
ittctAlly uliijipod at Bombay. Assafodldii mu^t bo stowed cleiir of all edibles 
^in lb«1it>lil» which requires complete parificiUion before raosl other cargoes 
received. Vessels exclusively cmjdoyed to carry ibis drug, are 80 
cnu*d with the odour that ihey spoil most other goods. A ton at Cal- 
cutta &ud Madras 20cvvt; ai Bombay 50 cubic feet. 

27 AVERAGE, Genkral. A general average is that whicli has 
n so&laincd by the sacrifice of some part of the ship or cargo, for the 

ly or |>reservation of the whole j and this loss is made good to the 

on whom il falls^ by an average conlribnlion upon all, tej mod a 

^teormU gross, or extraordinary contributionj upon tlie amount of the ship, 

eargOt and freight. This rule has been adopted in all modern systems 

f mftntirnc jurispnidence, from the famous Rhodian law, "Concerning 

T^- -' :r overboard^ by which it is provided, that **'ir, for the sake of 

ig the ship, a tlirowing o%*erboard of the merchandize ba made, 

Imu u given for all, must be made good by the contribution of nlL*' 

m Average Clause in Marine Policies of Insurance is as follows : — 

Corti^ fifth, lalt, seed, flour, and fruit are warranted free from average, 

inlets general, or the ship be sitranded ; sugar, tobacco, hemp, fiax, hides, 

and ftkios are warranted free from average under o ^^cent, unless general, 

or tlie slijp be stranded; and all other goods, also the ship and freight, 

EHJ warranted free from average under 3 1> cent, unless general, or 

# Mp be stranded." There is sometimes a variation in these per 

28 BACON should be kept as dry and cool as possible, and not 
lowed near dry goods, which it will injure. Hams and bacon for the 

" m colonies are stitched up separately in coarse sacking, and 

I n the top of the cargo. Hams are often put in cases with oats to 

M up, and sometimes in dry lime, which is said to preserve them most 

iflectttiiUy. The freight of Irish bacon in bales is reckoned on the gross 

fiishC which is gcincrally stamped on the tallies attiichcd to each hale. 

^ ' 1J^64, the brig liiUow took in bacon at New York for Cork; 

lor, !>7 X 2ai X 13 fcL-u The cases of bacon, 400 tu 800 Tb. 

*r only 2(JG ton ; the master expected they would have weighed 

* ♦ *w,i ,*^n. Her cargo of Newport gteam coal, screened once, was 

Ion, and space was then left for 20 ton additional ; draught 13 feet 

[|* 1^1 forward. In computing the freight of hams at Baltimore 200 tb, 

*ei wdglit, arc considered equal to a barrel of 5 cubic feet, Iri&h bacon 

b DPnaUy in balce 3cwt, net; American boxes about the same. 

S9 BAU*i GOODS should be slung wlicn hoisted in or out, and ] 






78 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



in noidships, and on tiieir edge^ in the wings, excvpling [BALE &00D8 
the fTiouHcl tier, and dUould never be placed near sand ballasi, or near 
any damp goods, IVIancliester bales, wben screwed in bydratilic presses, 
are lightly- fastened witli iron bands ri vetted togetlier; unless ibere are 
boUens or ibin splints of wood inside ibe bands, those pans between 
lb em swell out ini mediately the bale is relieved from the press, and 
are very liable lo be injured by ebafe. When a ship rolls from side 
aide, especially in boisterous weather, there is apparently a cons 
cflbrt of the dcclis and beams to regain a horizonlnl jjosition, and ihiT 
doors» internal framework, panelling, and balkbeads, give evidence of 
this eflbrt by croaking and sliding up and down every time ibe ship 
inclines. Similar movements prevail in ibe hold, and with the addition 
of those caused by pitching and tossing, the cargo is sometimes chafed. 
Unprotected bales are oficn injured, and then become a fruitful subject 
of dispute between the supercargo and consignee; they should thcrcfoje 
be well blocked oif and firmly chocked. It is, however, desirable tbtit 
bales intended f<)r lonjjj voyages should have chafing pieces, or be other- 
wise protected from these iiuavoidable camialties* Bales without chafing 
pieces should be so noted in the bill of lading. Careless stevedores, 
when handling uncorded bales, will whip the ends of cotton hooks into 
and greatly injure them ; at Syra, half the freight is deducted for bal« 
which are chafed or torn by books. Bales for Lagos and Accra 
eased in oilskin or gutta perclm, lo prevent injury by water* tbrougi 
which they are juillcd a long distance^ in consetpience of the shoalnea 
of the coasL 

30 A city merchant of some experience in the export trade lo tbd 
Cape of Good Hope, says (5th December, 1866), we had two cases < 
long cloth lined with oilcloth pur Mkilothiaii in 1861 which were damim;c4 
by sea water; &ince then our shipments have been almost exclusively by 
the mail steamers, and scarcely any damage has occurred. 1 have been 
twice out to the Cape diiri ug the time, and have seen the goods opened 
having taken some tronble U> get ours out in good condition. Limn| 
cases with oilclotli is a delusion ; it does nothing that stout brown pap 
would not do, and F never opened a moderate-sized case without finding 
the oilclolh at the corners like a sieve or in holes. We use tarpaulil 
as a lining for very low goods, but all fine goods, excepting the very loti 
qualities, slumld be In zinc or tin, and bale goods in double tarpaulin 
with painted hoops. From what I have seen in the coh>nies, I Ormlj 
believe that quantities of goods sold on account of the underwriters arsi 
not damaged by sea water, but by being packed damp, or rather not i 
dry as ihcy should be, especially moleskin, cords, and boots. In conJ 
firmation of the latter statement a Plymouth draper of great experienced 
•ays that fustians and gloves placed even in a perfectly dry room baU 



STRt^ENS OJr STOWAGE. 



79 



epi d^iie fcr ux iyec«lc«« will genemte dmtipnesa and [BALE GOODS 
eci>liie *poUc<l and greatly deteriorateJ in value. 

31 Cotloti, heuip, and olhcr screwed and pressed bales, nre mea- 
sured il Bomhtty tm follows : the greatest lengilj is lirst ascertained* 

hen tliv bale is set r>n end, and cross measure men is are iaken ut top, 
prrr ibc Irtshinsjs, exceplinr^' t!ie knots; an average of 100 bales \s struck, 
py OKcertaining the actiiiil measurement uf any ten bitles, and propor- 
iiim;t11>' — ^llie shipper measuring one half and the commander or ship's 
ent ihr other half, of ihc aforesaid quantity; the bales to be measured 
* wharf or biinder» prior to shipment, if required, weather permitting, 
^mcide of mtasurlng balenat Madras, as determined by the Chamber 
prConimerei?, follows llie Tonnage Scale for India at the commencement 
^r tills work. 

Tonnage;. An bale goods and all measurement goods are reckoned ^10 

i to tho toil freight; if the weight exceeds the measurement, iiO cwt, 

1. Hales, packages, and cases, not weigliiog more than l^i cwt. to 

ibiu Ion meastuement, are designated bh lisjlit freight. At Bombay 50 

I fj?ft K^y l^ a ton; tit New York and Bullimore 40 feet of bale goods, of 

32 ii Al.l.i\ST isaquantiiy of iron, 8tone» or ^avel, or some similar 
tialeriiil, dtpusiied in the hold n hen there is no cargo or loo little to bring 
iie «hip snllicirntly low in the walcr. It is used to counterbalance the 

ft of the wind upon the »ailsj and give the ship a proper stability, 

iihc may be enabled to caiTy sail without danger uf oversetting, 

-There is no specific rule for the quantily required ; as a general 

half liie chip's tonnage, builder's mcasuremeni; see the lurticle 

■• Never lake sand where stone is to be obtained ; but if compelled 

ItJte il, adopt every means to prevent its entering the limbers or 

lyampii, by proU*ciiug ihum with pitched canvas, mautng, &c. and by 

ili '^eiling, or covering it with old mats or sails* Some masters 

J^y n «y each side the keelson, to allow the water to run freely to 

be pmiip-well. When sand is shipped wet, allowance must be made for 

BsgL% by bringing the vessel well down ; a cubic foot of wet sand 

Il8tb, of dry B8*6; specific gravities 1'9 and l'4*2. To avoid 

'*f ballast, or even of coal, especially in ftharji-buiU ships, 

Lther is expected, the hold is sometimes fitted witli ballasit 

[icbtons and boardn. The lower ends of the sUinchioiis are set in at 

be kevlftcm, and the upper laahed to the beam, a few feet from the side; 

(i« or ••ix on ciich side, with phmks tnBhed or nailed fore and aft to the 

ebiont, I'2 to i>^ inches Hpari ; ihe bajlasl is thus divided info three 

kifus which prevents the poasihiliiy of f»hifting; the s^iuitehtons for a 

kip of 900 ton ahould be about finches. The use of (kt woud tstan- 

i, Ai wide a» the beam^ may answer the same purpose, and leave 



rw 



STEVENS ON ?iTOWAGE. 



more space for stowage. Sand or damp grnvel should be [BALLAST 
covered with boartls to receive bale goods ; tbe dampness from sand will 
injure sugars or other similar goodn in boxes, stowed on hed^, in con- j 
sequence of ihe settlement of ihe beds; it will reach and inevitably | 
spoil lucifer matcbes, although stowed at a distance from it, and it staitts J 
the exterior of cases and casks — the hoops of w^hich are oxydizcd by UJ 
With sand ballast or any similar aniclc liable to saturalionj loo much] 
reliance sbould not be placed on the apparent quantity of leakage] 
indicated by tbe stiunding rod. 

34 It bas been suggested by Mr. IfATWAitD, Lt.oyds' Agent alJ 
Madeira, that whem pumps become choked with sand ballast at sea tbe 
should be taken up and closed at foot, and tbat an aperture should be^ 
made at a convenient distance above, so as Ui draw tbe leakage off free! 
from sand, which, througb ils specific gravity, is always most trouhlcsotnel 
in ibe bottom. Capt* Braithwatte nf the Mmitlkie^ tnidc in 100 ton oCj 
sand ballast w^hen he left Hull in Dicemher, 1860, and liaving encoiin-, 
tercd beavy vvcathfr, with much pumping^ had not more tlian GO or 65 tonl 
left on arrival in Wingoe Sountl, Xvinvay. lie utivibutes ibc safety of 
his sbi|i to the licigbt of her keelson, wbich [Mvvenled ibe sand fron 
silting 1o leeward; and he determined next lime lo put 40 ion of stoh^ 
or rubbish under tbe sand ballast. 

35 In eorac Colonial and other ports sand only is to be bad ; ami 
when in tbe tropics^ it becomes -so dr}^ tbat it is oflen driven into ami 
ihroa gh tbe bale sacking, by the force of the wind, as the vessel roll 
mucb to the injury of tlie contents; it is also liable, in this state, 10 
render the cargo quite unsafe, from tbe rolling and shifting wbich ensiipsj 
it may become necessary to make the sand more solid, by wetting it 
Copper dross is sometimes used, its wciglit is advantageous, but it slaini 
the cargo unless covered witb plank; shingle or lead is better; tlii 
common bubr stone answers tbe double purpose of ballast and dnnnagd 
Otber kinds of ballast arc mcnttoncd in connection witb the variou 
articles of fieigbt. Wben a ship has a cargo uf ligbt goods, such 

ABMlHALfT PmS OF IBON BALLAST. 



No. to 
ban 


Leiigtli 


BivtutOi 


Depth 


Wf-lghl 




IV la. 


ft. in. 


a. in. 


cwt. 


%■ 


lb. 


7 


ft 


6 


c 


% 


13 


9 


2 5 


ti 


6 


2 





24 


11 


3 a 


t) 


6 


I 


3 


7 


16 


1 fi 


n fi 


41 


I 





12 


18 


1 6 


6 


44 








20 


1 5 


5| 


41 


1 








ai 


2 a 


'i 


4 




s 


22 


1 ^ 


1 


4 


4 









STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



61 



lb, tii«4der», cork. &c» atici site is ballasled wiih heavy [BALLAST 

t'h, the freight of die latter is iisually only nne-tbird of the rate pay- 

Wc on « full carjjfo of the like descripuon t*f goods. At Amsierduiii a 

laf bulloAl iff 'i,CKR)Ib» At Mtidrus u load consists of I20ba!iket9 of 

■ding to a fixed priccp at the average of 31 farmms, 12 of which 

>ce. 

M BALSAM COPIVI or Copaiba, a yellowish medicinal slima* 
at nil^ phtaiiicd from the Cupui/ffa Officinnlis and other species in 
epical climates; it should he ki*[}t apart from all dry goods, which are 
Ah to he ittjared both by its re^inouii rjualities and through the oflbntiive 
[iiitr mill which it impregnates them. It is injported in casks from 
%u 4 cirU each. 

37 BAMBOO REEDS are usually in bundles 10 to 15 feet long* 
!rtt(liifig oa au average about 2i}th. 3,000 or 16 ct^t. go to a ton at 
lomboy. 

W BARILLA is an alkali obtained by the combos lion of sea weeds, 
ritjsli barilla is tlic crude soda-ash produced from common salt in the 
'»f soda njunufactorios. It should have firm dunna^^e, such as 
. &c, say 9 inches in the bilge and 6 in the flat. Brushwood 
lA are sometimes usi?d in Sicily and Spain, but they get com- 
by thi* continued weight of the cargo, and endanger the safety 
«hip. Barilla nhould he heaped up townrd^ ihc hatches; a full 
lot be carried — say a Utile over three-hnirlhs. When wine is 
in the tame ship it should, being lighter, go In the ends, and 
IB b«ritla In ibe main bold. Bengal, Madras, and Bombay ton 120 cwt, 

W BARK sbould be dnnnaged about 6 inches at the keel, and 10 

I bilge, ttbnrp vessels less in the bilge ; it must be well rolled di)\vn, 

I tefi»el can lako her tonnage of hark. Peruvian hark is in small 

t i>r abuut 1 121b. each, well packed in dry hides, and sewn together 

pffully; in this condition it is bought on the coast at K» dollars per 

null and after being man ufnc lured into quinine in England, is sold 

" '^ there at about H>» tf> ounce* Peruvian bark is very deli* 

I r J great care ; the least wet on one side of a bale runs through 

hhU the contents. It is seldom stowed in the Inwer hold, being 

Irred a *nrccn deck cargo, and reipiires to be well ilunnnged in the 

fvtgn, atiil ought not to be placed near the masts, chain lockers, or pump 

J* Wbon shipped at Adelaide in bags or bales, jjermission should 

Igivi-n on tbi- bill of lading, lo rut the packages, or the ship will be 

to make up to a jjn-at extent the U>ss by weight, if any, atid tho 

if it iirisi':^ frino thf huik Im^Ioi^ CUl loose. 



82 



STEVENS ON STOWAOE. 



40 Tlie liarque Fugitive, 471 ton, Capt, W. R, Barwood, [BAEK 

LeloTiging to Messrs. 1\ B. Walker & Co, of St, Ilf^leii's Place, Londan* . 
left Launceston, Tasmania, *iOdi March, 1^67, with a cargo including 

220 Ton mimoafl and ffil?er waiUe bark 
150 Ton wheat (1,240 stasia) 
l,tK)5 BllIgs wool, luid gimdrieB. 

Her ballast, 60 ion of dry ironstone shipped at Launceston, was nsedl 
as dunnage covered with wnad, say in the bottom 12 inches, bilges 16,1 
and sides 3 to 4 inches. A tier of hags of bark (heinij less perishabk 
and not liable lo be attacked by vermin,) was spread all over ibe floofl 
dunnage to receive the sacks of wheat, whieh were protecunl in a &imi]iir1 
manner by the b»rk, wherever necessary. Wool in the ends of the vessel! 
and the 'tween decks, 8o laden she drew 15 feet furc and aft^ and oit| 
arrival in London, 20lb June, two inches less by the bow; with a dead- 
weight cargo of iron, kc. 16 feet aft, and 15 feet 9 inches forward ; her btf 
trim nl sea is say 14 feet aft imd 13 feel 9 inches forward. The bark wa 
moslly packed in large-sized corn sacks, or sacks of ibe same material,; 
weighing 31b. each ; the mimosa when filled, I MO to 2tM^^h; silver watlla 
15 to 20 1> cent, less; ineasnrement say 8 cubic feel. From U to 13 oQ 
these weighed a ton (20cwt.) accordinj^ to the fineness of tlie grinding 
there being considerable dilTerenee in the working of the mills; varying 
from mere dust to small pieces of two and four inches. After being 
rammed into iheir places the bags were rolled down by a cask 6Ile(}| 
with water, the bung being well secured with sheet lead. The seasoii of 
shipment is from November to March. Bolh barks are used in England 
for ttinning and occasionally for dying; sometimes tliey are mixed will 
oak bark; occasionally both are termed mimosa; mimosa is sometimefl 
called black wattle. Tlfis bark is liahle to injury from sea water, or by 
contact with oil or with moist goods* As in all other Tasmanian por 
the bales of wool were hydraulically pressed and iron banded ; tbey 
averaged 58 X 28 X 28 inches, and weiglied 300 Mj; say (^ to the ton J 
freight @ P tb. Capt. Baiiwood states that a measured bushel of Ta 
maniatt wheat, which is equal in quality to any grown, will weigh f>3t 
The sacks in bis cargo, which contained ibree and a half bushels, weighej 
2131b. gross; freighted (Sm^ bushel of 60 lb. The port charges of ll 
f'ugitive were, inwards £3 1 8s, W, outwards £18 lU,?; pilotage it 
£23 lb, out £23 lU'. The river Tamar can seldom be navigated 
without the assistance of a steam tug, which in tliis ease* cost £56 
for lowing both ways, but that is not always necessary. 

Tonnage, lo ton tree bark, or 8 ton coppice, will occupy 850 cub, ( 
or 1 keel. In the East Indies the ton is Hcwt When Mediterranean 
wbeat is freighted at \s }^ qr, bark of oak is rated at 9s 9</ ^ ton of '20 cw^ 



STEVENS ON STOWAGR. 



&a 



BDCLLIUM, a gum resin, semi-pellucid, and of a yellowish 
[or dark brr>wn colour, sometbing like myrrb in appearance, inter- 
eleur, ttud i?oioewbat resembling glne. It is produced in Persiai 
&t}i«, and India. Bomhaj ton 50 cubic feet, 

49 BEAM FILLINGS, To slow these properly is one of the most 
Ipnrtant duiies of o Btevt-dore, When the cargo reaches from the ceiling 
li> ih«* hidd heiims, it becomes necessary, with most dL-scriplioBS of 
If^ t0 alter the stowajije; by a little t'oresigbt, a sufficient quantity of 
llaMe articles could be retained for this purpose. The great object 
[to svoid llie loss of bulk between the beams^ and to cany the fillitigs 
i ^ough to prevent the upper cargo from resting on them, or they 
break, and ihiis endanger the safely of the ship, especially when 
' ill heavy weather; two inches is considered sufficient for timber^ 
E|;oods, not so compact^ will reqnire a greater height ; the forecastle 
i ami the Imlf-dcck should not be overloaded with heavy goods. 

43 6KES' WAX is made up at Sierra Leone, in packages of 
i<Mi» listf*, ofif n in return cases. In Sydney, Adelaide, and Tasmania, 
! ill irrei>nbr cakes, and is usually packed in cases about two feet by 
lining Icwt. each; shipnieTittj occur rdl tlie year round, 
^ pcd from Zanzibar i^ usually run into empty beer hogs- 
•» liavitig been melted, skimmed, and purified. Being brought 
11^ in n very dirty state from the mainland and Madagascar, the 
sate Hhuuld be careful to M-e that each cask h well coopered before 
[iitowed^ and tliat flat-headed scup[»er nails sbould be driven in close 
llbe out«r edge of each hoop as the cask lies on its bilge — two nails at 
: li> e^eh hoop. The casks are likely to shrink when the heated wax 
* in, and hoops will dc»nscquently drop off, and the package fall 
, iinlrss some precaution it? observed. Bees* wax should be 
in a iJry part of the *hip^ not over water or any other lirjuid, 
F^ravity i>yCi4. Madras ton 20 cwt, Bombay 50 cubic feet in cases, 
r« Vorlc 40 cubic feet. Baltic bees* wax in mats receives two-thirds 
(of rjcan Iiemp pcfton of 63 poods gross; in casks the full freight. 

BKTRIL NrT. Bclcl or paum, as it is denominated in Benj^ul, 
> of pari of the fruit of the areka ptdm, (see areka nm) wrapped 
I ltf*»rft of a kind uf pepper plant culled betel, t^mearcd with a littJe 
[iiii4?, whence its name betel nut is derived. It is imich used in 
rEast, aoi) la generally packed there in gunny bags containing 1 INI lb. 
jl ; to iMjmc parts *20 of these go to a ton. It should not be stowed 
I M or waller. A ship look a quantity into her main hold, and covered 
with plank floniing; she then went to a second port in the East 
lldies, atid Lilaced bales on the planks- Although the nuts were per- 



84 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



fectly dry when shipped, a vapnur aiose, settled ugainsi [BETEL Nl 
tbe under side t>f Uie hold deck, and fell in drops on tbe bale guudb^ which J 
were rotteu and worthless iit tbe eud of the voyage. On the P^dir COA 
ibe rhief exports are in May, June, July, and part of August. 

Tonnage. Bengal anti Madras tnii iHevvt, Bombaj ton lOcwt^ in bagiuj 
At Pedir, in Sunjtttra, betel njits are sold by tlie laxar about 168 tb. or 10»0 
nuts, to which 10 @ 25 (i^ceut. are tidded for those worm-eaten or damaged. 

4*5 BILLS OF LADING* Before signing read ihem, and if iq 
Great Britain, see that they are stamped (fur signing an unstamped ona] 
a toaster is liable to a penalty of £5U); never sign unless the goods i 
on boardj or the hill of lading will be void. Wliere a fnate*s receipt bMl 
been given, have it returned proviottsly. It is the duty of tbe muster i 
mate to enter in the car^o book a correct account of all gouds receivedj 
and see that the bills of lading are in accordance therewjtlj. When it i 
not possible to know weight, quantiiy, quaiiiy, &c. of goods receivedJ 



FOR 
Fretghta in general . . « 
PeiiiiliBbtc artioleA * . . 



Goods in bod order or appArently so .... 

0ood» received at a redaoed rate ks dun- 
Mge 

lawln 

rAaiiinbGr of piec^^a, in balefl. of mAnufwH 

tnred goodH^ linen, yam» hftrdwarcT &c. 

Bi&rs of irau, baleB of hcmp« Hax, luid other 

pdclcagea ...,,..... 

Iron boopt, pots, o«mp otohs, d^c 

Henvy goods, ancb aa lend, iron, tin, Sao, 

I^oakoge goodB, molaiin^s^ tar, turpentine, 
&e. .,...« , 

Wines, spirits, and liqtdda 

Xf tbe nnmber of gnUona are expressed in 
tbebiU 

Bottled gooda 

Barihenw&re and glaKs 

Shoep* cattle, horAosT Sl-ti^ ....*.* 

In harbonra of New Zeslund, Nutal, Tftble 
Bay, or any other open bay , nspecially In 
Ibe tiolonies, unless eitra frM^^M be paid 



SAY 
Weight and quantity nnlakown 
Not df^coiintabk for lofl« by natural t 

of thf] artidco; fr^MJfht lu be paid iowt 

articles, aliipped 

In bod order or apparently damaged 
Shipped as dunnage 

Quantity and quafity unknown 
Ntunber of pieoea and cout«nta i 

Conientm unknown, or weight aud cottU 
unknown, igid " (liree bandies of btmfi 
in diRpuic, if on lioord to be dellTerid^ 

Not accountable for rust 

Weight unknown 

Not Account able for leakage aa waXX i 
qmdityt quivutity and contents onkocmu. 
freight to Le paid on quantity siiitif«j| 

Quality, quantity, and contents i 
and not accountable for leakage 

Number of gallons and contents t 
and not accountable for leakag* 

Contents unknown, and not aceoimti 
for leakage and breakage 

Not acconn table for breakage 

Not accounlablo for aectdeuts dt i 

To be taken from chip's tackles at tlM l 
and ©xpeniie of tbe eonaignee 



Ordinarily all bills of ladings except for specie and bullion, have 

^ords "weight and contents unliiiown" inaeited in thenj. 



J?f;Kf°8^' STOWAGE, 



84 



46 Kotliing should he received ou board [BILLS OF LADING 
tin a dftiOAged state^ urtUinul a note lo Uiat t^fft^ct being insert rr] in the bill 
|©f bdiug, «imI n. leilcr af indcninily Irum tbe shipper. It is no answer 
I to MV iW X«ods ure in the same order as when received on board. Shippers 

i«»ni allow th«^ w<trtl» "in bad order** lo be inserted, and they are 

i^it of no protectiun lo tbe master. A letter of indemnity leaves 

iliu rvfiiedy against tbe charterer only, and not against the consignee. 

fTTw! brsi way h, if possible, to refuse all goods in bad orden Bales without 

li«(iti{; pirees should be $o noted on tbe bill of lading. Where from its 

. ?iipccinJ uirmorandnm on a bill of lading, requires lo be placed on 

ur back, it should be endorssed by all parties concerned. Wiien 

gooiis are to be carried on deck it should be stated on tbe bill of lading, 

.to 9» U^ frrc the owners from reuponsibility in case of damage or jettison ; 

IIKsie the case Mbllor t^. Chapple^ in tbe article cotton. The master's 

' of lb€ bill of lading 4>ugliL to be signed by the shipper, :ind receipted 

bjT the warcUou^ekccper, or person authorized to receive the contents, ou 

[lite delivery of the goods. Obtain written receipts for all goods delivered ; 

dcliiery. 

47 A master can demand to see the contents of a case^ &c. if he 
rets that it is damaged, or that it contains any unlawful or dangerous 
le, 9£ gunpowder^ &c ; ace damaged goods and dangerous gooda. 

Tot Kills of lading for acids see tbe article acids^ and ftir gold dust, 
^predoQft stonf8,&c, tbe letter G; an Exchequer decision refencil (o there 
ts rnlilled lo the consideration of masters, as, under certain circum- 
ilAi irw8 legal exemption (rotn liability on other freights bcisides 

|pl ] _ 1 ao the article cochineal. 

48 if not in op|jOHiiion to the custom of the portj or where it can be 
^ •i>aTTAngcdt when gor>ds are conveyed by boat, let ibcm be at tbe shipper's 

ri*ic until iboy arc on board; and when a vessel is discliarged in a river, 

r bay, endeavour to let tliem be at bis risk aftrr going uvur tbe 

If goodn arc conveyed by Ughteri li't ihem be bn Might to 

aoil uien from alongside at the ri»k of the shipper at port of loading, 

snil al the ri«k of connif^nee at port of discharge. 

49 Ma*tiiTi« should not sign bilU of lading which do not specify 
ie i on th<? face, or refer lo tlie rate as '^ per charier party.*' 

lie of freight haw been inserted in tbe bill of lading than 
foo ihe chitrtcr party and the merchant has become bankrupt, ad interim, 
|i«^tiieol of ti»e lesser rate only could be slopped before delivery, and the 
w^mn^T bad lo apply for his balance, like a general creditor, on the bank* 
H tate. It is dcKirnble lo insert as follows ^'alL the conditions of the 

^^^Lrii-^- i'arty >ball be obligatory ou the bolder of tbe bill of lading/* 
I^^IBfO A mAi»t4fr is not jusii|ed in refusing to sign a bill of lading 
^^^Mie lli« cmrgo Ui general), simply because the number of lay days is 

Bmi— r ■ 




8d 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



not named therein. If, wuliniit sulTjcieiu cause, [BILLS OF LADIKG 
a master refuses to sig^ii a bill of lading before proceediug to sea, any 
proved loss to tfie owner, or his agent, will fall on tlie slnp. 

51 The Bill of Lading is the receipt of the master for the goods] 
Bhipped on board* and his undertaking- to deliver them at the port ufl 
discharge ; bt^ing transferable by endorsement, from one [lersou to anoibcri f 
It is essential that tlie master should be sattstied who i:^ the possesssor ofl 
the bill of lading before he delivers the goods represented bjiL On ihef 
faith of the master's signature, the purchaser of the goods is induced tol 
pay for them before they arrive at iheir destined port. The master orj 
oimer is responsible fur the due perfornianee of the bill o( lading. 

62 Al St. Petersburg it is necessary that Bills of Lading shonldl 
specify the weight, measure, or quantity of each package of all goods, tirj 
they pay double duty as a fine. If more is found than speeiheU, iheJ 
surplus is confiscated; if less* ihe duly must be paid on the quantity! 
specified. Of wine, it is not sufficient lo stale the number of pipes or] 
hoijjsbeads only, but also their contents in gallons, &c. Of lemons, the] 
number in each box. Of nianufaetiired goods, the measure of each piece*! 
and the number of jiieces in each bale. It is indiJferent whether the grossl 
or net weight is specified. If the ])uckages are all of the same weiglili 
measure, or contents, a general sj^ecification will do; as, for example^l 
one hundred casks of alum, of 17 lispounds each. Of dye-woods, iboj 
weight of the whole need only be mentioned. Of g4iods of small bulkvj 
as pefqier, &c. it is sulhcieia to iitate the weight of every five or ten bales,! 
but with specification of the numbers. There must not be any erasures] 
or bhiis oh the bill of lading* All goods not accompanied by thesel 
documents, or where the documents are not according to the above regu^ 
lations, will be sent back. 

5.3 The Bombay Chamber of Commerce has found it necessary tal 
condemn the practice frequenily adopted there, of procuring signatures] 
to hi! lb of lading before the goods are shipped, 

54 At Singapore, in 1SI>6, a very importnnl decision was arrived at;] 
a bill of lading had been signed in England for ** 83 ton sieam cool' 
" freight payable at the rate of 25s {^ tun of 20 cwt. in full, less 5 ^ceni. 
for loss in weight;" in the tnargin the amount of freight was calculated 
thus, '*£103 I6s, less 5 ^ cent. (£5 3 9) £m lis 3d:* At foot ihej 
masterj while signing had written, ** not accountable for weight/* Oii| 
arriving, the coal was weighed from the ship's side, and Ibund lo be onljl 
76 ton 11 cwt, and the consignee refused to pay freight on a larger] 
quantity. On the part of the ship, it was contended that the terms of J 
the bill of lading amounted to a special agreement, tliat whatever the 
coal turned ont^-over or under the specified quantity — freight should be! 
paid upon 83 ton, less 5 \^ ctnt. Having gone to umpirage the following 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



87 



Iwr wa* suVmitted by the abtp's arbUralort— [BILLS OF LADING 
[*Thc biU oi lailing is clraivn out Air a Bpt-cified quuntitv, but the cJaiise 
11 tht fool of ihai fiocumcnt, to the eti'ect that be was *fiot accouniable 
pr Mct^hl,' bmdb the rofistcr, I thinks to deliver only what be bas on board, 
■nd hulds htm harmless In the event of the quantity delivered proving 
phoru Tbc freight appears to be not payable upon not weight delivered 
bat, by special agreemeniH^ upon the supposed quantily shipped, less an 
lotriuice of 5 <^ cent, to cover probable loss on weight; and 1 coiisrider 
*cd$el to be entitled to ihe full amount of j£9H Hs 3</, as staled on 
iTi of the bill of biding, whether the deficiency on the out-turn 
lot, in excess of the said 5 ^ cent.'* 7 he case for the consignee 
ptii by the other side as foUows :—'* According to the bill of lading, 
ghl 19 payable as per margin on the quantity inserted in the body of 
K^docomeni* Ihe clause less decent, for loss in weif^ht, protects the 
my cipinian, to that extent from any claim for short deli very ♦ But 
ship js entitled lo receive freight uii S3 ton, less o ^ cent, it mnst 
intly be allowed that the consignee, after having paid that freight, has 
cUins iipou the »hip for any quantity that may be short delivered. This 
IT be settled by the »hip paying for the ditrerence, 3 tun 6 cwt. either at 
-r tlic origiijid co^t and freight of that quantity. The clause 
i<r mailer at the fool of tlie bill of ladiug, ' not accounialde 
rr irei^hl,' is not, t think, of any iuiportance. Freight is chiimcd by the 
Ip on to ton less C>\^ ctiiu and the consignee, on paying that freighl» 
rntitlnl lo rercive the quantity specilied, or an equivalent for short 
My/* Tb«* umpire, bef(»re giving his decision, re (erred the case, 
I ibe opinion of the two arbitrators, to the Commiliee of the 
of Commerce, and the decision was liualty given in favor of the 
Ign^, vijt: that the ship be paid freight on the quarjiiiy delivered — 
in^ tliat a sipecial agreement muH be very ditilinctly worded to 
-mlo ibc custom of tlie port. Had the Ireight been stated at the 
111 3d^ without reference to the rale per Ion, iheii the case would 
re bern different; but the staling of the rate pre-s-^ppo!>es the freight 
be in some measure guided by the quantity, and the custom of the 

ditea the rest. 

M In the United States three important cases referring to bilU of 

Iftiing* bavc been dccidcil, First : in tlu- absence of any proof on the 

of the consignee^ a^ to the condition of the good» when shipped, the 

waB held to be free from liahiliiy, as the bill of lading contained 

^liUiiA<£ " weight and contents unknown/' Colombo i% Otto, New 

r 5, lt^6G. Second : packages of goods in the form of 

I with malting, and secured wilb cords, ivere shipped 

at flAmbuf 14 lur New York ; on arrival, one package was found broken 

ilA caiiUnU damaged. It was proved that by ordinary inspection, 



pflB 



STEVENS ON STOWAGR, 



tlie damage niij^ht not have been discovered on [BILLS OF LilDING 
shipment; there was no evidence {)C condition when slapped, except ihc 
hill of ladinrr^ which Baid "weit^htand coiiients unknown," — Held ihat it 
was not sufficient to shew that the package was whole when shipped^ 
Colombo, September 15, 1^56. Third: a bill oT lading, granted for a 
specified nnmher of tons of iron, " uei^Hit unknown/' binds the owners 
to deliver only so much as is actually received on board* Shephebp t, 
Naylob, Massachuselta, March, IH56; see also the reconimendatioun 
in the article masters, 

56 BILLS OF LADING— Wool ; a comma ! C(>urt of Common Ploas 
Dccemlier 13, IBI^a. Tlip Russian Stkam Navigation Co. v. Silva.. (F\i Jwhj 
Lord Chief Justice Ehle.) This was an action against a wbarfinger in T*^nl •,- 
StroeL, for diliveTing up to the con^iiignee of certain btUes of wool, convt^yed bj 
the Go's, steamer Odfitsn^ from the Black Sea to London, the goods io qiiestian, 
without receiving payment of the freight due to the Co. and notwithsHinding 
a **stop oiTiler" hud been lodj^ed xvith bim not to part with the wool until \h» 
freight Jntd heen paid, and until he bad received idnintitTs release. The dt»- 
feneo was* that d<'ft'iidMiit did receive the fidl Freif^ht inserted iu the biU of 
Irtdiu^ hefore pnrtiug with the goods, viz: HO* \P ton of l^U ewt, gro^s weiu^lif ; 
and ttlthouj(b it might be contended that aeeordiug to tlie eusioni of tiiii^j 
and ih*^ rit^liiful interpretation of what the hill of lading intended to t^onrej^ 
he ou>5ht to have demanded three tinicB 80* ^ ton, his excuse was tbat he hft 
been led into a mistake through the im proper punctuation of the hill of lading 
To explain this it is necessary to state tlntt, accordiug to the custom of ( 
BfiUio trado for the previous rir> years, a cert^iin standard of rates exists 
which all freights are ealoulat^^d. Tf*u8» starting witb tallow, a cargo of tallo 
wmdd only piiy twothirds of a cargo of hemp, and one-tlnrd of a cargo 
woob In tlie present ease the bill of lading ran thus: '^sbipped," &c. ** lU 
bales of washed Uousbay wool, at the rate of t^O* IP' ton of 20 cwt, gross weigb 
tallow other gooils. graiu or st;«d» in proportion, as per London Baltic print 
mtes/* Supposing, therefore, the comma to have been placed after itistat 
of before tlie word " talJow/' as it ought to have been, the defendant wou 
have been without any excuse, a,H there is not the slightest doubt about 
custom of the lradi% although ho i>rofessed bimaelf entirely ignorant of 
But having regard both to the custom, to tlie express referenca lo Ute BallJ 
pruned rates in the bill of hiding, and to the flckuowledgineut of detcndant 
that he parted with the goods without having first procured the release of tb 
piaintifis, thejnry unhesitatingly found that defendunt ought to have demand 
240s {* ton for the wool, instead of HOs ^ ton; and so, according to defendant^ 
contention ho b^st his action all through a com ma- His lordship, howeip 
gave Sergeant Pauby leave to move tipou the point if he desired to do so* 

On the following week, iu the Corunxon Ploas. the Russian Steam Natm 
TiON Co. V. Rudolf. (Before Lord Chief Juatii^e Eble, aud a special jiiiyJ 
An aotiou to recover the freight of a number of bales of wool sbippo<t 
board plaintitTs steamer Odessa, at Odessa, and corisigoed to dnfendi 
The facts are the same as at the trial of a similar action brought by plaintifl 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



89 



&i:iim«ttbi*fr1iarfuigef orthtjGanaDdShot Whiirf, [BILLS OF LADING 
ring the wool before tiio wholt? Ireight was paid. The question at 

I - ! •u^, wliftt was the fnuonni of fnnght due upon the wool. The bill of 

eifiM lliftt 15<J balea of wool were shipped at the rate of 80* I* tou of 

05« weight ; tallow, other goods, kc in proportion, us per Londun and 

Baltic printed rates. It was dverred thnt ihUow wh8 taken ae the btandiird Iti 

1^ tJ^e tnidi?, and it wms stated iis a weU understood cu<iloni, that wool paid two* 

^VihtnU more freight than tallow, Mr. Watkvn Wij,l(am? having opened the 

^rf4i»adtng4, a consultation took place between the learned counsel engaged in 

B llie cau*?, and Mr Sergeant Parbv, wha appeared for defendant, said it had 

" been arraoged for the preseut to make a remanet of this cause to abide the 

reixtlt of tlic action which was tried December 13th. tie would have to move 

tipoo thii formi-r case, and as the full court dealt with it, so would their pro- 

^ Meding in this action be governed. The Chief JuHtice said a great deal 

dfjNiodNod upon the construction put upon ilw bill of lading. A juror was 

Itogl/ withdrawn, 

Qo the Uth January, 1803, in the course of delivertng final judgment, 

ItMltce WtixtAias aaid— *" as defendant ha» undertaken lo act upon the bill of 

tling, his waa bound to make himself master of its true meaning, and cannot 

norancc as an excuse. Having parted with the goods wiUioul seeing 

|>roper ainouot of fn?ight was duly paid, he has broken his uuder- 

ilfi^« and must pay the penally.'' Justices Willks and Kkatino, and Chief 

^ Jnuice Krle eoncurrrd. 

■^ S7 BITUMEN, from the lalin of **biiui*Jen" and French "hilurae/* 

^^H|i K h. The word, as now eu)pU»}ed, comprises a wide range 

PHVlt *dc mineral and tarry siib^iances, burning witli llaiue in tht: 

crjieii ftlr^ these siibstanct'S are either fluid or solid* Amongst the durd» 
ftn? napthft oiid peiroleutn^ — an oily bitumen found dropping from rocks, 
and from which naptha id accasionalty distilled. Amongst the solids, 
lit' aaphahum or mineral pitch, and a white subbtance called mineral 
taJluw ; ilicse subttlanc^s appear lo have resulted from tbe decompo»iuou 
4C mood or cnal, by heat or other action^ under the surface of the earth : 
liieir itttimate conatitnents ore for the most part carbon and hydrogen; 
Mv mnphalie, caal« naptha, and petroleum* Whc'n Mediterranean wheat 
u Ircigliteil at U ^ quarter, bitumen is rated at 4x 8(/ ^ ion of 20 cwt, 

6S BLACK LEAD, or pUnnbago, requires to be w^ell dunnaged, 

br if U*aliJi^c comes in coninct with bluck lead, great damnge may be 

lo alhrr go<»d&. Care should he laken^ when red ling about casks in 

rhold^ that lhe€ont4?nt«do doI fall among sugar, rice, &kc* which it will 

oiL If h\mc}i Wild and oil are placed near each other, the oil will hi; 

hI» and t<p*mtuneous combustion may be produced. When black 

I }9 shipped as dunnage, which ia not recounncnded, the same should 

a|ie<!a(iid on the bill of lading. At Ccyhm the tare is very great; 

fwr gvva^ weighty if puasible. At Colombo black lead is usually 

u 



90 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



packed in fragile flour barrt?!s. At Bombay 20 cwU [BLACK LEAD 
go lo a ton ; ii cask wt iglis ivboiu 1 1} cwt. The specific griivity <*( blatk 
lend varies from l'9a7 to 2*4(iO. 

59 BLACKWOOD is usually in pieces of irregular shapes, abtitit 
three feel long, by two inthuii lljiik. In the East Imlics and in thfl 
Mauritius, il is frt-quently taken as dunnage. Bombay tou for freighi 
50 cubic feet if in square straight logs, but if otherwise, 2Ucwt, 

60 BLEACHING POWDER is chlonJe of lime made by expyt 
in^ slaked lime lo the action of chlorine; it is used for bleaching linrti 
calicoes, and paper malerials; this article is of a coiTosive and dang«*n>ii 
description, and will tlierrf^^ro injure other gooels by contact; sec cblortdi 
of lime and dangerous goods Bleaching powder is nsnally packed ial 
casks containing 5 cwt. each, four of which go lo a ion for freight. 

61 Law case. In the Court of Queen's Bench, December Uth, 18fi7J 
before Lord Camtbell and a special jury, Brass v. MMTLANn, Tho dcclar 
tiou nlleged tbiit dolciidar.t Bbipi^ed on board the Regifht a qiirtnlity of chbirid 
of lime, insulHrit^ijtly piicked, and without giving notice of its dang»^rou 
qualities, and that a larj^u poriion of the rest of the cargo was iujured b^ du 
gases wliiwh escrtpr^d tberefrom. 

The Regina was a geofiral ship bound to Calcutta; defendant enga^^ 
l^ight for 00 casks of bleaching p«iwder. or chloride of lime; tlie caskii mvt\ 
stowed between decks along the sides; next them crates of glass, and in I 
centre a quantity of bale goods. Oii tbt? vo)iige great annoyance was ejt|i 
riencc'd from gas, and wbfu the hulchts were o]ieneil it was found that ly I 
ftclion of tlic cbloriijt^ ^'as evolved from the bleaching powder, the casks ilj 
which it was were couipletely eiitt^n away, and the piece-goods totally depiivi^ 
of their colour. PlaintiH', in conyequeuce, paid ^'9'J3 17$ 'id and now sou 
to recover same, founding Ijjs tlnini on tlie legal olkligation altaohiug i 
shippers of d tin fjcrous or desiruLtive goods, lo give iioiite ol tb#nr qua.lit 
Dflture, nnlpss they am of such a d<^^cription as that it mny reasoitably T4 
enpi»Obed that the shipowner's and their a|,»ents me ci»gtii/anl of their ciiHracterJ 
Plain lifl"8 case was. that neither be nor the master were aware ol' the duugeroiii 
quality of the article, which was merely shipped bs bleaching powder; 
several witnesses stated that the eai^ks were not of tlie pecnliar character i 
which such an article ought to be packed for so long a Toy age. 

The defence was thnt hleaching powder was a well-known article of i 
inerce, and well known to he comfjo^^ed of chloride of hme, so that the plaintl 
and the master niuat have lieen aware of itb (harncier; that the ca^ks 
question were of a particuhirly good dcseiiptiou, purtiufei^ly prej^ftiid ; thai th 
dry goods ought not to htive lero stowed so near; aud that the casks shoul^ 
have been plncfd in the bottom of the hold instt'itd of in ilie wings*, whe 
they were wetted by droj^pings from tiie scama of the deck* which were f tralne 
by heavy weather, and the efleclB of a collision witli another veaseh early i 
the voyage. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



91 



TH^ ffrrr foiind ihat tha cask^ were of the [BLEACHING POWDER 

If ' lU not ftrcipotlY ttttwotj, anJ tliat the injury to the bale goods 

iiu and tliot Uje p'aiiiliff 6 broker aoti master miglit, and reason- 
oof^'hi, to hA%'e known ihe nature of bleaching powder. Verdict for 
idaut, will) [ft^re to m^ve. 

Ill Mnnsh, 1658, the subject was re-considered^ when the Court held 
fr. Jostice Cromptoh digsenting), that shifipers of dangerous goods* such as 
tnjr jmwdiT, cbloritle of liioe, are bound to lotimate their dangerous 
tiiuiv to the niast<!r at the date of shipmeut; but that, the goods haviug 
diUinted as en^ks of bleacbiufy powder, which the master reaaonably 
nii^lit hmre known to contain or consist of chloride of h'me, no notice was 
^ tkHnm^ry \fr JuRtice CnoMprojc obseiTcd that the master is not the person 
^^■pfii«fmD» I in the shipping of goods; he only acta in signing bills of 

^^BidJiyg y| u itcs receipt and uotef. 

^m K BOXES. Ground bones are so very dry that if insufficient 
dotitiai^ b used, tbe hcut wiU craek ihe ceiling and open the seams. In 
I»»engi?r »bip« from Vicinriu, boiled shin boues, ** whites'* are allowed 
tu b* rarritfd ; raost othrr sons are n^lused by the colonial legislature 
ens* What are termed "yellows/' uuboiled^ cu'ii a nulsofne effluvia, 
etj Ui injiire certain clai^&i^s uf good«» in a general cargo. It i^ difEculi 
•fUBiaije the wtighl of uucrushed bones^ so much depends on tbdr 
itr« fttze» m^sortmetit, &c. A bushel of crushed South American 
itiJe boqrts weighs abi»yt 50 lb; of Russian and Mediterranean 
raitJe and mixed 42 lb; and of Belgian fine and coarse mixed, 
iirni* (KJtb. Of the lU-lgiun, in 1^64, the sclmoner Onl^ Sotu Capt. 
ItAirciiAiiOi flowed llOlou lUcwt; her full cargo of cual coiiaisted of 
m* hides. 

Ld. In rhc S'rcond Couit, London, December 19, 1800, Hunt tf. 
OmxeiTK^, j J II ariiou brought for £ti08 on 7 J, balance due on ihrt'o 

cantor* of bot^« ' *i i * 'J ff^»i Colchester. 7'he main question turned on tlje 
ftftUir<« of tho rontrart, d* feud nut iusisting that it was contined to a particular 
^^npvJ (»f bonc^, about I5U ton, which were lying at Colchester, and plaiutilT 
l^^^^bdiog tb)it he was entitled to payment^ althougfi the cargoes in i^uestion 
^^^^H mMle up pttrtly of those l>oucs, and partly of others. The contract 
^^^^Bibed tlie borictt to lie " English boilt*d bones, Tery dry and light/' The 
^^Rr^Ti; ' itt Stockwith, the nearest port to Doncastcr, and was paid 

fiw* anil ) ! ued u|)ou that ; in tlu- second, haviug heated on the voyug»», 

lis btiCKK wtfc ruducid in wt^ight H ton 7 cwt, out ol 74 ton I7cwt. Haiutitt* 
nitf-tt. f*n rfn««?-rxnmiDation, that thiii was an nuusually great reduction, 
lirtscd aud niiAcd willi those lying at ColchcsttT were 
"mn, and that the tendency of luixiug thesu iulerior 
was to cause the beating of the whole. In the third 

,. ^ _. found Ui bo i ton 2 cwt. out of 43 ton H cwt At U*ei 

» itf tlND rvidenco plaintifi's couqm^I claimed a vnrdiet for so much of tho 



02 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE 



urged that it was imposatble to sepurafe the one mti from the other, [BOMBS 
an<J» tberetbrp, that they were entitled to reject thp whole of botb cargoes, Tii# \ 
judge niled in favour of defeadanls, aud plaintiff was nonsuited* 

Tomiage. B ton calcined, 12 ditto maaure, Ac. or 15 ditto best qnaIUy,-| 
all in hulk, will occupy 850 cubic feet or 1 keel. At Bahia 12 cwt go to a ton.l 
When wheat in freighted at \h P'qiitmer, calcined hones are rated at lit ltt/«] 
lURBure Si Id, bones in bulk ^t, and the best quality 6#0J(/ ^ ton, 

BONE ASH ; see aabes and charcoal. 

64 BOOKS, One extensive London publisher generally uses for 
cxportjuion to America, strong deal cases, hooped with iron, 3 feel long, . 
18 inches wide, and 18 inches deep, inside nieasnrcnient; they weighl 
45 M\ and hold 250 fb. weight oi huuks. Books in boards, not being sal 
heavy, may oecasioually be |jat;kLd in larger cases, but cases containingl 
30 cubic feet have been found inconveniently large. For tbe Overlanit'l 
Routes ihey are necessarily amalL For Australia ami other long voyagesi 
the cases are lined with tin, to preserve the contents and to reduce thel 
rate of insurance; consignees at the Cape of Good Hope and in otherl 
parts, prefer zinc, being more convertible than tin. Felt, which is lighter I 
than either, is naed for some consignments. Preference for stowage is] 
given to the upper part of the main hold, amidships, wbt-re the cases w\\\i 
keep dry, and the books be free iTom ilie jars and concussions of the bo« 
and stern ; the trade prefer having them near the hatchways, to secure 
early delivery. The cubical contents and weights of various religious biK)k 
will be found in the I able of Marine Necessaries at tbe beginning of thii 
work ; see stationery ; 40 cubic feet generally go to a ton freight; Bengalp^ 
Madras, and Bombay ton 50 cubic feet. 

65 BOOTS AND SHOES ; in trunks and cases, 40 feet go to ft tonfl 

m BORATE OF LIME. Large (]uantities in bags of a quintal^ 
each, 102t1>y are shipped all tbe year round at Iquique. It is muc 
lighter than coal, and little over half the weight of nitrate of soda. It i 
not so susceptible of injury by dampness as niiratCj on whiclj ii is usuallyl 
Slowed, but requires to be sufUciently dunnaged* Both these articles are 
shipped also iit Mexilones and Pisagua, 

67 BORAX (Tincal) tbe biborate of soda, a salt of a brownish j 
colour and asweeliah taste. Borax is tincal in a refined slate ; both ar 
produced in Thibet, and are shipped at Calcutta and Bombay. Tbi 
specific gravity of borax is 1*714; it is packed in cases of 3 to 4cw| 
each; tincal in casks 6 to 7cwt.each. Bengal, Madras, and Boml 
ton 2Ucwt; Madras and Bombay 50 cubic feet in cases. 



STETEXS ON STOWAGE. 



93 



BOTTOMRY ksu RESPONDENTIA h a mongoge of tlie 

itnp* Thv owfifi or ro/isicT is, under certain circarasiances, authorized 

llo WiTOHf money for uutlii, or lo purchase cargo for the voyage, pledging 

Itli9 keel or bottom (a part for the whole} in security for paymeiu. In 

Kotj/f»mry coniracu ii is stipulated, that if the ship be lost in the course 

oi the *oyat»e, the lender iihall hisf hi» whole money; hot if she arrives 

in s^ciy, the lend«*r i;* then enlillcd to f^et back his priirci])al and the 

Marred interest, however much it exceeds the legal rate : the extra hazard 

i hj the l<?nder has been held to justify bis secttring the highest rate 

t]fl«rest. He!ipondeiiiia means moni'V lent on cargo. The last ot ttro 

» bottomry bonds is first paid. When a laden vessel puts into an 

I intcrrocdiaie port for repairs, the master can bottomree ship, cargo, and 

I fri*tKht, to Tmae money to pay for it. An English vessel cannot legally 

|li« bottomried in England* Money for bottomry should be advertised 

for, Aod the lowest offer accepted^ 

69 BOXWOOD. Spec. grav. Dutch 1-3280. When Mediterranean 
rkrat is freighted at U^qr, boxwood is rated at 4itSd^ion of 20 cwi, 

70 BRAN, The Admiralty allows 48 bushels of bran or of pollard 
[|o a ton. tn the Australian colonies the bushel is taken at 20tt>. — the 

mn Wing 2,Ut»0Jt); freight in (rrojioriion. At the Cape of Goo<i Hope 
1,204) I1>. i» liio standard ton for freight; sometimes 1,400 tb. are taken, 

71 BRAZIL* NUTS, the fruit of the Juvia^ which abounds on the 
^Onnoco and in the Brazils; see nuts 

n BRAZIL* WOOD, for dying, is plentiful at Pernambuco. 

73 BREAD, Every particle of aqueous niaiter^ without injury to 
it dried oui of ship biscuit in the oven, and afterwards on kilns, &c. 

rly manuf^cturtd, and it is thus rendered one-tenih li^^hter than 
from which it was made; being so dry it will attract water in 
•a eXTJ^ordinory manner, and when once damp, decora posi I ion spreads 
rapidly* If not kiln-dried, which is objectionable, some days should 
eUp»e After baking, to allow the oven steam to be well evaporated. 
|Iti * ' !} not be shipped in wet weather, especially in bags, which 
' qiij A*e dampness, retain it, and communicate it to every bag near. 

74 \\ hen loading with government provisions, it is custfimary to 
Imllmal with a sufficient quantity uf beef and pork ; dunnage with slabs 
0¥fr the ciuiks, and at least four inches from the sides ; fill up to the deck 
•lid itow cIo«c, lo prevent the bags from chafing. Another authority 
iftts, bnsad «9 cargo should be the last article put into the ship, the sides 
of which should have thin boards, nailed upon good matting, 6tted against 
theiiit Mid A casing should go round the masts, pumps, &c. 



04 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



75 A r Hamburff, some merchants nail inch bonrds against [BREAD 
llic sides, weathev-bcmrd fashion. An expericficcd masier rcc'oninienfi«# , 
tliiit wljeu loading all br^ad at that port, for Labrador, the ballast &hoald . 
be well dniinaged, not whh straw or reed^ which rots when wetted, buij 
brushwood or broom stulF^ &c ; for the sides, featber-edge chip- board, I 
1-inch by 7, or } or |*iiicb honrd, same width, which will sell for it» cost, j 
When there is space over the top tier, lay straw to catch loose drops from [ 
the scuniit of the deck. 

76 Care should be taken not to stow bread on or near cordage* 
turpentine, or tar, coal tar especially; the ship's ceiling sometimes gen | 
a coal of coal tar, but this ought to be avoided previous to loading bread, 
which shnuld not go ifito a hold just cleared from a cargo of salt. The - 
scent frnm camphor will make bread unfit fiu* human cousumprion. Bags j 
containing bread stowed on bricks in England, have become so rotten I 
during the passage to Newfoundlandj that the bottoms have fallen oriLI 

77 Manufacturers object strongly to the stowage of bread for ship*M 
use, in bags, and recommend casks, or iron, with the inside tinned, gf| 
tinned case-, doubled, with higbly-dried saw-dusi, almost chnrred, be- 
tween, and made to fit the shape of the ship. An experienced master | 
objects 10 iron, on account of its liability to russt wlicn bulk is bnikeirJ 
unless the case is emptied at once, and recommends air-tight nunf 
puncheons, which contain from 3^ lo 4 cwt. each r these are ntit used hy\ 
some, because the bread hecomcvS impregnated with the taste of ni in J J 
ihey prefer gfiod charred air-tight cnhkn. All unite in recommending] 
bread to be kept perfectly dry. One master suggesis that on long voyagci,! 
it sbtKild be Slowed in the coolest locality, to lessen the attack o( weevil] 
and mile, and iliat store biscuit, so generally kept aft, ought to be stowed! 
forwurd. Another siiys, ibai when conveying tnmps lo Australia, their] 
bread, in bags, continued sweet, becouse it was all stowed together In ( 
suitable place, while thai of the crew became damaged, the casks having 
been placed jjromiticuously with those containing water, beer, provisious,! 
&c ; see the articles bricks, general cargo, passengers, &c. 

Tonnage. l^O hags bread, 11^ lb. each, n ton, will occupy a spaeeof 89 
cubic feet or 1 keel, llie Admiralty allows 7 hags of 112tb. net. in bags, and] 
5 hugs in cai-ka, to a ton : some Adiiiirahy bread casks tire 3 feet 8 inches loDgJ 
bilge 3 feet, snd contain fi hagw, equal to 1^ ton for freight. The Admirall/I 
eotiiimte n Um of bread in bulk, for naval purjioses, to rociujui'e 1*21 cubic fett;| 
pneked 110 feet; a bag G euhic feH— gross weight II lib, bag 2 lb, net Il2ltk1 
At New Yoik n cwt, in casks, 7 cwt in bags, aud Htiv/t. in bulk* is allowed tol 
a ton. Ai Baltimore 800 lb. ship bj-ead in baps, 700 lb, in casks. When wheat 
is l»^(juarU^r freight, bread should be 0J</ i^ bag. 

For the [nirpose of chitnginQ gtmjk» in bond, the 5th and (Ith Vict, cap. 0i,j 
j>roi»oriioned for ♦*very Mth. oi kilo -dried wheat, or lor every ICOfh. of whea 
not heing kiln dried, not less thtiu 7Hlb, of fine wheat tic-nr, or mth, of cft^l 



STEVENS OK STOWAGE. 



n*9 bitetiit Of ttf»tb. of biecuit of the Mapflard of the biscuit [BREAB 
Pijt|iiiod 1^ II, M, Navy, ar llHtb. cornmou sliiii ^isf^uit. J'lie AilujiraJty allows 
MNl^ilfvtl bwj$, pixt>*^t 700 balf-buifs, or WOU inenl sacks, to a ton Tur freight. 

78 BRICKS In Loudon it is usual to parcbaee bricks to be ship- 
|iif*l ffifeon buord; tbey ure conseqaenlly siowetl in ihe hoi J, in tiers, by 
tiico acciiAtoroed Ui it ; a large quantity shtnild be placed in the middle, if 
stHe. A ship cannot carry a full lading. Bricks will readily absorb 
••f iheir weight in water. From Hamburg lo IjabrAdur, it h 
. with the bread and provisions, a few thousand bricks fur 
llimt ; they shoald be as dry as possible, otherwise the heal of the bold 
11 cau^ them to sleam, wliich« coming in contact with the cold decks 
ud ddr%t irill^ especially if they are varnished, condense and fall in dr<»ps, 
' mil if(»ft'n, and damage the bread* It is desirable to have a ground 
ierof Uinreb of pork and beef and flour, with firkivis of butter for broken 
llovrax^, which will keep the bread oST from the bricks. 

ToQ&agS. 7,non Er© bricks, or 8,000 common bricks, also tiJes, weigh 21 
\ and mt<ti>4iire O'il^ cubic feet or } keel. Sizes. — Ono unburut Loudon brick 
( UlitK)ht!« loog, ami 5 broad; a burnt brick is 9 inche** loug, 'IJwiJe, and 
H tlii<?k- and wt^jghe about 4 lb. 1 5 oz. 450 stock bricks wdgh I tou, and there 
aUiHii : 1,000 Loodou stock bricks weigh about 2| ton ; I, UOU Jersey 
and l,ono Furfbam, Southampton, &c. 3 ton. 1,000 fire bricks weigh 
^4t4ia. A Giaagow fire brick is 0| iucbea long, 4} broad, and 3 tbiek, aud 
I (^| lb. Hotna are i^ inches long, 4^ broad, by IJ^ thick. 

TO BKJMM*ONE requires iiay Gioches dunnage in the flat, and 9 

When stowed in bulk it sliould be kept as high as possible ; 

i» tbcbidd there let n lie, excepting ibe necessary trimming 

pff Ui preveut shirting, and thus avoid labouring aud straining at sea, 

\ full carg^i cannot be talceu, say a little over three-fourths. Empty casks 

iMnnctimi-s placed i*elow to keep the cargo up; if they are broken' by 

r the 8hip at sea, very great danger is to be apprehended. 

_r td sulphur are greatly damaged by contact with oil, which 

bcjr viU attract from cnskt. A small quantity of oil will spoil a full 

' *" brimsltjnc intended for bleaching purposes* In general cargoes 

] be kept OS far as possible from saltpetre, nitrate of soda, clnir- 

liable to spontaneous combustion, for should fire break 

n alt! with the brimstone, its suirocaiing vapours may 

veitt olt efforts to extinguish it. Igniting lucifer niatchetj where 

■tfititf may have pciiotraied^ and smoking tobacco below, arc highly 

Liite. Flour hrimhtonc is usually packed in barrels. KoUed hrim- 

I tctl from Italy in cases ul 3 cwt, each ; see sulphur. 

ill the year rouuiL Bcngtd and Madras ton 20 cwt* 

tirji Mefjitrrranean wheal t& freighted at I* Jj*- quarter, sulphur is ratetl 

L4ibi/^U>ii uf ;2t>cwU 



96 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



80 BRISTLES, the strong hairs which grow along the spine of itie 

hog and wild boar. Baltic brisdeb receive tw^o-thirds freight of cleaaJ 
hemp per ton of 44 pooda gross, A cask weif^hs 10 cwt. 

81 BUFFALO HORNS. J 6 cwL go to a ton at Bomhay, 

82 BUTTER should be stowed as low down as possible, for theJ 
salce of coolness : it will not hoi^ever bear much pressure. It is exported] 
from Ireland and Holland all the year round ; quantities are escported 
from Hamburg, France, Canada, and Atneriea, 

Tonnage. i>/30 firkina butter, 70 fb. each, l^Jton, will occupy a space Ot 
850 cubic teet or 1 keel. In Ireland it is generally packed in iirkms, but ial 
Belfast a fresher quality ia packed in crocks* for freight S2 firkins orttl 
reckooed to a too— 55 on an average weigh 2 ton* In computing the fretghtl 
of kegs of butter at Baltimore, 200 tt>. net weight are considered equal to a I 
barrel of 5 cubic feet. When wheat is I* ^quarter freight, butter is rated aC| 
]J(i»? firkin. 

Measures. A firkin of English weighs 5H th, Irish about Jcwt, tare litbJ 
net weight about 70 th, a tub 84 Ih, a barrel 2 cwt, a Dutch cask I cwt» DauishJ 
last 224 tb, BremerhaTeu ton^ great measure SOO tb, stnall 220 tb. 

83 CAKE LAC is a gum collected all over India, and is usuallyl 
packed in gunny bags weighing lOOtb. eacbj net; see lack. Bengal and] 
Madras ton i6ewt. in bags. 

84 CALEDONIAN CANAL. A Belfast tnerchant writing to (hel 

Shippinif Gazette t Ist December, 1866, complains tliat bis vessel, of 1281 
ton, fiom the Bal licj iu passing through the canal was charged as follows:—^! 



CimAl aufti, 100 ton 1« &/ 40 tun 1« 

CftAh adviinccd to pay towage 

Eoflt Coast pilot 

Cotial pilots Btia to sen^ and Enund of IiJaj 

Bank expenses, pofttageA^ Sec 

Ca«li to auutor , 



£37 2 6 



£ $ 


d 


9 10 





9 





4 





8 10 





1 2 


6 


5 


a 



The editor Bays it is customary, unless otherwise expressed in the charlef 
p ar ty , ft> r 1 1 1 e o w n c r t o p ay c h a rgc s o n ves s el ai i d m e re 1 j a n ton cart^o. p i rstj 
item on weight to merchant, three next to ship, fihh it would be fair 10 
divide; the last requires fMrlber explanation. If however the charte 
siipuliited for paiisage through the canal at the charge of the conaigne 
the only amount lo ho paid by the sliip would be the East coast pilotage«1 
85 The superintendent of the canal when writing to the ShippinfX 
(lazeite, lOih December, 1866, says two communicalions have recentlyl 
ajjpeared in your journal, which seem capable of conveying an erruneousi 



STEVKNS ON STOWAGE. 



97 



non of tli« cb^ges incld<^t to tie [CALEDONIAN CANAL 

a^*ki^f* Lif vmsela tljrou^ii Uiis canal. The latest rtsfers to a vesuel of 

si ton iTgi»i<rr, having a gram cargo of 400 tan dead-weigbt, on which 

be call al dues fur ^liip and cargo lugelher wotiUl amount to £22 10j»; 

}i' krgoesof iijftrlor value tie dues would be somewliat Ivss. Any 

rges that may he incurred are optioual mi the part of the master; 

kiu iti most cases it is deemed expedient to incur them in a greater or 

1 ' '* rr»?c for the advanlaije of all concerned* When the winds are 

, the expense ot hteuru ti»wttge is saved, and the most that can 

turred for steam towage and horse trackage in calms, or against 

iry ^iitdsy all through vvnuld, in the case referred lo^ be JL'14 1^^ 

; rmced on tlit; register tonnage and limited to li^tun. Pilotage, 

■as within the jurisdiction of the canal, is restricted to very moderate 

hits; biii beyond ihut range, if required »t all, it uuiy he more oriels 

bouot according to the master's general knowledge of the route he 

king, »'ith or without tiie aid of the correct Admiralty charts now 

aiatlaUle. So fur at an Act of Parliament can hind panics, (although in 

ftuOler it has sometimes proved inoperative) the apportionment of 

t ilar^ S;c. bcl\v*'en the ownerb of sliip and cargo is fixed by the larilF 

^•8. In the case of valuable cargoes two-tbirdi* are payable 

This is reasonable, on the ground (hat the cargo is mainly 

ouite of the vessel making the passage; but as the s^hip is at least 

' T r ' d in its speedy dispaicfi, the charges for steam towage 

_ iL to be included horse trackage and pilotage) are made 

ily diiiHiiiio between them, A further reason for giving the larger 

oporiluti of the dues to the cargo^ h that the owners or consignees 

"kA a Having of insurance^ which is very considerable during the winter 

by ll»e adoption of the canal passage; whereas the &hip, being 

merely by its general or annual policy^ obtains no such direct 

t advantage. In the case of valuable cargoes (lin^^ecd for instance) 

: of infeurancc alone is (^rohably sutlicient to cover the whole 

I incurred by the pat^age through the canal, ship and cargo together. 

maiiter of a vessel comes unprovided with cash to meet the 

lot dues or other charges, and requires to draw upon bin broker 

•f emnignee, it being uncertain what so.iie of those charges may be before 

> |iauiiuigc i% completed^ the amount is usually made ample to cover all 

Bitntiugeuaent and frequently includes a sum in advance for ship's use, 

»tQCiii» &c. Of course tlie whole amouutof Kuch draft fall.*, in the 

incr^ tcj be deducted from fn ighl, bui i» by no mcaoK to be taken 

\m tilr cftti!riori of what the actual charges of tbe passagt ihrungh tlio 
mmy have been. 'I'hese ougbt to be separately acijusitd I'y liic 
doctioQ of details. [The tabic of the tonnage dues ou this and other 
le Drill be found in {>age 36.] 

K 



98 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



86 CAMBOGEUM. EJ.Cos. ton SOcwt. 

87 CAMPHINE, a popular name for essential resinoua oils, such 
as the purified oil nr Jislitled Bpirrts of tuqjcntine. When intended for a 
burning iuid it is mixed with alcohol in varions prupoTtitms. Il readily 
impregnjites ni&ny articles with its peculiarly strong odonr ; when spilled \ 
in a railway van scarcely anything could he placed in it afterwards, fori 
althoagh tie camphine bad been apparently removed, yet on the change 1 
of atmoBphere, t!ie offensive effluvia was again produced. This will shew 
the great necessity for guarding against its injuiitms properties on board 
«hip; see turpentine. Creosote, which is equally injurious, is an oxy-i 
bydro-carhuret, prepared from pyroxilic oil. " 

88 CAMPHOR is produced by several plants, particularly Dry- i 
ohalanops Camphora^ the camphor tree of Sumatra and Japan. The I 
kind mostly found in commerce la derived from the Laurus Camphor ff^ 
or camphor laurel of Formosa, carried thence to Caiiton, which supplies^ 
the markets of the world. The camphor exists naturally within the tree 
ready formed ; on splitting the wood, it is found in musses 12 to 18 incbe»j 
long, between the hark and the stem, and in the pith. Every La if net 1 
Camphora contains camphor, wliicb is extracted by boiling the hranrhes,.] 
when chopped, in water. The camphor rises to the surface and becomes 
solid as the water cools: in some instances, the boiler in which the 
operation is conducted is covered with an earthen dome lined with nee 
straw, to which the camphor attaches itself as tt rises with the steam wbea 
the water boils ; it is afterwards picked oflTand packed. At Canton it i 
chests, drums, and casks. It is someiimes packed in slight wooden ca 
say 3 feet long by 18 inches square, lined with tin, which, when not n 
soldered, permit the scent to escape, much to the detenoralion of cof] 
cinnamon, cassia, tea, rice, and other delicate articles. At some pi 
camphor is packed in cases of 3 cwl, each, raiher 1 artier and stouter but of 
tlie same material as tea chests; papered, oiled, and marked; the lead of ^ 
the inner case is stouter. It is rammed in hard, as much fresh water is 
poured in as it will absorb, and then the lead is soldered on. One packagc^l 
in the hold will spoil a whole t argo of tea, and hread stowed near hecomes 
quite unpalalahle; it is nsnally stowed on deck each side of the housej, 
and on the main hatch ; sometimes a box or two is placed on ihe tops» 
Camphor is frequently earned in poop cabins; it is often stipulated itki 
the bills of lading " to be carried in poop cabins." Very little com- 
paratively speaking, goes to England, but large quantities to America. I 

FreighL Bengal, Madras, and Bombay ton 50 cubic feet in cases. | 
Chines© eumphor is packed in boxes, a pecul in each, measuring 4 640 fo 
12 of which and 1'232 feet go to a ton of 50 cubic feot, A case of Chii 
camphor, oontaining 1 |>ecid, measures 4'Iia feet, A box weighs about I i 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



M 



$^ CAMWOOD i« principally obuined from die vicinity of Sierra 
Leone, and, being extremely dry, should not be slowed near palm oil, 
I which it will draw through the casks, to its own injury. 



■^W CAXDLES should be stowed in a cold dry part of the hold, and 

[lliA boxes carefully placed on their bottoms, or the candles will be broken, 

Wbrn packing for warm climates, paper ought to be placed between eacli 

I bftr For conveyance coastwise, they are usually packed 12 dozen 

i is a box; for the nary, in boxes containing 66 \h. and 1 12 lb ; for 

North American colonies 50 lb* Freight: The Admiralty allows 

lOOdixaten to the ton. In computing the freight of boxes of candles at 

Baltimore^ 'ZUOtb. net, are considered equal to a barrel of 5 cubic feeL 

9i For ibe home trade. Price's Patent Composite are usually 
pareeiled in paper wrappers, 6 \b. eachj and packed in corded boxes, 
containing from one to sixteen dozens of pounds, the candles in the 
patkiges being protected by a small quaniity of straw, where any vacant 
qmce occurs^ and a layer at the top. For shipments to some of the out- 
pcifts» hogsheads and puncheons are occasional jy used, the small-sized 
pa|>er parcels, and mode of tilling with straw, being observed, as whea 
jiadtang in boxes. For exportation^ small cases, containing 25 to 28 lb, 
each, are substituted, the candles being wrapped in 6 lb. parcels. For 
lh« Kasi India market they are usually placed in single pound papers^ 
Ai being more eligible for sale there ; tljese cases do noi require any straw, 
they are made b> fit the bulk of the packets as closely as practicable; 
Ijof llm West Indies, puncheons and hogsheads, as well as small cases, 
. To compete with the packets which are impontd into those 
iBiHceta by foreign makers, and which represent the English pound 
.ptcketi, but contain l4osfi. only avoirdupois, the Company put up their 
IBclmoiit Sperm Candles in packets of two sizes, containing 12 and 16 oz. 
E vtight, English avoirdupois, which packets bear a label v \Hng iheir 
bt ajid contents* Twenty-6ve of these 16 oz. packets woui mck in 
ftcaie of nearly the same cubical dimensions as the 25 tb. cases i . rred 
lo. Prick's candles, made expressly hv the export trade, require I'-^Je 
care for choice of place for stowage ; from their hardness they are nut 
a^i4;d by increase o\' temperature, when placed in the upper tier of a 

n CANELLA ALBA, the inner bark of a tree growing in the 
I Wc»t Indies^ exported in casks and cas»es, in long pieces, some rolled in 
' ftttUa atid others flat ; the quilled is considerably thicker than cinnamon, 
h4 tJic Hal nearly a quarter of an inch thick. The quilled is yellow both 
iim, lhit» flat tx yellow outside and pale brown witltin. 



100 



STEVEN8 ON 8 row AGE. 



93 CANEIS arc usilally sliipjied in InOin for br<*ken Monago; the 
bundles are of various sizes tvnd art fretjut'iitly imfaUenecl when stowing, 
much to the objection of the consignees on delivery, 3,000 (16 cwt.) go 
to a ton at Bombay. 

Q4 CANTilARIDES or Spnnisb fly, an insect found on a variety 
of shrubs in Spain, Italy, France, &.c ; those used in Great Briluin are 
imported partly from Sicily, but priuci pally from Astracan, packed in 
casks and small cbes^ts; ihey have a very powerful and nauseous scent 
and should be kept from the air. 

95 CANVAS must be kept free from oik, liquids, moist goods, or 
dampness of any kind, as it is liable to mildew; salt water stains it and 
injures its appearance. Sailcloth should also be kept oil from metals of 
all descriptions, or iron-bound packages and casks, which will chafe ii, 
and tlie iron moulds will cause it to rot; see vermin. In slowing sails'] 
on hoard ships of war, Lieut. Alston saya "when the sail-room will ( 
admit of it, tupnaih and cottrses sbotild be stowed with liie bight doubled ' 
back between the yard-arms, which, when rousefi out lies in the squard | 
of the hatchway ready for whipping up, and all the time and labour 
usually lost in breaking out, when the sail is stowed the whole Jengtbj 
of the sail-room, is thus avoided. In hnrbour, when yon stow the head] 
sails in a cloth, if covers are not used, gather up from the foot, using the 
after cloths of the leech to form ilie skin, a little slack sail being gathered I 
up to cover the hanks, &c. at the head, and stopped close down, and the 
clew hauled up and equalized along the buom. At sea, get hold of the] 
leech of the sail, gather it on the boom, and pass the gnsket,'* 

Freight. For freight 00 pieces Baltie Bail -cloth are equal to two > thirds 
of a ton of clean hemp. Bolts. The length of a piece or bolt of British 
Bail-clotli, as reijnired by law, ia 3B yards; and breadth 24 inches. E?«*ryJ 
piece or bolt, 21 inrhes wide, nhould contain at least 560 double threads ( 
yam. Weight: Double threads. No. 1, Utbi 2, 41 tb; 3, mih; 4, a5lb; 
fi, 32rb, and fi, aOlb. Single threads. No.7, 24lb; 8, Sltb; 9, I8lb; and^ 
No, 10, 15 lb. 

9G CARDAMOMS (seed capsules), are usually in boxes weighinj 
lOOlb. each ihey are convenient for stowing, but must not be placed I 
over soli[ietrc. Bengal t»*n 8 cwt. in robbius, 60 cubic feet in boxes; 
Madras ton 8 cwi, in robbins, 50 cubic feel in boxes, lO cwl. in bags; 
Bombay ton 50 cubic feet in boxes. 



07 CASHEW NUTS (anacardium) 
or brownish colour, kidney- shaped, somewh 



are externally of a 
convex on 



greyish 
side at 



depressed on the other; the shell is hard, and between it and the kernel j 
there is lodged a thick blackish inflammable oil, very caui^ttc iu frc^sh uutsJ 



gTFTFtNS OX STOAVAGE. 



101 



CASK.^. ii* lujisiiug all cii^ks, such nh LogBbeads, puncfieons, 
iiud bnitR, vrtntAiiiing !j[»iriis, tiil, or any otiitjr vahiabU- liquitl, use 
Jn or n>p« sHn^s if possiblt;» and not can-budks. In stowing let ibem 
^Ctfcfully bedded ond fjnoined, use the slice in preferenct? to the crow- 
riliat ibt? bung boles are all up, bilge free, and beads clear I'be 
bed* Mhimld ht ihick euou*j;b to kei-p the bilge dear when placed near 
ill* bci^d*, comnaonl)* called tbe quarters, wbicb is ibcir proper position, 
ittg the strongest part of the cask. Let the chimes meet so ibat the 
lie of one cask shall not work into the head of the next. Sometimes 
«ge in the; lower tier cannot be discovered wbcii tbe upper pressure is 
*ed, a^ tbc staves close in again. Casks often leak for wan I ol »uflicient 
I rotind tlie beading. When placed in a dry position, afier expofure 
I rmtn or ft damp atmosphere, tbe hoops are liable to start, and the casks 
rill require inspection. In some trades ihi" same casks are used voyage 
ftfler vuvage, and arc lime washed every time, iinlil tbey are covered with 
ft crtist %vbich conceals the condition of tbe staves, hoops, and heads; 
rforc ihipping these, masters should have them scraped and surveyed, 
I avoid l<faka*;e and iruste, and prevent disputes and loss of freight at 
Oft of di*char;(e, Bhapy says '* strike down tbe beds of casks, place 
{wbitvwiihb them; commence stowing in tlie afier bulkbcad iu tbe 
» tlir l&rgi*st cai^ks in the keelson ticr^ and tbc guitges on each j^ide to 
i|itnid» After cumpleiiiiit the tirsl tier go on with the second, plating 
nging beds between tbe cai^ks, and stowing bark wood in all tiie break- 
ipproacb the wings, let tbe size of the casks dimini&b ;'* 
. hanging beds, wines, oils, &c. Casks are said to be 
rvowe4 a^hurion when they are slowed ath^vartsbips. To up-end a lar^e 
Lay a CBpst.in bar under tbe bilge on each side, span them logelher 
tlie cbimcH at each end ; man the bars, and up with it, sticking to it 
ppoMte *ide to prcvtnl tbe cask from going over. Foi tbe govern- 
of frciglu for casks, staves, headings, packs, hoops, &c. sec 
Adftilraliy tables li and Iff, where they are set forth \^Ty elaborately. 



SiniDBT CASKS. 


ADIOBALTT CASKS. 




Uo«tli 


Br««4ai 


CwntMiU 




Length 


Ditro. 


C«ol«iii 




A. iB. 


ft. In. 


lol. 




in. 


in. 


f*l. 


srjsr:: 


4 10 


2 10 


119,110 


Leiiger ..,, 


59 


88 


16.4 


B 1 


2 ff 


m, m 


Btttt 


63 


Bit 


110 


sar- 


4 2 


2 11 


108, 1 U 


PancheoA .. 


ill 


30 


72 


8 9 


2 4 


64, 6<!» 


llof^«ihnMl ,, 


87 


28 


64 


ll«wkirip« 


» fi 


2 a 


90, 96 


Barrel .... 


814 


24t 


Be 


iMA^rfiip^ 


9 5 
4 4 


2 1 
2 10 


46, 48 
114,118 ! 


Uftlf hhd. . . 
Kiiaerldzi .. 


2S 

25 


22* 
191 


27 
18 


Jk^^.. 


8 4 


2 4 


67, 69 1 


Firkin .,,. 


22 


17 


12 


lnap»eJ.. 

— 


a 6 


8 n 


do, 99 











103 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



90 To calculate the capacittf of a cask ; Mullijily half ihe [CA8 
sum of ilie areas of lire hvn interior circles, viz. al llie head and bun<^, by iliQ 
interior length, for the contents in cubic inches j which, divided by 277*27,1 
t!ie nuviiber nJ' cubic inches in a gallon, rednces tlie result to tljat measure*! 
Supposiiig that the cat^ks at your disposal ineiisured 21 inches in diameter 
at the bnng» 16inc]ies at the head^ and 28 inche&» iu length ; ibeo 346*'! 
and 201 I would be the respective areas, and iheir half-sum — 547*5^ 
mulli plied by 28, ajid divided bv 277 "27, would ^ve 27*65 gallons far 
the conteius, which is the capacity of a bcef-lmrreh The bulk of a barrell 
(for freight) is taken as 5 cubic feet, & barrels being 40 cubic feet or on^ 
ton bulb; the general mle for finding the content for stowage of a cask i 
to multiply the bilge diameter by itself, and the product by ibe len^^th ; 
from the result subtract one-ilth of itself; ihe remaiuder is the content 
of the cask. 

100 CASSIA is made np in cases 4 feet long by 18 inches and 1^ 
inches, and is extremely lights so much so as to cause very liule immer-' 
sion of a ship when fully laden with it. In China, granite is available 
and xvell adapted for ballast, when bound lo Singapore; worked graiiile 
for windijw cills, dour steps. Sac, may be found protitable. Cassia from 
Malabar is thicker and darker ihaii that of China, and more subject ta 
foul packing; each bmidlc should, if pc^ssible, be inspected separaielyi^ 
Cassia^ with other drugs, is usually skipped Jor England in vvhat arel 
termed drug shijjs. 

Tonnage. Bengal, Madiiis, and Bombay toa 50 cubic feet. At Calou 
a ton in casus weighs al^oiit b ewt, and measures 00 cubic feet; when tinkeii 
at 10 cwt, whit:h is aoaietirixes done, the rate of freight should be increased ia 
proportion ; Singapore should he taken at 50 eiihic feet. IJoxes of ChineseJ 
containing a pecul, measure ini4ti feet, of which 4 atitl 0"4"3:;i feet make a ta 
oF 60 cubic lout; or 7 containing half a pecul (i"l>50 each, and 1.15 feet; 
7 bo3ces coDtaitiiog a pecnl of cassia huds, measuring 6^00 each, with 4j f« 
A case of cassia buds, containing one pecul, measures 4'0b6 feet. A ohest { 
eassia usnally weighs 60 lb. 

101 CATECHU, or terra jnponica, signilies in Japanese the juic 
of a tree* It is an extract from the Acacia Catechu, ike. an astringent 
substance of tan and extractive matter, imported chiefly from Bengal an^ 
Bombay ; it^ jirincijial use is in medicine. At Singapore, terra japonicl 
or gambier is of a blick) character, and should be kepi utV sago, cotlee 
and all kinds of spices. Another uulhoriiy says, ciitch or terra japonic! 
should be stowed below every article liable to damage from its aolubU 
properties, and when practicable, it should be kept before the fore hatcb 
way. Heat will sometimes make it adhere so closely to ihe hold ibil 
the labour of discharging will cost as much as ihe freight obtained. A rui^ 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



109 



nmt belwefn every bale, may prevent them frora stickins^ [CATECHU 

lo^lber. hi the East Iodte«, h in frequently shipped as dunnage, which 

^oogtit to be expressed on the bill of lading; it should not be used ex- 

Jutiirelj for that purpose, for if too little dunnage is laid on, the catchy 

I pn*8sed by the weight of the cargo, will swell down between, and 

til the passage of water. It is sometimes packed in raltan baskets^ 

halting about I cwt. each* At Singapore, it is packed in bales of about 

IcwL cach^ covered with gunny hags and mats. In Bengal catechu is 

btpp«(l principally during the north-east monsoon ; see gambier. Bengal 

Madras ton 17cvl in unscrewed bags, Bombay ton 16cwt* in un- 

ewed bags* 

102 CATTLE require in the bold a level footing of ballast; their 

\ aiiauld be well secured to the sides by head ropes and t\u^ bolts. 

e boxes, or good wide canvas belly-bands, should be used for land- 

Bg^ f«pecially in stormy weather; see horses, and passenger sbips^ in 

whieh there are some AdmiraUy re^^ulations regiirding the conveyance of 

SoimJilf. Baron Aloerson decided, January 13, 1S5*5, in the Exchequer 

^oitrt, Oiasox tr* STt^RGE, that freight is payable only on those animals 

Dgitt alive. 

109 CEMENT in sacks occapies about the same space, and is of 

'll*^ tsme weight as coal in bul^ ; in casks 60 ton lo 100 ton of coal, 

^ "5 are sent from London, in ships averaging 100 ion each, to 

•ifgt where charterers require d«innage six inches iliick in the 

and nine in the bilges. Port charges for a ship of 100 ton : — 

i flBlie And double decrme ^ ton ; entr>' 2 francs ; clearance 50f-entimes ; 

(once yearly) I franc 50 centimes; bridgenien at the basin 

^francs; pilotage is not compulsory under 80 ton; steamers pay half 

IM CEIXON STONES are packed in small boxes which are 
beary; being valuable they should be slowed in a place of safety, 
'i» aa nat lo Ccmpt the crew. 20 cwt. go to a ton at Bombay. 

IM CHALK «(bipped in I8t»2 at Greenliithe for delivery in the 

{Nonli «*f England at If 9// jp' ton, has been accepted ai Newcantlf for 

litsitieal porpoie^ at l« ^ ton otdy because it was aHe<4ed to be " small " 

r«ii«Dly'*hiilf chalk "and '<half cJbles," Specific gravity 1870 to 2-657, 

106 CHARCOAL. Animal Charcoal, Bone Black, or Ivory Blacky 

llith* product of the dtitintclivc distillation of bone^ and is chiefly em- 

1 ib^td for refiring raw sugars; it is in coarse grains about the size of peas; 

Utoe in im% £ la to £ 15 <^ ton* When new» if dry, a cubic foot wi igha 



104 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



46|tb; a cubic foot of Newcastle coal averages 78th. [GHARCOAIf 
Welsli 86tt>, Wljcn the power of charcoal for refining sugar is exhausted, 
it is termed spent charcoal or spent black, and is largely employed by 
the manufacturers of artificial manures. Its epecific ^avliy is greater ] 
than that of the new charcoal — a cubic foot of it weighings 67 lb. It is 
generally packed in hogtsheads. The new black more commonly in h&^9 
of I cwt. to 1| cwt* each. Charcoal Dnst produced in the mauufaeture of 
the new black is iu tine powder j it is alsu used by the manure nianu-J 
faciurers; a cubic foot of it weighs, of old 62 [b. of new 48 lb. While dry. j 
Tieiiher the new nor ihe spent black is considered injurious to other goodi, 
but the black may draw moisture from the bilge water if stowed ^ear, or 
from contiguous moist goods. Freight is charged on gross weight. Care j 
should be taken to prevent animal charcoal from chokirig the pumps; itj 
will readily absorb 20 p- cent, of its own weight* and soon cause a 8bt| 
to founder. When wet, bone ash creates eonsidemble heal and steam, anti 
in this condition has damaged bales of hair from Uioliraude t<< LiverpooL 
Avoid ihe sJiipunnt of wood or peal charcoal rcccnily made, as it is] 
liable to spontaneous combustion, simply from access of the attnospherej 
in a warm moist locality, without the admixture of oil or other liquids. 

107 Ai Monte Video charcoal or bone ash is manufiUHured on a hill 
in Kight of the harbour; it is as heavy as sand, and a full lading of it 
cannot he conveyed. The Hire and aft schooner •'/«« and Susan^ of Ncn 
York, CapL Peaksox, loaded ih<re in January, 1862, She registeral 
about 320 ion American, or 340 l^mi^liab, aud took in rather more tbanj 
320 ton goods, vizi 160 ton hone ash, 1 10 ton bones, and 50 ton of 
the piih extracted fn^m the inside of bullocks' bonis. The br»ne8 con- 
sisted of horses' legs, bullocks' shins, and the bones of various auimals,| 
including dogs. Willi these a platform was laid on the ceiling Ifi to 2C 
inches, say as higli as the keelson, and a compact wall 3 fuel ihick, built] 
against llie sides» so that the bone ash was completely duunaged froml 
the skin o\^ the bold, to avoid injury from leakage. All the anieles werel 
Slowed in bulk. Freight was reckoned at 22 cwt. 40113. io the ton^ aUj 
round — a rate much against tbe ship for the bones and pilh. With tliisi 
cargo she drew 1 1 feet tWward and 1 2 aft, and was in good Irim for sailing] 
— rather liglit* Willi 380 t<ni of Cardiircoal her irim was 12^ feet forward) 
and 13 aft. With 13,U0i) bushels of wheat, j>hi|>ped at Xew York in the I 
main hold, she drew i I feet 8 in. forward and 12 feel 9 in. aft; the ends were] 
left open. Tbe seams in her ceiling and skin were tightly closed between ' 
the planks, with yelhnv pine wedges, 3 iiu wide, instead of being caulked 
with oakum, which gels wet and rots. The limber boards continued loose. 

In Prunsta a faas of charcoal is fj9 srallonff, in Aitsfrm and llt4n^arf\ 
a sahm=6*70y bushels, at Vienna a stubicb = 3*384 bushels; an Auislrian\ 
stcre of wood charcoal 141 kilo8 = 3l0ib; peat ditto 300ki!os = 66(i!ti. 



STEVENS OS STOWAGE. 



lOd 



lis C?HARTER PARTV. There are no fixed forms for charter 

^f9; those recommended by the Report o( the Council on Freights 

(gmin^^c.) will W found in full at the close of the article grain. Under 

gmQo« Dninge!i,p)lchards,&£.the forms used for those articles are attached ; 

1^ fur bnikcti stowage, see timber. Generally the inairument she^s the reg- 

^■Isl^r lofinajie. and seta forth the terms upon which the otrner or master 

^■^ti|nii^% ' tnd tlie freijL^hierorchartfrer lakes her. When at home, 

Hil w iwiii 1 by the owner and the charlerer ; abroad, by the master 

K and the charterer's agent. The master's signature at home is equally 

' UBdiiig, if acting under his owner's instructions. If a master signs con- 

Inijto the instritctions of his owner be is bound by the charter, but the 

nuater it liable for any loss accruing. It may be on plaiu paper, slumped 

afcetwards. The owner pays the cost of stamping, wbieb the broker is 

iMfiBtl Id have done within fourteen days, unless directed by both prin- 

r eipals not to do no. Tlie certified copies or duplicates of charter parlies 

Igiittn l4> iii(*rchaD(g and masters must be all stamped. — 13 and 14 Vic, 

d7* On the mnrjj^in of unstamped copies it is usual to write *'cer- 

irue copy nf the original stamped charter party in our possession," 

l)i] th« ship not be ready by the appointed ltme« or should the 

trtr not be ready with the freight, an action for damages may be 

oght by ibe injured party ; sec deniurraj^e. 

K»9 When chartered fiir a lamp sum, the draft of water should be 

lloiil^ ; §4:»metiini'H brokei-s insert a clause that coal is not to he considered 

m dea^l-weight^ in order to fill up in case of other goods falling short, 

maki? np the chartered freight. The master will only take as much as 

llii fbip can convt-'nit-nlly carry, allhungh the eh a iter party may say a full 

iiitl cotoplete cargo. Some merchants, to protect theroselFes when cliar- 

irrifig a ** full cargo/' insert the words "warranted register ions or 

[itM>QU«** thereabouts meaning fractional parts only. Otherwise a 

I mmy he described as 250 ton register or thereabouts, and prove of 300 

DQy and thus carry loO or 200 ton more than the merchant has cargo to 

^acd yrt hf. is bound to j>ravide the extra f|uantiiy or suffer the loss. 

|i!03itom of the pori will often regulate the reception and discharge. 

Rajl Coast of Kngland extends geograpliieally from Dungeness to 

pcaiille, but fiir chttrtering, the liver Thames is by usage the boundary ; 

lirirb and Dover are thus c<mjtidered in the English Channel. Co- 

16 bonieiiines named as a Baltic portj strictly speaking, it is 

tifVltiii a '* |K>rt iu the Soinitl." 

1 10 Whrn a elmrlerer becomes bankrupt^ and his assiKnees will not 

'mf whether they will continue the charter or throw it up, it has been 

rvmmmiindi'ci to call on ihem, in writing, to make iheir election, and g.ve 

llkm nil lice that unices they elect within ten days, the owner, reserving 

iaf tight of action, will consider the conti act at an eud. 

o 



m 

106 STEVENS ON STOWAGE. ^^H 

ni Dead Freight Common Pleas, July 2, [CHARTER PARTY 
1851, NicQOL V. Ellis; the Balgomne was chartered to load a cargo ofdmla 
nitrate of fioda, giiatio, or copper ore, &e. ** not exceeding ooe-tliird moi*e thafl 
her register toonage, ajnT this ia intended lo protect shipa from being over*] 
loaded, and does not oblige the charterer lo Bbip the full amount. U 
enough if he put on board so much cargo as tbo ship eiin aonveuiently carry J 
but if more inigbt bnve been properly sbipped than wbal wns put on board/ 
tbe sliipowner is entitled to a verdict for desd -freight. The measurement < 
the Bbip being 370 ton, o.wi, and M^ n.m, one-lbird more addfd to berold 
measurement would equal 506 ton Ocwt, and there were shipped of coppeR 
ore only 453 ton 4ewt, leaving a ditference of 52 ton 2 cwt» which it waa con-^ 
tended could hare been shipped; freight and primage thereon wonhl hav© 
amounted to J^240 iU Cul, Jury gavg .£150 damages ; see Brevet^ article goano 

112 Sydney General Cargo. In the case of Pus? v. Dourb, tried 
Liverpool, in August* 1803, there was a el aim of £210 12#, balance of freights 
alleged to be due on a eh urter party* Plaintiff Btated that be contracted 
carrj 1,000 ton general cargo '* weight and measurement," for a lump aum ( 
-^1,'j50, less three months' interest on ^61,3.50 B* paid the master in LiverpoolJ 
Tbe charterer stowed f>t21too 10 cwt. weight goods and 330 ton measurement, 
making in all 855 ton, but there waa space left capable of holding 100 toa] 
measurement. There should have been one- third weiiybt goods and two-thirdd| 
measurement. At Antwerp she had taken 1,0:^2 ton, and Liverpool surveyor 
wouhl slate that she could take 1,000 ton ; she registered 544 ton. Befeudanll 
stated that h Sydney cargo was invariably two thirds nii^asurement and on«-^ 
third weight. The Jury decided that the ship was capable of carrying 1,000 
ton of ordinary cargo or 850 ton of Sydney cargo, but defendant waa entitled 
lo a deduction of 31* <^ ton on tbe ditference between 800 ton and I,0fl0loo 
amounting to 1*224 15#, which being more than the amount churned, leavf 
waa given lo move in tbe Court of Error. [4 his decision waa received wit 
some surprise by the mercantile coiumunity,] 

1 1 3 Coke. A vessel was chnrtcied to load in tbe Tyne, (September, 1 863)1 
for a Metliterranean port, a general ciirgo to consist of, say 1 00 ton of iron 
goods and tbe remainder other merchaudi/e, at a lump sum of £ij'i^ and ^*1D \ 
gratuity. Sliip guaranteed to carry eipial to 23 keel, dead weiglit. Tbe vessel 1 
was laden, per bills of lading, as follows : — 

ton c. qr. 

Anchors and cluuna * S3 13 2 

IronrAilfl 54 19 8 

Fire cUy, in fctOk &4 

Cuks, (3a) Di&gnesiuKi lodA, alkali, and oth^rii . ^ n 

Hghtgoodft ...J 3 10 B 

Fire briclw 72 10 

Coke, 15 keel (11 ton ^ keel) 105 

Total 413 14 

Thus stiowiDg an apparent deficiency of 73 ton 18 cwt, as 487 ton ISowt.] 
(38 keel) was the weight tbe ship was guaranteed to carry. The merchant] 



STOWAGE, 



107 



to mak« t dedaction from the freight for [CHARTER PARTY 
ySlou 18c«t, but his claim was not considered equitable, because the coke 
n# (15 ked or 165 too) occupied a space equal to 12 ked of coal, or 254 ton 
i cwi, •bowing a difference in faror of the veseel of m ton 8 cwt By the latter 
'oo Ui« Tesael took 15^ ton more than the quantity guaranteed* 

lU Fm&cH Charter Party. Eatre lea Mms-ugn^i C&pitAme da tiavire 

iim^lfami mt dowune toaueftox actaelLement Fr^tenr d'oue part ; et BSt^ima^ 

An. 1 Le Viihewt ft'olilife 4 ae mettre k la dispOBitioa dee Affretenrs le snsdit n&vire, 
tfafli llandic, gre^ cxinipe, et ariijiillef en on mot, eu pitriaii et«t de nnvigabilit4:% et 4 le 
imirv 4 pour iceeroLr dans le t«mpi ci-aprt^s atipolef ud plbm et eutier ckargement 

4§ MB* egvd a la jaoge. pour la d««ULfiatioa de 

All. S Le nafire recerrK ■on chargement dea aflMteoni on de leor agent. 

Aft* S ha eapitaiae prendra contptc du nombre et da poids dea mamhandiftee am- 
1lir^«yiit^ alln d« ngner »em connaiiaeinentiit eoDform<?ment. 

4H. 4 L« navire claargi^f le capilaine a'engagv, apres aroir ngno aw eomudsaementa 
el f*f u leatM act nspeditioni, k pAillr au premier tempa favorable, poor le liea de aa 
Atil^aattaiD. Ob, aprci amvee et parlaite livraisoti de son ohargement an portenr deii con- 
W^mumttmtB^ ii lui acra poj^ poor frvt, comptuit et en eap^oes, la Bomme de 

Alt. S En C4JI de remorqaa^e lea a£QrtteurB n'y contribaeront. 

An, 6 n c*l arcofttc joara oorrablea et reverKiblen poor charger et decharger. 

Aft. 7 he» iourn do plaiiebe ci-deaena fixcen, etant expircst il lera payti an capitaine 
pomr cltiK{ne ]oitr dc retard, ioit poor ehargio- on dechargeTi la somme de Cdcquaktb 
Casffxna*, par tunneun de |ange. 

Alt. d hks marrhandieea aeiont ainen^eg sona palani oa jeit'es sons le pont de navire, 
il ftvvM* d« raeme, par le capUaiaef aas trai» et riaqaea den afire teoi^ on dt^ (^ousignatairea. 

AjiL9 Tons lea fraia et droiU relatifi» a la cargouon aeront aupportc's par Ica 
tftelaitn oajca comignatairea, et c&hjl concc^mant le narirei par le capiitune. 

Aft. 10 £a caa d aTariea grataes, eUes acrout regltei aoirani lee nsagea. 

l^evr iexccolioii dca insdiiee elaases et »)ndttioiia d'affiretement, les parHei con* 
I oagiigent matnaUaiaeiit le moataat da fret. 

Cte| iiaof cent, de ooaxmiiBioii lora payc par le capttaiae aox afl3r«teara anr le moat&nt 
lioafHi* 

Fall ei aigne cpr^ lecture, par lea partiea ou par Ic coortier sasdit, vera qtii la 
pm a t i ckattu portie demeaza di^ie k titre do minute, poor ea delirrer expcditioa k 

Mgrnd pat le dii Signipmr U dit 

Trmcdm Timoin 

116 CIIASSUM. Bombay ton 10 cwt. 

ll(i CHKR8E, Dutch is frequently injured through insufficient 
ring; it should not be stowed more than two deep, on suiiahle plat- 
i; ilups not filled fur ita stowage in bulk should be provided vviih a 
LTorm for die ground tier. Dutch cheese is usually freighted by the 
liaip, with otlicr goods; freighting by the lump secures to the cliarterer 
t oppoftiinily of having the cheese well ventilated. A ship will not 
f htr regiater lonuage of Dutch cbeeae. One thousand ( I ,UiHl) weigh 
iSScvt. For a long voyage they should be packed in cases with 
Olft between. Edam cheese, which is Bmall (about ^^tb* each) ^ 
I aU the yeaa- round, and la ufiuaiiy exported from AmaLerdam 



108 



STRVENS ON &iTO\VAGE. 



to the Mediterranean ; larger cheese are sent to Havre, the [CHEESE 

Bay of Biscay, anil other near ports* Small Cheddar, from 9 (ai 12 lb, 
are careftilly packed in eases, suy in sixes; if possihle each should be j 
also cuvereti with some suhstance to protecl it from raia* When packed 
in tin or zinc and the fthip is some lime in tht; tropics, reniientaliou will . 
burst the solder, and the coulents will become oily and liquid. Cbeeael 
stowed in oais will be ahu ilarly aHecled. ll is sometimes enclosed in skins^ i 
or in timed canvas. AH kinds should he kepi ofl' from damp goods orj 
vapour goods* American che«ae is very litible to become healed ihrougli 
improper stowage. Cheese^ especially if new, requires frequent luming I 
when conveying from New Zealand to Sydney, Tonnage, &C. — 20 cwt. go I 
to a ton. A clove or half-stone of cheese or butter 8tt>) a stone 16tb,J 
SuiTolk wey 32 cloves or 256 \h, Sussex 42 cloves or 336 tb, 

117 CHERANG, a lack varnish ; Bombay ton 20 cwt, 

118 CHICORY, the Chichorrium Jntyhus^ of Linnaeus, an endiv 
that grows wild on the calcareous soils of the north and the south of 
England, and in most parts of Europe; qnanlilies are produced in J 
Holland and Belgium and are shipped at Bruges and Harlingen; thel 
han'csi there is in October, hut shipmenis take plac^ all the year round. 
Before chartering, a master should ascertiiin the kind offered. Chicory I 
may he divided into four kinds, crude^ kUu-drifd^ roasfed^ and tjnfund^ 

Crude chicory, viz, the gj'een rot>ts which are about tlie size of 
parsnips, ia seldom put on hoard ship ; the roots are cut up for the kiln, 
after passing through wliich tbey are culled raw or kiln-dried* They are 
then roasted in the same manner as the berries of coflee, and afterwards 
broken into nibs or pieces about the size of coffee berries, so as to bej 
ground in the mill with cofTee, or ground lo powder fur mixture with and 
as a substitute for coflTee. 

Kilndried chicory is mostly stowed in the hold in bulk ; wlien packed^ 
it is iu hags, A Goole vessel of 60 ton register stowed 06 ton of kiln- 
dried roots at Bruges* A sack containing four bushels will weigh 1 cwt, j 
which gives 28 tb, to the bushel. During the passage at sen it usually j 
gains in weight. Kiln-dried chicory soon becomes mouldy by dampness ;J 
it ia not considered liable to danaage other goods. 

RaasUd and ground chicory for exportation, is packed in tins from 
28tb. @ 56Ib, each, soldered to prevent the contents from becoming hajrd ; 
these are enchjfced in cases of frum 1 g 2 cwt. eacli, and in casks of 4 ® 
7 cwt* Chicory nibs weigh lighter than co iTee benies, but ground chicory | 
or "powder ** as it is called, weighs heavier than ground coffee, viz, 38 tb, | 
III the bushel, coflee being '3C>\tr. A flour barrel is estimated lo hold' 
168 ttj. of chicory powder and 1 06 tb. uf American flour. When roasted, 
chicory is less linble to injury^ but it has a tendency to toughness. 



109 



GermanSt aft4ir grinding llieir roasted chicory, damp it and [CEIGORY 
mould It Into blocks; the English pack it dry^ but it often becomes hard 
Jyr exposure* 

WSIOHT OF A BirSHEL, 



Chicoky. 
Btm or gro<m rgcrla *• 
lQli]-dn«d i, 



My 



Kiiw or green berriet 514 

Rottsled .., 32i 

Groond .......*.... SAy 30 



1 19 CHINA ROOT, a species of Smilax, which grows in the West 
^ndics Htid China. Bengal and Madras ton II cwt, in ba;Ts, or 50 cubic 
|k<t ID boxes; Bombay 60 cubic ^eel in boxes. Chinti 12 peciils in bags. 

J20 CHTNSE. To chinse or cbinclj, is Lo caulk j^lightly, wiili a 

I or chisel* those seams or openings which will not bear the force 

for caulking more securely; see lialches, in ihe ariiclc male. 

121 CHIRETTA, a bitter plant. Bengal and Madras ton 50 cub. ft, 

I2t^ CHLORIDE OF LIME, or bleaching powder, is soluble in 

f, and liable to decomposition through heal and moisture. An the 
levuUed from it corrodes metals rapidly, and lias an energetic action 
I ftll vegetable substances, the greatest care is necessary when stowing 
llll A miscellaneous cargo, for a long voyage, that it be properly packed, 
tV preferably in stone jars, but at least not in dry but in clui^e tight casks. 
I>c(l with wooden hoops; it is however slated thttl the vapour of 
I _ .. . is nearly us destructive as actual contact with the article itself, 
su Uiac the most careful stowage cannot be relied on as a preventative; 
ie« bleaching powder and dangerous good^, 

183 CHOCOLATE, a kind of cake or bard paste nnid*» of the pulp 

of the cocoa or chocolate seed, gently tvashed and mixed witli sugar, cloves, 

rciiatiamon, and other spices. Chocolate is exported from France, Sonso- 

t^ and Peru* The Admiralty rale is 1 6 hal f4iogsheadiJ or 26 small casks 

lorn lOEU Admiralty balf-hogshead is lOHlb. net, and Bmall cask 55 tb. 

1^ CIDER for warm latitudes is best in small packages; see ale, 
ea^i, lif]uids^ &c ; for exportation it is said thai cider should be at least 
Iwdro months old or it will be very liable to burst; spccitic gravity 1^018, 

ipe contains 100 (^ 1 18 gallons. 

12$ CINDERS, 16 chaldron weigh 10 ton, and occupy a space of 
i cubic feci or 1 keel. 

IM CINNABAR, a red ore or mineral substance, from which mer- 
eurv U rhwiy obl&tned ; sp. grav. 54 19 (5 10' 1265. E.LCos. ton Iti cwu 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



VZ7 CINNAMON, the dried imder baric of tbe branches ofa speeief 1 

of laurel trte. Tl*e bark is stripped from tbe beginning of May lo the i 
of October. Tt is bbipped cbielly at Ceylon, and most frequently during 
the south-west monsoons, but espcrially in September and October. A 
small quantity only ia exported from Java, whence it is sbipped all ibe 
year round. Tfio^e who taste and chew it^ to examine tbe quality^ can 
seldom perform the disagreeable duly for more tban two days at a lime^ 
as it deprives ilie tongue and lips of all moisture* When cat into small 
pieces ikey curl up, and tbe smaller are clipped inside tbe larger. Tbe 
bandies are very light and are usuiilly placed on tbe lop of tbe cargo j and 
sometimes ibe interstices are filled with black pepper, to prevent ibe fla- 
vour from evaporating. Al Ceylon and Singajjore it is packed in bales 
or bags of 60ltx (^ KMJttu eacb, of vvbieb eigbt are said to go to a ion 
for freight. 6cwt, in balea, and 50 cubic feet in chests, go lo a ton at 
Bombay. A bale is 80 tb, 02 i lb, &c* 

128 CIV*ET; much of the civet citronella oil is produced by dis- 
tilling the leaves of tbe Andropo^on Scha'nanthus, which grows wild in 
Ceylon. In the neighbourhoods of Galle and of Colombo, large tracts 
are under cultivation* Tlve average export from Colombo is about 
4^(*U0lt>. annuiiliy ; and ibe price AsXd }^ Hk The civet now brought to 
European markets is from Calicut, capital of tbe province of Malabar, 
from Bassora on tbe Euphrates, and from Abyssiwia. 

129 CLAY, like other heavy moterials, should lie on the floor, fore 
and aft* and be raised to a point at the main hatchway, decreasing towards 
ihe bow and stern. 2QcvrL go lu a ton ; formerly at Tei^mouth 22\ cirti 
on account of its wetness; specific gravity 1*112* 

130 CLOTH ; in the Ad mi rally tables of tonnage at ibe commence- 
ment, will be fuund tbe allowance for freighting cloth coats, jackets^ 
trousers, great couts, flannel, serge, stockings, blankets, shirts, palliasses^ 
bolsters^ sheets, towels, &c. 

151 CLOV'ES are tbe flower buds of an East In din tree growing in 
the Muhicca Islands; 5,000 weigh lib; they readily imbibe moisture if 
stowed near any liquid. In tbe Dutch settlements they are made up, 
the best rn chests, inferior in bags. In Colombo, they are packed in 
small bags of 50 lb. each, and are exported thence all the year round, but 
more in the south west than in the north-east monsoons. In Amhoyna 
the harvest takes place in Novetnber and December, In Zanzibar they 
are packed and shipped direct for England in iriegularly-shaped mat bags 
weighing about 120 tb ; they should be stowed in the 'tween decks, or high 
up in small vessels. Bengal and Madras ton, 8cwt. in bags, 50 cubic 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Ill 



cbests ; Bombay 50 cubic feet in cheats^ nnd lOcwt. [CLOVES 
btgfi; soDietimes nt Bombay 7 cwl. only go lo a Ion, because the 
pockaiges are what are tenued "'mala" ant! occupy much space. A malt 
|wd^h8 80lb; a chest 200 tb. 

132 COAL, Bbips sail best when coal is heaped up towards the 

baichirays in a line coiTesponding nitli the direction of die keelson ; this 

de i^ cunaidered far more necessary with heavier goods such as mineral 

, iron, &c. Small vessels eannotp hoivever, afford to lose any spnce* 

?oa»tin^ colliers are always fully laden, unless their coiistrucLiun will 

not admit of it. With 'Iween-deck ships the lower main hatches are left 

Bpen 10 replenish the hold, as the carj;o Htltles ; tlie loss of several large 

bipa htta been attributed to neglect in not rLMUoving a sufHeient ivumber 

t>f planks from ibe 'tween decks lo permit the cargo to be fairly distributed 

lifi iht? main hnld. When loadin;*, llje large coal naturiilly falls away to 

the wings, and a quantity of small is thus produced, aud is oflen found 

limmediHtely under the hatchways; this ohstrucls the approach lo the 

llarge^ however much there may be, and ihe consignee declines possibly 

receive the cargo until the dust is thrown on deckj the consequent 

iit:ht be avoided by Irimmin*^ olT ibe small at the loading port* 

liia who ship lar^^e cargoes at Newport frequently dig out a (k^w 

ion of tbe dead vmall in the wake of (he hatchway and replace it with 

, lirgc. At Newcastle, eight men as trimmers are usually employed in 

llbe bu]d« and tlicy take care to remove ihe small from the hatchways, 

I Gas coaU are the most friable, sleam coal the least. The wr>rd Hartley 

I dtf«i^nAies the coal to he used forsleafii purptises, asWallsend indicates 

[the be%t description of house coaL It is stait^d to be tlie practice at 

[Hortlfpool to prepare two sets of bills of lading for coal consigned to 

|lh«* mrrchant's agents abroad ; one set shows the true quaulily as between 

llittyer and seller, and liie other a less qiianiity by which freight is paid. 

lAt I-ivirpf»ol two-thirds of the coal shi|»ped is brought down by canal 

koata and is ihon carted to the docks, which involves considerable waste* 

ad ibereby diminishes the freight j when transhipped direct from the 

Icttial boaia there m very little loss. At Calcutta consignees sometimes 

rlo accept cargoes by the quauiily in the bill uf lading, less 4^ ceirt, 

at niaatrm wilt exercise their otvn judgment herein. Tlie flarenscrai^ 

L(tr< linst^ed) shipped 77u ton at Liverpool in March, 1S62, and di»- 

Uliirgrd h30 ton at Calcutta in July« lfi^62— every tenth basket was 

Iwrtgbed. In bilU of lading there h an important case relative to the 

I of coal at Singapore. Cual is said to encourage dry rot in the 

rk of ilic holds of ships. 

1^ Weight. There is no great diflerence in the weights of diirereiit 

I of ordinary coal, the lightest being about 74 tb, and the heaviest 7t>lb. 



lis 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



tbe cubic fool; but tbe most usual weigbt is 75 tb, whicb [GOAL 
is IBcwt. 9\h, ibe cubic yard, CnscrceTied Newcastle coal for gas and 
otber purprises is beavier than screened, aud consequently when sbips are 
bidt'n with »bat coal, they draw more water; in some ca^^es below their 
proper bear in j^. Steam coals being harder do not become so much broken 
m hoirse ronl, and thus rdaiively occupy less space; this is tbe main 
cause why slups fully hid en with steam coals are more deeply immersed 
ihnn when fully ladpu with house coals. This refers to coals from which 
the dijpjt and smnll have been removed hv passint^ over screens, as coals 
which are not so treated, and are shipped in the stale in which they came 
from the mine (large and small mixed), weigh heavier than screened 
coaU» to the extent of 10 ]^ cent, or thereabouts, [t arises from the fact 
that tbe dnsi and the small are mingled with the larf^er pieces and leave 
fewer interstices. Coal for ^as purposes is of this description. Tbere 
r is scarcely an ap]ireciablc dilFerence in the specifii^ fi^ravity of steam or 
liO!»se coal, or of any of the coal in the Durham and Northumberland 
fields. A cubic fool of solid coal weighs about 8€lt) ; if broken, the same 
woipht occupies nearly H cubic feel of space. As a general rule CardiiT 
coal ift of Renter specific gravity than Newcastle coaU An experienced 
shipper says tlinl Hartlepool coal, may, asref^ard?^ wcifrbt* be assimilated 
with IlAswEtL's Wallscnd, the specific gravity of which is 1*28. Taken 
as a dead-weight cargo, the quantities of coal wliicb can be carried by 
various ships of certain dimensions, arc recorded incidentally in this 
work under tin* head of several difrcrcnt articles, for which see tbe index; 
see also ballasl, general cargo, and trhiss. At tbe end of this article there 
are tables of specific gravity of coal. 

134 An c?qierifnccd merchant residing in a Channel port, when 
treating on the vveiirhts <if coal, savs^tliat masters of vessels term cannel 
coal liravy, CarditT heavy, chalks light, Hartlepool West heavy, Old light, 
Liverpoid light, Middlehonmgh medium, Nenlh Hght, Newcnslle light 
and mediun), Newport heavy, Portheawle medium, Sunderland light and 
medium, and Swansea heavy. One |i> cent, and 2 (p-cent. additional may 
be protni^jcd at ihe loading ports, hut the weight discharged depends often 
on the slJitc of the weather; if raining wben loading the weight will be 
there; if dry the cargo often makes out less than the intake invoice. 
He has reeeivfd 4 (h' 6 ton less tlian tbe invoice; bis cargoes ranged 
from 1*30 (n^ 300 ton. He has received a surplus on cannel coal, but 
sometimes 2 (h> 4 cwt. short of the shipment, which is attrihueed to the 
fact of its being liable to chipping when loading and discharging. 

134 At Newport, coal renmins some time in the (rucks, and if the 
WPAlber is wet the cargo on delivery turns out short. Merchants in 
Flnglisb Channel ports complained in 186,5, that where shipments from 
Welsh ports formerly Itjfl on diachajge a fair per cenlagc in favor of the 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



113 



t» the disebftrgc latterly Ijas been short of the quantity [GOAL 

lovaiced. MitBters have hud to pay out of their freight for the quantity 

ic^cicnt by hill of lading. At Cardiff, mates should keep an exact 

cciMint of the number of the watfous aitd barges, so ihal I hey nmy be 

itiiibtied as to the weight and quality shi()ped, by referring In the docti^ 

iit!tit4 nhich accompany the trains and cnnal boats. At the terminus 

faid, Glasgow, it is the usual prdctice to supply coal only in trucks of 

'10 ton each, so that roasters have m load untre or 1l*ss* 

IM In the Tyne, where the wugons are lei down by a drop, and 
«r« computed to hold 53 cwt, encb, it lias been recunjuieuded to have 
lite c^mtents of one full wagnn weighed, and to see that ihe others are 
fall, in order to furtify the master who has to sign bills of lading for 

Iveigbt, although, j;enerally speaking, he never sees the cargo weighed. 
On the Tyne aud Wear, the oni(iual wagon iif 53 cwt. is being largely 
Huper&edcd. Couls are brought lor sshipuient iu trucks conlainiug from 
W (i HJ ton. Cargoes shipped at Hull aud discharged in a port in the 
EngUkh Channel u&nally make out short of tlie quantity invoiced. 
[ 137 Loading in the Tjnae. Shippers are compelled by law to load 
^eAscIs in due turn as they are rejidy. Tlie Act of Parliament applies 
only to ves*i'Uuf uiore than 6 keel (127 ton 4cwt.)^ but tlirough custom 
^^ii is adopted ulrnost universaUy. The detention in the Tyne depends 
I^Hfterefore mostly nn the length of turn. Steamers do not take turn with 
^^pitlin^ fillips. The greater certainly and regularity of sieamera in per- 
^Bfi'rming their voyages made it necessary to arrange for their loadings 
inme lime be(nrehrind. Steamers are usually on time charter, and run 
rgularly to London or elsewhere, where iheir position a week or a fort- 
[light in adviuice is always knuwu (accidents of course excepted) » and 
emcnUi are made by ihe colliery accordingly* Sailing ships are 
lain even after arrival in the port, having ballast to discharge, to do 
iihich ihcy have a longer or shorter time to wait. Hence the loadings 
Ftlie two classes of ve^seU are practically kept separate. Steamers load 
L the time prearranged for, and sailing bhips take turn among tben)selves. 
l»ii plan, which \» the only one thai will suit the requirements of the 
r^nc coal trade, is found to work very well and satisfactorily. The time 
copied in loading ships when actually commenced, depends on die 
luce of the colliery; smaller collieries will load 12 (a^ 15 keel per 
tiy, ihe larger ones 3() (&; 40 keel, and upwards; some of the gas 
rien ship l,20<i and l,^>(H> ion ]ier day. Coal shipments in the 
fWear are much the same ai those in the Tyne. In ihe article 
temnrrage reference is made to the lime occupied in loading and un- 
lig eoal. 

fM The afual rate of discharge in the pool in the Thames, is 49 ton 

ptr iaj ; Queen't Bench, June 26, 1^3, and August 12« lBd5. 



114 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



139 Gas Coal. Newcastle gas coal is heavier tli an Hart- [CO^ 
L£i'». Peareth main and Pelaw main gas coal will slow Sor4 tf^ ceij 
more than ordinary house coal, from llie same pit. In the didivery a|| 
large quantity of Newcaslk gas coal al a Channel port, the dischai^ 
has b^^en 3 j^cent, more than the quantiLj invoiced. 



Twelve Gargm mYOIGll) at ITEWCMILE and DISCHAEGBD at FLYKO 



NEW PELTOM. 

Dec.l2| 1962 Btau of th« Wa»r.. 

Jttly 9, 1868 Ditto 

Jnly 2» 1868 Tamab 

Oct. 9, 1862 CoNQtTEST 

Mcli. 9, 18C3 Ditto 

FEABETH GOAL. 

S«B. 10, 1863 Stab of thk Webt . * 

Feb.25, 1864 Ditto 

MaT 29, I8fi2 Tamab 

Joly 1, 16^2 Ditto ,. ,. 

Aug. 9, 18«2 Ditto 

Aug.lO, 1863 Ditto 

WASHINGTON COAL. 
Oct. 16» 1863 Btah of tke West .. 



Invoiew r|Uitiitit)p| 


tmi 


cwt. 


265 





375 


IS 


190 


16 


318 





318 





969 


10 


273 





196 





192 


10 


189 


n 


199 


10 


S80 


18 



Ion cwt 
283 13 
278 9 
197 16 
S8l 19 
332 16 



284 15 

285 9 

207 8 

199 1^ 

193 17 

210 10 



271 



1 



Dimenftioiii Star of Mi? Wrst : regiBter tonnage 176» tengtli 8t) feett brciiflilt l^J 
7 ji]ib«{i, depth of hold 12 feet K jnches. fhmar: registfir lonnagc 1^3 1^, kngtb < 
hrU Irvkdih V^"^ tvH, dtpth of hold 11^ feet* 

140 CanneL Glasgow cannel stows at least 10 ^ cent, less 

Newcastle house coal. One authority says that Newcastle cannel 
and turns out the same as house coal ; oihers say ihai it 18 «o ranch h^ 
than ordinary gais coal that a Mp cannot iWl herself with it; kA> 
cannel is much heavier than ordinary gas coul ; n ship cannot fill 
with it. Specific gravity of cannel nay 1*270, Dr. Uuk sayw l*2l 

141 Culm (Welsh) ifj shipped chiefly at wliai are termed th| 
ports in the Bristol Channel, Neath, Idanelly, Swansea, and Buij 
Culm is anthracite or smokeless, and is heavier than Wtrlsb ctij 
generally shipped ''nnscreeued" or what is termed *' through and i 
AS it is raised from the colliery. The !ar|re is used in malt- hoi 
small in lime-kilna. The hriganline Si*tin-Hir, of Jersey, whicll 
157 ton, and is 97 feel long, rolls very much with 207 ton of] 
culm, when she draws aft 13 feet 4 inches, fonvard 11 feei 
and her hold is say seven -eighths full, When filled with 300 toj 
coal she draws 13 feet a(t and II feet 6 inches forward, n\ 
paraiively easy at sea. With 2H6 ton Neweastle coal (Hi;^ 
which (ills her chock a hlock, she draws less than with the 
Specific gravity culm 1'300 @ 1'370. An Irish barrel of cu 



115 



\A2 Coke. The specific gravity averages 0-744 ; tliU raay [COAL 
he eorrect in regard to coke produced in gas works, whicli is much Uglitur 
than that made for locomolivc aud furnace or foundry use. Even among 
llie laiu^r cokes shipped in ilie Tjne, there is considerable difference ia 
the wctgljL The best foundry Tyne coke is very heavy, and the condensed 
iiK«rly the weight of coal. In the standard table of good^ proportioned 
•t the beginning of this work, 1 1 ton are taken to occupy tbe 
A6 21 ton 4 cwt, or 1 keel of Newcastle coal. In practice, 
stow i2 lou of coke per keel; large vessels more. A vessel was 
ed Bt £23 <> keel of 21 1 ton upon the quantity of coal which the 
»fttrr guaranteed to load, t.^, 9 keel. She loaded (j keel of coal and S^ 
ke. The merchant contended she was not of 9 keel capacity* 
j :< r however proved that he had discharged 885 quarters of wheat, 

hich ui over ^ keel bulk ; and that he had had 200 ton of iron ore, and 
juiothcr lime l'J4 ton of iron, ou board. This was considered sufficient 
idonte of the ship's capacity for keel of coal. An experienced coal 
rs tlmt the coke loaded in this case must liuve been of a very 
111 M>n; with heavy Tyne coke she would have taken fJ keel of 

nearly 4 keel of coke. A good stowing ship of 9 keel capacity 
•iMMiJd tjake 6 keel of coal and 4 of heavy coke; or 40 ton otlcoal and 8^ 
er 9 keel of coke. Ram sat \s patent condensed coke (Newcastle) is of 
ihe specitic gravity of steam coal, or nearly so. Peat coke is estimated 
to occupy the Mime space as comuum coke* The detaiU of a partial cargo 
cuke occur in the article charter pi^rly. 
14^ CliarcoaL It ia the commun practice lo estimate 100 ton of 
coal to occupy tlje same space a-s 2M ton of coke ; see charcoal. 
144 For conveyance abroad the harder descriptions of coal are con- 
best, not being so liable to hrcak during the transit from the pit 
to a distant place of discbart^e. Mr. Mougan, British Consul at Baliia, 
eDm plained in ISdti, of the preference given to foreign vesssels by the 
ilMfchADts tliore. In alluding to one of the causes, he says — " Some 
igVDU charter on their own account vessels which, having only a limited 
m to load, are (ittcd up to the maiu hold to make it appear they are 
ly loaded and ready for sea. When the lay-days expire, those 
ikerR* in order not to pay demurrage, fill up the sides aud cover 
valuable property with coal. Cambrics, muslins, and other tine article* 
am tlim spoiled^ and consiguees naturaUy object to being subjected to 
icb cmrcleasa^aa/* Coal from Sydney is frequently bliort of weight on 
in California: a deficiency of GO ton in 420 having occurred on 
Ion. At Newcastle, N.8AV. (70 miles north) the coal lies in 
es]Hiaed lo damp air and rainy weather, and for conveyance to 
(cy IB inutafetred into barges, the masters of which are not always 
AiitDLiie to Uie pumpv. The danipnehs dries off during the paseogd 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



ftcross tbe Pacific; this accounts to a certain extent for tlie [COAL 
shortness of iveiglit on dt!livery» but mates should be |mrticulnr to see 
ibat ibe ship <jbttiins from tlie bargee tbe full rj ii an uiy slated on ibe bills 
of kfling. 

l4o Coal is liable to danger of two kinds, totally different, allbongb 
oflen confounded to^rether; one is from spontaneous combustion, and ibe 
other ihe linbilily of ignition and explosion of ihe gas evolved from the 
coal> and remaining in the sliip*. 

146 SpoNTANEOtrs Combustion. Any coal containing a Iar;;e 
quantity of iron pyrites is apt to beat when saturated with water, and 
after some time to burst into flame; the only prevention is said to be to 
Iccep the coal dry» Some liinds of coal are free from iron pyrites, atld 
lb ere fore not subject to spontaneous combustion. 

147 ItivrTioN. Every liiud of steam and oiber coal, especially 
when rajudly transferred from tbe mine to the ship, gi%'es out carlmreiled 
hydrogen gas or fire damp, which is explosive when mixud with alnios- 
pheric air, on llie application of llame. This rjas is peculiarly h^bt* and 
is considered most ex]*losive when mixed with nine times its volume of 
atmospheric air; with twelve limes it will not ignite. If the haithes are ' 
fastened down directly the cargo is received, which is frequently dune to 
keep out the rain or cold» or to prepare for sea, the gas finds its way from 
the coal to tlie spaces under tlic deck, and penetrates through the btdk- 
beads into the lazaretle, cabin, and forecastle, and when a maich is lit, or a 
lighted candle exposed^ ci^pecially in tlie hizarette, an explosion may take I 
place and damage the decks, and jeopardize ibe lives of ibe crew. To 
avoid this let two funnels, of 12 or 15 inches diameter, with moveable 
lops, be placed one forward, the other aft, comniuuicating through the 
deck with the hold ; keep a vacant .space between tlie cargo and the beams* 
Turn the top of one funnel to the wind, the other from it, a current of ^ 
air will then conduct the explosive ^as harmlessly out of tbe ship; this 
is said to be an eiTectual remedy. It has been also suggested that coal 
niay be ventilated by buildings with large lumps, two shafts communis 
eating below; one with a wind -sail would act as a down -cast for fresh 
air, tbe other as an out-cast for foul air. In addition to this keep ibe 
batches open 24 or 36 hours, on all occasions, hut especially when bound 
on long voyai^'es, particularly to the southward. 

14B Mr. MuuRAT, wlien speaking of coal for engines, says *' the best 
method of prevention, is to ensure perfect dryness in the coals when they 
are etowed in the bunkers, and to select a variety not liable to progressive 
decomposition/' By tbe Queen*s Regulations, 1862, captains of ships of 
war are instructed, in order to prevent accidents by lire from spontaneous 
combustion of coal, to see that the whole of tbe wood work of tbe coi 
boxes, whether it form part of the side of the ship, or otherwise, be securel 



I 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE* 



117. 



fned with iron or copper Blioaflung. He is lo *irder ilit^ [COAL 
gi'eaiesi care to He taken that the eojil is never shipped wet; and that, 
wheo shippedj it shall be kept as dry as possible. Whenever a fresh 
jsijpply is received on board, directions are to he given tlial the remainder 
ill I he ctinl boxes, is, as far ns may be praclieahlit» so trimmed as to ensure 
its bein;^ Hiist uiJed. The AdniiraUy will not pernat coul to bo sliippnl 
iiH cargo ill a vessel conveying a large titiaiility of govtrnni' nl powder, 
ikmnmnition^ or comhnsiibles* 

149 Excepting the Aberdare Valley and some othrr surts, u hieh are 
free fn»ra iron pyrites, brassey coal and sieam coal, esperjally n'fien damp, 
are, according to their chemical fjualilics, more or less liable to ypoiUnn- 
eous eomhnsuon, and when coals from dilTcrent pits are mixed, the danger 
is aatd to be increased. Every ship laden with this class of combustible 
gOfKis onght to have a safety lamp for exclusive use in ihe lower hold, 
and under ihe cabin fltmr; few accidents occur, except through uegk^n or 
ignorance. On the ItJih Jnly, 1862, one of two luhorers, Twinkr and 
Thohpk, struck a light in the hold of the coal -laden screw-steamer 
Fiorenee Nightingale, at Hartlepool, when an explosion occurred. The 
iwo men were frightfully burnt, and a third named Mooney^ who was 
descending tlie main hatchway, was thrown about three feet in the air, 
and fell on die deck; all the flesh was taken oil his arms and hreasU 
The steamer su lie red no damage. On the 27 th of April, 1866, the cargo 
of Shotton gas coal ignited spontaneou.<«ly on board the screw ^team-vessel 
htipnie when near the mouth of the Hiimber, bound lo Antwerp. Several 
of the crew were injured and she returned lo We,Ht llaribpooK 

150 Weight and Measurement Mr. R. C. Tavloh says, '* we will 
now advert to two or three facta which have come to our knowledge 
respecting tlie uncertainty of any standard of measurement, after long 
experience, that can be adopted as asubsliiuie for vveitjlit in selling coal. 
For instance, otie busibel, measured when dry, weigh3 Irmu 81 @ H51b. 
The American bilinuinou^ coals are commonly averaged at HUMi. p-husl^el. 
The same coal, if measured when weffed, paradoxical as it nniy appear, the 
weigiu will be found not so great. The fact is proved conclusively, that 
in the dry coal the small particles run to Jill wp ihe cavities, making the 
whole almost solid^ whereas wet coal only closed up the hollow cavitiea 
in the hnshel ; the fragments clog together, and the whole did not weigh 
80 much as the dry coal of the like admeasurement/* 

161 Formerly it was calculated that if a block measuring exactly ii 
cubic yard, nearly equal to five bolls, he broken into pieces of a moderate 
«izc, it may measure seven bolls and a half; if broken very small, it will, 
It is said, measure nine bolls. A boll is 36 Winchester bnHhel8 = 9,676 
cubic inches J 7J bolls =1 cubic yard of coal ; 6 bolls = ! chaldmn. In 
Scotland 96 cubic yards of coal are e(|uivalenl lo li2 ton weight. 



ri8 



STEV^ENS ON STOWAGE. 



152 At Cljarlemi in Belgium, ibc di/Ierent classes lue [COAL 

dislinguisbed by ibc roUoiviiig (UvisiQas : 

1 Fat coaI, grm. 2 Medium coal, demi gro$, 8 Lean coal» meagre. 

Each of these qualities is subdivided into minor classes ; Gros^ pieces 
iskicted al ibe mine; picked large coal, Toute-vemmt^ ihe remainder 
after selection of tbe gros. GailleUe, a size smaller tban (be ^ros^ but 
wbicb musl not bo less than six inchea square, GaiUettene^ tbe coal 
wliicb remains after deducting the ifmlleile and the menu, passiuf; tb rough 
a sifter of IJ inch ojjeiiings. Menu, that wliicb is passed ihrougb a 
cribble or sieve whose meshes are IJ inch wide. 

153 Continental Ports. Owing partly to the diiFereiice between tbe 
mode of vveigbltig and meastiring coal in some condneQtal ports and 
that which prevails in Great Britaiiip frequent dispyles arise. It is 
suggested that Bricish Constuls shoulcl be provided with British standard 
weights, and lliat tiiey should be bounds on the application of shipmasters, 
to test the foreign weights and measures employed. The Sunderland 
Shipowners' Society in its report for 1863, says "it is well known to 
shipowners wiio bave sent their vessels to French, Spanish, and Italian 
ports, laden with coal, that the bill of lading quantity is, by some con- 
trivance or other, made io control the quantity di^^charged, and on which 
I he freight is made payable : and it is equally well known that the hill of 
lading quantity is genernlly far below the qaanlity actually put on board. 
Two interests are I bus defrauded; tbe Commissioners of the river Wear 
are not puid so ranch in dues as they ought to be paid ; and the shipowners 
are not paid their agreed freight.'* 

151 France* When delivering coal at Havrej Dieppe, and af Bonen 
especially, wiiere the cargo goe^ into ntilway trucks, Knglisb masters com- 
plain tbttt they have great dillieultv in ascertaining the qnantity deli^'ered, and 
there are In^qaeut disputes with tlie consignees. To meet tliis dilficulty, 
Messrs. Neville & Co, of Llanelly^ allow 2J ^ cent, additional on all coal 
' sent to French ports. One master slates, May 22, IBOO, — " most sliips bound 
to France are chartered to deliver ^90 hectolitres coal per keel, and masters 
take it tor granted thitt 290 Itectolitres make a keel. However, instead of 
deltveiing ill ton per keel, they deliver about 24 ton, weighing on an average 
K] (aj Hi kilogrammes/* An owner adds. May ioth, — ''I have had ships at 
BordeauXi but was always paid at the rate of 252 hectolitres, which is fair/' 
A French men^hant writing Juno 15th, says, — "the rate of UlHi bectolitres 
means hectolitres rm (straight or streak measure). At Bordeaax the 252 hec- 
tolitres, are for hectolitres comhki (lieap or full measure). As a practical man 
1 can warn Enffliwh masters that the average rate at that port, when coal is 
loaded in Kugland of good ordinary si/e, is always 25G hectolitres comblei per 
keel. M. Roihkr, Minister of Commerce^ in writing to the merchants of 
Marseilles, Febmary 24, 1B62, states — '* tiiat some French masters, on ani* 




11 ibeir port of deiunation, found that by aotne itit?x|flicftble [COAL 
dcfloieDoy, tbey could Dot deliTer tbe quaoiity of coal stated in the bills of 
lading (it Cardiff aod Swansea.'* One master had iueerted in bis charter parlj 
tliat freight was to be paid on the quantity declared in the inll of lading, but 
b© took care to sign only for the quantity receJTed. He would not commence 
utilc^ading until this conditioD was accepted bj the consiguee. Mous. Rochee 
adds — ** that in caae ahippc^rs should refuse to subscribe to this arrangement, 
fearing tbat a part of the cargo might htive been cast into the aea, masters 
might offer to prove tliat the hatelies bad not been opened, unless in case of 
Injury by bad weather^ when the loss could be regidflted according to law/* 
Mr Pemdehton, Britieh Consul at Caen, wntes April 30, 1858, — ** where the 
loading ia hy the Newcastle chaldron, freight (unless there are conditions to 
the cooirary) is paid at Caen on the quantity delivered, taking 82 becloHtres of 
lai^e, and 83 hectolitres of small coal, as the equivalent to the cbaldron. It 
ought to be understood that tkeae propoilionB^ viz. the ^i and 3-1 bectolitres — 
are not Ute real equivalents; and that mastera should not accept tliis basis, 
nnWs» they are to receive a con&iderable rcduL-tiou on the amount of their 
freigbt, Ships llius freighted invariably deliver a lesser quantity than that 
wbicb is menlioncd in the bill of lading. A ship, supposed to have taken on 
board ft5 cbaldron, haw, by the calculation of 32 hectolitres, lately delivert-d 
tJ cbaldmn less. All differences raigbl be avoided if coal was shipped by tiie 
ton of 1.016 kilognimmes, or by the keel, giving in weight 21 ton 4owt. as 
21,fUn kilogrammcB," 

ir>;v Spain. One master complains (January, 1863) that bis vessel was 
laden with Hh^ ton steam coal, for which, at a Spauisb port, be was oHered 
cnnmjlar documents for -It'i, 000 kilogrammes, wbicb at 1,015 ktlograrnmes to 
Ihe ton, ehowt'd a total only of 4f\0 ton. Atiotber master writes (same date) 
tbat bis vessel heing latlen for a Spanish port, he called at Ibo sbipper'a 
(liBce, wbirro be wua ofibred consular notes for clearing at the rale of 25 quin- 
iala to tbe tonnage per register, in^^tead of 22 quintals to the cargo. Capt« 
W. TonD, of tbe banpie BomUi, of Galway, writes, that when bo deliTcn d at 
Malag$^ December, 1>^03, a cargo of lOO ton of iron and 400 ton of con), tbe 
merchant first said there were 17 ton of coal short and then 5 ton, o» which 
deduction settlement was made^ the tri Junal being too bIow for Cupt, Tor>n 
to wait His coal was discharged into lightei-n wnd weighed when landed ; in 
consequence of the Mirf. the lighters are sometimes detuined aibiat two or three 
days, during which time it is very probable tbrit pilfering occurs. C»pt. Tonn 
rcrommends a prote<!ling clau«e in tbe charter party. In Augtist, islin, an 
ownor complained that on discharging coal from his ehi]> al Alicante, t)»*? *'ar^o 
made out 11 ton 14 cwL short. Whun the vessel loaded at Swiin?^* a, the sbip- 
j>cnt jnMsted on the roaster signing bills of lading for weight, of which be could 
form no opinion there, as ho could judge only by the ship's immersion, and if 
there wag mucli fresh water in the dock, he might he denoived. At Alicante, 
cargo iH weighed by the Wfighbridgo of the railway company* ou tbe correct* 
tie!«H of wbicb (he master must rely> It is said that Boxne vcsaels turn out \t^l 
ton abort ; small vosacda 4 ton and upwards ; one bvirque is reported to have 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE- 



Proportionate tonnage. At Newcastle And in the Norths 20 cwt. [GOAL 
or 10 liirge sacks contain 1 Ion ; 21 ton 4 cwt I barge or keel ; a keel consista 
of 8 wagons of &'ic\vt, or 12B cubic feet each^ and is ibcrefore 1,008 feet, but 
when ootn press*'*] in the bold will Btow in a space of 85(» cubic feft» which is 
at Ibe rate of 40 feet per ton ; by tbe sRuie rule 14"0(S ton of coal make 15 ton 
bulk, thus sbewing that the weight and hulk oF coal is nearly equiU- A vessel 
of 220 ton register should cmtv 320 ton of eonL 11 ton of coke will occupy 
the 8«me space as 21 ton 4cwt, or 1 keel of Newcastle cohI. 

Measuremontt A ton of Bojijheacl Parrot mf^asurcs nearly 50 cnbie feet. 
A ton of Livi'r]»ool measnres 45 @ 50 feet. The Admiralty computes if\ cubic 
feet of space for stowing each ton of coal for cooking purposes in tbe navy. 

Tonnage for fireight. In Wales the tou is 20 cwt. At New York 29 
bushels sea-coal; at Baltimore 30 bushels: rhiladelpbifl '2,000lb; in Germany 
a seidel is 4 bushels ; a Bremerhaven last is 1^ biirrels or 2 chaldrons ; Lisbon 
baldo 1 i'70 bushels. At Viilparaiso a ton is 2,240ft). An Irish barrel of culm is 
24 cwt. When wheat is freighted at li ^ quarter, coal is rated at i»lii \^ ton. 

A chaldron* The Newcastle chaldron consists of 3 vvains of 5i>| cwt, hut 
for boats it is estiraated at 53 cwtj in London f>2jcwt. In the transatlantic 
ports tbe eo^l chaldron varies; at Picton, N.S. it is nominally Ijlon, bur the 
average weight is 3,4 &0 lb ; in the United States the weight ordinarily required 
id ::>,0-iO \b, but at New York the chaldron i6 only 2,500 tb. 

HEWCA6ILE STAHBABB COAL lEEASITRE 0ONT£Bt£D IKTO WEieHT. 



Cb. ton cwt 


Ch. 


ton ewt 


Cli, 


tcm cwt 


Ch* 


ton cwt 


Ch. 


toe DWt 


Ctu 


ion owt 


1 2 13 


18 


47 14 


35 


92 15 


52 


137 IG 


m 


182 17 


86 


237 18 


9 6 6 


Id 


50 7 


36 


95 8 


53 


140 9 


70 


185 10 


87 


230 11 


3 7 in 


30 


S^ 


37 


98 1 


54 


MM 2 


71 


188 3 


88 


233 4 


4 10 12 


21 


55 19 


3« 


100 14 


55 


115 U. 


72 


l*.Kt la 


89 


235 17 


5 13 5 


22 


58 6 


39 


103 7 


5r» 


148 8 


73 


1«>3 9 


90 


238 ID 


6 15 18 


23 


60 19 


40 


I0t\ 


57 


liU 1 


74 


19<> a 


91 


2U 8 


7 18 11 


21 


63 12 


41 


108 13 


58 


153 14 


75 


ly8 15 


92 


243 16 


8 2t 4 


25 


66 5 


42 


111 B 


59 


156 7 


76 


201 8 


93 


246 9 


» 211 17 


26 


68 18 


43 


118 19 


60 


159 


77 


204 1 


94 


249 2 


10 2G 10 


27 


71 11 


44 


U6 12 


61 


Itil 13 


78 


206 14 


95 


251 15 


11 29 3 


28 


74 4 


45 


119 5 


62 


16^1 6 


79 


2tKJ 7 


1 ^ 


25-1 8 


13 ni IS 


20 


7<i 17 


4f. 


121 18 


63 


16B 19 


80 


212 


97 


257 I 


13 Si 9 


30 


7^ 10 


47 


124 11 


6-1 


169 12 


8i 


21 i 13 


98 


259 14 


14 B7 2 


31 


82 3 


48 


127 4 


65 


172 5 


82 


217 6 


99 


262 7 


ir> 39 15 


32 


84 16 


49 


129 17 


m 


174 18 


83 


219 19 


100 


265 


16 42 8 


SS 


87 9 


50 


132 10 


67 


177 11 


64 


222 12 






17 45 1 


31 


90 3 


51 


135 3 


68 


180 4 


85 


226 5 







Spfieific Gt&viliflt* The specific gravitlei of tbe •nHovui sefttnH of the eamo tend 
differ mtiai mnterLally, The follawing were ohiaiucd from Newcaailc, Muy Htli^ 1864 : 
Pe*reth coal 1-297, Mtirley Hilll'314. Marley IlUl coke M40. Tbe averftgc weight of 
WftUjeai i* stated to be 78945 Iti. per cubic foot ; specific gravity 1-263. Coalbrook dole 
(Shropshire) 1'268; £aet Lolhum (Edinburgh) 1*329; and Ellinartioch hlmd cofil or 
tmthneite 1*60. According to Urk, Scnt^-h l-300» Newcartl© 1*270, Staflbrd.aiijc 1 2^*0 j 
mid C&imel 1*238^ The specifie grarity of Powxll*b Xinttrjn. eieun ooal is TSiO, and tlie 
me«n weight of a ctibio fcK^t 53*22 tb. See next page. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



15B 



SPECIFIC QKATITT OF VABIOUB XINDS OF COAL. 



Wdoi Average 86 sunplea 1315 

Newotftlfi .. - 16 - 1-^56 

L«niuhircr . • 93 • 1^273 

ScoOjuid .. - 8 - li59 

Derbyshire . - 7 - 1292 

IT i^wi'W^ Wnll H*md 1-28 

V , 1-25 

181 

\V.,.i......^„,,,iMain ...*.. l-2<5 

Baitiog i Hiutley 1*25 



Davifion'8 Hiulley » . * , 1*25 

Derwetit water Hartley 1*26 

Broomhill 1-26 

Cowpen and Sydney's Hartley . « l*jfe6 

FOREIGN COM.. 

Borneo (Lftbnan kind) 1*28 

- afoetBeam 1-37 

- 11-feet .*.. 1-21 

Formosa Island »,,.*...* 1*24 

Coaeeptioii Bay 1-29 



SPECIFIC OBAYITY OF YABIOITS XniBS OF STEAM-EVOniE COAL. 



Wcl$k AnihrftGite rS75 

EhbwTftk 1*275 

Binea I'SOi 

Dttf&yn «...< 1326 

Ptotr»felm... 1*368 

Gmigok 1*30 

Pontypool 1*32 

IRocSEVetti ...*..** 1-34 

CdkiiMH 1*29 



Ss^di Dalkeith Jewel Seaia 1-277 

Do. Coronation Seam 1*316 

Wollnend, Elgin ,... It20 

Fordel Splint 1*29 

GTftngcmonth ...... 1 29 

^tifli^ BroomluU 125 

Parkmid, Syding, | ^.^o, 

Farertof Deim.J ^ "^ 

TriiK SUeTordogli 1*59 



Xjik4mf the «jti«]e jtilunt fli^l will be Ibnod Sir HEiritY Df tk BscitE and Dr. LToti PtAtFAtft'a 
T«1>ctri oct t^ vd^tv, tut, of BLeAiii coil. In the eommciieeineut of thim work there is a table showing 
Uw lianlMr of cliftldrous, tvnt, or kccls^ % t««»«J wilt ctrry at ibe rate of 14 tou f^ ke«l. 



SPECIFIC QBAFIIIES OF YABIOITB KITOB OF COAL. 
(B. C. T^TLom's Coal StaOstic*, PhUodelpbia, I848w) 



AMEBICA. 

TgiWaieo 1'4^0 

Kntanlcy .... 1'26U 

Bo 1392 

Ptmnt^ifama 1-319 iglTaf* 
Harylotid .. 1*2914^1581 
Oklo l'2W(j«l&00 

PEHNSYLVAmA. 
Ar :.71 

i:. ■.<> 

BltQinUioos. 
taMmuk .... 1-219 (§1*272 
miaoi* .... l'27S<dl*SIO 

lamm 1-270 

MU-rmri , 1-250 

ArkouMs 1-396 

lIlicelSuieoiiA. 

Caka 1*190 

Chili 1324 

BnuU .... 1-289^1483 
Kora Scotia. r3180l-32fi 
CopeBroton, 1*3)8® 1-338 



ENGLAKB ft SCOTLANBi 

Alfreloa 1-236 

Bnlterley 1*264 

Derby C'annd .... 1-278 

Wigau Cannd .... 1*274 

Gliugnw Connid >. 1*228 

Liverpool ooiU .... l-2tiO 

Coalbrook coal ., 1*610 

S. WALES-Anthtudtes. 

YniK Cetl win 1 -336 (§ 1 • 373 
WcJik Stone «... 1368 
Welah Slaty Stone 1*409 
Mean of sererol 
Welik Coob . 



13&4 



IBELANB' Bitomlsona, 
Dry or iiigkilif dry. 

Kilkenny 1-^12 

Do. Slaty or Conn el 1*446 
Boolaroonein itone 1*346 

Corgecdo 1'408 

Qaeen'a Connty .. 1*403 

BELGIUM - Hi tumiooQt. 
Uoinank *. 1 J703l*m)7 



FBANC E— BitnmlnoiiB. 

Montet 138 

Doyefc 1*80 

Hante-dordagno .. I'M 
Anvergno .. l*30(Sl*46 
GninfjuoUe . 1*310^1*340 
HanU-oabone .... 1'40 
Rhono .... 1*288(31*315 



GEBMANT. 



"ifte 



Poll 



ttiny . 



1'270 
128S 
1 166 
I :400 



Hftiouy ^ott«eUiLt>Bl 1*454 

PlMiiii2 ....» l*mSO 

Weatphalia . l'33a(Sl-B&8 



ABIA. 

Bengal Chirmpoosijce M 17 
Ati»aiit Koaya .... 1*27S 

Df^bi I-866 

ArracoA 1'306 



124 STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 

COAL PORT CHARGES, &c. SOUTH WALES* 



CABBIFF. 

Eofit Bute Dock, 43 acres ; depth 25 feet. 

West Bute 20 iivreei ; depth 19 feet. Sliip« 
dmwing under 21 feet, vthau luAded^ cun 
be filled up iu the Wf»it Dock Baai»s. 

GUuiarguishire CjuuiI Dock, 12 «cnss; 
depth <Jiiitl^feet^ 

DOCK DUES ON Shipwnq. Coaitiko— 
Under 1(K> ton reg. Otf ^ ton : above 100 
And under 21)0, M; abOTU 200* 4d, 

PouKioN — Betwf-'tfu Ibe North Cape and 
Fiuieterrc, 5rf. For any otherr port la 
Europe and Mediterranean, 7f/ ; out of 
Europe, 9i/. VeHseln loading steam coal 
P^KlJ 2a4i^toQ dues on carit^. 

Wbabfaok, coal or coke, 2J^ton. 

Afcnigo depth West Bute.— Spring 28 ft. 
Sin; Neups 18ft. Tin. Depth at East 
Bute, Sfett more than West Dook. 

V^*&eb under ^(MMoii rti«. vmi he landed in 
the Glnmor|Tan "thill* Chum), and in ih© 
Tidal Harbour, whore exptuse* are le»ai. 

PILOTAGH OH SiiiPMJco. Undtr9f«ct 
draft 1# (k/ 1^ foot ; ^ and under 12 U 9r/ ; 
12 and under Id, 2« ; 15 and upwards, 
2«l5f/. 

BALLAST, Discliarjrinf; ballast with tbo 
Dnck CoDipauy f'»r quantity delivered: 
vessel! under 200 ti>u register, bd }^ ton ; 
4(Ki,(Ki: em, Id', 800, turf; SOO and up- 
wards, a<f. In the Wcat Bute Dock hal- 
laat iFi dischariited hy Hloam WAchmerj 
at 40 tou ^ hour, at about the same coet. 



BRITON FEERT, Port of NEATH. 

Harbonr Pne^ 1 1^7 1^ registered ton ; Cor- 
poration, 1« tV/ ^ ves»*f?L 

PILOTAGE . From oat^ide Neath Bar to 
Uie Layer, and vice venut : 7 feet and 
under 7i fe« t. 7* ; Tf aud under 8, 8# ; 
8 and uinb r 1^}, liu ; ^| and under 9, 
11*; 9 and undtT 9L ll*2if; 9i and 
under 10, Mniiti; 10 and under lOJ, 
Um ; 10| nnd under 11 , 12» &; ; 11 and 
undtrlli, la. : 111 and under 12, 14*; 
1'2 and under 12}, l^i ; 12| And under 
13, ItwGrf; 13 and under 134, ia<; 13| 
and under 14^ 2(H; If mid under 14|, 
Si« ; 14 1 and under 15, 27# ; 15 ft. and 
upwards, 37*. 

BALLAST. Wheeling, W^tan ; for e^ch 
man eniployed» 3« 6(f a-day, including 
allovk-ance. 

Diteharcing InoN Ows at IMlway Wharf 
by hydraulic cranes, working *>t> ton |> 
Lcur, 64/^ tun, iucludlng allowauee. 



SWANSEA. 

The dock ia 11 acres, average depth inside 
22| feet ; Dock Gates 23 feet average at 
Springs ; II :^ 14 at Ncaiw. 

TONNAGE o?r Ssifptno. To or from any 
port in the U. Kingdom: under 100 ton, 
4^/»ton; l&OandtmderSt&O, o^cf; 250 
and under S50, Id ; 350 and upwards fijrf. 

To or from any port in Europe, or ml bin 
the Straita of Gibraltar : under 100 ton» 
4rf ; lOU and under 250, &! ; 2&0 1 
under 3&0, lid ; 350 and npwarda, Ml 

To or fro 01 Ml v port nr place: nnderlSOIoi&l 
7 4 f/ ; 1 50 tin d umUr 25 , 9 i ff ; 250 ■ ' 
under 350, U ; 350 and upwards, la 9 

WHAATAQBt paid bj ship, liti^ton. 



NEWPOBT, Moiimoutbibirs. 

Dock 12 J acres, depth uniformly 24 feet 
Dock Qatea, avempge Springs 32 feci ; 
Neaps 21 feet. The USK, which flowa 
by the to^n, ia of great width, and the 
depth ia equal to that at tbe Newport 
Dock Gates. Tbere are nunieroaii Rhip- 
ping wharves, where vesaels from 400 (^ 
£00 ton borthen can be loaded with coal 
or iron with great despatch. 

Dock Duks. Coabtino — 2<l ^ ton meaa. 

FoaEicfN. — To or from every other part of 
Europe, except within the !:)traita and 
round North Cape, 6d ^ ton meiuii. 

To or from any port or place in Europe 
round North Ca|H}, or any port or place 
within the Straita, whether in Europe, 
Asia, or Africa, 7cf ^ ton measorentent. 

To or from any port or place in B* America, 
any port or place in the U. States, or any 
other piurL of the world , lOdf ^ ton meoa* 

HABBOUK DUES. CoiATWise— (c^ 1^ 
ton measurem ent. FonEios — id ^ ton, 

PILOTAGE. Newport or Plll^cnlly to 
I of the U&k, and vice verai ; 



i 



4 



the mouth 1 

VrtMfU ^/oot 
Under 1» feet ........ 

and under 19 
13 Uiil under 15 
l.Vand upward* 



CoaH Forriffn 

Of ltd ]• (kf 

If Oti ]m M 

1« 3d ]■ l$d 

If Ad '2m Od 



Kewportor Pillgwciilly to P^najth or Kuigroad^ 
au4 ricn TtTha {prnvidi'd no Hri>iul Pilot 
•hould oSbr oulAide tho Newport Dutriot:) 
Uoder «► feel ,,..,. . I* Hd 1« tid 
$ Olid tinder IS If Md 2fl Od 
12 and under lA ^ Od 2m 6d 
I A fLnd up w Urdu 2c 3d 3« Od 
TOWAGE. Short distancesj in the Dsk, 
Id ^ ton rcg ; entire length of river from 
Docks to mouth, 2»/ ; to the Deepwater 
Buoyt 2ir/; to tlie Holmes, S^r/. Dia. 
char^g and removing ballast 6|^^toii 



STEVENS OX STOWAGE, 



125 



161 COCCULUS INDICUS, Indian Berry or Levant Nut; il is 
lidDey'shaped itnd posse&&es an uiebriailng qimliiy ; Bombay tun \iS civt. 

bags. 

162 COCHINEAL is tlie dried carcase of Uie feniak^ Coccus cadi, 
in insect which feeds on several species of Opuntia ; they produce a 
brilliant crimson dye; 70,000 are rtquired to wei.L^h one ponruL Tiiey 

f$i'e divided into two classes, viz. ihoise which have bred, and lliose which 
have arrived al maturity but have not cominenctd breeding. The former 

-are black and produce the best dye, they being apparently a!l skin; in 

be skin the finest dye is said to exist ; lliey are consequently raihcr more 

irakiahle; being hollo^v they are commercially termed " slielly cochineal." 

5v U^ie Spaniards tljey are called *'niadret>" i.e. mothers. In llooduras 

Ihu blacks are called **cascarilla/' the silvers ** jrrana/' Those which 

bave not commenced breeding are while and solid, and are called "silver 

oebineal ;". ihey are most esteemed when large in size and bright in 

" colour. There is a clasa culled " granilla/' which is the insect before it 
has arrived at full size. The blacks after breedinj^ and the silvers when 
gathered, are siiflocated and cured in ovens. The harvest is principally 
between April and August; shipnicnls lake place all the year mund, the 
most of course just after the harvest; the principal portion of the HnjifUsh 

baupply arrives therefore between May and September. Cochineal was 

ifdund uriginally by IIeunando Coiitez in IVIexico, whence it was in- 

oduced lo Honduras, which for many years, up lo 1864, has produced 

^ihe largest supply, In coBscr|uence of disease in the vine, which di- 
minished JlH culliiation, cochineal was introduced to the Canary islands, 
where the yield will jirobably in time exceed that of Honduras ; this is 

Igeoerally known as TcneritrL' cochineal. Pltu produces a very small 
fjuantily usually culled Litna cochineal. An inferior cjunliiy is obtained 
In the Dutch settlement of Jnva^ which is sent to Holland. The crop 
(rom Honduras averages 10,000 hags or serous, from Mexico l,$0O @ 
2.000. and from the Canaries 7,000 or 8,000. The clnef places for export 
arc Relixe in Honduras, Vera Cruz in Mexico, and Santa Cruz, Tencritre. 
Mexican and Honduras cochineal is generally brought to England by the 

I West India Mail steamers. Sometimes one or two shipments of 1,000 @ 
2.<i()U bags from Central America, will, during the season, come round 
Ctipc Horn, and arrive in England in December or January. Tfueritlb 
cochineal is brought by the Webt Coast of Alrica Mail steamers, rs'orth 
African steamers^ and by Canary traders. 
16D The average weight of packages from Central America, whence 

. it is brought in canvas bags cased in untanned hides, i* each, with lis 

|to contenia* about l^cwl, and is called a scrtm ; a gain or loss of one nr 
^H twf) pounds may occur duiing the voyage. From the Canaries it comea 



ID08 

■|»upi 
^Hfoui 
^■uod 
"the 



STLVKiNS ON STOWAGE. 



in Ciinvas bags» cased in nish matting. The tare is [COCHINEAL 
gcnentUy I @ 2H:>. for an inside bag, and 7tb. and upwards fm* ilie bide 
or mat outside, according; ti> ils \vej;j;bL A bag of cochineal from MeKico 
weiufbs 200 Ih; Hoiidnnis IGSth. (HcwL.); tind TenerifFe I^Otb. Co- 
cbineal in bnlk weighs less than wheat, Jt is re-exported in canvas bags 
packed in casks, bales, and boxes. Bombay and Aladraa ton for freight 
60 cubic feel. 

164 Cochioenl shonld not be stowed near the engine*room or boiler 
of a sleam-,slji]i, or io any hot place, as it is liable to ** sweat" or become 
clammy. Sweating is however frequently due to its having been badly 
cured or dried. It should not be placed contiguous lo oils or liquids, 
the melting or leakage of which will injure it; so will the moisture from 
nitrate of sothi, sugar, tobacco, &c. Cochineal will draw leakage from 
casks slowed near, 

165 Fifty-one serons of cocMueal packed in the usual West Coast 
hides, earh seron weighing about 120 lli. gross, were shijipcd fit Callao in 
1861, on hnnrd one of the Pacific Steam Navigation Co's. steawnrs, for 
the isthnuis of Panama, across which they were conveyed by rail lo Colon, 
and there shipi^ed on board the Plantagenei, one of the Liverpool and 
West India Cos. steamers, for Liverpool. When landed, three expe- 
rienced produce brokers declared the parcel datuagcd owing lo " improper 
stowage, ihe cochineal having hven phvced upon vegetable nuts and 
copper," A claim of about ^^260 was made on the osvners of ihc 
Plafitaffenttt who resisted it successfully on the sireugth of a tlaasu in 
iheir bills of lading lo the effect lluit ihey (h> not hold themselves liable 
for *^any act, neglect, or default whatsoever of llie fjilot, master, or 
mariners.*' This clause was considered very unusual, and has been since 
expunged. The im[>roper stowage occurred at i'ldon, as that was the 
only port on ihe route where vegetable nuta were shipped on that voyage. 

166 COCOA, the seeds or kernels of ihe cocoa or chocolate plant 
Theobnnna Cacao, wbicli grows in 8oulh America and other trt»pical 
cUnuiles; ihe plant is allogether di^rereni from the cocoa-nut tree ; it 
bears leaves, flt^wers, and fruit nil the year round; but tbe usual seasons 
forgathering the fruil are Jime and December; in bags, duiiiuiged fi 
inches, bilge 14, sides 2J. Large quantities are shipped at Ouyaquil; 
in 1860, lln^ brig Hdle of Deron took in there 4,760 quintals of lOtilt). 
English each, equal to 225i Ion. The cocoa was in hags of lOOtlj, with 
liberiy lo start a portion (ur stowage; 3(X>bags were started. The brig 
took for ballast 20 ton of silver ore, in 400 bags ot 1 cwt. each ; so laden 
sh e wat v e ry 1 i v c 1 y at s e a, Coc o a in u st h e k e p t p e r fe c 1 1 y d ry . 1 1 1 s c Uisse d 

[at Lloyd's as corn, iour, &c. I'be Befie registers 19Hton; builder's 
meaiurement 276 ion; has carried 310 ton of coal, dead-weighi; and. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



127 



iclndiug 40 ion coal far bullust, 16,900 cubic feet measure- [COCOA 
[tueuc £(ouds ; in oilitr words sbe cairies 4*2*2^1011 metibiiremeiit goods — 
J 40 feet iti tlte ton* Bombay Uai cocuu 1*2 cwr. New York l,l2ulb# casks, 
]l«307bags, 16cwt.bdk, Baltimure i,300lb. bags or bulk, or l,120tb. 
Bnbia 6G arrobas, bag8,= 16cwu or 800 Freindi kilos. Taking 
^r at 7i»4'^ ion frei;;bt, tbe ("rt'igbl of cocoa sbould be WOs and of nun 
[4iO|i/^ gallon. A bwg of cocoa vvelgbs nsually iiboul I cwt, a cask H 
^ cwi. Tare : at Hamburg tbe tare is, Carraccas in senms 1 2 lb; Guya- 
qutl bugs 2® 3Jtj; Trinidad bags 3 lb; Maranbani iind Para, casks real, 
I Cocoa husks and sliells, ibe refuse of the cbucohUe factories, is brougbt 
I from Gibraltar and otlier places as well as from tbe \Vc5.t Indies, 

COCOA OIL; see oils. 

167 COFFEE. Tbe plant is a native of Yemen lu Arabia, bm it is 
Iduw cullivated wry exteuMvely in tliestmibern extrcrniiy of India, in Java, 
llbc West Indies, Brazil, &c* Tbe berries are generally of an oval form, 
iMnaik-r ttian borse beans. In tbe East Indies it is ^Lippe^l all the year 
I round, ebiefly frum OclubiT to May; lUe new crop conies in in Oeiober, 
[Very little is grown in Uengal, Manilla, or Madras, whence it is shipped 
Idnring tbe nonh-easi monsoons, in eases couiaining 200 fb. each, of wliicb 

lU go lo u Ion for freight Tbe gathering of the crof» in Ceylon con>mences 
[nsnally in October, and by the end of December idl uill he od" ;he tribes, 
[Jl \h packed cbiffty in ca^sks Ci^niainiug S cwi. each, of « hich two go Ut a 
iton fm- freigbl. All the crop grown by the nnliveSj a very email ciuaniily, 
fit exported in bags. Cofiee in bags requires to be duimagt'd in the boiiom 
|Q incbes, bilge 14, and sides 2j ; it shcmbl always be shijqied \n double 
[bo^^, when single tbt-y will not bear liaiidiing; tlie dunnage ought to be 
[well covered, no as to save the cotfee in ca^e the lower lier ol bags art? 
rimmed by tbe pressiure from above. When receiving collee in casks or 
llm^fl, ma&tera should be sure tbey are In good condition, before signing 
j receipts or bills of lading, or the ship will suifer on diiichargiTig, Tbe 
[btrrieB readily imbibe exbalaiions from other botiies, guano especially, 
I ftnd thereby acquire un adveniitious and disagreeable Havour; sugtir placed 

near will, in a abort lime, so impregnate the berries and injure iboir 
[Buvour as to lower their value 10 or '20 lucent ; rum has nearly the same 
IcITecl Dr. lVIo*kELEV mentious that a (^w bags of }>epj*er on bu.ard a 
IsUip Irom India, .spoiled a w)H>le cargo of coffL-e. It s^bould never be 
Isiwwcd nenr salt — the eva|)oration from wbieb In highly di-HrimentaK 
LCofltf« usually gains weight on the passage home, if shipped perfectly dry, 
jUtilrs8 well ventilated it will *'»leaui;*' Nome nmntcrs keep the fore and 
I^/Ut hatchways oj>en in fine weutbtr; tbe lightest and be^l nhips are tbd 
It likely to "Htcttui " their cargoes. In a green state coHtJc is very 
ble to ferment; see chicory. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



i68 C'jflce is sometimes shipped ai Rio Janeiro in ihe [COFFEE 
same liold with liiilts, which are Dccasiaiial] y iiKt^l for dtmnuge ; the 
coHl'c often gets htnLed, and if tlie evil is increased by deck le;iks and 
putridity among the hides, the whule cai'go will be damnged. In the West fl 
Indies it is sltipped all the year round, but less daring the hurricane 
months — from the beginning of August to tlie month of January. CoflTee 
alone is dunnaged there wilh 8 or IQ inches of logwood, carefully covered 
with muts or old sails ; in bags it should have stiives or matting all up the i 
sides. At Ceylon, when cocoa-nnt oil is stowed in the botlcmi, and loose | 
coir yarn is used for dunnage, to receive coflee, the yam shunld be pre- 
viously well covered xvith mats; the yarn should not come in contact with 
the oiL lu the Common Pleas, June t36, 1866, Palmkh sued Lemon for i 
damage doue to bags of coHee sh!pj>ed at Mauik in tljc Sepoi/, It ^vas 
alleged thai the coffee was strongly impregnated w*ith ihe smell of rank j 
Manila oil which was slow^ed in the bottom of the hold, Verditit for pliiiiitiflT ] 

Proportionate tonnage. -lO tierces of coffee of 7 cwt. each, wifi^hing 14 
ton, or iiHU hags i\ cwt. each (17 J- tou) will occupy H50 cubic feet or 1 keel. 

Tonnage for freight. Bengul and Madras, bitg^ 18 cwl, rt>hhins and 
casks 10 cwt; Madras in cases IT cwt: Boml)ay Hags or frazils 10 cwt^ cases 
60 cubic feet. At Ceylou 18 cwt in bags or 10 cwt. iu casks. Manila 
is often frei^fhtcd by the pecal, whicK weighs 182 itt. At New York l,5fl 
in casks, l,8,'^0 lb. in bags, or Itt cwt. in bidk. At Baltimore l^Kao fb, in ba 
1,000 lb. in casks. At Bidiia O^ariobas (IK cwt.) in barrels, or 73 J arrobos I 
(21 cwt.) in bags. Wlieu wheat is freiglited at 1^^ quarter, coffee in tierces 
18 rnted at ih ll\d \>Uni, in 1^1^^^^ 5i7ji/. 

Packages. Itarrel I (ff' IJ cw(» a baj^ 1} @ \^ cwt, nod a tierce 5 (§ 7 cwt 
CofTee is sold at Tiishou by ibe ai ruba 22 lb. 100 tb. Boriuguea^:) « 101" 10 avoir- 
da||oi^. A Mocha robbin 1 @ l^cwt, a Moclia bale 2 (a] ifj cwt A b/ig at 
Havana 150 lb; an airoba^jfb: a quintal 100 It); 100 tb. Spanitib, 101 j ft. 
English. A bocoy at Cuba, grtmsb^ 40 arroUaSp peqoena 28 arrobas. A bra- 
dlian arroba usually reni^eis 21»itb. llatnbiirg* and Havana 2^ @ 23J11&* 
105 rt>. Haniliur^ = 1 12 lb- Kiiglii?lu A panili iit Cevlou H^ {a^ 50 lb. 

Hambnrg Tares. All c^iska t be real tare ; bags of Huvatja lib. up to 1 80 lb, 
5 lb. beyond; Mocha -lib. t* kale: C'libn, Porto Hicn, Laguayra, St, Domiogo» 
Brazil, Cheribon and Java» and Triuge — bags 3 tb. up to ibO tb, 1 lli. beyoud. 

IC9 COIR, a kind of ynrn mannfacUircd from the fihrons husk of 
cocoa nuls; see rope. Bombay ton coir rope Itlcwt, or 5U cubic feet, 

COKE ; see coal, proportionate stowage ; and rliartcr purty — coke. 

170 COKKR OR COCOA NUTS, a woody fruit covered vvitb a 
fibrous husk, growinij^ on a species of palm in most hot climales ; they 
are shipped in ihe West Indies all the year round as there are green nuts 
and ripe nnta on the same trees almtisl coniinuivusly; they are generally 
n«ed as dunnage, which should be Mated on the bill of lading. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



1^ 



1 7 1 COI lOCYNTH (bitter cuciimber or Rourd), about the size and 
l«hii|H? of a large orange, with a thin leathery yellowish rind; Bombay 
[ton *^ cubic feet, in cases. 

172 COLOMBO ROOT (Calumba), the root of tlie Coccuius 
IpalmatuM; it is imported from Ceylon in circular brown knobs, wrinkled 

on the ootcr surface, and yellowish witliin: it is a medicinal. Bombay 
tctn 14 cwt, In bags. 

ITS COMBUSTION (SPONTANEOUS). It is too commonly 
|*u]>pohed that cases of lire are ulmosit always traceable to the intentional 
*or uccidrntnl access of tire to inflammable hubstances. The accom|mnying 

li%l of substances liable to tijiontaneous combustion, witluuit any uppli- 

cation of beat, will shew tlial j^reaier danger is to be ap[ireliended from 
Itheae bodies than from ibe taking tire u( ordinary inBauHnable substances, 
174 Little more is necessary fur the pre ven lion of (ire on board ship, 
}%n for ibp coiilrol and extinctiou of it, when it has broken out, than a 

careful and judicious application of the few simple pnuclples involved 

ID ibe theory of combnstrun. 

\76 Two di»ttiici classes of bodies are necessary for the prodtictiou 
[or fire, viz : — combustibles and supporters of combustion. Atmofipheric 
l«ir is the most common supporter of combuHiion. When wood burns, its 
I constiturnts, carbon and hydrogen, eorubinc with the oxygen of the air, 

and produce water and carbonic acid^ both of which substances are des- 
Itrayeraiyf combustion. 

176 Bearing these facts in mind, they should be thus applied. A 
^ Gre has buiken luit in ibt: hold of a Bbijj^ in a part quite inaccessible. 

Fire cannot con li nut? without a constant supply of air, llierefore use the 

inmost diligence in siuppiug every holu and crevice through which air can 

[obtain access lo the combustible; and i»revent as much as possible thu 

|iiUMn«( oflT of the smc^ke produced, because it eoulaius carbonic acid, 

wiiich is even a more active extinguisher of fire tluui water itself. On 

board steam-ships, a pipe, accessible from ihe deck, should if possible be 

laid nn^ from the boiU^r, to communicate with every part, and furnished 

riih cocks or valves, by which the steam could be directed wherever it 

I required, Iii ra^e itt fire, the locality sbouhj be closed as completely 

jssible, and a supjdy o\ steam (nrned on, lo exjiel the aimosphere 

' quickly. As the air In as absolutely necessary for nHubustion as the 

combustible, its removal will be us eilicient for the extincliun of fire aa 

tirauld be tlmt of the cumbnsttble itself. 

177 Some bodies, such as gunjiowder, nilre^ and .saltpetre, contain 
inritliif) tbi?msclvi*s the elemcnls of cumbuHiifUi, they slnKihl therefore be 
litiiwcd apuri from other cnndjusiible bodies, and arranj^emenis made, for 
^aickly drowning them with water, through a pipe leading directly from 



IM 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



the deck. With such ready means of preventing dan- [COMBUSTION 
ger from explosion, the crmfidence of the crew may be mainlaiued, und 
the necessary cflbrts cunlinued for the fxtinctkin of ihe fire* 

178 For the development of sponianeona combustion in any of the 
Lbodies in ihe ani^exed list, lieat, moisinre, and atmospheric air must he 

resent together. If oil and cotton get together, and aliiiosphenc air huve 
access, S|iontaiieous combustion will not eommerice until moissture be pre- 
sent, and a certain temperature, say 6<.f be airnined. If more water have 
access, any inclination to increase of temperature will he neutralized by 
the water dispersing the heat through surrounding bodies. If excess of 
water be not present, the lent jierature will goon iiicreasiog, provided the 
atmosphere be stagnant; but if there be room for rapid ventilation, the 
increaie will be prevented by the heat being carried off in the vapour 
pnxluced, but removed by the atreara of air; see coal, fermeiiiatioDj fire, 
hay, nnptha, oil, vapour damage, veutilntion, wool, &c. 

179 A list of sub:^lances liable to spontaneoos combustion either by 
the absorption of moisture, by decomiiosition, or by the evolution of gas. 

By th' ahsfnpiion of mm^iare — ^Biirilla, black asb waste, boneSt booe dust, 
charcoal wood, do. peat, cliocolate. chieory roasted, coffee do» corn, cotton cloth, 
cotton raw, do. waste, fibrous vegetable and animal substflncesof everj descrip- 
tion, flax, flour, guano, hay, hemp, lani|( black, lime, oakum, oatmeah old rags 
with oil and moisture or wilbout oil, pfiper, peat, ropo, sawdust, woollen clotbs* 
Bij tJecompodiion — Brassy coal or coal brasses, or iron pyrites in coal nsed 
jfor mitking copperas, copper pyrites or sulphnrons copper ore, clotb, woollen, 
Or cotton, with moisture or with oils aud raaisture, Oreworlca, iron pyrites, 

an recently raised from loog-continn^^d suluiiei-sion in salt water, linseed 
^meal, luciferrnatdies by friction or concussion (fires bave been occasioned by 
rflts gnawing wax vt»stas or Uidler?), oil cake» oils, vegetable or animal, and 
fats wiib any vegetable fibrp, mmHitire, and slight hpiit, are sure to take fire, 
oil cloth, paints, printing ink. pictures, i.<f. oil paintings, wipings. j.r cotton 
raste, whieb is commonly employed for the purpose of cleaning macbinery, or 

By olher cotton, flax, hemp, or woollen, wnsto eloih or fibre that may liav© 
been used for wiping off tfie nil auvl din from raacbineryi is peculiarly dan- 
gerous ; wood, sawdust, and oiber combuslilde bodies, are commonly Ruppos^ed 
to require flamn for ignitioti, or at loiiMt a very bigli temperature, but a close 
atmosphere, with a temperature of less tban 1iH[)* Fab. long continued, is 
euiEcient to cause spontaneous combustion. Or, 

B(f iJw eeoiution of Oajt, — Coal bituminous, some sorts are peculiarly 

able to evolve a combustible gas which does not take ^re spontaneously, 
1>iit wbicli, haviii£f at*freniS to a lighted cnndlo or lire, will iffuite, and explode 
with Hiilbricnt vitdenco to Idow up the decks. Qiiano. taking moiRinrc, will 
©Toh-e gas in suflicioni qutintity to nsk an explosion, yajiour of spirits, such 
UB brandy, rum. whiskey, pyroxilic spirit, nuptha, turpentine, kc. like gas, ifl 
liable to tiike (ire ut a considerable distance from a broken or opened vessel con- 
taining them, aud consec^nently of courae to set Bra to suiroimdiog bodies. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



191 



comasBioNs on seippino, iko* at Sydney. 



V ptnliilic Mies of mercliaiidixe, 
r Amcluuet of ahips, bonscs, and 

fiiln or porchasef of GoTcr&XDGot Hecn- 
Hll«ft, ftud 8bjir(!3 in public compuuea 
(oa« oomimB«ion onljU ^ ^cqhL 

6«lt*« or purchojiei of live ittook or fttationa, 

SaIl-^ cri wool anil tivUow (incluiiiTe ol tMO- 

Rtlvfk of hides and BbecpftkinB (exclasive 

III AoctioiiMr's oommission), t^i ^ceut* 
8«Ji/^ cir pnrebjuiefl t>f gold« gold-diut^ bul- 

liim, jLod *pe4!io, i ^ cent, 
iU proi»ertT viibilruwn, f^binMid, ot 4e« 

JirerciJ r N»ilf tho rftU» 

rhargvh 

Hondn for cry, 24|p'cent. 

vltA»«« of merdumdize wiUt fiuidB, 21 

hiUHi* (d tncTcUandise wiUioui fundB, 
I I* cent. 

I on ptDdiioe for abipmfint, 1 |>ct. 
[ merebandize 4^xcluHivt> of gold, 
und specie), for abipmeut aud 
fi^r«urdijig, actual ebarges and i ^ cent. 
iucUonccr i conuniasion and broberage 

U> bte cbu-ged wboa incnrred. 
r^flcf tifig msnnuiefl, h '^ cent, on prendmn 
j limiimncc kiBe4», total or parliftl, 
i {mMeimng retmnui of premium^ 2| 
nt. 
^rocttring raonry on bottomry and rMpon- 

dejjtiu, '11 f^ cent. 
Elsaranieri > lis, or bonds, bj en- 

don«<in> > J >«c (for periodJi not 

wii Lu^' carreacy),2| f^ct. 
i ^, decent. 

1 of f^tatcH, 5 ^ cent, 
r for vi^uicb^, including 
Lirigbtif Ibo flbip rcyturns, 



Procuring freigbt and pasaengdrs for tm* 
MilH^ 5 \^ cent, 

CoUocting inward frei<tlit or cbarter mo- 
ney, or money un'lcr bottomry, 5 ^ cent. 

Endeavoarin^ to ohtiiin cmiigrant Bbip's 
papers, irrespective of any otber cbilm 
for claim for extra &ervic«?, 20 guinvfts. 

Siiip'g diiibartiemtmta arising firom freigbta 
collocted* nil. 

Sbip'B diiibiLTsements from funds in band 
not luiMag from frcigbt collected, 2| 
^ cent. 

Bbip'ft dinbursemontB wbcn not in fandBi 

Ittre«tment« made on mortgage^ 2^ ^>ce»nt. 

Eccciving mortgage moutsy on wbii^b a 
conmiintiioii bau been pnsvioasly obtain'^ 
ed on investment, incmding remittuMO 
by bill ol exchange, 1 ^ cent. 

Becei ring money luider mortgage on which 
no coumiiiitian has been previoQisily ob-> 
talncdt iticlading ntmittonce by bill of 
exchiuigfl, 2i^L'€'nt. 

Acting as tra.Hte« on afiflignments, 5 ^ cent« 

S«ttlor*s AoootLut. 

Purchase of payments under advance, 5^ 
cent* 

Ditto ditto, with funds, 21^ cent 

Any baluuce of account imliqui dated at 
the end of a year, to bo considered a 
new advance, and charged accordingly, 
5 ^ cent 

Intereiit on current accoiinl» to be charged 
at bank rates on caah credits, or over- 
drawn aceounta. 

Intercolonial biUjn ditthouonred, 5^ cent, 

and notarial charges. 
Bills from New Zealand difihononrdd^ 7| 

^ cent, and notarial ehargei. 
English and Foreign bills dtshononrmt, 

UO ^ cent, and notarial charges. 



COluaSSIOH ON SHIPS AT POBT AI^ELAIBE, SOUTH AUSTEALIA, 



[ abipfl, 21 lucent. 
[ ditto, when in funds, 2i %»ot 
I not in funds, fi ^ cent. 
j charter, procuring frcin^i and 
ngfTK ft V oeot. 
nd diabttfiemant, when in funds, 

I not in fondi, 5 ^ oent. 
I ebaricT mon^^y or freight^ &|* et 
ufii't; advani'ea, or collecting money 
i bottomry or reapoudentia^ 21 ^ ecmt 



Passing accounts at Ooremment Offioda 

for emigrant ship*, ten guineas. 
Checking expeDditore acoouul« ou l»ebttlf 
of charterers tor paaMsnger veiwela, 
granting certiflcatea ind remving snr* 
plus Btoroti} if anjj. ton goiliMa. 

For aurroys on damaged gondii each aur- 

veyor one guinea. 
For DDoeying batohes, ditto, one guinea. 
For marine rarr^it ditto, two guineaa. 



132 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



180 COOLIES* Many coolies are shipped at Swatow forHavan- 

nab ; a master should carefully inspecl ihem at the dcput and accept the 
heahliy only; he generally receives a small gi'atuity for tho&e landed 
^aHve and not blind. 

181 COPPER, pure, is made np at Swansea in inj;:o(H of l4Wx and 
calces 20(5' 50 Jb, Sehrjoners of 80 ton regisier and 130 burthen, with 
a hohl 11 feet 3 inches deep, and drawing I I feet, are pmvided with three 

^kcekons, five feet high^ to support a plolfonn on wliich the copper is 

• stowed, am id fillips, as high as possible, to prevent the vessel from labour- 
ing; in winter, sharp vessels require the copper to be laid rij^ht across, 
and to avoid shifting, spare rope, warps, mooring chains, &c. are pintred 
overall ; sheathing copper is made np in cases containing 5 (a> 10cwt< 
ench; dunnage on the ceiling, as aalt water injures its appearance ; see 
metals. Copper and copper ore are also sent from Adehiide to Melbourne 
by steamers, to be shipped at a low rate of freight as ballast, in the largo 
pa&senger ships whieb cany almost entirely ^votil during the seasun, with 

fpassengera in the 'tween decks. The copper is in ingots and cakes, tbe 
latter weigbing about 50 tb, and the ore in bags of I J (S/ *2 ewt. A cubic 
foot of melted copper weighs 54*'> tti ; native metal tiOUtti; ami copper 

[ medals 620 lb. Sjiecific graviiy R*584 @ 8^900. 

182 Bar Copper and Block Tin are shipped on the West Coast of 
South America, in naked rongli bars, varying in weight from I ^0 (jtj 250 tb. 
and in h>ls fnim tiO (,«) OOltin. Being very much heavier tlmn orcw, and, 
of course, more straining to a ship, it generally pays l»>«{f>ton English 
beyond the freight for ores, A consi disable tpianiiiy of grain copper called 
"Harilla/* packed in small canvas bags, is -shipped at Arica for England ; 
it is bronght from the washings beyond Tacua on llamas — ^a kind of 
d i m i n n t i V e ca m e I , — and fro m '1 'ac n a to Arica by rai 1 vv ay. Li ke al 1 d ead- 
weight, bar copper and block tin are kept as high as possible. In a ship 
of 420 ton register, an experienced master hns always stowed them in the 
'tween decks, rigbt fore and aft from balkhead to bulkliead ; in tiers of 
BIX blocks abreast, occnpying about five feet only in width. Deals fixed 
on their edges each side of the ship^ riglit fore and aft, form a sort of baby 
trunk which is safely fasioned to the 'tween deck suinchinns. This plan 

I not only relieves the wings, but secares the full siijipnrt of the centre 
Ktancbions in the lower hold. At Adelaide, copper ingcJts weigh about 
1^ or I6tb, each, and measure 9 X 3 x 3 inches. They contain 95 jp- cent. 
of pure metal, and are shipped all the u^ar ronnd, print^i pally to India* 
2! cwt. of i"(*pptn' is st>meiimes taken as a l«m ; E. LCo, allows 20 ewt. of 
Japan copper to the ton; at Baltimore 2,240 fb; at Valparaiso a cjuintal 
18 llX»Tt». When wheat is l.^f*^ quarter freightj copper is rated at4A9f/ 
^ ton of 20 cwt. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



133 



IB3 COPPER SULPHATE, or blue vitriol, is Boloble in water 
aijd poisonous, and hIiouUI therefore be kept scparale from every alimen- 
Ury substance or other body subject to injury from stain j it is also 
corrowve of iron, steel, and sjinc goods. It is packed in casks. 

1S4 COPPERAS, a popular name for the beantifnl ^een crystals 
forming sulphate of iron ; also called green liirioL 20 hogshead, weigh- 
ing 17 ton, will occupy 850 cubic feet or 1 keel* When wheat is b fi- 
ler freight, copperas is rated at 4« lOJf/ip-hogdiead. A hogshead 
ighu from 16 (g 20 cwt, 

COPPERAS, white ; see zinc sniphate. 

185 COPRA. An Eastern name for the dried pulpy oil of the 
eacoa nut; it is the meat, flesh, or kernel of the eacoa nut, and is used 
extensively in France. When welted with sea-water it ferineiiLs and may 

Dlge other goods^ especially oil in casks ^ see oil. Bombay ton 12 cwl. 

186 COQUE DE PERLE. Bombay ton 20cwt. in bags, 

187 COQnLHOS. The coquilla nut is the fruit of the Attalea 
/uni/era, a South American palm. At Babia llie Ion is 8 mil. 

ISft CORAL, a heautiful branched substance formed at the bottom 
[ ef the sea by small animals called polypi ; there are three sorts, red, white, 
and black* It is found in the Red Sea and in many parts of the Medi- 
Icmmean, particularly about Marseilles, Tunis, and Sardinia* Cural 
U shipped all the year round. Bengal and Bombay ton 20cwt. rough 
in l»ogs, not specimens. 

IbU CORIANDER, tbe popular name of the genus of plants of one 
Bpecies, Coriandrum miii^itm^ the seeds of which, when ripe and dry, 
hare & strong aromatic odour and taste. They are very liglit and are 
packed in bags, and are usually stowed in the 'tween decks or some other 
dry part of tbe ship. Madras ton 12 cwt, Au essential oil is expressed . 
from Hie seeds. 

11^0 CORK. Specific gravity 0-240, Tn Spain and Portucjal the 
bark is removed in .luly <^nd August* In engaging it is usual to calculate 
120 ton register to every 30 tun of cork ; this calculation is for ships of 
ordinary construction ; sharp vessels one-sixth or one-eighth less* Ships 
rrf|iiirr full two-thirds of their ordinary ballast when loading cork; the 
heavier the ballatet llie birger the freight. At some ports, St* ll)cs es- 
pccially I italt can be obtained to answer the purpiise of ballast ; occasiuually 
milphur pre h taken, hut a plentiful supply of matting shouh) intervene, 
I iind tJ»c roughest cork placed next the ore. The mine rule applies to 



134 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



sand, but consignees Rlrongly object to its use. because it is [CORK 
Ldriven into tbe cork by the motion of the ship at sea. No, I and No. 3 
■cork tnugt be kept dry, as waler discolors it and spoils the sale. In- 
stances are reported where the decks have been blown up when a cargo 
has been completely saturated with water. Cork on deck should have a 
wtttrr- course under^ and tar|>uulius or sails over. Cork is not p*icked so 
cloKcly at Lisbon as at Faro ; the packages there vary in weight froen 
130 1^: ITOtt*. eaclu In Jan. 1862, the barque Emii^, of Newcastle, Capt. 
CuowLEp filled her bold with 66 ton of Lisbon cork; she was what is 
termed "blown up*' with this cargo. Her ballast, 63 ton of sand, was 
levelled ri^bl fore and aft, as far as the runs at each end ; it nearly covered 
the keelson ; so laden .she was rather light at sea. The EmUif registers 
251 ton, lakes t?2 keel of coal, and on one occasion hud 420 ton td coal, 
40 ciisks of linseed, and 4 large casks of lampblack ; she traded ori^nnally 
from Bristol to the West Indies, and is a foil-carrying ship, The sofcooiier 
Jrl\ of Dartmouth, Capt. Adams, 124 ton register, in May, lt?f>4, took in 
100 ion of lead at Seville and 31 ion 9c\vt. cork at Sines. The lead was 
placed on the Hoor* and the cork, 25 ton 15cwt. over; it conjplclely filled 
the hold ; 6 ton 14 cwt were carried on deck at half freii^ht* Full freight 
£3 \6s; lead \2$, The ,^rk is a len^^lhened ship and full built ; with so 
much wei^iit below slie was very lahoursome at sea ; and drew aft lUj feet, 
forward 9^ feet; with 200 ton of coal she drew I2i and ll|feet: length 
b6leet, bread lb 22 feet, depth 12 feet* 

191 The following is tlie fonii ot charter party used by an eminent 
London firm, ** It is this day,'* Slc. *' after the discharge of her outward 
ciirgo at Seville, there receive on board lend for ballast, and proceed to 
8iues i}T so near thereunto as she may safely get, and there load from the 
factors of the suid merchant, a full and eomplete cargo of cork in bandies^ 
or other lawful merchandize, with deck load of cork, and as much loose 
cork as may be sufficient for broken stowage, not exceeding what she can 
reasonably stow and carry over and above her tackle, ajjparel, provisions, 
and furniture. The ship to pay five shillings per bundle for every bundle 
cut open on board. The deck-load to be dunnaged, Wfll secured, and 
covered with tarpaulins or sails. The sbip not to be ballanted with mud 
or sand, or anyihing prejudicial to cork. No lead or other ballast to be 
Stowed aaTong the cork (except on planks), or in any way so as to cause 
the hundlcH to be broken — a gangway to be left on each j*ide of liie deck- 
3<iad, and screw ring-bolts to be provided for fastening the same. The 
cargo to be brought and taken from alongside the ship at the merchani'a 
risk and expense, and to be stowed by charierer^s agentii at ship's expense ; 
iLud the said ship being so loaded, shali therewith proceed to or so 

near unto as she may safely get ; and deliver the same at such usual wharf 
or dock as the charterers or their ageius may appoint, on being pttid freight 



ST£VBN8 OK STOWAGE. 




COTTON DOWN THE GANGES TO CALCUTTA. 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



1% 



at an<< after ibe rate of £ ^ tan of 20 ewe. net delivered for [CORK 
all cork brought under deck in bundle s, and half that rate far all cork 
bmaght upon deck, and for loose in the l»old for broken stowage onl}*." 
I When making a purchase of cork on his osrn account, a roaster should 
} be vrry cautious. Tonnage. 4^ ton Faro cork will occupy u, space of t<60 
\ cubic feet, or 1 keel of 21 ton 4 cwt* When wheat is freighted at Is- per 
ncr, cork i» rated at 2U 6id \^ ton ; others say 20j for cork wnod, 
Jready manufuctured and in hales it pays, according to quality, 10 @ 
mi 1^ cent, niiire. When cork is freighted at £3 I2s 64 ^ ton» sulphur 
ore should be I6s. 



192 COTTON> from the interior of India, is conveyed on solid 
I wooden*ivheeled carts, pad bullocks, aud camels, through the ghauta or 

inouiilain passes, to Mirzapore on tire banks of the Ganges, where it is 
I shipped in very large flat-bottomed boats, provided with outrigger beams 
[attached to the sides, to receive the shapeless and unwieldy bales. The 

current being swift, the usual masts are struck, a tslender pole only being 

raised to hoist a small rugged sail, just su^cienl to secure steerage way. 
[ There h an average of ten men to each boat. In this mode it h conveyed 
[to Calcutta. Cotton is shipped all the year round from the East Indies, 
I especially frc»m Bombay; other parts on the INIalabar Coast and Tuticorin» 
Muring the n(»rth-ea5t monsoon, November lo ApriL It is im|H)ssible to 
[lay down any arbitrary rule for determining the quantity of baUaxl re- 
[c|uired with cotton. Under the heading Bombay the quantity laketi by 
rarveral Jihips is staled. Serious mistakes have been made hy masters, 
Itbrtfuf^h acting upon some imaixinary belief as to the stability of their ships, 
liiot cmly by taking an insufficiency of ballast for their ordinary capacity, 
[but by filling an immense poop with freight. The construction of the 

phtp» her stability when light, the amount of the compression, and the 
Isiature or the specific gravity of the other parts of the cargo (if any) have 
lii> be considered. When the ballast is laid the height should be carefully 
Imranured from its level to ihe beams, to determine the numbtr of edge 
[and flat hales of cotton that can be stowed without losing space. The 
Id un na^e shmi]d be at least 9 inches on the floor and to the upfK'r part of 
jthe bilge; ihe wing bales of the second tier kept 6iiicheB otfthe side at 
Itbr; lotrer corner, and 2i inches at the sides; shnrp-botlomed ships one- 
[third Icsn dunnage in fioor and bilges; for large ships 12 inches in the 
Ibilgcs and J* inches on the floor is customary* Great attention is required 
f to lee that as much as possible is ]iui into the hold ; but occasionally lime 
lis lost ill screwing hard lo gain a little space; it frucjUi^ntly results in 
tlirfaking povls^ and sttirting beams (»r stunehions, and it has been known 
fto rend a ship at sea; much of the advice given in relation to stowing 
lnool will apply here. If possihlt: ballast abould never be used for broken 



idd 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE* 



stowage except in ihe wings of the ^otind tier. When stone [COTTON 
ballast is placed arauii;^ the hales for hrokeu stowage, it is necessary to 
ascertain that it is not of a quality likely to prodiice spontaneous coni- 
busLion by its contigiiiiy to the cotton. Collon shipped in India for 
Kumpf*, and oecupying four or five mohths in transit, should be carefully 
inspected before it is struck into the holdj to see that there are no marks 
of mildew or other signs of dampness on the bales^ as if stowed in bad 
conditioTi, much danger may arise on the passage, from sponlaneons 
ccimbuaiian j this danger is referred to under the heading New Orleans* 
Cargoes of cotton have been injured and sometimes spoiled by leakage 
through side halla!it ports wliich v^^ere insufficienlly fastened awd canlked, 

l'J3 Calcutta, In calculating for ballast for a cariifo here, some 
masters take on«*lhird of the register tonnage as a guide, by which a ship 
of 90O ton register would require 300 ton of ballast; others say 27 ton 
of ballast to every 100 ton of cotton* From Calcntta for CMna t!io bales 
are about 2i («' 2}cvvt. each, and are carefully weijj^hed on delivery ; when 
taking cotton to China stipulate for 5 lucent, at Icfist of half hales if re- 
quired^ with permission to cut or break whole bales in two. Masters 
should he careful when Chinese labourers are employed that they do not 
" comb" off the ends of the bales or cut a band so tliat l!ie bale may burst 
and enable tbem to steal a quantity of ihc loose cotton, Lascar crews are 
capable of perftjrminj,' tijese tricks when iusligated by the bum boat and 
washerwouieu who throng the decks if allowed. T^ascars fiavc ali^o been 
charged with setting many ships on fire on their way down the Hooghly ; 
the very large advance of wages (three months, and somciimes six montlis 
to Ru gland) beiiig a great induceuient* I'he fact that a fire Itroke out on 
one occasion iminediatLdy under the Lascars* galley, the deck being burnt 
through thure, was very suspicious ; it was currently reported tliut several 
men were specially rel4iincd by the Ghaut serangs* for the execution of 
such villanous projects, and that they were always clever enough to avidd 
dLHtniion, A cargo of Wagoola cotton from Cliina discharged in the 
West India Docks, in June, lH(j*4, was found injured, supposed by water 
injected iulo it in the country. The cotton was discolored and heated 
into large lumps* 

194 At Bombay cotton is the standard for freiglit ; any article aflect- 
ing rates, such m a new produce, is slacked, and an estimate ia then made 
of whttt quantity cuuld he stowed in 5tJ cubic feet; freight in prctportion. 
The cotton presses are generally on or very near the place (bunder) of 
shipping; not one exceeds 500 yards distance. The presses are close to 
the wfiter, hccanse the bales being lasherl with rope, always increase by 
moving. The ships lie wjilnn a distance of two miles; whilst their hatches 
are opened, and during the stowage of cotton, Sec. they are not on any 
a<:couiu to have any lights in tJie hold or orlop. An experienced master 




STHVKNS ON STOWAGE 



^^HUTs, eollon ts shipped all tlie year rnunJ at Bombay, but the [COTTOH 
^F« ^tn is in March, April, and May 5 ihe new crop begins to arrive in 

^M i ; ► I'bt' south-west monsoon commences about June li(>, and con- 

tinner fill abont October ]6; during that time a heavy fall of rain occurs, 
and the wind blows hard with occasional violent squalls. Frequently no 
cotion if ship|»ed or cioi^o landed for 10, 12, or 15 days ; then comes a break 
for a few dwys and the work is resumed. Cotton shipped at Bombay after 
tbi» m«»n»ocui!? is gcm^rally not so clean as tliat oblained in dry wealhrr. 
Brtween the lime of measinrement after pressinfr, and that of being slowed 
ID the bold, cotton is said to increase 5 or 10 JJ-ccnt. The h»ss of freight 
11 Madras ainotinta soraetinies to 15 \> cent, in consequence of rolliiig 
the bales over the licacii. Tenl^-cefii. f»f the hales arc itupptffted lo he 
tiK nst»rcd on the hti ruler at Bombay by tfie sbipperis and capiaiii*s du- 
hislies, but fhis fjhould not be done nnTil they are fairly on board ; the ship 
V Ju'hl 10 huvf the benefit of the expansion- Masters should strenuously 
f^ r . itcM Mgainsl tnkinj:? ft>nr bales to the ton of 50 cubic feel, us ihcy average 
lull V 14 feel each. From Bombay to Rngland cotton i& almost invariably 
t^nird upon a Icvid of s^loue buUtutt (blue granite), ihe small bein^care- 
fnlJy irinimed from the keelson lo the bilge, and the large worked into the 
Ti'iri^ ; it is desirable that the whole sbonld be fntt away in ihe second 
L' v;hl of bales:— rftsee of co^vries ami elephants* teeth, with bags of 
itOfic, work well into ihe giound tier, especially the latter. Wlren 
w<iod bns been used for dunnnp% sliips have laden cotton at 
itulmv wiihoiil ballast. The ^amf Br iy tide of 800 ton register, look in 
Oton *>f balhiM lo every 100 inn t»f colloir, which answered well; ghe is 
a crank hhip and loadtd at B<unhay (December, 1863), 3,0<X) bales, or 
lent tfJUii of 50 cubic feci; her length is 145 feet 6 inches, 
, t 6 inches, deptli 19 feet, and height of 'tween decks 6 feet 
% iiKb^y?. Willi ihi!!!i collon and 80 ion of ballast, she drew 16 feet 
li iiirbc« afl and 16 feel forward ; wilh a dead weigh I cargo of coal, 17 feet 
aft and 16 feel 6 inches forward, Tlie barque Cily of Vardsie, 815 ton 
rt^i»trr» C'npL Pj;\tkkath« wliicb loaded at Bouibay in February, 1864, 
ti^d I IH ion sione bnllnsl with 4,*>40 hales cotton, i\w\ 100 ton { 1,'200 liags) 
lin-c<*d» 6\ cubic feel to the ton; her length is 10*Jfeet, breadth 3:i feet, 
ilrpiU of hold 21 feet t*« inch, and lieight of *tween decks under the heams^ 
I* fi-ei 6inchi*8. She drew 18 feet fore and afl; and on atrival ai Havre 
17 fert 8 inrhcs aft and 17 feet 6 inches hirward. Jler bale« 
a presHurc of abtmi 400 ton, and were then of the density of 
' l.*ir pine, and handled like mone; ihey measured 4 feet 3 Inches by 
- I '-t 1} inches and I foot 7 inches, but by ibc time they got on board 
1 ! y increased I J (a 2 incheft ; I foot 1 1 J incbc>< becatne 2 feet I or 2 feet 
I ; ir r li- ^ f'tc bjilcf* were lashed with tiative flax, the luslnnjrand ba*^'ging 
.1 , I J h.. 1 i 1 li), cotton 3^ cwt| gross 3 c. 2 q. M tt>« Allhuugh the barqiia 




Ida 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE* 



vtows 1,040 ton of lea she could lake in buc 1,300 Ion of [COTTON 
cotton, both 60 feel to the ton. The stone ebe shipped at Bombay 
is considered very superior for roads, and sells readily in Loridou Tor 5* 
or 5« 6(i ^ Ion; it answered the purpose of Junnage in ibe bnltom 16 
inches, with wood in tlte bilges ISinebeij, aided by split btimboo in the 
sides 2 inches, and on the 'tween decks. Port charges at Bombay, inwards 
£11, outw-ards nii; pilotage in £B, out £8, The Premehund Rai/chund, 
which registers 1/257 ion, is SlGSfeet long, 34-5 broad, and 2^2 ^5 feel 
deep, loaded cotton in Bombay, left Jtily 10, and arrived at Liverpool 
September 29, 1866. She, being very crank, required about 500 ton of 
ballast — stone ; her cargo consisted of about 6,500 bales, four to the ton, j 
brought ofT in lighters, and although measured on shore, about 3 or 4 bales 
from each lighter, were measured before reception. Those wetted in the 
lighters or before going in, were refused by the ship. Tlie bales were" 
stowed by big stout men from the coast of Africa, called by the seamen 
*'8ee^y boys/' On arrival at Liverpool she drew 1 04 feet aft, 19 feet 
forward. Shipments from Bombay for China are freighted by weiglit^ 
p-er candy, in consequence of which the i^hippers do not press it so mueh 
as when freighted by measurement. At TuticoriBi vessels lie off five miles,, 
in seven fathoms, and receive cotton from large boats, each containing 
60 @ SO bales : ihe charge for screws is one-third of a rupee per day* ' 

195 New Orleans. In the United Slates, chiefly in the great valley 
of the Mississipju, the seed of the herbaceous cotton is sown generally 
in the months of March and April, anti its marketable fruit is usually 
gathered in the period commencing with Angast aud terminating with the 
year* From America to Liverpool GottoD requires ordinarily to have al 
least 6 inches of gtiod dunnage under the ground tier, 9 inches in the 
bilges, and billet of wood of 6 inches under the lower corner of the winff 
bales in the second tier; some consider this dunnage insufficient. In a 
wooden ship it is customary to put bamboos against her sides ; in an iron 
ship a.0iai is generally considered to be sufficient. Where vegetable oil^ 
linseed especially, or tar, is spilt on cotton, afterwards subjected to mois- 
ture, spontajieous combustion is almost sure to en.Huc ; it is a saying at 
New Orleans that there is suOicient oil even in one seed, when criislied or 
broken, to ignite a whole cargo* When stowing there, soft soap is used 
to lubricate the sliding boards or the sides and ends of the bales ^ occa- 
sionally it is also applied to the screws instead of oil, to decrease ibe risk 
of sponlaneoiis combastiou. If wet, cotton is liable to spontaneous com- 
bustion after arrival in England. The Amertcan Intiurance Companies 
charge a reduced rate for instiritig cotton packed iu iron-bound bales 
because the hoops resist fire^ retain the cotton in a compact rnans^ and thus 
pTevenl the access of air necessary to sustain combustion; whereas, with 
roptj-botmd baleiji« the hemp becomes chatre J, the bales burst open, and the 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



139 



ire xprendt rapidly. Al Mobilci where cotton was destroyed [COTTON 

by (Ire, on board a lighter in the use of the owner^ he was held liable; 

foRwooD t?. Pollock, Q,B, Jnijuary 22> 1825. It is alleged thai lucifer 

uatcheftore someiinies placed in baifsof cotton, by tinprintipled exporters, 

rhen ibe cargo is fully insured.* Masters should observe much circum- 

ection while shipping cotton at New Orleans, where the bales are liable 

> eonsidcrftble damage by rain and nmd ; this has been the frequent cause 

i( lili^tian. The same care is required at Mobile and Apaluchicola, 

k-bere cotton is occasionally much exposed lo the weaiher^ — sometimeB 

lor mootlis ; it thereby becomes caked and damaged, especially at the 

Iter porL Attention should be given by masters and agents to ibe 

liipmeitt of cotton at every port, and when necessary a record should be 

nade at once, to facilitate the setileoient of disputes on discharging. In 

I'lbe West Indies the time for sowing is usnally from May Co September; 

I ben the season has been favourable the cotton is generiilly fit for pulling 

about seven or eight months after it has been sown. A t Alexandria cotton 

18 taken from the sboona (warehouse) at the cost of the merchant, and 

delivered lo the shipmaster on the quay. Porterage, marking, sacking, 

moil eomtnisston, H piastres per bale ; pressing, lighterage^ stowage^ &c. 

7| ® 6 piastres per bale* lOU piastres about £1. 

196 Fires in COttan -laden ships. Mr. Couiit» Secretary to the Liver- 
pool Undcrwriteni* writes December U, 185U :— 1 have to report tliat the origin 
of Ili4> coodagriitions ou boitrd cottonladen ships is attributable to varioua 
eftoaes, aJl more or less of a conjectural character, — no means having yet been 
[id of tracing any serious fi.re to its origin. Fires of minor importBUce 
generally been found to be the result of carelessness. Tiie causes to 
rbsch these fires are attributable may be stated as Mlows, viz t — 

1. — Spontuieoiii combustion, ftrising from the presence of 
oil or grflMe, or arising from oiouture fif ter expotiure 
to heavy roiiiB in the ■trcota of New Ot1«iiili. 

2. — Smoking of Inbourera. 

8.^ — ^SpnrlcB from iteftm«rs on the MisalsalppL 

4* — Wilful ignition of the cargo bj the orew. 

6. — JuightnLug. 

6. — Fire« in cotton preisefl. 

1. — Spontaneous combustion from the presence of oil or grease. In New 
>1?f!n?j, the jack-9<;rewfl used in the stowage of cotton are oiled in the ship's 
[ T ii tlie dripping.^ may frequenlly fall on the enrgo ; tlie strong ai&nity of 

Lc lances for osiygen, and tbe constantly'increasing surface on which this 

i oao take place, aa the oil spreads from fibre to fibre^ on so inflammable 



• On BKlai<dA7, 31 «t Angost, 1867, Capt. OsKicsT, of the Ahip Mgravia, from K«W 
Oilsaiks. c!fthiblt«d tn the LivenKxil Exchange news room» a box ol lacifer mfttchen, known 
Ift hmtm&tk m» " ti-lcgrttph njAlchea. " The box wmppeJ np in cotton, wae soeldcntaUx 
^iatpfwtd by Cept OtULHEY in a bide of cotton, which wu being " pecked " on the lev«e 



140 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



a iniiterial as notton» make it t^robablo t!mt tliis is oiio of the [COTTON 
chief causes of Jtre iq cotton-ltuleu ghips. Gnmse was formerly used iu stowiug 
tliesd cnrgops Init it is underslocu! to be now jjU|>ersi^tio(l Uy soup* 2. — From 
moisUire, after cxpositirt* to iit^vy ruins. 'J'lie heat evolved froiu tlnmp vege- 
tabh' tibrtj, when closely packed, is iilso knowu to he the clTrct of a slow kind 
of cotiihusiioii whiok may po»dhhj at tiioea hin-ome so active ivs to cause ibe 
destrni'tion of tliese curgoe^ by lire. Tlic progreBs of iire from this ciiuse is 
much relardt'd by the j^^eat fpmntity of heat t^anitd itway in the steam which 
is given ofi. In coiiserjuence of tho large aeeumiiliilion ofeottou last season 
at New Orleans, the eovtsrinl places for Bloring it were insiiliieient* and ueveml 
thoiifiRnd bales were exposed to the heavy rains of the winter of 18&I* — 50. 
2.—Sniokiit*j of labouferjs, — So far *is 1 can leai*u, it is tlie universal practice 
for labourers among cotton hales, to smoke. Some parties afleci to deuy that 
there is any danger from this habit. Where its danger is adniitted, it must 
excite surprise that, with so prevalent a eubtoni, eoiifliigratioiifj at sea are not 
more nniueroiis. In a bale of eoitou recently iniportid into Liveqjool a box 
of lucifer nnttidies was fouud undtrneatli the wrapper, 3* — Sparki^ from 
9UtimerB, — The use of wood as fuel on ItoHrd tlie MissiHtiippi steamers causes 
unmcrous sjjuj-ks to bi3 blowu fron* their fuiuiolB, ei^dangering eolion lying oa 
the banks and wharves, as well as that stowed on the decks of steaniei^ and 
flat bouts. 4. — WUjul itjuiiiott hf the vreuK — No such ease having been proved, 
the assertion is, as yet, wittiout corroborative eviileuee. 6, — Lhjhtning.^ 
When a ship tnkes tire from this cause it ts jmmediatejy known; the most 
I'ec^nlcase is that of the Oakland, from Chadestown to Liverpool, which was 
struck by lightning l>ecemher lil, IHyS, on the ed^^e of soundings, and enlirelj 
dcsU'oyed. 6. — Finti in cotton presses, — Last season there was a serious con- 
flagration in the New Orleans' presses, anil lire is supposed to liave broken out 
jin aoine of the cotton sul^s^quently sbi^iped trom those presses. 

11*7 Spontaneous combustion > On Monday evening, July 5, 1862, the 
[•erew of tin. Ann riciui ship J L. Oikhrhtt Capt. Hiiwrs, from New Orleans, 
which iiriived at Havre on the '2'ind June, with a eargo of eottoti, and which 
waa ujoored at the north side of Vauban passage in the port, perceived a thick 
emoke issuing from tlio bold. Tlanking that a Ore of no great eonsequence 
had broken out, *bey tried to extinguish it wilbout assistance, hut after two 
hours* labour the smoke had increa,sed. The tireaieu were then siirainoued, 
and arrived with ten engines: the sub-prefect and other of the local antbori- 
[ties also came to the wharf, I'he engines jflayed into the hold, but ]*roduced 
HO effect. vVttempls were made to discover the exact position of the lire, but 
the smoke was so dense that no one could defend, and even torches were 
DXtinguishe L To prevent air from reaching the fire, the hatchsvaya were tbea 
clo&e.d, excepting just suliicieut spoc^ to allow the hose of the engines to pass. 



bI New Orleuift for flliipmf^nt. Whether pjjiced in the h«le hy futeident or desigu in not 
known, but a* th)i» \^ not the fir^t time Much a dL<icovciry has be^n mode, it i^ to be feared 
that, for Nome urdcuown reanon, a tcouadml placed thtj matchuft luiioiigHi the cottoii, 
rt!fr«^l0«« of U*9 ffMurfid dc»trat;tion of life and property whicti thcfy ujight tiaTe ooea'* 
fioncd, 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



141 



.AlUiOugb no Hnme9 wero seen, tbe tire was evidently luaking [COTTON 
progress, m tbe cords of tlio balea were beard to cruck. AH Tiie bbif^s hi Uio 
vicioiiy were lemoved as far oA' us [>osaibIe, aud at about ujidnigljt boles wert> 
cut ID the sides of tbe sbip to scuUJe her; but tbu water baviugeniered oti one 
Sid<s sooner than tbe otber, tbe cotton uiibibed it, imd tbe weight caused the 
ship to leau over, aod the desired oliject was uot obtaiued. All nigbi lung ibe 
smoke contiiined to inciejise, in spite uf tiio va»t ijuautiues of water cast ioto 
tJie bold» and at seven o'clock in tbo moruiug the lieut ou deck liud becoiuc^ so 
iot^Qee tliat it was deemed advisable to cut away tbe mustis. Tbe smoke and 
Ileal cot) tinurd until four o'<dock in tbeiifteruooM, wbeu tbuuoa burst Ibrtb wijIi 
it violence; tbey were so strong that in sjjite of the broad dajb-^lit wbicb 
irailed% ibey coidd be distiucliy seen in tbe town aciiae distuuce otfl Part 
rllie cargo bad been removed bflore the ac< idem; llore rciuuiued 000 bales 
ot oolloo, a quantity of tobacco, and other goods. Tbe bro is buppcibed to 
have been occasioned by tbe spontaiieous combustion of some of ibu eiugo. 
198 Damage to cargo. Nortbern Circuit, Livei [»ool ; abip Frank Btmli, 
Moore t\ Owen. Tbe action was for I'^Ki S;t 4*/, value of a f|iiuntity of cotton 
damaged while in the hands of defeuduut, for convoyance from New (Jrleaus 
to livcrpool. Mr. E. Ja.mf.s, stated that tiie cotton was bought bepicmber 2^ 
IH&O, At New OrleauB, and on tbe foilowirig three days was sampled and 
weighed. It was afterwards pressed* Defendant received the cottou on board, 
lod gave a certillcaie tlict at that time it was in good order, and therefure he 
WT4« liable for not delivering it in as good order aud condition as be received 
it, unless he was prevented by any of those accidents which rt-lieved the bbip- 
ovucr tVom renponsibihty. In ilus ease it was not pretended that tbe cotton 
li*d burtered from any extraordinai7 causes. It was taken, when sampled and 
weighed, to tbe Crescent City pretss, where it was subjected to the nsiuil pressure, 
and then conveyed to the ship lying otl' tbe levee. Very few of the bales wen) 
luund to he tu bad condition, and tbobe were mnl back to the pickery, and 
re|>laeed in proper order for shipmeni, and altogether lUH bales were shipjied, 
1^'hrn the Frank Bouh arrived in Liverpool, a large number were found to be 
to ft very damng* d stale ; tbey were caked on tlie ontsiide to the extent of three 
to live tncbcH, W hen juicked, ibc cotton was quite dry, and therefore dereudant 
eould not have tbe exiuee of saving tluit it wus what was ctdled '* water piieked.'* 
B«iih:is th<' bales which were caked, a huge number were almost stripped rd* 
canvas, and the outsitU' was ragged ami muuldy, wiiich was attribuii'd in tbe 
moif^turo Uie balea had imbibed, and tbe delicient ventilation in tbe bold. The 
question for the jury would be, how was tbe damage occaaioned? Defendant 
»nggtrvted in his pleadings that lite cotton hud sulfered by being improj>erly 
{■Aokcd at ttie plnutations, that it had been "water packed;" but if ihut bad 
biMsn the case they would natiualiy expect to find tbe dnu>uge in the centre of 
lhi» imW'H as well as on the outi^ide, whilbt tbe Jaet was that the caking from 
thi! uioititure w*a8 only found four or five inches from tbe outside. PlaintiiF 
ooQttsndrd thftt the daumgo was occasioned by tbe cotton having been left on 
the Icvcc after behig delivered to the care and charge o1 defciMbint« that it waa 
placed in the mud, truces of which were found on tbe bales wheti discharged* 
Mr, A iJAktwLLL, of New Orleans, and Mr. Belbuaw, cotton broker of laver- 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



pool, were exHmineil in support of p] aio tiff's case, aud the amount [COTTON 
of datiiiige was proved aa stated. A number of depositions were read, and it 
iippeared that witnesses bad been cxainiDed at Ne^F (Jrleans and at Malta* 

Mr. MiiLHuiKH, for the defiuidant, eudeavored to ahow that ihe oottoo had 
been damaged helbre it waa delivered to the muster. The bales appeared 
"when shippod to be in good condition, and he contended that the damage was 
aiinbutable to water packing, end tlio exposure of the bales in the press-yard 
for some time, to heavy rain. Mr, Harrison, principal surveying officer of 
Stanley dock, said he had examined Ihe bales, and thought they were country 
duriinged. Very frequently biilo.-^ came in the same condition. If they were 
8hi|4ii'd in that state there would be conaiderable heat generated, which would 
rot the covering, tis was the case with the bales in question. They came muddy 
ontmie but itninjured inside, and if tlie bagging was in good condition, the 
cotton was passed aa being externally in good condition although it might bo 
muddy. In cross-examination he admitted that if the bales were laid in inud» 
the same uppearances as those noticed might be produced. Capt. Perry, of 
Lthe American ahip C'dmbria^ said— if the bales had been exposed to rain in 
!Jew Orleans, they would dry very quickly on the outside; and it would be 
ira possible without opening them to ascertain if the centre was dry. He had 
carried bales of cotton which were found with the outside rotten and decayed 
on arriving in port, although the boles appear&d to have completely dried 
before being shipped. 

The Judge, Baron Wylde, observed that tlio great question for the jury 
was, whether the apecics of d&nnige which the cotton had suBtaiucd had reunited 
from itd being left in the mud, or by its having received a heavy wetting from 
rain. The (daintrtr said they were damaged by being laid in the mud, but 
the defendant said that they were wet for live or six inches, whicli was more 
serious than could have been caused by being placed in the mud. It was 
important to consider that some of the i>lttintiff s witnesses described the cotton 
aa laying exposed for several days to the weather. They must take that fact 
into consideration, coupled with the fact as proved by the plaintiff, that the 
cotton lay for some days in the mud and slush on the levee. Probably they 
might come to the conclusion that the damage was attribntable to both these 
caui^es. Verdict for plaintiff— damages £\2S 11« Cd. 

199 Damage to cargo, Boston, U.S ; ship Escort, Farewell t?. Bryant, 

An action on a bill of lading acknowledging the receipt in New Orleans of 

ilOH imles of cotton ** in good order and condition "***♦«* * 

I*' to be delivered in like good order and condition." Defendant added before 

ligning "weight and contents unknown.'* The cotton came fioni Alabdma, 

ad was screwed in between decks. The ship was detained twenty-one days 

above the bar of the Mississippit and was eighteen dayf; on tlie passage to 

Boston. The hooks used in discharging had torn the bagging and a portion 

of the contents which were then observed to be in bad condition, stained with 

LltLud, decayed, caked, and ** fita[de(lrawn," to above an inch ; the bagging 

PTotten and some ol the marks undisiingnisbable. The damage was estimated 

at 7 dollars, 75 cents, per bale, on 103 bales. Plaintitf further proved thai 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



143 



tl»0 cotton bftd been through the New Orleans* press, and wag [COTTON 

oonveyed on drays to the plank wlierf built on the Jevee, that while hmding 

aouiD rain fell, and that there wab monkl iipoa the cotton iindtr the bugging. 

Defendant stated the wharf was a rtiJOTiniar of pknks each loss than a foot 

wide, with apHces between lliem; and was 3 leet or more above the earth of 

the levee, and was clean, and water could not stand on it. The E^cort'it cargo 

was covered by tarpaulins by night or when it mined, and the other part, 

f &07 bales, can^e over clean. That the cotton on the surface of tlie 108 hides 

was in folds with mud in the creases, aUbough otherwise in good eonditJOD, 

I Scverft) Burveyors staled that colton packed like this^ between decks^ in a light 

' tiljip, whiJe wet, would not become dry even by heating, during such a voyage. 

Mr, DoiDGK argued that the cotton was not injured while in charge of 

divfiendant, so much mud could not have been accumulated on the whurf. 

I Mud which got on the bales after pressing, would have remained outside, 

Ming only stained water to peuetrate tlie cotton. The creases filled with 

I gwggesied that the aides of the bales had been previously covered, and 

that in pressing, the mud was folded in with them. Cotton t-ould become 

ZEtouIdy and dry again between Alabama and New Orleans, In putting the 

eoltoo into the ship the mud might be distribnted and the marks erased; 

■ovne marks might bo removed when the bagging was torn. It was more 

|ltkelj that mud was gathered in the yard af\er presaing. than at the wharf, 

Mr. Ranney argued that if the cotton was injured to the extent discovered 

I discharging, it must have been discovered before loading. No doubt it 

ra« wetted on the wharf and so stowed ; by heat or some cliemical nptralion it 

Idried and the bagging rottud, or else defendant had negligently aelujowledged 

the cotton to be in good order when it was not so. — Verdict lor defendant. 

!J00 Freight, Court of Common Pleas, Kovembcr iHtb, 1803. Before 

Ofd Chief Justice EaLB and Justices Williams, Byles, and Keating. 

3nAXn V. GflANT and another. This was an action to recover back £SS alleged 

[in have been overpaid by the plaiutiflin mistake, in paying for the freight of 

100 bftloa of cotton from Madras to Liverpool iu 18fSl, Messrs. Shand Jk. Co, 

Deiehanta of liverpool, to whom the cotton was con signed » were to pay »ia per 

I of lading, in the margin of which the measurement was given thus: 2Q0 

llttleii tneaauring 60 ton f* feet H inches at £2 bs ^ ton of 50 ffet. The cotton was 

ken to ScovicLL^K wharf in London, and on bping landed was found, as it< not 

nm%fml, to have increased in bulk by swelling out. The freight note was 

berefore altered in accordance with the measurenient, and on beiug presented 

by one of tlie defendants to the agent of the plaintitl* in London, he, not 

baring the bill of lading to cotupart^ the freight note with, and believing it to 

I Im) c<jrrect, paid the amount, which was M^H more than according to the bill 

Ifif Iadi(»g he ought to have paid, and this sum the pi a in tiS" sought to recover. 

ITben th«> account were forwarded to Madras the disf;r< pancy between the two 

ucjuuremeuh* was discovered, and hence the |ireseutdiiim. It was contended 

gibr the plaintiff that, this sum having been paid lu miBtuke, the plaintiff ^vua 

titilJfid to recover it back. For the defendants it was contended, first, that 

^thijy wenp" entitled to the increased freight by reason of the increased bulk of 

tbe potion ; secondly, that the money bad been paid by the plaiDtiff with the 



H4 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



monns in hi a bands of knowing whether it was right or not, and [COTTOH 
that he did it under no mistake; and thiidly, that thore was a misjoindt^r of 
the two defendimts, one only, at all events as the ii^'ent of the cousij^nor, 
being liiiVile. The Court were of opinion that the name of one of the defea- 
danta must be struck out.— Verdict for phiintilf. 

201 Beck load. At the LivArpool assizes, August lith, 1805, before 
Mn Justice J^Mrtu, iiu action wes tried, Meli.oh v. Chapple, to remver ^5,100 
valiie of 10'2 bales Egyptliin cotton, which defendant undertook to convey for 
phuntift* fmm Alexandria to Liverpool, **cosualtie3 and perils of thtj sea 
excepted." PlniTitilf was a merchant carrying on hnsinesa at Liverjiool and 
Alexandria, and defendant WFts a slii|H>wner. It was complained tliat defen- 
dnnt, inntcrtd of strkwini*^ the cotton in question below, carripd it on duck» and 
the consequence was that during foul weather on the pfts*5fig(\ the cotton had 
to be thrown overboard. 'Ihe nitc for cotton below deck whs lj|fi ^ lb. wliereaa 
on dock the rate was only Id, ilie difference beiog aboni suQicient to pay for 
the extra expense* of iuHurance. If goodti were to be earned on deck from 
Alexandria, it wa.^ the custom to Hj>ecify them in the bill of lading afj " stowed 
on deck at shipper's risk," hut if they were to be carried below, tlieie wrts no 
6j)ecificution in ihe bill of lading. Mr Lkvland from Messrs. Br««Y & Co* 
depoFcd that his linn were in the habit of carrying cotton from Alexandria to 
Liveipf>ol, wnd it was tlie custom wlien cotton was to be cflrried on deck 
distinctly to specify it in the bill of lading as "stowed on dt^ck at shipper's 
risk ;" whereas if it was to be cHrried under deck a " clean "' bill of Inrling was 
givtii. Iheie h«iiig no specilirnlion as to how it wotdd be cariied. There was 
B dilicrence in the rati* of hf-i^hi iVjr coHon on deok and cotton earned below 
deck. Other evidence was a<ldured to show that this was the custom with 
regunt to cotton shipped frouj Alexandria, and that the general rutc <it' freigivt 
WHS i\tl ^ lb, for cotton curried below, mnl hi ^ lb. for (."otton on deck. The 
witneeSes, in cross- ex ami nation, denied liuy knowledge of the same rate of 
freight governing tlie carriage of cotton either on deck or below. For the 
defence, it was contended that the cotton in question was to bo carried on deck. 
The jury gave a verdict for the plaintiff. — Damages j£4.3;k>, 

Proportiooate tonnage. The following quantities are computed to occupy 
n space of ^:j|) cnbii' fi-ei, or \ keel, viz. 6 ;iM3 ton New Orleans and Mobile all 
compressed, llJtsitdiito hest carrying ships, lf| ditto Charleston and Savannah 
not compresseil, 7 ditto Pernambnco and Maranbam, JJ'70U ditto Alexitudria, 
all eompn'ssed. and A t<m ditto, not couqire^sed. Vessels froni Pt?rnnmbuco 
and Mrtraiiham g^^nerally stow 10 ^ cent, more than halt the register tinuage, 
part compressed, say as above. 

Ta&nage for freight. Bengal, Madras, and Bombay ra) cubic feet in 
hales; Madras rotton piece goods 50 cubic feet; for mode of measurement nee 
bale goods; New York and Bakimore 40 cubic feeb In the northern ports of 
the United States it ia the universal jiraetiee to pay freight on the grosa invoice 
weight; it is nevertheless advizable for masters to liave it expressly stated so 
on the hill of la<hug It is tlie invariable rule to ]»ay freight on the net weight 
of uoltou landed at Livcrtiool from the eonthem ports. At IJahia 20 arrohng 
(6|owt) Maceio or HL IfVaucisco, or 27 arrobaa (7^ ewt,) Cachoeira, go to a ton. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



145 



Ftoportionate rates. When wheat is freighted at U^qr. [COTTON 
Kew Orleans eompreisaed is rated at IIj 7jJ ^ ton, ChiirJestou not cotjipressed 
20f5J. Peniambuco comprt'sstsd VklO^d, aud Alexandria com]) resaed ]<)s\^ 
UID. Anctber authority says, when wheni is IVeiglitod at li^ quwrter» cotroa 
in loose Egy|)tiau hales is rated at -£7 ^ ton of 2Q cwt. or }<i ^ ^tl, When ia 
bales pressed by maeliinee, one half leas is paid than when in loose Egjptiuii 
baloa. These rates are considerably altered since sleaiu commnnieation with 
iSgypl has been so much developed* Cotton is generally Ti eighted @ ^ ttj. 

Bales. The average weight of bales of cotton of all descriptions, imported 
in 18ri«. was 407 tt». The following are the average weights and measurea per 
baJo of the different kinds received at Liveri>ool in 1856. 




tb. 

Mobile 664 

N6«r Orlesna « • 45$ 
Upknd ...*•. 890 
Solaliiad.... 833 



East tndiiLQ • , 

West Indum . . 
PrftsiliftTi »»»* 



Another authority givee the weight of a hale of cotton wool from Virginift, 

»CiiToUna, Georgia, and the West Indies, as 800 (^^ 310lt>; New Orleans and 
Alabama 400 @ 600 tt>; Eaal Indian y20@3eOtb; Brazilian 160@200tb; 
Eg^jitiari 180@2B3!t>. 

Tiie gross weight of a halo of Egyptian cotton at Alexandria averages 230 
W^ rottolo or 22H*07t1:i. and allowing 1^ loitolo as tare for sacking and cordage^ 
^H the net weight of the hale will be 219 tt>. The quintal or cantaro is 80 okea. 
^H Alexandrian ** pressed bales" mean hydrauli^^ pressed, Milval!4 v, CAssAV£m, 
^KSfewoastle, March 3, lti51. The cantar of Tttrkish totton is stated lu have 
^HtalD fixed at ConstantinoplQ in m30, at 100 roltolo. Borne make the quintal 
^^^Poanmro 44 okes, otliers 45 okes= 127'2 tb. 

India cotton — Snuggd are 12 niaunds^fUiift. 16 oz. lOdr, A Calcutta 
hale weighs 2i peculs, and 5 bales make about a ton of 50 cubic feet ; a Bombay 
pat<>Dt bale weighs 3 cwt ; 2| bales are consequently equal to a candy of 7 owt^,| 

I A p6cml i& 1331 tb. English. 
202 (*0\VklES, small shells from the Maldive Inlands ; 3,3fM} are 
.worth a rupee; ihcy are usually packed in hoxes of 60lb, whieh are 
ftbippcd fur broken aiciwugej ihey may be placed in any posiiion tu>t likely 
tf> ifijuri' bugs; see sugar. Bengal* Madras, and Bombay ton 20 cwt* 
In bags; Bum bay dO cubic (eel in cases* 



TABES 



Oeorgi*^ Texui4tii«oe * , . , 
AlabaniA jmd Tcxuh * * . . 
New Orleans aod Mobiic 

Bt Doiuiogo *, 

Hidiia ... * , 

EAiitlndiA ., 



AT HAmtUEa. 

Araericft and 



West Indiu } 
8qa. with rope 

Serous 

EAstlndim .. 
Ill leatlier . . 



146 



STEVENS ON SI 



203 CREWS, The manning scale usually observed in tlie North 
of England, is, in adctition to (he master and mate, as follows; 



. T05« RECJUTFa 


SM.AHK1X 


Botf 1 


84 and under 112 


1 


KotleftBthAxi 2 


112 * 154 


2 


2 


Ui • 19S 


3 


2 


196 - 23d 


4 


2 


238 - 280 


6 


2 


2S0 - 822 


6 


2 


822 - 864 


7 


2 


864 


8 


8 



And one aduU seaman for every 30 ton over and adove 364; one able 
seaiTian to be employed in tlit place o( two apprentices, if requiretl; no 
appreniice to bo eonsidered an able seaman until ibe fulfil menl of bis 
agreement as an apjirt-niice. Tbere is no legal means of enforcing this 
scalCf but tbe great majority of vessels in ibe enabling trade conform to 
it, vvbile a few exceed it, Tbe crew of a Duicb siiip, from 40 (a) 50 lasts, 
is 7 sailors and a swabber ; from 60 & 6t> lasJls, t!ic crew consists of H men 
and a swabber; and tinis increase* at tbe rate of owe man for every 10 lasts; « 
a sbip of m) lasts bas 12 men, &c. 158 Duteb lasts 300 ton EngHsb. 

204 CUBlilBS, tbe dried berries of tbe piper vnhehu ; Bombay ion 
12CWL 

206 CUBIC Measure; 1,728 inches I solid foot. 27 feet 1 solid yard. | 
CUTCH ; see catechu and gambier. 

206 ClITLERY and Hardware goods are poclied in strong casks^ 
Tvbicb sbould be well booped to support any pressure; they are considered 
water tight, and fur very line goods going to Australia or India, are lined 
wilb soldered tin or zinc. Tbey should be kept apart from liquids and 
all articles soluble in water, sncb as sugar, salt, nitre, &c. 

207 DAMAGED GOODS. Unless damage to a cargo can he 
traced to "any actual fault" on tbe part of tbe owner of tbe sbip, he 
is not liable in respect of it, and tbe owner of ibe cargo cannot dedael 
anything from tbe freiglii to cover bis loss. By 15 & IG Vic. c. l07, there 
is an allowance up to ibree-fourtiis of the duty upon all descriptions of 
dmnaged goods except coccuIuh indicns, nux vomica, rice, guinea grains, 
lemons, spirits, corn, grain, meal and flour, opium, sugar, cocoa, oranges, 
tea, coffee, pepper^ tobacco, currants, raisins, wine, and figs, upon which 
uo allowance is made. 

208 DANGEROUS GOODS. By sec, 329, Merchant Shipping 
Act, 17 Sc 18 Vic. c* 104, it is enacted, that no person shall be entitled to 
carry in any ship, or to require tbe master or owner of any sbip to carry 
ihcrein any aquafortis, oil of vitriol, gunpowder, or any other goods 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



147 



ifliicli, in the judgment of sucIj master or [DANGEROUS 600BS 

DWTirr, are of a dangerouti nature; and if any person L-arries or sendji by 
|n«y »liip any goods of a dangerous nature without diatinotly marking 
Itlieir nature on llie outside of the packa;i^e containing tbe same^ or other- 

rise giving notice in wTiting, to tbe master or owner, at or before the lime 
Vii{ carrying or sendin;[( tlie same to be sbTp}ved, he shall for every such 

Dir*'Oce incur a penalty not exceeding £100; atid the master or owner of 

injr sliip may refuse to take on board any parcel that be smspects to eontaia 
Is of a dangerous nature, and may require them to be opened to 
^msccrtain the facU By sec, 38, 25 & 20 Vic. c. 63, the provisions of tlie 

abore section are extended lo Foreign ships when within the limits of 

tbe United Kingdom. 

209 A very lai^e number of articles tif freight may properly be placed 
in ibts class, as directly or indirectly they may become sourceii of danger; 
l>«t, as under the heading of each separate article, these circumstances 

adverted to, it will be sufficient here to notice only those substances 
rlijch are more g*.*nerally recognized as dangerous; see the articles cara- 
pttine, gunpowder, and ignition j for a list of those articles which are 
peculiarly dangerous on account of their liability to take tire, either with 
Df without access of flame, see Rpoutaneoiis conjbnstion. 

210 Sulphuric acid or oil of ntrkd, being portiible only in glass 
c^vhoye or earthenware jai's, is peculiiirly liable to be spilt, through 

ccidcniat breakage. Care shonhi therefore be taken to aee that the 

rboys or jars are properly packed with straw, and the stoppers fastened 

jowii. The packages are usually baskets, hut light wooden tubs are much 

rtter ; espocial ottention sh<tijld he given to tbe bottoms of the packages, 

», allVi#jugh they may louk very well elHCwbere, (hey may be defective 

brrr, fnnn standing in damp phices or from liakagcs \^i acid over the 

Qouth of the carboy, in pouring out* Directions are given elsewhere for 

aclring in the hold. Sulphuric acid, nitric acid, hydrocfiloric acid, and 

chtoride «f antimony, (butter of autimony), are all capable and will 

Inevitably destroy any delicate goods near. Cotton and similar articles 

till be bunu and rendered valuelesii if brought into contiguity. 

SH In cold weather brown acid or mlphurk' acid, specific gravity 
(i tiliould be carefully protected from the cold, with a covering of 
' or any other light injiterial, as it (reezcs much sooner than water, 
12. at 42^- I'alircidteit, water freezing at 32^ Tt is aUo, in freezing, 
Qorr rapidly convertt^d into a solid mass ; and, after it is once frozen, it 
akc« a fcty long time to thaw. Whether partially or entirely frozen, ii 
i very dungerou!! for m*)ving about, indeed it becorues almost impossible 
» do wi without brcakiug the carboys. This atid does not of itself give 
MT iir, but it has a jKiwerJnUy corrosive action on alomst every 

pub^ ah can come in contact with, whether ii bo mineral^ meialljc^ 



148 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



nnrmal or vegetable. On mixture with water, [DANGEEOTJS GOODS 

great beat is given off, and the resulting wealter arid is more rapidly 
corrosive tlian tlie btrongest acid; if» iberelore, a package be broken and 
the acid epilt over any substance, it 13 better not to throw water over it 
until sufficient is at hand to have a large excess; it is les8 dangerous to 
leave it alone for a sbon time than to ilirovv only a small rju amity of 
water uver it; so in case of a man liavin*^ even the strongest acid spilt 
over him, no injury will accrue if he have sufficient confnlence to wait 
until be can be deluged in water, A small riaaniity of water may scald 
80 terribly as to rause dealli. 

212 Muriatic and nitric acids are packed in the same manner as 
sulphuric acid ; as tbey are both volatile acids, it is especially necessary 
to take care that carboys containing them are careful ly stoppered to pre- 
vent their vapours acting on Burronnding bodies. The acids and the 
vnpours arising from them are both very corrosive of metals as well as of 
other bodicB. Chalk, vvhit^Miing, limestone, lime^ calcareous or limestone 
sand, soda, Boda ash, or alkali, barilla, potash or pearlasb, — ^any of these 
bodies, separately or togetlier, will neutral iase the action of these acids. 
Acetic acid is also a volatile acid producing the some effects as nitric 
and muriatic acids, in less degree. A ship carrying a quantity of either 
of lliese acids should be provided with a few cwt. of slacked lime in 
burrelsj ready for use, in case of accident, for the absorpti«m and neu- 
tralization of the spilt acid- Very corrosive vapours arc also given off by 
chloride of lime, but see the article thereon. 

213 White Arsenic, or arsenioua acid, in powder, should be kept 
apart from an ides of food ; the pai kages are heavy, and if, being injured, 
any of the powder be sprinkled on them, serious consequences may result. 
For danger from similar substances, see poisonous bodies. Liquor aoi» 
mania or spirits of hartshorn, is packed \n carboys or jars; its vapour ia 
exceedingly penetrating, and although alkaline and not acid, has a pow- 
erful aclifm on articles of hroeze or brans. If a package be broken, the 
vapours should be carefully avoided, as they are so powerfully irritating^ 
as to cause death by a sudden full inspiration of them. An)' of the acids 
mixed with water, but more especiully mnriatic acid, will quickly neu- 
tralize it and render it innocuous. Sc-rii>u? damage may also be occasioned 
by subslunces which are soluble in water, being dissolved, and thereby 
diiTased throogb or over tlie crirgo; see subsiances soluble in water, 

214 As Railway Sleepers, c^vtred with a solution of coal tar^ 
noptba, &c. cannot be stowed with g*?neral cargo without danger, a mas- 
ter might refuse such sleepers, although his charter party hound him to 
** receive all such lawful goods as the said chariercrs shall send alongside.** 
O1XII cotton, a dangerous substance us^ed for blasting purposes is some- 
times shipped ai) '* prepared coltou '' and as '^ samples of cotton." 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



149 



215 Apothecaiy Wares. Mr. Stewart at- [DANGEROUS GOODS 
tADdod before the Lord Mayor, October IJ, 1860, to answer a si'ttnmotia from 
the Peninsular ahh Obikntal Steam NAvioATroN Co. charging liim with 
unlawfully sending "certain goods of a diingerous nature, to wit, one gallon 
of spirits of ether nitre and one pint of epirita of etlier sulphur, without dis- 
tinctly marking tbeir nature respectively on the outsride of the packnges, or 
otherwi9e giving notice iu wnting to the master or owners of the eaid ship at 
or before ihe time of sending the Bame to be shipped, contrary to sec. 820, 
Merchant Shipping Act, 1851/' which is given m full at the couiniencemeut 
of Uiis article. Mr. T, Atkinson stated that on the 2(>[h of September the 
dcfGDilant sent four packages to Southampton. Before the goods were shipped 
lift should distinctly prove that in a printed form supplied m defendant at the 
ni^utfin of the company in Lead enh all -street, he deBcribed the contents of the 
]t«*'kag*^» as *' aiiutheeary wares." The boxes were marked **S.'* within a 
diamond, and •* Glass," *' Singapore," and " A|)othecary Wares/' and were sent 
by mil to Southampton on tlie Istof CJctober, and Bhipped on boord the Pifrap 
which was to sail ou the 4th. Providentially on the 3rd a leak was discovered, 
ftnd in consequence of the peculiar character of a vapour which arose from 
thw l*ox, it was opened and found to contain three jars, one of sweet spirits 
of nitre, which was broken, one of ammonia, and one of balsam copaiba ; 
the two last were not considered dangerous. The boxes were immediately 
Clii.ml«3d, and the circumstance telegraphed to defendant, who rei>lied that he 
|<lid not know the content?? of the piickn gC9» that he had them from Jleasrs. 
>ArT ife M'Mcnno. mnnufncturing chyniista, iu Upper Thames'Strcet, aucl he 
[>ro<l«icfHl thcrir invoice in which the items spirits of nitre and sulphuric ether 
appeared among Others. What Hie company contended, and not unreasonably* 
that Mr. Stkwabt should have had the cases marked *' Dangtrous/" or 
Kavo gi^cn some intinuition of their contents. Besides they submitted that 
\ wma wrong to pack such articles in straw and in womlcn boxes, as these were 
^a£k«?d, that the usual plan of packing dangerous articles in sawdust and in 
cases, liermeticttlly sealed, should liavo been adopted. He sliould cull 
>nLi:TnEOY, who would def^cribe the exert dingly volatile, infJammahle, and 
prnns character of both the sweet spirits of Bltro and of the Bulphuric 
JInd 5ueb articles, the tendency of which {besides their iuHjimmnlile 
I certain conditions of temperature, whs to burst the vcBsels con* 
hpf:'n by wny chance placed near the engine-room of the ship, 
thf > all on bourd might have been horrible beyond def^cripUon* 

Jl ^V' to fetter the trade of this great metropolis by imreasonable 

rtatrictioiis: but this was one of those case** in which tljo lives of scores of 
humiin brings at sea, and far beyond the reach of aid or possibility of escope, 
might Aiij dwy be placed under circumstances of fearful peril. People going 
I di^tAiil foyages bey»md seas in the company's vessels, were absolutely at the 
[l&ffruy of persons so incautious and eereless as defendant had been, and it wfts 
lie pur|tosp of reading a lesson to all such persona that his clients had felt it 
rduty iu the public interest more than in their own, to prefer this com plaint. 
Dr. Lethrby said — From the course of my scientific enquiries I am ac* 
ailiinctd with the properties of spiritM eiherit nittioa, or, as it is popularly 



150 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



called, sweet spirits of nitre. It Is n mixture of [DANGEROUS GOODS 
one part of very volatile etlier, auii four of spiriU of wine. You cannot frt^ezo 
it. Its spocifie gravity ia about two-tentlis lea^ titan tJiat of wateri or as 8 ® 10, 
It tiiixes with water, but has a tendency to float unlesH agitated. It is volatile 
at ordinar}' tempertttures* The pure ether itself boils at a teniperature of 10^ 
whieli IB b[4ow the temperature of a ship's lio Id in a warm climate. The spirit 
of nitre begins to boil at a temperature of l:^{f and gradually rises to 170**. 
There would be two effects from the leakage of a vapour so compounded mixing 

r with the atmosphere — first, the injurious effect to those inhaling it, for, like 
tbloroform, it is a powerful agent ia producing insensibility. an<l it will take 

' fli-e at tt point several yards away from the surface of the liquid, which I can 
prove by an experiuient, (The witness put into a dry quart bottle in court 
about 20 drops of tlie itjtlrit of miri\ and in a few minut"'s the vnpour diffused 
itself througli the atmosphere of the bottle. He thou ap|ilicd a light to the 
mouth of thp liottk\ when a sheet of flume passed through tfic U^juid to the 
bottom of the bottle with a filigbt explosion). If it mixes with about HO parts 
of atruosplienc air I And it forms a most powerfid and ejtjdosive compound. 
A gallon of the liquid spirit of nitre will produce whout 400 gallons of va]>onr, 
and this with 50 times its bulk of air would form ti,000 cubic feet of a povvurfaJ 
explosive mixture. The spirit o\' sufphurw Hher^ cnnunonly called Hoffman's 
anodyne, in a mixture of oue part of pure ether and two parts of rectified sptritB 
of wine, with a little essential oil of wine. Its proitertios are essentially the 
same as the otlaer. It is a powerful narcotie. The Sjiirit of nitric ether is a 
little more volatile limn the sul|ihuric ether. I can form an opinion as to the 
temperatiue of h shiji's hold on a voyage to India. Cases packed tike thisono, 
and containing sutdj articles would be dangerous in a warm [dace in the holdi 
If hy any chance they were placed nciir the engine-room, wliere the temperature 
was high, the sjurit njiight rf-ach the boiling point and burist the bottle. 

Cross examined by Mr. Nicholson. — It is pure nitric ether that boils at 70°. 
It would not make ranch dilTerenee if the nitric ellierhad a specific gravity of 

* 6'50, instead of B 30, The boiling point of every liquid means the atmosidierio 
pleasure of its vapour on the containing vessel. If a case so packed were ex- 
posed in the hold of a vessel to a temperature of 00* it would b*' a mere question 
of lime — of a few hours or clays — tor tlie heat to reach the bottle. 

Mr. GiLLsos, second master. Btated lluit the temperature on the deck of the 
Pent Hi Alexandria in the month of June, ranged tVom 9:f (a> 07°. He did not 
ke< p a register of the tcriipernturo in tlio hold at that time, but in the engine- 
room ho Intd known it as high as liO'^and even above that 

Mr. NtCHOLSMN" sjiid the simfde facts as respected Mr, St^waiit, were that 
he received a letter from a friend, a surgeon in Singapore, requesting him to 
order certain goods from Messrs. Davy & NfMcano, of Upper Thames- street; 
that he did so, hnvfng no knowledge of the properties of the goods ; and that he 
trusted to their being pmpf^rly ]^acked by that iirm, Hb himself took no part 
in their packintj or shijijiing. Me merely handed the list sent from Singupoi^, 
to Messrs. Daw & M'.Mciitno. and they packed the goods and received the money 
for thciii. As regarded the word '* dangerous," he (Mr. Nicholson) Bijbniitied 
that that wds a relative term, depending on cireuumtanGos. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



I^I 



The Lord Mayob said it appeared to him that [DANGEROUS GOODS 
tlie section of Ibe Shipping Act, undi*r which this pomplaiiit was pjelerred, had 
been TiolaUxJ The evidence of Dr. Letheby fully sustuiiied that opirnoo, 
•hawiDg fts it did the very dangerous and iuliaDimnhle nature of the cbymical 
conipouDds which had formed the suhject matter of ihia inquiry. It was 
f«arfuli iDde^d, to imagine the terrible consequences which might have ensued 
from the explosive arid iuHummable charaeter of the eoutents of the packages ia 
qu«^dtiou. He felt, without wishing to cxaggernte the case, that the atatiite had 
hoen ckarly iufriuged, and that being so he was bound to inflict a penalty on the 
defendant. Ho was induced, however, to believe, from the highly resjteclahle 
character of the company, that their object in instituting this proceeding was 
not to put the law in motiou in its highest rigour with regard to penalty, hut 
tiiat it Tuight operate as a warning to others dealing with the shipment of sueh 
inrtttromable materials. He hoped that the publicity which would be giveu 
iolbe inquiry would secure the end which the coniphiiuauLs had in view ; and, 
nudef the circumstances, he should call upon deleiidaius to pay a fine — not of 
jClt)0« which he was empowered to inflict — but of ^10, believing that that 
would meet the justice of the cose and satisfy the compAuy. 

216 Photography, A case belonging to a passenger, a photographic 
artist, was observed (October 5, 1857) smoking in the hold of the Oountess of 
SltjiMf lying in the E. I. Docks. When opened, several bottles of acids were 
found broken. She left the next day with a number of emigrauta, and, but 
for thiw timely discovery, all on hoiird mij^ht have perished. 

217 AqtiafortlB. Before the magistrates at Liver[>ool in July, IH(J3> 
Police luBpeetoi Mauuslay, stated that in tlie hold of the barque CUt^ of Kandy^ 
\fm^ in the Prince's Dock, he found a bottle of acjAiafortis smoking, which, 
with a number of other similar bottles comaiued in five casks, were Bhipped by 
llessn. Tw££i>iE, H^NNiEt k Co. who alleged that they were sent to them as 
*• drugs, ' 'J'he goods wore not marked as combustible or dangerous ; no notice 

i had been giteu to the pohce or Ibe umaler, in conformity with the proviaiou 
of the Mersey Docks Act, 1858, sec. 2t5. Fined SOi and coats. 

21H Ether. On Sunday night, July 'i7, 1862, a fire broke out in the 

Empress Uvitjenit, 053 ton, lyiiig in the London Docks. The *ihii> is a general 

trader and was loaded w^ilb uiiscellaucous biorea. Tlio accident arovse from the 

I €)qi|oaioa of a bottle of ether, which, becoming ignited, the liquid llame ruslied 

' inio about 12 cases of lucifer matches, t^ettiug them also io Bauies and throwing 

I up a strung sulphurous vapour. The engines of the Dock Company and vunous 

1 4>th€r»* were soon in attendance under the diieciiou of Capt. bUAW, when owing 

I to Iho energy displayed, the lire was happily prevented from extending, but 

it could not be extinguished until an entire case of ether and 13 packages of 

I lucif<nr matches were destroyed and the main hold of the ship severely scorched. 

8 iO Benzine. On Tuesday. Angubt 25, 1805, a fearful scene occurred on 

the sicumhont Agripjiina, then on her passage up the Hhine from 

' Botti^rdjun, One of a b«;skettul of botilus cuntiuning benzine was bi-oken, and 

I thi' ii.ni4iiiiijrtble siufl" ran down the det^k coal-spout into the engine-room ; a 

I ?ol loke shot up instantly as high as the top ot the funnel, and one 

of u.v ^-^-^K^iK boxes, the smoking room on deck, and the conductor s room, with 



152 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Jill his papers, were soon destroyed. There were [DANGEROUS GOODS 
fifty passengers on board, and it umy be easily conceived that teiTor and dis- 
order prevailed all ovor tlie vessel. The efigineer had tiio presence of raiud to 
VLHliiee the spetnl at the otitbreak of ibe fire, but the west wind carried tho i 
flames across t!ie dot-^k, the other paddle box soon caught, and all comtnu- 
nication between the fore and after pjirt of the vessel was thus cut off. On 
the after part» besides some pasaeugers, there were only the steeranian and 
ship's cook ; the latter cut down fho deck awniug to prevent it from taking^ 
fire, and tlie boat was launched to save the passengers. Fortunately a steam- 
tug was near ; her erew rowed quickly to the burning vessel. The passengers j 
having bee u h^udetU the tiro was extinguished in the course of half an hour.] 
2^0 VesuviailB, In October, 1803, Messrs, Rickaby Jk, Haiidino sent to] 
the King 3 Dock at Liverpool for shipment oil board tire Pepita, five eases of] 
vesuvians, without being properly marked. They were rolled from the wharf, | 
and one of tiiem, a barrel, ignited, and the contents became known. The J 
men employed were aliirrned, but a policeman obtained a pole and shoved the] 
case overboard. Shippers were fined Mb for not marking the cases properly J 
and £2 for omitting to give due notice to iho docknmster. 

221 DATES, a fruit shaped like a large acorn. The date or palmj 
tree is cultivated on the African coast of ibe Mediterranean, in Arabia,] 
and Persia. From Morocco to Gibraltar the common are in serons 150 @ I 
200 1 1>. and the fine in cases and barrels of various weights; they rnay be 
safely carried in cabin or saloon. At Alexandria I hey are in long narrow 
barrels about 2 cwt- each, and should l>e stowed iu the 'tween decks or if in I 
a steamer, lii^h up forward,; when wet they emit a strong gaseous vapourr! 
In the Hcdjaz, Arabia, the new fruit called m(eb^ comes in at the end of 1 
June^ and continues two months. The ship Aashttr, 460 ton, Capt. W. P, 
Newman, belnuf^nng to Mr. A. Hkctoe, of Bar;ife Yard, Bucklersbury^j 
left the (julf of Persia Nov. 3> 1S66, with a cargo of dates and wool, and 
discharged same in 8t Katherine's docks in March, 1867. She is 146'^ 
feel limg^ 2fr5 broad, and 17 feel deep. Her hold was dunnaged with date^ 
wood and double matted ; bottom U inches, bilge 13, sides 2|. The dates 
were patked in mat baskets 18x I4x 14 inches, weight 140 fb; in r11 
6^0 ton of 20cwt. stowed chiefly below the beams ; there was a loss of^ 
weight of about 12 ^ cenL on the passage home. The wool (in the *twi3ct 
decks) was in bales ^0 X 30 X 28 inches, averagii.^ 400 lt», say gross 68 ton 
or 190 Ireifibt l^ns of 50 cubic feet ; liie quality was rather coarse, tbel 
bales were pressed by hydraulic power; each had six iron bands. SoT 
laden she drew 15 feet i> inches fore and aft, and on arrival 14 feet 3 incbem! 
forward and 14 feel 10 inches aft; with a dead- weight cargo Id feet 10 j 
inches; best I rim 15 feet. The car^o was lailen at Bussorah, a port in 
the north of the ^ailf; pilotage in or out I2»fii/; no port charges. The 
Heasun of sljipmeni of wool and dates at Bussorali is in October and 
November. Bengal, Madras, and Bombay ton SOcwt. wet. Hi cwi. dry. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGR. 



Id$ 



$22 DEAD FRFilGIIT consists frequenily of heavy merclmndize 
fonnitig ftart i»f the car^^o. In charleriiig for deml freigiit or for a lump 
flnm, it may be necessary to limit tlie slap's draugljt when laden. Some 
cliATiererB conceive that particulair sbips show a greater draught with a | 
full car*|o of measureineni godds t!iao tboy do with the same weight of 
dcoiUwetght goods. 

223 DECK LOAD— Tallow. Before the Lord Chief Jostick, 
in the Court of Common Pleas, July 8, 1863, CoHKt obtained against 
Robinson a verdict for £4C6 2« Hd, value of 6B casks tallow, part of 
lh<r deck load of the steamer Era, skipped at St. Peiersburg and thrown 
averboard to lighten her when on her voyage to London, She went ashore 
on llic coast of Sweden. Plain tilT shipped in all 300 casks for which a 
•* clean " hill of lading was given- thider the ordinary policy the iiuder- 
frrilrrs were not liable for "jetsam*' on deck, and the question at issue 
Wtts whftlier tbe shipowner was not bound lo insure goods slowed on deck. 
And *o protect himself from loss when the fact was nol stated in the bill 
of lading or notice given lo the shipper. Defendant relied on a cuBtom 

-in tht Bahic trade of carrying (deck) lalhjw cargoes and not meniiouing 

lth« fact on the bill of lading. Tlie moiion lo set aside the verdict for 

plaintiff was argned November 9th, and refused by the Chief Jtsticb. 

224 DEFICIENCY OF CARGO. In tbe article mate and under 
icveral other articles, tbe su^jjcclof deficiency is referred to incidentally* 
lilt one of ibe most imjiuvtant subjects connected with the shipping inier- 

ftt^ and appeals are constantly made upon it to the editor of the GazetU^ 

225 An Rxeter aliitjajaster complained, January 1^2, lf^57: *' I brought 
r Iia|Tes gtn, under bond, from Loudon ; on delivery, three bottles were 

uid tlie value charged to nie: tbey may bave betiu removed before 
hUijJiiii'iit Can I, as last baud, be held responsible, and if so^ cku 1 not 

' hf rcafifr claim to see contcTitsV 1 onet^ received a pipe of wine ainuirently 
tliort, and got a cooper and a witncbs, wbo to mid four gallons deficieyt ; tbe 
ownrfit threatened lo fine lue for raising the bung." Auswer: ** tbe master has 

Pa right to be satiHiied that the contents are tndy stated, as per bill of lading, 

^Biil not lo open unh?s8 in tbe presence of the shipper or bis agent : the proper 
txmm In when tbe package is tendered to tbe custody of tbe sliip;" see wai^tnge. 

[ ADOth«r roa'<ter says, Decrnnber 3, IH57 : " A TcsBtl, 110 tt>n n*gifster, takes in 
J, and the muster* judging by her eapaeity and dmngbt tbat she baa ber 
eoinpkniPTjt, signs ibe billa of lading* Heavy weiUber compels btni to throw 
OforboArd 't {a H loij, wJiieli is entered in bis log- Go tliscbargingat Detnerara, 
thi ; ut iuto wagons niid gnenscd. Tbo eousignce stated that the cargo 

Wtt^ Mil t, and struck oil* i'4<J, the value of tbe coal there/* Arbiiratiou 

ts recommended : tbe master should have had a witiiese lo tbe quantity tiaown 
ovorboard, wlio ntioidd have aitesied the same in the log. The cajgo should 

\ bave been surveyed previous to diacbarging, and a protest entered. The owner i 
'it not obUgi»d to allow tbe claim, aa made : the master ia responsible for loss 





IM 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



resulting through his Deglect to obtain the n^esBary doou- [DEFICIENCIT 
ments. A third master says, December 23, 1857; "A ship from New Orleans 
turns out five bales of cotton sliort of the quantity stated in the bills of lading, 
which tho master sfgned on seeiDg the mate's receipts. The magistrates dis* 
allowed the deduction from the mute's wagas, as gross neglect conld not be 
proved." Answer : •* the ship is hoimd to make good the defiinency, unless it 
can be proved, by evidence from the port of shipment or otherwise, that the 
missing bales were never shipped. The safest plan is to pay under protest." 
A fourlh master writes, January 22, 1858 : '* In loading a cargo of oilseed cake, 
I signed for 850 bags, with 10 disputed ; 812 were delivered,'' The editor says 
** the ship is liable for the deficiency, subiect to the special exception of 10, 
unless evidoiico can be produced from the port of shipment that the quantity 
delivered was the quantity received," 

226 DELR'ERY. There is no actual delivery, say of a cargo of 1 

graiuj until it is over tli*» ship's sides; see fast-day and the Arctics case [ 
in the article grain, 

22T A shipmaster asks, March 22, 1858 : *' A vessel arrived witb a carga ' 
of sleepers, and, as the Cuslom>i' regulation is that each day's discharge must ^ 
be piled on tlio quay for the officers supervision and count, before the oon- 
Bignee can draw away any part; eao the consignee compel Ibe master to 
I provide men to pile the sleepers, or is he only hotmd to jiut Uiem over the 
ship's side ? The consignee states tbat they are not delivered to him before 
being measured and passed by the custom-house, as the charter party states, 

* to be paid so much per load, custom-house calliper measuremeut/ '* Answer: 
** delivery over the ship's side, safely on the quay, is good delivery; and the 
consignee cannot compel the master to incur the expense of piling the sleepers/ 

Another master states, December 20, 1801, ** that his vessel has just dis- 
charged a cargo of coal from Swansea at a quay at a current rate of freight. 
On application to the conjsignee for the fVf^ight, a claim is made of Bd ^toa , 
for the quantity discharged, as being the cost of delivering into store, and 
refers him to the following clause in the charter party (in print), wliieh at the 
time of signing, be did not especinlly notice, vi?: :^' And shall deliver tlie same 
in regular turn to the order of said frelghterB, according to bills of lading to 
be signed for the same, into store, steamer, or the de]K>t tlieie, afloat or on 
shore, the cargo to bo there discharged by the ship accordiug to custom, at any 
quantity, by day or niglit, the merchant may require/ The bill of lading b&s 
no reference to the discharge. Snch a practice as this is not the custom of 
tlie port/' The Editor answers i *'lhe ship having expressly covenanted to 

* deliver into store/ ouist perform the covenant at her own expense. Eight 
pence per ton seems a large charge, and the master ought to have been con- 
Biilted as to what the men sbould be paid for the labour, Asa genera! rule, ' 
the ship is only bound to deliver over iho side, but, if the master signs to 
deliTer ia. any other way, the mere fact of his having done so carelessly, or ia 
ignorance, will not relieve him from the stipulations of his contract." 

In April, 1863, tlie skip Danzttj, from Dantzig, discharged at Hull &,055 
pieces of lO-inch by IQ-ineh sleeper blocks, 5S& pieces of 6-inuh by lO-inch 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



\M 



B, and 14 rmlhoms of lathwood* This was two pieces [DELIVERY 

•^more than the qiinniiiy stated in the biJl of lading. Freight, with £i gratuity 

' to tbo master, was paid bjr tbe consignee, who subsequently claimed ^'^5 for 

00 of Ihe firet do^cribinl sleepers and 1?^ of the others, short of the bill of 

lading. Thi§ claim was tried in the Admiralty Court before Dr. Luseiingtok, 

rJanuary 20» 18(V4, The action was brought under the 6th section of the Act, 

|160L It afijx^ars that the consigiioe had sold the cargo to a railway compfuiy, 

vbo reeeived it from the ship. In delivering judgment, which went against 

llhe eonaignee with costs, the judge said ** reserving the question of fact, I 

[think the delivery on the quay was a legal delivery. I think bo because, 

Hd doubt, a delivery on the quay was sanctioned, nay required, by the 

oee. If the consignee point out a mode of delivery, and that mode of 

rltvery h carried out by the master, the consignee is stopped by his own act 

fom finding fault with the mode of delivery. If once such a delivery is made, 

sponsibility of the owner of the ship is at an end. It is no part of the 

r of the master to provide a watch on shore, his duty is ended by delivery." 

In April, 1801, the ship Aljnne, Capt. Robe, was chartered by Black and 

ers to load rice at Calcutta for Colombo or Galle, "to be taken from the 

fm tackle at the risk and expense of the consignees, and a receipt to be 

i on board." Part of the cargo was delivered at Colombo and remainder 

[ Oaile, where, in oonsequenoe of various quarrels, the master required the 

D«rcbant lo pay daily the freight for the amount of cargo delivered each day 

lorer Uic ship's side into the merctiant s boats. This course involved a lawsuit 

|mt Gallein October, 1861, when plainliff*8 case was dismissed; in July, 1862, 

lli^ supreme court of Ceylon allirraed that judgment; and in Jtdy, 1864, the 

is of the Privy Council affirmed the judgment lo Ceylon, irilh costs. 

228 DEM IT RR AGE is ihc allowance made to the ship for detention 
bevund the stipuluied lime fur receiving or for discharging cargo* A 
certain number of day* are usually stated on the charier parly or bill 
of lading for ibis purpose. The freighter can deiain the vessel on 
luirage the number of days expressed in the charter parly — ^iisuolly 
Hoi more than ten, at so much per diem. The ordinary form *'.,.,_,_._ 

ir« to be allowed the said merchants for loading at and 

fdbeliarKtng at . Should the vessel be detained longer 

timii the said days, demurrage the sum of £ to be paid 

day by day for all days ao detained," but the merchant not to detain the 
I Icinger than the ten days. When llie silpulated lime for denmrrage 
, tlie master ehctnld give written notice, through a third party, to 
etghter. At this stage the owner or master can enter into a special 
Vmctit (qt continuation of demurrage at increased rate, or if be prefers 
lia^ oon^der the charier party at an end, land the cargo, pay himself 
' eight and arrears of demurrage, and seek other employment for his 
el. 'I'bis course ought not to be taken but undiT itgal advice. The 
'«lionld give noiice to the charterer immediately his vessel is in 
^icig b«nh« Where a ship is detained beyond the number of 



IM 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



lay-daya speciBed in the cbarter parly, the masler [DGMURRAQ& 
should givR a notice of di:!rmirrage daily, if possible, iiit^lyding Saturday 
on Sunday *s uotice. This recommi^ndation ap|>li€S hoih io loading and 
unloading. Sundays and (oL^al hulidays da not count as lay-days when 
*' working days *' are specifii-d, but ibiy count tm demurrage. Days are 
not reckDued from nnon to noon. Where a notice is given at ten in the 
morning of a certain day, that day counts, nevertheless such a "nolice 
day " is seldom insisted on. The coni^it^nee or asisiijjnee is not liable for 
demurrage for time consumed at the port of loading, unless by the express 
terms of the cboner party or hill o( lading be is made liabl*?; Smith v. 
SiETKKiNft, Court of Exchequer. If a particular place is fixed on for 
the discharge of the cargo, or if it is provided tlntt, in ibe event of certain 
contingencies, the vessel can discharge at Rlternative places,^in the 
former, the days run from the ship's arrival at the place fixed on, — and 
in the latter, from the place first selected for commencing to discharge. 

229 Subject to any special agreement, three or four consecutive days 
are considered ample for hwiding a collier carrying 180 ton. Seven or 
eight working days, from the time llie sliip was berthed in her turn and 
ready for l£ja<ling, are rpiite su(ficionl for 6 DO ton of coal, and demurrage 
is claimable for every day beyond. Laying days not being staled, two 
or tbree days are autficient to discI large 60 ion of Bangor slate, and 
demurrage is due for every day beyond. 

23ii Masters and others when obtaining charter party for China, 
should be very partit^ular about tlie number of lay-da^vs, as ships nearly 
always come under demurrage there, owing to the want of suitable con- 
venience on shore, Tliis caution is especially necessary when chartering 
coal, &c. in Australia for China, 

2JU A vessel is eliartered to load mahogany at Belize for the United 
Kingdom, and lias I & lay-days for every 100 ton of wood shipped. The master 
asks the Gazette, December 28, 1857: **Are those days to be counted upon 
the cargo wood, or does the broken stowage (logwood) come under ibo samo 
category as the timber^ and have tbe lay-ditys to be allowed on the broken 
stowage, which pays only one- third freight, as well as the car^o timher?' 
Answer: "the reckoning of the lay-days is not aflecied l>y any differeuce in ' 
the freight; they count on all ike wood (cargo or hroken stowage) shipped/* 
A master writJ^fl. Novemher 32, IH&H: **J have diHcharged, and» by charter 
party, am entitled to two days' deraui-rage. The consignee refuses to pay, as 
he porch ftsed by bill of ladings which only recognises freight as per charter 
party, and bfls noihiiig to do with demunage. My legal advizer says this is 
the luw, and that my remedy is against the charterer. The charterer saya t 
am to have a * lien on my eargo for freight, dead Ircight, and demurrage/ 1 
am alsoatlvized thni it amounts to nottiiug at all — that having completed my 
engagement, and delivered the cargo, T have no lien on it. Can I in hitura 
protect myself by inserting on the bill of lading * freight and all other coa- 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



107 



K 

m 

^»^ 



ditioos us per charter party?"' The Editor answers; [DEMUEHAGE 
'* buTiog completed tlie engagement and delivered the cargo, the master's only 
tesnedy is agaiust liie charterer, as advised. lu future he can protect hioiself 
by inaertiDgf the words he suggests. Another niasler writes February 29, 1859 : 
*• a V€*ssel from Antwerp has a general cargo, for which there are tea receivera. 
~ ach bill of lading states — * the within goods to be taken out withiu six run* 
nitjg days, or pay jt'3 ^ day demurrage/ The Tcssel was kept eight daja, the 
delay being caused by the consignee whose goods were on the top/' The 
£ditor says that consignee should be proceeded against for all the demurrage. 

232 DENSITY of the SEA. Vessels bound from ports on the 

ftea coast, where the water is sah, to pons in rtvers where the water is 

fresh, or to ports in inland seas, like the Ballicj the Black Sea, or Sea 

of Azof, where the water is only slightly salt, should he careful not to 

^oad loo deeply, because ships sink dee])er in fresh than in sea water. 

Taters are more or less dense in pnjporiion to the quantity of sails they 

bold in solution, and, as all floating bodies whatever, displace a quantity of 

Ithc fluid exactly equal in weight to the weight of the ship or other flottting 

llxKly, it mnst therefore necessarily f^dluw, that ships with a given cargo 

|iffill sink deeper and draw more water in rivers and inland seas, than 

in Uie ocean ; and this is a mailer of much consequeiiccj especially as 

fcgaids large and deep ships. In order that masters may have an eye 

[fo the loading and the ** draught of water" of their ships antl be able to 

impute how much they may float either lighter or deeper when passing 

Itlirougb waters of diflerenl densities, we insert here (in addition to the 

'^tiihle under the head gravity, specific) the specific gravity and weights of 

• cubic foot of the waters in which our sliips mny usually navigate. 



DescripHos 


Grftvilj 


Jb 




Spedflp 


lb 


filver Wftter * * ' 


l.rxK) 


mk 


Norih Atlantic , 


1,02« 


e^ 


B«ii (if Azof , . 


1 .(Km 


m 


Soutli Alkntic . 


l,0'i« 


Mi^ 


Hl«f k Sea , . . . 


i.uU 


53| 


Arctic Se« 


lvt>2« 


Uk 


Bdtie Sea ... . 


1,016 


«:*tw 


Meditemoean . 


1.0»0 


64J 


White 8e« .... 


1,010 


"'Mi 


OaspiAn ^a . . 


hom 


UH 


TeUowBea .. 


i,mn 


mt 


PeftdS'ja .... 


MU 


IbH 



I 



Now the Salter the water the less will be the draught of water of 
» other things being ef]iuil. Let us suppose I hat a ship drew 17 feet 
in the Londun Docks and it was required to be known fiow fuuch 
glitrr ihe would doat at Malta. We have (inly to make a siujple rule of 
Tte atatemeiU from the above densities, and work out the result^ thus: 
JU l4KK><tt. : 17f««t : : 1,030 oi. : ISi feet, iolving the work tnverMlj. 
Tlic water at Malta, being about l'33rd more dense than the Tliames, 
litip will not friuk lu deep at Malta by about l-33rd of her immersion 



15B 



STEVEICS ON STOWAGE. 



A vessel dnming 12 feet at sea will draw [DENSITY OF THE SEA 

12 feet 2 inches in ihe floating bnsin at Bristol, which usually contains a 
considerable proportion of fresh water. The sianie principle is involved 
in the Thames and in erery ImrWur fed hy fresli water. In Newport, 
MunmcMilhsliire, during neap lides and after heavy rain^ a vessel draws 
more than on ordinary occasions. After ahjpa are laden down to their 
proper draught or "bearing/' it requires a considerable weight propor- 
tionately to immerse ihera a few inches more. This extra immersion 
causes them to become very unwieldy at sea, and mucli more liablt; to 
founder. In engaging^ a ship for a lump sum it is usual to have her 
draught when fully laden specified on the charter jiarty. In this case it 
may be necessary for a charterer to recollect llie alierations which are 
uccasioned iu a ship's immersion by tlie character of the water in which 
she floats. When a ship is engaged for a lump sum the owner generally 
excludes the use of the cabin, the sail room, &c. from the use of the 
charterer. The use of the deck requires special agreement j see dead ' 
freight. Dr. Uee stales that deep sea water, from the ocean, from what- 
ever locality, holds nearly the same constituents in solution, containing, 
on an average, in 1,000 parts. 

25 of cblonde of so^am (common lalt)! 

59 sulpbnie of rongnei^iA, 

8 '5 eUorlde of mngiLefiiimii 

O'S earboiuites of lime and mogpeal*! 

1 ftulph&te of lime. 

Besides a little sulphate and muriate of potash, iodide of sodium^ and 
bromide of magnesium. 

234 DERELICT and DEVTATrON. An owner is liable to malce 
good the dilTtrrence which, upon reasonable calculation, could be proved 
to exist between the value of a cargo of grain at the market price of the 
day on which a ship would have jirobably arrived, and the market price 
of the day on which she did arrive, if a master had not committed a 
voluntary deviation by towing a derelict into port. 

235 DERRICK. A contrivance by way of temporary crane, for 
tlie purpose of hoi.^ting goods or provisions in or onl of a ship. 

236 DHOLL. The term dboll has three significations; it is the 
name given to the beads of carnelians made at Cambay ; it is tbe Eastcro 
commercial term for a bnfe or package ; and it is the Indian name for 
the pigeon pea which is usually packed in biiga cont«ining 160 th. each ; 
large quanliiies of these are conveyed from Calcutta to Mauritius, 
Singapore, and China, for ihe consumption of tbe hibouring classes* 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



159 



The season of shipment al Calcmu is after the rains of the [DHOLL 
fkoiltli*west monjjoan, and usually in ihe early part of the norlh-east 
monsoon ; the bags couiain two Calcutta mauuds, equal to 164 tb. Beu- 
gal aiid Madras ion 20 cwt. 

DISCHARGING ; see unloading, 

37 DISTANCES BY SEA to Madras, and Melbourne, &.c. 

No, 1— Plymouth to St, Vincent 2,260 

Sierra L«one ....• 90t> 

Cape of Good Hope 3,5Jd2 

Wilson Promontory (Great Circle Com- J 5071 

positfi Boute, moadmum Ut. 40p S.J ' 

Bjdntj ,,, 443 

Total 13.162 

No, 2— Plymontlx to Cape of Good Hope 6,748 

Swan River 4,«7*2 

Adelaide 1,345 

PortPhilip 605 

Sydney t*,. SOi 

Total 13,874 

Ko. 8— Plymouth to Sydney direct 13,aao 

To Indiih via the Cape of Goo^ Hope :^ 

PljTnouth to Cape of Good Hope 6,748 

Maaritiufl S,271 

Point de Galle (Ceylon) 2,0M 

Mmlrma ,..«., 545 

Cakntla 770 

Tofix .***»•.. 12,418 

DRAGON'S BLOOD, a red kind of resin forced out of the 
ill' of the rotang pUntj when expused hy t!ie Japanese over the sleum 
of bollitig water. The ruLanij[ is a species of cane ahoiit as thick as a 
maii*a arni, which ^rowB tu the length of 100 feet. In the KaH Indies 
and in the Cnnary Islands the tree grows tu an immense size; ut certain 
liiTies the trunk cracks in various parts and emils a gum wliich concretes 
intij tears. Dragons' hlood h packed al Calcutta in small coses six of 
which make a freij^ht ton of 50 cwhic feet; it is shipped there all the year 
roond, but chiefly in the i^iorth-east monsoons. Bonihay ion 50 cubic feet 
ia cajei. A box of Chinese containing one pecul, measures 7'432 feet* 

239 DRUGS AND CHEMICALS. Alkalies, liquid potassie, 
lic|uid ammoniee ( hartshorn ), and some other chemical preparations, such 
aa chloride of lime in solution, are sometimes put in corked vessels; 
ikese tubstances will destroy the cork (eat it away), and therefore require 
care. They should, if possible, always have glass stojipcrs. Al Bombay 
60 cubic feet of unrated drugs in chests go to a ton ; in iome ports 16 cwt. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE- 



240 DUNNAGE, a qimnlity ^f loose wood^ &c, laid in Uie bottom 
of a ehip, either to raise heavy goocU which might make her loo sliff, or 
to keep ihe cargo stinicieiitly abiive the bottom to prevent its being 
damaged by water, if she leaks. SomeUraes it consists of loose articles 
of merchandize, permitted to be shippeil for the convenience of stowinj;:^ 
securing, and filling up cargo. It is customary that all mats, wood, slicks, 
rattans, Sec, necessary for dunnage, stowage, or prese nation of goods, 
should be free of freight. At Calcutta it is usual fur rattans, &;c. shipped 
as broken stowage, to pay a small freight ; the w ords '' to be used as 
broken stownge" are inserted in the bill of lading. 

241 All perishflble goods require dunnage ; the quantity for diflerent 
kinds will, in many cases j be found under their proper headings. The 
general rule is to have not less than six inches in the bottom and nine 
in the bilges, and to mat all the way up the sides with cargo in bags* 
The rule at Quebec is for ** pot and pearl as^heSj tobacco, hark, indigo, 
madders, gum, &c. whether in casks, cases, or bales, to be dunnaged in 
the bottom and to the upper part of the bilges, at least 9 inches, and 
2J inches at the sides.** As the whole of the waier in the bilges cannot 
be removed when the ship careens, even with well-fitted bilge pumps, so 
the dunnage ought to be always deeper there, and esjtecially in flut-iloored 
©hips, some of which require extra dunnage also at the bilges, wiih cargo 
in bulk, which naturally settles there when the ship is pref^sed with sail 
shortly after loading. The larger the sfiip taking a full cargo the greater 
must he the pressure in the lower hold, and hence the necessity for a 
deeper bed, from the keelson to the second futtock head, pariicularly with 
brushwood and olhcr compressible materials. Speaking of the mode 
adupted in American ships, ^Ir* Pikhrkpoint, British vice-consul at 
New York, says *' £i full- built ship requires 6 inches on the floor, 9 in ihc 
round of the bilge, 3 inches above^ and 2 in the 'tween decks. Sharp ships 
with 15, 20, and 30 inches dead-rise, require lesson the floor and in the 
bilges. Three-fifLhs of all the goods damaged, are damaged in the bilges^ 
if not provided with bilge p;imps/* To judge of the thickness of brush- 
wood, stand on it and measure from under your feet. In stowing any 
description of cargo, longers should be kept square, and as level as 
possible ; it is better to have considerable breakage than neglect this most 
important rule, 

24 2 An experienced master strongly recommends that the first layer 
should be athwart ships and not too close, and it ought to be of a good 
depth, because the rolling movement is more frequent and at a much 
greater inclination than the movement fore and aft. If the cross dunnage 
is loo near the skin or ceiling, the wash which may be on it will be im- 
peded as it runs from side to side, and the water will splash against the 
cargOj which is generally damaged here after severe weather has been 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



161 



icnccd. If )md nihivart%hi|>8 m the decic (below ) [DUNNAGE 
he dunnage ^bould nlnp hhort one or two inches from the walerwuvs. 
hiolliermaiiier, chiefly engaged Id tfie Labrador wr^d Newfoundland triide, 
cwiumends the longerin^ lo be lai J fnrii unci afl, iioi too near each other, 
ill order ibat th*i wash siiall be reHtricted to so smtdl a quanliiy that it 
wiU be inMufficient Co injure ibc cargo, and will prevent any body of water 
a colleciing iti Uie wiogs, and cbns damaging it; in lbi& ease durmage 

13 Referring to Eani India cargoes bomeward, Capl. FAiti sh says 
me dunna'^e in the bold should be levelled from about two ittches above 
lie keelson be fort.' the main bateb ; and lowered tcnvards the wingi5i, to 
How fur ibe droop of the beflTns. 1*he i^'roniui tif r sbonid not he carried 
far over totvatd^ the bilge, where there should never be lens than nine 
bes dminage from ilie skin* If tlie dead-weigbt consists of cargo in 
3, in fcilowing the third beiji^ht the dunnage nmy be reduced lo j>ix 
l*ea; and above thai grndtmlly to two, from the ship*s side, which will 
be Hurticieui in a li^'ht abip; exeeptin;L; in the wake of the chain plates 
ftud bulla, where it ehoidJ not be less iban three inches." 

"MA Green or wet wood h loially imsiVued for dunnage; it will 
^oili ilje Ciirgo and ibe sbip. Although to all appearance dry, 
[ V V afief beiui^ heated by close confinement in ilie bold, produce 

Dobiure^ ibe eva{)oratiyn of which will injure some descrifHion oi' goods. 
IwiMd, being bcavy, is very nHcful. At Rio Janeiro, if it can be 
lined, prefer rosewood lo bii^wood. When aawin*^ loj^wg^jd do not lei 
lo^l remain in ibe bold, for if welled it will discolor and damage 
Ta and oibcrT gocids. Iloim shavingJi sbtndd be avoided at Calcutta, 
re, and at other Indian ports, horn tips arc shipped wlien better 
rKptioAB of dunnaf^L* fall. Kalians are frequeiMly jturcbased by tbe 
lii]>« and are well adapted for tbe sides. For rosemary see fruil, for 
ftta see sugar; see aliio coker nuts, cntch, &c. Mu8teri> sbould be 
i wben loading Honie heavy cargoes upon brnsliwood and fagota, 
' ll Ita|fpeu89 oeca&ionally, tbat tbe pressure on this sort of dunnage is 
N^ral as to squeeze it into a mucb smaller space tban could at first 
»♦<• Wen *uppoM»d ; no thai after gelling to sea ships are sometimes 
u> return to pcul lo unkmd a j^ari of ibcir cargo, lo prevent tbeir 
g. lu HUfb cases, brm dunnage should, if possible, be always 
ir3. Tbe best dunnage, biid in tbe best way# will imt prevent injury lo 
if ibe puni[ii!* are neglected, eiiber in harbour or at sea; after lying 
liinjf; time on (»ne tack, a vessel should bear up, sound tbe pumps, and, 
^ nr«:i'3M%ary, clear ihe htdd^ ninU make tbe ptimps suck. 
^45 In ra»c of dispute on discharging, if ibe surveyor declares the 
iM»i tiufljcietit, tbe sbip in liable for tlic damage in the bottom* 
M...*^ii tbe surveyor canncjl cite any autborily as to what would bavo 



162 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



m 



been sufficient dunnage, Apart from any local or Bpecific [DUNNAGE 
regulalions, llie general rule i» llmt tht? dunnage must bu "suiiicieut" 
according tu llie nature and qnality of die ca^rgo> If n ship is not (iropeiiy 
dunuaged, tbe master, unless there be any S|>eciul ciriuinsiances to ex- 
onerate Ijim, is liable to his owners for any properly ascertained loss 
accruing to them llirough bis neglect. Soiiie cliavler parties say "to be 
piopevly (ilunnnged Ijy the cbarterersj and ski wed by a regnlar stevedore, 
TJitii means that the diinnaj;e is to be sujipliecl by tlie charterers. The 
sbip IB ucverthelebs liable Jbr any damage for defective dunnage. 

Insufficiency. In tlte case of tlie Gnrkm, reported in tlie Shipping 
Qtt^i{U\ August 8, 1855, it was dci-iiled at Antrim, that the owner was liabl 
for damage to sugar tli rough iusutlicient dunnage. 'J'he evidenee showed tlie; 
Bhould he 5 g ineiiea to raise the bUges, and Uinehes to rise tlie other partal 
of each cask ; she had only 2 or ii inches* 

Guano, A mabter asks the Shipping Oazette, June 11, 1850, whether 11 
is neeessary on a coasting voyage to have as much tkmnage for guano as ii 
coming from Callao, and is answered : the s.ime rule is applicable to coastei 
aB to oibert}, viii. ihat such du.iuagc is to be used as shidl bo proper an^ 
Butbt'ient to protect the cargo iVomdamnge. Wtiere there is any doubt, an< 
the question taay inibe aa lo how far ihe ship is liable, the ma&ler should, 
all ciises, diachaj-ge cargo under survey. 

Iron Ships. A Glasgow shipowaer asks tlie editor ** how much, if any, 
dunnage an iron ship should have fn her bottom wben Iier Hoor is rail 
about 20 inches above the skin, and she has tlius an enormous water-s]i&ce 
Wooden ships require some b or in iuchcs, but they have not a Ibmth of ihi 
water spitce. owing lo tlje Ijinbera iilliug up nearly all the space between the' 
lloor (veiling) and^uuL^ide pkinkiug. Also, how mucii in the wings when the 
ship has i\ great ii«e of floor? Also, if any duuuage is retj^in'rcd in the sides» 
when wooden atriugera, W ini.lics by 5^ inches, are boiled on to tho angle ii'on, 
1*2 ineiies apint, lo prevent damage lo goods either from chiife or wot; tU© 
space in the sides froox ihe inner purt of the stringer to the skin being tha 
depth of the angle iron, say 5 or Uinehes?" The editor says, May iiU, 1850 ■ 
** although it niay not be actually necessary to have as nmeh dnanage in a.i 
iron ship a a in a wooden one, for the reasons assigned by a Glasgow shij 
owner, yet, as usage lias adopted an 8-iueh depth for a ship, without reloreu* 
to the shape of her bottom, we IVar lliat in the event of dumnge to the ground 
tier in any descnjition ol Tessol, whether iron or wood, the parties would ha^ 
a claim. It might be ai'gued that a leak in the walerwuys, or Btem, or sterti' 
post, above or without the skin or ceiling, Vfould probably i»unse an acennm- 
latiou of water above the skii], which, before it could get to the pumps, might 
injure tho ground tier without reference to the space between the bottom and 
tlie ceiling. As iron ships aie becounng an important feature in our merchant 
service, and, as they do not generally rcijuire the same extent of dunnage as 
ships built of wood, it would ho well if some rule wure adopted by owners, 
shippers, and othcra concemed, as to the necessary dunnage for iron ships/* 
See the articles iron and iiou ships. An owner of iron ships writing October 11# 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



}m 



, to MenroL Liiao Bbothkrs. BUketibeofl, says, " I have | D0NNAGE 

it* \i\\j ami find a general Jeditig anioTigst nil surveydra hure tliftt less 

|(1 la required mi board an iron sliip thim a waoiloii one, the general 

ijrtnioti imu)^ tliat from a ihird to a ImW le^a m surtitueDt for an ii'on ©hip, 

TliiB due« not,, liowever, Bettle tbe question, us m case of damage the imdor- 

may still deraaml that tlie old rule for duDuage be adhered to. A 

[lent must bo made on the subject." 

^246 DUiVNAGE BATTENS, ineces of oak or fir, about 2 incLes 

nailed ailiwan the orlop deck of ships of war, to prevent wet 

damaging ihc cableSj and to admit air; they are aho used in sail 

omSt and njagaziues, to form a vacant space beneath ihu sails and 

awder barrels, 

247 EARTHEXWARE in bulk should lie on a flat snrface-^tf.e 
(Mirer the bnlkheatl the lictler; if on ct>al, first cover with a plentiful 
Wpply of straw. Crates sbonld eilher be slung or hooked with can-hooks 
ilje twist and not to the bnrs. All " flat" goods such as dinner plalcs, 
lisbes, &c. being heavy, are packed in ilie botuung of the crates; the 
ligbl wnreand hidlow wnre on the lop. FulUfaccd crates contain nearly 
pjUf as uiui:\t ruiue as flat-faced cniles. Their ujiper parts, sliaped like 
^ hoMTt usually contain light ware and hollow ware. Salt will rot straw 
in packing and slowing, and cause breakoore; crates, &c, should 
htrrfort? be kept at a disiunce from jt; wa.er will have nearly the same 
WecL At Ncwcasile, when biasing erirlbruware and glass, llie shijiper 
saally nends a man int^t (he hold and tiie master jdacesone tu the lighter. 
In SiafTord>»bire, when packing cmies, the oaten straw is in bulk, the 
prbentrti in sheaves* The warchonecnien there Cidl the latter " [dling." 
Sufficient of it is laid in ihe bottonj of the crate and against the sides 
>lcct tlie goods from dauijmess or brcaknge, Tijat in the bottoui is 
PBl into the intcr&'ices closely by Ore help of aii iron shovel called a 
iJlc. A bed i»f oaten straw in then placed in the liottom to receive the 
Pmlayrr (usmilly the heaviest gotjds) whicli is tightly slntled with the 
iaii% being softer ilian wheaten straw, A bed of it is also placed for 
ft I -fion of every subsequent layer of earthenware, wliich is closely 

itke the fim, tu keep the goods from moving or as it is by some 
aed 'talking*' when the crates are in motion. Over the last lajer la 
l*ced A boffy of oalen ?jtraw and on that a body of*' jnling '' quite close. 
be lop of the crate is then lii^btly laced ihrough the np|HT bars with 
cord singly and across; for foreign packages, a cover of the same 
ial as the crate is nailed on. 
Toonitge* 'iSrrntes snmll size, weighing H) ton ; 22 crates, mixed sorta 
M,:,^ I., si/e, Oton; or lU crates, largo »i/A 7 ton: will oe.upj? a space of 
feet or 1 keel. Wlion wheat is l< 1^ quarter freight, earthenware por 
-i-Tiiu iD rated &U Bmatl ^sbid, middle 4«I>(i, and large <MU]cL 



Wi 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



248 EBONY, a black ni^d vnlnable wood found only in tbe cenire 
of the ircr ; llie imtside, vvliicb is wbile utkI sift, decays and !eave^ ihe 
bliirk iHitoncbtMb it j^ows in Ceylon, tbc Ea»L Indies, and in MadiiL(;is-J 
car, wbere il is shipped in lar^^e quantities from ibe French isliiml *ifl 
Nns Beh or Nohsi Be in French vessels that |»to<'L*ed lo Zanzibar la 
complete whh oil, cocoa nuty, &c, Ii is ibe best duscriptiuri of dead- 
weight shipped at Zanzibar, and as the lojjs are only from six to seven 
feet long and do not average more than 70 tb, they arc quickly and easily ^ 
handled and stowed. This ebony is brought from tbe West coast oN 
Madafrascar, and Passanduva Bny direet» in native dhows sent fn»ni * 
Zanzibnr to trade by barter, Bombay ton 20 cwt. or 50 cubic feet in 
square logs. 

24f* EGGS may he preserved for many months hy Bleeping them, 
^^hen fresh, in a dibilr solution of sulphate of zinc, 1 part to '20 pans of 
water; no chemical chan^^e lakes place within tbe shell. It is also said 
that they will keep diirinf^ a long voyage if stow*ed in salt> perfectly dry, 
or in fine salt water sand, the big end down;, or in slacked lime, if 
previously coaled wirb gum; or in oak sawdust, if previously dipped in 
melh'd grease, not loo warm, or nibbed with it. 

TonQEge, &C. Irinh eggs for the London, Bristol, and Plymouth morketa , 
are packed in cases eontiiiuing fourteen hiiiidrpd — every Imudred 120; each 
enai^ raeaanrcs on nn averaije, "J. tect 4 inebca long, 2 feet widt% and 19 inches 
deep, rimking 7 cuhic ieet. Ti» Livei pool they are generally sent in cases and 
ernies, holding 40. 50, or no Iinudred each ; 4D cubic feet to the ton. 

250 ELKCIRIC TELECRAPII CABLE. Ships strongly built 
are nbsufiHely nec<'S«ary; they will j^etierally take about one-third more 
than iheir reijister tonnage, n m. Tlie cubic ypnce actually occupied 
varies from 10 (fl' 20 cnbic feel per ton of '20 cwL The first complete 
cable between EnjrUnd and TVanee was laid in September^ 1651, from 
Dover to t'npc Cirlsnez; il was *2o miles bnii^, weighed IbOlon, and cost 
dL'20,0i 0; ihe othir cxpei]<es were £5-5,000. The diameter of the shi>re 
end of the Atianrie cable was li inches; weight per nautical mile 
(6,087 feet) &.Jtt>tt; ^^^ diameter of the main cable five-eighths of an 
incli ; wei*j'ht per nautical mile, in the air ^IJrcwt. in sea water 15cwt. 

ikTore ciunmencinii to load, and indeed, before making any pr«- 
paiaiions for ihe lecepliiin of a telegiapb cublf. Or- master or stevedore 
ought lo be furnished with ils exact J?ize and lenj^'lb, and ifie weight per 
mile; tbe shore-ends of submarine cables are much heavier than the main 
port. He should then form a correct eslimate of tbe space it is likeh* to 
ocenpy, of the entire capacity of tbe ship, and the quant ides which 
could be ponced in ber holds; there are seldom more iban two coils, 

UitlulI'. uulv -Mie, 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



165 



The next duly is a more [ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CABLE 
inijinrtrint one, viz. ihat of mnliing a caJculation tor tbe distribnliini of 
the weights nf the ciihle imd llie oihiir I'rititeiits of ihe ship, in such a 
mciTincr as will put her in proper trim when at sea* This duty shonlil, 
if pod!t)hIe« be pt^rformed so that the vertical centre of the weij;Hits of the 
cable, Sic. shall fall exactly on the horizontal line of floLation-^a result 
wbicb cannot be ohtaineJ without a previous knowledge of the conslruc- 
lioD of the ship, the character of the calile^ and ihe space di&iposahle for 
its reception ; at first cables were generally placed too low ; see the article 
iriua* When steam ships are employed, the position and weights of ihe 
engines, machinery, and coal, fyrm important items in the calculation. 
If the cable is stowed in l:in)«s for the purpose of immersion in water, 
the weight of the water, aa well as the tanks, has also to hi? considered* 
The cable should, if possible, be stowed so that when pa_)ed out the ship 
will preserve her proper trim. 

JShort lengths are reeled up lilce coils of rope. Manufacturers con- 
Rider that ii is miicli heller fnr ship and cables, thai long lengtli^j should 
be in round coils like cylinders, thai is, tlie uppt^r layer or <lake sliotild 
be ibe same size as the lower one ; the cable coils better atid is much 
Icsa likely to break looRe at sea. It is occasionally ^fowed in an oblong 
toil to suit the shape of the Imld, and sometimes like an inverted cone, 
A "layer" ('*shecve" or ** flake*') o( the cablei is the whole portion of the 
Ci»il seen ivhcn looking down npon it, curving round from circumference 
to centre. A round lurn in a layer is simply a single one-part of the 
caWe going once round the tier. The length of ihe middle tiu'n mulli- 
plitd by the number of turns in a layer, gives the length of cable in that 
layer. 

iitJiig lengths are usually stowed t»n a strong wooden platform, tlie 
proper height of which is the great desideraluni in reference to the ship's 
beh;Lvimir at sea The plntforn* is made solid to the ceiling or but torn 
of the ihip; this i.s frefpiently done witli coal, but there shiiuld be biill^- 
Itfadt or stimc heavy car^^) at each end to keep it sernrc ; tlie coal is 
covered with boards. Sometimes the coal reaches as hiyh as the h<dd 
beams, and the platform is fitted on them ; in this case the beam* oui;lit 
Ut be first strongly supptirted «m ivuinerons stanchions Tlie cable req uires 
If* bo coiled so that its outside will touch the ceiling of the ship or her 
«itlc«, the biilkheadd, stanchions, masis^ ^c ; when this cnnnot be done» 
tlpHgbt woodt'ii ^tanchion^ are fixed tui(j?ide where necessary. To pre- 
vent I be coil fro in shifting, a few stanchions are aUo fitted perpendicularly 
Irom the nndi-r [>Hrf of the beams above to the upper part of the coil ; 
their heeU are screwed, or otherwise fastened, to battens <*r deals laid fore 
Ti , c^t alliuartfihips, on the cable. In IB64, owing to an insiiHitiency 
iiichions, the large sileumer Pursian^ the tirst vessel which left 



I 
I 




I 



i 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE 



Englatiil entirely laden with [ELECTRIC TELEGRA.PH CABLE 

calile fur foreign service (ilie Metliternmean) silnfterl ii on the passage^ 
and put back to Plymoiitli witli a considci-able list to porL 

Cables mast be kept free from ibe rays of the sun and as cool aa 
possible. Wljen tt is intended to disci large at some port, ihe open sjiace 
in llje eye of the coil (after beini; well dtintiaged), can be Jilled wilb solid 
cargo, but care oinst be observed not to place leag, spiees, fruit , &c, near 
tbe coble, as ibe tar in it will laini and damtige sucb commodities ; see tar. 

Water-tight tanks are nsiially built in the sbip and made of iron, 
shaped like a cylinder, and when all ibe cable is coiled ii>, beams are 
placed on it to receive a sirong deck, wliicb h then well caulked, Tbe 
tanks require tt> be supported on very sidisljinlial pbitfurms, and if the 
cable forms llie main cargo, ibe platform should be raised ns nuicli as 
possible ; tanks ought to be carefully and strongly shored against llie 
sides of the ship. 

In layiug a suhmanne telegraph Cable the bands employed have an 
embarrassing duly to perfonn, even if the sea is calm and everything 
progresses smooibly* As it departs layer by layer, great care and aiten- 
lion are required in clearing aivay the wood packings, and seeing that 
nolhing fmds tlie cable in ihe bold, or canses nusteadiuess in the run out, 
for any checL there is lialile to ihrow it into a kinic or l(» break it. 

In the inanagemenl of tlie veering breaks cousidcrable discretion miLSt 
be observed : ihc strain ])Ul on bliould be snilicient to prevent the cable 
from ranning ont loo quickly with reference lo the sjieed of tbe vessel, 
whilst tbe apparatus must be kepi sufficiently sensitive to prevent ihe 
cable from being snapped by a suilden strain. In practice it is constantly 
necessary ki adapt the !<peed of the ship's engines to various circum- 
stances, such as tiie depth of water, regidarity of soundings, size of llie 
cable, its state in the hold, &c. As provision should be made for contrary 
winds and rough weather, the ccnisiant retention of a large amount of 
surpluts steam power is indispensable. 

In Bltnniy weatlier, by niglit especially, tbe process of laying a cable 
is a very nnxious one ; ihe vessel then tosses lo such an extent that the 
men in the hold, attending to it, can scarcely stand, and tbe proper control 
of tbe cable by mcftns of ihc breaks, becomes a source of great didicnlty ; 
ihe anifle of the calde over the stern cannot be seen nor proper allowance 
made for (be varying nsotiouHof tbe skip. The vessel nniy also be carried 
out of her course; too much caution civnnot be observed, at all limes, 
in attending to ihe helm, as a very plight deviation often entails enormous 
loss of cable. 

Paddle-wheel steam ships would ahvays be preferred as tliey can be 
hove to in heavy weather nmcb more easily than scrcTvs; they can ako 
keep a more direct course^ and ihere is no danger of catching tbe cubic 




kth the paddle like tliere is [ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH CABLE 
with tlie screw: bm owing lo die rjectssiiy of seatin;^ llie eiii^iues hi ihc 
centre of paddle-wliecl ships, they camial tarry long eablcs mrd inaiii- 
taiii iheir Uiin. If tlie cable is slowed in two bdds^ and paid out hrst 
forward^ tbc shiji gocia down dangerously by ibe sleni, and if first from 
llje after liold, slie j^oes dawn by iliu lioad and will nut steer. For ibose 
reasons ncrvw steam h\H[iS are nsually tin ployed ; tlicy are easily trininied, 
uml work more ecunonHcally iban paddks ; their engines (which are 
ligbler) should, for the tonveyanee of telegraphic cables, be seated right 
afl- No rule, however, can be Jixetl^ so nuiidi depends on tbe size^ weighty 
and U'ngili of the cable, and the depth of the water. Across a tideway 
a paddle ij^ bcller tlian a screw j and for rcjuiiring cables a parldle-wlieel 
fehip with disconnecting^ engines, is usually preferred, Somelimes a. 
powerful jiaddJc lender is necessary to keep a screw ship's head well up 
in cat>e ol stoppage. Wlien a lender is employ cd it is usual to rely more 
on tier conipas&es than on those of the ship; hy night rockets are used. 
By I he Adniiiahy regulallini, Aui^uisl 4, ls(i'2, all sea-going steam vessels 
employed in laying down telegraph cables are, between «un-setand sun- 
rise (in addition Lo the ordinary jjuist-head and colored side lights} to 
exhibit*' two brighl red lights hang verlieally below the white Ijglu at 
the fore- mast head, each of the iniervals between ihe lights to be four 
fret." The red lights to be visible at tlie same distance as tlie white light* 
Uclwecn »un-rise and sun-set the vessels are to exhibit ** two ojmnue black 
balls hung veriicall}' from the fure-niast liead." Tlie lower hall to be four 
feci from the iip[>er; each ball to be not less than three feet in diameter. 
2*»1 In the Court of ('(Minnon Pleas, Westnviusterj Jiinnary 'iOth, IKIU, 
Wlbre Loitl Chief Jusliee ICkle, the Slu^marine Teleouaph Co. htoogitt an 
action agiviui^t Dickson, tlie owner of a Swedisb slnp. for casting \m anchor 
M llie Kentish coast, fonlhi^f plaintifl's cahle, and then disentangling it bo 
oegligently hb lo eatjee damage. The Chief Justice said " phdntitf had a right 
to use the hoi torn of ihe sea, uud defendant to nstj tlie snifaee, and to let go 
IttJi Anchor i( the need of navigntion reipiired it. The whole essence of the 
chi^ turned on the word * negligence;' if due skill and care had been used tho 
<?ablo would not have heeu hroken/* Judgment for plaintifl* 

2^V2 ELEPHANTS' TKKTH are usually packed in very long 
barrets; all tll(^^e under 'iOlb. are tailed fccrivelloes; see ivory. IJengal 
and Madias ion Hiewt-in bulk, 60 cubic feet in ciuieS| Bombay idcwt 
in bundles, 2Ucwt. loose, «!>Ocuhic feel in cases. 

*25a EMERY STONE, a Inud ore four linieb heavier than water 
(4'0(KO leing nearly ccpml in weiglit tf* t»rdinary iron ore. Knier}' stone 
iu found wiiii other niineuils in large masses ; the best tonies fr<»m the 
iiiland ul NiL^uik (called hy tlie Greeks Nil aria) and from other ibknd^j 



168 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



ill the Arcliipelago. It is exported chiefly from [EMERY STOKE 
Sniynm ami Scala Nova whence it is shippeil (in bulk) all the year roiiud^ 
hut chit'fly when freights are low. It is not afTocted by beat or cold, aud is 
not injured by contact with other goods, Ordiimrily emery stone can be 
obtained nl Smyrna fur ballast, in whk-h ca^e ihe freight to Kiigland would 
be 8«y ''IsiMl !> ion. Its shipment there is liowever nnder the control of 
one ilnn uhn own the mines, and it i.s said will not Bell the article to a 
master or owner on ship*8 account; there is in consequence a dillicnlty in 
obtaining it unless a vessel is chartered previously^ Tt is frequently u»ed 
to ballast madder, which see. With measurement goods outwards* it 
mif^ht be desirable to take heavy stone ballast, when expectinjr lo load 
V\*i}\i prudure honaewards; (he chief exjmrts from Hnj^land ure steam c<ial 
and bar and holt iron. A freight ton of emery stone is SOcwt; there is 
no tare or draft. When Mediterranean wheat is freighted at U |p- quarter, 
emery stone is rated at 4s btl ^ ton. 

254 ESPARTO is a strong fibrous grass or rnsh, botanically known 
as Sfipti fenacissima^ Mack roc ioa (enactssima. In tSjKiin it is called 
Esptirto, in Ilnly Spurfum, in France Sparfi\ and in Algeria Alfa; Latin 
Spat i urn. Its chemical constituents are as follows : 



i 



Y<:Ilow eoloiiriiig mmttcr 120 ' 

Rod auto ^0 

O am and Resin 7"0 

8(i]ts, ftmiiiiig the ashes of the AUa 1*5 

Paper Fibres ,.,,...., - * 



26-6 

78-6 
100-0 



The plant grows wild on both shores of the Mediterranean for about five 
decrees of lonj^itude; it is found ujjon arid, rocky soils, having a basis 
ol silica and iron. In a wild slate tt grows in a tuft or clump, of wluch 
such i^lulks I inly us have come to matnriiy and are full of sap. ought lo 
be iralliercd for exporlalion* If galhercfl too green it produces a linns- 
parent iihre, with immense waste; if Ion ri|)e, the consiituint eb^menis 
of silica and iron are with difficulty removed. It should be gathered by 
hand and left lo dry for a week or ten days bef*jre being removed for 
parking. From the grecu lo the dry stale it b^ses 40 t> cent, of its weight; 
when sliipped in loose bundles great space is reqiiired for st^iwage. When 
placed under a hydranlic machine the bulk is reduced nne half; the hales, 
which are secured with iron iioopSj weigh about 2} cwt. each ; 10 baleH 
my Ik ton. By this mode tlte fibre is kL|it clean, aud ran be more easily 
slowed. Of the 33,4 " '^ i^''^ imitoried in |!?fi4, baiely 3,tXXHon were in 
hvdroulic-]>re*<^:ed packed biiles. Tbi^y ciimc from tht* ]ji»ris of <han iind 
Arzew ; of these a vessel can lake t%vo-thirds of her rei^islcred tonnage. 
If the bullast or ore is dump, and the esparto continues some time in 



JTUNVAGI:;. 



intact, l!ie exterior of the lower bales will be discaloired, [ESPART0 
iid become tnildf wed* If in a coDflneti [>lace, salt water will spot es^pario 
ind turn it black; praclically no injarioiis elTect is produced, but bnyera 
^r^fer elf an dry esparto. P'rcsli water will Inive much tlie same eifect. 
joadtus; ajid diacbarLjiug in wet weather should be avoided if possible j 
wn will nol uJfect it much if stored in a welUaired warehouse; when 
reitedf loose grass is liable to become heated. A fire which occurred 
^n iheTyne dock, Shields, May 28, lS6o, is supposed to have originated 
1 this way. 
255 The plant is particnUrly abundant in several of the seaboard 
{iraviuces uf Algeria^ April, May, and June are the proper months for 
the harveBl in Africa, and the principal places of shipment thence are 
tew, Orun, and MostagbanL-m ; Arzcw is the clucf port and bus the 
li4^i»t bay. After the harvest some of the grass is stored to wait for 
liipment. 

266 The harvest in the sontli of Spain is the «amc as in Africa; 
an the gi'ass has not been gathered previously a late crop can be 
bfred abont September. In Spain it is used for mals» Bhoes, and 

r«>«gh purposes, and as food f<jr the bulls, which, ruaniing about the wilds 
»f the country, are subsequently exhibited at the bull fights. Cables 

nade of it are excellent; from their lightness they float on the surface, 
iDd are less liublc than heni|»en cables to be injured by a foul bottom; 

bey are used extensively in the Spanish navy, Tl»e principal ports or 
places of shipment of esparto are AlicaDte, Carthageua, Alniazaron, 

iguilaj, Garrucha, Carboueras*, Las Negras, A gun Amorga^ San Jose, 
[ Alineria* and Roquelas. Lead or sulphuric ores (pyrites) can be obtained 
•I Cartlmgena or Almeria. 

267 In 1859, esparto was practically unknown as freight lo England* 
kvhcreaii the importation for the first eight months of 1864 [January to 
{August), was 3:i,475 ton, valued in £ 142,840 at £4 6«p^ ton at the port 
lof shipment; say £5 \0s @ £G delivered. One extensive importer ail 
|Nf*wca8tle received in 1656 about 200 ton, and in IStU, over 30,i100 ton. 
iTlie principal place of import is Newcastle on Tyne, which in lfSt>4 
lT<?cf.i%'cd five-sixths of the imports of the United Kingdom. Some few 
[cargocf* go to Wales, to Scotland, to Liverpool, and London. Many 
I patents have been taken out in Enr^land for converting esparto, by a strong 

chymioal process^ into pulp or half stu^*, as a substitute lor rags in the 
ymaniifacturt; of paper; a (ew tons are made up into rui:ih mats. 

tSdd The banjue Rentorjf RostHhagcn^ Capt. Kokff, of Rostockj 
ion wtgister Knglish, 94 feet long, 27 broad, and 14 J deep, loaded 
1 SpunisJj grass at Alicante in February, 1864. She liad lOU ton of ballast, 
I small stones, and 135 ton of grass, two-thirds in bundleti, say 
. i to lb. each ; the remainder louse* Her hold was (ull. She is a 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

good carrying ship, and so laden drew 10 } feel aft, and [ESPARTO 
9i forward ; uitli 400 ton of Cardiir steam coal she draw& 13 1 feet afl 
and 12 forward. The grass is a hipped at Alicante all llie year round. 

250 The following details may enaWe a master to jiidj^e of the 

•towai^e of esparto ; each of the six vessels had some hallast. They took 

^rather more than iwo-lhirds of their register tonnage ; ihose which carried 

deck loads took five-sixths. It is usual to pay two- thirds freight for deck 

load. 



TetMl 


Ton 


In 
hold 


Ton 


Boleft 

on 
deck 


Ton 


ToUil 


Tons 


Total 
to lit 


Port of 
defdnation 


Oabibjlldi « » . » 


175 


754 


1CM> 


147 


21 


911 


9 


136 


Liirerpool 


BOYAi. CUABLIE 


192 


Bm 


IIG 


20f> 


29 


imn 


17 


lfi2 


Liverpool 


St. Jb^it . , , « 


210 


my 


r2<i 


'21(j 


m 


1116 


7 


163 


Bi3ttt'rd&m 


Bkuxuht •.«, 


270 


1199 


168 


none 


none 


ma 


19 


1H7 


Hall 


Btebna ...... 


800 


1352 


WA 


230 


S2 


15H2 


6 


227 


Leith 


H£PE 


GOO 


2831 


396 


269 


m 


aioo 


noQfs 


43i 


liOndoii 



The above cargoes were shipped at Arzcw, which, as previonslj stated, 1 
is a line roadstead; vessels of the largest tonnage, incloding H,M.S, 
Hima(ai/af have been at anchor there. The six vessels were loaded 
between May and December; the lime occupied depends much on the j 
state of the weather ; there is no quay, and the cargo has to be carried 
off by skifl* or boat at shipper's expense; in 4ry weather 31) ton of] 
esparto may he taken off; in wet weather next to nothing. Grass can I 
be shipped all the year round. There are no port charges at Arzew, and 
a pilot is seldom required. Oran is more exposed, but IVIers el Kebir^ j 
close to Oran, being in the same hay, is deep and safe< 

260 An importer writing Novemher 19tb, 1864, says "the quantity 
of esparto imported at Newcastle, in bales ^ is exceedingly small. A 
portion of one cargo only was in bales. For the first six months of 1864 j 
there were I H ships of the aggregate tonnage of 43,348 registered lona, 
and they delivered 20,0 4 6 ton of esparto. Four or five of these were not i 
quite full, and received dead-freight on say from 100 {5' lt50 ton, which, 
added to qnanliiy actually delivered, would make 20,700 ton, or within j 
half of the regislertrd tonnage." Of the 114 vessels there were from i 
Canhagena 32^ Alicante 23, Almcria 22, Aguilas 21, Gamicha7, Car- J 
boneras 6, Malaga 2, and Las Negras K Tiiose from Alicante were of \ 
much less tonnage than those from the other ports; and a large propor- 
tion of them were foreign, and generally with ballast. The port charges 
on the coast of Spain vary very much. Alicante is perhaps the raost j 
expensive port, and Almeria next. The port charges, consular fees, 
stowage, mooring, &c. will amount to from 15 @ 20 Jp- cent, on the gross 
freight, but this may doL be all chargeable to esparto^ as the ship, if ia j 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



171 



allasi, would have a punion uf these charges to pay. The [ESPABTO 
allowing six vessels were loaded during the summer of 1864 ; ihey all 

had lead as dead-weigh tj, the freight of which^ varied from nothing lo 

7m dd^ ton. 



YfMl 


Toufi 


toiu 


Port of loading 


Mart Gillebiis .... 

MlNDEN *««fti 


228 
821 
466 
488 
646 
616 


112 
154 

no 

271 
251 
276 


Curthagena 

AguilaB 

Cartliagetift 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 


Edika •.*...*.»».* 


THAims 


TTKEMOtrrH ••....,• 
BOMUtBtrKD ...,..,, 



S61 In the Court of Exchequer, Jan» 20, 1804, hefore Baron Bramwell, 

jCTULT sued for £*50 f»« 9d freight from Noble, uho paid £20 10s into court. 

itober, 1HM2, defendant chartered a ship at 15«r ^ ton, to load a cargo of 

in Spain. On her return to Newport there was much unoccupied 

space in the hold, and it wag a question wlietlier this arose from shriukiige or 

irfioiency in the amount received. The master stated that he had done all 

e could to induce defendant's agent to put more than 151 ton on board, and 

hat he had only sailed with a eliort cargo beciiuBC he could procure no more. 

he Spanish agent stated that he had offered to fill up on the following day, 

lip epacfs left, which wbls sufficient for 40 or 50 ton. The jury assessed the 

damage at 40^ beyond the amount paid in. A rule for a tww trial was refused. 

2«2 The Enrus, Capt. Bell, of South ShieUls, left Carlhagena with a 

of lead and esparto early in July, ISOO, for the Tyne. On the 14th of 

ttly, at six p.m. almost instaotaueously a fire broke out under the forecastle 

'd«ck. The crew immediately poured water down the fore hiitch and round 

the foremast; but the heat and smoke increased so much that it was with 

difficulty they kept their post. This continued until ten p.m. when a foreign 

l>ttrf)uo was sighted and was asked for assistance, but was unable lo render 

I'ting to remain by the burning veaael for the night. The crew kept 

own water until daylight, when a course was steered for St, Ubes, 

otl wUich. at two p.m. on the 1 0th, she was boarded by a pilot, wlm rati the 

mussel as near St. Ubes us possible; on getting into three fathoms, it being 

high tide, the anchor was let go, and the ship was SGUltled, the Ore at 

e raging furiously in all parts. 




13 FAST-DAY. In the Boston (U.S.) Circuit Court. July !, 

I M7, S, F, C O , IK T A N G I K R. 

This was a libel to recover the value of cotton accidentally burnt on a 
wbarl on a fast'day. Mere discharge is not a delivery : unloading is one thing, 
diilifciry another. Tlie goods must be placed so that the consignee can find 
tlaooi aud ascertain their condition. Readiness to deUver, and a proper notice 
1 1 The consignee, may often place them at his risk. The rcudiuess must be at a 
1 -mo, and the notice a proper one ; and, if notice is given, and attended to 
bjf ibo coasigaee, and the iliip is not ready to deliver at tlie lime, new uotiod 



-^^ ■■ 



172 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



must be given. Notice to deliver on Sunday is no noti(?©. The [FAST-BAY 
eridenoe, covering 80 yenvBy shows tliat a ik^t-dny is not n day f3f dclivc»ry. 
The mafiter may, iit his owir risk, put out goods on n fast-diw ; but tliere is no ] 
delivery till the next working day. It Iras been said that a fasl-day ia a holidAy* 
rather than a religions one ; so is the 4th of July. Here the jjoods were at tho 
risk ol" the ship, unless by Act of Congress relieved. Decree of District Court 1 
(Judge Ware) reversed ; judgment for value of cotton and costs. 

264 FEATHERS. Russian feathers require one- third more space I 
for stowage than hemp, which see. The Baltic rate of freight for feathers, j 
is the same as codilla hemp per ton o( 44 poodn gro^s, A bale weigha] 
I cwt, a last 17cwL In some places 1^700 fb. form a last, 

265 FELT, Court of Exchequer, December 16, 1861, before MrJ 
Baron Wildk, A cram an v, EKciKUT. Thin was an action to recover] 
back rhc sum of £'360 paid for sorae felt, P lain lili' shipped a quantity, j 
nianufac lured for him by defendants, on board the Criterion^ bound tori 
Australia, When she was at sea, some of the bales which bad been 
packed by defendants, were discovered day by day lo have ignited through 
spontaneous combualion, and were €onse(|uently thrown overboard. It 
was proved by witnesses that bales of inodorous bitumen felt were of a 
very combustible character ; they were the first lo take fire in this instaiieet 
The question, which was uhiuraiely left for the consideration of the 
special jury, was, wlielher the felt so manufaclured by defendants was 
reasonably fit for the purposes of exponation. 11jc jiiry relumed a 
tcrdict fur defendants. The Lord of the Isfes^ Caj^t, Datibs, from 
Greenock, for Hong Kong, look fire July 24, 1862, in kl. 12**13'N*^ 
Ion. 115"^ 50' E. in consequence, it is supposed, of *' spontaneous com- ^ 
bu*^tiou of some bales of felt placed in juxta position with bundles of i 
railroad iron in llie hnver hold." The crew and passengers, thirty in all, 
anived in their boats at Macao, after being twice boarded by |>i rates. 

2m FERMENTATION is the result of chemical action in iu 
incipient state. It is somewhat analagoua to combusiion, atid is not 
wnfrequeitly the preliminary stage of it. It is produced hy die reaction 
of certain substances, principally animal and vegi table, on each other, 
under the infli ^nce of heat and moisture togetlu^r. Heat alone is nut 
BufiicicTil for the production of fermentation ; air, in small quantities, 
and mt)isluie, miwl also be present at the same lime. There are various 
sorts uf fer uicntatinn, such as ihe vintms, acetous, atid putrefactive. The 
inntwif is where succhnriue matter is converted iuto alcohol or spirit, as 
in the prodticli^ui of beer hy the fermentation of wt^rt obtaim-d from malt^ 
OT thai of wine from mn^t — ihe extract of tlie grape. The ttcefous is a 
further development of the vinous^ resulting in the production of aeelic 
acid or vinegar, Putre/hctive ferracnialion h more eomrnonly deveh>pcd 



rAGE. 



17a 



in Aitinial substances or in those vegetable bndies [FERMENTATION 
whose composition more nearly resembles that of animals. Fruii^ es- 
jwciallj that which is very juio% such as oranges and lemons, wheat, 
hemp and fiajc, hay and Mrawjdry fish, hides^&c. require especial alieiition, 
to prevent injury by the development of fermenlaiion. The measures to 
be adopted are indicated by a consideration of the circumstances above 
noticed, as aflecting fermentation. As the most elective means are deprn- 
deni on vcniilalion, see (hat artiele. It is imjiortant thai a masitr shouhi 
well observis ibe condition of ihc cargo in course of shipmeiii, as in case 
of dainnge from fermentation it may he of the utmost importance to be 
able lo decide whether the damage has arisen from the eiFccts of defective 
condition at the time of shi]>ment, or from any injurious circumstances 
i>ccurring subsequent to it. It will he well also to note thai mannfactnred 
goods^ such as silk, linens, &c. which have received damage from fermen- 
tAlton) are not always to be considered as having been afllcled by defective 
arrangemenls on board ship, for not nn frequently such goods receive 
damage tlirough bad preparation, sueh as the employment of improper 
ftixing, or the want of proper cleansing in the final dressing; see silk, 

267 FIRE. It has been suggested as very probable that when 
ressels are becalmed in tropical climates, they may be set on fire by the 
deck lights^ should the focus happen to fall on some easity-igniled sub- 
stance below. li is said that by placing in the bottom of tlie hidd, a 
cask of common chalk connected with tiie deck by a pij»e, a fire below 
can be quickly extinguished by pouring down two gallons of sulplinric 
acid, lo be kept in a bottle or jar for this duty : a sufficient quantity of 
dcn»e smoke will be thus produced to put out any fire. A fire broke out 
in CKtober, 1866, in the cellars of a dru;^'gist named Arustian, in the 
Avenue Montogne, Paris, and washnuighl lo a terEnination in a singular 
luanner. A boy had let a lighted lueifer malch fall on some rags, which 
became ignited, and the flame spread lo some bottles and carboys eon- 
laiotog various kinds of spirils and alcolioL These soon burst and tlooded 
itie cellar with a blading liquid, which enjilted a smoke so suH'oealing 
ili&t ihe firemen were unable lo enter. Suddenly a loud explosion was 
Iwurd, and the flames became extinguished as if by enchantment, Three 
bottles of sulphnrie clhcr eonmining in all about 3 quarts had burwt, and 
l)ie vapour, mixing with the atmospiicref liad ]mt an end lo the comhustion. 
FUuie cannot exist in carhimic acid gas; see llie article comhuRli(jn 
(t^ptrntjineous), and the article gold. The penalty for melting piteh, tar, 
gTcase» or any inflammable subtitance on board ship in the PhiHippin« 
lalandji i* 2i> piastres = £6 Hs 4*/. In Charlestown, S.C. smoking cigars 
or piptts is prohibited by law in all the wbarves and slreein leading to the 
nam i\ cast of Ba^-sirett. Similar penalties are levied in many ports* 



174 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



268 Capt Sedgwick recommends that when fire occurs in [FIRE 
llie litiltl, a recorded number of aiigur hules should be bored hi tlie gun- 
room or forecastle until th« water is level with the beams; one hatch only 10 
be kept open^ two will admit a draft and create flame; throw in water daily. 
When the danger is over, plug all the holes. If bad weather prevails, 
close every aperture, ns a fire may be thus kept smouldering for weeks, 
AiioLlier plan is to bnre holes in the deek, over the suspected place, nearly 
through ; plag the scuppers, &c, and fill the deek or & inches with water. 
Then finish the holes, and keep them sapplied witlj water; plug ihera 
immediately tlie supply (iiils or the danger is over* In all cases prepare 
boats w i I li p r o V i £ i o n s . 

269 By the Queen's Regulations, 1802| captams in the Boyal Kavy are 
instrueted to take every precaution for the security of the »hifi against fire* 
and to establish genernl regulations for the duties to be performed by the 
oilicers and men, should a fire occur, either during action or otlierwise. A 
captain is not to allow lights to be used in the orlop, or cable tiers, or store- 
rooms, except in good lauteruB, nor candles to be stuck against tiie beams or 
aides, in tlie holds, or other parts of the ship ; nor lights to be kept in the 
officers' cabins, except at seasonable houra and on propar occasions; nor 
phosphorus, nor any other substance or liquid suaeeptible of spontaneous 
ignition, to be on board in the private possession of any one. He is to direct 
the carpenter to be careful that the lead or copper sbeathiug of the holes 
through which the funnels pass, be kept iu perfect repair. Wlien dockyard or 
otlier artificers are employed on board, he is to take care thnt all the liglits in 
those jjarts of the ship in which they may have been used by them are extin- 
guiahed before they cpiit their work, and lie is to cause an officer to go round, 
who is to report to the commanding officer that this has been done, lie is, 
moreover, enjoined never, on any account or pretence, to allow spirituous 
liquors, varnishes, or other iullammable stores of whatsoever kiud or descrip- 
tion, to be drawn off, or moved from any cask, vessel, or package in whick 
they may be contained, anywhere but on the upper or main deck by daylight ; 
but should any occasion make it essenlially necessary to draw off or move 
Bpirits, or any inflammable stores, on the upper or main deck by night, he 19 
to take care that such lights as it may be refjuisile to use be in Daw's Safety 
Lamps, and kept as far from the spirits or stores as possible ; and no other 
lights, except those in Davy's Lanifis* aro ever to be used in the holds in which 
inflammable stores ore kept. When a spirit cask is emptied a quantity of salt 
water is immediately to he poured iuto it. No lights whatever are to be used 
in the spirit rooms of Her Majesty's ships. 

270 FIREARMS, Cap t. Parish recommends that after firing, the 
barrels of muskets and pistols are to be washed out wilh hot water, and 
plugs of tow driven up and down to wipe them thoroughly. The best 
method to preijerve the locks and barrels from rust after thus cleaning 
them, is to have them wiped frequently with a rag dipped in sweet oil. 

271 FIRECR ACKERS. Half-boJCes Chinese measure 3 327 feet. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



27*2 FISH. Charter for dry fish by quaotity and not by weight, 
as ilje state of the aimosphere greally alterft the weight ; for herrings, 
Labrador fish, pilchards, &c, see the several Iieadings. Anchovies are 
caught on the coasts of Catalonia in May, June, and July* Fresh fish 
may be legally landed on Sundays; see landing. 



Anchoviest burrel 1$ <^ 


90lb« 


Herrmpi a meftsnre 600 fiwh 


Codfish, qtdntol .. 


112 m. 


a cade ., 600 do. 


a List .... 


12 bar. 


Pikhftrdfl, barrel , , , , 41§g«l. 


Herrings, white, a last 


12 hAT. 


hbd. aboat 3,000 fi^h 


barrel * . , , 


m gta. 


Sprats^ a cado, about 1,000 do. 


• crui ••**»• 


37^ do. 


Salmon* a box, 120 @ 130 th* 


FUb« aitone ,.,.«,,. 


14 tb. 


Siux-geotXBj a keg, 4 (§ 5 gal. 



Tonnage. In Newfonndknd, Ac. 20 quintals of dry fish ; 8 barrels or 
Otienies pickled fish ; 840 Labrador herring I barrel ; 12 barrels (flour barrels) 
dry caplina^ go to a ton. At New York (3 harrcls pickled fish* 10 cwt, diied cod 
fbh JD bulk, or 12 cwt. in casks of atij sim ; at Baltimore 7 barrels pickled Ash, 
At Seville 22 qiiinlals fish go to a ton. 

Foreign packages. At Cephalonia a harile is 67- 244 lb; at Leghorn 
i*850tb; Maryland harrel 22« tb; United SUtes 200 tb. la New Brunswick 
i drum of pressed cod fish is 128 tt), = a Portuguese quintal. 

273 FLAX is the produce of n beautiful grass-like annual plant 
"with slender stalks, small leaves, and blue blossoms. Greut variation is 
caused by climate and culture. In hot countries flax is of very liille 
value fur its fibre, but it produces so abundantly of seed as to he highly 
profitable to the grower^ because the seed fumisbes one of the most 
iinp<irtAnt of the oils; none other is found to be of so much value for 
nixing the colours of the artiit and the house painter. In cold countries, 
the contrary, the seed is produced more sparingly, and the fibre is 
ong and of great value. Much depends on lis culiivation, for if thinly 
rn it grows rohust and the fibre is coarse, but if sown thickly it runs up 
nd is delicate for want of a proper circulation of air through the plants, 
I the fibre becomes fine, soft, and silky, qualities which fur some purposes 
very highly prized* A full cargo will require more than half the 
ordinary ballast; stone is suitable. A ship of 350 ton, which took equal 
to I>00 ton clean hemp, required 100 ton of hallast. Dunnage, bottom 
inches^ 14 to ihe upper part of the bilges, 2i at the sides ; for stowage 
ace hemp, cotton, &c. When oil or tar has been spilled on flax, it is very 
liahle to s|>onLuneoiis combustion on the intruducliun of moisture. New 
Zealand flax, which is general Ij taken at douhle freight, is said to he 
liable to ignition when wetted either with water or oil ; see cotton. 



176 STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 

Tonnage. At St Peter&lmrr^ Ifi babbina of 12head flftx or 63 [FLAX 
poods aria reckoned to a ton, and 47 l)obliins of fi-liead or 6; J poodd to a loo, 
At Riga, six aliiij- pounds, 3^0 lb. eaeli, mtike a ton. At Archangel, 2 ton of 
clean flax are equal to one ton of cod ilia and tow, and receive the same 
freight. Tlie Baltic rates of freiglit for flax h in all eases the same aa hemp. 
The E, r, Co. mtea 50 cubic feet sunn flan to a ton. 

Freight When Mediterranean wheat ia freighted at U ^qr, clean flax is 
rated at 10* Ui W ton of 20 cwL Flax or hemp, b alf dean, pays 1 5 ^ cent, more 
tban clean ; outsliot onc-oigbtli ; and codilla one-luilf more than clean hemp. 
A Hnssian bale weighs 5 or cwt ; 12-head bobbins 120tti ; pood Mtb. English 
or 401b. Russian. Dntcb matt 120 lb. Flemish bale 1^240^. Bremerbaven stone 
20tb. German rahmel or bundle aotb. A last 17 cwt ; in some places l,700tb. 

274 FLOUR requires same dunnage as flax, and is allowed to 9tow 
six beigbls of barrels; see general cargo, American shipowners, in Uie 
stowage of mixed cargoes in large ships, have, through experience, dis- 
covered what ''^pressure*' flour barreh, proviBion casksj &c. will bear, and 
so avoid reclaniaiions for damage if oiberwise properly stowed ; hence^ 
in large ships, above 600 ton, with dimensions exceeding in length 44^ 
times tbe beam, and 21 feet depth of hold, orlop decks will come into 
geiiend use so as to relieve the pressure by dividiug the bold, like a ware- 
liituse, into stories. The large ship Liverpool, which Uh l^^w York in 
1854, with an entire cargo of flour, was never beard of after; it is supposed 
tbe lower tiers of barrels gave way, and that the car^o having got loose^ 
shifted in a gale of wind, and capsized the vessel. Flour, il stowed near, 
will readily imbibe the scewt from |<i ranges and lemons; this scent will 
go off in a great degree, when tbe flottr is exposed to dry air; the scent 
from coal lar, Storkholm tar, varnish, Sec. will not go off; contact with 
sbumac will injure flour. For ship's use sacks of flour are some times 
etowed over casks of water; see grain. At Montreal the stevedore's 
charges fur stowing Hour for a ship of say 500 ton register is about $3*5 . 

275 Valpajuiso, A barque 483 ion register, which stowed 750 ton 
of sugar and oil, look in at Valparaiso 12,000 bags of flour, say 600 ton, 
and 1 ,000 bags of bran, say 401b, per bag. Tliis cargo filled tbe hold 
cliock up, but iliere was open space left in the 'tween decks, which were 
6 feet (i indies high, to allow a man to crawl about on bis hands and knees. 
As she bad considerable depth of hold the cargo made her crank, and at 
sea she lurched fearfully. The dunnage consisted of bamboo, 14 inches, 
compressed to 10, bran next the dunnage. Flour bags (calico) coniained 
60. 100, and 200 Iti. each ; 2,000 lb, to the ton. Much attention must be 
paid to the contlition of the flour, as when wetted and caked ashore, the 
bags are often beaien witli slicka before delivery, to give tlicir contents 
an appearance of freshness. Deck leakage, so injurious to flour cargoes, 
is liable to be increased at ValparaisOi by the heavy rollers to which a 
vessel IB exposed while loading. 



STEVENS ON 8T0WA0E. 



177 



ti7M Tmpentiiie. In April, 1856. an eiction was brouffUt in [FLOUR 
iho Qiicxin's Bench, under 15 and 10 Vic. cap. 16, fiec. 40, agAinst tiie Star of 
the We»i, wbich shipped at Nuw York 2,150 barrels flour, 00(« bales cotton, HOfJ 
111 r ^1^ laid, lOr* bbds. tallow, 52Q ban-eU spirits of tnrpoiitiuc, 57 puncheaiia 
l*irpvritiin% 3 »500 barrels tar, &c. The exporters of flour wcro not forowamed 
Ihat turpentine would be shipped. On delivery the flour was tainted by iiir- 
pi'tillne, although stowed at a distanco from it. Lord Campbell pronounced 
the ownwr liable; see extended report in the aiticle respouaihility, 

v'VT Country damaged, A Liveq)ool broker writes to the Shipping 
Gazette, Junuary ii, ISOt : *' The Norwegian brig Aiahmta shipped a cargo 
ciT wheat and flour at Bordeaux in November, and arrived after a stormy pas- 
en^, and was di«ehai*ged under the inspection of the undGrwritei*s' surveyor, 
wJit» found it properly stowed and duniiaged. A email quantity of grain and 
flour w«3 damaged by sea water, but as the master furnished the reoeiveir« 
with the survnyor'i* certilicate and oflered to extend bis protest, no clwrn 
was mado on that aeoount. The receivers of the flour^ however, made a 
claim for X37 I0« i\d^ or It (k2 eauh for HOT bags* which they said were country 
damaged, and sued the master in the County Court The o\ndence for plaintiff 
wns a respectable corn broker who examined the floui" and considered it had 
\vet previoua to shipnicDt, apd had been allowed to dry and harden in th« 
% by which means it had deteriorated U to It 6J ff^ bag. The master 
athrmed that the flour came alongside in barges, tbut he pep^onally suponn- 
tended the loading, and saw every bag put on board. The Hour wb» or appeai'ed 
to bo in good order, as far as ho oould observe witliout examining the contonta 
of llie baga. There was one exception ; a bag handed from the barge was 
tani and waa sent ashore on that accoucit, hut the flour in it appeared to be 
A condition and uninjured. While loading the weather was fine. The 
t£>ok several days to consider his vardiet By his decision it appears 
I j»> master should examine the interior of every package received on hoard, 
i!4o thoroughly undorstund tho quality of each article. It h coutcnded 
Mr made from iusnJIiniently dried or damaged wheat, will, iu a short 
I- and harden in the hugs as if it had been wetted with fresh water." 
r gays, *' although a master should molest or break cargo as rutle aa 
yet if ho Tigris for *good quality and condition* on a * hliud* ship- 
hi? does so at the peril of such a liability as that above referred lo» The 
€(T u not expected or bound to open every package shipped of any one ^ri<»9 
ds, but ho tthould make a reasonable and suliiciont inspection, and satiafy 
elf of tiio prolmble condition of the whole from the examination of the 
t BCiloctcd. In tlie case put, the master does not appear to liave opened any 
aactkA; hence, probably, his present trouble. In all doubtful «?a*ics tho 
r should sign — contents uaknowii; bul there ought to be no such cased/* 
Toniiag6. I'tO barrets flour (2S inches long, -i'l^ bilge, 10^ head diiunctnr) 
W\h. i'at'h. \m{h, net^ weighing 13 J ton, or 100 sacks, ^SUH). eiuih, *^f>ton, 
will occupy HirO cul»io feet or 1 keeL 8 socks or 10 barrels of Iri^h flour go to 
A ioD. On the Criuan Canal 1 bolls. In Australia flour is freighted at 2,U00lb. 
lo the ton. At New York and Baltimore, 8 barroU of MKilb. oocU; 5 cubic 
Heidi ta tlio standfti'd oouteuls of a flour barrel at Baltimore, 



!78 STEVIilNS ON STOWAGE. 

Freight When wbeat is freighted at 1# ^ quarter, flotir is [FLOUB 
rated at i^^d ^barrel or l^d ^eaok. Another autliority saya, when Meditor- 
ranean wheat h freightetl at U p-quarter^ flour should be G^^ barrel and a* 
^ ton of aOcwt in bags. Id barrels are considered a ton. If brought from 
Spain R barrels are equal to 5 quarters of wheat 

Measures. A gallon of flour wejghs 7 tb; a bushel^ SfVib; a boll of 10 
pecks or stoues* 140 lb. A pack or load, 240 tb; sack or 5 husheb, 2Hntts 
an Admirfllty barrel contains 336rb.net; hulf-ho^shead, 250 It); and kJIderkiD 
108 tb, A culiiss at Nantes 350 I1>. A barrel of American, 100 tlj ; half-barrel, 
68tb : a sack of llour, corn, or tneal, 280 fb. or 2 cwt. 2 qr, net. An Admiralty 
barrel oatmeal, 7| huahelg, 'MQ lb. net ; half-hogshead, di hushelrt, *253lb. nK; 
kilderkiD, 3* bushels, liatb. net; small cask, 21 bushels, ll&tb; ditto, 2 
bxisliels, lot lb. 

278 FOUKDER, A ship is «aitl to founder when, by tin extra* 
ordinary leak, or by a great sea brealiiiig: in ujum her, slie is so filled 
with water that she cannot be freed of it, so that sbe can neilher veer n. r I 
Bteer, but lies on the water like a log; and, not being able to swim long, 
will at last sink, 

279 FREIGHT. A shipowner is not entitled to insist upon full I 
pnymcnl of freight before delivery of the cargo, except he has reason to 
believe that the consignee is in an insolvent state, or has some other 
sufficient motive for holding to his lien until payment is made or security 
given. At the Queeo*s Bench, July 9U}, 1H62, Lord Chief Justice 
CocKBfTRy decided in the case DiCKKxsnx t?. Land, that idaintiflT, owner ^ 
of the ship Muftam, having received from La no a car^o of stone for 
delivery in London to George Williamson, who had absconded, Lano 

^ the consignor was liable to pay the freight* \ 

2J*<0 FRITIT, Care should he taken to keep dry fruit from green. 
Raisins are very liable to become heated, especially when shipped in bad 
condition; they will then cause leakage from any casks of liquids near; 
in a heated Sitate, maggots and other insects are s[ieedily brought lo 
maturity, to the great injury of the cargo and inconvenience of ihe crew. 
All unripe fruit is linble to ferment ; see fermentation. The batches of] 
vessels in some friih trades ore built up temporarily three or four feet ( 
above the combings^ and are filted with Itda to admit air at sea when the] 
weather is favorable. Almonds* being light, are stowed in the upper part ' 
of the cargo, where most convenient for trimming. Sweet almonds are 
imported in serous, easl<s, and boxes; the hitler in eerons; lp5ewL i^o to 
a ton. Barcelona nuts are usually packed in bags weighing about 130tti, 
each, gross; 14 of which go to a ton. Currants were formerly packed 
principally iu butts and caroleels, hut of late mostly io hnrrtils and cases. 
Although cases st^w closer than barrels they are very disadvantageous 



STEVENS ON STCPlVAGE 



I7J 



_U> cmny^ bectiuse freigbt is paid on the net weight, and a [FRUIT 
r which contains I cwu of currants, has as mutib wood in it as a barrel 
I comaina 2cwl Iroponers, hoivever, find thai coses are more con- 
venieni for Bale; perhap^i the terms of charter parties might be so arranged 
tneei both interests. Currants (from Corinth) are found in great 
rfection along the shores of the Corinihian gulf, in Cejilmloiiia, fthaca, 
«i»d iij Zante^ in which island the cultivation engrosses nearly two-thirds 
ttf the cuUivaled land. The instructions which ffjllow iipply chiefly to 
^ on board saiting ships; but the greater portion of the fruit is 
conveyed to London and elsewhere in large hc re w steamers, most of 
ibem specially adapted for currying every description of green or dried 
fruit, and the position of the engines und boilers in reference to the cargo, 
Kos been duly consiilercd and arranged ; these steamers command and 
obtain the highest rate of freight, especially at the commencement of the 
seaj^on, on account of their certain und rapid passages, even when a large 
number of vessels are lying in the ports waitings and others are crowding 
in daily, 

281 A« a rule the shipping season m Europe for fruit, nuts, &.c. is In 
September, Ociober, and November; oranges much later. After a wet 
hAfvt^st or galhering time, fruit may he delayed considerably before it is 
ready to ship. Cdiirants, in tbe Ionian hla/ifls are ripe in August; 
ntrteen days to three weeks are required for drying. Formerly they 
re never shipped bcfi^re ihe beginning of Sejaember, and the crop 
csotitinned to be forwarded by clijipers unlil May; not more than one-half 
Co twu^thirds being sbipped befure Christmas. Now the crop is forced 
Irirwurd earlier, and double the quantity is nearly all exported by the 
f November, in screw steamers. Greece (Fafras and Zante) — 
•■nces say in August and continues till the spring; nearly all is 
d before Christmas, Kaisins and At-MOKUs : Ionian hies, Coast 
Ky .-f'ain, l^'c. (Maia^d sLud Denia) — cummences in August or September 
mnd closes usually beft^re January. From tbe Ionian Isles, no ratsins. 
In yttilttija ibe hnrvesl for raihins is in June, Raisins and Fios: 
:s,„j,na ligb, ufitr barvestitig, require ab*:ut a week to dry, llie lirst 
jlipinenis occur usually between the 1st and 1 0th of September, and 
(Irsl arrivals in England occur in the latter part of September and 
lli« early part of October, The bulk is sbipped in September and 
iWr. Tbe fruit warehouses can scarcely be considered to be open 
epl from August 20 to November *iU. Hie shipment of Suliana 
HB commences in Smyrna about a week before figs. Chesmeh, 
!t, and Carbon ara, a month after ligs. There are exceptional 
oc*.asion8 when raisins in quantity rem«in undelivered up to January, 
and even to February and March. 



180 



STEVEK8 ON STOWAGE. 



2SiJ Patma currants are shipped in casks of various sizes* [FBUIT 
Cenified stevedores are employed to stuw iLcra ; if the casks are not 
stowed sufficienlly conipat'l the sicvedore is fined. Marea fniit shipped 
al Patras 19 often very dirty. The schuoner BriiisJi Queen^ 1<)5 ton 
register, now new njenanrement, and 142 bnilder'a meaBurement, took 
in a full cargo of Patras eurrants after the rainy season of 1853; iliey 
weighed oni net only &^ ion, whereas a full cargo two years before, after 
dry weather^ w^eiglied I'M tim : ihe cargoes were cf|iial in hulk. This 
slatrmenl appears opun to dmibt. It is said that in 1^*33, okfium existed 
in fruit to Bueh an exlLHl, that very little beyond the liuyks reached 
England. There may he otime ^liserepancy in the weights net and gross ^ 
there is, however, no dunht that currants are much heavier wiien the 
aea»<m has been such that they conld arrive at maturity and admitted of J 
careful drying afterwards. The liniish Qfteen carries 170 ton dead-weight, 
hay iron or coal, and of win at .b»>0 tpiariers Egypiian or 8(»0 rpuirters 
HusHian. I Jer freight of JVlursala wine is \i}llUiU with 30 ton brimstone; 
Palermo shnmac 131 ton; Sl» Micliii^rs oranges 3ll ton, viz: 726 larger 
boxe«<, 20 to the ton, and 43 sniDll boxes, ^K> to tbe ton ; Rns^ian sizes* 
This schourier is 73 feet long^ 19 hroad, and 1 1"»J feet deep in the hold. 
The sehofmei' Uhiiipet\ Capi* Woivd^ hnilt hy Mr. LAMfUiE, fd Gnemsey, 
having louded fruit at l^atras^ left there September 23, lH62, and umved 
at l*tymynth Uctohcr J 5, — 22 days. She regisicra 102 ton, is 107 feel 
long, and 20 feet broad. Her cargo consisted of 1 1 8 Ion ofcunanie ; lumong 
the casks lliere were about 12 ton of shingle, and she had 10 ton of iron 
ballast aft to keeji fier hy the stern. She drew 8 feet 6 inches forward, 
I fiitd \ I feet aft — her best trim for sailing. With 170 ttm Wiljsh cual (the 
iron ballast being below) she draws 9 feet fiuward and 12 feet aft. This 
cargo of currants weighed 1 5 ton more than any previous cargo brought 
by the IVhhpvr ; the muster attributed the ditrerenee to ilie wt^ather wJjich 
)irevatled in the preceding summer. Several setiooners belonging le* 
lirixliam are hinilr purposely f(»rtln* Mediurraiiean trade, and aretiigaged 
nlmobt euiir» ly in it; ihey are long Hat vessels with sharp ends, but much 
sharper aft than forward, bo much so that little orno dunnage is required 
beyond thr ballasit, which is all placed in the narrow part of the hold. 
One of ihe!^e schooners, the iUmn UrUe^ rcf^isters 144 ton, is 120 feet 
over all; kt'd 92 feet; extreme beam 20 fi it ; and de]ith of hold 11 feet 
tiineliL's. 81ie t*wk in at Patras, in INHO, IcWJ ton (net) currants, viz: 
1,400 barrels luid 100 cases. The ballast, 20 ton, was all stowed abaft the 
main bntrJiway. With lliis cargo she was HJ incites by tbe stem, in good 
tnni ; the upper part of the bends just awush. She will stow *>Oion of 
81. Micdu^^^s oriinges— ^20 boxes to the ton* with 65 ton of ballast; her 
dmti^ht tlicn is U led forward, and 10 feet 6rnchcy aft. With 250 ton 
of hwunaca patent fuel she draws 11 feet forward, and 12 feel 6 inches 



JtEVENS ON 



18! 



ttfu In reference to sliipmentB by screw steamers, an expe* [FR0IT 
■ tired master says (26tli June, 1^5(i7) Patras caiTanta are sliipped in 

i* Is coniaining ahfiut 2i cwt. and cases averaging a little mare llian 
I cwt. Tbe latter should be engaged freely for lilliii^ up and especially 
for tbe saloons and every amiable place in ibe ci-bins* witb a view \o 
Iceeping the vessel well by the stern ; otherwise she will load very much by 
the head, and be unable to steam. Tbe merehanls and shippers send off 
d»eir own gangs of stevedores, who stow their own packanres only and that 
rery indifferently, causing the master great trouble and annoyance as the 
Igangs relieve each other with every change of mark, and in the event of 
die stowage being complaiDcd of the tlien worling gang will quite ignore 
the fault as being theirs. The ship being charged Id ^ package^ large or 
fcn»«ll, for slowing, the roaster should have the selection of a tixed wet of 
S i rers for the purpose; as it is the officers who can be spared (vom tbe 
j^ t:igways, and the greater part of tbe crew, are obliged {a be eoUKtantly 
tn tbe holds^ to watch and protect tbe iiUereste of tbe ship. Tbe Bystem 
has been greaily reprobated and witli justice. These remarks apply chiefly 
t«» llje shipment of cuiTants at Patras, Zante, and Ceplialonia* When 
vessels proceed to Vostizza, (where the fruit is considered heavier and of 
betlcT quality generally than that shipped at Patras,} or round the coast to 
Katikolo, opposite Zante on tbe tnain^ to partially b>ad, they occasion- 
»lly lake round with them a stevedore's gang. In Katikolo steamers have 
taken cuiTanls on board in bags, having all tbe empfy barrels brought 
fr<>m PsrtiTis, Fur many days a whole tiibe of Greek laborers have been 
occu|ned on board lilliug tbe barrels and trampling down the currants; 
and native coopers also in heading down when iilL 

2H;j When loading currants at Zante, say in a sharp scliooner of 
I I5tr>n register, place the largest casks each side llic keelson amidships^ 
ihf Insuer fore and aft, to suit the ,shape of tbe hold ; when charteriug, 
•rcurc suHicient pnaall casks to fill np. Dunnage is found by the ship, 
vnd is placed as usual in the bottom, and slightly up and down the sides ; 
fuHiic IB sometimes ship(>ed a?j dunnage, free of freight. A schooner of 
I \o ton register^ thm, will lake her tonnage of net fruit. A vessel 1 1 feet 
i*kinchc% \u dcjith will lake three heights of butts of cuirants witb the usual 
dunnage. When chanenng, endeavour to obtain ]>ackages suitable for 
atowiige. One charter piLrly said *'iu butts, caroteels, barrels, "* cases, 
sufficient small packa-^es for stowage;*' she was given two-thirds of her 
cnra** in emes^ ond biuing a few of each of the i^lher packages named, 
• r couhl not refuBc; but the shipment of so many nines threw 

li : L El out of her proper cargo. Steamers have u very large propottion 
of the trade to England now, Zante fruit li usualiy very clean, 

284 A I Malaga, the jschooner (115 ton) rttpiired lOor 12 lim hhingle^ 
pirbblrt limcstoue^ or other diy ballast; burreln of grapch encased in liiuts^ 



!8S 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



forward, say three or four tier; amidships and afl, Wxes and [FRUIT 
half- boxes of raisins right up to the beam ; lemons afi by themselves, to 
proieci other ^oods from their steam ; melons on deck ; almonds on ihe 
to]i of tiie raisins; figs in the wings. The tare on Malaga dry frnit is 
rather more than that of Denia ; and vessels, when laden with part lemons, 
grapeSj &c. do nut ean*)' near so mnth tonnage* The quaniiiy of grapea 
oug!u lo be limited, or additional freight paid* As much pig lead as may 
be reipiind for fruit cargoes, ean be obtained far ballast, freight free. 
Tares on 28 lb. boxen, lib; 14 ft, 4 tb ; 7 tb, 2 and 3rt>, 

TOHHAGE AT MALAOA. 



80 Boxes ^Sfitb.raulna or Figa 


85 Arrobiw, net, Olive Oil 


aO BarreLi50rkOmp«s 


20 Qamtab Lend 


60 Boxes {$ 25 Itt . AXmouda 


5 CheiitB 


5 B«rrelii@300I&. 


10 Half- chests 


80 BoxfiftFigi 


20 Qimrter diceU of Oximgea or 


80 Dnuxu or iridlii 25tb, set, Flgt 


L(!mons 


20 Barrela lUiiiiit 


^ Boles 300lt>. Onmge or Lemon 


2 B aita r pipes or 60 @ Wine 


Pi^ 



Freight ia, however, generally paid in England t»y the ton of 20cwt. The honn Of 
■Imondft tokun as contoinmg 25 lb. Botuetimea contain 28tti. 2r« CA^Ulian II>a. larrobA; | 
4«rrDbiiB or LOU lb, 1 quintiil. 100 \tt. CMtilian ^101*44 If), avolrdupuia. 

285 From Valentia to England, raisins are generally freighted at 
per Ion of 20cwt. Quatilities of oranges liave been lately ^lnp[>ed here. 
At Denia, the average crop of mi^iins is *J,800 ton. i^ome Denia eharter 
parlies say '' ship to be well and sudiciently tlaniiaged wiih wood or stone i 
and not rosemary or any deleleritms substance wbaltver/* Almonds are 
some times shipped here in their shells in bags, and shelled in boxes and 
barrels; the trade is chiefly in raisins and almonds. 101 Itn Sjianish 
lOlilti. English, Tares on Denia raisins in boxes hulf ewi, 60l1n eaeb ; 
half ditto 2b lb ; tjuarter ditto 14 lb. Tratlc, 10, 6, and 3. Cnstoms" tare 
as much as can be got* At Leghorn vessels remain in the roads nntil 
half iheir cargoes at least, is di^ebarged. Tbe expense of lighterage and 
packing ai ibis jiort is said to he high. 

286 At Alicante, in Oeioher, iH6X the briganline .^cuiUan^ Capt J. 
Wyatt, discharged coal ; she was built at Nova Seotia, registers 122 ton, 
has a round bottom, vrith no great depth of hold— only lOfeet U inches; 
breadth 26 feet, and lens^th b5feet ; with her cargo of 2Ut/ (a, 205 Ion of 
West lIardu])ool coal she drew 11 feet 4 inches aft, and 10 teei forward. 
The out- put at ^Micante was two ton short. The coal whs carried ashore 
exclusively by Spanish labourers (about 20loti per day) in small baskets, 
which were exposed some hours to the sun when much weight was lost, 
ll was then weighed by ibe railway antborities ai a distanee from and 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



IS3 



beyond ihc control of die master. After diHchfirginj^, iIr* [FRUIT 
Acadian took in 20 ttii» of sttme ballast and proceeded to Jabea, 50 miles 
easr, wbere sbe received, in November, l"i5 ton of raisins, viz: 9,000 
boxes of 28 tb. eacb, and 500 of 56 Itj. witb wbicli she drew 10^ feet, 
•nd went to Pbiladclpbia and loaded petroleum, which see. 

At Jabea, some of tbe brigantine'a disbursements were as foHows: — 

dol. r. m. 

Pllotago , , , 

Stevedores ««..*...• 

Conflul 

DispAtAhiiig pApen • 

Cnstom-Hotuo « . . 

ProvittloTifl ..*• 

C«8b m Jaifea . . .« 

229 B 25 

Reckoning 4f4(/^ dollar, tbese disbiirseinents amount to £49 ]3fi (Uh 
In the Consula cburges were quarantine and praiiqiic 46 riah S mrs ; 
Port Cnptairi 4 rials; registration 2j6i/; signing manifests Uh ; request 
fur Ciistora-bonse visit 5*; cerlificateB to Board of Utahb Ox; Port 
Captain 5s: ctistoms 5s; bill of health 10^. 

At Alicante, some of her di&bursemenls were :■ — 



1 








10 








12 


5 


25 


1 








2 





(J 


11 








19^2 









AjichomiTef 2 nalu ^ ton 

Light dnen, 1 ditto ...,.,,... 

Tonnago dues, \ rial ^ qnlatAl 

Bnt^ of consuniptiofi of foreign stores 12-100 of n > 

nnl (or vjich man ^ duy t^ 

port CujiUin «*...*• • 

Balbi^t ^^:LnI 

BiU of hcuUth , , 

Prntiijue chttrgra ^5 Iritd^f Consul's do, #5 SnViZt 
C'oalribation towards the new ProteHtant Cemeterj 
XnuitlAtioii of bhi^'K clcorjitnee And cerlifi«*te, moni- ) 



fettftt rereiiae ruit, and cleuriiig ship's paper 



dt>L 


Hikb 


13 


8 


6 


14 


55 


5 





13 





4 





16 





6 


in 


10 


1 





3 






II 91 16 

The Consnrs charges : re*jistration ^2s6if; request for Customs visit 5$; 
eertiricates Board i4 Health Cn; port elmrges iix; Cnsiom-hoase 5*. 
287 Can books. In the Blienff's Couil London, Jnnnary ISlth, 1854, 
OttRicTts V. KonrNBON, the o^nii^r was declared liable for tbe loss of n cask of 
cumin t8» through lumpers neglij^'ently using can hooks, when discharging in 
llitt Thames, dunn^ tbe swell eanst'd bj paBBing Btcaioers. 
_ 288 Damaged Corratits. FAcnmE v. Milkeb. Ih^foro Lonl Chief Jus- 

tloe E11J.E, Dec. 11, 1S(50. PlaintiiT, July 10, lH5jj, ebarti^red the Auxiliary screw 
iteam*ftbip Unanimity, from Cardiff to MarBoilles, and tlience to Patras to load 
etirrmots. Through defects in her maclitncry the vesBel was 74 days on tite 
Toyago, which was three times us long as she should have been, Tbe cargo was 
damaged, and currants in the mean time fell in the market. An arrangeinctU 
waa made and a verdict by consent of plain tifl' was entered.— Damages i!300. 



164 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



280 Bill of Lading. HoNisoHEti w. Robinson. Before tbo [FRUIT 
Recot'dor of London, March 27, 186*2. Tljia was fto action for 45 boxes figs 
sMpped in the screw etoamer Onda, at Smyrna, in September, 1801. Plaintiff, 
tlirongh Ins hrother, aliipped 500 boxes marked ''Elemo" with tlie letter ** D ** 
over th3 same. The bill of lading containud a clause to tlie effect that the 
owner was not responsible for wrong delivery caused by an error or deficiency 
in the marks and numbers. 460 boxeg, properly marked, were first delivered. 
Five others were afterwards found* Then 45 marked ** Eleme — D " were 
offered and refused, and this action was brought for their value at 32« ^cwL 
60,000 cases and boxes of fruit had been shipped hi tlie Onda^ of which 40,000 
were boxes and drums of figs. It was alleged that the 45 boxes missing were J 
delivered by mistake to some other party. Plaintiff stated that stencil plates 
were used in painting the marks. His brother had diflferent marks. In defence 
it was stated that an offer to open the 45 bo.xes tendered, and to test the quality 
had been refused. Capt. Batty stated that the Onda took in 1,000 ton of cargo, 
which came off in barges to the ship in the bay. They coidd not see the mark«} 
of the whole of the cases and boxes shipped. REcoaDEn: Then if you could 
root see the marks you should not sign a hill of lading for 500 bo.xes of a par- 
ticular mark. Capt Batt? said he had no means of knowing the marks. 
The mate gave a receipt whea t}ie goods were on board. They had not time 
to look at the whole of the marks. liEcoRDEa: Then you ouglit not to sign 
the bill of lading when you have not time to do iL The mate, Swanbon, said 
that with a cargo of RO,OftO cases it would he impossild© to see that the wholo 
of the marks correspondotJ with those in the shipper's note. William Fiuend, 
warehouaekeeper, London Pocks, stated that tliero were 4-1 '> hoxos miirked 
"Elemo — D." They found 11 "Eleme— B,'* and 4 with no letter. Had no 
complatut froui any other party, and no one claimed the 45 boxes tendered. — 
Verdict for plaintiff. 

FRUIT PACKAGES, Ac, 

Currants* 17 ton occupy a space of 850 cubic feet or 1 keel ; a butt weighs 
17 @ 20 cwt ; curotuol 5 @ 7 cwt ; box U @ .3 cwt ; barrel 2l @ 2J cwt; sack 
of Grecian 140 t1^. ordinary or about 123 tt>. avoirdupois. 

Raisins. A drum 34lb , barrel 1 cwt ; emk Malaga I cwt ; Turkey 21 cwt ; 
box Malaga 2'2\^^: Yttlontia 50 Iti, half-bos 28ft; a seron is a kintj of skin 
puiikage, couiaining usually 87^ lb; Admiralty barrel :i3iUb. net, half-hogs- 
head 224, kilderkin 108, and am all cask 1 12 It; see table at the commeuce- 
ment of ibis work, page 30. 

Pigs, A frail of Faro 32 Iti ; Malaga 28rt>; Malaga drums 14 lb. 

Prunes, A barrel 1 @ 3 cwt 

Plums, Quarter-box about 20tt>, carton 9lb; hfilf carton 4 @ 6 ; quarter 
carton U (a^ 4 lb ; tlieso arc usually packed in outer cases. 

Almonds. A box of Jordan 28 tb ; a basket contains 1} @ IJ cwt, ftod a 
aeron 1 1 @ It cwL A soron of Barbary contains aboiit 2 cwt. 

Nuts. At Barcelona 14 bags of lilO tb, gross go to a ton. 

Grapes. At Malaga 30 barrels go to a ton lor freight; some eaj 25. 



STOWAGE, 

Freight When MediteiTaneiin wheat is 1*^ quarter freight, fPRDIT 
nsi^ins are rated tit i^sSJ, Qnd currants iiiSd ^ ton of 20 cwt not weight. 
Tlipse rates have been very mucb modified ^iiice tlie inlroduclion of steamers 
hum Liverjsool to the MeditermneAn ; tlioy take back I'niit at tLe best freight 
ihejr can obtain. Bay 555 i^ T0« and I n ^ cent, primage at tlie drst of ilie season. 
By the Levant Co's, rates figs iti di'ums are freighted at £o; in casks and 
cftses £4. A master stntes that the etowijge at Sniyms, whether in drums, casks, 
or cases, is nearly eqiinl ; tliere may be a difference of 5 ^ cent- in the stowage, 
but in the payment for freight there is a difference of 20^ cent. 

Tai'es. The tari3 for Zante currants allowed by the Customs and the trade 
is for butts ISttj, 1> cwt. {very rare now)v en rote els 28, boxes and barrels aettial; 
the emalier the packages the grenter the tare, Garoteels are not made of the 
same wood as formerly ; say 10 or 12 t* cctit. now. On eurrnnts ItJ (a> W {> cent. 
Dcnifl raisins (a: 7lb. on half-boxes, 1 Itb. on boxes. At Hamburg, the tare 
on raisins are Smyrna, new or old, 12 W cent; Mahiga, new or old, 10 <^ cent 
Currants — Trieste, It @ iO ^ cent ; Smyrna figs 12 ^ cent 

Lastages. At Malwja a last for freight is, 4 bales orange peel^ 10 casks 
almonds (each about 38n|1>, English), 20 chests lemons and oranges, 22 casks 
lUriJOuds (8 arrobaa each), 44 casks raisins (4 arrobas each), 87 half-casks 
fmisins. 60 baskets or IfSO jars of raisins. A carga of raisins is 2 baskets or 
Tarrobas: a cask contains as much though only called 4arrobns; the arroba 
4*10 English wine gailons* At ItQiUrdam^ a last for freight is 300H>. almonds, 
and 2U cases oranges. 

20O Oranges and Lemons. A ship will ordinarily require one- 
faurih of her tonoagc for ballast ; boxes of oranges are stoned on their 
BtJes» bilge to back, as many tier as the liold will take j (op tier bilge up. 
Lemons, being heavier, are generally stowed below oranges. Discharge 
i» dry weather. Some Lisbon charter parties are ast follows : " as much 
aa can b^ stowed in the hold between the fore and after bulkhead ; to he 
fitowed in the customary manner, so as to allow an air-hole I wo feet square 
VQder each hatchway, to extend from tbe bottom of tlie hold to the top 



I'bc ftrcriiLge Aonaal lmport« of orfiLsp:cfl into Great Britmln, far the fivo yenn Gjidiag 
iritj* ym'^i, wens 977,440 bu^bela. Since th*)a it h*s gone beyond l,000,(HX>bii*lwlH, and, 
k*<«iiininj3; oarh biinbel to ct:)ut4un 650, tbU would give CtjO miilionH of orangott, or about 22 
fnr nub Miml (if tbe populiilion m the kinf^tiom. Encb tree prodtiee^ on an Average 12,OOCl 
to lf(,(MX» ; out' tree has yielded 26,000, In the seaion of Itel, which produced by no meant 
■a anuKtiatly Urge crop, not lean tlian 353 cajrgoes of omngeSj containing about 2CK},0UU 
targv boic*, bnldinj? 800 oranges each, were §bippod from the Weiteni I&lundn. Tcrcoim 
etport^ aiiniinUy about 30 cori^ocii. St. Mnry a few. 8t, Michicd't^ i^ the (jfrent initrt. In 
\m\, \X\v vuIiiL'"of tlif fruit uopfirted Ui-nee was but £10,000; in 1650, t'6r>,000; and la 
Hm, £HIJ23. It was ettimabHi that its prodaco of fruit during 18iiy, was 252,C)00,UOO of 
I H>,000 IfmouA ; of Ihuae oil the lemonji and l^ilMkO.tXW otmx^m wore con* 
Ldlond. Tlje exports of oi^nnges from 8t» Hiehcra was 173,1179 box«i la 
l>oxe» in 1855-C; 100,079 io 1856-7; 17Q«922 m 1857-8; and 130,858 )k>x6b 
More tlion ball of the orange crop i» Hhlppcd In tbe months of November and 
The filu« of the fruit imported aow reached ovor £UOU,(KX) aanoalljr. 



in lis^n-'^K 
Dceotiiber. 



iJt 



IM STEVENS ON STOWAGE 

of the deck; which uir*hole is to be kept empty and free of [FRUIT 
nil sails, cables, Sec* \Viiid:aails arc to be itseil down such air- holes ; an«l 
part of ihe bulk-heads are to he rouioved to allbrd vciiliktion to the cargo. 
The vessel to be bciUasted with iron, metal dross, stone, or shiiigle, not 
sand, chalk, mud, or anylbiJig prejudicial to fruit. The victuals to be 
cuoVed upon deck uud not below. The batches to he kept open at all 
times during; the \royagej when the weather will admit/' Importers com- 
plain that green fruit carjjjoes arc often damaged through the inattention 
or want of information of masters, some of whom will deliver fruit ia 
better CO L^dition after a passage of thirty days than others after a passage 
of only fourteen days^. 

Proportionata tonnage, 8 ton oranges and lemouH* of 10 chests or 20 
boxes per ton, will weigh 10 toup and oecupy a space of Sbo cuhic feet or 1 keel ; 
10 chests, 20 half-chesta; or 30 quarter-cbestB, go to a ton. 30 RuBsian-size 
boxes are equal to 20 London-size boxfs. Some masters cuknilato that a, 
Tessel which stows 18 ton of St. Miehtels will stow 28 ton of Seville, and 
8ft ton of Lisbon or St. Ubes* A scliooiier winch stowed 38| ton of St. Micliaers 
stowed 52 ton of Lisbon. When St. MichmFs oranges pay freight averaging 
ilT @ ^8 ^? ton, Lisbon oranges pay about M 10*. 

FroportioEate freight. Whm wheat is freighted at It ^ quarter* oraiigea 
and lemons are rated at 12* IJJ \^ ton ; some consider this rate 20 *|^ceut. toa 
much in favor of the wheat; and a fruit merchant reckons It IP quarter tor 
wheat equal to £IP ton for St. Alichiers oranges. Another authority says, 
when Mediterranean wheat is It ^f^ quarter, oranges and lemons fti"e rated at 
8i^case, or 12*1?' ton; ili is refers to SiciUau cases contaiuing about J,00O 
fruit. A box is two-thirds of a case, and pays accordingly; a thousand of; 
those cases count for 50 ton. From the Azores 20 English and *10 Russtani 
size boxes count to the ton ; from Spain or Portugal 10 cliests or 20 half- 
chests or boxes count to the ton. 8 Admiralty cases of lenaon juice or 1$ 
half-cases 1 ton. 

291 FUEL, PATENT. Waelich's is made in blocks inches] 
long, 6 inches broad, and G inche* thick, and being thns perfectly cubical, 
can be stowed iii much less space than coal, a ton of 20cwt. occupying! 
only 32i cubic feet^ where the same weight of coal occupies 40 feet. It 
is apparent thai a ship would not float if completely filled, and it is there- 
fore cui?itomary to stow in aolid blocks or tiers right up to the beams, witH 
spaces between to meet the tiim of the ship. At Swansea, a shoot with! 
an india-rubber base is used ; through this it is shot witli so much rapidity, j 
that 1,201* ma have been slowed ip 24 hoare. This fiiel is much less 
absorbent than coal, and there is consequently less danger in case of 
leakage, and steamers are thus enabled to carry two days' consumption 
on deck^ where it is stowed solid — the sides being formed in steps, for 
facility of access. Some kinds of patent fuel are liable to spontaneous 
combustion, hut Dr. Lyon Platfaiii stales that Wahlice*8 being mnii* 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



1S7 



iiraclured otily from smnll coal and tar snbsequeDtly carbonized [FUEL 
ill reions, at ilie hetit of nbout 70ff, and all the gases which give rise to 
Kpontaneaus cniuhusiiim being driven out, any fears of such a coniingency, 
or of possible i injury to die be«Uh of those on board, may be discarded. 
Other ttuthoritiei* coruend ihaf if the blocks are chafed logclhpr when wet, 
Bponliineous combustion may ensue. Tiie Emigration Board does not 
object to Warlich'Sj Wvlam*s, or to tliat of tlie North and Sqitth 
Wales Cumpasy, a ton of which can be stowed in 31 cubic feet. 

FUEL, STEAM. 

SXKRACT FBOK THE *' FlRgT BePOUT ON THB COAt, AUtt FuEL BiraTEl> TO TOR StMAM 

Navy, bt Sia H. Dt La Bechb and Dr. L. Platfaib/' Mauch, 1848. 



FaeJ aj. i _. ,. ^. 



•11 



o S o 



.2 6 '3 



1^ 



F0IL, PATENT. 



■1^ 



Wwlich's 
roii'ft . . 



Holland aud Green'i 



COAL, WELSH. 



: i nhyr ., 

It^M^U'L-U , 

Qnktfula , 

T T»'H.. u ..h Grove 
h . . . , 



NEWCASTLE, Ac. 



Vh ' Hartley Main ... 
Ji I ino%,Wt.^ Hartley 



P . ' ^^tley , 

I" -■ ■ ., u-Ui'y ...... 

' .ii4tl ILaraty .,., 

L - n aod SJ'lnej'i Hartluy 



G9'05 
611 
65^08 
65-8 

&i8 



53 22 

60 166 
510 

Wi*16tJ 



48*a 
50-6 
47'8 
47*7 

4iii 

i79 



72*348 

74'7.S 

68't»20 

71Vil 

81-23 



78*81 
82*72 
82'2y 
e23r»4 
81 JOT 
8^1 *8J 
8185 
&1-726 



7886 
77 11 

78*23 
78*:i6 
78711 
77»8 
78*t;7 



•955 
■817 
'918 
•918 
*7[)7 



■676 

*038 
*7ia 
'712 
•GOl 

'781 



'620 
'656 

•ait 

MiOfi 

-629 

*608 



4-4$ 

2230 
5*46 
891 

35*35 



45-98 
05 43 
£916 
40'»9 
8-1^8 
66 5*7 
4S'7i; 
28051 



61*26 
52 89 

mm 

64-27 

66'»2 
6881 
04-2» 



S2'44 
88-66 
54 41 
84*30 
B4'5G 



42*26 
42'Ofl 
48-32 
88*19 
87*23 
48-92 
fl934 
83*85 



45*80 
44*09 
4GS6 
46 96 
44-44 
45-62 
40*76 



J21I2 Spontaneous combustion. The brig Nonp<ireU Ifft London, Jan- 
uary 2i» \^bi\, with a **arp) ol Ktna fuel ia bagB, and wln-u alireitst of Malta, 
MaxcU 7, Uid cargo took Dre aiid the ship was burnt. This fuel ia said {o bo 
cotiipt^sf J of rcHui^ tawd'ist, ninl suiiill fon] ; it h made in aheets of 42 s^^uarea-^ 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 

tlie sheet meastmng IfiJ by in| iticliet^ and is adapted for cooking fFUEL 
in trencLps du^' in the groimtl. Tlie mftnufactiirers allege tlmt it is not liaMe 
to spontaneous combustiou. The lire in ay hftvc origitiatcd ia the bags, the 
csargo baring been s)tipped in wet weather 

293 FURNITITRE. Bengal, Madras, and BomWy ton 50 cubic ft, 

294 Fl'RS. The Russian Company on the A moor River, send 
ihcir furs to Sl Petersbnrg cliiefly by lund. Those by ships are stowed 
pri«cjpally in ihe *hveen decks covered with eonvas, but the canvass is 
kept about six inches from the top of the furs, by pieces of wood, two lo 
three incbts apart, to secure vcn Illation, Iron ships are not preferred for 
ihe conveyar^ce of furs. The sables most esteemed in Russia, are those 
which are short and broad. New York ton 40€uhic feet of beaver, furs, 
peltrieFi &c* 

296 FUSTTC, the wood of a species of mulhcrry fjmwing in the 
lonioii Ishmds, Greece, South Amt^rica, the United Stales, ami tlie 
West Indies. Fustic sliipped as dnnuafjey free of freiglit, should be so 
Slated in rlie raate*8 receipt and corresponding hill of lading, and the 
qnanlity described at Falras or any other Greek port as a hoat load* 
Keir York ton 20cvvt, Baltimore 2,2401b. 

206 GALANGAL; the root of the galanga tree cut in pieces an 
inch long and scarcely holf-incb thick At Bombay 12cwt. go to the 
ton ; in China 13^ hags, 

207 CiALBANUM ; a gpecie^ of gum resin growing near the Cape 
of Good Hope, in Syria and Persia; from the Levant it is brougl*t in 
coses or chests, from 100 (aj 30€lb. each, E J.Co. allows 16 cwt. to a ton. 

208 GALLS i*R GALL NIITS are excrescences produced by the 
attacks of a small insect, which deposits its eggs in the lender shoots of 
a species of oak (Qta^rcits infeciaria linn) abundant in Asia Minor, 
Syria, Persia, &c. Gulls are inodorous, and have a nauseously hitter 
and astringent taste* I'hcy are nearly spherical, and vary in magnitude 
from the size of a pea lo that of a hazel nut* When good, they are of a 
blaeli or deep olive color; their stirfiice is tubercular and almost prickly; 
ibey are iieavy, brittle, and break ivjth a flinly fracture. 'J'hey are known I 
in commerce by the names of tvhife, tjreent and Mite, The white galls are 
those which have not been gathered till after the insect has eaten its way 
otit of tlie nidus and made its escape. They arc not so heavy as the others, 
are of a lighter color, and do not fetch so high a price. The green and 
blue galk are gathered before the insect has escaped ; they are heavier 
and darker than the former, and are said lo aflbrd about one- third more 
of colouring matter* Bombay ton 60 cubic feet in cases* A sack 3i cwt. 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



169 



^ 



209 GAMBIER^ an exlmct pr<»pnre<l at Singapore from the uncaria 
ffambir; in the island of Rintan;,^ lite sliriibs are in full l)t'arinj]j ten 
nionlbs in tlie year, bul tluring December and January the leaves ciiange 
to a yellow color and are unfit to produce ibe extrnct; it is used as a dye 
and tanning substance. It ia somt^tinics rai^rnamed t^rra japonica and 
catcli, bm they are tbe prodiue of utbcr plants, Gatnbier is a plant of 
a sticky nature, and when sbipped it sboiild be kept olf froiu sago, sug;ftr, 
coflee, spiceu, &c ; occasionally it i^ paeked in rattan baskets, holding 
aboQt I c\n, each, and somelinies is made up in compressed bales 21 cwt. 
each, dunnaged with Malacca and rattan canes. If freighted at 20cwt. 
to the ton the hales should he well pressed ; if by measurement there 
should be ^) cubic feet to the ton; see catechu and terra japonica. 

300 A bale P In the Court of Conmion Pleas, December loth, 1R56» 
QoBiSiSEN V. pEaiN, Accordiug to plniutiff 's case, a bale of gnmbier meant 
a parcel, weigliing above 2 cwt, wbich had been compressed by hydraulic 
ponrer into an oblong umss, and was then bound up in matting. Defendant 
had brought from Siugajiore 1,170 parcols bound up in matting hut not com- 
preased. and wcigbiug only 60 or 70 tb. each, which be contended were bales. 
The jiuy foimd that they were not bales. 

301 GAMBOGE, a vegetable gummy juice of a most beautiful 
yellow colour, brought chiefly from Cambodia. China hox, 1 pecul, 
measures 4*236 cubic feet. 

902 GARLICK and Onions. Bengal and Madras ton 12cwt. 



» 



303 GENERAL CARGO. Select the strongest casks, such as 
beer, lallow, &>c. for the ground tier, and not dry goods if it can be 
avoided, reserving wines, spirits, oils* vinegar, and molasses for the 
second or third tier, to reduce the pressure, according lo size of ship. 
Although stevedores may be emphiyed, the attention of the master or 
mate should be specially directed to prevent dry goods, in bags or hale«, 
from being placed near leakage goods or moist goods, such as salted 
bides, hales of bacon, butter, lardj grease, &c ; dry goods should, if 
possible, be slowed in ibe after hold, 

3CM Manufactured goods, dry hides, and other valuable articles, 
should have dunnage, 'H incfica thick, against the sides, to preserve n 
iralcr course. Miseellaneous goods, such as boxes of cheese, kegs and 
tubs of laj'd, or other suiall or slightly made packages, not intendeil for 
broken stowage, should be placed by themselves and dunnaged as other 
goodsj and, if praclicahk% stowed at eaclj end of ibe vessel, 

30*5 Tea^ flour {in baiTels), flnx, clover, and linseed, or rice in 
tierc«fSy coffee and cocoa in bags, should always have IJ incbcR ot least of 
good dunnage in the hoitoru, and 14 to the upper juirt of the bilges, with 




IM 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



« 



2i inches at the sides ; allowed to stow six heigh is [GENERAL CARGQ 
uf lieiTcs and eigljt heii^hls of hiirrels,* All ships above 600 lotj should 
have 'hvixt decks or plaifarnis laid for these ciugofs, to ease the pressure. 
Caulked 'twixt decki^ should have scuppers in ihe ceiling at the sides, 
and 2i inches of dunn i^e, laid atliwarL-»hip and not fore and afl-ways, 
when in bugs or sacks, and when in hoxes or casks not leng than 1 inch. 
When niats can be pro cured, they should be used at the sides fur tea, &c. 
Such articles as guano, superphosplmtej bone dust, &c» ought not to be 
fibipped with a general cargo of dry goods. In carrying general cargoes 
from ports where there are no fixed rates like the Mediterranean and the 
Baltic, the best nay to decide uj>on the freight due is to reckon how much 
freight a full cargo of the standard ariicle ni^uicd in the charter, say wheat, 
would produce, and take that as the amoant due on the cargo actually 
shipped. 

306 West India Cargoes shotxld have at least 6 inches dunnage on 
the flat bottoiM, and 9 on the bilges, three beds under each sugar hogshead, 

k%nd two under each cask. Casks of ram and mola&ses, with bungs up, 
I to be well bedded and quoiued olV, slowed bilge free, and well chocked; 
on no account to exceed four heights of riders. To be careful not to stow^ 
mm, molasses, or other liquids, on coffee, or any uther goods liable to be 
damaged by their leakage. If coflee, pimento, or otljer goods in bags, 
should form pan of tlie cargo, ihey may be eiihcr stowed in a vacancy by 
tliemselvcs, or on the other cargo, provided the cantlines of tlie casks be 
well filled with wood, &c. to prevent the bagB from being chafed by the 
working of the casks at sea. Should the whole cargo be in bags (say 
coffee), staves or matting, or both, should be placed all the way up the 
sides, round the pump- well, masts, stanchions, &c. If a vessel have 
the lower deck laid and caulked, it will be necessary to dunnage it also. 

307 In slowing a ship of 500 ton register, o.m. having a beam of 
about 35 feet, with a fidl cargo of BUgar in hogsheads, the following 
cou rs e h as be en obsen- e d ad v an lage o u s 1 y fo r m a i ly y e ars . L on g w oo d e n 
lioops, laid atbwartships, so as not to impede the molasses* drainage, 
receive 12 to 14 lancewood spars fore and aft. Commence the ground 
tier by placing the midship hogsheads alongside the keelson, fore and 
ftfl; next lay a row of hogsheads, burton fashion, from abaft the after 
batch to before the fore hatchway, round those previously laid amidships; 
then fill up the wings by laying a row fore and aft, well on, which com- 
pletes ibis tier. Next tier, all fore and aft, then begin to peak up to the 
deck at both ends. Third tier, square up, Founh, burton fashion from 



• Another aathority coOBi'lcra that foor heiglita of fieeds, &e. In tLeroes^ »id Ato oI 
flour in hiurels, h ftutWeitjnt, hut n4dj< that where small hattenst are laid fktro*m % great relief 

of prMftUTA WUI «QBUC. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



191 



the after part of llie main batch la the after part [GENEEAL CABGO 
of tlie r»re Iiatcbway ; the reniaiinler fore and aft, Btlween tbe beams, 
bnrlon* In llie 'hvtien tiecks piiticU<?on3 of mm; all ll^e wing cask§, 
bartoHj from the nfter juirt of ihe main hatch to the risinn^ of the fore- 
castle deck. All the rest fore and aft. Pimento and ginger on the rum, 
but out of the way uf deck leakages from the walenvays^ vrindlass, 
stanchions, ike* The ca^ks of mm must be chocked and bedded with 
_«ofi wood. The bilges of the casks to he free and bungs up; hanging 
Barrels of ginger must be on their beads. 

The/oUouring U abridged from Mufpky'g United States Navtkal Eoutme : 

308 Liverpool cargo. In the fall of the year, ahoiit 150 or 200 ton 
of coal are levelled fore and alt in the bottom, Then a proporlionate 
quantity of pig or bar iron, with strips of board, at intervals, to prevent 
Uie iron from burying itself in the coal. Crockery in the wings, fore 
and aft. In the after hold, articles of particular value ^ such as cloths, 
laces, monsseline de laines, and other dry goods, with plenty of dunnage 
and chocks, not only against leakage, but to prevent chafe — an injury 
worse than any other, [n the fore hold and the forward part, ** rough 
freight/' such as crates and hogsheads of stone and earlhenware, chocking 
and dnnnaging all safely. Sacks of Milt in the main liokl, near the centre^ 

lew Orleans cargo. If liqiud?;, such as oil, brandies, cider, vinegar, 
c. place tlieni on the ballast in the after hold, with bales and cases of 
dry goods overt Tn the main hold, hardware, S;c, Fore hold, or all 
forward, rnngh freight, such as hogsheads of light hardware, crates of 
crockery, casks of oil, &c, chocking and dunnaging in a proper manner. 
French Goods require great care; dunnage at least 12 or 14 inches high 
over the floor heads, Stow the cases in the after part free from the wings, 
masts, pump-well, &c* protected at every point from contact with moisture. 
Bii-^kets of champagne and other light wines, being less valuable, are? 
|ihvced separately, to prevent leakage on silks, laces, 8tc, 

For pa^enger ships, emigrant aud troop ships, see the letter p* 

309 GENERAL SHIP. A vessel engaged lo convey to a certain 
"port or ports of dealiuation, the goods of various merchants unconnected 

%viih each other. 



310 GINGER is packed at Calcutta in bngs of 1 ewt«eacb, and is 

Dneralty used for broken stowage for dry cargoes such as lacs, indigo, &c. 

'and over casks of ruin, &c. It is shipped all the year round* Some comes 

from Cuba, Bengal ton 1*2 cwt. in bags, Madras and Bombay 12 cwt. 

ID bags, 50 cubic feet dry in cases. A bag of Jamaica about 1 cwt, 

fiarbadoes 1 i cwt, and East India 1 cwt. 



I» 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 




31 1 GLASS. Crates of, should be packed perpendicularly hy eiich 
oilier nrjfl ftrmly wodged together^ so iljiit iLe glass will iiot talk or sound 
when ihe ship roUs, Keep ut a disiQiict from salt or wet, or the straw 
will rot anil breakage ensue* In loading or discharging book the crates 
at each end and not across. When stowing with coal it should be care- 
fully trimmed into ibe canta or eods of the crates j other goods are 
preferable, as coal soils the crates. More damage is usiiall}^ done in 
receiving and delivering than during the voyage; ibe outside table is the 
one most frequently broken. Ma^sters should refuse crates of glass or 
bottles, if the straw is wet, for breakage will inevitably ensue. The 
specific gravity of crown ghiss is 2 520, green 2^642, flint 2-760 (5; 3*000, 
and comnioii plate glass 2 '760. A cubic foot of crown 156tt>j green 169, 
flint 187, and plate 170tb. 

Tonnage, &C. A keel, 850 cubic feet, consists of forty 18-table cratas 
41 ton; iifty 15-table 5 ton; or sixty 124able 54 ton. A stono of glass weighs 
G tb, a seam is 24 stone^ or 120 lb. 

312 Boxes of German sheet should be stowed on their bottoms; 
about 40 of these boxes go to the keel of 8.i>0 cubic feet or 4t ton weight. 
Plate Glass is packed in cases ; i!ie chief cause of breakage arises from 
their not being stowed with their proper edge up, as marked. When not 
marked they are safer on their edges than on ibcir flat. Great care must 
be observed when slinging^ especially before the cases are fastened in 
the slings and when they are passing the combings of the hatchway, in 
loading or unloading, Silvered glass muat be kept ofl' from eveiy thing 
of a damp nature. A superficial fool of plaie glass, one-tenth of an inch 
thick, will weigh lit), 

313 Giaas Bottles, green or black, when laden in bulk on coal, the 
* latter requires to be levelled as -smoothly as possible, and tlie large knobs 

thrown fore and aft. Place a plentiful bed of straw on the coal and 
wedge the bottles so that they will not talk when the sliip moves. The 
tnanufacturer sends an experienced band to stow the bottleSj and the 
master one of the crew into the lighter, as with earthenware. When 
empty bottles or bottled goods arc packed with straw, it is liighly neces- 
I sary that before signing bills of lading the master should know that the 
straw is perfectly dry, or breakage will certainly ensue, 

Tonnaga, freight, &C, 100 gross of quarts, (^ per gallon, 10 Iti. weight 
per dozen, in bulk, 10 ton ; 2C0 gross of piuts, 1-2 per gallon, 11 lb, weight per 
dozen, in bulk^ 11} ton ; or 80 crates bottles, in J cubic feel eo-ob* 10 ton, go to 
a keel or S5fHcet* When wheat is I;* t^tjuarter freight, bottles to the gallon 
are rated at llj^i ^ gross, and in crates U21J. 

314 GLOVES, especially those of ibe finer and more delicate kinds, 
are liable to injury through dampness even ^vhen packed in bales or chestsj 
se*j bales sec. 30, page 78, A dicker is 10 dozen. 



4 

I 



J 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



lJj:i 



R 



315 GOLD. When slnpping at Melbourne, and ilir cari^u is nearly 
cutiipkte, ibe masler atlenJy at ibe tlidl'rciit bank:* ciuily j at aUiwd bi>urs, 
til isec tbe gi)bJ wt'igbed ; tiftcr wbieb iL h placed in mncill yLroii^ u'm>deu 
boiecs, made fur ilie pnrpnse, b<ddiri*; generally 1,000 ojs. eacli ; ibey are 
ifcrewed down in bis presuiK-e, seabul with liis seal, and tliat of tbe bank, 
ivliere the boxes remain niilil a day or tvvt> prevkuis to sailing, when all 
U taken f at an uppoinli^d huiir, li> a sittanvbtial provided by ilie nnister, 
and conveyed in the ship. Occasion ally an a^^ent attends at tbe banks, 
and sees the gold weighed and sealed, and otherwise acts for the maaier, 
if ii ia not eLmveiiicnt for him la atienti ; biU tbe master, bt-lng tbe re-i 
sponsible party, sbtmld pi t^fer acting birluniRtif. As the gold comes ovef 
the gangway, tlie chiff m^ite takes tl»e ordinary accouni, and it is then 
ranged along the cnddy deck, wbere it is again counted as il gtie« down, 
and alio as it goes Into tlic safe ; when deposited and the safe locked, 
the key h delivered to the master. Usiially tbt- nicKst truslworthy ofljcers, 
petty uflieers, qnarler itiaster, ficc. are selected for this duly; the searncn 
are employed in other parts of tbe ship and aloft. Anulbcr anthority 
fiays, there are two ki^ya, one in charge of the master the other of tbe 
male, until all the gold is deiiosited, when ibc maie*8 key is delivered lo 
ihe niahler, who places a seal on the key-bole, and n^aken periodical in- 
specliontj v\' tbe safo on the passage borne, AgenLs from the banks come 
with the gold and prei^ent their billb of lading to the master for hh sig- 
nature ; the stemm boat remaining alongside until all in complete^ wheii^ 
wUb the bills of lading signed, they return ush(U"e in her. 

31 G Where ships are not provided wit!i sirong chests, a *'sloyv bole*' 
U sometimes left, in which tbe gold is placed, and tlien bnried with bales 
of wool or other bulky goods. Tlie gold ought to be placed wbere no one 
but a trustworthy oHicer has any bu>iiies6 to go, and llie chests and 
faiteiJings should be occasionally examined. On arrival in tbe London 
ducks, and when iilongside the (|uay, the i^afe is unlocked, and ihe gold, 
passed into the cuddy, where it is counted as bebne. It i^ then put intol 
a carl or wagon, in charge of the master, whose re8]>onBibility does not I 
ceaae until it h safely lodged in the bank* In Sydney also the master 
ur an authorised person from ibe office of his agent, sees ihc various 
parcels weighed, packed, and sealed with the seals of ibe shipper and 
master. The bilU of lading wiibout the clause " weight and con ten 13 
unknown/' and bearing in the margin an impression of tbe shipper's seal, 
are then and there initialed by the master, so that he may identify lliem. 

317 Some masters, when hoisting money, plate, or other valuables, 
on Ward, atiach to the boxes a buoy having a buoy-rope corresponding J 
in length with the depth of the water alongside, so that if anyihing givci* 
way the box can be recovered* For boxes of treasure btrong nets, say of 
2-inch rope, are very useful and, safer than slings. 

SB 



104 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 




318 On tbeWest Coast of Africa gold dust is usually [GOLD 
packed in bags, or small cases; sometimes four or five bngs are pjicked 
in a case; in sailing ships it is often stowed abaft ibe ruilJer-case. 

319 In conveying Croxvn Trtjasure ibe Admiralty allows fi»r 600 
leflj^^uee i ^ cent; above that distance 1 p cent; belonging to otber par- 
lies, gold o» jewels, under 600 leagues, jp-cent; under 2/00 leagues, 
1}; above, U; silver, under 600 leagues, US' cent; under 2,000 leagues, 
\i; and above, 2 jp- cenL Sucb freigbts sball be payable clear of all 
deduction whatsoever; and il sball be stijmlaled in ibe bill of lading tlial 
tbe captains and commanding (jJIicers sliall not be liable to any expenses 
altending sbijvmcnt notil tlie same sball be safe alongside; and ibeir 
liability ceases immediately tbey have landed tbe trea5ure at the destined 
port. Gold, silver, di anion ds, watches, jewels, or precious stones, may 
he landed on Snndays; see landing* There is an important clause (503) 
in the Merchanl Shipping Aci, 1854, which limius ihe liability of owuer», 
in regard to i;old, silver, diamonds, watches, jewels^ &c. 

Claoso 503. ** No owner of any aoa-goitig ship* or shave therein, ehall bo 
liable to mfike gnod any loss, or damage^ tlml. niay happen witliool his ucttaal 
fault, or privity of or to any of tbo following ihiuga ; that is to say: 

(1) Of or Uj nny j,'tjods, merchandize, or otber lliings wJmtwoever, taken 
in or put on board any such sliip, l>y rtiason of any fin* hiip|ipiiing on lionrd. 

(2) Of or to any gold, silver, diamonds, watehes^jewels, or precious stouos^ 
taken in or put on board «oy sucb ship, by reubtoii of nny robbery, embezzle- 
ment, making away with, or aecretiog thereof, unless the owner, or bhipper 
thereof has, at llie time of shipping the same, inst^rted in his bills of lading. 
or otherwise declared in writiug, to the ru aster or owner of such ship, tlie true 

.nature and value of such articltfs. 
To any extent wliatover/' 

330 Bill of ladiBg. CoTut of Exeheipier, June KHh, lH5fi, Williams if. 
Afrtcax STKA^r Navjoation Co. an actioti wui lnought to rei ovilT llie v.dueof 
a (pianiily of gold dost shipped from t!ie coast of Africa. Th^ tpi^stion raised 
was, whether the defendants were exempt from liahthtv uudor the above section, 
which requires that io eeilain cases, such as ttie sliippiug of gohh tho ship- 
owner Bhall not be liable for loss unless, at the liuie of sbij>u»etit, the owner 
shall havt> declared I he niitnre, Quality, and value of the urticle. f ii the present 
case the bill of lading si>i>eified the shipment of '* iibout 1,100 oisuces of gold 
du^t, value iinkuowu/' The Court Uoid that the re-pii'^itts of tin' net bad not 
been fuUilled by plamtitT, and that tlefeiidant was llrerefore t x^mpt tVoin 
Hahiliiy. It might be that tbe qmility and nature of tlie gold [m\ been sufti- 
ciently speciJied, but it was clear that the vahie had been left a j> jcfetrt blank. 

Freight, weights, &C. Bullion h freiglited from Bombny @ I* cent. Gold 
is weighed in Bengal hy the ncllo 0'2H grains; Pondiehcrry h ifiT gritins; 
Biogapore bunkal 8M:2 ; Madngascar uanke 5, and van ;l(^ grains, the val wal 
isifflriftble — Bombay 4175, Aujar 51i, Delhi 5 63, and Hurat ri ^511 graius ; 
100 gouze ^ I tola; Spaaish tonin for gold 8*675, and for sUrer 0*245 grains. 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



im 



321 GOOD FRIDAY. In France and oilier countries, where ihc 
Diertbant rtrqiiiivs a ship to be laden or dischargotl oti Good Friday, and 
the authorities i>f the port do not pvohil)it it, the ^liip is liable for refasuJ, 
and the ship cau cluiiu on ihc trages of such of the crevF as refuse. 

322 GRAIN ani> CORN. Gmn is described as being ihe small 
seed of any kind of grass, eliiefly, however, cereals, which are the grasses 
proJiicinf; bread corn, and are ihe object of coiuinuuns culture for food^ 
Oft wheat» rye, barley, maize, oaLs, rice, and millet* Com is the goncriil 
commercial name for the grain or seed of plants used for human food. 
In England the bread corn is chiefly wheal; in the United Slates the 
name corn applies especially to maize; iu Scotland il is given to oats 
before they arc ground; and tn Sweden, Iceland, &lC. it denotes barley. 
Another authority says ihc two terms corn and seed include all cereal 
produce except rice. Peas and beans are termed Pulse; linseed and 
rapesecd are Seeds; granj is a common name in India for several kinds 
of pulse, of u'hich fur freiglu -JOcwt* go to a ttni. For oats and rice see 
ibe articles; for aniseed, canary, clover seed, coleseed, colza, cummin 
fteed, fennigurric, Hnseed, millet, oil tieeds^ P"ppy, rape, teel, &c. see the 
article seeds. By 27 Vic. cnp. 18^ May 13, l^<G4, an import duly of three 
pence per cwt. is levied on wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans, maize or Indian 
com, buck wheat, and bear or bigg, 

323 A d ue k n o w 1 eti ge f I h c season.^ o f .sh ip m en I q(s uch an i m port an t 
article as grain, is of the uhnost consequence to a master, especially when 
it happens thai he is in a strange and perhaps distant jwrt, where he may 
be tempted to load his ship xviih some other goods at a comparatively low 
rate of freight, under the impression that a cargo of grain can be readily 
obtained nt the jmrt o( dlschargi\ Generally speaking, grain may be 
thipped all ilie year round, but this statement is likely to lead an in- 
expcriencLd person into difhculiies. Akhough it is true that grain is an 
article which can be 8hipj>eil at all seasons, and is shipped from certain 
pons, called oj>en ports, more or less throughcml the year, yel the quantity 
iQuet be governed, to a certain extent, every where, by the season oj the 
ban'est and by the amount produced. There are, however, otiier causes 
which poiisess great control over shipments ; the chief one is the closing 
of certain ports by ice in the cold season. Another great governing cause 
ia the slalf i>f the maikcts. After a wet harvest or gathering time, grain 
way be quite unfit to ship unless kiln-dried, or after the winter* 

324 Bitiiic shipments from Rtya commence when the navigation 
opens in May, and continue to its close in October. PeUrnburg and the 
other higher poris elose earlier and ojK^n later than the lower ports. The 
tiavigniion sii Cronsfadl (Petershnrtf) is not open until Jntiej and closes 
in Novembtr. Archangd shipments are made only during the sutntacr 
montbfp say June, July, and August. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



32*5 From the Dannhe, Gahiz, and Ibrai!^ exports lake [GRAIN 
place iisimlly trom April ki DeceijiLt^r inclusive; the Sulifta month of [he 
Danube is open longer. The St'ti of Azof is siniihir to t!ie Danube. The 
port of Odemi is usually frozen for two months he I w ecu December and 
March ; in mild winters ihere is no ice in llie port* Jn the Delta of 
Eififptt wheat and burley are quite ripe In May; the produce of the field 
there arrives at maturity generally a mouth later than in tfpper Egypt. 
Durrah (mrghttm vuhjore)^ the jc^ain on which the natives ehielly subsist, 
and millet, are sown later and gathered earlien There is nu winter, so to 
say, in Egypt; the seasons are governed by the state of th(? NUe, and 
are, theref<u"Cj the inundation^ spring, and harvest- Tlie maximum rise 
of the Nile occurs about the second week in September; by the middle 
of Xaveniber ihe river has returned to its old bed, E/sports from Alex- 
andria lake phice chiefly in November, December, and Jannary, 

326 In Nriv Hruaswlck iiatSj wheat, and other cereal grain are ready 
for the sitkle in SejUcmher and are generally see u red before Oetober. 
The avenige interval between the eailieiit sowing and latest ploughing, 
nr mean len;5lh of summer, is Gmonlhs 22 days. The best wheat grown 
in Restigonche weighs sometimes 651t>. {p- buf^bel ; barley 56 tti; black 
oats, 4011); and white, 47tb. p bushel. In Eastern (lower) Canada the 
mean range of the thermometer for June, July, and August, ja IT 57'j 
for the winter months I T 2a'. In Wci^lern (ujiper) Canada 7T 37' and 
22 49 , The ]>orts of Qaeiffic and Monfreai are open from May lo Oc- 
tober and November, Montreal is the chief port of shijmient during 
the above periods, but when ice closer its navigation, grain, flour, &c. is 
conveyed \*y rail, either to Portland or to BoMon, for shipment. 

327 Itetween the months of November and April, when inland 
navigation by hike and canal is usually closed, the yhipments of grain 
from A>ir York are not extensive; considerable quaniities are then 
lirougbt to the city by rail coastwise. About the end of April and the 
be;^innirig of May, dealers me very butty, and by ihe middle and end of 
j\lay ocean shipmefUs cooiuience. Canal navigation to New York is 
generally closed in the f'rst week in October, but sometimes not until 
ihe middle of November ; and is opened in May or earlier, if praeticable. 
The navi;ration b> canal is very extensive, and in order to prevent canal 
boats, ^c. trom being frozen in, it is necessary that all should be out 
beftue the gates are closed ; lliis practice involves an occasional loss of 
several dav-*^; each end is closed on the same day, 

328 In the Western Province of the Cape Colomj, during the winter 
tnonihii (.lune, July, and Airgmst) tlte prevalent winds are from north and 
north-west^ and somh-wesl, and are generally accompauied by rain; the 
north-west wind is dan;^erous to the sliijjping in Table Bay. South and 
soulli-easl winds usiitdly prevail during the summer months (December, 




I 
I 



I 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 197 

January, and February )> whii'li oficn bring rain in the [QHAIH 

Eastern cMvision of tbe Colony. In Cnpe Town, wheat is usually 

brought to ninrket in llie nurnlhs of Jaiiimry, Ffhruary, and March. 

Much speculation occurs ai this period in the purchase of wheal for the 

purpose of storing for rc-sale at the close of the year, prior to the arrival 

of the Dew wheat in the market. The export of wlieat is very small ; it 

L*8 occasionally (^vith oats) to the Manritjris. Large quantities of 

iheat and bread etuH's are received annnally from Van Dieman's Land, 

SetJgal, and from America and California in the shape of rask Hour. 

'Some fine white wheat from the Cape hns weighed 62 (ff'6311x ^hiisheL 

329 In the East Indies the south-west or rainy monsoon extends 
from May to October* The oorth-eaat or dry fine mnnsoon blows from 
October to May. The principal time for shipping old seeds is during 
the latter end of the rainsj about October. East India wheat is very 
8Ui»ceptible to weevil from its dry nature and the beat of the climate; it 
is rarely brought to England, 

330 In Atisfmiia, according to one authority, summer extends from 
December 1st to January 28th; mean heat 80° at noon; the autumn is 
in March, April, and May* Another authority says, in South Attstralia 
the summer months are November, December, JanuarVi February, March, 

rid April. February is the hottest month. On the plains of Souih 
Australia the wheat harvest commences in November, but in the hilly 
districts not until December or the beginning of January. At Adelaide 
tbe ]iar\*est is in January ; the chief exports thence are made two months 
later, say in March, chiefly lo Melbourne, Sydney, and the Mauritius, 
both wheat and (lour; a ton is 4o bushels; the J^our is considered the best 
in Australia. Wheat from AuslroHii to England forms usually only a 
|K»riion of the cargo; it is generally in bagi, slowed near a hatchway 
wbicb is opened in the tropics lo let ofl* tlie damp air generated on the 
passage to Ca])e Horn. In Tasuuima summer commences about Novem- 
ber, autumn in Feliruary, winter in ^lay, and the spring about August 
December 21st is ihc longest day. At Christmas the tliermometer in ibo 
parlour frequently stands at 70". By the Colonial law a market bushel 
of wheat is fixed at tlOtti; it frequently weighs C5Hj. and sometimes 7(Hh; 
by the same law oats are hon2;ht and sold at 40It). t<j the bushel ; they 
have weighed 401b, In Jstew Zealand spring begins in August, summer 
in November, autumn in April, and winter in June. Tiie days of summer 
are two hours shorter, and *if winter two hours longer than in England. 
Al Attckland tbe mean temperature in January is 6i/'3', and hi July 49" 5'. 
^€U? Zealand exports poiatues, Tasmania exports giain and potuuies to 
tlie other colonies, Virioria and New South U'afcs import grain, &c. 

331 At San Francisco the wet season extends from tbe middle of 
November to the middle of May ; the dry from the middle of May lo ihc 



198 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



tiiidclleor NovemlMr. The dry season commences earlier in [GRAIN 
the Souih anil contiiiiiea longer. In sitmmer the temperature suiiietimes 
reaches 1 10"; in ihe rainy season it seldain falis below 41)^ 8a(i Fran- 
cisco ^vheat, wLile especially, is generally of a very fine qtiality and of 
good weigh I ; samples of two seasons from consignments to England 
weighed each 6511j. 

332 The wlieat harvest on the west coast of South America, thai Is 
for Chilly is in Ftd^ruary, and llie pnncijjQl shi[)ping ports are all south 
of V^alparaiso, viz ; Conjilitncion, in lite river Maulu, Tome, Penco, 
Lirquen and ConcepcJon in the hay of Talcahoano; these latter places 
also supply the hulk of the flour to all parts of the west coasL There is 
little or no flour shipped at rafparaho itself, unless transhipped, as all 
llie mills are in the neighbourhood of Concepcion. A fine description 
of red wheat is shipped at a place called Tscapilla, between Valparaiso 
and the river JMaule. Chili wheat is very dry and weighs heavy per 
bushel, but it is liable to weevil, especially on long voyages. 

333 Maize in the Untied States, is planted about the middle of 
May; in Me^iico the seed time is from June LStb to August 31sL In 
warm climates Millet is usually sown in May and J one. 

334 As the freight of grain is in many cases governed by the weighty 
it is very necessary that masters should ascertain, before chartering, if 
possible^ the weight of the cargo oJlVred. This can be ascertained by a 
knowledge of the average weight of a bushel; the table of weights per 
bushel which is at the close of this article may be useful. The duty on 
grain and pulse is now levied in England on the weighty and not by 
measure as formerly ; there is a tendency to charge freights by weight 
also, the quarter being reckoned at from 480(aw504lh. All American 
and Canadian wheals arc freighted at (iOlb, ^ busLeL The Admiralty 
buys at that rate, refuses all below tSOIb, and pays additional for the 
overplus. There are eight bushels in a quarter* 

335 The stowage of lOU quarters of wheat is considered as about 
equal to 21 ton of coal ; this is at ihc rate of 4 J quarters to a ton ; 4| 
quarters is a safe calculation fur ordinary shlp*^, reckoning wheat at 60 lb. 
per bushel. A good carrying ship will slow 50 @ 60 quarters barley to 
every 10 ton dead-weight. Taken as a dead-weight cargo the quantities 
of grain which can be carried by various ships of certain stated dimen- 
Bions, are recorded incidentally in ibis work, under the heads of several 
diflerent arlicles, for which see the index. Further information hereon 
will be found towards the close of this article, 

330 Before engaging to load, a master should consider if his vessel 
ia qualified in all respects to lake grain, Wht-re doubts exist every effort 
should be used lf> remedy ihc presumed defects. It is not suflicient that 
she should be what is termed *' tight, staunch, and strong;'* for if built or 



m 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



19(^ 



pftircd with any ItmbcTs or planking liable to produce an [GRAIN 
tiYjurioua steam when satumtt^d, or linbk lliemaeivcs to steam when heated 
\v f^ttin, tlic consequences will be very nosalisfactory* It is in part for 
IhU renson that ships built of iron are occasioually preferred, A vessel, 
[lif hnll of which is pickled, or which ha? recently discharged salt, &:c. 
OT one the ceiling of which has just had a coaling of varnish or tar, is 
Dt well fjuafified to receive grain. The effecls of bilge-water are moat 
JnsiOioufl and pennciouH with such cargoes, as with tea [wliieli see]; 
ii)d the mischief is increased by ihe introduclion t>f loose graiu into the 
Uniber9» where decomposiiion creates an exhalation of a very olTensive 
nnd delnnieutal character; tbis liability is increased by rats, which 
lomelimes **eat" holes tlirougli the ceiling; tlie ptjmjjs are likely to he 
choked by this or oilier means, and should be well protectee!. The heels 
of the pumps should have nailed round them with a feiv tacks ligbtl}-, 
|iafne coats of tarpauliti to prevent the grain from falling into the limbers. 
lUndcr ihe heading guano there are some remarks on the ellects of grain 
caigocs on the holds and hulls uf ships. 

337 The Decks and Waterways should be perfectly tight before 
loading, and ke|ii so by tlaowing water over them; more injury is done 
by a sniall kak here than by a large one clscvvbiTe ; for although con- 
Bidfrable leakage occurs in the hull, yet if tlie pimips be regularly 
attended to, the cargo remains uninjured^ whilst a pint of water, or less, 
keeping througii a deck scam, may commcucc the beating, and lead to 
the damage uf the entire cargo* The water whicli falls pt-netratea tbrcmgh 
be surface to the keelson, in a direct line, and dampness is radiated 
jfrora ii in t^vi^ry direction. When it is necessary for a ship to He some 
time in harbour exposed to the sun, her deck planks rend and open, and 
iUc yearns become dry ; they shoidd he well caniked, not omitting tbat part 
under the cook's galley; see male. The decks should also be stannclied 
with water once, at least, before sunrise, covered with an awning during 
the day, and wetted again once, at least, after sunset* II may be observed 
thai the decks uf ships in wliich this practice is omitted, become stanncbed 
by sea water sometimes during the passage home, where they exhibit no 
evidence of deficiency of attention, although their cargoes may he in a 
»ery dihcredi table condition. The topsidea require equal attention ; ibry 

lild be skidded, and protected all day with old canvas, mats, &c. Some 

els, foreigri-bpili especiallv, have combings to their main halchways 
Ttot high enough to keep out the wasli of the sea when they heel over; 
from the ordinary rise or sheer of ship's decks, their fore and aftir hatch- 
way n arc less exposed. 

33H An experienced merchant considers that vessels of a small si?,e 
%ft iniich safer tlian larger ships for the conveyance of a yielding cargo like 
lie caanot remember having seen a cargo of more tban 3,000 qr$* 



200 



STEVEN'S ON STOWAGE. 



m 



undamaged after a winter*a passage. Vessels carrying from [GRAIN 
800 @ 1^*200 cjuartera, are the safest. Large vessels strain more, and 
more rrequentlj become leaky. It is stated that there is a prejudice in the 
minds of underwriters and Insurance Companies, in favor of large ships. 

339 All corn, wheat, rice, peuse, btans, &c» when in bulk, accordinj^ 
to Messrs. Chapman, of Liverpool, should be stowed on a good high 
plalform or tlunnage of wood, of not less than 10 inches, and in the 
bilges 14 inches; the pumps and masts cased, to have strong bulkheads, 
good shifting boards, with feeders and ventilators, and to have no ad- 
mixture of other goods. Flat-floored, wall-sided ships should l>e fitted 
with bilge pumps. On no consideration must the stanchions under the 
beams be removed. 

340 The custom in some porta, more especially in those of the 
Mediterranean, is to cover the dunnage of a cargo of grain with a large 
quantity of mats at a very heavy expense, and frequently to the injury 
of the cargo. Mats are often laid three deep, and when wet, either 
through neglect of the pumps or from other causes, commence rotting 
immediately, and extend their damage to the surrounding cargo, which 
is injured much more than if the grain had received wet which had not 
been in contact with the mats. 

341 SMfting boards in a green state, and all other stowage wood in 
that condition, will injure grain near. Cargoes from the Baltic and 
Montreal, of excellent quality, became damaged on ihe passage, and the 
dampness of the sliifti ug hoards appeared to be the ouly cause, 

342 In vessels constructed with caulked ceilings, dunnage will 
probably do more harm than good, as there is always a doubt about its 
being perfectly dry. It must however be observed tliat these vessels are 
liable to damage their cargoes by " heat from natural causes," in conse- 
quence of the retention of the steam through deficient ventilation ; and 
where ihure is probability of leakage, good dry dunria;?e will be necessary 
to protect from atiy wetness which may lodge on the ceiling and he unable 
lo escape in consequence of its tightness. 

343 In mixed cargoes it is desirable that grain, \vh tether in bulk or 
bags, slnndd always be slowed in one distinct com[Kiriment. How^evcr 
dry graiu may he, apparently, when sliipped, il may sweat on the voyage, 
and damage other gtidds which maybe slowed nearj this Is particularly 
the case with flour, whether in barrels or sacks. Several instances have 
occurred where flour from America, France, and Spain, has been seriously 
injured wheu stowed in this way, and the injury has been attribated to 
the grain; it must however be remendiered that /lour will heat and lurn 
sour when stowed by itself. Moist goods, salt provisions, cotton, &c. 
are liable to the same injury. The exhalations from a cargo of Quebec 
timber are iiijurioua both to grain and flour stowed on it; they become 



4 

4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



Ml 



heated nnd discoVred by corjtact witb spelter. A partial cargo [GRAIN 
I should be covered w'uh a layer of stout dry shifling boards, on wbieh 
Diis^ temporary sumcbionji should be fixed with tbeir upper ends secured 
jti9t the deck beams. With Grain iB lots, for different consignees, it 
Hf« absoUilely necessary to keep each separaie by bulklieads, compartments, 
I or luatfl, &c, or disputes and loss of freight will occur on discharging. 

S44 Short delivery. Woobwarb v, Zertoa. Plaintiff is indorsee of a 
hill of lading for 2,9;i2 bags of wheat, viz : 2,4*54 marked C. and 408 N, part 
of the cargo* and shipped under the usual bill of lading. The Arciic was a 
general ship* and there were olher consif^nces of other portions, consisting also 
of wheat in bags. To each of those was delivered the tiiiiiiber of bags to which 
he was entitled, and a portion of the loose com. The reraainder was to a 
conaiderabJe extent mixed with resin and other impurities, ajid approached Uie 
mmount of 50 bags, which was tendered as and for the OO bags now claimed, 
which had been short deUvered to phdctiff; the master stated that the bags 
bad burst, and that be eonid not deliver them, tbongk fragmentfj were pro- 
duced of about the number missing, but in such a state that plaintiff's marks 
oould be traced only in about 30 cases. The loose wheat could not he iden- 
tified as that which had come from j)laiiitifl'*8 hags, nor from its condition, or 
even similar to it, according to the evidence of defendant's witness, and the 
J jndgc inferred as a fact from the evidence, that it was composed of the mixed 
iraste from the whole cargo, containing, no doubt, a portion from the bags in 
I quefltion, but mixed with grain of the other consignees, the waste in whosa 
I fioriions was also considerable^ amounting in one case to from 3 @ ^^ ^ cent 
This grain plaintiff refused to receive as and for tlie 50 bags, though, ^ith ft 
new to an arrangement, wliich it appears fell through, he received and sold 
it on ship's account. On these facts, it was held that the pliiintiff was entitled 
to ft verdict, that the usual clause as to breakage Rud lertktige in the margin 
of llje bill of lading did not apply, and that the delivery of the loose grain in 
qnestion was not shown to he the pinintiff's, and io point of fact, was neces- 
•mHIj, and to a great extent composed of other and ditferent grain, antl was 
not & compliance with the terms of the bill of lading. [For Julia § case, short 
deliTery, see oats.] 

346 It may be taken for granted tliat Fermeotatlon and lje*itiDg of 

grain cargoes, however long ihe voyage, will never lake place without 

1 the presence of moisture; for in the rase of liard Taganrog wheat in a 

I perfectly dry state, if free from weevil, it may remain for an indefinite 

Ittne without injury, firovided moisture be entirely excluded* But there 

it always a dampness about tiie hold that in time will bavt- 8onic effect 

in producing damage which increases after once commencing^ ut first 

I slowly, but at each step more rapidly than the one previous. When 

f fi^rtnentaiion does comnicnce, and a portion of a cargo begins to heat, a 

vapor will arise, and be condensed against the under part of the deck, 

whence it falls buck in drops on (he grain, and so increases the damage, 

l( a master supposes that his cargo has been wetted, either in tlie bilgca 



202 



STEvrr^s ON stowage* 




or by leakage from the titck* he cntiriOi err by ventilating as [GRAPT 
much as possible, even though Jl re maybe vreevil in the c;.rgo; for 
altboiigli veJililaLioij may cause the weevil to increase, the damage thereby 
will probably be less than by the additional ferraeniaLioa and injury from 
condensed moisture, if veniilation be neglected. 

346 It may be ioferrcd also that there is considerable moisture in all 
, new grain, unless it be the produce of an exceedingly dry climate; this 

moisture is not apparent, or sufficieni to cause damage during short 
voyages; tlie exterior may appear perfectly dry; but on biting, a degree 
of toughness and mealiness is apparent. When grain is brittle approach- 
ing to rice in its character, it will suslain the longest voyage uninjured* 

347 Where grain sustains damage from moisture, at first it swells^ 
fermentation then takes place, organic matter is decomposed, gases are 
evolved, and heat is produced. The vapor condensesj as previously stated, 
against the deck and sides, which from water washing over them, are cool 
enough even in warm latitudes, especially during t]ie night, to produce this 
effect. While discharging a fermented caxgOj ventilation should he main- 
tained, working or not, or the injury will be greatly increased. It is always 
desirable to import wheat into Great Britain during the winter months. 
When the voyage is made in the summer, unless the wheat is very 
iuperiort and is shipped in exceedingly good condiiion, it is almost sure 
to become heated ; soft wheat is especially liable, and more so when damp. 
In cargoes heated, the upper part is always most injured, because that 
part suffers from the aggregate heat of the en I ire cargo. 

348 The Sutulerland Shipowners in their report, January, 1863, say 
''A difliculty has arisen from nine out of ten grain cargoesi being more 
or le^s heiited, not in consequence of sea damage, but because they are 
shipped moi:sL Heating, they swell, and objections are then taken to 
the quantity discharged being ascertained by measure, because it is said 
that the merchants pay freiglil for bulkj not of good dry gi'ain, bat of 
deleriorated, iieated, and swelled grain. In the comparatively few cnscs 
in which the deterioration arises from some fault in ihe vessel, tlie ship- 
owner has no cause to wonder at the merchant*s dissatlsfauLton. But 
when (he damage arises from the grain being shipped in an unfit condition 
or from storms and llio casualties of ihc voyage, it is clearly unfair to 
attemfst to deece the owner of his full fruiglitr" 

340 Increase of measure, generally, is caused more by the roughness 
of the grain, which prevents it from fitting so closely into ihc measure, 
than by any actual increase iu bulk of the grain itself; therefore a damaged 
or heated cargo may have seltled into a hold when sound, and although 
apparently the vessel be not full on arrival, yet on measuring out the 
cargo, it may be found increased in measure, accuiding lo the nature of 
the grain and the damage sustained, from 3 (£i 7 ^ cent, or evcu more ; so 



4 
4 



4 




:VENS ON STOWAGE. 



tlj&l the cargo could not be pul inio the same vessel again^ [GRAIN 
unless brougLi Tjatk to iis origiaal good contliiion and weigbt per bushel, 
wben it would be foutid Ut huve decreased in quanUty 13 or 4 ^cent. or 
more. But the tortious of a cargo which are actually wet willj ou kiln- 
dry iog, decrease iu the proportion of 4 to 3, {"^ ^cent.) or occasionally 
a greater loss wiU be slievirn id quantity. 

35LI One of the most frequent causes of dispute between mastera 

and consignees, is the diiference of quantity between that stated on the 

BUI of lading and that delivered; the diOieuIty is iuL-reuaed through the 

imcertainty of the cause. In the first place, as will be seen in a table 

btcb folJoivs, the weight of grain ia not uniform in all parts, and it 

jei with the seasons ; next, there may be a discrepancy in the weights 

easuresi foreign especially, fur wbieb reason a eoj>ious table is ap- 

ded ; but the principal source of dispute is from ditrereuce of bulk by 

leakage and fennentaLioo. Fermentation has been previously referred 

; it may occtir from deficient dryness before shlpnientj natural fer- 

mentution on board, or ihat created by the unsnitableness of the ship. 

351 Freight raust be paid according to Chaiter party; the remedy 
for improper stowage or neglectj is against the master and owner, by 
action. A master informs the Shipping Gazette that his ship arrived 
from the Mediterranean with a cargo of wheal, half of which was damaged ; 
the merchant refused to pay freight without deducting half freight for the 
dtitr.v^cd part, and a^sks the law of the case in the absence of any clause 

»*ic charter party bearing on the question. The editor answers, J uly 1 2* 
186G, ''Any chtim for deduction of freight, on account i}( damaged cargo, 
muit depend on the manner in which it became damaged, whether through 
any default on the part of the ship or neglect of the master, &c. Under 
any circumstances, however, the merchant bas no right to deduct what 
ht Considers proper from the freight, although it is often done upon the 
^^^Icft of custom or usage of the port; hut before this plea can be received 
^Hbs a valid one, the custom must be proved, and shewn to be one wltbin 
^Hbboee compass the shipowner can be included. The best course for a 
^^■naster to adopt is to receive, under protest, the proportion of tiie freight 
^^fcffvred, and after proving, by means of a survey, that the ship is not 
^■liable for the damage or for the deduction made from the freight, proceed 
against the merchant for the remainder;" »ee usage, 

352 Some charter parties have th*> following clause: *• It is further 
agreed that should the cargo consist of wheat, seed, or any other kind of 
grain, in the event of the cargo, or atry part thereof, being delivered in 
a damaged eonditiun, the freight shall be payable upon the invoice 

[tianiily taken on board, as per bills of lading, or half freight upon the 

aged portion, at the master's option, provided that no part t>t the 

be thrown overboard^ or otherwise disposied of ou the voyage/' 



■the 
t 
ITI I 
18i 




204 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



353 Charter parties generally contain a clause to this [GRAIN 
effect: "After true and faithful delivery (all and every tLe danger* and 
accidents of liie seas, rivers, and nnvigallon always excepted), freight shall 

be paid at the rule of /* Some corn mercbauls^ allege that 

masiers and owners are always ready to avail of this exceptional clause 
to protect themBelves if the cargoes he damaged or some be thrown Of er* 
hoard on the passage, but they nearly always endeavour to obtain freigbl 
for the quantity delivered, althonj^Hi that quantity may he increased by 
an accident incidental to the voyage, and, therefore, excepted by the 
charter party. It is usual for ships ordered from a port of call say, 
Quecnstown, Falmouth or Plymouth, to have an addition of 10 ^cent« 
on tlieir freight for discharging on the Coniineni helwTen Havre and 
Hamburg, It has been suggested that vessels ordered to the West Coast 
of Ireland should have additional freight also. Tbia might be stated in 
the charier party, 

354 On the subject generally of Bills of lading, a com merchant 
obsenes that the law is not very satisfactory as to the securily in such 
documents to the holders, for serious deficiency of quanlity often occurs, 
and may be in fmrt allribuled to the masters and mates being less careful 
than they should he in examining weights, and keeping an account of the 
shipments. When a deficiency arises^ often £20 to £50 in value, the 
master refuses to pay for it out of freight, yet the owner or consignee 
actually pays for the alleged quantity as by hill of lading, as it is on the 
faith of that document^ as on a bill of exchange, that the money is 
advanced* In some cases masiers try to evade the responsibility by 
signing ** weight unknown'* at foot of bill of lading. This docs not even 
meet the case, for the hill of lading represents a certain quantity, and 
for that quantity the purchaser or consignee advances the amount stipu- 
lated. If the bill of lading be transferred through various hands and 
purchasers, several times before the arrival and discharge of the cargo, 
the difficulty of ** trying hack*' is great, and no redress may be Lad. The 
law is not so clear as it should be on these points, and amendments are 
essential to the safety of merchants and shipowners, 

353 Wheat is frequently chartered by weight, at so many pounds 
per bushel* Merchants sometimes alloiv half ^ cent, for decrease of 
weight of wheat from French ports in the Bay of Biscay and tiie Channel, 
to English Channel ports. Spanish wheat, being reaped in very dry 
weather, is said to increase in weight when discharged in Great Britain. 
It is recommended that masiers should always have a few weights correct 
by fitandard, to test the weights^ beams, and scales used when loading; 
%hf practice is general at Liverpool and in ilie Insh ports. 

35B li is advisable not to sign for both weight and measure; and 
when makers «^ign for weight I hey should insist on shippers pulling on 



4 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 205 

^ard the weight per busliel signed for, and refuse all of a less [GRAIN 
weight, and see iLe cargo n eighed, if possiblL*, on board. On discharging, 
particular attenlion should be paid to ihe measuring; much depends on 

the meter. An experienced muster recommends chartering at {fV fb, 

{(► busheU weighed as ii goes over the side, as being the most satisfactory 
course for all parties. 

357 Irish Pobts. In some ports on the West Coast of Ireland it 
18 the custom when loading ships to weigh al! grain on board^ standing 

im, three sacks at a time, with 2 Hi. allowance for heamage. Some* 

times there is no allowance* On delivery at Liverpool one sack is weighed 

at a lime. Masters should be well advized hereon, and where no allowance 

made for beamage, they should protest against the weighl signed for, 

md protect the ship by a formal declaration as to delivery of all the cargo 

taken on board. 

358 When discharging, in some ports, it is the practice of lahonrera 
in tlie hold, to tuck their trowsers up to their knees; instances have 

;curred where grain has been concealed in the folds, and considerable 
^quantities have thus been purloined from the cargo and carried ashore. 
At the Ipswich assizes, August 6, 1H64, George Amos, seaman of the 
Monarchy was sentenced to three months imprisonment for stealing wheat. 

*he cargo was shot down from the wliarf into the Imld wliere the men 
stood below with shovels to stow it. The prisoner, and others, had their 
trowsers tucked up higfi enough to form a receptacle for the wheat as it 
fell, and on their return from the ship they shook out their trowsers and 
gathered np the droppings and carried them off as sweepings. 

359 In the MediterrEnean trade, dunnage say 6 inches on the ceiling 
and 9 in the bilge. Mat the dunnage and sides, and dunnage or nutt all 
iron, stanchions, &:c. To prevent cargo from shifting, there should he 
tuitable bulkheads and shifting boards, perfectly dry, well stanchioned 
off the side, and well plated with good cleats, to keep them from working 
out* Care should he taken to fill np to the deck between the beams ; for 
hold filled on leaving port, will someiimes be found, through settling, 
only seven-eighths full on reaching its destination ; this will shew the 
necessity of particular attention to the above. If the upper part of the 

I cargo is in bags, the chance of shifting will be decreased ; barrels of 
grain will work through to the keelson, if the cargo is not previously 
covered with old sails, he. Some full-built vessels sail bv the head if 
fully laden, and require a baulk forward, that is a bulk to cut ofl'lhc fore 
end of the hold. A perpendicular bulk is liable to be smashed — the heel 
further forward than the head is better; it simuld be crossed with u plank 
having Btanchions agaitisl the pall or forecastle bcivmSa A few dry casks 
will be found very useful here, A m^^stcr is not bound to take as much 



ao6 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



**ataw and carry." Egyptian wheat possesses a very dry [GRAIN 

flavor, somewlial similar to kiln -dried wheat. The larger portion shipped 
to Eugland consists of white wheat, a fine bold herry, but light, and not 
valued by millers, as witti few exeeptions, from being threshed on the 
ground as well as imperfeclly cleaned, it has a considerable proportion of 
dirt, seeds, &c. 

360 Wheat from Odessa for Great Britain, in sailing vcbscIs, shonld 
be sbippcd in the winter^ in conseqnence of tlie time ordinarily occujiied 
on the passage. If shipped in the summer, unless of a very superior 
qnality and in good order, it is alraost sure to heat, and it is said, 
sometimes requires to be dug out of thR hold* This depends on many 
circumstances; and often all the shipments made during a season arrive 
in good urder, whether laden in the summer or winter; the jiature of the 
harvest has to he considered* It frequently happens that lighters left in 
charge of vessels whilst loading at Otless;*, meet with injury; in that 
case the owners of I he lighters apply against the ship and recover. In 
nearly all cases loaded vessels, before attempting to cross the Sulina bar 
of tbe Danube, reduce iheir draught by discharging part of their cargoes 
and taking it on board again after having passed the bar ; tbe grain is 
thus greatly exposed to rain or a damp atmosphere, and to the spray of 
sea in stormy weather. It is much preferable to load where the cargo 
can be put right into the ship. Black Sea wheat and otlier Eastern 
grown wheat is frequently brought to Trieste, Malta, ^larseilles, ikt, and 
shipped at siiid ports for England and elsewhere. At the close of this 
article will be foimd the Report of the Commitlee, March> 1863, on the 
Mediterranean and Black Sea freights. The barque KalUbrol'lay which 
belongs to Liverpool and registers 318 ton, is lOBfeet long, *23 feet broad, 
and Id feet deep, has a sharp bottom, and could take 3, (HM) quarters of 
wheat* Her usual cargo of Black Sea wheat is 2,300 quarters, when she 
draws 17 feet forward and 17 feet 4 inches aft* She lias had in 2,850 
quarters of barley, 471b, and 3,030 quarters of oats, 341tj. to the bushel. 
With 480 ton of railway iron she drnws 17 feet forward and IS feet aft, 

361 Cargoes of Indian Cora from the Danube, and of wheat from 
Egypt, are battened down and every aperture closed, to prevent the in- 
crease of weevil, whicli cannot exist without air. Their ravages are greater 
on tbe surface of a bulk of grain than in the interior, where the air does 
not circulate so freely; turning will, therefore^ in such cases do barm, 
ln<lian corn from America is more liable to beat than that from the Black 
Sea, which is drier. Black Sea a»d Danuhian Indian corn is kept nine 
months before shipmcntj as it only comes down in May and June ; 
whereas American is shipped more immediately after harvest, and often 
has not been properly matured by time or frost, and become sufljcienlly 
dry. French maisse, shipped before February^ is sure to become hot 




4 



4 
4 



i 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 207 

en a voyage, and h often scarcely safe uiilil March or April. [GEAIN 
Indian com does not shrink by heating ; it expands and gains in measure, 
iind loses in weight the same as other grain. Eight working fhiys are 
considered a fair allowance for the discharge of 3,OU0qnartcrs uf Indian 
corn. The freiglit is the same as fur wheat. 

362 Freight. — Barley. — Odessa. An owner addiesses the editor of 
the Shipping Gazette, August 23, 186L — ^A ship from Odessa rcceivea 
a cargo of hurley, which the merchant dcscrihes in his hill of lading as 
8o many chetwerls or ahont 3/200 quarters. The toaster signs hill of 
lading, ** measure and qualily unknown ;" and this hill of lading states 
"freight, &c. to he paid as per charier pariy/* The charter parly siipn- 
lates that the receiver shall pay on per ton delivered. At the port of 
delivcrj' the ship discharges 3^377 qaarters, not ahove five or six of which 
are in a moist or sweated stale, although the whole cargo was very warm 
but perfectly dry^ and rather presented a slightly charred appearance on 
some of the grains. The receiver now wishes to pay on the hill of lading 
quantity, alleging that the cargo has swollen* To this the master demurs, 
and Slates that he had no knowledge of it nor was be accouniable for the 
qu.ini!ly shipped, and ihal his charter party slates that he shall he paid 
for delivered cargo, without any ftinlier giipulaiion whatever. Can the 
receiver deduct the freight of the 177 quarters apparent increase from the 
master*s account ? How should he settle ? Answer ; the master should 
receive under protest the freight ttjlered, and both parties would do well 
lo scale the dispute on the spnt hy the orbilration of two competent men, 
one a|q>uinted hy each parly, with an umpire mutually approved of, 
whose award should he binding. If jnoperly managed the aibitralion 
may he completed in an hour and the dispute settled there and then. 

U<J3 Barley.— Kusten(ye. In Ajuil, 1867, an Italian vessel dis- 
clmrged at Bristol a cut^^o «if harley frt»m Kustendje, of 20,6*24 imperial 
tsbelSf which weighed 22,740 hnshels of 60 lb, giving an average of 
•arly r»otb. I^impevial bushel ; the usaal average weight of [Dantihe) 
barley being 4dl1\ ^ imperial hu:ihel. It is stated ''that the Danube 
and Black Sea Railway Co. have contrived a method of sifiing and clean- 
ing harley, which clears ii of edge, bi:ard, and shell; tlie wrIght then 
equals almost that of wheat, but the vessel received lo t^ cent, less freight 
llian for wheat," according to the Baltic Scale. Masters, when chartering, 
Bbould therefore secure a higher rate for sifted barley, 

364 Barley.— Ibrail. In the fJounly Court, Lynn, September 20, 
1862, Capl. (iitoviiTTu, of the Italian hrig Liffute, sued Mr. CiUEGOttY 
ftir £23 6s SiJ, chiefly for additional freight at Ss Sd J> quarter, on n 
cargo of barley, consisting as per hill of lailing, of 6tl7tV kilos, equal 
Co 1,307 quarters. It measured out l,4r3 quarters. Barley heats and 
fwelli during a long voyage. The judge decided in favor of the merchant. 



SM 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



365 Freight.— Kye. A master wri tes tlje GatetU, Sep. 3, [ GRAIN 
186*2. — A vessel from Taganrog*, arrives at Antwerp, tlie bill of lading 
stating as follows: 3,618 chetwerts, 7 puds, and 20 H). of rye, of 10 puds 
per chetwerl, in good condition, freight payable a» per charter party, as 
well as all other conditions. The charter party states that the freight is 
at the rate of 60jf p-ton tallow, all other goods, grain or seed, in propor- 
tion ihcretOi according to the London and Baltie printed rates of freight, 
and another clause that the master has the liberty either to receive half 
freight on the damaged portion of the cargo, or as per quantity taken on 
board, as per aforeaiiid bill of lading. The cargo was discharged in 
almost an entirely heated condition, and the master claimed freight as 
per hill of ladirig, reducing, according to the Taganrog rates of freight, 
the stipulated chetwerts taken on board, into quarters, at the rate of 80 
quarters per 100 chetwerts rye. The merchant refuses to pay the freight 
in this manner, hut as follows : by reducing the stipulated chetwerts into 
kilos, at the rale of 16 kilos per pud, and to reduce those kilos into 
hectolitres, at the rale of 70 kilos per hectolitre, and the heel oli ires into 
quarters, at the rate of 29 hectolitres per 10 quarters. The editf^r answers : 
the master is right ; half freight on the damaged portion means damaged 
by sea water, when tbe grain so damaged would be much swollen j but 
merely "heated corn " is not so included. 

86ii Freight. — Maizo. Adams i^.Aksaldo. Before Mr. Justice Kkooh, 
Cork, July 28, t8(i2. Mr. Clark, Q.C, said tbis was aa action by Mr. Adams, 
H gainst G. B. An sal no, master and owner, to recover compensation for injury 
eustaiued iu the purclmse of a cargo of corn, which was damaged in consequence 
of negligence and want of proper skill and care. The ship was chartered in 
Loudon iu June, iMfSl. The agreement between Ansaldo and the ageut was 
to convey a cargo in the Ettfua, 3-3 of Vkritas, the ItaUan for Al at Lloyd's* 
She was ro[>reseuied to be copper- bottomed^ of the capacity of 1,000 quarters, 
ttrong and tight j she won to bring eiiher from Galatx or Ibrail a cargo of 
maixe and to call at Falmouth or Cork for orders. Aksaldo imdertook for 



• Tignnrog, July lit, 1865. Mr. R. White S-rensws. Sir,— I hftsten my reply to 
yoar lines af t!)fi 14th ultimo. Knowinf notking myself of Bhipbtuldin^, and not being 
better iolormcd aircgiurdB etownge, I am not compntent to form an opininu tbercrm. Bat 
I have repeatedly henrd mervhonta expresB a pref€r<?nee for Itatum shipping, most of the 
Tettele andcr Uiat flftg htdn^ ballt e&p^M^ially for carr} mg gndn CArgoes. So far as I hare 
h*en able to elicit by enquiry, it dooi not appear that there ia anything pecniiar in the bctild 
or ia the construction of iuUnu TOSseLi thai haa entltied them to preft^rence by sliippers 
of gnan. The favour shown thcm» appean to bo in eoneequence of the holds of those ahi|^a 
heing wt'll lined or bonLrdcd throaghont, so ofl to form a secure and dry granary. Italian 
veaaols do not moreover, coll for dunnagCi whoreoa BritLsh Bhipmastent r«}quire from 600 
to 800 dauna^ mata, or more» thoa cauidng tho ahipping merchants a heavy expettoe. Tho | 
oaring that aocrae by the noa-reqnlremeut of dnnna^e mats, and the rapidity witii whicli < 
Italian ahipH' crewa nHnally work in their corgocfft arc, I believe, the principal i:aa6o of a 
prefenuoe givoa to the Italian flag for loading wlieat ut thi<i port. 

Siri yoar obedient iervanl, J. J. CAKEimEBBa. 



STEVENS ON ST( 



£\3 to firovido proper dummpfe. He arrived July It^ at Galiitz^ i^Q^EAIN 
whore lie loaded his ship. The bill of kdiog stalM that he received tlie cargo 
in good order and condition, and ho engaged to deliv^er it so, with the gcQeral 
exceptions. There was one part which Counsel would draw atleutioti to, diat 
was ill case of dangor, the master was to make for the nearest port. She 
arrived at Quoonstown, Octoher 2laL Mr. Adams treated for the cargo, hut 
haviT'g heard that it was slightly damaged, he sent a foreman, MA^o?«y, to 
examine it. When the hatches were opened a discoloration was porceptihle 
as if ihe sea had forced its way in. In prosecuting liis examination lie drove 
an instrument called a piercer obli{|uely and straight into the corn, and wlien 

.^driving it the latter way came on a hard substance like the bottom. It was 
eportrd to ^f r. Aoams that all that was the matter with the cargo was that there 

rVas 10 ton burnt and 20 slightly heated. Tlio master and an Ftaliau, PiBreRi, 
who inspected the cargo, assured him that it was sound excepting the 30 ton, 
and in consequt*ncc of this injury he was allowed It reduction per quarter. 
He pai*l for the cargo ^3,!155, les8 ^85 commission, and the master was paid 
J0« 1^ quarter, which amounted for freight to £9li8, and dunnage XI 5. Mr, 
Aj>ams then» as was his right, ordered the master to Alloa, but oflered to allow 
art'duotion lu his frtight to discharge at Cork, which was agreed to. Counsel 
should mention that when Mahonv" was making his examination, the mate 
Lired him that they had a good passnge from Galatz, When they got down 
I certiiia depth, they came to a kind of lloor three feet from the hottoin« as 
hard as asphalte. This turned out to be what Mauony met in piercing. It 
h ad to be d u g o u t w i th iron sh o vel s , an d was u n 5 1 for 1 1 um an f o od , 11 1 e m aster 
nnd PnuEni were too much for Mr. Aoams. It was fortunate for him that he 
Itad not paid all the freight, for If he had, th*? master would be away to (3enoa. 
A survey of the ship wtis made by Mr* Q. Wriout and Capt, Clarke, harbour 
master ; part of iheir report stated, "that there wore three feet of water in the 
hold over the keelson, and no other dunnage at cither side of the pump-well 
htit some rotten matting, and if the vessel had been perfectly dun nnged there 
would have been much less damage." When asked about the injury, the master 
lid — '* Oh t we had very severe weather at Lisbon and the pumps got choked." 
^ow, the mate said in his reply to Mahony '* they had a fine passage." Well, 
having encountered bud weather, what was hia duty according to the charter? 
To have made the nearest port> and either unshipped the eiirgo or provided in 
tome otiier way for its safely. But he came on a month's voyage from that 
time, and entirely to the peril of t!ie cargo, and when dealing with Mr. Ai>am9, 
whose loss was £iM 13*, he said not one word about the pumps being choked. 
The master brought an aition last assizes for £310 freight, which Mr. Adams 
had not paid; there was no denial that this was due; but then how was he to 
be recompensed for the losg sustained in the injury of the corn? The mrttter 
was settled thus: Mr. Aoams lodged the money in court and brought this ac- 
tion. These facts having been proved, Mr, Cuatterton eon tended timt the 
etrgo wfis injured by the perils and dangers of the sea, which were excepted 
in the charter party. Defendant could not get into Lisbon, which was a bar 
harbour, and the weather was very rough. Defend nut deposed that ho had 
Vwn m command 18 years^ and had commatided tho Ei^na four years ; he 

1 P 




nn 



STEVENS ON 8T0WAGE. 




littd considerable oxperienco in bringing com from the Black Sea. [GRAIN 
The dunnage put in befom loailing was good and snflicient. He used planks 
and mats, rind put two or three inata nt the boitom where the cargo pressed, 
flod one us tfio enrgo advftiieed up the sides: that was tho uaaal way of placing 
dnnujige. lija vessel was strong and tight when she left. Near St. Vincent, 
Octohor iBt, he mot with a gale, and wns obliged to put on a press of sail to 
weather flie Cape, The vessel was all under water for mmp> time. The pumps 
were hardly making any water at first; afterwards, when they found water iti 
Iho vessel thty al tended to them, A sudden sqtiall slrnck her» and be had 
to put on mainsail and foresail to make her answer her helm. He also had to 
throw over chaina and father gear to lighten her. and by this mean sncceeded. 
She strained very much, as her side wa^ entirely under water all the time. Ho 
got the pumi>3 to work, hut in ten or fifteen minuter they beeame choked. 
They were then taken out. every piTcaution was used to keep the water from 
entering the bold, and they were eleared ; when replared tluy only worked for 
a few niinutcs*. and consequently he had to resort to throwing the water out of 
the hold by buckets. The weather waa too serere and foggy for him to venture 
into Lisbon because it was a bar harbour — a veiy dringprous t>lace — ^and he 
could get no pilot; being uncertain of his position, and ninuiug before such 
a gale, it would have been too hazardous to attempt Lisbon harbour. His 
wife and child were on bonrd, and eonaidcrmg the state they were in, he would 
have made every reasonable sacnliee to get irito Lisliou instead of coming to 
Cork. The cauyc of damage to the cargo was had wealber. Confirmatory 
evidence baviwg been given, his lordship, in charging the juiy, remarked on 
what lie had said during the trial as to ilr. Adams' conduct in getting a re- 
duction nf freight by sending tbe ship to Allf»n. As ilr. Exham had a*5sured 
them that this was tbe common ]U'aetice, it ceased to assume the cliaracter of 
a deeeptiOTi and l>ecauie a euBtom, I'lmt was tbe iKst that eoidd be said of 
it ; but it would be much belter if some fairer means of eaiTying on business 
; wes resorted to. The questton for the Jury was simply whether the cargo had 
tjeen damaged by want of jaoper care on the part of defendant. The jury gave 
a verdict for plaintiff i!-12IJ V\s damages. — His lordship : You deduct the jG34 
taken off the freight? Yes. His loidsbip: Tlmt shows that you lliink the 
practice ought not to prevail. A juror: Yes* but it is the custom. 

367 Owners are not entitled tf) tbe freight caused by increased bulk 
from tbe efiects of sea water, beyond the measure at tbe port of sbipnieuL 
The Ghitcestcr Joif nia I o( January 20, 1855, gives in full the judgment 
of the Court of Exchequer, in the case Gib.son' r. SxrKGE, resulting in 
tbe rule obtained in the Easier lerna previous, being made absolute, 

363 This was an action to recover £4i ILt '^d^ balance held to be due for 
the freiglit of a cargo of wheat from Odessa to Gloucester, in tbo Promptt bill 
of lading, dated September 2^, 1H52» ** shippet], «Scc. ^,1(10 chetwerts of wheat 
in bulk» to bo delivered/* Sec. By a memorandum in the bill of hiding, the 
quantity and quality were declared to be unknown to the master The pro- 
visions in tbe charter party as to tbe freight, was that it was to he according to 
Loudon Baltic printed rates. At Gloucester, the wheat wa.s 2»782 quarters by 
cuslom-lionse measure; pi aiiitiJT claimed freight thereon; defendunt tendered 



« 



i 



lereu ^^ 



k 



for 2,6Bi quarters specified in the bill of ludiug. Freiglit was [GRAIN 
|)iiid thereou, and an actiou brought for tbe larger qimutiiy. At tbe trml, the 
jury fouod as a fact, that at Odessa it would have measurod only 2,(504 quarters, 
lui Utere was no evidence whutlier tlie increased bulk arose from its bad con- 
dition wheia sbi|iped, from Llie beat ahiiost ne<^ess;inly aiiriirigiti a e^rgo on bo 
long a voyage, from shijuiierjL of water by peril of the sea, excepted against in 
the Uill of lading, or from bad or delective stowage, or careless or negligent 
conduct of tbe master and cre\^* A verdict was entered for plain til!', leave 
being given defendant to move to enter a nonsuit, 

Mr. Baron Martin said : It was argued that the bulk wbieh was delivered 
beyond Uie biUk shipped, was water and not wheat; but there was no evidence 
that any water ever came in coijtact with the wheat ; and, I believe* thero are 
which increase the si^ti of grain, other tlmu eoutuct with water. Hovv- 
Ihis may ho, in my judgment tbe measureineut for the purpose of freight, 
wherever made, onglil to be of the greins of wheat aa they actually exist. The 
valuable pfirt of Ihe gntiti is that which produces the Hour; hut in the graiu 
there is the husk, and, I belie vo, always a certain quantity of moisture, or 
water, which can only be removed by the kiln or artificial drying; and this 
nrgumcut, if well founded, would equally exclude the measurement at Odessa, 
for there con be uo doubt, that a certain quantity of damp or moisture was in 
combination in the grains of wheat, and to some extent increased its hulk. 
It is clear, according to the general law, that the eireumstance of the wheat 
being damaged doe^s not at all atl'ect the right of tbe plaiutitl' to freiglit. It 
hu3 been decided, that when the entire quantity was delivered, the shipowner 
%-Ai& entitled to the full freight, notwithstanding it was proved that the gooda 
conveyed had been damaged by tbe crew, and that the remedy was by a cross 

ictjon Jt may have arisen from the bad and defective quality of the 

wheat when shipped. The master expressly declared bimeelf to bo 

jgDorout of its quality, and deciined all reipDUfiibLlity on this head ...The 

wheats OS was proved at the trial* was shipped whilst the vessel was in qu»ran- 
tine, in an open roadstead, out of borgew; and it is notorious tliat in many 
foreign parts this is the usual mode. Under such circumstances it is praeticalljr 
impossible to measure a cargo of grain; there is neither time, nor, goueially 
fifjeaking, a sufficient number of men competent to do it. .*....«. I am quite 
aware that this rule would hold out a t4?inpUlion to shipmasters to wet such 
cargoes, and thereby inoreose their bulk, hut this would be a most dishonest 

act, «nd subject them to an action for damages In my opinion the 

pUintiif IN entitled to judgment; and the rule ought to be discharged. 

Mr. Baron rLArr: it seems to me the rule ought to be nmde absolute, 
and that it was the duty of the master to ascertain at the time of loading, the 
quantity ho received; the difficulty seeiua imaginary, as it can hardly be 
aup[>o9ed that the numbor of ciibie ftiet which his vessel can stow away, could 

Ui unknown to lum Juasmuch as 2,0(^4 quarters alone were sliipped, 

tliny oione have been carriiHl the whole voyage ; for them freight is payable. 

Wr. Uaron Aldeiison; Iht* ca&e is closely anahigous to that of the preg- 
Baai f<imal«:tf in MuUay, p. 1 m, wlicru uo freight h payable for infants deliverod 
oa iba voyage; abo, where freight is louiractid for the truiispori of animals, 



S12 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 




l!ie freight is payable only for those wliidi arrive alive ; and again, [GRAIN 
wliere goods^ such as Biigar and molasses, have wasted in bulli during the 
voyage, the freiglit ta payable for the amoiiut which arnves. 

Tlie Lord Guirf Baeon : I agree that the bulk or weight, as taken at the 
port of destiuaLion, may be, prima fadey the criterion of the freight to bo paid ; 
but when it is proved, and found by the jury, that that test is fallacioua and 
untrue, and that the real qimntity shipped was a different and smaller quantity, 
Uien I think the freight ought to bo calculated on the true quantity shipped ; 
the masters ignoranoo of the true quantity, aa expressed in the bill of lading, 
cannot entitle him to charge freight according to a false estimate...... •...In 

case of a cargo of sponge shipped dry, to be paid for by weight, tho consignee 
might certainly squeeze out all the water imbibed, if any, and pay for sponge 

only.* K it can be accurately known and ascertained what ought to he 

separated, though the separatioo cannot in fact be marie, it is known what 
ought to be deducted from the claim of freiglit, and the deduction, which m 
possible, ought to be made. Here the measure of the wheat sliipped waa 

known, is proved, and found by the jury..... I think, therefore, that freight 

for this increased bulk cannot be claimed under the biO of lading. ^Rule 
made abtolutf.] 

3(}9 In the case of the flvidtfeldt^ tried^ 1656, at Cork, the master signed 
bill of lading for Ofi-1 kilos of wheat of good quality, Moldavian produce, dry 
Billed and well conditioned, shipped at Galatz, Dincharged 1,001 quarters; 
freight paid on 04Ui quarters only. Action for the difference £21 13* Bd, at 
10s 9d ^ quarter* Defendants alleged that the cargo was heated and the bulk 
thereby increased from 3 @ C ^ cent, Galatz wheat averages 5(ii @ &B fb ; 
this cargo 51 J lib. Action dismissed. [This judgment icas appealed against^ 
Imt it ivat coFiJirtm'ih] 

370 Marionople Wheat, In the Court of Common Heas, December 18, 
1862, GATToaiNo, a Bhipowuer, sued Adams, a com merchant at Cork for 
£1,017 7i 4d freight, &c. of 4,900 chetwerta of wheat. Of this quantity only 
1,800 chetwerts were put on board in Marionople ; tlie remainder, 3,100 ehet- 
weits, was put into lighters taken beyond tlie bar at Kertch, and placed on 
board November IB. The master signed bills of lading at Marionople, the 
principal [slace of la«ling, October 30. liefendaut calh*d evidence to show a 
eubtoni in Loudon for the purchaser to be at liberty in such a case as this, to 
reject the ciirgo. The judge eaid that in ordinary cases the purchaser waa 
entitled to have all tlie cargo on board before signing bills of lading. In this 
case the general principle did not apply, because by the ciBtom at ^f arionople 
the owner gave authority to the master to sign as he had done. — Verdict for 
plaintiff. 

371 Baltic. Cargoes of grain from the Baltic for England scarcely 
ever reach 1,CM>0 quarters, and seldom exceed 7tXJ or 80() quarters^ this 
may be owing partly to the comparative slutllow^ness of the Baltic ports. 
In Prussian and other country ships th e ordinary dunnage is covered with 
mats which extend up the sides, and for which contiignees consider ihey 
liave to pay at a high rate. U the ship is perfectly sound, and the ceiling, 



4 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



213 



pump- well, &c. light, so thai grain caivnol find its way inlo [GRAIN 
her fnime^ some raerclmnts consider thai the use of mats is injtirtottci, 
because in the case of leakage, tliey imbibe the wet, retain it, become 
mildewed, and tuuse heat and consequent injury to ibe cargo. 

37*2 Baltic Freights. At Konigsbcrg, on the 8tb of February, 1&65, 
the following was issued by Mr. G ustav Moellkr, '* Our grain nicr- 
chants had a consultation yesterday, and resolved in future to charter only 
by weight, viz : instead of delivered imperial quarter, to be per delivered 
496 tb, for wheal, tares, beans, or peas, other light grain in proportion to 
ibe Konigsberg rates as follows : 

For Bye .•«..*.*..•..» 2| ^ ceai. morts freight^ 
For fiarlfiy or Se«d » . . . 71 ^ cent. ditto 
For Oata ....,«.. 93i ^ cent. ditto 

And at Dantzic, on the 28tb of the same mouthy a meeting of shippers, 
owners, and brokers was held, when it was resolvedj that in future all 
charters for grain shall he stipulated at per quarter ot 4fJGtb, for wheat, 
other grain in proportion, according to the Dantzic Customs, namely, 
that tares, peas, and beans pay the same rate as wheatj while 

Byo payv * • * 2| ^ eent. more £reigkt| 

Birlej and Seed Ill ^ cent. ditto 

Oats 25 t^cenL ditto 

Btil on the 23rd of March following, a meeting of deputies from Kunigs* 
bergy Memel, Stralsund, Stettin, and Dantzic corporations of merchants, 
took place at Dantzic, when it was stipulated that Baltic freights to (ireat 
Britain should be per quarter weighed 500 tbi and o04 tb; |>eaH, beans, 
imd tores the same. By this scale vessels can be clmriered either per 
600 tb. or per 504 tb. according to the cheapness or dearness of freights, 

ForHyo 2 l^eeni more for 600 n>> 

Biirky and Bui^Uw ....,.[ ^ ^*^^ ^**** 
ForOata ..,.., ,., 22| lucent ditto 

Freights to France, Holland, and Belgium per 2,400 kilos wheal. To 

Gcnnan jjorts in the German Ocean per last of 4,600 Iti. wheat. Other 
descriptions in the same proportions as freights to England/' 

37:i Riga. The produce of Poland from Kieve northwanl, around 
the shores of ibe river Dwina, are sent to Riga. After the operation of 
thrashing is performed, and the frost sets in so that the ice on the rivers 
will bear, the peasantry are engaged in constructing the raft which is to 
float these cargoes to their destined port. These vessels are formed with 
much ingcnuily and liitle expense, being put together without ihe use of 
a nail, and merely fastened with wooden pegs, and stulled wiih hempen loir 
to make them impervious to water. They burden from 200 to50i>tonj 



tu 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 




and are from 20() to 4 00 feet long, being formed of large trees [GRAIN 
split into rongli boards* A single fir tree forms the rudiler, al which ten 
or twenty men preside, according to the strength reqaired. The most 
valaable part of the cargo, which is wheat, hemp seed, &c. is stowed in 
ihe centre, a space being left around the sides for the package of those 
goods which a little wet will not materially iivjure, snch as hemp, hempen 
cordage, &c. This being completed, the vessels are ready to take advan- 
tage of the earliest part of the navigable season^ As soon as the ice is 
broken up, they float down with the strong current which succeeds its 
clearanee, and thirty or forty of the peasants, sometimes with their wives 
and families, take their passage upon it. The owner or his steward, meets 
the cargo at Riga, where if not disposed of to the merchants it is ware- 
honsed. The vessel is knocked to pieces, and sold for firing, or frequently 
fur yard paling, and often fetches no more iban from 100 to 200 rubles. 
374 Dantzic. The navigation of the River Bug is tedious and 
uncertain, and can only be attempted in the spring, when the water is 
high. Tt is the same, though in a less degree, with some of the rivers 
that fall into the Vistula before it reaches Warsaw; and towarils Cracow 
the Vistula itself is frequently unnavi gable, especially in dry seasons, 
except in spring, and after the midsummer rains, when the snow melts 
on the Carpathian mountains. The navigation of the Polish rivers in 
some seasons is more than usually difficult ; and corn from ilie upper 
provinces does not reach Dantzic till from two to four months later than 
usual, and is burdened with a very heavy additional expense* In fact the 
supplies of grain at that port, depend quite as much on the abundance 
of water in the riversj or on their easy navigation in summer, as on the 
goodness of the harvests. There are two modes of conveying wheat to 
Dantzie by the Vistula. That which grows near ihe lower parts of the 
river, comprehending Polish Prussia, and part of the province of Plock, 
and of Masovia, in the kingdom of Poland, which is generally of an in- 
ferior quality, is conveyed in coveretl hoata^ with shifting boards ihut 
protect the cargo from rain but not from pilfering; they are long, draw 
about 15 inches, and carry about 150 quarters, These vessels are not 
however so well calculated for the upper parts of the river » From Cracow, 
where the Vistula first becomes navigable, to below tlie junction of the 
Bug with that stream, ihe wheat is mostly conveyed lo Dantzie in open 
flats. These are constructed on the banhs in seasons of leisure, on spots 
far from the ordinary reach of the water ; however, when the autumn rains 
or the melted snow of the Carpalhian mountains, in the spring, flow into 
the river, they are easily floated. Barges of this deseripiion arc about 
75 feet long aitd 2U broad, with a depth of 2i feet; they are made of fir, 
rudely put together, fastened with wooden trenails, the corners dove-luiled 
and secured with sliglit iron clamps, — the only iron employed, A Lirge 



i 



4 

4 
4 



4 



large ^J 



STEVRNS ON STOWAGE. 



215 



tree, tlie lenglh of ilie vessel, nitis along tlic bottom^ to [GRAIN 
wliicli iht; tiyibers iire si'cuied ; ihis roughly cut kcel^^on rises i) or 10 
int'bes frora tlje floor, and hurdks are kid uii it wbich extend to the sides* 
They are covered with mats made of rye-straw, and serve the purpose of 
dunnage^ leaving below a apace in wliich the water thai leaks through the 
sides and boltoni, is received. The bulk is kept from the sides and ends 
gf (be barge by a similar plan ; the leakttge is dipped out at the end and 
aides of ibe bulk of wheat. These vessels draw from ten to twelve inches 
fttid yet tbey frequently ^et aground ; their cargoes usually consist of from 
180 to 200 quarters* The wheal is thrown on tlie mats, piled as high as 
the gunwale, and left uncovered, exposed to all the inclemencies of the 
weather, and to the jiil fed fi^ of the crew* During the passage the barge 
is carried along by ihe force of tlie stream, oars being merely used at the 
head and stern to &icer clear of the sand banks which are numernua and 
shifting, and to direct the vessel in passing under the bridges. The crews 
consist of six or seven men, one of whom precedes in a boat sounding, in 
^ order to avoidtbe shifting shoals; this mode of navigating is necessarily 
very slow, and lasts several weeks, and even months* If during its pro- 
gress any rain fails, the wheat grows, and the vessel speedily assumes 
llie appearance of a ih mating meadow. The shooting of the fibres soon 
forms a thick mat, and prevents succeeding showers from penetrating 
more than an inch or two. This covering protects the cargo and when 
it is thrown aside, the main bulk is found in tolerable condition. The 
%'cs9e]s are broken ni> at Duntzic; their crews return on foot or by rail. 
When the cargo arrives at Danizic or Elbing, all except tlie grown sur- 
face is thrown on tlje bunks of the river, spread on sails, exposed to the 
Biin, and frequently turned against the wind, till any slight moi.«ture is 
dried. During the night, and when a shower threatens, the heaps arc 
funned like ihe sleep roof of a house, to let the rain run olf, and are covered 
with a linen clolb, When so lying along the banks tlie wheat is called 
** on sczerapka." Il is frequently a hmg lime nhvv the wheat has resichcd 
Dants^ic before it i.s Ju to be placed in the warehouses (speichers) which 
are v e ry u e 1 1 a< I a p t c d To r a it tv i ii g, Th ey c o n s i s t ge n eral ly u f e e v e n s to ri ca , 
three of which are in ihe rouf; the Ooors are about nine feet asunder; 
each is divided inlo perpendicular partitions, the whole length, about four 
feel high, by which didtrent parcels are kept distinct* Thus the floors 
have two divisions, each capable of storing from bSO to 200 quarlers, leav- 
ing Bufljcieni space for lurning or screening; lu each floor the windown 
ore always thrown open in dry weather. Those in the speichers are sinipl^ 
openings of 2} orSftci square, with hinged doors {luk*ri) which can ht 
fastened back t\itli Imoks, The cum is usually turned over three liioeH 
a week; the men throw it with lljeit shovels as high as they can, and thus 
the grains are sepoiated from each other, and exposed to the drying 



216 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



influence of the air. Ships are loaded by ganga of porters [GRAIN 
wiili f^eat dispatch; they will complete a cargo of 500 quarters in about 
three or four hours; moderaie-sized vessels lie alongside the speichers; 
the cargo is usiually measured prior to shipment. 

375 Elsiaore. Mr. Lunb, says March 8ih, 1865, — ihe Leith mer- 
chants buy and sell as follows : wheat* peas, tares, and beans per 604 fb. 
or 4i cw't; barley, rye, and linaeed 448tti. or 4 cwt; oats 536 tb. or 3 cwt. 
These are above the natural weights of the grain per quarter, as the fol- 
lowing approximate estimate shows : wheat — ^Ballic and American — 
weighs usually 472 @ 4961b. per quarter, average probably 484, Black 
Sea and Petersburg 456 @ 488, average 468; barley — ^Baliic and Danish 
—408 @ 440, average 420, Black Sea 302(^402; o«^^— Danish and 
Swedish— 304 @ 336, Prussian 296 ® 320, Riga 288 @ 304, Petersburg 
290 (s 3^8, Archangel 288 @ 308 ; Umeed~-Bvi\l\c 400 @ 432 ; peas and 
/artfs— Baltic 496 @ 520; beam— Bnliic 480 @ 520; rye— Baltic 456 @ 
472, The relative weights of the various kinds when stowed approxi- 
mate as follows r the same space contains of peas 2i t>cent. mijre than 
wheat, barley TJless, linseed 12^ less, oats 27i (5 30 fi- cent, less, Oq 



s 


fiOtlb. 


4wnb. 


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ft- 

1 


orrari> 


ordUIb. 


or IHlIlai 


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of4a'i. 






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l^biwJ). 


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^btuta. 


V'buib. 


tP^btuh. 


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V- 


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i d 


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t 


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5; 


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4 


10 •! 


10/, 


10* 


f> »A 





8* 


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H* 





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4 




lljU basis a ship loading a full cargo of 100 lao wheat, will lake [GRAIN 
tn I •20} ton peas, 02i horley, 87^ linseed, and 72^ oals. Tliesc ligures 
\\\\\ form a guide in cimrteriiig for wheat by the ton, wiih other grain in 
proportion ; but mudi de|>ends on the silnurng and earrying capacity of ibe 
s!iip. Perhaps the dililTences miglit be fairly estimated fur general rates 
lit 5^ cent, additional for barley, 12} for linseed, and 26 for oats, v^heat 
bfini^ the standard. Rye, beans, peas, and wbeat might be estimaled 
trjuaK Tbci^e proportional rateia ore abuiil 2i ^ cent, more in favor of the 
il*ip than the London printed rules* The tabic on the preceding page 
llunvs the comparative rales for grain per loo, and per quarter. 

376 At Hamburg, j^Tain of all descriptions is sold sometimes by 
weight and s^.>nieumes by measure, but freight is usually paid per quarter. 

377 France. Frencli wheat and giain usnally pay frei^lit at per 
tonneaux of 1,000 ar 1 ,015 kilogram nits, of vvliich 218 are equal to 480tb. 
•»r ! quiirter. Grain to Plngland in cbasse marees, which usnally carry 
iibont 3tK) to 600 quarters each, is dunnaged with fagcaa of brashwood, 
and sometimi's rotijjb battens, covered with mats, all of wliich usually 
become the perrpiisite of the eunsignee. In charleriug from PVcncb pons 
in the Bay of Fiiseay, seriijus diilTiculiies have occurred when the charier 
party has staled *' niaize, at freight of 2s 6d (^ 3* ^ quintal selou Tusage." 
The French word ''quintal" is "hundred weight*' in every dictionary. 
The charter party intended to have said *' quarter'* selon usage. Com- 
plaints have bet-n made by nia^siers that whereas in France barley is 
uei^^hed un board on an even scale, it is weighed out in England on the 
turn of the scale ; this h of course against the ship. 

378 Paris, *2Gtb of Febrnary, 1865. To the French Chamber of 
Commerce. Genikmen,— Hia Kxcellency the Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs calls ray attention to the cliaputes which frecpienlly arit>e between 
the captains of French ships and merchants at Gla*>gow relative lo ihe 
cargoes of grain sent from Fmnce to the Clyde. According lo infor- 
tnation transmitted by the Consul of France at that port, almost all these 
difljculties arise from both the qutintily and the weight of the grain 
conveyed being set forth in the consignments. The nuniLier of hectulitres 
is a*iccnaini.'d with sufficient exactness wlien taken on board, but the same 
ii not the cusl- vviili the weight, wliich» calculated on an average, and 
admitting it to be correct on leaving, often presents marked variations 
on arriving, by the sinq)le fact of a long passage. With the view of pre- 
venting the reuiru of difficulties of this Ivind, I have thuoght, gcullcmen, 
that it would be right lo modify e«tabli8hcd usage by only insirting for 
ll»e future in the consignments one of the two measures heretofore given. 
It will, consequently, be of interest to choose that measure nf capacity 
which is generally favorable to our captains at the moment of discharging 
Uic ciirgo. Accept^ &c. Aumand Bkmic* 





870 Deficiency of French Cargo. A sbip-broker asks the [GRAIN 
Odzetlfit Oflobur 14, 1H'>^^^A vessel was chartered at NantSv^ for & port in 
Irelaoil, the cargo to be abipped as euBtotuarj, aud the master to take an 
account of it, and sign bills of ladiag ttccoi*diiigly ; the freight to be paid at 
llj^f^toiiof 15 hectolitres ("onze sluUings sterliDg par touueaii de quitize 
hectolitres delivres, et «ne livre gratification au capital no.'*) The cargo was 
shippt^d, the fjuaQtity beiDg' per bill of ladmg. 2,087 hectolitres wheat, weigli- 
ing 105,776 kilogrammes: the VMsel delivered 750 quarters, or 2,181 j''^ hec- 
tolitres of 2} bushels per hectolitre, on wbicb freight for 1151', ton is de'iiauded, 
but the naerchants declioe paying for more than is expreseed io the bill of 
lading, alleging thot the ship has delitered some 10 or VZ cwt short of the weight 
Bhipped,. whi(.-h the master does not diapnle, as he protested at Naates agamst 
the weight as shipped, aiul noted same on bills of lading. The answer is: 
the master having noted protest a| port of shipment against the correctnesa 
of the quantity named in the bill of lading, shotdd have witblield the delivery 
at the port of destination, until secuiity was given for payment of freight on 
the quantity delivered in good order and condition, 

3*^0 Surpltis cargo. In Itie Li¥er|jool Comity Court, January 21, 1858, 
Cooke v. Hi.UBAiK, ship Licin^jsione, brought wheat at 4*, ** par chaqne quar- 
tier imperial delivre/' Bills of lading were signed at Marseilles for ** 3,tJ5'i 
charges of 100 litres, equal to 1 ,B4:i imperial quarters.*' At Liverpool tho cargo 
tiu'ned out 2,0!*;i quarters. Fbiintiff contended that in tlie first place the 
roaster was bound by the bills of lading, and that the quantity stated thereoa 
waf*. at all events, l»etween him and an indorsjee, all on which he was entitled 
to freight. Jn delivering judgment^ Mr. BLAift said—"! know no authority 
for giving such etfeet tn a bill of lading even without the memorandum her© 
appended — ' not accountable for quality, quantity, or measure.* If the master 
has carried a larger quantity tlmn signed for, he is as mneb entitled to freight 
for the surplus ns if he had carried a larger amount of barrels or bags than 
stated on the hill of lading. Diit It was further urged on tho authority ol 
GinsoN V. Sttjroe, that the increase in the number of quarters had occurred 
by beating dunng the voyage, and that, therefore, freight could only bo 
demanded on the smaller quantity, as Iwing all * received, carried, and de- 
livered,' and that all these things must concur to eniiilo him to freiglit. In 
Gibson h. SrcaoE [page 210], the jury found as a fact, that no more than the 
smaller quantity had been received. Here there is no direct proof of the 
quantity shipped, unless the bill of litding is to be looked on as such. I have 
already stated why I do not couaidor the master as estopped by these ftgurea» 
but fur ther, the evidence satisfies me that the statement in the bill of lading 
is incorrect. I cunnot conceive that the cargo could have increased by heating 
from 1,843 to 2,033, ».(•. 100 quarters, when the witnesses for the defence do 
not speak of ever having known such a cargo to have increased by more than 
lO'^^*; and according to their evidenee, the cargo, which it is admitted, sustained 
no damage from any dotY^t in the ship, had, in all probability, l>een already 
heated on the way from Ibruil to Marseilles, and had been put on board without 
hiTing been sutHciently dried. I have also the moster'a evidence, tb«t tlie cargo 
entirely filled the vessel on leaving MiXbeiiles, and that it bad iiunk from nine 





STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



219 




inches to a foot before arrivaL It is qiiite cleai- tJiat the Lulk had [GRAIN 
Dot inorensed after leaving MarseilleB, by any neglect or malversation on liis 
part, or any defect in the f^Iiip ; nud I am satisfied, if it ificreased to any extent 
on the voyage, it did not increase to anything like the extent uf 100 qunrtera, 
and that, in |>oint of fact, a larger q-uautity was aliipped than that mentioned 
in tlie hill of Uding, Whether this ia to be attributed* as alleged, to there 
being a tnisoaleuhition iii the nnmher of ** charges" to the imperial quarter, 1 
do not stop to enquire; nor, in ihe view I take of the case, is it necessary to 
ascertain tbe precise quantity shipped, inasmuch as 1 tbiuk the freight is to be 
ealculated upon thequantfty ascertaiued on her discharge in the Albert Dock. 
I think the terms of the clntrter party can bear no otber reasonable meaning. 
In *Gjfl80N V. Stdroe/ (sec. Wl, kc) ihe charter jmrty did not coritain the 
expression 'for each quarter delivered/ nor any equivalent tenns*, and tlie 
reasoning on which that judgment was founded dooK not apply; and it ia to 
be obfseryed that even in thai judgment on those premises, all the court did 
not concur. It was urged that for *each quarter dehvered' meant for each 
quarter the master might can'y and deliver of those which, by tbe bill of la(hng, 
he ftdmiued be had shipped; hut thia construction seems ratiier forced, and 
I think tbe true construction of the bill of lading, with the unuexed memo- 
randum, and of the charter togetlier is, that both parties treated tbe qtiaiitity 
turned out ut the port of discharge, as the measure of the freight. Any other 
construction, I may remark, would impose agi'eat hardship on the master, who. 
taking in his cargo in hulk, would have no mode oftefltiog the accuracy of the 
bills of lading, except by i. very rough estimate of bit* vessel's ca2>acity." — 
Verdict for plaintiff. 'Lhk deeiaiou gave much dissaiis faction to tbe trade, 
bo observe that the judge decided on the ground of a suppOBed error in tbe 
[Uantity shipp«^d, and not on the ground of the shipowner being entitled to 
ftreigbt OD any increase on tbe quantity during the voyage. 

381 Barley — Nantes. A French vessel arrived iu Engbmd in 
September^ |hG5, with a cargo of barley from Xantcs. The hill o{ lading 
Bays " e h i p p e il 1,862 h e c tu I i I res, w e i g li i ti g ( a t the a v c ra^^e v f ti t>, I tJtJ 

beclolitres) 123,201 bectolirrcs* Freight to be paid 96 per 15 hectolitres." 
The cargo is measured out, but to enable tbe Customs to gel the average 
weight for payment of duty, a k\v bags are weighed. According to mea- 
sure, tbe cargo tarns otit nearly cighi hectolitres in excess of bill ot lading 
quantity, (freight being specilied by heclolitres) but nierehant^^ lublhi on 
{layitig freight on average wei^lit. The Shipping Gazette is asked who is 
light ? The master has oilered to accept freight on bill of lading quantity, 
which is refused. The Editor answers " the ahi|) is entitled to be paid 
l^eight on tbe measured oui quantity, and the master's oiler is a fair one.** 

*i^2 If Bengal Wheat, which is of a very dry crisip cburaelcr, 18 
placed on rice or other general cargo, it is greatly injured by weevil, but 
when su»wcd below, and so covered with goods that the air is entirely 
^xcludi'd, it etmiinues sound. If jule or cotton iti slowed over wheat, a 
lier af caacji should iniervenc^ or it will become heated. 



I 



I 






STEVI^mS ON STOWAGE. 

383 At ibe Adelaide AgricuUural Showa in llie five [GRAIN 
years euditipf 1863, the average weight of grain exhibited was, from tlie 
liills 68H:>, Oioz. and from ihe plains 6\j\h, loz. 

384 Madeira- In case of breakage in the measurement of crim, after 
allowing 2i ^T>C€^^ the vessel must make up the deficiency at tbe mai^ket 
price, according lo the long-estabiishcd regulation at the British factory. 

385 Canada. At Montreal it is usual in charter parties to Great 
Britain, for the mercliant to find mats and the ship the "requisite dun- 
nage/' On arrival the merchant wi!l possibly offer to fit ihe inlt'rnal 
casing; the master should observe bis own discretion and have it done 
in the most economical manner, remembering tbnt be ought to know best 
the ship s character and sea-going qualities. All unnecessary wood -work 
and casing Involves a direct loss in its cost and possibly indirect loss by 
displacing car^o and thereby preventing" the gain of freight* All sbtjis 
loading grain in bulk at Montreal must leave sufficient space ins^ide the 
pump-casing for a man to descend to the well. LtoYD*s instructions for 
slowing grain at Montreal will be found in pMige 224. 

S^O Freight by weight. In the Liverpool County Court, Fehnmry tl, 
1858, TiiisTLiE V. OsLEV. n ai n tiff son ght to recover £15 -k babmce of freight 
on Blfi quarters of wheat, at Gn fiJ 1t> quarter, front Montreal to LivcrpooJ, iu 
the harque Minerm. The qunntity stated on the hill of lading was 0*271^5 
bushels. Freight demanded was on tbe imperial quarter, winch is excluBtvely 
regulated by measure, while tbe wheat beiug entered as at IHO tb. per qunrtor, 
or <J0 lb. per bushel, freight must be calculated by weight. — Verdict for defen- 
dant. 

387 Deck load. Maculloch v. Grieve. Tho following is tbe interlo- 
cal tor pro noun ced by Lord Ormi da lk. Edinburgh. 2^rd January, lH(t7. The 
Lord Ordinary having beard eonnsel for the parties on tJie proof and whole 
cause, and having eousidored tbe argument finds; 1 — That about August, 
18tl4, Macl'ilooh fihi])pod **in good order and condition/' Ac. in the Kir John 
Moora, of Glasgow, helonglng lo GaiKVE, then nt Montreal, bound to Ixiver- 
pool, 19,6-14 bufibels wheat, to be delivered " in like gnod order," &c ; 2 — That 
1 0,r> WO iVff centals were dampged in the eonrso of tbe voyHge ; and 3 — That 
tbe danriHge uroso through the defuult of the defenders to the extent of ^1,100, 
V which and 5 ^eent. interest from Ist November^ 1864, they ere liable; 
ercforo dectrns accordingly* R, Macfaulane. 

Note — There was no dispute regnrding the two first findings. The pri- 
mary and snbstnntial question is wliether the defenders are rt»*iponsihle? 
Wheat is a heavy cargo, a Inishel being as stated, double the weiglit of Arch- 
angel oiitij ; being perishable great eare is required in its stowage. The ^i> 
John Montr was built for a passenger ship, was somewhat crank, had a poop 
and tnp-gallant forecastle of more tlmn ordinary length ; as a ship for goods 
she was not so ranch to he relied on as one built for the caiTying trade. A 
voyage from Montreal to Liverpool in tho fall of the year, including the month 
of Sepiemhor, is more hazardous than in the summer. On her ptiSfiage 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



221 



from Montreal* she took a deck load of deals on board at Quebec, [GRAIN 
and it is averred ihfit she was tadeti to a greater depth tlian was 9,jifi*, In i\w 
opinion of the Lord Ordinary both of tbo gronnds of liability rplied on by ibo 
pursuers have been stifficiently esiabliohed. Tbe balance of the evidence was 
much against a deck -load under the eireuirtstunces. As to the overloitding, 
the testimony against the owners outweighed that in his favor. With a deck 
load of deals, a very little overloading greatly jticreiised the risk. At the t^anje 
time the Lord Ordinary having regard to the storiuy weather enconntert^d, and 
to the leakage at her keel, attributed to grounding in ibe St. Lawrence, can- 
not resist tlie impression, tlmt, to some exleDt, the damage incur red is lutrihu- 
table to the "perils of the sea." He therefore deducts £VdH 14« \d from Iho 
gross amount. Tlie Lord Ordinary's consent to tlie case was given upon an 
assurance of content from both sides which turned out to be erroneous, and 
he regretted that he had not sent it to a jtiry. 

388 In Kew York it is customary to load wheal bnih in bulk and 
in Ixigs ; the proporlions according In Lloyd's rules and those of the 
UNDEKWR1TE118, are in pages :226-7. From New York to England I P* 
cent* is usually allow^ed in the charter parties for deliciency of weight; 
the loss is usually i or i ^ cent, only; sometimes it exceeds 1 ^ cent. 
Id the winter of 1866, a cargo of wheat was conveyed from New York 
to Ostend ; the passage occupied 42 days, and rougli weather prevented 
tbe hatches from being opened until the ship was alongside the discliarg- 
ing wharf, where tl was found that the steam which rose from the cargo 
and settled underneath the deck, liad fallen on the gniiu and caused it 
to sprout up to a heiglit of two inches. Wheat ebipptd at New York is 
swjld (5 ^ tJUttj. and freight is paid on that scale, but Canadian wheat is 
not subject to the same cu.slom, 

3HII The brig CottfeMf^ of 8t. Jidm's, N.B. regislcrs 372 tun, carries 
480 ton of coal, loaded wheat at New York and sailed January 12, 1802, 
After encountering heavy weather she arrived al Plymouth Marcli 8, — 
55 days, and discharged her cargo in goud condition. The Vonffst re- 
ceived U>;(X)U bushels of wheat (59} Uj. to the bushel) in the lonin fiold, 
all in bulk; 3(>0 barrels uf Huur in the fore hobl ; and nothing alt. So 
laden uhe drew 12 feet forward and lOJ feet aft, her ordinary draught with 
a full cargo of coal, so that she would not be able to carry her three holds 
full of gi^n. The main hold was divided by bulkheads into iLiui' coin- 
par (men ts. Stout slanchiojis trom tlie keelson upwardi» rtccived inth 
plank each side of them, an d a similar bulk ran acr<JMS amidsh ips. I nstead 
of mailing, half-inch stulf was fitted as lining against the sides uf the 
bold, heginning under her deck and going down, weatLer-board fashion ; 
only ibe upper edge of the second layer overlapped the lower edge ul the 
fir»l, and so on, by which leakage from the sides, if any, Wi>nid tluiv down 
to llie limber pannages without injuring the grain. The i\pft(t9t is 125 feet 
long; beam 29 feel; depth of hold I3i feel. 




* 



I 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



31>0 In June, 1862, llie brig AlUance, loaded in bulk at [GRAIN 
N»»w York, 1 ,450 qtiarrers of wheat (69 It). Ip- bosliel) say 295 ion. Her 
Bheatirmg ilisplaced say 30 tun, eqyal to 150 quarters. Si> laden she 
drew I3jfeet furxvard and (3 i feet aft. With 327 Ion Cardiff coal her 
draught was furvviird 14 feet, aft 13 feet 10 inches. Slsc registers 205 ton, 
is 89 feet long, 25 broad, and tiaa a depth of bold of 14 feet* Copu 
MossMW louk a portion of his cargo, lOOquarLcfs in a bulked compart- 
ment aft, and 40 quarters forward, to throw into the hold in case the main 
cargo settled. She was 26 days on tlie passage to Plymouth, but there 
was no occasion to open the hatches. The first 700 quarters were sent 
into llie hrdd in two liours, by elevators which were then slopped by the 
master, ihc remainder was trimmed by the Bhovel, llie onl>^ means 
considered by him suitable forilllingin the ends and other vacancies, the 
beam fillings, &c* Tiie elevators were formed of a series of fans, wheel 
fashion, fitted into a wooden trunk; they were worked by a steam engine 
and ihrew the grain np with amazing rapidity. Two elevators were used ; 
the first sent the grain up to the weighing machine; after it was weighed 
the next sent il into the ship's hold ; in passing ibrough the second ele- 
vator all the chaff and refuse were thrown off. This process diminishes 
the weight a little but makes the grain mncb better qualified for a long 
passage at sea, as the refuse usually encourages heat whiclj is so detri* 
menial to grain, Masters of small vessels, when loading by elevplors, 
are recommended to stop the machines occasionally, anil send an officer 
into the hold to see that the grain is well trimmed into every part. If 
not stopped in time it is impossible to perform i\m very important duty, 
in consequence of ihe danger of suffocation ; the men cannot remain below 
more than an hour at a time. If not properly trimniedi the grain bus no 
opportunity to settle or lo become packed, and thus when the ship is in 
motion at sea, the cargo shifts to leeward, almost invariably works through 
the ceiling into the pump- wells and so chokes the boxes** With large 
ships laden in compartments or bins, this precaution may not be so 
necessary- The hold of tlie AlUante was filled fore and aft with a bulk 
which descended from the deck say 5 feet 4 inches to the beams. She had 
cm her ceiling a grain-light platform fitted on riders which were pre- 
viously " tommed up" to the height required. The platform was 10 inches 
high near the keelson and 14 inches at the bilges j hoards, three inches 
from the skin, ran all the way up to the deck* So sheaihed an nrdinaiy 
ship cannot be laden detqily with grain. The bo:ird used was first-class 
pine which cost about a rent and a half per bushel, say ,^179 or £37, 



* It Ih supposed tliAt for wont of the perf ormimce of thk duty, iwea^ eight grtin- 
loiided Biitiib shipft were loftt In the winter ol lft61. 



STIVINS ON STOWAGE 




EXPLANATION. 



Flirurr 1 rrpr«M-iiU iii Erie CujoI Buut (Ihe 
Chi<0tg^} IpftJc*! irilJb UnitL 

Fifon 2 »• lie ouUt leg ef «u Eirvauit, (ft 
(ii|)Hflolii pi|M* or trunk i IhrouKb whu U VMici tt 
ImU lla«1lk^ attiicrhtril to tt a ivrit^n of buckcU whkh 
raii4 ibc in^in frum tlu- t>u«t'i hoUl U* a «ri>oat tiint 
cotfttfjrftituiU' a llecrivinf^ Hoppt.'? in ihc midtllr 

iAd yi«D IklU inlrt « Wi^ifUIni; Hopptft 
pparrlifM with ■ tnp whtrh nHnwa H to drnjp lo tk« 
CmH <i/ ■ t#roiMf H^vMtor whirli. rabvs il to Um lof 
«f Utp towrr. il ttirn p^it*fte* down Uiii>uj(1i n rt*- 
^rutff •tf%'*r*i(fr %9 ft f'lFftoinjiir ■pjNu-Mtku mt tiie 
foot or ft third AtiikUtr which rfti4«* it ft ■«eoti<t 



linielo Ujf toji, whru it falli mtJi tba hrad of pipe 
4, which deiircr* it mto tkt hold of the Ckrun. 

Tbf Bt'lt which pii**en thjnounh liic t»uK!r Icr '-►f 
th« tfltfVfttitr i* '^iijrlua w idf, ihf buckrtJi ve IM 
inobe* iport from emch nti^rt^ iui«l lioM & ij,imf icr 
or ft bunbel tmdu Afl^r Lilling ^i^^^^ irniiti^tiU inlu 
ibr* iip<nil, tbr wiiipty butktU *re irturtird \>j Ihr 
b«lt dtiiwn ibe innrr !<'g of Ibr elevator, into ih« 
Cftoal huti to It^e re^filied- 

In lh» Wiigbinif H»|>i,'tr ilI>c grain U waifhcd 
In Jmftji of niifott 't(\ biiibf'i'i tfuch. 

Tb«f mftchitir, which i» wnrkrd tiirouirhnut Ij^ 
|Kiwer,rait hftodlr 4,000 buifadu An hour 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



ns 



Hctnloclc board is very liable lo split in pieces — a serious in- [GEAIN 
L convenience io ibc cargo, be^ai^JIcs which ibc cliips are likely lo get into the 
|>unip-well and choke the purapa, 

391 The barque Marintn^ 512*16 Ion register, Capt. William T. 
Irving, belonging lo Messrs* R. Hansells & Sons, of North Shields, 
left New York, August 23rd, 1804, with 3,325} quarters of grain, and 
r4bcbarged Uie same at Dublin iji September, She was dtinnaged with 
croHS burs, with chocks under, bottom 10 inches, bilges 14 j from keelson 
to luni of bilge she was double eovered wiib inch boards j the entire lining 
cost the ship 2i cents ^> bushel, $dSO 99t\ The Marimis is 133 feet 
(i inches long, 21J broad, and 18 feet 9 in. deep. With ibe grain she drew 
ai New York 17 feel V* in, aft and 17 feel 7 in. forward ; at Dublin 2 inches 
less fore and hlu Wiih 700 ion of Shields' coal 17 feet 10 in. forward and 
18 feel afu Her besi trim at sea is 3 lo 6 inches by ihe slern. The Ctis- 
toras* charges inwards at New York with a Newcastle cargo of soda, &c* 
(wliieb see) were $76 lOc^ manifest stamp $3, Ctistoma' on I ward $,iy 20c 
wharfage at New York piers Jn45 lUr» ditto at Atlantic dock, Brooklyn, 
N.Y. $130 34c. Pilotage in S<>6 t>l>e, out $49 50c. The grain received 
was, in hulk 19,322 bushels, in ship's bags 0|500 — 3,22o|^ bushels ; cargo 
delivered 3,105i bushels or (iS4 ton I5cwi. 1 qr, 121t\ at 5s 3*/ ^ quarter 
of 480fl».= £&38 16,< 4(L Her cluirter party stated that she was to load 
'a full and complete cargo of wheal in bulk" and proceed to Cork for 
( orders, and thence to a safe port ; and that she was lo be paid ^^o$9d p* 
I quarter of 480 tt^. delivered ; 6d less ^ quarter, if ordered to a direct port 
on signing bills uf lading; 10 ^f>' cent, additional freigiit if ordered to (he 
contineriL Thirty running days for loading and discharging; 24 bours 
for orders at Cork. Vessels to hjad under New York underwriters' in- 
Bpeclors," whose rules are in page 2'i5. The maslcr understood that t!ie 
chief object for referring to lliese rules was to secure suQicient dunnage 
ond lining, but wlien he had received obout SCWquarlers, the niercbafit 
informed him unexpectedly that he would not he allowed to load more 
than half the registered tonnage in bulk, the renmnuler must go in bags* 
Thus half the tonnage (512) would be 256 ton, which at 00 th.jp- bushel 
'would give 1,104 quarters 5 i bushels. As this would have involved a 
serious loss to the siiip, the master paid to tlie company in which the 
merchant was insured, the difference of the premium, viz; $300, exchange 
being at g217 per £ sterling, and the following addition was made to the 
charter parly : ** I hereby waive the clause to be loaded under New York 
underwriters' inspection. The vessel to take instead one quarter of cargo 
in bags/* This proportion, one quarter in bags, is in accordance witb tlie 
rules of the clubs in Newcastle and Shields, one-fourth from Aj^ril 20 to 
September 20 ; and aoe-ihird from September 20 to April 20 lu bagti or 
barreb. 



2U 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



mSTEITCnONS FOE STOWING tJEAIK CAE(J0E8 AT MOFTBEAl, 
Isaued May 1, lfcit>2, by Mr. H. Chafmaw, Agtant li>r Lloydb. 



1 Owncru, comtnimders, and tooskirti 
of veswels ure cooaidcre^ in law na commoa 
oiUTiers ; it in therefore necessary tliai all 
due precaaHon be token to reociFe And 
atoir GiirgKMfi in good order; and deliver tho 
•una in lik© good order. ThL^ law holdt 
tlie ilupowner liable for t!i« luife cmtody 
of tiie goods wben properly and legtUy 
reoeivcid on board in ^ood order^ and for 
tlio *'d(*livery'* to poriieft prodnciiiK tho 
bill of lolling. Goods arc not niifreciaently 
oeni alongside in a damaged etnte, and 
letters of indemnity given to the captain 
by the shipiwrfi for Kignlng in good order 
and condition. TbU is coimiving at fmtid. 

2 No ship exe<fcding 400 ton rcg. can 
be entirely loaded with grain in bulk ; oil 
exceeding 400 ton m^. mny take two- thirds 
of the rarjTo of gruin in bnlk^ and onutbird 
in ba:^*t, or rolling frcifjht in^itcnd thereof. 
In thn latter ca«e, the grain in hulk shoald 
he stowiKl fit ioohea but not moro^ above 
the bejuna, to allow fnr settling. 

a When JihipH tjike wheat, com, Jtc. 
in bulk, tt niu^t be stowed in Hfi^tionM or 
**lHns" (not to coutam more Ihun I'i.tKX) 
hnshc^ii each), to be lined with lb o roughly 
Bcusoned hoards grain-tight, not Ivnti than 
10 inches from the flat of thp floor, and 
from H to IC inche*? in Iho bilgos, grodn- 
&ied to the ^idea, which mn^t he clapboard 
lined to tho deck. Cure muHt b« tiiken to 
pifiMerve a water-conrso under the lining. 
Good abifttng boards, secnriMl to the Hton*^ 
chionft, uxteadin;? at least nix feet down- 
ward*, and fitted tiji^ht to thi^ deck. Tho 
ttanchioua not to be removed, but firmly 
socarod. No loose grain to hi" stowed in 
the extreme ends, and no admixture of 
other gooils. Putnp^ and ma^t^ ca««d or 
covcrtid with mats or canvaji, made tho* 
roni^hlj t^rain-tight, with mffleient Bpoos 
in the widl to tviml I the ptm^gfi ai a vum 
to the heds of the pumps, and oceeaa bad 
to the same by a man-hob- from tlio deck, 
or by a clear paosage from the 'tw^en decks 
aft. Mata to be used for covering kneesi 
keslsoua, and stanchioaa, il requirt»d, but 
not for lining or covering the »*ide«. 

i Orain, when stowed in f>*ii/M^ niu^it 
be dnnnaged not tc5» thnn 10 bicbcB on 
the floor, 14 to IG indiea on the bilges, 



t*} inches on the sides np to the dock; be- 
tween deck^j the dunnage mnat bo laid 
'thwart shipg, at least 3 inehea from tho 
deck. Shifting pUnk extending at least 
4 feet from the deck heamt downwards, 
secnred to etoachionii. The dmiaago in 
tho hoM mnst be entirely covered with 
boarck and saila, or mats, grain-tight. 

5 All bnlk or loose grain mnst be 
takf n in bins prepared for that purpose. 

6 For dunnaffing, deals ore preferable 
to anything else. They should be hud fore 
and uft, about 3 inches apart, the stscoud 
tier over the spaces of th© first tier, the 
third over the spaces of the second, and so 
on. Staves or other matenaia generally 
nsed for dunnage, to be pbieed «o aa to 
give free course for the water to reach tho 
ptimps. The dunnage Hhoidd be raised 
from 10 to 12 inches from the floor, and in 
the bilges from 1 A to 16 inuhes according 
to the buUd of the ship and the dincrction 
of the iu'^pector. Flat-fl mired, wuU-jiided 
ohips should be iiLted with bilgo pumps. 

7 The niitda for the htdkhtad should 
he made ol Sincb dealn, pbiced about two 
feet apart, and firmly secured at the top 
and bottom, and properly braeod and 
elected on the lining and to the beami (or 
deck) a to resist the preisure of the grain. 

8 T he *l nds for the hulkkeoth fonoard 
and afler bulkheads for Hliips not exceed- 
ing 10 ft. depth of hold, muai be 4 x6in. 
in fiiiee, and of one entire piece ; over a 
depth of 16 ft. they must b*j 4x8 in. They 
mnst be liiet 2(> in. npiiirt from centre to cen- 
tre, firmly sccnred at top and bottom, and 
properly braced and cleete 1 on ceiling and 
deiik, to resist the pressure of the groan. 

9 The sides abovts Ihe turn of the 
bilge must l»e lined oti one inch battens 
after the manner of dapboarding. 

10 Shijling jdankt, two inches thick, 
must extend to the deck on each siiie of 
the fttimchionji, fitted tight ander and be* 
twecn the beams and carline;), and extend 
wot leas than six feet downwards; core 
must be token that the stanchions are well 
fiecnr«.'d at both endfi. In no case can 
single boards be substituted for plonk, and 
the shifting boordj mmat be shored frani 
the aides, midway batweoi the itauAhioDa* 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



22-5 



11 MAi«rialB for bins mnst ho p«r- 
fuctl; wiiaoncd ; uniedsoncd lumber inust 
nit i»e UBofl where it will oome lq coal act 
«rii.h th(^ grain* Water tanks, whether of 
wood or iroii, must be cosed with wood to 
provesi lUmii^ from sweat or leaknge. 
Aail oU iihip* with grain in bulk» onght to 
lijire fi^odera and TGiitiLitorft, 

IS U ma8t be si^sen thftt the grain ii 
well trimmed up bctweon the beams, wid. 
Iba fp«€e between tbem completelj fiUedi 

13 When cLortcring tbc draught of 
wai^r tboald be liniitod, and pnuviHiiua 
made for loading under inspeotlon. 

14 The load draught mw%t be regn- 
\J^Xt^^ by the depth of tho hold, iillumng 
ilireo inches to every foot depth of holdj 
meuauroii from lowoat line of sheer of deck 
ftmid&hipB to the water whtn npri^jht, 
Bhiptt hamig on additiooal deck put on 
ttfter conitruclion, tho depth of hold to bo 
ID^ttiiired from original deck. 



15 Frequently fierioUftloM [GBAIH 
faUs on raertrhants on tho upper part of cor- 
goetir particaltirly in ship* thiit bring wheats 
corn, tobacco, oil cake, &c* fUiMing fi^ni 
vapour damage imbibed by wheats fionr, 
and other gooda^ stowed with turptitiUnet 
or other strong'Sceated ortii^leti ; the bMp- 
peni are to blame for such ncgUgenceT for 
aot mAking due inquiry before shipping. 

16 Pot 4ind pearl asheft, tobacco^ b&rk, 
indigo, madders, gum, &c, whether in 
ea&kBt t*m%j or bolcst to be dunnaged in 
the bottom, and to the upi>er part of tha 
bilges, at least 9 inches, and 2i inohes at 
the aides, 

1 7 Milicellan&onfi goods^ such as boxes 
of cbceAe„ kogs and tube of lard^ or other 
small or slight-mode pn<;kagea, not intend- 
ed for broken stowage, should be stowed 
by thcmselYoSi and dmmaged oa other 
goods. 

[See note at foot] 



mSTBUCTIONS FOE SXOWINQ GABOOSS AT FEW TOE£, 

Issued January 2, 180*2, by Mr. R. M^ckie, Agent for Llotds. 



1 Sdne as Ko. 1, page l^i, 

% No rMAcl eixeeedin g lOU bos regUter 
cia he entirely loaded with groin in bulk ; 
«ise>ediiig 400 ton, and not over 5U0 ton, 
may take two-thirds of the cargo in bulk, 
end one- third in bogs ; and oil over 5(X) ton 
eaa only bo allowed to take haU of their 
tOQSiigeiii bulk. 

8, 4, and 5. Same as 3, 4, and 5, p. 224. 

6 The cctUnff of the floor and for the 
bisa, tnost be hiid on rieken», or ileepera, 
of •eaoUiiig 3x4 tuehce in sLze, li Inches 
apart fnvm centre to centre, thoroughly 
asiled and seeured. It must be raised at 
least lU lo 1^ inches from the floor, and 
ill the bilge 14 to lt> iiicheit, according to 
boild, ineroascd ot dii»cretion of the sur- 
veyor. In no case min>t the floor of the 
bin be laid on loose dunuAge, nor must it 

bud on the bilgi> keebiona, uotwilh- 
ling the keebons may be more than 
llnebes high, but there must always be 
•tifioieiit room for a water course under 



it, Tho floor iit considered as extondiag 
from the keelson to the side, and not ter- 
niiuAting at the bilge keelsons. It must 
be laid with two thicknesses of boards, so 
that they will break joints at the edges and 
ends ; and eare must be taken that it be 
perfectly tight, 

7 The studs for the forward and after 
h\dkhf€uU for vessels not exceeding 16 feel 
depili of hold, muat be 4 x G inohes in size, ' 
and of one entire piece ; of a greater depUh i 
than 13 feet, they must be 4xdiBc]M 
They must be set 20 inches apart from 
centre to centre, firmly secured at the top 
and bottom, and properly braced and 
eleeted on the ceiling and deck to resist 
the presBOre of the grain. 

8 The aides above the turn of tho 
bilge rnunt be eoUotl after the manner of 
elapboiij'iU^ig reversed, so as to turn th« 
water from the grain. 

9 to IB. Same as 10 to 14. pi^ tM^6. 

[SoQ note at foot.] 



Hliipn loading grain complying strieUy with tho above rules, llni'd and Umdcd under the 
ospervijtlon of I*u>vn's nurrt yor, will be entitled to accrtiftoate to ihat elfeet. AppliLation 
to be made in writing, accompkimcd with a fee of ton dollars for superrisioii and e«rUlto«t«i 

[At adontreal it is c^culnled that the charges for eJerators fur 6(^000 bttllMhi of pti& ii 
•I the rate of a quarter of • cent per bushel^ or 7ft dollarf .] 

IV 



226 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



HTSTHWCnOWS foe STOWIKG by TSl ITEW YOEK TJFDEEWEITEEfl* 



1 The pump'ioeU mOHt be Bttfficienlly 
large to aflmvt of tlie pannage of a man to 
the bottom of Uxe hftldp iiiicl room to work 
eouvemcntly when there, say not lt?sa than 
four feet, fore and Aft, mud firo feet ftth- 
wartiihip, (reference, however, tnitat he had 
to the sLze of the keelson imd fL<i!)islant 
keelsons) and mnjt be cased from tlie bot- 
tom of the r easel to the lower deck lieanis. 

2 AccciiH to the pump-well must be 
bad either by a man- bole through the 
tjpper deck, or by a cle^ir passage' way be- 
tween decks from the after hatch. In no 
oase must it be from the main hatch. 

8 Vessels beiug loaded with grain in 
hafft mnst be dnnnnged 12 inches on the 
floor f 15 inches on the bilge, and 4 Inchefl 
On the sidea np to the beam s. II th e v esael 
b« Tery flat, the dimnage in the bilge rnQst 
bo increase ftt tbe dlBcretion of the «itr- 
Teyor* The eargo between decks mnat be 
dannaged 3 inches from the sides, and 2 
inches from the deck, and the dun&fl^ 
laid atbwartHhip»t so that the water can 
nm to the scuppers* 

4 The dvniwffe in the bold mnat be 
entirely covered with sails or boards, so kg 
to prevent any of the looie grain from 
rmuiing doim on to the floor of tlie vessel* 
■jid thence to the pump-well. If sidlm are 
nsedt th«^y mnnt be of good qQohty, and 
free from holes. Vflien boards are u&edt 
earo mnat be taken thst they have a flmi 
and equal bearing on the dnnnage, and 
that the edges and end a overlap, so that 
tho object ubove deiignatod may be so- 
cured. 

5 Two It eh shying pltmka extending 
lonr feet from the bea^ms downward, must 
be properly i^ecnred on each aide of the 
ataBchious in the hold, and between deck», 
to present tlie cargo from shifting, and 
oaro must be taken that the MtanL^hions are 
irell fastened at the top and bottom. In 
no case mnst single boards be substitiitcd 
for planks. 

6 Care most he taktin that the bags 
whirh are stowed in tho ground tier, as 
well aj those that are next to the nides of 
the resael, are in perfeet order, and thai 
Ibe tiera are laid close and well filled. 

7 Bnlk or loo»e gram mnat be taken 
in bins prepared for that piaipo«e, and no 

Teasel will he permitted to load with mora 



than ono-half of ber U.S. tegbtered ton- 
nage^ with grain in hdl; 

8 Btileb l^t and 2iid Ukewise apply to 
ressela being loaded with grain in bolk. 

The Jhor of the bin must be laid 
on sleepers of seantling 3x4 inches in idaef 
14 inches apart from centre to centre, sn|H 
ported by stnds of a corresponding sise, 
also 14 inches from centre to centre. It 
muMt be raised at least 12 inches from tho 
floor of the vesaeL, in the bilge 15 inchcSf 
and in veaaels that arc very flfttt increased 
at the diiicretlon of the sun'eyor. In mo 
case moat the floor of tlie bin be laid on 
looB€ dutinage, nor mast it be htld on the 
bilge keckon, notwithstanding the kerdp.on 
moy he more than 12 inches high, but 
there must always be gnfflcient room for a 
water^eourse nnder it. The floor h con- 
sidered as extending from the keekon to 
the aide of the vessel, not terminsting at 
the bilge keelson. It mnst he laid with two 
thickneft&ea of boarda, so that they will 
break joints at the edges and ends ; caro 
must be taken that it be perfectly tight. 

10 Th e ff i^ uth for the forward and after 
hulkhcadi for vee^ek not exceeding 14 feet 
depth of hold, muHt be 4 x 6 inches in ula© 
and of one entire piece ; for vessels of n 
grenter depth than 14 feet* they mnal be 
4 X B inches. They must be set 20 incbea 
apart from centre to centre, firmly seeured 
at the top and hottom, and properly hraced 
and elected on the ct'iling of the Te&sel, to 
resiat the pressure of tlie grain. 

11 The sides of the veasel above the 
ttim of the bilge must be ceDed after the 
manner of clapboarding rcTcrsed^ so aa to 
tnm water from the grain. 

12 JShiftinffpfmikt two inches thick 
must extend from the keelson to the deck 
on each side of the staneluQna, fitted tight 
under and between the beama and corlines, 
and care mnst be taken Uiat the stanchiona 
are wdl secured at both ends. 

13 IValiV'tiink^^ either of wo<kd (kr i 
iron, musi be properly eased to pieToni^ 
damage from leaking. 

14 Vessala loaded with orer 12,000 
hutkeh of grain in hulk.^ must have one 
intermediate partition or bulkhead, and if 
carrying nwrt ihan 20,000 hush^U^ then 
additional partitions or bulkheads, to that 
no bin ihall contain over 12,000 bnthela. 



STOWAGE. 



227 



aicxUlfl for bins most be of per- 
OQcd fttoek ; unBeftsouod lamber 
mvA not be Bied where il will eome in 
ocmLart with the gmin, 

1 (j S tevedDret most see that th c? grida 
il well tfiiiuiied up between the beumii, 
iii4 tli« vpAce belveen the beams com- 
pjpt«lf filled. The draught qf woUt to ht 
wy^gulated by the mrptyor, 

17 Owneri imd majitcri are partlcii- 
litlj reqitefted to inlonu tho smrejor at 



this office^ of any reswl they [OEAHf 
may intend to load with graiit. 

«p- VfiBselB loaded Bitrictly in confor- 
mity to the above mles will have a certi- 
ficate to tkat tiffect from the sttnreyorB 
appointed hy the Board of Underwritora 
fumiihed to the fioard^ and the respecliva- 
InauraDee Companiea composing tho said I 
Board will be duly notified thereof ,—Oc» 
tuber. lyai. 

Ei4.wooi> Waltkh, jSserslory. 



392 II h suggested that from September to March ships from Amer- 
ica tliocild not load more than 17 ton dead-weiglit Ip- keel, or about 78 
quarters wheat lo every 13 ton register, njtu jnslead of overloading ditm 
witli 97 quarters or nearly 20 ton. Britii^h raerchanls calculate a loss of 
lucent* by measuring with the bushel grain loaded by elevators. 

3y3 Valparaiso. Occasionally copper bars are shipped here as 
ballast with cargoes of grain. In die lall of 1866, the Jan Wood had 
alKiut 100 ton of bars covered with planks to receive 3,440 quarters in 
bulk, and 2,909 sacks barley. On discharging 48 quarters and 7 bushels 
were found damaged. During heavy w^eatlicr tlje planks had separated, 
llie barley fell between and was injured by verdigris, &c. At the triul at 
Bristol in August, 1667, the jury gave a verdict for £32 4# 0</ damages* 

3SU Weight or quantity. LiverpoolCoonty Court, Juno, 1BU7. Befoj:e.j 
Mr. Sergeant VVueeleii. Smith v. Dixos. An aeiion to recover £Cti}, value < 
(deereascd) of 50 sacks ol" wheat, shipped at Yalfiaraiso on hoard the M. A, 
IHxoH, and discharged at Liverpool Aiuil 17th. The weights were taken by 
plaintiff's and defendant's weighers who agreed in their quantitieK, 5,320 aaekg. 
Before ^aiJitig 5G6 sacks were skipped for triojTuitig. On discharge 4,775 fall 
tacks were landed as shipped; &0 of the skipped were re-filled, and tlie re- 
maining sacks were supplied hy plaintiff! llelendunt averred that before 
■ailing empty sacks were (as u^iiul) alokn from Hie vessd^ imt no wheat. Tlia 
total number of sacks landed was 5,i'it5;l, or 41 in excess of llie hill of Iwding^ 
but ihe weight was not equal to the quantity* For deficiency of this fi eight 
£{ 17f Ik/had U^en deduL^rd: tlie total paid wns i'1,514 US* H(L The extent 
of the deHcient wheat was dinpnted. Keduriug Spaiiish to English weight tho 
hill of lading quantity was conceded to be l,Vlll,007 lb, hut the rjuosiiou arose 
whether it included the weight of llie sacks. Plaintiff niado the deliciency 
I5»704lb; defendant (after dtHluritng tli© sacks) 2,018 lb, and ihat arose from 
ahrinktng. The insertion iu the hill ol lading of the word* gross or net, would 
have obviated much diffitMdly. DeftiUil^nt contended he was not hound liy 

gfht, but only hy fpianlity. The lull ol liuhng contained the words *' weight 

I quality unknown." Verdict for dtfendaut. 

Proportionate tonnage. The following quantities of grain are required 
to &\l u keel or h50 cubic feot, vix: y? quwrers of wheat, fM'ilb. pvr bushel, 
weighing 2r*20(» ton ; 8H ditto tares, beans, and peas, 0:i lb. per biishol, 20 ton ; j 
10^ ditto ryo, ft? tb. 21 ion; 108 ditto seed, C-itb. 20 tou : 111 ditto barley,' 



223 



STEVKNS ON STOWAGE. 



62 11>. 21 ton ; 125 ditto oats, 37 tb. 1 OJ^ ton. [It mity be meuLioiiPd [GRAIN 
thtit fonnorly, iOOqunrters of wheat were considered equnl to 10 ton hemp 
ibr freight* hut nhout the year 182H, the Imperial superseded the old Winchester 
nieiisure, and is H W conL larger; hence Ml quarttrs are now quoted, where it 
was formerly 100 qnartersj 

C!8 17 t]nartei*s of wheat, weighing 01 J lb. ^ hiifshel, will require a stowage 
in bulk eqiiiil to 15 ton measurement of 40 cuhie feet equal to <iOO cubic feet, 
A vessel of 245 ton register will ordituirily carry 1,678 quarters of wheat, 1*552 
quarters of beans, or 2,108 quarters of ottia. A vessel of 203 ton will carry 
50 ton of iron and l,l*iO quarters of whent. The stowa^fe of 100 quarters of 
wheat is generally considered as about equal to *jl ton of coal. A good 
carrying sliip will stow 50 @ tiO quarters barley to everj' 10 ton dead-w^eighL 

Tonnage for freight. The Admiralty rates 5 qnartei-g of wheat in sacks, 
48 buehela of bran, and 48 ditto of pollard to a ton ; nu l1ie Crinan Canal 
5 quarters of wheat, rye, peas, beans, and tares go for a ton : 5^ of barley; 
and of bear or Mgg; Bengal, Madras, and Bonjbay wheat *20cwt- Bengal 
and Madras peas '20 cwt. In Australiit grain is usually freighted @ i"^ hu§hel ; 
at New York 22 bushels ot grain, peas, or beans, in easks. or 30 bushels in 
bulk go to a ton ; at Baltimore 22 in casks, 40 in bnlk^S bu&hels of grain 
are esUmated at a standard of 5 cubic feet. 

Rates of freight. €«rain, seed, &e. pay freight riecording to their respec- 
tive weights, as compared with thut of wheat, viz : beans puy 10 p- cent, more, 
linseed 10 ^ cent, less, lye 7| |*cent. less, barley 15 ^ cent, leas, and oats 22 J 
^ cent less; rapeseed is computed at 10 1* cent, less, which is not considered 
proportionate for vessels under 200 ton regi^iter, as they slow and carry nearly 
as many quarters of wheat or Indian corn as of seed. Over 200 ton the pro- 
portion liecomes more in favor of 10 ^ cent. 

When wheat is freighted at lO^l?- quarter, beans, peas, and tares are rated 
at 10»9irf, rye 9» Sjrf, linseed 8i 1 Irf, barley %xi\d^ and oats T#8J«/: Tlie Me- 
diterranean scale says when wheat is 1*, beans, peas, and tares sh'^'uld be lir l£d 
!► quarter, linseed and rapeseed lojri, rye lliV'^ barley 10 i J, and oats Ox^^rf. 

By the Baltic and Archangel rates 117 imperial quartei-s of wheat are 
fieighted as being equal to 10 ton of elean hemp: peas, heans, and tares 
ID ^ cent more ihati fi eight of wheat, rj'C 1\ ^ cent, lini^eed 10, barley 15, 
0ata22i, less than freight of wheat; sowing linseeds 1*2 barrels in casks. 24 
ditto in bulk, equal to ! ton of Rhino hemp. A Dantiic last of grain is 
80 hectolitres^ 85 bushels=2'00 ton. 

When Black 8ea tallow is 30« ^ ton freight, wlieat ^ quarter should be 
A$ 7 070*/, linseed U 3'10:^J, peas, beans, and tares 5jf 1 :i37J, rye 4* 8'494(t 
bttiley 3s U 3t9if, and oats 3^ 7 144^* 

Measures and packEgeS* An Admiralnj barrel of peas contains 5 bush- 
els or 31i)tb. net; bRlfhogshead 35 buslKls or 240 lt»; and a kUderkio 2^ 
bnshels or 101 H>, I cwt, wheat 2M eubic feet: harley 2 '18; oats 3'64. 

Irish grain is usually shipped by the barrel which fur wheat weiglis 280tb, 
!iarley 2'^4lb, oats HlOlb; fnight is paid by the quarter. The Glasgow boll 
of wheal is 240lb, barley 320 lb, pea^ and beans 280 lb, oata 264lb, and oat- 
meal Untt>« 



4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



^29 



Hetage. At Hull the cliarge for meUge ia 5i ¥ Ust [GRAIN 

Variety of British MeaaureSi A bushel of wheat at Bridgeml is l(>'^t1>; 
at Worcester it is 6'2lt); at Darlingtou it is 73|tti ; at Bhrcwshury it is 75ll>; 
it Wolverhampton 7'2tb; at ^loiimouth SOth; at Manchesler IJOtb, if it is 
EngluU wheat, TOtb. if it is American; at Carmarthen it is Oltb, and at 
Newcastle lib. less than thet quantity* Then, again, a load in one place is 
not ft load in another; for example, it maj signify 5 bushels, or 3, or 40, or 
6 quarters, or 44Htb, or 144 quarts. In other markets it is sold by the quftrter| 
of iSOtb, by the hag of 12 scores, or 11 scores lOfb, or 11 scores 4lb, or 11 
scores. Then, again, at Malton it ia sold by tlie ** weight." which tliere means 
40 fltooea, while at Nottinglmin it ia 36, and at Whitehaven only U. At 
Swansea we are told they sell it by the "stack" of ?1 bushels; at Barnard- 
castle by the *' boll " ol 2, which at Glasgow eignilies iiir'llb, and in the caso 
of maize 40tt>. additional. At Pwlheli they sell by the hobbet of 252lb, the 
same dcuomination at Wrexham meaning only IChtt). At PrcHton they sell 
it hj the windle, and at Bcccks by the coomb; at Chester by the "measure," 
ftud at Holmfirth by the strike. At Dublin it is sold by the barrel, which 
there means 2H2tb, but at Cork 2<isrb, 

Tbe United States standard buabel is called the Winche^ier which is 
taid to contain 2,15042 cubic inches, or 77nii7413lb. avoirdupois of dis- 
tilled water at its maximum rlensity. Its dimensions are IH^ inches diameter 
inside, 19J inches outside, and 8 inches deep; and, when heaped, the cone 
must not be less than 6 inches high, equid to 2.747*70 cubic inches for a true 
cone. The busliel of the Stitte of New York contains eoJb. of pure water at 
its maximum density, or 2,211*84 cubic inches. It is a singular fact that ibe 
Philadelphia measures for grain are larger than those for New York, Boston, 
or Daltiuiore. 




GRAIN MEASURES OP VARIOUS FOREIGN PORTS. 



ABYSSINIA.— At Qondar the ordcb contains 10 mndegas; at Mamah (Red 
Sea) 24m&degas; about 80 umdegas make an English trnperial busheL 

AFRICA.— Tho harboia about %^\hi TripolL a temen, gallons nearly, 

AUSTRIA.— TiVfina, 4 viprtels or 8 ft*;hlels- ICO bushels; 3'ii^tie, .Itstngaa 
make 1 quarter ; S50 st&rra^ 100 quarters. 

BELGIUM. — inttrerp, 1,015 kiloa^ 2,240 tb, a barter nm French bushels, a 
muid = 2'7522 bushels, a muke 41 (5^0 gals; Urit»*fU, a nack cno bunbcb 

BUAZir..— 15 fanegas:= 22 ImaheU. 

CANADA — Thii minot, an old French in«»aj?ur<», l*07fi'^ imp, busbcla, wUicli 
for ail eomtruri'isil purposes is reckoned at «Olb; it ia c/i!culnled by mtUQ 
ftt about r^^ P cent, lurger tban a bushel; U niinots~ 1 quarter le^s 2 V^ 
cent ; 100 minot*=^ lai quarterb ; 7,0 iO niinola- 861 quHrtem, 



230 STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

GRAIN MEASURES OF VARIOUS FOREIGN PORTS. 



CANDIA (Mediterranean). — The carga is 4*189busliela; 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE,— 4 scliepels^l mntd, lOtnuida^^l load. 107 sche- 
pels^ B'i Winchester husliels, or 4 schepels- 3 imperid biisliels nearly ; tlie 
miiid of wheat weighs, on an average, llOtb, Dutch^ Bomewhatover lll>lb. 
English. 

DENMARK. — Copenhagen^ 4 viertela- 1 scheffel, 8 schefiFels=l tocnde or ton, 
21 tnna:^ 10 quarters; &ome calculate 208 tuus^ 100 quartera for wheat, 
and 210 tuns=lDO quarters for oats, 

EAST INDIES.— ^rrtZitrf, the frasil 18i @ 30 lb. Amboyna, the coyan 25 
piculs or 3,255|lrb. Buugahre, a kist naraz-buUah is 2 pncca seerg or 
4tt. Soz. 5jdr; cologa Utb. 13 oj5. 6} dr. Bataaia^ a koyan 28piculs. 
Bengal, a raik, 20 chutft('ks-2llt)» factory maund 74tt>. lOoz. 10 dn 
Birma, a teng about 2 hnshels. Bombay, candy for grain, aeeds, &c.^ B 
parahs of 10 lb. Ooz. rtijdr, mound 2Hlb. Canara^ a eolaga a bushel 
nearly. Coimbatort, abullali IHl cubic iochea. Coromandet fCoUum 70 @ 
80 quarts, Zkirraporattt a bullah 210 cubic inches. Beccattr a cossan 
rather less than 1 Iti. the sixtieth part of a carwar. Java, a ku!ach=i J 
calties of 40 measures, each of 5 gan tangs or about OBJifb ; a coyan 27 
piculs or 3.581 lb, a koizang about 00 bushfla. Madra.i, the corn measure 
contains 80 paralis or 400 niarcals, and the marcal HO fuuldies or Olollocks ; 
the marcal should measure 750 cubic iaches, ami weigh 27 tb* 2o3i. 2dr. 
avoirdupois of fresh spriug water; hence 43 marcals— 16 Wincliester bush- 
el9» and therefore the garce^lTj English quarters nearly. When grain 
is sold by the weight fl,256}H>. are reckoned for 1 garce, being 18cajidles 
12'8 maunds ; some reckon the garce at H,400lb, and to coutRin 80 parahs; 
a parali equal to 5 marcals, a marcal HpudJirs, and a |mddy ^olWks. 
Malatj gantang 260 cubic inches; 4 cliupaha 1 gautang. Manila eahun 
8iVfl enhic feet Mymre buhah Ai ttj, Kubia, a nmud IH hand lull. 
Samaratitj, a koyan 30{iiculs. Siam, a sat l^ith. or 'jjpiuts, a aeste 135 lb. 
Serimjapatam, eolaga 1 1 bushels. Sifigaporf, a coyan 40 piculs of l;i3itb. 
each. Sooho awl Sumla IJes, a raga 5-iitb, Sumaira, a nellie consists 
of 3 bamboos, tenth of the gnncha ; a culah 00018 bushels. Surai, a 
maund 4llti. The following grain measures are also used in the East 
Indies: contagab Oisj cwt, garce 1 28 maunds of 400 marcals =»0,250^tb, 
marcal 8 puddies, moruu 34 50 cubic inches, moray 3H scera aliout 1,% 
bushols, ollock twentieth of a gallon^ punchaga 24cwt. 2qr, lOtb, puddy 
1} quarts. 

EGYPT. — Alezandria, lOOardeba wheat, Indian com, and bar ley =63 quar- 
ters, a quillot or kisloy flve-ninths of a quarter; an ardeb of Egyptian 
corn 7 J @ Oj bushels, but it varies considerably; weyhecks 1 ardeb, 
4 roobecks 1 weybeck; lOOardebs beans = 65 qrs. A rhebebe of wheat 
4 301 bushels. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



S91 



GRAIN MEASURES OF VARIOUS FOREIGN POETS. 



FRANCE*— 112fb. = 607*ykibgraDimea, lOOlitrGs^l hectolitre, 2 hectolitrea 
88 litres = 1 quarter, 30 lilrea^l Ln^liel; 1 toD 1/)15, sometimes 1,018 
kilogra^mmes; a French sack of grain varies from 2012 @4 250 hushels. 
In businesa the usuftl ciilcuhitiou is 100 kilos = 220 tb. MarfeUhst, 100 
charges— 5«i qoarters wheat. Havre, 3 hectolitres - 1 quarter adding 4i ^ 
cent, 8,355 hectohtres=l J 04| quarters, Nmits, 2,0Mhectolitre8=6811 
quarters. Botdmux, 1,8,10 hectolitres^diOi quarters. 

8 bushels EngUah = 1 qm«rt«r ; 11 qnartera Englihh =32 hectolitres ; 2201 lb* 
£B^iib= 100 kilos. 

54 tb. per huHhel equal 67' 19 kilos pfr hC'Ciolitro, 



5fi H). 


ditto 


6*145 


ditto 


66 lb. 


ditto 


69-71 


ditto 


67 lb. 


ditto 


7097 


ditto 


58 tb. 


ditto 


72-23 


ditto 


m lb. 


ditti> 


73* &0 


ditto 


60 lb. 


ditto 


74'77 


ditto 


61 tb. 


ditto 


7605 


ditto 


5*2 lb. 


ditto 


77-30 


ditto 


63 lb. 


ditto 


78-58 


ditto 



GERMANY. — A gesclieid 3 @ ^ij pints, a foudro fthout 7 J qiiartors : Bremen^ 
Hdfiocef, 10 schclft'ls=l wisp, 2 wi3p=l lust* 1 last^llj qimricrs wheat 
or 1 1 quarters barley ; 51 InstB l*i sehelfels wheat =5 1 3 J quarters. Em^hn^ 

I Ust beans iOJ qiuirters, Oh la^ts 4171 quarters. Wiesmar. H) k^its wheat 
0331 quorters, 20 lasts oats M5 quarters. Lubvck, 4 (am of grain is equitl 
to I scliefff^ 02 husiii'ls, 4schoffd8 1 tonne :} fiH bushels, 3 tonuen 1 dtomt 

II 04 husliele or 1 38 quarters, and H drbmt 1 last 88 :i2 bushels or 11*04 
qoarters 00 8eheflrels = ll|V quarters; 07 lasts 7878 quarters. Hitmhitnj, 
laat of wheat, peas, beaus=ll| quarters, barley lOj, some say 1 1 ][ quarters, 
Ottf-s lOj quarters ; 10 lasts are equal to lOH'H quarters* the last ia diviJutl 
into on Fuss. Roaloek, last W seht^iFels, equal to l-i quarters; some saj 
oaU 14i quarters, other grain 14 quarters; another authority gives for 
04ts 14 quarters, wheat 10^, aud barley Li J quarters. Bremerhavcn, A 
Iftst is 80' 70 buslieln Wiuchester or 10087 quarters, that is 10 quarters and 
7 huMhels; some enleidiae a Breureu last of 40 schefTels to be *»J quarters. 
Attonti wheal, a last 1 1 * qiinrlers nearly. III lasts — 1,2741 quaitei-s; bar- 
Icy, u last 1 1 i quarters, m last9=341t^ quarters. 

GREECE.— The kila is 0-t}152 huf^hels or Oi 144 quarters; the starro 2'260 
bushels; others compute the starco at 3 bachela^^2'330 Euglisb busheU; 
the ancient keramion 8 488 gallons. 

HOLLAND. — AmMterdam^ u last of oats IQ quarters 5^ bushels; in settling 
for freight rye is cousidert^d 20J W cent, higher than oats, wheat ftO ¥*cent. 
higher, rye 12 (? cent, higher ihau seeds; a muid 2752 bushels. HotUrdam, 
ladl is IOJ quarters wheat or rye, iuj barley, IOJ or 10|, 26laat8=272t 
quarters oats ; the lust of wheat for freiglit is charged 10 1^ cent, higher 
than that of barley, and the latter 20 1^ cent higher than oats. Qroningtn 
last oata=tO quarters. 



STEVENS OX STOWAGE. 
GEAIK MEAStTBES OF YAEIOUS FOUSI&H PORTS. 



lAX XBLE&.— At S4mU Mamra > CMdo jj, mm mjHhinhA 

TALY/— 'The ■i—uwt wy, a busaolo O'SSi piot% a qotttiio 1 gillaa« 9Dono 
tt giiiiwn fiTiif J flioggio Sfoaiten, cosBe places AbnAnkoiily^ m nibbto 
abool i b«ili, 1M| rttbliu=100<|tiftrtere in Jmamm; cwitMejo orquintal* 

M i^ofplei H e«fr»=7qi]enem rMb?. s sUjo is cqael to tbrnhels end 
1 21 giUonelfliperu], uid ti trnbeu in ootnineroe mt S42 stajt to 100 qitArtera 
imp€nM\, or 100 suji 2Q| quuteni, soma p&rts 100 staji 60-$ ({nArtere; 
(tAoCKer Aiuiioritj) the rooggio is divided into 4 sUji 10qii&rte or 64 qnar- 
Ufolit tht Hale k equal to 227 Windiealer buslieJs. Oemoa, uiina 8 qaarto 
or M gonibetti^ 1 i]iiii4=3i Wtodiester bush, nevlj, 21 inina=l quniter; 
eone eaj 345 minefl ead oihen 248 minas^lOO quArters 100 xiiiDis^=40| 
qiiaiteri,i^400iiiiiia#^5e3|qiiArtJPrB. ^liu^cMUf, 104|nibl^n=^100qaart«rs. 
Aquajter al ymk0^ sU^i ; XapUi &{ tomolh 7*800 tomoli— J 447 quarters; 
Lsffhorm A tm^tchi ; Palermo SO tomoU 5 qtiarters old measure. Trieste ^ 
tUJm 1 qaariet leae 1 ^ c«nL 

i E HAET — 1 9 eabok • I quarter wbeat 1 1 cabots I quarter barley. 

MALTA.— The falma ia 7 909 biitbeK 101 aalma (some saj 102 Mdma) are 
100 quArt<;ni; another authority sajs the oalina, strickea measure^ 622 1 
Wincheitter hu«hels; heap measure ia reckoned 15 ^cent. moi-e; the eaffise 
or cafliao from 1 to 2 quarters; d.O^ ea)niafl»3,I582 quarters. 

HOIJJAVU*— (7aZaa 100 to 101 kilos are 143 quarters. 

MOUKA. — k hacbel ia one-tJ^iird of a staro and is equal to 0^ gallons. 

POLAND.— A komec ia a} to 3| busheb com. 

PORTUGAL, — Liihim^ the moyo divided into 15 fanegas, SO alquieres^ 240 

qitartns, 4H0 seleiuiH, ka ; the m«yo= 23 Winchester bushels, the quarto 
H to 81 gallarm. Fmna, 17 alquieres- 1 quarttr, I moio 3 quarters. 

t^UVHHlA.^ iJnnUie, Mmm!, Kfrni^Kbenj, Pitfnu, 5«J schefi'els are equal to 
1 liuit or fron* li)\ (h^ JO} qunrters, or Hi @ HO bushels; another authority 
ajiy«, «t .\Utfni a lunrn:;*} malters, (fO fechtil'eJs, or 240 vierteis, or 1 1 quarters 
8 lumhrlft Ktigliuh ; for wheat, ryo, &n. the Inst of 5(iJ Bflieffi'ls or 10 quar- 
t€»n* ? hiiJihrJs lvNgli?*h h generally used, A last Vii Anct^im, Burlh, WoltjttH, 
iinti Sitijhunii \n llr|imrlf"rB whent. Tlbiirley* and lijoaLs: at JJnUn 
hud Slfttiti h't,'j qHaruiiH; tind at Wit'^war J3^ or sonit times I'jquaiters: 
au*>tluvr authority ^ay^. at SfeUin a lust Is 00 scheffels, which on discharging 
ninkt'K from ]H(^i IllqimrterH, and ni Ihtutzic a echeffel weighs 1552 
huH[iH«; a last is fill J JirhetlelB or 10 <r|imrtt'r3 7 bushels ; *I0 schctTds are 
J I qunrtfu-rt l\ hirnlielii; a /^«^/;m> ship* pound is a^Olb. English ; a Pruuinn 
h»'li(i(r*.d l{ \n\^1wU, Sttxonfj II huahels, OLUnhurghO oil bushels, and Eoi- 
ktf-k 10 J u lvimhL4*a; Jioitotk latt HO sehefTela 13 quarters; a legal Pniuidn 
•choffel wfiigha, whoatHrjjrb, rye 8(^4, harley 65^ oats 45, meal 75, aud peas 
OOilb; A chulter at Smtin is H4i bushels. 



STEVENS O! 



233 



GRAIN MEASURES OF VAEIOUS FOREIGN PORTS, 



EOSSrA. — 2 osmium 1 chelwert, 100 chetwerts^^l, PHenhurg 7i}, some any 
73, 74» Otl€ssa 12, aud Jnhttntjd m, rye 70 quarters; others say Riga. 
wheat and b'lrley are uieasurcil IH loops or loofs to a last, equal Dearly ta 
11 J miarters ; a kKJp Wing 1 1 bushels ; lye 15 loops, or 10 j qrs ; oats and 
fH»as ti01oop8 or U qrs; a Russian ton is Scbetwerts or ubout 2!Sba3h.— 
ITJ cwt, LibaUt llttBt oats 13 j quartern, ICH lasts 1,402 quarters. 

RARDINIA.— The storoHo is equivalent to Ibushel lipeck EDglisl! ; tlie 
cantarella or quiolal is 65)4 tb, at Cai/Uati ^^itb. 

SICILY, — Pahrmo, isalrua of tiO tumoli, or & suluia of 10 tumoli— 5 quarters 
old measure, 

ttMTRNA. Asia Minor.— I kilo=l bushel: 81fi kilos ^100 quarters. 

SOf 'TU AM ERICA.— The fauega ranges in Chifi from 153 (5 t>O0ltj ; CentTal 
Am^fiiHt^ jdfuxe -lOOtti; Monte Viiho, JlJ bushels, averngii>g 5 fanej^as to 
aquurter; VaJptuaUo, the fauega is Ln|ual to 10 Wiuebeoter bushel, or 
5 laticgos, 1 Wiijehr^ter quarter nearly; a fauega of wheat IS&lt). 

BPAIN.^A barehilla (one-twelfth of a cahiz) 2j @ 4i gallons, a bisaccia is 
oue-fourth of a saluja=lHS5 bushels, a fanega IJ @ 2 J bush, Sfanegaa 
I qiiarten Alkant^, cahiz orcaffise, coutaining l^barebillas, OOmcdios, 
or llltlqimnillas; the eahi^ is equal to 7 Winchester bnshtls nearly; at 
Ctidiz l'2fanegas Irtbuahels; at Vahncia 100 cab ices 70i quarters; at 
Bartefona 100 cuarteros 24J r|iiartcrs; &i liequljitthi 5 fonegas wheat= 
1 quarter less 5 ^ cent ; 1 1,045 funegivs - '^,1 Ik^ quarters ; at Sautontlfr 
4 fanegas wheat = I quarler less 4 ]^ cent ; O.ejhO fanef^as = 2^301 quarters ; 
at Bilboa 54 fauegas- 1 qr. abiding Ofe>cenl, 11,48:) fanegns^ 2,221 qrs; 
at Almeiia D fane gas - 1 qr. less 7 i? cent ; 1,300 fanega8=244 qiiaiiera, 

fiWEDt^N.— 4 quarto^ I spann» 2 spann 1 tun or barrel; 1 tun^ 4l-intha 
Eaglish bushel ; 18 tuns are 10 quarters; some take 17tJ| ban-els as equal 
to 100 quarters; llie lispund weighs from M(ff; IKlb. 

SWrTZERLAND. — 64 goblets make a sack of corn ; the coupe at Fribourg 
7 gallons, at Oeneta 17, at Lfjotft 1 j gallons only. 

TXXRKEY, —Oonitinntimftfre, 8I0kilos- lUOquerters, or 100 kilos 12qiiarters; 
8,ftH0 kilos- 1,0*^34 quarters ; a killow contains 2.023 cubic inchesor Oiil 2 
busbels; others say the kiloz or killow- 041 of a bubhd, Hj kislofi= 
I quarter. 22 okes iimke a kiltow, and 4 killows a foi tin, 

TUSCAN T. — A sncca- 3 stfigi, each of 2 uiina, or 4 quRrti,=;about 2 bushels. 
UNITED STATES.— A sack of wheat (millers) 2wey8 or 13 tnd&=3(5llb; 
A borrol of corn bushels. Shipments and sales nmdc by (Hdb, i*^ bushel 
or 480tb, ^ quaiier* A barrel of Indian corn contains 3^ Winchester 
bushels each weighing about 57lb; a hlid. of Indian meal HOOtb. 
WALLACHIA."/6mt7, 100 kiloB=220 quarters; some say 222^, and an ex- 
perienced London limi 232 quarters. A few years fsince a new measuro 
was adopted, viz: 100 kilos^232 quiirter'*. and the old rneiisure of 100 
kiloft2=222 J qitarters abolished. The tUQirenco was in the si^e of the kilo, 

to 



i 




M4 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



WEIGHT OF WHEAT, &c. PER BUSHEL. 

(See nko page 216, Elainore.) 



WHEAT. 

ENGLISH WHEAT, according 

tj tUe iiBaaoTiB *,.,,,.,,,*... 56 ^ C& 

BALTIC and DANISH PORTS 
Hamburg, B rem em, Antwerp, 
Ssc. after a very fine honrest 

68® 6411) gimemlly 68(§64 

If the iiarvot 1)« ir*rt and line Emin sproul^d 
66 @ S8lb. U about 1^ wti^lit even when 
dried— if not dritfd, it k titLfit for sbipuient, 

BRITTANY and NORMANDY 57® 61 

FRENCH BAY OP BISCAY.. 69@64 

SPANISH BAY OF BISCAY, 

SameUmeij CSni. . , generally 60 (§ 6S 

AJJiUATIC QtlLF, — Fiame, 

Anconft, Roioagna, &c. .».♦ 60^64 

BLACK SEA WHEAT from 
HjirioDOpks Bordianski, Odes* 
i»f and Danubinn ports 66 <^ 63 

TAGANROG HATJD WHEAT 
and other hard wheat ,.,.., 60 (§ 66 

SMYRNA HARD WHEAT .. 69@6a 

AMERICAN Alia CANADIAN 
weiglu from 66 ^ &1 

NEW BRUNSWICK 60@61 

AUSTRALIAN is frequenUy 

Tery heavy ....._ 6*2 (§1 66 

ADELAIl>E, jiMuKCatb. hilh* 6i 

Exliiliilicins 66 mid U^Ib. 

EAST INDIAN 60(963 

EGYPTIAN ifl always Hghl, bat 
Tari£8 mutiU in weight, being 
more or letii wecidl-eaten, in 
thii stale it may weigh . . . . ^ . 45 @ 55 
If perffeily sotmd it may weigh 55 @ 69 

INDIAN CORN or MAIZE, 
frnm Black Sva ports, wiE 
weigh, il Jri'e from woctil . « 68 @ 62 
Bometimes ..........«**«. « 63 

Egyptian ..** 55^65 

— Dari 62^55 

AmenoAn hono tooth or ilat 

mai£o &1@ 591b. . • . . round 59 @ 61 

New Bmn^mck . . • • . . 40 ^ 51 

SponiAb, ADa«ncant and oiinr rellow com 
wewbt beatrier Uictn white. YoUow, wbiUJ, 
iod Westem tnixi'd Imlian roms^ nrc i]uoU?d 
in Bf«w York prii:i:* eurrttit @ ^ iOlb* 



BARLEY. 

ENGLISH, from Norfolk gener- 
ally the heaviest 63 O 55 

Other Englhih and Irish .*.. 60^68 

Beoteh 62^66 

BAALE, from Hambnrg 50 $ 63 

DANISH ISLANDS , 47® 56 

STETTIN BARLEY, and Bern 49(^53 

SMYRNA 46(^49 

SYRIAN and EGYPTIAN .... 44®46 

FRENCH. Bay of Biscay, &c. . . 48 @ 58 

NEW BRUNSWICK .,,,..,. 49@51 

AFRICAN 44@4S 

BIGG. 
SCOTCH 46@48 

OATS, 
IRISH 85@42 

Bometimes 44 

DUTCH , ...., 88@4S 

DANISH and DUTCH bhu!k.. B6£948 

DANISH 86(942 

DANISH ISLANDS, yeUow.. 45 

DUTCH and EMDEN, yeRow.. 44 

RIGA ,....,,, 87 (§39 

ARCHANGEL 34@87 

NEW BRUNSWICK 88 

Sometimes best black «.*... 43 

And best white 47 

PEAS AND BEANS; 
PEAS and SMAIX PIGEON 

BEANS weigh ufiually 62 (i 66 

LARGE BEANS ,. 6«06l 

EGYPTLAN BEANS fi4@63 

A BUSHEL. Tlu- UntH-riol rom btubcl in 
221H ll»2 ciiWcr inchei. which, rniatiiiUed by 778, 
the number of buKbeiii hi U7 qiiortere of whaat, 
an J, dlrid«d by ) ,7Stt cubic mchtftk in m Cjioi, kItwi 
996 euLio ftset, whiob tbmiijrb <<towftg« hi tbeiiold 
ifl »duot>d to Bi^l eubio feet or 1 kc^l. It ht statedl 
thLiif fl bimbel \m LilJcd with wheat »Iowly aad 
horn a Uvi^ht, the con tents wiU wrigb 9tb. mora 
thau IT railed rapUUy fhUD il» edg«. 

MASTERS are rtwnnniMided when loadings 
1i> havct the rtilr arvra^ weiirbt nf n buthel of 
souud grain rcDorded and certiJied. They eould 
then Dovnpant tbj< weight witb tbat of a biwbel 
of any portion of the cmt^ which bad duriDg tliB 
paatage beoomo dantaged or umoond, and tboa 
mofo readily coom la an amapaaaimi fbr tka 
■ettlioatnt ef (nigbl in case of depute. 



■ 


^^^STEVEN^O^STOWAGE^^ 


^^^^^™ 


^M 


^ COMPABATIVE WLIQHTS. 




M 


^ 


^P EAinliro' and Bctoli Saok. 


Dntoli wok aiLd Imperial ImilidL 


1 


IhiCeh 


Imp. 


Dutch 


a. 


DuUOi 


buih. 


Dut«h 


H«mbro* 


Dutch 


Himbro' 




»MlU 


bittb. 


•ii«1c. 


M£k. 


uick. 


uok* 


«ick. 


»ftck. 


J 


n^ 




It. 




n». 




lb. 


lb. oz. 


tb. 


tb. oz. 




00 


2f^ 


N5 


4Di 


110 


524 


m 


132 15 


118 


103 


^^^^1 


iU 


ei 


d>t| 


BO 


40| 


111 


53 


07 


134 5 


no 


104 12| 


^^^H 


■ 


0^ 


2Ui 


87 


411 


lis 


53i 


08 


135 11 


120 


100 2,i 


^H 


■ 


oa 


m 


88 


^1| 


ii^i 


63f 


00 


137 1 


121 


107 8] 


^^ 


■ 


(U 


m 


m 


421 


114 


54 i 










^1 


■ 


05 


»0| 


uo 


4ai 


iia 


541 


100 


13B 71 


122 


108 15 


^^ 


W 


oe 


mi 


91 


4:)4 


iifj 


S5| 


101 


139 131 


123 


170 5 


^H 




07 


aJl 


J»3 


Ui 


117 


56| 


102 


111 3j 


124 


171 11 


^H 




m 


311 1 


»3 


44 


11« 


5(ii 


103 


142 10 


125 


173 1 


^^^H 




ou 


m 


04 


443 


110 


50| 


104 


144 






^^^H 




70 


dd 


n 


45i 


uo 


671 






120 


174 71 


^^^H 




71 


mk 


m 


451 


131 


57| 


106 


145 


127 


175 13| 


^^^H 


^B 


7a 


33| 


07 


m 


122 


581 


lOtJ 


140 I2i 


128 


177 51 


^^^H 


HI 71i 


341 


OK 


4lli 


123 


m 


107 


148 2J 


129 


178 6 


^^^H 


^M 7^ 


84t 


fl« 


47i 


124 


501 


low 


110 8j 






^H 


iH ^^ 


851 


KX) 


47| 


125 


5tl| 


100 


150 5 


h30 


180 


^1 


™J 7« 


85| 


101 


471 


120 


uoi 






131 


181 


^1 


_ 77 


an| 


109 


481 


127 


001 


110 


152 5 


132 


182 121 


^1 


jM 7a 


a«5 


103 


48J 


liJ8 


60| 


111 


153 11 , 


133 


184 2| 


^1 


^1 70 


371 


104 


40i 


Vltl 


01 


112 


151 1 






^H 


W BO 


371 


105 


80 


130 


021 


113 


150 7i 


in4 


185 6i 


^^^H 


«l 


SHJ 


106 


501 


l;u 


02 1 


114 


157 134 


|:I5 


186 15 


^^^^M 


« 1 ft9 


3H| 


107 


51 


132 


631 


115 


159 3 J 


130 


188 & 


^^^^M 


■1 83 


8dl 


108 


51^ 


133 


03 M 


110 


100 10 


137 


180 11 


^H 




64 


801 


im 


5ll 


'a* 


03] 


117 


102 


138 


101 I 


■ 












■ 




p 


raportioiiftto Weight 


of Qtikhi, 


EdUtlve Bates of Freight* 


■ 






Bk J»«M1^4 «|#. IbwUeli flblNt 


m*nt I ilk. 


f h« Top 11 r«rw tlw 4i|ti«r««r «4« lib 

WttmTvttmlL 


1 


B. 


QM. 


1. qm. 


B. om. 


TOir. QR. 


TON. qst. 


TOir« Q^. 




^ 


Ik, m. 


Ik fli. ft. 


Ik. ■!. Ik 


Sid 


• M d 


1 


« d 


^H 




a& 


90 


40i SA 8 


d« 33 2 


5 10? 


23 4 11 J 


41 8 Of 


^H 


t 


s* 

'■»* 


ao 4 

to n 


47 J» la 
47i 87 ^ 
4>< 27 6 


51> 33 10 
flOi 34 


1 3? 

7 1 


24 5 1| 

25 5 4| 


42 

43 2Y 


■ 


37 


SI t 


4H 27 10 


1(0 34 4 


8 1 8) 


20 6 Of 


44 5) 


^M 


Ji* 


31 


49 2M 


Wl 34 8 


1 llj 


27 5 0| 

28 


45 9 7? 


^^^ 




ai 


SI 10 
SI 


m ilfi 4 


til 34 12 
Oil ^ 3 


10 2 l\ 


46 lOf 


H 




»' 


9i 4 


^1 S9f) 13 


02 33 e 


11 a 4| 


20 2t 


47 10 or 


^H 




2* 


» a 


At 39 S 


i»2i ;io 10 


13 a 0^ 


30 n 5( 


48 10 3t 


^^1 


h 


40 


titfi 
» t 

23 « 


61i 39 ; 
«3 SO 10 

sai 90 


4K) M 
m4 flfi 4 
ft4 30 H 


13 a !i| 

14 3 


31 7f 

32 10| 


40 10 6 
50 10 8^ 


■ 


■ iii 


«) 10 


^ 30 4 ; 


rHi 3« n 


15 3 St 


33 7 Of 


51 10 UJ, 


^^1 


■^ 


94 
84 4 
84 M 


034 an H 

M4 31 2 


0.-V 37 ^ 
(Uil 37 
CW 37 10 


Ifl 3 5i 
17 3 7f 


34 7 3f 

35 7 


52 11 It 

53 11 4r 


1 


■ ;I9« 


84 m 


A& :)l 


IM$A 38 


le 3 10| 


30 7 Ht 


54 11 Of 


^H 


«4 


89 t 
id to 


Mi as 

dA| 32 4 


07 as 4 1 

(17| 38 9 
» a» 18 


1{> 4 oy 

SO 4 3f 


37 7 111 
39 8 1| 


55 11 U| 
50 12 


■ 


■ ^ 


8A 


ft7 aa d 


m| M> 8 


21 4 


30 B 4y 


07 12 2t 


^H 


■ 


«■ 


84 4 


57| 32 12 


Oil 90 


22 4 at 


40 8 Of 


68 12 5# 


■ 




L 


^^ 




^ 


^ 



nrcTK3E3 OS sravACc 



IMk ^(ofvmhtt. I^ih; Mi ill 



«ldi« 



TW Cooracuce thttiUUT 4 
BMi «liieli lMf« nccived i« 
10 pfQ^raM of iMr aeHhai 

Appoiikd to Yim are Hiii iliiifci iif lii ilani jmiIj. a tbiB aailBd to tlie 
•tiniiml poftft <>f atifpiMBt, Tit: — 

Ko, 1, 2.— From Odem and tkt Seaof Aavr; (Xol2, ate Kow t. wiib ilie 
miditioa of Ui^ so-ealM "* llediiemiMWB danse.') 

Na. S. 4.— From Oalalz, lb»0, Ac, 

Ko, t^,*-Fitnii Sollna. 

Ko. 0. — From Alexandria. 
Wbieb ibe Commiuee now sobmit, widi their esplanatorr remarts^ 

Ahhmigh Bot apeeifieaUj atatad is the fonaal reaolotiotia paaaed ai tlie 
tHatUog 00 Iba laUi of Norember, at the Baltic Cofl^bouae^ it araa a wall 
iiiidifr»looJ tact tl>at th« gniat ehange coatempUted waa the alteration of tlie 
hmu'im (or pajriDtnt of frdgbts from measure to freight ; and it is, perhaps. 
mip^rflunu* ti> add* that the reasons which maioW inOuenced the demand for 
tiji* e.htiu^e of ha-i* irere — firstly, to assimilate the mode of paying freights to 
thill ^ hn h rr«giilHtcfl the ftalc of all grain and seed in the Uniled Kingdom and 
Ciifitin#*rit, \'vA. wi'ight: secondly, to render thereby the interests of iht|K>wner 
and rnptaiti iJcntical with that of the merchant in securiug an aecuraie return 
af fUa rurgri tlliM'.hnr^i^d I and, thirdly, to avoid the very frecjuent disputes 
and QiifiMM^i of iU^tmiinhcihxi linking out of tho prci«ent system, which are 
imiMMt iiUke (o URTcimnt find shjpf>wnen and thcreforo need not be more par- 
llrMdnrty r<ut(n*d llprxi. 

A» II wnlglit Iho Ci>rmtiiltt*e bnvc fixed upon ibc rtiiiinb ton of *2/i4(>ltj. or 
1,'Uft KlIrtji^riMiiN, It wiiH MbviouHly ituposfeibjo u iirnre at aoj weight which 
•brntM uppniAitimle t foMcly to tbc iinporiftl qiiiirtiTs of wheiiL from fill purts of 
Urw MiihliinuinttJ iiml lUarU. bcft^ btTruia^*, i'lum Kgypt forinstiiuce, ibc weight 



STEVE !^S ON STOWAGE. 



SS7 



I ilMOlb. per average quarter, while from tbe Black Seii in certfliD [GRAIN 
deisotis (in tlie present for instance) , a weight of 504lb. has been attained. 
Hence no weiglits could bo said to approximate closely to the imperial quarter. 
The ton of 2,2 40 It)- on the other haud, is a standard of weight for almost all 
roerehandlBe, and ia most in use for calculation of freight from all i>artsof the 
world; it cannot, therefore, be objectionable in refereuce to grain i and if it 
should not come to pass that the ton weight bo constituted a standard weight 
for the Bale of grain in all patt^ of the Uuited Kingdom, as it already is in 

I amDj parts of Ireland, the reduction of that weight to atiy other is a sliiiplo 
loesSi void of intncacy. 

As the standard article for regulating charters, the Comiiiitteo name wheal, 

iia being of foretnoai iraportauco in the trade of the ports interested, and there- 

1 from liave attempted to arrange a scale of proportions for other grain, seed, Ac. 

ab appears to them, after due inquiry, founded upon justice to the shipowner, 

Mkd therefore deeerring of acceptance by the merchant. It is as foliowB : — 

WflSAT to pay jper ton of 2^240 lb. ^^ ^^^ 

IsBiAH CoKir *...., \ Bttmo 

BsAKB, (SieiMAti e^icepted) V freight an wbeat 

TAasB, ItKTsrmst Feas, Mhjjst Seibd . , J per ton, 

Dabi fttid Ky£ * • • 2| <^ cent, more 

LiKSEED find IUpebked « . « . • 7 ditto 

Barley 17 ditto 

CoTTojf Seed 22 ditto 

Oats «....•. 37 ditto 

Tallow 89 ditto 

Wool (eiccpt Merino and ao-called ] 282 ^ ct, or 2^ timca 

*' SpanlMh WooV) .,*....* f freight ol tallow 

w . /-tr _i J * >i 1 *i a • u\ 886 lj>^ cent niort* tliiui 

Wool (Merino and go^<:iiUtMl *' SpMush I ^Jf^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

^^^ > * J tLmeafr'glit tallow. 

Am! father arliclea not cnnmermted in tbis scaler to be computed according to tbc Lon- 
H JAaUk; printi'd roleii in proportion to tallowi ila fixed by this Bcalt i and on other 
■rtiakii not enumerftlijd in either scule, freight to be pui<l m if hiden with wheat. 

The alterations here mode are mainly an increase, more or leas importauti 
' on the rates payable upon the lighter kinds of grain and seed in proportion to 
wheat, as couipared with the Baltic rates; and iti the Appeudix will be found 
a table illustrative of the changes proposed, with tlie results attnirjed by this 
bcaU% and by that of the Baltic priuted rates, as nearly as it in posBihlo toesii- 
luate the avumge ennyiug power of veaaelB of the preaent day for lighter grain 
aa compared with wlieat. 

l*he Committee have beeu at great paina to arrive at an aecurate judgfiient 
oa this important point. The inqiur}' is beset with va&t difficulties of « prvc- 
tioal kind — among others, the great apparent discrepancies in the carrying 
|tower of vesFols of difierout countiies Hud build, exhibited by tlic returns ob- 
tained from iu]|»ortiug bouses here; but notwitbstaiuling these ditficuhiea* the 
Coitmiitti'e are confident that the o^juslnient they hiivi- ill* lied will prove to 
be as vl(M9 an upproximudou to faiinebs us it is in their power to devise. 



S38 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Tlio Conomiltee are well aware tbat instanoeB can he adduced [GRAIN 
where the proposition they submit can be proired to operate unfavourably 
upon Tesselg carrying ligluer grain than wheat, according to tlie scale, but 
tbeso will be quite exceptional instances ; and as it is only possible to deal with 
such questions upon a broad and coraprchonsive basis, tbry confidently hope 
their efforts will be received and acknowledged by the sbipping community as 
& *B4itisractory effort to correct injustices sustained under the terms of the 
*' London and Baltic printed rates," 

The foregoing remarks apply to grain and seed, It will be obdous that 
the most important alterations eflbcted regard linseed and barley. Oonv^inoed 
that linseed at a redueiion of 10 W cent, from wheat, and barley at 15 ^ cent 
operated unfairly to the shipowners, the Coujmittee have corrected it by de- 
creasing the proportion to G ^ccut. on linseed and 12 W cent, on barley. 

Tallow retains its proportion to wheat as recognised by the Baltic scale* 

Wool is subjectai to a revision by distinguishing fine wool from conrse. 
It has been found that by the Baltic scale, whereas course wool was loaded at a 
great advantage to the shipowner as compared with grain, fine wool so loaded 
proved less remunerative, and even disadvantageous to the shipowner ; there- 
fore, by the present scale it has been resolved to decrease the rate on coarse wool 
to 2} times the rate on tallow, and on merinos to increase the rate to Si times. 

Tiie question of press packing of wool was brought to the notice of ths 
Committee, whereby a great saving in freight might be effected by the merchant 
without detriment io the shipowner; but the diflicnlties which at present en- 
compass the carrying out of such an arrangement are such, that the Committee 
conceive any suggestion with reference thereto, at this moment, would be of 
little or no service* 

Beside the alteration of the scale, it appeared to the Committee that varioua I 
alterations might be made with advantage in the form of charter party to which i 
they will now olhide. 

It was conceived that charterers have a right to an accurate statement of 
the class and capacity of sliips to be cliartered, and with that view have intro- 
duced a clause which will give these particulars the natnre of a warmnty* 

At the recommendation of the shipowaers on the Committee, and after . 
consulting with parties interested in the question, it was resolved to add Ply- ' 
mouth as a third Port of Call, with Falmouth or Queen stowut for the conve- 
nience of vessels, because it is an ascertained fact that in unfavourable weather 
Plymonth can mostly be reached, when Falmouth or Qneenstown are difficult 
of access. 

The question of ilie so-called '* afloat clause" has often given rise to dispute 
and difficulty, and althongh practically no vessel can be compelled to lie other- 
wise than afloat, under the terms '* as near as she may safely get'* the Com- 
mittee resolved to terminate the doubt by inserting the clause to discharge 
afloat, and so to end all misunderstanding on that point. 

The additional rate of 10 p cent, for discdmrgo on the Continent between 
Havre and Hamburg, is clearly unfair in principle, timsmueh as while the 
extra charges must always be tlio sume at any given port, ttic udditionnl rate 
obtiiioed varies with the rate of freight paid for the voyage *-lo die advantage 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

reliant if at a low freiglit, to that of tbo owner if at a high [GRAIN 
!£lie Committer bfive, therefore, stipulated tbat freiglit to tho Couiinetit 
HmI StW^ ton wheat addiuoaal for ail cliartera, cousideriog that thereby ' 
fhtj give the shipowner a ftdr re riiu aeration for the excess of charges incurred. 
They also ^i?e an allowance of !.» ikl ^ ton wheat for the advantage of 
dirwl destination, on yiguiug bills of lading, or for discharge at the Port of i 
Call« conaidering that the owner has on advantage fully to this extent iti so 
ourtailing the time occupied la the voyage. 

The ollowanco of discount on h alf freight has been expunged. Seeing that 
tliia aitowance is in but very few cases to the benefit of the ciuirterer, tho 
Committee considered that it might fairly be remitted to the shipowner, and 
Ihe freights paid in full without deduction. 

As 10 lay-days, it ia thought well that the expenditure of time at any Port 
of Call arranged by charter, shall reckon with days used in loading and dis- 
dmrgiiig, and in that way more promptitude will be observed on the part 
of merchants. The additional 10 days for wool appear to he amply warranied. 
This clause has been inserted in tlie Danube charters in yiew of the increasing 
exports of l)ittt article from this quarter. 

Disputes are of frequent occiuience as to tho exact place of loading at tho 
Suliiia M outlt of the Dauuhe, and also as to tlie rt;adiug of the ice clause, for 
T(«ael$ loading at Sulina. Charter No 6 contoins clauses ou these points which 
il jft considered will moet the exinting difficulties in a satisfactory rannner. 

The Committee have come to the conclusion that a pro rata amount of 
Jem lit rage [^offers a fairer scttlcmctit of lliat point Outn the present inodo, 
eauMing at times a question in the haining of charters which may well be dis- 
f»*.'ii8ed wiih. The amount winch the Committee rccnmmeod is Adp register 
ton Biitish ineasuremcot, per day, which, from inquiry, the}' find to be in 
^g^iioraJ ust> for Goveroment chartei-s, and appears equitable. 

The payment of freight by wejglit allows the Committee to do oway with 
i the most objectionable part uf the so called *'damDgo clnu&e.'* They propose 
; tltat gca-tinriuiffetl grain or seed shall pay two-thirds the freight of Bound, except 
I In cases of stranding. They except stranding, becaui^e in that case, and in na 
lother« can merchants at present recover the loss involved in damage by sen 
I water; and aUhough in rare cases 8<'a danuigo incurred may be quite beyond \ 
I tlic control of the shipowner or captain, still the clause will have the very 
InaUiral vitecl of iu«uriijg greater care of the cargo on the part of captoinst 
SUCH are the changes sug^esti^d by the Committee, It umy not bo out of 
\ to SUV that the task eoramitted to them has been performed with much 
Dfjsiderction, and no small amoiurt of labour— that tliay have endca- 
ithfnlly to discharge then' duty to all interests concerned, it is hoped 
Fthe report they to- day put forward will fuJly establish* 



MAJOR USBORNE, Chmrmm. 
HENRY F. TiARKS, 
ALBERT KAIiL, 



Hon,S0Ci, 



Billio CoibO'Iumso, hoadm, tfardi, 1863. 



240 



STKVKNS ON STOWAGE. 



FaBMB OF CHABTEB PAfitT. 




[eBAH 



CHABTER PABTY, No. l.-^From Odessa nnd tf^ Sea of Azov. 

LoxDOMi 186 

It U this day matuftUy agreed b«iwe«n of ihts good «Mp or Test«l odled the 

of of the burUicu of toae rogiitter odmeiuaremeDt, or tberetaboatB, 

wHcrvof LB MaAteri now and of Kerch anii. TbAt the stid «hip 

being tlglit, staancli, and Btrong^ cIuhikhI and erery way fitt<Ml for tlie rojn^ ihaU, 

with oU conve&ivtit Bp«ed Bail imd proceed to CosaxAwrtKOFLSt tnd Uiere lipply to 

If DMrt* wlio stiall give ordere^ witbin Iveatj-fonr hours after application (if in 

1ialU«t, or after dUchargo of inward cargo^ if any), or lay-dayi to eomit, to proceed 
OnsfliA or Kkrtoq, or bo near thereto as aha can safely get, and if ordered 

Kertch, ilmll either load themSf or proceed, agreeably to fmther orden to be there gfres- 
on irrital, or Uy dayi to cocuit, to TaoamboOi or a Bate Fort nr thk Ska or Ajtor^ 
ao near thereto um she may safely get, and there load from the Agente of the aaid Char- 
ierert^ a foil and conipkrto cargo, bat not exceeding tona, of wheat imd or other lawful 
Qifruh&ndisD, nt the option of the Merehanta, which the aaid Merchants bind themftdvre 
in Nhip and send alcmgnde at the Port of Loading, and take from idongNifle at the Port of 
0tacharge, at their own expenae and rkk — ^tho ihip'a boats oud tirew to reader the cn»» 
tonmry aaaistanee in towing the UghturB — not exceeding what ehe can reaaoaahly stow and 
carry over and aboTC tier tackle, apparel, provmons, and f iimitnre ; and being so loaded^ 
idtiLll ihcrewitli proceed to Qukenbtowk^ FALMotrrtif or Plymouth, at the Master's optiOfl, 
for order* (to be given by return of pnut or hiy dajM to cotuit) to diaduurge at a Sapk Foirr 

131 THK UXITRD KCNODOW, Or OX THE CONTINKHT SSTWKE!^ HaTKB AITH HaKBUAO incluidve, 

or so near thereunto a A she may luifely get, and there deliver the same afloat on being 
paid fnii«ht in caah, without diwcotint, aa foUowi : — 

For Whi^at 1^ ton of 2,^K)Ib. or of 1^015 kilograma gross weight, deliTored from 



to 

i 



OPHSBA OB HLEBTOB 
£ t d 



B£A or AJtOV 

£ « 



d \ £ 9 d 

oilier lawfal merehajidiDe in proportion thereto, according to the Mediterranean and Black 
SoA Freighi Beale of 18(iB, bring w full of all l^dmage^. Fort Cltarges, imd Pilotage. If 
tlie Teasel be diacharged on the Continent ha above, the rat« Niholl be three BhiUltiga and 
ilspenee per tcm additional, and if the resiiel be ordt^reil to a direct port on «iguLng BlUb 
of f>adi:ngt or if she bo diHi«hart*ed tit her Fort of Coll^ the rule shall be red need by one 
uUilliiig and siipunci.* pf-r ion, Cork being considered for vesseli* culling nt i^iii.c&stofm as 
the Fort of Coll. The Merchants engage to provide mnia, nnd the tihip the nece»tiury 
wood for BunnAjge. Caah for sblp's diBbarBementd at Oie Port of Loading not to exceed 
£ T to bo advanced, free of interest and commiiiision, and to be deducted from the 
freight with coat of insurance thereon. 

mnniug days are to be allowed the said Merchants for loading the said &hlp 
waiting orden) anil nnloading, and if one half or more of the cargo conaint of wool, 10 nd* 
dltionjil days to bo allowed ; and 10 daya on Demnrrage over and above the Bald laying 
day ft, at foorpctice per register ton Britiab meaBtirement per day, to be paid tlay by day. 
Detention by ice and i^qiiruiititie not to be counted as lay-dnyB. |The set of Goo, the 
Qneen'a enemiea, reetraints of Princes, Pirates, fire, and idl and every other dangers and 
aeeidentA of the ieaa, riTerB^ and tiavigation, of what natnre and kind soever during the 
said voyage, being always excepted). 

It is al»o agreed, that should the cargo conBUt of grain or seed, imd finy part thereof 
bo delivered damaged by sea water, the Freight apon such sea damaged portion Rhall bo 
two-ihirda of that above stipnlati^d, except only in eiise the veHscl hbtdl have been utrancitscl^ 

The Charterer's liability on Ibis Charter to ceaee when the cargo ib shipped, provided 
the same ia worth the Freight on arrival at Fort of Discharjate, the Owner, Master, or Id* 
Ai^nta having an uhAoluto lien on it for Freight, Dead Freight and Demnrmgc. 

Penalty for oon-pcrformance of this agreement, the ettioiAted unomil ol Freight 



STEVENS 



JHARTER PARTY. No, 2.— Sea of Azov, uith a^lditwHaJ chnu. [GRAIN 

After Wing loadeil, tht^ ghtp is to caU at Malta for ordertt^ tlnj Chnrteren* or tht^ir 

tgeut!* liiwijig tlii^ option, witliiu twtjnlyfuur Itours liftcr lurival, or luy-diiy* to count, oi 

r^ivrviiJ, hrr ou ii» abovf, or to n mfh Port in the Mtiiitcrmntan to dkelinrge, paying, '^ the 

iitt* r i i e, of the Frcigbt agroeci for tlic United Kingdom, am\ m end the voyage. 

CHAR IE R PARTY, No. 3.— Galatz, Ibraili &c. 

LoNtJON, 1^ 

It Is this day mutually agreed between of the good whip or vessel cidkd tlvc 

of of the burthen of tous register fidmeAsuremeiitj or thoreabouta, whereof 

i« Matter, now and of jrerehtint», Tlmt the said ship being tight, 

stsimcli, strong, clufised and every way fitted for tht voyage, «hnll, with all cfinre- 

nicnt «peod liail and proceed to Galatz for orderB, to be given within twenty-four 

lloim after arriral or biy-daya to fount, to load there, or at liimail or any other safe port 

in th« River Danube (not lii{?her than IbiniJi, or so near thereunto as the may bufely gci» 

nd ihere hjail from the Agents of the tmid CharttriTs, a full and complete cargo, but not 

xccL'tiin'^ tons, of wheat nud or other Idwful merchandiise, at the option of the Mer- 

, which the said MerebantB bind theutfielve» to ship and aend alongHidtt nt the Fort of 

ilfng, and take from aloupside at the Port of Dif^harge, at th^ir own expense and rifk — 

Taliip't!. boats and erew to render the customarj^ aH^iBlunee in towing llie lighters— not 

credit*^ what she ean reasonably stow and earrj' over and above her tackle, upparel, pro- 

and furniture; and beioR ao loaded, *ihall thenwitli prot^eed to Quzenbtowx, 

©l*Tff, or Plymoutu, nt tlie MaKter'a option, for orders (to be given by return of |>o»t 

aja to countu to dischargti at a Safe Port in* the Usitko KiNOimii, or on ina 

wwt RBTWEKS Havrk Asn Hamuuro, indnsive, or 60 nwir tht ttnulo tm she may 

F 1^, and there deUver tJie samo afloat on being paid freight in ea&h| without dia- 

eoont, as foll^^ws : — 

For WiiKAT, per Ion of 2,2-10 lb. or of 1,015 kilograimi | 
gross weight delivered, | 

r Uwf ul merehandii^e, in proportion thereto, aeeording to the Mediterranean and Black 
8ea Frciffht Seale of 1H>3, being in full of all Primages, Port Charges, Pilotage, Lighttr- 
„, m^ at Snltna, Sec. If the ve-iHel be disthnrgfrl on the Continent a» above, the rate hliall 
IMBm* Ibtre HhilHnga nnd nix ix:-iiee per ton additiuniil, and ii the ve«>Kel l^ ordered to a direct 
^^^^rf on ai'^'ning Wi\U of leading, or if Mhe be tlLHcbitr^i-d nt her Port of Call, the rate a^iail 
^^Bm r&docfd by one shilling and »>ixpeuee \xir ton, Cork bi-ing eimhideriNl for ve^^Ktelti ealUng 
^^bt Qnecnstowii a«> the Fori of Call. The Merchants enga^i to provi^lc mats and the ahip 
^^Mh« ii«»cc»»at3- wood for dunnage. Cash for iiliip's dihbuniemcntji at Liie Port of Loading, 
not earecdtiig i! , to Le a^vniucd, Ci*ee of iiittuist toid commi^Mon, and to bo de* 

<lttcle<I from the Freight nvitl* cost of Insuranee thereon, 

ruuniii*^' <hiyii are to be nlluwed the Hiud Mt rehant* for loading the said 
ilui» waiting orders »ud urlnading, and if one half or murt* of the cargo etintdiit of wool, 
%tm additiftnal djiyw to bo allowed, and ten day» on demurrage over and above the wud 
^yiug da,^Tt. at ftmrpence per register ton Urititi^h meaiiarement per day, to be paid da, by 
ay, l>el«-ntii>n by iec and *^nanuatiiie not to be counted a^ hiy-d;iyfi« (Tho act of Ijod, 
he Queen #. rnemletB, retitrtiinl* of Princes, Pirates, fire, and all aiid i«V(»ry other d^>rigi<r» 
id nrrtrfi nta of Uir AtAfi, rlvern, and narigatian, of what nature and kind ftoorer, duHng 
Jlhi« %i\u\ Toyage, being alwny«« cxcepUd.) 

It iH a1a4i itgreeil, that nhould the cargo eonFist of grain or seed, nnd any part thereof 

e dflivciiid ihiiuttged by eea water, the Freight upon such sea-damaged portion shall h« 

||wo lUtnU of tliat hLovu stipulated, except only in case the ves!iel nhaU have l>eeu Niroidml* 

The Charterer* liiibiiity on thia Charter to ceiise when the cargo i* iihipped, provided 

MMne in worth tlie Freight on arrival at Port of Dtj«chargo, Uie Owuit, Master, or hia 

I Imring im abimlutA lien on it lor Freigltt, Dead Freight, and Dtinmrriige- 

lijf foe tum-performanco of thii agre«meut, the estimated amount of Freight. 



STEVKNS ON STOWAGE. 



CHARTER PARTY, No. 1.— Galatz, IbraU, &c.—nilditwHal eUiuu, [GRAIN 

AlU?r lirmff loftdivl, the akJp U to coll at Malta for ordcrtj the Cburtewrs or their AgenU 
hAvhig tiitt option, HiUiiu f wenty-fotu- hourn oUbt arnvol or Iny-days to conut, of ordenng 
her <m u above, vr to a so/c ftorl in the Mediterranean to dificKurgei pAying, in the hAUt 
e»MCt of llie frcigM agreed for the United Kingdom, oitd §o end the voyage, 

Witneifl, 



CHARTER PARTY, No. 5.— From Sulma. 

LOKDOK, 196 

It Is this day rnDtoaUy agreed between of tlie good Khip or ycsmI caUod the 

of of the btirUi«'n of tons register admea&nreinetit, or tberenbontei whereoif 

la Muter, now imd of McrehiuiLB. ThFit Oic eoid ship lielng tight, stamicb, 

end itroDg, daaeed mid every way fitted for ilm voyage, ^aU, with all eonrcnimt 

■peed taU and proceed to the Sitlira Motmi or the Dakudk, or so near 

ih«n?to as ■be run safely get, and there loiid^ oalsitk' tli*? bar, from Uie Agents of the said 
C1iart4&rcTii, a foil and f omplttd' cargo, but not cxeeedlng tons, of wheat and or other hiwfiil 
disei at the option of the Mercba&tfit which tlie said Merchants bind themselvet 
k ehip i&d send alongnide i^t the Port of Loading, and take from alongude at the Fort of 
Dbdiiirge, at their own expeiivc and rl^tk, not exceeding what she can reasonably stow and 
Mfiy over and above her tscklef apparels -fjrovisionSf and ihirmtnre ; and being so loaded 
ihiJl therewith proceed to Qusrnstowk, Falmoeth,, orPLTMoUTH, at the Master's option, 
lor order* (to be f^vvn by return of poat or biy-dayg to count) to diacbarge at a Safr Pobt 
19 Titx UifiTAD KnvoDOMf or ox THE Coj^TtKENT BETWEEN Haviue akd Haxbu&o Inclosive, 
or to near thereimto aa she may safvly get, and there dehver the tame ftfloat on being paid 
,#rcigM is cash, wilhomt discount, m follows *— 

For Wheat, per ton of 2,240Ih. or of 1,015 Mlograma I 
gross wtsight di^livered, J 

oUmt ]«wfal merohandiAe in proportion therein, necordrng to the MediterrtHGHn and 
Bkelc Sea Freight Seale of 18(Ut, being in fall at all Primages, Port Charges, and Filotagcu 
If tlie f«i««l be ilUclmrgtrd on thv Continent as above, the rate shall be three shillings and 
•ftspenee per Um UfMUltrntih and if the vessel be ordered to a direct Port on Bigning Billa 
of I^adiagf or if nhe be discharged at her Port of CaU, the rate shall be redoead by one 
■llffllng amt MUpf«nc*] p«r ton. Cork being considered for vessels calling at QneenelnTm as 
the Port of CaU, The MercbantH engage to provide mats, aud the ship the necessfvry wood 
lor rhinnngf'. Cash for Hliip'w dihburtements at the Port of Loading, not excee<ling £ 
io In* ndvaiicrdi, frr^e of interest and eommissjon, and to be deducted from the Freight with 
I tout of insnranee thereon. 

mnnrng days are to be allowed tho said Merchant* for loading the said ship, 
waiting orderi» and unloading, and if oni; half or more of the cargo consist of wool, 10 ad- 
ditional days to be allowed ; and 10 days on dcmnrrage over and above the said lajiog-days 
•l fonrpenc^ per register ton British meaaiireinent per day, to be paid day by day. If the 
loading of the sliip at SnUna be prrvented by ice in the Danube either at or below Ibroil, 
laynJays shall not ri^kon during tlie delay so oceaaioned, (The act of Gou, the Queen's 
enemies, restrain Is of Princes, Pirates, flro, and all and every other dangers and aecidentg 
of the seas, rivers, and narigatioiit of what nature and kind soever, during the said royt^ 
being always exeeptefh) 

It i« also agreed, that sbontd the cargo consist of grain or seed, and any part thereof 
be doUvered damaged by aea water, the Freight upon such sea-damaged portion shnll be 
two -thirds of that abi^ve titipnlatcd, except only in case the vessel shail have been btranded. 

The Cluu-terer's liability on thia charter to cease when the cargo is shipped, provided 
the same is worth the freight on arrival at Port of Discharge, the Owner, Master, or hia 
Agents having an absotut^ lien on it for fretight, Dead Freight, acid Demurrage. 

Puially for noaperfuinnance of thia Agreement, the estimated amount of Freight. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



243 



CHARTER PARTY, No. 0,^ 



From Alexandria. [GRAIN 

London, 1S6 

A b tills daj mutniUly agreed between of the good tubip or res^cl colled the 

of of the burtlicii of about tons register uAmemuT^meui, or UiureuboutBi 

krhcreof is KiL^ter, now and oi Merehjmte, TUat ilie- 8aid Hhip 

ng tightf stftoscli^ and strong, diissod and every wny fitted fur the voyaije, shjiU, 

mU conrenieni speed, sail and proceed to Allkjlndria (Ej^ypt), or so ne»x 

nlo lu dho mny safely get, and there loud from tho Agents of the said Chiiricrer&, a 
I complete caj*go, bat not exceeding tons of wheat and or other Inw ftil merchan- 
dise, at the option of the Merchants, which the Raid Merchants bind th^uiselveg to ahip 
>nd tend slong^de at the Port of Loadingi and Luke from ulongside at the Port of Discharge, 
ait iheir own expenso and rials, not exceeding what ahe €iui reasounbly stow and carry over 
ttod abore her tackle, apparel, provisions, and fumitnro; anxi being so loaded, fihall there* 
irilh proceed to Qukekstow?;, FaLXOUTH, or Plvmoitth, at the Master's opLiou, for orders 
(to be given by return of post or lay-days to count) to discharge at a S^i: Port m tub 
^^Ahu» KiKaDOX, or on toe Cot^tikskt B£twsicn Ha^^^re and HAMiixriio, inclusive, or so 
^^^^^Hbercunto aa i»ho may safely get, and there deliver the eunie adoat on being paid 
^^^^^■lilt ijaahi, withoat di^connt, as followB; — 

^^^^H For WsEAT« per ton of *2/2tOtb. or of 1,015 kilogrtuns I 
^^^^^^i grot* weight, delivered f 

oihsr lawful merchandise in proportion thereto, «cconljjig to the Mediterranean and Black 
i Freight Scale of 1KC3, beiiisj; in full of all Primages, Port Charges, and IHlotage. If 
, he diaaharged on tho Cautineut ai ubove, the rate t^hfill be three shillings and 
I per ton additionul. imd if tlie ve4»iiel be ordered to u direct j>ort on signing Bills 
g, cr if she be discharged at her Fort of Call, the rule shall be reduced by one 
{ and fdxpeucc per ti^n, Cork being conutilcred for veatteltii calling at Queenstown as 
the Port of Call. The Merchants engage to provide mats, and the tdiip tho nceosaory 
wood for dtituijige. Cwih for ship's dlaburHcmenta at the Purt of Loadings not ejLceedittg 
£ , to be advanced, free of intf^reitt and commlsaiou^ and io be dedocied from the 
Fbtight with coat of insurance thereon. 

nmniug day« are to be lUlnwed the said mcrchaiits for loading tho said ship, 
^^Vlltiog orders and imloading, and 10 dayu on Demurrage over sjid above the said laying- 
^^HayK at foiirp«ncc per regtJiter ton British measoremeut per day, to be paid day by day* 
^^^^hiiacl of Qan„ the Queen's encmiett, rCMtraintii of Princes, PirateH, fire, and idl and every 
^^^^K dajigen and ucddeuts of the seas, rivers, and navigatioB, of what nature and kind 
^^^Hb, during the (aid voyage, being always crccpted). 

li it lUiio agreed, that should the enrgo con Hist of grain or seed, and any part thereof 
1^ h a delivered damaged by sea water, tlie Freiglit upon soch sea-dnniLa|^d portion shall be 
■^■wo^ thirds* of thiit iibove stipulated, excc^pt only in case tho vessel shall have hcen stranded* 
^^H The Charterer's liability on this Chnrter to cease when the cargo is shipped, provided 
^HpiA same b worth the Freight on arrival at the Port of Diseharge, the Owner, Monti^r, or 
^Btos Agenta having an absolute lien on it for Freight, Dead Freight and Demurrage. 
^^ Fianl^ for non-peif onmince of this agreement, the estimated amount of Freight, 

Wlt&MS, 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



245 



a95 GRAVITY (SPECIFIC). From die following lublu of spe- 
cific gravities, tlie v^eighis o( bodies may be caleulntcd fmrn cabk-al 
oeasurenient. By specific gravity is nieanl llie weiglit of bodiea cuiii- 
rpared with Bimilar bulks of water* Thus, ti cubic foot of water weighs 
11,000 ounces ; by reference to the table, turpentine will be found 87'i, 
meaning that a cubic foot will weigh 872 ounces; iron 7,74:30, meaning 
thai a cubic fool will weigh 7wf^t> ounces. By taking ihe cubical measure* 
jnenl of any body the weight may be ascertained by niulrijilying into its 
weight in water the number funnd against its name in the following table. 
Thus, suppose we have UM} bars of iron, each one inch sr|uiire and 10 
feet long, the cubical conlenls arc found by nuilliplyiug 10 feel long by 
l-144llis of a square foot> or *0U694j tlie pruducl being *0694 of a cubical 
foot. As a cubic fool of water weighs 1,000 ounces the weight of a bulk 
of water equal to the balk of the bar will be *06,944x K000=:ti-y46x 
100 bars = 6,946 ounces or 434 tij. x 7*78, the Jigurea opposite in the table, 
kTbe product is 3,376 rb. 



Add, MiMic imifl 

f, muriatic .«.••••.. 1*200 

t, nitric ,. 1-271 

AmemCf fiulphnric • * * 1*840 

• „ wUito 8-700 

AlfttHiAter *. 1-670 

AlculiiO, ab*o]at« 0-707 

Alum 1-714 

Ambergris 0-780 to 0-9^6 

Afitltim-ito » , , . , 1"80«» 

Antimony, rej^as , , , 672)0 

•» ftttlphuret d-500 

B«7t«*, .dpbmto of, I ^.^ ^ 4.55Q 
or beftrf spar. . * . J 

BiWAlt a 000 

BiiTTLx 1-714 

Brirk 'Z'(m 

Batter - 01U2 

CiumUihonc or India rubber . , 0-99S 

Clmlk .,, '2-:2f>5to 2657 

CotJ 1020 to 1-970 

Citkt* ,. 0-744 

C«p«l 10^5 

Copprr ore, ycUow 4'IGO 

„ red 5*8 to 6-0O0 

1016 

rk 0'2'W> 

4-000 

ffilic 0'B&6 zDuniiiio (V7'29 

Flwef... 09-28 

F«^liT|»'tr 8*438 to 2'7€)0 

nUt.bljfcdt 2-582 

GLuA, cmwn 2-520 

»« ffrven 4 * S'642 

„ itini S*7a)to S'(N)0 

«4 common plftio , « , 2700 



Ormdie 2'613 to 2*956 

Giunarabio 1-452 

Gunpowder, loose 0*836 

„ Holid. 1-745 

Gatta percbtt 0*925 

Honey. , I'lSO 

Indigo......... 10J19 

Iroustoae, Cftrron 3-281 

Isinglaas 1111 

Ivory l'H25 

T^d 0947 

t^fld ore, Derbyshire ft- 565 to 7' 7 86 

Limestone, coi£ipai?t, 2-3H(J to 3000 

T^ffiRtiesift, native, hydrate of . . 2'3S0 

Midaekite, compnct. . 3*572 to S'QOl 

Marble, Carara 2*716 

M&iilk (a resin) 1 "074 

MetaJn, arsenic 5-763 

♦, braiw 7-824 to 8*896 

„ colialt 8*600 

„ eopper 8*900 

„ Bold, cast 19-258 

„ iron, wrought 7780 

„ „ coat 7 248 

t» It pyritcB* or luimdlc . 4-7f>0 

„ ii-on oroa, hcematit* .... 8*i»^ 

„ day .... 8*12 to 8*880 

„ lead llniSO 

„ lead, galena 7*600 

„ lead, cArbonate, or dry \ ur/wi 

white lend f ** ^^ 

„ lead, oxido lith. 0'2 to 9*500 

„ rtHll&ad ...... 8 62 10 9000 

, , munganese , blaek vide , , 4 ' •*) 1 

„ tneTcnry «..*,......... IJJ'508 




MetaU^idckel 8-279 

„ plitiiui ., 195(X» 

„ Bslrtsr 10-474 

„ Bt&el^Boft ,,. 7833 

,» tin .,.,• 7*290 

,, zino, Comiali 7*291 

„ cine ore 6*700 

», adno ........ fi-SOOto 7*191 

,» zinc OTQt bUck jack .... 4'000 

„ tine cidamuiQ 3'600 

Mica 2'650to 2-934 

Nftptha 0-700 to 0*847 

Nitre 1'900 

Oils, jmiseed 0*886 

H oamway b<^ 0*904 

,f lavenditr 0*694 

II turpentine 0*670 

„ b-mpaeed .,,,, ,. 0*036 

t, liiiiieefl O-MO 

I, niposteed 0*913 

„ wbjile 0-923 

Opal, common , . , , 1-958 to 2*114 

Opium ,. 1"336 

Phosphoms 1-770 

Fitch M60 

Fluniiugo ........ 1-987 to 2-400 

Porceluin^ Chiaii 2*384 

Forpljyry 2*458 to 2 972 

Proof, apirit 923 

Pmnicofttono ...... 0-7-20 to 0914 

QoartE 2-e*>4to 3760 

Rock-crystal 2 581 to 2*888 

BoU, common 2*130 

BcAmniony, Smyriui ........ 1-274 

t^late, drawing ,, 2*110 

., common roofing ...... 2'672 

Sp*r, fluor 8094 to 3-791 

Spc^rmoceti 0943 

BtoLictiti) 2-S2Sto 2*548 

Btone, Bristol .... 2*510 to 2*640 

„ ffrinding . . . « 2*142 

„ Portland *i'49l5 

„ rotten l'iJ81 

Sufjar 1-606 

BolphHte of whLh, or soli cake . . 2*200 

Stilplinr, native 21>JJ3 

Talc ..,. 2"080to 3*000 

Tftllow 0*941 



TnrpQDtine , 0'872 

Vinegar 1*013 to 1*080 

Wftter distilled 1000 

, 1-038 

,. teltaer 1003 

Wax, bcea 0*9t^ 

Wine Bordeaux ............ 0-993 

H Bnrgimdy 0*991 

,1 Comtanee I'OBl 

M M&lAgii 1*032 

,1 Port 0-997 

,. Champagne, white ..., 1**997 

Wood, apple trees 0*793 

■ 0-845 

heech 0*852 

box, French 0*9 12 

boJt, Dtttivh 1-3-28 

rodBraxil ............ I mi 

eampeachy 913 

cedaTi wild . . „ 0*5% 

oedar, Pakatino ........ 0*013 

cherry ti«et 0-715 

ciiran ,...,... 0-726 

coeoa I'OIO 

cork 0-240 

CTprcisa, Bpaniah 0*644 

ebony, American 1*831 

ebony. Indian ........ 1'209 

elder tree 0*695 

elm ditto., 0-671 

fir, male .............. f»50 

fir, female 0-498 

haxol O-eOO 

I'nniper 0*556 

igtium vit^B 1-333 

maboganiy 1'0&3 

maple tree 0*750 

mnlb(?rry, Spanish . . , , 0*897 

oak« hear tf 60 y tiiirs old . . 1 * 1 70 

oak, dry D'930 

oHto tree .... .......... 0*927 

orange' |»'70ii 

pear..'. 0*16<J 

plum. 0785 

pomegranate 1-351 

poplar »,.,, 0-383 

poplar, white Spanish . . 529 

Tine 1-327 

walnut 0*681 

willow O-^Sl 

yew, Hutch 0*788 

yew, Spanhih 0*807 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE- 



247 



fcicks of Irisli 
397 



GROATS or Grits 

groats go to a ton. 

GROUND NUTS, shelled 



oats freed from ibrir liubks. Eigbi 



Bombay [on 16 c^vt. 



tS98 GUANO. The origmal name of guninj h huanu, which is a 
jrm in the Quichna dialect, luearnng '* aiilma! dun^;" for example 
uanacuhuariu, excrement of ihe huanaii* As ihe word is now generally 
sed» it is an ahbreviaiion of pishu huanii, hird-duiig, Tlie Spaniards 
hnve converted the 6nal syllable nu hno no, as they do in all the words 
IL^d(»pted from the Quiehim which have the like term i nation. The Eu- 
^^hipcon orthography, guanoj which is also followed in Spanish America, 
^Bs quite erroneous ; for ihe Qiiii hua language wants the letter g, as it does 
l^neveral other consonants, S|}aniards pronounce the word as if written 
wauno ; the ^u and hu in Spanish being equivalent to one w. The guano 
Ik^islricts of Bc^Uvia are Under Forsyth Island^ Consiitution Roads; also 
^Bti Mexilones Bay ; and I'aquirjui ; the guano districts of Pern for foreign 
"" vessels are the Chincha Islands, 

3tl0 The best guano is the excrement of sea* fowl and seals, allowed 

to accumulate in countries where there is no rain ; it sometimes includes 

K^e bodies of seal .Sj which seek the higheiit points of land on feeling the 

^^ppproach of deaih. It owes its virtue as a manure, first to the presence 

of atnmoniacal salts, and secondly to that of the phosphate of lime or 

^^bone earth, derived from the hones of fish, &c* 

^H 400 To tf'st the ammonia, put a spoonful of s^uano and a spoon fal 
^^f powdered quick Hmc in a mortar, and rub them with a pestle for q^fcw 
seconds; if ihe guano he genuine the smel! will resemble that of a bottle 
of salts, and will make the eyes water in the same manner. In this way 
it may be proved whether the sample he guano or not, and the strength 
of diirerenl sanndes may be estimated by tite comparative strength or 
lefQuvia of the ammonia disengaged. To test for the phosphate of lime, 
plncc a small quantity (say 100 grains) in an iron ladle or earthenware 
ipkin, or any similar vessel, and heat it red hot over a clear fire for 
veniy minutes ; if the guano be genuine it will be reduced to a while ash, 
bing about 3-5 grains ; if the 100 grains, when burned, weigh much 
than 35 grains, it is not genuine, or contains an undue proportion 
»and or similar ra alter. 

401 The asbes from genuine guano will be found to be phosphate 

of lime, nearly pure* If it be required to prove this, a small boiile of 

celic acid or white vinegar will dissolve the phosphate and hold it in 

lution, leaving the silica and alumina (probably amouniing to 3 or 4 

lius) undissolved* The ashes should be left in the acetic acid for two 

aye, and the bottle shaken occaaionally. It is assumed that tlie ginmo 

leaed is diyr. 





248 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 




402 Professor Nesbitt aays "good Peruvian giiano [GUANO 
oiifjlil to cunlain Iti or IT^ceiiL of ammonift, and from 25 to 30 {j> cent, 
of ilie pliospiiate of lime/* He made nn experiment as follows: — ^A 
sloppererl boiile, capable of lioldmg 3,000 i^rains of walei, had four ounces 
avuirdopois of good guano placed in it. Water was then added, and the 
materials shaken until well mixed. A liltle more water was added, and 
the boule again agitated, and then allowed to rest for three or four 
minutes lo permit the air bubbles to arise. The boiilc was now lilled 
completely with water, the froth running over; the stopper was then 
gently, but accurately, fitted to ila place, and the bottle wiped with a 
cloth, A counterpoise, previously made equal to the weight of the 
I bottle alone, was tlien placed in one pan of a small pair of ordinary 
Bcales, and the bottle, with the guano, in the other* From a numerous 
series of experiments, it was found that the bottle and the guano, on an 
averai^e, weighed 6(^4 grains more than the hotile and water alone: that 
is, the water in the bottle would weigh 3,000 grains, and the f^yano and 
water 3^664 grains. 



COMFOSITIOir OF QOOB PEEUVIAlf GUAKO* 

WnkT 17-400 

Orgnnic Matter, And ammoDUicftl »alt8 * 49 970 

PliosphutL'H of linifr and uaagneMA (botte eartb) .«....,. 23'660 

Alkidiiiie soJtti, chledj chloridea of jyotassiuni uid sodiutn 7*-i30 

Sand » . » I'oiO 



100000 



• Yielding Amtnutiiii. 



403 Guano weighs from 60 @70lti. ^husbel, and will absorb 20 
fP'cent. additional of water, which it will attract in a most extraordinary 
manner, for when well diinnaged oil" in a dry ship, all that part near the 
sides becomes dark, by mnisture drawn throagh. When moist, it has a 
tendency to undergo decomposition, with tlio production of inflammable 
gases, which form, with the air, a mixture liidde to explusion on exposure 
lo naked flame. Kvery precaution is necessary to keep the pump-well 
perfectly clear; iron knees and hoops around masts should be painted or 
tarred, as tbcy are liable to coiTosion hy the aclioii of guano. The decks 
and topsides require to be well caulked, and seams paid; one mass ter 
recommends a coat of Arcbangel tar just before leaving, and again when 
passing through the tropics. A ship will ordinarily carry as nmch guano 
as coal ; and if she sails well on an even keel, may he loaded *' chock 
up/* if otberwise» space must be allowed for trimming, 

404 (iuano cargoes injure the iron- work of the hold, but some ex- 
perienced masters do not consider they injure the wood-work. The Boston 




STEVENS ON STOWAGR. 



249 



I 



(United Slates) Commercial BuUeiin says "daring the past [GUANO 
year (1860 ?) several first-elasa ships, between three nitd six years old^ 
have required extensive repairs. Not only hav« their ceiling and planking 
hetn decayed, but many of iheir limbers also, parlicnlarly their cants ^ 
while the keelsons anil first rtiiiocks have generally been sound* A few 
are planked wiih yelhiw pine, whieh in some instances was not aiTceted, 
though the timbers were decayed ; and in others the rot penetrated both 
pine and oak. As nearly all these ships were bnilt under inspection, ihey 
were considered good for ten years at least. As all had carried guano 
shortly after tbey were built, it has been ajssiimed that guano atiects new 
limbers injuriously. One or two which had not carried it until tbree years 
old, were not so much injured as those on their iirst voyapje; and others 
which were eight or ten years old were not affected at all. The washing of 
the salt water in tlie bottom is supposed to have preserved the first fnttocka 
and the keelsons; and those ships which leaked in their upper works were 
also free from rot in the wnke of their leaks. As nearly all our vessels 
are built of unseasoned timber, it is aujiposed that the heat generated by 
the mtdsture of the timber, combined with the heal of the guano, had 
produced dry rot. Mr. M'Kay states that new English ships which 
ha*l carried guano, were as badly decayed as any of our own; he staled 
further that in England there was no doubt concerning the injurious effect 
of loading new ships with guano;** see the article salting. 

406 "Grain in bulk was also considered very liable to affect a new 
«hip with dry rot, on account of its tendency to engender heal. It seems 
that even yellow pine, which is generally considered not liable to-decay 
on iiccount of its resinous quality, is not proof against the effects of grain. 
If ihese inferences are correct, owners of new ships must he on their 
guard against loading iheni with guano or grain; or they ninsl devise 
fiume means by which ibeir frames can be moistened with salt water. If 
die ceiling is caulked, water might he injected through the ventilators in 
jke covering boards, at slated periods, since i( is evident that water in the 
im preserves it. Some reutilators arc water-light, hm these could he 

\y changed for others; indeed there is little diflicuhy in the way of 
making openings between all the frames. Powr water through these by ' 
way of experiment ; the work may appear tedious, but not more so than 
half the labour performed on board all our s»hips. Our sperm whalers* 
which are more exposed to heal than any oilier class excepting steamers, 
are we believe preserved from decaj\ by <he regular practice of wetting 
their holds after tbey have oil on board. Twice or thrice a week a hose is 
passed into their holds for the jturpose of watering the oil casks to prevent 
their leaking, ami to ibis cause wc attribute their darabdity, Whalei-s 
ire rarely affected by dry rot, though exposed not only to the heat of the 
tropics but to the fires of their try works. This system of watering is 

s I 



250 



STEVKNS ON STOWAGE. 



not adnpted to a mcrclmnl ship witli a cargo; but (lie plan [GUAHO 
wlvicli we sugj^est ofii^jecdng water between tlic frames ruigbt be carried 
out with good etfeeU At all evenl^i h is enlitled to consideration. Pro-j 
b^ibly some won hi object lo lliig on account of ibe vil'vci uf salt nale 
njion the iron fastenings; lut as nearly all our sliips are iroii-fasiened in 
ibe bottom as well na in ibe apper works, tbe effect would not be more, 
injurioas in tbe one place than in tbe other." I 

406 At tbe Cliinebiis guano measures about 40 feet per ton ; usually 
15 bogs go to a ton, but tbey are various, tbe lesicr about l*2incbcs by 18, 
made of fine clotb, tbe larger 2 feet square, of a maierial so coarse tbat it 
is very possible for tbe finer parts of tbe guano to pass tlirougb while 
stowing* Mais raiglit be found useful^ nailed from below ibe upper deck, 
overlapping, over alb 

407 The form of charter parly adopted in J 865 by Messrs. I* 
Thomson, T, Bunau & Co* tbe Engliifb Agents of the Peruvian GiianoJ 
Consignment Company, was as follows : — 

LoMt^oNf 186 

It is hereby mulaally agreed botwoen Owncm of the Iotik ref^Lsttr n*w 

measnTEincnt, on iht- one purt, wid Messrs. I. TaoMgoMf T. Boitab & Co. of London, Acting 
lor Mr* Manctkl P^iino, of Lima, afi Agent of the Gujium CoiiHig'iinitiiit Company of ( 
Britain for the Sapretne GovonLmcat of Pern, ou the other part, as follows : 

That the Bfttd vessel now shal swU direct, after diafharging outward cargo, 1 

Callao, where the enptain ^hull immcdiatolj plnce the Hhip at the dkpoud of Mr. MA^rRi*^ 
Pari>o» advising him ini writing, 

Thftt the *aid vessel on inspection by the appointed oflSour, kt^ing thtn approved a* 
tightf stAUiich, Bttungf Hud WL'll-eotidittoti«d for the voyage-, the ctmrterora aholl {witMn 
lorty-eight hoora after buch report bciLri^ received) aend to the capiiiin or bit Agentii order* 
for loarling a cargo of guano at the Chine hn iHlnnds* to which place the veBsel ahfill at onco 
procet'dr c-aliing on her way at Piseo, to obtain the neceshary paaa to load, which Hhatl bo 
given to the captain by the charterers' ageutK, free of cxpenfiCf within twentyloor honrs 
of hu applieation. 

After com pk ting her loading of gnftno, and baTing obtained the neeegsajy pass from 
Piseo, till? ves&el sihall re torn for her final elflarauoe to CuIImo, where the caploiii hhull havo 
the liberlY of taldog in pasnengen, light goodi, and f^peeic, on freight for the benefit of the 
ahip. The cha^rt«rera lo have the option of ahJpping tbe light gooJH at ciarri^at ral^s. 

The abip when hiden, r^ltidl not go throngh the Bui^neron Paiisag^, betw{:{::n the Island 
of Sao horenzo itiid the Main Land. 

The ship ahall convey from C^dlao to the Ifdandf^ any lapede that may be required fori 

^ the |Ni^rsn(^nt of tbe cargo, and any toola (sent alongside by tbe eiiArterere' agents whilst f 

tbO ve«el b at anchor in Calko), free of freight : anil sbal) soi>ply, free of charge, either j 

on board or alongside, at th*^ Guano PortSj any water that may ho required by tbe agents J 

of the charterers, not exceeding one per cent, of tlie regiJiter tonnnge. 

At tlte Chincha Lslanda the vaiiiiol to be placed nnder the M&ngucras to load, or at tho | 
option of the eluirterera' agents, the cargo to be pLieed In tbe ship's boat*, and in them | 
conveyed on boju*d id the ship's expense and Mbipper'e risk. 

Such fiacks as shall be Kopplied by the charterers id tlieir discretion, shall ba flUftd 
with gnimo by the ownt>rHf and th<! wouUih of the tiaeks sown np at owner'i expcnae, tbo 
charti^rer* providing twine, and tbe nackii abalU be niied for iiniitg the vcj^sel. 

The owners to dnd necvsAary dunnage, and to be respousibk' fr^r damage by nrgligrnoe* 

The ownerfe to tie liable for all damage arii^ing froui side tightti or jiortt. 



STEVRNS OX STOWAGE. 



251 



\o flliijkll be stowed ao thai a clear ^x^ncf? may be left round the vo^sol, [GUANO 
k, fur ttie parpoi4} of eXiOmiiiing the cargo, and rcDioHng auy water which 
Mf have been ehippeil; and every coDveDiont opportuiiity ukall he taken to exiutuae ilifi 
gaatio, And means used to prevent and lesiieti dtuiuige. 

The qiunti^tyof guano to he shipped shall not txoeed one-third ahove the veKRel'a r^g:- 
mUt igonAge, new measaremoat, except with the consent in writing of the charterera* 
gtstiM aX CallaOf and which canuent the ehiirterers undertake dhall be given trt oil ahip^ 
hieh tkeir agents hare not fair and reasonable groTinda for htjlieving to he overloadiedt 
I such coBseat may he withheld, and if any Tewel proceed to sea withoat ra^h written 
at, and los« should he au^taiiied by the charterers upon the guano, and whether the 
f be of the natare of aparlieular or general avemge, or of charges upon the gnano, all 
nch loat aa between the &md owners and charterers nhaE be deemed to have arisen from 
b* improper loading of the vessel, and the amoant of «nch hms <ihnll he borne and paid 
f ihiB said owners to the Hald charterers ; hat in the cqao of loi^s in the natttre of particular 
ftrerage, the owners shall only pay aueh amount afi may exceed £3 per cent, npou the net 
frnlne of the limited cargo of guano hereby agreed to ha ghipped, 

Ko guano or other dead -weight KihaH be received on hoard except by order of the char- 
icren or their Agents. 

Sboold political or othi^r circnmstancee prevent there being Att^icient lAbourcr^ at the 
( pUe« as many of the crew ai« fihall not bo aheolntely nuceasuiry for the nafety of the 
L bo sent on shore to load the cargo, tboy receiving the osnal labottrer*a daily pay 
> employed. 
Ten nuiniiig day** («aiidays excepted) for each one bundro d Urna^ new register meainre- 
^«EOtt to be allowed the charterers for loading the ship at the Iftliuids, ntvertbelewf in no 
ItNlH tJi^ chartereni have lens than thirty, nor more thou eighty such dayu in alL Bmd 
ilOMHimence from the day the master give» notice, in writing, of being rearly to receive 
wtd take ou board, and to eeaso when the charterers' agents give notice thai the vessel may 
leave the Inlands. 

Thirty days to be allowed the owners for taking In light freight and specie as abeve 
«pecift«d. 

Over and above the lay days allowed to tlie charterers for loading the ship^ And to the 

irners fur iakiiig in light freight and specie, each party shall be permitted to dt^taiii tho 

wiwl tor those purposes respectively, for Udrty days, the charterers paying in thsowntint, 

h« owners paying to the charterers, an the case may he, at the rate of £1 for every I0(» 

' tons per day, as agreed compensalion for such detention, 

1 the vessel be nnneeesHarily dt-Loincd tii any other period of the voyage, such 
I be paid for by tbc party delinquent to the pxirty obgervant, at the above-named 
raie of demurrage or comptmKalion. 

The owner* of the vessel to pay all port charges, and the ship to be consigned to Mr. 
I. Paauo, in Lima, to wham the cuAtomary commissions and agency for doing the iblp'ii 
I tiliall be paid by the owners. 
Xlie captain to mgn ItilL^ of lading nt such Tfttc of freight as ebarterers or their ageata 

d without prejudice t4> this charter party « 
The said vessel tdiall, after eoinpleting her loading as before-mentioned, proeeed to any 
caff port in the UirrrKD KiKonoit, calling at Cork oe Crookhave!* (at charterer*' option, 
tatd aa directed by them or their agents on signing bills of lading) Fon okdeb^ from the 
OoattO Consignment Company to Orcat Britain, or their agcnU, (and for which Mhe ia to 
reonaiii nutU rotoni of po?«t from Loxdon), nnleaa ordered, in writing, to proceed direct to 
any given port by thw cbjirtereri*, and there, According to bUl* of lading and charU-r party, 
deliver the cargo, which ia to be discharged and taken from alongside at the rutu of not 
lata than Uilrty-flve tons pi-r working day. 

Should the charterers or tlieir agenta require that the discharge of the guano be made 
in sacks, they shall fnmiiih the captain with the required number, nnd with tbreads to sew 
b at thf'ir expense, and the owners of the ship wiU cause them to be UHi'd and sewn ftp 
I deliverei ovonide at ibip*i exponao. 



252 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



t»een~ 

pay- 

iec9. 

ty) in , 



The froiglit to to paid in mjinncr Uereiiuvfter mentioned, at Uie rate of [dtfAffO 
atcrlbig, m full, per ton of *20 cwt. net weight of guwio, at tlie Qneen'e beniu, 
suljject however to a dedtiction for the water coiitiunod in daniii,g9d goiuDOf Kud on tho 
■weopio^ and Btones they s^hall only pay hiilf frdghL 

The miist€r to he KtippUed iii Lima with a stun not exceeding £ free of inierefll 

and eommiti»iou, but the cost of insunuace to ho horaa by the owners, tmd the amonnt bo 
to he advttDf^ed^ tuid the cost of the Lnsiirjince thereof ehfUl 1h? in piul pnymeni of the freight 
at the exchange of 50 pence per dollar cnirenoy. And ahould the charterers or iheir agenti 
think it nccoasory to &d>*anco the master heyond the stud simi of £ any sum tor 

ze|)iairftf atoi'ca, and other disibura^ment^ whatsoever^ Huch sum^^, with itiierest, coiamieaion^ 
and inanranccT ahall be in part pnyment of the frdght, at the exchange aforesaid. And H la 
hereby expressly agreed, that the receipt of the master for any ffoeh enui or ^nma of moni 
aa shall be Hupplied or advanced to him by the choriererB ua aforeaaid, eih^ be concliuni 
and binding npon the ownem and their assigns, and ihey shall therxrby he prevented 
between them and the eharterers frtwn enquiry into the necessity for* or tlw npproprial 
of the sum of money which in such receipt or receipts shall be acknowledged to have been 
received : and all cantribuitonK to general averogie loasea, which (if any) ahidl liocome pay- 
able in respect of any Buch advances aa aforesaid^ shall be borne and paid by the ownecs. 

The freight to be paid (gitbjeet to the terma and conditioits of thia charter party) in 
manner following, that is to say* £ in cash, on arririd at p€irt of diach&rge, 

months' intereiivt at the rate of .£5 per cent, per annum being d&ducted, and the boloni 
after deducting all such inms of money as shall become pnynhle to the charterers nnd* 
the provLdionti herein contained, forty-Ligbt hours after the tme and right deEvery of the 
whole of the cargo, by acceptances of the Guano Gonaignment Company to Grt^ut Britain, 
or of their a^ntfl, payable in London at three monthii' date, or in caab, lesa interest at 
£5 per cent, per annum, at charterers' option. And in the event of any rival claims to Cha^ 
Mild freight, the charterers shall be at liberty to retain the same in their ban da until 
right of the respective claimants b determined, or to pay it into Conrt deducting thr^ir oi 

The charterers ore hereby anthorizetl to retain anl deduct from the freight all 
damans, and sums of money, as well [iquidated as unliqmdated, to which the owners 
become liable to the charterers, by virtao of, or in anywise in relation to thia cliarter 
and all seamen's wage.H, pilotage, and port charges, if any» which they may he com] 
to pay in order to prevent the delay in the deliver}- of the cargo, or to prevent the i 
theiwst, it being the intention of the pairties, that all rluiniH und demands, of whateri 
nature, which shall Rccnie to the said cbarterera, ahall be treated as payments made 
the eharterera on account of freight. 

And if the ressel should be compelled to put into any port or ports along the Paciflc 
JLtLmtie coasts, the captadn shall oonatgn her to the Guano Consignment Comp^vny, nr thi 
correspondents ; in either place paying the usual commission ; such coircspaudenta in poi 
of Chili being 

In YALPiitAtBO * Meseri. Huiz BnoTXixits, 

In MoxTE VroEO Messrs. Bate b, Btokes, &^ Go. 

In Rio DE Jaxeiko , Messrs. Ewbakk, ScmiTDTt it Go. 

Penalty for non -performance of this cliiirtcr party, the estirnnied amount of frei 

Hie act of Ooo, the Queen's enemies, fire, and aU and every ilangera and accidents 
the seas, rivera, and navigatioD, of whatever nature and kind soever » dniing the said to; 
alwayn excepted. 

The ship to be eozLsigned to the Company, or to their agents in Great Britain, to whom 
is to be paid an address eommlasion of two and a half per cent, at the Fort of diftchorgo, 
and who are to have the right to name the docks in which the ship is to be discharged, 
the broker who is to report the ship at the custom-house, and do the ship's Im^iiness. 

A commission of two and a half per cent, ia due by the nhip on signing this 
which shall be dciluclcd from the freight on arrival, and if the ship do not arrive tX 
deatination^ said commission shall bo paid in London by the owners. 

WitaesB to the signature of Mesuru, L Tbomson, T. Bokab <fe Co. 

Witoess to the iignatore of 




STKVENS ON STOWAGE. 



253 



408 Dunnage of from 15 to 20 inches ia required ; some [GUANO 
[rtcommend 2 feet, to make ibe cargo more secure aud tlie ship tuusier ut 
I sea* An experienced officer in ibe merchant service says, guano should 
Ibe Slowed on a platform similar lo that used for copper orcj or it should 
[be well dunfiaged, say as high as the keelson j ihen bags^ say two tier fore 
ind aft, so stowed as to prevent any air from being dravvn through by the 
LBUction of the pumps, or the powder or loose guano from finding its way 
Ibeiween* The ship's aides should he well duitnaged, «ay not less than 
[3 inches; and a tier of bags carried up to t!»e lower beams; the bold 
[stowed so that a man can go on and around the cargo daily, to watch if 
any drainin^^s are visible from the deck, and if so, the wet spots should 
be taken up immediately, as a small portion of water will dissolve a large 
pquantity of guano« On no account should the crystallized part of thts 
guano be stowed among the cargo, but separately, in casks ; several fatal 
accidents are said to have occurred to vessels from Patagonia, throiigb 
not taking this precaution. The cargo should not be interfered with after 
it is stowed, for the article will lose a portion of its quality every time air 
|U admitted, as well as evaporate and decrease in bulk. It is very rare 
tliat a vessel will carry her hold full, and it is seldom that a ship will turn 
oat what she lakes in. The average term for loading is 70 to 80dnys. 
4011 ft is the practice for ships in the Peruvim trade to be fii'st sur- 
veyed at Callao by the government officers who grant the loading licenses* 
If their decks and topsides require caulking, the operation is done very 
speedily by say ten men in two days. The ship then goes to the islands, 
which are only U3°38' South of the line ; here she is inspected by LinTD's - 
surveyors; the loading may occupy horn two to three months, during which 
time ivhe is consjlauily exposed to the heat of (he sun, in a climate where 
min is unknown* It would appear to be a better course lo caulk the ship 
carefully as she goes down in the water, and to employ say two men dunng 

II he lost ten days, when attention could more t;asily be paid to the manner 
in ivhich the work is done. Were this possible, the engagenit^nt of an extra 
carpenter, when signing articles, might be found advantageous; there is, 
hovever^ usually a good supply at the Chinchas. Some recommend that 
every giianc^-ladcn ship should have a Irnnk or well, built with heavy plank, 
down the after hatchway, say half its size, through which the leakage 
QOttld be got at if the pumps were choked. 
4iO A thin dialing of gypsum or plaster of Paris, moistened with 
aulphuric acid, laid over the top of the cargo, will, it is said^ abate if not 
entirel) prevent the annoyance and danger of injury to heallb; it can be 
removed again before discharging, and will readily sell for more than its 
cost. The same effect may be produced by sprinkling the surface of tbej 
cargo Willi diluted sulphuric acid, ivhich will not injure the guano* Som^l 
merchants coutend that there is no danger of injury to health. 



I 

ft! 
ft 

I 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



4 1 1 After discharging a cargo of fjuano, ihe first doty is [GUAKO 
to remove ihe ballast, scrape and bruslj every part of tbe hold, cleanse ihe 
chain lockers, &c. A ship may be rendered perfectly sweet bv putting? a 
few pnunds of chloride of lime with wa(er^ into a bucket, adding sulphuric 
or mnriaiic acid* Place the bucket at thfj- boitoni of the bo!d, and at inter- 
vals add acid until a strong smell of chlurine issues from the hatchways. 
After a fcvr hours tlic chlorine will be absorbed or pass of* and the cleansing 
may be completed by washing with water and whitewashing with fresh 
lime. As the keeping of sulphuric or muriaiic acid on board ship is not 
unattended with danger^ common alum, which ia in a solid form, nniy bo 
nsed advantageously m a substitute, dissolved in water, for sprinkling 
ovijr the surface of the guano, or powdered, moistened, and mixed with 
chloride of lime, as a source of chlorine for purifying the ship. 

412 Guano is injured by contact with salt, nitrate of soda, &c, and 
it injures almost every article of human consumplitm, on account of the 
large proportion of ammonia which it contains; it will turn nuLs, leather, 
&c, aluiitst black. Good coasting vessels may not require dunnage (see 
dunnage); but they must carefully avoid stowing general gonds in the 
fiame bold, parlicuhirly delicate articles such as tea, cuflee, chocolate, &c. 
and printed goods, lilacs eBpecially, the color of winch will be extracted, 
even during a short passage, so powerful h the am toon i a wliich escapes, 

413 On the 31 st October, 1857, the barque Vktor, Capt. Holmes, 
left the Chincbaa with fiOO ton guano, for Elnghind^ and foundered at sea 
on the 7th April, after having rounded the Horn* She was built in the 
State of Maine in the year 1^43, 39.^ ton register, 000 burthen. Her 
floor was flat and received some btrong long heavy timber, laid separately 
fore and aft, crossed with short open dunnage framed to the long in the 
form of sleepers; this frame-work was covered with small wood close 

Uogelher, Depth 24 incliL's on the floor, 20 in the bilge — the small wood 
dtniinishing to nothing at mid-distance between the biige and lower 
deck. The dunnage was covered with half- filled hags on the tloor, carried 
overlapping up the sides, tbelr contents gradually decreasing to nothing 
nniil they readied the skiri against which they were battened ; on theni 
the guano was tlirovvn in bulk— the ends of the ship being kept clear- 
Pieces of plank, about 2 feet long, were fitted round the 'tween decks, their 
heels IBinches from the sides, against which they were inclined, so as to 
leave a clear passage fiu- water. The lower hatchways were left open, and 
several lower deck plaiiks removed, to let the cargo fall below, as it settled. 
When laden there was a space abont four feet higU in the 'tween decks 
next the sides, auHiciently capacious fur a man to go round, and the fore 
peak and stern sheets were left perfectly clear. Through some cause 
unknown she leaked both fore and aft. The water was first slightly dis- 
colored, it then became thick and the pumps were frecptently choked ; as 




I 

I 



it fell on ibe deck it threaleiieJ to ** eat" tbl-ougb the seams [GUANO 
had lliey not been protected. Subsequetuly tbe wnter forwartl and aft 
coulii Dot find a passage to llie jinnip-ucll, and was thertfore laLen out 
with buckets made of canvas, which wtre soon deBlroji^d by iho iRfwcrful 
action of tbe guano. Those of tlie crew employed baling sulk- red severely 
from its effects on the skin of ilieir hands, and by tbe amaunxia which 
escaped the more readily when the cargo was wetted and disturbed. Tu 
ihe officers it appeared that as the ship whs tossed about, ihc water in tbe 
cxtreniitiea surged against tbe ^uano and after vvashiug away the bioae 
parts and excrescences, did not clear more than 3 or 4 inches every 48 
hours, 30 that the ends of tlie cargo assumed, in a measure, (he character 
of a s^ft'waiL 

414 One maHler who brought guano from the Pacific in a ship, tbe 
leakage of which had conimnnicaled fure and aft, hy the vving8, stated 
that every ilmit she put about, the cargt» seemed to drop heavily to lee* 
ward, as if its exterior had become tboroui^hly wet and hard, and that 
ihe whole bad, by seltlenient, caked into one lunip. I lie expression was 
** that the guano moved about like a lump of ice in a bucket of water/* 

415 Tbe ship Bldorudot which was filled especially for the guano 
tnide» registers 1,0€€ ton and caixies J,4U0 ton of guano, is J 58 feel long, 
3^ feel broad, and has a depth of bold of 22 feel, 8he has a platform four 
feet from the ceiling, supported by a sister keelson each side the jnutti 
keelson, and two bilge logs fore and afl. A boy can creep along between 
ibe plattonn and the ceiling. The Eldorado answers very well. 

416 The American ship Greemvood, Capt, Stone, belonging to 
Kennebuck, Stale of Mnine, 884 t<m register American, and 930 English, 
took in at the Chincha Islands in Juncj 1862| 1,650 ion of giiano. The 
dunnage on the floor, two feet deep, consisted of deals and scantling, 
floored with board, and from her bilge keelsons, six feet up and doivn, 
there was between tbe deals and ihe ivings a space of 18 inches. Part of 
the cargo was packed in 1,330 gunny bags, 4Utli. in eacli, abmit iwo» thirds 
fu1l» so as to spread over a hirger space on the flooring. When laden, tbe 
guano in the bold rose close up to tlie 'tween dt cks amidships and rounded 
oflTto a distance of from four feet at the sides. That in the 'tween decks 
was stowed in the same manner* On arrival in the Channel it bad petileA | 
dciwfi three feet, so that a man could creep over every part of ihe curs^o. 
The Grrenwoiid is 163 feet long, 33 feet 6 inches bruad, and has a dejKh 
of bold of 23 feet 7 inches ; ber heighl between dtcks is 7 feet 1* iKcbes. 
With l,<>50lon guano she drew 22 feel aft and 21 feet forwunl. With 
1,(i(>tjtan Cardiff coal, intake nieasuremenl, and l,7(i3lon delivered in 
Rio Janeiro, ahe drew 221 ^t^*^"! ^^^ i^tl 21 i feel forward. 

417 Tbe ship AVi^iVr, 1,424 ton register, Capl. W^tKtiAM WiiiTE, 
belonging lo Mr. S. R, CfUAVB»>of Liverpool^ loaded guiino at tUc Chincha 



256 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Islands in 1864, left July 2fi, and arrived at Pljm«utli Novera- [GUANO 
ber 24. She was built ut Boston, U.S. is 215 ftet long, 41 feet 6 Inches 
broad, and 27 ft-ct 6 in dies deep. Her tbrec (ieclis are respectively 14 feet, 
7 feet, and 7 feet higb. To receive the cargo a plalform was erected 18 
incbes above the bilges, and was carried up ibe sides (casing; fasbion), 
say 8 feet above the level i>f ibe bilges. The ground tier consisted of 1,900 
gunny bags eon tain in j^ about 1 cwt. each ; remainder in bulk. With this 
cargo tlie Ma pier drew 23 feet 3 inches on an even keel; and on arrival 
23 feet ; part of the diminution was due to the consumption of fuel and 
provisions and part to the exhalation of tbe cargo. Her hold was quite 
full» and, taking the guano as a dead-weight cargo, she was at her proper 
draught, viz : 7 feet 1 1 i inches clear side. The .A*(tpier\% foremast is 62 feet 
from the knighiheads, and none of the cargo was before it; just abaft this 
mast, in each wing, a few casks were placed. The guano at the mizen- 
mast was chock up to the deck, and thence il sloped down to the stern. 
Of the cargo ( 1,850 ton) 900 ton were computed lo be placed in tbe lower 
hold, 650 on tbe second deck, and 200 on the tliird deck, leaving space 
say for 200 ton in the lower hold, 200 second deckj and 250 on the third 
deck. The cargo was thus almost in the centre of the ship, and she 
behaved very well at sea. The passage from Callao to Cape Horn was 
made in 25 J days, to the equator 53 days, and from Callao to Queenslow^n 
88 days. She grossed ifi l,8t>4 ton 7 cwt, and netted out 1,850 ton 4 cwt, 

418 The ship Meutngtr^ of New York, 1,350 ton register, Capt* 
Waldo w Hxll, loaded guano at Nonh ChincJia Isle in November, 1864, 
She is 200 feet 8 inches long, 21 feet 11 Inches deep at the pumps^ and 
has a height of 'tween deck» of 7 feet inches. The cargo was estimated 
at 1,300 ton; two-thirds were in the lower hold, which was nearly full, 
fiay within 40 feet forward and 40 feet nft; one-tliird in the 'tween decks, 
round which a gangtvay was left in each wing. She drew 20 feet forward 
and 20 feet 8 inches aft, and was rather laboursome at sea ; wiih a dif- 
ference of 4 inches only she would have been in better trim. A general 
New York cargo delivered at San Francisco made ber 20 feet on an even 
Iceel, when she was less laboursome. The Messenger has a sharp bottom 
and little bilge, and the wood dunnage used under tlie guano, 15 inches 
deep, did not require to be very long^ say 7 feet. Capt. H i ll recommends 
for guano cargoes five inch square stiifT to be placed each side the keelson 
to receive planks, 

419 There is o guano obtained from the Kooria Mooria Islands, 
which is sometimes called guano crust, and is described as a kind of 
Email soft rock. Of this guano the ship M^tihla^ Capt. Stevenson, 
took in 200 ton for dead-weight and dunnage at Bombay in 1865; 20 cwt, 
to the ton. She registers 1,035 ton, is 178'4 feet long, 33"0 broad, 22*2 
deep, and hitf a height of 'tween decks of 8 feet 6 inches. On the guano 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



247 



and in the 'tween decks she stowed 5,400 bales of cotlon [GUAKO 

^■»hich averaged oOx26x 19 inches, and were placed fure and aft and on 

^Mnd, She left May I, and then drew ID feet 6 inches afi and 18 feet 6 in- 

^■^09 forward J and on arrival at Llverpoul August 8, 19 feet and IH feet; 

^•trjth l/r20 ton of rice at Akyab, 20 feet G inches and 20 feet (port charges 

there £380); her best trim at Sea is 6 to lOinchea hy the stern. At 

Banibay the bottom dunnage was 15 Inehen, bilges 24 (guano), and sides 

2 Inches (bamboos); her gross port chargea wurc £660. On Nov. 22, 

18fi4), Capt. Bkikges, ship jMonhnorenci/^ died in Australia. Some 

I months before, when oblalnirjg guano on the coast of Arabia, his fool was 
eotered by a seiall Guinea worm, whieli gradually developed ilstdf and 
caused death by inflammation ; this worm did not come from the guano. 
420 A kind of rock guano shipped in the island of Sombrero is so 
heavy that sufBcient would be in when it reached a ship's beams. It 
^tbereforc requires (like copper ore) to be kept well up, and none hut 
^■strongly -built vessels should take such a cargo. Sombrero is one of the 
■West India Islands, latJ8"35'45"N. hm.63= 27' 4<:r W. 
^f 421 The i:sland of Navassi^ belonging to the United States, which 
lies a little to tlie eastward of llayli, towanls Jamaica, is two miles east 
and west by IJ north and south, and is about 300 feet high ; it produces 
a ipecics of guano* weighing about 1251b. per busheL The Hamburg 

»hTig Parlizon, Capt. Taxt, arrived there July 16fh, and left August 
3rd, 1867; slic registers 2(KMon, is 08*8 feet long, 2<r7 broad, and 17*1 
ideep* With 450 ton she drew 12 feel (j inches aft, i^ feel 6 infdics for- 
ward; bcr hold was over one-lhird but not one-half full; more could 
lijive been taken had she been provided with a trunk or plalfonn* With 

1474 Ion Newport coal she drew I G feet aft, 15 feet 6 inches forward. Her 
gnano was wheeled in harrowa to the edge of the clilT, tvhere it ran 
through a Bpoat into boats for conveyance to the ship, which lay a cable*s 
length ortin 15 @ lefathums, with good holding ground. Six barrows 
go to a ton ; in fine weather the boats (two) can convey 70 ton in a day; 
a luad is 3 @ 3} ton. Ships ought to be provided with platforms, or they 
will be liable to slrain very much. The time occujued depends chiefly 
cm the number nf ships loading. The only harbour dues (made after the 
^^ hill]} is loatled) are lUe per ton for shooting tlic cargo alongside into the 
^Bialm, The brig loaded at the south-cast point of the island; the pre- 
Tailing winds are south-east, and the current sets heavily against the wind. 

Kaviu«Bi gnuno portokcB almost tMillrfxIy ol llic chanicter of n miiieriU (kboeplintiv-- 

IrontAim ftbont 70 per cfut. of pbosplmte of lime, ADd &c!Lrc*?ly n trAcc of orfpuik" metier, 

I roTiHrqtiontly cont^uiift no ommonift, niid in free from ^mcLl, In it» natfLral sinto it i« 

' HcoTiri'ly ADy ngriciiltiirii] vultie, and Is iiu|>cirtcd Kch'ly f^r ilie pur|K)se of t>ciiig miuiii- 

I into ftucli urti^ciiU auumros m dcrivu ittvir ?iilae fioiti tlic sjololtle pbcwphates ihvy 



f S 




55S 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 




422 A kind of animal g^uano sliipped in the River Plate [6UAK0 
consists of certain portions of tlje imerior of cattle slanghtered in the 
** salladera^ " or abbatoirs. This refuse was fornierlj collected in large 
heaps for freight; now it is tised principally with rib bones for fuel under 
llie ovens in which export hones arc steamed. Three French ships laden 
with it arc said to Lave been destroyed by fire at sea. An old English 
bnrqiie was laden with it at Buenos Ayres in 1S59, and it is quesltoced 
that she ever reached her destination. The stench from her cargo ex- 
tended to a great distance ; on board it must have been scarcely endurable, 
By charter party one half of the freight was paid before departure. 

4'2'l Dead freight. Court of Exchequer, Februaiy 20» 1B58, Kihic v, 
OiBBs, The Brnet was chartered to load at Iho Cbiucha Islands, but on 
arrivul at Callao was reported unfit to take a full carjijo. She was a North 
American ship, 1,279 ton register, in ballast, which being improperly stowed, 
hud altered her filieer. After caulking, surveyors reported her capable of 
taking guano to draw not more thaa IHJ feet-, to whioli extent she was loaded 
at die Chinchas, where three masters certified her capable of taking a full cargo. 
Ab ahe was not allowed to take more, the master noted a protest at Callao. The 
Bretel discharged 1,222 ton in London, in May, 1855; and Mr. Fletcher, 
builder, and others, certiDcd her ae fit to have brought home 200 ton addi- 
tional Defendant, among other witnesses^ produced Capt. SxaoNo, H.M.S. 
Naiad, wlio surveyed 00 vessels a month at Callao; the BrevH was long, 
narrow, and weakly fastened; in consequence of the ballast having been put 
into the middle, her sheer was altered. Verdict for defendant* 

424 GUM. A general term given to the juice of vegetables which 
exndes through the bark of trees and thickens on the surface. Gums 
are of diflerent kinds and are furnished bj different plants. True gum 
is soluble in cold water, of which that called gum arable is the type 
(specific gravity 1'452), but juices having other principles and characters 
exist, which form on thickening, various kinds of gum, hence we have 
cherry gum (cerasin), which dissolves in hot water; tragacanth or gum 
ilragon (bassorin), which is insoluble in water, but is capable of absorbing 
a large qu amity and becoming an adhesive paste ; also many juices abound 
in resin and form gum- resins, as assaftEtida, benzoin or benjamin, dragon's 
blootl, galbanum, myrrh, olibanum, landrac, copal, See. Those which 
consist chiefly of resin are soluble in spirit or naptha and in oil, forming 
the various kinds of varnish* 

425 Kaoil gmna are dug from under the sand in the deserts of New 
Zealand, and arc supposed to have flowed from pines which have long 
ceased to exist They are conveyed in bulk to vessels of 100 to 200 ton, 
which go to the superior ports and transfer thtm to larger ships for| 
frcij;htagc to Great Britain, &c* Kauri gums are said to be very inflani 
nmble, and some masters will not permit an unprotected light to be brought 
near them, or wool to be stuwcd in close proximity, Water will not 



4 



! 

1 



I 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



2o9 



m, wliich is soluble only in oil, or wben healed [GUM 
like resin; iu fact it in a kind of resin, and is used in making varnishes; 
it should, of course, not be placed near casks of oil. Packed in bags or 
casks it is considered very convenient for stowing in the pt^aks. The 
best sort is in clean large lumps, and it is very desirable not to knock 
about the packn^res unnecessarily, because it reduces the value, If bags 
^^belonging to dilTerent coiiaignees get rotten and break adrift in the hold, 
^Mach consignee wM maintain that only the large while lumps were in hia 
^BugSy and considerable diiriculty will be created in settlements for freight ; 
^■ttie »Uip must sufler ultimately. The separate consignees* marks should 
^^ if possible be stowed apart from each other. Masters should insert in 
^^tke bills of lading '^not accountable for damage through the roltennesa 
^Kir decay of the bags.*' It is desirable to be paid freight for gross weight 
^'lit the Queen's beam — say 20cwt. to the toa. A ship will only take her 
register tonnage of kauri gum. It is shipped all the year round, and is 
packed In bags, cases, casks, &c* of various sizes, and sonietirues in bulk. 
In ibid way 320 ton were sent, in July, 1864, on board the barque Sir 
Gwr^e Grey^ Capl. PaiNCE Gilpix, which registers 376 ton, is 132 feet 
lon^, 27*2 broad, and 16*2 deep. With the gum, 40 ton of whale oil in 
casks, and 60 ton of copper dross, winch was made level with the kcelston, 
she drew 14 feet on an even keel. With a dead- weight cargo, say of 500 
ion of coal, she draws about 1G| feet aft and IG forward ; her best trim at 
ie& is 14 feet aft and 13^ forward. Capt. Philip says, November 28thi 
1864, the gums per TramuUaniic were in cases of different sizes, weigh- 
ing from 2k to 6 cwt. each ; the bagi^ average 17 to 18 per ton of 20 cwt; 
liicy were ordinary biscuit bags — say 61b. each* He thirika that, with 
Sydney cargoes. Lags of gum should he stowed only in the peaks or ends 
oilhe ship, where they can he placed more advantageously than bales of 
I wool. Capt. Stcaut wi^ites November 28 th^ 1864, the kauri gura we 
bring from Sydney is in hags of from 1 to 2 cwt. each. Wc take it for 
broken stowage — with bales of wool— in the sharp ends of the ship and 

I lor beam filling?. It does not injure the wool, neither is it iujurcd by ^vool. 

^BBometimes it is sliippcd in cases and casks of all sizes, at a higher rate of 
^^freigbl — mostly 40 feet to the ton ; it is then stowed with otlar dry goods, 
^ 426 Gum, copal, is collected in quantities on the island of Zanzibar 

(see orchilla) and is brought there also from the main. It is subjected 
to a tedious and expensive process of cleautug, and is then carefully 
; picked over, and the dilTerent qualities selectCLl for packing in cases 
veigbing about 2 cwt. and freighted 50 cubic ket to the ton. 

Tonnage. Bengal ton 50 cubic feet in cases, not enumerated ^ Madras 
50 feet iu cases, 18cwt« olibanum in bags; Bombay 50 feet in ca^cs, Ifi 
cwU olibauum in bags. Gum arahic — an East Indian chest 6 cwt» Turkey 
hut 4 cwt. 



260 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE* 



4*27 G UML AC is a resinous colored substance produced by a species 
of ant, a niuive of the East Indies, wbicb abound on trees on tbe bankaJ 
of tbc Ganges. Set'd-lac and fcbtll-lac are piodueed by tbe same iusecuj 

428 GUNJAH, a name in India for tbe dried bemp plant CannaiU 
sativaf wbicb bas flowered, but fr<jm wliicli the rcsiiious juice has noM 
been removed. It is clue fly sold for smoking witb tobacco, is made up 
in bundles about 2 feet long and 3 Indies in diameter, containing 24 plants, 
and in usually carried coastwise. Bengal and Madi^as ton 50 cubic feeL 

420 GUNNY BAGS, gunnies, Gunoy clolb is a name for coarse 
strong sacking made in India, and much used for bags and bales for 
wrapplncr rice, spices^ and other dry goods. In Bengal, gunny clotli is 
made of jute, the produce of a species of Corchurus^ and is exported 
eilber in pieces, or made np inlo bugs. The gunny bags of Bomba}- and 
Madras are, however, made of dlflerenl kinds of sunn lib re, the Vroialaria 
juncea* They are usually shipped in bales from 20Qtb. @ 3001b. each^] 
and are taken as light freight, Bengal and Madras ton 50 cubic feeU 
If a large number of gunuy bags are heaped together and they become 
damp, spontaneous conibuf^lion will be produced. In 1863, tiie schooner 
Dependi'Ht left St. Helena for England with a general cargo. After pass- 
ing the equator there was a smell of fire in the forecastle, the bulkhead 
was accordingly cut away, and some of the goods renmved through the 
main hatchway, to the deck. The fire was on the starboard side, between 
the main and fore hatches, but it could not be csitinguished until Capt. 
Alcock and the steward, at the risk of being siiiled, crept over tbe cargo 
and discovered the exact portion burning — ^some gunny bags which had 
been put on board damp, and were stowed between casks of oil, uear a 
bundle of sheep skins. It is supposed that the lire was caused either by 
friction, as there was a fresh breeze, or tlirough spontaneous combustion 
generated by dampness and the great heat which prevailed. 

430 NicoL i;. Born. Supreme Court, Bomhay, June 17 th, 1802. The 
ship Emt was chartered September 2!)th, 16*}0, to proceed from Bomhay to 
KiuTaehee, tlienee to Calcutta, and baek to Bombay. At Calcutta she was to 
be provided with '* a full iind complete cargo of lawful merchandize acoordiog 
to tbe Calcutta tony age scale, in proportion as follows, vu : 1^100 ton, being 
two-thirds of tlio cargo, shall cousist of goods after the rate of 20 cwt.per lou, 
and the reioainder, being not more than one-third^ at tlie rate of 14owt. per 
ton/' Tlie ship brought from Calcutta a large quantity of gunnies. In the 
CalcuttH scale tfioy are put down at 50 cubic feet to the ton, and the question 
was whether freight was to be paid by weight or measurement. The master 
claiiaed by uieBsurement, 44,0tk0 rupees* which were paid uuder protest. The 
court gave a judgment for plaintilFfor 5,1*08 rupees with interest at U percent, 
from May 1<5* IHOI, to judgment, and ti per cent, from judgment to payment, 
with costs. Ml. Westropp, plaiutifl's comasel^ stated in the course of the trial, 
that gtmuy hags always expand during such a voyage as the oiio in question* 





STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



261 



^ 



431 GUNPOWDER. The compoueiu parts are 7711>- salipetre, 

lOitb. sulphur J and Hitb^cliarcoal in t!very hundred pounds of gunpowder, i 

Cylinder powder is made iVom charcoal burnt in iron cylinders; pitl 

powder from that burnt m comraun pits. One pound of powder measures, 

on an avei'age, 32 solid inehes^ and a cubic foot weighs 58rb. Specific 

gravily 0*836 loose, 1*745 solid, 

432 During its sljipmcnt all fires, llglUs, and smoking should b^ 
strictly prohibited. The packaf^es require to be carefully handled, es- 
pecially in the vicinity of iron, and stowed inimediaiely on reception. 
Should there be no regular magazine, a temporary one may be eonsiructed 
iunong the cargo least inflammable, and aa re mule from iron aa possible^ 
by flooring over a suflicient space, bulkhcading it round, and lijiing the 
interior with blanketing or other woollen stufl', being careful to close all 
openings, particularly in the flooring, to prevent any loose powder, which 
may escape, from tindiug its w^ay among the other cargo. I'Jje magazine 
ahould, if possible, bo constructed near a hatchway, for facility of access 
in case of accidental fire, and for convenience of stowing and discharging 
— powder being generally the last article shipped and the flrst discharged. 
The Admiralty instructions are—** whenever atiy quantity of gunpowder, 
ammunition, or combustibles exceeding 20 feet, is shipped in a hired 
ressel or freight ship, or any similar articleii are shipped in the same 
vessel on private account, ihey must be properly secured by the ownei-s 
in a magdziue, fasteaed with copper nails, and provided with a copper 
padlock, with appendages for the door. The satne regulations are to up|dy 
in all cases to ships engaged for the conveyance of troops when the ntunber 
uf men exceeds flfty." 

433 When government powder or combastibles are shipped for 
conveyance nnder the Admiralty regulations, a magazine or place of 
security, if considered necessary by the authorities, is built by and at the 
expense of the crown; and in freight ships the owners are paid frt-ight 
on the external measurement, and not on the toniMige only, of the powder 
or combustibles. The magazine is to be returned to the govennncnt. A 
fD^azinc, however, is not required for the following small ijuantities; — 



Ist.— Powder olonct 20 feet 

2iid.— Ammunition olona^ 20fc«t 

8rd.— Powder and lunniumUan (Hiowcd in one < 

4th. — CombEdtlbk'Ji, 20 foct* 



«),aOfeot 



^m Nor is a magazine required when only 20 feet of coiiibusiibk<s arc shipped 
^ftill ibe same vessel with only 20 feet of the articles iXos. I to 3. These 
^p4|llftniities under 20 feet, arc to be stored by the shipowner in a place of 
' secnrity, ap|»rovcd by the siirvcyiug ofhcer. 

434 When ammunition, rockets especially, are stowed in a magazine 
iji tlie after pan of a screw steamer, every precaution should be observed 




STRVKNS ON STOWAGE, 



to prevent movement by ilie action of the pr(jpeller, as [GUNPOWDER 
the friction may create ignition ; this is suspected to havt: occurred on 
board the s learner Rangoan, in 1865. In the African trade, a ship of 700 
ton takes about 35 ton gunpowder, deposited in a magazine constructed by 
a bulkhead in the lower hold, across the run, derked over with a scuttle- 
halch having leaded seams; see palletiug, A shipraaster is liable to a 
penally of £20, besides 2s for every pound of gunpowder not delivered 
into a licenaed magazine^ which Is, in all cases, two miles at least from a 
church ; see ammuiiiiion. Most of the Indian policies of insurance except, 
by memorandum, all loss by carrying gunpowder as cargo. Ships pro- 
ceeding to Calcutta, land it at Moyapore, At the Phillipine Islands vessels 
are required to deposit their powder in closed and marked packages, on 
their entering the river, or pay a fine of a piastre^ As^\d, for every pound 
retained on board. In some pons it is imperative, under penalties, lo 
give notice to the authorities^ and to land powder within a stated lime, 
before landing any other cargo, 

435 At Liverpool, March, IS65, Mr, M'Ivee prosecuted Mr. 
MThekson, agent for Mr.C, O, Blake, LoodoUj for sending "prepared 
Ian*' by ihe si^timt^T Auslralaslan to New York; the article was in reality 
a powerful blasting powder, liable to inslanl explosion by heavy pressme; 
Uned £d and costs. 

436 Dangerous goods P A Hanoyerlan master writes to the Oazeti 
January G, 1H57 : '* Uy voissol of 105 ton register, and about 150 ton burthej 
it chartered to load, la the port of Loudon, a cargo of lawful goods and mer^ 
chandize, as the charterers shall tender alongside for ahipment. Ilavmg 
received about three-fourtlis of iny cargo in the docks, I am now directed to 
proceed to Purfleet, to receive 1;^00 casks of powder, Tbcre being no clause 
in my charter which would lead me to believe that 1 had to load at. two di^erent 
places, and knowing that powder H not allowed to be shipped in the docks, I 
did not tliitik of using the precaution to exclude it. I tlierefore desire to know 
whether my charterer can insist upon my taking powder on board under the 
name of lawful raerchandize^ and if so, what quantity of this dangerous artiolo 
you would consider to he in conformity with the custom of the port, for a 
vessel of my size?" Answer: '* Although, hy the Customs' Consolidation Act» 
gunpowder is not unlawful merchandise, ualesa made bo hy proclamation, still, 
hy the Merchant Shipping Act of 1854, section 320, no person is entitled to 
require the matstor or owner of a ship to carry gunpowder, or any other goods, 
whitih, in the judgment of such master or owner, are of a dangerous character; 
and, presuming that the charter party was made here, the master has the 
power, under t bis Act, to refuso lo take gunpowder on board." 

■137 Explosion, The bark Lott^ Slmtjh, 3'-'^ ton, Capt. Webbbr, w^as 
in the Mersey January 10, l^tU, loitding for the West Coast of Africa, She liad 
a general cargo i a eluding 04i* kegs oF gimpowder, about 15tti. each — UJ ton, 
stowed in the lazaretto under the cabin. At six. in the evening the steward 
was triramiog ihe lamps with potroleum oil wliioli exploded. The fire from 



■M 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



263 



^abed curtains and bedding soon filled the cabin, and [GUNPOWDER 
M by the petroleum, proTented fill efiorts to extingnlsb it, and tho 
■ and crew were coin polled to abandon the ship. At half-past Boven a 
huge volnmo of smoke and water, suiTounded by a sheet of flame, shot up to a 
great height carrying the maatsand yarda with it, after which aU became inky 
darkness. Fragments of the ship were scattered in all directions, a large 
number of the gas lights in Liverpool and Birkenhead were suddenly extin- 
guished, nnd an immense quantity of plate glass was demolished. 

Tonnage. 2,000lb. go to a ton for freight; in Australia it is freigfited by 
measurement, at double the ordinary rates. A barrel contains lOOfb. half- 
barrel 50. quarter 25 ; it is also made up in small oak barrels, containing 8, 
10, 12 J, and 20llh A last is 21 barrels, or 2,400rb. 

BIlfEHSIONS OF ADMIEALTT POWBIIE FACEAGES. 



IfATtlUK 


witoii; 


H^. 


qCARTSm 


Biirrd, depth 

iliomi^ter ^m ...» 
CoAO, length 

breadth 

depth * » 

- 


inebet , 

m 

17 
17 
20 


13 

u 

13 
17 


14 
10 
ID 
10 
14 



438 GI^S weighing between 3 and 4 ton eacli^ and requirinf^, con- 

icqwently, nrnch time to receive and discbarge tlienjj may be objected 

at the lime of shipment, as not being cargo which a ship can **con- 

ircTiicntly stow or carry/' and so noted in a protest. Gims are, however, 

u** lawful merchandize/' unless prohibited hj order in Council ; for stowage 

lee ammunition and iron. According to Mnti att, the mode adopted 

for getting guns on board ships of war is as follows : the main yard to 

be secured as for the anchors ; square the yard by the braces, to plumb 

lie centre lower deck port, if a tiliip of the lincj — the gangway^ if any 

other vessel. Take one main- tackle and lash the double block directly 

' ofi*r the rigging at the yard-arm ^ overhaul the single hlock down on deck, 

the faJl rove abaft the main rigging. Top-tackfe fall rove in its own 

blocks for a purchase, book the blocks to the pendant; measure two 

^L fathoms from the thimble upwards on the pendant, and then lash the 

^Bftingle block of the main-tackle; haul the end of the lop-lacklc piiidant 

^Hinto the top; take the end over the main-cap, man tlie maiii'tackle fall, 

^Hand haul out and trice up until the lower pnrcha&e block (top-tackle block) 

^■plumbs the centre of the gim-ligbter hatchways secure the end of the 

^" pendant, and mark the main-tackle fall at the leading block, reeve the 

purchase fall from the fore part of the opposite gangway to lead aft; 

take u yard-tackle for a garnet-tackle, the pendant round the quarter of 

the main-yard, ilie single block to plumb the hole in the gangway (the 




264 



STEVENS ON STOAVAGE, 



garnet pendant 4 fathoms of^-incli rope), a large hook spliced [GUNS 
inla tlie lower end that hooka to tlie breech of the giin, reeve the other 
end up lliroujjjli the main and spur decks, and hook tlie garnet tackle to ii; 
man the purchase and garnet-lackle, mn] place the captain of the main- 
top hy I he nmin*tackle fall, walk iiway with the purchase, — when above 
the lightens hatch wavj hook on the garnet and walk the ptireliase well 
np; when high enough, away with the garnet- tackle and ease in the 
main-tackle, the gun will come in without any stop; let go the purchase 
and the main top men at the gariiel-lacklc haul out the main-fackle until 
the mark is down. In this same manner take ihem In over alL 



X^ZZLE-LO&IimG BnXE QVMB. 



■S) ^ 



Iff 
1^ 



1^ 
1^ 






in. 


ton 


9 


12 


8 


9 


7 
abunt 
64pr. 


Si 



ft. in. 


No. 


Jb. 


13 3 


6 


250* 


11 4 


4 


180* 


10 6 


3 


116» 


a 


3 


64* 



ID. 
IS 

13 

Bi 

7 



250* 
180' 



2 IS 



t1t>. ox 
950« - 

182^ 8 

111* S 

60* 3 



WJ. 
WX 
W.U* 
ihimt, 



lb. 

iS 80 15 

80 20 12 

22 14 la 

- 8 tt 



• Wtiffkl otvhcW when 1o«ded. 

Letij^h of pn^cf^leit, cmamon uLeJI, O-in, fi-m, 74ii, ikboul 9 duunetora- ChiOcd nhat or shell, Mn, 
a4u. 7 hi, ubout '2 diiuiM*U?rB. Slinipa<;ll aliell, i^in, M'lainelUM ; d-in, £3-38 inchet; T-ln, l7'0&illdliMi 
Dunole »bdl, 7.in, aTctut I diwnttern. 

Fof ft 7'Ui. gtiu the tttighto/a double nheli when loaded is IdfUh i liurslinfr eliftrge IStb.lHox; Bad 
of & dulkd »bot Tor ft 7-iii. f^uii in 11 'jlb. Tho rirtVf q/ r%0ii^ cf ft O-Ld. gUJi is 1 tarn ia 45efttlbroft; 
8-in. gun I ttirti in iO calibre •> ; au«l 7-in. jfon 1 turti in Cl& calibre*. 

439 GUTTA PRRCHA, a vegetable produet obtained from trees 
in Borneo, Malacca, Singapore, &c j it is highly inrtammahle, but imper- 
vious to water or damp, and is generally liiken with oilier goods, say 
200 Ion in a ship uf 800 ton burtlien. Dunnage with wood, and mat the 
sides; in a raw slate it contains foreign substances, such as wood, hark, 
&c. wliich will ahs'irb water, or very little dunnage would be necessary. 
Gutta peruha is stowed in bulk, excepting the small jneces winch are in 
ba^'s; it is liable lo be damaged by any sticky goods, such as cuteh, 
(jambier, sugar, lar,&c. and will injure tea, rice, and other delicate article*. 
Snccific 'navily 0'9'25. India rubber in a crude state is imporied into 
Eugl&iitl chiedy from Para iu South America. Tlie first quality is known 
in the market as Para rubber, second as gutt, and tliird negro head. It 
is sonielimes stowed in llie same hold with nuts which, when heated, 
exuiic an uil very injurious lo the rubber, as h the case with iill fixed oils. 



Clotliing and oihc-r ariirles made of rubber should [GOTTA PERCHA 
be stowed in a cool dark part of die siiip. In the Southatnptou docks an 
ejttra charge is made for separatlinpf such articles as India rubber, cutch, 
j^ambier, &c. in an adhesive stale. The charge in the London docks is 
3s M per man per day, and the cost of repairing tiie insirumenla used. 

440 HAIRj from Rio Grande, is sometimes injured by contact with 
bone aah ; see the Liverpool letter in the article ores, and see hides, 

441 HAMS, from Ireland, are usually packed like bladder lard, 
ID casks, on the heads of which the number and weight of contents is 
generally marked ; the cask and packing is not included in the weight ; 
tJie freight is therefore calculated on tlie net weight; see bacon. In 
computing ihe freight of hams at Baltimore, 200I1>. net weight are cun- 
sidered eqnal to the freight of a barrel of 5 cubic feet, American hams 
and shoulders are someiinies packed in hogsheads, 8 cwt« each. 

442 HANGING BEDS ; pieces of wood set on end between casks 
in a tier, so as to keep the bilges finger free from each other. The pieces 
are eet against the f|uarters, with an inclination towards the bilge, so that 
if there should he any shaking of the casks, they will fall inwards and 
be secured, rather than outwards and he lost. Sometimes these pieces 
are cpioined above, against the quarters, by wedgea falling between lliem 
and the quarters, and sometimes keyed below by pieces in a line with 
the casks* 

443 HARE SKINS. 3,5€0 go to a iod. The Bailie rale is the 
some as for clean hemp per ion. 

444 HAliTALL^ or Orpiment, a Chinese native snlphnretof arse- 
nic. Bombay Ion 50 cubic feet in cases. 

44-5 HATCHWAYS AND HATCHES, See the article mate. In 
the Second Court, before .Tnsticc Mellor, July 6, 1865, Hi tins v. Ross. 
FlainlifTwas master of the ship Moulushe ; in the previoHs December she 
was moored in the Suney doek outside the Jarnia, Persons wanllng to 
go on board the Moulaahe were in ihe habit of passing over the Jdrnia, 
A\ B p.m. December 24^ plain tifl' was going on s!iore and crossing de- 
fendant's ship, when he fell down her hatchway. It was extremely dnrk, 
plaintilfwafe takiug the same course as he took by day but he tripped and 
fril dawn the hatch way— 21 feet. He was insensible and knew nt^tbing 
of H hat had oecurred till late the fulluwing day; was conGoed to his bed 
on board twenty-eight days, and was then removed in a cab to his 
lodgingg. He wua siill suffering, and had not been able to oblain rin- 
ploymenl since. There was no mode of getting on shore hut by crotising 
die Jamia. On ihe part of defendant it was urged that there wtia not 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Buch negligence as would rentier bim liable. The [HATCHWAYS 
judge Imwevcr Uiougbt ibat (or the* purposes of tbe day tbtjre wasj and 
the jury awarded £450 to plaintiff. 

446 HAY rcc|nirea a full amount of ballast; dunnage with hoard in 
tbe wings. In a damp bold buy is liable to become over- healed, and 
fibould be stowed so as to allow a current of air to pass from one balcbway 
to anotber. A government officer reeom mends a large cargo to be divided 
about half" way up, and a space of about a foot to be kept clear with old 
spars or other dunnage, laid fore and aft. There should also be a well 
of about four bales space, kept clear from llie upper deck lo tbe bottom 
of tbe ship, A vessel laden with bay in a damp state had her decks so 
much injured that they were obliged to be renewed, altbuugh she was 
hut three years old. The ship ^fmra(hon^ from Bristol, with 700 ton of 
hay for Constantinople, out 30 days, put jjuo Plymouih, leaky> January 
16, 1856. Her cargo had become so much heated that for many days 
ifie crew were driven from the forecastle to tbe cabin; and llie hatches 
uf the fiirecaslJe and tbe hold, tbe chain boxes, and ever) aperture com- 
niunieatiug with the cargo, had been carefully battened down and covered 
witb tar[>aulin, to prevent the fire from bursting into a flame. Tbe ship 
Ofijiamme, Capt. Smith, left Bomhay May 3lst» 1805, for Liverpool. 
On tbe 2:2ud of June, hit. 10"^ 15' N. bm. 27^3' W, a fire broke out in the 
hold, which was not extinguished until after twenly-cight hours' exertion. 
It is supposed to have originated in a cask or crate of goods packed with 
straw. In emigrant ships all hay and straw mu.st be carried on deck, at 
a distance from the gaOey, and covered with canvas. It is usually stowed 
ill the chains and on the quarters of sbips leaving Calcutta in fine weather. 
At Port Louis, vessels requiring bay for the purpose of their voyage, are 
not allowed lo remain the night at anchor, or on the warps in the harbour, 
after it is on board ; and if ready to sailj must run out and anchor at the 
Bell Buoy, Neither bay nor cotton can be allowed to remain on tltc wharf 
during tlie day, unless under a special guard; nor can such be suffered 
under any circumstances to remain there during the night. 

ToEUage. The Admiralty allows 500 tb, pressed bay to a ton. Ordinarily 
compressed hay in trusses mcasuro about 2 ft. 4 in. x 3 ft. r> in. x 3ft, and wilt 
average about 270 tb. per truss, occupying say 140 feet per ton for stowage^ 
which, h}draulic preaaure will reduce to 105 feet per ton. 

Hay aad Straw. 3(Jlb. make l truss of straw ; bi'itb. 1 truss old hay ; COtb. 
I tHifis new hay ; ?i<> trusses 1 load ; 18 cwt, I load old bay ; lt>cwt. 32lt>. 1 load 
now h«y ; II cwt. Uitb. J load straw; 1 square yard of new hay stone, oldish 
hoy H stojn*. and old bay 9 stone. Hay is considered as uew for 3 mouths, and 
is called old on tbe firfct of October. The Admiralty estimate a himdle to weigh 
4ilb. per cubic foot; trusses supposed to weigh 50Jt>. vary from 62 @ 56tb; 
;raw in bundles SiVlb. per cubic foot vary from 30 (gi 5l}tb. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



267 



7 HEMP, or cannabis saiicn^ beiof^ a plant of rapid pfTOwlh* sucks 
ch of the unaltered soil, and therefore differs greatly according to 
the soil as well ti3 the climate and culture. Riga produces the best in 
Europe, well known as *'Riga rhine ;'* the next is Petersburg braak or 
elcau ; then Riga pass or half-clean, hemp from Konigsberg, Arclmngel, 
Sweden, and Merael. Another authority says, Riga hemp is designated 
Rein or Rhine, oulsbot, pass, and codilla; Petersburg is termed clean, 
outsbot, bftlf-clcau, and codilla. Riga outshot and Petersburg outsbot, 
come next in rotation to Riga rhine a»d Petersburg clean ; then pass and 
Peiersbarg half-clean* '*Kaarle ** means inferior as applied to hemp or 
hemp seed, or both. When hemp arrives itt Petersburg from the growers^ 
il is sorted or "braacked " into three qualities — clean, oittshot, and half- 
clean ; this sorting was formerly done by the |?overumcnt, now (less 
efficiently) by the merchants or dealers. The clean is long and strong; 
otilshot shorter and weaker; half-clean still shorter. In Riga the assort- 
Bietit of Ryne, outshot, and pass is ** braacked ** as at Petersburg, In 
ckariering at Petersburg, when clean hemp obtains 40* p- ton freight, 
ouiishot gets 2s 6r/, and half-clean ^s additional. At Riga, when cleau 
liomp, Rhine, ouishot, and Dwina pa3s obtain 50.v, coarse Polish, and 
Uliraine pass gel 62s 6d, In other words, 2s tjt/ t> ton and 5s -p* ion addi* 
tiooal are usually paid for the coarser de scrip lions. The quantity delivered 
generally greater than that charged in ihe bill of hiding. 

448 The first season for pulling clean hemp, the roots being avax!- 
•Me, is in Aitgusfl. Russian hemp, shipped in the Baltic, ia usually of 
the growth of two seasons previous, lb at is, hemp grown say in lH(jOgels 
doim for shipment in 1862; through ncceicrated modes of transit, largo 
qnantilies of one season old only have latterly been shi])ped in August, 
September, and Ociober. Hemp generally arrives at Riga about the 

idle of May ; this hemp, especially if gathered in wet seasons, aitd if 
eat care is not taken in its preparaiiou, is very liubte to get heated in 
tliebold, and will become seriously damaged from natural moisture when 
ihe voyage is along one. In the summer the sun's rays make the deeks 
abuve extremely hoi by day — by night they become very cold, particularly 
underneath; this creates condensation, which drops on and injures the 
cargo. On the voyage home, or when at anchor at Elsinore, &c. the 
batches, during fine weather, should be open, to counteract the injurious 
e^ecU of healing Particular care must be takf^n to ship hemp and fiaK 
lo fine dry weather ; if they gel wet they heat and are materially injured ; 
rihia reason every vessel must be furnished with mats when loading, 

449 The ballast used in Cmnstadt, St* Petersburg, and Riga, ia 
^nerally stone, wliich is planked and double-matted* In some Russian 
pQ/rUt ll»e ship is ballasted on dunnage of light wood, with bur iron, stowed 
eroi^waysy so an to admit ihe air; the iron is covered with mats to 



ses 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



receive bales, and in large sliips they ore covered with mats [HEMP 
to receive a second lialjasiing of iron. Hemp should be dunnaged about 
9 inches on ibe floors, and to the upper part of ibe bilge; tbe wing bales 
of tbe »econd tier kept 6 inches off the side at the lower comer, and 
2\ inches at the sides ; sliarp-holtomed ships one-third less dunnage iD 
floor and bilges Double mats are also carried up the sides and are placed 
round tbe masts, pump- well, &c. and under tbe hatchways. Iron knees, 
bolts, &c. roust be well dunnaged, as by contact they greatly injure bemp, 
more especially when leakage occurs near. Some importers do not con- 
sider mats to be of much use, 

450 Being light and bulky hemp is forced by screws^ which renders 
the operation rather slow : stevedores require to be watched or there will be 
great loss of space. On the other hand care must be observed not to over- 
screw in any particular diroctioUj or the ship will be strained and become 
leaky at sea. Sometimes the lashings or bands of the bales (which are 
usually made of cod ilia or other inferior hemp) are cut for the purpose of 
Blowing; this i^bould be avoided as much as possible, because the value 
oi the hemp is thereby deieriorated. The stevedores at Riga through 
greater skill, arc reputed to be able to stow 10 ^ cent, more in a ship's 
hold than those al Pelersburg and Cronstadt. At Riga the ship finds dun- 
nage, tbe merchant mats ; lalbwood is generally used* During the passage 
the natural beating of the hemp draws out the sap from ibe alabbards 
(lath wood) and then the bemp contiguous becomes rotten, po that often- 
times without any leakage, a ship delivers two or three Ion damaged hemp 
including the bands. When a bale is opened, the bands (four or ^\'e) are 
in some ports, thrown on one side and sold wiib the damaged bemp. 

451 In steam-ships tbe heat from the fires^ like the over-beat from 
the sun, dries up tbe moisture of biemp and weakens it> but after landing 
and t^xposure to air, under shelter, it will, if not too much heated, recover 
a portion of its strength. A lengthened passage in a steam-ship may do 
serious injury to hemp. When it ts slowed in an iron ship, every part of 
the cargo must be dunnaged ofl' completely, so as to prevent contact, or 
ibe licnjp will be damaged^ especially if any leakage occurs. Dampness 
from bemj) will oxidize iron. 

452 Oil, linseed oil especially, and tar, if allowed to leak on beinp^ 
uiny produce spontaneous combustion. The steam from artificial manures 
will ruin h e I s I p a II d fl ax . Th e d an gero u s co n s eq u e n c e s o f s to w i n g b em p, 
jul<% oil, liillovv, atKl lubacco in the &anic place, is su[iposed to have been 
cxempliliid by the destruction and fatal fire at Cotton's Wbarf, London, 
Juhi 2ti» ltti*L A ship discharging Venetian hemp at Devonport, in l8o5, 
was put under detention in consequence of the discovery of stray lucifer 
matclicK ill her cargo, supposed to have been dropped by tbe stevedores; 
in Philadi'lpLia no vi'ssel loading or discharging hemp at a wharf is per- 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



269 



mitted lo have a fire ; nor on board any other vessel lying near [HEMP 
if considered dangerous; see the articles Aax and rope, and for ibe seasons 
of shipment in the Baltic, sec the article grain, 

453 Ships will not slow iheir register tonnage of hemp, and speed 
18 now of such great consideration tliat they do not carry so much in 
proportion to that tonnage as formerly. It mtist boirever be stated that 
bemp, especially at Petersburg, is not packed so closely now. An expe- 
rienced merchant says "a Channel-built ship will not stow two- thirds of 
her register; a Scotch ship of 120 ton, would carry perhaps 100 ton of 
flax, or if tine 110 ton/' Presised-packed bales of hemp stow, of course, 
closer than unpressed, Italian hemp is packed closer than Baltic ; iron 
bands are sometimes used. A ship will stow 10 or 15 ^ cent, more flax 
tlian hemp. The schooner Ada^ of Runcorn, registers 102 ton, and took 
in at Petersburg in Octobert 1865, 65 ton of hemp ; with this, 10 ton stone 
ballist, and 6 ton kentledge, she drew 8 feet 4 inches aft; with a dead- 
weight cargo she draws 1 1 feet 6 inches. 



DETAILS OF 



THB1£ CABLES 
FLTMOUTH 



OF HEMP 
m 1866, 



BIECHABOED AT 



I>M» 


aiiip 


Too 
leg- 


From 


C«rgo 


Tod 
Msht 


MajS 


CausTtxA .. 


aai 


Veoioe «. 


d50 bondleBbemp 209 

8»440 wiOimt plvUifl 101 

200 bondloi wtiiak lor \ . 
bittoiM^iay..,. S ® 
ft37 diimiag« oiaU 


S16 


BcplS 


VfmxMLM ♦. 


151 


Bigm .... 


S9& bimdlMliaKip ...... 110| 

154 ptekigei flu 20 

150 dnnimgc^ hloIb 


I 13(>l 


OctU 




95 


Petenbturg 


154 bondlei rougli hemp tad m 


601 



The cargo of the Elha Waiter was discharged at the dockyord, Devon- 
port, where the authorities 

Ion e. <j. lb, 

Aeoapt«d i* lit for gotenmoil tme . . 69 5 3 21 

01ii«et«d to ss imfltf (inclndizLg the t a 7 i 1 1 

braai of the eftrgo) J o ^ i U 

Dcnuiged by bil^e-wftter ..*., * » 12 fi 7 

Qtxmctfga 69 6 

The Eliza Watker is of composite construction hy Ji>Rn an. Her bottom 
fia limber; the frame of her sides is iron ; and the plankings two diagmuil 
lavers^ is fastened with yellow metal bolts to the frame. No dunnjige wus 
tucd between the hemp and the sides. Witli this cargo her mean draught 
WIS 6 feet 6 inches ; with a dead-weight cargo of 106 ton, b feci 6 incJics. 



270 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



< 



I 



1 



454 Of late years qiiantities o^ yam lia\*e been shipped at [HEI 
Pelersbur^ and otbcr Baltic porls. It is usually coiled on winches, 
(wooden reels) which are stitched in luatting. The packages have the 
appearance of barrels, hut ihey do not taper so much in the ends ; six 
usually go to a ton, and the freight is 2^6^ less than for clean betnp< 

455 In the nonhern island of New Zealand and in Cook*s Straits, 
hemp is made up in bales of about the same size as those of cotton, 
pressed in a similar manner* It is generally brought from Australia as 
light freight, and is stowed over oil, tallow, See; this hemp is very clean, 
and there is little or no steam from it. Large quantities come to Eng- 
land as lashings for bales of wool, tbere being sometimes five or six about 
each bale. In a cargo of 3,150 bales upwards of 25 ton of hemp were 
used for lashings. More hemp is produced in the northern than in the 
southern island of New Zealand : the season is from tbe beginning of 
November to the beginning of March, Bales of hemp made up in the 
Pliillipine Isles, measure about 10 cubic feet and weigh 2801b, Manilla 
hales are packed very neatly and stow well. 

45« Damaged cargo. At Liverpool, Jan. 1858, Bencke v. Wilkinson. 
Plaintitf sought to recover £% compensation for damnge to a parcel of hemp 
shipped on board the Pcncvcrance^ from Kiga. It appeared that, according 
to charter party, the cargo was not to be opened or broken up, or the cordaga 
cut, and no damp wood was to be stowed among the bales. Plaiu tiff contended 
that damp wood had been used as dunnage, and had caused the damage^ and 
the evidence of hiii witnesses went to show that the damage was of such a 
character as could not have boon caused by any other means than through the 
dampness of the dunnage. Defendaut contended that any damage which had 
occurred was caused entirely by sea damago, and consequently was not such 
as the owner could he held responsible for. Several witnesses were called, 
among others the defendant, who stated that, from his own observation, the 
yeasel had beeu leaking to some extent, as might hi^ve been expected from her 
condition, and the admission of salt water. The stevedore who unloaded her 
proved tliat she had been making water to some extent in tbe sides, whicb 
woidd run down among the hemp; the dunnage and stowage were good 
Capt. Allen, surveyor to the underwriters, considered that the hemp had beei 
well stowed, and that the dunnage was particularly well put in. Lie observed' 
that some of the hemp bad sustained damage; but that was only such as 
might arise from salt water; had been in the Baltic trade, and knew that hemp ^ 
was a dilleult cargo to stow, being apt to sustain injury from the access offl 
water, evcu in small quantities. In commenting on the evidence, Mr, Forshaw" 
maintained that the witnesses for defendant had not succeeded in establishing 
that the damage had been occasioned by sea damage, while the evidence of « 
Ids witnesses was to the effect that the damage was only traceable to the po-H 
Sition of the dunnage wood. Mr. Commissioner BLAia said there wore points 
Id the evidence which appeared to favor the imprepsioii, that being an absorbent 
of moisture, the damage might have arisen from aea-water. He took time to 
consider, and a few days afterwardsj gave Judgment in favor of the defeudmit. 



eri^ 



STOWAGE. 



Proportionate tonnage, Ac. The followiBg quantities are re- [HEMF 
quired to fill a keel of 600 cub. ft, or 07 qra. wlieat, viis : 10 ton clean hemfi and 
ti&x ; W'lO? oulsliot ditto ; 7760 half-clean ditto ; and 5&25 oodilla. 0;^ poods 
groes Russian cloan make a ton for freight. 40iti. Kiissian inako a pood. 
Bengal, Madras, and Bombay ton 00 cubic feet Borewed bales ; Bombay 7 cwt, 
looBe or bundlBB. Manilla is moslly shipped by weight ; 1 ton (j30 cwt) will 
mako about two Ion measiireraenl of 40 cubic feet for American ships; when 
sugars are freighted at 10 dollara per ton of 20 cwt, hemp and otber light 
freight are rated at 12 dollars per ton of 40 cubic feet. 

Freight. When wheat is lOi W qimrter freight, clean hemp and i!ax is 
rated at £4 17^ Oti |> ton; oulahot i'5 G* ll^d; half-clean M bi Od; and 
codilla £S 0# 4^^, Another authority says, when wheat is freighted at U ^ 
quajler, clean hemp is rated at 10j(6<i ^ ton of 20cwt; outshot should he 
I'lOth ; half^clcan 3-lOths ; and codilla 7-10th8 more than eleaii hemp per ton 
of 20 cwt. 

Weights. A stone is 3'2lt> : a bale nearly 20 ewt ; a hale of St. Petersburg 
aan hemp weighs from 55 to 65 pooda ; outshot 4B to 55 ; half clean 40 to 46. 
*A pood weighs i**6tt). avoirdupois ; C3 poods an English ton. 6^ sliipp of flax 
or hemp— 1 ton English. A to© will occupy 88 cubic feet. A bale well screwed 
arerages 2 J feet llitck, 5 feet high* and 7 feet long. Bales of St Petersburg 
eleaii are now mostly 6 cwt. to 10 cwt- otich pressed. A bale is made of a 
number of bundles or heads weighing 16 to 16lb. each, 

457 HERRINGS should be stowed the same as a wet cargo, say 
wine or oil, for which see casks, liquids, and oils ; the ground tier to be 
aade square ; small casks at each end ;, keep as level as possible to come 

fur heigh Lb at top. In general cargoes avoid stowing red herrings so 

to leak on perishable goods. For the purpose of levying import duty, 
be Russian governmeni divide herriiigs into three classes, viz: first 
InaJily, Dutch IM 6c/ li> barrel of poods; second quality, Scotcli and 
ingVish 4s 4(1 ; and third, all others infenur, 3s. For white herrings, 
nhe staves of barreh aie usually of Norway birch aud ash; for red or 
^moked^ of fir. 

Toima^C, &C« l^^ barrels red herrings, weighiog 11 ton, or Ml white, 
aijton, witi 01 cupy a space of 850 cubic feet or 1 keel. On Llie Criuan Cunal 
8 barrels of hemngs go fur a ion froigl^t. When wheat is 1j ir^ quarter freight 
red herrings are rated at (l}J, and white %d ^ barrel. 

Measures. A last of herrings is Vl barrels ; a bttrrcl 2fj | imperial gallons ; 
a cran 27 J ditto ; a measure 000 fish ; and a cade, mace, or moi^e 500 fish. In 
FOOie places a laat consista of W cades, each cade a 1,000, iind mQTj 1,000 ten 
hundred^ and every 100 five score; 18 barrels of unpacked herrings make a 
Ufit In Norway a last 224lb. English ; Denmark 224tb. net; Bremerhaven, 
a ship last 12 barrels; Hotterdam 14 barryls, 

458 HIDES are shipped in immense quantities at Buenos Ajrrea, 
Monie Video, and other ports in the River Plate, and at Rio Grande do 
Sul, 300 miles north, The harbours are shallow ^ good anchors and cabks 



272 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



are very necessary; prodoce is brouglit oH principally in [HIDES 
li^bters (balaedra<i), and when they come alongside in llie River Plate 
on a Sanda}' or holiday, it is customary to receive their cargoes at once ; 
otherwise the refusal flrill bar tlie ship from all claims for demurrage. 
This custom originates through the fact that the weather the next day 
might prevent the transhipment from the lighters; indeed, they cannot 
lay alongside should there he the least swell. The season of shipment 
is from November to July; the largest shipments occur from December 
to May. Ships are generally addressed at Buenos Ayres, to the agent 
of tlie chartei-^r, whose commission is from 2J lo 5 per cent, on the 
freight. Although instrucllons for the stowage of tallow, bones^ hone 
asb, horns Jiair, &c. are given in this work under their several headings, 
in alphabetical order, yet they are so intimately connected with the 
stowage of hides, that it becomes necessary to refer to them here also. 

450 A heavy ox-hide \vill measure 7 feet long by 5 feet 9 inches wide ; 
light hide 4 feet lOinches by 4 feet 4 inches; average 6 feet 6 inches by 
4 feet 6 inches. A salted ox-hide weighs from 42 to 8ytb. Below are 
the details of a cargo landed at Plymouth, 

SIDES ex FL01£KCE inaHfTEroALE^ 1064. 



Ko. 


^evcfiptioa 


Weight 


ATeng« 


6,235 

»42 

66 

44 

870 


HeuTT 01 ••••**..(.•«.> 


ewt. qr. lb. 

B,5Q4 2 17 

405 1 6 

SI 26 

84 3 22 

267 3 25 


62i 

48^ 

421 

89 

81J 


XJghtox 

Cow« 

BnlU 

Heavy ox (bad oonditkon) 


7,6-17 


4,234 12 ' 


63 



Besides the hides the ship Florence Nifjhfingale had 114 cw t. 13 tb. of 
tallow and 495 cwt. of bones; in addition she had 670 cwt. for dead- 
freight ; her register is 447 ton, and dimensions 140*8 feet long, 26*7 
broad, and 182 deep. 

4C0 The Danish brig Mercure, Capt. Hansen, 102 English ton, 
6(> Danish lasts, took in at Rio Gnmdc in September, 1862, 2,5(H> salted 
hides and 6,200 dry bides, with 6,000 horns for dunnage. No ballast* 
So laden she drew 9 feet 9 inches aft, 9 feet forward. With a little over 
7^ keel Newcastle cool, say 160 ton, she draws 10 feet 2 inches afl, and 
9 feet forward, 

461 It is usual to calcnlate that the carcases of 7,000 animals will 
produce 280 pipes of lalloW, and when freigbting a ship with bides and 
lal low, about that proportion, say 35 pipes to every 1,CCJ0 hides, is gene- 
rally agreed on. 1,000 ox*bides, with tlie necessary Balt^ weigh about 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 273 

FOVn CABG0E3 OF HIDES DISCHABGED At FLTM01TTH IN 1867. 



Brig Adela, 227 ton register, 

Ifewor^mcnt 109 x 23 '2 X 13-7 feet. 

From Buctwi Ay res, 

ton « q lb 

Hidfta 19B 12 2 

Tiillow 69 19 2 

Boom U 11 

Salt 13 ion 28S 3 

CimiBiA, 283 ton.^From Uruffuoif. 

BiaM ., 1% 15 

Tullflw .,.. IIB 15 

Bones Mid Hornti . . 19 

Soli 10 ton 834 10 



Brif TJhatti^^ 1^7 ton rcgiAteTi 

MeftBUretnent M x 2i x 14 feeU 

From Utagtmy. 

ton c q ffi 

Hitleg ........... 198 15 

ThUow 7fi 10 

Bonea 10 14 3 

SaltUtciii 26-4 19 8 

Brignntme Scotsman, 185 ton register, 
measurement UK) x 22 x 12*9 ft. 

Hiilea Ifi6 5 

Tdlow 70 16 

Bonu 21 2 2 

SKlfclOton 356 2 2 



30 ton. Master* should see thai the niimher charged ib received ; those 
sent with the liair loose, should not he received without previous cotu- 
muoicaticm with the sljipptTj because it is custcuniu'y li> muke the ship 
antwer for had stowage, to whicli the loss of tlie hair may he attributed 
«n delivery, in the River Plate, pipes of talknv are ordinarily stowed 
ou the ground floor, with a layer of bones or liorns to receive hides, 
otljerwi»c ihure sliould be at leai^l H or inclies of level dunnage in ih^ 
biittom, %vith 2 or 3 incljLH in the wings, and a single spread of hides 
nailed up and down agmnHt the skin of iliesbipj (the fleshy part towards 
the ship's side), to keep the dunnage in its pUu-e, and prevent loss of 
salt and pickle* These hidcii are brought into the cargo as the stowage 
progresses upwards. As suited hides are very lieavy, more dunnage is 
squired below to keep the cargo higher up. 8onie mere hanls recommend 
a layer of pipes of tallow from end to tmd ; sometimus a layer in each 
H'lng aliio. if there is ruore than will fill the ends of the ship. The main 
ohjeei is to get a level bed for ihe hides. When stowing at IJneno-'j 

re!*, Monte \'idto, and Rio Grande^ great cure is taken to maintain an 
act leVL'l with every layer. It is the universal practice to slow hkli.** 
Ilk' i lb the hairy side upwards; where it becomes necessary to turn in it 
pari of a hide, the hairy pan should he turned in and carefully supplied 
irith »ah and [vicklu, to prevent decomposition. Hides will quickly 
dec»)fnpoKe if allowed to touch any article not of suclt a kindied charac* 
l4jr ab bottes, bonis, &e. and wiil-b<j burnt by turpeiviine, and stained by 
wood, boili of which, like iron, require to be well dunnaged with 

es, &c. The niasis, beams, and pQinp-casing should he well dunnaged. 
A ihip of 3(X)lon will retjuire about 20 ton of steamed bones for duu- 
niit;*\ Merchants prefer having the entire cargo stowed in one bu^k; 
ulan there are more bulks, tlie risk of injury \^ increased by the wa^to 



974 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE* 



of pickle from llie ends of tlie bulks and the consequent [HIDES 
dccoTuposition of the outer hides ; when tuorc than one bulk is absolutely 
necessarj;, the space between should he well filled with salt, corered so as 
to prevent leaka;^e from coming in contact with it. Through the incon* 
vciiicnce of creepin*^ ahoul under the beams, the crew will sometimes 
double up ibc tup liides ; in ihia case the fulds will be sure to rot and 
lodS will (all on the ship, 

462 The pickle should be made with fresh water. Some masters 
consider that there ia jsiifhLienl salt when a potatoe will float in It if stirred 
with a slick- It m preferable to pul loo much rather than too Hule salt. 
Pickle should not W made with salt water, or the hides will turn black 
immcdiaLely afterwards, send forth a most disgus>tii*g effluvia, and then 
rot. Some merehanla, however, while adnutling that fresh water is prefer- 
able, state that sea water can be used if made into very stronii pickle* 
The}' contend tliat more care must be taken against the use of weak pickle, 
which, all admit, h very iojurions. As a matter of fact sea water is used, 
especially at Monte Video* The pickle is usually placed near the hatch- 
ways in a large cask ; ii is lowered into the hold in buckets, and poured 
on the hides genlly as if from a watering pot. There is considembk 
waHle when a pump is used. It has been suggested that a flexible hose, 
having at the end a pliable tap and perfonited nozzlcj might save time 
and labor; this, however, could scarcely be done without the aid of a 
force-pump. It is the jmictice wilh ships which arrive with cargoes of 
Bait to retain on board sufhcient lo pickle their cargoes of bides. 8hips 
not bringing cargoes of «alt, have it brought off in whale boats or small 
lighters, (about 50 fancgas in each), the crews of which lay the salt on 
the sbip*s deck, firBt placing something under to keep it from the planks. 
Careful masters gather all the stray salt after loading, and throw it on 
the hidca occasionally on the passage home; the dampness of the ship 
will soon converl It into pickle; this preserves and makes them Inm out 
better on discharging. Wnnn lIjc last part of a cargo has been stowed 
OD the slojjf, and m> pickle has been llirown on it during the passage 
home, considerable loss of frciglit has occurred iu consequence of damage 
lo the uppermost bides and to the outer edges of those next below, ft 
is almost unnecessary to add that under no con^iideralion should hides 
be stowed in this way, but (I at as et ye where directed. Merchants 
recommend the fore and after hatches to be kept open in tiiie weather, 
on the passage home, to let off the steam from the liides. It is desira- 
ble for all interests ibat the cargo should be delivered in good condition. 
Close aiteution is usually paid al the commencement ot the discharge, 
wilh regard holh lo the stowage and the jiickling. Masters are some- 
times persuaded to lake in more salt for pickling titan is necessary, 
under the pretence thai the overplus will belong to the ship on uirlvd. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



275 



Unless there is a stipuktion to the conirary, no freight is [HIDES 
payable on ihe salt which belongs to the shipper or his agent al the port 
of discharge. On the discharge of a cargo of salt hides it ia usual to 
calculate that there will be a loss in freigbt of 15 per cent, that being 
about the proportion of tlie salt used in stowing. The loss of weight by 
drying and evaporation is calculated at from 3 to 6 per cent. Masters 
Lave had to submit to large dediiclions through injury from the effluvia 
of decomposed bides ; the freigbt has been sometimes absorbetl al together; 
in the caae Montoya v. London Assurance Co. the underwriters were 
licid liable fur injury thus caused to tobacco stowed over iiides. 

4(>3 One iirm, which has had great experience in tlje trade, adopts 
llie following form of charter party, which includes their iustruclions for 
stowing satted hides, 

464 Charter Party. London, It is this dn^ mutually ngreed 

between of the good ship or vesael culled ibe clii-^sed 

and coppei'ctd, of the burthen of tonSi register meaaurement, or ihero- 

•boots, now aud HAVORCfT & Pethick, Mercbams. Tliat the said 

abip being tight, staunclv. and strong, and every way fitied for the ToyBgt' shall, 
will fUl couTcnient speed, wail and proceed to and tbere load from the 

chartei*era' agent a full and rcimpleLe cnrgo of sitlt^ in rcgidur turn, aud there- 
finlh proceed to Monte Video, for orders, to be given witliin forty-eight hours 
after written notice of arrivul, tn tliscliarge tbere or at Buenos Ayrcs, or in 
the Hirer Uruguay, not higher than PajsaTKlu, or in the lliver I'arana, not 
higher than. HoaariOf and deliver the sauie on being paid freight at the rate 
of per ton delivered as custouiary. Should the vessel he required to 

2o«ul the homowiud caigo at any other port, suttident salt to be left on board 
for baUast. The days occnpied in sbiftiiig ports not to count as lay days, 
after which, llie vessel to be made ready and l-md fi-om the charterers*' agent 
« full and complete cargo of salu^d hides, •^^ tallow "J other lawful produce ; 
which the stiid nterch tints bind themselves to ship, not exceeding what she 
Cin reasonably stow and carry over and above her tackle, appai'el* provisions^ 
and fiiruilure ; and being so loaded, shall theifjwilh proceed to Qiioenstown 
cr Falmouth, for orders, which are to be sent in course of post, in reply to 
mmstrr's Ifltier on Arrival ; to discharge at a safe port in the United Kingdom, 
or on the Couliuent between Hamburg and Havre inclusive, or so near there- 
uuto aa ahe may safely get, and deliver the homeward cargo, being poid freight 
lor tallow •? wet salted hides, at the rale of BluliingB if loaded 

al Monte Video or Buenos Ayrca, shiUings if loaded or dis- 

"II Ih^ livers as above, per ton of 20 cwl. delivered and twenty 

per ton for bouts "^ horns, for dunnage only, at mastei^s option as 
Uf quantity. 

The net of God, ihe Queen's enemies, fire, and all and every other dangers 
find JV'cidenls of the seas, rivers, and navigation, of whatever nature and liind 
ioevtr, during the said voyage, always excepted^ Other gooila (if shipped) to 
pay frvight iu full and fair proportion to sailed hides. The cargoes to ba 
" nought to and takcu from alongside at charteren*' ri^k and ozpeilBe« 



276 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Ft'eiglit to be paid as follows : — eufficient cash for ship'B (li8bui*se- [HIDES 
meDtB ot ports abrotul, at current rate of exchftnge^ eubjcct to Lbe usual charges 
for conimissiou, insurauce* and iutereat, till the freight is earued, and th^ 
biilanco of salt freight after delivery^ by tJie master's drol't ou chartererB, pftyablo 
in Loudoti at niuety days' sight. For the homeward caigo, one-third iii cash, 
on the truo and right delivery of said cargo, at final i>ort of discharge, and. 
the balancfl by good aud approved bill on London, at three tnotiths* dale, or 
cash equal thereto, at mercIiAnt's option. The roaster to sign bills of lading as 
jjresented, without prejudice to this charter party, iiid to atibrd in discharging 
a?id !oadin|T all |iractieable assistance by means of the ship a boats und crew, 
agreeable to custom of the port. The ship to be consigned to the chartGrers 
or their agent at all pc»rtB, paying conimission at the discharging ports only, 
say 2i per cent, on each freight. The salt for stow ft go to be brought homo 
free of freight. ruuning days (Siuidays excepted) to be allowed the 

said merchants (if the dup is not sooner dispatched) for unloading the Bait 
and loading the homeward cargo. days on dcmurruge over and above 

the said laying duys, at pounds per day. The homeward cargo to be 

di^Uarged with all poi?sible diapatch. 

Penalty for no o -performance of this agreemeDt 

Instructions* 1st. The ship to be well dunnaged with either horns or 
bones to the level of iho keelson ; the dunnage to be continued up the aides 
of the vessel, of the thickness of at least two horns or bones, taking car© that 
in no case any hides touch the sides or skin of the ship. 

2nd. If it be possible, let the whole length of the hold be stowed in one 
bulk, without any breaks, except those at the masts and ptimp eases, which 
parts, as well as the beams of the vesself to be dunnaged as directed ; should 
there be a necessity for the separation of bidks* the space between to be filled 
with salt, aud carefully covered over to prevent water from leaky decks, or 
otlierwise, from getting down between the bulks. 

ard. The hides to be laid out perfectly tliit and leTeI,«nd each hide to btt 
copiously su])pUed with both salt and strong pitkle, and not to be doubled or 
folded, except when uDaYoidably necessary, for the keeping the bulk level, 
and at the fore anil after ends of the ship, and when folded the folds to be 
well pickled and salted. 

4th. The top of the cargo to be left perfectly level, bo that salt and pickle 
may be applied to it during the passage home ; the captain taking care to retain 
from 15 to 20cwL of aalt for that purpose, 

6th. During the passage home, the after and fore hatches to he kept off, 
when the weather will permit, and thus allow the steam of the cargo to escape. 
If these instructions are attended to, and the top of the cargo kept strewed 
with salt, there will be no damage. 

460 Great diHerence exists in the ivejght of bonea; fresh unsteamcd 
Bhinhoness (being solid) are very heavy. Wben bones become tdd ibey 
lose much of tlieir weight, especially fine bones, such as ribs* Stcaniin;? 
diminishes weight; ^hinb^>ncs not so much as others. Old stcameil line 
bones are very light and tloat on water. Bones are subject to loss of 



I 

I 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



277 



weiglit on Uie passage, and llie diBcharge is always less ihan [HIDES 
the in-lake J even duiinage bones used under salted hides, lose weight, 
notwithsianding iheir coniact wiih salt. When hones Wra part of a 
cargo with hane-asU it is desirable to place them in the ends. A bed or 
rming slic7tild be formed for the hone- ash. The freight for hone-ash is 
asually 12 per cent, less than for salt hides. 1,000 horns are usually 
taken as a ion, hut thry are frequently freighted hy weight; it will take 
nearly 2,U0O to iveigli a ton* 

466 When a ship loads dry hides or wool, masters otight to provide 
themselves with dead-weight goods for ballast, generally salt hides, and 
rarely casks of tallow. For a siiip of 3CK> ton, nhoui 2,000 salted hides 
are required for ballast* A full cargo of Lallow in casks gets dper cent, 
more than salted hides. 

4G7 Capt. y. Fkenstra, an iiuelllgent shipmaster, published at 
Amsterdam, in I860, (C F. 8temler), a hand hook of the Kiver Plate, 
chiefly in reference to die continental trade, in which he says " merchants 
prefer shipping a large quantity of salted hides, rather than tallow should 
he taken for ballast. The space occupied by tallow h greater than the 
gain hy weif^hu Usually when the freight of tallow is 50m dunnage bones 
pet 20s* My mode of stowing is this : — I first lay a row of casks on 
the chip's floor; remainder in the wings and ends. The salt hides 

r between » This is convenient, as it not only prevents water from coming 
to the hides, but the ship is easier at sea, because the heavy part of the 
cargo is higher in the bold. At Buenos Ayres, stevedores are usually 
paid 50 paper dollars per day ; generally there is a second at the same 

»rate; when a stevedore rcmainji on board, be gets half-pay if there is no 
stowage, but full pay if there is work for only quarter of a day; he is 
fed on board, At Monte Video I have paid a stevedore Jj6 of & patacons 
(or about 20jt] per 1,000 dry hides. Two stevedores of the Saladero SU 
Candida bij Conception del Uruguay ^ 1 paid in 1855, as follows: — 

1 ,000 lutli cow hides « , . . t 8 pe«ofr plata 

l,OtXiary ditto .... 7 

Toa oi bones 1 

1,000 Mlt lior»o bidei ,, 7 

And at Cjualaquaychu, in 1855, 

1,000 Mlt horM bldeii i 4 peiKM pliifca 

1^000 cow liide« B 

1,000 dry cow hidei 7 

Tou li one* 1 

113 bttlei ludr (prested) ...,....*.. 7 

^46H ** When a ship is chattered for salt bides or other * lawful mer- 
elmndize* in proportioni with the nece^^iury dunnage, the niercltant is 
olliged, if he >A\\\y^ dry hides, to supply dunnage bides also; hut for 




iLose hides no freiglit h paid, such being the custom tliere. [HIDES 
After ihe dunnage is hud, it is usual to place a layer of hides on it, with 
the hairy aide uppermost, spread out like a bed sheet; two men lay each 
hide. Each pair keep tlieir own side or place, so as to carry on the 
stowage equally. On each side of the hold there is a salter, who throws 
bandsfuU of salt on the spread hides. When they are laid and salted, 
the pickle is poured on. The last hides are laid like all the otbers with 
tlie hairy side up ; they are covered wkh u plentiful layer of yalt; this is 
especially necessary to prepare for deck leakage, as the salt would be 
converted into pickle. It is usually considered satisfactory when 600 ox- 
hides are slowed daily. With my crew and one stevedore I could load 
and stow l,0€O hides per day. Sometimes we coidd stow only 800 hides. 
Ships which cany 300 or 400 ton d e ad -w eighty usually 700 or 800 per 
day; larger ships could stow more." 

469 Dry hides from the River Plate and Rio Grande are sent 
chiefly to Antwerp, Hamburg, and other continental ports; a ship will 
usually carry about half her burtbcu of dry hides; in reference to their 
stowage, Capt. Fhenstha says, " when the salt bides for dead-weight are 
stowed, the dunnage hides are laid on lhem> the naked side downward. 
If the hold is ready the double-folded hides are flanthed over the ship; 
they remain duuble-folilcd. When the hold is full to within 3 or 4 feet 
of the deck, the stowage is stopped* The screwing is done as follows : 
a layer of hides is placed each side until it reaches the deek, in order to get 
the proper stowage. A lot of old cask staves are then laid, to obtain a better 
entrance for the screwed hides ; they should be packed like a quire of 
paper one inside the other, about 20 or 30 in a lot. When the first lot 
is driven in, then follows another and so on, until no more space remains. 
Special attention is necessary when stevedores are employed by the day, 
that they do not screw too strongly, for the value of the time lost exceeds 
that of the freight gained. It sometimes happens that small ships are 
not broad cnougli for tlje length of two hides; in that case, one or two 
ought to stow the smaller hides. The quantity which could be pressed 
daily, depends on circumstances; sometimes on the industry of the 
laborers. It is usually calculated with a screw, from 400 to 500 hides, 

470 "The freightage of dry hides depends upon the terms of the 
charter party. If dunnage hides are agreed on, it is customary to obtain 
tlry horse hides, which are fastened at tlie uj^per corners with two nails. 
One layer is laid witli the hairy side up, to cover the salt ballast hides; 
they are usually freight free. 1\\ howei^er, this is not stated in the charter 
party, the merchant is not obliged to supply dry hides ; horns or bones 
could be obtained to lay between, the same as tliose used fiu* dunnage 
under salt hides. When a ship is chartered with a general cargo, and 
there is more than one shipperj it will be necessary for the master to lay 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



270 



I 



jtlaiikB or 10 purcbase borse hides, which slow better and do [HIDES 

not occupy so much space as horns or bones. Somo ships lake no dunnage 
fur ilm i»urpose, but this is contrary to custom, and ii is better to 
buy horse bides," 

471 In slowin^dry California hides, Dana says,theballastis levelled 
offjust above ibe keelson and duunaged. Whew within four feet of the 
beanjft a pile is raised in the after part, close against the bulkhead, and 
crowded in by hand and by oar. Then a large book of 25 to 50 hides, 
doubled at the back, receives the sharpened ends of two long heavy spars, 
to uhich straps, tackles, and purchase-blocks are fitted, and all hands 
tuke the falls, and the book is wtll entered. The tackles are then nipped, 
iilraps and toggles clapped upon the falls, and two more tu If tackles htrnked 
on^and thus, luff upon kill, where one hide could not be forced by hand, 
a hundred are often driven ; although the beams may be started by the 
power used, the cargo will loosen before rounding Cape Horn, 

472 A I^iverpool merchant of sume exjierience says, thai Rio Grande 
iKmd-ash being finer, can be used in the potteries; whereasi that iVoni the 
Hirer Plate rannot ; when one is valued at £6 0« the other niay be £4 10a ; 
sometimes it Is damp; the evaporation on the voyage to England is 
os».ially *5^ cent, occasionally 10 J> cent. He recommends that a cargo 
should consist of two-lhirds bone-ash aind one- third bones. The bones 
should be used for dunnage beluw, in llic bilges and the ends, retaining 
enough to cover the ashes well. Nearly all the evaporation from the 
•&hes will thus go into the bones, and rather increase their weight to the 
proieciion of the ship. Loading and unloading will also he greatly 
facilitated, when compared with the ordinary mode of slowing. The 
ashes being kept from immediate contact with the ceiling, sides and 
deck, the risk of injury to them will be decreased. Some roasters eon- 
*idcr that by its extreme dryness bone-ash will draw the salt from the 
inner wood-work and encourage dry rot ; others fear that bone-ash intro- 
doccs worms into the ship's frame. Bones are frequently scarce at Rio 
Cfnuule where horn piths are much used for dunnage. 

473 On the shipment of boEe-ash, bones, &C. in the River Plate, 
CapL Feknstra says, " it is usual in chartering for bone-ash and bones, to 
lake two-thirds weight of bcne-ash against one-third bones. If the mer- 
chant supplies steamed bones the proportion is advantageous ; this applies 
chiefly to ships which have more spare than they can load in weight. 
If instead of ordinary steum hunes« steamed or dried ribs are supplied, 
iJjcy will be (onnd to weigh very light, and as the merchant cannot claim 
;inore than twice the weight of bone -ash, tlio result will he di^>udvanta- 

ous. It does not often occur, but 1 have been so situated that the 
merchant has sent mc lighters full of such ribs, which had scarcely any 
weight in them j it happened, however, that the merchant could n(»t obtain 





280 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



more bones and was obliged lo send bone-aeli insteadj so [HIDES 
thallcould load my sbip as deep as I liked. To prevent such disagt'eenjcn is 
I sboiild recommend masters when i-liartering» lo obtain iLe fuilowing 
conditions: *llie sbip to be biaded wiib a full and complete cargo of 
bone-aab and bones. No more booes lo be b>aded tban tbe master approves 
qV — [very doubtful.] Bones should^ if possible, be ubtain**d witb bone- 1 
-a&b,forboiie-asb is very beavy, sometimes beavier ibiin suit, and would 
cause tbe sbip to be oneasy at sea. 

474 "I once loaded bone-aab in ibe Parana, in tbe motiib of the | 
Ouiilef^iiay, in whicb river ibe town of tbe same name lies. When we 
came lo Monte Video ibe cargo was so dreadfolly hot that we could not 
keep our bands iu it a foot deep. I wish to prove by ibis tbat it Wtis DO 
bone-asbj ahbougb ii lias been usually aj^tcd by ibe meridian is there 
tbat it should go by that name. My crew were very uneasy as they 
feared it would ignite ; I ordered them to throw fire on it, and as it did 
not ignite they became satisfied, A survey was held by a Dutclj masler 
and a sliijijier of bone- ash ; ihey agreed tiiat it was very hot, but not 
ignilible. What was I to do, to make a geuera! average of ll, and place 
tbe bone-ash in lighters to cool ? that would have been moat expensive, 
and being valueless it could coulribule very little towards the average. 

I therefore determined to proceed^ aud as I had to pa?s the whole of tbe 
Brajiilian coast, I obtained a certificate from two merchants, countei-signed 
by the Netberlands Consul at Mi>nte Video, as fullow^s : *We, tbe under- 
signed, certify tbat in all our experience as shippers of bone-ash, we have 
never liad a vessel in which fire has occurred, nor do we consider tbat it is 
au inlltimniable cargo, as prior to shipment it is burnt to such an extent that 
there is nothing left but pbospliale of lime aud a very small proportion 
of original matter, tbe truth of which is proved by the analysis daily 
received from England.' We afterwards found less beat, and in about 
four weeks it was gone entirely ; on discharge tbe bone-ash was perfectly 
dry. During the passage, when tbe weather permitted, tlie fore-^hatch 
and tbe after-hatrb were opened bv day to give as much ventilation as 
possible. After tbe discharge of tbe cargo we could not perceive that 
any injury bad been done to the ship. Ashes and bone-ashes are subject 
to loss of weight, 

475 " Horns, like sbinbones, are used for dunnage ; 1,000 are rated 
against 1 ton of bones. Horns are preferable; on a wharf 1,000 occupy 
more sjiace than a ton of sbinbones, but if pmperly stowed llicy take 
less space aud are much lighter. With an entire cargo of salt hides, 
btmes are preferable to horns ; but with dry bides (liaving salt hides for 
ballast) a master must be guided by his experience. Sometimes a vessel 
is fixed fi>r * salt hides — other Laufiil lueiehandize in proportion.' If the 
proporlionale rules are md stnicd in the charter party, disputes usually 



stevi:ns on stowage. 



281 



follow, Harrison's Freighter's Guide may be faun d useful. [HIDES 
As pressed dry hides can be belter slowed ihan iiu pressed, it h calculaled 
at Buenos Ayres, that dry should pay double as miicli as salt hides; and 
the bales by measurement about 5f or 10» less than the ton weight of salt 
bides. Occasionally there is not oiore caliudated for ballast, salt hides 
under dry» than lOs or I ;lv {p- ton to conliuenial ports, I ivas once chartered 
lit 45i ^ ion of salt hides, and received a lar^c quantity of dry hides, un- 
pressed hair, and horns, as cargo, to fill up for deOcicncy of hides. Being 
ordered to Aiitwerj) I made the freight account upnilh the broker according 
lo Harrison, which was not accepted by die receiver of ihe carj^o as being 
customary at Buenos Ay res, where, for dry hides, double the freight of 
I salt hides is paid, and for the weight of un pressed hair 3^s, We agreed, 
fts far as weight was concerneclj for the salt hides; but for the measure- 
ment goods there was a great dilFerence between us. The horns, which 
were shipped as dunnage, I had received as cargo, and it was bo stated in 
the bill of ladings Our accounts difl'ered about £150, I held that by 
[the River Plate proportion the whole was received as a general cargo to 
k fc« calculated according to IIahrisun ; the merchant disaj:^reed, but after 
ft long delay he paid £100 over his calculation. No solicitors were em« 
ployed ; and I made a much belter freiglil than with salt hides alone, 

47G In the East Indies hides should be engaged only from first-class 
firms, with a specification that they are well diied. Native shippers 
Lave sent them on board insufliciently cured, and sevei'al passenger ships 
suffered thereby from fever and sickness, At Calcutta the bales are about 
. 6 or 6 feet long. They are shipped at all seasons. At ^lelbourne, hides 
' ire sal ted « folded into a squarish parcel, and tied with yarn. Hides, Sec. 
are prohibited to be landed in Baltimore, U,S. at certain periods. 

477 Damaged cargo. In the Couimon Pleas, Febniary 20, ls5H. The 
^Ontario loaded .'JOU bales Patna hides at Calcutta, but bad weatlier forced her 

Wk; she remained four raoutiis in the harbour; defendant, Paobi, refused to 
Accept the hides, alleging that they were tleterioratcd by salt water, ravage by 
moth, Stc, Verdict for plaintiff. 

478 Average* in the cause Roux v. Salvador, the subject matter of tlie 
insurance was hides, warranted free iVotn "particular average," shipped on 
hoard the Haxehtine, at Valparaiso, for Bordeanx, and which owning to stress 
of wealher, was obhged to put into Rio Janeiro, The jury found that they were 
80 damaged by sea peril thut they could not have arrived in the form of hides. 

4711 ProportioEate freight. A British vessel Is elmrtt^red at Hamburg 
by a German houi^e, to load at 13uenos Ay res a cargo of hides, and to call at 
Cowes for ordera ; freight ill sterling ^^ ton (2,240tb ) for dry hides, and 
£2 lOi for wet, otber goods iu full and fuir proportion, according to the cui^toui 
of the port of lading. If the vessel is loaded with a full and coTnjdelo cargo 
of dry hides, the height for the necesi^ary wet hidiS, rerpured for htilliist^ to 
bo Te<luccd to Wt. Ttio caidain is bound to sign biJls of lading, and te-charter 
at any rate of freight, without reference or prejudice to this charter parly . 

I K 



STK\' RNS ON STOWAGE. 

The fillip, 300 too Lurtlm^n, is loaded with 20 ion of dry hides, and [HIDES 
is fillt'd up with hales aud 00 ion wet hidea. Charterer's agents re-charter her, 
and hillB of lading are si;*ued hy the eaptitin, as presented hy them^ at 4=0* and 
f>^cent. for bales and wet hidea. The ship dischargei? her cargo at Ant- 
werp, The consignees pay freight in accordance with bills of lading, and 
refer the captain to the original charterer for balance dno as per charter party* 
On Hpplication to the Hamburg house it refuses to pay the ditfereuce, and 
plenda *'not indebted/' The editor of the Gttzelfe is asked: whetlier the, 
owners are not clearly entillcd to ^Qs on the wet hides» and 47it iSd on the bales? \ 
and is answered: the owners are entitled to oOh on the wet hides, and that 
taking the proportion of freight as between wet hides and bales, for vessels 
on berth at Buenos Ayres, on the 31st October, 1857, tlie owners would be 
entitled to 57^ l^ti on bales, as compared with wet bides at 50*. 

480 Upon this a correspondent says : I think you have been led into an 
error as to the meaninj^ of the word ** bales," as introduced by your q^uerist, 
and that bales of wool or hair are really meant; and on reference to tho rates j 
at Buenos Ayres, they are quoted at exactly half the rales for dry bides, which 
in the present in^tan«e, would give only 40f for the bales ; be is told : the 
contract in the letter referred to was ^4 fe> ton for dry, and 50j for wet hides; 
other goods in proportion. She was loaded with 20 ton dry hides, and filled 
lip with hales aud <^0 ton wet bides; the bills of lading, signed without pre* 
jndico to charter party, hnnping the wet hidea and bales at 40jj ; nnder them 
therefore, the 40* is conclusive; but cakulatiog on the full and fair proportion 
stipulated for, and taking wet hides at 3&* and bales at 40* (the proportion Oct 
81, for vessels on berth at Buenos Ayres), the returns would give (taking wet ^ 
hides at 50* as covenanted for uiider the charter party) precisely the proportion 
stated. If the hales were wool or hair, which was not stated, and the calcuJa- 
tion was made on the dry hides (instead of the wet) 40« would be the pro]iortion. 

Tonnage* l? ton salted hides oecvipy 852 cubic feet or I keel. Bengal and 
Bombay ton 50 cubic feet screwed bides &c; ^ladras 14cwt; Boriibay, 12cwt. 
loo&e and small bundles. Manillas go by weight. Anstralis, SO cwt; Bahia, 12 f 
dry hides. 16 salted, 20 green; New York, 10 cwt. dry; Baltimore, l,l'>orb. 

Freight. Dried Baltic hides receive ibree-eighths more than freight of 
clean hemp per tun grotis ; wet or salted two-thirds freight of clean hemp per 
tan groM. When wheat is U |3' quarter freight, dried hides are rated at 
19l 4ii ^ ton. A dicker of bides consists of 10 skins, and a last of 20 dickers^ 
In some places 12 dozen skins make a last. 



FHOTAOE^BTTEE WlAIE. 





Puinl iDdia 

la 

Btiction 

Ayret 


Bueno* 

AjTVt to 

Pokit 


Meridlcin 
Bftiik 


15 
SO 


Dollirs 

75 

150 


Poll an 
50 
86 


90 

lyo 



100 EogliBb feet^lOB Biii|^- 



8TKVRNS ON STOWAGE. 



283 



HABBaUB BTTES—BlTEirOB AYBES. 

Itimtrdt, 12 reals copper per meftsurel ton. Oatwctrdiff ditto, BaUa$tt 6 reals per ton. 

Bs^RTiva Inwards — Custom -Tiouao 92 

Viajt$6, register $1, gratuity 980 37 

— 129 
OxnirAims — Seals for the opeMug of register for loadlxtg ..,«.. SO 

Costom-hoiue officers *.•,,.., 50 

Seals , $33 CftptikiiLof port $20 ...* 66 

— 186 



8«j for a sliip ol SQ5 meaHuremeut toii», willi cargo in and ont, yiz :-^ 

Bm of Itetltli in t^e Sound C. doL 4G40 

Pilotage .*...., , 10 

Opening register for discharge 19*320 

finoy money, 2 real per ton (305 ton). .... 76*200 

Opening register for loading ..*... lil'320 

Goard^ at $11^ day, §ay 60 days GO 

Kotary, In and Out , . . . . 10 

Reporting and elcaring $15 Pilot oulwurtb $i .. la 

BUI of health , hospital, flag-inoncy, and b-oat expenses ID'SaO 

Light dues half silvor real (60 centeaimo) per ton .... 22^700 

267160 
Noting protest Ztid, 



C1TST0M OF TSE FOEf 07 EIP OEANBE DO SITL. 

Tk^ propartioaal difFerence on Freight between Wet Saltcu Uwtiti and other prodn 
ahipptii], m as follows:- 

TiMJLow, io cases or casks 

Jaiaaii Bemw 

Tijxow or OttiusK in pipes, 1-pipes, or 

^]up*-4 (an entire cargo) * . 

li.^t A»a ...*. i r 

bffKV£ci, looae or in barruls .,,»*..«*« f 



The same rate oa for Wet Snlted BM««, 
bat on RTusi* wtu^^ht dcJifered. 

10 ^ eeut. more thuii fur Wet Salted Hides, 
on grosa weight di^liYcred. 

12 ^ cent less than for Wet Salted Hidei. 



For Wool in Bales on IlAm in Bags : 



Wh«n like reBifet is entirely loaded with 

tiieae articles « 

U Uwded with three-fourths of her cargo 

U loMled with half 

If loaded with one-fonrth «• 

If loaded with seven-eighthR 

I r loaded with lets than iereti-elglitlu . . 



1 GO (If cent, more than for Wet Salted Hid«i 

75 -^ cent ditto. 

60 ditto. 

25 ditto, 

15 ditto. 

Same aa tot Salted Hides. 



For DaT HinEs, 

ir lAoded with these articles 

If Inntlff^i with three fourths of the cargo 

H lni(di?d witl^ onti-hsdt 

II l(i«dcd with one- fourth ............ 



Haib rsT BALBSf 08 Etna CirtTi»oa: 

50 p cent, mom than fur Wet Salted I 

40 ditto. 

20 ditto. 

Suine aa for Wet Sal(«Ml Hides. 



9o lay'dajs shall otunt on elearing the Teitsel at the cavtom-hon^tr or nu chaii^^g &nchorii,ge. 
Im, eoBt f>/ baUatt bemf re^ptirfd^ the niemel hat to fi*ui the tatne. 



S84 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



481 HOliD AND HULL*. As many parts of the hold and hull 
are iiere&sarily refeired to in this work, a short explanation of several of 
them 18 given belo^^*. Tlie hold is the interior caviiy of a ship, or alJ 
that part of Ijer inside hclween tlie floor and the lower deck, throughout 
Iier whole length, prepared for the reception of cargo; in chartering for 
freight the hold extends from the steerage bulkhead to the forecastle 
bulkhead. The hull is the whole frame or body of a ship, exclusive of 
the massts, yards, sails, and rigging; that part below water is called the 
bottom- Some information at the conclaaion of the article timber is 
equally applicable to hold und hull, and the article trim may be read 
with more advantage, after perusing the explanations which follow. The 
modes of measuring the hold will be found in the article tonnage. 



hnTl 1 



4 



AjifiDfiHiPF. In midships nr m tlae 
mirltUe of the Bliip, eitlier with regard to 
bcr lertRth or hreadth; that timber or 
framfi whJvh has the grefttetit hroadih nod 
CApAcitj ill tho ship is denDminatcd the 
midahip baid or mid^ihip Aectiou. 

BiLOB. That c lined port of a ship's 
floor, which coiiueclfl tin? hori7.oiital with 
the pcrpcndiiKTilar part of n ship's side, 
and oil whieh tlie ship woahl rest if hiid 
on tjip groimd^ or^ more partirularly, thoso 
projecting parts fif the bottom wliich ore 
opposite the heads of the floor- timb^^rs 
Amidships, on caeli iiide the keel. Otkera 
iaj the bilt(e meaner the qulcJtest turn of 
tho znidahip ti to hers ; hence it i^ Hjrdd, a 
vessel has a quick bilge or an easy one, 
meaning a quick or crooked timber at the 
first and second fattocka, 

Bn<OB vuvpa are am alt pnmps used lor 
drawiag off any water which may lodge 
ahont the bilges of the s^hip when she is 
lying 80 mach io one side that the water 
does not reach the foot of the midn pumps. 
Their proper place is in the middle. 

BjaAfiT*fioacfi, Xtarge pieces of com^ 
|Wig>timher or iron fixed within and 
tttliwart the bows of the ship, of which 
they are tlie principal Becnrity, and 
through whicli they are well bolted. 
Tbcero is generally one breast hook be- 
tween each deck, tmd tliree or four below 
Uie lower dtck. Thoge belnw are fitted 
eloflc to the shape of Uie hhip, at their 
respective pUces. Tho hreast-hooka that 
rceeiTe the eiuh of the deck planlia are 



ako called tieck hooks, and ore fayed dofto 
home to the timberBi in the illreclion of 
the decks. [Speaking of the projection 
forward of a cargo in bnlk, by a ship 
pliingiug when under fiill canros, it is 
UBUally said that she throws her cargo on 
the breast- hooks.] 

Bboksn-backjsd oe hogqkd. The con- 
dition of a ship when tlie sheer haa 
departed from that rej^ul&r and pleasing 
ciirre with which it was originally built. 
It i& occanioned by lyiii^ on uneTcn ground 
or on shifting fiiuid-bauks, eKpeeially with 
ships weakly constmcted or ha\'ing great 
length and flatness cif floor. The improper 
fdtuation of the eentro of gravity of the 
e&rgo wiU sotnetimos e&use » ship to he 
hogged « [It has oecttrred freqnenily by 
the injudlcioitfl stowage of weights at the 
endu of a tcsbcI — the midship part being 
partially empty . ThiA applies particularly 
to paasenger ships, where tho bulk of the 
water and the wet provisionsT &e., are 
Btowed in and around the square of the 
main hatehway; these being consumed 
gradually will oauae tho ship io »iniiii, and 
in some eases get out of shape. See i 
ease appended to the articlo guano aad 
the article trim.] 

BuLKnKAnB are vertical partiiious built 
up in different parts of a wooden ship 
generally temporarily, bnt in iron ships 
permanently eon«lnictedt and water tight, 
to divide her into TaHous compartmeuts. 
See the articles gram, Iron shlpSf &e^ 



4 



4 

4 
4 



• For definitions of nautical terms generally^ and of teehnieol expresnions of every kind 
rfhitiTig to maritime niTuirH, wc r«;fer our readers Io the 2nd Edition of Yofko^b Nautieal 
Bictiiinary. which is iUustmted with nmueroas wood-cuts Aud pktes. 




STEVENS O! 



Causa, The inside plnnkB of a ehip. 

(The couiiition of the ceiling b of the 

L^ighesi importance in record to the pn:- 

r •erration of oorgo ; fiee the articles b^read 

I And grain.] 

CHAXX'BottTS. Largo bolts used to 

igUfSk ihe plates of the chMitST oi* the 

E^les tbcnuelres wldch are attached to 

I the iron starops of the d^Mid-eyes, for tlie 

IforpOflie of Mcuriitg the niAet iibroadfl. 

Voat Teiiela whidi liare chaiiLB fitted in 

iht plAoe of dudn-pLitee, bave short plates 

al'tho end of their chains, which are 

bolted on the side. The chain-bolts are 

Vnc bolid Kccurmg those plates. Tbey 

hare tlie siune mime when the plates reach 

to the dead- eyes. 

Chun-plates. Thick iron plAtea 
bolted to the (rides as described ftboyc* 
fttied to eU^cid to the outer edge of the 
guard boards, where the dead-eyes are 



ClLuncBLS. Thick pkiikfl boiled 
Ibrongh horizontal] J on the out^tidc, vnry- 
iflg from 10 inches to two fwt in brcudih ; 
the fore end abreast of the mast, the alter 
inul conlintied oft many feet dependeiit 
on th<* tiiniitncftj) of the spars. Thf elian- 
ttels baring the dead-eyes on the extreme 
onkr edges giv'e Ihe sbronds a greater 
tfrmd ttmdt therefore, more sccnriLy to 
fbe nasts. Leakage often occurs in the 
woke of the channels through heavy seas 
ftriking nndentealb, and from the Kcvero 
itrains on aU the faKtinings, ewued by 
sharp and stiddcu jerks when a Uijp rolls 
htmrilj. 

Cujrrt. Thick plunks forming the 
ipfMHtnost stnjike of ceiling or plscikiQg 
ioilde the shtp> nsed lo autttnln the iLods 
oil tbo beam I* ; they are placed closed 
Iiii4«r iwcb deck andfayod seccirely to the 
timberft, to which they are fastened with 
tJimnph bolts and treenails. 

Coi/Mkn. A part of the stem; tlio 
lover counter being that arched part 
- lBunedlat«>ly abore the wing traDHom. 
the Icnmr eoimter is the second 
ster, the upper port of which is the 
oder part of the light;* or windows, 
be eoooters arc parted by their rails, as 
« lower eonnter »|TriJigi from the tack- 
I in tenninittf^d nn the upper part 
lower coanterniiL From the 
rp«ri of the hitter springs ilie upper 
* tMond counter, its upper part teuu'i^ 




nating in the upper [HOLD dc HITLL 

counter- mi], which is immcdiiitely under 
the lights. Some say the stern is that port 
Immediately above the counter ; snd soma 
say the counter Lh that part of a merchant 
ship'n stem, from the wing tramsom to the 
fint turning or bend in the timber ; all 
above is called the upper ^tem. [Rata 
eat through certain angles of the counters, 
and create leakage; see Tennin-] 

Dkab-wood. Pieces of timber corres- 
ponding with and laid upon the keel, 
purticuWly at tli« t-itremities, fgnfard 
iiuii aft, where they run up to a consider* 
able height against tlie Biem and stcfn 
post, so OS to form tin abutment for the 
heels of the timbers teiiucd cant», which 
timbers take the place ol floors when the 
angle becomea too acute for their eontinn- 
ance further forward or aft. 

False kk£L. A second keel, composed 
of elm plunk or thickstuff; fusteued in a 
Flight manner unJir the main keel, to 
prevent it from being rubbed. Its advan^ 
tagt^a obio are, thiit if the ship should 
strike the ground the falne keel will give 
way, and thu* the main keel will be saved. 
It is also tlie means of causing the ship 
to hold a better wind, or to sail nearer to 
a wind. 

Floor. The bottom of the ship, or all 
that part on each side the keel extending 
to the bilge : thus it is said a sharp ioor, 
a flat floor p a long floor, &c. 

Floor timbejib, those parts of a ship's 
timbers which are placed immediately 
across the keel^ and which fonn tlic bottom 
of the tthip ; to tl*et»e the upper parts of 
the timbtrfi. are united, being a coniinna* 
tion of cnrred timWnt upwards . [ Mustcrn 
should be well infoiTued of the nature and 
uTrenglh of the floe^r timbers and futtoeka, 
before loading heavy cargoes ; see iron.] 

Foot waleino. Planking forming part 
of the ceiling but somewhat thicker than 
the restj commonly termed limber strokes. 
It extends uJong the floors panLllel to the 
keel son I ut about 9 or 10 inches distance, 
and is through -bolted to seciire the heels 
of the first foothooks. 

Foni:cABTLE. A place forward under 
the deck, for the accommodation ol the 
crew ; when under a short deekt above tlie 
upper deck, it Ih termed the topgnllant 
foreeoHtle. [ Btiine ahips are damaged by 
tiir, water, d'e. wtat«d from the foreeastlo ; 
see m aster.] 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE 




FuTTOCKs OB FooTBooKg, separate 
pieces of limber of wliich the frame is 
composed. Tbey are named ac<:ording to 
tlieir situatinu, that neareiBt the keel being 
cjdled the firat futtock, the next aTjove the 
second fnttoi^k, the liet?l of which goes on 
the bead of the tliHir, imd the licel el the 
third on tlie head of the seoond, and ao 
on. Another atithority HayB^ tlie middle 
diviiiion of a &hip'a timb^^rttf or those parts 
^hic^h are Kitoaiod between the floor and 
the to|i timbera ^ those next the keel are 
called gronnd fattocks, and the reat upper 
futtooks ; §ce iron. 

Half- DECK. That portion of the solo 
tinned forward from the cabin bulk- 
lead, or oft from the furecaatle. 

HounrNG. A Khip in itaid to hog when 
the middle part of hfir keel and bottom 
ao Ktmoed as to ctirre or arch npwarda. 
Tblaterm is therefore opposed to fiag^g^ 
wliiyh, apjdied in a aimilar manner, 
mean^t by a dillerfiit »ort of airain, to 
enrve dovrnw&rd ; »ee broke u -backed. 
The form given to tlie bodies of ahipa ia 
tiutih that although the whole vertical 
prcFvsare of the fluid ia equal to the weight 
of the tihip, yet the vertical pressure on 
every portion of the body is not equal to 
the snperincum'bent weiglitH. [If curgo 
ia remo'red from the middle of a ship and 
considerable ii eight is left at each end, 
ahfi is liable, when water-borne^ to he 
ko^ed ; and^ on the other hand, if a ship 
ha deeply laden with heavy cmrgo nmid- 
ahipi she ia liable when afloat to be 
Mgged.] A ahip when at rest ia not 
equally water-home in all parta, as when 
afloat the extriiraities ar© aiutauicd partly 
by tlie water find partly by tkeir connec- 
tion with the central hotly. 

Ke£L. The main and lowest timber of 
a ship, ext«ndiiHij longitudinally from the 
atem to the atem-poHt; it iH formed of 
aeveral pieces wliich arc searfed together] 
it is the babi^ of the whole slmc^tnre. It 
is, of cottmeT ^he first thing Liid down 
upon the blocks for the construction of 
the ship. [Some descriptions of heavy 
goods ought not to ride across the keel, 
or their whole weight will be thrown on it ; 
tern iron, mate, and orej 

Kssi»aov OB Kklsok. The timber fonn< 
ingthe interior or counterpart of the keel, 
n-i it is hdd upon the middle of the floor 
tiiubcn^, immediately over the keel, (Uid, 



like it, ia composed [HOLD 1^ 5UtX 
of several pieces ts-carfcd together, [The 
Bcarfa are, if poeaible, disposed clear tk ih« 
main and lore maata* also the se-arfa of tiM 
main keel, and likewise the main hatcht 
where the ecftrf mny he injured by accident 
when lowering goods or heavy articltia; 
see mate.] 

Knee a are crooked pieces of Iron of 
woodf having two branches or arms, and 
are generally used to connect the b^imii 
with the sxclos or timbers. [In AmerioA 
and the Baltic where crooked timber ia 
BcaTcot knees are often formed of rooia. 
Iron knees redjuire to he well dunnaged 
off* from perishable goods.] 

LlAzabetto is a part of the lower dedCi 
parted ofl" for the reception of pronsions 
and stores ; it is generally nmder the cabim 
in smmll ships. It is also the name of a 
hoxpittd ship, or a ship for receiving 
quarantine goods. 

Ledges. Oak or fir scantling used for* 
mcrly in framing the decks, which arc let 
into the carlings atbwm'tships. The ledges 
for gratings are similar, bat arch or round 
up agreeably to the head -ledges. 

Limber ij OLE B, openings between the 
floors neit the keelson, formed by the 
heels of the first futtocks being cnt off at 
the limber strake, 

LoiBEu-PAHeiAOE. A pi^sago Of chuimel 
throughout the whole length of the floor, 
on each side,, for giving water a free 
cojnmnnication to the pumps- It ia farmed 
by the Umber strakcs, which are on both 
hides of the keelson, from the upper side 
of which tlifl dcplh in the liold Is always 
taken. This stmke is kept at about 7 to 
llinchcEi from the keelHon, and forma the 
passage fore and aft which admita the water 
with a fair run over the floors to the pump- 
well. [The water .should never be allowed 
to gain this height if it can bo possibly 
prevented, fur by the heeling of the ship 
it would soon damage cargo, eapeci&lly in 
coasting Teasels without dunnage.] The 
upper part of the limber- pasaage is formed 
by the ltin!j4ir hoartfit^ which are made to 
keep out all dirt and other obstnteUons. 
Thc^se boanls are composed of short pieeei 
of oak plank, one edge of which is flited 
by a rabbet into the limber stirdie, and the 
other edge bevelled with a descent upon 
the keelson. To prevent tht^ir being dif- 
placed, each should ho marked with « 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



aw 



jtionber ooir^^ponding with one on the 
limber-straikc. Tbcy are occasionally re* 
moTed to dear the limbers of nay flltli, 
und, chips, or gravel by which they may 
he cloggedf so as to interrupt the passage 
of the water to the paiDp-well. [The dear- 
■aoe at tho limber-paasage is one of tho 
noit imjiOTtaiit daties, especially with such 
eargo«9 as grainy gaanot rice, mgari dto.] 

ILlqajciks. The apartment used to 
loAgt the powder in ; in lar^e ships it a 
atoatcd forward ^ In small shipn abaft ; see 
anmifiiiitioi], combtujtion, (ifpoiitjuaeoiia), 
l&d gunpowder. 

OnLop DECK. The middlQ deck of a 
ship of wsr, also a tcmpornry deck below 
th« lower deck of largo Bhipn, chiefly for 
■towing away cables. There is abo a 
platform in the midsfaipB of smidli^r shipH, 
eallod the orlop, for the f^aine purpose, 
[This deck should not be strained by heavy 
eirgocs such as timber, which see.] 

'B^u^nrmo. A flight platform made 
ahov« the bottom of the magazine^ to keep 
the powder from moistore, 

pAifTKKEa. A framework of short tim' 
her fitted to the hole in a deck, to receive 
the heel of a mast or pumpi &c. 

FcLULiia Asj> STANcmoNa are aqnore 
or turned pieces of wood or iron» fitted 
fWtirCally ondcr the beams of the decks 
ta ftippori them . [ W lih perishab Le goods 
they aboidd be well dntmoged, luid with 
tliabcir ciirgoes well protected.] 

Eatt poax. A largo square hole out 
fchroagh the bnttock between or under tlie 
tnuuomA, or forward in the bow between 
the breast hooks ; and throagh whioh 
ibmU, plsrika^ deals, d:c. are taken into 
■lore «fatps or meri-hant shipa carrying 
nch eargoea, which, owing to their great 
kogth, cotihl not bo got on tios-nl in any 
other way ; see mat« and timber. 

aAOoXD; tee bogged. 

8AMf ooK FOBT. In ships of war, a largo 
pOlar or st«»ehton, plained ap dlogonaUy 
OB c«eh tide, against the quarter deck 
heim, and next afore the cabin bulkhead ; 
with its tower end tenoned into a chase on 
the tipprr deck. It is used to bring the 
ficih Ucklo to, when fishing the anchor, &c. 
AL»o the pillar immediately under the 
hatchways, having scores on each side, 
as steps. It is of so much larger scant- 
Uug than the other pillars as not to be too 
mneli weakoned by the scores ; see wool. 



ScuppsES. Lead [HOLD ft HtTLL 
or metal pipes lot through Uie ships sule, 
to convey the water from the deck ; see 
the article tea. 

Scuttles. Square openings cnt through 
the decks, mach less than the hatchways, 
tat honJing small things up from deck to 
deck. There are also scuttles cat throagh 
tho sidcH o! the whip, for Iho adjiiisaion of 
air and light into the cabLua between 
decks, i:c ; see the article mate. To 
MCuttU a tbip is to fill Ii^r with water when 
blocked to keep her from floating ; or it 
is to let water in her for any parpoi^e. 

Sbelt piECBfl oa String Ens ore pieces 
of timber running fore and aft the whole 
length of the ship generally i on them the 
beams lodge ; they are bolted through the 
sides, and tho boamft are bolted and 
dowelled to them. 

TuiBEHS. A name given generally to 
the pieces of timber which compose the 
frame of a ship, as Eoor, futtock, and top 
timbers, as also the stem or head timbers, 
iud the stem timbers. 

TopsniKfl. A name given to all thai 
part of a ship*s side above the main wales. 
[They require to be wetted occasionally 
in hot climates.] 

WALL^smnn, applied to the side of a ship 
when the main breadth is continued very 
low down and very high up, that thu sidea 
appear straight and upright like n widl. 

Water cotrnsts are grooves cut through 
the imder side of tho door- timber, S to (I 
inclica from thu side of the keel on each 
side, through which water may run towards 
the pumps, in tlje whole length of the 
floors. Thig precanCion is requisite in 
merchant ships only, where small quantl' 
tic« of water, by the healing of the ahip, 
may eome through the ceiling and daiiiftge 
the cargo. For cleaning out these holee 
iho lower fuitocks of some merchant ships 
are cut off short uf the keel. 

Watkbways- Long pieces of timber, 
numing fore and »it, on both sides, con- 
necting the beam with the vf+Md's sides. 
Tho scuppen are cut lla-ough them to let 
the water off; see vermin. 

Wnrot. Thoae parts of the hold and 
orlop dock nearest to the side, used gener- 
ally to eipress any port of a ship or thing 
nearest to the sides, as the starboard vingt 
port or larboard wing, starboard wing 
e**ka, ^e. ; see general cargo. 



288 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



482 FTONEY. Spet-ific ^avlty 1'450, New York ton 20 cwt A^ 
gallon ISttj; llavtioniili kinel (J galluns. Tlie barque lotta, of Pictou, 
Nova Scoua, loadud lioiiey at Nuevctas, in Cuba, in May, ISCA, for 
Bremen, 8he took in belvveen 400 ami 6(K} Ion ; it ^ras jiacked in tierces 
coniainingSO to 82 gallons, vvliich w^cre stowed in five tiers, anil in barrels 
for broken sloivage, 28, 30, and 3G gallons* Freight payable al per lou 
of 240 gal Ion Sp !S!ie bad also 37^000 snperlitial (eet of cedar v^'ood — 
about 47 ton of 60 cubic feet each j and 410 bales of bast, lUOtb. each, at 
1,100 or i, 2001b. §> ton freigbt. So laden she drew 13 feet 9 incbea J 
aft, and 13 feet forward ; witb 6G0 ton of Piciou coal ber draft wm 14 feetl 
6 incbes aft and 14 feet forward. 8be is 302iVo ton ref^ister under decks,! 
poop 66j^^o ton— total 367 ^'g'*^ ; lenglb 129 feet, breadlb 2il feet, depth of | 
bold 12i'ofeet, When unloadiug it was found that considerable quatt- 
tities of boney bad leaked out of ibe tiercea. Three or four vessels are 
chartered annually witii boney from Cuba, chiefly for llie continent; the 
season for shipment is the same as for sugar — from January to May, 

4B3 HOOFS, bom shavings, tips, all kinds, Bengal aod Madras 
ton 20ewt, Bombay 16cwt, 

484 HOOPS. For Admiralty quantities to a ton see the toni 
tables at the commencement of this work. 

48-3 HOPS will damage by damp, and should not be stowed near 
any description of goods likely to beat; they will also damage by 
exposure to the air, and cannot be too closely confined in a ship's bold, j 
In Australia, the ton for freiglil is 40 cubic feet. A pocket of bops or 
good quality, well cured aud tightly trodden j will weigh about Hcwt 
and a bag about 2 J cwt. 

486 HORNS should not be stowed too near casks, cases, &c. so tha 
their jioints may work through, wbich has occurred. Cow or buflalo, 
loose, Bengal and Madras ton 20 cwt, Bombay 16 cwt. Deer, loosc,j 
Bengal ton 20 cwt, Madras 16 cwt, Bombay 8 cwt. At Babia, 10 cwt 
hoofs and three mil of horns. At Rio Grande and Buenos Ayrcs, 2 mil' 
of horns. In tlic article bides there is some information about horns. 

487 HORSES conveyed on deck are placed in stallsj say 8 fee 

long, 3i lt> 4 broad, and 6 to 6 high, rising at one end to 74 or 8 feet, 
to give space for tlie head and neck. The stalls should be 4 incbes clear 
from the deck, to allow the drainage to run ofT, and permit water from 
the pump-hose to flow freely underneath. Loose slings are always 
slung ready to receive the animal when cast down suddenly at sea; and, 
to prevent surging too far forward, a strong moveable bar, well padded, 
is fitted acfoss the stall, to receive the cliest; abmit tlie height of the. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



ribs padding (12 in. wide 3 illicit) is Hlled nil round inside. [HORSES 
Tbe floar of the stdl sliaiild Lt^ covered with coir mats, fastened ttith 
cross battens, \vhie!i will assist the footing. Batten each side the floor 
for cattle, win'ch lie down occasionally. When double stalls are nsed, 
the division need only rise 4 feet, so as to promote ventilation which is 
highly necessary- Horses shoald be prepared for a sea passage, by 
previous occupation of an open shed ; when reinoved direct horn a close 
stable to a ship's deck, their health is greatly endangered. At sea, con- 
stant grooming is necessary to keep them in good condition. Tbe Army 
Regulations for the conveyance of horses, will be found under the general 
heading passengers. 

488 On board government sailing Iransports, horseB are berthed in 
the hold, on shingle ballast, in separate stalls, their beads towards each 
other amidships, where there is as large an avenue as can be obtained, for 
light and ventilation. Two or three s[>are stalls are kept fur convenience, 
when cleansing those in use. Arrangements are made for sustaining the 
horses occasionally on bands fixed to the deck above. Great care should 
he ohaerved to prevent fire, which in December, 1854, totally consumed 
tbe barque Europay with horses for tbe Crimea, in the Bay of Biscay. 
The fjuantity of forage, &c. required for government horses, will be found 
under the heading passengers ; see also cattle. Horses and cattle placed 
in the after part of the bold of a ship sulFer most when she is going before 
llie wind, because all the internal effluvia of the hold is driven afu 
When she is on a wind the scent runs from the stern to tbe stem, and 
rises forward. This operates injuriously on hoard ship in reference to 
many oilier things besides horses and cattle ; sometimes tlie health of the 
crew is affected by tfie cargo ; see Abbots Reading in the article saltpetre. 

489 HORSE HAIR, Baltic manufactured, receives double freight 
of clean hemp per ton of 44 poods gross ; manes one-fourth more j tails 
fiame freight as clean hemp per ton of 44 poods gross. Some informa- 
tion about hair will be found in the article bides. 

490 ICE, at Boston, U.S. is sawn into square blocks not less than 
12 inches thick. Tbe holdd have a sjiace between the planking oi the ship 
and the ice, bo?£ed in and filk-d usually with savvduet* or some other 
fuhstance reckoned a non-conductor of heat. Bulkheads and Imtches 
are closed as tightly as possible, to prevent the admission of heated airt 
which will diminish the cargo and endanger the safety of the ship. The 
galiot PhaniXy Cupt. Hkn'dkickstkn, loaded a cargo of ice at Lengner, 
Norway, in Marchi 18t>5. It wn?? in blocks 10, 12 and 18 inches thick, 
and was brought in carts from a luke two miles die tan I, and stowed on 
wood dunnage 12 inches thick. She admeusures 74 losts^ is 76f feet 
long, 18 J broad, and 1 1 } deep, Norwegian measure, and was loaded insevcn 

3 o 




290 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



worlcing days. With the exception of foyr feet forward, ihe [ICIS 
hold was full, and fihe then drew 13^ feel aft. On arriving at Plynioutb 
in Aprii, she had to wait for ordersj and the wcaiher heing warm, some 
of the ice melted, espeeinlly when fog prevailed ; the pumps were used 
occttsioTially. Out-ptil 208 ion ; ihe master expected it would have Ueeii 
225 ton; first cost 17*, freight 14^; to discharge 30 ton per day. The 
Norwegian harque ./IchfUes, Capt. 8cHLTTTEit» 386 ton register English, 
ook in a cargo of ice at Krogore, m February, 1865, estimated by her 
dranght, 14 fee t fore and aft, to be 4 1 2 ton of 20 cwt She is 92i feet long^ 
breadth under ihe heams23feel, and under the lower beams 22 feet; 
depth of htdd 13i feet, all Norwegian feet. Dunnage in the bottom only, 
wood four inches deep. Tbe blocks of ice were stowed close together. 
There ivaa a space of isvo feet between the deck and the surface of the 
cargo J the ends of the ship were not quite full. Tbe ice is Lakeit from 
the Fregensporg lake, half a mile from the wharf, to which it is driven or 
filided on an open wooden trunk way. Nine days were occupied in load- 
ing ; six would have snflGcedj but two other ships wetG loading at the same 
time. At Krogore the port charges are light ; there is very little foreign 
trade and that chiefly with the Dutch and French* The ^chiltes dis- 
charged at Plymouth in March and April, and made out 406 ton. 

491 At Kodiach (nearSiika), one of the Aleutian Indian Islands in 
tbe possession of Russira, as a fur station, ice is taken out of an artificial 
lake lees than a quarter of a mile from the place of loading — a small pier, 
where the ship is moored. Large blocks are drawn along by iron hooks 
over planks fitted with iron rails running to the ship's hatchways, down 
which tbe blocks are lowered on an inclined jdatik, into the hold. Dtmnage 
consists of cuttings from tlie dwarf pine tree, which grows freely on the 
island. Considerable quantities of tbe hranches, tbickl}^ covered with 
ibeir cool foliage^ are placed between the blocks and on each layer as the 
stowage proceeds; a profuse supply is laid over a!!. A vessel cannol 
carry herself full of this ice. The British ship Carutijne^ of 1,000 ton» 
chartered by a Russian American Company at San Francisco, loaded 
there in 18f>U; the time occupied in discharging ballast and loading ice 
was about three weeks. She landed her cargo at a wharf in San Francisco 
belonging to tbe Company, on which there is a house built for the recep- 
tion of the ice. 



492 IGNITION, But little danger is likely to arise from the ig- 
nition of commonly known it] flammable substances, as precautions are 
generally employed ; but safety may be further insured by adopting as a 
rule, easy of apph cation, that whenever it be necessary to lake a light 
into the hold amongst inflammable bodies, that of course it should be in 
tL laiitLTu and perferably an oil lamp, but that it should always beaccom* 



STEVENS ON STOWA( 



291 



panied wilii a wet bag or cloih, which by prompt and [IGNITION 
judicLotis use, may be made the certain means of inslanlaneously extin- 
guishing any fire produced by at'cident to tlie liglit. 

493 But certain siihaianccs well known themselves to be iniammahle, 
are not so well known to ^ive off inviiiihle gases or vapors which are capable 
of being ignited by cuntacl with Oame at a considerable distance from tbe 
bodies themstlves. Such are some sorts of coal (noticed elsewhere,) 
spirits of wine, brandiei?, rnm, gin, ivhiskey, cEthers, chloroform, and all 
diBtilled alcoholic fluids, as well as py rox.il ic spirit or wood naptba, 
benzole or coal naptlm, and campliine, or turpentine. Numerous and 
most serious accidents liavc arisen from the ignition of the vapor of spirits 
when being drawn off f<ir sljip*s use. In case of breakage of a package 
coniaintng any of tbese fluids, the vapor should be gotten rid of by active 
ventilation, and on no account whatever should it be approached with 
any otber light than a collier's or other safely lamp. The continuous 
emanation of vapor from spirits may he prevented by mixture with water. 
For coal and otlier bodies liahle to the evolution of inflammable vaporsi 
the prevention of danger may he best secured by aliention to veutihiiiont 
which »ee^ also camphine^ dangerous goods, tars^ turpentine^ &c. 

404 INDIGO. Dunnage 9 inches, «ides 2^. The chests are of 
leak or other hard Indian wood, lined with thin oil cloih j they should be 
closely inspected before skipmenllo tee that they are light, for it liapptnis 
occnsionally that they are not liglil enough to prevent the escape of line 
dustt which is very liable lo disctjlor and greatly injure rice, sugar, &c. 
fieing light freight {apocific gravity 1 001)), indigo is often placed on ihe 
top, and sometimes fuis to be moved fretjaenlly from one part of the l)tdd 
10 another, before final stowage. Cargo should be previoti^ly covered 
with double or irelile mats or loose dry lades, to receive the waste of the 
chests; and ou discharging^ the coverings should he taken off carefully 
lo prevent the dust fnun fall in sj among other goods. Some masters 
contend that indigfi will shake through mats* With three ihicknesHes of 
tnais under, indigo may be stowed on sugar, saltpetre^ casks, &c. Indigo 
and otirer valuable freight shipped in the East Indies, should, it posr^ihle, 
be slowed beneath two decks. The chief season for shipment there is 
during the north-east monsoons. In the Hve years ending 1865, ilie 
average quantity of indigo imported annually Avas 27,342 chests of Mast 
Indian, weighing from 2 to 3cvvt, each ; and 3,151 seroufi Spanish, weigh- 
ing about 2^0th. each. 

Tonnage, Ac. EJ.Co's. and Manilla ton SOcuhic feet: weight 15 to It* 
It used to be packed in ohesta nearly iinifonii, viz: lHx*^4 X'^Oinehet, 
that when covered with giujuy, live uiertsur^^d about 5Ufect. and wt*re taken 
A» a ion. 3imauuds weigh 2UUlb, achest ^00lt>. At Uuateuiala a scron 2r»<dh. 




" 



495 INSURAN'CE. An owner writes to the Shipping Gazette, 
June, I8C1O, — iLe lawumicr wkicli my vessel is insured contains a clause 
•'Notice musl be given to the uiiderwriiers if llie vessel insured is laden 
with clialk, iron rails, or pig iron, failing which the iindervvritera are liui 
obliged 10 pay any damage." There is a question as to tlie meaning of ihe 
word laden which I supposed to be if the greater pai-t of the cargo con- 
sisted of the above articles. ^\y vessel, 79Glon register, was insured to 
sail in ballast to London, thence with cargo to a pon iu the East Indies, 
Amongst the cargo from London there was about lOOton iron rails; the 
remainder consisted of other mereliandize not named in the law as pre- 
judicial to the policy, A claim having arisen, can the underw*riters refuse 
to pay under the policy, on the pica that tbe vessel was laden with iron rails, 
and no notice having been given to the underwriters of the circuraelance ? 
The Editor answers : the words "If the veusel is laden with chalk, iron 
rails," &c. would be read as if they were "If any chalky iron rails, &c, 
be shipped on board," the object of the stipulation not being merely formal 
as to ** notice " but to enable the underwriters to see that the stowage and 
disposal of the articles specified, did not imperil the other general cargo, or 
the sh f ]j. One of the rules of the National Insurance Association is below."* 

4110 Valued Policy, In an action, ToBiN tf. Hahfohd, tried in London 
January 15 and 17, and February 2(1, 1^03, the nature of this class of iusuranco 
wlu.ch ran for twelve calendar months, was exi>lained as follows: tlie value of 
the cargo insured on botud was taken at £8,000, but as it was intended for 
trading and bartering on the West Coast of Africa (whence there is no regidar 
postal communicatiou) the true value was constantly fluctuating, and could not 
be ascertained until tlie return of the ship, wlieu if only of email value, the 
uuderwritere returned no part of the premium, aud whether small or large, 
paid only the valued amount of tlie risk insured. The Tcssel traded in ivory, 
palm oil, gum, and dye-woods. It might happen that on cnlling at a port there 
was DO supply of these articles to ship, and yet it might be necessary to land 
cargo for bailer, and proceed onwards to another station. Ivor}^ was worth 
^700 a ton, gum i^lSO, dye- woods ^3. A cargo of ivory £100,000, of gum 
j£*27,O0O, aud of dye-wood X450, but for the purpose of this iosurance^ it was 

* ErLS. Ten per cent. siiaU hQ dedncied trom all clAima luising oai of *ny accident 
to any ship wheu in or ftaiUng from the West ladios, the Ba^ of HoQdunLs, ttie GaH ol 
Mexico, or the Bponlsli Main, between Angttst li^t and Januiiry VltJh ; when in the Black 
Sen, or Sea of Azuf, or the Azore« after lh« \%i of November ; ill the Red Sea at any time ; 
or when hiading or unloading aground, or in any open roadstead ; or when ladcji with 
Ktone, BJilt, ore, reguloii, sulphur, nitrate of toda^ guano, iron, lead, bri<:k»y or idates^ 
all, any or either, il in weight exceedLog Iho iihip's registered tonnage ; or when abandoned 
or foundered iit aea by makiag water or eprlngiug a leak, and unaccompanied by any act 
ol parliouliir average ; or by the igniting of petroleum ; or with a cargo of grain in bulk 
from North America, unless shifting boardu be fixed the entire lengfth of the hold, and 
properly ahored ; or when saiiinig from an Aiuericui port with a deck load of over two 
heightii of deiils or one uf timber, after October 1st, Ships carrjLng copper ore exo«pted, 
%f prttjitrljf /Utcd with cj:ira kul^oni and pfaijhmt/or the purpoie. 



: 



: 




taken at Je8,000 wbetber large or small. Plaintiff con teDded [INSURANCE 
Uiat if the Yeasel kit with only half a cargo aud was lost, tlj6 loss wns not to 
be met bv payment of half— 1*4,000. In this case she had only two-tbirds, 
baviog discharged one-third at Kinaembo, and left fur otiier ports to take in 
homeward cargo, when she was lost. Suppose the vessel came home with 20 
ton of ivory ; that was oaly one-eighth^ and yet it was worili j£I4,000. If she 
went down, could it be contended that ^1,000 only, ooe-eigbtb of the insurance, 
ought to be paid* It happened tliat when slie was lost, cargo worth only 
^5,000 was on board, but there being no fraud, he confjended thai £8,000 ought 
I to be paid. The counsel for defendant contended that cargo to the value of 
£d,000 having been landed, plaintiff could not he entitled to recover for a 
total loss, j£8,000. The question turned on the oonstrnctton of tlie policyi 
what was the meaning of the words *' cargo valued at i:8,000," If only two- 
ibufdfl of the cargo wero on board, the underwriters could only recover that 
proportion of the loss. It would be absiu-d to suppose that if a musket only 
were on board the ship wliea lost, the whole value of the pohey, j£8,000^ was 
lo ho recovered- The court decided that plain titf would be eutitled to I'H^OOO 
in the event of a total loss of a substantially full cargo^ or to an indemnity in 
lease of partial loss, but not in any case lo exceed j£8,000. Under the cireum- 
Nttancesof the present case, the plaintiff would be entitle to the ordinary 
iudemnitj aa nnder an open policy underwritten for ^£6,000. 

497 IRON, BAR and RAILWAY. Tn consequence of tlie num- 
ber of iron -laden ships which have been lost or damaged, there is soraetimes 
a prejudice against cargoes of this description^ but where bur or railway 
iron is proportionate to the ship, and it is judiciously disirihiUed in the 
hold, well fi towed, and firmly secured, a master might confidently proceed 
with her lo any part of the world. Indeed, an experienced master whose I 
stiggefllioDs are ad o p ted , w o u 1 d p re f e r s uc h iron to m a n y o the r d e scr i p it ons " 
of cargOy especially where there ie no unnecessary ejrpediiion in (oadinff, 

I and the capabilities of the ship at sea, with her sailing qualities, meet 
vilh proper consideration. Masters should avoid overloading, have the 
quantity specified on the charter party, and not exceed iL The correct 
principle of slowing any cargo whatever, should be to distribute the weight 
fairly over the ship's hold, so that no part of her frame be overloaded ; and 
aa regards ihe ship's trim and power of carrying sail, the centre of gravity 
of the cargo should not be too low nor too high« Now iron or other metals 

[ are generally loo low in the hold, making the ship so sii^as to cause her 
to labour and strain greatly in bad weather, V^ery lung bars should, if 
possible^ be avoided, esptcially if the vessel is short, aud llie hatchways 

I amall. Capacious hatchways ^ave much lime both in loading and unload* 
lug. Two days, or three at the ouiside, are considered sufficient to load a 
vesael of 140 ton burthen with iron. It is imposstble to give specific 
instructions fur slowing iron ; the characifrof the ship, her size, the nature 
of the voyage, and the season of the year, have all lo be considered, also 



294 



STRVENS ON STOWAGE. 



whether it ia a complete or partial cargo. In the latter case the [IRON 
condensity or llie lighlness of the other cargo should have a powerful 
influence aa to whellier the irou should be slowed solid or open. 

One maater says — " protect the ceiling; from chafe hy pnttin^^ three 
rows, with their ends sliifted, between it and the bars, then lay fagots or 
wooden slabs with three or fonr tier of iron on them, and so on/' 

Another says — '*hnr iron should bo stowed diagonally (graiing- 
fai*hion), bringing it up pyramidically from the ends; this is the mode at 
Newport and CardiiT, At Porthcawl ihey stow iron light some wa>% say 
one-third up the c*irgOj then solid, say one -fourth, and ihe remainder 
light; this mode has been found very advantageous,*' 

A third says — *' place say one-fourth of the iron below in open order, 
well secured; one-half compact, fairly distributed ; the remaining one- 
quarter in open order. The centre of gravity will then not be too low,'* 

An experienced stevedore recommends fagots about eighteen inches 
thick, to be laid athwartships, from the keelson to the sides. Iron fore 
and aftj solid or close logetheri Next tier angle-fashion, towards the 
keelson and the wings, pigeon-eoted. Third tier crossed the opposite 
way, to form a diamond in the openings. Then fore and aft solid, and 
so con tin tie two tiers open and one soUdj until three -fifths of the cargo 
is in— finishing with a solid tier. On this dunnage with a layer of fagots, 
as before. Then one tier solid to two open, until the cargo is complete. 

An experienced master who has loaded iron at Newport for Leghorn, 
says — *' it is of the greatest importance that the ground tier should be 
carefully laid with a uniform level bearing throughout the length of the 
bars. The first tier should be stowed as closely as possible* The keelson 
shoold have a full share of the weight." 

4tW Stevedores occasionally endeavuur to persuade masters to allow 
them to stow railway bars, &c. solid each side the keelson, pretending 
that it will enable the ship to sail better. Their real object is to place a 
large proportion of the cargo on the ceiling, because it is easier for them, 
and it leaves more space in the hold ti^ manosuvre the remainder of the 
bars, particularly if long, than when the hold ia half full. Some shippers 
contend that the cargo should be so knitted together that a movement of 
the bars at one end of the cargo should be felt at the other end. 



DETAILS 07 TWO CABOOES OF 


WELSH UMLWAY lEOH. 


ScHDoner 


TotUi 




Cinpa 


PTiJt 


QmuEK .... 


159 


Fwrt 

65xl8'lxU'5 

97x22 Xl2 


Ton* 
I GO 

1155 


Aft 
ISfUSiiu 

13 It 9 m. 


10ft. Sin. 
11 ft. 9 in. 



rOWAGE. 



296 



499 Tlie Queent Capt. Christy, was loaded at CardiiT in [IRON 
July, 1S63. The only dunnage used was on llie skin, in the ends of the 
abip, lu protect them from chafe. The bars were about 18 feet lung. The 
first tier was laid fore aud aft on the flat of ihe floor, close tugether, from 
ibe keelson to the bilges, say 20 bars each side, aud wtis subsequently 
cotitiDued up the sides as the cargo rose. The next tier was laid grating- 
fashion, say 8 of these to 20 of those laid solid. When eight tiers were 
crossed, the beight of the keelson was reached, and t!ie bars were then 
crossed on the keelson and the lower tiers. In this manner the bars were 
continued up to nearly witliin four feet of the deck beams. The cargo 
was* then •* blocked off** by ]dacing across il two 2i-inch planks about 16 
feel apart. The rails (18 feel) were then laid fare and aft close together, 
with the ends shifted in |jairs and extending in and out 18 to 24 incbes. 
The ends were then securely laahed with small chain to tlie main part of 
the cargo, which extended to within live feet (otg and aft of the bulkheads. 
So laden she behaved well at sea. With 1 60 too of Landship[tlng coal 
her draught is the same as when laden with railway ir^n. 

500 The Leader^ Capt. Trkkaman, loaded at Newport in October, 
1665. Her first tier of bars was also laid close on the skin each side 
t>f llie keelson aud carried up to the bilges, &c* They were crossed each 
side very Hght, say six or seven tiers, until the height of the keelson 
was reached; on it some wood was used to make it level with the tiers. 
The tiers were then crossed light, say Sffeet apart, until tliey reached 
within four feet of her hold beams, when lliey were stowed heavier, say 
one foot apart, until the beams were reached. [By having the iron 
stowed heavier at the centre of gravity, it made the ship more easy at sea, 
and in discharging there was less hoist for tlie principal part of the cargo.] 
Short bars were used to angle between the beams (which are about 20 feet 
ipari) and were carried up to aknit an inch or so above the beams, which 

r»cre kept ftee from the cargo* Then two planks were laid 18 feet apart, 
with their ends touching the sides of the ship. On the planks ihiee tiers 
of bars solid, the upper tier shifted three bars forward and three aft for 
lashing with 15 to 20 fathoms of S-imh chain, frapped with rope, which 
was welted with a bucket of water or a mop, to lighten I he fastening. 
With 2(><Jton Nevillb*s hand-picked Llanelly coal the Leaihr draws 
IS feet 10 inches aft and U feet 7 inches forward. 

5<H Both cargoes were for London. Had they been going a greater 
distance il would have been necessary to shore the uj>per part against the 
deck, in which case the shores should be well cleated above and below. 
The Q$teen was loaded aground, where it would have been useless to shore 
herinsfibe would drop perhaps two inches when floated. Cargoes going 
fareign are usually laden afloat. When the cargo requires io he placed 
«1k»TC the beams it should not rest on them ; but if uiiavoiduhle the hcam^ 



4 

I 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

must be shored. It is not advisaHle lo lash the cargo to the [IBON 
be&ms for security agaitist shifting. Ii* reference lo blocking off it may 
he elated that some stevedores reserve a oiiniber ofhars jusl the width of 
the aliip, and in such cases as tliose of tlit: Queen and Lemhr these sliorter 
bars are hiid across the cargo close together to the extent of say half the 
length of ilie lung bars (laid solid) and are lashed down wiih them. [Some 
masters consider that this arrangement is likely lo create a deviation of 
the compass to llie extent of a quarter pniut or half point, according lo 
the amount of magnetism in the iron ; see the article magnetism.] It 
is indispensable that when stowing as in the two cases above referred to, 
the stevedores should be watdied closely, early and late, otherwise they 
will not suliieiently protect the skin of the sLip vvilh the hars laid solid, 
and will not place the ends of the crossed bars close against the proieciing 
bars on the sides. Where this is not attended lo and heavy weather is 
experienced, tlie crossed bars are liable to run against the sides of ihe 
ship and eoti anger her safely . 

502 Cargo shifted. In 1854, the schooner Pearl left Bristol with 
railway iron for Alicante; her heam was narrow, the cargo shifted, and 
she put hack. When re-slowing the last five or six tiers^ the master 
crossed the rails, burton -fashion* from side to stdcj, with 21 -inch deals, 
one at each end of ihc rails ; ihe deals were not placed directly over each 
othrvr; by this means the upper part of the cargo was securely bound 
together, as iron will not slide on wood like it will on iron. 

503 A schooner left Cardiff on ihc 5th of March, 1865, for Lisbon, 
and on the 15th, foundered in the Bay of Biscay, She registered 89 tun, 
was 72 feet long, 19*4 broad, and 10 '4 feet deep. Her cargo consisted of 
123 ton of raihvay and rod iron and 21 Ion of coke. The railway iron, 
6,835 hars, of small size, 17 or 18 feet long, was stacked diamond -fashion 
and levelled on the lop j it extended four feet Ijefore the foremast, and 
was within five feet of the after bulkhead. The bars did not reacli the 
beams by about two feet, and a man could walk over them. The rod iron, 
about 13 feet long, packed in 310 bundles of ^cwt* each, was placed in 
the wings "out of the ivay of the wet from the hatchways.'* The coke was 
thrown in last, and when at sea, it seemed to drop between the bars and 
made the cargo yet more heavy below, and at the same lime decreased 
the elasticity of the iron, greatly to the disadvantage of the sailing of the 
ship. So much weight below and in the wings made her roll in heavy 
weather; she sprung a leak, and the crew were obliged to take reffuge in 
a passing vessel whieli brought thetn safely home. 

504 A ship of 850 Ion register, hound to the East Indies, was stowed 
in London as lollows : the first tier of railway iron was laid solid, fore and 
aft, about two-thirds of the distance from the keelson towards the bilges; 
ihe second and third tiers graiing-lashion; the fourth solid, and so on« until 





STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 




the heigbt of the keelson was reached. The wings were ihen [IRON 
filled with wood railway sleepers up ahove the keelson. The first four 
eubsequeiit tiers were laid L>pen, tlje fifih solidj keepiug the wings filled 
up wilh sleepers as the iron rose. In this maimer the ship took io OOO 
10 1,000 toQ of iron> which reached to about four feet before the foreraast, 
as for aft as the mizen mast, bo ill ends and the wings being filled up wilh 
sleepers. The remainder of the cargo consisted of general goods over 
all. So laden she behaved well at sea and made a successful voyage- 
Tbis method of stowage keeps overweight off from the bilges and brings 
the iron to a proper height- Railway sleepers are very suitable in the 
same hold with railway bars. 

505 Railway bars for the East Indies are mostly oiled > which greatly 
increases the danger of shifting; loose straw or sawdust is sometimes 
used in stowing the last part of such a cargo, to decrease this risk. In 
charter parlies for "railway iron/* iron chairs and fish-plates are occasion- 
ally included wilh bars. The quanuiy of chairs and plates should he 
proportionate to the bars. For use, four fish plates are required to each 
bar for securing it to the sleepers, and in ihisi proportion there is not niuf^h 
danger at sea, especially if placed in the ends. It happenSj however, at 
times, tlial as ranch as 100 ion of fish-plates are sent say with 150 ton of 
bars; and a schooner so laden at a Welsh port foundered in the Bristol 
Channel. The fish-plales were placed on the bars. Occasionally bars 
of round iron are sent on board to he stowed with railway bars or bars of 
flat iron- Although slowed at a considerable depth in the cargo, when 
heavy weather ih encountered, all the upper part has been known to roll 
on the round bars, and to endanger die safety of the ship; it may be 
better in this case to place the round bars in the ends. Small rod iron 
was formerly tied at each end in portable bundles; when loose they are 
very liable to roll about jn a ship's hold. In chartering for old engines, 
machinery, &c* ihe ciiaracter of the articles oirered should be known so 
at to ascertain whether the freight shoiild be by weight or by mcaeuremenu 

506 Swedish bar iron is occasionally shipped to Hull in large parcels, 
sometimes in entire cargoes; to London it is shipped in parcels from 
30 to 50 ton, rarely as much as 100 ton, and most frequently as ballast for 
wood and grain ; freight is usually at a ballast rale, say cargo 20^, iron 
^ to IOj, Small parcels are placed below ; for greater a sort of well is 
often huik up wilh deals, sometimes the whole length of the hold; the 
iron is placed there, the loading being completed with deals. This raises 
the weiglit more towards the centre, and is intended to make the ship work 
cajsily at sea. The jiriucipa! ptjint with importers is that masters should 
us€ sufficient dunnage, so that the bars shall not come direct on the skin, 
where they are rather prone to place it. Rust is the great liabiliiy to he 
avoided as it greatly deteriorates the market value of Swedish iron. Quan- 

9P 



298 STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 

WEI0HT OF WBOUGHT HOIT BAEB, 12 inclieg losg, in Foundi tTolrdaiK^ls. 



laoh 


Bound 


S^iun 


Iiuli 


Bound 


8quan 




•166 


•211 


n 


16^59 


2113 




•873 


•475 


H 


18-30 


23-29 




'664 


*H& 


n 


'm-<m 


25*66 




1-04 


1-32 


n 


21-^4 


27*94 




1-50 


1-90 


3 


23*96 


90-42 




2-OS 


2*5<J 


34 


2a'04 


36-70 




2-65 


3-3d 


31 


325*2 


41*41 




3-S8 


4-28 


H 


j 37M 


47 53 




dl5 


5-138 


4 


4:2-48 


5408 




S-02 


6^S9 


4| 


47-96 


61-05 




fi'99 


7(10 


41 


63-77 


68-45 




710 


8'92 


^ 


69-91 


76-27 




813 


10'35 


6 


66-33 


B4-5L 




9-33 


U-88 


5t 


73-18 


9317 




1062 


13-52 


fit 


80-33 


102-25 




119^ 


15-26 


51 


87-78 


111-76 




l3-i4 


1711 


6 


95-58 


121-69 


21 


1198 


1907 


7 


150-10 


165-6a 



WIIGHT OF FLAT BAB IBOK, 12 iaohei long, in Fonndi ftVoird»poif. 



Tldckiw.i 


1 


A 


i 


1 


i 


i 


f 


i 


I4uch 


r * 


•21 


•31 


•42 


•63 








• r 






1 


•32 


•48 


•63 


■95 


1-27 


1*58 


.. 


• * 


, , 




1 


'43 


•63 


•84 


1-26 


1-C9 


2-11 


2*63 


2*96 


, , 




n 


'62 


-79 


105 


1*58 


2*11 


2-64 


3-16 


3-70 


4-22 




11 


•51 


•87 


1-16 


1-74 


2-32 


2-90 


8-48 


4-06 ' 


464 


.g' 


^0 


•63 


•95 


1-27 


190 


2 53 


8-17 


380 


4-44 


6*07 


n 


-74 


Ml 


148 


2-21 


2-95 


3-70 


4*48 


643 


5-91 


2 


•84 


1-27 


l'G9 


2-53 


3-SB 


4*22 


507 


5-92 


6*76 


2i 


•95 


1-42 


1-90 


2-85 


a-80 


4-75 


5-70 


6-a5 


7-60 


H 

21 


1-06 


1-58 


211 


3-17 


4-2-3 


6-28 


633 


7*40 


6*45 


a 


1-16 


1-74 


2S2 


S-49 


464 


5-81 


6-97 


, 8-13 


9-29 


*% 


3 


1-27 


1-90 


2-53 


8-80 


5-07 


6*34 


7-60 


6-87 


1011 


c 


31 


1-37 


2-06 


2-74 


4-12 


5-49 


6*86 


8-24 


10-I>9 


10-98 


w 


«4 


1-48 


2-2'> 


295 


443 


6-91 


7-39 


8-87 


10*87 


11*83 




8i 


1-58 


2-38 


iy\7 


475 


6*84 


7-92 


9*61 


11-65 


12-68 




4 


1-69 


2-53 


3-38 


507 


6-76 


8-45 


10-14 


11 -ss 


13-52 




41 


1-90 


2-85 


3-80 


5-70 


7-(V0 


9*60 


11*41 


13-31 


15-21 




5 


2-U 


317 


4-22 


C-31 


8-45 


10-56 


12-67 


14*79 


16*90 




Le 


2*63 


8-80 


5*07 


7 '69 


10-14 


12-67 


15-21 


17-75 


20-28 



Weight of a copper rod 12 inches long and lincli diAjneier=3-0391b. Weight of ft 
bcaaa rod 12i[ich€:3 and 1 Inch diamieterr?2-86Ih* 

lilies of Swedish keg steel come as ballast witb cargoes of oats, in nbich 
case they art- usually spread out equally ovt-r the bnUrmi of the hold, A 
Hull raerchuul says — ■* the usual way of slowing rnll cargoes of iron is to 
dunnage ilie bottom well, ibeii piu a deal upon its edge up and down ihe 
ceiling, and pigeon - cote the cargo as far fore and uft as will bring it within 
about lb inches of the combings/' 





STKVKNS ON STOWAGE. 




WEIGHT OF CAST IBON FIFES, 13 inohea Ion;, in Fonndi RTOirdnpoU 



TmCKI^fiSft IH iKCHCa 


£»liin<af 


















bote in 


1 


1 


t 


1 


1 


1 


U 


U 


ittcbirft 




















m. 


ttu 


IK 


tbw 


Ift. 


m. 


A. 


lb. 


11 


6-9 


9-9 


, * 


,, 


^^ m 


,, 






2 


8*8 


13-4 


16*3 


20-4 


• * 


, , 


., 


,. 


n 


10-7 


14*9 


19-4 


241 


.. 


• t 


, . ' 


4 , 


S 


1*2-6 


17*4 


93*4 


27*8 


83-6 


39-7 


460 


, , 


SA 


14-4 


19-9 


95*5 


815 


879 


44-7 


51-6 




4 


16-2 


92-3 


ms 


85*2 


42*3 


49-6 


57-1 


65-1 


H 


181 


24-8 


81*7 


88-9 


46*7 


54-6 < 


62*7 ' 


71-2 


fi 


90-0 


27*3 


M^ 


42-7 


51-0 


59-5 


68-3 


77-4 


H 


«1*9 


298 


38-0 


46-4 


55 3 


64*5 


73-9 


Kl'H 


6 


23*7 


83-2 


41*1 


50-1 


6116 


69-4 


79-4 


89 8 


61 


35-0 


S4-7 


44-2 


63-8 


63-9 


74-4 


85*0 


»6*0 


7 


37-4 


«7*2 


47-3 


57*6 


683 


79*3 


90*6 


102-2 


71 


39S 


89*7 


40-4 


61-2 


726 


84-3 


96-2 


108-4 


8 


81*1 


43*3 


635 


ti5*0 


770 


893 


101*8 


114-6 ' 


81 


S3i) 


44-7 


6(i-C 


6«-7 


81*3 


94-3 


107-4 


120*8 


9 


94-9 


47-1 


59-G 


72-4 


85-7 


99*2 


112*9 


127-0 


n 


948 


4J*-a 


m-7 


751 


890 


HM-2 


118-5 


1HS2 


10 


&8-6 


r/ii 


65-8 


79*9 


91*3 


109*1 


124 1 


1H9-4 


101 




616 


68-9 


82T» 


98*6 


1141 


129-7 


1156 


11 


, , 


57-0 


720 


87-3 


103*0 


119*0 


1362 


151*8 


Ul 


^, 


5U-(S 


751 


900 


107*3 


1240 


140*8 


158-0 


12 


,^ 


62-0 


78'3 


94 7 


1U7 


128*9 


146 4 


1642 


IS 


■ * 




64*4 


102*2 


1211-4 


138-8 


157-5 


176-6 


14 






90-6 


1D9-G 


12i}'(> 


148-!* 


168 7 


1890 


15 


, , 




96*8 


117-0 


137-7 


1587 


1798 


2014 


n 


,, 




, , 


124-5 


14i;-4 


l<i8*6 


lHl-0 


218-8 


n 


• ■ 




■ * 


131-9 


155*1 


178*6 


202 1 


221-2 


18 


,. 




.. 


139*4 


1G37 


188-4 


2133 


238 5 


19 


, J 




m * 


*• 


1724 


1903 


3241 


250*9 


30 


, » 




, , 


.• 


181-1 


308-2 


235-6 


2C3-3 


91 


, , 




., 


«• 


, fc 


218-3 


246-7 


275*7 


3S 






^ , 


«« 




2281 


267-9 


28K1 


28 


., 




,, 


,^ 


, t 


288-0 


269*0 


84 M) 5 


84 


"• 




*• 


" 


** 


247*9 


280-2 


312-9 



lX4m. The f&nt colm&a ii tlie widtli of tb« pipes ex|>r«nod in iarliea and piuii of on 
inch ; the remftining colamm «je tlie weiglitB of the pipei, under the ilifTcrent UiiclmesBei 
ia which tbej Ar« pUced. Tiro flAoges are generaUy roekon^d equal to one foot of pipe. 

507 To sftve exim pressure in iLe bilgesi one experienced owner 
reeaniinends iron to be kepi as much as possible fore and afi on die flat 
of ibe floor, and Uiwt wbeii cbecniering* ihe cbeqner* sboiilJ be closer 
over the keelfon aitil amidships than towards ihe sides. Wlirn stowed 
close iu the biJfjes, and the ship heaves over, the pressure must be exce«- 
stve. Tbe keels and keeliious nf iron-laden ships have been Boinetimea 
hijui^ u*ben ihcy Imve taken the ground, in consequence of all the weight 
being jiluced on tbe frame and none on tbe keelson. Care should tliere- 
forc be observed lo lay ibe bollonj iron as high only a& the ujp of the 
keelfet»ti, so ihut the first Hbwartship lier should have a betrinj^ on it; 
tbe keebon would tlius sustain a fair proportion of tbti weight of the cnrgu. 



aoo 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



508 Willi iron cargoes, some ships are liable to leak in the [IBOH 
bilges, especially ivheii ilie bilge timbers are abort and the joints frequent. 
Tbe precise points of leakage are not always obscrrable after the cargo is 
discharged, because tbe whole frame of the ball may have resumed its 
original position^ and the outer planks will close agaiHj like the staves of 
a ground licr cask after the upper pressure is removed. With too much 
weight in the ship*s bottom, the upper works are generally liable to great 
itrain, and every tliiiiig above becomes very tight. In some parts of 
America and Norway, oak and other crooked limber cannot be obtained, 
and ibe ship's floors and futtocks are made of straight fir, grain-cut. The 
lower part of the outer butts of the floor timbers and the outer part of the 
lower btitts of tbe first fuitoeks are rounded olT to form tbe ship's bilge* 
In order to fasten tbe two thin ends togeihcr, triangular chocks are fitted 
inside and bolted to both. It is apparent that this mode of construction 
cannot be so strong as with crooked-grown floors and futtocks, which 
retain (heir full size at the bult; and it is therefore evident that ships 
built of such straight timber are not well adapted for cargoes of iron, 
machinery, and other heavy goods; they require to be strengthened with 
iron riders running from tbe lower deck, far enough down to receive two 
bolts in tbe floor timber beads. 

509 In the case of the Trafalgar, RiTsoi^r i\ Tther, Liverpool, 
August 27, 1855, the owner was held liable for damage to casks of porter 
stowed below 200 ton of heavy goods consisting of iron and boxes of 
bacon. At Syra, if iron forms part of the cargo» and diflerent lots get 
mixed, the master has to pay the cost of separation. 

510 Pig iron. In January, 18G7| there was an enquiry at Glasgow, 
before Justices SxicnMAN and Maclej^k, and Messrs* Baker and Swix- 
Bunx, nautical assessors, by Mr. O'Down, {Board of Trade) who stated 
thai the barque Tor/rlda registered 415 ton, was 133 feet long, 28 broad, 
16 dee]), and only 8 months old. CapL Sgai-low and 13 hands left Glas- 
gow in her October 1 for New York, with 550 ton pig iron* and 125 ton 
miscellaneous goods — 675 ton. Three days after, when near Antrim, she 
made 8 inches water per hour, and returned October 8, to Greenock. The 
cargo was unshipped and tbe barque placed in dry dock, when it was dis- 
covered that she had strained very much and bad sank amidships; she was 
repaired, tbe cargo was re-stowed, but about 103 ton was left out. S!ic left 
again November 5, and on the SJ2nd, when 160 miles west of Miiseii llead^ 



* Tlio Burs tnMLnmce Club Limit iron ciirgoes pa IoUowb '■ — All sMps, except Britifilt 
Ah S'3rd 1-1, JiDtl tlio8« employed In ibc eonsting tradeT loading iron, ghall not exceed Uie 
follow ill p \* c'-utage, viz : 100 to 200^ ton 35 ^ cent, over regifller NN tonnage ; 200 to 260, 
3f» ^ crnt ; 2Sn to m\ 27* ^ cent ; 300 to 4O0, 25 ^ cent ; 400 lo 600, 20 ^ cent ; 600 to 
800, 15 ^ rent ; 800 to 1,000, 121 ¥ f^^^ ; 1^*0 to 1,200, 10 1*^ cent ; 1,200 to 1,400, 7 J ^ 
rent i 1 t^^ort, ft ^ eeat ; pig iron euad lead, two-tMrdji rogisttir toiu)H>ge« 




STEVENS Ol 



>WAGE. 



sprQtig a leak. They bore op aod kept ihe pumps going iiDtil [IRON 
«Sp.m. when tW wind became light, and a heavy cross-sea caused the ship 
to labour, and the leakage increased. On the 23rd, at II p^in, she went 
down ; the crew escaped in their boats. The court considered it repre- 
hensible to reJoad the barque with bo much pig iron, as there was no 
doubt the leak which compelled her to put back first arose from the fact 
that in addition to other cargo she had upwards of 150 ton of pig iron 
more than her register tonnage; and although 103 ton were left out sub- 
sequently, there was yet too much* The court recommended as a rule, 
that all wooden vessels should not carry more than their registered ton- 
nage of pig iron in addition to other cargo. A master who look in a cargo 
of pig iron at Troon, in May, 1863, complains that on delivery at Swansea 
£3 2« 6d was deducted as the first cost of I ton 5 cwt. of the cargo, 
although the sand and rust off the iron was quite equal to that deBeiency. 

CAST lEOH lAJJDAflT (ADMIEALTY), EACH PIG. 



Lbxgxh 


Bjibadtb 


DSPTB 


WSIOHT 


No. TO 

ToK 


tU in. 


in. 


in. 


r, q. th. 


piR* 


3 


6 


6 


2 S 12 


7 


2 


1 


4 




20 


1 6 


B 


4i 


1 12 


21 


1 6 


6 


3 




28 


1 H 


5 


H 


1 13 


IS 


I 5 


6| 


4} 


1 U 


— 


1 4* 


fi 


4 




20 


1 


4» 


41 


2 


— 


1 


4 


4 




40 



There it another Admiraltff tabU! under the article hoUati, 

Tonnage. E.LCo. 20 cwt; New York 20 cwt. pig and bar; BnUiujor© 
(and Uoited States) 2,240lb. pig and bar; in PennsylTania a ton of pig iron 
ifl 2,210tt), blooms 2,480tb. and bar 2,000 tb. A vessel of aoS ton regieter 
could carry 50 ton of iron and 1.100 quarters of wheat. 

Sizes and weights, Some railway bars are 15 feet long, 2^ to 3 iDehea 
broad, imd & iiichcB deep; they range from 10 to 24 feet long — averaging '^0 
f<jet; the average weight 00 tb, per yard, Greflt Western (hroad gnage) harftj 
xnrj very much ; hritlge rails are ahout 20, sometiuics 24 feet long, and 62tb, ' 
per yard. South Western (narrow guage) bars are usually 21 feet loug and 
weigh 76 to BO tb, per yard ; fiah-plates are about ISijiuhei* long and weigh 
121b. A cubic foot of east iron will weigh on an average 450lt)» wrought 
4701b, and dose-bammered 4*^0 to 4U0tt>. A stone of iron I lib. Partictilara 
of chain cables, wire, Ac. are detailed iu the artiele rope, which see. 

Foreign weights, &C. 75rb, Stockholm=^66tb. Englisli, lOO puod« Swe- 
dish = 70tt>. avoirdupois, i:i-1|punds Swedieli - 1 OOlfc. avoirdupois, A Bremen 
and Brernerhaven waage = l^tb. Au Amaterdaui lost of iron or copper for 
general freight l,000tb. 




STEVRNS ON STOWAGE, 



511 IRON SHIPS.— Stowage. Mr.GRANTHAM,C.E,says— "die 

^liell of a tirabcr-builL vessel is so much thicker than ihal of an iron 
vessel, that, with the same outside dimensions, the hold of the latter is 
frequently 18 inches wider and 12 inches deeper than the former. Taking 
the most favourable part of a vessel — namely, in the centre of the length — 
in a vessel of 200 ion, the internal capacity in favour of the iron vessel 
will he as 6 to 6; hut in the ends, which are drawn finely off, the disparity 
is much increased, making the proportion of the whole tun tents about 
as 4 to 5, Supposing, therefore, that a vessel built of limber could felovv 
20U ton, she would, if made of iron, have room for 200 ton. The total 
capacities of the largest vessels will probably not approximate nearer 
than as 5 to 6 ; making the iron ship of 600 ton burden not to exceed in 
outward dimensions the timber one of 500 ton. The advantage of this 
is very great and enables an iron vessel to trade, and remunerate the 
owners, in cases in which a wooden vessel would not return a profit; for, 
if we suppose that the freight of a 5U0-ton ship would just pay the 
expenses required to navigate her, an iron vessel would leave the freight 
on the extra 1 00 ton as clear proJit. With steamers, the comparison is 
even much more in favour of iron. As the average cargo of a steamer 
is only, perhaps, about one-half of the load, in engine, cargo and coals 
together, an increase of one-fourth in her stovvage adds 50 ^ cent, to her 
capacity for carrying cargo; so that to carry a given cargo, the iron 
steamer may be much less than a wooden one." 

512 Iron SMps — Interior. Capt.FiTZROY,R.N. says — "iron ships 
require abundant ventilation internally, on account of moisture that is 
deposited when sudden and considerable changes of temperature occur.'* 
For til is reason, the Russian Fur Company on ilie Amoor river, prefer 
sending their goods in wooden ships, which are selected also for the same 
reason by many merchants, for the conveyance of tea; see the article tea. 

513 Mr, WiGRAM stated before the Committee of the House of 
Commons, February 24th, I860, that '* Inhere are some things which iron 
ships can Hever be so advantageously employed to carry as wooden ones. 
For instance, there is sugar; such is the drainage from sugar brought 
over in iron ships, that it corrodes and eats away the bottom of the ship 
in the most rapid and extraordinary manner." 

514 The injury from the drainage of sugar is greatly increased when 
diluted with bilge water, as by fermentation acetic acid is formed, which 
dissolves the iron. The action of sugar on iron may be recognized by 
the hrighmess of surface induced. The iron will not be permanently 
protected with a white or red lead paint; an iron paint composed of the 
peroxide of iron, which is of a reddish brown colour, is said to be the most 
effective; this covered with a thick coat of w)iitewa8li will so protect the 
iron that injury need not he feared. 





616 An importer says— « ibe diflScolty is now [IRON SHIPS 
overcome by caating the iron witli a layer of aspholLe or PonlaeJ cement, 
the liiJit? iQ which neutralizes the corrosive action of the sugar. Occa- 
sionally a further protection is aflforded l^y laying a floor of sheet lead so 
aB to receive the drainage of syrap or molasses and conduct it into a well 
where it is pumped up into tanks or casks provided for the purpose/' 

516 A builder says — *' tliat by the acidiiy of the bilge water the plates 
in llie bottom become corroded ; the heads of the rivets are also constantly 
wearing oli'i especially where sand, grit, or any hard substance, such as a 
ball formed of coal dust and oil droppings, was passed and re-passed over 
them, by rolling at sea. Coal dust, mixed with the droppings from brass, 
is also injurious. To remedy this the bottom is now carefully covered 
with cement or asplialte up above the rivet heads. Those portions of tlie 
vessel at the extreme ends, just above the keel, where the space is too 
narrow to admit of their being cleaned or pain ted j may be advantageously 
filled up iiolid in the same manner." The Lirerpoal Undemyniers require 
that *' fresh Portland cement shall be laid on so as to cover the frames 
and rivet heads. The cement is to be raised in the centre to the level of 
the limber holes, and to be taken up to the upper part of the bilge," All 
ibe lower compartments of H.M. iron ship Warrior ore filled in with brick 
work to prevent the accumulation of bilge water. 

517 Where some remedy is not applied^ it is recommended tliat a 
cmaU quantity of water from the sea, should be let into the ship daily 
and pumped out again, the strength of the acid will thus he kept down, 
and the ship remaiu sweet and clean, Tiie in bides of iron ships, are also 
injured by salt, saltpetre, &c. The weak points in Iron ships are tlie 
hatches required by Lloyd's rules to be in the bottonu The water washes 
up through them, and they retjuire inches or a foot of dunnage. 

dl8 Mr. Peacock, who has made the subject his especial study, 
observed that on the inaide of old ships, where copper pipes have lain in 
ibe bilge, or ibe urine of cattle, or brine from the boilers had lodged under 
the angle-iron frames, and where the rivet heads and plates had not been 
properly coaled, or on the outside where metal valve seatiugs occurred, 
greAt deterioration took place. Injury from salt water is increased when 
brass is near. It is stated that a penny piece accidentally dropped into 
the bilge of an iron ship and left there for a year, had nearly corroded 
through, within one-sixteenth of the outer surface, so tliat had it not beLui 
discovered, the steamer might hnvc eventually foundered at sea. The 
imu steamer Prince of WaUst had a round hole, of four inches diameler, 
eaten through the bottom by her copper punjp; but fur the discovery she 
would have foundered. T)»e constant dropping of the sounding rod is 
likely to injure the plate immediately below, if not protected; it haft 
niiule & hole through the bottom of a steamer. 



304 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



510 To preserve the inttrior from oxidation, Mr. [IRON SHIPS 
Grantham, says — ** good jmint becomes a perfect enamel, and while care- 
fully renewed periodically, no sensible decay is perceptible. Btit to 
do this requires great care and conslaul waicL fulness* Goud white lead 
is perliaps ihe best application, but red lead is preferred^ ihougb, proba- 
bly, without any satisfactory reason. Caj-e should be taken that paint is 
applied under ihe frames before they are ri vetted to tlie plates, and that 
no wood should be allowed to c*»me iu contact with the iron without a 
similar thick coat of paint being previously applied. It has been 
customary, in some casesj to apply a coat of boiled oil to the plates and 
frames while building, to prevent corrosion when they are necessarily 
exposed to the atmosphere/' This is, doubtless, a wise step; but the oil 
should be kept from touching those parts which are to form the joints. 
For some information applicable to the preceding, see dunnage^ iron, 
and metals. 

5t20 In one ease where a master had some copper sheathing to cany, 
Le placed it alongside and touching the iron framework and plates of his 
vessel. Considerable damage was done to the iron by galvanic action, 
and much wor^e consequences would have ensued bad there been any salt 
waler also in contact* 

521 With ordinary precautions it would he nearly impossible for a 
fire to take place, or to gain head, iti the hold of an iron ship, provided 
the hatches were properly secured ; for the bulkheads make each division 
perfectly air-tight, and eifectually slop out the atmospheric air, without 
which fire will not burn^ — thus confining the injurj^, when it does occur, 
to the compartment in which it originates, 

622 Iron Ships— Bulkheads, Mr. Co u rt, Secretary to the Liverpool 
Underwriters" Association, issued January 1, 185U, a Report on bulk- 
heads. In reference to section 9, it may be said that compensation in 
strength should always be made for the metal taken ont of the plates 
where the bulkheads are rive tied to the ship s sides. Vessels have been 
known to break in two (especially when unequally laden in diiferent 
compar(mcnts), at the line of bulkhead, owing to the rigidity of the hull 
at this part, and to the fact that the rivets run in a direct line from keel 
to gunwale, p^ist-ollice stamp fashion, fl might he he tier for the angle* 
iron of ihe bulkheads (o be made vvilh a wider flange, by which space would 
be obtained fiu" spreading the rivets, and thereby avoiding the direct line. 
Longiuidinal bulkheads give strength, and are of great assistance for 
stowing a shifting cargo, or wht-re there are diiferent goods liable to injure 
each other. A midship partition carried from the foremost bulkhead 
through to tbe aftermost one would, in combination with the three inter- 
mediate bulkheads, render a ship longitndinally much stronger, and safer 
to withstand any casualty that may occnr^ see next page. 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



9da 



xr. cotrfirs kepoet on bttleheads or mon ships. 



SKimoRfl 1, 2, and 3, ore introdactory. 

8j£c. i. To dctermjue the tiize of tbo 
crouipsirlmciitA we have the foliowing data^ 
fit :^-Qien:hMit vess^s generally loud to 
about tHpreti'tetLths of their extreme capa- 
city ; that b to ^'Jtjt if Uie e]ctreme onteide 
fiimeiLiioiiai reprvfionting the buoyant 
poYiror of a ve^iself be ten, the Tf eight of 
ship And cnj^ i» genemliy about serea- 
tenths of Ibia quantity. Veu^ laden 
iDUeb beyond thlA &re considered deep. 
We h&re, tbereforfl, in gcQci-al^ aboat 
tliree-tentha of the extreme buoyimcy of 
the TeaMl ae a marglm, iind if this threo- 
tcnthii b<! deatroyad by loaJcage AiisLug 
trmti Acetdunt, or othorwisc, the vt;ssel 
frill sink in sUU wnlcr ; but in a acnwny, 
the moUon of a voxflel from tlie suiumit 
of a WAYe l0 its blue genera Lcei a momen- 
lum d0wriwiirdi», And Uio catutqaence 
urould he Ihut tho vessel would sink in a 
ftOAway some timo before the margin of 
thrt!«<ifnthi) waa destroyed. From thiM it 
would appeiu- that if a yeaael be divided 
into four &iQal compartmentA by three 
wntof-tigbt bulkheads^ and one of these 
compart mcuta be filled with water, snch 
rr«wel would be just aafe la a »eaway, 
becAUte nine and a balf-ieiithi of her 
buoyancy only would be destroyed, — 
aovcn 'tenths by the wei)^»ht of tho cargOf 
snd two And a half tentlu by the deatruc- 
lion of tlic injured compartment. 

5, riacdcnUff, it ia ditfieult accurately 
to divide a vti«^ into four equal comport- 
menta^ lutd it would a1»o be inconvenienti 
becauae the forward and alter bulkheads 
would be thrown much too Iat from the 
CDdt of the vnaael. 

0. The pni{:tiec Utterly hoa been to pnt 
a bulkhead *l eadi uud, ao Aa to shut off 
tht; apaee dc'Totvd to whip's use from the 
rMt of Uic ino«aeb The united contents 
of th«>^ purtluiia rary a little abore or 
below one -tenth of the veBael'a extreme 
capacity in cargo -carrying «hip&. Xow^ 
•aamnlBg this one tenth w* Uii? amount 
raquirod to reaiat or overcomo the dM«rend- 
Ing momentum of tho veaael in n aeaway 
(referred to uliove), and dividing the apace 
betwiocn the end bulkhejja into four equal, 
or tutorly ^qunl^ eottqiarttiiejilKt by three 
adidltlonal balkheadB» we have pro vita on 
tm m»uitf «Tory ^tm* ol om«f|[«acy. 



7. These remarks are independent erf 
the eharftoior of the cargo ; if of iron and 
one coiijpartinent be filleil with water, the 
vessel will lo-iG the buoyancy duo to thAt 
compartment, leas one-«eventh of tha 
weight of iron in it, as the speeiiio granty 
of iron ia oac-sevcnth less in water tlum 
in air. Thus, — if a vesael of 1,600 ton 
regiator bo lodon with iron down to 20 
feet, and having a dry aide of 61 feet out 
Amidships^ ship and cargo weighing about 
i},5(X> ton, bitch vessel wonJd, if one of 
these equal compjirtmentji were stove in, 
increa^ bur draught to di J feet from auch 
canae* With aalt or coal the iucri^ased 
draught would be '2i or 2*2 i feet in uU ; 
with Ku.?t India produce the dr:iught 
would gradually increaae to about 23 feet 
as tJie water was absorbed. With cotton 
the ditTerence inoreoaes gradually, tho 
rate being slower the harder it is pressed ; 
this applif-'S ulao to fine goods hard pressed 
and M^ell bound. 

8. Ye^ebi have been built with one, 
two and three bulkheadii ; ai)mo with one 
forward and one amidfihipeii, others with 
one at each end aiiiJ one amidshii)e ; but 
they invariably ahow nlgu^ of hordiihip at 
tho phicea where the balkbeuds are 
attuclied to the flide^ looactiing the rivets, 
jind, in s^ome c&hi'H^ cracking the pbilea 
tlirough the holc!tT where extra means 
have not been taknu to aecnre them. 

S. It would aeem, then, that bulkheads 
in on iron ahip, except they be numerous 
enough for safety, are n-ttcUu^ and even 
injurious^ by creating rigid pkee« ; but» 
where there are enongh, they become 
important, as tiet, thus preventing vibra- 
tion and alteration of shape, and dill'uiong 
local strains over the whole fabric, besides 
providing aecuriLy Against coUisiuUf 
grounding, d:c. At hast five bittkheada 
are n^quired for veaaebi loaded to aevui- 
tenths their extremis capaolty* and, they 
rcxpiiro to be amiig«d la th« manner 
pointed out in tiectioQ six. 

10, The introduction of fore and aft 
portitiona in the Orcnt J^turtrrn might bn 
advantogeouidy copitui itiLo merchant vea- 
seht, Aud would toko the place of keelaona, 
Htanchiont, &c. 



306 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



623 Exterior- All cases of deterioraLion of iron, [IKON SHIPS 
wbether in the hulls of ships wlieo lying long in port, bubstay bolts and 
chains, and thuin ciihles at tlic water-line in a copper-boilanVL'd ship, 
pucldle-buani spnrss, &t\ are generally traceable to tlic action of copper in 
the presence of sea*waler It is stated that the contact of the iron plating 
ot La Glinre, French ship-of-war, with her copper aheeling, produced a 
strong galvanic action injuriuns to the ship, and that a quantity of wine 
in the hold was entirely spoiled by it. A number of exceedingly sensitive 
ehcll-fish of a species unknown in 1862, were found attached lo ber 
bottom. The plates of an iron ship's bottom have frequently been found 
seriously honey-cond)ed near and aroimd the mt'ltil valve seatinga, in 
1^44, when H.M. Steam Sloop Carmorant went (under canvas only) 
from Tahiti to Valparaiso^ the floats were removed and the paddle-wheels 
lashed; on anival it was found that the loit^^rlnntr arras of the wlieels 
(those nearest the ship) were eaten away by galvanic action induced by 
her copper sheathing, hut the other arms remained intact. The after keel 
and stern post of an iron ship of war has been much corroded hy her having 
a gun-metal screw propeller. There are instances of tbe corrosion of iron 
ship's bottoms hy their being laid up in dock alun^^side vessels with cojiper 
or ytllow metal on their bottoms. Whco pustules of oxide are found on 
iron ship's bottoms which have always used red lead, the^ have arisen 
most probably from galvanic action induced by copper in some form or 
other being near, or by the partial use of preparations containing copper 
in some shape or other. Several steam companies determined in 1862 
to discontinue the use of red lead for coating iron ships inaidc or out; 
tliey found tiiat where a blister occurred water had gathered underneath, 
and that by some combination of the paint and iron with the water, tbe 
latter became acidulous, and invariably destroyed the surface of tlie iron 
njid corroded it* These compatiics now use zinc paint, and fill all inter- 
Elices with a cement made in part with iron tilings, forming a kind of 
asplialte. The contact of lead, sucli as pipes, &c. with iron, is now in 
all cases avoided* Iron is injured almost as much by contact with lead 
as with copper. When the surfaces of wrought iron and cast iron are 
brouglit near each other in sea- water, they furnish tbe elements of an 
active electrical battery and consequent loss of materiaL Through this 
a cast iron tank, IfiU feet long by 40 wide and 5 deep, fell to pieces in 
Portsmouth dockyard, in June, ltlti:i j the tie rods, which were of wrouglrt 
iron, bad hist a material portion of their original subslance. 

524 Iron Ships — CompaBses, The Underwriters at Liverpool, pub- 
lislied, May 14, 1802, a valuable report on this subject, wiiich is given at 
length in the next page. This report is foUowctl by the spticitications of 
ihu iron screw steam ship Himalmja, built by Messrs. IVIaiie & Co. for 
ihi* Peninsuulb aj«d OiUJiNTAL Co, and sold by them to the Adimrulty. 



307 



mOK SHIPS— COMPASSES. 



: 



leiwIf-lAiinclied Iron 9"yp«, whik' fitling 
should be kept, if posttible, with tho 
heml in thti opposit* direction to thut in 
which they were bailt, or im neur to it a9 
etnmmstances will permit. Compnss 
deriAilfm^ obferrcd in port should bo 
teatted fti tea ai soon as opportunity oct^urs^ 
OflMciaUj in new iron ahlp^, Tho ribra- 
ikon of the machinery in iron fiteuiners 
may ufTeci the raagnttism of the Bliip, and 
cause a small alteration in the deviation 
of tho compaas. Compass deviations 
QiiiaDy change in amotmt rcry graduall j 
■A the »hip changes her geographical 
pofiitkm, Tho demUonji of a eoonpass 
placed near Tortical iron, like a steering 
compaiKi, generally change more, on 
cfaoage of goographicalpoRition than those 
xrl on eli^vated or standiunl compusbi. Tbiu 
ehange may not show itself while the ship 
ia npon certain eonr«ie&, bat muHi 1h> 
guarded against when the course is altered. 
Wliva an iron ship has been long on one 
eoarM.% and then ia put on a new courie, 
the in likely to err in the dlrectioa of the 
49id e«ar»a : thus a ahip, after being for 
mome tame on a woaterlj course, and then 
ohjuiging to north or south, will go to the 
ireat of her new eourec. Beaides the 
ordinary dcTiation of the compoia, there 
ia a deviation eaosed by the boeUng of 
Iron shipft, which may ioercase or decreoMo 
Uio drtvtatioii obserred when the ahlp is 
upright. There 8pp«an to be no devia- 
tion from heeling wlicn the ship's head by 
eompaifw ia east or wcst^ bat it inereiues 
ii the fhip't head is moved from these 
points, and ia gt«atc«l when ship's head 
Ky eompasa is near north or mn tli . Cases 
hafe biien observed in which the dcinolion 
resolting from heeling has amounted to 
n« mnch as two degrees far each degree of 
html nf the ship ; that K without altering 
the mal direction of the sIilp'H head, the 
apparent alteration in direction has 
amounted to forty degrees, by heeling the 
ahip from ten degrees to starboard to ten 
degrtKie to port! In north latitude, in 



fillips built bead to the northward, with 
their compafiaes in the uruoI poeition, the 
deviation from beoling is much lorgtir 
than in sliips built with their head to the 
southward , In north ktitnde, the north 
end of the compass needle is drawn to tho 
high or we other side of the ahip, an she 
heels over; the effect being, when this 
deviation is not allowed for, tlmt on iron 
ship, with a Ibton northerly courses, goen 
to windward of hrir npparent course, and 
on southerly courses goes to leeward iif 
her apparent coarse. The deviation which 
arises from heeling will vary with thf dip 
of the magnetic nccdltv In high 4onth 
lalitades, where thi> dip is i«outh, the north 
end of tho needle has been observed in 
deviate, towariln the low si(Je of the ship, 
A «mall deviation towards the low wide 
has ako been observed, in north lntita*lf*, 
in mmo i*hips which were Imilt hi n 
southerly direetion- It is titsirable, tlirre- 
foro, that all iron uhipa which are liable 
to heel over should l»e swniip, at Irafit 
once, with a list to port anr! with a li*it io 
starboard, a^ well as apripfht, so as to 
enable the navigator to estimate vihat 
allowance he must makn when tliC' nhip 
heels- The compoftHcs of those irorj Bhip-i 
which change tjieir latitude very ninch 
cannot be properly comi^ensated by fixed 
magneiti onjy, but dirmld hv partly cor- 
rected by vertical iron. The rpcord of 
careful obnerx^ations made in high Honth- 
em latitudes, for jiBcertainingthc deviation 
when ship's head by compAftS is eaHt or west 
will greatly aHHiRt the compass adjuster in 
perfecting tho magnetic eompeniation of 
the compasses whono deviations ore so ob- 
served. The caps and pivots of the comp^ifts 
carda should be freqnc-jitly examined Jit 
aea, and the bhnit pivot<j and cracked or 
otherwifte injnrpd rapn nhonld lie rt'plai*rd 
by new. Compass errors art ting from 
mecbanlctd ca««*ei^ of tbifl kind nre not 
unfrenuent, and fire ofttrn wrongJy attrl- 
batvd to ehangen in tb« sblpK niagnctitJin. 

W. W. KUKDKLL. 



Swnronto inoir rsB^KLs for adjantment. '* Tliero appears stilBcimt r^nann for iriring^ , 
ing a n«»w iron ship or steamer inimediat^dy beforr each ri the first two or tliro*} voyages;! 
Uiat at] iron vcswel* tihonfd be awting immediately before tl*<> Jlr«it Toyn^ji' follo»vit»g any 
eoaaidcrable repair ; whenever the position of the stand urd ^'ninpims i« rhanii;r''d ; or when 
tlM itoialcr is changed^ onleaa he had charge a» chief offloer Ibn pn^riUng vo)4igo/' 



308 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



lEOIT SCfKEW STEAM SHIP HIMALAYA— BFldFICATIONS. 



I>intemhnt. Longtli of keul 3 tO feetj 
besLHi 41 ,\,, deep 31,% ; 8,437 ton. 

Aa7, bur iroiJ» 10x5 in, to be rabbeteil 
half Ui6 Lhickiiesii of garboiircl istrakfi into 
tht! kfcl ; other liolf rounded over. 

Sttm, 10 ln<!htjs broad ftt bottom by 5 
incbOM tbiekf and checked same as keel to 
wbeno the cutwater comeft oa tbe stem* 
and to be 8x4 indica at the top. 

Ster7i PtiSt, lOlnebea broad and 5 inches 
thick, tapering to 10 x4 mclit^a at tho spar 
deck, and a heel left on tho afkr Hide to 
boor the rodder, with eyes for the pmtleji, 
turned so oa to form a knee forward on 
the keel. The plate oft to mn over the 
poit to fomi a place for the rudder. 

Frameji, of angle iron 7 x 5 x j^^ inches 
for 120 feet in midships, 20 inches from 
centre to eenlre. extreme fore and aft that, 
to tapcjT to 21 inches 6 X 4 X J inehea ; 22 
iacheii 5 x SJ x i inch ; and 24 inches ^ K 
BJ X tV in^'l^^^' '^^^' ^^^^ plaitit to fill up 
thtt Kpace between the f rmnca, bo ai to form 
a series of tnisaings Ihronfjbont the vea- 
»dVs body. In engine and boiler space, 
lUid for ten frame h bt::fnre and abaft it, tho 
fhuuea to be duubli-d in the bottom, and 
a rererac Angle 'iron on every second frame 
from floor to gunwale 4x3|x|in. the 
wliole lengtli of TDiu»el« for faateitiiig the 
oeilingH to. 

Plates. Garboord stroki? far 150 feel in 
tnidaliipa, l|<in. plMcit as bronl as can bo 
procured or worked ; remainder fore and 
ftf t to taper by ^'^ in. to the extreme end 
to 4 3 in ; bottom plates to 2 i^. to the 
6 feet wftter-lino for 160 feet in mid»hipB, 
before and abaft thin J in. from the 6 feet 
watcr-Une to gnnwaile | in, except the 
nppcr plate 2 ft. C in, broad by j in. thick, 
tt> form the waterways ; nil double ri vetted 
from keel to gunwale, and all bmtta to bo 
fluiih ; npper stroke to go to top of water- 
way. Spar deck plates j in. thick ; all 
apnccH formed by prnjection of the plalea 
to be titled with liners, so aa to avoid 
Q&ing small pieces of rlng^ The Imtta to 
be pcrfLCtly close, as well as the acAmA ; 
no pieecfi will bo allowed to be put and 
CAulkc^d over. The conuterRinking to be 
eartfnlly done, and nil the rivets to be 
full and smooth onti^ide of pbites and to 
be chipped dowB while hot. In ptmching 
to tiiko great core to proven ttiufiur holea^ 



FliKtrg, 22 in. deep in cnginG and l»oiler 
spaee^ of I in. plates^ with ungleircin 4x 
3i X ^\ in. ou top of every floor, to rmi 
from 3 to h feet up the tnm of bilge, the 
floors in fore and aft hold to be 22 in. 
deep, y*jj in. thick, mth angle-iron on lop 
4 X 8x j'ij inches. The floor plate» to ran 
4 ft. on the turn of biJge OTer each aide of 
frame in one piece. 

The main leelaon m midships to nm 
the whole length of the vessel on top of ] 
the revBTwe luiglo-ironB, and floors to be j 
16xl8inehea and | in. thick, the aidflj 
keekons to nm oa for fore and aft as the 
T^sel's mould will admit. Keelsons in 
engine room ft» required by engineer. 

I}f£ftft-hool^^ 5, 11 ft long, |J{ in. thick, 
sccnred to frames by reverse angleirona 
well rivettcd ; one emtch on fore and after 
peaks, nmning square to point of contact. 

Pillars in holds, between keelsomt and 
beam, 4 inches diameter. 

Bulihcadit Wttter-tigbt, one in fore peak, \ 
one before the engines, one aft the boiler, f 
one in after hcrld ; nil tii be |-inch plate, J 
tapering to | in. at top plate, atifiened 
with 4 X 31 in. moglc-iron 3 fe«t G in. apart* 

Iknm*, For upper deck, plate, 9 X i in, 
with two angle-ifons on top, 3 x 2^ x | in, 
finished on lowt-t side with angle.irona 
2x2i in, A8 denrribed for mnm and lowur 
decks. Main deck, of plate, 12 x i in. with 
2 in. angle irons on top^ 4 x Jl| x I inches. 
Beam a and knecR lo be all welded in one 
piece, except in enfrine and boOcr space, 
where tbey wiU be in lengths, to allow the 
machinery to go down to the ves^rl, uid 
to hare angle^iron 4xBixiin. on each 
fdde of top edge, finished on lowor edge 
with 4 in. round iron, or nnpleiron, 3J 
X 3 X U in, to mn ov^t end of biuim plate at 
least 3 ft, or f& may be decided on. Lower 
deck of 11 X i in, with 4 X 3 J x ij in. angle- 
iron on top ; lower e<lge finish as nude dmk. 

Stringers. Angle-iron all ronnd the 
gnnwole, 6x4ixiin, with a eovtrring- 
plate» 20 X t in, rive I ted to gunwale and to 
upper side of deck beams ; Rnme in iTudnl 
und lower deckn, 2G x i inchei. To hare] 
aft, five dlar(onal iron Ntrapf*, 8x2i 
rivettod to reverse onglc-iron. 

Ve«sel to be rireiUd^ bntt straps or platdi 
to overnui strakes, tight and ntrong work. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



30a 



525 When rounding the Cape of Good Hope, on [IRON SHIPS 
lier pftAsagc from Singapore, Septembeiv \Si]3, ihe Dewa Gungadhur^ 
Capl. Mackenzie, sprung a lealt beloiv. Part of the cargo was got on 
dcric and covered with tarpauUng. A rivet was out of almtt in the third 
plate from llie keel just abaft the foremast. The hole nras plugged with 
wood. The first calm weather after, the master placed in it a permanent 
scrctr bolt prepared with gtilta percha washers, oivtsidtr and inside. It 
was thns accomplished : — A spike nail was lied to the end of a skein of 
twine and forced through from inside; other spikes were attached at 
intervafs of two feet, until a sufficient quantity was payed out. The 
ahip^a hoiiom was then swept with a fishing line whicli caufrht the spikes, 
which were hauled on board. The prepared rivet was then lashed to the 
twine, the spikes were cut off and the end of ihe rivet secured ; the 
washers were then put on, the bolt screwed down, and all made secure. 
In another case, a cork was lied to the end of a long piece of twiue and 
passed through the hole ; it came to the surface and gave place to a screw 
bi>U, which was then pulled into the hole ami secured. 

526 ISINGLASS, a gltie made of the sounds and air bladders of 
fish — the sturgeon especiallyp which is plentiful in the river \^(dga and 
the Caspian Sea; specific graviiy I'l 11, BuUic, in bales, receives same 
freight as clean hemp per ton of 44 poods gross; in casks one-fuiuth 
more. A fat of isinglass 3i to 4 cwt. 

527 IVORY, the iM^Vn and teeth of elephants; the best conies 
from Ceylon ; an inferior sort is obiaiued from tlu: hippopotamus, wild 
hoar, &.C. It is also exported from Bombay; the Cape of (ioud Hope, 
and Alexandria; specific gravity 1-82*3. In the East India trade it is 
usually i* towed on the top of ilie cargo, between the beams, Ou the 
\Ve*(t Coast of Africa it is placed in the lazarelte ; the uegios here commit 

'♦•at depredaiimis while loading; Great care ought to be exercised when 
ghipping large tusks in Bombay or Zanzibar, where ihcy are freely used 
a» beam fillings over cotton bales in one port and orclillla weed in the 
other. Tlio tusks being boHow and brittle at the larger end, are very 
liable to be chipped and broken ihrougli the rough and careless handling 
of the black Rlcvedoies, when slowing; and from the negligent manner 
in which ihiy are placed it frequenlly occurs that ihcy are heard in heavy 
weather, rattling and sinking against cncb niher. It is cfjunlly neceBBary 
whri! diHcharging, to look sliarply after the dock hiboiircrs, as whok- tiers 
of bales are broken out regardless of ihe beam fdling^, and pocketi, small 
bftg«» and large insks, come down with a crnfih, to the mnuifest detenurutiMn 
of the cargiu Scunelimes it has occurred timi through such praclicen, 
Jitfveral bucket's full of broken ivory have been taken out of the hold of a 



310 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



Bombay sbip, and claims hiive been made by consij^ees for [IVORY 
deficient weights. Scrivelloes and icetli are always bt'Ucrpacke<J in strong 
iron-bound cases. Packages of ivory from Alexandria are of mt)St irregular 
form aod weigbt, witb ibe points of ibe tnsks protruding and ibu^ making 
ibem difficult to stow, especially wbcn in contiguity to olber packages 
wbicb ibey are likely to damage considerably; they sliould be well 
blocked off with billet wood* Bombay ton f>0 cubic feet of clephanis* 
teeth in cases, and 16cwt. in bulk. A tusk averages GOth, 

52B JACKWOOO. Bombay ton 50 cubic feet* 

JAGGERY. See sugar. 

529 JUTE consists of the fibres of two plants, the tkonch and i$bund\ 
wbicb are extensively cultivated in Bengal, It is sbipped in tbe Easlj 
Indies all fbe year round, but chiefly during tbe norib-east monsoon ; 
nearly all at Calcntta; very little at Bombay; some from IManiUa. 
Bales are accepted at an avernge of SOOlb, each ; and sales are often 
made by anticipation in En^jland at tbal weight. For freight a ton 
consists of five bales; this rule prevails at Manilla, where tbe bales] 
weigh almost invariably *280ft>j— 2i cwt. Ballast tbe same as for cotton 
—say 300 ton to 1^000 ton register. Jute is very liable to ignite through 
friction, and for tins reason special attenlion sliould be paid xvhen it is 
stowed in tbe same hold with other goods liable to be loosened by the 
movements of tbe ship at sea. Some masters will never stow jute near] 
spirits, turpentine, or other inilaramable lif|nidsj for by the proximity of] 
two such dangerous arlich's, there would be no chance for the escape of 1 
the ship should fire commence in tbe localiiy* With grain in the same 
hold a height of other goods should intervene. Bales of jute are roped 
very ti;:;blly but ibey have a tendency to swell, and there is some degree 
of danger in taking a full cargo, especially if damp, or if the gronnd tier 
becomes wetted. The hales re(|uire to be closely examined when shipped 
to asccriain lljat they are not damp insitle, the more so should ibey liave 
been packed during the rainy season. Where the previous heated state 
oflbe jiite has been observed, and the fore and after hatches have been 
npenedj and windsails let down while passing through tbe tropics, the 
ship has been saved. Tbe liability to spontaneous combnstionj arising 
from being packed green, or imperfectly dried, is glaled to be at an end 
long before tbe terraiuation of a voyage from Calcittla to England. 
When a portion only of the cargo consists of jute, due regard should be J 
paid to its position in tbe bold, on account of this dangerous property, 

r>30 The ship James Ptitiisotty Capt. CuoiiAtiTV, was burnt to the 
water's edge when oiT the Azores in 1840; she I sad a large qnanlity of 
jule ; the fire commenced in the bold. Tiie Jiime:^ Baines (77 days from 
Calcutta) was destroyeil by fire in ihe Liverpool docksi in April, 1858. 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



311 



Ihe registered 2,276 ton, wna 250 feet long, 41 feet broad, and [JOTE 
ISSfeet deep. The 'twixt decks were discliargcd, and Lhe lower hatches 
ken off in the presence of surveyors, on the 21st, when no damage of 
iny kind was perceptible* On the 22nd smoke was obaerved and a fire 
Iwhich commenced in the main hold, soon destroyed her. The cargo re- 
aaining consisted of 2,2tX) hales jute, 6/213 bales linseeilj 6,682 bags of 
Irice^ and 40 bales cow hides ; the fire was attributed to spontaneons com- 
bustion. The Suthjj Capu James, was destroyed by fire in Calcutta in 
January, 1859; she had in saltpetre and jute, and it is conjectured that 
I the latter became igniledj suionldered all night, and burst into flames in 
Jtlie morning, when the hatches were removed. As the fire reached the 
IsuUpetre loud reports were heard below, wliich terrified the crew, most of 
whom jumped overboard; five were drowned. The fact of spontaneous 
combustion in the vessels named, is dispuied by tnasters who have brought 
full cargoes in good order, and by some experienced Loudon merchants, 
wlio consider that the balance of evidence was '* totally opj)osed to it;" 
Uiey find that jute packed damp or green will be reduced to powder (in 
Jwliich condition it often arrives in England), but it will never fire. The 
Qftnufacturcrs in Dundee, where large quantities are used, ilo not believe 
in 8i>outaueous combustion. It is stated that jute has been tried in 
pKngland in large quantities, mixed with oil and placed under glass to 
ce if it would ignite, but it failed. It i» also said that in England, fire 
bas never yet been discovered to have commenced from the inside of a 
pile. The London Bock Comjumies and the Insurance Ollices consider 
llUe yery inflammable, and require for it in warehouses a higher premitim 
'th an f o r K uss ia n h e m p o r 11 ax , o f vv h i e h j u te m er c h a ti is co m p lain. Th rou gh 
the fineness of the fibre, a portion of which is always exposed on the 
outside of a bale, jute will ignite with the least flame, which will run 
long a pile, but if there is no body of low to come in contact it will die 
LiL N<j unprotected light should be ever token near it. Rope bands 
"ire preferable to iron, the rust of which destroys jute. It is said that 
jute hemp is capable of being loaded with its own weight of tar. 

Tonnage. Bengal aud M adras ton 50 cubic feet iu bales. At Calcutta 
\ Uil* s, weighing ITi cwt, and rn&abunng 40 cublo feel, go to a ion ; when badly 
erowcd, r>n cubic feet; when shipped by measurement only, bU oiilijc feet 
Dnapressed, in bales, weigh someliuiea 17 cwt. Another authority 8ay^, a ton 
sjgbs JO cwt. and measures 50 feet. A third authority says, 6 bales of jute 
t Calcutta* are usually calculated to occupy 64 cubic feet, but they are staled 
> occupy &*i feet only, Calcutta bales loaded at Bombay, have measured 12 f^. 
fin. each — (j2j feet to the ton. Kveiy removal increases the bulk of a bale, 

6^1 IO\OLIN, a porcelain earthy derived from the decomposition 
lhe felditpatbic granites, and much used for fine pottery. It is found 
uun and aibcr parts of Asia whence ibe name la derived. 



312 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



532 KID GLOVES from England to some distant |>art8, am bo 

liable to become spoiled, iLaL naval oQleers uhroad« instruct their out* 
fitlcKii to wrap eaeb pah* separately in paper, place tbe whole in a bottle, 
and have it securtly corked and sealed. 

633 KING*S YELLOW and Orpiment, being a sulpburetof 
Benie, is a poisonous material, Bombay ton 20 cwt* 

634 LABRADOR & NEWFOUNDLAND Trade. The exports 
hence eonsist almost wholly of the produce of the Gsheries^ viz : seal and 
cod oil and liliibbcr, id [oineheoiis^ hogsheads, tierces, and barrels; salted 
seal skins in bulk or in bundles of five skins each ; dry cod-fish in hulk 
or in drums (ratber shorter than American flour barrels but about the 
same diameter) coniaiuing a Portuguese quintal of 128tt). and boxe^t of 
one qainlal 11211) ; aod pickled fish (salmon and herrings) in tierces of 
3UUlb^ and barrels of 200 Lb. each. Oil, blubber, and skins are usually 
bhipped in Great Britain and the Lniled Stales; dry cod-fish in Ifulk to 
Great Britain and Ireland, J^pain, Portugal, and the ^ledilerranean; dry 
eod-fish in casks (all sizes) and boxes to the West Indies, Azores, and 
Madeira; dry eod-fisb in drums and boxes to the Brazils; pickled fish 
(salmon and herrings) to Great Brilain and Ireland, and the United 
States,— salmon to the Mediterranean and herrings to the West Lidies. 
Dry cod-fish in casks is never exported from Labrador, consequently, 
jiickled fish, which usually forms only part of a cargo, are not sent 
llience to tbe We;>t Indies- Tiie first sliipments of the current year*s 
cateh uthJ n^anufacture of fi^h and oil^ generally commences thus : pale 
seal oil and seal skins in June ; colored seal oil in July ; dry cod-fish both 
from Newfoundland and Labrador in August; cod oil in September; 
pickled Obh in SepLcmber or October. Shipments from Labrador are not 
generally made after October, while from Newfonudland they are made 
until as lute as May, and sometimes JnnCj in ilie following years, 

535 In reference to the Newfoundland trade an experienced mer- 
chuni says **it is customary for the ship to find longering and tlie shippers 
dunnage and rinds^ and beds and quoins for stowage. When loading dry 
fish in bulk, it is reciminj ended to have sufijcienl longering (say firewood) 
in the bottom and bilges, and dunnage (say spruce bottghs) over, to a 
depth aitt*gether of fi inches in the bottom and 9 in the bilges. It is 
desindde to have rinds on the dunnage in the bottom to j^reserve tbe 
lower lines of fi.sh from dampness, and it is necessary to have them against 
the tttpsides, bulklieads. pump-well, and ir.asis; those in the bottom and 
as [iigh us the hold beanjSiiire gi nerully plaetd transversely ; those iibove 
longitudinally or (ore and aft. The outside of the rinds next the fish is 
sometimes preferred, though the) are as often placed l!ie contrary way. 



aid 



Tn placing thorn fore and aft, [LABRADOR & NEWFOUNDLAND 
and against bulkheads, &c, lap them sa as to throw any drainajL^^e ai^afnsl 
the sides and bulkheads, and fasten iheni with scupper nails, or battens 
of small hoops, or sennet, to prevent iliuir slipping down* Stmv the 
boiiom lines of fish face up and then reverse, beginning all the lines 
from forward ; yon can ihen work from all three hatch n ays at once, by 
Btowing three separate lines at one time, for dispatch, whicli is desirable 
when the weather is uncertain ; and if a wet day or two should intervene 
the settlement will be so much the f^reater. In receiving lots from 
diflerent shippers^ divide ihcm by tnniing the lower line of each face 
up and extend ihcm fore and aft; or divide tliem also into separate 
bulks atbwartjjiripy, if necessary, by turninjjf the last fish of every Ifne llic 
contrary way straiqiht across the hold, and keep this division perpendicular 
to prevent llic fish from heing broken* By this mcansj you can i^et at 
different lots at one time when discharging. If your vessel loads by the 
Lead, baulk forward when you get well up, or vic€ versfl, and when your 
lading is completed and ihe fit^h settles down, spread spare sails over all, 
if yon can, to ket'|j the fish dry ; in faet^ jt is well to do so when between 
whiles as your luailing progresses. With mixed cargoes of fish, oil, Sec, 
have regard to your vessel's trim, and place the oil, wliieh is lightest, 
forward or aft, or a proportion in each end. Put blabber and pickled 
fish under (he oil ; keep the clunies of the casks as perpendicular as you 
can next the bulk fish, and place dnnnage belween. Keep the bulk of 
fish all together, and do not stow it over the oil, as the pressure may 
cause leakage. 

636 " In slowing a cargo of oil and sidBS, if you get the latter loose, 
make a bulk of thcrn forwiird or aft in ihe biutom to trim ship, as they 
are lieavy. If in handles stow them away among the lower tiers of cask;?. 
In loading a cargo of drums for the Brazils, prefer clean stone ballasU 
A vessel of 2(MI ion regisler will require 30 to 40 ion. If you have not 
drums enough engaged lo fill the shijj. lay the ballast in the bottom a3 
high as the kedstin. If otherwise, stow some in the bottom and the 
remainder among llie hnver tiers, say up lo ihe ibird tier. Ballast in 
the 8ame way fur the West Indies, &c. urdessyou get pjckhd fiiih, whieli 
will answer the purpose. Use can-hooks for loading dry-fish itt canks, 

j or pickled fish, but slings for oil or blubber. The Newfoundland tun of 

I nil is 25t^» gallons." 

6^J7 Labrador Trade. A fler describing the best mode of loading 

' salt, which will be found umlcr that heading, a gentleman of great ex- 
perience recommends the management of a vessel of say 120 ton as follows, 
$38 Wlien chartered for the United Kingdom, you will pmbahly 
have oil and bltibber as well as fish ; aseerUiln how much there is of each, 
llie sizes of the casLs ^* The oil and blubber muy go in the fore hold| 

s ft 



314 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



as there is generally room left [LABKADOR & NEWFOUND! 

fnnvartl ; should tljere be a Hill cari^o, some Imllasl will be requirud 
furvvard anjoiinf the bitihber and oi!, la trim the vessel ; as they lake more 
room than the stinie weight in fish, there will he a chance of filling her 
np fitrvvard* Arrange the after ends q( tlie casks in a tier; they will not 
llien overhang or leak on the fish in the niiiin hold* Blubber tnnst be 
put below, as it is heavier than oi!, and the easks more likely to burst; 
a puncheon of blubber should be at least four ioches out^ — commonly 
called dry inches ; when the cask is slowed, enlirely remove ihe vent 
plug* If the blubber is tvefl boiled before it is put in, it is not so likely 
to work, and the cask may he filled to within two inches. If it has been 
rolled any distaneej remove the vent plug lo let out the air, and replace 
it before slinging; casks often burst for want of this precaution. The 
vent plugs of t!ie oil require to be laken out for awhile, when they are 
stowed, and then replaced; these should bean inch out (dry inch) at 
least; for if the oil is new and the cask full, it is liable to burst. Jjet 
them all be bung up and ^vell bedded and qucnned, and secure each ticj 
with salted seal skins, hides, old junk, or firewood. 

339 Should the vessel be crank or likely to load by the stern, pi 
balksl under or among tlie ground tier forward. If 8hc is by the head, 
the ca>:ks can be worked forward eaisier. Avoid lowering casks down the 
main hatchway, fur if fish is stowed there and the gear gives way, or a 
cask b^irsts, the consequence will be serious ; do not use can-hooks. 
When there is blubber and oil enough to make the vessel safe {presuming 
she will not stand without ballast), land the »emainder of the salt (see 
the article salt), dry the hold, and lay the huigering, small Iiiewood, 
Slicks, &c. fore and aft, next the keelson ; and along the bilges lay stout 
longera, to enable blubber from a bursted cask to get to the pump-well. 

540 Dunnage generally consists o( boughs of the spruce tree, cut 
after fine dry weather. A tight vessel will require six inches on the 
bottom, and nine on the bilges, and so taper ofT; dunnage most where 
water is likely to lodge; take the depth by mea*«uring under your feet to 
the ceiling; lay it athwart the longers, as it will take less and leave the 
openings free for the passage of liquids. Cover the dunnage with rinds ; 
the hnver line of fish will tlicn turn out nearly os wlU as the other parts, 
otherwise it will be damp. 

641 Place rinds up and down the sides, by securing the tipper ends 
lo the stringers or clamp pieces under the deck beams ; let the upper ends 
cmne far em: ugh out under the deck to eateh leakage from the waterwavs, 
which will then descend lo the next rind^ and so on to the bottom; tlie 
rinds idiould ♦iverlap each other an inch or more. Place the rough or 
outside, beifi;:^ waterproof, next the ceiling; by keeping the inside, which 
should he perfectly free from sap, next the fi*h, it will give the hold a 



n 
n 






4 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



315 



cleaner and lighter appearance; [LABRADOR & NEWFOUNDLAND 
llie outside blisiers cotitaiii turpentine vvliicli will impart an mnileasant 
flavour to ihe fisb. Marty Lowever, prefer placing llie insitle of tbe rinds 
next the ceiling as lliej are more easily fixed^ on account of iheir iu- 
elinatiun lo curl or roll up. 

542 For securint^ the rinds to the sides, sennet, stout spun -yarn, or 
old straight ivooden hoops, us;ed batten fashion, will do; fasteniiigjs in 
the middle and al each end may he sufficient, hut tliey ought lo be 
well se4;ured, for if after discharging fish tlje vessel should load a cargo 
requiring mats, the rinds may answer that pur|ioBe. AjjaifiBt the heads 
of llie casks place sprigs of dunnnge, wilh rinds water-shoot, on them. 
The custom h not to rind on tlie dunnage fur llie hultams (sjotne ships 
wiib caulked ceilings do not use rinds whf u ship and enrgo hcloiig to die 
name person), hut to pluce the rinds fore and aft, over-lapping, to carry 
ihe water down betivcen tbem and tlie sides, and to place lliem along as 
the fish come up the hold, without fastening. The ohjection to this if, 
ibal if the vessel is kden quickly, and gels into a rougli sea, with a fair 
wind, she rolls from side lo side, and the iish not having scllled, the rinds 
will slip down; or, if on a wind, with a strong breeze, the fish settle olT 
from the weather side, the rinds fall and are found in the bilge. Scupper 
nails will prevent this, but many will be required, as a vessel of I'iOlon 
frill lake from 7CX) to SU€ rinds. The sliipper finds rinds and dtiunage 
iroody &c. for stowing uils^ &c; the ship linds longrringi 

543 Should the fish not fill np to the deck, s]>read spinice boughs, 
old spare saiU, &c. on it; let a nnm go into the hold occasioually, and 
secure a bucket under any l*;jik which cannot he stopped, and lay swab:*, 
canvas, bread bags, Sac. to prevt-nt water from working into the cargo, 

644 In stowing commence by laying the first tier or line of fish face 
np and heads aft; the next hack up and so on, laying them regularly 
fore and aft, and us yon cotuc almig the sides place the skinny j^arts next 
ibe rinds, as they are brtitT able lo bear the wet in case of leakage* 
Some prefer placing the ed^^es there, beta use they consider the jiussible 
darkening of a dozen fi^h, about a quarter of an inch caclt, les^ iujurious 
tlian the entire loss of one. Keep the fish solid all along llie sides, tu 
prevent cargo from working. In fi^lling up avoid what is called hmgcring 
or bulking; fill riglit up to the deck in lines, which can he dune by 
bringing three or four lines along together like iteps ; the rjj*h turn out 
belter than when in small bulks or lungers* Avoid sepiirate bulks; at 
all events da not bring thera to tlie top separately, as the damp mr will 
Ret between and spoil the appearance of the iialu When there is not a 
fall cargo bank up in the centre, to prevent shiltiug at sea. 

64^ If taking all fish, eunsider how the vessel will load; say, if lo 
fill her uf» die wi>uld load by the head, first have a bulk in the after hidd, 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE 



and to give it lime to settle niow [LABRADOR & NEWFOUNDLAND 
forward till ji>ii come up as hl^h, or a line Liglier, ibari it, tljen slow 
fore and aft. If it is iloaimble to take all alie can and liim her cargo out 
well, stow singly, and the lines not loo thick or siUTi but if you wish to 
blow her np, slow thret* or four at a tiniej and curry along stitF lines. It 
is usual lo begin aft and ^o on forward, then itirn and come aft again, then 
forward and so on. In a crank or deep vessel, use stone ballast instead 
of lun^'ering, otherwise, if laden quickly with dry fishj she will not be 
stiff enoMfrh to carry her canvas in a breeze. 

546 A certain schooner of 80 ton will take 2,100 quintals of dry cod 
fish but is obliged to Ijave 10 ton of iron ballast, and is not then stiff' 
enoui^b until she has been to sea a fi^w days, and llie cargo is settled. A 
vessel of it?0 ton register will lake say from 95 lo 100 ton of oilj, or 2,800 
lo 3,000 quirimls of Labrador fisli, or 2,500 to 2,(500 Newfooiulland fish. 
When it is expected to load a car^o of oil, some ballast must be secured 
for the ground tier, unless there are salted seal skins, liides, and old junk 
enough for die purpose. With larger ships, of which there are many of 
from 250 tu 300 ton, it is frequently possible to discharge from one hatch- 
way, and load at ihe others; these vessels trade mostly with the Brazils 
and the West Indies, aud load lish in drums or casks, containing as 
previously stated, a Portaguese quintal of 1281b. of fisli. A vessel of 
150 ton register carried to the Brazils, 2,007 tubs of Gaspe fish; nearly 
15 tubs to the register ton. 

547 Keep the pumps well watched, for a very little water will by 
the vessel's motion, cause a damp air to pass and repass continually, 
and a Gsh cargo cannot be kept too dry. If once a vessel gets a name 
for fair passages, and for delivering cargo in good order, it is of great 
consequence both to the owner and master. When di:icharging lisb, cover 
the cargo fore and aft every time the batches are put on, to prevent ihdJ 
damp air from injuring it; see fish, herrings, and pikharda. 

548 LAC, a gnm resin ]i rod need by an insect termed the coccn 
favvOf which deposits it on the branches of certain trees in Iiuliiij especially! 
in Assam aud Thibet, where it is found in a regular cellular stniciure, | 
containing the eggs of the insect; its constituent parts are resin, a pe* 
cullar red coloring matter, gluten, and wax. It is imported into Europe 
under three forms, viz : stlck-lac, seed -lac, and shell -lac. Siiek-lac, is j 
the first or rude slate, as fyiind encrusting the twigs und branches. For | 
purilicntio!! it is broken into small pieces, put into a long narrow canvi 
bag and exposed to aheatsnilicient lo liquify the gnm, when it is forced out 
by iwtsiing the bag over a plane smooth surface, to which the liquid can- 
not adhere. In India it flows out and consolidates upon the conveJi 
surface of a plantain tree prepared expressly j the mucilaginous 



I 



4 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 



317 



smoolh surface of this tree prevents it from udheriDg. In 100 [LAC 
parts of slick-lacj in its rude si ale, lb ere are resin 68 parts, colouring 
matter 10, wax 6, gluten ^-^^ ex Iran eons matter (v^j, The colouring mailer 
is a valuable product and forms tbe basis of a beautiful red dye called lac* 
dye^ ibe consiiiuenta of which are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen ; this 
colouring approaches that of cochineal, lake, and other pi^ients. Slick- 
lac ihus purified and consolidated, beinpt pounded in a mortar, reduced 
into small grains, and a further portion of ihe colouring mailer extracted 
by ibe process of boiling, consiitules the substance called seed-lac* The 
analysis of seed-lac, gives, in 100 parts, resin 88%5, colouring matter 2'5, 
wax 4*5, gluten *2; it is sometimes melted and formed into cakes, and 
13 ihen called lunip-lac< Shell^ac is the lac in its natural slate after 
ibe process just described of simple purification by heat, and is produced 
by litjuifying, straininpj, and forming it into thin plates — whence its name 
sbell-lac. Tlirough this process a furlher proportion of colouring matter 
becomes extracted, ihe shell-lac plates being of a more transparent cha- 
racter than the stick or seed lac. The analysis of shell-lac gives 909 reshi, 
•5 colouring matter, 4 wax, and 2'8 gluten. ShelMac is used for dying, 
and is shipped all ihe year round. At Calcutta the chief season is in , 
December, January, and February* Very little is sliipped during tbe 
south -wesl munsoons^ — March to September, It ou»;hl never to he stcjwed 
over castor oil or saltpetre on account of tlie evaf oration ; indeed it should 
be placed at a considerable distance from castor oil to avoid impregnation 
of its noisome scent. Shell*lac is packed in teak (very similar to indigo 
cases), lined with thin oil cloth, weighing 160io200rb* 

640 LAC DYE. Small square cakes of lac, which see. E.LCos. 
ton 50 cubic feet ; a chest 4 cwt, Lac lake, a superior red lake. E.LCo's, 
ton I6cwtj Bombay 50 cubic feet; see lac, 

650 LADKN. Tbe state of a ship t^ ben she is charged with a weight 
or quantity of any sort of materials, proportionate to ber tonnage or bur- 1 
then. Laden in bulk ; laden with a loose cargo such as coal» salt, grni n, &c. 

661 LAMP BLACK, is a soot prepared by burning the dregs and * 
coarser parts of tar in furnaces; the smoke is carried through tubes inlo^ 
boKes covered with linen tipon wbicb it settles* When recently made, 
it is liable to spontaneous combustion without the admixture of oil ; witb 
oil ibc danger is imminent, whether recently made or otherwise* Agree 
for gross w^eight if possible, as the tares are very gieat* Bogs of lamp 
black are represcnied as being useful to Hll up, and from tlieir lighiness 
can be placed where some descriptions of goods will not answer, 20 
hogsheads, weighing 7 ton, or 120 bags 6 ton, occupy b60 cubic feet or 
1 keel. When wheat is Is IP quarter freight, lamp black is rated at 
4r \0\(I^ hogshead and 9J</ |t>bag. 



318 




STEVRNS ON STOWAGE 



552 LAN DING G GODS. Dana says, *' the landing of ilie go 
upon the wharf is a sufTjcient delivery, if due notice be given to ihe parties 
who are to receive them* The master is not, however, bound lo tleliver 
until ihe freight due Is paid or secured lo his satisfactiou, as he has a 
lien upon the goods for his freight; but the consignee can require the 
goods to he taken from the holdj in order that he may examine them 
before paying freight. In such case they should not gooutof the pos- 
session of the master or his agents. Where no one will become res- 
ponsible a master may deliver a bag, bale, or ton, as the case may be, 
and he paid freight thereon before he delivers more. At the London and 
other dociiS and wharves^ the ship s brokers send a printed notice duly 
signed, to stop all goods for freight; they are retained by the Company 
until the broker scuds a release or a person authorized to take off the 
stop ;" sec the article delivery, 

553 Sundays, By 16 and 17 Vic. chap. 107, sec, 49, no goods, 
except diamonds, bullion, lobsters, and fresh fish, are to be unshipped 
or landed on Sundays or holidays, or on any other day except between 
the hours of 8 a*m. and 4 p,m. from March 1 to November I ; and between 
9 a.m. and 4 p.m. from November 1 to March 1 (except free goods), 
unless special leave be obtained from the custom-house. The goods are 
liable io forfeiture unless removed in the presence and with the authority 

rQ( the officer of the customs. 

654 Customs' honfs. Free goods are allowed to be landed from 
6 tt.m, to 6p.m, from ^larch to November. Although they pay no 
duty, goods are not considered free until examined by the customs and 
passed. Cuttle are landed at any hour, day or night, if passed by a 
veterinary surgeon. 

555 LAPIS LAZULI, or Ultramarine, a very fine blue powder, 
and a mineral of great value. K.LCo's. ton 20cwt. 

556 LARD (specific gravity 0'947}, is often stowed to fill up brealc- 
ages, by which heavy articles sometimes press on it and force out the 
heads of tlie kegs. It is much injured by salt water, and should not be 
placed near guano, sugar, colton, flour, wheal. Sec. In steam ships keep 
well otf from the bulkhead of the engine room ; see butter^ caudles, 
general cargo, hams, &c. 

Tonnage, Bengal and Madras ton 50 cubic feet In computing the 
freight of kegs of lard at Baltimore, 2001b. net weight are considered 
«qUBl to a barrel of 5 cubic feet* 

557 LAST is a metrical term, of German origin, for a load. It is 
sometimes used to signify the burthen of a ship, and h applied to various 
uncertain quantities of merchandise, generally it is esiimated at 4,000 lb. 



I 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 
LABT— BBTTISE AKD TOIlEIOir. 



3ia 



BRITISH. — 14 barrels of pitch» tar, or tahm, usnaUy molca a last ; 12 barrcla cc>d* 
flail, potftsb, or mi;al ; 20 CAde« each of 1,000 horringiu cyery 1^000 k-n himdn>d, 
and every 100 five bcoto; 18 barrels unpacked lierruigs; 10,00i> pilcLarcis; 
l,700Ih. feathers ; 17 cwt. flax ; 12 sacks wool, 3G4Ib. each ; 20 dickcra Icathert 
erery dicker 13 skiBa ; 24 barrels gunpowder^ each of 10016. Aa o groin mcaBore 
in BnglAnd, the Last nsnaUy canslsU of 10| qnarteni 12 sacka or 4,363 Hi ; in 
Bome places 21 i|iiarterB ; rape aeed 2 loada or 10 quarters ; cole seed lOi qi>*rterB, 

BEKMABK.— 171 buahela, 224!b. net, oil, bntter, or herringa ; 44^ liuit»=100t(nu 

GEBBIANY. — iMbeek, a veasd of 162 ton regiciter ia 63} lasts; in ealctilating tbo 
navlgntion duea levied by the senate of Lnbeck, MiLrch 2, IS&I, a last for sea* 
going and ahftrply-bnllt TOMell la 4,000 Itj ; flat- bottomed open vessels S,on01b ; 
Teavela plying between Lnbecic and Schonberg 6,O0OTb ; H&gtock, 96 acheflbta oala 
144 q;iiarterB ; other grain 14 qra ; Brtvxtrhaotn, 4,(M>0!b ; a ship-last of herringa or 
•alt 12 barrels ; coal 12 barrels or 2 ehaldrona Newoutle ; grain 80 70 bushels or 
10*087 qnartera ; that is 10 quarters 0*7 bnahel»* A Teaael of 450 ton is compated 
M dOOlaata, which make a Bremen laat 1| ton ; Bamburtf^ a commercial tthip-kst 
b eqn&l to 3 ton or 6, OOOIb ; 10 lasts ^ 108'8 qr«. Th e ]it»t U divided into m fuss. 

HOLLAND.— ^iJM^^rtiam, iron or copper, 4,0001b ; oats ^ buahela ; balhiat 2,000tb ; 
BotUrdam, for freight 8 oxholfda wine, 5 pieces gin, 14 barreta herringa, 12 barrels 
pitch, 13 barrels tar, 4 cuska oltve oil, 7 casks wtude oil, 20 rases oranges, 4,OO01b, 
rice, 3001b. almonds, 2,mX9rb. wool, &c. For freight a hist of wheat is 10)^ cent. 
higher than barley, and barbvy 20^ cent, higher than oats. 

KOEWAV.—A last of herrings 224!b. English, 49 kitta ^ 100 ton English. 

POHTUOAL.— Lu^n, for freight 4 pipes of oil or wine, 4 chests sagax, 4,000tb. 
tobacco, 8,6001b. shnmac. 

TRVSSlA.—DantZiC ship-last 4424lb.~iijnbcr 60 cubic feet ; grain 80 hectolitres = 
8S biishcLi=2 6fi ton ; Mrmd, 31 miilUrs com, 60 aehollbK or 240 viertels, or 
II quarters 3 busheh English. For wheat, rye, Sse. the lut of 6G| schefTels or 
10 quarters, 7 hosheb, b generally used ; Stettin 4,0O0lb ; SuyiHcmuiule^ 4,000lb. 

BUBSIA.— In St, Fi^Uraburg 120 poods of tallow make a last ; 63 poods 1 ton Eng- 
lish ; see the article leather. 

BPAIN. — Malaga, for freight 4 boats or 6 pipes wine or oil, 4 bales orange poel, 
6 pipes Pedro Ximenes wine or dU, 10 casks nlmonds (each about 380tb. English), 
20 chests lemons and orangca, 2*2 casks almonds (SaiTobiis each), 44 casks raisins 
(4arrabas each), 87 ball-eaaka raisins, 50 baskets or 160 jars raisins. The arroba 
or eantara is equal to 4'19 wine gallons EngUsh. 



658 LAY-DAYS. As a pfcneral rule, laj-diiys mean runiung day» 
and include Sundays and Bxed bolidnys; one exception being wbere the 
ship has reported too hUe for the mercliant to hc»gin disclmrging in fair 
lime on Saturday, in wliich case the merchant would be entitled to bej^in 
to eoani hi& hiy^days from the following Monday, or lirsi uorliinj^ day 
which ihe late reporting of the ship on Saturday gives him the advantuge 

[of. The ship's days would then run on as running days ; the succeeding 
Sundays ond holidays eountinf^f as days against the mcrchunl. Another 

I exception Konietimes allowed, is an alleged usage against merchants in 
LoniJon* holdinjjf i\t*i word days to count as working days. Lay*days, 
Sundays excepted » mean working days, Sundays of course not couniinj^ 



320 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



a» days. Running lay- days mean that every day is to count, [LAY-DAYS 
viz: working days, Sundays, and holidays. Lay-days, snbject to the 
exceplion slated above, are to be construed to count as running lay-days, 
and inchide working days, Sundays, and holidays; see demurrage and 
charter party. Laij datjs ailowed at the Fori Adi'iaide fi^Tiarves : all 
vessels nnder 100 ton are allowed six days for the purpose of discharging, 
and all vessels above 100 ton the following; number of day?, Sundays not 
included: vessels from 100 lo 300 totu 10 days; from 300 to 600 ton, 
16 days ; above 600, 21 days. Vessels discharging cargo have preference, 

55^ LEAD. When pig lead only k taken, dunnage say with coal 
or rubble, until the keelson is completely covered, in order to raise the 
lead and make the ship easy at sea. Lay plank, and slow in the middle 
in stacks^ by placing the pigs three or four inches apart, and crossing at 
the same distance* Large billet wood makes good dunnage, slowed 
between ; see copper, bemp, and iron. 

660 Lead pipe requires great care to prevent its being bruised. Stow 
on a platform in sizes, coil on coil, the lesser inside the greater; the 
height of the stack will depend on the weight of ihe pipe per foot^ — the 

fclieavier the pipe the higher the stack. Colls are sometimes bound with 
^twisted straw, or packed in casks ullh loose straw. 

661 When slowing sheet lead with general cargo, it is usual to lay 
the rolls from the keelson towards the bilges, the upper rolls falling 
between those below^ and so on ; it should never be laid cross ways. Sheet 
lead cut to size for lining lea chests and packed in small rolls, in boxea 
weighing about GOIt>. has been rejected in Calcutta^ because it was damaged 
and discolonred evidently by bilge water, although the surveyors* reports 
exonerated the ship from any charge of bad stowage, &c. The hardness 
of these packages induces the stevedore labourers to drop them and work 
them in as bilge dunnage, under the impression that the lead would not 
hurt if it got wet; too much skilful supervision cannot be exercised in 
all such matters. Here may be classed boxes of rifle bullets which are 
shipped in packages of about 1 cvvt, well nailed ; they ought to be iron- 
banded. Masters and ofHceis should be careful to prevent these boxes, 
when carried low in the bold, from being used in ihe wings lo block off 
sncb ])ackages as casks of hardware, &c. Stevedores have been known 
to use them even for chocking olF hogsheads of beer; at the end oi^ the 
pEBxage the boxes liave been found wiili iheir ends squeezed out, and the 
bullets have afterwards been shovelled up in bulk among the floor dunnage, 

Toimage* 'JOO pigs of lead, weighing 2'2 ton, will occupy a space of *iH3 
cubic fcot or uno-lhird of a keel, A vessel of 20;iton register will stow 1,*280 
pigs of lead, weighing 002'7 ton, but she could onrry only 4*H5 pigs, weighing 
80 li ton. K. I. Go's ton '20 cwt : at Baltimore *2,*-* tOtb. When Mediterranean 
wheat is l#^(puirtcr freight, lead h rated at 4si)d $*lon of viOcwt, 



_fii 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 321 

Pipe, off-inch bore, weighs 0. 7, or 8ttJ. per yard ; 14noh 7 to U ; [LEAD 
U-inch 10}, 12, and U\h; li4nch 14, 10, 18, ftadSim; Ij-inch lCto24lb; 
and 2-inch 171 ^o 24^6. per yard. Lead pipe, from 4 to 5-inch bore, is made io 
JcD^hs of 10 to 15 feet; 2Hnch 30 to 3 6 It». per yard; 3-inch 30 to 42tt>; 
Scinch 45 to 50tb; 4'inch 50 to 0O[t>; B-inch 70 to 80tb. per yard. 

Sheet, 1-lOtb-inch tbick, weighs 6'8i>9rb. to a square foot; l-9tli*inch 
6*654tb; l-8th-inoh 7-373; 1^7th-iiich8*427tt>; 1 Otii-iech 9'831tb; l-6th-ini^h 
ir797tb. Sheet lend is made up in rolls 0^ to 7i feet wide, and varies in 
length from 30 to 35 feet A roll, 4th, to the square foot, weighs 7 to 8 cwt ; 
Ctb, 10 to ll€wt; Otb, 12 to 13; 7lti. 14 to 15; and Rtti. 16 to 17 cwt. 

Sizes. A pig oflead is about 3 feet long, und weighs 1| to IJcvvt. Spanish 
pigs ftre about 1 cwt, A fodder in Londoa IDicwt. or 2,164tb, ordinarily 
8 pip ; Newcastle 21 cwt ; Stocktoo 22 cwt A fotmcd 70tb. 

562 LE.\I) S, red and whi te, i n powder or mixed wi th oil, are shippedt| 
in casks J 4 lb* to 10 cwt, and are useful for stowage in some gcQcral cargocSf 
but not on light packages; see paint* 

^63 LEATHER should be stowed dry and kept clear of salt ivaler 
especially J a damp air alime will greatly injtire it. Skivers, if shipped 
in a damp state, are liable to be damaged by lieating during a voyage; 
see kid gloves, Russia juflTs, red, white, and black, are packed in rt*ilf, 
each containing 10 hides, and from 10 to 16 of these rolls are packed 
^ logetber in a bundle, well secured with thick matting. 20 dickers, every 
dicker 12 skins, make a last. 60 rolls of ju08 make a last. 88 poods net 
weighty shipped for Italy make a last j and 44 poods a ton, in England* 

664 LEMON PEEL is packed at Messina in pipes filled up with 
salt water for conveyance to London, where it is either candied or used 
«s a medicine. The schooner f/Z/W^a, 139 ton register, stowed Novcm- 
Iwr^ 1867, 32 pipes lemon peel and 2,lXK) cases of lemons. Messrs. 
THOMftOK &Co, Italian Consulate, Leith, say November 19^ 1867, a vessel 
registering 218 ton, stowed in 18C6, 415 pipes orange peel exclusive of 
boxes for broken stowage, vrhich were carried freight free. When lemona 
are freighted at 2«9</{^case, lemon peel obtains 17«6r/^p(pe, 

565 LIGHTERS. Cargo Bhould not be put into lighters unless 
the lighterman or some one duly authorized, be there to receive lU Tlie 
uiatt?j or person delivering goods over side, should be careful to obtain a 
receipt from the lighterman, as this lakes oflTthe responsil^iltty from the 
male; then if any damage should occur the loss will fall upon tliu light- 
erman. Although the mate has performed his duty when the goods are 
over the side, yet if put into the lighter without any authorized person 
to receive ihcm, the loss will fall on the ship. Strict attention should be 
paid to the OvL'ibult! Delivery Orders, that the goods may be delivered 
JQlo the proper lighters. Lightermen have been held liable for damage 




922 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



to goods, by nec^ligently making Hgbter fast i 



I steamer^ [LIGI 
BO that the lighter, on llie tide risings got jamnied under the steamer, 
Btmlc. In the Common Pleas, April 27, 1866, Lake, an underwriter, sutjd 
Nixon, owner of the Qtteen of Beattiy^ for the value of goods from Liver- 
pool, lost m an uuseii worthy lighter at Melbourne. The judges decided 
that the risk of discharge hy lighters was within the insured voj^age* 

566 LIGHTNING. The tenibly destructive agency of lightning 
has been peculiarly fatal in sliips laden with cotton. There is jHsrhaps 
no substance more inflammable, when exposed to the electrical spark, than 
cotion wooL Jule is also very open lo inilammation by the electric spark, 
and since several ships laden with jute have been destroyed by fire, sup- 
posed to arise from spontiineous combnstion, it is by no means improbable 
that combustion has arisen through electrical agency, since we hate no 
evidence that jute itself is Hable to take iire spontaneously. Formerly 
it was considered that the electric discharge glanced over those parts of 
the roasts of ships which were covered with lamp black and tar, or painted 
with lamp black and oil, without the least injury, but shivered the uncoated 
parts in such a manner as to render the masts entirely useless, but this 
opinion does not prevail now to such an extent. It is by no means 
improbable, that the conducting carbonaceous matter contained in the 
lamp black of the paint, enabled the lightning, in certain cases quoted, 
to glance over the surface of the wood without entering its substance, it 
being demonstrable by physical experiments, tliat a mere line of water 
deposited upon the surface of glass, by means of a common pen, will 
CTjablc a heavy and brilliant electrical spark to find its way over the oon- 
conductin^^ glass, without injury to its surface. 

607 We are indebted to the late Sir Skow Hareis, F.R.S. for a 
physical and practical elucidation of this important question, more 
especially as relates to the preservation of shipping generally. Casting 
aside a prevailing prejudice of the day, as being contrary to all inductive 
philosophy, iliat liictals by a specific attractive influence on tlie matter of 
lightning, draw down from the clouds the very destiiiction they are set 
up to avoid, he arrives at tlie conclusion^ that in order to eflectually secure 
ships with their cargoes, of whatever consisting, from the fury of the 
electrical discharge, it is requisite to bring the whole mass into that 
comparalively passive or non-resisting state it would assume relative to 
the electrical discharge, supposing the whole continuously conducted^ 
Til is he eJTecls, by rendering the masts themselves, eflicient conductors, 
and linking these conductors, by means of metallic connection, into one 
great chain, with the metal bolts or oilier metals passing through the keel 
or sides of the ship, so that from the instant of a stroke of lightning 
falling upon any point of the vessel, either below or aloft, the electrical 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

discharge wmilJ meet with no impeJitneel in fiuding its [LIGHTNING 
way to the sea, without intermetliate explosion so fatal to ships laden with 
cotton, wool, or other inflammahle malten These principles have been 
practical ly and universally carried out with the most perfect success in 
ships of the royal navy, as also in very many vessels of the merchant navy, 
including steam ships. The gi^eat end to he kept in view in stowing a ship's 
cargo, more especially when coiibistingof an inflaminahle material, such 
as coUon wool, is to avoid all interniediale explosion in the case of a 
, stroke of lighming finding its way through ihc hull into the sea, 

'jtSS LIME (BORATE OF) is shipped in small quanUties all the 
Ljear round at Iqnique, Mexilones, and Pisagua* 

HG^ LINENS. See Baltic and Archangel rales of freight at the 
commencement of this work. A Russian archeen 28 iiithes, 

670 LIQUIDS should he stowed at a dis lance from gnauo, coal, 
'grain, flour, rice, vah>nia, fruit, and other goods linhlc to generate heat, 
or leakage will iuevitahly ensue. Stow heer and porter on tlie inor; oils 
and molasses in the wings; and spirits and wine on tlie tojj of that part 
of the cargo not liable to he damaged by the breaking of the casks ; and 
endeavour to keep all your liquids, of whatever kind, as miich in one 
part of the ship as possible ; lo have good cross beds at the quarler*, and 
not trust to hanging beds ; lo be well chockctl witli wood, and allowed lo 
slow three heights of pipes or butts, four of puncheons, and six t»f liogs- 
heads or half puncheons. All with their bungs up* If not a ful! cuvgo, 
stour the liquids at each end. Casks in the 'tween decks, ai'c vccom- 
inended to be stowed a-burton or alliwart ships; if end on they may, by 
ihe motion of the ship, get slued bung down, and lb us be liable to leak ; 
sec molasses. Casks should be sounded by an authorized cooper previous 
to breaking out; if properly stowed the loss falls on the nudervvrilers ; 
if not it falls on the ship« In Sydney it has been settled by arhiiralion 
that if a cask, hogsliead, &c» of ale or other liquor liable to ferment on 
the voyage out, is found empty or partly so through the liftiui; of the 
thead, &c. by fermentation, the ship is not liable even if the head burst in 
^transit from her to the wharf, A master who hay conveyed goods from 
ondon to the East Indies^ says — that bottled ales and beer packed in 
^ casks and slowed in a Iiold with other goods, are frequently damaged, in 
consequence of the insecure character of the cask hoops. lie thinks that 
llie hoops should be Hat, similar to those on household flour barn Is, and 
not like those on herring casks. Tennant*s boliled beer is always packed 
in barrels for the East Indies. He thinks that bottled ales are best in 
Strong cases* which can also be stowed more advantageously. A nier- 
choQt experienced in casks, says — **l have no doubt flat hoops (ash) are 



324 



STKVENS ON STOWAGE. 



I 



more duraWc, Inii they are canBidered too expensive. [LIQUIDS 
Governmeiu uses only good toiigb ash hoops on powder casks. Hoops are 
generally of withey, birch, liazel^ and of almost all the classes of small 
%vood found in copses ; these are very perishable, especially in a dose hold 
wbere a cask will be decomposed in three years, while in a properly 
ventilated store it might last half a century. Water casks should never 
be painted for nse below deck, or they will rot. In the whaling trade, 
oil is poured in boiling hot, which tends to destroy the casks* Wooden 
casks are said to he better for stowing biscuit than iron tanks, because 
the wood absorbs the dampness from the bread. Zinc hoops are less 
liable to rustj but are sometimes not so strong as iron hoops." 

571 Jjiquids, such as castor oil, packed in tins, leak occasionally, 
from the sea-water having acted on the soldering of the cases, and some- 
times having corroded the tin-plate itself. A fire occurring in a ship will 
account for excessive leakage both from casks and tins, though it may 
not have touched them ; see casks, oils, wastage^ general cargo, spirits, &c. 

572 Ullage. The liability of all liquids to lose by nllnge proceeding from 
the casks leaking, even wliero no specific injury has buLpponed, is bo notorious 
that it makes claims on iiquitJs difBciilt to settle with uuderw'riterp. Some of 
the latter even maiiitnin that they are not liable in respect of loss of liquids. 
This is a clear mistake; and unless tlioy insert tlio warranty wliicli exists in 
several East Indian policies^ excepting loss on liquids, tliey are not exempt. 
But as ullage or leakage is of bo common oecurrcncej it requires very clear and 
definite evidence that there was violence^ or some real cause of loss, and 
not the result of faulty or unseasoned packages; uoitlier tliat it arose from 
imperfect qnoining and stowage. It is necessary to show by the protest, that 
at some period an undue and accidental pressure was exerted. The disturbaneo 
of the stowage by a ship being thrown on !icr beam ends, or by striking the 
ground suddenly, is sufficient to account for pressure and consequent loss. But 
even when a claim is oatablished, the ordinary loss by nllago should be de- 
ducted. The law does not countenance tke '* usage of Lloyd's" against 
underwriters' general liability. In one instance, when it appeared that oil 
bad been lost by leakage, caused by violent labouring in a cross sea, Lord 
Deniian refused to admit evidence of a usage of Lloyd's, that unless the cargo 
was shifted, or tbe casks damaged, underwriters were not lifiblo for any e^Ltent 
of leakage, however caused* as a loss by the perils of tbe seag. His lordship 
told the jury to consider whether in their opinion the damage to the oQ wag 
caused by the perils of tlio seas, and soid^ ** It may be very convenient for tho 
underwriters to have sucb a general nilo, and for the commercial world to 
submit to it ; but if they mean thereby to control tiie effect of a plain instru- 
nunt, they should introduce its terms into tbe policy/* Hopkins on Averags^ 

Tonnage. E J.Co. allows for freight '^10 imperial gallons^ one-fourth more 
for covered casks, one-fi(th olT measuri^meut of casks for bulge. At New York 
and Baltimore, 200 gallons wine measure, reckoning the full contents of tljo 
ctska, of oil, wine, brandy, or any kind of liquors. 



573 LIQUORICE ; a cask of juice 1 4 cwt. nearly; a case of roots 
shipped at Naples wefghfl about 2cwt. and measures nearly 10 cubic feet. 

574 LIVERPOOL DOCKS* The master porters* prices for un- 
loading in 1856, were— a general cargo of 750 ton Calcutta, about £20; 
China lea £ IG to £ 18 ; cotton (U.S.) 12s ^ 100 bales ; guano 6^ ^ ton. 

675 LOADING. In reference to clearing one end iirst, Capt. 
Sedgwice says: this practice cannot be too strongly condemned; it is 
lubberly, injurious to tlie vessel, and can only be pardonable when there 
IB a leak to slop, or copper to be mended. The weight should be kept 
amidships^ and cargo p^t into the fore and after holds. Should she be 
unusually crank, and require much cargo to stiffen her, before that which 
id left amidships can be removed, then it would be prudent before all the 
weight is taken out, to let the cargo put mlo each end, meet al the main 
hatchway to avoid having too much at either end. A Utile attention to 
these matters shows the intelligent o03cer ; bat the man who poinls either 
the head or stern to the cloudsi, may depend that he is inflicting an eye- 
sore on every seaman in the port. 

576 Loading in turn. Before the judge of assize at Durham, in 
April, 1867, Mr, Helmken, owner of the Cedar^ brought an action 
against Messrs. Scounk, of Sunderland, for demurrage. The ship was 
chartered to load in turn without specifying any kind of coal. She arrived 
September 5, 1805, was reported next day, but not loaded until ihc 30tli. 
Defendant urged that he had the option of choosing a particular kind of 
coal, but the jury awarded JC60, or £6 daily for ten dayts. 

577 At Eavre, in 1868, new regulations were published. The lime 
to be allowed for unloading and loading vessels, is as follows :■ — 



VCM«1> ' 


Sailiko VtSSSLt 


Steameiu 


Dnlouiiiif 


Lopdiog 


nnkHullag 


Loi^iii^r 


ISO ton and iitid«r » . 

161 to aoo ton .... 

801 to 500 toQ .... 

601 to 750 ton .... 

761 to IvOlWt^jn .... 
!.001 to 1/260 tan .... 
1,251 to l/.Wton .... 
I,ii01 and upwiurds • , . . 


day, 

4 

6 

8 
10 
12 
14 
IG 


dftji 

i 

11 

13 
15 
17 


dtjT. 

5 

7 

9 
U 
12 
16 
17 


d»y» 
10 
14 
17 
90 
S8 
25 
27 
80 



Am to Urtrn and lightti the formfir ctm only he used in liilintf veiicU and iteAmen from 8 
la the morning to 6 in tbe afternoon in winter, uid from 5 a.m^ to 8 p.m. in tho Aommer. 
liigfata to bo extingaii«1ied at latent at B p.m. in winter and 9 in lumnier. For itcameri 
teriiig at daj-1>ieak, firoa mty he lighted Uiree hmm hdare dcpftrtnro ; see Uy-dayt* 











■ 


H 326 


STEVENS ON STOWAGE. S 




H LOAD 0HAFT OF SHiFa 


^H The following B€ale has b^^en in use for mimy yirara by iho Sarrfijorft to the LiTerpoo^^^ 


^H Undcrwnlers' AHSOcmtion, and ii the rtsvuli of the experience at eea, in all parta of t^^H 


^^^^ worlil, of many practical men wlio have^ from time to time, been coaQceieJ with ll>^^| 


^^^^L As«iKtialion, imd of others who have been aaflocinted with IJiem^ — 10 to 12 feet depth i^M 


^^^P bold 2| iDchcs dry aide to each foot depth of hold ; 12 to 14, 2i ; 14 to 17, 2 j ; 17 to ^. <U 




^H only ; aubject in all caaea to ihe judgment of the surreyor which ii inflaenced by the Tca*usl*8 


^B age and class, her form (rise of floor, amonnt of ahear, general proportions, closcd-in spacea 




^H other 4:ircamstances^ faTonrable or otherwise, aa may come nndor his notice. The eii5t4tm 


^H in Liverpool is to measnre the dry side, amidiiMpRf from the lfi?el of tlic upper side of the 


^^^^H deck, lit tho side of the vessel, to the water's surface. The above scalct il analysed, will be 


^^^^H found to incrcjLso the aUowanee of dry aido regularly at the rate of one-tenth of an inch for 


^^^^H each additional foot in the depth of the hold ; and, when expanded, it forms the following 




^H named— anbject in all cases, aa before atated^ to the judgment of the enrreyoi:. ^^^^ 




TABLE FOE FIRST CLASS VES6ELS. ^ 


■ 






B 3 


4t 


1 

9 


3 3 


} 


1 


a 3 

n 


1 

IK 
P 




ft. in. 


m. 


ft m. 


ft in. 


in. 


ft in. 


tt ia. 


in. 


ft m. 


^^1 


8 


20 


I 4 


15 9 


. 


3 71 


23 e 


* 


6 114 




^M 


8 8 


- 


1 41 


16 


2*8 


8 8} 


23 9 




7 1 






8 6 


. 


1 54 


16 3 


> 


8 10 


24 


36 


7 24 






6 9 


. 


1 64 


16 6 


, 


8 11 


24 3 


.. 


7 4 






9 


2"1 


1 7 


16 9 


. 


4 Oi 


24 6 


. 


7 61 






9 8 


* 


1 7i 


17 


2-9 


4 14 


21 9 


. 


7 7 






d e 


.. 


1 84 


17 3 


. 


4 24 


25 


3-7 


7 B4 






d 9 


. 


1 94 


17 6 


- 


4 31 


25 3 


* 


7 10 






10 


2'S 


1 10 


17 9 


- 


4 4f 


25 6 


* 


7 114 






10 3 


^ 


1 lOi 


IS 


3*0 


4 6 


25 9 


. 


8 14 






10 6 


, 


1 111 


18 8 


. 


4 74 


26 


8*8 


8 Sf 






10 9 ; 


. 


2 04 


18 6 


. 


4 4 


26 3 


, 


e 44 






11 


23 


a 14 


18 9 


. 


4 94 


26 6 


. 


8 






11 3 


- 


2 24 


19 


8-1 


4 U 


26 9 


- 


8 74 






11 6 


, 


2 3 


19 3 


. 


5 04 


27 


8*9 


B 91 






11 9 


- 


2 4 


19 6 


. 


5 14 


27 8 


. 


8 11 






12 


2*4 


2 5 


19 9 


- 


5 2| 


27 6 


. 


9 04 






12 3 


- 


2 fit 


20 


32 


6 4 


27 9 


, 


9 24 






12 6 


. 


2 6i 


20 3 


- 


5 5| 


28 


40 


9 4 






12 9 


- 


2 74 


20 6 


. 


5 64 


28 3 


. 


9 £f 






13 


2-5 


2 B4 


20 9 


- 


s 74 


28 6 


- 


9 74 






13 3 


- 


2 94 


21 


3-3 


6 94 


28 9 


. 


9 94 






13 6 


. 


2 104 


21 3 


- 


5 104 


29 


41 


9 11 






13 9 


- 


2 114 


21 6 


. 


6 


29 3 


_ 


10 04 






14 


26 


3 04 , 


21 9 


_ 


6 14 


29 6 


_ 


10 2i 


i 




14 3 


. 


8 U 


22 


8*4 


6 2| 


29 9 


. 


10 44 




14 e 


- 


8 24 


23 3 


- 


6 44 


80 


4-2 


10 6 




14 9 


. 


3 34 


22 6 


. 


6 54 


80 3 


. 


10 7| 






15 


2-7 


8 44 


SS 9 


- 


6 7 


30 6 


- 


10 94 






15 S 


* 


8 54 


23 


85 


6 84 


30 9 


« 


10 114 






16 6 


- 


8 64 


23 3 


■ 


6 10 


SI 


4-3 


11 14 






UndenmttFs* Jwww, Livtrpod^ Jime SO, 18S7. Vf.Vi\ RcrxnBix, Secretary, 


1 



STKVKNS ON STOWAGE. 



3S7 



I 



(578 LOCUST BEANS. A master addresses the Shipping Gazette^ 
le 6, 1857: "My vessel was chartered at 3^jr for oil^ other goods in 
pmportion; she is full with 127 ion of locust beans, but has discharged 

146 lan of oil. At what rate am I to he paid for the locust beans which 
ttjre not in the table, and ought I not to have the same freight as if loaded 
with oil ?*' Answer : " allhough the locust beans are not in the rates, 
jet tlicy are included under the headings grain, seed, &c. as paying 

10 per cent, more freight in proportion to weight than wheat. It in, 
liowever, certain that locust beans were not considered when the present 
Mediterranean rates were adjusted, and, therefore, were not intended to 
be included under the head of ' beans.' The fairest mode of settletnent 
is to pay as for an oil cargo ; otherwise to go to arbiLralion/' 

579 The Danish brigantine Talk Harriet, Cap!, Drn-nAHL, loaded 
locnst beans at Villa Nova, Portugal, in IVIarch, 1864. She registers 
144 ton English, 75 lasts Danish* and measures, in Danish feet, about 
00 feet long, 22 broad, and 9 ft, 9 in. deep. Usually vessels cannot stow 
of locust beans more than from three to five per cent, under their register, 
but as her cabin and foreca.slle are on the brlgan tine's deck, she took in 

147 ion of locust beans, which is three over her register tonnage. The 
dunnage consisted of some deal ends covered with mats. On the recep- 
tion of every fifteen ton, four men were actively employed rolling two 
casks full of water over the cargo to press it down. The locust beans 
were weighed into baskets; IjCKM) kilos to the ton. Port charges for the 
brigantine, including pihjtage, about £5 10«. With the bean cargo ilie 
brigantine drew 9 feet 9 inches on an even keel ; with 220 ton Shields' 
staftm coal she drew 10 feet 6 inches fore and aft ; the hold was then about 
five-sixths full. The brigantine is flat -bottomed, A ship which can 
&hifl without hallast need not take ballast witli locust beans. At Villa 
Nova the crop is gathered in September and October, but shipments take 
place all the year round. 

LOG BOOK ; Bee manifest, master, protest, survey^ &c. 

580 LOGWOOD, the colored wood of an American tree. If cut 
in the hold, remove the sawdust, which, when wet, will seiiou&ly injure 
other goods, sugar especially. It is exported from the West Indies and 
Central America. An owner chartered his ship for West India produce, 
^^ calculating that she would ohlain sugars and molasses, for which the 
lerm«s were favourable.'* She was laden with logwood and made an 
lusudicicni return; nevertheless logwood is the produceof the West Indies* 
Kcw York ton 20cwtj Baltimore 2,24011). 

581 LLXIFEH MATCHES !>houId be kept dry ; they will spoil if 
f etowcd near bales of bacon^ ^c, or sand, salt water »aud especially ; l\mt 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE, 

vapor will be absorbed by, and injure olber [LTJOIFEE MATi 
goods. For Australia, tliey should be in tin or zinc cases tightly soldered^ 
and oughlj if possible, to be stowed on the top near a hatchway, to prevent 
unnecessary pressure, and to have them easily got at in case of accidental 
combustion. Some under^Tirers decline to insure lucifers if stowed in 
the hold, and the Admiralty will not allow them to be shipped in any 
vessel wholly or partially chartered by government, Use'^eat care in 
moving, as they will ignite through a sudden jerk ; this has occurred wben 
merely lurnitig over a large packet^ and allowing it to fall smartly, instead 
of casing it down. On the 30th of August, 1H62, a large case of hicifers 
(sbipiied as fusees or matches) which was on the deck of the screw steamer 
O&ear^ Capt* Craig, lying at Irongale wharf, London, took fire. Smoke 
was observed rising, and on the crew endearoiiring to throw the case 
overboard the bottom dropped out, and the whole of the contents were 
quickly in flames. Ropes were got round the sides, and after some short 
delay the burning mass was hauled over into the river. It is supposed that 
the cask was let down the shool from the wharf suddenly, and that the con- 
cussion against the deck caused ignition, although the iirc did not break ont 
for half-an-hour afterwarda; see vesuviana» in the article dangerous goods. 

582 Amongst the cargo landed in November, 1864, at Kelgate, from 
the wreck of the Spanisli ship Torre del Oro, was a wooden case about 
three feet square, marked BD 1 104 ; inside this was a tin case containing 
patent leather. On opening the wooden case there was discovered between 
the tin and the wood some ibousands of loose lucifer matches. There 
was also landed from the vessel a quantity of fancy baskets, one of which 
was filled with loose matches. These goods happened to be slowed in the 
midst of demijohns of spirits, wbicb were packed in a large quantity of 
straw* As the least friction would have ignited the lucifers, it is very 
evident that in that case the ship and cargo would have been destroyed 
by fire, and in all probability the lives of all on board would have been 
sacrificed. 

583 Vesnvians* Buhnb & Maciver t?. HnTcnrs-soN, Glasgow, October 
8rd» IRGJ. Complainauts owned the steam-ship Bulfalo, trading between 
Glasgow and Belfast, on board which a parcel was placed by defendant When 
hoisting it out of the hold at Bclfct it ignited suddenly, and the fire took 
eoino time to cxting^iisli. It contatned vesuvians and fusees ; contents were 
not marked outside, and no notice had been served on the master. The 
BherilT tf lought it necegsary to have witnesses of a scientific character to prove 
that the materials of which vesuviana consist were necessarily of an iniamma- 
ble natuio, and the case was adjourned to the 10th, when Dr. Penny stated 
that the com pone ot parts were phosphorus, saltpetre, chlorate of potash, 
charcoal, and powdered glass. Articles thus composed w&re highly inflamma- 
ble ; if not properly packed they would bo liable to explode by friction caused 
by the rolling of the vessel. They are more dangerous than guni^owdcr, 



4 

4 



4 






I 



whtcli does not explode by friction, Thcsy wouW [LUCIFER MATCHES 
ignite at a temperature of 270% while gun^^owder would require 600". In 
giving judgment the sherili" said thatif tlia parcel had been marked **matcl)es/* 
B8 was contended by defendant, it would not imi?© been enough ; there might 
be matches not of a dangerous and inflamniable nature. The words ^* inflam- 
mable*' or ** highly inflammable and dangerous" should have been put on it* 
Hued j£5 and costs. 

684 LUMBER should be closely stowed, so as not to be moved by 
the rolling of the vessel; it frequently happens when this is neglected 
that tlie lumber sags to leeward when the vessel first goes to sea, aud gives 
ber a heel that way. Great care should be taken in stowiiijr deck loads 
lu see that ihey are well chocked and secured down, for if the lumber gets 
loose, the lives of the crew, as well as the f^tiftty of the vessel and cargo^ 
will be endangtred. From Singapore to Australia lumber h not cou» 
tidered a profitable cargo* 

LUMP LAC; see the article lac. 

585 MACE romes chiefly from Penan g and Singapore ; in the East 
Indies it is packed in bags containing lOOIb. It is shipped all tlie year 
round, requires careful stowage, and is useful for beam fillings. Exhala- 
lions from sallpcire, castor oil, S:c* injures it, and one mat at least should 
protect it from other kinds of cargo. East India ton 50 cubic feet, in cases. 

586 MACHINERY should be placed in the vessel prior to any 
other part of the cargo, on account of its great weight, and to afford the 
opportunity of securing the several pieces properly, by beds and chocka 

t jsadc purposely. Such articles as cog-wheels and castings of a similar 
ihape, should be lashed vertically or edgewise to the masts or stanchions, 
taking care subseqneiHly to chock them on eacli side with rough cases of 
goods, well dunnaged. Where a boiler or any similar article is, upon am 
€^treme emergency, carried on deck, it should be placed in beds and 
chocksj as near the centre as circumstances will admit, resting upon the 
beams, which should be shored, to prevent the weight from injuring the 
deck. If two are shipped, tbey are generally secured on opposite sldeSi 
by means of lashings to the ring-bolts and by cross lashings to each <pthcr. 
For long voyages, vessels are selected having hatchways purposely con- 
itmctcd for enlarging. Some owners insist on having boilers placed in 
the main hold. Examine the slings, hooks, and rings, nnd see that the 
cbainK used are, by scale, well able to bear the weight; see n^pe and 
magiii-'iiMn, In disclmrging very heav}^ machinery, it wny be necfssary 
lo follow it up as il leaves ihe hold with pieces of tiukber or planks so 
placed that in the event of the lifting tackle giving way, the full shull be 

^confined to a few inches. Similar precaution may 1*^ necessary wbeti 



330 



STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 






receiving such articles. In cLartenng for fieiglii of [MACHINEEY 
engines, boilers, or macliinery of any kind, a master sbould ascertain 
whetiier it slioiild be rukJ at per ton of 20 cwt. or of 40 cable feelp 
according to its description. 

587 Capt. Skdgwick snys. tbe best way lo get heavy machinery out 
18 to cant the main yard alilile; untruss, and labb it to t!ie main mast; 
have a spare spar ^vitb a piece of plank muler tlie hetl, for a shore from 
the deck, lashed to the yard, about a foot inside where llie fool tackle 
comes. Over the main hatchway a pair of sheers should be rigged with 
planks under the heels, which should he on the beam before the main 
hatch nay; the beams require to be well shored in the 'iween decks* 
According to size of sheers and strength of purchase, almost any weight 
can be thus lifted; and he recommends young oflicers, when getting out^^ 
heavy machinery, to use the yard tackle over the hatchway as well as th«^H 
other, in case of accident; and in low*eririg over the side, to use the^^ 
tackle on the sheers to lower with as well as the yard tackle. 

588 Bricks. In the Vice Chancellors Court, Gossett p- Melhutsh : 
defendants songbt to have tbe chief clerk s certificate varied. The suit was 
by a part oivner of the Matilda WtsttnihoiJi, against tke defendants, ©1 so part 
owners, and acting as the tbip'a husband. In taking the accounts, the chief 
clerk hiul charged the defondants, Messrs. Melhlisk, with the freiglit of 
33.000 bricks which had been shipped from Jerp^ey, and taken to Sydney, on 
account of Messrs. Melhuish, It was contended on the part of the defendants, 
ttjat tliey were not properly chargeable with this freight, on the ground that 
the brif^ks had been broken and destroyed by heavy machinery, which bad 
heeu allowed to rest on them. On arrival at Sydney, the bricks were not 
delivered to die consignee, and no freight was paid ; but they remained in the 
hold, and were tJiken to Cah'utta, where they were sold for a very small sum. 
The vice-chancellor thought that the freight was payable, and that the injury 
to the goods was the subject for a separate action ; the chief clerk's conclusion 
was right, and the motion must bo dismissed with costs. 

5Hs^ Cylinders. Comt of Excliet|uer, December 19* 1804, Cawthornk tf. 
Bear. Tbit^ was tin action to recover diiraages tor not loading in pursuance of 
the terms of a charter party. Plain tiff was owner and master. Defendant is 
a timber niorcliant. On Oclober 7th, 1804, pUiutil!' entered into a cbarter- 
party witli defendant to proceed with the aloop Ilei/ Dick to Kiug's Ferry, 
Queensborough, to load two cyluntes and a tank, tlie measurement of which 
hnd been previously given » and it was alleged that on these tbe cooti'act had 
been made. At King's Ferr)% phiiuiiiTsaw Hall, an ngent of defendant, and 
fiftid lie was ready to load. The next day he men&ui'ed the cylinders, and 
found thflt their size exceeded tlie tjuantities given. The broker anid be might 
tak« a portion, and they could send tlie remainder by another vessel. He^ 
however, deeliiied, unless tiiey would guarantee ibat be slioukl take the whole, 
Defendout's people subsequently attempted to lowd, and plaintilf lent them 
gear. The siite of tii© cylinders produced such a strain on the mast that 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



331 



plaintiff told tlie mm that if it was injured ho should hold [MACHINERY 
tlieir employers responsible. Mr. Hall treated this as a refusal, and directed 
the men to desist Plain l iff nftevwfirils requested defendant to cany out his 

Lcoutract, but be declined, on the ground tliat plaintiff had himself exonerated 

lliim from its perforin tince* It was Bworu that had tho eylindors corresponded 
irith the measurements they might havo been easily shipped. Defendants, 

Pon the other hoad, proved that the measureraeata hud been given to the 
plaintiff; and, on his assurance thai his vessel was quite capable, the cbmrter 

.party was eigned. On arrival at Kings Ferry the sloop was found quite 
unfit to take the goods on board in their then state, and it was agreed that the 
CyltDders should be cut into fonr pieces. After they had commenced to load, 

I the plointiff satd that they should not be allowed to proceodt unless they would 
five & guarantee for all the damage that rriiglit he done. The Ftiperintendent 
ben stopped the loadings and the goods were forwarded by another vessel. 

fTerdict for plBintitt; damages 1'45. 

5^0 MADDER, {French ^umnce) h the root of a pltmt, the rtihia 
iinctorum, which yields a fine bright red color; llie bones nf animals fed 
on it become tinged with red. It is much cultivated in Holland, France, 
and Italy; it thrives in the north tjf Greece, grow^ wild in the Ionian 
islands, and is fonnd at KiirdarnooHj Cyprus, and Smyrna, whence it is 
exported lar^^ely. In South America it f^rows wild also. There are two 
varieties ihe rubia cordtfuUti and the ruhia peregrina. The last 13 cul- 
ivaled in the south of Europe, and comes to England chiefly from the 
fievnnt. The roots are wiry and very much branched, of a red color 
aernally and yellow within j the best are those of the size of a Tiriting 
juill, or at most the little finger. The woody portion is used chiefly in 
Dying; ihe stringy filaments and epidermis, called mulle, are usually 
cniuvcdt The pith and bark are comparatively of litllc value. In warm 
limates madder roots are dried in the open air; elsewhere in stoves. 
This mode is adopted on the Rhone, after which tliey are thrashed with 
flail, passed through fanners, and ultimately through brass sieves 
having meshes of various sizes ; the coar^icst is of the best quality. The 
imall quaniities of madder roots which arrives in London comes chiefly 
from Bombay; very few bales of Turkish madder enter the Thames; the 
great market is Liverpool. Bombay and Turkish madders seldom or 
never come to England in a ground stale. Dunnage 9 inches with 2J- 
inches in the sides ;, madder roots roust be kept dry, tliej' attract dampne&s 
from the AtmosphiTe Which injures them, and will create leakage from 
liquids in casks if placed near; they may be stowed on but not mi.'Ced 
with valonia. 

591 Messrs. J*jxey & Co, under date Smyrna, Dee, 8, 1867, say, 
all madder roots go by steanjcrs to Liverpool; tliose for Glasgotv being 
forwarded thence at ship's expense and sbipper*s risk for an extra freight 
of 7t^^ ton. The roots are sent alongside the steamers free of expense 



332 



STEVKNS ON 6T0WAGE, 



to lUe vessel^ and are freighted per ton oi 40 cubic feet, [MADDER 
say 20s @ 30#, The bales, when hydraulkally pressed, measure about 
30*9 cubic fact, and weigh 6i cwL each. The cost of presBiDg (20# ^ ton 
of 20 cwt.) is paid by the shippers, J'ormerly the freight by sailing vessel 
^vaiiper ton of 2Ucvvt, and all expenscB were paid by the ship* 

592 At Naples, the corapre&sed bales are said to be about 4rwt* 
each, and arc iron handed j of these an ordinary canning ship will take] 
her register I on n age, 

593 In HaUand there are several qualities. The B nest crop is called 
** Crop madder/' it weighs heaviest; the next ia *' Little crop;** then 
Onibro, Gamefies, and MuU'a; the last named, the cominonest, is very 
light, being the last grinding, and may be compared as flour is to bran. 
Nearly all Dutch madders are exported in coarse powder; thia is the kind 
chitHy imported into London, A large cask of the finest ground madder 
measuring 4 ft, 4in« high, \ 1 ft, circumference, and 32in, across the head, 
weighed gross 15c, Oq. 4H>; casks vary from this down to 6 or 6cwt; casks 
are estimated to weigh 10 {> cent, of the gross weight. In 1867 the rate 
of freit^ht from Rotterdam, hy steamer to London, was lOsJP-ton gross, 
with 1*'5 ^ eent. primage. Madder flour i|uickly irabibes moisture, and 
ferniifulation spoils itK color. Garancine is madder treated with sul- 
phuric acid ; the finest qualities are prepared in France, and very little 
is imported into London. 1 

Tonnage, Bombay ton 14. cwt. When Mediterranean wheat is freighted 
at li ^^ (jimrter, ground, madder in casks is rated at 7*lOd4?' ton of 20 cwt 
Madder roots in liydraulic compressed balea pay the same freight as groun 
madder io casks. Loose in bales, pay one-third more tlian those in hydraulic 
compressed baJeH, lladder flour (garancine) pays 10 ^ cent more than ground 
madder In casks. 

594 MAGNESIA is the oxide uf the metal mngnciiura, used foi 
producing the noted sun-light, and occurs in nature under various funns 
of combination — as dolomite or magnesian limestone and nearly pure as 
a hill in the peniuftula of India containing magnesia 46 parts, carbonic 
acid 51, inRoluble matter and water 3 parts^ in 100. tSpeeific gravity 
2*330* It is» however, chiefiy obtained by dcconj posing sul[)hate of 
muguesia (Epsom salts) with half its weight of carbonate of potash, each 
dissolved in water ; when the solutions are mixed the carbon ale of mag- 
nesia is precipitated, then waihed and dried, cut up into cubic masses, 
and packed in chests of 1 cwt* each. It should be well preserved from 
6ea*air and water, either of which may seriously deteriorate its value. 
There are other foims of magnesia in commerce, as the calcined, which 
requires to be carefully preserved in well-corked and sealed bottles, and, 
therefore, need no particular notice as to stowage diJfcrent from cases of 
Wukd drugs in gcnerah 



I 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



333 



I 



595 MAGNETISM OF CARGOES. Bar and railway iron, 
' iroD tanks^ steam boilers, cylinders, macliinery^ guns, bIioI^ iron ballast^ 
iron orest aod other sioiilar metallic substances, will affect, more or Ics^, 
the condition of tbe ship's compasses, which therefore require special 
attention, or serious consequences may ensue. The course generally 
recommended is to take the exact magnetic position of the ship's head 
while lying alongside the wharf, before loading, and after these disturbing 
substances are in, lo ascerlain carefully the errors of the steering compass, 
in itx standard position. Make a table of these errors when tbe ship s 
bead is on each separate point of this compass^ without reference lo any 
other compass in other parts of the ship, and act accordingly. The iron 
bands round trusses of pressed hay, stowed near the compasses, will 
cause a deviation. 

596 Com'- Walker, R.N. who has made tbe subject his particular 
study, says, in his useful work on magnetism. "If a merchant vessel 
have a cargo of iron, or even iron tanks, steam -boilers, or cylinders, so 
stowed in the hold as to be in contact with an iron knee or iron truss, bolted 
I to the ship's side, and running upwards to the upper deck beams, such a 
piece of iron being in contact with large masses of melal in the hold, would 
conduct or transfer the magnetism from below, and certainly derange the 
magnetic needle, and cause the compass to indicate a wrong course. 

697 " It is on this principle of magnetic conduction that separate 
pieces of iron, when brought into actual contact, act magnetically as a 
single mass. The water tanks in a ship of war, if stowed in actual ; 
contact, will act on the compass as if a single tank of the same size as 
the aggregate number of small tntd^s in the hold^ occupied their places* 
But if kept separate by thin slices of board, then each lank, &c. will 
retain its natural quantity of inductive magnetism, and the place of it3 
I f/clti will change with the ship's motion, and produce a deviation* 

598 **The amplitude and azimuth observations made at sea give 
the difference between the astronomical hearing and the compass hearing 
of heavenly bodies, that is to say, a correclion to be applied to the 
compass course the ship steers at the time of making the observation. 
The course conection therefore contains the variation and ibe ship's j 
local attraction — ^eiiher their sum or their difference ; therefore the varia- 
tioQ is every where known and recorded in tables or on charts, the 
mariner has only to make his amplitude or azimuth observations 
frequently as possible, and in getting out his course correction he getS|i 
it the same time, the deviation on his course steered, because the variation 

t being given, his deviation is also given in his correction found for his 
course at the instant he took tlie altitude of the sun and its compass 
|iaring.'* [See the Liverpool report on compasses, 14th May, 1862, in 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 

699 MAILS. It bas been estimated iliat taking the entire number 
of mail boxes sent in one year vik S-Jiitbamplon and v'lk Marseilles t'j tbe 
East Indies, &e. as 34,0tK) iheir actual weigbl would be 1,100 ton, and 
measurement for freight 2,300 ton, or rather under lOcwi. to tbe ion of 
40 cubic feet. 

600 ISIALABx^R, A muster experienced in the East India trade 
says, November 22, 1867, "when 30-iJp^ion is the current rale of freight 
for cotton, &c, at Bombay, the rate on tbe Malabar cnast, in the cofl*ee 
season, is usually £2 1 5s to £3 for ships between 400 and 500 ton. They 
will obtain dispatch there and, being on the road home, will not extend 
their voyage. Cotton requires ballast, and then there is the additional 
expense of screwing and slowing. Coffee, ginger, coir, &c* can be taken 
in by the crew and are generally shipped at the rate of 40 ton per day. 
Provisions do not cost more, and ihe port charges on the ctiast are one- 
half those at Bombay. The ports aie perfectly safe nine months in the 
year.* 

601 MALT, unlite most otlicr grain, requires to be kept perfectly 
free from air* For the Colonies, it is usually placed in an air-ti^ht 
compartment or bin, the bulkheads being generally lined with tin nr 
zini' : this is not always done, as four and tive guineas ^ cent, are paid 
to cover risk of average, which would not be the case if so packed. By 
small coasting vessels it is frequently cojjveyed in bulk without dunnage 
or matting, in whicli case the ceiling requires to be well cleansed and 
ihe biliije water kept low, or it will be blown into and injtire the cargo at 
sea. When cattle are conveyed in the main hold, and malt is slowed for- 
ward ; dunnage is absolutely necessary to guard against the cattle drainage, 

• The wuae muter uajs " In March, 18G1, my vcwel was ordered by the agent-i to load 
cotton mt Bombay for London &i 21a GJ. They s&id it was the winh of the owners, but my 
Initntctlons wews not to carry goods about the world unh'ss ii profit could be mode. The 
vessel WMB chartered at 4'3 for a full luid complcto car^o of coflbe in bags ; ftO lay-dayi ; 
dcmunrmge £10 p«r day ; to load at Mangaloro and Trllichorry, At the first port 1^200 
hagi were obtained ia thrto weeks, and at tlie necond the Iftj-ilays cupired when my lowef 
bold only was full. The ngent then said he would compkto me with casca of cofToCf bat 
na the charter party exprcKsly stated ha{3r«, I rttinsed to take caaci otherwise than by a 
£r«ah charter. An endom^meut on the filmit charter party itated that they were unable to 
OOiDipleto their agreement, and we mutually ngreed to complete by a fitjcood charter party 
at £& lOi (^ ton for the ronmining space adapted for cargo, whirh was to be colfee in caaea 
•nd arrowroot in hoses. After paying ine 800rf , they could not M^ imd I received my sailing 
orders to proceed. Before leaving, I called Bun-cy on the space not filled and found it to 
mGasone SSton, and our draft of water would admit of 7 inchea more by Lloth's regnJa* 
tlona. On mj arrival in London^ before breaking bulk, I eerred the charterer's ageut with 
notice to lurrey, and then found the space to t»e 25| ton, for which I obtained £& lOf ^ too 
as per second charter pnrty. My freight home that voyage was £2,700. Uad I kwded tA 
Bombay it would hare hwu aboat £900, and ths espenae of the stowage. 



i 




STEVENS ON STOWAGE. 



335 



The average weight of 100 quarters of pale nmlt is 14 to 15 ton ; [MALT 
of brown malt 1 1 ton; llic weight varies according to the fieason and the 
quality of the barley. One u*t!ek may be considered a reasonable lime 
for diseliargiog 722 quarters malt, when no lime has been stated in the 
bills of lading. On the Criuau Canal 15 bushels go (or a ion freight, 

602 A MANIFEST contains the name or names of the places 
where llie goods on board have been laden, and the place or places for 
which they are respeclively destined; name and tonnage of the vessel, 
master, and place to which she belongs; a piirticular account and descrlp- 
lion of all the packages on boards with the marks and numbers thereon, 
the goods contained in such packages, goods stowed loose, names of the 
respective shippers and consignees, as far as such particulars are known 

■ to the master; it must be verified by his signature. It should be made 
out, dated, and signed at the place or places where the goods or any part 
of them are taken on board. There is a penally for being unprovided. 
^sFor convenience there should be two copies ; one is required by the 
^BCii&loins' authorities on arrival. Ships from abroad are also required to 

ftdd a list of stores, A separate miinifest is necessary lor tobacco. 

1^ 603 The coasts of Norway being extensive and irregular, and the 

^Kiopulation scanty, the regulations regarding manifests are of necessity 

^^slringent. In Oclober, 1865^ the Go